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Full text of "House Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Executive Documents"

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EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



PRINTED BT ORDER OF 



THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 



DURING THE 



FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-NINTH CONGRESS, 



1865-'66. 



IN SIXTEEN TOLIJIXIES. 



Volume 1 No. 1. Diplomatic : Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

Volume 2 No. 1. Interior. 

Volume 3 No. 1. War : Parts 1 and 2. 

Volume 4 No. I. War — Appendix : Parts 1 and 2. 

Volume 5 No. 1. Navy. 

Volume 6 No. 1 to No. 4- 

Volume 7 No. 5 to No. 49. 

Volume 8 No. 50 to No. 72, except Nos, 52 and 56. 

Volume O No. 52. Paris 1 and 2. 

Volume 10 No. 56. Commercial Relations. 

Volume 11 No. 73. Parts 1 and 2. 

Volume 12 No. 74 to No. 133, except Nos. 75 and 102. 

Volume 13 No. 75. (Quarto.) 

Volume 14 No. 102. Smithsonian Report. 

Volume 15 No. 136. Agricultural Report, 

Volume 16 No. 134 to No. 156, except No. 136. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOVBBNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 



1866. 



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INDEX 

TO 

THE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 






OF V THE 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES, 

OF THE 

FIBST SESSION OF THE THIRrY-NINTH CONGRESS. 



Title. 



Vol. 



No. 



Page. 



A. 

Aotdemj of National Sciences. Report of Profrssor Joseph Henry of the 
operations of the 

Adjutant General of the United States. Annual report of the, (part 1 ) 

Agriculture, Commissioner of. Receipts and dishursements in his office. 
Letter from the 

A^rricultare. Report of the Commissioner of 

Alabama to resume direct tax assigned to that State. Message from the 
President communicating application of 

American seamen. Letter from the Secretary of State relative to relief and 
protection of 

Appropriations for the naval service for the year ending June 30, 1865. 
Letter from the Secretary of the Navy transmitting statement of the 

Appropriation for the Dismal Swamp canal. Letter from the Secretary of 
iLe fn^asury recommending an 

Appropriations and expenditures connected with the Indian service. Mes- 
sage from the Presiuent of the United States relative to 

Architect of the Capitol extension. Report of the 

Army, brevet rank conferred on officers in the regular. Letter from the 
Secretary of War relative to 

Army, re<ralar and volunteer. Message from the Presidtmt of the United 
States in reference to number of men and officers in the 

Army, organization of the. Message from the President transmitting letter 
from General Grant relative to the 

Arre5t of American citizens in Ireland. Message from the President rela- 
tive to 

Artificial limbs furnished soldiers at the expense of the government. Letter 
from the Secretary of War relative to 

Attorney General, relative to paper and printing in his office. Letter 
from the 

Attorney General. Clerks in his office 

Atwater, Dorence. Secretary of War transmitting papers in the case of . . 

Auditor of the Treasury for the Post Office Department, of the operations 
of bis office for the year ending June 30, 1^65. Annual report of the 
Sixth 



Aostrian forcea in Mexico. 

relative to 

lirards for the capture of Booth 

tire to the 



Message from the President of the United States 
Letter from the Secretary of War rela- 



8 
3 


72 
1 


7 
15 


49 
136 


12 


79 


7 


7 


7 


8 


12 


77 


10 
2 


140 

1 


16 


145 


8 


71 


12 


113 


16 


139 


12 


108 


8 
12 
16 


50 
104 
149 


6 


1 


12 


130 


12 


86 



49 



809 



61 



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IV 



INDEX. 



Title. 



B. 

Bank notes in the several States, relative to the apportionment of eircu- 
latiupf. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 

Booth, capture of. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to the awards 
in the 

Booth and Herold, relative to the findinrrs of the commission for the cap- 
ture of. Letter from the Secretary of War 

Brazil, mail steamship service to. Messa<^e from the President of the 
United States transmittinp^ report of the Postmaster General relative to.. 

British vessel Magfician, report and papers of the Secretary of State rela- 
tive to the claim of the owners of the. Message from the President trans- 
mittincf 

Bureau of Colored Troops, report of the chief of the. (Part 1) 

Bureau of Refugees, Frecdmen, and Abandoned Lands. Message from the 
President transmitting report of the coumiissioner of the 

Bureau, Freedmen's. Report of the commissioner of the. Letter from the 
Secretary of W'ar transmitting 

C. 

California volunteers stationed in the Territories. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of War relative to 

California public lands. Letter from the Secretary of Interior relative to.. 

Cannon captured. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting corres- 
pondence relative to 

Capitol extension. Report of the architect of the 

Chaplains in the navy. Letter from the Secretary of the Navy giving a 



list of. 



Cholera at Constantinople. Message from the President of the United 
States transmitting correspondence relative to the 

Claims against Venezuela. Message from the President of the United 
States relative to 

Coast survey. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury transmitting the 
number of persons employed in the 

Coast survey, relative to navy yard at Patuxent river. Letter from su- 
perintendent of 

Colored troops. Report of the chief of the Bureau of. (Part 1) 

Coast Survey. Report of the superintendent of the 

Coinage, weights, and measures. Message from the President relative to 
the system of 

Columbian Institution for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind. Report of the 
president of the 

Commercial relations with British America. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Treasury relative to 

Commercial relations of the Unit<'d States with foreign nations during the 
year 1 f^yo. Report of the Secretary of State of the 

Commerce, discrimination against American. Message from the President 
relative to 

Commissary General of Subsistence of the army, of the o})erations of his 
department during the year ending June iiU, 1666. Annual report of the 
(Part 2) 

Commissioner of Agriculture. Report of the , 

Commissioner of Claims for Maryland and Delaware. Letter from the Sec- 
retary of War relative to appointment of 

Commissioner of Freedmen's Affairs, in regard to laud seized as enemies' 
property. Letter from the , 

Commissioner of Agriculture, relative to receipts and disbursements in 
his department. Letter from the 

Commissioner of Patents, transmitting the mechanical report of the Patent 
Office for 1865 Letter from the. (Part L) 

Commissioner of Public Buildings Annual report of the 

Commissioner of Public Buildings. Statement of the receipts and expen- 
ditures under the direction of the 



Vol 



7 


33 


12 


86 


12 


90 


12 


121 


12 
3 


80 

1 


7 


11 


8 


70 



No. 



16 
16 


138 
144 


7 
2 


27 

1 


8 


54 


7 


48 


12 


127 


7 


24 


7 

3 

13 


39 

1 
75 


16 


148 


2 


1 


12 


128 


10 


56 


12 


110 


3 
15 


1 
136 


7 


22 


7 


19 


7 


49 


9 
2 


52 

1 



Page. 



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t INDEX, 



Title. 



Commissioner of Public Buildings. Statement of the persons employed 
bvthe 

roinptroller of the Currency for the year 1865. Annual report of the 

Cuutlnjrent fund in that dt'partment. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury relative to the disbursement of the 

Contingent fund of the State Department. Letter irom the Acting Secre- 
tHry of State in regard to the disbursement of the 

Contingent fund of the Navy Department. Letter from the Secretary of 
ibo Xavy relative to the expenditure of the 

C«»itt»n as a source of revenue, (appendix to special report No. 3.) Selec- 
tions from United States committsion iu respect to. (Part 2) 

C<»tt<>n loan known as the rebel debt. ^Message from the President respect- 
ing the 



D. 

Dakota, Indian affairs in the Territory »f. Letter from the Secretary of 

the Interior relative to 

Daris and others, Jefferson. Message from the President of the United 

States rc'Iative to the imprisonment of 

IVaf, dumb, and blind. Keport of the president of the Columbian Insti* 

tntinn for the 

Delaware. Letter from the S<»cretary of War relative to the appointment 

of commissioners of claims for the State of 

Diftmnl Swamp canal, appropriation for the. Letter from the Secretary 

of the Treasury recomniendmg an 

District of Columbia. Report of the warden of the jail for the 

Dominican republic, relative to pay of agent for the. Message from the 

President of the United States 

I>raftin the eighth congressional district of Pennsylvania. Letter from 

Secretary of War relative to the 

Diiudas patent, for cuitivators. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior 

relative to the reissue of the 



E. 

Ecuador, republic of. Message from the President of the United States 

ri>lative to aflfairs in the 

Exifrint^r, Chief. Report of the, relative to improvement of harbor at To- 



Engim^er of the army of the operations of his department during the year 

♦•liding June 30, 186(5. Annual report of the Chief. (Part 2. ) 

Enpiui'cr, chief, in regard to harbors on the sea and lake coasts. Letter 

from the Secretary of War transmitting report of the 

EnlL>tnjfnt of onc-hundred-days men. Letter from the Secretary of War 

in relntion to the 

Epstein, Philip and others.. Letter from the Secretary of War transmit- 

^ ting papers and testimony relating to the claim of 

Estimates of additional appropriations required to complete the service for 

the fiscal year ending June 30, I iH^6^ and for previous years 

Estimates of permanent appropriations, specific and indefinite, made by 

former acts of Congress, which may be required for the service of the 

la-Ht three quarters of the fiscal year ending June 30, 18(56 

£4(iniat(>s of appropriations required for the support of the government for 

the fi>cal year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates fur appropriations for per diem and mileage of senators, and for 

the isnpport of the oflicc of Secretary of the Senate, for the year ending 

June :J0, JS67 

Estimates for appropriations for per diem and mileage of members of the 

HoiM? of Reiiresentatives and Delegates from the Territories for the 

year ending June 30, 1S67. 



E.<timates fur the office of the Saperintendent of Public Printing for the 
year ending Jane 30, 1866 

Eftiuiates for appropriations for the support of the Library of Congress- . 
E5tiuia(es for appropriations for the support of the Court of Claims 



Vol, 

12 

6 

7 
7 

12 
7 

12 



No. 

109 
4 

,o| 

32 I 

89 I 

I 

34 
95 



Page. 



16 


147 


7 


46 


o 


1 


7 


22 


12 
2 


77 

1 


7 


37 


12 


129 


16 


143 



112 

78 

1 

59 

35 

9 

2 

2 

2 



831 



852 



913 



10 
13 

13 

15 

16 
17 
17 



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VI 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Vol.' No. 



6 



Estimates for appropriations for tho support of the Execuiire during the 
year ending June 30, 18()7 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the State Department for 

the year ending June 30, 1867 6' 2 

Estimates for appropriations for the general purposes of the northeast Ex- 
ecutive building 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of tho Treasury Department 
for tho year ending June 30, lc^(>7 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Interior Department for 
the year ending June 30, 18(57 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the office of the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Indian Office for the 
year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Pension Office for the 
year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for the incidental and contingent expenses of the Interior De- 
partment 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the office of surveyors gen- 
eral for the year ending June 30, 1 867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the War Department for 
the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Adjutant Generars 
olfice for the year caiding Juno ?A\ 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Quartermaster General's 
office for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Paymaster General's 
office for the year ending June 30, 1 867 6 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Commissary General's 
office for tho year ending June 30, 1867 j C 2 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of tho Surgeon General's office 
for the year ending June 30, 1 867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Chief Engineer's office 
for the year ending Juno 30, 1867 6 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Chiefof Ordnance office 
for the year ending June 30, 1867 6 

Estimates fur appropriations for the support of the office of Military Jus- 
tice for the year ending June 30, 1867 --•. , 

Estimates for the incidi^ntal and contingent expenses for the War Department 
for tho year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the northwest Executive 
building for the year ending June 30, 1867 , 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the building corner of Fif- 
teenth and F streets for tho year ending June 30, ]8(j7 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the building corner of F 
and Seventeenth streets for the year ending June 30, 1 867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Navy Department for 
the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for tlie support of the Bureau of Equipment 
and Recruiting for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of tho Bureau of Navigation 
for the year ending Juno 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for tho support of the Bureau of Ordnance for 
for tho year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Bureau of Construction 
and Repair for the year ending June 30, 1 367 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Bureau of Steam En- 
gineering for the year ending Juuo 30, 1867 

Estimates tor appropriations for the support of the Bureau of Provisions 
and Clothing tor the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for 1 be support of the Bureau of Medicine and 
Surgery for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the incidental and contingent expenses 
of the Navy Department for the year ending June 30, 18§7 

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2 



INDEX. 



VII 



Title. 



Vol. 



No. 



Page. 



Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Post Office Department 
for the jrearending Jane 30, 1867 

Estimates for continji^nt expenses of the Post Office Department for the 
jear ending Jane 30, 1807 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Department of Agricul- 
ture for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Mint of the United States 
and branches and Assay Office in New York for the year ending June 30, 
1»G7 



Estimates for appropriations for the support of the governments in the Ter- 
ritories during the year endinc^ June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the judiciary during the year 
ending Jane 30, 1867 > 

Estimates for appropriations for the expenses of intercourse with foreign 
nations for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for miscellaneous for the year ending June 
30, Ir^ 

Estimates for appropriations for the continuation of the survey of the coast 
of the United States during the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the light-house establish- 
ment for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations to be expended under the direction of the Sec- 
retary of the Interior for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of public buildings and grounds 
ioT the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for tho support of the jail in the District of 
Columbia for the year ending June 30, 1667 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Government Hospital 
for the Insane for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimate's for appropriations for the support of the Metropolitan Police for 
the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Columbian Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for expenses of the collection of revenue from 
sales of public lands for the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations lor surveying the public lands for the year 
ending June 3U, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the payment of pensions for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the 
Indian department and fulfilling treaties with the various Indian tribes 
during the year ending June 30, 1867 

E;»timates for appropriations for the support of the army for the year end- 
ing June 30, J867 

Estimates for appropriations for armories, arsenals, and munitions of war 
during the year ending June 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the Military Academy during 
the year ending June 30, 1867 ^ 

Estimates for appropriations for the repairs, preservation, and construction 
of fortifications during the year ending Juno 30, 1867 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the navy for the year ending 
June 30, Ic567 

Estimates for appropriations for the support of the marine corps for the year 
ending June 31^ 1867 



Estimates for appropriations for the various navy yards for the year ending 

June 30, 16i>7 

Expenditures in the Indian department. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior relative to 

Express Company, Imperial Mexican. Message from the President of the 

United States relative to the 

Exposition at Paris. Messa^ from the President transmitting letters from 

the Secretazy of State relative to the universal 



6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
12 
7 
7 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

107 

38 

12 



48 
49 
50 

51 
54 
57 
64 
66 
67 
67 
69 
70 
72 
73 
73 
73 
74 
74 
76 

76 
83 

84 
84 
84 
85 
86 
66 



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vni 



INDEX. 



Title. 




Page. 



Message from the President of the United 

Report of 



Fenian prisoners, release of. 

States relative to the 

Finances of the country during the year ending June 30, 1B66. 

the Secretary of the Treasury on the condition of the 

Fishing grounds near the British provinces. Message from the President 

relative to the 

Foreign affairs. Papers relating to. (Part 1) 

France, fishery and water culture in. Message from the President of the 

United States relative to the 

Franking privilege to officers of the Light-house Board. Letter from the 

Secretary of the Treasury relative to 

Freedmen^s affairs in regard to land seized as enemy's property. Letter 

- from the commissioner of 

Freedmen, refugees, and abandoned lands. Message from the President 

transmitting a report of the commissioner of 

Freedmeu's Bureau. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting a re- 
port of the commissioner of the 

Freedmen in the southern States, relative to. Message from the President 

of the United States 

Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands. Message from the President of 

the United States transmitting a report of the Secretary of War relative to. 
Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands. Message from the President 

of the United States transmitting a communication from the Secretary 

of War of the operations of the Bureau of 

Freedmen and reiugees. President's veto of House Bill No. 613, for the 

relief of 



G 

Gold,. sales of. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the.. 
Gold, sales of. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to the.. 
Grant, U. S. , Lieutenant General. Report of. (Part 2) 



H. 

Harbor at Lake Superior. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to. . . 

Harbor at Toledo. Report of the chief engineer relative to improvement 

of the . 



Harbors in the United States. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to. 
Harbors on the sea and lake coasts. Letter from the Secretary of War 

transmitting report of the chief eugineer in regard to 

Harris, Benjamin G., Hon. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting 

record and testimony in the trial of. 

Hays, S. S.,on the subject of petroleum. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury transmitting report of 

Henry, Joseph, Professor, of the National Academy of Sciences. Report of. 
Herold and Booth, findings of the commission for the capture of. Letter 

from the Secretary of war relative to the 



ImmigratioD, Board of, expenditures of the. Letter from the Secretary of 
State relative to the 



Income taxes from estates of deceased persons. Letter from the Secretary 

of the Treasury relative to 

Indian Affairs. Annual report of the Commissioner of 



Papers accompanying the above. 
WASHINGTON SUPERINTENDENCY. 



No. 1. Report of W. H. Waterman, superintendent 

No. 2. Report of S. D. Howe, Tulalip agency 

No. 3. Report of C. C. Finkbouer, in charge of Lummi reservation... 



154 
3 

88 

1 

103 

135 

19 

11 

70 



12 118 
12 !l20 



123 
146 



124 

134 

1 



65 

78 
18 

58 

14 

51 
72 

90 



66 

43 
1 



1100 



169 



235 
240 
242 



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INDEX. 



IX 



Title. 



No. 4. Report of Rct. E. C. Chirouse, teacher Tulalip ajrency 

No. 5. Keport of A. R. Elder, Puyallup agency 

No. 5 A. Keport of C. H. Spinning, phyRJcian ditto 

No. 5 B. Keport of W. Billings, farmer ditto 

No. 5 C. Report of J. Ilabbard, in charge of Chehalis reservation 

No. 6. Keport of J. T. Knox, sub- agent Skokomisb agency 

No. 6 A. Keport of F. Ford, farmer Skokomisb agency 

No. 7. Keport of James H. Wilbur, Yakama agency 

No. 7 A. Report of W. Wright, teacher Yakama agency 

No. 7 B. Keport of W\ Miller, physician Yakama agency 

No t?. Report of H. A. Webster, agent Neeah Bay agency 

No. > A. Ke[K>rt of J. G. Swan, teacher Neeah Bay agency... 

No. 8 B. Report of Geo. Jcmes, farmer Neeah Bay agency 

No. 9. Report of Joseph Hill, sub-agent Quinaelt agency 

No. 10. Keport of Geo. A. Paige, Fort Colville special agency 

No. 10 B. Keport of Geo. A. Paige, Fort Colville special agency 

OREGON SUPERINTEXDENCY. 

No. n. Report of Superintendent Huntington, treaty with Klamaths, &,c.. 
No. 1*2. Letter of Superintendent Huntington, relative to Coast Range 

Indians 

No. VS, Letter of H. D. Barnard, on same subject 

[For other papers sec Appendix.] 

CAUFORNIA SUPERINTESDENCY. 

No. ] 4. Report of Charles Maltby, superintendent 

No. 15. Report of D. P. Moffat, physician Hoopa Valley reservation. . . . 
No. 16. Keport of late Superintendent Wiley, relative to special agency 

to Mission Indians 

No. 17. Letter of J. Q. A. Stanley, relative to special agency to Mission 

Indians 

No. Itf. Keport of W. E. Lovett, special agent to Mission Indians 

No. ID. Keport of J. Q. A Stanley, special agent to Mission Indians. .. 

ARIZONA SUPERINTEXDENCY. 

No. 20. Letter from G. W. Leihy, superintendent 

No. *il. Letter from John C. Dunn, agent 

No. 'ti. Letter from M. O. Davidson, agent for Papagos 

No. 23. Keport from M. O. Davidson, relative to character, traditions, 

habits, «&c., of Papagos 

No. '24. Instructions to Mr. Davidson, relative to his agency 

No. 2,'). Letter from H. Ebrenberg, relative to Indian aftairs in Arizona. 
No.5i.'4. Letter of Superintendent Leihy, relative to Indian hostilities, &c. 
[For annual report of Superintendent Leihy, see Appendix.] 

NEVADA SUPERINTEXDENCY. 

No. 26. Instructions of Secretary Usher to C. W. Thompson, relative to 

^ selling mill at Truckee River reser\'ation 

No. 27. Copy of contract for sale of Truckee River reservation 

UTAH Sl'PERlNTENDENCY. 

No. 2.'^. Report of O. H. Irish, superintendent 

No. 29. Instructions to Supeiintcndeut Irish, relative to making tieaties 

No, :j<>. Keport of Superintendent Irish, transmitting treaties 

No. 31. Report of Superintendent Irish, forwarding Special Agent Sales's 

^ ivp«rt of operations among Indians of southwest 

No. 'M A. Keport of same, relative to Special Agent Sales's visit to Pah- 

I'tes 

No. 32. Report of Superintendent Irish, relative to mining discoveries 

in the southwest 

No. 33. Letter of Governor Doty, transmitting treaties ratified by Indians 
No. 34. Report of Luther Mann, jr., agent at Fort Bridger y\M\i§6 



Vol. 


No. 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


• 1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2- 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


W 


I 

\(j6 



Page. 



243 
246 
24S 

248 
249 
250 
251 
251 
255 
257 
258 
201 
264 
264 
266 
268 



269 

273 
276 



278 
284 

286 

287 

288 
293 



296 
2*)6 
297 

299 
304 
306 

307 



309 
310 



310 
316 
317 

320 

322 

326 
326 



INDEX. 



Title. 



NEW MEXICO SUPERINTENDENCY. 



No. 35. Report of F. Del jrado, superintendent 

No. 36. Instructions of Secretary of Interior, relative to slavery in New 

Mexico 

No. 36 A. Order of the President of the United States, on same subject 

No. 37. Keply of Superintendent Dolgado, on same subject 

No. 38. Report of John Ward, agent for Pueblos 

No. 38|. Report of D. Archuleta, Abiquiu agency 

No. 39. Letter of Hon. K. Benedict, United States judge, relative to 

bonds of agents 

No. 40. Report of Superintendent Delgado, relative to needy condition 

of Pueblo Indians 

No. 40 A. Agent Ward's report on same subject 

No. 40 B. Letter from Rev. F. Jouvet, on same subject 

No. 41. Report of Agent Ward, relative to Moqui Indians 

No. 42. Report of Agent Ward, relative to Moqui Indians 

]^o. 42^. Annual report of Agent Labadi, Cimarron agency 

COLORADO SUPERIXTENDEXCY. 

No. 43. Letter from Governor Evans, relative to Arapahoes desiring to 
make neace 

No. 44. 6tlice letter to Governor Evans in reply to above 

No. 45. Report of Lafayette Head, Cone] os agency 

No. 46. Report of D. C. Oakes, Middle Park agency 

No. 47. Letter of Governor Evans, transmitting Agent Head's report as 
to Indians held in slavery 1 

No. 47 A. Report of Agent Head, as above 

No. 48. Letter of Governor Evans, relative to outbreak of Indians 

No. 49. Letter of late Superintendent Albin, relative to shipment of 



goods 
No. 50. Report of Governor Evans, relative to distribution of goods . 

DAKOTA SUPERINTEKDENCY. 



No. 501. Annual report of Governor Edmunds 

No. 51. Report of Governor Edmunds, ex officio superintendent 

No. 52, Letter of Governor Edmunds, urging necessity of treaty with 
Upper Missouri Sioux 

No. 53. Office instructions to Governor Edmunds, relative to treaty 

No. 54. Letter of Governor Edmunds, on same subject 

No. 55. Report of General Pope to General Grant, against the proposed 
treaty, and giving his views of policy to be pursued 

No. 56. Letter of Secretary Harlan to General Pope, relative to same sub- 
ject. 



No. 57. Instnictions of Interior Department to Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, on same subject 

No. 58. Circular instructions to superintendents and agents, same sub- 
ject. 



Vol 



No. 59. Despatch from General Pope, recommending commission to i 
make peace with Indians , 

Nos. 60, 6J, 62, and 63. Reports of General Sully, relative to his cam- 
paign in Dakota , 

No. 64. Report of Governor Edmunds, relative to condition of Indian 
affairs 



No. 65. Instructions of Governor Edmunds to Agent Conger, approved 
by Indian Office 

No. 66. Special report of Agent Conger, relative to Yancton agency 

No. 67. Special report of Agent Potter, Ponca agency 

No. 67^. Annual report of Agent Potter, Ponca agency 

No. 68. Office letter to agent, relative to murder of Poncas by whites. .. 

No. 69. Special report of Agent Stone, Crow Creek agency 

No. 70. Special report of Agent Stone, relative to turning back of his 
Indians from their hunt by military orders 



No. 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



INDEX. 



XI 



Title. 



Xo. 71. Report of Governor Edmnnds, transmittiDg special report of 
Agent Wil kinson, Upper Missouri agency 

No. 72. Heport of Agent Wilkinson 

Xo. 73. Letter of Governor Edmunds, transmitting sundry reports of 
Agent Wilkinson 

No. 7U A. Report of Agent Wilkinson relative to condition of Indians .. 

No. 73 B. Report of Agent Wilkinson relative to residing at agency .. 

No. 74, Annual report of Agent Wilkinson 

No. 75. Report of Agent Stone. Crow Creek agency, for September, 1865 

No. 7ii^, Annual report of Agent Stone, Crow Creek agency 

No. 76. Letter of Captain J. L. Fisk relative to colonizing Indians 
north of Missouri river 

IDAHO SUPERINTENDEKrY. 

No. 77. Report of Governor Lyon, €z officio superintendent 

No. 78. Office instructions to Governor Lyon relative to treaties with In- 
dians 

No. 79. Annual report of J. O'Neil, Nez Percys agency 

No. 80. Letter of Agent O'Neil relative to hostilities by Blackfeet 

MONTANA SUPERINTENDENCY. 

No.181. Report of Agent Hutchins relative to Flathead school 

No. f*2, Ofhce instructions to Agent Hutchins on same subject 

No. pf3. Sjx^cial report of Agent liutchins, distribution of goods 

No. rA. Annual report of Agent Hutchins, Flathead agency 

No. K>. Special report of Agent Hutchins, Flathead school 

No. ^5^. Instructions to Agent Upson as to treaty with Blackfeet 

No. ?5f. Letter from Agent Upson relative to hostilities among Black- 

ftet 

[For Agent Upsou^s annual report, see Appendix.] 

SOUTHERN SUPERIKTENDENCY. 



Na 8G. Annual report of E. Sells, superintendent 

No. f*0. A statement of cattle captured, &c., referred to in superintend- 
ent's report 

No. ^7. Agent Reynolds to superintendent relative to cattle-thieving 

No. t^-"^. Report of Superintendent Sells to office, same subject, August 

4, IHX) 

No. ?*y. Report of Superintendent Sells to office, same subject, August 

5, Jrr^^^o 

No. l»t>. Instnictions of Interior Department, March 20, 1865, same subject 
No. yj. Office letter to late Superintendent Coffin, Februaiy 14, 1805, 

relative to charges against Indiau agents , 

No. 91 A. Letter of Colonel Phillips to Secretary of Interior 

No. yy. Interior Department instructions to Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs relative to same subject , 

No. 93. Reply of Agent Coimau to charges , 

No. 94. Reply of Agent Cutler to charges 

No. 95. Reply of Agent Harlan to charges 

No, 96. Annual report of Agent Coleman, CbickavSaw agency 

No. 97. Annual report of Agent Reynolds, Seminole agency 

No. 98. Supplementary report of Agent Reynolds, Seminole agency 

No. 99. Annual report of Agent Harlan, Cherokee agency 

No. 100. Anuual report of Agent Gookins, W^ichita agency 

No. lOJ. Annual report of Agent Dunn, Creek agency 

No. 1V2. Annual report of Agent Snow, Neosho agency 

No. 103. Letter of Superintendent Sells, transmitting special report of 
Agent Snow relative to exploration of Quapaw reservation 

No. i04. Despatch of Major General Reynolds, Juno 28, 1865, relative 

to Indian couiiCil to make peace 

No. 105. Despatch from Major General Reynolds relative to proposed 
peace cotmcil 



Vol 



No. 



Page. 



406 

406 

407 
407 
409 
410 
411 
412 

413 



415 

419 
420 
423 



424 
427 
428 
429 
432 
434 

434 



436 

444 
446 

447 

449 
45 

454 
455 

456 
457 
458 
459 
463 
465 
467 
468 
572 
474 
476 

478 

479 

479 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



xu 



INDEX. 



Title. 



No. 105^. Report of Commissioner Cooley, as president of council at Fort 
Smith 



No. ]0(>. Official daily record of council at Fort Smith 

No. 107. Letter of Joiin Koss to Opothleyoholo, Creek chief, September 

19,1861 

No. 108. Same to same, October 8, 1H6I 

No. 109. Address of John Ross to the Cherokee rtgiment, Dccouiber 19, 

1862, 



No. 110. Despatch from General Hunt, October 23, IKm, with letter 
from Governor Colbert, of Chickasaws, October 11, 1865 



Vol. 



CENTRAL SUPERINTENDEXCy. 



No. nO|. Annual report of Thomas Murphy, superintendent 

No. 111. Report of Apent Farnsworth, relative to disarming Indians.. 

No. 112. Office to late Superintendent Albin, same subject 

No. 113. Supei in tendent Murphy to Commissioner Cooley, same sub- 
ject. 



No. 1 14. Office reply, same subject 

No. 115. Supplementary regulations as to Indians alienating lauds 

No. 116, Office letter to late Superintendent Albin — shipment of Indian 



goods 



No. 117. Office letter to Sup«?rintendent Murphy, same subject 

No. 118. Annual report of Agent Pmtt, Delaware agency 

No. 1 1 9. Annual leport of teacher, Delaware agency 

No. 120. Special report of Superintendent Murphy, relative to Delaware 
school. 



No. 121. Annual report of Agent Colton, Osage River agency 

No. 122. Special report of Agent Colton, relative to leasing oil lands... 

No. 123. Secretary of Interior's instruction.^, relative to same 

No. 124. Annual report of Agent Adams, Kickapoo agency 

No. 125. Annual report of Agent Palmer, Pottawatomie agency 

No. 126, Annual report of physician to Pottawatomie agency 

No, 127, Annual report of J. F. Diels, superintendent of school, Potta- 
watomie agency 

No. 128. Office to Superintendent Murphy, relative to Indians as licensed 
traders 



No. 129. Secretary of Interior's decision relative to patents and pro rata 
share of tribal funds for Pottawatomies, 



No. 130. Annual report of Agent Martin, Sac and Fox of Mississippi 
agency 

No. 131. Annual report of teacher, Chip|HJwa and Mimsee school 

No. 132. Annual report of teacher, Sac and Fox of Mississippi school... 

No. 133. Letter of congressmen from Kansas, rccommeudiug sale of 
additional Sac and Fox lands 

No. 134. Report of Commissioner of Indian Att'uirs, February 27, 1865, 
same subject 

No. K^. Annual report of Agent Hutchinson, Ottawa agency 

No. 136. I^etter of Agent Farnsworth, relative to treaty between Kaws 
and Pawnees 

No. 137. Inciter of Agent Wheeler, same subject 

No. V.iS. Office instructions on same subject 

No. 1 39. Report of Agent Farnsworth, same subject 

No. 140. Letter of Agent Leavenworth, Kiowas, »fcc., January 9, 1865.. 

No. 141. Letter of Agent Leavenworth, February 19, 1865..*- 

No. 142. Report of Agent Leavenworth, May (>, 1865, relative to pro- 
posed action towards Indians, the military, &c 

No. 143. Report of same, May 10, 18(i5, relative to his action, &c 

No. 144. Despatches, with authority to Senator Doolittle and others to 
make treaties , 

No. 145. Report of Ageut Leavenworth, of agreements by Kiowas, &c., 
to make treaties 

No. 146. Despatch from General Pope on same subject 

No. 147. Report from Agent Leavenwoi-th, September 19, 1865 

f Forreportof treaty council with Kiowas, Comanches,&c., see Appendix. ] 



No. 



2 

I 2 

! 2 

\i 

I 2 
I 
2 

I ^ 
I 2 

! 2 



Page. 



Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



INDEX. 



xm 



Title. 



KORTUERN SUPERINTENDENCY. 

No. 148. Annnnl report of E. B. Taylor, snperlDtendent 

No. 149. Special report of SuperiDtendent Taylor, relative to Omaha agency 

No. 15<). Office letter to Superintendent Taylor, in reply 

No. 151 . Annual report of Agent Furnas, Omaha agency 

No. 152. Annual report of teacher at Omaha agency 

No. J 53. Special report of Superintendent Taylor, Winnebago agency.. 

No. 154. Annual report of Agent Balcombe, Winnebago agency 

No. 155. Letter from Agent Furnas, relative to preparing land for Win- 
nebagooA to cultivate 

No. 156. Office report to Secretary of Interior, relative to Wiunebagoes 
who remain in Minnesota 

No. 1 57. Petition of Winnebago chiefs for a school 

No. 156. Annual report of Agent Burbank, Great Nemaha agency 

No. 169. Annual report of teacher of loway school 

No. 16(). Annual report of farmer for loways 

No. 161. Special report of Superintendent Taylor, relative to Pawnee 
agency 

No. 162. Annual report of Agent Wheeler, relative to Pawnee agency.. 

No. 163. Annual report of teacher of Pawnee manual labor school. 

No, 1 64. Annual report of farmer at Pawnee agency 

No. 1(55. Letter of late Agent Lushbaugh, relative to enlistment of Paw- 
ners in United States service 

No. 166. Letter of late Agent Lushbaugh, transmitting treaty between 
Kaws and Pawnees 

No. 167. Annual rej>ort of Agent Daily, Ottoe agency 

No. lO^. Annual report of engineer at Ottoe agency 

No. 169. Annual report of farmer at Ottoe agency 

No, 170. Office instructions to V. Jarrot, agent for Fort Laramie agency 

No. 171 . Report from Agent Jan'ot, July lo, 1865 

No. 17*2. Keport from Agent Jarrot, August 18, 1865 

GREEN BAY AGENCY. 

No. 173. Annual report of Agent M. M. Davis 

No. 174. Annual report of R. Dousman, teacher for Menomonees 

No. 175. Annual report of Kate Dousman, teacher for Menomonees 

No. 176. Annual report of Jane Dousman, teacher for Menomonees. 

No 177. Annual report of farmer for Menomonees 

No. 178. Annual report of miller for Menomonees 

No. 1 78^. Annual report of blacksinith for Menomonees 

No. 179. Annual report of teacher for Stockbridges and Munsees 

No. 18i>. Annual report of teacher for M. K. mission school, Oueidas- .. 
No. 1^1. Annual report of teacher for P. E. mission school, Oneidas... 
No. 1*^2. Letter of Agent Davis, transmitting appeal of Stockbridges, 

&c., for relief. 

No. 183. Office letter in reply to the same 

CllIPPEWAS OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

No. 184 Report of Agent Clark, relative to selection of a place for the 

agency 

No. 185. Letter of George Bouga on same subject 

No. 185^. Letter of Secretary of Interior, relative to licenses, 

CHIPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR. 

No. 186. Office letter to Superintendent Thompson, relative to Lake 

Court Oreillcs reservation 

[For Agent Webb's annual report, see Appendix.] 



SPECIAL AGENCY FOR POTTAW ATOMIES, ETC. IN WISCONSIN. 

No. 187. Agent Davis's letter relative to depredations by wandering 

Indians 

No. 168. Agent Lamoreaoz's letter on same subject. -jrgrtr^^d tV 



Vol. 


No. 


2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 


i 


2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 


] 


2 




2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 

iv2. 


1 



Page. 



581 
585 
586 
587 
590 
591 
595 

597 

597 
598 
599 
601 
602 

602 
604 
607 
609 

610 

610 
612 
613 
614 
614 
616 



619 
623 
623 
624 
624 
625 
625 
626 
626 
626 

627 

628 



628 
629 
631 



631 



632 



XIV 



INDEX. 



Title. 



MACKINAW AGENCY. 

No. 288^. Annual report of Agent Smith 

NEW YORK AGENCY. 

No. 189. Annual report of Agent Rich 

No. 190. Annual report of the "Thomas Orphan Asylum" 

[For statistics, see Appendix.] 

STATISTICAL TABLES. 

No. 191. Table of amoimt anticipated from appropriations for year 
ending June 30, 1866 

No. 192 A. Indian trust lands 

No. 192 B. Indian trust lands 

No. 192 C. Indian trust lands 

No. 192 D. Indian trust lands 

No. 193. Indian trust funds, Nos. 1, 2, 3 

No. 194. Liabilities of the United States to Indian tribes 

No. 195. Population, schools, individual property, &c 

No. 197. Recapitulation of statistical tables ot 1865, compared with those 
of 1864 

[The documents which follow in the appendix were received too late for 
special notice and comment in the Commissioner*s report.] 



OREGON. 

No. 1. Annual report of Superintendent Huntington 

No. 2 A. Statement of Indian tribes in Oregon .* 

No. 1 E. List of depredations by Snake Indians 

No. H. Letter of Superintendent Huntington, relative to agricultural 

premiums to Indians 

No. 2. Annual report of Agent Harvey, Grande Rondo agency , 

No. 2 A. Annual report of teacher at Grande Ronde agency 

No. 2 B. Annual report of teacher of Umpqua day school 

No. 2 C. Annual report of physician at Grande Ronde agency 

No. 2 D. Annual report of farmer at Grande Ronde agency 

No. 2 E. Annual report of miller at Grande Ronde agency 

No. 2 F. Annual report of carpenter at Grande Ronde agency 

No. 3. Annual report of Sub- Agent Collins, Alsea sub-agency 

No. 3 A. Annual report of superintendent of farming, Alsea sub-agency. 
No. 4. Annual report of superintendent of farming. Warm Springs 

agency 

No. 4 A. Annual report of teacher at Warm Spring agency 

No. 4 B. Annual report of physician at Warm Springs agency 

No. 4 C. Annual report of blacksmith at Warm Springs agency 

No. 4 D. Annual report of wagon-maker at Warm Springs agency 

No. 5. Annual report of Agent fiamhart, Umatilla agency 

No. 5 A. Annual report of superintendent of farming, Umatilla agency. 

No. 5 B. Annual report of carpenter at Umatilla agency 

No. 5 C. Annual report of physician at Umatilla agency 

No. 5 D. Annual report of teacher at Umatilla agency 

No. 5 E. Annual report of wagon-maker at Umatilla agency 

No. 5 F. Annual report of blacksmith at Umatilla agency 

No. 6. Annual report of Agent Simpson, Siletz agency 

No. 6 A. Annual report of teacher at Siletz agency 

No. 6 B. Annual report of physician at Siletz agency 

No. 6 C. Annual report of farmer at Siletz agency.. 



NEW YORK. 



Vol. 



No. 7 A. Statistics of education, &c., New York agency. 
No. 7 B. Statistics of fanning, &c., New York agency... 



No. 



2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 





Digitized by V^OOQIC 



INDEX. 



XT 



Title. 



SHAWNEES. 



!^o. 8. Annaal report of Agent Abbott, Shawnee agency 

No. 8 A. Annaal report of manual labor school, Slmwnee agency. 

1^0. 8 B. Statistics of Shawnee agency 

Ko. 8 C. Copy of Kansas law relative to Indian land titles 



PAVFKEES. 



No* 9. Statistics of Pawnee agency. 



ARIZONA. 



No. 10. Annual report of Saperintendent Leihy 

No. 10 A. Report of Special Agent Dow, Yavapai agency. 



CmPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR. 



No. 11. Annaal report of Agent Webb. 



HONTAKA. 

No. 12. Annaal report of Agent Upson, Blackfeet agency 

CESTRAL.— TREATY COUNCIL WITH ARAPAHOES, CHEYENNES, APACHES, 
•KIOWAS, AND COMilNCHES. 

No. 13w Heport of commissioners of council with Arapahoes and Chey- 

ennes 

No. 13 A. Record of daily proceedings of council with Arapahoes and 

Cheyennes, October 12, 13, and 14 

No. 14. Report of same commission of council with Apaches, Kiowas, 

and Comanches 

No. 14 A. Record of daily proceedings of commission of council with 

Apaches, Kiowas, and Comanches, October 16, 17, 18, and 24 

No. 15. Report of same commission of council with Osages and other 

tribes 

Indian service, moneys on hand applicable to the. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior relative to 

Indian department, expenditures in the. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior relative to , 

Indians, Sioux, relative to the. Message from the President of the United 

States transmitting report of the Secretary of the Interior 

Insane hospital, annual report of the board of visitors for the 

Insurgent States, laws in. Message from the President of the United States 

relative to 

Interior, annual report of the Secretary of the 



Papers accompanying the above, 

Annaal report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office 

Annaal report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Annaal report of the Commissioner of Pensions 

Annaal report of the Commissioner of Public Buildings 

Annaal report of the architect of the Capitol extension 

Annoai report of the board of visitors of the government hospital for the 



Annual report of the Columbian Institution for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind . 

Annaal report of the Board of Metropolitan Police 

Annua] report of the warden of the jail in the District of Columbia 

Letter from the mayor of Washington in reference to the relations of the 

general g^ovemment to the city of Washington 

fieport of Lieut. Colonel James H. Simpson, corps of engineers United 

States army, in regard to Union Pacific railro^ audits branches, &c. 

loterior, transmittlDfi^ statement of persons and capital employed in manu- 

ifctoiw. Letter £om the Secretary of the 



Vol. 



No. 



Page. 



686 



687 



687 



1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

101 

106 

126 
1 

131 
1 



701 
711 

7ia 

720 



814 

1 



1 
168 
773 
799 
809 

814 
831 
842 
852 

855 

871 



Digitized by 



i «9 

^^oogle 



XVI 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Interior, relative to receipts from sales of public lands. Letter from the 
Secretarj of the , 

Interior, relative to a wagon road from Niobrara to Virginia City. Let- 
ter from the Secretary of the , 

Interior, relative to the cost of printine and advertising in his depart- 
ment. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior, relative to disbursements of the southern superintendency. Let- 
ter from the Secretary of the 

Interior, transmitting report of Thos. U. Walter relative to warming and 
ventilating the Capitol. Letter from the Secretary of the , 

Interior, relative to moneys on band applicable to the Indian service. 
Letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior, relative to wagon roads in western territories. Letter from the 
Secretary of the , 

Interior, relative to expenditures in the Indian Department. Letter from 
the Secretary of the 

Interior, relatvie to William Sawyer and others. Letter from the Sec- 
retary of the 

Interior, relative to the reissue of the Dundos patent for cultivators. 
Letters from the Secretary of the 

Interior, relative to public lands in California. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the 

Interior, relative to Indian affairs in the Territory of Dakota. Letter 
from the Secretary of the 

Interior, relative to pensioners dropped from the pension rolls. Letter 
from the Secretary of the 

J. 

Juarez, President of Mexico. Message from the President of the United 
States relative to 

Juarez, President of Mexico. Letter from the Secretary of State rela- 
tive to 

Judge Advocate General. Report of the. (Part 2) 

K. 



Kidnapping in Mexico, 
in regard to 



Message from the President of the United States 



Lake Siiperior harbor. 
Land Office, General. 



Letter from the Secretary of War relative to. 
Annual report of the Commissioner of the... 



Papers accompanying the above. 



No. 1. Statement of the surveying returns to this office for the fiscal year 
ending June I?0, 18G5, and for the quarter ending September 30, 1865. . 

No. 2. btatement of public lands sold, of cash and bounty land scrip 
received therefor ; number of acres entered under the homestead law 
of May 20, 1862: of commissions received under the sixth section of 
said act ; also of land located with scrip under the agricultural college 
and mechanic act of July 2, 1862 ; and commissions received by regis- 
ters and receivers on the value thereof; and statement of incidental 
expenses thereon in the fiscal year commencing July 1, 1864, and 
ending June 30, 1865 

No. 3. Summary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1865, showing the 
number of acres disposed of for cash, wi^h bounty land scrip, by 
entry under the homsetead laws of May 20, 1862, and March 21, 1864, 
with aggregate of ten-dollar homestead payments, homestead com- 
missions, also locations with agricultural an^ mechanic college scrip 
underact of July 2, 1862 

No. 4. Statement showing the quantity of swamp land selected for the 
several States under the acts of Congress approved March 2, 1849, 
and September 28, 1850, and March 12, 1860, up to and ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1865 n^ff/p-H.hvVL-f 



Vol. 


No. 


7 


45 


8 


58 


8 


61 


12 


91 


12 


100 


12 


101 


12 


105 


12 


107 


12 


119 


16 


143 


16 


144 


16 


147 


7 


31 


8 
3 


64 
1 


7 


21 


8 
2 


65 
1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 
3& 


1 



Page. 



1003 



45 



46 



58 



60 



INDEX 



XVII 



Title. 



No. 5. Statement exhibitiDj? the quantity of swamp 1*^^ ^PP'';?^?^,^ 
the seTeral States under the actrfof Congress approved March i, ltf4y. 
and September 28, J850, and March 12, 1860, up to and endmg Sep- 

No. 6, Statement exhibiting the quantity of swamp land patented to 
tlie several States under the acts of Congress approved beptember 2«,. 
leSO, and March 12, 1860, and also the quantity certihed to the State 
of Louisiana under act approved Ma^ch 2, ^^^^••y'-;- -;-;"• ••■••• 

No. 7. Exhibit of bounty land business under acts of 1847, 18oU, lOo-i, 
and 1855, showing the issues and locations from the commencement 
of operations under said acta to June 30, 1865. '•'""/•'"' ; " • 

No, 8. Estimate of appropriations required tor the office of the yomniis- 
sioner of the General Laud Office for the fiscal year endmg June 30, 



1H>7. 



No 9. ^'timatesof appropriations for the burveying department for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1867 • ;;.•*: "j * V " ' 

No. 10. Estimates of appropriations for surveymg the public lands for 
the fiscal year ending June 30,1867 .-- 

No. 11. Reports of surveyors general, A to I, mclusive. 

No. 12. Connected map of the public land States and Terntones, com- 
piled from the diagrams accompanying the reports of the surveyors 

No. 13. AgricultuVaVsVlections within certain States, and also scrip loca- 
tions uuder agricultural and mechanic act of July 2, 1862. 

No. 14. Statement exhibiting land concessions by acts or Congress to 
States and corporations for railroad and military wagon road purposes 
from the year 1850 to September 30, 1865, accompanied by maps in- 
dlcatiue the lines of routes and limits of the States of Arkansas, Ala- 
bama, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska Territory; of the States of 
Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Minnesota, Michigan, Illmois, \\i8- 
consin, Oregon. California, wiih a connected map showing the lines 
of routes under congressional grants and the scats ot land offices 



General Land Office, October 3, 18^5. 
Note— The diagrams accompanying the annual reports of the sur- 
veyors general aie omitted, and the connected map of the public land 
Slates and Territories, brought up to current date thereirom, is bound 
with this report in lieu of them. 

Lands*, public, receipts from sales of. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Interior relative to the - - • - - - - •.- : " : " * " 

L«ud« for the Sioux Indians. Message from the President transmitting 



report of the St^cretary of the Interior relative to : " ; * * V .' " 

Ufi.ls public, in California, Letter from the Secretary of the Interior 



r»-liiiive to 

Lifht-houw Board, franking privilege to officers of the. 

8ecretaiy of the Treasury relative to the - - • - - 

L ncoln, Abraham, ast^assins of, reward ottered for the arrest ot the, 

^ipc from the President of the United States relative to the 

M. 



Letter from the 



Mes- 



Mannfactures, persons and capital employed in. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior in relation to v;"';^* i*!'""/* 

iUrioe, mercantile. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to 
the --.- - ' 

iUry land, commissioner of claims for. Letter irom the Secretary of War 
ivlstive to the appointment of --- • 

ll«\».r of Washington, in reference to the relations of the general govern- 
ineni to the city of Washington. Letter from the ----••;•--•; 

MrCallnm, Brevet Brigadier General D. C. Keport of, (Part 2) 

M'Mnplii.% riuti*. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to 

M' tropoiitau Police. Keport of the board of 

>Inico, slavery in. Message from tht; President relative to 

M^iiam affairs. Message from the President relative to 



Vol, 



No. 



45 
126 

135 
63 

20 

25 

22 

1 

1 

122 

1 

13 

20 



Page. 

60 

61 

61 

63 

66 

68 
70 

163 



165 



855 



842 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



xvni 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Mexico, kidnapping in. Messflpe from tlio President relative to 

Mexico, Austrian forces in. Message from the President relative to 

Mexico, European troops in. Message from the President of the United 
States relative to 

Mexico, condition of aifairs in. Message from the President of the United 
States on the, (Part 1. J 

Mexico, evacuation of, by the French. Message from the President rela- 
tive to the 

Mileage of members of Congress. Letter from the Secretary of the Treas - 
ury relative to the salary aiid 

Missouri, department of. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting 
report of Major General John Pope of the 

Mone3' in the several States. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 
relative to the deposit of 

Montana, surveying district in. Message from the President relative to . . 

N. 

Naval Academy at Annapolis. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 
relative to the amount expended in the permanent establishment of the.. 

Navy, transmitting statement sho%viug the appropriations for the naval 
service for the year ending June IJO, J86.'>. Letter from the Secretary of 
the 

Navy, giving a list of chaplains in the naval service. Letter from the Sec- 
retary of the 

Navy, relative to paper, printing and advertising in his department for 
the year 1H65. Letter from the Secretary of the 

NaVy , annual report of the Secretary of the 

Papers accompanying the above report. 

Index to reports of officers 

Beports of the chiefs of bureaus and accompanying papers 

No. L Detailed estimates of the office of the Secretary of the Navy and 
southwest executive building 

No. 2. Keport of the chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, with esti- 
mates, statement of contracts, proposals, &c 

No. 3. Report of the chief of the Bureau of Navigation, with estimates, 
&c 

No. 4. Report of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance 

No. 5. Report of the chief of the Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting, 
with estimates, statement of contracts, off'ers, &c 

No. 6. Report of the chief of the Bureau of Construction, with statement 
of contracts, offers, &c 

No. 7. Report of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, with statement of 
contracts, offers, &c 

No. 8. Report of the Bureau of Provisions and Clothiug, with schedules 
of contracts, offers, &c 

No. 9. Report of the chief of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, with 
estimates, &c 

No. 10. Report of the colonel commandant of the murine corps, with es- 
timates, statement of contracts, & c 

No. II. Summary statement (civil) of the office of the Secretary of the 
Navy, bureaus, and southwest executive building 

No. 12. Summary statement for the navy and marine corps 

No. lU. Report of the board of visitors of the Naval Academy 

Navy, transmitting statement of the expendituie of the contingent fund. 

Letter from the S<KTetary of the 

Navy, relative to clerks in his department. I^ctter from the Secretary of 

the 

Navy yard at Patuxent river. Letter from the Superintendent of the Coa«t 

Survey relative to a 

Navy yard at Philadelphia. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 

relative to a 



Vol. 

7 
12 

16 

11 

12 

12 

12 

7 
16 



No. 
21 

137 

73 

93 

25 

76 

26 
ir>6 



8 . 57 

1 



5 

5 ' 
5 



Page. 



89 

I 

39 , 
I 

40 , 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



XIX 



Title. 




KaTT yard at Philadelpfiia, relative to the value of property at the. Letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury 

New Orleans. Message from the President of the United States relative to 
the investigatiia at 

New York harbor, quarantine station at. Letter from the Secretary of War 
relati^'e to 

Niobraia to Vir^nia City, wa^n road from. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Interior relative to a 

Norton's cancelling and marking stamp. Letter from the Postmaster Gen- 
eral relative to 



O. 

Oath, test. Message from the President, presenting communication from 
the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General, relative to the . . 

Officers aod soldiers buried near Atlanta. Message from the President of 
the United States relative to the ^ 

Ordnance of the United States army, of the operations of his department 
durine the year ending June ^, 1866. Annual report of the chief of, 
(Part 2) 



Pardons and abandoned property. Message from the President of the 

United States relative to 

Phris, Universal Exposition at. Letter from the Secretary of State relative 
the 



Patapsco river, improvement of. Secretary of War asking appropriation for 

Patents, transmitting the Mechanical Report of the Patent Office for the 
year l?^. Letter from the Commissioner of, (Part 1 ) 

Paymaster General of the United States army, of the operations of his de 
pamnent during the year ending June 3U, 1866. Annual report of the, 
(Part i) 

Pennsjlvania, draft in the eighth congressional district of. Letter from the 
Secretary of War relative to the 

Peosioners dropped from the rolls. Letter from the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior relative to 

Pensions. Annual report of the Commissioner of 



Papers accompanying the above report, 

A. — Statement of the number and yearly amount of original applications, 
and for increase of anny pensions, admitted in each State and Terri- 
tory for the year ending June "SO, 1865 

B. — Statement of the amount paid for army pensions in the several States 
and Territories for tlie year ending June :JU, 1865 

C.~ Statement of the number and yearly amount of original applications 
and tor increase of navy pensions admitted in each State and Territory 
for the year ending June 30, 1865 

D.— Statement of the amount of funds in the hands of agents for paying 
anny pensions on the :>Oth day of June, 1865 

E.— ,Suit«*ment of the amount of navy pensions paid at the agencies in 
the several States and Territories for the year ending Juno 3U, 1865. .. 

F. — Statement of the number and yearly amount of army pensions on the 
rolls in the several States and Territories on the 30th day of June, 1865. . 

G.— Statement of the amount of funds in the hands of agents for paying 
navy pensions on the 30th day of June, 1865 

H. — Statement of the number and yearly amount of navy pensions on 

the roll of each State and Territory on the 30th day of June, 1865 

Petrnleum. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting report 

ofS. a Hays, on 

PLiJ^iJelphia, navy yard at. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 

relatire to the cost of the 

hiiadelphisk navy yard, relative to the value of property at the. Letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury 



44 
96 

87 
58 
30 

81 i 
92 



12 



99 



7 I 12 

12 I 84 



9 


52 


3 


1 


12 


129 


16 
2 


153 

1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 



2 


1 


2 




2 




2 




8 


51 


7 


40 


7 


44 



994 



897 



773 



794 
795 



795 
796 
796 
797 
797 
798 



Digitized by 



Google 



XX 



INDEX. 



Title. 




Police. Report of the Board of Metropolitan 

Pope, John, Major General. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting 

report of 

Postal laws, violation of the. Letter from the Postmaster General relative 

to a 

Postmaster General of the operations of his department during the year 

1865. Beport of the 



Papers aecompamfing the above report. 

Ko. 1. Exhibit of annnal receipts and expenditures from Januaiy 1 , 1831, 
to June 30, 1865 

No. 2. Estimates for expenditures for 1867 

No. 3. Postage stamps and envelopes issued during the fiscal year 
1864-*65 

No. 4. Statement of the mail service for the year ended June 30, 1865. .. 

No. 4 A. Table of mail service in the following States and Territories for 
the year ended June 30, 1865, as exhibited by the state of the arrange- 
ments at the close of the year 

No. 4 B. Railroad service as in operation on the 30th of June, 1865 

No. 4 C. Steamboat service as in operation September 30, 1865 

No. 4 D. Table showiug the increase and decrease of mail transportation 
and cost in the following States and Territories during tha year ended 
June 30, 1865 

No. 5. Table of mail service restored in southern States up to November 
1, 1865, compared with the old service and pay on the same 

No. 6. Statement of the number, kinds, sizes, and cost of mail bags pro- 
cured under contract and by open purchase, and put into service, 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 181)5 

No. 7. Statement showing operations and results of foreign mail service 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1865 

No. 8. Additional article to the articles agreed upon between the post 
ofiice of the United States of America and the post office of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for carrying into execution the 
convention of the 15th December, 1848 

No. U. Total operations of the appointment office for the year ending 
June 30, 18tX5 

No. 10. Table showing the increase and decrease of post offices in the 
several States and I'erritories ; also the number of post offices at which 
appointments are made by the President and by the Postmaster Gen- 
eral 



No. 11. Post offices at which letter-carriers are employed, with the num- 
ber and aggregate compensation of the latter at each office 

No. 12. Statement of the operations of the free-delivery letter-carrier sys- 
tem at the following offices for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1865 .. . 

No. 13. Statement showing the disposition of letters received contaibing 
money during the year endine June 30, 1865 

No. 14. Annual statement of dead letters containing papers of value 
other than money registered and sent out for delivery to the writers or 
owners thereof during the fiscal year ending on the 30th day of June, 
1865 



No. 15. Regulations concerning the disposal of dead lettere .. 
No. 16. Letter from the Postmaster General to special agents. 
No. 17. Auditor*s report 



Papers accompanying the above. 

The tabular statement numbered 1 exhibits the receipts of the depart- 
ment under their several heads 

That numbered 2 exhibits the expenditures under the several heads... 

That numbered 3 exhibits the postal receipts and expenditures in the 
several States and Territories -- ,.,. 

That numbered \ exhibits the operations of the free-delivery letter- 
carrier system at the principal offices in the United States , 

That numbered 5 exhibits the miscellaneous payments during the fiscal 
year 

Digitized by vjj 



12 I 85 



6 



6 



o 



>^lt 



INDEX. 



XXI 



Title. 



That numbered 6 exhibits a snmmaxyof the principal labors performed 
by this office durine the fiscal year , 

That numbered 7 exhibits the amount of letter postage on British mails 
received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered 8 exhibits the amount of letter postage on Prussian 
mails received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered 9 exhibits the amount of letter postage on French 
mails received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered 10 exhibits the amount of letter postage on Belgian 
mails received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered ] 1 exhibits the amount of letter postage on Bremen 
mails received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered 12 exhibits the amount of letter postage on Hamburg 
mails received in and sent from the United States 

That numbered 13 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 
changed between the United States and the United Kingdom in 
British mails 

That numbered 14 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 
changed between the United States and the kingdom of rrussia in 
closed mails 

That numbered 15 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 
changHi between the United States and France 

That numbered 16 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 
changed between the United States and Belgium 

That numbered 17 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 

changed between the United States and Bremen 

fThat numbered 18 exhibits the numl)er of letters and newspapers ex- 
changed between the United States and Hamburg 

That numbered 19 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers, with 
the several postages, conveyed by the West India line of ocean 
steamers 

That numbered 20 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers, with 
the several postages, conveyed by the South Pacific hoe of ocean 
steamers 

That numbered 21 exhibits the number of letters and newspapers ex- 
changed between the United States and foreign countries 

That nombered 22 exhibits the amount of postage on mails exchanged 
. between the United States and the British provinces 

That numbered 23 exhibits the amount of postage on foreign dead 
letters sent from and returned to the United States 

That numbered 24 exhibits the balances due from and to the United 
States on the adjustment of accounts with foreign nations 

That numbered 25 exhibits the Prussian closed mail account for the 
year ended December 31, 18G4 

That numbered 26 exhibits the Canadian closed mail account for the 
year ended Deoember 31, 1864 

That numbered 27 exhibits the Havana closed mail account for the 
year ended December 31, 1864 

That numbered 28 exhibits the Honolulu and Vancouver's Island 
closed mail account for the year ended December 31, 1864 

That numbered 29 exhibits the Belgian closed mail account for the 
year ended December 31, 1864 

That numbered lU) exhibits the amounts reported due the various lines 
of ocean mail steamers during the fiscal year 

That numbered 31 exhibits the balances due the United States from 
prenideutial offices in the late rebellious States, and also the total 
amount due from postmasters in these States 

Those numbered 32 to 35, inclusive, exhibit the details of the transac- 
tions of the money-order departoient from November 1, 1864, to June 

30,18*55 

Postmaster General, relative to Norton's marking and cancelling stamp. 

Letter from the 

Pustmaster General, relative to violation of the postal laws. Letter from 

the 

Pv^tmaster General, relative to the mail steamship service to Brazil. Re- 
port of the 



Vol. 



No. 



12 
12 



30 

85 



Page. 



90 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
96 



97 



97 

93 
98 
99 



99 



100 



ICO 
101 
101 
101 
103 
104 
104 
105 
105 
106 



107 



110 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



XXII 



INDEX 



Title. 



Post Office Department. tmnsmittinGC statement of the receipts and expen- 
ditures of the. L«»tter from the Treasurer of the United States 

Presideut of the United States on the state of tiie Union, with accompauj- 
ing documents and reports. Annual message of the, (Part ] .) 

President of the United States, transmitting report of Commissioner of the 
Bureau of Refugees, Freedmeu, and Abandoned Lands. Message from 
th 



President of the United States, transmitting letter from the Secretary of 
State relative to the exposition at Paris. Message of the 

President ot the United States, relative to slavery or peonage in Mexico. 
Message from the *. 

President of the United States, relative to affairs in Mexico. Message from 
the 



President of the United States, relative to kidnapping in Mexico. Message 
from the 

President of the United States, relative to President Juarez, of Mexico. 
Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the reported surrender of the 
rebel pirate Shenandoah. Message from the 

President of the United States, in relation to pay of agent to the Domini- 
can Uepublic. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the Imperial Mexican Express 
Company. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the imprisonment of Jefferson 
Davis and others. Message from the 

Prt\sident of the United States, transmitting correspondence relative to 
cholera at Constantinople. Message from the 

President of the United States, with regard to rewards offered for arrest of 
assassins of Abraham Lincoln. Message from the 

President of the United States, with regard to Juarez, President of Mex- 
ico. Message from the *. 

President of the United States, as to the number of men and officers in the 
regular and volunteer army. Message from the 

President of the United States, on the condition of affairs in Mexico. Mes- 
sage from the, (Parti) 

President of the United States, relative to direct tax in Alabama. Mes- 
sage from the 1 

Presideut of the United States, transmitting report and papers of the Sec- 
retary of State relative to claim of owners of British vessel Magician. 
Message from the 

President of the United States, communicating suggestions from Post- 
master General and Secretary of the Treasury modifying the test oath. 
Message from the •- 

Presideut of the United States, relative to fishing grounds near British 
provinces. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting report of the Secretary of War 
relative to officers and soldiers buried near Atlanta. Message from the.. 

President of the United States, transmitting n»port of the Secretary of State 
relative to the evacuation of Mexico by the French. Message from the... 

President of the United States, transmitting report of the commissioners to 
examine the third section of the Union Pacific railroad. Message from 
the 



President of the United States, respecting the rebel debt known as the 
cotton loan. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the investigations at New Or- 
leans. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to pardons and abandoned prop- 
erty. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting additional information relative 
to lishery and water culture in France. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to discrimination agaisBl American 
commerce. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting statement from the State De- 
partment relative to the number of clerks employed in the State Depart- 

. meut. Message from the ♦ , 

President of the United States, relative to the republic of- Ecuador. 
Message from the 



Vol. 



J2 



12 



Jigitized by Vjj 



No. 



12 


74 


1 


1 




11 




12 




13 




20 




21 




31 




36 




37 




38 




46 




48 


8 


63 


8 


64 


8 


71 


11 


73 


12 


79 



80 



12 
12 


81 
88 


12 


92 


12 


93 


12 


94 


12 


95 


12 


96 


12 


99 


12 


103 


12 


110 



111 



Page. 



le 



INDEX. 



XXIII 



Title. 



Vol. 



No. Page. 



President of the United States, transmitting letter from General Grant 
relative to the organization of the army. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting reports from Secretaries of 
Interior, Navy, and Postmaster General, relative to clerks employed in 
tl>eir depATtments. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting statement of clerks employed 
in the Treasury Department. Message from tlie 

Pre-^idcnt of the United States, relative to the provisions in the constitu- 
tions of several southern States relative to the freed men. Message from 
the 



Preiiident of the United States, relative to refugees, frcedmen, and aban- 
doned lands. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the mail steamship service to 
Brazil. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting communication from the Sec- 
retary of War of the operations of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, 
and Abandoned Lands. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting report from the Secretary of 
the Interior relative to the Sioux Indians. Letter from the 

President of the United States, relative to claims against Venezuela. Mes- 
sa^ from the 

Prtesident of the United States, relative to Austrian forces in Mexico. 
Message from the 

Pre'iident of the United States, relative to laws of late iusurgent States. 
Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to progress made in completing 
maps connected with the boundary survey under the treaty of Wash- 
ington. Message from the 

Pa^sident of the United States, relative to direct tax in insurgent States. 
Mf'*sage from the 

President of the United States, in regard to the employment of European 
troops in Mexico. Message from the 

President of the United States, with regard to arrest of American citizens 
in Trt*laud. Message from the 

President of the United States, in relation to appropriations and expendi- 
tures connected with the Indian service. Message froni the 

President of the United States, in regard to honors paid to rebels, living 
or dead. Message from the 

President of the United States, returning the Freedmen's Bureau bill, No. 
613, with his objections. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to a reform of the system of coin- 
age, weights, and measures. Message from the 

President of the United States, transmitting his views relative to the resto- 
ration of Tennessee by joint resolution, informing the House that he had 
signed the same. Message from the 

President of the United States, relative to the release of Fenian prisoners. 
Message from the 

President of the United States, giving his objections to the act erecting 
Montana in a separate surveying district. Messap^e from the 

Printing and advertising in his department. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Interior in regard to the cost of 

Printing, Public. Annual report of the Superintendent of 

Printing, Public, for the year ending June 30, 1866. Estimates of addi- 
tional appropriations for the office of Superintendent of 

Printing and advertising in his department. Lettor from the Secretary of 
State relative to the cost of paper and 

Printing, and advertising in his department. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Treasury relative to the cost of paper 

Printing, and advertising in his department for the year 1865. Lettor 
from the Secretary of the Navy relative to the cost of paper and 

Prize-money. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury relative to 

Provost Marshal General of the United Stales. Annual report of the, (Part I ).. 

Provost Marshal General of the United States. Final report of the, (Part 2). . 

Public Buildings. Annual report of the Commissioner of 

PuWic Buildings during the fiscal year ending June 20, 1865. Statement of 
the receipts and expenditures under direction of the Commissioner of . .. , 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



12 

12 
12 

12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 

16 

16 

16 

8 
7 

7 

8 

8 

8 
12 
4 
4 
2 



113 

115 
117 

118 
120 
121 

123 
126 
127 
130 
131 

132 
133 
137 
139 
140 
141 
146 
148 

151 

154 

156 

61 
23 

6 

GO 

55 

57 
114 

1 
1 
1 



78 
799 
807 



XXIV 



INDEX 



T:t:o. 



Public Buildings, clerks in the office of the Commissioner of. Letter 
relative to , 

Public Printing. Annual report of the Superintendent of 

Public Printing for the year ending June 30, 18()6. Estimates of addi- 
tional appropriations for the office of the Superintendent of 

Q. 

Quartermaster General of the United States. Annual report of the, 
(Part 1) 

Quartermtister General's Department. Letter from the Secretary of 
War rt^lative to persons employed in the , 

Quarautiuo at New York harbor. Letter from the Secretary of War 
relative to 



R. 

Railroad property in possession of the government of the United States. 
Letter from the Secretary of War relative to , 

Railroad, Illinois Central, amount paid the, for transportation by the 
United States. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to the , 

Railroad, Union Pacific. Message from the President of the United 
States transmitting report of the commissioners of the 

Rations, commutution of, to soldiers while prisoners of war. Letter 
from the Secretary of War relative to 

Rebel debt known as the cotton loan. Message from the President of 
the United States respecting the 

Rebels, honors to. Message from the President of the United States 
relative to 

Receipts and expenditures of the trcjwury to March 31, }^]6, and esti- 
mates to Juno 30, Jfcl(j(). Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 
relative to 

Reeves, Clement. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to the 
seizare of land belonging to 

Revenue, internal. Letter from the Secretai-yof the Treasury relative to.. 

Revenuo Ctmmiission. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury trans- 
mitting report of the United States 

Revenue Commission on distilled spirits as a source of revenue. Let- 
ter from the Secretary of the Trea.'sury transmitting report of the 

Revenue Conmiission, on proprietary and other medicines, perfumery, 
playing- can! s, &c., as a source of revenue. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the IVeasury transmitting report of the 

River, Patapsco, appropriation for the improvement of the. Letter from 
the Secretary of War relative to an 

S. 

Sawyer, William, and others. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior 
relative to , 

Shenandoah, rebel pirate. Message from the President in relation to the 
reported capture of the 

Signal officer of the army of the operations of his corps for the year ending 
October-20, leiM. Report of the, (Part 2) 

Simpson, Lieut. Colonel James H. , report of 

Slaverj' in Mexico Message from the President relative to 

Smithsonian Institution. Annual report of the Hoard of Regents of the. . . 

Soldiers furnished in each State. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to 

Soldiers, murder of Union. Letter from the Secretary of' War transmitting 
report of Judge Holt relative to the 

Soldiers, Union and rebel, who died while held as prisoners of war. Let- 
ter from the Secretary of War relative to 

Southwest Pass, navigation of the. Letter from the Secretary of War trans- 
mitting report of boaid of engineers relative to the 

State Department upon foreign affiiirs. Correspondence of the, (Part 1). 

State, Secretary of, relative to relief and protection of American seamen. 
Letter from the 

State, Secretary of, acting, relative to disbursement of the contingent fund. 
Leitei from the 



Vol. 



No. 



109 
23 



Page 



82 
87 

155 
83 
94 

142 
95 

141 

150 

41 

17 

42 
62 

68 

84 

119 
36 

1 

) 

13 

102 

15 

98 

152 

97 

1 

7 
32 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



INDEX. 



XXV 



Title. 



State, transmittiDg a report on the commercial relations of the United States 
with foreign countries for the year 1865. Letter from the Secretary of.. 

State, in regard to cost of paper, printing, and advertising, in his depart- 
ment, letter from the Secretary of 

State, relative to expenditures of the board of immigration. Letter from 
the Secretary of 

State, Department of, relative to clerks employed in that office 

States in rebellion, since April 1, 1865. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury in regard to receipts from 

Surgeon General of the United States army, of the operations of his depart- 
mcntduring the year ending June 'JO, 1 866. Annual report of the, ( Part 2) . 

Survey, boundary, maps of, under the treaty of Wasnington. Message 
from the President of the United States relative to 



Tax in insurgent States, direct. Message from the President of the United 

States relative to 

Taxes, from estates of deceased persons. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury relative to income , 

Tennessee, restoration of. Message from the President of the United States 

informing the House that he had signed the joint resolution for the 

Toledo, harbor at. Letter from the Secretary of War transmitting report 

of the Chief Engineer relative to the improvement of the 

Treasurer of the United States, transmitting a statement of the accounts of 

the government for the year ending June 30, 1864 

Tr*^^nrer, transmitting statement of receipts and expenditures of the Post 

Office Department for the year ending June 30, 1865. Letter from the 

United States 

Treasury, transmitting estimates for appropriations for the year ending 

Jane 30, 1866. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, on the condition of the finances of the government for the year 

1665. Annual report of the Secretary of the 



Reports and documents accompanying the above report. 



The Secretary's report 

Statement No. 1. Kecoipts and expenditures for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1864 

Statement No. 2. Keceipts and expenditures as estimated for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1866 

Statement No. 3. Duties, revenues, and public expenditures during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, J 864, agreeably to warrants issued, exclu- 
sive of trust funds 

Statement No. 4. Receipts and expenditures for the quarter ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1864, exclusive of trust funds 

Statement No. 5. The indebtedness of the United States 

Statement No. (». Paper money circulation, and domestic exports 

Report of the Comptroller of the Currency 

Report of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue 

Report of the Treasurer 

Re{>ort of the Register 

Report of the Solicitor 

Report of the First Comptroller 

Report of the Second Comptroller 

Report of the First Auditor 

Report of the Second Auditor 

Report of the Third Auditor 

Report of the Fourth Auditor 

Report of the Fifth Auditor 

Report of the Sixth Auditor 

Report of the Commissioner of Customs 

Report of the Supervising Architect 

Report of the Light house Board 

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey 

Report of the Supervising Inspector of Steamboats 



Vol.] 

10 

8 

8 
12 

7 

3 

12 

32 

7 

16 

12 

7 

12 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 



No. 

56 

60 

66 
111 

47 

1 

132 

133 

43 

151 

78 
5 

74 
2 
3 

3 
3 
3 



Page. 



6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6, 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 



1 

43 

44 

44 

47 

50 

56 

62 

74 

93 

100 

107 

114 

116 

122 

123 

128 

137 

146 

168 

170 

186 

192 

203 

206 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



XXVI 



INDEX. 



Title. 



Report of the Director of the Mint 

Statement No. 7. Gold, silver, and copper coinage at the mint of the 
ITnited States in the several jearA from its establishment in 1792, and 
the coinage at the branch mints and the New York assay office from 
their organization to June 30, 1864 

Statement No. 8. Amount of the public debt on the first day of January 
in each of the years from 179] to 1842, inclusive, and at various dates 
in subnequent years, to July I, 18(>4 

Statement No. 9. Revenue collected from the beginning of the govem- 
niont to June 30, 1864, under the several heads of customs, internal 
revenue, direct tax, postage, public lands, and miscellaneous sources, 
with the receipts from loans and treasury notes, and the total receipts, 

Statement No. 10. Expenditures from the beginning of the government 
to June 30, 1H64, under the several heads of civil list, foreign inter- 
course. Navy Department, War Department, pensions, Indian Depart- 
ment, and miseelhiueous, with the intereitt and principal of the public 
debt, and total expenditures 

Statement No. 1 1. Domestic exports for fiscal year ending June 30, 1865. 

Statement No. 12. Foreign exports for fiscal year ending June 30, 1865.. 

Statement No. 13. Imports for fiscal year ending June 30, 1865 

Statement No. 14. Foreign tonnage, entrances and clearances, by dis- 
tricts, for fiscal year ending June 30, .1865 

Statement No. 15. Foreign tonnage, entrances and clearances, by coun- 
tries, for fiscal year ending June 30, 1865 

Statement No. 16. Domestic tonnage, old admeasurement, by districts, 
year 1865 

Statement No. 17. Domestic tonnage, new admeasurement, by districts, 
year 18C>5 '. 

Statement No. 18. Exports reduced to gold value, with imports and ex- 
ports, compared for fiscal years 1862, 1863, 1864, and 1865 

Statement No. 19. Gross value of the exports and imports from the be- 
ginning of the government to June 30, 1864 

Statement No. 20. Exports and imports of coin and bullion from 1&'21 to 
18<>4, inclusive; also the excess of imports and exports during the 
same years 

Statement No. 21. Foreign merchandise imported, exported, and con- 
sumed annually from 1821 to 1864, with the population and rate of con- 
sumption per tMpita calculated for each year 

Statement No. 22. Value of domestic produce and foreign merchandise, 
exclusive of specie, exported annual Iv from 1821 to 18t)4 

Statement No. 2^). Export of staple products, breadstuff's, provisions, oils, 
and animal products for five years 

Statement No. 24. Value of leading articles of manufacture exported from 
1847 to 1864 

Statement No. 25. Amount of the tonnage of the United States annually 
from 1789 to 1864, inclusive; also the registered and enrolled and 
licensed tonnage employed in steam navigation each year 

Statement No. 26. Amount expended at each custom-house in the United 
State.s during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1 864 

Statement No. 27. Number of persons employed in each district of the 
United States for the collection of customs during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1861, with their occupation and compensation 

Statement No. 28. General results of all receipts and disposal of merchan- 
dise within the United States during the nscal year ending June 30, 
1864 

Statement No. 29. Liabilities of (he United States to various Indian tribes 
under si^ipulations of treaties, &c 

Statement No. 30. Stocks held in trust by the United States for the 
Chickasaw national fund and the Smithsonian Institution 

Statement No. 31. General regulation for the purchase of products of the 

insurrectionary States on government account 

Treasury, relative to disbursement of the contingent fund. Letter from 

the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to the amount expended in the permanent establishment 

of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. Letter from the Secretary of the. . 



Vol. 
6 

6 
6 



No. 
3 

3 
3 



6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


3 


7 


10 


7 


,16 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



xxvn 



Title. 



Trpaftnry, transmitting: communicatioD from the collector of internal reve- 
nue in Georgia. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Tre;i8iuy, transmitting^ the names of persons employed in the coast sur- 
Tey. * Letter from the Secretary of the 

TrpHisury, relative to the mercantile marine. Letter from the Secretary of 
the 



•Treasnry, relative to the deposit of puhlic money with the several States. 

Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to registered foreign vessels. Letter from the Secretary 

of the. 



Treastnry, relative to apportionment of circulating: notes made to diflFerent 
hanks in the several States. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Trea»UT^-. relative to a navy yard at Philadelphia. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the 

Treasury, transmitting report of the United States Revenue Commission. 
Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treaj«ury, relative to income taxes collected from estates of deceased per- 
son*. ' Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, transmitting appraisement of the value of property at the Phila- 
delphia navy yard. Lptter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, in regard to receipts from States in rehellion since April I, 1865. 
Letter from the Secretary of the .• 

Treasury, transmitting report of S. S. Hays on petroleum. Letter from 
the Secretary of the 

Treasury, giving list of clerks in his department. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the 

TrtasnTy, relative to cost of paper, printing, and advertising in his depart- 
ment/ Letter from the Secretary of the 

Tivasury, transmitting report of Kevenue Commission on distilled spirits 
as a source of revenue. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, transmitting report of Revenue Commission on proprietary and 
other 'medicines, perfumery, playing-cards, &c., as sources of revenue. 
Letter from the Secretary of tne 

Treasury, transmitting statement of the amount now in the Uuitcd States 
treasury. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, recommending an appropriation for the Dismal Swamp canal. 
Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to prize-money. Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to clerks employed in his office. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of the 

Treasury, relative to the sales of gold. Letter from the Secretary of the. . 

Treasury, relative to salary and mileage of members of Congress. Letter 
from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, in regard to commercial relations with British America. Letter 
from the Secretary of the 

Treasury, relative to the sales of gold. Letter from the Secretary of the. . . 

Treasury, relative to franking privilege to officers of the Light-house Board. 
Letter from the Secretary of the 

Treasurv. receipts and expenditures of the, from March 31, 1866, to June 
.3t>, l-!^. Letter from the Secretary of thft 

Treaty of Washington, maps of boundary survey under the. Message from 
the President of the United States as to progress of 



V. 



Venezuela, relative to claims ag:ainst. 
United States. 



Message from the President of the 



Ventilating and warming the Capitol. Letter from the Secretary of the In- 
terior transmitting report of Thomas U. Walter relative to 

Vessel, British, **|Magician." Message of the President relative to claim 
of owners of the 

Vessels, registered, foreig:n. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury 
relative to 

Volunteers, Illinois. Letter from the Secretary of War relative to 

Volunteers, California, stationed in the Territories. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of War relative to 

Digitized by 



Vol. 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 

8 

8 

12 
12 

12 
12 

12 

12 
16 

16 

16 

12 



No. 

17 
24 
25 
26 
28 
33 
40 
42 
43 
44 
47 
51 
53 
55 
62 

68 

69 

77 
114 

117 
124 

125 

128 
VM 

135 

150 

132 



Page 



12 
12 
12 

7 

8 

16 



127 

100 

80 

28 
67 

138 



^^oogle 



XXVIII 



INDEX 



Title. 



W. 



Waggon road from Niobrara to Virginia City. Letter from the Secretary of 
the Interior relative to a 

Wagon roads in the western Territories. Letter from the Secretary of the 
Interior relative to 

War. Annual report of the Secretary of, (Parti) 



Papers accompanying the above. 



Report of the Adjutant General, (Part 1 ) 

Report of the Chief of bureau for colored troops, (Part J ). 

Report of the Provost Marshal General, (Part 1) 

Report of the Quartermaster General, (Part 1 ) 



Vol. 



Papers accompanying the above report. 



L Financial statement, (Part 1) 

2. Report of First Division, public animals, Brevet Brigadier General 
J.A.Ekin,(Partl) 

3. Statement uf claims, First Division, (Part ]) 

4. Report of Second Division, clothing and equipage, Colonel A. J. 
Perry, (Parti) 

5. Statement of clothing on hand at the more important depots, 30th 
June, ltJ64, (Parti) '. 

6. Statement of camp and garrison equipage on hand at the more im- 
portant depots, 3Uth June, 1864, (Parti) 

7. Statement of materials for manufacture of clothing purchased dur- 
ing fiscal year ending 30th June, 1865, (Part 1 ) , 

8. Statement of clothing and equipage purchased and manufactured 
during the fiscal year ending 30th June, 16t)5, (Part 1 ) 

9. Statement of clothing on hand at the more important depots, 30th 
June, 1865. (Part 1) , 

10. Statement of equipage on hand at the more important depots, 30th 
June, 1865, (Parti) 

11. Statement of aggn^gate expenditure for purchase of clothing and 
equipage at the purchasing depots. New York, Philadelphia, and Cin- 
cinnati, (Part 1) 

12. Statement of materials for clothing and tents purchased at the 
depots of New York, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, from 3Iay, 1861, 
to 30th June, 18(55, (Parti) 

13. Statement of number of the principal articles of clothing and equip- 
age purchased at the principal depots of New York, Philadelphia, and 
Cincinnati, from May, 1861, to ')Oth June, 1865, exclusive of articles 
manufactured at those depots, (Part 1) 

14. Statement showing highest and lowest prices paid for articles of 
clothing and equipage during the war, (Part 1) 

15. Statement of claims. Second Division, (Part 1) 

16. Report of Third Division, ocean and lake transportation, Colonel £. 
D.Wise, (Parti) 

17. Statement of vessels chartered or employed by the quartermaster's 
department on ocean and lake service during the fiscal year ending 
30th June, 1865, (Parti) 

18. Statement of vessels owned by the United States, and employed on 
ocean and lake service by the qiiartermaster*s department during the 
fiscal year ending 30th June, 1865, (Parti) 

19. Summary statement of vessels owned and chartered at various times 
by the quartermaster's department, (Part 1) 

20. List of vessels employed by the quartermaster*s department in sup- 
plying General Sherman^s army on the coast, (Part I ) 

21. Strength of fleet employed in supplying armies before Richmond in 
the spring of 1865, (Parti) 

22. Report of Fourth Division, river and rail transportation, Brigadier 
General L. B. Parsons, (Part I) 

23. List of steamers and other vessels, belonging to the United States, 
employed on the western rivers, 30th June, 1865, by the quartermas- 
ter's department, (Part 1) 

24. Report of operations on the United States military railroads for the 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



No. 



58 

105 

1 



I2n>EX. 



XXIX 



Title. 



25. Statement showing the number of persons employed on United States 

milttarj railroads at rarioas dates, (Part 1) 

dB. Statement on claims, Fourth Division, (Part 1) 

27. Special report, transportation of 23d army corps from the Tennessee 

totbe Potomac, bj Col. L. B. Parsons, chief Fourth Division, (Part 1). . 
2^. Beport on movements, during the war, on the western rivers and 

railroads, by General L. B. Parsons, (Part I ) 

29. General Orders No. 17, Quartermaster General's OflSce, March 16, 

1^*65, regulations concerning transportation by rail and river, (Part 1 ). 
90. General Oiders No. 18, Quartennaster General's Office, March Itl, 1865, 

designating points for settlement of accounts for transportation, (Part 1). 

31. General Orders No. 29, Quartennaster Generars Office, 9th May, 
1865, regulations concernin|[ transportation of Ireight, (Part 1) 

32. Report of transportation ot army supplies in New Mexico during the 
fiscal year ending 3Uth June, 18G5, (Part 1 ) 

33. Instructions from Quartermaster General's Office, May 10 and May 
27, 1865, for the transportation of the troops to their homes, (Part I).. 

34. Report of the Fifth Division, forage, fuel, and regular supplies. 
Colonels. L. Brown, (Parti) 

35. Annual report, purchases of forage, by Colonel S. L. Brown (Part 1) 
3l>. Sammary statement of public moneys for the fiscal year ending 30th 

June, 1865, purchases of forage, Colonel S. L. Brown, (Part 1 ) 

37. Statement of expenditures tor rail and river transportation for the 
fiscal year ending 30th June, 1865, by Colonel S. L. Brown, (Part 1). . 

38. Statement of expenditures for ocean and lake transportation during 
the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1865, (Parti) 

39. Report of number of passengers and tons of freight transported by 
CoL S. L. Brown during the fiscal year ending June 30, 18G5, (Part 1 ). 

40. Report of quantities and value of forage shipped to armies on the 
James during the winter of 1864-65, (Part 1 ) 

41. Report of cost of transportation of gram to posts on the western 
plains, (Part J) 

42. Report on forage and fuel purchased during the war, (Part I ) 

43. Statement of forage, fuel, and regular supplies, purchased during 
the war, ( Part 1 ) 

44. Snmmary statement of forage received at the depot of Washington 
during the war, (Part 1 ) 

45. Summary statem<>nt of fuel received at the depot of Washington 
during the war, (Part 1) 

46. Report of Sixth Division, hospitals and barracks,Col. J. J. Dana,(Part 1) 

47. Report of interments, (Part 1 ) 

4*^. Reitort of Capt. J. M. Moore, national cemeteries and interments near 

Wasbington, toe Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Audersonville,(Partl). 
49. Report of Seventh Divisiun, military trains. Col. B. C. Card, (Part 1).. 

5i». Report of claims. Seventh Division, (Part 1 ) 

51. Special Orders No. 44, trains of the army before Richmond, Lieu 

tenant General Grant, (Part 1) 



Vol. 



52. Report of Eif^hth Division, inspections. Col. G. V. Rutherford, (Part 1 ) 
o3. Statement ot clothing and equipage reported by officers as received, 
captured, issued, expended, or lost, during the fiscal year, or remain- 
ing on hand at the termination thereof, (Part 1) 

54. tSiatement of property reported by officers as received, captured, 
is»ned, expended, lost, or sold, during the fiscal year, or remaining on 
hand at the termination thereof, (Part 1 ) 

55. Statement of vessels owned bv the United States and employed in 
the quartermaster's department during the fiscal year, (Part J) 

56. Statement of vessels chartered, impressed, or employed, during the 
fiscal year, (Part J ) 

57. Statement of property captured by the army during the fiscal year, 
(Parti) 

56. Statement of property captured or destroyed by the enemy during 

^ the fiscal year, (Part I) 

50. Summary statement of transportation furnished during the fiscal 

year, (Parti) 

GO. Summary statement of cost of transportation during the fiscal year, 

(p»ti)... .V. : :.....i 3 

Jigitized by 



No. 



1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

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1 

1 

1 

1 

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1 

1 

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1 
1 
1 

1 
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Page. 



210 
211 

212 

316 

228 

231 

231 

234 

235 

342 

246 

247 

248 

249 

250 

251 

251 
252 

25^ 

254 

255 
255 
257 

257 
266 
268 

268 
270 

287 

296 



304 
408 
435 
461 



^oome 



XXX 



INDEX. 



Title. 



6 J . List of oflScers of the quartennaster^s department in charge of divisions 
in the Quartermaster General's Otfice during: the fiscal year, (PrfK 1). .. 

62. List of officers who have served as inspectors of the quartermaster's 
department, (Part I ) 

6ii Chief quartermasters of armies and army corps, (Part 1) , 

64. Chief quartermasters of departments, (Part 1) 

65. Chie f quartermasters of principal depots, ( Part I) 

66. Chief quartermasters of im{>ortant depots, (Part I) , 

67. Officers specially mentioned to the Quartermaster Genoial for ^ood 
service, (Part 1) : 

68. Quartermasters who have been brevettcd for good service during the 
war, (Parti) 

69. Report of Ninth Division, records and correspondence. Colonel B. C. 
Card, (Part 1) 

70. General Orders No. 35, rules and regulations for consideration of 
claims under act of July 4, lJ?64, (Part 1) 

71. General Orders No. 4:5, Quartermaster Cieneral's Office, September 
2:{, lr<>4, rules and regulations relating to purchase and diiitribniion 
of horses and mules, ( Part 1) 

72. General Orders No. 276, Augusts, ISiKt, troops on transports, (Parti) 

73. General Orders No. 24, April 29, lSiM» reductious and letrench- 
ment, (Part 1 ) 

74. General Orders No. 25, April 29, l;^t)5« Reductions andi'etienclimeut, 
(Part 1) 

75. General Orders No. 2>^, May 8, l!^>5, sale of horses and mules, (Part 1 ) 

76. General Orders No. 42, July 15, 1^1)5, sales at auction, (Part 1) 

77. Executive Orders September 2^ and October J4. IS»)5, relinquish- 
ment of military railroads, and transfer of railroad material, (Part 1) 

78. Annual report on military telegraphs, by Colonel Anson iSlager, 
chief of military telegrai)hs, (Part J) 

79. Report of Major T. T. Eckert, superiuieudent of miliuiry tele- 
graphs, (Part 1) 

80. Report of Captain R. T. Clowry, assistant superintendent military 
telegmpha, (Part 1) 

8L Report of Captain G. Fuller, assistant superintendent military tele- 
graphs, (Part 1 ) 

82. Report of Captain W. L. Grove, assistant superintendent military 
telegraphs, (Part 1 ) 

83. Report of Captain J. R. Gilmore, assistant superintendent military 
telegraphs, (Part 1 ) 

84. Report of Captain J. T. Lynch, assistant superintendent military 
telegraphs, (Part 1) 

85. Report of Brevet Major General Robert Allen, chief quartermaster, 
valley of the Mississippi, (Part 1 ) 

86. Report of Brevet Major General Rufus Ingalls, chief quartermas- 
ter armies before Richmond, (Part I ) 

87. Report of Brevet Major General J. L. Donaldsou, chief quarter- 
master, military division of the Tennessee, ( Part 1) 

88. Report of Brevet Major General D. H. Rucker, chief quaitermas- 
ter, depot of Washington, ( Part 1 ) 

89. Report of Brevet Brigadier General L. C. Easton, chief quarter- 
master, armies under (general Sherman, (Part 1 ) 

90. R»'port of Brevet Brigadier General L C. Easton, on the march to 
the sea, (Part 1) 

91. Report of Captain Henry M. Whittlesey, chief quartermaster, 2Uth | 
army corps, on the march from Atlanta to the sea, (Part I) | 3 

92. Report of Major G. E. Dunbar, chief quartermaster, Sherman's 
cavalry, on the march from Atlanta to the sta, (Part 1) 

93. Report of Lieutenant Colonel G. L. Fort, chief quartermaster, 15th 
array corps, on the march from Atlanta to the sea, (Part I) 

94. Annual report of Lieutenant Colonel G. L. Fort, chief quartermas- 

95. Report of Lieutenant ColonelJ. E. Remington, chief quartermaster, 

ten 15th army corps, (Part 1) 

14th army corps, (Part 1 ) 

96. Report of Brevet Brigadier General L. C. Easton, chief quartermas- 
ter, army under General Sherman, on the march from Savannah to 
Richmond, (Parti) -j^rti^edbyVjjC? 



roL 


No. 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 



3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


I 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


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'CD' 



'^^ 



Page. 



4(>1 



668 



INDEX. 



XXXI 



Title. 



97. Report of Captain H. M. Whittlesey, chief quartermaster, 20th 
army corps, en the march from Savannah to Goldsboro', (Part 1 ) 

'>*. Report of Colonel A. J. Mackay, chief quartermaster, army of the 
Cnmberland and department of the Tennessee, (Part 1 ) 

99. Report of Colonel M. C. Garber, chief quartermaster, department 
of the Tennessee, (Part 1 ) 

100. Report of Colonel Thomas Swords, assistant quartermaster general, 
Cincinnati, (Part 1) 

101. Report of Colonel George H. Crossman, assistant quartermaster 
^neral, Philadelphia, (Part 1 ) 

10-X Report of Colonel D. H. Vinton, deputy quartermaster general, 
chief quartermaster, depot of New York, ( Part 1 ) 

103. Report of Colonel £. B. Babbitt, chief quartermaster. Pacific 
coast, (Part 1 ) 

KM. Rejttort of Brevet Brigadier General S. Van Vliet, quartermaster. 
New York, (Part 1) 

105. R«port of Colonel J. C. McFerran, chief quartermaster, depart- 
ment of New Mexico, (Part 1) 

1(J6 Report of Colonel C. W. Moulton, chief quartermaster, depot of 
Cincinnati, (Part 1 ) 

107. Report of Brevet Brigadier General William Myers, chief quar- 
termaster, depot of St. Louis, (Part I ) 

10?<. Report of Colonel W M. McKim, chief quartermaster, depot of 
clothing and equipage. Philadelphia, Penn 

109. Report of Colonel R. N. B. Bachelder, chief quartermaster, army 
of the Potomac, (Part 1) 

J 10. Report of Colonel J.'B. Howard, chief quartermaster, army of the 
James, (Part 1) 

11 J. Report of Lieutenant Colonel £. J. Strang, repairs and supplies, 
armies before Richmond, (Part 1 ) 

11*2. Report of Colonel J. A. Potter, chief quartermaster, depot of Fort 
Leavenworth, (Part 1 ) 

113. Report of Colonel H. Page, chief quartermaster, army of the She- 
nandoah, (Part 1 ) 

114. Report of Captain F. J. Crilley, quartermaster, military railroads, 
(Part J) 

115. Report of Colonel G. D. Wise, chief quartermaster, western gun- 
boats, (Parti) 

J 16. Report of Captain A. Ainsworth, agent, on opening communica- 
tion with General Sherman at Fayetteville, (Part 1 ) 

117. Report of Colonel M. J. Ludiiigton, chief quartermaster, depart- 
ment of Washington, (Part 1) 

Report of the Commissary General of Subsistence, (Part 2) 

Report of the Surgeon General, (^Part 2) 

Kfport of the Paymaster General, (Part 2) 

Report of the Chief Engineer, (Part 2) 

Report of the Chief of Ordnance, (Part 2) 

Report of the Signal Officer of the Aniiy, (Part 2) 

Report of the Judge Advocate General, (Part 2) 

Report of Lietenaiit General U. S. Grant, (Part 2) 

War, transmitting papers and testimony relating to the claim of Philip 

Epstein and others. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting testimony of the court-martial in the trial of Hon. 

Benjamin G. Harris. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to soldiers furnished by each State. Letter from the Secretary of 
War, relative to harbors in the United States. Letter from the Secretary of 
War, relative to appointment of Commissioners of Claims for Maryland and 

Delaware. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to marking captured guns. Letter from the Secretary of. . . 
War, in regard to the enlistment of one-hundred-days men. Letter from 

the Secretary of 

War, relative to the seizure of land belonging to Clement Reeves 

War, transmitting report of the chief engineer in regard to harbors on the 

«ea and lake coasts. Letter from the Secretary ot 

Wir, reUitlve to L»ke Superior harbor. Letter from the Secretary of 

^'ar, relative to Illinois volunteers. Letter from the Secretary of 



VoL 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



No. 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
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I 14 

! 18 



Page. 

679 
683 

689 

700 

700 

701 

702 

704 

744 

750 

754 

776 

809 

815 

819 

847 

850 

852 

880 

883 

895 
891 
894 
897 
913 
994 
999 
100:l 
llliO 



7 i 22 
7 ' 27 



35 
41 



8 ■ 59 
8 I 65 
8 I 67 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



XXXII 



INDEX. 



Title. 



War, transmittiDg report of the Commissioners of the Freedmen's Bureau. 
Letter from the Secretary of , 

War, tran«niittiDg report of General Pope on the condition of the depart- 
ment of Missouri. Letter from the Secretary of. 



War, transmitting report of the Chief Engineer relative to improvement 
of harbor at the city of Toledo. Letter from the Secretary of. 



War, relative to officers employed in the Quartermaster GeneraFs depart- 
ment and Corcoran *8 building. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, stating amount paid Illinois Central railroad for transportation by 

the United States. Letter from the Secretary of , 

War, relative to appropriation for the improvement of the Patapsco river. 

Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to awards for the capture of Booth. Letter from the Secre- 
tary of 

War, relative to erection of quarantine station, New York harbor. Letter 

from the Secretary of 

War, relative to the findings of the commission for the capture Booth and 

Herold. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting report of board of engineers relative to the navigation 

of the Southwest Pass. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting report of Judge Holt relative to the murder of Union 

soldiers in Nortli Carolina. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to artificitil limbs furnished soldiers at the expense of the 

government. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to clerks employed in his office. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, in relation the Memphis riots. Letter from the Secretar}- of 

War, relative to the draft in the eighth congressional district of Pennsyl- 
vania. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to discharged volunteers in the Territories. Letter from the 

Secretary of , 

War, relative to commutation of rations to soldiers while prisoners of war. 

Letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting report of all brevet ranks conferred upon officers of the 

regular army since April 12, 1861. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, transmitting papers in the case of Dorence Atwater. Letter from 

the Secretary of - 

War, relative to the number of Union and rebel soldiers who died while 

held as prisoners of war. Letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to railroad property in possession of the government of the 

United States. Letter from the Secretary of 

Warden of the jail. Report of the 

Washington city, in reference to the relations of the general government 
to. Letter from the mayor of Washington 



Yards and Docks, of the operations of his bureau during the year ending 
June 30, ItiQ:). Report of the Chief of the Bureau of 



Papers accompanying the above report. 



A. Geneial estimates from yards and docks 

No. 1. Estimate for the support of the bureau 

No. 2. Estimate for officers and others at yards and stations 

No. 3. Statement showing the sums which make up tlie first and second 
items of Y. & D., A 

No. 4. Estimate for improvements and repairs at yards and stations. 

No. 5. Estimate for repairs of all kinds, showing the sums which make 
up the amounts under this head in Y. & D. No. 4 

No. 6. Siatenient of expenditures under the head of contingent during 
the past fiscal year, and estimates for the same for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1867 

No. 7. Estimates of appropriations under the cognizance of the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks, required for the service of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1867 

No. 8. Abstract of offers 

No. 9. List of contracts for 1865-^66 



Vol. 

8 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



12 
12 
12 

12 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 
2 



No. 

70 
76 

78 
82 
83 

84 
86 
87 
90 
97 
98 



Page. 



108 
116 
122 

J29 

138 

142 

145 

149 

152 

155 
1 



852 

655 

536 



15 
15 
16 

23 
23 



27 



29 

30 
46 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



39th Congbess, \ HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doc. 
Ui Session. ) ( No. 56. 



LETTER 



THE SECRETARY OF STATE, 



TRANSMITTING A REPORT ON THE 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 



WITH 



FOREIGN NATIONS, 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1865. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVRRNMBNT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1866. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ACTS OF CONGRESS creaUng the StatisUcal Ofece of the State Department. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assembUdy That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of State to lay before Con- 
fess, annually, at the commencement of its session, in a compendious form, all such 
changes and modifications in the commercial systems of other nations, whether by treaties, 
duUes on imports and exports, or other regulations, as shall have come to the knowledge o^ 
the department 

Approved August 16, 1842. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assembUdy That, in addition to the changes and modifications in the commercial 
systems of other nations, now required by said act, it shall be the duty of the Secretary of 
State to lay before Congress, annually, within sixty days after the commencement of each 
ordinary session, as a part of said report, all other commercial information communicated 
to the State Department by consular and diplomatic agents of this government abroad, or 
contained in the ofiicial publications of other governments, which he shall deem sufi&ciently 
important. 

Approved August 18, 1856. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT 



ON 



FOKEIGISr COMMEUCE 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1865. 



February 13, 1866.— Laid on the table and ordered to be printed. 



Department op State, 

Washington, February 10, 1866. 

SiB: In compliance with the acts of Congress of August 16, 1842, and 
Augast 18, 1856» I have the honor lo transmit herewith a Report on the Com- 
mercial Relations of the United States with foreign nations for the year ended 
September 30, 1865. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM H. SEWARD. 
Hon. Schuyler Golpax, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



CONTENTS OF PART I. 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 

Page. 
General resnm^. General commerce 

and statistics 3 

ENGLAND. 

Leeds. Annual report 9 

Hall. Annual report 11 

Sheffield and Bradford. Commercial 

report and roTenue 11 

Hnddersfield. Special report 17 

Nottingham. Special report 18 

Bristol. General report 18 

Binningham. Annual report 24 

Worcester. Special report 25 

Plymouth. Commercial report 26 

SCOTLAND. 

Leith. Annual report 25 

IRELAND. 

Belfast. Special report 27 

POSSESSIONS AND DEPENDENCIES. 

Montreal. Commercial report 27 

Toronto. Special report 31 

St. John. Special report 33 

Preseott. Special report 33 

Port Erie. Annual report 34 

Pictou, (Nova Scotia. ) Annual com- 
mercial report 35 

St. John, (N. F. ) Annual report .... 39 
•St. John, (N. B.) General commer- 
cial report, tariff, &c 40 

Trinidad. Annual report (38 

Turk's Island. Annual report 69 

Kingston, (Jamaica.) Special report 72 

Prince Edward Island. Annual report 76 

Demerara. General iuformation 78 

Cakratta. General report 86 

Antigua. Annual report 90 

^lauritius, (Port Louis.) Annual 

commercial report 94 

Barbadoes. Special report 99 

Pen Stanley, (F. I.) Annual report. 100 
St, Helena. Annual commercial re- 
port, custom duties, &c 101 

Malta. Annua] report 103 

Gibraltar. Annual report 1 04 

Cape Town. Annual report and sta- 
tistics 105 

CeTlon. Annual report 1 09 

!^io^pore. Annual report 110 

Victoria, (Vancouver's island.) An- 

fioal commercial report 113 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 

Page. 

Paris. Commercial report 121 

Havre. Annual report 122 

Marseilles. Commercial report 1 34 

Cette. Annual report 143 

Lyons. Annual report and school in- 
struction 144 

Brest. Railways, &c 152 

La Rochelle. Special report 1 53 

Nantes. Annual report 153 

St. Pierre. Annual commercial report 154 

Havre. General information 158 

SPANISH DOMINIONS. 

Barcelona. Annual commercial report 161 

Malaga. Commercial report ] 64 

Santander. Annual report 171 

Adra. Annual report 186 

Bilbao. Annual report, &c 1 66 

Valencia. Report, guano, &c 192 

Port Mahon. Annual commercial re- 
port 193 

Havana. Annual commercial report. 194 
Matanzas. Annual report, tonnage 

duty, &c 200 

Cardenas. Annual report 204 

Sagua la Grande. Annual report 205 

I San Juan, (P. R.) Annual commer- 

I cial report and recapitulation 206 

I Manila. Special report 211 

I Trinidad de Cuba. Annual report. .. 212 

' Cienfaegos. Annual report 213 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 

Lisbon. Annual commercial report.. 214 

Funcbal. Annual com mercial report. 217 

Oporto. Quarter report 221 

Fayal. Commercial report 222 

St. Michael. Annual report 224 

Terceira. Special report 224 

Macao. Annual report 225 

BELGIUM. 

Ghent. Commercial report 234 

2:J8 



Antwerp. Annual commercial report . 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 
|l 

Rotterdam. A treatise on the culti va- 
il tion of madder 238 

, Amsterdam. Annual commercial re- 

ll port 259 

II Batavia. Commercial and statistical 

I report 268 

I I Cura^oa. Special report t274 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 

Elsinore. Commercial and general in- 
formation 

SWEDEN. 



Pag«. 
274 



Stockholm. Generalinformaticn 297 

Gottenburg. Annual report 315 

NORWAY. 

Bergen. Annual report 321 

Stavanger. Annual report 333 

RUSSIA. 

St. Petersburg:. Commercial annual 

report 335 

Odessa. Annual report 337 

Helsingfors. Commercial report 342 

Amoor river. Special report 34^ 

AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS. 

Vienna. Annual report 345 

Trieste. Report from Chamber of 

Commerce, statistics 347 

Venice. Annual report 355 

STATES OF THE ZOLLVEREIN. 

PRl'SSIA. 

Stettin. Annual report 356 

Aix-la-Chapelle. Annual report S>7 

Cologne. Annual report , 358 

Barmen. Annual report 359 

Crefeld. Annual report 360 



Nuremberg. Auuur.! commercial re- 
port 4 - - . 



360 



SAXONY. 

Lt'ipsic. General information 363 

HANOVER. 

Hanover. Annual commercial report. 366 

OLDENBURG. 

Oldenbiu'g. Commercial report 367 

HOI>n.IN AND SrilLESWIG. 

Annual report and census of 372 

FRANK FORT-ON-TIIE-M AIN. 

Annual review, coins, weights, mea- 
sures, emignitiou, tricliiiia disease, 
&c 375 

WrhTEMB£RG. 

Stuttgart. Annual report on trade and 

commerce 410 



HANSEATIC FREE CITIES. 

Bremen. Annual commercial report. 

Bremerhaven. Special report 

Hamburg. Annual commercial re- 
port, emigration 

SWITZERLAND. 



Zurich. Annual report 

Basle. Annual commercial report. . 
Geneva. Annual report 



Page. 
416 
426 

426 



435 
438 
444 



ITALY. 

Genoa. Commercial and statistical re- 
port 445 

Leghorn. Annual report 450 

Palermo. Annual report 454 

Trapani. Special report 457 

Marsella. Annual report 457 

Girgenti. Annual report 457 

Licata. Annual report 458 

Messina. Annual report 458 

Spezia. Annual report 460 

TURKISH DOMINIONS. 

Constantinople. Annual report 462 

Beirut. Annual commercial report.. 463 

Sidon. Annual report 467 

Mersine. Commercial report .... 470 

Lamica. Annual report 473 

Aintab. Annual report 474 

Canea. Commercial report 475 

MOLDO-WALLACHIA. 

Galatz. Annual commercial report.. 476 

EGYPT. 

Alexandria. Special report 483 

GREECE. 

Pirwus. Agricultural report 484 

JAPAN. 

Kanagawa. Annual commercial report 487 
Hakodadi. Annual report of trade 

and custom duties 497 

Nagasaki. Annual commercial trade. 500 

MUSCAT. 

Zanzibar. Gcuoral conunercial report 5tC> 

NAVKJATOR'S ISLANDS. 

Apia. Commercial and agricultural 

report 513 

SIAM. 

Bangkok. Annual report 510 

BAR BAR Y STATES. 

Tangiers. Anj>naUcj^^^^^,^^. 522 



CONTENTS. 
BARBARY STATES— Continued. 



Page. 

TTmis. Annual report 523 

Tripoli. Annual report 525 

BORNEO. 

Bmnai. Annual report 525 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

Hilo. Special report 5*26 

CHINA. 

Shanghai. Annual commercial report 527 
Canton. Annual official abstract re- 

^ port, &c 536 

Swatow. Annual report of trade 544 

Amoj. Annual report 548 

Newchwang. Commeicial report, &.c. 550 I 

Che-Foo. Annual report 563 

HAYTI. 

Jacmel. Annual report 566 

MEXICO. 



Mexico. Annual industrial and com- 
mercial report 568 

Tampico. Annual report.... 570 

' era Cmz. Annual report from cus- 
tom-house, &c 571 



NICARAGUA. 



vn 



Page. 



San Juan del Sur, (Corinto.) Report 
compiled from invoice 574 

UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA. 

Panama. Special report 577 

NEW GRANADA. 

Cartagena. Annual report 578 

VENEZUELA. 

La Guajra. Annual report of trade, 

&c 582 

Maracaibo. Summary report 586 

Puerto C abello. Partial report 587 



BRAZIL. 



588 
590 



Rio Janeiro. Annual tabular report . 
Maranham. Partial report 

URUGUAY. 

Montevideo. Annual report 590 

PERU. 

Callao. Annual Qommercial report . . 591 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



Buenos Ayres. Tabular report. 



59 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



CONTENTS OF PART II. 



List of countries and the ports in each country from which consular returns of 
commerce and navigation may he found in the tables. 



BRITISH DOMIKIONS. 

Akvftb 625 

Amigaa 647 

Barbadoes 632 

Ba.<*eiii 624 

BelfLSt 616 

Belize 641 

Bermuda 648 

Bombaj 624 

Bristol 606 

Calcutta 619 I 

Cape Town 631 I 

Cardiff 607 ' 

Cork 615 

Cowea 612 

Ceylon 627 

Demcrara 639 

Dundee 617 

Ett»t Harbor 645 

Falmouth 611 

Gibraltar 618 

(iloucester 606 

Hamilton 644 

Halifax 655 

Hong-Konjr 621 

Hull 614 I 

Kingston, (Jamaica) 636 i 

Kingston, (C. W) 654 

Leith 617 

Liverpool 600 

bindon 598 

J>ondondeny 617 

Maulmein 626 

>Iaaritiu«, (Port Louis) 643 

Melbourne 62S 

Millbrd Haven 611 

MosaulBay 631 

Montreal 656 

Natal 631 i 

Nassau, (N.P) 657 

Newcastle, (N. S-W) 627 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne 614 

Newport 609 

n.mouth 613 

Port Adelaide 629 

PortEUzabeth 630 

Portsmouth 612 

^Jtfnia 653 

^ItCay , 645 

^nnon'8 Town 630 

?ing»pore 623 

s^t. Andrews 650 

Ht Chritlopher 642 

"^ George 652 

^..Helena 642 

II 



BRITISH DOMINIONS— Continued. 

Page. 

St. John, (N. B) 64.S 

St. John, (N. F; 657 

Southampton 613 

Swansea 610 

Sunderland 612 

Trinidad 646 

Turk's Island 638 

Weymouth 613 

Victoria 658 

Windsor 657 

FRENCH DOAUNIONS. 

Bordeaux 662 

Cette 662 

Guadaloupo 665 

Havre 659 

Marseilles 661 

Martinique 663 

La Rochelle 663 

Port deFrance 664 

St. Martin 665 

St. Pierre, (Martinique) 664 

St. Pierre, (Miquelon 666 

SPANISH DOMINIONS. 

Alicante 671 

Arecibo 695 

A^adilla 695 

Baracoa 671 

Barcelona 669 

Bilbao 671 

Cadiz 666 

Cardenas 683 

Fajardo 696 

Guantanamo ' 690 

Guaynia, (P. R) 670 

Havana 672 

Humacao 696 

Las Palwas 693 

Malaga 667 

Manila 692 

Manzanillo 680 

Matauzas 67y 

Mayaguez 689 

Naguabo 696 

Nuevitas 693 

Ponce, (P. R) 687 

PortMahon 698 

Sagna La Grande 675 

San Jago de Cuba 697 

San Juan de los Remedios 69l 

San Juan, (P. R) 696 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



X 



CONTENTS. 



SPANISH DOMINIONS— Continued. ! 

Page. 

Santandcr 669 

Santa Cruz, (Teneriffe) 671 

Tarragona 669 

Valencia G^ 

PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 



Fayal 

Funchal 

Lisbon 

Macao 

Oporto 

St. Michael 

St. Paul tie Loando. 



699 
702 
698 
*7Ui 
700 
700 
701 



BELGIUM. 

Antwerp 702 

DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 

Amsterdam 703 

Batavia 706 

Cura^oa 704 

Padano^ 707 

Paramaribo 705 

Rotterdam 703 

HANSE TOWNS. 

Bremen 707 

Hamburg 708 

DANISH DOMINIONS. 



Altona 

Christiansted . 

Elsinore 

Fredericksted. 
Gluckstadt ... 
St. Thomas .. 



SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 



Got ten burg 

St. BartholuQiew. 



RUSSIA. 



Amoor River , 
Cronstadt 



PRUSSIA. 



Stettin . 



AUSTRIA. 



Trieste . 



709 
712 
709 
712 
709 
710 



714 
713 



715 
714 



715 



716 



ITALY. 

Cagliari 721 

Leghorn 721 

Gt-iioa 716 ' 



ITALY— Continued. 



Messina. 
Naples .. 
Palermo . 
Spezia . . 



TURKEY. 



Alexandria 

Beiriit 

Constantinople 
Smyrna 



LIBERIA. 



Monrovia , 



MUSCAT. 



Zanzibar . 



SIAM. 



Bangkok . 



CHINA. 



Amoy 

Canton 

Foochampoo. 

Hankow 

Ningpo 

Shanghai 

Swatow 



JAPAN. 



Hakodadi . . 
Kanagawa . 
Nagasaki .. 



BURMAH. 



Rangoon . 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



Hilo 

Honolulu 
Labaina . . 



SOCIETY ISLANDS. 



Papeiti . 
Tahiti . 



Apia. 



FRIENDLY ISLANDS. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. 



St. Domingo Citj ^_^. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Pag**. 
717 
722 
722 
723 



723 
724 
724 
724 



725 



726 



727 



7:54 
735 
733 
735 
732 
731 
736 



729 
727 

728 



730- 



741 
737 

740 



771 
771 



770 



742 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



HAYTI. 

Pgae. 

Cape Hajtien 743 

GonuTes 742 

Jacmel 745 

Port ail Prince 743 

MEXICO. 

Acapaico 746 

(iaajmas 747 

La Paz 747 

Mazatlan 748 

Minatitlan 749 

Taapico 750 

Vera Craz 750 

HONDURAS. 

Omoa 751 

NICARAGUA. 

Corinte 752 

San Juan del Xorte 751 

San Juan del Sur 751 

V'ENEZUELA. 

La Gnayra 755 

PaertoCabello 758 



NEW GRANADA. 

Vage. 

Panama 753 

Sabanilla 752 

BRAZIL. 

Maranbam 762 

Para 763 

Pernambuco 761 

Rio Grande del Sul 762 

Rio de Janeiro 759 

St. Catharine's Island 763 

PERU. 

Callao 765 

Payta 764 

Turabez 763 

I CHILI. 

Talcabuano 767 

BOLIVIA. 

: Cobija 763 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

i Buenos Ayres 768 

I URUGUAY 

' Montevideo 769 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PART I. 
-A.B8TR^CTS 



OF 



CONSULAR RETURNS 



AND 



OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 
1865. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ABSTllAOTS 



OP 



CONSULAR RETURNS 



AND 



OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS. 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



ikatemetU of the imparts from the United States to Great Britain and Ireland t 
of the principal articles of United States produce and their values, in the ten 
months ended October 31, 1865, compared with the corresponding period of 
the year 1864. 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




1864. 


1865. 


1864. 


1866. 


Cotton— raw poundii. 

Com— wlieat buabela. 

flour cwt. 

Tobaceo— stemmed pounds. 

nnstemmed do... 

manfM and snnfif. . .do. . . 


13,185,312 

14,145,040 

1,709,898 

5,435,674 

27,106,227 

5,438,162 


30,152,080 

1,903,886 

226,964 

8,537,676 

31,537,883 
1,195,968 


17,781,233 
17,278,068 
4,918,457 
1,565,890 
5,798,490 
3,091,288 


112.294,710 
2,183,018 
674,896 
2,377,222 
5,427,339 
2,107,562 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPOET ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 






^ 
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1^ 

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I 






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§§P§^5^Sir$^i5 



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BRITISH DOMINIONS. 5 

Conkparative statement showing the quantities of raw cotton imported to and 
exportedjrom Great Britain and Ireland for eleven months of the years 1864 
and 1865. 

IMPORTED INf 0. 



Countries whence exported. 



1864. 
(eleven months.) 



1865. 
(eleven months.) 



From United States pounds.. 

Brazil ....... pounds.. 

Egypt pounds.. 

British East Indies pounds.. 

Other countries pounds.. 

Total 



13,346,704 

32,298,560 

119,376,768 

423,870,944 

32,520,880 



621,413,856 



48,582,676 

43,769,376 

148,746,304 

383,356,960 

43,504,272 



667,959,488 



EXPORTED FROM. 



Countries to which exported. 



1864. 
(eleven months.) 



1865. 
(eleven months.) 



To Russia, northern ports pounds.. 

ProMia pounds.. 

Hanover pounds.. 

Hanae Towns pounds.. 

Holland...... .........2 pounds.. 

Other countries pounds.. 

Total 

Retained for consumption..... 

Totalimpoxted, (as above) 



24,902,752 
5,562,256 
51,965,792 
53,690,032 
45,003,952 
97,786,352 



228,911,136 
392,602,720 



621,413,856 



30,913,456 

4,936,288 

1,645,056 

67,614,736 

42,835,968 

120,693,104 



268,638,608 
399,320,880 



667,959,488 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEIGN COMMEBCE. 



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BRITISH DOMINIONS. 

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Jigitized by 



CTOogle 



ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COBiMERCE. 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 

The following were transmitted to the department hj George J. Abbot, esq., 
consal of the djstrict of Sheffield and Bradford : 

Comparative statement showing description, quantities, and declared value of 
the exports of some principal British and Irish produce and manufactures to 
the United States for the year ended December 31, 1865, compared with the 
year 1864. 



Articles 


Quantities. 


Declared value. 




1864. 


1865. 


1864. 


1865. 


Sewing thread Iba.. 

Copper : wrought or partly wrought, sheets 
and nails, bars, rods, plates, bottoms, 
}ans, and mixed or yellow metal for sheath- 
ne cwts.. 

Wool, (sheep and lamb) lbs.. 

Harberdasherr and millinery 


898,251 

3,512 
203,554 


863,250 

10,020 
352,232 


214,050 

16,426 

16,300 

761,778 

116,247 

90,806 

265,879 
75.831 
39,093 


202,354 

42,404 

31,410 

937,709 


Hardware and cutlery: cutlery, knives, forks, 
scissors, shears, and surgical or anatomical 
instruments ............................ 






167,011 
96,806 


Manufactures of steel, or of steel and iron 
cdmbined : anrlls, vices, saws, files, edge 
tools, cranks, slidebar8,&c.,and implements 
of industry other than agricultural not 
wholly composed of iron or steel 






Manufactures of German silver, of pewter and 
Britannia metid, of papier-mach6 ; lamps, 
chandeliers, candelebra, and hardware not 
specifically described 






374, 312 


Silk manufactures, other articles of silk only. 
Silk mixed with other materials 






130,311 
46,539 










• 





Comparative statement showing the real value of the imports into Oreat Britain 
from the United States, and exports to the United States of gold and silver 
bullion and specie registered in the years ended December 31, 1864 and 1865. 





Imports. 


Exports. 




1864. . 


1865. 


1864. 


1865. 


Gold 


£7,479,790 
155,150 


£4,304,495 
230,065 


£185, 100 
4,631 


£61,087 
4,831 


Silver 




Total.- 


7,634,940 


4,534,560 


169,731 


65,918 





-Comparative statement sJiowing the exports of wool from Great Britain to the 
United States during the years ended December 31, 1864 and 1865. 

1864. 1865. 

Wool, sheep and himbs', lbs 4, 210, 956 7, 344, 265 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BBITISH DOMINIONS. \} 

ENGLAND. 

Lbbds — ^W. L. Raymond, Consul, 

April 13, 1865. 
I transmit herewith the returns of invoices certified at the consular offices 
of this district daring the quarter ended March 31, 1865, as follows: 

At Leeds $169, 895 39 

At Hull 2, 935 88 



Total amount 172, 831 27 



I b^ leave to call the attention of the State Department to the great differ- 
ence between the returns from Leeds for the first quarter of the year 1864 and 
that of the present year. At the dose of the first quarter of 1864, the returns 
of goods invoiced at Leeds alone amounted to $1,216,655 78; and of this 
amount, $512,734 07 represented 202 invoices of one of the principal staples of 
the Leeds trade, viz : woollen and Union cloths. The total amount of goods in 
voiced at Leeds during the first quarter of 1865 is as stated above, $172,839 27 ; 
of which ten invoices, amounting to $10,909 36, represent the whole amount of 
woollen and Union cloths. In conversing with the principal merchants and 
manufacturers heretofore engaged in the American trade, I find it to be the 
universally expressed opinion that, although the fluctuation in the price of gold 
has been one of the causes, the high duty on woollen goods is the chief cause of 
the decrease of exports to the United States of that species of goods. The al- 
most total cessation of the American trade during the past six months has 
obliged the manufacturers engaged in that trade to sell their goods at home, thus 
coming into competition, ruinous to all parties, with manufacturers engaged in 
the home and continental trades. Nor^ has the loss affected only the manufac- 
turers. By the competition between the manufacturers the merchants, or middle- 
men, have lost their customers, the manufacturers offering their goods directly 
to the small trader and consumer. Numerous failures have been the result of 
this state of affairs, both among manufacturers and merchants. I am also in- 
formed that woollen goods to the value of many thousands of pounds sterling, 
which comprised a portion of the goods sent to the United States in the spring 
of IS64 and not taken out of bond, have been returned to this country in prefer- 
ence to selling them at a great loss. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



10 



ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 




BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



11 



Hull — ^Henry J. Atklxson, Consular Agent. 

StatemePt shewing the description, port of destination, and value of exports to 
the United States from Hull during the several quarters of ike year ended 
September 30, 1865, f compiled Jrom consular returns.) 



Deteripdon. 


Deitination. 


|f3 

III 


ill 


ill 


It 

III 


1 

ii 
11 


Gokn 


New York 

San Francisco - 
New York and 
San Franciioo. 
Boston 


151 18 8 
66 19 8 


£ «.ii 


& 9. d, 

455 4 6 


656 4 3 


£ f . d. 

1.263 7 5 

66 19 8 


Do 




Do 


310 2 11 






210 2 11 


Do 






38 6 5 
1,259 6 


38 6 5 


Onlort md palDto 


New York 




56 8 5 
102 5 2 




1,315 8 11 
102 5 2 


Paris white «nd painte 


do.i 






Do " 


do 


sias 


19 3 8 
14 14 8 




32 3 5 


57 6 




do 





14 14 8 


Pari* white and colon ...... 


do 








161 12 


161 12 


Paint* 


do 

do 


83 17 8 


91 7 5 


220 13 3 


395 18 4 


Paints and oik 


163 5 4 


163 5 4 


in>itifi^ 


do 






366 7 10 
67 10 


366 7 10 


Cliff ftone.. 


do 








67 10 


VaniiKh 


do 




72 ii 6 
39 16 6 




72 11 


»rmilioD 


do 









39 18 6 














Total 


308 95 


606 11 9M0S15 7 19.310 11 11 


4,335 8 8 










' 



Shbffibld and Bradford— George J. Abbot, Consul^ 

January 9, 1865. 
I have the honor to report the valae of goods exported to the United States » 
the invoices of which have heen verified within this consular district, for the 
quarter and year ended Decemhcr 30, 1864, compared with that of goods ex- 
ported during the corresponding quarter, and year of 1863. 



Where verified. 



SheffieM .... 
Bradford.... 
Huddersfield 
Nottingham . 

Total. 



Valme of invoices 
for the last quar- 
ter of 1863. 



£ f . d. 

204,073 1 4 

435,613 11 2 

93,760 12 7 

103,944 14 10 



897,391 19 11 



Value of invoices 
for the last quar- 
ter of 1864. 



£ s. 
97,972 
97,784 17 
34,326 12 
15,428 14 



245,512 3 4 



pigitized by 



Google 



12 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the value of invoices of goods exported to the 
United States Jrom the consular district of Sheffield and Bradford for the 
years 1863 and 1864. 



Where verified. 


Valae of inyoiceB 
for the year 1863. 


Value of invoices for 
the year 1864. 


Sheffield 


£ s, d. 

804,302 1 

1,210,611 11 2 

231,232 3 8 

450,755 19 10 


£ s. d, 

782,226 11 7 

1,614,455 7 8 

423,212 4 6 

320,618 3 10 


Bradford 


Hnddersfield 


Nottimrhftm ................................... 




Total 


2,696,902 15 8 


3,140,512 7 7 





It will be seeD by reference to former reports from this consular district 
that while tbe first six months of 1864 exhibit a lai^e increase of exports 
to the United States from this consulate, those of the last six months of* the 
same year exhibit a very remarkable decrease, arising, as I have had occasion 
heretofore to remark, from the large increase of duties under the tariff which 
went into effect on the first day of July last, the high rate of exchange, the 
fluctuations in the currency, and the high rates of interest which ruled in Eng- 
land during the middle and latter part of the year. 

April 7, 1865. 

I have the honor to inform you that the value of the invoices certified in this 
consular district during the quarter ended the 31st March, amounts to 
$2,592,676 60, and for the corresponding quarter of 1864 to $6,163,420 14, 
showing a decrease of $3,570,743 54. 

The goods exported consisted chiefly of steel and cutlery from Sheffield, of 
worsted stuff irom Bradford, of woollens from Hnddersfield, and of laces and 
hosiery from Nottingham. 

The decrease in exports from the several divisions of this district is as 
follows : 

In steel and cutlery from Sheffield $601,249 02 

In worsted goods from Bradford 1,984,601 29 

In woollens from Huddersfield 585,936 47 

In laces and hosiery from Nottingham 398,956 76 

3,570;743 54 



These figures indicate that the decrease is not due entirely to the existing 
tariff, as the British manu£M;turers would have us believe, but, in a measure, 
to the economy which every loyal Anierican has found it necessary to practice 
who had relatives in the army. 

Our mechanics and manufacturers could not dispense with the steel of 
Sheffield, but they have been quite willing to use their old suits and dispense 
with the worsted goods of Bradford; and American women have preferred to 
send gifts to the hospitals and the sanitary and Christian commissions, rather 
than purchase dress goods, laces, hosiery, and fine cutlery. 

May 29, 1865. 
In a former despatch I stated the value of the goods exported from this 
consulate to the United States during the quarter ended March 31, 1865, and 
also for the corresponding quarter of 1864. I now transmit several printed 
articles, compiled from official reports, exhibiting the declared value of the 
principal articles of British products and manufacture exported from the whole 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



13 



kingdom to the United States during the same period of 1865, showing the de- 
crease to be c£3,241|723, as compared with corresponding quarter of 1864. 

EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES 

In the declared values of the principal articles of British produce and manu- 
factures exported from this country to the United States during the first three 
mouths of the present year there is a startliug decrease as compared with the 
"returns'' for the corresponding period of 1864, the total valuation for the 
quarter ended March 31 last having been 662,662,916 against r£5,904,639 for 
the same months in 1864, thus exhibiting the enormous deficiency of 
c£3,241,723 ; and these figures, it should be observed, refer to the principal 
articles only. The restrictive duties lately imposed by Congress on the im- 
portation of manufactured goods into the United States will, to a very great 
extent, account for this extraordinary falling off. On cotton manufactures 
the amount of deficiency was of the value of c£ 408,585; on haberdashery, 
<i€24S,164; on linen manufactures, c£319,192; on iron and steel, <£804,091; 
on lead, ^99,756 ; on silk manufactures, c£74,098 ; on hardware and cutlery, 
dCS2,679 ; and on woollen manufactures as much as c£934,520. 

Of other descriptions of British exports shipped to the United States in the 
present year particulars are not furnished in the official accounts oftener than 
annually, so that the aggregate deficiency for the past quarter cannot be sup- 
plied. In the table below is an account of the values of the most important 
items shipped hence to the United States in the first quarter of the years 1864 
and 1865: 

Three months ended 31st March. 



Articles. 



1864. 



1865. 



Decrease. 



Alkali, soda 

Beer and ale 

Coab 

Cottons 

Coiton thread 

Eartheuware 

Haberdashery, &c 

Hardware and cutlery ..- 

Liotn manufactures 

Linen thread 

Iron and steel 

Copper, wrought 

Tin plates 

Oilseed 

J»lt 

SiQc manufiictuiBS 

Spirits, British 

Wool, sheep^s 

Woollen manufactures . 

Total 

Decrease in 1863 



£112,861 


£101,860 


16,211 


6,405 


28,056 


15,989 


809,530 


400,945 


91,121 


29,013 


123,912 


88,975 


465,527 


217.363 


167,474 


84,795 


914,917 


595,725 


62,819 


38,322 


1,016,460 


212,369 


11,502 


6,164 


104,833 


5,077 


198,454 


152,351 


34,377 


39 


6,716 


6,142 


129,092 


54,994 


5,172 


180 


24,877 

1,580,728 




646,208 



£11,001 
9,806 

12,067 
408,585 

62, 108 

34,937 
248,164 

82,679 
319, 192 

24,497 

804,091 

5,338 

99,756 

46, 103 

34,338 
574 

74,098 
4,992 

24,877 
934,520 



5,904,639 
2,662,916 



2,662,916 



3,241,723 



3,241,723 



BRITISH REVENUE. 



The financial year of the British government closes with the month of 
March, and the revenue for the year ending on the 3l8t of that month in 
1865 was dC70,313,436, or a little less than one million dollars a day for the 
year. Of this revenue the customs have yielded oe22,572,pOQ,,^«fl^t 



Jigitized by 



14 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



de23,232,000 in 1864, which is <£660|000 less, owing to a reduction of 
duties amounting to dei,300,000, which shows that the customs have fallen off 
only half the amount of the reduction. 

The revenue derived from excise has gone up from o£18,207,000 in 1864, to 
cei9,558,000, an increase of oei,351,000. 

The returns of the post office show an increase on the year of <£300,000, 
the revenue being <£4,100,000, as against <£3,800,000 for the preceding year. 

The total result of the year exhibits a decrease of de600,000 on the customs, 
caused by the diminution of the sugar duties. There is also a decrease of 
o£l, 126,000 from lowering the property tax. 

During the year the imports into the United Kingdom from the colonies 
amounted to c£93,726,766, and from foreign countries oei81,137,158, making a 
total of de274,863,924. 

Comparative statement showing the description, place of production, and value 
of exports from Bradford (consular district of Sheffield and Bradford) to 
the United States for the last tivo quarters of the year ended Sept&mher 30, 
.1865. 



Description. 


Where produced. 


Quarter ended Jane 
30, 1865. 


Quarter ended Sep- 
tember 30, 1865. 


Yam 


Bradford ... 


£ s. d. 
366 4 
460 14 
133 17 


£ #. d, 
864 13 


Do 


Halifax 


156 15 6 


Do 


Biuffley .............. 


176 3 


Do 


Keiehley 


47 16 


WooUeng 


Bradford ^--.- 


998 12 I 


1,150 15 10 


Do 


Halifax 


1,687 1 1 


Do 


Hickmondwick ...... .. 




340 3 


Matfl 


Halifax 


563 18 

46,518 5 8 

74 2 

2,609 16 8 

511 2 5 


2,597 2 


Carpets 


do 


91,913 12 3 


Looms .--.-• .......... 


Bradford 


46 4 


Machineiy . ............ 


do 


7,345 4 8 
296 11 1 


Do 


Keichley 


Do 


Halifax 


242 4 6 


Iron .................. 


Lowmoor ............. 


7,322 4 


4,905 14 6 
358 14 


Hemo ............. 


Halifax 


Paper ................. 


Keitrhley 




242 12 7 


Hollands 


Halifax 




397 19 


Stuffs 


Bradford •••. 


312,955 1 1 


867,871 19 8 






Total 


372,513 16 11 


980,642 5 8 







The amount of goods exported to the United States, the invoices of whi ch 
have been verified at this office during tie year, has been above thd average, 
although with great fluctuations, as will be seen bj the following table : 

Summary statement showing the value of invoices certified at Bradford during 
the several quarters of the years, ended respectively September 30, 1863, 
1864, and 1865. 



1862-'63. 



1863-'64. 



1864-'65. 



Quarter ended December 31 . . 

Quarter ended March 31 

Quarter ended July 30 

Quarter ended September 30 . 



$1,014,071 51 

899,432 53 

1,837,486 03 



(2,108,369 63 
3,325,458 65 
2,546,082 44 
1,459,144 32 



$472,278 82 
1,350,857 31 
1,802,967 03 
4,746,308 64 



Total. 



3,750,980 07 



9,439,055 04 



8,372,055 80 



jigitizea oy VJOOQ 



^t- 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 15 

The above statement indicates a very considerable increase of the export trade 
between Bradford and the United States. The trade in iron, from the great 
furnaces of Lowmore and Bowling, both situated in the suburbs of this town, 
has not been of late near as large as in former years. The production of iron in 
the United States is now, probably, great and remunerative enough to defy 
foreign competition. There is also a falling off in the quantity of worsted spin- 
ning and weaving machinery shipped. The probability is, I think, that it will 
be impossible to establish the manufacture of worsted " Bradford goods " in 
America, on a firm basis, until a wholesale emigration of weavers taJ^es place, 
which would be very greatly encouraged should our government provide cheap 
yam for them, by allowing that article to come in under a nominal duty. 

The great increase of the year's trade has been in worsted piece goods, the 
staple mannfacture of this place, and to some extent in carpets, shipped from 
Halifax. The close of the war found the whole country at home, and especially 
the south, in great want of this class of manufactures, to supply which want a 
really immense trade has recently sprung up. Nothing li&e it has ever been 
seen in Bradford ; according to the common talk ** the Americans are wild." 
Every piece adapted to the American trade is eagerly taken up months before it 
b manofactured with very little regard to color, width, quality, or price. This 
has been the case for two months past, and although a lull, perhaps, indeed a 
disastrous reaction, must necessarily come soon, there is as yet very little abate- 
ment of the demand. 

And yet, in spite of the great pressure upon the market for manufactured 
goods, it is a fact that many looms here are now lying idle. This extraordinary 
circumstance is not owing to any difference between employers and their opera- 
tives. Bradford has grown marvellously fast within twenty years past — indeed, 
it is in this respect, as in a great many others, such as liberality in politics, 
public spirit, and universal activity, extremely like many of our newer American 
cities — ^yet the demand for labor has far outstripped the accommodation pro- 
vided for the laborers. There is absolutely no room in the town for the num- 
bers of work people who would otherwise be attracted from all parts by the 
prospect of high wages and certain employment Not a house is to be found 
vacant, even of the meanest description, and the mill-owners, who have enlarged 
their premises without providing houses for the operatives and their families, are 
compelled, in many cases, to work short-handed in consequence. This smgular 
state of things must, however, right itself before long. 

I do not see much likelihood for some time to come of any extensive individual 
emigration of operatives from this district to the United States. They are really 
too well off where they are, according to their notions, to make them anxious to 
run the risk of what they suppose to be backwoods life in America. And as 
for those who are better informed about the New World by reading, or from the 
reports of emigrant friends, they are just the men who are certain to get on well 
by staying here. 

The condition of the operatives in this neighborhood is, I believe, better than 
that of any other similar class in the kingdom. They are generally temperate, 
frugal, and saving; they live in a very decent sanitary condition ; mostly belong 
to benevolent societies, trades unions, and mechanics' institutes ; have a fair 
mdimentary education, and get good wages. They are commonly paid by the 
piece, so that some earn more than others. The men usually earn from thirty 
to forty shillings per week, and the women (factory girls) from fifteen to twenty 
shillings without overwork. A half holiday on Saturday is universal. 

The " model mill," erected some twelve years since by Mr. Salt, at Saltaire, 
three miles out of Bradford, and the model village which he has built for the 
residence of his operatives, have, I believe, tended in many ways towards the 
well-being of the- working classes in the neighborhood. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



16 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

As there is, I believe, no other such establishment in the world, I trust that a 
description of it will not be found out of place in this report. 

The mill occupies six acres of ground, having on the one side the Midland 
railway, and on the other side the canal which connects the Atlantic ocean with 
the North sea. There are in its different stories Hi acres of flooring. It is 
built of a light, handsome stone, in the Italian style or architecture. The front 
on the railway is 545 feet long and 72 feet high, and is of six stories. The 
lower floors are divided in the middle by the engine-rooms, but the top story 
runs the whole length of the l|ailding, and forms one of the very 'largest rooms 
in the world. The floors are built in the most perfect fire-proof m^uiner ; the 
roof is of iron, and the windows are formed of immense squares of plate 
glass. From the centre of the main building the warehouses run back to 
the canal, a distance in all of 330 feet, and rising to a height above th^ canal 
of some 90 feet. On each side of the warehouses the remaining space is occu- 
pied with sheds containing rooms for preparing wool. Below these are im- 
mense cisterns, with filters, holding 500,000 gallons of rain-water, used for 
manufacturing purposes. On the top is a tank, holding 70,000 gallons of wate^ 
pumped from the river, for the supply of the town and for use in case of fire 
On one side facing the high road are offices, storerooms, &c. The engines are* 
1,250 horse power, with eight boilers, which are supplied by pipes from the 
river. 2,400 tons of stone were used in making the engine beds. The chimney 
is at the corner of the works, separated, 18 feet square at the base, and 250 feet 
high. The gas-works are very large, yielding 100,000 feet per day for 5,000 
lights in the establishment and for the supply of the town. The gasometer is 
60 feet in diameter and 18 feet deep. Mr. Salt employs 4,500 hands, who work 
1,200 looms, and produce some 18 miles of cloth each day. 

Dkcbmbbr 16, 1865. 
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report from Mr. McGlintock, vice- 
consul at Bradford, embodying some interesting facts in relation to the manufac- 
ture, at this place, of the " China grass," so called. 

Consulate of the United States, 

Bradford^ December 15, 1865, 

The Chinese have for centuries made, by hand labor, various descriptions of 
" grass cloth " well known in America and Europe, and often of great strength 
and beauty, from the fibre of the Boehmeria cordata, or Urtica nivea, known in 
commerce as Chinese grass. 

Large quantities of the grass have at various times been brought over to 
England, and probably also to the United States, in the hope of finding a mar- 
ket among the dry goods manufacturers who are always on the lookout for 
new materials ; but it has hitherto been, and it is even now, found impossible to 
produce a true " grass cloth " by machinery. The fibre is rather brittle, though 
very strong, and it is found that the China grass cloth of commerce is only to 
be woven by hand labor, in which, of course, the Chinese themselves are beyond 
the reach of competition. Large quantities of the grass have, therefore, been 
in store in London and elsewhere for year^. Some enterprising manufacturer 
would occasionally purchase a few tons with which to make experiments, but 
the only result for a long time was, that he who experimented the most lost the 
most. Thousands and even tens of thousands of pounds were sunk by one and 
another, who each fancied for a time that he had discovered the true method of 
working up this intractable substance. Whether it was tried in the United 
States or not I do not know, but the concurrent testimony of my American 
friends in the trade is, that no one is now successfully working it at home. 
Within two or three years past, however, several firms in this neighborhood 
have succeeded, by chemical means, in bringing the fibre into a state most 

Jigitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 17 

cloudy reflembling the best mobahr or other bright worsted, and have worked 
Dp great quaotitieB of the refined material as a substitute for worsted in many 
kiods of stuff goods, always, however, in combination with cotton, (the warp 
beipg of cotton and the weft of the Ghina grass,) as they have not yet been able 
to work it properly alone. 

The manufacture of worsted goods — that is, of goods made of long-staple 
wool, as distinguished from short-staple or ordinary wool — ^has become an im* 
meiife trade, of which Bradford has at present almost a monopoly, although the 
nuLDu&cture has lately been extending in many parts of New England. Four- 
fifths of these goods are of mixed material — that is, are made with cotton warps. 
And for many articles of the kind, especially for those requiring a stiff, strong, • 
tnd cool texture, combined with a glossy, silky appearance, it is found that the • 
prefMued China grass makes the verj best materuu. 

Of course, the grass manufacture is yet in very few hands, but its derelop- 
ment already, even within the last few months, has been signally rapid. The 
market value of the raw material has for some years past maintained itself at 
the Tery high rate of abr)ut eighty pounds per ton, which price it is supposed 
canoot be much lessened for many years to come. Two things are certain in 
this respect : one, that there is now and will be here a practically limitless mar- 
ket for all the raw *'. grass" that can be imported at from seventy to eighty 
pounds per ton; the other, that under any fluctuations of the market the ma* 
teri&I is intrinsically so valuable that it will always in the future command a 
price as high as that of cotton, and nearly or quite as high as that of worsted 
it«elf, if not even higher. 

Here, then, is a great and rapidly increasing market for a certain vegetable 
prodaction at a very high price. In America we have, on the other hand, vast 
tracts of country which, being in the same latitude and with very much the 
Mme climate as those districts of China of which the grass is native, should be 
able to grow this production to great advantage. Why not, then, introduce its 
culture { 

It seems certain that the manufacture of the grass fibre will be established in 
our country at no distant day ; but in the mean time there is a market in Eng- 
land for all that we can conveniently grow. It is, for our planters, simply a 
question of experiment with the seed, having in view the market price of the 
law product Successful experiments have been made very recently in Java 
aod iu India proving that the grass will grow in any climate warm enough for 
the culture of cotton and sugar, provided the ground chosen be sufficiently 
moist. 

I venture to snggest that further information, as well as quantities of the seed, 
&c, can doubtless be furnished by our consular officers in China, especially, 
Perhaps, by the consul at Hankow, that place being the chief market for the 
gws, which ia brought thither from the interior, and often from a great distance. 

Gkobgb J. Abbott, Esq., 

Umiud States Consul Sheffield and Bradford. 



HoDDBBSKiBED — Thomas Stbphbnson, Consular Agent, 

Sbptbmber 30, 1865. 

The population of Huddersfield proper is about 32,000 souls ; including the 
eubnrbaa villages, closely related, and lying within a radius of a few miles, it 
is 60,000. 

Tbe number of legal voters for the borough is 2,037. 

The wages per week in the several trades is as follows : Dyers receive IBs, 

2cB r^ T 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



18 ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

to cCl; day laborers, 18#, to £i; carpenters, 28*. to 30*.; bookbinders, 24*.; 
blacksmiths, 27*.; bookkeepers, ^60 to ^300 per year; tinsmiths, 24*. per 
week; tailors, 24*. to 27*.; shoemakers, 18*. to 28*.; printers, 26*.; ware- 
bonsemen, 24*.; pi ambers, 26s. to 28*.; plasterers, 24*.; 'painters, 24*.; white- 
smiths, or locksmiths, 25*. to 28*.; bricklayers, 28*. to 30*.; masons, 28*. to 
30*., for 52 J hours to the week; policemen receive 18*. per week; domestic 
servants, 4*., exclusive of board ; jamspinners, 25*. per week ; cloth -finishers, 
men 20*., boys 8*. to 10*. ; weavers are chiefly women and girls, who receive 
11*. to 12*. per -week; men weavers have. 18*. to 20*. The provisions of 
the factory act limit the labor in the mills, of children nnder 13 years to 8 
hours a day, of youths between the years of 13 and 18 to 10 hours a daj, 
while adults are allowed to work without restriction. 

Hand- loom weavers of this vicinity have, for many months, had but limited 
employment in consequence of the decline of trade with the United States, 
but, now that commerce is revived,* they find remunerative employment. 

The current price of provisions is a^ under: 

Beef is from Sd. to 1*. per .pound for prime cuts; mutton, 9d, to lid. per 
pound; hams, 1*. to lid,; bacon, lOd.; lard, 10(2. to lid. Nearly all the 
staple articles of food, as beef, mutton, milk, &c., are advancing in price. 



Nottingham — Francis George Rawson, Consular Agent, 

October 14, 1865. 

• • The town and county of Nottingham, according to the last parlia- 
mentary return in 1861, contained 74,693 inhabitants, and an area of 2,610 
acres. From dull trade, emigration, and other causes, it is not probable that the 
population has increased since. 

• * I am glad to be able to report that during the last quarter there has 
been a visible improvement in the two staple articles of trade of the town, viz : 
lace and hosiery. This appears to be the case in both the home and various foreign 
markets. The monthly and quarterly reports will give the best information 
as to the state of trade in this district with the United States compared with 
the last three years, from which it appears that a re-action has set in, and it is 
confidently hoped that the crisis of stagnation has been finally passed, 
although, from the recent rise in the price of cotton, a slight suspension in 
business in the lace trade has been observable. The hosierers are reported to 
have on their hands orders which will take considerable time to execute. 

All classes of workmen are now in receipt of good wages, and there appears 

to exist between master and workmen greater unanimity and good feeling than 

have prevailed for some time past ; the amount of wages obtained being from 

12*. to 40*. per week, according to the nature of the work performed, laborers 

. making from 12*. to 15*. inclusive, and lace hands from dCl to c€2. 

At the time of the latest parliamentary retiirns the number of houses in this 
borough was stated at 17,177. The ratable value (being about two-thirds of 
the rental) of the parishes Just completed amounts to o£256,544. The rent paid 
by the working classes is from 2s. to 3*. 6d, per week; by clerks, warehousemen, 
from (€19 to <£30 per annum; the better class houses producing a rental of 
<£60 to dei20 per annum. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



19 



Bristol — Zexas Eastmav, Consul. 

Siatemeni ihotping the description, place of production^ and value of exports from 
Bristol to the United States during the last three quarters of the year ended 
Septemher 30, 1865, (compiled from official documents,) 



Deicilption. 



Place of production. 



Is 

II 



B fl- 
ea 



IP 



5 5 

fi 



lis 



r 



Batbbriekf Bridirewafer. 

Fl«'iirdoth BriMtol . 

riaj pipec and clay do . 

B^ks do. 

Weerirf^piml do. , 

Paiiiti and paintera' materiala I do 

Twint*. lfii(«« thread, yam, nett . Bridgeport . . . 
sad wning. 

H>ir«paling Cattle Carey . 

Lin«Ti boot webR Crewkeme . . . 

Jrtg^Qodcand pipea { Bridgevrater. . 

Rogi Street 



£ #. d. 

102 14 4 

114 7 7 



£ «. 
203 17 

73 8 
115 
105 1 



S, ». d, 

lf>7 14 6 

335 7 7 

165 13 6 



4.629 3 3 



636 16 11 



Tutal.. 



53 12 10 



28 14 6 
lUl 3 11 
816 1 

116 14 
56 18 7 
6 16 10^ 



£ #. d. 
474 6 5 
523 3 6 
280 13 6 
105 1 9 

28 14 6 

101 3 11 

6,062 3 

116 14 
56 18 7 
6 16 10} 
53 12 10 



4,846 5 2 



1,187 17 5,1,795 3 6»;7,829 6 1 



Dbcbmbbr 29, I860. 

* * The position of Bristol is admirably situated for the leading commercial 
port of the kingdom. It is at the head of the deep navigation of the Bristol 
channel, and was a port before any other harbor of the channel was improved. 
It is situated in the soath western portion of England, the channel opening up 
with a broad expanding outlet, and extending back to the interior almost inland, 
so as to give the port the advantage of a sea front and midland centre. The 
aocborage at King road, which is in part the harbor of Bristol, and situated at 
the mouth of the river on which Bristol is built, may be said to be at the head 
of the navigation of the channel, though the channel itself, for small vessels, 
extends considerably further inland to Gloucester, which is quite an extensive' 
shipping port in this consular district, though receiving but little American ship- 
ping. A circle drawn from Bristol as an inland centre point, from the head- 
lands of South Wales and Falmouth, on the point of land toward Landsend, the 
coast-line which borders the Bristol channel, would embrace nearly two-thirds of 
the whole area of England, very nearly reaching Liverpool, and taking I^ondon 
within its compass. Rarely, indeed, anywhere in the world, is there a shipping 
port so centrally situated for inland trade. The dockage of Bristol is at the 
city, which is situated up the river Avon, a river on the southeastern side, 
about six or seven miles from the channel. The river is deep and winding, with 
high bluffs npon either shore, the tide rising at the docks from twenty-eight to 
thirty .five feet. The docks are formed by locks across the river at the lower 
end of the city, and the slack-water of the river Avon and a small branch, 
called the Frome, make the harbor or float, forming the resting-place of all the 
shipping of the port. The business portions of the city are built around the 
branches of this float. 

The Bristol channel, which is the inlet or extension of the ocean between the 
^t of South Wales and Landsend, is of easy access, having no dangerous 

K* ces to obstruct navigation ; is open to all the favorable winds from the At- 
tic; is broad enough for beating up against adverse winds until near an chor- 
ee groimd ; and with winds from the northwest to southeast a ship may sail up 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



20 ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

to and cast anchor at the anchorage at the month of the river Avon, the entrance 
to the Bristol port, which is called King road. At this place the water is deep 
enough at low tide to float a first-class ocean steamer, such as plj between Liv- 
erpool and New York. All around this channel are the richest of mines. On the 
northwest side, all along the Welsh coast, and on the northeast and on the south- 
east, above and below Bristol, are rich deposits of coal and iron. These are 
worked where accessible to shipping on the channel, but the coal mines of Bristol 
are used for local purposes only, and the iron almost neglected within two miles 
of the ships in the Bristol float, from the want of local convenience of getting 
the iron on ship-board. These coal and iron works on the Welsh side furnish 
the great exports of the channel ; they are carried to all parts of the world, and 
the amount is immense. Coal and iron are shipped from the ports of Cardiff 
and Newport ; occasionally they are sent in transports to be shipped at Bristol. 
From Gloucester salt is extensively shipped, which is manufactured in Worces- 
tershire up the river Severn. Midland, in the region about Birmingham and 
Wolverhampton, there are extensive iron manufactories, furnishing a vast amount 
of freight to Liverpool, but which is about equally distant to Bristol, and this 
port at least has equal claims upon the shipment of exports from this Midland 
district. Probably in no part of the world, on a sea- coast, is there so much 
material for heavy shipping for all parts of the world as is furnished from the 
Bristol channel, now mainly shipped from Cardiff and Newport, but which might 
be largely extended from the port of Bristol. Two-fifths of all the export ship- 
ping of the British islands are from the Bristol channel, but on the channel there 
are oply two import places or ports of discharge of cargoes, viz : Gloucester and 
Bristol. Ships which come to these ports to discharge freight, as well aa other 
ports of England and Fraiicj, go in ballast across the channel to Newport and 
Cardiff, there to take in return cargoes of coal and iron. These two latter ports 
are not ports of discharge, and are as deficient in receiving cargoes inward as 
Bristol and Gloucester are for supplying cargoes outward. A port which could 
combine both export and import trade equal to the capacity of the Bristol chan- 
nel for business, would become one of the greatest of Bi itish ports. This is 
what has been the claim of Bristol and the desire of her merchants for many 
years past. 

But notwithstanding the favorable situation of this city for business and trade 
of all south and central England for importation of sugar, grain, and timber 
which it now receives, and for the exportation of iron, coal, and heavy manu- 
factures of Midland, England, and notwithstanding its lying in the path of traffic 
between the United States and London, yet no successful arrangements have 
been made for securing this trade. It has not yet, up to this date, one railway 
line that has a connexion with the shipping. There are no water fronts for re- 
ceiving coal from the mines that lie about Bristol and its suburbs, some of 
which are extensive and famous, as at Kingswood. None of these railways, 
viz : the Midland to Birmingham, the Great Western, which connects Bristol 
with London, and the Southwestern to Exeter and Plymouth, and the new Hue 
to South Wales, have any means of discharging freight for shipping, or receiv- 
ing inland freight from the shipping, without carriage by trucks through the 
midst of the city to their goods stations, from the distance of one or two miles. 
For these and other reasons the trade of Bristol has been left as it was in times 
before railways, and when its prosperity was derived from its trade in the pro- 
ducts of the slave plantations of tfie West Indies. Other reasons are assigned 
for the lack of the growth of the port from the fact that until a few years ago 
the dock privileges were monopolized by a company who exacted enormous 
dues, and that the accommodations have not been made to keep pace wiih the 
demands of the times. 

One hundred years ago Bristol stood in commercial importance where she 
was entitled to stand by her natural advantages — second only to London in the 

Digitized by CjOOQ !(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 21 

extent of her foreippi trade. If London took the lead at that time it was he- 
eaase of her Tnetropolitan character, for her advantages as a seaport are inferior 
to Bristol. Bristol then had command of the trade with America and the West 
Indies and the coast of Africa. At that time the slave trade was a part of the 
commerce of the world. She then had her society of merchant venturers, which 
continues to this day, and her trading companies little inferior to those of Lon- 
don. Then it was expected that the Bristol channel, and Bristol as its princi- 
pal porty would command the trade of England, for all her expectations were in 
the direetion toward which the channel opened and invited commerce. The 
cotton trade with America, and its manufacture in the part of England adjacent 
to Liverpool, and the application of steam to ocean navigation which was wisely 
Improved by that city, tiave tended to change these expectations very materially. 
In the beginning of this century the improvement of harbors by the construc- 
tion of docks was little known. There were then no docks in London, and only 
one inferior one in Liverpool among all the ports of England. At that tim.e the 
practiee was to discharge cargoes alongside of quays, the vessels rising and fall- 
ing with the tide, or lying in the mud with cargoes in while the tide was low. 
And thna at Bristol, vessels came up the narrow and crooked channel of the 
Avon to the quays at the city ; larger vessels, which their owners could not 
permit to come up the dangerous passage to lie upon the mud at low water, were 
anchored at King road and their cargoes discnarged by lighters. Near the 
month of the Avon were the berths of a medium class of vessels, wliere they 
hung secured to the perpendicular rocks on the left side of the channel by large 
iron rings, which still remain, and the place is known by the name of Hung 
Roads. Such arrangements might well serve the wants of the shipping at that 
early period, but the march of time has demanded other and snpenor accommo- 
dations. Therefore, when docks began to be used, the Bristolians were not be- 
hind their neighbors in securing l^slative powers to enable them to construct 
them. In 1 803 they secured an act of Parliament for the first docks, which 
was entitled " An act for improving and rendering more commodious the port 
and harbor of Bristol ;" and its preamble well sets forth the state of the accom- 
modations at that time as follows : '* That vessels were left dry at the quays, 
which prevents many foreign vessels and others of large construction from fre- 
qnenting the port ; and there is not sufficient depth of water at neap tides to 
take vessels down the river Avon to sea, or bring them up on their return 
voyages, whereby favorable tides are frequently lost, and great expenses, delays, 
damages, and losses are sus^ined to the hindrance of commerce, and the mani- 
fest injury of the port and city of Bristol." Under this act was the present 
system of the docks of Bristol instituted — ^that is, they " dockized *' the river, 
or constructed of the whole channel of the river Avon, and its kindred branch, 
the Frome, a floating dock, by forming a lock across the channel just above 
where it forms a narrow passage at the rocks of St. Vincent, near HatweH's, 
which ia, in fact, the lower end of the city. This plan furnished very extensive, 
economical, and amply sufficient dock privileges for the times, placing Bristol 
well in the race with her rival cities. This act of Parliament vested the man- 
agement of the docks in twenty seven directors, to be elected in equal portions 
by the corporation of the city, the society of merchant venturers, and the share- 
holders of the docks, taxing the property of the city for dock expenses, and 
fixing the rate of charges, which were not to be changed. This operated in the 
end to the great injury of the port, as the charges proved to be higher than, the 
interests of commerce demanded, and tended to drive shipping to other ports. 
And it was nearly half a century before the directors obtained power to change 
tke nUes. The dock accommodations proved inadequate to the demands of 
large ships which steam and ocean navigation required, as valuable ships and 
cugoes would not be trusted to make the passnge up the narrow and crooked 
dttnoel ot the river to reach the docks, suDJect as they would be to the action 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



22 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

of rapid carrents and suddenly falling tide?. And when it became apparent 
that a new Bystem must be adopted, there was an equally divided interest and 
opinion as to the best plan for effecting the improvements. Some were for 
straightening the Avon and enlarging the docks ; others were for docking the 
whole river Avon by one great lock at its mouth; others were for making docks 
at the mouth of the river for the accommodation ot the large shipping. This 
hitter plan was strenuously opposed, with the idea that it would injure the 
property of Bristol, draw off its trade, or divide and carry down the business 
part of the city five or six miles to the shores of the channel at the river's 
month. Thus, with these conflicting interests, and the failure of the prominent 
railway lines to make connexion with the shipping of the port, while nothing 
was done to make the port adequate to their business wants, the place has 
steadily declined from the second position in the rank of trade to that of the 
ninth or twelfth in the kingdom in the amount of tonu'^ge entered and cleared, 
and in imports. And yet this decline has not been without many evidences of 
a spiiit of enterprise and appreciation of the position she occupies, aa well as 
effort to improve her opportunities. 

* * To the enterprising spirit of Bristol should be justly accredited the 
honor of suggesting and solving the practicability of navigating the ocean by 
steam. 

* * The commercial history of Bristol is unfortunate. She was too early 
in providing her dock improvements to make them adequate to the greater wants 
of a growing trade upon which the kingdom was about to enter. Circumstances 
compelled her to remain in bondage to this cramped and restricted policy until 
other ports secured the shipping which might have been retained here more 
profitably. The business of import and export, which should be confined in one 
port of the Bristol channel, is divided with others. Bristol has failed to obtain 
the export cargoes which she might have obtained with proper docking privileges 
and connexion with railways. Thus to obtain her return cargoes her sailing 
ships have to change ports in ballast, re-enter at another port a few miles dis- 
tant, where cargoes are obtained not only for her own shipping, but very ex- 
tensively for the shipping of other ports of the kingdom and adjoining countries. 
The fact that she, in that respoct, has the advantage of every other port out of the 
channel, is much in her favor even if she does not put cargoes in the ships that 
come to her harbor from her own quays. The extent to which the shipping of 
the kingdom is taxed to obtain the export cargoes, which alone can be obtained 
from the channel, may be seen by reference to the returns of American shipping 
for the year 1863, as contained in the United States consular commercial rela- 
tions. For the year 1863 twenty-one ships left the port of Bristol in ballast to 
take cargoes at Cardiff, eight from Gloucester, thirty-nine fram London, eight 
from Liverpool, and thirteen from Havre, in France. For the same time for 
Newport, four ships left Bristol, eleven left London, four Liverpool, and two 
from Havre, all in ballast. These reports only apply to American ships for a 
single year, and at a time when American shipping, in consequence of our war, 
was at the very lowest stage. The same state of facts exists more emphatically 
in application to the British shipping and the shipping of all other foreign 
countries. It would be unjust to leave this summary of the past history of the 
port of Bristol as the type of the real condition at the present time, and the em- 
Dodiment of her hopes and expectations. The reverse is, in fact, her future. 
The tide has already turned. She has conquered her difficulties. From her 

?a8t unfortunate experience she has gained useful lessons for her future course, 
'he repeal of the ancient dock charter was effected in 1853, and dock dues re- 
duced to a fair rate, so that the port of Bristol is not now more expensive to 
enter than the average of the ports of the kingdom. Yet this did not much 
increase her foreign trade, for the reasons before stated, that her locks were not 
large enough to admit the largest class of steamships, and from the dangers 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BBITI8H DOMINIONS. 23 

of ingress and egress from the narrow and crooked coarse of the river which 
links her harbor with the channel. Therefore attempts were made and divers 
plans suggested to remove these disadvantages, which were for a time frustrated 
for the want of nnanimity in the public sentiment as to the proper and most 
profitable way of effecting the improvements. The diversity of views has re- 
sulted in the projection of several different plans, which will soon be completed, 
so that the port of Bristol will have more extensive accommodations for her 
shipping than her friends have ever hoped. Already a line of railway has been 
finished, and the trains have been running for the past year from the city of 
Bristol to the mouth of the river, which is called the Port and Pier railway. 
This railway is to have connexion through the city with the termini of the 
several railway lines on the opposite side, which will enable them all to 
send goods in carriages without transshipment from every part of England to the 
piers, from which diey can immediately be transferred to ships lying in dock. 
In connexion with this Port and Pier railway is a plan of constructing exten- 
sive docks, already commenced, at the mouth of the river and at the head of 
King road, sufficiently commodious to receive the largest class of steamers sail- 
ing upon the ocean. 

Sufficient parliamentary powers have been conferred upon companies already 
organized to carry these plans to. a successful completion. Another railway, 
and regarded as ip some sense the rival of the one previously mentioned, is al- 
ready in the process of construction from the railway stations on the south and 
southwest side of the floating harbor and river Avon. The line has its terminus 
at a little well-sheltered cove at the lower end of King road, called Porti^head, 
at which place piers of sufficient capacity will be constructed to* allow the largest 
class of steamers and vessels to lie alongside and receive and discharge cargoes. 
The water at this point is jdeep, the anchorage well protected by the southeast 
shore, and a high hill, behind which the ships ai*e sheltered, the whole with 
• ample anchorage ground, making a secure harbor. Some believe that this latter 
place, which b less expensive, will be equally serviceable with others. Each 
has its advocates, and is sustained by the pecuniary interests of the capitalists, 
and all are, in some sense, rivals ; but the rivalry is not of that type which 
threatens to defeat each other's projects, but rather to stimulate to greater exer- 
tions to extend to the public the largest accommodations, by which they expect 
to deserve patronage. It is hoped that the business of Bristol will in time be 
so much enlarged as to merge the several plans in a common unity of success. 
The Bristol and South Wales railway line, completed within two years, is 
another acquisition, and will have the effect to bring freight from the Welsh 
coast for shipment from the port of Bristol. This line crosses the channel a 
few miles above Bristol by piers and ferry-boat. It is now proposed to improve 
thir important connexion by tunnelling the channel for the distance of about 
four miles at the place of the present crossing, as a substitute for the ferry. 
This will be an achievement unequalled in civil engineering by any enterprise 
in the country. ' In addition to the above projects of improvement, there is 
another a little more remote, but relating to the business of the channel ; this 
is a harbor at Brean Down, to be constructed in a bay about sixteen miles from 
Bristol on the southeast shore of the channel, below Weston Super Mare. Here 
there is almost a natural harbor, in which there is depth of water sufficient to 
float the largest of ships at the lowest tide, where a pier and breakwater will 
give sufficient protection. Very little expense, comparatively, is required to 
make this place a commodious harbor. If finished, it will be less a Bristol 
barbor than a grand port of safety for all ships entering the Bristol channel, 
where ships might lie to discharge freight into lighters and hulks, or upon float- 
ing landing' stages. Tlie Bristol and Exeter railway line runs within a short 
Stance of tbe beach of the bay, and would furnish ready means of inland com- 
muoicatioa. It is all well enough as a harbor, and only lacks local influence of 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



24 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



town and capital and bueiness centre, to make it one of importance. The works 
now progressing there promise to make it a safe harbor for the protection of 
ships, even before the docks and piers at the mouth of the Avon are completed. 



BiBMiXGHAM— E. BuRBiTT, Cofuutar Agent. 

Statement shotting the description and value of exports from Birmingham to the 
United States during the several quart-ers of the year ended September 30, 
1865, (compiled from official documents,) 



DeecrlptloB. 



1%^ 



•I 



is 



Twine, netting; Ssh-hoolu and 

tackle. 
Hardware, entlA'y.tteel andiron 

Pearl and other bnttoni.-. 

Pr^cioQH stones 

Watches and watch materials. . 

Chemicals , 

Cotton ^oods, tape, braid and 

frilling. 
Cotton boot- webs and webbing 

Carpeting and mgs , 

SillK goods 

QlasMware and glasa 

Chamois skins 

Music wire and Tiolin strings. . . 
Metallic pens and penholders.. 
SilTerware and plated goods. .. 

Jewelry and fancy goods 

Jet ditto and Japanned ware. . . 

Papier-mache 

Gan materials and guns 

Saddlery '.....» 

Needles 

Thimbles, hooks and eyes 

Spectacles and optical goods. . . 

Pins and hairpins 

Tin plates 

Chandeliers 

Ackle and nlckle goods 

Bead goods 

R. R fly signals 

Bookd, clothing, &a 

Bed lead 

Sundries 



1,615 1 5 

3S, 580 14 11 
160 18 9 



£ s. <1 

990 13 6 

39,607 3 5 

9,000 19 6 



& 9. d. 

847 9 4 

36,118 14 5 

3,575 18 8 



393 9 7 

9,664 16 10 

153 19 

709 15 5 

145 3 I 

589 3 6 

2,595 2 7 



702 13 11 
9,929 10 4 



1,211 1 11 



2,313 7 3 
2, 870 12 11 



951 9 1 

2,342 1 3 

291 12 6 

1.812 15 11 

555 16 2 

3, 130 .0 11 

1,751 3 7 



£ #. 
654 16 

61,870 4 
12,702 5 
645 15 
1.519 16 
4,611 10 
542 18 



£ #. d. 
4,108 5 



173, 176 17 

18,467 16 

645 15 

3.497 8 

12, 547 18 

988 10 



46 12 10 



143 3 3 
330 17 6 



789 13 
3,106 3 
1, 015 11 
1.803 5 

226 6 



112 9 9 



199 4 



1.059 3 5 

590 

5,333 5 1 

1,095 4 6 

289 17 7 



153 6 3 



135 13 9 
87 12 8 
146 3 11 



Total. 



281 11 11 
4. 806 13 3 



4, 724 10 7 



153 3 

138 15 9 

155 19 9 

1,164 2 8 

399 18 9 

6,736 11 6 



910 
9,237 
11.256 
3,419 

170 

587 
4,242 

659 

313 

5.684 
2,051 
11,508 
51 
1.600 

577 
1,957 

241 
1,022 

4Tr 



18 3 



5 10 
5 1 



3,399 3 3 



4.644 11 

9.938 15 

17,290 11 

10.636 5 

170 6 

1,377 

7,348 4 

1.675 6 

10, 726 8 10 

720 13 7 

313 
6. 743 15 
2.641 4 
16, 841 18 
1,147 3 
2,201 17 

577 5 
1, 9.57 14 

241 19 
1,311 4 

704 4 

455 



3 

6 

5 


3 
1 

4 

9 
8 
) 11 



4, 563 5 11 

681 10 6 

29,036 10 5 



49, 960 12 5 



56,401 9 1 



75,435 4 1 



156,582 8 1 340,379 13 8 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOUIKIONS. 



25 



WoRCBSTBR — T. SouTHALL, Consular Agent. 

Statement showing the description, place of production and value of exports Jrom 
Worcester to the United States during the last three quarters of the year 
ended September 30, 1865, (complied from official documents,) 



DcflcriptioBa 



Wll0M pf0da66d. 



11 



u 






Hi 



Total. 



Woiccster sBQoo • . • • . 

TlBrfmr 

Pwe^LUa goods 

fv\ua Butrble goods . 

StBtlgwt dack 

Do 

Otfpetiagt and roga. . 

BoxMtiB pUte 

*bfft ir*ni ........... 

BtthMek 

Cobalt 



Total. 



Woroeoter. 



do 

do 

AibtwoodBaak... 

Rddltch 

Kldd«>nniiut«r . . . . , 

do , 

do 

Bridge water 

do , 



361 10 
32 80 



£ 9. d. 
on 10 
33 18 



£ 9. d. 
1,604 3 



754 6 4 

1,016 3 1 

879 9 



69 4 II 

878 6 

917 6 9 

1,110 19 8 



213 6 4 



36 3 
243 9 
1,700 9 
177 8 
8,411 13 
15 10 
714 4 10 
912 
74 9 2 



36 
312 



d. 



6 

3. 332 16 4 

2.110 17 10 

10,401 13 8 

15 10 

927 11 9 

912 

74 9 9 



3,043 8 2 ,3,916 5 9 



13,189 3 9 



20,148 17. 8 



Plymouth — ^Thomas W. Fox, Consul. 

January 9, 1865. 

* * Commerce in this districfc oontinaee very quiet, whilst there is al- 
most an entire absence of speculation. The sale of all ardcles is confined to 
bujers' present requirements, without much variation in price since my last re- 
port^ with the exception of wheat, which, from a superabundance of supply from 
our own farmers, has continued to decline in value; fine white is worth 38«. ^ 
40*. ; red, 37*. tD 39s, per quarter of 480 pounds. Barley, from 27s. to 28«. 
per quarter. Oats, iSs, to I9s, Manufactured copper, c£98 to <£100. For 
yellow metals, 9d per pound. Bog iron, from c£6 15*. to £7 per ton. Wales 
pig, 51*. to 57s. per ton. 



SCOTLAND. 
Lbith — ^Nbil McLachlbn, Consul. 

OCTOBBR 14, 1865. 

The value of goods shipped from this district during the quarter ended the 
30tb September* 1865, is oC75,155 7s, S^d., which, when compared with the cor- 
responding quarter in 1864, shows an increase of c£dl,532 17#. 6j<i. • • • 

There has nothing transpired worthy of calling your attention to. There has 
been no direct trade between this port and the United* States. All the goods 
nttnafaetured in this district for the United States markets are shipped to Liver* 
pool or Glasgow, and exported from there to the United States. 

There have been six arrivals of American vessels in this port during the year 
ended as above, all of which came fiom Callao with cargoes 'of guano. Total 
iBwant and value of cargoes, at about J^12 per ton, 8,470 tons, e£101,640. 

The linen manufacturers in my district are all fully employed, the demand 
Inm the United States being very good. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



26 



ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Tb*e harvest in this country is over ; even in the late districts all is gathered 
in, and there is a good average crop, the yield being large and the quality good. 

The cattle plague in Edinburgh, Leith, and the district has been very b^ for 
the last month, and I beg leave to send to your department the official report of 
I>r. Smart, submitted to the magistrates of Edinburgh, which I have cat from a 
late newspaper, showing the symptons of the disease and its treatment, which, I 
think, may be beneficial should ever the disease reach our country. • • • 



Comparative statement showing the imports of grain, Jlnur, Sfc , into Leith 
during the year ended December 31, 18C5. 



Froin~ 


Wheat. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Beau. 


Pease. 


1664. 


1865. 


1864. 


1865. 


1864. 


1865w 


1864. 


186& 


1864. 


186& 


Scotland 


1,350 
9,925 
161.383 
210, 247 
42,232 
82,719 
16,160 


2.117 

10,254 

113,572 

240, 765 

V2!>. 409 

64,643 

36,521 

107 

683 


3,665 

13 

70,911 

80,542 

""'i43' 

i7.:ffio 

777 


6,180 

42,346 

106,950 

3,03) 


91,938 

■i,'365" 

145 

6,009 


39,597 

18 

19,487 


1,137 
1,273 
2,130 
1,049 




8 

9,561 

4.457 

17,801 

81 

560 

210 

163 


9 


England 


5,600 


Denmark 

pniMiia 


3.3ta 
90,»?70 


RuMitia 


Mecklenburg 






18 
9,414 

498 
5,867 

457 


559 


Hanite Towns 


7,703 






6,927 
80 

8,534 

80 

351 


1,669 
444 


Holland 


864 


31 


361 
1.309 


Hanover 




4 


Belgium 




1 






Oldenburg 






1 










Sweden 


6,158 


2.780 


507 


1,310 












Norway ... ....... 














France 


539 




6.631 


5,397 




138 


973 








Spain and Portugal . . 








Turkey 






3,247 


6,493 














Italian Statei 




4,280 














AfHca 




















£gypt 






















United StAt«H 


3.068 
2.160 




















British N. America. . 




::::::;:i::::;::: 
































Total 


535,943 


601 131 ^XL 7fil 


180,974 


29,478 1 60,904 


16,556 


80,283 


85,835 


32,470 











Fron^^ 


Tares. 


Rye. 


Malt 


Indian com. 


Total. 


Flour. 


1864. 


186& 


1864. 


1865. 1864. 

1 


1865. 


1864. 


1865. 


1864. 


1865w 


1864. 1 1665. 

I 


Scotland 


15 

50 

1,273 

2,115 


261 

727 

27 

3,879 


9 


1 
37 2,139 


582 

28 






30, 245 

13,824 

241, 551 

318 216 


49,873 
17,273 
181.421 
:m, 2U% 
128, 445 
63 432 


211 1 945 


England 






7.i:a 6,493 


Denmark. .......... 


10 
6,317 


::::::r:::: 






7 982 11. 191 


Prussia 


517 










3.050 7,406 
3. 170 9 


Rumia 







2,643 




50.965 

83.430 

41,192 

1,051 

8,531 

80 

351 

«,665 


Mecklenburg 

Hanite Towns 


8 
524 


212 
1,955 








1 04A 1.186 


46 










57,332 104' M43 66.113 


Holland 


, 








2,274 

7.863 

457 


797 1 1 


Hanover 




















Belgtum 


















, 100 






















Sweden 


















4,090 


:::::;::i::::... 






















France 


















8,143 


5. 589 1 12 Ml 63. 476 








, 










1 


Turkey 






4,696 






11*604 


6,869 


14,851 


18.060 
4.280 




Italian States 












1 


Africa 1 






1 


i 








Egypt 






1 


1 


..•■•. 








X^nlred States 






'::::t'*:::: ::'■": ■* 




3,068 
2.160 




10 1 


Brit, N. America • 




























TotaL 


3,985 


7,061 :6,382 


5,8562 2.139 

1 


610 14,247 ,6,869 818,326 

> 1 1 


915^554 |141,045 156,280 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



27 



IRELAND. 

Belfast — John YoUiNO, Consul. 

Dbcbmbbr 31, 1864. 
The total valae of inyoices certified at Belfast during the quarter ended 
December 31, 1864, ia dei42,458 16*. 3^. 

March 31, 1865. 

The namber of invoices certified by me for the quarter ended this day is 562, 
and their value amounts to .£274,340 5«. 6<2. 



POSSESSIONS AND DEPENDENCIES. 

CANADA. 
MoNTRBAL — J. F. Potter, Consul General, 

Comparatire statement sAowing tJie value of the imports into Montreal during 
the several quarters of the year ended December 31, 1864, (compiled from 
official documents.) 



feS" 



|8 



|«5 



Is 



'I 



I 



Total. 



Valvf of gooda remoTed, exported, or 

Vali«»fifi»«, ex«i»hip 

Valm* ffw, ez-warehonw , 

Wairhonaed , 

VaJa« of goodfi ez-nhipped 

Vftlqe of goods ex-warvboQiied 

Yalse of goods pajin^ specific duties . . . 

Sp^fic duties , 

Ad valorem duties 

Total daties 



$82,394 

828.730 

2.838 

1, 006, 705 

2, 977, 341 

1, 166. 152 

8,023 



$118, 100 

1,742.876 
2,011 
2, 620, 151 
2,841,506 
1,250,872 
6.214 



$103,826 

2,706,318 
2,370 
3, 449, 869 
4, 537. 032 
1, 988. 139 
10,570 



$90,714 

1,300,650 
5,958 
1,096,612 
1, 540, 946 
1,545,217 
8,616 



1I6,0?5 96 
784,102 90 



167,969 48 
733, 438 90 



190,975 79 I 238, 164 69 
1, 213, 015 70 520, 299 05 



$395,034 

6, 581, 564 
13.177 

7, 173. 337 
11.896,827 

5,950,380 
33,422 



713, 135 93 
3,250,856 55 



900, 128 86 



901,406 38 I 1,403,991 49 . 758,463 74 



3, 963, 992 47 



Summary statement showing the value of goods imported and consumed at the 
port of Montreal during the year 1864, {compiled from official documents.) 



Value. 



Hftlf year ended June 30, 1864. . . 
Qurter ended September 30, 1864 
(^urter ended December 31, 1864. 

Total 



$12,017,311 
9,693,219 
3,941,208 



25,a51,738 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



28 



ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Summary statement showing the value of goods consumed at the port of Montreal 
during the year 1864, with the names of the countries whence derivedt (com- 
piled from official documents.) 



Qoarten. 


Great Bri- 
tain. 


BritiihN. 

Ampr. eolo- 

Bie«. 


United 
States. 


Foreign. 


Totd. 




$6,706,645 
6.126.826 
2,032,616 


$218,744 
132.291 
135.350 


$2,952,735 
2.324,506 
1.365.953 


$929,355 

647,864 


$10,807,479 
9.231,489 
4,391,949 


Quarter ended September 30, 1864 


Quarter ended December 31, 1864 




Total 


14, 866^067 


486,385 


6.643,196 


a, 435, 249 


24,430,917 





Statement showing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels arrived at 
the port of Montreal by sea during the yeSr 1864, (compiled from official 
documents.) 



Nationalitj. 



British steam yessels .. 
British sailing vessels . . 
Foreign sailing vessels. 
Uuitea States vessels. ., 



Total. 



No. vessels. 



43 

235 

12 



No. tons. 



55,471 

83.054 

3,521 



142,046 



Statement shounng the number of vessels employed in inland navigation entered 
at the port of Montreal during the year 1864, (compiled from 
documents.) 



Nationality. 



Number. 



British steam vessels.. 
Foreign steam vessels. . 
British sailing vessels . 
Foreign sailing vessels 

Total 



1,670 

7 

1,644 

192 



3,513 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BBITISH DOMINIONS. 



29 



Summary comparative statement shoudng the import trade of Montreal for the 

years 1863 and 1864. 





1863. 


1864. 


1864. 




Increase. 


Per cent. 


ValM of free good« imported during the year 


$13,047,884 
5,794,001 


$19,070,164 
6, S61, 574 


$6,022,280 
787,573 


46 1-6 
13 3-5 




18,841,885 1 25,651,738 


6.809,853 


36 1-7 


Ta]Q« of goods paid duty ex-ihlp daring the jear 


8; 204. 5/7 
4,599,266 


11,896,827 
5,950,380 


3, 692, 300 
1.351,114 


45 
29* 




12. 803, 793 


17, 847, 207 


5.043.414 


39 7-12 


Amoaot of duty on gnodt ez-»blp daring the year 

AjBoaDtoTdnty on g<ood«ez-warehouin daring the year 


1, 576, 074 
1,412,546 


2, 280, 897 
1,683,094 


704, 323 
270.548 


44» 

19 1-7 


Total amount of duties for the year 


2, 988, 620 1 3, 963, 991 


975,371 


32f 






Valne of good* plaeed in warehoaie 


4.843.357 
980,689 
S83.661 


7,173,337 

1, 795, 4.'« 

513.353 


2,329.980 
814. 746 
229,692 


48 I-IO 


Valu> of gno4>> r<FXDaining in witn-hnnwi . , , ^ , . . , . r ^ , r 


83 1-12 


AsMNini of daty on good* In warehoaie 


81 







NOVBMBBR 2, 1865. 

In 1864 the aggregate amount of free goods was $395,261. For the three 

qnarten of 1865 thej reached the sum of $2,712,477. The amount of dutiable 

grwdsfor the year 1864 was $627,814, and for the three quarters of 1865 reaches 

llie large amount of $2,120,770. When it is recollected that the commercial con- 

Balar di«(trict of this consulate general does not to any considerable extent *ex- 

tend beyond tlie limits of the city of Montreal, this amount may be regarded 

with some surprise ; the aggregate of both free and dutiable goods for 1864 

being $1,023,025. and the amount for three quarters of 1865 $4,833,247, which 

will be increased by this quarter to upwards of $6,000 000. The largest items, 

it will be observed, are tea, which amounts for the three quarters of 1865 to 

81,213,584, and Hour, which is nearly $1,000,000 more. I particularly desire to 

call the attention of the department to these items, as they indicate one of the 

principal results of the treaty of reciprocity, so called, and demonstrate beyond 

a doubt the effect which the continuation of that treaty would have upon the 

commercial interests of the United States. Under that treaty Canadian vessels 

have free access to the porta on Lake Michigan, and land their cargoes at the 

ports of Chicago and Milwaukie under the same restrictions only as apply to 

American yeBs^els. These vessels bring back wheat, beef, pork, lard, and other 

mircliaudise which will bear shipment to England. With the wheat many of the 

miiU in Canada are stocked, and although flour manufactured from American 

wheat cannot, under the regulations of the Treasury Department, go into the mar- 

ketd of the United States free, much of the flour finds its way there under Canadian 

hrands without the payment of duty, and the balance enters into consumption here, 

while the flour from Canadian wheat is, almost without exception, sent to the United 

States free under th*e reciprocity treaty. The beef, porK, lard, hams, &c., are 

here reshipped in British vessels to Liverpool, and these vessels bring back for 

their return cargoes tea and other East India goods ; and from this point they 

are distributed to the west in Canadian vessels, to Boston via the Grand Trunk 

road, to Portland, and thence to Boston, and to New York via Lake Champlain, 

m Canadian vessels, to Whitehall, thus giving them a monopoly of the carrying 

trade both ways, except from Portland to Boston and from Whitehall to New 

^ork. The discrimination against American vessels passing through the Cana- 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



30 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

dian canals has the effect, and was probably intended, to secure the carrying 
trade to British vessels, while its profits would, with the treaty in force, 
secure it to them permanently, and for all British goods, or goods of the East 
India Company, Montreal would become, as it is now rapidly becoming, the 
port of entry for the west, and even for New York and Boston. For when it 
is considerea that in the month of Septembenalone tea to the amount of nearly 
one million of dollans was exported from this city to the States, and the larger 
proportion of it to New York and Boston, and this, too, with gold at an average 
premium of forty -five per cent., we can easily anticipate the proportions it would 
assume with gold at par under the present tariff rates in the United States. 
The amount of Hour exported to the United States from Canada is very large, 
and has greatly increased since the adoption of the internal revenue system by 
the United States government, which gives an advantage to the Canadian over 
the American miller of at least twenty per cent., as has been frequently admitted 
to me by merchants engaged in the flour and commission business in thia prov- 
ince, there being no direct tax of any kind imposed in these provinces. The 
result is that the Canadians are fast becoming the manufacturers of our flour, 
and thus depriving the government of a large amount of revenue now received 
from taxes on mill machinery, income, &c. The same remark will apply to 
lumber, which is the staple article of export from Lower Canada, under the 
reciprocity treaty. It is utterly impossible for us to compete with the manufac 
turer in Canada, who, without* being subjected to the same taxatiqp, has the 
double advantage of cheaper labor. In anticipation of the abrogation of the 
treaty vciy large shipments of lumber have been made from this province to 
the States during the past four months, and large quantities are still going for- 
ward. But three American vessels have reported to this consulate general during 
the year, and but one of them was bound out. 

I also respectfully ask your attention to the fact that, under the guise of free 
goods, large amounts of dutiable goods are exported into the United States from 
this province. This is paiticularly the case with raw furs and pickled salmon 
from the Hudson Bay territories, large quantities of which are sold in this mar- 
ket. The oath that the goods are the product of Canada is made in the usual 
form, and it is not possible, in many cases, to prove the contrary. In addition 
to this a large contraband trade is carried on by concealing dutiable goods in 
flour, oats, barley, butter, eggs, and other free goods, many of which escape de- 
tection, notwithstanding the vigilance of revenue officers. Smuggling is largely 
earned on along the whole line of the frontier, and a much larger revenue force 
han that now employed is required to prevent it. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



31 



QmjMrafive statement showing the description and value of exports to th$ 
United States Jrom Montreal during the year 1864, and also during the first 
three quarters of the year 1865, with aggregate of free and dutiable goods. 



# ARTICLES FRER, 1864. 


ARTICLES DUTIABLE, 1864. 


Descrip^on. 


Value. 


Description. 


Value. 


Pot And D^Arl ashfis ....... .... 


«16,042 

12,936 

108,726 

257,5(r7 


Liquora ............ .... .... 


$23, 126 

202,264 

18,646 


Wool 


Iron ........... .... ........ 


Fure 


Suirar ............ 


Sandries .. 


Tea 


101,305 






282,473 


Total free 


395,211 


Total dutiable 




627,814 







NINE MONTHS OP 18G5. 



Oats 

Barley 

Pe« 

Flaxseed 

Flour, oat mesl, &c 
Pot and pearl ashes . 

Butter 

Wool 

Fuw 

Sundries 

Total free 




Liquors 

Iron 

Spices 

Tea 

Sundries 

Total dutiable 



$14,981 

166,100 

12,491 

1,218,584 

698,614 



2,110,770 



Toronto — D. Thorton, Consul. 

February 7, 1866. 

I have the honor to report that * * * the condition of my consular dis- 
trict has been, for the most part, one of unexampled prosperity. The failare of 
the crops for several sacceseive years in the western province had impoverished 
and dispirited the whole farming and mercantile interest, the effect of which was 
to stimulate emigration to the United States of many of the beet citizens of 
Canada. 

Up to March, 1865, there was a complete stagnation of all kinds of business, 
and failures were frequent. But on the opening of navigation and the termina- 
tion of the rebellion, business revived ; and later, the prospects of a good crop 
inspired hope and confidence, and the return current of prosperity set in. Large 
quantities of dry goods, leather, drugs, groceries, in fact every description of 
merchandise, found ready purchasers at largely remunerative prices ; and the 
result of the harvest was so bounteous that more grain, flour, and lumber was 
exported dnring the season of 1865 than in any like period for many previous* 
years. • • • The revival of business, however, does not seem to have 
diminished emigration from my district 

The " homestead law ** has attracted some attention and inquiry, and I am 
ittisfied that if it was published and circulated in the rural sections of this 
province it would induce many to avail themselves of its benefits. 

The amount of imports into and exports from Toronto during the year 1865, 
u furnished to me by the collector of customs, is as ^ollov^^.j^g^ by V^OOQIC 



32 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Imports for the half year ended June 30, 1865 $1, 305, 217 

Imports for the half year ended December 31, 1865 3, 291, 643 

4, 596, 860 

Exports for the half year ended June 30, 1865 $4, 780, 065 

Exports for the half jear ended December 31, 1865 2, 129, 019 

6, 809, 084 



The exports covered by certificates issued from this consulate amount to 
nearly three millions of dollars, the greater portion of which has been shipped 
to the United States. During the autumn the receipts of grain and flour were 
very large, and almost the whole quantity of barley brought into this and the 
neighboring markets was purchased by Americans and shipped to the United 
States from this and the adjacent ports. More than the ordinary quantity of 
lumber was exported from Toronto during the year. Usually, the amount ex- 
ported has been fnim twenty-five to thirty millions of feet to all countries, 
but this year the quantity shipped reaches sixty millions, including square tim* 
ber, nearly thirty-five millions of which were sent to the United States. 

The lumber on the shores of Lake Erie being nearly exhausted, uew sources 
of supply became necessary to portions of New York and Pennsylvania, the 
demands for certain kinds of lumber having increased in the oil region of the 
latter State. 

This year, also, the pork and beef packing business has greatly increased in 
my district. Large quantities of pork and beef have been packed In Toronto 
and Hamilton and exported to the English market, while dealers are purchas- 
ing considerable quantities for the American markets. 

The wool trade has been extensive, mostly on account of American manufac- 
turers. 

This year the demand for butter has been enormous, absorbing all that either 
province has produced, and at prices varying from twenty to twenty-seven cents 
per pound. Every other description of produce has commanded ready sale at 
almost fabulous prices. The farmers of Canada have thus been enabled to pay 
off large portions of their indebtedness, the merchants to purchase on more favor- 
able terms, and the whole community have been inspired with new life and 
enterprise. 

I'he failure of the negotiation for the renewal of the reciprocity treaty has 
caused no apparent curtailment of preparations for the next year's business. 
The lumbermen, inspired by the presence of purchasers already appearing in 
the lumber. region, are laying in large stocks of logs, and those who are manu- 
facturing on their own account for the eastern markets have increased their 
stocks. Pine already rules in advance of the prices at this season last year, and 
the demand is considerably greater. Every merchant is shipping to the United 
States every article he can before the expiration of the treaty, and every avail- 
able means is resorted to to **get over" all the flour, grain, beef, pork, wool, 
and other products before the 17 th day of March next. 

There are many parties who talk of the increase of trade between Canada 
and England as likely to yield the same if not larger returns than have been 
realized by the exportation of the same articles to the United States. But the 
difference between expectations and facts is shown by the results from ship- 
ments of grain, flour, and other products to England during the past twenty 
years. So little attention has been paid to this trade by the flour merchants 
of late that most if not all the extra flour, and a lai^ portion of common brandsp 
manufactured here, is sent to the United States. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



33 



St.<Tohn'8 — G. T. Morehouse, Consul, 

Stattment showing the description^ country of production, and value of exports 
from Sl John* 8 (Canada) to the United States during the quarter ended Sep' 
iember 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Fish 

Hops 

Butter 

CatUe 

Sheep 

Sheep aod cattle. . . 

Sheep and, horses .. 

Cattle and hoTses . . 

Fowls 

Oate 

Oats and lye 

Oats and barley 

Oats and peas 

Peaa..... 

Rje 

Barlej 

VTheat 

FTonr 

Wod 



Conutry of 
production. 



Canada . 

...do... 

...do... 

...do... 
....do... 

i do — 

....do... 

....do... 

....do... 

....do. 

....do. 

do. 

do. 

....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 



Value. 



$1,087 

1,107 

16,869 

1,688 

1,096 

1,355 

4&5 

3,830 

900 

99,247 

3,125 

6,664 

4,465 

5,399 

12,358 

88,046 

31,098 

6,740 

5,981 



Description. 



Egjrs 

Eggs, sheep, &c 

Furniture 

Flax.' 

Grass-seed 

Tow....^ 

Sole leather 

Railroad ties. .. 

Shooks ^ 

Horses . « .. 

Timber 

Lumber 

Pig iron 

Salt 

Coal 

Sundries 



Total. 



Country of 
production. 



Canada . . 

do 

....do.... 
...do..., 

— do — 
do.... 

...do.... 
...do.... 

— do — 

do.... 

do 

...do.... 
England . 

...do.... 
...do.... 



Value. 



$2,612 

1,648 

856 

2,000 

350 

349 

2,500 

1,229 

11,027 

157,551 

6,250 

99 

713,480 

2,081 

790 

20,634 



1,215,971 



Phescott — Jambs Welded, Consul. 

September 3, 1865. 
Statement shotoing the value of imports from the United States at Prescottjbr 
the three quarters ended September 30, 1865. 

Value of imports for quarter ended March 31, 1865 $235, 862 

Value of imports for quarter ended June 30, 1865 289, 683 

Value of imports for quarter ended September 30, 1865 98, 207 

623, 752 



3 — c R 



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Google 



34 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN- COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the description, quantity/, and value of exports Jrom Prescott 
to the United States for the nine months ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Quantitj. 



Horses 

Homed cattle 

Sheep 

Hogs 

Butter lbs.; 

Barley bush.i 

Oats do..' 

Corn do.- 

Wbeat..' do.. 

Hides and skins. .. 

Flour bbls. 

Shorts lbs. 

Furs skins. 

Beef lbs. 

Seeds, grass .bush. 

Rags • bales. 

Sundries 

Peas bush. 

Wood cords. 



2,839 

8,197 

5,725 

2,838 

213,951 

139, 167 

57,944 

10,000 

38,944 

43, 317 

907 

20, 000 

2.3, 155 

^463 

^584 

121 



300 
220 



Value. 



Description. 



1174,380 

244,997 

15,063 

23,654 

80,786 

51,304 

24,466 

7,500 

.19,433 

32, 48) 

4,059 

200 

21,211 

225 

995 

1,216 

18,788 

300 

584 



Flax and tow . tons . 

Wool lbs. 

Tobacco leaf, cases . 
Stationery 



Liquors pck^. 

j Manufact'd goods. . 

I Lumber feet. 

! Rice lbs. 

I Pork bbls. 

Iron, cast lbs. 

; ¥gg8 <ioz. 

j Flax-seed. ..bush. 

Hoops 

Staves 

Mica 

Apples 



Quantity. Value. 



174,414 
22 



Total . 



1,445,220 

404 

337 

235,338 

2,155 

3,667 

310,000 

60,000 

2,375 

63 



I 



Sl2fl 

70,314 

42^ 

237 

25 

5,as8 

16,853 

2ii 

7,10?* 

13,7ai» 

271 

5,300 

645 

241 

471 

132 



872, :«^' 



Fort Erie — F. N. Blake, Consvl. 

July 5, 1865. 
* * * The great amount of ghipping of goods from Canada to the United 
States is carried forward at this point 07 the crossing of the Grand Trunk rail- 
road and the ordinary travel over the several ferries, &c. 

DecBiMber 31, 1865. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith my first annual reporj; of commercial in- 
formation for this consular district, as required by Congress, for the year ending 
December 31, 1865. ****** 

The entire number of invoices of merchandise authenticated by me during the 
present year, commencing on the 2Sth of March, the date of the first certificate 
issued, is. 4,538, amounting in value, in Canada funds, or gold, to the sum of 
$2,500,000 in round numbers. ***** 



Digitized by 



Google 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



35 



Comparative itatanent showing t/ie value of the exports of the domestic j^roduce 
and manufactures, and the imports entered for consumption^ together with the 
amount of duties collected at each port within the consular district of Fort 
Erie during the years 1S61, 1862, and 1863, and for Fort Erie the years 
1864 and 1865, ended September 30. 





• 
Exports. 


1861. 


• 


Exports. 


1862. 
Imports. 






Imports. 1 


Duties. 


Duties. 


F.irt Effe 


$698, 019 
6,134 
2,400 
151,063 
379, 844 
176,282 
175, 612 
128,223 
131, 637 


$138,809 ' 
24, 427 
7,516 1 
29,973 
205 577 
37,025 
6,788 
11, 889 
65,038 ^ 


$12,925 

1,925 

45 

1,942 

28,985 

4,292 

811 

1,469 

3,570 


$trr3. 685 
11,229 
2,903 
202,300 
324, 058 
130, 640 
235,106 1 
133.314 1 
153, 176 


$132,680 
19, 769 
6,368 
31,967 
155, 766 
49,108 
16, 070 
18,217 
77,200 


$9,938 

1,589 
48 


OribDni 


Haitland 


DnoiiTiUe 


1,759 


Bnmtford 


20,344 


DoTer - 


2,389 


Rofran 


984 


Barweil 


1,140 


Stanley •... 


2,388 


Total 


1,849,234 


527,042 . 




•1,866,411 


507, 145 














1863. 






1864. 
Imports. 






Exports. 


1 
Imports. 1 


Dntleft. 


Exports. 


Duties. 


Fort Erie (a) 


$385,329 
14,298 
1,184 
196,416 
345, 906 
237,2:J5 
179, 461 
167.198 
294,231 


1 
$124,356 1 
13,171 ' 
14,481 ! 
32,011 
141.608 
42,817 
24,679 : 
11,818 
46,968 1 


$8,758 

l,0(i5 

256 

1,257 

19. 062 

6,086 

873 

902 

1,134 


$357, 998 
*83,226 
*46, 816 
*58, 4.39 
*45,230 
*74, 192 
*68, 275 
*54, 778 


$183,232 

•9,642 

*14, 278 

*79, 705 

*13, 125 

*9,024 

*5, 044 

*4, 141 


$9 383 


Colbarn 


* 1,01*9 


Maitlaod 


*362 


DannvUle 


*9,373 


Brantford 


•3,689 


DOTCT - 


^514 


ROWAB . ......... 


*537 


Bnnrell . 


*360 


hitaalrr 






1 






Total 


1 1,821,258 

1 


451,909 |. 




1 










1 







(c)Fort Erie, for the year ended September 30, 1865, as follows: exports, $721,264; imports, $166,119 
duties. $13^%. 
*Six monttui ended June 30, 1864. 



PicTou, Nova Scotia — B. H. Norton, Consul, 

October 25, 1865. 

I have the honor herewith of presenting my annual report of commercial op- 
erations within the limits of this consular jurisdiction, together with a brief 
sketch of the numerous discoveries of new beds of coal in various portions of 
this province. Since my last report a number of rich beds of coal have been 
discovered, some of which are now being partially worked. The island of Cape 
Breton in this province is one vast coal-field, and gives employment to a 
large amount of Americau capital, which will yield a handsome income on the 
outlay. The following statistics relating to tlie different mines will be perused 
with much interest, giving as they do an idea of the immense trade carried on 
with the United States in this one article of export : 

Lingan mines, C. B., employ 195 men and boys. Shipments for the year 
ended September 30, 1865, were 57,000 tons, of which 66,000 tOBS were sent to 
the United States, valued at 8127,000 in Nova Scotia currency; value of im- 
ports from the United States wasSl,700; amount of tonnage employed, 19,800. 

Little Glace Bay mine, C. B.. employs 300 men and boys. Shipments of 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



36 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

coal to the United States for the year ended September 30, 1865, amounted to 
90,000 tons, valued in Nova Scotia currency at $225,000 ; value of imports from 
the United State?, $3,000, employing 13,500 tons. 

International Mining Company, G. B., employ 70 men and boys. Thirteen 
thousand tons of coal, valued in Nova Scotia currency at $23,000, were shipped 
to the United States ; imports from the latter amounted to $1,000 ; amount of 
tonnage employed, 4,000. 

Block House mine, (Cow bay,][G. B., employs 530 laborers. Amount of ship* 
ments for the quarter ended 30th of September, 1865, were $165,000 ; the im- 
ports amounted to $6,000. 

Gowrie mine, (Cow bay,) G. B., employs 320 laborers. Value of exports and 
imports not returned. 

Acadia coal mines, Pictou. These mines are located about eight miles from 
this porty The company have obtained an act of incorporation from the Nova 
Scotia legislature with a capital of $1,000,000. In the report of the able mining 
engineer it would appear that the probable aggregate quantity of coal in two of 
the tracts will amount to 36,000,000 tons, which would be equal to the prodac- 
tion of about 1,000 tons per day for 150 years. * * * Three thousand six 
hundred and eight tons of coal were shipped daring the quarter ended Septem- 
ber 30, 1865. This quantity was mined and brought to* the surface without the 
aid of machinery. 

The Albion Mining Gompany is the oldest in this province. An immense 
business has been done by it with the United States, most of the coal being shipped 
to ports in the northern States ; 156,557 tons were raised, of which 122,720 tons 
were shipped to the United States ; 131,629 days' labor were performed by men 
and boys, and 15,300 by horses. 

NOVA SCOTK GOLD-PIBLDS. 

Gomparative statement showing the total yield in the various gold districts of 
Nova Scotia during the several quarters of the year ended September 30, 1865, 
and the corresponding quarters of 1863-'64 : 

oz. pwi. gre. 

Quarter ended December 31, 1864 5, 497 9 5 

Quarter ended March 31, 1865 5, 102 11 8 

Quarter ended June 30, 1865 7, 838 19 

Quarter ended September 30, 1805 6, 468 6 9 

Total 24,907 5 22 

Corresponding quarters of 1863-'64. 

oz. pwt. grs. 

Quarter ended December 31, 1863 4, 178 14 3 

Quarter ended March 31, 1864 4, 010 17 4 

Quarter ended June 30, 1864 5, 159 8 s 

Quarter ended September 30, 1864 5, 395 2 21 

Total 18,744 2 12 



I am indebted to an American citizen, an accomplished and scientific engineer 
and constructor of marine railways in this province, for the very interesting 
statements in relation to them. He remarks i 

''In Dartmouth (Halifax harbor) there are three: one of 1,500, one of 600, 
and one of 200 tons capacity. The whole cost was about SS0,000 ; the average 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 



37 



naniber of vessels taken up yearly is about 360 of ajl classes. In Pictou there 
are two : one of 1,000 and one of 800 tons capacity, costing about $45,000. 
The average number of vessels taken up will be about 175 of all classes. 

"At Ship Harbor (Strait of Oanso) there is one of 1,000 tons capacity, and 
one in course of construction of 200 tons. Both will cost about $45,000. The 
aTerage number of vessels taken up will be about 250, being mostly American 
fishermeD." 

There are also in course of construction at North Sydney, Cape Breton, one 
of 1,000, and one with double pradle of 250 tons each, the entire cost of which 
will be about $50,000. 



Statement showing the description, quantity, and value of the exports to the 
United States from 'Pictou in British and foreign vessels during the year 
ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Coal tons. 

(iriodstones pieces . 

Iron — machiuerj pieces. 

Iron— scrap lbs. 

Wool lbs. 

Jnnk packages. 



Total. 



BRITISH 

Quantity. 


VESSELS. 

Value. 


FOREIGN VESSELS. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


148,720 

775 

697 

1,900 

7,962 

20 


$371,796 
3,010 
6,000 

340 
1,949 

450 


16,806 1 


$41,015 




1 


1 








383,545 


1 


41,015 




I 





Statement showing the description, quantity, and value of the imports at Pictou 
from the United States during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



Articles imported. 



A*lie*, pot lbs. 

Agricaltaral implements pes. 

Bread, fine .lbs. 

Bnniiiig fluid galls.. 

Candles lbs.. 

Cbe«se do. 

Coffee, ground do. 

Cordage do. 

Cotton and linen manufactures pckgs. . 

(-arriages and sleighs no. - 

Clocks pckgs.. 

l^ffs do... 

Dyestuffs bbls.. 

Flour, wheat do.. 

meal do... 

Fmit, green do.. 

raisins lbs.. 

Kvmitvre pckgs.. 

OiacKware do. 

Hats and caps .' do. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



antitj. 


Value. 


195 


$66 


3,470 


2,923 


1,536 


167 


174 


143 


116 


25 


1,598 


253 


1,048 


180 


415 


36 


135 


2,103 


23 


883 


143 


350 


85 


766 


278 


1,041 


3,837 


18,217 


67 


268 


319 


586 


247 


125 


1,545 


6,451 


122 


1,703 


28 


1,013 



38 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Statement — Continued. 



Articles imported. 



Hardware pckgs. 

Hides no. 

Iron and ironmongery 

India rubber manafactures pckgs . 

Leather do. 



Lime bbls. 

Marble pes. 

Molasses galls . 

Nuts ^ 



Naval stores bbls- 

Oil, coal galls. 

linseed do.. 

Printed books and papers pckgs. 

Paints and putty ^ do. . 

Spirits galls . 

Sugar, raw lbs. 

refined do. 

Soap do. 

Tobacco, leaf do. 

manufactured ^ do. 

Tea do. 

Woollen and silk manufactures pckgs . 

Miscellaneous 



Total. 



Quantity. 



901 

1,087 



12 

83 

2, 320 

51 

375 

16 

188 

6,229 

1,775 

74 

53 

197 

1,948 

2,141 

240 

57,125 

e79 

1,939 

2 



Value. 



$8,697 

4,4.'l8 

1,2S5 

603 

4,8116 

1,758 

277 

129 

57 

479 

3,112 

2,250 

1,734 

257 

181 

156 

280 

19 

2,718 

X^7 

759 

46 

1,385 



73,062 



Summary statement ihowingthe total value of the imports into and exports from 
Pictottt during the year ended September 30, lS65tJrom and to all countries. 

VALUB OF IMPORTS. 

From United Kingdom S130, 721 00 

From United States 73, 062 00 

From Canada 124»^97 00 

From Newfoundland 6, 253 00 

From New Brunswick 12, 056 00 

From Prince Edward Island 21, 8^5 00 

Total 368, 494 00 



VALUB OP EXPORTS. 

To United Kingdom $6. 747 00 

To United States 424. 560 00 

To Canada 12, 282 00 

To Newfoundland 6, 524 00 

To New Brunswick 5, 335 00 

To Prince Edward Island 29, 976 00 

To Foreign West Indies 4. 650 00 

Total 490, 074 00 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



39 



Statement shoicing ike number and tonnage'of British and foreign vesseUt with 
cargoes and in haliast, arrived at and departed from Piciou during the year 
eitded September 30, 1865. 

ARRIVALS. 



WITH CARGOES. 



I 



IN BALLAST. 



1 

Countries. British. 


1- 
Forei^u. 1 British. 


Foreign. 


1 No. 

1 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. No. 


Tons. 


i 
No. 1 Tons. 

! 


1 

Whence: 1 

rnitedKin^om 3 

I'Dited States i 123 

rnn^]fK 1 51 


1,655 

27,696 

5,954 

3,063 

375 

28, 103 










1 


174 146 
! 4 


27,088 

J 38 

425 

1,016 

14,867 

1,022 


22 j 3,875 


Xew Brunswick 1 65 




1 6 


1 


N^^fonndland ., 5 




1 8 


1 


Prince Edward Island . . J 91 




1 232 


1 


Other a>antries. i 




j 3 


1 


1 






1 



DEPARTURES. 



Where to : 

Tnited Kingdom 

I'nited States 

Canada 

New Brunswick 

Prince Edward Island 

Xewfoondland 

Foreign West Indies. . 



2 


832 


486 


90,034 


34 


3,800 


59 


4,398 


190 


10,605 


1 


94 


3 


1,096 



58 13,499 



9 
99 



2,925 

783 

27,917 



224 



St. John's. N. F. — 0. 0. Leach, Consul, 

Omparative statement showing the description and quantities of the imports at 
the port of Si. John's, N. F,, from January 1 to December Z\ of the years 
1860, 1861, 1862, 1863 and 1864. 



I 1660. 



1861. 



1862. 



1863. 


1864. 


24,637 


14,986 


197,755 


150,137 


4,469 


950 


24,423 


17,014 


1,.363 


1,488 


15,732 


12,070 


730 


1,177 


6,294 


8.430 


^,664 


16,293 


942 


1,280 


326,786 


264,147 


353,817 


365,216 


9,441 


10,278 


5,673 


4,703 


21,351 


14,365 


39,986 


28,663 


3,442 


2,504 


34.178 


28,103 


36,909 


42,699 


2,941 


1,528 


2,930 


2,426 


4,022 


3,360 



Bfrwd cwA.J 

Fkmr barreli..] 

Cora meal do ' 

Pofk do....| 



B-ef, 
Batter.., 

Ram 

Moltaet 

MoiA 

Coffee 



do. 

cwti.J 
puns., 
do 

CWtfl.. 

do.... 

MttafiMtiired tobaceo pounds.. 

Tfa do.... 

"^ bOXM.. 

C»»fie« do.... 

Wi ton«..; 

^^ do....L 

Htebandtar barreb..* 

Potaioei do I 

* *«« bushels . . 

JJ'iwittd plank... M. ' 

< >ini nd eowt number . . ^ 

^i«^ do.... I 



41,998 
124, 915 

3,014 
20,6TO 

2,502 
15,578 

1,382 

7,284 
11,920 

7,904 

376, 691 

375,056 

15,524 

9,799 
40,703 
29,489 

3,425 
41,410 
74, 419 

4. ,557 

3,351 

3,89L 



31,766 
144, 918 

4,210 
23,745 

1,367 

16, 415 

942 

6,939 
24,458 

1,755 

129,642 

413, 257 

14, 115 

7,394 
24.641 
30,854 

2,783 
20,856 
46,238 

3,741 

3,165 

4,454 



22,6^ 

174,396 

7,300 

24,581 

1,.'J84 

10,529 

663 

9,448 

21,537 

890 

229,087 

411,306 

9,690 

5,207 

18,816 

28,878 

2,585 

20,629 

40,038 

2.922 

2,496 

3,755 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



40 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing (he desrrijyticm and quantities of the exports 
from St, John's, N, F., from January 1 to December 31 of the years 1860, 
1861, 1862, 1863, and 1864, together witMhe names of the countries tchither 
shipped. 



1861. 



Qaintalti of dried codfish 

Portugal 

Spain 

Italy 

^ Britiib Wert Indie* 

Unizili 

British America 

England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

United States 

Other parts 

Tuns of seal oil— 

Ignited Kingdom 

United States 

Tuns of cod oil- 
United Kingdom 

United States 

Seal-skins— 

United Kingdom 

United States 

Salmon tierces . . 

Mackerel and herring barrels. . 

Rum puns.. 

Molasses do... 

Sngar cwts . . 

Bread and flour barrels. . 

Salt tons.. 



100,933 
188,797 
34,644 
90,624 
187,316 
2,133 
14,081 
15,466 
21,2j6 ' 
17,936 
68,374 

3,179 
472 

1,906 I 
878 I 

244,454 



2,355 

24,361 

174 

1,079 

2,518 

727 

265 



79.634 
162, 274 
17.100 
83. 462 
165,359 

1,770 
13,066 

6,914 
11,086 

4.160 
62, 7."i2 

3,404 
lOL 

1,780 
262 

263,549 



1.547 

21,750 

40 

700 

8,639 

1,110 



I 
114.9^1 ' 
lt7. WiJ? 
18.840 
61,712 
172.613 
2,288 1. 
3.358 I 
984 ' 
9.933 I 
4, 7i»9 
56,457 . 

2,139 

1, 466 ; 

142,623 
1,000 . 
2, 210 
11,195 



82. 484 

244. 270 

3.000 

57, 323 
143.006 



1.721 
3.344 

2,616 
8.390 
18.750 

2,814 
2.5 

1,871 
177 

209,658 I 

" 2," 906' I 
32, 866 I 



1.533 I 
11,010 I 
468 
522 ' 



189 
3. 375 

7,707 
80 



1864. 



103,136 

17.^ ^^ 

18, H.\) 

71."='*t; 



11.368 
4,IX)1 

14.22») 
4.750 

42, .J 13 

1.219 
33 

i.nio 

117 

9<\ •='<>1 

100 

1,460 

9.551 



436 
6. ^2.5 
3,420 



St. John's, N. B— -James Q. Howard, Consul, 

October 12, 1865. 
• • • I may remark that the exports to the United States for the year 
1865 will greatly exceed those of 1864. This is attributahle to the fact that 
merchants, in anticipation of the termination of the reciprocity treaty in March, 
1866| are sending forward to the American market lumber and all descriptions 
of wooden ware, which, probably, will be liable to duty after the opening of navi- 
gation in the spring. • • • 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BBITISH DOMINIONS. 



41 



SlatemefU showing the total value in dollars of the imports and exports of the 
prprince of Neiv Brunswirk from and to each country in the year ended De- 
cember :M, 1864. 



Countries. 



Imports. 



United Kingdom 

Jersey , 

(Jibraltar 

Melbourne 

CanadA 

Nova Scotia I 

Prince Edward ; 

liiland 

Newibiindland . - . 

Barbadoes , 

Jamaica 

>aint Kitls | 

Itcrmada 

Na.<san 

Turk'* Island , 

Saint Vincent . ..' 

France | 

Spain , 

Portuj?al 

N'l-tbcrlands 



$3,598,1*2 
18,5^ 



245,020 
1,360,342 

112,728 

11,872 

9,779 

1,371 

150 

4,497 

530 

1,526 

924 

03,226 

598 

2,570 

9,536 



Exports. 



II 



$2,732,7.33 



3, 870 

5,028 

60, 044 

556, 924 

85,261 
7,467 

43,338 

8,(>40 

969 

5,695 

42,740 



7,490 

8,826 



1,003 



Countries. 



Italy 

Teneriffe 

United States... 

Mexico 

Suridkm 

Cuba and Porto 

Rico 

Hayti 

Saint Thomas , . . 
Saint Pierre Mi- 

quelon 

Saidt Martin's . . 

Martinique 

Gaadaloupe .. .. 

Valparaiso 

Montevideo 



Total.... 
Sterling . 



Imports. I Exports. 



83,316,824 I 
2,595 , 



178, 302 
5,:W2 



$11,737 

3,a54 

1,266,148 

6, 425 

2,580 

158,424 
1,613 
2, 803 



68 
886 



3,4^1 



8,945,352 



£1,863,615 



3,665 

6,999 

16, 122 



5,053,879 



£1,052,891 



Statement showing the value in sterling of the imports and exports of the prov- 
ince of New Brunswick from and to the United States during the last fifteen 
l/earSf viz,, between the years 1850 and I86i,^nclusive, 



Years. 


Imports. 

- ■% 

£262,148 


■ 
Exports. 


Years. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


I-^oti 


1 
■^77.400 , 


1858 

1859 


£564,245 i 
675,095 1 
688,217 1 
628, 070 . 
616,814 1 
739,663 ' 
691,005 1 


£163,702 


i-:d 


330,835 83,028 ' 
:»3,210 83,792 1 
574,070 I 1*21 ftM i 


236,014 


K>2 


I860 : 


248, 378 


i-:^j 


1861 


175,654 
185, 295 


X4 


711,234 
782,762 
714,515 
628,510 


97,930 
123, 127 1 
173,485 ' 


1862 


1^M 


1863 


259, .357 


]-.V> 


1864 


263,781 


K)7 













A return showing tJie value in ste) ling of the imports and exports of the province 
ofXiw Brunswick from and to all countries during the last fifteen years, viz. 
httteten the years 1850 and 1864, inclusive. 



Years. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Years. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


\^\ 


£815,531 


£658,018 , 


ia=>8 


£1,162,771 


£810,779 


K)] 


980.300 


772,024 


1859 


1,416,034 


1,073,422 


K»2 


1,110,601 


796, :«5 


1860 


1,446,740 


916,372 


i-:.'j 


1,716,108 


1,072,491 , 


1861 


1,238,133 


947,091 


K>4 


2,068,773 


1,104,215 


1862 


1,291,604 


803,445 


!•*> 


1,431,330 1 


8-26, 381 


1863 


1,595,513 


1,029,329 


K)6 


1,521.178 


1,073. :J51 


1864 


1,863,615 


1,052,891 


K)7 


1,418,943 


917,775 









Jigitized by VjUU^ It^ 



42 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing tJie total value in dollars of the imports and exports of the 
province of New Brunswick, at each of the jM>rts, in the year ended December 
31, 1864. 



Ports. 



I 



Imports. 



Saint John 

Dalhonsie 

Batharst 

Campbelton 

Caraquet 

Shippegan 

Newcastle 

Chatham 

Kichibucto 

Buctouche 

Shediac :... 

Bay Verto 

North Jogj^ns... 
Sackville 



$0,921,939 

75,372 

143,446 

16,356 

39,228 

20, 820 

382,652 

304,845 

76,101 

862 

126,787 

1,240 

221 

31,332 



Exports. 



$2,970,247 
102,967 

99,7:12 
2,876 

5^115 

45,291 
164,057 
198,429 
168, 080 

53,446 
174,721 



7,031 
11,305 



.Porta. 



I 



Imports. I Exports. 



Dorchester I 

Moncton -•. i 

Hillsborough | 

Harvey , 

Saint George | 

Saint Stephen... I 
Saint Andrews.. 

West Isles 

Frcdericton ] 

Woodstock ' 



$15,032 

94,833 

10,200 

3,323 

38,414 

206,960 

297,970 

52,568 

84,851 



$12,296 

10, 87a 

180,928 

5,77J 

144,561 

125,114 

241, 3S1 

40,615 

133,715 

108, 32?^ 



Total. 



r 



8,945,352 I 



5, 053, 879 



Sterling '£1,863,615 | £1,052,891 



Abstract statement showing the total number and tonnage of vessels registered 
in the province of New Brunswick on the 3lst of December in each year from 
1854 to 1864 inclusive. 



Year. 


J^o. 


Tonnage. 


1 Year. ' No. 

1 1 


Tonnage 


1854 


878 
866 
892 
857 
812 
811 


141,454 
138,292 
164,226 
160,508 
139,095 
134,055 


1 

I860 825 


i47.0fi:r 


1855 


1861 813 158,240 

' 1862 1 814 157,718 


1856 


1857 


1863 ' 891 211,680 


1858 


1664 ' 958 233,225 


1859 




1 ' j 





Statement showing the descriptiont quantity, and total value of imports from 
the United States and all other countries into New Brunswick during the 
year 1864. 



Deacriptioii. 



Axes tons 

Ale and porter gals 

ADimals— horses 

Cattle , 

Calvea 

8heep and Iambs , 

Swijie 

Asheg — pot and pearl bbls 

Saleratus pkgs 

Apothecary goodn pkgB 



Where flrom. 



United Stateti. 
Canada 



Untted States 

All other countries. 



United States 

British provinces. . 

British provinces. 
United States 



Nova Scotia 

Orent Britain and provinces. 

British provinces 

United States 



United States 

British provinces. 



United States 

United 8t«tes 

Great Britain and possessions. 



Qaantlty. 



3.566 
49, 210 



713 
25 



370 
12 



364 



Total. 



52,796 



59 



738 

118 

6,359 



56 



382 
120 



,035 



Valne. 

$1,411 

28, SOT* 

4,^30 



27.938 

2:i6 

12, 870 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



186 



2,330 

397 



-.207 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 43 

Statement showing the description, quantity, fyi, — Continued. 



D«icripiioD. 



Where from. 



ApiUbecuy ei>odi pl^ga- 

A^caltorml implementt and parts of. . .pkg«. 

EoT'.tfT aad cheese pkgs. 

r^n>t» aad Bhoe^ pkg« 

Rr . k^ for bnUding 

Bru'b*:-* ^ pkg«. 

r.'sd pkgs. 

r^«'W*— printed pkgs- 

Blank pkga. 

Eruis#ndpea0 bush. 

Dtrl^y— pot and pearl bbls. 



Br&n and other feed tons. 

BaraiBg floid pkg», 

£<h»! webbing and aboe-thread pkgs . 



C^dlet— except ppenn and wax . . *. Ibg . 

Sperm and wax lbs. 

Cotwn warp pkgs. 



Great Britain and poHseeaions , 
United States 



United State* 

Great Britain and possessions . 



British possessions . 
United States 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions 

Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 






.bbls. 
.gals 



Coffrt lbs. 

CasTM : yards. 

C«»rdage coils. 

Copper and patent netals in all forms . . .cwt. 

Chain and parts of pkg«. 

Cktks and materials pk gs . 

CuTisfei and other vehicles pkgs. 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 

G reat Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 

Great Britain and possessions. 
United States 



United States 

British possetisions . 

British possessions . 
United States 



United States 

United States 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 
Mexico 



United States 

British pottitessions . 



Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 

Great Britain and possessions . 
Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States 

Great Britain and countries 
other than the U. S. 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions. 

Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States... 
Other countries . 



Canada 

United States. 



t United States. 
; Nova Scotia . . 



Crtrn, 
^'«i4ast 



• pkgs. 
...lbs. 
..tons. 



t 



Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



t'VwtMl 

< "f 'A batting . 



.pkgs. 



United States 

United States 

I United States 

, Great Britain and possessions. 

; Nova Scotia 

Great Britain 

' United States 



Quantity. 



1,215 
2,17t 



2,618 
242 



499,380 
780 



2,749 
242 



lti9.380 
43,200 



144 
103 



525 

849 



1,536 
202 



35 



4.28S 
601 



730 
128 



16,342 
12,165 



931 
540 



72 

162 



1,113 
3,377 



35,313 
125^104 



56,226 
555.498 



14,954 
1,132 



811 
5,518 



19 
2,452 



241 
• 8 



11 
605 



3,164 



14 
1,726 



Total. 



3,490 
2,860 

5C0,160 
2.991 

212,580 

247 

1,374 

1,738 

44 

4,884 



858 
705 
78 



92 

28,507 

1,471 



234 

592 



4,490 

160, 417 

611,724 

16,066 

6,329 

2,471 

249 



616 
33J 
36 



31.262 
100 



1,740 



Value. 



$55,294 

14,096 
105,725 

80, 475 
1,782 
C, 913 
4,368 

47,271 
1,215 

10,773 



4,580 

17,668 

1.772 



15, 404 

2,99|p 

367 

48,863 
2,464 

22,764 

158,105 

251, 896 

125,639 

4,344 

3,232 

116, (fes 

6,030 

142 



102, 974 
50 



7,668 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



44 ANNNAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 

Statement shmcing the descripfion, quantity, ifc. — Continued. 



Deacription. 



Where from. 



CottoD wool bales. . 

Cotton waste bales. 

Confectionery pkgs . 

Corks pkgu. 

Chalk and whiting pkg«- 



Nova Scotia . . 
United 8tat4rii. 



United States 

United Stated 

British possesitions . 



United States 

Countries other than the U. S 

Great Britain and possessions ■ I 
United States 1 



Quantity. Total. | Value. 



5 
132 



57 
302 



57 
314 



Cranberries bbls . 

Cement bbls . 



Dnlzo cwt. 

Dyestuffs pkgs . 

Eggs dozen . 

Eart hen ware pkffs . 



United States | 

Great Britain Si Nova Scotia. i 109 

United States 1 ^3,199 

Nova Scotia 

Nova Scotia 22 

Great Britain and possessions. 1, 601 



Great Britain and possessions . { 
United States ■ 



125, 216 
849 



United States 

I G reat Britain and possessions . 



Fruit dried, {not product of the U. S.) ...lbs. 



G reat Britain and possessions 

France 

United States 



Product of the U. S. and Nova Scotia. lbs.' 



Fruit— oranges and lemons. . . 



I 
...boxes. 

I 
Apples and pears bbls. 

• Plums boxes . i 
Cherries boxes . < 

Felt and silk plush for liatters .: pkgs ■ | 



United States 

British possessions . . . 

United States 

Brititih possessions . . . 
Cuba and Porto lUco. 
• 
British possessions — 
United States 



British possessions 

Nova Scotia 

Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



446 
1,940 

112, 023 

521 

182,996 



889 
157 



3.354 
7 

1 



19,762 
5.026 



207 
I 1, 141 



Flour— wheat bbls. 



United States 

British possessions . 



Buckwheat bags . | 

Furniture, (for sale) pl^g8-j 



Feathers pkff^-! 

I 
I 

Fire bricks and tiles pkgs. 

I 

Fire clay pkgs. j 

I 

Fish— suited and dried cwt. 

j 

Wet bbls.! 

I 

Smoked a boxes.' 

i 

Fish and lobsters, fresh and preserved, .boxes.: 



Fish — sardines V^&^'\ 

Grain— wheat bush . ! 



Indian com bush . , 



United States 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



British possessions . 
United States 



United States. 
Great Britain . 



Great Britain. 
United States. 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



British ponsessions . 
United States 



United States., 
Nova Scotia . . 



Nova Scotia . - 
United States. 



France 

British possessions . 
United States 



United States. 
Canada 



222.402 
34,594 



6,893 
144 



56 



921 
13,558 



15.534 
282 



452 
15,860 



397 
46 



36 
20,563 



137 ' 

15 

3c9^ 

i 

371 I 



26 
9 



3,308 

ICO 



1,623 ! 
126,065 , 
2,386 

295,540 , 
1,046 I 



I 



3,362 • 



24,788 
414 ! 
1,140 

I 
1,348 , 



$50,713 

7yi 



3, i'tlO 
3. iHk; 



yi 






10. 0i?7 
13, f:?-,' 
47. 748 

20, .W 
14.220 

9,810 



42, KM 

1, 6.V) 
456 



6,38»> 



256,996 
234 



7,a77 

I 
61 

1 
67 

1 

24 

I 
14,479 j 

15, 816 I 

16,312 



1, 131». P8<) 



20. 172 

545 

2,0^ 

57 

43,9i»2 

48,770 

G.531 



443 
10 



96 ' 

i 
20,598 , 



651 
167 



112 
r.393 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 
Statement shotcing the description^ quantity, ^. — Gontinned. 



45 



Description. 



Gr.uB— barley bnKb . 



0«U bush. 

(;:a*-ware pkg». 



(•Ltf«(4. looking..! P^gs 



Ctrpgam tons. 

r.anpowder pltps. 

< taaao bags. 



Groeerfes, (not enumerated) pkgs 

Hid^ except prodnct of U. S pkgs 

Ptodnct of U. S. and British poss'ns 

Hai< and hat bodies pkgs 

Ursp. flax, tow, and manilla hemp bales 



Prodnct of United States bales . 

Hop* pkgs 

Hab^rdMbery pkg« 



Hardware pkgs. 

H&j'a&dBkoss pkgs. 

Hi7 !.. tons. 

Isdia-rabber goods, except boots St shoes . pkgs . 

iroa— aaebors, cables and other chains.. pkgs. 



Bolts, bars, plaUs» sheets, old, and rail- 
road iron cwt 



Nails and spikes pkgs. 

Wrought and cast, of all other kinds . . cwt . 



Castings, stoves, grates, ranges, boilers, 
fnraaoes, and parts of same pkgs. 



Rg.. 
Ore. 



.tons, 
.tons. 



>w«| 



'»<|J7. iflTer plate, plated ware, and 

'"^cbw .DklfS 






pkgs. 
pkgs 
.ibs.. 



Where from. 



British possessions 

United States 


21,497 
385 










United Stiles 


2,713 




9,437 


Great Britain 


18 


United States 


79 






Nova Scotia ---. 




Great Britain 




30 


United States 


147 






United States 


3,291 


X)ther countries 


7,389 
71 






Great Britain 


15 


United States 


19 






United States 


5,128 




1,144 






United States. 


117 
701 




United States 


985 
219 


Great Britain 


United States 




United States 




United States 


3,179 

3 

5,994 


Mexico 




United States 


4,557 
8,275 




United States 


116 
5 


Great Britain and possessions . 


United States 


54 

491 


British possessions 




Great Britain 


1 

2 

139 


Nova Scotia 


United States 




United States 


41 
1.880 




United States 


249,061 
722 

aoo 


Mexico 




United States 


1,732 
7,569 




United States 


844 

1.644 




United States 


1,430 
407 








Nova Scotia 


57 

622 


United States 




United States 


87 
61 




United States 


2 
37 


Grvat Britain and posMcimionfl . 


GreatBritain andpo«seii(<iions. 
Unitfd States 


12,974 
172.463 



Quantity. , Total. 



21,882 
79,669 



12,150 



97 

312 

1,442 



177 

10, 751 

34 

6,272 

818 

1,204 
323 
145 

9,176 

12,832 

121 

545 

142 
1,921 

2S0.0Q3 
9,301 
2.488 



1,837 
2,985 



148 
39 
-I 185,437 



Value. 



117,464 
29,869 



39,587 



1,286 

665 

4,975 



843 

74.453 

5,312 

37,118 

39,443 



26,068 
16,603 
4,372 



2,281,097 

239,897 

1,490 

6.534 

8,677 
169, 475 

503, 496 
39.432 
13,361 



11,978 

47,561 



9,541 

43,660 

5,032 

47. 183 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



46 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Statement sJiowing the description^ quantity ^ 4^. — Continued. 



DescripUoD. 
Lcnther— ftbecpgkinf, tanned and drefwd . .no 

Calfskins, tanned no 

Manufactures pkga 

Lines and twine pkgs 

• Lime bbis 

Lead c wt 

Lard lbs 

Marble, manufactured pkgs . 



Un wrought pkgs . 

Meato, salted, cured, or smoked Ibii . 



Fresh, and poultry . 
31 oliisses 



..lbs 
.gal- 



Melado bbls 

31usical instruments, viz : IManos pkgs 

Of all other kinds pkgs . 

Meal, com. and rye flour bbls 

Oats and peas bbls 

Machinery bbls 

Nuts and almonds pkgs. 

Naval stores, iuclud'g pitch, tar, and rokin . bbls . 

Oakum cwt 

Oil. palm lbs 

Flih bbls 

Of all other kinds, and vamiKb gnls 

Coal and petroleum bbls. 

Oy-t«n« bbls 

Paper, sheathing pkgs 



Where trova. 


Quantity. 


Total. 

6,209 

3,637 

365 

431 

387 

1,038 

93.165 

183 
1,025 

2,059.131 

14,900 

1, 116, 608 
219 

137 

122 

13,213 

2,756 

912 

1.089 

3,114 

1 
7,101 

9.171 

765 . 

69, 751 

2. 5:}? 


Value. 


I'nited States 


1.883 
4,126 




Qreat Britain and possessions . 


$3.1W 


G«at Britain and possessions. 
United States 


2,696 
941 




T.-i.!! 


United States 


209 
156 




3«. kV. 


Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 


335 
96 


United States 


355 
32 


Canada 






-u 


United State%. 


1,009 
29 


- 




5. Tjv; 


Oreat Britain and possessions . 
United States 


14,562 
78,603 




\\,\^\ 


United States 


1T7 
6 


Great Britain 






l.fii»7 
5 '*.V> 


United States 




United States 


1,599,845 
460.086 




Great Britain and possessions . 


157. lr'5 


British possessiops 


13,180 
1,720 

197,182 

401,828 

511,510 

1,762 

4,326 


United States 




United States 


1. :•- 


British poKsessicns 




Cuba and Porto Hico 

Mexico 




Martinique 






1j Mf' 


United States 




ITnited States 


132 
5 






17. 4> 


Nova Scotia 


4 
118 


United States 






" I- 


British possessions 


496 
12, 717 




United States 






41. 'UT 


United States 


l.OOT 
1, 749 


Great Britain and possessions . 


13. N-. 


Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 


15 
897 




•"»'» i>5^ 


Great Britain and possessions . 
France 


255 
252 
582 




United States 






8.07^ 


United States 


1,476 
1,638 


Great Britain and possessions . 


17. 4«U 


United States 


412 
6,689 




41. ■!!>.» 


Great Britain 


35 
9,136 


United States 






• i^^I 


United States 


280 
485 




Great Britain and poHSl>s^ious 


Iron 


United States 


31,536 
38,215 


Great Britoiu and possessions ■ 


\t\ ' 'X\ 


British possessions 


22 
2,515 




United States 






V 771 


Prince Edward Island 

United States 


1,3.^ 
428 






1 -.*ij 



Great Britiiin and Cuvada. . ., 
United Stnk's 



Digitized by 



93 
1,405 



1,498 



Google 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 
Statement showing the description, quantity, i^. — Continued. 



47 



Description. 



Pap4— pilatuig pkgs. 



Where from. 



Quantity. 



United States 

Great Britain & Nova Scotia. 



MaDafactore*. except printed bookn.pkgs. ' United 8tate« 

Great Britain and posflestiiong . 



Pnatioc preaies, types, and inlc pkgi . 



Nova Scotia . . 
United States. 



Great Britain and poftsessioni) . 
United States 



P.-.torvs, inelnding paintings and plates . pkgs . Great Britain and possessions . 

United States 

pfcint ami pntt jr cwt. United States 

P.pt«. tobacco pkgs . 

Prrfmnery pl^gs- 

Pu: belaud skins pkgs. 

Rlct * pkgs- 

"^•ap lbs. 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 

Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



^piriu, alcohol gals. United States 

Great Britain and posseseions . 



Great Britain and possessions. 

France 

United States 



Brandy gals. 

Gin and whiskey gals. United St<ites. 

Netherlands 

Great Britain and itoxsessions . 

Lnnon sinip. shrub, iaute. and other ' 

cordials gals. United States 

British possessions 

Old Tom, and all other cordials gals. | France 

United States 

, Great Britain and possessions . 



British spirits and tinctnres gals . i Great Britain 

United States •. 

Ram and all other spirits gals.' United States 

' Great Britain and possessions. 

Wines gals. I United States 

France 

Portugal 

< Great Britain and possess-ions. 



861 
110 



1,225 
505 



2 

136 



299 
5.6-28 



1,594 
29 



60 

1,848 



69,551 
28,589 



113,841 
U, 981 



44, 019 
963 



24,768 

7,320 

161, 136 



554 
538 



.1 



31 

27 

4,905 

"to 

152 



20,594 
66,105 



Wines. 



4,358 

6,049 

800 

20,315 



.gals. G reat Britain and possesulons. 9,931 

, France t j 315 

United States ' 1,016 



Wtoes gala.. United States 

I France , 

I Great Britain and possessions . | 



11 

152 

5,104 



Mi2ar— refioed or white, bantaM and candy, " 

W't ia loaves lbs. Great Britain and pos^Bthsions. i 352, 06o 

' United States • ' 150, 995 



Total. Value. 



971 

1 


$10,811 


1,730 ; 


• 19, 332 


138 ! 


2,606 


46 


1,789 


5,927 

1 


36,713 


1,623 


2,461 


91 


4,081 


46 

1 


2,153 


1,908 ' 


10.997^ 


98, 140 


5,170 


125,822 1 


76,449 



73,606 



193,224 



586 



31, 522 



11,263 



Brown, clayed muscovado, and other I 

kinds, not refined ".lbs.' United Stntea 430,816 I 

Cuba and Porto Rico 1, 1'iA, 59i> I 

, St. Mitrtin's ' 1,'J20 I 

I Britisli possessions 1, 529, 432 , 



94,659 



92, 801 



,086 



4,963 1 


3,715 


224 , 


23i 


86,699 i 


42,439 



22,034 



15,516 



12,605 



<*«4s. 



.pkgs. UnitiMl StatPB 

' Great Britain and posnecHlous . 



1,227 
200 



- 3, 6t<>J, (.»66 I -222, ('•86 



l,4i7 



2,260 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



d8 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE.* 

> 

Statement shoioing the description, quaniiti/, ^r. — Continued. 



Description. 



Salt of all kind! ton*. 



Where from. 



Great Britain and posseisions 

Spain , 

Portugal 

United States 



Sbrubs, trees, and plants pkg«| 

I 

Sails and rigging for new ships phgx. ^ 



Sails, rigging, and wrecked materials. . .pkgii. ' 
Sand tons . ( 



Straw pkgs 

Stationery .' pkgs 



Great Britain and possessions. 
United States 



Uniteu States. 
Great Britain. 



Nova Scotia . . . 
Nova Scotia . . . 
United States. 



Stones, burr, and grindstones ton:9 . 

Slates ti tons. 



Stone and slate manafaiftures pkgs. 

# Skins, nndresscd pkgs. 



Steel, bar and sheet cwt. 



Tobacco, manafisctared, except snuff and 
cigars lbs. 



Unmanufactured lbs. 

Snuff pkgs. 

Cigars *. pkgs. 

Tea lbs . 



Nova Scotia 

Mexieo 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions 



Nova Scotia . . , 
; United States. 



United States. 
Great Britain. 

United States. 
United States. 
British 



United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



Great Britain and possenions . 
United States 



United States 

British possessions . 



United States 

Great Britatai and possessions . 

Great Britain and possesions . 
United States 



Green.. 



.lbs. 



Tin, block and sheet cwt. 

Tallow and soap grease lbs. 

Trunks and valises. pkgs . 

Toys pkgs. 

Turpentine V^S*- 

Vinegar bbls . 

Vegetables— potatoes ♦ush . 



Turnips m bush. 

Onions pkgs 



Carrots, beets, parsnips, horse radish, and 
lettuce pkgs. 



United States 

Meidco 

Great Britain and possessions . 



Great Britain . 
Canada 



Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States 

British possessions. . 



United States 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



Great Britain. 
United States . 



United States 

France , 

Great Britain and possessions 



United States 

British possessions . 



British posseMions . 
BritiHh possessions . 
United States. 



United States . 
Nova Scotia . . 



Quantity. 



14,d22 

353 

290 

1,535 



Total. 



Value. 



IS 
159 



1 
1.651 



67 j 

4 



1 ! 

413 I 

61 I 



150 I 
10 I 



15 I 
144 



645 

17, 181 



365 
3,189 



35,151 
493,501 



80,755 
5,486 



103 
16 



905 



568,014 

5.193 

708,706 



16,930 I 



1,852 
22 



475 



160 



159 
42 



427 

126 



3,055 
136 



243.400 
547 



63 ! 
90 



17,1 



3,554 



528, 653 



86.241 



119 



237 



1,281,913 



553 



3.191 



943,947 
2,365 



153 



695 
164 
130 



2,119 
82,183 



79 
1,673 



3,483 

3,817 



b2,602 
6.131 



1,752 



7.300 



Digitized by 



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BBITISH DOMINIOKS. 
Statement showing the description, quantity, ifc. — Continued. 



49 



W«od— bowds WMl 1 



BtUllf. 



..ftet 



IVbcre nrom* 



NoraSeofla... 
United StatM. 



Htfd-wo«d boards feet. United Statei 

Deal* ^feet.j Nova Scotia 

Flivwood oordii. Nova Scotia 

Latb-wood oordfl.! BritiHh posiesrions . 

Treenails. - Nova Scotia 

United States 



Bsrk eords. 

BMkaMtfaek knees 

8blngiM 



.Pkgs 



SUp-wed«es. 

Ox-bo«r« 

Adipbak.... 
Xabosany.... 
Ugnunvitie . 



..boxes 

doz. 

.^.feet. 
...pkg«. 



Span sad I 

fitsves 

Cherry 



Owk. 



fret. 

Pkffi 

pkgs- 

Osk plank feet. 

WainnI boards feet. 



Osktinber. 



Breh timber . 
PfMtfaaber.. 



.tons, 
.tons. 



Noya Scotia... 

Canada , 

Nova Scotia... 
United States. 

United States. 
Nova Scotia... 



Nova Scotia.. 
Nova Scotia . . 
United States . 
United States . 
United States. 

Hayti 

San Domingo. 
NovaScoUa.. 

United States. 
Nova Scotia . . . 
United Stales. 

Portngal 

Netherlands. . . . 
United Siates., 
United States.. 
Nova Scotia... 



Canada 

United States. 



United States 

British posiessions . 



Tamarae timber tons 

Elm timber tons 

Ware maanfaetares, Indndlng matches, 
pietare-frames, com brooms, axe and 
whip-kaodles -....pkgs 



Maaiilbetax«s«exeeptwooden wares, -pkgs 
W<»1 bags 

&« cwt 

Artidca not otherwise enamerated— plnm* 
bego, leeches, sand and earth, manure, 
a«>e.*c pkgs 

ifiK^Haaeoas artidea— pine-apples, coooa- 
»ta, &e.. p«ying 3 per cent pli^- 

XMeeQaaeovs articles paylngi per cent, .pkgs . 

^■ai^IIsaeoas articles paying 15 per cent— 
UaeUng, images, chess-boards, fenders, 
cvbteg itooes, soap-stones, &c pkgs. 

^Bm r n i n e uu s articles paying 18 per cent .pkgs. 



Canada 

United States. 



Canada. 
Canada. 



Qaaatity. 



155,250 
6,629 



7,500 
69.348 



91,000 
5^550,000 



United States 

Portngal 

Cuba and Porto Rico , 

Oreat Britain and posseislons . 

Great Britain and possessions . 
United States 



United States... 

British possessions 

United States 

Great Britain and possessions . 



Oreat Britain and possessions 
United States 



United States 

Oreat Britain and possessions . 



United States. 
Oreat Britain . 



United States 

Oreat Britain and possessions . 

Oreat Britain and possessions 
United States 



23,660 
340 



54 
1,666 



8 

943 



206 



7,433 

80 

175 

321 



978 



203 
148 



168 
680 



182 
204 



725 
162 



211 
92 



161,879 

3,890 

2,285,000 

928 

20 



TotaL 



76,848 

7 

743 



5,571,000 



19 

13 

5 

1,150 

765 



180 

6 

2,500 

1,575 

317 

120 

,^,000 

23,000 

1,720 

945 



275 
86 
24 



8,010 

1,.006 

351 

848 

386 

887 

10 

303 
43 



Valne. 



$1,324 
563 

18,260 

3,712 

165 



5,412 

28 

2,857 

8,756 



186 
39 
10 

125 
2,203 



2,570 
843 

75 
107 
600 

51 
3,656 



2,637 
34,713 
2,846. 



4,386 

1,313 

327 



24^252 
1,960 
7,781 
4,799 

5,391 

4,404 

65 

3,105 
569 



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50 ANNUAL RBPOBT ON FOREIGN COlfMERCE. 

, Recapitukieion. 

Total ralne of foodt liable to duty Imported Into M^wBranswiek In 1864 $6.693. 4ffi 

Total not liable to dnty. 51,258,964 

Total ralne of importf during 1964 8,MS,ase 

Dutiable goods imported amonnted to. 74.e2peTerat 

Free goodM Imported amoanted to ; ^ 25. 18 per cent. 

Dntief collected In 1864 on all goods imported Into New Bnmswiek amounted to 10. 15 per cent, on their 
gross valnf*, (Indndiog both dutiable and xree goods,) and the duties collected amounted to 13. 37 p^r cenL of 
the value of dutiable goods. 



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68 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEIGN COIOIEBCE. 



Trinidad — ^N. S. Humphrey, Consul. 

Sbptbmbbr 8, 1865. 
I Bubmit herewith my a^naal report for the year ended Jane 30, 1865. 

Statement showing the description, quantity , and value of exports Jrom Trinidad 
for the year ended June 30, 1865. 

Sugar, 27,865 hhds., 5,155 tierces, 1,735 barrels $2, 000, 000 00 

Molasses, 12,375 puncheons • 155,000 00 

Rum, 750 puncheons 25, 000 00 

Cocoa, 6,000,000 pounds 660, 000 00 

Coffee, 15,000 pounds 2, 000 00 

Cotton, 150,000 pounds ^ 75, 000 00 

Total 2,917,000 00 



The exports to the United States, consisting principally of sugar and molasses, 
are estimated at $156,000 ; of which a little less than one-half were shipped in 
United States vessels. 

Owing to the unusually early commencement of the rainy season not more 
than two- thirds of the growing sugar crop has been secured and manufactured ; 
so that, notwithstanding the increase in some other articles, the total value of ex- 
ports is but a little more than two-thirds of that of the previous year. It is 
proper to remark, however, that the crop of 1864 was above an average iu 
quantity and value. 

IMPORTS. 

The total value of imports may be stated in round numbers at $3,975,000 ; 
exceeding those of last year by more than half a million, of which there was 
from Great Britain and its dependencies the usual assortment of merchandise to 
the value of $2,465,000 ; from the United States, $815,000; and from all other 
foreign countries, $695,000. 

In enclosing the following statement of imports from the United States, I have 
to remark that to the articles there enumerated should be added an annual im- 
portation of ice of the average value of $50,000 from Boston, which is retailed 
oy the only American firm doing business on this island. 

Statement showing the description, quantity y and value of imports from the 
United States into the island of Trinidadfor the year ended June 30, 1865. 



Description. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Description. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Bread bbls. 


4,847 

22,221 

205,220 

52,657 

7,010 

4,627 

54,705 




*25,830 

3,840 

30,940 

7,040 

6, 340 

18,860 

292, 440 

1,930 

4.490 

07,600 

28,860 


Matches 




$3,020 

137, 51K) 

54,190 


Butter lbs. 

Candles lbs. 


Provisions lbs. 

Oil meal . 


1,180,195 


Cheese lbs. 


Kerosene . 




12, 0(10 


Cora bush. 


I'eas and beans 




4,490 
52,690 
22,92<) 
50,UiH> 


Cora meal bbls. 

Flour bbls. 


Tobacco lbs. 

Sundries 


197,210 


Furniture 


Ice, (estimated) 




Hardware . ............ 




Total 




Lard lbs . 


298, 190 




815 0(Mt 


Lumber, shooks, and 
staves 















Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 69 

Tubk's Island — J. G. Grisson, Consul, 

October 28, 1865. 

I have the honor to laj before you the annual report on the trade of this con- 
sular district, for the year ended September 30, 1865. 

The fact that the only production of these islands is salt has been so often 
rdterated, aa to require no repetition here : they are, however, well adapted to 
the growth of cotton, and the executive of the colony, among other efforts to 
improve its condition, has striven to open a new field of enterprise by encour- 
aginr attempts at the cultivation of this plant; but the comparative ease with 
whita salt is produced by solar evaporation, and the scarcity of labor, must, for 
a long time at least, preclude the creation of any other staple commodity in these 
islands. The trade of the colony is therefore at present almost exclusively re- 
stricted to the exportation of salt and the importation of the necessaries of life. 
Of the staple, more than seven-eighths are exported to the United States, and 
the remainder to the British provinces of North America; of the imports, nearly 
all the provisions and breadstuffs are drawn from the United States, while dry 
goods, clothing and fancy articles are mostly from England. 

The namber of American vessels arrived during the year ended September 
30, 1865, is S3 ; which, as compared with the year 1864, shows a decrease of 
sixteen. They were divided among the ports of the colony as follows: at 
Grand Turk 46, at Salt Gay 24, at East Harbor 13 ; as to class, there were 2 
ships, 16 barks, 30 brigs, and 35 schooners, of the aggregate tonnage of 19,659, 
and with 597 seamen, inward. I will give the quantity and value of exports 
to the United States for the year ended September 30, 1865, collected from the 
triplicate invoices filed in this office and the consular agencies ; and will furnish 
a comparative statement of the whole imports and exports of the colony for the 
year ended December 81, 1864. 

First, the number of bushels of salt shipped to the United States from aU the 
ports of the colony during the year ended September 30, 1865, was 1,001,874, 
of the value of $123,836 82; of this quantity, 589,429 bushels, of the value of 
$72,358 07, were shipped in American vessels, and 412,445 bushels, of the value 
of $51,478 75, in foreign. The total value of all exports to the United States 
for the same period was $174,719 45. In American bottoms, $82,646 10; and 
in foreign, $92,073 35. 

The difference between the total value of all exports to the United States and 
the value of salt exported thereto, namely, $50,882 63, is comprised principally 
of wood, tobacco, and other St. Domingo produce ; in which articles, since the 
blockade of the ports of St. Domingo by Spain, a considerable trade sprung up * 
between that island and these, by means of small craft running the blockade. 
Smce, however, the blockade has been raised, the regular trade to these ports 
may soon be expected to be re-established, when the one at present existing 
between that island and these will doubtless to a great extent cease. 

Secondly, the total value of all imports into the colony during the year ended 
December 31, 1864, was $308,385 04; of exports, $208,286 80. Showing, as 
compared with the previous year, an increase in the former of $142,913 28, and 
in the latter of $94,990 66. Of the imports, the value of $128,280 38 was from 
the United States, and $180 104 66 from other places; and of the exports, the 
nloe of $148,574 80 was to the United States, and $59,712 to other places. 
Thus, about 42 per cent, or nearly one-half, of the total of imports was from 
the United States, and about 71 per cent, or nearly two-thirds of the exports, 
vere to that country. The average price of the staple for the year 1865, as 
ooDeeted froai the triplicate invoices filed in this consulate, is about eleven cents 
per bushel, exclusive of the export duty of one cent per bushel, and the other 
dir^; and although this as compared with the previous year shows a decrease^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ !(:! 



70 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

in price, still, the figare named above is regarded as amplj remaneratiye to the 
manufactorer. 

The total revenue of this colony from October 1, 1864, to September 30, 1865, 
amounted to $46,046 60, as follows: from imports, 825,484 90; from exports, 
$10,964 78; and from other sources, $9,597 22; and which, as contrasted with 
the year 1864, shows a decrease of $5,962 68, being an increase in imports of 
$1,860 60, and a decrease in exports of $5,168 36, and in other sources of 
$2,654 92. 

* * The export duty on salt is one cent per bushel. The bushel 
measure for salt is by law made to contain thirty-nve imperial quarts. The 
port cnarges are, light duty at the rat^ of eight cents per ton of registered ton- 
nage, and pilotage at the rate of $3 for fifty tons and under; for above fifty 
tons and not above one hundred, $4 50 ; and for every fifty tons over one hun- 
dred, at the rate of fifty cents for every additional fifty tons. 

There have been only five vessels wrecked or stranded within the colony 
during the past year, two of which were American and three British. The 
value of the property saved from them was as follows : Property being the 
produce of the United States, $14,014 52 ; property being the produce of other 
countries, $814 58; total, $14,829 10. Thus, although only two of the five 
vessels lost during the year bore the flag of the United States, more than 
ninety-four per cent, of the freight carried bv the whole five was the produce 
of that country. I regret to say that the fine of English steamers which 
lately touched at these islands on their trips to and from Liverpool and Port 
au Prince via New York have for some time past discontinued their visits to 
these islands, but I have been favored with the perusal of a correspondence be- 
tween the colonial secretary and the local agent of this steamship companj, 
from which it appears that negotiations are still pending for the inclusion of 
these islands once more in their route. 

The only public measure of the past year in any way likely to a£fect 
American interests has been in reference to the erection of a light-house on 
Sand cay, near the southern extremity of the Turk's islands passage. This 
project has long been in contemplation, but now seems nearer a consummation 
than it ever has been at any previous time. * * ♦ * 

«< Turk's islands passage" is formed by the Turk's islands, consisting of 
Grand Turk, Salt cay, and other small cays and reefs on the east, and the 
Gaicos islands and bajik on the west, and runs in a south-southwesterly direc- 
tion, and is, from the light-house on Grand Turk, its northern extremity, to 
Sand cay, near its souUiern end, about twenty-two miles in length. The 
, ** Endymion rock " bears from the south end of Sand cay southwest distant 
sin miles, and the "Swimmer shoal" from the "Endymion rock" west by 
south, distant twelve miles. The entrances from the south to the "Turk's 
islands passage" lie, therefore, between the "Swimmer shoal" and the 
•** Endymion rock" and "Sand cay." 

A committee of the legislative council of this government, in June last, laid 
'before the President and council a report on the proposed light-house on Sand 
iCay, from which it appears that the number of vessels passing through the 
'Turk's islands passage has increased since the erection of the light-house on 
'Grand Turk to an average, within the last three vears, of six hundred and 
fifty-three per annum in the day-time, while nearly as great a number are 
known to pass at night; further, that if a light was established at Sand cay 
vessels from Europe and North America bound to Hayti, the south side of 
<;uba, Jamaica, and the Gulf of Mexico, would take this passage in preference 
to the Silver cay, or " Gaicos passage" where most of the wrecks now occur, 
and that steamships and other vessels homeward bound would prefer it in 
coming from the south, it being the safest passage on account of its shortness. 



Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 71 



Jfeium of (he number of vessels pcused the light-house at Ghrand Turkt between 
sunrise and sunset, from the 1st of January, 1865, to the 1st of January, 
1866, {oficially reported,) 

Steamere 20 

ShiM 5 

Bftrkfl 94 

Brigs 233 

Seiners 113 

Total • 465 



Fbbbuary 3, 1866. 

* * * There is a falling off in the import dnties of 1865 of de282 2s. 2d. 
The export dntj on salt has reached that of 1864 within the trifling amount of 
<€1 15#. Id., which amount represents the difference in the quantity of the staple 
exported daring the two years, namely 842, hushels. 

The light duty has declined to the extent of o652 is., hut other sources nearly 
make up for the other deficiencies hy an increase of o£317 7s. 4d., so that the 
total falling off in the revenue for 1865, as compared with the year 1864, is only 
ce25 3s. Sd. sterling. 

The whole receipts for the year 1865 amount to 6£9,965 6s. 6^., and the expendi- 
tures to <£9, 141 3s. lid., giving a surplus of receipts over expenditures of d£824 2s. 
7d^ which added to the balance of 1864 gives an amount of d£3,423 13s. 8d. avail- 
able for 1866. 

This is less than the imports from the United States for the preceding year by 
some $65,000, and the proportion brought in United States vessels is about the 



The average rates of freight from the United States for the year have been 
leventy-five cents per barrel for flour, and in proportion for other goods. 

Theie is no quotable rate of return freights, as all shipments have been made 
on owners' acconnts. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



72 



AKNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMEBCE. 



Kingston, (Ja.) — ^Aaron Orbgg, Cofuul. 

Statement thawing the description^ quantity, and value of exports from King- 
ston to the United States during the nine months ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Qaantitj. 



Yftlue. 



Cattle.. 
Horses. 
Hogs. 



Sheep 

Butter pounds. 

Wool do--- 

Hops do... 

Cheese do... 

Iron do... 

Eggs dozen. 

Lumber .« feet. 

Shingles 

Laths bunches. 

Do number. 

Skins, calf dozen. 

sheep.... 

kip 

Fish barrels. 

Old lead and brass do... 

Barley bushels. 

Rye do... 

Flax, (tow) bales. 

Paper and rags do.. 

Dry goods 

Books. 



6,765) 
903 > 
978) 
4,370 
70,054 
3,779 
1,116 
6,084 
3,038 

32,21H 

6,801,732^ 

462,000 I 

16 f 

57, 750 J 

197 > 

3,220 > 

12) 
230 
4 
68,350^ 
1.550$ 
51 
30 



Boat seine 

Printing press 

Household gfoods packages. 

Furs. 



1 
22 



Salt muroths. 

Do bags. 

Do bushels. 

Do tons. 

Tea chests. 

Barrels for kerosene 

Wood cords. 

Chickens pairs. 

Seeds : cases. 

Wheat bushels. 

Wheat, barley, oats, peas, and buckwheat 

JewellersMust 

Horses and buggies 

Horses and wagon 

Alcohol t gallons. 

Steam walking beam strap 



19, 325 1 
10,692 1 
10,412 1 
219 J 
110 
836 
210 
150 
7 
5,710 



150 



1268,714 77 

9,811 00 
14,001 56 

1,383 43 
167 40 
507 00 



3,796 00 
73,024 87 

5,56145 

756 00 
61 00 

44,269 73 

200 00 

721 12 

218 99 

11 60 

40 00 

720 00 

4,996 00 

2,738 80 

13,913 28 

6,035 00 
596 27 
275 00 
300 00 
250 00 

5,648 00 
10,897 47 
75 00 
415 00 
635 00 
345 00 
200 00 



Total. 



466,247 70 



Schedule of import duties imposed hy the Jamaica authorities by an act styled 
the import duties act, in force until March 31, 1867, dated 1864. 

Duties. 
d. s. d. 

Ale, per tun 5 7 C 

Asses, per head 5 

Bacon, per cwt 10 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 73 

oC 9. d, 

Biriej, (not pearl,) per bushel 3 

Beef, dbried, per cwt 10 

fieef, salted and cored, per bbl. of 200 lbs 10 

BesDS, per bneliel 3 

Beer, per tun 5 7 

Birds, free 

Books, printed, inclading maps, free 

Bread and biscait, per ewt 6 

Bricks, per thonsana 4 

Bullion, free. 

Batter, per cwt 9 

Galayances, per bushel : 3 

Candles, composition, per box of 56 lbs 7 

Candles, tallow, ner box of 56 lbs 2 6 

Candles, wax and sperm, per box of 56 lbs 10 

Cattle, slaughtered, per head 10 

Carriages, carts, and wagons, free 

Cheese, per cwt 10 

Cider, per tnn 4 7 

Clothing, army and navj, free 

Coals, free 

Cocoa, percwt 10 

Coffee 10 

Coke, free . . . • 

Com, Indian, per bushel 3 

Cotton, free ^ 

Diamonds, free. 

Dogs, free 

Dyewood, free 

Drawings, free 

Engiayings, lithographs, A:c., free 

Fish, dri^ and siutea, per cwt 2 6 

fresh, free 

smoked, per cwt 4 

alewives, pickled, per bbl 2 

herrings, pickled, per bbl 2 

Do. smoked, per 25 lbs 6 

mackerel, pickled, per bbl 4 

Do. pickled and not otherwise enumerated, per bbl. . . 4 

salmon, smoked, per cwt 10 

Do. or salted, per bbl 10 

Flax, free 

Floor, rye, per bbl - 8 

Flour, wheat, per bbl 8 

Fruit, fresh, free 

Goats, free ; 

Goano and other manures, free 

Guns, free 

Gunpowder, per lb 6 

Hams, per cwt 10 

Hand machines for preparing fibre, spinning cottmo, &e., free. . . . 

Haj and straw, free 

Hemp, free 

Hides, raw, free 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



74 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

£ 9. i. 

Horses and mules, per head 8 % 

Hogshead shooks, each 6 

Hydraulic and printing presses, each • 2 

Ice, free 

Iron, galvanized, per <£ 100 value 4 

Iron for roofing, &c., free 

Indigo, per lb 3 

Lard, per cwt 6 

Leeches, free 

Matches, per gross of 12 dozen boxes 5 

Malt dust, free 

Marble in slabs or blocks, per c£ 100 value 4 

Machines, horse-power, per c£100 value 4 

Meat, fresh, free 

Meat, salted or cured, per 200 lbs 10 

Meal, not wheat, per bbl GIG 

Mills of all kinds, per c£100 lbs. value 4 

Molasses, free 

Mules, per head 8 

Necessaries for army or navy, certified by military or naval com- 
mander as necessary, free 

Oats, per bushel 3 

Oil cake, free 

Oil, per gall 4 

Patent fuel, free 

Pans for boiling sugar, copper, or iron, per o£100 value 4 

Peas, not split, per bushel 3 

Perry, per tun 4 7 

Pipes for conveying fluids, per c£100 value 4 

Plants, growing, free 

Ploughs and agricultural implements and parts of same, 4 per cent. 

Pork, salted and cured, per bbl. of 200 lbs 10 

Porter, per tun 5 7 

Poultry, free 

Puncheon shooks, each 6 

Pumps for raising water, per o£100 value 4 

Railroad truck wheels, per d£ 100 value 4 

Resins and rosin, free 

Rice, per cwt 2 

Rice, undressed, per bushel 1 

Salt, per cwt 1 

Salt, rock, free 

SarsapariUa, free 

Sausages, per cwt 10 

Sheep, free 

Slates, free 

Soap, per box of 56 lbs 3 

Soda ash and sub soda, free 

Specimens illustrating, &c., free 

Spirits : brandy, per gall 7 

gin, per gall 6 

rum imported from British poseessions, per gall 6 

whiskey, per gall 5 

of wine, sdcohol, cordials, &c., per gall 8 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



75 



Stills and parte of Btills, per oClOO value 4 

Steam en^nes and parts of engines, per dClOO value 4 

Sagar, refined, per lb 2 

nnrefinea, per cwt 10 2 

Swine, free 

Tallow, grease, and grease and black, free 

Tea, per lb 16 

Tierce shooks 6 

Tiles, marble, per <£100 value 4 

earthen, free 

Tobacco, manufactured, per lb 6 

unmanufacturea, per 100 lbs. weight 1 1 

cigar, per 100 lbs. weight 2 6 

Tongaes, dried, per cwt 10 

salted or cured, per bbl. 200 lbs 10 o 

Tortoise shell, free 

Tow, free 

Turtle, free 

Lr nilbiins, free •. 

Vegetables, fresh, free 

Wax, bees', free 

Wheat, per bushel 4 

Wines in bulk or bottles 15 

Wood : pitch pine lumber bj superficial measure, one inch thick, 

per 1,000 feet 12 

white pine bj superficial measure, one inch thick, per 

1.000 feet - 8 

shingles, cypress, more than 12 inches in length, per 1,000 4 

Wallaba shingles, per 1,000 4 

Boston shingles, and all other shingles not provided for, 

per 1,000 2 

hoops, per 1,000 2 

red and white oak and ash staves and headings, per 1,000 . 4 
Wire for fencing, iron standards, hurdles and tram rails, per o£100 

value 4 

On all other goods, wares, and merchandise, plantation supplies of 

eveiy description, not previously enumerated, on <£100 value.. 12 10 

ScTiedtde of duties levied in Jamaica an exports, 

, £ i. d. 

Sugar, per hogshead 5 9 

Rom, per puncheon 4 6 

Coflfee, per tierce* 6 

Rmcnto, per 120 lbs. bag 10 

Ix^ood, other djewoods, lignumvitas and cocus wood, per ton. . 10 

Ginger, per cwt 1 

Beeswax, per cwt 2 

Arrowroot, per cwt 10 

Coeoanuts, per thousand 10 

Mahogany, per thousand feet 5 

Honey, per cwt 10 

Stodt of all kinds, per head 6 



* Three tiercei are reckoned to two bogheads, and eight banels to one hogBhead. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



76 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Schedule of the tax an shipping at Kingston. 

Castoms, tonnage act, per ton 

Morunt ligbt-houBe, per ton 

Plam Point light-houBe,"^ per ton 

On all veeBels (except steamers which pay, per ton, Id. erery three 
months) and hospital fees 

HEALTH OFPICBRS' FBBS. 



9. J. 

2 
3 



riC s. 



Ship or bark 12 

Brig or brigantine 9 

Schooner or sloop 6 

KINGSTON HARBOB DUBS. 

<£ S. 

Ships or barks 1 l:f 

Brigs or brigantines 1 4 

Schooners or sloops 16 

Vessels trading within the tropics, one-half. Vessels arriving in ballast and 
loading with wood onlj paj one-half of all charges, except health officers' fees 
and harbor dues. 

Schedule of the piloU* fees levied in the ports of Jamaica. 





Pilotage. 


BRITISH TOIWAOB. 






1. 
1' 










m 

3 
S 

1 

a 


FmST Cr.AfM. 

Kingtson 1 

Manchioneal [ 

St. Ann'sbay ( 

Falmouth... J 

BZCOKD CLASS. 

All porta not enume- 1 
rated asabove, ex* > 
cept Port Koyal. > 

THIRD CLASS. 

Fort Royal < 


Inward. ... 
Outward.. 

Inward 

Outward.. 

Inward 

Outward.. 


£ », d, 
6 00 00 

400 00 

4 16 00 

3 4 00 

4 10 00 
2 16 00 


£ 9. d. 
5 500 

3 13 00 

4 4 00 

2 16 00 

3 12 00 
8 800 


£ B. d 

4 16 00 
3 400 

3 12 00 

2 800 

3 00 00 
200 00 


£ 9, d. 

4 4 00 

2 16 00 

300 00 
2 00 00 

2 14 00 
1 16 00 


£ 9. d, 
3 12 00 

2 800 

2 800 

1 12 00 

fi 200 

1 800 


£ t. d. 
300 00 

200 00 

1 16 00 
1 4 00 

1 16 00 
1 4 00 


£ B. d. 
2 d UO 

1 12 00 

1 10 00 
1 OOOO 

1 10 00 
100 00 



There shall be paid for pilotage into Old Harbor for every ihip or bark, £5 St.; for every brig and brigan- 
tine, £2 14« : and for every Bchooner or sloop, £1 7«. Same for pilotage out clear of the shoali of all such 
vessels as aforesaid. 



Prince Edward Island — Joseph Govell. Ckmsul. 
t January 19, 1866. 

* * The agricultnral and financial departments of this island are in a pros- 
perous condition. 

* Vessels putting in for order and to land passengers do not pay Plum Point light Yes- 
eels in distress pay no tonnage, &.C. 

tAnnaal report. Digitized by GoOglc 



BBITISH DOMINIONS. 77 

.£ 9, d. 
The total valne of imports during the year ended December 

31. 1864, is 337, 927 1 9 

Imports the preyioas year 293, 431 4 10 

Showing an inc^ase ot 44, 495 16 11 

<£ 8. d. 

Import and excise duties on this year's importations were. . • 33, 319 6 7 
Yalae of tbe same the previous year 30, 704 17 8 

Showing an increase ot 2,614 8 11 

EXPORTS. 

oC 8. d. 

The total value of exports for 1864 is 202,668 9 

The total value of exports for 1863 is 209, 472 9 6 

Showing a decrease of • 6, 804 8 9 

The number of vessels built on this island during tbe year 1864 is 119, of an 
aggregate tonnage of 33,330 tons, old measurement ; which, calculated at (£5 
per ton» should be added to general exports as follows : 

Jt 8, d. 

Mercantile exports 202, 668 9 

Yalae of vessels built at this island and sent to foreign mar- 
kets for sale 123, 340 

Totalexports 326, 008 9 

Tbe principal articles exported were oats,* barley, potatoes, and fish. 
A great amount of fishing is done in tbe waters of this island by American 
fishermen. * 

The light and anchorage and import duties of this colony remain unchanged. 



Statement 8howing the value of the import and export trade of the colony of 
Prince Edward* 8 ieland^ toith other countrie8 and colonies, during the year 
1S64. 



Countries. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


OrpatBritmn 


£ #. ^. 

in4,153 10 1 

5< ,r'33 16 2 

27,;>5i6 14 5 

•A, ')38 19 7 

r),708 17 7 

154 5 6 

4. 591 7 4 

h;,;>GO 11 1 


£ s. d. 

37,092 12 9 


Nuva Scotia 


48,954 11 10 


NVw Bnuuwick ...... 


18,691 12 


NkwfouiidlaDd 


11,059 6 2 


B^rmiida and West Indies 


7,700 6 


Sj.Fierre 


1,139 19 8 


CsDAda 


587 3 


liilttd States 


77,442 9 4 



Total. 



:--^r,0:JS 1 9 



202,668 9 



* The standard weight of oats in this island In 30 i)ouuds per bushel. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



78 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

DbMBBARA — ^P. FiGYBLMBSY, CoMul. 

August 3, 1865. 

The name " Guiana" is given to that portion of Soatb America lying be- 
tween 80 40' north and 3^ 30' south, and between 50^ and 68^^0' west longi- 
tude, with an estimated area of 690,000 square miles. Its coftt-line extends 
from the mouth of the Orinoco to that of tne Amazon. This region is divided 
as follows : 

1st. Venezuelan Ouiana, lying both sides of the Orinoco, and extending south 
and southwest to river Negro and the Brazilian settlements. Its northeast 
boundary is at a point near the mouth of the river Barina, which empties itself 
at the confluence of the Orinoco. 

2d. British Gaiana, extending from Venezuelan Ouiana to the river Gorentyn. 

3d. Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, extending from the river Gorentyn to the 
river Marawini, in 54P west. 

4th. French Guiana, more commonly called Cayenne, from the island on 
which its capital is situated, extends from the river Marawini to near Cape North. 

5th. Brazilian Guiana extends from the southern boundaries of French, 
Dutch, British, and Venezuelan Guiana to the rivers Amazon and Negro. 

The three colonies of Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo formerly belonged to 
the Dutch, but were captured in 1803, and finally ceded to Great Britain in 
1814, and constitute the present colony of British Guiana, thus first designated 
in 1831. They are now termed counties, of which Berbice extends from the 
Gorentyn to the Abari creek, or about 95 miles. Essequibo, from the Boera- 
sini to the site of the military posts formerly maintained by the Dutch on the 
river Boerasini, about 120 miles ; thus making a sea-front of 280 miles, by an 
interior depth of 300 to 450 miles from north to south. 

It is difficult to determine with exactitude the area of the colony of British 
Guiana, since its boundaries, not only on the side of Venezaela, but on that of 
Brazil, are yet undetermined. Assuming its limits to be those which the geo- 
graphical features of that territory would indicate, the area would be equal U) 
76,000 square miles. In its geographical character indications are traceable of 
the interior of this vast region 4iaving been at some former period the bed of a 
series of lakes, the waters of which, bursting their barriers, found passages to 
the Atlantic. The interior is diversified by ranges of mountains, extensive 
savannas, and dense forests. Of the former the highest point yet determined is 
stated to be the peak of Rovaima, in latitude 5° 9* 30'' north, longitude 60° 47' 
west, being 7,500 feet above the level of the sea. 

The coast lauds and cultivated districts of the colony have a soil of blue clay 
impregnated with marine salt, and is rich in decomposed vegf>t4ible matter. 

In the forests bordering the settlements, and occasionally in the savannas, 
extensive tracts of tropical peat occur, sometimes of considerable depth ; and 
the same formation has existed on a great part of the cultivated lands, but from 
long-continued tillage has become exhausted. About thirty miles up the Ese- 
quibo is an extensive bed of granite, with homblend. 

The chief rivers of the colony are the Essequibo, the Demerara, and the Ber- 
bice. The Essequibo is not less than 620 miles in length, and its month forms 
an estuary nearly twenty miles wide, with numerous fertile islands, several of 
which are from twelve to fifteen miles long. In consequence, however, of in- 
terruptions by cataracts it is navigable for large vessels not more than fifty 
miles from its mouth. In the Demerara, the upper course of which is known 
only to the Indians, vessels of large burden have loaded timber seventy-five 
miles from its mouth. 

Vessels of twelve feet draught can ascend 105 miles on the river Berbice, and 
those of seven feet draught 175 miles from its month. 

The boundary river Gorentyn is navigable for small vessels for about 150 
miles from its mouth. Digi^i.ed by v^OOg le 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 79 

Notwithstanding the position of this territoiy so near to the eqnator, the 
dimate is more equable and temperate than many other countries under similar 
mnllels of latitude. This arises ^m tbe uniformlj great length of the night, 
anriDg which the earth has time to cool by radiation, and from proximity to the 
ocean, and the prevailing wiods, being the northeast trades, and from the favor- 
able angle of the coast towards it. 

It is usually assumed that the year is divided into two wet and two diy sea- 
sons, but latterly the periods of such changes have not been well marked, and 
the latest information of the Georgetown observatoiy on the subject is that the 
annual fall of rain during the last seven years varies ^m seven to eleven feet. 
It is, however, to be remarked that although the amount of rain is so great, it 
seldom rains for twelve hours consecutively, and that a day hardly passes with- 
out £air weather and sunshine. The long dry season extends from the end of 
Ang;u8t to the end of November, and the short one from the middle of Februaiy 
to die middle of April, but even during these seasons there are occasionally re- 
freiihing showers. 

The population of British Guiana was, in 1861, 148,900, and that of the city 
of Demerara 35,000. The metropolis and most important commercial place of 
the colony is Georgetown, formerly called Stabrock, at the mouth of the Deme- 
laia n ver and partially on the sea-coast. The city, with the exception of govern- 
ment structures, is built entirely of wood, and is very much exposed to confla- 
grations. 

The light-ship, immediately beyond the bar of the Demerara river, is about 
nine miles from the light-house, bearing northeast by southwest, and the positions 
of hoth have been fixed as follows : light-house, 6^ 9^ 54^' latitude north and 
58"" ^f longitude west ; light-ship, 6^ 55' 33'' latitude north and 58"^ 1^^ longi- 
tude west. 

The only other tO¥m of any importance is New Amsterdam, near the mouth 
of the river Berbice, which has a population of 4,579 inhabitants. 

The staple products of the colony were formerly described as sugar, rum, 
coffee, and cotton. They may be now quoted as sugar, rum, molasses, and tim- 
ber, cotton having altogether ceased to be exported, and coffee having dwindled 
down to a comparatively inconsiderable item. 

As will be seen from these statements, this colony depends entirely on import- 
ations &om other countries for such necessaries as flour, bread, meal, beef, pork, 
peas, com, ice, lumber, &c., &c., imported from the United States, as are also 
cattle, horses, mules, and sheep brought here in great quantities since peace is 
restored. Dry goods, iron and steel goods, coal, &;c., &:c., are imported from 
England. 

On the immigrants' arrival in this colony they are allotted to the different 
plantations under a written contract or indenture of labor for a term of five years, 
which is duly signed by themselves. The indentured immigrants are bound by 
their contracts to perform five days' labor, or five tasks, in every week ; when 
emploved at field-work they labor seven hours daily, between sunrise and sun- 
set ; during the sugar-making time their services are in the buildings, tailing 
Jifietn komrt daily — ^from about 5 a. m. to 8 p. m.; and they receive payment for 
each day's work in accordance with the description of the task allotted, from 
sixteen to thirty-two cents. Out of this very small sum the immigrants are 
obliged to purchase food and clothing. At the expiration of the contract, if the 
immigrant is desirous of being re-indentured for a further term of five years, and 
if he can obtain an employer, a bounty of S50 is paid to the immigrant, and he 
then enters into a fresh contract for another five years. But failing in this, the 
inmiigrant is ejected from the plantation ; a free ticket from further claims by 
the colony is given to him by the immigrant agent general. From which cause 
aanj are to be daily seen in a state of starvation and nudity, begging on the 
piblic highways. No inducement is held out to these people to become settlers. 
No coiisideration by the colony is given to the immigrant, who after honestly 



80 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



having completed his term of contract on the plantation, mast either retnm to 
his native country at the expense of the colony penniless, or endeavor to eain 
a daily subsistence about the cities. No land is given by the colony on Trhich 
the immigrant may devote the remainder of his days for ihe benefit of his family. 
Less than 500 acres cannot be purchased, and to such a description of people it 
is no doubt held at a high rate to prevent their becoming freeholders. 

In this colony the colored man is looked upon with scom» from the fact that 
he will not consent to labor for such paltry wages. 

The plantations are principally managed by Scotchmen. The proprietors of 
plantations, in conjunction with the merchants, import also young men from 
Scotland and other parts of Great Britain, paying Uieir passage, and on their 
arrival they enter into contracts imder indentures, like other immigrants. A 
portion of them, the cleverest, are taken for clerks in the offices ; the others are 
sent to the estates as overseers, and receive a salary of $15 to $20 per month 
until the termination of their contract. With few exceptions they are of the 
lowest description. 

The immigrants imported at the expense of the colony, and who are compelled 
to serve under indentures, are principally brought from the East Indies, and 
called by the English sepoys, coolies, &c.. &c., Cliinese, and Africans. Free 
immigration is also encouraged from Madeira and Barbadoes. (See return No. 2.) 

The Portuguese are a hard-working and industrious race of people, many be- 
ing established as merchants and carry on extensive business, while others con- 
duct grocery establishments. 

The Barbadians here are of the very worst class of people. British Guiana 
is also the resort of convicts from Cayenne. * * * ♦ 

Living in this colony is very expensive, and when coupled with the very small 
amount of daily wages it is, of course, impossible for the poor immigrants to 
purchase anything better than the coarsest and most common sort of food called 
"plants," which are here expressly cultivated for that purpose.' The clothing, 
too, is the poorest possible — a piece of coarse linen tied around the loins. 



Comparative statement shototng the total nutnber of coolies and other immigrant 
laborers introduced into the colony of British Guiana during the years 1863 
and 1864. 

1863. 





CLASSIFICATION. 


-a" 


Whence. 




KationAlity and race. 




S 


i 


O 


«5 

i 




East Indians 


1,750 

286 

247 

25 


443 
92 

78 
19 


48 

12 

37 

5 


.38 
4 

10 
5 


75 
2 

1 
15 


2,354 

396 

373 

69 


Calcutta. 
Canton. 
St. Helena. 
Barbadoes. 




Chinese 




Africans 




West Indians 








Total 


2,308 


632 


102 


57 


93 


3,192 









1864. 



East Indians . 

Chinese 

Africans . 



1,995 

336 

2H5 

West Indians |2, 261 

Total. 



4,877 



460 


104 


151 


14 


43 


47 


9^4 


296 


1,638 


461 



67 
1 

15 I 
133 ' 



83 
7 




2,709 Calcutta. 
509 Canton. 



390 
4,297 



216 



713 



St. Helena. 
Barbadoes. 



Since 1835 the numbf-r import«Hl has bifn 118,1*17. 



Jigitized by 



7,905 

^JoogIe 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 81 



RAILWAYS. 



The only railway line in the colony extends twenty-five miles up the sea- 
coast of Demerara. By this conveyance the mails are forwarded for Berbice ; the 
balance of the route being by post coach. 



MINES. 

A gold mine has been discovered on the banks of the river Gayuni, at a 
distance of 150 miles from this city. A company has been formed under the 
style and name of *• The Gold Mining Company of British Guiana" for the pur- 
pose of working it. One steam machine was imported from England for crush- 
ing quartz, and is now erected at the mine and in active operation. 

8TBAM COMMUNICATION AND FERRIfiS. 

Of Steamers there are .five under contract with the colony for the performance 
of the following service, for which it pays $50,000 : 

For one as a ferry-boat on the Demerara ; 

For one as a ferry-boat on the Berbice ; 

For steam communication with Essequibo and Berbice, to and from twice 
weekly ; 

For monthly trips to the penal settlement, or convict prison, about ninety-five 
miles up the river Massaroony. 

Independently of the contract amount paid annually by the colony, the pro- 
prietor of the steamer is allowed to charge a certain rate of fare for passengers^ 
cattle, &c, &c., certain government officers being excepted. 

It is the opinion of those engaged in the business here that a regular and 
properly conducted semi-monthly line of steamers between New York and 
Demerara* touching atBarbadoes and St. Thomas, would meet with success, and 
W of advantage especially to the commercial interests of the United States. 

The governor of this colony assured me of his sympathy and willingness to 
grant the aid of this colony, and guarantee the aid of Barbadoes for the purpose 
uf accomplishing so desirable an object 

The European steam mail packets, as well as the Dutch mail steamers from 
Surinam, arrive here semi- monthly. A line bas also been formed at Cayenne, 
<>f which the first steamer is expected the 20th August. Arrangements could 
be made so that the United States steamer should be at this port at the same 
time ; from which arrangement great benefit would be derived, as passengers for 
Europe could, in that case, go by way of New York, especially if the voyage 
on that route should be made in less time than by the present one. An Amer- 
ican company could certainly make such arrangements that the price of passage 
would be less to Europe, by wav of New York, than by the present route, and 
at the same time make the United States a resort of convalescents from the 
West Indies. 

FIRE BNGINBS. 

Of these most necessary articles we have here fourteen, of which one steam 
and three hand engines are of American manufacture. These engines are under 
the management of the inspector general of police, whose corps work them 
when required. 

There are but few citizens of the United States residing in this colony. 
They are engaged mostly in commercial pursuits, practicing law and medicine, 
«ad two or three are proprietors of estates. 

SCR 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



82 



ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMEBCE. 



Comparative statement shaunng the description, quantity, and value of exports 
from Demerara to the United States during the years 1863 and 1864. 



Description. 



1863. 



1864. 



Soear hogflbeads 

Do tierces 

Do barrels 

Do « bags 

Molasses puncheons 

Do casks 

Rum puncheons 

Brandy boxes 

Wine « casks 

Shrub boxes 

Coffee pounds 

Cocoa do... 

Oranges 

Pickles and preserves ••• boxes 

Old iron tons 

copper pounds 

brass do... 

tin do... 

lead do... 

Hides 

Horns 

Ropes 

Bones 

Nuts 

Value 



Qaaiiltly. 

5,1U7 

458 

6,601 

268 

1,185 

158 

3 

260 

43 

2 

39,760 

4,405 

50.663 

1 

1,209 

37,394 

9.'J74 

1,988 

8,710 

4,465 

642 

4.774 

7,197 

53,000 



711,984 98 



QtMUlt/f. 

3,96:$ 

147 

5,411 



2,910 

2,:m 



1,000 



3,737 

77,773 

94,290 

33,040 

4,297 

6,922 



6,474 

"ii.'ioo 



631,389 77 



Comparative statemtfft showing the exports of sugar and molasses from Deme- 
rara to the United States during the years 1863 and 18G4, with the names of 
the ports whither shipped. 

1863. 





SUGAR. 


MOLASSES. 


Where shipped. 


» 


1 


1 


i 


a 
1 


i 


New York 


2,488 

2,950 

652 


239 

164 

55 


2,105 
2,919 
1,063 


215 
53 


1,126 
503 


m 


Baltimore 




Philadelphia 


35 










Total 


6,090 


458 


6,087 


268 


1,629 


lb6 







1864. 



New York 

Baltimore ..•• 
Philadelphia .. 
BOiston 

Total. 



1,002 

2,497 

227 

237 



3,963 



41 
61 



46 



148 



1,452 

3,563 

. 340 

56 



5,411 



800 

2,058 

100 

52 



3,010 



2,221 



122 



2,343 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BBmSH DOMINIONS. 



83 



Comparaiiife Hatement showing the description and quantity of imports into 
Demerara during the years 1863 and 1864. 



Description. 




1864. 



Beef barrels. 

Pork do.., 

Biwd do... 

Batter pounds. 

Caodles, tallow do.., 

eompoMtion do... 

Cheese • do... 

C%K« 

Coabf hogsheads. 

Do tons 

Oftts bushels 

Cora baffs 

Com and oatmeal pounds 

lahf dried quintals 

salmon «.. barrels 

mackerel do... 

smoked pounds 

Floor barrels 

Hubs snd bacon pounds 

Hsj do... 

Hoops 

Horees 

Mnles 

Lsrd pounds 

Lumber - feet 

Brandj gallons 

Gin do... 

WiDeand Uqnor do.. 

OiU do.. 

Potatoes bushels 

Riee bass 

Soaps pounds 

Tobacco, leaf do.. 

manofiictiued do.. 



9,825 

25,359 

560,798 

328,140 

183,671 

252,340 

1,299,637 

24,583 

19,598 

44,355 

22,777 

33,311,922 

67,474 

249 

5,578 

18,014 

80,590 

323,284 

667,290 

1,224,470 

98 

97 

500,617 

6,323,856 

61,089 

56,957 

18,778 

80,602 

42,951 

164,084 

542,775 

273,234 

41,833 



Q,uantit^» 

5,146 

13,065i 

20,277 

633, 149 

556,198 

156,302i 

265,979 

1,204,350 

26,094 

25,400i 

59,628 

18,567 

2,182,988 

65,404i 

1,763 

5,182 

^2,070 

860,632 

860,468 

976,181 

1,977,211 

73 

200 

585,513 

9,685,145 

42,207 

27,014 

32,601i 

92,574 

37,773i 

138,707 

1,097,542 

357, 141 

26,328 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



84 



ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement sJuncing the nationality ^ number, and tonnage tf veueU 
arrived at Demerara during the yean 1863 and 1864. 



Kationalitj. 



1863. 



No. Tone. 



1864. 



No. Tons. 



United States 

British 

French 

Spanish 

Venesuelan ,. 

Netherlanders 

Russian 

German — Prussia 

Hamborg^ 

Other German states 

Swedish and Norwegian. 

Portng^iiese 

Brazilian 



Total. 



31 

580 
9 



6,648 

109,277 

198 



12 

98 



1,151 
3,072 



500 
219 



37 
524 

6 
2 
4 

81 

1 
2 



1 

21 

2 



446 

2,485 
390 



1 

6 
13 



756 



124,386 



677 



7,936 

121.693 

304 

56 

274 

3,102 

376 

700 



249 
1,536 
2,034 



138,260 



Statement shoeing the description, quantity, and value of merchandise exported 
from Demerara to the United States during the quarter ended March 31t 
1865, icith the names of the ports whither shipped. 



Description. 



Quantity. 



Whither shipped. 



Value. 



Sugar hhds. 

Do ...tierces. 

Do bbls. 

Molasses punch. 

Suffar hhds. 

Do bbls. 

Do tierces. 

Do hhds. 

Do bbls. 

Do punch. 

Old copper lbs. 

brass lbs. 

block tin lbs. 

junk lbs. 

iron tierces. 

Do cwt. 

Do quar. 

Sugar hhds. 

Do punch. 

Do bbls. 

Do casks. 

Do hhds. 

Sugar tierces. 

Do bbls. 



1,376 

14 

924 

459 

682 

560 

11 

19 

6 

1,756 

2,800 

1,300 

300 

2,800 

103 

12,000 

lA 

11 

8 

30 

186 

161 

21 

295 



^ New York. 



^ Baltimore . 



^ New York. 



^Boston 

1 1 Philadelphia. 



(^136,286 38 
95,125 60 

4,718 09 

8,589 89 
16,442 80 



Total amount. 



261, 162 76 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BBITISH DOMINIONS. 



85 



SlaUment showing the description and value ef the exports from Demerara to 
ike United States^ together with the names of the countries where produced 
and whither sent, during the quarter ended June 30, 1865. 

EXPORTS. 



Deseription. 



Where pro- 
duced. 



Whither sent. 



Value, include 
ing costs and 
charges. 



TSbairris and 4 hogsheads of sugar; 
6 casks of molasses ; 20 barrels of 
coffee; 108^ barrels old iron, and 
H tons of the same 

112 tons, 15 cwt., and 9 lbs. old iron ; 
11.042 lbs. old copper; 5,401 lbs. old 
bn»; 942 lbs. old block tin; 3,657 
lb8. old yellow metal ; 635 lbs. old 
lead ; 925 lbs. of old junk ; 5 hogs- 
heads and 80 b&rrels of sugar; and 
123 casks of molasses 

171 hogsheads and 110 barrels of su- 
gar, and 18 pnacheons molasses 

125 hogsheads and 12 tierces of sugar, 
aodlcases of-brandj 

ISl hogsheads, 1 tierce, and 132 barrels 
of sugar; 117 pancheons of molasses. 

125ko^eads of sugar 

145 tops, 1 cwi., 3 quarters, 14 pounds 
old iron ; 3,^5 pounds of old cop- 
per; 1,800 pouBOs old brass; 1,513 
pounds old block tin ; 325 pounds 
old lead; 300 poands old junk ; 12 
barrels coffee, and 64 puncheons 
molasses 

10 cases munts metal, consisting of 
1,000 sheets 

210 hogsheads, 15 tierces, and 52 bar- 
rels of sugar 

144 hogriieads and 212 barrels of su- 



British Guiana. 



-do. 



Boston. 



.do. 



New York. 
....do 



-do. 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



....do..... 
Baltimore . 



.do. 



.do. 



17 tons old iron ; 3,000 pounds old cop- 
pen 500 pounds old brass, and 2,000 
pounds old lead ; 73 hogsheads, 24 
tierces, 24 barrels, ana 146 bags 
sugar ; and 87 cases of molasses 

^ponefaeons of mm 

112 hogsheads, 134 barrels of sugar ; 
and 67 puncheons of molasses 



.do. 
.do. 



New York. 
Baltimore . 

....do 

....do 



.do. 
.do- 

.do. 



New York. 
....do 



Baltimore . 



Total. 



|2, 111 33 



6,944 25 

14,463 10 

8,240 71 

16,833 63 
8.318 72 



2,939 87 

1,377 66 

14,771 44 

12,994 63 



8,458 25 
484 06 

9,349 96 

107,287 62 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



66 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Calcutta— N. P. Jacobs, Comul General. 

January 3, 1865. 
Summary statement thowing the description, quantity, and value of exportt 
from Calcutta to the United States during the quarter ended December 31, 
1864, together with the name of the country where produced and ports whither 
sent, ( compiled Jrom official invoices.) 



Whither sent 


Description. 


Where 
produced. 


Value, including 
costs and charges. 


San Francisco 


Three hnndrpd bales gnnnj bags and 
"* two narcel samnles 


Hindostan. 
....do.... 
....do.... 

....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 


R, A, P. 
16,183 7 3 
64,748 5 8 
40,105 4 6 

10,653 1 9 

46,250 7 9 

129,752 2 6 

49,585 14 11 


Do 


One thousand bales gnnnj bags 

General merchandise 

Two hundred and fiftj bales gonnj 
bags and one parcel samples 

General merchandise 

. • . UO ...... . UO ....... ...... .... •... 

...do do 

Total rupees 


Boston 


San Francisco 

Boston 


Do 

Do 




357,278 12 4 









Statement showing the description and value of the exports from, Calcutta to 
the United States, and the ports whither sent, and the country where produced^ 
during the quarter ended March 31, 1865, (transcript of invoice book J 



Production. 



Whither sent 



Where produced. 



Value, includ- 
ing costs and 
charges. 



Bamboo poles, hemp twine, and indigo 
Shellac, gunny bags, and buffalo hides 

General goods and merchandise 

Do ....do...... ....do..... 

Lac dye, indigo, and gunny bags 

Gunny bags, 120 bales 

Shellac, indigo, and lac dye 

Jute, gunny bags, and castor oil 



Linseed, and shell and button lac. 



Indigo, buffalo hides, goat skins, lin- 
seed, jute, and gunny bags 

Indigo, 57 chests 



Gfoat skins, 7 bales 

Buffalo hides, goat skins, linseed, in- 
digo, &c., &c 

Lac dye, jute, linseed, and ^dia- 
rubber 

Seersucker, one box 

Gunny bags, 100 bales and one parcel 
samples 

General goods and merchandise 

Do.... do.... ...... do....... .... 

Nux Yomica, 170 bags 



New York.... 

. . . . do .... .... 

Boston .... .. 

— do........ 

San Francisco 

Boston 

Pemambuco 

for orders 
Pemambuco 

for orders 

Boston 

Boston and 
New York 
Boston 



East Indies. 
...... do .... 

......do.... 

do 

......do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 



* Uw •«•« ««•■ 



.do,... 
.do.... 



.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



• do. 
.do. 



San Francisco 

Boston 

....do........ 

....do 



-do 

.do 

.do...... 

.do 



Aggregate. 



R. A. P. 



31,032 14 
19,487 14 
230,278 9 
16,552 1 
14,501 12 
6,978 12 
30,820 10 
37,575 8 



124,722 9 11 



211,843 5 
31,840 14 



397 13 13 

71,571 6 8 

50,243 12 10 
517 8 

25,046 5 3 

145, 177 10 

174,347 6 6 

604 11 



1,222,541 9 10 



Jigitized by VjUU^ IC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



87 



Statement showings the description^ port of deHination^ quantity and value of 
exports Jrom Calcutta to the United States for the quarter ended June 30, 
1865. 



Description. 



Destination. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



General merchandise. 
Do 

Sail] 



LiDseed 

Do 

iDdia-Tobber 

India-rubber and goat-skins. 
Gonnj bags 

Do 

Do 



Boston. 

New York. 

Boston. 

??ew York. 

Boston. 

New York. 
Boston. — 
...do , 



9,243 bags.. 
1,886.. do... 
2, 865. .do... 
9, 412.. do... 
55. .do... 



...do 

San Francisco . 
...do 



Indigo 

Do 

Baffiilo hides and goat-skins 

Hemp twine 

Coir matting 

Madras goat-skins 

Hides and skins 

Jute 

Do 

f^ellae, lac dye, and rags 

Lac dje and goat-skins 

Linseed, gonnj cloth, and ^oat-skins 
Saltpetre, hides, skins, and lac dje.. 
Indigo, 11 chs.; castor oil, 165 cases 



New York. 

Boston. 

. . . do. ..... 

...do 



...do 

...do 

New York, 
do. 



250 bales... 

• 450.. do.... 

770 bales and 

11,157 bags rice 

32 chests.. 

12.. do.... 

■ «••••«« •«»•• ••«• 

500 bundles. 
246 pieces.. 

20 bales... 

77. .do 



1,370,361 

64,143 

168,018 

32, 001 

28,078 

83,795 

1,;<59 

9,343 

11,407 

26,722 

[ 79,665 



Boston. 
...do.... 
...do... 



...do. 

...do 

New York. 



10 
9 6 
5 11 
5 



13 3 

8 6 



14,700 

7,367 

4,709 

6,197 

4,101 

6,999 

13,043 

9,022 

3,777 

9,183 

25,900 

24,217 

18,774 

11,275 



8 3 
1 6 



15 9 
9 6 



Total rupees. 



2,034,167 3 9 



Statement showing the description and value of exports from Calcutta to the 

United States for the quarter ended September 30, 1865. 

R. A, P. 

General merchandise 1,273.247 14 2 

Gunnj cloth 120,363 1 

Shellac 43,226 11 9 

India-rubber '. 3,248 10 

Cashmere ehawla 4,520 4 

Jute 9,345 1 9 

Castoroil 3,532 12 1 

Dnseed 156,589 6 

Fishing bamboos 272 4 3 

BuffiJo hides 14,473 14 4 

Sundries 428,089 2 



2,056,908 9 1 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



88 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the exports Jrom Calcutta to the United States 
during the several quarters of the years 1864 and 1865. 



Description. 



1864. 



Ist qr. 2d qr. 3d qr. 4th qr. 



1865. 



1st qr. 2dqr. { 3d qr. 4th qr. 



Saltpetre bags . . 

Linseed do... 

Do pocket.. 

Indigo chests.. 

Lac-dye case*.. 

Twine bundles. . 

Shellac cases. . 

Goat skins pieces . . 

Cow hides do . . . 

Buffido hides do... 

Gunny cloth do . . . 

Gunny bags do . . . 

Castor oil eases. . 

Ginger ponnds. . 

Redwood pieces.. 

Senna bales.. 

Sugar bags. . 

Sheep skins pieces . . 

Jute bales.. 

Cutch bags.. 

Rice pockets.. 

Do bags.. 

Cotton 



25.946 

86,092 

23,157 

396 

641 

425 

1.059 

273,000 

111,200 

44,780 

4,056 

1149,700 

1,300 

9,973 



20.359 

86.943 

15,170 

241 



610 

«35,500 

74,400 

31.400 



10 



1072,750 

950 

132,721 

1,806 

51 



7,000 
4,288 

688 
14,000 
8,253 

900 



11.493 

48,590 

12,900 

34 

58 

1,000 

283 

218.688 

52,900 

21.030 

9,024 

485,250 



2,542 

3,980 

3,000 

33 

151 



275 

115,890 

2,000 



63,479 

7,500 

265 

341 

64 

717 

165^000 

267 

21,978 



21,034 ' 



12,684 
86,424 
18, 016 
8 
320 



93,397 



56.112 



837.512 
200 



10,990 

90 

571 

l.V) 

627 ! 1,235 

314,000 ,347,355 

9.500 1,600 

26.870 ! 45,950 

9,648 ' 37,444 



21,722 

119. 6»6 

22,267 

70 

701 

400 

1.2?8 

389. 5U) 

35,400 

46,330 

15.1)84 



1814. 756 1433. 950 2786, 250 



565 I 
87.744 
2.581 ! 



550 
200 



1.907 
1.000 



7,217 
663 



4.000 I 
5,304 I 



550 



3.340 



2,796 
138 



.1. 



7,653 
1,557 



I 6.000 i 8,000 
6,814 8,165 
1,561 



1,228 I. 



10,068 5,460 



3,653 



Comparative statement shounng the exports Jrom Calcutta to the United States 
during the nine years ended December 31, 1865. 



Description. 








Tear ending December 31. 






• 


1857. 


1858. 


IfiSSL 


186a 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. j 1861 


• 

Saltpetre bags. 

Linseed do.. 

Do pockets 

Cow liides . . . pieces . 
Buffalo hides... do.. 

Goat skins do.. 

Sheepskins do.. 

Gunny cloth... do.. 
Gunny bags ...do.. 

Jute bales 

Hemp do.. 

Twine bundles. 

Shell lac cases. 

Lac dye do.. 

Indigo chests. 

Ginger pounds. 

Redwood . ..pieces. 

Cutoh bags. 

Sugar do.. 

Do pockets. 


1 H, f?fi] 

■jrr, !W 

4:u. ("ii^ 

4,t'4O/-?50 

4:i,556 

3,471 

4,866 

5,612 

1,306 

2,352 

388,036 

22,616 

12.949 

49.552 


W.':42 
St)3, 'M-^ 

^^|■^, 7'/r 

Jtifi. 194 
1, -^A tJpl 
127,150 

4. flLM>, MT 

2;i,049 

1,713 

10,704 

5,267 

1,437 

865 

925.841 

3,787 

10, 918 

19.538 


&7,K5a 

614,507 

soa,afla 

3^8,512 

a0fl.4P9 

l,757.!H8 

46, 44.> 

J, H25. £50 

18,592 

268 

2,301 

2,219 

1,231 

1,890 

492,253 

6,317 

10,947 

7,327 


101,265 

403.330 

201,954 

268.425 

202.309 

982,045 

8,500 

900.636 

3,250.420 

15,696 

192 

3,727 

3,047 

1.419 

1,537 

343,214 

3,958 

11,077 

14,052 


80,639 
111,173 

81,163 

92.466 

134,438 

581.029 

3.500 

283.902 

3, 158, 724 

17,324 


111,470 
267,389 

59.043 
271.300 
189.437 
697,507 
9.100 
229,870 
3, 401, 750 

14,635 


57,227 
231,105 

66.720 
103, 515 
162, 911 
994,186 

35,998 

22.320 
4,020.200 

13,063 


60.340 
225,605 

54,227 
140,500 

97, 210 
843.078 

11,000 

13,080 
2, 8U7, 700 

17,359 


5^440 
321. 570 

46,767 

141,128 

1,215,855 

14,000 

62,176 
«,8?2,4rt? 

25.972 


2,645 

1,350 

351 

792 

83.128 


859 
2,816 
1, 43,". 

468 

178.707 

4.648 

5,640 

9,000 


39 

3,253 

890 

441 

248,072 


1,425 
2.227 
1.133 
704 
S91.603 
1.806 
1,351 


614 
3,8».7 
1,933 

433 
88, 944 
2,581 


802 
1,916 


3,513 


3,116 


18.984 

3,820 

44,548- 






Castor oil cases. 

Bice bags. 

Do pockets. 


10. 145 
28,866 


6,716 
51,665 


10.256 
74,049 


6,346 
2,844 


2,074 
45.986 


4,125 
38,439 


2.250 
12,277 
14,000 


3,2« 
19,1^1 



















* Of which, 28,827 pockets. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 89 



PORT CHARGES. 

TaKe of port dues and Jeet leviable in the Pari of Calcutta, under act XXX 

qflS51. 

1. Sea-going Teasels of 20 tons and upwards, 4 annas per ton. 

2. No port dues chargeable on vessels compelled hy stress of weather to re- 
enter port 

3. Dboonies or country vessels employed in the coastmg trade, chargeable 
not oftener than once ui sixty days, 2 annas. 

4. Vessels entering the port in ballast, 3 annas. 

5. Tug-steamers belonging to the port, once every six months, viz., once 
from Januaiy 1 to June 30, and once from July 1 to December 31, annually, 
laonas. 

Fees for the following operations will be chargeable as follows : 

Hauling to or from chain moorings, each operation, 16 rupees ; hauling to or from 
eiriDging moorings, each operation, 10 rupees ; re-mooring, 16 rupees; hauling in 
or out of dock, each operation, 30 rupees ; re-mooring from one part of the port 
to another, 25 rupees; re-mooring from one mooring to another, at the request 
of the agent or master, 50 rupees ; hooking, 16 rupees ; measuring, 30 rupAs. 

All vessels occupying government mooring, fixed or swinging, shall be liable 
to pay for the same according to the following scale, but no more : 

For fixed moorings from November 1 to May 3, being seven months — 

R. A. 

All vessels up to 199 tons 1 8 per diem. 

All vessels from 200 to 299 tons 2 

All vessels from 300 to 399 tons 2 8 

All vessels from 400 to 499 tons 3 

All vessels from 500 to 599 tons 3 8 

All vessels from 600 to 999 tons 4 

All vessels from 1,000 and upwards 5 

Swinging mooring 2 

For fixed moorings from June 1 to October 31, being five months — 

R. 

All vessels up to 199 tons 3 per diem. 

All vessels from 200 to 299 tons 4 

All vessels from 300 to 399 tons 5 

All vessels frt>m 400 to 499 tons 6 

All vessels frt>m 500 to 599 tons 7 

All vessels frt>m 600 to 999 tons 8 

All Tessels from 1,000 and upwards 10 

Swinging mooring 4 

Inwird pilotage, — ^Draft of water 13 to 14 feet, 250 rupees; 14 to 15 feet, 
287-8 rupees; 15 to 16 feet, 337-8 rupees; 16 to 17 feet, 400 rupees; 17 to 
18 feet, 462-8 rupees; 18 to 19 feet 525 rupees; 19 to 20 feet, 600 rupees; 
20 to 21 feet, 675 rupees; 21 to 22 feet, 737-8 rupees; 22 to 23 feet, 800 
rapees ; 23 to 24 feet, 875 rupees. 

Outward pilotage.— BT&ngtit of water 13 to 14 feet, 262-8 rupees; 14 to 17 
feet, 300 rupees; 15 to 16 feet, 362-8 rupees; 16 to 17 feet, 450 rupees; 17 
to 18 feet, 525 rupees; 18 to 19 feet, 587-8 rupees; 19 to 20 feet, 675 ru- 
pees; 20 to 21 feet, 750 rupees; 21 to 22 feet, 812-8 rupees; 22 to 23 feet, 
675 rupees; 23 to 24 feet, 962-8 rupees. 

Stamps on bills of exchange, Sfc, — Foreign bills, payable at anv period not 
exceeding one year after date or sight, drawn in sets of three, each part to be 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



90 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMBfERCE. 

Btamped, viz: bills not exceeding 100 rupees, 1 anna; 100 to 250 rupees, 1 
anna; 250 to 500 rupees, 2 annas; 500 to 1,000 rupees, 4 annas; 1,000 to 
2,500 rupees, 8 annas; 2,500 to 5,000 rupees, 1 rupee; 5,000 to 10,000 ru- 
pees, 2 rupees; 10.000 to 20,000 rupees, 4 rupees ; 20,000 to 30,000 rupees, 
6 rupees ; 30,000 rupees and upwards, 8 rupees. Bills of lading of or for any 
goods or merchandise to be exported, 4 annas for each part of every set 

Weights. — 16 chuttacks 1 seer; 40 sears 1 maund; 1 factory maund is "il} 
pounds ; 1 bazaar maund is 82} pounds. 

Currency, — 12 pie 1 anna, 16 annas 1 rupee. 

To change factory to bazaar weight, deduct ^ ; bazaar to factory, add ^; 
factory maund to cwt„ deduct | ; and cwt. to factory maund, add ^. 



Antigua — ^M. Galody, Qnuular Agent. 

Sbptbmbbr 30, 1865. 

In presenting my annual report, I am most happj to record that the general 
condition of this island has somewhat revived from the effects of the heavy 
drought with which it was visited last year, and that the crops promise to 
yield a fair average. 

The cultivation of cotton is rapidly extending ; large tracts of land are already 
planted and in course of preparation for this staple ; in some instances sugar 
estates, under full cultivation, are being converted into cotton fields. Some 
shipments of the staple have been made, and excellent results obtained. 

The cotton plants produced from Auguilla seed are perennial, bearing crops 
constantly, which can be gathered during the whole year, and require to be cut 
down but once in ^ve years, whereas "sea-island" and ''New Orleans," besides 
growing but two crops in the year, require renewing much more frequently. 

The average yield of cotton is four hundred pounds of clean lint per acre; 
the labor of producing which, calculating at the average standard of wages 
here, viz : twenty cents per day, will produce the article at eight cents per 
pound. 

I do not perceive any improvement in commerce. I think it is hardly in a 
healthy state, and this accounts for the scarcity of American vessels entering 
this port. 

Annexed is a tabular statement of the imports, exports, and shipping up to 
the close of December, 1864. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



91 



SuUemeni showing the total value of imports and exports of the colons/ of An- 
t^^ikz from and to each country during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



Countries. 



Imports. 



Exports. 



United Kingdom. 



BRITISH COLONIES. 



Bridik North America. 

Barbadoes 

St.Kitti 

Dominica.... 

Trinidad 

Montaernit 

aVincent. 

8tLada 

Aopiilla 

Jamaica . 

Tobago 

BemerarA 

Nevis 

fiermnda. ............ 

Grenada.... 



Total. 



FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



United States. 

Fimch colonies 

Netberland colonies. . 

Dnniah colonies 

Swedish colonies . . . . 
Hamburg....... .... 

Madeira 

Spanish colonies . . . . 
Mexico 



Total 

Total to and from all conntries . 



£ B. d. 
70,064 17 10 



11,874 

30,777 

2,786 

1,631 

769 

644 

561 

200 

417 

15 

20 

5 

6 







15 2i 
19 5i 
13 I 
13 6i 
" 1 
5 
2 




12 
16 

5 



2 2 





49,710 16 1 



49,199 2 11 
2,067 10 8i 
1,191 2 3 
2,615 12 10 
2,626 7 10 
1,238 3 2 
58 19 10 
16 13 4 



59,013 12 lOi 



£ 8. d. 
63,613 7 4 



178,789 6 9i 



640 

2,833 

2,094 

1,024 

1,451 

1,475 

56 



142 



7 



1,126 

98 

44 



12 2i 
9 6i 

8 4 

17 Hi 

10 



10,995 9i 



926 15 6 

1,130 19 6i 

362 18 Hi 

2,473 10 li 

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79,533 19 7i 



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ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the number, tonnage, and crews of vessels of each nation en- 
tered at Antigua during the year 1864. 



NadonaUtj. 


WITH CARGOE8. 


IK BALLAST. 


TOTAL. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


British 


364 
10 
23 
3 
4 
9 
2 
1 


16,964 
1,534 
467 
85 
165 
202 
239 
103 


1,726 
64 
106 
15 
19 
41 
19 
6 


59 


2,556 


267 


423 
10 
25 
3 
5 
9 
2 
1 


19,520 
1,534 
658 
85 
191 
202 
239 
lOJ 


1,993 
64 


United States 


French ...... ........ 


2 


191 


16 


m 


Netherlands 


15 


Danish 


1 


26 


6 


25 


Swedish 


41 


Portagaese. .---- 








19 


Qennan ..--. .... 








6 












Total 


416 


19,759 


1,998 


62 


i,773 


389 


478 


22,532 


2,287 





Statement showing the number, tannage, and cretcs of vessels of each nation 
cleared from Antigua during the year 1864. 



Nationality. 


WITH CARGO. 


IK BALLAST. 


TOTAL. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


No. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


British 


255 
5 
13 
4 
9 
5 
1 
1 


11,361 
732 
348 
126 
414 
73 
108 
103 


1,238 
30 
62 
23 
52 
18 
9 
6 


197 
2 
7 
1 
1 
2 


6,582 
282 
124 

55 
120 

64 


804 

13 

39 

5 

6 

11 


452 

7 

20 

5 

10 
7 

1 
1 


17,943 
1,014 
472 
181 
534 
137 
108 
103 


2,042 
43 


United States 


French 


101 


Netherlands 


28 


Danish 


58 


Swedish 


29 


Portuguese 


9 


GUsrman 








6 




■ >« . 








Total 


293 


13,265 


1,438 


210 


7,227 


878 


503 


20,492 


2,316 





MAURITIUS. 
Port Louis— W. R. G. Mbllbn, Qmsul. 

OCTOBBR 26, ^ 
I have the honor to submit the foUowmg commercial report for the jear 
ended September 30, 1865 : 

I. — SHIPPING. 

During the last nine months there have entered and cleared from Port Louis 
vessels of the following nationality, with their number, tonnage, and crews : 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 
ENTERED. 



95 



NationalitjT. 


WITH CARGOES. 


IN BALLAST. 


No. 


Toiw. 


Men. 


No. 


Tons. 


Men. 


British 


284 

6 
2 

163 


133,460 

5,092 

747 

363 

943 

891 

702 

55,539 

201 

1,775 

660 


6,612 
112 
60 
12 
23 
81 
21 

3,154 
10 
73 
16 


47 
2 


17,934 
2,241 


663 


Aimniran ,. .......... 


68 


Anbian 




Aostiiui 








BelgiMi ^ 

Danish 














Dutch 








Frnich 


5 


2,526 


81 


Hfrnmn 




Hanf^ TowiM .. ...... ......,.,..t«.-*. 








XftTWfKnil .. . .. .».. 








Bossuiii. . ..... ........................ 


1 


547 


16 


fiarijinia,n 




504 
2:35 


13 
9 




8wedifih 


1 


444 


14 






TotiJ 


470 


201, 112 


10,196 


56 


23,692 


842 






Totals both with and withont cargo. .. 


526 


224,804 


11,038 















CLEARED. 



British 


255 
2 


98,440 
1,204 


5,051 
32 


69 
4 

1 


48,329 

4,176 

363 


2,112 


American...... .... ................... 


119 


Am^friao 


11 


AT»biin *a X....... .............. 


1 
2 
139 
1 
5 
1 


521 

873 

48,892 

• 201 

1,881 

504 


35 

30 

2,794 

9 

60 

13 




Duiish 








French 


16 


5,184 


231 


German 




Riuif^ Towns .,,.,.^ ..^-. , 


2 


1,172 


29 


Italian 




Ximn^nn,.,,,. ...... ................ 


1 


660 


16 


PniMian. ............... .............. 


1 
1 
1 


996 
547 
235 


21 

16 
9 




Rowian . .......*.. 








Swudiih 


1 


444 


14 






Toua 


409 


154,294 


8,070 


94 


60,328 


2,532 


Totals both with and without cargo. . . 


503 


214,622 


10,602 















The whole namber of yessels entered at this consulate during the year ended 
September 30, 1865, is fifteen. Of these, six were whalers, one having entered 
twice, and therefore being twice counted, seeking supplies br medical aid, and 
btving on board oil to the value of $208,962. Three of the aforesaid fifteen 
veaeels brougbt cargoes of American merchandise, valued at $88,209 88. 
Tbree also brougbt cargoes of foreign merchandise, valued at $136,120. Three 
of the aforesaid fifteen vessela were in ballast, one of which was a steamer 
bound to China. 

The whole namber of vessels cleared from this consulate during the jear is 
twelve. Of these, six were whalers, having on board the same amount of oil 
^itk which they entered. Two took away portions of their inward cargoes, 
vhich did not here find a market, valued at $64,972 42. Four were in baUast, 
one was condemned, and two were left in port. 

Besides the fifteen vessels reported above as having entered at this consulate, 
Bcsily or quite as many more, owned partly or wholly by American citizens, 
voder different foreign flags, have entered this port Two of these, both owned 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



96 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

by an American house on this island, broaght cargoes of American merchandise, 
valued at $33,010 46. 

No Mauritius merchandise has been shipped to the United States during the 
year. One small though valuable cargo from the Philippine islands, belonging 
to an English schooner condemned here, was despatched to New York ; both 
the schooner and the bark in which the cargo was sent forward being the 
property of American citizens. It may be mentioned that since the close of 
the year, one American vessel, the first since the commencement of our un- 
happy war, has obtained a sugar freight hence. 

11. — Exports and Imports. 

Total exports of Mauritius for 1864 <3e2,249,740 3#. 5d. 

Total imports for same period 2,582,979 12 4 

Balance against the colony 333,239 8 11 

III. — RbVBNUB and EXPBNDITURB. 

Total revenue for 1864 ^£638,067 lU. l{d. 

Total expenditure for 1864 602,279 9 

Balance in favor of colony treasury 35,788 10 4} 



IV. — AORICULTURB. 

As is well known, the chief business of this island is agriculture ; manufac- 
tures, in the generally received sense of the term, are unknown. The commerce 
of the place, though very considerable, consists in the exchange of its sugar for 
such productions as are needed, comprising about everything else but the single 
article above named. Accordingly no little attention is paid to the subject of 
agriculture, which, considering the nature of the soil, is very successfallj 
prosecuted. 

The island is of volcanic formation, and there are visible what are regarded 
as the craters of two or three extinct volcanoes. The surface of the island is 
very diversified, the scenery often picturesque and sometimes sublime. Sharp, 
cuneiform mountains rise in various districts to the height of from 2,000 to 3,000 
feet, while between them are fertile valleys and plains, and sometimes wild and 
ragged ravines. Beside these mountainous masses of porous volcanic rock, 
loose stones of the same character almost literally cover the surface of the 
earth, so that to an inexperienced person it would seem nearly impossible that 
any considerable crop could be grown ; and to subdue the soil ana fit it to pro- 
duce requires no small amount of labor. About the only implements that can 
be used for this puraose are crowbars and pick-axes. Ploughs, harrows, hoes, 
and spades are unknown. So thick are the stones on a great majority of the 
cane- fields that it is necessary to place them in rows, like windrows of hay, 
between which, in properly prepared holes, the canes are planted. When a 
crop has thns been grown, and the ground somewhat exhausted, the rows of 
stones are removed to the spaces where the canes were and the canes planted 
where the stones lay. But as the greater part of these loose stones are not 
very large, and as those that are are easily broken, it is not so formidable a 
task to remove them as might be supposed. But however difficult the prepara- 
tion of the land for the crop, the soil when subdued is found to be unusually 
strong and productive. Yet, good as the soil is, the planters find it for their 
interest to use every means to quicken its fertility and increase their crop. Ac- 
cordingly, during 1864 there were imported into the island no less than 19,239 
tons of guano. Most of this was from Peru, though latterly a different kind 

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BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



97 



or, more correctly, a mixture of Peruvian and some other sort of guano, having 
a larger proportion of phosphates, is preferred by some planters, and seems 
likely to come into general use. 

There are now 14^,609 acres under cultivation, leaving 251,056 acres un- 
cultivated. Of the latter amount, however, it should be said that the greater 
part of it, probably 175,000 or 200,000 acres, is so rocky and mountainous as 
to forbid all attempts at cultivation. Of the 148,609 acres now cultivated, 
124,795 acres are in sugar cane. The total amount of sugar shipped from the 
1st of August, 1864, to the 31st of July, 18G5, on which day the crop year is 
gnppoeed to end, was 260,333,051 pounds, being 16,901,526 pounds more than 
the preceding crop, but 55,989,225 pounds less than the crop of 1863, which 
wa? considerably the largest ever produced on this island. I subjoin a table 
showing as accurately as can well be done the state of the sugar market here 
duriDg the year. 



Qualities. 



Finest white Tacuiim pan . 

Middling , 

Fine yellow 

Middling 

Rneffray 

Good 



Nos. 



20 
16 



Present price per 
I per 100 lbs. 



Price during the 
year. 



.Siraps. 



14 to I4i 
12 
^13 to 14 

10 to 11 

9 to 10 

L 8to 9 



$6 90 to $7 00 
6 50 to 6 
5 75 to 
5 25 to 
5 60 to 
5 50 
5 55 to 
5 15 to 
4 25 to 
4 00 to 



7i) 
6 00 
5 75 
5 70 



5 60 
5 .35 
4 50 
4 25 



$6 90 
25 
25 
00 
00 
75 
90 
60 
3 25 
2 50 



to $7 00 
to 6 75 
5 75 
5 75 
5 70 

4 80 

5 bO 
5 35 
4 00 

a 25 



At the present time the market exhibits a decidedly rising tendency, and 
holders are firmer. There are reasons for believing that the incoming crop, 
though, perhaps, less than that of 1863, will sell for more money than any pre- 
vious one made. It may be remarked also that the canes for the next year now 
promise remarkably well. Should there be no destructive hurricanes during 
the next few months, the crop of '66 and '67 must be very large. 

V. LABOR. 

As 8tuted in my last year's report, the laboring population of Mauritius con- 
sists almost exclusively of Indian coolies. The act authorizing the importation 
of these coolies was passed in 1842, since which time they have continued to 
arrive with greater or lees rapidity. On the 31st of December, 1864, there 
were in the island of this class of persons : males, 157,993 ; females, 72,798 ; 
total, 230,791. During the first nine months of 1865 there have arrived 13,038, 
of which a larger proportion than usual have been women. Naturally, there- 
fore, the ratio of births to deaths is greater than heretofore ; so that, allowing 
3,000 for returned emigrants, it cannot be wide of the truth to say that there are 
now in the island somewhat above 240,000 Indian coolies. Of the whole num- 
W, however, only about 80,000 are engaged on the plantations ; of the remain- 
ing 160,000 some find employment as domestics, some as cartmen and porters 
in the town, some as gardeners, while many maintain a precarious existence but 
one remove from vagabondage. The scale of wages, as arranged by the colonial 
zovernment, which, however, is not obligatory upon the planters, though they 
We never attempted to deviate from it, is per month, for the first year, ten 
•hilling?, for the second year eleven shillings, and so on, increasing a shilling 
'fcr month each year during the engagement. To these wages must be added 
flirtations of the laborers, which cost the planters upon the average about 



7 c R 



Digitized by 



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98 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 

eight Bhillings per month. The planter also has to hear the expense of intro- 
ducing the laborers into the colony, which introduction is wholly under govern- 
mental control, and seems, on the whole, to be very well managed. During the 
last three years the expense per capita has averaged, in 1862. ^£8 6<* i^d.; 
1863, d£9 Is. Q\d.; 1864, «£9 1*. OZ%d, The expense of returning to India ie 
borne by the laborer, though that, being also under governmental control, is 
comparatively inexpensive and healthy. 

It will be seen by the foregoing remarks that labor here is exceedingly 
abundant and cheap ; that in few countries is it more so. Were this not the 
case, it would be irnpospible successfully to cultivate this rugged soil. Should 
the supply of cheap labor ever fail, of which it must be confessed there are no 
present indications, the prosperity of Mauritius would at once decline. 

As having a more or less intimate relation with the same subject, it may be 
stated that there are consumed in Mauritius, almost wholly by the laboring 
population, no less than 75,812 bags — equal to 12,433,186 pounds — of rice 
per month, or 909,746 bags— equal to 149,298,344 pounds — of rice per annum. 
That the amount of tonnage required for the transportation of this grain is by 
no means trifling will be recognized at once. 

VI. AMERICANS IN MAURITIUS. 

The census of this island for 1861 — the last taken — reports eighty-six Amer- 
icans here. There are but two American lirms, one mercantile and one ship- 
wright, engaged in business. 

VII. PUBLIC UBALTII. 

The climate of Mauritius may be regarded as more than ordinarily healthy. 
Previous to the introduction of so many coolies into the island, it is believed 
that few places, insular or continental, could show more favorable rates of mor- 
tality. These coolies, however, taking no care of themselves, and living in the 
most filthy manner, have brought with them and engendered a vast amount ot 
disease, raising the rate of mortality to a very high figure. During 1864, when 
no epidemic or highly contagious disease prevailed, the rate was no less than 
44.8 per thousand souls. 

VIII. OUR MERCaNTILK MARINE. 

Though, perhaps, not wholly germane to this report, I cannot forbear, in con- 
sidering it, to offer a few remarks on the above-named topic. It often happens 
that the relations between master and men are far from harmonious. Complaint.* 
of anJ from both the former and the latter frequently reach the consurs ears,and 
require his official interposition. Masters complain of men as incompetent and 
untrustworthy ; and men complain of officers as tyrannical and cruel. It is highly 
probable that there are some grounds for both complaints, and quite as probable 
that both are often exaggerated. 

It has seemed to me that something might be done for the remedy of admitted 
evils in this direction by the appointment of governmental shipping masters, the 
certificate of one of whom should be necessary to the clearance of the vessel. 
Such officers might do much to protect the sailer from those who fatten on his 
foibles, and the owner or master from shipping an inefficient and incompetent 
crew. I would also suggest that every sea-going vessel should be required to 
take a certain number of apprentices, according to the ship's tonnage. Thereby 
employment might be found fbr many of the homeless boys which various char- 
itable institutions are now trying to aid, and in the course of a few years a bet- 
ter instructed and more competent body of seamen might be raised up for our 
mercantile marine. But if able and skilful men are required before the mastt 
so intelligent and competent officers are demanded after it. It is sometimes said 
of masters as of seamen, that they have deteriorated of late years. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



99 



It ifl not said or insinuated that all masters are such. It is my privilege to 

know those who are gentlemen on shipboard, as well as gentlemen on shore ; 

* who are thoroaghlj acquainted with their profession ; who realize their respon- 

libilitj; and who, while calmlj maintaining their dignity, do firmly, kindly, and 

faithfully discharge their duty to both employers and employed. 

From such there is seldom heard any complaints of the disobedience and nn- 
tnictableness of men ; and of such do men quite as seldom complain of harsh- 
Dess and abuse. They enter and leave port with nearly, often with exactly, the 
«ame crew. It has appeared to me that something might be done by the enact- 
ment of a statute similar to the English law, requiring masters to pass an exami- 
oation, and obtain the certiBcate of a boaid of highly competent officers, before 
taking charge of a ship. What should be the precise conimosition of this board 
1 do not venture to suggest. This will not be found difficult to determine if 
Congress shall sooner or later see fit to take action in the matter. It may, per- 
haps, be assumed that there should be on the board one naval commander, one 
commercial master, one merchant, and one insurance actuary, all of established 
professional reputation and high personal character. And as the certificate of 
this board should be necessary for the assumption of command, so itft recall or 
cancellation for any flagrant professional misconduct should be within the power 
of the board. To co-operate with such a board, and enforce the law, I am con- 
fident that all our insurance offices, the better class of merchants and ship- 
owners, as well as our best shipmasters and officers, who are aspiring to become 
masters, might be relied on. And from such a law, wi.^ely administered, it is 
believed that no inconsiderable good would result. Certainly it has worked 
well in the British service, and no reason can be discernred why it should 
not do so in ours. It can hardly be doubted that it would secure a higher 
and more competent class of men for officers ; and, with such in the cabin, the 
forecastle would cease to be what it too often is, a floating pandemonium. 



Barbadobs — Francis Culpepper, Acting Consul, 

January 0, 1865. 

Statement showing the description^ quantity^ and value of exports Jrom Barha- 
does /or the quarter ended December 31, 1864. 



Description. 


Value. 


Arrow-root 


barrels 


13 


Do 


half ban els 


6 


Do 


tierces . 


50 


Bnw^ 


. . nouDds . 


3,588 

10,8J8 
351 


Copper 


do 


Hidj; ... 


Iron 


tons . 


68 


Lead 


..... nounds . . 


19,978 
2,532 

77,819 

2,576 

97 


Mol«ii«e« 


Duncheons . . . 


OM metals 


nmiiida 


lUJrs - ".-An 


fM ropes 


dA 


SklM. 7 


J , 093 


Suear 


hoiTsbeads .... 


2 


fio.. ..:::::::::::::; :::::.::::. 


. tierces 


5 


Do 


half tierces . . 


1 


Do 


barrels ... 


89 








Total value 


»79.286 



jigitized by 






100 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the description^ quantity^ and value of iviports into Barba- 
does for the quarter ended December 31, 1864. 



Description. 



Value. 



Apples barrels 

Beef do 

Do half barrels 

Bread barrels 

Do baps 

Beans barrels 

Butter ke^s 

Bucke^« dozen 

Crackers barrels 

Com casks 

Do bags 

Cheese boxes 

Candles. . . « do 

Carriages 

Flour barrels 

Fish do 

Guano tons 

Hoops 

Hams tierces 

Do barrels 

Do cases 

Lard tierces . - - . ' 

Do kegsl . . . 

Lumber feet , 

Meal barrels . 

Matches cases . 

Merchandise packages . 

Oil, meal puncheons. 

cake barrels . 

kerosene do... 

whale , do 

Onions do... 



Pork. 

Peas.. 

Do. 



.do. 
.do. 
.bags. 



Potatoes barrels . 

Shooks bundles . 

Shingles M. 

Snuff. cases. 

Tobacco hogsheads . 

Do I . . kegs . 

Do V cases .' 

Vinegar barrels . 



Total value. 



10 

*m 

2,4(nJ 

50 

%7 

75 

3, !*> 
4-2 

•2, :«:» 
4, 4i:» 

6 
17,378 

90 
1,6(K» 

19 

5 

2.104 

139 

229, (H'O 

fcl,So3 

421 

11 

175 

50 

24<J 

216 

50 

1,423 

494 

2,676 

J, 740 

13,574 

2C<,(KK) 

2iM 

10 

I'^l 

16 



|on,(W) 



Port Stanley — {Falkland Island) — George W. Dean, Vice Consul 



December 31, 1865. 

Report of imports and exports during the year ended this date, viz : 
c£25,000 imports, from England chiefly, including flour and giain from Cbili. 
Our exports as regards seal skins are less than last year, as will be perceived. 



EXPORTS. 



3,000 hair seal-skins; 200 fur seal skins; 4,800 cattle hides; 300 bales of 
wool ; 50 tuns whale and seal oil ; 200 tuns penguin oil. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 101 

During this year there have been only thirly-eight vessels in port, princi- 
pally English in distress. 



St. Helena — G. Gerard, Consul, 

September 30, 1865. 
I iiave the honor herewith to enclose and forward to the department, in con- 
formity with consular instructions, iny fourth annual report on commerce for 
tie year ended September 30, 1865. Since my last report nothing worthy of 
ftttention has taken place within this district affecting the commerce and ship- 
ping interest of the United States, save a change in the duties of customs and 
wharfage dues, payable on goods, wares and merchandise imported into the 
inland as set forth by an ordinance of the governor, under date of June 20, 1865, 
as follows : 

ST. HELENA CI STOMS DUTIES. 

*. d. 

Toliacco not manufactured per, pound 6 

Tobacco mauufactarcd, cigars, and snuff, excepting when cleared 

from bond as cargo and borne on the ship's manifest 1 

Spirits per gallon 10 

l^or in bottles, the dozen quart bottles 6 

Beer all other sorts, the hogshead 10 

Wine per gallon 2 3 

TABLE OP WHARFAGE AND OTHER CUSTOMS DUES. 

Every pipe, puncheon, butt, cask, jar, keg, carboy, and can, of what- 
ever description, of the size and measure of 80 gallons and upwards. 4 

40 gallons and under 80 gallons 3 

10 gallons and under 40 gallons, (except half-barrels flour) 2 

h'^f than 10 gallons, and half-barrels flour 1 

Every case, box, chest, trunk, bale, crate, basket, or other package 

measunng GO cubic feet and upwards 12 

Measnriug 40 cubic feet and under 60 cubic feet 8 

Miai^uring 20 cubic feet and under 40 cubic feet 6 

Mea:«uring 10 cubic feet and under 20 cubic feet 4 

Measuring 3 cubic feet and under 10 cubic feet 2 

Measuring under 3 cubic feet 1 

Every ba^ of whatever description 1 

Bricki*, slates, tiles, shingles, laths, and staves, per 1,000 4 

C'^coanuts, per 1 ,000 5 

Timber per cubic foot 2 

0.1-cake, stoues, guano, anchors, chains in bulk, per ton, or boats per 

ton measurement 2 6 

C'lals and patent fuel, per ton 3 

Homed cattle, horses, mules and asses, each 5 

i^heep, goats, pig?» calves, each 1 

Hwivy articles and goods not enumerated, per cwt 3 

('jndemned vessels for demolition, with their tackle, apparel and fur- 
niture, per ton measurement 1 3 

All articles of every description not included in the above, each ^ 6 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



102 ^ ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

One-balf of the foregoing wharfage dues to be charged on goods landed from 
ships or vessels discharging for repairs, and on empty casks and tanks lauded 
from vessels, which are to be broken up. Oil-cake, guano, copper ore, coals, 
patent fuel, and sand may for convenience be landed in bags or other packages, 
paying wharfage on the bulk, if so stowed, on board the importing ship. 

EXCEPTIONS. 

Trees, plants, shrubs, coin, empty cases, casks or tins, for the purpose of be- 
ing filled for immediate reshipment on board of the same vessel from which lliey 
were landed ; stores and clothing for her Majesty's service, natural curiosities, 
and green fruits. 

PERMITS. 

s. d. 

All permits for goods being landed 1 

All permits for wines and spirits, or either of them 5 

All permits for packing, repacking, or transferring goods in bond — . 5 
All permits for exporting goods from the warehouse or otherwise 10 

TONNAGE DUES. 

A duty of one penny per ton measurement upon all merchant ships or 
vessels anchoring, or having intercourse for water or other supplies, 
or landing goods, or seamen for hospital treatment 

WAREHOUSE RENT. 

Every pipe, puncheon, butt or cask of any kind, equal in size or larger 

than a pipe, per month 1 

Every half pipe» hogshead, or other description of cask or keg equal 
in size to or larger than a ten-gallon cask, and every kog, cask, , 
case, box, chest, trunk, crate, bale, or other package whatsoever, 
measuring in size equal to or larger than a six-dozen wine chest, 
per month S 

Every package, of whatever description, of a less size in measurement 

than the foregoing, per month 4 

WATER. 

For every tun of water supplied to shipping 3 7 

The total value of imports into the island, via England, for the past year, is 
estimated at $675,500. Products of the United States, such as timber, flour, 
tobacco, salt, provisions, &c., are brought here indirectly via England and Cape 
of Good Hope ; it would therefore be impossible to make a separate estimate of 
products thus imported. 

St. Helena depends entirely on England and the United States (indirectly) 
for food and wearing apparel. Everything is imported, and the supplies from Eng- 
land being irregular, every article usually bears a high value in the island. 
There are no price current sheets issued here. 

The general revenue of this colony for the present year is estimated at 
$122,900, including what is collected at the custom-house. The arrivals of 
vessels of all nations in the harbor of St. Helena during the year ended Septem- 
ber 30 was 928, of the aggregate tonnage of 637,705 ; of these, 53 were American 
vessels, measuring 28,292 tons, many of which were laden with cargoes on 
British account and bound to Europe. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 103 

Tlic namber of men-of-war of all nations visiting St. Helena during the present 
year was twenty-seven; among them was one from the United States. 

No vessel engaged in the slave-trade was captured and brought to St. Helena 
this year. 



Malta — W. Winthrop, Consul, 

JuLV 6, 1865. 

I have the honor to make my thirtieth annual report. The number of Amer- 
ican vessels arrived here during the year 1864 was twelve — five being ships 
and seven barks, and all of 9,033 tons burden. 

During the twelve months there were several arrivals at this port of vessels 
onder foreign flags, (chiefly English,) which brought valuable cargoes from the 
United States, while others, heavily laden with eastern produce, touched at this 
island, on their way to America. ***** 

Our tobacco trade did not diminish at all during the last year ; for in every 
vessel, whether coming direct from the United States or via Gibraltar, this very 
important American product formed a chief part of her cargo. 

The importance of this market for our tobacco trade is best shown when 
stating that, tliroughout the whole time, while our country was shaken by civil 
war, the imports were very nearly or quite as large as in former years. 

Malta, in a word, is the great depot for our tobacco in this part of the Medi- 
terranean, and it is from this island that supplies are furnished for the coast of 
Barbary, for Sicily, Egypt, and the Levant, either by fair shipments or In con- 
traband speculations. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



104 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



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Digitized by 



^^oogle 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



105 



Statement showifig the number and nationality of steamers arrived at Gibraltar 
during the year ended September 30, I860. 



§5 



Y(rsr» nod uionthft. 






S 



I 

1 16^ 



O bD 



a 



I 



!l , S 






1864. 

(^CfYft-T 73 ' 

V vi-iQb*r 95 

l*n>mber 90 ' 

1S65. I 

Jsrr.ary 09 

Fri.Tiarv 79 | 

-M;irfh..r 101 

.^j'-il 74 

MaV 80 

Jiuf P9 

Ij^ I 83 

.\a:riM 58 ! 

S'liifinber 56 

Total 983 



I 



8 . 
10 I 



6 

7 I 
3 I 



26 

•2o 

30 I 
29 



1 !• 






1 


M 


2 


1 


1 


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..... 




3 


1 


1 


3 


3 ! 


3 


1 


2 


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6 



69 ; 268 i 



19 I 



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1 ....'....i 

3 1 ....; 

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110 
135 

13L 



131 
114 
145 
103 
126 
131 
129 
74 
75 



13 I 7 1 ' 1,404 



Capetown — W. Graham, Consul, 

December 31, 1864. 
PrcTious to the fall in American paper money, as compared with gold, four 
^hillings sterling were computed as equal to one dollar at the custom-house, and 
the duties were collected at that rate; but after the relative fall in the paper 
currency importers insisted on having their consignments valued according to 
tljo inflation of the paper money. This was for some time assented to, and a 
Collar was in some instances computed as equal to only one shilling and nine- 
pence; but recently the collector has fixed the yniniinum value of the paper 
d'^llar at two shillings and threepence. 

November 18, 1865. 
I have the honor to transmit the following statistics in relation to American 
cnmmerce and navigjition in British South Africa for 1864-*65, collated from the 
Blue Book of the colony for 1864, and the customs returns, in the government 
Giizi'tte, for the first nine months of 1865, with other general information of 
inten':»t to Americans : 

Tahie showing the aggregate imports and exports of Cape Colony to and from 
all countries for the year 1864. 

Imports. Exports. 

InitHl Kingdom .£1 , 776, 823 £1, 626, 542 

< )ilier countries in Europe 42, 420 46, 492 

British pssessions in Africa 159, 404 218, 628 

Other places in Africa 7, 124 13, 318 

British colonies in Asfe 125, 316 49, 451 

United Sutes of America 170, 048 638, 510 

Other countries in North America 33 

^outh America 159, 462 1, 453 

Total for 1864 2, 449, 630 2, 594, 394 

Total for 1863 2, 275, 833 2, 224, 446 

Increase in 1864 173, 797 369, 948 

DTg^fzed by V^jOO^TC 



106 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Imports from the United States decreased <€S,OdG in 1864, as compared with 
1863; but exports to the United Stales increased c£105,029 in the same period. 
The chief decrease in imports was in flour, and the chief increase in exports 
was in wool. About seven-eighths of all the wool sent to America in 1864 was 
shipped in the first six months of the year. The increased duties on wool, im- 
posed by tariff of 1864, having been published here in June, almost completely 
stopped during the year, and the first half of the present year. Very recently 
several American orders have been filled, and others are being received at present. 
It was the American demand for wool, skins, &c., that sustained the price here 
for the last three years. American orders for grease wool were always abundant 
here under the old tariff, when it was under ninepence per pound, and always 
ceased when their increased number sent it up to that point. 

The London market had no control whatever over the market here for tLe 
three years preceding the change in the American tariff; but for the succeeding 
fifteen months London has been supreme, and prices receded in consequence 
from two to three cents per pound, causing heavy losses and insolvencies of the 
first magnitude with great prostration of trade. Since the overthrow of the 
great American rebellion and the coincident fall in the price of cotton, (with a 
greater prospective fall apparent,) the position of the colony looks gloomy 
enough, unless the copper minee (or gome new article of export be cultivated 
to the supercedence of wool) shall restore the equilibrium between imports and 
exports. 

Tabic showing (he desrription and value of the Cajte Colony imports from the 

United i^tates in 1864. 

Agricultural implements c£13, 912 

Apothecary ware 2, 237 

Apparel 40 

Bags 6 

Baskets 38 

Boats 10 

Books 43 

Brass manufactures 2 

Breadstuffs (flour, wheat, biscuit) 85, 493 

Bran 6G 

Brushes 714 

Butter 70S 

Candles 1, 616 

Carriages 5, 600 

Cheese 457 

Cider 22 

Coals 600 

Coffee 10 

Cordage II 

Fruit (dried) 287 

Furniture 5, 215 

Glass 3, 426 

Guns 4 

Haberdashery 50 

Hardware 5, 503 

Hats 77 

Horse (1) 300 

Hops 1. 163 

Hoops and rivets 916 

India-rubber goods 59 

^^^ -iPzeaByA^OOgle ^^^ 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 107 

Jewelry c€30 

Lard 926 

Leather manafactures 109 

Machinery •. 441 

Maps 2 

Meats (salted and cured) 2, 278 

Masts, spars, &c 575 

Music 6 

Musical instruments 565 

Oil (lamp) 8, 726 

Oilmen's stores 4, 322 

Optical instruments 124 

Paints 179 

Perfumery 104 

Photographic apparatus 6 

Railway apparatus 33 

Saddlery iA*4 

Seeds , 119 

Ship chandlers* stores 9 

Slush 3 

Soap 4, 392 

Specimens natural history 20 

Gin 2 

Stationery 167 

Grindstones 158 

Marhle (manufactured) 11 

Sugar and molasses 704 

Tallow 621 

Tea. 26 

Tin ware 22 

Tohacco and cigars 35. 746 

Toys 25 

Vinegar 107 

Watchmakers' materials 46 

Wine (French) 8 

Wood, lumber, and staves 13, 835 

Total 176, 010 



Tabic showing the description and value of the exports ( the production of the 
colony) to the United States from Cape Colony, for the year 1864. 

Aloes Jr99 

Argols 490 

Buchu 32 

Feathers, ostrich 2, 531 

Hides 543 

Skins, sheep 76, 433 

Skins, goat 55, 716 

Skins, calf 182 

Skins, wild animiils' 43 

Wine 411 

Wool 578, 123 

Total 714, 603 

Digitized by V^UUVl^ 



108 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Table sliowing tJic description and value of exports (not the product of the 
colony) to the United States from Cape Colony in 1864. 

Copper, old .€102 

Cordage : 126 

Iron, old 737 

Meat (returned) 270 

Metal composition 684 

Oil (whale, from American vessels) 726 

Rags 40 

Ship chandlers* stores 142 

Colonial productions 714, 603 

Total 717, 490 



Table showing the totals of imports^ entries for ronsumption, and exj?orts, f colo- 
nial produce J at each port in the colony, for the first nine months of 1860, /»• 
eluding East London, now annexed to the colony , with British Kaffraria. 



Torts. 



Imports. 



Entered for con- 
sum ptiou. 



Exports for 
colonial produce. 



Cape Town 

Port Elizabeth..., 

Mosul Bay 

Simon's Town 

Port Alfred 

Port Beaufort 

East Loudon 

Nine mouths, 1864 
Do. 1865 



£713,005 
994, 144 
19, 182 
33, 353 
10,650 
46 
62, 8(X) 



1,833,186 ' 
1,715,712 



£690, 171 
973, :M7 
19, 182 
23,622 
10,650 
46 
66, 809 



1,783,827 
1,734, 72(5 



£155,>(>4 

1,249,54a 

2I.21»!l 

40 
7,550 



13,794 



l,448,(Ki 
1,830,961 



Table shoiving the number and tonnage of all sea-going vessels entered and 
cleared at each port of the colony in 1864. 



PORTS, 



Cape Towu 

Port Elizabeth. 
Mosul Bay .... 
8imoustown..., 

Total 

Cape Town , 

Port Elizabeth. 

Mosul Bay , 

Simou's Town. 

Total 





ENTERED. 

BRITISH. 


FOF 


LEIGN, 
TounMj»'e. 

42,278 

9, :M)2 

595 

11,319 


TO 

No. of 

vessels. 

:m 

208 
10 
49 


TAL. 




No. of 
vessels. 

289 


Tonnaj^i*. J 

1 V 


s"o. of 

I'ssels. 

103 

31 

2 

19 


Tonnagrt\ 




134,803 ' 

58,615 

1,278 

15,675 


177,0^1 




J77 


67,977 




' 8 


1,-73 




30 


26,994 




504 


210,371 


155 


63,554 


659 1 

1 


273,925 










21M) 


CLEARED. 

131,083 
61,238 

1,426 .. 
15,390 


91 
27 


38,740 
8,513 

*"io,'36.8" 


:^i 

2tH) 

7 

46 


169,1^23 




179 


69,7ril 




7 


1,426 




28 


25,7:){^ 










504 


209, 137 


136 


57,621 640 

jigitizbdby V^jOOQI 


266,758 






^> 













BUITISH DOMINIONS. 



109 



The uumbcr of vessels entered from the United States was thirty-six, and the 
a^^regate tonnage 13,462 The number cleared for the United States was 
thirty- nine, and the aggregate tonnage was 12,204. 

The course of trade in all the British colonies in South Africa has been 
in some degree disturbed during the present year by a border war between the 
Orange River Free State and the Basuta (Kaffir chief) Moshesh, originating in 
a dispute about boundaries. The war, so called, is but a series of cattle and 
sheep-lifting raids, in which the Boers of this Dutch republic have had the ad- 
vantage, so far, over this branch of the Kaffir family. The war has been carried 
on in a very desultory manner, and promises to continue much longer unless 
Cape Colony and Natal are drawn into it. But these British colonies occupy- 
ing a position between the combatants and the seaboard, though they have a 
lucrative carrying trade by the war, have not yet been seriously entangled. 

A large quantity of coarse, burry wool was, before the war, sent to Port Eliza- 
beth for shipment, and British and American goods returned in payment therefor. 

The copper mines in Namagua land, at the northwest comer of Cape Colony, 
Lave been more thoroughly developed during the past year, and promise a very 
extraordinary yield when a short railway shall be built to connect them with 
the seaboard at Hounderlip bay. 

The new breakwater and docks at Cape Town are rapidly advancing towards 
completion. The outer dock is finished, and the inner one will be in about a 
year. Four-fifths of thq breakwater work is done and projects sufficiently 
already to protect the outer dock. About one thousand men are employed on 
these very important works. 

No new light-houses have been erected duiing the year on this coast. Nor 
has there been any change made in import duties or wharfage dues, the only 
harbor dues now chargeable on foreign commerce. 

There has been no direct trade between the British colony of Natal and the 
United States during the year, though an indirect trade is carried on through 
coasting vessels running to and from Port Elizabeth and Cape Town. The Na- 
tal tariff being now lower than that of Cape Colony may cause a greater volume 
of the trade of the two interior Dutch republics to pass through its territory, 
and perhaps, as an incident of the increased trade of Natal, a direct trade with 
America may ensue. 



Crvlo.n — G. W. Pbescott, Commercial Agent, 

Comparative statement sJiorcing the description and quantity of the exports at 
the iiland of Ceylon during the years ended September 28, 1862, 1863, 1864, 
and 1S65. 



Veaw. 


Coffee. 


Total, 


1 

Cinnamon. Coconnutoil. 

1 


Plantation. 


Native. 


Trm October 1 to September iB, 1862. . 
Frmj October 1 to SeptcmU-r 28, 1863.. 
Froffl October 1 to September 28, 1864. . 
CroB October 1 to September S8. 1865. . 


Cwtf. 
414,298 
579, 758 
514,686 
607,734 


Ctctg. Cvm. 
170. 824 585, 122 
203, 635 783, 393 
137, 949 652, 635 
268, 363 876, 097 


Lbe. 1 Ctctf. 
P06, 684 95, 064 
768.896 1 128,290 
680,978 167,826 
889,361 i 90,197 


Total 


2, 116, 476 ' 780. 771 


2, 897, 247 


3,245.919 1 481,377 













Digitized by LjOOQIC 



no 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 
Comparative Statement — Coutinued. 



Years. 


Flambago. 

CiPM. 

36,929 
40,211 
75, 012 
46,120 


Coir. 


Yarn. 


i 
Flbrea. ' 


Ebony. 


Deer 


Rope. 


Junk. 




From October 1 to September 28, 1862. . 
From October 1 to September 28, 186.J.. 
From October 1 to September 28, 1864. . 
From October 1 to September 28, 1865. . 


2,935 
1,871 
2.821 
3,520 


448" 


24. 917 
36,154 
28.045 
30,831 


CVrt. 
2,027 
896 
1.235 
3,296 { 


8,170 
11.288 
10,808 
41.183 


i,y>4i 

1.122 


Total 


198,272 


11, 147 


448 


119,947 


7,454 j 


71, 449 


3,914 







Statement showing the distribution of the coffee exported from the idand of 
Ceylon, from October 1, 1864, to September 1, 1865. 



Whither lent. 



London 

Bi'lle l8le 

Havre 

St. Nazaire 

Gibraltar for order«. 

New York 

Cape Town 

Sydney 

3Ielboume 

Mauritiun 

Singapore 



Plantation. 



Cv>t. 

591.055 

978 

223 

1,011 

4.604 



321 
1.577 
7,905 



Total . 



060 



607, rJ4 



Coffee. 
Native. 



Ott. 

230,031 
8,938 
8.531 
5,454 
1.822 
9,939 



2,391 

1,257 



ToUL 



821. (»6 
9.916 
8,7.^ 
6,465 
6,4« 
9,;«35» 
321 
1.577 
10.2S6 
1.237 
0611 



268. 363 I 



876. an 



Statement showing the quantity , value, and ports of destination of the plumbago 
exported from Ceylon to the United States during the year ended Septanbcr 
80. 1865. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Cwt. qr9. lbs. £, 

Boi4ton I 4.404 1 6 . 5,274 

New York I 5, (>33 12:} j 2,717 

Total i 10,037 3 1 i 4.991 7 7 

■ I 



1 9 
5 10 



$11,006 V 

12, etn (5» 



23. b74 27 



Singapore — Isaac Stone, Consul. 

October 4, 1865. 

According to instructions from the Department of State I have the honor to 
transmit herewith my first annual report. 

The English tropical colony of the East Indies comprises the island of Singa- 
pore, the town and territory of Malacca, and the island of Penang (or Prince of 
Wales Island, including the province of Wellesley.) The two latter are now 
dependencies of Singapore, although they were occupied many years previous' 
to that place, especially Malacca, which was conquered and settled by the Por- 
tuguese more than three and a half centuries since, while Singapore was fir^t 
taken formal possession of in 1819, by Sir Stamford Raffles, who was then the 
governor of Bencoolen, in Sumatra. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS. 



Ill 



Th ' town of Singapore, on the island of the same name, is situated iu lati- 
tude F 17' north and longitude 103^ 51' east. Its population is now ahout 
100,000, of which 1,000 and their descendants are Europeans; the balanc!^ are 
aborigines, ^lalays, Chinese (by far the most numerous class.) Klings, Javanese, 
Hiodostanese, Arabs and Persians. 

The island is 25 miles long by 14 broad. The northwest half is rolling and 
quite broken ; the balance is level. Temperature ranges from 80^ to 83^ Fah- 
renheit, day and night, during the year. It rains about five days out of every 
feix, (that is, some part of each twenty- four hours ;) occasionally the mercury 
stands as high as 92^ or 93° at the office in the city ; yet it has never reached 
90^ At our dwelling in the country, distant a mile and a half from the city, 89^ 
being the highest. There are no tornadoes here, but at times frightful thunder 
and lightning. 

Singapore is the half-way house on the great highways between America, 
Europe, and China, Australia and India, between the east and the west, the 
north and the south. 

The commercial prosperity of Singapore is increasing from year to year, both 
in it:« imports and exports, being highly favored as it is by its position and en- 
tiro exemption from all commercial imposts or taxes on trade. 

The total value of imports and expoits for the commercial year of 1833 was 
:in Mexican dollars) 818,740,000 ; for 1843, $27,774,000 ; for 1853, 832,575,000 ; 
and for 1863, $60,085,000 ; and the gross totfil, including the ports of Malacca 
and Penang, was. for the year 1833. 823,885,000 ; for 1843, 833,635,000 ; for 
1853. 843,595,000; and 1863, 884,530,000. 

The principal articles of imports are treasure, cotton manufactures, woollens, 
l>eer, wines, arms and ammunition, iron and iron- work, copper and yellow-metal, 
Irad, earthenware, canvas, flour and breadstuffs, coals, sugar, tea, camphor, cas- 
sia, alum, tobacco, birds* nests, cotton, rice, pepper, coffee and gambler. 

The principal articles of export are gambier, tin, sago, tapioca, black pepper , 
tortoise-shell, gutta-percha, mother-of-pearl, nutmegs, mace, camphor, wild pep- 
per, gum-elastic, copper, sapan wood, sticklac, ratans, &c. 

The exports to the United States are chiefly copper, pepper, gutta-p«rrcha, 
rataus, tin, tea, and gambier, &c. 

SfatcmcMt s?towing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels arrived at 
Singapore during the year 1863. 



Nationality. 



No. Tonnaj^e. 



Nationality. 



American 86 

Anhian 6 

Hi'iifiaD ■ 1 

Brnnui 23 

( hine«t' 2 

\U\i\sh 30 

Hutch 279 

Kn-nch 74 

Hmnbur^ 58 

HanoveriaD 4 

Native States 29 



Nonvenriftu . . 
Oldeuburgh , 
Portuguese . . 

Prussian 

Persian 



61,240 

2, 504 

WOO 

1I,:572 

. 290 

7,151 
70, 401 
43,041 i Swedish 
22,310 I British.. 

1,103 , 

3,181 Totnl 



Spanish. 
:l Siamt'se. 



No. 


Tonnage. 


3 


1,069 


1 


616 


9 


234 


4 


865 


4 


2,023 


5 


2,170 


54 


15, 549 


4 


2,583 


608 


220, 826 


1,284 


471,441 



The number of American vessels which arrived in the year 1862 was 66; in 
1^63, 86; and in 1864, 41; and during the last commercial year, to May 1, 
1^5, 35. 

For a comparative statement of the value of the imports and exports during 
tbe years 1863-4 and 1864-/5, see following table. It will be seen by this table 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



112 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 



that while the number of American vessels reported at this consulate during lie 
past commercial year was only thirty-five, the value of exports to the United States 
was increased Si^38,475 over the previous year, while the number of American 
vessels in that year was double, which is explained by the fact that more than 
half the American vessels came into this port during the past year under for- 
eign flags. 

Comparative statement showing the value of the imports and exports at Singa- 
pore during the years 1863-4 and 1864-5, with names oj countries whence 
and whither shipped. 



IMPORTS. 



Countries. 



Great Britain , 

United States 

Europe , 

Australia 

Calcutta 

Madras 

Bombay 

China 

Cochiu China 

Siam 

Manila 

Java, Rio, Bally, &c. . . . 

Borneo 

Celebes 

Sumatra 

Malayan Peninsula 

British Burmah 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Total increase and 



1863-4. 



lH()4-5. 



Increase. 



$6, 495, 055 50 §9, 176, 575 (JO $2, 681 , 519 50 

147,9:^2 50, 61,732 50 

1,829,075 50 I 2,286,979 00 457,903 50 

179,168 00' 175,616 00 

3,571,275 50" 2,303,042 50 

152,287 50 I 245, OIH 00 92,730 50 

778,515 00 637,:i'')6 00 

4,849,794 (K) 4,173.484 50 

544, 18:i 00 629, 73<> 50 85, 553 50 

1,035,784 00 1,131,775 hO 95,999 50 

373,042 00 253,693 00 

3,674,688 50 3, .•i28. 122 00 

792,556 00 : 980,555 00 187,994 00 

254,948 00 412,:128 00 157,380 00 

716,238 50 ; 733,870 50 , 17,632 00 

826,00550 715,804 00 

1,571,757 00 2,232,880 00 661,123 00 

3,943,226 00 I 3,412,525,50 

31,735,532 (K) ! 33,091,093 50 4,437,827 50 

I 31,735,532 00 3,082,271 00 

decrease ! 1,356,561 50 1,355,5.56 50 

I 

EXPORTS. 



Decrease. 



$86,200 t«) 

*3,552 (HI 
1,268,23:^0(1 



141, 159 IH) 
676, 309 oO 



119,349 W 
146,566 50 



110,201 yO 
530, 7u6 'oO 



3,082,271 CO 



Great Britain $3, 885, 175 50 

United States 361,244 00 

Europe 254,084 50 

Australia 119,528 00 

Calcutta 2,823,437 00 

Madras 300,882 00 

Bombay 1,207,442 50 

China 6,501,577 50 

Cochin China 1 , 426, 913 50 

Siam 1,590,187 50 . 

Manila 342,236 50 , 

Java, Rio, Bally, &c. . . . 1 , 874, 813 50 

Borneo... 601,8r),'S 00 i 

Celebes 3k 8, 122 50 i 

Sumatra 525, 873 50 

Malayan Peninsula 912, 21 1 50 

British Burmah ; 465, 813 50 

Miscellaneous 3, 462, 326 00 



$4,943, 

904, 

305, 

128, 

5,298, 

250, 

671, 

5,779, 

1,606, 

2, 960, 

52, 

1,977, 

826, 

494, 

457, 

847, 

i,o:m, 

4,575, 



484 50 
7:^9 00 
5;M 50 
748 00 
227 50 
709 50 
019 50 
204 00 
315 50 

mi (10 

.'')55 50 
327 00 
542 50 

178 00 
370 00 
404 50 
628 00 
7G0 50 



$1,058,309 00 
I 543, 495 00 
I 51,450 00 
! 9,220 00 
I 2,474,790 50 



179, 402 00 
1,370,413 50 



ltb2,513 50 
224,687 50 
166,055 50 



$50, 172 50 
536,423 (H» 
722, 373 50 



289,681 IH) 



568, 814 50 I . 
1,113,374 50 j. 



68,503 50 
G4,ai7 (K» 



Total 26,983,724 00 ; 33,114,289 00 7,862,525 50 I 1,731,960 50 

26, 983, 724 00 1 , 731 , 960 50 



Total iucreaJ^e and decrease I 6, 131,C65 00 



6,130,565 00 



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BRITISH DOMINIONS. 113 



Victoria, Vancouver's Island — Allkn Frances, Consul. 

January 10, 18C6. 
I bare the honor herewith to transmit the annaal report for this consulate for 
the year 1865. 

As will he seen by the statement of the vessels entered and cleared at this 
port for the year 1865, as compared with 1864, there is a decrease of 244, and 
io tonnage of 23,859 tons; of vessels entering and vessels clearing of 218, and 
la tonnage 24,765. This falling off has been owing in part to depression in 
busioess consequent upon the partial failure of the gold mines of British Colum- 
bia in 1864, and the enforcement of the law by the collector of customs for the 
Paget Sound district, prohibiting vessels under thirty tons carrying dutiable 
goods into Washington Territory. This restriction has been the cause of a 
nnmber of vessels being transferred from American to British subjects. This 
depression in business commenced to be seriously felt here in the summer of 
1864, and trade has been declining ever since. At least on^-half of the mer- 
chants in British Columbia and in this colony have suspended business, or have 
been broken up and forced into bankruptcy during the last eighteen months. 

The imports from the United States (California, Oregon, and Washington 
Territory) in 1864 amounted to $2,075,715 ; in 1865 to 81,687,903, a decrease of 
$387,812. 

The imports from Great Britain in 1864 amounted to $1,411,809 ; in 1865 to 
$952,584, a decrease of $429,225. 

Among the imports from the United States in 1865 were beef cattle to the 

value of 8114,802; mutton, 851,649; bacon, $53,407 ; butter, $87,812 ; flour, 

>2o3,745; oats, wheat, and barley, $35,889; hay, $11,850. and liquors, $22,824. 

The value of liquors imported from Great Britain in 1865 was $270,696. 

The exports from this port to the United States in 1864 amounted to $391,1 22 ; 

in 1865, $365,058, being a decrease of $26,064, as compared with 1864. 

The exports of the products of Vancouver's island and British Columbia, 
coal, furs, hides, lumber, and cranberries, amount to a small sum, the main 
business of the merchant being the re-exportation of goods received from Great 
Britain, and supplying miners. 

The shipment of gold from this port during the past year amounted to 
S2,067,061 30 against $2,784,226 41 in 1864, a decrease of $717,165 11. 

On the opening of the mining season in the spring of 1865 there was every 
indication that it would be a prosperous one, but after the lapse of a few weeks 
the floods came, sweeping away locks and dams, filling and caving in shafts and 
tunnels, and destroying expensive flumes, thus throwing mining operations back 
well nigh to the close of the season. This result of gold mining in British 
Columbia for the year 1865 has proved disastrous to that colony and to the 
prt»?perity of Vancouver's island. It is estimated that 2,000 adventurers went 
to the British Columbia gold mines during the last year, and that at most only 
one-half remained ; the other crossed the country to Idaho Territory. 

It may be mentioned as a drawback to mining in British Columbia that the 
colonial government imposed an export tax of 2 J per cent, on all gold taken out 
of the mines, besides a mining license of $5, and a rental tax of $5 per month 
more, with tolls on all the roads and bridges leading to mines, on men, animals, 
food, &c., and an ad valorem tax of 12 per cent, on the value of all imports 
entering the colony. These measures were regarded as burdensome by the 
miners, and resulted in driving and keeping away large numbers. 

l)uring the past year the government of British Columbia sent out exploring 
«ud prospecting parties, and towards the close of the season it was officially an- 
nounced that new and rich gold-fields had been discovered in the Bridge river 
^ Big Bend countries, which created considerable excitement. The Big Bend 

8 C R 

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114 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

country is represented as abounding with rich placer diggings, and the mines of 
Bridge river are similar to those of Cariboo, deep diggings and coarse gold. 

Much confidence is manifested in the extent and richness of the gold-fields of 
the Big Bend country. All accounts agree as to its being a more desirable 
mining region than that of Cariboo, the mining season being longer, and the land 
well adapted to the necessaries of life, and easier of access. The Big Bend 
country is situated between 51^ and 52^ north latitude, and 117° and 119^ of 
longitude, about 160 miles north of Fort Colville, in Washington Territory. 
The distance from this place to the Big Bend country is computed at 409 miles, 
and that it can be reached in six days from Portland, Oregon, G67 miles. 
Recent accounts from the mines are very exciting, diggings shallow, and yielding 
from twenty to thirty ounces of coarse gold per day to the hand. Up to the 
Ist December the weather is represented as having been very mild, and it is 
calculated that the mining season will average eight months in the year. 

The gold-field discovered in 1864, near this city, though still worked, has not 
proved remunerative. About $75,000 was taken off it the past season. 

COAL. 

Explorations during the past year have demonstrated that Vancouver*s island 
abounds in extensive coal-fields. But one, however, is being successfully worked. 
This is situated at Naniamo, about eighty miles from Victoria. From this 
mine shipments are made to San Francisco, and pay a good profit. The coal i? 
soft, highly bituminous, and answers admirably for steam purposes. British 
war vessels and those of the United States happening in these waters, and 
wanting coal, as well as the steamers in the merchant service, get supplies from 
those mines. 

There have also been discovered on Queen Charlotte's island several beds of 
anthracite coal, which have been tested here and in San Francisco, and found to 
be equal to the best Pennsylvania. Efforts are now being made to work these 
mines the coming season. 

It is known that coal equally as good, if not better than that found ou this 
island, abounds in Washington Territory ; but for the want of that encourage- 
ment which is given by the colonial government in granting donations of land 
to those who will successfully develop and work the mines, they may discover 
the coal-fields of our own territory are lying dormant, and our war and merchant 
steamers are necessarily dependent upon foreign coal. 

COPPER MINING. 

The amount of money expended on this and Queen Charlotte's island in 
searching for copper mines during the past two 3'ears is estimated at half a mil- 
lion of dollars, and the result has been that no well defined and profitable lead 
has been discovered ; and, for the present, copper mining has been abandoned. 

AGRICULTURB. 

The decline of commerce, the absence of any emigration, the decrease in the 
yield of the gold-fields, and the general depression in business during the last 
two years have prostrated this branch of industry. Improved farms on this 
island the past season have been sold for less than half the cost of improvement*. 
The colonial government, in order to foster and protect the farmer, proposed a 
law levying duties on the following agricultural productions : For every invoice 
of potatoes, $5 ; for every invoice of turnips, carrots, cabbages, or other roots or 
vegetables, $2 50 ; for every bend of beef, $4 ; for every sheep, SI 50 ; and for 
every horse, S5. 



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BRITISH DOMINIONS. 115 



MANlfFACTURINU, 

i-i with Other industries, during the past year was almost entirely suspended. 
I >f the three foundries and machine shops and one boiler manufacturing estab- 
]i?hment, but one — a foundry and machine shop — was in operation. In building 
ve5«el:? nothing was done. The dredging machine and appurtenances built in 
ISG4, at a cost of -S90,000, are now lying idle, having been condemned as useless. 

VICTORIA IMPROVBME.NTS. 

Daring the past year but few buildings were erected in Victoria. Rents and 
ri al estate have depreciated more than one- half. Instead of having a population 
of seven ox eight thousand, as in former winters, now it has not half that num- 
ber. Formerly three steamers a month arrived from San Francisco, now the 
only communication with that port is by sailing vessels. 

It is estimated that there are between five and seven thousand white inhabit- 
ants on Vancouver's island, three-fourths of whom reside in Victoria. The 
number of Indians on the island is estimated at 18,000. The total amount of 
bn.«iness transacted during the last six months ended December 31, as shown by 
the trades license roll, was 82,122,892. The number of names on the roll is 522. 

Id 1865 the expenses of the colonial government were $385,000. The colo- 
nial parliament has been in session over two months. The matter of reducing 
the expenses of government and the number of officials has been under discus- 
sion for some time, and is likely to be accomplished. The repeal of the law of 
miprisonment for debt, and the passage of a homestead law, are measures urged 
by the people and favored by the members of the colonial parliament. 

The estimates for the current expenses of the government of Vancouver's 
island, as laid before Parliament by the governor, for the year 1866, are $193,895^ 
and the estimated revenue is $206,376. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

New Westminster, situated about eighteen miles above the mouth of Fraaer 
river, is the seat of government for British Columbia, and contains a white pop- 
ulation of between 800 and 1,000. On the Frazer, above New Westminster, are 
several towns of more or less importance — Hope, Yale, Lytton, Littoct, and 
Douglass. Lighc-draught steamers, during the rainy season, ascend the Frazer for 
the distance of 1^5 miles. 

It is estimated that British Columbia contains a resident white population of 
between six and seven thousand, and Indians to the number of 32,000. Gold 
mining, some little agriculture, and furs are the leading interests of the colony.- 
The principal mining region has been Cariboo, 800 miles from New Westminster. 
In 1862 the reported richness of these gold mines attracted some 15,000 adven- 
turers; a large majority of whom returned penniless. Evidences, however, of 
the richness of these mines are demonstrated every season. They are termed 
deep diggings ; shafts 80, 100, and 150 feet in depth have been stmk before 
striking the bed-rock, on reaching w^hich from five to ten thousand dollars per 
^j for days and weeks together have been taken out of some of tliem, whil& 
cithers would not even yield the ** color." These diggings require an extensive 
capital, which few miners possess, and therefore have been neglected for the last 
two years. Ten or twelve claims only were worked succensfully last season. 
The wagon-road to these mines has been completed, and goods and provisions 
vere abmidant last season and sold at reasonable prices. 

The discovery of new gold-fields in Bridge river country — only about three 
'i*y»* travel from Victoria — is attracting considerable interest. They are lo* 
W<d forty or fifty miles inland from the Frazer river. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



116 ANNUAL REPOKT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The gold-fields of the Big Bend country — to reach which facilities are now 
being pushed forward — will be the region uf the greatest attraction the coming 
season ; two hundred miners now, in winter, are working in these diggings, and 
recent intelligence confirms all that has been reported in relation to their richness 
and extent. 

There is one extensive saw-mill at Buzzard inlet in this colony, which has been 
doing a large buEincsa during the past year in shipping lumber and spars to Eng- 
land and China. Another mill of greater power and dimensions is being erected 
at the same inlet. 

The colonial parliament of British Columbia is now in session. The acting 
governor has recommended the repeal of the export tax on gold, as well as other 
measures directly and indirectly connected with the mining interests of the colony, 
which are believed will invite adventurers and restore prosperity to the colony. 

The value of the gold taken out of the mines of British Columbia in 1865, on 
which an export tax of 2J per cent, was collected, amounted to $2,023,032. 
The aggregate value of imports into the colony for the three months ended the 
25th of December last, and principally designed for the Big Bend country and 
shipped from this* port, was — 

Flour $42, 721 00 

Dry goods 33, 022 S2 

Rice 18, 338 45 

Liquors 12, 215 64 

Clothing 11. 970 34 

Sundries 167, 968 10 

28G. 236 35 



The following are the only items which have transpired of receipts and ex- 
penditures for the year 1SG5: 

Road tolls collected $80, 025 00 

Gold export tax 50, 575 80 

Customs duties 42, 665 4o 

Tonnage dues 4. 723 90 

177, 990 1'* 
Expended in repairing roads 49, 069 30 

Net revenue from roads 128, 920 S'> 



FISHERIES'. 

In the spring of 1865 two vessels were fitted out at this port and several at 
San Francisco for cod fishing in Ochotsh sea. Those from this port returiieil 
late in the season laden with a superior quality of fish, and reporting extensive 
banks in that quarter of the world. The coming season will find a large fleet 
of vessels engaged in this new and profital le enterprise. The fish were sold in 
this port at SIO per cwt. 

Salmon and halibut are very fine and abundant in all the waters bordering 
this part of the Pacific coast, and yet there is not an established fishery to hv 
found. 

TELEGRAPHIC. 

The work of constructing the llusso-American telegraph line through Briti^b 
Columbia towards Sitka was vigorously pushed forward last season. It lias 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 117 

been completed for a distance of 425 miles. The surveying and exploring ex- 
pedition connected with this enterprise, consisting of one steamer and three sail- 
log vessels, that sailed for the Russian coast last season, have returned to San 
Fraocisco, reporting favorably as to the practicability of connecting this with 
the easteni continent by means of submarine cables. 

The telegraph line from Portland, Oregon, was completed to New West- 
minster in April, 1865, passing through Olympia, the capital of Washington 
Territory, and from thence along the eastern shore of Puget sound and the 
jsrulf of Georgia to New Westminster, forming a telegraphic communication with 
ibe United States military stations of Fort Vancouver, Steilacoom, and Fort 
fiellingham, and will be completed to this place the coming spring by three sub- 
marine cables, connecting the islands of San Juan, Lopez, and Fidalgo with Van- 
foiiver. This line has been constructed by the California State Telegraph 
Company, and is a connecting link in the great Russo -American telegraph 
f^Rierprise. 

NAVAL. 

The harbor of Esquimalt, three miles from this port, is used as a naval station 
iiv the British fleet. A company has been formed in London, with a capital of 
vjOO.OOO, for the purpose of building dry docks in the harbor, and it is expected 
-iH-ir con?tniction will be commenced the coming season. 

THE INDIANS. 

During the past year the Indian tribes of Vancouver's island and British 
iMumbia have been peaceably disposed among themselves, and the adven- 
tarous white man has been permitted to explore and prospect tlie country without 
mnlestation. 

The Indian tribes of this island invariably reside on its const, and subsist 
principally on fish and oil At the proper season they make a business of 
i-Mtching the dog-fish, the seal, shark, and sometimes a whale, saving their oil in 
-kins and bladders, which they barter to white traders for blankets and trinkets. 
>ince the introduction among them of whiskey their decadence has been marked 
and very rapid. Tribes that, a few year.^ since, numbered one and two thousand 
dwindled down to as many hundreds. The small-pox, also, in several localities, 
li.i? carried off whole tribes. ^ 

Scattered along the coast of British Columbia are several powerful tribes of 
Indians, who are more or less under the control of the agents of the Hudson's Bay 
'-"rapany. These are termed Northern Indians. Some of these Indians are 
n-ariy white, generally tall, and well-proportionefl, and display considerable 
•ksll and ingenuity in the construction of their canoes, in the manufacture of 
-:lvr*r rings and ornaments, in painting, and sculpture. They sometimes visit 
tliM part of the coast in canoes made from a solid tree, a single canoe containing 
100 to 150 of them. Some of these tribes have made considerable progress 
tnvarda civilization through the instrumentality of Protestant and Catholic mis- 
^'.'maries, and have cultivated fields, as well as established schools, churches, 
And wholesome police regulations. The sea-otter, silver and black fox, bear, 
^nd marten are taken by these Indians in great numbers, and form an important 
»d valuable trade with the Hudson's Bay Company. 

The Indians of the interior of British Columbia are docile, indolent, and stupid. 
They reside in small bands on the shores of the numerous lakes and streams, and 
nhnH on fish and such wild game as are easily taken. Formerly, the Hudson's 
% Company had flourishing and profitable trading-posts in their country, but 
ihf adventurous white man has so corrupted the Indians' habits and pursuits 
■hat they have nearly abandoned taking furs, and many of the posts of the 
ttmipany are now unoccupied and going to decay. No efforts are being made 
•^improve their condition. Like the tribes of Vancouver's island, jthey are 
'%frnerating and their numbers diminishing yearly. Digitized byV^OOQlC 



118 ANNUAL UKPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



RKSOURCKS, PROSPECTS, ETC. 

The resources of Vancouver's inland and British Columbia are mainlv 
mineral and timber. The explorations of this island have been limited and 
superficial, and yet several gold-fields have been discovered, which indicate 
extensive deposits of this precious metal. Copper indications and ore (though 
generally diffused in the primitive rock cropping out all over the island) seem 
to warrant the belief that at some future day copper mining would be made 
profitable. The coal-fields discovered on the island are numerous ; but one. 
however, is being worked, and that is contiguous to a good harbor. The shore:* 
of the innumerable bays, harbors, and inlets of the island are covered with the 
best uf fir timber, and accessible for the largest ships. The same may be said 
of the neighboring islands. The area of the agricultural lands on this island is 
comparatively small. Its surface is rocky and mountainous ; the soil yellow 
clay and gravel, covered by a thin vegetable mould, which soon wears out. 

British Columbia has a sea-coast of between nine hundred and a thou^^and 
miles. Several arms of the sea extend inland from forty to one hundred and 
twenty mtles. The shores of these aims, with the exception of now and then 
a small plateau, are precipitous, rocky, and mountainous The coast is fringed 
with large numbers of islands, bays, inlets, and harbors. Pine, fir, and cedar 
of immense size and height arc found on the const. But little attention, other 
than to gold, has been given to the minerals of British Columbia. Not one 
tithe of the country has as yet been explored. Silver, copper, lead, and coal 
have casually been found in several localities. The silver ore assays as rich as 
any on the Pacific coast. The copper, lead, and coal leads are well defined and 
begin to attract notice. The face of the country is diversifi(,'d, rugged moun- 
tains and hills forming its most prominent feature. The arable lands lie in 
small bodies, at the foot of the mountains and hills, and on the banks of rivor> 
and creeks, the soil being a dark loam, producing by irrigation tine crops. 

Combined with the enumerated resources of Vancouver's island and British 
Columbia are their undeveloped fisheries, which of themselves, properly man- 
aged, cannot fail of being a source of immense wealth. 

But, with all these advantages and sources of prosperity, the colonies of Van- 
couver's island and British Columbia, for the last two years, have been retrograd- 
ingin population, enterprise, and wealth. The restoration of peace in the United 
States has and will, in some measure, retard the growth and prosperity of this 
part of the Pacific coast. The announcement of these glorious facts wa^ the 
prelude for returning to the United States of between four and five hundred of 
their disloyal citizens', who resorted to this* part of the world to be out of the 
way. 

It is a fact, patent and almost universally acknowledged, that but for the 
adventurous spirit and enterprise of Americans these colonies would have re- 
mained in comparative obscurity. Through their explorations, toils, and enttr 
prise they discovered and developed the gold-fields of British Columbia, con- 
structed steamers, roads, aiid bridges to reach them, gave the country its reputa- 
tion, when at last a horde of inexperienced men, as officials, were despatched 
from the mother-country to the colonies, aiid onerous laws are made and enforced, 
which drive the toiling and persevering miners out. of the country. At the 
present time a most depressing state of things exists in these two colonies'. 
Especially is this the case in Vancouver's island, and, without some radical 
change in the status of the colonies, but little prospect of improvement can bt* 
looked for in future. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BBITI8H DOMINIONS. 



119 



Comparative statement showing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels 
entered and cleared at Victoria, V, L, for the years 1864 and 1865. 



ENTERED. 



Nationality. 


! , 

' No. 

... 480 
19 

.. 883 
3 
1 
1 


1864. 
Tons. 


1 

No. 

325 
15 

790 
7 

1 


865. 
Tons. 


Increase. 

No. Tons. 

1 


Dec 

No. ' 

155 
4 

93 ; 


rease. 
Tons. 


United States 


90,956 

8,975 

84,759 

1,205 

631 

248 


72,373 

7,059 

79, 320 

2,240 

380 




1 


18,583 
1 916 


Britbh 


::::::':::::::'i 


Britiflh. Colonial. . 






5 439 


Russian 

X^aniftb ..... . 


4 


1,035 1 


251 


Xorweirian . - - . 




1 


1 


248 


German 


2 
2 

1 


1,104 
358 

81 


2 
2 


1,104 1 




U. S. of Colombia 






Chile 




] 81 1 






i 










Total 


.. 1,387 

1 

>r 1865.. 


186,774 


1,143 


162,915 


9 


2,578 1 

1 


253 , 

9 


26,437 
2,578 


Total decrease ft 


244 


23,859 








1 







CLEARED. 



United States 


' 439 


87,910 

7,734 

86,984 

1,205 

631 

248 


314 
14 

809 
6 

1 


69,412 
6,676 

80, 124 

1,812 

380 


1 


125 1 
2 ' 

98 ! 


18,498 
1,058 


British 


...., 16 
.-..1 907 

3 
. - - . 1 1 

1 
... I . 


• 


British. Colonial. . 




6,860 


RnRsian 




=^1 


607 




Diuush 




251 


Norwegian 

(reriTMin - - - , 


1 




ll 

1 


248 


2 
2 

1 1 


1,104 

358 

81 


2 - 
2 1 
1 


1,104 
:558 

81 




r. S. of Columbia ! ' 




Chile 










1 1 







Total 

Total decrease 


...1,367, 

i 

for 1 1865.. 


184,712 


1,149 1 

i 


159,947 


H 


2, 150 


226 ' 

8 1 

218 ' 


26,915 
2, 150 

24,865 









1 











Digitized by 



Google 



120 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement s/unoing the value of imports and exports from Victonay 
V, I., ivith tJie names of the countries and ports whence imported and exported , 
for the years 1864 and 1865. 



IMPORTS. 



Whence 


imported. 


1864. 


1865. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Smd FrAncisco ............ ...... ...... 


$1,635,272 

163,:>20 

277, 123 

1,411,809 

71,563 
19,836 


$1,284,687 

181,160 

222,056 

982,584 

73,071 

93,678 : 

4,700 

3<s 198 

3,7-22 

1,115 




$350,585 


AHtoria. -- - 


$17, 840 


Port Angeles, W. T 
Great Britain 




55 067 






429 225 


British Columbia - 


1,508 
73,842 

4,700 
36, 198 

3.722 

1,115 




Sandwich Islands 




San Juan island 




China. 







Valparaiso 






Society islands 














Total 


5,578,lh23 
2,9<h>,871 


2,902,871 


138,925 


•^34, ^67 




n 1 865 




Total decrease ] 


2,676,052 











EXPORTS. 



Whither exported. 



San Francisco 

Astoria 

Port Angeles, W. T 

Mexico 

Society islands 

Silkat, Russian America. 
Sandwich Islands 



Total . 



Total increase of exports in 1865. 



1864. 



$277,514 
70, 690 
42,918 



11,943 



403, 065 



1865. 



$254, 878 
75,417 
34,763 
1,432 
1,870 
14,834 
73,662 



456, 856 
403,065 



53,791 



Increase. 



$4,7-27 



1,432 

1,870 

14,834 

61,719 



84,582 



Decrease. 



$22,636 



8,155 



30,791 



Comparative statement showing the value of gold shipped from Victoria, V. 
/., for the years 1864 and 1865. 





1^4. 


1865. 


By express companies and British banking companies . . 


$2,784,226 41 


$2,067,061 30 


Decrease 


717,165 11 









Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRERCH DOMINIONS. 



121 



Comparative statement showing the quantitt/ and value of coal shipped from 
Vancouver's Island during the years 1864 and 1865. 





Tons. 


Value. 


INCREASE. 




Tons. Value. 


Jn64 


29,069 
32,818 


$174,414 

196,908 


t 


\rS^ 


3,749 1 «i22,494 



Comparative stafcment showing the total exports and imports into Victoria, 
F. J., during the years 1864 and 18G5. 



Imports 

Exports 

ExceRfl of imports . 



1864, 



t;3,578,923 00 
3,361,705 41 



217,217 59 



1865. 



$2,8:53,021 00 
2,720,825 30 



112,195 70 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 
Paris — John Bigblow, Consul, 

January 12, 1865. 

The aggregate declared value of the merchandise shipped from this consular 
district lor the past six months, as derived from the invoices filed in my 
office, 18 23, 037, 370. 37 francs. 

The aggregate for the corresponding six months of 

1863 was 57, 525, 868. 00 " 

Showing a falling off of 34, 488, 497. 63 " 

And for the first six months of 1864 of 37, 788, 227. 82 

The decline has been the largest in fancy and miscellaneous articles ; jewelry, 
wiDcs, and musical instruments, some 75 per cent. The falling off in dry goods, 
porcelain, glass, leather, chemicals and perfumery, has been about 60 per cent. ; 
in hatters' goods, bronzes, flowers and feathers, gloves, clocks and watches, at 
the rate of 50 per cent. In books, paper, and engravings, there has been no 
marked change. 

The rate of exchange between the United States and France has, no doubt, 
had its effect in decreasing importations, but I am persuaded that there has 
been no such difference between the actual amount of goods entered into the 
United States during the past six months and the previous six months of 1864 
as the statement herein indicates. It is to be feared that a large amount of 
merchandise which, under the old tariff, went through my office, now enters 
without any consular certificate — in other words, is smuggled. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



122 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Havrb — James O. Putnam, ConmL 

Fkbruary 10, 1865. 

Enclosed I have the honor to submit the annual statement of imports into the 
port of Havre for the year 1864. 

It will be perceived from this statement that petroleum oil is now the principal 
article of importation from the United States, and, from the steadily increaeiog 
demand, that it bids fair in a few years to vie in importance with the great 
southern staple, cotton. 

The great and constant fluctuations in the prices of cotton and sugar daring 
the last six months have produced at this port a serious commercial crisis. 
Several very large failures liave already occurred, and there are apprehensions 
in relation to other houses. 

In consequence of the large stock of sugar on hand and the absence of a cor- 
responding demand, a very great fall in this article has taken place, and it is 
stated that refiners here will be compelled to close their establishments. In 
fact, the commercial aspect of affairs is most discouraging. 

The supply of cotton for the manufacturers is now nearly all drawn from 
England, three-fourths of which are the product of British India. 

The French well understand the disadvantage under which they labor, and 
have endeavored to establish a direct trade with all cotton -growing countries, 
but have utterly failed. During the period above mentioned forty -nine vessels, 
only, have arrived from India, and only fourteen cleared from French ports for 
that part of the world. Accompanying this despatch is a comparative state- 
ment of the imports of cotton into Havre for the years 1862, 1863, and 1S64. 

The French government some time since removed one of the great drawbacks 
to the increase of its shipping by permitting the nationalization, at a moderate 
duty, of foreign-built vessels. The result, however, has not realized public ex- 
pectation. The following is a resume of the purchase by France of foreign 
wood-built, sea-going vessels for the first six months of the year 1864, as com- 
pared with the corresponding period of the preceding year : 



1864. 



1863. 



Where from. 



I Tons. 



Great Britain ' 2,689 

Belflrium \ 483 

Italy 334 

United States 2,178 

Total j 5,684 



Value in 
francs. 



1,363,680 



Tons. 



128 



1,816 



1,944 



Value in 
francs. 



4,666,561) 



Statement skoicing the tonnage of iron-huilt vessel* nationalized by France for 
the first six months of the year 1864. 



1864. 



1863. 



Where from. 



Tona. 



Great Britain ! 3,334 

Belgium I 39 

Italy 1 246 

Total 1 3,619 



Value in 
francs. 



Tons. 



1,889 



T 



Value in 
francs. 



2,598,442 1,889 



_>igitee44'X^^OOQ4^ 



1,356, 30*2 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



123 



It will be seen that Great Britain is the largest seller of tonnage to this couu- 
trj. The French have been selling as well as buying vessels ; and it is now 
stated that iron vessels can be bnilt cheaper in France than in Great Britain, 
owing to the lower rate of wages paid to workmen and the facility of procuring 
materials. It is, therefore, probable that ship-building in France, for foreign 
countries, will considerably increase. 

Comparative statement showing the tonage of French- built sea-going vessels 
iold to foreigners, during the first six months of ISSi and 1863, together with 
the names of the countries to which the same were transferred. 



Names of countries where sent. 



1864. 



1863. 



I 



Tons. 



Great Britain I 492 

Belgium j 53 

Other countries 5,436 

Total i 5,981 



Value in 
francs. 



Tons. 



26 
853 



741,840 



879 



Value in 
francs. 



88,320 



The foregoing tables and figures are very encouraging to French ship-build- 
ers, and show that while the purchase of vessels by France has hardly more 
than doubled, the sale of French-built vessels has increased more than eight-fold. 
These favorable results, together with the great increase of French trade since 
the treaty of 1860 with Great Britain, have convinced the French government 
that the still remaining restrictions are highly prejudicial to the increase of its 
shipping, and a superior council of commerce, composed of the most eminent 
commercial men connected with French commerce, has been instituted, to in- 
vestigate the subject. 

The following is a translation of an article which lately appeared in the 
*• Avenir Commercial," of Paris, giving the conclusions arrived at by the council : 

"After long and serious discussions we are assured that the council adopted 
the resolution that the entrance, free of duty, of materials employed in the 
building and fitting out of ships should be permitted by law. Also that six 
mouths after the carrying into effect of such law, ships built and fitted out in 
foreign countries shall likewise be admitted free. The double question of differ- 
ential duties on foreign flags and on goods in bond gave rise to a most interesting 
discussion. After that debate, the council adopted the resolution that differ- 
ential duties on foreign vessels ought to be abolished within a period not ex- 
ceeding three years. After the abrogation of these duties, those on entrepots 
should likewise be abolished ; after which assimilation of flags would be com- 
plete. In concurrence with the minister of finance, who was consulted as to 
the possibility of repealing tonnage dues, it was decided that the exemption from 
those dues which Marseilles has exclusively enjoyed since 1816 should be ex- 
tended to all the ports of France. All other questions, we believe, have been 
solved in the same liberal spirit, and we entertain the conviction that the gov- 
ernment will try to accomplish all the reforms of which the superior council of 
commerce has traced the programme. 

"The original resolution relative to the nationalization in France of foreign 
^hips, I learn, has been modified, and the superior council of commerce has 
decided since that, instead of admission free of duty, such vessels shall pay 
two francs per ton." 

I have been informed that a bill will be brought forward by the imperial 



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124 ANKUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 

government in the next session of the Corps Legislutif for carrying into effect, 
as soon as possible, the latter part of the candle's recommendations as con- 
tained in the foregoing translation, but that the one in connexion with the ad- 
mission free of duty of foreign vessels will be omitted, or, at least, will not be 
proposed for some time, in order that the French shipping interest may prepare 
for the foreign competition which awaits it. 

As these different recommendations of the superior council of commerce, from 
all I can gather, will eventually become law, I have thought it my duty to com- 
municate them, and more particularly, as, in that happy event, our American 
^hip-builders and timber merchants would be able to compete favorably with 
Great Britain in selling vessels and ship- timber to this country. 

The only commercial event of local interest which has transpired during the 
past year was the inauguration of the French line of steamers between this port 
and New York. 

As a matter of some importance to American shipping I beg to state that the 
Peruvian government, through its minister at Paris, has recently concluded an 
arrangement with that of France by which guano, from the 15th day of January 
last, can be sold in this country for 310 francs per ton instead of 325, as formerly, 
and the French government on its part has consented that, from the same date, 
the duty on that article, in foreign bottoms direct from Peru, shall be eighteen 
francs instead of thirty, as heretofore, while imports from Peru in French vessel? 
will continue to be free. Still this reduction of the duty on foreign vessels 
engaged in this trade will once more enable American vessels to participate 
in this branch of the carrying trade, of which, in former days, they enjoyed a 
monopoly. 

12,161 emigrants have embarked at Havre for New York during the vear 
1864. 

Statement showing the description and quantity of tmports into Havre from thf 
United States during the several quarters of the year 1864. 



Descripti 


ion. Ist 

1 


1 
quarter. 


2d quarter. 


3d quarter. 4th 


quart«.T. 

126 
2,732 

""577* 


Total. 


Cotton 

Tobacco 

Do 

Tallow 

Do , 


bales. 1 

hhds- 

bales. 

casks. 

...pounds. 
. ..barrels - 
...pounds.^ 

sacks. 

....hhds., 
. . . barrels . ' 

do... 

....do..., 

do... 

do....... 


l,4tK) 1 

J,3CK) 1 

""4,"2S0'i 
12,ftV2 
2,(5^ ! 
73,695 

2,847 ; 

26 ' 
1,269 ' 
203 
2J,165 
32 


1,879 j 

215 ; 

i,'946* 


870 
1,371 

30 

877 


4,340 

5,(k^"^ 

3(1 

7,6s) 

12,8.VJ 


Lard 

Do 


7,814 1 


3,646 


1,359 ' 


i5,:io<> 

73,69.') 


Quercitron bark. 

Do 

Potash , 

Pearlash 

Oil, petroleum .. 

whale 

coal 


3,:553 1 

125 j 

966 ' 

65 1 

2, 000 . 

382 : 

1 


855 ; 

134 

875 

294 

45,833 

6,733 


1,288 
63 

813 1 
217 
34,106 
129 


8,34:1 

3,92:j 

779 

103,104 

7,:K6 

177 


cod liver. .. 


1 

cases . 




...... ......j 

.... - 1 






e 


Jewellers' dust . 
Sugar 


...barrels., 
. .. .casks. ... . 


383 


210 


111 


229 


1,404 


. cases 


' 1 




1 




5,403 


Do 


hhds. ... 


:::::::::! 








415 


Do 


tierrps- 


1 




1 




40 


Sewing machines -. 










233 


Whalebone 

Haras 

Do 

Wax 


.packages.' 

casks . 1 

cases . 

....do 


166 i 
20 
6 , 


244 

^. 

..-.1 


96, 

217 ; 


1,025 
2 


1,531 

271 

6 

245 


Coflee 


. - . . sacks . 1 . . . . 


1 


1 






11,578 


Alcohol , 






1 


i 




59 


Sausag^e-skins.. 
Flour 


. . - barrels 
do........ 


15 1 


103 1 


20 ; 25 


16:^ 

6 170 



FBENCH DOMINIONS. 



125 



Statement — Continued. 



Description. 



Oare 

Coffee casks. 

Do packages. 

PiDC apples, pres^rvM . cases . 
Bristles barrels. 

Do bales. 

lodia-nibber shoes . . cases . 

Wine do 

Hemp , bales. 

Ci^an cases. 

Staves packaees 

Do namber 

Palm leaves packages 

Beef, salted barrels 

Fish eggs do. . , 

Moss bales 

Hides 

Wool bales 

Grease casks 

Wheal sacks 

Chrome ort' barrels - 

Pork casks. 

Prepared flour cases . 

ludigo , do 

Candles do 

Ohre, yellow casks 

Hops bales. 

Ivogwood logs . 

Oakwood do 

Maple do.. 

Black walnut do 

Rosewood do 

Piilisander do 

Ebony do 

Cedar do 

White pint* do 

Mahogany do 




Comparatire statement showing the number of vessels of all nations entered at 
and cleared from Havre during the years 18G3 and 1864, with their nation- 
ality. 



KNTERED, 



CLEARED. 



Xatlunulity. 



I No. in I No. in 
1804. 1863. 



No. in I No. in 
1864. I 1863. 



Rtt-*ia 52 

>wetien ' 55 

Norway ' 191 

I>fiimark ' 

^iR*t Britain 1,221 



Mecklenburg and free cities 



<'«rmaoy. 

^rt-nnaa confederacy : 

Vherlands 

Mpnm 

^wingal 

*?p*in 



U 
102 
64 ■ 

44 I 

60 I 



34 
61 

97| 

5 

1,234 

16 • 

1)0 I 

61 

7 1 

47 i 

36 



21 


53 


30 


41) 


07 


m 


36 


25 


VX^ 


1,310 


5 


12 


83 


84 


5?^ 


61 


61 


16 


75 


63 


31 


4 



Digitized by V^OOQK:! 



126 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 
Comparative statement — Continued. 



ENTERED. 



CLEARED. 



Nationality. 



I No. in 
, 1864. 



Italy 

Austria 

Turkey and dependencies. . 

Effypt 

Western coast of Africa , . - 

British India, &c 

Philippine islands, &c 

China and Oceanica 

United States 

Mexico and Guatemala 

United States of Columbia. 

Venezuela 

Brazil 



Uruguay , 

Argentine republic 

Equador and Patagonia. 

Peru and Bolivia 

Chile 



Hayti 

Kpanish West Indies 

Netherlands W^est Indies 

British W^est Indies and Canada . 

Isle of Bourbon 

Martinique 

Guadalupe 

French Guiana 

French India, &c 

Seneganibia and Gaboon 

Whale, seal and other fisheries . . . 
Coasting traders 



10 

56 

2 

3 

94 

22 

8 

17 

111 

41 

22 

1 

71 

14 

83 

73 

1 

17 

8 

38 

30 

5 

2 

8 

2 

3,416 



Total 5,913 



No. in 
1863. 



3 

2 

7 

42 

2 

3 

82 

J7 

5 

2 

103 

42 

32 

2 

60 

13 

84 

74 

5 

23 

13 

36 

48 



8 

2 

.3,543 



5,928 



No. in 
1864. 



11 

13 

3 

12 



4 
51 
28 

4 
14 
85 
16 
18 

2 
21 
27 
27 
'X7 

8 

9 
12 
25 



1 

13 

3 

3.532 



No. in 



6 
3 
5 
5 
4 
10 
1 
2 

rv5 
2t» 

b 

:^ 

15 

2f) 

24 

21^ 
21* 
% 
11 
13 

ir> 
:» 

31 
2 
»2 

3 
3,440 



5,899 ! 5,73.' 



Statement showing the imports into Havre from ports of the United States 
during the year ended Decejnbcr 31, 1805. 

Cotton : 

First quarter 324 bales. 

Second quarter 1 , 959 " 

Third quarter 3, 707 " 

Fourth quarter 16, 889 " 

Total 22, 879 " 

Tobacco : 

First quarter 2, 726 hogaheads. 

Second quarter 53 " 

Third quarter 1, 882 

Fourth quarter 1 , 979 

Total 6, 640 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 127 

Petroleum oil : 

First aaarter 7, 240 barrels. 

5^ond quarter 1, 375 ** 

Third quarter 2, 728 '* 79, 330 gallons. 

Fourth quarter 7, 612 ** 



Total 18,955 " 79,330 



Potash: 

First qnaiter 1, 092 barrels. 

Second quarter 764 " 

Third quarter 972 *' 

Fourtli quarter 715 ** 



Total 3, 543 " 

Pearlash : 

First quarter 176 barrels. 

S«^cona quarter 59 ** 

Third quarter 180 " 

Fourth quarter 81 " 

• ■ ■ 

Totol 496 *' 



Goldsmiths' dust : 

First quarter ^ 90 barrels. 

Second quarter 267 ** 

Third quarter 149 " 

Fourtli quarter 209 " 

Total 715 " 



Wines : 
Daring the year 150 baskets, and 88 cases. 

Tallow : 

First quarter 1, 642 casks. 

Second quarter 271 " 225 hogsheads, 200 tierces. 

Third quarter 350 " 

Total 3,263 " 225 " 200 " 



Dry and salted hides : 

First quarter 16, 063 and 2, 727 packages. 

Second quarter 1, 095 *» 384 " 

Third quarter 801 " 569 " 

Fourth quarter 405 ** 

Total 17,959 " 4,085 



Coffee : 

Fir?t quarter 816 sacks. 

Second quarter 270 " 

Fourth quarter 1, 400 ** 

Total 2.486 " 

Digitizea by VjUOQ IC 



128 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Hops: 

First ouarter 230 bale^. 

Second quarter 52 " 

Fourth quarter 26 " 

Total • 308 " 

Salt provisions : >» 

First quarter 25 barrels, 13 cases. 

Secona quarter 2 " 

Fourth quaiter 9 " 50 " 

Total 36 " 63 ** 

Wax: ~ 

First quarter 53 casks, 12 cases. 

Secona quarter 43 " 43 " 4 hogsheads. 

Third quarter 40 " 

Fourth quarter 1 " 

Total 96 " 96 " 4 

Sewing machines : 

First quarter 91 cases. 

•Third quarter 197 " 

Fourth quarter ^ 50 " 

Total 338 " 

Feathers: 
During the year 6 halts 

Whalebone : 

First quarter 52 package?. 

Third quarter 639 

Fourth quarter 986 

Total 1, 677 . ** 

Staves for casks : 

First quarter 80 packages 

Third quarter 178 

Fouith quarter 2. 021 " 

Total 2, 279 

Sausage-skins : 

First quarter 67 barrels. 

Second quarter 42 " 

Third quarter 69 " 30 ke«:s. 

Fourth quarter 30 " 

Total 208 " 30 *' 

Furs : " 

During the year 5 cases, 4 bales, and 6 casks 



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FRENCH DOMINIONS, 129 

Sponges: 

Pint quarter 16 bales. 

Hi ird quarter 77 " 

Fourth quarter 104 " 

Total 197 " 

Qaercitron bark : 

Tint quarter 667 sacks, 27 hogsheads. 

Second quarter 37 casks. 

fourth quarter 623 " 22 " 

Total 1,290 " 49 " 37 " 

Hams: 

First quarter 300 pounds. 

S*<on(i quarter 24 casks. 

lliird quarter 2 " 

Total 300 " 26 " 

Vanilla : 

First quarter 6 cases. 

Fourth quarter 3 " 

Total 9 " 

Sausages : 
During the year 4 cases. 

Pigs' bristles : 
During the year 314 casks. 

Wool: 

^ond quarter 14 bales. 

Third quarter 200 " 

Total 214 « 

India-rubber : 
During the year 3 cases. 

Champagne : 

Second quarter. 228 cases. 

Third quarter 225 " 

Total 453 ** 

Fish eggs : 
During the year 502 barrels* 

Alligators* skins : 
During the year 2 packages. 

Alcohol : 
During the year 90 casks. 

Rice: 
During the year 46 tierces. 

^CR Digitized by ^^OOgIe 



130 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Lard : 
Daring the year 25 tierces. 

Sugar : 
Daring the year 7 hogsheads. 

Essence of lavender : 
Daring the year 2 cases. 

Tea: 
During the year 11 cases. 

Quinquina : 
Daring the year 136 sacks. 

Medicinal roots : 
During the year 8 sacks. 

Preserved vegetables : 
During the year 18 cases. 

Palm leaves: 
During the year 51 bales and about 600 tons. 

Oats: 
During the year 10 sacks. 

Coral : 
During the year 1 case. 

Kerosene oil : 
During the year 22 cases. 

Goal oil : 
During the year 2 casks. 

Combs, (gutta-percha :) 
During the year 3 cases. 

Cigars : 
During the year. . . 7 cases. 

Moss : 
During the year 21 bales. 

Absinthe : 
During the year 20 cases. 

Fire-arms : 
During the year i 12 cases. 

Essence of mint : 
During the year 10 cases. 

Sisal grass : 
During the year 195 bales. 

Indigo : 
During the year 4 cases and 1 box. 

Flour: 
During the year 25 barrels. 

Clover-seed : 
During the year 6S sacks. 



Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. ISl 

Cedar: 

First quarter 905 logs. 

Si'cond quarter 769 " 

Third quarter 150 " 

Fourth quarter 460 " 

Total 2,284 " 

MabogaDj : 

First Quarter 552 logs. 

Second quarter , 49 " 

Fourth quarter 125 " 

Total 726 " 

CaLinet woods : 
During the year • 72 logs. 

Black walnut : 

First quarter 319 logs. 

Third quarter 404 logs and 576 planks. 

Total 723 logs and 576 planks. 

Maple : 

First Quarter 128 logs. 

S'cond quarter 144 " 

Fourth quarter 83 " 

ToUl 355 " 

Oak wood : 
During the year 13 logs and 247 planks. 

Rosewood : 
During the year 55 logs. 

Holly: 
Daring the year : 4 logs. ' 

Deck planks : 
During the year 383 planks. 

Specie : 
Daring the year 22 cases. 

Flocks: 
Daring the year 19 bales. 

Brandy : 
During the year 30 baskets. 

Whisky: 
During the year * 7 casks. 

Sheep skins : 
During the year 40 bales. 

Cattle hoofs : 
I>uring the year 1,612 sacks. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



132 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Cattle horns : 
During the year 18,00i 

Laths : 
During the year 2,395 packages and 2,861 laths. 

Oars: 
During the year 10,099 

Staves : 
During the year 426,920 

Machinery, medicines, &c. : 

During the year 18 cases medicine?. 

During the year 22 cases preserved fiuits. 

During the year 35 casks copper. 

During the year 7 casks apples. 

During the year 3 cases carriages. 

During the year 60 caises hardware. 

Comparative (able showing the importation of cotton into France and England 
during the following years : 



Imports fron 



FRANCE. 



1861. 



1862. 



1863. 



1864. 



1865. 



ITnited States . 
Brazil 

Epypt .... 

Other countries 
Total... 



Bales. 

520,7:^0 

922 

39,760 

63,1«8 



Balfs. 
31,420 
4,65.5 
32,643 

2()2, 852 



Bales, 
4,169 
9,642 

50,058 
317,670 



Bales. 

4,749 

29,501 

82,521 

344,118 



624,600 



271,570 I 381,539 



Bales, 

2H,.%I 

65,1)63 
387, 159 



460,889 509,tli5 



Imports from — 



United States . 

Brazil 

Kpypt 

Other couDtnes 

Total.. - 



ENGLAND. 



1861. 



Bales, 

1,841,643 

99,2'-41 

97,759 

95^,102 



1862. 



Bales. 

72,369 

i:«,tl07 

135,420 

1,103,455 



1863. 



Bales. 

132,0*i8 

i:i7,14i> 

205,788 

1,457,204 



1864. 



Bales. 
197,776 
212,192 
257,102 
1,920,026 



1865. 



Bales. 

4til,i«7 
34U.261 

1,6.9,5:>S 



3, 035, 725 1 1 , 445, 051 1 , 932, 162 2, 587, 096 , 2, 755, 3:^1 



Slock of cotton in England during the following or to the first of January of 

each year. 



Years. 


No. of bales. 


1861 


794,510 


1862 


69t»,:j(io 


1863 


433, 9r)0 


1864 


3-/7, TmO 


1865 


575, 7*27 







Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



133 



Comparative statement of the cotton market in France during the last ftoenty- 

two years. 



Tears. 


Imports of cot- 
ton. 


Sales. 


Stock on hand 
Dec. 31. 


1^14 


Bales, 
351,451 
410, 5:w 
378,0:{5 

:«2,a-i0 

275,715 
414,478 
387,475 
360, 147 
470,860 
459, 406 
470, 900 
467,470 
509, 164 
481,110 
573, 170 
432,290 
684,594 
624, 61K) 
271,570 
411,538 
460, 880 
509, 805 


Bales. 
397,951 
421,037 
412, Ki5 
299,950 
309,265 
389,378 
375,9:50 
382, 172 
47H,660 
459,677 
417,250 
492,094 
316,950 
440 155 
524,455 
527,050 
618,919 
596,680 
352,722 
437, ^-80 
432,102 
531,207 


Bolts, 

78,000 
67, 500 


J-vIo 


1-46 


32,700 
55,600 
22, 050 


1-47 


1,-4^ 


1S9 


47, 150 


\<^) 


58, 695 


\<A 


36,670 


1<.'2 


30,870 
30,600 
84,250 


1*.,3 


\<A 


Kw> 


59,526 
51,840 


h.V) 


K.7 


92, 795 


].<>K 


141,510 


I<,9 


46,750 
112,425 
140, 345 


J-S)!}... 


l-M.l 


UVl 


59, 193 


I*i3 


32, 852 
61,630 


H4 


I?<j5 


40,230 







Comparative statement showing the quantity of cotton on hand at Havre on the 
31*^ day of December for the past thirteen years. 



COTTON. 



Tears. 


Bales- stock. 


Tears. 


Bales — stock. 


H;4 


51,140 

28,260 

5(5,785 

137,950 

105,020 

45, 130 

136,690 


1857 


82,600 


HU 


1856 


46,800 


IS-i 


1855 


53, 650 


IV.I 


' 1854 


72,250 


N;/) 


1 1853 


21,100 


JK-,D... 


1852 


23, 830 


ho^ 











Digitized by LjOOQIC 



134 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMEBCE. 



Comparative statement shoicing the nvmher of vessels and their tonnage arriral 
at Havre from the United States and cleared from Harre for the United 
Hates during the years 1864, 1863, 1862, 1861, and 1860. 





ARRIVED. 


Yean. 


CLEARED. 


Yeara. 




& 


4. 


1 


1864 


94 

82 

105 

472 

296 


51,917 

48, 428 

74, 173 

388,729 

272,621 


1864 


51 

58 

124 

301 

218 


56, 075 


lt;63 


]H63 


48, n^ 


1862 


1H62 


KU.y-^i 


1H6I 


lt»61 


26:1 %i 


I860 


\tiGO 


222,u;J9 









Marseilles — G. W. Van Horne, Consul, 

October 18, 1865. 
The comirerce of France is in a state of transition. I Lave found no interest- 
ing statistics appertaining to this subject, but while engaged in my researclie?, 
have been struck with the thoroughness of the conversion of the French to the 
principles of free trade. The new commercial treaties entered into the last two 
years with Belgium, Prussia, Switzerland, Holland, the Z 'llverein. with those in 
process of execution wiih Spain, Austria, Sweden, and Norway, witness to the 
earnest efforts being made to relieve commerce of its burdens. 

international marine. 

The register Veritas furnishes proof that in point of tonnage, the American A 
No. 1 ships rank those of all other nations of the same class. 

The following table shows the elective tonnage of the first fifty ships of each 
nation : 

1st. American 20,906; averages, 418.12 

2d. Austrian 17, 486 " 349.7:J 

3d. Hamburg 14,370 " 287.40 

4th. ItAlian 13, 722 " 274.44 

6th. Russian 12, 758 " 255 r>6 

6th. El glish 12,754 " 251.4S 

7th. Dutch 11,612 " 252.24 

8th. Prussian 10,523 " 210.4(3 

9th. Spanish 10,048 " 200% 

10th. Swede and Norwegian 9, 485 " 189.70 

11th. French 5,877 " 115.54 

12th. Danish 5, 763 " 115.2() 

As to the importance of her merchant marine relative to the number of inbub- 
itants, the United States stand No. 10, owning one ton for every 6.1 inhabitants. 

Tlie following table exhibits the maritime strength of the most imporsant of 
commercial nations : 

1st. Bremen possesses 1 ton for 0.6 inhabitants. 

2d. Hamburg possesses 1 ton for 0.9 inhabitants. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 135 

3d. Norway possesses 1 ton for 2.1 inhabitants. 
4th. Lubeck possesses 1 ton for 3.5 inhabitants. 
5th. Mecklenburg-Schwerin possesses 1 ton for 3.7 inhabitants. 
6th. Greece possebses 1 ton for 4.0 inhabitants. 
7th. Sweden and Norway possesses 1 ton for 4.9 inhabitants. 
8ih. Great Britain possesses 1 ton for 5.5 inhabitants. 
9th. Holland possesses 1 ton for 6.5 inhabitants. 
lOtb. United States possesses 1 ton for 6.1 inhabitants. 
11th. Hanover possesses 1 ton for 8.0 inhabitants. 
12(h. Sweden possesses 1 ton for 9.9 inhabitants. 
13th. Spain possesses 1 ton for 18.4 inhabitants. 
14th. Italy possesses 1 ton for 32.2 inhabitants. 
15th. France possesses 1 ton for 38.0 inhabitants. 
16th. Prussia possesses 1 ton for 52.8 inhabitants. 
17th. Austria possesses 1 ton for 105.3 inhabitants. 
ISth. Belgium possesses 1 ton for 162.5 inhabitants. 

France is still in the market as purchaser of good wooden and iron ships at 
moderate prices. In wooden ships she purchased of England 210 tons in 1863 
and 1,816 tons of the United States; also 483 tons of Belgium, and 431 tons of 
Italy; in iron ships, in 1863, 4,601 tons were purchased of England, and in 1864, 
7,455 tons English, 246 Italian, and 39 Belgian. The grand total represents a 
value of 1,389,360 francs for wooden ships, and 7,353,000 francs for iron ships. 
There is another side to this picture : the French ship yards are gradually 
vinning the confidence and favor of Europeans. England buys a few tons of 
France, taking 186 tons in 1863 and 492 tons in 1864. Belgium the same, asking 
for but 115 tons in 1863 and 84 tons in 1864. But, against 909 tons sold 
to other countries in 1863, the sales for 1864 amount to 9,209 tons, mostly in 
iron ships. 

FBENCH STBAM NAVIGATION. 

As holding important relations with French commerce, French steam naviga- 
tion should not be overl Joked. Through the courtesy of the directors of the 
two great companies, the Messageries Imperiales and the Transatlantic, I have 
b<ren placed in possession of statistics whose recital may possibly cause my coun- 
tn-in»n to take greater interest in this important auxiliary of commerce. I pre- 
s<'nt these statistics under three divisions : 1st, the lines established ; 2d, ap- 
propriations and laws and regulations affecting the direction of the companies ; 
3d, results. 

I. THE LINfeS ESTABLISHED. 

The M€9»agertr8 Imperiales. — This company was chartered in 1852 under 
the name of ••Compagnie des Services Maritimes Nationales." The lines com- 
prii»€d under the postal convention were : 1st, thirty-six voyages per year, be- 
tween Marseilles and Malta, touching at the important Italian and Sicilian ports ; 
the total distance between the extreme ports being 290 maritime leagues. 2d, 
thirty-six voyages per year between Marseilles and Constantinople, connect- 
ing the important ports on the line ; tot^il, distance 583 maritime leagues. 3d, 
twenty-four voyages per year, between Marseilles and Alexandria, via Malta; 
tf>tHl distance, 500 leagues. 4th, the Syrian line, between Constantinople and 
Alexandria, accomplishing eighteen voyages per year ; total distance, ^10 leagues. 

By virtue of a new convention, made November 28, 1854, the number of 
Toyagt's on the Italian line were increased from 36 to 52 per year; on the 
Alexandria line from 24 to 26 ; on the Syrian line from 18 to 26, and between 
Marseilles and Constantinople from 36 to 52. 

• Digitized by LjOOQIC 



136 ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

New lineB were eBtablished as follows : 

Six voyages monthly from Marseilles to Algiers ; three voyages monthly 
from Marseilles to Oran ; three voyages monthly from Marseilles to Tunis, the 
last touching at Stora and Bone. 

The new convention felso provided for the Black sea, and in 1857 the follow- 
ing lines were established : Ist, the line of the Danube from Constantinople to 
Ibralia, 36 voyages per year 2d, the line between Constantinople and 
Trebizonde, 36 voyagc*s per year. 

By a decree of July 22, 186 1, the Messageries Imperiales were authorized to 
convey their postal service to the other side of the isthmus of Suez, and occupy 
the Indian ocean and China seas. 1st, the principal line connects Suez and 
Saigon, touching at Aden, Pointe de Galles, Penang and Singapore ; total dis- 
tance, l,891i leagues; number of voyages peryear, 12. Five auxiliary services 
were also established, accomplishing each 12 voyages per year : Ist, between 
Aden and the islands of Maurice and Reunion, total distance 625 leagues. 2(i, 
between Pointe de Galles and Chandernagor, touching at Pondicherry, Madras 
and Calcutta, total distance 450 leagues. 3d, from Singapore to Batavia, toul 
distance 183^ leagues. 4th, from Saigon to Manilla, total distance 302§ leagues. 
5th, from Saigon to Shanghai, touching at Uong Kong, total distance 57 1§ leaguee. 

The line between Bordeaux and Buenos Ayres was occupied by the Messa- 
geries Imperiales in September, 1857. The convention contemplated two 
voyages per month alternately from Bordeaux and Marseilles ; but the latter line 
was abandoned, and the line from Bordeaux is alone occupied, accomplishing one 
voyage per month, and touching at Lisbon, Ooree, Pernambuco, Rio Janeiro and 
Montevideo, t^tal distance 2,069 § leagues. 

General Transatlantic Catnpany, — The line between Havre and New York 
was opened in June, 18U4, and voyages have been made monthly. In April of 
next year other steamers will be placed upon this line, and a bimonthly established 
with the States. 

The line between St. Nazaire and Vera Cruz was opened in 1862. To-day 
there ai-e bimonthly departures from St. Nazaire : one on the 7th for Aspinwall, 
touching at St. Martinique ; the other on the 19th for Vera Cruz via St. Thomas 
and Havana. 

These lines have five branch services as follows : 

Ist and 2d. Running bimonthly from Fort de France to St. Thomas via 
Guadalupe. 

3d. I? rom Fort de France to Cayenne, touching at St. Lucie, St. Vincent, 
Grenada, Trinidad, Demcrara and Surinam. 

4th. Between St. Thomas and Jamaica, via Santiago de Cuba, Porto Rico and 
Hayti. 

5th. Between Vera Cruz and Matamoras, touching at Tampico. 

The company contemplate the early organization of a line between Havana 
and New Orleans. 

II. APPROPRIATIONS. 

1st. The total annual appropriation paid by the French government to that 
branch of the Messageries Imperiales operating in the Mediterranean and Black 
sea is 4,776,118.40 francs. Of this total the convention of 1851 provided for 
the payment of 3,000,000 per annum for the first ten years, with a decrease per 
annum of 100,000 francs, reducing the subsidy to 2,000,000 francs the twentieth 
or last year. By the convention of 1854, in consideration of an increase of 
voyages between Marseilles and Constantinople, there was allowed an additional 
subsidy of 1,776,118 francs to be paid during the remainder of the twenty years, 
making the total above given, being at the rate of 25.90 francs per maritime 
league in the Mediterranean, and 31.53 francs in the Black sea. 

• Digitized by V^OOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 137 

2d. The appropriation accorded to the Indo-China service, is as follows : 
During the first three years 7,500,000 francs ; daring the three following 
years 7,000.000 francs; during the three following years 6,500,000 francs; 
daring the three following years 6,000.000 francs ; during the six following 
years 5.500,000 francs; during the six following years 5,000,009 francs. 

3(1. The annual appropriation accorded to the line between Bordeaux and 
Be la Plata for the twenty years contemplated by the convention is 2,406,200 
francfl. 

4tfa. The annual appropriation accorded to the General Transatlantic Company 
is 9.:i00,00O francs. 

LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 

I give only the most important : 

The boats of the companies must navigate under the French flag. 

No boat can be put into service until after having been examined and received 
by a special commission nominated by the minister of finance. A commission 
of forveillance at the ports of departure exercise a vigilant inspection of the 
condition of the boats, and may require the immediate repair of machinery &c., 
the had condition of which might compromise the safety of navigation. The 
commission may also order the replacement of the boats if, in their opinion, they 
are unfit for the voyage. 

All the ships' armament must offer every necessary guarantoe to a good and 
enre navigation. Provision is made on each boat for an agent des postes, nomi- 
nated by the minister of finance and paid by the state, to whom is confided the 
custody of the mail. The company is interdicted from carrying other sealed 
matter. The bills of lading and invoices remain in the care of the captain, but 
mu^t be opened to the inspection of the mail agent, if demanded. When, by rea^ 
son of accident, a voyage cannot be completed, or if a departure be unreasona- 
hly delayed, the mail is forwarded by the first Fren<ih or foreign boat, or, when 
ncces.^^ary, a special boat is put en route at the expense of the company. The 
administration, after having advised with the company, appoint the days and 
Loars of departure at the extreme ports. It also prescribes the maximum pe- 
riod for the accomplishment of the voyage. In case of the loss of a boat, if the 
rt'pl.tcement does not take place in the delay prescribed by the law, the com- 
pany must pay a fine of 300 francs per day if it has regard to a boat of 400 or 
A-'tO horse power, and of 150 francs relative to a boat of less power. Any in- 
fractions of the prescriptions respecting the days and hours of departure and 
arrivals render the company liable to a fine of fifty francs per hour of delay. 
After six consecutive hours of delay not justified the penalty is 100 francs per 
Lour. If proved that the delay was caused by a tardy shipment of cargo, the 
penalty is 200 francs. After twelve hours' delay the agent des postes will take 
all necessary measures, at the expense of the company, to insure the prompt trans- 
mi^ion of the mail. In case of intermissions not justified, the penalty is 1,000 
for the first and 2,000 francs for the second infraction ; at the third infraction 
the fine may be carried 5,000 francs. The company carry gratuitously the mail 
and specie for the service of the state. Provision is also made for the trans- 
pfirtation of troops and munitions under certain limitations and guarantees to 
the companies in case of a maritime war. 

The civil, military, and ecclesiastical officers of the government are carried 
with their family and suite at thirty per cent, discount. 

Tlie company have the right to carry passengers and merchandise at their 
own risk and profit. 

The company cannot, directly or indirectly, engage in any commercial opera- 
tioQji, except as public carriers, upon any of the hues. 

The company are forbidden to take passengers or merchandise, except at the 
PW8 prescribed. r^r^oir^ 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



138 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Each boat must take sufficient stores to provide for crew and passengprs in 
case of delay at sea. £ach boat must be amply provided with accommodations 
of the 3d class. A register must be kept open on board to receive any com- 
plaints that passengers may wish to express. The commission of surveillance, 
if deemed necessary, refer these complaints to the minister of finance, who may 
remove from office the culpable agent or agents of the company. 
The rates of speed requu^ed of the companies are as follows : 

Enota. 

Mediterranean 11 

African lateral 9} 

' Indo-Chiua, principal line 9^ 

Indo-Chiiia, branches 9 

Rio Janeiro 8 J 

St. Nazaire, principal lines 10^ 

St. Nazaire, branches 2 8 

Havre and New York. 
The Europa, on the Havre and New York line, will make 13.80 knots. 



Each boat must have 


5 an equipage of which the minimum is fixed as 


follows: 




MEDrrERRANEAN. 


INDO-CHINA. 


BRAZIL. 


Bank. 


o| 


« is 

il 

h3 


« 

n 


p* 


1^ 




u 


ol 




Cfiptain. ................ 


1 
1 

1 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 

26 
4 
2 
1 
3 
3 
18 
12 
3 
8 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 




1 
1 
1 

1 
J 
1 

2 

i" 

24 
4 

2 

1 
3 
3 

18 
10 

1 
6 
1 
1 
2 




Second captain 




First lieutenant...... . . 




8econd lieutenant 




Third lieutenant 








Surpeon 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

2 

22 

4 

2 

1 
3 
3 
16 
10 
3 
8 
1 
1 


2 

16 
2 
2 

1 
2 
3 
12 
16 
2 
4 
1 
1 




First mate 




Second mate .. ...... 




Carpenter 








Seamen, able 


14 
2 

1 

1 
1 


12 
3 

1 
1 
1 


]4 


ordinary 

Cabin boy 


2 


First master mechanic 

Second master mechanic. 
Ordinary mechanic 


I 
2 
2 


Firemen and aids 

Coal carriers 


11 

1 
1 


? 

1 


10 
4 


Steward and cook for crew. 
Servants 


1 
3 


Femme de chambre 






1 


Baker 






I 


Cook for passengers 


1 


1 


9 











The number and force of the fleet of the Messageries Iinperiales are as 
follows : 

THE MBDITBRRANBAFV AND BLACK SBA. 

Screw steamers : 

1 of 450 horse-power, 3 of 400 horse power, 4 of 370 horse-power, 1 of 350 
horse-power, 1 of 320 horse-power, 2 of 300 horse-power, 3 of 280 horse-power, 
1 of 250 horse-power, 4 of 240 horse-power, 4 of 200 horse-power, 2 of ISO 
horse-power, 1 of 150 horse-power. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



FBENCH DOMINIONS. 



139 



Si'le-wheel : 

2 of 370 horse-power, 2 of 320 horse-power, 1 of 250 horse-power, 2 of 220 
borsc-power, 2 of 200 horee-power, 3 of 180 horse-power, 2 of IGO horse-power. 
3 screw steamers in construction of 280 horse-power. 

INDO-CHINA LINB. 

Screw steamers : 
4 of 500 horse-power, 2 of 400 horse-power, 3 of 280 horse-power, 2 of 240 
horse-power. * 

BRAZIL AND DB LA PLATA. 

Side- wheel : 

3 of 500 horse-power, 1 of 370 horse-power, 1 of 120 horse-power. 

BOATS IN CONSTRUCTION. 

2 screw steamers of 320 horse-power; 1 screw steamer of 280 horse-power; 
1 screw steamer of 240 horse-power. 

GENERAL TRANS-ATLANTIC COMPANY — LINE OF MEXICO AND THE ANTILLES. 

2 8crew steamers of 560 horse-power ; 2 screw steamers of 260 horse- power ; 
1 dcrew steamer of 150 horse-power; 1 side-wheel steamer of 80 horse-power. 

HAVRE AND NEW YORK. 

2 screw steamers of 860 horse-power. 

BOATS IN CONSTRUCTION IN 1864. 

• 

1 side-wheel steamer of 1,200 horse-power ; 5 side-wheel steamers of 860 horse- 
power ; 2 screw steamers of 900 horse-power ; 1 screw steamer of 860 horse- 
power ; 1 screw steamer of 150 horse-power ; 1 screw steamer of 1 25 horse-power. 

This company also own 12 sailing vessels, average tonnage 361. 

In 1858, when a casual communication was kept up between Mexico and the 
French West Indies, the commerce of those countries with France amounted to 
127,000.000 francs. The following table exhibits the past commerce with those 
countries, now, for the first time, brought into direct, regular, and frequent com- 
manicatioQ with France : 



GENERAL 
COMMERCE. 



Francs. 



COMMERCE 
WITH FRANCE. 



Franca. 



Snint Thomas 

Tuba 

I'lTto Rico 

Hayti 

<>MiaDa, English 

iiniana, lhiu-h 

J tniHiCtt, St. Lncie.. . 
St. Vincent, Grenada 
Tfinidad 



30,000,000 

547,000,000 

48,000,000 
6:^()(H),U()0 
16, 0(J0, UUO 

73,000,000 



10,000,000 

84,000,000 

10, 000, 000 
•2,000,000 
1,000,000 

2,000,000 



777,000,000 



109,000,000 



4.762 passengers and 7,488 tons of merchandise were transported in 1864 • 
tVom St. Nazaire (France) to the Antilles and Mexico, against 4,026* passengers 
•nd 3,564 r/)n8 of merchandise in 1863. The voyages between Martinique, 
Guadalupe, St. Lucie, St. Vincent, and Trinidad, show a movement of 2,160 
passengers and 3,416 divers shipments for 1864, against 1,490 passengers and 

Digitized by V^X30Q IC 



140 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



1,931 shipments the year previous. The increase of civil passengers over mili- 
tary has heen 30 per cent, in 1864 as compared with L&63, and the freights 
have gained 120 per cent, over the year 1863. 

No accident of navigation, no damage, however light, to the machinery, has re- 
sulted to the company's operations. They report having traversed 130.000 mar- 
itime leagues without any disastrous event to register, and believe that such 
successful navigation must command more and more the confidence of the com- 
mercial and travelling public. 

HAVRB AND NBW YORK. 

The opening of this line was received with favor, and the abundant receipts 
from passengers and merchandise the first voyage demonstrated the utility aud 
value of this company. 

The transactions of this company, already reduced two-thirds by the war, 
were still further reduced by the imposition by Congress of an increased duty 
on imports. The receipts of the company in 1860 were 657,000,000 francs; in 

1863 177,000,000 francs, showing a decrease of 480,000,000 francs. The year 

1864 also shows a relative decrease. The movement in passengers for each 
voyage, return included, for the seven months preceding April last, averaged but 
152. The company derive some consolation from the fact that the Cunanl 
company show for the same period an average of but 232 passengers per voyage 
for their old and well known line. 

In the years anterior to the war (1858-59-60) two American steamers plying 
between New York- and Havre, steamers smaller and less fleet than the French, 
averaged 300 passengers per voyage and about 500 tons merchandise. 

lu 1860 the number of passengttrs embarking and debarking at Havre rose 
to 11,200, and the company fiud reasons for believing that, now peace la estab- 
lished, their highest hopes will soon be realized. 

The English importations in wheat and flour place France as far the most 
important contributor in the latter article, and distancing the United States for 
the first six months of 1865 in exportations of wheat. The following table ex- 
hibits the relative foreign exportations in wheat and flour into England for the 
first six months of 1863, 1864 and 1865. It appears that the United States, 
from having sent 35 per cent and 38 per cent, respectively, in 1863 aud lS34jof 
the wheat imported into England, contribute but 3 per cent in 1865, and a de- 
crease in flour from 57 per cent and 40 per cent, in 1863 and 1864 to 7 per 
cent in 1865. 





Flour. 


Wheat 




1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1863. j 1864. 


1805. 


Russia 








14 
23 
H 

1 
2 
H 

4 

15 
35 

2 

2 


12 

23 

4 

u 

3 

^ 

2i 
4 
.38 

It 


36 


Prassia 








3iJ 


I^eomark.... 








3 


Sleswick 








2 


Mecklenbnrjy 








4 


HaD86 TuwuB ....... 


7 
27 


6 

48 


8 
79 


3 


France 


6 


Turkey, Wallachia and Moldavia. . . 


5 


Egypt 










United States 


57 
6 
3 


40 
4 
2 


7 
1 
5 


3 


Knglish North America 


i 


Other countries .----- ............ 


7| 








100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 








Jigitiz 


9dbyta€ 


iegl 





FRENCH DOMINIONS. 141 

There was exported, via Nfareeilles, for Eojypt, India, China, &c., from the Ist 
of July to the 29th December, 1864, 1,810,08»5 pounds sterling in gold and 
4,267,903 pounds sterling in silver, making a total of 6.077,988 pounds sterling. 

The impoi*taTion of gold from America and Australia into England during 
the last seven years runs as follows : 

From America. From Australia. 

1S58 oe5. 304, 896 669, 725, 1 08 

1859 14, 560, 062 9. 830, 944 

1S60 _ 8,677,294 6, 659, JGO 

1S61 83, 450 6, 474, 451 

1S62 9, 865, 610 6,310, 500 

1S63 7,874,179 5,164,752 

1S64 7, 465, 103 2, 426, 400 



53. 830, 594 46, 591, 745 



EzportatioDS of gold to India and China for the same period : 

lSo8 c£333, 535 

1S59 930,414 

1^60 2. 378, 038 

1S61 959, 180 

1S6;1 1.^10.754 

1S<}3 ; . . . 3, 251, 400 

1S64 5, 705, 418 



14, 668, 739 



ESSENCE OF PETROLBrM. 

In the north of France this essence has taken the place of turpentine, as used 
hj painters and manufacturers of varnish. It has been so used in the south, 
thnngb not with great success, the article containing some remains of sulphur of 
hydrogen. To-day the manufacturers of the essence deliver an article wholly 
unobjectionable, especially prepared for painters, and at a price much lower than 
vhat i^ demanded for turpentine. This essence is also used as a dissolvent for 
extracting the remaining particles of oil from oil-cakes, and for cleansing wool, 
gilding-stuffs, &c. As a luminary, a mechanic of Paris has invented a lamp» 
composed of a very small metallic receptacle, which, by means of the ptissage 
of air across a spongt?, saturated with this essence, produces the finest light 
imacrinable. I have not seen the lamp, but, from what is said of it, I judge it to be 
worthy of the attention of American mechanics. This light may also be used for 
itii heating properties, for warming halls, rooms, &c. 

AGRICULTURE. 

American manufacturers of agricultural machines are taking all the best 
prizes offered by the agricultural societies in the south of France and in 
Aljners- At the Oram (Algiers) agricultural exhibition, last year, the agent of 
American manufacturers received the first eight prizes offered by the society. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



142 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Table skotoing the value of exports from Marseilles to the United States, for 
the year ended Au-gust 31, 18G5. 



Absinthe 

Almonds 

Cheese 

Cork 

Cor&s, musical 

Cloth 

Cream tartar 

Crystal of tartar. - - . 

Essences i . . 

Fii«hing-lines, hair.. 

Filberts 

Garancine and mad- 
der 

Galls..., 

Gum gnaiacum : . . . 

" arabic 

*• jedda 

Hair 

Hats '. 

Leaves, medicinal . • 

Licorice 

Lime, chloride of . . . 

Lead 

Lemons 

Macaroni 

Nuts 

Oil, olive 

" sesame 

Orange-flower water. 

Paint 



Francs. 

4. 800. 00 

369,077 00 

2, 645. 00 

61.691.70 

2, 640. 05 

2.^211.00 

360,431.35 

1, 180. 00 
46, 963. 45 

6, 040. 00 
75, 581. 20 

2, 550, 900. 01 

65, 194. 00 

38, 263. 00 

185, 838. 30 

77, 326. 45 

2, 229. 00 
9, 556. 00 
2, 397. 00 

87. 327. 60 

229,931.00 

28, 218, 149. 00 

236, 241. 75 

155 00 

9,150.00 

416,211.40 

4,124.00 

1, 074. 00 

2, 640. 00 



Pickles and preserves 

Perfumery 

Rags 

Raisins 

Root, gentian 

Rye, spurred 

Salt 

Saffron 

Soap 

Sulphur 

Sponge 

Sardines 

Silk 

Sumac 

Seed, yellow 

" canary 

Thread, cotton 

Thistles 

Talc. 

Velvet 

Veimouth and kirsch 

Verdigris 

Vinegar 

Wine 

Wool 

Wheat 

Sundries 



Francs. 
40, 249. 75 

1,697 00 
25, 923. 00 

5, 389. 00 

3, 675. 00 
624. 00 
22, 440. 00 
10, 750. 20 
257, 286. 80 
24, 890. 75 
69, 249. 3o 

8, 705 30 
30.641.30 
64. 245. 00 

1,961.00 
28. 346. ^h 

2. 298. 00 
17,979.00 
43, 692 00 
832. 00 
66, 246. 00 
36, 108. 70 

1, 707. 00 
617, 758. 45 
674. 856. 00 

2, 101 65 
8, 105. 00 



Total francs 35, 040, 326. 86 



Table showing the importations of the United States at the port of Marseilles^ 
for the year ended August 30, 1865. 

Agricultural implements cases 49 

Alcohol barrels 820 

Beef barrels 177 

Beeswax packages . . 8 

Bags 2, 205 

Books cases 2 

Brooms 12 

Buffalo-skins case 1 

Butter barrel 1 

Carriages 2 

Cigars case 1 

Cider-presses 2 

Clocks cases « 2 

Cotton gins 2 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 143 

Cowhides 76 

Gutta p^rcba bands case 1 

Lird cases 5 

L*rd oil barrels 2, 627 

lamps case 1 

I/igwood tons 1, 388 

Li>gwood lot 1 

Logwood, extract cases 399 

Logwood logs 2 

Machineiy cases 45 

Medicine ca^cs 39 

Natural history, subjects of case 1 

( Urs 797 

Peunats .pounds 435, 374 

Pepper v bags 696 

Petroleum barrels 83, 263 

Pills cases ' 33 

Pbinks 273 

Ploughs cases 4 

Quercitrun casks 38 

Rakes bundles 17 

R^j^s bales 3 

Refrigerator I 

S«^wiug machine 1 

Tallow barrels .... 10 

Tobacco casks. ...... 2, 740 

Tobacco e cases 39 

Walnut piece 1 

Walnut cases 11 

Wi aring apparel case 1 

Staves 307, 025 

»^t;ive8 lots 2 

Shafts 15 



Cette — L. S. Nahmens, Consular Agent. 

September 30, 1865. 
Statement nhowing the description and value of tlie export and import trade of 
Lette with the United states during t/ie year ended September 30, 1865. 

EXPORTS. 

Value in francs. 

47 boxes of brandy 500. 00 

17 casks crystal of tartar 19, 883. 10 

lOO casks cream of tartar - 189, 425. 00 

19 cat«ks lees of wine 3,401.75 

10 bales t.f lavender flowers 418. 60 

80 boxes of olives 561. 15 

100 baskets of olive oil 1, 317. 00 

1 box of pickled tunny (fish) 40.00 

29 casks of refined tartar 37, 428. 00 

5 bales of rosemary leaves 133. 50 

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144 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Value in francft. 

3,198 tons of salt 32,127.05 

5 boxes of thyme oil 3, 027. 30 

3 casks of verdigris 3, 557. 25 

15 casks of vermouth 825. 00 

9,595 casks and 25 boxes of wine 761, 45<4. 70 

Total in francs.. 1.054. 129.40 



$200,786 55 



IMPORTS. 

Valae- 

87 packflges beeswax J12, 168 00 

293, 880 staves .^ 46, 887 00 

19 hogsheads tallow ! 3, 680 00 

. Total 62, 735 00 



Lyons — Jambs Lesley, Consul. 

Comparative statement showing the description and value of the exports to the 
United States from Lyons during the years ended September 30, 1864 and 
1865. 



' Description. 



Totals for 
1864. 



Totals for 
1865. 



Silk 

Tulles, crapes, &c... 
Fringes and braids . . . 
Kid aud woven gloves 

Church ornaments 

Kibbons, velvet 

taffetas 

Cotton tissues 

Wines 

Djestuffs 

Sundries 

Total 



Francs. 

17,6]H,:iC0 

727,406 

246,925 

9.>9,832 

162,662 

2,057,915 

5, 136, 192 

110,417 

96,463 

73,919 

214,231 



Frames. 

21,918,503 

1,2U3,8'>0 

357,717 

452,6:i7 

66,570 

3,059,49-* 

6,677,8<>4 

212, 171 

42,2<»5 

33,tW3 

586.c<9l 



27,404,322 



34,611,498 



Comparative statement showing the description and value of exports Jrorn 
Lyonst Zurich, and Basle, during the Jitst three quarters of the year 18G5. 



Description. 



THIRD QUARTER. 

Silk piece goods 

Silk ribbons 

Total of the third quarter 

Total of first and second quarters 

Total of the three quarters , 



Lyons. 



Francs. 

13.603.689 
5,830,714 



19,434,403 
14,382,165 



33,816,568 



Zurich. 



Francs. 

7.899,269 
163,530 



8,062.799 
8,109,926 



16,172,725 



-/ i g i i i zb'U b y 



Basle. 



Francs. 

423,850 
3.073,950 



3,497,800 
3,011,620 



Coog 



6,509,420 
¥6 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



145 



Statement showing the distribution of exports from Lyons to the United States 
during the first three quarters of the year 1865, by ports. 



Names of ports 


1st d.2d quarters. 


3d quarter. 


Total. 


XewYork 


Francs. 

13,682,358 

458,521 

219,251 

2,317 


Francs. 
19,357,893 
781,451 
20,530 
5,526 
12,151 ! 
51,792 ; 


Francs. 
33,040,241 
1,239,972 


Boston 


Sm Fnuadsco 


239,781 

7,843 

12, 151 

71,510 


Xew Orleans * 

Baltimore 


Philsdelphia 


19,7i8- 






Total 


14,382,165 


20,229,333 


34,611,498 







Septrmbbr 30, 1865. 

To arrive at a proper appreciation of the present state of popular education 
in France, it is just to give a retrospective glance at the previous action of the 
government itself. 

Prior to the epoch of the revolution of 1789, the state may be said to have 
oever assumed any portion of the burden of popular education. In the year 
1775, daring the ministry of the celebrated Turgot, we find charged upon the 
budget for the King's household thirty millions of francs ; for public charities a 
inm exceeding a million of francs, while for public education there was not a 
frdDc appropriated in any shape. In 1793 the convention passed a decree in 
firor of a system of obligatory, gratuitous education, and instituting, at the 
^ame time, pains and penalties for the infraction or evasion of the law. Citizens 
who could not read and write were, by virtue of this decree, declared ineligible 
to public office, and parents who failed to send their children to school were to 
be punished with fine, and even in certain specified cases with imprisonment. 
Bat in that chaotic period of political convulsion, when theory was made to 
'^erve the place of practical experience, this law, though happily conceived, re- 
mained about a dead letter. In 1802, under the first empire, the previous abso- 
lute system of gratuitous instruction was set aside and replaced by another, in 
which the gratuitous principle was only partially applied. But comparatively 
little progress, however, was made. Under the restoration, in 1816, a step 
was taken in advance, as the government recognized by edict the duty of every 
enmmune to furnish schools and gratuitous instruction. But the edict failed to 
tccomplish any very flattering results, as it exacted no penalty and provided no 
funds to cany out its provisions. Even in 1827 the total amount appropriated 
by the state for public schools was but 50,000 francs, while in the same year's 
budget the appropriation for the clergy was 32,000,000 francs. 

Of the practical inefficiency of the school law then in force we have abundant 
proofs furnished in a report of a committee of public inquiry appointed in 1S33, 
under the reign of Louis Philip. In that year the state appropriated for popular 
♦^ucation over a million and a half of francs. The facts obtained Tby the 
committee were published in 1837, at Paris, by P. Lorain, imder the title of 
Tableau de I* Instruction primaire en France. From the statements contained 
a this truly instructive *' table," we learn the following facts in regard to the 
*tate of education at that period. Instances were reported where thirteen, 
^ftevn, and even twenty-five communes together were obliged to be content with 
4 fmgle public school. So poorly were the teachers paid that most of them in 
10 c R 



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146 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

the rural districts were only too glad to eke out a poor pitUnce of salary by 
other employments, as shoemakers, or ostlers, or bar-tenders, &c. The report 
cites a case in the department of the Upper Pyrenees, where the village school- 
master served as mayor's clerk, beadle, sexton, bell-ringer, and grave-di^er; 
all of which services were rendered for a salary of less than forty dollars a 
year. The school services were not unfrequently suspended to permit the 
teacher to dig a grave or to dress the church for a wedding. As to the school 
accommodations they were of an inferior character, the school being held in 
some cases in the mayor's office, or in the coffee-room of the village tavern, or 
under a church porch, or in a cellar, almost deprived of light. One of the in- 
spectors attached to the committee reported a case 'of one school-teacher who 
regularly lodged his pigs in the school-room, and when the weather was cold 
adjourned the school and the scholare to the stable adjoining to keep warm. 

Under the popular impulse, which inaugurated that committee of inquiry, a 
law was passed in 18'3IJ, liberalizing to a certain extent the then existing school 
system, and making provision for contributing to the expenses of the com- 
munes by the department and by the state. But still, though an improvement 
took place m consequence of this legislation, the teachers of the schools con- 
tinued to be most inadequately paid. In a speech delivered in the House of 
Deputies, in 1846, by M. de Salvaudy, it was stated that out of nearly 33,000 
teachers of public schools, 26,000 did not earn, on an average, over three hundred 
francs, or sixty dollars, per year. 

The republic of 1848 endeavored to renew the system of absolute gratuitous 
education. M. Gamot, when minister, went so far as to propose an item of 
nearly fifty millions of francs in the budget to provide for this charge. But 
the law proposed was withdrawn, and one much less liberal in its provision?, 
under the suggestions of M. Falloux, substituted. The law proposed by M. 
Falloux was generous in one essential particular, it made equal provision for 
male and female education. This law was amended by subsequent legislation 
in 1850 and 1852. 

The leading features of the school laws at present in force may be summed 
up briefly, as follows : 

Each commune may establish a public primar}' school. The communes are 
authorized to lay a school tax, and where the sum thus collected is insufficient, 
the department may furnish additional funds ; and where the department is 
unable, the state may give a certain subsidy. There is, however, no absolute 
obligation upon the communes to take the initiative in establishing^ a public 
school. The pervading principle of centralization, which characterizes all 
French legislation, is brought into play in the arrangement of the school 
system. Thus every prefect of a department has absolute control over the 
system. He has power to reprimand or suspend a teacher, or to withhold his 
salary for six months, or to revoke his functions entirely, and by him is fixed 
al^olutely the number of gratuitous scholars to be allowed to each commune in 
the department. 

Male teachers, during the first five years' service, are guaranteed a minimum 
salary of 600 francs per annum ; and after five years' service, a minimum salary 
of 700 francs ; after ten years' service^ a minimum of 800 fi-anca is guaranteed 
to one-twentieth of the male teachers, and after fifteen years' service, a minimum 
salary of 900 francs is guaranteed to another twentieth of them. These last 
two salaries are guaranteed only to those who have given evidence, of superior 
excellence as teachers. In general, the male teachers receive a fixed sum of 
200 francs per annum, and a variable one arising from all the fees received from 
tuition. These two sums exceed considerably the respective minimum amounts 
guaranteed as above stated. But when they fall below them the minim'i 
guaranteed are made up to the teachers as they become entitled to them respec- 
tively. In addition to the minima guaranteed, all the communes provide lodg- 

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FRENCH DOMINIONS. 147 

inp for the teachers or pay them an equivalent. Besides, in some of the 
commimefl the teachers are permitted to unite with their scholastic duties the 
transaction of other business, which somewhat increases their financial resources. 
Tbere is a retiring pension to those male teachers who have attained the age of 
sixty years, after thirty years' service. The amount of this pension is one- 
»itielh of the salary of each year's service, which cannot, however, exceed 
tiro thirds of the medium salary of the six last, years of service. There are, 
however, exceptional cases, such as sickness or extraordinary merit, in which 
the rule postponing the pension to sixty years of age is relaxed. The pension 
fund is formed by the retention of five per cent., every year of the teachers' 
salary. 

As regards girls' schools, the provisions of the law are most lamentably de- 
fieient. There is uo minimum limit of salary fixed for female teachers, nor is 
there any fixed or reliable retiring pension, while at the same time there is no 
provision by which the funds of the department or of the state may be drawn 
upon to make good the deficiencies in the expenses of the communes for this 
important object. The average compensation of female teachers iii 1863 was 
hot 665 francs, or SI 35 a year. In fact, the position of the female teacher, if 
she be not attached to one of the religious associations, is a very hard and 
thankless one. A mere word from the cur^ may compromise her position or 
call into the commune a sister of charity to take her place, or to start another 
Kkool, which is sure to accomplish the same result. 

The teachers of the public schools are required to pass an examination before 
the board appointed by the municipal council in order to receive a proper 
diploma. This examination is limited to the simplest rudiments of a common 
Eoiool education, viz : reading, writing, the four first I'ules of arithmetic, and the 
i^jstem of public weights and measures. The female teachers belonging to the 
religious societies enjoy a peculiar exemption from this simple examination, and, 
in Hen of diploma, arc permitted to produce, as a sufficient evidence of capacity, 
a letter of obedience, so-called, which is simply a guarantee by the bishop of 
the diocese of the recipients of religious orthodoxy. 

Some facts gleaned from official authority are hereto subjoined to illustrate 
the working of the present school l&ws and of the system of education as prac- 
tically carried out. 

The total budget of the French government for the year 1865 may be 0et 
down in round numbers at two thousand millions of francs — equal to four hun- 
dred millions of dollars nearly. Of this amount one-third, or over six hundred 
millions of francs, is absorbed by the army and navy. For public education, 
inchisive of grants to universities, lycenms, colleges, and primary schools, the 
government appropriates twenty millions of francs, or about four millions of 
dollars. To the public primary schools the total appropriation of the state is 
bat little more than six and a half millions of francs, or one million and three 
hundred thousand dollars. In other words, where, with a population of thirty- 
seven milliftns, France spends one dollar for Qommon schools, she spends one' 
hundred dollars for war purposes. To popular primary institutions she devotes 
bat the one three-hundredth part of her income. Compare this with the State 
of New York, which, with a population of 3,851,567, spends nearly four and a 
half millions of dollars for the same object; while Massachusetts, with a popu- 
lation of 1,231,000, spends three and a quarter millions. 

There were in attendance in the common schools of France in 1863 a total of 
4.337,000, out of a popuiaiion of 37,000,000. In the year 1847 the number of 
ecliolara was 3.500,000, out of a population of 35,000,000, while in 1832 the 
nomber of tfcholars was not quite 2,000,000, out of a population of 32,500,000. 
tSo that France in 1832 sent to her common schools sixty-one out of every 
thon^nd of her population. In 1847 one hundred out of every thousand, and 
in 16G3 one hundred and seventeen out of every thousand. Thoueh the pro- 
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148 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

gresB since 1847 has not been so rapid as in the period prior to that date, still 
in 1863 there were 8,500 more schools, and 800,000 more pupils than in 1847. 
But there were, however, still two thousand communes that sent their children 
to the schools of the adjoining communes; one thousand and eighteen com- 
manes without any public school or teacher whatever; and as regards the 
education of female children, there were 5,587 communes utterly unprovided 
with public school accommodations for them. 

Of the 4,337,000 children borne upon the rolls in 1863, it appears that 888,000 
arc taught in 378 private schools. Of these private schools 12,826 are schools 
for girls, with an average attendance of 675,894. 

In the public schools for boys, inclusive of the mixed schools, there were 
2,042,830 boys, and 361,057 girls, making a total of 2,403,907, of which 
922,820 are reported as non-paying. It thus appears that about thirty-five per 
cent, of the 4,337,000, borne upon the rolls, receive their education gratuitously. 

The amount of tuition fees in the public schools paid in 1863 was 18,578,728 
francs. The average amount paid by each puoil contributing was one franc 68 
centimes, or thirty-three cents per month, which, upon an attendance of six 
months out of twelve, would make the cost of tuition about ten francs, or two 
dollars per pupil. For a family of several children this must be a very onerous 
burden, when the average rate of wages of the laboring man is considered. The 
rate is much above that paid in other countries of Europe, where education is 
not gratuitous, as, for instance, in some of the Swiss cantons, where, in the rural 
districts, the amount charged for each pupil is three francs, and in Prussia and 
Saxony, where the annual charge for each pupil varies from one franc 75 cen- 
times (the amount paid in the school for the poor) to six francs. 

According to the recent annual report of Mr. Durey, minister of public in- 
struction, there were in 1863 not less than 692,678 children between the ages 
of seven and thirteen ; that is to say, nearly one-sixth of the children of France 
who did not attend school. This fact, pregnant with reflection, gains additional 
significance when the character of the instruction given is analyzed. 

In France children are confirmed into the Catholic churoh, or " make their 
first communion," as it is called, when they have attained their eleventh or 
twelflh year. When this ceremony is once passed, the finishing point of school 
education, so far as the masses are concerned, is reached. And the explanation 
is simple enough, when it is borne in mind that the first and chief object in 
going to school is to leani to read the catechism, an essential step preliminary 
to the religions act referred to. When the children have no further catechism 
to recite, they have no further need to go to school. Hence it is easy to com- 
prehend that the general attendance reported by no means covers the entire 
scholastic year. Thus, in 1863, a portion of over one-third of the pupils at- 
tended school for periods varying under six months. In the same year out of 
657,401 pupils quitting school, there were, according to Minister Durey, 395,393 
(or sixty per cent.) reported as knowing how to read, write and cypher, and 
262,008 (forty per cent.) are reported to have spent their time unprofitably, or 
to have been so inadequately instructed as to warrant the belief that the larger 
portion of them will soon have forgotten the little they have learned. The 
minister of public instruction intimates, with much pertinency, that to spend 
millions of francs for so feeble a result is spending money to very little pur- 
pose ; and says, with much force, that a machine which should produce as little 
percentage of results would call for a thorough overhauling and repair. 

A large proportion of the teachers in France consists of persons attached to 
various religious bodies or monastic associations. A comparison between sta- 
tistics for the years 1848 and 1863, will show clearly how these monastic insti- 
tutions have grown in number and increased their influence in the public schools. 
Thus, in the year 1843, the different religious orders, whose numbera are dedi- 
cated by vow to the duty of teaching, counted a total of 16,958 members, of 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 149 

whom 3,128 were males, and 13,830 females. The Bchools conducted by them 
at that period were 7,590, with 706,917 pupils, a proportion of 212 of the total 
number of children then attending public schools. As regards the sexes, they 
&re divided as follows : 1,094 boys, schools, with 201,142, or nine per cent, of the 
total number of boys attending school ; and 6,496 girls' schools, with 505,775 
pnpils, or 46 per cent, of the total number of girls attending public schools. 
Since that period these religions associations have increased largely, having 
nearly tripled their numbers in a period of twenty years. That is, in 1863 
they counted a total of 46,840, of whom 8,635 were males and 38,205 females. 
They conduct 17,206 schools, containing 1,610,674 scholars, out of a total of 
4,336,068, or 37 per cent Analyzing the proportion of scholars of each sex, it 
appears that of the male children in the public schools of France 19 per cent., 
and of the female 56 per cent, receive their education from persons attached to 
these religious orders. The net gain of scholars is nearly a million, (903,757.) 
Adding the pupils in the lyceums, communal colleges, and small seminaries, it 
may be said, in general terms, that one- fourth of all the boys and two-thirds of 
all the girls are taught by teachers connected with religious orders. This state 
of affiiirs is in a great measure owing to the fact that the teachers connected 
with the religious orders give instruction without charge ; proving conclusively 
that where education can be got for nothing, it will be preferred to that which 
co9t8 money. 

How far the instruction received through the public schools of France con- 
tribotes toward making intelligent citizens may be best judged from the statistics 
of the conscription and marriage returns. In 1830, the proportion of the con- 
Kripts (who are drawn in their 20th year) unable to read and write was slightly 
nndier fifty per cent, (47.73;) in 1847, it was nearly 35 per cent, (34.91 ;) 
and in 1862, it was nearly twenty-seven and a half per cent., (27.49.) In 
Gennany the proportion of conscripts unable to read and write is between two 
and three per cent. 

Of the parties contracting marriage throughout all France in 1863, of the 
males nearly 34 per cent (33.70) and of the females nearly 55 per cent. 
(54.75) could not sign their names. In 1862, there were of males nearly 29 
per cent. (28.54) and of females over 43 per cent. (43.26) who could not sign 
their names. The mean average for both sexes was, for 1853, 44.22 per cent., 
and for 1862, 35.90 per cent. 

These figures are too eloquent of themselves to need any comment. They 
^ to confirm strikingly the declaration of the distinguished publicist Michel 
Chevalier, in his report on the French international exhibition of 1855 : "I am 
ready to affirm that of our rural male population, between the ages of 30 and 60, 
not one in ten opens a book to learn anything, and of our female rural popula- 
tion not one in twenty." 

I take the liberty of adding some educational statistics of the department of 
the Bhone, of which Lyons is the capital. 

The total population of this department, according to the census of 1861, 
was 662,193, of which the arrondissement of Lyons contained 492,866, and the 
city of Lyons proper 318,803. 

The total number of children between the ages of seven and thirteen in the 
department of the Rhone is 65,300, of which 1,200 are reported as not attend- 
ing school. 

The number of public primary schools in the department is 423, inclusive of 
100 exclusively for girls, and thirty-three open to both sexes. Out of 258 
communes in the department, there is but a single one unprovided with a pub- 
He school, though there are 171 communes which have no public schools to 
vhich girls are admitted. 

The total number of pupils in attendance on the public schools is 44,472 j 



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150 ANNUAL REPORT ON l^OREION COMMERCE 

of whom 31,529 receive instructioa gratuitouBly. In the city of Lyons proper 
the public schools are open gratuitously to all. 

Of private schools there are in the department 443, of which 87 are directed 
by male teachers and 356 by female teachers. The total attendance of papilg 
in these private schools is 238,803, of whom 19,197 are girls. 

For educational purposes in the department the Slate furnishes no subsidy ; 
the department and the communes contributing, the former a little over 
50,000 francs a year, and the latter a sum slightly under 265,000 francs ; 
making a total levied, by tax of 315,000 francs, over and above the tuition 
fees, in such schools as charge tuition. 

In addition to the schools already referred to there are ninety-three public 
primary schools for male adults, with an attendance of 2,832 pupils; and fifteen 
public primary schools for female adults, with 979 pupils. Of the whole num- 
ber of adult pupils of both sexes 2,028 are educated gratuitously. 

It may not be out of place here to add that, besides the public and private 
primary schools, there are in the department of the Rhone, as in other depart- 
ments of France, Salles d*AsUe pour Venfance, in which children are admitted 
and kept during the day ; children between three and seven years of age, whose 
parents are unable from any cause to take proper care of them. In these insti- 
tutions the children are taught habits of order and industry ; attention being 
directed to the development of their moral and religious, rather than their intel- 
lectual powers, although the rudiments of reading are not entirely overiooked. 

There are in the department of the Rhone forty-two public asylums of this 
kind, of which thirty-seven are in the arrondissement of Lyons, and seventeen 
private asylums in the department, of which seven are in the arrondissement 
Of the forty-two public asylums, thirty-six are conducted by ladies belonring 
to some religious order, and six by ladies of the laity. Of those conducted by 
the religious orders thirtv- three are gratuitous nnd three paying; while of those 
conducted by ladies of the laity three are gratuitous, and three paying. 

There are 5,299 children in the public asylums of the department ; of which 
5,099 are admitted gratuitously, and 200 are paying. 

Of the seventeen private asylums in the department, sixteen are conducted by 
persons belonging to religious orders and one by a lady of the laity. Of those 
conducted by ladies of the religious orders, six are gratuitous and ten paying. 

There are 1,386 children in the seventeen private asylums of the department, 
of which 912 are admitted gratuitous! v, and 474 are paying. 
' A few brief remarks on the admirable system of 

SUPERIOR KDUCATIO.N 

pursued at the Lycee and Ecole dc la Martiniere, both in the city of Lyons, 
may not be inappropriate at the close of this report. 

In Lyons, as in all the chief towns of France, there is a veiy fine lycee, or 
public college, with nearly 1,100 students. As the system of education in thcs^e 
lyceums of France differs in some respects from that in the educational institu- 
tions of the United States, it may not be amiss to refer more particularly to them. 
The lycee combines the peculiarities of the academy, high school and seminar}^ 
There is first a primary or preparatory department, and this is followed by 
eight regular classes, each of which is supposed to require a year's time. To 
the primary class children are admitted after they have entered on their sixth 
year, though they are really advanced into the eighth clas?, or the lowest of the 
regular classes, until they have reached the ninth or tenth year. While the 
pupil is presumed to spend a year in each class, he may, if intelligent and giving 
evidence of superior capacity, pass through two classes in a single year. To 
complete the entire course requires on an average seven and eight years. Pupils, 
whether natives or foreigner^*, nre permitted to enter into any one of the classes 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONg. 151 

on passing the proper examinatioD. The studies of the foarth claes corre- 
spond in general with the senior class. 

There are three distinct categories of schools known under the respective 
deeignationsof full hoarders, half hoarders, and day scholars. The first live 
permanently in the institution, the price of tuition varying with the classes. 
The full boardeni, or pensionaries, pay inthe eighth class 650 francs, or $130 
per annum; in the first class 800 francs, or $160 per annum. This sum in- 
cludes all expenses for washing and mending, for medical attendance, school 
books, and stationery. At entering each pensionaire is obliged to bring with 
him an outfit of clothing, and also of bed linen ; or he may purchase the outfit 
of the institution at an expense of $100, payable in quarterly instalments. 

The demi-pensionaire does not sleep in the institution. He is obliged to come 
at ^ven in the morning and remain until eight in the evening, taking all his 
meals and preparing all his recitations in the lyceum. The tuition fees n>r demi- 
pensionaires vary with the class ; in the eighth class being 375 francs, or $70 
per annum, and in the first class 500 francs, or $100 per annum. 

The extfmeSf or day scholars, attend recitations two hours in theforenoon, 
from eight to ten o'clock, and two hours In the afternoon, from two to four o'clock. 
The hours of recitation are the same for all students and for all classes. The 
to^on fees paid by day scholars vary from 80 francs, or $16, to 150 francs, or 
130 per annum. 

When it is borne in mind that the course of education in the lyceum is most 
thorough, and in the higher classes embraces all the branches taught in the best 
colleges in the United States, it must be admitted that the prices thus charged 
are exceedingly liberal. In many of the larger cities, where the cost of living 
» high, the actaal cost per student exceds the prices charged, the government 
assessing on the public budget the excess. 

There is one feature connected with the religious instruction of the students 
in the lyceum which is especially noticeable for its liberality. There is a 
Catholic chapel attached to the lyceum, in which religious services are regularly 
held, and which are open to all who choose to attend. There is no obligation to 
attend except upon those whose parents have expressed a wish to that effect. 
In addition, twice a week an hour is set apart for the Protestant pastor to give 
religions instruction to the Protestant children, and a similar privilege is extend- 
ed to the Jewish rabbi in regard to Israeli tish children. 

THE LA MARTINIBBE SCHOOL. 

This celebrated educational institute is one of the special subjects of praisie of 
the citizena of Lyons. It is, in fact, a manual labor school, devoted to the study 
of the arts. It owes its existence to the munificent liberality of Major General 
Claude Martin, who left to the city of Lyons a special legacy to be devoted to 
furnishing gratuitous instructions in the arts and sciences. No greater boon 
conid have been devised by philanthropy for the benefit of the working classes ; 
and the name of General Martin deserves to stand on the roll of fame with that 
of Stephen Girard. 

Independently of the value of the real estate and the buildings devoted to the 
:^chool, the annual income of that one legacy in $24,000, which sum has been 
farther augmented by another endowment, by M. Eynard, of $3,000 a year. 

The course of instruction in this school requires two years* study. Only day 
Hiholars are admitted, who at the time of admittance must be between twelve and 
fourteen and a half years of age. Applicants must, on entering, be able to read 
«id write, and be well acquainted with the first foiir rules of arithmetic. 

The principal studies are chemistry in the arts, and especially as applied to 
ihedyer^s art; mathematics, geometry , algebra, trigonometry and mechanics, ma- 
chinery and physical sciences, lineal perspective drawings, grammar and writ- 
Digitized by V^OOQIC 



152 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

iDg, aud the theory of the silk manufacture. These studie:^ arc practically 
illustrated by actual manual labor in the work-shops. A course of practical sculp- 
ture, of modelling and moulding, complete the course. 

The aim of the institution is directly to popularize among the working" classed 
the practical application of science to the arts, and thus to prepare and to keep 
constantly ready a well-trained body of foremen smd head workmen to superin- 
tend the different silk manufacturers, which make Lyons famous all the world 
over. The instruction given in this school is entirely gratuitous. The average 
number of scholars is between 400 and 500. 



Brest — J. M. Gerras, Consular Agent, 

JuNR 26, 1S65. 

Since the inauguration of the railway connecting the city and the continent 
generally I have been intending to lay before you the present advantages of 
Brest as a seaport. 

It is with that view I submit the following relative to the present history 
and future prospects of this city. 

Up to this time the commerce of Brest has remained wholly uudevclon^d. 
This has been owing to its limited facilities ; its dock room being confined to 
aome few hundred feet of quay at the entrance of the "Senfeld," and that prin- 
cipally occupied by vessels of-war. Trade was there restricted to the first neces- 
sities of the population. 

Untfl recently none of the projects for improvement were carried into execu- 
tion. At last, however, when the question arose of establishing a French line 
of steamers between the Old World and the New, the people of Brest, appre- 
ciating its geographical position and importance, and its great national facilities 
as a port, submitted their impression to the government. The movement wa^ 
not at first fully successful, as rival localities had monopolized our foreign com- 
merce, and wc had no railway, and were some fifty hours distant from Paris. 

Ten years ago the construction of a railway between Brest and Paris was 
pronounced wholly impracticable in view of the rugged nature of the country 
aud the extraordinary expense which it would entail; but our "Breton" per- 
severance did not fail us, and to-day we are enjoying its regards. 

His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon visited Brest in 1858. He was at once 
impressed with its extraordinary natural advantages, and decided to complete 
what nature had so happily begun. 

Since that period everything has progressed with marvellous activity. When 
in 1853 the insufficiency of the government allowance threatened the works 
with suspension the town came forward and pledged a loan of 4,000,000 franc^^ 
to enable it to carry on the undertaking. As president of the chamber of com- 
merce I had the honor to submit the proposition to the government, and my 
mission was crowned with success. 

At the hXeJetes of the inauguration the French trans-Atlantic steamer Europe 
was moored alongside our dock. 

The following is a summary of the present commercial facilities of Brest : 

1. It has an iron drawbridge connecting the two portions of the city, while 
permitting the passage into dock of the vessels of the French naval marine. 

2. The railway, which, since the 25th of April last, places us within sixteen 
hours of Paris. 

3. A second railway, which puts us in communication with Nantes and the 
south of France. About forty kilometres, or twenty-five miles, yet remain to 
be constructed. This link will be supplied within the next two years. 

4. A harbor or dock bearing the name of the Emperor will soon have all the 
accessories of a first-class dock ; also a floating dock of twelve hectares, some 
120,000 yards in surface; also several thousand J^rds ofnu^^c^g.^ 



FREKCH DOMINIONS. 



UiS 



Bredt enjojs an almost exceptionable advantage in the fact that at every stage 
•it the tide there is always sufficient water to float vessels of the largest 
tonnage. 

The land approaches are most excellent, and the light-hoiiscs at Ushant and 
It Seins render access to the port as secure by night as by day. 

The roadstead offers safe anchorage and is commodious, without currents, and 
u closed in on all sides by high cliffs, affording full protection against southwest 
^ea — the most violent experienced on our coast. In fact, it will be found, on 
comparing Brest with the other seaports of the Atlantic and of the channel, that 
it far surpasses them all in natural advantages. 

It jet lacks some valuable accessories, such as shears, graving docks, &c. ; 
bat these deficiencies will be supplied to meet the necessary demands of its com- 
merce. Meanwhile the naval establishment here will supply these wants to the 
commercial marine. 



La Rochblle — Thomas P. Smith, Consul. 

September 30, 1865. 

* * * I am happy to state that American ships, which had disappeared 
from this port during the war, are beginning to return. 

The vintage has just closed, and the wine is more abundant, at a lower price, 
and of a superior quality, than has been known for twenty years. Already the 
restoration of prosperity is indicated by numerous orders from the United States, 
which has given great satisfaction throughout this consular district. 



Nantes — J. db la Montagnie, Consul 

Statement showing tlte nationality, number^ tonnage, and crews of vessels ar- 
rired at and departed from Nantes during the year ended September 30, 
1S65. 



ARBIVALS. 



Xationalitj. 



No. Tons. 



KiiMiian 

Swedish 

Xorwejpan 

I%Diah - 

British 

Hanoverian* 

^ber German states*. 

Han^eatic cities* 

NVtberlands 

Belpan 

V<JTtn^e5e .- 

S{4uiish 

Anatrian , 

Italian 

IViteJ States 



7 
6 

42 

1 

236 

1 

38 
2 

25 
1 
2 
8 



1,803 

1,565 

11,383 

282 

49,398 

76 

7,106 

1,106 

3,340 

143 

338 

1,615 



Crews. 



DJ'.PARTrRES. 



No. 



Tons. 



80 

68 

494 

14 

2,368 

5 

287 

42 

202 

7 

19 

142 



2,246 
1,292 



96 
30 



7 
38 

1 

244 

1 

32 

o 

2T 

1 
2 
6 

1 
8 
5 



1,399 

1,958 

10,618 

337 

52,216 

76 

6,740 

837 
2,575 

143 

338 
1,054 

246 
2.145 
3,931 



Crews. 



67 
75 

409 

14 

3,374 

5 

308 
42 

150 

7 

19 

112 
12 
8H 
69 



Total , :J80 I 81,693, 3,854 

French 3,146 286,765 1 20.674 



Aggregate 3,526 368,358 124,528 



376 
3,243 



84,613 

, 300,828 



3,619 ' 385,441 



4,749 
20,474 



25,223 



* German. 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



154 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the description and quantity of imports and ixports qfXantes, 
St, Nazaire and the small ports in tJie vicinity, during the year ended 
September 30, 1865. 



IMPOHTS. 



Description. , Quantity. 

French colonial sugar . . .quintals . , 240, 696 

Foreign colonial sugar do... 184, 779 

Coffee do... 21,246 

Cocoa do... 4,728 

Pepper do...' 4, 170 

Grain and flour do. . . 91 

Groundnuts do...| 24,800 

Rice do... I 11,450 

Lumber cubic metres. ' 284, 515 

Cabinet wood do ' 1, 474 

Dyewood 2,149 

Coals quintals. 2,003,840 

Oil— olive, palm, &c do. . . , 20, 957 



Description. 



QaactitT. 



Iron, cast quintals. 34,784 

bar and sheet do... 7,011 

Lead do... 21,492 

Zinc do... 1,376 

Guano do... 108,572 

Other manures do... 81,663 

Cotton do... 1,364 

Woollen goods do... 32,768 

Cotton goods do... 15,818 

Machinery do... 124,897 

Steam engines do... 40,00u 

Boats, iron do .. 164 



EXPORTS. 



Sugar, refined quintals. 

Grain and flour do. . . 

Meats, salted do. . . 

Butter do... 

Preserves do... 

Mules number. 

Leeches do... 

•Wine tuns. 

Manures quintals. 

Oil cake do. . . 



113,845 

863,505 

9,910 

1,040 

3,868 

753 

20,000 

14,061 

3,805 

19,019 



Building materials quintals . 71 , ^25 

Thread, linen do. ..I 714 

Woollen goods do...; 2,717 

Cotton goods do... 921 

Silkgo^s do... 587 

Metals, manufactured do . . . 3, 686 

Salt 28,3011 

Potatoes 14,019 

Timber, building 13,670 



St Pierre — William F. Given, Vice Consul. 



Ja.nuary 19, 1865. 
I have the honor to transmit herewith — let. Comparative statement of ex- 
portations from Martinique for the years ending December 31, 1863 and 1864, 
respectively. 2d. Comparative statement of exportations from Martinique and 
Guadeloupe for the year ending December 31, 1864. Guadeloupe, in 1863, ex- 
ported 60,532 hogsheads of sugar, while in 1 864, including the refined sugar, 
she exported only 31,812, a difference of 28,720. Martinique, in 1863, ex- 
ported 60,918 hogsheads, and in 1864, 48,322, a difference of 12.596. It will 
thus be seen, while in 1863 the exportation of sugar from Martinique exceeded 
that of Guadeloupe only 376 hogsheads, in 1864 there was a difference in favor 
of Martinique of 16,510 hogsheads. From the statement here presented it will 
also be perceived that Martinique, in her exportations, has exceeded those of 
Guadeloupe to the extent of 459,199 litres of molasses, 2,633,219 litres of rum, 
151,851 kilos of cocoa, 301,458 kilos of casse, and 500,657 kilos of logwood ; 
while the exportations of Guadeloupe have exceeded those of Martinique to the 
extent of 209,288 kilos of coffee, 95,366 kilos of cotton, and 112,200 kilos of 



roucou 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



ENC: 



155 



Comparative statement showing the exports from Martinique for the years 
ended December 31, 1863, and December 31, 1864. 



Description. 



Sncrar kilograms 

Molasses litres 

Ram and tapia do. 

Coffee kilos 

Cotton do. 

Cacao do., 

Casse 

LojTwood 



1863. 


1864. 


30,458,778 


24,161,246 


84,928 


621,494 


5,455 051 


3,031,043 


32, 161 


10,706 


1,500 


10.135 


258,127 


221,076 


362,589 


302,297 


731,556 


619,596 



Comparative statement of the exports from Martinique and Guadeloupe for 
the year ended December 31, 1864. 



Description. 



Martinique. Guadeloupe. 



Sugar, refined kilograms. 

.Suffar, raw kilograms . 

Molasses ^ litres. 

Komand tapia litres. 

Coffee kilograms. 

Cotton kilograms. 

Cii4!ao kilogram's. 

Caste kilograms. 

Lx>^ood, kilograms . 

Rottcoo. kilograms. 

Vanilla. kilograms. 



24,161,246 ' 

621,494 ' 

3,031,048 

10,706 

10, 135 I 

221,076 ' 

302.297 I 

619,596 ! 



121,676 

15,784,309 

162,295 

397.829 

219,994 

105 501 

69,225 

839 

118,939 

112,200 

371,500 



January 20, 1865. 

I hare the honor to iDform you that during the year 1864, exclusive of 
French vessels, there arrived at this port 1 46 British, 16 American, 3 Swedish, 
3 Danish, 2 Portuguese, and 2 Netherlands, making a total of 172 foreign ves- 
wls. About 100 were vessels plying between this port and the adjacent British 
islands. 

OCTOBBR 4, 1865. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith my report on the trade of this consular 
district during the year ended September 30, 1865. The total number of 
American vessels arrived at this port during that period was 14 — ^seven brigs 
and seven schooners — with an aggregate tonnage of 2,200^^'^. 

The yield of sugar, the one great staple of this island, for the present year, 
has been quite large — ^between 60,000 and 62,000 hogsheads — and from present 
appearances the crop for next year will reach 65,000 hogsheads, against 
4S,000 last year, and 61,000 in 1863. On the other hand, however, for some 
time past, prices have ruled quite low in France, where the great bulk of the 
^ugar made here has generally been sent, in consequence of which a great deal 
of it has lately found its way into the New York market, where prices have 
Wn more remunerative. 

This is especially the case with the better qualities of the clarified sugar, of 
vhich a considerable amount is now exported from this island. 

There has been some increase in the quantity of cotton grown this year, but 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



156 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



the amount raised is still quite inconsiderable, probably not more than 40,000 
kilos in all. More attention is now being given to the culture of this fibre, 
however, especially in the southern portion of the island, which is well adapted 
for the growthi and a considerable increase may be expected in succeeding 
years. 

The annexed tables will convey a pretty accurate idea of the progress of 
trade between the United Stated and this island during the past two years. 

Comparative atatcment showing the deacriplion, quantity^ and value of the 
imports and exports to and from the United States at the port of St. Pierre 
for the years ended June 30, 1864 and 1865, respectively. 

IMPORTS. 



Description. 



Year euded June 30, J864. ^Tear ended June 30, ]^). 
Quantity. Value. Quantity. VhIuc. 



Staves 

Salt beef. kilograms. . 

Salt pork ^ 

Lard 

Butter 

Codfish 

Oil pumice 

Vanoiis other kinds of manure 

Flour 

Corn 

Dried vegetables 

Rice 

Tobacco, (leaf) I 

Lumber M . . I 

•Shingles '. 

Wines litres.. I 

Candies kilograms..; 

Shoes - ■. 

' Musical instniments 

Articles of brass, copper, tin, &c 

Furniture 

Other household articles '. 

Merchandise not enumerated above . . . 



45,095 
179,300 I 
190,556 

68,634 , 
4, 198 
349,763 
570,206 

24,882 

2,955,570 

481,915 

33,351 

20,780 
221,653 

34,319 



964 
•33,288 



58 
529 



Total . 



Francs. 
19, 193 
124,433 
171,742 
103,092 
8,775 
167,678 
88,512 I 
5,552 . 
1,45:^,738 1 
89,063 
9,726 
12,468 
539,340 
13,634 



8,500 
119,629 
108,563 
33,508 
622 
107,699 
298,910 



Francs. 

1,36") 

64,916 

12^,292 

50,160 

1,492 
43,165 
44,16:'. 



1,447 
44,006 



100 

572 

6,482 

113 

467,586 



1,621,760 

193,784 

•32,413 

148,243 

53,645 

198,028 

90,000 

358 

18,273 

16 

15 

157 



3,327,252 



761,191 
57, l>7 
12,4(M 
82,9U9 

121, 43^ 

93,079 

1,44J) 

SS,5:?2 

41) 

t)<i 

401 

14. ^lU 

192, U95 



1,094,645 



EXPORTS. 



Sugar kilograms. . 

Molasses litres . . 

Cocoa kilograms.. 

Liquors litres. . 

Tapia litres. . . 

Merchandise not enumerated above... 



2,271,467 
299,500 



Total . 



60 
411 



788,524 
81,759 



108 

111 

169,500 



231,940 
152, 148 I 
430 



471 



115.55^ 

130.421^ 

473 



11? 



1,040,002 1 246,574 



In explanation of the great excess in the amount of imports for the first of 
these years, it may be stated, that duiing the most part of that year flour and 
other provisions were remarkably low in price in the United States, which fact. 

Digitized by V^OOQK:! 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



157 



added to the high rate of exchange then prevailing in theiP favor, induced the 
merchants here to obtain a much greater amonnt of those articles from there 
tluLD Qsnal — probably more than half the amount consumed here — whereas^ 
g«oeraIlj speaking, the larger portion of the provisions, as well as dry goods 
and such like, used here, come from France. 

The importations for the year ended June 30, 1865, may be taken as a fair 
a?enige for many years past, if we except the articles of lumber and shingles 
which, before the war, were generally ten or twelve times the amount here 
sUted. 

I K'e no good reason why, with a resumption of the trade with the lumber 
districts of Uie Carolinas, it may not be quite as considerable hereafter. 

Comparative siafefneni showing the nationality, number, and aggregate tonnage 
of the vessels arrived at the port of St. Pierre for the years ended June 30, 
1864, and June 30, 1865. 



Nationality. 


1 Tear end 

1 


ed June 30, 1664. 
Tonnage. 


Year em 

No. 

1 

78 : 
32; 

358 j 


led Jane 30, 1865. 


;«..| 


Tonnage. 


Fnnce . ... • •..........••••..• 


in' 

392 ,. 

1 1 


21,447.35 
6,841.56 

30,048.87 


20,714.9^ 


Tnited States 


4, t»66. 9» 


French colonies and other countries . 


26,430.12 


Total 


' 518 1 

1 


.58,337.78 


468 . 


51,712.10 







The followiug are the average prices of the principal articles of exportation 
of this island for tho past six months : 

Raw sugar, 19 to 23 francs the 50 kilograms ; clarified sugar, 30 to 36 francs 
the 50 kilograms ; logwood, 56 francs the 500 kilograms ; molasses, 16 to IS 
fnocs the hectolitre ; tapia, 32 to 34 francs the hectolitre. 

No changes have been made in the colonial tariff or port regulations during 
the past year. 



Statement showing the description and quantity of exjwrts Jrotn Martinique 
during the nine months ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Sujar hogsheajls 

MoWs^ litres 

Ram and tapia do. 

Coffee kilograms 

Cacao , • do. , 

r.<tou do.. 

Cw«»!a do., 

Logwood - < do.. 



Quantity. 



51,867 

187,184 

3,611,182 

43,168 
208,056 

44,553 
369,648 
360, 0(K> 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



t 



158 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



GUADBLOUPB — H. ThIONVILLB, CoMul. 

Statanent showing the description and quantity of expwrts from Guadeloupe 
for the nine months ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. Quantity. 



Sugar hogsheads.' 43,'2f)fi 

Molasses litres. 144, %4 

Rum and tapla do.. 94'2,ft?.r< 

Coffee kilograms. 445.247 

Cacao do.. Tf'.Ty? 

Cotton do.- 229/21/7 

Cassia do. . ; iJ^J 

Logwood do.. I 124,61*) 

Roucou...... do.. I 100, 63J) 

Vanilla do.-| l,27*i 

I 

Havre — James 0. Putnam, Consul. 

February 9, 1866. 

EDclosed I have the honor to submit my annual statement of imports into 
Havre for tlie year 1865. 

While Havre has by no means recovered its former prosperity, it has been 
relieved from much of the depression of 1864. The demand for tonnage to the 
United States has been considerably greater than the supply, owing to tbe 
great increase of exports since the close of the war. The French commercial 
interests have been much disturbed by the conflict between Spain and Chile. 
There is a large trade between Chile and this port, which has sought imperial 
protection. 

I am informed that the French government has now under consideration pro- 
jects for a considerable extension of its steam line of postal navigation, viz : 
1st. The establishment of a line from Port Louis, Mauritius, to Point de Galle, 
Ceylon, where it will join the French Messagcries line to Europe, India, China, 
and Japan. 2d. A line from New Caledonia to Sidney, Melbourne, and Port 
Louis, in conjunction with a line from the latter place to Aden and Suez. 3d. 
A line from Port Louis to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence to Rio Janeiro, 
to join the French line to BraziL 

In connexion with this subject, I have thought that the results obtained by 
the French transatlantic line of steamers since its establishment would prove 
interesting to the department, and I beg to state that the transatlantic com- 
pany made, during the year 1864, seven trips to New York. Its aggregate 
receipts for freight and passengers amounted to 734,000 francs, or $146,800, 
while the subsidy allowed by the French government, per round trip of eacli 
steamer, was 117,000 francs, or $23,400. In 1865 the receipts for nine voyages 
were 1,860,000 francs, or $372,000. The receipts of the same company's line- 
to Vera Cruz for 1865 exhibit an increase of fifty per cent, over the receipts 
of 1864. In March next the company will have five steamers of 1,300 to 1,500 
horse power, on the Havre and New York line, and six of 1,200 horse power, 
one of 600, and five of lesser power, for the secondary line of the West Indies, 
Panama, and intercolonial. 

I understand that from the 15th March next the company intends to employ 
some of its vessels exclusively in conveying emigrants and goods from this port 
to New York ; in which case there will be from that date a weekly departure 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! ^ 



FRENCH DOMINIONS. 



151) 



to the United States. The establishment of a regular line between Havana and 
New Orleans is likewise in contemplation. 

A return just issued shows that the eflfectivo force of the French merchant 
marine, sailing vessels, and steamers included, on the 3l8t December 1S64, was 
15,184 in number, and 998,519 in tonnage. On corresponding day of the pre- 
vious year the numbers were 985,235. 



Statement showing the number and tonnage of the merchant marine nj France 
at the close of the year 1864. 





Veseela of— 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


"<>i< tons and upwards 




50 

31 

50 

119 

256 

296 

639 

1,286 

1,541 

1,586 

963 

1,595 

6,776 


58,246 

22,943 

32,433 

65,196 

114,605 

104,826 

155,318 

181,116 


7uiioc^X) tons 




rt«0 10 700 tons 


■j*"^ to 600 tons 


4< HI to 500 tons 


ijtm to 400 tons 


■iJJO to 300 tons 


liHj to 2t)0 tons 


♦m to 100 tons 


f 


117,759 


aO to 60 tons 


67,742 
23,635 


*2»)to30ton» 


1»J to 20 tons 


23,113 
31,588 


Below 10 tons 








Total 


15,188 


998,520 







Of the aboire, 3,596 vessels of 41,197 tons were employed in what is termed 
"the little fishery" on the French coast; 6,691 vessels of 33,877 tons belonged 
to the Atlantic ports, and 1,905 vessels of 7,630 tons to the Mediterranean. 

14,954 emigrants have embarked at this port for the United States during 
the year 1865. 



Comparative tahle of importations of cottons into Havre during the years 

1863-'64-*65. 



Where from. 



1865. 



I 



Bales, 

NVw Orleans and Texas I 17,112 

Mobile 1,871 

Charleston and Savannah ' 

New York 

limU 

India and China 
' Hher countries 



Total 295,629 [ 256,939 




1664. 1863. 


Bales, 
4,229 


Bales, 
3,356 



209,715 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



160 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Stock of cotton on hand at Havre on (he Zlst of December of the following years : 



Years. 



Bales. 



1865. 
1864. 
1863. 
1862. 
1861 . 
1860. 
1859. 
1858. 
1857. 
1856. 
1855. 
1854 . 
ISS.^ . 



34,2!5t» 

51, 1411 

23,260 

56,785 

137,ajO 

105,020 

45, 130 

136,690 

82,600 

46,800 

53,650 

72,250 

21,000 



Cojnparative tabic of arrivals of vessels at Havre during the years 1864- '65 
from the United States. 



New York 

New Orleans . . 

Mobile 

Philadelphia . . . 

Baltimore 

Kicbniond, Va. 



Where from. 



Total. 



1 I ^ 



C 

>5 



37 

16 

1 I. 
3|. 

2 . 
1 . 



60 



73 



^0 



Comparative table of departure of vessels from Havre for ports of the United 
States during the years 1864-'65. 





Where for. 


e 

5z; 


i 


New York 




46 
6 

1 


47 


New Orleans 


«> 


Baltimore , -.. . 










Total 


53 


4V> 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS 



161 



Comparaiive stafement showing the nuTJ\her of vessels entered and cleared at 
Haure during the years 1864-*63. 



Where from. 



Rassia 

Sweden 

Norway ..................... 

Denmark 

Great Br^ain. 

Germao Confederation 

Free Citiei of Hecklenberg 

Netherlands 

Bd^om 

Portn^l - 

Spain 

Italy 

Awtria 

Tnrkey, dtc 

Egypt 

Barbaiy States 

Western coast of Africa 

British Indies, &c 

Philippine islands 

China and Ooeanica .^ 

loited States 

Mexico and Gaatemala 

New GninadA 

Venezuela 

Braals 

Cragnay 

Argentine republic 

Ecuador and Patagonia 

Peni and Boliria 

ChiU 

Hayti 

Spanish West Indies 

DTitch West Indies 

Britiih West Indies and Canada 

Reunion 

Martinique 

Goadeloupe ^ . . . 

French Guiana 

French Indies, Mayotte, &,c. . . 

!!^eQenmbia and Gaboon 

Whale, teal, and other fisheries 
Coasting traders 



Total. 



ENTERED. 



1865. I 1864. 



33 
69 
74 



1,162 

7 

116 

53 

65 

82 

38 

4 

1 

6 

1 



52 

55 

101 



8 
28 



1,121 1 

11 I 
102 I 
64 I 
44 
60 I 
33 ' 
7 I 



2 
60 
21 

4 

14 

122 

44 

38 



33 

12 

76 

54 

2 

16 

4 

35 

43 

8 

1 

7 



3,277 



5,620 



10 

56 

2 

3 

94 

22 

8 

17 

111 

41 

22 

1 

71 

14 

83 

73 

1 

17 

8 

:% 

30 

5 

2 

8 

2 

3,416 



5,813 



Where to. 



Russia 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Great Britain 

German Conft^eration 

Free Cities of Mecklenberg 

Netherlands .^. , 

Belgium .". , 

Portugal 

Spain 

Italy 

Austria 

Turkey, &c 

Egypt 

Barbary States 

Western coast of Africa 

British Indies, &c 

Philippine inlands 

China and Ooeanica 

United States 

Mexico and Guatemala 

New Granada 

Venezuela 

Brazils 

Uruguay 

Argentine republic 

Ecuador and Patagonia 

Peru and Bolivia 

Chili 

Hayti 

Spanish West Indies 

Danish and Durch West Indies 
British West Indies andCanada 

Reunion 

Martinique 

Guadeloupe 

French Indies, Mayotte, &c. . 

Senegambia and Gaboon 

Whale, seal,and other fisheries 

French Guiana 

Coasting traders ^ 



Total. 



CLEARED. 



1865. 1864. 



23 
63 
98 
18 
1,145 
10 
95 
52 
67 
88 
39 
27 
4 



13 
1 
3 
7 



5 

52 

28 

7 

8 

88 

11 

21 

1 

17 

22 

19 

38 

6 

8 

8 

43 

33 

2 

13 

2 

1 

3,315 



5,501 



21 

30 

107 

36 

1,395 

5 

83 

58 

61 

75 

31 

11 

2 

1 

13 



3 
12 



4 
51 
28 

4 
14 
85 
16 
16 

2 
24 
27 
27 
37 

6 

9 
12 
25 
28 

1 
13 

3 



3,532 



5,912 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 

Barcelona — John A. Little, Consul. « 

January 16, 1865. 

I bave the honor to transuit herewith the following report of the imports into 
^ exports from the ports of Barcelona and 'i'arr^gona, to and from the 
I'Dlted States, for the quarter ended December 31, 1864 : 

11 c R 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



162 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Imports — 434,950 etaves, 555 boxes of petroleum, and 3 boxes sewing ma- 
chines. 

Exports — 365 bales and 6 boxes of corks, containing 9,135,720 corks of dif- 
ferent sizes, valued at $7,533 82. 

Tarragona imported 143,000 staves, and exported 4,672 gallons of red wine, 
valued at $1,822 08. 

Statement showing the quantify/ of cotton entered at Barcelona during the fourth 
quarter ^1864, together with the name of the port whence shipped. 



Ports whence shipped. 


Quantity. 


Ports whence 

Marseilles 

Matanzas 

Palma 

Parabiba 

Seville 


shipped. 

bales.. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 


Quantity. 


Cadia bales.. 

Cette do... 

Havana do. . . 

tiverpool do. . . 

S^aratiham do. . . 


1,293 
384 
323 
927 
550 


3,^> 

1,323 

70 


• ■ Total 




10.307 


ji^uantity imported from January 1 


1 to Sept€m1 


ber30. J864 




76,434 






Total for the year 1864 




86.741 







Statement showing the number^ tonnage, and nationality of vessels entered at 
' Barcelona during the quarter ended December 31, 1864. 



Rationality. 



I No. 



:Vnited States 2 

Austria^. ., { 4 

Jkilish.^» .... , 12 

&lgiant. 1 

Oauish., 5 

S*rench.. ^,, 12 

Grecian .,t,..,-,. 1 

tNetherlands. .,.^-.,1 .*.... 2 




Nationality. 



No. ■ Tons. 



Italian j 27 j 

Prussian i II , 

Russian ' 4 i 

Spanish i 588' 

Swedish and Norwegian . . j 31 



*L 



4,936 
3, 422 
2,U72 
64.333 
9,UU7 



Total. 



r 



700 



92,434 



Tabular statement showing the number, tonnage, and crews of Spanish and 
Jo7'etgn vessels entered at Barcelona during the year 1864, together with the 
';' number of j)a^itngdrs d>id the amount of steam power employed. 



,-ii 



'Nationality. 



Where from. 



No. I Tons. Crews. 



Spanish .'. ; AsWand America. 

Do Foreign ports 

Ito .-* .. V 4- Coasting Ivewels . . 

Do Small coasters 



r transit.. 



Foreign with wgo^^ /-r 

Foreign in bali&st or trat 

:l • ,.;X0tal;-f-, ...]-. y»,.-.'--J*H-i-. ,►*►... .,,..4-... 



225 

655 

3,001 

1,972 

549 

39 



•■• -t' ^ 



I 



46,008 
117,231 
205,016 

:«,528 

134,137 

6,613 



6«54l 541,533 



2,850 

11,754 

26,972 

9,790 

5,550 

346 



Horse 
power. 



® a 



47,262 



815 
47,273 
66,651 



180 
115 



400 

4.299 

25,939 

2:« 

20 

9 



115,034 30,899 



Digitized by 



Googk 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



163 



OCTOBBB 14, 1865. 
The commerce between the United States and this consular district has con- 
tinaed-in such a depressed condition since my report of 1864, that I have little 
information to communicate in my report for the year ending September 30, 
1S65, farther than a statement of the movement of vessels at the port of Barce- 
loDa, the importations of cotton, and a list of the few imports and exports from 
ind to the United States. The financial and industrial crisis from which Spain 
his suffered so much, still continues with little or no melioration, and the gen- 
eral unsettled state of the country gives little encouragement for commercial en- 
teqirise. From the 10th of August last, business of all kinds has been com- 
pletely suspended on account of the breaking out of the cholera. ♦ ♦ • 

Stalemenl showing the number , nationality, and tonnage of vessels entered at the 
port of Barcelona from October 1, 1864, to September 30, 1865. 



Natiooalitj. 



American... 

Austrian 

Belgian 

Danuh 

English 

French 

Greek 

HanoTerian . 
Hambnrg ... 



No. 



Tonnage. 



7 


3,341 


10 


3,417 


6 


1,368 


8 


1,285 


90 


25,498 


79 


6,737 


2 


508 


1 


183 


1 


94 



Nationality. 



No. 



Holland 

Italian 

Mecklenburg 

Oldenburg 

Portupiicse 

Prussian 

Russian 

Spanish 

Swedish and Norwegian . 



9 

154 

5 

1 

5 

47 

34 

2,402 

58 



Tonnage. 



1,206 

26.900 

611 

166 

752 

15,874 

13,407 

283,771 

19,212 



Year ending September 30, 1865.^Total. . . 
Year ending September 30, 1804. — ^Total. . . 



2, 919 vessels ; tonnage, 404, 430 

3, 564 vessels ; tonnage, 510, 281 



Difference . 



645 



105, 851 



Statement showing the amount of cotton imported into Catalonia Jrom October 
1, 1864, to September 30, 1865, and also the number of bales from the several 
ports of shipment. 



Bales. 

From Adra 26 

Aguadilla 478 

Alexandria 150 

Bdhia 307 

Cadiz 1, 632 

Carril 3,416 

Cette 6, 344 

Gienfaegos 11 

Genoa 19 

Gibraltar 20 

GuayaquU 62 

Guia 619 

Havana 2,810 

Ibira 10 

Liverpool 7, 668 

London 50 

Malaga 95 

Malta 370 



Bales. 

From Manzanillo . . : , . . 31 

Maranon 550 

Marseilles 29, 838 

Matamoras 676 

Matanzas 1, 554 

Mayaguez 3, 062 

Matril 77 

Palma 588 

Parahiba 1,803 

Pernambuco 9, 700 

Ponce 97 

Puerto Cabello 540 

Puerto Rico 162 

Santender • 200 

Seville 70 

Trinidad 50 



ToUl : 72,085 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



164 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the import of cotton into Catalonia from 

1859 to 1864, inclusive. 

1859 111,737 bales, weighing 2,402.849 arrobas. 

1860 110,575 bales, weighing 2,358,934 arrobaa. 

1861 113,669 bales, weighing 2,274,679 arroba*. 

1862 73,285 bales, weighing 1,169,592 arrobaa. 

1863 1 06,043 bales, weighing 1,519,591 arrobaa. 

1864 89,232 bales, weighing 1,161,520 arrobaa. 

Statement showing the imports and exports of Catalonia from and to t\e 
Lnited States from October 1, 1864, to September 30, 1865. 

IMPORTS, BARCELONA. 

787 gross mil. staves, 
555 cases petroleum, and 
3 boxes sewing machines. 

IMPORTS, TARRAGONA. 

812 gross mil. staves. 

EXPORTS, BACBLONA. 

Value. 

2, 199 bales and 6 boxes, containing 53,903,440 corks $47, 400 70 

100 quarter-casks red wine .^ 1, 574 04 

Total $48, 974 74 

EXPORTS, TARRAGONA. 

Value. 

9f 344 gallons common red wine $3, 644 16 

150 barrels common red wine 1, 953 17 

74 barrels claret wine 1, 093 10 

1, 204 quintals licorice root 3, 658 7d 

40 boxes licorice paste 1, 913 40 

Total *12, 262 58 

Total value of exports to the United States during the year $61, 237 32 
About one- third of that of the preceding year. 



Malaga — John R, Geary, Consul 

December 31, 1864. 

Trade with the United States from this consular district has been very limited 
during the quarter ended this day. 

The value of imports of American produce by American vessels amounted to 
$48, 242. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



165 



The exports to the United States daring the quarter have been unusually 
small, compared with previous quarters during the vintage season. The exports 

in American vessels amounted to $173, 201 00 

In foreign 159, 640 00 

Total exports by American and foreign vessels. 3j2, 841 00 

American and foreign entered during the present quarter $2, 607 00 

This market continues dull. At the present moment there is very little com- 
mercial animation. 

No change in prices to communicate excepting in raisins, which have been 
declining, and may be quoted to-day, as follows: boxes, layers at $1 ; boxes, 
banch, SO 75. The stock on hand is large, and most of it would go forward 
to the United States should encouraging advices be received. 

Freights to the United States for lead, $5 per ton ; for fruit, $10 to $11. 

The stave market continues dull, owinsr to the heavy stock on hand. Large 
pipe staves may be quoted at $1 65, and light pipe at $1 30 per md. 

Exchange, — On London, 47.50 to, 60; Paris, 5.22; Hamburg, 44.30. 

There have been no royal orders or edicts affecting the trade with the United 
btales. 



Statement showing the natumalUy and number of sailing vessels and steamers 
entered at tJie pert of Malaga during the year 1864; also their total tonnage 
and number of crews. 



Nationality. 


No. of 
sailing 
vessels. 


No. of 

steamers. 


. Nationality. 


No. of 
sailing 
vessels. 


No. of 
steamers. 


United States 


21 

1,253 
137 
32 
32 
38 
17 
32 


Netherlands 


11 

5 

10 

7 
17 

J 
1 
I 
1 


10 


Spuuth. (coasters in- 
cluded). 1 

British 


420 
24 
14 


Haytian 




Prus*»iai* 




Bassian 


2 


French 


Portuguese --. 




Italian 


Greek 




Swedifth and Norwegian) 

DMiish... 




Roman. . . , ^ - --t 






Austrian ^..x, -, 




^^i^'nniin. ' 




Belgian --. 


2 










Total number. . ... 




1,616 


472 










Total tonnafre 


86,190 
14,500 


180,000 


Total of craws 


14,160 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



166 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative tabular statement showing the tonnage^ number of American vesseU 
and their crews arrived at the port of Malaga during the period of nine 
years ended December 31, 1864. 



Years. 


Namber 
of 

vessels. 


Register 

of 
tonnage. 


CREWS. 


American. 


Foreign. 


Total 


1856 


63 
66 
50 
50 
75 
40 
46 
26 
22 


15,793 
17,901 
15,777 
16,409 
22,092 
11,823 
13,511 
10,437 
7,245 


431 
446 
406 
412 ! 
563 1 
303 1 
353 , 
267 
184 


76 
39 i 
56| 
43 ' 
48 
25 
14 
5 

'i 


5(J7 


1857 


1% 


1858 


462 


1859 


455 


I860 


611 


1861 


. 32^ 


1862 


367' 


1863 


272 


1864 


185 







* Decrease owing to foreign chartera, particularly Britiih. 

Comparative statement shotoing the description and value of imports into Mal- 
aga from the United States in American and Spanish vessels during the period 
of nine years ended December 31, 1864. 



In American vessels. 



Description. 



Value. 



In Spanish vessels. 



Description. 



Value. 



o 



1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 



$228,030 
362,781 
308,052 
158,066 
376,995 
114,503 
133,021 
184,531 
.do ; 153,842 



Staves, flour, com, &c... 

do 

do 

Staves 

, do 

do 

do 

do 



Cotton $168,700 



••I 



do..... 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 

do. 

....do 502,027 

Staves 15,322 

....do 35,222 



163,300 
190,780 
457,650 
187,289 
220,626 



9396,730 
526,081 
496,833 
615,716 
564,284 
335, 129 
635,048 
199,853 
189,064 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS, 



167 



Comparatice statement showing the description and value of exports from the 
consular district of Malaga to the United States in American and foreign 
ccuels during the nine years ended December 31, 1864. 



Year'. iCVtcription. 



lo;.... 


Frail 




LMd. 


If57.... 


Frait 




L«ad 


l^.-IP.... 


Frait. 




Lead 


Iri}. . . . 


Fruit 




LMd 


Itfti)-... 


Fruit 




Lead 


mi.... 


Fruit 




Lead 


l^.... 


Fruit 




Lead 


1*3... 


Frait 




Lead 


Ic64.... 


Frait 




Lead 



Whence exported. 





Malaga 




Almeriaand Adra.. 




Malaga 




....do 




...do 




... do 




....do 




....do 




..-.do 




do 




...do 




....do 




....do 




. do 




do 




...do 




....do 




...do 



Nationality. 


In United States 


In foreign 


veaueLi. 


ve8«»eU. 


$1,240,907 


^i.i:r :|60 


76.370 


l^^: .170 


1,118.847 


--J. !.99 


153, 867 


^- ;99 


746,994 


i-.'.'^ 


120, 936 


M :98 


1,109,880 


- 745 


79,143 


■i.i.'>80 


1, 684, 475 


.■ -. m 


91,049 


-1 186 


473, 491 


!-.;Sl 


5,550 


V. im 


495,626 


1 (J. ^65 


114.445 


I-. 727 


290,749 


■■■:■'. (96 


19, 178 


■.u.m 


253, e:J« 


'■'■K 188 


26,805 


i \.M2 



Total. 



! Decrease. 



-I 



$849,697 



I $1,009,007 ' 

I 2,221,112 

I 1,371,415 

I 1,922,848 

j 2,663.117 j 

I 636,322^2,008,795 

I 1, 071, 663 

I 1, 074, 491 

I 963,971 110,520 



Incrcaie. 



$312, 105 



551,433 
742,269 



415, 341 
2.828 



March 31, 1S65. 

I have the honor to make the following report on the trade with the United 
States from this consular district for the quarter ending the 3 1st of March, 1865 : 

The importations of American produce, consisting as usual of staves, amrmnted 
in Talae to 818, 245, and by foreign vessels to $24,000 ; total value of staves 
imported, $42, 245. The stock of staves on hand is large, and dull of sale ; 
pipe staves, heavy, at $1 70; light, at $1 25. 

The value of exports for the same period, by American flag, amounted in 
value to $35,727 ; and by foreign flags to $196,469 ; total value oi exports 
to New York and Boston, $232,196. 

This market has become firmer. Owing to the late favorable reports from 
the United States the stock bas been brought up, and prices have advanced. 
There remains a stock of about 100,000 boxes of raisins, all of which must go 
forward to the United States during the present spring months, together with 
the usual shipments of lead and mixed articles. The following aie the quota- 
tions of the market : 

Raisins, layers, $1 30 to $1 60 per box ; ditto, bunch, $1 20 to $1 25 per 
box; almonds, casks of 100 lbs., $4 25 to $4 50; ditto, soft shell, $4 
per fanega; licorice paste, per 100 lbs., $11 to $12 ; ditto, sticks, per 100 lbs., 
83; mats, per dozen, $3 to $3 50 ; lead, per quintal, S4 10 to $4 20. Wines : 
Malaga, common white, per arroba, $1 65 to 1 1 75 ; ditto sweet, $2 to $2 20 ; 
red. S3 ; Malaga superior, $4 30 to $12, according to age. 

Exchanget. — On the United States, no regular course ; London, 90 to 50 ; 
Paris, 5.25; Hamburg, 11.55. 

Freights have continued very low. Lead, to the United States, has been 
lately shipped at $4 and $5 per ton, and other articles $6, with but little 
offering. There has been, for some time past, a great falling off in the arrivals 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



168 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

A. M. Hancock, Consul. 

iSBPTBMBBR 30, 1865. 

The close of the war has stimulated the trade with the United States, and it now 
promises to approximate that of former years. 

Raisins this year are very abundant and exceedingly fine. So far there has 
been but little demand except fir the American market. The crop is variously 
estimated from 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 boxes, and the presumption is that at 
least a million of boxes will find their way to the United States — ^an amount 
nearly equal to that of ISGO, which year was characterized by the largest ship- 
ments ever made to that country. 

The price this year opened at S2 per box for layers and $ L 90 per box for 
bunch. The price has since fallen to $1 20 for bunch. So large an amount of 
money was made on tlie shipment to the United States the past spring that it 
has caused a number to embark in the American trade heretofore not engaged 
in it. 

The crop of lemons is small, but the fruit is very good. There are four crops 
of lemons in a year, or, in other words, a continuous crop, for the trees bloom 
every month ; some months much more than others. Previous to the 1st of 
September they are sold by the thousand. A thousand of the first of the crop 
fill four boxes, (called here quarter boxes,) tlie size shipped to the United 
States. After the 1st of September they are sold by the box. Then the fruit 
is smaller, and a box, or four quarter boxes, will contain from eleven to fourteen 
hundred. I'he prices have ranged frum $3 50 to $1 25 per quarter box. 

Figs are abundant, but the fruit small. 

Wmes promise a large yield. Prices for new wine average from $14 to $18 
per quarter cask of 30 to 32 gallons. 

Almtmds have had a good yield, but the fruit is light. There is now no de- 
mand for shipment, hence no fixed prices. 

Of packing grapes the crop is small, but the fruit good. Prices are high — 
from $3 to $5 for keg of 25 pounds. 

Ff eights. — American vessels are in demand, and many more than are now 
here could get charters if they were within reach of us. Freights to New York 
or Boston vary from seven to ten dollars per ton. A few days ago an English 
steamer sailed from this port direct to New York with fruit. This is the first 
steamer that has sailed direct from this port to the United States, and if the ex- 
periment is successful the probability is that steamers may entirely supersede 
sailing-vessels in this trade. 

The imports for the last year were 1,494,662 staves, and 6,946 sleepers, or 
cross-ties, for the railway between this city and Cordova. The total value of 
imports was S540,000. 

During the year ended this day thirty-nine United States vessels entered this 
port, with an aggregate tonage of 13,589 tons. 

The grain crop throughout the peninsula is fully an average one, and the 

? rices of wheat and Indian com are a shade lower than at this season laat year, 
'he first quality of wheat is selling at $2 80 to 2 85 per fanega of 95 pounds. 
Com is selling at $2 15 the fanega. At the same time last year the first quality 
of wheat sold at S3 05 to $3 10 Uie fanega, and Indian com at $2 20 to $2 30 
the fanega. 

In 1860, the year before the war, the exports from this consulate to the United 
SUtes were valued at $2,665,117. In 1861, at $656,322, adecrease of $2,008,795. 
In 1862, the value of exports to the United States reached the sum of $1,071,063, 
an increase over the previous year of $415,341. In 1803, the estimated 
valae was $1,074,491, an increase of $2,828 over the year 1862. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 169 

Iq the jeax 1S64, it amounted to $963,971, a decrease on the value of exports 
of 1863, of $110,520. 

These results are for the entire year, and for the first nine months of the 
present year those exports amount to $1,089,888, showing an increase over the 
vear 1864 of $126,1 17. 

Mj impression is that the exports to the United States this year will exceed 
those of the last year by half a million dollars at least. 

A recent able review of the statistics of Spain contains the following state- 
ments : About the time of Julius Caesar Spain contained a population of about 
68,000 000 ; but in 1688, it had decreased to about 8,000,000. But from that 
period the increase has been continuous. In 1768, the population had risen to 
9,307,800 ; in 1789, to 10,761,480. In 1797. it exceeded 12,000.000. In 
1820, it had fallen to 11,000,000. In 1823, it had ag^aiu risen to 12,000,000; 
and in 1828, to 13,698,029 ; but the official returns of 1837 register only 
12,222,872 ; and a new tendency to decrease commences. In 1842 the popula- 
tion did not exceed 12,054,000. It gained about 110,000 in 1846, but fell 
to 10,942,000 in 1850, if the official documents of that period may be credited, 
which they are not, for in 1861 a census, said to be taken with the greatest 
care, shows the population to be about 16,000,000. 

This population is scattered over a surface of 506,668 kilometres, which 
makes it very thinly peopled. About 46 per cent, of the whole surface of the 
kingdom is still uncultivated; and of 3,803,991 able-bodied men, 125,000 be- 
long to the clergy, 541,335 to the army, navy, and the class of military func- 
tionaries, and 428,716 to the nobility ; of the remainder, 47,312 were students, 
5,633 advocates, 9,351 writers, 27,922 belonging to the customs, and 506,090 
were servants, showing a total of 1,225,799 men living apart from all manufac- 
tnring or agricultural labor. 

The export trade of Spain, which in 1849 was only 570.000,000 francs, 
was in 1861, 865,000,000, but it was only in 1853, '54, and *55n that the ex- 
ports exceeded the imports. 

The railway between Malaga and Cordova is nearly completed. The cars 
have been running regularly between the two places for about six weeks. On 
the fifteenth instant the road from Cordova to Madrid was opened to Bailen, 
whieh puts us now in railway connexion with the capital of the kingdom, 
excepting about four hours staging from Bailen to Yenta de Cordenas. 

No new manufacturing establishments have been put in operation since trans- 
mitting my last report. 

Exchange on London is 50 to 50^^, On Paris, 5^^^. On Hamburg, 
^^iVif' at 90 days. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



170 



ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the description, quantity, and value of the exportsfrom Mal- 
aga to the United States during the year 1865. 



Description. 



Raisins boxes . . 

Do frails.. 

Do ^..keps.. 

Do casks . . 

Do barrels.. 

Do half barrels. . 

Do cases. . 

Almouds frails . . 

Do barrels . . 

Do boxes . . 

Do bags.. 

Olive oil quarter casks. . 

Do barrels. . 

Olives kees.. 

Do barrels . . 

Do half barrels-. 

Do jars. . 

Grapes barrels.. 

Do half barrels.. 

Do kegs. . 

Do half kegs.. 

Canary seed sacks.. 

Do barrels . . 

Chestnuts frails . . 



Quantity. 



846, ]55 

18,106 

2,618 

1,264 

2,246 

641 

31 

10,991 

331 

5,207 

657 

1,349 

209 

442 

100 

146 

1,000 

1,336 

500 

4,688 

617 

505 

100 

25 



Description. 



Figs drams. 

Do half drums. 

Do quarter drums. 

Do eighth drums . 

' Do boxes . 

Do half boxes. 

Do frails. 

Lemons boxe^ . 

Do half boxes . 

Do half chests . 

Orange peel bales. 

Oranges boxes. 

Mats bales. 

Wine quarter casks . 

Do eighth casks. 

Do barrels. 

Licorice root bundles . 

Licorice paste cases . 

Palm-leaf hats bales . 

Lead quintals. 

Prunes boxes . 

Garlic seroons. 

Pimento sacks . 

: Nuts bales. 



Quantity. 



lOU 
2UI.) 
100 

m 

250 

2,200 

300 

26.076 

300 

67 

230 

IJOl 

2!« 

1,810 

605 

50 

4,077 

340 

167 

27,693 

300 

35 

70 



Total value of exports to the United Sutcs, $1,879,636 86. 



RECAPITULATION. 
The above exports were distributed as follows : 



Nationality of ships. 


Amount. 


Ports of destination. Amonot 


United States 


(711,654 76 

653,328 48 

156,333 55 

98,930 29 

50,:J85 02 

8,552 10 

42,282 89 

71,142 99 

87,026 78 


New York ' $1,349,743 11 


British 


Boston 335,002 12 


Norwegian 


Philadelphia 44,400 44 

San Francisco 33,141 95 


German 


Spanish 


Baltimore 55,996 68 


Italian 


New Orleans 61,352 56 


Danish 




Russian 




Swedish 








Total 


1,879,636 86 


Total 1,879,636 86 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



171 



StaUmmi showing the description, quantity , and value of imports into and ex- 
ports from Malaga in American and foreign vessels^ during the year ended 
December 31, 1865. 



IMPORTS. 



• IN AMERICAN VESSELS. 


IN FOREION VESSELS. 


Description. 


Qaantity. 


Value. 


Qaantity. 


Value. 


Total value. 


8Ufc8 No.. 

Petroleam ... geXA.. 


970,635 
2,068 


$194, 127 00 
1,096 00 


555.200 
40,361 


$111,040 
30,000 






195,223 00 


141,040 


$336,263 00 






BXPOR 


TS. 




Lfad. wine. Slc .... 




$711,654 76 




$1,181,239 


1,181,239 76 











Santander — Richard 0. Hanna, CotisuL 

NOVBMBBR 20, 1865. 
In BabmittiDg my report for the twelve months ended the 30th of September 
of the present year, I have the honor to transmit the accompanying tables rela- 
tive to the trade of Santander. 

1. Return of "imports,** showing the quantities of merchandise which, accord- 
ing to the books of the custom-house, have entered the port ; the countries 
whence, and their estimated values. 

2. (lomparison between the quantities and estimated value of the imports during 
tlie last two years, showing their relative increase or decrease. 

3. Return of ''exports," according to the quantities and values in the cus- 
tomB accounts. 

4. A table of comparison between the export trade during the last two jears^ 
contracting the increase and decrease respectively. 

5. Return of merchandise entering and leaving the port coastwise during the 
Ust twelve months, with increase and decrease as compared with the antecedent 
year. 

6. Return of shipping, foreign and coasting, which entered the harbor during 
Ustyear. 

7. Return of shipping, foreign and coasting, which cleared from Santander 
daring the same period. 

It will perhaps conduce to the simplicity of this report if I commence with 
an analysis of the receipts by this custom-house before I proceed to an examina- 
tion of the tables. 

The duties which have been received upon imports by the custom-house at 
Santander, are analyzed as follows : 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



172 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the amount of duties collected during the years 
ended September 30, 1865, and 1864. 



g 



Nationality. | 



I |s 



Ad 



1865. 

Fipaninh 

Foreign 

1864. 

Spanlwh 

Foreign ..... 



$380,620 80 $11,993 60 $375,591 50 
25.730 50 157,275 50 I 



406.351 30 I 169,269 10 375.591 50 



$590,888 62 $65,943 87 $377,903 44 
30,212 51 I 252,055 72 I 



, 101 13 I 317, 998 59 377, 903 44 



II 

o « 

a 



B 



$152,364 35 



152, 364 35 



$20, 522 19 



20. 522 19 



< 
S 



$1, 120 50 



$5, 983 25 j $9?7. G76 00 
183.006 00 



1.120 50 



IS 



5 

o 



5.983 SS ,1.110,682 00 



I $240,298 13 
I 282.2G8 23 



.11,522.596 35 



Decrease of duties during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



flpaniah 


$210, 267 82 
4, 482 01 


$53.950 27 
91, 780 22 


$2,31194 


$53, 157 84 


* 


• t J t319. 687 87 


Foreign 


t 


99,282 23 












214,749 83 


148,730 49 


2,31194 


53, 157 84 






418,950 10 











' Increase in 1865, $1,112 59. 



t Increase in 1865, $5,963 25. 



The foregoing table of decrease shows a total of $418,950 10 

Deduct the exceptional seizure and Asiatic import of 7,105 75 



The real decrease amounts to . 



411,844 35 



Thus the duties have diminished nearly one-third. The trade between the 
mother country and the colonies appears to have undergone but a slight fluctu- 
ation. Goods are recorded to have contributed about a quarter less to the fiscal 
revenue than in the previous year. The European trade produced but two- 
thirds of what it did in 1864, and railways were accountable for a loss in duties 
of nearly one-half. 

IMPORT TRADE. 

Although, as I have mentioned in former reports, the books of the custom- 
house, in the presence of the prevalence of contraband trade, afford no reliable 
evidence of the quantity of goods actually entering the ports of Spain, they 
may, I believe, be considered as averages indicative of the rise and fall in the 
demand of particular items. 

In this point of view, and dividing the imports into the three great heads of 
iron and its manufactures, of textile produce, and of colonial articles, they may 
be taken to have indicated a large decrease under the first and second heads, 
and an increase in the arrival of colonial articles, such as sugar, &c. These 
show a total reduction, since my last report, to the amount of $3,001,563, nearly 
all of which is covered by the foregoing list of principal articles. 

This is contrary to the expectation which was prevalent a year since among 
the commercial men of this place. It was supposed by them that the importa- 
tions had been reduced so low by the causes then operating that it seemed that 
auy variation must naturally be in the direction of an increase. But in making 
my remarks upon the causes of these changes, as required by my instructions, 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 173 

il becomes mj duty to state that an io dependent cause has supervened to occa- 
sion the disappointment of popular expectations of an increase in the severity 
of the fiDancial crisis which occurred throughout Europe, and which wan felt more 
especial] J in Spain, a country whose commercial system has been such as to require 
the aid of foreign capital to give it even the slight vitality of which it -was then 
io possession. This crisis was felt with peculiar force, not only in the capital 
of the monarchy, but in Valladolid, which is the financial centre of Santander, 
tnd in all other large towns, with which the commerce of the latter is closely 
allied. Many join^stock or credit companies, banking associations, and mer- 
cbants were compelled to call their creditors together, and several ceased opera- 
tioDs under the administration of the bankruptcy laws. In Santander, also, 
oiaoj merchants, considered to be large capitalists, and a joint-stock bank, have 
had to submit to a similar fate. 

November of last year (1864) was about the time when the monetary pres- 
sure began to be most severely felt ; but in the ten months that have since 
elapsed the pressure has been scarcely mitigated, and an idea can be formed by 
the numner it has affected Santander, in the fact that the larger portion of the 
importations, as represented in the tables, arrived in the first three of the twelve 
nHMiths which the tables include, being, therefore, articles for which the contracts 
had been previously arranged. 

* * I have also referred, in former years, as well as in this report, to the 
reported corruption of the revenue service, and that regular associations are 
fonned in porta of export to this country for the delivery of goods at fixed rates 
of charge, and by way of insurance against loss. But these associations are 
not merely established with the sole object of defrauding the revenue; they 
are encouraged as almost a necessity of commerce, and as protective even to the 
honest trader, who is exposed to an infinite amount of vexation and loss of 
time in introducing his goods through the custom-house. He must comply with 
legolations which are ever changing, and to which he can with difficulty get 
access. * * All goods must be carefully described in the port of origin, 
with their weight in kilograms, which may be a difficulty where a different 
iystem is used. After-corrections are rendered difficult, for the moment the 
Spanish consul declares the register closed, it is only with infinite trouble and 
expense, which practically amounts in the majority of instances to a prohibition, 
that an amendment can be made to the register, allowing the ship to take more 
cargo should it prove to be desirable — subjecting vessel and caigo to considera- 
ble risk upon arrival at her port of destination. Any accidental variation be- 
tween the manifest or bills of lading and the consular note is visited with for- 
feitnre or heavy fine. It would be an endless task to enumerate the various other 
obstacles to which the honest exporter is exposed. What wonder is it that he 
id driven to what is to him the lesser of two evils, and commits the exportation 
to a company who will undertake the business for him at a fixed charge ? — he 
knows his loss, and has no further trouble. 

These companies carry on their business very publicly, and their localities at 
Bordeaux and Bayonne fl have been repeatedly told) are well known and 
accessible. They are said to be well organized; on fine goods of but little 
bolk they charge the sender for delivering them at his place of residence ten 
percent on the value, and on coarser, such as woollens, fifteen per cent. Their 
Qoderstanding with the customs at the places of imports is such that seizures are 
very rare. • • 

BXPORT TRADE. 

There has been a small decrease in exports also, as will be seen by reference 
to the table of comparison. No 4. A recent change in the law, allowing freer ad- 
toissionofbreadstuffs into Cuba and Puerto Rico, and thus supplying a competition 
to the chief staple of the export of Santander, may account for some of this, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC. 



174 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

althoagh time has not jet elapsed to bring out its fall results, since it took place 
in April and Jane last. I shall more fully explain this in treating of the alter- 
ations in cnstoms. Although the United States may supplant much of the 
Spanish flour trade with the Spanish West Indies, notwithstanding the etill heavy 
duty to which they have to submit on importing cereals to that market, it is 
nevertheless believed by many that this alteration will be attended with benefit 
to Santander, by forcing it into a nearer and more natural market. The monop- 
oly by the farmers here of the Cuba market, combined with the prejudices and 
anli(]uated notions, deprived Santander formerly of the European markets, ex- 
cept at periods of more than ordinary scarcity abroad. 

It can easily be conceived how serious the effect of the change will be to 
Santander, when it is reflected that four-fifths of the total exportations from this 
port to all parts of the world were covered almost by the item of flour to the 
island of Cuba. Up to April last this flour was protected from the competitioo 
of the United States flour by a duty of $9 50 per barrel. Now, unless the 
prices formerly ruling be reduced, the rude and thinly-populated but fertile plains of 
the Gastiles will supply nt me but the scanty population of the peninsula ; and the 
simple remedy which they have hitherto used against low prices, namely, of letting 
their land out of cultivation, will, by the renewal of the quasi prohibition of 
foreign com in Cuba, react upon themselves. It is, therefore, supposed that in 
the course of a year or two there will be an improvement in this respect, which 
will be attributable to the above-mentioned change of duty. Already some 
symptoms have been seen in the export, at the time I am writing, (November,) 
of some cargoes of wheat to England. 

Calamine, the carbonate of zinc, still continues to be exported without dimi- 
nution on the account of a Belgian company, which has for many years absorbed 
the extraction. 

The export of iron ore (pyritous) has, in consequence of the unusually small 
number of English vessels which arrived last year, fallen off ten thousand tons. 
It is dependent upon there being active imports, with no demand for grain or 
other substances which can afford the payment of a good return freight. The 
copper and other mines still continue inactive. 

COASTING TRADB. 

By reference to the coasting trade table it will be seen that tobacco and salt enter 
into it for the first time. These till last year wei-e sold and transmitted by and 
on government account only ; but that systqm, the "estanco," has, so far as re- 
gards salt and the carriage of tobacco, been materially modified. There appears, 
therefore, to be somewhat of an increase in the inward and outward bound 
coasting trade. Deducting these articles from the sum total, it will be seen to 
be about the same as last year. 

However great may be the variation, or however small in particular items, 
they are due to temporary and local causes only, as in fact must generally be 
the case, and I do not observe in those of this year anything to justify special 
notice. 

INTBRIVAL COMMUNICATION. 

The Isabel Segunda railway still remains interrupted by eleven miles of slow 
animal traffic along hilly roads. 

The receipts of the company were as follows : 

In 1862 $607,651 64 

In 1S63 575,665 24 ; decrease of $31,986 40 

In 1864 490,381 73 ; further decrease 85,283 51 

The difference of income over working expenses during the last year being 
. S0.9015 per cent., or $93,655 09. Digitized by ^OOglC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS 



175 



NAVIGATION. 

The following comparison of the foreign navigation for the two yeard ending 
the 30th September, 1865, will show that the falling off in this respect has been 
Id proportion to the lessened entry of merchandise. Two United States vessels 
entered with cargoes of lamber, and it is reported that others will shortly arrive 
laden with timber and cotton. 

The comparison only includes the entries, as follows : 

Comparative statement showing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels 
enttred the port of Santander during the years ended September 30, 1864 
and 1865. 



Nationality. 



Spsnish ,-. . 

British 

Norwegian 

Frrnch 

Gennan: Hanoverian 
Hamburg . . 

Bremen 

Pruaaian . . . 

Netherlands 

Belgiam 

Toiled States 

Daniiih 

Rassiaa 

Itfttian 

Total 



1864. 



No. 



454 
53 

48 

53 

2 



Tons. 



1865. 



No. 



56,208 

9.312 

11,391 

4,328 

136 

466 

310 

440 

668 

560 

225 

160 

230 i. 

312 |. 



357 

as 

39 

41 

5 



625 84,546 | 484 



Tons. 



47,075 
5,562 

10,440 
3,825 
542 







1 


410 


1 


217 


1 


300 


1 


347 


2 


939 


1 


238 



69,895 



AGRICULTURE. 

The crops of wheat raised during the past summer were more than ordinarily 
boQDtifbl. lu fact, they are the largest for many years. But in spite of the 
severity of the crisis, the farmers who are the least affected by it of the wheat 
nation are as yet loth to meet the ruling prices of the rest of this continent. 
Sales of wheat are as yet few. I can add but little to what I stated last year 
upon this subject, when I treated fully upon the obstacles offered to the trade. 

ALTERATIONS IN CUSTOMS. 

An alteration has been made in the duties on a class of Paris articles, such as 
toothpicks, copper and bi*ass hardware, hooks and eyes for ladies* dresses, 
iFkios, essences, animals, articles for wearing apparel, and gutta percha. Bat th|y 
do not appear to me of interest to the United States, as the change was made in 
consequence of a treaty between France and Spain to enable the two countries 
more effectually to avail themselves of the construction of the now finished line 
of railway between Spain and France. They have given the shipping interest 
great dissatisfaction, as they afford the traffic by land a benefit of which the 
railways will reap the advantage formerly enjoyed by vessels carrying the 
Spanish flag, while nothing is done to relieve the latter from the vexations of 
various kinds to which it is subjected. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



176 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The following is a tranplation of the Spanish royal order published in the 
official gazette at Madrid, June 28, 1865, with regard to flour ; 

Art. 1. National flour proceeding from Spanish ports under Spanish flag, im- 
ported into the islands of Cuba and Puerto Ilico, shall pay no duty from the 
Ist October, 1865. 

Art. 2. Flour of other origin, or brought under foreign flag, shall pay on im- 
portation into the islands named in the last article from the date fixed by the 
same as the only duty for each barrel of 92 kilogram, equivalent approxi- 
mately to 200 Gastilian pounds, (203 English,) the amounts stated as follows: 
Spanish flour brought from Spanish ports under foreign flag, escndos 2, = $1. 
Foreign flour under Spanish flag, from ports other than those of the United 
States, escndos 7, = $3 50. Foreign flour under Spanish flag from United States 
ports, so long as the act of June 30, 1834, relative to tonnage dues of Spanish 
vessels, remains in force, escndos 8, = 4. Foreign flour under foreign flag, es- 
cndos 8, = $4. 

Art. 3. From the date expressed in the Ist article, the regulations of the Ist 
April of this year are repealed, likewise whatever the same decree deprived of 
force and vigor relative to the importation of floui* into the islands of Cuba and 
Puerto Rico continues repealed. 

For the purpose of understanding the effect of the foregoing change, I beg 
to append the following comparisons, which appeared in the " Revista Hispano- 
Amerlcana," converting the Spanish into English and the values into United 
States specie: 

*' Spanish flour : ^ 

*' Estimate of the state of the market before April 1, 1865. 

" Cost of the barrel of flour in Santander $6 60 

" Barrel and packing 65 

'* Putting on board, commission and insurance 40 

" Freight 1 50 

"Breakage 35 

" Duties 2 25 



11 75 



" North American flour : 

" Flour in New York, including cask and loading $4 25 

" Freight and insurance 75 

" Commission 20 

" Duties 1 9 50 

14 70 

** Difference in favor of Spanish flour 2 95 



"The cost of flour, according to the decree of June 27, upon the same basis 
of prices and expenses results as follows : 

" Spanish flour under Spanish flag. $9 50 

" North American flour 9 20 

" Difference in favor of American flour. 30 



•• The benefit obtained, then, amounts to an effective reduction of 3 25 per 
barrel, a benefit which, by radical reform and the absolute suppression of duties 
upon flour of any origin, might have arrived at the total of $9 50^ whicKamount 

igi ize y g 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



177 



tbe United States flonr formerly paid in duties, or, which is the same thing, eS.G 
per cent, of its cost, before the 1st of April ; while at the present time it is 
limited to only some 27.66 per cent., not the half. Notwithstanding the incom- 
lateness of the reform, and yielding for the present to considerations of another 
daesy we repeat that we may congratolate ourselves on account of it." 

PROHIBITRD ABT1CLB8. 

Articles prohibited to be imported remain the same as in my report of last 
yetr. 

StaUmaU skowing the average price ofataple imports and exports at Santander 
during the year ended September 30, 1865. 





QUANTTTY. 


Value. 




Description. 


Spanish 


English 


Remarks. 




measure. 


measnre. 






Wheat 1 


Quintal.. 
....do.... 


Cwt 


12 55 

1 90 


First class. 


Indian com 




Barter 


....do.... 




1 50 

1 50 

1 75 

.1 25 




Bye 






Aveniffe. 


GarlMiwiot 


Arroba... 
....do.... 


^v 

..do 


Da 


Bk» 


Yalendan. 


Potatoes.../. 


....do.... 


..do 


23 




Flour 


....do.... 


-do 

..do 


80 
70 


First class. 


Do 


do.... 


Second class. 


Untton 


Libra.... 
....do.... 


Ponnds.. 


10 
9 




Beef 




Pork 


....do.... 




20 
1 70 




Wine, oommon 


AiToba... 


25A 




Oil 


do 


..di! 


305 




Brandy, (8paniBh) 


....do.... 


..do 


2 10 




Cocos 


....do.... 


..do 


15 00 




Do 


....do.... 


..do 


620 




8agar, oommon 

Seabiacnit 


do 

do.... 


..do 

..do 


2 75 

1 05 


Average. 
I^rst class. 


Do 


....do.... 


..do 


1 00 


Second class. 


Bnad 


— do 


..do 


1 12 


First class. 


Do 


....do.... 


..do 


1 00 





PORT CHARGES. 

Port chaigefl remain without alteration, and are as set out in my last report. 

12 C R 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



178 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOSEION COMHERCE. 



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SPANISH DOlCmiONS. 



179 



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Digitized by LjOOQIC 



180 



ANNUAL BEPOST ON FOBEION COMMERCE. 



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184 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the nattanaliiy, tannage, number of veiseU, teith their crews « 
entered and cleared at the port of Hantander from September 30, 1864, to 
September 30, 1865. 



ENTERED. 



Nfttkmalitj. 



Spanish . 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 



Dutch... 
English . 
Belgian. 
Danish . . 



^MUiish. 
Do 

Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do..-. 
Do.... 
Do.... 



Eufflish. 



Fieneh. 
Do... 



Norwoffian. 
Dor?..- 



Pnissian 

HanoYeriaa . . 

Bremen 

United States 
Do 



Total. 



Where fiN>m. 



England . . 

France 

Belgium. . . 
Norwajr. .. 
Coastwise* 



England.. 
Holland.. 
Belgium . . 
Denmark . 



England 

France 

Norway 

Spanish possessions . . . 
South American states. 

Manila 

Hamburg 

Portugal 

Bremen 

Coastwiset 



England.... 
Other places. 



France .. 
England. 



Norway . 
England . 



Prassia 

England 

Bremen 

Virginia *. 

English possessions . 



STEAMSmPS. 



No. Total. 



50 

111 

11 

1 



173 

I 

1 

1 



SAILIHG-SUIPS. 



10 
65 

^n 

60 

21 

2 

2 

1 

I 

632 



30 



36 
5 



37 
2 



816 



33 



41 



1,116 



Crews. 



1,085 

1,551 

229 

23 



20 
40 
20 
19 



134 

457 

196 

937 

231 

23 

22 

16 

10 

5,615 

212 
27 

222' 
32 

373 
20 

10 
27 
14 
10 
9 



11,586 



Tonnage. 





Port op Siiances— (Province of Santander.) 




English 


Enirland 




10 
46 


148 
276 


975 


French __-. 


^M|^UHa%a. ...... ...... 

France 




4,226 










^otal 


^ 


424 


5,201 









*The castom-hoaie makes no returns, perhaps Inclnded in list of salllng-shlpi. 

't Nine months only ; for the first three months the oastom-houe makes no returns that could be procand. 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SPIKISH DOMINIONS. 



185 



Port of San Vicentb de la Barovbra— (Province of Santander.) 





Where from. 


SAlLINfl-SHIPS. 


CrewB. 




NatioiiaMtj. 


No. 


Total 


Tonnage* 


Enriifth 


England 


ft 


8 

73 

1 


42 

437 
5 


630 


Knioch 


France 




4,602 
96 


HiiMTf^ri An 


England 












Total 


83 


484 


5,387 













Ports of Santona and Castro— (Province of Santander.) 




gpuish 


France... ••. .... .... 




J4 

1 


75 
7 


237 




...do 




79 












Total.. 


15 


82 


316 











CLEARED. 



Spaniah. 

Do.... 

Do.... 

Do.,., 
Dntoh... 
Bdpan. 
Dtniah.. 
Engiiah. 



Sptnish. 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 
Do.... 



Eorlish . 



't 



Fmch. 
Do... 



Normian. 
Do!:.... 



United 
Do.. 



ToUl 



England . . . 

France 

Belginm.... 
Coastwise* 
Belgium ... 



.do. 
.do. 



England 

France 

Spanish possessions. 

Bremen 

Coastwiset 



England .... 
Other places. 



France 

Other places. 



Norway . 
EngUudd . 



Malaga . . 
England . 



steamships. 

8 



32 
1 



41 
1 

1 
1 
2 

SAIUNO-SmPS. 



1 

6 
125 

1 
531 



23 

7 



23 

18 



21 
5 



664 



30 



41 



26 



809 



184 
382 

18 

20 
20 
19 
40 



7 
38 

1,381 
14 

4,089 

144 
74 

153 
111 

229 
33 

9 
14 



6,979 



2,095 

1,687 

142 

300 
374 
238 



79 
216 

23,347 
410 

23,541 

3,005 
1,463 

2,256 
1,579 

6,670 
687 

321 

618 



69,687 



inakM no retnrat; periiapi lodnded In liat of MllfDff-iihtpi. 
onlj ; for the flm three monUu tlie caftom-hooM retanu were not proonrod. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



186 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN GOMIIERCE. 



Port of Suances— (Provinoe of Santander.) 





Where from. 


SAILING-SHIPS. 


Crows. 




NaUoxiaUtj. 


No. 


Total. 


Tonnage. 


EiiffUsh 


Belffimm 




9 
39 


56 
250 


698 


French 


.!^.io7..:::::;:;:::: 




3,749 










Total 


48 


306 


4,647 










Port or 8ah Vicente de la Barguer a— (Province of Santander.) 


EnffUsh 


Belirinm 




5 

76 

1 


94 

457 
5 


393 


French 


.!^^^So!7.;::::::::.::. 




6.389 


HanoTerian 


....do 




95 










Total 


82 


486 


6,876 










Port op SantoS a— (Province of Sautander.) 


Franch 


Belgium ! 


6 


38 


761 


1 





ADRA. 



Siatement showing tie dtMcription and quaniitjf afexparU cotutwUeJram Adra 

during the year 1865. 



Description. 


Quantity. 


Description. 


Quantitj. 


Silver. . 


............... marcos* 


5,494 
162,097 


1 Zinc ore quintals.. 

1 Alcohol do.... 


36,146 


Lead... 


quintals.. 


83, a& 



* One mareo Ig bIim oaneea. 



Bilbao — ^Daniel Evans, Cannd. 

Drcbmrbr 31, 1864. 

It may not be inappropriate to preface the report upon the trade and commerce 
of this consulate witn some statements relative to the peculiar people who have 
immemorially inhabited this part of Spain. 

Topography, ^^yfhhi is known as the Basque country comprehends, besides 
Alava, Gnipuscoa, and Vizcaya, (of which Bilbao is the commercial capital,) 
Navarre, which within a few years has lost the privileges belonging to the prov* 
inces above mentioned, and also the contiguous cantons of Soule, Labord, and 
Basse Navarre, on the French side of the Pyrenees. 

These provinces are distinguished from the rest of Spain equally by their 
topography, history, and peculiarity of their inhabitants. 

The i^yrenees, divided into numberless short ranges running in all directions, 
cover nearly the entire surface, and break off abruptly near the table land of 
Castilk. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPAKIfliI DaiilNIONS. 187 

CUmale and health, — ^Exempt from extremes of heat and cold, the teropera- 
tme duriDg the sammer and autumn is generally agreeable, while the winter and 
raring are exoeasivelj rainj. The mean temperature is about sixty degrees 
Fahienheit. 

The humidity of the air and the absence of fireplaces raise the percentage 
of mortality, to which, among children, the condition of medical science and the 
ignorance of nurses greatly contribute. Forty-seiren per cent, of all the children 
bom die before, attaining the seventeenth year ; yet the general hygienic con- 
ditbn of ^e climate is good. The aven^ duration of life is about thirty-two 
jears against twenty-nine in the southern part of the country. 

The French Basques number about one hundred and forty thousand, and the 
Spanish seven hundred thousand ; and during the middle ages the former pos- 
e«»ed, in many respects, an equality of privileges with the latter as subjects of 
the Crown of Castile. 

Every Basque esteems himself noble and of pure Mood ; and anciently who- 
erer wished to settle or establbh himself in their country had only to prove 
foar generations of Basque parentage in order to be admitted into all their tribu- 
nals, and enjoy the honors for which nobility was a condition precedent. 

Distinct in their features and their customs from their neighbors, the Spanish 
and French, the language of the Basques is, indisputably, one of the most prim- 
idre known. Peculiar in its structure, with but little affinity with others, it 
lends itself with great £eu^ility to express the various shades of thought. 

It is a matter of pride with these people that they have never been conquered ; 
for, although a part of the Roman empire from the reign of Augustus, their 
eoontry was invaded, rather than its inhabitants subdued, in the war against the 
Cantatrians. Always independent, (or if recognizing exterior authority, it was 
merely nominal,) they have conserved, and still enjoy, a remnant of their an- 
deat liberties. These liberties rested upon equality, and, after the union of the 
provinces with the Crown of Castile, consisted of two classes : first, usages and 
customs immemorially existing ; and second, the fueras or charters granted by 
tli€ Gastilian to numerous towns, and which, generally, they have since to observe 
and maintain. There necessarily results a double system of laws. Within 
these towns the general laws of the kingdom control the sale and disposition of 
erery description of property, but beyond their limits in the /i^rra inranzonadat 
the ancient usage prevails. Property, real and personal, can be bequeathed 
only to blood relations within the fourth degree ; but the testator may select any 
one within this degree, and may leave his propertv to any one of his children, 
provided he bequeathes something, however valueless, to each of the others. 

Their hereditary civU rights and usages have been jealously guarded for 
ages, but many of theur privileges, apparently incompatible with the supremacy 
of the central government, have yielded to its inevitable encroachment. What 
remains of them is substantially as follows : 

IsL Exemption from conscription, or blood tax, as they tersely call it. The 
Basque soldier is a volunteer, and not obliged to serve bevond his own province. 
Daring war each province maintains its own soldiers ror defensive purposes. 
Thev furnish their quota of soldiers to the national marine. 

2d. The admission of tobacco and salt free of duty under the general laws of 
die Idngdom. These articles, however, pay a duty for local purposes. A cub- 
tom-houiBe, which before the termination of the civil war (1839) existed at Or- 
dana, near the frontier of Castile, was after that date removed to Bilbao. 

3d. Exemption from duties upon stamp paper. There is a growing party in 
tke councry endeavoring to subvert privileges so odious to the rest of the Spanish 



Their primitive judicial system has in the main been swept away, and that of 
the kmgdom sabstitnted. ♦••••• 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



18fi 



ANNUiJi REPORT ON FOREIGN COMlfERCE. 



Comparative statement of the value of t?ie exports from Bilbao during the years 

1863 and 1864. 

1863 $668,215 

1864 1,040,000 

Excess of 1864 371,785 



The shipmeats of wheat and flour (always dependent in quantity upon the 
hardest and foreign prices) in 1864 exceeded that of the previous year $250,000 
in value, showing the increase in the general export trade to be $121,785. 

The flour shipped from this port (unless some special demand exists in Eu- 
rope) goes almost exclusively to Cuba, where the market is secured from com- 
petition by the Spanish colonial tariff. 

Statement showing the principal exports from Bilbao during the year 1864, in 
the order of their importance also thetr values and the names of the countries 
whuher shipped. 



DeBcription of exports. 



Names of eoimtries where shipped. 



Value. 



Tlour 

Preserved food 

Iron ore 

Madder 

Wines and spirits 

Straw paper 

Skins, lamb and ^oat. 

Beans 

Lead ore 

Zinc 

Chestnats 

Sundries 



Cuba 

Cuba, France and England. 

England and Franee 

England , 

Cuba, France and England 

Cuba 

France 

Cuba 

Eng^land 

England 

Holland and England .. . 

Various countries 



Total value of exports . 



1511, &55 
190,500 

76,000 
110,000 

65,000 

7,aoo 

35,000 
9,000 
4,500 
3,200 
9,000 

19,545 



1,040,000 



The quantity of flotir shipped to Cuba was 17,236,534 ponnds. 
The preserved vegetables, sweetmeats, &c.» sent to the Spanish posseasioiis 
amounted to 592,724 ponnds. 

IMPORTS. 

The imports continue to show a large commercial development. The aggre- 
gate below for 1863 and 1864, being exclusive of railway and other materials 
which are not permanent additions to the import list, accurately indicates, there- 
fore, the increase in the demand for foreign goods and products : 

Total value of imports for 1863 S7, 385, 885 

Total value of imports for 1864 13,805,000 

Increase for 1864 6, 418, 1 15 



By which it appears there has been an augmentation of 90 per cent, in the 
amount of imports. To appreciate this result fully, it should be remembered 
that it occurred during a year of extraordinary commercial embarrassment. 
This increase is largely attributable to the completion of the railway lines, by 
which the interior of the country has been put in communication with this port. 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SPANISH DOMIKIONS. 



189 



The amount of customs revenue collected daring the aforesaid years was as 
follows: • 

In 1863 »1,305,541 21 

In 1864 1,776,636 10 

Increase in 1864 J 471,094 89 



According to the published returns, Bilbao is the third port in tbe country as 
to the amount of customs collected, being exceeded only by Barcelona and Ali- 
cante. The excess of the latter was only $47,000. In the amount of revenue 
ictoally collected it is believed that Bilbao is next to Barcelona. • • • 

Suutment thawing the description and valve of the principal imports into 
Bilbao during the year 1864, together with the names of the countries whence 
derived. 



Description. 


. Names of countries. 


Value. 


Increase over 
1863. 




Norway, Sweden and Great Britain... 
Encador, Cuba, France and G'tBrit'n. 
Great Britain, France and Belgiam . . 
Norway, U. States and Great Britain. . 
Great Britain, France and Belgium . . . 
Grf»-t f^ritain and France ,.,,-rT 


$1,900,800 

1,000,000 

1,786,300 

236,360 

1,131,500 

800,000 

513,635 

616,500 

584,410 

36,000 

460,000 

816,000 

380,500 

99,000 

152,000 

60,000 

383,520 

85,000. 

107,200 

87,500 

164^000 

41^000 

10,000 

300 


$646,700 


Cocoa .- 


291,700 


Timber, deals, &c 

Yanii 


1,379,656 

53,560 

1,499,850 

415.300 


Cotton, maDufactiired . . 


WnnllAnfL, rnAnnfiu^tnmd 


Great Britain and France 


66.630 


TfthMTO 


Germany, Great Britain and Cuba 

Cuba and France . 


117,600 
96,900^ 


gonr 


cSe..:::. ::...::::; 


Fnwice and Cuba xr,,,, ,^,^_»,,,.,,^ 


5,690 
175, 120 


Michineiy 


Great Britain, France and Belgium . . 
France, GH Brit*n, Belgium and U. S. 
France, Great Britain and Belgium . . . 
Great Britain 


Drags, diemicsls 

Giua, poroekin 

E«ir eotton 


382,750 

343,300 

dec'se 68,300 


Win»(aU sorts) 

Hides 


Great Britain and Belgium 


57,495 


Yenesnela, France and Great Britain. . 
France, Belgium and Great Britain . . . 
Great Britain , 


dec'se 3,230 
229,120 




nnnamfm 




Tib plates 


f3nw.t nritAin And FmnnA .. 


dec. 391,675 


Pie inm 


i reat Britain 


8^ (all sorts) 

™> "ails .'-...-.. r 


France, Great Britain and Holland .... 
Great Britain, France and Belgium . . . 
United States 


dec*se74,910 


PMmlAQin --,--- 




Hams and bacon ...... 


United States 











The importations from the United States consisted of petrolenm, Inmber, 
buns, and patent medicines. The .value of these imports is estimated at 
S50,000, being an increase of 30 per cent, over the previous jear. One Ameri- 
can ship engaged in the indirect trade, and two foreign ones, proceeding directly 
from the United States, arrived during the year. For the few factories withia 
^ Basque and adjoining provinces, there is some demand for cotton for con- 
SBiiption; when thb article resumes its former importance in the American 
export trade, it will considerably swell the imports nrom the United States at 
tUspoft. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



190 



AimUAL BEPORT ON FOEEION COMMEBCE. 



OCTROI DIJTIB8. 

In addition to the cnstoms collected bj the general laws, there are at this port 
town duties for local purposes. Subjoined is a list of duties upon a few artiaes. 

Ale 60 cents for a measure weighing 32 pounds; brandy 65 cents for a mea- 
sure weighing 14 pounds ; oil 20 cents per arroba, or 28 pounds ; salt 30 cents 
the fanega, or 110 pounds; tobacco two and a half per oent 

Statement showing the nationality, numher, and tonnage of the veeteis engaged 
in the trade of the port of Bilbao, 



8paui8h 

British 

French 

Norwegian and Swedish 

Netherlands . . .«. 

Belgian 

Hanoverian 

Danish 

Russian 

Mecklenberg 

Hamborfjr 

United States 



361 


40,159 


138 


19,133 


134 


12,099 


59 


10,992 


9 


1,207 


3 


1,044 


5 


829 


4 


342 


1 


116 


2 


501 


1 


62 


1 


478 



Statement ehottnng the tonnage and number of vessels entered and 
port of Bilbao during the years 1863 end 1804. 



aid^ 



Teac. 



ENTERED. 



No. of 
ships. 



Tonnage. 



CLKARED. 



No. of 
ships. 



Tonnage. 



1863 

1864 

Coasting trade: 

1863 

1864 



798 
726 

1,374 
1,476 



83,177 
87^745 

49,969 
45,388 



785 
754 

1,270 
1,446 



77,321 
88,306 

42,661 
46,093 



The number of vessels registered at Bilbao, Jannary 1, 1864, was 819, with 
a tonnage of 70,073. The register is much less than the actual tonnage, in 
consequence of the method of measuring which prevails. Vessels recistered at 
this port are not subject to the payment of the contributions exacted nrom those 
registered in the Basque provinces. This exemption is not a little advantageous, 
and explains why the registration of Bilbao is the second, if not the first, in the 
kingdom. 

In countries where the rights of sepulture are denied to the dissidents firom 
the established national religion, it is important that commercial towns should 
have cemeteries, where sailors and foreignenj may have decent burial. One such 
exists near Bilbao, belonging to the English government, where the fees for 
interment are as fcUows : ourial fee for a British subject, $26 i for privilege 
of putting up a head itona or monument, (25. These fees are double for 
all not Britisn subjects. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 191 

FISHKRIBS. 

From the most remote time the principal sonrce of the wealth of the inhabit- 
ants of the coast of the Basque provinces consisted in the fish found in great 
abonduioe in the Baj of Biscay. The coast. is dotted with little villages of 
Teij great antiqnitv* whose inhabitants have always pursued the same occupa- 
tioD, and whose sktll and daring made the Basque fishermen famous during the 
middle ages. They were the first to visit the extreme seas of the north, whither 
thej punned the whales, which then freauented the Bay of Biscay ; fishing for 
cod off Newfoundland, Oreenland, ScoUand, and Norway, where their intre- 
pidity for a long period secured a monopoly. 

Among them Spain found the mariners whose discoveries and naval triumphs 
gained her such pre-eminence during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth cen- 
tiries. 

Meriun, a species of cod, sardines, anchovies, leesugos, bonitos, and many 
other sorts of fiah, abound in these waters, possessing generally a very fine flavor. 
In manv of the vilUgea are establishments for boxing and exporting anchoviev 
md sardines. The TOnito, when preserved like salmon, very much rescMUes it. 
As this fish, in season, is very cheap, it would seem a profitable bsHMMB to pre- 
ferre it for sale in foreign markets. ^ 

Great quantities of fish are daily sent into the intetior, Madrid and many 
other places being thus well and cheaply supplied. 

The following is the aggregate quantity annwdly fished at three little villages 
near BObao: 

Arrobas. 

Sardines and anchovies ^^^ 200,000 

Other fish .^ 381,000 

Total amount of piwhict 581,000 

The returns fiKHB the other villages are not accessible, but may be estimated 
at one-third niafQ, making an annual aggregate of 775,000 arrobas or 19,375,000 
poands of fsb in the province of Yizcaya alone. 

The Buque provinces contain a g^at number of mineral springs, whose wa- 
ters hold in solution sulphur, magnesia, potash, and numerous other substances. 
Their corative agencies are well recognized. 

The sulphur and saline baths of Elorio, Yillaro, Oestona, and other places, aU 
Ijing within a few leagues of Bilbao, and easily accessible, are much frequented 
bj invalids, and their reputation is extending to foreign countries. 

About a league from the city, in the Somanostro district, is the famous Triano, 
known ancienUy as the mountain of all iron, mentioned by Pliny and other early 
authors. In 1857 the local congress of the province projected a railway from 
the moontain to a point on the river at Disierto, a distance of a league. The 
load has been completed ; the terminus is two miles above the mouth of the 
nrer, and extends on piles into the channel, so that the ore is rapidly precip- 
itated from the cars into the ships. A million of quintals is, at present, annually 
KDt over this road, and the trade is capable of almost unlimitea development. 

The principal companies (the Ibarra and the Bolueta) have manufactured 
this year to the value of 8630,000 against $795,000 of the previous one. The 
former has lately put up machinery for casting cannon. The ore employed is 
claimed to be equal to the best Swedish varieties. 

The fire-arms factories of Placencia, distant thirty miles firom BHbao, turn 
oQt work considered not inferior to that of the most celebrated manufactories of 
Korope. They supply the Spanish government, and export considerably to 
Cnba and South America. The crop of wheat was an average. The priced 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



192 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

ranged about 88 follows: YHieat/firat quality, $1 55 to $1 75 per biuhel; 
flour, first quality, t3 25 per cwt.; com, (Indian,) $1 per bushel. The statis- 
tics of agricultural productions are so meagre and unreliable that I am unable 
to giYe the quantities grown in the provinces. 

The work of dredging the river and deepening the channel has not been 
prosecuted during the year. 

The prices of provisions are as follows : Bread, 4 to 5 cents per lb. ; beef, 
12 to 16 cents per lb.; veal, 16 to 20 cents per lb.; mutton, 18 cents per Ib»; 
pork, 20 to 25 cents per lb.; potatoes, $2 25 per cwt. Rents are very high. 
Kents and the chief articles of provisions have increased in price 50 to 100 per 
cent, since the commencement of the Tndela and Bilbao railroad, or within a 
period of five years. 

The price of labor has proportionately increased. In 1854, common day 
laborers received 20 to 25 cents per day, and caipenters, masons, &c., 40 to 45 
cents. In 1864, common day laborers received 55 to 70 cents per day ; carpenters 
and masons, 95 to 81 25. A comparison of the table of prices within a period 
of ten years shows that there has been an upward movement beyond the Inti- 
mate effects produced by railroad enterprises. This movement appears to be 
European in its extent, manifesting itself even in localities removed from the lines 
of trf vel, and does not seem to be the result of scarcity. Improved methods and 
greater industry, stimulated by superior gains, have taken the place of labor 
directed into new channels. 



Yalbncia — Gbobqb Kent, Consui. 

OCTOBBB 28, 1865. 

* * * Although our guano importations from the Chincha Islands have 
been very small during the past year— only three American vessels arriving 
therefrom, with 4,086 tons, against four from Ohinchas and one from Baltimore, 
with 6,359 tons, the year precedingn-^-jet the prospect now is that, with the re- 
turn of peace, our commerce with the Pacific will be greatly increased. Indeed, 
with the still unsettled state of affairs in Peru, and the present condition of 
things in our country, where most of the charter-parties are usually entered 
into, we have already had two arrivals of large American ships since the com- 
mencement of Octol>er, with about 4,500 tons of guano, and I have notice of 
three or four others to arrive during the present quarter. Both of these shim, 
now in port, made veir quick passages ; one, with a single exception, made the 
quickest trip on record ; the other is noted for its size, being, it is said, of greater 
tonnage than any merchant ship ever herotoforo in this port. 

When the former preference for United States vessels for this peculiar branch 
of business is restored, the income to our shipping from the guano trade most 
be very considerable. In my former returns there were reported 15,655 tons* 
imported in the vear ending September 30, 1862 ; 19,496 in the year following. 

Valencia has been very much prostrated in its business during the past year* 
and it may yet take some considerable time to restore it to a healthy condition. 
The disastrous flood of 1864 injured the crops and destroyed much of the labors 
and resources of the people ; and the deranged financial affairs of the country 
have since added to the difficulty, while the labors of the husbandman and the 
artizan, and, indeed, of all classes of people, have been sadly interrupted by the 
sickness and death consequent upon the appearance of die cholera. Fortn* 
nately, some of our important crops are of a kind not to be directly or materi- 
allyinjured by the flooa, or the other common disasters. 

The orange crop, the greatest article of exportation from Valencia* Is larger 
and in better condition than in the preceding year, there being 200»000 cases 
shipped in about equal quMttities to London and Liverpool, compared with 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 193 

150,000 cases of the year preceding. About the same proportions hold good in 
shipments to France and elsewhere. 

The olive crop for the last year was, at least, equalFy good. The grape crop 
of the present season promised well in the spring and summer, but the market 
demand for immediate consumption had almost entirely ceased, on account of 
the cholera panic, when the crop ripened, and much of the vints^e may have 
been lost from lack of hands to gather it seasonably, or want of facilities to 
mannfacture it into wine. 



Port Mahon — H. B. Robinson, Consul, 

October 31, 1865. 

I have the honor to forward commercial report for this port for the year 
ended December 31, 1864. 

The epidemic at Palma has deranged all business affairs so much that I have 
not jet been able to communicate with the consular agent. 

Daring 1S64 there were entered here : 

firitiah vessels 2 

French vessels 8 

Italian vessels 8 

Norwegian vessels 2 

Hanoverian vessel 1 

PniMian vessel - 1 

Grecian vessel 1 

Total 23 

lAden with coals and timber. Cleared same period twenty-two vessels in 
ballast. This does not include the great number of vessels of all nationalities 
that are ordered here to quarantine. 

1 have unofficial information that a company of gentlemen is about to be 
formed, of i»everal nations, for the purpose of constructing spacious docks, capa- 
ble of receiving the largest class of vessels, preparatory to the opening of the 
Suez canal, and that it is in contemplation, if the Spanish authorities will per- 
mit, to make this port an intermediate point between the Suez canal and 
England and the United States. 

li a depot for deposit and reshipment can be established here on liberal and 
just terms, the advantages to the commerce of the United States will be of vast 
importance. 

This harbor is probably resorted to more than any other in the Mediterranean 
by war ships. 

The harbor is landlocked, extending inward about two miles, and very 
^eep — a perfectly safe retreat for vessels of all classes from the severe storms 
which prevail daring the winter months. Our vessels are now much looked for 
in the Mediterranean and Black sea. I understand that shippers of grain and 
wal give the preference to the American vessels, as being more expeditious and 
less liable to accident. * * * ^ 

13 c R -r^J^ 

Si ^A r..) \ 



Digitized by.VjOOQlC 



194 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Havana — W. T. Minor, Comul General, 

Tahular statement thowing the description and quantity of the imports into 
Havana frmn America and Europe during the year ended December 31, 
I860. 



DescriptioD. 



IMPORTATIONS FROM- 



America. Europe. 



Ale casks 

Almonds barrels and kegs 

Bacon boxes. 

Beans barrels . 

Do baffs. 

Beef barrels. 

Bran bags. 

Brooms dozens. 

Butter barrels and kegs . 

Candles, composition boxes. 

Coals tons. 

Coal oil barrels. 

Do boxes. 

Cocoa bags. 

Cordage packages . 

Chewing tobacco boxes. 

Cheese boxes. 

Chick-peas barrels and bags. 

Codfish casks. 

Do drums. 

Do boxes. 

Coffee bags. 

Com bags . 

Cotton bales . 

Figs boxes. 

Do drums. 

Flour barrels. 

Do bags . 

Gin demijohns. 

Do cases. 

Hams tierces and barrels. 

Do number. 

Hay , packs. 

Hides number. 

Ice tons . 

Jerked beef quintals. 

Lard tierces and barrels. 

Do .* kegs . 

Do cases. 

Linseed oil casks. 

C Boards : M feet. 

Lumber. < Box shooks ^ number. 

( Hogshead shooks number. 

Oats . 



•-I 



.bags.. 

Olives kegs.. 

Olive oil jars.. 

Do cases.. 

Onions barrels.. 

Do strings.. 

Pork barrels.. 

Potatoes ....barrels.. 

Do ...hampers.. 

Raisins boxes.. 

y,. ^ 5 East Indies bags.. 

^^*- J Spanish bais.. 

Sslt bags.. 



1,887 



437 

8,026 



1,089 

15,202 

5,718 

5,984 

135 

1,835 

3,082 

11,538 

2,344 

5,392 

1,333 

2,742 



377 
17,374 
1,088 
41,373 
45,108 
19,190 



2,173 
8,765 



2,22G 



23,914 

32,932 

10,G40 

339,116 

20,953 

6,428 

1,863 



21,925 

449,023 

31,603 

14,452 



15,169 

151.309 

2,627 

110,807 



3,145 
*i6"793' 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



31,209 

7,922 



l,et;i) 



100 

25,702 

141,9^5 



1,57'< 



24.90i» 
19,U9i» 



39.696 



17,3lfcJ 

"26ij3i 

29,45(» 

115,227 

15,706 



18,8»» 
7,093 



2c9 



116,70:1 
a?4,97.^ 

8,250 



9,593 



80,552 

56,372 

113,580 

37,720 
17,014 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 
Tabular ttatement — Continued. 



195 



Description. 



Wheat - 

Wine, Spanish pipes. 

Do barrels. 

Do boxes. 

Wine, French casks. 

Do boxes and hampers. 

WhaJe oil casks. 

Wrapping paper reams. 



IMPORTATIONS FROM— 



America. Europe. 



568 



218 
212,033 



49,971 
24,913 
12,366 

869 
28,298 



Comparative statement showing the description and quantity of the principal 
exports from Havana and countries of destination during tJie years ended 
December 31, 1864 and 1865. 



Destination. 




SUGAR. 




Molasses. 




186 

Bozef. 

406,412 

326,312 

3,197 

30,466 

9,542 

2,802 

14,533 

160,499 

183,817 

13,230 

1,044 

19,822 


o. 


1864. 


' 1865. 

Hhda. 

8,973 
1,150 


1864. 


Tc i^aI Statrt. . ... 


1 Hhdj,. 

; 15, 847 
2,995 


Boxea. 

123,328 

487,974 

3,577 

11,694 

13, 618 
4,206 

22, 422 
203,541 
217,560 

9,625 
2,710 
20,378 


Hhda. 
6,703 
9,457 


Hhda. 

12,651 

70 


■ a;'«^i Klogdum uid a market 

iiawa 


V TWhy, Sweden, and Denmark 

H^-nb^ire uid Bremen 


; 1 






120 


1 1 


175 






H Uad 




80 




B'.gimn 








i'r^ne* 


101 1 
5 1 

1 




125 
340 




'^'■*io ... . . 


54 


157 


' <: 'nitar. Italy, Adriatic, and Mediter- 
nmeaaporti 

ll''i;ci\ South America, Sec, Stc 




147' 


415 


83 
491 


673 
25 










Total December 31, inclusive 


1, 171, 676 


1 19,095 1 

1 


1, 120, 633 


16,804 


11,242 


13,696 






BTeo. 


Hoi 


ley. 






Destination. 


Col 


W 


ax. 




1865. 


1864. 


1865. 

Tiercea. 
46 


1864. 

Tiercea. 
226 


1865. 


1864. 


J. ••4 States 


Arrba. 
2,676 
7 


Arrba. 
132 
16 


Arrba. 
72 


Arrba. 






K.rtia....T 




1 


.Vnv&j, SwfideD, and Denmark , - 


:::::::::::::' 


91 
815 
114 
392 
5 
192 






H&raborf aad Bremen 


333 

695 

4 

1.171 

4,713 

7 

6 

7,024 


65 


1,014 

17 

385 







.l-iiaad 




531 


ii-lnam 


16 
117 

2,877 

6 

967 

42,423 






TrS^...::: : 


3 
13,456 


14 


"p** 

w.^^ndtar, Italy, AdriaUc, and Mediter- 
r«3M«D ports 1 


111 


17,087 


brjuh Possessions in North America. . . 








114 


X*x<o. Boath America, &c, Ste | 


17 


3 


14,718 


27,663 


Total December 31, induiiv*' 


16,636 


46, 619 


1,590 


1.838 


28,249 


45,409 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



196 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 
Comparative statement^ ifc. — Continued. 



Degtination. 


Rum. 


Cigar*. 


Tobacco. 




1865. 


1864. 

Pipes. 
16 
4 


1865. 


1864. 


1865. 

Pounds. 
645,954 
31,083 


1864. 


United States - 


Pipes. 
256 
2,021 


Mille, 

2-J, 828 

42,335 

182 

227 

]2,264 

501 

2,410 

19,671 

11,020 

24 


Mille. 
24,533 
47, 748 : 
254 
142 . 
14,939 , 
1,510 1 
3,274 ! 
48,047 
14,357 

769 

365 

9, 425 ' 


Pounds. 

l,46i> 7l!9 


United Kingdom and a market 


146 4:t.'> 


Russia 


101, 781 


Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 








HRmbiirg and Bremen 


870 

25 

119 

722 

7,500 

16 


6-2 

119 


971,045 


1, I5f^, .V» 


Holland 


50. 7.*** 


Belgium 


134,990 

261.898 

1, 538. 461 


422, 9*5 


France 


199 
7, 024 

15 

141 

2,246 


975, 8f*.') 


Spain 


2,449,07.-» 

120, 971 
3.00i> 


Gibraltar, Italy, Adriatic, and Mediter- 
ranean portH .......... . .. •.. 


BritiBh Po»i(C8Bioni( in North America. . . 




Mexico, South America, Ac, &c 


3,072 


5.475 


80,018 


38.6;J5 


Total December 31, incloBive 


14,601 


9,826 


116,937 


165,363 


3,663,389 


6,928,819 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



8PAXISH DOMINIONS, 



197 




ml 

Digitized by V^OOQ I 



198 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 






1^ CO 





S 


^ 


fH 


I"! 




Q 






5 


"^ 


? 


CO 


-2 


00 

fH 


a 




'^ 


00 

fH 


R 




a 


tH 


•0 


CO 


S 


^ 


« 


r^ 



« 5 



;^ 



2 s>» 

.IPs 






S'fe. 



Si 



a 



I S 






o'»rf" tei 



rSSS 






r- e* ■^ to >3 ^ ^ 
r-H ei K w rt ■* 

of of -r 



$ S^S^S 



2 
of 



I 



^^Sc5S 






I 2 



S' 



I s 



s 

. a 



I £a 









SS 






OfV 






I'li 



Is H 



S^S 



s^ 



ill S 



^1 3 






2 

p, 

•c 2 5.5 



3 



o 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



199 



Table showing the production and cost of sugar and molasses during the last 
live yearSf taken on the last quarter ended December 31. 



SUGAR IN BOXES. 



HsTaaa and Hataaaui 



186S. 



1864. I 1863. 



1862. 



Exp<ifrta frtnn Jan. 1 to Dec 31.. 
Of iw«Tioiu crop on Jan. 1. . 



1,455,581 
43,361 



1, 360, 259 ' 
15,486 I 



1,233,092 
25,426 



Of new crop 

Stock on Dec 31 at both port*. . 



1, 412. 320 1 
27,363 I 



1,344,773 
43,261 I 



1,207,666 
15,486 



Totalr«<»pta boxes..' 1,439,683 1,388.094 j 1,223,153 



Price: Basil 



Ko. 13 . .per arroba. ' 8i reals. ' 1\ reals. 10 reals. 

Freight, .sterling per ton . . 40«. and 5 p. c 40«. and 5 p. c 45s. and 5 p. c 



Exchange preminm. . 

Cost : 1 o. b.. indading freight, 
■terifaif per cwt 



15 p. c. 
24«. 6d 



12 p. c 
25«. 



10 p. c 
31«. 6d 



1,286,751 
12,079 



1,274,672 
29.194 



1,303,796 



6^ reals. 
40s. and 5 p. c 
13 p. c 

22s. Ad. 



1861. 



1, 181, 115 
29,000 



1, 158, 115 
8,000 



1, 160, 115 



8i reals. 
40s. and 5 p. c. 
14 p. c 

25#. 7rf. 



SUGAR IN HOGSHEADS. 



Exports from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31... 


82,525 1 69,550 66,046 
1,920 1 962 1 1,378 


79,812 
2,569 


86,319 
1,960 


Off new crop ................ 


80, 605 ■ 68, 597 i 64, 668 
1, 675 1 1, 920 1 962 


77,243 
1,604 


84,359 


Stock OB Dec 31 at both ports. .. 


2,701 


Total receipts hhds.. 


82, 280 I 70. 517 | 65, 630 | 78, 847 


87,060 


Price : Good reflning . . per arroba . 

Freight, .sterling per ton. . 

Exchange premiam. . 

Cost: f.a bu. Including freight, 
sterling per cwt 


8reaU.| 7 reals. 7i reals. 5^ reals. 

40s. and 5 p. c. 40s. and 5 p. c. 43ir. and 5 p. c 40s. and 5 p. c 

15 p. c 12p.c. 1 10p.c. 1 13 p. c. 

23s. \\d. 21s. bd. 23s. 2d. 17«. 8A 


6i reals. 

40s. and 5 p. c. 

14 p. c 

19s. \Qd. 











MOLASSES IN HOGSHEADS. 



Exports from Jan. 1 to Dec 31. . . 
Of prerions crop on Jan. 1 . . . 


93,274 
6,198 


97,647 91,090 
2, 077 I 1, 923 


93,879 
1,835 


91,941 
2,210 


Of new crop 


87,076 
5,073 


95, 570 ' 89, 167 
6,198 ' 1,777 


92,044 
3,595 


89,731 


Stock on Dec. 31 at both ports. . . 


7', 438 


Totslmeipts hhds.. 


92,149 


101,768 i 90.944 


95,639 


H469 


Priee: Good clayed.... per keg.. 

Freight. .sterUng per ton . . 

Exchange premiam. . 

Cost: H 0. b., indading freight, 
sterling per ewt 


7 reals. 

40s. and5p.c 

15 p. c 

lis. l\\d. 


5i reals. 5 reals. 3i reals. 3i reals. 

42s.6rf.-5 pi c 47s. 6rf.-5 p. c 42*. 6rf.-5 p. c 42s. 6d.-5 p. c 

12 pi c. 10 p. c 13 p( c. 14 p. c 

10s. 64f. ' 10s. %d. 8«. Sd. 8s. 9<f. 






1 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



200 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE* 



Comparative prices of produce, and rates of freight and exchange, at Havana 
and Matanzas, for the last garter ending on December 31 of the folloicing 
years. 



Sugar, clayed, Ko. 12 per arroba. . 

Muicovadoes, gd. reflning do 

Molastes, dajed per keg.. 

Honey per gallon.. 

Rnm, in old wine casks per pipe. . 

Coffee, l8t quality per quintal.. 

Wax, white per arroba . . 

Freight, Falmouth per ton . . 

New York per hogshead . . 

Exchange, London premium . . 

New York 



1865. 



lOi reals . 

8i reals . 

61 reals . 

4i reals . 

|3I 

$16t 

$11* 

36«.3<i.8tg 

16 per cent 



1864. 



7i reals .... 
6i reals .... 

5 reals I 

4 reals ....I 

$29 ! 

18* I 

|12t ; 

40«. 



1863. 



1862. 



1861. 



10 reals ' 7 reals 8i reals. 

7 reals , 4* reals 7 reals 

4ireals i 4 reals 3reals. 

4reals I 4i reals.... 4ire4»la. 

•25 1 $26* «31. 

$21 $18 $m. 

112* , $11 i$l(H. 

42«.6<i.....l 50s I 45#. 



$5* I $4*... ;....! ^* : $3. 

12 per cent.) 10 percent.' 12*perrt... 14 percent. 
27 p. c D. . 54 p. c D. . 35 p. c. D. . 26 p. c D. . ] 2 per cL P. 



Comparative prices of the principal articles of import, taken on the last quarter 
ending on December 31 (f the following years. 



Jerked beef, South American arroba. 

Flour, Spanidi barrel . 

Rice, East India arroba. 

Codfish, Halifax quintal. 

Lard, western do. . . 

Wine, Spanish claret pipe. 

Coals, British ton . 

Boards, white pine M feet. 

Box shooks, American each. 




1863. 



Id61. 



Dreals 17 reals. 

$11* $13. 

12* reals...' 14* resit. 

$6i :l6f. 

$13f 1 $15*. 

$5* 'ill. 

f^'B $35. 

Bi reals 8* realsL 



Statement of the number of vessels, and their tonnage, which entered the part of 
Havana from January 1 to December 31, 1865, 1864, and 1863. 



Nationality. 



American 

Spanish 

British 

French 

Belgian 

Dutch 

Danish 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Pmstiian 

ItaUan 

Other nations 

Total from January 1 to December 31 . 



1865. 



No. 

400 

713 

576 

64 

5 

83 

12 

7 

8 

35 

15 

12 

7 

73 



1,930 



Ton». 

209,028 

183, 768 

185, 619 

38,181 

2,053 

4,399 

4,328 

2,958 

2,517 

11,907 

6,157 

4,222 

4,033 

27,474 



686, 644 



1864. 



iVo. 


Ton a. 


yo. 


Ton*. 


410 


201,814 


467 


177,210 


790 


215,805 


636 


150,819 


598 


180, 523 


537 


131,667 


77 


79,277 


64 


22»2<?7 


6 


1,552 


6 


2,336 


26 


4,730 


27 


5,442 


11 


2,615 


• 17 


3,^*0 


11 


3,90) 


16, 


6,441 


3 


1,085 


9 


2.453 


38 


7,328 


41 


12.123 


27 


15, 462 


28 


9,a?3 


11 


3,654 


13 


4. 451 


17 


3,846 


4 


1, a>i 


80 


27,055 


127 


24.530 


2,099 


698,631 


1,993 


5da,773 



Matanzas — He.\rv C. Hall, Consul. 

December IS, 1865. 
I have the honor to forward herewith the autiual report of this consulate, and 
the consular agencies of Cardenas and Sagua la Grande, for the year ended 
Septemher 30, 1865. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SPANISH IJOMINIONS. 



201 



There has been a very considerable increase in exports from thestf ports to 
the United States during the period named, the aggregate value from the three 
ports amounting to $15,254,636 22. These figures are taken from the returns 
of invoices verified at the different offices, and represent the actual cost or 
market value, including all charges and commissions. 

It is, however, quite impossible to make out a correct statement giving a 
detailed description and value of imports, such as are given in the accompanying 
tables, have been furnished in part by the principal merchants of the place and 
masters of vessels. The values are in most cases approximate, but may be con- 
sidered nearly correct. 

The difficulties under which our shipping labored during the rebellion are 
happily ended, and now, as in former years, it is placed on the most favorable 
footing as regards freight, whether to the United States or Europe. 

According to a royal decree, dated Madrid, April 1, 1865, the following rates 
of duties were to be charged on flour imported into this island and Porto Rico, 
to Uke effect on the 1st July, 1865 : 

From Spain in Spanish vessels $1 00 per barrel. 

From Spain in foreign vessels 2 00 " 

From foreign countries in Spanish vessels 3 50 " 

From foreign countries in foreign vessels 5 00 " 

This decree was modified by another of the 27th June, to take effect in Octo- 
ber last, as follows : 

From Spain in foreign vessels $1 00 per barrel. 

From the United States in foreign vessels 4 00 " 

From foreign countries other than the United States in 

foreign vessels 3 50 ** 

To continue as long as the act of Congress of June 30, 1834, concerning ton- 
nage duty on Spanish vessels remained in force. 

Staietfient showing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels arrived at 
and departed from 3iatanzas during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



Nationality. 


i 

ARRIVALS. 


DEPARTURES. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 

1 


Tons. 


Tnited States 


209 
206 
236 
7 
6 
3 
1 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 
10 
1 
1 
1 


59,521 
41,309 
70,200 

2,601 

1,785 
613 
555 
919 

1,273 
617 
604 
240 

4,613 
489 
196 
543 


217 
207 ' 
236 i 

7 

6 

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3 
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1 
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1 
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62, 190 
41 .389 


Spanieh 


British 


69,926 
2,601 
1,785 


French 


Bamian 


Pnianaa .». 


557 


Aojtriaii 


555 


Gtrman — Oldenburg 


919 


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1,273 
617 


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604 


Danish 


240 


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4,613 

489 


Italian 


Brazilian 


196 


SUxican 


543 






Total 


694 


186,078 


702 


188,497 





Digitized by LjOOQIC 



202 



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206 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMME2CE. 

San Juan, Porto Rico — A. Jourdon, Acting Consul, 

I have the honor to transmit to the department the annual commercial report 
of this consular district. 

Table A, herewith enclosed, gives an exact account of the staple products of 
this island during the present year, from January to November, and such inform- 
ation could not have been given earlier, because the sugar crop closed very 
late this year, being the largest ever harvested in Porto Rico. The average 
price till the month of August has been ranging from 3| to 4 cents per pound, 
and molasses 14 to 16 cents per gallon, but afterwards the prices advanced very 
considerably. Refining qualities have broaght from 4^ to 5 cents, and fair gro-. 
eery 5| to 5 J. Molasses, dark color, 18 to 22 cents, and yellow color 23 to 25 
cents, and though the new crop is nearly gathered, planters do not seem in- 
clined to take lower prices. Table A shows only the quantity of sugar exported. 
The quantity consumed in this country, which is very large, cannot be positively 
ascertained, as the accounts given by the planters are not exact. Though the 
weather has been regular, the new crop will not be as large as the previous one. 
Coffee begins to come to market, and 14 cents per pound have been offered and 
refused ; the average price this year ranged from 12 to 14 cents; owing to the 
continuous raias the new crop will fall off at least one-half. 

The crop of tobacco, though much less than in 1861 and 1862, yet has been 
quite regular; but the next will certainly present a considerable deficit ; the 
average price has been from 7^ to 8 cents per pound. 

The crop of cotton this year has been the largest ever collected. The la^t 
sales were made at from 28 to 30 cents, certainly a good price, high ; but as it 
is not as was expected, and as the news from the United States and England 
does not promise any advance, planters are abandoning its cultivation ; the next 
crop will be very short. 

A large quantity of rum is distilled on the sugar estates, but very little is ex- 
ported ; most of it is consumed in the country ; it generally sells at from 25 to 
30 cents per gallon. 

Beside the above staple products, the country has this year produced an 
abundant crop of minor products, of which a small part only is exported, viz : 
Plantains, which are the main support of the lower classes, rice, corn, vegetables » 
oranges, starch, and cocoa. There are also dyewoods, lignumvitse, and beauti- 
ful woods for furniture in great quantity ; cargoes of ship timber are annually 
sent to Spain. 

The cattle trade with the Windward islands is very large ; it amounts to 
$300,000 annually. The export of hides has been quite large this year, and in 
fact has been increasing every year since 1858; the average price was from 11 
to 12 cents per pound; 722,838 pounds have been exported the past year. 
Freights for the United States have been ranging from 40 to 45 cents (gold ) 
per 100 pounds. 

Exchange on London for ninety days from 5.05 to 5.10. The exports during 
the year 1864 amounted to $10,000,000, and will not be less the present year. 
Table B gives a summary account of the importations for the year 1864 ; for the 
present year no report can be made, as the returns from the custom-houses are 
incomplete. During the year 1864 the* imports amounted to $10,379,834 18, 
of which $2,341,871 06 were from the United States, and $1,333,378 of this snm 
was under the American flag. The exports to the United States during the 
year 1864 amounted to $532,561 65, of which $239,500 26 were under the 
American flag. From the first of January to the first of December, 1865, the 
exports to the United Stetes amounted to $873,652 55, of which $257,814 79 
were under the American flag. The prices of American provisions have improved 



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SPANISH DOMINIONS. 207 

lately. Lard is quoted at 29 to 30 cents ; butter, 23 cents; hams, 27 cents ; mess 
pork, 30 cents ; cheese, 20 cents ; wrapping paper, $5 GO ; cloves, 30 cents ; pep- 
per, 14 cents ; crackers, 12 cents ; tallow candles, 16^ cents ; potatoes, from $4 to 
18 per barrel ; onions at $4 50 per barrel ; flour at $10 per barrel ; com meal at 
$25 to 330 per hogshead, and mackerel at $4 75 to $5 25 per barrel ; No. 3 at 
$9 50 per barrel ; white beans at $4 50 per barrel ; pilot bread, $4 50 per barrel ; 
kerosene oil, 75 cents per gallon ; rice, 4^ to 5 cents per pound ; codfish, 5^ cents ; 
haddock, 4^ cents ; wnite pine lumber, $24 per 1,000 feet ; shooks for sugar 
hogsheads, $2 to $2 12^ per bundle ; for molasses hogsheads, $2 50 per bundle. By 
a new regulation in force since the first of October last, Spanish flour pnya no 
duty ; American flour is charged with $4 per barrel, but as the former duty was 
$1 on sipanish flour and $5 on American, the difiei ence, in fact, is the same as 
before. A comparison of the imports and exports since the year 1858 shows a 
great increase of the latter, and consequently of the commerce of the island. 
(See tables B and G.) 

The arrivals of American vessels at this port during the last year were only 
22, and from January 1 to December 1, 1865, 27. In 1864, 159 American ves- 
sels visited the ports of this island, and since 1863 there is a falling off of more 
than one-half. This is accounted for from the fact that during the war many 
vere obliged to change their flag to escape piratical vessels ; the high rate of 
iDsarance on American bottoms caused shipments to be made under English and 
Danish flags. 

Table G, herewith enclosed, shows the general navigation of the island during 
the year 1864 ; the total number of vessels arrived from the United States for 
the same period was 229, with a tonnage of 38,990 J, of which tonnage 25,559 1 
tons were nnder the American flag. The tonnage duty continues to be one dol- 
lar per ton. But vessels taking an entire outward cargo of molasses are exempt 
from paying tonnage dues, provided they entei'ed in ballast. Masters of vessels 
boond to this island must bring their manifests and bills of health certified by 
the Spanish consul, otherwise they are liable to a fine of $150. Notice must be 
taken that by a royal decree of the 19th of October last, the ports of Arecibo, 
Agnadilla and Naguabo will be closed as ports of entry and open only for ex- 
portation. This new regulation will take effect after the 18th of February. 
1866, then the only ports of entry will be San Juan, Mayagucz, Ponce and 
Arroyo (Guayama.) The harbor of San Juan has a large coal depot, and 
steamers can obtain supplies at the wharf with ease. 

If the above statement of imports, exports, comnierce and navigation of this 
inland show an increase of its products, so the statistics of population from 1853 
to 1860, the year of the last census, on an area of 3,750 square miles, show that 
there were 583,281 inhabitants, classified as follows : white, 300,480; free col- 
ored, 241,015 ; slaves, 41,786. The population now exceeds 600,000. By the 
same census the free journeymen amounted, to 18,888 white, and 21,765 col- 
ored; there is also a number of small land-owners, amounting to 17,895 white 
and 9,642 colored, working also on the plantations, showing a total of 36,783 
white* and 31,397 colored ; making a total of 68,180 free laborers working daily 
on the plantations for a compensation of from forty to fifty cents per day ; their 
labor 18 not arduous or constant, yet it is a great addition to that performed by 
the slaves. 



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208 



ANNUAL RF.PORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 



A. — Statement showing the descripiionj quantity, and destination of ike exports 
from the island of Porto Rico from November 1, 1864, to October 31, 1865. 



Dertinatlon. 


Sugar. 


Molasses. 


1 

Coffee. 


Tobacco. Hides. 


Cotton. 


1 


From St. John's to- 
United States .... 


PoundM. 

13, 116. 017 

3, 962, 378 

798,400 

94,055 


GaUtm: 
352, 157 


Pounds. 
210, 980 


Pound*, 



Ponndg. 
40.239 


Pound*. 
41.885 
27,600 


^wnt. 


Great Britain 






B. N. A . Provinces . 


68,200 
2,792 








Spain 

Germany 

Inland of Cuba . . . 


1,878,343 

, "i,'643,*452 
21,097 

1 


20.264 
1,055,600 


• 477,885 


170. a.'ie 
31,800 


55,112 






Other ports 

From Areclbo, Ma- 
nati and Tortn- 
gnero to- 
United States 


322,471 

10, 025, 498 
709,001 
373,733 


6,060 
227,264 






1 1,^0 

1 ♦ 

1 


. ... . 




France 








B.N.A.Provinces. 


' 1 




Germany ........ 


1 


3, 810, 773 






From A^adlllato— ' 
U nited States ' 


92,508 


5,200 

2, 575, 800 

448,800 

346,000 

2,849,000 

328,600 

3,113 




i 

t 


Great Britain . . 


5,891,300 
23,200 




358,300 
213,400 




Spain 

France 














Island of Cuba . . 


12,700 










Other i>orts 


50,277 
1,113.097 


75, 666 35, eoo 

1 


174, 100 




From Mayaguez to- 
United States .... 


18,412,456 
4,804,390 
2, 746, 248 

193.338 
3, 541, 649 
1,727,918 

429,245 




Great Britain 


1 


96,000 




B. N. A. Provinces 


35,300 


14,531 

2,500,065 

1, 465, 279 

661,752 




3,104 
154.937 




Soain 




348,099 




France 








German v 

Denmark 






172,951 

1,707 

560 






; 




Italy 




2,209.000 

2,849.014 

538,760 

27,925 


1 




Island of Cuba.. 








Other ports 

From Ponce to- 
United States . . 


33,386 

19,279,763 

8, 374, 624 

5,160.216 

585,804 

2, 924, 367 

129. 798 

13,765 

8,629,336 
5, 774, 936 
3, 583, 170 










1,195,725 


1 


106,690 
15 892 


' 


Great Britain 






B.N.A.Provinces. 


218,600 
4,521 


49,237 
804,026 








Spain 




41,558. 7.837 
I-. -- 


France 




Germany 

Other ports 

From Arroyo to- 
United States . . , . 




1,029,797 
1, 216, 971 


296,426 




282,421 










1,095,253 




1 
67,736 127. OiW 


Great Britain 




1.... 


38,314 
27,611 




France 






1 




Germany ........ 






200,000 






Penma? k , 


672,263 

8,53i,793 

10,314,870 

5,098,284 

1,429,934 

56,229 

2,322,568 
121, 44f 
107,250 










From Hnmncao, Ka- 
gnabo and Fa- 
Jardo to- 
United States 


898,123 








GraAt Britain . . 




1 






France 












Germany 

Other ports 

From Gnayanilla to 
United States 






1 














2,136 
10,750 




150,880 


10, 419 








Great Britain 









B.N. A. Provinces. 


13,300 












Spain...*. 


565,631 
1,500 




10,873 






France 


932,386 






... 


Germany ....... 




101,506 








Other ports 


72,000 




70,352 



















Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 

RECAPITULATION. 



209 



Dettlofttioii. 


Sogar. 


MoIaMM. 


Coffee. 


Tobacco. 


Hides. 


Cotton. 


Rum. 


gLjrtho'f 


PoundM. 

18,293,321 

11,108.333 
5,937,300 
31,888,630 
36,468,337 
18,659,705 

35,431.110 
3,555»6S0 


QalUnu. 
439,209 

227,964 

143,785 

1, 116, 397 

1,448,846 

1,095,253 

898.133 
164.160 


Pound: 

3,153,673 

"'6*553,'466' 
10,241,514 
3,127,936 


Poundt. 

1,075,864 

3,810,773 
75,000 


Pounds, 
518,121 


Pounds. 
271,541 


Quarts. 

56 982 


Ar«(ib<i.lbiiBtiaiid 
Tonosnero 

Af"Min)ft ., 




35,800 
158,041 


745,800 
619, 317 
446, 561 
133,661 

3,136 
10,750 




"• "'"■ ■ ' 

M«Ttfiies .... .. 




Pooce 


396,436 
300,000 


7 837* 


Arroyo 

udFalaiS: 




127,068 






647,902 


101.506 


10,873 










Total, 1865 

1864 

1863 

1662 

1861 

IM) 


151,333.165 
110.425,022 
146,467.263 
150.564,628 
145.995,816 
127,344,749 
91,733,084 
121,319,374 


5,554,037 
3,732,076 
4, 912, 645 
4.987,252 
4, 616, 108 
4,331,772 
3,089,658 
3,730,511 


23,734,624 
14,993,830 
20, 980, 475 
13,861,586 
14. 440, 956 
13,505,516 
13,456,637 
9.814,225 


5,559,569 
4, 678, 333 
6,034,593 
8, 591, 730 
9,394,845 
2, 337, 921 
2,835.485 
4,907,844 


723,838 
569,665 
627,681 
396,246 
279,937 
545,775 
359,299 
405,883 


3,329,766 
1, 583, 187 
326,610 
1A861 
166,398 
265,976 
96,985 
38,862 


191,887 

32.055 

363,305 

1,002.0-J4 

393.066 


1839 




1658 









Note. -The aTerage price for the year ended October 31, 1865, wan as follown : Sagar, 3 to 4 cents ; me- 
lt*^ 14 to 30 eeot»; coffee, 13 to 14 eenU; tobaooo, 7 to 8 cents ; hldef, II to 13 cents; cotton, 35 to 30 cent! 
ra]&.;Sto30ceDttper gallon. 



6. 

V«Iac of imports at Porto Rico during 1864 $9, 932, 600 41 

Value of imports in the deposit store 447,923 77 

Total 10, 380, 524 13 

Value of imports from the United States during 1864 : 

Per Anwaican vessels $1,286,722 13 

English vessels 791, 240 66 

Danish vessels 47, 996 14 

Bremen vessels 27, 855 57 

Hanover vessels 19, 155 68 

Spanish vessels 3. 700 00 

2, 176, 670 18 
In the d^osit store : 

Per American vessels $46,655 87 

English vessels., 70,734 39 

Danish vessels 35, 620 96 

Bremen vessels 11, 849 30 

Hanover vessels 340 36 

165,200 88 

Total imports from the United SUtes 2, 341, 871 06 

Exports to the United States from the port of San Juan in 

1S64 $552, 561 65 

Per American vessels 239, 500 26 

Per American vessels. (1865) 257, 814 79 

873,652 55 

Total 1,923,529 25 

Total exports from the island of Porto Rico 9, 800, 000 00 

1^ CB Digiti^dby^^OOgIe 



210 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMEBCE. 



C. — Statement showing the nationality, number, tonnage, and place* where Jrom 
in the United States, of vessels arrived at Porto Rico during the year 1864. 



Where from. 


Nationality. 


1 


Tonnage. 


YThere from. 


NationaUty. 


1 


Tomage. 


Boiton 


American 

English 

American 

Danish 

Bremen 

English 

American 

American 

English 

American 

English 

American 

English 

American 

American 

EngUsh 


10 
87 

19 

99 

1 


1,390 

1,810 

4,827 

1,048* ! 
196 1 
599 1 
367* . 

349 
417*: 
173 
130* 1 
840 
4,668* 
198 


New York 

New London 

Norwich 


American 

English 

Bremen 

Hamburg 

Danish 

HanoTor 

American 

American 

EngUsh 

American .•«.. 

EngUsh 

EngUsh..- 

American 


34 

se 

10 


5,870t 


Baltimore 

Cherriileld 

Hartford 


8.»^i 
167 

1. 11«>* 
2o9 
li^S 
7l« 


Portland 


li»3f 
l.y^l* 


Ka^fhlai .......... 


Wilmington 


«¥* 
J57 
163 


Newbaryport 

New Haven 


999 


38,;»i»a* 



RECAPITULATION. 





TesMls. 


Tonnage. 




136 
93 


5K1.3:v* 




IS tiTii** 






American Tcmli from other porti 


999 
93 


38,9««>* 
2.2^* 





D, -^Statement showing the number and tonnage qfvesseU arrived at the several 
consular districts of Porto Rico and dependencies Jrom the Vkited States dur- 
ing the year 1864. ' 

San Jaan : 

No. Tonna^re. 

Port of San Juan 26 6,301 

Port of Anicibo 2 378 J 

Port of Aguadilla 1 158 

PortofHnmacao 4 73oJ 

Port of Fajardo •. . . . 3 56o 

Total 36 7,128 



Ponce: 

No. Tonnftf^. 

Port of Arroyo 14 3, 182 

Port of Ponce 35 5, 238 

Port of Ouayanilla 7 1, 339 J 

Port of Salinaa 2 190 

Total 58 9. 949 J 

Majagnez : Port of Mayagnez 65 8, 422} 

%- Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMINIONS. 



211 



RECAPITULATION. 

Vessels, Tonnage. 

United States consulate at San Joan 36 7, 128 

United States consulate at Ponce 68 9, 949 J 

United States consulate at Majaguez 65 8, 482| 

Total : 159 25.5591 



l^.^Staeement showing the nationality, number, and tonnage of vessels ar- 
rived at Porto Rico during the year 1864. 



Nationalitj. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Annifftn ...... . . 


159 

279 

529 

17 

11 

33 

9 

5 


^,559f 

3^647 
2,300 
4,802i 
2,0J6i 
928 


0utch 


16 
4 
5 

7 
5 
5 

1 


1,536 


English 


Swedish and Norwegian . 
Oldenburg 


1,171 


'^puiisli - 


1,169 


li^ifh 


Russian ................ 


l,657i 
779i 
673 


Bremen 


ItftUftn 




Venezuela. 


Htmbnnr 


Hawaiian 


157 


HinoTw. 


Total 








ToUl 


1,042 


119,422^ 


43 


7,143 









Number of crews, 8,885. 



Manila — John Russell, Consul. 

Dbcbmbbk 31, 1864. 

This port bas been visited during the past year bj twenty-seven American 
ressels, mostly loaded for the United States with sugar, hemp, coffee, and sapan 
wood. Besides American vessels, foreign vessel^ have taken similar cargoes 
both to the Atlantic ports and to San Francisco? 

The total value of shipments hence to United States ports has been as 
follows : 

In American bottoms $2, />06, 836 41 

In foreign bottoms.,. 1, 179, 870 06 

Total to the United States 3, 686, 706 47 



The total quantity of exports to the Atlantic ports and San Francisco is as 
follows : 



Years. 


Sugar. 


Hemp. 


Coffee. 


Sapan wood. 


i-^ei 


246,261 263,596 
131,340 234,324 


16,427 
7,914 


3,259 
1,515 


isria 




Increase of 1864 over 1863 


214,921 


29,272 


8,513 


1,744 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



212 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



From the ontports of Yloilo and Gibu nothing has been shipped to the Atlantic 
porta of the United States ; but shipments of sugar have been made from the 
former place to San Francisco. Several vessels have been despatched from these 
ports to Europe* Australia, and China. Although Gibu has been opened for 
foreign trade since 1861, it is only during the past year that foreign houses have 
established branches there. 

There are in Yloilo one American and one British house, and in Gibu one 
American and three British firms. 



Trinidad db Guba — ^Wm. H. Russel, Cofuu!,, 

Statement shattnng the description, quantity, and value of the eaporu Jrm 
Trinidad de Cuba during the several quarters of the year ended December 
31, 1865. 





Sugar. 


Molanei. 


Honey. 


Ci«ara. 


Total rahe. 




Hhdi. 


Tierces. 


Barrel!. 


Boxei. 


Baca. 


GaUona. 


aalloni. 


M. 


Firat quarter 

Second quarter 

Fourth quarter.. .. 


5,547 
8,411 
8,276 
1,289 


636 

955 

881 

72 


196 
44 

106 

1 


163 

935 

1,351 

1,131 


490 
150 

418 


645,905 
062,333 
291,556 
94,321 


9.518 
8,039 

""431* 


276 
200 
135 


$319, 233 25 

6W, 381 4«J 
5^7.636 13 
126,761 » 


Total 


23,523 


2,544 


349 


3,580 


1,058 


1,894,116 


968 


835i 


*1, 927, 522 41 



' Cedar wood, rallied at $13,500, included. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SPANISH DOMIKIONS. 



213 



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214 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 
Lisbon — ^Gharlbs A. Munro, Consul. 

Sbptrmbbr 30, I860. 

Owing to the continaance of oar internal war the amount of American shipping 
to this port during the year ended this day has heen very insignificant. The 
high rates of premiums demanded hy European companies for insuring vessels 
sailing under the United States flag have uo doubt deterred the owners of our 
mercantile marine from prosecuting a more brisk trade with this port, where 
American vessels are pretty sure, under ordinary circumstances, of obtaining 
favorable charters for ports in South America. 

From October 1, 1864, to September 30, 1865, Lisbon has been visited hj 
only six American merchant vessels, viz., two ships, two barks, and two brigs, 
measuring in all 3,164 tons. 

The vfdue of imports by the above vessels was as follows: Goals, S3 ,000; 
staves, $12,000; general merchandise, consisting of petroleum, machiuery, 
clocks, &;c.. $59,500 ; railway iron, &c., $90,000 — ^total, $164,500. 

The above imports were: 

From Great Britain, (coals) $3. 000 

From Belgium, (railway iron) 90. 000 

From the United States 71, 500 



Total 164. 500 



There was exported in these six vessels to the United States salt to the valae 
of $7,335. 

To show that there is sufficient inducement for our vessels to seek charters in 
Lisbon I subjoin the following statement of the declared value of goods shipped 
to New York in Portuguese vessels : 

Gut corks $2, 026 50 

Gorkwood .• 29, C87 10 

Argols, (refined) 1, 320 00 

Olive oil 1 4, 806 5 1 

Orchilla weed 26, 1 27 60 

Salt 3.575 00 

Raisins, (dried) 6, 578 32 

Marble, (rough) 750 00 

Sailcloth « 820 00 

Hides, (drv) 10,186 93 

Gum copal 36, 651 27 

Wine 570 00 

Total 133,099 23 



Although this has always been a wine-growing country, it will be noticed that 
this article forms quite a small item in the above statement. 

The reasons for this are many — ^the high rates of duty charged in the United 
States, and the high price of wines here caused by the ravages of the vine 
disease. Under ordinary circumstances Lisbon wines most in demand in the 
United States are of a low price, ranging firom $40 to $90 per pipe of one hundred 
and twenty gallons — a rate at which until lately it was impossible to ship wines. 
It is to be observed, however, that in the year 1864 the vine disease made com- 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



P6BTUGUE8E DOMINIONS. 215 

nratiyelj but little ravages, and that the vintage now about being gathered is 
declared excellent in quaiitj and abundant, so that there is every prospect of 
Portuguese wines becoming again an article of extensive export to the United 
States. 

The rate of freight between Lisbon and New York varies considerably ; but 
the following may be taken as the general limits: Light goods, (corkwood, 
&c.) $10 to 915 per ton ; heavy ditto, $4 50 to $7 per ton. 

Charters to South American ports are to be had at the following rates : To Rio 
de Janeiro, 18i. 6d, to 25m, per ton ; to Rio Grande, 24#. a 27 «. 6d. p'er ton. 
These rates, however, are subject to much variation, and to the demand, the 
Eeason, &c. 

The principal exchange operations are effected through London, and the fol- 
lowing are the prevalent rates per 1,000 reis : 

For bills at sight 51| to 52J 

For bills at thirty days 52l to 521 

For bills at sixty days 52^ to 52| 

For bills at ninety days 53 to 53| 

For practical purposes, and as an average in caleulation« the American dollar 
k taken at a par of 920 reis« 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



216 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEiaN COUMEBCE. 



I 



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Digitized by 



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PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 217 

FuNCHAL — 0. A. Leas, Consul. 

November 3, 1865. 

Herewith I have the honor to transmit a statement of the commercial move- 
ments of this place for the year 1864. 

GRAPE CROP IN 1865. 

The grape crop of the island has jnst heen gathered, and the amount of 
wine obtained therefrom is estimated at four thousand pipes, being about double 
that of 1864. Though the blight still continues, yet the grape is preserved from 
utter destruction by the use of sulphur, which substance cannot be thoroughly 
washed from the grape before the juice is expressed therefrom, nor can it be 
altogether separated from the juice ; hence the wine is not regarded as good 
as before the hlight occurred; but nevertheless the cultivation of the wine, even 
nnder such unfavorable circumstances, is more profitable than even that of sugar 
cane (which was resorted to after the failure of the grape crop some years ago ;) 
hence many are now pulling up their cane and replanting the vine. There- 
fore, all thiogs being equally favorable during this year, the supply of wine the 
coming year will be greater than that of the present, 

SUGAR CROP FOR 1865. 

The amount of sugar produced from the crop of cane this year is estimated 
at a fmclion over five hundred thousand pounds, English. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



218 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



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Digitized by V^OOQIC 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 



219 



Statement showing the description, quantity and value, and the countries of des- 
tination, of the exportsjrom FuncAalJor the year 1864. 





Great Britain. 


British oolonlei. 


Portugal. 


Franca. 


Qaantity. 


Yaloe. 


Qnanfy 


Valae. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quaot'y 


Value. 


Be«C Mlted kilo.. 






1,110 


$130 00 


21, 646 , 
8,859 


$2,737 00 
1. 416 20 






Brandy lltrei.. 










Coal tona.. 














HtdM kilo.. 










27,859 


5, 919 90 
5,519 00 






SaAdriM 




$10,400 


'86,"506" 


3,*789 06 
2,151 90 




$402 70 


Onkms ....kilo. 








20,000 


480 00 


Ormagtm... :..... U.. 


400 


463 








27,459 


1,160 00 


2,300 


59 70 

1,070 00 

44,805 00 


3,000 


70 30 


8|»le«0 








8ii««r kilo-. 










206,168 
29,807 






Wiam Utwi.. 


289,365 


188,612 


7,501 


6,070 00 


22.92100 


2,044 


1,600 00 


Total 


199,475 


13,300 90 


84,377 10 




2,553 00 









Statement showing the descripti 


Ion, quantity 


and value, Sfc, — Continued. 


DtMripUoB. 




United Statea. 


Skip rappliea 


111 




Totn.1 valnA 


Quanfy 


Value. 


Quanfy 


Value. 


QuanVy 


Value. 




Beef,ialted kilo.. 














22,756 
8.859 


455 

22,143 

*17,5o0 

557 


$2,867 00 
1, 416 20 


Brandy litrve.. 














Coal ton«.. 


- . 








17,550 


$104,706 


104 706 00 


Hsdes kilo.. 








27,859 


5,919 20 
20, 689 70 


Sandriea 




$573 
430 




$6 






Onkms kilo.. 


30,000 






136,500 


2,730 


3,061 90 
463 00 


Ofmnget M.. 










Potatoct kilo 


3,000 


An 










35,450 


714 


1 350 00 


8|»tte« 












1 070 00 


a«iv kilo.. 
















44,805 00 


"Wine litre*.. 2,534 


1,800 


9.034 


1,540 


1.001 


488 


234,286 


79,053 


223,031 00 


Totd 


2,863 


1,546 


105.194 


409,379 00 











*TODI. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



220 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Tabular statement showing th6 nationality^ number^ tonnage, and crews oj 
foreign vessels entered and cleared at the port of Funchal during the year 1864. 





SNTIBZD. 


Nattonalitj. 


With cargoes 


In ballast. 


Total 




Vessels. 

• 


TOML 


Crvwi. 


Voiiels. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Crewi. 


Britiah 


107 
83 

4 


25.033 

12,847 

1,127 


1,368 
955 
33 


no < 4.T4AQ 


3,404 
475 


217 

98 
4 
2 


68,512 

22,344 

1,127 

927 

473 

70 

1,965 

1,273 

138 

56B 

237 

627 

193 


4,712 

l,i» 

33 


Portngnew 


15 


9,497 


American 


Italian 


3 

1 


927 
473 


41 
28 


41 


Spanish 








28 


Dutch 


1 
1 
3 


70 
280 
798 


6 
9 
33 


6 


French 


3 

1 
1 


1,685 
475 
158 


49 
14 
8 


5i 


Norwegian 


46 


Hambargian 


8 


Greek 


2 


568 


80 


90 


Bratllian 


1 


337 


21 


21 


Pnimian s. 


2 

1 


627 
193 


26 

8 


26 


Oldenburg 






8 








Total 


204 


41,533 


2,456 


134 1 56,941 


4,040 


337 


98,474 


6,496 








CLIARED. 


Britiiih 


16 

28 


5.085 
6,748 


372 
446 


201 
69 


62,116 

15,522 

1,127 

929 

473 

70 

1,965 

1,273 

158 

568 

237 

627 

193 


4,271 
976 
32 
41 
28 

6 
58 
46 

8 
20 
21 
26 

8 


217 
97 

4 
2 
1 
1 
4 
4 
1 
2 
I 
2 
1 


67,201 

22,270 

1,127 

929 

473 

70 

1.965 

1,273 

158 

568 

237 

6a7 

193 


4,613 


Portuguese 


1,422 




a 


Italian 








41 


Spanish 








21^ 


Dutch 








6 


French 








56 


Norweirian ..... 








46 


Haniburgian 








6 


Qreek 








20 


Brazilian 








31 


Prnmian 








26 


Oldenburg 








6 












Total 


34 


11,833 


818 


393 


85,258 


5.541 


337 


97,091 


6.359 







Statement shotoing the nationality and number of vessels arriving at Funchal 
during the year ended Dece?nber 31, 1865. 

Portuguese 89 Norwegian. 

English 188 Danish 

French 20 Spanish. 

American 

Prussian 

Russian 

Italian 

Peruvian • 

Egyptian 

Swedish 

Mecklenburgueee 



5 Bremen. 

6 Siamese 

3 Oldenburguese. 

3 Hanoverian... 

2 Dutch 



Total. 



331 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 



221 



Oporto — ^Hbkby W. Diman, Consul. 

December 31, 1864. 

Statement showing the description^ place of production t and value of exports 
from Oporto to the United States for the quarter ended December 31, 1864. 



Description. 



Place of production. 



Value. 



Wines.... 

Argols 

Corkwood 
Salt , 



Portugal t6,900 93 

Portugal ' 494 37 



Portugal. 
Portugal. 



Total. 



853 17 
279 34 



SiSif? 8J 



Digitized by 



Google 



222 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Fayal — C. W. Dabnby, Consul. 

Summary statement skotcing the description and value of the imports into the 
port of Fayal, also the names of the countries tohence shipped, during- the 
quarters ended December 31, 1864, and March 31, 1865. 



N«met of eoimtriM. 


DewsAption. 


ValMiarels. 


Gn^at Britain 


Coals, dry gooda, ingar, tea, rice, brandy, wine, paper, flax. 

pre»eryem ioap, clocki, iron work, iron hoopa and poata, 

crockery, indigo, &c. 
Dry goods, wine, gin, rinegar, brandy, oil, petroleum, linseed 

oil, sole leather, ateel, iron hoops, brooms, earthenware, 

tallow and wax candles, soap, ftimitnre, tobacco, paper, 

ft-nits, salt Indian con, mahogany, white lead, glass, palm 

oil, nails, spices, Ac 
Flour, bread, lamps, ftimltore, apples, sole leather, candles, 

s«>lf-heati<rs, lumber, nails, blacking, oars, glass, guano^ 

salt fish. Sit. 
Sperm, black flsfa, whale, kerosene, and palm oil, whalebone, 

salt flab, cotton, 4tc 


53,989 800 


Portoffal—St. Michael'R, Pe- 
reira, Graclow, St. 0«orge, 
and Floran. 

United States 


53,303.515 
9,634.309 


Whallnff fthini 








1^ 370. 435 




Coal, sngar, crockery, cheese, salt, dry goods, ten, liquors, 
rop«H, flax, potatoes, beef, salted, oil for painting, white 
lead, indigo, soap, hemp, canvas, and sundries. 

Com, wheat, barley, coffee, sngar, tea, paper, soap, hats, 
leather, ftimiture, cotton, tobacco, dry goods, flax, paints, 

liquors, and sundries. 
Flour, bread, ropes, petroleum, oil for paint, nail plates, po- 
tatoes, proTisions, docks, salt, paper, matches, coal, ftimi- 
ture, books, &c. 

T)rv omAria. tff a. eloeks. «rinA. A.e 




Great Britain 


19, 946L 400 
35.734.609 

6,938.000 


Portngal—Lisbon, St. Mi- 
chael's, Sta. Maria. Terceira, 
St. George, and Gracioaa. 

United States 


Teneriffe 


184.000 


Rio de Janeiro.... *'i»#f«i» Iinn/ir atMl anrn'rlna 1 


3,082. ItJU 




Total quarter ended March 31, 1865 






65,885.000 



Summary statement shotcing the description and value of the exports at the port 
of Fayal, aUo the names of the countries where shipped, during the quarters 
ended December 31, 1864, and March 31, 1865. 



Countries where shipped. 


Description. 


Valnoin mU. 
peaa. 


Great Briton 


Oranges, straw hats, sperm, whale, and palm oil, old iron 
and metal, lemons, wine. &c. 

Lumber, furniture, tea, sugar, butter, dry goods, barley, log- 
wood, brandy, wine, vinegar, iron work, baskets, flour, 
coffee, cotton, grain, wax candles, petroleum, palm oil. 
hides, soap, matches, fruit, cheese, glass, preserves, molas- 

self-beaters, &c. 
Sperm and whale oU, whalebone, cotton, preserves, straw 

hats, baskets, embroidery, Ac 
Oranges .................^.........-.t.i. .......... 


10,a529H9ao 
25,ea5|j55l 

34, 119:300 

40f;ooo 


Portugal~St. Michael's, Pe- 
reira, Graciosa, St. George, 
Flores. 

United States 


Antwerp 








70,08411971 




Oranges, straw hats. ....................................... 


Great Britain 


,, 841IJH0O 
II.CHIHIUI 

18,400:1500 

6u,jaoo 


Portugal— St. Mlchnt'l's, Ter- 
ceira, Graciosa, St George. 

United States 


Butter, lard, hides, lumber, tar, braid, fruit, cheese, tobacco, 
flour, tea, sngar, ooffee, salt, dry goods, oil, white lead, 
rice, hats, sundries. 

Oranin*a straw hats Innk Hrmlil ■iMtrm Ml A.f. . . 


France 


WInf nlantv. oranaes. ..................................... 


Germany, (Bremen) 


Ebony 








30.365fla0O 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



P0BTUGUE8E DOMINIONS. 



223 



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224 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



St. Michabl's — T. Hicklino, Consular Agent. 

Statement showing the deicription, quantity, and value of imports into St. 
MichaeVs, (Azores, J during the year 1864, with the names of countries whence 
derived. 



Description. 



Wine, maijnfactnres, &c 

Lumber, 688 M feet, petrolenm oil, 6,154 ealls. 10 cases, 
260 bbls. nails, <&c. 
Lumber, 146 M feet, petroleum, 1,400 galls., 40 bbls 
nails, and sundries. 

Manufactures, ironware, &.c 

, Molasses and sugars 



Total. 



Countries wbence 
imported. 



Portugal •. 

United States... 



Value. 



$417,324 23 
39,451 06 



United States, yia! 12,663^1) 

England. , 

Great Britain ; 409,870 34 



Demerara . 



7,160 ^ 



876,495 23 



Statement showing the number and nationality of vessels, the quantity and value 
of their cargoes, which sailed from the port of St. MichaeCs during the year 
1864. 



No. 


Nationality. 


Description of caigoes. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


156 


Portuguese 

American 

British 


Wheat, maize, small and large, 
b<*an» and fruits .............. 


227, 364 bush 
2, 000 boxes 
208,221 do 


$204,030 65 


I 


Oranges. •••.. ..••......••.... 


2,000 00 
250,018 90 


?98 


do 




Total 






456,049 75 











Tercbira — T. DB Castro, Chnsular Agent. 

Statement showing the value of the imports into Terceira (Azores J during the 
quarter ended December 31» 1864, together with the names of the places of 
importation. 

Vala6 in reis. 

Qaebec 6, 006, 000 

Bangor 4. 750, 000 

Liverpool 50, 293, 600 

London 17. 348. 800 

Rio de Janeiro : 3, 639, 000 

Fayal 1,015.000 

Lisbon 38, 108. 000 

Lisbon and St. Michaers 49, 946, 000 

Total 171.106,400 



Digitized by 



Google 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 225 



Statement shewing the value of exportu from Terceira (Azores) during the 
quarter ended December 31, 1864, together with the names of the ports whu 
ther shipped. 

Name of ports and coDntries. Value in reis. 

Fayal 12. 232. 000 

Lisbon 10, 533, 000 

Lisbon and St. Michael's 16, 025, 000 

Great Britain 8, 250, 800 

Total 47, 040, 800 



Macao — W. I. Jones, Consul. 

Sbptbmbbr 30, 1865. 

* * I have the pleasure to transmit tables exhibiting the principal trade 
etatietics of this port for the year ended June 30, 1865. 

It appears that the imports into the colony for the above-named period — 

In foreign-rigged vessels amounted to $5, 010, 829 00 

la Chinese junks to 840, 955 00 

Total 5, 851, 784 00 

The exports amounted — 

In foreign-rigged vessels to S3, 201, 917 00 

In Chinese junks 500, 965 00 

Total 3, 702, 882 00 



The tables are extremely unsatisfactorj, as is easilj accounted for when it is 
understood that the values are merely the estimates of masters of vessels or 
shippers who are generally unwilling to exhibit their business to the public. A 
comparison of the value of the opium imported, $2,535,974, with that ex- 
ported, shows the unreliability of that exhibit, the greater part of the difference 
beuig actually bought by the Chinese and Parsee merchants, and sent up the 
coaat and into the interior in Chinese junks, which manage to smuggle it past 
the custom-houses. The principal value of the tables is to exhibit the variety 
of imports and exports, and by careful collating show what are the chief of 
thej^ ; for example, opium, rice, tea, silk, cinnamon, paper, salt, anise-seed, oil, 
fire-crackers, &c. 

The coolie traffic from this port, even under increasing restrictions, is still 
but little diminished in the number of emigrants, while their general health and 
comfort are very nearly as well guaranteed before sailing as any police regulations 
can warrant. The sufferings of these poor creatures do not occur until their 
arrival beyond the seas. Few, probably, leave this harbor without their own 
fall consent, little apprehensive of their fate.* 

I exhibit also the nationality of the sailing vessels entered at or cleared from 
this port during the same period — none bore our flag, which, however, was repre- 

* Tie total number of coolies shipped from Macao during the year 1864, in coDformity 
»ith the regulatioiu of this colony, was 10,712 in 33 vessels, of an aggregate nainber of 
triHA, 2U,450. Callao or Lima was the destination of 22 of these vessels, and Havana of the 
rcsidae. 

15 C g • Digitized by V^OOQiC 



226 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

sented by five American merchant steamers, one of them running regularly be- 
tween this port and Canton, and another plying of late daily to and from Hong- 
Kong. 

I also show the number and tonnage of vessels employed in the direct and 
indirect trade, with a comparative statement of the number of vessels entered 
and cleared during the several years from July 1, 1860, to June 30, 1865, and 
a statement of the average market prices of principal imports and exporU dur- 
ing the year ended September 30, 1865. 

I take pleasure in communicating the intelligence that this colony has set a 
most important example to all China and Japan by the erection of a light-house, 
with a superior American revolving light, upon the loftiest height of the Macao 
promontory . Were such lights established on all the prominent parts of the 
China coast and upon the Prata and Paracella shoals, many lives and millions 
of property would be saved annually. 

American capital is still employed at Macao only in merchandise, and princi- 
pally for shipments either direct to Great Britain or to Whampoa, or Hong-Kong 
(where they are invoiced,) and thence to the United States. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 



227 






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228 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement shoicing the decsription, quantity, and value of imports into and eZ' 
ports Jrom Macao in Chinese junks during the year ended June 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Anise-seed picnls. 

oil of do. . 

mnrk do.. 

Almonds 

American drills bales. 

Baize 

Beans picnls. 

Bags. 



Cotton picnls . . 

Copper do.-. 

Cinnamon do... 

oil do. . . 

Chinese medicines bales.. 

Cows* boms picnls.. 

Cloth 

Chintz 

Cocoanuts 

Cocoa picnls.. 

Cash do... 

Camphor do... 

Dried shrimps. do. . . 

fish do... 

cuttle fish do... 

Druffs ■ 

Dyemff cocoa picnls.. 

Erva doce do.., 

oil of. ........... ..........do.. 

Flax do.. 

Fish wings do.. 

Flour do.. 

Flax-seed do.- 

Gum do.. 

Hogs 

Hams catties. 

Ivory picnls. 

Jobs sticks do.. 

Indigo tubs. 

Kernel picnls. 

Lamp oil do.. 

Leather do.. 

Lard ...do.. 

Lead do.. 

Lacquered do. . 

Mats pieces. 

Maca picnls. 

Peas, green do.. 

Sugar, brown do.. 

Nankins do.. 

Opium 

Paddy do.. 

Paper 

Pima, (medicine) 

Rice 

Ratans 

Redwood 

Sugar 

Salt 

Silk 



IMPORTS. 



Quantity. 



2,774 

420 

274 

72 



1,707 

157,616 

60 

20 

3,886 

210 

64 

2,807 



62,600 

2,314 

35 

229 

25 

381 

4 



1,724 

44 

4 

236 

J 14 

718 

54 

213 

1,344 

162 

2 

123 

35,196 

941 

30, 050 

299 

80 

50 

53 

23,212 

53,487 

1,062 

5,558 

576 



Value. 



4,696 

1,387 

14 

16,466 

413 

485 

8,656 

109,758 

44 



121,277 
7,529 
2,650 
4,400 



3,457 

3,003 

1,740 

398 

37,969 

13,892 

825 

9,943 



551 

2,415 

360 

189 

975 

8,331 

68 



4,967 

1,689 

570 

1,218 

505 

1,912 

248 

1,078 

21,127 

62 

400 

163 

142,527 

3,425 

133,686 

3,2a5 

938 

1,000 

575 

2,115 

102,889 

2,845 

7,698 

784 



EXTORTS. 



Quantity. 



11,085 
7,318 

120 
52,854 

2,200 

417 

46,358 

58,127 

15,830^ 

Digitized by 



9,117 
355 



5,075 



100 



423 

850 



Yalae. 



$47,511 
2,645 



118,578 



2,500 



3,0fi4 

3,860 



108 



48 

12,430 

540 



40 
* 3,064 



1,554 



144 

27,74(1 
256,559 



1,000 
'9^192 



CoogTe 



PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 
Statement — Continued. 



229 



Description. 


IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 








80 


$2,032 


yellow ................ «... 


62 

4,511 

203 

61 

355 

1,380 

1,065 

2,033 

1,644 

2,319 

474 

5 

123 


$8,307 

6,328 

2,229 

671 

1,023 

24 

8,127 

7,727 

1.5,486 

16,716 

510 

100 

1,213 


Sesame ............ ...................... 






oil 






Sncan 


..-.-. .... 




Salt ash 






Sticks 






Tallow 






Tin 






Tea 






Tobacco 


1,280 


10,420 


Tree skin 


UDicoms 






Varnish 






Velvet 


2 


1,120 


Wood 


95 

140 

30 


606 

1,690 

502 

19,709 




Wax 






WoodoQ 






Sundries 




13,146 








Total 




840,955 




500,965 









Digitized by LjOOQIC 



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ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 



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PORTUGUESE DOMINIONS. 



231 



ilgiiigSSis 















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Digitized by LjOOQIC 



232 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the nationality, tonnage, number , and cretcs of vessels entered 
and cleared at the fort of Macao during the year ended June 30, 1865. 





BIITKRZD. 


Natiooality. 


Witheargoet. 


Inballait. 


TotaL 




Veueli. 


Tom. 




VeMeU. 


Torn. 


Crewi. 


VeMelfl. 


Tons. 


Crewfc 


B«lffian 


1 




1 
5 
3 
IS 
11 
19 
18 
2 
14 
8 
2 
1 
8 
4 
3 


832 

1.814 

1.395 

3.445 

4,180 

11,172 

8,154 

995 

4,435 

7.265 

487 

518 

5.907 

2,366 

1.209 


21 

61 
44 

150 

61 

495 

319 

27 

186 

177 

24 

15 

151 

67 

50 


I 

12 

3 

25 

20 

55 

24 

6 

34 

9 

2 

3 

8 

12 
4 


832 

4.104 

1,395 

5.690 

7,072 

27,229 

10,W*4 

1.917 

9,8t*4 

7,.''>94 

487 

1.444 

5.907 

5,876 

1.783 


Si 


Bremen 


7 


2,290 


86 


H7 


Chilian 


44 


Danish 


10 
9 

36 
6 


2,245 

2,892 

16,057 

1,930 

922 
5,449 

329 


93 
157 
651 

78 

52 
273 

13 


343 


Dntch 


ain 


English 


1,146 


French 


W 


Hanoverian 

Hambarg 

Italian 

Norwegian ........ 


79 
4W 
190 

S4 


Oldenbnrg 

Peruvian , 


« 


926 


44 


151 


PortugneM 

Pruaaian 


8 

1 


3,510 
580 


174 
17 


241 
67 


Total entered... 


104 


37,130 


1.638 


114 


54.168 


1,848 


218 


91,29t 


a4« 













CLEARJCD. 










NationaUty. 


With cargoes. 




In ballast 






TotaL 






Vessels. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Crews. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Crewa. 

1 


Belgian 


1 

9 

2 

17 

15 

35 

20 

20 

4 

8 

2 

2 

4 

16 

1 

1 


832 

3.118 

599 

3,946 

5.327 

17,183 

8,977 

5,700 

1,577 

7,514 

505 

1,131 

3,470 

8,540 

450 

250 


24 

110 

27 

175 

242 

799 

368 

255 

63 

271 

24 

34 

120 

382 

11 

15 




1. 




\ 

2 
24 

15 

48 

23 

35 

5 

8 

2 

3 

4 

16 

3 

1 

2 

20 


832 

3,118 

599 

5,549 

5,327 

21,«J2 

9.848 

9,868 

1,920 

7,514 

505 

1,471 

3.470 

8,540 

1.410 

250 

895 

5,944 


24 


Bremen 








110 


Chilian 








27 


Danish 


7 


1.603 , 


76 


251 


Dutch 


342 


English 


13 
3 

15 

1 


4,419 

871 1 
4,168 ! 

343 


196 
38 

191 
15 


995 


French 


406 


Hamburg 


446 


Hanoverian 

Italian 


eri 


Norwegian 






24 


Oldenburg 


1 


340 


25 


59 
ISO 


Portuguese 






3lE^ 


Pmsflian 


2 


960 


27 


38 


Siamese 


15 


Sweden 


2 

6 


895 
1.544 1 


28 
107 


28 


8[mnisb , 


14 


4.400 


316 


423 






Total cleared... 


171 


73,519 


3,236 


50 


15,143 1 


703 


221 


88,662 


3,939 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



POBTUanESE DOMINIONS. 



233 



Statement ihawing the nationality t numher, and tannage of vessels engaged in 
the direct and indirect trade at the part of Macao during the year ended 
June 20, 1865. 





ZKTXIUED. 


CLEARED. 


XatkmaUtj. 


Direct trade. 


Indirect trade. 


TotaL 


Direct trade. 


Indirect trade. 


Total. 




> 


1 


1 


1 


J 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


> 


1 


Brlgiu 






1 

7 

3 

S9 

20 

35 

20 

34 

6 

9 

2 

3 

7 

12 
4 


832 

2,290 
1,395 
5,690 
7,072 
16,810 
8,609 
9,884 
1.917 
7,594 
487 
1.444 
5,6fi7 
5.876 
1,783 


1 

12 

3 

25 

20 

55 

24 

34 

6 

9 

2 

3 

8 

12 

4 


832 

4,104 

1,395 

5,690 

7,072 

27,229 

10,084 

9,884 

1,917 

7,594 

487 

1,444 

5,907 

5.876 

1,783 






1 

9 

2 

24 

15 

9 

18 

33 

5 

8 

2 

3 


832 
3,118 

599 
5,549 
5,327 
3,342 
8,536 
9,433 
1,920 
7,514 

505 
1,471 


1 

9 

2 

24 

15 
48 
23 
35 
5 
8 
2 
3 
4 

If 

3 

1 

2 

20 


832 


Br^S. :;:;:: 


5 


1,814 






3,118 
599 


rhJlWn 






Daat^ - 








5,549 
5,327 


Dntfh 










Eujrtlih 

Pi«ch 

BxBilwrf 


20 

4 


10,419 
1.475 


39 
5 
2 


18,260 

1,312 

435 


21,602 
9,848 
9,868 
1,920 
7,514 
505 


HttoTnten... 






Titian ... . 


...... 








Norwegian ' 








(Mdraborg 










1,471 
3,470 


Fi^niTian 


1 


240 


4 
1 


3,470 
236 


PortofoMe . .. 


15 
3 
1 
2 
6 


8,304 

1,410 

250 

895 

2,561 


8.540 

1,410 

250 


PraHOaii ' 




Siamewe ! 








g«^(fcn 
















895 


Kl>»^ 












14 


3,383 


5,944 
















Totd 


» 


13,948 


188 


77,350 


218 


91,298 


65 


27,096 


156 


61,566 


m 


88,662 



Comparative statement showing the aggregate number of vessels arrived at and 
departed from Macao during each of the Jioe years ended June 30, from 
18i60 to lb65t inclusive, together uith their tonnage and number of their crews. 





ARRIVALS. 


DEPARTURES. 


Yean. 


No. of 
vestels. 


Tons. 


No. of the 


No. of 
yesselB. 


Tonfl. 


No. of the 
crews. 


June 90,1861 


287 
231 
195 
172 
218 


104,613 
84,992 
75,819 
63,280 
91,296 


5,513 
4,245 
3,333 
2,809 
3,462 


288 
220 
198 
171 
221 


120,398 
94, 145 
75,422 
62,075 
66,662 


5,898 
4,469 


1^62 


186:5 


3,619 


1864 


2,654 


1665 


3,939 




Total vwsela 

Arenge each year 


1.103 
220 


420,002 
84,000 


19,382 
3.876 


1,098 
219 


440,702 
88,140 


20,779 
4,155 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



234 ANNUAL REPORT ON POREiaN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the average prices at Macao Jar the year ended September 

30, 1S65. 

Tea, Souchong 41 and 43 taels per picul. 

Tea. Congo 31 " 32 " 

Cotton, Shanghai $36 bO and 30 00 per picul. 

Cotton, Ningpo 27 00 " 29 00 

Cotton, Calcutta 23 50 " 25 00 " 

Rice, Bengal 2 90 " 3 10 

Rice, Saigon 2 80 " 2 90 *• 

Rice, Singapore 2 70 " 2 75 

Cinnamon 16 75 " 19 25 

Cinnamon oil 186 00 " 189 00 

Cinnamon flour 48 00 " 49 00 " 

Star anise-Beed 23 00 " 23 60 " 

Aniae-seed oil 174 00 " 178 00 

Galingale 1 80 " 1 90 

Vermillion 32 " 33 per box. 

Quicksilver 61 " 63 per picuL 

White pepper 11 68 " 12 00 

Blackpepper 6 75 « 7 00 " 

Sugar,No.l 8 25 « 8 75 

Sugar,No. 2 7 25 " 8 00 

Sugar, No. 3 6 00 " 6 10 " 

Sugar, brown 5 00 " 5 20 " 

Tin 62 00 " 25 00 

Lead 5 80 " 5 90 " 

Ratan 3 80 " 3 90 «• 

Betel nut 3 40 '• 3 50 « 

Sandal-wood 8 00 •« 8 25 «* 

Lamp oil 12 25 " 12 75 " 

Tobacco 5 50 " 6 00 " 

Indigo 2 75 " 2 80 " 

Peas 2 76 " 2 80 " 

White beans 2 25 " 2 60 " 

Flour 1 75 •« 2 00 per bag of 50 lbs. 

Silk 480 00 " 482 00 per picul. 

Saltpetre 8 25 " 8 50 " 

Opium, Patna 685 00 " 690 00 per chest. 

Opium, Benares 665 00 " 670 00 " 

Opium, Maloa 820 00 " 825 00 " 



BELGIUM. 
Ghent — ^Marinus J. Levison, Consul, 

October 5, 1865. 

GENERAL SITUATION. 

Business has not shown more activity during this than the last year. From 
the very beginning of the year it was evident that the great American strugj^le 
was rapidly approaching towards a close, and the greatest uncertainty prevailed 
as to the effect which the cessation of hostilities would have on the trade. 
Another cause of calmness was the high rate of discount on all European mar- 
Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BELQICM. 



235 



ket8. In Belgium it never exceeded six per cent., but the banks showed much 
more security than in ordinary times as to the nature and the character of the 
bills presented for discount. 



MARITIME COMMBRCB. 



The tonnage of the vessels which entered the port of Ghent in 1864 was 
47,558 tons, showing a decrease against 1863 of 2,540 tons. 

The following is the statement of arrivals compared with those of the pre- 
ceding year : 



Cargoes. 



Wood 

Oleaginous grains 

Flax, hemp, and tovr . 

Oil cakes 

English coals 

Grain , 

Kia? 

Wine , 

Raw salt , 

Raw sugar 

Portugal fruit 

Stock fish and liver oil 

Cast iron 

Various merchandise . 
Onhallast 

Total 



1864. 



Kumber. ' Tonnage. 



85 

17 

33 

23 

10 

1 

9 

8 

6 

4 

4 

6 

5 

77 

4 



17,772 

1,815 

6,574 

1,711 

791 

332 

702 

675 

1,296 

894 

434 

381 

486 

13,253 

442 



292 



47,558 



1863. 



Number. 



16 
23 
6 
2 
4 
6 
9 
7 
6 
9 



18 

107 

4 



306 



Tonnag^. 



20,383 

1,727 

3,890 

412 

179 

6J7 

443 

615 

1,639 

1,618 

745 



1,816 

15,702 

312 



50,098 



Difference in 1854. 



More. 


Less. 




2,611 


88 




2,684 




1,299 




612 






285 


259 




60 






343 




724 




311 


381 






1.330 




2,449 


130 






2,540 



These vessels were of the following 



Nationality. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


British 


103 

35 

8 

1 

10 

28 

68 

6 

9 

21 

2 

1 


16,086 


Belgian 


5,017 


Danish 


639 


Bpanish...... ................................................. 


144 


French 


898 


Hanoverian 


3,181 


Swedish and Norweflrian .................. ...... ................ 


14,499 


Prassiian 


1,837 


Russian 


1,836 


Ketberbuidish 


2,803 


Italian 


538 


Hambur]gian 


80 






Total 


292 


47,558 







The flag of Mecklenburg, which need to arrive frequently in this port with 
wood, has completely disappeared. This is on account of the extra tax which 
the Mecklenburg vessels have to pay, that government ha^dng declined to par- 
ticipate in the redemption of the Scheldt toll. 

The importations of flax and tow have increased considerably notwithstanding 
the abundant crop in this country. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



236 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



COTTON-SPINNING AND WEAVING FACTOBIBS. 

There has been no improvement in this branch. Labor has not increased, 
and can only be valued half of that of an ordinary year. The home con- 
sumption of manufactured goods has been so little important that three-sevenths 
of the production was to be exported. 

FLAX. 

In the preparing of flax there was this year great activity. The crop of flax 
was considerable, and the trade has increased also by the preparing in this 
country of foreign flax. In the district of E«loo the importance of this branch 
has doubled in 1864. About four-fifths of the crop of the port of Zealand 
which is situated on the left bank of the river Scheldt was imported into Bel- 
gium to be prepared, and there re-exported to England. 

SPINNING FACTORIBS OF FLAX, HEMP, AND TOW. 

1 864 has certainly been the most prosperous year this industry ever has witnessed. 
Several new factories have started, in consequence of which wages have risen. 
Towards the end of the year, however, the cessation of hostilities in America 
being more and more anticipated, some reaction showed itself, prices of yarn 
gradually gave way, and in December they were reduced to their normal value. 

Weaving participated in the activity of the spinning ; all sorts of linens met 
with a considerable demand, the light bleached linens excepted. Trials made 
with these latter, to be used instead of cotton goods, failed. 

Lace will want the complete pacification in America to recover its ancient 
prosperity. The year 1864 was, nowever, not quite so bad as the preceding. 

SUGAR REFINBRIBS, 

The exportation of the produce of this industry has greatly diminished on 
account of the drawback having been reduced from frs. 55.50 to frs. 51.50. 
Several factories reduced hours ; some closed altogether. Raw sugar produced 
in Belgium, not finding sufficient consumption in this country, has been exported 
to France. 

DISTILLERIES. 

The taxes for this district approach 548,418 hectolitres against 501,707 in 
1863, showing an increase of proauction of 46,711 hectolitres. 

THE OIL INDUSTRY. 

The crop of oleaginous gnuns in 1864 was far inferior to that of 1863, and 
the deficiency had to be made up by heavy importations of foreign grains. 
Prices consequently were too high to allow the crushers to find due remuneration 
for their labor; besides, large importations of petroleum, admitted into Belgium 
without duty, reduced also the consumption of vegetable oil. 

CHEMICAL PRODUCTS. 

With the exception of chlowrtt of lime wanted for bleaching, this industry has 
not shown more activity than 1863. Ultra marine blue met with a regular sale, 
and white lead had some good demand both for the interior and export 

The prei aring and dyeing qfrahbit skins. — The demand for exportation for 
dyed and dressed skins has been active and regularly sustained. 



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BELGIUM. 



237 



The following are the returns for 1864 of the port of Oetend, according to 
the statements of the consular agent : 



Nationality. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


British 


293 

6 

35 

12 

71 

12 

8 

3 

3 

1 

1 


40,718 

409 

5,803 

879 

11)530 
717 
794 
933 
557 
64 
168 


303 
4 

38 
15 
68 
14 
11 
4 
4 


40,720 

298 


French 


NorwMnan ....^.^r. ....•«.*i-. 


6,277 
1,268 




Bel^an ..*.i.^ 


10,723 


Ketherlandish 


1,141 


Daniih 


872 


Prussian 


1,166 


Swedish 


738 


Hamborf^n 




RlfWlMl" .».^ w,^ rT....,,.-rTr -,^--rT» -- 


3 


595 






Total 


445 


62,572 


464 


63,798 





This table does not comprise the Belgian steamers running between Ostend 
and Dover; these carried 7,583 passengers from, and 8,107 passengers to, 
Odtend. 





Conntries. 


IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Great Britain 


Francs. 
3,310,467 
277,841 
346, 170 
475,955 
397,481 

56,087 
112,577 

17,325 
122,500 


Francs. 
16,760,905 


Prussia 


France 


33 


Norway 


8,486 
714 


Russia 


IVnmark ................................................. 




Netherlands 


215 


Portnml 


166 


Peru 




Caba 


32,981 
174 


Italy 




Brazil 




516 


H^T^oTer a 




25 










Total 


5,116,393 


16,804,215 





Transsbipment from — 



Great Britain. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Pnissia 

France , 

France 



Total. 



Transshipment to— 



Prassia 

Netherlands . . 
Luxemberg... 

France 

Great Britain. 

Pmssia 

Great Britain. 



Amount. 



Francs. 

16,256,348 

51,641 

45,719 

37,743 

615, 162 

554 

2,932 

17,010,099 



i g i t i zedbyLiOOgIC 



238 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE, 

Antwerp — A. W. Crawford, Conttd. 

May 26. 1865. 

I have the honor to transmit some remarks on the commerce of the United 
States at this port during the year ended December 31, 1864. 

Petroleum has been the principal article of import from the United States, 
and Antwerp still takes the lead of the European markets in this branch of trade. 
The imports of this article this year have doubled those of the preceding, and 
are as follows: In 1863, 115,000 barrels; in 1864, 230,000 barrels; increase, 
115,000 barrels. 

About ten per cent, of the amount imported in 1864 was crude oil. Prices of 
refined ranged higher in the summer than in the latter part of the year. Specu- 
lation in the spring carried prices as high as 84 francs for oil to be delivered in 
the winter. Subsequently prices declined, and in the middle of winter, when 
consumption was most active, they ruled as low as 65 to 66 francs. This abnor- 
mal situation can only be attributed to excessive speculation in the article, an 
evil which will probably ere long work out its own remedy. 

The consumption of petroleum in Europe generally, during 1864, has not in- 
creased more than one-eighth over that of 1863. In some countries it has 
remained stationary. In this country, however, it has shown a marked increase, 
and also in the south of Germany, while in Great Britain there is no perceptible 
progress. It is probable that our market will continue to be the great emporium 
for the article. No neighboring port possesses such facilities for warehousing and 
keeping the oil. This port has acquired great reputation abroad ; the Germans, 
Dutch, &c., are accustomed to buy their supplies here, and they will doubtless 
receive permanent customers. Importer having, however, generally lost money, 
they will be less eager to order fresh cargoes this year; but I believe that our 
port will receive a good deal on consignment, or cargoes purchased atloat in the 
channel. Our stock of refined petroleum on the 3l8t December was 31,000 
barrels. 

Breadstuffs have been imported to a smaller extent in 1864 than in the pre- 
vious year, either from the United States or other grain-growing countries, 
owing to the good crops and consequent low prices, which left no margin for 
importers. We have also imported much less bacon, lard, and tallow, partly on 
account of the better hay crop in this country, and partly owing to the high 
prices of these articles in American markets. 

Guano was imported in large quantities during 1864. Forty-four American 
vessels arrived here direct from Callao. The stock of guano now on hand being 
considerable, and no American vessel having been chartered this year, I antici- 
pate a great falling off in the arrivals of American vessels during 1865. 

There have been nine American ships sold at this port during 1864, their 
aggregate tonnage amounting to 8,946 tons. These sales have all been bona fidt 
transactions. 

Emigration to America via this port continues unabated from Germany, but 
does not, I regret to say, in this country attract that share of attention the sub- 
ject merits. 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 

Rotterdam — George E. Wrss, Consul, 

August 15, 1865. 
Encloj^od herewith you will find my treatise on the cultivation of madJer, and 
on the expediency ui introducing it into the United States. After the main 
features of this treatise were prepared, I became more familiar with the pecu- 

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DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 239 

Ikritie? of the subject, and gathered additional information, compiled in an 
appendix, which may both aid our agriculturists in intelligibly cultivating the 
plaat, and induce them to undertake further experiments. It is important to 
foster in the United States the cultivation of such plants as are used extensively 
in commerce and manufactures. 

The usefulness and importance of introducing the cultivation of madder into 
the United States was first brought to my attention by the despatch of the 
Secretary of State on that subject. Immediately after the receipt of that de- 
spatch, all the information I could obtain from persons having particular acquaint- 
ance with the subject was given in mine of June 12, 1863. I have now 
the honor to send you herewith additional information. 

The germs of madder have to be planted in the beginning or middle of April. 
The best soil is clay land, which has to be tolerably solid. In Holland, as well 
aa in France, four or five germs are planted near each other, in the space of one 
square foot, and so on, as in the following diagram: 



A and B are called beds, which are made higher two or three times a year with 
the soil C. 

Madder lasts, with cold summers, three years, but usually two ; then it must 
he dug carefully and dried, when it is fit to be ground as required. 

In the industrial convention held at Deventer, in the section of agriculture, 
the question was moved, " What soil, as respects chemical contents, is best 
adapted for the cultivation of madder ? By the committee of the section it was 
proposed, and in general session adopted, to institute a chemical examination of 
the lands where the best madder is produced, in order to ascertain what mate- 
rial of the soil are to be considered most conducive to this cultivation. 

In consequence of this resolution. Dr. T. M. Van Bemmelen personally 
▼isited the grounds of the islands Schouwen and Zind Beveland, taking sam- 
ples of the soil for chemical examination, and gathering useful information of 
what is to be considered a soil best adapted to this cultivation, and lays down 
the following propositions : A soil may yield a large crop of madder, but of an 
inferior dye ; secondly, a soil may yield a medium or small crop, but the qual- 
ity at the same time be good or bad. What in one locality may be understood 
to be a very good soil may, perhaps, have a less credit in another. For every 
locality the &rmer needs a test of its value, which is by no means adapted to 
another location. This test will not only be dependent upon the best soils of 
a certain district, but also upon other conditions. Where the very same kind 
of soil exists in two places equally adapted to the cultivation of madder, the 
one, after much tillage and manuring, may fail, while the other yield a good 
crop. To come to a right understanding of the subtle agents affecting the qual- 
ity of the crops, Dr, Van Bemmelen has made several chemical examinations of 
the different soils used for the cultivation of madder on the islands of Zuid 
Bevelan and Schouwen, collecting every species of information he could get 
from the intelligent agriculturists of that region, and has embodied it into his 
discussion of that question. 

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240 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



THE KIND OF SOIL ON WHICH MADUBR IS CULTIVATED IN ZEALAND AND OTHER 

ISLANDS. 

The soil used is of every description that is found there, bat generally allu- 
vial ; some of these soils are light and some heavy clay, others <* sand clay " ; 
the light clay being mixed with sand and shells or pure sand with broken shells. 
Where heavy clay is found it is in layers, generally about one Netherland yard 
thick, followed by deeper layers of sand clay, and then by sea sand in many 
localities. On sandy ground, however, the upper layers of sand clay are earlier 
followed by sea sand, thus — 

ISLAND OF SCHOUWEN. 

Pslm*B depth of clay contaioiDg 
Names of localities. sand layers over sea sand. 

Bommenedepolden 5^ 7-7 

Near Zonnemaire 2^ 

Near Nordwelle 6 

Near Serooskerke 8 

ISLAND ZUID-BBVELAND. 

Perpoucherpolder 6 

Oosterland 5 

Ouder Fraayert 4 

West Fraayert 4 

Near Nieuve, West Fraayert 1.7 

Where sand ground lies close under the sand clay, the upper stratum gener- 
ally contains loss clay, and of a lighter kind, while in the thicker layers the clay 
is heavier. Thus — 

Thickness of claj stratam. 

Near Bromvershaven, clay More than 1 Neth. yard. 

Perpoucherpolder, clay More than 1.2 — 1.3 above white sand. 

Perpoucherpolder, heavy clay More than 1 yard Neth. 

Goeschepolder, clay More than 1 yard Neth. 

Breede watering, Arendskerke at S. Hur, 

clay More than 1 yard. 

Breede watering, n'r Goeschepolden, clay. 1.20 yard above white sand. 
Wilhelmmapolder, heavy clay : More than 1 yard. 

On all these soils madder is planted with success, and on the island of Groe- 
dereede even down sand is said to be used for the same purpose. As to the age 
of the bottoms, there is no less difference ; that o\ the islana of Schouwen being 
uncertain, while the " palders " (lands gained by the levees) of Zuid-Bevelaud, 
are 400, 300, 200, 100, 50 years old, and some of them even lately acquired by 
levees. 

Madder is also planted on the clay ground of Zyuid, Holland, West Zealand, 
in Noord Brabant and Haarlem mermeer, in the Anna Panlownapolders, in the 
Wieringorwaard on Reyerland, Texel, &c., and lately in Friesland. 

From the above data it appears that the cultivation of madder is not confined 
to certain soils, provided care be taken that the land in tillage be deeply dug, 
well dressed, kept loose and open, and fairly manured. 

A tough, stiff clay grouud is not very suitable, as the roots cannot well pene- 
trate, develop and expand. Then such a ground is often too cold, as it does 
not let ('ff water, but at the same time such ground, if strongly worked and 
drained, may be very well adapted. In the Wilhelminapolder very heavy clay 
grounds^ formerly quite useless, are now, after good drainage and tilling, giving 

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BOMIKIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 241 

tbe richest crops. But swampy, deep-lying, and poorly-drained lands are not 
adapted to the cultivation of madder. Sandy soils generally, being loose, have 
a tendency to let off the water, and do not resist the expansion of the roots. A 
soil of common fertility for grain is not fit for madder without heavy manuring. 
It has to be planted at great intervals, and the crop is necessarily light Soils 
rich m hamoB, such as have been used for gardens, are valuable from their fer- 
tilitj and humidity. Besides, they are warm, abound in ammonia and nitric 
acid and chemical transformations, and are known by experience to produce 
Inxariant crops. Pasture lands, ploughed up after other crops, will produce a 
large yield of good madder. Also swampy grounds, newly enclosed by levees, 
are especially suited for madder^ being loose and open, without hard crusts. 
These are richer in soluble salts than other grounds, and remain so for many 
years. If they should not produce well in the first year, it will be owing to 
their not being sufficiently tilled or properly drained. 

Light soils, having humus, easily drained, and not very fertile, may become 
suitable, and give rich crops by heavy manuring. But, generally, heavy grounds 
are, by their very nature, to be considered better adapted than light to this cul- 
tivation, providea they be carefully worked and dried. 

Old sous of proper underground are very good, and even light, sandy soils, 
having a rich subsoil, such as clay or humus layers, may give rich crops of 
madder. So in Haarlemnermenpolder the cultivation of madder proved Sdccess- 
fai. 

I St. Clay, light colored, underlaid with one Netherland yard of sea sand. 

^. Moorey and sandy clay, (mixed ground,) underlaid with 5 Netherland 
yard of clay, and a layer of sea sand. 

3d. Moorey sand, with one yard of clay. 

CHBHICAL EXAMINATION OF ZBALAND AND OTHBR MADDRR-PROUUCINO SOILS, 
AND THE RELATIONS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND FERTILITY. 

As there has been, until lately, but limited means of ascertaining the con- 
nexion between the chemical composition and fertility of soils, a strict and subtile 
analysis of samples would prove of very little utility. The inquiry must, there- 
fore, be confined to the most important object, that of ascertaining the quantity 
of solable ingredients — humus, moisture, clay, and sand. The following samples, 
taken from Dutch and French soils, were examined by Drs. Von Bemmdere and 
Vlaanderen : 

Sample No. 1. Swampy earth from the department of Vaucluse, probably 
from the Pains de Monteaux ; an oblong basin, which had formerly been reclaimed 
from the sea. There is a sediment of alluvial layers, containing remains of 
sweet water conchytes, mixed with humus and mud. The subsoil consists of 
coarse gravel, through which water constantly flows. This region is, by the 
snrronuding mountains, protected from violent winds. The drainage has natural 
outlets, which can be shut up in dry weather. It is a loose and crummy 
ground, resembling, in dry weather, a dusty heap of ashes. It was examined 
by Dr. L. Vlaanderen. The madder planted in the above-described soil is of a 
deep dark color, and a hectare will, on the average, yield 3,000 kilos of madder 
root in eighteen months. Less adapted to madder are the newer alluvial lands 
of the Rhone valley, and still less tnan these are the swampy grounds lying 
north o£ Orange, and near Tarascon, where only yellow, or at most rosy, madder 
grows. The above grounds are manured. 

No. 2. A fioil at Bromvershaven, within the old walls of the town, but beyond . 
iti building grounds. This soil is considered to be the best for this cultivation 
of the whole Schonwen, and on which the three years' variety has been suc- 
cessfully cultivated for t^nty years, with one single alternation of barley or 
rye. It ia enriched by sixty to seventy cart-loads of manure to each hectare of 
land The returns are rather curious. Even on the rich grounds of Schonwen, 

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242 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

and after thorough mannring, there is nothing eqaal to it. This soil is, by its 
dark color, different from idl ordinary soils on Schonwen and Tnid Beveland, 
heing very rich in humus. By more careful analysis it will be found to con- 
tain charcoal, fragments of shells, bricks, stones, and bones. All these were 
selected and set aside for examination. The ground, most probably, had once 
been covered with buildings. For a depth of one yard, instead of sand, are 
yellow clay and sand mixed ; rich and humid, but not at all wet. 

No. 3. A veiy light ground, consisting of sea sand, mixed with fragments of 
shells, in the Wilhelminapolder, enclosed by levees in the year 1809, and con- 
taining very little clay, even on the surface. 

No. 4 is a very good madder soil ; it is a sea-marsh 550 years old, and is 
called's Gravenpolder ; also enclosed by levees in 1809. The crop produced 
thereon in 1861 was 2,650 kilograms of madder-root per hectare. It is a 
loose, mucky sand soil, light-colored, which dries up into balls and clods con- 
taining a little clay, much humus, and retaining humidity more than mere sand 
soil No. 3. But both the two last specimens are inferior to No. 2. 

No. 5 is sand soil of the Zommenedepolder, diked A. D. 1425 ; planted 
with ** three-years madder," which had been manured three years before; half a 
yardjbeneath it was sea-weed and shells. This ground is quite open, well watered, 
and lies six palms above the level of the water. This soil is equal to No. 3, 
having had nfty loads of stable manure per hectare. 

No. 6 is an old clay soil, with a slight admixture of magnesia, lying on the 
Breedewatering — t. e., the oldest part of the Tynie Beveland, the nucleus of the 
island, surrounded by what lately were marshes. There is, besides 120 yards 
of white sand, a free, thick layer of heavy clay, planted with " three-years *' 
madder. The crops that preceded the madder were well manured, but the 
madder was not ; there is, however, ditch earth thrown on as a substitute. It 
is poorer in soluble salts than Nos. 2, 3, and 4 ; the 0.3 per cent, of carbonate of 
lime gained by the analysis is to be ascribed to some fragments of shells found 
therein. This is darker- colored, and is richer in humus and humidity, and, of 
course, of good quality. 

No. 7, clay, from the Wilhelminapolder, analyzed by Dr. 0. L. Vlaanderea 
in 1857, together with its subsoils, is equal to the clay of No. 10, and becomes 
very fertile, and is by far the best madder grown when well drained. 

No. 8. This is a heavy clay soil, out of the Wilhelminapolder, of a uniform 
color, and almost without veins. Though the layers of clay are thick and 
heavy, they show in the deeper parts some red veins. These lands have, by 
good tilling and draining, produced excellent crops of " thr^e-years " madder. 
For madder they require manure, but not for grain. 

No. 9. This is a lighter clay soil, at Scrooskerke, on Schonwen, of darker 
color than sandy clay soils generally are ; at eight palms in depth it becomes 
sand mixed with fragments of shells, and is well drained, but does not yield 
very rich crops of madder, and is not, therefore, considered well adapted to it. 
Mere madder is raised in the neighborhood on another clay soil of a darker 
color than the above, having, at eight palms below, sandy clay, but not sand ; 
being humid, yet letting off the water quite fipeely. 

No. 10. This is a very good madder soil,* of clay, not very heavy, near Noor- 
dwelle ; one of the oldest soils gained by levees, yet, at 0.75 depth, containing 
clay ^nd sand only, and is planted with ** three-years madder." 

No. 11. This soil is lying near the former^and is of heavier and stiffer clay ; 
subsoil brown, colored with many moory spots and strips, showing no sand 
even at 1.1 in depth ; it dries very hard ; the yield is less than on a neighboring 
soil, where, at 0.6 yard depth, sand appears ; no brown veins or spots are to be 
seen, and the water passing freely through it. In r^ny weather it is not so 
easily handled as No. 10, the latter, however, not Deing an unfruitful soil. 
The madder-roots, while penetrating well enough^ do not sufficiently spread ; 

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DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 243 

bnt for gram this soil is well adapted, as might be expected from a clay soil 
containing chalk. 

No. 12. This is a clay ground, in the new Perpoucher-polder, diked in 1846 ; 
of homogeneous rose-color, and thickness of 1.2 — 1.3 yards, decreasing to 6 
palms ; at another place it contains fragments of shells ; in the underground,, 
white sea-sand. The level of the water is quite low here. This is also ma- 
nnred, (40 cart-loads per hectare,) and yields excellent crops. In this neighbor- 
hood are very heavy clay soils, letting the water off with the difficulty, and, of 
coarse, not adapted to madder, but may be well prepared for it by good tillage 
and drainage. 

Of these kinds of soils, more or less detailed analyses have been made. Of 
Nos. 1 and 7, Dr. Ylaanderen has determined the mineral parts soluble in muri- 
atic acid, with loss by heat and humidity, but the amount of clay and sand has 
not been defined. From the quantity of potash, magnesia, and alum-earth 
thereby solved, it seems that the muriatic acid used by him was very weak. 

Of Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12, by Dr. Van Bammerlen, the ingredients soluble 
in weak acetic acid were (besides the loss by burning and humidity) defined. 

Of Nos. 1, 2, and 12, besides the mineral parts, (after having extracted with 
acetic acid,) are soluble in boiling muriatic acid. Then of 1 and 2 ; the quantity 
of dissolvable portions (clay and the finest sand) is salinous acid, and to be 
(after extracting with muriatic acid) solved in boiling carbonic soda; and, 
fioally, exposed to nitric acid by.Boussingault's method. 

Of Nos. 6, 9, and 10, the chalk magnesia, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, 
(soluble in boiling muriatic acid) have been defined. The results of this analysis 
are to be found in tabular statements I and U. By extracting with acetic acid 
we are enabled to learn the soluble matter, i. e., the bases and acids, soluble in 
water; thus, sulphuric and muriatic compbunds, the bases resting on or- 
ganic acids, such as the humus acids, the siuts soluble in carbonic waters, like 
chalk and magnesia. At last, from alum-earth becoming solved, besides more of 
potash, soda, chalk, and magnesia, combined sulphuric, muriatic, carbonic, 
and phosphoric acids, there appears that part of the silicioua compounds (zeo- 
Hthes) which are also solved in acetic acid. 

We can, doubtless, no better learn precisely the soluble matter of a soil 
which serves to nourish the roots of the plants than by the contracting agency 
of acetic acid. Short of this, water would not furnish the means of solving 
either the phosphoiic acid, or the chalk and magnesia ingredients, as well by 
acetic acia as by the sediment water. Although we cannot possibly tell 
what quantity must be yearly in store to nourish the roots, as this depends more 
on goad tilling, rain, warmth, &c., yet we may be sure that the more food for the 
plants the soil contains, the more the acetic acid will evolve. 

By defining the quantity of humidity still remaining in the samples of soil, 
after drying in the air, we can, by comparison, perceive what sample will more 
quickly dry up, and what retain humidity in its natural state, under similar cir- 
cumstances. By ascertaining the loss in weight that the soil loses after glow- 
ing, we can ascertain what kind contains the most humus. 

To come to a right understanding of what kind of soil is the most valuable, 
the most important step will be to define the quantities of soluble salts, humus, 
humidity and clay; provided that location, kind of subsoil, water outlets, 
sublets, degree of mellowness, tillage, &c., at the same time be taken into con- 
sideration. Of the examined soil planted with madder we may compare those 
of table III, in which the most important ingredients are taken at rather a 
higher amount than it might be practically necessary. 

In grounds well adapted to madder there is but a small quantity of sulphu- 
ric acid and compounds of chlorine to be found. A large proportion being of 
no use, meanwhile, the larger percentage of soluble salts is of great utility. 
A large quantity of soluble salts is, indeed, greatly fertilizing, and mostly to 

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244 ANNUAL REPOST ON FOEEIGN COMMERCE. 

be fonnd in swampj groande. We find there, at once, more eulphniic acid, 
chlorine, potash, and soda, which can be extracted by a little water, than in 
other soils requiring acetic acid. No. 2, the clay ont of Bronwershaven is the 
best madder soil of Zealand, and to be rated, together with the clay of the Per- 
fincherpolder, the first in the list. Also, the fertile day of the Wilhelmina^ 
polder takes high rank and will be placed by analysis as No. 8, and the quan- 
tity of sulphuric acid found is also eight. After all, the soluble salts are, as a 
standard, to be considered the test of fertility. The fertile clay of Bronwers- 
haven is the first in the list YI ; the quantity thereof, 0.25, is even seven 
times greater than that of 4, 5, 6. The Perehoucherpolder contains phospho- 
ric acid soluble in acetic acid 0. 048 more than the others. 

The swamp earth contains so much of phosphoric acid and so little of oxides 
of iron, together with much chalk, that we are right in supposing it to contain 
much of phosphoric acid easily solved. 

Also in the Wilhelminapolder the whole quantity of phosphoric acid is suf- 
ficient to secure to it a good position. 

Since in its carbonates, though met with in madder soils, is not indispensable 
to good crops, chalk cannot always be found in the best madder lands unless we 
take swamp earth, of which it is the main ingredient. So clay No. 2 is more 
valuable, at least not less valuable than day No. 12, which contains more chalk, 
except the old clay of the Breedewatering and Goeschenpolder. Chalk is es- 
pecially found in young clay and sand ground. 

Clay BoilB. Carbonic acid. Chalks. 

Bronwershaven 3.45 4.76 

Perpoucherpolder 5.09 7.03 

Wilhelminapolder (VI) 2 7.26 

Wilhelminapolder 2.65 3.44 

Breedewatering, only single fragments of shells. 
Goeschepolder, not effervescing with adds. 

S'Gravenpolder 2.54 3.08 

Bouwenpolder 1.84 2.26 

Near Noordwelle 2.39 3.08 

Near Swoskevke 1.47 2.00 

Carbonate of lime being plentiful in new clay soil, decreases in older dry soil 
of the same thickness, but is sure to be met with in lighter day soil mixed with 
sand, as is everywhere to be fonnd on Schonwen. 

Carbonate of lime in the npper loQ. 

Bomenedepolder, sand soil, some pslmB thick Eveiywhere to be lound. 

Between ^ooskerke and Noordwelle, on the road Not present. 

Around Serooskerke, let sand claj, 8 palms thick To be found. 

2d sand clay, thicker layers Very little at surface; at 

0.5 more abundant. 
3d sand clay, heavier at 8 palms, sandy «... Present, more deep. 
Around Noordwelle, 1st clay, heavier and more than 1 yard thick. Present with fragments of 

shells. 

2d clay, lighter than 1 yard Present with more shells. 

Dateof 3d sand clay Do. with still more shells. 

endiklng. 

1331. Goeschepolder, clay more than one yard thick Not present, being at 0.5 

depth. 

1370. Oosterlandpolder, sand clay, at 0.5 sand Do. 

(a) Broad Watering, at Kurr Avendskerke, clay pretty 

hea^ and tmck Not present. 

(ft) Under Flooking, clay thick, 1.20 Do. 

1561. Oude Faayert, thin layer sand clay Do. 

1642. West Faayert, thin layer sand clay, 0.4 Do. 

1676. Nieuwe West Fraagret, very thin layer sand day, 0.17 Do. 

1808. Wilhelminapolder, heavy clay, sand clay, sea sand .^. Everywhere present. 

1846. Perpoucherpolder, heavy clay, sea sand Do. 

Kaarlemmermenpolder, (a) C lay light-colored Do. 

(6 ) Mixed soil of moor clay and sand Not present. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 245 

As in the Breedewatering and Gonchenpolder good madder is produced, 
it is evident that a greater quantity of carbonate of lime is not an indispensa- 
Ue requirement. 

Sand soils contain more of carbonate of lime than heavier clay grounds of 
the aame age, without, therefore, being more fertile than the latter. These soils, 
lioweTer, are, at large, less fertile than soils younger and richer in carbonate of 
lime. Heavy clay soil of older date generally lacks carbonate of liqie, while 
sand soil, mixed with clay especially, often shows fragments of shell tilled in 
the top soil. 

At fast we come to the conclusion that, for cultivating madder, carbonate of 
lime is and may become a very useful quality of any soil, especially of real 
daj ground, without, however, being indftpensable. We can easily find, in 
chemically analyzing soils, analogous instances where different kinds of earths, 
Hke chalk, magnesia/ clay, &c., seem to be alternately substitute for each 
other. 

AMOUNT OF HUMUS AND COLOR LOST BY GLOWING. 

Next to a really good quality, it is apparent that a great amount of humus 
and dark color is to be considered one of the predominant ingredients of good 
madder ground. But for the remarkable instance of the fresh clay of Per- 
foncherpolder being of light color, and showing, nevertheless, great loss of hu- 
mns by burning, dark-colored soil, rich in humus, will be always coincident, 
and proportionate one to the other ; and, further, dark garden soils being generally 
the richest in nitric acid and ammonia, nitric acid (so exquisitely fertilizing 
ingredients) will also be found proportionate to darkness of color. 

80 there is more of nitric acia in No. 1 than in the lightest soil of No. 2. 

No. 1 is 0.00985 per cent, (according to two concurrent computations.) 

No. 2 is 0.00660 per cent, (according to same). 

The light-colored clay holding sand soils, Fraazertpolders, are not so good 
as those of Serooskerke, the latter being rich in humus. 

On the Haarlemmermeerpolder, a black soil of moor mixed with sand and 
clay, the most humus was found. For this reason we ought not to indulge in 
special conclusions from the amount of clay and sand. GUy soil of otherwise 
good composition is by its very nature more fertile than sand and seasoned 
^ik; the former rendering, without manuring, richer crops with common 
plants as well as of madder. But, as appears from the given tabular statement, 
loadder grows well on those grounds, provided that other circumstances are fa- 
vorable. 

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF MADDER LANDS. 

All soils examined have, from their high location, a good drainage, except 
those of the Breedewatering, where the water is ' of medium level. Swamp 
earth, while easily drained, has, by layers of pebble stones, an additional nat- 
ural dnunage. The soils of Zealand, as far as they are sand soils, are pervious 
to water, and are generally covered with a layer of clay earth some palms 
thick ; their being still heavier and thicker and well drained, at the same time 
constitute a very fertile soil, as in the Wilhelminapolder. On Schonwen 
madder is only cultivated on grounds of higher location, the lower ones of the 
^land are used for raising hay, and the farmers even of the higher regions hav- 
ing their bay grounds in the lower parts. 

Soils more or less stiff, underlaid with impervious strata, ought not to be cul- 
tivated with madder. 

We therefore conclude — 

1. That the kind of soil requisite must be loose, open, and self-draining. 

2. That the subsoil should not be stiff, and must do everywhere pervious to 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



246 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

3. That the water level of the land muBt be such as to permit high ground 
for cultivation. 

The latter two points not being everywhere attainable, soils unfavorably lo- 
cated must not be used for cultivating madder ; as to the first, there is usually 
much care and industry to be used in this cultivation, by means of the ground's 
being turned up by digging out the grown madder, generally, as far as six palms, 
or l| to m feet ; then, before planting, deeply tilled and ploughed, thoroughly 
rolled and harrowed, to a degree proportionate to the nature of the subsoil, m 
order to obtain an excellent condition of the upper soil. 

Such is the character of the soil of No. 11 ; for other purposes being 
rich and fertile, yet by its stiffness and closeness by far less adapted to the 
cultivation of madder. The same inay be said of the loose soils of the same 
locality, a deficiency, however, that could be well removed by drainage and 
better cultivation. # 

A certain degree of humidity (series IX) is very useful, and will be mostly 
found in soils containing humus and clay, especially in those containing both 
these ingredients in moderate quantities, or of a deep humus layer, in diy 
weather self-draining, and in wet imbibing humidity. 

Such soils, mostly retaining humidity, are Nos. 2 and 12 in our table. The 
other would be better if they contained larger quantities of humus and clay, 
and were better adapted to holding water, provided they were well drained. 
Generally the degree of humidity can be well ascertained on the spot. And 
that soil will be the best which contains clay, many soluble salts, carbonate of 
lime, much soluble phosphoric acid, much humus, and which lose by glowing 
five, or at least four, per cent., retaining at the same time humidity in dry 
weather, and being loose, open, and draining itself well. For this reason No. 
2 is the best, then No. 12 ; No. 9 inferior to No 10, the former having far less 
quantities of lime, magnesia, phosphoric acid, and loses less by burning, is not 
well adapted for the three years* madder, but well calculated to produce the 
two years' growth of 1,700 to 1,900 kilogrammes per hectare. 

DIQUING AND MANURING MADDER LANDS IN CONNEXION WITH CHEMICAL 
COMPOUNDS AND FERTILITY. 

Ploughing, digging, and tilling of madder lands, as well as the quantities of 
stable manure they receive, aie very different in the different localities. The 
influence of chemical compounds and physical condition of the soil in fertility 
is difficult precisely to determine. It is, therefore, more expedient separately 
to inquire into the influences of digging and manuring upon fertility. 

On Schonwen, as well as on Zuid Beveland, the ground is deeply ploughed, 
and more deeply the heavier the soils are. 

Wilhelminapolder 0.25 to 0.30 yard. 

Brommenedepolder 0.35 

C (a) 0.6 
Haarlemmermer, double ploughed and turned up < (b) 0.6 

i (c) 0.35 to 0.40 



In the Anna Parilonna island, where the ground being deeply ploughed, 
gives excellent returns, while on Eyerland, where ploughing is shallo^v, the 
madder is bad, short, woolly, and yielding but few sprouts. Hence deep dig- 
ging and stirring up the ground to several palms will, in time, add a great deal 
to its fertility. 

Manuring. — On Schonwen, Zuid Beveland, and Haarlemmermer, the qua-ntity 
of stable manure brought upon the ground ranges from 40 to 70 cart-loads per 
hectare, generally used immediately before planting madder, which yields re- 
turn in 7, 9, or 10, and in rare cases 14 years ; taking two or three years for the 



Jigitized by V^jO' 



I years : 



DOMINIONS OP THE NETHERLANDS. 247 

madder planted, and 4, 6, 7, following, during which time wheat, rye, barley' 
peas, beans, potatoes, &c. are cultivated, and manuring repeated once or twice* 
As to soil fit for madder without fertilization, there are clay grounds newly en- 
diked giving two or three crops. Lighter soils being, after barley, used for 
madder, must always have from 35 to 40 cart-loads of stable manure, but are, 
even if well managed, never so fertile as heavy clay soil and those soils more 
abundant in humus, or of a rich subsoil. The influence of manuring on fertility 
may be seen in table IV, as far as it can approximately be defined. The 
grounds of Schonwen, though greatly varying in richness of clay, humus, and 
lime, are of great comparative value when equally well cultivated and managed, 
while in Zuid Beveland a very different mode of manuring has been adopted ; 
generally no manure has been applied immediately before planting, but at some 
period during the following four or five years, so that the higher fertility of the 
Boil of Schonwen, in proportion to that of Zuid Beveland, may well be ascribed 
to the irregular mode of manuring and cultivating practiced in the latter. 

WANTS OF MADDER LANDS IN CULTIVATION, AND SOILS BEST ADAPTED TO IT. 

In order to arrive at a final conclusion of our inquiries, it will be expedient to 
compare the chemical ingredients and madder roots with those of the soils used 
for their cultivation. For that purpose we must hold that the ingredients consti- 
tnting the plants must be found in the soil, water and air, and those ingredients 
under the name of earth, iu the soil alone. Whether such kinds of earths, like 
day, Ume and magnesia, may be substituted one for the other, cannot well be 
determined : 1. Because the very chemical processes entered into in the foima- 
tion of plants from soil are yet a scientific mystery; and, 2. Because in all of 
these earths small particles of the others are found mixed in the natural state ; 
and lastly, in all cases of cultivating plants, some ingredients, wanting in the 
Boil, may be added by the manure. In this respect only such grounds as are 
able without manuring produce one or two crops. Some light may be thrown 
on the ultimate connexion between the chemical compounds of soil and the 
nature of plants, but the chemical quality of soil and plants will be found to 
correspond ; some of them, however, being considered the production of chemical 
processes entered into and working in the soil itself during the period of growth. 
In this view a very important ingredient of madder is lime ; as it is a consti- 
tuent part of the ashes of the roots, its source is undoubtedly to be sought in 
the soil. All good madder grounds contain it ; but not sand soils, if without 
day or fragments of shells. This is, however, of no importance to the question, 
for such lands will never be suitable to madder without manuring; ana by this 
means some chalk may always be added to the soil. Besides, the scientific 
piroofs given by Mr. Boussingault and Mr. Dechevain of the effects of lime upon 
rich humus earth producing ammonia and nitric acid by chemical process and 
making soluble phosphoric acid are not to be omitted. 

As to the wants of the madder plants cultivated for the roots only and their 
dyeing properties, it is.apparent that all conditions favorable to the development 
of the main and side roots in width, as well as in depth, will also be favorable 
to the general purposes of cultivation. All need feeding from the soil ; all 
Btones impeding and restraining development of the roots must be carefully 
removed, and care taken that the soil be deeply cultivated, be loose and rich iu 
solnble salts, lime, phosphorus, ammonia, nitre, &c., to raise crops of 2,000 to 
3,000 kilos per hectare. Whereas for grain manuring is often unnecessary or 
even disadvantageous, especially on rich clay grounds, but for madder the richest 
soils niay still be improved by manuring. To all grounds that do not contain 
Hme, it must be added. The richest madder lands are those of the Netherlands 
province of Groningen, and Alsace in France, having a good deal of lime or its 
carbonate, the former thirteen per cent., the latter ten per cent. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



248 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COlfMEBCE. 



The amount of aehes of madder-root is given hj the following figures : 

Madder-root dried at 100^, examined by Dr. Fischlin 8.2 

Avignon madder 8.1 — 8.3 

Alsace madder « 6.3 — 6J5 

Levant madder 9.8 

Average 8 per cent. 

At the average of 8 per cent., 2,000 kilos of madder contain 160 kilos of 
ashes, and 3,000 kilos of roots 240 kilos of ashes. 



Madder ashes, according to Dr. Olsardingen's analysis of 100 
kilos. 



I! 
It 



isi 



I 



CO 



Potash 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Phosphoric acid 
Sulphuric acid.. 



25.42 
15.84 

O.ll 
13.62 

3.27 



KUoB. 

40.7 

25.3 

1.7 

21.8 

5.2 



Kilo$. 
61.0 

38.0 

2.6 

32.0 

7.8 



KUeg. 
80.7 
50.6 
3.4 
43.6 
10.4 



The following analysis instituted by Mr. Fischlin and Dr. Oloanderen gives — 




ALSACE MADDER. 


Zealand 




L 


n. 


madder. 


Potash 


29.35 
15.89 
34.54 
3.72 
1.10 
5.26 
4.71 
3.60 
L64 


26.64 

11.67 

29.25 

3.68 

3.36 

4.62 

13.25 

2.14 

5.36 


25.42 


Soda 


21.91 


Lime .................... .... .......................... 


18.84 


Mafi^nesfa 


0.11 


Oxide of iron. ...... .... ...... .......................... 


10.18 


Phosphoric acid 


13 €2 


Chloncie of sodium ....r..,^. .... .^^.^....^..r^^^.T-^^-r-r 


7.72 


SulDhuric acid .................... ............ .......... 


3.27 


Siluricacid 


10.87 







Out of the figures of the ahove analyses, it is apparent that grain and other 
plants may he raised on the ground as well as madder — the latter depriving 
the soil of no more ingredients than the foriper — provided, however, that this 
loPS to be sustained by the soil from madder is upon two and mostly three 
years' growth, and is partly returned with the leaves, which are a useful manure. 

VARIETIES OF MADDER. 

Varieties in the scientific sense are not known in madder, the plant as such 
and its parts seem to be the same in species everywhere, but varies in the roots 
as to thickness, richness, in garancine or other dyeing ingredients. These differ 
in commerce in terms like " schoves,'' prime and secondary crops, ombiD, little 
ombro, gamenes, overstumped, mulls, roots, &c., designating thereby also ho^r 
far the roots brought into market are more or less ground or otherwise worked 
upon i then among farmers they are known by denominations, such as sweet 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 249 

ones, eeedliDgs, WOhelmstadtape, (grown near WilhelmBtadt,) tough ones, &c. 
For further information on this head we refer to the " Netherlandish Handels- 
gazjn," translated in the appendix. 

As to the relations of sou to the different varieties in the above sense, there is 
one instance to be mentioned on' the authority of Mr. Trausen vander Putte. 
The "tough" variety of madder wants a heavy clay; the Wilhelmstadters 
and sweet ones a lighter ground. In this case all the four varieties will get the 
most dye and the l^t kind of red color. Without such choice of soil there 
will be no such success. This, of course, would tell, for natural varieties may 
still be increased from different causes, climate as well as peculiarities of soil 
being likely to produce other and new varieties in other regions where the culti- 
vation may be conducted, and perchance natural ones may be discovered. 

We should bear in mind that the process of the growing, apparently so simple 
to an inexperienced eye, is as dependent on manifold agencies of soil, water, air, 
sunlight, electricity, &c., as to make us distrustful of the results of our scien- 
tific research, as rather the general features only of a subtile and richly com- 
bined system of vital powers. The following will hold good for the most prac- 
tical purposes of agriculture : 

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF MADDBR LAND. 

The ground must be loose, crumbly, soil, open, and for a considerable depth 
free of pebbles, not having any stiff and impervious sub-soil ; the earth should 
not be adhesive, sticking to the tools, ploughs, and harrows. It must have as good 
a drainage bb not to permit the soil to be wet, but only humid; that humidity is 
to be maintained, as grounds rich in humus possess it and clay grounds retain 
it longer than sandy lands. The water-level in such grounds ought to be such 
that uie beds are at least half an ell above the high tide. Care should also be 
taken for due access of air as far as it can be gained by looseness and openness 
of the soiL The soil must be rather warm, as la observed on grounds araining 
themselves well, being black and rich with humus. The planting and sprouting 
ground must be deep, so as to enable the roots to penetrate and absorb sap and 
nourishment. 

CHEMICAL COMPOUND. 

A great deal of soluble salts (of which 0.8 per cent, can be extracted from 
swamp earth by water) remains of water shells, hydratic silicates of zeolites. 

A great deal of phosphoric atid, easilv soluble. 

Manv salts of ammonia and nitric acid. 

Mucn humus, (5 or 6 per cent or more,) giving the earth a darker color. 
Lime and its carbonate are important as an agency, facilitating the chemical 
operations in the soil. 

A soil comprising all these qualities united mav give crops of 3,000 kilos 
of madder to tne hectare every three years, provided that there is due manuring, 
and will return the plant in seven years or less. 

The turning over of old soils somewhat exhausted, as well as new ones of 
tighter nature, will always be useful, especially when the subsoil is rich in 
Blaster, clay, salt of commerce, and sea salt Thus blue gypsum clay in the 
Netherlands is particularlv valued for that purpose. 

Among the facts proved by experience and scientific examination are that the 
differences of climate and ccimpounds of soil in different countries] will tend to 
produce varieties of a certain plant, as well as give vigor or weakness of growth, 
richness or lack of those qualities that are peculiarly sought for in this cultiva- 
tion. All the inquiries made in our country can only furnish general rules and 
naeftil hints as to the mode of culture, and choice of soil to be adopted in other 
coiintries, and cannot excuse agriculturists and chemists of other countries 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



250 ANNUAL SEPORT ON FOBEIQN COMMERCE. 

from investigations in their respective conntries. Among the general problems 
to be solved are questions like the following : 

1st. How far is lime a necessity, and how great is the quantity required ? 

2d. How much salts of ammonia and nitric acid ought the soil to contain in 
order to produce good crops ? 

3d. What chemical compounds, or physical state of the soil, will especially 
have influence upon the quantity as well as the quality of the dye ? 

A proper co-operation in synthetical experiments upon growing plants and 
analytic chemicid examination of samples of soils used for madder will produce 
good results, peculiarly beneficial to the respective countries. I also call atten- 
tion to the inquiry, what especial powers are to l)e found in a certain soil for 
either fixing the bases, like potash, or solving like lime, soda, magnesia, or those 
agents evolving ammonia and nitric acid by the aid of lime» &c» are objects well 
worth being known. 

SYNTHETICAL EXPERIMENTS. 

In synthetical experiments the method generally adopted was to put the 
plant to be experimented on in pure water, or in artificial ground loose and 
porous, and by itself entirely sterile, and then add the different salts and earths 
in quantities precisely weighed, in order to observe leaves, stems, and roots, 
and how they grow, work, develop, and watch the absorption of the added ingre- 
dients, and the production of new ones. Thus Mr. H. has found the following 
necessary conditions of soil to produce the richest crops of madder : 

1. Of soluble nourishment there must be a positive quantity in the ground 
of v^ per cent. 

2l The necessary soluble minerals must be present in equal proportions. 

3. There must be soluble assimilating compounds of nitrogen present in the 
soil. 

The quantity of nitrogen in proportion to all other minerals in the soil must 
be as ^ to 1. 

For clover. — 1. The salts of lime must prevail over alkalies in the mineral 
food of the plants. 

2. Nitrogen must be offered in the form as compound of phosphoric acid and 
sulphate of ammonia. 

3. The mineral food added together must amount to one-quarter per cent, of the 
general mass. 

4. The proportion of nitrogen to be present in proportion to other minerak 
must be as 1 to 5. 

It will be evident at the first glance how useful a similar standard, obtained 
by subtile scientific experiments, would be to the cultivation of madder ; but as 
a singular fact developed in the above experiments, we may mention that they 
failed always under the same conditions under which thev otherwise yielded 
good crops, if lupines were sown together with barley or clover in the experi- 
mental ground — an instance of striking significance of how subtile agencies 
influence the growing plants, and must be taken into consideration. 

But to adopt a plan of scientific inquiry in connexion with practical a^- 
culture, the climate of the United States presents no obstacle (except in some 
northern districts) to the cultivation of madder. First determine, by planting it 
in different localities, what soils are best adapted to the purpose, and which will 
make the richest dye and largest roots, and fittest for producing certain colors. 
We do not doubt that on American soils, as in Bifferent European coantries* 
there will appear peculiar varieties of madder. Then the precise chemical 
analysis of the roots, as well as of the earths, and phvsical exploration of the 
soil, atmosphere, electricity, &c., should follow, in order to come to an under- 
standing of what chemical qualities of the roots have an affinity to certain loca 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DOMINIONS OP THE NETHERLANDS. 251 

agencies of soil and climate and their initiate, in view of conclaBions thns ob- 
tained, productive experiments, by planting and artificially feeding madder in 
water and unfertile earth. 

To improve the quality of the roots, or elevate uncertain varieties to fixed 
ones, what Darwin would call " species," the principles of that scholar should 
be followed, viz., select the single crops most successful in richness of dye, or 
dye for certain colors. Select among these the most vigorous single plants or 
roots, and use those only for seedlings, selecting among the offshoots of those 
seedlings in the same way, besides keeping the soil in a rich and good state. 
This process may be continued to the highest development of the plant, modi- 
fied as to the different purposes aimed at to supply uie wants of the manufac- 
turers. 

CULTIVATION OF MADDER IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In relation to cultivating madder in the United States, I am pleased to call 
attention to the advantages of swamp ground and sea marsh — ^lands but scantily 
and slowly settled firom their unfitness for crops of the first year. Those very 
grounds we may consider the best adapted to madder, without manuring for 
two or three years, and need to be tilled only in the spring. Intelligent and 
enterprising farmers may go on reclaiming large tracts of such grounds, to be 
met with in all, especially in the southern, States — South Carolina, Florida, 
Louisiana, and the aistricts of the lower Mississippi valley. 

One spring they can start the first cultivating process, then, in the ensuing 
one, throw earth upon the beds ; and at last, after three, four, or ^ve years, dig 
out the roots, and leave the ground during three or four years under the care of 
persons well acclimated, that they may remain continuously on the spot. By 
and by, those grounds would be redeemed for settlers, and climate improved by 
the very cultivation, and then the raising of other products may follow; 
madder thus playing the part of pioneer plant. The countries or districts where 
madder has been especially cultivated, besides the Netherlands, are France, 
Silesia, Greece, Smyrna, England, (unsuccessfully,) Spain, Palestine, Brunswick, 
Hungary, northern Africa. 

As to manu&u^turing garancine, the principal dye produced from madder, 
valuable details are given in the appendix. 

From what I could learn from personallv visiting garancine manufactories and 
conversing with their managers, 1 think the germs or sprouts best to be used for 
planting are those of Italy and the south of France, especially those from the 
city of Avignon. It is a strange fact that wild plants, found abundantly in 
some regions of the Caucasian mountains of the new Russian southern prov- 
inces, are as valuable and rich in garancine as those improved by cultivation in 
Italy and the south of France. The importance of garancine for dyeing linen, 
wool, and cotton, especially in red and violet colors, is very remarkable for its 
durability and indelibility, even with washing with soap in hot water. The 
limits of chemical combinations in this respect are not yet closed ; and it will be 
of great practical value to find out new modes of dyeing by new chemical com- 
binations of garancine. As to economical manufacturing, an extra profit is 
gained by using the " sugar " (resulting from the treatment of the root with 
sulphuric acid and washing out in purifying the garancine) in distillation of 
spirits. For that purpose, I saw a machine brought into coimexion with the 
steam engine of the manufactory, working continually without much help from 
manual labor, and saving the gauging by indicating regularly the specific proof 
of the alcohol. At the purchase of roots the manufacturers have to take great 
care, the real quantity of garancine showing a considerable difference in the 
different crops of roots ; and a chemical examination of lots offered to them before 
the purchase might save great loss. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



252 ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Generally, the cultivation of madder, bb well as the manafactore of garancine, 
are in Europe considered very profitable pursuits; the first hj making a good 
use of claj soil, often unfit for other crops in the first year of the dealing, and 
demanduig little labor. 

The improbability of any other dye being substituted for garancine makes the 
demand for this article permanent, and requiring generally a mild southern or 
middle and humid climate, the most desirable for the cultivation of this root, 
the improvement of which cannot fail to ensue when adapted to American soil 
and climate. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHEBLANDS. 



253 



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It 



It 



i 

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II 



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I 



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liil 

dddd 






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Digitized by V^OOQIC 



254 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEIQN COMHESCE. 



Statement shotoing the analysis of specimens of madder soil. 





No. 8. 


No. 9. 


No. 10. 


Ingredients soluble in mu- 
riatic acid, boiling. 


Wilhelminapolder. 
Heavy clay. 


Near Serooskerke. 
Sandy ground. 


Near Norwelle. 
Sandy groand. 


Chalk 


3.44 

1.29 

2.65 

0.128 

0.21 

5.6 

4. 


2. 

0.68 
1.47 
0.077 
0.1 

3.08 
2.8 


3.08 


Magnesia ^ ^ .. ............ 


1. 


Carbonic acid. •...••...... 


2.39 


Sulphuric acid ............ 


0.09 


Phosphoric acid. .......... 


0.15 


Loss by glowing. .......... 


3.8 


Humidity 


3.5 







Statement showing the analyses of specimens of madder soils. 



Place of origin. 


Kind of SOU. 


1 


Salts soluble in acetic 
acid after separating 
carbonic acid. 


1 


Phosphoric acid sol- 
uble in acetic. 
Phosphoric acid in 
total. 


o 
-5) 


1*^ 


1 

1 


No. 1. Paludal earth 




1 
1 


1 
2 


1 
3 


1 
2 


1 
2 








No. 2. Near Brauwershaven 


Clay 


1 


1 


1 


No. 12. Perpoucherpolder 

No. 8. Wilhelminapolder 


Clay 

Heavy clay. 


2 
3 


1 


2 
4 


3 


3 
3 


1 
2 


1 

1 


• 
• 


No. 10. Near Nordwelle 


Sand soil... 


3 




4 


.... 


4 


4 


2 


3 


No. 4. S'Gravenpolder 


...do 


4 


3 


4 


4 


.... 


4 


4 


4 


No. 5. Bommenedepolder 


...do (light) 
Sea sand... 


4 


4 


5 


5 


.... 


6 


4 


5 


No. 3. Wilhelminapolder 

No. 9. Near Serooskerke 


5 


3 


3 


4 


6 


6 


5 


5 


Sandy soil.. 


5 or 6 




6 


.... 


5 


5 


3 


3 


No. 6. Breedewatering 


Clay 


• 2 


3 


7 


4 





3 


3 


2 



Notes. — Paludal earth, aeasoned, and sand soilg the moii open. 
The clay of the Breedewatering is the least open. 
The heavy day loosened by drainage and tillage. 
* Reddish. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERtANDS. 



255 



.3 



-5^ 



O 
•S 



Sa 




Digitized by V^OOQ I 



^e 



256 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COKUEROE. 

[Translation of an extract from the Netherlandisli Handehnagazine. Aitide Erap.] 

In English, madder ; in French, garance ; in Italian, robbia ; in Spanifih, granga ; 
the whole, or dried root, that comes from the Levant, as well as from Avignon, 
in South France, is called in commerce alizari and lizari, to distinguish them from 
grance, or meekrapp, the ground madder. The ends of roots of madder {lying 
horizontially in the earth ) bend naturally on a curve as far as the surface, 
where the green, herbaceous, four-edged stems, that used to lie down in their 
weakness, spring up of themselves; they gather no nourishment from the 
soil, in no portion of which will the green plant be found to grow. The middle 
stock of the madder-root, usually not thicker than a quill, rarelj exceeds the 
size of the little finger, and is knotty and articulate ; externally covered with 
a reddish-brown skin, under which lies the fleshy, dark-yellow parts of the root« 
(called sometimes "schoras,") including the wood-like pith, always of a pale 
color. It tastes bitter, some whatastringent, when chewed; coloring the spittle 
red, and even th^ milk, hair, and bones of animals fed on it. This is a known 
quality also of the roots of the real "walstroo," though in lighter shades ; the roots 
of madder lasting through several years, and shooting up a new stem every year, 
which grows three to four feet, rough, and bearing lancet-shaped leaves, usually 
sixtogether at a point, on the ends of which are the blossoms, with a four or five 
toothed calix, and a similar crown of yellow-greenish color. The fruit is double, 
blackish, with a smooth, glossy berry. Tjbe whole plant {mhia tinctorum) b^ 
longs to the first order of the fourth class of Linnseus. 

« COUNTRIES PRODUCING MADDER. 

Madder grows wild, especially in southern Europe, on fences, &;c., also in 
Leon and Old Castile, in Spain, and near Montbelaird, Avignon, and in Alsace* 
particularly in the environs of Muhlhausen, Hagenaw, and in Normandy, in 
France ; also near Hassell, in Belgium ; in Italy and Turkey it is especially 
cultivated ; on the island of Schonwen, in Lienburg, and many other places 
in the Netherlands ; in Baden, Wurtembei^, Bavaria, Styria, Garinthia, Mora- 
via, Bohemia, Silesia, Brandenburg, the Prussian provinces. Saxony, Bruns- 
wick, Electorate Hessia, Hungary, of the German and Austrian states ; also 
in the Turkish countries of Boeotia and Thessalia, and on the Greek islands 
of the Levant ; on the Caucasus and on the Asiatic slope in Russia. 

The cultivation of madder is managed in a very different way in different 
countries; and in northern countries it requires much care and knowledge. In 
southern countries it is raised from seed, but in northern ones frx>m seedlings, 
(4|prouts.) The latter are found in beds of spring plantations, horn, which tbey 
are taken from the commencement to the middle of May, and transplanted into 
beds newly prepared. These beds may be laid out in good sandy soils, as well 
as in rich ones ; the latter having received twice as much manure as when des- 
tined for wheat, and been ploughed over since the autumn three times, the last 
time to the depth of fifteen to eighteen inches. As in spring, the beds are again 
turned up in the fall, by a double standing fork, with prongs of three inches 
in breadth. Then the first row of roots is laid out, not further than a finger's 
breadth apart, for a distance of ten or twelve feet, leaving a space of fr-om 
fourteen to eighteen inches between the rows. In dry weather, water made rich 
ought to be poured on the beds, to enable the fibres of the root to take imme- 
diately in the ground. From four to six weeks afterwards the stalks, grown 
from six to eight inches high, are put under the gix)und so as to leave not more 
than from two to three inches of the tops free and visible, and the beds covered 
with one to one and a half inch of earth. In winter, if not severe, there is 
no need of labor except covering the beds with long manure straw. In Feb- 
ruary or March, before revival of vegetation, the beds are again carefully covered 
over with earth taken from the intervals between the rows, while the roots of 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. ^57 

all peFeniiial graesee should be removed. This mode of cultivating seems gener- 
allj to be in vogue. 

DRYING THE ROOTS. 

This is done in stoves, in order to remove as much as possible the humidity. 
For the first stamping and drjing of 200 pounds, the expenses are estimated at ten 
francs; and to reduce 1,000 pounds of gi-een roots into 200 pounds of dry ones, 
the labor of one hand only is required, and the use of a white-oak wood fire. 
Generally there are from 500 to 550 pounds of green roots contained in 10& 
pounds of dry. Thus dryed they are taken by the producer to the manufacturer 
in November or December. In the year 1835, the product of 35 kilos brought 
40 to 48 francs. 

Madder is brought to market cither in the roots whole, or ground. The 
grmding is done in a particular kind of mills. Ground madder smells strongly ; . 
has a sajSron-Iike appearance, most like the roots ; when rubbed on paper gently, 
adheres and leaves a fine light spot if of good quality. 

100 pounds of dried roots yields 83 to 84 pounds of ground madder, FF. ; 
3 to 4 pounds of middling; 5 to 6 pounds of mullen (crumbs;) and 6 per 
cent, evaporated in working. The wages for grinding and expense of packing 
amount, on an average, to 3 or 4 francs for 50 kilos. 

The different kinds are, Levantine madder, called also Smyrna or Turkish', 
which is brought to market only in whole roots. It is richest in its dye ; a fact 
attributable to the roots not being taken out until five or six years df age. Af- 
rican madder is equal to the Levantine madder, and comes via Tripoli to Europe. 
The Netherland madder is sent to market only in a ground state, and is highly 
esteemed for its quality and excellent preparation. The secondary kinds of it are — 

1. The " onberoofde" (fine trap) is the pith of the root. 

2. The " gemeene" is the skin or bark around the pith. 

3. The " onberoofde*' is the whole root stamped together. 

4. "Twee and een," two-thirds fine and one-third common mixed. 

5. " Een and een," half fine, half common mixed. 

6. •* Mullen" is the refuse or trash. 

7. " Overgestampte mullen" is the same as the latter, but stamped a second 



8. " Stoofvaageel" is the dirt that is swept together in the drying stove, and 
added to the mill madder or sold sepai*ately. 

9. " Molenvaagsel" is the refuse of madder put up in barrels and sold se]^^ 
rately. The English denominations of the Dutch secondary qualities are only 
mutilations of Dutch names. By an instruction of 1813, the oarrels shall not 
be of pine, but of oak wood, on account of the less porosity of the latter. 

In 100 pounds of fine madder there roust not be more than two pounds of 
dirt or rubbish, and in 100 pounds of ombro not more than twelve pounds. 
The marking of barrels is according to the instruction of 1808, viz : K, ongepelde ; 
OJ, twee and een ; \ O, een en een. 

Madder of Avignon they call in France alizari, if in whole root«, and *' garance " 
if grounds The roots are distinguished as new ones, or madder of this year, 
and old ones, or madder of a previous year. There, as well as in Alsace, the 
roots are taken out of the ground in the third year ; and in the latter prov- 
ince, even in the second year, on account of the deamess of the land, although it 
is an undeniable fact that it is the long period during which the madder in the 
Levant ia growing in the soil that the roots there contain such richness of dye. 
On the ground the madder has the same marking as in Alsace ; in Avignon, is 
rather a refinement in assorting. Thus they have, for instance, extra B. 8. 8., 
F. F. F., ice. Extra fine is the ground pith, which, owing to the lighter, agreea- 
ble color, has an attractive appearance among buyers, bjit it is ^ j^m^^s 

17 CR • '""'/ ^ 



29tt ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

equal in ricfanesB of dye to the substance surrounding the pith, which is pre- 
ferred bj the dyers. In Avignon they distinguish " S. F. veritable " from ** S. 
F." The first is madder stripped of the outer skin, or coating, and adhering 
earth, before coming into the mills, the latter without so doing ; from which arises 
a difference in weight of from five to six pounds. Madder only stamped they 
call " garancine en paille," and mill madder is all such as is gathered up from 
threshing " billon " For the interior of France, even the finest kind of ground 
madder is called " garance grappe-engrappe." The varieties thus follow one 
another : • 

S. F. F., S. F., F. F., M. F., M. C, C. F., 0. F., 0. 

The Alsace madder, in its secondaiy qualities, like that of the Netherlander 
exhibits more steadiness than that of Avignon, thus giving consumers greater 
certainty in purchasing, and for this reason is in good demand in the market, 
although the Avignon is thus far considered superior. 

There are five sorts in the market. The prices were, in 1856, for S. S. F., 
82 francs ; S. F., extra fine, 72 francs ; T. F., fine fleur, 64 francs ; M. F., 
molenn fleur, 56 francs ; O., ordin on mull, 10 francs, for 50 kilos fat Stras- 
burg. 

In the rise or decline of prices, kinds remain proportionate. From its high 

Srice, S. S. F. is rarely in demand, and usually furnished on special orders ; for 
yeing silk and fine India products, F. F. is mostly in demand. There was 
formerly another quality — C. F. — ^following up M. F. in value, but is now no 
more in mtrkct. 

Of Spanish madder, the stocks of secondary are, "fine," " extra fine," and 
** common," cultivated near Segovia, and called '' growza benefiziada." 

Of German madder, the Silesiafi, in market since 1705, is more finely 
ground, but not so rich in dye as the Dutch. The roots are dug in the spring 
or in autumn. The baiTcls or sacks with " Sommerroethe " are marked with a 
crown, the year of its being put up, *nd the letters W. T. This is estimated 
higher than the " Herbcstroethe," because its roots are more free of fibres and 
earth. Of the Herbcstroethe, 'the first quality is marked with a crown, the 
year, and the letter W. ; the other, with the letters 0. E. or M. Defective, or 
Sommerroethe, mixed with a small quantity of Herbcstroethe, is distinguished 
by the year and W., without a crown. The same way defective Herbcstroethe 
is distinguished by the letters W. C. Sommerroethe, mixed with a quantity of 
Herbcstroethe, of at least four pounds, is marked with a standing cross and the 
yumber of the year. The other sorts are generally consumed in the region of 
production. 

USES OF MADDER. 

Madder is mostly used for producing the Turkish red on cotton. This dye 
*was invented in the ^ast Indies ; thence it came across the Levant and Euro- 
pean Turkey to Marseilles, where madder root was first made use of; and from 
thence it spread all over Europe. 

The peculiarity of this dye is its rendering different shades of red color, 
such as rose, violet, brown, and dark red. Twenty-five years ago M. Grovin, 
^t Paris, succeeded in adapting madder to dying wool ; and since that time the 
most opposite shades of red, violet, brown, and black have been produced on 
wool. The finer sorts give brown color. Besides these, there is a kind of var- 
nish prepared from madder. 

Of the different parts of the root the flesh is richest, returning thrice as much 
as the skin. The main colors of the root are thus defined : red, purple red, 
yellow. 

The Society of Industry of Muhlhausen first discovered the cause of Avignon 
madder excelling that of Alsace, notwithstanding the most careful cultivation. 
It was the presence of carbonate of lime in the Avignon madder that was not 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. ^59 

found in tliat of Alsace. Experiments of cultivation made in Abace, by aid of 
earth from Avignon, or with mixtures of the soil with chalk, according to scien- 
tific conclusions, lead to a decisive result in favor of the Avignon article, and to 
improved cultivation of madder in that particular. 

Ground madder, by exposure to the air, becomes darker, and for that reason 
is most firmly packed in the casks to avoid excess of air ; besides, it undergoes 
fermentation by absorbing humidity from the atmosphere, and in six months 
will increase ^ve to six per cent, in weight. Bat this fermentation in no way 
damages the dye, but, on the contrary, improves it ; and this self-improvement 
may continue through three or four years, but afterwards it decreases in value. 

Adulterations of madder, by mixing it with red minerals, as ochre, red sand, 
Sec., are detected by mixing it with water, when the mineral parts sink ; and if 
it is suspected that there is a mixture with the bark of the fir tree, it will be 
detected by the application of sulphate of iron (evaporated in free air to one- 
fourth of its original weight) with the madder in water, which will give the 
water a blackish color. Such frauds, however, cannot be practiced, except in 
very finely-ground madder, without being easily detected by the eye. 



Amstkrdam — J. E. Marx, Consul. 

January 18, i8§5. 

* * * Trade between this port and the United States continues stagnant. 
There was but one Dutch bark that sailed direct to the United Slates during 
the quarter ended December 31, 1864, and but one American vessel has cleared 
from this port. She went, in ballast, to Cardiff. 

Among the arrivals were three American vessels, all from Bassein, with rice, 
and none from the United States direct, whence all imports come in neutral 
vessels. They were from Baltimore. Their cargoes consisted of 1,480 hogs- 
heads of tobacco, 5,000 staves, 26 barrels of beef. , From New York, 54 hogs- 
heads and 32 boxes of tobacco, 2,060 boxes of extract of logwood, 169 pieces of 
wood, some staves, 14Q bales of pimento, and 6 boxes of oil. * * * 

As I stated in a former despatch, much trouble and costs arise to large ves- 
sels destined to this port, from the fact of the connexion of Amsterdam with the 
open sea being through a long canal not fit for their passage. The result has 
been that this city lost more and more its prestige as the emporium of the trade 
of the kingdom. To remedy this evil the plan was adopted of building another 
canal capable of passing the largest class of vessels, and running direct to th£ 
Bethsea, cutting shr)rt the distance from sixty-four to twelve miles. The con- 
struction of this canal has been agitated for years without results, until very 
recently, as there were many obstacles to overcome. The work will now be 
constructed by a private company, at the estimated cost of 28,000,000 guilders. 
It is to be commenced early this spring, and to be completed in seven years. 

The minister of the interior also proposes the annexation of the islands of 
Ameland, Tershalling, &c., to the main land by filling up the fords between 
them, and to complete the drainage of the Zider sea, which has a depth of from 
eight to sixteen feet of water. 

There has been added another light-house to those situated on the island of 
Texel, which is to be lighted next November. 

Ju\E 27, 1865. 
I have the honor herewith to submit to the department a statement contain- 
ing the number, tonnage, and nationality of the vessels arrived within and cleared 
from this port during the year 1864, also a statement of imports and exports for 
the Netherlands and Amsterdam during the same period. For the first I am 
under obligations to the collector of customs at this port ; the second is from 
the annual report of the board of trade, navigation, and industry for the year 
1854, published but lately. From the same source I learned also and commu* 



260 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

nicate the followiDg facts in respect to the commerce and navigation of this place, 
especially as far as they relate to its intercoose with the United States. 

In general, the result of the last year's business cannot be called a favorable 
one. The political events of the year early disturbed the regular course of com- 
merce and navigation, impeding also their extension. The financial complica- 
tions which caused the crisis in the second part of the year made themselves 
also felt here, and brought about many losses. Hereto is to be added the con- 
tinuance of the war in the United States, whereby one of the most important 
markets of this country was kept closed. * * . * • 

The war between Denmark and Germany also interrupted the navigation of 
Amsterdam in the Baltic and its important trade with some of the northern 
countries of Europe. The credit crisis occasioned in Europe, especially to the 
extraordinary demand of capital for the establishment of numerous credit institu- 
tions and corporations, exercised less influence here than at other places, 
showing the solid foundation of the commerce of Amsterdam. No such corporation 
was formed here on a large scale during the past year, but several smaller ones, 
as is the case every year. The condition in this respect was, therefore, a normal 
one. Much good for the trade is expected to arise from new laws now in con- 
templation concerning the registration and stamp duties in this country, but 
still more for all sources of the national welfare is expected from the revised 
license law and the abrogation of all municipal excise duties. 

To promote international commercial relations divers ti'eaties were concluded 
and others prepared. Among them are postal conventions with England, Bel- 
gium, France, and Switzerland. Much opposition arose against the conditions of 
the preliminary agreement regarding the international regulation of the duties on 
sugar, as resolved upon by the representations of the governments of France, 
England, Belgium, and the Netherlands. It is asserted that the fundamental 
principle of it, i. e,, the taxation of crude sugar, according to the color, is wrong, 
unreliable, and disadvantageous to the refiners of this country as well as to the 
government. 

A commercial treaty with France is considered a necessity, and there is one 
prepared, but it cannot be concluded until the legislature of this country has 
enacted the changes in the excise laws already executed between France and 
other European countries ; these occupy a more advantageous ground in the 
French markets than the Netherlands, making the competition of the latter more 
difficult than ever. 

The Netherlands being more of a trading than a manufacturing country, they 
favor free trade, and a majority of the people wish the government to conclude 
treaties whenever practicable to break down the barriers as yet obstructing 
the entire freedom of commerce between the different nations. 

In respect to the influence exerted by the war in the United States upon the 
commerce of this country, the report says : For nearly four years the North 
American civil war has exercised its disturbing influence upon our commerce. 
The import of staple products in Europe was thereby much reduced, especially 
that of cotton and tobacco, and the export of fabrics and manufactured goods, 
wherewith Europe extensively provided America, was mostly stopped. Well, 
it may be said that the communities got somewhat accustomed to this war ; that 
they tried to supply their wants from other sources, and to sell their surplus pro- 
duction to them, but these efforts were only partially successful. New producing 
countries and new buyers have neither the power to produce, nor the wants of a 
refined life, to such an extent as to be enabled t6 fill the place of North America 
and its civilized people. And yet the searching for new producing countries had 
in view only one of the mauy costly articles America was used to supply us with — 
cotton. This staple was most imported from the United States, because their 
qualities were generally preferred. 

As to tobacco, there were already formerly several kinds imported from other 
countries which could compete with the United States. 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 261 

Bat even iu products greatly depressed by the American war trade exhibited a 
comparatively good condition at the commencement of the year. The demand 
for consumption was more animated, the supply well proportioned, and a greater 
willingness for enterprises in general exhibited. 

Since June, 1861, the prices of cotton were rising steadily until August, 1864, 
when they commenced to decline on account of the expectation that General 
KcGlellan, on a peace platform would be elected President of the United States. 
This hope being frustrated, they went up again, but not as high as they were 
before, in consequence of the high rate of discount and the increased supply, 
which since 1862 was never as large, while the cultivation in India was extend- 
ing steadily. 

The Netherlands Trading Society held one auction, the first since 1862, at 
which the Dutch East India cotton brought the lowest prices, whilst Japan, of 
which there was a limited supply, was more in demand ; also of Surinam, was 
but little in the market. The sales were mostly East Indian and North Ameri- 
can, the latter principally imported indirectly. 

The trade in American tobacco was very animated. Good qualities, especially 
from former importations, were much in demand. The great fluctuations in the 
prices were caused only by the rise or fall of the price of gold in the United 
States. The prices of Maryland and Kentucky were very high. The latter was 
used instead of Virginia, of which there was no supply. Tobacco is also 
imported from Porto Rico, Havana, Brazil, Manila, and Java. That from the 
latter takes the lead in this market. There is also much tobacco grown in the 
country, for which there is always a good demand at remunerating prices. 

The wool trade of this country also felt the influence of our war, as the 
United States were one of the principal consumers of its woollen fabrics ; and 
notwithstanding the manufacturers searched for and gained some new customers, 
they could not win back for their trade the flourishing state it had attained 
before the war. 

Of American rosin there was none in the market ; and as no fresh importations 
could be expected, the market was supplied from France, which was also the 
case with, turpentine. Demand from America partially caused a rise in the 
prices of spices ; still another and more prevalent reason was the conclusion of 
the government to abolish the monopoly in spices on the Molucca islands, in 
consequence whereof less cultivation and smaller crops are now expected. 

Carolina rice has not been imported since 1861; there is none in market. 
The prices of other qualities were low. The abundant crops of cerfeals in 1862 
and 1863 and the increasing exports from America brought down the prices of 
these staples to the standard of 1844 and 1845 ; but as the crop of 1864 was 
a short one, a rise is expected. The importation of wheat flour from the United 
States decreased from 10,947 barrels in 1863 to 2,781 in 1864. Rye and wheat 
were not at all imported direct. 

The crop of oil seeds was but one-fifth of that of former years iu Holland, 
and not much better elsewhere. Therefore, a considerable rise would have been 
experienced in the prices of vegetable oils had it not been for* the use of pe- 
troleum, which is extending more and more. The imports of this article 
amounted to 15,000 barrels, all refined, and for inland consumption, but only 
6,500 barrels were imported direct from the United States. 

The trade in American lard was very animated, and brought good prices ; 
the imports were 2,500 barrels. 107 barrels of American tallow were imported 
in 1864 against 107 barrels in 1863; 300 barrels of pearlashes were imported 
in 1864 from the United States; 681 tons of lumber were imported from the 
United States, besides some considerable quantities of finished and unfinished 
white ash oars and staves. The demand for these latter articles was but limited. 

The same reasons which retarded the movements of commerce also impeded 
those of navigation ; and to find a like unfavorable season for comparison, it 

^ JigitizedbyVSOOgie 



262 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

would be necessary to go back as far as 1856. For the last three years arrived 
here in — 

1862 1,725 Vessels, measuring 411,397 tons. 

1863 1,688 " " 394,513 " 

1864 1,675 " " 384,709 " 

While the number of clearances amounted to, in — 

1862 1,912 vessels, measuring 438,832 tons. 

1863 1,823 »* " 394,513 " 

1864 1,717 " " 387,285 " 

The decrease is altogether in foreign vessels, as the arrivals and departures 
under the national flag have increased. 

This result is mainly due to the Danish war, and the warlike situation of 
several European powers during its continuation. The reason why the depart- 
ures always outnumber the arrivals is to be found in the fact that many vessels 
are freighted here to discharge their cargoes in other Dutch ports. 

The merchant marine of Amsterdam has increased last year with 17 vessels, 
measuring 4,650 tons ; fifteen of them, with an average tonnage of 4,226, were 
newly built here, while three Dutch vessels, of 1,696 tons, changed their nation- 
ality, and 17, of 3,964 tons, were lost. A fact worthy of attention is, that steamerft 
will, ere long, take the place of sailing vessels for short voyages ; and that, while 
they number but one-sixth of the whole fleet, their tonnage amounts to one-fourth 
thereof. Another fact is, that American vessels, although fifteenth in numerical 
order of arrivals, are the seventh in respect to tonnage. 

As much as war and other temporary and local circumstances might have to 
do with the stagnation in trade and navigation of this city, still more is due to 
the decrease of that great commercial energy which was the source and founda- 
tion of Amsterdam's wealth. This is evident from the fact that so many products 
of foreign countries consumed here are imported indirect from England and 
other sources in small quantities. Capital, in place of being invested in ships 
and mercantile enterprises, is now mostly employed in speculations in stocks. 
Amsterdam has almost wholly changed its position as a commercial emporium 
for that of a financial one. Thus is explained its present importance to the 
United States. 

However great or small our commerce with this city formerly was, it now 
nearly sinks into insignificance compared with the transactions in American 
stocks since f863. By degrees United States bonds displaced and took pre- 
cedence of Austrian securities. The importation of them during the firat six 
months of 1864 was enormous, and it seemed as if the demand could not be sat- 
isfied. The premium on gold at New York then being comparatively low, and 
the fluctuations less than some time afterwards, the difference between the highest 
and lowest quotations for six per cent, five-twenties did not amount to more 
than five per cent, during the first three months. But in April the prices went 
down rapidly under the influence of the continuing unfavorable reports and 
quotations from New York and the new Russian loan, which also more or less 
attracted the attention of capitalists. In May there was a revival, but in June, 
July, and August the decline was very great. From 68 per cent, in January, 
and also 60 per cent, in June, they declined to about 38 per cent, in August. 
In addition to the continued unfavorable reports from the United States, received 
by every steamer, the extensive sales of these bonds then being made had the 
effect of continuing the decline. So far the public had been constantly pur- 
chasing, and the decline incretfsed the demand ; but now the day came when 
weak holders had to realize. Many more or less forced sales took place at this 
most unfortunate juncture; other holders became alarmed, and made the situation 
still worse by voluntary sales, so that great losses were sustained during a short 
period: Meanwhile the prices had reached such a low figure under the influ- 

Digitizedby•^^OOgle 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS. 26b 

ence of these local sales that imports from New York could only be realized* 
with loss, so that they were stopped, and not resumed in their former proportion^ 

The demand soon revived, and prices again rose, based on the hope of the 
nomination of General McGlellan. This hope having been blasted by the re- 
election of Mr. Lincoln, the advance gained was notwithstanding maintained 
under the influence of better news from the seat of war and the improvement 
of oar carrency. Under the continued fluctuations the quotations of the six 
per cent, five-twenties was 46 per cent, at the end of the year. 

The prices of the bonds and shares of the Illinois railroad generally followed 
those of the United States bonds, with some exceptions, under peculiar circum- 
stances. The conversion offered for a part of the seven per cent, bonds into 
six per cent., with an advance in New York first of 15 per cent., and later only 
of 10 per cent., made no favorable impression; but when the advice was received 
in September that the company had resolved to redeem three millions of the 
loan on the first of October, commencing with the first number, many people 
got out of humor. It was admitted that the company had to redeem to the 
amount realized from lands sold, and that they had a right to do it, (always at 
1^ per cent.;) but the bondholders thought themselves iujuied by this redemp- 
tion at such an unfavorable rate of exchange, and considered their property 
exposed at any time to adverse chances. This led to many sales and exchanges 
for American stocks, and a partially continued decline of six per cent, in com- 
parison with the United States six per cent, five-twenties. 

The shares of the Illinois railroad, on the contrary, r^sc considerably; being 
equal with the bonds at the commencement of the year, they closed at from four 
per cent, to five per cent, higher at its close. On the receipt <jf the news of the 
redemption the difference amounted from three per cent, to ten per cent. The 
trade in both kinds was throughout the year active, especially in shares. 

Much business was. also done in 7 per cent, bonds of the Atlantic and Great 
Western railroad, O., In. 

Of other North American stocks, there is not much to report, as the transac- 
tions were litnited. 

Next to United States government stocks, the so-called confederate 8 per cent, 
loan played a prominent part in this market. The sales commenced here in 
1863, and were increasing most of the time, but holders did not realize on them 
much profit, as they declined from 28 per cent, to 6 per cent, with scarcely a 
temporary rise, (the lowest quotation was 2 per cent, to which six months' in- 
terest at 8 per cent, per annum was to be added.) 

Since the breaking down of the rebellion these bonds fell to $25 to $40 per 
SI, 000, including interest due. 

It is said that the speculation in these bonds was so extended that the losses 
incurred by them by the late events in the United States were scarcely covered 
by the profits made on the United States stocks. 

As far as I am able to judge, the people here, in general, were not guided by 
sympathies for one or the other side in buying their stocks, but acted solely 
from speculative motives. The confederate stock being so low that it took but 
a small investment to promise large profits, many people of small means were 
induced to buy them, and they suffer a great deal more than any one else. That 
these bonds are not yet thrown out of the market, but constantly bought and 
sold, notwithstanding the confederacy being conquered, is due to the belief that 
at some future time the States which constituted the confederacy will pay the 
confederate debt in whole or in part — a view nourished by interested stock- 
jobbers, and demonstrating the great ignorance of our affairs on the part of those 
who entertain it. 

Believing that these bonds will soon disappear forever with the last traces of 
the rebellion, and wishing an early revival of trade and navigation between the 
United States and this wealthy city, to the benefit of all concerned. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



264 



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266 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement shewing the nationality, numbexL and tonnage of vessels arrived at 
and departed from Amsterda7n during the year 1§64. 





With 


ARRIVALS. 


DEPARTURES. 




Nationality. 


cargo. 


In ballast. 


With cargo. 


In ballast. 




No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


Netherlands 

British 


978 

181 

4 

6 

13 

20 

222 

70 

8 

, 150 

5 

14 

6 
4 
2 
5 
16 
1 


222,788 

52,856 

3,888 

552 

3,089 

5,304 

63,733 

5,895 

2,342 
7,415 
1,302 
1,173 

2,659 
1,665 
633 
975 
3,526 
556 
257 


7 
2 


1,354 
559 


735 
169 


177,344 
44,160 


226 

:w 

2 

1 
9 
6 

913 


32,769 

12,045 

2,502 

102 


United States... 


French 






4 
4 


:J65 

1,865 

2,362 

11,043 


Russian 






2,584 

2,533 

62,973 

3,563 

996 


Swedish 







12 


Norwegian 

Danish 






64 
29 

8 

93 

1 

4 

2 
5 






1,782 S-j; 


German: 
Pmssian .... 






2,353 

4,661 

562 

383 

1,666 
2,022 


4 

25 

6 

5 

1 
2 
1 
2 
12 
1 
1 


Hanoverian . . 
Mecklenburg . 
Oldenburg . . . 
Hanse Towns: 
Bremen .... 


1 


18 


1,712 

2,006 






634 






467 


Hamburg 

LiUbeck 


1 


566 


597 
442 


Spanish 

Italian 






2 
5 


333 
974 


422 






2,760 


Belgian 

Brazilian. ...... 








556 










231 


Venezuelan . 


1 


170 


1 


165 














Total 


1,706 


385,608 


12 


2,667 1,138 


252,040 


590 


129,896 



September 30, 1865. 

The entire trade between Amsterdam and the United States, as far as it went 
direct, was again caiTied on for the last twelve months by Dutch or other foreign 
vessels, no American ship having arrived here daring this period, except three 
from India ; but as such cannot obtain outward cargoes, and the expenses of 
the harbor are very high, shipmasters dislike coming here. If the Americans 
would take the first steps and risks, the commerce between this port and the 
United States could be revived ; many new articles of American production might 
be introduced, and the sale of others increased. This people is generally very 
cautious in accepting innovations. 

The agricultural and commercial interests of this country received a heavy 
blow, about two months ago, by the appearance of the "cattle plague," said to 
said to have been introduced from England by some imported oxen. 

To arrest the expansion of this disease, the trade in cattle, fresh meat, hides, 
manure, &c., has been restricted in most communities, and the transport, if not 
wholly interdicted, put under very stringent control. As yet, there is nothing 
certainly known about causes, prevention or cure, notwithstanding the mopt 
prominent veterinarians have made this formidable epidemic their study. 

The harvest this year is said to yield a fair average, as the weather, very un- 
favorable during the early summer, has changed in time for the late crops. 

December 7, 1S65. 
In addition to my report of September 30, 1865, upon the commerce between tlila 
country and the United States, 1 herewith submit a special report of the trade be- 
tween this city and the United States from October 1. 1864, to September 30. 1665. 

Digitized by ^OOQ Ic 



DOMINIONS OF THE NETHERLANDS 



267 



The statements in regard to the oa^ports I took from the daplicate invoices on 
file at this office. For Uie imports T had to rely on the public prints, which con- 
tain only the quantity ; I was therefore unable to ascertain their value. As, how- 
ever, a small part of the imports came via Rotterdam, they will probably appear 
also among the imports of that city. Since August last the exports rose con- 
siderably, and in the month #f October alone amounted to over 300,000 florins^ 
two-thirds thereof being Java coffee; while there is as yet no perceptible increase 
of the imports from the United States, notwithstanding most of our staples may 
find here as ready a market as in Rotterdam or Antwerp. All that is needed 
are some energetic, enterprising business men to take the matter in their hands. 

Late reports from New York have checked, however, the exports, as they 
created fears of overstocking the markets. In relation to the importation of bristles^ 
the minister of finances has decided that, when entirely raw, so-called **Zwijns- 
walle," or washed only, and put in bundles, they can be imported free of duty ; 
but when worked up in any other way they shall be classed with " manufac- 
tured hair,'' and pay the same duty as those. 



Statement shatoing the description, quantity, and value of the exports from the 
port of Amsterdam to the United States during the year ended September 
30, 1865. 



Description. 



Anchovies boxes. 

Do ankers. 

Books boxes. 



Cheese... 

Chicooiy. 
Cigars. 



-do. 

asks 

.boxes. 



Cinnamon rolls. 

Coffee bags. 

Cordage bundles. 

CordifUs boxes. 

Gin V do.. 

Do casks. 

Gnm demar boxes. 

Herring kegs. 

liadder, Dutch casKs. 

Nutmeg do. . 

Oil, cajeput do. . 

cod liver do. . 

Haarlem cases. 

Do boxes. 

Paintings do . 

Kpe clay casks. 

Ratan bundles. 

Rice bacrs. 



Seed, canary. . . : casks . 

Do bags . 

caraway do. . 

flower and bulbs boxes. 

Silk, manufactured do. . 

Snccades do. . 

Sugar, refined casks. 

Sundries packages. 

Do boxes. 

Steel , pounds. 

Tin slabs . 

Vanilla boxes. 

Wine casks. 

Do boxes. 

Wool, (Buenos Ayres) *. '. . bales. 



Total value in florins. 



Quantity. 



15 > 
150 J 

8 

435 

120 

3 

199 

800 

12 

106 

1,000 > 

145 < 

320 

7,625 

410 

94 

. 2 

3 

240 { 

1 

125 

6,237 

450 

101 \ 

120$ 

445 

46 

7 

40 

100 

2 

6 

2:^,040 

2,600 

1 

3 

423 

19 



Value in Dutch 
currency. 



Florins, 
2,530 

1,695 

7,230 

3,140 

631 

19,629 

. 44,071 

' 735 

3,244 

13,978 

9,975 

17,115 

105,858 

29,30.3 

14* 

407 

6,030 

1,311 
2,743 

13,047 
6,013 

4,558 

7,210 
5,820 

12,570 
7,963 

11,188 

570 

5,117 

93,229 

2,307 

2,348 

6,686 



448,396 

Jigitized by V^^^^^V IC 



268 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMBfERCE. 



IMPORTS. 

Statement showing the description and quantify of the imports from the United 
States into Amsterdam during the year ended September 30, 1865. 

'. \ barrels . . 395 

Flour do 310 

Logwood, extract of : do 2, 060 

Lumber, mahogany blocks . . 639 

Pimento bags . - - 110 

Q"^«^'^'''°" {poJ^a;:: "J 

Schorls bags 347 

Staves about M. 100 

Sundries (pounds.. 39 

(boxes... 47 

Toi'-- {hht-;:: 7,2?? 



Batavia. — Lewis Wm. Tappan, Consul. 

September 30, 1865. 

I beg to enclose certain tables of statistics to accompany my annual commer- 
cial report. 

Trade between the United States of America and Java has not been large during 
the past year. Early in 1864 there were signs of revival, but after the first 
six months of the year, when shipments were numerous, little or nothing was 
done. 

Holland his revised the tariff for the colonics, making it, in many respects, 
far more liberal. This, it is hoped, will increase the commerce of this island, 
now almost entirely confined to Holland, with other countries. 

The railroad from Samarang to the interior is slowly progressing. January 
1, 1866, a new company, with Englishmen at the head, takes the contract for 
steam navigation in the Dutch archipelago, and we are promised greatly im- 
proved facilities of intercommunication. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



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274 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

CuRA^OA — J. Faxon, Consul. 

October 21, 1865. 

There have been Bince October 1, 1864, fifty-eight arrivals at this port with 
cargoes, in whole or in part, the growth or the manofactore of the United States, 
consisting mostly of lamber, com, tobacco, hay, soap, candles, furniture, and 
petroleum oil. This is paid for, about three-fourths in gold, the remaining foarth 
by return cargoes in salt, dye-woods, hides, goat-skins, and palm-leaf hats, 
which, with the exception of salt, is principally the product of the Spanish main. 
Under its present management this is a perfectly barren island, but its being a 
free port renders it a place of much business, chiefly with Venezuela. 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 
ELsrNORB — George P. Hudson, Consul. 

January 16, 1865. 

Of the trade and commerce of Denmark and duchy of Schleswig for the year 
ended December 31, 1863, the united imports and exports of Denmark and 
Schleswig amounted to 2,484,250,029 rix dollars, or 5,833,297 rix dollars more 
than in 1862. 

The imports reached an o£Scial value of 49,298,615 rix dollars. In 1862 
only 48,773,673 rix dollars. Thus the imports of 1863 exceed those of 1862 
by 524,942 rix dollars. 

The table marked A will show the leading articles imported into Denmark 
and Schleswig duringthe' year 1863 compared with 1862. 

The exports from Denmark and Schleswig during 1863 amounted to aji of- 
ficial value of 27,602,520 rix dollars ; in 1862, 22,204,165. The exports of 
1863 thus exceed those of 1862 5,308,355 rix dollars. 

By the late treaty of peace with Prussia and Austria, Denmark is stripped of 
her finest provinces — ^the. duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg — ^with 
the exception of a few towns in the north of Schleswig. 

The imports and exports of these duchies, in 1862, were: 

HOLSTEIN. 

Rix dollars. 

Imports amounted to ^ 17, 193,564 

Exports 16, 153, 904 

Total 33,347,468 

SCHLESWIG. 

Imports 9, 804, 794 

Exports 4,571,681 

Total 14,376,475 

LAUENBURG. 

Imports 420, 323 

Exports t 212, 147 

Total 632, 470 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 275 

Total imports and exports of the three duchies — 

Rix dollars. 

In 1862 48, 356, 413 

Total of Denmark in flie same year. 56, 691, 363 

From the ahove statement it will he seen that the loss of the three duchies to 
Denmark, in a mere commercial view, is a very severe one. . 

It will, perhaps, not he uninteresting to glance at the immediate trade and 
commercial resources of Denmark as it now is. 

It will be seen that Denmark, narrowed down to the smallest possible bound- 
aries by her powerful neighbors, still possesses superior resources in her agri- 
cultural and commercial relations, whicb only want to be more fully developed 
to make her, what she already is, the most prosperous country in Europe, and, 
what in particular most meets the sympathies of the people of the United States, 
she is the most free .in Europe ; and it is claimed that this very freedom caused 
the assault upon her by tl^ German powers. 

Denmark now consists of the islands of Zealand, and smaller islands, con- 
taining Danish square miles 134 

Fanen, and smaller islands 60^ 

LoUand, Falster, and eighty smaller islands 30| 

Bomholm and Ertehomene 10| 

Jutland, the peninsula, and contiguous islands on the west and east of it . 460§ 

Total eq. miles contained in the kingdom of Denmark as now constituted 696 
which together contain a population of 1,600,000 inhabitants. 

Imports during the year 1862, were 39,415,203 rix dollars. 

Rix dollars* 
The principal articles of export are her agricultural and other 

domestic products, of which there were exported during the year 

1863, in vaaue 18, 704, 460 

The re-exportation of foreign goods in 1863, was 3, 927, 963 

22,632,423 
Add Imports, as above 39, 415, 203 

I'otal of exports and imports 62, 037, 026 



Tahle showing the description and quantity of tJie principal agricultural pro* 
ducts exported from Denmark during the year 1863. 

Buckwheat, barrels 121 

Barley, barrels 1,323,232 

Peas, barrels • 34, 822 

Oats, barrels 1,137,683 

Wheat, barrels 373,670 

Malt, barrels 4, 864 

Rye, barrels 243, 084 

Vetch, barrels 9, 788 

Wheat in groats, pounds 2, 382 

Other grains, pounds 5, 807, 081 

Flour, of wheat, barley, maize, and potatoes pounds 12, 678, 979 

Flour of other kinds, pounds 4, 505, 268 

Bread 2, 051, 032 

Rapeseed, barrels 57, 932 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



276 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 

Oilcake, pounds '7, 292, 012 

Butter, barrels / 38, 862 

Meat, pounds 1, 794, 047 

Pork, pounds , 2, 358, 979 

Horses 178 

Cows and oxen 005 

Calves 22 

Hogs 5, 502 

Hides and skins, (tanned and raw) 3, 140, 336 

Wool, (coarse) 1, 500, 431 

Wool, (better quality) 2, 016, 755 

Animal bones 2, 686, 942 

Table B shows the leading articles imported into Denmark in 1863, and tbeir 
value. And table C shows the value, first, of domestic wares : second, of for- 
eign wares exported from Denmark in 1863, both exclusive of the duchies. 

Table showing the iceighU and measurest and coins, of Denmark, compared 
fcifh English avoirdupois weights and measures^ 

One pound (lb.) is ec^ual to j^^j^ lb. avoirdunois. 
One qoint d^ lb.) is equal to jff^g lb. avoirdupois. 
One ort (y^ lb.) " j^^ " 

One centner, (100 lbs.) " \zh^ " 
One tonde is equal to one barreir 

One tonde grain is equal to { „^7*4^J^S'„. 

One tonde of beer is equal to 28.9 1 9 gallons. 

One tonde of butter is equal to 246.92 pounds. 

One tonde of coal is equal to 4.6775 bushels. 

One pot is equal to 02.126 gallons. 

One viertel is equal to 1.7011 gallon. 

One ell (alen) is equal to 6864 of a yard. 

One foot (fod) is equal to 3432 yards, or 1.0297 feet. • 

One cubic foot is equal to 1.0918 cubic foot English. 
^ One commerce-last is equal to two tons. 
' One rix dollar 2s. 3d. sterling, or $0.5463. 

MANUFACTUBBS. 

Denmark has but few manufactures. Her distilleries are the most prominent. 
There were 426 in operation in the year 1863, furnishing 34,421,719 pots of 
spirits. The tax to government derived therefrom amounted to 1 ,355,031 rix 
dollars ; of which Avere exported 1,778,308 pots, on which the refunded duty 
amounted to 262,149 rix dollars. 

TRADE AND NAVIGATIOX. 

There was no direct trade with the United States during the year 1863. 
American goods have found their way here through other European ports. See 
table B. 

The shipping of Denmark in 1863, exclusive of the duchies, was 2,740 ves- 
sels, with a tonnage of 69,477^ commerce-lasts, of which 1,586 were under 15 
commerce lasts ; and with a total of 9,077 commerce- lasts 707 were from 15 to 
20 commerce-lasts, with a total of 22,047^ commerce-lasts ; 447under 50 com- 
merce-lasts, including 47 steamboats, with a tonnage of 2,188^ commerce lasts, 
and of 2,706 horse- power. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 



277 



Statement showing the number, tonnage, in commerce-lasts, from Denmark 
proper^ and the amount actually carried, of vessels cleared during the year 
1863. 





From 
Denmark. 


From 
Schleswig. 

27,748 

310, 74H 
162,3171 


Total. 


Namber .. ...-- 


64,274 

l,023,384i 

579,336 


92,022 
1,334,126 


Tonnftfire. in commerces-last 


f!a.TTvin|r. in COmmftTWS-laflt -r^,-, .... 


741,653f 





OF THESE, IN THE COASTING TRADE— 



Denmark employed . 
^chlesuvig employed. 



Total •. 



Number. 



43,713 
23,754 



67,467 



Tonnage in 
commerce last. 



452,196f 
]96,624i 



648,821 



Carrying in 
commerce last. 



215, lOOf 
96,012 



311,1121 



OF THE FOREGOING, IN FOREIGN 


FRADE— 






Number. 


Tonnage in 
commerce last. 


Carrying in 
commerce last. 


T)'<^ninark ftmnloved ,., , 


20,561 
3,994 


571,647} 
114,117i 


364,235i 
66,305f 


Schleswiff emnloved ...... .....*. .... ..... 




Total 


24,555 


685,765 


430,541 





Digitized by LjOOQIC 



278 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Tabular ilaiement showing the description and tonnage of foreign tesscU 
engaged in the coasting as well as foreign trade of Denmark and Schleswig 
in 1863. 



ARRIVAJ.S. 



Description. 



Americiui 
Belgian 



«''«•'>! isiXd 



Germans 



French 

'Hamborg.... 

Hanover. 

Lubec 

Mecklenburg 

Oldenburg. .. 

LPrusflia 

Netherlands 

Italian 

Norwegian 

Swedish 

Russian . . . 

Spanish ... 



X otal • • • • . « wn • . . . . 



Coasting Foreign 
trade. ! trade. 



Clearances. Clearances, 



1 
8 
1 
1 
6 
51 



7 
31 



32 

68 
1 



207 



2 

1 

266 

25 

6 

37 

281 

8 

78 

20 

730 

169 

] 

1,923 

2,885 

258 

1 



6,693 



Total. 



Clearances. 



2 

274 

26 

9 

43 

332 

8 

78 

20 

737 

200 

1 

1,955 

2,953 

259 

1 



6,900 



Total 
tonnage. 



Commerce 
lasts. 



649 
I23i 
23,584 
131 
4631 
901i 
7,6e9i 
580 

6,49H 
1,026 

26,8021 

7,482i 

, 88 

36,338i 

53,0041 

22,982i 

84 



188,422 



Actually 
carrying. 



Commerce 
lasts. 



44i 
21,699 

m 

341 

530i 
4,910i 

580 
6,0404 

963 
25,3881 
5,474i 



32,256 
49,353 
21,542 



169,5354 



DEPARTURES. 



Description. 



American 

Belgian 

France 

Hamburg.... 

Hanoyer .... 

Lubec 

Mecklenburg. 

Oldenburg... 

I, Prussia 

Netherlands 

Italian 

Norwegian ) 

SwediMi > 

Russian 

Spanish 



Germans 



Coasting 
trdde. 



Clearances. 



Total. 



5 
59 



13 
37 



29 
71 



Foreign 
trade. 



Clearances. 



220 



3 
2 

263 
27 

8 

44 

273 

7 

78 

17 

716 

163 

1 

1,962 

2,913 

254 

2 



6,733 



Total. 



Clearances. 



27 

8 

49 

332 

7 

78 

17 

729 

200 

1 

1,991 

2,984 

254 

2 



6,953 



'Total 
tonnage. 



Commerce 
lasts. 



Actually 
carrying. 



488 
123i 
23,378 
133i 
3791 

1,26H 
7,857 
490i 
6,426 
811 
27,9411 
' 7,046 
88 
36,6721 
51,979 
22,7261 
1321 



Commerce 
lasts. 



342 
1234 

1,2761 

741 

9 

390^ 

3,3811 

631 

515i 

931 

],3I5i 

2,561 



187.9.33f 



8,593 
6, 5601 
626 
73 



25,999 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 279 



ELSINORK. 

The harbor as well as the ]:ailwa7 bedding, or patent slip, which were finished 
in the fall of 1863, have proven of great benefit both to the town and to the ship- 
ping. 

The harbor contains abont 200,000 square feet, with a depth of 18 feet. The 
docks are 1,740 feet in length, with plenty of good wharfage. 

The depth at the mouth of the harbor is )8 feet, with a hreadth of 128 feet. 

The patent slip is an inclined plane of 692 feet in length, being 265 feet above 
and 427 feet under the water, and a stationary engine raises the vessel on the 
bedding. Vessels of 1,000 tons burden are raised with the greatest facility, and 
two good-sized vessels can occupy the bedding at the same time. It is well 
worthy the attention of masters and owners of vessels. Repairs are generally 
done with despatch. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



280 



ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



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Digitized by V^OOyiC 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 



281 



T B. 

Tabular statement showing the description and value of leading articles im- 
ported into Denmark fexclusice of the German duchies of Schlestcig, Hal- 
stein, and LauenburgJ during the year 1863. 



Description^ 



Ashes '. 

Firewood 

Tow 

White lead 

Paints 

Hemp and flax , 

Hops , 

Iron, iron ware, and steel 

Machinery 

Brass, crude and manufactured 
Zinc, crude and manufactured 
Copper, crude and manufactured i 
Mill and grindstones 

Cordage 

Tobacco, crude and manufact*d. 

Lumber of all kinds 

Tallow 

Blabber, &c., for train oil 

Salt 

Grain of dto kinds 

Coals 

Sugar and mouses 

Tea 

Coffee 

Glassware 

Earthenware .*. 

Seeds 

Vish of all kinds 

Meat, fresh and salted 

Oils of all kinds 




Description. 



I 



Value. 



Riz dollars, 

273,332 

142,548 

25,471 

81,308 1 

112,235 " 

664,806 

132,456 

5,824,385 

336,179 

148, 170 

71,711 

73,668 

37,096 

101,957 

72,994 

1,151,169 

•2,640,450 

106,528 

4,648 

197,382 

1,212,945 

2,494,963 

3,777,291 

270,419 

1,421,498 

175,561 

221,523 

:i87,600 

672,833 

8,363 

144,245 



I 



Cotton 

yam 

goods 

Ribbons 

Spirits 

Cacao 

Dye-wood 

Feathers and down 

Fancy goods 

Hair of all kinds 

Indigo 

Linen yam 

goods 

Almonds 

Oranges 

Cheese 

Paper • 

Fringe-work 

Rice, rice-meal, and paddy 

Currants, raisins, &c 

Silk and silk goods 

Hides and skins 

Clocks and watches 

•Wool 

Woollen yam 

g^oods 

Wine 

Sundries 

Total 



Rix dollars. 

8,945 

432,201 

1,132,375 

473,767 

611,346 

44,466 

23,412 

111,203 

203,395 

39,992 

286,776 

427,298 

802,310 

60,157 

76,656 

60,593 

67,832 

78,63;? 

873,025 

310,881 

772,371 

477,657 

108,084 

121,645 

238,900 

4,352,294 

316,988 

3,740,905 



39,415,203 



c. 

Statement showing t/ic description and value of leading articles exported from 
Denmark ( exclusive of the German duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lau- 
enburgJ during the year 1863. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCTS. . 



Description. 



Eggs 

Ashes 

Animal bones 

plants 

Spirits 

Bread 

Beans, (horse beans). .. 

Chryolith 

Feathers and down 

Sheep, goats, lambs, ^c 

Fish 

Pork 



Value. 



Rix dollars. 

2,380 

43,141 

26,869 

8,184 

253,355 

122,449 

15 ' 

41,300 I 

23,831 I 

2,121 ! 

101,566 

281,000 



Description. 



Value. 



' Rix dollars. 

S^eds I 03,211 

Fancy goods 14, 140 

Glassware 9,231 

Hair 9,344 

Glove-makers' ware ' 5, 180 

Hats 5,281 

Horses 13,275 

Wagon-makers' wares 12, 883 

Cattle .^>2,98() 

Manure 6,654 

Whalebone and manufactures 

of same •f^r\f^(^f\*>^'^^ 

Jigitized by VjOOQIc 



282 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Statement — Continued. 



Descriptiou. 



Iron ware 

Mathematical instraments, &c 

Musical instruments 

Coffee and chiccory 

Lime, burnt 

chalk, &c 

Potatoi's 

Books 

Grain, (including flour) 

Powder 

Linen floods 

Candles 

Paints .... 

Machineiy 

Brass works 

Bricks 

Oils 

Oil-cake 

Cheese 

Paper 

Porcelain 

Sausages, smoked 



Value. 



Rix dollars, 

161,696 

5,500 

14,100 

5,299 

7,433 

20,197 

3,851 

16,583 

12,280,577 

5,308 

3,904 

4,894 

5,643 

234,777 

8,008 

7,380 

16,779 

140,299 

21,623 

48,584 

104,115 

3,022 



Descriptiou. 



Value. 



Rape-seed 

Soap 

Hides and skins 

Butter 

Cabinet-makers* work . . 

Starch.. 

Sugar and simps 

Hogs and pigs 

TaUow 

Tar and coal-tar 

Tobacco, manufactured. 

Cordage 

Train oil 

Lumber 

Barrel hoops 

Wool 

Drain tiles , 

Wax 

Beer 

Sundries 



Riz doUart. 

463,216 

20,339 

656,087 

1,928,500 

13,457 

8,379 

114,494 

55,580 

33,460 

5,488 

7,507 

7,696 

143,976 

32,746 

2,148 

506,212 

35,725 

7,240 

4,947 

95,486 



Total , 18,704,460 



FOREIGN PRODUCTIONS. 



Pimento 

Drugs 

Ashes 

Cinnamon 

Books 

Cacao 

Cement 

Lard 

Feathers and down 

Veneers 

Fish 

Pork 

Fruits 

Seeds 

Fancy goods 

Cotton goods 

Spirits ..». 

Do 

Glassware 

Gums 

Hemp ,. 

Flax-seed 

Iron and iron wares 

Indigo 

Coffee 

Cork 

Grain, (including flour) 

Linen goods 

Candles 

Paints 

Metals, old 

Mats 

Almonds 

Brass, crude and manufactured 



7,886 
7,735 

38,316 
7,021 
9,548 
8,857 

15,354 

12,235 

120,460 

7,985 

110,536 

2,077 

15,662 

107,772 

7,055 

54,710 

22,155 
126,887 

10,951 
5,018 

71,085 

21,665 
361,120 

28,305 

659,937 

9,368 

18, 171 

85,236 
8,075 
6,768 
9,176 
6,146 

19,496 
9,351 



Natural products 

I Oils 

, Oil-cake ^ 

I Oranges 

I Paper 

' Rice, rice-meal, and paddy. . , 
I Raisins and currants 

Salt 

I Silk and silk goods 

Skins and hides 

j Steel , 

' Sulphur 

Sugar and sirups 

Tallow 

Tea 

Tar : 

Tobacco, crude and manuf *d. . 

Train oil 

Butter 

Coals 

Earthemware 

Cordage 

Lumber 

Wool ^ 

Woollen goods 

Wine 

Wagon grease 

Zinc, crude and manufactured. 

Sundries 



Total 

Add domestic. 



Total foreign and domestic. 



25,32:^ 

58,703 

5,541 

21,871 

13,223 

336,631 

28,919 

5,529 

7,592 

198,651 

17,498 

io,ea3 

341,790 
11,444 
27,268 
15,442 
9^,014 
10, 794 
14,600 

242,650 

4,890 

62,567 

21,025 

62,186 

103,407 

60,760 

8,992 

19,3ft 

122,311 



3,927,963 

18,704, 46t) 



22,632,^23 



Digitized by 



Google 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 283 

November 22, 1865. 

I bave the honor herewith to enclose a few notes on Denmark, which I trusts 
may not be without interest. 

Denmark proper consists of a number of islands and the peninsula of Jut- 
land. The principal of these islands are Zealand, Moen, Falster, Lauland, the 
rich island of Funen, surrounded by its cluster of beautiful lesser ones. 

The island of Zealand has a very irregular form, having a number of penin- 
sulas, viz : 1st, Stevenshemd ; 2d, North Zealand ; 3d, Homsherred ; 4th, 
Odsherred, with the well-known Zealand odde; 5th, Re&os; and 6th, Asnos. 
On its eastern shore lie the islands of Olmager, the garden of Copenhagen, and 
Salthholm. Towards the south ar&the islands of Moen, Falster, and Lauland, 
and north of these the smaller islands of Fomoe and Fojoe. 

The cluster of islands around that of Funen are Laugeland, Oroe, Taaeingc, 
and a number of smaller islands, as Dreioe, Lyoe, and Avemakoe. 

The island of Funen itself is nearly round, with the exception of the small 
promontory of Hiudsholm. * 

The islands of Hesseloe. Seiroe, Samsoe, Kyholm, and Tunoe, all lying in 
the Cattegat, form a kind of link between the island of Zealand and the penin- 
sula of Jutland, while the islands of Anholt and Losoe more properly form the 
link between Sweden and Jutland. 

^ The Jutland peninsula runs in a line nearly north and south, making but a 
very trifling bend, and notwithstanding that the great flood of 1825 separated 
the northern part by opening the Limfiord with the north sea, it still forms, 
strictly speaking, a part and parcel of Jutland. 

The pemnsula i^ in the form of a wedge, the sharp end pointing north. This 
form is iiwgular, however, on both sides, from numerous inlets from the sea, 
most of which are on the east side. On the west, however, Jutland forms a 
sharp bordered lino varied by few inlets, and hence suffers from the lack of 
good harbors. The small islands of Fanoe, Manoe, Romoe, lie on the west 
coast. 

To Jutland belong also the smaller, islands of Givel and Oeland, Livoe, Fur 
and Mors, in the Limfiord, Hirsholm islands outside Frederlbkshaven, Endelave 
outside, and Hiamoe and Alvoe in the Horsensfiord. The size of these islands, 
in Danish square miles, is as follows : Zealand^ 128 ; Fnmen, 54 ; Lauland, 21 ; 
Bomholm, 10 ; Falster, 8 ; Mors, 6 ; Langland, 5 ; Moen, 4 ; Sosoe, 2 ; Samsoe, 2 ; 
Oroe, 1^; and Amager, Taasinge, Anholt, Fanoe, and Romoe, 1 square mile each. 

Denmark has now but few colonies left. Of these, Iceland has a population 
of only 70,4^00, with an area of 1,800 square miles, or twice the size of the king- 
dom. But in old times its population was larger, as it has been decreasing very ^ 
fast during the last century ; its soil rapidly becoming barren, with the prospect 
of the whole island being ice-covered. 

Greenland, the Faros, and the small West India islands of St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, and St. John's, are also colonies of Denmark. 

The Faros consist of seventeen small islands, containing twenty-four square 
miles. Danish. 

THE SEA. 

The whole of Denmark being so immediately connected with the sea, it fol- 
Iq^a that the latter has so great influence upon the geographical position and 
climate that it is proper here to notice the waters which wash the shores of this 
little insular kingdom. 

Ist. The North sea or Western ocean, on the westwardly side of Jutland, is 
divided from the open sea towards the north by a line that runs from the Shet- 
land islands to the north of the city of Bergen, in Norway, and on the south 
by the British channel. On the east the North sea is connected nt Skagerak 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



284 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

with the Cattegat. The North sea is very deep, (on the coast of Norway some 
450 fathoms.) Of the shoals, two of them are very dangerous — the Doggers- 
bank and the Jutland reef. * Notwithstanding the great size of the North sea, 
its navigation is very dangerous, and large numbers of vessels are there lost 
annually. The most perilous part of the coast is from Skagen to Blaavandshuk ; 
along which there are two or three parallel sand-bars, and against which the sea 
is continually breaking. Vessels are often thrown across these bars, through 
*which, in very few places, are channels found deep enough for small vessels to 
cross. Among the most prominent of these inlets are : 1, Limfiord, with- the Ag- 
gcrcaval, in the northern part of Jutland; 2, Nissumfiord, with Thorsminde 
inlet ; 3, Ringkjobingfiord, with Nymindegab inlet. 

As shipwrecks are of frequent occurrence on this coast, the Danish govera- 
ment has established a number of stations, with life-boats and rocket apparatus, 
and great numbers of lives are saved annually. 

From Blaavandshuk to the mouth of the Elb none of these bars are found, 
but the islands all along the coast of Schleswig-IIolstein are surrounded by 
very shallow water, and at low ebb are frequently left dry — the tide here rising 
to the height of ten feet. Roads, therefore, passable at low tide, connect these 
islands ; but when the tide is in, small vessels pass over them. 

All these islands were formerly connected with the land^ and anciently formed 
principally that historic province of Northfrieslan tf. The inroads of the sea have, 
however, little by little washed the land away, paxticularly in the great gale 
of 1034, and Northfriesland haft long ceased to oe an independent province. 
Yet it is interesting to compare the maps of the present day with those of 1240. 
and to notice the remarkable change taken place in the coast in that space of 
time. At Skagerak the North sea is united with the water^ of the 

CATTEGAT, 

which is properly a lake between Denmark and Sweden. A large part of it 
consists of shoals, as the great shoals of Losoe and Anholt, the Middle shoal, 
and the Zealand reef. In many places it is quite dangerous to navigation ; and 
although there is a greater depth of water on the Swedish side than on the 
Danish, navigators prefer to sail along the Danish coast, as it has no breakers, 
and the wind is generally from the land. The Cattegat has a great many inlets 
on the Danish coast, among which are the Limfiord, in North Jutland. This 
is, however, now more of a sound than an inlet. Pi^evions to the great flood of 
1825, in which the small strip of land which divided the fiord from the North 
sea was washed away, the Limfiord was a continuous line of lakes, with brackish 
water. It is now occupied by sea- water. From appearances, as well as from 
historic data, this is not the first time the Limfiord has forced its way to the 
North sea. 

The Limfiord is not navigable through its entire length for large vessels. 
Lately the Logston canal has been built, which connects the eastern with the 
western parts of the fiord. 

Another prominent inlet from the Cattegat is the Roskildefiord in Zealand. 
Anciently this fiord was of more importance than at present, as it then extended 
to the king's residence. From the appearance of this fiord at present, it is 
evident that in earlier times it had a great number of branches, and that the 
old "Leire" — the abode of Denmai-k's earliest kings — has been surrounded by 
numerous islands, through which it may have been difficult enough for an 
enemy to pass. 

The sea-road between the Cattegat and the Baltic is formed by the Little 
Belt, the Great Belt, and Oeresound. 

The Little Belt is, in its northern part, so narrow that there is only about 
sixty-six yards between Middelfart in Funen and Snoghoi in Jutland. It*has, 
however, great depth of water, but its narrowness endangers navigatibn. It 

Digitized by V^OOQ^K:! 



DANI8H DOMINIONS. 285 

forms some inlets, the principal one being Goldingfiord ; 2d, Haderslepfiord, and 
3d, Aabeneraafiord. Through Alssound it is connected with Flensburgfiord, 
and through Svendborg sound with the Great Belt, between Sealand and Funen. 
The narrowest place of the Great Belt is between Halakov and Knudshoved — 
two Danish miles ; it has greater depth of water than the Oeresound, but the 
navigation is dangerous on account of the many shoals and rocky reefs, partic- 
ularly around the island of Sprogoe. Lesser parts of the Great Belt are, 1, 
Gallundbdre; 2, Corsoemor; 3, Skjelskoernor ; 4, Kjertemindfiord ; and 5^ 
Nyborgfiord. 

Towards the south the Great Belt expands towards the bay of Vordingborg, 
and thence through a number of small islands to the Baltic. 

The Oeresound is the shortest of the three connecting links between the Baltic 
and the Gattegat. Its width changes considerably. It is only a half Danish 
mile wide between Ekinore and Flesingburg, in Sweden, while it is four Danish 
miles wide between Copenhagen and Malmoe. Towards the south it forms the 
bay of Kjoge. The deepest part runs west of the island of Flveen, through 
Hollanderdeep and through Drogden, which lie between the islands of Amager 
and Saltholm. The depth of the Drogden is twenty-three feet. From the 
HoUandersdeep the Kingsdeep leads to Copenhagen. The harbor of Copenha- 
gen, after passing through the city, connects with Callebodstrand between Am- 
ager and Sealand, and again unites with the belt below Amager, affording the 
finest facility to extend the harbor of Copenhagen to any size desirable, and 
also affording vessels a doable entrance. 

The number of vessels passing through Oeresound yearly amounts to from 
15,000 to 20,000. It is the high road to the Baltic. Happily the restriction 
which formerly made every one of these vessels stop at Elsinore and pay dues 
has been removed, thanks to the energy with which the United States acted in 
the matter. 

The dues collected by Denmark from the passing shipping amounted to some 
two millions of riz dollars a year. ' 

THE BALTIC 

May properly be called an inland sea or lake, most likely formed by great 
floods from the northeast. It is not very deep, seldom over one hundred 
fathoms, but generally much less. The shores of the Baltic are very low, and 
its upland extensive. A large number of rivers find their outlet therein from 
north Europe, east and middle Europe ; hence the waters are less salt than the 
northern ocean. The Baltic contains about half per cent.; the- northern sea 
3^Q per cent, of salt. For a greater part of the year the waters run through 
Oeresound and the belts out in the Cattegat, on account of these rivers emptying 
themselves into the Baltic. 

Tide- water is hardly perceptible in the Baltic, and the differenc3 between 
high and low water on the furtherest point is only ten inches. The Baltic 
forms numerous inlets or bends along the Danish coast — as, l,the bay of Prostoe; 
2, Ulfsound; 3, Groensouud; 4, Langoland Belt, and many others. On the 
Swedish coast the Baltic forms the Galmar sound, and cutting itself through 
Finland and Sweden, under the name of the bay of Bothni^, extends navigation 
up to Tornea. 

The bay of Bothnia is separated from the Baltic proper by the Alund islands, 
and the islands of the Goorken again divide that bay into two parts. 

THB SOIL. 

The soil is like that of middle Europe, and consists of clay and sand, the 
surface being thoroughly mixed with organic matters, forming a rich and pro- 
di^tive mould. Regular mountains are not found in Denmark; the loftiest 
Lin,Himinel bierget, (Heaven's mountain,) being only 550 feet high. Although 
one nving in a mountainous country may call Denmark a plain, X^^^/^^'Pa^^^P^ 

jigi ize y g 



« 



286 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Strictly are foand here. The greatest part of the land is rolling, and the land- 
scape is beautiful. 

In the eastern part the sub-soil is chalk, with an admixture of flint. Some- 
times the chalk is near the surface, so that the plough reaches it, and not un- 
frequently the chalk reaches the surface itself. On the east side of the island 
of Moen are chalk cliffs, reaching from 403 to 450 feet in height. Chalk is also 
found occasionally in the southern part of the island of Zealand, and in a num- 
ber of places in Jutland. Other developments of chalk formation are the hard 
limestone and limestone from coral rocks, and also bleaching chalk. Most 
prominent is the Foxoe lime, which is a superior article. It is found at Foxoe, 
in Zealand, and is taken from a former coral reef. 

In the western part of the country the sub-soil generally consists of a brown 
coal formation, particularly on the great heath in Jutland, where yellow and 
brown sands predominate. This formation is found in many other places, and 
on the whole western coast. On Mors and Fly the sub-soil consists of a sub- 
stratum of slate, which sometimes rises to the height of a hundred feet. The 
slates are very solid. The brown coal formation frequently contains amber, 
which is also generally found on the western coast. 

The sub-soil is again covered with another formation, the so-called roUine 
stone formation. This consists of a layer of sand and clay, containing rounded 
stones. The stones are of different sizes and very firm ; the greatest number 
are not larger than grains of sand, whilst others are very large, like the great 
Hesselager stone on the island of Funen, which has a circumference of a 
hundred feet. Of the origin of these stones there are many opinions, some be- 
lieving them brought to the land by great floods. 

The soil, in accordance with its condition, may again be divided into— 

1st. The '* rolling-stone clay," consisting of clay and rolling stones, and is 
found on the islands and on the eastern part of the peninsula. The surface ia 
hilly and uneven, but the hills stand isolated with no connecting ridge. Between 
them are found ciarrow valleys, tcreeks, and frequently small lakes or ponds. 

There is no room for large plains, and only a few are found, as Heden, (the 
heath,) a productive plain between Boskilde, Kjoge, and Copenhagen, ending 
on the island of Gomeger. There is also " Sletten " (prairie) in the southern 
part of the island of Funen. The rolling-stone clav is very productive, and a 
great part of the islands is covered with beach wooas. 

2d. The rolling-stone sand consists of a layer of sand, which contains rolling 
6tone, but of a very small size. 

This formation is found scattered on the islands, and constitutes that link of 
hills which runs from Oxenbjerg at Ossens to Soendborg, attaining its greatest 
size at the ridees of the peninsula. These ridges in Jutland form the division 
line between me waters of the eastern and western sides of the peninsula, run- 
ning nearer to the eastern than to the western side. North of Aarhuns these 
heights diminish, but after passing the Limfiorden increase. From this prin- 
cipal ridge smaller branches shoot off, and form in some places the highest and 
most lovely spots in Denmark. These branches form also some considerable 
valleys, as the beautiful Oreisdale at Veile. 

Formerly the rolling-stone sand was covered with wood, particularly oak, 
which is now nearly all destroyed. In a few places some stunted burr oaks arc 
found. Towards the west the rolling heaths get more and more level. 

3d. The heath plains in Schleswig Holstein are^narrow, and in many places 
cultivated, but in Jutland they form a broad uncultivated belt as far as the 
Limfiord. They make large interminable flats, which descend toward the western 
ocean. i 

The vegetation is of a uniform kind, consisting chiefly of the brown heather, 
and does not thrive very well. This unproductiveness originates from the com- 
position of the soil. The surface is underlaid with a brownish stone formf^ion. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 287 

containing iron. The roots of no tree can penetrate this mass, and as no claj 
is foand on the heath plains they are wholly anproductive. In some few places 
clay appears^ and here we find the mannfactare of the celebrated Jutland 
pottery carried on. These heaths have never been covered with wood, but still 
are not without tbeir uses. Numbers of young cattle and sheep feed upon them 
in summer and the heather is used for fuel. West of these heath plains is — 

4th. fhe so-called Glitter, viz : banks of sand near the shore. This at 
high water has been thrown upon the shore. At low tide the sand is left, and 
the wind carries it inland. The smallest object forms a nucleus, and little by 
little hills and ridges arise inside each other, particularly towards the south » 
where the winds have the greatest sweep, and pile the sand in hills a hundred 
feet high. In the course of time these hills are covered with sand plants, such 
as sea-reed and beach grass, {arundo urinaria,) lyme grass, (Jlymus arinarius,) 
and a kind of a gray willow, which derives its food from the moisture in the 
sand, and the roots, often sixty to eighty feet in extent, are of great service to 
fasten the sand. Some of these sand-hills have continued for ages, and still 
retain their ancient names. 

Peat bogs are found in large numbers throughout the country, and are 
of great importance in furnishing the chief fuel of Denmark — "turf." The 
bogs irom which turf is made may be divided into three classes : First, wo 
have the wood-bogs. These generally form small, roundish basins, and contain 
different kinds of mosses, widi layers of whole trees — ^most generally oak and 
fir. In the deeper and older layers beach is never found) though beech is now 
the principal wood of Denmark. The fir, which as late as 150 years ago was 
not met with in this country, is, on the contrary, always found, though all the 
pine wood of the present day has been planted since that time. This kind of 
peat^ bogs generally appear on the rolling stone sands, and in the North sea land, 
where they cover large tracts of land. Second, pool bogs : these consist of large, 
low, and wet tracts, and contain grasses, bullrushes, and reeds ; layers of moss 
and trees are not found in them. Third, heath bogs — also called high bogs, 
because higher in the middle than at the outskirts — are generally found in deep 
hollows void of timber, or on tracts of descending lowlands. They are dis- 
tinguished firom woody bo^, as they contain but one kind of moss, sphagnum ; 
have no layers of trees, but are always covered with heather. It is not un- 
common to find a wood bog or a pool hog covered with a heath bog, a sphag- 
num layer, and also heather having covered the original bog. 

Some of these peat bogs, in earlier times, were covered with fresh water, and 
others with the sea, but by a continuous rising they have become elevated above 
the surface of the water. The rising of the land is still in progress throughout 
all that part of Denmark lying north of a line drawn between Nissumfiord and 
Nyborg. The bogs that in former times were covered by the sea are easily 
recognized, the bottom being sea sand, and contains the remains of the same 
kind of animals found in the adjacent seas. These peat bogs are of very large 
extent. 

The different kinds of turf are about equal as to quality, if of an equal weight. 
The turf from the wood bogs is, however, generally heavier and better than that 
from the pool bogs and heath bogs. 

FRESH WATBR. 

As the country is divided into so many islands, it follows, of course, that the 
fresh-water streams play but an inferior part. Only a few streams can lav claim 
to the name of riv^s. Most of them are mere rivulets or creeks ; the longest 
is Gttdanaa in Jutland. The waters of none of them are very deep, and there- 
fore of little use to navigation. 

Th^treams on the islands are insignificant. The principal ones are, 1. Su- 

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288 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



saa, in Zealand, which has its mouth near Faxoe, and flows in a circuit around 
the hills near Nostved, and finds an outlet in the hay of Vordingborg; 2. Oden- 
see, a creek in Funen, passes by the ancient city of Odensee. Avicco, in the 
hills of the south of Funen, 'has its mouth in Odenseefiord. ' 

On the peninsula the streams are also unimportant. The ridge which divides 
East and West Jutland also forms the division line of the waters, those on the 
east side emptying into the Cattegat, and those on the west side into the North 
sea. On the west side we find some seven small streams, the southernmost of 
which is Kfbee. On the east side are Guden and Green, both emptying into 
the Cattegat. 

The space dividing the creeks on the western side from those on the eastern 
side is very narrow. 

The King's creek now forms the principal border line between Denmark and 
its quondam provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. 

LAKES. 

A large number of lakes and ponds are found in this country. Funen has, 
perhaps, the least. Some of these lakes arc linked together in a cluster, as the 
North Zealand groups, with Arresoe, Esromsoe, and Fnrsoe. 

CLIMATB. 

Notwithstanding its northern latitude, Denmark has rather a mild climate 
compared with other countries. It stands thus : average summer heat of Ire- 
land is 15®; Copenhagen, 17°; Moscow, 20*^. Winter in Ireland, +5**; Co- 
penhagen, 0° ; Moscow, — 10°, according to Reamur's thermometer. 

The mean temperature in different parts of the country in the several seasons 
are found to be, from a large number of observations^ according to Reamur — 



Seasons. 


Copenhagen. 


Frederickhaven 
and Jutland. 


Winter : December, Januaryf and February 


o 

H- .4 

-h 5.2 

13.8 

7.6 


o 
-1-0.0 
4.9 


Spring : M&rch| April, and May 


Summer : June, July, and Aug^ust 


12.6 


Autumn : September, October, and November 


7.4 






Mean temperature for the year 


+ .6 


6.3 







The climate is a medium between an island and a mainland climate. It has 
an average of 113 rainy and 31 snowy day«. The average fall of rain through 
the year is 21 inches, which exceeds that of eastern Europe, St. Petersbai^ 
having 1 7 inches. Astrakan 6 inches, but less than Bergen, in Norway, which 
reaches 80 inches, and the west coast of Ireland, which has 55 inches. 

Severe rain-storms are of rare occurrence. The western winds predominating. 
Heavy gales are also rare, except on the western coast of Jutland, where con- 
tinued gales are frequent, and no trees will grow without shelter. The severest 
of these winds is called the "Skai," a dry, sharp wind which blackens the 
leaves and young shoots and gives them the appearance of being blistered by 
fire. 

A very heavy mist called the Haoguseen arises also from.the western ocean 
and often hangs for days over the land, with a very disastrous eflfcct on the 
herbs and plants. 

As a general thing, the air is pure and clear, save in winter it is not so cold 
here as in more southern countries on the Baltic. It is also free fronAheavy 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 



289 



miflts eotnmon to England and Scotland. The dimate in Bummer is delightful; 
never very warm. 

The following table will show the length of one daj in each month : 



Month. 



Day. 



SUNRISE. 



Hour. Minute. 



SUNSET. 



Hour. 



lUQnutes. 



LENGTH OF TWIUGHT. 



Minutes. 



Januaij . . 
FebmaiT . 
Ifarch.... 

^::::: 

June . 

July 

August... 
September 
October... 
November 
December. 



27 
24 
23 
27 
25 
29 
27 
31 
28 
26 
29 
28 



6 

7 

56 
28 
34 
21 
59 

5 
59 
56 

6 



20 
20 
18 
27 
19 
45 
14 
55 
42 
32 
32 
31 



47 

42 
42 
48 
61 
69 
56 
45 
42 
44 
51 



On the 14th December the son sets at 3,25, On the 29th of December the 
snn rises at 8.32. 

Vegetation is about the same as in middle Europe, and if there be any differ- 
ence in the various parts of the country, it is more owing to soil than climate. 
Where the rolling-stone formation exists the whole country is nearly covered 
with timber. The principal wood is beach, more particularly found on the 
rolling-stone clay. The beech tree of Denmark excels that of any other coun- 
try in the beauty of its trunk and the» spread of its branches, and in ftummer, 
when clothed with a rich transparent foliage, and a beautiful carpet of nass or 
mosses beneath, it forms a most delightful spot, and the first question oidinarily 
asked a stranger lately arrived in summer is, '' Have you been to the woods ? " 
the Danes being justly proud of their forests. 

Next in importance to the beech is the oak, now only found scattered among 
the beach, an exclusively oak grove being rare ; yet the oak flourishes best on 
the rolling-stone formation. 

From examinations made in peat bogs it is found that the beech was intro- 
duced into the country in comparatively modem times. 

Next in importance are the pine forests ; they, too» were planted in later years, 
though the fact is established that Denmark centuries ago was covered with 
splendid pines, which became extinct at an early period of Sie settlement of the 
country. 

On the lowlands elms are found as underbrush, and in dry places the hazel, 
bat the sloe and the blackthorn predominate. 

Grain is principally cultivated on the rolling-stone formation. 

The western part of the country has very Tittle timber, and old ptople may 
be found who have never seen a tree. 

The heather grows on the unproductive heath plains. 

On the Glitter are the sand plants. The few chalk soils are covered with a 
peculiar plant, as on the island of Moen, which is remarkable for the variety of 
its orchideous. Bomholm is also remarkable for its plants. All the beech trees 
on that island hav^een planted. 

The animals now found in Denmark are auite different from those of the 
olden time. Formerly there were a great numoer of mammiferous animals of a 
large ske, now extinct; among them was the elk, the reindeer, the bison ox; 

T9 C B 



Digitized by 



^^oogle 



290 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

also the bear, the wolf, the beaver, and the wild boar. The country being now 
thickly settled, there are no longer large tracts of wild land to afford them 
shelter. The deer is fonnd only in parks. 

Amonp the wild animals are the fox, the badger, and the otter. 

£irds are largely represented, water-fowls being the most numerous. Fore- 
most among the songsters are the lark, the thrush, the chaffinch, the linnet, the 
nightingale, the goldfinch, and the cuckoo. 

Of reptiles and toads few are found ; the only poisonous snake is the viper, 
which is numerous, among the heather of Jutland. 

Denmark is situated in the same latitude as Scotland, and contains 696 square 
miles Danish, with a population of over 1,600,000. 

The number to the square mile is different in different localities, and depends 
greatly upon the productiveness of the soil. Jutland has «bout 1,500 to the 
square mile, and is the sparsest populated portion of Denmark. The largest 
population is found on the islands of Amager and Oroe, being about 9,000 to 
the square mile. 

At the census of 1860, Denmark had a population of 1,600,551, exclusive 
of its colonies, viz., 793,188 males, and 807,363 females. It ha& — . 

4 cities, with over 10,000 inhabitants, making a total of 190, 476 

6 cities, from 5,000 to 10,000 inhabitiints, making a total of 44, 380 

24 cities, from 2,000 to 6,000 inhabitants, making a total of.* 78, 632 

28 cities, from 1,000 to 2,000 inhabitants, making a total of 41, 898 

6 citie8,r«inder 1,000 inhabitants, making a total of 3, 820 

The islimd of Oroe 1,713 

Total 360,919 

The population of the rural districts, including the smaller villages, who, as a 
general tning, derive their support from agricultural pursuits, is divided among 
the different sections as follows : 

Island of Sealand (rural district) contains 126,6*78 square miles, and 359,207 
inhabitants, viz., 2,836 to the square mile. Including the villages and adja- 
cent islands there are 129,052 square miles, and 560,510 inhabitants— equal to 
4,343 to the square mile. 

Island of Bomholm (rural district) has 10,057 square miles, with 18,942 
inhabitants, or 1,883 to the square mile. Including villages and adjacent islands 
it has 10,598 square miles, and 29,304 inhabitants— equid to 2,765 to the square 
mile. 

Island of Moen (rural district) has 4,073 square miles, and 12,369 inhabitants, 
equal to 3,( 37 per square mile. Including villages and adjacent islands there 
are 4,160 square miles, with 14,301 inhabitants — equal to 3,438 to the square 
mile. 

Island of Falster (rural district) contains 8,451 square miled, with 21,435 
inhabitants— «qual to 2,536 to the square mile. Includiug villages and adjacent 
islands it has 8,559 square miles, and has 25,924 inhabitants — equal to 3,029 
to the square mile. ^ 

Island of Laaland (rural district) has 20,954 square miles, and 51,206 inhab- 
itants—equal to 2,444 to the square mile. Including villages and adjacent islands, 
21,526 miles square, and 60,873 inhabitants — equal to 2,828 to the mile square. 

Island of Funen (rural district) has 54,348 square miles, and 150,754 inhab- 
itants. Including villages and adjacent ilftinds, it has 55,243 square miles, and 
a population of 187,227 — equal to 3,389 to the square mile. 

Island of Langeland (rural district) has 4,918 square miles, and 15,880 in- 
habitants. Including villages and adjacent islands, 4,973 square miles, and a 
population of 18,599—- equal to 3,740 to the square mile. ^ 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 



291 



PemnBula of Jatland (rural district) has 454,094 square m]le8> and 611,552 
inhabitants, or 1,345 to the square mile. Including villages and adjacent 
islands, 460,047 square miles, and 703,813 inhabitants, or 1,530 to the square 
Bile. 

Add, also, the small island of Oroe, (rural district,) of 1,443 square miles, 
with 9,705 inhabitants, or 6,726 to the square mile. Including villages and 
adjoining islands, it contains 1,493 square miles, with 11,418 inhabitants— 
eqoal to 7,648 to the square mile. 

The population of the cities, compared with, that of the land districts, is, 
therefore, according to the census of 1860, and excluding Oroe, as one to 346. 
Of 1,000 inhahitanta 244 lived in cities and 776 in the land districts. 

NUMBER OF FAMfLIES. 

Copenhagen, in a population of 155,143, had 32,683 families, with 475 in- 
dividuals to each 100 families. In all the cities, including Gopenhagen, there 
were, in a population of 359,206, 73,693 families, consisting of 487 individuals 
to each 100 families. Oroe is excluded in this as in the following calculations^ 

The rural districts had, in a population of 1,241,345, 256,745 families, with 
483 mdividuals to 100 families. Total numher of families in the cities and 
rural districts 330,438, in a population of 1,600,557, or 484 to each 100 families. 

In the relative position of the single and married state we find the following 
interesting facte : 



o 












m 




MALES. 


FEMALES. 




In cities. 


In rural 
districts. 


Total. 


In cities. 


In rural 
districts. 


Total. 


Sinffle 


113,038 

66,583 

4,725 

673 


374,734 

221,917 

19,822 

1,696 


487,772 

278,500 

24,547 

2,369 


109,725 

55,684 

17,819 

959 


355,735 

221,878 

43,474 

2,089 


465,460 

277,562 

61,293 

3,048 


Ma^ed :::::::: 


Widowed 

Separated 




Total males. . . - . - 






793,188 
807,363 








Total fenmlefl . . . 






807,363 












Total population . 


1,600,551 











175, 019 males in cities to 184, 187 females. 

618, 169 males in rural districts to 623, 176 females. 



793,188 



807,363 



To each 1,000 males there are 1,018 females. The greatest proportion of 
females to males is in the cities, viz., 1,000 males to 1,052 females, whilst in 
the rural districts the proportion is only 1,000 males t(]fl,008 females. 

The difference, however, is reversed in youth, for then the males are in excess. 

Under 25 years, 1,000 males to 991 females ; over 25 years, 1,000 males to 
1,046 females. ^ 

The population in 1,000 of both sexes is— 

Under 15 years ^ 336.93 per cent. 

From 15 to 20 years * * 90.66 per cent. 

From 20 to 60 years 491.34 per cent. 

Over 60 years 81.07 per cent 

* 1.000 T 

Digiti^di^OOgle 



292 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCfE. 



The number of females between tbe ages of 20 and 40 yean, in 1,000, were 
300 in 1860. 

THE DIVISIONS OP LABOR. 

Table shaicing the different employments, and distinguMing the principals Jr am 

their subordinates. 



Ocenpatloii. 



Head! of em- 
ploymenti. 



MalM. Femal'i. 



8UB0RDI1IATU. 



Oatiide lervanti. 



MalM. Fenud's. 



Berranta. 



Maki. Femal'*. 



TotaL 



Ifalei. Femal'i. 



ClergTmen and teaehen . . . . . 

Auistant ditto 

CivU officers 

AtsiitAnts to ditto 

Subordinate officers 

Offlcem of tbe land force . . . . 

Ditto in tbe nayy 

Military nnder class 

Nary ditto 

Scientific pcunsaits 

Pensioners 

CapitaUsts 

Agricalturlsts 

Assistant ditto 

Deriving itr^port from the sea 

Industrial parsnits 

Assistants in ditto 

Merchants 

Assistants 

Day laborers 

Servants, tranirient 

Un certain pursuits 



Total. 

Paupers 

Imprisoned . . 



5.43 


0.25 


0.34 


0.02 


4.26 


aoe 


1.27 


a 01 


5.61 


1.56 


1.01 


aoo 


0.19 


aoo 


8,24 


aoo 


S.13 


aoo 


4.41 


1.01 


3.05 


5.96 


2.23 


4.14 


156.72 


26.15 


&42 


a 38 


17.39 


a 17 


79.72 


97.40 


53.31 


1.79 


16w51 


3.03 


8.59 


a 47 


78.84 


8.36 


1.38 


1.69 


1.46 


3.80 



5i09 

ao7 

2.93 

a36 

&43 

a53 

a 24 

1.03 

1.44 

1.56 

S.05 

1.65 

189.16 

2.05 

12.26 

71.87 

12.10 

14.60 

a 57 

68.89 

a 63 

1.28 



1L60 

a IS 

7.38 

a 78 

ia97 

1.27 

a28 

2.13 

3.02 

3.44 

6.19 

4.60 

33a 10 

4.92 

23.61 

140.24 

2a 12 

31.46 

1.28 

14a 41 

1.16 

2.41 



9.90 

a 01 

1.13 

a 02 
a 53 
a 13 

0.02 

a 01 
aoo 
a2o 
a24 
a 51 

105.73 
1.06 

a5o 
a67 

9.12 
7.06 

ao3 
ao6 
a 05 
ao3 



6.20 

ao7 

4.94 

a94 

1.32 

a77 
a 19 
a 12 
ao6 

1.28 
2.36 
2.72 
84.67 

a96 

1.57 

iai9 
a 51 

13.22 

a 30 
a 63 
ao9 
a 22 



14. OS 

a 40 

8.32 
1.65 
11.57 
1.70 
a35 
9.28 
3.57 
a 17 
5.38 
4.39 
451.61 

laoo 

3ai5 
158.26 
6&53 
38.17 
9.19 
147.79 
2.06 
2.77 



1&05 
a 34 

11.70 
1.03 

13.65 
2.04 
0.47 
2.25 

aoe 

5.73 

14.51 

11.46 

44a 92 

&26 

25.35 

180.83 

28.42 

47.70 

9.05 

149.40 

2.94 

6.43 



456.45 



86.97 



396.74 



753.58 



127.03 



134.93 



15.25 
2.53 



974.72 

24. eo 
aes 



iao5 
a 31 
iao2 

1.34 
12.72 
1.87 
0.43 
&74 
a33 
5.95 
9.97 
7.95 

44a 23 

8.11 

27.73 

1®.64 

4a 81 

42.99 
5.56 
148.60 
2.50 
4.61 



978.44 
19.97 
L59 



AGRICCTLTURB. 

As the principal pursnit of the Danish population is agricultnre, from which 
some sixty per cent, receive its support, it may not he uninteresting to take a 
closer view of this population and of the divisions of 4and. 

The lands of Denmark are arranged acc6rding to a peculiar admeasurement, 
called the " hardcom." This scale of registration of real estate was intro- 
duced hy the celebrated mathematician Ole Boemer. The land was classified, 
first, according to its actual area ; and, secondly, according to its quality, which 
was toende hardcom. Two toendea of field land, or 28,000 square ells, of 
the best kind were calculated as one toende hardcom of the next class. Three 
toendes run were one toende hardcom, &c., &c. The poorer the land was the 
more toende of real land was required to make a toende hardcom. In many 
places it took 16 to 20 ^endes of land to make a toende hardcom. 

The scale has latel^een changed, but the poinciple and the term hardcorn 
^ve been changed. 

The hardcom is calculated now from the .productions of the land. Every 
field is registered with its ftal value and with a number denoting its product- 
iveness. The number 24 denotes the best land, and the poorest. It is this 
union of area and productiveness which % taxed according to the scale of 24, 
equal to one toende hardcom. The area of this is 72,000 square ells, or 0.5| 
toendes of land, so that the number of toendes area to make a toende hardcom 
varies. In the poorest part of Jutland often as many as 45 to 90 tonedes of 
land are required. Where the land is of fair condition it takes about 11 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



DANISH DOMINIONS. ^ 293 

toendes. If a pereon knew the nnmber of toendes of land and the number of 
toendes hardcom, the quality and value of the farm are at once established. 
One toende of land area is 5,600 square feet 

From the foregoing explanation of the meaning of the word hardcom the 
following statistics will be easily understood. 

Of the hardcom 6,770 toendes fall upon the city lands, and 368,299 toendes 
in the rural districts proper. 

The farmers are generally divided into three classes, acdbrding to hardcom, 
viz: 

Houses or small farms with less than one toende hardcom. 

Farms between one and twelve toendes hardcom, and then the larger farms or 
estates called manors with more than twelve toendes hardcom, or 1,754 manors 
with a total of 50,111 toendes hardcom ; 69,094 farms with a total of 278,528 
toendefl hardcom; 136,925 houses with a total of 13,532 toendes hardcom ; lots 
taxed, without buildings, 5,122 toendes hardcom. 

Of lace years the lands of the larger estates have been to a considerable ex- 
tent parcelled out and leaseholds sold to the occupants, so that houses with less 
than one toende hardcom have increased from 108,182 in 1850, to 136,925 in 
1860. This has also been the case with second-class farms, one to twelve 
toendes hardcom; increasing from 66,844 in 1850 to 69,094 in 1860. 

Of the 1,754 manors of over twelve toendes hardcom there were in 1860, 945 
with from 12 to 20 toendes hardcom, containing 14,021 toendes hardcom ; 308 
with from 20 to 30 toendes hardcom, containing 7,517 toendes hardc^; 501 
with over 30 toendes hardcom, containing 28,580 toendes hardcom. 

Of the farmers occupying from one to twelVe toendes hardcom the larger 
number are proprietors; and of those holding more than four toendes hard- 
eoiii, more than one-half are proprietors. 

There were 69,094 fiums having one to 12 toendes hardcom, (exclusive of 
the islands of Bomholm and Oroe») viz: 

4,022 with from 12 to 8 toendes hardcom, 34,451 toendes hardcom ; 27,074 
with from 8 to 4 toendes hardcom, 155,081 toendes hardcom; 20,618 with 
from 4 to 2 toendes hardcom, 60,755 toendes hardcom ; 17,380 with from 2 to 
1 toendes hardcom, 25,241 toendes hardcom. 

Of these there were 48,509 proprietors with 175,562 toendes hardcom; 
5,794, with 27,243 toendes hardcom, were held by hereditary leases, with the 
privilege to sell and mortgage— iif fact, proprietary ; 404, with 2,312 toendes 
hardcom, were held by hereditary leases without these privileges, and 14,387, 
with 73,411 toendes hardcom, were still leasehold farms. To form an opinion 
of the area of land held by each of the above classes I will state that 12 to 8 
toendes hardcom are about equal to 90 to 45 toendes land ; 4 to 2 toendes 
hardcom are about equal to 45 to 22 toendes land; 2 to 1 toendes hardcom are 
aboat equal to 22 to II toendes land; and 15 of our acres are equal to 11 
toendes of knd. 

The house-holders or small farmers, owners of less than one toende of land, 
form a very important part of the Danish population. They numbered in 1860 
136,929, holding 34,531 toendes hardcom, divided as fellows : 

59,305, possessing from 1 to ^ toendes hardcom, equal to 30,168 toendes hard- 
com ; 48,604 possessing under ^ toAides hardcom, equal to 4,363 toendes harcb> 
corn; 29^16 possessing no hardcom. 

Two-fifths of the house-holders or small formers hold sufficient land for self- 
support ; one-quarter live principally^as day-laborers ; one-third are exclusively 
dependant on day labor, except in cases where they are mechanics or fishermen. 

The most of the proprietors have from 3^ to 5} toendes of land. The 
smaller holders generally possess about 3^ toendes; 88^505 (64.6 per cent.) of 
these were proprietors, with 23,431 toendes hardcom, or who held hereditary 
leajses with the privilege to sell and mortgage; 48,424, (35.4 per cent]) 

Jigitized by VjjOOV IC 



294 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



with 11,000 toendes hardcorn, were lease-holders or tenants. The nnmber of 
proprietors are increasing rery fast, and as the householders seem to prosper 
more than thej did in their former condition of tenants, eveiy one u striTing 
to be the proprietor of the ^mall parcel of land he is tilling. 

Ownership creates more energj and indnstrj, also greater self-respect and 
intelligence. Some fear evils from this parcelling ont of the land among such 
small proprietors, but so far it has been of great benefit to the laboring agricak* 
tarists and to all parties. 

Since foreed labor and all restrictions on industry hare been abolished in Den- 
mai'k the country has greatly advanced in prosperity, the laborer being now 
permitted to work for whom he pleases. His pay is better, and the condition 
and family is also greatly improred. The large estate owners, like our sonthem 
planters, hare been rather reluctant to part with the hold they had upon the 
laborers, but now a few of them hare come up boldly to the wwk and changed 
their lease-hold occupants into proprietors; and this process is going on rapidly 
throughout the whole of Denmark. 

The tillers of the soil, and the large class of householders, who, but a few 
years ago, had not the least influence in the political affairs of Denmark, may 
now be considered a most influential class, their influence increasing with their 
intelligence and prosperity ; and though so lately broken away from the tbnddom 
of ages, they bia fair to become the strongest supporters and guardians of con- 
stitutional liberty. 

Statement shaving the number of toendes of land m Denmark and it$ doMifica- 

tion. 





Intheisi- 
ands. 


In JmUand. 


Field Imcls 


Toendes. 
1,909,824^ 


Toemdes. 
2,675,608 
19,894 


Marsh lands 


Wet mutdows and iwat bors . ... .... ...... .... .... -... ...... 


69,639 

188^998 

99,470 

19, 8M 

99,841 


387,933 


Woodi 


89,523 


Roads and biiildin?s -. 


179,046 


Heaths 


1,094,170 

49,735 

109,417 


Lakes and ponds .% » 

Clitter , r ."...^. 








Total 


2,317,661 


4,605,411 





Total toendes of land in the country, 6,923,06!^ 

The proportion of cultivated to uneiikivated lands is 1:4, 15. In Jntfaod, 
wheie the great heath plains are found, the proportion is 1 : 11, 05b Notwith- 
standing the great improyements in agriculture within the last fifteen or twenty 
years, still there is great room for more, particulariy in the agricnltiiral inaple- 
ments. Many American implements have, howeyer, already found their way 
here. * ^ * Grain and cattle raising is the fbondatioQ of the wealth of 
Senmark, and the exportation is already v^y large. 

The shipments of grain in 1863 were-» 

Buckwheat ,. . f21 toendes (barrels.) 

Barley 1,323,033 

Peas 34.822 

Oats 1,137,683 ** 

Wheat 373, 670 

Malt 4,864 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



DANISH DOMINIONS. 295 

Bye 243,084 toendes (barrelfl.) 

Vetch , 9,788 

Groat 5, 809, 463 pounds. 

Floiir, (of barley,) wheat, and potatoes 17, 184, 247 ' " 

Bread 2,051,247 " 

Bape-seed 57, 932 toendes (barrels.) 

Oil-cakes * 7, 292, 012 pounds. 

Batter 38, 862 toendes (barrels.) 

Pork 2, 358, 979 pounds. 

Meat 1,794,047 •* 

Coarse wool 3, 140, 336 " 

Fine wool 2,016,755 " 

Animal bones 2, 686, 942 ** 

The ezpoitation of horses and live stock is very considerable. Formerlj 
these exports were generally through the duchies, bat since their separation from 
Denmark the live stock exportation has found a new direct channel from the 
several Danish ports to England, the country which receives the principal part 
of the agricultural products of Denmark. 

The horses are sent generally to France and Germany, and not unfrequently 
as far south as Italy. T^he Danish horse has held its reputation for centuries. 
In Jutland a good-sized work-horse is raised. The horses of the islands are 
smaller, but strong, well knit, and very spirited. * * ♦ In the Russia-France 
war (1852) France alone bought 16,188 horses in Denmark, at the average price 
of 225 rixdollars apiece. In 1853 the price rose to 285 up to 300 rixdoliars. 
An estimate has been made that Denmark could export 50,000 horses in a month 
and the loss not seriously felt by the agriculturists. The number of horses in 
Denmark in 1860 were 324,550. Some 20,000 foals are raised in a year, which 
gives this little country a large sitrplus for exportation. 

The Danish cattle, as a whole, stands very high. The Jutland ox is always 
in demand. The meat is of a very fine fiber, interlaid with fat, but seldom fit 
for butchering till his fifth year. A Jutland ox will give about 6O0 to 700 pounds 
of meat, 100 to 150 pounds of tallow, 40 to 80 pounds of hide. The Jutland cow 
thrives well on meagre pastures, where other cows starve ; if removed to richer 
pastures, she fails to give as much milk, but fattens at the same time. • • * 
A full-grown Jutland cow will weigh about 800 pounds. ♦ * * The num- 
ber of cattle in Denmark in4860 was : 563,095 cows ; 69,986 young cattle three 
years and over ; 201,98i young cattle under three vears ; total, 834,175. The 
number of calves is about 500,000 annually, one-fifth of which are kept for stock. 

8HBEP. 

Large flocks of sheep are seldom or ever met with, but every farmer has some. 
In latter vears greater efforts have been made to improve the stock. In Jut- 
land we and a peculiar breed of middle size ; weight about 90 pounds ; long- 
leggc^ &nd & coarse, straight, but very close wool ; the stomach and neck with- 
out any. This wool is well adapted for the manufacturing of strong, warm, and 
coarse cloth. The number of sheep in Denmark was about 1,200,000 in 1838, 
and in 1861, 1,751,950. 

THE HOG. 

• 

The yearly product is some 165,000, and the amount of hogs kept is about 
322,000. Ilog-raising is carried on on a large scale by a very few fanners in Jut^ 
land ; they generally fatten only enough for their own use. 

The number«of live hogs exported in 1863 was only 5,502, but a larger num- 
ber found, undoubtedly, their way to the duchies, which are not included in the 
above. ^ 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



296 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The exportation of live stock, including Iiogs, has, however, largely increased 
thepresent year direct to England. * ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The fisheries are carried on to a considerable extent amon^ the people on 
the coast. The principal fish is the cod ; then come the flounder and herring. 
The fisheries are not now so extensive as in the middle ages, when, according 
to Saxo Gramaticus, the old Danish historian, the herring was found in such 
numbers in the sound as to be caught by the hand. The salmon is found in the 
streamlets of Jutland, and the saknon fisheries of the city of Banders have 
greatly declined from their former reputation. At the small city of Middelfart, 
in Funen, situated on the Little Belt, as also in the Isefiord, the porpoises are 
taken in large numbers. In Jutland, near the city of Frederikshaven, and also 
in the LUmfiorden, there are considerable oyster fisheries. * * * The cod, 
the flounder, and the eel are exceedingly fine. 

INDUSTRIAL PURSUITS 

are but of limited extent in Denmark, agriculture claiming the greater number 
of the laboring classes; that important article, "coal," is wanted. There are 
but few manufactories of a laige size, the most prominent being cloth manufac- 
turers and a few excellent paper-mills. There are foundries in Odensee, Co- 
penhagen, and FrederiksvorK. 

In Copenhagen there are excellent machine shops, and some fine iron steam- 
boats have been turned out. 

Shipbuilding is carried on to some extent in different parts of the country. 
The snips are strong, of a fine model, and generally excellent sailers. 

The manufacture of wooden shoes is of considerable importance in the wooded 
districts of Jutland, as they are generally worn by the peasants and laboring 
classes of Denmark. 

Gloves are also largely manufactured, and of an excellent quality. 

Another peculiar manufacture in Jutland is knitted woollen goods, in which 
men as well as women are engaged. 

In the town of Ronne, on the island of Bomholm, a superior kind of stone- 
ware is manufactured. This town formerly excelled in the manufacture of 
clocks, but American clocks have driven Bomholm clocks from the market 

COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

The situation of Denmark offers great facilities to commerce, and Hie Danish 
merchant navy consists of more than 6,000 vessels, with a tonnage of 120,000 
commercial lasts, every city and town of any importance having connexion 
with the ocean. Copenhagen is the great commercial port of Denmark, but 
there are many other thriving ports from which considerable products are ex- 
ported direct to Great Britain and other countries. 

Denmark has superior macadamized roads, which greatly facilitate interior 
communication, but not satisfying the demands of the present times, a thorough 
system of railways has been adopted, and to some extent the trunk roads have 
been already completed through the islands of Sealand, Funen, and Jutland. 

THE CITIES. 

As this country is divided, the cities and villages are generally small. Sea- 
land has Copenhagen, with a population of about 150,000, and is the commer- 
cial emporium of Denmark. It is situated on the eastern part of the island, and 
has a splendid harbor, and facilities for becoming the finest in Europe. Its 
merchants have permitted the Baltic trade to slip from them, and but few show 
that enterprise which the country has a right to expect. Government has, of 
late, done much to reduce the burdens on trade. Last year it abolished all 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SWEDEN. * 297 

transit dntieB, and, as Copenhagen has an excellent warehouse system, it only 
requires a little more energy in its merchants to retrieve much of their lost 
gronud, while a new and enterprising set of traders is fast springing up. 

The kings of Denmark have resided in Copenhagen ever since Christopher 
of Bavaria removed the royal residence from Bo^skilde, in 1843; and, naturally, 
everything from the country, both intellectual and material, is gathered here. 

Elsinore, in the northern part of the islyid, has for many hundred years been 
well known to foreign nations as the place where, formerly, they had to pay the 
odious tax on shipping passing the Oere sound. * * A new and commodious 
harbor has been built, and facilities provided for repairing vessels by building a 
superior patent slip, or railway, which has proved of great benefit to foreign 
shipping which seek the place for repairs. Its commercial marine also has been 
largely augmented, and it owns now a greater tonnage than any other city in 
Denmark, Copenhagen alone excepted. It has a population of about 7,000, 
and is at the present time one of tne most thriving towns in Denmark. If the 
plan of a new harbor, which has been proposed, be carried out, Elsinore may 
well look for a brilliant future. 

Fredericksvork is a small manufacturing town. 

On the rich island of Funen we find the old city of Odensee and the towns 
of Ayborg and Svendborg. 

On the peninsula of Jutland are Aalborg, Aahuns, Randers, Ringkjobing, and 
among many minor ones is the new but flourishing town of Silkeborg. 

In the lesser islands there are many small towns. 

The dwellifigs in the country are generally clustered into villages. The 
older buildings are usually frame, filled in with brick-work. The new are 
generally of brick. The roofs are, almost without exception, thatched. In the 
several* districts the manner of building is different. Danish farm-houses are 
built square, with a court in the centre ; one of the four sides is the dwelling ; 
the other three form the out-houses, stables, &c. 

The nobility of Denmark are now of little importance, as such. They lost 
their privileges by the adoption of the constitution of 1849, and many of the 
largest proprietors are transferring their lease-hold property to the farmers. 

The church is the Evangelical Lutheran, which embraces the greater portion 
of the population. By the constitution of 1849 religious liberty is established. 

Education stands on a high footing. The common school system is very 
liberal and extends to all clwes. The neglect of attending school is punished 
by a fine. Her educational mstitntions are the pride of Denmark. England 
and France are behind her in this respect. Great pains are taken to educate 
good teachers, and there are many normal schools for that purpose. For the 
higher educational branches, there are many institutions scattered through the 
country. 

The University of Copenhagen has a European reputation, and has a library 
containing about 200,000 volumes, while the royal library contains 500,000. 

Danish literature is particularly rich in whatever relates, to its national history, 
although not very extended, on account of the limited prevalence of its lan- 
guage. 

Denmark contains many literary societies and scientific associations. * * 




SWEDEN. 
Stockholm — ^orgb Van A. Tefft, Consul. 

Sbptbmbbr 21, 1865. 
I have the honor to transmit herewith enclosure No. 1, a complete though an 
abridged translation of the annual report of the Swedish board of trade relative 
to the manufacturing industry of the kingdom in the year 1863. i^r ^r ^g ip 

igi ize y g 



298 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Enclosed No. 2 is a table showing the number employed and unemployed 
manofactories, the number of manufactories propelled by animal, by water, and 
by steam power, the' aggregate horse-power of the same, the number of machines 
in use, and the total value of goods, wares, and merchandise produced in the 
year 1863 ; and the number of manufactories, and the total value of the pro- 
duction thereof, in the years 1860, 1861, and 1862. * * « 

MANUFACTURE \ND INDUSTRY OP fHB KINGDOM OP 8WBDBN POR THB YEAR 
1863, ABRIDGED PROM THB REPORT OP THB BOARD OP TRADE. 

From the report of the royal board of trade (commerce coUegeum) it appears 
that the number of factories, mills, &c., in the year 1863 was 2,473, with 27,982 
work-people, and that the value of goods manufactured or otherwise produced 
was 66,534,657 riksdaler, being less than the value of the goods manufactured 
in 1861 and 1862 by 28,072,200 riksdaler and. 3,892,117 riksdaler respect- 
ively. The number of manufactories had also decreased 131 in 1861, and 48 
in 1862, and the number of hands 4,389 in 1861, and 2,743 in 1862. It also 
appears, and should be observed, that in the years 1861 and 1862 the owners are 
included in the number of hands, but in 1863 their number is separately stated. 
The considerable reduction in the value of manufactured foods, signs of which 
were visible in 1862, was, in 1863, to be attributed chiefly to tnediminished atfi^^T 
in wool and cotton weaving factories, and in the cotton spinning mills, "ftking 
however, into consideration that the diminution of goods manufacturefl in 1863, 
as compared with the previous years, amounted in the manufacture of woollen 
cloth to 2,013,667 riksdaler, in that of cotton goods to 2,894,580 riksdaler, and 
in cotton yam to 5,468,742 riksdaler, making a total of 10,376,989 riksdaler, 
it is evident that, the reduction in the value of manufactures in 1863 being only 
3,892,117 riksdaler, the activity in the other branches of industry must have 
been considerably greater than in 1862. 

Among the branches of industry special notice may be given to the following: 

1. Cotttm tpinntries, — ^The number of which was diminished from 21 in 1S62 
to 11 in 1863. The value of goods manufactured, which in 1861 amounted to 
13,345,157 riksdaler, and in 1862 to 8,383,938 riksdaler, was in 1863 only 
2,915,190 riksdaler, of which 1,560,227 riksdaler fell to the share of the Ry- 
dal, Alfors, and Nois spinneries. 

2. Silk factoricM. — ^The value of goods produced in these had increased to 
1,232,213 riksdaler. 

3. Sugar refineries, — ^The produce of these had increased to 13,153,827 riks- 
daler. 

4. Tobacco manufactures, — ^The increase was 6,456,728 riksdaler. 

5. Leather manufactories and tanneries, — ^They produced an increase of 
4,809,016 riksdaler. 

6. Oil mills, — These showed a still greater increase in the value of the pro- 
duction, amounting to 1,754,698 riksdaler, or about 500,000 riksdaler more 
than in 1862. 

7. Soap manufactories. — The produce of these was increased to 1,458,384 
riksdaler, which was also more than half a million greater than in 1862. 

8. Mechanical and engineering establishmentsj'-^The production of which 
increased to the value of 5,928,271 riksdaler, or upwards of 2,000,000 riks- 
daler more than in 1862. 

The following branches of manufacture also showed an increase on the pre- 
vious year : ^ 

9. Paper mills, which produced a value of 2%57,S52 riksdaler. 

10. China and delf ware manufactures amounted to 1,026,746 riksdaler, a 
larger production than either of the previous five years. 

11. Wateh manufactories, to the value of 468,813 riksdaler. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SWEDEN. 



299 



12. Playing-card manufactories, to the valne of 163,125 riksdaler. 

13. Paper hanging-manufactories, to 341)184 riksdaler, a great increase over 
any previous year. 

14. A new and promising branch of manufacture, viz., the manufacture of 
wine from berries, was stated to have produced a value of 334,674 riksdaler. 

During the year manufacturing was most active in Stockholm, the town of 
Gateborg, (Gottnaburg,) and in the provinces of Gateborg, Nove Raping, Oster- 
gatland, and Elfsborg. The proportional value of manufactures produced in the 
city of Stockholm and the several provinces, including their towns and manu- 
facturing villages, is shown in the following numerical table : 



Value in Riks- 
daler, M.B. 



P«r ceDtiun. 



City of Stockholm 

Province and town of Gateborr 

Do Ostergotland . . . . 

Do Ellsbore 

Do Walmdhos 

Do... Sodennanland... 

.Do.* Gefieborgs 

*Do Stockholm 

Do Jonkopinff 

Do Wermland 

Do Kalmar 

Do Halland 

Do Krorsbergs 

Do Bleking 

Do Orebro 

Do Westmoreland .. 

Do Skavaborg 

Do Kristiansted 

Do Kapparber g 

D<|. Weetermoreland . 

Do Upsala 

Do Westerbotten..-. 

Do Gotland 

Do Jemtland 

Do Novebotten 



18; 

13, 

llr 

3, 
3, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 



729,000 
730,000 
679,000 
961,000 
870,000 
665,000 
583,000 
560,000 
235,000 
088,000 
075,000 
983,000 
936,000 
835,000 
831,000 
596,000 
581,000 
609,000 
307,000 
289,000 
243,000 
161,000 
47,000 
35,000 
16,000 



28.15 

20.64 

17.56 

5.99 

5.77 

2.50 

2.38 

2.35 

1.87 

1.64 

1.60 

1.4S 

1.40 

1.25 

1.25 

.90 

.88 

.76 

.46 

.4$ 

.37 

.24 

.07 

.05 

.03 



Total Talae in riksdaler, M. B . 



66,534,000 



100 per ct. 



In ** domestic weaving" there was a decrease in the production of cotton good8» 
so that in the province of Elfborg it had diminished to 19,001,412 fot* (feet) 
firom somewhat more than 27,000,000 fot in 1862, and to 1,033,610 kerchiefs* 
&c^ from 1,869,456 in 1862 ; whereas the manufacture of woollen and linen 
goods rose, the former to 1,004,783 fot from 940,736 fot in 1862, and the latter 
to 978,620 fot from 807,1 17 fot in 1862. In the province of Gelfleborg 3,351,500 
fot of coarse Unen cloth were woven above the amount required for home con- 
eumption, and more than in any previous year. In the province of Westmore- 
land 1,550,000 fot of coarse and fine linen cloth were woven in both 1862 and 
1863, which amount was considerably more than in- any year previous ; and in 
the province of Halland 481,000 fot of linen and woollen goods were woven» 
being somewhat less than in 1862. 

The number of master mechanics, &c., male and female, in towiJis and boroughs 
in 1863, was 7,629 ; journeymen, 8,209 ; apprentices, 8,357 ; and of other work- 
people employed, 3,051; making a total of 27,246 persons, the largest number 
daiing the laat five years. The number of the first- class was an increase on 

* Fot, (foot.) 100 Swedish fot are equal to 97.410 EDf^lish feet. 

• Digitized by V^OOQK:! 



300 iflmUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

1862, bat less than in tbe previous yean ; tbat of jonrneymen tbe largest daring 
the same period, and that of apprentices somewhat less than in 1862, bat larger 
than in previoas years. In the workshops of the coantry there were engaged 
1,725 males and females, (the largest in the last five years,) assisted by 547 
loameymen, 1,010 apprentices, and 416 other working people, the whole namber 
Doing 3,698 persons. To these mast be added 11,187 (so-called) "jobbers,*' 
assisted by 4,652 persons, making together 15,839. 

Of " self-maintainers," there were in towns and boronghs 7,191, and in the 
coantry 7,597, making a total of 14,788. 

The board of trade remarks that the namber of ''jobbers," with assistants, was 
less by 4,442 than in 1862, while the namber of "self-maintaioers" in 1863 
exceeded the namber of sach in 1862 by no less than 7,197, and considers that 
the difference was cansed by a namber of the former class having gone over to, 
or having been classed ander, the latter category. 

REVIEW OF THE VARIOUS RRANCUES OF INDUSTRY AND MANUFACTURES IN 

1863. 

1. Cloth mills. — ^The namber of these in operation was 96, employing 3,656 
persons, viz : 63 masters, 3,083 work-people above and 510 below the age of 18 
years. Of the former, 2,121 were males and 962 females, and of the lattev 389 
males and 121 females. This namber, which was the largest daring the last 
five years, exceeded that of 1 859 by aboat 1,000 persons, that of 1861 by nearly 
600, and that of 1862 by upwards of 400 persons. The value of goods produced 
was estimated at 9,557,280 riksdaler, being larger than that of 1859, when it 
amounted to only 7,659,738 riksdaler, and that of 1860, but was less than that 
of 1861 by about 616,000 riksdaler, and that of 1862 by 2,013,667 riksdaler. 
The cause of this is to be attributed to the reduced manufacture of superfine and 
fine cloth. The former decreased from 74,000 or 75,000 fot to about 64,000 fot, 
and the latter from 830,000 fot or 840,000 fot to 128,259 lot; whereas the man- 
ufacture of coarse cloth rose from 1,000,000 or 1,250,000, to which it amounted 
in 1861 and 1862, to nearly 2,200,000 fot, aud that of miscellaneous stuffs from 
1,100,000 fot (the average of 1861 and 1862) to nearly 1,450,000 fot in 1863, 
although the value was 400,000 riksdaler less than in 1862. 

The total production in 1863 amounted to 3,760,576 fot, and exceeded that of 
1862 by nearly 900,000 fot, and that of 1860 by 1,000,000 fot. In addition to 
the above, 21,447 pieces of stuff (such as kerchiefs, shawls. Sec) were manufac- 
tured, being considerably more than double the same manufacture in 1861, and 
quadruple that of 1859 and 1860. 

The importation of woollen stuffs, which in the yeai^ 1859, 1860, and 1861 
amounted to somewhat more than 1,000,000 skalpund,* arose in 1862 to nearly 
1,235,000 skalpund, and in 1863 to nearly 1,290,000 skalpund. The home 
manufacture, consequently, increased in proportion to the importation from abroad. 
This importation, however, comprehends other stuffs than those manufactured 
at cloth mills. < 

Of these 96 cloth mills, there were 75 at work in the town of Novekoping, 
employing 2,525 hands, and producing goods to the value of 7,298,674 riks- 
dalers. The Quantity producea amounted to 2,799,129 fot, of which 1,670,419 
fot were broadcloth, 592,255 fot were duffel and drab, 347,634 fot of ribbed 
cloth, and 150,438 fot of cassimere and satin. The largest single production was 
at the Drog Company 's mills, amounting in quantity to 308,278 fot, and in value 
to 936,842 riksdaler. 

* Skalpund, (pound or scale-poond;) 100 are equal to 93.7147 poos ds avoirdnpois. 

• Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SWEDEH. 



301 



The mannfactare of cloth was carried on in seven provincial towns and nine 
places in the country, ;ind in Stockholm there were four mills, as shown in the 
foUowing table: 





Number. 


Product. 


Value. 


Town of HalmstAd ......... 


2 
2 


Foi. 

428,204 

116,579 

146,879 

134,324 

7,400 

4,552 

2,504 


Piecei. 
542 
19,872 


RiksdaUr. 
885,500 
425,994 


Town of Stockholm 


Town of Landskronft . . .... ...... .... 


336,560 
322,590 


Town of WexioA 


933 


Town of Carlsbad...... ......... 


17,500 
7,080 


Town of NoTotilira .................. 




Town of NvkoDinflP. ................. 




6,409 









Number. 


Product. 


Value. 




1 

1 
1 
2 
3 
1 


Fot. 
72,488 
14,326 
10,835 
14,000 
9,056 
300 


Pieces. 


Riludaler. 
152,383 
33,252 
27,793 


Pn>viwr,fl of Ontfirrotland ...........x. 




ProTinoe of SkaraooTip. .............. 




Pro-vinrA nf KrifttiAnjitMl 


100 


25,600 


Province of ICalmaT . . - _ - . . 


17,625 
120 


ProTincw of MAlmohnil ,-^^--,,t,t,t- 











2. Whole and half woollen Huffs. — Of these there were 10, employing 516 
hands, producing 2,259,399 fot ana38,983 pieces of stuff, amounting in value to 
1,353,511 riksd^er, being the least produced during the last five years. This 
manufacture amounted in 1859 to a value of 1,400,000 riksdaler; in 1860, to 
1,500,000 riksdaler, was the highest in 1861, when it amounted to upwards of 
1,900,000 riksdaler, but sank in 1862 to about 1,600,000 riksdaler. 

The following table shows the number and situation of the above factories in 
the kingdom and the amount and value of the production in 1863 : 



Number. 



Product. 



Value. 



Stockholm, city of . . . 
Gotebnrg, town oL.., 
Jonkoping, town of . . 
Goteborg, proYince of 
Elfaborg, province of. 

Total 





Fot. 


3 


1,657,074 


2 


30,510 


1 


22,100 


2 


542,215 


2 


7,200 



10 



2,259,099 



Pieces. 



28,246 



10,737 



Riksdaler. 

673,080 

206,756 

7,020 

384,554 

82,101 



38,983 



1,353,511 



3. Cotton weaving mills. — Of these there were 15 n operation, employing 
1,222 hands, and producing in value 2,085,642 riksdaler. The largest mill was 
Bydboholm, producing to tne value of 911,616 riksdaler. This branch of man- 
nfturture had, from causes generally known, very considerably declined. In the 
year 1860 the cotton goods manufactured amounted to nearly 4,500,000 riksdaler 
in value, in 1861 to nearly 5,500,000, and in 1862 to about 5,000,000 of riks- 
daler. In the mean time the number of hands had not declined in the same 
proportion, but was, very strangely, larger than in 1862, although it was between 
400 and 500 less than in 1861. Cotton goods were exported to the value of 
75,000 riksdaler, and were imported to the value of 2,263,662 riksdaler, while the 
importation in 1862 amounted to 3,500,000 riksdaler. Digitized by V^OOQIC! 



302 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



4. Linen cloth factories, — ^This brancb of manufacture had been continuallj 
increasing during the last five years, and its product iit 1863 was valued at 
242,488 riksdaler. 

The following table shows the number and situation of these factories, and 
the amount and value of goods manufactured in 1863 : 





Nnmber. 


Product. 


Value. 


i 

JonkoDinfir. town of.. 


1 
1 
1 


Fof. 
8,624 
2,253 

624,800 


Pitus, 


n%k$daler. 
9,864 


Orebro. town of. ...... ...... .... .... 




1,613 


Gateborg, province of, Almedars factory. 


6,248 


231,011 


Total 


3 


635,677 


6,346 


242,488 







5. Sail and tent cloth manufactories, — Of these there were 5, employing 
238 hands. The quantity of goods manufactured was stated at 1,300,512 fot, 
and was valued at 452,162 riksdaler. This production was larger than in 1862, 
but less than in 1861. The quantity of this article imported was estimated at 
a value of 124,550 riksdaler. 

6. Hose manufactories, — Of these 17, employing 743 hands, were run during 
the year 1863. The situation of these manufactoriies, and the amount and value 
of goods produced in 1863, may be seen in the following table : 



Novekoping 
Stockholm . 
Gateborg... 

Malmo 

Aligras 

Sandsvall . . 
Linkoping.. 
Upsala 

Total 



Numb^. 



2 

7» 
2 

1 
1 
1 
2 

1 



17 



Product. 



Fot, 

120,832 

64,241 

23,328 

25,620 

!,572 



200 



236,319 



Pieces. 

'117,826 

70,118 

1,440 

612 

310 



36 



190,342 



Yalne. 



RiksdoUr. 

264,229 

188,077 

32,350 

27,785 

3,920 

1,800 

5.34 

100 



518,786 



* BeBldes tho quantities giren in the table, 1,580 fot and 7,700 pounds were prodoeed here. 

7. Ropewalks, — Of these there were 16, with 159 work-people. Their pro- 
ducts amounted to 346,528 riksdaler, which sum exceeds the value of the pro- 
ducts of 1862 by about 35,000 riksdaler. 

8. Woolen yam spinneries, — Of these there were 17, with 140 spinners and 
work-people. The goods manufactured were valued at 140,297 riksdaler, the 
amount being 262,541 skalpund. During the previous four or five years the 
production of these spinneries amounted to only about 8,000 riksdaler per an- 
num. Of twist and woollen yarn, there were imported to the value of 1,229,047 
riksdaler ; of wool, 3,487,788 skalpund were imported, being about 770,000 
skalpund more than in 1862, 300,000 skalpund more than in 1861, and 940,000 
skalpund more than in 1860. 

9. Cotton yam spinneries. — The number of these had decreased from 
21, to which they amounted in 1862, to 11, and in th^se 1,448 hands were 
employed. About 1,636,178 skalpund of yam were manufactured, amount- 
ing in value to 2,915,196 riksdaler, being 5,468,742 riksdaler less than 
in 1362, when the quantity produced amounted to 7,000,000 skalpund. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SWEDEN. 303 

In 1860 and 1861 the quantities amounted to upwards of 14,700,000 
Und 14,800»000 skalpCind, respectively. About 4,000 bands were then em- 
ployed in these spinneries, and in 1862 onlj 3,750. The cause of this 
great reduction is uuiversallj known. Of cotton, 1,709,707 skalpund were 
imDorted in 1863, about 3,000,000 skalpund in 1862, 18,000,000 in 1861, 
and upwards of 19,000,00e skalpund in 1860. Of cotton yarp, 372,500 
skalpund were exported, and 506,590 skalpund were imported in 1863. Of 
cotton thread, 56,041 skalpund were imported. 

10. The linen yam spinneries of '' Almdal," employing 131 hands, produced 
305,456 skalpund of linen yarn, of the value of 404,239 riksdaler, being about 
63,300 riksdialer more than that of 1862. Of linen yarn and thread, about 
35,000 skalpund were imported, and about 4,700 centners* of uncarded flax. 

11. Silk factories, — rThere are six silk factories, all of which are in Stock- 
holm. In these, 517 hands are employed, and the quantity of silk goods 
pnxluced in 1863 amounted to 244,061 fot, and 166,753 pieces of whole 
and half silk, of which the value was estimated at 1,232,217 riksdaler, or 
208,879 riksdaler more than in 1862. In 1859, the value of goods manufac- 
tured amounted to only 809,000 riksdaler, and in the two following years to about 
930,000 riksdaler. Of the 517 persons engaged in these factories, (deducting 
6 masters,) 43 were males, and 474 were females. Of the former, 1 was under 
the age of eighteen, and of the latter, 57. Of whole and half silk stuffs, 78 
skalpund, valued at 1,170 riksdaler, were exported, and 62,808 skalpund, valued 
at 1,615,361 riksdaler, were imported. Of dyed silk, there were 5,232 skal- 
pand, valued at 117,720 riksdaler, and of undyed, valued at 718,784 riksdaler, 
imported. The importation of silk stuffs was a very little larger than in the 
previous year, that of dyed silk somewhat less, and of undyed silk larger than 
m 1862. 

12. Manufactories of 9>tton prints. — ^There were 9 of these manufactories, 
employing 59 hands, and the value of the manufactures was estimated at 
117,333 riksdaler, or 13,500 riksdaler more than in 1862. At eight of these 
manufactories 1,720,347 fot and 1,560 pieces were produced ; the produce of * 
the ninth, situated in Stockholm, has not been stated. The quantity produced 
in 1863 was greater, excepting 1860, than in any previous year. 

13. Sugar refineries, — Of these we;^ 14, employing 1,273 hands. They re- 
fined 29,557,511 skalpund sugar, and produced 7,011,824 skalpund of mo- 
lasses, together amounting to the value of 13,153,827 riksdaler, being about 
500,000 riksdaler more than in 1862, when again it was more than in the three 
previous years. The number of hands employed was also larger than previously. 
Of refined sugar, 42,000 skalpund were exported, but nearly 6,000,000 skal- 
pund were imported, the value of which was 1,855,248 riksdaler. The im- 
portation of molasses amounted to 3,427,000 skalpund, whereas the exporta- 
tion of the same scarcely exceeded 7,000 skalpund, and that of unrefined sugar 
to 37,518,054 skalpund, the largest during the last five years, with the excep- 
tion of 1860, when it amounted to nearly 40,500,000 skalpund. The import- 
ation of refined sugar has nearly doubled since 1859, when it amounted in value 
to nearly 3,000,000 riksdaler. In the year 1861, however, it was estimated at 
only about 2,400,000 riksdaler, and in 1862, 3,700,000 riksdaler. Large as it 
was in 1863, it amounted only to about one-sixth of the quantity consumed in 
the kingdom. * 

14. Tobacco manufactories. — Of these, as in previous years, there were 93, 
with 2,193 laborers. They had, however, increased their production to the 
amount of 1,226,965 riksdaler. The total amount of 4obacco produced was 
7,583,304 skalpund (which includes 4,763,333 skalpund of snuff) in 1861, 
and in 1862 it was about 7,120,000 skalpund, and in 1859 and 1860 about 

• Centners, i. e., cwt 100 centners = 93.7147 lbs. avoirdapois. '^ ^ ^ ^T^ 

JigitizedbyV^OOQlc 



304 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

6,525,000 Bkalpnnd, on the average. There were 40,278 skalpond cigarSf 
3,549,229 skalpnnd leaf tobacco, and 695,718 ekalpun^ mixed tobacco im- 
ported in 1863, whereas the exportation of leaf and mixed tobacco amounted to 
54,000 skalpnnd and 28,000 skalpnnd respectively. Of snnff, 10,058 skal- 
pund were imported. 

15. Dye houses. — Of these were 433, with 1,024 dyers j the value of the pro- 
ducts was 1,214,747 riksdaler, somewhat less than in 1862. The principal 
dye houses were : two at Novekoping, one at Boras, and one at the worls of the 
Garlsrik Company, at Stockholm. 

16. Tanneries,-^^ these there #ere 701, of which 202 were in towns, 40 
in boroughs, and 458 in the countiy. They gave employment to 1,778 tanners, 
and produced dyed hides to the value of 4,809,016 riksdaler, being 790,940 
riksdaler more than in 1862, and 1,000,000 riksdaler more than in 1859. It 
appears that the increased value should be attributed, in part, to higher prices, 
as the quantity of hides and skins tanned had not materially increased. It 
amounted in 1862 to 3,029,163 skalpnnd, and 397,535 pieces, and in 1863 
to 2,741,301 skalpnnd, and 543,069 pieces. The amount of all kinds of 
dressed hides and skins imported was 325,000 skalpnnd, and of raw hides 
nearly 60,000 centners, from which, however, should be deducted an export of 
about 4,600 centners. The value of dressed hides and skins was nearly 680,000 
riksdaler, and of raw not quite 1,850,000 riksdaler. 

17. Oil milU and presses. — Of these there were 5 in towns and 43 in the 
country — 48 in all^-employing 208 work-people, and producing cannor'*' of oil 
and 64,055 oil-cakes, total value being 1,754,698 riksdaler, being nearly 500,000 
riksdaler more than in the previous year, and the largest quantity during the 
last five years. Of the above, 738,200 riksdaler were produced in the province 
of Gatebore. At one manufactory mustard oil was produced to the value of 
1,414 riksdaler, and at three manufactories linseedtoil was produced to the 
value of 17,000 riksdaler of olive, lamp, and other similar oils, 2,184,865 riks- 
daler were imported, and of other kinds of oil 2,086,400 skalpnnd, amounting 
together to more than 600,000 rixdaler. On the other hand, there were ex- 
ported, in excess of the importation, (which was 4,200 centners,) upwards of 
30,000 centner, amounting in value to upwards 150,000 riksdaler. 

18. Soap boilers. — Of these, there were 15, producing 5,612,520 skalpnnd 
of soft, and 545,620 skalpnnd and 36,316 bars of hard soap, amounting to- 
gether to a value of 1,458,348 riksdaler, beiog upwards of 550,000 riksdaler 
more than in 1862. The largest quantity was produced by 4 boilers in Stock- 
holm which manufactured to the value of 968,700 riksdaler, being 340,000 riks- 
daler more than in 1862. Soft soap was imported in excess of the quantity ex- 
ported to the amount of 28,000 skalpund, and other kinds (except aromatic) 
to nearly 66,000 skalpund, amounting to an aggregate value of 22,500 riks- 
daler. 

19. Stearine candle manufactories. — Of these, there were three at Stockholm 
and one at Landsknona. They employed 149 work-people, of which 85 were fe- 
males. They produced 780,190 skalpund of stearine, 132 skalpund of mar- 
garine, and 67,000 skalpund of palmatine candles, making an aggregate of 
979,190 skalpound of candles, valued at 700,000 riksdaler, about 192,000 rik&- 
daler more than in 1862. The quantity had increased about 50 per centum. 
The manufacture of stearine candjes had mcreased by 173,000 skalpund, and 
of the two other kinds by 180,000 skalpund. The importation, too, had also 
risen and amounted to nearly 220,000 skalpund of stearine candles, 6,656 skal- 
pund less than in 1862, but more than in previous years were imported. 

20. l^allow candle manufactories, — Of tnese there were 13, of which 6 were 
in Stockholm, with only 66 work people. These manufactories, in spite of gas 

•Canim (plural, cannor) 100 cannor = 57,603 imperial gallom. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SWEDEN. . 305 

and oil, bad very considerably increased in tbe amount of tbeir productions, viz., 
from 9,695 centner to 24,843 centner, and in value from 390,700 riksdaler to 
994,255 riksdaler. Tbe importation, bowever, decreased from 18,500 skalpund 
to 3,900 skalpund; tallow 45,627 centner, valued at nearly 1,600,000 riksdaler, 
were imported, and was tbe largest importation during tbe last five years, or 
about fifty per centum larger tban tbat of 1859, but exceeding only by 1,300 
centner tbat of 1861. 

21. Glass houses. — Of tbese tbere were 24, witb 1,087 blowers. Tbey pro- 
duced 10,706 cases of window-glass, valued at 661,309 riksdaler, and miscel- 
laneoas glass vessels to tbe value of 840,617 riksdaler, making an aggregate 
of 1,501,926 riksdaler, being somewbat less tban in previous years, except 
1859. Tbe greatest quantity of glass is produced in tbe province of Wermland, 
▼here five bouses produce yearly to tbe value of about 269,510 riksdaler. Of 
window-glass, 1,000,000 skalpund, valued at 160,000 riksdaler, and of otber 
kinds of glass, about 1,450 centner, valued at 8,700,000 riksdaler, were im- 
ported. 

22. China and delftcare manufactories. — Of tbese tbere are but two in Swe- 
den — one at Borstrand, near Stockbolm, and one at Gustafsberg. Tbe for- 
mer employed 307 work-people, and produced to a value of 517,856 riksdaler; 
and the latter employed 315 work-people, and produced to a value of 508,890 
riksdaler, togetber making an aggregate value of production of 1,026,746 riks- 
daler, being nearly 166,000 riksdaler more tban tbat of 1862. The imports 
consisted chiefly of real china, gilt or colored, to tbe value of 219,000 riksdaler, 
white china to tbe value of nearly 32,000 riksdaler, and delf ware, painted or 
stamped, to tbe value of nearly 122,000 riksdaler. Of white delf ware tbere 
were only about 40,000 riksdaler worth. 

23. Potteries and tile-stove (kakelung) manufactories.— In 1863 tbere were 
73 of these manufactories at work, being an increase in number since 1862 of 1 1. 
The number of hands employed in tbese manufactories was 550, and tbe produce 
was estimated at a value of 394,517 riksdaler, somewbat less tban in 1862. 

24. Paper-mills. — Tbe number of such mills in the kingdom in 1863 was 87, 
of which ^ye were not in operation. Tbe mills in operation produced 1 32 ris* 
of imperial and royal paper; 39 ris of vellum paper ; 3,866 centner and 1,043 ris 
of post paper; 3,872 centner and 23,548 ris of foolscap; 128 ris of copy-paper ; 
12,175 centner of printing paper; 13,708 centner and 35,350 ris of cartridge 
paper; 60 centner and 1,059 ris olifant paper; 5,533 centner and 19 rolls of 
hanging paper; 487 ris of tobacco paper ; 1,613 centner of sugar paper ; 892 cent- 
ner and 36,135 ris gr^ paper; 394 centner and 1,655 ris of hemp paper; 17,394 
rolls and 200 centner of roofing paper; 2,000 pieces, 7,075 centner, and 1,380 
pounds of pasteboard ; 3,521,930 square fot, 10,800 pieces, and 2,162 centner 
of wall-paper ;, 40 ris of median paper; and 619 centner and 60 ris of grocers* 
wrmpping-paper. In addition to the above, tbere wero manufactured at the 
royal paper-mills at Tumba 4,750,500 blanks for bank-notes, and 1,573,050 
blanks for stamps. Tbe total manufacturo was stated at— - 

Specijied, — Square fot, 3,521,930; ris, 218,959; centner, 56,977; bhrnks, 
63€®,019; rolls, 1,672; bundles, 1,380. 

Unspecified, — Miscellaneous, valued at 716,868 riksdaler. 

The value of the paper specified above was estimated at 2,857,852 riksdaler, 
which makes an aggregate value of all Kinds of paper manufactured in 1863 of 
3,574,720 riksdaler. The value of tbe production in 1863 exceeded that of 
1862 by 77,886 riksdaler. Tbe largest single production was at tbe Homdal 
mill, in the province of Gateborg, being in value 318,800 riksdaler. The num- 
ber of hands employed in the above 82 mills was 1,678. 

25. Playing-card manufactories, — Of tbese there were six at work, in ad- 

*Bi8, (ream.) 

^^^^ ' Digitized by Google 



306 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

dition to lithographic establishments, manufacturing cards. The amount pro- 
duced was 240,096 packs, the value of which was 163, 12*') riksdaler, an excess of 
68,955 riksdaler on that of the previous year. This cimsiderable increase in the 
manufacture of plajing-cards is attributed to the far firom inconsiderable ex- 
portation which took place in 1863. The number of hands employed at the six 
manufactories above mentioned was 43. 

26. Paper-hanging manufactories — Of these there were 21 at work in 1863. 
The total quantity produced was 26 rolls, corresponding to a value of 543,724 
riksdaler. The number of working-people employed was 273. 

27. Engineering and mechanical establishments. — Of these there were 95 aft 
work in 1863, viz., 87 in towns and 8 in the country. Thi* total production was 
valued at 5,928,271 riksdaler, and was 885,404 riksdaler in excess of the 
value of the production in the previous year. The number of people engaged 
in the above was 4,331. The largest single production was at the Motala works, 
which was valued at 953,188 riksdaler. 

28. Carriage manufactories. — Of these there were 23 at work. The total 
production was valued at 204,592 riksdaler, which was 59.723 riksdaler less 
than in 1862. The largest manufacture was at Sodertelje, amounting to 55,500 
riksdaler. The number of hands employed was 265. 

29. Technical chemical works — Of these there were 36, 29 in towns and 7 in 
the country, ia operation in 1863. The total amount of production was valued 
at 429,770 riksdaler, being 102,378 riksdaler more than in 1861. The num- 
ber of work-people employed was 188. The above manufactories are such as 
produce technical chemical preparations, colors, perfumes, and mineral waters, 
(in the latter are included soda and seltzer water.) Considering the very large 
consumption of these waters, the value stated above was unquestionably far 
too low. 

30. Match manufactories, — Of such there were 15 at work in 1863 ; three of 
the older manufactories were unemployed. The total value of matches produced 
at these manufactories in 1863 had increased since 1862 by 43,630 riksdaler, 
and was stated at 468,513 riksdaler. The largest manufactory is at Jonkoping, 
where matches to the value of 164,500 were produced. The exportation of 
matches amounted to 457,177 riksdaler; there was also a very light importa- 
tion. In the above manufactories 1 ,040 work-people were employed. 

31. Conserving yeast manufactories. — These mannfiau^tones, 5 in number, and 
employing 18 work-people, were all in the city of Stockholm. The amount of 
yeast manufactured was stated at 201,316 skalpund, valued at 156,252 riks- 
daler, being 20,592 riksdaler more than in 1862. ^ 

32. Starch manufactories. — In 1863 the amount of starch produced at the 
six manufactories was 587,000 skalpund, valued at 181,119 riksdaler, which 
value, compared with 1862, shows an increase of 33,202 ril^daler. These 
manufactories gave employment to 33 hands. 

33. Porter Breweries. — There are only two in Sweden, one in Gateborg, and 
the other in Stockholm. The value of porter brewed at the former was stated 
at 441,100 riksdaler, and at the latter 52,400 riksdaler, making a total value 
of 493,500 riksdaler. The porter of Gateborg is far superior in quality to 
that of Stockholm. The quantity produced at both places was 484,065 
" hannor," and the number of men emp^yed was 60. 

34. Chiccory manufactories. — At the seven manufactories 1,648,337 skalpund 
of chiccory, valued at 219,977 riksdaler were produced, being 77,273 riksdaler 
in value more than in 1862. The number of hands employed was 131. 

35. Wine manufactories. — ^The quantity of wine produced in Sweden in 1863, 
at the four manufactories, was 159,000 <*hannor," and the value was estimated 
at 334,674 riksdaler. The number of persons engaged in wine-making in 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SWEDEN, 307 

Sweden was 30. Tbe largest single production was that of the Stockhobn 
manufactory, being 102,000 " hannor," worth 204,000 riksdaler. 

36. Vinegar manufactories, — These manufactories, 15 in number, produced 
vinegar to the amount of 879,484 '*hannor," valued at 104,967 riksdaler being 
an iucrease on the value of the production of 1862, of 27,465 riksdaler. Those 
manufactories gave employment to 27 work-people. 

37. Cork manufactories. — Of these there were 10 at work. The amount 
produced was stated at 181,409 gross, and the value at 101,783 riksdaler, 
which, compared with 1862, shows an increase of 19,033 riksdaler. The num- 
ber of workmen employed was 88. 

38 Lithographic establishments. — ^Exclusive of ordinary lithographic presses, 
of such there were only two in the kingdom. The value of goods produced 
was stated at 141,260 riksdaler, and the number of workmen employed at 140. 

39. Manufactories of musical instruments, — Of such therq were 1 1 in the 
kingdom, but three were not in operation. The value of the manufactures of 
the eight establishments was stated at 131,778 riksdaler, showing an increase 
of 18,001 riksdaler over the previous year. The largest single manufactory was 
at Qateborg, which producea to the value of 92,000 riksd^er The number of 
workmen employed here was 57. 

40. Miscellaneous manufcuitories.-^The number of these was stated at 511, 
and fifty-two were not in operation. The number in 1862 was 638, although 
the number is much less than in 1862, yet the value of their products was 
347,550 riksdaler greater than in 1862, when it amounted to 1,147,887 riksdaler. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



308 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



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SWEDEN. 



311 



A. W. Trestadius, Consul. 

January 1, 1866. 

Prom the report on the foreign trade of Sweden for the year 1864, just pub- 
lished by the Royal Board of Commerce, I have made the following short ab- 
stract, which may be of some interest to the commercial men of the United States. 
The Swedish coin and weights are reduced into American, viz : 
1 riksdaler is equal to 26 ^^ cents. 
24 Swedish centner equal one ton. 
120 Swedish pounds is equal to 100 pounds English* 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

From the same causes that operated in the years 1862 and 1863, when no im- 
portation of cotton from the United States took place, the value of imports there- 
from during 1864 did not compare with that of the years previous to the war. 
The value of these imports, which in 1861 was about $1,727,000, was reduced 
in 1862 to about S43,/)45, and in 1863 to $23,923, but increased in 1864 to 
S335,737. Of this amount of imports, three Swedish ships brought the value 
of $20,428; one Russian, $101,606 ; one American, $7,527, and three other 
foreign vessels, $106,176. 

In the export trade to the United States there was greater vivacity ; the ex- 
ports to that country, which in 1862 were estimated at about $291,110, and in 
1863 at $316,915, amounted in 1864 to $658,829, chiefly caused by an increased 
export of bar iron. The value of the shipping by ten Swedish vessels being 
8171,225; by three Norwegian, $69,350; by five American, $73,113, and by 
^ve British and one French, $345,139. 



Comparative statement shoimng the description and amount of imports into Swe- 
denjrom the United States during the years 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864. 



Description. 


1860. 


1661. 


1862. 


1863. 


18G4. 


Tobacco leaf pounds . . 

stems do ... 


527,951 

385, 157 

13,668 

1559 

12,597 

45,612 

ft. ftft2. fl78 


543,330 

1,875,443 

874 

$4,495 

9,117 

3,293 

6,199,609 


1,679 
57,512 


63,668 
205,895 


42,888 


Djewoods .-- 


$2,177 

29,200 

292,654 




85H tons 


Pepper pounds.. 

Turpentine oil do ... 


11,046 
131,940 


Cotton - do ... 




Coflfee do...' 






850, 369 













While the following 


articles were put into bond : 






Tobacco leaf 


Pounds. 
587.366 

2.206,800 








Pounds. 
372,329 


stems -^1 -r -^ -. -r 








159,570 


Coffee 








1,215,911 















Comparative exports 


to the United States 


in the same period : 


Iron, chiefly bar 

Steel 


Tons. 
13,872 
12 


Tons. 

3,970 


Tons. 
4,871 


Tons. Tons. 
6,53:5 13,475 
1 4 











Besides, there were exported in 1864, 51^ tons of pitch and 127 tons of tar 

* Jigitized by V^OOQK:! 



312 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the number and tonnage of Swedish vesseb 
cleared for the United States {exclusive of California) during the years 1860, 
1861, 1S62, 1863, an^ 1864. 



Years. 


Prom Sweden 
with carc^. 


From foreign 
ports with cargo. 


In ballast. 


Total. 




No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


I860 


8 

6 

7 

10 

10 


1,354 
900 
1,362 
1,654 
1,940 


12 
27 

19 
38 
38 


2,600 
5,338 
2,298 
6,596 
6,806 


5 

e 13 

5 

2 

1 


1,038 

3,272 

1,040 

438 

24 


25 
46 
31 

50 
49 


4,492 
9,510 

4,708 
8,688 
8,770 


1861 


1862 


1863 


1864 





Comparative statement showing the number and tonnage of Swedish vessels 
arrived from the United States (exclusive of California) during the years 
1860, 18G1, 1862, 1863, and 1864. 





To Sweden. 


To foreign ports. 


1 


ri^fi^i 


Years. 


With cargo. 


With cargo. 


In ballast. 






No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


1860 


6 
5 
1 


1,002 
854 
144 


14 
36 
33 
45 
45 


2,912 
7,546 
5,072 
8,108 
8,340 


1 
6 


370 
1,334 


21 

47 
34 
46 
49 


4,284 
9,734 
5,216 
8,206 
8,966 


1861 


1862 


1863 


1 
2 


98 
312 


1864 


2 


314 





In 1864 California was visited by only one Swedish vessel, of 384 tons, laden 
with sundries from Hamburg. 

Comparative statement showing the value of the imports and exports of Sweden 
during the years 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, and 1864. 





IMPORTS. 




Years. 


In Swedish vessels. 


In foreign vessels. 


Total. 


1860 


• 

$11,686,080 
14,025,177 
13,925,721 
13,694,284 
12,979,008 


$10,481,589 
14,620,838 
12,556,454 
12,279,052 
12,973,363 


$22,167,669 
28,646,015 
26,482,175 
25,973,336 
25 952,371 


1861 


1862 


1863 


1864 





EXPORTS. 



1860. 

1861 , 

1862 , 
1863. 
1864 . 



$11,787,148 

9,300,480 

9,924,096 

10,204,454 

10,163,328 



$11,462,976 
12,494,899 
13,364,198 
14,665,997 
15,103,678 
-digitized 



$23,250,124 
21,795,379 
23,288,294 
24,870,451 
25,267,006 



SWEDEN. 
Statement — Continued. 



313 



Yeare. 


Of the above there was in gold 
and silver. 


In merchandise. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


I860 


1814,464 

87 

472,034 

139,333 

342,593 


(11,289 
250,025 

32,040 
153,607 

10,600 


121,353,203 
28,647,029 
26,010,141 
25,834,005 
25,609,777 


$23,238,835 
21.545.354 


1861 


1862 


23. 256. 253 


1863 


24,716,643 
25,257,406 


1864 





The total value of imports and exports of Sweden, according to the above 
statement, amounted in 1864 to $51,220,378, against $50,843,789 in the year 
1863. 

Comparing the values of imports and exports separately, it appears that, after 
deducting the trade in precious metals, the value of the merchandise imported in 
1864 was less than that of the previous year by about $224,179. But the ex- 
ports in 1864 exceed those of 1863 by about $537,600. 

It 18 worthy of notice that the exports of 1864, amounting to $25,267,200, are 
the most considerable that have heen made next to the year 1855, when they 
were estimated at $25,804,800 ; also, that the imports in 1864, of coined and 
unwronght gold and silver, exceeded the exports of such metals by about 
9331,993. 

Of coals, a larger quantity was imported than during any previous year, viz : 
16,513,817 cubic feet; exceeding that of 1863 by 929,478 cubic feet. 

The importation of cotton, which in 1861 amounted to over 1 5,000,000 pounds, 
fell off to 2,500,000 in 1862 in consequence of the American war, and in 1863 
to 142,475 pounds, but increased in 1864 to 3,380,960 pounds, of which 246,547 
pounds were re-exported. As during the two previous years there were no 
direct imports from the United States, the principal amount was imported from 
England. The importations of nndyed cotton yam, which, in 1863, was 
390,492 pounds, or about one-half of the two previous years, was in 1864 
458,706 pounds. 

Comparative statement shamng the importations of tohacco into Stoeden during 
the years 1863 and 1864. 



Description. 



In 1863. 



In 1864. 



Tobacco, leaf . . 
Tobacco, btems. 
Tobacco, cigars 



2,957,691 pounds. 
579,766 " 
33,565 " 



3, 249, 960 pounds. 
1,216,073 " 
30,732 " 



There was a decline in the imports of dry hides from 25,677 hundred weight 
in 1863, to 23,717 hundred weight in 1864, while the imports of salted hides 
increased from 24,074 hundred weight in 1863, to 35,596 hundred weight in 
1864. 

The imports of wool declined fiom 2,906,240 pounds in 1863, to 2,050,388 in 
1864. 

Of sugar unrefined, there was imported in 1863 31,265,045 pounds, and of 
molasses 2,856,254 nounds, but in 1862 only 27,506,733 pounds of raw sugar, 
and 2,258,756 pounds of molasses. H r^f^i^if^ 

-^ Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



314 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



The importation of pork in 1863 was 69,607 hundred weight, bnt only 35,004 
hundred weight in 1864. This pork was chiefly imported from Great Britain, 
but is thought to have been principally the product of the United States. 

Of spirits there was imported the unusually large quantity of 948,718 pounds 
alcohol, but in 1864 the importation amounted to only 64,135 pounds. 

The other articles in which there was a decline are contained in the following 
table: 

Comparative table shounng the impartafiaru of sundry articles into Sweden 
during the years 1863 and 1864. 



Description. 



1863. 



1864. 



"Wine, in casks pounds. 

in bottles gallons . 

Coffee pounds. 

Rice do... 

Tin do... 

Turpentine do... 

Cheese cwt .. 

Butter do... 

Tallow do... 



2,911,608 


2,584,907 


43,J50 


36,886 


13,369,244 


13.042,072 


3,080,929 


2,520.452 


59,015 


49,032 


400,959 


130,259 


10,374 


8,807 


24,600 


21,970 


38,022 


29,355 



The following particulars may be observed with reference to the principal 
articles exported in 1864: 

With respect to the export of timber and lumber, the board of commerce has 
altered the mode of calculating the quantities exported, so that no reliable com- 
parison with the previous years can be made, but it is generally considered that 
the exports of this kind exceed those of 1863. Of deals and boards the exports 
amounted to 46,043,190 cubic feet, of which about half the quantity was shipped 
to Great Britain ; and of beams and spars of larger sizes there were 10,964,171 
cubic feet, of which 7,731,762 cubic feet were shipped to England. 

Of pig iron the export in 1862 was 15,556 tons, but in 1863 it declined to 
9,883 tons, and again increased in 1864 to 16,798 tons, the largest quantity ever 
exported in any one year. 

Of bar iron the export was in 1863, 90,678 tons, and in 1864, 94,478 tons. 
The export of this article has never before been exceeded in any one year, ex- 
cept in 1860, when it amounted to 95,674 tons. 

Of steel the export in 1862 was 6,370 tons, but declined to 3,936 in 1863, 
and again increased to 4,685 tons in 1864. 

Of iron plates there were exported in 1863, 517 tons, and 779 in 1864. 

Of copper there was exported in 1862, 1,284 tons, which quantity increased 
in 1863 to 1,488 tons, but declined in 1864 to 1,373.* 

Of tar the exports in 1863 were 16,496 tons, but in 1864 they declined to 
6,599 ; and in the export of pitch, which in 1863 amounted to 820 tons, de- 
clined to about 800 tons in 1864. 

The quantity of oats exported in 1863 amounted to 9,847,367 cubic feet, and 
in 1864 to 9,020,597 cubic feet ; of rye, the export declined from 166.977 
cubic feet in 1863, to only 74,601 in 1864. On the contrary, the export of 
wheat increased from 162,528 cubic feet in 1863, to 436,138 in 1864, and barley 
and malt increased from 1,021,827 cubic feet in 1863, to 1,295,019 in 1864. 

The total amount of ground and unground grain exported from Sweden in 
1864 amounted to 10,894,413 cubic feet, exceeding by nearly 8,000,000 cubic 
feet the importations of the same year. 

The total amount of customs duties collected in 1864 amounted to $3,580,763, 
which is $400,004 less dian in 1863. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



SWEDEN. 



315 



Comparative statement showing the amount of duties received on the principal 
articles of imports into Sweden during the years 1864 and 1863. 



DeflCTiption. 



1864. 



1863. 



Snffar 

Fabrics — cotton, silk, &c. 

Coffee 

Tobacco 

Spirits 

Wine 

Salt 

Hides and skins 

Molasses 

Fish 

Glass g^oods 



1916,877 


$1,017,949 


678, 182 


722,803 


420,672 


432,255 


380,890 


307,507 


236,544 


290,842 


146,765 


166,656 


59,136 


55,104 


48,115 


45,427 


29,050 


36,825 


26,342 


29,299 


24,998 


30,642 



Dbcbmbbr 31, 1865. 
The exports from this port to the United States for the year ended this day con- 
sist wholly of 39,051.85 centner of bar iron, of the value of 323,526.87 riksdaler. 



GoTTBNBURG. — ^W. W. Thomas, Jr., Consul. 

OCTOBBR 10, 1865. 

* * * But two American vessels have visited Gottenburg during the year 
just closed. One arrived with sugar from Matanzas, and sailed with deals for 
Calais. The other brought salt from southern France and carried iron to Boston. 
The months of February asii March, 1865, were remarkable throughout Europe 
for the severity of the cold which prevailed. The 66ta, which generally flows 
imvexed to the sea the entire year, was frozen over, and the harbor of the Got- 
tenburg was closed with an ice blockade from February 8 till April 8, when a 
channel was cut to the open Gattegat During the same period the sound be- 
tween Sweden and Denmark was frequently impassable from the same cause. 
At one period no mails could be transmitted for two weeks, and but for meagre 
telegraphic details the whole kingdom of Sweden remained without intelligence 
from the great world outside. A new business has sprung up at Gottenburg 
during the year — ^the export of cattle into England. The weekly English steam- 
ers have usually carried from this port 100 head of cattle, sheep, and hogs for 
the London market. Owing to the prevailing cattle pest in England, this busi- 
ness is at present very lucrative, returning sometimes a monthly profit of 33 per cint. 

From the invoice book of this consulate, in which the amount and value of 
all goods shipped from Gottenburg to the United States are kept, I extract the 
following statistics : 

Tabular statement showing the quantity and value of iron exported from Got- 
tenburg to the United States for each quarter if the consular year ended Sep- 
tember 30, 1865. 



Quarter ended — 



Qoantiiy. 



Value. 



December 31, 1864 tons 

March 31, 1865 do. 

June 30, 1865 do. 

September 30, 1865 do. 

Total 



2,425 7 2 11 

111 19 14 

1,765 4 19 

5,137- 8 2 10 



$146,437 28 

6,570 94 

105,069 50 

307,052 95 



9,439 19 6 16 

jigitized by ^ 



V^OPgl^ 



565,130 67 



316 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



There were exported also, in the quarter ended June 30, 13 gallons brandy, 
of tlie valae of $18 25, making the total value of the year's exports to the United 
States $565,148 9;^. 

Comparative tabular statement showing the amount and value of the iron ex- 
ported, from Gottenhurg to the United States during the last three consular 
years. 



Year ended — 


Qoantdty. 


Value. 


September 30, 1863.. 
September 30, 1864 . 
September 30, 1865 . 




tons. 

........ do.. . 


8,409 

15,104 32 3 

9,439 19 2 26 


$390,621 55 
893,052 32 
565,130 67 


Total 


32,953 3 11 


1,848,804 54 





With the exception of a few parcels sent to Ban Francisco, all this iron was 
shipped to New York and Boston. 

Freights were, as usual, low in the spring, but advanced veiy considerably 
during the summer, and remained firm throughout the autumn. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SWEDEN. 



317 



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Digitized by V^OOQlC 



318 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement tkowing the nationality, number, and capacity of all veueU deared 
at Gottenhurg for foreign ■port* during the year 1864. 



Nationality. 







Swedish 

Norwe^an 

British 

French 

Netherlands 

Danish 

German — Hanoverian .. 

Prussian 

Hambarff 

Mecklenonrg 

Belgian 

United States , 

Russian, Finland 

Portuguese 

Total 



23,717.42 

18,010.64 

21,203.95 

6,007.92 

4,197.66 

1,944.52 

690.37 

272.20 

485.97 

92.89 

108.20 

1)22.43 

171.65 

73.93 



1,701 77,872.12 



* An ajlast is 4^ tons English. 

Tahtdar statement showing the destination of the 1,701 vessels cleared from 
Crottenhurg during the year 1864. 



GreatBritain 751 

Norway 274 



France . 

Denmark 

Netherlands 

United States 

Spain 

Belgium 

Algiers 

Brazil 

Gape of Good Hope . 

Russia 

Italy , 



230 

219 

42 

27 

20 

16 

10 

9 

7 

5 

4 



Australia 

Africa 

Portugal 

Egypt 

China 

Unknown 

Grermany — ^Prussia. . . 

Hamburg. 

Bremen . . 

Lubec . . . 

Hanover . 



4 

3 
1 

1 
1 
4 
45 
15 
8 
4 
1 



Total : 1,701 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



SWEDEN. 



319 



Comparative statement showing the principal imports into Gottenhurg during 
the years 1862, 1863, and 1864. 



DeAcription. 



Coffee Swedish poi 

Cotton ao. 

yam do. 

Hides and skins 



»nnd8* 



stems 

Herring tnnnst.. 

Salt Swedish cubic feett . . 



7,437,599 

2,127,071 

428,618 

2,416,031 

18,229,670 

1,186,907 

22,114 

106,318 

790,534 



1863. 



6,351,662 

1,635,227 

375,268 

2,948,290 

15,974,946 

882,743 

33,604 

98,895 

631,190 



1864. 



4,3.39,594 

2,988,973 

426,863 

3,331,658 

15,833,012 

1,755,:M0 

371,384 

77,570 

726,715 



* 100 Swedish pounds is equal to 93 pounds English. 

t A tuni\ is four bushels English. 

1 12/\r cubic feet is equal to eight bushels English. 

It will be noticed that the importation of coffee has decreased from 7,437,599 
pounds in 1862 to 4,339,594 in 1864. It must not be inferred, however, from these 
ngores, that there has been any decrease in the demand or consumption of coffee, 
as the contrary is the case. The small import of 1864 was entirely owing to 
the excessive importations of former years. The stock of coffee on hand in Got- 
tenburg December 31, 1863, was 3,288,907 pounds, while the stock on hand 
December 31, 1864, was only 967,344 pounds. The consumption of coffee in 
1864 was therefore more than 2,300,000 pounds over the importation. 

The same is true in regard to sugar, the importation of which has fallen off 
firom 18,229,670 pounds in 1862 to 15,833,012 in 1864, there being 6,112,754 
pounds on hand December 31, 1862, and only 4,814,080 pounds December 31, 
1864. 

The import of tobacco stems, as well as that of hides and skins, is rapidly 
increasing. 

The cotton importation reached its minimum in 1863, and is now recovering, 
the imports of 1864 being greater than those of 1863. The import of 1864 was, 
however, less than 3,000,000 pounds, while the import of 1861 was upwards of 
11,000,000. 

Comparative statement showing the principal articles exported from Gottenhurg 
during the years 1862, 1863, and 1864. 



Description. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


Iron 

Deals ... 
Oatfl 





...t- centner.. 

dozens.. 

...cubic feet.. 


996,751.25 
333,455 
2,105,692 


1,064,690.37 

329,878 
3,317,826 


1,162,387.08 

2,908,504 



^ Cubic feet. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



320 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Comparative statement showing the quantities of iron exported from Gotlenburg 
to various foreign countries during the year 1864. 

i^ntiiff in 
eenintn* 

Great Britein 616,305.84 

United States 308,107.10 

France 70,7ia23 

Germany 61,626.32 

Western seaa 36,921.15 

Denmark 30,871.89 

Netherlands 18,406.05 

Mediterranean ports 4,377 

Belgium 3,414.35 

Portugal 2,770.80 

Brazil 2,677.15 

Africa 2,160 

Italy 801.65 

Norway 926.05 

Spain 303.60 

Total 1.168,387.08 

* A centner (100 pounds) equals 93 pounds English. 

Deals, — One-half of all the deals exported was shipped to Great Britain, one- 
fourth to France, and the remaining fourth principally to Spain, Algiers, Aus- 
tralia, and Belgium. 

Oa^.— Of the 2,908,504 cubic feet of oats exported in 1864, 2,863,396 cubic 
feet went to England. 

Statistics, — At the close of 1864 Gottenburg's merchant marine consisted of 
124 vessels, of 11,222.94 aylaster capacity. During the year 3 vessels were 
built, 12 bought, 4 lost, and 11 sold. 

Statement showing the description, number of manufactories, and workmen em- 
ployed, with annual value of products fabricated in Gottenburgf during the 
year 1864. 



Description. 





is 

•sf 



•si 






Cotton mills 

Calico printing houses 

Chemical bleachery 

Dye houses 

Earthenware manufactories . 

Musical instrument do 

Wall-paper do 

Soap factory 

Rope factories 

Stocking do 

Tanneries 

Machine shops 

Tobacco factories 

Watch... .do 

Cloth (woollen) factories 

Other manufactories 



Total. 



2 

3 
1 
7 
1 
3 
4 
1 
5 
2 
2 
8 

18 
8 
7 

29 






101 



136 

2 

1 

26 

29 

35 

66 

4 

33 

42 

12 

146 

408 

11 

342 

414 



JUksdaUr,^ 
41,414 
11,176 



1,647 



36,000 

27,895 

96,000 

108,393 

124,800 

127,973 

32,350 

44,158 

&12,346 

1,301,606 

10,350 

253,803 

121,867 



2,975,231 



* 3^A riksdalers equal one United States dollar. 
Note.— Twenty-two out of the 101 manafoctories are not 



KOBWAT. 321 

There are 640 merchants in Oottenburg — 618 men and 22 women. Of these 
234 men and 3 women carry on wholesale, 306 men and 6 women retail busi- 
ness, and 78 men and 3 women a mixed wholesale and retail business. Six 
hundred and fiftj-one clerks are employed — 626 men and 25 women. 

The mechanics' guild in Gottenburg embraces 391 persons, of whom 364 are 
men and 27 women. These employ 599 apprentices, 441 pupils, and 207 other 
workmen. 

For 1863, the population of the city proper was 31,104; in 1864, 33,187. 
If the suburb, Majoma, was included, the population would be 50,000. 

Franklin K. Baxter, Consul. 

Dbcbmbbr 31, 1865. 

The exports from this port to the United States for the year ended this day 
consist wholly of 3,069,133 centner bar iron, of the value of 181,836.07 riks- 
daler. 



NORWAY. 
Bbrgbn — 0. E. Drbutzbrt, Gansul, 

NOVBMBBR 22, 1865. 
• • • The commerce of this city with Sweden has, during the year ended 
September 30, 1865, been on the increase. Pickled herring has found a good 
market with fair prices, and next after Russia, that country has consumed the 
greatest quantity of spring herring, besides an unusual quantity of summer her- 
ring and other fish products, of late years nearly nominal. The importation of 
breadstuff's from there, particularly rye, has been more than usually active, of 
which, next after Russia, it has furnished the greatest quantity. Although the 
table of imports of breadstuff's herewith sent exhibits the quantity imported from 
Sweden, it includes only what came by water and subject to import duty. Be- 
sides this, there are large quantities brought overland and imported duty free. 
It is a safe estimate to add at least 20 per cent, to the amount stated in the 
table. The commerce with Russia has, during the year, been prosperous. 
Spring herring were, in the early part of the season, forced upon and clogged 
the market, but on the whole brought favorable prices. Summer herring have 
done well. Dried codfish have not done as well as last year. The importation 
of hemp has been less. The quantity of breadstuff's imported from that country 
has greatly fallen offl Two small cargoes of rye have been recei\^d from Odessa 
during the year. The importation of sail-cloth and other goods manufactured 
from hemp or flax has almost entirely ceased and has been transferred to the 
English market. 

The exports of this city to Denmark have apparently been large, but the 
actual consumption of fish products in that country has been comparatively 
small. The exports of herring have not exceeded 10,000 barrels. The surplus 
beyond consumption is transshipped to northern Germany. The imports from 
that country, particularly of breadstuffs, have been large and mostly of barley, 
of which, with the exception of rye, it furnishes larger quantities than any other 
country. Denmark also furnishes large quantities of butter, pork, beef, brick, 
and tiles. The separation of the duchies of Sleswig Holstein and Lunenburg 
from Denmark has had great effect on Norwegian commerce, and has transferred 
mnch of the trade of the former to Prussia, particularly the commerce with the 
city of Altona. The export of cod-liver oil, which of all the Norwegian fish 
' 21 c R 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



322 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

products takes the first place in importance, has its best and most reliable market 
in Holland. This article has advanced in price, and is prepared with much 
greater care than heretofore. Refineries for this article have been established 
in different parts of the country, particularly at Aalesund. Northern Gennanj 
supplies itself with this article through Holland, and the regular steamship lines 
between thin city and Rotterdam facilitates the transportation. 

For dried fish, consisting of the different species of the cod, Holland has also 
the last year been the most important market. 

As a market for pickled herring, Holland has also much advanced the last 
year, but it will never become a very reliable market for this article unless the 
Norwegians improve their method of curing, particularly the summer herriog, 
which exceeds any other in quality and fine flavor, and will, if properly cured, 
obtain higher prices in foreign markets than any other, not excepting Scotch or 
Dutch. 

The trade of this city with Belgium has improved during the past year, the 
particular articles of export to that country being dried fish and cod-liver oil. 

The commerce of this city with Italy has, during the past year, declined. 
All the fish products exported to ihe Mediterranean have been shipped to 
Messina and Genoa, with the exception of a small cargo of dried fish to Venice. 
For the present, the prospect for Italian trade is gloomy. 

This year there has been no direct trade with Austria. 

The commerce of this city with Spain has much improved, it having been the 
best market for codfish, which brought a high price, Bilbao being the principal 
market [for that article. Spain as a market for cod-liver oil has somewhat im- 
proved. Imports from Spain have been quite limited, consisting of a trifling 
quantity of salt, fruit, and wine. The railway from Santander to Chinchilla has 
been nearly completed, and has no doubt contributed in improving the markets 
for Norwegian products, though the anticipated grain trade did not turn out as 
well as expected from the opening of the railway to the interior. As yet not 
one bushel has been importt^d from Spain, and it is said that Spain will find a 
profitable market for all her surplus in her West India colonies. 

Trade with Portugal was, as heretofore, very limited in extent. Exports to 
that country during the year consisted of a few cargoes of codfish. The reason 
of this is said to be that the fish trade of that country is monopolized by one or 
two very large British mercantile establishments, importing exclusively the article 
from Newfoundland, and the Spanish railway has not proved beneficial to the 
fish trade of Portugal, as expected. 

The commerce of this city with France, although of great importance to the 
southern portion of this country for its timber products, is for the fish products 
of the north and west of but little value. The article for which France is the 
exclusive market is spawn, which is used as bait for sardine fishing. The total 
value of this export for the present year is $165,900. The only other fish 
products shipped to that country are trifling quabtities of cod-liver oil and 
dried fish. 

The treaties of commerce and navigation concluded by Sweden and Norway 
with France, however beneficial to Sweden and the portion of this country which 
exports large quantities of timber, as yet has had no visible effect upon the fish 
market, and these treaties, now the law of France, have in no way interfered 
with the extraordinary protection afforded to the French fisheries, and until this 
is modified no hope can be entertained of finding any profitable market in that 
country for Norwegian fish products. 

The importation of salt from France has been very limited ; of wines and 
fruits the usual quantities have been imported ; of spirits the import has been 
less than that of last year, which is owing to ttie change in the tariff of import 
duties. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



NORWAY. 323 

No bread8tu£& of any kind have been imported from France, except a very 
trifling quantity of wheat fionr. 

Great Britain having an abundant supply of fish on her own coasts, furnishes 
an unimportant market for Norwegian fish products. But during the last year, 
on account of the partial failure of the English and Scotch fisheiies, Norwegian 
fish products have found a better market than usual in that country. Salmon 
and lobsters in the market of this city have been purchased by English buyers 
at high prices. Besides fish products, the exports of this city to Great Britain 
consists of old rope and iron ore and pyrites. Of the shipments, the latter 
have been more than usually large. The mining of this mineral in this country 
is made by British capital, or is under control of British capitalists. 

At the present time a mania for prospecting exists in this country. Every 
mountain is being examined, and sometimes with success. Several mines of 
iron and pyrites have been sold, and the people chensh the hope that some of the 
mountains of Norway will yet prove a source of national wealth, and will tend 
to bring capital into this country. The poor peasant is neglecting his farm, and 
spending all he possesses in prospecting ; and if any one succeeds, he is so re- 
duced in means that he is forced to sell his discoveries for a small pittance. 

Steam communication with Hull is a great advantage to this city, and great 
quantities of English manufactured goods have been imported. Manufacturing 
and steam navigation being steadily on the increase, the importation of coals 
becomes heavier every year, particularly in this portion of the country where 
firewood is becoming scarce. Bar and pig iron are also being imported in lai-ge 
quantities, and, upon the whole, commerce with Great Britain is assuming con- 
siderable importance. 

Trade with Scotland particularly has the past year been of some importance 
for fish products, and unusual quantities of herring have been exported to that 
country owing to the unfavorable result of the Scotch herring fisheries of last 
spring. Of the imports from Scotland the only article worth mentioning is 
sail-cloth, of which it had furnished the greater portion used. Some pickled her- 
ring have been exported to Ireland, and found an excellent market, and hopes 
are entertained that this cheap article will in future find there an increasing de- 
mand in. that country. 

The commerce of this city with Hamburg and Altona has, during the last 
year, been rising in importance, and next to Holland the largest market for cod- 
liver oil, and for all the skins and furs exported from this city. Bergen having 
once been a Hanseatic town, established centuries ago commercial copnexious 
of each stability with those cities that even the crisis of 1857 did not in any 
way shake her confidence. The geographical situation of the railway connexions 
with central Germany, and the steamship lines making regular weekly trips 
along the coast of Norway from Hammerfest to Hamburg, have so facilitated 
transportation that great portions of German manufactured goods are imported 
from those cities, always making them reliable markets, and the most important 
exchange market for this city and the whole of Norwav. 

The Prussian Baltic ports are the most reliable markets for summer herring, 
and were particularly so the past year, owing to the scarcity of Scotch herring. 
The greatest portion of the rye imported into Bergen has been from Koningsburg 
and Stetten. 

The direct trade of this city with the United States the past year has been 
unimportant; a small quantity only of pickled herring and anchovies having 
been exported direct to the city of Chicago. But the direct trade with t|iat city, 
which promised so fair in 1862-'63, has been discontinued, but I hope only for 
the present. The principal cause is that the only articles of export from this 
chy are fish products, and against the importation of these articles into the 
Unit^ Sutes there are many obstacles; but as I consider this trade of im^ort- 
ance, I cannot forbear again to urge, so far as the power of the United States, 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



324 ANNTTAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

their removal. The law regalating the carrying of passengers, passed by the 
Norwegian storthing in 1863, prohibits pickled herring being carried in vessels 
conveying passengers to countries oatside of Europe, except in double tight 
casks, and codfish in tight boxes, a regulation which has had the effect of mak- 
ing such shipments of fish impracticable, as it renders the article too high for 
the American market. It was designed to protect passengers from disease aris- 
ing from the odor of fish. But in 1863, a distinguished physician of this city, 
who had taken passage on a vessel bound to Chicago with a load of herring and 
dried fish, afterwards published an article in the Christiana Afteit blade, headed 
" Leprosy among the r^orwegians in America." The object of his going was 
to ascertain the effect of fish odor upon the health of passengers, and the stor- 
thing (now in session) it is hoped wul change the law. The enactment of a 
passenger law was much needed ; ships often taking a greater number of pas- 
sengers than could be accommodated, and in several instances of long passages 
causing great suffering, and inducing ship fever and other maladies. But this 
was not caused by pickled herring; on the contrary, vessels going up the 
lakes thus partially loaded with fish products, notwithstanding the long voy- 
ages, were generally healthy. 

I have before suggested that the high duty on herring and fish products im- 
ported into the United States should be reduced. I know of no European 
country, except Norway, exporting fish to the United States. A little compe- 
tition has always proved of more advantage to the general result than drawbacks. 
What benefit would accrue to balance the sacrifice of this trade of Norway ? 
Several American products, such as pork, beef, &c., are imported into Norway 
duty free, but not with a view to solicit reciprocity. Though the advantage to 
the United States would be trifling, still, the grain trade of Norway is of im- 
portance. The importation of breadstuffd into Norway from foreign countries in 
the year 1864, (though the harvest of that year was a fair average,) was 5,28«5,592 
bushels, including large quantities of flour ; and this trade is on the increase 
every year. By finding market for Norwegian fish products, a large propor- 
tion of the grain trade might be secured to the United States, and with it Ameri- 
can hops, pork» and manufactured goods might find profitable markets in Norway. 
The physical barrier to the agriculture of this country will ever make i^ neces- 
sary to import the greater p^ortion of its breadstuffs. 

There is another advantage connected with the direct trade between Norway 
and the United States, viz., its tendency to encourage emigration to the west, 
which has been fully and satisfactorily demonstrated by experience in the voy- 
ages direct from this city to Chicago. There was an interchange of friendly 
intercourse between families. Friends visited friends, and returned in the same 
vessel at a moderate expense, and, satisfied with the benefits derived from emi- 
grating, they sold out their property in this country and emigrated the following 
spring. Persons, too, residing in the west had an opportunity of sending some 
of the products of their industry to their friends in Norway. 

I have used every influence to encourage direct trade to the United States, 
and that upon the great lakes of the west it can be made profitable has been 
sufficiently demonstrated. The increasing wealth of the west, the extraordinary 
fertility of soil in the Mississippi valley, and the transport of its products, will 
soon demand the building of a ship canal on the American side, connecting the 
great inland seas with the waters of the ocean ; and then the ports of the lakes 
will be crowded with foreign shipping. 

In view of the foregoing, I think the experiment of remitting, or at least re- 
ducing, the duty on fish products is worthy of a fair trial, as government can 
lose nothing by it. 

Breadstuffs the past year have been extraordinarily high in the United States, 
and fluctuations of exchange have contributed to discourage the direct trade. 
But since that country has been again favored with an abundant harvest, and 
internal peace restored, the obstacles last mentioned will disappear, 8 



NORWAY. 325 

BMIGRATION. 

Emigration from this consular district has been as large as conlrl well be ex- 
pected, considering the opposition which it has to encounter from the public 
journals. 

The number of emigrants embarked for the United States direct during the 
year, in my consular district, was 2,285, which is 33 per cent, of the whole 
population. 

The international fishery exhibition was opened in this citj on the 8th of 
August last, and was closed on September 30, the result of which it is hoped may 
prove beneficial to the fisheries, and improve the curing of the fish products. 

The articles on exhibition were arranged in classes as follows : - 

Class A consisted of mammiferous and lower order of marine animals, subject 
to commerce, or used as bait, stuffed, or preserved in alcohol. This collection 
excited particular interest, numbering 179 specimens, contributed bv the follow- 
ing countries, viz: Norway, 171 ; Sweden, 5; Russia, 2; Ejgpt, 1. 

Class B. — Pickled fish and parts of fish, numbering 233, contributed by Nor- 
way, 158 ; Sweden, 17 ; Netherlands, 37 ; Russia, 20 ; France, 2 ; Prussia, 1. 

Class C. — Salted, smoked, and in other manner preserved fish, numbering 
291, contributed by Norway, 244 ; Sweden, 13 ; Denmark, 2 ; Netherlands, 4 ; 
Russia, 25 ; Austria, 1, (herring, from the Adriatic ;) Italy, 1 ; United States, 
1 ; Tunis, 1. 

Class D. — Fish products used in agriculture or manufactures, numbering 132, 
contributed by Norway, 121 ; Denmark, 5 ; Netherlands, 12 ; Austria, 1. 

Class E — Implements used for curing fish products, contributed by Norway, 
15; Sweden, 8 ; Netherlands, 1 ; France. 1 ; Russia, J. 

Class F. — Models and drawings of buildings and apparatus, wherein and 
whereby fish products are cured and prepared, numbering 38, contributed by 
Norway, 29 ; Netherlands, 5 ; Russia, 1 ; Great Britain, 1 ; Prussia, 2. 

Class G. — Articles used in preserving fish products, numbering 32, contributed 
by Norway, 21 ; France, 2; Russia, 5; Austria, 4. 

Class H. — Articles used in baling fish products for shipment, numbering 159, 
contributed by Norway, 119; Netherlands, 28; Sweden, 5; France, 6; Rus- 
sia, 1. 

Class 1. — Fishing boats, numbering 29, contribu^d all by Norway. 

Class K, — Models and drawings of fishing vessels and boats, numbering (i5 ; 
by Norway, 49 ; Sweden, 2 ; Denmark, 1 ; Netherlands, 3 ; Great Britain, 11 ; 
Russia, 1 ; France, 2. 

Class L, — ^Articles used in furnishing and rigging fishing vessels and boats, 
nmnbering 237, contributed by Norway, 91 ; Sweden, 46 ; Netherlands, 62 ; 
Great Britain, 30 ; France, 9. 

Class M. — Materials from which fishing utensils and implements are manu- 
fiictnred, numbering 16, contributed by Norway, 5 ; Netherlands, 8 ; Russia, 2. 

Class N. — Fishing nets and seines, and what belongs thereto ; also thread 
and yam from which nets and seines are manufactured, numbering 662 ; whereof 
Norway contributed 268^; Sweden, 128 ; Denmark, 5 ; Netherlands, 189 ; Great 
Britain, 66; Russia, 19 ; Prussia, 15. 

Class O. — Fishing tackle and lines, fishhooks, including all belonging to line 
fishing, numbering 394, contributed by Norway, 168; Sweden, 92 ; Netherlands, 
20 ; Great Britain, 44 ; France* 1 ; Russia, 2 ; Bavaria, 64 ; Hamburg, 2 ; 
Spain, 1. 

Gfus P. — Implements used in what is termed basket-fishing, numbering 48» 
contributed by Norway, 20 ; Sweden, 13 ; Netherlands, 13 ; Great Britain, 1 ;; 
Pmssia, I. 

Class Q, — All other kinds of fishing implements not included in any of the 
foregoing classes, numbering 67, contributed by Norway, 22; Sweden, IL; 
NctherkndB, 23 ; Bavaria. 1. ^g,^^, .^ ^OOgie 



326 ANNUAL KEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

ClaM R. — Stuffs used for the preservation of fishing implements, numbering 
10, contributed by Norway, 5 ; Netherlands, 3 ; Great Britain, 1 ; Russia, 1. 

Class S. — Artificial fishing bait, also stuffs and materials used in roanofac- 
tui-ing the same, numbering 14, contributed by Norway, 9; Prussia, 1; BaTaria, 
2 ; Netherlands, 2. 

Class T. — Implements and models of implements used in artificial hatching 
of fish eggs, numbering 8, all from Norway. 

Class U. — Models of fishing huts, samples of clothing and provisions used in 
the fisheries, numbering 103, contributed by Norway, 58 ; Sweden, 18 ; Nether- 
lands, 9 ; Great Britain, 13 ; France, 2 ; Russia, 5. 

Class F-T-Popular publications respecting the fisheries, numbering 24, con- 
tributed by Norway, 8 ; Sweden, 5 ; Netherlands, 5 ; Great Britain, 4 ; Russia, 2. 

Class X. — Divers articles, numbering 60, contributed by Norway, 36; Swe- 
den, 5; Netherlands, 11; Great Britain, 3; France, 1; Prussia, 2; Bavaria, 2; 
Russia, 1. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Number of articles contributed by each country : 



Norway 1, 664 

Sweden 308 

Denmark 13 

Netherlands 435 

Great Britain 174 

France 24 

Russia 83 

Prussia 28 



Bavaria 69 

Hamburg 2 

Austria .• 7 

Spain 1 

Italy 1 

United States 1 

Egypt 1... 1 

Tunis 1 



Making the total number of articled on exhibition 2,872. The judges for the 
occasion consisted of 32 persons, and of the following nationalities, vix: Nor- 
wegians, 30 ; Swedes, 1 ; British, 1. 

The prize medals of bronze and honorable mention were awarded in the fol- 
lowing order, viz : For all kinds of implements used for fishing and curing of 
fish products, 11 prize medals were distributed to the following countries, viz: 
to Norway, 6 ; Sweden, 4 ; Netherlands, 1. Number of honorable mentions, to 
Norway, 16 ; Sweden, 7 ; Netherlands, 3 ; Great Britain, 1. 

The number of prize medals awarded for models and drawings of vessels and 
boats was 1 — to Netherlands. Honorable mention for same, 6----all awarded to 
Norway. 

The number of prize medals awarded for hand-work and manufactured articles 
was 6, distributed as follows : to Norway, 2 ; Great Britain. (Scotland,) 2 ; Neth- 
erlands, 1 ; France, 1 ; and honorable mentions for same number 21, awarded 
to Norway, 15; Sweden, 3 ; Netherlands, 2; France, 1; Great Britain, 9, 
(Scotland 4, England 5 ;) Prussia, 1. 

Class 2. — The number of prize medals awarded for all kinds of dried fish 
were 6 ; distributed to Norway, 5; Sweden, 1 ; and number of honorable men- 
tions for the same 9, awarded as follows : to Norway, 8; United States I. 

For salted and smoked herring and other fish, including all kinds of fish 
products prepared for human food, 17 prizes were awarded. To Norway, 14; 
Sweden, 1 ; Netherlands, 2 ; and honorable mentions awarded for the same were 
33 — to Norway, 25; Sweden, 4; Netherlands, 1; Russia, 2; Italy, 1. 

For cod-liver oil, spawn, and articles used for the preservation of fish products, 
natural and artificial bait, all kinds of fish products used in agriculture and 
manufactures, the prize medals were 7. Distributed to Norway, 5; Sweden, 2; 
and number of honorable mentions for same were 18 ; all awarded to Norway. 

For special selections the prize medals awarded were 5. To Norway, 2 ; 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



NORWAY. 



327 



Sweden, 2; Great Britain, (Ireland,) 1; and number of honorable mentions for 
the same were 4. Distributed to Norway, 1 ; Sweden, 3. 

For models of fishing huts, samples of clothing, provisions, &;c., also for 
popular publications on the subject of fisheries, the number of medals awarded 
were 4. Distributed to Norway, 1; Sweden, 1; Russia, 1; France, 1; and 
number of honorable mentions for same were 8. Awarded to Norway, 4; 
Sweden, 1; Netherlands, 2; France, 1. 

RBCAPITULATION. 

Whole number of prize medals were 58, and of honorable mentions 136, 
distributed as follows : To Norway, 37 prize medals, 93 honorable mentions ; 
Sweden, 8 prize medals, 18 honorable mentions; Netherlands, 5 prize medals, 
8 honorable mentions; Great Britain, 3 prize medals, (viz., Scotland 2 and 
Ireland 1,) 6 honorable mentions (to England;) France, 2 prize medals, 3 hon- 
orable mentions; Russia, 1 honorable mention; Italy, 1 honorable mention; 
United States, I honorable mention. 



THR HARVEST OF 1865. 

There are no official statistics respecting the harvest of this year, but suffi- 
ciently reliable data might be gathered from the statements of the public 
journals. In the south and eastern portions of the country not more than half 
crops have been gathered; owing to the cold spring the first blossoms were 
destroyed and the supply of fruit was limited. The potato crop, though in 
the south it promised fair, was much injured by the rot, which this year has 
spread more or less over the country, and it is anticipated that more than half 
the potatoes used in the country will have to be imported, and several cargoes 
have already arrived from Lubec, and are retaUing in this city and vicinity at 
high prices. In several districts of north Bergen and Drontheim the crops 
were totally destroyed by the unusually early and heavy frosts of August, and 
the importation of breadstuffs in the coming year is expected to be larger than 
for several preceding ones. 

The crop of hay appears to have been more than an average, owing to the 
dry and pleasant weather in the fall. No epidemi^ or contagious disease among 
cattle or sheep has made its appearance in tnis country. 

Siatement showing the description, quantity , and value of exports from Bergen 
during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



Description. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Anchors. 
Boats... 
Books... 



ngs. 

.specie doUarB. 
do 



460 



Bone tons. 

Breftfl pounds. 

Calfikins do... 

Codfish tons. 

Codliver oil gallons. 

Dried fish tons. 

GalTimized copper pounds . 

Spring heirine oarrels. 

Snmmer hemng do... 

Pyrites tons. 

Spawn barrels. 

Iron ore tons. 



i,ooOi<A 

2,000 

67,387 

5, 555 A 

1,046,837 

7,614 

250,400 

193,500 

122,204 

198 

24,58] 

417/\fo 



$487 00 
2,918 00 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



328 



ANNUAL REPOBT ON FOBEIGN COMMERCE. 



o 

CO 



I- 



3 



I 

> 

-§ 

^ I 

■s-s 

«^ 

I 



1 



man 'aiq 



•••»!JXd 



dMq> pm Ji«o 



*oaoa 



nr»8 



Tjo jftAiipoo 



*nii«ds 



npTpoo 



•qnn^MQ 



'Sopjoq jamomg 



'iBopooq Saiidg 






9i^ 



^8 



8 






» 






g s s 
gs -* 






S 88S8^ !; SI 






SgfS5'«" 






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fiiisr Ifillts 



it 



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Digitized by LjOOQIC 



NORWAY. 



329 



Statement shoteing the averaging wholesale price of the principal articles qfeX' 
partjrom Bergen during the year ended September 30, 1865, aTul the export 
duty /or which price is stated. 



Description. 



1 



1^ 



I 
I 



Bemarks. 



AncIioTiee per ^ barrel 

Cod-liver oil, fint quality... per banel 

Do second.do do 

Do.. ..third ..do. ...... do..... 

Cod&h per 40 pounds.. 

Dried fish do 

Herring, pickled, spring... per barrel 

Bo do ...summer do.... 

Spawn , 

Calfskins, dried per pound 

Sheepskins .do do 

Pyrites per ton.. 



|0 20 
26 00 
20 00 
17 16 
1 50 
1 12 

3 75 

4 50 
6 75 

32 
15 

5 30 



to 00} 
23i 



i^rst quality and medium, 
1 bstrel, 29 gallons. 



Free. 
Free. 
Free.. 



i 

1 
1 
5 



Under contract for England. 



Statement showing the description and quantity of imports into Bergen during 
the year ended S^temher 30, 1865. 



Description.. 



Beef, salted lbs. 

Bread lbs. 

Bricks and tiles 

Butter lbs. 

Coflee lbs. 

Cheese lbs. 

Chiccoiy lbs. 

Candles, stearine lbs. 

tallow lbs. 

Coals and cinders tons. 

Cotton lbs. 

Corkwood lbs. 

Cotton yam lbs 

manufactured lbs 

Cordage, hemp lbs 

Dye wood lbs. 

Flax and hemp lbs. 

yam lbs. 

manufiietnred lbs 

Floor, wheat lbs. 

rye lbs. 

oats lbs 

Feathers and down lbs . 

Fruit— raisins lbs. 

dried apples, &c.. .lbs. 

apples, CLC lbs. 

Glassware lbs. 

Grun— wheat bush 

rye ...bush. 

Murley bush. 

oats bush 

peas bush 

grits bush 




18,452 

2,727 i 

1,277,581 

59,131 

890,405 

47,925 

58,205 

14,021 

2,294 

42,388 

144,727 

208,254 

27,800 

117,718 

4,754 

207,064 

2,682,173 

186,593 

361,532 

131,860 

19, 140 

1,480 

12,165 

57,303 

11,121 

13,460 

24,731 

51,651 

941,562 

883,635 

2,257 

15,458 

13,225 



Description. 



China and crockery ware. lbs. 

Hides, dried lbs. 

green lbs. 

manufactured lbs . 

Hoofs 

Hops lbs. 

Indigo lbs. 

Liquors and spirits lbs . 

Metals— iron, pig tons. 

bar tons. 

nails lbs. 

sheet-iron lbs 

polished iron.. ..lbs. 
manufact*d iron, .lbs 

Cutlery lbs 

Cannon carriages tons 

Ship anchors and chains. tons. 

Chains, small lbs 

Machinery 

Steel 

Copper, brass, and nickle, 

manufactured lbs. 

Copner, sheet, &c lbs 

Leao, pigs and bars lbs 

m other forms lbs 

Tin lbs 

Oil, olive 

castor 

ethereal 

linseed, hemp, rape, and 

whalef 

Paper, writing and printing. . 
books 



Quantity. 



* Value in ipede dollan. 



Digitized by 



143,863 

176,426 

670,770 

17,769 

1,194,509 

67,571 

1,405 

441.517 

781i 

274,Vo 
18,040 

105,867 
55,025 

256,796 

o2d 

191 

38,870 

•16,784 

94,894 

116,950 

15,659 
472,358 

14,400 
101,733 

18,131 
390 

95,543 

336,938 

165,701 

•2,960 

Google 



330 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Statement — Continued. 



Description. 



Pepper and Bpices lbs. 

Pork, pickled and smoked . . lbs. 

Potatoes bush. 

Rice lbs. 

Silk lbs. 

8oap lbs. 

Sugar, sirup and molasses, .lbs. 

Staves 

Salt tons. 

Tallow lbs. 

Tea lbs- 



Quantity. 



12,790 

168, 100 

48,000 

254,5>08 

4,9t)3 

37,9(31 

2,048,671 

980, 169 

40,811 

1,180 

12,503 



Descnption. 



Tar, Swedish barrels. 

Timber, lumber, &c 

Tobacco, cigars, &c lbs. 

Vinegar lbs. 

Sulphuric acid lbs. 

Wine, in casks galls. 

in bottles galls . 

Wool lbs. 

yarn 

manufactured 



Quantity. 



1,492 

•30,110 

664,257 

16,588 

8,439 
214,620 
300 
470,363 
.27,582 
14J,6d2 



* Value in spocie doUari. 



Statement showing the average wholesale market price during the year ended 
September 30, 1865, o/ the principal articles usually imported into Bergen 
from the United States, with the import duty on the given quantity of each 
article. 



Description. 



Alcohol, (from 85 to 88 per ct).per pound 

Axes per dozen 

Barley. - •, per bushel 

Beef, salted per barrel 

Brooms per dozen 

Butter, firkin per pound 

Cheese per pound 

Com, (Indian, ) shelled per bushel 

Cotton, (Mobile middling) per pound 

Dried fruit — apples per pound 

pears and peaches . per pound 

Flour, (wheat, ) No. 1 per 1 00 pounds 

No. 2 per 100 pounds, 

No. 3 per 100 pounds 

Hides, dried , per pound 

green, salted per pound, 

Hams, smoked per pound 

Lard per pound 

Honey per pound 

Hops per pound 

Manila rope per pound , 

Molasses, common per pound , 

sirup 

Logwood, Campeachy, (log^)..per pound, 

St. Domingo per pound , 

extract per pound 

Oats per bushel. 

Petroleum, refined per gallon . 

Pork, tness per barrel , 

prime per barrel, 

Quercitron bark per pound . 






10 25 

12 50 
99 

12 00 

4 25 

20 

16 



80 

15 

18 

5 00 

4 65 

3 80 

2 67 

27 

14 

16 

11 

20 

40 

15 

3i 

H 

3 

H 

17 
59 

m 

16 82 
14 00 
3i 



Duty. 



10 12 

1 
4 

Free. 

1 

I 

4 

Free. 

80 ) 
) 



m 

i 

1 

1 
i-ft 



1 
1 

1 

Free. 
1 
3 
3 

H 
Free. 



Remarks. 



For every ^ percent strength 
over 88, ada 1 ct. per pound. 
Per pound. 
On bushel of 52 pounds. 

Per pound. 



None in market 
Fluctuating. 

From Hamburg, apparently 
American. 

America via Hamburg. 

From Denmark and Pninia. 



Small importations. 
Small importations. 

Small quantities in market 



Of 32 ponnds. 
Per pound. 

Small auanUty of American 
in marW. 



Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



NORWAY. 331 

AvcrcLge price of articles usually exported from United States, 



Description. 



Rice, Ist quality per ponnd. . 

Rye, (56 pounds) per bushel. . 

Soap, common brown per pound . . 

Sperm candles, Ist quality per pound . . 

Stearine candles per pound.. 

Staves, (oak barrel) per 120 feet. . 

Rosin per pound.. 

Wheat, (bushel of 60 pounds) 

White lead, in oil per 100 pounds . . 

dry per 100 pounds.. 



fill 



|0 10 

1 04 
13 
60 
24 

2 15 

37 

8 50 
8 12i 



Duty. 



♦OH 

3t 
22t| 

I 

Hi 

1 06 
1 06 



Remarks. 



Very scarce. 
Very fluctuating. 
Usually Russian. 
Small demand. 

Mostly from Sweden. 



To the import dutj should be added 2 per cent., which is paid into the har- 
bor fund for the building and maintaining a breakwater in the harbor of Bergen. 

There have been no changes in the commercial system of Norway the present 
year, excepting the reduction of import duties, stipulated in the treaty with 
France. A further reduction of duty under treaty stipulations will be made ; 
a new tariff to take the place of the one now existing, but which expires the Ist 
April, 1866. 

Statement showing the kinds and qualities of breadstuff imported into Bergen 
during the year ended September 30, 1865, with the name of tht country. 



Conntrlca. 


Wheat 


Rye. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Mali. 


Grit. 


PeBB. 


Wheat 
flour. 


Rye 
floar. 


Sweden.. 


Butk. 

8,912 
20,611 
22,508 


Butk, 
319, 790 
416,110 

35,536 
170, 126 


BH»h, 

298.192 

103,542 

471,380 

10, 521 


Bwh, 

2,158 

""ioi" 


BUBh, 

4,930 
4,720 


Buik, 

189 

256 

12,780 


Busk. 
1 164 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


PnMria... 


11 850 


ion srm 




Dwimark 


2^444 1 III 328 


19,128 


Riffla 




Told 




V_" 










51,651 941,562 


883,831 


2,662 


9,650 


13,225 1 15,458 


131 828 


19,128 



Statement showing the nationality, number , and tonnage of foreign vessels en' 
tered and cleared the port of Bergen during the year ended September 30, 1865 



Nationality. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


Swedish 


163 

83 

6 

7 

18 

31 

92 

14 

1 

34 

29 


8,938.5 
5,684 

773. 3 

964 

1,788.4 

5,865.8 

10,880.3 

2,995 

360.8 
5,725.8 
2,538.3 


166 

84 

6 

7 

17 

31 

96 

16 

1 

33 

30 


9,054.5 


Danish 


5.698 


BossiftQ 


773.3 


^British 


964 


French 


1,758.4 


SMDish 


5,865.8 


Netherlanda 


10,673 


Bcljrian 


3,060 


"*^nnan— TTftmbnTc ...., 


.360.8 


Rchleswio' Holfltein 


5,695 


Pniflniaii ...... ................ 


2,502 






Total 


478 


40,514.2 


487 


46,465 







Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



332 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEIGN COMMEBCfE. 



Tb« commercial navy of Bergen on tbe 30tb of September, 1865, consisted of 
9!^8 vessels, witb an aggregate tonnage of 51,806 tons, navigated by 3,335 sailon. 

Tbere are a great number of vessels under ten tons not included, also all ves- 
sels not registered for foreign trade, numbering 440» carrying in tbe aggregate 
102,080 barrels of fisb, most of tbem belonging in county districts of Bergen. 

Statement shawing the number and tonnage of vessels cleared from the port of 
Bergen for foreign countries during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



NORWEGIAN. 


FOREIGN. 


TotaL 


With cargoes. 


In ballast. 


With cargoes. 


In ballast 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tods. 


318 


56,429 


86 


8,653 


467 


39,291 


22 


1,479 


902 


105,852 



SieUement showing the number and tonnage of vessels entered the pari of Bergen 
from foreign countries during the year ended September 30. 1865. 



NORWEGIAN. 


FOREIGN. 


TotaL 


With cargoes. 


In ballast 


With cargoes. 


In ballast 


No. 


Tons. 


No, 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


504 


89,210.5 


18 


7,308.8 


435 


34,549 


43 


6,239.6 


1,000 


137,306.9 



Number of vessels built during the year was three, of 1,949 tons. 
Number of vessels purchased in foreign countries was one, of 519 tons. 
Number of vessels wrecked during the year was three, of 609 tons. 



Classification of the commercud marine of Bergen. 




Class. 


No. 


Tons. 


Sailors. 


From 10 to 20 tons 


68 
485 
96 
32 
32 
15 


971 

15,160 

7,088 

5.723 

11,966 

10,962 


136 


From 20 to 50 tons...... ^. 


1 755 


From 50 to 130 tons 


'524 


From 130 to 260 tons 


2^ 


From 260 to 520 tons 


392 


Of 520 tons and over 


244* 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



NORWAY, 



333 



Stavanger — T. Falk, Consular Agent, ^ 

Statement ahotcing the description and quantity of imports at Stavanger for the 
year ended December 31, 1865. 



Description. 



Cotton yam, nndyed lbs . 

dyed lbs. 

cloth, pressed lbs. 

dyed lbs. 

bleached lbs. 

unbleached lbs . 

Bmndy lbs. 

Indiffo and cochineal lbs . 

Red lead, ground lbs. 

Feathers lbs. 

Raisins lbs. 

Glass bottles lbs . 

Other glass goods lbs. 

Cabbages no. 

Hemp and^^x lbs. 

Hops lbs. 

Tiles no- 
Potters' goods lbs. 

Coffee lbs. 

Corkwood lbs. 

Barley barrels. 

Rye barrels. 

Peas barrels. 

Wheat barrels. 

Malt barrels. 

Wheat flonr lasts. 

Linen yam, nndyed lbs. 

dyed lbs. 

Clock lbs. 

Woollen yarn lbs. 

Knitting goods lbs. 

Wine, in casks lbs. 

in bottles 

Mackerel lbs. 

Salmon lbs. 

Herring lbs. 

Lobsters no. 

Anchovies barrels. 

Seal oil barit^ls. 

Cloth, linen, dyed lbs. 



Quantity. 



2.814i 

750|| 
18,318i 
9, 2411 
11,78:H 
20,715 
30,098 
5,606f 
12,850 I 
11,589^1 
83,454 
7,463i 
2,561 
23,376 
759,602i 
16,799 
287,981 
75,aS8 
4;J5,825i 
144,383 I 
25,«94f 
70,773i' 

1,865 ; 

l,767f 
1,0511 
20,82l| 
34,937f 
6,115 I 
2,356 
3,0J6t, 
57,590 
713,3984 
1,490 
36,839 I 
1,864 
255, 11 If 
370,330 
273 : 

m 

4,215i; 



Description. 



Cloth, linen, bleached *. lbs 

unbleached lbs 

Sail-cloth lbs 

Rope, tarred lbs 

nntarred lbs 

Tools of metal lbs 

Fire-tongs, hinges, ^c lbs 

Other iron goods lbs 

Bolt iron shft 

Anchors and chains shft 

Tinned iron lbs 

Yellow metal lbs 

Sheathing nails lbs 

Oil lbs 

Paper lbs 

Rice lbs 

Salt barrels 

Silk goods lbs 

Hides, salted lbs 

dry lbs 

Butter lbs 

Coals tons. 

Sugar lbs 

Havana lbs 

Molasses lbs 

Soap lbs 

Tea lbs 

Tar barrels 

Tobacco lbs 

Cigars lbs 

Staves no 

Buttons no 

Hoops no. 

Bones lbs, 

Do commerce lasts. 

Old rope 

Do 

Copper ore tons. 

Caltskins lbs. 



Quantity. 



6,572i 
4,678f 
155, 116 
71,730 
9,91J 
18,933f 
6,6831^ 
43,414 
672i 
802 
1,277* 
4,609i 
1.477i 
83,33]i 
44,747 
106,644 
208,793f 
l,058i 
2,831 
69,495 
8,259* 
73,075 
146,673 
216,529 
188,809 
13,228 
4,009* 
l,596i 
4,532 
2,499* 
5,386,592 
1,686,224 
6,305,372 
128,000 
22f 
78,515 
12,909 
100 
11,196 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



334 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOBEIGN COMMEBCE. 



Statement showing the nationality^ number ^ and tonnage, (in commerce lasU.) 
and description of cargo oj vessels arrived at and departed from Stavanger 
during the year 1865. 



ABBIVALS. 



. 


1 
1 


WITH CARGO. 


1 

B 


IN BALLAST. 




Nationality. 


Commerce 
lasts. 


Commerce 
lasts. 


Description of cargo. 


Norwdorian .... ...... 


378 

23 

13 

3 


19,357i 

380 
187i 

i«:Ji 


54 


2,245 
^ 


Grain, salt, coals, tiles, staves, 
hops, timber, and sundries. 


Swedish 


Danish ............. 




1 


Staves, ^ain, butter, cheese, 
&c., tiles, and hops. 


Netherlands 




:.:.:::::: f 


British 


34 


6214 J 









DEPABTUBES. 



Norwegian 


467 

18 
4 
1 

34 


12,982i 

280i 
50 
67 

621i 


113 


13,672i 
) 


Herring, fish, bones, old rope, 
oysters, seal oil, copper ore, 
and emigrants. 


Swedish 


Danish 




', 

( 


Herring, fish, and salt. 


Netherlands 


1 


sir 


Do 


British 


Lobsters and herrings. 








Total 


524 


14,001i 


114 


13,727 









Digitized by LjOOQIC 



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336 



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Digitized by LjOOQIC 



BU8S1A. 337 

Odessa — Timothy C. Smith, Consul, 

November 11, 1865. 

I enclose herewith a statement of the trade of Odessa for the year ended 
September 30, 1865. The value of the principal articles imported and exported 
i9 given with their totals for the year. 

The whole amount of imports was 14,000,000 rubles, or three millions more 
than last year, and the amount of exports 38,000,000 rubles, or five millions 
more than last year. 

The increase of imports occurred principally in the following articles, viz : 
tea, coffee, oil, fruit, coals, and manufactured cotton goods, silk and wool. The 
increase in tea imported this year over that of last is 143,000 rubles ; coffee, 
140,000 rubles; oil, 500,000; paint, 100,000; coals, 500,000; manufactured 
cotton goods, silk, and wool, 200,000. 

With the exception of oil and coals, I know of no especial reason except the 
growing wants ot the inhabitants for this large increase of imports. The extra 
coals, perhaps, have been imported to meet the demand of the new gas-works, 
and for the use of the railway. The oil was imported, probably, in part for 
the same purposes, but mostly because petroleum has become an article in 
general use for lights. Tea was imported during the year to the value of 
643,000 rubles; coffee, 522,000; oil, 1,213; spirits and wines, 219,000; fruits, 
919,000; tobacco, 618,000; dyestuffs, 99,000 ; cotton and cotton yam, 156,000 ; 
iron, 488,000; cotton fabrics, 278,000; silk goods, 300,000; woollens, 407,000; 
linens, 155,000; coals, 1,049,000; machines and implements, 544,000. Of 
the latter articles a large share was for agricultural purposes, and partly of 
American manufacture. 

The increase in value of exports, for the most part, consists in wheat, rye, oats, 
linseed, and wool. Of wh^t, above 2,000,000 of rubles in value was exported 
this year more than last; of oats, to the value of 300,000 rubles more; of rye, 
150,000; of wool, 350,000; of linseed, 1,700,000; of com, there were 800,000 
rabies in value less ; and in flour, 400,000. 

The increase in exports occurred partlyin consequence of the large quantity 
stored at Odessa during the last winter, and partly in consequence of the im- 
proved market for grain in westem Europe, and partly on account of increased 
production. 

The grain crop in southern Russia has .been very good the past season, 
especially in quantity. The increase under the name of linseed is in part 
owing to the large cultivation of colza, which is becoming an important and 
profitable crop in Russia. This seed, colza, closely resembles rape-seed, and is 
sold, like that and linseed, for making oil. It is said to yield a quarter more 
in quantity, and commands a corresponding price. 

Wheat was exported during the year to the value of 18,000,000 mbles ; rye, 
177,000; oats, 565,000; peas, 194,000 mbles; bailey, 625,000; flour, 504,000 ; 
Indian com, 1,709,000; tallow, 866,000; linseed, 3,467,000; wool, 7,992,000; 
hides, 95,000; leather, 14,000; cordage, 218,000; beans, 19,000. 

The carrying trade of this port was done for several years past by Italian, Aus 
trian, British, and Russian vessels, and the relative proportion in the order* 
named. The countries with which this trade was principally carried on shared 
in the following order : Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany. Thirty- 
five invoices of goods for the United States, to the value of 700,000 rabies, were 
certified at this consulate during the year. Steamers are gradually takine the 
place of sailing vessels in the commerce of Odessa There are now regular lines 
of British steamers plying between this port and London ; Austrian steamers 
between this and Trieste, and Russian steamers to and from London, Marseilles, 
Constantinople, Alexandria, Galatz, and all ports in the Black sea and sea of 
22 c R 

Digitizet by V^OO^K:! 



338 ANNUAL EEPOET ON FOBEIGN COMMERCE. 

Azo£f. I would respectfully repeat a saggestion heretofore made, that, in mj 
opinion, the commercial interests of the United States would be benefited by 
the establishment of a line of steamers between New York and Odessa, stopping 
at some of the intermediate ports, as Madeira, Malaga, Marseilles, Messina, 
Malta, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople. More especially would snch 
a line benefit our commerce and enrich the stockholders after the opening of the 
Suez canal and the highway between the sea of Azoff and central and eastern 
Asia, by the way of the Don and the Volga, and the railway or canal connexions 
therewith. The first of these enterprises, the Suez canal, is, without doabt, 
soon to be completed, and the second, perhaps, at no very distant day. 

During the year the railroad towards Eliev and Moscow, so important to the 
commerce of Odessa, has been extended one hundred and eighty versts, and is 
in running order that distance to Balta, on the frontier of Fodalia. The branch 
road towards the Gallatian (Austrian) frontier has also been completed as far as 
Tyraspal, and in a few years it is expected it will be continued to Lemberg to 
connect with the European net-work of raOways. An important fact with re- 
gard to these railroads is their extreme cheapness. They have double tracks, 
wide gauge, smooth running roads, and have been constructed across the steppe, 
where all the wood, water, stone, and other materials, as well as provisions of 
all kinds, have had to be transported. Yet the engines, and cars, and station- 
houses — in fact, the road and everything appertaining to it of every description — 
I am informed, does not exceed in cost an average of $25,000 per mile. 

The petroleum companies, which a year ago were prosecuting their enterprises 
with energy, are still a^J^ork near the Bosphorus or straits of Yenckali, but are 
not yet entirely successful. The prospect, perhaps, is less favorable for com- 
plete success than it was a year ago. 

The number of Americans in this country, and the variety of American pro* 
ductions; is probably increasing. 

There are several American families established here, and in many shops ar- 
ticles of American production are offered for sale, superior to the like productions 
of other countries, as in fact they generally are ; and it is a good recommenda- 
tion of an article to say that it is of American production. I^imps of American 
manufacture, sewing-machines, reaping-machines, clocks. India-rubber goods, 
oil-cloths, codfish, rice, starch, maizena, are some of the articles which I now 
recollect seeing for sale here. It would be a good speculation to open here an 
exclusively American store, in which to contain only articles of American pro- 
duction. 

I enclose herewith a table showing the number of ships of different nations 
cleared from Odessa during the year, and their destination. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



RUSSU. 



339 



Statement sliowing the description and value, in rubles, of imports into and ex- 
ports from Odessa during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



IMPORTS. 



Description. 



Coffee 

Sugar, (incomplete )..... 

Oil 

Spirits and wine 

Fruits 

Tobacco 

Cotton and cotton yarn. 

Djres 

Iron 

Pewter and lead 

Silk and wool 

Cotton goods 

Silk goods 

Woouen goods 

Linen goods 

Coala 

Machines and models . . . 

Sundries 

Tea 

Money 



¥alue. 



522, 131 
354 

1,253,210 
219,000 
919, 108 
681,000 
156,308 
99,000 
488,000 
126,000 
23,000 
278,000 
300,000 
407,000 
155,000 

1,049,000 
544,000 
261,000 
643,000 

1,444,000 



Total value of imports 9, 568, 1 1 1 



EXPORTS. 



Description. 



Value. 



Rye 

Wheat 

Peafl 

Oats 

Barley 

Flour and meal 

Com 

Rape and linseed 

Tallow 

Wool 

Hides 

Leather, (incomplete) 

Iron, (incomplete) 

Cables and cordage 

Flax and linen, (incomplete). 

Wood 

Bones and furs^ 

Beans 7. 

Sundries 

Money 



Rubles. 

177, 

18,360, 

194, 

565, 

642, 

504, 

1,709, 

3,467, 

866, 

7,992, 

95, 

14, 

2, 

218, 

12, 

33, 

41, 

19, 

3,503, 

2 J 8, 



101 
OOO 
318 
420 
900 
000 
200 
000 
190 
000 
000 
200 
59o 
304 
014 
123 
970 
556 
660 
000 



Total value of exports :}8, 636, 507 



Statement showing the number and nationality of vessels cleared from Odessa 
during the year ended September 30, 1865. 

Austrian ' 316 

Belgian - . 7 

German — 

Bremen 1 

Mechlenberg 53 

Pmssian 37 

British ^ 1 90 

French 33 

Greek 76 

Italian 418 

Norwegian 41 

Portuguese 3 

Riueian 244 

Turkiah ,. 25 

Waldo-Wallacffian 2 

1, 445 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



340 



ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement showing the number and destination of vessels of all nations cleared 
Jrom Odessa during the year ended September 30, 1865. 



Destination. 

% 

Great Britain 

Constantinople 

Knstendje 

Sm jma 

Marseilles 

Messina 

Leghorn 

Newcastle 

Antwerp 

Alexanaria 

Genoa 

Cardiff 

Sunderland 

Sayona 

Malta 

Gallipolis 

Syra 

Civitia Vecchia 

Syracuse 

Palermo , 

Naples 

Rhodes 

Trieste 



Number. 



551 
83 
12 
45 

104 
63 
23 
29 
24 
27 
42 
17 
5 
14 
29 

n 

7 
8 
3 
18 
14 
25 
16 



Destination. 



Ibraila 

SaloniiA 

Liverpool 

Corfu 

Swansea 

Castil a Mare . 

Spezzia 

Portland 

Beirftt 

Shields 

Ancona 

Pent 

Candia 

Galatz 

Dunkirk 

Trebizond 



RUSSIAN PORTS. 



Taganroff... 
, Nicolaefskjr . 

Kirtch 

I Empatoria.. 



Number. 



3 

7 

14 

4 

9 

19 

10 

15 

17 

2 

15 

3 

2 

95 

13 

6 



12 
6 
4 

8 



Statement showing the description, quantity, minimum and maximum price, and 
value of imports into Taganrog during the year 1865. 



Description. 



Quantity. 



Minimum 
price. 



Maximum 
price. 



Total ralue. 



Olive oil 

Olives 

Walnuts and filberts .... 

Cerobs 

Almonds 

Baisins 

FiM 

Coffee 

Bice 

Tea 

Incense 

Tobacco, (Turkish) 

Fire-arms 

Taux 

Cast-iron pipes 

Bum 

Wines, (assorted) 

French 

champagne 

Porter 

Oranges and lemons 

Agricultural implements. 

Sundries 

Specie 



.poods. 
. . do . . . 
..do... 
. . do . . . 



Total in francs 



85,555 

9,157 

66,269 

172,422 

1,554 

« 7,174 

32,683 

7,143 

4,724 

2,120 

1.386 

6,682 

1,217 

3,017 

139,837 

296 

53,352 

7,4a5 

18,461 

9,358 

4.680,412 

29 



F. C. 

35 00 

18 00 I 

11 60 

6 32 

42 00 

10 20 
14 20 
50 00 

11 00 
192 00 

50 00 



72 00 

12 60 

5 00 

9 80 

2 60 

68 00 



F. C. 

38 40 

20 00 

13 60 

6 80 

52 00 

25 00 

23 00 

60 00 

13 00 

240 00 i 

52 00 

162 180 



96 00 

14 40 

12 00 

11 40 

3 00 

128 00 



Francs, 

3,240,468 

183, 143 

795,234 

],034,53:{ 

62,179 

86,077 
522,615 
362,434 

47,260 
356,108 

44,356 
456,331 
100,000 

72,000 
560,000 

11,845 
730,006 

59,880 
147.688 

14,973 
332,674 
143,680 
806.571 
271,986 



10,442.041 



Jigitized by VjUU^ It: 



RUSSIA. 



341 



Statement showing the dencnption, quantity, minimum and maximum prices and 
value ofeosports from Taganrog^ Marionpah and Berdiansk, during the year 
1865. 

TAGANROG. 



Description. 



Grain 

Linneed 

Rye 

Oats 

Barley 

Wild colza, (colewort) 

Flour , 

Yembsfish 

Red fish 

Butter - 

TaUow , 

Wool 

Oil, (sunflower) 

Tobacco 

Hides 

tanned....... ... 

Bar iron 

Cordage , 

fi»g» 

Matting 

Sundries , 



.chetwerts.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do 
.do 

.poods.. 
...do... 
...do... 
...do... 



Quantity. 



.do., 
.do., 
.do... I 
.do... I 
.do... I 
.do 
.do 
.do 



.do. 



.do. 



Total in francs. 



1,344,173 

131,632 

2,092 

25,736 

16,992 

37,302 

2,992 

9,712 

27,351 

78,394 

221,358 

152,102 

3,110 

16,623 

1,706 

666 

13,520 

1,325 

11,126 

87,830 



Minimum 
price. 



F. C. 

24 00 

44 00 

18 00 

10 00 

14 00 

22 00 

40 00 

62 00 

10 00 

31 00 

14 60 

36 00 



34 00 
16 • 



14 00 



Maximum 
price. 



F. C. 

39 00 

50 00 

21 00 

12 00 

18 00 

26 00 

60 00 

68 00 

12 00 

34 00 

18 00 

39 20 
20 00 
42 00 
20 00 

40 00 
8 00 

18 00 

4 00 

80 



Total value. 



Francs, 

40,325,190 

6,975,072 

41,840 

283,096 

271,872 

895,248 

131,824 

621,824 

300,861 

2,587,002 

3,541,728 

5,779,876 

62,200 

631,674 

34,120 

26,640 

108,160 

21,200 

44,504 

70,264 

493,453 



63,247,648 



MARIOUPAL. 



Grain chetwerts.. 

Linseed do 

Ravison 


397,215 

31,069 

29,790 

1,689 

1,176 

6,057 

1,250 

61 


F. C. 

28 00 
46 00 

17 00 

18 00 

14 00 

15 00 
• 28 00 


F. C. 
36 00 
52 00 
22 00 
20 00 

15 00 
17 00 
30 00 

193 00 

16 00 


Francs. 

11,674,505 

1,541,035 

582,282 

32,429 


Oats 


Barley 


16,945 
96,924 
38,720 


Tallow 


Hides 


Cocoons 


11,784 


Wool 




94,192 










Total in francs 


14,088,816 











BERDIANSK. 



Grain. ., 
Linseed.. 

Rye 

Ravison. 
Tallow.. 
Batter.. 
Hides... 
Wool... 



Total in francs 



495, 102 

17,711 

910 

4,830 

51,206 

584 

1,794 

752 



24 00 

38 00 

18 00 

17 00 

14 00 

26 00 

30 00 

16 00 



40 


00 


56 


00 


20 


00 


28 


00 


18 


00 


28 


00 


40 


00 


18 


00 







15,843,264 

832,417 

17,290 

108,375 

819,296 

15,768 

62,790 

12,784 



17,711,984 



-^ i g i t i zod uj *-j . 



J^ 



342 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement ghomng the nationality, number and tonnage of vetseU entered and 
cleared Jrom Taganrog, Marioupal and Berdiantk during the year 1865. 



Nationality. 



American 

British 

Austrian 

Belgian 

French 

Grecian 

Italian 

Norwegian 

German — Bremen 

Mecklenburg 
Prussian 

Russian 

Turldsh 

Total 



TAGANROG. 



• No. 



1 

129 
21 

1 

39 

247 

183 

29 

1 

22 

9 

48 

30 



760 



Tonnage. 



336 

38,187 

6,596 

622 

7,612 

54,022 

49,825 

11,406 

348 

6,026 

3,302 

8,698 

1,900 



188,880 



MARIOUPAL. 



No. ' Tons. 



11 

20 



3,147 
7,609 



10 
9 

90 
2 



1,912 

2,546 

25,521 

572 



2 

1 
27 

1 



712 
233 

10,004 
J9 



173 , 52,275 



BERDIAKSK. 



No. Tons. 



15 



4 

18 

134 

3 



13 
6 



212 



5,650 
4,650 



4,800 

39,400 

1,0?^^ 



260 



3,759 

42^ 



60,857 



Hblsingfors — R. Frenckell, Consul. 

November 28, 1865. 

As Russia, in consequence of the latest Oriental or Crimean war, felt the neces- 
sity of suspending the payment in silver of her circulating bank notes, their 
value began to sink in a rapid manner. The Finnish government apprehending 
the danger to Finland of so great financial evil, made strenuous efforts to 
separate the Finnish monetary system from that of Russia. By an imperial 
ordinance of April 4, 1860, the mark divided into 100 penni was declared a legal 
tender in Finland, and its intrinsic value fixed at one solotink of 5^ doli of fine 
silver. But this did not prevent the circulation of Russian paper money in Fin- 
land, at the rate of four marks for one ruble ; hence the redemption in silver of 
the mark notes was not practicable, inasmuch as the mark notes would have 
been bought up by the holders of Russian notes and converted into silver, the 
specie taken to Russia, thus realizing a profit of 20 per cent. The stock of 
specie in Finland would not have been sufficient for the redemption of the Rus- 
sian notes, 650 millions of rubles of which were in circulation. To prevent the 
Russian notes from being a legal tender in Finland was a difficult task, consid- 
ering its political relations with Russia. The head of the financial department 
of Finland succeeded in effecting this object, and an imperial ordinance, dated 
November 13, ordained that silver coin should be the only legal tender in Fin- 
land. Consequently, bank notes ceased to be a legal tender. The consequence 
was, that the Russian ruble note, which previous to the 13th of November had 
been equal to four Finnish marks, fell to three marks and 20 penni, at the 8ame 
time the rate of foreign exchanges rose to par, n. e. with 18 to 20 per cent. 
The publication of this ordinance, by which the Russian bank notes ceased to 
be a legal tender in Finland, and raised the Finnish mark to its intrinsic specie 
value, ga^e great satisfaction to tlie whole country. They realized the fact that 
a stable standard is indispensable to the financial progress of the nation. 

December 15, 1865. 
I have the honor to transmit the following report on the commerce of the 
grand duchy of Finland during the year 1864. 

The value of exports to Russia and foreign countries amounted to 43,542,972 

.rubles. . r^r^r^i/^ 

Digitized by V^OOQK:! 



BU8SIA. 343 



Statement showing the description and value of the principal articles exported 
Jrom the grand duchy of Finland during the year 1864. 

RubUs. 

Timber, planks, and battans 14, 643, 981 

Butter 5,257,387 

Iron and steel 5, 047, 451 

Tar 3, 396, 090 

Fabrics 1, 813, 962 

Pine wood- 980, 931 

Fish • ^ 908, 606 

Cattle. 904,432 

Candles 807, 842 

Com 462, 082 

Pitch 338,666 

Potash 215,785 

Meat 308,613 

Statement showing the description and value of imports into the grand duchy of 
Finland during the year 1864. 

Rubles. 

Com 17,311,549 

Fabrics 5,761,322 

CoflFee 5,662,312 

Sngar 4,309,711 

Iron and steel 3, 579, 026 

Tobacco 2, 500, 776 

Salt 2, 258, 589 

Cotton 2, 037, 346 

Spirits 1,508,369 

Leather 1,770,069 

Tallow 1,185,427 

Wine 959,284 

Colors 832,308 

Fruits and spices 815, 879 

Total value of imports 40, 638, 231 

The merchant navy of the grand duchj consists of 1,561 vessels of all sizes, 
measuring 104,241 Swedish lasts, (100 Swedish lasts is 240 English tons,) and 
35 steamers. / 



Amoor Rivbr — ^H. G. O. Chase, Vice-Consul 

July 22, 1864. 
The imports in American vessels at this port, (Nicolaefskj,) from Maj 31 to 
this date, are : 

Assorted foreign merchandise 847,013 26 

Assorted domestic merchandise 31, 827 63 

Total .! 78, 840 89 

There was also one foreign arrival, a Hamburg bark, laden with 400 tons of 
assorted merchandise of unknown value. 

The exports were petroleum, &c., valued at $5,000, and wool and sewing 
machines, value unknown. oigi^i.^d by CoOglc 



844 ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

Statement skowimg the nationality, number, tonnage and port of departure of ves§d§ drrimd 
Nieolaefeky during the fear 1863. 



Nationality. 


No. 


Tons. Where from. 


United States 


4 

I 
.3 
1 


884 ' San Francisco. 


Gennan — BremeTi ^ ,t. 


202 Bremenhaven. 


Hamburg 


1,040 Hambnrg. 
394 


British 






Total 


q 


2,520 - • 

• 1 







Statement thawing the value of the trade in sablee and other furs within the iiMiH<tM€ province 
of Eattern Siberia, from information derived from the civil ehatMcery. 

Sabte skins, including 2,239 from Kamtschatka 36, 382 

Fox-skins, silver-gray 2, 483 

Fox-skins, red 3, 359 

Beaver-skins 201 

Squirrel-skins 33 

Total in silver rubles 42, 458 



Statement showing the deeeription, quantitif, and value of exports from Niadaefekf for the pear 

1863. 





Description. 


* 


Quantity. 1 


Valne. 


Hides 




. . .. . .r .nnttber.. 


! 
1,000 
92 


SUvermkliu, 
6,500 


Wahtis teeth 




poods.. 


1,380 


Total.... 


7,880 




1 



Statement showing the deeeription and value in rublee ofmerchandiu shipped from Nieoia^skf 
to different settlements on the Amoor river during the pear 1863. 

Wines and liqnon 10, 000 

Manufactured goods 24, 000 

Sugars 4, 250 

Sundries 10, 000 



Rubles 48,250 



Statement showing the description and quantities of merchandise brought down the Amoor to 
Nicolaefskp, from deferent pldpes in the interior , bp privaU parties during the pear 1863. 
(From the civil chauncerp.) 

Tobacco leaf, Chinese ~ 6, 421 

Salt, coarse, from Trans-Baikel provinces 650 

Butter, from Trans-Baikel provinces 4, 858 

MustardseeJ " •• " 420 

Beef, salted •' " " 1,500 

Homed cattle from Tranif-Baikel and Chinese provinces 2, 150 

Tea from Trans-Baikel provinces 2, 500 

Assorted merchandise 86, 500 



Total silver rubles 104, 999 



Digitized by LjOOQI(:! 



AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS. 345 

Statement showing the description and value of exports from Nicolaefsky to 
other ports of the maritime province during the year 1863. {From the civil 
chaunceryj 

To Petropanlatfk and Kamtschatka : 

Sugar, loaf k 5, 366 

Teas 5, &00 

Logwood, &c 1, 725 

Mannfactmed goods 7, 849 

Totd in silver rubles 20, 840 

To Waldenostock, in the Gulf of Tartary : 
Assorted merchandise, silver rubles ; 6, 263 

To Shantar islands, in Ochotsk sea : 

Tea.: 150 

Liquors 250 

Provisions, assorted 2, 000 



Silver rubles 2, 400 



AWSTRIAN DOMINIONS. 

Vienna — Theodore Canisius, Consul. 

# September 30, 1865. 

The exports to the United States from my consular district for the several 
quarters of the year ended September 30, 1865, were as follows : 

Florims. 

Quarter ended December 31, 1864 305, 533. 99 

Quarter ended March 31, 1865 397, 785. 42 

Quarter ended June 30, 1865 842, 658. 41 

Quarter ended September 30, 1865 1, 543, 490. 08 

Total 3, 089, 467. 90 

Total exports for year ended September 30, 1864 2, 309, 813. 00 

Difference in favor of present year 779, 654. 90 

The articles exported to the United States consisted principally of dre^s goods, 
Vienna shawls, Bohemian glassware, fancy goods, cloth, kid gloves, Hungarian 
wines, and meershaums. 

Our new tariff has not, as I expected, interfered with the exports ; on the 
contrary, the foregoing statement shows them to be nearly one million florins 
greater than during any preceding year. The orders received by the exporters 
are still very frequent and large, so that in all probability the next year will be 
more favorable than the past. Many manufacturers who suspended their estab- 
lishments after the commencement of the rebellion have renewed their old 
activity, and many of them are unable to supply the demand of the exporters. 
The Austrian industry and commerce have largely increased since a more 
liberal system of regulations has taken place. Formerly only a certain class of 
persons was entitled to exercise commercial and industrial pursuits. But this 
narrow-minded legislation has yielded to a more liberal policy, and every one, 



346 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



native or foreigner, can engage in any bueiness at pleasure. The progressive 
movement of tne present centnrj has not been lost on Austria ; many old habits 
and prejudices have fallen here as elsewhere, and the manner of a higher civili- 
zation and the recognition of individual liberty have swept away a great many 
despotic laws and customs the inheritance of centuries. 

The following stisitistical statement of the movement of Austrian commerce 
during the last twenty-three years will more than anything else show th^ steady 
progress of this ancient empire. 

The Dalmatian range of customs duties is not included in these figures. 



Year. 



1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 .. 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

ia59 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 



Import. 



Florins. 
111,305,185 
117,503,776 
120,769,166 
722,098,048 
133,079,348 
134,397,117 
87,896,990 
92,480,793 
766,903,202 
158,074,663 
209,329,849 
207.262,160 
219,165,017 
248, 288, Sr 
301,194,829 
292,995,251 
308,285,925 
268,227,7tt 
231,226,702 
235,847,057 
261,257,288 
266,348,115 
253,980,153 



Export. 



Fiorina. 
108,586,719 
109,340,652 
115,119,716 
112,919,380 
107,112,498 
117,818,699 
48,679,047 
62,428,820 
110,089,831 
136,524,944 
195,814,828 
238,440,293 
228,924,871 
244, 134, 142 
263,928,641 
242,363,721 
275,599,871 
292,657,240 
305,197,493 
307,680,155 
321,445,061 
306,028,656 
333,583,953 



Transit 



Florins. 

75,451,193 

75,263,213 

74,916,381 

74,241,172 

75,023,398 

81,210,302 

29,257,207 

41.025,439 

74,143,513 

110,261,327 

112,246,000 

120,591,442 

88,014,734 

151,248,847 

166,136,875 

161,215,393 

121,469,637 

91,475,441 

111,889,523 



Goods imported for the purpose of finishing (half finished goods) or for 
transshipment are not included in the foregoing. The import and export of the 
Dalmatian range of custom duties are also excluded. These amounted to : 



• 


Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1859 


8,560,551 
7,997,684 
7,505,094 
8,154,038 
7,509,997 


5,434,793 


1861 , * 


4,513,953 


1862 


5, 662, 072 


1863 


6,092,641 


1864 


5,491,147 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS. 



347 



Comparative nfatement showing the value of imports and exports at Vienna in 
Austrian paper florins during the year 1864. 



Tariff plussific&tlon 


VALUE IN AUSTRIAN PAPER FLORINS. 




Import. 1 Export. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Colonial ware and fruit from the 
soath .--- 


1 
19,476,766 1,320,930 
6,544,044 > 1 2r)!i .110 


18,155,836 
5,340,734 




Tobacco and manufactures of to- 
bacco '4 

Garden and field products 

Cattle 


• 


17,295,003 
11.686,411 

8,550,198 
13, 105, 180 

1,795,130 

5,588,479 

12, 139, 113 
20,587,256 
65,60^165 
24,945,820 
14,638,570 

1,786,679 

6,055,850 

3,792,559 

4,662,622 

85,500 

5,509,473 

2,399,584 
6,927,755 


33,738,989 
7,821,039 
7,866,711 
3,339,226 
4,743,376 

26,080,384 

4,2.38,724 
27,164,916 
57,757,579 

8,923,032 
47,574,139 

7,498,207 

10,474,648 

18,673,712 

9,864,596 

5,179,240 

41,176,984 

5,279,056 

. 3,062,655 

607,500 


16,443,986 


3,865,372 

683,487 

9,765,954 


Animal nroducts . . , .. ^ 




Fats and oila 




Ofinkff and food* , ^-r 


2,948,246 
20, 491, 905 


fine building and manufacturing 
articles. ...................... 




Medicines, perfumery, coloring, 
tannin, and chemicals 


7,900,389 




Metals, raw and half manufact'd . 


6,577,660 


Weaving and textile stuff 

Yams 


7,850,586 
16,022,788 




"Woven and worsted fabrics ...... 


32, 935, 569 


manufactures .»t .v. 




5,706,528 


Leather and its manufactures, In- 
dia-rubber, d&c. 




4, 418, 798 


Wooden, glass, and earthenware.. 
Mfital manufactures -..*.......,r 




14, 881, 153 




5,201,974 


Vehicles and vessels O. . 




5,093,740 


Instruments, machines, and fancy 
goods...... ...^.............. 




35,667,511 


Chemical products, color, fat, and 

chemical light manufactures. . . . 

^^orks of littfratnre and art .-. 




2,879,472 


3,865,100 




Waste. .-. 


607,500 










Total 


253, 180, 157 


333,583,963 


73,450,246 


153,854,042 






Decrease 'T.. ........... 








80,403,796 













Trieste — ^A. W. Thayer, Consul. 

October 7, 1^5. 

From Ptatiatics furnished to this consulate by the chamber of commeree of 
this citj, but which unfortunately extend only to the close of the last year, the 
following information is for the most part drawn and condensed. 

The vessels entered at this port during the five years lS60~'d4 amounted in 
the aggregate to— 



Date. 



! 



Austrian vessels. 



' No. 

1860 1 8,471 

1861 8,467 

1862 1 8,688 

1863 1 8,593 

1864 1 8.338 



Tons, 
495,975 
492,070 
485,951 
476.443 
523,618 



Foreign vessels. 



No, 
1,772 
1,911 
2,217 
1,985 
1,810 



Tons, 
221,321 
243,790 
283,401 
249, 131 
249,378 



Total. 



No. 
10,243 
10,378 
10,905 
10,578 
10, 148 



Tons. 
717,296 
7:^,860 
769,352 
725,574 
772,996 



J i y i i i zuUUy^OOgie 



348 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



This table shows some increase in the tonnage, but a slight decrease in the 
number of vessels. The average of these five years compared with that of the 
two preceding terms of the same duration, which included the period of the Cri- 
mean war, show a large falling off; but going back one term further the improve- 
ment of the average is striking, being no less than 1,69S| iu the arrivals and 
228,350 in the tonnage in favor of the more recent period, as may be seen in 
the following average of arrivals for five years : 





Ships. 


Tonnage. 


1815 to 1849 


8,752 
11,513 
10,677 
10,450 


515,8651 
754,853 
1 761,389 
744,215 


1850 to 1854 


1855 to 1859 


1860 to 1864 







Vessels propelled by steam are included' in the above tables. To give an idea 
of the development of this branch the following table is inserted, covering a 
period of five years : 







Arrivals of steamships 


at Trieste, 








Nationality. 


lem. 


1861. ' 


1862. 




1863. 




L864. 


No. 


Toni. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


1 
Toni 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tona. 


Austria 


918 


221,646 


1 1 
855 txi ii/» , tea 


186,210 


741 


199,168 


763 

1 


224,918 


Bromen 




j 


467 


Hnllaad 


9 

85 

2 

9 


3. 433 

22,731 

732 

3,671 


9 

55 

1 
3 


3.504 
1,189 


10 
68 


3,916 ; 
70, 183 


8 
66 


2,997 
62.712 


1,218 


Bnriand 


45,999 


Francfi . ... 




Qreece 




1 ' 




Italv 






9 


5,776 


44 


26,133 


SiSii ::;:;. 




1 


530 




1 




Turkey 


1 


1 


372 i 

















' * 










Total 


961 


252,212 


924 


77,492 


784 


260,681 


824 


270,653 


868 


299,990 







Exhibiting a decrease in the number of vessels, but an increase in burden of 
48,613 tons. 

The aggregate of arrivals direct from the United States for the ten years laet 
past are thus given : 



Nationality. 
f 




1855. 




1856. 


1857. 


United States 


No. 

19 
4 
6 


Tons. 
8,291 
2,006 
1,737 


No. 
24 

1 
8 


Tons. 

13,534 

5*5 

2,890 


No. Tons. 
22 10,807 


Austria 


2 946 


Other States. . -*. 


2 1 892 






Total 


29 


12,034 


33 


16,959 


26 12,645 






' 


1858. 


1859. 


1860. 


United States 


20 


9,391 


18 
1 
6 


9,821 
,450 
2,420 


35 

1 
5 


15,090 
454 


Austria. 


Other States 


4 


1,180 


1,620 




Total 


24 


10,571 


25 


12,691 


41 


17,164 




_ 1 



Digitized by 



Google 



AU8TBIAN DOMINIONS. 



349 





1861. 1 1862. ' 1863. 

1 1 


1864. 


United States 

Other States 


11 1 3,621 10 


3,629 4 1,231 
2 712 


4 

6 


1,827 
1,987 




' 






Total 


11 : 3,621 


10 


3,629 1 6 1,943 


10 


3,814 



Cleared for the United States daring 1864—. 

No. Tons. 

Austrian vessels 3 1,697 

United States vessels 1 678 

English vessels 1 381 

The conBular record gives the following list of arrivals and departures of 
United States vessels for 1864 : 

Armenia, 400 tons, Boston to Alicante. 

Lotus, 660 tons, New York to Palermo. 

Kershaw, 382 tons, Cleveland to Alexandria. 

Eureka, 225 tons, Boston to Bordeaux. 

Fury, 383 tons, Boston to Smyrna. 

Black Swan, 199 tons, Alexandria to Algiers. 

During the first three quarters of the present jear one vesssel only under the 
United States flag has arrived and departed, viz., the E. Schultz, 676 tons, from 
Alexandria to Hull, England. The two tables following give an idea of the 
extent of the trade between this port and Great Britain and Ireland, and show, 
also, how little the United States have to fear from English sailing vessels in 
these waters, but how much from the development of English steam navigation. 
Wbat American clipper ships were to English vessels some years since, Englisli 
propellers ore to American clippers now. 

Aggregate of arrivals at Trieste from British ports during the years — 



1860. 


1861. 


1862. 1863. 

1 


1864. 


! No. 

English 42 

Austrian 82 

Other SUtes... 62 


Tons. 

8,210 
34,342 
13,844 


No. Tons. 
17 1 3,763 
71 1 29,062 
48 1 10,910 


No. 
11 
71 

40 


Tons. \ No. 

1,881 i 7 

27,032 ; 54 

7,548 30 


Tons, 

1,674 

22,902 

5,387 


No, 
14 
65 
43 


Tons, 

3,058 
28,995 
10,093 


Total 186 


56,396 


136 1 43.735 

1 


122 


36,461 1 91 


29,963 


122 


42, 146 



Tons. 



The arrival of English vessels propelled by steam during 1864 has been pre- 
viously given as 54 in number ; the clearances were as follows : 

Tons. 

To Liverpool, 28 26, 531 

To London, 15 , 7, 691 

ToPatrasso, 1 497 

To Vera Cruz, 4 6, 088 



To Alexandria, 3 2, 360 

To Constontinople, 1 264 

To Glasgow, 1 427 

To IbraUa, 1 264 



Total, 54 vessels, 44,122 tons. 



The clearances of English sailing vessels were — 

Tons. 

To Genoa, 4 793 

To France, 10 3, 240 

ToMalta, 1 285 

To Great Britain, 22 6, 471 



To Belgium, 1 

To United States, 1 . 
To British America, 
To Brazil, 3 



Total, 43 vessels, 12,803 tons. 



Jigitized by 



Tons. 

343 

381 

563 

727 

Google 



350 ANNUAL BEPOBT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

And, finally, the clearanceB of Austrian veBBels during the same year — 

Tons. Tons 

To Austrian ports, 4,378 . . . 114, 193 To Great Britain, 21 9, 464 

To Italy, 389 135, 309 To Russia, (Black sea, ) 3 . . 1, 025 

To Greece, 29 3. 182 To Turkey, 96 15, 867 

To France, 79 25, 833 To Moldavia, 2 636 

To Algiers, 8 3, 101 To Egypt, 94 34, 389 . 

To Spain, 4 1, 205 To United States, 3 1, 697 

To Malta, 11 1, 934 To Mexico, 1 673 

To Gibraltar, 1 528 To BrazU, 6 1.550 

Total, 7,470 vessels, 301,813 tons, excluding the coasting trade to the Aus- 
trian ports, 747 vessels, 135,393 tons. 

COMMERCE. 

Florins. Dollars. 

Importations at Trieste for tho year 1860, by sea 97,097, 167 = 44,858,891 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1860, by land 50, 050, 667 = 23, 123, 407 

Total florins 147,147,?«4= 67,98-2,298 

Importations atTrieste for the year 1861, by sea 93,829,539 = 43,349,247 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1861, by land 62, 250, 943 = 28, 757, 935 

Total florins 156,080,582 = 72,107,182 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1862, by sea 90, 248, 786 = 31 , 692, 939 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1862, by land 59,728,067 = 27,595, 361 

Totalflorins 149,976,853 = 59,287,300 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1863, by sea 85, 349, 904 = 39, 431 , 656 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1863, by land 59,371,003 = 27,429,703 

Totalflorins... 144,720,907 = 66,861,359 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1864, by sea 73, 590, 774 = 33, 998, 937 

Importations at Trieste for the year 1864, by land 73, .385, 162 = 33,903,924 

Totalflorins 146,975,936 = 67,902,861 



Exports from Trieste for the year 1860, by sea 85, 587, 793 = 39, 540, 560 

E xports from Trieste for the year 1 860, by land 38, 009, 242 = 17, 560, 270 

Totalflorins 123,597,035 = 57,100,830 



Exports from Trieste for the year 1861, by sea 85,794,490 = 39,637,239 

Exports from Trieste for the year J861, by land 40,633,768 = 18,772,801 

Totalflorins 126,428,258 = 58,410,040 



Exports from Trieste for the year 1862, by sea 85, 530, 229 = 39, 504, 966 

Exports from Trieste for the year 1862, by land 36, 147, 136 = 16, 699, 978 

Totalflorins 121,677,365 = 56,204,944 



Exports from Trieste for the year 1 863, by sea 83, 234, 754 = 38, 454, 356 

Exports from Trieste for the year 1 863, by land 34, 632, 533 = 16, 0(KI, 232 

Totalflorins 117,867,292 = 54,454,588 

Exports from Trieste for the year 1864, by sea 88, 849, 923 = 41 , (H6, 664 

Exports from Trieste for the year 1864. by land 31 , 818, 802 = 14, 700, 286 

Totalflorins 120,668,725 = 55,746,950 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



AUSTBIAN DOMINIONS. 



351 



Importation from the United States. 





1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


Florins ...... .... .... 


5,496,526 
2,539,395 


551,013 
254,568 


594,334 
274,582 


412,726 
190,679 


674, 112 


Dollars 


311,436 







Exportation to the United States. 



1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


Florins 

Dollars 


1,190,357 

549,945 


3361866 
178,732 


701,215 
323,961 

_ 


683.586 
315,816 


463,016 
213,913 



The exports to the United States from January 1 to September 30, 1865, ac- 
cording to the invoices verified at this consulate, amount, ** with all charges 
thereon," to 572,070^^^^ florins, or (giving the florin an average value of 42 
cents) to S240,270. Thej are almost exclusively drugs, dried fruits, and rags. 



Cotton imported in 1864 by sea, given in hundred-tceigJits, 



From — 



Austrian ports 

Pontifical States... 
Naples, (kingdom) 

Sicily 

Ionian Islands 

Greece 

Tuscany 



France, (Mediterranean ports). 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Turkey 

EffTpt. 



ta. 



Total. 



1863. 
1862. 
1861 . 
1860. 



.total. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 



Raw. 



77 

1,101 

1,354 

523 

348 

3,074 

26 

4 

11,504 

19, 162 

63,311 



100,484 

86,285 
101,096 
217, 145 

288,058 



Yams. 



1 

8,685 
20 



14 



8,882 

8,810 

9,662 

33,792 

28,034 



Other forms. 



2,611 
328 



3 

58 

112 

1 

57 

14,672 

188 

14 

8 



18,052 

22,963 
30,804 
35,963 
28,702 



Prospects of Trieste for trade and navigation. 

Merchants here assert a great decrease in the trade and navigation of Trieste 
the present year, and say that if, at its close, they should prove equal to those 
of 1864, it will he 'owing, on the one hand, to the large suhsidies paid hy the 
government to the lines of steam navigation, and on the other to the sudden 
(probahly temporary) development in the lumber trade, arising from certain new 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



352 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

connexions made with the railroad, which have turned that business from its 
former channels hitherward. The article staves (for barrels) shows well tbu 
increase. There were exported in — 

Pieeeg. 

1860 , • 11 . 6 16, 446 

1861 18, 650, 698 

1862 17,715,612 

1863 21, 395, 029 

1864 • 25. 776, 017 

And the estimate ^r 1865 is largely above 30,000,000. 

For some time past the prospects of this port have been very gloomy, and a 
feeling of discouragement has been very discernible. Its only direct railroad 
connexion with the great valley of the Danube was sold to a French company 
for ninety-nine years, whose disregard for all local interests is such that even the 
heavy article of co^ee is sent down from Hamburg to Laybach, a station bat a 
few hours north of Trieste — at her very gates, it may be said. 

The political relations between Hungary and the imperial royal government 
were such as to cause the existipg road to traverse the Semmering at a great in- 
crease of cost, distance, and difficulty of grade, and have thus far prevented the 
construction of any rival road directly from the Adriatic to the rich plains of 
Hungary. Meantime the new kingdom of Italy has been urging forward its 
railroad system, relieving commerce and intercourse from the numberless obstmc- 
tions which had previously checked them, and forming a new connexion with 
the continent by the Mont Cenis tunnel. A glance at the map, any good one, 
which shows the railroads, the mountain chains, and the great rivers of southern 
Europe, will exhibit the great danger that that portion of the Levant trade which 
now centres in Trieste will soon be diverted to Ancona, Brindisi, or some other 
Italian poit, if the present condition of things continue. 

Again, divers lines of railroads coming cfown from the north are tapping the 
trade of the Danube as the lines in the United States do that of the Mississippi, 
and to such an extent that, what with them, and with the navigation of the 
river, Trieste and Fiume may be almost said to be without a back country. 

The positions of Trieste and Fiume are singularly analogous to those of 
Chicago and Milwaukie. These are at the head of the Adriatic, as those at the 
head of Lake Michigan. The broad and fertile plains of Croatia and Hungary 
lie to the former like the prairies of Illinois and Wisconsin to the latter ; and 
beyond them flows the Danube here, as the Mississippi there. Nothing but 
ample and direct railroad communication from Trieste to the navigable waters 
of the Drave, Save, and Danube, is needed to give these Adriatic cities a de- 
velopment like in character, of course not in extent, to that of the cities of Lake 
Michigan. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



AUSTBIAir DOMINIONS. 



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Digitized by V^OOQIC 



354 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



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Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS. 



355 



NOVEMBKR 13, 1865. 

* * • ■ The position of Trieste, at the head of the Adriatic, like Chicago, on 
Lake Michigan, but having ranges of lofty mountains and high table-lands instead 
of prairie for a back country, renders its climate very peculiar. Its latitude, a little 
more northerly than .that of Montreal, is nearly the same as that of Mackinaw ; 
but figs, olives, and almonds grow in the open air and produce abundantly ; and 
a wine from the hills of Proseco (within sight of this office) is one of thof^e men- 
tioned by the ancient Latin poets. 

In approaching the town from the land side you pass over a rocky, sterile 
country, covered with a broken and decaying limestone, and wonder that even 
the labor of twenty centuries has been able to reclaim arable grazing land enough 
to Bupport the few scattered villages in sight. 

The two prevailing winds are the Sirocco and the Bora. The former sweeps 
up from the Mediterranean, bringing in spring and autumn frequent and heavy 
rains, at ail times* damp, warm, and enervating. 

The other, the Bora, then comes rushing down from the mountains, sometimes 
with such force that for days together ropes are strung along the streets to en- 
able people to keep upon their feet ; clears away all .noxious gases, invigorates 
and enlivens ; • • • often ^ry cold, disagreeable, blowing so as tx) almost 

§ut a stop to business in the harbor, the Bora is the grand sanitary agent, and 
'rieste is a place remarkable for the goodness of the public health. 
A table of longevity, now before me, for the years 1852 and 1861 inclusive, 
gives, in a population of about 100,000, 2,624 deaths of persons aged 70 years 
and upwards, of whom 1,002 were eighty years and upwards. 



Venice — William D. Howells, Consul. 

StaiemeiU thowing the description and value of the exports from Venire to the 
United States during the quarter ended March 31, 1865. 

(Compiled from certificates of invoices.) 
EXPORTS. 



Description. 



Glass beads .. 

Do 

Do 

Oil paintings. 
GUss beads... 

Do 

Straw froods.. 

dS 

Glass beads... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Tdtal. 



Whither sent. 



New York... 
Philadelphia . 
Baltimore — 

New York 

...do 



Baltimore . 
New York. 
....do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

Philadelphia . 
New York... 
...do 



Where produced. 



Venice, 
do., 
do.. 



.do. 
.do. 



do francs. 

Vallonara do . . 

....do do.. 

Venice florins. 

do do... 

do francs. 

....do florins. 

do do . . 

do zwanziger. 



Valne, including 
costs and charg^. 



Florin8,8cc 

321 45 

2, 032 45 

202 60 

560 00 

634 62 

648 64 

10,586 60 

12,804 50 

11,434 01 

1,077 70 

5,466 12 

498 06 

3,734 15 

4,885 00 



$160 72 

1,016 22 

101 ^0 

280 00 

317 31 

129 72 

2,117 32 

2,560 90 

5,717 00 

538 85 

1,093 22 

249 03 

1,867 07 

814 16 



16,962 82 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



356 



ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Statement ihmeing the deseriptum and value of the exparte of Venice to the 
United States during the quarters ended June 30, and September 30, 1865, 
together with the names of the countries or places where produced and whither 
sent. 



Where produced. 



DescriptioiL 



Whither tent 



Yalae, indnd- 
ing coetf and 
chaiipB. 



Venice 
Do... 
Do... 
Do... 
Do... 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



GUm beads 

.....do....: 

do 

Antique furniture 

Used wearing apparel not 
intended for commerce.. 

Glass beads 

do 



New York florins. 

do francs. 

....do pds. sterl. 

....do ....... •...do.... 



.do. 



AletheoBcopes and photo* 
graphs 



New York dollars . 

. ... do awansincer. 

Philadelphia florins. 

Chicago florins. 

New York francs. 



16,066 96 
3,731 14 
157 11 8 
463 050 

150 00 

9,321 50 

686 17 

52125 

442 00 



QUARTER ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 1865. 



Venice. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Aletheoscopes and 

graphs. 

Glass Deads 



photo- 



.do. 
.do. 



do. 

Antique furniture 

Aletheoscopes and photo- 
graphs 

Glass beads 



New York ......francs.. 

do do... 

....do........... florins. 

— do pds. sterl. 

Chicago ........ florins. 

Boston pds. sterl. 

....do ....fhmcs. 

Baltimore do... 



9»315 75 

168 74 

10,601 64 

S53 8 11 

1,666 96 

250 

673 
712 



STATES OF THE ZOLLVEREIN. 

PRUSSIA. 

Stbttin — 0. J. SuNDKLL, Consul, 

JuNB, 1865. 

Tie exports of Stettin for the year amounted to 23,091,956 Pmssian tbalen 
against 47,022,887 in 1863, and the imports to 13,050,068 thalers against 
26,457,711 in the year previous. The falling off in exports and imports amounted 
to 37,335 74 thalers. So great a falling off was keenly felt by so commercial 
a city as Stettin. The effect of the Danish blockade on tbe trade of Stettin 
was the transferring of tbe inland transit and forwarding business to Haaaburg, 
where in all probability it will remain, on account of tbe Elbe being free horn 
many of the drawbacks* both natural and otherwise, which still embarraai the 
trade of tbe Oder. 

Tbe number of vessels entered at tbe outer port (Swimmunde) during tbe 
year was 1,972 against 3,441 in 1863. The clearances for tbe same period were 
1,974 against 3,669 during the preceding year. No American vessels azrived 
or departed during tbe year, and the consular agent reports the business aeaaon 
as being veiy dull for tbat important seaport 

The report from Dantzic, wbere tbe blockade was established a month later 
than at Stettin, shows a decrease in the exports of that place of 6,300,000 tha- 
lers, and 1,160,000 thalers as compared with the previous year. The number 
of vessels cleared during the year was 2,211, of 241,847 lasts burden, against 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



PRUSSIA. 



367 



3,065, of 307,965 lasts burden, in 1863. The consular agent reports no arrivals 
or departures of American vessels during the year. 

The blockade of Pillau, the outer port of Koenigsberg, was established simul- 
taneously with that of Dantzic. Though not in possession of a formal report of 
mercantile operations at that place, yet, from statements received from the 
United States consular agent at Koenigsberg, it appears that the amount of 
grain shipped from that place was less by 11,749 lasts than that shipped the 
previous year. The number of vessels arrived and departed was 1,226, against 
1.560 in 1863, and among them none from the United States. 

Memel, the most northern Prussian port, was not blockaded, and consequently 
many vessels destined for Koenigsberg and Dantzic entered and discharged 
there, but being frequently complained of as wholly destitute of direct commu- 
nication with the interior by railroads and canals, transportation was attended 
with many serious difficulties, and as Grerman vessels were subject to search 
and capture at sea, the shipping of Memel suffered equally with that of the block- 
aded ports. But for the scarcity of suitable neutral vessels, the chief trade of 
the place (timber) would have been very prosperous, as orders were freely coming 
iBt and during the spring and summer prices were very remunerative. 

The total value of the exports during the year amounted to 7,293,000 thalers, 
against 6,578,700 thalers, and the imports to 3,179,020 against 3,212,900 thalers 
in the preceding year. This shows an improvement, b\it not as great as it 
ahould have been under the circumstances. The number of vessels entered was 
1,023 against 904 ; the number cleared was 1,023 i^inst 930 in 1863. There 
were no arrivals or departures of American vessels during the year. 



Aix*la-Ghapbllr — ^W. H. Vbsby, CotutiL 

Statement showing the description and value of exports from AixAa-Chapelle 
to the United States during the year 1865. 



Deferlptioii. 



doth. 



WooUmI g^OTM . . 

Woolkn flocks .. 
Velvet ribboDi..., 

KidglovM , 

KomUm aod piai . 

Agate battooM 

Tspee 

OlflMonuunents.. 

Okui plate 

Dngt 

P^wr , 



TkAgr.gf, 
316; 198 13 03 



Zine 

Wine 

Cntlerj 

Fnamelled yUw . 



Total., 



Of whicb wen ubipped by 

way of~ 
Hall aodUrerpool, via Ant- 



Antwerp direet.. 

Rotterdam 

HanbnxY 



BaTie.. 



Total 364,196 26 06 



lit qnarter. 9d quarter. 3d quarter. ' 4th quarter. 



11,904 27 06 
848 27 00 

11.006 05 03 
8. 793 16 06 
3,646 10 00 



TkaLgr,fff. 

494, 186 02 07 

4, 446 02 00 

20,094 23 06 



I 01 06 



387 20 00 
7,589 25 06 



364, 196 26 06 



298,345 20 09 
20,310 03 00 



18, 480 18 00 
5.694 22 00 
21,365 22 09 



5^786 13 04 

8,090 10 05 

701 10 00 

231 10 00 

1.608 03 04 

7,230 09 04 

31 20 00 

2,950 10 00 



410 00 00 



475^ 766 24 06 



396, 153 08 10 
28,205 09 10 



19, 975 19 03 

14,388 00 04 

16, 672 16 03 

372 00 00 



TkaL gr, pf, 

714, 360 23 06 

4,457 16 06 

22,518 10 06 

1,367 25 00 

22,904 17 00 

19,616 05 00 



2,781 25 00 

1,349 18 07 

52 15 00 

111 21 06 

70,297 01 03 



474 14 00 



Tkal.gr.pf, 

903,737 00 02 

2.049 06 00 

27,979 05 03 

1,42126 00 

15,482 05 08 

' 15, 131 07 00 



2,769 05 00 



1, 552 24 00 

160, 981 09 03 

14, 159 29 03 

7J3 00 00 



860,292 12 10 1,146,026 27 07 



756.209 14 06 

1.349 18 06 

3,164 29 06 

25,316 05 00 

36, 657 24 07 

37, 594 10 09 



968,074 09 06 
19. 084 09 09 
39. 188 04 00 
24,729 U 00 
57,984 03 11 
36,966 18 05 



475,766 24 06 |860,292 12 10 ,1. 146,026 27 07 2,846,283 01 05 

_1 



Total. 



TMgr.pf, 

2,358,532 09 06 

10. 952 24 06 

81, 797 06 09 

3,638 18 00 

55,271 11 03 

51, 631 08 11 

4,347 20 00 

231 10 00 

7, 159 03 04 

12, 808 29 05 

84 05 00 

5,202 15 06 

238,866 06 00 

14, 159 29 03 

713 00 00 

474 14 00 

410 00 00 



2,846,283 01 05 



2,418,78? 23 07 
68,949 11 01 
42,353 03 09 
88. 501 24 00 
114. 724 20 10 
112,599 08 02 
372 00 00 



Jigitized by OiUUV IC 



358 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Cologne — George Holscher, ConsvJar Agent. 

Comparative statement showing the description and value of the exports from 
Cologne to the United iStates during the years 1864 and 1865. 

1864. 



DoBcripUoD. 


Ist quarter. 


Sd quarter. 


3d quarter. 


4th quarter. 


TotaL 


BookR, printed 


TTud.gT.pf. 
579 01 03 


Thai. gr. pf. 
360 00 00 
103 10 06 
741 25 00 
2, 131 12 00 
1, 439 23 07 
320 00 00 
2G4 22 06 
198 16 06 
180 00 00 


Thai.gr.pf 


TkaLgr.pf 


Thai. gr. pf 
939 01 U3 


Brandy 






108 10 06 


Bnuw ware 








741 25 00 


Cologne water 


2, 632 15 00 
946 09 09 


810 00 00 




5, 573 27 00 

2,955 09 04 

758 01 00 


Copy-booktt &, copying paper 
Fancy articles 


567 06 00 


438 01 00 


Pelt Hhoeg 






264 22 06 


Glaze ore, in powder 


252 03 08 


551 15 02 




1,002 05 04 
180 00 00 


Glycerine 




Hams, smoked 




1S2 03 00 
2, 136 24 03 




122 03 00 


Hardware 


2, 003 14 00 


4, 091 23 00 
900 00 00 




8. 232 01 03 
900 00 00 


InMtruments. mutiical 




Instruments, surgical 






48 00 00 
2,888 06 03 


48 00 ff) 


Iron -wire cliaius 


2, 862 07 00 


1, 914 28 09 


4, 170 16 02 
63 00 00 


11, 835 18 02 
63 00 00 


Furnace grate of iron 


Lead, sugar of 


2, 193 28 06 






2,193 28 08 
337 03 (» 


Lend, white 


337 03 08 

716 25 00 

8, 572 10 00 

4,641 21 06 

2, 048 20 00 

355 01 08 






Lithographs 








716 25 00 




740 00 00 
1,9<« 08 06 
1,816 26 03 


366 66 66 

2,(^24 04 10 
1, 942 15 00 


5,992 12 06 

1, 652 27 07 

496 22 06 


15.604 22 06 


Paper 


10, 287 02 05 

6,306 23 09 

355 01 08 


Percussion caps 


Pharmaceutical chemicals. . . 


Pipes, earthen 4... 


460 20 a> 
7, 201 00 06 


576 04 07 
9, 395 18 08 




1,036 25 00 


Steel, cant 


10. 8:M 26 08 
3:19 18 00 

11, 372 Id 06 


50, 216 00 02 


77, 047 16 10 
3^ 18 00 


Pipes, smokincr 


Steel, manufactures of 

Sacred vewels 


9,023 20 03 
178 28 00 
623 00 00 


12, 047 21 00 


1, 437 29 00 


33,88128 09 

178 28 00 


Stomach bitti-rs, (Uquorji) . . . 
Saltpetre, retluod 




697 15 00 
2, 392 06 09 


156 07 06 


1, 468 22 06 


24, 780 64 03 
179 25 06 


27, 172 11 00 


Chiccory, ground 






179 25 06 


Seeds and bulbs 


552 10 00 
52 13 00 






552 10 00 


Sundry articles 








52 13 00 


Cigars 


1,342 13 00 

25, 161 20 09 

20 25 00 






1 342 13 00 


Taffetas, (ribbons) 


14,421 04 06 


7, 040 24 01 


6, 593 15 05 


53, 217 (M 09 
20 25 00 


Snuff, (tobacco) 


Tricote wares, (netting) 




733 29 04 

1, 620 00 00 

1, 032 00 00 

28, 275 21 05 




73:1 29 04 


Ultramarine 


2, 985 66 66 
7, 724 16 09 
8,316 20 0(5 
537 19 00 
1, 866 01 06 


5. 830 00 00 
3, 397 22 00 
48,614 17 07 




10, 435 00 00 

12, 154 08 09 

85.206 29 06 

537 19 00 


Utrecht velvets 




Velvets and velvet ribbons.. 




Waistcoat buttons 




Wine 


6, 477 02 07 


1, 621 12 a3 
555 24 00 


2, 158 01 00 


12, 122 17 04 
555 24 W 


Wool 


Calves' leather 







143 11 06 
130 00 00 
250 00 00 

S, 305 07 10 
143 08 06 
95 21 03 

2, 275 14 03 


143 H 06 


Clothes, &c 






130 00 00 


Gilt frames 






2.50 00 00 


Muriate of potash 


- 




2,305 07 10 


Perfumeries 




143 08 U6 


Porcelain ware ' ' i 


95 21 03 


Salt, mineral, crude '-- - 


2, 275 14 IQ 










Total 


69, 941 28 04 1 


167, 669 17 06 


78, 537 16 06 


77, 552 11 03 


393, 701 13 07 


1865. 


Description. 




Value for the 

quarter ended 

March 31. 


Value for the 

quarter ended 

June 30. 


Value for the 
quarter ended 
September 30. 


Value for the 
quarter ended 
UecttfubcrSl. 


Books, printed, and copy, and 
ment and tablets 


paper, parch- 


Tkal. gr. pf. 


Tkal.8r.pf 
760 11 05 


TkaLgr.pf 

1, 420 22 00 

346 14 00 

1, 097 08 05 

1.017 08 06 

6, 282 02 00 

3, 889 26 02 

2:i6 05 00 

716 24 10 

6, 745 07 00 

787 02 00 


TkaLgr.pf 
13,222 10 06 


Brandy 






Chemicals, dnigs, &.c 




355 00 00 

374 12 09 

607 15 00 

1, 138 18 00 


1, 801 14 07 
1. 178 24 00 


50 00 00 


Church oriinnicnts and fumiti 


ire .......... . 


T27 26 00 


Cloth and ready-made clothin 
Cologne water 




17,152 16 06 




245 13 00 


10,841 13 02 


Embroidery - 


161 10 00 


Haberda8her>-, tricote wares, 
Hairnets, trimmingti, &c.... 


&c 


58 26 00 




912 20 00 






9,995 12 10 


Iron-wire chains 




3, 272 00 00 


i, 724 29 66 


2. 173 04 06 



Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



PRUSSIA. 



359 



Comparathe atatement of exports from Cologne — Gontinued. 

1865— Gontinaed. 



Description. 



Value for the 

quarter ended 

March 31. 



Value for the 
quarter coded 
June 3a 



Value for the 
quarter euded 
Sep tember 30. 



Value for the 
quarter ended 
December 30. 



Hardware 

Linen. linen lacking, and uitcd linen 

Jjeather and articles of leather and wool . 

Mannfaetures of bnuts 

Manufacture!! of Kteel 

MnriHte of potawh and saltpetre 

Modela and pianofortfjs 

Oil paintingM and photographs 

Porcelain and paintem' colum 

Pereniiidon caps 

Pipe« and pipe fixtures 

Red and white lead and litharge 

Ribbons and velvets 

Steel 

Stomach bitters 

8t<Hieware 

Ultramarine 

Utrecht velvets 

Wines 



Tkal.gr. pf. 



200 00 00 
7,977 23 00 



Thai gr. pf, 
243 13 00 



Thai. gr. pf. 
2, 783 13 06 



1,964 01 06 
"87107 06 
"'3426606 



2, 949 12 00 
1,206 04 06 
5, 983 23 01 
8, 031 03 09 



933 00 00 
8,636 00 07 



Thnl. gr. pf. 
1, 935 17 08 
2, 554 13 06 
2,719 22 00 
3, 714 15 00 

11, 077 20 06 



4,095 05 00 



351 10 00 
486 24 00 



19, 006 08 00 

106, 582 08 03 

312 15 00 



510 00 00 

1, 924 00 00 

946 20 00 



30, 708 06 04 
81, 357 16 02 
625 00 00 
1.030 28 00 
1, 010 24 00 
7, 772 06 07 
4. 042 20 00 



240 

17,884 

679 

1,634 

2, 424 

267 

98,299 

39,822 

625 

375 

1.010 

17,316 

3.859 



00 00 
21 00 

11 02 
05 00 
10 02 
13 05 
04 05 
29 (X) 
00 00 

12 00 
24 00 
09 09 
28 06 



37 07 06 
9, 473 15 00 



2,930 

1,623 

3,250 

60.002 

53,060 

691 

138 

2,038 

28,678 

7.636 



00 00 
17 05 
24 06 
07 02 
00 00 
00 00 
20 00 
06 00 
10 09. 
04 03 



Total. 



146,443 05 02 155,607 18 11 



219, 331 02 05 



246,818 14 11 



Barmen — J. H. Albers, Consular Agent. 

Statement showing the description and value of exports from barmen to the 
United States during the several quarters of the year 1865. 



Description. 



Value. 



liit quarter. 



Thai. gr. pf. 
Woollen cloths, cassimereg, 

satins, Slz 221, 033 14 06 

Ribbons of all kinds, trim- 
mings, tapeH, Slg 363, 163 14 04 

Silk and half silk goodri, l 

worsted, cotton & mixed ' 

dre«« goodrt 1 30, 931 16 09 

Iron, steel, brass ware, cut- j 

lery, needles and other 

hardware | 61,386 00 09 

Buttons, button stuffs and , 

clajipH I 19,106 23 00 

Dyestuffs, dn«gs, madder, 

&c , 7.723 1106 

Nickel 3,7-21 12 10 

Oil paintings I 440 15 00 

Shoddy I 2,813 28 01 

Liquors and Cologne water 

Cotton yarn , 

SaUduck ' 

Books 

Machinery 720 23 03 



Thai. gr. pf. 
406, 115 20 06 
366, 870 15 11 



Value. 



2d quarter. 



Value. 



3d quarter. 



Thai. gr. pf. 
635,587 14 10 
846, 923 11 07 



38, 589 13 11 I 121, 937 17 06 



78, 347 11 03 

18,600 28 04 

10, 331 06 09 
7. 949 06 02 
1, 092 00 00 



233 10 00 



190 00 00 



152, 371 04 07 

88, 093 13 05 

31,488 14 06 

7, 275 09 00 

453 00 00 

497 06 09 

832 15 00 

2, 052 20 00 

1,085 25 00 

1,437 18 10 



Total 711.04110 00 9-28.339 25 00 1,890,035 2100 



Of which were exported 1 

by the way of— 
Antwerp, (the greater part i | 

ria Liverpool) 188, 010 21 06 305, 677 22 05 

Bremen 140,884 06 06 198.148 07 05 

Hamburg 1 94,001 14 09 192,631 10 03 

Havre 9, 765 26 (M 39,1.36 10 08 

Liverpool 271, 4'W 20 11 184, .511 01 03 

Rotterdam I 6, 879 10 00 1 8,235 00 00 

Southampton [ 



378, 102 22 02 
356, 474 01 09 
637, 121 04 05 

44. 485 01 02 
455, 609 00 01 

16,416 09 05 
1,827 12 00 



Total 711,041 10 00 1928,339 25 00 1,890,035 2100 

I I 



Value. 



4th quarter. 



Thcl. gr. pf 

401, 563 27 06 

1,111,872 04 a> 

125, 3fl 23 02 

209, 276 26 09 

108, 740 19 08 

27, 764 17 00 

19,618 09 01 

2, H.VJ 20 00 

7(fci 2.1 06 

1, 167 07 11 

325 29 00 

542 15 (K) 

1,078 25 03 



2,010,824 10 00 



705,101 18 10 
356, 155 18 10 
400, 542 06 08 
4f>, 694 20 10 
448, 168 01 04 
4, 162 03 06 



2,010,824 10 00 



Total value for 
the year. 



Thai. gr. pf. 
1, 664, 300 17 06 
2, 688, 829 16 00 

316, 770 11 04 

501. 381 13 04 
234, 541 24 05 



77.327 
38.564 
4.844 
4. 014 
l,i)99 
2,611 
1,628 
2,516 
910 



21 09 
07 01 
05 00 
00 04 

22 11 
29 00 
10 00 
14 01 

23 03 



5.540,241 06 00 



1,576,892 24 11 

1,051.662 04 06 

1, :m, 296 06 01 

140, 081 29 00 

1,359.787 26 07 

35, 692 22 11 

1, 827 12 00 



5, 540, 241 06 00 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



360 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Grbfbld — P. Von J. Winklbman, Catuular Agent, 

Statement thotoing the desfriptian and value of exports from Crefeld to the 
United States during the teoeral quarters of the year 1865. 



Deieription. 



lit quarter. Sd qnurter. 3d quarter. 4tii quarter. 



Sllkt 

811k goods. 

Silk good! and Bilk goods mixed with eotton . . 

Sundry cotton* worsted, and silk mixed goods. 

Cotton goods , 

Worsted goods 



Thai 
13,d6dl4"(» 
1S,(B0 16(» 



543 94 00 



Tkml. gr, pf. 
21, 154 05 06 
96, 616 13 04 
37, 154 21 06 
6,356 29 00 
565 17 00 



Paper and manufactures of paper. , 

Musical instruments 

Dyers* 
Liiquors . 
Wines... 
Dolls.. 



1,043 90 00 



2,178 13 00 

77 10 00 

395 23 06 

990 00 00 



Household effects, wearing apparel, and sundries. 
Church ornaments and other church goods 



3S0 00 0O 



TkdLgr.pf. 

78,554 07 08 

126, 350 04 03 

103; 932 03 02 

2,360 18 00 

219 18 09 

1, 574 08 03 

3^826 00 06 

55 00 00 

567 05 00 

556 94 00 

S3 10 00 

496 94 00 



766 07 06 



Total.. 



28,390 19 03 



167, 848 13 00 



319, 332 11 01 



Of which were exported by way of— 
Havre, Havre Southampton, Havre Lirerpool . 

Liverpool, Antweip Liverpool 

Antwerp 

Hamburg 

Bremen 

Rotterdam 

Hamburg 

Altdna 

Trieste 



90,368 01 00 
110 94 01 

3, 130 94 00 
506 03 03 

4,974 19 11 



134,629 06 08 
9,730 28 03 
11, 510 03 11 
8,844 16 06 
9,935 09 08 
198 00 00 



187.975 

11,900 

19, 341 

43,663 

53.496 

610 

1.022 

1,321 



29 00 
25 00 
14 03 
90 11 
13 05 
04 00 
16 06 
08 00 



Total 98,390 12 08 167,848 13 00 



319,332 11 01 



TkaLgT.pf. 
68.303 90 06 
80,766 00 04 
54.635 06 00 
21,693 29 09 
1,006 0100 



6,616 02 00 



383 00 00 
594 00 00 



494 90 06 
576 05 06 



235^130 27 07 



145, 576 10 08 
13, 377 07 00 
27. 587 10 09 
27, 105 29 08 
90, 276 13 06 
396 00 00 



594 05 00 
159 00 00 
135 11 00 



235. 130 97 07 



J_ 



BAVARIA. 
NuRBMBBRG^ — G. G. Whbelbr, Consul, 



ANNUAL COMMERCIAL REPORT. 



October 1» 1865. 



The very depressed condition of trade with the United States, which h^an 
in the month of July, 1864, continued until May of the present year. The 
news of the close of the rebellion being confirmed, trade at once commenced to 
revive, and has continued to improve up to the present. For the first time since 
1860, exportation to the United States may be stated as very brisk in almost 
all classes of goods usually shipped from this consulate, and is doubtless as active 
in general as previous to the war. Of looking-glass plates and such varieties of 
fancy goods as are not wholly made by hand, the oemand much exceeds the 
supply, which is considerably less than usual on account of the extreme drought 
prevailing in this portion of Bavaria, thus reducing the water-power of the 
country, upon whicn the manufacturers in this section are mainly dependent, 
steam power not being as yet generally introduced. 

The manufacturers and dealers in three important classes of goods formerly 
largely exported to the United States are not, however, sharing in this general 
increase of business, nor can tliey under the existing tariff. I refer in particular 
to the exporters of horn and ivory combs, playing-cards, and the cheaper qual- 
ities of lead-pencils. The cards and pencils appear to be not at all exported, 
and of the combs but trifling quantities. A few years ago these articles occu- 
pied a very prominent position among the shipments from this district, and 
would now be largely exported were &e duty on the same somewhat reduced. 
The playing-cards are the variety almost exdusively used by the Germans in 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



BAYASIA. 361 

AmeincAt and as Nuremberg is the principal place where thej aremanafoctared, 
(they appear not to be made in the United States,) the inference is a fair one 
that they are extensively smuggled, as not a single invoice of playing-cards has 
been authenticated at this office during the past three years. Were the duty 
on these three classes of goods moderately reduced, a considerable revenue 
might be obtained from sources not yielding any at present. 

The recent increase in the exports to the United States during the past year 
is exhibited by the following tables : 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



362 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 







Digitized by 



Google 



SAXONY. 



363 



In December, 1864, a new census of Bavaria was completed. The population 
of the kingdom was found to be 4,807,440, an increase since 1861 of 117,603. 

Table skotcing the population of the more important Bavarian cities in 1840, 

1861, and 1864. 



Munich . . . 
Nuremberg 
Augsburg . 
Wurzburg . 
Batisbon .. 



1840. 



95,531 
46,824 
36,869 
26,814 
21,94*2 



1861. 



148,201 
62,797 
45,389 
36,119 
27,875 



1864. 



167,054 
70,492 
49,332 
41,082 
29,893 



It may not be generally known that Nuremberg, as well as Berlin and Munich, 
possesses an excellent bronze foundry. ***••• 



SAXONY. 

Leipsic — T. Y. Dickinson, Consul. 

October 2, 1865. 

According to the census of 1864, the kingdom of Saxony had a population of 
2,337,192 inhabitants, whereas in 1861 it had only 2,225,240, showing an in- 
crease in three years of 111,952. Saxony being, for the most part, a manufac- 
turing state, the population of its towns is disproportionately large in comparison 
with its rural districts, being 37.99 of the whole. Dresden, the capital, has 
145,728 inhabitants, but in 1861 had only 128,152. 

Leipsic, the commercial emporium of the kingdom, and the principal mart 
of the staples of the entire Zollverein, has 85,394 inhabitants, and had in 1861 
only 78,495. 

Chemnitz, the largest and most important manufacturing town in this king- 
dom, has 54,827 inhabitants, and in 1861 had only 45,432. 

Zwickau, the centre of the coal mine region, has 22,432 inhabitants, and in 
1861 had but 20,492. 

Glauchau, has very large cotton and woollen mills; has 19,296 inhabitants, 
and in 186 L had only 16,586. 

Freihurg, the principal place in the silver mine district, has 18,877 inhab- 
itants, and had in 1861 only 17,488. 

Flatten, noted for its cotton mills, has 18,590 inhabitants, and had in 1861 
16,166. 

Meerana, a cotton and woollen manufacturing place, has 15,714 inhabit- 
ants, and had in 1861 only 13,626. 

Many smaller towns in Lusatia, where linen and damasks are manufactured, 
have likewise greatly increased their population, but a corresponding increase 
is not noted in the agricultural districts. 

The industry of the kingdom is in such a state of perfection that it is justly 
claimed to vie with Great Britain in several branches. It embraces all the ar- 
ticles of trade and commerce, and furnishes the same in a degree of perfection 
and durability that yields precedence to no other country. The staple branch 
of industry is cotton, and the principal places and districts of its manufacture 
are the ore mountain and the Saxon voigtland. in the district of Zwickau 

Digitized by V^OOQ iC 



864 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

there are now ninniog 720,000 8pmdle8, bat the importation of raw cotton has 
decreaaed, as compared with that of 1860, 267,596 hundred-weight, which is 
attributable to the late war in the United States. 

There are in Saxony 332 carding and jam mills, with 303,397 spindles. 

Nap yam is a mixture of cotton and silk. The proportion varies from 28} 
of silk and 71} cotton, to 61} silk and 38} cotton. 

Up to the year 1862 American cotton was mostly used, but since that time 
the East India and Chinese article has been employed. The selling price of 
vigogne and pure cotton got, at last, so fi&r out of proportion to the purchase 
price of the raw material, that some kinds could only be spun at a loss to the 
manufacturer, and therefore had to be either partially or entirely dropped. 

Glauchan, Meerana, and Chemnitz are the principal places for the manufac- 
ture of half woollen goods. The gross value of such goods sold in 1864 was 
from 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 thalers. The weekly wages of an industrious 
weaver were from 3^ to 3§ thalers. The whole number of pieces manufactured 
in that year was 700,000, of which 200,000 were produced at Glauchan alone. 

All the mines of this countrv belong to government ; 308 of these are worked 
by 11,464 miners, and 1,351 day laborers, and produce lead, tin, iron, and co* 
bait containing silver. They are situated in the mineral districts of Freiberg, 
Marienberg, Altenbere, and Schwarzenberg. During the year 1863 the mines 
yielded 55,224 pounds pure silver, 84,798 hundred-weight of lead and 357 
hundred- weight of copper, and 10 hundred- weight of cobalt, of an aggregate value 
of 1,472,638 thalers. Of zinc there were produced 12,946 hnndr^-weight, 
and of tin 821,020. 

The coal mines of Saxony are rich, but belong exclusively to private parties. 
During the year, those in Zwickau district yielded 27,121,251 hundred-weight, 
and m the Planen district 10,737,074. 

The propelling power of machines is as follows: 

Steam engines. Horse power. Hand labor. 

Dresden works 26 918 4,363 

Zwickau 97 3,320 5,386 

Wurschnitz 35 1,061 1,915 

Floha 2 10 46 

Total 160 5,309 11,710 



Peat is dug near Baulzen, Zittan, Boma, Grimma, and Mittweida. The pro- 
duct of this article rose from 3f in 1853, to 8} million hundred-weight per an- 
num in 1863. 

The commerce of this kingdom depends principally on a chain of railroads, 
the foci of which are at Dresden, Leipsic, and Chemnitz. From each of these 
places run five different lines. The river Elbe furnishes the only water commu- 
nication of the country, and in dry seasons, like the present, the water of this 
stream becomes so low as to impede navigation. A short canal, the only one 
in Saxony, was opened last year by private enterprise, and is to connect the 
Elster river, near Leipsic, with the Saale, near Halle. The completion of this 
work will render the transportation of coal and bulky freights much cheaper 
than by rail. Excepting the Leipsic and Dresden, the railways belong to, and 
are under the exclusive management of, government. Recently, a new line has 
been completed from Reichenbach to Eger, connecting the industrial western 
part of the kingdom with Bohemia. Many other luies have been projected, and 
are awaiting the license of the government. One of these is to run nearly par- 
allel with the present road, which connects Leipsic and Dresden, and touches 
the manufacturing towns of Grimma, Leising, and Dobeln, whereas the latter 
touches Wurzen, Oschatz, and Biesa. Another important line is projected from 
Chemnitz to Aunaberg, the place of bobbin lace manufactories^and^a^ope from 



8AX0NT. 365 

Freibei]g to Gbemnitz, being the last link in the cbain which is to connect mid- 
dle Oennany with the east and the west — eastern Europe and France. The 
▼hole length of the Saxon railways is 114.75 German miles, of which 86.50 
miles belong to goyemment In 1863 the revenue of these lines, for passen- 
gers, amounted to 2,376,467 thalers. and for freight 5,600,962. The number 
of passengers carried over these lines during the year was 6,183,208, and the 
quantity of freight 102,950,822 hundred-weight. 

The French-Grerman commercial treaty has had an important influence on the 
trade of Saxony and the whole ZoUverein, which at first was concluded between 
France and Prussia alone. This treaty was for some time not accepted by the 
Bouth German states, which fiivored a protective tariff, but was finally adopted 
bj them, and went into operation for the entire Zollverein on the 1st day of 
Jolj, 1865. For Saxony there is expected profit only from the treaty. Wine, 
Bilk manufactorefl, and the cultivation of the vine, are here only in their infancy. 
A like treaty was proposed this year by P^ssia with the kingdom of Italy, and 
also between that kingdom and the Zollverein. Obstacles to the conclusion of 
Bach a treaty arose from the peculiar position of the Grerman states. Prussia 
several years ago recognized the new Italian kingdom, while the greater num- 
ber of the states belonging to the Zollverein have steadily refused to do so on 
account of dynastic interests. The industrial interests of Saxony are much con- 
cenied in the conclusion of this treaty, and the manufacturers seem confident it 
may yet be adopted. 

One di^culty which affected the manufacturing interests this year was the 
falling off in the supply of coal. The producers contended that it was owing to 
the increased demand of the south German states, which have recently been 
intersected by several new railway lines. The consumers, on the other hand, 
attribute it to the lack of means of transportation, the managers of the different 
lines not havincp increased their rolling-stock in proportion to the increase of 
bnsiness. Goal has risen to 30 and 35 per cent. 

The drought of the present season is severe, and has caused a great lack of 
vater, but as the manufacturing interests of the country depend very little on 
vater power, trade and commerce have suffered little therem>m. Its effect on 
the crops, however, has been more serious. Rye, mostly grown here, was but 
little affected, while hay, clover, and pasturage of all kinds were seriously im- 
paired, and stock suffered considerably. 

Leipsic Easter fair of 1865 was more frequented than any previous one by 
buyers and sellers both home and from abroad. Much merchandise changed 
hands at low rates. Fashionable and fancy goods only brought high prices ; 
530 hundred-weight of goods more were exported during this fair than during 
that of kst year, consisting mostly of cotton, woollen, silk, and half silk fabrics, 
leather, gUss, pearls, &c.; 50,920 hundred-weight more of goods were brought 
to this fair than to the previous one. The supply of raw and dry hides was 
larger by 1,579 hundrea-weight. The prices were, for — 

West India game hides 22 to 26 thalevs per hundred-weight 

Baeaos Ayres game hides 20 " 35 '« 

German beef hides 17 " 23J " 

Heavy calfskins 16 " 16^ " 

Inferior calfskins 12J " 13j " 

Japanned calfskins 75 " 150 ** 

Goatskms 70 " 73 " 

Sheepskins 75 " 92 " 

The prices of sole leather were 32 " 52 " 

Tapper leather 13 *' 30 new groschen per pound. 

Sheep leather 3} '< 4 thalers for dicker. 

Of woollen goods, there were 6,179 hundred-weight more than at the previous 
&ir. The prices were less, and much remained unsold. It was only the new 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



366 



ANNUAL EEPOET ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 



Styles of goods which sold well. Americans usually bought blue cloths from 
Russia and Grimmitzschan, and stuffs for pants and coats from Wirdan. The 
supply of cotton goods was 32,238 hundred-weight, 958 hundred- weight more 
than last year. Prices were low, especially for muslins, curtains, collars and 
blouses. 

Of linen goods there were 12,487 hundred-weight, being an increase of 1,073 
hundred- weight. Ail these goods sold well, and at fair prices. 

Of silk goods there Vere 2,950 hundred-weight, an increase of 64 hundred- 
weight. The sale of these was not large, owing to the high prices driving most 
buyers from the market. 

The supply of half silk goods was 1,183 hundred- weight, less by 32 hundred- 
weight. They were much called for, and sold rapidly. A large quantity of 
half silk gloves was ordered for the United States. 

The business done in lace goods, leather, cloth, coarse and fine hardware, 
watches, &c., was generally satisfactory. 



T 



HANOVER. 



Hanover — Ingbbsoll Lockwood, Ckmsul. 

January 1, 1865. 
Eelative to the commercial relations, merchant navy, &c., of this consular dis- 
trict, I have the honor to report as follows : 

Statement thotmng the description and value of the exports Jrom Hanover to ike 
United States during ihe year ended December 31, 1864. 



Deacription. 



Haircloth 

Zephyr wool 

Ultramarine dye , 

Dry goods 

Drugs 

Photograph lenses 

Glazed paper and copy-books 

Pipes, felt shoes, wax tapers, glassware, &c 

Total 




Value 
in thalers. 



52,J35i 
64,4.35i 

7,902 
28,296 

4,970 
18,865 

5,886 
35,707 



218,197 



Statement shoufing the description, number^ and tonnage of Hanover's merchant 
navy during the year ended December 31, 1864. 



Vessels. 




Seagoing^ vessels 

Coasting and river vessels 
Steamers 

Total 



54,169 

31,166 

511 



85,846 



Digitized by 



Google 



OLDENBURG. 367 

Regarding the exports of this consular district,! have to remark that in addi- 
tion to inyoices filed at this consulate, large quantities of merchandise produced 
in this kingdom are invoiced at the port« of Bremen and Hamburg. * * 

The American consul for this kingdom is exempt from the payment of all 
taxes, so long as he confines himself to the transaction of consular afi'airs. 



OLDENBURG. 

Oldbnburu — , Consul. 

I beg leave to submit a reporton the commerce and navigation, and on some other 
matters of interest concerning the grand duchy of Oldenburg. The area of the 
grand duchy is 114.25 German square miles, which number includes the two 
principalities of Lubeck (or Eutin) aud Birkenfeld, which, together with the 
dachy of Oldenburg, form the grand duchy of Oldenburg. The duchy proper 
contains 98.14 square miles. It is perfectly level, very fertile at the north 
where the soil is alluvial ground, but for the most part very sandy and rather 
unproductive at the south. The number of inhabitants amounts to 240,000 ; 
the average population to the square mile is 2,430, the densest being 4,213, the 
least dense 907. The inhabitants at the north are almost exclusively Pro- 
testants, (171,548;) at the south. Catholics, ^64,881.) There are no large cities 
in the state. The capital, Oldenburg, has aoout 13,000 inhabitants ; the other 
towns less than 6,000. During the year 1864 but 116 persons immigrated, and 
635 emigrated, (431 of them to America.) The former imported property to the 
amount of 62,400 thalers; the latter exported 153,105 thalers — ^loss in one year 
90,705 thalers. 

Oldenburg as a state and body politic compares quite favorably with the other 
German states. The property and revenues of the crown and of the state are 
strictly separated. The statistics of the latter give the following numbers : 

Revenues of the state in 1861, 1,850,000 thalers; expenses of the state in 1861, 
1,807,000 thalers; taxes per head, 4 thalers; poor tax in the whole state, 
162,175 thalers ; poor tax per head, 17 silver groschen ; number of paupers, 
10,014 ; number of paupers, 4.3 per cent.; area of the alluvial soil (marsh) per 
jnck, or 1} acre, 177 999 ; area of the diluvial soil (gust) cultivated, 315,983 ; 
area of the diluvial soil (gust) not cultivated, 433,140; total net products of 
alluvial soil, 1,722,344 thalers; net products of alluvial soil per juck, 9.7 tha- 
lers ; net products of diluvial soil cultivated, 1,249,022 thalers ; net products of 
diluvial soil cultivated per juck, 4 thalers ; net products of diluvial soil not cul- 
tivated, 1 82,872 thalers ; net products of diluvial soil not cultivated, per juck, 
0.4 thalers ; total value of alluvial soil, 51,670,314|thalers; total value of allu- 
vial soil per juck, 290 thalers; total value of diluvial soil cultivated, 37,470,699 
thalers ; total value of diluvial soil cultivated, per juck, 1 12 thalers ; total value of 
diluvial soil not cultivated, 5,486,145 thalers ; total value of diluvial soil not 
cultivated, per juck, 12 thalers; total yearly income of the inhabitants, 14,880,030 
thalers ; total yearly income of the inhabitants per head, 63 thalers. 

It is possible that Heppenheim may be an important place one of these days. 
The entrance into the harbor, on the Ide gulf, is said to be practicable witl| every 
wind, and the road is free of ice during the whole winter. As soon as Heppenheim 
has a railroad connexion, it is likely to draw thither part of the navigation of 
the ports on the Weser. It is expected that two important railroads will be 
finished before the end of the year 1866. They, of course, will have some 
influence on inland trade and industry, but foreign commerce will hardly be 
affected or stimulated by them, because the legislature, at its last session, has 
declined appropriating the means for building a railroad from Oldenburg, or 
some other railroad station, to the seaport of Brake, the only seaport of any im- 
portance there is at present in the whole state. Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



368 ANNUAL BEPORT ON FOBEION COMBOBBCE. 

The state is, furthermore, providedwith the neeessarj lines of telegraph, the 
capital being by snch lines connected with Bremen, Brue, and Heppenheun. 

The code of general commercial law, which has been agreed npon by most 
Gkrman states, was introduced in this state in October, 1864. Commercial 
courts or boards of trade have not yet been instituted, but the government has 
promised to take into consideration the proposition of the legislature which ad- 
vocated this measure. Up to the year 1861 the industry of the inhabitants of 
this state was impeded by the usual ancient restrictions — nobody was allowed 
to open a shop or to establish a business of any kind except by special permis- 
sion of the respective courts and guilds. In the vear mentioned the liber^ of 
commencing any kind of business was granted by law, excepting, however, law- 
yers, physicians, apothecaries, inn-keepers, retailers of spirits, and brokers. 
Since uiat time most of the guilds have voluntarily dissolved ; some new branches 
of trade have become more extensive ; several new wind and steam mills and 
steam bakeries have been established ; many cloth stores have been changed 
into merchant tailors' shops. Several classes of mechanics have become more 
active in consequence of competition, yet it cannot be affirmed that the influence 
of the law mentioned has been very great, which cannot be the case until those 
laws which, more or less in all German states, prevent its citizens from moving 
from one place to another, even in their native state, are repealed. 

The occupations of the inhabitants of this state may be classed under three 
different heads: 1, agriculture; 2, industry; and 3, commerce and navigation, 
since the inhabitants are classified as follows : 

Agriculture, (including the digging of peat) 14<^,669 

Industry, (in its most limited sense) 50,391 

Commerce 5,897 

Other pursuits, (including 349 inn-keepers and 789 hotel-keepers). . . 11,889 

Personal services 8,609 

Public service, scientific pursuits. ...« 10,500 

Without any particular avocation 6,203 

Total population 239,158 



The above table shows that more than one-half of the entire population are 
engaged in agriculture. Still, though the latter is the chief occupation of the 
inhabitants, it is not exactly carried on in the most improved manner. In the 
northern part the soil is so fertile that it pays the small amount of labor be- 
stowed on it most liberally ; in some districts the land is principally used as 
meadows for raising and uttening an excellent stock of cattle which finds a 
ready market in England, whither they are carried in steamboats. There were 
carried to London and Hull from Nordinhamm, a small port below Brake, on 
the Weser— 

Homed cattle. Sheep. 

In 1863 5,268 3,399 

In 1864 8,449 2,371 

This exportation, together with some other causes has raised the price of meat 
considerably. From 1830 to 1853 a pound of beef cost 2§ silver gr.; veal, 2 
silver gr.: pork, 3^ silver gr. In 1865 a pound of beef cost 4 silver gr.; veal, 
4 silver gr.; pork, 5 silver gr. 

In consequence of these prices, American lard has already been imported for 
several years, as it seems, to advantage, and it does not appear unreasooable to 
expect that corned beef would also pay a handsome profit if imported firom the 
United States. A little more labor, other than in raising cattle, is required on 
the other fields in the northern parts of the state, where they grow rape-seed. 

Digitized by V^OOQ !(:! 



HANOVER. 369 

boree beans, oats, &c. It is true, wages have also risen, twenty years ago a 
farm laborer earned board and from 10 to 35 thalers a year; whereas he 
now receives board and from 30 to 100 thalers. Still, the farmers realize without 
any great effort satisfactory profits, unless there occurs a drought, which is 
apt on that soil to prove more than usually fatal to the grass and the crops. 
In the southern part of the state there are large peat-bogs, which furnish the 
inhabitants with fuel ; when they are drained, and when the heath on the dry 
tracts is burned, buckwheat and rye thrive there very well; the latter, on the 
whole, is the staple product of that region. The people now keep large tracts 
of land as barren heaths, where they feed a small kind of sheep covered with 
a coarse kind of wool. These flocks are kept for the sake of furnishing the 
irecessary amount of manure for the other fields. This primitive mode of fer- 
tilizing and working the soil does not yield much more grain than is necessary 
for the support of the inhabitants. 

The above table further shows that 50,391 persons engaged in industrial pur- 
suits, meaning, of course, both those that really work (24,219) and those that 
are depending on them, (26,172,) about the same proportion as in the class of 
farmers, the active persops being about one-half of the whole number. Those 
persons work, for the most part, as mechanics in their own shops, alone or with 
few helps ; there are but few large manufacturing establishments in the state. 
There are four cotton-spinning factories, with 53,102 spindles, employing 790 
hands, and having spun, in 1864, about 38,850 cwt of cotton ; 3 cotton-weaving 
factories, with 279 looms ; 7 cord factories, employing 85 hands ; 9 printing offices, 
employing 63 hands ; 5 cork factories, employing 313 hands, importing 468,000 
pounds of cork-wood, selling in the country 180,700 pounds of fabricated corks; 
23 £faw-mills, employing 66 hands; 72 oil mills, employing 110 hands; 33 lime- 
kilns, employing 76 hands; 168 brick-kilns, employing 1,310 hands; 65 distil- 
leries, employing 148 hands, using 68,749 cwt. rye, 6,537 cwt. barley, 26 cwt 
wheat, 104 cwt. buckwheat, and 88 cwt. potatoes, yielding 17,372 quarters or 
3,474,400 pounds of spirits, paying in 1864 a tax of 56,571 thalers; 129 brew- 
eries, employing 525 hands; 31 tobacco factories, employing 551 hands, besides 
SI smaller firms, employing 114 hands; 301 flour-mills, employing 654 hands, 
with 541 sets of millstones ; 5 eteam-mills, together of 48 horse-power ; 59 water- 
mills, 144 wind-mills, and 15 horse-mills ; 2 iron works, employing 509 hands, 
and 12 steam-engines, with 349 horse- power ; one of them used 125,840 cwt. pig 
iron (64,427 cwt. German and 61,413 cwt. English iron) and 7,790 cwt. waste 
iron, and produced 12,920 cwt. of cast-iron ware, and 86,705 cwt of bars, nails, 
tires, and hoops ; the other used 1 20,580 cwt of pig iron, and produced 15,000 cwt 
of cast-iron ware, and 74,215 cwt of bars, nails, tires, hoops, and sheet-iron; 
5 iron foundries, employing 187 hands, and 3 steam-engines, with 30 horse- 
power; 51 dock-yards, with 75 ships, employing, on an average, daily, 972 
workmen, each of whom earned about 20 silver grbschen (48 cents) a day. They 
built 67 new vessels, of 5,048 lasts. 

Lastly, I have to mention that a gentleman of this city has been trying these 
three years to supply the deficiency of cotton by preparing, spinning, and weav- 
ing the fibres of a plant called China grass, which I do not find mentioned 
among the exports from China to the United States in 1863. Perhaps it is the 
eame that I find mentioned by the name of jute in the Annual Report on Foreign 
Commerce for 1863, page 225. The gentleman thinks he has overcome the dif- 
ficulties the attempts have met with elsewhere, and he showed me some sam- 
ples of a beautiful color, fibre, texture, and great durability in water. As soon 
a^ I am allowed I shall send specimens of this article. 

There were employed in ocean navigation 235 vessels, tonnage 2,036 hands; 
coasting and river, 399 vessels, tonnage 1,093. 

Vessels owned in the state at the beginning of 1865, in the region of the Idc, 

^^^* Digitized by ^^OOgle 



370 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 



66, with a tonnage of 1,517 lasts ; on the tributaries of the Ems, 135, tonnage 
2,197 lasts ; in the region of the Weser, 184, of 25,066 lasts. At the begia- 
Tiing of 1864, 398 vessels, with a tonnage of 28,431 lasts. Total number of 
vessels, 783 ; total tonnage, 57,241 lasts. 

At Brake there arrived, in 1862, 433 sea-going vessels, tonnage 35,740 lasts; 
1863, 421 sea-going vessels, tonnage 33,501 lasts; 1864, 311 sea-going ves- 
sels, tonnage 23,701 lasts. 

Cleared, — 1862, 433 sea-going vessels, tonnage 35,700 lasts ; 1863, 420 sea- 
going vessels, tonnage 33,500 lasts ; 1864, 287 sea-going vessels, tonnage 
23,614 lasts. 

It will be seen that the port of Brake was, in 1864, much less frequented 
than in the preceding years. This was principally owing to the Dano-GermaDic 
war ; partly, also, to the fact that the German coals began to compete with the 
English in the region depending on Brake for its supply. 

The port of Brake does not increase in importance as much as circumstances 
would seem to have warranted ; it is one of the cheapest of European port«, and 
admits vessels drawing twenty feet of water, and is a Aree port ; it has a basin 
800 feet in length and 350 feet wide, and is provided with a lock; it cost 
200,000 thalers, and affords as safe a harbor as Bremerhaven. But as long as 
Brake is without railroad connexions, it cannot compete with Bremerhaven, 
which has steadily gained the ascendency over it. Before Bremerhaven was 
founded there arrived at Brake, in one year, about 600 vessels ; in 1834 this 
number sank as low as 194 ; in 1836 it went down to 128. Since that time it 
increased until 1856 ; in 1861 there arrived, on an average, 500 vessels a year. 
The above statement shows the decrease during the following three years. 
Formerly, there arrived several American vessels every year ; during the la?t 
eight years, but two or three. 

Tabular statement showing the numbtr and natwnality of vessels which entered 
and cleared at Brake during the year 1864, whether employed on the ocea^ 
or coast and river. 



Nationality. 


ENTER 

Ocean 
navigation. 

65 

108 


tED. 

Coast and 
river. 


CLEARED. 

Ocean ' Coast and 
navigation. | river. 


Oldenburg 


560 
128 


54 


S-i.> 


Hanover 


131* 


United States 




Bremen 


6 

3 

35 

14 

1 
5 
4 

13 

18 

37 

1 

1 


194 


4 

3 

30 

12 

1 

7 

3 

12 

30 
38 

I 
1 


leo 


Hamburg ... ........... 




Holland 


1 

1 




Denmark 




Liibec 




Norway 






Sweden 







PruMia 


3 


»* 


Russia 




England 






Columbia ............ . .... .. . 






Hawaii 






Lippe 


1 


1 










Total 


3J1 


888 


287 


1,152 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



HANOVER. 



371 



Statement ahowivg the imports at Brake during the years 1861 to 1864, under 
the distinctions of carrying, commission, and individual accounts. 



Articles imported. 



1861. 



Grain, carryipg pounds 

commission do.. 

individnal do.. 

Coal, English, carrying lasts, 11,000 

individual do do. . 

German, individual do do.. 

Iron, carrying pounds . 

individual do. 

Other metals, commission do. 

individual do. 

Wire, individual do. 

Anchors and chains, carrying do. 

commission do. 

individual do. 

Petroleum, carrying barrels, 300 each. 

commission 

individual 

Rice-llour, (fodder meal,) carrying pounds 

individual 

Wine and spirits, carrying pounds. 

individual do. 

Tobacco, raw, carrying do. 

Pine wood, individual cubic feet. 

Cotton, raw, carrying pounds. 

Herring, carrying do... 

Coffse, raw, carrying do. . . 

Cork wood, carrying do. . . 

Alkali, carrying do. . . 

Potash, carrying do... 

Cedar wood, carrying do... 

Sugar, raw and muscovado, carrying do... 

Sirup and molasses, carrying do. . . 

Glass, carrying do... 

Hides, carrying do... 

Blubber oil, carrying do... 

Salt, carrying do. . . 

Logwood and fustic, carrying do. . . 

Rice, carrying do... 

Tar, canying i do... 

Slate, carrying do... 

Hemp, carrying do. . . 

SulpW, carrying do. . . 

Sundries, carrying do. . . 



Total carrying in 1861 . 

Total carrying in 1863. 
Total carrying in 1864. 



13,691,561 

Not reported 

Not reported 

6,830 



5,035,519 



5,802,485 
'5,"3i5,"526 



1,951,666 
807,400 



3,102,100 
1,236,149 



2,716,296 



1,567,683 
4, 310, 100 



1,375,800 
"ii," 402,915 



136,478,194 



69,463,058 
52,717,692 



1864. 



4,098,000 

1,588,»>0 

3,465,800 

1,080 

29 

32 

5,692,491 

1,171,995 

184,516 

51,891 

9,289 

l,a55,627 

396,795 

172, aso 

4,396 

8,503 

285 

186,830 

290,250 

2,826,282 
231,692 

3,211,768 
122,215 
469,260 
366,000 
219,787 
175,780 

1,420,786 

1,095,650 
860,000 
218,300 
772,000 
281,247 
222,470 
208,000 
676,000 
887,502 

5,793,678 
113,600 

1,430,000 
872,429 
764,000 

6,399,650 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



372 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

HOLSTEIN AND SCHLESWIG. 

CENSUS OF HOLSTEIN AND SCHLESWIG, DECEMBER, 1864. 
(From authentic soxurces.) 

Population of Holstein 653, 210 

Popnlation of Schleswig 405, 369 

Total 958, 579 

Total area, 318^ German square miles. 

POPULATION OP PRINCIPAL TOWNS. 

In Holstein, Altona 52, 781 

In Holstien, Kiel 18, 695 

In Schleswig, Flensburg 20, 138 

In Schleswig, Schleswig 10, 944 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



HOLSTEIN AND SCHLESWIG. 



373 



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374 



ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE 



Statement sliowing the number^ tonnage in lasts, and actual cargo of vesiek 
touching at the port of Gluckstadt to discharge part of their cargoes during 
the year 1865. 



Countries and portg whence. 



Schlenwig-Hol- Hamborg and 
Rtein vesseli. PruMian. 



i I 



a 

a 

i I 



British, Nether- 
lands, and Nor- 
wegian. 



6 I o 
?5 I H 



Total 



i i 



h ■ < 

m I i\ 
71 

134 jO 

1 I 

2w; 

m i 

im I .>5i 

184 I 10 
116* I I 

Si" 6-'i 
532 124 



Inland, except Altona 

Elbe port! and Heligoland. . 

Netherlands 

France 



Total of part discharge. . 
Vt$*d8 in di$trt9$. 



Denmark 

Norway 

Hamburg 

Other Elbe ports. 
O eat Britain 



61* I 
7i 



2* 



12 



2*1 



Total in distresR 

Total of part discharge and In 
distress 



28i 
*77"' 



29* 
134 



163* 



56 



55* 



42* 

18* 
61* 



10 



105* I 55* 
174* 58 



122* 
122* 



16* 



55 



71* 
235 



56 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN 



375 



THB WHOLK OUTWARD COMMERCE OF THE ELBE DURI.NG THE YEAR 1S65. 

No. 1. — Statement showing the nationalitify number, tonnage and aclual cargo 
(measured in commerce lasts) of all sailing vessels and steamers departed 
from Gluckstadt during the year 1865. 







wig-HolHtein 

•esiieln. 


8AILIX0 Vl 

German, Swedinh. 

Norwegian, Danish, 

Netherlandu and 

Runian. 


LSSKLS. 

British and 
Spanish. 


& i 




CooQtries or portii where 
boand. 


Rchleii 


Total. 




No. 

Tonnage. 

Cargo. 


No. 

Tonnnge. 

Cargo. 


H . 5 


nor portf of the Elbe 

Foreifn.— Sweden, Den- 
mark, Hambarg, other 
£!be porta, and Heligo- 
land. Bremen, Holland, 
(;reat Britain and Spain. . 


833 3,8CTi2,096i 

1 

573 |3,436i 405} 


13 
2G4 


142i 

t 

1 2,4421 


20J 

602 


1 
1 '2k.... 

30 2,235 38 


847 
867 


4, 012} 2, 116} 
8,113}'l,045} 


Total 


1,406 7,303*2,502 

1 


277 

5 

> 

1 
27 


1 2,584^ 

'ESSELS T 

134 
231 


6±2i 
STEAM 

274 
3C0MP 


31 ,2,237f 38 

1 1 

LRS. 

5 83U 210 

LETE CARGO. 


1,714 
10 
16 

1 ^' 


12, 125} 3, 162 

1 

1 

1,982*' 482 


FcnrtgiL— Hamburg and 
oth«r ports of the Elbe, 
areat Britain and United 
Statw 




1 


(.'oTintrii:* or portt whence 










Shlfswig-Holiteln vessel* 
for iDterior portg of the 
Elbe !7,. .. 


15 
14 


821 
73f 


32 
11 


; 




216* 
304} 


32 


For<>ifii.— Hamburg and 
other Elbe porU and Ol- 
•Jenborg 


67* 








78^ 














Total 


29 


ISGi 4^ 


28 


365 


' 67i 




1.... 


' 57 


52U 


110* 










1 





Frankfort-on-the-Main — W. N. Murphy, Consul. 

Januarv 11, 1S65. 

Ag usual I have the honor to furnish you with an annual review of the trans- 
actioDs of the exchange of this place in 1864. 

The past year will scarcely receive in the annals of the Frankfort exchange 
an asterisk to distinguish it from former years, and although the exchange list 
of last December shows better figures than that of the preceding year, still the 
improvement is not to be estimated too high in consideration of the fact that 
the last year closed with the prospect of a political tranquillity, while the former 
jear ended with the expectation of the conflict of the Dano-German question, 
The first part of the year just closed stood under the pressure of that conflict, 
and the German exchanges deserve in fact the credit that they acted with self- 
possession during that struggle in the north, not allowing themselves to be 
frightened in an unnecessary degree by the war-cry which was raised. Scarcely 
Was the war, in the middle of the year, ended, when the money crisis arose in 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



376 ANNUAL REPORT ON FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

the principal European markets, and acted as a powerful agent iu stagnating 
business expectations. A great part of the cause lay in the evil consequences of 
the stock-jobbing and overstrained credit of the former years. Frankfort has 
been only indirectly affected by this crisis, and has maintained its long-known 
celebrity for caution and solidity. Truly, the bank was obliged, principally in 
self-defence against an outward pressure, to i-aise the rate of discount in last 
September to 5 J per cent., and to remain on this, for Frankfort very high-stand- 
ing, nearly three whole months. The stringent state of money affairs and the 
limitation of credit produced during the last months of the past year a great 
stagnation in exchange business. From an examination of the particulars, it 
appears that the business in the Austrian stocks, formerly so active on the ex- 
cuange here, suffered through the competition of the newly issued state papers of 
Germany, as well as through that of United States stocks, which in this city 
and its south German branches have won to themselves an extremely extensive 
field. 

The last year brought the 100-florin Austrian state lots and the 5 per cent, 
silver metallics. The success of these two loans has hitherto been unfavorable. 
The lots of 1864, appearing in February at 93, sank under the pressure of the 
gold and credit crisis, which caused considerable realization first hand, down to 
82. Their competition at any rate damaged the exchange of the credit lots. 

The business of the lots of 1862, which in the former year was so lively, has 
somewhat slackened, as the speculation in American stocks has proved a more 
convenient investment. 

For the safe investment of capital, the 5 per cent, new English metallics are 
preferred. Nevertheless, the older Austrian stocks, which have become natural- 
ized here, maintained the year through a proportionally good standing, and leave 
the year almost the whole of them, after the rise which the last days brought, 
at better rates of exchange than those at which they had entered the year. 

In German confederation state papers Frankfort continues to rule the market. 
Here is real demand and business on ready money, and every government will 
be glad when it succeeds in introducing its obligations here. Against the low 
rate of exchange which the papers of many large states fetch, the par and above 
par, which distinguishes the funds of the smaller German states, is a gratifying 
proof of their safe and honorable financial economy. They have, fortunately, 
no high policy to pursue, nor armed peace to maintain. Their budget knows 
only surpluses, ana has no deficits ; the considerable liquidations keep the public 
debt always on a normal level, and the new loans are, as a rule, of a productive 
nature. Therefore, money is willingly offered them, and the exchange on their 
papers is stable, maintaining its ground when everything else is depi^essed. 
There was last year a slight relaxation in consequence of the bad state of the 
money market and the high rate of discount > which occurred by making some 
realizations to procure ready money. With regard to foreign state papers 
things have not been so favorable. Setting aside the Swiss papers, which range 
pretty nearly on a level with the south German, all otners have suffered 
through the circumstances of the times. Sweden has strained her credit too 
ranch, and Germany seems, for the present, to be equally satiated. Also in 
respect to the Russian finances, the former favorable opinion has been ratlier 
diminished here, and their value being kept down, especially through the oppo- 
sition on the part of the