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Full text of "Household refrigeration; a complete treatise on the principles, types, construction, and operation of both ice and mechanically cooled domestic refrigerators, and the use of ice and refrigeration in the home"

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Prof, Alfred Fcrretti 



Household Refrigeration 



A COMPLETE TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES, TYPES, 

CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATION OF BOTH ICE 

AND MECHANICALLY COOLED DOMESTIC 

REFRIGERATORS, AND THE USE OF 

ICE AND REFRIGERATION 

IN THE HOME 



H. B": HULL, M.E. 

Refrigeration Engineer 



Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged 




PUBLISHERS: 

NICKERSON & COLLINS CO., 

CHICAGO 



/ r 
H9 



Copyright, 19^4, 1926 and 1927 

XlCKERSON AND COLLINS Co 
ALL RIGHTS RESESVED 



Pke^' of 

icE AND Refrigeration 

Chicago-New York 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 

In developing this work on "Household Refrigeration," 
the first of the kind published, the author has endeavored to 
present a subject in its broadest sense. 

Attention has been given to the production of refrigera- 
tion for any household or domestic purpose by both ice and 
mechanically cooled refrigerators. The work consists of a 
treatise on the principles, types, construction and operation 
of both ice and mechanically cooled refrigerators, including 
therein certain considerations on the use of ice and refrigera- 
tion in the home. 

It is believed that this work will not only be found to be 
interesting and instructive to designers, manufacturers, deal- 
ers, and distributors, of both ice and mechanically cooled 
refrigerators, but also will be of interest to the householder, 
Ijll who employs refrigeration in either of the aforementioned 
systems. 

The author has drawn extensively on his experience as 
a refrigeration engineer for material for this work. However, 
in the many instances, he has made use of the work of others, 
for which proper credit has been given. The author desires 
to gratefully acknowledge the assistance which has been ex- 
tended to him by various associations, publishers, manufac- 
,turers, and others, during the preparation of the subject matter 
of this book. 

H. B. Hull. 






PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION 

The industry of Household Refrigeration has made great 
strides in the interim since the preparation of the first and 
second editions of this work. 

The use of the small refrigerating machine in homes is 
rapidly increasing each year. 

The use of ice in the home is also gradually increasing. 



The seasonal character of sales of both household refrig- 
erating machines and ice is gradually becoming less marked. 

Many countries in Europe are demanding ice and house- 
hold refrigerating machines to assure proper food preserva- 
tion in the home. 

This edition contains descriptions of the latest models 
of both compression and absorption type household refrigerat- 
ing machines and also includes recent improvements in refrig- 
erator construction. 

H. B. Hull, 
October, 1927. Dayton, Ohio. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter 1. 

Page 

Refrig-eration Units and Theory H 



Chapter II. 
Ice for Refrigeration Purposes 17 

Chapter III. 
Refrigerants "^^ 

Chapter IV. 
Refrigerants — Tables ^■^ 

Chapter V. 
Heat Transfer 101 

Chapter VI. 
Refrigerating Systems 125 

Chapter VII. 
Household Refrigerating Machines, Compression Type.. 187 

Chapter VIII. 
Household Refrigerating Machines, Absorption Type 299 



Chapter IX. 

J'age 

Types and Constructions of Household Refrigerators.... 331 



Chapter X. 
Operation of Ice Refrigerators h77 

Chapter XI. 
Testing of Ice Refrigerators 399 

Chapter XII. 
Preservation of Foods in the Home 437 

Chapter XIII. 
Miscellaneous Tables 455 



FOREWORD. 

The problem of preserving food collected during times 
of plenty, for use when the source of supply fails, has been 
practiced by man from even the remotest ages. Among primi- 
tive races, food preservation was essential to avoid f§mtf^ 
In the modern civilized countries, the preservation of food 
is an important factor in maintaining a balance between the 
demand and supply for perishable foods. There is a special 
need of preservation in order to transport food to the large 
cities. 

Chemical processes of animal and vegetable tissue ac- 
tively continue in these foods even after the more obvious 
evidences of life has gone. Fruits ripen, grains mature, 
starches become sugars, flavors develop, and meat becomes 
tender. These changes are desirable and nutritively benefi- 
cial. 

There are numerous artificial methods employed to re- 
strain the activity of these processes in foods. The most im- 
portant is by refrigeration or cooling. Some other methods 
are by drying, dehydrating-, smoking, pickling, curing, pre- 
serving, and cooking. 

Refrigeration is the method of food preservation which 
causes a minimum of alteration of the desirable food prop- 
erties. The natural freshness and flavors are retained with- 
out abstracting moisture, and there is a minimum change in 
the physical, chemical, or nutritive quahties of the food. 

Refrigeration was first used by the Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Romans, who cooled their wines and water in crude ves- 
sels which extracted some of the heat from the liquids through 
evaporation. 

The first methods of preserving food by cooling were 
very crude — a hole in the ground or a stream of water served 
this purpose. 

7 



In the early part of the nineteenth century, the ice box 
came into use. Natural ice was placed in the ice compart- 
ment. The melting of the ice produced a circulation of cold 
air which cooled the foods. This was a great improvement 
over previous methods of storing perishable foods. 

Ice of the winter months was stored for this use in spe- 
cially constructed buildings, located near the pond or lake 
supplying it. 

The sui)ply of natural ice was very " uncertain. Trans- 
portation M^as difificult and ice w^as only available to limited 
localities. 

The next important step in household refrigeration was 
the use of manufactured ice. xA.ctive work in the develop- 
ment of machines for producing ice in a commercial way was 
carried on from 1830-1870. The success of these machines 
permitted their use in even the 'warmest climates. In addi- 
tion there were difficulties in transporting natural ice any 
great distance from its source. In regard to manufactured 
ice. the large loss in melting during months of storage and 
the time of transportation could be saved. The quality of the 
water used for making ice could be better controlled. The 
supply was more certain and could be regulated to meet the 
demand. 

In addition to the increased use of manufactured ice, some 
improvement in the construction of household refrigerators 
was made. Better insulation was used, more sanitary lin- 
ings and better air circulating systems designed. The tem- 
])erature in the food compartments could be maintained from 
20° to 30° lower than the room temperature. 

During the last twenty years, the household refrigera- 
ting machine has been under active development. It is only 
within the last five years, however, that machines have been 
manufactured in quantities and proven a commercial success. 

Mechanical household refrigeration is having an impor- 
tant influence on refrigerator cabinet construction. It is nec- 
essary to have better constructed and insulated refrigerators 



to operate satisfactorily, with the lower food compartment 
temperatures produced by the mechanical unit. 

The cost of operation of the household machine is about 
the same as the cost of ice. When the interest of the invest- 
ment and depreciation are considered they will usually cost 
more than ice. The increased sale of machines indicate that 
the advantages compensate for this difference in cost. 

There are about 15,000,000 wired homes in the United 
States supplied with electric current. Less than 3 per cent 
of these have electrical refrigerating machines so there is a 
large potential market for this product. About 12,000,000 
iced refrigerators are in use in the United States at the present 
time. There are about 9,000,000 wired homes in Europe. 

The production of household refrigerating machines dur- 
ing recent years has been approximately as follows : 

Previous to 1923 20,000 

Year 1923 20,000 

Year 1924 24,000 

Year 1925 75,000 

Year 1926 260,000 

Estimate for year 1927 600.000 to 800,000 

The gas tired absorption type household refrigerating ma- 
chine is being rapidly developed at the present time. The cost 
of operation of this type machine can be considerably less than 
the cost of the equivalent amount of refrigeration with ice. 
There are about 17,000,000 gas meters in use in the United 
States. 

It is predicted that, in the near future, the automatic house- 
hold machine will compete with ice, even on a cost basis in 
homes having electric current or gas service. 



CHAPTER I 
REFRIGERATION UNITS AND THEORY 

Heat Unit— A heat unit is an arbitrary standard or unit 
of measurement which expresses the capacity of a given body 
to absorb and retain heat energy under a given increase of its 
sensible heat. Water has a greater heat capacity than ahnost 
any other common substance and it has been used in framing 
the definition of a heat unit. 

British Thermal Unit.— A British thermal unit (B.t.u.) is 
the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one 
pound of pure v^ater one degree Fahrenheit at or near its 
temperature of maximum density, 39.1° F. For practical work 
it may be considered as the amount of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. 

Sensible Heat.—Sensible heat is the heat which goes to 
increase the temperature of a body without afifecting its state, 
whether it be that of a solid, liquid or gas. Thus the addition 
of sensible heat to a body may be felt by the hand or be indi- 
cated by a thermometer. 

Latent Heat.— Latent heat is the amount of heat that must 
be supplied to a body to change its state from a solid to a 
liquid, or from a liquid to change it to a gas. This heat sepa- 
rates the molecules of the substance and cannot be indicated 
by a thermometer since it produces no change in temperature. 
Every substance has a latent heat of fusion, required to con- 
vert it from a solid to a liquid, and another, a latent heat of 
vaporization required to convert it from a liquid to a gas or 
vapor. Experiments have shown that it requires 144 B.t.u. 

11 



12 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

to melt one pound of ice at 32° F. into one pound of water at 
32° F.; thus we have 144 B.t.u. as the latent heat of fusion 
of ice. 

If heat is applied to one pound of water at 212° F. the water 
will remain at this temperature under atmospheric pressure 
until all of it has been evaporated into steam at 212° F. This 
has been found to require 970.4 B.t.u.; therefore, the latent 
heat of vaporization of steam at atmospheric pressure is said 
to be 970.4 B.t.u. 

Specific Heat. — The specific heat of a substance is the ratio 
of its heat capacity to that of water. One pound of water 
requires one B.t.u. to raise its temperature one degree F. One 
pound of cast iron requires only 0.13 B.t.u. Therefore, the 
specific heat of cast iron is 0.13. The specific heat of ice is 
0.504; of air, 0.240, of anhydrous ammonia, 1.10. The specific 
heat of materials usually stored in a refrigerator averages 
about 0.80. 

Refrigeration. — Refrigeration is a term used to represent 
the cold produced or rather the amount of heat removed. It 
is measured by the latent heat of fusion of ice. The capacity 
of a machine in tons of "ice melting" or "refrigeration" does 
not mean that the machine would make that amount of ice, 
but that the cold produced is equivalent to the melting of the 
weight of ice at 32° F. into water at the same temperature. 

One ton of refrigeration is equal to 144x2,000 or 288,000 
B.t.u. per 24 hours, or 12,000 Bt.u. per hour or 200 B.t.u. ])cr 
minute. 

Absolute Pressure. — Absolute pressure is the pressure 
reckoned from a complete ^•acuunl. Gauges in common use 
indicate the pressure, in pounds per square inch, above atmos- 
pheric which is 14.7 at sea level ; this reading is called gauge 
pressure. To convert gauge pressure to absolute pressure, 
14.7 pounds, per square inch, must be added to the gauge 
reading. 

Absolute Zero. — Absolute zero is the point at which mole- 
cules lose all motion ; in other words, the temperature at which 



REFRIGERATION UNITS AND THEORY 13 

there is an absence of all heat. This temperature has not been 
reached but is assumed to be 460 degrees below 0° F. 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat.— The mechanical equiva- 
lent of heat has been determined by accurate experiment. If 
the heat energy represented by one B.t.u. be changed into 
mechanical energy without loss, it would accomplish 778 foot- 
pounds of work. One hp. represents 42.416 B.t.u. per minute. 

Refrigerating Machine Capacity Rating. — In December 
1920, the A. S. R. E. and A. S. M. E. adopted a standard 
method for rating the capacit}^ of any refrigerating machine 
which is concisely as follows : 

"The capacity of any refrigerating machine shall be ex- 
pressed in terms of 2,000 lbs. ice melting effect for 24 hours 
(288,000 B.t.u.) with 5° F. saturation temperature in the suc- 
tion side and 86° F. saturation temperature at the discharge 
side." 

Heat and Temperature. — Heat is a form of molecular 
energy. All bodies are composed of large numbers of ex- 
tremely minute particles, known as molecules. These mole- 
cules have an attraction for each other, which is greater in 
solids than in liquids and greater in licjuids than in gases. 
These molecules are in a state of continuous and irregular 
motion, the rate of which depends upon the temperature, be- 
ing more rapid at higher temperatures. Absolute zero is sup- 
posed to represent the condition of matter where there is no 
kinetic energy of the molecules, and therefore no temperature. 
Absolute zero is — 460° F., or —273° C. 

Heat, being a form of energy, may be converted into elec- 
trical, chemical or mechanical energy. The two terms, heat 
and temperature, are frequently confused. Heat is a measure 
of quantity. Two pieces of iron may have the same tempera- 
ture, however if one piece is larger than the other it will con- 
tain a larger quantity of heat. A cake of ice may contain more 
heat than a smaller quantity of boihng water. Heat is con- 
stantly passing from warmer objects to colder ones, just as 
water always tends to flow down hill. There is no natural 
process in which heat passes from a colder to a warmer object 
without the expenditure of outside work. 



14 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Temperature is a term used to denote the degree of hotness 
or coldness of a body and as explained above, it depends upon 
the amount of sensible heat contained in the body. Since our 
sensation of warmth and cold is not sufficiently accurate and 
trustworthy for technical purposes the physical change of ex- 
pansion of a mercury, for example, accompanying its change 
in temperature has been agreed upon as a method of measur- 
ing temperature. 

Theory of Refrigeration. — Refrigeration implies the reduc- 
tion of the temperature of a body below the surrounding en- 
vironment temperature. It further implies the maintaining 
of this temperature difference. This requires the constant 
extraction of heat from the space in which the temperature is 
already lower than the surrounding environment temperature. 

Example. — The food compartment of a refrigerator is being 
maintained at a temperature of 45° F., and the room tempera- 
ture is 70°. The refrigerator will continually absorb heat from 
the room. It is therefore necessary to "pump" this heat out 
of the refrigerator, as well as the heat supplied by placing rela- 
tively warm food or containers inside the refrigerator. To 
extract this heat from the 45° F. food compartment, it is neces- 
sary to have a still colder object such as a cake of ice, a brine 
tank, or cooling coil to continually absorb heat. The ice melts 
and the heat in the refrigerator is used to supply the latent 
heat necessary to change ice into water. With a brine tank in 
which are immersed the evaporator coils, the heat in the re- 
frigerator is used to vaporize the liquid refrigerant in the coils, 
and a small amount to superheat the gaseous refrigerant, after 
being vaporized. The refrigerant is then compressed, and this 
heat passes into the condensing medium which is usually 
water or air. 

Refrigeration Constants. — A number of the commonly used 
refrigeration constants are shown in Tables I to IX inclusive. 
Table I contains the interrelation of tons of refrigeration, 
pounds of refrigeration, and heat units (B.t.u.). 

Table II gives the units of refrigeration, tons of refrigera- 
tion, and pounds of refrigeration expressed in B.t.u. per day, 
hour, minute and second. Due to the fact that the British 



REFRIGERATION UNITS AND THEORY 15 

ton is 2,240 pounds, the corresponding British ton of refrigera- 
tion is therefore equal to 2.240X144=318,080 B.t.u. The cor- 
responding American ton of refrigeration, 2,000X144=288,- 
000 B.t.u. 

Table III gives the tons of refrigeration required per ton 
of ice made when approximately 20 per cent is allowed for 
the losses occurring in the ice freezing process. Some of the 
common properties of ice are given in Table IV, while the 
weights of water per cubic foot and per gallon are given in 
Table V. Table VI contains some useful hp. equivalents. 
Some of the useful atmospheric pressure equivalents are given 
in Table VII. Some average weights of cork insulation are 
given in Table VIII. The heat transmission through one 
square foot of surface is found by dividing the total heat in 
B.t.u. transmitted per hour by the production of the mean 
temperature difference, and the heat transfer rate expressed in 
B.t.u. per square foot per degree of temperature difference per 
hour. Some of the fixed points in thermometry and other tem- 
peratures are given in Table IX. 

TABLE I. CONVERSION FACTORS 



^ Tons Pounds K.t.u. 

Ton of Refrigeration 1 0.0005 O.GG0003507 

Pound of Refrigeration 2,000 1 007014 

B.tu 288,000 144 1 

TABLE II. TONS AND POUNDS OF REFRIGERATION 



1 Ton Refrigeration = 288000 B.t.u. per day 
1 Ton Refrigeration = 12000 B.t.u. per hour 
1 Ton Refrigeration = 200 B.t.u. per minute 
1 Ton Refrigeration = 3j^ B.t.u. per second 
1 Pound Refrigeration = 144 B.t.u. per day 
1 Pound Refrigeration = 6 B.t.u. per hour 

1 Pound Refrigeration = 0.1 B.t.u. per minute 
1 Pound Refrigeration = .001^ B.t.u. per second 



TABLE III. — RELATION OF REFRIGERATION TONNAGE TO ICE MA KING 

Temperature of Condensing Tons Refrigeration 

Water degrees F. Per ton ice making 

50 1.46 

60 1.53 

70 1.60 

80 1.67 

90 1.74 



16 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE IV. PROPERTIES OF ICE 



Weight per cubic foot 57.5 pounds 

Specific Heat 0.504 B.t.u. 

Latent Heat 144 B.t.u. 



TABLE V. — WEIGHT OF WATER 

Weight per cubic foot 62.5 pounds 

Weight per gallon 8.35 pounds 



TABLE VI. — liORSEPOWER EQUIVALENTS 



One mechanical horsepower = 33,000 foot pounds per minute 
One mechanical horsepower = 2545. B.t.u. per hour 
One mechanical horsepower = 746. watts 



TABLE VII. — ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS 

One Atmosphere = 14.67 pounds per sq. in. 
One Atmosphere = 33,9 feet of water 
One Atmosphere = 29.92 inches of m^ercury 



TABLE VIII. — CORK INSULATION DATA 

Weight per cubic foot, granulated = 6.5 pounds 
Weight per cubic foot, regranulated = 8.0 pounds 
Weight per cubic foot, corkboard = 12.0 pounds 
B.t.u. heat leakage of one square foot corkboard 
6.5 X temp, difference 

per 24 hours = 

Thickness in inches 



TABLE IX. FIXED POINTS IN THERMOMETRY 

Fehrenheil 
Degrees 

Absolute zero (theoretical) —460° 

Mercury freezes —38° 

Water freezes -{-32° 

Household refrigerator (ideal temperature) 40° to 50° 

Room temperature 68° to 70° 

Pasteurizing milk 145° 

Water boils 212° 



CHAPTER II 

ICE FOR REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 

Historical Data. — The practice of cooling bodies below the 
temperature of the atmosphere by the use of ice, has been fol- 
lowed for centuries. In the earlier times, the ice used for 
refrigeration purposes was natural ice, which formed on the 
rivers, lakes and ponds, during the cold winter months. The 
ice, after being harvested in the winter, was stored in caves 
in the ground, so that perishable foods could be preserved 
during the hot summer months. Coming up to modern times, 
we find, in the last half of the nineteenth century, due to im- 
proved methods of storing, harvesting, and distribution, that 
the use of natural ice for refrigeration purposes assumed a 
large proportion in the United States. Later, practically 
within the time of the present generation, means were devised 
whereby ice for refrigeration purposes could be procured by 
mechanical means in commercial quantities. Still later, within 
the last decade, attention has been directed to ways and means 
of producing refrigeration in the home by mechanical means 
directly. 

At present this subject is receiving the attention of many 
inventors, engineers, manufacturers, and others. New and 
improved devices and processes are being developed con- 
stantly. 

The National Association of Ice Industries has recently 
published a bulletin, entitled "The Romance of Ice," which 
contains an interesting review of the historical data on this 
subject. The following has been extracted from this bulletin : 

17 



18 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

THE ROMANCE OF ICE 

Prologue. — Evt'iy i)ioducl, every industry, every modern develop- 
ment has its "story." Perhaps the pages have not been turned back 
to that he who runs may read and be interested, but the story is there. 
Some of our greatest untold romances concern those taken-for-granted 
commodities which the public sees, uses, enjoys, without giving a 
thought to their interesting origin or the struggles of men in their 
development. 

For example, ice is a necessity without which the public would 
really suffer. True the blasts of winter turn the waters of river, lake, 
and pond into ice; one long pufJ from Boreas' cheeks provides thous- 
ands of tons of ice each year, but twenty-six million American families 
cannot be supplied by Nature's manufactory alone. 

Let's turn back the pages of history for a moment and see what 
happened in the world of yesterday to make ice now as readily acces- 
sible as coal or wood. These pages reveal real romance. 

History. — The early Greek poet, Simonides, while at a banquet, 
observed that the liquor served to the other guests was cooled by 

snow. Whereupon he expressed his dissatisfaction in the following 
ode: 

"The cloak with which fierce Boreas clothed the brow 

Of high Olympus, pierced ill-clothed man 
While in its native Thrace; 'tis gentler now, 

Caught by the breeze of the Pierian plain. 
Let it be mine: for no one will commend 

The man who gives hot water to a friend." 

History's pages also show that the ancient Egyptians knew the 
secret of cooling by evaporation, as practiced by the native of India 
today — filling with water shallow trays of porous material placed on 
beds of straw, and leaving them exposed to the night winds, with 
the result that dawn finds a thin film of ice formed on the surface. 

On a very early page we find that the Emperor Nero had slaves 
bring snow down from the mountains to cool his wines. Alexander 
the Great had trenches dug for storing snow. Hundreds of kegs of 
wine were cooled there, with the result that his phalanxes entering 
battle the next day didn't care much what became of them, just so 
it was a good battle. 

Marco Polo, the great Italian navigator, brought recipes for water 
and milk ices from Japan and China in the thirteenth century. 

When Catherine d'Medici left Florence, Italy, to go to France, in 
the sixteenth century, she took with her the best of the chefs to make 
sure that she would be supplied with frozen creams and ices every day. 



ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 19 

Sir Walter Scott told how Saladin, leader of the Mohammedan 
armies, sent a frozen sherbet to Richard the Lion Hearted, much to 
the amazement of that doughty monarch. 

During the seventeenth century the French government made an 
unsuccessful attempt at government ownership when it licensed the 
business of farming snow and ice. The farmers who received govern- 
ment favor thereupon raised prices with such studious regularity that 
the people refused to buy and the Government was forced to relinquish 
its control of this commodity. Immediately thereafter supply and 
demand got into its stride and the business settled back into sanity. 

As Lord Bacon commented in his Sylva Sylvarum: 

"Heat and cold are Nature's two hands whereby she chiefly 
worketh, and heat we have in readiness in respect of the fire, but 
for cold we must stay till it cometh or seek it in deep caves or 
mountains, and when all is done, we cannot obtain it in any great 
degree, for furnaces of fire are far hotter than a summer's sun, 
but vaults and hills are not much colder than a winter's frost." 

Bacon knew what a useful thing it would be if man could have 
the same command of cold as of heat. Scientist that he was, he under- 
took experiments into its possibilities. This led to unfortunate re- 
sults, as he caught his death of cold by alighting from his carriage 
one winter day and stuffing snow into a chicken to see if it would keep. 

The Italians, Spaniards, and Frenchmen have always been devotees 
of better living, and history is filled with interesting side lights on 
their uses of snow and natural ice. 

Then we have the picture of the early fishmonger in England sell- 
ing ice from his wagon, a practice which is continued to the present 
day. 

The first record of American delivery of ice to the home is in 1802. 
The first commercial shipment of natural ice from America was ex- 
ported from Boston by Frederick Tudor in 180.S when a shipload was 
sent to Martinique in the West Indies to help stay the ravages of 
yellow fever. 

During this time all of the ice used was produced by Nature. 

Natural and Manufactured Ice. — One of the most interesting phe- 
nomena of Nature is the formation of ice. We all know that cold is 
the absence of heat and that the freezing point of water is 32° F. 
When the air above a pond, lake, or river is below 32° F., the top 
layer of water is cooled and will sink because it is heavier than the 
warmer layers underneath. This continues until all the water is cooled 
to 39.1° F., at which point water reaches its greatest density. The 
top layer will then be cooled still further but remains on top and 
eventually will be reduced to the freezing point and ice will form. 



20 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

If the water undearneath the ice is not in motion, opaque ice will 
form. On moving bodies of water, as rivers and large lakes, clear 
ice forms. This is because each drop of water in freezing sets free 
the air it contains. The bubbles of air adhere to the surface of the 
newly frozen ice crystal. As more ice encloses the bubbles, the 
product becomes opaque. But where the water is in motion, the bub- 
ble is washed ofiE the surface of the newly formed ice crystal and thus 
the ice forms, clear and hard. 

But how about the actual manufacture of ice? 

As Edwin F. Slosson of the Science Service, Washington, D. C, 
explains in his article, "Science Remaking Everyday Life:" 

"The chronicle of the century of effort to approach the farth- 
est north of temperature, absolute zero, is as fascinating as the 
contemporary struggle to reach the geographic pole and unlike 
the latter has proved profitable at every stage. When Fahrenheit 
in 1724 stuck his mercury thermometer into a mixture of salt and 
snow, he thought he had reached the lowest point possible and 
boldly scratched zero on the tube. But it was not long before 
scientists began to climb down the minus steps. In 1769 a Russian 
professor, taking advantage of a cold spell, froze mercury itself 
in a mixture of snow and nitric acid." 

A hundred years ago, Faraday, working in the Royal Institution 
of London, succeeded in condensing ammonia gas to a liquid by apply- 
ing pressure and then cooling it. When the pressure was removed, 
the liquid of course boiled off rapidly as a gas, absorbing heat in 
doing so. Any liquid absorbs heat when it turns into a gas. 

This discovery proved of the greatest importance, both practically 
and theoretically. A solution of ammonia and water was used by 
Carre in 1858 in his ice making machine. The first Carre machine to 
reach the United States was shipped through the blockade of New 
Orleans in 1863. 

In 1755 Dr. William Cullen invented the first machine which pro- 
duced ice by purely mechanical means, his achievement being followed 
by those of Vallance of France (1824) and Jacob Perkins, an Ameri- 
can then residing in England, who is given credit for the forerunner 
of the modern compression apparatus, his model being patented in 
England in 1834, with ether as the refrigerant employed. Other early 
workers in this field of science were Prof. A. C. Twining, of New 
Haven, Connecticut, and Dr. John Gorrie, of Appalachicola, Florida. 

In the rotunda of the capitol at Washington, where each of the 
states has set statues of its most distinguished citizens, Florida has 
chosen this same Dr. Gorrie instead of any of its pioneer politicians or 
military geniuses. Too many men of various countries have con- 



ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 21 

tributed to the gradual development of mechanical refrigeration for 
any one person to be entitled to exclusive credit for the invention, 
but Dr. Gorrie certainly deserves this place in our National Hall of 
Fame for the service rendered to the country when he took out the 
first American patent in 1850 for a practical process of manufacturing 
ice. 

In the years of 1873-75 the first successful ammonia compression 
machines were introduced by C. P. G. Linde of Germany, and David 
Boyle of the United States. From 1875 to 1890 many new forms of 
apparatus were produced and certain improvements were made. 

Until the year 1890 the practical utilization of the art of ice mak- 
ing and refrigeration had seemed to come to a standstill. But there 
occurred in the year 1890 an incident that awakened the general public 
to the possibilities of the use of mechanical refrigeration. This inci- 
dent was the greatest shortage in the crop of natural ice that has 
ever occurred in the United States. To this unusual shortage may be 
accredited the impetus that started the rapid development and utiliza- 
tion of mechanical refrigeration. Since 1890 the ice making and re- 
frigerating industry has grown by leaps and bounds. 

Thanks to the manufacturers of the refrigerating machine, ice 
can be had at any time and anywhere that power can be obtained. 
The ice machines give us ice in any quantity at any time. 

Manufactured ice is made in cans holding 300 to 400 pounds. The 
can is filled with pure water and is let down into a tank which is 
filled with brine. The brine is made of sufficient density to permit its 
freezing point to fall to zero Fahrenheit or below. The cans are ar- 
ranged in regular order, in rows; between these rows of cans are 
continuous coils of closed pipe through which passes the ammonia, 
it being the most commonly used refrigerant. The ammonia starts 
out as a liquid and expands, turning into a vapor and finally into a 
gas as it absorbs heat from the brine which surrounds the coils 

As the ammonia circulates through the pipes in the brine tank, it 
absorbs the heat from the brine and lowers its temperature to a point 
below the freezing point of water. As heat always travels from the 
higher to the lower temperature, the brine, in turn, absorbs heat from 
the water in the cans. When the temperature reaches a point low 
enough, the water begins to freeze and ice forms on the inside of the 
cans. As the freezing continues, the ice thickens until it finally closes 
to the center of the can and is a solid block. As the ice forms, any 
foreign matter in the water is forced to the center of the block. In 
order to manufacture clear ice, it must be made from distilled water 
or from "raw water," which is low in mineral content. The water 
must also be kept in motion just as Nature keeps the river water 
moving. By so doing, the particles of air and gases are liberated and 



22 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

come to the top, thus allowing clear ice to be frozen. This is accom- 
plished by conducting a stream of cold air into the can which keeps 
the water in motion. Frequently, in order to get a cake that is clear 
and clean all the way through, avoiding what is called a "core," the 
water is drawn from the center of the can before it is completely 
frozen and this cavity is refilled with distilled water. 

What Ice Can Do. — When ice melts, it absorbs heat. Each pound 
changing from solid ice to liquid water absorbs as much heat as would 
be required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 144 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. Indeed, the heat absorbing capacity of ice is so 
great that it has been made the standard of comparison and the units 
in which we measure this power are called British thermal units. 

Ice is greedy to absorb heat. Therefore, if it is to do specific 
work, it must be protected from those warm objects which we do not 
desire cooled. For instance, in our home refrigerators ice is placed 
inside of what we term insulated walls. 

A material which does not allow heat to pass through it is called 
an "insulator." To keep the ice from melting too rapidly, we build 
into the walls of the container some insulator which keeps away the 
atmospheric heat. The articles to be preserved for cooking or to be 
kept cold are put into the insulated space with the ice. Then the 
ice can absorb their heat, thereby cooling them, but turning into water 
in doing so. This is the principle of all ice refrigerators. 

The better the insulation, the less heat can get into the refrigera- 
tor or ice box, and therefore, the less the ice meltage due to heat 
leakage. The warmer the articles put into the box, the more ice they 
will melt before they reach the same temperature as the ice box itself. 

The temperature of ice is 32° F. If we had a perfect insulator — 
one which would not allow any heat from outside to go through the 
refrigerator walls, the temperature of the inside of the refrigerator 
would be 32° F. also. However, all insulators allow some heat to 
pass; the best ones permit little, while the poor ones let much heat 
pass through. The poorer the insulation in the refrigerator, the higher 
will be its temperature and the more ice will be melted when the air 
outside is warm. 

The question of proper air circulation in a refrigerator is one of 
vital importance. The heat enters the refrigerator in two ways; some 
through the walls of the box and some with the food to be cooled. 
The warm air travels to the ice, is cooled, drops down to the section 
directly under the ice and thence over the food, absorbing heat, mois- 
ture, and odors. The warmed air, being lighter, rises through the 
food chamber and again reaches the ice. Here the air is cooled, drops 
moisture because of its lowered temperature, and whatever odors may 
have been absorbed during its passage over the food are dissolved in 



ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 23 

the film of water on the surface of the melting ice and pass off in 
the meltage. Then the cooled, dried, and cleaned air is ready to make 
another trip through the food compartment. 

The intelligent housewife utilizes these facts to the advantage of 
her family and her pocketbook. She sees that the ice compartment 
of the refrigerator is ready to receive the ice when the ice man brings 
it. Every minute it stays outside the insulated space it is absorbing 
heat from the air and melting. 

Refrigeration is the ideal preservative and the housewife who 
really wants to economize on both food and ice keeps her refrigerator 
well filled at all times. This is a simple matter of household efficiency. 
When the ice gets low in the refrigerator, the walls naturally grow 
warm and just that much more ice is required to bring the tempera- 
ture down again to a safe point where the constant circulation of cold 
air across the top of the ice, down its sides, down the side of the 
small food compartment, across the floor of the refrigerator, up 
through the food compartment and over the ice again purifies, and 
preserves through every inch of its journey. 

Ice in Daily Living. — In a multitude of ways ice has entered into 
the daily life of the American people. It tinkles in the glass of water 
with which the master of the house quenches his thirst; it furnishes 
soft, clean water to shampoo milady's hair; and a small piece rubbed 
on her satiny cheek brings the blush of youth. In the laboratory the 
scientist depends upon it to chill his mixtures, and, in the hospital 
the physician prescribes it to cure and to comfort. But most important 
of all is the use of ice to maintain freshness, wholesomeness, and high 
quality in foods, and, directly or indirectly, most of the ice produced 
is utihzed for this purpose. 

We are apt to think that the piece of ice in the home refrigerator 
is the ice which is doing the work of food preservation, which is true. 
But far behind the household refrigerator there is a long refrigerated 
channel through which foods travel from producer to consumer. For 
example, each refrigerator car holds from three to five tons of ice. 
We have a fleet of about 150,000 such cars. One filling of ice is 
seldom enough to protect the lading for the entire haul and, for long 
hauls such as from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast as much as ten 
tons of ice per car may be required. This means that millions of 
tons of ice each year are used to protect our foods while in transit. 

And then, just think of the hundreds of thousands of butcher 
boxes, large and small, in which ice is the refrigerant. 

How insignificant would apear the few ices and sherbets made by 
Catherine d'Medici's chef when compared with the great ice cream 
industry of this country. Though much of the ice cream manufactured 
in this country is frozen by mechanical means, yet millions of pounds 



24 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

of ice are required each year in the packing and handling of the 
product. Over 300,000,000 gallons of ice cream are manufactured each 
year, to say nothing of the large quantities made in homes where ice 
must be used in the freezing process. 

Of all the foodstuffs kept from spoiling by means of ice none is of 
such importance as milk. Neither is there any food which depends 
to such an extent upon ice to maintain its purity. From the cooling 
of the milk with ice on the farm to the cracked ice in the container 
for the bottles on the milkman's wagon, milk is never for one moment 
from the cow to the consumer unaccompanied by its guardian and 
caretaker — I CE. 

What the Ice Industry Is Doing. — More than 6,000 factories sup- 
ply America today with over 42,000,000 tons of ice each year. In 
addition to this the harvesters of natural ice supply about 15,000,000 
tons per annum. It is the duty of the industry to see that the Ameri- 
can public is supplied with enough ice for all needs the year 'round. 
To fulfill this responsibility requires a large investment in money and 
men as well as sound business policy to serve the public economically 
and produce that reasonable profit which must accrue to every suc- 
cessful industry. For example, the city of New York uses each year 
3,750,000 tons of ice. That the supply may not fail when warm weather 
comes and the demand increases manyfold, ice is manufactured and 
stored for months or until there is an accumulation of 200,000 tons 
which is not considered excessive as a margin of safety for the con- 
sumer. This is in addition to an average daily capacity for production 
in the ice plants of greater New York City of 23,000 to 24,000 tons. 
Similar precautions are taken the country over. 

Not only the large city but the small town and the country side 
must find ice available should the need or the desire arise. Accord- 
ingly, we find small ice plants dotting the country from Canada to 
Mexico and from Coast to Coast. Longer and longer are the delivery 
routes and more and more frequent the supply stations. Into the 
depths of the Grand Canyon where it is eternally summer, ice is 
brought by burro back. On the banks of northern waters great houses 
store Nature's product that even in the North food may be preserved 
in warm weather. 

To give an idea of the amount of equipment necessary and the 
volume of business carried on, it is interesting to note that manu- 
facturers of ice in large cities such as New York may have as many 
as five hundred trucks and wagons in service, employ as many as 
one thousand men and manufacture as much as one million and a half 
tons of ice per year. 

Such is the story of ice and the part it has played as the cen- 
turies have rolled on and man has become more and more the master 



ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 25 

of the elements about him. That he now holds the key which regu- 
lates temperature, has been a development successful only after toil 
and struggle. 

But the benefits are available to all of us. 

Properties of Ice. — Most substances on being cooled be- 
come denser, changing from vapor to liquid and then to solid 
form, each more compact than the preceding form. Water 
is an exception to this general law. Water upon being cooled 
behaves normally and becomes denser until cooled at 39°. 
Further cooling expands the water until 32° is reached, when 
it freezes. Ice forms with an expansion. If this were not so, 
lakes would freeze from the bottom up. One can skate on 
ice because the pressure melts the ice, making a thin film 
of water. It requires energy to change from a solid to a 
liquid as this is a propertv common to crystalline substances. 

Ice freezes in crystals, hexagonal in shape. When ice is 
frozen in the ordinary can method, these prisms have the 
hexagonal side on the surface of the cake of ice. If there is 
no agitation of the water during the freezing process, these 
l)risms will continue in straight surfaces from the outside of 
the cake to the center. When there is agitation of the water 
during the freezing, the crystals break and pile up, forming 
irregular lines and surfaces. This is the reason a sun test 
will melt a 300 lb. cake of ice frozen without agitation, from 
four to five hours sooner than it will melt a similar cake of 
ice frozen with water agitation. The light, air, and heat enter 
the cake frozen without agitation with much less resistance. 

A cake of ice frozen with agitation has about one per cent 
greater density than a cake of the same size frozen without 
agitation. 

One cubic foot of ice at 32° F. weighs 57.50 pounds. 

One pound of ice at 32° F. has a volume of 0.0174 cubic 
feet or 30.067 cubic inches. The relative volume of ice to 
water at 32° F. is 1.0855. The specific gravity of ice is 0.922. 
The specific heat of ice is 0.504. 

Quantity of Ice Required for a Dairy Farm. —The United 
States Department of Agriculture in Farmers' Bulletin No. 



26 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

1078 gives the following information in reference to the quant- 
ity of ice required for a dairy farm : 

The quantity of ice needed for a dairy farm depends on 
its location, number of cows milked, and methods of handling 
the product. In the Northern States, it has been found that 
with a moderately good ice house, where the shrinkage from 
melting is not more than 30 per cent, half a ton of ice per cow 
is sufficient to cool the cream and hold it at a low temperature 
for delivery two or three times a week. It must be understood, 
however, that suitable cooling tanks are necessary under this 
estimate. The half-ton-per-cow estimate for ice to be stored 
allows for a reasonable waste and also for ordinary household 
use. If whole milk is to be cooled the quantity of ice stored 
must be increased to one and a half tons per cow in the North 
and two tons per cow in the South. To meet the needs of the 
average family on a general farm, it will be necessary to store 
about five tons. 

Cost of Harvesting Ice. — ^The United States Department of 
Agriculture in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1078 gives the following 
data on the cost per ton for harvesting ice: 

The cost of harvesting ice also varies with local conditions. It 
is impossible, therefore, to give an estimated cost that will cover 
all cases. The ice-harvesting season fortunately comes at a time when 
there is the least work on the farm for men and teams, and conse- 
quently the actual money cost is usually not very great. Investiga- 
tions have indicated that counting the full value of the men's time, 
the average cost of cutting ice is about 27 cents a ton. Add to this 
the cost of packing and hauling, and the average cost of a ton of ice 
is about $1.50, when the ice house is near the source of supply. If 
the ice house is at a considerable distance the cost of hauling, of 
course, is increased, and the total cost of storing ice in some instances 
has amounted to $3.00 or more a ton. 

Refrigeration Required for Making Ice.— The refrigeration 
required to make a pound of ice may be calculated as follows, 
when the initial temperature of the water is 75° F. : 

To cool water (75° F.-32" F.) 43 B.t.u. 

To freeze water (latent heat=::144) 144 B.t.u. 

To cool ice from 32° F. to 18° F. (0.504x14) 7 B.t.u. 

Total 194 B.t.u. 



ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 27 

These quantities are shown graphically by Fig I. An addi- 
tional amount of refrigeration, equivalent to from 15 per cent 
to 20 per cent of the foregoing, must be allowed to cover the 
unavoidable losses during the freezing of the ice. The fore- 
going methods, together with an allowance of approximately 
20 per cent for losses, were used for the calculation of the data 
given in Table III of Chapter 1. 

Size of Ice Cans. — Recent survey of the different sizes of 
ice cans indicated there w^ere being manufactured at present 
about fifty dilierent sizes. Of course, a great portion of the 
ice manufactured in the United States is frozen in 300 lb. and 
400 lb. cans. Table X gives the sizes of the so-called standard 
ice cans. These particular sizes are used in a great majority of 
the plants. 

TABLE X. — STANDARD SIZES OF ICE CANS 



Size of 


Size of 


Size ot 


Inside 


Outside 


Size of 


cake, in 


top, 


bottom. 


depth, 


depth, 


band, 


pounds 


inches 


inches 


inches 


inches 


inches 


50 


8x 8 


7/x7/2 


31 


32 


j4xl/2 


100 


8x16 


7>4xl5J4 


31 


32 


j4xl/2 


200 


llj4x22/2 


10/2x21/2 


31 


32 


^x2 


300 


11/2x22/2 


10/2x21/ 


44 


45 


^/4x2 


400 


11/2x22/2 


10/2x21/2 


57 


58 


Kx2 



Cutting of Ice Into Blocks. — The cutting of ice into blocks 
suitable for household refrigerators should be given special 
attention. The 25 pound unit system of cuts is in general use. 
The larger or 100 pound blocks are cut from the ends of the 
cake and the 50 pounds cuts are made b}^ splitting the middle 
100 pounds blocks. The 300 and 400 pound ice cakes usually 
have from five to ten per cent overweight to allow for loss 
in melting during storage and delivery. 

Ice scoring machines are being used by the more progres- 
sive manufacturers. Some of the advantages of the ice scor- 
ing machines are : Insures customer of full weight, saves time 
in delivery, and gives blocks of suitable dimensions for stan- 
dard ice compartment. The ice scoring machine has a series 
of saws which score the two largest faces at the same time. 
The scoring for a 300 pound block requires one horizontal and 
five vertical cuts. 



28 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




ICE AND REFRIGERATION PURPOSES 29 

Water. — Some of the dissolved solids found in ordinary 
tap water are as follows : 

Silica, Sulphate of soda, 

Carbonate of iron, Chloride of soda, 

Alumina, Carbonate of soda. 

Carbonate of lime, Chloride of lime, 

Sulphate of lime, Chloride of magnesia. 
Carbonate of magnesia, 

The first six of this list are scale formins: solids. 



CHAPTER III 

REFRIGERANTS 

General Requisites. — The most desirable refrigerant should 
possess the following" properties : 

1. A high latent heat as well as a high ratio of the latent heat 
to the specific heat of the liquid, in order to produce a large refrig- 
erating effect per cycle of operation. 

2. A boiling point at ordinary atmospheric pressure low enough 
to obtain the temperature desired. 

3. A condensing temperature at a relatively low pressure. 

4. A low specific volume of vapor. 

5. A high critical temperature. 

6. A low ratio of compression. 

7. A non-corrosive action on metals. 

8. A chemical composition which is stable under working condi- 
tions and inert on lubricants and gaskets. 

9. A non-inflammable and non-explosive nature even when mixed 
with air. 

10. An inoffensive odor, non-injurious to health. 

11. A behavior whereby its presence in small quantities may be 
visibly detected by a simple test. 

12. A low cost of production for a product of necessary chem- 
ical purity for commercial use. 

13. No affinity for constituents of the atmosphere whereby leaks 
might form gases or acids effecting the normal operation of the 
system. 

14. A non-corrosive action on desirable bearing materials. 

Refrigerants for Household Systems. — There are approxi- 
mately 500,000 household refrigerating machines in operation 

31 



32 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

in the United States. Sulphur dioxide is the refrigerant used 
in more than 75 per cent of these systems. Some of the other 
mediums employed are : methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, butane, 
isobutane, ammonia, propane, carbon dioxide, ether, air and water 
vapor. 

Amonia is used in more than 90 per cent of the larger or 
commercial refrigerating plants. 

Carbon dioxide is now used extensively for refrigerating 
systems in boats where formerl}- ethyl chloride and air ma- 
chines were favored. Carbon dioxide and air machines are 
considered safer than machines with other refrigerants, in 
case of accident or fire. Carbon dioxide is used rather ex- 
tensively in Europe for small household machines and its use 
in cooling theatres and public buildings is increasing in the 
United States. 

Ether has some use in small hand operated machines which 
are manufactured in Europe and sold in the tropics. 

Nitrous oxide has a limited use in the chemical industries 
when very low temperatures are desired. 

Pressure of Condensation, — The condensing pressure 
should be comparative!} low. Assuming 86° F, as the con- 
densing temperature, the following pressures are obtained with 
the refrigerants in common use: 

Ether 2.4 Lbs. Gauge 

Ethyl Chloride 12.40 Lbs. Gauge 

Sulphur Dioxide 51.75 Lbs. Gauge 

Methyl Chloride 80.83 Lbs. Gauge 

Propane 143.0 Lbs. Gauge 

Ammonia 154.5 Lbs. Gauge 

Ethane 666.0 Lbs. Gauge 

Nitrous Oxide 915.3 Lbs. Gauge 

Carbon Dioxide 1024.3 Lbs. Gauge 

The high condensing pressure reached with carbon dioxide 
and even ammonia, necessitates very strong and w^ell made 
apparatus. The carbon dioxide machines in use today are 
water cooled. The ammonia machines are also water cooled. 
Air cooled ammonia machines have been built but have not 
been used commercially. Sulphur dioxide machines have been 
placed on the market, both as w^ater cooled and air cooled. 
The air cooled operate at a condensing pressure of 10 to 20 
pounds higher than the water cooled type. Air cooling lowers 



REFRIGERANTS 33 

the efficiency, but increases the simplicity of the refrigerating 
system. A study of the development of household machines 
indicates that it is very desirable to use air cooled condensers 
to obtain simplicity, lower initial cost, and lower installation 
costs. Air cooled condensers are now used almost universally 
in household machines of the compression type. 

It has not proven practical to use air cooling for refriger- 
ants operating at a condensing pressure of more than 150 lbs. 
gauge. It is usually necessary .to centralize the piping with 
refrigerants having a condensing pressure of over 150 lbs. 
o-auo-e and distribute the refrigeration by means of a brine 
system. 

Pressure of Vaporization. — The following evaporating 
pressures are obtained with the refrigerants in common use 
at 5° F., evaporating temperature. 

Ether — 13.19 Lbs. Gauge 

Ethyl Chloride —10.05 Lbs. Gauge 

Sulphur Dioxide —2.88 Lbs. Gauge 

Methyl Chloride 6.19 Lbs. Gauge 

Ammonia 1957 Lbs. Gauge 

Propane 30.5 Lbs. Gauge 

Ethane 221.0 Lbs Gauge 

Nitrous 'Oxide 318.3 Lbs. Gauge 

Carbon Dioxide 319.7 Lbs. Gauge 

The evaporating pressure has an important influence on 
the stuffing box. The packing is usually made to take up 
wear automatically. It is advantageous to have nearly the 
same pressure on both sides of the packing. 

Sulphur dioxide operates at an evaporating pressure very 
close to atmospheric pressure, thus favoring this condition 
better than any of the other refrigerants in common use. 

With a refrigerant such as ethyl chloride, which normally 
operates with a partial vacuum on the evaporator, it is very 
difficult to locate a leak as air could enter the system un- 
noticed, and would greatly reduce the efficiency of the appa- 
ratus. 

Some household machines have all moving parts entirely 
enclosed, thus eliminating this packing gland difficulty. The 
compressors so far designed with a method of eliminating the 
packing gland include the design features which have not as 
yet proven practical in large quantity production. Other 



34 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

machines have an oil reservoir on both sides of the stuffing 
box, so that any small leak would be of oil either into or out 
of the compressor crank case. This would depend upon the 
pressure inside the crank case being above or below atmos- 
pheric pressure. 

Latent Heat of Vaporization. — The latent heat of vaporiza- 
tion should be carefully considered in selecting a refrigerant 
for a household machine. One of the most difficult problems 
is the expansion valve, float valve, or liquid restriction device, 
which controls the rate of flow of liquid from the condensing 
to the evaporating side of the system. With a high latent 
heat of vaporization, this problem is more difficult, as it is 
then necessary to control through a more sensitive valve (the 
amount of liquid circulating per minute being less). In mak- 
ing this comparison it is also necessary to consider the con- 
densing and evaporating pressures. These determine the 
pressure differential tr\ing to force the liquid through the 
expansion valve. 

This problem is more difficult with ammonia than with 
sulphur dioxide, as it is necessary to circulate three to four 
times more refrigerant in the sulphur dioxide system, because 
of its lower latent heat of vaporization, while the pressure 
differential between the condensing and evaporating sides are 
less than in an ammonia system. On larger refrigerating sys- 
tems, the liquid control problem is less difficult ; therefore, a 
refrigerant with a high latent heat of vaporization is preferred. 

Carbon dioxide has a very low latent heat of vaporization, 
about half that of sulphur dioxide. However, the pressure 
differential is so great as to more than offset the advantage of 
having a loAver latent heat. 

The latent heat of vaporization of the household refriger- 
ants in common use at 5° F. is: 

Carbon Dioxide 115.30 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Nitrous Oxide 121.4 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Sulphur Dioxide 169.38 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Propane 169.5 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Ethane 176.0 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Ethyl Chloride 177.0 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Methyl Chloride 178.5 B.t.u. per Lb. 

Ammonia 565.0 B.t.u. per Lb. 



REFRIGERANTS 35 

Corrosion of Metals. — An important factor in choosing a 
refrigerant is the corrosive action on metals. Sulphur dioxide 
has no corrosive action on iron or steel, unless there is water 
present. Water and sulphur dioxide combine chemically as 
follov^'s : 

H,0 plus SO2 = H.SO.-; 

Water plus sulphur dioxidei^Sulphurous acid 

Suli)liur(nis acid is f(jrnicd, which will attack won 
This condition sometimes occurs, resulting in a so-called 
"frozen" compressor. The pistons will "freeze" to the cylin- 
ders so tightly that it is necessary to take the compressor 
apart and remove such material before operating again. 

Sulphur dioxide has no chemical or corrosive action on 
copper or copper alloys, thus permitting the use of copi)er 
tubes for the condensing and cooling elements. This is an 
advantage, as the thermal conductivity of copper is seven or 
eight times greater than that of steel or iron. Copper or cop- 
per alloys cannot be used with ammonia when there is water 
present. Copper can be used with anhydrous ammonia. Cop- 
per lines are used on some absorption machines using a solid 
absorbent and charged with anhydrous ammonia. 

Methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, butane, and carbon diox- 
ide have no chemical or corrosive action on copper, copper 
alloys, iron or steel ; therefore, these refrigerants may be used 
with any of these metals. 

Testing for Gas Leaks. — Sulphur dioxide is one of the two 
refrigerants, ammonia being the other, with which it is pos- 
sible to find leaks by means of a visible method called the 
"smoke" test. 

The smoke test consists of placing aqua ammonia near the 

sulphur dioxide leak. A chemical reaction occurs and dense 

white smoke apparently issues from the opening. 

SO. + H.O = H.SO3 

2NH4OH H.SO:. = (NH4).S03 + 2H.O 

(NH4)2SOy is a white solid ammonium sulphite. A burn- 
ing sulphur stick is used in testing for an ammonia leak. 

A small alcohol flame is sometimes used in testing for an 
appreciable leak of methyl chloride. The flame is passed near 
the connections to be tested. A leak of methyl chloride will 



36 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



impart a green color to the nearly colorless alcohol flame. 
There is no danger of igniting an explosive mixture of methyl 
chloride and air in making- this test. It is necessary to have 
at least 10 per cent and not more than 15 per cent of methyl 
chloride present by volume to form an explosive mixture with 
air. It is impossible to remain in a room for more than a 
minute or tw"o with this concentration present because of the 
physiological effect upon breathing. 

Another method used to find leaks of methyl chloride is 
to use a small electrically heated wire. The wire is heated 
to a dull red temperature. While the wire is being applied, 
the fumes of ammonia arc brought near. If methyl chloride 
is present a fume will result, due to the decomposition of the 
methyl chloride to hydrochloric acid and carbon and the recon- 
struction of the hydrochloric acid set free with the ammonia. 

Comparisons of Refrigerants for Household Machines. — 
From foregoing considerations it will be observed *that the 
operating pressures, latent heat of evaporization, facility for 
testing for gas leakage, inflammability, corrosive action on 

TABLE XI. REFRIGERANTS FOR HOUSEHOLD MACHINES 

Relative Advantage for Use in Household Machines. 
Listed in order of preference under each heading. 



Operating 

Pressures 


Latent Heat 
of Vapori- 
zation 


Testing for 
Gas Leaks 


Inflamma- 
bility 


Corosive 

Action on 

Metals 


Danger of 
Breathing 
Small Con- 
centration of 
Gas in Air 


Lubrica- 
tion 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Ammonia 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Methyl 
chloride 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Methyl 
chloride 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Ethyl 
chloride 


Ethyl 
chloride 


,\mmonia 


Ammonia 


Ethyl 
chloride 


Methyl 
chloride 


Ammonia 


Ether 


Methyl 
chloride 


Methyl 
chloride 


Ethyl 
chloride 


Methyl 
chloride 


Ether 


Methyl 
chloride 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Ether 


Ether 


Ether 


Ether 


Ethyl 
chloride 


Ethyl 
chloride 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Ammonia 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Ammonia 


Carbon 
dioxide 


Ether 


Ammonia 


Sulphur 
dioxide 


Ethyl 
chloride 



metals, danger of breathing, and lubrication, are the principle 
factors to be considered in the selection of a suitable refriger- 
ant for household refrigerating machines. With these factors 



REFRIGERANTS 2,7 

in mind, the author has prepared Table XI, to show the rela- 
tive advantages of various refrigerants in household machines. 
These are listed in order of preference, under each of the head- 
ings for sulphur dioxide, ethyl chloride, ammonia, methyl 
chloride, ether, and carbon dioxide. 

Characteristics Influencing Selections. — The following are 
some of the general characteristics influencing the selection of 
refrigerants : 

1. The condensing pressure should be reasonably low at tap 
water or atmospheric air temperatures, depending upon the cooling 
medium used. The evaporating pressure necessary to freeze ice in a 
reasonable length of time should be close to atmospheric pres- 
sure, preferably above, to prevent gas leaks when a stuffing box is used. 
The ratio of compression between the condensing pressure and pres- 
sure of vaporization should be small in order to facilitate the function- 
ing of the expansion valve. 

2. A low latent heat of vaporization is preferred so that a larger 
amount of liquid refrigerant circulates to do the same amount of 
cooling. This makes the expansion valve or liquid control restriction 
less sensitive and permits the valve to leak more without affecting 
normal operation. 

3. A refrigerant having a visible or "smoke" test for leaks is 
preferable as it is then not necessary to test every joint with oil or 
soap water. It is extremely difficult to find leaks if a refrigerant oper- 
ates at a pressure less than atmospheric as air can leak into the appara- 
tus affecting normal operation before the leak is detected. 

4. A non-inflammable refrigerant is preferred in order to prevent 
danger in case of a gas leak in the refrigerating system in a home 
and also to prevent danger in case of fire. 

5. A refrigerant is favored which does not have a corrosive or 
chemical action on metals. It is advantageous to be able to use cop- 
per and copper alloys for heat interchange apparatus on account of 
the higher rate of heat conductivity. Some refrigerants have a 
corrosive efi'ect on metals when water or gases from the atmosphere 
are allowed to enter the refrigerating system. 

6. Preference is given to the different refrigerants in accordance 
with the percentage of gas, which, when mixed with air, will not give 
discomfort when breathed for a considerable length of time. 

7. It is preferable to use oil as a lubricant. It is desirable to 
eliminate the oil trap. The lubricant problem is more difficult when 
larger volumes of gas must be compressed, often .necessitating a ro- 
tary compressor. 



38 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Amount of Refrigerant to Be Evaporated. — The relative 
amount of the liquid refrigerant to be evaporated to produce 
refrigeration at a given rate depends upon the relative latent 
heat of vaporization and sensible heat of the respective re- 
frigerant. Generally, those refrigerants which have high latent 
heat of evaporization require a small amount of liquid to 
be evaporated to produce a given refrigerating effect. This 
is illustrated by ammonia, which has a fairly large latent heat 
of evaporization. On the other hand, certain refrigerants have 








Carbon Dioxide Ethyl Chloride Methyl Chloride Sulphur Dioxide Ammonia 
FIG. 2— AMOUNT OF LIQUID REFRIGERANT TO BE EVAPORATED 



low latent heats of evaporization, in which case, the sensible 
heat of the liquid corresponds to a large proportion of the 
available latent heat of evaporization. By sensible heat of 
liquid is meant the heat required to cool the liquid refrigerant 
from the temperature at the exit from the condenser, or at a 
point just before the expansion valve to the temperature exist- 
ing in the evaporator. Carbon dioxide is one of the representa- 
tive refrigerants which has a fairly small latent heat of evapo- 
rization. Fig. 2 shows graphically the amount of refrigerant 
which must be evaporated per minute to produce one pound 
of ice melting effect per 24 hours for carbon dioxide, ethyl 
chloride, methyl chloride, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. 



REFRIGERANTS 



39 



Use of Refrigerants in the United States. — The various 
types of refrigerating plants using different refrigerants in 
the United States may be classified into large commercial 
plants, small commercial plants, marine installations, and 
household refrigerating machines. In a large commercial 
plant, it will be found that ammonia is used extensively; in 
small commercial plants ammonia is used extensively also; 
in marine installations, carbon dioxide is used extensively, 
and in the household machines, sulphur dioxide is used exten- 
sively. Table XII shows the use of the different refrigerants 
in the United States at present. 

TABLE XII. — USE OF REFRIGERANTS IN UNITED STATES 
Table Showing Present Usage in U. S. for Various Types of Refrigerating Plants. 



Large 

Commercial 

Plants 



Small 
Commercial 

Plants 



Marine 
Installations 



Household 
Machines 



Ammonia 










(Compression) 


Extensive 


Extensive 


Limited 


Very Limited 


Sulphur Dioxide 


None 


None 


Very Limited 


Extensive 


Methyl Chloride 


None 


None 


Very Limited 


Limited 


Ethyl Chloride . 


None 


None 


Very Limited 


Limited 


Carbon Dioxide . 


Limited 


Limited 


Extensive 


Very Limited 


Air 


None 


None 


Very Limited 


Very Limited 


Ammonia 










(Absorption) . 


Limited 


Limited 


None 


Limited 


Isobutane 


None 


None 


None 


Limited 



Comparative Cylinder Displacements. — On account of the 
fact that the different refrigerants have different latent heats 
of evaporation and sensible heats of liquid, as well as specific 
volumes of vapors, it is evident that the cylinder displace- 
ments will be individual with each kind of refrigerant. Those 
refrigerants which have high refrigerating effects with corre- 
sponding low specific volumes of vapor, will require the mini- 
mum cylinder displacements, while those which have low re- 
frigerating effects, and correspondingly large specific volumes 
of vapor, will require the maximum cylinder displacements. 
The converse of this may be stated by giving the refrigerat- 
ing effect per cubic foot of cylinder displacement. Table XIII 
has been prepared to show the relative refrigeration per cubic 
foot of cylinder displacement for an evaporating temperature 
of 5' F., and a condensing temperature of 86° F. for some of 
the common refrigerants. From this table, it will be noted 



40 



HOUSEHOLD REFKIGERATION 



that ethyl chloride has a very small refrigerating effect per 
cubic foot of cylinder displacement, that carbon dioxide has a 
high refrigerating effect per cubic foot, and that sulphur diox- 
ide, methyl chloride, and ammonia, have a medium refrigerat- 
ing eff'ect per cubic foot of cylinder displacement. 

TABLE XIII COMPARATIVE REFRIGERATION PER CU. FT. OF 

CYLINDER DISPLACEMENT 
For 5° F. Suction Temperature and 86° F. Condensing Temperature 





S :lphur 




Mcthvl 


Carbon 


Ethyl 




Dioxide 


Ammonia 


Chloride 


Dioxide 


Chloride 


Chemical S\"mbol 


SO2 


mh 


CH3CL 


CO2 


C2H5CL 


Latent Heat at 5° F 


1G9.3S 


oGo.O 


17S.5G 


115.3 


177.0 


Heat to Cool Liquid 


2<S.01 


90.55 


■ 38.15 


58.61 


34.7 


Refrigerating Effect per lb . 


UL37 


474.45 


140.41 


56.69 


142.3 


Specific Volume Vapor at 












5° F. (cu. ft. per lb.)... 


G.421 


8.15 


4.53 


0.2673 


17.06 


Refrigerating Effect per 












cu. ft. Cylinder Dis- 












placement 


22.17 


58.22 


31.00 


212.08 


8.35 



Properties of Ammonia. — Ammonia is a colorless, gaseous 
compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. Its chemical formula 
is NH,,, indicating that one atom of nitrogen unites with three 
atoms of hydrogen to form ammonia. Its boiling point at 
atmospheric pressure is — 28° F. It has a melting point of 
—107.86° F. 

Color and Odor. — Ammonia is a colorless, transparent 
liquid or gas. It has an extremely pungent, peculiar, and of- 
fensive odor which is easily recognizable and irrespirable. 

Inflauunahility. — It does not support combustion. How- 
ever, under high pressure it may form an explosive mixture 
when intermingled with oil vapor. It is decomposed into its 
elements by extreme heat and under such conditions, an ex- 
plosive mixture may result. It is combustible when mixed with 
a sufficient proportion of air, being capable of exploding with 
considerable violence. 

Corrosion of Mcfals. — It will attack copper and all of its 
alloys when water is present, but it has no chemical or corro- 
sive action on iron and steel. Ammonium hvdroxide has a 



REFRIGERANTS 41 

slight reaction on iron when in a very dilute concentration. 
With the higher concentrations used in ammonia absorption 
plants, no reaction occvn^s on iron. 

Locating Leaks. — Ammonia leaks may be readily located 
by the "smoke" test which consists of placing a burning sul- 
phur stick in the vicinity of the leak. A chemical reaction oc- 
curs and a dense white smoke apparently issues from the open- 
ing. 

Stability Tozvard LIcat. — It is a rather stable gas especially 
at temperatures under 300° F. However, the chemical bond 
is not as strong as with carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. 
A household compressor should always have a discharge gas 
temperature lower than 300° F. 

Solubility in Water. — It is very soluble in water, the union 
of the two producing considerable heat and forming ammon- 
ium hydroxide until a certain concentration has been reached. 
The vapor may then be driven off by heating the ammonium 
hydroxide, and it is on this principle that the absorption sys- 
tem operates. 

Properties of Butane. — Butane is one of the isomeric, in- 
flammable gaseous hydrocarbons of the methane series. Its 
chemical formula is C^H^o, indicating that four atoms of car- 
bon unite with ten atoms of hydrogen to form butane. It 
has a boiling point of 31° F. at normal atmospheric pressure 
and a melting point of 211° F. 

Color and Odor. — Butane is a colorless lic[uid or gas, with 
a slight ethereal odor and is slightly asphyxiating. The vapor 
is non-poisonous. 

Inflammability. — It is inflammable, the gas burning with a 
yellow flame. 

Corrosion of Metals. ■ — It has no corosive effect on copper, 
copper alloys or iron, even in the presence of moisture. 

Locating Leaks. — It is difficult to locate leaks as no easy 
sight test can be made. 



42 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Stability Tozvards Heat. — It is a stable gas which does not 
break up at temperatures encountered in normal operation. 
The critical temperature is 551.3° F. 

Displacement Required. — The displacement required for a 
certain amount of refrigeration is about 7 per cent more than 
with sulphur dioxide. 

Properties of Carbon Dioxide (Carbonic Acid Gas). — Car- 
bon dioxide is a heavy, colorless gas ; it is sometimes called car- 
bonic acid gas. This is on account of the fact that the acid, 
carbonic acid, H._,CO:; breaks down readily into water and car- 
bon dioxide, CO^ ; the latter is commonly called carbon dioxide 
or carbonic acid gas. It has a chemical symbol, CO^, which indi- 
cates that one atom of carbon unites with two atoms of oxygen 
to form carbon dioxide. At normal atmospheric pressure, it 
has a boiling temperature of —108.4° F. and if the liquid is 
sufficiently cooled, it is solidified into a snowlike substance, 
which evaporizes or sublimes at —160.6° F. 

Color and Odor. — Carbon dioxide, sometimes called car- 
bonic acid gas, is a colorless liquid or gas. It exists as a gas 
in very small quantities in the atmosphere and is non-odorous. 
It is harmless to breathe except in extremely large concentra- 
tions when the lack of oxygen would be noticed. 

Inflainniability. — It is not inflammable and does not sup- 
port combustion. 

Corrosion of Metals. — It has no corosive effect on copper, 
copper alloys or iron. 

Locating Leaks. — It is difficult to locate leaks as no easy 
sight test can be made. 

Stability Tozvards Heat. — It is a stable gas which does not 
break up at the temperature encountered in normal operation. 
This gas is very inert. The critical temperature is 87.80° F. 

Solubility in Water. — It is slightly soluble in water, the 
])ercentage increasing at lower temperatures. 

Displacenioit Required. — It requires about one-fourth the 
displacement of an ammonia machine to do the same amount 
of refrigeration. 



REFRIGERANTS 43 

Properties of Ethane. — Ethane is a gaseous hydrocarbon, 
and is a constituent of ordinary natural and illuminating gas. 
It is a second member of the methane series, and has the chem- 
ical symbol CgHg. It has a boiling point of —126.9° F. and 
a melting point of — 277.6° F. 

Color and Odor. — Ethane is a colorless liquid or gas of the 
hydrocarbon series. The gas is non-poisonous. It has an 
ethereal odor and is slightly asphyxiating. 

Inflammability. — It is inflammable, burning with a yellow 
flame. 

Corrosion of Metals.— It has no corrosive efifect on metals 
and does not form injurious acids with water. 

Locating Leaks. — It is difficult to locate leaks as no easy 
sight test can be made. 

Stability Toivards Heat. — This gas is stable under the con- 
ditions of pressure and temperature required in refrigeration 
work. 

Displacement Required. — The displacement required is 
about 40 per cent greater than with carbon dioxide. 

Properties of Ether. — Ether is a light, volatile, inflammable 
gas, having a characteristic aromatic odor, and is obtained by 
the distillation of alcohol with sulphuric acid, and is thus 
sometimes termed "sulphuric ether." It has the chemical 
symbol C4H10O. Its boiling point is 94.1° F., and its melting 
point is —177.34° F. 

Color and Odor. — Ether is a colorless gas or liquid with a 
strong ethereal smell. 

Inflammability. — It burns with a luminous flame and ex- 
plodes when mixed with air. 

Corrosion of Metals. — It has no corrosive action on metals 

Locating Leaks. — It is difficult to locate leaks, especially 
on the evaporating side, as this is usually operating at a 
vacuum. Air leaking into the system would cause no damage 



44 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

from chemical action or corrosion; however, it would soon in- 
crease the condensing pressure, affecting the normal operation 
of the system. 

Stability Towards Heat. — It is stable at the temperatures 
reached in the condensing element. The gas condenses dur- 
ing compression and superheats during expansion. 

It is miscible with water. 

Properties of Ethyl Chloride. — Ethyl chloride is a colorless 
and a very volatile liquid, having an aromatic odor. It is used 
widely as a local anaesthetic. Its chemical symbol is CsHgCl. 
It has a boiling point of 53.96° F., and a melting point of 
—217.66° F. 

Color and Odor. — Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas or liquid 
with a pungent ethereal smell and a sweetish taste. 

Inflammability. — It is inflammable when mixed with a cer- 
tain proportion of air. It burns w'ith a green-edged flame. A 
certain quality of ethyl chloride has been produced in England 
which is claimed to be non-inflammable. This result is ob- 
tained by the addition of a certain amount of methyl bromide. 

Corrosion of Metals. — It has no corrosive effect on metals. 

Locating Leaks. — It is very difficult to locate leaks, espe- 
cially on the evaporating side of the system, as the pressure 
of evaporization is considerably below atmospheric pressure. 

Stability Tozvards Heat. — It is stable toward heat and does 
not fractionize at the temperatures reached in the condenser. 
The critical temperature is 361.0° F. 

Solubility in Water. — It is slightly soluble in water and 
dissolves oils. Glycerine is used as a lubricant in some ethyl 
chloride systems. 

Properties of Methyl Chloride. — Methyl chloride is the 
colorless, sweet-smelling gas which is obtained by the action 
of hydrochloric acid on methyl alcohol. It is easily liquefied 
by pressure and cold, and is used as a refrigerant and a local 
anaesthetic. It has a chemical symbol of CH3CI, and has a 
boiling point of — 10.66° F., and a melting point of — 143.68° F. 



REFRIGERANTS 45 

Color and Odor. — Methyl chloride is a colorless, transpar- 
ent liquid or gas. The odor resembles that of chloroform ; 
however, it is not so lieavy and is less sweet. 

Inflammability. — It is inflammable in concentrations of at 
least 10 per cent and not more than 15 per cent with air. It 
requires a spark or white hot wire to explode it even at these 
concentrations. 

Corrosion of Metals. — It does not attack copper, copper 
alloys or iron. 

Locating Leaks. — Methyl chloride operates with a pressure 
greater than atmospheric on both the condensing and evapo- 
rating units of the system. Adarge leak would force methyl 
chloride gas into the room where its presence might be 
noticed by the peculiar odor. One method of testing for leaks 
is by means of an alcohol flame, for methyl chloride gas will 
impart a green color to the nearly colorless alcohol flame. 

Stability Towards Heat. — It is very stable towards heat. 
It requires a red heat to decompose it into hydrochloric acid, 
methane, hydrogen, etc. The critical temperature is 289.6° F. 

Solubility in Water. — Three to four volumes of methyl 
chloride gas will dissolve into one volume of water at ordinary 
temperature and atmospheric pressure. Methyl chloride in 
the presence of water may form a solid crystalline h}drate 
CH3CI.6.H2O. 

Properties of Propane. — Propane is one of the heavy gas- 
eous hydrocarbons of the paraffin series. It occurs, naturally, 
dissolved in crude petroleum. It has the chemical symbol 
CgHg, a boiling point of — 48.1° F., and a melting point of 
—309.8° F. 

Color and Odor. — Propane is a colorless liquid or gas of 
the hydrocarbon series. The gas is non-poisonous and is not 
dangerous to breathe until its density is sufficient to ex- 
clude the ox}'gen necessary during respiration. It has an 
ethereal odor and is slightly asphyxiating. 



46 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Inflammability. — It is inflammable. The gas burns with 
a yellow flame. 

Corrosion of Metals. — It has no corrosive action on any 
metals and does not form injurious acids with water. 

Locating Leaks. — It is difficult to locate leaks as no easy 
sight test can be made. 

Stability Tozvards Heat. — It is stable under the conditions 
required in refrigeration work. The critical temperature is 

204. r F. 

Displacement Required. — The displacement required is prac- 
tically the same as with ammonia. 

Properties of Sulphur Dioxide. — Sulphur dioxide is a color- 
less gas, having a pungent, suffocating odor. It is produced 
by the burning of sulphur. It has a chemical symbol, SOg, 
and a boiling point of 14° F., and a melting point of — ^98.86° F. 

Color and Odor. — Sulphur dioxide is a colorless liquid or 
gas. The gas is non-poisonous. 

Inflammability. — It is not inflammable and does not sup- 
port combustion. 

Corrosion of Metals.- — It has no corrosive effect on copper, 
copper alloys or iron. If there is water present, sulphurous 
acid is formed which will have a chemical action on metals 
such as iron, zinc, or copper. The moisture should be under 
0.3 per cent by volume for commercial use. 

Locating Leaks. — It is easy to locate leaks by a smoke 
test, using ammonia water applied with a brush. 

Stability Towards Heat. — It is a very stable gas which will 
easily withstand the temperature conditions encountered in 
normal operation. The critical temperature is 314.8° F. The 
critical pressure is 1141.5 pounds per square inch absolute. 

Solubility in Water. — One volume of water dissolves 80 
volumes of this gas at 32° F., and 47.3 volumes at 60° F. 

DisplacemC'iit Required. — It requires about 2.6 times the 
displacement of an ammonia machine for the same amount 
of refrigeration. 



REFRIGERANTS 47 

Air.— Air was used as the refrigerant in some of the early 
machines. It was compressed, cooled to room temperature, 
and then expanded in a cylinder. These machines were very 
inefficient because of the large volume of air handled, which 
together with the expansion cylinder, caused large friction 
losses. Air has a very low heat capacity per unit volume. 
Considerable difficulty was experienced with the moisture 
freezing and clogging valves. The advantages of using air 
such as safety from leakage do not compensate for the dis- 
advantages stated above. 

Two general types of air machines have been produced. 
These are the open and closed cycle. The open cycle type 
continually uses new air from the atmosphere. There is con- 
siderable trouble from condensing and freezing water vapor 
within the apparatus. The closed cycle eliminates this dis 
advantage. 

Water as a Refrigerant. — Several machines have been de- 
veloped using water as the refrigerant. At a low vacuum 
water boils at temperatures as follows : 

Vacuum, ins. of mercury .' .2974 29 67 29.56 29 40 

Boiling temperature 32°F. 40°F. 50°F. 60 F. 

It is difficult to produce a commercial pump to obtain such 
a low vacuum. The air in the water must also be discharged. 

Sulphuric acid is used to absorb the water in some systems 
of this kind. A pump must be used to remove the air. 

Small hand machines are made in Europe to operate on 
this system. They will cool a carafe of water in a few minutes 
or make a few pounds of ice in less than half an hour. This 
type of machine is used extensively in the tropics. 

Non-Condensable Gases.— It is important to prevent the 
formation of non-condensing gases in a household ammonia 
absorption refrigerating machine. These gases are eliminated 
on the larger plants by frequent purging. 

The United States Bureau of Standards has recently made 
a careful study of this subject and recommends the following 
method of eliminating, to a large extent, the formation of these 
Sfases : 



48 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



1. The non-condensable gases found in ammonia absorption re- 
frigeration machines are due to either or both of two causes, namely, 
(a) leaks of air into the system and (b) the corrosive action of the 
ammonia liquor on the metal of the plant. 

2. When the foul air gas is mainly nitrogen, the gas is derived 
from air that has leaked into the system, and leaks should therefore 
be sought. The oxygen in the air is very quickly used up, and so will 
be present in only a very small percentage of its original amount. 
If the foul gas is hydrogen, the cause is corrosion by the ammoniacal 
liquor. A gas containing both nitrogen and hydrogen shows both 
causes to be present. 

3. If a solution of sodium or potassium dichromate is added to 
the generator charge so that the charge in the generator will contain 
the salt to the extent of 0.2 per cent by weight, all foul gas forma- 
tion from the corrosive action of the ammonia charge will be stopped. 
It is recommended that the dichromate be added in all cases, as it has 
been found that its presence decreases the very small amount of gas 
caused by even the highest grade ammonias. 

Explosion Data on Gases. — The following explosion data 
on refrigerating and illuminating gases was taken from a re- 
port on refrigerating with gas presented at a meeting of the 
American Gas Association, 1925. 

TABLE XIV EXPLCSIOX DATA OX GASES 



Relative parts of diffu.^ion (Air=l) 
Gas in mixture required for complete 

combustion (%) 

Apparent ignition temperature (°F.) 
Explosion limits with air — 

High {%) 

Low (7c) 

Explosion pre.=;sures with air (lbs. 

sq. in) 

Time required to develop maximum 

pressure (seconds) 



Ammonia 



L301 

21.83 
X 

2G.8 
13.1 

0.17.5 



Ethyl 
Chloride 



0.658 

6.05 
o values a 

14.0 
4.3 

98 

0.049 



Methyl 
Chloride 



0.750 

10.69 
vailable 

15.0 

8.9 

81 
0.099 



Illuminat- 
ing Gas 



1.240 

17.00 
1094 

21.0 
7.0 

95 

0.017 



Relative Piston Displacement for Refrigerants. — As pre- 
viously indicated, the relative piston displacement for the com- 
pressor cylinder depends upon a number of factors, such as a 
latent heat of evaporization, sensible heat of the liquid, relative 
specific volume, etc. Table XV has been prepared to show 



REFRIGERANTS 49 

the comparative displacements oi the various refrigerants in- 
dicated when compared with the displacement required by 
carbon dioxide. 

TABLE XV. — RELATIVE PISTON DISPLACEMENT FOR VARIOUS 
REFRIGERANTS 

Carbon dioxide = 1 ■ 

Ammonia = 3.6 

Methyl Chloride = 6.8 

Sulphur Dioxide = 9.6 

Ethyl Chloride = 25.4 

Solubility of Sulphur Dioxide in Water. — - Weights in 
grams of sulphur dioxide gas which will be absorbed in 1,000 
grams of water when the partial pressure of the liquid at the 
given temperature equals 700 millimeters are as follows : 

0° C. 10° C. 20° C. 30° C. 40° C. 

228 162 113 78 54 

(This was compiled from Landoit-Bornstein-Meyerhoffers "Physi- 
kalisch-Chemische Tabellen.") 

Charging Refrigerants. — Refrigerants may be charged into 
refrigerating systems or thermostats in many different ways. 
Following are some of the principles used in this refrigerant 
charging process : 

There are two simple methods of charging the liquid re- 
frigerant from container A to container B in Fig. 3. It is 
assumed that the air has been exhausted from these containers 
and the connecting line. The container B may be at a higher 
elevation than A. By heating container A, the liquid is evapo- 
rated and slowly condenses in B. This is a slow process as 
sufficient heat must be applied to A to heat and evaporate 
the liquid refrigerant and enough heat must be extracted from 
B to condense the gas. Another method is to apply ice or 
cool B. 

When the outlet pipe from C is below the liquid level in 
C the liquid refrigerant will pass to D in liquid form. It is 
only necessary to either warm C or cool D. This establishes 
a pressure difference which readily forces the liquid into con- 
tainer D. 

In charging household systems, it is customary to first use 
a vacuum pump to eliminate the air and moisture from the re- 
frigerating system. Then the refrigerant is charged in liquid 



50 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



I 



Confainei U. 




(•ontainer A. 



(r 



Container C. 



T^ 



51 



Container D 



FIG. 3 —CHARGING OF REFRIGERANTS. 



REFRIGERANTS 51 

form. Thf amount of charge is regulated by weighing or 
using a glass liquid gauge on the charging receiver. 

It is extremely dangerous to heat a cylinder containing 
liquid refrigerant. When the pressure drops in charging it is 
probably best to ])lacc the cylinder in a bucket of water in 
order to supply sufficient heat to evaporate the liquid refriger- 
ant from the cylinder rapidly. 

In charging a thermostat, it is very important to first elimi- 
nate the air. The best method is to use a vacuum pump, al- 
though it is possible to eliminate practically all of the air by 
repeatedl}' charging and discharging the .thermostat bulb and 
line with the gas to be used. The liquid should fill about two- 
thirds of the bulb. An overcharged thermostat may cause 
considerable trouble. 

Method of Determining the Density of a Gas. — The volume 
of any gas may be approximately determined from its molecular 
weight at atmospheric pressure of 14.7 lbs. and 60° F., as 
follows : 

Weight per cu. ft. = molecular weight 

376 

Cu. ft. per pound = ^^^ 



molecular weight 



The volume of one cu. ft. of sulphur dioxide gas at 14.7 
lbs. atmospheric pressure and 60° F. would be found as fol- 
lows : 

— ^= 0.170 lbs. 
0/6 

The volume in cu. ft, per pou^^d is found as follows: 



TABLE XVI.— MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF GASES 

Gas Molecular Weight 

Nitrogen— N2 28 

Oxygen— O; 32 

Carbon Dioxide — COj 44 

Sulphur Dioxide — SO. 64 

Hydrogen — Hj 2 

Ammonia — NHs 17 

Air 28.1 



CHAPTER TV. 
REFRIGERANTS— TABLES. 

1. Properties of Saturated Ammonia — Temp. — Table X\'II. 

2. Properties of Saturated Ammonia — Pressure — Table XVIII. 

3. Properties of I-iquid Ammonia. — Table XIX. 

4. Properties of Su])erheated Ammonia Vapors. — Table XX. 

5. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Butane. — Table XXII. 

6. Properties of Saturated A'apor of Carbon Bisulphide. — 

Table XXIII. 

7. Properties of Carbon Dioxide. — Table XXI. 

8. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Carbon Tetrachloride. — ■ 

Table XXIV. 

9. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Chloroform. — Table 

XXV. 

10. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Ethane. — Table 

XXVIII. 

11. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Ethyl Chloride. — Table 

XXIX. 

12. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Eth}! Ether. — Table 

XXVI. 

13. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Isobutane. — Table 

XXX. 

14. Properties of Saturated Methyl Chloride Vapor. — Table 

XXXI. 

15. Properties of Saturated \'apor of Nitrous Oxide.- — Table 

XXVII. 

16. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Propane. — Table 

XXXII. 

17. Properties of Saturated Vapor of Sulphur Dioxide.- — 

Table XXXIII. 

18. Properties of Superheated Vapor of Sulphur Dioxide. — 

Table XXXIV. 

19. Standard Ton Data.— Table XXXV. 

20. Properties of Aqua-Ammonia (Percent Concentration 

Table).— Tables XXXVIII, XXXIX. 

21. Solubility of Ammonia in Water. — Table XXXVI. 

22. Heat of Association of x\mmonia. — Table XXXVII. 

23. Solubility of Gases in Water at Atmospheric Pressure. — 

Table XL. 

24. Compressibility of Liquids. — Table XLI. 

53 



54 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XVII— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES Oi' 
SATURATED AMMONIA: TEMPERATURE TABLE.— (Continued.) 



• 


Pressure. 


Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 


Entropy. 
















. Temp. 


Vhsohite. 


GaKC 


vapor. 


vapor. 


Liquid. 


Vapor. 


beat. 


Liquid. 
Btu./lb.'F. 


Vapor. 
Btu./rb.°F. 


Temp. 


•F 


Ibs./in." 


Ibs./in.' 


ft>/lb. 


Ibs./tt.> 


Blu/lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


•F. 


t 


P 


9 P- 


V 


11 V 


h 


H 


L 


8 


.s 


( 


-60 


5.55 


•18.6 


44.73 


0. 02235 


-21.2 


589.6 


610.8 


-0.05U 


1.4769 


-60 


-59 


5.74 


•18.2 


43.37 


. 02306 


-20.1 


590.0 


610.1 


-.0490 


.4741 


-59 


-58 


5.93 


•17.8 


42. 05 


. 02378 


-19.1 


590.4 


609.5 


-.0464 


.4713 


-58 


-57 


6.13 


•17.4 


40.79 


. 024.52 


-18.0 


590.8 


608.8 


-.0438 


.4686 


-57 


-56 


6.33 


•17.0 


39.56 


. 02528 


-17.0 


591.2 


608.2 


-.0412 


.4658 


-56 


-66 


6.M 


•16.6 


38.38 


0. 02605 


-15.9 


591.6 


607.5 


-0.0386 


1.4631 


-55 


-54 


6.75 


•10. 2 


37.24 


. 02685 


-14.8 


592.1 


606.9 


. 0360 


.4604 


-54 


-53 


6.97 


•15.7 


36. 15 


. 02766 


-13.8 


592.4 


609.2 


-.0334 


.4577 


-53 


-52 


7.20 


•15.3 


35.09 


. 02S50 


-12.7 


692.9 


605.6 


-.0307 


.4551 


-52 


-51 


7.43 


•14.8 


34.06 


. 02936 


-11.7 


593.2 


604.9 


-.0281 


.4524 


-51 


-50 


7.67 


•14,3 


33.08 


0. 03023 


-10.6 


593.7 


604.3 


-0. 0256 


1.4497 


-50 


-49 


7.91 


•13.8 


32. 12 


.03113 


-9.6 


594.0 


603.6 


-.0230 


.4471 


-49 


-48 


8. IB 


•13.3 


31.20 


. 03205 


-8.5 


594.4 


602.9 


-.0204 


4445 


-48 


-47 


8.42 


•12.8 


30.31 


. 03299 


-7.4 


594.9 


eo2. 3 


-.0179 


.4419 


-47 


-46 


8.68 


•12.2 


29.45 


. 03395 


-6.4 


595.2 


601.6 


-.0153 


.4393 


-46 


-45 


8.95 


•11.7 


28.62 


0. 03494 


-5.3 


595.6 


600.9 


-0.0127 


1.4368 


-45 


-44 


9.23 


•11.1 


27.82 


. 03595 


-4.3 


596.0 


600.3 


-.0102 


.4342 


-44 


-43 


9.51 


•10.6 


27.04 


. 03698 


-3.2 


596.4 


599.6 


-.0076 


.4317 


-43 


-42 


9.81 


•10.0 


26.29 


.03804 


-2.1 


596.8 


598.9 


-.0051 


.4292 


-42 


-41 


10.10 


•9.3 


25.56 


. 03912 


-1.1 


597.2 


598.3 


-.0025 


.4267 


-41 


-40 


10.41 


•8.7 


24.86 


0. 04022 


0.0 


597.6 


597.6 


o.oooe 


1.4242 


-40 


-39 


10.72 


•8.1 


24.18 


.04135 


1.1 


598.0 


596.9 


.0025 


.4217 


-39 


-38 


11.04 


•7.4 


23.53 


.04251 


2.1 


598.3 


596.2 


.0051 


.4193 


-38 


-37 


11.37 


•6.8 


22.89 


.04369 


3.2 


598.7 


595.5 


.0076 


.4169 


-37 


-36 


11.71 


•6.1 


22.27 


.04489 


4.3 


599.1 


594.8 


.0101 


.4144 


-36 


-35 


12.05 


•5.4 


21.68 


0. 04613 


5.3 


599.5 


594.2 


0.0126 


1.4120 


-35 


-34 


12.41 


•4.7 


21.10 


. 01739 


6.4 


599.9 


593. 5 


.0151 


.4096 


-34 


-33 


12.77 


•3.9 


20.54 


.04868 


7.4 


600.2 


592. 8 


.0176 


.4072 


-33 


-32 


13.14 


•3.2 


20.00 


.04999 


8.5 


600.6 


592.1 


.0201 


.4048 


-32 


-31 


13.52 


•2.4 


19.48 


. 05134 


9.6 


601.0 


591.4 


. 0226 


. 4025 


-31 


-80 


13.90 


•1.6 


18.97 


0. 05271 


10.7 


601.4 


590.7 


0. 0250 


1.4001 


-30 


-29 


14. .30 


•0.8 


18.48 


.05411 


11.' 


601.7 


590.0 


.0275 


.3978 


-29 


-28 


14.71 


0.0 


18.00 


. 0.i555 


12.8 


602. 1 


589. 3 


.0300 


.3955 


-28 


-27 


15.12 


0.4 


17.. 54 


.0.5701 


13.9 


602. 5 


588.6 


.0325 


.3932 


-27 


-26 


15.55 


0.8 


17.09 


. 05850 


14.9 


602.8 


587.9 


.0350 


.3909 


-26 


-25 


15.98 


1.3 


16.66 


0. 06003 


16.0 


60.t. 2 


587.2 


0. 0374 


1.3886 


-25 


-24 


16.42 


1.7 


16.24 


.061.58 


17.1 


603. 6 


586. 5 


.0399 


.3863 


-24 


-23 


16.88 


2.2 


15. 83 


.06317 


18.1 


603.9 


.585. 8 


.0423 


.3840 


-23 


-22 


17.34 


2.6 


15. 43 


. 06479 


19.2 


604.3 


585.1 


.0448 


.3818 


-22 


-21 


17.81 


3.1 


15.05 


. 06644 


20.3 


604.6 


684.3 


.0472 


.3796 


-21 


-20 


18.30 


3.6 


14.68 


0.06813 


21.4 


605. 


583.6 


0.0497 


1.3774 


-20 


-19 


18.79 


4.1 


14.32 


. or,ns5 


22 4 


605. 3 


582.9 


.0.521 


.3752 


-19 


-18 


19.30 


4.6 


13. 97 


.07161 


Si; 6 


605. 7 


.582. 2 


.0545 


.3729 


-18 


-17 


19.81 


5.1 


13.62 


.07340 


24.6 


600. 1 


.581.5 


.0.570 


.3708 


-17 


-16 


20.34 


5.6 


13.29 


. 07522 


2.5.6 


606.4 


580.8 


.0594 


.3686 


-16 


-15 


20.88 


6.2 


12.97 


0. 07709 


26.7 


606. 7 


580.0 


0.0618 


1. 3664 


-15 


-14 


21.43 


6.7 


12.66 


.07S98 


27.8 


607.1 


579.3 


.0642 


.3643 


-14 


-13 


21.99 


7.3 


12.36 


. 08092 


28.9 


607.5 


578.6 


.0666 


.3621 


-13 


-12 


22.56 


7.9 


12.06 


. 08289 


30.0 


607.8 


577.8 


.0690 


.3600 


-12 


-11 


23.15 


8.5 


11.78 


.08490 


31.0 


60S.1 


577.1 


.0714 


.3579 


-11 


-10 


23.74 


9.0 


11.50 


0. 08693 


32.1 


608. 5 


.576. 4 


0. 0738 


1.3558 


-10 



* Inches of mercury below one standard atmosphere (29.92 in.). 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



55 



TABLE XVII.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SATURATED AMMONIA: TEMPERATURE TABLE.— (Continued.) 





Pressure. 


Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Intent 


Entropy. 
















Temp. 


Absolute. 

Ibs./in.' 


0«e. 
IbsTin.' 


vapor. 
ftMb. 


vai-wr. 
Ib3./tt.> 


Liquid. 
Btu.Ab. 


Vapor. 
Btu.Ab. 


boat. 
Btu.,lb. 


Liquid. 
Btu./lb.'F. 


Vapor. 
BtuI/lb.'F. 


Temp. 
•F. 


( 


P 


?• P- 


V 


'IV 


h 


H 


L 


t 


5 


t 


-10 


23.74 


9.0 


11.50 


0. 08695 


32.1 


608.5 


576.4 


0. 0738 


1. 3558 


-10 


-9 


24 3-5 


9.7 


11.23 


.08904 


33.2 


608.8 


575.6 


.0762 


. 3537 


-9 


-8 


24.97 


10.3 


10.97 


.09117 


34.3 


609.2 


674.9 


.0786 


.3516 


-8 


-7 


2.5. 61 


10.9 


10.71 


. 09334 


35.4 


609.5 


574. 1 


.0809 


.3495 


^7 


-6 


26.26 


11.6 


10.47 


. 09555 


36.4 


609.8 


573.4 


.0833 


.3474 


-6 


-5 


26.92 


12.2 


10.23 


0. 09780 


37.0 


610.1 


572.6 


0.0857 


1.3454 


-6 


-4 


27. .59 


12.9 


9.991 


.1001 


38.6 


610.5 


571.9 


.0880 


.3433 


-4 


-3 


2S.28 


13.6 


9. 763 


.1024 


39.7 


610.8 


571.1 


.0904 


.3413 


-3 


-2 


28. M 


14.3 


9.541 


.1048 


40.7 


611.1 


570.4 


.0928 


.3393 


-2 


-1 


29.69 


1.5.0 


9.326 


.1072 


41.8 


611.4 


569.6 


.0951 


.3372 


-1 





30.42 


1.5.7 


9.116 


0. 1097 


42.9 


611.8 


568.9 


0. 0975 


1. 3352 





1 


31. 16 


16.5 


8.912 


.1122 


44.0 


612.1 


.568. 1 


.0998 


. 3332 


1 


2 


31. 92 


17.2 


8.714 


.1148 


4-5.1 


612.4 


567. 3 


.1022 


.3312 


2 


3 


32.69 


18.0 


8.521 


.1174 


46.2 


612.7 


566. 5 


.1045 


.3292 


3 


4 


33.47 


18.8 


8.333 


.1200 


47.2 


613.0 


505.8 


.1069 


. 3273 


4 


5 


34.27 


19.6 


8.150 


0. 1227 


48.3 


6ia3 


^65.0 


0.1092 


1.32.53 


5 


6 


35.09 


20.4 


7.971 


.12.54 


49.4 


613. 6 


564.2 


.1115 


.3234 


6 


7 


35.92 


21.2 


7.798 


.1282 


50.5 


613.9 


563. 4 


.1138 


. 3214 


7 


8 


36.77 


22.1 


7.629 


.1311 


51.6 


614.3 


562.7 


.1162 


.3195 


8 


9 


37.63 


22.9 


7.464 


.1340 


52.7 


614.6 


561.9 


.1185 


.3176 


9 


10 


38.51 


23.8 


7.304 


0. 1369 


53.8 


614.9 


561. 1 


0.1208 


1. 3157 


10 


11 


39.40 


24.7 


7.148 


.1399 


54.9 


615.2 


560. 3 


.1231 


.3137 


11 


12 


40.31 


25.6 


6.996 


.1429 


56.0 


615.5 


559. 5 


.1254 


.3118 


12 


13 


41.24 


26.5 


6.847 


.1460 


57.1 


615.8 


558. 7 


•. 1277 


.3099 


13 


14 


42.18 


27.5 


6. 703 


.1492 


58.2 


616.1 


557.9 


.1300 


.3081 


14 


16 


43.14 


28.4 


6. .562 


0. 1524 


59.2 


616.3 


.557.1 


0.1323 


1. 3062 


15 


16 


44.12 


29.4 


6.425 


. 1556 


60.3 


616.6 


5.56.3 


.1346 


.3043 


16 


17 


45.12 


30.4 


6.291 


.1590 


61.4 


616.9 


5-55 5 


.1369 


.3025 


17 


18 


46.13 


31.4 


6.161 


.1623 


62.5 


617.2 


5.54. 7 


.1392 


.3006 


18 


19 


47.16 


32.5 


6.034 


.1657 


63.6 


617. 5 


553.9 


.1415 


.2988 


19 


20 


48.21 


33.5 


5.910 


0. 1692 


64.7 


617.8 


553. 1 


0. 1437 


1. 2969 


20 


21 


49.28 


34.6 


5.789 


. 1728 


6.5.8 


618.0 


552. 2 


.1460 


. 2951 


21 


22 


50.36 


35.7 


5.671 


. 1763 


66.9 


618.3 


551.4 


.1483 


.2933 


22 


23 


51.47 


36.8 


5.556 


.1800 


68.0 


618.6 


550. 6 


.1505 


. 2915 


23 


24 


52.59 


37.9 


5.443 


.1837 


69.1 


618.9 


549.8 


.1528 


. 2897 


24 


26 


53.73 


39.0 


5.334 


0. 1875 


70.2 


619.1 


.548.9 


0.1551 


1. 2S79 


25 


26 


54.90 


40.2 


5. 227 


.1913 


71.3 


619.4 


548.1 


. 1573 


. 2.S61 


26 


27 


56. OS 


41.4 


5.123 


.1952 


72.4 


619. 7 


547.3 


. 1.596 


.2843 


27 


28 


57.28 


42.6 


,5. 021 


.1992 


73.5 


619.9 


.546.4 


.1618 


. 2825 


28 


29 


58.50 


43.8 


4. 922 


.2032 


74.6 


620.2 


545.6 


.1641 


.2808 


29 


30 


59.74 


45.0 


4.825 


0. 2073 


7.5. 7 


620.5 


544.8 


0. 1663 


1.2790 


30 


31 


61,00 


46.3 


4.730 


.2114 


76.8 


620.7 


543.9 


.1686 


. 2773 


31 


32 


62.29 


47.6 


4.637 


.2156. 


77.9 


621.0 


543.1 


.1708 


. 27.55 


32 


33 


63.59 


48.9 


4.547 


.2199 


79.0 


621.2 


542.2 


.1730 


'. 2738 


33 


34 


64.91 


50.2 


4.459 


.2243 


80.1 


621.5 


541.4 


. 17.53 


. 2721 


34 


36 


66.26 


51.6 


4.373 


0. 2287 


81.2 


621.7 


540.6 


0. 1775 


1.2704 


35 


36 


67.63 


.52.9 


4.289 


. 2332 


82.3 


622. 


539.7 


.1797 


.2686 


36 


37 


69.02 


54.3 


4.207 


.2377 


83.4 


622. 2 


538.8 


.1819 


.2669 


37 


1 


70.43 


55.7 


4.126 


.2423 


84.6 


622. 5 


537.9 


.1841 


.2652 


38 


71.87 


57.2 


4.048 


.2470 


85.7 


622.7 


537.0 


.1863 


. 2635 


39 


40 


73.32 


.58.6 


3.971 


0, 2518 


86.8 


623.0 


536.2 


0. 1885 


1,2618 


40 



56 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XVII.— BUREAt' OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SATURATED AMMONIA: TEMPERATURE TABLE.— (Continued.) 





T'rftRsiiTP. 


Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 


Entropy. 
















Temp. 


Absolute 


OaKo. 


vapor. 
ft.«/lb. 


vapor. 


Liquid. 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 
Btu.^b.°F. 


Vapor. 
Btu.Ab." F. 


Temp. 


'¥. 


Ibs./in.' 


Ibs./in." 


Ibs./tt.J 


Btu.Ab. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


•F. 


t 


P 


g.p. 


V 


11 V 


h 


H 


L 


3 


S 


t 


40 


73. 32 


58.6 


3.971 


0. 2518 


86.8 


623.0 


,536. 2 


0. 1885 


1. 2618 


40 


41 


74.80 


60.1 


3.897 


.2566 


87.9 


623. 2 


.535. 3 


.1908 


. 2602 


41 


42 


76.31 


61.6 


3.823 


.2616 


89.0 


623. 4 


.534. 4 


.1930 


. 2.585 


42 


43 


77. ,83 


63.1 


3. 7.52 


. 2665 


90.1 


623.7 


533.6 


.1952 


.2568 


43 


44 


79. 38 


64.7 


3.682 


.2716 


91.2 


623.9 


632.7 


.1974 


.2552 


44 


45 


80. 06 


66.3 


3.614 


0. 2767 


92.3 


624.1 


531.8 


0. 1996 


1. 2535 


45 


46 


82. :,-, 


67.9 


3.547 


.2819 


93.5 


624.4 


530.9 


.2018 


.2519 


46 


47 


84. 18 


69.5 


3.481 


.2872 


94.6 


624.6 


.530. 


.2040 


. 2502 


47 


48 


85. 82 


71.1 


3.418 


.2926 


95.7 


624.8 


529.1 


.2062 


.2486 


48 


49 


87.49 


72.8 


3.355 


.2981 


96.8 


625. 


528. 2 


.2083 


.2469 


49 


50 


89.19 


74.5 


3.294 


0.3036 


97.9 


625.2 


527.3 


0. 2105 


1. 2453 


50 


51 


90.91 


76.2 


3.234 


.3092 


99.1 


625. 5 


526.4 


.2127 


.2437 


51 


52 


92. 66 


78.0 


3.176 


.3149 


100.2 


625.7 


525.5 


.2149 


.2421 


52 


63 


94. 43 


79.7 


3.119 


. 3207 


101.3 


625. 9 


524.6 


.2171 


.2405 


53 


54 


96.23 


81.5 


3.063 


.3265 


102.4 


626.1 


523.7 


.2192 


.2389 


54 


55 


98.06 


83.4 


3.008 


0. 3325 


103. 5 


626.3 


522.8 


0. 2214 


1. 2373 


55 


56 


99.91 


85.2 


2.954 


.3385 


104.7 


626.' 5 


521.8 


.2236 


. 2357 


56 


57 


101.8 


87.1 


2.902 


.3446 


105.8 


626.7 


520.9 


.2257 


.2341 


67 


58 


103.7 


89.0 


2.851 


.3508 


106.9 


626.9 


520.0 


.2279 


.2325 


58 


59 


105.6 


90.9 


2.800 


.3571 


108.1 


627.1 


519.0 


.2301 


.2310 


69 


60 


107.6 


92.9 


2.751 


0.3635 


109.2 


627.3 


518.1 


0. 2322 


1.2294 


60 


61 


109.6 


94.9 


2.703 


.3700 


110.3 


627.5 


517.2 


.2344 


.2278 


61 


62 


111.6 


96.9 


2.656 


.3765 


111.5 


627.7 


516.2 


. 2365 


.2262 


62 


63 


113.6 


98.9 


2.610 


.3832 


112.6 


627.9 


51.5. 3 


.2387 


.2247 


63 


64 


115.7 


101.0 


2.565 


.3899 


113.7 


628.0 


514.3 


.2408 


.2231 


64 


65 


117.8 


103.1 


2.520 


0.3968 


114.8 


628.2 


513. 4 


0. 2430 


1.2216 


65 


66 


120.0 


105.3 


2.477 


.4037 


116.0 


628.4 


512.4 


. 2451 


.2201 


66 


67 


122.1 


107.4 


2.435 


.4108 


117.1 


628.6 


511.5 


.2473 


.2186 


67 


68 


124.3 


109.6 


2.393 


.4179 


118.3 


628.8 


510.5 


.2494 


.2170 


68 


69 


126.5 


111.8 


2.352 


. 4251 


119.4 


628.9 


509.5 


.2515 


.2155 


69 


70 


128.8 


114.1 


2.312 


0. 4325 


120.5 


629.1 


508.6 


0. 2537 


1. 2140 


70 


71 


131.1 


116.4 


2.273 


. 4399 


121.7 


629.3 


507.6 


. 25.58 


.2125 


71 


72 


133.4 


118.7 


2. 235 


.4474 


122.8 


629.4 


506.6 


. 2579 


.2110 


72 


73 


135.7 


121.0 


2. 197 


.4551 


124.0 


629.6 


505.6 


.2601 


.2095 


73 


74 


138.1 


123.4 


2. IGl 


.4628 


125.1 


629.8 


504.7 


.2622 


.2080 


74 


76 


140.5 


125. 8 


2.125 


0. 4707 


126.2 


629.9 


.503. 7 


0.2643' 


1. 2065 


76 


76 


143.0 


128 3 


2. 089 


.4786 


127.4 


630. 1 


502.7 


.2664 


. 2050 


76 


77 


145. 4 


130. 7 


2. 055 


.4867 


128.5 


630.2 


501.7 


.2685 


.2036 


77 


78 


147. 9 


133; 2 


2.021 


.4949 


129.7 


630.4 


500.7 


.2706 


.2020 


78 


79 


150.5 


135.8 


1.988 


.5031 


130.8 


630.5 


499.7 


.2728 


.2006 


79 


80 


153.0 


138.3 


1.955 


0.5115 


132.0 


630.7 


498.7 


0. 2749 


1. 1991 


80 


81 


155. 6 


140.9 


1.923 


. 5200 


133.1 


630.8 


497.7 


.2769 


. 1976 


81 


82 


158.3 


143. 6 


1.892 


.5287 


134.3 


63L0 


496.7 


.2791 


.1962 


82 


83 


161.0 


146. 3 


1.861 


.5374 


13,5. 4 


631; 1 


495. 7 


.2812 


.1947 


83 


84 


163.7 


149.0 


1. 831 


.5462 


136.6 


631.3 


494.7 


.2833 


.1933 


84 


85 


166.4 


151.7 


1.801 


0. 5652 


137.8 


631.4 


493.6 


0.2854 


1.1918 


85 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



SI 



TABLE XVII.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES Ol 
SATURATED AMMONIA: TEMPERATURE TA^UE.— (^Continued.) 





i-ressurc. 


Volume 


Density 


Ueat content. 


Latent 


Kntropy. 
















Temp. 


Absolute. 


Gage. 


vapor. 


vapor. 


Liquid. 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 
Bto-Tlb.-F. 


Vapor. 
lltujlb.-F. 


Temp. 


•F. 


lbs.(in.> 


Ibs./in.' 


ft.',ab. 


Ibs./tt.J 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


'¥. 


t 


P 


g-v- 


V 


UV 


h 


H 


L 


S 


5 


t 


85 


166.4 


151.7 


1.801 


0. 5552 


137.8 


631.4 


493.6 


0. 2854 


1.1918 


85 


86 


169.2 


154.5 


1.772 


.5643 


138.9 


631.5 


492. 6 


.2875 


.1904 


86 


ST 


172.0 


157.3 


1.744 


.5735 


140.1 


631.7 


491.6 


. 2895 


.1889 


87 


88 


174.8 


160.1 


1.716 


.5828 


141.2 


631.8 


490.6 


.2917 


.1875 


88 


89 


177.7 


163.0 


1.688 


. 5923 


142.4 


631.9 


489.5 


.2937 


.1860 


89 


90 


180.6 


165.9 


1.661 


0. 6019 


143.5 


632. 


488.5 


0. 2958 


1. 1846 


90 


91 


183.6 


168.9 


1.635 


.6116 


144.7 


632. 1 


487.4 


.2979 


.1832 


91 


92 


186.6 


171.9 


1.609 


. 6214 


145.8 


632.2 


486.4 


.3000 


.1818 


92 


93 


189.6 


174.9 


1.584 


.6314 


147.0 


632.3 


485.3 


.3021 


.1804 


93 


94 


192.7 


178.0 


1.559 


.6415 


148.2 


632.5 


484.3 


.3041 


.1789 


94 


96 


195. 8 


181.1 


1.534 


0.6517 


149.4 


632.6 


483.2 


0.3062 


1.1775 


95 


96 


198.9 


184.2 


1.510 


. 6620 


150.5 


632. 6 


482.1 


.3083 


.1761 


96 


97 


202.1 


187.4 


1.4S7 


. 6725 


151.7 


632.8 


481.1 


.3104 


.1747 


97 


98 


205. 3 


190.6 


!.4r,4 


. (;832 


152.9 


632. 9 


480.0 


.3125 


.1733 


98 


99 


208.6 


193.9 


1.441 


.6939 


154.0 


632.9 


478.9 


.3145 


.1719 


99 


100 


ail. 9 


197.2 


1.419 


0.7048 


155.2 


633.0 


477.8 


0.3166 


1. 1705 


100 


101 


215.2 


200.5 


1.397 


.7159 


156.4 


633. 1 


476.7 


.3187 


.1691 


101 


102 


218.6 


203.9 


1.375 


.7270 


157.6 


633.2 


475.6 


.3207 


. 1677 


102 


103 


222.0 


207.3 


1.354 


.7384 


158.7 


633.3 


474.6 


.3228 


.1663 


103 


104 


225.4 


210.7 


1.334 


.7498 


159.9 


6.33. 4 


473.5 


.3248 


.1649 


104 


105 


228.9 


214.2 


1.313 


0.7615 


161.1 


633.4 


472.3 


0. 3269 


1.1635 


105 


106 


232.5 


217.8 


1.293 


.7732 


162. 3 


633.5 


471.2 


.3289 


.1621 


106 


107 


236.0 


221.3 


1.274 


.7852 


163.5 


633.6 


470.1 


.3310 


.1607 


107 


108 


239.7 


225.0 


1.254 


.7972 


164.6 


633. 6 


469.0 


.3330 


. 1593 


108 


109 


243.3 


228.6 


1.2.35 


. 8095 


165. 8 


633.7 


467.9 


.3351 


.1580 


109 


110 


247.0 


232. 3 


1.217 


0.8219 


167.0 


633.7 


466.7 


0.3372 


1. 1566 


110 


111 


250.8 


236. 1 


1.198 


.8344 


168.2 


633.8 


465.6 


.3392 


.1552 


111 


112 


254.5 


239.8 


1.180 


.8471 


169.4 


633.8 


464.4 


.3413 


.1538 


112 


113 


258.4 


243.7 


1.163 


.8600 


170.6 


633.9 


463.3 


.3433 


. 1524 ■ 


113 


114 


262.2 


247.5 


1. 145 


.8730 


171.8 


633.9 


462.1 


.3453 


.1510 


114 


115 


266.2 


251. 5 


1.128 


0. 8862 


173.0 


633.9 


460.9 


0.3474 


1.1497 


115 


116 


270.1 


255. 4 


1.112 


.8996 


174.2 


634.0 


459.8 


. 3495 


.1483 


116 


117 


274.1 


259.4 


1. 095 


.9132 


175.4 


634.0 


458. 6 


. 3515 


.1469 


117 


118 


278.2 


263.5 


1.079 


.9269 


176.6 


634. 


4.57. 4 


.3535 


. 14.55 


118 


119 


282.3 


267.6 


1.063 


.9408 


177.8 


634.0 


456. 2 


.3556 


.1441 


119 


120 


286.4 


271.7 


1.047 


0. 9549 


179.0 


634. 


455.0 


0. 3576 


1.1427 


120 


121 


290.6 


275.9 


1.032 


.9692 


180.2 


6.34. 


453.8 


.3597 


.1414 


121 


122 


294.8 


280.1 


1.017 


.9837 


181.4 


634.0 


452. 6 


.3618 


.1400 


122 


123 


299.1 


284. 4 


1.002 


.9983 


182.6 


634. 


451.4 


.3638 


.1386 


123 


124 


303.4 


288.7 


0.987 


1.0132 


183.9 


634.0 


450.1 


.3659 


.1372 


124 


125 


307.8 


293.1 


0.973 


1.028 


185. 1 


634.0 


448.9 


0. 3679 


1.1358 


125 



58 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XVIII.— BUREAU OF STAiNDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OT 
SATURATED AMMONIA: ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TABLE. 



Pressure 


Temp. 


Volunie 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 




Kntropy 




Pressure 












(abs.). 


vapor. 


vapor. 


Liquid- 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 


Evap. 


Vapor. 

atafi\j.'F. 


(abs.). 


IbsJin.J 


(t.'/lb. 


lbs./tt.« 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. T. 


BtuJib.T. 


Ib3./ln.» 


P 


I 


V 


IjV 


h 


n 


L 




LIT 


S 


V 


6.0 


-63. 11 


49.31 


0. 02029 


-24.5 


588.3 


012.8 


-0. 0599 


1.5456 


1. 4857 


6.0 


5.5 


-60. 27 


4.5.11 


.02217 


-21.5 


589.5 


611.0 


- .0524 


. .5301 


.4777 


6.5 


6.0 


-57.64 


41.. 59 


. 02405 


-18.7 


590.6 


609.3 


- .0455 


. 51,58 


.4703 


6.0 


6.5 


-55. 18 


38. 59 


. 02.591 


-10.1 


591.0 


607.7 


- .0390 


.5026 


.4636 


6.6 


7.0 


-52. 88 


36.01 


. 02777 


-13.7 


592.5 


606.2 


- .03.30 


.4904 


.4574 


7.0 


7 5 


-50.70 


33.77 


0. 02962 


-11.3 


593. 4 


604.7 


-0. 0274 


1.4790 


1. 4516 


7.5 


8.0 


-48. 64 


31.79 


.03146 


-9.2 


594.2 


603.4 


- .0221 


.4683 


.4462 


8.0 


8.5 


-46. 69 


30. (M 


. 0.3329 


-7.1 


695. 


602.1 


- .0171 


. 4582 


.4411 


8.5 


9.0 


-44. 83 


28. 48 


. 0,3511 


-5.1 


595.7 


600.8 


- .0123 


.4486 


.4303 


9.0 


9.5 


-43.05 


27.08 


. 03693 


-3.2 


590.4 


599.6 


- .0077 


. 4396 


.4319 


9.5 


10 


-41.34 


25 81 


0. 03874 


-1.4 


597.1 


598.5 


-0. 0034 


1.4310 


1. 4276 


10.0 


10.5 


-39.71 


24. (i6 


. 04055 


4- 0. 3 


597. 7 


597.4 


+ .0007 


. 4228 


.4235 


10.5 


11.0 


-.38. 14 


23. 61 


. 04235 


2.0 


598. 3 


596. 3 


.0047 


.4149 


.4196 


11.0 


11.5 


-36. 62 


22. 65 


.04414 


3.6 


598.9 


595. 3 


.0085 


. 4074 


.41.59 


11.5 


12.0 


-35. 16 


21.77 


. 04593 


5.1 


599.4 


594.3 


.0122 


.4002 


4124 


12.0 


12.5 


-33.74 


20.90 


0. 04772 


0, 7 


000.0 


593. 3 


0. 0157 


1. .39.33 


1. 4090 


12.6 


13.0 


- 32. 37 


20.20 


. 049.50 


S. 1 


OCX). 5 


592.4 


.0191 


. 3806 


.4057 


13.0 


13.5 


-31.05 


19.50 


. 05128 


9.6 


601.0 


591.4 


.0225 


. 3801 


.4026 


13.5 


14.0 


- 29. 76 


18. 85 


. 05305 


10.9 


601.4 


590.5 


.0257 


. 37.39 


.3996 


14.0 


14.5 


-28.51 


18.24 


. 05482 


12.2 


601.9 


589.7 


.0288 


. 3679 


.3967 


14.5 


15.0 


-27. 29 


17.67 


0. 05658 


13.6 


602.4 


588.8 


0318 


1. 3020 


1. 3938 


15.0 


15. 5 


-26. U 


17. 14 


. 05834 


14.8 


602.8 


588.0 


.0347 


. 3564 


.3911 


15.6 


16.0 


-24. 95 


16. 64 


. 06010 


16.0 


603.2 


587.2 


.0375 


. 3510 


.3885 


16.0 


16. 5 


-23. 83 


16 17 


. 06186 


17.2 


603.6 


586.4 


.0403 


. 3450 


.3859 


16.6 


17.0 


-22. 73 


15. 72 


. 06361 


18.4 


604.0 


585.6 


.0430 


.3405 


.3835 


17.0 


17.5 


-21.66 


1.5. 30 


0. 06535 


19.6 


604.4 


684.8 


0456 


1. 3354 


1.3810 


17.5 


18.0 


-20. 61 


14 90 


.00710 


20.7 


604. 8 


584 1 


.0482 


.3305 


.3787 


18.0 


18.5 


-19.59 


14. 53 


. 06884 


21.8 


605. 1 


583. 3 


.0507 


.3258 


. 3705 


18.5 


19.0 


-18. 58 


14. 17 


. 07058 


22 9 


60.5.5 


582.6 


.0531 


.3211 


.3742 


19.0 


19.5 


-17.60 


13.83 


. 07232 


23.9 


605.8 


581.9 


.0555 


. 3100 


.3721 


19.5 


20 


-10.64 


13.50 


0. 07405 


25.0 


606.2 


581.2 


0. 0578 


1. 3122 


1. 3700 


20.0 


20.5 


- 15. 70 


13.20 


. 07578 


20.0 


606.5 


580.5 


.0601 


.3078 


. 3679 


20 5 


21.0 


-14.78 


12. 90 


. 07751 


27.0 


606.8 


679.8 


.0623 


. 3036 


. 3659 


21.0 


21.5 


-13.87 


12.62 


. 07924 


27.9 


607. 1 


679. 2 


. 0(>45 


.2995 


.3640 


21.5 


22.0 


-12.98 


12. 35 


. 08096 


28.9 


607.4 


678.5 


. 0666 


. 2955 


.3621 


22.0 


22 5 


-12.11 


12. 09 


0. 08268 


29.8 


607.7 


577.9 


0. 0687 


1. 2915 


1. 3602 


22.6 


23.0 


-11.25 


11.85 


.08440 


30.8 


608. 1 


577.3 


. 0708 


.2876 


.3584 


23.0 


23.5 


-10.41 


11.61 


. 08612 


31.7 


608.3 


576. 6 


.0728 


.2838 


.3666 


23.6 


24.0 


- 9.58 


11.39 


. 08783 


32.6 


608.6 


570. 


.0748 


.2801 


.3549 


24.0 


24.5 


- 8.76 


11.17 


. 08955 


33.5 


608.9 


575.4 


.0768 


.2764 


.3532 


24.6 


25.0 


- 7.96 


10.96 


0. 09126 


34.3 


609. 1 


574.8 


0. 0787 


1. 2728 


1. 3515 


25 


25.5 


- 7. 17 


10.76 


.09297 


35.2 


609.4 


574.2 


.0805 


. 2693 


.3498 


25. 5 


26.0 


- 6.39 


10. 56 


.09468 


36.0 


609.7 


573.7 


.0824 


.26.58 


.3482 


26.0 


26.5 


- 6. 63 


10.38 


. 09638 


36.8 


609 9 


573. 1 


.0842 


.2625 


. .3467 


26.6 


27.0 


- 4.87 


10.20 


. 09809 


37.7 


610.2 


672.6 


.0860 


.2591 


.3451 


27.0 


27.5 


- 4.13 


10.02 


0. 09979 


38.4 


610.4 


572. 


a 0878 


1. 2,558 


1. 34.36 


27.6 


28.0 


- .3.40 


9.853 


. 1015 


39.3 


610. 7 


571.4 


. 0895 


.2526 


.3421 


28.0 


28. 5 


-2.68 


9.691 


. 1032 


40.0 


610. 9 


570. 9 


.0912 


.2494 


. 3406 


28.5 


29.0 


^ 1.97 


9.534 


.1049 


40.8 


611. 1 


570. 3 


.0929 


.2463 


.3392 


29.0 


29.5 


- 1.27 


9.383 


.1066 


41.6 


611.4 


569.8 


.0946 


.2433 


. 3378 


29.5 


30.0 


- 0.57 


9.236 


0. 1083 


42.3 


611.6 


569.3 


a 0962 


1.2402 


1. 3304 


30 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



59 



TABLE XVIII.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SATURATED AMMONIA: ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TABI.E.— {Continued.) 



Presstire 




Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 


Entropy. 


Pressure 












(alls.). 


Temp. 


vapor. 


vapor. 


UquM. 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 


Evap. 


Vapor. 
Btu.^b.T. 


(8b3.). 


lbs.;ln.> 


tt.'/lb. 


Ibs./lt.J 


Btu./lh. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. "F. 


Btu./lb.°F. 


Ibs./in.' 


P 


t 


V 


II V 


h 


n 


L 


» 


LIT 


.S' 


P 


30 


-0.57 


9. 236 


0. 1083 


42,3 


611.6 


569.3 


0. 0962 


1.2402 


1.3364 


30 


31 


+0.79 


8. 955 


.1117 


43.8 


612.0 


568.2 


.0993 


.2343 


.3336 


31 


32 


2.U 


8.693 


.1150 


45. 2 


612.4 


567.2 


.1024 


. 2286 


.3310 


32 


33 


3.40 


8.445 


.1184 


46.6 


612.8 


566.2 


. 10.55 


.2230 


.3285 


33 


34 


4.66 


8.211 


.1218 


48.0 


613.2 


565.2 


.1084 


.2176 


.3260 


34 


85 


5.89 


7.991 


0. 1251 


49.3 


613.6 


564.3 


0.1113 


1.2123 


1.3236 


35 


36 


7.09 


7.782 


.1285 


50.6 


614.0 


563.4 


.1141 


.■^072 


.3213 


36 


37 


8.27 


7.584 


.1319 


51.9 


614.3 


562.4 


.1168 


.2022 


.3190 


37 


38 


9.42 


7.396 


.1352 


53.2 


614.7 


561.5 


.1195 


.1973 


. 3168 


38 


39 


10.55 


7.217 


.1386 


54.4 


615.0 


560.6 


.1221 


.1925 


.3146 


39 


40 


11.66 


7.047 


0. 1419 


55.6 


615.4 


5.59. 8 


0.1246 


1.1879 


1. 3125 


40 


41 


12.74 


6.885 


. 14.52 


56.8 


615.7 


558.9 


.1271 


. 1833 


.3104 


41 


42 


13.81 


6.731 


.1486 


57.9 


616.0 


558.1 


. 1296 


.1788 


.3084 


42 


43 


14.85 


6.583 


.1519 


59.1 


616.3 


557.2 


. 1320 


.1745 


.3065 


43 


44 


15.88 


6.442 


.1552 


60.2 


616.6 


5.56. 4 


.1343 


.1703 


.3046 


44 


45 


16.88 


6.307 


0.1586 


61.3 


616.9 


555.6 


0. 1366 


1.1661 


1. 3027 


45 


46 


17.87 


6.177 


.1619 


62.4 


617.2 


554. 8 


.1389 


. 1620 


.3009 


46 


47 


18.84 


6.053 


.1652 


63.4 


617.4 


5.54. 


.1411 


.1580 


.2991 


47 


48 


19.80 


5. 934 


.1685 


64.5 


617.7 


5.53.2 


.1433 


.1540 


.2973 


48 


49 


20.74 


5.820 


.1718 


65.5 


618.0 


552.5 


.1454 


. 1502 


.2956 


49 


60 


21.67 


5.710 


0. 1751 


66.5 


618.2 


5.51.7 


0.1475 


1.1464 


1.2939 


50 


51 


22.58 


5.604 


.1785 


67.5 


618.5 


551.0. 


.1496 


.1427 


.2923 


61 


52 


23.48 


5.502 


.1818 


68.5 


618.7 


550.2 


.1516 


.1390 


.2906 


62 


53 


24.36 


5.404 


.1851 


69.5 


619.0 


549.5 


. 1.536 


.1354 


' .2890 


53 


54 


25.23 


5.309 


.1884 


70.4 


619.2 


548.8 


.1556 


.1319 


.2875 


54 


56 


26.09 


5.218 


0. 1917 


71.4 


619.4 


548.0 


0.1575 


1.1284 


1. 2859 


55 


56 


26.94 


5.129 


. 1950 


72.3 


619.7 


547.4 


.1594 


. 12.50 


.2844 


56 


57 


27.77 


5.044 


.1983 


73.3 


619.9 


.546.6 


.1613 


.1217 


.2830 


57 


58 


28.59 


4.962 


.2015 


74.2 


620.1 


5^5.9 


.1631 


.1184 


.2815 


58 


59 


29.41 


4.882 


.2048 


75.0 


620.3 


545.3 


.1650 


.1151 


.2801 


59 


60 


30.21 


4.805 


0. 2081 


75.9 


620.5 


544.6 


0.1668 


1.1119 


1.2787 


60 


61 


31.00 


4.730 


.2114 


76.8 


620.7 


543.9 


.1686 


.1088 


.2773 


61 


62 


31.78 


4.658 


.2147 


77.7 


620. 9 


543.2 


.1703 


.10.56 


.2759 


62 


63 


32. 55 


4,588 


.2180 


78.5 


621.1 


542.6 


.1720 


.1026 


^2746 


63 


64 


33.31 


4.519 


.2213 


79.4 


621.3 


541.9 


.1737 


.0996 


.2733 


64 


65 


34.06 


4.453 


0. 2245 


80.2 


621.5 


541.3 


0.1754 


1.0966 


1.2720 


65 


66 


34.81 


4. 389 


.2278 


81.0 


621.7 


540.7 


.1770 


.0937 


.2707 


66 


67 


35.54 


4.327 


.2311 


81.8 


621.9 


,540.1 


.1787 


.0907 


.2694 


67 


68 


36.27 


4.267 


.2344 


82.6 


622.0 


539. 4 


.1803 


.0879 


.2682 


68 


69 


36.99 


4.208 


.2377 


83.4 


622.2 


538.8 


.1819 


.0851 


.2670 


69 


70 


37.70 


4.151 


0. 2409 


84.2 


622.4 


538.2 


0. 1835 


1.0823 


1. 2658 


70 


71 


38.40 


4. 0!i5 


.2442 


85.0 


622.6 


537.6 


.1850 


.0795 


.2645 


71 


72 


39.09 


4.041 


. 2475 


8.5.8 


622.8 


537.0 


.1866 


.0768 


.2634 


72 


73 


39.78 


3.988 


. 2507 


86.5 


622.9 


536.4 


.1881 


.0741 


.2622 


73 


74 


40.46 


3.937 


.2540 


87.3 


623.1 


535.8 


.1896 


.0715 


.2611 


74 


75 


41.13 


3.887 


0. 2.573 


88.0 


623.2 


535.2 


0.1910 


1.0689 


1.2.599 


76 


76 


41.80 


3. 8:',S 


.2606 


88.8 


623. 4 


534.6 


. 1925 


.0663 


.2588 


76 


77 


42.46 


3.790 


.2638 


89.5 


623.5 


534.0 


.1940 


.0637 


.2577 


77 


78 


43.11 


3.744 


.2671 


90.2 


623. 7 


533. 5 


.1954 


.0612 


.2566 


78 


79 


43.76 


3.699 


.2704 


90.9 


623.8 


532.9 


.1968 


.0587 


.2555 


79 


80 


44.40 


S. 655 


0. 2736 


91.7 


624.0 


532.3 


0.1982 


1.0563 


1.2.545 


80 



60 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XVIII.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SATURATED AMMONIA: ABSOLUTE PRESSLTRE TAB'LE.—iContinued.) 



Pressure 




Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 


Entropy. 


Pressure 












(abs.). 


Temp. 


vapor. 

ft.i/lb. 


vapor. 


Liquid. 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 
Btui/lb.'F. 


Evap. 


Vapor. 
Btu./Ib.*F. 


(abs.). 


Ib3./in.' 


T. 


lbs./(t.' 


Btu./lb. 


Btu.nb. 


Btu-flb. 


BtuVlb.T. 


lb3./in.« 


P 


t 


^ 


11 V 


h 


H 


L 


8 


LIT 


S 


P 


80 


44.40 


3.655 


0. 2736 


91.7 


624 


532.3 


0. 1982 


L0563 


1.2546 


80 


81 


45.03 


3.612 


.2769 


92.4 


624 1 


531.7 


.1996 


.0538 


.2534 


81 


82 


45.66 


3.570 


.2801 


93.1 


624 3 


531.2 


.2010 


.0514 


.2524 


82 


83 


46.28 


3.528 


.2834 


93.8 


624 4 


530.6 


.2024 


.0490 


.2514 


83 


84 


46.89 


3.488 


.2867 


94.5 


624 6 


530.1 


.2037 


.0467 


.2504 


84 


85 


47.50 


3.449 


0. 2899 


95.1 


624 7 


529.6 


0. 2051 


1.0443 


1. 2494 


85 


86 


48.11 


3.411 


.2932 


95.8 


624 8 


529.0 


.2064 


.0420 


.2484 


86 


87 


48.71 


3.373 


.2964 


96.5 


625.0 


528.5 


.2077 


.0397 


.2474 


87 


88 


49.30 


3 337 


.2997 


97.2 


625.1 


527.9 


.2090 


.0375 


.2465 


88 


89 


49.89 


3.301 


.3030 


97.8 


625.2 


527.4 


.2103 


.0352 


.2466 


89 


90 


50.47 


3.266 


0. 3062 


98.4 


625.3 


526.9 


0. 2116 


1. 0330 


1.2446 


90 


91 


51.05 


3.231 


.3095 


99.1 


626.5 


626.4 


.2128 


.0308 


.2436 


91 


92 


51.62 


3.198 


.3127 


99.8 


625.6 


625.8 


.2141 


.0286 


.2427 


92 


93 


52.19 


3.165 


.3160 


100.4 


625.7 


526. 3 


.2153 


.0265 


.2418 


93 


94 


52.76 


3.132 


.3192 


101.0 


625.8 


524 8 


.2165 


.0243 


.2408 


94 


95 


53.32 


3.101 


0. 3225 


101.6 


625.9 


524 3 


0. 2177 


1. 0222 


1. 2399 


95 


96 


53.87 


3.070 


. 3258 


102.3 


626.1 


523.8 


.2190 


.0201 


.2391 


96 


97 


54.42 


3.039 


.3290 


102.9 


626.2 


523.3 


.2201 


.0181 


.2382 


97 


98 


64.97 


3.010 


.3323 


103.5 


626.3 


522.8 


.2213 


.0160 


.2373 


98 


99 


55.51 


2.980 


.3355 


104.1 


626.4 


522.3 


.2225 


.0140 


.2365 


99 


100 


56.05 


2.952 


0. 3388 


104.7 


626.5 


521.8 


0. 2237 


1.0119 


1. 2356 


100 


102 


57.11 


2.896 


.3453 


105.9 


626.7 


520.8 


.2260 


.0079 


.2339 


102 


104 


58.16 


2.843 


.3518 


107.1 


626.9 


519.8 


.2282 


.0041 


.2323 


104 


106 


59.19 


2.791 


.3583 


lOS. 3 


627.1 


518.8 


.2306 


1. 0002 


.2307 


106 


108 


60.21 


2.741 


.3648 


109.4 


627.3 


517.9 


.2327 


0.9964 


.2291 


108 


110 


61.21 


2.693 


0. 3713 


110.5 


627.5 


517.0 


0. 2348 


0. 9927 


1. 2275 


110 


112 


62.20 


2.647 


.3778 


111.7 


627.7 


516.0 


.2369 


.9890 


.2259 


112 


114 


63.17 


2.602 


.3843 


112.8 


627.9 


515.1 


.2390 


.9854 


.2244 


114 


116 


64.13 


2.559 


.3909 


113.9 


628.1 


614 2 


.2411 


.9819 


.2230 


116 


118 


65.08 


2.517 


.3974 


114.9 


628.2 


513.3 


.2431 


.9784 


.2215 


118 


120 


66.02 


2.470 


0.4039 


116.0 


628.4 


512.4 


0. 2452 


0. 9749 


1. 2201 


120 


122 


66.94 


2.437 


.4104 


117.1 


628.6 


511.5 


.2471 


.9715 


.2186 


122 


124 


67. 86 


2.399 


.4169 


118.1 


628.7 


610.6 


.2491 


.9082 


.2173 


124 


120 


68.76 


2. 362 


.4234 


119.1 


628.9 


509.8 


.2510 


.9049 


.2159 


126 


128 


69. 65 


2.326 


.4299 


120.1 


629.0 


508.9 


.2529 


.9616 


.2145 


128 


130 


70.53 


2.291 


0.4364 


121.1 


629.2 


508.1 


0.2548 


0.9584 


1. 21.32 


130 


132 


71.40 


2.258 


.4429 


122.1 


629.3 


507.2 


.2567 


.9552 


.2119 


132 


134 


72.26 


2. 225 


.4494 


123.1 


029. 5 


506.4 


.2585 


.9521 


.2106 


134 


136 


73.11 


2.193 


.4559 


124.1 


629.6 


505.5 


.2603 


.9490 


.2093 


136 


138 


73.95 


2.162 


.4624 


125. 1 


629.8 


504 7 


.2621 


.9400 


.2081 


138 


140 


74. 79 


2.132 


0. 4690 


126.0 


629.9 


603.9 


0. 2638 


0. 9430 


1. 2068 


140 


142 


75.61 


2.103 


.4755 


126.9 


630.0 


503.1 


.2656 


.9400 


.2056 


142 


144 


76.42 


2.075 


.4820 


127.9 


630.2 


502.3 


.2673 


.9371 


.2044 


144 


146 


77.23 


2.047 


.4885 


128. 8 


630.3 


501.5 


.2690 


.9342 


.2032 


146 


148 


78.03 


2.020 


.4951 


129.7 


630.4 


500.7 


.2707 


.9313 


.2020 


148 


150 


78.81 


1.994 


0.5016 


130.6 


630.5 


499.9 


0. 2724 


0.9286 


1.2009 


160 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



61 



TABLE XVIIL—BUKEAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OI' 
SATURATED AMMONIA: ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TABLE.— (Cowa'/iufrf.) 



Pressure 




Volume 


Density 


Heat content. 


Latent 




Entropy. 




Pressure 












(abs.). 
Ibs./ln,» 


Temp. 


vapor, 
ft.i/lb. 


vapor. 


Lic4Uld. 


Vapor. 


heat. 


Liquid. 


„ ^^»P;„ 


Vapor. 
Btu.^b.°F. 


(ah3.). 


•F. 


Ibs./tt." 


Blu.llb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. °F. 


BtuVlb.'F. 


Ib8./in.> 


P 


t 


r 


11 r 


h 


n 


L 


a 


LIT 


S 


1 
P 


160 


78.81 


1.994 


0.5016 


130.6 


6.30. 5 


499.9 


0. 2724 


0. 9285 


1.2009 


150 


152 


79.60 


1. 968 


.5081 


131.5 


630.6 


499.1 


.2740 


.9257 


.1997 


152 


154 


80.37 


1. 913 


.5147 


132.4 


630. 7 


498.3 


.2756 


.9229 


.1985 


154 


156 


81.13 


1.919 


.5212 


133. 3 


630. 9 


497.6 


.2772 


.9202 


.1974 


156 


158 


81.89 


1.895 


.5277 


134.2 


631.0 


496.8 


.2788 


.9175 


.1963 


168 


160 


82.64 


1.872 


0. 5343 


135.0 


631.1 


496.1 


0.2804 


0. 9148 


1. 1952 


160 


162 


83.39 


1.849 


.5408 


135.9 


631.2 


495.3 


.2820 


.9122 


.1942 


162 


164 


84.12 


1.827 


.5473 


136.8 


631.3 


494.5 


.2835 


.9096 


.1931 


164 


166 


84.85 


1.805 


.5539 


137.6 


631.4 


493.8 


.2860 


.9070 


.1920 


166 


168 


85.57 


1.784 


.5604 


138.4 


631.6 


493.1 


.2866 


.9044 


.1910 


168 


170 


86.29 


1.764 


0. 5670 


139.3 


631.6 


492.3 


0. 2881 


0.9019 


1.1900 


170 


172 


87.00 


1.744 


.5735 


140.1 


631.7 


491.6 


.2895 


.8994 


.1889 


172 


174 


87.71 


1.724 


.5801 


140.9 


631.7 


490.8 


.2910 


.8969 


.1879 


174 


176 


88.40 


1.705 


.5866 


141.7 


631.8 


490.1 


.2925 


.8944 


. 1869 


176 


178 


89.10 


1.686 


.5932 


142.6 


631.9 


489.4 


.2939 


.8920 


.1859 


178 


180 


89.78 


1.667 


0. 5998 


143.3 


632.0 


488.7 


0.2954 


0.8896 


1.1850 


180 


182 


90.46 


1.649 


.6063 


144.1 


632.1 


488.0 


.2968 


.8872 


.1840 


182 


184 


91.14 


1.632 


.6129 


144.8 


632.1 


487.3 


.2982 


.8848 


.1830 


184 


186 


91.80 


1.614 


.6195 


145.6 


632.2 


486.6 


.2996 


.8825 


.1821 


186 


188 


92.47 


1.597 


.6261 


146.4 


632.3 


485.9 


.3010 


.8801 


.1811 


188 


190 


93.13 


1.581 


0. 6326 


147.2 


632.4 


485.2 


0. 3024 


0. 8778 


1.1802 


190 


192 


93.78 


1:564 


.6392 


147.9 


632.4 


484.5 


.3037 


.8766 


.1792 


192 


194 


94.43 


1.548 


.6458 


148.7 


032.6 


483.8 


.3050 


.8733 


.1783 


194 


196 


95.07 


1.533 


.6524 


149. 5 


632.6 


483.1 


.3064 


.8710 


.1774 


196 


198 


95.71 


1.517 


.6590 


150.2 


632.6 


482.4 


.3077 


.8688 


.1765 


198 


200 


96.34 


1.502 


0. 6656 


150.9 


632.7 


481.8 


0. 3090 


0. 8666 


1. 1756 


200 


205 


97.90 


1.466 


.6821 


152.7 


632.8 


480.1 


.3122 


.8612 


.1734 


205 


210 


99.43 


1.431 


.6986 


154.6 


633.0 


478.4 


.3154 


.8559 


.1713 


210 


215 


100. 94 


1.398 


. 7152 


156.3 


633.1 


476.8 


.3185 


.8507 


.1692 


215 


220 


102. 42 


1.367 


.7318 


158,0 


633.2 


475.2 


.3216 


.8465 


.1671 


220 


225 


103. 87 


1.336 


0.7484 


159.7 


633.3 


473.6 


0. 3246 


0. 8405 


1. 1651 


225 


230 


105. 30 


1.307 


.7650 


161.4 


633.4 


472.0 


.3275 


.8356 


.1631 


230 


235 


106. 71 


1.279 


.7817 


163.1 


633.5 


470.4 


.3304 


.8307 


.1611 


235 


240 


108. 09 


1.253 


.7984 


164.7 


633.6 


468.. 9 


. 3332 


.8260 


.1592 


240 


245 


109. 46 


1.227 


.8151 


166.4 


633.7 


467.3 


.3360 


.8213 


.1573 


246 


250 


110. 80 


1.202 


0. 8319 


168.0 


633.8 


465. 8 


0. 3388 


0. 81^7 


1. 1555 


260 


255 


112. 12 


1.178 


.8487 


169.5 


633.8 


464.3 


.3415 


.8121 


.1536 


255 


260 


113. 42 


1.155 


.8655 


171.1 


633. 9 


462.8 


.3441 


.8077 


.1518 


260 


265 


114. 71 


1.133 


.8824 


172.6 


633.9 


461.3 


.3468 


.8033 


.16Q1 


265 


270 


115. 97 


1.112 


.8993 


174.1 


633.9 


459.8 


.3494 


.7989 


.1483 


270 


275 


117. 22 


1.091 


0. 9162 


176.6 


634. 


458.4 


0. 3519 


0. 7947 


1. 1466 


275 


280 


118. 45 


1.072 


.9332 


177.1 


634.0 


456.9 


.3546 


.7904 


.1449 


280 


285 


119. 66 


1. 052 


.9502 


178.6 


634.0 


455.4 


.3669 


.7863 


.1432 


2t!5 


290 


120. 86 


1.034 


.9672 


ISO. 


634.0 


464. 


.3594 


.7821 


.1416 


290 


295 


122. 06 


1.016 


.9843 


181.5 


634.0 


462.5 


.3618 


.7781 


.1399 


295 


300 


123. 21 


0.999 


1.0015 


182.9 


634.0 


451.1 


0. 3642 


0. 7741 


L1383 


300 



62 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XIX.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLE OF PROPERTIES OF 
LIQUID AMMONIA. 



au 0/ Standarda Cxrcuiar No. I4£, April 16, I9SS. Itearranced and Eztended Jor The A: 



Society of Rtfrisfratijig Bnoineere, J^y, IStt 



Triple 
point 

-100 

-95 
-90 

-8,5 
-SO 

-75 

-70 
-65 
-60 
-55 

-50 

-45 

-40 

-35 

-30 

-25 

-20 

-15 

-10 

- 5 



St 

10 



25 

30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 

75 

80 

85 

86 1 

90 

95 
100 
105 

no 

115 
120 
125 
130 
135 
140 
145 
150 
155 
160 
165 
170 



(At Satobation) 



1.24 
1.52 
1.86 
2.27 
2.74 

3.29 
3.94 
4.69 
5.55 
6.54 
7.67 
8.95 
10.41 
12.05 
13 90 

15. 9S 
18.30 
20.88 
23.74 
26.92] 

30.42 
34.27 
38.51 
43.14 
48.21 

53 73 
59.74 
66.26 
73.32 
80.96 

89.19 
98.06 
107 6 
117. S 

128.8 

140.5 
153.0 
160.4 
169.2 
180.6 
195.8 
211.9 
228.9 
247.0 
266.2 
2S6.4 

307 8 
330.3 
354 . 1 
379.1 
405.5 
433 2 
462.3 
492.8 
524.8 
558.4 

1.657. 



Ih /in ' 
g P 



28.1" 
28.1" 

27.4- 
26.8" 
26.1" 
25.3" 
24.3" 
23.2" 
21 9" 
20.4" 
18.6" 
16.6" 

14.3" 
11.7' 
8.7" 
5.4" 
1.6' 

1.3 
3.6 
6.2 
9.0 
12.2 
15.7 
19.6 
23.8 
28.4 
33.5 

39.0 
45.0 
51.6 
58.6 
66.3 

74.5 
83 4 
92.9 
103.1 
114.1 

125. S 
138. 3 
l.")1.7 
154.5 
165.9 
181.1 

197,2 
214.2 
232.3 
2.-11.5 
271.7 

293.1 
315 6 
3.39.4 
364.4 
390.8 

418.5 
447.6 
478.1 
510.1 
543.7 

1.642.3 



Volume 

;t '/ih. 



0.01961 
.02182 

0.02197 
.02207 
.02216 
.02226 
.02236 

0.02246 
.02256 
.02267 
.02278 
.02288 

0.02299 
.02310 
.02322 
.02333 
.02345 

0.02357 
.02369 
.02381 
02393 
.02406 

0.02419 
.02432 
.02446 
.02460 
.02474 

0.024SS 
.02503 
.02518 
.02533 
02548 

0.02564 
.02581 
.02597 
.02614 
02632 

02650 
.02668 
.02687 
.02673 
.02707 
02727 

0.02747 
.02769 
.02790 
.02813 
.02836 

0.02860 
.02885 
.02911 
02938 
02966 

0.02995 
.03025 
.0.3056 
.03089 
.03124 

.0686 



lb./(t ' 

I/V 



51.00 
45.83 
45.52 
45.32 
45.12 
44.92 
44.72 

44.. 52 
44.32 
44.11 
43.91 
43.70 
43.49 
43.28 
43.08 
42.86 
42.65 
42.44 
42.22 
42.00 
41.78 
41.56 

41.34 
41.11 

40.89 
40.66 
40.43 
40.20 
39.96 
39.72 
39.49 
39.24 

39.00 
38.75 
38.50 
38.25 
38.00 
37.74 
37.48 
37.21 
37.16 
.36.95 
36.67 

36.40 
36.12 
35.84 
35.55 
35.26 

34 96 
34.66 
34.35 
34.04 
33.72 

33.39 
33.06 
32.72 
32.37 
32.01 

14.6 



' ?leat 
ntu /lb . 



1.040t 
1.042t 
1.043t 
1.045t 
1.046t 

1.048t 
1 .050t 
1.052t 
1.054 
1.056 
1.0.58 
1.060 
1.062 
1.064 
1.066 
1.068 
1.070 
1.073 
1.075 
1.078 

1 080 
1.083 
1 .085 
1.088 
1.091 

1.094 
1.097 
1.100 
1.104 
1.108 

1.112 
1.116 
1.120 
1.125 
1.129 
1.1.33 
1.138 
1.142 
1.143 
1.147 
1.151 

1.1.56 
1.162 
1.168 
1.176 
1.183 
1.189t 
1.197t 
1 .205t 
1.213t 
1.222t 

1.23t 
1.24t 
1.25t 
1.26t 

1.27t 



-63. Of 
-57. 8t 
-52. 6t 
-47. 4t 
-42. 2t 

-36. 9t 
-31 .7t 
-26. 4t 
-21.18 
-15.90 
-10.61 

-5.31 
0.00 

+5.32 
10.66 

16.00 
21.36 
26.73 
32.11 
37.51 
42.92 
48.35 
53.79 
59.24 
64.71 

70.20 
75.71 
81.23 
86.77 
92.34 

97.93 
103.54 
109.18 
114.85 
120.54 

126.25 
131.99 
137.75 
127.40 
143.54 
149.36 
1.55.21 
161 .09 
167.01 
172.97 
178.98 

185 1 
191 1 
197 1 
203 1 
210t 
216t 
222 1 
229 1 
235 r 
241 1 

433 1 



Btu ,1b. 

L 



633t 
631t 

628t 
625t . 
622t 

619t 

616t 

613t 

610.8 

607.5 

604.3 

600.9 

597.6 

594.2 

590.7 

587.2 
583.6 
580.0 
576.4 
572.6 

568.9 
565.0 
561.1 
557.1 
553.1 
548.9 
544.8 
540.5 
536.2 
531.8 

527.3 
522.8 
518.1 
513.4 
508.6 
503.7 
498.7 
493.6 
492.6 
488.5 
483.2 

477.8 
472.3 
466.7 
460.9 
455.0 

449 1 
443 1 
436 1 
430 1 
423 1 

416t 
409 1 
401 1 
394 1 

386 1 



Latent 
Heat of 
-Pressure 



ibility 
% Change 



Ib./.n.' 
100 /4» 



(Properties of solid ammoaia) 



tThese figyres were calculated 
from empirical equations given in 
Bureau of Standards Scientific 
Papers Nos. 31.1 and 315. and 
represent values obtuined by extra- 
polation beyond the range covered 
in the experimental work. 



0.00044 
.00045 

00046 
.00047 
.00048 
.00050 
.00051 

0.000.52 
.00054 
.00055 
.00057 
.00058 

O.OOOi'O 
00062 
.00064 
.00066 
.00068 

00070 
.00073 
.00075 
.011078 
.rO()81 

00084 
.00088 
.11(091 
.00095 
.00100 

n 00104 

.00109 
.00114 
.00115 
.00120 
.00126 

00133 
.00141 
.00149 
00158 
.00167 



"loTES — \l the critical temperature 
of 271,4° F. (Cardoso and Gil) 
the pressure is 1,657 lbs., the 
volunie .0686 cubic feet, the 
density 14.6 lbs., and the heat 
content 433 Btu. 

\'a!ue3 for gage pressure (g p), abso- 
lute ^essure (p). liquid volume (v). 
and density (1/v), heat of the 
liquid (h) and latent beat (L), are 
given for single Fahrenheit de- 
grees in Table 2. 



-0 0016 


0.0026 


-.0016 


.0026 


-0.0017 


0.0026 


-.0017 


.0026 


- .0018 


.0025 


-.0018 


.0025 


-.0019 


.0025 


-0.0019 


0.0024 


- .0020 


.0024 


- .0020 


.0024 


-.0021 


.0023 


- .0022 


.0023 


-0.0022 


0,0022 


- .0023 


.0022 


-.0024 


.0021 


-.0025 


.0021 


- .0025 


.0020 


-0.0026 


0.0020 


- .0027 


.0019 


-.0028 


.0019 


- .0029 


.0018 


-.0030 


.0017 


-0.0031 


0,0017 


- .0032 


.0016 


- .0033 


0015 


- .0034 


.0014 


-0035 


.0013 


-0.0037 


0.0012 


-.0038 


.0011 


-.0040 


.0010 


.0040 


.0010 


- .0041 


0009 


-.0043 


0008 


-0.0045 


OOOOti 


- .0047 


.0005 


- 0049 


0003 


- .0051 


.0001 


- 0053 


.0000 



-107.8 
-107.8 
-100 

^95 
-90 

-85 
-80 

-75 

-70 
-65 
-60 
-55 



-35 
-30 

-25 
-20 
-15 
-10 
-5 



85 

86 

90 

95 
100 
105 
110 
115 
120 

125 

130 
135 
140 
145 
150 
155 
160 
165 
170 
271.4 



: standard atmosphere (29.92 in = 14 696 lbs. abs.) 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



63 



TABLE XX— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 

SUPERHEATED AMMONIA VAPORS 

Bureau of SUindards Circular No. H2, April 16, 1023. Rearranged and Extended for 
The American Society of Refrigerntinrj Engineers, July, l!t25. 





Abs. Pressure 5 ID. /in.' 




Abs. Pressure 10 Ib./iii.- 




Abs. P 


ressure 1 


J Ib./ln.^ 




Gage 


Pressu. 


e 19.7* 




Gagc I'ressure 9.6* 




Gage 1 


^ress. 0.3 lb./in.= 




(Safn 


remp. — 


33.11° F.) 




(Sat'n Temi). — 


11.34" F.) 

li;ntroi).\' 




(Safn ' 


remp.— 27.29° F.) 






Heat 


Entropy 




Heat 




Heat 


Kntropy 


Tein. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lb. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Utu./lb. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lb. 


°¥. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


"F. 


°1''. 


ft.Vlb. 


litu./lb 


°F. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb 


°F. 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


(at 








(at 






(at 








{.tat'n 


U9.S1 ) 


(,588.3) 


(,1.4857) 


safn) 


(35.S1) 


(597.1) 


(1.4276) 


xat'n) 


(17.67) 


(60:3.4) 


(1.S938) 


—50 


51.05 
52.36 


595.2 
600.3 


1 . 5025 
1.5149 


-40 
-30 


25 . 90 

26 . 58 


597 . 8 
6().i . 2 


1.4293 
1.4420 


-30 
-20 








-40 


is'oi' 


*666!4' 


"l.ii)ii'l' 


-30 


53.67 


605 . 4 


1.5209 


-20 


27.26 


60S. 5 


1.4542 


-10 


18.47 


611.9 


1.4154 


—20 


54.97 


610.4 


1.53S5 


-10 


27.92 


013.7 


1 . 4659 










— 10 


66.26 


615.4 


1 . 5498 













18.92 


617.2 


1.4272 













28.58 


618.9 


1.4773 


10 


19.37 


622 . 5 


1 . 4386 





57.55 


620.4 


1.5608 


10 


29 . 24 


624.0 


1.4884 


20 


19.82 


627. S 


1 .4497 


10 


58.84 


625.4 


1.5716 


20 


29 . 90 


629.1 


1 . 4992 


:iu 


20 . 26 


633 . 


1.4604 


20 


60.12 


630 . 4 


1 . 5821 


30 


30.55 


634 . 2 


1.5097 


40 


20.70 


638.2 


1 . 4709 


:50 
40 


61.41 
62.69 


635 . 4 
640.4 


1 . 5925 
1.6026 


40 


31.20 


639.3 


1 . 5200 


50 


21.14 


643 . 4 


1.4812 










50 


31.85 


644.4 


1.5.301 


00 


21 . 58 


648 . 5 


1 .4912 


50 


63.96 


645 . 5 


1.6125 


60 


32 . 49 


649 . 5 


1.5100 


70 


22 .01 
22.44 


653 . 7 
(i58 . 9 


1 . 50 11 


60 


65.24 


650.5 


1.6223 


70 


33.14 


654 . 6 


1.5497 


80 


1 . 5108 


70 


66.51 


655.5 


1.6319 


80 


33 . 78 


659 . 7 


1.5.593 


90 


22.88 


664.0 


1 . 5203 


SO 


67.79 


660 6 


1.6413 


90 


34.42 


664.8 


1.5687 


100 


23.31 


069.2 


1 . 5296 


'JO 


69.06 


665.6 


1.6506 










no 


23 . 74 


074.4 


1.5388 










100 


35.07 


670.0 


1.5779 


120 


24.17 


679.6 


1.5478 


100 


70.33 


670.7 


1.6598 


no 


35.71 


075.1 


1.5870 


130 


24.60 


684 8 


1 5567 


110 


71.60 


675.8 


1.6689 


120 


36.35 


680.3 


1.5900 


140 


25.03 


090.0 


1.5655 


120 


72.87 


680 . 9 


1.6778 


130 


36.99 


685.4 


1 . 6049 










130 


74.14 


686. 1 


1.6865 


140 


37.62 


690.6 


1.6136 


150 


25.46 


695.3 


1.5742 


140 


75.41 


691.2 


1.6952 










160 


25.88 


700 . 5 


1.5827 










150 


38.26 


695.8 


1.6222 


170 


26 . 3 1 


705 . 8 


1.5911 


150 


76.68 


696.4 


1 . 7038 


160 


38 . 90 


701.1 


1.6307 


180 


26.74 


711.1 


1 . 5995 


160 


77.95 


701.6 


1.7122 


170 


39.54 


706 . 3 


1.6391 


190 


27.16 


716.4 


1.6077 


170 


79.21 


706.8 


1 . 7206 


180 


40.17 


711.6 


1.6474 


200 

210 


27 59 


791 7 


1 6158 


180 


80.48 


712.1 


1.7289 


190 


40.81 


710.9 


1 .6550 


28^02 


727.0 


1 6239 










200 


41.45 


722.2 


1.6637 


220 
230 
240 

2.50 


28.44 
28 . 88 
29.29 

29.71 


732.4 

737.8 
743.2 

748.6 


1 6318 
1.6397 
1.6475 

1 . 6552 




Abs. Pi 


essure 2( 


) lb. /ill. - 




Abs. Pressure 25 


lb./in.2 




Abs. Pres.sure 30 Ib./in.^ 


Tem. 


Gage I 


'less. 5.3 


lb./in.= 


Tem. 


Gage Press. 10.. 


<. lb./in.= 
7.96* F.) 


Tem. 


Gage P 


•e.ss. 15. 


J Ib./in.' 
0.57^ F.) 


°F. 


(Siit'n ' 


I'eini). — 


6.64°F.) 


°F. 


(Sat'n Temp. — 


°F. 


(Safn 


Temp. — 


{at 








(at 








(at 








safn) 


a3.G0) 


(.606.2) 


(1.3700) 


?(('■«) 


(10.96) 


(600.1) 


(1.3515) 


safn) 


(9.336) 


(611.6) 


(1.3S64) 


— 20 










10 


11.19 
11.47 


613.8 
619.4 


1.3610 
1.3738 




10 


9 . 250 
9.492 


611.9 
617.8 


1 3371 


-10 


vi'.ii' 


eioio' 


'i;3784' 


1.3497 










20 


11.75 


625.0 


1.3855 


20 


9.731 


623 . 5 


1.3618 





14.09 


615.5 


1.3907 


30 


12.03 


630.4 


1.3967 


30 


9 . 966 


629 . 1 


1.3733 


10 


14.44 


621.0 


1.4025 


40 


12.30 


635.8 


1.4077 


40 


10.20 


634.6 


1 . 3845 


20 


14.78 


626.4 


1.4138 


















30 


15.11 


631.7 


1.4248 


50 


12.57 


641.2 


1.4183 


50 


10 . 43 


640 . 1 


1.3953 


40 


15.45 


637.0 


1.4356 


60 


12.84 


040.5 


1.4287 


60 


10.65 


645.5 


1.4059 










70 


13.11 


651.8 


1.4388 


70 


10.88 


650 . 9 


1.4161 


50 


15.78 


642.3 


1.4460 


80 


13.37 


657.1 


1.4487 


80 


11.10 


656 . 2 


1.4261 


GO 


10.12 


647.5 


1.4562 


90 


13.64 


662.4 


1.4584 


90 


11.33 


661.0 


1.4359 


70 


10.45 


6.52 . 8 


1 . 4602 


















80 


16.78 


658 . 


1.4760 


100 


13.90 


667.7 


1.4679 


100 


11.55 


666.9 


1.4456 


90 


17.10 


603.2 


1 . 4856 


no 


14.17 


673.0 


1.4772 


no 


11.77 


672 , 2 


1 . 4550 










120 


14.43 


078.2 


1.4864 


120 


11.99 


677.5 


1 . 4642 


100 


17.43 


008 . 5 


1 . 4950 


130 


14.69 


683.5 


1.4954 


130 


12.21 


682 . 9 


1 . 4733 


no 


17.76 


673 . 7 


1.5042 


140 


14.95 


688. 8 


1 . 5043 


140 


12.43 


688.2 


1.4823 


120 


18.08 


078 . 9 


1.5133 


















130 


18.41 


684 . 2 


1.5223 


150 


15.21 


694.1 


1.5131 


150 


12.65 


693.5 


1.4911 


140 


18.73 


689.4 


1.5312 


160 


15.47 


699.4 


1.5217 


160 


12.87 


698 . 8 


1.4998 










170 


15.73 


704.7 


1.5.303 


170 


13.08 


704.2 


1 . 5083 


150 


10.05 


694.7 


1.5.399 


180 


15.99 


710.1 


1.5387 


180 


13. 30 


709 . 6 


1 5168 


100 


19.37 


700.0 


1.5485 


190 


16.25 


715.4 


1.5470 


190 


13.52 


714.9 


1.5251 


170 


19.70 


705.3 


1 . 5509 


















180 


20.02 


710.6 


1 . 5653 


200 


16. 50 


720.8 


1 . 5552 


200 


13.73 


720.3 


1 . 5334 


190 


20.34 


715.9 


1.5736 


210 


16.76 


726 . 2 


1 . 5633 


210 


13 95 


725.7 


1 5415 










220 


17.02 


731.6 


1.5713 


220 


14 16 


731 1 


1 5495 


200 


20.60 


721.2 


1.5817 


230 


17.27 


737.0 


1 . 5792 


230 


14.38 


736 6 


1 5575 


210 


20 . 98 


726.6 


1.5898 


240 


17.53 


742.5 


1.5870 


240 


14.59 


742.0 


1 . 5653 


220 


21.30 


7.32.0 


1.5978 


















230 


21.62 


737.4 


1.6057 


250 


17.79 


747.9 


1 . 5948 


250 


14.81 


747.5 


1.5732 


240 


21.94 


742.8 


1.6135 


260 


18.04 


753.4 


1 . 6025 


260 


15 02 


753.0 


1 . 5808 










270 


18.30 


758.9 


1.6101 


270 


15 23 


758,5 


1 . 5884 


250 


22 . 26 


748.3 


1.0212 










280 


15.45 


764 1 


1 5960 



Note:- 

Entropy. Btu 

*luches c 



Is Volume of Superheated Vapor, ft.Vlb.; "H" is Heat Content. Btu./lb., and "S" is 

/lb. °F. 

f mercury at 32° F. below one standard atmosphere (29.92 in. = 14,696 lbs. abs.1 



64 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XX — BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SUPERHEATED AMMONIA V AT OUS— Continued 

Bureau of Standards Circular Xo. I4J, April 16, 1923. Rearranged and Extended for 
The American Society of Refrigerating Engineers, July, 1923. 





Abs. Jt-ressure So ID., ln.= 




Abs. Pressure -40 In., in.- 




Aus. Pressure .iO Ib./in.= 




Gage Pre.>s. 20.3 lo./in.' 




Gage Press. 25.3 lb., in.' 




Gage P 


ess. S3. 


} lb. /in.' 




(Sat'n 


leaip. 5.89° F.) 




(Sat'u 


Peinp. 11.06° F.) 




(Safn 


I'einp. 2 


.67 °F.) 






Heat 


Entropy 




ixeat 


Kutroi)i 




Heat 


Kntropy 


Tern. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lo. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lo. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lb. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


°F. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


°1''. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


°1''. 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


{at 








^a^ 








(at 








safn) 


(7.991) 


(613.6) 


(1 .3336) 


-a; n) 


(7.047) 


(61S.4) 


(1.3125) 


safn) 


(5.710) 


(618.3) 


(1.2939) 


10 


8.078 
S.287 


616.1 
622.0 


1.32S9 
1.3413 


10 
10 








30 
40 


5.838 
5 . 988 


623.4 
629.5 


1 . 3046 


20 


' 7 '. 203 ' 


'626!4' 


'i!323i 


1.3169 


30 


8.49J 


627.7 


1.35o2 


;;o 


7.087 


6j6.3 


1.33o.i 










40 


8.695 


633.4 


1.36^6 


40 


7.568 


632.1 


1.3470 


50 

60 


0.135 
6 . 280 


635.4 
641.2 


1.3286 
1.3399 


50 


8.895 


638. 9 


1.3756 


50 


7.746 


637. S 


1.3583 


70 


6.423 


640 . 9 


1.3508 


60 


9.093 


644.4 


1.3863 


60 


7.9J2 


643.4 


1 . 3092 


SO 


6.504 


652.0 


1.3613 


70 


9.289 


649.9 


1.3907 


70 


8.096 


648.9 


1.3797 


90 


6.704 


658.2 


1.3716 


80 
90 


9.484 
9.677 


655.3 
660.7 


1.4069 
1.4168 


80 
90 


8.268 
8.439 


651.4 
659.9 


1.3900 
1.4000 


100 

no 


0.S43 
6 . 980 


663.7 
669 . 2 


1.3816 
1.3914 


100 


9.869 


666.1 


1.4265 


100 


8.609 


665.3 


1.409S 


120 

130 
140 


7.117 

7.252 
7.387 


674.7 
680.2 
685.7 


1 . 4009 
1.4103 
1.4195 


110 
120 


10 06 
10.25 


671.5 
676.8 


1 . 4360 
1.4453 


110 
1..0 


8.7/7 
8 . 945 


670.7 
676.1 


1.4P.M 
1.42SS 


130 


10.44 


682 . 2 


1.4545 


10 


9.112 


681.5 


1.43S1 


150 


7.521 


691.1 


1.4286 


140 


10.63 


687.6 


1.4635 


140 


9.278 


686.9 


1.4471 


100 
170 


7 . 655 

7 . 788 


690 . 6 
702.1 


1.4374 
1 . 4462 


150 


10 . 82 


692.9 


1.4724 


150 


9.444 


692.3 


1.4.501 


180 


7.921 


707 . 5 


1.4548 


160 


11.00 


698.3 


1.4811 


160 


9 . 609 


697.7 


1.4048 


190 


8.053 


713.0 


1.4633 


170 


11.19 


703.7 


1.4897 


170 


9 . 774 


703.1 


1.4735 










ISO 


11.38 


709.1 


1 . 4982 


180 


9 . 938 


70S . 5 


1.4,S2() 


200 


8.185 


718.5 


1.4716 


190 


11.56 


714.5 


1.5006 


190 


10.10 


714.0 


1 . 4904 


210 
220 


8.317 
8.448 


724.0 
729 . 4 


1.4799 
1.4880 


200 


11.75 


719.9 


1.5148 


200 


10.27 


719.4 


1.4987 


230 


8.579 


735.0 


1.4901 


210 


11.94 


725.3 


1.5230 


210 


10.43 


724.9 


1.5069 


240 


8.710 


740.5 


1 . 5040 


220 


12.12 


730.7 


1.5311 


220 


10.59 


730.3 


1.51.)0 


250 


S.840 


746.0 


1 .5119 


230 


12.31 


736.2 


1.5390 


230 


10.75 


735.8 


1 . 5230 


260 


8 970 


751 6 


1 5197 


240 


12.49 


741.7 


1.5469 


240 


10.92 


741.3 


1.5309 


270 

280 


9! 100 
9 230 


757 : 2 
702.7 


l!5274 
1 5350 


250 


12.68 


747.2 


1.5547 


250 


11.08 


746.8 


1.5387 


290 


9 . 360 


768.4 


1.5425 


260 


12.86 


752.7 


1.5624 


260 


11.24 


752.3 


1.5465 










270 


13.04 


758.2 


1.5701 


270 


11.40 


757.8 


1.5541 


300 


9.489 


774.0 


1.5500 


2S0 


13.23 


763.7 


1.5776 


I'SO 


1 1 .".() 


703 . 4 


1.5017 


310 


9.018 


779 6 


1.5574 




Abs. P 


es.sure 00 Ih./iu.- 




Al)s. Pi 


ensure 7( 


Hb./iii.2 




Abs. P 


essure 8( 


)lb./in.2 


Te"i. 


Gage P 


ress. 45.3 lb./ in. 2 


Tem. 


Gage P 


re.ss. 55. 


J 11), /in. 2 


Tem. 


Gage P 


•e.ss. 65. 


J lb. /in.' 


°1'. 


(Safn 


Perap. 30.21° F.) 


°F. 


(Sat'n 


Penip. 3" 


.70° F.) 


°F. 


(Safn 


I'emp. 44.40° F.) 


«« 








(at 








(at 








sat'n) 


U.SOB) 


(630.5) 


(1.27S7) 


sat'n) 


(4.1S1) 


(633.4) 


(1.365S) 


sat'nf 


(3.G55) 


(624.0) 


(1.2345) 


30 








40 


4.177 


623 . 9 


1.2088 


50 

60 


3.712 
3.812 


027 . 7 
034.3 


1.2619 


40 


'4:933' 


'626!8' 


'i!29i3' 


1.2745 










50 


4.290 


630.4 


1.2810 


70 


3.909 


640.6 


1 . 2866 


50 


5.060 


632.9 


1.3035 


60 


4.401 


630.0 


1.2937 


80 


4 . 005 


646.7 


1.2981 


60 


5.184 


639.0 


1.3152 


70 


4 . 509 


6 42.7 


1.3054 


90 


4.098 


652.8 


1 . 3092 


70 


5 . 307 


644.9 


1.3205 


SO 


4.615 


648.7 


1.3100 










80 


5 . 428 


650.7 


1 . 3373 


90 


4.719 


654.6 


1.3274 


100 


4.190 


658.7 


1.3199 


90 


5.547 


656.4 


1.3479 










no 


4.281 


6(>4.6 


1.3303 










100 


4.822 


660 . 4 


1.3378 


120 


4.371 


070.4 


1 . 3404 


100 


5.665 


662 . 1 


1.3581 


no 


4.924 


600 . 1 


1.3480 


130 


4.400 


076.1 


1 . 3502 


110 


5.781 


667.7 


1.3081 


P.'O 


5.025 


071.8 


1 . 3579 


140 


4.548 


681.8 


1.3598 


120 


5.807 


673.3 


1.3778 


130 


5.125 


077 . 5 


1 . 3070 










130 


6.012 


678.9 


1.3873 


140 


5.224 


683.1 


1.3770 


150 


4.635 


687.5 


1.3692 


140 


6.126 


684.4 


1.3966 










160 


4.722 


693.2 


1.3784 










150 


5 . 323 


088 . 7 


1.3863 


170 


4.808 


698.8 


1.3874 


150 


6 . 239 


689 . 9 


1.40.58 


100 


5.420 


09 4 . 3 


1.3951 


180 


4 . 893 


704.4 


1.3963 


160 


6.3.52 


695 5 


1.4148 


170 


5.518 


099 . 9 


1.4043 


190 


4.978 


710.0 


1 . 4050 


170 


6.464 


701 .0 


1.4236 


180 


5.615 


705.5 


1.4131 










180 


6 . 576 


706 . 5 


1.4323 


190 


5.711 


711.0 


1.421 


200 


5.063 


715.6 


1.4136 


190 


6.087 


712.0 


1.4409 










210 


5.147 


721.3 


1.4220 










200 


5 . 807 


716.6 


1.4302 


220 


5.231 


726.9 


1.4304 


200 


6 798 


717.5 


1.4493 


210 


5.902 


722 . 2 


1.4386 


230 


5.315 


732.5 


1 . 4386 


210 


6 909 


723.1 


1.4576 


220 


5.908 


727 . 7 


1.4469 


240 


5.398 


738.1 


1.4467 


220 


7.019 


728.6 


1.46.58 


2''0 


6.093 


733.3 


1 . 45.50 










230 


7.129 


734 . 1 


1 . 4739 


240 


6.187 


738.9 


1.4631 


250 


5.482 


743.8 


1 . 4.547 


240 


7.238 


739.7 


1.4819 










260 


5.565 


749.4 


1.4626 










250 


6.2S1 


744.5 


1.4711 


270 


5.647 


755.1 


1.4704 


250 


7.348 


745.3 


1.4898 


200 


6.376 


7.50 . 1 


1.4789 


280 


5.730 


760.7 


1 .4781 


260 


7 . 457 


750.9 


1.4970 


270 


6.470 


755.8 


1 . 4866 


290 


5.812 


766.4 


1.4857 


270 


7.. 566 


756.5 


1.5053 


2.S0 


6 . .5(i3 


761.4 


1.4943 










280 


7 . 675 


762.1 


1.5130 


290 


6.657 


767.1 


1.5019 


300 


5.894 


772.1 


1.4933 


290 


7.783 


767.7 


1.5206 










310 


5.976 


777.8 


1 . 5008 










300 


6 . 7.50 


772.7 


1 . 5005 


320 


6.058 


783.5 


1.5081 


300 


7.892 


773.3 


1.52S1 


310 


0.844 


778.4 


1.5109 










310 


8,000 


770 


1.53.55 


320 


6 937 


784.1 


1.5243 











Note: — "V" Is Volume of Superheated Vapor, ft.Vlb.: "H" is Heat Content. Btu./lb., and "S" Is 
Entropy, Btu./lb. °F. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



65 



TABLE XX BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 

SUPERHEATED AMMONIA VAPORS— Continued 

Bureau of Standards Circular No. HZ, April 16, 1923. Rearranged and Extended for 
The American Society of Refrigerating Engineers, Julu, 1025. 





Abs. Pressure 90 lb. /in.' 




Abs. Pressure 100 lb. /in.' 




Abs. Pressure 110 Ib./ln.' 




Gage Press. 75.3 lb./in.= 




Gage Press. 85.3 Ib./in.- 




Gage Press. 95.3 lb./ln.» 




(Sat'n 


Temp. 50.47" F.) 




(.Safn Temp. 56.05° F.) 




(Sat'n Temp. 61.21° F.) 






Heat 


Entropy 




Heat 


Entropy 




Heat 


Entropy 
Btu./lb. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lb. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


Btu./lb. 


Tem. 


Volume 


Content 


"F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


"F. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


°F. 


°F. 


ft.Vlb. 


Btu./lb. 


°F. 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


t 


V 


H 


s 


{at 








(at 








(at 








sat'n) 


(3.366) 


(635.3) 


(1.3445) 


sat'n) 


(3.953) 


(636.5) 


(1 .3.356) 


sat'n) 


(3.693) 


(627.5) 


(1.3375) 


50 








60 
70 


2.985 
3.068 


629 . 3 
636.0 


1.2409 
1.25^9 


60 
70 








60 


'3!353' 


'eii.s 


'i!2.57i 


i.ihi 


ess!?' 


■i;2392' 


70 


3.442 


638.3 


1.2695 


80 


3.149 


642.6 


1.2661 


SO 


2.837 


640.5 


1.2519 


80 


3.529 


644.7 


1.2814 


90 


3.227 


649.0 


1.2778 


90 


2.910 


647.0 


1.2640 


90 


3.614 


6.50.9 


1.2928 


100 


3.304 


655.2 


1.2891 


100 


2.981 


6.53 . 4 


1.2755 


100 


3 698 


657 


1 . 3038 


no 


3 . 380 


661.3 


1.2999 


no 


3.051 


6.59 . 7 


1.2866 


110 


3 780 


663 


1.3144 


120 


3.454 


667.3 


1.3104 


120 


3.120 


665.8 


1.2972 


120 


3 862 


668 9 


1 3247 


i.;o 


3.527 


673 . 3 


1.3206 


130 


3.188 


671.9 


1 . 3076 


130 


3.942 


674.7 


1.3347 


140 


3.600 


679.2 


1.3305 


140 


3.255 


677.8 


1.3176 


140 


4.021 


680.5 


1.3444 


150 


3.672 


685.0 


1..3401 


150 


3.321 


683 . 7 


1.3274 


150 

160 
170 
180 


4.100 
4.178 
4.255 
4 . 332 


686.3 
692.0 
697.7 
703.4 


1 . 3539 
1.3633 
1.3724 
1.3813 


160 
170 
180 
190 


3 . 743 
3.813 
3 . 883 
3.952 


690 . 8 
696.6 
702.3 
708.0 


1..3495 
1.3588 
1.3678 
1.3767 


160 
170 
180 
190 


3.386 
3.451 
3.515 
3.579 


689.6 
695.4 
701.2 
707.0 


1.3370 
1.3463 
1,35.55 
1.3644 


190 


4.408 


709.0 


1.3901 


200 


4.021 


713.7 


1.3854 


200 


3.642 


712.8 


1.3732 










210 


4.090 


719.4 


1 . 3940 


210 


3 . 705 


718.5 


1.3819 


200 


4.484 


714.7 


1.3988 


220 


4.1.58 


725.1 


1.4024 


220 


3.768 


724.3 


1 . 3904 


210 


4.560 


720.4 


1.4073 


230 


4.226 


730 . 8 


1.4108 


230 


3 . 830 


730.0 


1 . 3988 


220 


4.635 


726.0 


1.4157 


240 


4.294 


736.5 


1.4190 


240 


3.892 


735.7 


1.4070 


230 
240 


4.710 

4.785 


731.7 
737.3 


1.4239 
1 .4321 


250 


4.361 


742.2 


1.4271 


250 


3 . 954 


741.5 


1.4151 










260 


4.428 


747.9 


1.43.50 


260 


4.015 


747.2 


1.4232 


250 


4 859 


743.0 


1 4401 


270 


4.495 


753.6 


1.4429 


270 


4 . 076 


7.52 . 9 


1.4311 


260 


4 933 


748 7 


1 4481 


280 


4.562 


7.59 . 4 


1.4507 


280 


4.137 


758 . 7 


1.4389 


270 


5.007 


754.4 


1 . 4559 


290 


4.629 


765.1 


1.4584 


290 


4.198 


764.5 


1 . 4466 


280 


5.081 


760.0 


1.46.37 


300 


4 . 695 


770.8 


1.4660 


300 


4.259 


770.2 


1.4543 


290 


5.155 


765.8 


1.4713 


310 


4.761 


776.6 


1.47H6 


310 


4.319 


776.0 


1.4619 










320 


4.827 


782 . 4 


1.4810 


320 


4.379 


781.8 


1 . 4693 


300 


5.228 


771.5 


1.4789 


330 


4 . 893 


788.2 


1.4884 


330 


4.439 


787.6 


1 4767 


310 


5.301 


777.2 


1.4864 


340 


4.959 


794.0 


1.4957 


340 


4.500 


793.4 


1.4841 


320 


5.374 


783.0 


1.4938 


























350 


5.024 


799.8 


1.5029 


350 


4 . 559 


799 3 


1 48.59 




Abs. Pr 


Bssure 12 


1b./in.2 




Abs. Pre.ssure 13 


lb./in.2 




Abs. 1-re.ssure 140 lb./in.« 


Tern. 


Gage Pr 


ess. 105. 


S lb. /In.' 


Tem. 


Gage Press. 115. 


3 lbyin.2 
).5.3'' F.) 


Tem. 


Gage Pr 


ess. 125. 


3 lb./in.2 


"F. 


(Sat'n ' 


remp. 6f 


.02° F-) 


"F. 


(Sat'n Temp. 7( 


°F. 


(Sat'n ' 


remp. 7- 


1.79'* F.) 


(.at 








(at 








(at 








sat'n) 


(3.476) 


(838.4) 


(1.3301) 


sat'n) 


(3.391) 


(639.3) 


(1.3133) 


sat'n) 


(3.132) 


(639.9) 


(1.3068) 


70 


2 . 505 
2 . 576 


631.3 
638 . 3 


1.2255 
1.2386 


70 

80 








80 
90 


2.166 
2 . 228 


633.8 
640.9 


1.2140 


80 


2 :. 3.5.5' 


'636'6' 


'i'.2260 


1.2272 


90 


2.645 


645.0 


1.2510 


90 


2.421 


643.0 


1.2388 


100 


2.288 


647.8 


1 . 2396 


100 


2.712 


651.6 


1.2628 


100 


2.484 


649.7 


1 . 2509 


no 


2 . 347 


654.5 


1.2515 


110 


2.778 


658.0 


1.2741 


no 


2 .546 


6.56 . 3 


1 . 2625 


120 


2.404 


661.1 


1 . 2628 


120 


2.842 


664.2 


1.28.50 


120 


2 606 


662,7 


1.2736 


1^0 


2.460 


667.4 


1.2738 


130 


2.905 


670.4 


1.29.56 


130 


2 . 665 


668,9 


1 .2843 


140 


2.515 


673.7 


1.2843 


140 


2.967 


676.5 


1.3058 


140 


2.724 


675.1 


1.2947 


150 


2,569 


679.9 


1.2945 


150 


3.029 


682.5 


1.3157 


l.=>0 


2.781 


681.2 


1.3048 


100 


2 , 622 


686.0 


1.3045 


160 


3.089 


688.4 


1 . 3254 


160 


2.838 


687.2 


1.3146 


170 


2 . 675 


692.0 


1.3141 


170 


3.149 


694 . 3 


1.3348 


170 


2.894 


693.2 


1.3241 


180 


2.727 


698 


1 . 3236 


180 


3.209 


700.2 


1.3441 


LSO 


2.949 


699 . 1 


1.33'i5 


190 


2.779 


704.0 


1.3328 


190 


3.268 


706.0 


1.3531 


190 


3.004 


705.0 


1.3426 


200 


2.8''0 


709 9 


1.3418 


200 


3.326 


711. S 


1.3620 


200 


3.059 


710.9 


1.3516 


210 


2 8, SO 


715.8 


1 3507 


210 


3.385 


717.6 


1.3707 


210 


3.113 


716.7 


1.3604 


2'0 


2.9U 


721.6 


1.3594 


220 


3.442 


723 . 4 


1.3793 


220 


3.167 


722.5 


1.3690 


2"0 


2,981 


727 . 5 


1 . .■'679 


230 


3.500 


729.2 


1.3877 


230 


3.220 


728.3 


1 3775 


240 


3.030 


733 . 3 


1.3763 


240 


3.557 


734.9 


1.3960 


240 


3.273 


734.1 


1.3858 


250 


3.080 


7.39.2 


1 , 3846 


250 


3.614 


740.7 


1.4042 


250 


3.326 


739.9 


1 3941 


260 


3.129 


745.0 


1.3928 


260 


3.671 


746.5 


1.4123 


260 


3 . 379 


745.7 


1 4022 


270 


3.179 


750.8 


1 . 4008 


270 


3 . 727 


752.2 


1 . 4202 


270 


3.431 


751.5 


1.4102 


280 


3.227 


756.7 


1.4088 


280 


3.783 


758.0 


1.4281 


280 


3.483 


757 . 3 


1.4181 


290 


3.275 


762.5 


1.4166 


290 


3.839 


763.8 


1.4359 


290 


3.535 


763.1 


1.4259 


300 


3 . 323 


768.3 


1.4243 


300 


3 . 895 


769 6 


1.4435 


300 


3.587 


769.0 


1.43:^6 


310 


3.371 


774,2 


1.4320 


310 


3.951 


775 . 4 


1.4511 


310 


3 . 639 


774.8 


1.4412 


3?0 


3.420 


780 


1.4395 


320 


4.006 


781.2 


1 . 4586 


320 


3.690 


780 6 


1.4487 


3?0 


3.467 


785.9 


1.4470 


330 


4.061 


787.0 


1.4660 


330 


3.742 


786.5 


1 . 4.562 


340 


3.515 


791.8 


1.4544 


340 


4.117 


792.9 


1.4734 


340 


3.793 


792.3 


1.4636 


350 


3.563 


797.7 


1.4617 


350 


4.172 


798.7 


1.4807 


350 


3.844 


798.2 


1.4709 


360 


3.610 


803.6 


1.4690 



Xotr: — "V" 1? Volume of Superheated Vapor, ft.Vlb., "H" is Heat Content, Btu./lb.. and "S" l3 
Entropy, Btu./lb. °F. 



66 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XX BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 

SUPERHEATED AMMONIA VAPORS — Continued 

Bureau of Standards Circular No. 142, April 16, 1023. Rearranged and Extended for 
The American Society of Refrigerating Engineers. July, 192o. 



■Peni 
°F. 



SU 
'JO 
100 

no 

120 
IM 
140 
150 
100 
170 
ISO 
I'JO 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
3C0 



Abs. Pressure 

150 lb./ in.' 

Gage Pre.s.sure 

135.3 lb. /in.-' 

(Sat'n Temp. 

78.81° F.) 



V 


H 


U .99/,) 


WS0.6) 


2.001 


631.4 


2.061 


638.8 


2.118 


645.9 


2.174 


052.8 


2.228 


659.4 


2.281 


665.9 


2.334 


672.3 


2.385 


67S.6 


2.435 


684.8 


2.485 


690.9 


2.534 


696.9 


2.583 


702.9 


2.631 


708.9 


2.679 


714.8 


2.726 


720.7 


2.773 


726.0 


2.820 


732.5 


2.866 


738.4 


2.912 


744.3 


2.908 


750.1 


3.004 


756.0 


3.049 


761.8 


3.095 


767.7 


3.140 


773.6 


3.185 


779.4 


3.230 


785.3 


3.274 


791.2 


3.319 


797.1 


3.304 


803.0 



(.1.S009) 
1.2025 
1.2161 
1.2289 
1.2410 
1.2526 
1.2638 
1.2745 
1.2849 
1.2949 
1.3047 
1.3142 
1.3236 
1.3327 
1.3416 
1.3.504 
1.3590 
1.3075 
1.375S 
1.3S4U 
1.3921 
1.4001 
1.4079 
1.4157 
1.4234 
1.4310 
1.4385 
1.4459 
1.4.532 
1.4605 



Abs. Pressure 

100 lb./iii.» 

Gage Pressui'e 

154.3 Ib./iu.' 

(Sat'n Temp. 

82.04° F.) 



V 


H 


a. 872) 


lesi.i) 


1.914 


630.0 


1.969 


043.9 


2.023 


651.0 


2.075 


057.8 


2.125 


064.4 


2.175 


670.9 


2.224 


077.2 


2.272 


683.5 


2.319 


689.7 


2.365 


695.8 


2.411 


701.9 


2.457 


707.9 


2.502 


713.9 


2.547 


719.9 


2.591 


725.8 


2.035 


731.7 


2.679 


737.6 


2.723 


743.5 


2.706 


749.4 


2.809 


755.3 


2.852 


7()1.2 


2.H95 


767.1 


2.937 


773.0 


2.980 


778.9 


3.022 


784.8 


3.004 


790.7 


3.106 


796.0 


3.148 


802.5 


3.189 


808.5 


3.231 


814.5 


3.273 


S20.4 


3.314 


826.4 



U.19S1) 
1.2055 
1.2180 
1.2311 
1.2429 
1.2542 
1.2652 
1.2757 
1.2859 
1.295S 
1.305 1 
1.314S 
1.3240 
1.3331 
1.3419 
1.3,506 
1.3591 
1.3675 
1.3757 
1.3838 
1.3919 
1.3998 
1.4070 
1.4153 
1.4229 
1.4304 
1.4379 
1.4452 
1.4525 
1.4597 
1.4069 
1.4710 
1.4810 



Abs. Pres.sure 

170 lb./ in. 2 

Gage I'ressure 

155.3 lb./in.= 

(Sat'n Temp. 

86.29° F.) 



V 


H 


a.76i) 


(.6S1 .6) 


1.784 


634.4 


1.837 


641.9 


1.889 


649.1 


1.939 


656.1 


1.988 


662.8 


2.035 


669.4 


2.081 


675.9 


2.127 


682.3 


2,172 


688.5 


2 216 


(i94.7 


2.2liU 


700.8 


2.303 


706.9 


2.346 


713.0 


2.389 


719.0 


2.431 


724.9 


2.473 


730.9 


2.514 


736.8 


2.555 


742.8 


2.596 


748.7 


2.637 


754.6 


2.678 


760.5 


2.718 


766.4 


2.758 


772.3 


2.798 


778.3 


2.838 


784.2 


2.878 


790.1 


2.918 


796.2 


2.957 


802.0 


2.997 


808.0 


3.036 


814.0 


3.075 


820,0 


3.114 


82().0 



1.1.1900) 
1.1952 
1.20S7 
1.22 !."> 
1.2336 
1.2452 
1.2563 
1.2669 
1.2773 
1.2873 
1.2971 
1.3066 
1.3159 
1.3249 
1.3338 
1.3426 
1.3512 
1.3596 
1.3079 
1.3761 
1.3841 
1.3921 
1.3999 
1.4076 
1.4153 
1.4228 
1.4303 
1.4377 
1.4450 
1.4.522 
1.4.594 
1 .4065 
1.4735 



Abs. Pressure 

180 lb./ in. 2 

Gage Pressure 

165.3 lb./in.2 

(Sat'n Temp. 

89.78° F.) 



V 


H 


1,1 .607) 


(ess.o) 


1.068 


032.2 


1.720 


639.9 


1,770 


647.3 


1,M,S 


054.4 


l,8<i5 


661.3 


1.910 


068.0 


1.955 


674.6 


1 .999 


681.0 


2.042 


087.3 


2.084 


693.6 


2.126 


699.8 


2.167 


705.9 


2.208 


712.0 


2.248 


718.1 


2.288 


724.1 


2.328 


730.1 


2.367 


736.1 


2.407 


742.0 


2.446 


748.0 


2.484 


753.9 


2.523 


759.9 


2.561 


765.8 


2.599 


771.7 


2.637 


777.7 


2.675 


783.6 


2.713 


789.6 


2.7.50 


795.0 


2.788 


801.5 


2.825 


807.5 


2.803 


813.5 


2.900 


819.5 


2.937 


825.5 



(1.1860) 
1.1853 
1.1992 
1.2123 
1.2247 
1.2304 
1.2477 
1.2586 
1.2091 
1.2792 
1,2891 
1.2987 
1.3081 
1.3172 
1.3262 
1.3350 
1.3436 
1.3521 
1.3605 
1.3687 
1.3768 
1.3847 
1.3926 
1.4004 
1.4081 
1.4156 
1.4231 
1.4305 
1.4379 
1.4451 
1.4523 
1.4594 
1.4665 



Tern 

°F. 



Abs. rre.ssure 

190 lb./ in. 2 

Gage I'ressure 

175.3 Ib./in.' 

(Sat'n Temp. 

93.13° F.) 



100 


1.615 


IK) 


1.603 


120 


1.710 


1 (0 


1.755 


1 10 


1.799 


150 


1.842 


160 


1.884 


170 


1.925 


180 


1.966 


190 


2.005 


2m 


2.045 


210 


2.084 


••>-.^o 


2.123 


230 


2.161 


240 


2.199 


250 


2.230 


260 


2.274 


270 


2.311 


•,^so 


2.348 


290 


2.384 


300 


2.421 


310 


2.457 


320 


2.493 


330 


2.529 


340 


2.565 


350 


2.601 


360 


2.637 


3V0 


2.072 


380 


2.707 


390 


2.74,3 


400 


2.778 



(.esu) U.1B02) 



637.8 
645.4 
0.52.0 
6.59.7 
666.5 
673.2 
079.7 
086.1 
(i92.5 
698.7 
704.9 
711.1 
717.2 
723.2 
729.3 
735.3 
741.3 
747.3 
753.2 
759.2 
765.2 
771.1 
777.1 
783.1 
789.0 
795.1 
801.0 
807.0 
813.0 
819.0 
825.1 



1.1899 
1.2034 
1.2160 
1.2281 
1.2396 
1.2500 
1.2012 
1.2715 
1.2815 
1.2912 
1.3007 
1.3099 
1.3189 
1.3278 
1.3365 
1.3450 
1.3534 
1.3617 
1.3()98 
1.3778 
1.3857 
1.3935 
1.4012 
1.40S8 
1.4168 
1.4238 
1.4311 
1.4384 
1.44,56 
1.4,527 
1,4,598 



ml'n) 

lUO 

no 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
200 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
3.50 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 



Abs. Pressure 

200 lb./in.2 

Gage Pressure 

1S5.3 lb./ln.» 

(Sat'n Temp. 

90.34° F.) 



(1 .603) 
1.^20 
1.567 
1 612 
1 .6.56 
1.098 
1.740 
1.780 
1.820 
1.859 
1.897 
1.935 
1.972 
2.009 
2.046 
2.082 
2.118 
2.154 
2.189 
2.225 
2.200 
2.295 
2.329 
2.304 
2.398 
2.432 
2.466 
2.500 
2.534 
2.568 
2.601 
2.635 



(ess.7) 




643.4 




650,9 




(i58.1 




665.0 




671.8 




678.4 




684.9 




691.3 




097.7 




703.9 




710.1 




710.3 




722.4 




728.4 




734.5 




740.5 




740.5 




7.52.5 




758.5 




704.5 




770.5 




776.5 




782.5 




788.5 




794.5 




800.5 




806.5 




812.5 




818.6 




824.6 





U.1766) 

1.1809 

1.1947 

1.2077 

1.2200 

1.2317 

1.2429 

1.2537 

1.2641 

1.2742 

1.2840 

1.2935 

1.3029 

1.3120 

1.3209 

1..3296 

1.3382 

1.3407 

1.3550 

1.3631 

1.3712 

1.3791 

1.3869 

1.3947 

1.4023 

1.4099 

1.4173 

1.4241 

1.4320 

1.4392 

1.4464 

1.4534 



Abs. Pres.sure 

210 lb. /in. 2 

Gage Pressure 

195.3 Ib./in.' 

(Sat'n Temp. 

99.43° F.) 



Abs. Pressure 

220 lb. /in. 2 

Gage Pressure 

205.3 lb./in.2 

(Sat'n Temp. 

102.42° F.) 



(l.iSl) 


{ess.o) 


iuris) 


(/.sen 


(.ess.n) 


U.1671) 


1.480 


641.5 


1.1803 


1.400 


639.4 


1.1781 


1.524 


649.1 


1.1996 


1.443 


647.3 


1.1917 


1.566 


650.4 


1.2121 


1.485 


654.8 


1.2045 


1.608 


063.5 


1.2240 


1.525 


662.0 


1.2167 


1.648 


670.4 


1.2354 


1.564 


669.0 


1.2281 


1.087 


677.1 


1.2464 


1.601 


675.8 


1.2394 


1.725 


683.7 


1.2569 


1.638 


082.5 


1.2501 


1.762 


690.2 


1.2672 


1.675 


689.1 


1.2604 


1.799 


696.6 


1.2771 


1.710 


695.5 


1.2704 


1.836 


702.9 


1.2867 


1.745 


701.9 


1.2801 


1.872 


709.2 


1.2961 


1.780 


708.2 


1.2896 


1.907 


715.3 


1.3053 


1.814 


714.4 


1.2989 


1.942 


721.5 


1.3143 


1.848 


720.6 


1.3079 


1.977 


727.6 


1.3231 


1.881 


7-26.8 


1.3168 


2.011 


733.7 


1.3317 


1.914 


732.9 


1.3255 


2.046 


739.8 


1.3402 


1.947 


739.0 


1.3340 


2.080 


745.8 


1.3486 


1.980 


745.1 


1.3424 


2.113 


751.8 


1.3508 


2.012 


751.1 


1.3507 


2.147 


757.9 


1.3649 


2.044 


757.2 


1.3588 


2.180 


763.9 


1.3728 


2.076 


763.2 


l.,3668 


2.213 


709.9 


1.3806 


2.108 


709.3 


1.3747 


2.240 


775.9 


1.3884 


2.140 


775.3 


1.3825 


2.279 


781.9 


1.3961 


2.171 


781.3 


1.3902 


2.312 


787.9 


1.4037 


2.203 


787.4 


1.3978 


2.345 


794.0 


1.4112 


2.234 


793.5 


1.4053 


2.377 


800.0 


1.4186 


2.265 


799.5 


1.4127 


2.409 


800.0 


1.4259 


2.296 


805.5 


1.4200 


2.442 


812.0 


1.4331 


2.327 


811.6 


1.4273 


2.474 


818.1 


1.4403 


2.358 


817.6 


1.4345 


2.506 


824.2 


1.4474 


2.388 


823.7 


1.4416 



Note: — "V" 
Entropy, Btu. 



is Volume of Superheated Vapor, ft.Vlb.; '11" is Heat Content, Btu. /lb., and "S" is 
/lb. °F. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



67 



TABLE XX.— BUREAU OF STANDARDS TABLES OF PROPERTIES OF 
SUPERHEATED AMMONIA VAFOS.S.— (.Continued.) 

Bureau of Standards Circular No. 142, April 16, 1923. Rearranged and Extended jor 
The American Society of Refrigerating Engineers, July, 1925. 



no 

120 
130 
140 

150 

160 
170 
180 
100 

200 

210 
220 
230 
240 

250 

260 
270 
280 
290 

300 

310 
320 
330 
340 

350 

360 
370 
380 
390 



120 
130 
140 

ISO 

160 
170 
ISO 
190 

200 

210 
220 
230 
250 

250 

260 
270 
280 
290 

300 

310 
320 
330 
340 

350 

360 
370 
380 
390 



Ab8. Pressure 230 lb. /in' 
Gage Pressure 21S.J Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 103.30" F.) 



1.328 
1 .370 
1.410 
1.449 

1.487 
1.524 
1.559 
1.594 
1.629 

1.663 
1.696 
1.729 
1.762 
1.794 

1.826 
1.857 
1 .889 
1.920 
1.95i 
1.982 
2 012 
2.043 
2.073 
2 103 

2.133 
2.163 
2 . 193 
2.222 
2.252 

2.281 



« 



637.4 
645.4 
653 . 1 
660.4 

667.6 
674.5 
681.3 
687.9 
694.4 
700.9 
707.2 
713.5 
719.8 
726.0 

732.1 
738.3 
744.4 
750.5 
756.5 

762.6 
768.7 
774.7 
780.8 
786.8 

793.0 
798.9 
805.0 
811.1 
817.2 



Abs. Pressure 270 Ib.,/in.J 
Gaee Pressure 2S6.S Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 115.97° I') 



{l.Ui) 
1.128 
1.166 
1.202 

1.236 
1.26- 
1 .302 
1.333 
1.364 

1.394 
1.423 
1.452 
1.481 
1.509 

1.537 
1.565 
1.592 
1 620 
1.646 

1 073 
1.700 
1,726 
1.752 

1.778 

1.804 
1.830 
1 .856 
1.881 
1.907 
1.932 



(«.« 


9) 


637 


5 


645 


9 


653 


9 


661 


6 


669 





676 


2 


683 


2 


690 





696 


7 


703 


3 


709 


8 


716 


2 


772 


6 


728.9 


735.2 


741 


4 


747 


7 


753.9 


760.0 


766 


2 


772 


3 


778 


5 


784 


6 


790 


8 


796 


9 


803 





809 


1 


815 


3 


821 


4 



1.1544 
1 . 1689 
1 . 1823 

1.1950 
1 2071 
1.2185 
1 .2296 
1.2401 

1 .2504 
1 2603 
1.2700 
1.2794 
1.2885 

1.2975 
1.3063 
1 3149 
1 3234 
1.3317 

1 3399 
1.3480 
1.3559 
1.3647 
1.3714 

1.3790 
1 3866 
1.3940 
1.4014 
I .4086 

1.4158 



Alls Pressure 240 lb, /in' 
Gage Pressure 22S.3 Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp. lOS.O'J" F.) 



• i) 



1.261 
1.302 
1.342 
1.380 

1.416 
1.452 
1.487 
1.521 
1.554 

1.587 
1.619 
1 651 
1.683 
1.714 

r.745 
1.77". 
1.805 
1.835 
1.865 

1.895 
1.924 
1 .954 
1.983 
2.012 

2.040 
2.069 
2.098 
2 . 126 
2.155 
2 . 183 



H 


(KM-K) 


635.3 


643.5 


651.3 


658.8 


666.1 


673 . 1 


680 


a86.7 


693,3 


699.8 


706.2 


712.6 


718.9 


725.1 


731.3 


737.5 


743 6 


749.8 


755.9 


762.0 


768,0 


774,1 


780,2 


786.3 


792 , 4 


798.4. 


804.5" 


810.6 


816.7 


822,8 



1.1021 
1 . 1764 
1 . 1898 
1 .2025 

1 2145 
1.2259 
1.2369 
1.2475 
1.2577 
1,2677 
1 .2773 
1 .2867 
1 .2959 
1.3049 
1.3137 
1.3224 
1 .3308 
1.3392 
1.3474 
1 3554 
1 .3633 
1.3712 
1.3790 
1.3866 

1,3942 
1,4016 
1.4090 
1.4163 
1.4235 

1.4307 



Aba. Pressui 
Cage Pressun 
(Safn. Ten.i 



e 280 lb. /in ' 
265.3 lb./in.> 
,. 118.45° F.) 



((,07?) 


inmn-) 


1,078 


635,4 


1,115 


644.0 


1.151 


652.2 


1.184 


660.1 


1 217 


667,6 


1.249 


674.9 


1.279 


681 9 


1.309 


688.9 


1 339 


695 6 


1.367 


702.3 


1 .396 


708,8 


1.424 


715.3 


1.451 


721.8 


1 478 


728.1 


1.505 


734.4 


1 532 


740.7 


1.558 


747.0 


1.584 


753.2 


1.610 


759 4 


1.635 


765.6 


1.661 


771.7 


1 686 


777,9 


1.712 


784.0 


1.737 


790 3 


1.762 


796.3 


1.787 


802.5 


1.811 


808.7 


1.836 


814.8 


1.861 


821.0 



1.1473 
1 . 1621 
1 . 1759 
1 . 1888 
1.2011 
1.2127 
1 .2239 
1.2346 

1.2449 
1.2,550 
1.2647 
1 .2742 
1 2834 

1.2y24 
1.3013 
1.3099 
1.3184 
1.3268 

1.3350 
1.3431 
1.3511 
1.3590 
1 3667 

1.3713 
1.-3819 
1.3893 
1 .3967 
1.4040 

1 4112 



Abs. Pressure 250 Ib./in.' 
Gage Prcs..urc 2SS.3 Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 110 80° F.) 



V 


H 


(/.iU.-) 


(iJ,f..>> 


1.240 


641.5 


1.278 


649.6 


1.316 


657.2 


1.352 


664.6 


1.386 


671.8 


1.420 


678.7 


1.453 


685.5 


1.486 


692.2 


1.518 


698.8 


1.549 


705.3 


1.580 


711.7 


1.610 


718,0 


1.640 


724.3 


1.670 


730 5 


1.699 


736.7 


1.729 


742.9 


1.75S 


749.1 


1.786 


755.2 


1.815 


761.3 


1.843 


767.4 


1.872 


773.5 


1.900 


779.6 


1.928 


785.7 


1.955 


791.9 


1 .983 


797.9 


2.011 


804.0 


2.038 


810.1 


2.065 


816.2 


2.093 


822,3 



1.1690 
1.1827 
1 . 1956 

1 .2078 
1.2195 
1 .2306 
1.2414 
1.2517 

1.2617 
1.2715 
1.2810 
1 .2902 
1.2993 

1 3081 
1 3168 
1.3253 
1.3.337 
1.3420 

1 3501 
1.3.581 
1 .3659 
1.3737 
1.3814 

1.3889 
1.3964 
1 4038 
1.4111 
1.4183 

1.4255 



Abs. Pressure 290 Ib./in,' 
Gage Pressure 27S.3 Ib./in 
(Safn. Temp. 120.80° F ) 



V-O^O (OmO) il.l4IS) 



1.068 
1.103 

1.136 
1 . 168 
1.199 
1.229 
1.2.59 

1.287 
1 315 
1.343 
1.370 
1.397 

1.423 
1.449 
1.475 
1.501 
1 526 

1.551 
1.576 
1.601 
1.625 
1.650 

1.674 
1.698 
1.722 
1.747 
1.770 
1.794 



642.1 
650.5 

6.58,5 
666.1 
673.5 
680.7 
687.7 

694.6 
701.3 
707.9 
714.4 
720.9 

727.3 
733.7 
740.0 
746,3 

752.5 

758,7 
764,9 
771.1 
777.3 
783.5 

789,7 
795.8 
802.0 
808.2 
814.3 
820 5 



1.1.5.54 
1 . 1695 

1 . 1827 
1.19.52 
1.2070 
1.2183 
1.2292 

1.2396 
1 2497 
1.2596 
1.2691 

1.2784 

1.2875 
i 2964 
1 3051 
1 3137 
1 3221 

1 3303 
1.3384 
1.3464 
I 3543 
1 3621 

1 .3697 
1.3773 
1.3848 
1.3922 
1.3995 



Abs. Pressure 280 Ih. /in' 
C:t- IVessure MS.3 Ib./in.' 
(S»fn, Temp. 11:1,12° F,) 



(/./.M) 



1.182 
1.220 
1.257 

1.292 
1.326 
1.359 
1.391 
1.422 

1.453 
1.484 
1.514 
1.543 
1.572 

1 601 
1.6.30 
1.6.58 
1.(586 
1.714 

1.741 
1.769 
1.796 
1.823 
1.850 

1.877 
1.904 
1.930 
1.957 
1.983 
2.009 



^oi.^.l,) 



639.5 

647.8 
655.6 

663 . 1 
670.4 

677.5 
684.4 
691.1 

697.7 
704.3 
710.7 
717.1 
723.4 

729.7 
736 
742.2 
748.4 
754.5 

760 7 
766.8 
772.9 
779.0 
785.2 

791.4 
797.4 
803.5 
,809.6 
815.8 
821.9 



1.1617 
1 . 17.57 
1.1889 

1 .2014 
1.2132 
1 .2245 
1.2354 
1.2458 

1.2560 
1 .2658 
1 .2754 
1.2847 
1 .2938 

1.3027 
1.3115 
1.3200 
1.3285 
1 .3367 
1.3449 
1.S529 
1.3608 
1.3686 
1.3763 

1.3839 
1.3914 
1.3988 
1 .4062 
1.4134 

1.4206 



Abs. Pressure 300 lb /in ' 
Gage Pressure 285.3 Ib./in.: 
(Safn. Temp. lL>;i 21' F.) 



(OMO) (.(ISli.n) 0-1 



1 .023 
1.058 
1.091 
1 . 123 
1.153 
1 . 183 
1.211 

1 239 
1 267 
1 294 
1.320 
1.346 

1.372 
1.397 
1 422 
1.447 
1 472 

1 496 
1.520 
1.644 
1.568 
1 592 

1.616 
1 639 
l.()C2 
1.6,S6 
1.709 



14067 1.732 ,820 1 



640.1 
648.7 
6.56,9 
(i64,7 
672 2 
679.5 
680.5 
693.5 
700 3 
706,9 
713.5 
720.0 

726.5 
732.9 
739.2 
745:5 
751.8 
758.1 
764.3 
770.5 
770.7 
782.9 

789.1 
795.3 
801.5 
807.7 
813.9 



1.1487 
1.16.32 

1 1767 
1 . 1894 
1.2014 
1.2129 
1.2239 
1 2344 
1.2447 
1.2540 
1.2642 
1.2736 

1.2827 
1.2917 
1.3004 
1.3090 
1.3175 

1.3257 
1.3338 
1.3419 
1.3498 
1 .3576 

1.3653 
1.3729 
1.3,804 
1.3878 
1.3951 

1.4024 



of Superhc.iled Vapur, (I,', lb. 



, Btu,/lb,. and "S" is Entropy, Bin. /lb. °F. 



68 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXI.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED CARBON DIOXIDE VAPOR— 
CO2 (Temperature Table) 

Mollier (Amagat), Hodsdon, Ice and Cold Storage, London (I9r4). 



Temp. 


Pressure 


Volume 


Denaity 


Heat Content 
Above 32« F. 


Entropy 
From 32" F. 


Temp. 


Aba. 


Gaget 
Atnios. 


Gaget 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Uquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Evap. 


Vapor 


«F. 


Ib./in.> 


al./io.' 


lb. An.' 


ft.'/lb. 


ft.'/lb. 


lb./(t.' 


Ib./ft." 


Btu./Ib. 


Btu./lb 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb 


Btu./lb 


'F. 


t 


P 


a.gp 


8 P 





V 


1/c 


1/V 


A + 


L = 


H 


* 


L/T 


5 


t 


-22 


212.9 


13.48 


198.2 


0.0155 


0.4319 


64.52 


2.315 


-24.78 


126.7 


102.0 


-0.0633 


0.2898 


0.2365 


-22 


-21 


216.7 


13.74 


202.0 


.0155 


.4242 


64.43 


2.358 


-24.37 


126.4 


102.0 


- .0524 


.2883 


.2369 


-21 


-20 


220.6 


14.00 


205.9 


0.01.55 


0.4166 


64.34 


2.401 


-23.96 


126.0 


102.0 


-0.0514 


0.2867 


0.2353 


-20 


-19 


224.4 


14.27 


209.7 


.0156 


.4091 


64.25 


2.444 


-23.54 


125.6 


102.1 


- .0505 


.2852 


.2348 


-19 


-18 


228.4 


14.53 


213.7 


.0156 


.4018 


64.15 


2.489 


-23.13 


125.2 


102.1 


- .0495 


.2837 


.2342 


-18 


-17 


232.3 


14.80 


217.6 


.0156 


.3946 


64.05 


2.534 


-22.71 


124.9 


102.1 


- .0486 


.2822 


.2336 


-17 


-16 


236.4 


15.08 


221.7 


.0156 


.3876 


63.94 


2.580 


-22.30 


124.5 


102.2 


- .0476 


.2807 


.2331 


-16 


-15 


240.5 


15.36 


225.8 


0.0157 


0.3807 


63.84 


2.627 


-21.88 


124.1 


102.2 


-0.0467 


0.2792 


0.2325 


-15 


-14 


244.6 


15.64 


229.9 


.0157 


.3739 


63.73 


2.674 


-21.46 


123.7 


102.2 


- .0458 


.2777 


.2319 


-14 


-13 


248.8 


15.92 


234.1 


.0157 


.3673 


63.61 


2.723 


-21.03 


123.3 


102.2 


- .0448 


.2761 


.2313 


-13 


-12 


253.0 


16.21 


238.3 


.0157 


.3608 


63.49 


2.772 


-20.61 


122.9 


102.3 


- .0439 


.2746 


.2307 


-12 


-11 


258.3 


16.50 


242.6 


.0158 


.3544 


63.37 


2.822 


-20.18 


122.5 


102.3 


- .0429 


.2731 


.2302 


-11 


-10 


261.7 


16.80 


247.0 


0.0158 


0.34S2 


63.25 


2.872 


-19.76 


122.0 


102.3 


-0.0420 


0.2716 


0.2296 


-10 


- 9 


266.1 


17.10 


251.4 


.0158 


.3420 


63.13 


2.924 


-19.33 


121.6 


102.3 


- .0410 


.2700 


.2290 


- 9 


- 8 


270.6 


17.41 


255.9 


.01.59 


.3360 


63.01 


2.976 


-18.90 


121.2 


102.3 


- .0401 


.2685 


.2284 


- 8 


- 7 


275.1 


17.72 


260.4 


.0159 


.3301 


62.88 


3.029 


-18.47 


120.8 


102.3 


- .0391 


.2669 


.2278 


- 7 


- 6 


279.7 


18.03 


205.0 


.0159 


.3243 


62.76 


3.083 


-18.04 


120.3 


102.3 


- .0382 


.2654 


.2273 


- 6 


- S 


284.4 


18.35 


269.7 


0.0100 


0.3186 


62.63 


3.138 


-17.61 


119.9 


102.3 


-0.0372 


0.2639 


0.2267 


- 5 


- 4 


289.1 


18.67 


274.4 


.0160 


.3131 


62.50 


3.194 


-17.17 


119.5 


102.3 


- .0362 


.2623 


2261 


- 4 


- 3 


293.9 


18.99 


279.2 


.0160 


.3076 


62.37 


3.251 


-16.73 


119.0 


102.3 


- .0353 


.2608 


.2255 


- 3 


- 2 


298.7 


19.32 


284.0 


.0161 


.3022 


62.23 


3.309 


-16.29 


118. 6 


102.3 


- .0343 


.2592 


.2249 


- 2 


- 1 


303.6 


19.66 


288.9 


.0161 


.2969 


62.09 


3.368 


-15.85 


118.1 


102.3 


- .0334 


.2577 


.2243 


- 1 





308.6 


20.00 


293.9 


0.0161 


0.2918 


61.95 


3.427 


-15.41 


117.7 


102.2 


-0.0324 


0.2561 


0.2237 





1 


313.7 


20.34 


299.0 


.0162 


.2867 


61.80 


3.488 


-14.96 


117.2 


102.2 


- .0314 


.2545 


.2231 


1 


2 


318.7 


20.68 


304 


.0162 


.2817 


61.65 


3.550 


-14.51 


116.7 


102.2 


- .0304 


.2530 


.2225 


2 


3 


323.9 


21.03 


309.2 


.0163 


.2768 


61.51 


3.612 


-14.07 


116.2 


102.2 


- .0295 


.2514 


.2219 


3 


4 


329.1 


21.39 


314.4 


.0163 


.2720 


61.36 


3.676 


-13.61 


115.8 


102.1 


- .0285 


.2498 


.2213 


4 


JS 


334.4 


21.75 


319.7 


0163 


0.2673 


61.22 


3.741 


-13.16 


115.3 


102.1 


-0 0275 


0.2482 


0.2207 


5t 


6 


339.8 


22.11 


325.1 


.0164 


.2627 


61.07 


3.807 


-12.71 


114.8 


102.1 


- .0266 


.2466 


.2201 


6 


7 


345.2 


22.48 


330.5 


.0164 


.2581 


60.92 


3.874 


-12.25 


114.3 


102.0 


- .0256 


.2451 


.2195 


7 


8 


350.7 


22.85 


336.0 


.0165 


.2537 


60.77 


3.942 


-11.79 


113. 8 


102.0 


- .0246 


.2435 


.2189 


8 


9 


356.2 


23.23 


341.5 


.0165 


.2493 


60.63 


4.011 


-11.33 


113.3 


102.0 


- .0236 


.2419 


.2183 


9 


10 


361.8 


23.61 


347.1 


0.0165 


0.2450 


60.48 


4.082 


-10.87 


112.8 


101.9 


-0.0226 


0.2402 


0.2176 


10 


11 


367.5 


24.00 


352.8 


.0166 


.2408 


60.33 


4.154 


-10.40 


112.3 


101.9 


- .0216 


.2386 


.2170 


11 


12 


373.3 


24.39 


358.6 


.0166 


.2366 


60.18 


4.227 


- 9.934 


111.7 


101.8 


- .0206 


.2370 


.2164 


12 


13 


379.1 


24.79 


364.4 


.0167 


.2825 


60.03 


4.301 


- 9.464 


111.2 


101.7 


- .0196 


.2354 


.2158 


13 


14 


385.0 


25.19 


370.3 


.0167 


.2285 


59.88 


4.377 


- 8.992 


110.7 


101.7 


- .0186 


.2338 


.2151 


14 


IS 


391.0 


25.60 


376.3 


0.0167 


0.2245 


59.73 


4.454 


- 8.515 


110.1 


101.6 


-0.0176 


0.2321 


0.2145 


15 


16 


397.1 


26.01 


382.4 


.0168 


.2207 


59.58 


4.532 


- 8.038 


109.6 


101.6 


- .0166 


.2305 


.2139 


16 


17 


403.2 


26.43 


388.5 


.0168 


.2168 


59.42 


4.611 


- 7.557 


109.0 


101.5 


- .0156 


.2288 


.2132 


17 


18 


409.4 


26.85 


394.7 


.0169 


.2131 


59.27 


4.692 


- 7.076 


108.5 


101.4 


- .0146 


.2272 


.2126 


18 


19 


415.7 


27.28 


401.0 


.0169 


.2094 


59.11 


4.775 


- 6.591 


107.9 


101.3 


- .0136 


.2255 


.2119 


19 


20 


422.0 


27.71 


407.3 


0.0170 


0.2058 


58.95 


4.859 


- 6.102 


107.3 


101.2 


-0,0126 


0.2239 


0.2113 


20 


21 


428.4 


28.14 


413.7 


.0170 


.2023 


58.79 


4.944 


- 5.610 


106.7 


101.1 


- .0115 


.2222 


.2106 


21 


22 


434.9 


28.58 


420.2 


.0171 


.1987 


58.64 


5.031 


- 5.117 


106.1 


101.0 


- .0105 


.2205 


.2100 


22 


23 


441.4 


29.03 


426.7 


.0171 


.1953 


58.47 


5.120 


- 4.621 


105.6 


100.9 


- .0095 


.2188 


.2093 


23 


24 


448.1 


29.48 


433.4 


.0172 


.1919 


58.31 


6.211 


- 4.121 


104.9 


100.8 


- .0085 


.2171 


.2087 


24 


25 


454.8 


29.94 


440.1 


0.0172 


0.1886 


58.14 


S.303 


- 3.618 104.3 


100.7 


-0.0074 


0,2154 


0.2080 


25 


26 


461.6 


30.40 


446.9 


.0172 


.1853 


57.98 


5.396 


- 3.111 103.7 


100.6 


- .0064 


.2137 


.2073 


26 


27 


468.5 


30.87 


453.8 


.0173 


.1821 


5;. 81 


5.492 


- 2.601 


103.1 


100.5 


- .0053 


.2120 


.2066 


27 


28 


475.4 


31.34 


460.7 


0174 


.1789 


57.64 


6.589 


- 2.087 


102.5 


100.4 


- .0043 


.2102 


.2059 


28 


29 


482.5 


31.82 


467.8 


.0174 


.1758 


57.47 5.688 


^ 1.570 


101.8 


100.2 


- .0032 


.2085 


.2063 


29 



•Rearranged and symbols changed, to conform to A. S. R. E. Standard, by Editor 
A. S. R. E. Data. 

tCage pressure supplied by Editor A. S. R. E. Data. 
(Standard ton temperatures. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



69 



TABLE XXI.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED CARBON DIOXIDE VAPOR— 

CO2 (Terrperntiire Tahlel — (Continued) 



Temp. 


Presaure 


Volume 


Density 


Heat Content 


■II 1 1 1 1 =s 

Entropy 
From 32" F. 


Temp. 










Above 32° F. 




Abs. 


Caget 
Almoe. 


Caget 


Liijuid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Evap. 


Vapor 


' 'F. 


Ib./in.' 


at. /in.' 


lh,/in ' 


ff/lb 


ft '/lb. 


Ib./tt.' 


Ib./tt' 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


•F 


t 


P 


a-gp 


g P 


V 


V 


I/O 


i/v 


h + 


L^ 


H 


a 


L/T 


s 


t 


30 


489.6 


32 31 


474.9 


0175 


0.1728 


57.30 


5.789 


- 1.049 


101.2 


100.1 


-0 0021 


0.2067 


0.2046 


30 


31 


496.8 


32.79 


482.1 


.0175 


.1697 


57.12 


5 892 


- 0.525 


100.5 


99.98 


- .0011 


.2049 


.2039 


31 


32 


504.1 


33.29 


489.4 


.0176 


.1668 


56 95 


5.996 


000 


99.83 


99.83 


- .0000 


.2032 


.2032 


32 


33 


511.4 


33.79 


496.7 


.0176 


.1639 


56.77 


6.103 


+ 0.531 


99.16 


99 ()9 


+ .0011 


.2014 


.2025 


33 


34 


518.9 


34.30 


504.2 


.0177 


.1610 


56.59 


6.212 


+ 1.066 


98.47 


99.54 


+ .0022 


.1996 


.2017 


34 


35 


526.4 


34.81 


511.7 


0.0177 


0.1581 


56.41 


6.323 


1.604 


97.77 


99.38 


0.0033 


0.1978 


0.2010 


35 


36 


534.0 


35.33 


519.3 


.0178 


.1554 


56.22 


6.437 


2.149 


97.07 


99.22 


.0044 


.1959 


.2003 


36 


37 


541.7 


35.85 


527.0 


.0178 


.1526 


56 03 


6.553 


2.697 


96.35 


99.05 


.0055 


.1941 


.1996 


37 


38 


549.5 


36.38 


534.8 


.0179 


.1499 


55.84 


6.671 


3.248 


95.62 


98.87 


.0066 


.1922 


1988 


38 


39 


557.4 


36.92 


542.7 


.0180 


.1472 


55.65 


6.792 


3.806 


94.88 


98.69 


.0077 


1904 


1981 


39 


40 


565.4 


37.46 


550.7 


0.0180 


0.1446 


55.45 


6.915 


4.367 


94.13 


98.50 


O.OOSS 


0.1885 


1973 


40 


41 


573.4 


38.01 


558.7 


.0181 


.1420 


55.25 


7.040 


4.932 


93.37 


98.31 


.0099 


.1866 


.1965 


41 


42 


581.6 


38.56 


566.9 


.0182 


.1395 


55.04 


7.169 


5.503 


92.60 


98.10 


0111 


.1847 


.1958 


42 


43 


589.8 


39.12 


575.1 


.0182 


.1370 


54.84 


7.300 


6.080 


91.82 


97.90 


.0122 


.1828 


.1950 


43 


44 


598.1 


39.69 


583.4 


.0183 


.1345 


54.62 


7.434 


6.664 


91.02 


97.68 


0134 


.1808 


.1942 


44 


45 


606.5 


40.26 


591.8 


0.0184 


0.1321 


54.41 


7.571 


7.251 


90.21 


97.46 


0.0146 


0.1788 


0.1934 


45 


46 


615.0 


40.84 


600.3 


.0185 


.1297 


54.19 


7.711 


7.844 


89.39 


97.23 


.0157 


.1769 


.1926 


46 


47 


623.6 


41.43 


608.9 


.0185 


.1273 


53.97 


7.854 


8.443 


88.55 


96.99 


.0169 


.1749 


.1918 


47 


48 


632.3 


42.02 


617.6 


.0186 


.1250 


.53.74 


8.000 


9.049 


87.70 


96.75 


.0181 


.1729 


.1910 


48 


49 


641.1 


42.63 


626.4 


.0187 


.1227 


.53.51 


8.151 


9.664 


86.83 


96.50 


.0193 


.1708 


.1901 


49 


SO 


650.0 


43.22 


635.3 


0.0tl88 


0.1204 


53.28 


8.304 


10.28 


85.95 


96.24 


0.0205 


0.1687 


0.1893 


50 


61 


659.0 


43.83 


644.3 


.0189 


.1182 


53.04 


8.461 


10.91 


85.06 


95.97 


.0218 


.1666 


.1884 


51 


52 


668.1 


44.45 


653.4 


.0189 


.1160 


52.80 


8.622 


11.55 


84.14 


95.69 


.0230 


.1645 


.1875 


52 


63 


677.3 


45.07 


662.6 


.0190 


.1138 


52.55 


8.787 


12.19 


83.21 


95.40 


.0243 


.1624 


.1867 


53 


64 


686.5 


45.70 


671.8 


.0191 


.1116 


52.30 


8.957 


12.84 


82.26 


95.10 


.0255 


.1602 


.1858 


64 


55 


695.9 


46.34 


681.2 


0.0192 


. 1095 


52.05 


9.132 


13.49 


81.29 


94.78 


0.0268 


0.1580 


0.1849 


55 


56 


705.4 


46.98 


690.7 


.0193 


.1074 


51.79 


9.313 


14.16 


80.30 


94.46 


.0281 


.1558 


.1839 


56 


67 


714.9 


47.63 


700.2 


.0194 


.1053 


51.53 


9.497 


14.84 


79.30 


94.13 


.0294 


.1536 


.1830 


57 


68 


724.6 


48.29 


709.9 


.0195 


.1032 


51.26 


9.686 


15.53 


78.27 


93.79 


.0307 


.1513 


.1820 


58 


69 


734.3 


48.96 


719.6 


.0196 


.1012 


50.99 


9.880 


16.22 


77.22 


93.44 


.0321 


.1490 


.1811 


69 


60 


744.2 


49.63 


729.5 


0.0197 


0.0992 


50.71 


10.08 


16.93 


76.14 


93.07 


0.0335 


0.1466 


0.1801 


60 


61 


754.2 


50.30 


739.5 


.0198 


.0972 


50.42 


10.29 


17.65 


75.04 


92.69 


.0348 


.1442 


.1790 


61 


62 


764.3 


50.99 


749.6 


.0200 


.0953 


50.11 


10.50 


18.38 


73.91 


92.29 


.0363 


.1417 


-.1780 


62 


63 


774.5 


51.68 


759.8 


.0201 


.0933 


49.80 


10.72 


19.13 


72.75 


91.88 


.0377 


.1393 


.1770 


63 


64 


'784.7 


52.38 


770.0 


.0202 


.0914 


49.47 


10.95 


19.88 


71.57 


91.45 


.0391 


1367 


.1759 


64 


65 


795.1 


53.09 


780.4 


0203 


0.0894 


49.14 


11.18 


20.66 


70.35 


91.01 


0.0406 


0.1342 


0.174S 


65 


66 


805.6 


53.80 


790.9 


.0205 


.0875 


48.80 


11.42 


21.45 


69.10 


90.55 


.0421 


.1315 


.1736 


66 


67 


816.2 


54.53 


801-5 


.0206 


.0856 


48.44 


11.67 


22.25 


67.81 


90.07 


.0436 


.1288 


.1725 


67 


68 


827.0 


55.26 


812.3 


.0208 


.0838 


48.08 


11.94 


23.08 


66.49 


89.56 


.0452 


.1261 


.1713 


68 


69 


837.8 


55.99 


823.1 


.0210 


.0819 


47.69 


12.21 


23.92 


65.12 


89.04 


.0468 


.1233 


.1701 


69 


70 


848.7 


56.74 


834.0 


0.0211 


0.0800 


47.29 


12.49 


24.78 


63.71 


88.49 


0.0484 


0.1204 


0.1688 


70 


71 


859.8 


57.49 


845.1 


.0213 


.0782 


46.87 


12.82 


25.67 


62.25 


87.92 


.0501 


.1174 


.1675 


71 


72 


870.9 


58.25 


856.2 


.0215 


.0763 


46.44 


13.10 


26.58 


60.74 


87.32 


.0518 


.1143 


1661 


72 


73 


882.2 


59.01 


867.5 


.0217 


.0745 


45.99 


13.43 


27.52 


59.17 


86.69 


.0536 


.1111 


.1647 


73 


74 


893.6 


59.79 


878.9 


.0220 


.0726 


45.53 


13.77 


28.49 


57.54 


86.03 


.0554 


.1079 


.1633 


74 


75 


905.1 


60.57 


890.4 


0.0222 


0.0708 


45.05 


14.13 


29.50 


55.83 


85.33 


0.0573 


0.1045 


0.1618 


75 


76 


916.7 


61.36 


902.0 


.0224 


.0689 


44.. 56 


14.51 


30.54 


54.05 


84.59 


.0592 


.1010 


.1602 


76 


77 


928.4 


62 . K) 


913.7 


.0227 


.0671 


44.06 


14.90 


31.62 


52.17 


83.80 


.0613 


.0973 


.1585 


77 


78 


940.3 


62.96 


925.6 


.0230 


.0652 


43.55 


15.34 


32.76 


50.20 


82.96 


.0634 


.0934 


.1568 


78 


79 


952.2 


63.78 


937.5 


.0232 


.0633 


43.04 


15.81 


33.95 


48.11 


82.06 


.0656 


.0894 


.1550 


79 


80 


964.3 


64.60 


949.6 


0.0235 


0613 


42.50 


16.32 


.35.21 


45.88 


81.09 


0.0679 


0.0851 


0.1530 


80 


81 


976.5 


65.43 


961.8 


.0238 


.0592 


41.95 


16.90 


36.54 


43.49 


80.03 


.0704 


.0805 


.1509 


81 


82 


988.8 


66.27 


974.1 


.0242 


.0570 


41.30 


17.53 


37.98 


40.90 


78.88 


.0731 


.0755 


.1486 


82 


83 


1001.0 


67.11 


9S6.3 


.0246 


.0548 


40.62 


18.25 


39.53 


38.07 


77.60 


.0759 


.0702 


.1461 


83 


84 


1014.0 


67.97 


999.3 


.0251 


.0524 


39.81 


19.07 


41.25 


34.90 


76.15 


.0791 


.0612 


.1433 


84 


85 


1027.0 


68.83 


1012.3 


0.0258 


0.0500 


38.76 


20.00 


43.18 


31.29 


74.47 


0.a826 


0.0575 


0.1401 


85 


861 


1039.0 


69.70 


1024.3 


.0267 


.0474 


37.41 


21.09 


45.45 


27.00 


72.46 


.0868 


.0495 


.1363 


86: 


87 


1052.0 


70.58 


1037.3 


.0283 


.0446 


35.34 


22.42 


48.32 


21.52 


69.84 


.0921 


.0.394 


.1314 


87 


88 


1065.0 


71.47 


1050.3 


.0305 


.0401 


32.79 


24.95 


52.78 


12.84 


65.62 


1002 


.0235 


.1237 


88 


88.43 


1071.0 


71.86 


1056.3 


.0346 


.0346 


28.90 


28.90 


59.23 


0.00 


59.23 


.1120 


.0000 


.1120 


88.43 



tGage pressures supplied by Editor A. S. R. E. 
{Standard ton temperatures. 



Data. 



70 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXII.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF BUTANE:— QHio 

Lindc Air Products Company Laboratory. Refrigerating Engineering, June, 1926. 

A. S. R. E. Data Book. 



Temp. 


Press iir« 


Volwna 


D«Mity 


aeat Content 


Entropy 


Temp. 


•F. 














Above 0" K. 


From 


0° K. 


•F. 


Aba. 


G«<. 


Liquid 


V.por 


Liquid 


V.por 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 




Ib.Am." 


Ib./in.' 


It.'/lb. 


ft.'/lb. 


lb./tt.« 


lb./lt.« 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb.°F 


Btu./lb.-F. 




t 


P 


ip 


V 


V 


l/t> 


l/V 


h + 


L = 


H 


« 


s 


I 





7.3 


15 0* 


02591 


11.1 


38.59 


0901 


0.0 


170.5 


170.5 


000 


0.370 





1 


7 5 


14 7 


02593 


10.9 


38.56 


0917 


5 


170.5 


171 


001 


370 


1 


2 


7.7 


14 3 


.02596 


10.7 


38.52 


.0935 


1.0 


170 


171 


.002 


370 


2 


3 


7 8 


13 9 


.02598 


10 4 


38.49 


.0962 


15 


170 


171.5 


.003 


370 


3 


4 


8 


13 6 


.02601 


10 2 


38.45 


.0980 


2.0 


170.0 


172.0 


005 


370 


4 


St 


8.2 


13.2* 


0.02603 


9 98 


38.41 


0.100 


2.5 


169.5 


172 


0.006 


370 


St 


6 


8.4 


12.8 


02606 


9.78 


38.38 


.102 


3.0 


169.6 


172.6 


007 


370 


6 


7 


8.6 


12.4 


■ 02608 


9.57 


38.35 


.104 


3 5 


169.6 


173.0 


008 


370 


7 


8 


8.8 


12 


.026ro 


9.37 


38.31 


.107 


4.0 


169.5 


173.6 


.009 


370 


8 


9 


9 


11.6 


.02612 


9.16 


38.28 


.109 


4.5 


169 


173.6 


.010 


.370 


9 


10 


9.2 


11. 1* 


0.02615 


8.95 


38.24 


0.112 


6.5 


168.5 


174.0 


0.011 


0.370 


10 


u 


9.4 


10 7 


.02617 


8.78 


38.21 


.114 


6.0 


168.6 


174.5 


.012 


.370 


11 


12 


9.7 


10 3 


.02619 


8.59 


38.18 


.116 


6.5 


168 5 


175.0 


.013 


.370 


12 


13 


9.9 


9 9 


.02622 


8.41 


38.14 


.119 


7 


168.0 


175 


.016 


.370 


13 


14 


10 1 


9 5 


.02624 


8.22 


38.11 


.122 


7.5 


168.0 


175.5 


.016 


.370 


14 


IS 


10.4 


8.8« 


0.02627 


8.05 


38.07 


0.124 


8.0 


168.0 


176.0 


0.017 


0.370 


15 


16 


10 6 


8.5 


.02629 


7.88 


38.04 


.127 


8.5 


187.5 


176.0 


.018 


.371 


16 


17 


10 8 


8.0 


.02632 


7.72 


38 00 


.130 


9.0 


167.5 


176.5 


.019 


.371 


17 


18 


11.1 


7.5 


.02634 


7.56 


37.97 


.132 


9.5 


167.5 


177 


020 


.371 


18 


19 


11.3 


7 


.02636 


7.40 


37.93 


.135 


10.0 


167.6 


177.5 


.021 


.371 


19 


20 


11.6 


6.3* 


0.02639 


7.23 


37.89 


0.138 


10.5 


167.0 


177.6 


022 


0.371 


20 


21 


11 8 


6.0 


.02641 


7.10 


37.86 


.141 


U.O 


167.0 


178.0 


.023 


.371 


21 


22 


12.1 


5.5 


.02643 


6.97 


37.83 


.143 


11.5 


167.0 


178.5 


.025 


.371 


22 


23 


12 4 


4.9 


.02646 


6.82 


37.79 


.147 


12.0 


166.5 


178.5 


.026 


.371 


23 


24 


12 7 


4.3 


.02648 


6.68 


37.76 


.150 


12.5 


166.5 


179 


.027 


.371 


24 


2S 


13.0 


3.6* 


0.02651 


6.55 


37.72 


0.153 


13.0 


166.0 


179.0 


0.028 


0.371 


25 


30 


14 4 


0.6* 


.02664 


5.90 


37.54 


.169 


16.0 


165.5 


181.5 


.033 


.371 


30 


35 


16.0 


1.3 


.02676 


5.37 


37.37 


.186 


19.0 


164.5 


183.5 


.039 


.371 


35 


40 


17.7 


3.0 


.02(589 


4.88 


37.19 


.205 


21.5 


163.5 


185.0 


.044 


.371 


40 


4.') 


19.6 


4.9 


.02703 


4.47 


37.00 


.224 


24.5 


162.5 


187 


.050 


.372 


45 


SO 


21.6 


6.9 


0.02716 


4.07 


36.82 


0.246 


27.0 


161.5 


188.6 


0.056 


0.373 


50 


hh 


23.8 


9.1 


.02730 


3.73 


36.63 


.268 


30 


160.5 


190.5 


.061 


.373 


55 


60 


26 3 


11.6 


.02743 


3.40 


36.45 


.294 


33.0 


159.5 


192.5 


.067 


.374 


60 


65 


28 9 


14.2 


.02759 


3.12 


36.24 


.321 


36.0 


158.5 


194.5 


.072 


374 


65 


70 


31 6 


16.9 


.02773 


2.88 


36.06 


.347 


38.5 


157.5 


196 


.078 


.375 


70 


75 


34.6 


19.8 


0.02789 


2.65 


35.86 


0.377 


41.5 


156.5 


198.0 


0.083 


0.376 


7S 


80 


37.6 


22.9 


.02805 


2.46 


35.65 


.407 


44.5 


155 


199.5 


.089 


.376 


80 


85 


40.9 


26.2 


.02821 


2.28 


35.45 


.439 


47.5 


154.0 


201.5 


.094 


.376 


85 


86 1 


41.6 


26 9 


.02825 


2.24 


35.40 


.446 


48.5 


153 5 


202 


.095 


376 


86 1 


90 


44.5 


29.8 


.02838 


2.10 


35.24 


.476 


51.0 


152.0 


203.0 


.100 


.377 


90 


•S 


48.2 


33.5 


0.02854 


1.96 


35.04 


0.510 


54.0 


151.0 


205.0 


0.105 


0.377 


95 


100 


52.2 


37 5 


.02870 


1.81 


34.84 


.552 


57.0 


149.5 


206 6 


111 


.378 


100 


105 


56.4 


41.7 


.02889 


1.70 


34.62 


.588 


60.5 


148 


208,5 


117 


.380 


105 


110 


60.8 


46.1 


.02906 


1.58 


34.41 


.633 


63.5 


147 


210.5 


122 


.380 


110 


115 


65 6 


50.9 


.02925 


1.48 


34.19 


.676 


66 5 


145.5 


212.0 


.128 


.381 


115 


120 


70.8 


56.1 


0.02945 


1.38 


33.% 


0.725 


70.0 


143.5 


213.6 


0.134 


0.382 


120 


125 


76.0 


61.3 


.02966 


1.30 


33.72 


.769 


73.5 


142 


215.5 


.139 


.382 


125 


130 


81 4 


66.7 


.02986 


1.21 


33 49 


.826 


76.5 


140.5 


217.0 


145 


.384 


130 


135 


87.0 


72.3 


.03009 


1.14 


33.23 


.877 


80.0 


139.0 


219.0 


.151 


385 


135 


140 


92 6 


77.9 


.03032 


1.07 


32.98 


.934 


83.6 


137.8 


221.0 


157 


.386 


140 



iaphere<29.82 in. " 14.696 Ibe./aq. in. aba.) 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



71 



PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF SEVERAL REFRIGERANTS 

Starr, Practical Refrigerating Engineers' Pocket Book, Nickerson & Collins Co. 

TABLE XXin.— ClAHBON BISULPHIDE— CSi TABLE XXIV.— CABBON TETRACHLORIDE, C CU 



Ttmp 


Preaure 


Volume 


Density 


Heat Content above 32° K | 






Vupur 


\ apor 






Abjo- 


Oajte 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor" 


op 


11, /Hi ' 


vac. 


fl '/Ih 


rt /U)>, 


ntu /lb 


Btu /lb 


ntu /lb 


( 


P 


g P' 


V 


IJV 


h + 


L = 


H 





1 10 


27,7 


53 70 


0180 


-8.00 


105 5 


150 90 


St 


1 28 


27 32 


48 07 


0208 


—7.20 


165 


157 80 


10 


1 4ti 


26 95 


43 47 


0230 


-5 60 


104 . 5 


15S 90 


15 


1 67 


20 52 


38 91 


0257 


-4 40 


104 


159.00 


20 


1 89 


2(i 07 


34 84 


0287 


-3 00 


103 2 


100 20 


25 


2 11 


25 63 


32.10 


0324 


-1 82 


162.9 


161 08 


30 


2 30 


25.11 


29 49 


0339 


-0 .50 


102 2 


101 70 


35 


2 47 


24 89 


28 .32 


0353 


00 


102 


102 00 


40 


3 03 


23 75 


23 .52 


0425 


+ 2 0.-, 


101 2 


103.25 


•45 


3 40 


23 00 


22 00 


0454 


2 40 


100 7 


103 10 


SO 


3 90 21.95 


20 GO 


0482 


4.24 


160.0 


104.24 


55 


4 40 


20 9S 


19 20 


0.i21 


5. SO 


1.59.8 


105.0(1 


60 


4.95 


19 84 


IS 00 


0555 


7.20 


159.2 


100 40 


65 


5 40 


18 93 


15 00 


.0660 


8.50 


158 S 


107 30 


70 


5 85 


18 03 


13 20 


0758 


9 80 


1.58.1 


107 90 


75 


G.50 


16 09 


11 SO 


0S74 


10 SO 


1.57 5 


105,30 


80 


7.30 


15.07 


10 40 


0.0901 


11.70 


1.56.9 


108.00 


85 


S 21 


13 21 


9,80 


1020 


12 GO 


150.2 


108 8(1 


86f 


8 40 12 82 


9 15 


.1058 


12 84 


156 1 


168 94 


90 


9 15 11 29 


8 30 


1204 


13 80 


153 


109,40 


95 


10 00 9 54 


7 00 


1315 


15 00 


155 


170 00 


100 


11 OS 7 37 


7 03 


1.309 


IG 15 


1.54 4 


170. 55 


105 


12 30 4 89 


G 40 


1502 


17 40 


1.53 S 


171.20 


110 


13 50 2 44 


5 SO 


1724 


18,30 


1,53.2 


171. ,50 


114 r, 


14 70 no 


5 4r. 


1834 


19 10 


152 


171.70 


!ll5 


14 80 lot 


5 40 


1851 


19 25 


152 6 


171 85 


120 


16 10 1 40t 


5 loio 1960 


20.01 


1.52 


172 01 



T-vn 


Pre«ure 


\V>lum( 
\ apor 


Density 
Vapor 


Heat Content above 32° V. 


Abso- 


Guee 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


'1- 


11. /in : 


v„c 


rt vib 


It /lb • 


Btu /lb. 


Blu./lb 


Otu./lb 


t 


P 


gP' 


V 


1/V 


h + 


L = 


H 


20 


40 


29 1 


09 5 


0.014.38 


-2 00 


94.45 


92 45 


25 


50 


2S,8 


01 


01039 


-1.2(J 


91 00 


92.80 


30 


GO 


28 7 


.53 


01886 


-0 25 


93 70 


93 45 


32 


64 


28 6 


52 


01917 


00 


93.00 


93.60 


40 


84 


28 2 


10 


02500 


+ 1 GO 


93 20 


94 SO 


45 


05 


28 


35 


0.02857 


2.58 


92.90 


95.48 


52 


1 07 


27.7 


34 


.03113 


3.58 


92 GO 


96. IS 
9G 70 


55 


1 25 


27,4 


27,0 


03703 


4.40 


92 30 


00 


1 42 


27 


24.0 


04166 


5 95 


92.20 


98. 15 


05 


1 00 


26 7 


21 5 


04651 


6 .50 


91 70 


98 2U 


70 


1 85 


26.2 


19.5 


0.05128 


8.20 


91 40 


99.00 


75 


2.15 


25 . 5 


17 5 


0,5714 


8. 50 


91.05 


99 , 53 


SO 


2.40 


25.0 


10 


.00345 


9.80 


90.07 


99.87 


85 


2 70 


24 4 


14 5 


00890 


10.60 


90 04 


100 04 


86}* 


2 78 


24 2 


14 2 


07037 


10 80 


90 04 


100 83 


90 


3 12 


23,5 


13 


07092 


11,00 


90.02 


101 02 


95 


3.60 


22 6 


11.0 


0909 


12,40 


89 70 


102.10 


100 


4 00 


21,8 


10.0 


.1000 


13,4(1 


89 41) 


102 . SO 


105 


4 42 


20 9 


9 


nil 


14 00 


S9 20 


103.80 


110 


4.S9 


20,1 


8 5 


1176 


15 80 


SS 70 


104.50 


115 


5.35 


19.1 


8 


12.50 


10 95 88 30 


105.25 


120 


5.95 


17.8 


7 5 


0.1333 


18.00 87 9O:lO5.90l 


125 


0,50 


16.7 


7 


1428 


18.90 


87 . 50 


106.40 
107.0.5; 


130 


7 20 


15 2 


G 3 


1587 


19.95 


87.10 


135 


7 90 


13.9 


5 5 


1818 


20.99 


86 70 


107.69 


140 


8 05 


12 3 


4 8 


2006 


21 40 


86 32 


107.78 


170 


14 70 





2.8 


3571 


20 90 


83 00 


109 90 



TABLE XXV.— CHLOROFORM— CH Cls 



TABLE XXVII.— NITROUS OXIDE— N2O 



t 


P 


«P* 


V 


1/V 


h 


L 


.V* 


20 


08 


29 76 


,50,00 


0.02012 


-4 00 


121 00 


117 fiO 


25 


1.00 


27 83 


44, (K) 


.0227 


-2.5 


120 20 


117 70 


32 


1.15 


27 . ,58 


,38 10 


02626 


00 


120 00 


120 00 


,50 


2 03 


25 79 


23 65 


04232 


4 19 


118 87 


123 00 


68 


3 15 


23.51 


IS 50 
10.50 


06.505 


8 40 


117 14 


125 54 


86t 


4 80 


20 15 


0952 


12 63 


115 38 


128 0) 


104 


7.52 


14 61 


7 14 


1403 


16 SO 


113 03 


130.49 


122 


10 30 


8 96 


5 (h; 


1979 


20 13 


111 83 


131 90 


140.5 


14 70 


00 


4 95 


2200 


23 70 


109 00 


132 70 



TABLE XXVI.— ETHYL ETHERS— (C2H6)20 



t 


P 


gP 


V 


1/V 


h 


L 


H' 





1 3 


27 . 28 


38 


0.0203 


-18 00 


171 


1,53 (K) 


5} 


15 


26 87 


35 


0285 


-15 00 


170 8 


155 80 


10 


1.8 


2G 26 


32 5 


.03.52 


-12.00 


170.4 


1,'.8.43 


15 


■2.2 


25 , 40 


30 


0332 


-9.50 


170 2 


101.70 


20 


2.5 


24.84 


27.0 


.0372 


-6.50 


170.0 


103 ,50 


25 


2.9 


24 03 


24 3 


0.0417 


-4.00 


169.6 


165.60 


30 


3 4 


23. (X) 


21 4 


,0408 


-1.50 


169.4 


167.90 


35 


3.9 


22 00 


19 3 


0518 


+ 1.40 


168.8 


170.20 


40 


4.4 


21 09 


17.0 


.0588 


4.00 


168 4 


172.40 


45 


4.9 


19 97 


15 


.0666 


6.60 


168.0 


174.60 


SO 


5.5 


18.72 


13 2 


0757 


9.57 


167.6 


177.17 


70 


8.8 


12 05 


7.S 


. 1280 


20 04 


165.4 


185 44 


75 


9 8 


10 02 


7 


.1430 


23.40 


1134 8 


188 20 


80 


10 9 


7 , 33 


6 2 


1020 


20.40 


101 2 


190 (ill 


85 


12.2 


5.09 


5 5 


1800 


29.00 


103 S 


192 Ml 


86- { 


12 3 


4 62 


5 4 


1880 


29.50 


163 5 


193' 00 


90 


13.4 


2.72 


5.1 


0.1960 


31.50 


163 


194 . 50 


95 


14 7 


0.(K1 


4 8 


.2130 


.34 OC 


162 2 


196 20I 


100 


10 


1 3t 


4.5 


2220 


36 .50 


161 5 


197 50 



Te.np. 


Pressure 


Volume 


Density 


Heat 
Latent 


Abso- 


G.ige 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


°F 


Ib./in.i 


lb,/in.= 


tt.'/lb. 


ft.'/lb. 


Ib./tt.' 


lb,/ft.' 


Btu.,,b. 


( 


P 


gP' 


V 


■ V 


1/v' 


1/V 


L 


-130 


14 2 


5 


0.01232 


5.940 


81.17 


0.165 


162.3 


-121 


19.6 


4 9 


.01248 


4.370 


80.13 


23 


168. 9 


- 112 


26,8 


12 


.01264 


3.200 


79.11 


.30 


165.0 


-103 


35,5 


20 S 


.01280 


2.480 


78 . 12 


.40 


162.3 


-94 


47,3 


32.6 


.01290 


1.8S0 


77.16 


.53 


158.9 


-85 


59.6 


44.9 


0.01312 


1.510 


76 22 


0.66 


155.0 


-76 


75.0 


60.3 


.01314 


1 . 220 


76.10 


0.82 


150.7 


-67 


92.3 


77.6 


.01370 


0.9990 


72.67 


1.00 


148.9 


-.58 


113 


98 3 


.01408 


.8270 


71.02 


1.20 


145.8 


-49 


135.0 


120 3 


.01440 


.0900 


09.44 


1.40 


142.5 


-40 


160.0 


-145.3 


0.01472 


0.6000 


67 93 


1.65 


139.1 


-31 


190 


175 3 


.01.504 


. 5120 


00.49 


1.95 


135.0 


— 22 


223 . 


208.3 


.01530 


.4430 


05.10 


2 25 


132.3 


-13 


257.0 


242.3 


.01,508 


3950 


63,77 


2 50 


129.0 


-4 


295.0 


280.3 


.01000 


.3470 


02 50 


2.85 


125 2 


}+5 


333.0 


318 3 


01632 


3080 


61 27 


3 25 


121 4 


14 


375.0 


360.3 


.01680 


.2690 


59 , 52 


3 70 


116.8 


23 


422.0 


405.3 


.01728 


.2340 


57,87 


4 25 


111.9 


32 


471.0 


456 3 


.01776 


.2017 


56.30 


4 95 


107 5 


41 


528.0 


513.3 


.01845 


1744 


54 19 


5.70 


103.2 


SO 


592.0 


577.3 


0.01920 


0.1496 


52.08 


6.65 


95.8 


59 


663.0 


648.3 


.02010 


.1276 


45,60 


7.80 


88 2 


68 


745 


730.3 


.02140 


1076 


46 , 73 


9.30 


73.6 


77 


832 


817 3 


.112300 


. 0890 


43 , 48 


11 20 


66 9 


t86 


930 


915 3 


02560 


0726 


39 06 


13 80 


51 1 


95 


1035 


1020.3 


0.0313G 


0.0634 


31 88 


18.70 


24.4 


96 


1055 


1040.3 


.03498 


.0537 


28. 58 


23.50 


13:2 


97 


1065 


1040.3 


.04080 


.0408 


24 51 


24 50 






72 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXVIII.- PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF ETHANE— CjHe 

(H. D. Edwards) 





Pressure \ 


Specific 


Volume 


Density | 


Heat Content 
Above — 40° 




Temp. 


Abs. 


Gage 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Temp 


op 




"F 




lb./in.5 


Ib./in.s 


ft.Vlb. 


ft.Vlb. 


Ib./ft.s 


Ib./ft.s 


Latert 




t. 


P- 


g.p. 


V 


V 


1/v 


1/V 


Btu./ib.;L= 


t. 


-150 


7.0 


*15.6 


0.02849 


16.7 


35.10 


0.060 


242 


-150 


-145 


8.0 


*13.6 


0.02865 


14.1 


34.90 


0.071 


240 


-145 


-140 


9.7 


*10.1 


0.02888 


12.1 


34.63 


0.083 


238 


-140 


-135 


11.2 


* 7.1 


0.02901 


10.5 


34.47 


0.095 


236 


-135 


-130 


13.2 


* 3.0 


0.02924 


8.85 


34.20 


0.113 


235 


-130 


-125 


15.5 


0.8 


0.02939 


1.69 


34.02 


0.130 


233 


-125 


-120 


18.2 


3.5 


0.02961 


6.89 


33.77 


0.145 


231 


-120 


-115 


21.4 


6.7 


0.02976 


5.88 


33.60 


0.170 


229 


-115 


-110 


24.8 


10.1 


0.03001 


5.27 


33 . 32 


0.190 


227 


-110 


-105 


28.5 


13.8 


0.03018 


4.55 


33.13 


0.220 


225 


-105 


-100 


3-'. 4 


17.7 


0.0305 


4.13 


32.8 


0.242 


224 


-100 


-95 


36.4 


21.7 


0.0307 


3.57 


32.6 


0.280 


222 


-95 


-90 


41.0 


26 . 3 


0.0.309 


3.23 


32.4 


0.310 


220 


-90 


-85 


46.0 


31.3 


0.0311 


2.86 


32.2 


0.350 


218 


-85 


-80 


51.2 


30 . 5 


0.0313 


2.56 


31.9 


0.390 


216 


-80 


-75 


56.8 


42.1 


0.0315 


2.35 


31.7 


0.425 


214 


-75 


-70 


63.0 


48 . 3 


0.0318 


2.10 


31.5 


0.477 


212 


-70 


-65 


70.3 


55 . 6 


0.0320 


1.94 


31.3 


0.515 


210 


-65 


-60 


78.2 


63.5 


0.0322 


1.75 


31.0 


0.570 


208 


-60 


-55 


80.6 


75.9 


0.0325 


1.63 


30.8 


0.615 


206 


-55 


-50 


95.9 


81 .2 


0.0327 


1.50 


30.5 


0.666 


204 


-50 


-■15 


105.0 


90.3 


0.0330 


1.39 


30.3 


0.720 


201 


-45 


-40 


114.5 


99.8 


0.0333 


1.28 


30.0 


0.780 


199 


-40 


-35 


124.5 


109.8 


0.0336 


1.18 


29.8 


0.845 


196 


-35 


-30 


135.0 


120.3 


0.0339 


1.13 


29.5 


0.875 


194 


-30 


-25 


146.7 


132.0 


0.0342 


1.05 


29.2 


0.950 


192 


-25 


-20 


159.5 


144. S 


0.0345 


0.976 


28.9 


1.03 


190 


-20 


-15 


172 


157 


0.0350 


. 855 


28 . 6 


1.17 


187 


-15 


-10 


187 


172 


0.0353 


0.819 


28 . 3 


1.22 


185 


-10 


-5 


202 


187 


0.0357 


0.730 


28.0 


1.37 


182 


-5 





219 


204 


0.0361 


0.689 


27.7 


1.45 


179 





+5 


236 


221 


. 0365 


0.629 


27.4 


1.59 


176 


+5 


*10 


254 


230 


0.0370 


0..581 


27.0 


1.72 


174 


+10 


+15 


272 


257 


0.0375 


0.538 


26.7 


1.86 


171 


+15 


+20 


292 


277 


0.0379 


. 495 


26.3 


2.02 


168 


+20 


+25 


307 


292 


0.0385 


0,457 


26.0 


2 19 


165 


+25 


+oO 


335 


320 


0.0390 


0.422 


25.6 


2.37 


162 


+30 


+35 


358 


34 .S 


0.0.397 


0.389 


25.2 


2.57 


158 


+35 


+40 


383 


3(18 


0.0403 


. 360 


24.8 


2.78 


155 


+40 


+45 


405 


390 


. 04 1 


0.330 


24.4 


3 . 03 


150 


+45 


+50 


428 


413 


0.0417 


0.305 


24.0 


3.28 


146 


+50 


+55 


453 


438 


0.0426 


0.279 


23 . 5 


3.58 


141 


+55 


+60 


481 


466 


0.0435 


0.256 


23.0 


3.90 


136 


+60 


+65 


511 


496 


0.0444 


0.238 


22 5 


4.20 


130 


+65 


+70 


543 


528 


0.0461 


0.214 


21 '7 


4.67 


124 


+70 


+75 


584 


569 


0.0478 


0.182 


20.9 


5.50 


115 


+75 


+80 


625 


610 


0.0.508 


0.163 


19.7 


6.14 


107 


+80 


+85 


672 


6.=; 7 


0.0.549 


0.128 


18.2 


7.80 


78 


+85 


+89 . 8 


718 


703 


0.0775 


0.0775 


12.9 


12.9 





+89.8 



* Inches of mercury below one standard atmosphere (29.92 in. =14. 697 Ibs./sq. in. abs.) 
Note: — References: Vapor Pressures. From 7 to 32 Ibs./sq. in. abs. by Maass 
& Wright, J. Am. Chem. Sec, 43, p. 1098. 1921. From 31 to 347 Ibs./sq. in. abs. by 
Kuenen and Robson. Phil. Mag, (6) 3, p. 149. 1902. From 162 to 734 Ibs./sq. in. abs. 
A. Hainlen, Lieb. Ann. 282, p. 229, 1894. Liquid and Vapor Densities. From — 162^° 
F_ to — 101° F. experimental data on liquid by Maass & Wright, J. Am. Chem. Soc, l3, 
p. 1104, 1921. Remainder of liquid and all of \'apor data as well as latent heats, 
calculated by The Laboratory of The Linde Air Products Co., Buffalo, N. Y. Probable 
accuracy of Density, Liquids, 1%; Vapor, 3'^: Latent Heats, 10%. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



73 



TABLE XXIX. 



-PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF ETHYL 
CHLORIDE C2H5CI. 



Hodsdon, igi^. Refrigerating World, Aug., (.1922). Henning, Oltnes, Regnuult and 
others; compiled by Starr. Practical Refrigerating Engineers' Hand Book, Nick- 
erson & Collins Co., Chicago, 1922. 



Tem 


Pressure 


Vok 


me 


Density 




Heat Content 
















Above- 32°F. 


Abs. 


Gage 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


°F. 


lb. /in.' 


Ib./in.J 


ft.=/lb. 


ft.'/lb. 


lb./ft.> 


Ib./ft.« 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


t 


P 


gP 


V 


V 


l/» 


1/V 


A + 


L = 


H 


-22 


2.20 


-12.5 


0.01657 


34.4 


60.35 


0.0291 


-23.1 


181.3 


158.2 


-13 


2.85 


-11.85 


.01669 


26.95 


59.92 


.0371 


-19.2 


179.9 


160.7 


- 4 


3.66 


-11.04 


.OI6S2 


21.33 


59.45 


.0469 


-15.4 


178.5 


163.1 


+ t5 


4.65 


-10.05 


.01695 


17.06 


59.00 


.0586 


-11.6 


177.0 


165.4 


14 


5.85 


- 8.85 


.01708 


13.77 


58.55 


.0726 


- 7.7 


175.5 


167.8 


23 


7.28 


- 7.42 


0.01721 


11.21 


68.10 


0.0892 


- 3.8 


174.0 


170.2 


32 


8.99 


- 5.71 


.01735 


9.21 


57.64 


.1086 


0.0 


172.5 


172.5 


41 


11.01 


- 3.69 


.01749 


7.62 


57.18 


.1311 


+ 3.8 


170.9 


174.7 


50 


13.37 


- 1.33 


.01763 


6.36 


56.72 


.1573 


7.7 


169.3 


177.0 


59 


16.11 


+ 1.41 


.01777 


5.34 


56.27 


.1873 


11.6 


167.7 


179.3 


68 


19.29 


4.50 


0.01792 


4.51 


55.80 


0.2215 


15.4 


166.0 


181.4 


77 


22.94 


8.24 


.01807 


3.84 


55.34 


.2604 


19.2 


164.3 


183.5 


t86 


27.10 


12.40 


.01822 


3.29 


54.88 


.3043 


23.1 


162.6 


185.7 


95 


31.82 


17.12 


.01838 


2.83 


54.41 


.3536 


26.9 


160.8 


187.7 


104 


37.17 


22.47 


0.01854 


2.44 


53.94 


0.4090 


30.8 


159.0 


189.9 


113 


43.16 


28.46 


.01870 


2.13 


53.47 


.4704 


34.6 


157.2 


191.8 


122 


49.88 


35.18 


.01887 


1.86 


53.00 


.5382 


38.5 


155.3 


193.8 


131 


57.36 


42.66 


.01904 


1.63 


52.52 


.6135 


42.3 


153.3 


195.6 


-22 


2.13 


-12.57 


0.0163 


34.2 


61.5 


0.029 


-23.1 


193.0 


170.0 


-13 


2.80 


-11.90 


.0164 


26.5 


61.0 


.038 


-19.2 


192.0 


172.5 


- 4 


3.63 


-11.07 


.0164 


20.9 


60.6 


.048 


-15.4 


191.0 


175.5 


+ t5 


4.63 


-10.07 


.0167 


16.7 


60.1 


.061 


-11.5 


190.0 


178.5 


14 


5.84 


- 8.86 


.0169 


13.5 


59.7 


.074 


- 7.7 


188.5 


181.0 


23 


7.28 


- 7.42 


0.0109 


11.0 


59.2 


0.091 


3.85 


187.5 


183.5 


32 


9.00 


- 5.70 


.0170 


9.1 


58.8 


.110 





186.0 


186.0 


41 


11.00 


- 3.70 


.0172 


7.6 


58.3 


.132 


+ 3.85 


184.5 


188.0 


50 


13.55 


- 1.15 


.0174 


6.25 


57.9 


.160 


7.7 


182.5 


190.0 


54.5 


14.70 


0.00 


.0175 


5.6 


57.6 


0.179 


9.52 


181.5 


191.5 


59 


16.10 


+ 1.40 


0.0176 


5.35 


.57.3 


0.187 


11.5 


180.5 


192.5 


68 


19.26 


4.56 


.0176 


4.55 


56.9 


.220 


15.4 


179.5 


194.0 


77 


22.90 


8.20 


.0177 


3.90 


56.5 


.256 


19.2 


176.5 


196.0 


t86 


27.05 


12.35 


.0178 


3.35 


56.0 


.299 


23.1 


174.0 


197.5 


95 


31.77 


17.07 


.0180 


2.89 


55.6 


.345 


27.0 


172.0 


199.0 


104 


37.11 


22.41 


0.0182 


2.57 


55.1 


0.374 


30.8 


169.0 


200.0 



Gage pressures table supplied by Editor A. S. 
{Standard ton temperatures. 



R. E. Data Book. 



74 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXX.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF ISOBUTANE— 

C4H10 

Lindc Air Products Company Laboratory. Refrigeration Engineering, June 1926 
A. S. R. E. Data Book. 



Temp. 


PreMure 


Volume 


DenBity 


Heat Content 


Entropy 
From O' F. 


Temp. 


-F. 














Above 0" F. 


°F. 


Aba. 


Gsn 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 




Ib.An." 


Ib./in.' 


ft.'/lb. 


ft.'/lb. 


lb./Jt.» 


lb./tt.> 


Btu./lb 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb.'>F 


Btu./lb.»F 




t 


P 


gP 


c 


V 


1/v 


1/V 


h + 


L = 


H 


« 


5 


t 


-20 


7.50 


14.6* 


0.02610 


11.00 


38.36 


0.0952 


-9.0 


166.5 


156.5 


-0.020 


0.356 


-20 


-16 


8.30 


13. 0* 


.02620 


9.60 


38.16 


.101 


-7.0 


164.0 


157.0 


-0.016 


.354 


-15 


-10 


9.28 


11. 0* 


.02635 


8.91 


37.95 


.112 


-4.6 


163.0 


158.6 


-0.010 


.353 


-10 


- 6 


10.4 


8.8* 


.02645 


7.99 


37.80 


.126 


-2.5 


162.0 


159.6 


-0.008 


.351 


- 5 





11.6 


6.3* 


0.02660 


7.17 


37.60 


0.139 


0.0 


160.5 


160.6 


0.000 


0.350 





+ 1 


11.9 


5. 7* 


.02663 


7.02 


37.56 


.142 


0.5 


160.5 


161.0 


.001 


.350 


+ 1 


2 


12.2 


5.1* 


.02667 


6.87 


37.60 


.146 


+ 1.0 


160.0 


161.0 


.002 


.350 


2 


3 


12.5 


4, 6* 


.02670 


6.72 


37.46 


.149 


1.5 


160.0 


161.5 


.003 


.350 


3 


4 


12.8 


4.0* 


.02672 


6.57 


37.43 


.152 


2.0 


159.5 


161.5 


.004 


.350 


4 


5t 


13.1 


3.3» 


0.02675 


6.41 


37.40 


0.156 


2.5 


159.5 


162.0 


0.005 


0.348 


St 


6 


13.3 


2.7* 


.02677 


6.28 


37.35 


.159 


3.0 


159.0 


162.0 


.006 


.349 


6 


7 


13.6 


2.1* 


.02680 


6.15 


37.31 


.163 


3.5 


159.0 


162.6 


.007 


.349 


7 


8 


13.9 


1.5* 


.02683 


6.02 


37.27 


.166 


4.0 


158.5 


162.5 


.009 


.349 


8 


9 


14.2 


0.9* 


.02686 


6.88 


37.23 


.170 


4.5 


158.5 


163.0 


.010 


.349 


9 


10 


14.6 


0.2* 


0.02690 


6.76 


37.20 


0.174 


5.0 


158.6 


163.6 


0.011 


0.348 


10 


11 


14.8 


0.1 


.02692 


5.65 


37.16 


.177 


5.5 


158.0 


163.5 


.012 


.348 


11 


12 


15.2 


0.5 


.02695 


6.52 


37.11 


.181 


6.0 


158.0 


164.0 


.013 


.348 


12 


13 


15.6 


0.9 


.02698 


5.41 


37.07 


.185 


6.5 


157.5 


164.0 


.014 


.348 


13 


14 


15.9 


1.2 


.02700 


6.30 


37.04 


.190 


7.0 


157.5 


164.5 


.015 


.348 


14 


15 


16.3 


1.6 


0.02705 


5.18 


37.00 


0.193 


7.5 


157.0 


164.5 


0.016 


0.347 


15 


16 


16.7 


2.0 


.02706 


6.08 


36.96 


.197 


8.0 


157.0 


165.0 


.017 


.347 


16 


17 


17.0 


2.3 


.02709 


4.98 


36.92 


.201 


8.5 


156.5 


165.0 


.018 


.347 


17 


18 


17.4 


2.7 


.02711 


4.88 


36.88 


.205 


9.0 


156.5 


165.5 


.019 


.347 


18 


19 


17.8 


3.1 


.02714 


4.78 


36.84 


.209 


9.5 


156.0 


165.5 


.020 


.347 


19 


20 


18.2 


3.5 


0.02717 


4.68 


36.80 


0.214 


10.0 


156.0 


166.0 


0.021 


0.346 


20 


21 


18.6 


3.9 


.02720 


4.69 


36.76 


.218 


10.5 


156.5 


166.0 


.022 


.346 


21 


22 


19.0 


4.3 


.02723 


4.50 


36.72 


.222 


11.0 


155.5 


166.5 


.023 


.346 


22 


23 


19.4 


4.7 


.02726 


4.41 


36.68 


.227 


11.5 


155.5 


167.0 


.025 


.346 


23 


24 


19.8 


5.1 


.02729 


4.32 


36.64 


.231 


12.5 


154.5 


167.0 


.026 


.346 


24 


25 


20.2 


5.6 


0.02730. 


4.24 


36.60 


0.236 


13.0 


154.5 


167.5 


0.027 


0.346 


25 


26 


20.6 


5.9 


.02735, 


4.15 


36.56 


.241 


13.5 


154.0 


167.5 


.028 


.346 


26 


27 


21.0 


6.3 


.02737 


4.07 


36.53 


.246 


14.0 


154.0 


168.0 


.029 


.346 


27 


28 


21.5 


6.8 


.02741 


4.00 


36.48 


.250 


14.5 


154.0 


168.5 


.030 


.346 


28 


29 


21.9 


7.2 


.02744 


3.93 


36.44 


.254 


15.0 


153.5 


168.5 


.031 


.346 


29 


30 


22.3 


7.6 


0.02746 


3.86 


36.40 


0.259 


15.5 


153.5 


169.0 


0.032 


0.346 


30 


35 


24.6 


9.9 


.02760 


3.52 


36.20 


.284 


18.0 


152.5 


170.5 


.038 


.346 


35 


40 


26.9 


12.2 


.02780 


3.22 


36.00 


.311 


21.0 


151.0 


172 


.044 


346 


40 


45 


29.5 


14.8 


.02795 


2.96 


35.80 


.338 


24.0 


150.0 


174.0 


.049 


.346 


45 


50 


32.5 


17.8 


.02810 


2.71 


35.60 


.369 


27.0 


148.5 


175.5 


.055 


.346 


50 


55 


35.5 


20.8 


0.02825 


2.49 


35.40 


0.402 


30.0 


147.5 


177.5 


0.061 


0.347 


55 


60 


38.7 


24.0 


.02840 


2.28 


35.20 


.439 


33.0 


146.0 


179.0 


.067 


.348 


60 


65 


42.2 


27.5 


.02855 


2.10 


35.00 


.476 


36.5 


144.5 


181.0 


.073 


.349 


65 


70 


45.8 


31.1 


.02875 


1.94 


34.80 


.515 


39.5 


143.5 


183.0 


.079 


.350 


70 


75 


49.7 


35.0 


.02890 


1.79 


34.60 


.559 


43.0 


142.0 


185.0 


.086 


.351 


75 


80 


53.9 


39.2 


0.02910 


1.66 


34.35 


0.602 


46.5 


140.5 


187.0 


0.092 


0.352 


80 


85 


58.6 


43.9 


.02930 


1.54 


34.10 


.649 


50.0 


139.0 


189.0 


.098 


.353 


85 


86t 


59.5 


44 8 


.0293$ 


1 52 


34 10 


.658 


50 5 


139 


189 5 


.099 


354 


set 


90 


63.3 


48.6 


.02950 


1.42 


33.90 


.704 


53.5 


137.5 


191.0 


.105 


.356 


90 


95 


68.4 


53.7 


.02965 


1.32 


33.70 


.758 


57.5 


136.0 


193.5 


.112 


.358 


95 


100 


73.7 


59.0 


0.02990 


1.23 


33.45 


0.813 


61.0 


134.5 


195.5 


0.118 


0.359 


100 


105 


79.3 


64.6 


.03005 


1.14 


33.25 


.877 


65.0 


133.0 


198.0 


.125 


.360 


105 


110 


85.1 


70.4 


.03030 


1.07 


33.00 


.935 


69.0 


131.0 


200.0 


.132 


« .362 


110 


115 


91.4 


76.7 


.03050 


0.990 


32.80 


1.01 


73.0 


129.5 


202.5 


.139 


.364 


11,'-. 


120 


98.0 


83.3 


.03075 


.926 


32.50 


1.08 


77.0 


127.5 


204.5 


.147 


.367 


120 


125 


104.8 


90.1 


0.03095 


0.867 


32.30 


1.15 


81.5 


126.0 


207.5 


0.154 


0.369 


125 


130 


112.0 


97.3 


.03125 


.811 


32.00 


1.23 


86.0 


124.0 


210.0 


.161 


.371 


130 


135 


119.3 


104 6 


.03145 


.760 


31.80 


1.32 


90.5 


122.0 


212.5 


.169 


.375 


135 


140 


126 8 


112 1 


03175 


.716 


31 50 


1 40 


95 


120 5 


215.5 


.176 


.377 


140 



andard atmo,»phere (29.82 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



75 



TABLE XXXI.— SATURATED METHYL CHLORIDE (CH3 CI) VAPOR 

Calculated in English Units by Starr from work of Ohnes and Hoist. 

''Fractical Refrigerating Engineers' Pocketbook" Published by Nickerson & Collins Co. 

Chicago. 



Temp. 


Abs. Press. 


Heat 


Heat 


Spec. VoL 


Density 


Deg. 


Lbs. per 


Content of 


of Vapor- 


Cu. Ft. 


Lbs. per 


Fahr. 


Sq. In. 


Liquid 


ization 


per Lb. 


Cu. Ft. 


-40 


6.96 


-34.0 


183.3 


12.57 


07955 


-35 


7 60 


-31.5 


183.0 


11.00 


0.0909 


—30 


9 00 


-29 


182.6 


9.70 


0.103 


-25 


10.20 


-26 7 


182.0 


8 60 


0.1162 


-20 


11.80 


-24.5 


181.4 


7.80 


0.1282 


-15 


13 00 


-22 3 


180.9 


7.00 


1428 


-10 


15 10 


-20 


180.3 


6.25 


1 600 


- 5 


16.80 


-17.5 


180.0 


5.60 


1 785 





18 00 


-15 1 


179.2 


5 05 


0.1980 


5 


20.70 


-12.8 


178.3 


4.53 


0.2207 


10 


23 00 


-10 2 


177.8 


4.15 


. 2409 


15 


24 90 


- 8 


177.03 


3.70 


0.2702 


20 


28 50 


- 5 6 


176.05 


3.25 


. 3076 


25 


32 00 


- 3.2 


175.8 


2.90 


0.3448 


30 


35.00 


- 1.6 


174.8 


2.71 


0.3690 


32 


36.62 





174.6 


2.67 


0.3745 


40 


42 90 


+ 3.7 


173.0 


2.25 


0.4444 


50 


46.50 


+ 8 5 


171.0 


1.94 


0.5154 


60 


62 00 


+ 13 2 


169.0 


1.62 


9803 


65 


68.00 


15.5 


167.85 


1.50 


0.6666 


70 


73.10 


17 8 


166.8 


1.39 


0.7194 


75 


80 00 


20.2 


165.6 


1.27 


7842 


80 


87.00 


22 5 


164.2 


1.15 


8695 


85 


94.30 


25 


163.0 


1.05 


0.9523 


SO 


104.00 


27.2 


161.6 


0.995 


1.0051 


95 


110.10 


29 6 


160.4 


0.938 


1 0661 


100 


119.50 


31.8 


158.8 


0.855 


1 1695 


110 


137.50 


36.3 


156.1 


0.77 


1.2987 



NOTE. — To get gauge pressures 14.7 lbs. are subtracted from tbe absolute pres- 
sures given in the tables. When the absolute pressure is below 14.7 lb. the absolute 
pressure is subtracted from 14.7 lbs. and _ this result is multiplied by 2.0355 (for 
approximate results, 2.0 may be used). This gives the vacvium in inches of mercury 
below the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 lbs. 



76 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXXII.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF PROPANE— CaHg 

Linde Air Products Company Laboratory. Refrigeration Engineering, June 1926. 
A. S. R. E. Data Book. 



Temp. 


Pressure 


Volu 


me 


De 


isity 


Heat Content 


Entrop.v 


Temp. 


•F 
















dbove 0° F 


From 0° F. 


»F. 


Abs. 


Gage 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Latent 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 




lb/in,' 


Ib./in • 


ft.Vlb. 


ft.'/lb 


Ib./tl." 


Ib./It.' 


Btu./lb. 


Btu /lb. 


Btu./lb 


Btu./lb "F 


Btu/lb°F 




t 


P 


gP 


V 


V 


liv 


l/V 


h + 


L = 


H 


s 


5 


t 


-75 


0.37 


17.0* 


02660 


14.5 


37.59 


0690 


-39 5 


190 5 


151 


-0 092 


404 


-75 


-70 


7.37 


14.9* 


02674 


12 9 


37.40 


0775 


-37.0 


189 5 


152 5 


-0.086 


400 


-70 


-65 


8.48 


12 7* 


02688 


11 3 


37 20 


0885 


-34.5 


188 


153 5 


-0 080 


397 


-65 


-60 


9 72 


10.1* 


02703 


9.93 


37 00 


111 


-32.0 


187 


155 


-0 074 


.393 


-60 


-55 


11 1 


7.3* 


02717 


8 70 


36.80 


115 


-29.0 


185,5 


156 5 


-0 067 


391 


-55 


-50 


12.6 


4.3* 


0.02732 


7.74 


36.60 


129 


-26.5 


184.5 


158.0 


-0 061 


389 


-50 


-45 


14.4 


6* 


02748 


6.89 


36 39 


145 


-24.0 


183 


159 


-0 055 


386 


-45 


-40 


16.2 


15 


02763 


6.13 


36 19 


163 


-21.5 


181 5 


160 


-0 049 


384 


-40 


-35 


18 1 


3 4 


02779 


5 51 


35 99 


181 


- 19 


ISO 


161 


-0 042 


382 


-35 


-30 


20 3 


5.6 


02795 


4 93 


35.78 


203 


-16.0 


179 


163 


-0 036 


380 


-30 


-25 


22 7 


8.0 


0.02811 


4 46 


35.58 


0.224 


-13.3 


177.5 


164 


-0 030 


378 


-25 


-20 


25 4 


10 7 


02827 


4.00 


35,37 


250 


-11 


176 


165 


-0 024 


377 


-20 


-15 


28 3 


13.6 


02844 


3.60 


35.16 


,278 


- 8.0 


175 


167 ■ 


-0 018 


.375 


-15 


-10 


31 4 


16 7 


02860 


3 26 


34.96 


307 


- 5,5 


173 5 


IBS 


-0 012 


374 


-10 


- 5 


34 7 


20 


02878 


2.97 


34 75 


337 


- 2.5 


172 


169 5 


-0 006 


372 


- 5 





38.2 


23.5 


02895 


2.71 


34.54 


0.369 


0.0 


170 5 


170.5 


000 


0.371 





+ 1 


39 


24.3 


02899 


2.66 


34.49 


376 


0.5 


170 5 


171 


001 


371 


+ 1 


2' 


39 7 


25 


02903 


2 61 


34 45 


383 


10 


170 5 


171 5 


.002 


.371 


2 


3 


40.5 


25.8 


02906 


2.57 


34.41 


389 


15 


170 


171 5 


003 


371 


3 


4 


41 3 


26 6 


02910 


2 52 


34 37 


396 


2.0 


170 


172 


004 


371 


4 


51 


42.1 


27.4 


02913 


2 48 


34 33 


403 


+ 3 


169 5 


172 


+9 006 


0.370 


St 


6 


42.9 


28.2 


02916 


2.43 


34 29 


411 


3 5 


169 


172 5 


007 


.370 


6 


7 


43.7 


29.0 


02920 


2 39 


34 25 


418 


4 


168 5 


172 5 


008 


370 


7 


S 


44.5 


29 8 


02924 


2.35 


34.20 


426 


4 5 


168 5 


173 


009 


370 


8 


9 


45.3 


30 6 


02927 


2 31 


34 16 


433 


5.0 


168 


173 


010 


370 


9 


10 


46.1 


31.4 


02931 


2.27 


34 12 


0.441 


5.6 


168 


173 5 


012 


370 


10 


11 


47.0 


32 3 


02935 


2 23 


34 07 


448 


6.0 


168 


174 


013 


370 


11 


12 


47.9 


33.2 


02939 


2.19 


34 03 


4.56 


6 5 


167 5 


174 


014 


.370 


12 


13 


48 8 


34.1 


02943 


2 15 


33 98 


465 


7.5 


167 


174 5 


015 


370 


13 


14 


49 7 


3a 


02946 


2 11 


33 94 


474 


8.0 


166 5 


174.5 


016 


370 


14 


IS 


50 6 


35 9 


02950 


2 07 


33 90 


483 


8.5 


166.5 


175 


018 


0.369 


IS 


16 


51 C 


36 9 


02954 


2 04 


33 85 


491- 


9,0 


1(')6 


175 


019 


369 


16 


17 


52 5 


37 8 


02959 


2 00 


33 80 


500 


9,5 


166 


175.5 


.020 


369 


17 


18 


53 5 


38 8 


02963 


1 97 


33 75 


.509 


10 


165 5 


175 5 


021 


369 


18 


19 


54.5 


30.8 


02966 


1.93 


33.71 


518 


10.5 


165 5 


176 


022 


369 


19 


20 


55.5 


40 8 


02970 


1.90 


33.67 


0.526 


11.0 


165.0 


176 


024 


368 


20 


25 


00 9 


46 2 


02991 


1 74 


33 43 


.575 


14,0 


163 5 


177.5 


030 


,368 


25 


30 


66 3 


51 6 


03012 


1 60 


33.20 


625 


17.0 


162 


179 


.035 


366 


30 


35 


72 


57 3 


03033 


1 48 


32 97 


.676 


20.0 


160 5 


180,5 


041 


.366 


35 


40 


78 


63 3 


03055 


1 37 


32 73 


730 


23.0 


1.59.0 


182 


047 


366 


40 


45 


84 6 


69 9 


03078 


1.27 


32 49 


0.787 


26.0 


157,5 


183.5 


053 


365 


45 


50 


91 8 


77 1 


03102 


1 18 


32 24 


.847 


29 


1.56 


185 


059 


.365 


50 


55 


99 3 


84 6 


03125 


1 10 


32 00 


909 


32.0 


1,54 5 


186 5 


.065 


365 


55 


60 


107 1 


92.4 


031.50 


1 01 


31.75 


990 


35.0 


153 


188 


070 


.364 


60 


65 


115 4 


100 7 


03174 


0.945 


31.50 


1 06 


38.0 


151 5 


189.5 


.076 


.364 


65 


70 


124 


109 3 


03201 


0.883 


31.24 


1.13 


41.0 


149 5 


190 5 


082 


0.364 


70 


75 


133 2 


118 5 


03229 


825 


30 97 


1 21 


44.0 


148 


192 


088 


364 


75 


80 


142 8 


128 1 


03257 


.770 


30.70 


1 30 


47.5 


140 


193 5 


093 


.364 


80 


85 


153 1 


138 4 


03287 


722 


30.42 


1 39 


50.5 


144 5 


195 


099 


.364 


85 


66 1 


155 3 


140 5 


03292 


717 


30 38 


1 40 


51.0 


144 


195 


100 


364 


set 


90 


164 


149 


03317 


0.673 


30.15 


1 49 


54.0 


142,5 


196.5 


105 


364 


90 


95 


175 


160 


03348 


.632 


29.87 


1,58 


57.0 


140 5 


197 5 


111 


364 


95 


100 


187 


172 


03381 


591 


29 58 


1 69 


60.5 


138 5 


199.0 


116 


,363 


100 


105 


200 


185 


03416 


553 


29 27 


1 81 


63.5 


136 5 


200 


122 


363 


105 


110 


212 


197 


03453 


520 


28.96 


1 92 


67.0 


134 


201 


128 


363 


110 


115 


226 


211 


03493 


0.4S8 


28.03 


2 05 


70.5 


131 5 


202 


0.134 


363 


115 


120 


240 


225 


03534 


459 


28.30 


2 18 


73 5 


129 


202 5 


.140 


.363 


120 


125 


254 


239 


03.575 


432 


27 97 


2 31 


77.0 


126 5 


203 5 


.145 


361 


125 



B (29.82 iu. - 14,696 Ibs./sq. in. abs.) 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



n 



TABLE XXXIII. 



-PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF SULPHUR 
DIOXIDE— SO2 



L 


avid L 


. Fiske, Urba 


la. III. 


—1925. 


A. S 


. R. E 


. Data 


Book. 


Tem 


Pressure 


Volume 


Deosity 




Heat Content 














Above— 40' 




Aba. 


Gage 


Liquid 


Vapor 


Liquid 


Vapor 
lb. /ft.' 


Liquid 


Latcntt 


Vapor 


"V. 


lb./in.» 


lb. /in.' 


ft.Vlb. 


ft.Vlb. 


lb./ft.> 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


Btu./lb. 


i 


P 


gp 





V 


I/O 


i/v 


h + 


£ = 


H 


-40 


3 . 136 


23.54* 


0.010440 


22.42 


95.79 


0.04460 


0.00 


178.61 


178.61 


-35 


3.693 


22.41* 


.010486 


19.23 


95.36 


.05200 


1.45 


177.82 


179.27 


-30 


4.331 


21.10* 


.0105.32 


16.56 


94.94 


.06039 


2.93 


176.97 


179.90 


-25 


5.058 


19.03* 


0.010580 


14.31 


94.52 


0.00988 


4.44 


176.06 


180.50 


-20 


5.883 


17.93* 


.010627 


12.42 


94.10 


.08119 


5. 98 


175.09 


181.07 


-15 


6.814 


10.05* 


.010674 


10.81 


93.68 


.09250 


7.56 


174.06 


181.62 


-10 


7.863 


13.01* 


.010721 


9.44 


93.27 


.1025 


9.16 


172.97 


182.13 


- 5 


9.0.38 


11.52* 


.010770 


8.28 


92.85 


.1208 


10.79 


171.83 


182.62 





10.35 


8.85* 


0.010820 


7.280 


92.42 


0.1374 


12.44 


170.63 


183.07 


1 


10.63 


8 . 27 * 


.010830 


7.099 


92.33 


.1408 


12.79 


170.38 


183.17 


2 


10.91 


7.34* 


.010810 


6.923 


92.25 


.14.14 


13.12 


170.13 


183.25 


3 


11.20 


7.11* 


.0108.50 


6.751 


92.16 


.1481 


13.45 


169.88 


183.33 


4 


11.50 


6..W* 


.010800 


6.584 


92.06 


.1591 


13.78 


169.63 


183.41 


St 


11.81 


5.87* 


0.010870 


6.421 


92.00 


0,1558 


14.11 


169.38 


183.49 


6 


12.12 


5.24* 


.0108.80 


6.266 


91.91 


.1596 


14.45 


169.12 


183.57 


7 


12.43 


4.61* 


.010890 


6.114 


'91 .83 


.1628 


14.79 


168.86 


183.65 


'8 


12.75 


3.96* 


.010900 


5.007 


91.74 


.1670 


15.13 


168.60 


183.73 


9 


13.08 


3.29* 


.010910 


5.822 


91.66 


.1717 


15.46 


168.34 


183.80 


10 


13.42 


2.59* 


0.010920 


5.682 


91.58 


0.1760 


15.80 


168.07 


183.87 


11 


13.77 


1.88* 


.010930 


5.548 


91.49 


.1803 


16.14 


167.80 


183.94 


12 


14.12 


1.17* 


.010940 


5.417 


91.41 


.1846 


16.48 


167.53 


184.01 


13 


14.48 


0.44* 


.0109.50 


5.289 


91.33 


.1890 


16.81 


167.26 


184.07 


14 


14.84 


.14 


.010960 


5.164 


91.24 


.1936 


17.15 


166.97 


184.14 


15 


15.21 


.51 


0.010971 


5.042 


91.16 


0.19S3 


17.49 


166.72 


184.21 


16 


15.59 


.89 


.010981 


4.926 


91.07 


.2030 


17.84 


166.44 


184.28 


17 


15.98 


1.28 


.010992 


4.812 


90.98 


.2078 


18.18 


166.16 


184.34 


18 


16.37 


1.67 


.011003 


4.701 


90.89 


.2127 


18.52 


165.88 


184.40 


19 


16.77 


2.07 


.011014 


4.593 


90.80 


.2177 


18.86 


165.60 


184.46 


20 


17.18 


2.48 


0.011025 


4.487 


90.71 


0.2228 


19.20 


165.32 


184.52 


21 


17.60 


2.90' 


.011036 


4.386 


90.62 


.2280 


10.55 


165.03 


184.58 


22 


18.03 


3.33 


.011047 


4.287 


90.53 


.2332 


19.90 


164.74 


184.64 


23 


18.46 


3.76 


.011058 


4.190 


90.44 


.2387 


20.24 


164.45 


184.69 


24 


18.89 


4.19 


.011070 


4.096 


90.33 


.2441 


20.58 


164.16 


184.74 


25 


19.34 


4.64 


0.011082 


3.994 


90.24 


0.2404 


20.92 


163.87 


184.79 


26 


19.80 


5.10 


.011093 


3.915 


90.15 


.2559 


21.26 


163.58 


184.84 


27 


20.26 


5.56 


.011104 


3. 829 


90.06 


.2611 


21.61 


163.28 


184.89 


28 


20.73 


6.03 


.011116 


3.744 


89.96 


.2671 


21.96 


162.98 


184.94 


29 


21.21 


6.51 


.011128 


3.662 


89.86 


.2731 


22.30 


162.68 


184.93 


30 


21.70 


7.00 


0.011140 


3.581 


89.76 


0.2800 


22.64 


162.38 


185.02 


31 


22.20 


7.50 


.011152 


3.503 


89.67 


.2854 


22.98 


162.08 


185.0«> 


32 


22.71 


8.01 


.011164 


3.437 


89.58 


.2909 


23.33 


161.77 


185.10 


33 


23.23 


S.53 


.011176 


3.. 3.55 


89.48 


.2980 


23.68 


161.46 


185.14 


34 


23.75 


9.05 


.0111.88 


3.283 


89.39 


.3046 


24.03 


161.15 


185.18 


35 


24.28 


9.58 


0.011200 


3.212 


89.29 


0.3113 


24.38 


160.84 


185.22 


36 


24.82 


10.12 


.011212 


3.144 


,89.18 


.3181 


24.72 


160.53 


185.25 


37 


25.39 


10.69 


.011224 


3.078 


S9.09 


.3249 


25.07 


160.21 


185.28 


38 


25.95 


11.25 


.011236 


3.013 


89.00 


.3319 


25.42 


159.89 


185.31 


39 


26.52 


11.82 


.011248 


2.949 


,88.90 


.3391 


25.77 


159.57 


185.34 


40 


27.10 


12.40 


D. 011260 


2.887 


88.81 


0.3464 


26.12 


159.25 


185.37 


41 


27.69 


12.99 


.011272 


2.827 


88.71 


.3538 


26.47 


158.93 


185.40 


42 


28.29 


13.59 


.011284 


2.769 


88.62 


.3611 


26.81 


158.61 


185.42 


43 


28.90 


14.20 


.011296 


2.712 


88.52 


.3687 


27.16 


158.28 


185.44 


44 


29.52 


14.82 


.011308 


2.656 


88.43 


.3765 


27.51 


157.95 


185.46 


45 


30.15 


15.45 


9.011320 


2.601 


88.34 


0.3844 


27.86 


157.62 


185.48 ' 


46 


30.79 


16.09 


.011.332 


2.548 


88.24 


.3925 


28.21 


157.29 


185.50 


47 


31.44 


16.74 


.011344 


2.497 


88.15 


.4005 


28.56 


156.96 


185.52 


48 


32.10 


17.40 


.011356 


2.446 


88.05 


.4088 


28.92 


156.62 


185.54 


49 


32.77 


18.07 


.011368 


2.397 


87.96 


.4172 


29.27 


156.28 


185.55 


50 


33.45 


18.75 


D. 01 1380 


2.348 


87.87 


0.4259 


29.61 


155.95 


185.56 ' 


51 


34.15 


19.45 


.011392 


2.302 


87.78 


.4345 


29.96 


155.61 


185.57 


52 


34.86 


20.16 


.011404 


2.256 


87.67 


.4433 


30.31 


155.27 


185.58 


53 


35.58 


20.88 


.011416 


2.2U 


87.60 


.4523 


30.66 


154 93 


185.59 


54 


36.31 


21.61 


.011428 


2.167 


S7.51 


.4615 


31.00 


1.54.. 59 


185.59 



• Inches of mercur>' below one standard atmosphere r29 92 in.) 14.fi9tf lb. nb^ 
t For Internal Latent heat see Re. Eng. Vol. II. No G.; p. 235. (Dec 1924 j 
S Standard ton temperatures. 



78 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXXIII.— PROPERTIES OF SATURATED VAPOR OF SULPHUR 
'DIOXlBE—S02—(.CanH7iued) 



Tern. 


Pressure 


Vok 


me 


Density 


Heat Content 
Above — iO" 


"F. 


Abs. 
Ib./in.' 


Gage 
lb./in.> 


I.iquul 
ft.Vlb. 


V.ip.,r 
ft.Mb. 


Liquid 
Ib./ft.J 


Vujior 
Ib./ft.i 


Liquid 
Btu./lb. 


Latent 
Btu./lb. 


Vapor 
Btu./lb. 


t 
55 


P 


8P 

22.35 


V 


V 


1/v 


1/V 


h + 


L = 


H 


37.05 


0.011440 


2.124 


87.41 


0.4708 


31.36 


154.24 


185. 6« 


56 


37.80 


23.10 


.011452 


2.083 


87.31 


.4801 


31.72 


153.89 


185.61 


57 


38 56 


23.86 


.011464 


2.043 


87.22 


.4894 


32.08 


153.54 


185.62 


5S 


39.33 


24.63 


.011476 


2.003 


87.13 


.4992 


32.42 


153 . 19 


185.61 


59 


40 , 12 


25.42 


.011488 


1.964 


87.04 


.5092 


32.76 


152.84 


185.60 


60 


40.93 


26.23 


0.011500 


1.926 


86.95 


0.5194 


33.10 


152.49 


185.59 


61 


41.75 


27.05 


.011512 


1.889 


86.86 


.5294 


33.44 


152.14 


185.58 


62 


42.58 


27.88 


.011524 


1.853 


86.77 


.5396 


33.79 


151.78 


185.57 


63 


43.42 


28.72 


.011.530 


1.816 


86.68 


.5507 


34.14 


151.42 


185.56 


64 


44.27 


29.57 


.011548 


1.7S3 


86.59 


^5609 


34.49 


151.06 


185.55 


65 


45.13 


30.43 


0.011500 


1,749 


86.50 


o'5717 


34.84 


150.70 


185.54 


66 


46.00 


31.30 


.011.572 


1.716 


86.41 


.5827 


.35 . 19 


150.34 


185.53 


67 


46.88 


32.18 


.011.585 


1.683 


86.32 


.5943 


35.54 


149.98 


185.52 


68 


47,78 


33.08 


.011598 


1 .6.-.2 


86.22 


.60.54 


35.88 


149.62 


185.50 


69 


48.69 


33.99 


.011611 


1.621 


86.12 


.6170 


36.23 


149.25 


185.48 


70 


49.02 


34.92 


0.011626 


1.590 


86.02 


0.6290 


36.58 


148.88 


185.46 


71 


50.57 


35.87 


.011639 


1.557 


85.92 


.6423 


36.93 


148.51 


185.44 


72 


51.54 


36.84 


.011652 


1.532 


85.82 


.6527 


37.28 


148.14 


185.42 


73 


52.51 


37.81 


.011660 


1.503 


85.72 


.6657 


37.63 


147.77 


185.40 


74 


53.48 


38.78 


.011680 


1.476 


85.62 


.6777 


37.97 


147.40 


185.37 


75 


54.47 


39.77 


0.011693 


1.448 


85 . 52 


0.6907 


38.32 


147.02 


185.34 


76 


55.48 


40.78 


.011706 


1.422 


85.42 


.7030 


38.67 


146.64 


185.31 


77 


56.51 


41.81 


.011719 


1.396 


85.33 


.7163 


39.01 


146.26 


185.27 


78 


57.56 


42.86 


.011732 


1.371 


85.23 


.7295 


39.36 


145.88 


185.24 


79 


58.62 


43.92 


.011746 


1.343 


85.13 


.7446 


39.71 


145.50 


185.21 


80 


59.68 


44.98 


0.011760 


1.321 


85.03 


0.7570 


40.05 


145.12 


185.17 


81 


60.77 


46.07 


.011773 


1 .297 


84.93 


.7720 


40.39 


144.74 


185.13 


82 


61.88 


47.18 


.011786 


1.274 


84.84 


.7850 


40.73 


144.36 


185.09 


83 


63.01 


48.31 


.011800 


1.2.53 


84.74 


.7980 


41.08 


143.97 


185.05 


84 


64.14 


49.44 


.011814 


1.229 


84.04 


.8140 


41.43 


143.58 


185.01 


85 


65.28 


50.58 


0.011S2S 


1.207 


84 , 54 


0.S2S5 


41.78 


143.19 


184 97 


86 1 


66.45 


51.75 


.011841 


1.185 


84.44 


.8440 


42.12 


142.80 


184.92 


87 


67.64 


52.94 


.011854 


1.164 


84.35 


.8590 


42.46 


142.41 


184.87 


88 


68.84 


54.14 


.011868 


1.144 


84 .25 


.8740 


42.80 


142.02 


184.82 


89 


70.04 


55.34 


.011882 


1.124 


84.15 


.8998 


43.15 


141.62 


184.77 


90 


71.25 


56.55 


0.011896 


1.104 


84.05 


0.9058 


43.50 


141.22 


184.72 


91 


72.46 


57.76 


.011909 


1.084 


83.96 


.9225 


43.85 


140.82 


184.07 


92 


73.70 


59.00 


.011923 


1.065 


83.86 


.9390 


44.19 


140.42 


184.61 


93 


74.98 


60.18 


.011937 


1.047 


83.77 


.9551 


44.53 


140.02 


184.55 


94 


76.30 


61.60 


.011951 


1.028 


83.67 


.9730 


44.86 


139.62 


184.49 


95 


77.60 


62.90 


0.011965 


1.011 


83.57 


0.9890 


45.20 


139.23 


184.43 


96 


79.03 


64.33 


.011979 


.9931 


83.47 


1.007 


45.54 


138.83 


184.37 


97 


80.40 


65.70 


.011993 


.9759 


83.37 


1.025 


45.88 


138.43 


184.31 


9S 


81.77 


67.07 


.012008 


.9591 


83.27 


1.043 


46.22 


138.03 


184.25 


99 


83.14 


68.34 


.012002 


.9425 


83.17 


1.061 


46.56 


137.62 


184.18 


100 


84.52 


69.82 


0.012037 


0.9262 


83.07 


1.080 


46.90 


137.20 


184.10 


105 


91.85 


77.15 


.012110 


.8498 


82.57 


1.176. 


48.88 


135.14 


183.72 


no 


99.76 


85.06 


.012190 


.7804 


82.03 


1.281 


50.26 


133.05 


183.31 


115 


108.02 


93.32 


.012275 


.7174 


81.46 


1.394 


51.93 


1.30.92 


182.85 


120 


120.93 


106.23 


.012360 


.6598 


80.90 


1.515 


53.58 


128.78 


182.36 


125 


126.43 


111.73 


0.012445 


0.6079 


80.35 


1.645 


55.31 


126.51 


181.82 


130 


136.48 


121.78 


.012530 


.5595 


79.81 


1.787 


56.85 


124.39 


181.24 


135 


147.21 


132.51 


:012620 


.5158 


79.23 


1.947 


58.47 


122.15 


180.62 


140 


158.61 143.91 


.012720 


.4758 


78.61 


2.102 


60.04 


119.90 


179.94 



J Standard ton temperatures. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



19 



TABLE XXXIV. 



-PROPERTIES OF SUPERHEATED VAPOR OF SULPHUR 
DIOXIDE— SO. 





David 


L. Fiske, Urb 


ana, 111.-192 


5. A. 


S. R 


E. Data Book. 




Temp. 


Abe. Pressure 4 lb. /in. » 
GagePressur&21.7in. vac. 
(Safn. Temp. - 32 60° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 6 Ib./inT 
Gage Pressure 17.7 in. vac. 
(Sal'n. Temp - 19:37° F.) 


Abe. Pressure 8 lb./in.> 
Gage Pressure 13.6 in. vac. 
(Safn Temp. - S.9«° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 10 Ib./io.' 
Gage Pressure 9.6 in. vac. 
(Safn. Temp. - 1.34° F.) 


t 


Volume 

f..'/lb. 

V 


Heat 
Content 
Btu./lb. 

H, 


Entropy 

Btu./lb.°F. 

5 


Volume 

ft.'/lb. 

V 


Heat 

Content 
Btu.,1h. 

H 


Entropy 
Btu.,'Ib.°F- 

5 


Volume 
ft.'/lb. 

V 


Heat 

Content 
Btu./lb. 

H 


Entropy 
Btj./Ib.°F. 

s 


Volume 

ft.Vlb. 

V 


Heat 
Content 

Btu./lb. 

H 


Entropy 
Btu./lb.°F, 

s 


(altclCn) 

-20 

-10 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 

80 

90 
100 

no 

120 

130 

140 
150 
160 
170 

180 

190 
200 


18.40 
18.83 
19.27 
19.70 
20.14 

20.57 
21.00 
21.42 
21.85 
22.27 
22.70 
23 . 12 
23.54 
23.96 
24.39 

24.81 
25.23 
25.65 
26.08 
26.50 
26.92 


079.57) 
181.5 
183.0 
184.6 
186.1 
187.7 

189.3 
190.9 
192.5 
194.1 
196,7 

197.3 
198.9 
200.5 
202.1 
203.8 
205.2 
207 . 1 
208.8 
210.4 
212.1 

213.8 


0.42487 
.42836 
.43179 
.43516 
.43847 

0.44161 
.44491 
.44806 
.45116 
.45421 

0.45722 
.46018 
.46311 
.46600 
.46885 

0.47167 
.47445 
.47720 
.47991 
.48259 

0.48523 


OlJl) 


as'u) 


{0.41 tSt) 


(9JliO) 


(.tS2S3) 


(CiOiSl) 


0.510) 


USt.9S) 


(.040000) 



















0^40046 
.40432 
.40802 

0.41159 
.41505 
.41837 
.42161 
.42480 

0.42795 
.43104 
.43407 
.43705 
.43997 

0.44283 
.44565 
.44842 
.45116 
.45296 

45651 
.45913 
.46171 


12.75 
13.04 
13.34 

13.63 
13.93 
14.23 
14.52 
14.71 

15.11 
15.40 
15.69 
15.97 
16.26 
16.54 
16.82 
17.09 
17.35 
17.62 

17.88 
18.13 
18.38 


184.3 
185.9 
187.5 

189.1 
190.7 
192.3 
193.9 
195.6 

197.2" 
199.9 
200.5 
,202.2 
203.8 
205.3 
207.1 
208.8 
210.4 
212.1 

213.7 
215.4 
217.0 


.41850 
.42198 
.42538 

0.42869 
.43196 
.43517 
.43833 
.44140 

0.44443 
.44741 
.45035 

. .45326 
.45613 

0.4589(5 
.46176 
.46451 
.46722 
.46990 

0.47254 
.47514 
.47769 


9.516 
9.751 
9.983 

10.21 
10.44 
10,66 
10.88 
11.10 

11.32 
11.54 
11.75 
11.97 

12.18 

12.39 
12.61 
12.82 
13.03 
13.24 

13 46 
13.66 
13.88 


183.7 
185.4 
187»1 

188.8 
190.5 
192.2 
193.8 
195.5 

197.1 
198.8 
20O.4 
202.1 
203.7 

205.4 
207:0 
208.8 
210.3 
212.0 

213.6 
215.3 
216.9 


0.40871 
.41230 
.41579 

0.41922 
.42256 
.42582 
.42903 
.43216 

0.43524 
.43825 
.44123 
.44416 
.44705 

0.44990 
■..45271 
.45543 
.45820 
.46089 

0.46353 
.46614 
^46871 


7.545 
7.744 
7.939 

8.030 
8.316 
•8.500 
8.681 
8.860 

9.038 
9.214 
9.389 
9.563 
9.736 

9 908 
10.08 
10.25 
10.42 
10.59 

10.76 
10.93 
11.10 


183.2 
185.0 
186.7 
188.4 
190.1 
191.8 
193.5 
195.2 

196.9 
198.6 
200.3 
202.0 
203.7 

205.4 
207.1 
208.8 
210.5 
212.2 

213.8 
215.4 
217.0 














Temp. 
°F. 

20 

30 
,40 
50 
60 

70 

80 

90 
100 
110 

120 

130 
140 
150 
160 

170 

180 
190 
200 
210 

220 

230 
240 
250 


Abs, Pressure 15 lb., 'in.' 
Gage Pressure 0.30 lb.,in.' 
(Sat'n. Temp. 14.43° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 20 lb. An.' 
Gage Pressure 5 30 Ib./in,' 
(Safn. Temp. 26.44° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 25 lb. /in.' 
Gage Pressure 10.30 lb. /in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 36.33° F.) 


Aba. Pressure 30 lb /in,' 
Gage Pressure 15.30 lb/in.' 
(Sat'n. Temp. 44.75° F ) 


(o.UO) 

5.192 
5.333 
5.470 
5.604 
5.734 

5.862 
5.988 
6.112 
6.233 
6.353 
6.471 
6.588 
6.705 
6.821 
6.937 

7.052 
7.167 
7.282 
7.396 


usun 

185.4 
187.3 
189.2 
191.0 
192.8 
195.6 
196.4 
198.2 
199.9 
201.6 

203.3 
205.6 
206.7 
208.4 
210.1 

211.8 
213.5 
215.2 
216.9 


(0.30091) 

0.39270 
.39672 
.40054 
.40424 
.40777 

0.41116 
.41443 
.41765 
.42076 
.42383 

0.42682 
.42976 
.43264 
.43548 
.43825 

0.44097 
.44366 
.44630 
.44889 


(3.S7S) 


USi.se) 


icassm 


(S.IBS) 


Ossjse) 


(0.S775O 


(«.«/4) 


USS.iS) 


(0.S7169) 




















4.035 
4.145 
4.251 
4.354 
4.454 
4.552 
4.648 
4.742 

4.834 
4.925 
5.015 
5.104 
5.193 

5.281 
5.369 
5.456 
5.542 
5.629 

5.715 


187.8 
189.8 
191.8 
193.7 
195.6 
197.5 
199.3 
201.1 

202 9 
204.7 
206.5 
208.2 
209.9 

211.6 
213.3 
215.0 
216.7 
218.4 

220.1 


0.38959 
.39346 
.39719 

0.40080 
.40429 
.40758 
.41093 
.41415 

0.41726 
.42027 
.42322 
.42613 
.42898 

0.43176 
.43449 
.43716 
.43977 
.44234 

0.44488 


3.181 

3.273 
3.363 

3.451 
3.536 
3.618 
3.696 
3.772 

3.848 
3.923 
3.998 
4.073 
4.145 

4.216 
4.287 
4.358 
4.428 
.4.498 

4.567 
4.637 
4.706 


186.1 

188.4 
190.6 

192.7 
194.7 
196.7 
198.6 
200.5 

202.4 
204.2 
206.0 
207.8 
209.6 

211.4 
213.2 
215.0 
216.7 
218.4 

220.1 
221.8 
223.5 


0.37927 
,38372 
.38795 

0.39198 
.39582 
.39945 
.40291 
.40625 

0.40949 
.41261 
.41568 
.41866 
.42156 

0.42439 
.42717 
.42988 
.43253 
.43413 

0.43769 
.44023 
.44275 














2.747 

2.830 
2.907 
2.980 
3.052 
3.122 

3.189 
3.254 
3.318 
3.381 
3.443 

3.504 
3.565 
3.625 
3.685 
3.744 

3.803 
3.861 
3.919 
3.977 
4.035 


i89.3 
191.6 
193.8 
195.9 
197 .9 
199.9 

201 8 
203.7 
205.6 
207.5 
209.3 
211.1 
212.9 
214.7 
216.5 
218.3 

220.1 
221.9 
223.6 
225.3 
227.0 


0.37969 
38428 
.38848 
.39236 
.39603 
.39955 
0.40293 
.40619 
40935 
.41241 
.41539 

41S29 
.42112 
M2387 
.42657 
.42921 

0.43180 
.43438 
.43691 
.43942 
.44188 
































260 







































Note: V is Volume of Superheated Vapor, ft.'/lb.; H is Heat Content, Btu./lb., and S is Entropy, Btu./lb. °F. 



8U 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XXXIV.— PROPERTIES OF SUPERHEATED VAPOR OF SULPHUR 
DIOXIDE— S02.—(Cot,tiiiucd) 



Temp. 


Abe. PreMUlc 40 Ib.Am.' 
Gage Pressure 25 .TO lb. /in.' 
(Safn. Temp. S8.83° F.) 


Abs. Pressure SO lb/in.' 
Gage Pressure S.S.SO Ib./ip.' 
(Sat'n, Temp. 70.40° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 60 lb. /in.' 
Gage Pressure 4.'i 30 Ib./in,' 
(Sat'n. Temp. 80,29° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 70 lb./in.« 
Gage Pressure 5.1.30 Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 88.97° F.) 


t 


Volume 
ft.'/lb. 

V 


Heat 

Content 
Btu./Ib. 

H 


Entropy 
Btu./lb.-F. 

s' 


Volume 
tt.'/lb. 

V 


Heat 
Content 
Btu./lb. 

H 


F.ntropy 
ntu./lb.°F 

s 


Volume 
fl.'/lb. 

V 


Heat 
Content 
Btu./lh. 

H 


Entropy 
Rtu-/lb.°F 

5 


Volume 
tt.'/lb, 

V 


Heat 
Content 

ntu./ib, 
H 


Entiopy 
Btu./lb.°F. 

5 


iaisatn) 

60 

70 
80 
90 
100 

110 

120 
130 
140 
150 

160 

170 
180 
190 
200 

210 

220 
230 
240 
250 

260 

270 
280 
290 

300 


a 970) 

1.980 
2.064 
2.121 
2 185 
2 246 

2.304 
2.360 
2.413 
2.465 
2.515 

2.565 
2.614 
2.662 
2.709 
2.755 

2.800 
2.845 
2.889 
2.933 
2,977 

3.021 


(.iss.eo) 
185.9 
188.7 
191.3 
193.6 
196.1 
198.3 
200.4 
202.5 
204.6 
206.5 

208.5 
210.4 
212,3 
214.2 
216.0 

217.9 
219.7 
221.5 
223.3 
225.1 

227.0 


10.36470) 

0.36544 
.37064 
.37544 
.37992 
.38415 

0.38810 
.39183 
.39541 
,39881 
.40209 

0.40525 
.40831 
,41127 
,41416 
,41694 

0.41966 
.42233 
,42494 
,42751 
.43007 

0,43262 


VS77-) 


U8S.-iS) 


(.OSSSiS) 


itSI44) 


iiss.iey 


i0.3S27i} 


ii.ies) 


(IS4.77) 


(0.S47S9) 




















1.668 
1.723 
1.775 

1.825 
1.872 
1.917 
1.961 
2.003 

2,044 
2.084 
2.123 
2.161 
2.199 

2.237 
2.274 
2.311 
2.347 
2.383 

2 418 
2.454 
2.489 


188.4 
191,2 
193,9 

196.4 
198.8 
201.1 
203.3 
2Q5.4 

207.5 
209.6 
211.6 
213.4 
215.4 

217 3 
219.2 
221.1 
223.0 
224.9 

226 7 
228.5 
230.3 


.36366 

. .36887 
.37369 

0.37815 
.38234 
.38627 
.38998 
.39353 

0,39691 
.40015 
,40327 
.40628 
.40919 

0.41200 
.41477 
.41748 
.42015 
.42275 

42535 
.42791 
.43045 


























1.288 

1.346 
1.403 
1.459 
1.514 
1.563 

1.608 
1.650 
1.689 
1.726 
1.751 

1 785 
1.819 
1.853 
1 .885 
1,917 

1.948 
1.979 

2 010 
2,040 

2 070 


191.4 

194.3 
197.0 
199.5 
201.9 
204.2 

206.5 
'208.6 
210.7 
212.8 
214.8 

•216.8 
218.7 
220 7 
2'22.6 
2'24.5 

226.4 
228.2 
230.1 
232.0 

233.8 


0.36403 
0. 36906 
.37375 
.37810 
.38217 
,38603 

0.38963 
.39310 
.39639 
,39956 
,40260 

40554 
.40839 
.41118 
.41391 
.41657 

0.41917 
.42175 
.42431 
.42685 

4'2935 


1.181 

1.228 
1.272 
1.313 
1.352 
1.389 

1.424 
1.457 
1.489 
1.521 
1.551 

1.580 
1.608 
1.636 
1 .664 
1.691 
1.718 
1.745 
1.771 
1.798 

1.824 


187.6 

191.6 
194.8 
197.6 
220. 3 
■202.9 

205.3 
207.6 
209.9 
212.0 
214.1 

216,1 
218.1 
220 . 1 
•222 . 1 
2-24.1 

•226.0 
•227.9 
■229.8 
231.7. 

233.5 


0,35443 

0,36020 
.3654,5^ 
.37028 
.37478 
.37897 

0.38291 
.38662 
.39014 
.39348 
.39670 

0.39978 
.40275 
.40564 
.40843 
,41120 

0,41389 
.41653 
,41912 
.42167 

0.42418 






































Temp. 


Abs. Pressure 80 lb. /in » 
Gage Pressure 65.10 lb. /in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 96.88° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 100 lb"/in.' 
Gage Pressure 83.30 lb/in.' 
(Safn. Temp. 110.15° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 120 lb. /in.' 
Gage Pressure 10,V30 lb./in.» 
(Sat'n, Temp, 121.52° F.) 


Abs. Pressure 140 Ib./in.' 
Gage Pressure 125.30 Ib./in.' 
(Safn. Temp, 131.04° F.) 


iattafit) 

100 

110 
120 
130 
140 

150 

160 
170 
ISO 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 

250 

260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340. 


i0.9S09y 

0.993 
1.040 
1.084 
1.125 
1.163 

1.199 
1.232 
1.263 
1.292 
1 320 
1.347 
1.374 
1.400 
1.426 
1.451 
1,476 
1 500 
1.524 
1.547 
1.570 

1.593 


ilSi.SS) 

185.6 
189.1 
192.5 
195.7 
198 6 

201.3 
203.9 
206.4 
208.7 
211.0 

213.3 
215.5 
217.5 
219 6 
221 6 

223 6 
225.6 
227.6 
229.5 
231.5 
233.4 


(0.34557) 

0.34571 
,35214 
.35797 
,36330 
,36819 

0.37270 
.37692 
-.38093 
.38461 
.38813 

0.39150 
.39471 
.39780 
.40079 
.40369 

0.40651 
.40926 
.41195 
.41459 
.41719 

41974 


(0.77«o) 


(ISSM) 


W.sseoj) 


{0.e4SO} 


OSi.I9) 


10.33954) 


0J45I) 


US1.04) 


iO.Sl3SS) 




















0.8190 
.8575 
.8928 

0.9255 
.9561 
.9848 
1.012 
1.03S 
1.062 
1.086 
1.109 
1 131 
1.152 

1.173 
1 . 194 
1 213 
1 .232 
1.251 

1.268 
1.284 
1.299 


187,3 
191.0 
194.6 

197.9 
200.9 
203.7 
206 4 
209.0 

211.5 
213.8 
216.1 
218.4 
220.5 

222.6 
224.7 
226.8 
228. S 
230.8 
2.'?2 8 
234.8 
236,7 


0.34296 
.34942 
.35528 

0.36061 
.36558 
.37009 
.37431 
.37829 

0.38203 
,38550 
.38892 
.39214 
.39524 

0.39824 
.40114 
.40397 
.40673 
.40944 

0.41207 
.41464 
,41716 


























0.7085 

0.7403 
.7700 
.7972 
,8'228 
.8470 

8699 
.8916 
.9124 
.9324 
.9515 

0.9700 
.9.S'<0 
l.f)06 
1 .023 
1.040 
1.0.56 
1.072 
1.088 
1.104 

1.120 


190.1 

193.9 
197.4 
200.6 
203.7 
206 7 

209.4 
212.0 
214.5 
217.0 
219.3 

221 5 
223.7 
225.9 
■228.0 
230.1 

233.2 
2,34.3 
■236.3 
2.38.3 

■240.3 


0.34264 

0.34904 
.35484 
.36012 
.36494 
.36936 

0.37348 
.37737 
.38104 
.38451 
.38785 

0.39106 
.39416 
,39713 
40002 
,40284 

0.40,5.58 
,40.825 


0.5734 

0.6055 
.6345 
.6613 
,6861 
,7092 

0: 7.309 
,7513 

,7707 
.7892 
.8070 

0.8241 
.8405 
.8564 
.8720 
,8970 

0,9017 
9161 


185 i 

189.7 
193 6 
196.3 
200.8 
■204.0 
•207.1 
210 
212.7 
215.4 
217.9 

220 3 
222 6 
224.9 
227.1 
229.3 

231.5 

2,33.6 
2.35.7 
237.7 

239.7 


0.33089 

33777 
.34442 
.35041 
.35588 
,36088 

0.36548 
..36976 
.37379 
..37758 
..38118 

0.38461 
.38789 
.39105 
.39408 
.39701 

0.39985 
.40261 
,40.529 
,40791 

0.41049 








.41,ns5 i: .9302 
.41338 1 .9441 

0.41.T.S3 0.9,579 





































Note: V is Volume of Superheated Vapo» ft.'/lb.; H is Heat Content. Btu./lb.. aud-S is Entrop]'. Btu./lb. °F. 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



81 




82 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



'S 'V ^ IC o 



' ^ 2 P c; c- j 



CO c^ o ■* r>. >o 

01 -^ ^ ^ ■'J' »o 



Cl « lO 
O Cl C-l 



or-; 
I 






<N Cl 

O— I -H . 



r^ o — o o t^ci 






O •-< ^ Cl 



Cl (NO CO 

O I '£2 






CO" CT" 



c: Cl O lO 






£^ d 



$ ££J2 



3" c S" t." W !^ K 



^ ^ C C c: rt c! 



£oaji 






ii,^ 


•*ro 






oo 




CCl 


COiO 



,=5 • O 



O t. 

CO 



o o o .t: 



I + 



O 00 f 



CO -^ 



1^ M cc Cl « 









'■Zai a. x u Cj 



II 



2 £a 

Wo t; 



H .Sg 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



83 



TABLE XXXVI.— SOLUBILITY OF AMMONIA IN WATER.* 
Siebel — Compend of Mechanical Refrigeration. Nicksrson & Collins Co., Chicago. 













Temp. 


Content 










Lb. NhJ 


Vol.NHi 




Lb.NHj 


VoI.NHj 


"F. 


Lb.H.O 


voi.n.o 


°v. 


Lb.HiO 


Vol.HiO 


320 


0.899 


1180 


122.0 


0.284 


373 


35.6 


.853 


1120 


125.6 


.274 


3.59 


39.2 


.809 


1062 


129.2 


.265 


348 


42.8 


.765 


1005 


132.8 


.2.56 


336 


46.4 


.724 


951 


136.4 


.247 


324 


soo 


0.684 


898 


140.0 


0.2.38 


312 


.53.6 


.646 


848 


143.6 


.229 


301 


.57.2 


.611 


802 


147.2 


.220 


289 


60.8 


.578 


759 


150.8 


.211 


277 


64.4 


.546 


717 


154.4 


.202 


265 


68.0 


0.518 


683 


158.0 


0.194 


2.54 


71.6 


.490 


643 


161.6 


.186 


244 


75.2 


.467 


613 


165.2 


.178 


234 


78.8 


.446 


.585 


168.8 


.170 


223 


82.4 


.426 


559 


172.4 


.162 


212 


86.0 


0.408 


536 


1760 


0.1,54 


202 


89.2 


.393 


516 


179.6 


.146 


192 


93.2 


.378 


496 


183.2 


.138 


181 


96.8 


.363 


478 


186.8 


.130 


170 


100.4 


.350 


459 


190.4 


.122 


160 


104.0 


0.338 


444 


194.0 


0.114 


149 


107.6 


.326 


428 


197.fi 


.106 


139 


111.2 


.315 


414 


201.2 


.098 


128 


114.8 


.303 


399 


204.8 


.090 


118 


118.4 


.294 


386 


208.4 


.082 


107 


1 






(212.0 


0.074 


97) 



PreM. 
Abe. 

Lb./in.> 


32»F. 


es^F. 


1040 F. 


212° F. 1 


Lb. NH. 
Lb.HtO 


VoI.NH, 
Vol.HjO 


Lb. NHi 
Lb.HiO 


VoI.NH. 
Vol.H^O 


Lb. NHi 

Lb.HiO 


VoI.NH. 
VoLHiO 


Gm.NH, 
Lb.HK) 


Vol.NHi 
Lb.HiO 


14.67 

15.44 
16.41 
17.37 
18.34 

19.30 

20.27 
21.23 
22.19 
23.16 

24.13 

25.09 
26.06 
27.02 
27.99 

28.95 

30.88 
32.81 
37.74 
36.67 
38.60 
40.53 


0.899 
0.937 
0,980 
1.029 
1.077 

1.126 
1.177 
1.236 
1.283 
1.336 

1.388 
1.442 
1.496 
1..549 
1.603 

1.656 
1.758 
1.861 
1.966 
2.020 


1.180 
1.231 
1.287 
1.351 
1.414 

1.478 
1..546 
1.615 
1.685 
1.754 

1.823 
1.894 
1.965 
2.034 
2.105 
2.175 
2.309 
2.444 
2.582 
2.718 


0.518 
.535 
.5.56 
.574 
.594 

0.613 
.632 
.651 
.669 
.685 

0.704 
.722 
.741 
.761 
.780 

0.801 
.842 
.881 
.919 
.955 

0.992 


0.683 
.703 
.730 
.754 
.781 

0.805 
.830 
.855 
.878 
.894 

0.924 
.948 
.973 
.999 

1.023 

1.052 
1.106 
1.1.57 
1.207 
1.254 

1.302 


0.338 
.349 
.363 
.378 
.391 

0.404 
.414 
.425 
.434 
.445 

0.454 
.463 
.472 
.479 
.486 

0.493 
.511 
.530 
.547 
.565 

0.579 
..594 


0.443 
.458 
.476 
.496 
.513 

0.531 
.543 
.559 
.570 
.584 

0.596 
-.609 
.619 
.629 
.638 

0.647 
.671 
.696 
.718 
.742 

0.764 
.780 


0.074 
.078 
.083 
.088 
.092 

0.096 
.101 
.106 
.110 
.115 

0.120 
.125 
.130 
.135 


0.097 
.102 
.109 
.115 
.120 

0.126 
.132 
.139 
.140 
.151 

0.157 
.164 
.170 
.177 












































































1 

















*For convenience the bodies of the above tables give the ammonia content of ;he 
saturated solutions at the various temperatures and pressures in both pounds of am- 
monia per pound of water and volumes of ammonia per volume of water. — Editor A. S. 
R. E. Data Book. 



TABLE XXXVIl.— HEAT OF ASSOCIATION OF AMMONIA.* 



MoHicr-.S(n 


rr'tf 




I Rcfrigcrat 


ni) E 


OinctT 


,' Ha 


nd Hna 


k. ^ 


ickerson A'Collirn 


Co.. 


Vhicano. 






























^ 




^ 




^ 




^ 




., 
























K 




K 




s 




a 




X 




X 




X 




33 




X 




X 




B 




33 




i: 




Z 




z 




z 




z 




2 




z 




Z 




z 




z 




Z 




Z 




.£} 




Xi 




.a 




j3 




.a 


^S 


J3 


L* 


M 




Si 




j3 




Si 




Sl 


ft? 


JS 
















































a 


3 


X 


2 


X 


3 


B 


3 


X 


3 


S 


3 


X 


3 


X 


3 


X 


3 


S 


3 


X 


3 


X 


3 


''• 


a 


<i 


a 




eg 


Z 


=0 




a 




a 




» 


A 


S) 


7. 


CQ 


z 


n 


z 


03 




03 


n 


347 


s 


329 


in 


307 


l.'i 


284 


20 


2,V) 


?.s 


232 


30 


203 


3S 


17.i 


40 


142 


4S 


100 


so 


70 


5S 


:!4 


1 


344 


ti 


323 


11 


303 


1« 


279 


21 


2.54 


2li 


220 


31 


19S 


3li 


108 


41 


135 


40 


99 


h\ 


.S2 


50 


27 


2 


.■J40 


7 


321 


12 


29« 


17 


274 


22 


24 S 


27 


221 


32 


192 


3; 


102 


42 


128 


47 


92 


Wi. 


36 


57 


20 


:i 


337 


X 


316 


r.( 


294 


1,S 


269 


2.1 


243 


2,S 


215 


33 


180 


3M 


\i>^ 


43 


121 


48 


85 


.S3 


49 


58 


14 


4 


333 


H 


311 


14 


2S0 


19 


204 


24 


23S 


29 


209 


.14 


180 


39 


149 


44 


113 


49 


77 


.M 


41 


59 


7 












































00 to 100-01 



at of Association of Ammonia," gives the heat of 
18 of variouB strengths. The iotcX heat liberated i 
lutioiis of various strengthB ia the heat 0/ associatic 
See tables of Properties of Anhytirous Ammonii 



and disasaociatioD of one pound of 
n up respectively when a pound of ami 
tho latent heat of vipuristiti 



84 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



^ u 



V CQ 



^ 


^_, 


UJ 


< 


^ 


t* 


o 


s 


^ 






o 






S 




.o> 


§ 




H-, 


< 


c 


ft:; 


< 


o 




•^ 


a 


,° 


a 






< 


s 




fe 




Us 


u 


o 





> 

X 




X 


o 


X 


fin 




4; 


w 




J 


O 


m 




< 


fe 


H 





H ^ '^ 

* ft f 

W ~ 

§1 1 

Oj re <- 

J, 2 I 



■*-* 

s 

< 


" 


1-00 t^O M r^rOlOt^O lAx P^IOOOOOOO O 0>ih loO «»5 


MClNlHWIHIHI-Cl-IMI-IWlHI-il-ll-l 


!? 


iH u-)Tt»ot^O 'to Ti-t^o ■*" toiDOoo or^OvO •^00 <n lo 


O *-* ^ fO^Ot^Oi-i POO 0\ <^ lOOO M Tj-cO cs vO tH lO O Tfoo 
M M O CM» t^O voLO-^rO" M w O O CM» 00 t^ t^>0 to to ■<!• 


^ 


iOO>0 fO'^O" OvMO 0>0 " fO^OOOOO t^OO 1-1 >O00 Tl-O 


t^ t^ 0> i-i t^ tovO 0> w rO I^ O fOO 0>«>0 O -^OvfOI^WO 
M O O O\00 t~.vO lOTl-'trO'N M M O O>00 00 <^^0 >0 lo 1/1 tJ- 

MNWMI-lMI-ll-IIHlHMIHMIHI-l 


n 


OO lo O M \0 O^O rOO 00 M O OO t^ t-'O ro-O O >0 t^ 


to lo^ 00 O O r< ■* r^ Ov m ■*oo m tJ-o O -^oo C) i-» ih o O •* 
w O OOO t^ t^O tOTl-corOP) >-< M O^ a-00 t^ t^o »o >o lO •>j- 

C<4C4MMMMIHMI-tMMtH(HMH( 


a 


roOO^OtoOOwt^OtO tJ-vO t~.00 to >/:i-0 vO •* IS 00 00 "^00 


N rO ■* too 00 O <N Tl- J^ Ov <N lOOO " Tl-OO N vO O to O. t^OO N 
HI OOO t^vO vOtO'i-rO^MMOO C^00 00 t^ I^vO to to ■<<■ ■^ 




M 


to Q\ 't i^ OvO OOO fotooo (S w rof*^tototow w ^t>.ioO^ 


0\ O •-( (N fO tooo o ^ Tf r^ o^ fOO c> ^ ^ O -^00 CO ^^ w \o 
O O^OO t^O tOTl--<i-POMi-i"OOv O>00 00 t^o >o >o to •* Tj- 
CSMmi-hmhhi-imhhihmm 


8 


to tooo iHi-iiHU-)'*J^OvOOvO'OOOOtotoOOcv5f^rl-Ov 


vO t^oO M rotot^OO) Tl-t^O OOI^O ■*0O M -O M to 0\ '^00 
O OOO 00 t^sO tOTj-toroP) M w O O>00 t^ t-->0 >0 to Tj- TJ- PO 


& 


too i-^ 0> O "t t^O O too too c^ot^iot^M <N tot^OvO (^ O 


rO ■* to r^oo « •* t-» O M 'too M -t r^ rt o O rOOO ro t- N vO 
O CM>2 I^O OtO'trO^MwOO OOO 00 t^ t^vO to to tJ- tJ- CO 


MWWMWMMIH MM 


«5 


totorrO OvO O O Tfr^MOO fooo i-i O 'too O fOOO "t O ■* 


MtHOi'tior^OP* ^O O tH tooo M to o <^oo M vo O to -^ 
O OOO r^sO lOtOTffOtN w M O O OOO t^ t^\o vo to to Tf rt *0 

MWI-IIHI-IMMMWMIH H H 


^ 


0-*>-iooO>OOOcoO<MO'tOO cooo t^iotooioO -"to 


r^OO O O c^ rj* t^ O I-I OO 0<^0 0<^vO m too fOOO ro t^ W 
OOO t--j^vO lo-tfOfOM iH O O OOO OOt^t^vOtOtO't'^cOtO 


•O 


o t^ OOO c^O O M so ro O to to t^oo too t~t '^O'tO^- 


fO -to r^oo " roo 00 O !^vO O roO O 't O fOvO w to O ■<*• O 
OOO r^vO totOTfrO<N M w O OC<3 00 I^ J^vO vO lo to 't ■* CO N 




S 


tooio00oo000v00>-'0 t^oo O vO O O too tovo o o 


OO M ■^tot^O <N lOr^O coo O CO t-- w vO O COOO CO t^ « vO 
00 00 t^O tot'*cO<N « iH O O OOO 1^ t^O vO to 't •* CO CO « 


-^ 


NO to tooo fOf^totoO too OOO OOoo O O O O toOO O 


to r^OO O M Tj-O O M tvO CO r^ O 'too cot^MvO O •*0't 
00 t^O vOtO'tcoCN'NMOO OOO 00 t^vO \0 totO't'tcoP* M 


r^ 


O0co0t^00-^0to000'tto000000^0r>00 


w CO too CO CO >O00 cot^O 'tt^w too ^00 M I^l-iO w 
OOt^OlOt-tcOCHMMOO OOO t^I^OO tO't'^COCOM M 




2 


lotoO t^tot^O ^ tooo c^ too too ^tototOTtO toO 


OO O I-I P) •^O O M coo O coo " ■^00 PJ O O 't O 'too COOO 
r^O OtO'^coc^CHMOO OCO 00 t^O O lotO'tcocOM CI M 


" 


O rt O CO O too O O to t^o OOtoOt^OOt^N OoO o 


cotoi^oO I-I M 'tt^O cotoOM 1^0 -toes t^" too 'tO't 
r^o to't^coPf i-t Ht o OOO 00 t^ r^o toto't^cococ^ m m 




M 


OOOtoTj-otoOtoOOOci'ttoOOOOOOto'NOO 


Om cocot^OO cof^OCSO O COO' m loocoi^w t^MO H 
OOtoTtcoc^c-tMOO OOO «^ t^O OtOt'^cococjNWM 




is 

3/^ 






















REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



85 



< 

a 

< 

o 

c/i 
Ui 

H 

O 





3 


N loOoo o-'^'t'^'^ «*-«oo -1-000 >oior^O ■~^'^'*''~;" 
^ ^ ro c< M O Ov O>00 t-vO vr>vo-*-rOfO'^ " w O O^ O^OO 00 t^ 








' 


VOrtO>OM<^"OwOOlOOO'tOOOlOWNlO>0'l-lOOTl- 




ri c^Ci •>*lr)O00 O " " >^00 M fO^ o f~> O 0> ff>0 •3- O fp 
10 •* ro <N ►■< 0- C>00 t^vO lo>0'*rO^'t~li-'000> O^OO f^ «^ 

NM(SM<NMIHMMMMMMM1-IMI-1MM1H 




t 


00 c^ O^vO o>^0>o»oOt^«ifOOOOOOOO<^ 




10 ■* to <N M o^co t^ t^vo LOTtTfro<-i ^ >-' a-00 00 t^ f^ 




tSMMMMDMMM 




O 


•>1-fO>0'*tOrOM w CON t^« "*0 >0" >«00 00 t-^ 0> 




o-. 6 ov 1-1 M fo >o t^oo d « lood d <r> i^ fovo " 3 *> " ^ 

rf tt <N 1-1 000 r^ t^O iOTf-1-roM N 1-1 O^OO CO «~» t^ 




NCSNNWMMMHIHWM 




o* 






t^oO OD 1- ro lOO 00 M <^^ OM >000 " ipO^NvO O y> O^ 
Tj. (^ CN M 1-1 0-00 t^^ ovorJ-rOf^rii-iiHOO O<00 OO t-MS 
MCS«C4C*CSMMWMMMMt-ll-llHl-IMM 




% 


OOiomOOO*^*-^ ^0 (NOioiorof^OOOc^OOMt^ 




Tf ro <N M 000 r^vO tOlOTfrOfO^ w M O^ O^OO ^^ t^O 

tSMMMMMl-11-ll-lMWl-lMMl-lWMHM 




r^ 






-t 10 100 1^00 <^ PO v^OO fOO 0^ r^ 10 Qv f^ 0\ roCO « \o 
T^ p^ fs M O^ 0^00 r^o loio-rffof^ <^ 1^ o^oo 00 t^ t^o 








•ft 


T^ rf to 0- t^ lOvO 00 rotON 00 rfroi'lO O rON Tl-t>«l/lio 




CI ro ro -^ lOvO 00 O i-i -J-O O^ M Tf r^ w ^00 M lOOO M O M 10 
■^ <~0 <N M OvOO CO t^vO VO-^r-t-fOlNiNl-lOO O>00 00 t^ t-^ 


to 




Oi 


w w ro ^ lOvO 00 ^ »0 t-^ fO^O 0^ f^ 0^ roO m 10 O ^ 
-1- ro N w 000 t^ t^O vo-t'+fO'N w 1-1 O^ 000 00 t-» t^>0 


1 


NCSNNCHMWMWMI-IMM 


;^ 


000 Mcot<^000'*0«OON'o»oOfOO«'+ »o>o t^ >o 


< 


00 0> 1-1 N ro VO t~-00 M fOO CO 11 -4-00 W -1-00 N VOOv-J-OO W 

fo tN M M o-co r^vo \oio-":*-fOPO<Nt-iiHOC^ 0^00 *^ t^o vo 

WMMWDl-ll-ll-ll-ll-lMlHMI-IMI-IWlH 




^ 






t^CO CO HI ro irjO OM -^t^O^f^O fOO -^00 M 1^ 1-1 
ro c^ M 000 KvO toiO-1-fOC^f^i-iOOc^ O^OO t^ f^O \0 








m 


M •^vof^'if'^c^ 00 r^OO >orot^OOt^M«>/1»^«oOO> 




100 1^00 1-1 .PO 10 t^ IN tOOO 1-1 'Tj-OO HI mC>CJVO HI lOO\ 

rO CN HI 000 00 t^O lo^-^POCN c; M 0^00 00 t^ t^O m 

MC^tNNHlHlHIHlWHlHIHIHIHlMHlHlHl 




P, 






rr> -+ ^ vovO t^ O^ HH CO in t^ M roO O* ^OO O fO (^ m tn O TfoO 
ro N HI 0>00 t^ t^<3 m-*'<1-tOnHiHiOO O\00 00 J^o >o m 




N 0< M W HI HI 




ft 


M "t t^O lovO -j-(sooO<NC>OooO>nHiooO "tvo M r>.oo 




HI M W co^ini^OM ooO Ov 1-1 10 r^ HI "too iH vo 0^ fOOO <N O 
rO <N HI 0-00 <--^ vO>n'*rOfOMi-iHiOO\ O>00 t- t^O vO »0* 

MMWNHIHIMHIHIHIMHIMMMHIHI 




^ 


O^O t^ t^ ■*oo "S- 000 OroOOOOi^i^tOi-ioooiocoM 




OvO-O Hi ri poior^CNi-* 'tt^O roo OMOO^r^M^Him 
cj HI M o^co t^vo toio'<i-rofON HI a> o^oo t^ t^« m 

«MOrjHlHlHlHlHlHlHIHIHlHlH.HlHl 




CO 


t-. HI 10 10 mvO ■* -^OO O"+i-ifO'*O00'*MNi-<'<J-O00>n 




vO t^OO 00 HI cOtol^ON tnOO HI T(- t~- -+00 « vo m 0^ rr> 
cj HI On 000 t^O lo^-^fow (N M OnOO 00 *>■ t^vO to 10 

NDtNMMHlMHlHIHlHIHIHIMHIMHI 




t* 


^0 to to -J- -too -1- >O00 lOM rJ-lOOOO t^'^O <n00 t»5 O 




^ 10 10 r^oo On 1-1 fO 10 r^ POO 0^ <N tnoo MOO -too ^ooo ^^ 
M w c:>oo t^ t^o to-t-tfON HI HI Ovoo 00 f^o to to 

<NM<N-1-WHIH1MHIH1WWH1H1H1W 


i 







86 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Sffi 



Ovt^O Mvo <N00 O ^ ^O O iH 'N Or^^6 O^^*^^ lo-O 

t^ r^OO 00 OOO <N ro*Ot^O t^ tor^O^WO O roO O "^00 (N 
r^O lo Tj- ro <N *N i-i O O^OO oo r^O lOTj-^^rof^M m m O OO' 

O-O f^O ^ O c^ O O ^ O^O O >-« O^o-'^O O TfxoPOfO»or^ 

-O O O r^CO 00 00<N T^lO0^1-< r)- IDOO M lOOM U->0^fO^^»H 

r--\0 lO T^ ro *N M hH O C>00 ^- r^O iOrt'«^ro<N <N m q o c^c^ 

O^ fO toco rooO LOOO O c^ O O O O O^-O vo O O u-> lO fO fO vooO 

Tfioioior^ooo Om ro-^oo O fOTfr--0 ^OO i-i TtoO mo O 
i-^sO torj-ro<^J w O O OOQ r^-r^O lorfTfroM (n w O O O^ O 

00 O "^ f^ O t^ ^00 O O O^ O O O oo lo O O ID lo -^ ro loco 

fO^'^'+O »or--.co O <*' fOt^O^i roo O'^t^O lOt^tH lOO 

r^sO uo rt" ro OJ M O O OOO r^O OiJO-^f^fOW <n m O O OCO 

MeN<N(NC^MCN<MrjMI-i(-i>-tt-ll-(lHMMMMMMM 

Tfoo »oooo (^jr^QvOOoooooo O OO ^ O O rj-iomf^iooo 

<N r* ro ro ■^- '^O r-^oo O <^' '-O r- m m lOOO ^ O a- <N O Q -^00 
r^O lo Tf ro ci I-I o Qv osco r^o O LO^'^^o^ »-i t-iO O OcO 

<N t^oo roo lo M Looo f^ r-.oo r^ O 00 o <^ O O fOO lo ^f lo o 

>H i-< M (N fof^ioo r^o^H '*d-0 O M -^r^M iJ^oo M loOfO*^ 
r-^O to-^roM M O Ovoooo r^OO lO-^rOfO^ m m O O OOO 

04<NC4CNC4<NMCSIH>HMI-(l-ll-IMMI-1l-IMMMM 

CO -^O O fO '«^ O fO r-* TfO OOOOOO lOfOO O roO tJ* co ^o O 

OO O i-t (N (N rj-ioooOO fO^ooo O fOO O ror-*0 TfoO no 
OO >ot1-po<n i-i o OOO 00 r^O iJOio^fOfOf^ *-* i-" O O OOO 

Tt M rooO 00 O ^"-1 lOMiO^ too t^ lO M O oo roO tJ- w in O 

GO OOOO •-< M ^u^r^OM ^r>.of^ loo^o <^ r^ t^ t-* ijo 
O lOrfforocj I-I O OOO r^t^O tOTj-TffO*M M M O O OOOO 
^^c^^^r^^^c^<NC^H-llHMMl-•^-«l-^H^l-lM^HMMw 

HI o O O r-»oO r^O ^ O <n <n io»0'1-'^m Ot^*^ locO'-' tJ-oO 

r-«. r~N.oo 00 O O >-< ro TfO oO hh coO oo »-< tJ- r-* m xooo fs O O "'^ 
O \n -^ ''<■> r-i I-I I-I o OOO r-* r-^O lOTf^roMMi-iOOO OCO 

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00 ^'^(r>PO'^<N0O MOO O O io« ro^O O^O -^M O Tfr— 

looo r^oooo O *-* fOTfr^O m lot^O fCO O rfi-^wioO'^ 
O to-^roM.i-i I-I o OOO r^ r^o lOTj-'^fOM m m O O Ooo oo 

iN<N<N(NCT<NM'NI-.>-l>H(HIHMMWIHI-l(HMMM 

fOOOOO'NMioOOOr^OOiH'TtOoo^OrO'-iO fOO 

Tf 1^5 T+o r^ r^ o O <N fo looo iH -^o o ^ lo O m o Q "^oo « 
Oio-n-fOMi-iOO OOO r~>»0 otoT^fOf^M M M O O OOO CO 

OI<NO»CSMN<NC*W(HIH(HIHWMMlHWIHIHI-iM 

0\0 lo lo t>». OOO Tj-r^MO roO*^"-* •-< O r^MOO m OoO t-< "^ 

<N ro<N ^ir^ior^oO M '^r^-.O'N tooo •-« -^00 •-* loOM r^»-< 
OtOTfroM w O O OOO r^O totO^f^rOM i-i m O O OOO GO 
MCS<N04<NCS<NlHMIHI-(l-tl-IMMMMMI-lMI-( 

to "N O •-( COO to O ^ O ^ >-< o lOOO O O^OOO O Ot^O ^ 
M <^ i-i fO-^-^Ooo O"-" ^OOOO M for^Of^t^O ■rj-r^MO O 

\0 »o -^ f^ CS I-I O OOO CO r^O iOiOTfro<N M mmO O OCO 00 

MMCNClWMCMMI-IWIHIHIHIHIHI-ll-tl-tMWI-t 

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O lO CO fO M iH O OOO r^ t^O toiv-i-^cofN Ci •-( O O <^ OOO t-^ 

CS01(M<N(N(NC*IHI-l)HMI-ll-ll-CIHWIHMMMM 

O in O fO M o O looo lootoM ot^t^^ni-i LOHH r^Lo -^cc i-h 

00 OOO O M M tJ- loO 00 O <00 00 M ':t- t-* w -^OO m lo O <O00 
m ^ CO CO (N M o OOO t>» r^O lO'TTfcoM CN M O O OCO CO r^ 

MCI<NM<N. OIWl-lHIMMI-tMMMlHMMMMM 

M o to t-*co t>-iowtoOioO O '^'-' lO-N o *N o toco^O O 

t^ r>.o 00 o^ d M Tj-ior^OM lor^O r^O O fO r^ Q ^oo m t^ 
lo ^ CO <N I-I w o OOO r^O oiOTf-^coM (N I-I o O OOO 00 r^ 

0»<NCSr*<N(NMl-((HI-t(-ll-(M»HMIHW>HI-l(-IM 

O ^O Tt-cofOi-i OsO to coco mOOO w O i>-00*N O O^O 

mo m r^oo O M <N rf tooo 6 fOO 00 "N toco w lo O fOO M to 
to Tf CO "^ 1-1 O O OOO i^O Oto'^fO'OM iH M O O OCO OO r>- 

M<NC^M(SCN«NMiHMi-ti-il-IIHMMMMMHi 

M -^j-o CO d M Tf o 00 o w ^o 00 o M ^o 00 o « ^^<^ o 

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REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



87 



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OOO t^>0 lO Tj- i-o tN tN M O OOO OO l^O lOLo-i-rOr^, r' " " " 

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■* ■* -^ 't- to Tt- lO f^OO O !-< rj-vo 00 d <^vO O <"' O CO " O O ^ 
OCO f^\0 to -^ (^ f't »-< O O OOO t^ f-».vO »0-^*^fOtN M p-t ji^ u 




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OCO t-^O lo 't -O " >-' O OOO t^>0 oto^rJ-roNt^'-'OO 


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OCO r^sO »o '^ ro ri M Q o OOO r^vO vOto-^Tj-fOf^csiHUU 


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OCO t^O to ^ (^ <^) *-* O OOO r^O totO'+rO'^f ^ •-' o u 

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COt^OlOto-*rO'~< •- O OOO r^O toto-t'^f^'N i-i " O o 


C<C^C^CSWM(NNtN(NM>HMI-IMMMM 


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i^OOMioOHt^tOMOOOooiooO-^i-HTt-MOooOO 


00 r^o \y> rt rrt rr> ^ M O OOO 00 r^o loto-^^f-Of* *~* *-* O O 




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IN W IN C4 C* N IH 


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fOO CO fOt^O w locoM " OOO c^ M i^ioor^to ^o 00 


Tt rt -t too to r^OO O M fOO 00 1-1 (N tooo *H toco HI to O PO i^ 
00 rto to it CO " 1-1 O O OOO t^ I^O to-^-ttfOMNi-iOOO 

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00 t^O to rt ro CN M O OOO t^ t^O to-5t-<tfOM<Ni-iOOO 


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rotoi^M too " POiJ-1-1 1-1 <N M o-<t<NOO i^O OCO t^Ow 


M (N c< N Tt fo too r^ o 1-1 -to O fOO o^of^O ror^i-io 
OO r^O to It ro IN iH O O OOO t^O Oto-*POf^NP<MOOO 

M<SMtSr|<Nr<IN<NlHMMMMIHI-llH>-IWlH>Hl-ll-ll-l 


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00 c^ .^O O toOi-1 fO^tO 1-1 1-^ ^ Otoro OCO Hi Hi OCO i-i co 


00 t^O to -t CO <N M O O OOO l^O loiOrtcOcocN w i-i O O O 


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t^ w coo otoOO<^-*Oc^c~<coOtoitOOcscoOOCNt 


OO N 1-1 CJ -tttor^OfJ Ttt^O" Tti^M toco cs o Q •* 
t^ I^O to It CO cs M O OOO 00 f^O totOTtcocoCNMMOOO 


WMCSCNCNrjCS CNMM M 


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t^O to •* Tt CO <N w O OOO OO I^O toiOTtfO<0<M 1-1 H. O o o^ 

NMCSClCNMMCSNMMl-lMMl-lMMWMMMMM 


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f) •'tooo O <N -toco O <N itOOO O IN itO 00 O CM 2"2.'2. ff. 



88 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 





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M r^ioiot-* ^» o-O^O^^^ 


too O tOt^-iOTtt^lOOO N CO 




MOOOi-i>-i>-i«ro "l-vO 00 1-1 ro VO t-~ f^O O- f< vO O- fO t^ 

M O^oo r^^o to Tj* ro N *-i o O O^oo t^ i^O lo 1^ ^ fO f^ ^ »-i 

rOtOWMCNC<MMMMM<NC*MMl-t(HMC<tHMIHI-ll-lM 




S 


■*oo oor^c»5>o>-< <^ M 


t^ i-i t COOO " O tooo O 00 C) OO O- 




0O^0^O^00^Hr»^0^ 

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lOOO C) Ti■t^O^COt00^1-l lOOO CJ O 
M O O o-oo t^O Otottcocjdi-i 
O M M M M M 1-1 1-1 M M 1-1 1- K 1-1 M 




o. 


loO 0^ior^'<l-'*-<tfO 


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rOC»OI«MM«MM<NWOIlHMMMW>HIHMMMl-l>-ll-l 






r^ 11 *H O O O^O i--.\o O 


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OOOOOOOOOOOO O>0 1-1 N 
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to 00 CO tooo M tt^O t^^t-i to 
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ddMMMMMMMWWlHMl-llH 




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o> tooo CO diopod to coo-t^por^ 




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REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



89 





S 


N 1-1 O OnoO t^-O W) -^ ro '■1 'N « O O-OO 00 r^vO -O to -<J- t ro fj 
tOrO<-OMt^<^<NNM<Nn(Nr<r<«M«i-i«i-ciHMMMM 




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n M O O-OO t-^vO to -^ ro PJ M >-< o aoo OO r^O m to ^ ro fO <n 

POfOrONri<NtMtSMMC4P<<NP4l-.WHIMIHPHlHIHP-ll-.« 




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OO O^©>^r)0 to-<^0 M lOt^O t00>0 ■* O^OO 00 O -^ 0> fj rO 

rONMMMfNnro-^ LO\C 00 •-< <N to r^ O f^ toOO (N toOO <N vC 
n 1- O-OO r^O to-tt^"-' " « O OCOOD r^ O i/l lo 1- rO rO rj 




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N«i-iMMWiHMr»5-* toco <N ^O O^ <N u-)00 M Tj-oO M to 
pj !-• O OvOO r^vo to Tj" ro f-i '-' >-' O O-oo i^ r^o to »o ^ ^ *^ <-* 

r0r-0fO<Nr<fNC-IMCiCSr*riO4C<MMM»HMHt»HMMMM 




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too -+.^c^tOM r^oro'tt-^^C^roO t^ too Q. fO r^ i-< 
c^ >H O OOO t^O tn -^ ro f-* i-« O OOO r^ t^o to to -^ CO fO f-» 

rOfO<NC*MCSC<C-ir4WMCSCSC<l-.MMMMtHtHMMMW 




2 


CO rOO r^M O-*-*0 <N tooO O Ovt^cO f O OO ror^OO fO 

0000\OOOi-'<Nro ^O O- fO looo (I Tj-t-^o *^r^O -<^ 
(s M oco ooovo tOT}-fo(-< '-' O 0*00 i^ r^o lo to -^ fo f-o pj 

tOrOCN«OCJ<NM«C<<S<NCJCNM«MMIHI-IIHMW>-IM 




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O O^OO O O <y> O^ M (N TfO 00 O fO to 1^ O fOO o <^o f^ 
<N O O-OO r^O lOtOTj-rooi M O C-00 t^ r^O to -^ -^ ro ro <n 

rOfO<NCJCJCICIC*M<NCICSlC<ClMMIHtHIHWMIHIHl-IW 


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t-or^M <^i r^too O r~.o^<■lOOOO c^tor<oo t^oo O -f O r^ "^ 

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>-i O O^CO I^O to lO -^ ro <--) m O O^ OOO I^O O io ^ -^ <r) rj (-J 

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1 

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t^t-iO r^M OO t^-^toO co^ -^O t-i C^^^ -^O 00 w t^ »-< M 

t^ r^O O t^ r^O 00 O- O <N rfo 00 O cO tooO m -"^ t^ m Tf 00 c< 
M O 0\CC r^O to-^cocoo* I-I O o^ O-OO r-^O O to -^ '^ CO f^ c< 

COP0"MNM<NO<<SMOlCS(NM(-lWMlHMWWl-lMI-lM 




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00 CO O>oo ^ * O to o> >-■ r^O oo^toOOO-OOtoOtoio 

tH O O-CO r^O to -rf CO C4 <N I-I O 0^0^ 00 t^ O O to -:t "^ CO CN N 
COCOC<M(NINP<IN(NP)(Nr<r<lHMI-IMl-IMI-IMMWWM 




8 


MO cOMOOO •-• coo MO O I-I w -^l-OO coco-^^O'-^O O 

O to to to to too t^oo O^O fOtor--*OvC) ^r^O coo O^ co t^ t-" 
•H O O-CO r^O to T}- CO w M M O O-OO 00 l^O O to -^ CO CO c* M 

COCOM"«MCSMMMMn<NlHI-IIHl-ll-IMMl-ll-IMMI-l 




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■*l^rr-<tO OvtotoM too -^.tO-^t^coO t~. t^OO 00 M 0> CO >!■ 1 

to -rh Tf Tt to ^ too r--.00 O P* -^O 00 >-i -^O 0\ c* »o Ov <N o O 
M O O>00 t^Oto-Jj-coci c< M O-OO 00 t^O toto-^cococ-1 M 

COCO<NriCiCSClCl(SOlNtNC<l-ll-IMI-ll-ll-i|-|l-IMl-IHllH 




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to O to CO w r^ i-^o 00 <^ t^oo (^OOcoOOi-iMioi-it^Ov 

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M O O-OO t^O to -"I- CO M w M O O-OO OO I-^O to to -^1- CO CO C^ M 
rOCO«<NM«SP<PlC<MO)<NOWI-ll-IWI-lWMM„|HHlM 




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M O O'CC l-~0 to Tf CO c^ w I-I O-OO 00 t^O to to "+ CO CO tN w 
COCOOIMNCS04MCMCHMC-)M>-|«MW1H|HWM1-II-11HM 




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COCOtN<SCSWMMn«CSNC<MI-ll-ll-llHMMWIHWMi-| 




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rOfOfOfO«C|(Nr*(N(N(N<N<SlMCSt-IMMI-(IHMMMMt-l 


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rO IN M O OCO r^^ VO -t ro IN IN M O OOO OO r^ VO vO lO Tf -r 1^ 
l^i^fOfO<NNr<ri<Nl-l<Ni-llNININWMMMl-ll-lM>-ll-ll-l 


2 


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rfi^!Nr)(NININir)rl-l0O000lN-i-OO><N-*t-~.M.<J-I^"-* 
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rOrOCOfO'N<N(N(NfNfNfNrilNINriHI(H(HMMHII-IM»HI-l 


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•^ O f^ M o^co ro C^ ^ 'i- O CO C^vO vO t-i f^ tJ* fN M -rj- o O ^o n 


fO^jIN f^ i-i M 01 IN fOTl-ly-)r^O\M roO CO IH -^r^O ror^w -^ 
ro IN M O i:>00 t^O lO-^frOi-l " m O O-COCO t^OO lOt-frO 
rO^fOir)C^IN<NW<NCllNC4fN04(Nl-IMtHMMM«)-ilHM 


f? 


I^ ro lO lO ■* fO r^ r<^00 t^Mi-iroOOOiN a CO t^ O ii lo O O 


(N(N»HMMMM<Nr^roior^O\Wf^ loco O i^O O r/>0 O <^ 

ro IN M O (>00 f^O LO ^t 1^ OJ M M O OCO CO r^O VO »0 ^ -^ rO 

^0fO^OfO^^c^<Nc^(N<Nrlc^lNlNlN^-1»HMl-ll-ll-^^H^-lMM 


s 


O t^ Ov O^OO vO O O oj ro lo-O i^ioioMO fOCN m lOvO O it oo 


iNMOOOO""INrO-tOCOO<N10J-,OfOOO^f<OCNfO 
ro IN h-« o OCO r^vO to -t 1^ IN i-H M O O^CO CO t^sO lo lo ^ ro fO 

fOrOl^lOOJOjnniNININrilNCNCSMMMMMMMWt-lM 


H 


r0004fOr00-*-0t^l^00>-i0N0lOIN00I^O000lOO'O> 


MwOOOOOi-IMIN •rtO CO 0> IN ■<J- 1^ O tN lOOO M lOCO n 
lO IN I-I O O^CO r^O lo -^ <0 <■• I-I O O O.00 t^ I~^vO lO lO ■* ro ro 
c^rooocoO'iNi-irNCsiNtNriiNritNMwtHiHwiHwMi-iM 


S 


I^ COVO vO i^^Ol^-^O -It lOvO corO0<3 rOM rOlOO •*■* 


O O OsO-OOOO " <N roior-Ow -i-O O^ <N lOOO m locO <■" 
ro IN O-OO l^\0 \OiOrhro<Nh-iOO OCO t^ l^O lO lO ■* lO rO 


o. 


O -O 0> OOO f^ w CO lO looO CO i^ o> "i- O t^o >ooo o looo go 


O OOO OOCOOOOO-Oi-iiNTj- t-^co O i^vO OOMTl-t^MTj-t^l-l 
ro I-I O OCO I^O lolO-^oOlN i-i O O OOO I^ f^O lo lO Tj- fo lO 


fOrOfOlNMCSlN ," '"' 


00 


TfOCNC^INO'^>-iCOOfN<NfOt-ifO OOO INOOfOlOOf^rO 


OCOOCOOOCOOO OOO fN •'^OOO O O) looo IH -^ I^ O ro t^ w 
IN M O OCO t^O lO-^-^f^fl »H O O OOO t-^ r^vo lO lO Tf iv^) ro 
OOfO^OO»INCSCNCN(NCSC^C*CS<NCNIHIHMIH>HMMMlHM 


t^ 


O -^lOiOlO^OO lOM COO t^OO ^CO il-OO lOrft^O rot^O 


00 CO t^ f^ t^ r^ r^co OO tn coior^OfN -^r^o co^o O fOO 
M M O OOO J^O lO ■* T^ CO <N iH O O OOO r^ t^O lO lo Tf CO CO 

COCOCOOICNMCSCNCNCSMCJMCNMMMMHIHIHIHIHWIH 


« 


r^ O O OOO M o IOM3 OO M O"oo coo On "^00 o r< 


00 l^O vO O vO r^ t^CO O O CO »00 OM -"^t^O CNMD 00»\0 O 
IN M O OOO r^vO lo^rocoM ih O O OOO r^ t^O lo ^ ^ fO co 

COCOC004"M<N<NC<C^CNCSC<CN1HM1HMMM>H1HHIHW 


s 


no <N IN r< lOCoO O COTJ-VO colOc-iCO -^cocOMDOO csvOOO. 


r^ t^\D O MD O O t^OO OO M TtO 00 w coO O <N lOOO c< lo O 
CM M O OOO t^\0 lO-*coco<N w O O OOO t^O >0 lO Tt It CO IN 

rOCOCOCNCNMCNCSPJMINCSCNC-lMMlHIHHlHMlHMIHlH 


-T 


U-) CO lO lO lO rj- OO cocoi^l^OO OO cioocooo O " r^O M 


O VO lO lO lO lO lOvO t^OO O M ^ looo O CO looo w loOO M lO O 
rj IH o OCO r^vO vOTt-cociMMOO OOO l^O O lo ■* -"t co c-< 

COCOCOMCNr<C<CICNOtNM<NINlHlHMIHWlHlHlHIHMlH 


t-t 


OO CO O O r^ »H O f^oO OiNrfO-^OOOicsMTtt^MioiO 


lo lO ■* 'I- ■* ■* loo O t~.0>H coiOt^O <N looo w rj- r^ IH tJ-oO 
cj IH O OCO l^O lO'^-coM C"* IH O O OOO r^OO lO-^-^coM 

rOCOCOC4C^CNCS0401CS(NCNCNC^tHIHIHIHIHMIHIHIH(HIH 


IN 


C^OlHOICOMlOCOOlHTf r^O lO O -^ O O f^O O " O IH 


lo ■<*••*•* "^ ■* •* loo r^oo O IN Tj-o ooi ■^l-j^O cor^O ^00 
cs M o OOO r^o lo -^ CO CI IN IH o OCO 00 i^O O lo -^ -^ co <n 

COCOCOCHrtlNC^tNCNC-lfjrilNClMMMlHlHIHlHMMMIH 




K 
2 



















REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



91 



2; 
o 

< 
< 
P 
a 

< 

o 



SB 



\n t^ O •>l'i>ir^ioOfOi-i fOf^" O r^O '^'■< Ooo O >-< fOO ^ 
\0 vovn-t-^-t-'l-'* loo t^ O " 1^0 ■* i> C^ 5" vo t^ " ^ C^ ^ S 

O <^ toOO t^O -^-OO ot^r^i/iiN loO i^toco>o looo w^oo 

vd io-*'-^'t'^'i-44 jAvO 00 d '^> 1-0 O; "4 r- O f^JvO O ^ 
^ W5 pj M O OOO t^O lo^fO-^f^ " O o- o-oo t-- t--o lO to 2^ 

•*>00'0'*0'<l-ooi-iOMtOMOooO'>i'OOooOO-*0'<t 

vorj-Tj-ivjrOfO'O'^'* mvO 00 O " f^O CO >-. ^g-O O ^■<> O ^2 
T^ fO r3 M O ooo I^vO vrj'J-'-OfOM t- O O ooo t^ t-vo vo tn Tf 

00 O "l-oo O moo ■*vO »ot-»r^i^'*M>0 O r^tO(~o»o>o o^ O 

Tj-rffON " '^ <N 'OrD'*>or^Oi-i fO moo O rOO O <^ »^ O "2 
■^ r^ rt ^ O ooo t^vO iO'^fOC<CMiHOO ooo l^vO \0 »o ^ 'T 

<N vooo ro 't O ro r^ 1-1 O Nt^csoOOmiroOOOO'^i-'m 

TtroP) r< N r) n n ro-*»ot^oO f^ lor^o ro»OOf< u-iO" 
Tl- r»5 M 11 O OOO t^>0 lO'^rONtSMOO OOO t^\0 VO >0 ^ "T 

O O <^ "O 00 moo ^ loior^f^i^-^*^ loO r^iom lovo OOO 

pot«)<NMi-<i-ii-<M<spo Tf-o 00 O r< •<i- t^ o « moo m moo « 

Tf ro ^ >-< O OCO t^O IT) Tf fO f^ f^ *-• O OCO CO r^vO \0 >o ■^ ^ 

OfO'0'*i-iO"1^00^i-iMO'^0>OroOOOMi^(-i»0 

conmmmO'-'"'^'^ ■^O 00 O m "^vO O <^ moo M ''■OO 2. 
^ r<:) M M o ooo r^o m •'J- ro <N w M o OOO 00 r^o vo "i 'r 1- 

"j-o o too foo O -s-'i-oovD -^"N >/^o f^>ovou->t^O '";■'-; 

cii-ii-ioooOi-iwN'^mt^OM <~oo 00 M •*'^9'*''~r" 
Tj. rr, ^1 ►, O OOO i^v3 m -"i- fo rj " " O ooo 00 i^o o m •* •* 

tOrO<-fOfO<NCtNMMMDC-inr<MMMi-iiHi-i>-il-i>-'>-' 
oOi-irOOOt^OO ooo i-iOi-ioor^O'oroOOO<xtr)Nr-- 

i-ii-iooOodoO>-ifO'^ t^oo O fO looo M ■* »> O fO !> O 
•^ CO <N O 00 00 J^vO m rr PO <s w M o ooo 00 t^o vo »^ •* ■<T 

ts looo 1- ■^ "N ■* 6 toromvoi^tON loOovo io>or^O f^*^ 
M O o o o O o O O >- <N -^vD 00 O " m t^ O coo O po O 

rj- ro >- O OM l^ t^vO m ■* <0 M m w O OOO 00 I^vO Ml \y^ -^ -^ 

\n o^ o> t-~ t^ m o M-oo i^OOO<-^r~.omr<oOO>-im>NO 

O O ooo CO 00 00 OOO t^ rO>0 t^ O <^ ^ r^ O fOO O <^ O O 
M- cf M o oS rio mm'tfO<N m O O ooo oo t^vo \n\y-,^ r^ 

OS N -^ M N O t^oo M <N m^ro f^O -^O i-.mmmr^Ooo w 

O OCO «) 00 r^CO OC OO " fomt^OM ^-O OJ< yflOO fl K? S^ 
fO ri " O ooo t^o mm'J-rof^ " O O ooo i^ r^o \n \r, ^ r^ 

"^ m o m ■* CO t^ <^>o oOO'-ivomO'l- oOOOc^mwvo 
OOO t-^ r-l t-1 r-L t^oo CO o " o< mvo CO " coo On moo >-■ moo 
CO " " O ooo t^O m-^Tl-^ON " O O OCO r^ t^o m m ■* co 
cococOCO^^f^^^N^NNN^*^'"''"'*^*^*"''^*"'^*^ 

t^O <^ O ot-^t^O O O 'i-co'OM o Tj-ot^m'tmr-. O t^ f* 
oo CO r~- r^so o t^ i-^oo O O <m 'J-O 00 Q <^ looo w tj- t^ >-• ^oo 

COCOCO^N^'N^^^NN^^^^'^'"''^'^'"'*^^*^*^ 

O •fm^roO mO ■+ "^oo r^O mmO'TO 6 o O ^ m O «^ 

oo r^\0 so O so O r^ f-^oo o I-* -^ »o r^ O f'' tooo O -^ ^^ O 'i- r^ 
CO c< " O oc»o t--so m-l-coi^<N " O o ooo i-~ t^vo m m •* CO 
cococOfO'^'Nf)'^"'^'^'^'^"'^'-''-''-''-'"'"''-''^"'^ 

«i- r^ O 00 i^-O O ■^O O'^'^'^O O'^Ot^ioioior^M f^^ 
i-LsO O lo lo t/^sO O 1^ r^ O i-< ^ lOvO 00 M ■'^ t^ O co^O O <^ *^ 

CO CN M O OCO l^sO lOTj-COCOiN M O O OCO t^ I^SO VO >0 >:f CO 
COCOCOfOM'NniNCnrjCSCMClClMI-IMI-lMIHI-lMIHIHM 

^M^isMOmO-"!- t^so t^oo m cooo •<t'-<OOOtNso«oo 

sD so \r> \j-, \r> \r^ \r, losO t^oO O ^< ^so 00 >-i ■* I^ O coso O ^■■O 
CO t^ M O OCO I^O io-tcoco<N M O O OOO r^ t^vo lO Tt tJ- co 

COfOCOCOfS|(^Cs*CSCS|CSCSCslC^0*C^>-»Mt-*MI-4tH>-tMMM 

csi Tj-sO 00 O <^ 'i-O 00 O ^< tso 00 O « -^sc 00 O « ^■o oo O 

M M M M M « W « M « CCt*5«^<^CO*'*^'*'*VO 



92 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



1 

3 
3 


-3 


-O <M fO t-OO lOOO O fO M O O O^O «0 ■* Tf lo r^ U^ 




-S 


OOlO^M^OI-ifOINt^ t^vO <^>Oti11-lOOONO>0 


rO <N <M rO fO -t lO r^OO O M rJ-vO O "N irjoO M -H- t^ M 
rOt»>rjcl<NINn<NM(NMM<SMMMHI-(MHII-l 


S 


O w •^00 Ovo O^r^^foOoo M M r^^o t^oo oo to t^ 


t-i O O\00 r^vO »OTfro(^<N m O O^ OvOO t^ r^o to to 
corOf^W^<NC(ClO)f^r4noiiHi-i)-ii-iMMiHM 


Si 


Mf^Oc^tOCSroro OvOO ^O lO r^OO CN M fO fO Tf M ro 


c< i-i CJ <N ro fO T^\0 r^ O M ro lOOO m -^ I^ ro t^ 

>-t C^co r^o io^fO<^*<NMOO OOP r^ r^vo to to 


"g 


\0 <s "^t^OvO O^t^'^fOM H ro roco OO OOO O t^OO 


M O OnCO t^vo tO'^rofNfNMOON OvCO f^vO vO to ^ 


S 


O t^ONtO'^M ro<^0 On r^O OnOO -^ ro fO fO to fO ■^ 


MOO'-'w'Nroto r^oo O <N Tt* r^ <^vO o- ^^i o O^ 
M O o»oo r^o toTi-(NocN<NMOON onoo r^o no to tj- 


o 


to N Tt t^ t^ OnOO nOt)-(N W Tl-Tl-O ONONt^MOO 


O O O O 1-1 H M •^nO OO O N rf t^ O « tOOO N to On 
w O OnOO J^NO IO'^^ONDI-iOOn O-OO J^nO nO to tJ- 


2 


OnO On<n0»O<n -^rO^N OnCO n© ONio^totor^cOtO 


O On On O M <S TfO t^ On w ^nO On n toCO •-< tOOO 
1-1 OnOO 00 t^NO to ■<}• <-0 M M M O OnOO 00 I^n© nQ lO •* 
CO«M<N|«M«MNMDNtNll-<l-llH>HM>-IWM 


3 


■* O rONO O t^ On t^NO Tj-cjMio«i-i-iOi-iOroOO 


OnOnO-OnO O " rotot^ONW rONO O- <n) loOO m tooO 
O ONOO l^ f^NO to rt ro N w 1-1 O ONOO 00 r^NO n© to •* 
fv^<NCSMCS<NMdriC<Dr)tSMWI-ll-ll-IMl-ll-l 


O tOOO M lOrOlOtrjl-l t^t^O OnO tONO tooo t^ t^ 


ONOO 00 On O- O w fO to r^oo O <^no CO m ■* t-. O ^ t^ 

O OnOO I^NO no to ■* fO M 1-1 1-1 OnOO 00 I^nOnO to tJ- . 
rO<NCN(OMMCJ01P)NOClMI-<l-l>-llHlH>HMIH 


2- 


fO ^ O fONO O t^ OnOO r^ lO fO COnO tOM0^fN4fOI-»<N0 


oocooooooo OnOnO <n TfNO OO <N tooo M Tf r~. O ■* f^- 

1-1 O OnCO I^NO toto^roo) t-i IH O OnOO 00 t^NO lO tn ^ 
CO'OMM'NtNMMCJMMCNtsC^HlHl-ll-ll-llHWl-l 


S 


oooo lor^w tocj -^foM O t^oo M M t>. tooo t^oo t^oo 


1^ I^ r~- r^CO CO On O <N ':^NO t^ On n to t^ O ro-O On conO 
HI OnOO t^NO totO't'NO'N w O O OnOO 00 t^NO to lO ^ 
r0r0<MC<r<MP)tSiNNINCN101CN)l-ll-lwMMMMl-l 


o 


OifO^N^O cOtoONO ONt^torO'^t^iOfOi-' fOcO'^t^^ 


r^ r^ r^ r^ r^ r^co 00 O m fotor^ONW -^r^O poo On conO 
CO iH o OncO r^NO totoTtfo<N iH O O OnOO CO t^NO to to Ti- 

rO'NOrO<~<<~)MtNl<NC4MMC1<MtSMl-ll-llHMMMIHI-l 


! 


•*nO00 Tt-t^O ■<l-i-' •+f>0rOO r^O poOcOnO OnOnO O 


t>NO NO NO NO t^ t^cO On 1-1 fO tONO Oni-i -^nO Ovf^ ioOnMnO 
ro 1-1 O OnOO :^0 to-l-'l-to^N 1-1 O O OnOO t^ i^no to to 'T 
fOrOrOWMCIC<r*<NO»MC*(N<SMHIMl-lMl-lt-lMl-i 


1 


to On M CNOOO M to OnnO OnOO OO to CO lOOO nO fO 1-1 't ■* NO ij- tO 


i~-nO vO NO to NO NO NO t^'oO 6 " ^nOOO O rONO ©> " ,\f>°9. 51 ^2 
fO rO 1-1 o OnCO I~-nO lO^TfrOPJ i-tO O OnCO r~ t>.NO lO to ■* 
fOfOfOfOC^*N<NC*r<MC4<NlC|C4<N|Ml-lWlHMI-ll-lMM 


§ 


O ro too fONO O -tro^fOiNOOOO PO" 0>nO O i-i O i-< 


t^NO to to to >o NO NO t^co d p) •* tooo O ro tooo N toc<5 51*0 

INO PO 1-1 O OnOO I^nO lO't'i-rOCJ 1-1 O O OnCO t^ t^NO to to ■* 
POfOfOPO«<N4C<CJCjr»CiM<NjC<MnwtHMMl-lMt-lM 


t 


11 •* t^ O O t^ to I^ t^ O- OnnO to c^ to C?nnO -"J" « to to t^ to I^ 


j^nO to to to M- to to tONO I^OnI-i fOtOI^ON<N lOOO Hi Tf r^ IH T^ 
^ fv^ ro HI O CTiOO i^nO »0-1-rOPOC^ Hi O O OCO 1^ t^NO to to 'T 

rOfOPCPOfO<N»r)<N»r4(N)nnCICICN|(v)(«,tHHlHIHllHlHt-<Ht 


1 
1 


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CNl t^nO 00 O M •<tNO 00 O M ■^nO 00 O <^ iS-nO 00 O " tJ-nO 00 
HiHllHi-<i-lCN|MWMMfO<*5C«5«5<*>'<^'J''*'i-'*to 



REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



93 



o 
< 
a 





g 


M VO 


to to ooo •* 


M 00 too t^OO 1- O ^ O>00 0> to CO 




fO fO 


M W HI CI CO 

O CNOO r^o 

CO CI CI CI CI 


too 00 O HI 
to Tf CO CO d 

d d d d d 


coo Ov M ■'t <^ O 'too 
HI O On 0>00 t^ t^O to 




» 


r- 


©"■"J-coOOcoOhici 


'too O vocovOM HI 




M M 


M HI M CI CO'^OOO O M 

0<00 t^O to •* CO CO <M 

COCICICICICICICICHCI 


coo 00 d •5)- t^ too 
M O C?N OnoO t^ f^O to 




r- 


ri vo 


too O 00 to 


CO O to t^OO 


O O d O M d t^O 




" O 


Q O HI HI N 

8 o>oo i^o 

CO CI CI CI CI 


Tj-O t^ o> o 
to -^ CO d d 
d d d d CI 


CO vooo M -"t r^ O CO t^ 
HI O On OnOO t^ t^O to 

ddHlHIHIMMHIHl 






CO M 


HI to CO HI 


00 toHi co^todoo d x^oo r^ CO d 




O 


8 o^co f^o 

CO CI CI CI C4 


CO to t^ O- O 

VO ■* CO d d 

d d d d d 


d to r>. HI coo On CO t^ 
HI O On OnOO t^O O to 

ddHIHIMHIHiHiHI 




i-^ 


rO>0 


too 00 O 


■* t^oo O 


OOO tJ-OncOCI coO t~- 






a, o> O HI 

OOO 00 l^O 
CI d CI CI c< 


CO too 00 
to rl- CO d CI 
d d d d CI 


d Tt t^ coo Oi coo 
M On OnCO t^O O to 




(^ 


1^ M 


O CI to CO HI 


O O CO '^ to 


t^-^O toOoo r^co 






C\ Ov O^ w 

ooo t^ t^o 


CO •^O 00 o 

VO T)- CO d HI 

d d d d d 


HI -rt-f^O cOtoOdO 
HI O On CnOO t^O O to 

ddHlHIHIHIHlMM 




i^ 


C) VO 


to l^ O O^'O 


VO d 00 O O 


CO O t^ CI VO coo d 




OCO CO CO Ov Ov O 
w OOO r^O vO 
fO fO <^ N (S M M 


d •* lOOO O 
VO -* CO d HI 

d d d d d 


M Tj-O O d vooo d O 
HI O On OnoO f^O O VO 

ddHlHIHIHIHCHIHI 




r- 


r^ H» 


HI CO to CO CI 


OO ■* voo 


O I^ cooo d O CO On to 


3 


CO 00 00 00 00 0\ 
•-• O O\00 t^O >o 
ro fO *N c* M CI CI 


d CO to r^oo 

to *i- CO d HI 

d d d d d 


O coo On d toOO HI to 
HI O OnOO 00 «^o O to 

ddlHHIHIHIIHHIHl 


"J 


t^ 


MvOvOOO O O^l^ios^QNtH CI 


't CO On CO On r^OO to d 


1 


CO CO 


t^ r^oo CO O HI CO •* t^oo 
Ovoo r^o to to Tf CO CI HI 

dCICICICICICICICICI 


O COVOOnw 'tX^HI to 

HI o Onoo 00 r^o O to 


n 


O 


O e^ 


HI POO ^ CO 


O to r^ t^ 


O O'O On 't CO to d O^ 


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CO ro 


t^ r^ r^oo O^ HI CO ^O t^ 
O<00 r^O to to ■* CO CI HI 

dCICICICICICICICICI 


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HI O OnQO 00 t^O O to 




s 


i-t vo 00 O CI o^ O-O lO O CO CO 


r^vocivoOOdt^to 




l^vO vO vO t^ r^OO ci Tfo I^ 
i-c O O>00 r^MD lO lO •* C-) CI w 
COCONCICICICICICICICICI 


On d VOOO HI Th t^ O It 
O O OnOO 00 t^O O to 




i 


VO w 


d ^ t^ to •* 


CO O J^OO O 


■d CI OnOOOOO tow 




CO CO 


O O O t^OO O CI CO to t^ 
O^CO c~-0 to to Tt CO d HI 

ddddddddCid 


On d Ttoo O coo O -t 
O O OnOO OO I-~0 O lO 




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0\ to CO coo 


00 CJnO t^ CO CO t d o 




vO >0 <0>0 O t^OO 
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CO CO CI « CI d CI 


O M CO too CO H. rf r^ O coo O CO 
Tj- Tj- CO CI HI O O O^00 00 t^O O to 




s 


vO w 


CI to t^ VO VO 


TfHI 0>OvCO"a--<tHI d O O-OOO M 




lO lO lo lo too I^ O^ i-i CI '^vo CO H-i ^ t^ covO O CO 
M o Ovoo r^vo iO'«4-^coci M O ooo 00 t^o lo lo 

COCOCICICIC4CIClClC|CICICICI»-IMMI-ttHMM 




<: 


H^ vD 00 O CI O 


t^ to rf CN 


HI O 00 OnO to t^ -^ l^ 




VO ■^ Tf lo lOvO t^ O^ O CI T^ loOO M coo O CO lo O^ CI 
tH o OOO t^\o to'^-^coci M o O o>oo t^ r^vo lo lo 

COCOCiWCICICICIClClCICICICIl-IMtHWWMM 






t^ 1-1 


d o 00 too 


VO CO O O •^ 


r^O t rt d d CO O CO 




M O 

CO CO 


■*•*•* too CO d "J- VO I-~ O coo O d to O- d 
ooo r^o lo-^-^cod HI o O ooo t^ r^o to to 




3 


« t^ 


00 HI CO O d 


O t^O to 


t CO O Onoo O t^ 




^ CO CO '^ ^ LOO 00 O HI CO lo 
HI o o^oo r^o to rt- CO CO CI H< 

COCICICICICICICICIMCICI 


r^ Q coo 00 HI vooo d 
O Onoo t^ t^o to to 



94 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 







g 


O W-) u-)nO 00io0»O<^iHTf POO O i'^ <^ O M O Tf 




t^\0 O O r>-oo 00 O »-< fO »oo 00 POO 0\ <N lOOO c* 
c* i-t O OOO r^O ^o^o-^fO^NMMO O^oo CO r^\o vO 




2 


*•* O <N loii^OO OOOOO O O <^0 MOOt^t^roO 




O vO O O O t^OO O hH (N -*tO 00 O <N \0 OO M ■^00 c< 
<N 1-H O OOO t^O uoio'^row »-• i-t O 0*00 00 t^sO O 
fOrOfOfNtNC*<N(N*NCSCi«WW(NMMI-<MMW 




1 


m t^vo i^O iriMvo ^-^lo looo fo t^ fO fO fO O^oo 




O lo lo \ri\0 r-r^O^O « t1-v)i>.0\m unoO m tJ- t-* w 
(N M ooo r^vO ii-)io'^fO<N M O O O^oo 00 r-'O O 

COfOrOr<M01WC»CieNCl<N(NCSWWtHHlMMM 




r- 


O (s M POO »00 t^<N O^O M O POO^^oO 0^0»0^ 




O lo lo m loo t^oo O »-' -^ ID r^ o M looo O ^ r^ m 
<N HH o O^oo r^O lOiOTj-coM M O O^oo 00 r^O O 

C0«OfO«<NC4<M<S<N01C»<N«W<Nl-il-(lHI-(MM 




? 


u-> r-.\o 0\M io<s r>».ioir>t^i>.00 OO »i^O h O 




VO -^ ^ ■^ lOO O OO Ov i-t fO ■^O O^w lOt^O fOt^M 
M M OOO r^O lOTfrfPOW M O O O^OO OO t^O O 

fOPOPO<N<N<NC»<NMCiC*W<N«WI-tMI-t>HIHIH 


i 


§ 


POiN -^t^iOMOO POO M <^ rot^M r>.POM POt^r^ 


p. 

"3 


»o -"t -^ "^ Tf loo t^ o M fo ^o 00 M Tt t^ o coo O 

<N i-i <:>00 i^O iOThTfro<N M O O OOO OO »^o o 

fOPOCOC^C^C^C^<^^<^WC*C*CSr**HlHMIHI-IM 


< 


■2 


lOOr^Ovw OO ^ C^O O 00 O ro t^ ro O *^00 ^ fO 




TfrorOPO-*1*»JOiOt^OO O <^< pO lOOO O ^O O «^ O O 

<N M o^oo t^o vo^-^focj M o o <:>oo t^ t^o o 

rOPOPO<>*MMWC*<NCI0ICSC*MC<wmiHl-lMI-4 




S 


O rffO^ot^O ^^ ■^m cn ^Tj-O^coO^TtcO'^O O^ 




Tf po ro CO PO '^ »0 t^OO O '^ PO lO r^ O POO O <S VO 0^ 

<N M o o\oo t^O lOrj-Tffoc* M o O ooo r^ r^O lo 

POPOPOC^f^'Nri(NCSC^esC*D(N<NI-IMWMIHIH 




M 


O O OO POiH i^ioOoOoO lOOO O O»O00v> 




fOPO<N POPO-^-^OOO CNM POi^^t^Q POOOO W lOO^ 
<N M O O^OO ^N-O lO-^POPO^N (1 o O O-oo t^ r^vo lO 

POPOPOC^O*^<^<^<N<^nC^M<NMMWMMMM 




5 


M lo Tt lo OO POOO PO^IOIOM t^« t^tOt^POM 




rOP^ M <N (N PO-^O t^OvM cj Tj-r^OPOmoo M loO 
M M O ooo r>.0 lOTfPOPOW •-' O O ooo t^ t^O lO 

POPOPOC^f^W<Nr)MM<S<S«CNMlH(H(-i»HtHM 




« 


r^O O ^POOiOM Ot-» O MOO POOO po « po O t^ 




« c< M n <s popo 1^*^00 tH <^ Tj-o 0« u-)oo M ^00 
w w o OOO r^o lOTfpOPOM M O O OOO t^ r-*o m 

POPOPO<NC^MCS<S<S«<NC*W<N)-iMI-il-IMtHM 

























































REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



95 



3 
< 


I 


1 

vO t^ M ro r^ t^ 1^00 VO fOOO 10 •"too >- C> "1 


fO <N M OnOO t^sO lO-^t^Of^*^ >-' 0*00 t^ t>-vO 


g 


M t^OvrOW loO t-)" to •*0vl^''0t^0>0 


MOOOO<■^'^'-^lOt^C^O'■^•^OC^t^^ irjco m "i 
00 M M OvOO r^-O lotw^ivjtN " 0- O^CO t- ;^vO 


s 


t^ fO "OOO t^MOCO t^l^O t^t^O -trOi-i fOt^rO 


00000"'M<^ "^^ CO >- fOO O* N VOCO M 10 
ro <N M 000 r^vO lOTfr^fO'^' '-' O O O^CO I^ t^^O 


r^ 


ro^ 00 f^ fOO 'i-co^N loc^ c<vo « o^r^o*^ O 


OO^C^OO^-^•-'fO -^OO CO OvM fv^tOOM Tj-t^'-' ^O 
CO '-' OCO r^O io«i-rOf^ ^i '-' O O O^CO r^ t^vo ) 


t 


Ov w to 10 OvOO <N r^ O^OO t^wOO O>o I^lrirO'tO-t^ 


O^O^O^O^OvO i-< *N rnior^OvO <^ tooo t-» Tf t^ O ■t 

<N >-i OvOO 00 1^0 torfro^ <^ •-• O 0^0*0^t^ r^O 


» 


t t^OO f^rOt^fO'^-^'^ I^-^TfO--*" Ov" >^<^ 


0-00 CO O* O* IN to vo t^oo M r< rfco ph c^ t^ O ■* 
IN >- O>00 OOl^O>OT)-ro<N<NwOO 0^00 t^ t^vO 

COfOfO<NflNr<CN(NMCS«<NC)t-lWMM)-ll-ll-l 


1 


r<5 ■* lO 0> Ov fOOO 000 iNOOlOKt^-lOr^HiO 


O^ 00 00 00 00 O^ 1-1 fO-"f>OCO <N TtoO fOO <-o 
M « O^oo 1^ t^O to'q-fOiN ri i-H O^OO r^ r-»0 


s 

w 


10 O* 0> •* <r)00 •5t-oo >^ ■* r^o *o M t^cotH toi^»o 


00 t^ r^oO 00 O* O* M N -t-O t^ 0> 11 -rj- r^ rovo Ov to 
<N p- O>00 l^-O >O>OTJ-i~0<N I-H 1-1 O^OO t^<5 


a 


M ro -*vO OvO^fOOvroO fOt^ fOOO t«5 O 00 0> fO M 


00 t^ t^ f-- t^oo O^ f^ •"l-vO r>-o<iH fjr^O n ioo>^0 
M w 000 t^vO vOiO'*t'>Mi-i>-.OOv 000 t-»>0 VO 


M 


t^O " •*<~oO'>oO>t^vO Ovi^O too lO'-i-ioOcO 


t>. r^ t^ t-. t^oo 00 1-1 fO invO 00 M f<^r^O^<N \r> 0^ <•! 

N 1-1 O>00 t^O vOVO-^tOINI-lMO O>00 00 t^vO 
fOrO*O^^^^^^^^^^^WtHMMMMM 




z 




































« •to 00 f^ -"f vO 00 r< -r-O 00 « •■tOOO fi •^'O <x> 
m w w »H M C4 M c^ Ci M r0<^0<0f0f0tt^ttt0 



96 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



■z B-3 






^•s 



-^ .2 J=; 

<< (U 3 

< C « 

D 8 S 

-< c S 



3 O ,'^ 



73 .2 m 



o — > ~ 



. E 



i; H 





a 

1 
< 

a 
1 


^ 


OiOOOO 


000U30 


OU9OOI0 


ia>oi0>0i0 


OOioiao 






mo^^•»(^^ 


Ot^lrt COO 


++I 


—•e^ I" to 00 
1 1 1 1 1 




g 


ooooo 


OOUiOUJ 


OiOiOUSO 


OOOUJO 


ioo><»ia>o 






w w -^ "^ -^ 


or-iocoM 

++ 


Mcouj^oo 
It 1 1 1 


OMM'^O 

77777 




>o 


ujioiooo 


U^ U) ou^ u? 


OiOOiOO 


U50000 


U50iOU5>0 


•ai 




+ + 


— MiOI^O 

1 1 1 1 7 


77777 


Oc^«i«r^ 
1 1 1 1 1 


O 


o 


OOOOirs 


oo©«o 

1 1 1 77 


us lO u3 lA lO 

O 00 O M Tl" 

77777 


CM CvJCOCOCO 

1 II 1 1 


•OOOOO 

7TT77 


"j-! 


o> 


OOOOO 


tneeuso 


U5U5U500 


©OOiO© 


irjooioo 

oc = cs roo 

77777 


s 


+++I 1 


t^Oi>»'>J' t» 

1 7777 


1 1 1 1 1 


T77T7 


UJ 


00 


•nmtnoiA 


0>0©ifliO 


OOOOO 


OOU5CIO 


omooio 


a 

a, 
\ 


mONiooo 
+ +I 1 1 


.— • « to r^ o 

7777? 


N e-4 C-l <M C-3 

Mill 


1 1 1 1 1 


<N MO CO 00 

■>»• -v •* '»• -r 
1 1 1 1 1 


t- 


OOOOU3 


OOOOO 


OOiOOO 


©U50U50 


USiOOOO 


+ 1 1 7T 


U5 oo O gl -J- 

777 V 7 


t~.cn — M>« 

C^ C-l fO CO c^ 

Mill 


1 1 1 II 


U5t~CT>OC-> 
•tj. ^ -^ lOO 

1 1 1 1 1 


s 
•S 
3 


o 


ooiaoia 


OirtOOO 


hAiAOOiA 


ou5«n©o 


lOiOiOU) o 


1 1 T7T 


O C^l >« t^ o> 
1 1 1 1 1 


*- r^«0 ooo» 
c^ fc fo CO n 

II 1 II 


1 1 1 II 


oir^-o-ior^ 
f 1 1 1 1 


5 


lO 


oooou» 


OlftOOO 


OWOifliO 


OOOOO 


OOOOO 


C 

a 


c^ CO o> — eo 

77T77 


1 1 1 1 1 


r- as c^^ f^uo 

1 1 1 1 1 


t- oJOfoio 
■vrtotam 

1 1 1 1 1 


CO 00 OS -^c^ 
O OO CO CO 

MM! 


(O 


•V 


lOUJlOOU) 


lAOujoia 


OOOOO 


U) O tOkO o 


OOOOO 


s 


a>ev)>oooo 
1 1 1 1 1 


M :0 OOOC^ 

1 1 1 1 1 


■»»• -^ TT iO »0 

1 1 1 1 1 


lo irt o lo ;o 

1 1 1 1 1 


CO o CO r^ 00 
cocoOcOO 

Mill 


t 


n 


oujiflOm 


U)^ OO^ 


inifiifiifiiri 


OOOOO 


OOOOO 




1 1 1 1 1 


^i- -IS" -^r lO »o 
1 1 t 1 i 


U5 lO l« U^ O 

II 1 1 1 


ro kO r^ Oi -H 

O -O CO CO t- 

1 1 1 1 1 


IM "T o r>-o 
t^t^r^t^ OO 

II II 1 


1 


N 


OOUSOO 

O •^^* o c>j 
•«j< ^ -^ lO *r3 

Mill 


U? iC '<0 CO CO 

1 1 1 1 1 


O O*^ U5 »c 

r~ C3 O (M •» 

II 1 1 1 


0»0«OiO O 

r- 05 o — • fo 

1 1 1 1 1 


OOOOO 

^ O O CO O 

OOOOQCOOO 

Mill 


(J 

1 


- 


OiflOOO 
r»o«iftf^ 

1 1 1 1 1 


ooooo 

0(M ■» r- a: 

1 1 1 1 1 


omiooio 
— M ■«• cc r- 

1 M 1 1 


o>o ooo 

— IM ■» 1/^ CO 

OS O! Cs cs Oi 

1 1 1 1 1 


OOOOO 

03^000 

1 1 777 


2 
U 

« 
a. 


^ 
§ 

s 




M«< coceo 




OOOQOOOO 9) 





REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



97 



^ 



2; 

O 

< 
< 

o 

W 



tOU5iOOOOO^^U30iOOO>OUdOOU^U3040iOU3Ud 



U50irtU5000»OW3WDOUDO»OOiOOOOOOU5W50iO 



OOOOiO»00»000«50U30»OOOOU5irtOOU3M5»0 

oooosa>o5Qooooot*t>-t^r^«oco^Dco»o»o»oiow3'^'^'* 



iOOOOOOOU5*flOU3*00»00»«»OOU300*0000 

tQtQiAOoooioooudOOoudOusiou^iOiatQtooo 



OOU)OOOu)U3000UMaOOUdOiCOU90000u9 









OOOiOOOOOU^Oi/)^tCOudiOU90UdOO»CUMOO 

r-oooofT'Or^-t' — ooiCJc — Ci<0'**'CJOooso^c^OQO^• 
^*^»^•^o<;oo*o*o»0'v^'V9•c*^cocQccccc^cMO^c^^c^^N^M 



oooudicu^i/dooo^ooooooooooiot^duso 

iCkOtOOU3iOOOOOOOiOiOOOOu)OOkOU3U30kO 

lO'fOrN.fO — ooiceoor^«MOooO'<*'C^ooo<o^©»^0 









98 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



^ 



z 

o 

< 
< 

a 

< 

o 



OOOOOOirtOOOOOiCOO*0*OOiCiOOOOOO 



55 



■^ fO fO CJ C^ ( 



I — • — • ^ -^ o < 



• OCT^C3OOC>00000C'00Q0 



^_ - 



i«,-*^oooocftoia>c'sccccooc 






■^ccco coc^ c 



i,«,_,.^oooooi05a3Cioooooooociot-r-. 



»OIOOU500*0*0000»CiOO*00»0«500U5iO*0*OkO 

»— tf^coojeocooiopoot^-r'— 'OscO'f'— '0^^»0'^^ooc'^■-f 



OOiOO»CU30»0000»OiOO»00»0000»f5»0»0»OtO 



leo— *-^^OOOcr»cr)<; 



3O0000OO0O0t^t*t~^t^ 






»c^c^-H-^i— iOOOOoiocsoooooooooor^r>-r*t 



C0C0C^CS-^^^'-'OOOO010SC50000000000t*t>-t^t^t^«0 



OOOU3U3U3OOOOOU3U)Oi0OOu?OOOU5OU5O 



) 00 CO t-* t* t* r 



o>w5— 'Oo^»-"f^rr*-»oo"^f^©^*»OP^ooocOTt«^-osr^»/5fo 
e^c^c^-N-^»-i00oo>dCiOoooooooot^r^i~*i^ocCK©to 



OU5O^u)u^OOOOOu^u?O(0ifdOU9Ul>OOiAOOO 

CDCIOIIO — OOiCC^JOOCCrOOt^iOC^OOOlOCO^-OltOUJM'- 
C^C^— *^N-NOOOO>Oi0505QOCOOOOOt*t»r-t^«DOCO<C>CO 



OOOOOOOU5»OiCOOiOO»OOW5»COO»0»00»ft*0 

M c^ -N --00 ocs Oi a>ci ooooc ' ' ' ~ 



?0O00t^t>-t^t^cOCOtO':OiD»O 



i/)hCOiOOOtAU^u^u?u^OO»OOOu?00000000 
C^^N_.OOO0»0>C5O000000t^t*l^r^t^Ot0eo<0«0*0W5 



OOtOOOO»CtO>OiOOiCtOOtOOO»OOOtOO«Ou^^ 

ooco^cc>c500coOt^w?c^»0)t^'^csor*«5e7QOir^tfDco 
«^oooo'Sa>^oooooot>-r-r*r*r*co«o<oo»o»o»o>o 



■s.a 






REFRIGERANTS— TABLES 



99 






*OW50000»000»n*COOOiOOw50iOOOO»Oi 



'Ot00»0»0-*"'^'»<c 



jC^-^^—t^OOOOC 









5lOlC"^f-^■-f^ocofo^^^|^^'^^ 



.^^^oodooosos 






D O O O O^ OS 






OOirtOOiOW^O»ftiO»OU50000U50U500»flOO*0 



u^ooou^ot'dooooo^udoooudot'dtctdooo 



1010*0'^**COCOCOC 



IC^C^— *'— — OOOOCidCsOiC 






OOOU^UdO^U^OOOtOUdOUdOOOtOOOlOOOU) 

-?"O^C^OOtO'-'OOU5MClCC>CO'-«OOCOeO'— 'OOcO^y-HOOOb- 






I OS O OO 00 00 



OOOOOO»0»ftOOO*rtOCiW5O»0OO«5U5»«OOU5 

oco<Noo'<t' — ^*'f'-'00«ocso^-M'C^'?>'^^)*^^©t^*0'^?^ 

*0'^"<J'r5«'^0C^C->C^^-H-^-^OOO0J0>i^0>OT00000000 









100 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XL.— SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN WATER AT ATMOSPHERIC 

PRESSURE 



1 Vol. Water dis- 


t^ 


fa 


fa 


fa" 


fa' 


solves Vols. Gas. 




ca 




Q 






a 


o\ 


O 


o 


o 




n 


ro 




NO 


i^ 


Air 


0.0247 


0.0224 


0.0195 


0.0179 


0.0171 


Ammonia 


1049.6 


941.9 


812.8 


727.2 


654.0 


Carbon Dioxide 


1.7987 


1.5126 


1.1847 


1.0020 


0.9014 


Sulphur Dioxide 


79.789 


69.828 


56.647 


47.276 


39.374 


Marsh Gas 


0.0545 


0.0499 


0.0437 


0.0391 


0.0350 


Nitrogen 


0.0204 


0,0184 


0.0161 


0.0148 


0.0140 


Hydrogen 


0.0193 


0.0193 


0.0191 


0.0193 


0.0193 


Oxygen 


0.049 


0.0372 


0.0325 


0.0279 


0.0284 



TABLE 


XLI.— COMPRESSIBILITY OF 


LIQUIDS.* 


Temperature 
Degrees F. 


Ammonia 


Sulphur 
Dioxide 


Carbon 
Dioxide 


32 
59 
77 


0.000111 
0.000130 
0.000148 


0.000118 
0.000134 
0.000149 


0.000824 
0.002259 
0.008400 



•Kalte Industrie, March, 1915. 



CHAPTER V 

HEAT TRANSFER 

Heat Transmission. — Heat is transmitted through a sub- 
stance when there is a temperature difference, and is caused by 
the natural tendency of heat toward a temperature equiHbrium. 
The heat flow is always from a region of higher temperature 
to a region of lower temperature, and may occur in three 
ways: Conduction, radiation and convection. 

The rate of heat transfer from one region to another, de- 
pends on the amount of surface, the difference in temperature 
and the material through which the flow^ occurs. The rate 
of transfer through various materials has been determined 
experimentally by many scientists, the most reliable of which 
are given in Table XLH as compiled by the Bureau of Stan- 
dards. 

From this table it will be noted that a coefhcient "C" is 
given, which is the overall transmission of heat based on a 
unit of time, surface, thickness and temperature difference 
or B.t.u. per hour per square foot per inch of thickness per 
degree F. As the heat transfer is practically proportional to 
the thickness, the fundamental law can be expressed in a very 
simple formula : 

"C" 

(1) Transmission in B.t.u./Hr. = X average sq. ft. X 

thickness 
temperature difference 

From the foregoing it will be noted, that if the temperature 
and area of a transmitting surface are known and held con- 
stant, the heat transfer depends upon conduction, radiation 
and convection. 

101 



102 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XEII. INTERNAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF VARIOUS 

MATERIALS (c)* 



Material 



Description 



B.t.u. perj 
24 hours , 



4 2 



Air Cell, 1 inch. . 

Aluminum 

Ammonia Vapor. 
Aqua Ammonia . 
Asbestos Mill Bd 

Asbestos Paper . . 



110 
12.0 



Air Ideal air space 

Air Cell, Vi inch. . . Asbestos paper and air 

spaces . 

Asbestos paper and air 

spaces 

Cast 24.000 

32°F 3.19 

64° F 75.90 

Pressed asbestos — not very 

flexible .•••.■■■ 20.00 

Asbestos and organic bind- 
er 12. 

Asbestos Wood Asbestos and cement 65 . 

Balsa Wood Very light and soft— across 

grain 8.4 

EsS.^^^^^::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::;|.ooo 

Brick Heavy 120 

Brick Light, dry »4 

Brine Salt ,• • ■ v ' L' ' " ^'^ 

Cabot's Quilt Eel grass enclosed in bur- _ 

lap ' ■ ' 

Calorax Fluffy finely divided min- 
eral matter 5.3 

Celite Infusorial earth powder. . . 7.4 

Cement Neat Portland, dry 150.0 

Charcoal Powdered 10.0 

Charcoal Flakes 14-6 

Cinders Anthracite, dry 20. J 



Concrete 



125.0 



B.t.u. per 
hour 



Concrete Of fine gravel 109.0 

Concrete Of slag 50.0 

Concrete Of granulated cork ;„„„„ 

Copper 50.000 

Cork '".'.'. Granulated K-3/ 16 inch.. 8.1 

Cork Regranulate X/Xd-Ys inch. 8.0 

CorklDoard No artificial binder — low 

density o- ' 

Corkboard No artificial binder— high 

density ' -^ 

Cotton Wool Loosely packed 7.0 

Cypress Across grain lo.O 

Fibrofelt Felted vegetable fibers ... 7.9 

Fire Felt Roll Asbestos sheet coated with 

cement 15.0 

Fire Felt Sheet Soft, flexible asbestos sheet 14.0 

FlaxHnum Felted vegetable fibers ... 7.9 

Fullers Earth Argillaceous powder 17.0 

Glass 24.0 

Glass 178.0 

Granite 600 

Granulated Cork . . About 3/16 inch 7.5 

Gravel Dry, coarse 62 .0 

Gravel Dry. fine 39.0 

Ground Cork ' • i 

Gvpsum Plaster ^f" 

Hair Felt "^ ■ ^ 

Hard Maple Across grain 27.0 

Ice 408 

Infusorial Earth. . . Natural blocks 14.0 

Insulex Asbestos and plaster 

blocks— porous. ..... . 22.0 

Insulite Pressed wool pulp— rigid. . 7.1 

Iron Cast 7 740 

Iron Wrought 11.600 

Kapok Imp. vegetable fiber — 

loosely packed . 5.7 

Keystone Hair Hair felt confined with 

building paper 6.5 

Limestone Close grain 368 

Limestone Hard 214. u 



Lb. per 
cu. ft. 



0. 175 

458 

500 

1000 000 

0. 133 

3.160 



0.08 

8.80 

8.80 
.62 

0.21 
56.50 



0.830 61.00 



0.500 31.0 
3.700 123.0 



350 

12.700 

625.000 

5 000 
3 . 500 
1.130 

0.321 

221 
0.308 

6 250 
0.417 
0.613 
0.845 
5 200 
4.540 
2.080 
1.790 

2083 . 000 
0.337 
0.333 

279 

0.308 
0.292 
0.666 
0.329 

0.625 
0.583 
0.329 
0.708 
5.160 
7.420 

25.000 
0.313 
2.582 
1.630 
0.294 
2.250 
246 
1.125 

17.000 
0.583 

0.916 

0.296 

321.500 

483.000 

0.238 

0.271 

15.300 

9.330 



7.5 

250' " 

131. 

115. 

73.4 

16.0 

4 

10.6 

170. 

11.8 

15.0 

40.0 

136.0 

124.0 

94.5 

7.5 

556.0 

5.3 

10 

6.9 



29.0 
11.3 

43.0 

26.0 

11.3 

33.0 
150.0 
185.0 
166.0 
8.1 
115.0 

91.25 
9.4 

44.0 
57.4 
43.0 

29.0 

11 .9 

450.0 

485.0 

0.88 

19.0 
185.0 
159.0 



'From "Principles of Refrigeration," Nickerson & Collins Co., Chicago. 



HEAT TRANSFER 



103 



TABLE XLII. — INTERNAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF VARIOUS 
MATERIALS (c) — (CONTINUED)* 



Material 



Description 



B.t.u. per 
24 hours 



B.t.u. per 
hour 



Lb. per 
cu. ft. 





.Soft 


100.0 


4.167 


113 


Linofelt 


. Vegetable fiber confined 






with paper 


7.2 


0.300 


11.3 


Lithboard 


. Mineral wool and vegeta- 












9.1 
22.0 


0.379 
0.916 


n 5 


Mahogany 


. Across grain 


34.0 


Marble 


.Hard 


445 


18.530 


175.0 


Marble 


.Soft 


104 


4.330 


156.0 


Mineral Wool. . . . 


. Medium Packed 


6.6 


0.275 


12.5 


Mineral Wool. . . . 


. Felted in blocks 


6.9 


0.288 


18.0 


Oak 


. Across grain 


24.0 


1.000 


38.0 


Paraffin 


."Parowax," melting point 










52° C 


38.0 


1.582 


56.0 


Petroleum 


.55°F 


24.7 


1.030 


50.0 


Plaster 




132.0 


5.500 


105.0 


Plaster 


. Ordinary mixed 


90 


3.750 


83.5 


Plaster 


.Board 


73 


3.040 


75.0 


Planer Shavings. . 


.Various 


10.0 


0.417 


8.8 




. Stiff pasteboard 


11 


458 




Pumice 


.Powdered 


11.6 


0.483 


20.0 


Pure Wool 




5.9 
5.9 


0.246 
0.246 


6 9 


Pure Wool 




6.3 


Pure Wool 




6.3 

7.0 

16.0 


0.263 
0.292 
0.667 


5 


Pure Wool 




2 5 


Rice Chaff 




10 


Rock Cork 


. Mineral wool and binder — 






rigid 


8.3 


0.346 


21.0 


Rubber 


.Soft 


45 


7.875 


94.0 ' 


Rubber 


.Hard, vulc 


16.0 


0.667 


59.0 


Sand 


. River, fine, normal 


188.0 


7.830 


102.0 


Sand 


. Dried by heating 


54.0 


2.250 


95.0 


Sandstone 




265 


11.100 


138.0 


Sawdust 


.Dry 


12.0 


0.500 


13.4 


Sawdust 


.Ordinary 


25.0 


1.040 


16 


Shavings 


. Ordinary 


17.0 


0.707 


8.0 


Silicate Cotton. . . 




14.0 
18.0 


0.583 
0.750 


8 55 


Slag Wool 




15.0 


Snow on Ref . Coils 




75 
17 


3.130 
707 




Tar Roofing 




55 


Vacuum 


. Silvered vacuum jacket. . . 


0.1 


0.004 




Virginia Pine 


. Across grain 


23.0 


0.958 


34.0 


Water 


.Still, 32° F 


100 


4.166 


62.4 


White Pine 


. Across grain 


19.0 


0.791 


32.0 


Wool Felt 


. Flexible paper stock 


8.7 


0.363 


21.0 



Conduction. — Heat transfer by conduction occurs by means 
of molecular transmission due to the different intensities of ir- 
regular vibration of the molecules, causing the higher tempera- 
ture or more rapid moving molecules to strike the lower tem- 
perature or slower moving molecules and cause them to move 
at the same rate. Due to friction, adhesion, etc., the intensity 
decreases as it passes from the faster to the slower molecules. 
The interchange of heat in this way may occur between differ- 
ent parts of the same body or between two separate bodies in 
actual contact. 

When one end of a bar of iron is held in a fire the other 
end willsoon become too hot to hold in the hand. The heat 



104 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

has been tiausierred by conduction. One end of a wooden 
stick can be held in the fire without the other end becoming 
warm. In general, metals are good conductors, while lighter 
weight materials are poor conductors, so that comparative 
transmission can be made from their densities. A recent the- 
ory for the better insulating properties of substances contain- 
ing air cells, is that there is a very intense atomic resistance at 
the junction of a solid and gas, thus oftering greater retarda- 
tion to the molecular activity transfer. 

Radiation. — Radiation is the transfer of heat b} means of 
continuous and irregular ether vibrations and the transforma- 
tion, in whole or in part, of the energy of light into heat energy 
by imjjact upon tlie surface of a substance. It is an electro- 
magnetic phenomenon, in which the longest heat waves are 
about 0.042 centimeters while the shortest solar waves that can 
pass through the atmosphere are 0.00003 cm. The range of 
the radio waves is about 3 meters to 20,000 meters. When 
heat or solar radiation strikes a bod_\' it is in general partly 
reflected, partly absorbed and partly transmitted. The part 
which is transmitted is nil in case of metals, unless they are 
made into exceedingly thin almost transparent foils, it is very 
small in case of water and ice and large in case of quartz, rock 
salt, etc. Thus in most practical cases part of the radiation is 
absorbed and part of it reflected, the amount of which is smaller 
the more dull and black the surface is. In the ideal limiting 
case which is closely approached b\- lampblack, the entire 
amount of radiation is absorbed. 

The amount of heat transferred by radiation depends upon 
the character of the radiating surfaces; whether hot or cold, 
dark or light, temperature difiference, absorbing properties, etc. 

The blacker an object the more heat it will lose by radia- 
tion. Stoves and radiators intended to give out heat should 
be black. Cooking utensils, coffee urns, etc., should be bright, 
(tinned or nickeled) in order to lose as little heat as possible. 
A stove nickel plated all over will give out only about half 
as much heat as the same stove at the same temperature if 
black. A brightly tinned hot air furnace pipe may lose less 
heat than when covered with one or two layers of asbestos 
paper, as the surface of the asbestos paper radiates heat much 



HEAT TRANSFER 105 

more rapidly than the bright tin. The pipe should be black 
to prevent radiation to the inside surface of the asbestos 
paper, then the asbestos would be more effective. If asbestos 
paper of sufficient thickness is used, it will save heat, even on 
bright tin pipes. 

Further it has been found experimentally that a body as it 
is heated radiates heat waves the amount of which is equal 
to the amount absorbed. The table below gives the radiating 
and absorbing power, and the reflecting power of a few com- 
mon substances. It may be noted here that the radiating power 
is also called the emissivity, 

TABLE XLIII. — HEAT ABSORBING. RADIATING. AND REFLECTING 
POWER OF SLTBSTANCES 

' Absorbing & Reflecting 

Substances Radiating Power Power 

gl-^'^'x'^ :•:::::::;;:::: Ifo S;?S 

i;le ;;;;;;;::;::::::::::::::.::: ss .is 

Polished Cast Iron 25 -75 

Polished Wrought Iron f^ ■'' 

Polished Brass 07 .V^ 

Copper Hammered -^ -^^ 

Silver Polished Qj ZL 

According to Prevost's theory of heat exchanges a warm 
body radiates more heat to the surrounding cold bodies than 
it receives from them and thus its temperature drops, while a 
cold body also radiates heat but it radiates less than it re- 
ceives, and, therefore, its temperature rises. According to this 
theory, a body in a refrigerator placed near the ice radiates 
heat no faster than it would to a warmer body, but it receives 
less from the ice in return and, therefore, becomes colder. 

It is well established that the heat exchange by radiation 
between two bodies is given by: 

H = E (T2* — TiO X 16 X 10" 

Where H = B.t.u. per sq. ft. per hour. 

Ti & Tj = Absolute Temperatures of the two bodies in degrees F. 

E = An empirical constant called the emissivity of the surface 
considered: E = 1 for a black body. 

Radiation Between the Sun and the Earth. — The heat and 
light from the sun come to us through space in a form of wave 
motion called radiation. The atmosphere offers considerable 



106 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

obstruction to the passage of these waves. Even when the 
sky is very clear, rarely more than 65 per cent of the radiation 
penetrates to the surface of the earth, the part absorbed being 
expended in raising the temperature. The region near the 
upper limits of the atmosphere is one of intense cold. As the 
sun, having a much higher temperature than earth, radiates 
heat to the earth, so from the surface of the earth, heat is 
radiated to the much colder upper limits of the atmosphere. 

The radiation of heat from the earth is continuous both day 
and night when there are no clouds or other obstruction be- 
tween the earth and the upper atmosphere. During the day 
the amount of heat received from the sun is so much greater 
than the amount lost by radiation from the earth, that the tem- 
perature rises. After the sun sets, however, no heat is re- 
ceived to counterbalance the loss by outgoing radiation and 
the temperature falls. — (U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 1096). 

Convection. — Convection is the transfer of heat by displace- 
ment of movable media ; the heated medium moves and car- 
ries the heat energy with it. In other words heat is carried 
from one place or object to another by means of some outside 
agent, such as air or water or any moving gas or fluid. The 
hot air and hot water heating systems work on this prin- 
ciple. For example, in case of an ordinary household radia- 
tor, steam or hot water heats the radiator and it establishes 
a temperature differential between the metal and the adja- 
cent layer of air, the layer of air is heated and consequently its 
density is reduced as compared to the cooler layers of air. 
Thus the denser and cooler particles of air begin to descend 
while the warmer and less dense particles begin to rise and a 
natural upward movement of heated particles sets in. If desired, 
however, the movement of these heated particles can be ac- 
celerated and the heat transfer greatly increased by means of a 
fan or blower. In the first instance we have natural convec- 
tion and in the second forced convection. It is also clear that 
the increased heat transfer secured in the latter case is pro- 
duced by the external mechanical work supplied and here as in 
all other engineering work we pay for what we receive. 



HEAT TRANSFER 107 

The food and containers in a refrigerator are cooled mostly 
by convection. The circulating air is the medium used to trans- 
fer the heat from the food and walls of the food compart- 
ment to the ice. This process of heat transfer is continuous. 
The air in passing through the food compartment absorbs suf- 
ficient heat to increase its temperature about 10° F. 

It is well known in a general qualitative way that heat 
flow by forced convection between a metal surface and a fluid 
depends upon the following: 

l_The velocity of the fluid; the higher the velocity the higher the 

heat flow. 
2 — The temperature difference between the metal and the fluid; the 

higher this difference the higher is the heat flow. 
3 — The thermal conductivity of the fluid. 
4 Diameter of the tubes around or in which the fluid is assumed 

to flow. 
5— The density of the fluid. 
6 — The viscosity of the fluid. 
7 — The depth or length of the device measured along the path 

in which the fluid flows. 
8 — The temperature difference between fluid and body. 
9 — The character of the surface. 

The values given in Table XLIV are for inside surface 
only, and are represented by the symbol K. Due to the more 
exposed outside surface and rapid movement of air, the coeffi- 
cient for this is much larger, generally 23^2 to 3 times, so that 
K2 can be used as 3 times K. 

TABLE XLIV. COEFFICIENTS OF RADIATION AND CONVECTION IN 

B.T.U. PER HR. PER » F. SQ. FT. 

University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station. 

Brick Wall 1.40 Glass 2.00 

Concrete 1.30 Tile plastered on both sides. . 1.10 

Wood 1.40 Asbestos board 1.60 

Corkboard 1.25 Sheet asbestos 1.40 

Magnesia board 1.45 Roofing 1-25 

Comparison of Heat Insulators. — Table XLV gives a com- 
parative idea of the thermal conductivity of insulators used in 
household cabinets. Air which cannot circulate and carry heat 
in that way (by convection) is one of the best heat insulators 



108 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



to be found. Cotton, wool, feathers, cork, etc., are good in- 
sulators because they contain a large amount of air in the 
cells or in the spaces between the fibers. Clothing keeps in the 
heat of the body chiefly because it contains air between the lay- 

TABLE XLV. COMPARISON OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF HEAT 

INSULATING MATERIALS USED FOR INSULATING HOUSE- 
HOLD REFRIGERATORS 

Relative Thermal 
Material Conductivity 

Vacuum jacket silvered 1 

Mineral wool (medium packed) 66 

Corkboard (low density) 67 

Ground cork (ordinary) 71 

Vegetable fibre (Linofelt) 12 

Granulated cork (about 3/16 inch) 75 

Eel grass (enclosed in burlap) 11 

Balsa wood (medium weight) 92 

Planer shavings ~ 100 

White pine (across grain) 190 

Oak (across grain) 240 

ers and in the meshes of the cloth. Wlien the enclosed warm air 
is displaced and is replaced by colder air, as is the case in 
windy weather, the clothing no longer keeps one so warm. 




FIG. 4.— SHOWING RADIATION AND CONVECTION LOSSES. 



If the clothing is close-fitting, there is less room for an air layer 

between the layers of the clothes and therefore, it is less warm. 

To keep warm in cold, windy weather, the clothing should 

consists of loosely fitting garments, preferably of wool, with 



HEAT TRANSFER 



109 



some outside wrap which is nearly windproof, such as a very- 
close woven cloth, or even leather or rubber. A fur coat is 
very much warmer if the fur is on the inside, where the wind 
cannot disturb the air which is held among the hairs. 

Determination of Heat Loss Through a Wall or Refrig- 
erator. — As shown in the previous paragraphs, heat is trans- 
mitted through a substance from higher regions to a lower re- 
gion by means of conduction, radiation, and convection. Re- 
ferring to Fig. 4 it can readily be seen that the drop from T^ to 
T, is radiation and convection losses from the outer surface, 




13 "Brick W^Li- 
2 Cem emt- 
2 "Cork Bo>\rd 
2" 
— 2 PL-Asrcf? 



FIG. 5.— STANDARD WALL. 

T2-T3 the losses or transmission by conduction through the 
material, and T3-T4 convection and radiation from the cold air 
in the box to the inner surface. The convection and radia- 
tion drop is caused by a very thin layer or surface film sur- 
rounding each surface. 

Fig. 5 shows a standard wall as used in many cold storage 
buildings and ice storages. .The unit transmission through 
the combination wall can very easily be determnied from the 
followinsr formula : 



B.t.u./ sq. ft./hr./°MD = 



1 



1 X X X 1 

Ki C . Ci C2 Ca 



110 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



X being the thickness of the material, C the unit coeffi- 
cient for each material as in Table XLII, K^ and K^ surface 
coefficients for the inner and outer surfaces respectively. 

1 

Substituting— B.t.u./sq.ft./hr./°MD=: 

1 13 4 1 1 

1.10 5 .279 6.25 4.2 



If this value is now used as the factor 



"C" 



in the 



thickness 

fundamental formula (1) given on page 101 the total heat leak- 
age through the walls can be obtained. It has been found 
that the resistance to heat flow at the surface, due to radia- 




POf?CEL/^IN LiNINQ 



FIG. 6.— CROSS SECTION OF A STANDARD ICE BOX. 

tion and convection is very small in comparison to internal 
thermal conductivity of the material itself, so that these two 
factors -can be omitted, particularly when good insulation of 
normal thickness is used. This can be demonstrated by the 
omission of the factors K^ and Kg in the above formula result- 
ing in a final value of .0585 instead of .0548 or 6^% greater. 

Referring to Fig. 6, a cross section of a standard ice box is 
given. Assuming this to be a 9 cu. ft. refrigerator the outside 
surface w^ould be 54 sq. ft. and the inside surface 34.5 sq. ft. 
or an average of 44.25 sq. ft. 

The unit heat transmission would be 



= .1225 B.t.u./sq. ft./°MD/ hr. 



.279 



HEAT TRANSFER 111 

"C" 

Substituting in our fundamental formula for ^^.^^^^^^^ 

B.t.u./hr. = .1225 x 44.25 x V = 5.42 

Actual tests on this box gave 5.75. 

For practical results to obtain the compressor load, 50% 
should be added for opening door, warm edibles, making ice, 
etc. 

Insulation. — The most important factors entering into the 
choice of an insulator are as follows : 

1. Thermal conductivity. 

2. Odorless and sanitary. 

3. Compact. 

4. Vermin and fire resistant. 

5. Not easy to disintegrate or settle. 

6. Durable in service. 

7. Reasonable in cost. 

8. Structurally strong and easy to ship, handle, and install. 

9. Conform to variation on surface of lining. 

1. Thermal Conductivity. — The best insulator that could 
possibly be found would be one that was an absolute non-con- 
ductor of heat. Since this has not been discovered as yet we 
must content ourselves with insulation which are good non- 
conductors, or in other words, transmit heat at a very slow 
rate. As heat loss through an insulated wall is a continuous 
process, it must be the aim to reduce this loss to a minimum 
by increasing the thickness to a maximum commensurate with 
desired results. This is a question of first or initial cost. 

2. Odorless and Sanitary.- — Since ordinary food products 
are stored in the refrigerator, it is evident that the insulation 
should be absolutely free from mould, rot, or odor and per- 
fectly sanitary. The interior surfaces shoidd be so constructed 
that they can be washed with water without effecting the in- 
sulation. 

3. Compactness. — An insulation in order to be favorably 
considered must be compact or occupy a small amount of space 
for the equivalent heat loss prevention. If it can be made very 
thin, but at the same time give as good insulating value as 



112 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

another 2 to 3 times as thick, it would naturally be given pref- 
erence. 

4. Vermin and Fire Resistant. — A desirable insulation 
should be of such nature that it will exclude vermin of all 
kinds, and should lend itself to fireproof construction of build- 
ings. It should be slow burning and fire retarding and should 
not support a flame. 

5. and 6. Not Easy to Disintegrate or Settle. — The dura- 
bility of insulating materials depends upon the life of the 
materials used in their manufacture, the mode of manufacture 
and the waterproofness. 

The insulation of a refrigerator is called upon to with- 
stand constant changes of temperature and humidity. The or- 
dinary refrigerator using ice usually has a rather poor water 
insulating material to protect the insulation. The greatest 
trouble is experienced around the ice compartment where 
water vapor will condense on the outside surface of the lin- 
ing or rather between the lining and the insulation. If the 
insulation is installed very tightly against the lining, this con- 
dition is not likely to cause trouble. Moisture not only causes 
the insulation to deteriorate rapidly, losing to a large extent 
in heat insulating properties, but also may rust the lining and 
absorb food odors which will make the refrigerator very in- 
sanitary. 

The moisture problem is especially important on mechani- 
cal refrigerators where freezing temperature or temperature 
below 32° F. are maintained in part of the cabinet. In this 
case a much lower room humidity will deposit moisture on the 
lining. There are very few ice refrigerators constructed 
which are insulated in a suitable manner to be used for the 
lower temperatures as usually supplied by mechanical refrig- 
erating machines. 

7. Reasonable in Cost. — An insulation to be universally 
used depends on such factors as a reasonable initial cost of 
material, cheap installation cost, minimum of repair charges, 
as well as a minimum amount of ^pace for maximum retarda- 
tion of heat flow. 



HEAT TRANSFER 113 

8. Structurally Strong and Easy to Ship, Handle and In- 
stall. — Insulation should be compact and structurally strong 
so that it may be used in walls, ceilings, and floors of any type 
of construction. It should have sufficient strength to allow 
for shipment and for installation by ordinary workmen. These 
factors determine to a large extent, its application commer- 
cially. 

9. Conform to Variations on Surface of Lining. — Due to 
unevenness of surfaces on which insulation is to be placed it is 
essential that elasticity, to a certain extent, be embodied in the 
insulator, or otherwise there will be resultant breaks when the 
non-flexible insulation is jammed against an uneven surface. 

Air Spaces. — Many refrigerators use air spaces for insula- 
tion. Heat may be transferred across an air space by all three 
methods of heat transfer : radiation, convection and conduc- 
tion. 

A very high vacuum is necessary to appreciably lower the 
rate of heat transfer by convection. The heat transfer by con- 
vection is greater when there is a large temperature drop, as 
the air will then circulate more rapidly, carrying heat from 
one wall to the other. 

Air is a very poor conductor of heat when compared with 
the usual insulating materials used in refrigerators. The con- 
ductivity B.t.u. per day per sq. ft. per deg. F. per inch 
thickness for various materials is given as follows : 

Air, if radiation and convection could be prevented 4.2 

Mineral wool 6.6 

Corkboard 6.7 

Flaxlinum 7.9 

White pine 19.0 

Oak 24.0 

This tabulation shows that the amount of heat transferred 
across air space by conduction is relatively low. 

The amount of heat passing over an air space by radia- 
tion is very large when there is a large temperature diflferential 
between the two walls. The rate of heat transfer by radiation 
is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature 
of the surface, enclosing the air space, providing the surfaces 



114 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

are perfect radiators or absorbers. The blacker the object the 
more heat it will lose by radiation. Bright tinned or nickeled 
objects lose very little heat by radiation. The vacuum bottle 
usually has bright polished surfaces to prevent heat entering 
the walls by radiation. 

The United States Bureau of Standards gives the following 
tabulation on the heat conduction of air spaces, in which A is 
the width of the air space in inches, B is the heat conduction 
expressed in B.t.u. per square foot per degree F. per 24 hours 
for the corresponding thickness stated, and C, the heat con- 
duction expressed in B.t.u. per square foot per degree per 24 
hours per inch thickness : 

A B C 

^ 50 6.3 

% 32 8.] 

^ 26 9.8 

y2 23 11.6 

^ 22 13.6 

^ 22 16.4 

% 22 20 

1 22 22 

2 21 43 

3 21 62 

The insulating value of air sjjaces is not proportional to 
the thickness of the spaces. 

The heat loss between walls of materials such as wood, 
paper, etc., by radiation alone, is about 20 B.t.u. per day per 
square foot per degree F. for ordinary temperatures. At 
higher temperatures, the radiation loss is still larger. Air 
spaces are not good insulators on account of this radiation 
loss. This large heat loss by radiation may be greatly re- 
duced by using polished surfaces for the walls between the 
air spaces. Perhaps the best way to reduce this loss is to 
use an insulating material such as cork, which eliminates the 
heat loss by radiation almost entirely. 

One authority describes the use of a heat insulating ma- 
terial such as corkboard, as an air space insulation composed 
of an almost perfect heat radiation screen. Each air cell in the 
cork must radiate heat from one wall to another and as the 
temperature differential is small, the amount of heat trans- 
ferred by radiation is nearly negligible. 



HEAT TRANSFER 



115 



Insulating Effect of Air Spaces. — The insulating effects of 
air spaces, according to various authorities are given in Tablo. 
XLVI. The effects are given in conductivities, expressed in 
B.t.u. per square foot per twent}-four hours per degree of tem- 
perature difference for various thicknesses of air spaces. It 
will be noted that the increasing of the thickness of the air 
space above a certain amount does not proportionately de- 
crease the total conductivity. 

TABLE XLVI. INSULATING EFFECT OF AIR SPACES 



Authority 



Conductivity 

rrx • 1 B.t.u. per sq. 

Thickness ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

per Deg. Fahr. 
Temp. Diff. 



Inches 



Remarks 



Prof. L. A. Harding, 

Pennsylvania State College 

Refrigerating World 

Prof. A. C. Willard, 

Railway Age Gazette 

Nusselt 

Willard & Lichty 



to 6 
1 



39.8 
30.0 

38.2 



University of Illinois % 


42.5 


U. S. Bureau of Standards Yi 


11.0 


U. S. Bureau of Standards Ys 


50 


'A 


32 


H 


26 


V2 


23 


v» 


22 


54 


22 


H 


22 


1 


22 


2 


21 


3 


21 


U. S. Bureau of Standards 1 


4.2 


Pennsylvania State College 3 in. spaces 


5.36 


Wood & Grundhofer ^ in. each 


7.68 


3 spaces 
1 in. each 


5.28 


5.29 


4.26 



Spaces greater give no 
additional value. 
Single and double box 
test. 

Corrugated asbestos pa- 
per enclosing air space. 
Air spaces bounded by 
sheets of insulating paper. 
Air spaces not widei 
than f^ inch retard heat 
about as well as an equal 
thickness of sawdust. 
A 3 inch air space has 
nearly the same value as 
as 1 inch space. 



No heat transferred h\ 
radiation or conduction 
Three air spaces. 



Three air spaces. 



Comparison, if 3 air spaces l/i in. each = 100% 
Then 2 air spaces J4 in. each = 79% 
and 1 air space 'A in. each = 59% 

Comparison, if 3 air spaces 1^ in. each = 100% 
Then 3 air spaces 1 in. each = 88% 
and 3 air s-paces 'A in. each = 70% 

Types of Insulating Material. — As can be noted in Table 
XLII, many kinds of inaterials can be used for insulation. The 
most commonly used materials are corkboard, granulated cork, 
ground cork, mineral wool, rock cork, hair felt, kapok, lith- 
board, sawdust and shavings. 



116 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Cork.— Cork is the outer bark of a tree growing on the 
Spanish Peninsula and in Northern Africa. In its natural 
state, it is composed of a large number of minute air cells, sep- 
arated by thin walls. 

Corkboard is made by compressing pure granulated cork 
in molds and baking. The baking process improves the in- 
sulating value, first by driving ofif the sap, thus increasing the 
volume of confined air; second, by coating the surface of each 
separate granule with a thin film of the natural waterproof 
gum or rosin, which cements the whole mass together firmly. 
After the baking process, the boards are trimmed to size. Pure 
cork contains 43% wood fibre and 57% entrapped air. 

A cheaper and inferior grade of corkboard may also be man- 
ufactured. In this process, granulated cork is mixed with hot 
asphalt and pressed into sheets. 

The boards are 12"x36" and are supplied in thicknesses 
1-13/2-2-2^-3-4-6". The weight varies from 7 to 12 lbs. per cu- 
bic foot, depending on the process. Regranulated cork of 8-20 
mesh or fineness weighs 11 lbs. per cubic foot, and coarse 
granulated weighs 5 to 6 lbs. per cubic foot. The regranulated 
is baked and is made from savings trimmed from corkboard. 

Because of its cellular structure, cork has little capillary at- 
traction, which together with the coating of waterproof gum 
for binder, makes it practically impervious to moisture. It 
possesses essentially all of the requirements previously cited 
for a good commercial insulator and is therefore the most uni- 
versally used. 

Mineral Wool. — Mineral wool is a vitreous substance made 
of limestone which is melted at 3000° F. and then blown into 
fine fibres by high pressure steam. It is a soft, pliable and 
elastic material resembling wool or cotton, and due to the 
fibres crossing and interlacing in every direction small air 
spaces are formed which produce its insulating properties. 
Mineral wool boards are made by mixing the wool with a par- 
affin wax binder and other ingredients and then compressing 
it into sheets. These are usually 16x36 inches and are made 
from 3^ to 3 inches in thickness. The weight is approximately 
18 lbs. per cubic foot in boards, but only \2y2 lbs. when loosely 



HEAT TRANSFER 117 

packed. The board contains about 90 per cent mineral wool 
and 10 per cent binder and consists of approximately 80 per 
cent entrapped air. Mineral wool board possesses many of 
the essentials of a good insulator but is inferior to corkboard 
as to structural strength, fire retardation and installation cost. 

Flaxlinum or Linofelt.— This is a flax fiber product pressed 
into a continuous sheet and covered with a waterproof char- 
coal sheathing. It is customary to use two sheets of flaxlinum 
with a dead air space between them. This insulation is also 
made in .quilted sheets which are held in place by wooden 
strips. 

Mineral Felt. — Mineral felt is a combination of mineral 
wool, asbestos, and hair felt. It is claimed that this material 
will not settle like other loose feltings. 

Balsa Wood. — Balsa wood is being used to some extent 
for insulation on refrigerators. Its peculiar structure and 
qualities which make it suitable for this purpose were first 
realized about 1915. 

The tree grows in certain parts of South America and the 
West Indies. It grows very rapidly to a height of from thirty 
to sixty feet and a diameter of from twelve to fifteen inches 
in four or five years. This rapid growth is probably the cause 
of the peculiar structure of the wood. The cells are large and 
remote from one another, and the cell walls are exceedingly 
thin, while in most other woods the cells are small, close to- 
gether and have fairly thick walls. The balsa tree is now be- 
ing cultivated in artificial groves. Balsa is a second growth 
wood which is always found in clearings. The trees seldom 
grow closely together. 

In the natural state, balsa wood is not suitable for insulat- 
ing material. Colonel Marr discovered a method of treating 
the wood which renders it waterproof, prevents rot and keeps 
it from changing shape. This process is a bath composed 
mostly of paraffin, performed in such a way that the interior 
cells are coated without clogging up the porous structure. 

Lithboard. — Lithboard consists of mineral wool and vege- 
table fibers. It is made into boards by using a waterproofing 



118 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

binder and compressing. These boards have a composition 
of approximately 40 per cent vegetable fibres (flax) and 60 
per cent mineral wool, and are generally 18"x48" with a thick- 
ness of 5^ to 3". It weighs about 12>2 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Rock Cork. — Indiana limestone with a certain specified 
content is heated up to 2800° F. and passed through a "V" 
shaped steam jet. The heavier particles of blown rock drop 
ofT right at the nozzle and are separated from the rock wool 
that is picked up from the blowing chamber. This rock wool 
still has some very small particles of blown rock in it. The 
rock wool is taken to an agitator and here the rest of the par- 
ticles are removed. The rock wool now is mixed with an oil 
asphalt and some paper stock, at approximately 200° F. Water 
is introduced and acts as a carrier agent for the mixture. The 
mixture is poured into moulds, that have screens in the bot- 
tom through which it drains, and the mixture is allowed to 
settle. After the water has drained off the mould goes to a 
drying kiln and stays there for about 72 hours. 

Rock cork does not undergo any sort of compression dur- 
ing the moulding process other than that due to its own 
weight. The rock cork now is in slabs and is planed down 
to any required thickness as desired. Rock cork weighs ap- 
proximately 16 to 20 lbs. per cubic foot and possesses many of 
the recjuirements of a good insulator. 

Selection. — In selecting an insulation for a proposed instal- 
lation a number of factors must be taken into consideration : 

1. Type of construction 

2. Character of refrigerated products 

3. Temperatures to be maintained 

4. Thickness of walls 

5. Location of plant. 

The following table gives the most economic thickness of 
corkboard and other insulation of same unit transmission : 

—20° to — ur 8" 

—10° to — 0° 6" 

0° to 15° 5" 

15° to 35° 4" 

35° to 45° 3" 

45° and above , .2" ■ 



HEAT TRANSFER 



119 



Heat Transfer in Apparatus. — The heat transfer taking 
place in a refrigerating apparatus is similar to that occuring 
through insulation, in that the flow occurs from a region of 
high temperature to a region of low temperature. Whereas, a 
very slow rate of infiltration through insulation was desired just 
the reverse is true in the apparatus; the fastest possible transfer 
is wanted. Generally this transfer of heat is accomplished be- 
tween two fluids separated by a solid wall of good conductivity. 




,2 

FIG. 7. 



,■3 ,4 ^ ^ n & .9 l.a 

-MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE CURVE. 



Since the heat transfer may occur by means of conduction, 
radiation or convection, the fundamental law of heat transfer 
holds, the same as for insulation ; although the unit transmis- 
sion as determined by experiment combines all three methods, 
as well as the kind of material and thickness of separating 
wall. The formula then becomes — (2). 



120 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

B.t.u./hr. = "C" X sq. ft. of surface X temperature difference. 
(C is given in Table XLVIII.) 

The mean temperature difference for apparatus is some- 
what different than for insulation due to the fact that the tem- 
peratures on both sides of the insulation are comparatively 
constant, whereas in the apparatus they are changing con- 
stantly. Therefore in the first case an arithmetic degree mean 
difference can be used but a logarithmic mean temperature 
difference must be found in the latter case. 

Due to the character of the formula as given by Hausbrand 
and its attendent higher mathematics this logarithmic degree 
mean difference method has been put in a simple curve form, 
making it available to everyone. 

TABLE XLVII. THICKNESS OF INSULATION FOR COLD PIPES 

Thickness p Use With For Temperatures 

of Cork 



154 in. Ice water, liquid ammonia, brine Above 25° F. 

and other cold lines. 

2 in. to 3 in. Brine, ammonia and other cold 0° to 25" F. 

lines. 

3 in. to 4 in. Brine, ammonia and other cold Below 0° F. 

lines. 

Ti = Inlet temperature of substance to be cooled 
T2 = Outlet temperature of substance to be cooled 
ti= Inlet temperature of cooling substance 
ta= Outlet temperature of cooling substance 
Ti — U and T2 — ti = Differences 
S = Smallest difference 
L = Largest difference 

S 
Factor — = Ordinate 

L 
Coefficient obtained from Curve = Abcissa 

Coefficient X largest difference = Mean temperature difference. 
Example: To cool milk from 120° to 80° with 72° water heated to 
80° during the process. 



2o^ 



SO' 



__c: 



do' 



S 8 
L 40 



FIG. 8. 



72" 



HEAT TRANSFER 121 

Running across on the .2 factor line to the curve and then 
projecting down at right angles the coefficient .5 is obtained. 
Then the mean temperature difference is .5 X 40 = 20. 

If an arithmetical degree mean difference had been used 
the result would have been the difference of average tempera- 
tures of 

(120 + 80) (80 + 72) 

= 24 

( 2 ) ( 2 ) 

which would have been a 20 per cent error. 

S 
It has been found that for all practical purposes if — is 

L 

greater than .5 an arithmetic degree 7nean difference can be 
used. 

Coefficients of Heat Transfer in Apparatus. — In table 
XLVIII is given overall unit heat transfer coefficients, as de- 
termined by experiments. They hold good for the general 
wall thicknesses found in refrigerating apparatus and when 
the surface is comparatively free from frost scale, oil and other 
foreign matter. 

The best heat transfer is obtained from liquid to liquid 
followed by liquid to gas and the worst transfer is from gas 
to gas. Copper has a considerably higher rate of transfer than 
steel while lead is very much worse than either. Some im- 
portant factors on which the rate of heat transfer depends are : 

1. Velocity of fluids 

2. Density and kinds of fluids 

3. Temperatures at which they are handled 

4. Thickness and material of separating wall 

5. Smoothness and cleanliness of wall as regards foreign sub- 
stances, material, as well as gases. 

As an example to show the amount of steel pipe to be in- 
stalled in a small storage box having a load factor of 3000 
B.t.u. hr. and held at a temperature of 40" with 15° average 
expansion through the coil, using the fundamental formula 
(2):- 

3000 = 2.5 X sq. ft. X (40—15) 
sq. ft. = 48. 



122 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



w 

H 

M 

W 

a 

w 

Q 

a. 
H 

d 

en 

W 
&4 

04 
O 

W 
pj 

M 
Pk 

H 

M 




c c c c ci c 

U Vh u 1- w, u, 



3 3 3 p 3 rl 
O O O O O O 



cO oj oj ol 03 ct3 



-^ E.S o 



"CO 



O '^ 



See 



■•a-d^-d 



■B'3'3 333 c c- d-S-S °'SJi1 S ^ 



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-v-uv,uunic« ci'~>'^^-C "_ E 3 u > 3 3 h 3 3 ? 

C<<<<:<i: i.? i-f L<----i ..'-'-i-r cu c o o >- ■> oi 




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rSrSrd'5'0-5 fe fe fe^'o^^^ S-^'CS ° = O goO & S °^ 

*- -^^ *^ o o o-^ '« '^ ^ o P^ u u u V '^ a u u 

O U O <1> 0) (Dii^JS O U[_LhL, O Sf.-„ (U S U-- o o p.- S <u 



tic be bo be*-- bo bo be bo be be be be b£ be--"-'— ■:::-3'3-3 



C O OkT:^^ OOOOfi^OOOCOOOOO Ot"^,^^.^^>^ 

&&a'&&6'6'6'6'6'u'u'6'6'u'6'6'6'6'u'6'6'6'6'6'6'6'& 



bobebebohebotJebobObibnbobobebebebobobebo bcri tj "d "O be bo M 

.E.S.S.E.S.H-S-S.S e c.S.E.S.S.S.S.S.S.S.S c c c c.S.S.S 

"o'b'o'o'o'o'o'o'o'o^'o'o'o'o'o'o'o'S'o'Of -jt If V ) o o o 
OOOOOOOOOooOOOOOOOOO o^^^^ o o o 

OUOOOOOOOOUOOOOOOOOOO ^ g g gOUO 
rtS^SSrtS'.S'S'SStyc'D-o'o-d-D'.o'WD-gg'g' g-.D-.D-.g- 
CCOCOChJhJhJOO'hJHj'K3hJhJhJhJi-lK3>J>>>>hJhJiJ 



HEAT TRANSFER 123 

Since it takes 2.3 ft. of 1^" pipe to make 1 square foot of 
surface, it will be necessary to use 48 X 2.3 =110 ft. 

From the foregoing it can readily be seen that many refrig- 
erating problems are really heat transfer problems, and can 
be solved by either formula — 1 or 2. 



CHAPTER VI 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS. 

History and Principles of Refrigerating Systems. — The 
following chapter is devoted to historical data and the general 
principles underlying the operation of the principal refrigerat- 
ing systems. The air refrigerating machine works on a prin- 
ciple of cooling by the absorption of sensible heat, and was 
one of the first types given consideration. Absorption refrig- 
erating machines were also given early consideration. 

The inherent advantages of the compression refrigerating 
machine, in which advantage is taken of the latent heat of 
evaporization, were early recognized and this type of system, 
consequently, was subjected to development and perfection 
at an early date. A chemical method for producing refrigerat- 
ing effects has been used for centuries, but of course, the com- 
mercial application of such methods is limited, on account of 
the high cost of producing such refrigerating effects. 

Following a discussion of the refrigerating systems, atten- 
tion is given to the requirements of a household system, in 
which special attention is devoted to the design and construc- 
tion of the different component parts of such systems. 

Gorrie Air Machine. — The first air refrigerating machine 
was invented by Doctor Gorrie at New Orleans about 1850. 
Air was compressed in a cylinder and delivered to a chamber 
which was immersed in the cooling water. The pressure in 
the chamber was maintained at about 15 pounds per square 
inch above the pressure of the atmosphere. Water injection 

125 



126 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

was used to partly cool the air during compression. Both air 
and water were delivered to the receiver. The air in the 
receiver was further cooled by the water on the outside. Then 
the air was expanded in another cylinder discharging at about 
atmospheric pressure. The expanding air was mixed with a 
quantity of brine which was injected into the expansion cylin- 
der. The expanding air cooled the brine to about 20* F. This 
cold brine was used for ice making or refrigeration. 

Kirk Air Machine. — Dr. Alexander Kirk invented a closed 
cycle air machine about 1861. This machine used a confined 
mass of air, operating always at pressure considerably above 
atmospheric pressure. Machines of this same type were made 
by Allen, an American, and Windhausen, a German. 

Open Cycle Air Machine. — The open cycle air machine 
consists of two cylinders called a compression cylinder and 
an expansion cylinder. Air from the room which is to be 
cooled is taken in the compression cylinder. It is compressed 
and therefore warmed. This compressed air is then cooled by 
circulating water. This air is then made very cold by expan- 
sion to atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching this condition it 
is returned to the cold room. 

Open cycle air machines of this type were proposed by 
Lord Kelvin and Professor Rankin about 1852. The first 
actual machine operating on this principle was made by Gif- 
fard in 1873. At a later date, machines of this type were made, 
namely the Bell-Coleman and other improved designs by Mr. 
Lightfoot, Messrs. Haslam and Hall. 

The air machine has a relatively large power consumption 
and is only used to any large extent on ships. 

Allen Dense Air Machine. — The dense air machine is used 
to some extent on boat installations. 

In this system air is compressed to about 250 pounds and 
then cooled by the cooling water. This cooling is usually 
performed by a copper coil immersed in water. 

The air is then passed through a moisture separator, after 
which it is conducted to the expansion cylinder. In this 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 127 

cylintlcr the air is expanded to about 60 to 70 lbs. ))ressure and 
a very low temperature. 

The 70 lbs. air is then passed through an oil separator 
before being returned to the compressor to start another cycle. 
A primer pump is used to automatically supply make up air. 

Machines of this type require considerable attention to 
eliminate trouble from ice forming within the evaporator, due 
to freezing the water vapor supplied by the make up air. 
Lubrication is rather difficult on a machine of this type. 

This system of refrigeration has not proven successful 
for small household machines, although the use of air as a 
refrigerant has scjme important advantages in this particular 
field of refrigeration. 

Low Pressure Air Refrigeration System. — A recent de- 
velopment in household refrigerating machines operates on 
the principle of accelerating the evaporization of ammonia or 
alcohol by blowing air through the liquid. 

The air is compressed by a blower to a pressure of 10 to 
15 lbs. gauge. The blower is usually direct-connected to the 
motor and operates at motor speed. 

This process is claimed to operate at efficiencies better than 
those obtained in the usual compression system. 

Water Vapor Absorption Machines. — In the absorption 
type machine, two substances are used which have an affinity 
for one another so that one unites or dissolves in the other 
when they are cold, but they separate readily when heated. 
Sulphuric acid when cold has a great affinity for water. Heat- 
ing a sulphuric acid and water mixture drives off water vapor. 
This vapor is condensed by the cooling water. The acid is 
then cooled and reabsorbs the water vapor at a low tempera- 
ture and a ver\' low pressure. There is a very low vacuum 
during both parts of the cycle. The absorbing substance acts 
like a pump and maintains a low pressure during the cooling 
cycle. This principle was first used by Professor Leslie in 
1810. A small machine of this type was made by M. E. Carre 
in 1875 for household work. It consisted of an air pump, and 
a chamber to contain the acid. A rod on the pump handle 
served to agitate the surface of the sulphuric acid. Mr. ^^'ind- 



128 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

hausen made a large machine of this type in 1878. A small 
machine of this type is on the market at the present time, be- 
ing manufactured by the Pulsometer Co., of Reading, Eng., 
and others. 

Machines of this type have an overall thermal efficiency 
of about fifteen per cent which is lower than the compression 
type. 

Ammonia Absorption Machines. — The ammonia absorp- 
tion machine works on the principle of ammonia dissolving in 
water. One quart of water will dissolve about 500 quarts of 
ammonia gas. Ammonia has a higher vapor pressure than 
water and the absorbing is accomplished under a pressure 
considerably above atmospheric. Heating a water and liquid 
ammonia mixture drives off ammonia gas. This gas is con- 
densed by the cooling water. The water is then cooled and 
reabsorbs the gas at a low temperature. In actual practice 
only part of the ammonia is driven off from the aqua solution. 

The ammonia absorption machine was invented by F. 
Carre about 1858-1860. The original machine was a very 
crude affair, consisting merely of two vessels — one surrounded 
by cold water, the other containing the ammonia and water. 
The original patent in the United States was issued October 
2, 1860, the reissue being dated February 18, 1873. The Carre 
machine, subsequently improved by Mignon and Rouart in 
France, Vass and Littmann in Germany, Reece, Mort, Nicolle, 
and others in England and Australia, marked a great era in 
mechanical refrigeration. 

The Carre machine was the first one to obtain a foothold 
in the ice making industry in the United States. The first 
machine was shipped through the blockade in 1863 to Augusta, 
Ga., by Mr. Bujac of New Orleans. It was supposed to have 
a capacity of 500 pounds per day. Due, mainly, to the parties 
who had it in charge, the machine was not a success, and in 
1866 it was shipped to Gretna, La., where it was run for ex- 
hibition and experimental purposes. Three other Carre ma- 
chines, purchased by the firm of Bujac & Girarde, New Or- 
leans, La., and installed in that city, also proved unsuccessful 
in operation. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 129 

In the fall of 1865, the firm of Mepes, Holden, Mont- 
gomery & Co. purchased the first of these machines and 
shipped it to San Antonio, Tex., and put it in operation under 
the supervision of D. L. Holden. 

The absorption refrigerating machine is now manufac- 
tured by the Carbondale Machine Co., Columbus Iron Works, 
Henry Vogt Machine Co., York Manufacturing Co., and others 
in the United States. Messrs. Haslam and Hall now manu- 
facture a machine of this type formerly developed by Messrs. 
Pontifex and Wood, in England. The overall thermal effici- 
ency of the ammonia absorption system is about 25 per cent. 

History of the Vapor Compression Machine. — The first 
machine of the vapor compression type was invented by Jacob 
Perkins, an American, and patented in England in August, 
1834. It was further developed by Twining, who took out his 
English patent in 1850. This machine was not a commercial 
success. 

It was not until 1857 that James Harrison of Geelong, 
Australia, made a compression machine using sulphuric ether 
which was of commercial value. Messrs. Siebe and Gorman 
later manufactured these machines in England. This refriger- 
ant is not used today. 

In April, 1867, Prof. P. H. Van der Weyde of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., obtained patents for the use of naphtha, gasoline, 
petroleum, ether and condensed petroleum gas (chimogene) 
as refrigerants, and obtained patent on his compression refrig- 
erating machine. 

Mr. D. L. Holden, after his successful experience in San 
Antonio with the Carre ammonia absorption machine in 1865, 
purchased the patent rights of Prof. Van der Weyde and built 
his first compression machine at the Novelty Iron Works in 
New York City. Several other compression refrigerating ma- 
chines using ammonia were built and installed by Mr. Holden 
in New Orleans, La., Bonham, Houston and Galveston, Tex.; 
Mobile, Ala.; Thibodauxville, La.; Selma, Ala., and Charles- 
ton, S. C. In September, 1869, and April 1870, and at various 
later dates, Mr. Holden obtained patents on his "regaled" ice 
making system. 



130 HOUSEHOLD RETFRIGERATION 

In 1868. Charles Tellier, of ,Passy, near Paris, took out 
patents on his compression apparatus, whose refrigerating 
agent was methylic ether, and which was designed to make 
ice and to refrigerate air and liquids. The date of his letters 
])atent in the United States was June 5, 1869, and one of his 
machines was erected in the Old Canal Brewery, New Orleans, 
by George Metz, with the object of producing cold, dry air, 
and making ale and lager beer without the use of ice. 

In the seventies appeared the inventions of Francis D. 
Coppet of New Orleans; Franz Windhausen. Ciermany ; Prof. 
C. P. G. Linde of Munich, Bavaria; Raoul P. Pictet, Geneva, 
Switzerland; Thos. L. Rankin of Ohio; Martin & Beath, San 
Francisco; A. T. Ballentine of Maine; James Boyle of Texas, 
and David Boyle of Chicago. 

In 1877 Mr. Enright designed and built a machine having 
a vertical double-acting compressor, and in the fall of the year 
one of this type was installed in the brewery of A. Ziegele of 
Buffalo, N. Y. In 1878 patents were issued to the inventor, 
not only for his double-acting com])ressor, but for the pipe 
I'oint commonly known as the Arctic. 

X'incent constructed a chloride of methyl compression ma- 
chine in 1878. M. Raoul Pictet invented a sulphurous acid 
machine about 1875. This machine is used in France and 
Switzerland. Dr. Carl Linde, of Munich, introduced the am- 
monia machine in 1876. 

In 1878, the first compression machine made by C. J. Ball 
was erected at Dallas, Tex. Upon his retirement he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, P. D. C. Ball, who conducted the business 
under the name of the Ice & Cold Machine Cc, until 1920, at 
which time the name of the company was changed to the Ball 
Ice Machine Co. 

The first De La \'ergne refrigerating machine was placed 
in the Hermann Brewery, New York City, in 1879. One of 
the inventors of the original apparatus, John C. De La Vergne, 
was engaged in the brewing industry in 1876, and in 1881 he 
formed the De La A'ergne Refrigerating Machine Co., for the 
manufacture of the so-called De La Vergne-Mixer Machine, 
the second patentee being \\'illiam M. Mixer of New York. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 131 

The refrigerating department of the Frick Co. originated 
about 1881, when either Mr. Jariman or Mr. Ferguson of Balti- 
more, Md., submitted plans of machinery to George Frick, 
and plants were subsequently erected for several parties in 
that city. 

About 1882 Peter Weisel, the founder of the business now 
conducted by the Vilter Manufacturing Co., Milwaukee, Wis., 
designed a double-acting horizontal refrigerating machine 
which the firm of Weisel & Vilter commenced to build in that 
year. The first machine was installed in the Cream Cit}' 
Brewery, Milwaukee. 

In 1885 W^ G. Lock, an engineer of Sidney, Australia, 
patented a compound compressor for ammonia consisting of 
two single-acting high and low-pressure pumps, side by side. 
Patents covering the idea were issued as early as 1867, and 
the Lock improvements, together with the St. Clair compound 
machine, manufactured by the York Manufacturing Co., were 
great improvements on the originals. Thomas Shipley, vice- 
president and general manager of the company, made a num- 
ber of most important changes and improvements on the origi- 
nals, and also patented other improvements on ice making 
and refrigerating plants. 

The compression refrigerating machine is now produced 
by a number of the leading manufacturers in the United 
States. 

The carbonic acid machine was patented by Raydt in 18S1 
and later by \\'indhausen in 1886. This type machine is made 
by Messrs. J. and E. Hall of Dartford, Eng., The Linde Co., 
Messrs. Haslam and Hall and the Pulsometer Co. 

The carbonic acid machine was introduced in the United 
States in the early eighties, and is now manufactured by 
American Carbonic Co., Brunswick-Kroeschell Co., Frick Co., 
Norwalk Iron Works, ^\'ittenmeier Machinery Co., and others. 

Vapor Compression Machines. — Most of the mechanical 
refrigeration of today is performed by vapor compression ma- 
chines. In this process, a liquid is used which can be alter- 
nately liquefied and vaporized. 



132 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The liquids in common use are ammonia, sulphur dioxide, 
methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, ether, and carbon dioxide. The 
refrigerating cycle may be divided into four different phases : 

1. Throttling effect through expansion valve. 

2. Vaporization process in cooling coils. 

3. Compression of vapor in compressor. 

4. Cooling and condensing of vapor in condenser. 

Refrigeration is produced by the latent heat of vaporiza- 
tion of these substances, all of which have a relatively low 
boiling point. The vapor resulting from the vaporization of 
the liquid in the cooling element is conducted to the suction 
side of the compressor. This vapor usually reaches the com- 
pressor in a slightly superheated condition. The compressor 
then forces the gas into the condensing element, where it is 
liquefied by cooling, usually by means of water or air. The 
liquid refrigerant is then allowed to return to the cooling 
element through an expansion valve or a restricted orifice. 
This cycle is continuous. 

The restricted orifice must always be sealed on the con- 
densing or high pressure side with liquid refrigerant, in order 
to function properly. 




FIG. 9.— COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. 

The cooling element may operate either on a flooded or 
dry system. In the flooded system, a relatively large amount 
of the liquid is stored in the cooling element and a regulation 
of the restricted orifice keeps this amount nearly constant. 
In the dry system, the regulation of this orifice is usually con- 
trolled by the pressure of the low or evaporating side. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 133 

Statistics show that more than 90 per cent of all the re- 
frigerating and ice making plants in the United States today 
are operated on the ammonia compression system. This is 
only true of the commercial or larger size plants as the house- 
hold systems favor sulphur dioxide compression machines. 

The compression refrigerating system is shown diagram- 
atically by Fig. 9. The five essential parts shown are the 
compressor, condenser, receiver, expansion valve, and evapo- 
rator. An ordinary piston type of compressor is illustrated. 

Chemical Methods. — It is a well known fact that when 
ice melts the temperature remains constantly at 32° F. Heat 
is supplied to cause this physical change of state from a solid 
to a liquid, and if the rate of heat supply be increased or de- 
creased there will be no change in the temperature of the ice 
but simply a change in the rate of melting. Mixtures of some 
salts with ice and of certain salts with water or acids do not 
follow this same rule. For example, if salt is mixed with ice 
the rate of melting will tend to increase more rapidly than 
the heat is absorbed and the temperature will fall below that 
of melting ice. The temperature will be depressed a certain 
amount depending upon the per cent of salt used. 

United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin Nd. 98 
gives the temperature resulting from mixtures of ice and salt 
as follows: 

Per Cent Salt Degrees F. 

32 

5 21 

10 20 

15 11 

20 1.5 

25 —10. 

Tlic temperature of water ma}- be lowered as much as 
40° F. by dissolving ammonium nitrate in it. Ice may be 
formed in this way. 

The lowering of temperature by means of ice and salt mix- 
tures is shown graphically in Fig. 10. This figure illustrates 
how the temperature is reduced as the percentage of salt is 
increased. This chart is for ordinary salt, sodium chloride. 



134 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




PERCENTASE OF SALT (BY WEI(5 HT) 

1,-lG. 10.— TEMPERATURES OBTAINED BY ICE AND SALT MIXTURES. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 135 

Water for Cooling Food. — Farmers' Bulletin No. 375 of 
the United States Department of Agriculture gives the fol- 
lowing, in reference to cooling of foods, by means of water: 

There are many ways of lowering temperature by utilizing the 
fact that water when evaporating draws of? heat from surrounding 
objects. If a pitcher of water be wrapped with a cloth which is kept 
saturated and exposed to a draft of air, the temperatures of the water 
in the pitcher will be lowered by several degrees. 

A receptacle in which food is placed may be cooled in the same 
way. Take a wooden box with a sound bottom made of one piece 
and invert it. Tack a layer of cotton batting over it and cover with 
some coarse cloth. It is now to be kept wet by some contrivance 
that will furnish an automatic drip. The writer used for this purpose 
an old aluminum pan which had in it a half dozen very tiny holes, 
and when filled with water it supplied just enough water to keep the 
cloth saturated. Under this box lettuce in cold water, a cold pudding, 
a pat of butter, and other food were placed and kept in good condi- 
tion. A pan of milk lowered into another of cold w^ater is kept from 
souring many hours longer than if it was unprotected from the sur- 
rounding air. Spring water of low temperature is used by many 
farmers' wives to keep milk and butter cool, and a "spring house" is 
a common thing on many farms, though less depended upon than was 
the case before ice houses, refrigerators and ice chests became so 
common. 

It is also an old-fashioned practice to lower foods in covered pails 
into the well and suspend them not far above the surface of the water. 

Requirements, — The requirements of a household refrig- 
erating machine ma} be summarized as follows: 

1. Maintain food compartments between 40 — 50° F .automatic- 
ally. 

2. Freeze water and desserts in reasonable length of time. 

3. Low initial cost. 

4. Dependable operation without adjustments, hand controls, or 
service. 

5. Simplicity of design. 

6. Simplicity of operation. 

7. Efficiency of operation. 

8. Quietness of operation. 

9. Prevent leakage at stuffing box 

10. Accessibility for repairs. 

11. Safety of operation of exterior moving parts, of electrical 
apparatus or fuel burners. 

12. Adaptability for installing as a single unit with cabinet. 

13. Freedom from wear of moving parts. 



136 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

14. Positive operation of valves. 

15. Insure necessary lubrication under all conditions of service. 

16. Prevent misplacement of lubricant. 

17. Limit the number of gasket and pipe connections whereby 
refrigerating gas might escape. 

18. Protect compressor from damage of pumping liquid refriger- 
ant or lubricant. 

19. Insure necessary cooling of compressor and motor. 

20. Protect metals from rust and corrosion. 

The household refrigerating machine has been under de- 
velopment for the past forty years. This v^ork includes prob- 
lems in mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering. It 
has proven very difficult to construct a machine which will 
start and stop itself at required intervals, which will be self- 
regulating and self-oiling under all conditions, and which will 
be fool-proof and of such simplicity that a servant can oper- 
ate it. 

The machine should be entirely automatic as the advan- 
tages gained over the use of ice are not sufficient to compen- 
sate for a manually controlled system. Machines have been 
proposed which would be started manually and stopped auto- 
matically. Other plants have been proposed which would 
operate all of the time, varying the speed of the compressor 
according to the temperature in the food compartment. These 
experiments have not proven successful commercially. 

The machines should make ice in small quantities or 
freeze desserts for table use. This feature assures the user 
that it is functioning properly. Experience shows that ther- 
mometers placed in food compartments are seldom under- 
stood, but the fact that ice is frozen and stored in the brine 
tank or cooling element is convincing proof that the machine 
is operating satisfactorily. The time required to freeze ices 
or desserts should not be longer than five hours, the usual 
time between meals, unless there is a large ice storing capacity 
insuring a reserve supply. 

A large amount of work has been done on compressor de- 
sign and development. It has been estimated that 90 per cent 
of the experimental work performed on household refrigerat- 
ing machines has been on compressor development. Many 
concerns have met with financial difficulties before emerging 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 137 

from the compressor development stage, while others have 
placed their machines on the market without taking time to 
develop the other important parts of the refrigerating system. 
Some very satisfactory compressors have been built and efforts 
are now being made to better the condensing, evaporating, ice 
making, and automatic control features. 

In Europe and the tropics where labor is cheap and elec- 
tricity is not available, there is a demand for hand operated 
machines. These are produced in large quantities, usually of 
a small refrigerating capacity, just sufficient to cool a carafe 
of water in a few minutes and make several pounds of ice in 
a half hour. The larger sizes will make 20 to 30 pounds of 
ice per hour. These are vacuum systems using sulphuric acid 
to absorb the water vapor, an improved form of the Carre sul- 
phuric acid freezing machine. 

Household refrigerating machines will not be used in large 
quantities until the mechanical features have been perfected, 
and until they operate at a cost comparable with that of buy- 
ing ice. It is merely an improvement on existing conditions. 

The initial cost must be low as the average family uses 
between 100 and 200 lbs. of ice weekly. The average yearly 
cost of ice would be about $40.00. 

The Compressor. — The reciprocating type of compressor 
is in general use with refrigerants such as sulphur dioxide, 
ammonia, methyl chloride, carbon dioxide, and high pressure 
air. 

Blowers and turbine compressors are mostly used with 
refrigerants such as ethyl chloride, ether, formic-aldeliyde, and 
low pressure air. With these gases, a relatively large amount 
of gas must be handled. 

Herringbone gear compressors have been used to some 
extent on sulphur dioxide machines, but they have not as yet 
met with success commercially. 

Sulphur dioxide compressors are used most extensively 
on household refrigerating machines. These compressors are 
usually of the single-acting type with two vertical cylinders, 
although some machines on the market today have one and 



138 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

others three vertical single-acting cylinders. They operate at 
from 250 to 500 r.p.ni.. the speed being limited mostly by noise 
and efficiency of the valves. The multi-cylinder compressors 
are favored in order to reduce the starting torcpie. 

Some progress has been made with sulphur dioxide com- 
pressors operating at motor speed or about 1750 r.p.m. The 
cylinder on a machine of this type is usually less than one 
inch in diameter, for use with a 1/4-hp. motor. Most machines 
using these compressors ha\e been of the double-acting single 
cylinder design. One manufacturer uses a four-cylinder com- 
pressor operating at motor speed. 

The displacement in cu. in. pt'v min. for a compressor of 
a.verage efficiency necessary to ])roduce tlie refrigerating effect 
equi\"alent to 100 lbs. of ice melting i)er day is approximately 
as follows : 

Ethvl chl.iridc 3,450 to 5,100 

Sulphur dioxide 1,200 to 1,800 

Ammonia 450 to 670 

Carbon dioxide 90 to 130 

Methyl chloride 900 to 1,340 

An im])ortant ])art: of the com])res>or design is the ])ack- 
ing gland which seals the dri\e shaft. Most of the first 
models used a packing of fiber, asbestos, and graphite, forced 
against the shaft by means of a spring acting against a metal 
gland. The sjjring automatically compensates for wear. It 
is advantageous to have oil on both sides of a packing gland 
of this t}"pe. 

A later de\cloi)ment is to use a ring of metal containing 
grai)hite. This ring is forced by means of a spring against a 
collar turned on the shaft. This ring may be attached to one 
end of a metal l)ellows. thus having only one surface to seal 
instead of two if the metal bellows is not used. 

It is a decided ad\antage to have the packing gland on 
the slower speed shaft when a reduced speed drive is used. 
Some machines are entirely or ])artly enclosed, thus eliminat- 
ing the packing gland. 

The design of a compressor includes a system of lubri- 
cation wdiich should function under many different operating 
conditions. The lubricant usuallv has a tendencv to locate 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 139 

and stay in the c\ aporatini^- coils. This (.ondition lowers the 
rate of heat transmission in the evaporator. The return of 
lubricant to the compressor through the suction line is usually 
the result of some temporary unusual working condition. It 
is difficult to design a refrigerating system in which the lubri- 
cant returns regularly from the evaporation element to the 
compressor. 

The piston type compressor usually has sur])lus lubrica- 
tion of the pistons and cylinders. 

In the herringbone gear type compressor, it is necessary 
to have generous lubrication of the gears in order to pump 
gas. Small holes feed lubricant to the gears during part of 
their rotation. If too much lubricant is supplied it decreases 
the amount of gas pumped. Lubrication is one of the most 
difficult problems in the gear type compressor. 

The rotary compressor presents a difficult lubricating prob- 
lem as the blades usually wear rajiidly when forced against 
a surface. 

TABLE XLIX. AIR PUMPING TEST ON A STANDARD TWO-CYLINDER 

AIR-COOLED SULPHUR DIOXIDE COMPRESSOR. 

iJischarge . Watt-minutes 

Pressure Volumetric ^^^ ft p^^^ 

Pounds Efhciency ^j^ Delivered 

Gauge Percent p^^ Minute 

72J 253 

20 65.8 330 

40 58.7 402 

60 52.1 481 

80 45.1 573 

Using ;4-hp-. 110-volt, a. c. R. I. Standard Motor. 

Table XLIX gives the results of an air pumping test on a 
standard two-cylinder air-cooled sulphur dioxide compressor. 
The test results give the volumetric efficimcies as the dis- 
charge pressure is increased from to 80 pounds per square 
inch gauge. The resulting watt-minutes per cubic foot of 
free air delivered per minute are given also. 

Table L gives similar results for an air pumping test on a 
standard three-cylinder air-cooled sulphur dioxide compressor. 



140 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE L. 



-AIR PUMPING TEST ON A STANDARD THREE-CYLINDER 

AIR-COOLED SULPHUR DIOXIDE COMPRESSOR. 



Watt-minutes 

per cu. ft. Free 

Air Delivered 

per Minute 



Discharge 

Pressure 

Pounds 

Gauge 


Volumetric 
Efficiency 
Percent 





70.8 


20 


61.3 


40 


56.6 


60 


52.5 


80 


49.7 



238 
342 
432 
526 
620 



Usini 1/6-hp., 110-volt, a. c. R. 1. Motor. 

Table LI gives similar results for an air-pumped test on 
a herringbone-geared t\pe compressor. 



TABLE LL- 



-AIR PUMPING TEST ON HERRINGBONE GEAR TYPE 
COMPRESSOR. 



Discharge 


Cu. 


Ft. Free 


Watt-minutes per 


Pressure 


Air 


Delivered 


cu. ft. Free Air 


Pounds Gauge 


Pe 


r Minute 


Delivered per Min. 







0.87 


150 


10 




0.857 


187 


20 




0.833 


240 


30 




0.78 


302 


40 




0.75 


zei 


50 




0.75 


413 


60 




0.74 


440 


70 




0.732 


512 


80 




0.69 


610 



Used '/i-hp., llO-volt a. c. R. 1. Standard Motor {\,1T3 r.p.m.). 

The Condenser. — The condenser is used to cool and liquefy 
the refrigerant gas as it leaves the compressor or blower. The 
customary cooling medium is either water or air. 

Some systems use tap water from the city mains. A suf- 
ficient quantity of water should be used so that its outlet tem- 
perature is not more than 15° or 20° F. higher than the inlet 
or tap water temperature. If less water is used, an excessive 
condensing pressure will likely result. On large plants it is 
customary to use sufficient water for a 10° F. water inlet and 
outlet differential. 

Some household systems use the same water over and 
over again. In a system of this kind, it is an advantage to 
conduct the warm water leaving the condenser to a well or 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 141 

tank which is in the ground. In this way the water is cooled 
during the periods when the machine is not in operation. 

The water supply is sometimes regulated by a valve which 
opens automatically at a certain predetermined condensing 
pressure. Then as the condensing pressure increases, the 
valve opens wider allowing more water to flow through the 
condensing coil. This system compensates for different tem- 
peratures and pressure of condensing water and to some ex- 
tent, for other variations in operating conditions. A machine 
operating on this principle requires still another control to 
prevent operation when water is not available, even though 
this water-regulating valve functions properly. 

Another water control system in use is a valve which 
opens automatically when the machine is operating and closes 
during the inoperative periods. This valve does not regulate 
the amount of water used so that any change in pressure or 
temperature of the water supply is not compensated for auto- 
matically. This system may waste considerable water or may 
cause the plant to operate inefficiently at times. 

The packing on automatic regulating water valves has 
given some trouble in service. This difficulty has been met 
by using a copper bellows or rubber diaphragm to seal the 
valve stem and eliminate the packing troubles. 

There are three general types of water-cooled condensers 
in use : The submerged type, in which the pipe containing the 
refrigerant gas is submerged in the water, and the double-pipe 
condenser in which one pipe is inside a larger one. The re- 
frigerant gas flows through the annular space and the water 
through the inside pipe. This gives the advantage of some 
cooling by the atmosphere. A condenser of this type is usually 
arranged to have counter-current heat flow, the cold water 
entering the liquid outlet at the end of the condenser. The 
other method is to submerge the cooling water pipe in the gas 
space itself. The refrigerant gas condenses on the pipe and 
drops into a sump or receiver. 

When copper tubing is used for water-cooled condensers, 
the usual practice is to use from two to three square feet of 
cooling surface per 100 lbs. ice melting effect. 



142 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

On a small household plant, the average cost of water is 
less than two per cent of the total operating cost, so that it 
is usually practical to use tap water which wastes to the drain. 

Air-cooled condensers are rapidly gaining favor for small 
household machines. Some of the more important advantages 
of the air-cooled condenser are : Lower initial cost, reduced 
cost of installation, simplified apparatus, no danger of water 
lines freezing in winter, and water cooling limits location of 
mechanical unit. 

Air-cooled machines usually operate at condensing pres- 
sures, twenty-five to thirty per cent higher than on water- 
cooled systems. This of course lowers the efficiency of the 
system, however the increased simplicity may compensate for 
this loss in efficiency. 

There are two svstems of air cooling in common use. In 
the dead air system a relatively large amount of condenser 
cooling surface is used. With the forced air system a smaller 
amount of condenser surface is used. A fan or blower forces 
the air o\er all or part of the condenser, thus procuring more 
efficient use of the cooling surface and permitting the use of 
less surface. 

Machines using the dead air type condenser have been 
used mostly on installations where the mechanical unit is 
placed in the cellar. This assures a relatively low condenser 
temperature, averaging between 7° and 10° F. lower than the 
refrigerating cal)inet en\-ironment temperature. 

The usual practice on dead air-cooled condensers is to use 
from ten to twelve square feet condenser surface for each one 
hundred pounds ice melting refrigerating capacity. Less than 
half this surface is needed with forced air cooling, the exact 
amount depending upon the amount of air used and the effici- 
ency with which it is used. 

Some air-cooled systems use a large capacity condenser 
so that it also serves as a receiver for the liquid refrigerant. 
This feature eliminates jnpe connections and adds to the sim- 
plicity of the machine. 

Table LII gives capacities and horsepower for different sizes 
of Sirocco blowers. This table gives the cubic feet of air de- 
livered per minute r.p.m. and brake hp., at various suction 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



143 



pressures, expressed in inches of water for some of the small 
blowers. 



TABLE LII. SIROCCO BLOWER DATA, CAPACITIES AND HORSE 

POWER. 



Number of 
Fan 



Diameter 

of Wheel, 

Inches 



Suction 

Pressure 

Inches of 

Water 



Cubic Feet 
Air Deliv- 
ered per 
Minute 



R. P. M. 



Brake 
Horse 
Power 



00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


3 





4/2 





4/3 





4/2 





41/2 





41/4 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


IH 


7/2 


Wa 


7^2 


Wa 


7/2 


1% 


71/2 


Wa 


71/2 


VA 


71/2 



'A 
'A 
K 
A 
V2 
Va 
1 

I'A 
V^ 

1 

\Vi 
2 

A 
A 
H 
1 

1/2 
2 



40 
57 
69 
90 
127 
155 
182 
222 
160 
226 
276 
325 
394 
464 
250 
354 
431 
507 
616 
725 



2220 
3160 
3885 
1480 
2110 
2590 
3025 
3700 
1110 
1580 
1940 
2270 
2770 
3240 
885 
1265 
1555 
1813 
2220 
2585 



0.004 

0.0115 

0.0208 

0.0087 

0.0258 

0.0466 

0.0745 

0.137 

0.0155 

0.046 

0.083 

0.1325 

0.244 

0.381 

0.0242 

0.072 

0.1295 

0.207 

0.381 

0.595 



The following are some of the leading characteristics of 



fans 



Capacity varies as speed 
Pressure varies as (speed)' 
Horsepower varies as (speed)^ 
Horsepower varies as (capacityy' 
Horsepower varies as (pressure) /" 
Horsepower varies as (diameter)' 
Speed varies inversely as diameter. 
Speed varies as dens ity. 



Capacity varies as V a bsolute temperature. 
Horsepower varies as V absolute temperature. 

Table LIII gives the results of some tests of exhaust fans. 
In this table, it will be observed that the size of the fan varies 
from three inches to sixteen inches, and the corresponding 
data are given for r.p.m, watts consumed, air velocity in feet 
per minute, air delivered in cubic feet per minute, cubic feet 
delivered per watt of electrical energy consumed, and charac- 
teristic of electric current. 



144 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




SO 



60 ?o 80 So foo 



FIG. II.— CONDENSING PRESSURE FOR AIR-COOLED SULPHUR DIOXIDL 

MACHINE. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 145 

TABLE LIIL— TESTS ON EXHAUST FANS. 











Air 


Air Deliv- 






Diameter 
Fan 


Discharge 
Outlet 


R.P.M. 


Watts 


Velocity 
per 

Minute 


ered Cu. 
Ft. per 
Minute 


Cu. Ft. 

per Watt 


no Volt 




2^4 in. 
21/4 in. 
3y& in. 


2660 


37 


2355 


80.1 


2.16 


D.C. 


3 in 


2075 


29 


1775 


80.3 


2.08 


D.C. 


4^ in. 
6 in 


1730 


66 


1780 


125 


1.89 


A.C. 


4Vi(> in. 


1100 


111 


1680 


201 


1.82 


A.C. 


9 in 


9 in. 


1610 


38 


815 


360 


9.48 


D.C. 


9 in 


9 in. 


1550 


66 


1185 


523 


7.93 


A.C. 


12 in 


12 in. 


1140 


58 


818 


643 


11.08 


D.C. 


12 in 


12 in. 


1620 


48 


520 


489 


10.18 


A.C. 


12 in 


12 in. 


1400 


67 


1170 


921 


13.7 


A.C. 


16 in. 


16 in. 


1030 


81.5 


518 


805 


9.88 


A.C. 



Condensing Pressure for Air Cooled Compressors. — Fig. 
11 shows the condensing pressure in pounds per square inch 
gauge for air-cooled sulphur dioxide refrigerating machines, 
equipped with copper tube condensers. The curves show 
graphically how the condensing pressure increases with the 
increase of the room temperature. The space between curves 
A and B shows the result when the proper tube condensers 
are exposed to still air, while the space between curves B and 
C shows the results when forced air circulation over the con- 
denser is used. The curve D is the saturated vapor curve for 
sulphur dioxide and represents the corresponding condensing 
temperatures for the pressures shown on the left-hand side of 
the diagram. The relative distances between curve D and 
the curves A, B, and C show how nearly the condenser pres- 
sure approaches the theoretical possibilities. 

Flintlock Condensers.— Fig. 12 shows a new type condenser 
developed for air-cooled electric refrigerators by Flintlock 
Corporation of Detroit, Michigan. 

One lineal foot of this finned tubing has been found to 
have the equivalent cooling capacity of ten feet of copper tub- 
ing of equal size, when air is drawn through at an average 
velocity of 500 feet per minute. 

Tests have proven that draw fans are more efficient than 
blow fans. Only that amount of air which can be drawn 
through the free area of the condenser need be handled by 
the fan. 



146 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 13 sliows a cross section of tubes also the internal 
fins. The construction i> of ])rass tinned inside and out. The 



FIG. 12.— FT,l.\TI.orK .MR COOLED COXDEXSET?. 

tubes are an integral part of the fins. Heat transmission does 
not pass through a soldered joint. 




Ay 



Ik. A 




FIG. U.— CROSS SECTIOX OF TUBES— SHOWING IXTERAL FIXS. 

Fig. 14 is a t}pical installation of this type condenser on 
a compressor unit. 

Tubes and Spiral Fin Tubes. — The use of drawn seamless 
tubes or coils made into simple, or sometimes fairly compli- 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



147 



cated forms, is very extensive thrcnighmit the refrigerating 
industry. Considering household machines, the conventional 
condenser and evaporator consists of many feet of seamless 
copper tubes, or steel tubes in case ammonia is used as the 
refrigerant. The copper tubes used ordinarily are 1/4 inch 
outside diameter, 5/16 inch up to 1/2 inch outside diameter 
with a wall thickness of about 0.015 to 0.032 inch. These tubes 




PIG. 14.— TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF FLINTLOCK CONDENSER. 

have ample bursting strength, are soft, easy to work with and 
when formed into coils present an attractive appearance. 

In some designs the tubing is flattened before or while it 
is being formed into a coil; the object in flatting the tubes i-. 
of course, for a given tube spacing to increase the area of the 
air passages between the tubes. For example, if a coil is 
formed with 3/8 inch tubes the center lines of which are 5/8 
inch apart, the air passage between the tubes will be 2/8 or 



148 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



1/4 inch. However, if the same tubes are flattened to a thick- 
ness of 3/16 inch the air passage will be increased from 1/4 
inch to 7/16 inch. Further, if desired, the tubes can be placed 
closer together so that the air passage is still 1/4 inch as be- 
fore, but the overall dimensions of the coil, consisting of a 



mm 


1 




:"'■ • ■i''i««wf((((((((„, 


IIHb 


1, 


^^l 


[^hHH 



FIG. IS.— SPIRAL FIN TUBE CONDENSER. 



given number of feet of tubing, will obviously be reduced. 
In any case it is clear that there is a definite gain in the use 
of flat tubes and whether or not this gain is sufficient to war- 
rant the expense of flattening the tubes should be decided in 
each case. 

Instead of using plain tubing for condensers, evaporators, 
etc., it is possible and very advisable under certain conditions 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



149 



to use so-called spiral fin tubes. As the name indicates, a 
spiral fin, about 1/4 inch wide and 0.006 to 0.008 inches thick, 
is wound spirally around the tube and attached to it securely 



•,u*4*J»;,^' 



piatammmmmmimMiMm 


















^^tiH< 



FIG. 16.— SHOWING HOW SPIRAL FIN TUBE CAN BE SHAPED. 

by means of solder. The finished product is known as a spiral 
fin tube. Such a tube can be wound and formed into various 
shapes as shown in Figs. 15, 16 and 17 showing typical con- 



150 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



densers made by the MoCord Radiator C()m|)any of Detroit, 
Mich. 







FIG. 17.— SPIRAL FIN TUBE. 



A glance at Table LIV will .show that the total outside sur- 
face of the spiral fin tubes is nearly seven times as large as 
the surface of the plain tubes from which they are made. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



151 



Since heat transfer from metal to a fluid such as air or brine 
depends upon the surface, it is clear that the spiral fin tube 
should have some advantage over the plain tube. 'I'his advan- 
tage is particularly large in such cases as that of condensing 
a refrigerant inside of a tube, over which a blast of air is di- 
rected by means of a fan or a blower. In a case of this kind 
the heat absorbed by the air per square foot of tube surface 
is very small compared to the heat transferred by the refrig- 
erant to the tube. For example, if the latter is 20 times as 
large as the former it is clear that the factor limiting the over- 
all heat transfer is the rate at which heat is absorbed by the 
air. However, suppose we increase the surface exposed to 
the air, while the surface in contact with the refrigerant is 
maintained the same ; then one square foot of the inner sur- 
face of the tube will furnish heat to seven square feet of the 
outer surface of the tube, instead of one square foot of the 
outer surface, and conditions will evidently be greatly im- 
proved. 



TABLE LIV STANDARD SIZES OF FLINTLOCK CONDENSERS 













Square Inch 


Size 


Width 


No. Tubes 


ID. Tubes 


No. Fins 


Radiating 












Surface 


6"x 6" 


II4" 


IS 


-K 


43 


609 


7" X 7" 


II4" 


20 




50 


S14 


8" X 8" 


II4" 


24 


"32" 


.37 


1114 


9"x 9" 


V4" 


26 




64 


1364 


10" X 10" 


iH" 


30 


1^32" 


71 


1682 


10" X 12" 


IM" 


36 


"•sV' 


71 


2016 


12" X 12" 


I'A" 


36 


^Ih" 


S5 


2415 


14" X 14" 


IV2" 


32 


''4^' 


99 


3778 


16" X IS" 


1 w 


36 


' (%" 


113 


4937 



The heat transfer from the condensing refrigerant to the 
tube can very aptly be compared to a boulevard 140 feet wide, 
terminating at a large square which would correspond to the 
tube which has a high conductivity ; if this square connects 
only with one pavement, say 20 or 30 feet wide, we shall have 
the case of the plain tube, but if we have seven such streets 
radiating from the square, we shall have the case of a spiral 
fin tube. 



152 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

If the temeperature of the fin surface were the same as the 
temperature of the tube surface then a square foot of the 
fin surface would be equivalent to a square foot of the tube 
surface. But this is not the case, and therefore, a spiral fin 
tube having one square foot of tube surface and six square 
feet of fin surface will have an effective heat transfer capacity 
of 1 + (0.60 X 6) = (1 + 3.6) 4.6 instead of a capacity of 
(1 _}_ 6) == 7, assuming that the efficiency of the fin surface is 
60 per cent of that of the tube, while the plain tube would 
have a heat transfer capacity of one. 

Another advantage of the spiral fin tube is the adaptability to 
compact designs. If 30 feet of spiral fin tubing replace 120 
feet of plain tubing, as it has been done in practice, then it is 
clear that there will result compactness of design, and econ- 
omy of space. 

Further this compactness of design makes possible the 
improvement and control of the air flow through the coils. A 
very good example of this is Fig. 18 where the round con- 
denser can be made to cover the fan and thus use its air blast 
very efficiently. 

Calculation of the Surface of a Spiral Fin Tube. — Consider 
a 3/8 inch outside diameter tube wound spirally with a fin 
1/4 inch wide and 1/6 inch pitch. The surface per foot length 
will be : 

7r3/8 X 12 == 14.18 square inches per foot length of tube. 
Suppose that in winding the ribbon around the tube the out- 
side diameter is maintained at (1/4 -f- 3/8 -f 1/4) = 7/8 inch, 
and the excess material next to the tube is crimped. Then, 
the length of the ribbon, per turn will be practically, tt (7/8) 
and its area, facing upward, tt (7/8) (1/4). Thus the total 
fin or indirect surface, as it is sometimes called will be: 

TT 7/8 X 1/4 X 2 X 6 X 12 = 99 square inches per foot 
length of tube. Where the factor 2 is introduced because 
there are two surfaces, one facing upward and the other facing 
downward; the factor 6 is used because we have 6 turns per 
inch length of tube and 12 in order to get the surface per foot 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



153 



fength of tube. Adding the direct and indirect or fin surface 

we have 

14.18 + 99=113.18 square inches per foot length. 
= 0.785 square feet per foot length. 




FIG. 18.— ROUND CONDENSER. DESIGNED TO COVER THE FAN. 

Next suppose that instead of crimping the fin on the inside, 
we draw it through a die, and force it to assume a flat ring- 
like shape around the tube. The surface of the ring will be 

^{7/2>y (1/4) -.(3/8)^' (1/4) or 

Approximately tt (5/8) (1/4) 



154 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Where 5/8 is the average diameter of the ring and 1/4 its 
width. Thus the total indirect surface will be 

TT 5/8 X 1/4 X 2 X 6 X 12 = 70.7 square inches per foot 
length. 

The total surface of the spiral fin tube will be 70.7 + 14.18 
= 84.88 square inches per foot length. Thus the total surface 



TABLE LV — DATA ON COMMERCIAL FIN 


TUBES 










Tube Sizes 








•>i'6 


^8 


'ie 


Vi 


^ 


Outside Diameter of Tube.s. 
inches 


0.312 


0.375 


0.437 


. .'0 ) 


0.625 






Outside surface oi tubes, 
square inches per foot 
length. 


11 . 78 


14.18 


16.49 


18.85 


23.56 






Fins per inch length of tube 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Width of fins, inches 


0.1S7 


0.2.50 


0.250 


0.250 


0.250 


Outside surface of fins when 
crimped, square inches per 
foot length 


58.31 


99.0 


106.0 


113.1 


127.2 


Total outside surface 
(crimped fins), square 
inches per foot Iciigth. . . . 

Square feet per foot length. . 


70.09 
4.85 


113.18 

7.87 


122.49 

8.50 


131.95 
9.15 


150.76 
10.46 


Outside surface of fins when 
not crimped, square inche.- 
per foot length 


42.3 


70.7 


77 . 7 


S5 


•>9 


Total outside surface (fins 
not crimped) , square inches 
per foot length 


54.08 
3.76 


84.98 
5.9 


94.19 
6.54 


103.85 
721 


122.56 


Square feet per foot length.. 


, 8.72 



of the crimped spiral fin tube is 113.2 square inches i)er foot 
length of tube, while that of the uncrimped spiral fin tube is 
84.9 square inches or 75 per cent of the former. 

Table LV gives in detail data on commercial spiral fin 
tubes, which were calculated as those outlined above. 

The Evaporator. — There are two types of evaporator or 
cooling elements in general use. The type operating with an 
expansion valve is sometimes called the "dry" system. The 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 155 

other type, in which a relatively larger amount of liquid re- 
frigerant is retained in the evaporator, is the "flooded" system. 

The "flooded" system has several important advantages. 
H'eat transfer is more rapid through surfaces contacting with 
liquid than through surfaces contacting with a gas or a mix- 
ture of a gas and a liquid. The additional liquid refrigerant 
in the evaporator has a certain heat storage capacity which 
may prove advantageous. 

A direct expansion system for a household machine usually 
requires a much smaller quantity of refrigerant. This is 
an advantage, if any danger is involved should the gas escape 
in the home. The direct expansion system has an advantage 
in giving an easier starting load when the machine is first 
placed in operation. This condition is very important when 
an air-cooled condenser is used. This system usually oper- 
ates with a more uniform suction pressure, thus automatically 
regulating the refrigerating load more closely than with the 
flooded system. 

It is customary to control the supply of liquid refrigerant 
to the flooded system by a float valve. A float on the liquid 
refrigerant surface drops when the liquid refrigerant is vapor- 
ized and removed by the compressor. This opens a valve, 
allowing sufficient liquid to enter the evaporator to maintain 
the liquid level required by the float to close the valve. 

This valve may be placed in a reservoir forming part of 
the flooded evaporator, or in the liquid sump or reservoir 
below the condenser. When the valve is placed outside of 
the refrigerator, it is necessary to insulate the liquid line to 
the evaporator. In order to avoid this insulated line, most 
designs show this valve located in a header forming part of 
the cooling unit. 

An evaporator in common use consists of pipes or tubes 
immersed in a solution of calciurii or salt brine contained 
in a sheet-metal tank. This tank is placed in the ice compart- 
ment of a refrigerator and usually functions at a surface tem- 
perature colder than ice. 

The average brine temperature found to be suitable for 
household refrigerators is about 20° F. The temperature may 
vary as much as 10° above or below this amount during the 



156 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

operating period without any objectionable results in oper- 
ation. It has been found that with a 20° F. average brine tem- 
perature, ice and desserts can be frozen in quantities sufficient 
for household use within the shortest time intervals between 
meals, that is, five or six hours. 

Experience has indicated that the food compartment of 
the average ice refrigerator will accommodate a large enough 
brine tank for the cooling with a 20° brine tank surface. 

There are three principal factors involved in determining 
the amount of cooling performed by the evaporator : 

1. Amount of effective evaporator surface. 

2. Temperature of evaporator surface. 

3. Rate of air circulation in the cabinet. 

A brine tank will usually maintain a food compartment 
temperature under 50° F. under usual service conditions. If 
the brine tank has a surface equivalent to the average ice sur- 
face, it should, of course, produce lower food compartment 
temperatures, as the 20° F. brine tank surface is 12° colder 
than ice. 

Some manufacturers use an evaporator made of pipes or 
tubing directly exposed to the air. This system eliminates the 
brine. Much difficulty has been experienced in making tanks 
to hold the brine solution, as there is a chemical and electro- 
lytic action which frequently causes tanks to leak. This effect 
is especially bad with copper and solder exposed to the action 
of calcium chloride brine. 

The brineless evaporator usually has a smaller heat stor- 
age capacity. However, with an automatic machine, this is 
not considered so important, as frequent operation is not ob- 
jectionable. Sometimes this heat storage condition is im- 
proved by the addition of a heavy cast-iron sleeve to contain 
the ice trays and to also serve as a heat storage element. 

A large amount of refrigerant is stored in the evaporator 
by some manufacturers to function as a heat storage capacity. 
When the heat storage capacity of the evaporator is rela- 
tively low, the cycles of operation are usually lengthened by 
increasing the temperature differential of the evaporating 
unit. A brine system might operate with a brine differential 
temperature of 4° (22° — 18°). Nearly the same results would 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 157 

be obtained on a brineless evaporator, say of half the heat 
storage capacity, but with a temperature diflferential of 8° 
(24° — 16°). There would be some loss in efftciency in the lat- 
ter case, as the compressor operates at lower efficiency at the 
lower suction pressure required to cool to 16° F. rather than 
18° F. 

It is very important to properly place the evaporator in 
the ice compartment. It should not project above or block 
the warm air flues. The warm air entering these flues should 
pass over the top of the evaporator with little or no restric- 
tion, so that it can drop along the four sides of the brine tank 
to replace the cold air passing out of the compartment. The 
sides of the evaporator should clear all side walls by at least 
two and, preferably, three inches. The clearance at the bot- 
tom should be at least three inches and preferably more. 

The frost collecting on the evaporator sometimes inter- 
feres with the normal operating of the refrigerating system. 
As the evaporating surface is usually below 32°, moisture 
from the circulating air is deposited and freezes .to the cold 
surfaces of the evaporator. This frost will gradually build up 
unless the evaporating surface temperature reaches 32° F. 
during the inoperative period of the cycle. This layer of frost 
acts as a heat insulator and increases the temperature in the 
food compartments. It is customary to stop the mechanical 
unit for certain periods every few weeks to permit this frost 
to melt off the evaporating surface. 

It is an advantage to have an evaporator which will func- 
tion so that the surface will have a high enough temperature 
to defrost each inoperative period of the refrigerating cycle. 
Some of the most important advantages are : 

1. Eliminates food odors from cabinet. 

2. Cooling element operates more efficiently. 

3. Cooling effect more uniform. 

The water vapor in the circulating air absorbs large quan- 
tities of gases and odors from the foods. Some of this water 
vapor is constantly being condensed on the surface of the 
cooling element. It is preferable to discharge this water to 
the drain as soon as possible. Freezing the water liberates a 
large per cent of the gases. Therefore the circulating air 



158 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

will be greatly benefited if the condensed water vapor is dis- 
charged to the drain each inoperative period. 

B.t.u. per pound 
water vapor 

1. To cool water vapor (50° to 32°) 18 

2. To condense water vapor 970 

3. To freeze water vapor 144 

4. To cool ice or frost (32° — 20°) 6 

Total 1,138 

It recjuires a relativel>" large qnantity of heat to condense, 
freeze, and cool the water vapor deposited on the evaporator 
surface, as shown in the table on the preceding page. 

The heat loss under Items 1 and 2 are necessary in order 
to have a dry food compartment with a relative humidity of 
approximately 60 to 80 per cent. 

The heat loss under Items 3 and 4 could be saved by 
operating the evaporator at a surface temperature so that it 
will automatically defrost during the inoperative part of 
the cycle. 

The efificiency of the evaporator surface for cooling the 
circulating air gradually decreases as the thickness of the 
layer of frost on it increases. The ice acts as a heat insulator. 
It is estimated that a layer of frost ]/> inch in thickness will 
decrease the effectiveness of the cooling surface about twenty 
per cent. 

Much difficulty has been experienced in returning lubri- 
cant from the evaporator to the compressor. In the usual 
household system there is a tendency for the lubricant to 
enter the evaporator, while if no special method is used for 
its return to the compressor it may collect in excessive quan- 
tities in the evaporator. An excessive amoimt of lubricant in 
the evaporator will reduce its heat-absorbing efficiency. Some 
household plants have a special oil return system, while others 
use oil traps to prevent this condition. It is an advantage to 
have the evaporator located above the compressor so that any 
oil in the suction line will drain to the compressor. 

The rate of heat transmission between the coil and the 
brine in a direct expansion type of brine tank is from ten to 
fifteen B.t.u. per square foot per degree F. per hour. In a 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 159 

flooded type tank the rate of heat transfer is about double this 

amount. 

When direct expansion coils are used to cool unagitated 
air the rate of heat transmission is I/2 to 2 B.t.u. per square 
foot per degree F. per hour. With brine pipes the rate is 2 to 

21/ B.t.u. 

In designing an evaporator it is of importance to note the 
relative thermal conductivity of the following materials: 

Corkboard ^ \' ca 

Half inch air space = J- ^4 

One inch air space = 1-5d 

Water = J^- 

Brine (calcium or sodium) — lo. 

Ice = ^'^• 

Iron = 1-100- 

Copper =8600. 

Brine Tank Data.— Table LVI gives the properties of 
solution of calcium chloride in water. The gravity expressed 
in degrees Beaume and in degrees salometer, per cent of cal- 
cium chloride, freezing point in degrees F., and the corre- 
sponding ammonia gauge pressure in pounds per square inch 
(corresponding to the freezing point) are given. 

Table LVII gives data on the properties of solutions of 
common salt (sodium chloride) in water. 

Table LVIII gives interesting brine tank data, relative 
to the heat-storing capacity and cost of various materials, 
which might be used to replace calcium chloride or sodium 
chloride brine. Specific gravity, specific heat, B.t.u. heat-stor- 
ing capacity per pound of material in cents, and B.t.u. stored 
for each cent cost of material are given for some common sub- 
stances, such as calcium and salt brine, water, cast iron, lead, 
copper, aluminum, concrete, sandstone, paraffin, oil, and kero- 
sene. In reference to the heat stored per pound of material, 
it will be noted that water has the highest value. This is, of 
course, due to the high specific heat. Oil and kerosene are 
lowest, with approximately 0.4 B.t.u. per pound of material. 
In reference to the cost of material, it will be observed that 
the sandstone has the smallest cost, with sodium and calcium 
chloride brine next, and with aluminum as the highest cost. 
In reference to the B.t.u. stored for each cent cost of materials. 



160 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



it will be noted that lead has the lowest value, this being 0.006, 
and that sandstone is the highest, with the value of 4.4 B.t.u. 

TABLE LVI. — PROPERTIES OF SOLUTION OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE IN 

WATER 







' 


Lbs. of Calcium 




Specific O-avitv 


I'er Cent Pure 


Freezing Temp. 


Chloride Crystals 


Weight, .Ijs. per 


at bO°F. 


Calcium Chloride 


Degree F. 


(73 to 75';,) in one 
Gal. of Brine 


Gal. at 60°F. 


1 000 


00 


32.00 




8 33 


1 0!0 


1 40 


31 50 




8 44 


1 020 


2 30 


30 50 




8 50 


1.030 


3 80 


29 50 




8.59 


1.040 


5 00 


27 50 




8.67 


1.050 


6 20 


26 00 




8.76 


1.060 


7,20 


24 75 




8.84 


1.070 


8.20 


23 75 




8.92 


1.080 


9 60 


22 50 




9.00 


1.090 


10.60 


21.00 




9.10 


1.100 


11.80 


18,50 


1 43 


9 18 


1.110 


12 80 


16 50 


1 60 


9.25 


1.120 


13 80 


14 50 


1,75 


9.34 


1.130 


15 00 


12 00 


1 88 


9.42 


1.140 


16 00 


10 30 


2 05 


9.49 


1.150 


17.20 


+ 7,52 


2.18 


9,58 


1.160 


18 30 


+ 3 75 


2.35 


9.67 


1.170 


I'J 20 


+ 1 50 


2.50 


9.77 


1.175 


19 85 


- 1 50 


2.56 


9.80 


1.180 


20 20 


- 2 50 


2.65 


9.85 


1.190 


21.20 


- 5 50 


2.80 


9 93 


1.200 


22 20 


- 9 50 


2.95 


10 00 


1.210 


23.20 


-14.00 


3.10 


10.09 


1.220 


24.20 


-18.00 


3.30 


10.10 


1.230 


25.10 


-23.50 


3.45 


10 22 


1.240 


26.00 


-27.04 


3 60 


10.34 


1.250 


27.00 


-32.62 


3 76 


10.42 


1.260 


27.85 


-39.00 


4 00 


10.52 


1.270 


28.80 


-44.50 


4.10 


10.60 


1.280 


29.70 


-52.50 


4.35 


10.68 


1.290 


30 60 


-54.40 


4.50 


10.76 


1.300 


31.60 


-42.50 


4.70 


10.84 


1.310 


32 40 


-32.50 


4.90 


10.92 


1.320 


33 40 


-17.00 


5 10 


11.00 


1.330 


34.20 


- 4.00 


5.25 


11 08 


1.340 


34.50 


+ 3.50 


5 40 


11.16 


1.350 


36.10 


+ 14.37 


5 60 


11.23 



From "Practical Refrigerating Engineers' Pockethook." Xickerson & Collins Co. 

The freezing points of some brine tank solutions arc given 
by Fig. 8. Curves showing the freezing points as the percent- 
age by volume of solute are given for glycerin, denatured 
alcohol, calcium chloride, and one-half wood alcohol and one- 
half glycerin. 

Prime Mover. — Electric motors are used to drive practically 
all household refrigerating machines. Most of the machines 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



161 



TABLE LVII.— PROPERTIES OF SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE) SOLUTIONS 

IN WATER 



Specific Gravity 
at 39°F. 

1.010 
1.020 
1.030 
1.040 
1.050 

1.060 
1.070 
1.080 
1.090 
1.100 

1.110 
1.120 
1.130 
1.140 
1 . 150 

1.160 
1.170 
1.180 
1.190 
1.191 

1.200 
1.204 



Pb.- Cent of 
Sodium Chloride 

15 

2.6 

4 

5 2 
6.5 

7.8 

9.1 
10.4 
11 8 

13 

14 1 

15 5 

16.8 

18 

19 2 

20 5 

21.8 

23 
24 . :i 

24 .i 

25 6 

26 U 



Freezing Temp. 
Degree F. 

30.25 
28.40 
26.60 
J5.20 
23.40 

21.60 
19.90 
18.40 
16 40 
14.60 

13.4 
11.6 
10.0 

8.0 

7.0 

5.9 
3.8 
2.4 
1.0 

+ 0.8 

+ 0.2 
- 1.1 



Weight, Lbs. 


Specific Heat 


per Gallon 




8.44 


0.986 


8 50 


0.979 


8.59 


0.968 


8.67 


0.958 


8.70 


0.945 


8.84 


0.938 


8 . 92 


0.922 


9 OU 


0.912 


9 10 


0.902 


9.18 


0.886 


9.25 


876 


9.34 


0.865 


9.42 


0.856 


9.49 


0.846 


9.58 


0.832 


9.67 


0.824 


9.77 


0.817 


9.85 


0.806 


9.9:i 


0.794 


9.91 


0.792 


10 00 


0.776 


10.04 


0.771 



This table varies sHghtly from 4°F. to 20°F. from those usually pubhshod, which are 
considered more correct. The differences would affect, only calculations on congealing 
tanks, as it is customary in ice making to make the brme as strong as possible, or u^ar 
25% or 26%. 

From "Practical Refrigerating Engineers' Pocketbook," Nickerson & Collins Co. 





TABLE LVIII. — BRINI 


: TANK DA 


TA 




Relative heat 


storing capacity- 


and cost of 


various materials which 


might replace 


calcium or salt brine. 
















B.t.u. 
Heat 




B.t.u. 








Storing 


Cost per 


Stored 




Specific 


Specific 


Capacity 


Pound of 


for Each 




'^'•avity 


Heat 


per 


Material 


Cent 








Pound of 


Cents 


Cost of 








Material 




Materials 


Salt brine 


1.2 


0.78 


0.93 


0.5 


1.9 


Calcium Brine 


1.2 


0.70 


0.84 


0.5 


1.68 


Water 


1.0 


1.00 


1.00 






Cast Iron 


7.1 


0.13 


0.92 


5.0 


0.18 


Lead 


11.4 


0.03 


0.34 


6.0 


0.006 


Copper 


8.9 


0.093 


0.83 


20.0 


0.041 


Aluminum 


2.6 


0.22 


0.57 


30.0 


0.019 


Concrete 


2.2 


0.25 


0.55 


0.14 


3.9 


Sandstone 


2.2 


0.20 


0.44 


0.1 


4.4 


Paraffin 


0.9 


0.69 


0.62 


10.0 


0.062 


Oil 


0.9 


0.4 


0.36 


6.0 


0.06 


Kerosene 


0.8 


0.5 


0.40 


2.0 


0.20 



162 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

on the market today use Y^ horse power motors. This size 
motor with a reasonably efficient refrigerating system should 
be capable of refrigerating properl} fifty cubic feet of food 
storage space. Refrigerating systems of this capacity in use 
todav recjuire from three to six times the amount of current 
necessary to ])erform this duty on a large commercial plant. 
More efficient machines should be developed; however, it is 
not necessary to ver}- closely approach the efficiency of the 
large plant. 

Some machines have been placed on the market using 1/6 
horse power motors. This size has now proven successful 
for the smaller units up to twenty cubic feet of food storage 
space. 

It is assumed that the food storage spaces are properly 
insulated. For fotul compartment temperatures of 4O°-50° F., 
the insulation should be at least o inches thickness of cork- 
board or its equivalent. 

The starting torque and the overload capacit} are impor- 
tant features in the choice or design of the motor. The over- 
load may l^e double the normal operating load and it may 
be necessary to operate at this overload for several hours. 
This condition usuall}- occurs when the machine is i)laced in 
operation in a warm environment temperature. The starting 
torque is high when the unit is first placed in operation on 
account of the high pressure on the evaporating side of the 
system. In normal operation the starting torque may be 
greatl}- increased if either the expansion valve or the com- 
pressor discharge valve leaks. Air-cooled machines have a 
more severe starting condition than water-cooled machines 
especially Avhcn a dead air condenser is used. 

It is customary to use repulsion-induction t>pe of a.c. 
motors for driving household refrigerating machines because 
of their rclati\"cly high starting torque. Split-phase motors 
have been used to a \'ery limited extent on some of the 
smaller machines. 

Some machines have been made with the entire motor 
housed inside a gas tight metal casing, thus eliminating the 
packing of a drive shaft. Considerable difficultv has been 
experienced, however, in operating a motor enclosed with the 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 163 

refrigerant gas. A later design has the stator outside a thin 
metal casing, the rotor being inside, thus eliminating pack- 
ing a drive shaft. 

Lubrication of the motor is an important feature as it usu- 
ally operates from six to twelve hours a day. With this 
service condition, the motor should be oiled at least once a 
month. Some motors are oiled automatically through copper 
tube lines from a gear case pump ; the oil is forced or splashed 
into the tube by the rotating gear. This method is only ap- 
plicable on a direct-connected motor compressor unit. 

The efficiencies of fractional horsepower alternating' cur- 
rent motors of the repulsion-indution type at full rated load 
are usually ^^•ithin the following limits: 

Horsepower Efficiency per cent 

Yf, 50-60 

^ 60-75 

y. 65-80 

Direct current motors should have efficiencies considerably 
higher than given in this table. 

It is customary to limit the normal operating load to 300 
watts on the )4 hp. and to 200 watts on the 1/6 hp. size. 
These motors will usually stand 100 i)er cent overload for 
short periods of operation. 

Table LIX gives the amjK-re ratings of alternating current 
motors of capacities ranging from ^ to 5 h]). on both single 
and three-phase current, at 110 and 120 volts. 



TABLE LIX — AMPERE RATING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS 



SINGLE PHASE 


THKEE 


pha.se 


Horsepower 


no Volts 


220 Volts 


110 Volts 


220 Volts 


"34 


4 


2 






^ 


7.5 


3.75 


4.4 


2.2 


H 


10 


5 






1 


12.5 


6.25 


8 


4 


IV2 


18 


9 


10.3 


5.1 


2 


- 24 


12 


12.5 


6.25 


3 


34 


17 


18 


9 


4 


43 


22 


24 


12 





55 


28 


30 


15 



164 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The Drive. — Some of the more important types of drives 
in use are : belt, gear, and direct. 

The belt drive has several important advantages. It gives 
an easier starting torque than a direct-connected or gear drive. 
Some motors operate at a rather small load and therefore at a 
low efficiency, simply because they must be large enough to 
insure starting under all conditions of service. The belt also 
gives a certain protection to the motor, as it will sometimes 
slip or come of? the pulleys with an excessive overload on the 
motor. Another important advantage of a belt drive is that it 
can be easily repaired or replaced without the services of an 
expert mechanic. 

A belt drive generally costs less than a gear drive. The 
belt drive is easier to manufacture and assemble as it does not 
require such close limits on lining up the motor. 

Some machines use a series of from two to five small 
belts. If one breaks it does not greatly ailect operation. This 
multiple belt system has not proven very satisfactory in actual 
use, probably because one of the belts is usually driving more 
than its share of the load. 

A belt drive is ordinarily from 95 to 98 per cent efficient. 
This is a much higher efficiency than is usually obtained with 
a gear drive. 

An exposed belt drive is dangerous on a machine which 
starts automatically, and every precaution should be taken to 
safeguard it. One method of obtaining this result is to make 
the condenser coil of tubing and arranging it so as to form 
a guard around the belt and its pulleys. 

Flat belts have been used on a large number of successful 
machines. They are generally made of either leather, canvas, 
or fabric. 

An idler is generally used with a flat belt drive. It is 
necessary in order to increase the angle of contact on the 
motor pulley. The idler is usually operated by a spring or a 
weight. It also serves another purpose in automatically keep- 
ing the belt tight by compensating for any stretching of the 
belt in service. One cannot depend upon attention being given 
to a belt by the user, especially in the way of making adjust- 
ments. One of the difficult features on a flat belt drive is to 
insure necessary lubrication of the idler pulley. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 165 

The V-type rubber or fabric belt as developed for use in 
driving" the radiator fan on automobiles is being used with 
success on household plants. It has most of the features of a 
flat belt with the added advantage of not requiring an idler 
pulley. A belt of this type drives by means of friction on the 
side of the V-shaped groove. The inside face of the belt 
should not touch the pulley. These belts are generally of the 
endless type, they run quite loose and do not stretch enough 
in service to require any adjustment of pulley centers. 

Spiral gear drives arc used on compressors both with par- 
allel and right angle shafts. 

Spiral gears have an advantage over worm gears in that 
they do not require as close limits on shaft centers and can 
be made without a hob. 

Gear drives produce end thrust on the shafts which is 
usually carried on a thrust or ball bearing. It is difficult to 
keep the end clearance on shafts, subjected to a thrust load, 
to a small enough limit so that the noise from end play on the 
shafts will not be objectionable. 

The thrust bearings should be well lubricated. The start- 
ing torque ma}' sometimes be greatly increased when the 
thrust bearings have not received instant lubrication on start- 
ing. This may occur when the thrust bearings are lubricated 
by a splash system which does not function until the machine 
has started to operate. ' 

It has been difficult to build gear drives for the recipro- 
cating type compressors so that excessive noise would not 
result on account of backlash caused by the necessary clear- 
ance between the teeth. 

Gear drives usually operate at an efficiency of 70 to 90 
per cent. 

The direct-connected drive is in common use on machines 
having a gear or rotary pump and on machines with the mov- 
ing parts enclosed in the refrigerant gas space. Most of the 
designers have placed the packing gland on the relatively 
slow-speed compressor shaft, as it is more difficult to pack 
the motor shaft which rotates at a much higher speed. When 
the motor or the moving part of the motor is enclosed in the 
gas space, this packing gland trouble is eliminated. Diffi- 
culties have been experienced in starting machines which have 



166 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

a thin metal shell between the rotor and field of the motor, 
especially on three-phase, alternating-current motors. 

The direct-connected unit has proven more successful 
comnierciall>- in Europe than in the United States. 

Valves. — The suction and discharge ^'alves should be de- 
signed for service, quietness, positive opening and closing ac- 
tion, and efficiency. 

The suction vahe is usualU' simi)ly a port or slot in the 
cylinder wall which is uncovered b\- the piston during its 
relatively slow rate of travel at the end of the stroke. This 
type of valve has a relatively low efficiency but is free from 
service troubles, operates quietly, and is positive in action. 

The port valve has a loss in efficiency due to the necessity 
of producing a vacuum in the cylinder, as the top of the piston 
returns on the suction stroke. The gas rushes in the cylinder 
at the end of the stroke during the short interval of time that 
the port is unco\'ered by the piston sometimes causing wire 
drawing, a further loss in efficiency. 

The port valve c;in be used to good advantage on com- 
pressors with lapped ])istons, as some difficulty has been expe- 
rienced in using piston rings which must pass over ports in 
the cylinder walls. 

A floating val\-e of the poppet type is used in the pistons 
of some of the larger compressors. These valves have not 
proven so successful as the port type, as a small particle of 
scale, sand, carbon or dirt can be de])osited on the seat and 
will prevent the valve closing tightly. This frecpiently hap- 
pens on a new machine and is prevented to a certain extent 
by placing a fine mesh screen in the suction line of the com- 
pressor. 

Some designs use a slight rotating movement of the cyl- 
inder itself to uncover ports. 

Many varieties of discharge valves are used. These are 
simph' check valves permitting low-pressure gas to enter the 
cylinder on the suction stroke. 

The poppet type valve has proven successful with a light 
spring to assist in closing. Disc steel valves are also used. 
These are more difficult to manufacture than the poppet type, 
however the\' make less noise. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 167 

The steel spring flapper valve is used to a considerable 
extent. These valves require very close limits in manufacture. 
They give good service once they are assembled properly, and 
are not easily affected by corrosion or dirt. 

The discharge valve should be capable of opening more 
than the normal lift, in order to discharge liquid refrigerant 
or lubricant which is sometimes pumped by the compressor. 

An important feature to be considered in valve design, is 
to construct a valve which Avill give service for years without 
requiring adjustments or service of any kind. A service call 
is quite expensive and with most of the refrigerating gases in 
common use, such repairs can only be made by a trained serv- 
ice man. This is probably the fundamental reason for using 
port suction valves even at large loss in ef^ciency, by some 
of the most successful manufacturers. 

Shut-off valves are very important in order to facilitate re- 
pairs to a certain part of the refrigerating system. It is 
customary to use three of these valves, one on the suction or 
inlet line to the compressor, one on the discharge line between 
the compressor and condenser, and the third between the con- 
denser and expansion valve. The valves near the compressor 
usually have double seats so that they nia\- be closed against 
a gauge or charging connection. 

It is important to have the valve stem opening limited by 
a stop to prevent backing out the stem and thus losing some 
of the refrigerant. When the refrigerating system is not used 
for a period of weeks, it is sometimes advisable to close the 
two valves on the compressor, suction, and discharge lines, to 
prevent loss of refrigerant through the packing gland. 

Alco Liquid Control Valve. — Fig. 19 is a cross-section of 
the automatic liquid control valve manufactured by the Alco 
Valve Company, at St. Louis, Mo. 

The liquid refrigerant enters at F. In operation the valve 
needle J opens from the valve seat G and the liquid refrigerant 
discharges through tube K. 

These discharge tubes are furnished in different sizes for 
different capacity machines. 

Expansion of the refrigerant is prevented in the valve body 
by using the small discharge tube K. It is claimed that this 



168 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



feature eliminates the following troubles experienced with the 
regular type expansion valve. 

1. Frost forming on the valve. 

2. Water freezing on the diaphragm. 

3. Oil congealing in the valve. 

4. Scoring of pin or seat. 




FIG. 19.— CROSS SECTION ALCO LIQUID CONTROL VALVE. 

American Automatic Expansion Valve. — Fig. 20 shows the 
automatic expansion valve made by the American Radiator 
Company of Buffalo, N. Y. 

These valves are designed for use with the following re- 
frigerants : Methyl chloride, sulphur dioxide, ethyl chloride, 
or any refrigerant not having a detrimental effect on brass. 

Fig. 21 is a sectional view of this valve. Adjustment is 
made by turning the adjusting screw, regulating the spring 
pressure against the bellows. 

The valve closes against pressure, thereby eliminating 
chattering and wire drawing, and making the valve seat self- 
cleaning. 

Pressure is on the outside of the bellows, a desirable con- 
struction feature. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



169 



Valves are supplied with 3/8-inch pipe thread or flanged 
connections. 




FIG. 20.— AMERICAN AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE. 




FIG. 21.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF AMERICAN AUTOMATIC EXPANSION 

VALVE. 

American Float Valve and Refrigerating Section. — Fig. 22 
shows the float valve which may be used either as a low or 
high pressure float. 



170 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The float is cylindrical, thereby making the vah'e more 
compact than is the case when the nsual bulb t} pe is used. 




FIG. 22.— AMERICAN FLOAT VALVE. 

A new style of domestic refrigerating section is now manu- 
factured as in Fig. 23. This section is made in two types, one 
as illustrated, containing the float chamber, and a similar type 




FIG. 23.— AMERICAN REFRIGERATING SECTION 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



171 



without the float chamber. These are made for fi\'e or seven 
ice travs, each tray containino- eig'ht cubes, one cube wide and 
eight cubes dee]). 




FIG. 24.— A.\[ERIC AX RKFK ICERATIXG SKCTIOX IXSTAT.LKD. 



Fig. 24. shows one of these refrigerating sections installed 
in a cabinet. This design gives more space in the refrigerator 
for the storage of food than cooling units of conventional 
design. 

Flow of Air Through Orifices. — Table LX gives the 
amount of free air in cubic feet which will flow through circu- 
lar orifices in a receiver into air at atmospheric pressure, cor- 
responding to various air gauge pressures in pounds per square 
inch in the receiver. The diameter of the orifices varies from 
1/64 in. to 2 ins. 



172 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



V^t^oof^i^ 

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,-1 (^i rr, -rf \D <-> 



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PO Tj- 00 VO .... 

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vj, i^ ^ 00 o 3^ J>J 
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S CM ^ ro 22 ."S ^ 

,-1 CM rO '^ ^ 00 



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§?- 



QO 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 173 

Temperature Control. — The automatic temperature control 
is an important part of the refrigerating system. 

The food compartments should be maintained at a tempera- 
ture never warmer than 50° F. and never colder than 40° F. 
These temperature limits have been definitely established by 
experience. Perishable foods keep well at a temperature below 
50° F. Food compartment temperatures below 40° F. will 
cause unnesessary heat losses even with a well-insulated cab- 
inet, and the outside surface of the cabinet will frequently be 
damaged by sweating. 

The automatic control should be arranged to freeze water 
or desserts in a reasonable length of time, and to constantly 
maintain the food compartment temperatures between 40° and 
50° F. 

It is desirable to freeze water or desserts in less than the 
shortest time interval between meals which is about six hours. 
An average brine temperature of 20° F. will freeze water in 
the ordinary cube form in from four to six hours. The tem- 
perature should not vary more than four degress from thi^i 
value. It is more difficult to freeze desserts than water, espe- 
cially if the ice tray grids are removed. 

Some of the first mechanical refrigerators sold had the 
Hquid tube of the thermostat line suspended in the cold air 
flue. This liquid tube was connected by tubing to a diaphragm 
or metal bellows which operated the motor switch. 

A 1/4-hp. motor was generally used and this required a 
quick make and break type of switch. This was called the food 
compartment temperature control system. 

Some of the volatile liquids used in these thermostat sys- 
tems were : Sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, 
and ether. 

The usual method of operating the switch is by means 
of a violatile liquid. This liquid is trapped in a closed gas 
system, so that the liquid tube itself is always immersed in 
the brine or in close contact with the place where the tempera- 
ture is to be regulated. The diaphragm or metal bellows can 
be placed above or below this liquid trap. The gas pressure 
in the closed system is always definitely determined by the 
temperature of the volatile liquid. The switch can be adjusted 



174 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



to operate at any desired temperature, within the working 
range of the liquid used. 

An improvement in the l:)rine temperature regulating sys- 
tem is to use an automatic damper in the cold air flue. This 




FIG. 25.— PEXX ELECTRICAL CONTI^OL. 

damper opens and increases the air circulation when the food 
compartment temperature increases. 

Another method of improving this temperature control, 
is to have the liquid tube located close to the last turns of the 
evaporating coil. Then if the evaporating coil frosts through, 
the liquid controlling the temperature in the thermostat will 
be rapidly cooled, thus stopping the compressor. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 175 

Other manufacturers use a temperature control partly in- 
fluenced by the temperature of the brine and partly by the 
temperature of the circulating air. This kind of regulation 
has advantages of both of the systems previously described. 

Some machines are operated by a time clock. The clock 
operates a switch and can be set for a certain number of 
cycles per day. Usually this type of control is adjusted for 
a summer or winter condition. This system does not com- 
pensate for cold nights and gives rather unsatisfactory food 
compartment temperature regulation. 

Some switches are operated by using a bimetallic thermo- 
stat. The small temperature differential, usually from 4° to 
10° F., makes the design of a bimetallic thermostat a difficult 
problem. Swatches of this type have not proven a success 
commercially. 

An improvement in the bimetallic sw'itch is being used 
now. It consists of mounting to a bimetallic member a glass 
tube, containing a small amount of mercury which flows from 
one end to the other. In this way a quick make and break 
contact is secured. These tubes have the air exhausted from 
them and contain an inert gas so that any arcing will not 
affect the mercury or terminal contact points. 

Fig. 25 show^s a switch made by the Penn Electric Machine 
Co., of Des Moines, la. 

This swutch is provided with a bellows type diaphragm, 
which can either be filled with a volatile fluid or attached to 
a bulb, which contains the volatile fluid and which causes the 
diaphragm to expand, closing the switch contacts when the 
temperature increases to the predetermined amount. 

The switch may be placed inside or outside the refrigera- 
tor. When placed outside, the bulb containing the volatile 
fluid is inside at the desired location for proper temperature 
control. This installation simplifies the wiring connections. 

The contacts are of the two-pole double break per line 
type. The swatch is approved by Underwriters for use on 
motors up to 5 hp., 3-phase, 550-volts. 

This type switch is compact, easily installed, and conven- 
ient for wiring. 



176 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Thermostat Operation. — Figs. 26 and 27 show the opera- 
tion of a volatile liquid thermostat. 

The volatile Hquid is contained in a tube immersed in the 
brine. Sufficient liquid is placed in this tube so that at the 
highest operating temperature there will still be liquid in the 
thermostat bulb. In this way, the pressure in the thermostat 
line is always the corresponding pressure for the temperture 
of the liquid in the bulb. 



(3A5 AT HIGH PRESSURE. 



THERMOSTAT BULB 



M TEMP 24 F 



brihe: tank 




METAL BELLOWS RELEASED 
SWITCH CLOSED 
5PRIHQ 



HIGH PRESSURE IN thermostat Lm.E 
CL05E5 SWITCH AGAINST SPRING 

FIG. 26.— OPERATION OF VOLATILE LIQUID THERMOSTAT. 

In Fig. 26 the brine temperature has increased to 24°, 
vaporizing some of the liquid in the thermostat bulb and in- 
creasing the gas pressure, until finally the metal bellows ex- 
pands against the spring, closing the motor switch. 

The motor then operates the compressor cooling the brine. 
The thermostat bulb is cooled decreasing the gas pressure in 
the thermostat system. The gas pressure is decreased as gas 
is condensed into liquid form in the thermostat bulb. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



177 



Finally the pressure is lowered to a pressure so that the 
spring will compress the metal bellows and open the motor 
switch. 

By adjusting the compression of the spring, the motor may 
be started or stopped at any desired brine temperature. 

When too much liquid is charged into a thermostat sys- 
tem of this kind, the pressure will be a function of the thermo- 



GAS AT LOW PRESSURE 



THERMOSTAT BULB 



M tehp ig°p 



BRINE TANK 




HETAL BELLOWS CONTRACTED 

SWITCH OPEN 

SPRING* 



LOW PRESSURE IN THERMOSTAT LIME 
PERMITS SPRiNQ TO OPEH SWITCH 

FIG. 27.— OPERATION OF VOLATILE LIQUID THERMOSTAT. 

Stat line temperature and the control will not operate satis- 
factorily. 

If the volatile liquid charge is too small, all the liquid will 
vaporize at the higher brine temperature and the control will 
not function properly. 

Air or foreign gases in the thermostat system will produce 
an abnormally high pressure at all times. Oil in the thermo- 
stat will cause a sluggish action. 



178 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Water Controls. — When a water-cooled condenser is used 
with the compression ty])e household machine, it is desirable 
to have the following controls. 

1. Open the water valve when the compressor starts to operate. 

2. Close the water valve when the compressor shuts down. 

3. Regulate the amount of water supplied to the condenser com- 
pensating for a warmer or colder tap water temperature. 

4. Regulate the amount of water supplied to compensate fur 
different loads on the compressor. 

5. Compensate for different water supply line pressures. 

6. Prevent the compressor from operating when the water sup- 
ply fails. 

7. Permit the compressor to function normally when the water 
supply is again available. 

A method of water control in common use is to open, 
close, and regulate the water valve l)y means of a diaphragm 
or metal l)ellows responsive to the condensing pressure. 

The valve is set to open at a certain pressure slightly 
higher than the pressure ever obtained in the condenser dur- 
ing the inoperative part of the c}cle. An increase in con- 
densing i^ressure will open the water valve still more. This 
increase in condensing pressure may be due to an increased 
load on the compressor or to a higher tap water temperature 
or to a decrease in the water supply line pressure. 

Another system of water control is to use a water valve 
opened and closed 1)\' means of a solenoid coil. This coil is 
placed in the motor circuit and holds the A'alve open while 
the compressor is operating. This system does not compen- 
sate for dififerential water tem])eratures and changes in the 
refrigerating load. 

A water cooling system used to some extent consists of 
a val\-e opened l)}' the centrifugal force of weights mounted on 
the compressor or motor shaft. This gives a control function- 
ing in a wav similar to the electric val\e but entirely mechan- 
ical in operation. This system does not regulate the amount 
of water supplied, in accordance with the requirements due to 
changes in temperature, pressure, and load. 

A dead w-ater tank has been used to some extent. The 
condenser is immersed in a rather large tank of water. Dur- 
ing the inoperative part of the cycle, this water is cooled to a 
temperature ap})roaching that of the room. As a household 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



179 



machine usually (jperates about 25 i)er cent of the time, there 
is a sufficient time interval between runs for the condensing 
water to cool to nearly the room temperature. 

Mercoid Control. — Fig. 28 and 29 shows a special control 
for domestic refrigerating machines made by the American 
Radiator Company of Buffalo and the Federal Gauge Com- 
])an} of Chicago. 




v_J U I 



FIG. 28.— MERCOID CO.XTKOL, FLKXIIU.K TlliE TVl'E. 



The Alercoid Switch cctnsists of a glass tuljc in which are 
sealed leads of sjjecial material. A cpiantity of mercury makes 
or breaks the circuit when the tube is tilted. Hermetically 
sealed within the tube are inert gases which stifle the arc 
instantly. There is no oxidation or corrosion. The contact 
is permanently clean and instantaneous in operation. 

Fig. 28 shows the remote control, flexible tube type. Fig. 
29 shows the ])ressure type thermostat. 



180 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



This control can be furnished to automatically open or 
close an electric circuit with a change in temperature. The 
circuit is controlled directly to the motor or other electric 
equipment. 

Ordinary lighting or power current can be run through the 
control. 

The operation of this control is very simple. A power ele- 
ment is expanded automatically by temperature, which in turn, 




FIG. 29.— PRESSURE TYPE THERMOSTAT. 

tilts the switch with a snap action. A spring throws the switch 
in the opposite direction as pressure or temperature decreases. 

A special feature of the thermostatic power element is its 
dependability. The operation remains constant and does not 
change; years of service will not affect its power or sen- 
sitivity. 

The power element consists of a seamless metallic bellows, 
the folds of which are so made that expansion and contraction 
will not affect the life of the metal. When used thermostati- 
cally the bellows contain liquids of various boiling points as 
determined by the desired operating temperatures. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



181 



Refrigerator Control Switch. — Fig. 30 is a sectional view 
ot the electric refrigerator control unit made by the Automatic 
Reclosing Circuit Breaker Company of Columbus, Ohio. 

The expansion bellows is filled with a freezing solution. 
When this solution freezes the bellows expand and close the 




T£/?Al//^m5 



coA/r/Fcr D/sc 



3f/LLOyVS 



O/L 



FIG. 30.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF ELECTRICAL REFRIGERATOR CONTROL. 



electric circuit by forcing the dish-shaped contact against the 
two electric terminal inserts. 

There is no adjustment for temperature as this setting is 
obtained by changing the proportions of the materials used 
for making the freezing solution. 

This design affords a control free from outside adjust- 
ments and of very simple construction. 



182 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Multiflex Bellows. — Fig. 31 shows the seamless one-piece 
multiflex metal bellows made by the Bishop & Babcock Sales 
Compaii}". 

These bellows are used in many different parts of electrical 
refrigerating systems, usually in connection with the thermo- 
stat while some manufacturers use them Uj seal the compres- 
sor shaft. 




A — IiisidL- Diameter P. — Outside Diameter. 

FIG. 31.~SEAMLESS OXE-PIECE MULTIFLE.X METAL i'.EIJJ^WS. 



Table LXI gives standard sizes of bellows. Wall thick- 
ness can be supplied for external or internal pressure to 500 
pounds per scjuare inch. 

The Fedders Manufacturing Company oi Buffalo, New 
York, make ai)pliances for household refrigerating machines. 

Fig. 32 shows a condenser and receiver unit. The con- 
denser consists of coils of coi)])er tubing with a special type 
of copper fins to increase the cooling efficiency. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 

TABLE LXI aTANDAKD BELLOW.s 



183 



Outside 


Inside 


Free 


No. of 


Norniul 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Movenioiit 


Convolutions 


I.engtli 


1" 


M" 


M" 


18 


Us" 


IM" 


^Vx^' 


5^6" 


16 


l-Ke" 


IH" 


1" 


y^' 


18 


IM" 


VA" 


11^2" 


Vs" 


18 


1^" 


1^" 


1%" 


y^" 


18 


IM" 


I'Hg" 


1^^" 


^" 


18 


2" 


2" 


l^/fe" 


Ke" 


16 


2!'i'6" 


2W 


IJ^" 


y," 


14 


2M" 


2%" 


1«^" 


Ke" 


15 


2M" 


w% 


2M" 


M" 


18 


33^" 


43^" 


3^" 


M" 


17 


25^" 


7^" 


6K" 


J^" 


10 


2M" 



Fig. 2)C> is a photograph of the expansion vahe which may 
be used with any of the refrigerants ifi common use in house- 
hold machines. A change of springs is necessary with very 
low pressure refrigerants. 




FIG. 32.— CONDENSER AND RECEIVER UNIT. 

Fig. 34 is a tubular liquid strainer used in the inlet connec- 
tion to the expansion valve. A liquid filter, Fig. 35, is used 
to filter out the small particles of scale or oxide which may 
accumulate in the refrigerating system. This filter contains 
two circular pieces of fine meshed screen with wool felt be- 
tween them. 



(V 



184 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 36 shows a typical brine tank. These tanks are made 
of tinned copper with lock seams. The wall thickness of the 
copper is .028 inches. These tanks are made in standard sizes 





FIG. 33.— EXPANSION VALVE. 



to suit the requirements of the different styles and types 
refrigerators in use today. 





FIG. 34.— TUBULAR LIQUID STRAINER. 



REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 



185 




FIG. 35.— A LIQUID FILTER. 




FIG. 36.— A TYPICAL BRINE TANK. 



CHAPTER VII 

HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATING MACHINES 
COMPRESSION TYPE 



Household Refrigerating Machines. — In this chapter, at- 
tention will be given tc) the general types and characteristic 
construction of a number t)f household compression refrigerat- 
ing machines. The makes of the various household refrigerat- 
ing machines which are described here have been selected 
promiscuousl}-, and represent the characteristic design of 
the different classes of machines. It does not include descrip- 
tions of all of the different kinds of household machines, since, 
at present, there are several hundred different concerns pro- 
ducing or developing machines of this type. 




FIG. .^7.— .\BSOPURE AIR-COOLED MECHANICAL UNIT. 

In the following, attention has been given to the mechan- 
ical design of the different parts of the compression type. 

Absopure. — Fig. Z'J shows a % hp. air-cooled mechanical 
unit used on the household machine manufactured by the Gen- 

187 



188 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 38.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF ABSOPURE COMPRESSOR. 




FIG. 39.— HALF-HORSEPOWER ABSOPURE CONDENSING UNIT FOR I€K 

CREAM CABINET. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 189 

eral Necessities Corporation of Detroit, Michigan. This ma- 
chine uses methyl chloride as the refrigerant. 

A sectional view of the compressor is shown in Fig. 38. 
The motor drives the compressor by means of a "V" type belt. 
The discharge valve is of a disk type. The shut-off valves are 
made of forged brass. 




FIG. 40.— TYPICAL ABSOPURE FREEZING UNIT I\ VARIOUS SIZE.S. 

The Yz hp. air-cooled mechanical unit is shown in Fig. 39. 
This is one of the condensing units used for ice cream cabinet 
work. The condensing unit is placed in a compartment which 
mav be fastened to the ice cream cabinet. 



190 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 40 shows a typical freezing unit. These are made in 
sizes suitable for use in all types of household refrigerators. 




FIG. 41.— TYPICWL Ai?S01'LRE KEFKIGF.R.\TOR. 

Fig. 41 is a topical refrigerator in which the mechanism 
ma}- be installed as a complete self-contained unit. 

Audiffren. — Fig. 42 gives a sectional view of the household 
machine manufactured by the Audiffren Refrigerating Ma- 
chine Company of New York Cit}'. A view of a cabinet equip- 
ment with this machine is shown in Fig. 43. 

This machine has an enclosed sulphur dioxide compressor. 
All of the o])erating parts are sealed up within this revolving 
"dumbbell," consisting of two bronze bells on a hollow shaft. 

The Rotor consists of two hollow bronze bells connected 
by a hollow steel shaft. One bell containing the compressor 
also acts as the "condenser" ; in the other the liquid boils oiT 
under reduced pressure and this is the "evaporator" where in- 
tense cold is produced. The hollow shaft contains a tube 
through which the liquid refrigerant is carried from the con- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



191 



denser to the evaporator, and an annular space around the 
tube throug-h which the spent gas is drawn back by the com- 
pressor. Thus compressor, condensing surface, Hc[uid re- 
ceiver, oil separator, expansion valve and refrigerating sur- 
face are all represented in this hermetically sealed Rotor. 

The compressor rides on the shaft inside of the spherical 
bell, being held in an approximately vertical position against 
the turning of the Rotor by means of a heavy lead counter- 
weight. The compressor has two double acting, oscillating 
cylinders. The compressor pistons are driven by an eccen- 
tric secured to the shaft. 




SCOOP FOB SUPPLYING SO. TO 
DECANTING TAN ^ 



EQUALIZING 




CCCENTRC RE\Ol.Vt5l 

WFTM 5KAF 

CSaLLATINCCYLINDtR 

SUBMtRCEO 
REFRCERATING END PRESSUPC 
WITHIN DEPENDS ONTEMPERATURE 



SO.CMARCfD 
TMROUCH HCXLOV 
SHAf I KFORC 



FIG. 42.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF AUDIFFREN HOUSEHOLD MACHINE. 



As the Rotor revolves, this compressor, being held in posi- 
tion by the counterweight, draws gas from the evaporator, 
compresses and discharges it under pressure into the condenser 
bell within which the compressor is located. 

The condenser bell runs partly immersed in cooling water 
and the compressed gas is cooled and condenses on the inner 
walls of this bell. The operating pressure is about 50 pounds 
per square inch, varying with the cooling water temperature. 

The condensed refrigerant and the oil are held out against 
the shell of the condenser bell l^y centrifugal force and are 
finally caught by means oi a small scoop mounted on top of 
the frame of the compressor and poured down into a decanting 
cup where the oil is separated and poured back over the com- 
pressor cylinders to lubricate and cool them. The refrigerant 
is then passed by means of a float valve, which serves for an 



192 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



automatic "expansion valve," to the evaporator bell of the 
machine, again to boil off and continue its cycle. 

The evaporator is a simple bell providing a chamber for 
the liquid to evaporate and produce cold. The lubricant that 
reaches the cold end of the machine is automatically sepa- 
rated and returned to the condenser end through the cylinders, 
providing internal lubrication for the cylinders and the pistons. 




FIG. 43.— VIEW OF CABINET EQUIPPED WITH AUDIFFREN MACHINE. 



The temperature and pressure in the condenser will, ob- 
viously, be dependent upon the temperature of the condensing 
w^ater. Consequently the position assumed by the compressor 
under the control of the counterweight will be dependent upon 
the temperature of the condensing water. If the supply of 
condensing water gives out so that the temperature rises above 
the normal operating limit, the counterweight will finally rise 
to the horizontal position and any increase in pressure beyond 
this point will cause the counterweight to revolve with the 
machine, so that no increase of pressure beyond that for which 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



193 



the counterweight is designed can be caused by the operation 
of the machine. This acts as a safety device absolutely pro- 
tecting the machine from dangerous pressures as a result of 
failure of condensing water. Until the law of gravity fails, 
this machine is absolutely safe. 

To freeze ice, the ice cans are placed directly in the brine 
tank. To cool refrigerators, this cold brine is circulated 
through pipe coils placed in the refrigerators. 




frPICAl. ARRAIMSEMENT 

AUDIFFREN REFRIGERATING SYSTEM 

V/ITM COLO ROOM AMD PAMTRV REFRIGERATOR 

FIG. 44. 

Fig. 44 shows a typical arrangement for cooling a large 
cold room, a pantry refrigerator and an ice making plant. A 
circulating brine system is used. During the last 15 years 
many systems similar to this have been used for large resi- 
dences and country estates. 



Autofrigor. — This machine, Fig. 45, is manufactured by 
Esher Wyss & Company of Zurich, Switzerland. 

The refrigerant is methyl chloride. The compressor "5" 
is double-acting, operating at motor speed. Gas from the suc- 
tion chamber "6" is compressed into the pressure chamber 



194 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



"7." The compressed gas then passes through the vertical 
pipe to the high pressure gas chamber ''8" and into the annular 
space surrounding the chamber. The condensed liquid col- 
lects in chamber "9." The gas is condensed by circulating 
water which enters by connection "H" and leaves by outlet "12." 
Nozzle "13" is used in place of an expansion valve to the 
evaporator "R." 





Abb. 2 Abb. 3 

FIG. 45.— AUTOFRIGOR. 



The motor "M" has its rotor "3" enclosed by a steel shell 
"4," which seals the gas chamber "8." This machine is man- 
ufactured in several sizes. 

Brunswick-Kroeschell. — Fig. 46 shows one of the small 
self-contained units made by the Brunswick-Kroeschell Com- 
pany of New Brunswick, New Jersey, who have been making 
household refrigerating machines continuously for more than 
25 years. Self-contained units are supplied for full automatic 
control, semi-automatic or manual operation. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



195 



The ammonia or carbon dioxide system can be supplied for 
either direct expansion of the refrigerant or cooling through 
brine circulation. 




FIG. 46.— SMALL SELF-CONTAINED BRUNSWICK-KROESCHELL UNIT. 

Fig. 47 shows a large self-contained unit. This consists 
of a compression side, electric motor with its starting equip- 




FIG. 47.— LARGE SELF-CONTAINED BRUNSWICK-KROESCHELL UNIT. 

ment, special power transmission for short center operations, 
and interconnection for ammonia, water and electric supply; 



196 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



these are all mounted on a cast iron pedestal and intercon- 
nected ready for service. 

The compressor is of the enclosed, vertical, single acting 
type. Splash lubrication is used. 

The condenser is of the shell and tube multi-pass type. 
Removable heads permit convenient cleaning of the condenser 
tubes when required in cases where the water leaves a sedi- 




FIG. 48. 



-BRUNSWICK-KROESCHELL RESIDENCE INSTALLATION, 
INCLUDING ICE-MAKING SET. 



ment. The shells are of ample size for the combined purpose 
of service as condenser and ammonia receiver. 

Fig. 48 shows a typical residence installation including an 
ice-making set. 

Carbondale. — Fig. 49 shows a self-contained unit made by 
the Carbondale Machine Company, Carbondale, Pa. Am- 
monia is the refrigerant used. 

The compressor is of the vertical, single-acting type. 
Worthington feather valves are used in the compressor. The 
cylinder is ground and honed to size. All the bearings are of 
the die cast type and are interchangeable. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



197 



The condenser is of the horizontal, tubular type with re- 
movable heads and straig-ht tubes, making" it conveniently 
cleaned and inspected. The water passes through seamless 
drawn steel tubes, which are expanded into forge welded 
heads. 




FIG. 49.— CARBOXDALE REFRK .KKA i l.NG IMT. 



The one ton unit is driven by a three horse power motor 
at 265 r.p.m. when operated at standard suction and dis- 
charge pressures. The same machine is rated at two tons 
when operated at 530 r.p.m. by a five hp. motor. This ma- 
chine has a vertical compressor of 3j/j inch diameter and 3^ 
inch stroke. 

The unit is equipped with the following automatic dexices : 

Automatic starting panel. 
High pressure cut out switch. 
Ammonia pressure water control valve. 
Automatic expansion valve, with strainer. 

The high pressure cut out is arranged with hand reset, so 
that in case it acts, the machine will not start itself until the 



198 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



cause for the high ammonia pressure is determined and cor- 
rected. 

The thermostat operates at full voltage and is fitted for 
two connecting wires. The thermostat is very accurate, and 
with a properly designed room, or box, the temperature may 
be held within a few degrees of the desired temperature. 

The water regulating vahe is mounted on the front end 
of the condenser. It is of the pressure actuated type and con- 
trols the flow of water by the ammonia pressure of the con- 
denser. When the ammonia pressure drops, the flow of water 
ceases; and as it rises, the flow is increased, thus obtaining 
maximum economy in the use of water. 

The ammonia connections, both to this \ alve and to the 
high pressure cut out, are short and protected by other parts 
of this unit. Valves are provided in both connections, so 
that the appliance can be removed for repairs or adjustment. 

The automatic expansion \alve is of the spring and dia- 
phram controlled type, selected for the service that it has given 
hundreds of users, and of a type that will operate satisfactorily 
under the most adverse conditions. 

Champion. — The Champion Electric leer is made by the 
Champion Electric Company of St. Louis, Missouri, a division 
of the Champion Shoe Machinery Com pan v. 




FIG. 5U.— ••JUNIOR" .MODEL, CHAMPION ELECTRIC ICER 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



199 



Fig. 50 shows the Junior Model. This compressor is of 
the single cylinder reciprocating type. A belt drive is used. 




FIG. .SI.— CHAMPION COOLING UNIT. 

The cylinder block is lined with tool steel bushing hardened 
and ground. The pistons are semi-steel equipped with two 
piston rings. The crankshaft is drop forged in one piece. 




FIG. 52.— "SENIOR" MODEL, CHAMPION ELECTRIC ICER. 

Large eccentric bearings are used which are of semi-steel. 
Model No. 6 Junior Compressor has 1^^ inch diameter cylin- 
der, 1% inch stroke, and operates at 500 r.p.m. Model No. 8 



200 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Junior compressor has 1^ inch diameter cylinder, 1^/4 inch 
stroke, and operates at 500 r.p.m. 

The condenser consists of a double coil of V^ inch co])]>er 
tubing". Natural air circulation is used for cooling the con- 
denser. 




FIG. S3.— CHAMPION "SENIOR" MODEL WITH COOLING i:NIT INSTALLED. 



The automatic control is of the adjustalde pressure ty])e 
on the suction line. 

The motor is 1/6 hp. and is of the induction-repulsion type. 
Fig. 51 shows the cooling unit which operates on the 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



201 



flooded system. This uses 'direct expansion in open type coils. 
The refrigerant is sulphur dioxide. 

Fig. 52 shows the Senior Model which consists of a two- 
cylinder reciprocating type compressor geardriven. The ^ hp. 
motor drives the compressor by means of completely enclosed 
gears. The gear drive consists of a composition pinion on 
the motor shaft, driving a helical cut semi-steel gear on crank 
shaft. All moving parts are enclosed and run in oil. The 
compressor has a 1^ inch bore, 1-^^ inch stroke, and operates 
at 500 r.p.m. 

The condenser, automatic control and cooling units are sim- 
ilar in type to those used on the Junior Model. 

Fig. 53 show^s the Senior Model and cooling unit complete 
with the cabinet. 

Chilrite. — This machine, Fig. 54 is made by the Narragan- 
sett Machine Company in I'awtucket, R. I. 




FIG. 54.— CHILRITE REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



The compressor is of the multi-stage rotary gear ty[)e and 
uses sulphur dioxide as the refrigerant. The condenser con- 
sists of a coil of finned tubing. 

The cooling unit is of the dry system- consisting of a coil 
connected with an expansion valve and submerged in a tinned 
copper tank filled with alcohol and water. In some installa- 
tions the tank is dispensed with and the open coil system is 
used. 



202 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The temperature is controlled by an immersion type of 
thermostat of the tilting tube variety. 

The machine is made in three sizes using 34. Ya and Yz hp. 
motors and is adaj^ted to operate with any standard make of 
cabinet. 

Climax. — Fig. 55 shows the self-contained refrigerating 
unit manufactured by the Climax Engineering Company of 
Clinton, Iowa. The refrigerant used is methvl chloride. 




cli:max refrigerating umt. 



The condenser, comi)ressor and motor are all mounted on 
the same base. The compressor is direct connected to the 
electric motor. A rotary type of compressor is used, consist- 
ing of only three moving parts. The rotating element oper- 
ates on bronze bearings submerged in oil, tints providing posi- 
tive lubrication. 

The refrigerating unit is made in four different sizes: 



Model 

Model G 
Model F 
Model E 
Model D 



Motor 
% hp. 
% hp. 
K3 hp. 
K' hp. 



Weight 

86 lbs. 

127 lbs. 

204 lbs. 

224 lbs. 



Ue -Melting Effect 

75 lbs. 
150 lbs. 
300 lbs. 
500 lbs. 



The condenser is of the radiator type and is mounted under 
the l^ase. The air is drawn through the radiator and does dou- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



203 



ble duty by being blown against the compressor case. A float 
valve is used for the liquid control. 

The operation of this unit is controlled by a thermostat or 
pressure control and is entirely automatic. 

Coldmaker. — In Fig. 56 is illustrated the Coldmaker house- 
hold refrigerating machine manufactured in Toledo, Ohio. The 
machine is installed in the basement or other out of the way 
place and the cooling coils are installed in the ice compartment 
of anv box. 




FIG. 56.— COLDMAKER REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 

Coldmaker consists of a water cooled ammonia system of 
automatic refrigeration. The comi)ressor is motor driven by 
means of a flat leather belt. 

The compressor has two cylinders, 1^4 inches in diam- 
eter by 1^^ inch stroke made of a semi-steel casting. Suc- 
tion port openings are located near the center of the cylinders. 

The pistons have long ports on each side to admit the 
suction gas. The suction valve is located in the upper end of 
the piston. The top end of the piston has four piston rings 



204 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

and the lower end three rings. The wrist pins arc made of 
nickel steel. The eccentrics are made of gray iron castings 
and are cast integral at an angle of 180°. They are shrunk 
and pinned to the shaft. The shaft is made of forged steel 
and is ground to size after the eccentrics have been shrunk on. 

The discharge valves are made of nickel steel, light in 
weight, and cup shaped. They give full area opening of the 
cylinder and permit the compressor to handle saturated gas or 
liquid without endangering the safet}^ of the machine. 

The suction valves, located in the head of the pistons, are 
made of nickel steel. They have a large suction area and op- 
erate with a minimum lift. 

Both suction and discharge valves are provided with 
springs to hold the valves snugly to seats when the pressure 
is released. 

The end plates containing the shaft bearings are made of 
semi-steel, bored and reamed accurately, and fitted with die 
cast bearings. 

The stuffing box is provided with an oil gland, or ring, 
with soft packing on both sides. The gland has a direct con- 
nection with an oil reservoir, entirely separate from the oil in 
the crank case. This in realit}', forms an oil storage in the 
center of the stuffing box, which keeps the packing soft and 
resilient, and effectively seals the stuffing box so that no gas 
can get past this oil seal. A threaded packing nut or gland 
forms the outer end of the stuffing box proper. 

The rings are made of soft, close grained gray iron. Each 
ring is cast individually and the inner surface is left unfinished 
to give toughness and resiliency to the ring. The rings are 
cast eccentric. 

The cylinder heads are made of semi-steel. The discharge 
port is located in the cylinder head. The water jacket sur- 
rounds the compressor, condenser and liquid receiver. Any 
leak which might occur will be absorbed by the water. The 
condenser is made of extra heavy ^2 inch steel pipe bent to 
shape and surrounding the compressor cylinders. 

Some advantages of the water jacket surrounding the com- 
pressor, condenser and liquid receiver are: 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 205 

1. It absolutely assures splendid operating conditions for 
the compressor, preventing any contraction or expansion of 
the metals. 

2. It prevents the oil from vaporizing in the crank case. 

3. The bearings are kept at a uniform temperature and 
prevented from overheating. 

4. It keeps the stuffing box in excellent condition at all 

times. 

5. It gives additional condensing surface on the receiver. 

6. Provides a direct outlet to the sewer in case of leaks. 
The expansion valve is of the diaphram pressure type. It 

is screened to prevent dirt and scale from getting to the valve 
seat. 

The automatic control consists of a small 1/50 hp. motor 
which is reduced in speed by worm gears. One of these is 
directly connected to a rotating shaft, which contains on one 
end the rotary switch with three terminals corresponding to 
the three terminals on the thermostat, and the two terminals 
for the power motor switch. On the one end is fixed the 
water cock for regulating the flow of water to the condenser 
shell. As both switches and water valve are firmly fastened 
to the same shaft and rotate at the same time, it is plainly evi- 
dent that both water and current must be on or off at the 
same time. 

If the water supply fails, a diaphram pressure switch di- 
rectly connected to the water line cuts off the motor instantly. 
If the pressure falls below a safe margin, the motor will not 
start again until the water pressure has been again restored 
to normal. 

With alternating-current, a repulsion-induction motor is 
used, continuous duty type. With direct current, a compound 
wound continuous duty motor must be used. The size fur- 
nished is Ys horse power, 1200 r.p.m. 

The capacity of the Coldmaker with the usual allowances 
for compressor inefficiencies, plus an additional allowance 
because of the small size of the equipment, figures out approxi- 
mately 279 pounds of refrigeration when operating 24 hours. 
The machine is rated at 250 pounds of refrigeration. 



206 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Cooke Refrigerating Machine. — The Cooke Household Re- 
frigerating Machine is manufactured by Mr. George J. Cooke, 
Sr., of Chicago, Ilhnois. 

The compressor is of the single cylinder, vertical, single- 
acting type. A cross-section and longitudinal section is shown 
in Fig. 57. The cylinder diameter is 1^4 inches and the stroke 
is 13/2 inches. The compressor operates at 450 r.p.m. normally. 
The suction valve is of the port type ; the discharge valve 
is of the disc plate t3-pe. The compressor crank shaft and 




FIG. 57.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF COOKE REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



connecting rod are provided with ball bearings to reduce the 
friction losses to a minimum. The crank shaft is packed by 
means of the patented seal ring. The packing is submerged 
in oil while the machine is in operation. A small but heavy 
flywheel is keyed to the crankshaft. A glass-covered observa- 
tion port is provided opposite the end of the crank shaft for 
observing the condition of the lubricating oil. 

The condenser consists of a spiral pipe coil around the com- 
pressor cylinder, as shown by Fig. 57. An exterior casing en- 
closes the water circulation for the condenser and water jacket 
for the compressor cylinder. The ammonia gas is discharged 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 207 

into the top of the spiral condenser coil and the liquefied am- 
monia drains out of the bottom of the coil into a combined 
ammonia receiver and oil trap which is cast integral with the 
compressor frame. An automatic oil return valve is used. 

The compressor is driven by means of a ^ hp. electric 
motor running- at 1,750 r.p.m. It is belted to the compressor 
by a "V" type belt. Proper belt tension is obtained by mount- 
ing the motor upon a hinged base. The compressor and motor 
are mounted upon a substantial cast-iron base. The compressor 
and motor unit is 20 inches long, 10 inches wide, and 15 inches 
high overall and weighs 150 pounds. 

The cooling element consists of a brine tank containing 
direct expansion coils. Trays are provided for the freezing 
of seventy-two 1^ inch ice cubes for table use. The expan- 
sion valve is of the angle standard orifice type, protected from 
foreign matter by a small strainer in the lic^uid line just 
ahead of the valve. It is located just above the brine tank. 

The machine is self-contained, simple in construction, and 
all parts are readily accessible. The operation of the machine 
is positively and automatically controlled by means of a mer- 
coid electric switch which is actuated by a thermostatic ele- 
ment submerged in the brine of the main tank. The controls 
may be adjusted to maintain any reasonable temperature in 
the refrigerator. The condenser water supply is controlled 
by a diaphram valve which is actuated by the condenser 
pressure. 

The total charge of the ammonia in the system is said 
to be 3y2 ounces. The capacity of the machine, it is claimed, 
is 350 pounds of ice melting effect per day. It may be in- 
stalled on or adjacent to any refrigerator having a maximum 
of 35 cubic feet. 

The refrigerating machine has in connection with it an 
ice cream freezer of the domestic size. This is mounted on 
the side of the refrigerator. The ice cream freezer has a brine 
tank containing a submerged spiral direct expansion coil. 
Operation of the freezer requires only a one-quarter turn of 
a hand lever located just above the main brine tank. It is 
claimed that one gallon of ice cream may be frozen in ten to 
fifteen minutes. 



208 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Copeland. — Fijj-. 58 shdws tlie household refrigerating ma- 
chine mafle 1)\ Co])elan(l Troducts, Incorporated, of Detroit, 
Michigan. 

The compressor has one cylinder and is of the single-acting 
reciprocating piston t3'pe. The motor is ]/(, hp. and drives the 
compressor by means of the "\'" tyi)e belt. 

The refrigerant used is Freezol or Iso-Butane, a hydrocar- 
bon gas which is odorless, non-corrosive and non-poisonous. 







FIG. 58.~COPELAXn RKFRTGER.\TIXG UNIT. 



The condenser is made of thin copper tubing and is cooled 
by forced air obtained by means of a fan attached to the motor 
shaft. 

The cooling units are made entirely of copper and brass; 
Copper tubing is used for the expansion coils. This tubing 
encircles the ice tray sleeves, thus reducing the time required 
to freeze water t)r desserts. Cooling units are made in various 
sizes suitable for different sizes and types of refrigerating 
cabinets. 

The expansion valve, Fig. 59, is located on top of the 
cooling unit and is of the balanced type using a diaphragm 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 209 




FIG. 59.— COPELAND EXPANSION VALVE. 




FIG. 60.— COPELAND ONE-PIECE FREEZING UNIT AND MACHINE. 



210 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



between the outside adjusting' spring- and the reguhiting 
needle inside the valve. 

The temperature control is automatic and is obtained by 
means of a thermostat responsive to the cooling unit tem- 
perature. 

A line of all-metal cabinets is supplied. 

Fig. 60 shows the freezing unit and machine all in one 
piece, mounted on an insulated base which forms the top of 
the refrigerator. This unit sets down into the top of the 
refrigerator, resting on an insulated base, and forms an air- 
tight seal with its own weight. 




FIG. 61.— COPELAND CABINET AND REMONABLE UNIT. 



Fig. 61 shows the cabinet in which the removable unit 
operates. This cabinet is 62^/^ inches high. 26^4 inches wide 
and 21 inches deep. 

The exterior is covered with steel and the walls are insu- 
lated with XYz and 2 inches of solid cork. The exterior is of 
steel finished in white pyroxylin. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 211 

The cooling unit has an ice capacity of 6.6 pounds and a 
capacity of 108 cul)es at one freezing-. The food space is 5^ 
cubic feet and the shelf area is 8 scjuare feet. 

CP Refrigerating Machine. — Fig. 62 shows the self-con- 
tained refrigerating machine made by the Creamery Package 
Manufacturing Company, Chicago, Illinois. 




FIG. 62.— CREAMERY PACKAGE REFRIGERATING :MACHINE. 

The refrigerant used is ammonia. The compressor, liquid 
receiver, condenser, necessary valves, oil gauge and strainer 
are all mounted on one base. The compressor is of twin 
cylinder construction. The compressor has adjustable crank 
pin bearings, drop forged connecting rods and crankshafts, 
and improved type valves which are easily removable. 

A y2 hp. motor is used to drive the compressor. This 
machine has a capacity of ^ ton refrigeration per day. 

The machine is entirely automatic in operation. A ther- 
mostat is used to maintain any desired temperature. 

Delphos. — Fig. 63 shows the complete self-contained re- 
frigerating unit made by the Delphos Ice Machine Company, 
at Delphos, Ohio. 

Ammonia is the refrigerant used. This unit consists of a 
complete high-side including a compressor, scale trap with 



212 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



relief valve, oil trap, condenser, receiver, low and high pres- 
sure gauges, gauge and purge valves and electric motor. A 
cast iron base is used. 

The compressor is of the enclosed crankcase type and all 
of the moving parts and bearings are lubricated by the splash 
of the eccentrics passing through the oil contained in the 
reservoir at the bottom. 




FIG. 63.— DELPHOS REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



All the compressors are two cylinder with the exception of 
the three-fourths ton size which is single cylinder. 

The ammonia condenser is of the double pipe, counter- 
current type with all ammonia joints welded. The water 
pipes are connected by means of return bends and lip unions 
to permit ready access for cleaning and removing water sedi- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



213 



ment. This can be done without disturbing the ammonia. 
The condenser is made up of bhick steel pipe with steel heads 
securely welded. The condenser and receiver are mounted 
integral with shut-off valve placed between condenser and 
receiver. 

Electrical Refrigerating Co. — Fig. 64 shows a cross-section 
view of the compressor used in the machine manufactured bv 




FIG. 64.— WILLIAMS REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



214 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

the Electrical Refrigerating Company at Brooklyn, New York. 

This is a water-cooled type using ethyl chloride as the 
refrigerant. The flow of the refrigerant is controlled by 
means of a float valve. 

Four sizes of this machine were developed including V^, 3/2, 
1 and 2 hp. Most of the parts of all these sizes are inter- 
changeable in the same housing, the outside diair "^.ter of all 
compressors being the same while the variations in their 
capacity is obtained by changing the bore and depth dimen- 
sions. 

The capacity of the larger size condenser is j'fovided by 
increasing the height of the dome. 

ElectrlCE. — Fig 65 shows the top view of the rotary com- 
pressor used on the household refrigerating machine made 
b}' the American bZlectrlCE Corporation at Belding, Michigan. 




FIG. 65.— TOP VIEW OF ELECTRICE ROTARY COMPRESSOR. 

The compressor is of the rotary type, using one set of 
gears operated at motor speed. The motor is direct connected 
to the compressor, eliminating the use of belts. 

The compressor consists of two coils of thin tubing cooled 
by forced air obtained by means of a fan mounted on a motor 
shaft. The refrigerant control valve is mounted on the com- 
pressor base. 

The motor control is responsive to a mercoid thermostat, 
starting and stopping the compressor, and is necessary to 
maintain a constant temperature in the refrigerator. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



215 



The ice-melting capacity of this unit is 125 pounds per 
twenty-four hours at 85° F. temperature. 

Electro-Kold. — Figs. 66 and 67 show compressor units 
made by the Electro-Kold Corporation of Spokane, Wash. 
Compressor units are made in three sizes. 




FIG. 66.— ELECTRO-KOLD COMPKESSOR UNIT. 




FIG. 67.— ELECTRO-KOLD COMPRESSOR UNIT. 



216 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 68.-ELECTRO.KOLD FROST TANK. 

mm ^ 




FIG. 69. 



-COMPLETE ELECTRO-KOLD SELF-CONTAINED UNIT. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



217 



The refrigerating capacity and size of motors are as fol- 
lows : 

Size Number Refrigerating 

Type Motor Cylinder Capacity 

C 14 hp. 1 10 cu. ft. 

F ■ y2 hp. 1 40 cu. ft. 

A Yz hp. 60 cu. ft. 

Sulphur dioxide is the refrigerant used. 

The condenser consists of copper tubing and it is cooled 
by forced air. 

A pressure control is used instead of a thermostat to regu- 
late the operation of the machines. 

Fig. 68 is a view of a typical frost tank with a capacity 
for cooling ten cubic feet of food space. It has four ice 
trays of eighteen cubes each. 

Fig. 69 shows a complete self-contained unit. The exterior 
is of steel with Duco finish. The insulation is of l^^ inch 
corkboard. Several other larger self-contained models are 
produced. 

Everite. — The Everitc Products, Inc., Dayton, ( jhio, manu- 
factures the motor drixen air cooled refrigerating machine, 
Fio. 70. 




FIG. 70.— EVERITE REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



218 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



This machine may be used in the standard home refrigera- 
tor or in special all-steel, porcelain lined refrigerator cabinets 
furnished in five sizes from seven to twenty cubic feet food 
storage capacity. 

Both single and double cylinder compressors operated by 
Yd and Y hp. motors are manufactured. These have refrig- 
erating capacity of twelve to twenty-five cubic feet re- 
spectivel}". 




YXC 7i._EVERITE FLOODED TYPE COOLIXG UNIT. 



Commercial systems are also manufactured in ^4 and ^-4 
ton sizes. 

Sulphur dioxide is the refrigerant used. 

The Everite cooling unit, Fig. 71 is of the flooded type 
employing a float valve in its header. These are of cast con- 
struction built up in sections similar to a radiator which pro- 
vides maximum cooling surface and permits the building up of 
suitable size cooling units for various size refrigerators from 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



219 



the smallest to the largest within the capacity of the com- 
pressors. 

The outstanding feature in this S}stcm is the condenser 
which is mounted directly in front of and covering the entire 
area of the fan pulley thus causing all the air drawn in by the 
fan to pass through the condenser rendering it very efficient 
and i)ermitting neat and compact construction. 




FIG. 72.— ALL-STEEL CABINET WITH EVERITE UNIT. 



The control is the pressure type (no thermostat is used) 
thus eliminating difficulties usually experienced in this type 
of control. 

Fig. 72 shows one of the all-steel cabinets supplied as a 
self-contained unit. 

Frigidaire. — Two general types of Frigidaire household and 
commercial refrigerating machines are made by the Delco- 
Light Company at Dayton, Ohio. These are air-cooled and 
water-cooled units using sulphur dioxide as the refrigerant. 



220 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Fig. 7Z shows the model "G" air-cooled condensing unit 
comprising the compressor, condenser, receiver, motor and 
automatic control, mounted (in a steel base. The compressor 




FIG. 73.— FRIGID.MRE MODEL "G" AIR-COOLED UNIT. 

is a two cylinder, vertical, single-acting type. The discharge 
valve is of the flaj^per valve construction. A disc suction 
valve is used in the top of the piston. An eccentric keyed to 
the shaft dri^■es the pistons by means of the eccentric rods. 




FIG. 74.— LARGER SIZE FRiulDAlKh AIR-COOLED COMPRESSOR. 

The compressor shaft is sealed by a special metal ring which 
automatically compensates for wear. The compressor pulley 
contains fan blades which force air over the copper condenser 
coils located on opposite sides of the compressor. The con- 
denser coils are made of flattened copper tubing. The ^ hp. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 221 




FIU. 75 



-FRIGIDAIRE AIR-COOLED COMPRESSOR FOR HOUSEHOLD ANI» 
COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS. 



i£=t^ 




FIG. 76.— FRIGIDAIRE WATER-COOLED CONDENSING UNIT FOR COM- 
MERCIAL INSTALLATION. 




FIG. 



77.— FRIGIDAIRE WATER-COOLED CONDENSING UNIT FOR 
COMMERCIAL INSTALLATION. 



222 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



motor drives the compressor by means of a "V" type belt. 
The automatic control switch is actuated by a change of pres- 
sure on the low side of the refrigerating system. 





FIG. 78. — TYPICAL FRIG- 
IDAIRE COOLING UNIT, 
FLOODED PRINCIPLE. 



FIG. 7y.— TYPICAL FRIGIDAIRE COMMER- 
CIAL SIZE COOLING COIL. COPPER FINS. 




FIG. 80.— TYPICAL FRIGIDAIRE COMMERCIAL SIZE COOLING COILS, 

COPPER FINS. 



Figs. 74 and 75 show larger sizes of air-cooled compressors 
used on household and commercial installations. 

Fig. 76 and 77 are water-cooled condensing units used 
mostly for commercial work. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



223 



Fig. 78 shows a typical cooling unit which operates on the 
flooded principle. The header contains a float valve which 
controls the supply of liquid refrigerant to the cooling unit. 
A series of copper coils terminate in the header. Copper 




FIG. 81.— TYPICAL FRIGIDAIRE COMMERCIAL SIZE COOLING COILS, 

COPPER FINS. 

sleeves are used inside the coils to accommodate the ice trays. 
This provides direct frost-coil cooling and the ice containers 
are of the self-sealing tray front type. Cooling coils are made 




FIG. 82.— FRIGIDAIRE METAL CABINET. 

in various sizes to fit in any household or commercial refrig- 
erator. 

Figs. 79, 80 and 81 show typical commercial size cooling 
coils wath copper fins. The copper fins greatly increase the 
effective cooling surface. The copper tube is soldered to the 
fins and in some cases the copper tubes are flattened. 



224 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



.. 










-.-™~— , 








— . . * 























% smm 



If 

FIG. 83.— FRIGIDAIRE METAL CABINET. 




FIG. 84.~FRIGIDAIRE METAL CABINET. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



225 








226 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Figs. 82, 83 and 84 show typical metal cabinets. The re- 
frigerating mechanism may be placed in the bottom of any 
of these cabinets. These are made with 5, 7, 9, 12 and 15 
cubic feet of food compartment space. One line of cabinets 
is made with the exterior finished in white Duco on steel. 




FIG. 87.— FKIGIDAIKK CABINET FOR SELF-CONTAINED UNIT. 



Another complete line has the exterior of porcelain on steel, 
trimmed with monel metal. The front is of highly polished 
monel metal. These cabinets are insulated with corkboard 
and the linings, with the exception of one model, are made of 
porcelain on steel. The linings are of the one piece construc- 
tion with rounded corners fitting flush above the door sills. 
Fig. 85 shows the ice-maker which is used where a greater 
amount of ice is rccjuired than is provided 1)\' the cooling coil 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 227 

installed in a regular refrigerator. The ice-maker contains six 
large capacity freezing trays and a storage compartment un- 
derneath. 

Fig. 86 shows the specially designed model including the 
motor, compressor, condenser, and cooling coils arranged as a 
self-contained unit. A copper finned cooling coil is used. 
The compressor is mounted on a special spring suspension to 
eliminate vibration and afford c^uietness in operation. 

Fig. 87 shows the cabi-net in which the self-contained unit 
is used. 

General Electric. — The General Electric Refrigerator is 
made by the General Electric Com])any of Schenectady, N. Y. 
Fig. 88 shows the complete refrigerating unit installed in a 
refrigerator cabinet. 

The refrigerant used is sulphur dioxide. All moving parts 
are hermetically sealed in a drawn steel case containing the 
refrigerant — sulphur dioxide — and the lul:)ricant. The con- 
denser and evaporator coils are brazed to the steel casing. 
Specially developed insulated leads, similar to spark plugs, 
are used for the electrical connection to the motor. This 
construction permits complete enclosure and the elimination 
of the stuffing box through which gas or oil might leak. There 
is no external piping, cooling fan, belt or other external mov- 
ing part. 

The essential operating parts consist of: 

1. A %-hp., 110-volt, 60-cycle, split-phase motor mounted ver- 
tically. This motor is exceedingly simple in design and sturdy in con- 
struction — without brushes or other moving contacts. 

2. A two-cylinder, single-acting compressor having oscilating 
cylinders. 

3. A discharge valve of spring steel so arranged as to eliminate 
noise. 

4. A copper tube condenser coil of circular cross section. 

5. A float valve to regulate the amount of refrigerant passing to 
the evaporator coils. 

6. An evaporator coil of copper tubing immersed in the brine 
tank. 

7. An automatic regulating control. 

The cooling tank, which is suspended within the cabinet 
itself, is covered inside and out with white, fused-on vitreous 



228 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

porcelain— long wearing- and easy to clean. The freezing 
trays, having a capacity of seven pounds of ice cubes, can 
be slipped into compartment in the tank. These trays are 



FIG. S8.— GENERAL ELECTRIC REFRIGERATOR. 

of heavily tinned copper and are furnished with removable 
dividers to provide twenty-one cubes for each tray, or a total 
of sixty-three cubes for the three trays. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 229 

Complete automatic temperature and current control are 
provided. A control box on the front of the unit contains a 
manually-operated switch for disconnecting the machine, for 
defrosting or any other purpose. 

The control box also contains an automatic thermostatic 
switch for starting and stopping the machine in response to 
temperature changes, a relay for transferring motor connec- 
tions from starting to running position and a thermal, time- 
limit relay for protecting the motor from overload damage, 
also a reset button for a resumption of operation. 

The automatic control is so adjusted that a brine tempera- 
ture is maintained between 16° and 24° F., thereby maintaining 
a continuous cal^inet temperature of from 40° to 50° F., which 
is admittedly the most satisfactory temperature for food 
preservation. 

Installation is extremely sim])le as the refrigerator need 
only be moved to the desired position and attached to the near- 
est electric outlet. It can be installed wherever it will prove 
most convenient as there is no special )3lumbing or permanent 
fixtures to be connected to it. The cooling tank is placed in 
the cabinet, filled with a solution of salt brine and the re- 
frigerating unit set into place. It is thoroughly portable and 
can readily be moved. 

Fig. 88 shows the Model P-5-2 installed in a 5 cu, ft. refrig- 
erator. This cabinet is of white porcelain exterior and inte- 
rior. The exterior has fiat polished metal trim strips. The 
exterior dimensions are height overall, 65^ inches; width 
over hardware, 2S^.'i inches ; depth over hardware, 22% inches. 
(Legs may be removed and the height reduced 11^ inches.) 

The cooling unit contains one small tray for making ice 
cubes and one large tray for making cubes or frozen dessert. 
The total ice-making capacity is 56 cubes or approximately 
7 pounds of ice. The food storage capacity is 5.37 cubic feet 
and the food shelf area is 7.9 square feet. 

Hall Refrigerating Machine. — Fig. 89 shows the compres- 
sor of the ammonia machine manufactured by Thomas Hall & 
Son, Ltd., Rotherham, England. 

The piston is of the truncated type and contains the sue- 



230 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



tion valve. The discharge valve is of a special type. It is 
not affected by the heat of the compression. The valve is con- 
tained in a safety head which allows any liquid ammonia or 
oil to pass without damage. 




FIG. S9.— HALL REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



The crank case gland screws u\) like a nut, wliich prevents 
the gland from being pulled on one side and thus scoring the 
shaft. Metallic packing is used. The connecting rod is of 
forged steel. The dirt separator is fitted on the suction pipe, 
thus preventing any scale which may become loosened in the 
room coils from entering the machine and interfering with the 
working of the valves. 

An oil sight glass is fitted in the end cover, wdiich enables 
the level of the oil to be seen at a glance. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



231 



The stop valves are double seating^, allowing the valves to 
be packed while the machine is running. The machine is 
fitted with a purge valve on the cylinder head to enable air 
and foul gases to be purged out of the system. 

An oil trap is fitted on the discharge and is equipped with 
an oil return valve which enables the oil carried over through 
the valve, to be returned to the crank case, thus preventing it 
from going into the system. 

A liquid ammonia receiver is fitted underneath the con- 
denser making a compact unit. 

The method of cooling usually adopted is by means of di- 
rect expansion coils immersed in a brine accumulator tank, 
w^hich acts as a reservoir of cold and keeps the room down 
in temperature after the plant has been stopped. For some 
requirements air circulation is added. For frozen meat, direct- 
expansion coils are placed on the ceiling or on the walls. 

This small size machine is capable of cooling a properly 
insulated cold room of 400 to 500 cubic feet to a temperature of 
35° to 38° F. 

Ice Maid. — The household refrigerating unit, Fig. 90, is 
made by the Lamson Company, Inc., at Syracuse, New York. 




FIG. 90.— ICE MAID HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATING UNIT. 

The compressor is a direct connected rotary type running 
at motor speed and using ethyl chloride as a refrigerant. The 
compressor has a 2-bladed rotor mounted eccentric to the 
bore and is carried on annular ball bearings. The stuffing 



232 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

box is of the sylphon bellows type, the bellows revolving 
with the shaft thereby carrying away any heat that may be 
generated by the seal. 

The discharge valve is of the flapper valve type and con- 
sists of two flat steel discs riveted to the seat on one side. 
An efficient oil separator is an integral part of the oil reservoir, 
it is located in the dome of the pump and oil is fed by the 
]>ressure of the gas through holes drilled in the pump casting 
to the bearings and the rotor. This gives the effect of a full 
pressure system and is fully automatic, as the load on the 
pump increases the quantity of oil fed to the bearing also is 
increased. Oil is used as a lubricant increasing the efficiency 
of the i)ump considerably. 

Suction and discharge shut-off valves are of the double- 
seated type permitting removal of pump without losing the 
charge of refrigerant. A check valve of the flat disc tyi)e 
is located on the suction side of the pump to obxiate the 
possibility of oil running back into the suction line. 

The compressor is driven through a flexible coupling of 
the fabric disc type which is self-aligning. Coupling and fan 
hub are integral. 

The motor is of the induction repulsion type, both Vs and 
14 liP- being used. For remote control the motors run at 
1750 r.p.m. and for self-contained installation they run at 1165 
r.i).ni. The motor is directly connected to the C()m])ressor by 
means of the fan and coupling assembly. 

The condenser is of the Honeycoml) Radiator type and 
has a cooling capacity equal to about 120 feet of 3^ -inch cop- 
per tubing. This is mounted between the pump and the fan. 
The fan running at motor speed throws a current of air 
directly through the radiator and thence around the pump. 
This direct positive cooling system is so effective that the 
machine usually operates under several pounds less head pres- 
sure than ordinary ethyl chloride systems using a copper tube 
condenser. 

The compressor, radiator and motor are mounted as a unit 
on a rigid cast iron base. The base is drilled in such a 
manner that any standard motor that may be used can be 
mounted upon it readily. The base rides on sponge rubber 
balls which effectively absorb any slight noise or vibration. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



233 



"" Attached to the side of the base is a receiving tank of a 
capacity sufificient to hold the entire charge of refrigerant, 
thus making the entire condenser available for condensing 
purposes. 

The dimensions of the entire unit are 24 inches long, 18 
inches high and 12 inches wide. Due to this extreme com- 
pactness, the standard unit may be mounted in much less space 
than that occupied by the average machine and this can be 
installed in the base of a comparatively small refrigerator, 




FIG. 91.— ICE MAID FREEZING UNIT. 

without any changes whatsoever. The weight of the entire 
mechanical unit is approximately 100 pounds. 

The freezing unit. Fig. 91, is of the brine tank type having 
a copper expansion coil of ell-shaped form and is equipped 
with compartment for ice trays. The tanks are nickel plated 
and are furnished in a variety of sizes sufficient to accommo- 
date all standard refrigerators. The ice trays have a capacity 
of 24 cubes of ice. 

The tray compartment is equipped with a cover which is 
so designed that it will not freeze to the tank and thus make 
it difficult to remove the ice tray. 



234 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The expansion valve is of the bahmced type having only 
one spring- which is the adjusting spring. It is constructed 
with a sylphon bellows and is fully automatic in its action. 
It is readily adjustable from the outside and is provided with 
an efficient means preventing moisture freezing and inter- 
fering with the operation of the bellows. 




FIG. 92.— ONE OF THE TWKLN'E ICE MAID MODELS. 



Control of the machine is effected by means of a mercoid 
switch located outside the refrigerator. It is connected to 
the refrigerator by means of a capillary tube which is attached 
to a bulb immersed in the brine, the other end of the tube 
being connected to a sylphon bellows actuating a tilting glass 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



235 



tube containing" mercury, which makes or breaks the circuit 
as the bulb is tilted l)ack and forth. A brine temperature of 
16° or 20° is maintained. 

This method of control gives uniform brine temperature 
regardless of outside temperature. Only one size compressor 
is furnished, but by substitution of butane for ethyl chloride 
comparatively large restaurant, butcher boxes and other com- 
mercial applications can be handled. 

A complete line of refrigerators with self-contained units 
are furnished in both wood and all metal comprising twelve 
different models from 5 to 20 cu. ft. food storage capacity. 
Fig. 92 shows one of these models. 

Installation is simple as there are no electric wires enter- 
ing the refrigerator and the standard mechanical unit is read- 
ily installed either as a remote or self-contained unit. 

Iroquois. — Fig. 9i show^s the compressor-condenser unit, 
made by the Iroquois Refrigeration Company, associate of the 




FIG. 93.— FRONT VIEW. IROQUOIS COMPRESSOR-CONDENSER UNIT. 



Barber Asphalt Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Ethyl chloride is used as the refrigerant. 
Fig. 94 shows the rotary type compressor used with this' 



236 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



unit. The condenser, Fig. 96, is of the double header type 
consisting of a series of copper tubes arranged so as to form 
a guard for the compressor. The condenser is cooled by two 





FIG. 94.— IROQUOIS ROTARY TYPE 
COMPRESSOR. 



FIG. 95.— IROQUOIS PRESSURE 
CONTROLLED SWITCH. 




FIG. 96.— REAR VIEW, IROQUOIS COMPRESSOR-CONDENSER. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 237 








FIG. 97.— IROQUOIS COOLIXG UNITS. APARTMENT HOUSE UNIT AT LEFT. 




FIG 98— IROQUOIS SYPHON ALL-METAL CABINET EQUIPPED WITH 
COMPLETE SELF-CONTAINED REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



238 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



fans, one on the motor shaft and the other on the compressor 
flywheel. 

The automatic pressure controlled switch is shown in Fig. 
95. This device consists of the pow^erful snap, switch actuated 




FIG 99.- 



-IROQUOIS ELECTRICAL REFRIGERATOR, APARTMENT HOUSE 
TYPE. 



by a diaphragm subjected to a pre-determined pressure in the 
cooling unit. 

The cooling units, as Fig. 97, are constructed of heavy 
tinned copper and brass material. A float valve is used to 
control the flow of liquid refrigerant to the cooling unit. 

Figs. 98 and 99 show a typical cabinet equipped with the 
refrigerating unit forming a complete self-contained model. 



COMPRESSIOiM REFRIGERATING MACHINES 239 

Isko — First Model. — The first model Isko machine is de- 
scribed as follows : 

The motor operates the compressor and is controlled 
through the thermostat and the circuit breaker. When the 
refrigerator gets warm the themostat starts the motor, which 
runs until a predetermined low temperature is attained and 
then stops. The thermostat is located in the cooling coil 
where the greatest variation of temperature is, there being 
nearly 32° of variation under a\erage conditions. The 
thermostat alternates on from 2° to 4° of variation. 

Isko cools the refrigerator by abstracting the heat through 
the tinned copper ice-making coils in which liquid sulphur 
dioxide is being l^oiled by the heat extracted from the re- 
frigerator. 

This sulphur dioxide steam, unlike the steam with which 
we are most familiar, is cold (14° F.). This is sucked into the 
compressor at atmospheric pressure and elevated in both 
temperature and pressure to the corresponding temperature 
of the room. 

In the condenser (which is a coil of pipe surrounding the 
apparatus as a guard), this warm sulphur dioxide steam loses 
its heat by radiation to the surrounding atmosphere, causing 
it to liquefy becase it is under pressure. 

The liquid coming out of the bottom of the condenser is 
fed automatically into the tinned coil inside the refrigerator 
by means of an expansion valve, which works intermittently 
to step down these condenser pressures to a pressure above 
atmospheric pressure. 

Moisture abstracted from the refrigerator is deposited on 
the coil, and freezes because the coil is at 14° F. The machine 
operates intermittently so that this frost does not accumu- 
late. On the stand-still period the frost will melt and run off 
through the drain pipe of the refrigerator. 

In the ice-making compartment it is possible in warm 
weather to make 32 cubes of ice in a day of twenty-four 
hours, automatically. Ice can be made in winter only when 
the refrigerator is in a well-heated room ; otherwise the ma- 
chine will run too small a percentage of the time. 

The complete machine is supplied as a unit readv to run 
when connected to an electric light socket. The number 1 



240 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



size will take care of an ordinary refrigerator not to exceed 
fifty-five square feet of internal exposed area when set over 
a hole thirteen inches 1)\- thirteen inches in the top of the 
refrigerator. The actual weight of the apparatus is 175 
pounds. 

Isko — Present Model. — The present model of the Isko ma- 




1 



ff 



Oi&gr&m of ISKO 

Refrigerating 
Machine 

ig course o' 
--cfrigerant 



FIG. 100.— ISKO REFR]GER.\TrXG M.\CHIXE. 

chine is shown in Fig. 100. This machine was formerly man- 
ufactured in large quantities b\' the Isko Company at Chicago. 
The compressor was of the herringbone gear type, operat- 
ing at motor speed submerged in a sealed chamber of oil. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 241 

The gears were supplied with a small amount of oil to seal 
them so that they would compress the sulphur dioxide gas, 
this being the refrigerant used. 

The cylinder and motor were mounted on a single base 
to be placed on the top of the refrigerator or in the basement, 
if desired. The motor was directly connected to the gear 
shaft through a flexible coupling. 

Brine tanks were made in various sizes. An expansion 
\alve was used, expanding into a copper tube immersed in 
the brine. 

A small header was used on the suction line between the 
evaporating coil and the compressor to prevent frosting back 
to the machine. 

The condenser was water-cooled by means of a copper coil 
inside the condenser cylinder. Part of the cooling water 
circulated through a coil in the compressor cylinder, in order 
to cool the oil in which the gears operate. 

Full automatic controls were used to maintain a uniform 
temperature inside the refrigerator. 

Kelvinator. — Fig. 101 shows the Model Senior (2 cylinder) 
refrigerating machine made by the Kelvinator Corporation, 
Detroit, Michigan. This is a motor-driven refrigerating ma- 
chine designed for installation with any refrigerator of stand- 
ard construction of not over 70 cubic feet contents. 

The condensing unit consists of the motor, compressor, 
and condensing coil mounted on a single base and is installed 
in the basement or other out-of-the-way place. 

The compressor is of the reciprocating, single-acting type. 
Piston valves and discharge valves are of the disc type. The 
pistons slide in steel sleeves. Instead of a stuffing box a 
sylphon gas seal of self-aligning, self-lubricating, anti-friction 
metal is used. It is driven through a combined flywheel and 
fan by a "V" belt. The motor is of the repulsion induction 
type, y^ hp. 

The condenser is a continuous coil of ^ inch seamless 
copper tubing wound spirally and charged with sulphur diox- 
ide. It is air-cooled and therefore is not dependant on any 
water supply for its proper operation. 



242 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 102 shows the Model Junior (1 cylinder) refrigerating 
machine. This is similar to the Model Senior except that it 
is installed with refrigerators of not over 20 cubic feet con- 
tents. 

The refrigerating element consists of the brine tank, the 
expansion coils inside the brine tank, the expansion valve, the 
thermo-coil and the thermostat. Eighteen standard sizes of 
brine tanks are made, one of which is shown in Fig. 103 and 
tit practically all ice chambers. 




FIG. 101.— KELVIXATOR TWO-CVLIXDER REFRIGKRATIXG :M.\CHIXE. 



The brine tank is of sheet copper tinned on the outside. 
It has two to four freezing compartments, according to the 
tank size. Each 21-cube tray will freeze two and one-half 
pounds of ice, while the large tray will freeze an eight and 
one-half pound cake of ice. The tank is filled with a solu- 
tion of calcium chloride. Expansion coils are placed in the 
tank in such a way as to surround each freezing compartment. 

The liquid refrigerant is admitted to the expansion coils 
through an automatic expansion \ahe which lowers its pres- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 243 




1-10. !''.v KELVIXATOK ('(XJUXG IWIT. 



244 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



sure from two inches of vacuum to three pounds per square 
inch, depending on the size of brine tank and number of feet 
of tubing in the expansion coil. The valve is of the balanced 
pressure type. Increasing pressure on the low side caused by 
the boiling refrigerant, acts against the pressure on the liquid 
side and automatically shuts off the supply of liquid when suf- 
ficient has been admitted. The valve automatically opens 
when the suction of the compressor sufficiently reduces the 
pressure on the low side. 




FJG. 104.— KELVINATOR CONDENSING UNIT. 



The system is automatically controlled by the thermostat 
placed within the thermo-coil on top of the brine tank. The 
thermostat opens and closes the motor circuit as the tempera- 
ture within the refrigerator falls and rises. It is of the sylphon 
type, a corrugated metal bellows filled with sulphur dioxide, 
which by the contraction and expansion caused by changing 
temperatures operates the quick make and break switch. 

The actual running time of Kelvinator will vary, of course, 
with the room temperature, the quality and degree of refrig- 
erator insulation, the size of refrigerator, etc. Under ordinary 
conditions, however, the machine will run 6 or 7 hours a day. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



245 



The box temperatures will be at least 10° colder than ice 
would keep the same box. The reason for this is that the 
surface of the brine tank is kept constantly at 20° to 22° while 
the surface of a cake of ice is 32° F. 

Fig-. 104 shows the condensing unit Model 12800. This 
unit includes a yi hp. motor driving a reciprocating type, 




FIG. 105.— SPECIAL STEEL CABI.XET EQUIPPED A\1TH COXDEXSIXG 
UNIT SHOWN IN FIG. 104. 

single-cylinder compressor by means of a "\" type belt. The 
condenser is made of finned tubing. It is cooled with forced 
air circulation. A small receiver is used. The weight of this 
unit is 80 pounds. 

This unit is supplied with a special steel cabinet. Fig. 
105. The food storage space is 4.7 cubic feet and 7 square feet 
shelf area. The exterior is gray lacquer on steel. The lining 



246 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 106.— KELVINATOR TYPE "LB" LARGE CAPACITY AIR-COOLED 
CONDENSING UNIT. 




FiG. 107.— KELVINATOR, TYPE "BB".— COMPRE.SSOR HAS TWO 
CYLINDERS. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 247 

is white enamel on g-alvanized iron. The hardware is nickel- 
plated brass. The insulation is corkboard. The dimensions 
of the cabinet are : 

Width Depth Height 

Overall 26J^ in. 22i4 in. 56^/^ in. 

Food Compartment 22 in. 15Ji in. ZAy^'in. 

Condensing Unit Compartment 26^ in. \9^-2\n. 16^2 in. 

The cooling unit has two 15-cube ice trays. The shipping 
weight of this unit is 300 pounds. 

Fig. 106 shows the type LB large capacity air-cooled con- 
densing unit. 

The compressor has one cylinder and is of the vertical, re- 
ciprocating, single-acting type. A ^4 hp. motor drives the 
compressor by means of a "V" type belt. The condenser is of 
the radiator type. It is cooled by forced air circulation, from 
the fanned motor pulle}'. The \^■attage is approximately 800 
at rated capacity. 

A similar larger type BB, Fig. 107, is manufactured. The 
compressor has two cylinders. A 1^ hp. motor is used. The 
wattage of this model is approximately 1200 at rated capacity. 
Both of these units have extensive use for apartment house in- 
stallations. 

Kold King. — Fig. 108 shows the household refrigerating 
machine manufactured by the Kold King Korporation at De- 
troit, Mich. It is reported this company is out of business. 




FIG. 108.— KOLD KIXG REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



248 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

A single-c} Under, sulphur dioxide compressor is used. The 
condenser is air-cooled and consists of sixty feet of copper 
tubing", forming a spiral coil around the compressor. A fan 
in the compressor fly wheel forces air over the condenser coil. 
The suction and discharge valves are of the flat steel flapper 
type. They are both located in the cylinder head plate. The 
compressor is driven by a ^ hp. phase, repulsion-induction 
motor. A "V" type belt is used for the means of driving. 

A float valve system of expansion has been developed for 
regulating the cooling compartment. The thermostat is at- 
tached to the crank case and is controlled by pressure. A 
brine tank is used which is placed in the ice compartment of 
the refrigerator. 

The mechanical unit is sui)])lied to refrigerate any standard 
tabinet. 

Lipman Refrigerating Machine. — Fig. 109 shows the house- 
hold size refrigerating machine, which is made by the Lipman 
Refrigerator Car & Mfg. Com])an\-, Beloit, Wis. 

This conii)any has specialized for years in producing re- 
frigerating machines using ammonia as a refrigerant and oper- 
ating with full automatic controls. 

The mcjtor, compressor, condenser, water valve, and high 
pressure cut-out, are mounted on a simple base to form a com- 
pact unit. A "V" belt drive is used, thus eliminating the need 
of an idler pulley. 

The condenser is water-cooled. The water valve is au- 
tomatically opened when the machine is operating, by an at- 
tachment on the outer end of the compressor shaft. A safety 
feature is included so that the machine will not operate should 
the supply of cooling water fail. 

The operation of the machine is controlled b\' a thermostat 
placed in the food compartment. The motor starts or stops 
automatically when the temperature in this compartment va- 
ries only a few degrees. 

An expansion valve is used to control the supply of re- 
frigerant to the cooling coil. The household model uses only 
a few ounces of liquid ammonia in the entire system. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



249 



This machine is supplied with a cooling element to be 
placed in the ice compartment of the customer's refrigerator. 
This cooling element consists of a direct-expansion coil and a 
sharp freezer of steel pipe in which ice cubes or frozen desserts 
may be made. A cast iron sleeve is inserted in the horizontal 
part of this direct-expansion coil to form the sharp freezer. 




FIG. 109.— LIPMAN REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



Larger automatic machines arc built for installations re- 
quiring a larger capacity machine. 

Merchant and Evans. — Fig. 110 shows the electrical refrig- 
erating system manufactured by Merchant and Evans Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, Pa. 

A low temperature liquefying gas is compressed (G), into 
coils (C), which are cooled by a fan on the pulley and thus 



250 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



becomes a liquid which flows into the freezing chamber (F) 
through the Control Valve (V). 

Here the licjuid boils b}' absorbing heat from the interior of 
the box, cooling it to a temperature of 45° F. The thermostat 



THERMOSTAT CONTROL 




FIG. 110.— MERCHANT & EVANS ELECTRICAL REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. 



then turns off the current automatically until the box tempera- 
ture rises to 50° F. The thermostat then again starts the mo- 
tor and the whole process is repeated until the box tempera- 
ture again drops to 45° F. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



251 



The compressor is a single cylinder of the single-acting ver- 
tical reciprocating type, with long stroke. 

The condenser consists of two coils of copper tubing placed 
on opposite sides of the compressor. Fan blades in the com- 
pressor flywheel are used to force air over the two condenser 
coils. 




M&E FREEZING CHAMBER 



il i J J JmJL. 



"MfcE'COMPRESSOR 




FIG. 111.— MERCHANT & EVANS REFRIGERATING SYSTEM INSTALLED. 

The freezing chamber is made of galvanized cast iron and 
tested to 350 pounds pressure per square inch. 

Fig. Ill shows a typical installation in a cabinet. Steel 
cabinets are supplied in sizes from 7 to 20 cubic feet inside 
capacity. 

Norge. — The Detroit Gear & Machine Company manufac- 
ture an electric refrigerating machine for the Norge Corpora- 
tion, Detroit, Michigan. This machine has been adopted for 
domestic use by McCray Refrigerator Company of Kendalville, 
Ind. The refrigerant used is sulphur dioxide. 



252 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 112.— NORGE UNIT MOUNTED ON STEEL BASE. 




FIG. 113.— NORGE ROTARY TYPE COMPRESSOR. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 253 




FIG. 114.— ^ORGE FREEZER COILS. 




FIG. 115.— NORGE FREEZER COILS. 



254 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig-. 112 shows the condensing unit consisting of the com- 
pressor, motor, condenser and automatic control mounted on 
a steel base. 

The compressor, Fig. 113, is of the rotary type. The rotor 
is driven by an eccentric on the crank-shaft. It moves with a 
gyratory motion, opening the intake and permitting entrance 




FIG. 116.— NORGE ELECTRICAL UNIT IN McCRAY REFRIGERATOR. 

of the Sulphur Dioxide gas into the compression space. The 
gas escapes through the discharge valve. An oscillating blade 
always maintains contact with the rotor, and separates the suc- 
tion chamber from the discharge chamber. This blade, as well 
as all other moving parts, is submerged in oil under pressure. 
The rotor fits into the cylinder in such a way that it auto- 
matically adjusts and takes up whatever wear may occur. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



255 



Figs. 114 and 115 show freezer coils of various sizes. 
These are equipped with white enameled swing doors which 
cover the ice tray openings. This prevents frost forming in 
the trays and eliminates food odors from the freezing pans. 

Fig. 116 shows an electrical unit installed in a McCray re» 
frigerator. 

Odin. — The Odin refrigerating machine is made by the 
Automatic Refrigerating Company of Hartford, Conn. 




FIG. 117.— ODIN REFRIGERATING UNIT. 

This machine uses air under very low pressure for a re- 
frigerating medium. The machine is entirely automatic. A 
thermostat in the food compartment automatically starts and 



256 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



^tops tlie refrigerating^ machine. This system is air-cooled, 
thus eliminating cooling water connections. 

The cabinet, Fig. 117, has fifteen cubic feet of food com- 
partment space. An ice making compartment is included. 
This box has a gray enamel finish on the outside and porcelain 
fused on a metal lining. 

Rice. — A Complete line of fourteen distinct models of re- 
frigerating units for domestic use are manufactured l)y Rice 
Products, Inc., of New York City. 




fk; 



18.-r<]CE COMPRKSSOR I'XIT. 



Nine of these are designed for installation in conjunction 
with refrigerators ranging from five to sixty cubic feet in size, 
and consist of a compressor unit and a cooling unit. The lat- 
ter is placed in the ice compartment of the refrigerator to be 
cooled and the compressor unit can be placed in the base- 
ment immediately beneath the refrigerator or other con\e- 
nient location. The compressor and cooling units are con- 
nected by two small copper tubes. Five models known as 
D-5, D-7, D-9, D-12, and D-15 are complete self-contained elec- 
trical refrigerators ready for electrical connection to the light- 
ing mains. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 257 




in:, ii'i, Axo'i'iiKi^ \ii:\\ oi iiiK RU1-: (omi'rkssor umt. 




FIG. 120.— RICE GRID SECTIONS, MADE OF SEMI-STEEL CASTINGS, 
TONGUE AND GROOVE CONNECTED. 



258 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 118 and 119 show two views of the coini)ressor unit. 
This consists of a compressor, motor, fly-wheel, fan pulley, 
belt, condenser, receiver with the necessary shut-off valves 




FIG. 121.— SECTIONAL VIEW OF RICE COMFKESSOR. 



and strainer, all mounted on a substantial iron base. Both 
single and double cylinder compressors are furnished. The 
former is driven by j4 liP- motor at 360 r.p.m. and the latter 
by a ^ hp. motor at the same speed. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 259 

Fig. 121 is a sectional view of the compressor. Com- 
pressors are of the single-acting, vertical reciprocating type, 
air-cooled and lubricated by splash from the crankcase. They 
are belt driven by means of a moulded rubber and canvas "V" 
belt passing over the compressor fly-wheel which is 14^ 
inches in diameter. Crank shafts are of forged steel, heat 
treated and ground and are 1^ inches in diameter on both 
types. Main bearings are of cast iron l}i inches x 1^4 inches. 
An approved ball thrust bearing, to take the thrust of the seal 
s])ring is provided. Connecting rod bearings are babbitt 
broached to size and measure li% inches x 1^4 inches. Bunt- 
ing (bronze) bushings are used in the wristpin bearings. 

Pistons are of cast iron with suction valve mounted flv!^l^ 
with the head. They are fitted with six piston rings; two in 
each of the three ring slots. Both suction and discharge 
valves are of the feather type, of new and improved desip; i. 
Valves are individually lapped to their seats and are noise- 
less in operation. TIic discharge valve plate is a die castiTg. 

.V metallic stuffing box of si^ecial design has been pro- 
vided. The seal ring is lapped to a seat formed by a shoulder 
on the crankshaft and is kept in contact by means of a sixty- 
pound spring. The bar and stroke on both compressors is 
Ijf inches x Ijj} inches. 

Motors are regularly sup[)lied for either 110 Or 220 volt, 
60 cycle, single phase alternating or 110 or 220 volt direct cur- 
rent. Motors wound for other voltages, frequencies or phases 
can be furnished to order at additional cost. Motors, as regu- 
larly supplied, are furnished with sliding bases to facilitate 
belt adjustment and dispense with idlers. 

Condensers are of the Flint-lock type and are mounted at 
the back of the compressor unit. They are cooled by a fan 
mounted directly on the motor-shaft. The condenser as- 
sembly is self-supporting and mounted on the base. Condens- 
ers furnished with the Type "A" Compressor Unit measure 
9 inches x 9 inches. Those furnished with the T}'pe "B" 
measure 12 inches x 12 inches. 



260 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Compressor Units are linished in dark blue Duco. Dimen- 
sions are as follows, overall : 



Type "A" 

25 in. long 

17K' i"- deep 

\9]4 in. higli 

Type "B" 

29 in. long 
18->4 in. deep 
\9% in. high 




FIG.— 122.— RICE METAL CABINET. 



Net Weights : Type "A" 140 lbs. Type "B" 185 lbs. 
TTie cooling unit, Fig. 121 consists of a series of grid sec- 
tions made of semi-steel castings, tongue and groove con- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



261 



nected. These various sections can be assembled in grids to 
meet any domestic requirement. 

Grids are galvanized both inside and out and are tested 
to 300 pounds air pressure under water and 350 i)ounds hvdro- 




FIG. 123.— RICE METAL CABINET. 

Static pressure. Grids are dehydrated under a vacuum at the 
factory and sealed prior to shipment. 

Ice trays arc of tinned copper and measure 10^ x 3^ x 
ly^- inches deep and hold a])i)roximatcly one pound of water. 
Each trav is provided with a removable irrid for forming cubes. 



262 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

There are twelve 1>4 x 1>4 x 1^ inch cubes per tray. This is 
the standard ice tray furnished with all cooling units 

A particularly interesting feature consists in the elimina- 
tion of the float or expansion valve, and the substitution there- 
for of a capillary tube, having no moving parts and no adjust- 
ment. 

The thermostat is a Mercoid Control manufactured by the 
American Radiator Company. It is temperature controlled 
and is provided with both temperature and differential range 
adjustments. The circuit is controlled direct to the motor and 
accordingly no relays, transformers or other intermediate con- 
trols are required. Contacts are sealed within a glass tube 
containing an inert gas which prevents oxidation or corro- 
sion, a common fault with most thermostatic controls. 

Figs. 122 and 123 show typical metal cabinets. The 
standard construction is an exterior of steel finished in white 
Duco and an interior of porcelain on steel. Doors are pro- 
vided with double gaskets. The insulation is of corkboard 
two inches thick sealed between interior and exterior metal 
with hydrolene cement. The cabinet specifications of the five 
self-contained models are as follows : 

CABINET SPECIFICATIONS 



Model 


D-S 


D-7 


D-9 


D-12 


D-15 


Width 


27^ in. 


343^ in. 


34H in. 


45 in. 


54^ in. 


Depth 


243/i in. 


28^ in. 


28^ in. 


28^ in. 


28 H in. 


Height 


60 in. 


63 in. 


69 in. 


69 in. 


69 in. 


Weight 


460 lbs. 


530 lbs. 


612 lbs 


665 lbs. 


781 lbs. 


Gr. Capacity 


6.5 


10.3 


12 


16 


19.3 


Food Storage 


5 


7 


9 


12 


IS 


Shelf Space 


8.3 


9.2 


12.2 


17 


23.2 


No. Cubes 


36 


48 


60 


72 


120 


Compr. Unit 


Type "A" 


Type "A" 


Type "A" 


Type "A" 


Type "A" 


Cool. Unit 


No. 6 


No. 10 


No. 15 


No. 25 


No. 30 



Sanat. — The Sanat machine, Fig. 124, is made by Sanat Re- 
frigerating Co., Inc., 331 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

The machine consists of a motor, a worm and worm gear 
drive, a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, a cool- 
ing tank, a temperature control, and the necessary piping and' 
wiring to connect the units. The other elements are the re- 
frisrerant and the brine. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



263 



The refrigerant is chloric ether, a solution of ethyl chloride 
and alcohol. The pressure of condensation is relatively low, 
16 to 20 pounds gauge. 

A y^ hp, motor is used to drive the compressor by means 
of a worm and worm gear drive. Radial and thrust ball bear- 
ings are used for mounting the worm, and friction is thereby 
greatly reduced. 




FIG. 124.— SAXAT REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



The compressor is a single cylinder, double acting, slow 
speed machine operating at forty strokes per minute, or eighty 
compressions. Poppet valves are used throughout — bakelite 
operating on brass seats, eliminating metal to metal contact 
with its attendant sticking. The bearings on the crank shaft 
and connecting rod are of hardened steel and amply large. 
The stuffing box is of the double gland stype. The compressor 
is lubricated automatically by the mineral oil which is formed 
when the refrigerant is expanded into the brine. 

The condenser is air cooled and consists of a hundred feet 
of ^-inch copper tubing. No forced draught is required over 
these coils to condense the refrigerant, therefore, the need 
for a fan is eliminated. 



264 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The expansion valve is a simple device which runs into the 
brine within a few inches of the bottom of the tank. This 
valve releases the chloric ether into the brine from the high to 
low pressures. The expansion member of this mechanism is a 
sylphon bellows, which expands or contracts through verv 
narrow limits, thus eliminating or keeping adjustments to a 
minimum. 




I-IG. 125.— COMPLKTE SAXAT UNIT IXCLUDIXG CAl'.lNKT. 



The cooling tank, made of ' s-inch steel, occupies the 
space in the ice compartment of the refrigerator and con- 
tains the solution of calcium chloride brine and alcohol. The 
refrigerant is expanded directly into the brine causing an agi- 
tation which produces an even temperature throughout the 
brine and results in a constant crisp dry-cold in the refrigera- 
tor. A marked advantage of this system lies in the fact that 
the agitation resulting from the direct expansion of the refrig- 
erant into the brine produces an emulsion, which is equivalent 
to a medium grade mineral lubricating oil. This lubricant is 
formed in small but sufficient cj;uantities and is drawn back 
into the compressor and automatically solves the lubricating 
problem. 

The temperature control operates on a ten volt circuit ; 
a rela}^ mounted in a convenient location being used to reduce 
the voltage from the usual liome pressures. This arrangement 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



265 



requires the mininuiin of attention. The thermostat is gov- 
erned by the temperature of the brine and can be set to operate 
accurately between small variations of temperature. 

Fig. 125 shows a complete unit including the cabinet. Fig. 
126 shows the cabinet with vegetable storage space at bottom 
as arranged when tlie machine is located in the basement. 




■Hi. 1J(.. SAXAT MKTAL CAIUXKI' W 111 1 \' Kl.KTA I'.l.K SIORAGE. 



Savage. — Fig. 127 shows the mercury refrigerating ma- 
chine made by the Savage Arms Corporation, Utica, New 
York, suitable for ice cream cabinet and household fields. 

Fig. 128 shows the machine with the condenser removed. 
This machine operates on a new system of mercur\^ compres- 
sion. 

The screw pumj), invented by Archimedes about 250 B C, 



266 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



using mercury as the compressing fluid, is the basis of the 
design. Following are the most important advantages : 

There are no internal moving parts. There is no lubricant 
within the refrigerating cycle. 




FIG. 127.— SAVAGE MERCURY REFRIGERATING MACHINE. 



The drive is external to the refrigeration cycle, requiring 
no stuffing box or gland joint. The system is sealed by weld- 
ing, and is leak proof. 

The machine is exceptionally quiet in operation, due to 
purely rotary motion at relatively low speeds. 

Mercury compression, because of its inherent freedom 
from power losses, makes possible an exceedingly low power 
consumption per unit of refrigeration. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



267 



Excessive pressures cannot be generated, since the critical 
point of the mercury compressor is reached only a few pounds 
above the working ]:)ressure of the machine. It then blows 
back, short circuiting itself. 




FIG. 128.— SAVAGE MERCURY REFRIGERATING MACHINE WITH 
CONDENSER REMOVED. 



A force feed oiling system provides adequate lubrication 
to the four external bearings with oil storage capacity suf- 
ficient for many years of operation. 

An automatic temperature speed control gives the machine 
added refrigerating capacity as the room temperature rises. 
The machine automatically operates at the most efficient speed 
for all room temperatures, an exclusive feature. 

Service may be performed upon any mechanical or elec- 
trical part of the machine without disconnecting or disturbing 
the refrigeration system, and without losing any refrigerant. 



268 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



It is obvious that llu-ic can be no piston leakage, since 
each mercury piston seals itself in the helical passageway. 
Neither can there be an\ clearance or re-expansion loss, since 
each gas volume is pushed completely through from the low 
to the high pressure chamber. There is no internal wear. 

Fig. 129 is a typical cabinet for preserving ice cream. This 
cabinet is of angle iron frame construction with tongue and 
groove spruce flooring. 




FIG. 129.— SA\'AGE ICE CREAM CABINET. 



Cork insulation is used and all joints flooded with sealing 
compound. Two thicknesses of waterproof paper are used 
as an additional ])r()tection against air leakage. The lining 
is of heavy gahanized sheet steel. 'J'lie top is of laminated 
wood, covered with non-C()rr()si\e metal. The sides are of 
black-enameled sheet steel, bound in by metal corner angles. 

The cabinets may be installed either as a unit with the 
compressor or as a remote system. In the latter case the com- 
pressor unit is generally installed in the basement or in some 
other convenient i)lace separate from the cabinet. 

Servel. — Figs. 130 and 131 shows the Model 21-A refrig- 
erating machine manufactured by the Servel Corpc^ration 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 269 

whose main offices are at 51 Jiasl 42nd Street, New York City. 

Methyl Chloride is the refrigerant used in this system. 

The compressor, condenser, pressure control and ^ hp. 
motor are mounted on a pressed steel base. The 21-A is used 
in all complete Servel refrigerators, as well as all remote 



FIG. 130.--SERVEL MODEL 21-A REFRIGERATING UNIT. 

household installations. The compressor is of the vertical, 
twin cylinder, single acting, reciprocating type. It is free from 
vibration and practically noiseless. The bore is 1^ inch and 
the stroke 1^4 inch. The compressor runs at a comparatively 
low speed — 375 r.p.m. The drive is accomplished through 
a "V" belt. Both the inlet and outlet valves are flapper valves. 



270 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Leakage around the compressor shaft is prevented by use of 
a special sylphon seal of the rotating type. 

The temperature control, Fig. 132, is accomplished by 
means of the action of the copper bellows connected to the low 




FIG. 131. 



-CUTAWAY VIEW OF SERVEL COMPRESSOR SHOWING MOVING 
PARTS AND SYLPHON PACKING. 



pressure side of the system. The inflation and deflation of the 
bellows operates a quick make and break switch, opening and 
closing the motor circuit, and is adjustable for different pres- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



271 



sure to give any desired temperature. A special feature of 
the control device is that it limits the pressure of the suction 
gas to the compressor at the time of start so that no overload 
is placed on the motor. 




FIG. 132.— SERVEL PRESSURE CONTROL CUT OPEN TO SHOW OPERATION' 

OF PISTON. 



The condenser is trombone shaped, cooled by two fans 
running in opposite directions. The four bladed fan on the 
motor pulley blows directly into and across the condenser. 
The large fan on the compressor flywheel draws the air out 
of the condenser. Exhaustive tests show^ conclusively that 



272 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



this arrangeincnt is superior to two fans operating in the 
same direction and materially reduces the head pressure where 
boxes are so located as to make air circulation difficult. The 
motor mounting- plate is of pressed steel and adapted to Gen- 




FIG. 133.— FLOAT VALVE, SER\EL REFRIC.ERATIXG IMT. 



era! Electric, Century, Emerson and Westinghouse motors. 
The adjusting (jf the motor for belt tension is controlled by 
one nut. making this a very simple operation. 

In the complete refrigerator the float valve is placed in 
the machine compartment. The sturdy construction of this 
float is clearly shown in Fig. 133. When sufficient liquid 
meth} 1 chloride has accumulated in the float it raises the ball, 
opens the needle valve and enters the expansion coils. A 
c\lin(h-ical screen is used as a strainer both on the inlet to 
the float and as a cage surrounding the needle valve. This 
prevents any foreign matter clogging the needle valve. 

All shutofl: valves are made from bronze forgings and are 
provided with caps which completely inclose the valve stem, 
thus eliminating leaks through the valve packing. 

Fig. 134 shows the Model S-7, suitable for the family of 
medium size, one of the three all steel models now being man- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



273 



ufactured by Servel. The other two models are the S-5, for 
the small family, and the S-10, suitable for the more preten- 
tious household. (Fig. 135 and 136.) 




\-\(\. 



134.— SERVEL AIJ^STEEL REFRIGERATOR FOR ^rEFlT^^T SIZED 
FAMILY. 



The cabinets are constructed of especially selected 
"Armco" Ingot Iron carefully lead-coated as a positive pro- 
tection against rust. The metal shell is given an application 
of oil base primer coat, after which this coat is slowly and 
carefully baked on under a low temperature, pr(iducing a 



274 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



finish which will neither peel nor scale. Next, several coats 
of surfacer and two coats of genuine Du Pont White Duco 
Lacquer are applied and allowed to air dry. The slow process 
of air drying, while it creates an additional factory cost, pro- 




FIG. 13S.— SERVEL ALL-STEEL REFRIGERATOR F(^R SMALL lA.MlLi' ISL, 



duces a much better appearing and more lasting finish than 
can ever be expected under artificial or forced drying. 

The porcelian liners are of the box type, and are so con- 
structed, with double lock flanges, that bolt holes or screw 
holes are entirely eliminated except those required for tank 
and shelf supports. This produces an absolutely sanitary liner 
and eliminates all chance of flaking of the porcelain finish, due 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



275 



to uneven strain such as results from the use of screws or 
bolts. 

The chilling units are of tinned copper and have front 




FIG. 136.— SERVEL ALL-STEEL REFRIGERATOR FOR LARGE SIZED 

FAMILY. 

panels and ice-cube-tray fronts of genuine porcelain. Each 
ice-cube-tray holds 12 cubes. 

The insulation is pure compressed corkboard thoroughly 
impregnated with hydrolene, 1^-inch thick on top and sides 



276 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



on the S-5, 2-inch thick top and sides on the S-7 and S-10: 
with a 3-inch bottom thickness on all models. 

All seams in tlie C()rkl:)oard arc filled with Hydrolene. 
\\^ater])roof paper is then aj^plied over the corkboard as added 




FIG. 137.— SERVEL SEMI-COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



seal against air leaks. An air space of 34"^i'ich to 3^-inch is 
used between the outer metal shell and the insulation sur- 
rounding the liner. 

The semi-commercial machines are shown in Figs. 137 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



277 



and 138. The 15-A is ])articularly ada])ted for ice cream cabi- 
nets and low temperature work. The rated capacity of the 




FIG. 138.— SERVEL SEMI-COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



15-A is 350 lbs. The 18-A has a rated capacity of 300 lbs., 
and is used on large household or small commercial boxes. 

Socold. — Fig. 139 shows the compressor unit used in the 
electric refrigerator manufactured by the Socold Refrigerat- 
ing Corporation of Boston, Massachusetts. The refrigerant 
used is sulphur dioxide. 

The compressor has two vertical cylinders. The pistons 
arc driven by connecting rods operated by a walking beam. 
The drive shaft oscillates on an arc of 12 to 15 degrees each 
side of center at slow speed. A plate of special metal seals 
against a shoulder on this shaft. Thus the wear on the pack- 
ing is very slight. The discharge valves are in the cylinder 
head and are made of three monel discs. The suction valves 
are single parts in the cylinder walls. 



278 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The condenser consists of a coil of one tube mounted on 
the same base with the compressor. Forced air cooling is 
obtained by a fan in front of the motor and in the compressor 
drive wheel. 




FIG 139.— SOCOLD REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



m 




FIG. 140.— SOCOLD FROST UNIT OF HEAVY SEMI-STEEL CONSTRUCTION. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



279 



Fig. 140 shows the frost unit which is of heavy galvanized 
semi-steel construction and operates on the direct expansion 
system. An expansion valve of single construction is used 
to reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant. 




FIG. 141.— SOCOLD TYPICAL STEEL CABINET. 

A Mercoid thermostat is used for temperature control. It 
is responsive to the temperature of the frost unit and not by 
temperature of the food compartments, which issues a con- 
stant supply of ice cubes without making seasonal adjust- 
ments necessary. The thermostat is set to maintain a tem- 
perature in the frost unit of from 20 to 24 degrees F. This 



280 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



produces a temperature of from 45 to 50 degrees F. in the 
food compartment. 

Fig-. 141 and 142 show typical steel cabinets. 

The construction provides one air and moisture tight steel 



^^sss^UBsaa, 



zz-ji 



%ss^msm 





FIG. 14: 



-SOCOLD STEEL CABINET SHOWING REFRIGERATING AND 
FROST UNITS INSTALLED. 



case inside another which will not permit the penetration of 
moisture and odors into the insulation. 

-Balsam-wool is used to insulate the cabinets. This ma- 
terial is manufactured from the fibers of northern coniferous 
woods. The process is somewhat similar to that employed in 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 281 

pulp making, as the wood is first reduced by mechanical means 
and then chemically treated so the wood fibers are separated 
from one another. The individual fibers are fine, hairlikc, hol- 
low tubes, and at this stage are saturated with chemicals that 
render them non-inflammable and proof against decay. These 
fibers are handled by air and felted into a fleecx mat lujund 
together with cement. An imp(_)rtant feature of this mat is 
that its fibers extend in all three cubical dimensions, with the 
result that the blanket is remarkably light in weight and con- 
tains millions of dead-air cells. 

To increase the mechanical strength of the fibrous Ijlanket. 
a layer of water-proofed Kraft ])aper is cemented to each side 
of the blanket with asi^halt. This method of applying the 
liner does away with stitching and leaves the surface of the 
material impervious to water and air. 

The cold storage type of balsam-wool is particularlx 
adapted for these small boxes because it is easily fitted in 
around the corners, is odorless either wet or dry, and will not 
support mildew or mold. A complete line of cabinets in por- 
celain or white baked enamel are manufactured. 

Universal Refrigerating Machine. — Fig. 143 shows the 
household compressor unit manufactured by the Unixersal 
Ice Machine Company of Detroit. 

The refrigerant used is ammonia. A y^ hp. motor drives 
the comjjressor by means of a 'A'" type leather belt and idler 
pulley. The compressor has a special type aluminum piston, 
designed to assure good lubrication and eliminate wear on 
the sides of the cylinders. 

Disc plate suction and discharge valves are used. These 
are located in tlie head of the compressor and are easily ac- 
cessible. The cylinder head is water jacketed. Metallic pack- 
ing is used on the compressor crankshaft. The condenser is 
made of a double spiral coil with welded ends. Water flows 
through the inner coil. 

Utility Refrigerating Unit. — Fig. 144 shows the mechanical 
unit used in the Utility Electric Refrigerator which is manu- 
factured at Adrian. Michigan b}- the Utility Compressor Com- 
pany. It is reported this company is now out of business. 



282 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




IO?60 



FIG. 143.— UNIVERSAL KEFRIGERATIXG MACHINE. 



The electric motor and pump are enclosed in the dome at 
the right, hermetically sealed. This eliminates a packing 
gland for the shaft of the compressor. 

The thermostat and the cooling coils, which absorb the heat 
from the atmosphere in the refrigerator are situated in the 
chamber at the left. 

The condenser is of the radiator t} pe and is located behind 
the dome and coil chamber. This condenser is air-cooled. 
The complete mechanical unit is interchangeable and easily 
removed from the cabinet. 

In case service is required, it is claimed that the complete 
mechanical unit can be removed and another put in place in 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 283 

fifteen minutes. This eliminates the need of mechanics work- 
ing on repairs in the home. The small door is for the ice 
freezing chamber. 




FIG. 144.— UTILITY REFRIGERATING UNIT. 

The mechanical unit is placed in the upper part of a special 
cabinet. The cabinets are of white porcelain or natural wood 
exteriors. A one-piece porcelain lining is used. The cabinets 
are seventy inches high, thirty-eight inches wide, and twenty- 
three inches deep. 

Ward. — Fig. 145 shows the condensing system of the 
household refrigerating machine made by the Ward Electric 
Refrigerator Corporation of Buchanan, Michigan. 




FIG. 145.— WARD HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. 



284 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



A ^i hp- motor drives the compressor by means of a "V" 
type belt. The condenser consists of a coil of copper tubing. 
Air is forced over the condenser b\- a fan on the motor shaft. 




FIG. 146." A\AKD EN'APOKATI XG SYSTEM. 

Fig. 146 shows a ty])ical evaporating s}stcm consisting of 
a brine tank. exi)ansion valve and necessar\' connections. The 
thermostat control is mounted on the brine tank. 



i;! ^^ 



=&^*%i 



^« 



FIG. 147.— SMOWIXG SPLIT-VALVE CONNECTIONS, W.\RD REFRTGER. 
ATING SYSTEM. 

The system is connected together by means of tubing con- 
taining split-valves on each end as in Fig. 147. This arrange- 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 285 

inent eliminates the need to dehydrate, pull a vacuum or 
charge the machine when making an installation. The valves 
on each end of the tubing are shut off when charged at the 
factory and after dealer has connected up same with machine, 
they are then turned on by a ratchet wrench which operates on 
the end of each valve and thus the dealer does not lose the 
charge when installing unit. 



^1' 



4|» *--SiS- ^ 




FIG. 148.— WARD STEEL HOUSEHOLD CABINET. 

One of the cabinets is shown in Fig. 148. The cabinet has 
a steel exterior and is insulated with corkboard. Various sizes 
and types of cabinets can be supplied. 



286 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Warner. — Fig. 149 and 150 show compressor units made 
by the Warner Stacold Corporation of Ottawa, Kansas. 

Air-cooled sulphur dioxide compressors are made in the 




lie. 1-19. WAK.N'EK STACOLD C OMi'RESSOK VKiV. 

following sizes: 1-cylinder com|)ressors driven by % and 
34 hj). motors; 2-c}"linder compressors driven by _^ and ^3 hp. 
motors; 3-cylinder compressors driven by Jj, .)4 'ind 1 hp. 
motors. 

These compressors are of the slow speed reciprocating 
type. A special "V" belt is used. The compressors have 
crank shafts which oi)eratc with less friction tlian eccentrics. 




FIG. 150.— WAKNKR SlWCOLl) Cd.\l I'R I'SSOK I'Nl'l'. 

Ground removable cylinder sleeves are used. The commercial 
compressors have pistons equipped with 4 rings. 

A series of 8 sizes of cooling tanks are made suitable for 
the various refrigerators. 

Flooded t> pe cooling coils are also made. These coils are 
used in apartment houses and commercial installations where 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



287 



it is necessary to have more than one cooling coil connected 
to one compressor. 

Metal cabinets are manufactured from 4.6 to 10.5 cubic feet 
food storage space. These cabinets are insulated with cork. 
The exterior has a lacquer finish. The interior is of white 
enamel or porcelain. 

Welsbach. — This machine, Fig. 151, is manufactured by 
the Welsbach Company at Gloucester, N. J. 

The refrigerant used is "Alcozol," which has been de- 
veloped in the Welsbach chemical laboratories. "Welcolub," 




FIG. 151.— WELSBACH COMPRESSOR UNIT. 

another product of the Welsbach laboratories, is used as the 
lubricant. 

The compressor is of the horizontal, double acting type. 
The compressor cylinder has a bore of 3 inches, with a stroke 
of 1 inch. It operates at low speed — 280 revolutions per min- 
ute. In normal operation in a 90° F. room the condensing 
pressure is 20 to 25 lbs., while the suction pressure is a 
vacuum. 

General Electric and Century ]/^ hp. motors are used, 
operating at 1750 revolutions per minute, with an average 



288 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



connected load of 210 watts. The motor drives the compres- 
sor by means of a ruliber-fa'bric "A"' t\i)e belt. 




FIG. 152.— WF.LSHArir FUKFZiNT, T'XIT. 

The condenser is made of ^-inch copper tubing. Forced 
air cooling is obtained by means of a two-blade fan on a motor 
pulley, and fan blades in the compressor pulley. The con- 
denser supplies liquid refrigerant to a receiver of sufficient 
size to hold the entire charge. 

Fig. 152 shows the freezing unit made of tinned copper, 
containing a non-freezing solution of glycerine and water. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



289 



The c.\i);iiisi()n <(iils arc made ot ^^-inch copper tul)ing-, pan- 
cake vvindinj^. A downward pitch in the evaporator permits 
the draina.^e of circulated luliricant Iiack to the com])ressor. 
An expansion Aalvc is used and automatically maintains 
a predetermined \acuum, regardless of the condensing pres- 
stirc. 




K;. 153.— WELSr.ACII STEEI. CABINET. 



The automatic tem[)eraturc control consists of a mercury 
switch mounted on a bi-metallic coil sealed in a bakelite case. 
The control is mounted on the u])per right-hand corner of 
the cooling tank. 

Fig. 153 shows a ty])ical steel cabinet as manufactured b}- 
the Welsbach Comi)any. Mg. 15-f shows a typical hardwood 
cabinet made of S'])\\ Inininated wood, using flush i)anel con- 



290 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 154.— WELSBACH HARDWOOD CABINET. 



structioii. Both the steel and wood cabinets are supplied in 
various models. The dimensions, food storage space, number 
of trays and number of ice cubes vary with different models. 

Whitehead. — Fig. 155 shows the compressor unit used with 
the household refrigerating machine manufactured by the 
Whitehead Refrigeration Company of Detroit, Michigan. 

The compressor is of the reciprocating type. It is con- 
nected directly to the motor shaft and operates at motor speed, 
thus eliminating belts or gears. A flexible coupling is used 
to connect the motor and compressor shafts. 

The condenser is made of finned tubing and is cooled by 
forced air. The fan is mounted on the compressor motor shaft. 

Methvl chloride is used as the refrigierant. The receiver 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



291 




FIG. 15S.-WHITEIIEAD COMPRESSOR UNIT. 

a i\ iimi 




FIG. 1S6.-WHITEHEAD COOLING UNIT. 



292 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

contains a visililc gauiic slmwing the amount of rcfris^erant 
contained in the receiver. 

^fhe temperature control is of the mercury tube type. 

Fig. 156 shows a ty])ical coolint^' unit. 'Jliis is made in 
five sizes as follows : 



Maximum Cube 
Tank Ice Box Capacity per 

Size Width Dcjitli Height Capacity Freezing 



1 


10 in. 


11 in. 


10 in. 


5-7 cu. ft. 


96 


2 


10 in. 


11 in. 


13 in. 


8-10 en. ft. 


96 


3 


10 in. 


11 in. 


16 in. 


11-15 en. ft. 


144 


4 


11 in. 


1 1 in. 


19 in. 


16-20 cu. ft. 


144 


5 


11 in. 


11 in. 


23 in. 


20-30 cu. ft. 


192 



Williams Simplex. — An air cooled refrigeratino- machine 
was develo]>ed tor household use called the \\'illiams Simplex. 
Ethyl chloride is used as the refrigerant. 

The compressor is of the rotary tyi)e, directly connected 
to the motor shaft without employment of intermediary gear- 
ing or belting. The comi)ressor has a xolumetric efficiency 
ranging from 82 ])er cent to 85 per cent, and a mechanical 
ef^ciency comparing favorabl) with the best reciprocating 
types of many times greater cajjacit}-. 

.\ ground steel collar is used to seal the drixe shaft. This 
collar is self-aligning and automaticall} takes up \\ear. as 
it is attached to the com])ressor b\ means of a corrugated 
metallic tube. A spring, assisted 1)\ the condensing pressure, 
holds these mend)ers in firm contact. This forms a tight joint, 
which will run indefinitely without a tendenc}' to wear or 
break down. 

The compressor is mounted integrally with and supported 
by the mentor. Positive ])ressure feed of lubricant is main- 
tained to all moving elements of the compressor while in 
operation. 

The compressor and condenser are cooled entirely by main- 
taining a current of air over their surfaces. The air is circu- 
lated by means of a Sirocco type of blower mounted between 
the motor and the compressor, the blower casing forming 
the supporting bracket for the compressor. 

The air is first drawn through the condenser chamber 
which cr)ntain-; a continuous coil of cop])er tubing into which 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 293 

the refrigerant \ap<»r is compressed, taking u\) the hitent heat 
of vaporization ; it then passes over the heat radiating lins of 
the compressor, from which it discharges through a flue ex- 
tending through the top of the machine cover. Air is also 
simultaneously drawn from the opposite direction through 
and around the motor and discharged from the fan as above 
described. 

The so-called flooded system is employed, in which the 
expansion or cooling coils are filled with liquid refrigerant. 
These coils connect into a vertical header from the toj) of 
which the \ aporized refrigerant is drawn. This \aiJor, after 
being licjuetied in the condenser, is discharged into a small 
chamber fitted with a float \alve, whicJT ])ermits it to feed 
back into the expansion coils at the same rate at which it is 
Deing condensed. 

These features are important, in that the radiating surfaces 
of the cooling coil have a much higher heat transmitting 
capacity when full of lic^uid. The ratio to the usual method 
of gas expansion at constant ])ressure is about 1.56 to 1. 

A still more important advantage is that the expansion 
pressure is automatically varied to maintain constant balance 
between the compressor capacity and the radiating surfaces 
as the temi)erature changes. This provides maximum efiiciency 
operating conditions throughout any range of temperature, 
while in the usual gas expansion method the pressure is neces- 
sarily set and held for the lowest temperature required, which 
is alwa\s the condition of lowest efficiency. 

The machine is controlled by means of a thermostat, ar- 
ranged to operate responsive to the temperature of the brine 
surrounding the coils in the brine tank. The switching appa- 
ratus and its actuating motor are located on the machine base, 
while the bulb of the instrument only is located in the tank. 
The advantage of placing the thermostat bulb in the brine 
tank is due to the fact that the maximum temperature change 
occurs in the brine. 

A safety pressure switch is also used, which is operated 
directly responsive to the refrigerant condensing pressure. 

The machine has a capacity when operating at 15° F. of 
about 150 lbs. ice equi\-alent per 24 liours. The power con- 



294 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



sumption, including motor losses, is from 190 to 200 watts with 
direct current, and from 260 to 300 watts with alternating 
current, the difference being due to the larger losses in the 
alternating current motor. 

Zerozone. — The Zerozone Household Electrical Refrigerat- 
ing Unit is manufactured by the Iron Mountain Company of 
Chicago, Illinois. 

This is an air-cooled compressor type unit using a cooling 
unit of the indirect type. The refrigerant used is sulphur 
dioxide. 




FIG. 157.— ZEROZONE ELECTRICAL REFRIGERATING UNIT. 

The compressor unit consists of a one-cylinder reciprocat- 
ing type compressor which is used on all well insulated re- 
frigerators up to 20 cu. ft. and is shown in Fig. 157. The 
bore and stroke is 1^ inch and the compressor operates at 330 
r.p.m. The compressor is driven by a 34 hp. repulsion induc- 
tion electric motor by means of a "V" type belt. 

A two cylinder type compressor is used on all refrigera- 
tors from 20 to 50 cu. ft. and is shown in Fig. 158. The bore 
and stroke is 1^ inch and the compressor operates at 265 
r.p.m. driven by a 5^ hp. repulsion induction electric motor by 
means of a "V" type belt. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 295 

a j^ 




FIG. 158.— ZEROZONE TWO-CYLINDER TYPE COMPRESSOR. 




FIG. 159.— ZEROZONE AUTOMATIC CONTROL. 



296 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The condenser in each case is a double copper coil cooled 
by forced air by means of a fan attached to pulley end of 
the motor shaft. 

The control used on the individual installation is an auto- 
matic thermostat, Uxg. 159. and is responsive to the tempera- 




I'lG. 160.— ZEROZONE COOLING UMT. 



ture in the cooling unit. The thermostat tube in the cooling 
unit connects to a sylphon which operates a mercury tube 
switch, by means of a suitable lever mechanism. 

The control used on the Multiple installation is of the low 
pressure type, and is responsive to the pressures in the low- 
side of the refrigerant system. This lo\\- pressure control. 



COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



297 



controls the oijcration of the conii^ression unit itself, the tem- 
perature of each cooling unit in the multiple installation being 
controlled indixidually l)y a Idw side, thermostatic actuated 
valve. commi)iil\' referred to as a teni))erature g•o^■ern(Jr. 




FIG. 161.— ZEROZONE SELF-COXTAIXED METAL CABINET. 



A diaphram type expansion valve is used to automatically 
meter the correct supply of liquid refrigerant to the expansion 
coils. 

The cooling units are made of 20 ounce sheet copper, made 
in \-arious sizes, one of which i> shown in Fi^. 160. and con- 



298 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

tains ^-inch copper tubing for the expansion coil. The non- 
freeze solution is calcium chloride. 

Fig. 161 shows a typical self-contained cabinet, the ex- 
terior of which is metal, finished with white lacquer. Cork- 
board is used to insulate the walls and doors. The lining is of 
the one piece porcelain on steel type. The cabinets are made 
in A^arious stvlcs and sizes. 



CHAPTER VIII 

HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATING MACHINES 
ABSORPTION TYPE 

Household Absorption Refrigerating Machines. — In this 
chapter, attention will be given to the general types and char- 
actertistic construction of a number of household absorption 
refrigerating machines. 

Ice-O-Lator. — Fig. 162 shows an absorption type refriger- 
ating machine manufactured by the Winchester Repeating 
Arms Company for the National Refrigerating Company at 
New Haven, Conn. 

The "absorbent" which was the result of so many years 
of research by Prof. Keyes is the basis of the machine. Other 
absorbents have been known. Charcoal is an efficient absorb- 
ent and is frequently employed to absorb gases of various 
kinds. A good example is in gas masks. But charcoal can- 
not be employed in refrigeration because it is such a poor con- 
ductor of heat that no practical degree of efficiency can be 
obtained in the operation of a machine using it. You can get 
the gas into it well enough, but you can't get it out again 
without the expenditure of a prohibitive amount of energy. 
This absorbent combines the highest known absorbing quali- 
ties together with the quality of high heat conductivity. 

Following are the qualities which the inventors set out to 
embody in their absorbent. They are the properties of an 
ideal material : 

1. Cheapness and unlimited supply. 

2. Should absorb at least 100 per cent of its own weight of re- 
frigerant. 

299 



300 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



3. Should ha\ c :i lii,L;li heat coiuluctivity in urder to facilitate the 
removal of heat of absorption and also the application of heat for 
driving off the refrigerant. 

4. Cellular, or porous structure, in order to present necessary 
working surface. 

5. Stability. There should be no diminution of operating effi- 
ciency, or no disintegration or decomposition after continued use. 




^ I 



FIG. 162.— XATIONAL UEFRIGEUATINC MACHINE. 



In three >ears of contintiotis oiieration. no si^n of decreased 
efficiency has developed. 

A brief comparison with water, the best known absorbent, 
forms a favorable basis for com])arison. Water rom])els the 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 301 

use of aqueous ammonia. This material is absolutely dr\, 
making" possilile the use of pure anhydrous ammonia. Water 
absorbs 40 per cent of its own weight of ammonia. This 
material absorbs a])i)r(jximately 110 per cent of its own weight 
of ammonia gas and in addition loses its working charge on 
the application of about half the amount of heat necessary 
to dri\-e the much smaller charge from water. Result — much 
less bulk and much more economical operation. 

As the efficiency of the material has been steadily increased 
by constant scientific research since its discovery, there is con- 
siderable possibility th.it it may be still further increased. 

The small hcjusehold machine operates as follows: A steel 
tube is filled with a material which will absorb a large quantity 
of ammonia gas. When heat is applied the pressure is in- 
creased and the NH, gas is liberated and passes through a 
filter and check vahe to the condenser. When the pressure 
reaches a point that corresponds to the temperature of the 
cooling water, condensation takes place and liquid NH3 is de- 
livered to the liquid valve float chamber. The purpose of this 
chamber is to insure complete condensation by the cooling 
water. The liquid NH, is then delivered through a small orifice 
and tube to the refrigerating chamber and coils. The heating 
continues until enough liquid NH3 has collected in the re- 
frigerating chamber and coils to make a contact by means of 
the float contacting mechanism at the top of the refrigerating 
chamber. \Mien this contact is made the relay switching sys- 
tem is tipped to the opi)osite position, the heating circuit is 
broken, and the water is shifted by means of the valve from 
the condenser to the generator. As soon as the pressure over 
the material in the generator has dropped to the point which 
is less than the vapor pressure of the liquid ammonia in the 
refrigerating chamber and coils, boiling in this chamber com- 
mences and continues until all the liquid has evaporated. This 
evaporation may require from one hour to five hours depend- 
ing upon the temperature in the refrigerator. A\'hen the tem- 
perature is high, the evaporation is very rapid and when it is 
low the boiling requires a much longer period of time. The 
temperature in the refrigerator, then is regulated by the rate 
of evaporation of the liquid. The brine tank maintains the 



302 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



low temperature during- the heat i)eriod when no refrigeration 
is taking place so that the temperature ;n the refrigerator is 
practically constant. When the entire quantity of liquid has 
evaporated a contact is made at the bottom of the refrigerating 
chamber which tips the relay to the heating position, the heat- 
ing circuit is made, the water is shifted back to the condenser, 
and the cycle repeats. 

Fig. 163 shows a diagramatic drawing of the gas-fired Ice- 
O-Lator. This model has electrical controls and is water- 



tifTTfOiinrr rp^euiAM^fif 



'"'" 


"■"* 


""" 








BtlT- 


B,,.,. 


-r;: 




<• v.lrt 


i/^rrfi/ 


r« 


(ifM*f*Tar 


(fupr««c 


SlAm 


v<. 


Ovrtir 


-flt««'<7r 


rPv 








FIG. 163.— DIAGRAMMATIC DRAWING OF THE GAS-FIRED ICE-O-LATOK. 



cooled. The unit is placed in the cellar or any convenient 
place outside of the refrigerator cabinet. 

The following information concerning the cost of operating 
this unit is of interest. 

Illuminating or coal gas delivers 520 B.t.u. per cubic foot 
and natural gas an average of 1100 B.t.u. per cubic foot. One 
kw-hr. of electricity at 110 volts delivers 3415 B.t.u. Taking 
coal gas for comparison, 6.56 cu. ft. of gas is equivalent to one 
kw-hr. of electricity for heating purposes. 

The cost of gas per 1000 cu ft. ranges from $0.40 to $1.50 
in various localities. Many cities have a rate under $1.00. 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 303 

Natural gas, with about double the B.t.u. of coal gas, can be 
purchased for as low as $0.40 per 1000 cu. ft. in some localities 
As against this, the cost of electricity averages about $0.55 
per kw-hr. 

Heat for heat, the difference will readily be seen. At $1.00 
per thousand cu. ft. for coal gas the same number of B.t.u. 
can be obtained for three-fifths of a cent as from five and one 
half cents' worth of electricity at the above rate. 

The following table shows the approximate cost of opera- 
tion, for the equivalent of 100 lbs. of ice refrigeration, of a 
machine using gas at the various rates. 

Cost of Gas Per Cost Per 100 Lbs. 
1000 Cu. Ft. of Refrigeration 
$0.40 $0.05 

.80 10 

1.00 125 

1.50 187 

2.00 25 

2.80 35 

It will probably have been observed that the small house- 
hold machine is cyclic and subject to peaks. Whereas this 
has not proven an objection in any of the machines at present 
in operation, still in the event that continuous refrigeration 
should be desired to meet some special conditions, such can 
easily be obtained by the use of two generators, one absorb- 
ing while the other distills. 

Keith. — Fig. 164 shows an ammonia absorption type house- 
hold refrigerating machine made by the Keith Electric Re- 
frigerator Division of the Canada Wire and Cable Company, 
Ltd., at Leaside, Ontario, Canada. 

Referring to Fig. 164, which shows the unit in the cooling 
position, on the left hand side in the generator, is about two 
quarts of ordinary "ammonia" as used in the home. Within 
the tank there is also a small electric heater. When the heater 
is started the gas is driven out of the water, just as you can 
see gas or bubbles of air driven out of the water in your tea 
kettle as it begins to boil. This gas is not very warm, as 
ammonia is easily driven ofif, and when it flows over into the 
pipes shown on the right hand of the illustration, it is chilled 
by a trickle of cold water which is flowing over the pipes of 



304 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



the cc)n{len>er. W hen it is chillt'd, the gas is deposited on the 
inside of the condenser, about the same as dew is deposited by 
the chill of the morninci: air. This dejiosit is pure liquid am- 
monia. 

When the condenser is nearly full of pure liquid ammonia, 
in approximately one hour's time, it ])egins to weigh more 
than the generator, and swings down, ])ulling the generator 
ui) and shutting off the electric heater. Almost immediately 
the pure licpiid ammonia ])egins to c\a])orate and chills the 




FTC. 164. —KEITH .\.\l M ( ).\ 1 .\ .M'.SORl'l'lO.X lYI'E KK KKICK k.ATI .\( i 

MACHINE. 



pipes to apj^roximately zero temperature. This chills the sur- 
rounding air, which flows do\\n into the food comi)artment 
of the refrigerator. 

As the pure liquid ammonia evaporates, it flows l)ack as a 
gas into the tank of water, where it is once more cjuickly 
absorbed. As soon as all the ammonia is returned to the 
generator, the pipes of the condenser naturallx" become lighter 
and the tank (or generator) heavier, and the unit gently tilts 
back to the original position, the electric heater starts and the 
operation commences all over again. 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



305 



The u])crati()n, as has been cxphiined is inircl) automatic, 
requiring no attention and maintains an even cold tt'm])eraturc 
at all times, ideal for the jM-eservation of food. The amount of 
electrical energy consumed axerages about 3^/2 kilowatt hours 
per da}' for continuous ojjeration, depending on the weather 
and other conditions. 




FIG. K. 5.— KEITH REFRIGERATING UNIT INST.\LLED IN COMP.XR'l MEN 1 

OX CABINET. 



Heater — 900 watt resistance coil, porcelain core, inserted in steel 

tube through generator. 
Ice lock — Holds the condenser down until all ammonia is in the 

generator. Is released by temperature rising above freezing 

point. 
Tip switch — A safety device tf> disconnect the electricity should the 

water be shut off. 



306 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Mercury seal — Contains mercury, which runs to lowest point with the 
tilting of the unit opening and closing the ammonia pipe to 
condenser. 

Dehydrator — Eliminates water vapor from ammonia gas as it rises to 
the condenser. 

The cabinet, Fig. 165, shows a complete self-contained 
unit with the machine in the compartment at the top. 

Master. — An absorption machine of simple design is made 
by the Master Domestic Refrigerating Company, Inc., at 
Flushing, N. Y. It comprises a cylindrical generator, water 
cooled condenser and evaporator, connected by a single pipe 
to form the complete machine. It is made entirely from steel 
pipe and sheet steel. 

Only water and ammonia are used as the means of produc- 
ing refrigeration. These substances are charged in the gen- 
erator in the correct proportions. Ammonia in the form of 
gas is released by applying heat to the generator. The gas 
is then cooled and liquefied in the condenser from which it 
flows by gravit} to the evaporator in the cooling compartment 
of the refrigerator. By the subsequent cooling of the gener- 
ator a reduction in tlie pressure is produced and the ammonia 
slowly evaporates thus producing the required refrigeration. 
The gas is re-absorbed by the cooled water in the generator. 
When the evaporation of the ammonia is practically completed 
a new cycle automatically begins. 

The necessary reduction of the pressure is attained solely 
by the cooling of the generator, no check, float, or expansion 
valve, restricted orifice or other device is used in the machine 
and the pressure is always the same at any given time in all 
parts of the machine. The generator, condenser and evapora- 
tor freely communicate with each other at all times with pipe 
of full orifice. 

The machine requires no attention as it is completely auto- 
matic. The automatic control consists of a power element 
actuated by the temperature of the generator, and a further 
power element which is placed in contact with the evaporator. 
The cooperation of these two power elements, by means of a 
simple mechanical principle, which is novel in its application 
to this machine, regulates and establishes the heating and cool- 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 307 

ing" periods and assures the proper and continual functioning 
of the machine in a simple and positive maner. 

Should for any reason the supply of water to the condenser 
be interrupted, the heating means is automatically 'cut ofif. 
Simple and effective means are provided for automatically 
returning to the generator any water which may be carried 
over by the ammonia gas to the evaporator. 

The machine and refrigerator are built as a complete self- 
contained unit, but, if desired, the machine may be installed 
outside of the refrigerator. Defrosting of the evaporator is 
automatic. Provision is made for an ample supply of ice cubes 
for table use. 

The present machine is used to cool refrigerators of any 
size up to eight cubic feet inside capacity. 

The Electrolux Servel. — The first practical continuous 
operating absorption refrigerating machine was made about 
the year 1860 by a Frenchman named Carre. His apparatus 
consisted first of a source of heat, generator, condenser cool- 
ing water, expansion valves, evaporator, absorber and pump. 
The heat liberated the ammonia gas from the aqua ammonia, 
so called "rich solution or strong liquid" leaving a weak liquid 
or water in the generator. The gas passing to the condenser 
is cooled off by the cooling water and condensed into a liquid. 
The liquid ammonia flows through the throttle or expansion 
valve into the evaporator, where the liquid ammonia is vapor- 
ized into a gas. During the evaporation heat is withdrawn 
from the surroundings, and thus cold is produced. The cold 
vapor passes into the absorber where it is sprayed by weak 
liquid from the generator. By the expulsion of the ammonia 
from the aqua-ammonia solution in the generator, the remain- 
ing liquid is to a large extent water. This poor solution be- 
ing exposed to the high pressure passes through an expansion 
valve into the absorber. In this way the poor solution,- meet- 
ing the ammonia vapors, absorbs them, so that in the bottom 
of the absorber a mixture collects as a "rich or strong solu- 
tion." This solution is continually forced into the generator 
by the pump, which is operated by outside mechanical forces. 
A line drawn from the expansion valves t! rough the pump 



308 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

separates the machine into a liigh pressure side and a low 
pressure side. 

In the apparatus of Carre's there are two cycles. The 
ammonia circulates from the generator through the condenser, 
the vaporizer and the absorber l)ack to the generator. It 
therefore passes through all four recei)tacles. The water cir- 
culates from the generator to the abs<,)rber and vice versa. 
The water therefore only passes through these two receptacles. 

The Carre machine was built in great numbers, being used 
in breweries, distilleries and similar ])lants where large 
amounts of heat vapor was available for vvliich at that time 
no particular use was made. 

However as the steam technique further developed and 
afforded numerous uses for exhaust steam for other purpv)ses, 
the employment of the ab>ori)tion machine became less and 
less. This was further augmented b}' the high efficiency of 
the newdy develo])ed compressor system. Meclianical difficul- 
ties also played a role as with small units as were used, the 
expansion valves were necessaril}- small and the orifice wa> 
<:ontinualh' clogging uj) with dirt ; then tcjo the ])um])s were 
d source of constant maintenance and had to be operated by 
auxiliar}- power, independent of this source of heat used in 
evaporating the aqua-ammonia. 

There therefore arose a demand for small continually oper- 
ating absorption machines, from which the above said defects 
of the machine of Carre were eliminated, said machines to have 
neither expansion \alves nor pump, but which could be oi)er- 
ated merel}" by the heat supply. 

This was the aim of Geppert. In order to reach this aim 
he dispensed with the difference of the total pressure for the 
]>ur])ose of \apori/cation. W'itli the same total pressure in 
the entire apparatus he tried to effect the vaporization neces- 
sary for refrigeration, as well as the reuniting of the ammonia 
gases with the w^ater, and returning the mixture to the boiler 
without a pump or other mechanical energy. To this end, 
Geppert, in adition to the cooling medium (ammonia) and the 
absorbing liquid (water) used in the vaporizer a third medium, 
to wit. a gas. in the presence of wdiich according to physical 
laws (due to tlie difference of so called partial pressures of 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES oU9 

the gases) liquid ainnionia exajjorates without a (h'op of the 
total pressure being required. 

In the year 1899, Geppert built such an ap]>aratus. In the 
boiler the ammonia gas is expelled as in tlie Carre machine. 
After being liquihed in the condenser the licpiid ammonia flows 
through a conduit into the upper pan of the evaporator. In 
this liquid is immersed a porous material which is so placed 
as to extend over the rim of the inner o])ening and extend- 
ing completely under the pan. The porous material with its 
large exposed surface facilitates the evaporation of ammonia 
in the presence of the second gas contained in the receptacle. 
The second gas used by Geppert was air. At a slight distance 
below the porous pad on the bottom of the upper pan is a 
bath of poor solution, whicli flows fr(jm the boiler, being 
cooled by passing through a cooler on its way to the absorber. 
It will thus be seen that Geppert combined the eva])orator and 
absorber into one vessel. The ammonia gases resulting from 
the evaporation at the surface of the porous material difl:use> 
downward through the second gas filling the receptacle and 
is then absorbed by the absorption liquid. The rich liquid then 
flows back to the generator where l)y the a])])lication of heat 
ammonia gas is again expelled. 

The machine of Geppert is based on the theoreticall}' cor- 
rect idea that a pressure drop requiring throttle valves and 
pump becomes unnecessary in a refrigerating machine, if in 
the evaporator the lic^uid ammonia meets with a gas in whose 
presence the ammonia evaporates. The machine as designed 
refused to work and Geppert has himself seen the drawbacks 
of a design in which the ammonia has to dittuse through a 
thick layer of inert gas. This is apparent from other draw- 
ings later on submitted by him. In the next design he reduced 
the thickness of this layer and emplo_\ ed a fan to aid the evapo- 
ration, by having the lower parts of the fan blades dip into 
the liquid. By doing this he was able to further separate the 
cold evaporator from the warm absorber therebv' reducing the 
refrigerating losses. The fan had to be operated by a motor 
and this was one of the pieces of equi])ment that (je]jpert had 
set out to eliminate. Another reason \vh}- the machine proved 
impractical was that when the ammonia \ ap(ir> are absorbed 



310 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

by water heat is liberated. The absorber therefore acts as a 
heater. Cooling water had to be provided in pipes located 
within the absorber. Notwithstanding this, heat liberated 
during the absorption rose into the evaporator space above, 
thus either entirely or partially counteracting the heat with- 
drawn from the surroundings by the evaporation of the am- 
monia. Effective refrigeration therefore cannot take place, 
or only in a very limited degree. 

In the year 1901, Geppert attempted another design which 
was somewhat of an improvement over the two previous 
models. He still maintained the combined vaporizer and ab- 
sorber. The receptacle was provided with a double. wall, cool- 
ing water circulating in its hollow space. Into the receptacle 
is inserted a cylinder at a very slight distance from the inner 
face of the double wall of the receptacle. The cylinder con- 
tains salt water. The cylinder does not extend to the bottom 
of the receptacle. Into the free space flows from the boiler 
"poor solution." The operation was as follows : 

The ammonia which had become expelled from the rich 
solution and liquified in the condenser flows through a small 
pipe to the outer surface of the wall of the cylinder, which 
wall is covered with porous material. There the ammonia 
becomes distributed and evaporates. Heat is therefore with- 
drawn from the salt water contained in the receptacle and 
cold is produced. The produced ammonia vapors diffuse 
through the small intermediate space to the opposite inner 
surface of the double wall of the receptacle. This surface is 
sprayed by poor solution which by means of a small pump is 
continually pumped through the pipes from the lower portion 
of the receptacle upwards into the space between the double 
wall of the receptacle and the c\ linder. The surface on which 
the poor solution flows down is cooled by the cooling water 
in the hollow space of the double wall. As the poor solution 
flows down, it absorbs the ammonia gases which are diffused 
in its direction from the opposite surface and thereby is en- 
riched with ammonia. Thus the outer surface of the cylinder 
acts as a vaporizer, and the inner surface of the wall of the 
receptacle as an absorber. The absorber therefore, is, not like 
in his previous patent, below the vaporizer, but the absorber 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 311 

and vaporizer located in one and the same vessel, at the same 
level side by side. It will be noted that Geppert had to take 
recourse to the pump, which is one of the pieces of equipment 
he started out to eliminate. While he succeeded in producing 
cold, with his last design, the efficiency was small — also he 
failed to attain one of his objects, namely to eliminate the 
pump. 

After Geppert failed, no trace can be formed of any prac- 
tical and useful small refrigerating machine of any importance, 
operating according to the absorption principle in a continuous 
manner, until the year 1922 when two students, Baltzar Carl 
Von Platen and Carl George Munters of the Royal Swedish 
Institute of Technology developed and designed a working 
model which dispensed with all moving and mechanical parts. 

This unit was later developed by the Electrolux Aktie- 
bolaget in Europe and the Electrolux Servel Corporation in 
the United States, so that today we have a workable and 
saleable refrigerating unit that is indeed marvelous. In order 
lo develop the present day product a large laboratory for re- 
search work was established in Stockholm, Sweden, and in 
Brooklyn, New York. In these laboratories developments and 
experiments are taking place so as to develop new types for 
further commercial applications. How well this unit with 
refrigerator has been developed was evidenced at the American 
Gas Association Convention at Atlantic City, where three 
complete refrigerators and an exposed unit were presented for 
the inspection of the gas industry. 

Platen-Munters, independent of Geppert had like him the 
idea to have in the entire system, by the introduction of a 
second gas, everywhere the same uniform total pressures and 
to efifect the pressure difference required for the vaporization 
of the refrigerating medium. Contrary to Geppert, however, 
they carried out this idea in a manner which at once resulted 
in a practical solution. They recognized what has remained 
concealed to Geppert that in such a system into which is in- 
troduced a pressure compensating gas there occurs within the 
system inner fores, i. e., physical actions which can be utilized 
in order to efifect the circulation required for such a system. 
Furthermore, they recognized that this peculiar action can be 



312 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

still considerably im])r()Vfd upon if the pressure compensating 
gas possesses special characteristics, for instance, as regards 
its specific weight differing considerably from that of the 
vapors of the refrigerating medium. There were ways of 
avoiding the pitfalls of Geppert. 

First.- — As regards the puni]). B}- applying heat from a 
source the solution rich in ammonia, is made to boil in a tube 
and by the thermo-syhon action thus established, the liquid 
is raised from the lower level of the absorber to the high level 
of the generator. 

Second. — Stagnation and poor circulation, instead of using 
air as Geppert had done hydrogen gas was used. Absorber 
and evaporator are placed at about the same level or the latter 
somewhat higher than the former. When the ammonia vapor 
has been absorbed in the absorber, pure hydrogen flows 
through the upper ]3ipe into the evaporator, where it mixes 
with the vapors from the evaporating liquid ammonia. The 
mixture of ammonia vapor and hydrogen being specifically 
lighter the greater its ])ercentage of h}clrogen, it follows that 
the column of gas in the evaporator will be heavier than that 
in the absorber. An automatic circulation of gas consec{uentl} 
takes place, giving an upward fiow in the absorber and a down- 
ward flow in the eva])orator. If instead (jf hydrogen, the inert 
gas had been nitrogen the flow would have been reversed. 

The api)aratus comprises the generator, condenser, evapo- 
rator, absorber, heat exchanger, the^'mo-syphon, which are 
interconnected by pipes. In all portions of the completely 
and tightly closed apparatus exists the same total pressure. 
The boiler is to a large extent filled with aqua ammonia (so 
called rich solution) only the upper vapor space of the boiler 
is free from liquid. 

Into the Ijottom of the generator is inserted an electric 
heating element, connected to a source of electrical energy. 
From the upper free space of the generator leads a pipe to the 
condenser and said pipe continues on into the top of the evapo- 
rator. The latter is filled with hydrogen gas. At the bottom 
as well as at the top there is a connecting pipe to the absorber. 
The absorber i> surrounded b}- a jacket through which circu- 
lates cooling water, \\hicli then passes to the condenser. From 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 313 

the bottom of the abs()rl)ei- a ])ii)e runs to and coils around the 
heating element. In addition there is a i)ii)e connecting the bot- 
tom of the generator with tlie top of llie abscjrber. This i)ii)C 
where it is horizontal surrounds the pipe which i)asses from 
the absorber to the upper space of the generator. 

The apparatus is (jperated as follows: Current sui)]jlied 
to the heating- element heats the rich solution in the generator. 
The ammonia gas expelled from the ricli solution fills the 
upper free space of the generator and flows througli the pii)e 
into tlie water cooled condenser. Because of the cooling the 
hot ammonia gases are condensed to pure ammonia liquid. 
This licjuid flows to the eva])orator. There in the presence of 
h}(lrogen the liquid ammonia exaporatcs. Through the e\a])o- 
ration heat is withdrawn from the brine tank surrounding 
the evaporator and consequently cold is produced. The am- 
monia gases in the evaporator diffuse into the hydrogen, and 
the mixture, sinks downward, liecause as compared to the gas 
mixture in the absorber it is lieavy. In its downward move- 
ment it passes on to the absorber, fn this \essel the gas mix- 
ture meets with the water (i)oor solution) coming from the 
generator. The liquid level in the generator is higher than 
the "poor solution" pipe to the absorber; there is therefore, a 
continual flow of poov liquid into the absorber. In the ab- 
sorber the poor solution absorbs from the gas mixture the 
ammonia gas and collects at the bottom of the absorber as 
"strong or rich liquid," while the lighter hydrogen free from 
ammonia ascends and through the pipe connecting the ab- 
sorber with the evaporator, again enters the top of the evapo- 
rator. 

The rich solution is conveyed through the coils of the pipe 
around the lower end of the heating element and is thereby 
preheated so that the ammonia gas bubbles around the pipe. 
These bubbles carry along globules of liquid, which thereby 
reach the upper portion of the generator, from which we 
began the cycle of operation. 

Outside the cycle of the ammonia which takes place in all 
four vessels (generator, condenser, evaporator and absorber) 
there occurs in the apparatus still two other cycles. On the 
one hand the circulation of the water, or poor solution from the 



314 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

bottom of the generator, to the top of the absorber down to 
the bottom of that vessel as strong solution, then to the top 
of generator, through the thermosyphon pipe. On the other 
hand, the circulation of the hydrogen gas from the bottom of 
the evaporator to bottom of absorber, and from top of ab- 
sorber to top of evaporator. 

The above description covers the machine as originall\ 
designed. Rarely, has an invention required less time to per- 
fect. On August 18, 1922, the first patent was deposited in 
Sweden and in 1925 a great number of refrigerating machines 
were in commercial service. 

The Electrolux Servel Cori)oration has by exhaustive tests 
and experiments developed a machine somewhat different than 
the original Swedish design. These changes have practically 
doubled the "ice melting capacity of the machine" and have 
greatly increased its efficiency. They have in addition per- 
fected the machine for gas heat instead of electric heat and 
have reduced the quantity of cooling water needed to properly 
operate the unit. In order to do this several changes had to 
be made to the apparatus. 

1. Inner flue placed in generator to permit the use of a gas flame 
for heat. 

2. Rectifier — to catch water that may be carried over with 
aninionia gas. 

3. New type condenser — simplified construction. 

4. Gas heat exchanger — placed between rectitier and the 
absorber and the evaporator, where _,the cold ammonia hydrogen 
mixture coming from the evaporator is warmed by the hot ammonia 
coming from the rectifier and the hot hydrogen from the absorber. 

5. The liquid heat exchanger. The two pipes located between 
the absorber and the generator the one being placed inside the other, 
act as a heat cxcJianger on the counter flow principal, by means of 
this the hot, weak liquid, which flows from the bottom of the genera- 
tor into the absorber, is pre-cooled by the comparatively cool strong 
liquid that flows from the absorber to the thermo-syphon. Thi- 
solution is at the same time pre-heated before entering the generator. 

The unit before being charged with ammonia, distilled 
water and hydrogen is given a careful air and hydraulic test 
under the most rigid factory supervision and after being 
charged is heremetically sealed by welding. The original 
charge does not have to be renewed, as there is no leakage. 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 315 

The unit is equipped with a thermostatic safety burner 
which automatically shuts off the gas supplied if for any rea- 
son the supply is interrupted. One of the features of the unit 
is that the operation involves absolutely no danger even if the 
condenser water supply should be interrupted for any length 
of time. 

Inasmuch as there are no moving parts and being rigidly 
constructed, no serviceing is necessary, and that is saying a 
lot. 

The refrigerator is a steel box of approximately 6>4 cubic 
feet of food space — finished with several coats of duco over 
baked white lacquer. The cooling section inside the box is of 
cast aluminum having five trays with a capacity of about fifty 
cubes. The box is insulated with three inches of high grade 
corkboard, thus bringing the thermal losses and operating 
costs down to a minimum. (From address delivered by F. E. 
Sellmann before the New York Section of the American So- 
ciety of Refrigerating Engineers in October, 1926.) 

The original ice melting capacity of the Swedish machine 
was about forty-five pounds per twenty-four hours while its 
thermal efficiency was about 18 per cent. The Swedish public 
were apparently content to utilize a manually controlled ma- 
chine, the control simultaneously regulating both gas and 
water. It was found that in order to make the machine salable 
in this country it would have to be designed so as to operate 
and give sufficient refrigeration where room temperatures of 
100° F. and cooling water of 90° F. were encountered. It 
further had to be developed so that the machine would 
have to give desired refrigerating effect automatically, and 
with controls making. the unit serviceable for use with either 
manufactured gas, natural gas, electricity or oil. A laboratory 
was established in Brooklyn where exhaustive developments 
were made by united effort of engineers of the American and 
Swedish companies. During the next 3^ear these men were 
able to redesign the machine so as to bring about an ice 
melting capacity of seventy-five pounds per twenty-four hours 
and to raise the efficiency to 32^^ per cent when operated by 
gas. When operated electrically the efficiency rose to 38 per 
cent. The machine was also capable of producing sufficient 



3]6 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

refrigerating effect to take care of the designed refrigerator 
under conditions of 100° F. room temperature and 90° F. 
cooling water. 

The maximum efficiency of the original Swedish unit was 
reached when an input of 730 B.t.u.'s per hour was furnished, 
while the maximum efficiency of the machine developed in 
America was reached when 1350 B.t.u.'s were used. The 
capacity reached its maximum at aliout 1300 B.t.u.'s Avith the 
Swedish machine. l)ut with about 1650 for the American ma- 
chine. These improxements l)oth as to cajjacity and efficiency 
were brought about by many developments including a new 
type of rectifier, improved Thermo-syphon, and the use of a 
gas heater exchanger. The figures quoted above were fur- 
nished from tests conducted b}- the Consolidated Gas Com- 
pany of New York. 

As the efficiency and cai)acity increased with the increase 
in B.t.u.'s furnished the unit, it was therefore necessary to con- 
trol the heat in]:)ut so as to get a i)redetermined refrigerating 
effect. Using gas of 540 B.t.u. ])er cubic foot heating value the 
minimum gas required to assure satisfactory i)umping througli 
the Thermo-syphon was l}^ cubic feet per hour and this flame 
had to be increased to a maximum of three cul)ic feet per hour 
when maximum refrigeration was desired. This meant there- 
fore a development of a burner that would burn satisfactorily 
between the ranges of iVj cubic feet and three cubic feet per 
hour and that the burner in addition must be of the safety type 
so that, if for an\" reason the gas flame were extinguished that 
the gas supply to the burner would be automatically shut off". 
The first burner developed possessed these characteristics but 
was designed for a gas pressure of about 2}^ inches of water 
and 540 B.t.u. gas. U'ith the sending of refrigerating units 
into districts where gas pressures and B.t.u. values vary con- 
siderably it was necessary to develop burners suitable for both 
water coke-oven and natural gases and to test and ap])rove gas 
pressure regulators. 

As the minimum gas required at an_\" time was 1^ cubic 
feet per hour the gas thermostat was therefore designed so 
as to always allow that quantity of gas to pass through it. 
but when the thermostat acted on the gas supply it augmented 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 317 

gradually the flow until three cubic feet capacity was reached. 
The thermostat is of simple construction easily set and ad- 
justed. It consists of a six inch bulb located within the food 
chamber. The operating- mechanism of the thermostat is 
located in the machine compartment and is inter-connected by 
capillar) tubing. The bulb is partly filled with a licjuid which 
when expanded int«j a gas, actuates by pressure throug-h the 
tube a diaphragm located in the body of the thermostat. 

With operating the machine electrical!} . similar conditions 
must of course be taken care of so that the machine will con- 
tinually ])ump. With this in mind a double lieating' element 
was developed which furnished a minimum wattage to kee]) 
up pumping but increased the wattage to take care of maxi- 
mum load. From the consumption curve of the cooling water 
needed it will be noticed that after a certain amount of water 
had been used further increase in water consumption becomes 
unnecessary and wasteful. This therefore clearl\- indicated 
that no desirable control could be de\'eloped for controlling 
water simultaneously with the gas and that any water control 
developed would have to be designed using as a ccmtroUing 
factor a predetermined cooling water outlet temperature. Such 
a device was developed and with the outlet water temperature 
maintained at 90° F. the water consumption was practicalh' 
halved as compared to that which was used prior to the de- 
velopment of this water control. The machine is now operat- 
ing satisfactorily with about three gallons of water per hour 
with water inlet temperature of 70° F. The machine will oper- 
ate and produce ample refrigerating effect with cooling water 
up to 90° F. With temperatures above this, the water would 
flow through unrestricted parts in the \ah-e and the \alve be- 
come unnecessary, but where cooling water is encountered 
below 90° F. the saving in water is very material. Those 
familiar with early tests must realize the material saving made 
in the water consumption and that the objections raised to 
water cooling, both as to waste of water and costs has been 
overcome. 

The machine unit comprising the generator, evaporator, 
absorber, rectifier and gas heat exchanger is made of heavy 
steel tubing inter-connected by steel pipes, all joints being 



318 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

uxy-acelyline welded. This produces a completely sealed unit 
from which there is no danger of leakage. The units are de- 
signed to withstand a pressure of 3100 pounds per square inch 
although only about 200 pounds charging pressure is used, 
and a certain proportion of the run of units are tested to this 
pressure at the factory. Each unit, however, is subjected to 
a high pressure test in order to detect any possible imperfec- 
tions in welding. 

From time to time one hears many stories reflecting on the 
safety of gas-fired absorption machines. This all emanated 
from experiences of ten to fifteen years ago when a few gas- 
fired intermittent absorption machines were being marketed, 
most of them of large capacity for commercial use. A few 
serious accidents practically eliminated further progress in this 
type of machine, and produced adverse legislation. The cause 
of this trouble was largely due to a lack of understanding as to 
the necessary safety devices that are required on a large in- 
termittent machine. In other words, a machine of this kind 
requires automatic mechanism to shut off the fuel at the end 
of the boiling period, to apply cooling water at the right time 
both for condensing and absorbing purposes, and a pressure 
limiting device in the event that the gas fuel or condensing 
water did not function properly. The fact is these variously 
needed devices had not been properly perfected before the 
machines were marketed. Since that time there has been con- 
siderable progress made in small intermittent machines, so 
that in some cases for certain types of work the objections 
of the past have as a rule been overcome. 

The Electrolux-Servel unit incorporates features which 
make safety devices not only unnecessary but undesirable. 
The fuel burns continuously, and continued operation of the 
maximum burner adjustment would merely produce an ex- 
tremely cold box. In practice this is prevented by making 
the gas consumption depend upon box temperature. If, for 
any reason, the cooling water were to fail nothing would 
happen other than that the refrigeration would cease. The 
reason that no safety device is required to meet this condi- 
tion is due to the design of the machine, which provides so 
much radiating surface, in proportion to the heating surface, 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 319 

that all parts, with the exception of the generator will throw 
off the heat as fast as it is applied, through all the surfaces 
as represented by the evaporator, heat exchanger, absorber, 
condenser and rectifier, and a state of equilibrium will be 
reached when these surfaces will throw ofif the heat at the 
same rate as heat is applied to the generator. These two 
features absolutely eliminate the need of any safety devices 
whatsoever for the purpose of safe operation. 

For an entirely different reason, however, a fusible plug 
is installed on the absorber end of the gas heat exchanger. 
This w^as made at the suggestion of the New York Fire De- 
partment, as well as the National Board of Fire Underwriters, 
and is to provide for that emergency which would be brought 
about by intense exterior heat being applied to all parts of 
the machine as would be the case if a fire occurred in the 
room in which the refrigerator were installed. To meet this 
emergency the fusible plug set to melt at 200° F. would 
simply relieve the refrigerator charge. This is a precaution 
which would be just as important if the machine were simply 
tilled with either water or air, as the unlimited heat supply 
would simply produce an internal pressure which would event- 
ually rupture the machine. These facts are borne out by the 
approval of the machine by the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers' Laboratory in Chicago, and by recent changes in the 
proposed code for the city of New York. 

This machine has long since passed its experimental stage. 
When first brought out into production 250 sample boxes were 
sold to the various gas and public utility companies for the 
purpose of having them conduct tests and determine if the 
machine and box w-ere what they desired and what was 
claimed it would do. Apparently the machine and boxes de- 
signed met with instant approval as is evidenced by the large 
order placed for this machine. The machine lends itself to 
and is particularly suitable for apartment house service espe- 
cially in large and congested cities where the fact that it is 
absolutely noiseless, safe and serviceless has been deciding 
factors in its reception. 

The unit may also be used in specially built boxes of vary- 
ing sizes, built to fit into particular niches as seems to be the 
growing demand in new apartment house construction. There 



320 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

is also a combination of a gas stove and refrigerator where 
a gas stove is mounted on a refrigerator box the same gas 
service line serving both. There are operating right now in 
the Eastern districts embracing environment of Metropolitan 
district of New York approximately one thousand machines. 
The servicing of these machines, in case it were necessary, 
would, of course, be done b\- the gas company, and from the 
information received the\' advise that so far they ha\'e not 
experienced any servicing whatsoever. 

One question has undoubtedly occurred to a good many 
of you. "What effect has the gas flame with its products of 
combustion on the interior of the gas flue which passes 
through the generator?" In view of the fact that the gas 
flame is not extinguished but ranges in degrees from IJ/^ 
cubic feet per hour to 3 cubic feet per hour results in the gas 
flue always being kept at a temperature higher than the dew 
point. 

Numerous people have asked the question, "What corro- 
sion will take place within the unit?" Before the unit is 
charged with ammonia, distilled water and hydrogen, a high 
vacuum is pumped. Practically all oxygen is therefore re- 
moved. The machine, of course, has not been in service more 
than a few years so we can go back no further — but machines 
that have operated for this length of time in Sweden have 
l)een cut open and no trace of corrosion has been found. 

The dissociation of ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen 
is an old story in absorption systems where numerous joints 
and connections are used. In the Platen-Munters Refrigerat- 
ing unit — there are no joints, no possibilities of air leakages. 
Then, too, if there should be a tendency to break down the 
ammonia into nitrogen and hydrogen — -it must be remem- 
bered that the unit has already a heavy charge of hydrogen 
and this would tend to repel the dissociation. 

Another question that has apparently been causing some 
comment by refrigerating engineers has been the possibility 
of leakage of hydrogen through the steel. As long ago as 
about 1860 it became known that hydrogen is absorbed by 
certain metals and can be diffused through them. This matter 
has since this time been subject to a large number of investi- 
gations which have mostly centered on the diffusion of hydro- 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 321 

gen through iron and steel, as this for several reasons is of 
considerable technical interest. 

It was known from these investigations that gaseous 
hydrogen easily penetrates and diffuses into steel at red heat. 
This diffusion, however, is sharply reduced with the lowering 
of the temperature and has seldom been observed at a tem- 
perature below 300° C or 572° F., wherefore some investi- 
gators have assumed a discontinuity of the diffusion at this 
temperature, or a "hydrogen point" of the steel. On the other 
hand it was shown that hydrogen which had been introduced 
into the steel electrolytically would diffuse through the metal 
at even room temperature. 

As the Platen-Munters refrigerating unit contains hydro- 
gen at ordinary room temperature under relatively high pres- 
sure, it was desired to determine if any appreciable loss of 
hvdrogen would occur under these conditions. Earlier inves- 
tigations had indicated that the losses would be quite small, 
but as no figures were available regarding their actual mag- 
nitude, tests were arranged and conducted by Professors 
Borelius and Lindblom at the Royal Technical School at 
Stockholm. 

Applying the data obtained to the Platen-Munters refrig- 
erating unit, we find that no danger exists of loss of hydrogen 
through the wall of the apparatus. For instance, if we take 
a 60 cal. refrigerator which contains 1.5 gr. hydrogen and 
which will still operate if 0.3 gr. of this hydrogen were lost, 
we would find that it would take one hundred eighty years 
before sufficient hydrogen escaped making the apparatus in- 
operative. This certainly gives a wide margin of life. 

Thousands of people have examined this machine, among 
them a large number of engineers ; in fact, generally speaking, 
the more technical a person is, the greater appeal has been 
made by the machine. The fact that the machine is noiseless, 
free from moving parts, compact, economical in operation and 
has apparently unlimited life, cannot but make us reflect on 
its effect on domestic refrigeration. 

When we consider that this machine is the first of its kind, 
and if we compare it with other developments in the past, we 
can readily visualize that the continuous absorption machine 
will also follow in the path of progress. 



322 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Does this not make us wonder if the absorption principle 
will not soon be a vital factor in domestic refrigeration? 
(From an address delivered by F. E. Sellmann at the Ameri- 
can Society of Refrigerating Engineers meeting in May, 
1927.) 




l-IG. 166.— ELECTROLUX SERVEL KEFRIGKRATOR CABINET. 

Fig. 166 shows the refrigerator cabinet. The exterior is 
made of lead coated steel finished with white duco. Fig. 167 
shows the cooling unit and food compartment space. The 
food capacity is 6^^ cubic feet. The box is insulated with 
three inches of corkboard. The lining is of porcelain and the 
cooling section is of cast aluminum having five trays with a 
capacity of fifty cubes of ice. 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 



323 



Fig. 168 shows the machine mounted on the side of the 
cabinet. The water control valve is mounted on an outlet 
water line. The purpose of the water control is to throttle 




FIG. 167.— SHOWING COOLI.N'G UNIT AND FOOD COMl'ARTMENT SPACE. 



the water used in the condenser so as to maintain a constant 
outlet temperature under all conditions of inlet temperature 
and pressure. The gas thermostat automatically regulates 
the supply of gas responsive to the temperature of the food 
compartment. 



324 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



A safety gas burner is used so that the gas supply is auto- 
matically shut off if for any reason the gas flame is ex- 
tinguished. 




FIG. 168.- 



-SHOWING ELECTROLUX SERVEL MACHINE MOUNTED ON SIDE 
OF CABINET. 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 325 

Sorco Gas Absorption Refrigerator. — The new Sorco Gas 
Absorption Refrigerator (Figs. 169 and 170) which is manu- 
factured by the Gas Refrigeration Corporation, with sales 
office at 18 East 41st Street, New York City, has a great num- 




IIG. 169.— SORCO GAS ABSORPTION REFRIGERATOR. 

ber of new features not shown in their old construction de- 
scribed heretofore. 

The boiler absorber contains a solution of auiuionia and 
water. As cold water attracts and absorbs or dissolves am- 
monia, the rate at which it does so and the amount it absorbs 
depend on the temperature of the absorbent. On the other 



326 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



hand, hot water repels ammonia in the form of a gas. Hence 
during the heating period, ammonia is liberated from the 
boiler, liquefied in the condenser and fills the evaporator. Dur- 
ing the refrigerating or absorbing period of the cycle which 




FIG. 170.— SUKCO GAS ABSUKPTIOX UNIT INSTALLED 
IX REFRIGERATOR. 



may last from eight (8) to se\'enteen (17) hours, according 
to the required amount of cold, the liquid anhydrous ammonia 
gasifies from the evaporator and returns to the boiler absorber 
where it is reabsorbed by the weak liquor. The heat absorbed 
by the evaporating ammonia as well as the heat of association 
generated by the absorption of the ammonia gas in the weak 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES 327 

liquor in the boiler absorber are carried off by the cooling 
water. 

The patented construction and design of the Sorco Boiler 
Absorber are extremely simple as it contains no moving parts 
such as valves of any kind, floats, by-passes, packing or stuff- 
ing boxes or anything that can possibly get out of order. In 
all intermittent absorption machines ammonia gas must be ex- 
pelled from the top of the liquid level and re-absorbed under- 
neath the surface of the liquid. We accomplish this by an 
application of gas heat to the boiler as well as the absorber, 
at which time an over pressure is created in the absorber dur- 
ing the boiling period which keeps the aqua ammonia floating 
in the boiler compartment until a predetermined maximum is 
reached in the boiler when the required amount of ammonia 
gas is expelled to the condenser. 

Shortly after the beginning of the absorption period the 
remaining weak liquor in the boiler flows back to the absorber 
to a lower pressure created by the cooling water flow which 
is diverted through the absorber at the same time the heat 
is turned off. 

A number of novel patented features are embodied in the 
Evaporator construction. As shown in the diagram attached, 
there is no moveable part in the ammonia system which is 
hermetically sealed in steel vessels and seamless steel tubing 
welded to the tanks. As the same pressure exists during the 
boiling period in all parts of the evaporator a great part of 
the ammonia would condense in the cold evaporator which 
would warm it up so that the food compartments and the ice 
in the evaporator would melt. Condensation in the evaporator 
is reduced to a minimum in the construction shown. The first 
entering fluid ammonia fills above the coils. Condensation 
cannot take place in the coils as they never become empty. 
Condensation must then first take place in the evaporator in 
the reduced surface area inside the main upper vessel which 
quickly increases the temperature of this vessel at the begin- 
ning of the heating period. But as soon as the temperature of 
this main vessel reaches a certain temperature slightly above 
the cooling water temperature, condensation stops there auto- 
matically. This is due to the fact that only a small part of 



328 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

the latent heat can escape through the air insulation between 
the main vessel and the housing of the evaporator. Conden- 
sation thereafter takes place only in the condenser. The evap- 
orator housing remains unaffected by this heat which cannot 
circulate. The ice evaporator is able to make six (6) pounds 
of ice in form of 72 ice cubes, within the short time of two to 
three hours. 

There is alwavs a small amount of moisture in the dis- 
tilled ammonia when it enters the evaporator during the heat- 
ing period. This moisture not only has the tendency to in- 
crease the boiling point of the ammonia in the evnporator, 
thereby preventing the e\ aporator from reaching its minimum 
possible temperature, but it also would gradually accumulate 
in the evaporator because it does not evaporate back in the 
boiler absorber with the evaporating ammonia. The amount 
of moisture generally increases with increasing cooling water 
temperature and has to be removed automatically. The Sorco 
evaporator is equipped with a marvelously operating patented 
return suction tube cup which has no moveable part and is 
based on two functions. First, a continuously separating op- 
eration, and, second, a removing operation. The first one 
is performed by the ice tray supporting coils in combination 
with the vertical tube during the whole absorption period. 
The lower ends of these coils are over orifices in communica- 
tion with the vertical tube, so that liquid circulation between 
the vertical tube and the two coils is avoided. At the start 
of the boiling period the remaining aqueous solution in the 
vertical tube and in the lower part of the coils is forced 
through an orifice into the sump at the bottom of the evap- 
orator. Due to the drop in pressure shortly after the end of 
the boiling period a small predetermined amount of liquid 
in the tube cup is drawn back into the absorber. This takes 
place shortly after the end of each boiling period with an 
astonishing regularity and without returning an appreciable 
amount of ammonia. 

The Sorco is now as formerly 100 per cent automatical}} 
operated. The attractive feature, however, is that electricity 
is no longer required to operate the control of the gas heated 
unit. The movement of the few parts in the patented control 



ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING MACHINES .^29 

is so simple and slij^ht, that noise and wear are reduced to 
practically nil. The two thermostatic power elements, one 
in the boiler and one in the evaporator, control the water flow 
by a snap action in a simple and unique manner. The start- 
ing and stopping of the boiling period as well as three dif- 
ferent water flows are accomplished: First, the water flf)w 
during the boiling period ; second, a strong flow during the 
first part of the absorption period through the absorber to cool 
the machine down quickly, and third, a minimum amount of 
water flows during the most of the absorption period to extract 
the heats of evaporation and association. 

The advantages of this non-electric control are manifold. 
First, it regulates the length of the cycle automatically accord- 
ing to the required amount of cold. Second, it is completely 
foolproof^ — if for example the power element in the evaporator 
should not operate due to an overload in the evaporator, the 
control of the machine would automatically be operated by 
the thermostat in the boiler. The length of the absorption 
period would be determined by the rate of radiation from the 
boiler. This condition would last as long as there is an over- 
load in the evaporator and thereafter the evaporator thermo- 
stat would automatically start its normal operation again. 
Third, it is selfstarting, that is, it does not matter during 
which operating condition the machine was shut ofl^ as it shifts 
automatically to the proper starting position. Fourth, the 
elimination of the necessity for any electric connections in the 
machine, or the elimination of the possible failure of the elec- 
tric current. Fifth, the elimination of the possible failure of 
the many intricate electrical parts such as wiring, contacts, 
switches, pilot wires, etc., all of which also require an elec- 
trical knowledge in the servicing. 

There is a safety pilot light which automatically lights the 
gas whenever it is turned on. Unburned gas cannot escape, 
due to the automatic gas shut-off of the safety pilot; if for 
instance, the pilot light should go out. The gas burner can- 
not be lighted unless cooling water flows through the system. 
As long as the cooling water flows through the system it is 
impossible to attain abnormal or dangerous pressures in the 
system, and in order to comply with the Safety Code there 



330 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

is a rupture device which would exhaust the refrigerant with 
the cooling water in closed pipes at a safe pressure below 
the bursting pressure of the weakest part of the system, which 
bursting pressure is more than twelve times the maximum 
normal working pressure. The normal working pressure dur- 
ing the refrigeration period range from 10 to 35 pounds gauge. 
The maximum normal working pressures during the heating 
periods are from 125 to 175 pounds per square inch, all of 
which vary according to room and cooling water temperatures. 

The machine can be manufactured in all sizes. One size 
is on the market which has an ice making capacity of about 
23 pounds per cycle. The maximum capacity is therefore 
about 92 pounds in 4 cycles per 24 hours. 

The Sorco machine automatically defrosts the evaporator 
each cycle. The box tem[)erature increases 5 to 6 degrees 
Fahrenheit during the boiling period. 

The Sorco needs little ser\icing as it contains no movable 
parts beside the control and every machine, even when it is 
continuously operating, must have a control unless it is not 
fully automatic. 

The average operating cost of the Sorco refrigerator is 
11 cents per day, on one dollar gas and water at one dollar 
per thousand cubic feet. The third of this cost is for water 
and two-thirds for gas. 

The Sorco Model E consumes from 40 to 80 cubic feet of 
gas per day according to conditions and the required refrig- 
erating eflfect. Tlie a\erage water consumption is under 200 
gallons per day. 



CHAPTER IX 

TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSEHOLD 
REFRIGERATORS 

Household Refrigerators. — The following pertains to the 
description of the general type and a detailed description of 
some of the leading household refrigerators on the market at 
present. The different makes of household refrigerators which 
are described have been selected promiscuousl}-, and do 
not include all of the makes which are produced at present. 
However, the description of the following makes will convey 
an idea of the general types, as well as the various details of 
construction used in some of the leading makes at present. 
Special attention is given to wall construction, linings, outer 
case construction, construction of doors, etc. 

Bohn. — In Fig. 171 is shown a typical refrigerator made 
by the Bohn Refrigerator Compan}- of St. Paul, Minnesota, 
for electrical refrigeration. 

The exterior is of white porcelain on steel. The lining also 
is made of porcelain. The walls and doors contain eleven 
insulating members, including two thicknesses of flaxlinum. 
The insulation is framed in with heavy members, insuring 
permanency of position and long life. It is so constructed 
as to present a complete refrigerator before the outer steel, 
porcelained case is installed. The porcelain steel case is 
added to beautify its appearance and as an added protection to 
the inner walls. The walls are SYi inches thick and the 
doors 3}i inches. 

Doors are built on the safe door principle, with several 
rabbets to hold back the air leakage and in addition are fur- 
nished with cushion gaskets. 

331 



332 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



All hardware is solid brass, nickeled in the company's 
plant. Corners are trimmed with solid brass tubing, heavily 




FIG. 171.— TYPICAL BOHN REFRIGERATOR. 



nickeled. Underneath this trim are white wood mouldings, 
which seal the porcelain plates together— an additional mois- 
ture proofing. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 333 

The food chamber lining is one-piece heavy steel, porce- 
lained, with full rounded corners and rolled door edges. All 
porcelain steel, inside and outside, has one ground coat on 
both sides of the sheet and then two additional coats of white, 
each coat fused on separately, in its own plant, in ovens 
carrying two thousand degrees of heat. 

The cooling chamber is lined with the highest quality 
galvanized steel with a copper alloy base. 

The drain pipe is solid brass, with a spun copper funnel 
top and solid brass base, all heavily nickeled. The drain trap 
is double — a large opening if ice should be used, and an 
auxiliary, removable, smaller trap within the larger trap, for 
defrosting drainage. Defrosting drainage should be carried 
away from the inside of the refrigerator and never be left in 
a pan inside the refrigerator because of the high content of 
bacteria and food d "^ay in the melted frost. The provision 
shelves are meshed wire, heavily tinned. 

There are proper circulation principles, inbuilt, leading the 
air in a complete circulating course throughout every part of 
the provision and cooling chambers. 

Equipment includes a porcelain shield for cooling chamber 
door opening. Stud bolts in ceiling of cooling compartment 
with basket hanger, where necessary, and a sleeved hole in 
back; complete equipment for installation of cooling unit. 

A full line of household refrigerators, with or without sub- 
bases, is manufactured. 

The porcelain base may be used to house the refrigerating 
machine. When the machine is not placed in the base, the 
base can be used for the storage of water bottles, kitchen ware 
or canned goods. 

Cavalier. — Fig. 172 shows the construction of a refrigerator 
made by the Tennessee Furniture Corporation, Richmond, In- 
diana. This view has the walls cut away to show steel frame 
construction. A structural frame of angle iron is used. The 
joints are electrically and acetylene welded. 

There is an exterior case of porcelain enameled steel 
sheets, backed up by wall board and bolted to the steel frame. 
Next is a ^-inch air space, and Ij/^ inches of corkboard. The 
interior porcelain lining is encased in an airtight envelope of 



334 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



insulation. The corkboard walls are entirely covered with a 
special preparation. Seal Tight, which is waterproof, closes 
all air-cells, and prevents deterioration. 

A removable plate at the back of the ice chamber is for 
the convenience of those who wish to install an electric refrig- 
erating unit. 

Doors are made with a heav} wood case, to which the cork 
insulated door pans and wood moulding are firmly fastened. 







FIG. 172.— C.WALIER REFRIGERATOR, SHOWING CONSTRUCTION. 



The door surface is covered with a metal case held firmly in 
place by flanges folded over the edge of the wood core. All 
doors are of the heavy, overlap type and are fitted with 
"Wirfs" insulating gaskets to prevent air leakage and to give 
cushion action at the door jamb. 

Fig. 173 shows one of the white porcelain lining and ex- 
terior models. These refrigerators are so constructed that an 
electrical refrigerating unit may easily be installed. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



335 




FIG. 173.— CAVALIER REFRIGERATOR, WHITE PORCELAIN EXTERIOR. 



Crystal Refrigerator. — Fig. 174 shows an all-metal refrig- 
erator made by the Crystal Refrigerator Company, Fremont, 
Neb. 

Some new and interesting features of construction are in- 
corporated in the design of this cabinet. 



336 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The walls both outside and inside are made of one-piece, 
galvanized sheet metal with a hard, baked white enamel finish. 
Porcelain linings can also be supplied. 

The walls are insulated with from 2 to 5 inches of pure 




FIG. 174.— CRYSTAL REFRIGERATOR 

granulated cork. A wooden frame is used to strengthen the 
walls and to support the door latches and hinges. 

Aluminum moldings and corner pieces at the top and an 
aluminum band at the bottom add to the appearance and pro- 
tect the enamel. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



337 



Solid glass shelves are used. The ends of the shelves 
are square while the ends of the cabinet are oval, thus form- 
ing a passageway for the air circulation. Part of the air goes 
across the shelves and the balance to the bottom of the food 
compartment. 

The doors are constructed of metal. The ice chest, shelves, 
and all inside parts can be easily removed for cleaning. 

The trap is aluminum and located inside the refrigerator. 







i 




i ■ 






fl 


,k '^ __. 


'j 




Xr.l 



r 



FIG. 175.— CRYSTAL STEEL REFRIGERATOR 



Both apartment and side icer cabinets are built in ice 
capacities from 50 to 250 lbs. Cubical contents range from 
3.6 cu. ft. to 20.2 cu. ft. 

"White-Steel" Refrigerator, Fig. 175, shows an all-steel 
refrigerator of the square type by the Crystal Refrigerator 
Company, Fremont, Neb. 

The walls are constructed the same as the Crystal but 
are not so heavy. They are insulated with Ij^ in. to 3>^ in. 
of pure granulated cork. 

Wire shelves are used. 

The doors are constructed of metal. The ice chest, shelves 
and all inside parts can be easily removed for cleaning. 



338 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The trap is aluminum and located inside the refrigerator. 

Made in apartment and side icing styles in ice capacities 
from 50 to 150 lbs. Cubical contents range from 4.2 cu. ft. 
to 9.6 cu. ft. 

Jewett Refrigerator. — The Jewett Refrigerator Company 
of Buffalo, N. Y., has been building refrigerators since 1849. 
Fig. 176 shows a typical Jewett side icer cabinet. 




FIG. 176.— JEWETT REFRIGERATOR. 

The lining is of solid porcelain 1^ in. thick. This lining 
is of earthenware which is fused at 2500° F. The ice com- 
partment is lined with the same material. A modern pottery 
is used to make these linings and they form an ideal interior 
surface for a refrigerator. This lining has some heat insulat- 
ing value and has a certain heat capacity which acts as a 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



339 



stabilizer of temperatures in the food compartment. The 
amount of ice in the refrigerator may vary consideraby with- 
out appreciable effect on the temperature of the food com- 
partment. The doors are lined with white opal glass. The 
flues are formed in the porcelain linings and are of generous 
size insuring good circulation. 

The drain, shelf supports, flues, and ice compartment floor 
are all cleverly molded into the lining, affording a simplicity 




FIG. 177.— JEWETT REFRIGERATOR WALL SECTION. 

of design which greatly adds to the appearance of the in- 
terior of the cabinet. 

The insulation is shown in Fig. 177. The total thickness of 
this wall is 5}i in. The interior case is of solid ash, doweled 
and glued ; next comes two layers of waterproof insulating 
paper, then 1 inch of pure sheet cork, two more courses of 
heavy waterproof insulating paper, a course of }i in. tongued 
and grooved lumber. 1% i"- of pure cork, one course of in- 
sulating paper and then 1^ in. of solid porcelain lining. This 



340 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



construction insures a wall of low heat conductivity, and a 
wall which will not be damaged by very low food compart- 
ment temperatures. 

The ice is supported in a heavy mesh container, which is 
held by rods bolted firmly to the ceiling. This container is 
easily removed for cleaning. 




FIG. 178.— TEWETT REFRTGERATOR. 



The door construction is very rigid. The design includes 
a door of good appearance which will close tightly and not 
warp out of shape under severe humidity conditions. Cab- 
inets are constructed with holes through the lining so as to 
accommodate mechanical refrigerating units. 

Another line of refrigerators, Fig. 178, is made having a 
lining of one piece seamless steel coated with white vitreous 
enamel baked on at high temperature. The corners are 
rounded. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



341 



The insulation is 3 in. of pure sheet cork bonded to the 
lining- with moisture-proof hydrolene. This prevents any dead 
air spaces between the lininj^: and corkboard. 

The exterior mav be obtained in natural ash or white 




FIG. 179.— SHOWING SPECIAL COMPARTMENT JEWETT REFRIGERATOR. 



enamel finish. The partition around the ice compartment is 
easily removable. The shelves are made of heavy woven wire 
coated with pure block tin. 

A special utility space, Fig. 179, is located directly under 
the ice compartment to be used for cooling bottles, storing 
extra ice cubes, or chilling fruit or vegetables. 



342 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




FIG. 180.— JEWETT REFRIGERATOR WITH MoM I, Mi;i,\l. EXTERIOK. 




FIG. 181.— JEWETT KEI' KIGER ATOR, XATURAE COLOR EXTERIOR FINISH. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



343 



Another line of refrigerators, Fig. 180, is made. This 
model has a porcelain enamel and monel metal exterior. The 
lining is of solid porcelain. 

Two other standard exterior finishes are furnished. Nat- 
ural color, brown ash, Fig. 181, with three coats of varnish, 
satin finish. The hardware is of solid cast brass. The other 
standard exterior finish is five coats of white enamel, with 
nickel hardware. 

Cabinets are made in side and to],i icer types with ice 
capacities from 75 to 240 lbs. The Jewett Company also 
makes a specialty of building cabinets to order. 

Leonard Refrigerator. — Fig. 182 shows a typical refriger- 
ator as built by the Grand Rapids Refrigerator Company, 
Grand Rapids. Michigan. 




FIG. 182— LEONARD REFRIGERATOR. 



344 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The Leonard refrigerator has been built for over 43 years 
and represents the latest cabinet construction for large quan- 
tity production. 

The exterior case on the different models is made of porce- 
lain on steel, white enamel on steel, 5-ply laminated wood or 
quarter-sawed oak. 



OUTSIDE PORCELAIN 
WOOL FELT 
WOOD WALL 
WOOL FELT 




FIG. 183.— SECTION OF LEONARD REFRIGERATOR WALL. 



The better grade of cabinets have corkboard insulatioiL 
A typical wall construction is shown in detail in Fig. 183. 

One-piece porcelain linings are used. These linings are 
made of Armco ingot iron. The sheets of iron are first cut, 
punched, and welded, forming one piece of steel, thus pro- 
ducing a lining with a smooth, hard surface which eliminates 
cracks and sharp corners. They are next immersed in acid 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



345 



to remo\e all grease or dirt, through other cleaning processes 
and then thoroughly dried. The steel linings are then dipped 
in a dark-blue porcelain composition which is fused on to the 
steel at a temperature of about 1800° F. Two coats of white 




FIG. 184. 



-LEONARD OAK REFRIGERATOR WITH DETACHABLE BASE EOK 
ELECTRICAL REFRIGERATING UNIT. 



porcelain are then applied and baked on in a similar way. 
This forms a white surface which is impervious to ru.st and 
disintegration. 

The cold-air flue construction between the bottom of the 
ice chamber and the top of the small porcelain provision 



.346 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

chamber is such as to allow for a free circulation of air into 
and through the provision chambers, there being a circular 
opening in the porcelain lining. 

Many different types and sizes of refrigerators are made 
with ice capacities from 20 to 495 pounds. 

Fig. 184 shows an oak cabinet with a special detachable 
base for electrical refrigerating machines. In this refriger- 
ator the necessary bolts and perforations have been inserted 
to make it convenient to install the cooling unit in the ice 
chamber. 

This cabinet is made in all-porcelain, oak-porcelain, ash- 
porcelain and steel-klad lines. Openings are provided for 
ventilation. 

Many other different types and sizes of refrigerators are 
made with ice capacities for 20 to 495 pounds. 

McCray Refrigerator. — The McCray refrigerator has been 
built at Kendallville, Indiana, for over thirty-five years. Fig. 
185 shows one uf the side-icer type McCray cabinets. 

The standard exterior construction is quarter-sawed oak 
made of 5-ply laminated wood. The top and bottom of the 
refrigerators are so constructed that the plywood is not ex- 
posed to the outside. 

The linings are made of one-piece porcelain enamel on 
steel. The inside of the doors is also covered with porcelain. 
Some of the larger refrigerators are made with both lining 
and exterior case constructed of ■j'^-inch white opal glass. 
The floor is of hexagon vitreous tile laid in special cement. 

The insulation consists of 2 inches of pure corkboard 
scaled with hydrolene cement. The Avall section comprises: 

1. Porcelain enamel linin;-;. 

2. Dead air space. 

3. Inside wood lining. 

4. Waterproof paper. 

5. Two in. of corkboard .sealed with hydrolene cement. 

6. Waterproof paper. 

7. Exterior case of 5-ply laminated wood. 

Every model has studs in the ceiling of the ice compart- 
ment on which cooling units may be hung for electrical re- 
frigeration. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



347 



A sub-base for any stock model may be supplied so that 
the electrical refrigerating unit may be installed under the 
refrigerator cabinet. This base is slatted to permit using an 
air-cooled refri iterating machine. 




FIG. 185.— :McCRAY KEFKIGERA'IOK. 

Cabinets of various types with ice capacities from 60 to 840 
pounds are made. 

Fig. 186 shows one of the all-metal exterior refrigerators 
for electrical refrigeration. 

The exterior of these all-metal refrigerators is covered 
with automobile steel. The joints of this steel are braced 
together making this exterior practically one piece. A py- 
roxyline lacquer white finish is applied making a beautiful 
white exterior. This is the same finish as used by high-grade 
automobile body manufacturers. 



348 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The doors are flush paneled. They have a ^-inch raise, 
and are provided with gaskets which make this refrigerator 
practically air tigrht. The hardware and hinges are of heavy 




FIG. 186.— McCRAY ALL-METAL REFRIGERATOR FOR ELECTRICAL UNIT. 

brass, nickel plated. Fasteners are of the self-closing type. 
All refrigerators are mounted on piano casters. 

The interior of these all-metal exterior refrigerators is of 
the highest quality one-piece porcelain. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



349 



The insulation consists of 2 inches of pure corkboard. all 
joints being carefully sealed with hydrolene cement. 

Reol Refrigerator.— The accompanying illustration shows 
the Reol, manufactured by the Reol Refrigerator Company of 
Baltimore, Md., in process oi construction. The section in 




.;u 



FIG. 187.— THE REOL REFRIGERATOR IN PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

the small ring shows the mortised and tenoned method of 
joining the framework. A view of the finished refrigerator is 
also shown. 



350 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The framework of the Reol Refrigerator is very strong, 
very rigid, and very durable. It is made with ash, corner 
posts in one continuous piece from top to bottom. The lower 
ends of the corner posts extend about 8 inches below the floor 




FIG. 188.— REOL REFRIGERATOR. 



of the refrigerator, to form a sanitary base. The framework 
of the Reol is mortised and tenoned, glued, and fastened 
solidly together to form a rigid foundation on which to build 
up the completed refrigerator. 

The exterior finish is of solid oak, free from knots and 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 351 

imperfections, with the long boards of the side panels held 
together with deep tongues and grooves. The oak is filled, 
stained, and rubbed down coat after coat, to a hard satin 
smoothness, beautiful and enduring. 

The insulation in the Reol Refrigerator consists of pure 
corkboard 2 in. thick, securely fastened to the framing. The 
insulation is continuous over all of the refrigerator surfaces. 
and is broken only by the casings of the doors on the sixth 
surface. The corkboard is covered with a coat of protective 
water-proofing on both sides, to prevent any possibility of 
dampness getting into it either from the outside or the inside, 
thus eliminating decay or odors. 

The food compartment is lined with vitreous porcelain 
which is extremely durable and sanitary. It does not chip 
unless exposed to hammer blows and it will last a lifetime if 
given just ordinarv good care. Snow white, glassy, and free 
from all imperfections and discolorations. 

The hardware used on the Reol is of solid brass, heavy and 
durable. It is handsome in appearance, and will give a real 
lifetime of service. 

The doors of the Reol contain the same insulation as the 
sides of the box, and in the same amount. They are made 
specially air tight with a series of rabbets on the door, which 
fit into corresponding ledges in the door casings. As a further 
precaution, around the uttermost ledge is a gasket of rubber 
and compressible cotton wick. When the door is closed, the 
gasket compresses and keeps the warm air out. 

Rhinelander Refrigerator. — The refrigerator shown in Fig. 
189 is manufactured by the Rhinelander Refrigerator Com- 
pany, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. 

The exterior is of white porcelain with trim strips of 
polished metal. Fig. 190 shows the interior of the same cab- 
inet. Other models are made with hardwood exteriors in 
various finishes. 

The lining is of the one-piece porcelain type. Cabinets are 
also made with white enamel linings. Corkboard is used to 
insulate the walls and doors. 



352 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 191 is one of the refrigerators designed for mechanical 
refrigeration units. This cabinet has a white porcelain inte- 
rior lining with exterior case of steel, white lacquer finished. 
It is cork insulated. The equipment includes hanger bolts 
and pipe opening in the rear. 

The different models include side and top icers, grocery 
and meat refrigerators of ice capacities from 50 to 575 pounds. 




YX,G. 189— RHINELANDER REFRIGERATOR. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



353 




FIG. 190.— INTEKIOK OF REFRIGERATOR SHOWN ON OPPOSITE PAGI 



354 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




I'lG. 191.— KHINPXAXDEK KEFRKIERATOH DESIGNED FOR MECHANICAL 

UNIT. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



355 



Seeger Refrigerator.— Fig. 192 shows a typical refrigerator 
made by the Seeger Refrigerator Company of Saint Paul, 
Minnesota, for electrical refrigeration. 

The exterior and interior are of white porcelain on steel. 
They are equipped with porcelain defrosting pan and insu- 




FIG. 192.— SEEGER REFRIGER.^TOR FOR MECHANICAL, UNIT. 



lated removable porcelain baffle wall. The insulating material 
used is corkboard. 

Vegetable storage compartments can be supplied for all 
models. These are shipped as separate units complete with 
fittings. The >-egetable storage compartment opens forward 
like a flour bin. 



356 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The insulation consists of waterproof insulating paper, 
heavy insulating board and pure sheet corkboard, hydrolene 
sealed. 2 inches or more in thickness. 

White Frost. — Fig. 193 shows one of the White Frost re- 
frigerators manufactured by the Home Products Corporation, 
Jackson, Michigan, who have been building them for twenty- 
five vears. 




FIG. 193.— WHITE FROST REFRIGERATOR. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



357 



It is built of special rust-resisting steel and insulated with 
pure granulated cork in sealed air space. Cork is introduced 
by a special method to prevent settling. The construction is 
all steel. The seams and joints arc sealed to be permanently 
air and moistureproof. 

This cabinet is round with re\ol\ ing food shelves, making 
entire shelf area accessible for storage. Shelves and ice cham- 
ber lift out for cleaning. 

Construction makes it easy to maintain correct refrigera- 
tion temperatures and secure efificicnt circulation of pure, cold, 
dry air to each part of the food chamber. 

The illustration shows a water-cooler ty])e. Two sizes 
are available of 100 and 50-pound ice capacit}'. Kach size is 
furnished with or without water-cooling system. The cab- 
inets are finished in laccjuer or white or grey enamel. 

Wall Construction. — Fig. 194 shows a refrigerator wall 
using mineral wool insulation and a metal lining. The nir 



1(1 

m 










W ' 



Metal Lmme. 
Wood. 



Rosin 5ized Paper. 



Mineral Wool. 



Paper, 



Air S PAC&. 



Wood Outer Cas^. 



FIG. 194.— TYPICAL REFRKrER.\TOR WALL COXSTRUCTIOX 



space is placed well out from the inside lining. With u^ual 
service conditions, the air space in this position would be 
effective as a heat insulator. 

Fig. 195 shows another wall using mineral wool and air 
spaces. The air spaces are placed near the inside lining. 
Water vapor in the dead air spaces would condense, collecting 
on the surface of the lining. This design is ver\" poor from 
an insulation standpoint. 



358 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Fig. 196 shows a solid wall insulated with corkboard. The 
inside wooden frame strengthens the cabinet and prevents 
breaking the opal glass lining in shipment. The wooden frame 

Wood Case. 



fZ 


f- 








Insulating Paper. 


ll 

iiiilllll 


\^ 


z:r- 


s?c 


Mineral Wool 




^ 


— 




Insulating Paper. 




Wood. 


in 






Insulating Paper. 






Dead Air Space. 






Insulating Paper. 


' 


Dead Air Space. 




- — ___ Porcelain Lining 



FIG. 195.— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL CONSTRUCTION 

also provides a place for the screws necessary to hold the 
lining in place. This construction is used on some of the 
best quality cabinets. 

Fig. 197 shows a wall construction used for a cabinet with 
a composition lining. The lining must be well supported to 



'\V%^ 



ft 






\ ^ 



■<!'! 



In. 



Wood. 



WATERPRoor Paper . 



Corkboard. 



Waterproof Papelr. 



Wood. 



I N SULATING FELT. 



Opal Glass, 



FIG 196.— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL CONSTRUCTION 

prevent breakage in shipment. This type lining because of 
its large heat holding capacity, tends to keep the food com- 
partment temperature uniform. 

Fig. 198 shows a wall using fiber board insulation. This 
type cabinet is easily assembled at the expense of being poorly 
insulated. The dead air space near the lining would condense 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



359 



^U CpMP05mON_J_iNiN^. 

Wood. 




FIG. 197.~TYP]CAL REFRIGERATOR WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Wood Sheathin g. 
Waterproof Paper . 
JVoolFe lt Paper . 
Air Space :. 
Vegetable Fibre. 




FIG, 198,— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL CONSTRUCTION 



360 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

water vapor which would, in time, wet the insulation, thus 
lowering its efficiency. The solid wooden corners produce 
large heat losses by conduction from the outside case to the 
lining. 

Linings. — The lining is a very important part of the house- 
hold refrigerator. It represents from 10 to 25 per cent of the 
total cost of the refrigerator. 

The lining material should have a smooth, hard, and pref- 
erably white surface. The surface should be stain and acid- 
proof and must not chip, crack, discolor, peel or craze. The 
surface should be such that dirt or grease will not adhere to 
it. The material itself should be free from joints and cracks, 
non-porous and should not absorb moisture or odors. It is 
also desirable to have a material suitable for making rounded 
corners. 

Following is a list of the different linings in common use 
in refrigerator construction : 

Baked white porcelain on sheet iron. 

Solid porcelain. 

Solid stone. 

White opal glass. 

Galvanized iron. 

Enamel on steel. 

Wood spruce, oak, \>mv. 

Ceramic tile (floor). 

Rust resisting meta!. 

Cement. 

Porcelain on Iron Lining. — The standard lining for refrig- 
erators is porcelain on iron. The sheet iron for the base is 
carefull}- selected, otherwise blisters may result. The sheet 
is cut. punched, and formed. The necessary welding is per- 
formed. It is then treated with acid to remove all grease and 
dirt. Sometimes other "pickling" baths are used. The lining 
is then dipped into a bath of blue porcelain. This porcelain 
composition usually consists of feldspar, borax, china clay, 
and other chemicals, in accordance with carefully prepared 
and tested formulas. 

These materials are fused or melted in a smelting furnace. 
The melted mass is drawn off into a tank partly filled with 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 361 

water. When it comes in contact with the water, it is in- 
stantly cooled and broken into small pieces of porcelain grit. 
This is placed in a revolving mill and ground as fine as flour. 
When taken from the mill it is thinned to cream-like consist- 
ency, and then taken to the dipping room where it is poured 
into metal vats. 

The steel linings are first dipped into dark blue liquid, 
both inside and outside being covered with this first coat. 
This blue coat renders the surface impervious to rust and 
disintegration. 

After the linings are dipped they are placed in drying 
chambers of high temperature where they remain for several 
hours to remove the moisture. If the moisture is not re- 
mioved, the coating would run off when the lining is placed 
in the furnace. 

After drying, these linings are placed on compressed air 
machinery in front of the furnace. The operator, who is 
forced by the intense heat to stand some distance from the 
furnace, by means of compressed air levers, raises the furnace 
doors and sends the linings forward in the furnace, where the 
porcelain is melted and fused onto the steel at a temperature 
of about 2000° F. 

Two more coats of white porcelain are usually applied to 
the interior of the lining, the second being dried and melted on 
as ?bove described before the third is applied. 

This type lining gWes a very good surface which fulfills 
most of all the various requirements. The surfaces, however, 
are not flat, as the baking process causes the metal to expand 
and warp. Considerable difficulty is experienced by the porce- 
lain cracking at corners and welded joints. 

Solid Porcelain Linings. — Solid porcelain linings are used 
in some of the better grade refrigerators. They are very 
heavy and require a solidly constructed cabinet to prevent 
breaking the lining in shipment. Most of the refrigerators 
using solid porcelain linings have an extra frame work of 
wood to make a rigid construction necessary with this type of 
lining. The walls are more than one inch thick. 

The manufacture of solid porcelain linings is an art to 
which modern machinery has given very little assistance. The 



362 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

clay is very carefully selected and is molded by hand in a 
form. These are placed in drying rooms for weeks where the 
temperature is gradually increased. The enamel is then ap- 
plied with a brush ; many coats are required with a period for 
drying between each coat, then several coats of glaze are 
applied. The linings are placed in the kiln and each one must 
be completely enclosed with fire brick. The baking lasts for 
about one week and a temperature of 2500° F. is reached. 
This entire process requires several months, so that this type 
lining is expensive to make, and is not well suited to quantity 
production. 

The solid porcelain lining has a rather large heat storage 
capacity and the temperature in the food compartment will 
not change quickly wdth an increase or decrease in the amount 
of ice. These linings have an irregular surface on the insula- 
tion side so that it is necessary to apply a loose insulating 
material to fill up these irregularities. 

White Opal Glass. — White opal glass lining has extensive 
use in refrigerators. The usual construction is to use the 
white opal glass lining on the sides, ceiling and doors. It is 
not suitable for the floor. A'itreous tile is usually used for 
lining the floors as it stands the rather severe service much 
better. Opal glass in common use is /« inch or ^% inch thick. 
This type of lining presents a flat surface on both sides and 
this lessens insulation troubles. The corners and joints are 
usually covered with strips of metal. Other manufacturers 
use cement and in some cases wooden strips are used to cover 
the joints. White opal glass is used to line the doors in 
cabinets having solid porcelain linings. 

Galvanized Iron.— Galvanized iron is not used to any great 
extent for linings except on a few of the cheaper boxes. It 
has been found that this material does not resist corrosion 
and rust as well as the other linings. Some manufacturers 
use galvanized iron for lining the ice compartments ; however, 
it is losing favor even for this service. 

Wood Linings. — Wood linings are being used more ex- 
tensively even on some high-grade cabinets. An odorless 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 363 

wood is used. The surface keeps dry. The wood lining must 
be carefully made to avoid crevices between the boards. 
Some manufacturers use a white enamel paint over the wood, 
while others use varnish. 

General Considerations. — The one-piece porcelain or steel 
lining is gradually losing favor with the refrigerator manu- 
facturers. This is probably due to the difficulty of making 
and handling these linings. When the porcelain coating cracks 
or chips at corners it cannot be repaired satisfactorily. 

An additional disadvantage is experienced in assembling 
cabinets with the single-piece lining. The insulation and outer 
walls of the cabinet must be built around the lining. 

Sheet porcelain is now being used extensively for lining 
cabinets. Metal strips are used to hold the sheets in place 
and to seal around the corners. With this method of con- 
struction, it is possible to make the various cabinet walls on 
benches in quantities. The final assembly of the cabinet is 
then a simple process, requiring very little labor. This method 
of construction is preferable for quantity production. 

Outer Case Construction. — The outer wall of most refrig- 
erators is of wood. The best wood for this purpose is ash. 
Oak, fir, spruce, and pine are also used to some extent. 

Most manufacturers use a panel wood construction for the 
outer case. These panels have a clearance at the edges great 
enough to allow for expansion and contraction, due to tem- 
perature and humidity changes. A careful study of these 
panels in service will show that they actually expand or con- 
tract, frequently breaking the paint or finish around the edge 
of the panel. 

Some advantages of panel construction are : 

1. Constructed of short pieces of light boards reducing waste 
lumber. 

2. Less weight. 

3. Heavy wall at corners where it is needed for structural 
strength. 

4. Panels properly proportioned give an attractive appearance. 

5. Reduces warping troubles. 



364 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Some of the more expensive cabinets use a veneer panel 
which it is claimed eliminates warping. Metal outer cases are 
used, such as porcelain enamel on steel, baked white enamel 
on steel, sheet steel zinc plated with a white baked enamel 
surface, white opal glass and monel metal. 

Some troubles are experienced with the metal boxes in 
joining the lining with the outer case at the doors. There is 
usually a large heat loss here, and trouble with the moisture 
collecting on the outer metal case around the doors. Sheet 
steel is being used extensively for the outer case, the usual 
finish is white duco enamel. 

Doors. — ^The door construction is a very important part 
of refrigerator design. The frame for the door and the door 
opening is usually of wood several inches thick. This double 
wooden frame has a poor heat insulating property, which is 
less than half that of corkboard. Figs. 199, 200, 201, and 202 
shew methods of refrigerator door construction in common 
use. 



Wood. 




Door. 



FIG. 199.— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL AND DOOR CONSTRUCTION 



The insulation is usually less on the front of a refrigerator 
than on any other side. This has been determined by tests 
using thermo-couples on the outside surface of the cabinet to 
obtain the surface temperature. Another indication of insuf- 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



365 



ficicnt insulation around the doors is the fact that moisture 
condenses on these parts first when there is a high room 

humidity. 

The door heat loss is especially large when metal is used 
to line the door frame or the edges of the door itself. There 
is need for a new material to make the door opening frame 
and the door frame. Wood does not have sufficient heat 



Wood. 



W<kTCgPROOr PikPEg. 



i NSULWirSS Mw£giM. 



Jua_SR^c^ 




— Door. — 

FIG. 200.— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL AND DOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

insulating property. Following are some of the more impor- 
tant points to be considered in door design : 

1. Increased heat loss by conduction through solid or metal 
framework. 

2. Heat loss due to doors not closing tightly causing too rapid 
ventilation with outside air. This loss is especially large if the door 
does not fit properly at the top and bottom and varies according to 
the room or environment humidity, being greater with higher 
humidity. 

3. Damage to the finish and the exterior surface around the 
doors caused by the condensation of moisture. 

4. Warped doors due to constant changes in moisture, tempera- 
ture and humidity, and the difference in these conditions on the out- 
side and inside surfaces of the door. 

5. Heat loss due to improper design of angle and clearance 
allowing large air wedge between edge of door and frame. 



366 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The refrigerator door has to stand a severe surface con- 
dition of humidity and temperature. The humidity frequently 
attains such conditions as 90 per cent on one side and 40 per 
cent on the other. The temperature usually has a differential 
of from 20 to 40 degrees on the outside and inside of the box. 
Ash is one of the best woods to use for this severe service. 

Various kinds of gaskets are available for making a tight 
seal around the door. Some of the materials for this purpose 
are rubber, felt, rubberized cotton, and thin copper metal 
strips. The high grade boxes do not depend upon gaskets 
for a close fit. Most gaskets are afifected by moisture or lose 
their resiliency after a few months of service. Gaskets are 
used very efi'ectively on large cold storage doors where it is 
not practical or necessary to make a good wood-to-wood fit. 
When a well-made door is fitted properly it will close tightly 
on all four sides against a strip of ordinary writing paper. 

Some manufacturers use a series of steps in the door and 



Wood. 



vyATERpRoor Paper. 



Hnsulating Matepial As 1 ' ■ 

r| Granulated Cork, Air Space. | -i^ \ \ 

! '^ Mineral Wool . Corkbqard P-gj 
I wATERPRoor Paper 

f WOOD. 




— Door. — 

FIG. 201.— TYPICAL REFRIGERATOR WALL AND DOOR CONSTRUCTION. 



the door frame. The better boxes have only one or two steps 
and fit well against the outside surface of the box. No at- 
tempt is made to fit closely between any of the other surfaces. 
The door-facing strip should have a slope on the side of 
the door opposite the hinges. This slope is usually applied to 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



367 



the other three sides of the door and door opening, although 
this is entirely unnecessary except for symmetry. The angle 
of this slope is easily determined by the radius from the center 
of the hinge to the inside of the door stop on the opposite side. 



Wood. 

Loose Insulating Material Aa l 

Gr anulated Cork. 

HiNERAL Wool E""-. 

Wood. 

Loose Insulating Material. 

S olid Porcel/vih. ; "' 

Composition Lining g., "' 

I Wood. '' 

r Loose Insulating Material 

. [TIWOOD . 




Door. 



FIG. 202.— TYPICAL KEFRIGERATOR WALL AND DOOR CONSTRUCTION. 

The door construction is one of the most difficult problems 
encountered in making an all-metal box. Even at a room 
humidity of 50 or 60 per cent, condensation will probably 
form around the doors of an all-metal box. This may damage 
tlic exterior finish of the metal. 

The door to the ice compartment should always have an 
opening at least 12 inches wide. This will allow the thickest 
end of a manufactured cake of ice, 11>4 inches on a 300-pound 
size and 11^ inches on a 400-pound cake, to enter without 
chipping. 

Shelves. — The shelf arrangement is an important design 
feature frequently neglected in refrigerator construction. 

The ratio of shelf area to food storage volume is a good 
method of checking this part of the design. 

Tables LXII and LXIII show that the top icer and ell type 
refrigerators have practically the same shelf surface for the 
.same rated ice capacity. 



368 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Shelves are usually made of small mesh wire heavily 
tinned. Glass shelves are used to a limited extent. Some 

TABLE LXII.— SHELF AREA OF TOP ICER REFRIGERATORS. 
Rated Ice Capacity (Founds) SO 75 100 

Shelf Area Square Feet 

Box 1 
" 2 

" 3 

" 4 

" 5 

" 6 
.. 7 

Average 4.3 5.6 6.8 

All of these boxes have three shelves. 

>helves are constructed of small steel bars welded together 
into a unit and hea\ily tinned. Some of the advantages of 
w ire shelves are : 

1. Cheapness of construction. 

2. Light weight. 

3. Easily removed and cleaned. 

4. Allow free air circulation. 

5. Permit seeing through them to locate articles underneath. 

6. Surface not damaged by heavy food containers. 

7. Do not rust or corrode readily. 

TABLE LXIIL— SHELF AREA OF ELL TYPE OF REFRIGERATORS. 



4.8 


6.2 


7.0 


4.2 


5.1 


5.9 


4.9 


5.4 


7.2 


4.0 


5.6 


8.1 


3.4 


4.3 


6.1 


3.6 


6.5 


7.8 


5.2 


5.3 


5.4 



Rated Ice Capacity (Pounds) 75 100 200 



Shelf Area Square Feet 



Box 1 

" 2 

" 3 

" 4 

" 5 

" 6 

" 7 



5.8 


8.7 


16.0 


6.6 


8.3 


10.5 


5.3 


6.0 


12.0 


6.2 


6.5 


16.0 


5.6 


7.8 


10.0 


5.0 


8.5 


16.2 


4.0 


7.4 


18.0 



Average 5.5 7.6 14.1 

Some refrigerators are made with shelf supports adjust- 
able for height. It has been found in actual service that this 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS M 

feature is not used, as the owner evidently does not appre- 
ciate the advantage of spacing the shelves to conform with 
certain requirements. 

TABLE LXIV.— INSULATORS USED IN REFRIGERATORS. 

Wood 42 

Air Space 28 

Paper 28 

Granulated Cork 13 

Mineral Wood 12 

Corkboard 8 

Flax Composition 6 

Felt Paper 2 

Cocoa Fiber 1 

Vegetable Fiber 1 

Eel Grass 1 

Hairfelt 1 

Wood Fiber 1 

Sea Grass 1 

The shelf spacing in cabinets using mechanical refrigera- 
tion is usually closer than on refrigerators using ice. This 
close spacing is permissible because of the colder temperature 
and more active circulation. 

Materials for Refrigerators. — The insulating materials 
used in 50 standard refrigerators are listed in Table LXIV. 

The foregoing indicates the number of times each insulat- 
ing material was used in the construction used by 50 different 
manufacturers. 

Table LXV shows the woods used in 50 standard refrig- 
erators for outside case and linings : 

TABLE LXV.— WOODS USED IN REFRIGERATORS. 

Oak 21 

Ash 13 

Fir or Spruce 7 

Yellow Pine , 

White Pine 

Black Ash 

Poplar 

Cypress 

Birch 

Table LXVI gives a list of some of the woods which are 
suitable for refrigerator construction. The botanical name 
and localitv where such wood grows are included also. 



•^70 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE LXVI— WOODS MOST SUITABLE FOR REFRIGERATORS. 



Common Name 



H = Hard 

S = Soft 

or Coniferous 



Botanical Name 



Locality 

Where Grown 



Ash, black H 

Ash, Oregon H 
Ash, white, forest grown H 
Ash, white, second growth H 

Basswood H 

Beech H 

Birch, sweet H 

Birch, yellow H 

Birch, black H 

Birch, white H 

Butternut H 
Butternut, white walnut H 
Buttonwood, sycamore 

Chestnut H 

Cottonwood H 

Cottonwood, black H 

Cypress, bald S 

Cypress, yellow S 

Douglas fir — also called 

Oregon pine S 

Dogwood, flowering H 

Dogwood, western H 

Elm, gray H 

Fir, white S 

Fir, red S 

Fir, yellow S 

Gum, black H 

Gum, red H 

Gum, sap H 

Hackberry H 

Hemlock, black S 

Hemlock, eastern S 

Hemlock, western S 

Locust, black H 

Locust, honey H 

Maple, Oregon H 

Maple, red H 

Maple, silver H 

Maple, sugar H 

Maple, rock H 

Maple, hard H 

Maple, soft H 

Oak, California black H 

Oak, canyon live H 

Oak, chestnut H 

Oak, cow H 

Oak, laurel H 

Oak, Pacific post H 

Oak, post H 



Fraxinus nigra 
Fraxinus oregona 
PVaxinus americana 
Fraxinus americana 
Tilia americana 
Fagus atropunicea 
Betula lenta 
Betula lutea 



Juglans cinerea 



Castanea dentata 
Populus deltoides 
I'opulus trichocarpa 
Taxodium distichum 
Chamaescyparis 

nootkatenis 
l^seudotsuga taxifolia 

Cornus florida 
Cornus muttaim 

Abies concoler 



Nyssa sylvatica 
Liquidambar 
styraciflua 

Celtis occidentalis 
Tsuga mertensiana 
Tsuga canadensis 
Tsuga heterophylla 
Robinia pseudacacia 
Gleditsia triacanthos 
Acer macrophyllum 
Acer rubrum 
Acer saccharinum 
Acer saccharum 



Quercus californica 
Quercus chrysollpsis 
Quercus Prinus 
Quercus nichaurii 
Quercus laurifolia 
Quercus garryana 
Quercus minor 



Mich. Wis. 
Oregon 
Ark. W. Va. 
New York 
Penn. Wis. 
Ind. Penn. 
Pennsylvania 
Penn. Wis. 



Tenn. Wis. 



Md. Tenn. 
Missouri 
Washington 
La. Mo. 

Oregon 

Wyoming. Mo. 
Wash. Ore. 
Tennessee 
Oregon 



Tennessee 
Missouri 



Wis. Ind, 
Montana 
Tenn. Wis. 
Washington 
Tennessee 
Mo. Ind. 
Washington 
Penn. Wis. 
Wisconsin 
Ind. Pa. Wis 



Cal. Oregon 

California 

Tennessee 

Louisiana 

Louisiana 

Oregon 

Ark. La. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 371 

TABLE LXVI.— WOODS MOST SUITABLE FOR REFRIGERATORS— (Ctwjfd) 



H = Hard 
Common Name S = Soft 

or Coniferous 


Botanical Name 


Locality 

Where Grown 


Oak, red 


H 


Quercus rubra 


Ark. La. Ind. 

Tennessee 


Oak, Spanish liighland 


H 


Quercus digitata 


Louisiana 


Oak, Spanish lowland 


H 


Quercus pagodaefolia 


Louisiana 


Oak, white 


H 


Quercus alba 


Ark. La. Md. 


Oak, willow 


H 


Quercus phellos 


Louisiana 


Oak, yellow 


H 


Quercus velutina 


Ark. Wis. 


Oak, English 


H 






Pine, jack 


S 


Pinus heterophylla 


Florida 


Pine, longleaf 


S 


Pinus palustria 


Fla. La. Miss. 


Pine, Norway 


S 


Pinus resinosa 


Wisconsin 


Pine, pitch 
Pine, shortleaf 


S 


Pinus rigida 


Tennessee 


S 


Pinus echinata 


Ark. La. 


Pine, sugar 


S 


Pinus lambertiana 


California 


Pine, table mountain 


S 


Pinus pungens 


Tennessee 


Pine, western white 


S 


Pinus monticola 


Montana 


Pine, western yellow 


S 


Pinus ponderosa 


Colo. Mont. 

Ariz. 
Wash. Calif. 


Pine, white 


S 


Pinus strobus 


Wisconsin 


Pine, northern yellow 


s 






Pine, southern 5 ellow 


s 






Pine, Georgia 


s 






Pine, spruce 


s 






Poplar, yellow 


H 


Liriodendron 
tulipifera 


Tennessee 


Poplar, white 


H 






Poplar — also called 








whitewood 


H 






Redwood, California 








Sassafras 


H 


Sassafras sassafras 


Tennessee 


Spruce, Engelmann 


S 


Picea engelmanni 


Colorado 


Spruce, red 


S 


Picea rubens 


N. H. Tenn. 


Spruce, litka 


S 


Picea sitchensis 


Washington 


Spruce, white 


S 


Picea canadensis 


N. H. Wis. 


Sumac, staghorn 


H 


Rhus hirta 


Wisconsin 


Sycamore 


H 


Platanus occidentalis 


Ind. Tenn. 


Tamarack 


S 


Larix laricina 


Wisconsin 


Willow, western 


H 


Salix lasiandra 


Oregon 



Ice Capacity of a Refrigerator. — The ice capacity of a 
refrigerator is an arbitrary figure at the best, inasmuch as 
the pieces of ice that are put into it vary considerably in size 
and so make more or less waste space. Ice capacities in 
refrigerators are usually figured in the following way : 

The cubic inches of ice chamber divided by 1,728 gives 
total cubic feet and this multiplied by 57.5, which is the weight 



372 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



of a cubic foot of ice, gives the total ice capacity in terms of 
pounds of ice. From this deduct 25 per cent, considered as a 
fair allowance for waste space or irregular shaped ice, and 
the remainder is the figure of ice capacity of a refrigerator. 

TABLE LXVll.— RATED ICE CAPACITIES OF REFRIGERATORS. 
Summary of Data on 473 Different Standard Models. (.Side leers.) 

Total Inside j Average Rated | Maximum Rated I Minimum Rated 

Volume I Ice Capacity ; Ice Capacity ) Ice Capacity 
Cubic Feet. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. 



4— S 


58 


75 


40 


5—6 


81 


110 


50 


6—7 


93 


110 


50 


7—8 


103 


125 


50 


8—10 


126 


200 


65 


10—12 


142 


200 


75 


12—16 


177 


250 


85 


16—20 


204 


300 


150 


20—24 


244 


375 


170 


24—30 


284 


350 


235 


30—40 


310 


425 


190 


40—60 


420 


550 


300 



Table LXVII gi\es the rated ice capacities of refrigerators 
obtained from the data on 473 different standard models of 
side icer refrigerators. Data are given for refrigerators hav- 
ing volumes varying from 4 cubic feet to 60 cubic feet. It is 
interesting to note the difference in the minimum rated ice 
capacity, average rated ice capacity, and the maximum rated 
ice capacity. Table LXVIII gives similar rated ice capacities 
from data on 88 different models of the top icer lift lid icing 
door construction. 



TABLE L.WIIL — RATED ICE CAPACITIES OF REFRIGERATORS. 

Summary of Data on 88 Different Models (Top leers, Life Lid Icing Doorj, 

Total Inside | Average Rated | Maximum Rated I Minimum Rated 

Volume I Ice Capacity 1 Ice Capacity | Ice Capacity 
Cubic Feet. | Pounds. ( Pounds. | Pounds. 



3—4 


56 


120 


40 


4—5 


69 


151 


65 


5—6 


92 


117 


75 


6—7 


106 


133 


69 


7—9, 


133 


188 


100 


8—9 


105 


110 


100 


9—10 


124 


150 


100 


10—11 


150 


150 


150 



Table LXIX gives additional rated ice capacities of refrig- 
erators. The data in this table was obtained from an average 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS ,?7.^ 

of information on 282 different models of the top icer con- 
struction, includinj^ both lift lid and front door icers. 

TABU-: I. MX. RATED 1 CK CArAClTlES OF KKFRIGERATOKS. 

Siiiiunary of IJata on JXJ Diflferint Models (Top Icers Including Lift f-ifl ami Front 

Door Icers.) 



Total Inside 


Average Kafed 


; Maximum Rated 


Minimum Rated 


Volume 


Ice Capacity 


1 Ice Capacity 


Ice Capacity 


Cubic Feet. 


1 Pounds. 


1 Pounds. 


1 Pounds. 


3—4 


62 


120 


40 


4—5 


74 


151 


55 


5—6 


85 


135 


60 


6—7 


101 


190 


65 


7—8 


122 


188 


60 


8—9 


121 


165 


75 


9—10 


144 


175 


100 


10—11 


165 


224 


125 


11—12 


142 


220 


110 


12—15 


194 


235 


160 


15—22 


224 


420 


150 



Table LXX g'ives the rated ice capacities of refrigeratcHS 
obtained from 194 dift'erent standard models of the top icer 
construction, with the icing door on the front. 

TABLE LXX.— RATED ICE CAPACITIES OF REFRIGERATORS 
Summary of Data on 194 Different Standard Models. (T'op Icers, Icing Door on Front). 

Total Inside I Average Rated | Maximum Rated I Minimum Rated 

Volume I Ice Capacity | Ice Capacity 1 Ice Capacity 
Cubic Feet. | Pounds. | Pounds. | Pounds. 



3-^ 


59 


100 


50 


4—5 


81 


104 


,-)o 


5—6 


95 


135 


60 


6—7 


113 


190 


65 


7—8 


120 


176 


60 


8—9 


125 


165 


75 


9—10 


154 


175 


140 


10—11 


172 


224 


125 


11—12 


142 


220 


110 


12—15 


194 


235 


160 


15—22 


224 


350 


150 



Table LXXI gives some interesting information on ice 
refrigerators of the ell type construction. Three sizes, 75, 100, 
and 200 pounds rated ice capacity, are included. It is inter- 
esting to note the variation of shelf area, per cent of ice stor- 
age space used at rated ice capacity, per cent of inside volume 
used for ice storage, and the ratio of the shelf area to the 
food storage volume. Similar ice refrigerator cabinet data 



374 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE LXXI.^-ICE REFRIGERATOR CABINET DATA: ELL TYPE. 



Rated Ice Capacity 



Pounds 



75 



100 



200 



Outside Dimensions 



Ice Compartment 



Width Inches 
Depth 
Height 

Width Inches 
Depth 
Height 
Cu. Ft. 
Cu. Ft. 
Ft. 



Total Volume Overall 

Food Storage Space 

Ice Storage Space Cu. 

Shelf Area. Sq. Ft. 

Percent Ice Storage Space 

used at Rated Ice Capacity 
Percentage of Inside Volume 

for Ice Storage 
Shipping Weight (Pounds) 
Ratio of Shelf Area to Food 

Storage Volume 



32.0 

18.6 

43.0 

12.4 

13.6 

17.3 

14.9 

3.6 

1.7 

5.5 

77.1 

32. 
214 

1.53 



34.6 

20.6 

46.4 

13.1 

15.0 

19.7 

19.2 

5.0 

2.2 

7.2 

79.6 



31. 
293 



1.45 



43.4 
24.6 
56.0 
17.3 
18.9 
26.1 
35.5 
10.5 
5.9 
14.1 

59.1 

36. 

477 

1.34 



This table is computed from ten standard refrigeratort with baked porcelain 
one piece linings. 

are given in Table LXXII for refrigerators of the top icer 
construction, having rated ice capacities of 50, 75, and 100 
pounds. These data are shown graphically by Figs. 203 and 
204. 



TABLE LXXn.--ICE REFRIGERATOR CABINET DATA: TOP ICER. 



Rated Ice Capacity 



Pounds I 



SO 



75 



100 



Outside Dimensions 



Ice Compartment 



Width 

Depth 

Height 

Width 

Depth 

Height 

Cu. Ft 

Cu 

Cu 



Inches 



Inches 



Ft. 
Ft. 



Total Volume Overall 

Food Storage Space 

Ice Storage Space 

Shelf Area Sq. Ft. 

Percent Ice Storage Space 

used at Rated Ice Capacity 
Percent of Inside Volume 

used for Ice Storage 
Shipping Weight, pounds 
Ratio of Shelf Area to 

Food Storage Volume. 



23.4 


26.3 


29.1 


16.3 


17.7 


18.9 


41.4 


43.7 


48.1 


15.8 


18.9 


21.7 


10.8 


12.4 


13.3 


10.3 


11.7 


12.9 


9.1 


12.3 


15.3 


1.94 


2.9 


3.8 


1.02 


1.59 


2.15 


4.3 


5.6 


6.8 


85.8 


82.4 


81.3 


34.5 


35.5 


36.2 


43 


173 


215 



2.22 



1.93 



1.79 



This table is computed from ten standard refrigerators with baked porcelain 
one piece linings. 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 



375 



ICE REfRKERATOR CABINET OATA 

From 10 Standard Make. Refriqelrators of each type 



5 00 




RATED iCEXAPACITY (pounds) 

FIG. 203.— ICE REFRIGERATOR CABINET DATA. 



ll(i 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



ICE REFRIGIRATOR CABINET DATA 

From 10 Standard Make. Refrigerators of each type 



HEMFirajHtl^ 




SO 15 



RATED ICE CAPACITY (pounds) 

FIG. 204.--ICE REFRIGERATOR CABINET DATA. 



CHAPTER X 

OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS. 

Temperature. — The usual method of solving the househoM 
refrigeration prolilem is by the use of ice in any of the stand- 
ard type refrigerators. 

The refrigerator using ice will have a temperature in the 
food storage compartments 20 to 30 degrees lower than room 
temperature. 

The better type refrigerators with very good insulation 
will approach the 30 degree temperature diflference when there 
is a good supply of ice. 

A temperature difference of about 10 degrees between the 
coldest and warmest part of the food storage compartments 
is necessary to insure good circulation of the enclosed air. In 
this way heat is transferred from the food to the ice compart- 
ment. This heat transfer is mostly by convection, the circu- 
lating air acting as the carrier. 

The coldest part of the food storage space is the lower 
part directly under the ice compartment. The circulating air 
becomes warmer as it rises in the food compartment, absorb- 
ing heat from the walls, food and food containers. 

The temperature in the warmest part of a refrigerator 
should never be higher than 50° F. for the proper preserva- 
tion of food. 

The temperature of the coldest air dropping into the food 
compartment is usually between 40° and 50° P., depending 

m 



.]78 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

upon the amount of ice. the type and construction of the box 
and the temperature of the air entering the top of the ice 
compartment. The melting- ice, of course, is always at a tem- 
perature of 32° F. 

It is necessary to have a well-insulated refrigerator to 
obtain by the use of ice a temperature suitable for the storage 
of perishable food products. 

The desirable temperatures which are recommended for 
refrigerators by different authorities are given in Table 
LXXIII. The authorities quoted are as follows: New York 
Tribune Institute, United States Department of Agriculture. 
Dr. L. K. Hirschberg, and Dr. John R. L. Williams. 

It will be further noted that the recommendations for 
the most desirable temperatures for refrigerators varies from 
40° to ."^O", with 45° as an average. 

Operating Conditions. — The eftect of room temperature on 
the amount of refrigeration recjuired for a refrigerator can be 
easily approximated. 

For example, if the average operating condition is at 45° 
F., food compartment temperature in a 70° F. room, the tem- 
perature difference is 25° F. The increase in refrigeration 
required in higher temperature rooms would be as follows: 

Increase in 
Food Compartment Room Tempera- Refrigeration required 

Temperature Temp. ture Diff. per cent 

45 70 25 

45 80 35 40 

45 90 45 80 

Usuallv at a higher room temperature the food compart- 
ment temperature will be higher and the increase in refrigera- 
tion will be somewhat less than the amount indicated by this 
table. 

Circulation of Air. — There is a constant circulation of air 
in refrigerators as long as the ice lasts. For the preservation 
of food, it is equally as necessary to have good air circulation 
as it is to maintain a low temperature in the food compart- 
ment. No matter how cold the air is, it will not preserve the 
food properly unless the air is in active circulation. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 379 

TABLE LXXIIL— DESIRABLE TEMPERATURE FOR REFRIGERATORS. 



Temperature I 
Recommended 1 Authority 
iJeg. F. I 



Published in 



Extracts. 



40°— 50° New York New- 

Tribune York 

Institute Tribune 



50^ or U. S. Depart- Farmers" 

less ment of Bulletin 

Agriculture No. 1207 



45° or Dr. L. K. 
u-ss Hirshberg 



Chicago 

Evening 

Post 



40° — 50° U. S. Depart- Farmers' 

ment of Bulletin 

Agriculture No. 375 
M. H. Abel 



50° or U. S. Depart- Bulletin 
less ment of No, 98 

Agriculture 
J. T. Brown 



50° or 

less 



John R. 
Williams, 
M. D. 



Report at 
3rd. Int. 
Ref. Con- 
gress 



40" to 50° averaging 45°; these 
are the aims of a super refrig- 
erator. A temperature of 40° to 
45° is considered ideal for home 
refrigerator purposes. It should 
not go above 50°. 

The best temperature for keep- 
ing milk is 50° or less. If a ther- 
mometer placed inside a refrig- 
erator registers more than 50°, 
the fault cannot be laid entirely 
to the quality of the milk. Even 
a te'mporary rise in the tempera- 
ture of milk will help the devel- 
opment of bacteria. 

Refrigerators, ice boxes, cold 
storage, etc., which keep food 
well below 45°, help to keep it 
free of any great increase and 
growth of bacteria. 

If on a warm summer day you 
put your hand into an ice box 
well filled with ice you may 
think that the temperature is 
very low, and yet it is in all 
probability nearer 50° than 40° 
F. The ice box no matter 
how well cooled, is and must be 
damp, and dampness is one of 
the requirements for bacterial 
growth. 

Proper refrigeration is of the 
utmost importance in the pres- 
ervation of milk. Without thor- 
ough cooling it is impracticable 
to keep milk for any consider- 
able length of time in a condi- 
tion that would justify its use 
for household purposes. It 
should be cooled to 50° F. or 
below. 

A box or room for the storage 
of perishable foods to be at all 
efificient, must have a tempera- 
ture not in excess of 50° F., pre- 
ferably below 4^° F. 



380 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

It is a well-known fact that cold air falls while warm air 
rises. The cold air cooled by contact with the surface of the 
ice is carried down by its own weight, forcing ahead of it 
warmer air in other parts of the food compartment. This 
warmer air taking heat from the food, food containers and 
walls, rises to the top of the refrigerator where it passes into 
the ice compartment. It is cooled again and repeats this 
cycle, thus establishing continuous circulation. 

Circulation is very important as it distributes the cool air 
to all parts of the refrigerator. The circulating air in passing 
the ice loses some of the moisture and the odor which it has 
taken up from the food. 

The opening for the air to enter and leave the ice com- 
partment should be as large as possible as the maximum 
velocity of the circulating air is relatively quite low. 

Government tests on nine standard refrigerators of aver- 
age quality or better, give the rate of air circulation as 10.1 to 
21.4 cubic feet per minute at 60° F. 

Melting ice has a temperature of 32° and the best circu- 
lation which can be obtained will not keep the warmest part 
of the food compartment at a temperature less than 50° in a 
room of 90°. Therefore, it is desirable to have as rapid a cir- 
culation as possible. 

A good indication of the rate of air circulation in the refrig- 
erator is the difference in temperature between the lower or 
coldest, and the upper or warmest part of the food compart- 
ment. This value is usually 10° or 15° in the average house- 
hold refrigerator of from 50 to 150 pounds ice capacity. 

Some typical refrigerator boxes are shown in Figs. 205 
and 206 with arrows indicating the path of the circulating 
air. A gain in efificiency can be made by having the warm air 
flues against the exterior wall getting the path of the cold 
air in the center of the box. This will make an appreciable 
saving in the amount of ice used. 

It is advantageous to have the ice compartment so con- 
structed that the ice will never prt)ject above the lower level 
of the warm-air opening into this compartment. Careful tests 
have shown that there is a real gain in efificiency by doing 
this. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



381 




.1 







\ct ^w 



V 



3 






^ 



let. 



r 



FIG. 205,— AIR CIRCl'LATION IX REFRIGERATORS. 



382 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




IIG. 206.— AIR CIRCULATION IN REFRIGERATORS. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 383 

Good air circulation in a refrigerator prevents the mixing 
of food tastes to a large extent. Foods such as onions, lem- 
ons, and brussels sprouts, which have the property of mixing 
their tastes with other foods, should be placed in the upper 
part of the refrigerator as most of the gases will then be 
absorbed by the water on the surface of the ice. 

Circulation in Ice Chambers. — Fig. 207 shows various 
methods of producing circulation in a refrigerator. 

In the upper figure there is no bafifle plate. Local circu- 
lation is produced near the surface of the cake of ice. This 
condition is not satisfactory for storing food as the humidity 
would be unusually high in the food storage compartment. 
This construction causes food odors and favors high tempera- 
tures. 

The center figure shows a metal bafifle plate. This im- 
proves the condition in the iood compartment. The baffle 
plate would probably be covered with condensation on the 
food compartment side. This construction would insure lower 
and more uniform temperature in the food compartment than 
obtained with the pre\i()us method. 

The lower figure shows an insulated baffle plate. This is 
the ideal construction, afifording a still better condition of 
lower and more uniform temperature, lower humidity and 
good air circulation. The baffle plate usually requires insula- 
tion equivalent to one-half or one-third of that used in the 
walls of the cabinet. 

Air Circulation Tests.— A simple method of measuring 
the rate of air circulation is to place an anemometer in a flue 
opening in various positions to find the average velocity. 
Knowing the velocity of the air through this opening and its 
area, the amount of air circulating can be calculated. 

A heat balance method is sometimes used to determine 
the approximate rate of circulation. The heat loss through 
the walls is determined by an ice-melting test. It is then 
assumed that this loss is due to the circulating air carrying 
the heat by convection from the walls of the cabinet to the 
ice. The heat transfer by radiation and conduction from the 
walls to the ice is relativelv small and therefore not consid- 



384 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




'^^^Avmv^^iv^fwmvj, 



FOOD 



COMPARTMENT 



1 N 5 U L ATI ON 




^ia v^^. 



FOOD 



J COMPARTMENT 



I N SU LATIO N 



















/-———- — ^-.^^ 


iJ FOOD 






/ .CE 


; 


ScOMPARTMENT 








1 


5 






V*. -^ 








1 NSU l-AT\ O N 





•IG. 207.— AIR riRCULATION IN ICE CHAMBERS. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 385 

ered. The temperature difference of the circulating air enter- 
ing and leaving the ice compartment can easily be determined 
by thermometers in the flue openings. 

The following equation will approximate the amount of 
air circulating per hour : 

Pounds of Temp. 

I'ounds of Ice Melted = Air circu- X Specific XDiffer- 
per hour X 144 lating per Heat ence 

hour 
Pounds of Air Pounds of Ice Melted per hour X 144 

circulated per hour = ; 

0.24 X temp, difference of air entering and 
leaving ice compartment 

The humidity of the circulating air will have an effect on 
its heat-carrying capacity. However, this is a relatively un- 
important factor and is not usually considered, as this differ- 
ence in the final result is less than other variables which are 
not taken into account. 

Air circulation tests on a well-insulated cabinet cooled 
with a mechanical system show that the circulation through 
the food compartment varies from 1.0 to 5.0 feet per minute. 
As the flue opening has an area equivalent to 1/10 of the food 
compartment, the rate of air circulation througli the flue open- 
ing varies frorn 10 to 50 feet per minute. 

Humidity. — Humidity is the water vapor in the air. At- 
mospheric air always contains a certain amount of water 
vapor mixed with it. Air at a certain temperature and pres- 
sure can contain a definite amount of water vapor. A\^hen this 
amount is exceeded, the excess water vapor will condense. 

Perfect refrigeration depends as much upon dryness as 
it does upon cold. It is very essential to have a circulation of 
so-called "dry" air in order to properly preserve food in a 
refrigerator. It is just as important that the humidity be low 
as it is that the temperature be low. A practical example is 
the poor results obtained by keeping foods in the ordinary 
ice chest where there is considerable moisture and poor air 
circulation. Foods will spoil more rapidly in an ice chest 
than in the ordinary refrigerator, even though the temperature 
in the ice chest be as low or even lower than that in the 
refrisrerator. 



386 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Most cellars are un^uilahle ii>r storing ])ei"ishable foods 
because of the dampness or hij^li humidity in the air. 

( )ne hundred cubic feet of air at atmospheric pressure 
can contain the definite amounts of water \apor at the tem- 
peratures ^ijivcn in Table l.XXIV. 

TABLE LXXIV. WATER \AP0K IN AIR. 

Temperature Weight of Water Vapor 

Deg. F. per 100 cu. ft. of air. 

32 0.0304 

40 0.0410 

50 0.0587 

60 0.0827 

70 0.1 145 

80 ...0.1564 

100 0.2850 



The amount of water vapor which the air can contain 
increases with the temperature and decreases with pressure. 

Relative humidity is the per cent of water vapor actual!)- 
present in the air in relation to the maximum amount of water 
\apor which the air can contain at a definite pressure and 
temperature. 

Example: Suppose atmospheric air at 80° F. had a relative hu- 
midity of 60 per cent. The amount of water vapor in each 100 cubic 
I'eet of air would be 

60 

X 0.1.564 or n.0Q384 pounds 

1 00 

The relative huinidity inside a refrigerator is highest where 
the cold air drops out of the ice compartment. The relative 
humidity is lowest at the top of the food compartment where 
the warm air enters the ice compartment. There is a gradual 
increase between these two points as the circulating air be- 
comes warmer. 

The average relative humidity within the food storage 
compartment in refrigerators using ice is from 50 to 80 per 
cent. The humidity is increased by ])lacing in the refrig- 
erator foods or liquids which ha\e a high moisture content. 

In summer the humidity in the kitchen is usually higher 
than in the refrigerator. Opening the refrigerator doors will 
then temporarily increase the huiniditv inside. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 387 

Example: y\ssmnc a refrigerator of 10 cubic feet inside capacity 
containing 50° air at 60 per cent relative Inmiidity. The kitchen tem- 
perature is 80° with 80 per cent humidity. The refrigerator doors 
are left open long enough to reidace half the cold dry air with warm 
vapor laden room air. What is the loss in refrigeration by this 
change? 

Cool 5 cu. ft. dry air 80° to 50": 

5 cu. ft. or 5 X 0.071 = 0.355 pounds. 

0.355 X 0.238 X 30 = 2.5347 B.t.u. 

Amount of water vapor cooled: 

At 80 degrees 0.001564 pounds per cu. ft. 

5 X 0.001564 X 0,80 = 0.006256 lbs. 

Cooling water vapor (80° to 50°); 
30X0.006256 = 0.18768 B.t.u. 

Amount of water vapor condensed: 
At 50° and 60 per cent humidity 
5X0.000587X0.60 = 0.001761 pounds 
0.006256 — 0.001761 =0.004495 pounds 

Heat required to condense 0.004495 lbs. of water vapor: 
0.004495 X 1000 = 4.495 B.t.u. 

Total heat loss: 

Cooling air 2.5347 B.t.u. 

Cooling water vapor 1877 B.t.u. 

Condensing water vapor 4.495 B.t.u. 

Total ..7.2174 B.t.u. 

This problem shows the important part humidity plays 
in ordinary household refrigeration problems. 

The results of the humidity tests in a mechanical house- 
hold refrigerator are shown in Table LXXV. From the sec- 
ond and third columns of Table LXXV. it will be observed 
that the food compartment relative humidity increased grad- 
ually as the relative humidity of the room increased, although 
not in the same proportion. The temperatures of the room, 
top of food compartment, and bottom of food compartment 
were maintained approximately constatit during the test. 

Humidity Test. — This test was made on a well-insulated 
cabinet, cooled with a brine tank. The temperature of the 
brine during the test varied from 18° F. to 22° F. Several 
tests similar to this one indicate that the relative humidity 
of the food compartment can be approximately determined 
bv computation. It is only necessary to know the tempera- 



388 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



ture of the cooling- element and the temperature of the food 
compartment. I'he air in contact with the cooling element is 
nearly saturateil with moisture. 

TABLE LXXV. — HUMIDITY TEST ON A MECHANICAL HOUSEHOLD 

REFRIGERATOR. 

To detciiuinc tliL- cflc-ct on tilt food cunipartnuiu luuiiiility wiicn the luuuidity 
in the room is gradually increased. 



Percent Relative Humidity 




Temperature 














Bottom 






Food Compart. 




Top Food F 


cod Com- 


Time 


Room 


ment — Bottom 


Room 


Compartment 


partment 


9:30 A. M. 


28 


28 


80 


54.5 


44 


9:45 


35 


29 


80 


54 


44 


10:15 


40 


34 


81 


53.7 


44 


10:45 


45 


40 


80 


53.5 


43.6 


11:15 


50 


42 


80 


53.3 


43 


11:45 


55 


45 


80 


53.1 


42.5 


1:30 P.M. 


60 


48 


80 


52.8 


42.5 


2:00 


65 


49 


80 


52.8 


42.5 


2:30 


70 


50.5 


80 


53 


42.5 


3:00 


75 


51.5 


80 


53 


42.5 


4:00 


80 


52.5 


80 


53 


42.5 


5:00 


85 


52.5 


80 


53.5 


42.7 


6:00 


90 


54 


80 


53.8 


43 


6:15 


93 


54.2 


80 


54 


43.1 


Following Day 












4:00 P.M. 


90 


56.5 


80 


53.3 


43 



With a 20° F. brine tank temperature, the circulating air 
passing through the cold-air flue is at least 10° F. warmer 
than the brine-tank temperature, as only part of this air actu- 
ally comes in contact with the 20° F. brine-tank surface. 

If we then assume that the air is saturated with moisture 
at a temperature of 10° F. warmer than the surface of the 
cooling unit, this value will closely approximate the actual 
condition in service. Then knowing the higher temperature 
at any part of the food compartment, the relative humiditx 
can easily be obtained from the liumidity tables. 

The warmer air having a greater water vapor capacity 
therefore, the per cent relative humidity gradually decreases 
as the circuiting air passes up through the food compartment. 

Desirable Humidity Indoors, — Humidity control in homes 
is becoming more and more important, especiall}' in localities 
where the outdoor temperature in winter drops to below freez- 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



389 



ing. The average relative humidity in heated rooms ranges 
from 10 to 20 per cent in winter. This is a dryness greater 
than that of the deserts. The relative humidity should not 
be below 40 per cent for good conditions in regard to health 
and comfort. The usual practice in buildings where the 
humidity is controlled is to regulate the relative humidity to 
between 40 and 50 per cent. 

TABLE LXXVI. -WEIGHT PEK CUBIC FOOT OF AIR, WATER AND SATU- 
RATED MIXTURES OF AIR AND WATER VAPOR AT DIFFERENT 
TEMPERATURES AND UNDER ORDINARY ATMOSPHKKIC 
PRESSURE OF 29.921 INCHES OF MERCURY. 





Weight of 


Weight of 


Weight of 


Temp. 


the Air 


the Vapor 


Mixture 


Deg. F. 


ill Pounds 


in Pounds 


in Pounds 





0.0863 


0.00079 


0.08709 


12 


0.0840 


0.000130 


0.084130 


22 


0.0821 


0.000202 


0.082302 


12 


0.0802 


0.000304 


0.080504 


42 


0.0784 


0.000440 


0.078840 


52 


0.0766 


0.000627 


0.077227 


60 


0.0751 


0.000830 


0.075930 


62 


0.0747 


0.000881 


0.075581 


70 


0.0731 


0.001153 


0.074253 


72 


0.0727 


0.001221 


0.073921 


82 


0.0706 


0.001667 


0.072267 


92 


0.0684 


0.002250 


0.070650 


100 


0.0664 


0.002848 


0.069248 


102 


0.0659 


0.002997 


0.068897 


112 


0.0631 


0.003946 


0.067046 


122 


0.0599 


0.005142 


0.065042 


132 


0.0564 


0.006639 


0.063039 


142 


0.0524 


0.008473 


0.060873 


152 


0.0477 


0.010716 


0.058416 


162 


0.0423 


0.013415 


0.055715 


172 


0.0360 


0.016682 


0.052682 


182 


0.0288 


0.020536 


0.049336 


192 


0.0205 


0.025142 


0.045642 


20^ 


0.0109 


0.030545 


0.041445 


212 


0.0000 


0.036820 


0.036820 



Table LXXVI gives the weight per cubic foot of air. 
water and saturated mixture of air and water vapor at dif- 
ferent temperatures, and under the normal atmospheric pres- 
sure of 29.921 inches of mercury for tempertures ranging from 
0° F. to 212° F. The second column shows how the weight 
of the dry air in the mixture decreases when the temperature 
increases. The last column shows how the total weight of 
the mixture in pouncjs decreases with the increase in tem- 
perature. 



390 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The relation of the air temperature and the difference 
between the wet and dry bulb thermometer readings, as 
affecting the relative humidity of air, is shown by Fig. 208. 
The various curves in this figure, labed 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 
80, and 90, are relative humidity curves of air in per cent of 
the saturated condition at 30 inches of mercury as the atmos- 
pheric pressure. The data shown on this figure were taken 
from reports of the United States Weather Bureau, The air 
temperature which is plotted on the left-hand side of the 
diagram corresponds directly to the temperature of the dry- 
bulb thermometer. The figure shows graphicall} how the 
relative humidity increases with the relative increase of the 
dry-bulb temperature and the relative increase of the differ- 
ence between the wet and dry-bulb thermometer readings. 

Placing of Food and Ice in Refrigerators. — The National 
Association of Ice Industries has recently published bulletins 
in reference to the operation of household refrigerators, in 
which attention is given to "Where to Place Food in House- 
hold Refrigerators" and "How to Use Ice." These bulletins 
haN'C been extracted as follows: 

WHERE TO PLACE FOOD IN THE HOUSEHOLD 
REFRIGERATOR 

The home refrigerator is really the food warehouse of the family, 
just as the ^reat, clean cold warehouses in the big cities are the 
refrigerators of the people of the cities, to keep food clean, sound, 
and wholesome, between the time the refrigerator car brings it from 
the country and the time that the people are ready to eat it. Just 
as the house manager must keep some food supplies for the near 
future, so must the food distributing industry in the cities keep a food 
supply ahead of food consumption. One is just a magnification of the 
other. 

The big warehouses have great rooms where low temperatures 
which do not vary the year around, are adapted to the kinds of food 
to be kept. For instance, eggs are kept at 29° to 31° F., while butter 
is frozen hard and kept about 5° below zero. All the rooms are very 
clean. 

Just so should we plan for the home refrigerator. The refriger- 
ator should be spic and span. Everything that goes into it should be 
as clean as possible. This will help in two ways: First by J^eeping 
out bacteria, and second, by making the cleaning of the refrigerator 
a much more simple matter. 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



391 




(9r^ff- /><?-; 



s<^>r?jb'<>>'je/A'z/ i^/y 



392 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Foods requiring the lowest temperatures obtainable should be 
placed in the coldest part of the food chamber, while those commodi- 
ties which do not demand such care may be placed in less cold loca- 
tions. 

Let us consider the placing of food in the refrigerator on this 
basis. First, look critically at the construction of your refrigerator. 
Is it an "over-head" or a "top-icer" type? In an "over-head" icer 
type, the coldest place is in the middle of the top shelf where the cold 
air drops down from the ice chamber, and the warmest place is on 
the sides of the lower shelves where the warmed air travels back to 
the ice chamber. In a refrigerator of the "side-icer" type, the coldest 
part is in the compartment directly under the ice chamber. 

Keep Air Ducts Open. — When food is placed in the household 
refrigerator, be careful not to shut ofJ the exit of cold air from the 
ice and the entrance of warm air into the ice chamber. There must 
be circulation in order to insure a steady supply of clean, dry, cold 
air. Fur this reason, leave enough room between containers on the- 
shelves to enable the air to flow freely. 

How to Use the "Side-Icer." — Foods that are delicate and absorb 
odors should be placed directly under the ice chamber where they will 
be coldest and get fresh, clean cold air. Milk, butter, meat broths, 
and moist cooked foods such as cereals, custards, and cream sauces 
come under this head. 

Of all the perishable foods going into the refrigerator, milk needs 
the most intelligent care. It is an ideal medium for bacterial growth 
at favorable temperatures. Because milk is a food depended upon by 
young children and invalids, the decomposition of products produced 
by bacteria should be especially guarded against. Fortunately low tem- 
peratures are excellent deterrents to bacterial multiplication and unless 
the milk freezes — which does not happen until below 28° F., they do 
not alter it either chemically or physically. Therefore, place the milk 
in the coldest part of the refrigerator which, as stated before, is just 
l^elow the cold air down drop. Milk bottles may take some dirt into 
this most important compartment of the refrigerator. They should 
be washed, but care must be taken that the cap is not soaked nor 
water permitted to remain on the cap because if it gets wet, bacteria 
can easily enter the bottle. 

Next to milk, meat broths are probably the most delicate foods 
to be cared for. They should be placed, while hot, in sterilized con- 
tainers, covered tightly, and allowed to cool to room temperature, then 
placed in as cold a location as your refrigerator affords. In fact, all 
these delicate foods should be placed in sterilized covered containers. 

Butter should he ])laced here for two reasons. First, the tem- 
jK'rature tends to liold back rancidity; second, liutter absorbs odors 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 393 

and flavors very readily. Therefore, give it a tight container or hold 
it in the original package. 

Drinking Water. — During warm weather some people want drink- 
ing water cold but not iced. Choose clean containers such as quart 
fruit jars, fill them with water and place them just below the ice cham- 
ber. Sometimes spring water is purchased or the water supply must 
be boiled to make it fit for human consumption. If water must be 
boiled do so, then put it into sterilized containers, let it cool to room 
temperature and place the covered jars in the refrigerator just under 
the ice chamber. This gives a supply of well cooled water. 

Desserts. — Jellies, charlottes, and heavy cream desserts go in the 
coldest compartment until they are set, then if space is scarce they 
may be transferred to the meat compartment. 

Meats. — Uncooked meats should have the next coldest place. 
Always remove the paper wrapper from the meat when it comes from 
the market. Paper left on meat sticks, and becomes very difficult to 
remove, and a slime may develop. Place the meat on a clean dish 
and put it on the bottom of the food compartment. Cooked meats 
dry out very quickly, so if you wish to keep them in the best condition, 
put them in tightly covered containers. Space is valuable in this 
compartment, so use containers that are relatively high and narrow. 
Use as few plates as possible. While large pieces of meat, such as 
roasts and poultry, must be put on plates, many meats such as steaks, 
chops and meat for stews, may be placed in tall containers that require 
less room. This applies in general to all parts of the refrigerator. If 
containers that are as tall as will fit well on the shelves are used, the 
space in the refrigerator will be utilized to much better advantage. 

Fish. — Fish may be kept in the refrigerator safely if it is placed in 
a tightly covered vessel. The purchase of a white enameled container 
for this purpose will be a wise one because fish should be a frequent 
food in the home. 

Left-overs. — The question of left-overs is a very important one. 
They should be placed in the coldest location space permits if they 
contain cream sauces or custards, or are some delicate vegetable such 
as asparagus. All others should go in the meat compartment or 
directly over it. In any case, do not place the left-overs in the refrig- 
erator in the dishes in which they were served at the table. It is hard 
on the china and also takes up more room than is necessary. Try 
putting left-overs in the various jars that accumulate in the household 
from the purchase of mayonnaise and other products, adapting the 
size of the jar to the quantity to be salvaged. Save these small por- 
tions, mix them with originality and imagination, two of the finest 



394 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

iiiyrediciitN in the food catalog, and ntilize tlieni as attractive dishes 
for lunch or supper or even another dinner. 

Berries and Cherries. — On the shelf above the meat compartment 
place berries and cherries. They are especially subject to a white 
mold which causes quick decay. Dry cold air checks the growth of 
this mold. Do not wash the berries until ready to use them. Put them 
in a well-ventilated container, such as a wire sieve with the handle 
removed, or in the original wooden Liox if clean and dry, but remember 
not to crowd the berries, for they will resist mold longer if the dry 
air can circulate freely around them. 

Eggs. — On the same shelf place eggs and such fruits and vege- 
tables as do not have a decided odor or flavor. Contrary to the gen- 
eral opinion, eggs do not need the coldest place in the refrigerator. 
It they are placed on the middle shelf of the food compartment they 
will keep well. 

Vegetables and Fruit. — Try washing lettuce and celery when it 
i-i>incs from the market. Shake it free of water, and then put it in a 
tightly covered jar. It will keep fresh and crisp for days and does 
not get broken so readily as when stored in a towel or paper. It also 
makes a neater appearance in the refrigerator. Try, also, keeping new- 
carrots, fresh pea'", string beans, and other succulent vegetables cold 
until needed for use. Set the bunch of asparagus in a shallow pan 
of water and give it refrigerator room. 

Place all foods with strong odors high up in the food compart- 
ment where the air current strikes them just before it returns to the 
ice chamber. Then the odors will i)e absorbed by the film of water 
on the melting ice and pass of? with the meltage. Foods such as 
melons, oranges, peppers, cabbages and apples are on this list. They 
all dry out readily so do not remove the oiled or tissue paper wrapper 
that comes on the fruit. 

How to Use the "Over-head" leer. — When tlie ice in the refriger- 
ator is above the food compartment, the cold air otitlct may be a long 
narrow opening at the back of the ice chamber, or there may be an 
opening in tiic middle of this floor through whicli the cold air is dis- 
charged. Generally the warmed air rises along the side walls and 
passes through ducts or flues into the ice chamber. The path which 
the air takes shows us where to j^lace the various foods depending 
upon their susceptibility to the effect of temperature. 

Of course the coldest place is ju>t under the cold air drop and 
the warmest is usually at the extreme edge of the bottom shelf. The 
top shelf in this type of construction just reverses the "side-icer" rule 
and is our low temperature location. Each succeeding shelf shows a 
slight increase in temperature, but, ordinarily, the extremes of high 



OPERATION OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 395 

and low are not so far apart as when ice is placed in the upper side 
quarter. 

With these fundamentals clearly in mind, we readily see that milk, 
butter and broths and other very delicate products should have the 
middle portion of the top shelf; meats, fish and the delicate desserts 
should occupy the middle of the shelf just below, while fresh vege- 
tables and rather resistant foods should be placed on the floor of the 
refrigerator. Foods with pronounced odors such as cabbage, oranges 
and apples should be placed near the side walls where the air currents 
are traveling quickly to the ice chamber. There they discharge their 
load of heat and odors and the moisture which the expanding air 
gathers from the food. 

Don't forget that the well constructed refrigerator, well filled 
with ice, maintains an active circulation and so causes some evapora- 
tion of moisture. Therefore, heed the advice about keeping the tissue 
paper wrapping on such fruits as oranges and apples. 

Remember too, that the wrapped orange has never been touched 
by human hands. Good fruit handling demands gloves on all pickers 
and graders. Just think! Forty-seven per cent of our people arc 
engaged, in one way and another, in the feeding of us all. It is one 
of the wonders of the modern world — this production and distribution 
of foods. The home refrigerator is the last link in the long chain 
necessary- for the proper distribution of food. 

HOW TO USE ICE. 

We are all interested in knowing about the proper use of ice — how 
to get the most benefits from its use — how to make sure of food and 
health protection, but how much thought, frankly, have you ever 
given to the importance of using ice the year round? If yours is the 
average family, you have given it little thought indeed, because the 
average family lets the weather decide its use of ice. 

The people In the business know that the high-climbing thermome- 
ter will always be the greatest ice salesman, but we also know that 
more and more thoughtful people are using ice every month and day 
in the year. 

Ice is the only certain, sure, positive protector of food's purity — 
no matter whether the day be New Year's or the Fourth of July. 
Doctors will tell you this. Domestic science authorities confirm the 
fact. No cellar, window box or back porch can keep and protect the 
foods which cost so much more than the few cents of ice needed to 
keep them properly. 

You are taking chances when you try to keep food outside of a 
well-iced refrigerator. You are exposing it to all manner of danger- 
ous, sickness-breeding bacteria. You are exposing it to dust, grime 



396 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

and the imevenness of temperatures that never gives real food pres- 
ervation. 

How to Keep Food Properly. — A refrigerator furnishes an even, 
bacteria-destroying low temperature. The housewife who tries to keep 
food in any other way is continually risking the family health. 
Bacteria multiply in all foods when the temperature is above a safe 
point. Most authorities agree that the dividing line between danger 
and safety in food temperatures is 50 degrees. Only in a refrigerator 
will you find the low temperature that precludes danger of contamina- 
tion, spoilage and germs. 

How to Gain Real Economy. — While many housewives grant the 
fact that food can be kept properly in refrigerators — and in that way 
alone — they fail to keep their food properly by taking less ice than 
they need. They let the ice chamber get so low that it is frequently 
less than half full. Then the refrigerator cannot do its part; it takes 
ice and plenty of it to obtain proper refrigeration. Also, from the 
pocketbook standpoint, ice melts rapidly when the supply gets low — 
more rapidly than when you keep the ice chamber comfortably filled. 
If you let your refrigerator get warm, it takes much more ice to chill 
it again than it would to keep it cold. Ice is an article you cannot 
economize on by skimping. 

Simple Rules for Preventing Waste. — Keep the ice chamber of 
your refrigerator well filled. The ice melts more slowly. 

Have the refrigerator large enough. Do not crowd it full of food. 
It is not the size of the box so much as the quality of food which 
consumes the ice. 

Keep the refrigerator in a cool spot, away from draft. 

Close the doors tightly to prevent warm air from seeping in. 
Open the doors as little as possible. 

Don't put any food on the ice or in the ice chamber; leave the 
ice uncovered. 

You may have been told that wrapping your ice in newspapers, 
cloths or blankets, tends to keep it from melting. This practice is bad, 
because it prevents the free circulation of air around the ice, and that 
in turn prevents the purification of the air. The whole surface of the 
ice is needed to purify the air properly. 

Never put hot food in the refrigerator. Let it cool a bit first. 

It is a great mistake to have too small a refrigerator for the 
amount of food in it. There is not room for enough ice. The food 
is a heating element, and melts the ice faster than the ice can chill the 
food. Too much crowding of food also obstructs the air circulation 
so essential to keeping the flavor fresh and appetizing. 



Operation of ice refrigerators .w 

Placing the Refrigerator. — Your refrigerator may look stout and 
tough, but in reality, great care must be taken to see that it is properly 
placed. Few people realize the importance of this. 

Place the refrigerator where it won't overheat or be exposed to 
moisture, draft or sudden changes of weather. 

A porch, even though protected, and a cellar are bad places for 
it. The best place is in the kitchen near the rear entrance. This may 
not be as convenient as a little nearer the working section; but it 
saves the iceman crossing your kitchen. The ideal arranucment, ct 
course, is an outside icer opening on the porch. 

Opening and Closing Refrigerator Doors. — One of the quickest 
ways of spoiling the efficiency of your refrigerator as a preserver of 
food is to open the doors too often and keep them open too long. 
Tests have shown that in opening the door the temperature inside 
rises at least two degrees. 

Some housewives open the box every time they want a single 
article of food, instead of taking out several articles at once which 
may be needed about the same time. 

Refrigerator doors should be kept tightly closed. When not quite 
shut they leave a crack between the door and its frame and warm air 
seeps in or the cold air pours out. Under such conditions, it is im- 
possible to keep the inside cold. It is also bad for the doors. The 
meeting of warm air on one side and cold on the other develops 
moisture and that makes the door warp and swell. This "sweating" 
is especially noticeable on warm, damp days. 

Keeping the Refrigerator Clean. — It is very important to keep 
your refrigerator spotlessly clean. That is literally true. A single 
drop of spilled milk or of other food can contaminate a refrigerator in 
a few days. One drop of milk can develop millions of bacteria if 
the temperature is right for it. 

In cleaning a refrigerator use a sponge or soft cloth and clean 
water. Don't use any sponge or cloth and any water. You do not have 
to give your refrigerator a weekly hot scald. You can clean it thor- 
oughly with lukewarm or cold water and washing soda, followed by a 
rinse with clear cold water and tTien a thorough drying. Hot water 
heats the wall unnecessarily. Be sure to leave them perfectly dry. 
Moisture is bad. 

A friction powder or steel wool may be used on the ice compart- 
ment and drain only. The drain is the most difficult part to clean; 
use a long handled brush with steel wool packed into it. 

To be thoroughly clean a refrigerator should have no cracks or 
crevices in which dirt or germs can lodge. It is almost impossible to 
clean them out. In purchasing a new refrigerator, be sure to get one 
that may be easily and thoroughly cleaned. 



CHAPTER XI. 
TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS. 

Constant Temperature Room. — A constant temperature 
room is necessary to accurately test the heat leakage of a 
refrigerator. Electrical thermostats and heaters are of con- 
siderable value for tests of this kind. It is easily possible to 
maintain a room temperature which will vary not more than 
1° F. 

Fig. 209 shows an arrangement which has proven very 
satisfactory for a constant temperature rocjm. The electrical 
heaters are screened so that radiant heat ^vill not pass directh^ 
from the heaters to the outside surface of the refrigerator 
being tested. It is always difficult to measure radiant heat. 
AN'ith high room temperature, the heaters must be on a greater 
l)ercentage of the time, therefore the heat exchange by radia- 
tion would increase greatlj' unless the heaters are screened. 
An asbestos curtain is used for this purpose. There is a 
circulation of air as indicated by the arrows, insuring a uni- 
form temperatvu-e in dififerent parts of the constant tempera- 
ture room. 

Fig. 210 shows another arrangement for a constant tem- 
])erature room using a double wall. The heaters are placed 
between the walls and the warm air circulates under the floor, 
over the ceiling and along the walls. This method reduces 
variation in radiation and convection, due to using the heaters 
in order to operate at a high room temperature. 

In order to obtain accurate results, it is best to use as 
little electrical heat as possible and yet keep the temperature 
of the test room constant. In this way the heat losses due 

399 



400 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



to radiation and abnormal convections are reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

It is also desirable to control the humidity of the constant 
temperature room. This factor is not as important on a heat 
insulation test as with an ice melting test. 

Ice Melting Method. — -A simple method of measuring the 
heat leakage is by the ice melting method. The refrigerator 













-^ -^ -*• 


ELECTRIC 








sv 


THERMOSTAT, 


} 


/ 


\ 


VITC H AND 


^ 




f 


\ 


FUSES FOB. HEATERS 1 


^ 




1 






\ 






i=x 






> 








— 


-ELECTRIC \ 
HEATERS 




REFPUQERATOR 








^ 




ASBESTOS \ 












— BAFFLE 












\ 


CURTAIN / 




; 








V 










■^f^-^ 












^v 




y 








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1 NSULATVON 





FTC;. 209.- CONSTANT TE.M I'KRATU k K TESTINC ROOMS. 



must be in use at least 24 hours in order to have the lining 
and insulation cooled to about the same temperature as they 
will be during the test. The author has found that a cabinet 
insulated with three inches of corkboard required three days 
to establish a temperature eciuilibrium in the walls. 

A weighed block of ice is then placed in the ice compart 
ment, noting the shape of the block so that on a subsequent 
test a similar shape can be used. Then after a certain period, 
say 24 to 48 hours, the ice block is weighed again to detect 
the amount of ice melted. Suppose the pounds of ice melted 
per 24 hours to be W . Then the heat leakage for the cabinet H 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



401 



would be 144xn' in B.t.u. per 24 hours. The heat leakage h, 
per sq. ft. per degree F. per day would be : 

144 X W . 

Sq. ft. mean area X (room temp. — average cabinet temp.) 

Temperatures should be taken of the coldest and warmest 
part of the food compartment. It is very important to have 





— 


^- ^ — , 


- 


1 
i 




^ — >. 


. 


A^ 1 

THE«MOST>CT SWITCH AND 


.1 


FOSES FOR HEATERS "' 








- 
ASBESTOS-^ 
LIMED — 

• 

ELECTRIC - ► 
HEATERS 

REMOVABLE 1 






REFP-IGERATOC^ 


1 
1 




^J 


ooetK -^ 




f A 






INSULATION m. — 





FIG. 210.— CONSTANT TEMPERATURE TESTING ROOMS. 



a certain amount of dishes and food on the shelves in makin.u 
a test if the actual service conditions are desired. Service 
conditions can be closely duplicated by having plates of pota- 
toes in 10 or 20-pound units. Two or three times a day a 
certain number of cold units are removed from the cabinet 
and the same number of warm units (at room temp.) are 
used to replace them. 

Some of the more important variable factors entering into 
a heat leakage test by ice melting are as follows : 

1. Constantly changing weight, surface and form of ice cake. 

2. Circulation is afifected by size and position of ice cake. 

3. The water from the melting ice may assist in cooling cabinet. 



4(L' HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

The instruments required for a test are thermometers, 
preferably of the recording type. If regular glass stem mer- 
cury thermometers are used, it is advisable to place them in 
a small flask tilled with oil. The flask should have a cork 
with the thermometer held in place in a small hole through 
the cork. This eliminates the error of reading a rapidly rising 
temperature when the door of the cabinet is opened. 

Electrical Heater Method. — The electrical heater has ad- 
vantages o\er the ice-melting method of testing the heat leak- 
age of a refrigerator cabinet. The circulation is not changed 
by a different shape of the ice cake, and the rate of heat supply 
may be kept quite uniform and may be measured accurately 
even without opening the doors of the cabinet under test. 

Suppose an ice test indicates that a cabinet would be used 
with an average food compartment temperature of 45° F. in 
a 75° F. room. The temperature differential through the wall 
is therefore 30° F. To conduct a heat test, say in an 80° F. 
constant temperature room, a heating element is placed in 
the cabinet so that it will have the same wall differential 
temperature of 30° F. Therefore, the food compartment tem- 
perature is maintained at 80° F. plus 30° F. or 110° F. 

If the electrical heating element requires 20 watts in order 
to maintain this 30° F. temperature difference through the 
walls of the cabinet, then the total heat leakage in B.t.u. per 
24 hours=20X 24X3.416= 1640. (1 watt hour of electrical 
energy is equi\alent to 3.416 B.t.u.) 

The heat leakage is usually rated by the number of B.t.u. 
lost per square foot per degree temperature difference per day. 
.Suppose the average surface of the inside and outside walls 
to be 20 sq. ft., then 

1640 

=r2.73 B.t.u. heat leakage per sq. ft. per degree F. per 24 hours. 



30 X 20 



Sources of Heat Losses in Refrigerators.— The following 
pertains to a test on an ice refrigerator to determine rate of 
ice melting due to heat loss of insulation, opening doors, and 
changing food. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 4UJ 

The object of this test was to determine the relative 
amount of ice melted by the three principal heat losses which 
occur in an average household refrigerator. These are: 

1. Heat transfer through the insulated walls. 

2. Opening doors allowing warm air to enter, and cold air to drop 
(tut of the refrigerator. 

3. Changing food or placing in the refrigerator, food and dishes 
111 be cooled. 

The refrigerator was a top icer witli panel construction 
throughout and had the following specifications: 

Inches Inches Inches 
Height Depth Width 

Outside Cunipartmenl 60 21 29 

Food Compartment 28 15^ 22J/2 

Ice Compartment 16^ 16^ 20^ 

Food Compartment Door Opening 26 .. 20K' 

Ice Compartment Door Opening 14 • .. 20J^ 

\'olume Food Compartment 5.7 cubic feet 

\'olume Ice Compartment 3.2 cubic feet 

Total Inside Surface 28.9 square feet 

I'otal Outside Surface 40.0 square feet 

The in,>-.ulation consisted of the following: 

1. Oak case. 

2. J/2-inch mineral wool. 

3. 2 air spaces. 

4. Layers insulating ])aper. 

5. 5^-inch spruce wall. 

6. Porcelain on steel lining. 

The rated ice capacity of the refrigerator was 120 pounds 
and the net weight of the refrigerator was 280 pounds. The 
flue opening was 1^ inches wide on both sides of the ice com- 
])artment and extended the total dei)th of the compartment. 
There was a 2-inch air space under the ice shelf. 

The test was conducted in a constant temperature room. 
The room had double walls on all six sides. The effect of 
heat transfer by radiation from the electric heaters used to 
maintain a constant temjjerattire was eliininated l)y placing 
the heaters between the double walls of the room. The oper- 
ation of these heaters was controlled by a thermostat. The 
humidity of the room was controlled by an electric humido- 
stat. 

It was found necessary to maintain constant condition of 
temperature and humidit}- for several days before an accurate 



404 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

reading could be obtained of the amount of ice melted for 
each particular test condition. 

Throughout the entire test, the room temperature was 
maintained at 75° F.. while the relative humidity was main- 
tained at 40 per cent. The quantity of ice, as well as the ice 
surface exposed. wa> kept as nearly uniform as possible 
throughout the test. 

The refrigerator was first oi)erate(l without any food 
changes or door opening process. The food compartment was 
empty so that the heat losses were due entirely to the heat 
transfer through the insulation of the cabinet. Of course, a 
very small percentage of this heat h^ss was caused by cooling 
and dehumidifying warm air which leaked into the cabinet, 
replacing cold drier air A\hich leaked out. and a small loss 
due to heat transfer by radiation which could not easily be 
measured. 

The food change tot was then conducted, the food which, 
in this case, was ])otatoes, l^eing changed three times each 
day. The potatoes were remo\'ed at the temi)erature of the 
food comi>artment, while the potatoes ])laced in the box at 
each change were at room temperature. The food change 
consisted of remoxing a china plate weighing 2.4 pounds 
holding 8.6 pounds of potatoes, and then placing a similar 
cfuantity of plate and potatoes in the food compartment. 

Finally, a door opening test was conducted in conjunction 
with the food changing test. This approximated the average 
liousehold service condition, indicating the difference between 
a laboratory test and actual household service conditions. 

During this test, the relative humidity of the room was 
maintained at 40 per cent, while the relative humidity in the 
lower part of the food compartment of the refrigerator varied 
from 62 to 68 per cent. 

The results of the ice-making tests indicated that 93 per 
cent of the ice was melted, due to heat transmitted through 
the insulation, 4 per cent was required for cooling the food 
at the rate of 33 pounds per day, and that 3 per cent was lost 
in the opening of the doors which occupied one minute per 
liour, or a total of ten minutes during the test. These losses 
are shown graphically by Fig. 211. The foregoing data, to- 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



405 



gether with Fig. 211, illustrate the great importance of having 
a refrigerator efificientl}' insulated. 



IT) 

O 

-J 



INSULATION 



COOLING FOOD 



OPENINQ 



DOORS 



FIG. 211.— COMP.\RISOX OF REFRIGERATOR HEAT LOSSES. 



Effect of Room Humidity. — The following test was on an 
ice refrigerator to determine the eftect of room humidity on 
the rate of ice melting. The refrigerator used in this experi- 
ment was the top icer described in the previous report. The 
test was conducted in a constant temperature room in which 
the humidity could be regulated and controlled very closely. 
The room temperature was maintained at 75° F. during the 
entire test which lasted 22 days. 

During this test the food storage space in the refrigerator 
contained only a recording thermometer and a recording 
humidostat. The quantity of ice as well as the amount of ice 
surface was maintained as nearly ccmstant as possible. The 



iiom lemperatuif 
Degrees F. 

75 

75 


Food 
rompartment 

65 
65 


Room 

40 

75 



406 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

following results were obtained with two different conditions 
of room humidity : 

Per cent Relative Humidity 

Ice melte<t 
per day, 
pounds 

17.75 
22.56 

This test shows that the rate of ice melting was increased 
about 27 per cent, simply by changing the relative humidity 
of a 75 degree room from 40 to 75 per cent. This difference 
would be greater in actual service conditions as the doors are 
opened more frequently and sometimes not closed tightly, 
thus greatly increasing the amount of air leakage. 

It is therefore very important in refrigerator tests to know 
the rehitive Inimidit}- Ix^th of the air inside the refrigerator 
and of the room in which the refrigerator is located. 

Room or refrigerator environment air is constantly leak- 
ing into tlie upper part of a refrigerator, replacing the cold air 
leaking out of the lower part. This warm air circulates and is 
cooled to the food compartment temperature by coming in 
close contact with the ice or cooling element. Heat must be 
absorbed, either by melting ice or evaporating the liquid re- 
frigerant, to counteract the following heat losses : 

Heat losses due to air leakage or refrigerator ventilation. 

1. To cool incoming dry air. 

2. To cool moisture of incoming air. 

3. To condense jiart of moisture of incoming air. 

4. To freeze the condensed moisture. In a mechanical refriger- 
ator the surface temperature of the cooling element is usually below 
32° F. 

5. To cool the frozen moisture. 

It is then readily understood that with a nearly constant 
supply of warm room air entering the refrigerator, it will re- 
quire more heat to cool and dehumidify to the same dryness 
the 75 per cent humiditx air than it -wotdd to cf)ol and dehu- 
midify the 40 per cent humidity air. 

Humidity Diagram for Room and Refrigerator. — Fig. 212 
shows the relation between room and food compartment hu- 
midities. This test was made in a constant temperature room 
held at 86° F. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



407 



The mechanical refrigerator maintained a temperature ot 
42° F. in the lower and 50° F. at the top of the food compart- 




FIG. 212.— RELATINE HUMIDITY IN RKFKIGERATOR. 

ment. The refrigerator contained only the recording instru- 
ments. The average brine tank temperature was 20° F. 

The test was started with a warm refrigerator so that the 
temperature and humidity of both room and food compart- 
ment were equalized. 



408 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Calorimeter Testing. — There is a great difference of opin- 
ion as to the proper method of determining" the exact or com- 
parative rating of household and small commercial compressor 
units. 

From tests compiled by various manufacturers of house- 
hold machines, the simplest and by far the most practical for 
every day usage, was found to be actual measurement by vol- 
ume of the refrigerant circulated, usually in a calibrated drum 
with sight glass, located directly under the condenser. By 
using the pressure on this drum at the beginning and end of 
the test, the mean pressure is obtained for determining the 
exact density of the liquid from authoritive tables on 
refrigerants. 



CoTid<inse.r 




CalihrateJ 
■Drums ' 



FIC.. _'lo. 



After the actual pounds of refrigerant circulated has been 
found, the net available B.t.u. per pound of refrigerant can be 
determined from the table. This value multiplied by the 
pounds circulated gives the total B.t.u. of refrigerating work 
done in the evaporator. 

As numerous tests haAC demonstrated, superheating of the 
suction gas to the compressor has very little effect on com- 
pressor capacity under normal operating conditions, so that 
the volume of gas per pound of liquid can be obtained from 
the refrigerant table for the suction pressure noted near the 
compressor. This volume per pound multiplied by the pounds 
circulated will gi^'c the x^olume of gas handled by the 
compressor. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 409 

If the volume of gas handled by the compressor is divided 
by the piston displacement of the compressor for the same 
interval of time, the actual efficiency of the compressor is 
obtained. It has been found that the error between this de- 
termination method and the use of a calorimeter or B.t.u. 
measurement box around the evaporator is practically neg- 
ligible, and is much simpler. 

As a general rule, the determination which is most desired 
by all users of refrigeration is how much power must be paid 
for at the end of each month for holding the refrigerator at a 
temperature which best conserves food. The problem then 
becomes, how many kilowatts or their equivalent B.t.u.s must 
be paid for in power consumption for a definite number of 
B.t.u.s actually abstracted from the refrigerator? 

If a unit B.t.u. per hour abstraction is used as a basis, the 
machine requiring the minimum B.t.u. input for this work 
would be the most efficient overall, which, in the end, is the 
determining factor, provided the machines rate equal mechan- 
ically in construction. This value has been given the name 
"Performance Factor" and from the consumer's viewpoint is 
the most important, if other considerations such as appear- 
ance, size, arrangement, ice cubes, etc., are basically equal. 
A unit of comparison sometimes used is B.t.u. per Watt hour. 

From the manufacturer's standpoint, however, the prob- 
lem is somewhat different, as it is the individual parts and 
their efficiencies which affect him, so that each piece of equip- 
ment, compressor, evaporator, condenser or motor must be 
brought up to its maximum efficiency, which in turn will auto- 
matically take care of the overall efficiency or "Performance 
Factor." 

Looking at it from this angle the testing must include 
such factors as discharge pressure, compressor r.p.m. and size, 
size and type evaporator, size condenser and quantity of air 
to be blown over it, type drive, type motor and size, arrange- 
ment of parts, noise, vibration, lubrication, control, type suc- 
tion and discharge valves, kind of refrigerant, etc. 

Tests are subject to a great many variations which cause 
duplication of determined data to often be a difficult problem. 
In tests on a refrigerator load some of the variables that occur 



410 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

wcnild be: door leakaj^^e, air circulation, insulation efficiency, 
cooling chamber shape and size, location of coolinjj unit with 
its shape, size and arrang"ement, and the important factor of 
frost accumulation. 

As one or more of these variables are always present, test 
results are subject to numerous interpretations. consequentl\' 
the least possible number of \ariation factors that can be 
included in a test, the more correct Avill be the analyzed 
results. 

If comparative tests are to be run, the factors entering 
into the results need only be considered and held the same 
for all tests and the resultant values will give a true 
comparison. 

When running a comparatix e test on various makes of 
equipment and boxes, it is a>sumed that each manufacturer has 
made each part of his a])paratus as efficient as he knows how, 
commensurate with cost, consequently the "Performance 
Factor" test api)ears to be the most logical and at the same 
time, the mcjst acceptable method of true accomplishment. 

A comparative method for determining compressor effi- 
ciency and at the same time, a very simple one, is the so called 
"Pump* up" test. By using the same receiver on the discharge 
side of the compressor, and finding the inter\'al of time neces- 
sary to pump a pressure of, say, 75 pounds on the receiver, a 
quick and comparatively accurate comparison is obtained on 
compressors of the same bore, stroke and r.p.m. 

This method can be carried somewhat further and by re- 
ducing the volume of 75 pounds compressed air to pounds 
or atmospheric intake pressure, assuming the temperature to 
remain the same, the volumetric efficiency of the compressor 
can be found by dividing this volume by the actual piston 
displacement f(^r the "Pump up" time interval. 

Another method for obtaining approximate compressor 
efficiencies, is by means of metering the discharge of air 
through an air meter for atmospheric intake and varying dis- 
charge pressures, using compression ratios for conversion 
into an equivalent amount of refrigerant gas. 

A suggestion for standard conditions of testing for all 
makes of household refrigerating equipment would be the 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 411 

power consumption of the motor, where an average tempera- 
ture of 45° is maintained in the food compartment with 80° 
average outside air temperature. Another test should be 
made with an average outside temperature of 100". 

Earlier Research on Refrigeration in the Home. — Research 
on refrigeration in the home was carried out by John R. 
Williams, M. D., to obtain data in order to present a paper 
before the Third International Congress of Refrigeration, on 
the subject of "A Study of Refrigeration in the Home and 
the Efificiency of Household Refrigerators." 

Dr. Williams has obtained some interesting information 
in reference to the construction of household refrigerators in 
actual use, the temperatures prevailing in the rooms and in 
the refrigerators, the relative amounts of ice used, etc. Dr. 
Williams' paper was as follow^s : 

A STUDY OF REFRIGERATION IN THE HOME, AND THE 
EFFICIENCY OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS. 

The problem of preserving fresh food from decomposition is one 
which every household is called upon to solve. The cheapest, most 
efficient, and most available agency for this purpose is refrigeration 
or storage at low temperature. In the home the pantry, cellar or 
an ice-box is depended upon to furnish the low temperature required 
for proper food preservation. 

There is scientific as well as practical basis for this use of cold. 
It has been demonstrated by laboratory' experts that bacteria, which 
are the cause of food decomposition, are markedly retarded in their 
growth by temperature below 45° F., and that temperatures between 
45° and 50° inhibit to a slightly less extent the propagation of these 
organisms. Above 50° F. bacteria multiply prolifically. This means 
that foods favorable for the growth of bacteria, as milk, meat, etc., 
undergo very slight decomposition when kept at temperatures rang- 
ing below 50° F., but above that temperature they spoil very rapidly 
It follows, therefore that a box or room for the storage of perishable 
foods, to be at all efficient, must have a temperature n(jt in excess 
of 50° F., preferably below 45° F. 

Even the most favored cities in the United States, in the matter 
of climate, have periods of from 5 to 7 months when the temperature 
averages above 50° F. Thus the northern city of Rochester for 
more than six months of the year has a mean monthly- temperature 
above 50°, as will be seen by the following tabulation, showing the 
mean monthly temperature of Rochester, N. Y., from 1872 to 1911, 
inclusive, for the warm months of the year: 



412 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Degrees F. Degrees F. 

May 56.7 August 68.9 

June 66.2 September 62.8 

July 70.9 October 50.0 

During these warm months, artificial means must or should be 
employed to protect fresh foods from decomposition. House tempera- 
tures, even in the cellar, are rarely much lower than those of the out- 
side air. The mean temperature for the month of August, 1912, was 
68.9°., while the average temperature of 266 cellar bottoms was 63° F. 
The importance of these facts will be better appreciated when it is 
understood that nearly half of the homes in Rochester rely upon the 
cellar for the protection of their perishable foods. In an investigation 
of more than 5,450 homes, it was discovered that 2,450 families do 
without ice the year round and depend upon the cellar or pantry to 
afford the proper temperature conditions for food preservation. Yet 
in the study of cellar temperatures in several hundred homes not one 
was found having a temperature below 55° F. Pantries and kitchens 
were observed to be even warmer, for not one of either was found 
having a temperature below 60° F. The obvious conclusion from 
this investigation is that every home should have artificial means of 
refrigeration. 

As has just been indicated, about 55 per cent of the homes in 
Rochester use ice during a part of the year, and most of these homes 
are provided with some kind of an ice box. The endeavor was made 
to determine how efficient are these refrigerators, and also to learn 
with some accuracy to what extent ice is used, its cost, etc. Investi- 
gation of the problem was undertaken in various sections of the city, 
each dififering from the others in social or economic conditions. These 
distinctions are indicated in the accompanying tables. Upwards of 
100 homes in each district were studied in the following manner: 

A trained investigator, equipped with a set of accurate and deli- 
cate thermometers and other measuring devices, visited the homes 
and made the observations. Cellar temperatures were taken approxi- 
mately twelve inches from the cellar bottom; refrigerator tempera- 
tures were taken in the food chamber. Each temperature observation 
lasted at least fifteen minutes. In making the test the refrigerator 
door was opened, the instrument placed inside, and the door closed 
as quickly as possible. When a box was low in ice, or when condi- 
tions were discovered which affected the validity of the test, another 
observation was made on the following day or the questionable data 
was rejected. 

In this study of ice boxes, a large number were examined and the 
data from 300 accepted as trustworthy. Of these, only 123 had tem- 
peratures below 50° F., the other 177 registered above that tempera- 
ture and were therefore worthless for preserving food. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 413 

The main reason for the inefficiency of these refrigerators is to 
be found in their defective construction and insulation. Most of them 
are wooden boxes built of half inch lumber, and are lined with tin, 
galvanized iron, or zinc. The walls vary in thickness from less than 
two inches to more than four inches. The space between the metal 
lining and the wooden sides is supposed to contain some insulating 
material, as felt, mineral wool, vegetable fibre, or some preparation 
of cork. In many of them nothing more is to be found than a sheet 
or two of paper. Since the efficiency of a refrigerator depends in 
large part on the character and thickness of the insulating material, 
consideration must be given to these factors. 

It has been proven both experimentally and practically that con- 
fined air is the best insulator. The property of retarding or resisting 
the transmission of heat by an insulating agent rests largely in the 
fact that air is incarcerated within its fibers or cells. The more com- 
pletely the air is confined, the more efhcient is the insulation. An 
insulating agent, to be of value, must not permit of the circulation of 
air, nor must it absorb moisture. Moisture and air currents are 
fatal enemies to good insulation. A refrigerator wall which contains 
a space large enough to permit of air circulation, will be found 
defective because the air then carries the heat by convection. Wood, 
felt, mineral wool, charcoal, sawdust, etc., are fairly efficient when 
they are dry, but as soon as they absorb moisture, as most of them do, 
their efficiency markedly declines. When there is inferior or inade- 
quate insulation in the wall of the refrigerator, the heat percolates 
through, warms the air next to the metal lining and thus favors the 
condensation of moisture on the metal within the wall. The poorer 
the insulation, the greater is the precipitation of moisture. This damp- 
ness not only serves to corrode the metal lining, but also becomes the 
medium for the growth of germs and filth. If the insulation has the 
property of absorbing moisture, as have most of the cheap insulating 
agents, this water of condensation is soaked up and the efficienc\- of 
the insulation is correspondingly lowered. Furthermore, this absorbed 
moisture serves to warp and rot the wood casing, with the result that 
doors become ill fitting, permitting warm air to leak into the box, 
still further lowering the efficiency of the refrigerator, besides uselessly 
melting the ice. Some manufacturers avoid the corrosion of the metal 
lining by the use of glass, tile, or vitreous enameled metal. The manu- 
facturers of shoddy boxes are imitating these by coating the cheap 
metal linings with white paint. Such refrigerators usually have little 
or no insulation, and are worthless for food protection. 

The conditions just described were commonly noted in the exam- 
ination of refrigerators, particularly in the cheap boxes found in the 
homes of working people. Many w^ere discovered where the door 
could not be closed tightlv. The eflfect of these evils is evidenced in 



414 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Tables LXXVII and LXXVIII. The average temperature inside of 
the food chamber in practically all of the cheap boxes was above 50° 

I-., and the lowest temperatures noted, taken usually soon after icing 
and under the most favorable conditions, were not low enough to be 
of dependable value. A properly constructed and operated ice box, 
with reasonable ice consumption, should constantly maintain a differ- 
ence of at least 25 degrees between the temperature of the food 
chamber and that of the outside air when the latter is 70° F. or 
thereabout. As the outside temperature goes down, this difference 
will diminish. A box which will not maintain an average difference 
of more than 20 degrees is not much good, and those with even 
smaller differences. 

TABLE LXXVII.— SHOVVIAG TEMPERATURE OF REFRIGERATORS, LINING 
ROOMS AND CELLLARS DURING MONTH OF AUGUST, 1912. 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

Refrigerators | Living Rooms | Cellars 



Section 



o a c 



Well-to-do American 29 43 62 4 64 61 6 78 

American laboring 3 17 19 10 24 21 22 31 

Jewish laboring 9 20 47 8 28 63 75 

German-American laborincr 1 49 2 4 18 4 29 

Italian laboring 01 600 700 10 

Totals 42 81 153 24 120 170 32 253 

Since the writer undertook to study the problem of home refrig- 
eration, he has been deluged with inquiries as to the best makes of ice 
boxes and how it can be determined whether or not a given box is 
a good one. The answer is neither easy nor simple because the prob- 
lem deals with the combined complexities of economies and the 
physics of refrigeration. It seems worth while, however, to discuss 
simply and briefly the technical questions involved. 

The amount of money a family can afford to pay for a refriger- 
ator or for proper insulation depends largely upon the cost of ice. If 
ice can be procured Tor nothing, then there is little need to pay much 
to prevent it from wasting. If, however, it is costly, then it will be 
found economical to pay for good refrigerator construction. The 
average retail price of ice in Rochester is $8.50 per ton, and this will 
be used as a basis of calculation in the following discussion. Next 
in order of importance to the cost of ice, is the cost and efficiency of 
the insulating agent used in the wall of the box. The purpose of 
the insulation is to prevent the passage of heat from the outside to 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 415 

the inside of the box. As said before, the chief value of an insulator 
depends upon the amount of air entrapped within its cellular struc- 
ture, and upon its freedom from moisture. If an insulator disin- 
tegrates so as to lose its cellular character or air spaces, its efficiency 
correspondingly declines. If it becomes wet, its value is almost cut 
in two. In the study of an ideal refrigerator for the home, two factors 
must be seriously considered, the cost of ice and the cost and 
efficiency of insulation. 

TABLE LXXVIII.— SHOWING THE COMPARATIVE TEMPERATURE OF 

DIFFERENT MAKES OF REFRIGERATORS IN USE IN 

ROCHESTER, N. T., AUGUST, 1912. 



o. o 



va 



e« B- ^t.- 



H « 3 bi Insulation. 



<u s 



.5 hoc til Mn hcQ 

O ^ >. h '" ^3 ^C 



\y2-\n. mineral wool, I'/^-in- Aax and 

paper, 3-in. board. 
1-in. mineral wool, 3-%-in. boards, 

^-in. felt. 
1-in. vegetable fiber, 2-^8-in. boards, 

felt sheathing. 
U-^-in. board, M-i"- vegetable fiber. 



Paper, 2-%-in. boards. 

Paper, air space, ?^-in. boards. 

Paper, and board. 

Paper, and board. Air space. 

Paper, air space. 

Paper, air space. 

Paper, air space. 

Home-made boxes, built-in boxes and 

those unnamed. 
Miscellaneous boxes, more than 70 

different makes. 

The average working man who uses a refrigerator spends between 
$5.00 and $10.00 for the ice he uses during the four or five warm 
months of the year. See Table LXXIX showing the amount spent for 
ice by various classes of people. Well-to-do families spend between 
$15.00 and $40.00 a year for ice. The cost to families in moderate 
circumstances varies between these extremes. 

Refrigerators in the homes of working people cost, at retail, 
between $10.00 and $20.00. In the homes of those in better circum- 
stances, ice boxes costing from $25.00 to $150.00 are to be found. 
Most of the low-priced boxes are built more with regard to appear- 



39 


48.4 


70.9 


22.5 


P.cst 


9 


46.3 


69() 


22.7 


Best 


7 


45.5 


69.1 


23.6 


Best 


6 


47.6 


69.7 


22.1 


Best 


7 


52.2 


69.7 


17..^ 


Medium 


13 


51.7 


70.4 


18.7 


Medium 


13 


52.7 


72.3 


19.6 


Medium 


11 


54.5 


73.6 


191 


Medium 


21 


53.7 


73 1 


19.4 


Cheap 


6 


54.9 


70.0 


15.1 


Cheap 


8 


52.6 


73.8 


21.2 


Cheap 


9 


52.2 


68.9 


16.7 


Cheap 


6 


57.0 


74.4 


17.4 


Cheap 


7 


56.6 


71.5 


14.9 


Cheap 


7 


50.9 


66.5 


15.6 


Cheap 


22 


510 


71.3 


20.3 


Mixed 


104 


53.3 


71.3 


18. 


Mixed 



416 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

ance than efficiency. The majority of them contain practically no 
insulation. It is not within the province of this paper, nor has the 
writer the qualifications which would enable him to intelligently dis- 
cuss the cost of making refrigerators, but it is within the scope of 
this discussion to consider the economic value to the consumer of 
improving the quality of the boxes now in use. 

TABLE LXXIX.— SHOWING PRICE PAID FOR ICE PER YEAR. 
DATA FROM 321 FAMILIES. 

Under $5.00 $10 to $15 to $20.00 

Section $5.00 to $10.00 $15.00 $20.00 and ovei 

Well-to-do 6 36 ZZ 13 34 

American laboring 34 16 5 1 4 

Jewish laboring 22 72 10 6 1 

German-American laboring 8 14 1 1 

Italian laboring 4 

Total 74 138 49 21 39 

NOTE: By this table it will be seen that working people spend from less 
than $5.00 to $10.00 or more for ice in the four or five months of the year in 
which they use it. Those in better circumstances spend correspondingly more. At 
least 60 per cent of this money is wasted and lost in the inefficient and uneconom- 
ical refrigerators in use. Were this loss applied to the purchase of a good ice box, 
these families in a short time would have adequate and economical refrigeration, 
in pl.ici> of the present wasteful and unsanitary methods. 

This point can best be illustrated by considering a specific exam- 
ple. In Table LXXX is shown the relation between the amount of 
insulation, ice consumption, and cost of operation. The refrigerator 
is of medium size (42x30x18), of good make, and, as ice boxes go, is 
well insulated. It retails for about $20.00, more or less, depending 
upon the trimmings. To be efficient, this box should maintain a fairly 
constant temperature of 45° F. within the food chamber. To do this, 
it must maintain an average dif?erence of 20 degrees temperature 
between the inside and outside of the box. To overcome the heat 
radiation from a box of this size, and with the kind of insulation 
within its walls, it would require an ice meltage of approximately 158 
pounds per week, or 3,400 for the five warm months. This ice would 
cost the consumer, at current prices, $14.45. 

If one inch of high grade insulation were added to the walls 
(corkboard is used as an illustration and is the basis of calculation), 
it would reduce the quantity of ice necessary to maintain this tem- 
perature difference to 90 pounds weekly, or 1,950 pounds for the sum- 
mer. This would mean a saving of 1,450 pounds in ice and $6.15 in 
cost of operation. This added insulation would increase the initial 
cost of the ice box about $3.50, but it would pay for itself in about 
three months. 

If two inches of corkboard were added to the insulation in box 
No. 1, the weekly ice meltage to overcome the radiation would amount 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 417 

to but 65 pounds, or 1,370 pounds for the summer. This would mean 
a saving of about one ton of ice during the summer and would reduce 
the ice bill $8.65. To get this increased efficiency would add approxi- 
mately $5.80 to the initial cost of refrigerator. Obviously, a good 
refrigerator will pay for itself in the ice it saves in three or four years. 

TABLE LXXX.— SHOWING HOW THE EFFICIENCY OF A REFKIGERATOK 

MAY BE INCREASED, THE COST OF OPERATION REDUCED AND 

THE SAVING TO THE CONSUMER BY ADDING MORE INSULATION. 

. 3 „ n^ rt u, 12 -a a, 

•« .W S nO . ^ o ^ ^ -o 3 

i^ Si So ^ n^ ^ ^ ^d 



m 



c 






1 2-%-in. boards, 
2 sheets water- 
proof paper, 1-in. 

mineral wool 4.60 3,400 lbs. 158 lbs. $14.45 

2 Insulation of box 
No. 1, plus 1-inch 

corkboard -2.64 1,950 90 8.30 $3.50 1,450 $6.15 

3 Insulation of box 
No. 1, plus 2-inch 

corkboard 1.85 1,370 65 5.80 5.80 2,030 8.65 

NOTE: Were the refrigerators in Rochester brought up to a state of efficiency 
they would save in lower ice bills to the consumer at least $350,000 yearly. 

Conclusions: Neither the cellar nor pantry in the home are suf- 
ficiently cold to keep perishable foods from spoiling during the warm 
months of the year; therefore, every home should have a good 
refrigerator. 

Only about half the homes in the city have refrigerators; the 
other half are compelled to depend upon the inadequate protection 
afforded by the cellar. 

The majority of domestic refrigerators are inefficient because they 
consume too much ice and do not maintain a temperature low enough 
to prevent food from spoiling. 

The chief explanation of their inefficiency is to be found in the 
lack of sufficient and proper insulation. 

There are a large number of shoddy refrigerators on the market 
which contain no other insulation than a sheet or two of paper. They 
are sold chiefly to working people who can ill afiford to use them, 
because they are both unsanitary and grossly uneconomical in the 
consumption of ice. 



41 S 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



The waste from ice meltage because of improper insulation of 
refrigerators in Rochester homes (population of city, 230,000) amounts 
to 60,000 tons yearly, or about $350,000. 

At least $100,000 more is wasted yearly in the present competitive 
system of delivery. 

Unnecessary waste is now making refrigeration cost consumers 
from three to five times as much as it should. 

There are certain simple directions which will be of assistance in 
selecting a refrigerator. If they are observed, the purchaser can at 
least avoid being defrauded. 

One should insist upon seeing a section of the wall of the refrig- 
erator which he contemplates buying. Honest manufacturers are 
always willing to let customers know the character of their wares. 

Do not buy a box which does not bear the name and address of 
the maker, nor one sold only under the name of a retail dealer. If 
the manufacturer is ashamed to acknowledge his handiwork, you are 
justified in suspecting fraud. 

TABLE LXXXI.— SHOWING THICKNESS OF WALLS OF REFRIGERATORS. 




Well-to-do 5 

American laboring 9 

Jewish laboring 17 

German-American laboring.... 4 
Italian laboring 

Totals 35 



36 


34 


19 


23 


4 


3 


42 


8 


1 


13 


3 


1 












114 



49 



24 



Do not buy a box which contains less than three inches of good 
insulation, not including the wooden cases or the metal or tile lining. 

Beware of impossible "vacuum," doubtful "dead air space," and 
no-good paper insulation. 

Money invested in insulation will be returned many times in the 
saving of ice bills. Added insulation means not only economy in ice 
consumption, but also lower temperature in the refrigerator and the 
less spoiling of food. 

A refrigerator is of little value which will not operate with rea- 
sonable care and ice consumption at 45° F. during the summer 
months. 

There is a big field for the manufacturer who will put on the mar- 
ket an efficient ice box which can be sold at a price within the means 
of people in moderate circumstances. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



419 



Not one cellar was found cold enough to prevent the rapid decom- 
position of milk and meat. Living rooms were found to be even 
worse, therefore refrigerators are really a necessity. Only forty-two 
refrigerators of 300 examined were found as cold as they should be, 
while 177 of them were above 50° P., at which temperature they are 
of little value. 

TABLE LXXXII.— SHOWING A NUMBER OF HOMES USING VARIOUS 
AMOUNTS OF ICE WEEKLY. 



Section 



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XI 


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Well-to-do 3 24 79 28 15 149 

American laboring 11 16 18 32 3 4 84 

Jewish laboring _. 5 18 8 26 3 60 

German-American laboring 3 5 10 19 37 

Italian laboring 4 5 9 

Totals 23 42 60 161 34 19 339 



A good refrigerator should maintain an average inside tempera- 
ture of not higher than 45° F., because food spoils rapidly at 50° F. 
This means a temperature difference of from 20° to 30° during the 
summer. A box which will not average 20° difiference for the five 
warm months, with a reasonable consumption of ice, is no good. All 
of the better class of refrigerators use some efficient insulation. None 
of them use enough. The poorer makes use little or none, excepting 
a sheet or two of paper. Some manufacturers attempt to obtain cheap 
insulation by creating small air chambers of paper and wood, which 
they call "dead air space," a physical and practical impossibility in 
refrigerator construction. Such boxes are usually worthless. 

A properly constructed ice box, to be economically operated, 
should have a wall of efificient insulating material at least six inches 
thick. Such a box at the current prices of ice, will have a theoretical 
I'fficiency of about 80 per cent The 149 refrigerators whose wall 
thickness is less than 2% inches, even were they made of the best 
possible construction, could not have an efficiency above 40 per cent. 
The remaining seventy-eight refrigerators with walls averaging less 
than three inches, could not have an efficiency of above 50 per cent. 
As a matter of fact, with the shoddy and imperfect insulating materials 
used, most of the ice boxes in common use rate far below their 
theoretical efficiency. 

It is interesting to note that Italian working people use very little 
ice. It was observed that they avoid very largely the use of perishable 
foods requiring refrigeration in the home. Thus, condensed milk is 
used largely in place of fresh milk and preserved meat in place of 
fresh meat. Jewish people use much milk and therefore much ice. 



420- 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Unfortunately these people get the benefit of not much more, than 
20 to 30 per cent of the ice they buy because of the defective ice boxes. 
There are about 55,000 families in Rochester. They use approxi- 
mately 100,000 tons of ice yearly in their homes. Beyond all ques- 
tion more than 60,000 tons of this ice is wasted, entailing a loss to 
these consumers of at least $350,000. 

TABLE LXXXIII— SHOWING NUMBER OF MONTHS ICE IS USED DURING 
YEAR BY HOMES IN VARIOUS SECTIONS OF ROCHESTER. 



Section 



6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


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6 


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Well-to-do 

American 

laboring 1 

Jewish 

laboring 

German- American 

laboring 1 

Italian 

laboring 

Totals 2 13 37 63 105 42 24 13 



2 


5 


15 


22 


24 


15 


8 


33 


6 


10 


14 


21 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


16 


26 


47 


15 


5 


1 


1 


1 


4 


8 


15 











1 





2 





















38 



Note:— TTiis table shows, amonc: other things, the seasonal character _ of the 
use of ice. This adds greatly to the cost of distribution, because it necessitates a 
large investment in equipment, most of which is idle during one-half of the year. 



There is a different dealer for each five to fifteen consumers on 
every street in Rochester, a tremendously wasteful and uneconomical 
method of distribution. If an economical system of distribution were 
to replace the present method, a saving could be made to the con- 
sumer of at least $1.00 per ton or $100,000 yearly for the whole city. 



TABLE LXXXIV.— SHOWING THE OVERLAPPING OF ROUTES OF DEALERS 
IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF ICE. 

Number of Number of dealers 

Street consumers supplying consumers 

Dartmouth 39 5 

Baden „ 48 8 

Frank 17 7 

Kenwood 47 6 

Adams 21 7 

Oxford 25 3 



Table LXXXV gives a sumniar}- of the data on weekly 
amounts of ice, cost of ice per year and relative temperatures. 
From the "Study of Refrigeration in the Home and the Efifi- 
ciencv of Household Refrigerators," bv John R. Williams. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



421. 



TABl^E LXXXV.- 



-DATA FROM STUDY OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 
IN ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



Weekly Amounts Ice 

50 lbs or less 7% 

51 to 75 12% 

Id to 100 18% 

101 to 200 47% 

201 to 300 10% 

301 and over 6% 

100% 



Cost of Ice per Year 

Under $5 ...._. 23% 

$ 5 to $10 43% 

$10 to $15 15% 

$15 to $20 7% 

$20 and over _ 12% 

100% 



TEMPERATURES 
Living Rooms 

14% Below 60° 0% Below 55' 

27% 60 to 70° 42% Below 60= 

51% Above 70° 58% Above 60° 

8% 



In Refrigerators 

Below 45° .— 

45 to 50° 

50 to 60° 

Over 60° 



Cellars 



.. 0% 
.. 8% 
.92% 



Bureau of Standards' Tests on Refrigerators. — The United 
States Bureau of Standards has conducted certain tests on re- 
frigerators. This was reported in the Bureau of Standards 
Circular No. 55. The following extract and Table LXXXVI 
gives the principal data in this bulletin : 



TABLE LXXXVI. RESULTS OF TESTS OF REFRIGERATORS. 













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^.5 




Deg. F. 


Deg. F. 


Deg. F. 


Lbs. 




at 60° F. 


Cu. Ft. 


Lbs. 


1 


92.1 


52.7 


64.4 


1.50 


0.14 


21.4 


16.5 


42.2 


2 


9L8 


57.2 


72.1 


1.78 


0.21 


19.6 


J8.1 


37.1 


i 


91.3 


49.3 


70.7 


1.63 


0.19 


12.7 


18.0 


41.1 


4 


90.0 


46.6 


70.3 


1.43 


0.14 


10.1 


18.0 


43.2 


5 


89.6 


49.5 


68.7 


1.41 


0.15 


12.1 


16.5 


41.2 


6 


91.1 


55.9 


69.8 


1.54 


0.18 


18.5 


18.2 


42.7 


■1 


91.5 


46.9 


66.2 


1.63 


0.15 


13.8 


17.1 


41.8 


8 


92.0 


44.1 


64.0 


1.59 


0.14 


13.0 


17.3 


41.7 


9 


93.1 


51.8 


66.6 


1.65 


0.19 


18.5 


19.0 


40.7 



Table LXXXVI gives some results of tests on nine refrigerators 
of average quality or better, where the air in the refrigerator averages 
nearly as much warmer than the ice as it '\i cooler than the ?iir out- 



422 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

side; thus, with a room at about 90°, the lowest temperatures inside 
the refrigerators range from 44° to 57° and the highest 64° to 72°. 
It has been found (Bulletin No. 98 of United States Department of 
Agriculture) that in milk kept at 60°, about fifteen times as many 
bacteria will develop in one day as in milk kept at 50° F., and much 
the same is true of many other foods. It is important, therefore, to 
find the coldest places in a refrigerator (usually near where the air 
leaves the ice chamber) and use these places for foods such as milk 
and meats which need to be kept as cool as possible to prevent 
spoiling. 

The outside dimension of the refrigerators listed in Table 
LXXXVI averaged 24 inches deep, 40 inches wide, and 50 inches high. 

The figures in the column headed "Heat transmission" gives the 
amount of heat in British thermal units (B.t.u.) that passes through 
every square foot of the outside surface of the refrigerator in an hour 
when the room temperature is one degree F., higher than the average 
inside temperature of the refrigerator. If the room temperature were 
ten degrees higher than the inside of the refrigerator, ten times this 
amount of heat would pass through every square foot of the walls. 

The sixth column of Table LXXXVI, headed "Heat Transmis- 
sion," illustrates the relative merits of the different refrigerators, since 
it tells directly how much cooling is wasted, that is, how much heat 
enters the refrigerator through the walls per hour for each square 
foot of wall, and for each degree difference in temperature between 
the inside and outside. For instance, to hold the average temperature 
inside refrigerator No. 1, 30 degrees below the temperature outside 
would require two-thirds as much ice for No. 2. To be sure. No. 2, 
though a much poorer refrigerator, used only about one-fifth more 
ice than did No. 1, but its inside temperature was not nearly so low, 
and therefore it would not have kept food fresh so long as No. 1. 

Slow melting of the ice does not necessarily indicate a good 
refrigerator. Unless the ice melts, it can absorb no heat, and is there- 
fore of no use in a refrigerator. Protecting the ice in a refrigerator 
by covering it up is a good way to save ice but a poor way to save 
food. The only proper way to use less ice is by using a refrigerator 
with better insulated walls, and by opening the doors as seldom and 
for as short a time as possible. 

N. Y. Tribune Institute Tests.— The N. Y. Tribune Insti- 
tute reports the ice consumption, as determined by twenty- 
seven tests on well known standard refrigerators, to be be- 
tween 0.00407 and 0.0100 pounds of ice melted per hour per 
cubic foot of food storage space, per degree of difference in 
temperature between room and refrigerator. These values in 
B.t.u. would be 0.58608 and 1.44 respectively. The results of 
these tests are shown by tables LXXXVII and LXXXVIII. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



423 



Tests of Balsa Refrigerators. — Household refrigerators of 
an improved design constructed entirely of balsa wood, with 
an interior and exterior coating of a magnesite composition 
applied in plastic form, were built by the American Balsa Co. 
The tests described in the following were made on the 100-lb. 
ice capacity side icer type, by Dr. M. E. Pennington in Febru- 
ary, 1923. The results are shown graphically in Figs. 131, 132, 
and 133. The summary of the performance test of the balsa 
refrigerator of the household type is shown in Table 
LXXXIX. From the last column of this table, it will be 
noted that an average of 3.16 B.t.u. were transmitted per 24 
hours per degree of temperature difference per square foot of 
radiating surface. 

TABLE LXXXVIL— TESTS BY NEW YORK TRIBUNE INSTITUTE. 





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V 


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V V u 




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Insulation 


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bi.2 
5 5^? 


Radiation 
Ft. 


Heat Los 
Hour 


Heat Los 
Sq. Ft. p 
Degree T 
Difference 


Fibre Board and Air 


74.6 


55.3 


0.746 


33 


123 


4.7 


Granulated 


69.6 


43.1 


0.826 


44.5 


127 


2.6 


Cork and Wood 


71.0 


45.4 


1.085 


44.5 


168 


3.5 


Flaxinum, Wood, 


68.1 


46.6 


0.691 


33 


108 


3.85 


Felt and Paper 


71.0 


47.5 


0.792 


33 


125 


4.05 




7.9 


49.7 


1.279 


40.6 


198 


4.0 




79.7 


49.8 


1.539 


40.6 


253 


4.9 


Fibre Board and Air 


69.3 


47.0 


0.763 


28.2 


120 


4.6 




70.8 


47.6 


0.750 


28.2 


118 


4.4 


Mineral Wool, Paper 


67.5 


47.6 


0.739 


36.9 


117 


3.P 


and Wood 


68.4 


48.0 


0.741 


36.9 


117 


3.7 


Wool Felt, Paper, 


67.6 


48.2 


0.582 


21.2 


92 


5.4 


Air and Wood 


66.7 


46.5 


0.511 


21.2 


80 


4.5 


Flax Fibre, Wood 


69.3 


47.8 


0.891 


39.9 


141 


4.0 


and Air 


70.5 


48.0 


1.085 


39.9 


171 


4.6 


Iron, Cork, Air 


72.3 


47.2 


0.828 


32 


124 


3.7 


and Wood 















Note: — Radiation area is the average between the outside and inside surfaces 
of the cabinet. The he.'.t loss includes both the effect of melting ice and heatinK 
the resulting ice water. 



424 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE LXXXVIIl.— ICE REFRIGERATOR TESTS BY NEW YORK TRIBUNE 

INSTITUTE. 



Test Method 



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Test A, Fibre Board and Air 

Ice 55.3 74.6 33. 123. 4.6 

Non-Circulating Heat 102. 77. 33. 169 4.9 

Test B, Granulated Cork and Wood 

Non-Circulating Heat 99. 71.4 35.2 185.5 4.6 

Circulating Heat 95. 68.0 35.2 215. 5.4 

Test C, Granulated Cork, Air and Wood 

Ice 47.2 72.3 32. 124. 3.75 

Circulating Heat 104. 62.6 32. 221. 4.0 

Note: — Each set of readings is the average value of two tests. Radiation area Ja 
the average between the outside and inside surfaces of the cabinet. 
Heating element is shielded to reduce heat loss to walls by radiation. 
In heat tests a "dummy" ice cake was used to offer similar resistance to 
air circulation as in ice meltmg test. 
A small fan was used in the circulating heat test. 

These tests indicate that the non-circulating heat method of testing gives 
results corresponding very closely to the results by the ice melting test. 
The electric heating element is placed in the food compartment and, of 
course, produces some air circulation inside the cabinet. The electrical 
has many advantages over the ice melting method. 



The purpose of the test was to determine ice meltage, box tem- 
peratures, and efficiencies under several conditions of icing as indi- 
cated in the three following tests: 

Test "A" was an average of four consecutive 24-hour test periods. 
Ice was replaced at beginning of each test period by new cake of same 
approximate, original weight. Results graphically shown on Fig. 211. 

Test "B" was an average of two consecutive 48-hour periods. Ice 
replaced at beginning of each test period by new cake of same ap- 
proximate original weight. Results graphically shown on Fig. 212. 

Test "C" was a continuous 96-hour test period without re-icing. 
The results are graphically shown on Fig. 213. 

Box Specifications. — Box was designed and built by the American 
Balsa Co., for the National Association of Ice Industries, Dr. M. E. 
Pennington, consulting and advisory technical expert for the associa- 
tion: 

DIMENSIONS OF REFRIGERATOR 

Width Depth Height 

Outside dimensions over all 35H-in. 21 -in. 50 -in. 

Inside dimensions 30^-in. ISf^-in. 385^-in. 

Ice compartment (Including Baffle) .... 14^-in. IS^^-in. 27 -in. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 425 

Milk compartment |3 -in. j-'f^-}"- U?^'-"- 

Food compartment 16 -m. lo^/^-in. ^S^-m- 

DOOR OPENINGS IN REFRIGERATOR 

Width Depth Height 

Ice compartment 12 -in. 25 -in. 

Milk compartment 12 -in ioi?"-"" 

Food Compartment 13H-in J^^-m- 

The box is lined and covered by American Balsa Company's syn- 
thetic stone, applied directly to 2-inch Balsa insulation, making a seam- 
less lining and covering finished in v^'hite enamel inside and out. 
Baffle, shelves ice tray and pan, bunker and drain pipe are entirely 
removable. 

The tests were made at the Bronx Plant of the American Balsa 
Co., in experimental refrigerator test room where room temperatures 
could be reasonably controlled. 

Temperature Observations. — Room temperatures and averages 
were determined from S. & B. recording thermometer. Reading aver- 
aged hourly from recording chart. Leads & Northrup resistance ther- 
mometers and reading box were used to determine all box tempera- 
tures. These thermometers read to 0.1 degree and were calibrated 
before and after tests. Box temperatures were observed at the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. Warm air inlet. 

2. Middle food compartment. 

3. Bottom food compartment. 

4. Cold air drop. 

5. Middle milk compartment. 

6. Middle top shelf. 

Average temperature, middle food compartment, was determined 
by averaging middle milk compartment and middle top shelf com- 
partment temperatures. This average temperature was used in all cal- 
culations. 

Ice Meltage. — Rates of ice meltage were determined from actual 
meltages, by removing ice from box at end of 24-hour periods and 
weighing. After weighing, cake was replaced or new cake substi- 
tuted as conditions of test demanded. Check meltages were taken by 
weighing drip water, but these figures were not used in calculations. 
Readings were taken at 9 a. m. and 10 a. m., at noon and at 3 p. m. 
and 5 p. m. Twenty-four hour test and ice weighing intervals were 



from 10 a. m. 



10 a. m. 



Results. — Results of tests are shown graphically in Figs. 214, 215 
and 216 and Table LXXXIX, and comprise the complete results of 
this test, which is the American Balsa Company's Laboratory Exper- 
iment No. 258. 



426 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



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yi CM 



B.t.u. Loss per 24 Hrs. per Deg. per 
Sq. Ft. Rad. Surf. 



Ice Melted per Hr. per Deg. per Sq. Ft. Rad. Sui I 



Ice Melted per Hr. per Deg. per 
Cu. Ft. Food Comp. Vol. 



Ice Melted Lbs. per Hr. 



Average Temperature Difference 



Average Food Compartment Temperature 



Average Room Temperature 



Duratimi of Test llrs 



Rad. Surf. Total Inside Area 



Per Cent Ice to Food Compartment 



Per Cent Ice Comp. to Total \"ol. 



\'ol. Food Comp. Cu. Ft. 



\'ol. Ice Cump. Cu. Ft. 



Total \-ol. Cu. Ft. 



Ice Cap. Lbs. 



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TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



427 



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•I(j 214. -BALSA REFRIGERATOR TEST CHART. 



428 



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FIG. 215.— BALSA REFRIGERATOR TEST CHART. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 



429 



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FIG. 216.— BALSA REFRIGERATOR TEST CHART. 



430 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Tests at University of Illinois. — An exhaustive test in the 
University of Illinois laboratories compared three refriger- 
ators purchased from the stock of local dealers. One was 
with granulated cork insulation, while the other two used 
mineral wool and other insulations. The lower melting rate 
per hour, proved that the refrigerator with its granulated cork 
insulation was the most economical refrigerator for general 
use. The figures are as follows : 

Hours Ice Melt Rate 

Tested Melt Per Hour 

No. 1. (Graulated Cork) 219.0 hours 109^4 lbs. 0.498 lbs. 

No. 2. (Mineral Wool) 1199 hours 71 lbs. 0.592 lbs. 

No. 3. (Mineral Wool) 168.95 hours 141^4 lbs. 0.839 lbs. 

Assuming that a refrigerator is used for six months of 

each year, and that the ice will cost fifty cents per cwt., the 

cost of the ice for the year will be as follows : 

No. 1—2,151 lbs. of Ice at 50c $10.75 

No. 2—2,557 lbs. of Ice at 50c 12.79 

No. 3—3,624 lbs. of Ice at 50c 18.12 

Tests by Good Housekeeping Institute. — The Good House- 
keeping Institute, conducted by the Good Housekeeping 
Magazine of New York City, reports the following result of 
a test on Bohn Syphon refrigerator : 

The refrigerator is well-constructed throughout, and provided 
with a one-piece seamless lining with rounded corners, that is, a 
smooth, hard surface, easily kept clean and in a sanitary condition. 
In tests of one hundred consecutive hours duration, the following 
results were obtained. 

Average Food Average Averae Ice 

Compartment Room Consumption 

Tempetature Temperature Lbs. Per Hour 

45.5 F. 75.1 F. 0.750 

41.2 F. 68.1 F. 0.613 

The method of rating was as follows: 

Construction Good 

Efficiency of Design Very Good 

Efficiency of Operation Very Good 

Initial Cost Medium 

Upkeep Cost Low 

The refrigerator scores 94 points. 

The detailed specifications of this cabinet are as follows: 

Width Depth Heic;ht 

Inches Inches Inches 

Outside 36 21 47 

Large Provision Chamber '13^4 14^ 32 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 4,M 

Small Provision Chamber 15 14J4 9^ 

Ice Chamber 13^ 15^ 18 

Ice Chamber Door Opening 11J4 •••• 14% 

Ice Chamber Capacity, 100 pounds 
Shipping Weight, 335 pounds 

Total Volume Overall 20.5 Cu. Ft. 

Food Storage Space 4.7 Cu. Ft. 

Ice Storage Space 2.2 Cu. Ft. 

Shelf Area 6.7 Sq. Ft. 

Insulation: Wood, flax fibre, dead air space, wool felt, paper, and 
waterproof paper. 

The pounds of ice melted per hour per cu. ft. food storage space 
per degree temperature difference were as follows: 

First Test 0.0054 

Second Test 0.00484 

Tests on Ice Refrigerators. — The following data, on test- 
ing of ice refrigerators, has been published by the Davison 
AU-Steel Refrigerator Co., in Montreal, Canada. The room 
temperature during the test was 68" F. ; one piece of ice 
weighing initially sixteen pounds was used, and the refriger- 
ator tested was the Frost River type No. 24. The piece of ice 
lasted for sixty-eight hours and the lowest temperature ob- 
tained in the food chamber was 48° F., the insulation consist- 
ing of linofelt and air space. The outside volume of the re- 
frigerator was seventeen cubic feet. The food compartment 
was 5.65 cu. ft. The shelf area was 8.2 sq. ft. and the total 
shipping weight was 162 pounds. 

TABLE XC— REFRIGERATOR TEST. 



Date 1 


Time | 


Temperature of Food Chamber | 


1 Amount of Ice 


May 9 


2 P. M. 
10 P. M. 

2 p. M. 




66 

54 

52 


16 Pounds 




4 P. M. 


52 


(Temp. Ice Chamber 42) 




May 10 


12 Noon 

Midnight 

7 P. M. 




50 
50 
48 




May 11 


7 A. M. 
12 Noon 




48 
49 




May 12 


7 A. M. 




58 






12 Noon 




60 Out of Ice 





Tests on Average Household Refrigerators. — Table XCI 

gives the result of the tests on fifteen average household 
refrigerators used in homes. From this, it is interesting to 
note that the average temperature inside of the refrigerator 



432 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

at the middle shelf was 55°, that the average number of 
pounds of ice consumed per day was 29.6 and that the average 
cost of ice per day per refrigerator was 14.8 cents. 

TABLE XCI. TEST ON FIFTEEN AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD 

REFRIGERATORS IN USE IN HOMES. 

Average Room Temperature 79 degrees 

Average Temperature Inside Refrigerator at Middle Shelf.. 55 degrees 

Average Pounds of Ice Consumed per Day 29.6 lbs. 

Cost of Ice 56 cents per 100 lbs. 

Average Cost of Ice per Day for Each Refrigerator 14.8 cents 



Refrigerator Score Card. — A refrigerator score card for 
the purpose of comparing dififerent kinds of refrigerators has 
been prepared by F. O. Riek, of the Rhinelander Refrigerator 
Co., who has used some data and suggestions contained in a 
score card for refrigerators originally published in the Chicago 
Tribune by Dr. W. A. Evans, and is as follows : 

REFRIGERATOR SCORE CARDS 

Name of manufacturer 

Name or other method of designating refrigerator 

Points of Score Perfect Score 

1. Temperature of Food Chamber 45 

2. Ice Economy or Efificiency 20 

3. Humidity 8 

4. Circulation 7 

5. Interior Finish 12 

6. Drainage 3 

7. Exterior Finish 5 

Total 100 

Explanation of Score Card: 

1. Temperature Test: Standard conditions for test demand refrig- 
erator to be in a room free from drafts and at an even temperature. 
Box should not contain food. Door should not be opened except 
when taking readings. Refrigerator should be cold throughout. Have 
the ice chamber full. Place thermometer in the center of the food 
chamber. Make four readings at intervals of not less than one hour. 
Take room temperature four times. 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 433 

Rate as follows: 

When temperature is: The score will be under: 

40° F. 45 

45 43 

SO 36 

55 23 

60 9 

over 60 

2. Ice Economy : Refrigerator should be cold when test is begun. 
Weigh ice at the beginning of test. Weigh ice left at termination of 
test. Obtain data: 

(a) Temperature of food chamber. 

(b) Temperature of room. 

(c) Square feet of surface exposure calculated on exterior 
dimensions. 

To determine substitute in the following formula: 

I 144 where R equals "efficiency" of rate of heat trans- 

R= mission which may be defined as the number of 

S (T — t) B.t.u. which pass through one square foot of surface 
daily when the difference between the surface is 1° F. 
I equals the number of pounds of ice melted daily. 
144 equals B.t.u. required to melt one pound ice. 
S equals surface exposure. 
T equals average atmospheric temperature, 
t equals average temperature of food chamber. 

Rate as follows: 

Where R equals 1.13 rate 20 



1.63 rate 


18 


2.00 rate 


16 


2.33 rate 


14 


2.66 rate 


12 


3.00 rate 


10 


3.33 rate 


8 


3.66 rate 


6 


4.00 rate 


4 


4.33 rate 


2 


4.66 rate 


1 


5.00 rate 






3. Humidity: In making humidity tests a wet and dry bulb ther- 
mometer should be used. At least four readings are to be taken at 
intervals of one hour. 

See Bureau of Standard tables for readings calculated upon dif- 
ferences in temperatures of wet and dry thermometers. Score as 
follows: 

Percentage humidity ranges 

55 to 65 rate 8.0 

65 to 75 rate 7.5 

45 to 55 rate 7,5 



434 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

40 to 45 rate 7.2 

75 to 80 rate 6.4 

30 to 40 rate 6.0 

80 to 85 rate 4.8 

20 to 30 rate 4.8 

85 to 95 rate 2.4 

90 and over rate 0.0 

20 and under rate 0.0 

4. Circulation of Air : Note W^hether the box can be ventilated. 
Credit for possibility for ventilating. Credit for probability that cold 
air will pass from ice to food and air returns from the food to the 
ice. If any wall is moist substract at least two. If air cannot reach 
ice, subtract two. 

5. Interior Finish: Ease of cleaning refers to cleaning of food 
chamber, all shelves therein, and the drain pipes. If ease of cleaning 
is ideal, value six. If finish is hard and non-absorbent, value three. 
If color is white, value five. 

6. Drainage : A. See that the trap in the drain pipe works. If 
there is proper trapping, value two. If there is proper tubing, value 
one. 

B. Construction of Refrigerator: 

1. Arrangement of chamber — show diagram. 

2. Temperature maintained. 
a. — Ice chamber. 

b. — Food chamber side. 
c. — Food chamber below. 

3. Insulation — show diagram. 

4. Economy of space in food chambers. 

C. Cost: 

1. First Cost. 

2. Maintenance Cost. 

D. Manufacturer's Claims: 

Does the manufacturer over-emphasize minor details in ad- 
vertising his refrigerator? 



Keferences: 

Lynde, "Household Physics." 

Bureau of Standards Circular No. 55, Measurements for the Household. 
Manufacturers' Catalogs. 
Good Housekeeping Institute. 
Good Housekeeping Magasine, May, 1914. 

A study of Refrigeration in the Home and the Efficiency of Household Refrigera- 
tors. — J. R. Williams. 

Determining the Efficiency of a Refrigerator Wall.* — To 

determine the heat transmission value of a wall in B.t.u.'s per 
square foot per degree Fahrenheit temperature difference, it 



"From Rhinelander "Handbook of Refrigeration." 



TESTING OF ICE REFRIGERATORS 435 

IS necessary to know three things. That is, when structure 
of wall is not known. 

These three factors are : 

1. Square feet of surface exposure calculated the mean trans- 
mission surface on exterior dimensions and also interior surface. 

2. The weight of ice melted in 24 hours. 

3. The difference between the average temperature of inside 
refrigerator food chamber and room temperature. 

To find the a^■era.^e or "mean transmission surface" get, 
first of all, the square feet of surface calculated on exterior 
dimensions. Then get total square feet inside by measuring 
inside surface. Average of two square surfaces — exterior and 
interior is mean transmission surface. 

The weight of ice melted is determined by weighing the 
empty water pan at start of test, then at conclusion of 24 hour 
test weighing the water and pan, deducting the initial weight 
of empty water pan. 

To get temperature tests outside and inside standard con- 
ditions for test require refrigerator to be in a room free from 
drafts and at fairly even temperature. Box should not con- 
tain food. Doors should not be opened ; except when taking 
readings. Refrigerator should be thoroughly chilled, at least 
48 hours before inaking test. Have ice chamber full. Place 
thermometer in the center of food chamber and make at least 
four readings at about three hour interval. Take room tem- 
perature at same time. Average all food temperatures and 
outside room temperature and then find difiference between 
the two averages. 

Use following formula : 

I 144 
X equals 



S (T— t) 
I equals ice nK-lted. 

144 equals B.t.u. required to melt one pound of ice or Latent Heat. 
S equals mean transmission surface. 
T equals average room temperature, 
t equals average temperature of food chamber. 

X equals number of B.t.u.'s passing through one square foot of 
surface per degree Fahrenheit temperature difference. 



CHAPTER XII. 
PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 

Influence of Temperature on Bacteria in Foods. — Tem- 
perature has an important influence on the growth of bacteria. 
Most bacteria, yeasts, molds, and related organisms grow best 
at a temperature between 68° and 122° F., and do not grow 
at a temperature below 45° to 55° F. Cold retards their 
growth and tends to preserve these microorganisms as well as 
the food unchanged. It is well known that foods removed 
from cold storage are inferior in keeping qualities to the cor- 
responding fresh foods. Freezing decreases the number of 
bacteria but does not immediately kill them. Most molds are 
easily destroyed by freezing. 

Bacteria will multiply in milk as long as it is not frozen 
entirely solid. Milk of good quality will stay sweet and in 
perfect condition for more than a week if it is held at a tem- 
perature slightly above the freezing point. The temperature 
at which it is held determines the rate and kind of decompo- 
sition which takes place. Milk should stay sweet when stored 
properly for at least ten days. 

Heating milk to 212° F. for about fifteen minutes will kill 
all except a few spores of bacteria. Several heatings are nec- 
essary to kill all vegetative cells. 

Most of the living bacteria in butter diminish when it is 
refrigerated — a few kinds may multiply. There is a slow in- 
crease in acidity. The bacteria and chemical composition re- 
main practically the same in frozen butter. The keeping qual- 
ities of butter depend largely upon the cleanliness and the 
quality of the materials used in making it. 

437 



438 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

Fruits and vegetables are usually adapted to preservation 
for short periods at ordinary temperatures. The best storage 
conditions for them is at temperatures slightly above the 
freezing point and a humidity of 60 per cent saturation. A 
higher humidity favors the development of molds. 

Bacteria do not multiply in ice as they have nothing upon 
which to feed. When liquids are frozen solid the number of 
bacteria decreases very slowly. 

Effect of Refrigeration Upon Foods. — Cold does not de- 
stroy the microbes in food but retards their activity and 
growth. The decomposition of foods is caused by the action 
of their own enzymes and more frequentl}' by the activity of 
bacteria, yeast, and molds. 

Fruits and vegetables should be stored at a temperature 
slightly above 32° F. and in a humidity at about 60 per cent 
of saturation, in order to diminish evaporation without devel- 
oping molds. The best storage condition to prevent the 
development of bacteria and molds, is to keep the fruits and 
vegetables in a very constant humidity and a very constant 
temperature, slightly above 32° F. 

Laboratory tests prove that the bacteria which cause food 
decomposition have their growth greatly retarded below a 
temperature of 45° F. Between 45° and 50°, they grow at a 
slightly greater rate, and above 50° F. the bacteria multiply 
prolifically. Perishable foods should be stored in a tempera- 
ture not over 50° F. and preferably below 45° F. 

It is important that foods be used shortly after they are 
removed from cold storage. Cold foods often condense mois- 
ture from the atmosphere on their surface, and it is well 
known tliat their keeping qualities are then inferior to corre- 
sponding fresh foods. 

Ice and Its Relation to Food. — ^Dr. Leonard Keene Hirsch- 
berg, writing in the Chicago Evening Post, gives the following 
on the use of ice as a means of preservation of food : 

Ice checks the growth of living thini:;s to tlie extent that it almost 
causes the smallest forms of vegetable and animal creation to cease 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 439 

to exist as life. Usually, it does not kill, but it produces a condition 
of latent life, like the winter sleep of bears, beavers, snakes, and other 
creatures. 

Ice thus becomes a help to man. It checks the birth, growth, 
multiplication, vitality, virulency, and noxious activity of bacteria, 
molds and other such living things which spoil foods, and especially 
those such as the typhoid bacilli. 

The reason milk and so much food spoils in summer is because 
these unseen colonies of bacteria and other vegetation multiply and 
incubate in the warmed food. Its texture, appearance, color, taste, 
flavor, odor, and value thus depreciate. 

Bacteria arc everywhere on even the cleanest hands, but many 
more are on soiled hands and dirty nails. Flies, ants, roaches, dust, 
wind, and water carry them. 

Ice keeps down the growth of bacteria, but you can only prevent 
them from spoiling food or causing disease by being sure of pure milk, 
pure water, sterile vessels, and dishes. You should scald everything, 
including linens. 

Even where foods are apparently not spoiled, such germs as 
those of dysentery, scarlatina, colds, tuberculosis, typhoid, diphtheria, 
influenza, botulism, and others may be germinating, just as a seed 
does in summer in fertile soil. 

Scrupulous cleanliness or surgical cleanliness means more than 
soap and water cleanliness. It means freedom of everything from 
germs by asepsis and sterlization. 

Sunlight, harmless disinfectants, sterlization or boiling keep down 
to a minimum the growth of germs. 

Ice boxes, refrigerators, cold storage, porous earthenware, coolers, 
vacuum jacketed bottles, and other measures to keep food in summer 
well below 45°, all help to keep it free of any great increase and 
growth of bacteria. 

Perhaps more difficult to keep and most important in the summer 
kitchen is milk. If there are infants about, their very lives depend 
upon milk free of bacteria. 

Sour milk is not the only milk teeming with bacteria. Indeed, 
the sweetest and richest milk is often alive wTth deadly germs, whiclr. 
becomes planted in the little one's intestines. 

Unless milk goes directly into sterlized bottles from a cow whose 
hide is made germ-free by disinfectants, by the time it passes through 
hands, cans, bottles, and nipples it has millions of dangerous bacteria 
in it. 

The only safe way to keep milk in summer is to boil it twenty 
minutes and put it on ice at once, and keep it there until given to 
the child. 



440 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

In summer especially, but also in the winter, ice should not be 
spared around the house. It is one of the cheapest and most useful 
of modern conveniences. As a health preserver, it is seldom given 
its due need of praise. 

Care of Milk in the Home. — Farmers' Bulletin No. 1207 
of the United States Department of Agriculture gives the fol- 
lowing dissertation on the care of milk in the home: 

No matter how well milk has been handled up to the time it is 
delivered to the consumer, it can not be expected to keep well if it 
is then carelessly treated. Milk should be kept clean, covered, and 
cool, these three points, consumer as well as producer should never 
disregard. 

In towns and cities, the best way of buying milk is in bottles. 
In this form it can be kept clean and cool more easily during delivery 
and is much more convenient to handle. Dipping milk from large 
cans and pouring it into customers' receptacles on the street with the 
incident exposure to dusty air, is bad practice. Drawing milk from 
the faucet of a retailer's can is not quite so bad as dipping, but the 
milk is not kept thoroughly mixed and some consumers will receive 
less than their share of cream. By whichever of these methods the 
milk is measured, it should be delivered personally to some member 
of the household, if possible, or a covered vessel may be set out, such 
as a bowl covered with a plate, or better still a glass jar, used for no 
other purpose, with a glass lid but without a rubber. Under no circum- 
stances should an uncovered vessel be set out to collect thousands 
of bacteria from street dust before the milk is poured into it. Money 
and paper tickets are often more or less soiled; hence neither should 
be put into the can, bowl or jar. 

Sometimes milk is delivered as early as 4 o'clock in the morning, 
remains out of doors in a place exposed to sunshine and perhaps 
accessible to cats and dogs until 9 or 10 o'clock. This is wrong. 
If the milk cannot conveniently be brought into the house at once, 
the delivery man should be asked to leave it in a sheltered place 
or in a covered box provided for the purpose. Even a temporary 
rise in the teinperature of milk will help the development of bacteria 
that have been held in check by keeping the milk cool, and domestic 
animals rubbing against a milk container may contaminate it with 
bacteria dangerous to health. 

As soon as possible after delivery, milk should be put in a cool, 
clean place and kept there until used. It deteriorates by exposure to 
the air of pantry, kitchen, or nursery. Unless it is in the bottle into 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 441 

which it was put in the dairy, it should be poured into a freshly scalded 
vessel and covered. 

The best temperature for keeping milk is 50° F. or less, and good 
rnilk kept that cool should remain sweet for 12 hours at least, and 
ordinarily 24 hours or more, after it reaches the consumer. If ice 
cannot be obtained, an iceless refrigerator or some such device is a 
help even though a temperature as low as 50° F. can rarely be main- 
tained in it. 

In the ordinary refrigerator, unless the milk container is in actual 
contact with the ice, the milk will be colder at the bottom of the re- 
frigerator than in the ice compartment, for cold air settles rapidly. 
The refrigerator should be kept clean and sweet at all times. Inspect- 
ing it thoroughly at least once a week is a good plan, to see that outlet 
for water from the melting ice is open and that the space under the 
ice rack is clean. Also the food compartments should be scalded every 
week. A single drop of spilled milk or a particle of neglected food 
will contaminate a refrigerator in a few days. 

Sometimes in very hot weather housekeepers complain that, in 
spite of all precautions, milk sours' quickly, even in the refrigerator, 
which, although cool in contrast with the heat outside, is really not 
cold enough to check the growth of the bacteria in milk. If a ther- 
mometer placed inside registers more than 50° F., the fault cannot be 
laid entirely to the quality of milk. 

Milk should be kept covered to exclude not only dirt and bacteria 
but also flavors and odors, which it readily absorbs. It should be 
kept away from foods of strong odor, such as onions, cabbage, or fish. 

Bottled milk should be kept in the bottles in which it is delivered 
until needed for use. In fact, from a sanitary standpoint, serving 
milk on the table in the original bottles is excellent practice. In any 
case a milk bottle, especially the mouth, should be cleaned carefully 
before the milk is poured from it, and only what is needed for im- 
mediate use should be poured out at a time. This bottle should be 
kept covered with a paper cap or an inverted tumbler as long as 
there is milk in it. 

New milk should never be mixed with old unless it is to be used 
at once; the old milk is likely to contain a larger proportion of bac- 
teria. Some persons even go so far as to say that milk or cream that 
has been exposed to the air by being poured into other vessles for 
table or cooking use should not be poured into the general supply. 

As soon as a milk bottle is empty, it should be rinsed first in 
cold water, and then in warm water until it appears clear; then set 
bottom up to drain. It should not be used for any other purpose 
than for milk. 

All utensils with which milk comes in contact should be rinsed 
in cold water, washed, and scalded with water at or near the boiling 



442 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

point every time they are used. It is a good plan to set them away 
unwiped. In no case should they be cleaned in water that has been 
used for other dishes since it was scalded. 

The A.pplication of Refrigeration to Milk. — The following 
data on the application of refrigeration for cooling and storing 
milk is taken from United States Department of Agriculture 
Bulletin No. 98 : 

Effect of Freezing on Milk. — While the action of cold on milk at 
a temperature above the freezing point has no other effect than that 
of varying the density and viscosity at a temperature below the freez- 
mg point, it changes the chemical and physical composition. 

According to Kasdorf, when raw milk which was partly frozen 
at a temperature of 10.5° P., in the ordinary container, during trans- 
portation, it was found that ice first formed around the sides and at 
the bottom of the can; the central core contained most of the casein, 
sugar, and other mineral ingredients, while most of the fat was found 
in the top layer of the liquid portion. 

When milk has been frozen gradually, without agitation, and 
thawed out, clots will be found floating in the liquid, composed mostly 
of albumen and fat, which may be dissolved by cooking; on the 
other hand, if the milk is preserved in a frozen condition for three 
or four weeks, these clots will be very hard to dissolve, and the diffi- 
culty experienced in dissolving them increased as the length of time 
the milk is preserved in a frozen state. For this reason, the freezing 
of milk, for the purpose of transportation, has hitherto been little used. 

If the milk is held at 32° F., for a few days, some types of bac- 
teria may grow and multiply slowly. With a good quality of milk, 
i. e., that containing few bacteria, it may take weeks or even months 
for them to gain great headway. What few bacteria develop at low 
temperatures are of different species from those ordinarily found at 
the higher temperatures, and they may produce marked changes in 
the chemical composition of the milk, without especially changing 
its appearance. Consequently, it is unsafe to assume that milk which 
has been held for several days at a low temperature is in good con- 
dition. According to Pennington, milk exposed continually to a tem- 
perature of 29° to 32° P., causes, after a lapse of from 7 to 21 days, 
the formation of small ice crystals which gradually increase until the 
milk is filled with them, and there may be an adherent layer on the 
walls of the vessel. The milk does not freeze solid. In spite of the 
fact that the milk was a semi-solid mass of ice crystals, an enormous 
increase in bacterial content took place. Though the bacterial con- 
tent was numerically in the hundreds of millions per cubic centimeter 
there was neither taste nor odor to indicate that such was the case. 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 443 

Neither did the milk curdle when heated, and the unhtness of the 
milk for household purposes would not ordinarily 'be detected until 
the lactic acid bacteria decreased in numbers and the putrefactive 
bacteria began to develop. 

Influence of Temperature on the Bacteriological Flora of Milk,— 
Each species of bacterium found in milk and each particular variety 
has an upper and lower temperature limit beyond which it does not 
grow, and a certain temperature, called the optimum, at which it 
grows best. 

The optimum temperature of most forms occurring in milk is 
between 70° and 100° F. As the temperature of milk is lowered, the 
rate of growth is diminished until at 40° F., the multiplication is very 
slow, and at a temperature just above the freezing point the develop- 
ment practically ceases; in fact, there is an apparent decrease in the 
number, at least for a short time. The action of cold at this tem- 
perature, however, does not totally destroy life in the bacteria, but 
causes them to lie dormant. When the temperature of the milk is 
raised, they again begin to multiply. As an illustration of the relative 
variation in the growth of bacteria in milk held at different tempera- 
tures, one writer gives the data found in Table XCII, in which 
"I" is assumed to represent the number of bacteria in the fresh milk, 
and the relative numbers which will be found at the end of 6, 12, 24, 
and 48 hours, at the two temperatures, are shown in the succeeding 
columns. The figures are based on a number of actual counts and 
illustrate the effect of a difference of 18 degrees on the multiplication 
of bacteria. IT the milk had contained at the beginning 1,000 bac- 
teria, the part held at the lower temperature would have contained 
at the end of 24 hours only 4,100 bacteria, while the other would have 
contained at the same stage 6,128,000. Table XCIII from Bulletin 
133 (Extension Bulletin 8) of the Agricultural Experiment Station 
of Nebraska, illustrates the importance of holding cream at low tem- 
peratures. 

TABLE XCII. — MULTIPLICATION OF BACTERIA IN MILK HELD AT 
DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. 

,.,, ^^ ,, Relative Number of Bacteria Held at 

Milk Held at hrs. 6 hrs. 12 hrs. 24 hrs. 48 hrs. 

50° F 1 12 Ts 4A 62 

68° F 1 1.7 24.2 6,128. 357,499. 

Rogers, Lore A., Bacteria in Milk. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers' 
Bulletin 490. Washington, D. C. 

Influence of Time on the Bacteriological Flora of Milk. — The in- 
fluence of temperature and time bear certain definite relations to each 
other; hence, a study of one necessarily includes a study of the other. 
Table XCIV serves to illustrate the effect of time as well as tern- 



444 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



perature on the keeping qualities of milk. If the table is read down- 
ward, we note the effect of temperature and if read across, the effect 
of time. When milk is first drawn from the cow it usually contains 
bacteria, even though it is produced under sanitary conditions, and 
if held at the ordinary temperature of the surrounding air, in a short 
while the bacteria will grow and increase in numbers so rapidly, that 
when such milk reaches the consumer it will contain many thousand 
bacteria per cubic centimeter. 

TABLE XCIII.— THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF 
BACTERIA IN CREAM. 



Temperature of | Time 
Cream I Held 



Number of 
Bacteria 
per C C. 



rp X f I m. Number of 

Temperature of Time | Bacteria 

Cream | Held | per C. C. 



Degrees Fahr. 
32 ..._ 


Hours 
10 


50 _ 


10 


60 


ioy2 



Degrees Fahr Hour's 

3,300 70 11 188,000 

11,580 80 11 2,631,000 

15,120 90 WA 4,426,000 



Conn furnishes an example of milk, giving the following results: 

Bacteria per c. c. 

Milk drawn at 59° F 153,000 

After 1 hour 616,000 

" 2 hours 539,000 

" 4 hours 680,000 

" 7 hours 1,020,000 

•• 9 hours 2,040,000 

" 24 hours 85,000,000 



According to Park, two samples of milk maintained at different 
temperatures for 24, 48, 96 and 168 hours, respectively, showed the 
development of bacteria as indicated in Table XCIV. The first sample 
was obtained under the best possible conditions, while the second 
sample was obtained in the usual way. When received, the first sample 
contained 3,000 bacteria, and the second 30,000 per cubic centimeter. 

In Table XCIV, it will be noted that at 32° F., there is an 
actual decrease in the number of bacteria in both samples of milk 
during the 168 hours, while at all other temperatures there is an 
increase in the numbers of bacteria. Ordinarily, the consumer receives 
milk when it is from 24 to 48 hours old; hence, it becomes an easy 
matter to deliver the milk in good condition, providing the milk is 
produced under sanitary conditions and is properly cooled and held 
at a temperature of 50° F., or below. An examination of the tables 
and figures will show how intimately the two influences of time and 
temperature act and interact in relation to the multiplication of 
bacteria in milk. 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 



445 



From the foregoing, it is obvious that proper refrigeration is 
of the utmost importance in the preservation of milk. In fact, without 
thorough cooling, it is impracticable to keep milk for any considerable 
length of time, in a condition that would justify its use for household 
purposes. It should be cooled at 50° F. or below as quickly as pos- 
sible after it is drawn from the cow, as such cooling will at once 
check the increase of bacteria. 

TABLE XCIV. — EFFECT OF TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON THE 
GROWTH OF BACTERIA IN MILK. 





Temperature 


24 Hours 


48 Hours 


96 Hours 


168 Hours 


32° 


F. 


(0 C.) 


2,400 


2,100 


1,850 


1,400 








30,000 


27,000 


24,000 


19,000 


39° 


F. 


(4 C.) 


2,500 


3,600 


218,000 


4,200,000 








38,000 


56,000 


4,300,000 


38,000,000 


42° 


F. 


(5 C.) 


2,600 
43,000 


3,600 
210,000 


400,000 
5,760,000 




46° 


F. 


(6 C.) 


3,100 
42,000 


12,000 
360,000 


1,480,000 
12,200,000 




50° 


F. 


(10 C) 


11,600 
89,000 


540,000 
1,940,000 






55° 


F. 


(13 C.) 


18,800 
187,000 


3,400,000 
38,000,000 






60° 


F. 


(16 C.) 


180,000 
900,000 


28,000,000 
168,000,000 






68° 


F. 


(20 C.) 


450,000 
4,000,000 


25,000,000,000 
25,000,000,000 






86° 


F. 


(30 C.) 


1,400,000,000 
14,000,000,000 








94° 


F. 


(35 C.) 


25,000,000,000 
25,000,000,000 









Bacteria in Milk.— Farmers' Bulletin No. 1207 of the 
United States Department of Agriculture gives the following 
discussion on the development and growth of bacteria: 

Besides the chemical compounds, milk also contains large num- 
bers of minute organisms called bacteria. Few, if any, are normally 
present in the milk within the udders of clean, healthy cows, but 
they are so abundant everywhere in the air, especially about the 
stable and barnyard, and cling in such numbers to the bodies of the 
cows, that they are almost always found in milk as soon as it leaves 
the udders or even just inside the teats. Utensils that have not been 
sterilized are another very common source of bacteria in milk. Bac- 
teria reproduce very rapidly in a favorable medium, such as warm 
milk, and the number present 'becomes very large unless measures 
are taken to hinder their increase. The amount in milk of a given 
age varies of course with the conditions. 



446 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

A oreat many kinds of bacteria have been found in milk, each 
of which occasions a special set of changes as it develops. Perhaps 
the most prevalent kinds are those that cause the ordinary sourmg 
of milk and are the first to produce any noticable change in the 
taste and odor. In their growth they feed upon the milk sugar and 
convert it into lactic and volatile acids, which give slightly soured 
milk its peculiar taste and odor. When enough of this lactic acid has 
formed it acts upon the casein, causing it to separate into loose, light 
flakes and to form, upon standing, the ordinary "clabbered" milk. 
Other 'bacteria developing in sour milk may give it a strong, un- 
pleasant odor or flavor, and still others, w-hich occur occasionally color 
It very brightly or give it a slimy or ropy consistency. Some of the 
products of bacterial action on milk are desirable, however, — for in- 
stance, those that give to butter and cheese the characteristic flavors 
and odors. 

Since there is frequently more or less dirt in freshly drawn milk 
(most of it fine particles of litter and manure that fall into the pail 
from the body of the cow), milk should always be strained directly 
after the milking is over. Of course, the amount of dirt varies with 
the condition in which the cow and her surroundings are kept. Under 
ideal dairy conditions only very small quantities are found, while milk 
from untidy establishments may contain enough in a quart to form 
a noticeable sediment. Milk with enough dirt to be visible indicates 
a badly kept dairy and should not be tolerated. Moreover, visible 
dirt does not tell the whole story; some of the manure that "falls into 
milk is dissolved and it sometimes carries disease-producing bacteria. 
Consumers should always insist upon having clean milk, and they 
should also remember that cleanliness should not stop at the dairy 
but should be scrupulously maintained at every step of the way to 
the final consumption of the milk. 

Ice Chests. — Mrs. Mary Hinman Abel, under the beading 
"Care of Food in the Home," gives the following considera- 
tions in reference to ice chests and refrigerators: 

There are many varieties of ice chest or refrigerator, all built 
on one of two general plans. In one kind, both ice and food are 
kept in one large compartment. In the other, the ice is placed in a 
top compartment, below which are cupboards for the food; the prin- 
ciple here utilized is that cold air seeks a lower level and that the 
air cooled by the melting ice w'ill sink to the shelves below. It 
probably better utilizes a given amount of ice, for the further reason 
that the ice compartment may remain tightly closed except when 
being filled. In both cases, the air space between the outside wall 
and the zinc lining is filled with some non-conducting material as 
cork or asbestos. 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 447 

It is of great convenience to have the ice chest built against the 
outer wall of kitchen or pantry, so that it may be filled from the 
outside by means of a small door cut for that purpose. In such 
a case, it is of course advisable to choose a wall on which there is 
little or no sunshine. The ice box may also be drained by a pipe 
leading to the outside and then properly cared for, thus saving much 
labor in the emptying of pans. It is not considered safe to connect 
it with the house sewer, because of the danger of sewer gases back- 
ing into it, even if a good trap is provided. 

Care of Ice Chests. — Farmers' Bulletin No. 375 of the 
United States Department of Agriculture gives the following- 
instructions in reference to care of ice chests : 

If on a warm summer day you put your hand into an ice box 
well filled with ice you may think that the temperature is very low, 
and yet it is in all probability nearer 50° than 40° F. As low a 
temperature as 40° or 45° is only to be obtained in a very well-con- 
structed box with a large receptacle for ice, and then only for a 
short time after it is filled. A box that maintains but 60° is, however, 
very useful in keeping food from day to day. 

The ice box, no matter how well cooled, is and must be damp, 
and dampness is one of the requirements for bacterial growth. It 
must be remem'bered, also, that some varieties of bacteria grow at 
low temperatures. Therefore, the interior of an ice chest should be 
wiped every day with a dry cloth and once a week everything should 
be removed, so that sides, shelves, and drain may be thoroughly 
scalded. The water must be actually boiling when it is poured in, 
and the process repeated several times. 

It must 'be remembered that refrigerator ice is often dirty, and 
that it may bring in putrefactive or even typhoid bacilli, for most 
bacteria are resistant to low temperature and are not destroyed by 
freezing. On this account, no food should be brought in direct con- 
tact with it, nor should it 'be put into drinking water, unless its 
purity is above suspicion. 

All cooked food should be cooled as soon as possible before being 
placed in the ice box. Butter may 'be kept from taking up the flavors 
of other food by keeping it in a tightly covered receptacle. Milk 
requires more access of air, but in a clean ice box in which no strong- 
smelling food is kept, milk should remain uninjured in flavor for 
twelve to twenty-four hours. If vegetables or other foods of pro- 
nounced odor are kept in glass jars with covers, or in covered earthen- 
ware receptacles, there will be a fewer odors to "be communicated. 
Portions of canned food should never 'be put into the ice box in the 
tin cans. Such food does not of necessity develop a poisonous 
product, as has sometimes been claimed, but experiments show that 



448 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

ptomaines are particularly liable to develop in such cases. Casting 
out this somewhat remote possi'bility, the "tinny" taste acquired by 
such keeping is enough to condemn the practice. 

Foods that are to be eaten raw, such as lettuce and celery, should 
be carefully cleaned before being placed in the ice box, and may with 
advantage be wrapped in a clean, damp/rloth. If they e ;e to be kept 
for some days they should, however, Tie put in without removing the 
roots, the further precaution being taken to wrap them carefully in 
clean paper or to put them into grocers' bags. 

Keeping of Vegetables, Fruits, and Meats. — The Farmers' 
Bulletin No. 375 of the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture gives some additional considerations in reference to the 
keeping of vegetables, fruits, and meats in the home. These 
are as follows : 

The following hints regarding the keeping of different kinds of 
food may be found useful: 

Potatoes are kept without difficulty in a cool, dry, and dark place. 
Sprouts should not be allowed to grow in the spring. 

Such roots as carrots, parsnips, and turnips remain plump and 
fresh if placed in earth or sand filled boxes on the cellar floor. 

Sweet potatoes may be kept until January if cleaned, dried, and 
packed in chaff so that they will not touch each other. 

Pumpkins and squash must be thoroughly ripe and mature to 
keep well. They should be dried from time to time with a cloth and 
kept not on the cellar floor, but on a shelf, and well separated from 
each other. 

Cabbages are to be placed in barrels, with the roots uppermost. 

Celery should be neither trimmed nor washed, but packed, heads 
up, in long, deep boxes, which should then be filled with dry earth. 

Tomatoes may be kept until January, if gathered just before 
frost, wiped dry, and placed on straw-covered racks in the cellar. 
They should be firm and well-grown speciments, not yet beginning 
to turn. As they ripen they may be taken out for table use, and 
any soft or decaying ones must be removed. 

Apples, for use during the autumn, may be stored in barrels 
without further precaution than to look them over now and then 
to remove decaying ones; but if they are to be kept till late winter 
or spring they must be of a variety known to keep well and they 
must be hand-picked and without blemish or bruise. They should 
be wiped dry and placed with little crowding on shelves in the cellar. 
As a further precaution they may be wrapped separately in soft paper. 

Pears may be kept for a limited time in the same way, or packed 
in sawdust or chaff; which absorbs -the moisture which might other- 
wise favor molding. 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 449 

Oranges and lemons are .kept in the same way. Wrapping in soft 
paper is here essential, as the uncovered skins if bruised oflfer good 
feeding ground for mold. Oranges may be kept for a long time in 
good condition if stored where it is very cold, but where freezing is 
not possible. Lemons and limes are often kept in brine, an old-fash- 
ioned household method. t 

Cranberries, after careful looking over to remove soft ones, are 
placed in a crock or firkin and covered with water. A plate or round 
board placed on top and weighted serves to keep the berries under 
water. The water should be changed once a month. 

In winter, large pieces of fresh meat may be purchased and hung 
in the cellar. Thin pieces, as mutton chops, are sometimes dipped 
in mutton suet, which keeps the surface from drying and is easily 
scraped off before cooking. 

Turkeys, chickens, and other birds should be carefully drawn as 
soon as killed and without washing hung in the coolest available place. 

Smoked ham, tongue, beef, and fish are best put in linen bags 
and hung in the cellar. 

Salt pork and corned beef should be kept in brine in suitable 
jars, kegs, or casks, and should be weighted so as to remain well 
covered. A plate or board weighted with a clean stone is an old- 
fashioned and satisfactory device. 

Eggs may be packed for winter use in limewater or in water- 
glass solution, methods which are described in an earlier bulletin of 
this series. Many housekeepers have good success in packing them 
in bran, in oats, or in dry salt, but according to experiments sum- 
marized in the aforementioned bulletin, the preference is to be given 
to the 10 per cent solution of water-glass. Exclusion of the air with 
its accompanying microorganisms and the prevention of drying out 
are what is sought in all cases. Packed eggs are not equal to fresh 
eggs in flavor, but when they are well packed are of fairly good qual- 
ity and perfectly wholesome. 

V- 

Apples.^ — The United States Department of Agriculture, 

in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1160, gives the following informa- 
tion in reference to the keeping of apples: 

Apples will stand a temperature several degrees below freezing 
(32° F.). The danger point is at about 28° F. The effect of freezing 
is to cause brown spots which extend to the surface and are easily 
seen. These spots may appear on any part of the apple, but usually 
occur at places where the water content is highest. Freezing has 
about the same effect on either green or ripe fruit. Slightly frozen 
apples may be thawed out slowly without injury except to the quality. 
Apples should be packed in barrels, allowing good ventilation when 
stored for long periods. Some of the common diseases of apples are: 
Scab, blotch, fruit spot, Jonathan spot, bitter pit, drought spot, stig- 



450 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

nonose, water core, bitter, anthracnose, black rot, altervaria rot, blue 
mold, pink rot, spongy dry rot, brown rot, gray mold, soft scald, and 
scald. 

Drinking Water. — The desirable temperature for drinking 
water is 45° to 50° F. Tests have proven that at this temper- 
ature it is a mild heart stimulant and slightly reduces the in- 
ternal temperature of the body. When drinking water colder 
than 45° F. is used there is danger of cramps. 

The amount of drinking water required in industrial plants 
is usually considered to be approximately % gallon per man 
per working hour. This amount is based on using fountains 
and includes the waste. 

The amount of refrigeration required to cool drinking 
water varies from 0.0003 to 0.0005 tons refrigeration per hour 
per man. 

Fig. 217 shows the refrigerating effect due to placing one, 
two, and three cubes of ice in a glass of drinking water. The 
weight of the water in the glass was 0.4 lbs. ; the weight of the 
ice cube was 0.1 lb.; the size of the glass was three inches in 
diameter at the top, 2.3 inches in diameter at the bottom and 
five inches high; the room temperature was 7S° , and the glass 
was placed on a wooden table. Inasmuch as 50" is the desir- 
able temperature for the water, it will be observed that this 
temperature is practically obtained by the use of two cubes 
of ice per glass of water. It is further noted from Fig. 134, 
that the use of three cubes of ice, maintained the temperature 
of the water at a fairly low temperature at a considerable 
length of time, and that one cube does not produce the desir- 
able refrigerating effect. 

Specific and Latent Heat of Foods. — Table XCV gives 
the specific heats and latent heats of some of the common 
foods. The second column gives the specific heat of the foods 
before freezing, expressed in B.t.u. per lb., while the third 
column gives the corresponding specific heat after freezing. 
The latent heat of fusion which is liberated during the freez- 
ing process is given in the last column of this table. 

Ice Cream Making in the Home. — The National Associa- 
tion of Ice Industries has recently published a small bulletin 



PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 



451 



entitled "Ice Cream Making and Appliances in the Home," 
which was prepared by M. A. Pennington, director of House- 
hold Bureau. The following extract on the subject of "Ice 
Cream Making in the Home" is taken from that bulletin : 

The most satisfactory temperatures for the freezing of ice cream 
range from about 16° F. to about 6° F. These temperatures are ob- 




FIG. 217.— REFRIGERATING EFFECT OF ICE IN DRINKING WATER. 

tained by the use of from 12 to 17 per cent of salt by weight, which 
is from 12 to 1 to 8 to 1 parts by volume. For uniformly good results, 
the ice and salt must be really measured, not just dumped in. 

A great variety of flavors and ingredients can go into the making 
of ice creams and ices. Very palatable and nourishing "creams" can 
be made from very inexpensive materials. Again, however, propor- 
tions must be exact and directions must be followed. 

The ice cream freezers on the market would seem to be suffi- 
ciently varied in capacity, operation, and price, to fill the need of 



452 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



most individuals. The woman with the longer pocket-book can make 
the electric current do the churning for her. By substituting for the 
extra money outlay, exact attention to small details of manipulation 



TABLE XCV.— SPECIFIC AND LATENT HEATS OF FOODS. 





Specific 


Heat 


Latent 


Article 


Before 


After 


Heat 




Freezing 


Freezing 




Apples 


.92 







Beans (green) 


.91 






Beef (fresh) 


.75 


.40 


100 


Beef (salt) 


.60 






Beer 


.90 







Berries 


.91 






Butter 


.60 


.84 


84 


Cabbage 


.93 


.48 


129 


Cantaloupes 


.92 






Carrots 


.87 


.45 


iis 


Cherries (fresh) 


.92 







Cherries (dried) 


.84 







Cheese 


.64 






Chicken 


.80 


.42 


io5 


Celery 


.91 







Cider 


.90 






Cream 


.68 


.38 


84 


Dates 


.84 


— 




Egg? 


.76 


.40 


100 


Eels 


.69 


.38 


88 


Fish (fresh) 


.80 


.42 


100 


Fish (dried) 


.58 







Fruits (dried) 


.89 


— 


— 


Game 


.80 


.40 


105 


Grapes 


.92 






Grape Fruit 


.92 






Ice Cream 


.78 


.42 


80 


Lemons 


.92 






Lobster 


.81 


.42 


108 


Milk 


.90 


.47 


124 


Mutton 


.67 


.81 




Onions 


.91 






Oranges 


.92 






Oysters 


.84 


.44 


114 


Peaches 


.92 






Pears 


.92 








PRESERVATION OF FOODS IN THE HOME 453 



TABLE XCV.- 


-SPECIFIC 
FOODS.- 


: AND LAT] 
-(Continued). 


ENT HEATS 


OF 




Specific Heat 




Latent 


Article 


Before 
Freezing 


After 
Freezing 


Heat 


Pigeon 
Pork (fresh) 
Potatoes 
Poultry 


.78 
.50 
.80 
.80 




.41 
.30 
.42 
.40 


102 

70 
105 
102 


Sausage 

Sausage (smoked) 

Strawberries 


.70 
.60 
.92 




— 


— 


Veal 


.70 




.39 


90 


Watermelons 
Wines 


.92 

.90 









and using mixtures, comparatively rich in cream, the crankless type of 
freezer can be made to produce excellent results. The athletic 
woman, who doesn't mind turning a crank nor shifting a staunchly 
made tub around, can get a freezer that will withstand hard knocks 
and long wear and tear; while the kitchenette apartment woman can 
buy a little, light appliance, that takes almost no room and is so in- 
expensive that she can leave it behind when she moves without qualm 
of conscience. First of all, the woman must understand her own 
problem well enough to make an intelligent selection. Such under- 
standing can only come from a knowledge of the facts of the case. 

Food Arrangement in Refrigerators. — Fig. 218 shows one 
of the suggested arrangements of food in household refrig- 
erators. From this, it will be noted that the foods are stored 
with reference to two considerations. In the first place, spe- 
cial consideration is given to the temperature in different 
parts of the refrigerator. Those foods requiring the lowest 
temperatures are placed immediately under the ice compart- 
ment, and in the bottom part of the refrigerator, while those 
which require a higher temperature are placed in the top food 
compartment. A second consideration is the storing of foods 
which give off characteristic odors. Foods such as onions, 
lemons, cabbage, cheese, etc., are placed in the uppermost 
food compartment, so that the air in passing directly into the 
ice chamber from this food compartment, carries with it the 
odor from such foods. Thus the air allows part of the odors 
to be condensed and eliminated. 



454 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 




MlL((dBLTTERlN 

Covered IVessels. 

Deserts As 
Cii)5TAi?D9& Jellies. 




♦ Milk, 
Buttelr&IEggs 






BOTU.ED Mik, 
Meat^ Egss. 



Strong \ Foods As 
Onions. Lemons. 

\ CABBASE:\CliE£SE. 

CAntaloupes.Melons 

USA 






Berries, Frvits. 

Cei 



Oranges, Celery, Bananas 



•' ' •' r 'I 



Vegetables, 

CoQKED Meats 

Et'. 




Vegetables, 
Cooi^ED Meats 



ijED^^ Meats 



44i44U \ jj i^^ y'sVv,^^ 



/Meat £X 
bottl^ Milk 




FIG. 218.— FOOD ARRANGEMKNT IN REFRIGERATORS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS TABLES. 

Miscellaneous Tables. — The following miscellaneous tables 
may be classified into two divisions. In the first division 
are those tables which are especially related to the design, 
construction, and operation of both ice and mechanically 
cooled household refrigerators. In the second division are 
those which are only indirectly related to the subject of "House- 
hold Refrigeration." They pertain mostly to physics and 
mechanics. 

Table XCVI gives some summer temperatures for the 
different states in the United States. The second column 
gives the average summer temperature in degrees F., while 
the third column gives the maximum temperature in degrees 
F. Some temperatures by months in various cities of France 
are given in Table XCVII. The temperatures in this table 
are degrees Centigrade. The average annual humidities for 
various cities in the United States are shown by Table 
XCVIII. Table XCVIX shows average summer and yearly 
tap water temperatures for a number of cities. 

Table C gives the domestic water rates for a number of 
cities in the United States. This table includes the popula- 
tion of the various cities, the highest domestic rate per gallon 
of water, and the minimum annual water charge. 

Table CI gives some average figures for the household 
consumption of water per year for a number of cities. It will 
be noted that the average consumption of water for the cities 
stated per household is 6369 cubic feet. This is equivalent to 
17.5 cubic feet per day or 131 gallons per day. 

455 



456 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE XCVI.— SUMMER TEMPERATURES IN THE 


UNITED STATES. 


(U. 


S. Weather Reports.) 






Average 


Maximum 




Summer Temp. 


Summer Temp. 


State 


Deg. F. 


Deg. F. 


Arizona 


92 


120 


Oklahoma 


83 


114 


Texas 


83 


112 


Louisiana 


83 


110 


Arkansas 


83 


106 


Georgia 


82 


108 


Connecticut 


82 


106 


Delaware 


82 


102 


North Carolina 


81 


109 


South CaroUna 


81 


109 


Florida 


81 


109 


Alabama 


81 


105 


Mississippi 


81 


105 


Missouri 


80 


113 


Tennessee 


80 


107 


Kansas 


79 


116 


Nevada 


79 


110 


Maryland 


79 


106 


Utah 


79 


106 


New Mexico 


79 


105 


Iowa 


78 


111 


Kentucky 


78 


97 


California 


77 


117 


Virginia 


76 


104 


Nebraska 


75 


112 


West Virginia 


75 


102 


Pennsylvania 


74 


105 


Colorado 


72 


106 


Ohio 


71 


105 


Indiana 


7Z 


104 


Illinois 


7Z 


102 


New Jersey 


71 


102 


Washington 


71 


114 


New York 


71 


104 


Michigan 


71 


104 


Massachusetts 


70 


105 


New Hampshire 


70 


105 


Wisconsin 


70 


103 


Wyoming 


69 


108 


Rhode Island 


69 


99 


Maine 


68 


105 


Montana 


67 


106 


North Dakota 


67 


102 


South Dakota 


67 


102 


Vermont 


65 


102 


Minnesota 


63 


102 


Idaho 


63 


94 


Oregon 


62 


99 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 457 

Table CII gives the quantities of water which are dis- 
charged by house service pipes in gallons per minute. This 
table is for various diameters of pipes, with certain initial 
water pressures, no back pressure, and through 100 feet of 
service pipe. 

Table CIII gives the list of cities which use electric cur- 
rent different from the standard alternating current, 60 
cycles and 110 or 220 volts. 



TABLE CXVII.— TEMPERATURES BY MONTHS IN FRANCE. 
(1912-1917 Inclusive.) 





Angers 


Auxerre 


Bordeaux 


Chaumont 




Degrees C. 


Degrees C. 


Degrees C. 


Degrees C. 


January 


4. 


2. 


5. 


0.5 


February 


5. 


4. 


6. 


2. 


March 


7. 


6. 


8.5 


5. 


April 


10.5 


10.5 


11.5 


9.5 


May 


14. 


13. 


14.5 


13. 


June 


17. 


18. 


17.5 


16.5 


July 


19. 


19.5 


20. 


18.5 


August 


19. 


19. 


20. 


18. 


September 


15.5 


15.5 


17.5 


14.5 


October 


11. 


10.5 


13. 


9.5 


November 


7. 


6. 


8.5 


5. 


December . 


4. 


2. 


5. 


1.1 


Average 


11.0 


10.5 


12.0 


9.5 



From French Government Weather Reports. 

Summer and Winter Tap Water Temperatures. — Table 
C shows the relative importance of tap water temperature 
and density of population in the important cities of United 
States and Canada. 

It is readily seen that the summer water temperatures 
are mostly under 75° F., while 80° includes nearly all of the 
important cities. 

In winter 65° is the maximum temperature reached in 
nearly all of the larger cities. 

In some parts of Texas summer tap water temperatures 
as high as 120° are reported. 



458 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE XCVIII.-RELATIVE HUMIDITIES IN VARIOUS CITIES. 
TABLt AL,vix ^^ ^ Weather Reports.) 




Albany, N. Y. 
Asheville, N. C. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Augusta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 
Hartford. Conn. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Key West, Fla. 
Macon, Ga. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New York, N. Y. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Portland, Me. 
Providence, R. I 
Savannah, Ga. 
Washington, D. C. 
Wilmington, N. C. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Galveston, Texas 
Mobile, Ala. 
Montgomery, Ala. 
New Orleans, La. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
San Antonio, Texas 
Tampa, Fla 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus, Ohio 
Detroit, Mich. 
Duluth, Minn. 
Grand Rapids, Mich 
Indianapolis^ Ind. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rochester, N. Y'. 
Svracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Davenport, Iowa 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Springfield, 111- 



78 


72 


85 


71 


79 


65 


80 


79 


82 


66 


72 


66 


73 


70 


74 


68 


83 


77 


78 


77 


83 


.... 


75 


72 


75 


62 


80 


75 


74 


66 


75 


73 


74 


71 


81 


75 


76 


68 


81 


77 


79 


65 


84 


78 


84 


74 


82 


64 


83 


72 


80 


75 


81 


53 


84 


76 


77 


73 


80 


63 


78 


71 


76 


62 


77 


70 


79 


66 


80 


71 


81 


71 


82 


70 


77 


64 


76 


61 


80 


67 


78 


72 


80 


62 


77 


66 


75 


71 


77 


.... 


79 


69 


80 


65 


80 


63 


77 


62 


79 


65 


11 


63 


80 


63 


79 


65 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



459 



TAIU.E XCVIII.— RELATIVE HUMIDITIES IN VARIOUS CITIES. 
(U. S. Weather Reports.)— (Continued). 

Average Annual Humidities for Various Cities of United States. 



City 


8 a.m. 


8 p. m. 


Fort Worth, Texas 


78 




Lincoln, Neb. 


79 


59 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 


80 


59 


Omaha, Neb. 


78 


60 


Sioux City, Iowa 


81 


61 


Wichita, Kan. 


78 


57 


Denver, Colo. 


63 


41 


El Paso, Texas 


54 


26 


Helena, Mont. 


68 


SO 


Phoenix, Ariz. 


54 


28 


Pueblo, Colo. 


64 


37 


Reno, Nev. 


72 


39 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


60 


45 


Santa Fe, N. Mex. 


58 


40 


Spokane, Wash. 


n 


50 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


n 


62 


Portland, Ore. 


86 


63 


Sacramento, Cal. 


82 


52 


San Diego, Cal. 


79 


70 


San Francisco, Cal. 


87 


72 


Seattle, Wash. 


87 


67 



TABLE XCIX.— TAP WATER TEMPERATURES. 



City 



Average Summer 
Temp. Deg. F. 



Average Yearly 
Temp. Deg. F. 



Augusta, Ga. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Albany, N. Y. 
Allentown, Pa. 
Akron, Ohio 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Buflfalo, N. Y. 
Boston, Mass. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 
Dayton, Ohio 
Detroit, Mich. 
Davenport, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Decatur, 111. 
Erie, Pa. 

East Orange, N. J. 
Elizabeth, N. J. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Gary, Ind. 



81 
81 
76 
60 
74 
80 
71 
69 
74 
70 
72 
80 
70 
68 
70 
67 

55 
65 
73 
70 
58 
60 

62 



66 
62 
56 
57 
55 
65 
52 
54 
56 
40 
56 
62 
50 
55 
60 
50 
56 
45 
58 
53 
53 
58 
50 
50 
52 



460 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE XCIX.— TAP WATER TEMPERATURES.— (Continued). 





Average Summer 


Average Yearly 




City 


Temp. Deg. F. 


Temp. Deg. F. 




Grand Rapids, Mich. 


74 


55 




Galveston, Texas 


85 


80 




Hamilton, Canada 


55 


43 




Haverhill, Mass. 


58 


40.7 




Johnstown, Pa. 


65 


50 




Jackson, Miss. 


65 


45 




Jacksonville, Fla. 


82 


76 




Kansas City, Kan. 


n 


62 




Lincoln, Neb. 


60 


55 




Louisville, Ky. 


70 


60 




Little Rock, Ark. 


70 


50 




Los Angeles, Cal. 


62 


60 




Lowell, Mass. 


56 


54 




Lexington, Ky. 


67.8 


57.4 




Lawrence, Mass. 


60 


55 




Milwaukee, Wis. 


52 


50 




Montreal, Ont., Can. 


67 


51 




Minneapolis, Minn. 


72 


54 




Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 


11 


55 




Maiden, Mass. 


69 


54 




Mobile, Ala. 


70 


60 




New Brunswick, N. J. 


60 


57 




New York, N. Y. 


65 


55 




New Haven, Conn. 


65 


58 




Nashville, Tenn. 


75 


60 




New Orleans, La. 


80 


65 




New Bedford, Mass. 


69 


55 




Oklahoma City, Okla. 


75 


60 




Ottawa, Ont., Can. 


77 


54 




Omaha, Neb. 


86 


60 




Oakland, Cal. 


70 


55 




Providence, R. I. 


74 


53 




Portland, Maine 


70 


50 




Patterson, N. J. 


60 


50 




Pawtucket, R. L 


72 


55 




Pittsburgh, Pa. 


72.5 


52.8 




Portland, Ore. 


50 


42 




Pasadena, Cal. 


63 


57 




Roanoke, Va. 


60 


60 




Rochester, N. Y. 


69 


51 




Richmond, Va. 


' 74 


70 




Rockford, 111. 


58 


58 




Springfield, Mass. 


64 


49 




Superior, Wis. 


60 


47 




Springfield, Mo. 


65 


60 




Spokane, Wash. 


52 


50 




Salt Lake City, Utah 


50 


45 




Sommerville, Mass. 


69 


53.5 




Springfield, Ohio 


58 


57 




St. Joseph, Mo. 


77 


54 




St. Paul, Minn. 


65 


54 




Sioux City, Iowa 


51 


49 




St. John, N. B. 


65 


51 




San Francisco, Cal. 


65 


57 





MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



461 



TABLE XCIX.— TAP WATER TEMPERATURES.— (Continued). 





Average Summer 


Average Yearly 


City 


Temp. Deg. F. 


Temp. Deg. F. 


Seattle, Wash. 


55 


49 


Toledo, Ohio 


76.4 


56 


Terre Haute, Ind. 


76 


57 


Tacoma, Wash. 


60 


40.5 


Troy, N. Y. 


70 


60 


Utica, N. Y. 


68 


55 


Waterbury, Conn. 


71 


54 


Winnipeg, Man., Can. 


70 


56 


Woonsocket, R. I. 


70 


50 


Worcester, Mass. 


72 


68 


Washington, D. C. 


75.4 


60.5 


Youngstown, Ohio 


90.8 


68.7 



TABLE C— DOMESTIC WATER RATES. 
(American City Magazine.) 



City 



Population 


Highest Domestic 
Rate per 1,000 Gal. 


69,151 
43,464 


15c 
iSc 


578,000 
74,683 
40,296 


13.3c 
14.7c 
25c 


30,105 


15c 


143,538 
138,036 
29,842 
59,316 
29,685 
35,086 


18c 

16c 

ISc 

10c 

26.7c 

20c 


110,168 


10c 


437,571 


10c 


29,549 


20c 


200,616 
52,548 
83,252 


13.3c 

25c 

12c 


83,327 


10c 


28,000 


27c 


28,725 
44,995 
43,818 
37,215 


35c 
13.3c 

8c 

6.8c 



Minimum 
Annual 
Charge 



Mobile, Ala. 
Montgomery 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
San Diego 
Stockton 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Hartford 

Meriden 

New Britain 

Norwich 

Stamford 

Wilmington, Del. 

Washington, D. C. 

Miami, Fla. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Augusta 

Savannah 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Boise, Idaho 

Bloomington, 111. 
Cicero 
Decatur 
Evanston 



6.00 
12.00 

9.00 

12.00 

12.00 

10.00 
5.00 
7.50 
5.00 
5.00 
6.00 

10.00 

5.65 

12.00 

9.60 
9.00 

6.00 

12.00 

3.25 
6.00 
4.00 
6.00 



462 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE C. 



-DOMESTIC WATER RATES. 
(American City Magazine.) 



-(Continued). 









Minimum 






Highest Domestic 


Annual 


City 


Population 


Rate per 1,000 Gal. 


Charge 


Peoria 


76,121 


30c 


3.20 


Quincy 


35,978 


50c 


10.00 


Rock Island 


35,177 


18.7c 


8.10 


Evansville, Ind. 


85,549 


20c 


2.00 


Fort Wayne 


86,549 


16c 


6.00 


Richmond 


26,765 


20c 


6.00 


South Bend 


70,983 


12c 


7.20 


Terre Haute 


66,083 


25c 


9.00 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa 


45,566 


25.3c 


9.00 


Council Bluffs 


36,162 


35c 


6.00 


Des Moines 


126,468 


30c 


4.00 


Sioux City 


71,227 


25c 


None 


Topeka, Kan. 


50.022 


45c 


4.80 


Covington, Ky. 


57,121 


24c 


8.00 


Lexington 


41,534 


25c 


6.00 


Louisville 


234,891 


40c 


12.00 


New Orleans, La. 


387,408 


10c 


3.00 


Shreveport 


43,874 


25c 


7.80 


Bangor, Maine 


25,978 


33.3c 


12.00 


Biddeford 


28,000 


26.7c 


16.00 


Baltimore, Md. 


738,826 


8.7c 




Cumberland 


29,837 


7c 


8.00 


Hagerstown 


28,066 


30c 


6.00 


Hyattsville 


50,000 


12c 


4.00 


Brookline, Mass. 


37,748 


16c 


None 


Brockton 


66,138 


25.3c 




Cambridge 


109,694 


10c 


5.00 


Chelsea 


43,184 


14.7c 


6.00 


Chicopee 


36,214 


20c 


10.00 


Everett 


40,120 


16.7c 


6.00 


Fall River 


120,485 


28c 


None 


Fitchburg 


41,013 


24c 


5.00 


Haverhill 


53,884 


21.3c 


10.00 


Lawrence 


94,270 


24c 


8.00 


Lowell 


112,759 


28c 


10.50 


Lynn 


99,148 


20c 


10.00 


New Bedford 


121,217 


ISc 


5.00 


Quincy 


47,876 


33c 


8.00 


Revere 


28,823 


20c 


10.00 


Salem 


42,529 


20c 


3.00 


Somerville 


93,091 


16c 


6.00 


Springfield 


129,563 


30c 


None 


Taunton 


i7,U7 


25c 


6.00 


Waltham 


30,915 


27c 


5.00 


Worcester 


179,754 


20c 


4.00 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



463 



TABLE C— DOMESTIC WATER RATES.— (Continued). 
(American City Magazine.) 









Minimum 






Highest Domestic 


Annual 


City 


Population 


Rate per 1,000 Gal. 


Charge 


Battle Creek, Mich. 


36,164 


13c 


3.00 


Bay City 


47,554 


lOc 


6.00 


Highland Park 


46,499 


70c 


5.00 


Jackson 


48,374 


13.3c 


3.20 


Lansing 


57,327 


16c 


7.80 


Saginaw 


61,903 


He 


10.00 


Duluth, Minn. 


98,917 


20c 


6.00 


Minneapolis 


380,498 


8c 




St. Paul 


234,595 


8c 


3.60 


Joplin, Mo. 


29,855 


35c 


12.00 


Lincoln, Neb. 


54,934 


15c 


6.00 


Manchester, N. H. 


78,384 


13.3c 


8.00 


Nashua 


28,379 


24c 


16.00 


Belmar, N. J. 


25,000 


23.3c 


10.50 


Camden 


116,309 


25c 


8.00 


Jersey City 


279,864 


12c 


None 


Kearney 


26,724 


20c 


6.76 


Montclair 


28,810 


30c 


10.00 


Newark 


414,216 


13.3c 


6.00 


New Brunswick 


32,779 


20c 


15.00 


Paterson 


135,866 


30c 


12.00 


Albany, N. Y. 


113,344 


13.3c 




Binghamton 


66,800 


10c 


4.00 


Buffalo 


506,775 


8c 


10.00 


Elmira 


45,305 


40c 


6.00 


Jamestown 


38,917 


20c 


6.00 


Kingston 


26,688 


22.2c 


14.00 


Mt. Vernon 


42,726 


40c 


12.00 


New York City 


5,621,151 


13.4c 


None 


N. Y. C. Brooklyn 


2,022,262 


13.3c 




N. Y. C. Queens 


172,775 






N. Y. C. Richmond 


115,959 


13.3c 


None 


Niagara Falls 


50,760 


8c 


6.00 


Poughkeepsie 


35,000 


26.7c 


1.00 


Rochester 


295,750 


14c 


4.00 


Rome 


26,341 


20c 


5.00 


Schenectady 


88,723 


7c 


3.00 


Syracuse 


171,717 


14.8c 


4.00 


Troy 


72,013 






Utica 


94,156 


40c 




Yonkers 


100,226 


21.3c 


8.00 


Charlotte, N. C 


46,338 


26c 


6.00 


Wilmington 


33.372 


21.6c 


13.00 


Akron, Ohio 


208,435 






Cincinnati 


410,247 


16c 


4.80 



464 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE C- 



-DOMESTIC WATER RATES.— (Continued). 
(American City Magazine.) 









Minimum 






Highest Domestic 


Annual 


City 


Population 


Rate per 1,000 Gal. 


Charge 


Cleveland 


796,836 


5.3c 


2.50 


Columbus 


237,031 


16c 


4.00 


Dayton 


152,559 


12c 


6.60 


Lakewood 


41,732 


12c 


5.40 


Lorain 


37,295 


2.00 


8.00 


Mansfield 


27,824 


26.7c 


6.00 


Newark 


26,718 


24c 


6.00 


Springfield 


60,840 


10c 


4.00 


Steubenville 


28,508 


40c 


5.00 


Toledo 


243,109 


13.3c 


8.50 


Youngstown 


132,358 


26.7c 


None 


Zanesville 


29,569 


ISc 


6.00 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 


91,258 


32c 


7.00 


Tulsa 


72,075 


25c 


9.00 


Portland, Ore. 


258,288 


10.7c 


6.00 


Allentown, Pa. 


73,502 


106.70 


.72 


Chester 


58,030 


34.5c 


6.96 


Harrisburg 


75,917 


5.7c 


4.00 


Johnston 


67,327 


27c 


12.00 


Philadelphia 


1,823,158 


13.3c 




Pittsburgh 


588,193 


18c 


8.00 


Newport, R. I. 


30,255 


40c 




Providence 


237,595 


20c 


8.00 


Charleston, S. C. 


67,957 


24.7c 


12.00 


Sioux Falls, S. D. 


25,176 


40c 


9.00 


Knoxville, Tenn. 


77,818 


18c 


10.08 


Memphis 


162,351 


33.3c 


12.00 


Nashville 


118,342 


17.7c 


6.00 


Austin, Texas 


34,876 


20c 


6.00 


Dallas 


158,977 


25c 




El Paso 


77,543 


27.5c 


15.00 


Fort Worth 


106,482 


60c 


13.80 


Galveston 


44,255 


26.7c 


3.00 


Waco 


38,500 


37.5c 


9.00 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


118,110 


7.3c 


6.00 


Danville, Va. 


25,000 


10c 


6.00 


Lynchburg 


29,956 


28.8c 




Richmond 


171,667 


13.Sc 


7.20 


Bellingham, Wash. 


25,570 


23.3c 


12.00 


Seattle 


315,652 


13.3c 


6.00 


Spokane 


104,437 


10c 


9.60 


Tacoma 


96.965 


13.3c 


6.00 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



465 



TABLE C— DOMESTIC WATER RATES.-^( Continued). 











Minimum 






Highest Domestic 


A nnual 


City 


Population 


Rate per 1,000 Gal. 


Charge 


Charleston, W. Va. 


39,608 


30c 




12.00 


Clarksburg 


27,869 


35c 




9.00 


Huntington 


50,177 


20c 




9.00 


Wheeling 


54,322 


15c 






Kenosha, Wis. 


40,472 


16c 




6.00 


La Crosse 


30,363 


20c 






Madison 


38,378 


10c 




4.00 


Milwaukee 


457,147 


8c 




None 


St. John, New Brunswick 


60,000 


Noni 


e 


12.00 


Sydney, Nova Scotia 


27,000 


25c 




8.00 


Brantford, Ontario 


32,700 


35c 




4.00 


London 


60,000 


16.8c 




8.00 


Ottawa 


112,000 








Toronto 


499,278 


13.8c 






Montreal, Quebec 


694,000 


12.8c 






Quebec 


120,000 


60c 






TABLE CI.— AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD 


CONSUMPTION OF 


WATER. 


City 




Cubic Feet Per Year 


Boston, Mass. 






6,000 




Cincinnati, Ohio 




6,000 




Cleveland, Ohio 




9,000 




Dayton, Ohio 






3,600 




Flint, Mich. 






7,200 




Grand Rapids, 


Mich. 




8,000 




Milwaukee, Wis. 




5,300 




Peoria, 111. 






6,400 




Pontiac, Mich. 






8,000 




Richmond, Ky. 






2,400 




Rockford, 111. 






8,400 





Average: 6,391 cubic feet yearly, 17.5 cubic feet per day, 131 gallons per day. 

TABLE CIL— QUANTITY OF WATER DISCHARGED FROM HOUSE 
SERVICE PIPES IN GALLONS PER MINUTE. 
Through 100 Ft. of Service Pipe, No Back Pressure. 



Pressure in 














Main 




Nominal Diameter of Pipes in 


Inches. 




Lbs. per sq. in. 


J4 


H 


^ 


1 


1^ 


2 


30 


4.94 


8.65 


13.8 


28.2 


77.7 


15.9 


40 


5.76 


10.0 


15.8 


32.6 


90.0 


184. 


50 


6.44 


11.2 


17.7 


36.4 


100.5 


206. 


60 


7.04 


12.3 


19.4 


39.9 


110. 


225. 


75 


7.85 


13.8 


21.7 


44.6 


123. 


252. 


100 


9.12 


15.9 


25.1 


51.6 


142. 


291. 


130 


10.4 


18.1 


28.6 


58.8 


162. 


352. 



466 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE cm.— CITIES USING ELECTRIC CURRENT DIFFERENT FROM 

THE STANDARD A. C. 60 CYCLES, 110-220 VOLTS. 

(Cities of 50,000 population or over.) 



Location. 


D. C. 


A.C. 


Cycles 


Volts 


Mobile, Ala. 


X 


X 


60 


118 


Little Rock, Ark. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Los Angeles, Cal 


X 


X 


50 


110-220-440 


Pasadena, Cal. 




X 


50 


115 


Glendale, Cal. 




X 


50 


110-220 


Canon City, Colo. 




X 


30 


120 


Denver, Colo. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Bridgeport, Conn. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Hartford, Conn. 


X 


X 


60 


110-220 


Wilmington, Del. 


X 


X 


60 


110-115 


Atlanta, Ga. 




X 


25&60 


110-220 


Savannah, Ga. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Chicago, 111. 


X 


X 


60 


115 


Alton, 111. 




X 


25 


110 


Indianapolis, Ind. 


X 


X 


60 


118 


Richmond, Ind. 


X 


X 


60 


116 A. C. & 500 D. C. 


Des Moines, Iowa 


X 


X 


60 


115-230 


Sioux City, Iowa 


X 






104 


Topeka, Kan. 


X 


X 


60 


115 


New Orleans, La. 


X 


X 


60 


110-220 


Portland, Maine 


X 


X 


60 


116 


Baltimore, Md. 


X 


X 


60 


120 


Boston, Mass. i 


X 


X 


60 


113 


Detroit, Mich. 


X 


X 


60 


120 & 240 


Crookston, Minn. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Kansas City, Mo. 


X 


X 


60&25 


110&220 


Kearney, Neb. 




X 


60 


125 


Portsmouth, N. H. 




X 


60 & 25 


117 


New Egypt, N. J. 


X 






220 


Albany, N. Y. 




X 


40 


115 


Borough of Brooklyn 


X 


X 


25 & 62.5 


120 


Borough of Manhattan 


X 


X 


60 


110 A. C. & 120 D. C. 


Niagara Falls, N. Y. 




X 


25 


110 


Rochester, N. Y. 


X 


X 


60&25 


117 


Syracuse, N. Y. 




X 


25 & 60 


110 


Spray, N. C. 


X 






220 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


X 


X 


60 


118 


Toledo, Ohio 


X 


X 


60&25 


110 


Portland, Ore. 


X 


X 




120-240 


.\ltoona, Pa. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Scranton, Pa. 


X 


X 


60 


115 


Columbia, S. C. 




X 


40 


115 


Dallas, Texas 


X 


X 


60 


110-220 


Galveston, Texas 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Rutland, Vermont 




X 


25&60 


115 


Norfolk, Va. 


X 


X 


60 


112 


Milwaukee, Wis. 


X 


X 


25&60 


120-240 


Laramie, Wyo. 


X 


X 


60 


110 


Brandon, Canada 


X 


X 


60 


120 


Hamilton, Ontario, Can 




X 


662/3 


110-220 


Stratford, Ont. 




X 


25 


110-220 


Toronto, Ont. 




X 


25 


115 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



467 



TABLE cm.— CITIES USING ELECTRIC CURRENT DIFFERENT FROM 

THE STANDARD A. C. 60 CYCLES, 110-220 VOLTS. -^(Continued.) 

(Cities of 50,000 population or over.) 



Location. D. C. 


A. C. Cycles 


Volts 


Quebec 




X 64 




104 


Guadalajara, Mexico 




X 100 




104-1040 


Victoria, Mexico 




X 125 




104 


Mexico, Mexico 




50 




210-3000 


Barbados, West Indies 




X 50 




210 


Havana 


X 


62^2 


110 


Santo Domingo 




X 133 




104 


Georgetown, British Guiana 


X 125 




104 


TABLE CIV.— TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CENTIGRADE 




TO FAHRENHEIT. 






C. 


F. 


R. 


C. 


F. 


R. 


C. 


F. 


R. 


+^T 


+212.0° 


+80.0° 


+53° 


+127.4° 


+42.4° 


+ 6° 


+42.8° 


+4.8" 


99 


210.2 


79.2 


52 


125.6 


41.6 


5 


41.0 


4.0 


98 


208.4 


78.4 


51 


123.8 


40.8 


4 


39.2 


3.2 


97 


206.6 


77.6 


50 


122.0 


40.0 


3 


37.4 


2.4 


96 


204.8 


76.8 


49 


120.2 


39.2 


2 


35.6 


1.6 


95 


203.0 


76.0 


48 


118.4 


38.4 


1 


33.8 


0.8 


94 


201.2 


75.2 


47 


116.6 


37.6 


Zero 


32.0 


Zero 


93 


199.4 


74.4 


46 


114.8 


36.8 


- 1 


30.2 


- 0.8 


92 


197.6 


73.6 


45 


113.0 


36.0 


2 


28.4 


1.6 


91 


195.8 


72.8 


44 


111.2 


35.2 


3 


26.6 


2.4 


90 


194.0 


72.0 


43 


109.4 


34.4 


4 


24.8 


3.2 


89 


192.2 


71.2 


42 


107.6 


33.6 


5 


23.0 


4.0 


88 


190.4 


70.4 


41 


105.8 


32.8 


6 


21.2 


4.8 


87 


188.6 


69.6 


40 


104.0 


32.0 


7 


19.4 


5.6 


86 


186.8 


68.8 


39 


102.2 


31.2 


8 


17.6 


6.4 


85 


185.0 


68.0 


38 


100.4 


30.4 


9 


15.8 


7.2 


84 


183.2 


67.2 


37 


98.6 


29.6 


10 


14.0 


8.0 


83 


181.4 


66.4 


36 


96.8 


28.8 


11 


12.2 


8.8 


82 


179.6 


65.6 


35 


95.0 


28.0 


12 


10.4 


9.6 


81 


177.8 


64.8 


34 


93.2 


27.2 


13 


8.6 


10.4 


SO 


176.0 


64.0 


33 


91.4 


26.4 


14 


6.8 


11.2 


79 


174.2 


63.2 


32 


89.6 


25.6 


15 


5.0 


12.0 


78 


172.4 


62.4 


31 


87.8 


24.8 


16 


3.2 


12.8 


77 


170.6 


61.6 


30 


86.0 


24.0 


17 


1.4 


13.6 


76 


168.8 


60.8 


29 


84.2 


23.2 


18 


-0.4 


14.4 


75 


167.0 


60.0 


28 


82.4 


22.4 


19 


2.2 


15.2 


74 


165.2 


59.2 


27 


80.6 


21.6 


20 


4.0 


16.0 


73 


163.4 


58.4 


26 


78.8 


20.8 


21 


5.8 


16.8 


72 


161.6 


57.6 


25 


77.0 


20.0 


22 


7.6 


17.6 


71 


159.8 


56.8 


24 


75.2 


19.2 


23 


9.4 


18.4 


70 


158.0 


56.0 


23 


73.4 


18.4 


24 


11.2 


19.2 


69 


156.2 


55.2 


22 


71.6 


17.6 


25 


13.0 


20.0 


68 


154.4 


54.4 


21 


69.8 


16.8 


26 


14.8 


20.8 


67 


152.6 


53.6 


20 


68.0 


16.0 


27 


16.6 


21.6 


66 


150.8 


52.8 


19 


66.2 


15.2 


28 


18.4 


22.4 


65 


149.0 


52.0 


18 


64.4 


14.4 


29 


20.2 


23.2 


64 


147.2 


51.2 


17 


62.6 


13.6 


30 


22.0 


24.0 


63 


145.4 


50.4 


16 


60.8 


12.8 


31 


23.8 


24.8 


62 


143.6 


49.6 


15 


59.0 


12.0 


32 


25.6 


25.6 


61 


141.8 


48.8 


14 


57.2 


11.2 


33 


27.4 


26 4 


60 


140.0 


48.0 


13 


55.4 


10.4 


34 


29.2 


27.2 



468 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE CIV.— TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CENTIGRADE 

TO FAHRENHEIT.— (Continued). 



c. 


F. 


R. 


C. 


F. 


R. 


C. 


F. 


R. 


59 


138.2 


47.2 


12 


53.6 


9.6 


35 


31.0 


28.0 


58 


136.4 


46.4 


11 


51.8 


8.8 


36 


32.8 


28.8 


57 


134.3 


45.6 


10 


50.0 


8.0 


37 


34.6 


29.6 


56 


132.8 


44.8 


9 


48.2 


7.2 


38 


36.4 


30.4 


55 


131.0 


44.0 


8 


46.4 


6.4 


39 


38.2 


31.2 


64 


129.2 


43.2 


7 


44.6, 


5.8 


40 


40.0 


32.0 



Fahrenheit degrees = 1.8 X Centigrade degrees + 32". 
Centigrade degrees = (Fahrenheit degrees) — 32°-:-1.8. 



TABLE CV.— DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONS OF ONE INCH. 



1/64 — .015625 
1/32 —.03125 
3/64 — .046875 
1/16 —.0625 
5/64 — .078125 
ZIZ2 — .09375 

7/64 — .109375 
1/8 —.125 

9/64 — .140625 
5/32 —.15625 
11/64 — .171875 
3/16 —.1875 

13/64 — .203125 
7/32 —.21875 
15/64 — .234375 
1/4 —.25 

17/64 — .265625 
9/32 — .28125 
19/64 — .296875 
5/16 —.3125 

21/64 — .328125 
11/32 —.34375 
23/64 — .359375 
3/8 — .375 

25/64 — .390625 
13/32 — .40625 
27/64 — 421875 
7/16 —.4375 

29/64 — .453125 
15/32 —.46875 
31/64 — .484375 
1/2 — .5 



33/64— .515625 
17/32 —.53125 
35/64 — .546875 
9/16 — .5625 
37/64 — .578125 
19/32 — .59375 
39/64 — .609375 
5/8 — .625 

41/64 — .640625 
21/32 — .65625 
43/64 — .671875 
11/16 —.6875 
45/64 — .703125 
23/32 —.71875 
47/64 — .734375 
3/4 — .75 

49/64 — .765625 
25/32 —.78125 
51/64 — .796875 
13/16 —.8125 
53/64 — .828125 
Zim — .84375 

55/64 — .859375 
7/8 — .875 

57/64 — .890625 
29/32 — .90625 
59/64 — .921875 
15/16 — .9375 
61/64 — .953125 
31/32 —.96875 
63/64 — .984375 
1 1. 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



469 



TABLE CVI.— TEMPERATURES, CENTIGRADE AND FAHRENHEIT 
FRACTIONAL EQUIVALENTS. 



Degrees 
Centigrade 



Degrees 

Fahrenheit 



0.55 

0.1 

0.11 

0.17 

0.2 

0.22 

0.28 

0.3 

0.33 

0.39 

0.4 

0,44 

0.5 

0.55 

0.6 

0.7 

0.8 

0.9 

1.0 



0.10 

0.18 

0.20 

0.30 

0.36 

0.40 

0.50 

0.54 

0.6 

0.7 

0.72 

0.8 

0.9 

1.0 

1.08 

1.26 

1.44 

1.62 

1.80 



TABLE CVIL— PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS. 



Unit 



Equivalent Value in Other Units 



1 lb. per sq. inch = 



1 atmosphere (14.7 lbs.) 



144 lbs. per square foot. 
2.0355 in. of mercury at 32° 
2.0416 in. of mercurv at 62° 
2.309 ft. of water at' 62° F. 
. 27.71 in. of water at 62° F. 



= I 



1 inch of water at 62° F. 



1 inch of water at 32° F. — [ 



1 foot of water at 62° F. = 



1 inch of mercury at 62° F. 



2116.3 lbs. per square foot. 
33.947 ft. of water at 62° F. 

30 in. of mercury at 62° F. 
29.922 in. of mercury at 32° F. 

0.0361 lb. per square inch. 
5.196 lbs. per square foot. 
0.0736 in. of mercury at 62° F. 

5.2021 lbs. per square foot. 
0.036125 lb. per square inch. 

0.433 lb. per square inch. 
62.355 lbs. per square foot. 
0.883 in. of mercury at 62° F. 



r 0.49 lb. per square inch. 
J 70.56 lbs. per square foot. 

1.132 ft. of water at 62° F. 

13.58 ins. of water at 62° F. 



470 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE CVIII.— POWER EQUIVALENTS. 



Unit 



Equivalent Value in Other Units 



1 Kilowatt Hour Equals= 



1 Horse-Power Equals = i 



British Thermal Unit 
Equals = 



I Pound of Water Evap- 
orated from and at 
212 degrees Fahren- 
heit Equals = 



1 ,000 
1.34 
2,654,200 

3,412 
■ 367,000 

r 746 

0.746 
33,000 
550 

2,545 
42.4 
0.707 

1,055 

778 

107.6 
0.000293 
0.000393 

0.283 
0.379 
970.4 

103,900 

751,300 



Watt Hours 
Horse-Power Hours 
Foot-Pound,'; per Hour 
Heat Units per Hour 
Kilogram Meters 

Watts 

Kilowatt 

Foot-Pounds per Minute 

Foot-Pounds per Second 

Heat Units Per Hour 

Heat Units Per Minute 

Heat Units per Second 

Watt Seconds 
Foot-Pounds 
Kilogram Meters 
Kilowatt Hour 
Horse-Power Hour 

Kilowatt Hour 
Horse-Power Hour 
Heat Units 
Kilogram Meters 
Foot-Pounds 



TABLE CIX.— METRIC CONSTANTS. 



EQUIVALENT OF LIQUIDS 

One cubic meter of water 220.1 Imperial gallons. 

One cubic meter of water 61028 Cubic inches. 

One cubic meter of water 1000 Kilograms. 

One cubic meter of water 1 Ton (approximate.) 

One cubic meter of water looO Litres. 

One cubic meter of water 2204. pounds. 

Column of water 1 foot high 0.434 pounds per square inch. 

Column of water 1 meter high 1.43 pounds per square inch. 

Column of water 2.31 feet high 1 pound per square inch. 

One imperial gallon of water 277.274 Cubic inches. 

One imperial gallon of water 10 pounds. 

One cubic inch of water 0.3607 pounds. 

One cubic foot of water 62.35 pounds. 

One cubic foot of water 0.577 Hundredweight. 

One cubic foot of water 0.028 Ton. 

One pound of water 27.72 Cubic inches. 

One pound of water 0.1 Imperial gallon. 

One pound of water 0.4537 Kilograms. 

One litre of water 0.22 Imperial gallon. 

One litre of water 61 Cubic inches. 

One litre of water 0.0353 Cubic feet. 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 471 

TABLE CIX.— METRIC CONSTANTS.— (Continued). 



METRICAL EQUIVALENTS (WEIGHTS AND MEASURES) 



Meters Reciprocals 



Inch 0.02539954 39.37079 

Foot 0.3047945 3.280899 

Yard 0.91438348 1.093633 

Pole 5.029109 0.1988424 

Chain 20.11644 0.0497106 

Furlong 201.1644 0.004971 

Mile 1609.3149 0.00062138 



METIUCAL EQUIVALENTS (WEIGHTS AND MEASURES) 

1 Inch 2.54 centimeters. 

1 Meter 3.281 feet. 

1 Square inch 6.452 square centimeters. 

1 Square meter — 10.76 square feet 1.196 square yard. 

1 Cubic inch 16.39 centimeters. 

1 Cubic meter 35.31 cubic feet. 

1 Kilogram 2.205 pounds 



TABLE ex.— AVERAGE TAP WATER TEMPERATURES OF (SUMMER) 
FOR CITIES OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 

City State Deg. F. Population 

Youngstown Ohio 90. S 132,358 

Dallas Tex. 90 158,976 

Omaha Neb. 86 191,601 

Galveston Tex. 85 42,000 

Jacksonville Fla. 82 91,543 

Atlanta Ga. 81 200,616 

Augusta _...Ga. 81 52,548 

Cincinnati Ohio 80 401,247 

Birmingham Ala. 80 172,270 

New Orleans La. 80 387,408 

Kansas City Mo. 11 345,000 

Ottawa Can. 11 112,000 

St. Joseph Mo. 77 77,735 

Toledo Ohio 76.5 243,109 

Albany N. Y. 76 113,344 

Washington D. C. 75.4 437,571 

Nashville _...Tenn. 75 118,342 

Oklahoma City „ Okla. 75 91,258 

Charleston - S. C. 75 71,500 

Providence - R. I. 74 275,000 

Columbus Ohio 74 237,031 

Akron - Ohio 74 208,435 

Richmond Va. 74 158,700 

Grand Rapids Mich. 74 137,634 

Springfield - Mass. 74 129,563 

Decatur - 111. 73 43,618 

Mount Vernon N. Y. 73 42,726 

Pittsburgh - Pa. 72.5 588,193 

Cleveland _ Ohio 72 796,836 

Minneapolis Minn. 72 380,498 

Worcester _ Mass. 72 179,741 

Pawtucket _ R. I. 72 64,248 

Buffalo „ _ _ -..N. Y. 71 505,875 

Waterbury - Conn. 71 91,410 

Philadelphia - - - -Pa. 70 1.823,158 



472 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 

TABLE ex.— AVERAGE TAP WATER TEMPERATURES— (SUMMER) 
FOR CITIES OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA— (Continued.) 

City State Deg. F. Population 

Louisville _ Ky. 70 23-4,891 

Oakland Cal. 70 216,361 

Dayton Ohio 70 153,830 

Paterson N. J. 70 135,856 

Winnipeg Can. 70 135,430 

Cambridge Mass. 70 109',450 

Erie ~ Pa. 70 93,372 

Troy N. Y. 70 78,000 

Little Rock Ark. 70 64,997 

Mobile _ Ala. 70 60,124 

Woonsocket _ R. 1. 70 43,496 

Charlestown W. Va. 70 39,608 

Boston _ - Mass. 69 749,923 

Rochester N. Y 69 295,750 

New Bedford Mass. 69 121,217 

Somerville - Mass. 69 93,033 

Maiden ~ - Mass. 69 49,103 

Utica ..— N. Y. 68 94,136 

Cedar Rapids _ Iowa 68 45,566 

Lexington _ Ky. 67.8 41,534 

Detroit _„ Mich. 67 993,739 

Montreal Can. 67 466,197 

Milwaukee Wis. 67 457,147 

St. John N. B. 65.5 60,000 

New York - N. Y. 65 5,621,151 

Brooklyn N. Y. 65 

St. Paul Minn. 65.5 235,595 

Des Moines Iowa 65 126,468 

San Francisco Cal. 65 508,410 

New Haven Conn. 65 162,390 

Johnstown _ Pa. 65 67,327 

Jackson Mich. 65 48,374 

Pasadena ,..Cal. 65 45,334 

Los Angeles Cal. 62 575,490 

Gary Ind. 62 55,453 

Taconia Wash. 60 96,965 

Elizabeth N. J. 60 95,682 

Lawrence - Mass. 60 94,270 

Allentown _ Pa. 60 73,502 

Portland Maine 60 69,000 

Lincoln .— - Neb. 60 54,934 

Roanoke Va. 60 50,842 

Seattle Wash. 60 315,362 

Rockford 111. 58 65,651 

Springfield _ Ohio 58 60,840 

Haverhill _ Mass. 58 53,884 

East Orange N. J. 58 50,587 

Lowell ...._ Mass. 56 112,479 

Davenport Iowa 56 56,727 

Duluth M.inn. 55 98,917 

Hamilton Can. 55 81,881 

Peoria - 111. 54 76,121 

Spokane Wash. 52 104,204 

Sioux City _ Iowa 51 7L227 

Portland Ore. SO 258,288 

Salt Lake City Utah SO 118,110 

Galveston Tex. 80 42,000 

Jacksonville Fla. 76 91,543 

Youngstown Ohio 68.7 132,358 

.'\ugu5ta Ga. 66 52,548 

New Orleans.... La. 62 387,408 

Birmingham Ala. 65 172,270 

Charleston S. C. 65 74,500 

Cincinnati Ohio 62 401,247 

Kansas City _ Mo. 62 345,000 

Atlanta Ga 62 200,616 

Philadelphia Pa. 61 1,823,158 

Washington ! D C 60.5 4,^7. .S7I 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 473 

TABLE CX.-^VERAGE TAP WATER TEMPERATURES (WINTER) 
FOR CITIES OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA.— (Continued.) 



City State 



Los Angeles _ „ Cal. 

Dayton Ohio 

Louisville Ky. 

Omaha Neb. 

Nashville Tenn. 

Oklahoma City _ Okla. 

Troy N. Y. 

Mobile Ala. 

Springfield Mass. 

Roanoke Va. 

New Haven Conn. 

Des Moines Iowa 

Rockford 111. 

East Orange...- N. J. 

Lexington Ky. 

San Francisco Cal. 

Allentown Pa. 

Terre Haute Ind. 

New Brunswick N. J. 

Pasadena _ Cal. 

Springfield Ohio 

Cleveland _ Ohio 

Toledo Ohio 

Winnipeg Can. 

Albany _ N. Y. 

Columbus Ohio 

Davenport Iowa 

New York N. Y. 

Brooklyn N. y! 

Lincoln Neb. 

Akron _ Ohio 

Pawtucket _ R. I. 

Utica N. Y. 

Oakland Cal. 

Cedar Rapids Iowa 

Grand Rapids Mich. 

Lawrence _ _ Mass! 

New Bedford Mass. 

Mt. Vernon N. Y. 

Boston _ Mass. 

Ottawa Can. 

St. Joseph ...„ „ Mo. 

Maiden _ Mass. 

Minneapolis Minn. 

St. Paul _ Minn.' 

Waterbury Conn. 

Lowell ...„ Mass. 

Sommerville Mass. 

Providence R I 

Erie ; _ „ .Pa'. 

Decatur „ Ill_ 

Pittsburgh „ ......Pa' 

Buffalo _ N. y! 

Gary ind.' 

Montreal Can. 

Rochester N. y. 

St. John N. B. 

Detroit „ Mich! 

Elizabeth N. J 

Ft. Wayne _ I„d! 

Little Rock Ark. 

Johnstown Pa! 

Cambridge Mass! 

Portland Maine 

Paterson N. J. 

Spokane „ Wash. 

Woonsocket R. l! 

Milwaukee _ .........'.....!. Wis! 

Seattle ...„ !._ !wash! 



Deg. F. 


Population 


60 


575,490 


60 


153,830 


60 


234,891 


60 


191,601 


60 


118,342 


60 


91,258 


60 


78,000 


60 


60,124 


60 


129,563 


60 


50,842 


58 


162,390 


58 


126,468 


58 


65,651 


58 


50,710 


57.4 


41,534 


57 


508,410 


57 


73,502 


57 


66,082 


57 


24,000 


57 


4S,334 


57 


60,840 


56 


796,836 


56 


243,109 


56 


135,430 


56 


113,344 


56 


237,031 


56 


^(,,121 


55 


5,621,151 


55 




55 


54,934 


55 


208,435 


55 


64,248 


55 


94,136 


55 


216,361 


55 


45,566 


55 


137,634 


55 


94,270 


55 


121,217 


55 


42,726 


54 


749,923 


54 


112,000 


54 


77,735 


54 


49,103 


54 


380,498 


54 


235,595 


54 


91,410 


54 


112,479 


53.5 


93,033 


53 


275,000 


S3 


93,372 


53 


43,618 


52.8 


588,193 


52 


505,875 


52 


55,433 


51 


466,197 


51 


295,750 


51 


60,000 


50 


993,739 


50 


95,682 


50 


86,549 


50 


64,997 


50 


67,327 


SO 


109.450 


50 


69,000 


50 


33,856 


50 


104,204 


SO 


43,496 


50 


457,147 


49 


315,362 



49 


36,162 


49 


71,227 


47 


39,674 


45 


118,110 


45 


98,917 


45 


48,374 


4S 


81,881 


42 


258,288 


40.7 


53,884 


40.5 


96,965 


40 


71,500 



474 HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE ex.— AVERAGE TAP WATER TEMPERATURES (WINTER) 
FOR CITIES OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA.— (Contined.) 

City State Deg. F. Population 

Council Bluflfs Iowa 

Sioux City Iowa 

Superior Wis. 

Salt Lake City Utah 

Duluth Minn. 

Jackson Mich. 

Hamilton Can. 

Portland Ore. 

Haverhill Mass. 

Tacoma Wash. 

Charleston S. C. 



TABLE CXI.— DENSITY AND WEIGHT OF WATER. 
(Rosetti Table and D. K. Clark Manual). 

Temperature Relative Weight per 

Deg. F. Density Cubic Foot 

32 0.99987 62.416 

35 0.99996 62.421 

39.3 1.00000 62.424 

40 0.99999 62.423 

43 0.99997 62.422 

45 0.99992 62.419 

50 0.99975 62.408 

55 0.99946 62.390 

60 0.99907 62.366 

70 0.99802 62.300 

80 0.99669 62.217 

90 0.99510 62.118 

100 0.99318 61.998 

110 0.99105 61.865 

120 0.98870 61.719 

130 0.98608 61.555 

140 0.98338 61.386 

150 0.98043 61.203 

160 0.97729 61.006 

170 0.97397 60.799 

180 0.97056 60.586 

190 0.96701 60.365 

200 0.96333 60.135 

212 0.95865 58.843 

230 59.4 (Sat. Pressure) 

250 58.7 

270 58.2 

290 57.6 

298 57.3 

338 56.1 

366 55.3 

390 54.5 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



475 



TABLE CXII.— WEIGHT OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES PER CUBIC FOOT. 



Name Pounds 

Mercury 847.7 

Brine 77.4 

Milk 64.3 

Sea water 64.05 

Pure water 62.425 

Linseed oil 58.7 

Whale oil 57.4 

Sugar 100.37 

Soap 66.9 

Salt 45. 

Dry fruits 45. 

Lime 50. 

Olive oil 57.1 

Turpentine 54.3 

Petroleum 54.9 

Naphtha 53.1 

Alcohol 57.4 

Benzine 53.1 

Wine 62 

Ash 34.3 

Ice 57.5 

Earth 93 

Soft coal 80 



Name Pounds 

Tobacco 80. 

Oil, average 56 

Eggs 25 

Fruit 22 

Butter 58.7 

Fat 58.5 

Oak, white 48 

Pine, yellow 38 

Vinegar 67.5 

Beef fat 57.68 

Hog Fat 58.50 

Hard coal 85 

Stone 118 

Masonry 143 

Sand 110 

Cast iron 450.54 

Wrought iron 480 

Brass 511 

Charcoal 18 

Lead 709.7 

Beer 64.62 

Snow 5.2 



TABLE CXIIL— VOLUME AND WEIGHT OF DRY AIR AT DIFFERENT 

TEMPERATURES. 

I'nder a Constant Atmosi). I'res. of 29.92 ins. of mercury, the vol. at 32° Fahr. being 1. 



Temp. 
Deg. F. 



Volume 



Weight 
per cu. ft. 






.935 


12 


.960 


22 


.980 


32 


1.000 


42 


1.020 


52 


1.041 


62 


1.061 


72 


1.082 


82 


1.102 


92 


1.122 


102 


1.143 


112 


1.163 


122 


1.184 


132 


1.204 


142 


1.224 


152 


1.245 


162 


1.265 


172 


1.285 


182 


1.306 


192 


1.326 



0.0864 
0.0842 
0.0824 
0.0807 
0.0791 

0.0776 
0.0761 
0.0747 
0.0733 
0.0720 

0.0707 
0.0694 
0.0682 
0.0671 
0.0659 

0.0649 
0.0638 
0.0628 
0.0618 
0.0609 



•From HofiFman's Handbook for Heating and Ventilating Engineers, published 
by McGraw Hill Co., Inc. 



476 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE CXIV. 



-SPECIFIC HEATS, WATER AT 32" F. = 1. 
(Frick Co.) 



Name Spec. Heat 

Cast iron 0.130 

Brass 0.094 

Mercury 0.033 

Tin 0.056 

Zinc 0.095 

Chalk 0.215 

Stone 0.270 

Masonry 0.200 

Oak wood 0.570 

Pine 0.650 

Glass 0. 194 



Name Spec. Heat 

Coal 0.241 

Sulphur 0.202 

Coke 0.203 

Alcohol 0.659 

Oil 0.310 

Vinegar 0.920 

Strong brine 0.700 

Ice 0.504 

Water 1 .000 

Air 0.238 



TABLE CXV.— COEFFICIENTS OF EXPANSION FOR VARIOUS 
SUBSTANCES. 

Coefficient of Linear 
Substance Expansion in inches 

per Deg. F. 

Aluminum 0.00001140 

Brass 0.00001040 

Brick _ 0.00000306 

from 0.00000550 

Cement and Concrete to 0.00000780 

Copper 0.00000961 

from 0.00000399 

Glass to 0.00000521 

Gold 0.00000841 

Granite _ 0.00000460 

Iron, cast 0.00000587 

Iron, wrought 0.00000677 

Lead 0.00001580 

Marble 0.00000400 

from 0.00000206 

Masonry to 0.00000490 

Mercury 0.00000334 

Platinum 0.00000494 

Porcelain 0.00000200 

from 0.00000400 

Sandstone to 0.00000670 

Steel, untempered 0.00000599 

Steel, tempered 0.00000702 

Tin 0.0000 1 1 60 

Wood, pine 0.00000276 

Zinc 0.00001634 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



477 





TABLE CXVI.— SPECIFIC HEATS OF GASES. 






Specific Heat 


Name of gas 


Constant Volume 
Pressure Constant 



Air 0.23751 

Carbon dioxide 0.21700 

Carbon monoxide 0.24500 

Hydrogen 3.40900 

Nitrogen 0.24380 

Oxygen 0.21 75 1 



0.16902 
0.15350 
0.17580 
2.41226 
0.17273 
0.15507 



TABLE CXVII.— COEFFICIENTS OF EXPANSION AND COEFFICIENTS 
OF TRANSMISSION OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS. 



Substance 



Coefficient of 
Expansion 



Coefficient of 
Transmission 



Antimony 0.00000602 

Copper 0.00000955 

Gold 0.00001060 

Wrought Iron D.00000895 

Glass 0.00000478 

Cast Iron 0.00000618 

Lead 0.00001580 

Platinum 0.00000530 

Silver 0.00001060 

Tin 0.00001500 

Steel (soft) 0.00000600 

Steel (hard) 0.00000689 

Nickel steel 36% 0.00000003 

Zinc 0.00001633 

Brass 0.00001043 

Ice 0.00000375 

Sulphur 0.00006413 

Charcoal 0.00007860 

Aluminum 0.00002313 

Phosphorus 0.00012530 

Water 0.00008806 

Mercury 0.00003333 

Alcohol (absolute) 0.00015151 



0.00022 
0.00404 

6760089 
0.0000008 
0.000659 
0.00045 



0.00610 
0.00084 
0.00062 
0.00034 

6"66T7o 

0.00142 
0.000024 



0.000002 
0.00203 

aooooos 

0.00011 
0.000002 



*From Hofifman's Handbook for Heating and Ventilating Engineers, published 
by McGraw Hill Co., Inc. 



478 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



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Miscellaneous tables 



479 



TABLE CXX.— PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF METALS. 



Metal 



Specific 
Gravity 



Specific 


Melting 
Point 


Heat 


Degrees F. 


0.218 


1216 


0.051 


1166 


0.081 


1472 


0.047 


1562 


0.031 


518 


0.056 


610 


0.048 


79 


0.170 


1481 


0.045 


1152 


0.120 


2741 


0.103 


2714 


0.071 




0.093 


1981 


0.079 


86 


0.621 




0.031 


i'945 


0.057 


311 


0.033 


4172 


0.110 


2768 


0.045 


1490 


0.031 


621 


0.941 


367 


0.250 


1204 


0.120 


2237 


0.032 


—38 


0.072 


4532 


0.108 


2642 


0.031 


4530 


0.059 


2822 


0.032 


3191 


0.170 


144 


0.058 


3452 


0.077 


100 


0.061 


3270 


0.056 


1762 


0.290 


207 




1472 


a036 


5252 


0.049 


825 


0.033 


578 


0.028 




0.055 


Tso 


0.130 


3362 


0.034 


5432 


0.028 


4352 


0.125 


3182 


0'094 


"786 


0.066 


2700 



Aluminum 


2.56 


Antimony 


6.71 


Arsenic 


5.67 


Barium 


3.78 


Bismuth 


9.80 


Cadmium 


8.60 


Caesium 


1.87 


Calcium 


1.57 


Cerium 


6.68 


Chromium 


6.50 


Cobalt 


8.50 


Columbium 


12.70 


Copper 


8.93 


Gallium 


5.90 


Glucinum 


1.93 


Gold 


19.32 


Indium 


7.42 


Iridium 


22.42 


Iron 


7.86 


Lanthanum 


6.20 


Lead 


11.37 


Lithium 


0.54 


Magnesium 


1.74 


Manganese 


8.00 


Mercury 


13.59 


Molybdenum 


8.60 


Nickel 


8.80 


Osium 


22.48 


Palladium 


11.50 


Platinum 


21.50 


Potassium 


0.86 


Rhodium 


12.10 


Rubidium 


1.53 


Ruthenium 


12.26 


Silver 


10.53 


Sodium 


0.97 


Strontium 


2.54 


Tantalum 


10.80 


Tellurium 


6.25 


Thallium 


11.85 


Thorium 


11.10 


Tin 


7.29 


Titanium 


3.54 


Tungsten 


19.10 


Uranium 


18.70 


Vanadium 


5.50 


Yttrium 


3.80 


Zinc 


7.15 


Zirconcium 


4.15 



485 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



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MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 



481 





Nomi- 
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482 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



TABLE CXXIII.— COPPER TUBES. 
Weight per Lineal Foot. 



Gauge No. 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


Wall 






















Thickness 






















Inches 


0.095 


0.083 


0.072 


0.065 


0.058 


0.049 


0.042 


0.035 


0.032 


0.028 


Outside 






















Diameter 






















of Tube 






















Inches 








0.048 


0.047 


0.045 


0.042 


0.038 


0.036 




Vs 


0.033 


v„ 






O.lOl 


0.097 


0.091 


0.082 


0.073 


0.065 


0.060 


0.054 


54 


0.178 


0.168 


0.155 


0.146 


0.135 


0.120 


0.106 


0.091 


0.084 


0.076 


v„ 


0.250 


0.231 


0.210 


0.195 


0.178 


0.156 


0.138 


0.118 


0.109 


0.097 


H 


0.322 


0.294 


0.265 


0.245 


0.223 


0.193 


0.169 


0.144 


0.133 


0.118 


v« 


0.395 


0.357 


0.319 


0.293 


0.267 


0.231 


0.202 


0.171 


0.1 57 


0.139 


'A 


0.466 


0.420 


0.374 


0.342 


0.311 


0.268 


0.233 


0.197 


0.182 


0.160 


^ 


0.610 


0.546 


0.483 


0.441 


0.399 


0.342 


0.297 


0.250 


0.230 


0.203 


y4 


0.754 


0.672 


0.591 


0.540 


0.486 


0.416 


0.360 


0.303 


0.278 


0.245 


1 


1.04 


0.92 


0.81 


0.73 


0.66 


0.57 


0.48 


0.408 


0.376 


0.330 



NOTE : Stubs or Birmingham gauge used. 



Formula for determining the proper thickness of copper 
tubing is given as follows : 



PXD 



T = 



.0625 



6,000 
Where T = thickness in inches 
P = working pressure 
D = Inside diameter of the tube in inches 



This was prescribed by Board of Supervising Inspectors 
of Steamboats. (1911). 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 483 



TABLE CXXIV.— SHEET METAL DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS. 
Wt. per sq. ft. in lbs. 





Iron 


Steel 





Decimal 


480 lbs. 


489.6 lbs. 


U. S. Gauge 


Gauge 


per cu. ft. 


per cu. ft. 


numbers 


0.002 


0.08 


0.082 




0.004 


0.16 


0.163 




0.006 


0.24 


0.245 


38-39 


0.008 


0.32 


0.326 


34-35 


0.010 


0.40 


0.408 


32 


0.012 


0.48 


0.490 


30-31 


0.014 


0.56 


0.571 


29 


0.016 


0.64 


0.653 


27-28 


0.018 


0.72 


0.734 


26-27 


0.020 - 


0.80 


0.816 


25-26 


0.022 


0.88 


0.898 


25 


0.025 


1.00 


1.020 


24 


0.028 


1.12 


1.142 


21 


0.032 


1.28 


1.306 


21-22 


0.036 


1.44 


1.469 


20-21 


0.040 


1.60 


1.632 


19-20 


0.045 


1.80 


1.836 


18-19 


0.050 


2.00 


2.040 


18 


0.055 


2.20 


2.244 


17 


0.060 


2.40 


2.448 


16-17 


0.065 


2.60 


2.652 


15-16 


0.070 


2.80 


2.856 


15 


0.075 


3.00 


3.060 


14-15 


0.080 


3.20 


3.264 


13-14 


0.085 


3.40 


3.468 


13-14 


0.090 


3.60 


3.672 


13-14 


0.095 


3.80 


3.876 


12-13 


0.100 


4.00 


4.080 


12-13 


0.110 


4.40 


4.488 


12 


0.125 


5.00 


5.100 


11 


0.135 


5.40 


5.508 


10-11 


0.150 


6.00 


6.120 


9-10 


0.165 


6.60 


6.732 


8-9 


0.180 


7.20 


7.344 


7-8 


0.200 


8.00 


8.160 


(>-1 


0.220 


8.80 


8.976 


4-5 


0.240 


9.60 


9.792 


3-4 


0.250 


10.00 


10.200 


3 



From Hoffman's Handbook for Heating and Ventilating Engineers, published 
by McGraw Hill Co., Inc. 



TOPICAL INDEX. 



A 

Page 

Absolute Pressure 12 

Absolute Zero 12 

Absopure Machine 187 

Absorption Machines 299 

Absorption Machines, Ammonia .... 128 

AbsoTOtion Machines, Water Vapor.. 127 

Air, Circulation of 378 

Circulation Tests 383 

Cooled Compressors, Condensing 

Pressure for 145 

Flow through a Circular Orifice 

(Table) 172 

Flow through Orifices 171 

Machine, Allen Dense 126 

Machine, Gorrie 126 

Machine, Kirk 126 

Machine, Open Cycle 126 

Properties of 47 

Pumping Test on a Compresor 

(Table) 139, 140 

Refrigerating system. Low Pres- 
sure 127 

Spaces 113 

Spaces, Insulating Effect of 115 

Weight and Volume of (Table) . . 475 

Alco Liquid Control Valve 167 

American Radiator Automatic Expan- 
sion Valve 168 

American Radiator Evaporator 169 

American Radiator Float Valve 169 

Ammonia Absorption Machine 128 

Ammonia, Heat of Association of 

(Table) 83 

Properties of 40 

Properties of Aqua Solutions 

(Table) 84, 99 

Properties of Liquid (Table)... 62 
Properties of Saturated 

(Table) 54, 61 

Properties of Superheated Va- 
por (Table) 63, 67 

Solubility in Water (Table) 83 

Amount of refrigerant to be Evapora- 
ted 38 

Ampere Rating of A. C. Motors 

(Table) 163 

Apples 449 

Application of Refrigeration to Milk 443 
Atmospheric Pressure Equivalents 

(Table) 16 

Audiffren Machine 190 

Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker 

Company Control 181 

B 

Tiacteria in Foods 437 

Bacteria in Milk 443, 445 

Balsa Refrigerator Tests, (Table) ... 426 

Balsa Wood 117 

Belts 164 

Berries 394 

Blower Data (Table) .......'. '. '. .'.'.'. 142 

Bohn Refrigerator 331 

Brine Tanks 156 

Brine Tank Data 156 

Brine Tank Data (Table) 161 

Brine Tank, Fedders 184 

Brunswick-Kroeschell Refrigerator . . 194 
Bureau of Standards Tests on Re- 
frigerators 421 

B. t. u 11 

Butane, Properties of 41 

Properties of (Table) 70 

485 



C 

Page 

Calculation for Spiral I'in Tubes.... 152 

Calorimeter Testing 408 

Carbon Bisulphate Properties of 

(Table) 71 

Carbon Dioxide 42 

Carbon Dioxide, Properties of Satu- 
rated Vapor (Table) 68, 69 

Carbon Tetrachloride Properties of 

(Table) 71 

Carbondale Machine 196 

Care of Ice Chests 447 

Carre 20 

Carre Machine 128 

Cavalier Refrigerator 333 

Champion Machine 198 

Characteristics of Refrigerants 37 

Charging Refrigerants 49 

Chemical Methods of Refrigeration.. 133 

Chilrite Machine 201 

Chloroform, Properties of (Table)... 71 

Choice of Heat Insulators Ill 

Circulation of Air 378 

Circulation in Ice Chambers 383 

Climax Machine 202 

Coefficient of Heat Transfer in Ap- 
paratus 121 

Coefficient of Radiation and Convection 

(Table) 107 

Coldmaker Machine 203 

Comparison of Heat Insulators 107 

Comparison of Refrigerants 36 

Comparative Cylinder Displacement.. 39 

Compressor 137 

Condenser 140 

Condenser Flintlock 145 

Condenser, McCord 150 

Condensing Pressure for Air-cooled 

Compressor 145 

Conduction of Heat 103 

Constant Temperature Room 399 

Convection 106 

ControL Automatic Circuit Breaker 

Company 181 

Control Switch 181 

Control. Penn Electric 175 

Cooke Machine 206 

Copeland Machine 208 

Copper Tubing (Table) 482 

Cork 116 

Cork Insulation Data (Table) 16 

Corrosion of Metals 35 

Cost of Harvesting Ice 26 

Cost of Ice (Table) 416 

Creamerv Package Machine 211 

Crystal Refrigerator 335 

Cullen Machine 20 

Cutting Ice Into Blocks 27 

Cylinder Displacement (Table) 40 

D 

Decimal Equivalents of Fractions of 

One Inch (Table) 468 

Delivery of Ice (Table) 420 

Delphos Machine 211 

Density of Water (Table) 474 

Desirable Humidity Indoors 388 

Desirable Temperature for Refriger- 
ators (Table) 379 

Desserts 393 

Determination of Heat Losses thru 

a Refrigerator Wall 109 

Direct Expansion System 155 

Discharge Valves 166 



486 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Page 
Displacement, Comparative Cylinder. 39 
Displacement for Various Refriger- ^^ 
Domes?^'\vi;j?'^ter(fab{;>-;.4Vi:465 

Door Construction ■ • • • ,^ 

Drinking Water ^yj, -ioi 

Drive, Belt ^55 

Direct ■•• 165 

Gear 

E 

Efficiency of Refrigerator Wall. . . ... 434 

Efficiency of Refngerator with In- 
creased Insulation . . . • • y 

Effect of Refrigeration on Foods . ... -tJe 
Effect of Room Humidity on Ke- 

frigerator Tests ^^^ 

Electrical Heater Method of Test- 

ing Refrigerators ^'^-^ 

Electrical Refrigerating Company . . - j^i 

Electrice Machine ^ij 

Electro-Kold Machine ^'^ 

Electrolux Servcl Machine ^^^ 

Equivalents, Horsepower ^° 

Ethane ." • ' " "f" Vt^' Vi' ^ 7^ 

Ethane, Properties of (Table) ^- 

Ether 44 

Ethyl Chloride ■-■■■■■:■••/ 

Ethyl Chloride, Properties of 

(Table) •••••• V WkV -l ' ' 71 

Ethyl Ether, Properties of (Table).. ^7^ 

Evaporator • ■ .0 

Explosion Data on Gases '*° 

Everite Machine ••■••••; us 

Exhaust Fan Tests (Table) '^.i 

F 

„ 143 

Fans : ■ • • A,' • ■, 184 

Fedders Brine Tank . |° 

Condenser and Receiver |»^ 

Expansion Valve \°i^ 

Liquid Filter }°- 

Liquid Strainer \°-. 

Fin Tubing (Table) 1^4 

Fish 217 

Flaxlinum ,4c 

Flintlock Condensers .....-..■■•■• • ^^'' 

Flintlock Condenser Data (Table)... 1^1 

Flooded System . . . • ■ ■ \^^ 

Flow of Air thru Orifices ....•••• ■ J^' 
Food Arrangement in Refrigerators^. ^^^ 

Foreword -, 

Frigidaire Machine t'^ 

Frost on Evaporator ^ ^' 

Fruits, Keeping of 

G 

Gas Refrigerator Corporation Data. . 325 
Gases, Coefficients of Expansion and 

Heat Transmission (Table) ... 4A6 

Explosion Data 48 

Non-condensible ,":„ 

Solubility in Water (Table) .... 00 

Specific Heat of (Table) f^ 

General Electric Machine ^^^ 

Geppert Machine • •'^0 

Good Housekeeping Institute Re- 

frigerator Tests 430 

Gorrie ,• : • • ,4-, 

Grand Rapids Refrigerator Company. o4„ 



H 

Page 

299 
Heat, Absorption and' Radiation of 

(Table) ^y., 

and Temperature ^■ 

Conduction of !:Ti 

Insulation '■^^ 

Latent ••; ^no 

Losses in a K^^frigerator . . . . • • . 4U/ 
Losses through Refrigerator Wall 109 

Mechanical Equivalent of '^J 

Sensible j^ 

l?^^r-:::^;v.v;.;^\.;.v.WLi2i 

Transfer Coefficient (Table) ... 12- 

Transfer in Apparatus i^^ 

Units r-^y- 

History and Principles of Retrig- 

crating Systems -"^^ 

History of Refrigeration 

History of Vapor Compression 

Machine ;-i^'i,\ " ' ' 1 r 

Horsepower Equivalents (iable) ... i< 

Household Refrigerators . . . • • ^^^ 

Household Refrigerating Machine 

Requirements I^^- 

How to Use Ice ^^i 

Humidity • : ■■6' i'" ' 

Diagram for Room and Retrig- 

erator ,00 

Desirable Indoors •••••;•• f°? 

Effect on Refrigerator Tests ... 4US 
in United States (Table) .. .458, 459 

rr> . 00/ 

Tests on Househoid Refrigerator 
(Table) ^'^^ 

I 

Ice and Its Relation to Food 438 

and Salt Mixtures, Temperatures 
Obtained By (Chart) ....... . 134 

Ice Cans, Standard Sizes (Table) ... ^/ 

Ice Capacity of a Refrigerator i/l 

Ice Chest ; ^2? 

Ice, Cost of Harvesting A]l 

Ice Cream Making in the Home 4S^ 

Ice, Cutting into Blocks ^' 

for Dairy Farms ^^ 

How to Use •'" 

Industry : ■ ■ ; r^''" " i,' ' ' ' 

Ice Melting Method of Testing Re- 

frigerators ^"^ 

Ice, Natural iX 

Properties of .... • f^ 

Properties of (Table) j6 

Ice Refrigeration in the Home t'l 

Ice Refrigerator Cabinet Data, 

(Table) 374 

Ice Refrigerator Tests .... • ^^^ 

Ice Used in Homes (Table) ^^^ 

Icemaid ,qn 

Ice-O-Lator '^^ 

Illustrations .gg 

Absopure Compressor ........ J»b 

Absopure Condensing Unit for 

Ice Cream Cabinet ., ||^ 

Absopure Freezing Unit i»^ 

Absopure Mechanical Unit i»/ 

Absopure Refrigerator ^^i-' 

Air Circulation in ^ef"3«|[^*^^| 384 

Alco*Liquid Control 1^8 

American Automatic Expansion 

Valve • ]^l 

.\merican Float Valve .......... WU 

American Refrigeration Section ^_^ 



TOPICAL INDEX 



487 



Illustrations (Continued) Page 

Amount of Liquid Refrigerant 

Used ; 38 

Arrangement of Food in Re- 
frigerators 454 

Audittren Cabinet with Machine. 192 
AudifTren Household Machine . . 191 
Audiffren Refrigerating System. 193 

Autofrigor Machine 194 

Balsa Refrigerator Test Chart 

427, 428. 429 

Bohn Refrigerator 332 

Brine Tanks ,.. 185 

Brunswick-Kroeschell Ice Making 

Installation 196 

Brunswick-Kroeschell Machine . 195 

Calorimeter Testing 408 

Carbondale Machine 197 

Cavalier Refrigerator 334. 335 

Charging of Refrigerants SO 

Champion Cooling Unit 199 

Champion Junior Model 198 

Champion Machine 200 

Champion Senior Model 199 

Chilrite Machine 201 

Climax Machine 202 

Coldmaker Machine . 203 

Comparison of Refrigerator 

Heat Losses 405 

Compression Refrigerating .System 132 
Condenser and Receiver Unit. . 183 
Condenser Pressure for Air 

Cooled SO- Machines 144 

Constant Temperature Testing 

Room 400. 401 

Cooke Machine 206 

Copeland Cabinet and Remov- 
able Unit 210 

Copeland Expansion Valve .... 209 

Copeland Machine 208 

Copeland One Piece Freezing 

Unit and Machine 209 

Creamery Package Machine .... 21] 

Crystal Refrigerator 336. 337 

Delphos Machine 212 

Drinking Water Cooled Bv Use 

of Ice Cubes .' 450 

Electrical Refrigerator Control.. 181 

Electrice Machine 214 

Electro-Kold Frost Tank 216 

Electro-Kold Machine 215 

Electro-Kold Self-contained 

Unit 216 

Electrolux Servel Cabinet 

322, 323. 324 

Everite Cooling Unit 218 

Everite Cabinet and Cooling 

Unit 219 

Everite Machine 217 

Expansion Valve 184 

Flintlock Air-Cooled Condenser 

146. 147 

Frigidaire Cabinet 223,224 

Frigidaire Cabinet and Self- 
contained Unit 226 

Frigidaire Cooling Coils 222, 223 

Frigidaire Ice Maker 225 

Frigidaire Machine 220, 221 

Frigidaire Self-contained model. 225 
General Electric Refrigerator... 228 

Hall Machine 230 

Heat Temperature Diagram for 

Ice, Water and Steam 28 

Humidity Curves 39 1 

Humidity in Refrigerator 407 

Ice Refrigerator Cabinet Data 

375, 376 

Icemaid Cabinet 234 

Icemaid Freezing Unit 233 



Illustrations (Continued) 

Icemaid Machine 

Ice-0-Lator .Absorption .System . . 

Iroquois Cabinets 237, 

Iroquois Compressor 

Iroquois Cooling Units 

Iro(|Uois Machine 

Iroquois Switch 

Isko Machine 

.Tewett Refrigerator ...340, 341, 

Jevyett Wall .Section 

Keith Absorption Machine . . . . 

Keith Cabinet 

Kelvinator Cabinet 

Kelvinator Condensing Unit . . . . 

Kelvinator Cooling Unit 

Kelvinator Large Capacity Con- 
densing Unit 

Kelvinator Machine 242, 

Kold King Machine 

Leonard Refrigerator 343, 

Leonard Wall Section 

Lipman Machine 

Liquid Filter 

Liquid Strainer 

McCray Refrigerator 347, 

Mean Temperature Difference 
Curve 

Merchant & Evans Cabinet . . . 

Merchant & Evans Machine . . . 

Mercoid Control 

National Absorption Machine . . . 

Norge Cabinet 

Norge Freezer Coils 

Norge Machine 

Odin Refrigerating Unit 

Operation Volatile Liquid Ther- 
mostat 176, 

Penn Electric Control 

Pressure Type Thermostat 

Radiation and Convection Losses 

Reol Refrigerator 349, 

Rhinelander Refrigerator 

352, 353, 

Rice Cabinet 260, 

Rice Compressor 

Rice Cooling Unit 

Rice Machine 256. 

Sanat Cabinet 264, 

Sanat Machine 

Savage Ice Cream Cabinet 

Savage Machine 266, 

Seamless Metal Bellows 

Seeger Refrigerator 

Servel Cabinets 273, 274, 

Servel Commercial Machine. 276, 

Servel Compressor 

Servel Float Valve 

Servel Machine 

Servel Pressure Control 

Socold Cabinet 279. 

Socold Frost Unit 

Socold Machine 

Sorco Absorption Refrigerator 

^ 325, 

Spiral Fin Tube Condenser 
148. 149, 150. 

Standard Ice Box Construction . . 

Standard Wall Construction . . . 

Temperatures Obtained by Ice 
and Salt Mixtures 

Universal Machine 

Utility Machine 

Wall Construction 

...357, 358, 359, 364. 365. 366. 

Ward Cabinet 

Ward Evaporating Svstem .... 

Ward Machine ....." 

Ward Valve Connections 

Warner Machine 



Page 

231 
302 
238 
236 
237 
235 
236 
24(1 
342 
339 
304 
30 S 
245 
244 
243 

246 
243 

248 
345 
344 
249 
185 
184 
348 

119 
251 
250 
179 
300 
254 
253 
252 
255 

177 
174 
180 
108 
350 

354 
261 
258 
257 
257 
265 
263 
268 
267 
182 
355 
275 
277 
270 
272 
269 
271 
280 
278 
278 

326 

153 
110 
109 

134 
282 
283 

367 
285 
284 
283 
284 
286 



488 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Illustrations (Continued) Page 

Welsbach Cabinet 289, 290 

Welsbach Freezing Unit 288 

Welsbach Machine 287 

White Frost Refrigerator 356 

Whitehead Cooling Unit 291 

Whitehead Machine 291 

Williams Machine 213 

Zerozone Automatic Control .... 295 

Zerozone Cabinet 297 

Zerozone Cooling Unit 296 

Zerozone Machine 294, 295 

Influence of Temperature on Bac- 
teria in Foods 437 

Insulating Effect of Air Spaces 115 

Insulation for Cold Pipes (Tables).. 120 

Insulation for Refrigerators 369 

Iroquois 235 

Isko 239, 240 

Isobutane, Properties of (Table) ... 74 

J 

Jewett Refrigerator 338 

K 

Keith Absorption Machine 303 

Kelvinator Machine 241 

Kirk Air Machine 126 

Kold King 247 

L 

Latent Heat 11 

of Evaporization 34 

of Foods 452 

Leonard Refrigerator 343 

Linde 2l 

Linings 360 

Galvanized Iron 362 

Porcelain on Iron 360 

Solid Porcelain 361 

White Opal Glass 362 

Wood 362 

Lipman Machine 24S 

Liquids, Compressibility (Table) .... 100 

Lithboard 117 

Low Pressure Air Refrigerating 

System 127 

M 

Machine, Vapor Compression 131 

Manufactured Ice 21 

Master Machine 30() 

Materials for Heat Insulation IIS 

Materials for Insulating Refrigerat- 
ors 369 

McCord Condensers 150 

McCray Refrigerator 346 

Meats 393. 448 

Care of in the Home 440 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat .... 113 

Mercoid Control 179 

Merchant & Evans 249 

Metals, Corrosion of 35 

Method of Determining the Density 

of a Gas 51 

Methyl Chl9ride 44 

Properties of (Table) 75 

Metric Constants 470, 471 

Mineral Felt 117 

Mineral Wool 116 

Miscellaneous Tables 455 

Molecular Weight of Gases (Table).. 51 

Multiflex Bellows 182 



N 

Page 

National Refrigerator 299 

Natural Ice 19 

New York Tribune Tests on Re- 
frigerators 422 

Nitrous Oxide, Properties of 

(Table) 71 

Non-condensible Gases 47 

Norge Machine 251 

o 

Odin Machine 255 

Open Cycle Air Machine 126 

Operating Conditions 378 

Operation of Ice Refrigerators 377 

Orifice, Flow of air Thru 17] 

Outer Refrigerator Wall Construc- 
tion 363 

P 

Penn Electric Control 175 

Perkins 20 

Physical Constants of Metals 

(Table) 479 

Pipe Dimensions (Table) .480, 481 

Piston Displacement for Refriger- 
ants 48 

Placing of Food in Refrigerators .... 390 

Platen-Munters Machine 311 

Power Equivalents (Table) 470 

Pressure 32 

Absolute 12 

Equivalents (Table) 470 

of Condensation 32 

of Evaporization 32 

Pressures for Air-cooled Compres- 
sors 145 

Prevost's Theory 105 

Prime Mover 160 

Principles of Refrigerating Sys- 
tems 125 

Propane 45 

Properties of (Table) 76 

Properties of Air 47 

Ammonia 40 

Calcium Chloride in Water 

(Table) 160 

Carbon Dioxide 42 

Butane 41 

Ethane 43 

Ether 43 

Ethyl Cniloride 44 

Ice, 25, 16 

Methyl Chloride 44 

Propane 45 

Sodium Chloride in Water 

(Table) 161 

Sulphur Dioxide 46 

R 

Radiation 104 

Radiation Between Sun and Earth.. 105 
Rated Ice Capacities of Refrigerators 

(Tables) 372, 373 

Refrigerants 

Air ..' 47 

Ammonia 40 

Amount to be Evaporated 38 

Butane ...... : .^ . .' 41 

Carbon Dioxide ". - • 42 

Character of . .'. '. 37 

Charging of 49 

Comparison of 36 

Constants .■.-;.,.'.-■.■ 14 



TOPICAL INDEX 



489 



Refrigerants (Continued) Page 

Ethane ^i 

Ether 43 

Ethyl Chloride 44 

for Household Systems 31, 36 

General Requisites ^ 1 

Methyl Chloride 44 

Propane 45 

Sulphur Dioxide 40 

■ Use in United States (Table) ... 39 

Refrigerated Cars 23 

Refrigerating Conversion Factors.-., o 

Machine Capacity Rating 13 

Systems, Low Pressure Air 12/ 

Refrigerating Machines 

Absopure J°' 

Audiffren 190 

Autofrigor 93 

Brunswick-Kroeschell 194 

Carbondale 196 

Champion 198 

Chilrite 201 

Climax 202 

Coldmaker 203 

Cooke 206 

Copeland 208 

Creamery Package 211 

Delphos 211 

Electrical Refrigerating Co ... 213 

Electro-Kold 215 

Electrolux-Servel 307 

E verite 217 

Frigidaire 219 

General Electric 227 

Hall 229 

Icemaid 231 

Ice-0-Lator 299 

Iroquois 235 

Isko 239, 240 

Keith 303 

Kelvinator 241 

Kold King 247 

Lipman 248 

Master 306 

Merchant & Evans 249 

National 299 

Norge 251 

Odin 255 

Rice 256 

Sanat 262 

Savage 265 

Servel 268 

Socold 277 

Sorco 325 

Universal 281 

Utility 281 

Ward 283 

Warner 286 

Welsbach 287 

Whitehead 290 

Williams Simplex 292 

Zerozone 294 

Refrigeration by Chemical Methods.. 133 

History of 17 126 

in the Home _. . 411 

per Cubic Foot Cylinder Dis- 
placement (Table) 40 

Required to Make Ice 26 

Tonnage 12, 15 

Refrigerator Control Switch.. 181 

Doors, Opening and Closing.... 397 

Heat Losses 403 

How to Qean 397 

Insulation (Table) .;.... 369 

Placing of 397 

Score Card ....;.-... 432 

Tests by New York Tribune In- 
stitute ,....423, 426 

Wall Construction 359 



Page 

Wall Construction (Table) 402 

Refrigerators 

Bohn 331 

Cabalier 333 

Crystal 335 

Tewett 338 

Leonard 343 

McCray 346 

Reol 349 

Rhinelander 351 

Seeger 355 

White Frost 356 

Relation of Refrigeration Tonnage to 

Ice Making (Table) 15 

Relative Piston Displacement for Re- 
frigerants . 48 

Requirements of Household Refrig- 
erating Machines 135 

Research on Refrigerator in the 

Home 411 

Rice Refrigerator 256 

Rock Cork 118 

s 

Sanat Machine 262 

Savage Machine 265 

Seeger Refrigerator 355 

Selection Insulation 118 

Sensible Heat 1 1 

Servel Machine 268 

Sheet Metal Dimensions and Weight.^? 

(Table) 483 

Shelves 367 

Shelf Area of Ell Type Refrigerator 368 
Shelf Area of Top leer Refrigerator 

(Table) 368 

Side leer Type Refrigerator 392 

Socold Refrigerator 277 

Sorco Absorption Machine 325 

Specific and Latent Heat of Food 

(Table) 451, 452 

Specific Heat 12 

Spiral Fin Tubes 146,152 

Standard Bellows (Table) 183 

Standard Ton Data of Various Re- 
frigerants (Table) 81,82 

Strength of Materials (Table) 478 

Suction Valve 166 

Sulphur Dioxide 46 

Properties of Saturated (Table) 

77, 78 

Properties of Superheated Vapor 

(Table) ,. 79, 80 

Summer Temperatures in the United 

States (Table) 456 

Tables 

Air Flow through Circular Orifice 172 
Air Pumping Test on a Compres- 
sor 139, 140 

Ampere Rating of A. C. Motors 163 
Atmospheric Pressure Equival- 
ents 16 

Bacteria in Milk 443,444,445 

Balsa Refrigerator Test 426 

Blower Data 143 

Brine Tank Data _. 161 

CoeflBcients of Expansion and 

Heat Transmission of Gases. 476 
of Expansion and Heat Trans- 
mission of Solids and Liquids 477 
of Expansion for various Sub- 
stances _ 477 

of Radiation and Convection. . . 107 

Compressibility of Liquids 100 

Conversion Factors 15 

Copper Tubing 482 

(Zork Insulation Data 16 



490 



HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATION 



Page 

Tables (Continued) 

Cost of Ice 416 

Cylinder Displacement 40 

Decimal Equivalents of Fractions 

of One Inch 468 

Delivery of Ice 420 

Density of Water 46-t 

Desirable Temperature for Re- 
frigerators 379 

Displacement for Various Refrig- 
erants 49 

Domestic Water Rates 46!, 465 

Efficiency of a Refrigerator with 

Increased Insulation 447 

Electric Current Different from 

Standard 466, 467 

Exhaust Fan Tests 145 

Explosion Data on Gases 148 

Fin Tubing 1S4 

Flintlock Condenser Data 151 

Heat Absorbing and Radiatiny: 

Power of Svibstances 105 

Heat of Association of Ammonia 83 

Heat Transfer Coefficients 122 

Horsepower Equivalents 16 

Humidity in the United State> 

458, 459 

Humidity Test on a Household 

Refrigerator 388 

Ice Cans, Standard Sizes 27 

Ice, Properties of 16 

Ice Refrigerator Cabinet Data. 374 

Ice Used in Homes 419 

Insulating Effect of Air Spaces 115 

Insulation for Cold Pipes 120 

Insulation Used in Refrigerators 369 

Metric Constants 470, 471 

Mollecular Weight of Gases.... 51 
Physical Constants of Metals. . 479 

Pipe Dimensions 48(1,481 

Power Equivalents 470 

Pressure Equivalents 469 

Properties of Aqua Ammonia 

Solutions 84, 99 

Ammonia, liquid 62 

Ammonia, Saturated 54, 6] 

Ammonia, Superheated Va- 
por 63, 67 

Butane 70 

Calcium Chloride in Water.... 160 

Carbon Bisulphide 71 

Carbon Dioxide Vapor 68, 69 

Carbon Tetrachloride 71 

Chloroform 71 

Ethane 72 

Ethyl Chloride 73 

Ethyl Ether 71 

Ice 16 

Isobutane 74 

Methyl Chloride 75 

Nitrous Oxide 7l 

Propane 76 

Sodium Chloride in Water... 161 
Sulphur Dioxide. Saturated 

Vapor 77. 78 

Sulphur Dioxide, Superheated 

Vapor 79, .'^0 

Rated Ice Capacities of Refrig- 
erators 372. 37. >■ 

Refrigerants for Household Ma- 
chines 36 

Refrigerants, Use in United 

States 139 

Refrigeration per Cubic Foot of 

Cylinder Displacement 40 

Refrigeration Tonnage 15 

Refrigerator Insulation 369 

Refrigerator Tests by Bureau of 
Standards 421 



Page 

Tables (Continued) 

by New York Institute. . .423, 424 
Refrigerator Wall Construction. 418 
Sheet Metal Dimensions and 

Weights 483 

Shelf Area of EU Type Refrig- 
erator 368 

Shelf Area of Top leer Refrig- 
erator 368 

Solubility of Ammonia in Water 83 
Solubility of Gases in Water. . . . 100 

.Specific Heat of Gases 476 

Specific and Latent Heat of 

Foods 451, 452 

Standard Bellows 183 

Standard Ton Data of Various 

Refrigerants 81, 82 

Strength of Materials 475 

.Summer Temperatures in the 

United States 456 

Tap Water Temperatures 

459, 460, 461 

Temperature Conversion ...467, 4/9 
Temperatures in Refrigerators, 
Living Rooms, and Cellars... 

414, 421 

Temperatures of Refrigerators 

for Use in Homes 415 

Temperatures in France 457 

TTiermal Conductivity of Vari- 
ous Materials ._ 102, 108 

Thermometry Fixed Points 16 

Tons and Pounds of Refrigera- 
tion 16 

Water, Average Household Con- 
sumption of 465 

Capacity of Service Pipes 465 

Specific Heat of 476 

Temperatures of Cities in 

United States 471, 474 

Vapor in the Air 386 

Weight of Dry Air 475 

of Water, Vapor and Air 389 

of Various Substances 475 

Woods Suitable for Refrigerator 

Construction 370 

Woods used in Refrigerators. . 369 
Tap Water Temperatures (Table) 

459, 460, 461 

Temperature Control . 173 

Temperature Conversion (Table) 

_ 467. 469 

Temperature in Refrigerators 377 

Temperatures Obtained by Ice and 

Salt Mixtures (Chart) 134 

Temperatures of City Water Supply. 457 
Temperatures in France (Table) . . . 457 
Temperatures of Refrigerators in Use 

in Homes (Table) 415 

Temperatures of Refrigerators, Liv- 
ing Rooms and Cellars (Table) 

414, 421 

Tennessee Furniture Corporation... 333 

Testing for Gas Leaks 35 

Testing of Refrigerating Units by 

Use of Calorimeter 408 

Tests on Air Circulation 383 

Tests on Refrigerators by Bureau of 

Standards (Table) 421 

Theory of Refrigeration 14 

Thermometry Fixed Points 16 

Thermal Conductivity of Various 

Materials (Tables) 102, 108 

Thermostats 173 

Thermostat Operation 176 

Tonnage, Refrigeration 12 



TOPICAL INDEX 



491 



Page 
Tons and Pounds of Refrigeration 

(Table) 15 

Tubes, Spiral Fin 146, 152 

Types of Insulating Material 115 

u 

Unit of Heat 11 

Universal Machine 281 

University of Illinois Refrigerator 

Tests 430 

Use of Refrigerants in United States 39 

Utility Atachine 281 



N'alves 

Alco Liquid Control 167 

Discharge 16(i 

Expansion 168 

Float 169 

Suction 166 

Vapor Compression Machines 131 

Vegetables -148 

^^ 

Wall Construction 357 

Ward 283 

Warner 286 



Page 

Water 29 

As a Refrigerant^ 47 

Capacity of Service Pipes 

(Table) 465 

Controls 178 

Density of (Table) 464 

For Cooling Food 135 

Rates (Taole) 461-465 

Temperatures (Table) 457-461 

Temperatures of Cities in the 
United States and Canada 

(Table) 471-474 

Vapor Absorption Machines. . . . 127 

Vapor in the Air (Table) 386 

Weight of Dry Air (Table) 475 

of Various Substances (Table) . 474 

of Water (Table) 16 

Welsbach Machine 287 

What Ice Can Do 22 

Whitehead Machine 290 

White Frost Refrigerator 356 

Williams Simplex Machine 292 

Wood, P.alsa 117 

Woods Suitable for Refrigerator 

Construction (Table) 370 

Woods Used in Refrigerators (table) 

369 

z 

Zerozone, Machine 294 



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The Compression Refrigerating Machine 

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The Absorption Refrigerating Machine, Elementary Theory and Prac- 
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The Absorption Refrigerating Machine, Advanced Practice and Theory 

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Refrigerating Machines, Compression — Absorption 

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Indicating the Refrigerating Machine (Second Edition) 

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indicator cards. 
Cloth $2.50 Morocco $3.50 

Practical Refrigerating Engineer's Pocketbook 

By John E. Starr, dean of the refrigeration engineering profession. 
This pocketbook is an elementary treatise, supplemented with numerous tables 
containing valuable data on the design, construction and operation of mechanical 
refrigerating systems. 
Cloth $2.50 Morocco $3.50 

Principles of Refrigeration 

By W. H. MoTz. A complete treatise on fundamental principles of 
operation of ice making and refrigerating machinery, properties and values of 
principal media used in modem refrigerating apparatus; transmission of heat, 
functions and values of insulating materials; construction and operation of 
various parts of refrigerating apparatus and application of refrigeration to its 
varied uses. 
Cloth $5.00 Morocco $6.00 

Refrigeration Memoranda (10th Edition) 

By John Levey. A collection of useful informati9n and tables gathered 
from engineering room practice, in plain, everyday, engine-room language. Flex- 
ible leather, vest pocket size. Revised and enlarged. 
Morocco $1.00 

Ammonia Compression Refrigerating Machine 

By W. S. DoAN. A description of the ammonia compression system 
presented in a practical manner. Especially prepared for the operating engineer 
and the student by an operating engineer of twenty-five years' experience. 
Cloth $2.50 Morocco $3.50 



N Household Refrigeration (Third Edition, revised and enlarged) 

By H. B. Hull. The only treatise published on the principles, types, 
construction and operation of both ice and mechanically cooled refrigerators ana 
the use of ice and refrigeration in the home. 

Cloth $3.50 Morocco $4.50 

The Modern Packing House (Second Edition, revised and enlarged) 
By F. W. WiLDEu and David I. Davis. A complete treatise on the 

design, construction, equipment and operation of meat packing houses, according 
to present American practice, including formulae for the manufacture of lard 
and sausage, the curing of meats, etc., and methods of converting all by-products 
into commercial articles. 
Cloth $10.00 Morocco $12.00 

Packing House and Cold Storage Construction 

By H. Peter Henschien. A general reference work on the planning, 
construction and equipment of modern American meat packing plants with special 
reference to the requireme:its of the United States Government and a complete 
treatise on the design of cnld storage plants, including refrigeration insulation 
and cost data. Fully illustratd. 
Cloth $5.00 Morocco $6.00 

Cork Insulation 

By P. Edwin Thomas. A complete textbook on cork insulation, for 
students, engineers, contractors, managers and owners. The origin of cork and 
history of its use for insulation; complete directions for the proper application 
of corkboard insulation in ice and cold storage plants and other refrigeration 
installations; the insulation of household refrigerators, etc. 
Cloth $3.50 Morocco $4.50 

Warehouse Laws and Decisions (Second Edition) 

By Barry Mohun. A compilation of warehouse laws and decisions, 
containing an annotated copy of the uniform warehouse receipts act, the statutes 
of each of the states and territorial possessions pertaining to warehousemen, 
together with a digest of the decisions of the state, federal and territorial courts, 
in all cases affecting warehousemen, with an analytical index. 
Full Law Binding $7.50 

Law of Draymen, Forwarders and Warehousemen 

By GusTAV H. BuNGE. A compilation of and commentary on the laws 

concerning draymen, freight forwarders and warehousemen. 

Full Law Binding $5.00 

Selling Ice 

By Walter R. Sanders. A compilation of all the good articles pub- 
lished on the subject written by men who have spent most of their lives selling 
and increasing the sale of ice. Selling ice from wagons, at platform, cash-and- 
carry stations, ice depots and in carloads. Sales methods dsecribed. Advertis- 
ing ice. 

Cloth $3.50 Morocco $4.50 

Ice Delivery 

By Walter S. Sanders. A complete treatise on the delivery of ice to 

the consumer, compiled by a man v/ho has had twenty years' practical experience 
from the back step of an ice wagon to the assistant general managership of a 
$1,000,000 company. Dealing with inefficiency and waste in delivery methods 
and how to remedy them, organization, personnel and duties of employees, oper- 
ation, costs, accounting systems, service, equipment. 

Cloth $3.50 Morocco $4.50 

Ice and Refrigeration Blue Book and Buyers' Guide (10th Edition) 
The only directory of the ice making, cold storage, refrigeration and 
auxiliary trades. A complete list of ice factories, cold stores, packing houses, 
breweries, dairies, creameries, meat markets, hotels, restaurants, and all estab- 
lishments using mechanical refrigeration in the United States and Canada, in- 
cluding valuable statistical data concerning the refrigerating industries. 
Cloth $12.00 Morocco $14.00 

NICKERSON & COLLINS CO., Publishers 
5707 W. Lake Street, Chicago 






Dili 



Q-i 



;V(-';e; in its 
S/ih year of 
publication. 



AND 




(KICAJSO^ano NevvYokh. 



The Recognized Authority 

in all matters relating to 

Mechanical Refrigeration 

A monthly Review of the he, Ice Making Refrig- 
erating, Cold Storage and Kindred Industries 

THE oldest publication of its kind in the world and the only 
medium through which can be obtained all the reliable, technical 
and practical information relating to the science of mechanical 
ice making and refrigeration. It is invaluable to anyone own- 
ing, operating, or in any way interested in ice making, cold 
storage or refrigerating machinery. 

The advertising sections contain the illustrated announce- 
ments of the leading manufacturers of ice making and refrig- 
erating machinery, accesf-ories and supplies. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE: 

In U. S. and Possessions $3.00 per year 

In all other countries 4.00 per year 



NICKERSON & COLLINS CO. 

Publishers, 5707 West Lake Street, Chicago 



DATE DUE 




Demco 



TP492.6.H8 1927. 



3 9358 00018855 4 



TP4 92.6 

H8 

1927 



Huli, Harry Blair, 1890- 

Household refrigeration; a complete 
treatise on the principleSf types, 
construction, and operation of both ice 
and mechanical iy cooled domestic 
refrigerators, and the use of ice and 
ref r ii^erat ion in the home, by H« B» 
Hull ••• 3dL ed», rev. and enl* Chicago, 
Nickerson £ Collins co« [cl927 3 

491 p« incl* illus«f tables, dia^rs* 
24 cm* 



BNU 



ir^ OCT 7 8 



1721658 NEDDbp 



27-2376 



TP492.6.H8 1927 



3 9358 00018855