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Full text of "Household Words: A Weekly Journal"

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^ / 








■ 




4 


■ ^ 


■ 







'FlUnUiar in thtir Moutht en HOUSEHOLD WORDS.". 

— ^ % 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 



fi eieeklg Jlountal. 




OOIfDncniED BfT 



VOLUME XIV. 



Fb4?m July 19, 1866, to DKCKStBBtt ST, 1S66» 

£em^ /nont ^ci, 330 l« No. 353, attd also including the £cfra Numb^ amd a 
kiiif for UhriMtm^u^ 



NEW YOBE: 

DIX, EDWARDS & CO., 331 BHOADWAY. 

1850- 






I 



CHARLES DICKENS. ^ 



4 
4 



MAY a 8 1971 //ff 



Amufto lbs rniifllHi Esgrle 

Afrtci^ CiLpt&ln Burton' ft IVftTelft 
111 . . . , . * 

Aig*ffit, A €4uup«igii Id « 
Aliimtuiiim . . . ^ «, 
Al!>«rlc«— A Ftffht In tll« IIwus 

Amtrlcft, lUkTerf la ... 
AmtFiedci Chftngtefl of Niraoi » 
Amtileiia Pmrtjr Naidiis » 

All«BlQtl»« . ^ . . , 

Aih:i'tti«H;iLrtHik , , , , . 
At ttt-Mirv« Hii<l OtttDd 
Ai till' 8L|;:ti nr thii BilTfiT Ilom * 
AtitfirftitiiM FAtriol, AH 
AiiitdKn It&ljt Tlie "T^Telkf to 



Hank of Euj^lund Kotes 
BUHAT bt SL PeieTKburg, 

Ot¥«t * . . * 

B«fttiti^ A fftlnM tiiQ B«rs . 
IMuuin Anba, Tha ^ 
Betffiiun . h . * 
DelRliim, Uottlfl in . 
Bc^LMiTif LftdiFfl SchtioU Id 
Dtfkgiiiiii, LUUwAyfl in , 
Bflif tiun Siibufb, A 
BendiBf TiiulwT . 
Berltn . < . 

B«a9ciiiei''s, Mr^ Id vein Ion 
Bird llHtory . 
niACk luid Blue . 

Bluik Vi\t^, A , ^ 

Boitr Unntt i»7 Vt»limtjii<-x, TImi 

Bhiui(i 

BrUD^wkk P«4sAalGtrlJ 



Calati to Gulnni, A vntlt fr^in , 
CmmpalttD with the Ftni^li, A < 
CKpt^iln ill tlie li i«EM , » . 
CriTtlt* ftbo# in Pn^* 
r'bBti^':lnji; Nuiit:!> h» V^MPrlet 
riuirltu the FifUi- tii'V* * 
Chn.thum„ %Vhiii i\ to kjccmnA of 
iibetp TliDvft . . . » H 
Chlffi^ S0p 46, 190, l&i, 1791, 337, 



On I M^liii; AeeldeaU . 
C<'#i'*t Folk 

CoEoninrPrntTlot,^ A « . 

Cni]4ainn^ ti < i ^rutb 

(.ciiiifuth .i.MTja] V'wXiM IttDg 
C'i-:!'"fi: t-n-li , 

Coiiti«V, MU^ |l[inli!iit, Prlrtj'v 



1400 

ITfj 

id 
5U7 



l,i3 
8^ 
440 

41 

i«a 



44.'^ 

NT 
174 

47« 

47a 
1.^ 

trO 

t 
37 tl 

^7 
24 



4D 

*iJ7 
433 

^bi 

34?, 

IS, 81 
* S47 
, 130 
« 90 
. \^ 

, 4fi 

. 2^ 
r 

. SS 

. SI4 



CONTENTS. 



'^ 



tAt« 

Ciutem Houm oMoei* tt Cran- 

«tft4i , . , . 9Si,A40 
Ctittie FiahiMi' Kgu** . * » IP 
("vinuin lid llerg^Jtie 
Cm»'» I11g1i»<ir/I*t"« , . * 429 

Uat «f EvLkrinlai.% A ^ M6^ i9B 

Ut Gtmritin'ii S«h«ms for O^nA- 



lHurf of Ann*! K^f^wi^ 
Ihrk niilbriguvii 

jni..ij]'. I • !•' Vinifi fct 
h ^, A 



El MM-, Tb6 

Mill], Daj^ on Ex,inLi«rt A 

JJillaKS . , . , 



t 1»:*<J 
. !2b7 

. »»7 



KA4niui Rf Dir. Tbu FrivAM Ll(^ 

ufiii ; . , . . SOfl 

i:*:;.'!! on Uiis S» Cotdt , . 1127 

Ejjo irt (Uibiif * , . , 73 

KnisIiHti Ltoft.-.C Folk « . . SI 

UtuK, C&pt&lu of tbe BaAtB^ Tbs S81 

EinuMir, t DiiU D^y on , » I9l 

FfusT \li^ivto«CointnUt«4^, Tti* 4X0 

Flmt WaiI, a . ... set 
Fly-klhing .,..»! 

Flj-le*vo4 . . , » , ^^1 

Fo»E:trikA TIoK!»^, &t Fricriiburig 95^^ 

roiitil*^ ' "' - T .. .. Qgiii^pj _ la 

ForbliE. t' . . . 434 

Francti, . 1 wUblb* , *9 

Vrenchmn-'i ..* . >,, hV'lvei , * 4S5 
l-^e*. A mail Mf , , .25 

From t'Htli to CJ^miirord • . 217 

Fum in St. FutcriibLi)^ . . 934 

GjiLVA*fiinip tUa Dl*i?w«iry &f . 19 

UnH-lMtUfWlll 3L iVMOnbLt]^ » , 4^4 

Gf^riHiiu linilH'Miyii + . . itS? 

Gtfnnan ItuvuluEioiip A, 75< 14C^ H7» 

Gfirmtii SwiiiertftUil, t\m Trnwl- 

krln 17^ 

GhMit rj 

(jIkH'^ Fp4ftiitTba * * . . 115 

Girl*' Scko«>U * * . . 31 J 

(iov^rtieiMs . n t * t 1^ 

llARAft, OjiplAiD fiurtoii-i yiiit 

to ...... 17& 

lli^jikh and £duc«t[uti . . ^ ai5 
UlghArt . . . . 1!H,»47 

llottil d'Anis1«i«ti« 41 OanilAntl^ 

tiopltt ...... &53 

Mow wu |,o«r 4W 3kUflliit«r » . ^14 
Uiin£Ajri«n Uhitdlt . .164 

1 FnamsK t^ P*y . . . . &56 

tcwl»nd, A I'Tvleulor of . . . fi^ 

1 ii4i 4 o C%iiiirt Circular, Ad m . Sii^ 

hUh Ml 'IN . . . ♦ . 30:? 

Irvn^Mr. ttc^*^'Tn^J^'* tnTentloD 1i!?<3 

Iron, Mr, C-r/if InvoNtiiin . 1W 



Itlitu rutlvMl. An > . . U« 

ItMljr (Aiutviiia)^ Tb« Ti«TtllQr 

lii , . , . , * . m 

Jrirri r 1 t^ [„ fli^ PHWClburg , dS& 

^loi V . ) I . . k,i ^ h t, ,,t'a Wladoia . , 4,vi 
Jnr - .1 , :'.,..,« AdmnEMuneiita 4110 
nyn. A; 

Tiey . . . iil 
I . .._..: tka Fntcdan 

4 '^>i^ 801 

I f.«»y at CmttjitAdt . . 804 

lAJMkmy Ht^t HciA^L.Tri »jt,ik . HH 

. 9T9 

an 
r, Tb« . . 4M 

M^rchttUbi IMUfoiltT-cliiinj^ri ' 
Tbi^St^boaiL A|Mukn VtJlitgB 4 
A Couotrjr Htmrnf , . . MA 
KtinKEanii At U(^« , . Hl^lttl 

jiiRtic« At NApr«i V » . , ur 




King ai^iiAlrla , 

K liijf of ItAptlA Tb« 

RlugofChida^A , 



* 41i 



T^DISB* 8fl}K>0^fl , • . 311 

Liidit>A' Sdi(«U In B<^lg^flfn 7t 
tjfli^t r>fty* of a£^ 

lioD ... \ 
X^ni Judgin«nl, 

gf'Ini'^A pAinttllg m 111 A . 

LiLZzxroftL tn NAplea^Hii 
I^aA AoA Na¥er Called for . 

Lttihjsj- . . . . . yiJ 

Um In tH*3 Fit . . , , 3« 

lioibirx ^nekAtt . , , . ^m 

Li>iu n*, 'i he TixmnmA of tlae . fil 

l#^l:^kqaw * , . . . 30 

%tA<;m?rttKT Tof Agrtenltun «, Si 

MM ]>rtiicliij^ . . ^ , ^ igf 

MAbnrkA TubAiSfio , . * 401 

Mnrliic-iirnpasi , , « lH 

Mkluuil AiigBlo * « « IM 

>JSc^>«tO[tCA , . „ , » Sff 

Mkhiw i4ci . . f91,97f,44| 
M]|verNUMiti Wortbtei . 19, 40. At 

.MhuiuA . , . . . 44& 

Min^lAtJt ^ . . . 410 

M'lil.i'r Sljilptou * . ^ . 10f 

Mr. Sp,M;kWt»nllliniiAir . . Ittfi 

980,471 

.MurdtTfliLl l^trFA-in^ 'riiA w . i ^^ 

}'\%Wi'K'\ii &pn.'>in. . m « • l]t8 

Mf nifti'lc Mirrtfr . * . * les 

M V llf QiheT l^AlNTt * . , 4(ia 

Myl^UUftWaPd , , . . S& 

My Siiiiitten . ■ • t I'Jt 



XaplUi Jli?ltICfl At . 

;(4i»lrA, Tbc K!ng of 



4^ 



CONTEKTa 



==1 



II 



WAWB 

Nittorm] G*]liTy,iiiid the Old 
iiiLmtufn , . . IDS, ^17 

Kc««l>i*j^-r Ifi 1^1, A , , 1^, 4;^ 
NiKht In !:»i. Fetonlliav . . . 3A3 

t^dy ...... 145 

NQlA,Tt»0Glg1Lc»FMt«bi . , 115 

Ndvid WtCteiB, A Ptitlttoa to tht 401 

Ot& Bfjiiprinis, TUtf - N 1B4, 3iT 

On XliAneu lit I'Arf« , . , If IS 

Opiil KiaK. Thft . . » . ti:f 

Onienii of kmt Afi^j The , * 11^ 

Uttfiid , t * . . « Tt 

Outli'. A King i>r , . ^ * ario 

Oiir Irrpii i.'i>ii!i[[iiiiii:t]ii . ^ . KiU 

Our r4il»unrHL<( Willi FlcTVerft. . S21I 

Owra Ne«i, Whw« t Fotwil ^ . t!Vi 



pAiKTiHtift Ijf the 014 SI«it<iTn 
180^ 

Pn, i.ra » 

pii' ^ r« In 

party NLLtura in America . 
HiLUi'iK'ii NiitftanM Abroad, TM 
Pt It nuA ttik Pli'i 
Pi'iKir ^Vt'{ldj^j7, A « . « 

P«diM/ienl In 1081, A . . <5S^ 
Poi'lirlnkli'ftt « r , . 
Petur tl*3to«% N»runil Hlnto^of 

nii<u . . ^ . I « 

paiUltni to i)i« N«««I Wfllluil, A 

Puitt I'fu^rrctoTj A . , * 
phulitv, 1^hc + « . . . 
PHeliiiid n»}itfi£ . . . , 
PlmiplM . ^» 
I'liifttMtr /,f Miti 



Po 

PUM 
PfVN 






Ji_ Pu 



. 510, &32, 

.u The . . . 

r AtUeri On Hoftrdtlw 

375, 

FrirMALlfAof lUi Ewitem King, 

Tl>e ,...,. 

Prrtrvllftlei af aiotbtt Bblpton , 

PmIII^ 

Pud4i« AjimnMiei 

lfert>l«! Ebon], Tim . . .344, 



347 
ay 

4£)^i 
Mi 






§A0M 

KAttwAT DrlTert* Bifiuli * . ITS 
rUphi^r] . . , t i 19d 

lljij' Tishj Eg^-s of . . . 139 

KiMitli)^ MutlilnuB . , . ^ l£fi3 
Hti'Foliidon m GdTfDUiTi A, 75, 140. 
14T, «)& 
RnidA ill Eu-iaU .1'. « .432 
Hoval niunvt BUl, A ♦ » . . Slfi 
K ivml Treiurirw . . . . SSt^ 
Uu^nlit, A floiimttf t^, 335^ 301, 831, 
^m, 3t&, ^97, 4S^ 416, 40^ 4Bi, Hi. 
a$, 565 
Rn^iU And Cliliiii . , . . 4Ta 
HiiiflliL, ( htiar^d'jinpeM tn* * 471 
KimN,in, Fit'nhiH Tiine In , * 4Ui9 
"^ . . i4l»,4Uf» 

1^ .... 470 

i ruT It HertH The t?» 

': i/ijj«, Tlie , . 874 

i . . . , . 401 

iU.'.-,f^u v.iLiiiiG^ A ► ... 4^3 



^ArAAiFflHil I . 306>A17, 356 

ii.iiMi tl»]M''i^a ^ * * . * 34^ 

gcii'.'PT-3iig s.f ^c«d * , , 6# 

BcllHiry ititi niDiUt , p , 164 

^dHUcE], CuRM b'tilJt , ■ i . ItJ 

^^ i.riijnmrieA • • , 34i 

S«%(;ii.rfti<ni . t , t * S*l 

S«3*'II*»4ff.^|i..U» , , , * 804 

^^a I UnH . , . i , 891 

H.Ji --In I jftr* . , . .1^5 

^<vi ^'^milji, Kk^ of, , , , 1% 

t?tt-4, ..*,,. 5© 

pijnrkv iijBrg? . . , , . tag 

Sl^cil rifili . . , , 348, Stft 

&iapton, Molliur . . . . IfiT 

Ki^;^^ «if tl>n SlWvr ILnrn. At thci . ill 
sikjiiftis BUfl U'l^iiie Driven * , Ifp 
^U ^'iidburt ufilie L««f , , IRfi 
Sis \Vfii-B In n CVU . . . . BOfi 

Kirtveiy in Am^rle-t . * . 133 
SSnvcfi and fliirir MutAr* , .133 
idl4'tK>^U (Hu^JLftii Village) . H4, &85 
S'den ...... 2W 

Si5iiiebfjiiy-i Wark . . . . 1*6 

S\ cfklcn, Mr., au Hlmietf , ,196 
lit'lEUiier* .♦.,.. 1311 
SifttrifncHiig , 4 * 'i * 4S4 

Stdr Fifth soil 

Bi. Onnrg« ftnd th« Dngon . . S5§ 
^t, reti^rs^jiirff, PAVei^ient In ♦ ♦ 4^ 

Siihin-ban Itnlgittm . . * . 4T& 

Siir rfiJftr Fiifili , , . , 334 

Si I iH' mit tioiiJi of Cuftit Feoplfl . 1 T 
^14'itz^rlDind (Gi^na&b)^ ThA Tfft- 

Tclkr in . . , , * 17'1 

SwitxdtlActd, TnTeniDg kn « , 178 



TATU31U In at. Pateialmfg . . S5& 

T&Ut-SE0pp«ra . . . . , ^7 
Taiw . , . ,191 

TlcatMiT DendLng . « . 154 

Tombof hn Ettjotem iving . ♦ tOQ 
Td Think «r be T bought ibr IML 347 

Tathill 1- iistd* Fair . . . S15 

Trdjuttgumlloia, RA|«liji£rAPftlotr 

li>R of ibn . . , , . 1S6 

TrAvtUlfiirln AajitHurt ItAlj . 170 
Tff^uurr in tha MiddEa Agfei, 

The - . . , . . a» 
Two Dtffl cult Cuea . .385,473 

Two Hiindiud Pmind« Rowrd . I IS 

Two re nee Ml llfnif - . . 138 

TWD Wives, The Frenchmui gf 4S5 

Uitdbh Wftter Eiljiti^iioe . 342, 391 
Ubitod Stati^B' K^iirticntAUrdfl, 

A Fight i*^tw«rii . . . . W 

Vnitfld St«tD«, SUviMT' in tbo , laS 
lJ«li«iiB , . . * ^ , 97 

VjtL.istjuRK'^A PkluTV of the BoAr 

Hum. ..... 047 

V igilAflcc Committed, The Pint IGO 

WnATlJitobeoonseofLlinthajnr 560 

Wheiki 348 

Wlipre I Fagnd an Owl'> Nest * 430 

W hire Slaves in RilshU . , , 401 

Wild FLowtirB. Thn Puinouoai . ^4 
WorldH, Ttm iniifatirv «f » . M 

Warltl Uitiieuii, The , . . S»l 

WttLck-Bii4*iiel« . . , , 3i91 

Writitig all Art^cU , . . 1S4 



174 

17B 



YAtmrtnta 
24tLa . 



POETRY, 

AsrocL of LoTB^ Tho . 
Autumn Bba4ow, An 
litJhtr, The . 
HiirLb«li Lightened . i 
Chn^trasj) €AJtd, A * 
Faithful Allrror, Th« , 
Hnwkawtili t'iitCH , 4 
Idfe atid ihe Bird. . 
Lif«-!ilw»ip, The 
Lnve of Bviautf . 
M(in]DDiJ.ib . > f 
Uy JmiintL) . , 

Pfttlant and FaitMlU , 
Uliiiio-LAnd 
Shmtluvr of tba Khnd . 
Springn in the D^'soft , 
\Vift,>PmPtlou, A 

Word AnftlDgiii . 



S63 
IM4 

3&1 

«L'5 

348 
130 

63 
4St 

sag 

im 

433 
13 

as 

gfi 
446 



The ChrlitaiM Kumher, Tiu WXlECK OF THE OOLDEH UAJIY wtU b* Ibtiitd at flie end of tlia Yiilmii«, 

TboWretk 1 

Tha BeE^itilenwBt 111 tb« Boftia • « * « * . , 13 
TIm D«liveraiica *»•*•#••> 30 



I 



t 



HOUSEHOLD WOKDS. 



tCndKMlr 



"BonU l»e fnghtftied about ine, Anue,*' rf**^'^^*? »^ empty, mme have ntilv got jjirj©. 
slie tiayfl, " 1 am not worth it^ aad there ia no P**»cp in tSiem, to Lijst me for all tlie refit of 
neeci,*' tha week.'' 

** No uted ! " MLji I, out of breath. ** No ] *" Your fetber nwii triother were hnn'»«t 
ueerl, wb^n tli© bottle han got Poison marketl P^^Jji'e*** s^ja Mary, obatinat dy* ** My inoth^p 



<»u it I 

"Poiaon, dear, if you take it all," iaye 
Mary, lookmj^ at me very teii) lerly ; " aiid a 
night's r«8t if you oiily take a little," 



rtin Kwav from home, aritl Hje^t ui a ht*fl|ii^al. 
My father wiy* always drurjk, and alw^vi 
btatint? Jue, My Btffniiutlier ia aa (ToimI at 
deud, fur alt alie cares ab*mt roe. My oiily 



I watched her fnr a mointMit ; doubtful br-utser is thmjiTimls of mile* away iri foieixii 
whet lier 1 ought to believe what she aaid^ or | f*'*''^^* '^nd never wiitea to me, and never 
to alarm th^ house. Uut thei^ Wua no «lei?pi- J'^^^l'S ^*e with a furthiDg, My awe«t^ 
neas uow in her eyes, and nothing drowsy in he-irt— '* 



her voice ; and ahe aat up in l>tid quit4) easily 
witJiout anything to aup|HJrt her. 

" You have given me a dread fa 1 frlghtg 



She stopped, and the red flew into her 
face, I knew, if Hhe went on that way. she 
would only i»et to the &aildi?«t part of her imd 



Jlary,'* aays I^ aitting down by her in tht* Btory, aiivl give both lierself and ma uuuee^* 

chair, anil beginuiog, by this time, to feel ! ^f^^J ptdu, 

rather faint after beirpg startled ao. | My sweetheai't ia too poor to niarrj me^ 

She jumped out of bed to get me a drop of: MRry/' I #«id* " So I'm not to mudi to be 
wmter ; ana kissed merand said how sorry she envied, even there. But let 'a give over die- 
waa, and how undeserving of so much interest putlng whidi ia wors^t fsff. Lie down in bed, 
bein^' taken in her. At t!ie same time, she «iJtJ let me tuck you up. Ill mitaatitdi or 
tried to posaess hei^df of the laudauLitn- ; two into that work of youra while you go to 
boitle which I stiU kept cuddled up ti^jht in i ^leep " 
my own hands. | Inateail of doing what I told her, she burst 

*' No/' saya I. " You have got irtto a low- oQt crying (V»einj^ very like a child in soutfof 
spiinted despairing way* I wuu't trust you her wuv**)* and hu/ged me ao tight round 
with it.** I the neck, til Htahe quite hurt me, I let her 

** 1 am afraid I can't do witlmiit it,*' aays go oti, till she had worn htr^elf ont, ami »ai 
^tarv, in her uaiitil quiet, lnjpftuEs voice, obliged to lie down. Kven tiien, her last few 
** What with work that I can't get tlir-tuirh \ words, before she dropped olf to sleep, wert 
aa I ought, and troubles that 1 ean*t help s"di as I waa half-sorryi half-frig htt^ned, (0 
thinking of, sleep wim*t come to me unleiia I hear, 

take a tew drops out of that hoUle, Dojrt *^ I won*t plague yon long, Anne,** slie said* 
keep it away ftx>m me, Anne ; it a the only ' " I haven't courag*? to s^a ont of the world aa 
thing ia th« world ttial tuakea me forgJt jou jsetjoi to fsar I shall. But I hef(<n my 
myaelf/* life wretehedly, and wr»itchedly I am aea* 

** Forget youracdf ! ** aaya X* '* You have tence^l lo end it.** 
no right to talk in that way, at your age. | It was of no use lecturiuj;?^ her at^aii*, for 
There's something horrible in the notion of a ahe ek*flcd hur eyes, I tucked her up na 
girl of eighteen sWping wtth a bottle of neatly an I could, and put her ]>ettieciat i^v^r 
raudannm by her bedUtde every night We her ; for the htd-elothes were aCMJity, and 
all of ua have our truubtea* Haven't I got | her hanrk felt cold. 8he loi>ked go pretty 
xnine?** and delicate aa she ftfll aslefp, that it quite 

** You cftu do twice the work I can^ twice , maiie ray heart aeiie to see her, afier audi 
aa well aa rae,'* aaya Mury, ** You are never talk aa we had held together, I just waiteii 
leoUled and rated at f-tr awkwarduesa with hmg enough to be quite aure that she waa in 
your needle ; and 1 always wm, Y*n\ can the land of drerims ; then emptied the hor- 
pay for your room QV^ry week ; and 1 am ' rible lautJaoum-bottle into the grate, took tip 
three weeks in debt for mine,** ( her haU-done work, and, going out softly, lelt 

** A little mora practice,*' aaya I, *' ami a her for that niirht. 
little more cournge, and yon will i<oon do I March tith. Sent off a long letter to 
better. Yon have got all your life bifore Hobcrt, begging and entreating him not to 
juu^— *' {be so down liearttfd, ami not to leave Ame- 

"I winh I was at the end of it,'* aaya she, ricfi wi>hout making another effort, t told 
breaking in. ** I'm alone in the world, and , Itim I coidd bear any trial except the wretch- 
luy life^anogowl to me/' edneaji of seeing him come hack a heljdesa, 

** Ytm ought to be a^^hamed of yourself for, broken-down man^ trying uaebsdy to Iwgin 
saying so,** aayt* L *^ naven*t you got me for , life ngain> when too old for a change, li waa 
a friend, Didn't I take a fancy to you when [ not till after I had (>oittd my own lett<?r, and 
first you left your stepmother, ami eatne to read over parte of liobert'a again, that tha 
lodge in this honse 1 And haven't I been ' suspicion suddenly floated across me, for the 
sisters with you ever since 7 Sup}>oKe you tir^t time, that he might have sailed for En^ 
are aiotie in the world, am I much better off? hmd immediately alter wanting to me. I'hera 
I'm an orphxui, like you* Tve almost ai were expreasiona in the letter which seemed 
many thiuga in pawn oa yon j and, if your < to indicate that he had some auch headlopg 



_^ ^ 



T 



TJTE DtABY OF AN^Tl BODWAT, 



ptnjeoi in his mmd An^l jel^ atrrely if it 
were su>^ I ouglit to have Ui^tieej them at the 
fint rt ading, I c:iu uiily \u*p& I am wi^inj* 
LU my present interpretnUrin of much of wha^t 
he hifca wriiteii ti> me — hopo it eiiriiejstiy for 
both our mkea. 

Tliiii I ins l;e*^n a doleifijl day for roe. I have 
b#tti uue^tAy aUont Hobprt^ nmX unea.^y about 
Mury* My mind h h mm ted by th«W Isist 
liords of hers : ** I bfqan ray life wretchedly, 
AUd wn?tch<?dly I am sure to end it** Iler 
mim] melaoehuly w^iy of tnlkiivi never pro- 
daeed the Katue irTipre->slou on me that I teet 
now, Perhwija the docnvery of the hmdnuufo- 
ktiile 1-4 th^ eau^e of tbii. I won til give 
itiAriy a hard dny'a work lo know whnt t^j do 
for Maty 'a g04>fi. My liearf. wanneii lo her 
^■hen we tirat m*?t ii> the same lodj^ing- 
hoime, two yeara ago ; ntnK »UI(mi£rh 1 am 
Hat one of the over-HtlVctiuniite sort myself 1 
f»?€?l *ui if 1 coo US go to tlie worhTij end to 
serve iliat gIrL Yet, »tran je to sriVt if I wa^ 
•i»ke<| why I was «o toiid of lier, I duirt think 
2 filit'Vihl kmiw h*tw to Htmirer tlie c^iieHMOo, 

March 7ib« I rim almost a^«llrl1»ledto write 
it ttovrn» even In this jtminal, whieh no *?yej* 
l>Ut iiiine ever look on ; yet I tiwmi hnijestly 
outifaiSfi to myself that here I nm^ at, ne irly 
one 111 the mom in *^^ sitting wp in a etute t*f 
»rri(Jtta itiien^iine^ beeiude Mary hn% liol yet 
eunie hrrm«f, L Wnlketl wtth her^ thi.i larirn' 
tug, to the pliwe where she worki*. and tikd 
to UaJ her into t^dkir^^ of thts rcIhtl^^nB ghe 
iiNA got who aiv 81 ill aUvi*. My fu olive lu 
diftug thit wa^ to set? if die droppt^d anythitsg 
hi ih© csiUi'se of conven*!itioo whieh mi^^lit 
tngj;*^st a way of h«lpiug lier in(ert*sts with 
tlio«e who tire hottnii tu give her idl reasnij- 
ahk iAsisrn.iit:e. E^it Uie littte I coidd ^et 
her to say to me lorl to nothioi^. Instead of 
BfiiiweHni^ iny4ne!4tii>nu.ilirint ht^r sti;j»muther 
And her brolhtr, sh« [Msrsbtt'd at lir;*tj io the 
jrtTangeBt way, in (Alkinij of her fiither, who 
w»» dead Mid i^one, and of ono Nonb Trii§< 
cott, who hatl het-n tlie wur^it of nlJ the ba^d 
friendd h« hail, und hsbd mn^^bt him tu drink 
tnd gjwiie. Whifn I ibd get' her to sp ttk of 
her Woiher, ihe only k**Rvy that he h:td gfine 
out to li pEft^ eidk^d Assam, whfre they 
L:rew te** How he wa-* didn^, or whei her 
he was there uti)!^ ^he did tuti ^eem to kuow, 
never having beurd a woitl fmm Idra h>r 
years an>l vcars \n%sU Ab torhurBtepmoth^r, 
Mary, not ntinMrnmlly, llt^w into n pjLH:$lon 
the moment I ej>oke of her Hhe ke 'fi.^ nn 
^ting-hoiifie at HamnierHtnitb, atnl could 
have given Mary giKid eni[«h;iyment iu it ; 
brt elie «e*m9 atwuys to tiave haleti her, and 
td have m?t(te her life so wretched with 
libaite and ill usage, that *lie ha*l no refuge 
left hot to go away fmrn home, and do lier 
W«t to mnke tk hvin^ for heratdK Her hos- 
Ijniid (^Jary*fl fathnr) appears to have be- 
hiivtd badly to her ; and, after hia deaih, she 
took the wicketl course of reveoj^ing beiTjieJf 
on U*rifle|Mianghter. 1 felt, after this, theit 
it waa itupo^lbte Mary eoald go hack, and 



that it was the hard ne'.'essity of her position, 
as it h of mine, tinit ehe should struggJe on 
to make a decent Itvelibood without aa^ist- 
juiee from any of her relation*. I coafeijaed 
aa mu.^b as this to her; but I ad- led that I 
wotihl tr^ to get her eni|iloyment witJr the 
per sons tor whom I work, who pay hiy;ber 
wa^ea, an^l a how a litUe mare indul;4euce to 
thii:3e miller them, than the people to whom 
^he is now obliged to look for support, I 
spoke much mure conlidently than I felt, 
alwut beinr; able to do this j and left her. aa 
I thought, m better spirits than uan:d. Sim 
promlie<i to be buck lo-nii^ht Uy tea, at nine 
oVhjckj and now h is neariy one in the morn- 
ing, ttrid ^he m not home yet. If it wtm any 
other cirl I whould not feel vineaay* I shonhl 
mjike np my iinnd that there waa extra work 
to be done in a hurr>% tmd that they were 
keepini^ her hite, and 1 ahould go to bed But 
Mary In no unfortuniite in every thin** that 
hjippeiia to ht-r*and her own melancholy talk 
at^jnt herself keepa han^^in^ alxmt my mind 
so, that I hsive fears on her amount which 
wonhl not dytte^ me about any one I'Ue, It 
seems inexeubahly »tlly to thtnk minh a ihin^^ 
much more to wnt« it down ; but I have a 
kmd of nervoua dread nt>on ma that some 
ace id en f — 

What does that loud knoekintjat the street 
door mean t And tlrfw^e voieea arid heavy 
fojilateps outride I Some lodj^er who hiU h*st 

hi* key, I sappo^e. And jet, my ho'irt 

What a coward I have become all of a 
sudden ! 

More knockinij and hirjder voices. I must 
run to the dr>or and see what it is. d ^Wy \ 
Mary! I hope 1 am not goiii|r to have 
atiother fright about you ; but 1 fei^l acidly 
like it, 

March eth, 

March 9th* 

Mi^rch loth. 

March llt.h, O, mat all the troubles I 

have ever had in my life are as nothing to 

the tro utile I am in now. For thrtiu ilaya I 

have not het^u able to write a aingie line in 

thia journal, whteh I have kept so r*'gularly, 

evrr mtict 1 wad a ^irb For ihree days I 

have Hot once thought of noi>erl — I, whu am 

jdwavs tiiinkin.j of him at other times. My 

(Hoor, dear J unhappy MMry^ the worst I feared 

for you on that uijht wnen 1 sat up aloue 

wit^i'far bilow the diea-iful crdaiuity that has 

I really happcueih How akn I wrtte about it, 

witfi my eye.H f jll of tear?* aud my hauil all 

I of a tremble ] I don't oven know why I am 

jaiUiiL^ down at my deak now, unless it ia 

^ hrfbit that kee|*3 me to my old everyday ta$k, 

tu ipite of all the grief and fear whmh seeuiii 

to unfit me entirely for performing it. 

The people of the house were asleep and 

lasy on that dreadful ni^'ht^ and I was the 

bi-st to open the door. Never, never, could I 

desflcribs in writing, or even say in plain tulk^ 

, though it is so much easier, what I felt when 

j I saw two policemen come in, carrying 



1^ 




HOUSEHOLD WOROa 



i| 



i|. 



L 



between tliem what fteemed to me to be a deafl 
girl^ and tbat gitl Mary t I caught lial*^ of 
b^r &Eid gave a Si-Teain that nm^t have 
aliu'med the whole houaii j for^ frightened 
people csiuo crowding down-stjiirfl iit iheir 
ni^Fiit'drtjHjiefl, There waa a drtivlfiil oon- 
f nation aiid noise of loud talk id g, but I heard 
nathing, and aaw nMhlDg, liU I had got hf r 
into iijy roftiu, ftutl laid on my betL 1 stooped 
down^ fi*antic-Uke, to kiB« her, mid eaw an 
Awful lUArk of a bliiw on ber left temple, and 
ftdt, at the aititie tiiuif, a feoMe tliitier of her 
breath *>u iijy cheek* Tlie diacov'er^v thnt she 
wtii not dead teeuicd to give me Imck my 
neosfd af^Hiii^ I tidd one of the police men 
where the nearei^t doctor was t** W found, 
and sat down by lh« bedside while he was 
gmte^ and bathed bei" poor heiul wUh cold 
water. She never o^^ened her evea, or moved, 
or i]>okc I but abt.* brejilhed^ and that v^aa 
enougb for ine, because it waa enough for 
life. 

"Hie polleeman left in the room wa« s Uig, 
thick -voiced, poinjjon.^ man, with a horrible 
unfeeling pl^jtsure in heftHUi: biiiirielf talk 
before an asseuiiily of fnirhten«d, ailent 
people. He told us how he bad f ♦uud her, 
aa it he lift i bevn telling a aiorv in a tnp- 
tooin, and be^^an with saying, ** I don't thiuk 
the young woman was drunk.** Drunk \ My 
Wary, who ndght have been a born lady for 
all the apinta Bhe ever loucheih Bnrnk i I 
eouhl have strnL^k the man fnr nltenng the 
wor^l, with her Ivin^^ jjoor anlFiiinj^ aogel, so 
wliite and arid ivnd helpless before liim. As 
it waSj 1 gave him a look ; but he wjis hto 
atnpid to understand lit and went droning 
on, Haying the same thing over i*T)d over 
again in the B^iiue wor^la. Anil yet the aEory 
of how they found her was, like all the sad 
atoi iea 1 have ever heani to hi itt real life, flo 
very, very Hhort, They had jirat seen her 
l^ing along OIL the kerb stone^ it few atreeta 
oftt and had taken her to the qtaUon-htm^e. 
Thrre a he had ^Jteun ^earehed, anil one of my 
cjtrda, that I give to ladiea who piMiui^e me 
emptoymeiit, had been found in her picket, 
arjil so they had bronght her to onr honse. 
This was all the notn really Imd to tvlL 
There wjts noUaly neikr ber when she waa 
found, and no evidence to aho^ how the 
blow on her temple bad bt^en biflieted* 

What a time it waa before the doctor came, 
and how drej4ttfnl to hear him aay, attt^r he 
bad lookeil at her, that be waa afraid all the 
medical men In the world coul) b*^ of no use 
here I He could not get her to a wallow any- 
thing ; and the more he tried to bring her 
back to her senses, the leas chance tht^re 
seemed of his sueceedlng* He examined the 
blow on htrr temple, and iaul he thought she 
muiHt have fallen down in a tit of some sort, 
and a truck her hea^i aL;ainat the pavement, 
and HO have ^dvt-n her brain what he was 
afratil wa;:^ a fatal ahake. I asked what woa 
to be done If she ahoweil any return to sense 
in the uight He wiid| "Send ibr mo 



I directly ; " and stopped fora Httle while afler- 
I wart j a stroking her head gently with hia 
I h find, and ^hlaperin^ to hiiaself, **Poor 
I girl, ao young and ao pretty I " 1 hatl felt, 
j some minntrfl betbre, aa if I could hava 
atrnck the policenian ; and I fett now na if I 
could haVe thrown my arms round the 
doctors neck and kiiis^^ him. I did put out 
my h.-ind, when he tonk up his hat, and he 
shook it in the friendliest way, ** Don't ho|>ei, 
my dt*:*r," lie ^aid, and w«ut out 

The feat of the lodger* followed him, all 
silent and shocked, eie^pt the mhumati 
wre ch who owoa the hoi^ae, and Iivks m 
idleness on the hi^h rentis he wrings from 
pi}or peofile like us. ^^ She's three weeka in 
my debt,** says lie, with a «<;owl and an oath, 
" Wher« the devil \a niy money to come from 
now ?** Brute] brute I 

X had a long cry alone with her thataeemed 
(o eaae my heart a little. She waa not the 
least ehangini for the better when 1 bail 
\vi|ieil away the tears, and could aee \\vr 
ch^arty again. I took up her right hand^ 
wldch liiy nearest to me. It was tight 
eleiieheil, I tried to nnclaap the fiuijer*, and 
auci^eded after a little time. Sumfthi ng 
datk I'eU out of the paliu of h^r hand as I 
atraightened U, 1 picked the tliiui; up, and 
smootbeil it out, nnd aaw tlL4C ll wtta mi end 
of a tnan*a cravat. 

A very old, rotten, dingy strip of black 
atlk, witli thin lilac litirti, all blunged ami 
dead en I'd with d>rt^ running across and acri>M 
the stulf in a ^oit of trelha-work paitertt* 
Ojie end of the cmvat wms heniioed in the 
OHual \vav, the other was all jng'Zed, as if the 
stuff then in my hamJa had lietHi torn off 
violently from the rei^t of the atutL A ehiU 
ran all ovi^r me xls I looked at it ; for that 
poor, stained, crumpled end of a crfvvat 
i^eemed to be saying to m*% as though it hud 
been In plain woriis, ^ If she die% ahe baa 
come to her death by foul meansi &ud I am 
the witne>« of it/' 

I had lieen frightened enough before, leat 
she shonhl die auddenly and quietly wiihout 
my knowing it, while we ^ere alone together; 
but I got ioto a i^rfi^ct ac^ony now for fear 
this hi^^t wo rat atUieUon should take me by 
snrpri^, I don't euppoie &ve minutes pHsaed 
all that woeful nigiit through, without my 
getting np and putting xny cheek close to her 
mouth, to feel if the faint bieaths atiU flut^ 
tered out of It. They came and went juat 
the same as at drst, though the frlgiit I waa 
in often n>aile me fancy they were at i lied fur 
ever. Just as the church clocks were striking 
fou%I waa startled by seeing the room door 
open. It waa only Unaty ^al (as they call 
her in the house) the maid-of-albwork, 8h# 
was wrapped U]} in the Idanket off her bed ; 
her hair waa all tumbled over ber face ; and 
her eyes were heavy with sleep, aa she cama 
up to the bedaitie where I waa sitting. 

" Tve two boui's good before I begin to 
work,*' eaya ahe, m ber hoArsei droway ¥olo% 



a 



^^^«<^IlllCfcMj 



THE DIARIT OF ANKE KODWAT. 



** and I Ve come to sit tip and take my turn 
tX WA telling her. Yon lay thmn and f^et 
iciiije slt;ep on itj*; riij;, IJcre^B my Mwiiket 
for vmi— I duu't mmj the cold— it will kt-rp 

** You nre very kind — very, very khid and 
tbonpbtful, Sally/* snya I,'*'*iut I am too 
wretched in my mind to wnDt i^leep, ur rt-st, 
or to do iitiy thing tut wult ^ lie re I am, and 
try Atiil h*MMi lor the li««t.'* 

** Then 111 wait, tfjo," sav* S'llly, " I mir^t 
dofloiiielhing ; if th«re'i DOtldiig to do but 
w»(t itii;, rit "wnit,** 

And she sAt flitwn opposite me at the foot 
of the lied, and drew this hluuket cluae roimd 
ber with a shiver* 

"After wurkbig bo hard ag you do, I'm 
sure you nnist waut all the litUe reet you 
cat! p?rt^'' SHVti J, 

•^ Except H»K only you " iwy» Sally, pntlii>g 
her heavy iirin v«ry dmnaily, but very gently 
at the ftarue iLnit:, roiitid Jilary*a leet, and 
looking hstrd at the pale^ ^tdl fjtct; on the 
pillow* ** Ejtcepting you, ahe'ft the only eoui 
111 this honie an nevtir awore at me, or i»lve 
me a haiti woni that J c^ti remeiulter. When 
Tou uufde pndilhjga on Su ad ay a, and give her 
talf» she always iiivn nib a biL Tli6 re«t of 
'em ciilla me Dusty SaL Eit^pting only 
yon, agj^iii, she alw.'iy9 cnllod me Bitlly, at if 
«Ke knowed me In a trieudly uay- I ain*t no 
gooil he ft?, but I am't no harm nt'lther ; and I 
•hail lake niy inm at the sitting up — that's 
whwt 1 fib all do !" 

She B^a^led her he?id down close at Mary^s 
feet as she sjioke those words, mid said no 
tnore. 1 once or twice thoUf,'ht she had fallen 
aiile^p, but whenever 1 looked at her, her 
hemry eyes were always wile ojien* fehe never 
ehatij^cd her position an inch till the ehureh 
elocks struck six ; then she gave one little 
aquv^eze to Mary*H feet with her ami, and 
shuttled out of the room withiiut a word. A 
till n lite or two after, I hearil her down below, 
lighting th« kitehen fire just a^ uauaL 

A hitle later, the doctor stepped over 
befurc bia breakfast time^ to see tf there had 
been any change iti the ntght Ife oidy 
shfKik his head when he looked at her, as if 
there was no ho|je* Havin^f TioWdy el«e to 
eousnit thnt I could put truat in, I showed 
Itim the end of the cravnt, and told htm of 
the dreadful sunpicJoti that had ameii in my 
miind, when 1 lound it in her hand* 

•♦Yon most keep it carefully, and produce 
it at the inquest,*' Ite s^dd. ** I don^ know 
thd(ij>h, that it ia likely to lead to anything 
The bit of sLiiff may havi? beeti lying on^ie 
p^^ ..... ..t ,...., J. j^ijf^ j^|j(^ Ij^j. j]j,p,| niay have 

nil clutched it when she fvlL Was 

aim . - .j_- tu faiiiling fita I" 

** Not more so, sir, than other young girl a 
who nr^ hartl-worked and anxious^ and 
weakly from pi>or living,** I anawer€Hl, 

** i imn't fi;iy thr'^t she may not hav^ got 
ttiai Mow from a fcill," the doctor went on, 
looking at her temple a^atn. "I can't say 



that it presents any positive apj>earunce of 
having been inrtict^d by another person. It 
M ill be imporUtnt, buwever, to jiftceitain whnt 
elate of health ahe Waa in lAst night. Have 
you any idea where sha was yetterdsiy 
eveniii?! J" 

I told him where she wim employed at 
work, and said I imagined she must hare 
been kept there later than usual. 

''I f)h:d( |)t&!i the pUue this morning,*' said 
the dt>L-tor, " in going my rounds among ray 
patient^ and ril just step m and make some 
iim nines.** 

1 thanked hini, atid we pai*tpd. Just a;i he 
was ch>mng the door, he lonkvd in again. 

** Was sht» y^mr «i*ter V* he nsteed, 

** Nil, sir, only my dear friend/' 

He ajiid nothing moi^ ; but I heard hira 
sigh, ns he shut the door softly* Perhaps he 
hiMl hikd a eUter of hia own, and lo»t her 1 
rerl*s[rti she mm liko Mary in the fa*:e ? 

The doctor was hourw gone away, I began 
to feel unspeakably forhirn and helpless. So 
much so, f*« even to wiah selfishly that Hobert 
might really have a;4Ued fri*m America, and 
might get to London in time to assist and 
console me. No living creature cunie into 
the r.K»m but Salty, The tir^t time she 
brought me »nmti tea ; the seeoud and third 
timea uhe only looked in to see if there was 
any clixnge, au<l glanced her eye towurds the 
bad, 1 bail never known her so silent before ; 
it seemed almost aa if this drttadful accident 
ha^l struck htr dumb. I ought to have 
spoken to her, perhaps, but tht?re was some' 
thing in her face that daunted me; and, 
besides, ttie fevvr of anxiety 1 was in In^gan 
to dry up my li|.isas if they would never be 
able to shape any wonU again. 1 was still 
torjnetited by that fnghLful apprehension of 
the pH^l night, tbut she would die without 
my kut>wing it^ie wit bout saying one word 
to clear up the awful mystery ol tide blow, 
and set the suspvcious at rest tor ever which 
I still felt whenever my eyes fell ou the end 
of the old cravat. 

At last tlie doctor came back, 

** i think yon may safely clear your mind 
of auy (bjubts to which that bit of stuff may 
have g«v«n rise/' he said, •*She was, a» yon 
tiUfijHMed, detainetl late by her employers, 
and ahe fainted in the work*room. They 
most nnwbtdy and unkindly let her go home 
alune^ without giving her any atimulant, a« 
anon ea ahe came to her setises ugain. Nothing 
is more probable, under these circuiustauces^ 
than that she siiouhi fiunt a second time on 
her w;iy here. A fall on the pavement, 
without any frientily mm to hrTiik it, might 
have produced even a worse injury than the 
injury we see. I believe that the only ill- 
usage to which the pour girl was exposed 
was tbf» neglect she met with in the work- 
room/* 

** Yon apeak very reasonably, I own, sir,** 
laid 1, not jet quite eonviuotKl, ^ Stilly 
perhaps she may — — " 



I 



4 



^j 





HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



[Cn^Bdad^ 



"My poor gtrl, I told you not to liop*" 
ga'd tbe doctor, ifiterruptitig me. He went 
to ^JcU'j, jujd lifted ii|j Lert-yehda, aitd looked 
fct ber vyes wbile he Ki>okej tlidn ud^ied : '* If 
you stlU doubt how she c&nie by that bluw^ 
do not eucaunige the UI^a that uny worda of 
h^rw will ever eidlghteu you. She ttill uever 
6j»e!*k ngiiin/' 

*'Not diiad! O, air, don't a».j she*a 
deAd t '' 

*^ She ia dead to }^m and sorrow — dead to 
Ap«euh &tid recogiutioi}. There ie more anl- 
nmiion m the life of the feeblest ujseet iimi 
flit?a, thmx iu the life that is tdft in her. 
^Vhea vou look at her uow, try to thirjk that 
flhe is iu He.^tVfU. Tljiit is the btfSL coiulurt I 
ctui dve you, after UlUng the hard truth," 

1 aid uot believe hiai. 1 could utit believe 
bina^ So long aa she bi^alhed at all^ so h^ng 
I was resolved to hope, Soou after the 
doctor wat goue. Bally canie iu agi^iii, and 
foubd iLie Listeuiug (if 1 may call it »o) at 
Mary*i bpa. She weot to where my little 
hHniJ*f;liaii haiign against the wall, took It 
dowUf and gave it to me, 

"* S^e if tUe breath luurka it," bIic said. 

Yes; her breath did mark it^ but very 
faintly. Sally cleaned the j^lasa with h«r 
aprou, ajii) gave it back to rue. As ihe did 
so, she half atL*«tched out her hand to Mary's 
face, but tlruw it in i^gaiti suddculy, at il'ahe 
was afraid of soiliog Mary's delicate skin 
with her hard, hoiuy fingeni, Uoiug out, 
ihe stopped at the foot of the Ite^h and 
scraped away a little patch of mud that was 
on ot^e of Mafy^s shoesL 

"I always uaed to clean *em for her,** said 
SaHy, " to aave her hands from getting 
blauked. May I take *em ol^now^ and clean 
*em again 7 ^* 

1 nodded ^ bead, for mj heart was too 
heavy to spt?ak^ Sally took the shoes otf 
with a aloW| awkwaid tendemesa, aud went 
Out« 

An hour or more must have paased^ when, 
putting the glftaa over her lips again, 1 sjiW 
no mark on it. I held it clu^aer and closer. 
I dulled it accidentally with my own Lrcath, 
and cleaned IL I held it over her agaiu. 
Oi Mary, Mai'j, the doctor waa right I I 
ought to have only thought of jou iu 
M^avctn I 

iJeatlj without & word, witkout a wgn,— 
without a look to tell the true story of the 
bluw that killed her] I could not c^dl to 
au} hody^ 1 could not cry, 1 cotdd not so much 
as put the glas4 down and give ber a ki:^ for 
the hist time, I doi/t kuuw how Jong 1 had 
sat there with my eyes hu ruing, aud my 
handij dt^adly cold, when SaUy came in with 
the shoes clenntiJ, aud carried carefully in her 
api-ou for feur of a soil touching them« At 
the sight of that 

1 Ciiu write no more. My tears drop so 
fast un the paper that I can see nuthiu^* 

March 12th. She die^l on the alternoun of 
tile eighth, Qn the morning of the lunth^ I , 



wrot«, as in duty bound, to her stepmother 
at Hammerdmiih. l here wa^ no anawer. 
( wi ate agiiin ; my letter was returned to me 
this morniug, unopened. For ;dl thai woman 
eares, Mary might be buried with a i>aiijK'r« 
funeral. But tins shall never be, it 1 jMwn 
ever) thi^ng about me, down to the very gown 
til at is on my back. The bare thought of 
Mary being buried by the workhouiie gavo 
me the spirit to dry mjr eyes, and go to th« 
umler taker's, aud t^li him how 1 was ]) laced. 
1 said, if he would get me tin catimate of all 
that wunld have to be pitiil, from tti^t to la^t^ 
lor the cheajiest decent funttnil that could be 
h/id, I would uuilertiike lo raise the muu«^y» 
He gave me the estimatei written in this 
way, like a common hill : 

A ^mlkia^ fuiici-al eaujpku • • 1 13 
Vcfctry . . . * , + 044 

R«ctnr 4 4 

CJ«rk . . , . • • t 
St^.^toa . « , • . .010 

Benilla 10 

ttell 19 

SiJL fvcl (if ground + • • » 2 



1 



Total 



,£284 



If I had the heart to give %ny thought to 

it, I shouhl ha Inclim^l to vviau tuat the 

Church could afford to do svitliuut »o luaiiy 

small char^^ea f^r burying puor people, to 

whuse fiieuda even shihiuga are of cun^ie* 

qneuce, But it is UKelciis to eomphun ; tue 

' money muit be rai^^ed iit once, TUe ch*irit;Lbie 

I doctor^ — a poor man hinistiif| or lie would iiat 

{ be living in our nei^bbutirhoovi^ h^is sub- 

I scribed ten shitlinge towards the eipi^naea ; 

j and the coroner, wnen the Inqneijt v.s^ ^ver, 

added live more. Perha|>s others mny a^i^it 

me. If not, 1 liave furtunattfiy clothes aud 

farnitnre of my own to pawm And 1 must 

set aixjut parting with them without delay ; 

for tbe funeral is to btf to-uiorruw, the 

thirteenth. The funenU — Mary^s funendj 

It is well that tlie straits and diiEculties X 

am in, keep my mtDd on tlie stretch. If I 

ha^l leisure to grieve, where should X tind vho 

courage to facu to-morrow ? 

Thank Uud, they did not want me at the 
inquest. The verdict given — with Uie doctt*r, 
tlie policeman, and two persons li^m the 
place where slie worked, for WLtued^ej^^woi 
Accidtntal iJcuth, The end of the cravat 
wii4 pr 04 J need, and the coroner said that it 
was certaiidy enough to iin^'gest sUHpicidn i 
but the jury, in the abaence of njiy po^utive 
evidence, iield to the doctor's notion that {»h^ 
hai^ fainted and fallen down, aud so gut iho 
blow QU her temple. They reproved tne 
people where Jidary worked fur letimg iier go 
liomti alone, without m much as a drop uf 
br^iudy to sup[x»r£ her, aftrr she had Jaiiuii 
into a swoun from eKliausLion betWe ihuir 
eyes. The coroner addi^d, on his own 
accoimt, tkit he thought the reprtaif was 
thorou^idy deserved, AlWr that, ihe ci^avat^ 
end was given h44ok to me, by my own 



■ IiMtiii.] 



BERD HISTOEY. 



\ 



imr^ ; the pollcaflaviiigttmtlber coqM m&ke 
ni> iuve^ti|;Htioim wiib eucli a Blij^bt cIuq to 
gMe iheiii. Th^y nmy think ao^ and the 
florotjpr^ and iloetor^ atnl Jury may trhiuk ao;| 
hut, in spite f*i ssAi ihtil h£U9 paased, I ntn now , 
mure II rni Ly pel tiniiJec! than ever tbat tbere 
ifl iume (trendlul mvstery in counectioii with | 
tliHi blow on my JKMjr IrMit Mury^s temple 
^^iHrtich iias y*ft to \^ rt?veuJe<ii nrnl which may \ 
'^^$e to he disecirered through tbis very 
!igiii«iit of ft eiuvAt lhi4t I iuQiKl in hrf ^ 
band. I ctmrmt t^lva uny g4>o<l rtfasou lor[ 
^hy t think 90 ; out I kuuw that if I had 
been one of tbt* jufv at the imiueat* nothing 
ibuutd hnvB inducml tut; to eotii&eut to «ueb n 
terdlct Hi AceidentaL Dejitb. 

BIKD HISTOBY, 

A cBHTAtN learned pbyabtan, natned Peter 
BeloL], a imtive of the lovrn of Le MiiOfij the 
capitni of wit at waa then the pruvini^« of 
Muine, but is now iht depurtnient of« ihe 
river Sarthe, in France, beihou^'ht him that 
Tt^ry lUtfti waa known in Lia niuire oountry 
At the lime h^ Jived — the nitfJiile of th^ six- 
leeiith ct^ntuiy — of Naiukvd Hisiory; and, 
Wing raoseil by the example of Aii^Ujtle (tkl 
the tnflsng diitance of ut?*irly nineteen hnn- 
dred yi^st^rs) lie resolved, having been a great 
tmviilti^r a.i)d eke a gre»t obasrvt:r (two 
fj*r«pui not alw&ya united) to givu \m feliow- 
eitijfiens and tht$ world, the bent^fit of bia 
ei^iei'ienci^ and opportunltieai, and Uk^ away 
the reproach whtyL lay like a ahado^ over 
the lamh 

Pr«?pared by much study for the cultivation 
of hia favourite porauit?, lie iefl i*Vance m the 
jear Eft«eu hondre^d and fjrty^eveu, biding at 
that time twentymo ine ye&i-a of age, and 
travelli^d su<!ce»9iire]y thron^h Gt^rmauy, 
Bobeiuio, Italy, Urei?ce, Egypt^ t^idetitine, aud 
Aiift Minor, returning to Paria afier three 
veam ^[m^m^ with a large and valuabl« col* 
leetion of plants and ap^^eimens of natural 
ti]4tory, whioh he then (occupied bim'^^-df in 
Arranging* pr«pa^ratory to tljtf piiblicatlon of 
the luMjwIedge he had acquired. The fir<»t 
work whieh he pr 0*1 need was n hiatury of 
itrangt! jinlies mid atirpeuta, utider the iille 
^I>e AqualiilbuA;^* out, tempting aa the 
■abject 1^1 1 do not at preeaut intenit to 
esamine ilp having another ^^f hia prod net t on » 
Wfore me, wliich (from the fact ot iu beiug a 
bdrfowed b<:»ok, and liable, ther^forej to and- 
den wUtirt) by ita owner, who otherwise 
would ntfver y^t^t It back), more immediately 
cJjunm Diy atti'ntian. 

Titia covet^Kl volume la the celebrate 
Hiitory of the Kalnre of Birds, witli their 
deBeriptiriiig and lively pr^rtriiitST tnkon from 
^ittiue, afid wiiLtt^n in seven bouks, and ia^ 
peihapa, the print^ipal work on which u 
loutjded Pt;ter Bf bin*« cUun to be eouauiereil 
tlitj lather of uiudern natural biatory. In tli«* 
prisfjioa to it he p>romUti3 — and h*^ keoi*a bis 
word lar b«^tl<r than mi^ht have bet^n 



expected — th at nDtbingBhaU appear in these 
books which is not perfectly trne ; there 
ab£i.ll b4> no faiue de^cripttouB or porlraita of 
aup positions animals ; nothing^ in abort, that 
U not to be found in nature* Apprupriate to 
the pu I >li cation of a work on ornithology , Peter 
Belon caused Ibis volume to be printed, in the 
year tifttreu hundred ami tifty-five, by 
WiiUani Gsivellal, in front of the colJeg** o( 
€~anjbray, in Palis, at the sign of the Fat 
Heu {a aore s^gu that Peter Belon c+me 
from Le Mana, a city famous for Ua poultry;; 
and that there alifiuld be no doubt of tlie 
latter fact, tiit^ title-jmge al^o bore the iivio^ 
liortrrviture of n, dt)uie,Htic fowl iu yf^ry bi>,di 
condition, enclosed wittiin a circlei on the 
outer rim of which was iuacribed the It-gend 
**Galbna in piu^ui/' an inaciiptioii that nued 
not again be trniialated. A portrait of Pet^r 
Belon, ae he tipp^^jired Ut the justly -ad mi ring 
world, at the age of thirty-tiix, al*o emhel- 
lialied the vohinie. The le^^rned physician 
ap|H:ara to have been a m;m with a good, nen- 
sible, honeat ccmntenJiiu'e, weiu-ing n lajge 
CVimenn bt'anh ami tiavln^ a cap on hiah^iid, 
the shape of which^ furluiiately, has nut 
yet l»een adopted for the British army. 

Like mfjst other old aiUhorii, Peter Belon 
taken aouie time before he can eel f;dily 
under weigli. llure are, Grstt the dedication 
to the moat Chiistlan king — H^nry the 
Second of the name — wbosd humble acboiar 
the author it eclarea (dnii^lf to be. Then fol- 
lows a homdy addre^^ed to the reader* chielly 
for the purpose of assuring htm that., iu tlio 
lively porttiiita of the birds which he presrnti 
(Ahi couhi we but rejiroduee aome of tht*in !), 
he b not practising on bhs creduUt^p but that, 
■iich oa be reprearnis tliern, the fowta are 
Ihenmalvt'A, and that^ where he cannot gift an 
authenlio likeness be haa refused to invent 
one. 

The royal privilege to publish, sealed with 
yellow wax — like a bottle of goo<l oM wint^^ 
comes next, anil tiually appear several copies 
of versea iu praise of tlic author, by oertaiii of 
his ftitiuda, which latter hat I batttT be 
skifipeil, that Peter Belon 'a Volume, which 
haa in it a ^reat deal that ta worth reading, 
may unllild its pages fir our gratifioittion* It 
m not, however, a resuio^ of the work, or any* 
thing like it^ that 1 int*'nd to make^ but aim- 
ply a dip into it — here and tliere — uxti^nding 
Hume ot Lhe quaint fancies, curious digrejM ions, 
and sound opinions^ with which it is inters 
spersedt always d* airmg our reader to beatr in 
mliid that tile author w^ui a phyaieutn as weU 
as a naturalieit* 

A word or two, before he fairly enters on 
hb tlicme, may btf allowed him to d^-scrib© 
the p.dna be was in ihu habit of taking to 
obtain corixjct information* ** It wa?* my 
euslom," he says, ** during my sojourn in 
Padoa, to go down the Ureu ta every ThtirKday 
evening, voyaging all night in ijr<ler to reacli 
Venice on Friday luurninj^, and to retUJitn 
thefts on Saturday and tiunday, m much for 



4 



f^ 




I 

I 



I 



HOTTSEHOLD WORDS. 



[CioBAseBM «r 



the eonvetitence of aeeing birds as well at 
fiahea; ami aficr hsiviug »!ouf(?rreiI witli 
fi>wler8 Jiinl fislienneii, to return (r<>it» th«iiee 
otj Siiiiilny eveinttiTj thus li^inng no time by 
tjiktit^f the E!|;bt'btat, anil l»€i*ig rea4y to 
Ci^ijtinue my fittidiea on Mmiilay niotuin^. 
DuiiJig which time, on the iifttnf8*ati tiny a of 
Fri^ljiy ?in(l Sjtturdaj, thtre w.ia tint a alnjjk 
fnwlrr or fij^herman who did not bniifj to 
^iidW rue every rare cmitur* be bad been 
»ble to procure." 

Cirtiinieuuing, then, "ab ovn," Peter Belon 
di«' 1NMJ3 th« pro jH-r ties of eggs* ; but iiiU> 
the prucesf^ea ot fk^nii^fatioD mni btitehing 
which be dcacrihea, I do not propose to 
enit-r, the gastrnoonde view of Uie qnrstlfHi 
presenting more novi^lty. AlWr n|Kji**ffi3in^ 
W the pueriiity of tfie sul^je^t, be liAla u» 
that in liH linj*? the Fit'n'b woy of entinj^ 
egj,ns (they have sail hundred mid eighty-tire 
wnyss uow» ij the Almunsieh des Guuinmnda 
epfiikji Booth) WKA by brt;^kfng theni at the 
fitiiall eiid and cai'dnHy repliu^in;^ the nhell 
when emptied into the phuter ; wiiile the 
GemiAiis, ou tlie other hand— retniuilin^f ua of 
Bletitg4jii and LiiJiput — opene^l llieir t'l^^a at 
the side and bni^hed by sMiJiftbini; the shell ; 
in wliich laHer practice, e;iya Belunj tht-y fol- 
lowetl the exmiipk of the ik]idt!nt^, 14 ho held 
it a thing of evil anj^ury to le^ive tlie Bhflljs 
vnbrokeu. Beloti then procettde to dUooiuae 
on the niinierouavarietieii of egi'a, considering 
tbrise of pi^^ otjs, ostricbea, pea-bens^ gecne, and 
swicDH are ill-flavoured and i nd i gcati hte,^H jo t 
obj erring to the egj:s of ibe tortt*isB or turtle, 
—but giving the preference, bke a pei-aon of 
t&atei, to those of the dumestie fowl, whieh, he 
sayip ^are supposed by many in France to 
tb«ii»i greatlj in proh»nging life;'* and he 
infttmicen the c^se of l^jpe P^ul the Third, 
who used, with timt end in view, to eat two 
newdaid eg-^a for bre?ikfuat every nioniiug. 
As tu the 11 f(haf>e, be rem ark ji that Jong e^g?i 
are sit])p4ifled to be much better eating thjin 
round ont^ti; but without iuai^ting on thb 
l^niut} he has no hesiUUl^in in declariiig that 
all are hi^ldy invigorating, aa trufllea are, 
aud ttrticb^^kes, and raw ovatei^a. Artichokes, 
ludeed, wei*e 60 much esteemed in Be Ion '4 
tiiiief th;(^t *'no gr«»at nobl»Ln;in feeling him- 
ai4f unwtU would finish bis dinner without 
them," — eating them by way of dessert. 
Belou objects to hard boUed cgga, or sudi aa 
are too luuch frieii, **on account of their en- 
geiidetiiig bad bumonra/^ but upon jjoached 
egif*(<:eura poch6^) htt look a with considerable 
favour* In all cases be prefers pkin bolted 
eg;j;a (tirue — three minutes and aquarter^to 
thotM? which are roa,sted ; notwithstanding the 
WfJl 'known proverb : " There'a wisdom in 
the i-fiasting of eggs**' The best way of pre- 
serving eggs, he aaya, is to keep them in a 
cool placet ^^iT them in aalt^ or dip tbem 113 
brioe. 

As tlie chicken issues naturally from the 
e^rgj so diniiJg upun the ooe is the regular 
ftequence to breakiksiing on the other* Th« 



younger your putlet, says Bel on, t!ie easier I 
is of digestion, tJiouj^h he allotva you o*.* 
i^totially to cat an elderly nisde biril^ whi?] 
presinibed medieinally (hormis ie c^^q, qui 
sunv^t ptis piHir me^^liclne). ** Boasted 
<4^nlled towla are gcneralty the moat ijaviiirry . 
tliose which are iH^iled funrish more humiij 
mJurUhnient to the boiiy. The lin^t are eaten 
hot, I he la Jit cold," This rule, however, fh^^ 
not, he tells ua, aUays Itold gcKid i ^ \<ec:> 1 , 
if any one writing on the quidity of the rl >!j 
of birds, happened to be in a ctmntrv wtiero 
llie people fcti on a particular kind not eaten 
ekewhertf, and a male bird already old and 
toogh were offered him (avennit qu'on luy 
present 7iat de qu* Ique oyseau de^*ta vtel ct 
endurcy), be ought not to coi^clude tliHt its 
flt»nh h itt-CfSiiitrdy fibroua and banL'' With 
all respeH fifr the opinion of honest Petef 
^*e1on, 1 ihtiuhl be inclined to think that a 
tough old Click, whatever bia nation, wai 
tome what difficult of digestion. 1 have a 
verj vivid recollectitjn of a fowl of this sort 
at a certain hotel in Abbeville, where notljinf 
el»e wa.^ to be had for dinner, which the 
waiter assured me was not to be anrpasaed la 
teudei^nesa ; a quality ha might have dis- 
played towards hia family when alive, but 
which certainly did not beloi^g to blm after 
he wiis ri^^ste^b It is, perhapsv ou the tolerunt 
princi|jle of re&pectini; otiier people's prejii- 
dicet (1 can account for Bel^n^a condusion no 
other way), that be dt>ea not exclude even 
birds of prey from gooil men*a feasts, *■ Wt 
know by experience,** he observes (not bit 
own experience, 1 hope), "whiit has taken 
place in Crete, where the young ones of the 
vulture which huve fidlen fL\>m their rocky 
nests near Vouloauienij have been proved at 
least aa g^xiil eating aa a fine capon. Ai^ 
although some of the inhabitants (the greater 

Cart, 1 should imagine) think that the old 
irds are not goo4 to fjat, because they feed 
on carrion, the lact is otherwise ; for good 
fideiuteis any that the hawk, vnltui^ a^id 
iiilcon are excel lent meat^ and being rofksleJ 
or boileil, like p<iultry, are found to be well* 
tasted tind tender. (Fancy a tender vulture l) 
We constantly ace, if any of tbcM binls kiu 
themselves, or break a bmb in huudng gamti 
that the fidcouers do not hesitate to dreti 
them for the tabic/' In Auveigue, he adJ% 
the peasants of the Linmgne, and in the 
mouti tains, too, eat the flesh of the goivan, a 
species of eagle ; bo that »t may be ootid ridcd 
that birds of prey, whether old or younjf, at^ 
tender, — an inference which I pres^ume to 
di^ubt. One skiving clat^se Feter llekin baa, 
which has at all timrs done gtW service. If 
people gi?i]eraUy are not in the habit of 
eating kites, owls, and so forth, there aro 
some who do: *^ tastes merely differ" — (lea 
nppetits dea bommea ue ae reasem blent en an- 
cnne manidre). 

The transition is easy from these delicacies 
to other less questionable birds, and the 
manner of prepuring tbem for the pot or spit ; 




Mifl bnn^ P^ter B^\&n Ui what he evidently 
Uk«3 — a gi>od diuiier in k geuersil way. "You 
may talk,** h© Bftys, "of Spfiniiird»T Portn* 
giiese, KfiglLsh, Fl«tiuiisj&, lulUua, Hunga- 
jiritsa, or OuiiBAnflp but none fif themt in 
dtuner-giviu^, com© up tfj the French, The 
bitttpr l>e;;iii wttb tueats diegui^ed atbouaaud 
w]iv» (miJIe pettlB deagumauit^nt^ do ohatr) ; 
jui«l thisi !irafc eiitry^ im it ia called, conaiat* of 
whtkt [a soft ttud liquiit, a^d ought t^t be sent 
fa bot. 4ucb its fidiiii^, fi icnt8Afe«| hashes, ami 
lalada^* ! (Hf4 wuHda are a rHrltj ufiw-a^ 
day fl ) . The Be(hj r I d CO I L ra<? 1 9 r oa^i t and bo i ted , 
of different kinds of men% na well of binia i%s 
of tifrresjtrial aiihiial*, " it being well uuder- 
stood that no fi^h is ent^^ii except od faat- 
d-'iya.'* Th^ diuner eiida witb'*cyM tiiloga, 
eucb as fruits, piepjiriithins of ndlk and 
fiwrets/* Thm ia the oiitUue of & ditmer 
otsly ; but when Peier Bf lou enters into a 
detailed bill of fat^, ihe hewnp^'^pfr report of 
& Lord Mayor** diunt^r pile* hf«iile it. A 
fftW of the Diitiic« of these dle^ha^— sid wrjpll as 
they eaiibetr&iFsbiteiJ — are wnrtb prenervitig. 
Wbal do jou think of prli/i hn capms — llotis 
* — umde of tbe white lueat at puIkH^ ; wili] 
boar vejjtson with eht^tuit's; diamotJi I pointed 
jelly ; goalingt dreasfd with lOHlvoiitte ; ft«et 
(wbuae fi^et ?) with itiferiml evince (pifd^ k 
la irtuleo d*e3ift!r) ; cciout«?rft?it sea -hog ; 
laurelled quiiila ; pirtnilges with cnpere ; 
T«aJ *au«ages ; hop salad ; ditjaniit buiter* 
flirt; goldeu-backed wooilcoirk [la^tiea ; ox- 
beel parties; pluuii^d peacucks; tipay cake 
(gasteaux joyeux) \ hUh ctbb^get all hot 
(petitA chouy tous chaidiln) ; and, amougat 
oth^r varieties, pomegmimte miltitl I 

lu tri-ating of the naea t<* which binla have 
been applied, Peter Be Ion ibms u^^t omit divH 
nation. It is pretty cleitr, bowev*fr, that he 
hjui no faith iu the aurut^plcedf thongh he 
]€U them down gently^ "Tiierte aonthaayera 
ex emitted their mystery in the contenipUttou 
#f the inward piurra as well of birdti as of 
other auimnlsj when offered up tor fiacrilici?. 
The qne«tioii must tbea be a^ketl^ whether, 
by this inspection^ they really couht foretell 
ih« things thut WiTe to come^ and it tViere 
were any probability} what tljer promised 
turning out true ? There can be little doubt 
that this iyatem of div^iixitiim bjul a very 
iimpte origin^ beginrdng by cajoling private 
persona, and promising them wjiHt they 
oeilred (which m the greatic'Si plfium^ mvu 
eati receive), and after wimin, by iiivealiug it 
with a religious cbarHcter* am! turniug the 
B»ne to their own firolit/* The French sol- 
dKfm^ in Belongs time^ imitated the Rom.'uiB 
to far ail to carry the a^icred cock with their 
baggage when tbey took the field ; but it was 
for a very intelligible s{iecie« of aujjury, — Ui 
know^ by hb crowing, when the day was 
aliout to break, Belon luid much too good 
Miiae to credit either the Huper3«titioQS ot the 
BoBinns or ih(>*ie of his own day, and wa« 
probably only restraineti by hia four of the 
Chisticb| from expr^b;aing his opinions too 



f>h^3niy. Passing from divination to sorcery 
le says ; " Every contemplative man tuu^t 
have had reanoD to despiae the ignorunt 
people who lielieve that sorcerers h«ve the 
power attributed to them. We have aeen 
many condemned to death j but all have l>een 
either poor idiots or madmen. Now, of U\o 
things, on«i mujjt happen: that if tbt?y do 
mischief, it must either be by the eT!iploym*<nt 
of fiome venomous drag put into the moti th^ 
or otherwise afipHed, or by invt>aittunB. It 
is not often that one hears of people of qua^ 
lity being accused of sorcery — only the pourer 
sort ; ami to tell the truth, no man of jnd^^- 
ment would apply hia mind to such ah-^unli- 
ties. To prevent the common jieople iroiu 
doing so, it ia the cuittom once a- week to pro- 
hibit them formally. It may i*ns\\y Imppen 
that one of this sort, troublet) in 1iis w:ts, 
sbt>uld fancy inctetlihle things^ and even 
acknowledge to having committt^d tbein ; but 
w*f muftt set thiB down to the nature of th^-ir 
diaeaiie*" In this way sensible Peter B- 1 -n 
diHposes of thi^ lycanthropir^ta and other self- 
created wizarda. On tVie subject of autifia- 
thtr5, however, be etittTtalns a belief thiit it 
i^ reaaonable ; aa in the case of the tox nnd 
the stork, which ari* sworn foes, ever since 
the practical jokea, I aup|x*se, which we all 
know tbey played on ench other* 

Being Ltuisrlf a phyaician, Peter Belon 
enlarges upon the ntuladies of birdn ; but he 
tells OS tbatj with the excef^tlon of falcons, 
which are more ea|>eciaUy under the 
care of man, tbey are their own doctors, 
"The peHi^an, which builds its neat on the 
grouml, finding ita young stung by a st^rjieut^ 
wee[» bitterly, and piercing its oivn biea^t^ 
gives its own blood to cure them/* (Thld ii 
a new reading of the old story). "Q^iails, 
when they are iuflts^po^etl, swallow the see* Is 
of hellebore ; and utarhngs take beudock. 
The herb chclidoine (cebndine^ from the 
Greek kelidon, a swallow) derives its name 
from the fact that the swallow HdminiHit;i:a 
the juice of tlie plant to her young. The 
stork physics himself with marjoram. WfftHl 
pigeons, rave lis, bUckbirits. jays and p:ir- 
trii igea ta k e lau rel ; w b i le turtle-do vea, pigeona, 
and cock a preacribo bird- weed. Dt^cks and 
geeee eat sage.** (Sage enters largely into the 
alfair, in combination with onious, ■ wlien 
ducks and geese are euten). " Cnvnes and 
herons employ marah mahea. Tbruabes and 
many smmler birJ^ swallow the seeds of the 
ivy — which would be hurtful diet for man 
(qui seroit viand e mauvaise h Thorn me),'* 
Not much worsa, however, than helleltore or 
hemlock ! But it would seem that the eagk 
family are exempt from the ordinary ail* 
menta of birds ; for, in apeakint^ of the Chry- 
ftnCStos, or great royal eagle, Belon tells us* : 
" li^glea never change tiieir place of abode, 
but always return to tbe same neat. It has 
thus been observqil that they are longdived. 
But becoming old, the l*eak grows &q bj^jg 
that it becomes bent, and prevents the bird 



4 
4 

4 



I 



10 



HOUSEHOLD WOED& 



(OMftwiadkf 



from eating, so tliat it dies, not of any 
malady, or extreme old age, but simply 
l>ecaii8e it cannot make use of its benk." I 
fear this is not one of the facts derived from 
Belongs own observation. 

Our fashionable ladies have a passion for 
eider-down ; but did they ever hear that the 
vulture can supply them with an article 
quite as soft? "Their skin," says our 
author, " is almost as thick as that of a kid, 
and under the throat is a spot about the 
breadth of a palm, where the feathers are 
reddish, like the hair of a calf; and these 
feathers have no quills, any more than those 
on both sides of the neck and under the 
wings, where the down is so white that it 
shines like silk. The furriers, after removing 
tlie large feathers, leave the down, and curry 
the skins for mantles, which are worth a 
largo suiu of money. In France they use 
them chiefly to place on the stomach (what 
we call bosom -frit lids). It would scarcely 
bo believed that the vulture*s skin is so 
stout, if one had not seen it. Being in Egypt 
and on the plains of Arabia Deserta, we have 
noticed that the vultures ai-e large and 
numerous, and the down frc»m a couple of 
dozen of these wouM quite suflice for a large 
robe. At Caiix), on the Bezestein, wliere 
merchnixlise is expf;sed for sale, the traveller 
may obtain silken dreHses line<l with the 
skins of vultures, both black and white.'* 

Lelon was a great olieerver of all the birds 
of prey, and appears to have taken many 
notes of their habits while living near the 
Muiits d'Or, in Auver^ne, under the pro- 
tection of M. Dnprat, the Bshop of Cler- 
mont. It WHS there he leai-nt the fact about 
the peasantry eating the goivan, called also 
tlio boudree, which he thus describes : 
^ There is not a peasant in the Limagne (a 
great plain) of Auvergne who does not know 
the goivan, and how to capture him with 
tra|)s biiited with frogs, or with lime, but 
more commonly with snares. He is taken 
])rint.'i pally in the winter, when he is very 
good to eat, for he is so fat that no oilier bird 
conies near him in that resjiect. The pea- 
sants lard or boil him, and find his flesh quite 
as good as that of a hen. This eagle eats 
rats, mice, frogs, lizards, snails, cater] >illars, 
and sometimes serpents.'* 

That there may l>e no doubt alK>ut the 
last-iiaiiied viand being food for eagles, one 
ot Peter Helon's lively ]K>rti-aiui res follows the 
statement, in which a goivan is depicted in 
the act of dining on a 8er^»eiit, twisted into a 
figure of eight (as well he miijht be), and a 
number of astonished frogs and tishes scurry- 
ing away for dear life, — all save one philo- 
sophical member of the tadpole family, who, 
sitting on the tumultuous waves of an ad- 

i'acent ditch, calmly contemplates tlie scene, 
t is observable throughout the jilates in 
Belon's work that the smaller quailrupeds 
endure the infliction of bein^ devoured alive 
with far greater reaiguation than the Keptiiia. 



I have before me at this moment the portrait 
of a rabbit, on whose back a buzzard ia 
standing as if in the act of going to sing, 
while the long-eared animal on which he 
has pounced seems to apprehend his fate no 
more than if he were a music-stand. A 
mouse in the claws of a speckled magpie, 
puts on, in another plate, an air of equal 
indifierence. 

Amongst the birds of prey known to the 
French villagers — and to their cost — is one 
called by the singular name of White John 
(Jan le Blanc), or The bird of St Martin, — 
but why the latter name was bestowed on it| 
Belon is at a loss to discover. The first ii 
obvious enough, for its belly and part of its 
tail are of spotless white. This fellow is 
very daring, and carries ofif fowls and 
rabbits from under the eyes of the owners ; 
he feeds largely, too, upon {Nirtridges and all 
the smaller binls, so that he is not a Cheap 
John, at all events. But Belon has one com- 
fort : White John has a natural antagonist in 
the Hobby-hawk, and the way they fight in 
the air till they tumble entangled to the 
ground and are taken, is quite a pleasant 
thing to see (moult plaisant k voir). This 
comiiat is not depicted ; but on the next 
piige there is a striking delineation of the 
manner in which a falconer lures a bird of 
prey. He does it in this wise : a hawk hav- 
ing caught a partridge, stands on its back in 
the air, quietly devouring it, anil the cunning 
fowler takes this opportunity of approaching 
with the ifg of another bird in nis hand, 
which he oflfers on his knees to the hawk, in 
the expectation, apparently, that the greedy 
bird of prey will give up the whole for a 
part Of the share which the falconer^s dog 
has in the transaction, I say nothing ; be- 
cause, though in the foreground of the 
picture, he is not a quarter the size of the 
victim partridge. It must be confessed that 
B<lon*s descriptions are more satisfactory 
than the artist's illustratious. This remark, 
however, dties not apfily to the actual por- 
traits of the birds, which are in most instances 
very accurate. Nothing, for instance, can be 
better done than the lio\al Kite, which some 
in France call Huo, and others Escoufle. 
This bird, being a lover of carrion, is pro- 
tected ; so much so, that ^ in England a fine 
is imposed on those who kill him." Belon 
rcconls a nleasjint piece of pastime which this 
kite afforoK the iiihdels : 

''The Turks who live at (Constantinople 
take pleasure in throwing lumps of raw meat 
into the air, which the kites pounce upon so 
rapidly that they seize and carry it oS before 
it can fall to the ground." 

The Venetian nobles amuse themselves 
differently— not with kites, but cormorants. 
When the weather is calm, they go out on 
the lagoons in light boots, two or three dozen 
in company, each boat being rowed by six 
men, and pulled very swiftly. Having sur- 
rounded the cormorant (like French hunt*- 



\ 



men with a foir, to preirent htm from getting 
awnv and gmtsg them a run), he canuot rise 
in the air (why not I), but dives under th*i 
wtit4.'r, and every timo he ahoww hh b«ad 
liWve the surface, th« noblemen let fly at 
him with tlieir qro&^hciwa, tilt ^i Izwtt ha is 
thorniighly done up, is lialf-jautrocjited, and 
give» in, '* It ia a tiue iii|fht to btshuld this 
ALKirt {c'est un beau ap<^ot^le de voir un tel 
daiaLtX auti alao ia to see a curuiornut having 
eatight a ltderuhly-atzed eel, which he trie:^ tu 
ft willow^ hut hfw to fight a ion^z time with it 
before he cam get it down/* The eorniorants 
thenii^lvea are, oddly eoough, not thought 
gootl eating by the comiuotj people, who aay 
of ihem that they are '^a disk for the devil " 
(fiui voudroit je^ituyer k diable, i\ luy f^u- 
dndt doJior de teia oyi^eaujc) } but Beloii do eg 
iiDt think them so bail as thej lay (toute fob 
ne aoiit at mauvaia qu'on crlii). 

The Htork, unfortu nattily, did not^ when 
Belon ^uurbhed, enjoy the ftanie immunity ; 
for though ho admits that the ifomat^a 
despised them at table, he says, *^ now they 
are looked upon aa a royal di^h." He more- 
over telli ui that the gizzard of a stork is an 
aotidote to poison, and a remedy against 
squinting (le gesier de la eig^gne est bou 
eojitrt! les venins et qui en aura mang6 ne 
sera lousche en sa vie) 1 It appears al^ 
that even the ostrich, which can digest iron, 
Ig itfttdf digested by Libyan gaBtronomers, 
who eat the flesh and sell th^ feathers 

This tendency to discover what birds are 
most i^atahle^ is manifested throns^hout the 
vaiunie of Feter Belou. Arriving at the noble 
Aleutrioii or Rooster of the United States, he 
cites the following recipe, from Dioscoridea^ 
for the ooncoctLou of cock-broth. *'Take a 
6ne ati'ong old bird, and having properly 
trussed him, stuff him well with rixiUof furn, 
the seed of chartamus (wiiatever that may 
be), salt of mercury, and soidaneUa (a purga^ 
live sea-weed), and, having sewn him up, boll 
him well down." A potage this, which hears 
some re^iembtance to ^ the ellhdtkkahy of the 
attcieuts,'' deaorihed in Peregrine Pickle^ and, 
I should think, nearly a^ agreeable^ 

The majority of the h\nh in Belongs book 
ai« ace^irately deserihad and too well -known 
to sifiird much opportunity for quoting from 
what he says of their forms and habits, but 
now and then we meet with a rai^ avis. Such, 
for iustanee is the ^' Gellinute de buis " (Qeli- 
notte) which, though still found in the 
Ardttijies, and oc*^ii^onally a visitoir U> 
Iduiisiears Chevet^s uhop in the Pnhds Boyal, 
is rare enough to merit dtflcriptiou at stcond- 
haud. What their price may bo I know not^ 
but three hunJred years ago they cost two 
erowna apiece, and were only s«eu at the 
lumquetf of princes and the wedding^feasts of 
ef«M lords* *^ The feathers on the hack are 
uke tli<jse of the woodcock ; the hreast and 
hei\j white, spotted with black ; the neck is 
like that of a pheasant ; the head and beak 
fcaemble a ptirtiidge ; the tall feathers aru 



blaek with white tips, the large witig-^ 
feathers variegnte*! like the owl ; dowD totJie 
(eet the legs are feathered like the grt>n*e/' 
If the ^elinotte cotiibiues the flavour aa wt^U 
as the plumage of the binls just njeurioiifd 
(omitttJig the owl) 1 should say it ia wonU 
ttie price which iMonnieur Ch^-vet pule upon 
it before he stuffs it with tbe trufHes. 

The Vaimeati ia another liird which, com- 
mon enough in the marshy districts of Frauce 
(parttoularly in Bourbon Vend6e) is. I l<t4ieve, 
unknown in England. It is a wadm^'bird, 
and bears some les^mhlanee to the peai^tK^k : 
hence, its name, corrupted fii>m pa4^iniieaii to 
vanneau ; but the peasants call it dinhuitj on 
account of itu cry. It is cresteil with five or 
six long black feathers^ and is of cliangeable 
hue : in size it is not mueh largtfr than a 

fdover, and is perch e<l on very liigh red 
ege. There is no quest ion about the e^iiijii^ 
tion aa a delicacy in which the vanneau is 
still held. 

Belon h as a good deal to say abo u t qu ail^i, and 
the vAhona modes of catching tht;m. One way 
is by means of an inHtrumeut m*ifle of 
leather and bone, whieh, aet in motion^ 
utters a sound like the voice of the ft^male 
bird, and is called eonrcftillet^ on heariiTg 
which the mnles run rapidly and are caught 
in the fowlers net ; but this device is oniy 
edbctnal during the season of courting. Kvtf ry 
one has notioea bow low the quair^ cages aie 
ma<Jei Belon says, it is because th«y are so 
given to jumping and excitement that iht-y 
would destroy themselves were the cages 
higher. Of the crested lark (in Frencb/co- 
chevis), he tells us, on the authority of a^vend 
writers of antiqutty, that when made into a 
broth or roaate^l*— like puuch^ — tliey cur*? the 
colic j we all know what capitai f4te^^ are 
made of the lark uncreated. We Itiarn th.it 
the woodcock — how admirable ia lit.*, tcx^^ in a 
pilo — though call«d beeiLssje, in Freucii, on 
account of the length of his bill, ouglit to be 
d^ignated " vvitcoc," Uiat being an Eughiih 
word, which aignities ** cock of the wood, ' and 
corresponds with the Greek term, " xiloinlta," 
Some people, ESelon Siiyi^, call him Avis nm^^ 
(blind bird), because he suffers himself to he 
BO easily caught, and he gives a sntiiciently 
lively d^cnption of one mode of effecting his 
capture. It is as follows : — ^ He who de^jirea 
to take the woodcock must put on a of<mk 
and glovea, the colour of the aead leaves, uuU 
conceal hid hetul and shoulders l>ene»ith a 
(brown) hat, le^wiug only two small holes to 
see through. He iimat carry in his hands 
two sticks covered wic^h cloth of the siime 
colour, about an inch of tlis en^ls of which 
must be of red cloth, and leaning ufxin 
' crutches (rather a Ume way of proceeding) 
I must advance l«iauri?ly towards th« w£Hi*lcoi5k, 
I stopping when the bird bt^eontt'S aware of his 
appn>ach. When the wooilc(»ck n»oves ou he 
must follow until the bird stops again with- 
I out raising its hea^j. The fowler mu^t tlien 
I strike tho sticks together very quickly (moult 







IS 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



beUement) which will so anmae and ahuorb 
the wo<Klcock that iU purtiuer may take from 
his girt lie a ro<l, to which a horsehair noose is 
attache<l, and throw the latter round its neck, 
for it is one of the stupidest aiiti moat foolish 
birds that are known." I should think so, if 
it allowed itself to be caught bj this tom- 
foolery. 

i){ birds which are not stupid, bot knavish 
rather, even to much theft, Belon relates that 
the magpie is called Marmot (the diminutive 
of xVlHrgaret^ as Charles the First called his 
lieautiful sister, the wife of Henry of 
Navarrf) ; and the jay (Richard), each oq 
Account of tlielr cry. Being somewhat skinny, 
the jay is thought rather a touch morsel by 
tiioso who desire to dine upou him ; but he 
hiiusflf eats everything that c«»mes in his way, 
and is particularly fund of peas — green peas 
}>crlia)Mi — at a guinea a (K}uud. Tlie common 
people think that the jay is subject to the 
failing sickness, nevertheless they eat him 
when they tiud him on the ground. It is, 
perJi;i|M, a weakness in human nature which 
cannot be remedieil, tlie ten lency to make a 
meal of everything that has auimal life. But 
for tiiid, how severely might we not animad- 
vert on the gluttony of those who, notremem- 
beriniT tlieii* song in spring, devour thrusliea 
in the autumn : yet, that is the best time to 
eat iheni, for they are then perfectly delicious 
as you would nay, with me, if you had ma<le 
a diligence 8U(>per on thruslied travelling 
through theAnlennes. 

But, I fear, if I read any more of Peter 
Belou's volume, I sliall write an article on 
Gastronomy, a thing I had no notion of when I 
began. L<et me conclude with something more 
berious than eating — if anything be more 
serious : let me lament^ with all the world, that 
BO useful a man as Peter Belon should have 
been cut olf sadly in the prime of his life and 
full vigour of his intell*'Ct. He was only 
forty- Kve years of age when he was murdered- 
one night as he traversed the Bois de Bou- 
logne on his way to Paris ; whether for the 
sake of plunder or revenge is not known. 



BHINE-LAND. 

Wb IcMiM beneath tlie purple tUi^ 

In Anderuaeb, the boary ; 
And at our elbowi ran the Rhine 

In rosy twiUght glory. 

Athwart the SoTcn-hilU fu teen 
The sun had hxVd to broaden ; 

Above as stream'd in fading ilieea 
The highway he had trodden. 

HiB farewell crimson kiss ho left 
On clouds suffused with blu«hei : 

One star bcam'd down the dewberry-cleft 
Across the mirrorM flashes. 

From clifl« of slate the vintage call'd 

In muffled leafage dusky: 
And down the river grandly waird* 

The gtape reel'd npe and huaky* 



We reach*d entwining hands to sctsa 

The cluaters i^and us glowing : 
Our locks were fondled bv the breese 

From loutbem sandhills blowing. 

The long-neck'd flask was not unbent. 
The globed green glas* nnemptied ; 

The god of honest pleasure lent 
Young Love his powers, untempted. 

Home-friends we pledged ; oar bridal>niskb | 

Sweet wiahea gaily sqnander'd : 
We wanderM far in hBry gladea, 

Up golden heigfata we wandered. 

Like King and Queen in royal blits. 

We paced a rralm enchanted, 
A realm rose-visto*d, rich from this, 

Tho' not from tliis transplanted* 

For this Rome's fVonticr foot endeared, 

Ilcr aruicd heel made holy ; 
And Ages grey as Time's own beard. 

Wreathed it with mehuipholy. 

Old days it has that live In gleami 

Of suns for ever setting : 
A moth-wing*d splendour, faint at drttlii% 

Tliat keeps the fiincy fretting. 

A gofgeons tracing daah*d with gloomy 

And delicately dusted : 
To grasp it is to spoil its bloom ; 

'Twas ours becMUse we trusted* 

No longer severing oar embrace 
Wat Night a sword bet«-een ua ; 

Bnt riclieat mystery robed in grace 
To lock na close, and screen na. 

She droopt in stars ; she whlsper'd fair; 

The wooded crags grew dimmer ; 
The arrow in the lassie's hair 

Glanced by a silver glimmer. 

The ruin-rock renew'd ita frowiiy 

With terror lesa transparent^ 
Tho' all iu ghoats are bunted dowOf 

And all ita knighta art errant. > 

The island In the gray ezpanae. 
We watch'd with coloar*d longing t 

The mighty river*8 old romance 
Thro' many channels thronging. 

Ah, then, what voice was that which ihed 

A broaihlesi scene befon na : 
We heard it, knowing not we hesrd ; 

It rote aroand and o'er otp 

It rote around, it thrill'd with life^ 

tAnd did infuse a spirit 
To misty shapes of ancient ttrifb : 

Again I teem to hear It ! 



The voice it clear, the tong it wild. 
And hat a quaint trantition ; 

The voice is of a carelett child 
Who singt an old tradition* 

He tingt it witless of his power; 

Beside the rushing eddies, 
Hit singing phuitt the tall white tower 

Mid thadet of knighu and ladies. 



F 



MILVERSTON WORTHIEa 



IS 



\ 



Agftitiit thr gUifinmiifg^ ^t the weit 

Tliir f ivy Ijtt^i'k^ruiiii dirkiMt, 
And h^nl ill haiitl, half tiri/a«t to bretiitv 



MlLVEltSTON WORTHIES- 

Frok hiB fflxth year, toy Itrother Davre 
iii«j4it' Nttnl muUjimbie F^ym[it<»(u*4 of the 
dkvti»4i iiUlutufi, hut It v,*^l^ inA imtil tiftcieii 
th^t lit: €0111 itieiii^ci] l^iA ititnitiLij^l |Kjeiu, '* TJ»e 
Ven^^eiiiict; of iitirnjirilo CuafinW,*' Ml* w«^ 
a iJelicxif. prttty, tnir Injy, wiUi a spirMiml 
cit>uiit«iirii)iX| a f^iil^te lirii^r ftuti abuLifij^hce of 
Bjiky WijMrii hnit' ; quite tlie |»oet U> luuk At^ 
tuil very Iiki» my dcnr uuither, »ta %« nil 
d»fly cibttifrvfd, It WI13 eipecteii Itu^l I»l' 
Wtiuld covmf t\w nniu« of Clt'^vrlnHiln with a 
UmIq of j^lory ! nuliko i;<»tuii* fMuulic^rtf wt* Here 
II lu tim^, to ln*rn?ve iu Oi*r hero^ :iii"l tin^ Tiio:^t 
coii«i»ut )u our tUitU in bU H^ikiKiiil fntuie. 
At th^ ej^iicU r(fferr*''l to, IX-ivit; Wgati to tU- 
lUH Ludhtr Willi ;i bluek liUbon, U> wt'nr hU 
Vhliiie ilitxmt ex|Mif^t^i], arn) \m UetViUful hiiir 
vifry Irjug ; liU jipfH-Ute tiid iirit fajl hlni lu 
[invHtf, hut At our I i tile ii^'tuiiouti liti ii.lw!iye 
|>ikrii>uk of dry tiKisi :ih*l dSr^iUg green lea: 
WMs vt^ry Shtfi4, ii^iwtrnc-ted, jiUiI avetsa to 
ui^u'd j^iK'niiy : tht! uumrn {lutteii liini, ami 
aiiteil bim '*zill tioul." ilii wait vt^ry kiiKl* 
itiMrWd »«u4 nwet-t tem|iereilt ftud mtUtfT viiiii« 
wliii^h was nnthiug more itmu imtur^i, qqu- 
iiderm>( liow bu wim tl^itteied, 

H^ b«ui H littW NK>tii ni tlie top of the 
baums whielk liNtkt'd ov^r Uie u>wii to Mil- 
vpmtDii meie^ wlier© the mimoriJil p^n^iu Wtiu 
coniiiietKU(?d« I ri^iiieiiilier ii^ 1>^^'mu U <»q n 
w«t evt'nui^, jind it i-[j«neil (iiHUially, with u 
«i«irm ; lurira^l me up tlicne with my |ih&iij 
s^wmi: tit lUtifo to ti^e tirttl stsuis^Jis ; uihI litr 
GoiisulUr] mc »tbout out* ou two dilHcuH 
rb> tm.'» ; lie wifc* not muv wiiettmr '* borrur '' 
M\*i ^ iiioimw ** ^«r« ci^irvett I tlioogbtii^i , 
fjid, hid Ijirvlnlay bitUij;^ three kh^yA alter^ 1 
|>r&%eiitt'd him with a rliymiag dictioUJirv. 
£jul**€qut*iitly, the poem imwl^mpjd projivan, 

0>ii5in Joiiti Ij4id Jui»t tfoiitf np to Loniioij 
to tlrti'iy Ihw^ Mud my father wiubt^ t >avie to 
tie Hrttel'd to Mr. Brig'.^Sf tli« HoUdtor lit 
Milvei'PtQii. Thin did liot chjmt» ii^ with hU 
ta0\^: al hH . bs sUUsd ih?<^T. it w&s his witili lu 
follow t hf jiritrvfl-^ifUi of li^tter^. We did uot 
auti« uiid^r^tiiml tltm at um tim«. Coimu 
Jnek fi^tid it M leant ttifit he w&uted to tit^ tlie 
idle g^iilietiiMn. I hiid my d^ulita on the 
mitlt^r, i>avie brought my motlmr over to 
Ilia Wiiy of Uiiiikinir» -^ I »liali i»e very [Kxir^ 
hii% v«ry hajipy, moth^fr," h«i ii*«fl to s^iy ; 
** if yoii put nie to hu} tlihig ebi% I ftbatl be 
m^eritKb and d<i no |{<Mjd/* So Dav^ie got 
lili own wHy ; a ml, 111 li pr^'pnratiim foe hia 
pf ol^cMitoii of Irtiei'rt, be dtHiyenl at home aud 
liiibhed *^ikruardo Uaspiato/' It wad a 
0]4eii<iii| work. I hiive wept oirer it id ten. 
Th« li^rnine Imvi^K iit^i^u executed for witch- 
emft, her lover, Beituifdo, di?vott!« hia bfe to 
mr^iige b^ I ttud, after commiltuig a cata- 



logue of murderA, endi by disappeariog tny*» 
teriou^ly in a 0eLsh uf bhie lightning tu rejoin 
ber in heavtn. My mother objected to the 
moral it V of tbe (Hjudiiairm ; but she ack now- 
let Jge<l Keraelf, at tbe s^iiue time, ignorant of 
the hiwa and Ucetict of poetry* 

Wiib ihia gie.it work, aJid oome miiidr 
pieceti of ei|ual if m>t sopenor meril^ my 
hroth^r Dfivie went up to Ijomlon on toot^ 
witlt ten ponndta m his po^rket, and seven teen 
y^tra of exfjerietice 00 hiia beiid. Consul Jjwk 
b^l tnkeu comtonabie ludgiuga for him at a 
small baker's shoji, k^pt by a widow wotiuin 
With a dmighler natneu l<ttey* The dear bul 
wrote US ivuni tUat he wad quite guited, aud 
that, after a few dim to look about bim, he 
rihonld ciirry bin tm mortal jioem to a piib- 
lisher. Hisi b'|>ea were sanguine ; bis vbioni 
of laiiie loagniTtcent, 

To our BLiiprme and grief, Bernarda 
Cuapi^itf) w»iB dei^lined with th:\ukB, No* 
iKxly wiut biclined to yubliah it uiiieM the 
author would bear all the expen«m«, 
Jj;ivie w*mld not eoffer my fiitber to ilo 
this ^ he wo^dd e^ru money for biini*elt 
We woitileri^d bow be could ilo it ; but 0*"9in 
Ja^slc lent him a liiiiidf and aonielioily who 
JomI iioiiiethiirg to dif with a new&jmper bought 
bin minor pieces. He lived, at all eventa, by 
biti own exeiaiourt. At this time, Lucy began 
tjj rtgure in leUei-a to me mai^ked "privnte," 
ft woiild be inipO!^»ilile to give the wUota 
wtory a* 1 herein developed, but I will epito- 
tuivm it as i^fuTwaiTld liei^rd friim bia own hps. 

ile f<II euihu^i:4^tic:dly in lore w^th Liicy^ 
who*w lieauty li« rnved about a« Hbereal, 
benvenly, unuopbLsticnted : before 1 heard of 
uer at all he wa^ evidently far gone bi the 
tender p^piaion ; and hucy had iiiitened a(» 
iiftrn« and with such a graceful iniereat^ to 
\ha literary mrug^les, that be faiieied he had 
every reason to believe that bis atfection waa 
retunic<l One morning, however, all tUeiw 
aunuy liope^ were Ludety di«|)elled. He iiad 
amu once ur twice a young man of ruatiti 
appeamnee in the t>hop, be had ^l»o known 
hini to t:ike tea in the back parlour with 
Mn$« Lawtiry an^l ber daughter, without at^ 
tachiuLT any nignifieaiice to bia vif»ita. Am 
Davie t»ki at brrakfa^t on tlm particular day. 
tbie indi^ iibi^l drove U* the door in a gig> ana 
waa pleim^uitly received by the laridlady. Urn 
wi>reqtdid a fej^ial appearance, and for the 
Hr^t tin»« a sitj^pmion euteted Duvie^a mi ml 
which dianged quickly tti a certainty. After 
jspfftKing to Mri*. L-twley for a minute or 
I two, tha yoi;u^ mun ran out to st^ip the 
Idtiver of a wa<j;gon loaded with sjH:kd of 
{grain, and, while bokbug him in talk, the 
phir }io^t rr<»m the U|i-^tair4 window took an 
luv^'iitoryt MB it wet^, of hia riv^ra peiuonaJ 
gr:i4:ea. He was of a very tall, atraighr, and 
robust fitjure, with a broad, comidy faee^ 
ruddy eomplexiuuj and curly brown hair, 
• Riti voiee wixa like the roll of an organ, and 
his lau^b the very b&>.rtl*i4t of gurtkws— ^ 
altogetber, m very proper man, at Davie, but 



i 



i 



=1 



14 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDS. 



{CwiSlMkf 



for his jealooiy, mDst have acknowledged. 
The 8traiiger*8 rolUckiDg air of gaiety added 
present iusolt to previous injury ; and to get 
out of the hearing of hii rich *' ha ha," which 
seemed to pervade the whole neiglibourhood, 
Davie snatched up his hat, intending to walk 
off his spleen : he pushed halfway down the 
stairs, but there paused — just below, in the 
passage hy the back-parlour door, was the 
obnoxious rustic, with his arm round bonny 
Lucy's waist, and his lips seeking a kiss ; 
while the damsers hand was put up to shield 
her cheek, and her toncue was saying, in 
that pretty accent which lovers never take as 
truth^ "Don't, Tom; please don't!" Tom 
caught the uplifted fingers, and held them 
fast till he had taken a dozen kisses to in- 
demnify himself for the delay. Davie, greatly 
discomtited, retreated to his room, and made 
cautious surveys l»efore venturing to leave it 
again. He quite hated Tom, who was a fine, 
single-minded ^oung fellow, guilty of no 
gr^kter sin against Turn than naring won 
blue-eyed Lucy's heart 

When Mrs. Lawley came up-stairs to re- 
move her lodger's breakfastHhings, she looked 
glowing with importance, and, after a short 
hesitation, confided to him the great family 
secret — Mr. Tom Burton, of Hivenscroft 
Farm, had offered for Lucy, and they were to 
be married that day week. ^'You'll have 
seen him, sir, maybe 1" said the proud 
mother; "he's been here as often as twice 
a-week; and, when I told him it behoved him 
to stop at home and attend to his farm, he*d 
tell me that com would grow without watch- 
ing ; and I soon saw what he meant. So, as 
Lucy was noways unwilling, I bade *em have 
done with all this courting and courting, and 
get wed out of hand. Perhaps, Mr. David, 
vou'll be so good as go out for the day, aud 
let us have your room for breakfast — or we 
should be proud of your company, sir." 

The poor poet almost choked over his con- 
gratumtions, but he got them out iu a way. 
Soon after, he saw the lovers cross the 
street, arm-in-arm, spruced up for the occa- 
sion, and looking as stiff as Sunday clothes 
worn on a week-day always nuke rustic 
lovers look — everyboay who met them might 
know what they were. Tom had a rather 
bashful and surprised expresiiion; as if he 
were astonished to find himself part owner 
of such a fresh, modest, little daisy of a 
sweetheart, and were not quite sure that it 
was her cottage bonnet just below his great 
shoulder, for so long as Davie had them in 
sight he kept looking down into it to make 
sure Lucy was there. Davie's feelings were 
almost too much for him, but he made a 
magnanimous i*eHolve that as Lucy htu\ been 
BO good and attentive to him, he would make 
her a present, aud, that he might endure the 
deepest pangs, tliat present should be the 
wedding dress and bonnet. Ue went off 
accordingly, post luuite, to a great luilliuery 
establishment, aud purchased a duve-ooloui-ed 



silk dress, and the most sweetly pretty white 
bonnet, with orange blossoms, that could be 
had for taoney. When Lucy and Tom re- 
turned from their walk, he called her up- 
stairs and presented tlieni to her. She 
contemplatea them with surprised delight, 
blushing and clasping her hniida over them : 
never was there anything so beauttfuL 

Davie bade her try the bonnet on, to see 
how it would tit, and, without an atom of 
coquetry, she put it on, tie<l the strings under 
her chin, and rose on tip-toe to peep at her- 
self in tiie ^lass over the chimney-piece. 

** Imust let " (Lucy was uoing to say '*Tom," 
but she substituted '* mother " instead) ; *' I 
must let mother see it ! " and she ran out of 
the room, leaving the door open, with that 
intent But soniebiMly met her on the stairs, 
and stoppe<l her for exumination. D.-ivie 
tried to shut his ears, but he couhl not help 
hearing that ominous '* Don't, Tom ; please 
don't ; " though, as balm to his wounded 
feelings, he also cau<{ht the echo of a — what 
shall I say Y— a slap ? a 1h>x ?— what do you 
call it when a pretty maiden brings her luuid 
sharply in contact with her lover's cheek? 
Well, no matter — it is a something which 
always is or ought to be aven^ed by six 
kinses on the spot ; it was coudignly punished 
in this instance, for Tom lacketl modesty even 
more than French polinh. Davie instantly 
slammed the door, and sat down to compose 
his feelings by inditing a sonnet on ** Dis- 
appointed Love." When it wns finished — the 
lines being flowing and the rhymes musical 
—he felt more placid and easy in his mind ; 
but, before the wedding, he withdrew him- 
self from the house, and went into country 
lodgings to hide his griefs. In process of 
time he rhymed himself into a belief that 
he was the victim of a disappointed passion, 
the prey of a devouring sorrow ; that his 
heart was a wreck, a ruin, dust, ashes, a 
stou^ dwelling alone ; that life was stale, axk 
unfinished tale, a hopeless, joyless pageant : 
all because blue-eyed Lucy had married Tom 
BuBton of Kavenscroft, 

Tills was the early love-romanoe which 
furnished my brother Davie with his cyni- 
cism, his similes of darts, flames, and wounds 
that are BcattM:>)d every whi»re through his 
verses. Some of the productions of his 
troubled muse, alter he fled tojiighgate, shall 
be quoted. What would have been Lucy^s 
astonishment could she have heard herself 
apostrophised in such burning numbers ! her 
orbs of sunny blue wouitl have dilated until 
she would have looked, iu^leed, a round- 
eyed Juno. Here is one of Davie's effusions 
from a little mauuAcript-book, bound in 
white vellum, the coutidaute of his poetiod 
woes at this mournful era :— 
Thou hut como like a miit o*er my glorious drmminf, 

Thv imago ttandt up 'twist my soul and the sun 1 
Oh! why, when youth's nooutide of gladoots was 
beaming, "^ 

Hast thou darken*<l all that It shone upon? 



^lNeteiii.7 



MILTEF^aTON WOETHIES, 



U 



To f^e tbe^k in lovo tbce* sy, IcTir il^re In ftimlnrst, 
To kupv diftt tiintt iiis'er eouldit he aiiglit to am i 

To- le&iTQ tlii<^ ! and rrtnA iti my uptrit^* loiiv tadGrtt, 
Ths* the J Ota w« bJI hnpfjlt-M I ctmi-eii in th^ ! 

Th^ rnnae apptAra at this juact^^n ta have 
bten qnrte troubleBrtnie m^Jtli her d eel Aral ions* 
Thf foUowitjg wftfl writteQ one ^venirtg in- 
fttei^l of goiDij to diniter like a ChriEtiari gen- 
Ueiuatt to Uncle SAmOToii''a on Christ mas 
"Dmf. It fttiitids tBtitlcii, I Ijovie Tht»e ! imd 
U written with a neatness Umt finjfi litUe for 
its 6|>ont«3ieiiy ; — 

I hiT« thee t Op ncTcr did iftpimer «* 

Grrci lunihine more gliMlljr tliui I gtevt tlice! 
Like «lew (D ipriitg flowerf, lilc? tt^ira to duik nlgbt 
Art Ut<m wttb tlf gkncci of liquid ligbt ! 

1 IoT<i iKeu, »i ofilf tlioie lieiKi« cdti low 
\Vho»e Ihtimiiig d'evotjotj ia Imrd to moTC 1 1 
Life, bfAittf, ftiid liopL% thitu ttt ill to uej^ 
A. Ttilce tnd nn r<.Vi« itf lut^ludv I ** 

It aeenvs r:*thtT as if aenfte were mnde anh* 
OTdmat^totioiiiuliti acimeiif these lucubraiit>i)¥, 
Vmt they are not bo ImmI for »eveuteen. Davits 
cojue biick to MilTcrstoTi for a littld while At 
ihi« ifjujon, &nd cnttiratetJ his gnef, to the 
great (iisoinler of our iTe|fiiln.r himsieholih One 
night he Btiiyed out bo iMle thut my father 
weut 111 oearch of him and foiinil him by the 
tnert^ geeking ini^ijirntkin from the eUii^, Qu 
ihia oecaaion he jtrotluceil eight niorp llnee, 
which seeni to li&?e been the nttnost hia 
niuot* couKl bring for that one time. It 
it e&Oetl, tu the vellum l>dok into which it 
li eai>cfully trtt^nacrihedf Tell mC| my 
Heart ;— 

Tell me, mj liriift, the renton of ihy indneMf 
Why prqplttt tJiO« Uiy iolitydt wiih dt*am* ? 

Whj dn«t thou tliun the rcrnra of luirth Mid ghulnett 
To £nd thv tclio in tlie lonelj fttremni ? 

AW t nAy heart, th&t thj p&or 1ov€ ihnuhl zander, 
WjieT« itevn meet wrth naught btit cfild drndain! 

'BtA Ihnl lU tjvmiurn thm mv poii^ ihnuld iq^i&nder 
Whero It cul K*p but te«r> and ^iii^fi agftin ! '^ 

GfHjd litlle Lucy would have been uovrj^ 
in^ii'ed, if ahe could have known into what 
a liTnlHj iif angubh Dnvle wa^ ihrown by her 
niarriiige ; but l*»t us hope^ »« nhe might have 
doh«^, t\m.i the beat Imif of the toriurcfi were 
0iily fancy. I know he had at the wo ret an 
eioellent appetite for tamb and iisparagua, to 
which lie w*j«s very pariiaU Dear Uavie, to 
t^Ht\ theJsK* effu^ona^ tender imagimttiona may 
think of hnn as tine porcelain fnictiired with 
the world 'H hnrd usage, whereas he is slout 
and lualil, arjd wears green Bjx?ctaclegi, The 
law does not undertake to dci^l with poetry 
cons posed under fiike pretenc;e«, or many 
woulrj ipe the sighing Str6|>hona and doleful 
Delwis brought up for judgment* 

Laai sum me r we had Davie at home for a 
miMlth, and during that time occurred th@ 
gSftlld tner^mation of Bernardo Caspiato. 1 
•oaU ever regard it ^» a most ernel sac ritice^ and 
C^yi^ Jack, who inatigated it, aa an illiterate 



character, Davie brought it forth one even* 
ing when we three were tog-i-tber, and reail 
^arta of it aloud : jack unfeehugly remarked 
that it was not like good wine, »t did not im- 
prove with keeping ; that, like fruit phi eked 
immatuiely, it was green and taste It^aa; it had 
not ac<]^aired roellowui^ss and fluvor, and if 
stored up for another twenty yeara it wonld 
not taste Isetter. Davie half coincided with 
him ; but I did not ; eo grandly majestic as 
waa the march of the Jines, so dehcate and 
true the rhyme^r, iv) thrilling the noble 
catastrophe. It exasperated me to see Jack, 
finat yawti to the full extent of his jawa, then 
snatch the ma ttti script from Davie, and toaa 
it up to the ceilini^, r*?treating afterwards in 
f<?igiied iear lest he should be crushed by its 
leaden falh An ignoble fate was thine,^ 
immortal Bernardo I Convid*d of the 
reapectbble ain of dulness— whic!i none par^ 
don — thou w*?rt condemned to be burnt ! 
Davve did not act with undue precipitation ; 
Jack ur^ed an iru mediate execut lou^ but the 
poet took a week to consider of it, and many 
A pang it cost him. Those who have written 
immortiii fHJcms and destroyed them will 
appreciate his fei'tiiiga ; none eke cao. Let 
anyboily of experience call to mind the laat 
time he baa read thmugh the letters from his 
first love, just before she was married to 
I ai^imif bod J else ; or the Icttrt^ from that par- 
[ ticnlar old friend, which it is of no use to 
I keep because he is dead, or you have 
quarretUd lieyond hope of reconciliation, and 
then some faint ide^i will be conceived of the 
poet's sensations at this immolation of hia 
tii^t love, his particnlar friend^ and his pet 
child — all in one. 

It waH the aummer-^eajson, and warm,^-*! 
found it very wsrm \ there was no fire lu the 
grate^ aud the match^lxix on the writing- table 
waa empty* Jack supplied the want eagerly 
from bis smoking apparatus, anti iJermirdo 
CiiapiatDi^brauk into a pinchof ttudt>r> I wept. 

** There T' said poor Davie, with a pro- 
found sigh, ^ it took two yeara to write and 
two seconds to de^i^troy—^Jubt like au eternal 
friend ship, uu undying atieotion, or any thing 
of that kiud which lialX a tloaeu indiscreet 
words are at any time enough to annihi- 
late I " 

"Have a cigar^ old boy j never mind 
morwhsing,'* said Jack^ to whom a cij^ar 
wouM be eousulHtti>n for the death of hia 
grandmother; "have a cigar; the buatuesa 
cjiii't be helped,'" 

" Poor LUrmardo I " iKiid Davie, as feelingly 
as if be spuke of a brother, *' poor Bernardo t 
He gave me m^ny an hour's delightful occu- 
p:itlon» I feel as if I had tost a IViend to 
whom I bud bi-eo in the itabit of contidmg my 
seuliinet^tal va^^aries. I'm not sure that it 
was right to burn him/' 

** Have a ci^nr,** reiterated Cuuain Jack- 
Davie accepted the otFer with a pt? naive sigh, 
ymtoii hia grccn spectatrlea, and went out for a 
walk ilk mournful mood. It is a serious thing 



16 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDa 



lOMiMlHly 



burning immortal poems. NoVod^r cnn tell 
wkMt lottee the world baa had in that waj — 
nobody 1 



SCOTCH COAST FDLK. 

FOOTDEB IN THE LAST CEKTUKT. 

Thb aced lady whose recollections I con- 
dense, and combine with my own obeervatious^ 
says : 

Remote, bat still distinct, the view appeui^ 
Tliro' the long visU of departed yesjrs ; 

although, towards the conclusion of the 
American War, the fish town of Fuot<lee was 
not one of those ''green spiits on which 
memory delights to dwell." The town con- 
siste<i of several rows of low- thatched cot- 
tages running from east to west, lietween the 
. high-road and the harbour, or, as it is called, 
the tide. Durinj; the high spring-tides, the 
furthest waves came up to the bank of sand 
on which the ends of the houses were bnilt. 
Exteriorly, Uiese cottages ap|>eared comfort- 
less enough, as each dwelling fronted the 
iMtck of its opposite neighbour, and, as in the 
narrow space between there was a line of 
dunghills crossed over with spars, upon 
which were hung lines, bladders, and buoys, 
intermixed with dried dog-fish and skate. 
Their interior was not more alluring to a 
stranger. The earthen-floor was uneven, 
and sometimes dirty, although generally 
sande<l over of an evening, or at least every 
Saturday, in preparation for the Sabbath. 
U[H>n tne wood or rafters which stretched 
across horizontally from the tops of the walls, 
wns a ceiling of old oars and bits of drift- 
woo 1. Tho bare rough walls were not white- 
was <ed. Hoof, wall^ and rafters were all 
blackened by smoke from a fire at one end of 
the cottage, placed upon the floor, and made 
of turf and sea-weed. Soot-drops— curious 
black glossy accumulations, formed by a 
similar process, doubtless, to that which pro- 
du • s stalactites and stalagmites — ^hune here 
aa 1 there upon the walls, rafters, and root 
Inese collections of pendulous carbon might 
have been deemed ornaments, if they had not 
been signs of defective clean line><s. There 
ift-as a small window at each side of the door. 
Under each window was a clumsy black 
bedstearl. There was but one small deal 
table. There were only two or three chairs, 
and as many sunkies, or low fixed seats rest- 
ing upon stakes driven into the floor, to sit 
upon. Beside the wall opposite the door 
were seen the requisites of the fishing occu- 
pation — lines, creels, murlains, &c. Such 
were the principal property and furniture 
visible. There was no press or cupboard; 
and the only depository for keeping things in 
was a chest or locker, in whicn lay the 
precious stores and the Sunday clothes. The 
salt^bticket, or box, was stispended in the 
chimney. 

Such were the cottages in the eic^hteenth 
century. In the first quarter of the nine- 



teenth, the cottages were arranged upon the 
four sides of squares, with a large open space 
in the centre; and outtdde every cottage, 
upon the walls, hung fish-hskes or wooden 
triangles for drying haddock. Inside the 
cotUges the w»ils were occasionally white- 
washed ; and there was fixe<l against the wall 
a series of wooden shelves for the preservation 
and display of delft and earthenware crockery. 
There were tea-cups in the cupboard in the 
comer. The little round table was of pine- 
deal, but 8crubl>ed into a whitenessby a truly 
Dutch cleaidiness, which niaile it rtvHl tables 
covered with a fair white linen cloth. The 
crnisie, an iron lamp of simple structure, con- 
sisting of one cup or ladle, with a narrow lip 
for the whale-oil and wick, and another cup 
of broader and larger dimensions, to receive 
the droppings, hangs in the nineteenth, as in 
many centuries previously, near the chimney, 
and produces, ivembrandt-like, lights and 
shades well worthy of the study of an an iat 
who should wish to rival the Dutch [lainters 
of the present day, in the pictures they paint 
to show the eflects of a lamp. 

The costumes of the fishers were, and con- 
tinue to be, peculiar. The elderly men wore 
broad blue woollen bonnets, coarse blue 
jackets, and canvass kilts or short trousers. 
The younger men were rather good-looking, 
had good-humoured faces, and were smarter 
in their dress. The women wore caps, the 
original patterns of which still abound upon 
the Continent, which did not prevent the'r 
features being injured by the weather, and 
their skins l>eing tanned by the sun. The 
middle-aged women wore stuff gowns, with 
large flowered calico wrappers or short 
gowns, over them. The youn^ girls wore 
stuff wrappers and petticoats, with their hair 
either drawn back with a large comb, which 
reached from ear to ear, or fastened up in a 
very slovenly and unbecoming manner with 
a head-dress of red worsted tape. The boys 
under fifteen were the worst clad. They ran 
about in tattered old garments of their 
fathers*, a world too wide, and remained in 
this condition until they were able to earn a 
more decent covering for themselves. The 
little children of both sexes were comfortably 
dad in a simple dress of white plaiding, 
called a walliecoat, which, with their fiiir 
curly heads and rosy cheeks, made them look 
very pretty, as they paddled in the pools of 
water, and played with their tiny boats. 

In tJie last century, the fishermen were 
mostly ignorant of everything unconnected 
with their own business. Few of them could 
read, ami none of the grown-np people could 
write. Some of the lads could read and write 
a little ; but as they went to sea in the nighty 
and took their repose in the day, they were 
not placed in favourable circumstances for 
the development of the social fiiculties. No 
instance of intellectual talent — ^no single 
person displaying a tendency towards any 
art or science— occurred among them. Musie 



tHdnhl 



BCDTCH COAST fOLIL 



17 



And a^nff, no dnubt, Ci^ntributed to the e»joy- 
tneut of lUeir luerry meetinga ; hut the riiusic 
w;i» coiitineil to & ^iktile, niiil tUcstr cuJIrctiou 
of songs sc-arecly exi^uded b^-yomi The Prnlat? 
of Paul Jout'^p I'he Watifu' Bailnd of CiipLtiii 
Glt-tif and the ClimlaiaM airot of By SoiUh- 
«Jil« JVa for the wonieu — ^toiling, »a Uiey 
wtfre, itiiJWHsanlly — iliey Jiftd no time for 
nifiital iu*) ruvemeut. But &s they grew oM 
they gairit'd jimctical kiiowleJjre knd ei|ieri- 
tnee. Miiny of them Imd a ktrnwledgo of 
iimjiifi ivjtieiiits fov curing ciisea-*eB, wliich 
t*bt?tiired firr their piescrijitirmH a prefrrence 
to thuae of fiit^dbnl iiietu ^oiije of tlietn wera 
■iipp«ti&) to be invested viiih Euj^ernatMral 
pollers, Mhich made it d&u^erous to otfeud 

I nmy mterpose here a. general remark. 
The HU[»erauiioD9 whioh were*weepiutjly coit- 
dtfmiit^i by the piiUot^ophy of the ei^^htiieiitb 
oatKtiry aa falsehood mid kmiK^t^uire, the plit- 
loBopUy of the Dtneteeiah hiul» to be true iii 
n aeiiae. Inattsad of rejecting it in a ht^»Pf 
tliti sciideut of the pres^^iit d;iy ahakea uiiiJ 
waahtfS tJie rubbiiih, and SL^fmrntea the gmiua 
of truth front it* What, I may be aakeci, 
waa it true tliat old fish-croneji ptjssesaea 
the ]K»^era of wkehemfl? I have not 
doubt of it The %vonl witch cm ft comes 
from wiccian, whence witchery, wicketine*^. 
It meaiia evil influence* Gitted wir-h th<? 
pciWfr of reading chsirMCtei-s and actitnii, of 
•eeiiig consequennea aj)d calculating regultet 
ftiid capzLble of imparting a bias, hiying 
tnare^ adjiptJDg a ti'mplaiion^ phiiming a ven- 
ge»tic«, or iuHtitUn^' a physical or morA 
fH>isou ; and years give all these powers to 
mallguaut intelligetJCe. 

AnyUdug may be twii^ted into atnpid 
or tner^iUbte shapes, AVhen affairs did not 
prfispt-r among the Footdee folk, it wjis attri- 
btittKl to au evil foot, an " ill fit*' Prior to 
setting out upon any expedition or enter- 
prtse, they were careful and imrticular about 
th« tirat ** fit" they met in the morning. The 
Scuta of the Weil w^is an object of rivuLi'y 
every New Year'a Day mornings Old Style. 
As the midnight hour approached, and the 
htHt moments of the year came on, the women 
iAtemhled in a ioleiun group, around the 
large old draw-well, and seoMed and scuffled 
to dedde whose pati or bucket Ebon Id axrvy 
otf th« first friiught (or first freight). Tim 
•npt r^tition of the first foot may itifoinl some 
tuplaimtion of t.lie phrase Putting hm foot 
Stiio it. Prior to comnjeucing anything, ia it 
not well to note carefully who may be taking 
the initiative for evil in it ) Ji not the di^t 
^vd foot aatlr in U a eeriona thij}g for any 
euierpriae! At for tb« scum of the well, 
is nif% the euer^tiii honaewife who obtains 
the lirat supply of the firMt necessary of! 
life, — water — likely to aurptus all rivals 
itt pro vising for her household 7 I opine 
it la Old J a BOi't of piety due to our ft>re- 
falhera to gue«9 thtfy wiire threw tier fel* 
jowi thau w« might mppoee from our 



j views of their siipemtitlon, witeheraft, and 
sgrc^'ry. 

ludtied there is aomethlng small in the 
mindti svhich study superBtitiona only to find 
in them oqcsietona for mdat^ing the and'^en 
elation of »**lf-glory which Hi*bl*e8 says ia 
the cause of laughter* Uiir foref^tbers inbe* 
rited a sj or it- world of peitiOiiiti<^tLma : und 
we liave ijdiented a mHna of pliilo*<'phicul 
ali^tracliona. Utir foiefatbera lulieiiti^d a 
poetical ami popular nomt^iiclntitre, and we 
express our stnentitiegeiieraiisaUon« in cmck- 
\nw words of Greek and LiHtin derivation, 
Uh(>«tSt MTattbi, witt'heti, fmne«» momiaids 
ami water-kelp^ea, are iiersonilicjUiiinii which 
iiave Wkh covered wit It ridicule^ and un- 
doubtedly there have been an abundance 
i*f ridteulouB Hiories told reHjiectini^ tlicra ; 
but I BU)«pHi:t there i^ philos^itjiby in [hem 
after alb The nun da of Coast Folk are 
pet^pled frt»m early ehildboo*! with sipeetr^es 
bekthging to tbtf hind, isea, ami jiky ; aiiid no 
wonil*fr» aiiicej during Iohr centtiriej?^ catd*- 
tiophes have desolMtei] the homes of Coast 
Folk widch have its^ued ntVHteriouiily and 
terribly frimi land, sefi^ Kud sicy, S<;veu niile^ 
from Aberdeen there iaa h:iidng-vdlage^hioh 
was butied in a sand-^ioim in one ni^^ht. 
almost every soul of the inhabitants waa 
^mothered in the sand-drift, nnd for many 
years the spire of Uie village church alone 
marked the Apttt in the hullow treacherous 
sand-hills. When a boy I was warned bv 
woi"da anil lo**ka of honor from a|*pn>uchrng 
the tatiil li>&dity where it was thought the 
wralh of the Almighty had displayed itself 
so awfully. Seviirai ujstitncet have ot-eun^ 
in which all th*' men ot a village have gone 
to sea, ai]d perished tn one night, A boat or 
a corpse heard of as having been ca^t ashore 
on a distant beach, was &>»uietimea the only 
ijdinj^a ever beard of them. MermnidH have 
fn^ hie ueil many a bttive man ; and^in several 
of the monthly magazines published in the 
list century their existence was as serloualy 
diacnased as apparitions of sea-serpenta have 
been in our own day, Andrew Braiida saw 
one, " I recollect Andrew perfectly welL He 
was a a tout man, with a broad good-humoured 
face, and dark baitv who wore hia bonnet 
upf>n the back of hiii head/* Oecasitjnally 
employed aa a boatman or pilot^ lie looked 
more like a jolly sailor than a uleepj tie her* 
man. One summer day Andrew was found 
lying iniensLbie on the biil of Torry which 
faces the ara upon the side of the river Dee^ 
oppoBLt^ to Irootdee, W^hen roused, he spoke 
confmiedly and incoherently, He was thought 
to be dejanged. He was carried to the ferry 
and FOwe<l home. After severed weeks of 
delirious fever he became low and melan^ 
choly, and decHued to give any account of hia 
illuesa. Under medical treatment he reco" 
vered, although reilueed to a skeleton. The 
fearful belief spread through t!ie village that 
Andrew Brands had aet*n sometliin^j. When 
questioned after his recovery, he aaid ia 




18 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



substfince : " I was upon the outlook lying upon 
my breast, ami looking over tlie top of the 
rocks, whfu 1 saw a creature like a woman 
sitting' upon a stone. She aeemeJ to have 
somet hitig like a white sheet, or grave-clothes 
wmppi d around her. Someiimeo ^he combe<l 
her hair, and sometimes nhe tossed her arms 
in the air. All her ways were fearsome, and 
at la<«t she nisheil into the sea, and vanished 
l>eiieuth the waves. AJy heart lap (leapt), I 
grew blind, and I remember n«ithiiig mure 
until I awoke with all my bones soi-e, and tiie 
men lilting me up." The medical theory of 
his illness, as expounded bv his doctor, wa-s 
that he had gone out with incipient fever 
u|K)n him, hati fallen asleep in an ex|»osed 
situation, and the hallucinations of delirium 
had done all the rest. My informant who 
rememi*ei-ed him well, maintainetl he had 
been unwittingly the Actseon uf a bathing 
Diana at a time when ladies rarely bathed in 
Scotland, and had been punished hy the 
veni^eance of the goddess. Probably, how- 
ever, an accumulation of foam among tiie 
stones of the beach had taken the flickering 
form of a woman. The white scum would 
seem to rise up auadst the black stones, and 
Andrew Hmnds was frightened by a mermaid 
because he had never been taught the effects 
of |>eiti|iective. Was it in some such way as 
this that Cytherea herself was seen by the 
poetic eyes of a tisherman of Cyprus, issu- 
ing from the froth of the sea until she 
was wafted 'in a shell to the shore by 
Zephyrus, where the Graces received and 
adorned her tor presentation to the celestials 
of Olympus 1 

Extraordinary physical phenomena gene- 
rally precede extraordinary catastrophes. 
Everybody has heard of the warnmg blue 
lights. During the night which preceded a 
storm, in which seven men of a seH^ide vil- 
lage were lost, an ased man, I have been 
assured, saw seven blue lights passiue iu 
solemn procession from the roo& of Uieir 
cottages towards their grave-yard. He en- 
treated the men to stay at home, and not to 
go to sea. But they were obstinate, and 
hfveut. He told some old and some young 
people, who would listen to him, what he 
hail seen, and had scarcely finished his vatici- 
nation when the lightning leaped high into 
the sky, the thunder peal^, and a hurricane 
lashed the sea into furious madness. The 
boats were not far from the shore, but before 
tliey could reach it a boat capsized, and seven 
men were lost, within sight of their iamilies. 
A week aiterwanls, at the very hour of the 
day corresponding to the hour of the night of 
the procession of tlie blue lights, the funeral 
procet>8ion of the seven fishermen was seen 
going from their cottages by the very way the 
li<(hts had gone ; and beneath the very spots 
where the lights stood in the churchyard the 
corpses rest^ for evermore. The l.tw of the 
ehlers in these villager is, that no lioats ought 
to go to Sea when the old men say they have 



seen the blue lights. The blue lights are 
potisibly electrical facts. The ti-adiiiuua 
respecting tuoir diiection are as variable iia 
the winds. The guess is not a very hazirdoua 
one, that science would agree with the old 
men in warning the fishers against going to 
sea when the air wtui charged with electricity 
aifter midnight, in the coldest hours oi the 
twenty-four. 

When the Footdee fishers were found ia 
the last century to be no more scr •puloua 
than other people respecting cUi^tom-liouse 
oaths, an oath was framed for them, founded 
upon tneir superstitious fears, whic.i proved 
to be far more eifectual than the ordinary 
one. It concludei with these won is : *'If £ 
do not si>e;vk the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, may my boat be a 
bonnet to me.** 

Of course the fishers leaned to the side of 
the smu^lers against the excise and customs 
otiioers. Almost everybody did, iu tite ia^t 
century except the lawyers, something of a 
leg.d eilucatiou being necessary to see the 
propriety of establishing what Adam bniitii, 
whde himself a Commissioner of the boani 
of Customs, denounced as the ouiposts of 
Pandemtmium. When examined betore the 
courts in smuggling cases, the tishermeu 
contrived occasioiuilly, under an ap{)earauce 
of simplicity, co baMc with considei*abie cun- 
ning the cross-exammatiuns uf the counsel 
for the C*rown. Public sympathy was, in 
those days on the side of the smugglers, who 
called themselves free-traders, a designatioa 
which has smce attained universal honour. 
The principle of obedience to law, tlie sine 
qu& nou of civilisation, is less easily enthroned 
upon uneducated consciences than the priu* 
ciple of buying clie;ip and selling dear. 
Lairds, merchants, and workmen, therefore, 
all adm.red the oool duplicity with which 
the fisheis sometimes evaded the truth when 
under cross-examinations. Some of them 
were once witnesses in a case of detorcement. 
The counsel for the prosecution asked a 
fisherman,—** While the men were struggling 
iu the water, did you not hear the prictouer 
call out, * Drown tlie dogs 1 * '* 

"We saw nae dogs there, sir/* was the 
demure and composed reply. 

'* I do not ask you what you saw ; bat, on 
your oath, did you not hear him call out^ 
'Drown the dogs?*" 

** Tiiere was nae ony dogs there, sir/* was 
again the obstinate answer. 

Although no man of distinction in science 
or letters has ever arisen in any of these 
villages, it cannot be doubted they have pro- 
duced many men whi>m Poodle or Doodle 
might have safely trusted upon his legs on 
the floor of the House of Commons to an»wer 
the questions of honotu'able and indepeuaent 
members. 

A centuxy ago the fishers, who were hardy, 
industriotis, decorous, and honest, were never- 
theless inveterate swearers — a iiault which I 



I 



I 



did not oboerve amoi>g them in an offensive 
degree m ihv miietacuth cf^htiiiy. iudifed, 
I ba^ve Ii4*iird fiioi'ti awtfuriug fi'om two 
lulintriilB m n [jtmiloo clab Uiait I ever 
li«!«rd iu fkLing vlLluireit. In ttie Inst ceii- : 
ttiry, huwt^ver, tlic^ tizshers wuiiiU u^^ lUtj 
luiMii ti'tiiiieuduiisi otiihtt ii]»c>u tlitts muiic. ttivLHl 
€>oci»)<jUi^ A nger wiis nut uecvtisjiiry lu (jixj- 
irabft Ui4;m ; Uie itatba aeemlug to b«i as 

i1i6 ffUflhiug out of % bijat, iia thta L-riea of 
*• Yy-iiee O T* Pei^jua tJim<?custcimed to ! 
he«^r the atroug pliraBrni Ot' A^eiiiuu^f ft;eL \ 
their mhjdft uliucLed Uy Lbe iJi^^is eomejed' 
by thtm, being ignomnt that they have I 
c^Aded tu coav^y idt^u^i to the per^gusi who ii^e | 
theiu. When a hidy ixbu^ud otie of thetu' 
for iiAtug lh£r word ded (devil), he said, 

*'Eh I mt^mi 1 didu» think il ujei&iit ony ilt. 
DcH^a it tut^itii ony Ul T I Lhuolit it wait jiiat a 
word to d;id *' (knock) '* about.*' | 

'ihts wrath of tUese gotid-nattired and 
kiii4-h«ftrt0d people wan uutofioualy karm- 
leao. bttibi were iiokDuwn^ nnd tdu^'s 
ntre onioug them^ but the iiuigiiaga of their 
vitM|>eratJoii wits eipreaisive and ojiprobriutia. 
My iuformaut has ^tfca & wotuau in a pamun 
tak^ up a hatidfol of burning ooals, lyid lay 
them duwii without i^eemUig to feel paiu- 
l^^iim drUled in the ctmtrot of th«lr ge^^ 
ttinsi, if not of tbelr ft^Unga, iu boarding- 
schouLa, wLtneasedp with great a-stoulubmeut, 
the violence with which the women est* 
j>redsed grief and i&nientatiun. The boaia 
were freijiiently in great d^ity^v in eroasiug 
the liart 4fcud on thisae o^eaaiuna the women 
aftdembled upiu the b«acii would tear their 
hair, dap their handa^ and utter piercing 
cries and shrieka, Tii« aim pie and natur^ 
principled upon which their murriagta were 
formed, tiie ehuatity and honour in which the 
mai-ried Ji^ltei 8 lived, and the oonnubiid and 
faiudy happineaa of tiieir homes, may ex- 
piaiijf in itartf tlie violence of tiie emotitjuit nnd 
the exuberanoe of the ge^ioreii of the wivee 
when their huiilkatida were iu danger. A 
litahiotmble dame of Lundun r^htted aaixsaa- 
ttcaliy that ebe hiid known a Higher woman of 
the Scotch tn&t coiwt who required fonr men to 
keeji herfiom thru wing herself over the roek« 
lihen her drowned hufihiud wna e&rried into 
Iter cottage, become calm in a fortnight^ 
l"ecoiJimence work in a month, and marry I 
agtUn in ft twelvemonth* The poor child of^ 
tiatitre had no aentiment ! 

The marrmges of the 5shers were ai n^* 
tutKl ;ind »jmpi«a9 the unioiia of Lia^ic with 
Bebrku^b and Boaz with Uuth* Pervei-^iona 
about dowries, piu-ntouey, estjiblUhmenLs, 
ind at!ltlement4)« did not iuterlere wilb the 
Batumi action of mutuaJ interest and hoiLe^t 
prvft-rvuce. Thi?y marritd yoong. The 
youiig ni:hn and young woman imd tirobabiy 
ptayed together in chiliiKoal Kunuingf 
Wintig, tutnbling, paddling, Uughing, the 
child re a of the ti&hei^ are UB joyouti aa their 
£iblkera are aerioua : and Uf their mothafv 



could not match them Against the chlblren of 
the Tuileik^ti' Gurilens, or of Su Jnnte^'t 
Piirk, in [Kdui ol pretty coetiiini^e, they euidd 
cludlenif© the w^ald for tbein in rftjard to 
the h^atthineas of their lerfpiratory orj:mja 
and tlie glee of their animal ^pirlta. Tiie 
bf^jB and girk soon become nsefol, ilie eltler 
ehildren beini,' early employed to nurwe the 
younger* Both boya and girlii thu^ grow op 
ill ayvlematit: Lrahiing for the perJ'ormance of 
the 'lUtiei of their live& 

The tioy or hid went oat to sea with 
the meUf aud worked at the oi^r uulU he 
rn^i enough of money to buy a share uf a 
boat — and a biat with its n^tji coaU from 
a huudred and til'ty to two huDilred jKitJijd.<i» 
When he hjul » share of a boat, he 
required snme one to bait hiii lined and 
i^lt hie 6iih. Amouf^ the gtrf^ he knew^ 
and whose tempt-ra he had te»n?d in phiyj he 
linturally aeUcied the girl be liked best, iind 
lucked her tiraL ; and thtn, perh«j>a. like 
Kepler, the great j^troiiomer^ ha bad H bat in 
hte niiud, and a^ke<l one girl after ^uiother 
until he was ai^epted* On the othi^r hand, 
it is priditthie the principlei of alUnity imiy 
aometimes have been in operation fur yestr^ 
aud the bout nmy have been a greater diffi- 
culty tbim the w^fe. As soon as they wrr@ 
betrothed by the eonseut mid biesaings uf the 
old folks, the young woman went to hve with 
her futuj'e father and mother-in-law for ft 
week or two, and in the house with the y«Hjug 
in an. No doubt ahe had l>een taught iiy iier 
own mother to search for bnit, lo lip and bait 
the Imei*, and do all manner of household 
work ; but the fisher-people judg*?d wiiTely 
fihe won id be all the better for knowing all 
her tnoiher^in Uw could teach her ; and her 
huabriuil would be likely to think all tJie 
more of her fur being aa tjlever as his own 
mother could niiike her. A few days jTsor 
to the marriage, sbe retnrueil to her f^itiiur'a 
roof, and the ceremony took place in the 
house of her childhood. After the ceremony, 
the young couple went lo a hou^ of their 
owu« Thpy we tit in proeeduion &\>m ttie pa- 
ternal to the connubial home. A hddier 
phi v lug merry strains, headed the procedAion, 
and he was followed by a l>oat-mule ol the 
bridegroom, carrying the flag of the boat. 
When the bride arrived betore the door of 
the home of her husbiind, his boat*JuateA 
rolled their Hag around her* The apeciatom 
witnesaed the ceremony in ailence untit «h# 
waa enveloped in the folds, and then they 
applauded the actors in it with loml iiiM h>ng 
ehee£^ The ceremtmy i>eemed to be a ftubho 
intimation that the young wife waa hence- 
forth placed within the sanctuary o! tlie 
honuur of the crew, who engaged theiuselve* 
aolemnty to priftect her from initult and injury, 
aa braVe men defend their flag* 

Whiiu a yomig cuople had not money 
enough to pay for the stmro of the boat, the 
fornijihmg of the house, and the eji^nsett of 
tbe weddings they hod what wa« called m 



4 

k 






to 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDa 



jrt4Tirr-w<?<hlii7g wjv* this I *' We me a cuiiple [ Mnti fi^'e/mtolhe Auoual Eegiater for eighteen 

i>l jiMiji^ jitt^pfe who til ink it bcltvr to mat ry j huinli>d and «ix : — 

Oil bViftny bit, the wrlNknowii t^fiH, *ne ^f tl»# 
rt|»rrKiii4ui%H'i of Prniitylvamia, and ihc lf4il«r of tliB 
I)|i;9,nc pbr y^ ftud J»tt-tjth H. Nichr»l»oii, one of iH* 
rqn'^Bcnsatiici of Mmriilaixt- ifict in tkc Cun^rn^ 
li»iibv %iiii\it i*T\e |}'cl«ick« wliri7 I^eib imrucdbiLc^h caiktd 
Nk'lko]Bnh a liar; wnd, ihcrcupon^ rnmim-nwd ono flf 
tlie Wtt fiiu^'ht tiaiikt rpcoidcd in tJie uia*l» of cvih 
Crevf Loiid |)iigi)ipm. Tlir %Ih coiHtiiunl till tlit- rxtj^ 
fftMfUi fouiMl, i*ln?ti Icib JiJi«t remv^d ttitli Idnan u 
driti ri'd litiik from itc&in ficini; U\* tnan. If r pr4»- 
trjcud Oic figlit ; fiillitig nfier uitiking a fetrliff litL 
In ihe rntiiid wliirU end id llic %lilr l^*"^ ^^^ bkikvd 
hiiji fldii«N-d liiin to Tt-iij;[n ; which he diil iilt^r » 
com tint of one hEiur anif KventerD ftjinutetf Tb« 
cotnbKtaitu weii boih vny much beatu. 



pcnny-weilrling. There was nothing royal or 
amluiralic iu a pc'iiuy-wcddiugj to which 
^i\y one iiiiylit conje who diiftsts ti> pay a slnl- 
ling* Hlip ai^'tiiticnricic aiitl r^ttiouHle of tha 
L'liiliiig 

tlniJi tif iJt» Wwr«e, and we dpeiu it ftudiak nud 
D^'i' ktni ty begin the world \*iUi debt. We 
%i eielitie iutiie you, good iifi^Ub^jors, tti 
itujiiHte ytufi-Bi-lvesby diiiidng ut our Mianiage, 
mid, by (ia>iii|* as ^'t^neroinily as in«y be l^ou- 
fel^lH^^t tur the amusemeut, hrjp ii« to bi-ijiji 
iht w. rSd with a fair chatice of mfikiii*j 
bitth end 61 meet/' A ctiranum nrgurut'ot iii 
fnvoiii' Iff the f>eimv*>^ediling wa^ : the 
yuiiiig mi\n Wfttits tea poiiinis of his ahiir*j 
0f Uie bnutj iind lUHiiy |Her«iJ«H gave their 
tnoiiey who hever went to the diiijt^t^s. The 
canvna for the penny -wedding litok pi e« 
aoMfiig the carpentera, ctK>]«'rs^ aiid aftiJont 
of tln> purt ; and enjph>yeia, abuiikcepera^ 
Bhi]i*uwnt'Taf and captains hud generidly a 
hal thrown to apare for the young counle. 
The ti inner at <* penny-wediliiirf cunsi sited of 
jibundmK't of meat and Seot'^li liroth^ served 
in broad pt-wter di!ilit>a, After diimer^ the 
pfirty adjourned to the Hnka or duwna^ to 
ilaiice '* the slmme dance \ '' and then ttiey 
dfljaeed until they were tired* Kiiown bitd 
cUarMCtei-a wei'e ineioinbly excinde<i, dfCi)- 
rtim li^oroualy maintained, and "libertiea" 
woiihl have i»een indeed dangrroua in a com- 
mnidty in whieh every woiikan lived under 
the pioteetion of a fl^ig and at leaat hHtf*a> 
eeure of hard fifita. A aevere critic of pro- 
priety would not pi*oV>abIy hav« appro veil the 
aniuunt of public ki^in^ ut a penny^ wedding. 
Indeetlf iu thia reapect, Fuotdee reaembled 
iDftrt* the Cotirt of Uie Keva thun the 
Courts of the TLainca or of the Seine ; but 
in reji^ani to the moral eaaenthda of the 
problem of life, if there be a word f>f truih 
m court chronieieA, the eoiirtiers atnl 
courted of td\ the three royal rtvera tntght 
have learned lessosa from the Coaat Fulk of 
Jfootdee^ 



In corroboration of thti statement we pre- 
sent to our readers the followinrf para'^'ivijih 
C'-pied from the New York Evening Post of 
DtJfendier ihe thirteenth, ajgKti*en hundj^d 



CHIP. 

THE CONGftESSIOXAIi FKIZ£-Rma 

The forcible mode in which debate® are 
conducted in the parli:«inent of the UniU'd 
Statcfli ami the |jvraonal encouiitera which 
BoiOHtimeii follow thenij are believed by the 
present generation, to be uuveltlti and 
only recently brought to a culminating 
n*>iut by ihe Honounible Preitoa S. Brooks's 
liiV'pn Berveri uptm the head, fitce, eyes, and 
biifiy of Senator Charlea Sumner. Thi^ la a 
ndsiake* Filly years ago^ exciting debates 
often ernled in a regular stand-up Bght i^ 
tbe loiiby of the H<vuae of Repreuentiitjvea, 
TJie eombatanla stripped, a ring waa formed^ 
bottle - hohieru ap]xjiuted^ and the buttle 
fought and reported quite in tlie Ettyte of 
Muniaey Hurbt and EelPi Life in London* 



CHARLES THE FlFTH^S GLOVE. 

TusiiB are few foreign trips, for Englisli 
h oil day-makers, that answer better tlian a 
run iuto Behjfium. Belgium ia eiiBily got at. 
and easily left Ita features are vari^l and 
not vaat. You can ex^plure its interior ^ 
insipect Us cireumft'rence, and taku the whole 
of it in, without bein*^ tired. It h a pocket 
kingdom. Inatead of wearing your palienoe, 
aa Fiance dom^ when you are in a tut try to 
pet fi^^iu one end of it to the other, you can 
dart across it with the enae of a swallow 
fikiraming over the Isle of Wight. Moreover, 
Belgium m rich in nnitters of interest couisi- 
dernbly beyond the pro{^>ortion!t o| itsi siata* 
It gives you the idea of an oriLjiTml! j extc^n- 
sive country, whidi has l>een siibjecTed^ like 
an ungainly truss of hay, to hydianlic prea- 
aure. For ita area, it feeds a very iHrgi 
pypuliitiunt Tlie di»triet of St. NicholaBf 
nejir Ghent, carries five thousand two hun- 
dred and ten souls per square league — tho 
space lequtred, in savage LilVf for the main- 
tenance of a single tniiividual llie larg« 
towiis lie GO close togetherj that, as soon as 
yon have done with one, by entering a mil- 
way carriage ynu tu-e landed >n another in 
two, three, four, or five qxuirtera of an 
hour. 

A lovely May morning blesses, with tU 
lucky omen, our approach to the frontier. 
All naiure Btnitea as we glnle along* The 
orcharda are bedecked in w^hite, piiik, and 
grfe^*?n. Get really your tuba, O cyder^ drink- 
ers, tlie apide-treea promise you a pkutilui 
supply I Kemetnber, however, that thei e*a 
niauy a sUit between the apple-blossom and 
the lip. The sower stHdea o^er the well- 
powdered esirth with measured atep, and 
with white apron heavily lacien. ♦* Takft 
thut, old lad}'/' he [nenlaUy exclainia, cut 
each handful is scattered, "and give me 
fifty-fold back again*" The cows in the 
uieadowt lie baakiug in the anSf wttii 




€b.«ln 



CHARLES THE FITTH'S GLOVE. 



SI 



thtir feet tloublffd nnAet thenr. They are 
drewhtu the cud, to give the piwa a shart 
rr^fttifi, atiH ta allow it a little Ume to gpiw 
lit i>tjac!e» Tlie horiie^^tfiMla are ov^ertt^ppeU by ] 
ehmif** of jjopiursi^ whcwe yoving an- 1 maidenly 1 
Jtaft?^ bluih ruddy p<nk At the Itmoh of the 
siuilitmrti. On the skirts of th6 fttrest Are I 
priideut c^kfl, who ans waiting till the btitck^ | 
th<f*rti vvint^jr h over, bpfore they jiut on their j 
fvuititrier fnshLxus, Aloni^ thu r^t^td which 
Hcri^^ca our railway eonie Fleujish waj|OB*» 1 
like triumphal cars m the proce^f^iouA of 
CVri% and not of Bacchus, but of the twin 
goiU Bticcy niid B*^er, And so we ni-ih over 
a Hat fertile laiuK till we pa^ Roubuix^ a 
wiUlernesia of bricka aud monan Totircoinsf 
also, au>l ditto ; hoth v^ry rural hi their 
aafteet (or tnaiiufiictDring tovrji^i, and with 
aduiMtpheice that Bradt^^ni and Lt^eda might 
envy. At Mnuseniu, we are s tfeiy ovi*r the 
bord i*r. The cii stoui- hi j use offi ee ra, I su p pfsie, 
are ordereil to aAceitahi wheth*-r new arx^ivala 
arv |jt'tiaitnally deatdy in their habit;! ; for, aa 
aiKiti un they have inspeott^d my otled-ailk 
ejioii;^e-ba^% my comb, ^iid my bit oFaoapi 
(which hitit'r they ilou't supply you with at 
inn3)i they tell 0)e X m^y loi^k up onr baggage 
a^iatn. Jt l^ t<fO bad that they »houh] rumple 
Madvni4i>ai?ne'a utNt^liU'drrs^ with which she 
iiitetidg to make a &ei»^tioa, into a wbp, and 
ahrvuUl further aniioy her by calhrir^ her 
Slti 'wTue ; but tUey are not a batl «et of 
fffllows on the whoks nor wanting in n certain 
cordiality of mauuer. They hiok at my y»\m' 
pi>rt, enter ft in their l>ttokf and then bid me 
g^nl nH<rniiig by name, sm if thi'y bad known 
&ie for th e hunt te n year^i. 1] i p y are Fl e m i ngs^ 
no doubt, Vou may know a Flemish man or 
wDtnaii by the friendly voeaaive* with wldoh 
they iuterlan.1 Iheir eonver^thm. Moti ami 
or m^iii cber ami is ever on tfieir II |^, while 
arhirfesHmg vou. ** What are you looking for, 
my fiiend t^' asked a market-Wfauau^ whom 
1 tiad Ufver iu my life seen before*-nnle*s, 
periiapOi twenty yearii ago, wheu ahe nuist 
have brea a little tsirb ** I want half a hua* 
dte*\ cauliflower planta,*' T replied. — *' Ah, my 
dear fHeud^ vou won't finti that for another 
fortnight. But you*ll come and sees fue tvj^tim 
' In auother fortnight ; you'll eoine to me lor 
Ibem^ won't jou, my dear friend I *' 

Beta rued onee more to our railway car- 
ria*^^e, a ebaage has come over the r*pir*t of 
our journey. We lose tlie reil-legjfed aol- 
<iiery of France, eicb anting theiu tor others 
with grey and pepper-andraalt contiuuationa. 
The military^ U>o, are men of taller eLatnre, 
with more lleah upon their bonea* Genmdly, 
the Del^aue feed better than the natives of 
the north of France, and show it in their 
jwnofial appearance. Piebald or rusty-brown 
monks and nuns flutter about and read their 
breviaries in greater profusion, Belgium ia 
■till a tnonaatic fitrongbold of brotherhoods 
and sisterhoods ; and the clergy are struggling 
Ikard for au increase of power. 

The aspect of th» country from Mouse run 



to Ghent is ever rich and highly cultivated* 
The crnf»a are mostly gmwu in ritlj^esj with 
deep furrows between them, indicative of a 
Btioiig ch*yey loami but wet. Of wood, as in 
France, little is to be seen couiparv-il v^'tih. 
Euglaudj except where congregated into 
forests. Here and t)iere are a ffw plant i- 
tions of Scotcli lira, set very thick, to apimlle 
them up for |w>les and railings. 

l^ilway travelling is chea|>er (by aorae- 
tliiug like a thiril), tlmn In France, anil^ Ci»n- 
sequently much cheaper than in England i 
children under eight years of ag4f pay half- 

CJice; nuilwr thiee, aiid in arms, ntithing; 
ut eertainly the article you get f^r si^ur 
money is inferior in quality to that ftir- 
n iuh ed by th n tt cs t-n a id e«l con d try, 1 n F i a 1 1 ee 
every traveller is allowed sixty pnnmls 
(French) of Inggage gratre, indejH'ndent of 
his small periionalities ; in Iklginm iioi^e at 
all. Whatever you do not t,ike tuto tl>e 
CHrriage with you, such as a carpet-lag or 
lia^ket of miHfen^te weight, has to he p;dd 
for in addition to your ticket* Th^ Hrst^elsi^ 
CJirriages are handsome and conih^rtahlt*, but 
suialL The third cht^a chars *i\- bancs are 
open at the sides, ext>osed to the wind, the 
rain, and the snow, which sonietimee rnke 
them fore and alt ; in inclement weather^ they 
are not lit to carry sheep and ciittle, much 
U'sa human beings. Dogs in Belginm fmy 
tbinl- class fare, but are snugly stowed away 
in a bagig^age-wiigon. In one of tlieae locfH 
TO*>tive pens for men, women, and temler 
children, a fat hog might have his health 
seri<«naly injured ns the consequence of a 
lofig day*a juutr»ey, 

Ihe State is the sole proprietor of nearly 
all the Btlgian ndlw»ys ■ and vshilc it 
paternaEly coiders on ita subjecU tlie iKtnetit 
of cheap cii^ulatiou and traffic, it might 
also modify an arnmgement which \s no 
either th^ui un fettling, and is dr he lent in 
tiiat hnmaidty which a government o^aght to 
exercise lowaids ull under its proteeth^g 
swjiy, without reference to wealth or rank. 
The second-class eari^iages are tuterable, will) 
stulfed seats and a litUe horizontal stripe of 
»tuthug to ease the tmck, mid lad lea may 
travel in them; but they are of sc?mt dimeti' 
aions, very naked inshle, and uii provided 
with any hr»oks tor bats or ca|>s, or with 
reeeptat^les for slicks and umbrelhts. The 
seats are fancifully arnuiged wiih a «ort of 
pa-^aage left between them, to give the means 
of stepping from one to the otlu-r, as if ynu 
were occupying a little parlour ; but the 
reault is no adilition to conxfurU The nigiml 
for star ting is given, not by the wldhtle of 
the engine, but by a little musical tluaritih, 
a tir-ely^ consisting of thiee nott^a, blown ^n 
bis bugle bv the conductor of the train, Uf 
the otiicials, gene ml civility and obliiring 
behaviour is Uie rule. The passengers* Tog- 
gage department would be improved by 
asaimiUtiou with the system ai^opted in 
France. But nations ar« o£^n like wiUuI 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



chiMren ; tliey are detennincH to have & way 
of their own, for the pake of having it. They 
refu.'se to attend to good advice, becnuse it is 
cotinsel given by another ; and they persiflt 



fancy conic sections! out of a red brick walL 
But in whatever direction you wend your 
way, you can't go twenty steps without 
crossing a bridge. For the convenience at 



in some evidently inconvenient nio»]e of doing I once of the land-carriage and the canal uavi- 
tiling:*, merely to phow that they are ind*»- ! gatlon, these are swing bridges ; ofVen you 
pendent ngt'nts, and that they can and will j hnve to wait while a barge, laden perhaps 
follow their own devices. j with vegetable mould for the pot-plant8 in 

Ghent, with its hundred thousand in- j training by one of the Vans, — Van Houtte, 
habitants and its considerable trade, has still i Van Scliaffelt, oy Van Geert, — intercepts the 
the air of a town half-asleep, as if you had ; passage. The time is not exactly lost, be- 
caught it yawning and stretching at half-past t cause it allows you to stare about you with- 
three on a summer's moi-ning. Its extent is j out rudenens. But soon, the bridge -swinger 
much exaggenited in the current printed i takes his toll from the barge, which he col- 
descriptions. Charles the Fifth's time- i lects bv means of a wooden shoe at the eud 
honoured pun — *' I could put Paris into my ' of a string fastened to a fishing-rod ; the 
Giiud *' (that is, nvy glove) — is apocryphal j isthmus of planks is then replaced, and re- 
and highly impro^ble. If you doubt it,? sounds with the pattering of gr<»B sabots. 
m<'unt the tower of the befifroL People who ' Certainly, the popular costume is di-oll, in 
lose their way in a Labvrinth of lanes, always. its extremes. At top, the women wear a 
flgincy they have travelle<l over an enormous j close worked cottage hat of straw, with three 
Rreix, Now, the map of Ghent puts you in dabs of blue ribbon stuck on behind; at foot^ 



mind of a Medusa's head, or of the clustered 
woi-ms that are taken out into thecoimtry, on 
a sultry day, to participate in the pleasures 
of a fidhiug party. Buy a map of Ghent, 
colour the streets blue, the river Escaut 
yellow, the river Lys re<l, and you will have 
a faithful representation of the famous 
Gonlian knot, if you happen never to have 
seen one before. I long wandered about the I 



they are garnished with masses of hollow 
timber, which must be a serious drain on the 
B-lgian forest**. But hats worn by women 
at the same time with sabots, are, in French 
eyes, or in eyes accustomed to France, as 
utterly anomalous a combination as a fish- 
tailed mermaid, or a man-lieaded centaur are 
considereil, on cool reflection, by Professor 
Owen. Conspicuous in the air rise the portly 



streets of Ghent, trying to find the city, and | towers of St. Nicholas, St. Michel, and St. 



could not. It is a town made up of bits of 
we.^t-ends, Fauboarg St Germiins, and 
fashionable suburl»s, with no lieai-t or kernel 
to it~no Cheapside, no Ludgate Hill, no 
Hue de llivoli, no Hue St. IIoiior6. There is 
a slight recovery of suspended animation in 
tl>e March6-aux-Grains and the Hue des 
Champ-* ; but the puUe, even there, beats 
very feebly. The market tries (when it is 
not market-day) to manifest its vit*dity in an 
unhealthy, spasmmlic way, by book -stalls of 
amatory literature, over which a little censor- 
liip would be no great tyranny. In the 



Bavon, around which, and the lofty houses, 
nmltitudinous swifts, whirl and scream, in 
delight .it the abundance of their insect 
game. The canals are propitious to the 
propagjition of gnats. Where is the carcase, 
there are the vultures ; and where are the 
gnats, there flock the swifts. 

That the quietude of the town is more 
apparent than real, and that busy life is 
goin<T on within, is plain from the Belgian 
fashion of sticking looking glasses outside the 
houses, at angles (sometimes they glance in 
three directions) which allow the inmates to 



street, to enter a fashionable hice and em- 1 catch a glim)Me of passers-by, without being 
\...'. I — I u^A *- ..r A,A\ — 1. — .1 — ^^gjj themselves. *• An Nouveau Miroir," (the 

new looking-glass) is occasionally used as the 
sign of an um. The mirrors ai*e generally 
on a level with the fir«t-floor ; and a smaller 
one receives the i-ays it reflects straight from 
the entrance door; so that Not at hon>e is 
easily responded to the inquiries of a dun, or 
worse, a bore. It is not one city alone which 
adopts the system of ouicksilvered pee|)ei-s ; 
nor is the custom new, but was probably first 
introduced by peculiarities of historical and 
political situation. In Belgium, it has not 
always been ccmveuient to open the door to 
every new-comer. 

** If y«m please, monsieur." we politely ask, 
"have the goo<lnes8 to tell ua which la the 
way to the Botanic Ganleu t" 

" N*entend8 Fran9^^u8y** is the reply, aoeom- 
panied by a disclamatory shake of the head. 
It is a reminder that Uie Flemish tougue ia 
master here,in actual fiMt^if not by legal right 



broidery shop, we had to ring at the gla8s-<l(M»r, 
as if it had been a private house. After 
Waiting, while the lady up-slairs gave a touch 
of arranfjemeiit to her cap and her hair, we 
■wore duly admitted to make our purchase, 
much in the style of a morning call. Else- 
wliere, in the modem quarters, you see un- 
bioken lines of large, handsome, well-painted 
houbcs, hybrids between a palace and a ladies* 
boarding-school. Business may be transacted 
therein, but it is doue in the quietest possible 
way. You see dentelles (lace), or calicots 
(ciiicos), engraved on a neat brass-plate on a 
hou8e-«loor, as if some private individual, — 
Monsieur Dentelles, or Mailame Veuve Cali- 
cots, — were living there on their property, in 
great state aud dignified retirement The 
older portions of the town are decorated with 
houuos built before the window-tax was bom 
or thought of, — ^with quamt^ pointed gable 
endsy as if a Child had been trying to eat 



M'vmt the ^Feroment ia oliltgeil to conie to a 
ctMiijimmMe, nod atllx the iiiwnefl of tlie 
ftiivti tri their corni*r8 both m FiMrubh ntj<J 
in FivTicli* l*]ie J^ifcilvfjiv |:K>rteri who Imtiil^rl 
JSA f>tir hit^age^ wua rti-af aw\ diiiub nja f^r ft3 
V* were cahctroed^ find sij^tjpil u$t over to a 
bmih«fr nirduink The cnnditnfiii wlio drove 
Hft ifi onr inn just nfMii|>r*'hiudeti the wnrds 
**H5tt»l de FUujdrp" — rKtul a enpiUl nud 
fiie<iinnrseiidiibl« hott^l it is — but lie compre- 
!ii»!Mled nf> more of the furtlkerdever remnrka 
&d.lr»*eiafd fo liini. Mfiny of the G^ntoi* who 
do i|i?2ik French nifiTitige it an budly, and are 
■o deelledlv not at hame iti rt^ iUni yon fet-l 
qniifl t!f lighted at your own BUiierioritv to 
th**fti. bcini B*?lg!ana thouijfU thev be. But 
Fleiuisb hfia h^j close ft r*;hiti*»n«hip to our 
own verihiflidar, that the uamcs^ of trad*^3 
OVt-r the s!ifi|i8, the hiU^, and the public 
uotiei*!', are aa amiis ng to read as it la to bear 
K for^-i^riier Hpenk broken English, Di'sip 
Stra^efc is Chith, or Diaper's Htreot. One 
lii'iti hpIU alle s^jorte of wnrc^B ; auotber off ra 
you cnrt-gri^aae under the narae of wnj^tn 
aiiiei?r ; ktdder te hurffn m celbiv to hiru ; 
kit 1 tier te httren h eltamber to hire, A 
kofit^f-alirfpr h a eopppr«iinth. Proft?aflions 
whkrh require no in terj ureter are the b^kker, 
the Tnatte-maeker, the timm^rniaUf the 
in»t»theker en drngmte^ and the b.»ekhandlaer. 
Thf three grand literaiy elements are an- 
nottneetl for sale oa peitnen, inkt, eii papier. 
If yntir fainiiy ia sniath y^'U niiiy be coittei»t 
with 8eeunn<^ Een Hum to tet ; but should 
you Ije eKp^*eting a birjeand smMen in«rea»p, 
^ou liaii better engage T*fle Hiiyzen, if fub 
jaoetit, la the Apetnierkt^ yon couUl hnrdly 
trkHiake the t'rtiit that in a^dd thure. Wiien 
thiJ'Htyt you may go and drink a gbia^ of 
doblMfl-bier at the hnspi table Bign nf De 
}ln€me ; or you may pr- iVr to p^dnmise the 
Oliphant (without n. Cji^tlf), or the liruyu 
Vij!ieh, — that is to aay, the Ht?d H*?rriiig. 
Ooini little boys anil ijirls nunctiiHlly at* 
tviid a JEondat^Hchooh f^'Ookntf^llerii* windows 
invite you to the ^n^rnsal of Flt;hd'«h iiovt U ; 
aach aa Een Zwan^nzaitg (a awnn^a snn^), 
by JuD Vmii li*»er?fl, and D^ Ztfiiiiing il»-r 
Vrow (Woman a Mia^iou), by llendrlk Cou- 
Bcietiee, 

** How tnatCf How tad it ia for you not to 
he able to speak Fleuui^h * " ejucuhited a 
djuue who sabi goedeu ilrjiiik, hut who Cuuld 
not» tiifjU;j;h ahe wouhJ, oon verse with nie. 
In fifieh eadea, it rsirtdy stnki^s the tongue- 
tied Flt^minga belougTog to the porttou of 
»o<T*ety below the nud»lhi-ciias^ that they are 
like the fox who wag mtrms ri taiL Tltey are 
content whh, and wouhl have other people 
learn^ a language which eon fines them^ aa 
ti^'htiy aa a tether faji'.ena a cow, to a few 
ioort! fiqtiare leagues of the earth *9 vaat 
(uperlicies. But a striking potut lu Flemiflh 
pofinlAr manner^j ia the fortniiig themselves 
uilo bindii atid aoeietiea. The&e bitle close 
eorjwmtign^ are perhaps, in ioaio flegree, the 
reaiilt of their tia£TowJy*dlffuAed tongue. 



And 80 the blne-blooneii arc her 4 of one town 
go and Hhoot a'^ain^t tlie black-capped lotig- 
b(^w« of finother, dbtant a quartt-r-uf a- 
dav^a jwdestriau joniney ; the choni^-chih of 
SehoutenhouL wiU [wiy a frriternrd viait to the 
orpheoaiais of Ra«|ieit«4,Taflp. In the Frfuch 
artny, the French Flemingfl han^ to./^'thHr 
like bees at awai invni-time. Hfj^e at Ghnit, 
the workmen^ even at leisure hour* and meal- 
Timea, fi>rni theuiHelvea into cornprvides* 
Young pt?ople, both girls and boy-j^ run 
to|jeiher in distinet nud clo«ely-gi*^»nped 
benliif like ilocka of young lanib;* ?it the 
flame aj^e. Ontt would think that hjibies ia 
Plandera came all at onci*, in falls, in iniila- 
tion of the lambiug reason with Sou Li) downs 
and Lciceatera. 

But tiie Botanic gardeii — where is it 1 fjet 
na tirst look nt onr map, and then at the 
corner of the street^ auil endeavour to pihit 
our w*iy thither. In Belgi?in towns, i^ene- 
rally, if yon use your ey*»8 with the sti^di test 
pxpreasioh of luqulrln'^ curiosity, up at-irtH a 
pbantoin liefore you, like a uuiftt impertiuent 
Jifct;k-iu-1he-boxT calling hiruiielf a, cnrn'ttis- 
aionaire, but who must; not be Cf>td\iunded 
w«th a superior betugj the Freucii c<ituiidd- 
fiionaire. Where these crr»ature^ coiiu* froiUj 
[ cannot telb They suddenly aope ir liefore 
ycm, as if the air bad " cunile*! itsidr' turo 
huruj^n foriu. Peep into a shop wii»i{oWf njtd 
ytiii have <me at your eU>ow ; i^Mze up />t a 
steeple, and, when yon look down, you will 
find a Cfimnii^4oUHtre between y*utr le^ ; 
turn the angle of a street, on a walk of diA- 
CO very, an"l round the corner you khork vour 
noae aiFainst a commtaabfniii'e. Thi.*y nt.irt 
from behind doora^ down atai rcai«»'a, out of 
cedars, from tlie dark moutha of oHrrow 
lane* ; and I ht*licve th^tt, n[iou inquiry, ttiey 
would he found now and then to tlroii frr^nt 
the roofs. They follow yon about with the 
hutsu^ry look of a benst of prey, ref^anlinii yon 
as the game on their jireserve, and them- 
selvf^ as very fotbearins; to apare you a litiie 
while. I flv not say that no re.<^ pec table man 
exercises th# c]il)ing of coTntui<4ionaii'e ; but, 
whenewr incli jewels are IVmod, they ought 
to be net bi sterling gold In a*^'e, they vary 
from sixteen to aixty» They deal in cigari^ 
and have ofien a stfleat female ai^quainlano^ 
They are mostly seedy in garment, *doutly in 
complexion, uncleanly in fterson, otFeusive in 
breath, jargonic in speech, forward in luanoer, 
and given to driitk* Conimta^ionati'es attach 
tljemaelve^ to ^vary hotel, as leeches haog to 
the side of their vessel^ ready to fijt on any- 
thing that has blood or money to yield ; an*t 
these consider themselves the head of their 
profession. But th^re are wandering com* 
miiisionairea who prowl about the atreetSi 
will tug lo make themselvea useful tn any 
way — too useful J at times^ many people might 
think. 

I One fellow, who pleaded hU large family 
at iiorne, and wlioui I took for an hour or 

I two to get over the ground more quickly, 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



diaappearefi every time we came to anything 
that required more than a minute to examine. 
Efich disapiiearance had for its object the 
injection of a dram into his weakly 8t«»mach, 
which relieved me from listeninc: to his 
account of the lions. But, after a little un- 
steadiness, he tripped and tumbled on the 
|i;rouiid, and concluded by running into an 
inm post with a violence that must have 
done serious damage to the post. I con* 
fees to a prejudice against Belgian commis- 
sionaires, and never employ them when I can 
help it. Tbev attack you in the very churches. 
** You wou t leave the cathedral without 
paying t)ie concidrge,** was the parting re- 
mark of a young cummissionaire whose ser- 
vices I persisted in declining ; and, while 
hunting for the Botanic garden, I can*t pro- 
ceed witliout interruption, but am obliged to 
say to a person who continually crosses my 

Sath, ** I nave already t^dd you three times I 
o not want you. Cannot you take an answer, 
and leave me to myself ? 

Tiie garden, when found at List, is a painful 
instead of a pleasurable sight, and mntit be 
far from gratifying to the citizens of Ghent 
It is a WMrniuff to avoid, and not an example 
to follow, as au botanic gardens ought to be. 
The hardy perennials are the only plants m 
g*tod condition ; among these is a remarkable 
Andromeda arborea. The enormous carp, 
rising and sinking in their pond, are a linger- 
ing remnant of former prosperity. In the 
houffes, dirt, dust, thrips, scale, red spider, 
and aphis, thi'eaten to get the up|)er hand, 
and to establish their dynasty on a peiinanent 
footing. A fine Doum palm, in a handsome 
but filthy cage of glass, excites pity by its 
wretched want of comfort Other unhappy 
captives, lank and lean, bald and mangy, beg 
hard for some one to have compassion on 
them. There are many noble specimens in a 
deplorable way. 

Two small-leaved standard myrtles, in 
boxes, cannot be less than a hundred an<l fifty 
or two hundred years old. Their trunks 
measure thirteen or fourteen inches in cir- 
cumference; it would be difficult to find 
many such in Europe. A leading English 
nurseryman has enaeavoured to get them 
across the water ; it is a pity he cannot, for 
they would l)e properly cared for here. There 
are many other fai>from-every-day myrtles, 
which the head of the establishment seems try- 
ing hard to kilL He is the Oelestine Doudet 
of greenhouse evergreens ; his pupils do not 
thrive ; his oleanders are in the last sta^ of 
suffeiing. The alleged excuse is, want of suf- 
ficient accommodation and hands ; but when 
a thing is to be done, it is not a bad plan to 
do it yourself. Had I such handsome orange 
trees, so neglected, so begrimed with soot» I 
would get up at three in the morning, and, 
in my shirt-sleevesy with an apron on, with a 



bucket of soapsuds and a sponge in hand, 
would mount an A ladder and work awav, 
day after day, till the task was done. But 
are there no such things as garden en«jrines in 
Ghent ? A Victoria, in a tank, contrives to 
wash itself partially, though tattered and 
torn about tlie leaves; but it is not clear 
what business a pit of pineapples has in a 
place for study, where soantiuess of room is 
complained of. One plant, or two, are all 
right and proper, but a botanical lecturer 
does not want a crop of anything. 

Near the entrance of the garden stands a 
vsfe, conspicuously mounted on a pcdetttnl, 
in which grows what the official who diti the 
honours was pleased to point out as a rose- 
bush grafted on an oak-tree. I shook inv 
head in diiigust at the falsehoo<l. ** Look, * 
he insisted, ** the stem is an oak-stem, the 
side branches are covered with oak-loaves, 
and the central twig is the rose which has 
been grafted in the middle. Yon can see 
that its leaves are rose-leaves, cairt yon ?— 
and it is full of buds coming into flower.*' 

" No, no ; it is only a trick," I answered, 
without apologising for flatly contradicting 
him. ** You have perforated the stem of the 
oak from the root to the top ; throngh the 
tul)e thus made you have inserted the stem 
of a rooted rose-bush ; but there is no union 
between the two, like the junction of a scii>& 
with the stot;k. It grows independently in 
the earth, as the oak-plant does, although 
encased within it ; and you call that grafting 
a rose on an oak, which I am gardener enough 
to know to be impossible.*' 

'^ Ah ! you know that You have found it 
out. And yet) many people, when they see 
this specimen, go away persuaded that we 
have succeeded in grafting a rose on an 
oak." 

I made no further remark than ray looks 
expressed ; but I thought that botanic gar- 
dens were instituted for the teaching of accu- 
rate information and useful fiicts, and not to 
mislead ignorant persons and to propagate 
error. An educational establishment, sub- 
sidised partly by the government and partly 
by the town, forgets its duties when it blazons 
forth a charlatanism* which would upset the 
principles of vegetable physiology and stul- 
tify the hard-earned acquirements of science. 



On the 18th of Jolj was iniblbbed, priM Titm 
BbSllingt and Sixpence, neatly bound in doth, 

THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 

or 

HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 

Containing the Numben iaened between the Nineteenth 
of January and the Twelfth of July, Eighteen Uundrod 
and Pifty-eix. 
Gompleto aets of Household Words may always be had. 



The Bight qf TramUUing Articles Jram Houbxholb Wobds u reserved hg the Auth^re. 



"Familiar in tieir Moaiht at HOUSEHOLD WORDS."- 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDS. 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL 
CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



M«^ 831.] 






A DISH OP FROCa 

ToB g^eiieml opinion with reap<ict to froira 
appcara to i^^ that they were ci^atetl etilcly 
for thfi i>ut^o»6 of eiperln^^unt \ to be gal- 
viuiise<j, pr»iici>iiei1t Mid othtfrwii^e iQlentiEtcftLIy 
iU-ti'*silei| bypliilogophcra ; orlo VieswiiUowed 
idivc, nitulv Ui hop ii);ulLLBt thfc'ir Uiciiuatiounj 
or l«s p-'ltL^ii to ilcHili by irreverent ischool- 
boys. \\' hritt' ver t Jn? pmces*s — ^iisefiil, am iisjn^, 
or aid] ply ertjtL'J-^^llKj re^iiU ia niiv,iya thesaiiie: 
tlie fro^i* iuv^riiib^y gf t the woi-st of it. Tkia 
is hani mi^ji!$tii't» to iJi^al out to any da^ of 
&tai»»^b I but, when a race so i noire nsive 
lAtbat of the Au'iuroii9 AmphihkorTaiileHS 
BAlrtujhEaiL'', i^ nlways auJected for viclinii- 
i^tiou, Uie kujuHt^ue uf tUe act detoandii moi^ 
thmi coiuiiion ct^ii^ure. It m my inten- 
tioii, then, to piu ill ti plea for frogs, &a 
Hvtty, iiitc'lli^ut, gmeefiilt 1 ' ', ^Liable 
0n*HtiiT('4 \ « ho^e }nefitft,tc.i i Mg^ kAV# 

liot bffi^u enliicicntijapiwvciuuT.i uj toe world 
at largo. 

Few iiiitiir«lkts knew 1>ett€r lliam M. de 
X»AoefMiil*i whj4t tboae meiita are, and you 
fth&li bear what Vk* ftiys about theia :*-" The 
frog/* be oWi^rvea^ " la a» ji^reeable in ite 
con for Ml fit inn »s<iiatitigumliifd by its qualitieit, 
and ihtert'SL3 us on accoimt of tbe pht?iJomcna 
which it pivstMita nt the ditlbreiit ].iei'ioda of 
it« Jtfe, , « , We aee in il &n auimal from 
wiiieb we hftve nothing to fear, whose instinel 
IS refined atiJ wbidi, najtiug tillni and nuppte 
llni^iA wtUi a slight fortiif b iMiorned with 
croloura that plf,^jLs«i the eye, and exliilnta titit^ 
tendered »ti|j luore bnlliaot by a viacoua 
butnotir wbiub \a spread over the skin^ and 
answers tbe pur] )03e of avariiit*h" — ^lolis^hed, 
Id fact. In another pbiee be »aya :— "Tbe 
6gurc^ of the frug ia ligiit, his uiovementa 
rapid, and bts attitude grst^eful/' Oa this 
la*t fioiitt 31. de Lacepi^dts strongly msUti :^ 
*• When a fros^ leaves tbe witerj ao ikr from 
movinL? with his fjtce turned toward a the 
earth au*) barely walloiring in tbe dirt, like 
m toad, be advtinces by lolly leaps. One 
wonld aay that be dt.^ire« to associate bim^elf 
VI tb the air, aa the purest element ; and when 
Il« r«ftfl on tbe ground, he always doea io 
his liead erect and bia body raised upon 

I fonnfifetf an attitude wbkh gives hltu tbi; 

gbt appearance of an animal whose in- 

I have in them some thing noblej rather 




than those which belong to tbe low^ borlzoii- 
tal position of a vile repUk,*' 

Tliat frogs have in tbem qualitiea which 

are out of the eornmou is india pi* table, or 

why fihould Homer have aoug Ujeir battles, 

or Ariatophanes have made thenj the ])iin- 

ci|ml |ier^onagea m one of bit liest ktiuwti 

cr/meJiesI Why, alaoy if they were not 

lively and intelligent should the epithet 

I Fm^ be applied ttj our g-dlant French frieiub I 

: There ia a much better iva*on for it, beljtfva 

! roe, than the fact of their being articlua of 

I diet in Frauce ; for \Aw southern Genmwi 

^ conaumea a far greater mlmber at iM^ i\uku 

the Gaul ; te*ite the Frog-niai ket (Fro^h- 

luarkt) at Vienna^ and nobody iu their 

sifnses ever thought of caliLng the Vieuucse 

either lively or inlel%ent 1 

Frogs, in the eour^ of their career, have a 
dual eiisteiice, as b«fiu animais who live 
alike on bmd and ia water. In thetadpolian 
stage they Jit long entirely to the hater 
eWjuent ; advanceif to i>0!*itive fixighowJ, tti^y 
itre equally at home in the puud or the 
meatlow, preferring the ditch, purbupji, i\» a 
niczao ternune between the two. There U 
tnuch about the tadpole that b inlereatin^. 
Look at his fif ure — ^hoi^* rauml \ wliat ati 
image of easy-guiug sofLneas \ what can you 
distinguish of him m particular, unless it be 
his lor»gj deJEiblfci Uvd — ihae tail which he 
repufiiated in alter-hfe, as it has h^seti held by 
Ltjrd Monhoddo that we ourtit^lves hiive 
done ? Which ia his head, whit-h hU cji|>aeiijiis 
stomach ) Some say he is all bea^i — c4hem 
nil belly. The French natundLsta, who must 
be great authorities on the question, evideutty 
irteline to the latter opioiou, by the name ibty 
give him, which i^ t^i^ird. I rather ima'jfine 
the former to be the fact from tlie (^nonnoiia 
quantity of food be absorbs. '*The httJe 
being," says Cuvier, ** wbieli issues from the 
frogs ef g ealia itfteir t^tat^L It ia providerb 
b the lirat inatance^ with a long, fleaiiy tjiil, 
and a simdl horny beak, and h^is no other 
ap|xireut members beyond the small fr rii;^aut 
at the aides of the neck." " Hie mouth of 
tbe t^tard^'^ remarks De Laeepd^le, '' i^ not 
placed, as in the adidt h*o^^ in trout of the 
head, but m some sort in the chsst i thua, 
when ho wishea to seize anything iliat lloata 
on the anrfaee of the water, or to breathe 
more freely, he throwa bimstlf on his bi^clc 



TOl^ %tW. 



»\ 



26 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



[Condaercdlf 



like a shark, and he executes this manoeuvre 
so rapidly that the eye follows it with 
difficulty/ 

But heyond the operation of eating, it 
must be admitted that the tadpole does not 
lead a life of any rery great activity. He 
makes up for this quiescence, however, when 
his metamorphosis is accomplished, and from 
a state of supine flatness, which the Germans 
express by Uie word Kaulplatte, he emerges 
into that vigorously-endowed animal, called 
by the Dutch in their descriptive language a 
Kikvorsch. There never was change more 
complete. Even the magic of the Treasury 
Bench does not effect a greater, for the tad- 
poles who swarm towards that haven of bliss 
generally remain tadpoles to the end of the 
chapter. 

Behold our friend, then, to use a scientific 
definition, under the aspect of the **true frog." 
He kicks off his old garments, like the clown 
in the pantomime, and throwing himself into 
an attitude, says — with a slight huskiness in 
his voice — ** Here T am I Bana 1 ** This is 
the generic designation of his tribe, equally 
applied to the heavy-coing toad, — ^more pro- 
perly called Bufo, which aptly expresses his 
puffy condition — though between the ap- 
pearance of the two there is as much difference 
as we see in a high-mettled racer and a 
Suffolk punch. As a tadpole, he was a vege- 
tarian, but being a frog, he knows better ; 
animal food is what he now goes in for, and 
that there may be no mistake about it, he 
swallows everything whole — ^not, as may be 
supposed, from sheer voracity, but on account 
of the quickness and impatience of his nature, 
which cannot afford to wait. The smartest 
frog in this line, is the tree-frog (Hyla), of 
whom Dr. Shaw says, — " In the beauty of its 
colours, as well as in the elegance of its form 
(this bears out my original impression) and 
agility of its movement^ the tree-frog exceeds 
every other species. Its princijsal residence 
during the summer months, is in the upper 
parts of trees, where it wanders among the 
foliage in quest of insects, which it catches 
with extreme celerity, stealing softly towards 
its prey, in the manner of a cat towards a 
mouse, and when at the proper distance, 
seizing it with a sudden spring, frequently of 
more than a foot in height." 

The tree-frog, yon see, has no time to be 
fasti(\ious about cookery, but makes the moat 
of his opportunity, an example which, if 
always followed by mankind, might not be 
altogether amiss. Observe how he profits by 
it : '^ It often suspends itself by its f^et, or 
abdomen, to the under part of the leaves, 
thus continuing concealed beneath their 
shade.** But although the tree-frog is the 
fastest of his family, none of them are open to 
the reproach of being slow. Look at their 
length of leap in comparison with their size. 
In this respect, indeed, there is one variety, 
the Clamorous Frog of North America— a | 
noisy fellow, in all probability, alwaja an-i 



nexing his neighbour's property, — who hops 
five or six yards at a stretch ; he is bril- 
liantly arrayed, having ears of shining gold, 
—from Caliifomia ! 

To give full expression to his vocal organs 
(which the envious call clamour) is as much 
the nature of the frog as to develop the mus- 
cular capabilities of his finely formed limbs. 
He figures alike in opera and ballet. The 
Hyla, for instance, indulges in a shrill treble ; 
the Bana typhonica, or hurricane frog, has 
a fine baritone voice, which he exercises in 
rapid passages on the approach of tropical 
storms ; and the bull-frog, the Lablache of 
the troupe, has a bass that you may hear for 
miles : it is almost worth while — if anything 
could compensate for the journey in other 
respects — to make a voyage to the United 
States, and go to the swamps near the 
Mississipi, to hear what a noise the bull-frog 
can make; though a good listener might, 
perhaps, identify Tiim by his voice all across 
the Atlantia 

The intermediate varieties of ululation cha- 
racteristic of the Tailless Batrachians, belong 
rather to the toad than the frog ; but, to 
illustrate the range of the voice amphibious, 
I may mention what the former can do. 
There is one toad, — the Bana pipa, — whose 
flute-like falsetto notes indicate a perfect voce 
di testa ; and the Bana niusica has a soprano 
(it is said) which Calzolari — if he were a toad 
— might covet Your toad, however, can 
emit other sounds. There is the l^na bom- 
bina, or laughing toad, found in the fenny 
parts of (Germany and Switzerland, who, in 
addition to the a<i vantage of being able to 
leap (or dance) like a frog, utters a clear 
sound exactly like that of a man laughing. 

There is the Bana ridibunda, or jocular 
toad, found in the rivers that empty them- 
selves into the Caspian, which never ven- 
tures on dry land, is very large, weighing 
frequently more than half-a-pound, jind whose 
voice in the evening (probably wlion he has 
been drinking, though certain persons assert 
that neither toads nor frogs drink at all) 
expresses extreme hilarity. Wliat the toads 
have to laugh at, except each other, is a 
social phenomenon which I am quite unable 
to expUiiL 

The frog proper can also do something 
with his voice besides sing ; the B^ma tem- 
poraria, or common frog, possesses the ability 
of making a noise by n^^ht, the natui-alists 
say, **like that of an angry man.** Very 
likely he is an^ry ; no snails' for supper, per- 
haps, or his bed not quite damp enough. Pliny 
—who always will have his say — enlightens 
us as follows with respect to the frog's har- 
monious utterance : " Frogs have their 
tongues in the forepart fast to the mouth, 
the hinder part within, towards the throat, is 
free and at libertie, whereby they keep that 
croaking which we hear at one season of the 
yeare, and then they bee named Olalygonefl ; 
for at that time they let down their nether 



Chuhst DiekFQft.1 



A DISH QY FROOa 



ST 






lip tome what under the water, that they 
gargell wttli then" tongues levell to the watdr, 
which, they receiire iuto their throat; ami 
•0 while the toufn^e quavereth withal tb^y 
make that croak trig nolee above^aid. He 
that would looke tlieu advisedly uf}OQ them, 
thoulil see their epecks so iwi>lne, and 
•tr(*tched out ftiU^ that they wiJl Ehiue 
agatii : be should perceive their eyes ardent 
and fiery with paloes that they lake them 
with the water/ With one or two poinU of 
dI0erence this deacriplion would appJy to a 
principal operatic tenor aa well as to a Batra- 
chian. Neither the frog'i iong nor that of 
the " firat tenor " ia altogether for hia own 
ftmoBement i he has a purpone of utility in 
the e^terciae of his roice, and 3*00 can meet 
iritli uo aurer iodicaiioQ of coming rain than 
ihe aimounccmeitt made by the Hyla ; 
who may be looked upotL aa a hTirig 
twrometer—mor^ eapecialiy the male which-, 
if kept under a gtaRa and sujjplied wUh 
prci[>er food^ will infallibly foretell a eb&nge 
from dry weather to wet» 

1 am a little «urprmed that De Laceptkle^ 
who, aa I have flhowui i^ quite alive to ntnny 
of the ftDe polnta In a frog^B nature, should di^ 
parage the fro^^'a Foice in the manner he does. 
■* If Tro^B," he observes, " are to hold & dUtin- 
gniahed rank aroo n g the ovi parous quadra peds 
rt h certairdy not on account of their voices ; 
for, in propwrtiou as tliey please by the agility 
of their movements ana the beauty of their 
colourSj th ey an n oy ua by th e i r hoarse croak i ng, 
Naturi certainly never inieudetl them to be 
the muiiiciana of our lielda.*' Thitj however, 
is a mei'e matter of taste, and perhaps M, de 
lAoSpeiie had hijnaelf what ia called a voice, 
and wai affltcUd with the panga of professional 
jealouay. Of the other faculties with which 
the frog family are eni lowed, we are told that 
** their taate la probivhly not at all acute ; " 
acute enough, however, to enable them to 
aeltot the most tempt iji^* niorsela ; for AL de 
Xjfc^p^e eipresily says, they reject every- 
til' :*. ' ;it all asAumes an approach to de- 
c^. 1 C'KUes rejettent trmt ce qui 

pfnirriiit j^r&seiiler nn commencement Je 
d^compoaiuon/^) We arc informcsd that 
** their leiia^ of smell wouM seem to be 
almost rudimentary'/* and tliat in them 
" touch, pror*erlyi so eallefl, can hartlly 
#xi&t in a liigh state of development;" 
but, as a set-off to these alleged imj.jerfec~ 
tlons, they are wondei-fuUy quick of sight 
aiid hearing* Those gold-encircled eyes 
and goldeji earn were oot giTeii them for 
nothing. 

There are, of course, endless varieties of the 
fpog-tribe. The most beautiful, perhaps, la 
thai description of llyla, called, by Caviar, La 
fiainette bicolore, Ci^estial blue on the back and 
fote-coloored beneath (" bleu ct'leate endessus, 
T0t6e €fL deaeona **); this is a native of South 
Am^n/^m^ Another of the South American 
tree-ftogji^XA Hainette k tapirer (R tinctoria; 
* tii# dyar **) poMcnea the singular property 



of imparting its colour to the feathers of birda. 
■*The blood of this frog,'* says Do Lace^ 
pdiie, "impregnated into the akin of parro^ 
queta at the phicea where their feathers have 
been pulled out, caiiees red or yellow feathers 
to appear, and j>roiliic<?a that tuft which is 
called taplr6. This frog ia of a brownish hue 
with two white streaks crosaing the back in 
two places,** Without venturing to douht this 
statement, I merely wdah to aak^who it Is that 
commences the operation of graftiug that ends 
ID dyeing? A third South American Hyla^ 
called "Couleur lie Lait*' (milk frog) it aa 
white aa auow, with spots here and tlit^reaome* 
what legs da^^iing ; the stomach h marked 
with '* ash-coloure^l stripes,'* A fourth Ame- 
rican Uyla is called "La Flutense'* (the (lute- 
pi nyer) frotu its melodious croak ing(qtii coaaa« 
iniSloilit^usement !) ; iti cry, unlike taut of its 
European brethrt-n, denolea the approach of 
dry w*ath e r . Sun n am —rich in a m ph i bia — 
pTodu^^s a different kind of bicotored frog ; 
it is blue and yellow (like a new utiml:>er ol tho 
Eiliuburgh Review) ; the Eaua paradoxa, or 
paradox icai frog (poaslbly a reviewer iu Ins 
own way) ia also to be found there. Styria is 
the habitat of the liana A lpina,or black frog ; 
in the island of Lemtmst I^ Bo^ue or hump- 
backed frog is fouud ; in North America, 
the liana squamigera or scaly frog (very 
Bcaly) ; and if Lamarck the natiiraltHt could 
have proved his poaitionj there would have 
been another frog such as the world has 
not seen since the days of the Aat'cdituviaji 
Batrachiaus, His was the develojunent 
theory, adopted aa^l enlarged by the more 
modern and my^teriou^ author of the Y08- 
tiges of the Natural History of Creation;— 
the notion that one being atJvauces in the 
coUDje of generations 10 another, in conae- 
quence merely of its experience of wanta 
Ciilltng for the exercise of oirtain faculties In 
a paiticular direction, by which exercii^e. 
new developments of organs take place, and 
end in variations sufliuieat to coustituta a 
new species. On this principle he prt^samed 
that H frog transported to the sjmdy phiias of 
tropical Airica mi^^ht, by dint of giyipiug and 
eJoagatiug the cervical proceaa, become a 
giraife. it would have been dlflicoU to 
imagine a more strikiag metamoqihosis; 
except the development ot a tadpole int4j a 
man — a belief to irhick some recent philoso- 
pi lei^ »eriou sly in cI ine. 

Of alt the bon£>fide Iroga known, the 
moat estimable, beyoud a doubt^ ia the Haua 
esculenta, or edible green frog. Of this 
specie^ the distinctive characteristics ait, 
that it ia of an olive colour, Gp«jlted with 
black, with tlireeyetlowiaU iint-^ on thcbick; 
the abdomen whitish, the limb^ elegantly 
m.irked with black banda. It Is the lurgt^st 
of the Enro£i^an frogs, jiud fiu~nlihea m^mj a 
trt^at to the gourmaada of France, Germany, 
and Italy. 

It was in the last- named country that the 
preparation of iro^ for food led to one of tho 



I 

I 



t8 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



IDMdMtal^ 



most remarkable diecoveries of the last cen- 
tury. The story is well known, but will bear 
repeating here. The wife of Galvani, the ex- 
perimental philosopher, being in a declining 
state of health, em]>loyed as a restorative a 
soup made of frogs. Several of these animals, 
ready skinned for use, happened to lie on 
a table near the electrical machine in the 
laboratory. "While the machine was in 
action, an attendant chanced to touch with 
the point of a scalpel the crural nerve of 
one of the frogs that lay not far from the 
prime conductor, when it was observed that 
the muscles of the limb were instantly thrown 
into violent convulsions, and the discovery of 
galvanism was the result of the accident. 
However fortunate this discovery for man- 
kind, the frogs have no great reason to 
rejoice in it ; for, ever since, they have been, 
as I observed in the outset of this paper, the 
selected victims of experiments. I have 
mentioned the Signora Galvani*s soup. Tliat 
was not her discoverv ; fur the diet has been 
known time out of mind. In one of the 
Ayscough MSS. in the British Museum 
(it is a treatise "On the prolongation of life," 
of the time of Elizabeth or James the First), 
frog-broth is thus described by a quaint old 
gentleman who uiardhidled his recipes in the 
8ha|)e of letters addressed to various friends : 
"Frog broath. Sr your viperes" (he had 
already given the receipt for viper- broth) 
•* being taken off from board, give mee leave 
to present you wh. a supernumerarie di^h of 
frog-broath: you will either receive it and 
t'lHte of it as a raritie, or as jm antl«lote, for 
the ancients held it of soveraine force to help 
thnsse whom veiiemous creatures had stung. 
-^i]lius and Paidus commend their broatU 
with salt and oile in such poisonous bitinsj^. 
I have knowne some tliat have druuke it, 
and eaten the flesh of them boiled and fried, 
troubled afterwards with such vehement 
vomiting that they suspecte<l themselves 
poisoned '* (No great inducement this with 
the friend to whom the "frog-hroath" was 
rt*conunended). "In Fraunce I once, by 
chance, eate them fried, but thought they hmi 
bc'in another meate, otherwise I had not bin 
so hastie. But it might bee that thosse were 
frogs from standing-jjooles and marshes: 
palustrcs ranas veiiendas credidit ^lius. 
I3ut bee they of what sort you will, I think 
penurie matie some use them, and luzurie 
others, whose fat feeding and wanton 
siomacks crave unnaturall things, mushrups, 
snailes, &c. For my parte, I would interdict 
them altogethere, especiallie seeing for gaine 
the seller mixes any xind of them, rubetas et 
mutas ranas, wh. without doubt are poison, 
and some have observed that mosse frogs, 
which when they are flead of a white colour, 
are more hurtful. Over fondnesse makes us 
take aniething, al mixtures of herbes in 
sallets. And as I have heard, some Italian 
merchants at Antwerp, to have more varietie 
than others in them, unwittingly mixed the 



seeds of aconite, and al that eate that aallet 
died." 

To explain the word Bubetas in the fore- 
going letter, recourse must be had to Pliny, 
who says, "The venomous frogs and todies 
called Eubetee, live both on land and also in 
water." But, in truth, the esculent frog, 
whether served in broth, stewed with a sauce 
velout6, or fried in batter, is a very dainty 
dish. Poor Ben«on Hill, who wrote a capitid 
Diarjr of Good-living, used to commend them 
highly. " With due reverence," he ob^erve3, 
"for the noble sirloin, I cannot but think 
that the hind-legs of some half-dozen good- 
sized frogs, taken out of a fine crystal pool, 
fried with an abundance of cream and pandcy, 
well crisped, wouM make a convert of the 
most bigoted John Bull, provided you did not 
tell him the name of tlie dish until he had 
accustomed himself to its flavour." 

The objection to frogs as an article of diet 
is, indeei), a mere prejudice on the part of 
those who have never eaten them. In what 
resj)ect are they woi-se th n eels ? The fi-og 
who swallows younj^ bir«ls and ducklings is 
surely as clean a feeder as the snake-like 
creature that dines on dead dogs, and makes 
the celebrity of the ait at Twickenham. Or 
is a frog less savourj' than a rat ? And yet 
what a price was paid for rats at the siege of 
Kara ! If the garrison could only have been 
supplied with lots of frogs — litei*al or meta- 
phorical — the Bussians would never h:ive 
taken the place. Again, does a snail — ^the 
i.irgje escnrgot, which people are so fon I of in 
Paris — appear more tempting than a frog? 
Or that animal picke«l out of its shell with a 
pin, and calletl, m vulgar parlance, a winkle! 
" Away, then," as indignant orators say,— 
"away, then, with this cant of fal8»Mlelic«icy 
and scpieamishness, and the veiy £1*31 opfwr- 
tunity you have, O lector fastidiose ! order 
A Di«h of Frogs. They are quite as goo<l 
as whitebait, when assisted by a flaslc of 
Rlienish." 

The anonymous gentleman, whose letter I 
quoted above, spoke of the frog as an antidote 
against poison, ami referred to the belief 
entertained liy the ancients in this respect 
The works of the old writers, indeed, abound 
in frog- phylacteries. Heai- Pliny (through 
the medium of Philemon Holland): "Tlie 
decoction of sea-frogs soddt^n in wine and 
vinegi-e, is a soveraig'ne drinke fur all poisons, 
but especially for the venom of Uie h^dge- 
toa<l and salamander. As for the fn^ggs of 
rivera and fresh-waters, if a man either eat 
the flesh or drink the broth wherein they 
were sodden, he shall finde it verie g<jod 
against the poison of the sea-hare (What 
animal is that ?^, or the sting of the serpents 
above-named ; but more particulai'ly against 
the pricke of scorpions they would bee, boiled 
in wine. Moreover, Democritus saith, that 
if a man take out the tongue of a frog alive 
(the old story, cruelty), so that no other part 
thereof stick thereto, and after he hath let 



OMi1<*XHH*g*^] 



A DISH OF FEOGa 



t 



ili# frog go n^alrie into the water (and apoilt 
liJB «)iigijig), ii)ijr|y the iuul tutmue uiitu the 
Itfft [N'tp ijf ji wutitau whik'3 ^Ue li imhe^ef m 
ihti Vvry place vvht^ie the htart V>eut*;th, sliee 
KUtiU ansiWtu* truly ati4 direerlj iu h^T iilert>e 
to Jiiiy iiiUjirogjaioiit or qtitsjUon that u put 
to her.'^ I ruihvr Uuiik^ when this taoc 
be-eomea ijenermlly kiiuwu, iliat fitigy* tongut-a 
wiil htt at a prcjuUiiD^ in » leas tlicra tie At>me 
<>tl(^r *lcvk"e for tlicithig the tru6 Bxpreaajou 
of iL htiiy*fl miiid. "Batj" cuiitiuu*;8 Plhiy, 
"the iiisi|;iciaiia tell more wou+iera thiol «o of 
Ibfl fntgs, whichjit they be true, cert e« iVogrr* 
were tn^trfs coaiiiiodiou^ and protiUible tu a 
cointuoiiwealtlk thnu nU th« posUive written 
Iaw» thut we have ; for thej would make us 
beleev^a, that if the hmbaad take a frog*;, aud 
ipit hiiu, a4 it Wfre, upt.j'ii a, reed — *' with 
other processes — coujui^al UiQUellty la lience- 
fcirwsirJ Vk thinjj uq longer to ho feared. 
Other TUHrveU are jJj&d performed liy frOL*a, 
if FLiuy'B anthontieo -are tQ be credited : 
" 80 111 e lu*^>g|^a t he I e be that hve ouely aiuonij 
hi**h(?s and hecl^^e^, wiiich lliereiipoti wee caU 
by the naiue of Ituhiftoe, and the Cireeku tenu 
thtm I'hrynoa — the biggest tliey are of all 
otht'ia, with two knubi^ bearing out in their 
Ironl, like horna, a^rnl full of povson they bee. 
They that write of theaie toaifs strive a- vie 
who shall write most wondera of tbeni ; for 
»»mc Bay that if one of I hem be bn>uglit Intu 
& place of ootiiTOuriaef where people are in 
great numbers it^iembled, they shall all be 
uu«ht, a.ud not a word among them- They 
A^xnue aldO, that th^ie ia one little tione^ 
their right mde, which, if it be thi^ovvn into a 
pan ol neetlung water, the ve&aet will coole 

Jtrt^Beiitty, and boil no more, mail it be taktn 
wrth rt^Muje. Now this bone (siay they) is 
ftiu^id by 111 is lueaufi r if a in an take one of 
tbeee %'«nonious f&<igs or tuada^ and cast tt 
inio a nest of anlsa, fur to be eaten and de-^ 
Vitnt'^d by them, and looke wheu they have 
gnawed away the fle^h to tiie verie boiie% 
rnicli bone one after another U to be put into 
S kettle ftcethliig apon tlie fire, and it will be 
i04jn kiiowne which is tlie hviie, by the elfect 
aforemid. lli^ri; is another suel« like boue 
^i^y their aaying) in the left aide. Oast it 
bito the water that haQi done seething, it 
will ii^m to boil and waulme agaiue ^^re- 
aentiy. Tliis bone (forai^otii) is called Apci- 
cyj^on* And why aol Because ywia thtsre 
ti not a Uiin<; more powerlnl to appease and 
repreiise the violence and furie of ewrst do^^^ 
than it. They re^iort, moreover, that it 
intdLelh nntii love j and yet^ nathelfs^te, if a 
eyp q( dnnke be spiced therewith, it wilt 
breed debatu and quarrels atuoi^g those that 
diiiike theivot. . . * Uthere there be who 
^le of upiiiion that if it bee but worne about 
one. either hanging to the neeke or iu^teued 
iiuit*! any ottitsr part of the btjditf, enfohled 
Within a little piece of new laml/s-^kiu, it 
will cure a rpiui uiu ague or auy otlier fevi^r 
b««i4e4L M'^reovt^r^ thi:^y b^-ar ua in hatidi 
Ui«S tht mill of these toadu is a counterpolson 



asamst their own venome ; but the head is 

mncli more eflfectuaU " Let oculists consider 

the next paragraph : '* Take the right eye of a 

frogg, hip it within a piece of selfe-rusiset cloth 

(such is aiade of blacke wool! ua it came in 

the Ikece from the aheepe)^ and hai>g it 

about the neek ; it cureth the right eye, if it 

be inflamed or Ulearcih And if ihe left ey« 

^ be ft fleet t^d, lio the like by the coutrarie eye 

[of the isaid fro^fj, &c/' All froga^ however, 

'are not such pt^rfect medicines. *' A little 

frog there ia, deiii^lits to liv^e moat amongst 

I gr^u^a, and in retrod plota ; mute I lie same u, 

and never croaketh, greene also of colour, 

I If kine or oxen chance to iwallow one of 

I them down with tlieir gnLsse, it caoseth them 

to swell in the be I lie, as* if they were dewe- 

blowue*'^ Still, as the poet says^ ** None a^ 

all evil/* ex. gr.; " And yet (they say) tliat if 

the tjlime or moisture wherewith their bottit?! 

be ckarged outwarLlly, bee scraped uff with 

the eJge of aome pen-knife, it cleai-eth the 

si*;ht, it the eyes bee anointe<l therewith. 

As for the flesh itaelfj they lay it upou the 

eyes to mitigate their pain*^, Furtheimorej 

I some there are who take hftet-n frog^fl, jiritiko 

tht^ni with a riatj and draw tlie sauie through 

I them that they may hang theivto, wliich 

I done, they put them into a new earthern pot^ 

'and the humour or moisture that passcth 

I from tliem in this manner, they tempter wiik 

ithe Juice or liquor which, iu manner of a 

■guui, issueth out of the white vine brioide^ 

! wherewith they keep the eyelids from havmg 

'any hiiires growing niion them. . . , Megt?;*, 

the chyrurgiaii, devised another depilatofie 

j for to hinder the growiug of hatres, made of 

Ifroggs which hee killed iu viiiegre, auiJ per- 

' mittel thrm (how kiud !) therein to putrefie 

and dieaolve into moisture ; imd for this 

purpose his manner was to take many fresh 

injggs, even as they were eugeudered in any 

ram that fell during the autunm," Ajs 

periapts, spella, and charms, frogs were nev^r 

kept iu the bat;k*ground wiiile a belief in 

w^itchcraft obtidued creJeuce, imd their occult 

virtues were a4 highly htuded by the adepts 

aa their simply meilicinal properties, llie 

witches' cauldron wanted fiortie of its most 

stimulntiug ingreilieuts if the eompouent 

parts of frogs were absent from it, and ** Syr 

Cianlon,'* ad the frog wna called, held a high 

plaea in the eiteem of those deluding and 

deluded « lames. 

It would not, perhaps, raise " a party'* very 
highly in the esieem of a n-*gular sporUmau 
if the former were to state, thf*t the ro<] and 
line and other fi.diing apparatus with which 
he sallied forih eon^e hue morning in June 
were proviiled S'^lely far the purpose of 
eatchiug fi^jg^J And yet this njiecies of 
Rugling findsi great fjwour in tV^aice. I 
remember once to have witnessed the eporc 
on a very extensive acjde at a country bouse 
in the Olnirtraiti, It was at tlie Chateau cif 
Yillcbon, near Conrvllte, a placts that had 
once belonged to the Grand Sully, and had 



i 

i 



1 



80 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 



C O -l a i t dUr 



passed, at the time of tbe first French 
revolution, firom the ancient house of D' 
Aub^pine into the hands of a rich contractor 
who had done his best to make it habitable. 
Amongst other appliances, he kept a 
great deal of company, the old cb&teau 
affording room enougn for a host, and on my 
arrival there (in such a cmzv old patache 
from Chartres) 1 was surprised, as I crossed 
the drawbridge, to see a bevy of gay ladies 
in pink and blue bonnets and parasols of the 
same hue, seated on chairs upon the turf 
with fishing-rods in their hands, angling in 
the moat That the sport was entertaining 
there could be no doubt, for shouts of 
laughter broke forth at every moment, 
gentlemen ran to-and-fro in a state of wild 
excitement, and now and then a very gentle 
scream was heard, as if some dangerous 
animal had come into closer proximity with 
one of the £ur anglers than was thought 
desirable. 

"What fish have you here t** said I to the 
driver of the patache, who was a stable-boy 
at the ch&teau. 

"Fish!" he replied, with a grin, "there 
are no fish here ! * 

" What, then, are these ladies and gentle- 
men angling for ? ** 

"Frogs, sir." ("La Cliasse aux grenouilles, 
monsieur.") 

And this I found was the constant mom- 
ing*s amusement of the guests at Yilleboii. 
It was much of a piece with the sport which, 
in tiie afternoon, tne gentlemen used to take 
in the woods — shootmg foxes ! respecting 
which I once asked a gaitered and gunned 
chevalier what he did with his game when he 
had bagged it. 

" O !'* said he, carelessly, " we keep the 
skin and the tail " (fancy his saving tail, and 
not brush!) "for mufis. and eive the little 
animal " (U petite bOte) " to the peasants to 
eat. They are fond of foxes in these parts." 

The partv at the ch&teau also ate their 
game, which thev caught quite secundum 
artem. M. de LacepdJe says, "There are 
various ways of fishing for frogs : they are 
sometimes caught in nets by the light of 
torches, which frighten them and deprive 
them of motion, or with a hook and Hue, the 
bait beinff worms or insects, or simply a bit 
of red cloth. In Switzerland," he adds, 
" they rake them out of the water." 

But neither the French nor the Swiss are 
the monopolLits of frog-tishing. Dampier 
relates that the practice prevails in the king- 
dom of Tonquin. " I was invited," he says, 
"to one of these New Vear feasts, by one of 
the country, and accordingly went aahorc, as 
many other seamen did upon like iuvitations. 
I know not what entertainment they had, 
but mine was like to be but mean, and there- 
fore I presently left it. The staple dish was 
rice, which I have said befoi-e is the common 
food; besides which, my friend, that he 
might better entertain me and his other 



guests, had been in the morning a-fishinff in 
a pond not far from his house, and had 
caught a huge mess of frogs, and with great 
joy brought them home as soon as I came to 
his house. I wondered to see him turn out 
so many of these creatures into a basket ; and, 
asking him what they were for, he told me to 
eat ! But how he dressed them I know not : 
I did not like his dainties so well as to stay 
and dine with him." 

Depend upon it, honest Dampier lost a 
great treat 



THE DIAHY OF ANNE ROD WAY. 

IN TWO CHAPTERS. CHAPTER TUB SECOND. 

1840. March 12th (continued). After I 
had pawned my things, and had begged a 
small advance of wages at the place where I 
work, to make up what was still wanting to 
pay for Mary*s funeral, I thought I might 
nave had a little quiet time to prepare myself 
as I best could for to-morrow. But this was 
not to be. When I got home, the landlord 
met me in the passage. He was in liquor, 
and more brutal and pitiless in his way of 
looking and speaking than ever I aaw him 
before. 

" So you're going to be fool enough to pay 
for her funeral, are you?" were his first 
words to me. 

I was too weary and heart-sick to answei^^ 
I only tried to get by him to my own door. 

" If you can pay ior burying her," he went 
on, putting himself in front of me, " you can 
pay her lawful debts. She owes me three 
weeks* rent. Suppose you raise the money 
for that next, and hand it over to me I I*m • 
not joking, I can promise you. I mean to 
have my rent ; and if somebody don*t pay it| 
1*11 have her body seized and sent to the 
workhouse ! " 

Between terror and disgust, I thought I 
should have dropped to the floor at his feet^ 
But I determinea not to let him see how ho 
had horrified me, if I could possibly control 
myself. So I niustered resolution enough to 
answer th^ I did not believe the law gave 
him any such wicked power over the 
dead. 

" 1*11 teach you what the law is I'* he broke 
in; "you'll raise money to bury her like a 
bom lady, when slie'a died in my debt, will 
you ! And you think I'll let my rights be 
trampled upon like that, do you ? ^e if I 
do ! I give you till to-night to think about 
it If I don't have the three weeks she owes 
before to-morrow, dead or alive, she shall go 
to the workhouse !" 

lliis time I managed to push by him, and 
get to my own room, and lock the door in his 
face. As soon as I was alone, I fell into a 
breathless, suffocating fit of cr^'ing that 
seemed to be shaking me to pieces. But 
there was no good and no help in tears ; I 
did my best to calm myself, after a little 
while, and tried to think who I should nm 



THE DIARY OF ANNE EODWAY. 



31 



ii 



to for help »ud proteetlob* The doctor wa^ 
the Erst trieuit I thought of; btit I knew he 
wi&a alwutya out M^&iug Uts patieute of aii 
&fterfiooiL The bejidle waa the oaxt p^i'soa 
^ho cAiue iato u\j htad* He had the look 
ef tieiiig a very dignified, uuapprodkckable 
kind of mau wh«ii lie came about the hiqucet ; 
but he ta^lketJ to me a little theu, and Bald I 
wna a good girl, and aeemtd, I really tdiought^ 
to pity me. So to bim I (leterminecl to apply 
in luy great danger and distre&a. 

Moi^t fortunately 1 found him at borne. 
When I told him of the laiuUord a infamous 
threata, aud of the miaery 1 waa in in conse- 
quenoe of them, he rose up with a stamp of 
Ilia foot^ and s^nt ft^r hb gold^laeed cockt^d-hiiit 
that he ^e^ira on SuDdaySj aiid his long cane 
with the ivory top to it. 

** ril ijire it him/' siiid the l*cadle* ** Come 
along with me, my J ear. I think I told )'t>u 
you were a good girl at tho iuqueiit — if 1 
dldn\ I tell you ao uow« Til give it to him ! 
Come along with me " 

And hg went out^ fitriding on with hie 
oi>eked-hat and hiM great cane, and I followed 
him. 

^ Lantiiord V* he criaa the moment be geta 
into the parage, with a thump of hia cnue 
on the fluor, '* Landlord!" with a look alt 
round htm a» if \m was king of England calling 
to a beast ^ ** come out 1" 

The moment the landlord came out and 
saw who it was, bis eye tixed on the cocked* 
hat Hud he turned aa pale aa aahea. 

"How dare you frighten this poor girH'* 
■aid the beadle. ^* H^w dat^ you bully her 
at this sorrowful time with threatening to do 
what you know you can't do f How dare 
you be a cowardly^ bolt} in g, braggadocio of 
an unmanly landlord ? Di-u't talk to me^ — I 
won^t hear you! Til pull you up, sir! If 
you 9iiy ancAther word to the young wom.iu, 
I'll pull you up before the atithoritiea of tlua 
tuetrojjoiitau parii^h t 1\*& had my eye on 
yoUf and the authorities have had their eye 
on you^ and the rector has had hii eye on 
you* We don*t like the look of your smali 
ahop round the cornet ; we don't like the 
look of «ou]€ of the cnstomei'3» who deal at it ; 
we don't like disorderly char aetei-a ; and we 
dnn't by Miy maimer of mt^ans like you. Go 
away ! Leave the young wom^m alone i Huld 
your tongue, or Til pull you up ! If he says 
another word, or iiiterft^rea with you again, 
dejiTi comd and tell me ; and, as sure a^ 
a bultyiiigi unmautvi braggadocio of a 
llord, rapullhiinupl*' 

^^'ith those words, the beadle gave a loud 
^ough lo ciear his throat, and another thump 
of bis cane ou the floor — ajid so went striding 
out agHin bfcifore I could open my lip^ iv 
thank him. The landlord akink back iulo 
hu room wiUii»iat a word> 1 wa^ h^ft aloue 
ind unni<>t«.*Ati;d at List, to ttreugtheu myself 
J^ th& hard trial of mj poor love'a funt^ral 
to-morrow, 

Jdarch luuk It ia all over, A week agOj 



her head rested on my bosom. It is laid la 
the churchyard now — the fi'esh earth lies 
bea^y over her grave. I and my dearest 
fric'udj the sister of mj lovej are parted in 
this world for ever. 

I followed her funeral alone through the 
cruel, bustliug streets. Sally, I thought^ 
might have offered to go with me ; but she 
uever so much as came into my room. I did 
uot like to thiuk badly of her for this, and I 
ara glad I restrained myself — for, when we 
got into the churchy ard» amoiig the two or 
three people who wera stantlLng by the open 
grave, I saw Sally, in her ragged grey shawl 
ami her patched black bonnet, ^he did not 
seem to uotice me tdi the last words of the* 
service hiui been read^ and the c!erg>'man bad 
gone away« Then she came up and spoke to 
me. 

"I couldn't follow along with yon" she 
saiil, looking at her ragged shawl; "for I 
hav'nt a decent suit of clothes to walk in, 
i wish I could get vent in crying for her, 
like you ; but I uan't ; all the cryiug*a been 
drudged and starved out of mi5^ long ago. 
Don't you tliink about lighthig your Mro 
when you get home. III do that, and get 
you a drop of tea to comfort you.*^ 

She seemed on the point of saying a kind 
word or two more^ whuu, seeing the Beadle 
coming towards me, she drew back, as if 
^h& was afraid of him, and left the church- 
yard, 

** Here's my aubacrlption towards the 
funeral," said the Beadle, giving me back his 
shilling fee. " Don*t aiiy anything about it^ 
for it mightn^t Im approved of in a business 
point of view, if it came to some people's 
ears. Has the landlord said anything more 
to you T No, I thought not. Ht^'s too polite 
a man to give me the trouble of uulliug him 
up. Don't stop cr)^iug here, my uear^ Take 
thd advice of a man famUiar with funerals, 
and go home,'* 

I tried to take his advice ; but it seemed Uk^ 
deeerting Mary to go away when all the rest 
forsook ber, I waitt^d about till the earth waa 
thrown in, and the man had left the pJace — 
then I returned to the grave, Ob, how bare 
and cruel it was, without so much as a bit of 
green turf to soften it 1 Oh, how much 
harder it seemed to live than to die, when I 
stood alone, look in i^ at the heavy piled-up 
lumps of clay, and thinking of what waa 
hidden benealh tliem I 

I waa driven home by my own despairing 
thoughts. The sight of Sally lighting the 
hi'13 in my room eased my heart a iittlo^ 
When she was gone, I took up Ibjbert's loiter 
ai^^ain to keep my mind employed on the only 
auifject in the world ihi\% haa any inlereat for 
it now, lliis (i&sh reading increused the 
Joiilits I had alreiuiy felt rehitive to his 
having remained in America afber writing to 
me. My gi ief ami forlomniiis have nnKJe a 
strimi^ti .alti'X'iiUou in tuy formur feelings about 
his coming back, I seem to have hjai all my 



I 



Jl 



32 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDa 



[C*aJ*ct*4lf 



h 



pnultMce and aelf-deinnl, and to en re po little 
ahoitd bifi jiovert)% and so much about him* 
Bflf, that the proij^eet of his rf^tiiin w really 
Ui*i ouly comft^rLiiig thought I have now to 
Bitl'jott nie, I kutiw thi* is weak in me, and 
t!iAt hia coming bjick poor mm lend to no 
g*K>d result for eitlier of vs. Bot he w the 
oiiJy hving hemof luft me to love, u-ud — 1 
cau t t'Xhhiin it— but 1 want to put my ai-ni3 
row ltd Uxs nfck and tell hlra about Mary* 

Jlnrch I4tii, I locked tip the end of the 
craviit ill my ^riting-dr^fk. No change in 
tlie dietiiiful «u@pkioUB thtit the bare ^i^ht of 
it rfiu^es in nie* I tremble if 1 so mueh aa 
touch It* 

March 15t]i, IGth, ITtb, Work, work, 
woik. If 1 don't knock up^ I shall be wble lo 
pay Lack the ::dvaitce in another week ; and 
tltiii^, wit Ik » little more plndnng in my diuly 
expenste, I may succeed in saving it sl/dling 
or iwo to eel lome turf to pot ovpr Jljiry'it 
gfjive — and j)erhaj>s even a few flowers be- 
Bi*U'B, to grow roititd iL 

Mnrch 18tb* Thinking of Robert «ll day 
long. Duea thU mean that he ia re.dly 
coming buck ? If it doi^a, reckotiing the 
di^tjince he m at front New York, and tlie 
tinie i^hif^ lake to get to Kngland^ I might 
lee Iiim ny the end of April or the beginnmg 
of Mny. 

Mtiich IDth. I don't remember my mind 
running otice on the end of the cravat yester- 
day, and I nm cerUdn I never looked at it> 
Tot I bad the fitrangt-st dream concerning it 
at night. I thought it wa« lengthened into a 
Jong eltte, like the tiiken thread that led to 
l*uttiimi>nd'a Bower, I thought I took hold 
of it, and followed it a little way, and then 
rot fiightened and tried to ^o back, bnt 
found tjiat I tk^os obliged, in spite of myself, 
Ui go on. It led me thiouj^'h n pla^-e like the 
Tulley of the fshadow of Death, in an old 
print I remember In my molher'a copy of the 
Filgimj*fl lVogre*i3. I seemed lo be muuths 
ftod mcintba foHowing it, withoiit any rfSpjte, 
liSl at hist it brought me, on a suddeu/face 
to face with an aiigej whoste eyes were like 
Mary*jj. lie sidil la me, *' Go on, still ; the 
truth m at the endj waiting for you lo Hud it.** 
I burnt out eryint.% for the angel had Mary*s 
Vfiiee as well as Mury*fi eyeiij atid wok© with 
my heart thrubbing and my checks all wet* 
Whnt m the nieanJng of thie I Is H id ways 
Slip- I'Hlitious, I wuuder, to believe thut 
dream Ji may come true ? 



April 30th. I have found it I God knows 
to ^^hat reHulta h may lead ; bnt it is aa 
eeitidi^ as tiiat 1 am silting here before my 
journrtl, ihht I luive tonnd ihe cravat from 
which the end in Murv*ii hand wjuj torn J 1 
diseovered it hn»t n gbt j but the tlutter I 
wjiB in, and the nervousness and uncertainty 
1 felt, prevented me frum noting: down thin 
mottt extiaui*dirutry and motst tuj expected 
«vi}ot at the time when it happened. Let me 



try if I can preserve the memofy of tt In 
writing now, 

I Wiut going home rather late from wheit 
I work, when I aurldetily rememl»errd that X 
bad forgotten lo buy myself any candle* tbe 
evening be fur e, and that I should l>e left in 
the daik If 1 did ui>t manage to rectify this 
mtstake in some way, Tlie shop ckme to 
uje, at wliieh I nsuully deal, would he alint 
up, I knew, before I couhl get t<i it; ao I 
determined to go into the Ilrbt place I paaged 
where cimlles were sold. Thin turned out to 
be a aniali shop with two counters, which did 
buiiineas on i>ne ^ide in the general grucery 
wwy, and on the other ru the rwg »nd bottle 
Mud ohl Iron line. There wure several 
cuttotuern on the gro<^ery eide when I went 
in, 80 1 waited on tlie empty rag aide til! I 
con Id be served. Glancing about mo het'e at 
the worthless-looking thin^ by whk'h I wa* 
surrounded, my eye was caught by a btiuttle 
of rags lying Jii the counter, aa if thry had 
jutit been tu'f>ught in and left ther*. From 
mere idle cunt>si(y, I looked cloae at lh« 
rn^it, and saw among them stintethlug likc» an 
old cravat. I took it up directly, and held it 
uniler a gas-ligbi. The pattern was blurred 
lilac lincit, running acrues and aaroea tlie 
dingy black grooml in a trcdia*work form, 
I looked at the ends ; one of them wm torn 
o*f. 

How I managed to hide the breathless 
surprise Intu vvhieh this disco very threw me, 
1 cannot any ; biit I certainly ctuitrived to 
eteady my voice somehow, and to a^k for my 
cimdies calndy, when the man and womjm 
eeiTing in the r^hi^p, having dkpo^ed of their 
other cuetomerij, inquired of me what I 
wanted. As the man took down the C£tii4lleS| 
my brifciu wrm all iu a whirl with trying to 
thtiik how 1 ci:tuld get possei^siun of the old 
ci'avat wtlhoul exdting any 8ii!*pidtm. Chance, 
and a h tile qoicknoas on my part in takmg 
advitntwge ot it, put the object within my 
reach in a moment. The man, having couuted 
out the candles, ajsked the woman for 0iim# 
[)a|»er to wrap them in. She juodnecd a ).u«oe 
much too small and llinmy for the pttrptiid^ 
and decJared, when he called lor Jiometiiing 
better, ih:it the day'a fiUp[j|y of stout j^>Mprr 
was ail exhausted. He Hew into a rage wifh 
her for tiinu^iging so ba«ily. Just oa thflef 
were beginnijig to quaiTcl violently ^ I stepped 
Imck to the rng-countejr, to^,^k the* old cr:kvat 
careb^a•^ly out of the bnndte, and sidd, in 
as light a lone as I could fiosaibly asauuie- — 

" Come J com« ! dwu't let my caiulb*** be th# 
cause of hitrd wonls bcLvVfeu you Tie this 
ragged old ibin,;^ round them wdh a bit of 
string, anrl 1 filinll carry them hume quito 
Cumtortably." 

Ttje maii aeemed disposed to inf^^st on thi 
fctout naper b«in;ir pi^jduced ; but the wnnum, 
as if eiie was glad of an opi^ort unity of sjjilyjg 
him, saalohed tiie CMndlen away, ^nii ti«*d 
tbi-m up ill u moment in the toru old cnivat 
1 waa afraid he would have i^ truck her LHifor^ 



1 



Gbblta Dltlmu] 



THE DIAET OP AKNE RODWAY. 



33 



y 



I 



I 



my &ee, he «eemeJ in such a ftirj ; but, for- 
iinȣeir, another ciutomer came in, and 
(bUgtMl Uim io put hii haocls to peAceable 

^ Quite II biiDilIe of all soi-U on tbe oppo* 
«te couutcT thtrt^/' I siiiil to the wonian, as I 
paid lier fur the cju idles, 

**Ye9, Aiitl itU bonrded U|> for aale by fl- 
poor ct\*atur(> witU II lazj brute of a bufibaiKl^ 
who It^is hiH wife do all tbe work wbib be 
i|ieu(U ^l the Tui^ey/^ AHawcred the woman, 
ntlih jk nmliclouii io^ik at tbe maa b/ lier 
side. 

*He eimH tnrely have mueh money to 
tpend^ if hb vr\U hm no better work to do 
tnan picking up ra^," ai^id I. 

^It i»u*t iiL-r fault if abe basn^'t got no 
better/* eava tbe womim, ratber augrily. 
*^She*a ready to turn her hand to aiiyiblug. 
Cbariiig, Wishing, Uymg-ont, keepmg empty 
houses — uothtug coniea amisa to ucn She'& 
my hiilfaidter ; and I think X ought to 

" Did yoti say »h<i went out charing I " I 
asked, inaklijg bt^lieve aa if I koew of aomo- 
body who might employ her, 

**YfcSj of course I did/' answered the 
woman ; " and if you oua put a job into her 
baiidat you*d be doing a good turn to a poor 
hard* work lug creature aa wanta it. She lives 
down tbe liltwa htre to the right — name of 
HorUck^ aud a^ honest a ^oman as ever 
atood lu eboe-Ieather, Now then, m;i*am, what 
for yon I " 

Atvother cuatomer came in juat theni and 
ocenpi^i her attention. I left the ahop^ 
psbne<l tbe turning that led down to the 
Mews, looked up rtt tbe name of th« atreet, 
so aa to know how to Bod it again, and then 
ran home aa faj^t aa I couM Perhaps it waa 
the remembranee of my strati ge dream 
itrtkiiig me on a euddeu, or perhapi it was 
tke ihock of the discovery I had juut maile. 
blit I began to feel frightened without know- 
ing why, and aiLiioua to be under ahelter in 
my own room. 

If Robert abould come back I O, what a 
f«lief and help it woiild be now if Eobeit 
should come back i 

May laL On getting !n-doors last nighty 
tbe firmt tlung I did, after striking a tight^ 
was to take the ragged cravat o^ tbe candLea 
and amooth it out on the table. I then took 
the eufl that had been in poor Mary^s baud 
out of my writing-desk| and smoothed tliat 
cmt too. It matched the torn side of the 
crara^ exactlr. I put them together, and 
■atlstied Euyaeif that there was not a doubt 
of it, 

Not once did I close my eyea that night, 
A kind of ft^ver got p osacaa ioa of me — a 
Tehement yearning to go on from Ihia first 
discovery and fin (Tout more^ no matter what 
the ri^k miglit be. The cravat now really 
berime, to my miud, the clue that I thought 
I isw in my dream — the clue that I waa re- 
solve to follow, I determined to go to 



Mrs. Horllck Ihia evem'ng on my return from 
work. 

I found tlie Hewa aasily. A crook-backed 
dwnrf of a luan was lounging at the c<.imer 
of it amoking hia pipe. Not liking hie lt>oka, 
I did not enquire uf him where Mrs. Horllok 
Uved, but went down the M^wa till I met 
with a woman, and aaked h«r. She directed 
me to the ri^ht intml>er, I knocked at the 
door^ and Mrs. Horllck herself — ^a leau, iil- 
te liipered ^ miaerable - look ing woman — ► an - 
e^ered it. I told her at once that I liad 
come to aak what her terms were for chariug. 
She stared at me for a moment, then an* 
iwered my question civilly enough. 

'^ You look surprised at a stranger tike me 
finding you out/ I said. "I firat cjime to 
hear of you last night from a relation of 
younSt in rather an odd way," And I told 
her all that had hapi>ened in the chandler^ 
shop, bringing in the bundle of rags, and the 
circumatance of my carrying home the can* 
dies ia the old torn cravat, aa often aa pos^ 
aibk, 

« It's the first time I've heard of anything 
belonging to him turning out any use/^ aald 
Mrs, Horlick, bitterly. 

"What, the B{>oilt oEd neck-handkerchief 
belon^'ed to your huahandj did it T^' Bald I at 
a venture, 

** Yea ; I pitched hla rotten rag of a neck- 
*andkercher into the huodle along with the 
re^t ; and I wish I could have pitched him 
In after it," satd Mrs. Horlick. ** Td seii him 
cbenp at any rag^ehop. There he standi^ 
siuoking his pipe at the end of the Mewsj 
out of work tor weeks pait,, the idlest hump- 
backed pig in all London l ^* 

She pointed to the man whom I had passed 
on entering the Mews. My cheekt began to 
burn and my knees to tremble ; for I knew 
ibat in tracing thti cravat to its owner I waa 
advancing a step towards a fresh dlacovery, 
I wished Mrs, Horlick good eveningi and 
Haid 1 would write and mention the day on 
which I wanted her. 

What I had just been told put thought into 
my mind that I waa afraid to follow out, I 
have heard people talk of being light-headed, 
and I felt aa I have heard them say they 
felt) when I retraced my steps up the Mewa, 
My head got giddy, and my eyea seemed able 
to see nothing but the figure of the little 
crook-back man still smoKing his piptj in 
his former pboe. I could aeo nothing but, 
that ; I could think of notliing but the mark 
of the blow on my poor lodt RLiry'e tem- 
ple, 1 know tliat I must have lietu lights 
headed, for as I came dose to the ci*ook- 
U-tcked man, I stopfjed without meaulug it. 
The minute befors, there had been no idea in 
me of apeaking to bim^ I did not know how 
to speak, or in what way it would be safest 
to begin. And yet, the momeut I came face 
to face with him some thing out of my»tflf 
seemed to atop me, and to make me speak, 
without ODnaidering before-hand, witliout 



84 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



rcoBdocii«lr 



thinking of consequences, without knowing, 
I may almost say, what words I was utter- 
ing till the instant when they rose to my 
lips. 

"When your old neck-tie was torn, did vou 
know that one end of it went to the rag-shop 
and the other fell into my hands 1 ** I said 
these hold words to him suddenly, and, as it 
seemed, without my own will taking any part 
in them. 

He started, stared, changed colour. He 
was too much amazed hy my sudden speak- 
ing to find an answer for me. When he did 
open his lips it was to say rather to himself 
than me: 

"You're not the girl" 

"No,** I said, with a strange choaklng at 
my heart. " I'm her friend." 

By this time he had recovered his surprise, 
and he seemed to be aware that he had let 
out more than he ought. 

*• You may bo anybody's friend you like," 
he said brutally, ''so long as you don't come 
jabbering nonsense here. I don't know 
you, I don't understand your jokes." He 
turned quickly away from me when he 
had said the last words. He had never 
once looked fairly at me since I first spoke 
to him. 

Was it his hand that had struck the 
blowl 

I had only siznence in my pocket, but I 
took it out and followed him. If it had been 
a five-pound note, I should have done the 
same in the state I was in then. 

•* Would a pot of beer help you to under- 
stand me ? " I said, and offered him the six- 
pence. 

" A pot ain't no great things," he answered, 
taking the sixpence doubtfufly. 

''It may lead to something better," I 
said. 

His eyes began to twinkle, and he came 
close to me. Oh, how my legs trembled ! — 
how my head swam ! 

" This is all in a friendly way, is it f " he 
asked in a whisper. 

I nodded my head. At that moment, I 
could not have spoken for worlds. 

" Friendly, of course " he went on to him- 
self, " or there would have been a policeman 
in it. She told you, I suppose, that I wajsn't 
the man 1 " 

I nodded my head again. It was all I 
could do to keep myself standing upright. 

" I suppose it 8 a case of threatening to 
have him up, and making him settle it 
quietly for a pound or two ? How much for 
me if you lay hold of him ? " 

"Half." I began to be afraid that he 
would suspect something if I was still silent. 
The wretch's eyes twinkled again, and he 
came yet closer. 

'* I drove him to the Red Lion, comer of 
Dodd Street and Radgely Street. The house 
was shut up, but he was let in at the Jug- 
and-Bottle-door, like a man who was known 



to the landlord. That's as much as I can 
tell you, and I'm certain I'm right He was 
the last fare I took up at night The next 
morning master gave me the sack. Said I 
cribbed his com and his fares. I wish I 
had!" 

I gathered from this that the crook-backed 
man had been a cab-driver. 

" Why don't you speak," he asked mutpi' 
ciously. " Has she been telling you a pick 
of lies about me ? What did she say when 
she came home ? " 

" What ought she to have said t " 

"She ought to have said my fare was 
drunk, and she came in the way as he was 
going to get into the cab. That's what she 
ought to have said to begin with." 

"But after?" 

" Well, after, my fiure by way of larking 
with her, puts out his leg for to trip her up^ 
and she stumbles and catches at me for to 
save herself, and tears off one of the limp 
ends of my rotten old tie. ' What do you 
mean by that, you brute,' says she, turmng 
round as soon as she was steady on her lega^ 
again, to my fare. Says my fare to her, * 1 
means to teach you to keep a civil tongue in 
your head. And he ups with his fist, and— -« 
What's come to you, now ? What are you 
looking at me like that, for ? How do you 
think a man of my size was to take her part, 
against a man big enough to have eaten me upl 
Look as much as you like, in my place yon 
would have done what I done— drew ofl^ when 
he shook his fist at you, and swore he'd be 
the death of you if you didn't start your 
horse in no time." 

I saw he was working himself into a rage ; 
but I could not, if my life had depended on iif 
have stood near huu, or looked at him any 
longer. I just managed to stammer out that 
I had been walking a long way, and that, not 
being used to much exercise, I felt faint and 
giddy with fatigue. He only changed from 
angry to sulky, when I made that excuse. I 
got a little further away from him, and then 
fedded, that if he would be at the Mews 
entrance the next evening, I should have 
something more to say and something more 
to give him. He grumbled a few suspicious 
words in answer, about doubting whether he 
should trust me to come back. Fortunately, 
at that moment, a policeman passed on the 
opposite side of the way, he slunk down the 
Mews immediately, and I was free to make 
my escape. 

How I got home I can't say, except that I 
think I ran the greater part of the way. 
Sally opened the door, and asked if anything 
was the matter the moment she saw my face. 
I answered, "Nothing! nothing!" She 
stopped me as I was going into my room, 
ana said, 

" Smooth your hair a bit, and put your 
collar straight There's a gentleman in there 
waiting for you." 

My heart gave one great bound— I knew 



Ch«d«i Dkftctf.] 



THE DIAEY OF AKNE EODWAY, 



3S 






k 



who it waa in an iiiatant, and riuhed mto the 
room likf & mad worn&ti. 

«Ob,IUWrt! Egbert J" 

All my beart wetit oat to him in those two 
little words. 

** GQod God, Anne t h&s anytliing hap- 
pened 1 Are you Lll T* 

**Mw7i my poor, lost^ murdered, dear, 
dear Mmry T* 

Hiot V lie all I could say before I fell on 

M&y 2Dd. Minfortunea ttn3 diBappoint- 
mente bave saddened him m little ; but 
towards mo he ie unaltered. He U as good, as 
kin dp OS gently nitd truly affectionate as ever* 
I believe no oiUer man iu tlie world could 
h%ve 1 listened to the story of M^try^'ji death 
with suuh teod^rDe«a and pity as he. Instead 
of catting me short auvwht^rc, he drew tue 
on to t«U more tbim I bad intended ; and lib 
£r«t generous wonU, Nvbeu I bad done, yifita 
to ashure ma tbnl be would t^ee hlmnfjlt' to tbe 
grnam bein^ laid and the dowers pl.tnted on 
Mary*s grave. I could have ahnost gone ou 
my iLCieeft and worshipped him when he made 
jne that promise* 

Surely, this best, and kindest, and noblest 
of men cfumot always be nnfortuu^^te 7 My 
cheeks bum wheji I tbiak that be hoa conie 
baok with only a few pounds in bid pockety 
afWf all bis bai-d aud bonest struggles to do 
well id Amerioa. Tbey must be bad people 
there when such a man as Robert c;inn4jt g«;t 
on among thi'tu. He now talks cahnly and 
reaignedly o( tryiu^ for any one of tbe lowest 
employments by which a man can earn bi« 
brMul hoot'Stiy in this great cUy^ — be, wbo 
knowa Freiicli, who can wnto so boa uti fully I 
Oh, if tbe people wbo bave places to give 
away only knew Robert as well aa I do, wtmt 
a aal&ry he would bare, what a post he would 
be chosen to occupy I 

1 am writing thrse lines alone, while be 
liii gone to the Mews to treat with the das- 
tArdly, heart feaa wretch with whom 1 spoke 
Teste rd ft V, He says tbe creature^ I won^t 
call blm'a man — must be humour t^d and kepi 
dee^ivifd about poor Mary^s end, in order 
that w^ may discover and brLng to justice the 
nioiisier wb^:>ie drunken blow was the dent h 
of ber. I shall knww no e&se of mind till her 
murderer is secured, and till I am certain 
that li^' will be made to suffer for his crimes* 
I wanted to go with Eobart to the Mews 
bttt lie Bidd it was best that he should carry 
out tbe rest of the inveatigatiou alone ; for 
mj strength and reaolutiun had beea too 
Imnlly UULt'd already* He said more words 
In praiiw of me for what I have been able to 
do tip to this time, which I am almoat ashamed 
to ^lite down with my own pen> Beaides, 
there is no need — ^pndse from bis lij^ is one 
of the thiiii^s that 1 ean trust my mcujory to 
preaorvts to the latest day of my hfe. 

May 3rd. Bobert very long last night 
beCon be came b»ck to tell me wbat he hod 
He easUy tecoguised the hunchback 



at the corner of the mews by my description 
of him ; but he found it a bard matter, «veu 
with the help of money, to overcome the 
cowardly wretch's distrust of him as a 
stranger and a man. However, when Ihm 
had beeJi aceomptished, tbe main difhculty 
was oonquered. The hunchback, excited by 
tbe promiae of more money, went at once to 
the Bed Lion to enquire about the person 
whom he had driven there in his cab. Kobert 
followed him, and wwited at the corner of the 
streeL Tbe tidiuga brought by tbe cabmi^n 
were of the most uneipKcted kind. The 
murderer — I can write of him by no other 
name — had fallen ill ou tbe very night when 
be was driven to the litatl lion, hud tak^n to 
bis bed there aud then, and was still confined 
to it at that very moment. His distJaAc waa 
of a kind that le broui^ht on by eice^ive 
drinking, and tbat aS't^cts the mind as well 
ii« tbe body. The people at tbe public-bouse 
Cidkd it the Horrors, Hearing these tbini^'a. 
llobert determined to see ii he could not find 
out Bomeihiug more for himself, by going aud 
euquirjDg at the public- house^ iu tbe cliaracter 
of one of tbe friends of Uie sick mau in bed 
up-atiLirs. He made two imporiani disco- 
veries. First, be found out tbe name aud 
address of the doctor in attendance. Sfcoudly, 
he entrapped the barman into mentioning the 
murderous wretch by bis namt^. Ti^is last 
discovery adds an uuspejikably fearful intcjeat 
to the dreadful c:it;istrophe of ili».ry*s death. 
Noali Truscott, as siie tuld me here^i^lf in tbe 
last conversation I ever had w^th her, wrts 
the name of the niau whose drunken example 
ruined her father, and Nuah Tru^^cutC iti ;iiso 
the name of tlie man whose drunken fi^ry 
killed ber. There is something that makes 
oue shudder, something fatal and sup^nuitund 
in this awful fact, liobei-t agrees with me 
that the hand of Frovidenct) must have 
guide J my atepe to that shop from wbich all 
the discoveries since made took their rise. 
He says he believes we are the iudtruuinnt4 
of effecting a righteous retributiou ; anil, if 
he spends his laat fat*t1ung« he will have 
iuvesUgation brought to ha full etid 
of justice* 

May 4th. Bobert went todsjr 
a lawyer whom he knew lu ravx 
The lawyer much int^rest^pd. ihf^^tj^ 
seriously impressed an he ought 1^ J 
by the story of Marv*s 
evente tbat have tuUcfrnM ll 
Bobert a conhdvniiai Istli^ 1» % 
doctor in att«ndano 
villain at tbe BmA 
letter, and oallmi am 
who said hk yaiktm^ 
wouldtt»i«tliW|fip«i 
a fortntgbl^ 
nicated !• Ute 
und' rtELkeit t^i 




86 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



(Oo«4Mlii%y 



Her^, then, the pronress of this dreadful 
boBiness stope for awhile. 

May 6th. Bobert has ^t a little tem- 
porary employment in copying for his friend 
the kwyer. I am working harder than ever 
at my needle to make np for the time that 
has been lost lately. 

May 6th. To-day was Sunday, and Bobert 
proposed that we should so and look at 
Mary's grave. He, who forgets nothinff 
where a kindness is to be done, has found 
time to perform the promise he made to me 
on the night when we first met. The grave 
is already, by his orders, covered with turf, 
and planted round with shrubs. Some 
flowers, and a low headstone, are to be 
adde<i to mi^e the place look worthier of my 

Cr lost darling who is beneath it. Oh, I 
, « I shall live long after I am married to 
Bobert ! I want so much time to show him 

all my gratitude ! 

4r # • • • 

May 20th. A hard trial to my coumge 
to-day. I have given evidence at the poiice- 
officcy and have seen the monster who mui^ 
dered her. 

1 could only look at him once. I could 
just see that he was a giant in size, and that 
he kept his dull, lowering, bestial face turned 
towards the witness-box, and his bloodshot, 
vacant eyes staring on me. For an instant 
I tried to confront that look ; for an instant 
I kent my attention fixed on him— on his 
bloteiied face, on the short grizzled hair 
above it— on his knotty, munierous right 
hand hanging loose over the bar in front of 
him, like the paw of a wild beast over the 
edge of his den. Then the horror of him — 
the double horror of confronting him, in the 
first place, and afterwards of seeing that he 
was an old man— overcame me ; and I 
turned awav &int» sick, and shuddering. I 
never faced him again ; and at the end of my 
evidence, Bobert considerately took me out. 

When we met once more at the end of the 
examination, Bobert told me that the pri- 
soner never spoke, and never changed his 
position. He was either fortified oy the 
cruel composure of the savage, or his faculties 
had not yet thoroughly recovered from the 
disease that had so fiitely shaken them. The 
magistrate seemed to doubt if he was in his 
right mind ; but the evidence of the medical 
man relieved his uncertainty, and tlie pri- 
soner was committed for trial on a charge of 
manslaughter. 

Why not on a charge of murder ? Bobert 

explained the law to me when I ssked that 

auestion. I accepted the explanation, but it 

aid not satisfy me. Mary Mallinson was 

killed by a blow from the hand of Noah 

TriiHCott. Tliat is murder in the sight of 

God. Why not murder in the sight of the 

law also ? 

• • • • • 

June 18th. To-morrow is the day ap- 
pointed for the trial at the Old Bailey. 



Before sunset this evening I went to look at 
Mary's grave. The turf has grown so green 
since I saw it last; and the flowers are 
springing up so prettily. A bird was perched 
dressing liis feathers, on the low white head- 
stone that bears the inscription of her name 
and age. I did not go near enough to dis- 
turb the little creature. He looked innocent 
and pretty on the grave, as Mary herself was 
in her life-time. When he flew away, I went 
and sat for a little by the headstone, and 
read the mournful lines on it. Oh, my love^ 
my love I what harm or wrong hsd vou ever 
done in this world, that you should die at 
eighteen by a blow from a drunkard's hand t 
June 19th. The trial My exuerience of 
what happened at it is limited, like mj 
experience of the examination at the police- 
ofiice, to the time occupied in giving my own 
evidence. They made me say much more 
than I said before the magistrate. Between 
examination and cross-examination, I had to 

Sinto almost all the particulars about poor 
ary and her funeral that I have written in 
this journal ; the jury listening to eveiy 
word I spoke with the must anxious atten- 
tion. At the end, the judge said a few 
words to me approving of my conduct, and 
then there was a clap]*ing of hands amonff 
the people in court I was so agitated and 
excited that I trembled all over when they 
let me go out into the air again. I looked at 
the prisoner both when I entered the witness- 
box and when I left it. The lowering 
brutality of his face was unchanged, but his 
faculties seemed to be more alive and ob- 
servant than they were at the police-office. 
A frightful blue change passed over his fiios^ 
and he drew his breath so heavily that the 
gasps were distictly audible, while I men- 
tioned Mary bv name, and described the 
maik of the blow on her temple. When 
they asked me if I knew anything of the 
prisoner, and I answered that I only knew 
what Mary herself had told me about his 
having been her father's ruin, he gave a kind 
of groan, and struck both his hands heavilT 
on the dock. And when I pasKcd beneath 
him on my way out of the court, he leaned 
over suddenly, whether to s()eak to me or to 
strike me I cant say, for he was imme* 
diately made to stand upright again by the 
turnkeys on either side of him. While the 
evidence proceeded (as Bobert described it to 
me), the signs that he was sufl'ering under 
superstitious terror became more and more 
apparent ; until, at last, just as the lawyer 
api)ointed to defend him was rising to speak, 
he suddenly cried out, in a voice that startled 
every one, up to the very judge on the 
bench, " Stop ! " There was a imuse, and all 
eyes looked at him. The perspiration waa 
pouring over his face like water, and he 
made strange, uncouth signs with his hands 
to the judge opposite. '* Stop all this ! " he 
cried again ; ** I've been the ruin of the 
father and the death of the child. Hang 



me before I do mone barm I HaDg me^ for 
God'a aake^ ani of the way I " As aooii uM 
the titcck prcnioced bj thia eitmorcHniiry 
iaterryptioii IiilcI fiuttsiilet), be wn» removed^ 
and til ere followed & loag dl«^iis£3iou Ji^bout 
wbetber h^ wna of lound mind or not, llie 
point was It^fl to th^ jury to decide bj tbeir 
Terdict. They found hina gniltj of the 
eb^rge of munstaugbt^r, without tbe excniM^ 
of iiiRaaUy. He was brought up agnio, and 
condirmiied to tranftportation for lifeu All be 
did on bearing tbe sentence was to reiterate 
bis desperate wortJa, '* Hang me befcire I 
do more barm ! Hang me, for God^i sake, 
oint of the ^ny ? *' 

June SOtb. I mfK^e yesterday's entry in 
midueis of hearty and I have not been better 
in my Bplrita to-day. It b aumetbing to 
bays bri:iugbt the mnrderer to the putiish- 
ment thiit be des^rves^ But tke knowledge 
that tlib most rigbbeona act of retribuiiou is 
aiecQnijjltabed, brings no consolation with k. 
Tbe Ihw doea indeed punjah Noab Truacott 
for bk crime; but can it raise np Mary 
MaJlinaon from her last resling-place in the 
diiurcb yard ? 

While writing of the law, I ought to 
record that ibe heartiesa wretch whoalloA'ed 
Mary to be struck down in bis presence with- 
out making any attempt to defend lier, is not 
likely to escape with tiHerfect irupuuity. I'he 
poliiHfmau who looked after bim to insnre bis 
Attendance at tbo trial, discovered that h& 
had committed past ofifences, for which the 
law can make bim answer A anmmons whs 
txeented upon him, and he was taken before 
the magiitrate the moment be left tbe eg art 
l^r giving bis evidence, 

I bud jtj9t written these few lines, and 
wma closing my journal, when there came s% 
knock at tiie door. I ansn^ered it, thinking 
JUobert had called in his way home to say 
good^^nigbt, and found myself face to faee 
with a strange gentiemani who immediately 
asked for Auue Rod way. On hearing that 1 
was the person inquired for, be requeateil 
fi^e minutes* conversation with me. I slio^ed 
Kim into tbe little empty room at the bock 
of tbe bouse, and waited^ rather surprised 
and llnttered, lo hear what he had to say* 

He w^as a dark mu.n, with a serious mauner, 
and a short atem way of speitking, I was 
certain that he wss a strange r, and yet there 
sieetueil nome thing in bis fttce not unramiliiir 
to me. He began by taking a newspaper 
^m hiJ pockety and asking tue if I was the 
person wLo hmd given evidence at the trial 
of Noah TroBCott on a charge of man- 
■kugbter* I answered immediately that I 
was* 

** I have been for nearly two years in Lpou* 
don seeking Mary Mallinson, and always 
seekiijg her in vain,^ be said. *' Tbe ^rst and 
only ncr^'i I have had of her I found in the 
tiewfrpapt?r »port of tbe trial yesterday/* 

He stiU spoke calmly, but there was some- 



things in the look of bis eyes which showed 
me that he waa autFcring in spirit. A sudden 
nervousness overcame me, a ad I was obliged 
to sit down. 

** Yon knew Mary Mallinsonj sir t " I 
askedf as quietly as f could. 

** I am h*?r brother." 

I clasj^ed my hands and hid my face m 
despair* ! tbe bittenies,<^ of heart with 
which 1 beard him aay tb'iac simple words j 

" ^Tou were very kitid to her,*' said the 
calm, tearless man. " In her name and foe 
her sake^ I thank you.** 

♦* O I sijv** I s:iid, " why did you never 
write to ber when you were in foreign 
parU t " 

" I wrote oflen,^' he answered, ** but each 
of my letters contained a remittance of 
money. Did Mary tell you sb« had a step- 
mother] If she did| you tti:!ky miesA wbj 
none of my letters were allowea to reach 
her^ I now know that this woman robbed 
my aister. Has she lied in telling me that 
she wtis never informed of Hary^ place of 
abode r* 

I remembered that Mary had never com- 
municated with Ijer step- mother after the 
aepziration, and could t he i^ fore assure him 
that the woman bad s^^keu tbe truth . 

Ho paused for a moment^ after that^ and 
sighed. Then be took out a pocket-book 
and said ; 

"I have already arranged for tbe pay- 
ment of any legal expen^^s that may have 
been incurred by the trial ; but I have still 
to n^imburae you for tbe funeral cbargei 
which you so generously defrayed. Eieuse 
my speaking bluntly on this su Inject, I am 
accustomed to look on all matters ^here 
money is concerned purely as matters of 
business.'^ 

I saw that he was taking several bank- 
notes out of the pocket-book, and stopped 



''I will gratefully receive back tbe little 
money I actually |jatd, air, because I am not 
well off, and it would be an ungracious act of 
pride in me to refuse it from you^" I said, 
" But I see yon handling bank-note^ any 
one of which is far beyond the amount you 
have to repay me. Fray put them back, sir. 
What 1 did for your poor loat sister, 1 did 
from my love and fondness for iier. You 
have thanked me for that ; and your tbanka 
are all I can receive^** 

He bad hitherto concealed hb feelings, but 
I saw them now begiu to get tbe better of 
bim. His eyes aofiened^ and he took mj 
hand and squees^ it hard. 

'*I beg your pardon,** b9 said, ^I beg 
your pardon, with all my heart.** 

There was silence between ns, for I wai 
crying; and I lielieve, at bt; ^irt, be waa 
ci7ing too. At last, be drcmped my hand, 
and seemed to change back, uy an etfurti Ut 
his former calmneas. 

^ Ls there no one belonging to you to whom 



i 



38 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



[OoBta0l««IV 



I can be of service t " he asked. " I see 
amoDg the witnesses on the trial the name 
of a jouDg roan wlio appears to have assisted 
you in the enquiiies which led to the pri- 
soner's conviction. Is he a relation 1 " 

"No, sir — at least, not now — but I 
hope " 

^ What 1 " 

*<I ho|ie that he maj, one day, be the 
nearest and dearest relation to me that a 
woman can have." I said those words boldly, 
because I was afraid of his otherwise taking 
some wrong view of the connection between 
Bobert and me. 

" One day ? " he repeated, ** One day may 
be a long time hence!** 

"We are neither of ns well off, sir,'* I 
said. ''One day, means the day whon we 
are a little richer than we are now.** 

" la the young man educated ? Can he pro- 
duce testimonials to his character ? Oblige 
me by writing his name and address down on 
the back of that card.*' 

"When I had obeyed, in a handwriting 
which I am afraid did me no credit, he took 
out another card, and gave it to me. 

* I sliall leave England to-morrow," he 
said. " Ttiere is nothmg now to keep me in 
my own country. If you are ever in any 
difficulty or distress (which, I pray Gk>d, you 
may never be), apply to my London agent, 
whose address you have there." He stopped, 
and looked at me atteutivelv — ^then took mj 
hand ngain. " Where is she buried 1 " he 
said suddenly, in a quick whisper, turning 
his head away. 

I told him, and added that we had made 
the grave as beautiful as we could with grass 
and flowers. 

I saw his lips whiten and tremble. 

" God blesa and reward you ! ** he said, 
and drew me towards him quickly and 
kissed my forehead. I was quite over- 
come, and sank down and hid my fiice on 
the table. When I looked up again he was 

gone. 

• • • • • 

June 25th, 1841. I write these lines on 
my wedding morning when little more than 
a year has passed since Bobert returned to 
England. 

His salary was increased yestexday to one 
hundred and fifty pounds a-year. u I only 
knew where Mr. Mallin^on was, I would 
write and tell him of our present happiness. 
But for the situation which his kindness pro- 
cured for Robert, we might still have been 
waiting vainly for the day that has now 
come. 

I am to work at home for the future, and 
Sally is to help us in our new abode. If 
Mary couM have lived to see this day ! I am 
not ungrateful for my blessings ; out, oh, 
bow I miss that sweet face, on this morning 
of all others ! 

I got up to-day early enough to go alone 
to the grave, and to gather the nosegay that 



now lies before me from the flowers that 
grow round it. I shall put it in my boeom 
when Bobert comes to fetch me to the 
church. Mary would have been my brides- 
maid if she had lived ; and I can't forget 
Mary, even on my wedding-day. 



THE SHADOW OF THE HAND. 

" How T»ricd are lifc't flowery patbi^ 

With vmried pleuures ttrown ; 
But tbeie, ^bcre duty pointa the tnck| 

It htppineti alone.*' 

Thut musing, as in fancy, hr 

My fbotitejpt seemMto itiay— 
Methought some strange mysteriont poww 

IiDpell*d them on their way. 

It was a shady path I trod, 

Yet beautifol to see ; 
For there were flowers upon the turf 

And birds in eyery tree. 

I loTed the flowers, their form, their hoe^ 

Their fragrance, ftint and rare ; 
I loved the birda, whoae ptaintive atnuna^ 

Uarmonioaa, fill'd the nir. 

The clustering shadows of the treea 

Upon the ground were cast : 
They seem'd to change their forms, eadi timt 

A breath of wind went past. 

Tet still methought, — as if the path 
Were some good augel'a carei^— 

The figure of a hand I tnced 
Among the ahadowa there t 

A hand, that ever pointed me 

Along that peaceful way : 
A way so happy, strange *t would Htm^ 

That I should wish to stray I 

Yet oft, too oA, I knew not whenee^ 
Gay sounds would reach mine ear^ 

Of music, miith, and revelry, 
And I would panse to bear : 

And through the trees, on either aide 

That ahady path, would cleam 
Bright eyea, and giitterinf forms^— anch iiglili 

Aa happy lovera dream t 

And they would call in wily tonea. 
That aounded aweet and low,.. 
- And wave to me their anow-white anni^ 
Until I long'd to go. 

But, while the ahadow of the hand 

Upon the grrenaward lay, 
I ebuld not turn to right or Ief^-« 

A charm i^-aa on the way ! 

I felt, beneath that hallowM apell,-* 

New life my being thrill — 
And all thinga lovely sccm'd to take 

A lovelier semblance still. 

The air breathed purer, — ^from the flowot 

A imrer fragianee given. 
And through the leaves above I saw 

The blue and quiet heaven* 

All waa so aweet within that path, 

I would not from it atray. 
And leave that sliadow of the hand 

Ucaven-aent to point my way. 



r 



Cb^B Dlcknt-I 



If OT YEBY COMMON THTNGa. 



3d 



>'• 



Thfn mny he inntiicr p«thi tfkr^ 
With Qdwen moiv bright a^d tut } 

Bot HfltAi of tKrin, unleit chut tiAnd 
Have CAit |U ftbtutow thtre ? 

Kot r€rttrtie''t UrifKlcit brami I aik 

Arutind my path to phj^ 
lfdn\\, mxUiU guiding bn^dp 

But point my ooif«i'd tt%j« 



NOT VERY COMMON THINGS. 



Lord A^li burton gave to the chief rarittes 
of his country tht* name of Common Tilings, 
atid Misa BuTtltitt CouitJ!) otTerB prizes for a 
right knowledge of good bousek^epini' among 
the poor^ uoder the name of Pri^ea lor 
Coniiiion Tilings. Yet, what is calle^l common 
knowledge, is in reality conimon iguoraoce; 
for fiubjects, about iffhich it is most 
esifiPtiiU to the well-bcln^ and comfort of 
■ociety for everybody to b© well informed, 
attt leant well kuowti. Among gentlemeHi 
the power to quote certain scraps of Horace, 
to repeat as intdlic^eiit conv^pmition what 
haa beeu read in laet week*^ newspaper^ 
*re eotnmoa things ; but the power of 
iiidef*emleut thought — which ought to be 
the eomraoneat of things among otir edu* 
Oft ted claaaes^ — ia so rare, that a man paeses 
into an exceptional class, and mnkee or 
toan hia fortune when he thua marches 
ont of the rank a and becomes a thinker. 
The naked Uttie worm found under water^ 
thai Bp«nd& all its life in the collection of 
morsels of atiek and chips, which it ginea 
loand about its peraonj accurately typifies 
onr own intellectual career* We are con- 
itantly ueekiugt umler a pool of pri uteres ink, 
a etick from this book^ or a cidp from that 
journal ; coveriDg ourselves with what we 
oatl Information, and thus caging our mindjj 
with nit^re fi-agmenta. We are well eon* 
tent to be as caddttiworriiSj and to count 
hint the best iofortuedj who vieiila moat of 
the ^lue of memory with which to fim the 
particles that form his intellectual tur- 
roundingB, 

The one thing that has to he made common, 
then, is the hah it of independent thinking ; 
of putting »ne*s own mioa into one's work. 
Why doea the cook sp<:»U the potjttoes ? Why 
does she make our meat uiir misery, and 
dinner the ejttinction of iiH powers of thought 
for tlve nes-t two houi-^ 1 Cook works by 
trafljtt<mj or at be«t by cookery bookst and 
puts un mind of her own into her work. It 
11 itark uonsenfe to anppoae that cook- 
ing can be done by rule, when all the 
bookit being nearly the same, there is a 
fo^ilure m the very first condition of suc^ 
eeetful imitation. No two kitchen fires, 
ftr« ulike as to th« degree aiid the way 
in which they give ont heat In qualities 
of water, in saucefmus, in the iieasou of the 
jeaTp in the oouatAntly varying quality or 
texture of the aame article employed as 
food or eondimeut — the cook, who is merely, 



after t!te custom of the day, a creature 
of mice which she has gathered round her 
as the defence of her own aceret iguarauce 
and incapacity — can only sfjoil fi.iod j antl does 
spoil iL Le t an y intel I ige ii t woman with out 
a rule in her head go into a kitclien and 
devote thought and attention to the boiling 
of a potato for the Brat time in lier lUe ; 
measurirjg her powers : naing hi?r faculties of 
observation and her judgment ; and we desire 
nothing belter, in that way, than to eut for 
the remainder of our Hycs none but potatoes 
cooked as she would cook tlictn. AVlmt is 
the constant cry a^aimt the liousemtid? 
ThoughtlafS, tlvoughUeaa I Betty cannot be 
got to think of what she does while she is 
dying itw When children fall into the 
nnrnery fire or nre tragically shot out of 
perambulators, or pick up foolish worda and 
waysj the cause commonly 13, that nurse- 
maids *io not think of what they are ab«nt ; 
do not put atientively their mlnda into their 
work. 

Tray citing up in society as high lua we 
roapr, still we see equally manif*^3t tJie same 
defect m nine out of ten sections. Millions 
of i^eople are provided with their thoughts 
as with their clothes; authors, [>rintera^ h<x*k'- 
sellers and newsmen stand, in n^hitJon to their 
mindsy simply as shoemakers and tailors stand, 
to their bodies. Certain ideas come up and are 
adopted, as long- tailed great coats or skeleton 
petticoats are adopted. No doubt, if we all 
thought — each man only a little of the spirit 
and meaning of each act of life — the business 
of life would be done with an earncstiicis 
quite friglitful to be told about ; though 
glorious to think about^ if one were by chance 
to think* 

l\>r our own parts, wo should trouble 
nobody with any speculations of this sort, 
beyond the assertian that a girl may he 
shown how to darn and how to patch ', how to 
bake and how to brew ; how to scrub and how 
to rob ; how to buy pennyworths with pennieS| 
aiid yet be sent out to the rich man a defec- 
tive servant, and to the poor man an unthiifly 
un com for table wife* On the other ii an d^ she 
may have received formal instruction in no 
one of these thiugs, and yet be able to over^ 
come every difficulty as it arises, by help of 
the spirit that has been put into her, and will 
not only soon do well^ but will psrpctuAlly 
advance towards perfection in whatever 
ministry may be demanded of her by the 
drenmstances of her future life. If ahe has 
been trained to live by How and Wliy — ^alwaya 
pouring down, through these conductorij tho 
whole energy of tho mind upon the matter 
actually in hand — she will surely make j% 
wise wife or a deafer servant* There ia 
nothing in Englishmen and women to prevent 
the vast majority of them from going about 
tlieir work in this way, except the want of early 
stimulus to a free and fall habit of thought ; 
this being the defect of nearly all our scliools* 
That there should be tlils defect in schooLi 



40 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



CC<mdMttd%f 



vndex the material despotisms of the con- 
tinent one can admit as inevitable ; but in 
the English school-system, tyranny of ideas 
can surely be mastered. A strong and 
hopeful step towards this achievement has 
been taken oy Miss Burdett Coutts, which is 
worthy of much following. 

PursuiuK beyond theory Lord Ashburton's 
recommendation, Miss Burdett Coutts has 
shown how to do all that can at present be 
done towards the attainment of the result at 
which we ought chiefly to aim. The nature of 
that lady*8 eSbrt and the first results of it, are 
set down in a little book which — ^while it lets 
OB know that there is something being done — 
shows also, clearly enough, that there is much 
yet to do.* The schoolmistresses and pupil 
teachers of a certain standing in the Church 
of England schools of Middlesex, are the 
particular material upon which Miss Coutts 
nas commenced her experiment. She offers, 
to distribute annually amonff these, certain 
prizes varying in value, for the best answers 
to a set of questions upon which (reserving 
our own notion on the subject), we follow the 
rest of society in calling Common Things. 
The subjects of examination are, as to food ; — 
the prices, qualities, economical uses, and 
various ways of cooking, or otherwise using 
different kinds of meat, vegetables, and gro- 
cery. As to clothes ; — the generalprice, use, 
and comparative values of the different ma- 
terials ; whatever relates to cutting out and 
making, mending, altering, and keeping in 
right order. As to household arrangements 
generally, candidates for these prizes must 
be prepared to say how health is best pre- 
served at home ; they are required to be 
informed fully as to the duties of servants 
and the proper management of children and 
sick people ; to know, also, how to act in 
any case of sudden accident^ or other great 
emergency. 

The result of this offer made by Miss 
Coutts, and accompanied, on her part, with 
earnest and dire<^t attention to the teaching 
in the schools, was the appearance at White- 
land's Train iujp^ School, on the appointed day 
of trial, of K>urteen schoolmistresses and 
sixty-nine yonng women in various stages of 
training for the teacher's office. Before them 
an examination-paper was set which con- 
tained twenty questions relating to the sub- 
jects we have enumerated ; and from which 
we quote three :— 

What coromon things can mott tuitably be tanght 
to children who get their liying in town, or to those 
who get their linog in the country? 

Give an account of the different grains used for 
making bread ; and give a good receipt ibr makbg a 
quartern loaf, naming the weight of flour, &c. 

' Enumerate the different darning stitches. For 
what articles should they sererallj be used ? Give 



* A summary account of Prizes for Common Things 
offered and awiirded by Mira Burdott Cuuttsi .t the 
Whiteland's Training luaUtuUou. '^^ 



full directions for making a msn's shirt, a housemaid*! 
apron, and knitting a stockinj;: 

It is noticeable that the first of the questions 
here cited is one of those (although it simply 
asks the schoolmistresses that are, and 
schoolmistresses that are to be, how they 
propose to exercise their office in reference 
to matters of this kind) to which the answers 
were least satisfactory : so that the persons 
who have shown most anxiety and deter- 
mination to become teachers of common 
knowledge, have yet to learu how to teach 
it. Another question upon wliich answers 
generally failed, related to the outfit for the 
schoolmistress herself ; the articles she would 
need, their material, quality and price. 

Not the least valuable part of the little 
pamphlet is the body of citations from the 
written answers of the prizewomen. From 
them we see how they would speak and work. 
Tliere is a great deal to praise and to respect in 
these effusions ; but the one thinirnet'dedjif our 
judjTtuent be correct, has yet to be fliscoverecL 
Of course it would be ridiculous to offer school- 
mistresses a prize for independent thought^ 
for, in fact, suddenly becoming exceptions to the 
rule followed by the rest of the world. All that 
could be done was to invite them to show com- 
petence under the test of questions that are 
of a sort to encourage them to think. Here 
and there are answers evidently well-con- 
sidered, and containing thoughts that belong 
really to the writer ; but they are exceptions. 
Secondhand and second-hundredth-liand opi- 
nions are the rule. The leaven of quick inae- 
pendent teachers' wits which shall communi- 
cate itself to the quick wits of children ; the 
strong thought that begets thought^ we 
seldom find. No shame to these humble 
teachers is implied in such a stricture. We 
might say the same of men who have had 
infinitely better means of making themselves 
what all should desire to be. 

To remedjr some of the defects she has 
observed. Miss Coutts has added to her little 
book a few ideas of cottage cookery, and a 
collection of real accounts of the way in 
which labourers pro|>ortion their several 
expenses to their incomes. Eveiy one of the 
ninety-three candidates, on the day of the 
distribution of the prizes, received a copy of 
this account of the prizes with its wise sug- 
gestions of their meaning. The books and ^^ 
prizes, we should not omit to add for the 
behoof of others, were given by the donor, 
quietly, at a private social gathering and tear 
party. Speech-makers in large waistcoats 
were not brought down, with the great public, 
to talk and stare. Nothing was done to hurt 
the modest, quiet temper which is fittest in 
the girl who is to become a teacher of the 
poor. Out in the big world, there is much 
talking and much hearty applause ; but, in 
their quiet world, the schoolmistress and 
pupil teachers come only into pleasant con- 
tact with their friend and bene&ctress. 

The short-comings to which we have re- 




AT THE SIGN OF THE SILVER HORN* 



41 



ferretl tti^ of course, so fair from btJDg 
objectiorut to Ihe effurt made, that they are 
ftrongest eviiiecce of iti uwceeeity* The ira- 
inUaa given by Mi ah Cotitts to the Church 
•eboulit of MititUeBex, cithrria may give to 
any fiehoola tbey iikiise— church cjf diHaeiit- 
it»g*— Id lUfi dittlricla nearest to themselves. 
A great expeutiiiure of money is not neces- 
saiT ; only there inudt be active beiieyoleBeo 
^m a detenumecl wilL 

lAi^A Couttd renews her ofTer^ and mteuda, 
tppnreutly^ to work on without flagging. 



AT THE SIGN OF THE SILYER HOIIN. 

I AM. m the ditigt^nce, on the road 
betwet^n Paris and Lyoapu I have beea 
journeying weariJy all the nin^ht, and now, 
with au uneasy stretch, have roused m^^telf 
to let down the window of the cuopC% I 
look nut. inquiringly into the nighU It is 
darii^pltch dark — ^all round vi3. But there 
is * grey aUreak a-heiw!, joyfully welcomed ua 
ti^ilieant of morjiing. Not quite to coui- 
furting is the cbxLliug hla&t wliielt en tors, 
wdl iceil^ by the window j making my teetJi 
chatter galvanic^tlly, and my whole ho<ly 
shiver in supreme wretchedness. So I draw 
il up (Yii-Luudly, and aink back again into 
tbe corner. 

It has been freezing fiercely for the last 
fortnighL Indeed^ it is the hardest frost 
the Bon Dieu has been pleaaed to send these 
many year^ At least, so an aged travelling 
IXmiTtauiouwa^ pleased to remark^ as be walked 
by the coup6 windoW;^ up a hiU. The road^ 
are tlms aH^ituihited to an endlei$a continuity 
of Dresden min-ors, admirably suited for 
heaiitfjug and express traveliiug ; but highly 
perilous for delicate nervoua organ iaatioua 

By*aJid-by it begins (o grow lighter* The 
prey streak has made progre^ during our 
last duze, and we find it now spread all over 
the heavensi. I begin to feel aspirations 
beyond the four sides of the cfmp^. I 
hearken complaiaantly to the driver, who is 
chauuting his morning song over head^ 
enlivened by «tray craukmg of bis long whip, 
and join carelesisly iu the refi'ain. Anon 
he turns lum round, and hails his goi$:»ip, 
the conductor, across the bagguge^ whiuh is 
piled to a fearful height upon the roof— a 
rtry Pel ion upon 0*wa of luggage. The 
^Oi«ip answers with a neat jesit iu the French 
maaner ; whereof the subject may be the 
Kormaudy tiam btftire us — perhaps iiie 
woi tby driver him^btf ; or, more likely, the 
unsuspecting occupant of the eonjj^* Tery 
merry tbey are, whjit^ver be the reason. 
And, not long after^ tliere is a hoUow soitud, 
m of tramping, overhead, which tus^uiliei 
tbat Peli(*n iind 0.-»a have been traversed by 
•onie out? from behind. Shortly come fra- 
grai4t aromatic g^e% suggestive of a social 
morning [tij^e. 

Another hour has passed. We are going 
il0wjjr itp a tiUtrp bdl There is a gentle 



Happing at the fnisty pane, which I hiwtily 
I lei down, «nd so dijiCover our driver B»luting 
I me profoundly, even to the tops uf hi.-* Imge 
I jack-boots. Has Monsieur reposed wtdl ? lie 
I has the honour to inform Monsieur thnt wo 
I i^haM sliorlly altfdn the An^ter^e^ — tbut la, 
I altei sunnmmling this hill, l>*Enfur, Ti ut?, we 
were slightly Ijehiud time; hut what of thritl 
Afcer the hill we sliould galhip all the wny, jis 
MoiiBiettr i^hould see* A gtaceful bow, »nd 
the j lick -boots are seen swinging periluu&Jj 
at the aides of the diligence, en route to 
the box. 

We are on the brow of the hill at last— 
the hill D*Eufer, There m a loui? white 
eausewiiy — *m extended sheet of tSie Drenden 
mirror nforeSftid — stretching hir dtmn into 
the valley, lill, at liie exti erne end, fiunji^thing 
^ like a cUnter of wbile cottages is descncd — 
the prumirted laud for the traveller uiibi'OEik- 
fasted. The manner of our deaeent is awfid 
to conceive, Gflthering up the reins with 
fury^ our diiver ^eems to grow delirious* 
The lon^ whip deseenda fore and alt npiiri 
the backs of the white Normandy team, 
who plimge for%vard at full gpeed* The 
huge machine, Pel ion upon Oaaa and all, 
rolls heavily after, reeling aud swaying' in a 
manner perfectly sickeuiDg. The Kiij;jltf oreu- 
pant of the Ci»np6 holda on convul-iivety to 
his seat, and betlnnks him of the ^Uta 
of bis so^d. A fearful din, conif^ounded 
of window-panes dauuing In their fmmts j of 
; timber straining and gix)aning diatnally ; of 
stones being crunched ; of boflow rumbling; 
I of chains jaugliiig : an everlasttng cliurtL^ of 
shrieks, of tieree Holoaa ! Holoas J of !:?:4cr*r- 
I res, T&te Dieiia, Diantrea, and otfier pro- 
fane matter. The white Normandkyi, w^ith 
loug %iug tails, bound madly oti, ktrking 
and biting one another, and wuiniug all iho 
I while iu the most unearthly faebiuu, Ation 
I comes a fe4irfoJ convnlsionp and the hugo 
macldne totters. A Normandy has fallen, 
I and the others appesr to m^ke one kicking 
I struggling heap of hor«e-flesh over him. Yet 
' we atwp not for that. Diligence and the heap 
' roll ou tog«iher of their own momentum, our 
charioteer standing up in the jack bot>ts, and 



' ply^"S ^^^^ ^"^"^'^g cracking whip reinorseici*^lj, 

lashing the horisea to their feet, MoreSacrr-id^ 

; anil Uianti'eKj and we are speeding ou as 

I before j only the white Normiindie« are now 

grijwn delimiu*, their red eye-bdla glaring 

wildly. In a few minutes more we are tit 

the bottom^ witlnmt acscldent. and drive up, 

jingliag anil clanking, to the door of the 

I illfagc Att*>en^'e. 

Half-tiU'huur for breakfast ; that is, half- 
'an-hoi^r ftmi a little more — equivatenti as 
'everybody knows^ to a gor^l h^-ur. A pio- 
ture&i]ue scene at the door of the old vilbn^e 
iim : ntiijiy groups stmubng r<iund^ admiring 
♦ the huge ddigence nnd ita hvight^ Mf>m*i'nir 
I would tike brciikf ^t ? ;Mou4eitr rut her 
'ihinlis lie would ; and Moii«ienr la furth»*r 
[ incliiied to bttitve that a petste vene Wuuld 







48 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



[CoBdaeMA If 



be signally efficacious in restoring the general 
tone of the system. Would Monsieur step this 
way ? And exceedingly grateful is the siclit 
that greeU the dilapidated voyageur " tliis 
way." Upon a snowy tablecloth are set forth 
steaming coffee and hot rolls, cotelettes and 
omelette, with delicate Strasburg pie and 
other such delectable accompaniments; not 
forgetting the tall flask of Ohablis alone in 
the centre, in all the dignity of age and 
hoary dust. 

As these comestibles fade away before 
me, like the " baseless fabric of a vision," I 
begin to take a less desponding view of affairs 
in general. <' After all/' I thought, as I filled 
out the last glass of Ohablis, "after all, if 
travelling has its little inconvenience^ we 
must not complain. What else is life itself 
but a weary journey in a coup6 ? Occasion- 
ally we are allowea to get out^ and stretch 
our limbe and enjoy ourselves for a short 
while.** I was in an admirable mood at that 
moment for such sound philosophy. But 
aluck-a-day ! I soon heard a jingling 
at the window, and sundry sounds of 
struggling and restiveness which were but 
too familiar to me. My prison-house was 
ready at the door, yawning for its prey. 
Four fresh Normandies, in delightful spiriu, 
are performing all manner of gymnastics in 
their impatience to be off. Once more I am 
hoisteil by strong arms into the coup6. Our 
dtiver standing at the door, drinks gracefully 
to all round in a farewell petite verre ; then 
drawing himself slowly to his box. Fuiious 
plunging of the Normandies as he gathers up 
the reins. Prodigious crack hig of the long 
whip. Fra-ra-ra I from behind. ** Messieurs, 
stand aside, I pray of you ! There I Tra-ra ! 
Tra-ra I £n avant ! Bon voyage ! " 

That day of travel i*olled on wearily. It 
would be idle to relate with what dull mono- 
tony the hours succeeded one another, or by 
what st'tges I was brought to the conclusion 
that life had become a burden to me. No longer 
did I take interest in the eccentric habits of 
our driver, nor in the playful vagaries of the 
Normandies. £ven the pleasing excitement 
of a perilous mountain descent fuled to rouse 
me — I had crown blas6. The fine Ohablis 
philosophy has evaporated, being utterly 
jolted awa^. In this dismal mood I drag on 
life, till night has once more set in. 

We have stopped at last. There is a ereat 
iron gate beside us, with a dull oil Tamp 
swinging overhead. There ia a great white 
post rising from the ground, on which a broad 
sign-board is lazily flapping to and fro. Some 
one is pulling vigorously at a bell with a very 
mournful note ; and, through the twisted 
ironwork of the gate, we see lauterus moving 
this way. I am invited to descend. 

" Where are wo ? What place is this ?** 

*'Why this is the Cor d^Argent, where 
Monnieur can dine and make himself com- 
fortable — for one hour, and no longer — Nom 
duPape!" 



It was a tunous and most mysterioiu 
looking old mansion, this Silver Horn. It 
had not the persuasive and seductive aspect 
of a well-favoured inn ; but was a dark, 
heavy-browed and even menacing pile o$ 
building. It loomed on us through the dark- 
ness, a black, shadowy mass, and, on the 
whole, gave small promise of decent enter- 
tainment. From a lar^e shield over the 
door, now worn away and defaced, I conjec- 
tured that, in better days, it had belonged to 
some noble seigneur. The host stood under 
the shelter of his porch, waiting to receive 
us — a grim descendant of some old Huguenot 
of the days of the great Louis — so grim and 
grizzled indeed, that as he stood there shadinff 
the light with his hand, I almost fancied I 
was looking at the efiigies of Messire de 
Beze, or that of Maltre Jean Calvin. 

Adopting the fashion of the stage, I shall 
allow the scene to close in here, and let 
the curtain in the next act rise upon ^A 
chamber in the inn of the Cor d* Argent" 
— a lofty oaken room whereof the oak that 
figured in its panels, in its smooth floor and 
furniture, had grown into a mourning ebon 
tint. Dinner, and the vestiges of dinner, 
have pasAod away, and a flask — not of Chablia 
this time, but of sound Burgundy — has just 
been set on. There is a roanng wood fire— « 
conflagration of riven blocks — raised upon 
the backs of queer blinking monsters; the 
high-backed arm-chair has been drawn in 
closer. In short, all has been made snug and 
taut for the night, as the sailors say. My 
diligence is, by this time, many miles on its 
road ; and, at this moment, mav be reeling 
and tottering on some perilous hill-side. The 
fact was, I had grown so contented with the 
caravanserai that I had suffered the huge 
machine to go its way without me. 

*• Not for a principality would I stir now,** 
I said, complacently, as I looked at the com- 
forting fire before me, and filled out another 
glass of the Burgundy, — ^ positively not for a 
principality ! ** 

'* A very mysterious old place this,*' I con- 
tinued, after a short pause, as my eye 
wandered down to the other end of the room, 
which was all in darkness. The light of the 
lamp did not reach very far ; so a great 
black cloud, the opening as it were of some 
dark abyss, seemed to hover at the far ex- 
tremity. The great curtains, hanging in stiff 
massive folds with breadths of shadow play- 
ing over them, were awe-inspiring enough 
too. I bethought me of one of Mr. Fitz- 
bairs productions, a dnima of thrilling in- 
terest, entitled The Innkeeper of Abbeville, 
which I remember having seen plaved at one 
of the transpontine theatres. What the 
exact plot was I did not very well recollect ; 
but I recalled perfectly the lonely roadside 
inn, and the stariling melange of horrors 
which were enacted there one dark night. 
The weaiied traveller sleeps — soft music — the 



f 



Cli^k« BkkcM.] 



AT THE SIGN OF THE SILTEE HOUN. 



4S 



(ftU cloak) advanees etealtliily ; ire 
BtundM orer him — ^ traveller breathea iiard— 
agit»t«d muaic^Ba i what was tltat I fiome 
one comes ! muMc atill more agitated — thej 
are at tlia door^ — lamp extiiigtiialied— a gix>aii 
*-9Gfae elose« in ilowly to heart^Feiidlag 

It ws« curious certaiuly that there were 
^o few sig»8 of life about the Inxi. It it odd 
not heaiiug >ome soundi of moving aboitt. 
Could it be thnt I aut the only inbjtbltant 7 
I can make nothing of it. This Burgundy is 
decidedly good. Then those queer storIe« I 
have reati about poaatk&and jmtrones — people 
goin*^ to r^leep in a poaada (with the horse 
tethered at the other eud) and awaking at 
th^ critical mora en t wbea the patrone'^ knife 
ii in the air ! A very nnpleasaut atate of 
Ihinga. It would be a goo<l ji>ke if jnj 
patrone were %o pay tne such a vidit — why 
if — 

There came a aoniid of footstepa on the 
oak tlooT, and the figure of the host lum- 



(I could have ^wom it I I had only to 
fftipply the Geneva hands, imd the old 
preacdier waa th^re before me I) 

*' The hand of the Lord lay heavy on us in 
thoae times/' he conUnued. "There is a ti-a- 
dition of tbeir having dragged him bleeding 
down the long gallery outside, with bia young 
daughter clingtng to him^ and ehriekiug all 
the way,- — A night of horrora I But it ia 
time that I withdraw, ^Jonsieur will excuse 
me if I wiah him good night I '* 

" Wait a inonientj" I eaid, risings '* I thmk I 
ihall go myaelf, too* Where am I to sleep 
to-iught I '' 

He took np the lamp and preceded me. As 
we came out upon the gallery .a lierce gust 
came sweeping by, slamfiiing tlie door behind 
ua, and almuiat extinguishing the light. 
Presently nuoUier door was he;ird to alam — 
afar off; and the sound echoed down ubat 
seemed to h^ a long and lofty gallery. My 
aletping room lay ut the v*^ry end of this 
gttUery, via^-viii to the one we had just left. 



self Stepped from out of the black cloud 1 1 thought we would never reach the end of 
At the eod of the roouL As he advanced |itv — it i^ee in ed such a lone ant) dreary journey, 
the Hgbt fell upon hia yellow poKshed head/ At intei^aJsi too, we would come fruddt^nly 



whicji seemed as if it had been carved out of 
■oniti huni, close-grained wood. 

'' The Burgundy, would 1 have more of )t ? '' 

(The i^hin so grim and gri^nled ! with a 
tort of bluiali tint over it. It was Mesalre 
Eeio for all the worh! !) 

" Wei), theu» should he show me the room 
where I am to eleep — that m^ If Monsieur 
will ^lemiit him 1" 

''No, thank you," I said, "I am not going 
to Wl juat yet. By*tlie-way, aiauy people 
stopping in the house t " 

" Besidea j'ouraelf, not one.'* 

" Ah ! that is bad for trade 1" 

" I do not complain." 

<'Aiid the next town r' 

" It ia three leagues away*** 

''And the village?" 

** One league," 

** Hot a very social neighbourhood, I should 
•ayr* 

*^ There U not a house within a league*^ 
distauoe/^ 

I was a little discomposed by thia con- 
feftsion ; and there was a pauso for a second 
or so, 

"To eay the truth, mon ami," I aaid at 
lastf '' I can scarcely think this house was 
€ver intended for an inn*" 

" No more was it^^* said he.^ rubbing hm 
hand alow ly over his chin, with a grinding 
sound like that of a file* ** It was unce the 
houic of a great marquia, now |>ft:s^d awjiy 
with all his triL*, But that was long ago, in 
the days of the IVmecti lions,*' 

"And the mari|iiis r* 

'*He pa^ed over into foreign countries. 
But there was aii old man — his chaplain, in 
fact^-^nho refused to aliandon the anc^jatral 
walla, and so met his death here. This was sji 
Mictp^tor of mine,'* 



upon some black yawning recess, from wiiich 
I was momentarily exf>ecting some unearthly 
figure to glide fortb. 

**And the young lady?" I said, a? we 
at last found ourselvca in the gloomy cbam^ 
ber I was to inhabit for the nigbt, ^' You 
did not aay wljut b*.*camfl of her.'* 

** You are interested in my tale, Monsieur V* 

" Why, yea,*' I aaid, " it has mad*j rather 
an impresaion on me." 

*' \Veil 1 tbere is iittle more to ielL That 
night they put her in a lonely room, with a 
gttartl at tha door ; tneaning, no doubt, to pre- 
serve her for deeper sul!t*ring laid humdia* 
tion. But the Lord is mindful of his own, 
and he assisted her out of this lion's den. 
Tbat ni^ht she fled away, nor waa she ever 
seen again by mortal m^ui?" 

Come, I U I ought, the jilot thick en a. Mar- 
vels and mvsteries are gathering round me. 

** They said she aat up late that night 
writing* The light iu tlie window was t^eeu 
bui'uing all ni^ht ; and, when they c^inie m 
the morning, the only trace tbey could Hud 
of her waa a note, lying on her deak, ud dresfsed 
to tbeaiselves — her lather s murileivra. See," 
h«j continued, taking from las pocket-book 
an old ciiainlding scrap of paper, grown 
tawny with age like a mummy a akin-*^*i&ee I 
this ia the holy relic itaelf. It haa come 
down to me by the hands of the p«'r6C(:uted, 
written iu woraa of fire." 

lie unfold^ it ; and, dmwing tbo lamp to 
hiaif i-ead slowly and in a tone that sounded 
litiangely solemn from the perleat stiiinesji 
that reigned around : 

On & ia4 m^o pere et dc*lionDw6 »ou etirj*. Md- * 
li<?ur iV voui I Mftiidit toit rtiUt fiico ! I^ saitg del 
Meti-ti'fi uiottte ¥fri les cicux ct r^Utnt! 1« juttiec* 
H ^ O Dioa Ditu ! usta tuou d^rtikr •uMj^^ir 
I jfmtot{Uo ta vi*0|esac« 1 



44 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



CCwdMMItr 



[TliCT baT« killed my fatlirr and dishonoured his ; the memory of the most ancient inhahitaiit. 
Wiy, ciirt«d be your race! The blood of the Martyrs i But what particularly attracteil me was a 
lin* 10 Heaven and demands jiisiire. O my (Sod ! j circular pond ill the centre, with a battered 
Hiihmy last breaih I invoke thy vengeance!] elHgV of liegulus (in lead) rising in the 

His voice rang in my eara for long after | middle — ^llegulus turnini? his ai^jhtless orb« 
Uiat night. As he stoocl there delivering that up in the white moonlight. StrHu;(e to say, 
wild n»ale<Uction, he looked a very prophet . the water had remained unfrozen, and waa 
from the wihlerness. He did' not speak for surginsf and eddying, from unknown de])ths. 



Bouu- time, but remaine*! with eyes upturned 
to ili'.iveii — aa it seemed to me, privini;. 

*' Ah ! Messire de Beze — Mesvire de Beze ! '* 
I mntteretl under my bi*eath. 

^ Was Ahe haudvorae 1 " I said, at List, to 
bn.'}ik this depressing silonce. 

** ilandsoaie ! ** hesidd, coming downacaiu 
toujuth. ''Handsome! 1 know not. There 
is an old painling here,'* he continue<1, hold- 
ing up the lamp to the wall, " which they say 
is meant for her ; but who can tell ] *' 

It was a faded, mouldering bit of canvas, 
let in the wall, with a rent here and tliere ; 
yet the face and figure could be made out 
I>crfectly — and a fair fivce it was: with her 
gnldvn hair falling round her to the ground. 
She was kneeling ; and, at her feet was a 
sort of scroll, on which I could make out the 
worils, *' How long, O Lord ! how long ! " 

He had followed the direction of my eyes, 
nnd saw that I was studying this mystic 
device — ** How long, O Lonl I " I heard him 
muttering sottly to himself; and, before I 
could addjeKS him, he had glided from the 
room without a word. 

I was alone at last, and I must confess felt 
infinitely more at my ease now that I was 
released from the presence of the grim Hu- 
guenot. But the portrait and the strange his- 
tory connecteil withit,had completely upset me. 
I would have given anything to have heard 
more about it. And that di*8|)onding legend 
unilerneath, significant of a world of uatieni 
hope, sutffring, and despaii^— I could not 
get it out of my head. Such a fate for one 
so young and beautiful — ^for one so- 
Come, this will never do. If I let this go 
shall have 



I recollect how curiously its black turbid 
surftice cont rusted with the snowy look of 
everything i*ound. It made me leel chilly 
and uncomfortaiile to look at it So I turned 
away from the window, and set myself seri- 
ously to the business of disrobing. Nor had 
I nmch time to s()are. The fire liad nearly 
died out. and the lamp was showing Rymptoms 
of inanition. 

It ^vus certainly an awful-looking stmctnra, 
that antique bedstead. Four black pillan 
shooting high in the air, and a dark mass of 
dr:i|)cries and carvings crowding all overhead. 
Indeed, as it rose towering to the ceiling, it 
remiude<l me of nothing so much as of a 
catafah[ue— a plumed, ghostly catafiilque. 
A fanciful conceit, truly. But some way that 
night I found myself tending towards a 
strain of mortuary metaphor. However, 
catatidque or no, I was very tired and ex- 
hausted, and it was in a very placid state of 
miuii that I laid down my head upon the 
pillow, and turned round to sleep. 

My lamp, after many struggles with ap- 
proaching dissolution, had gone out with a 
sudden sUirt some minutes before. As it 
shot up and fiickercil in its agony, my cato/- 
falque was being exhibited on the wall beside 
me in all sorts of queer shapes and spectral 
elongations, whicli di8turl>ed me somewhat 
and gave me an uneasy feeling. So I was 
very glad when it hist gave up the ghost and 
sank down into darkness most Cimmerian. 

Someway, with all my latigue, I found 
that sleep was not to be my portion — for 
some time, at least. I had been thinking of 
too many things ; and these thoui^hts were 

'7. 



on, 1 shall have no sleep to nighty and | now rioting and jostling one another in my 
Heaven knows I want it. i unhappy brain, with activity most 

When 1 sleep in strange places I always ! timed. Tlien, again, I wanted to got to sleep 

have a fancy for learning all the details of the I — a state of mind, as everybody knows, 

whereabouts before I he down. With this . fatally subvei-sive of the end inteudeiL Every 

view I went over to the large bow window, or 'incident of that weary day seemed to be 

rather recess, for it enclosed a good portiou of i chasing each other through my head. The 

the room ; and, lifting aside the heavy curUtins, - yellow skull-like forehead and black piercing 

looke<l out. It was now near the mhldle of eyes of the Huguenot landloi*d kept dancing 

night by the castle clock. The moon was up \ up and d«>wn before my eyes, almt them as 

and playing tranquilly upon the objects out- j dose as I would. Ck>nfu'sed sounds as of 

Bide, all whitened over with a film of frost. | horns, with shouting in ail its degrees, now 

There waa a broad, old-fashioned garden just ! faint and miwicMl as if afar off, now sharp 

below, upon which the cold pale light | and acute, seemed ever rising from the 

streamed with wonderful effect, every line j depths of the pillow, forcing the barriers of 

being brought out with the distinctness of a! my eai*s into the recesses ot my bewiliered 

photograph. There were broad alleys ' brain ; while a monotonous buzzing sensa- 

Diarked out with aome rugged yews that had | tion, like the drone of a bagpipe, revived 

known trimming; and there was a < once more the ceaseless rolling of the dili- 

dlionVhead, with a dry marble basin I gauce. Under such cruel torture, it is uo- 

bb : the stream liad ceased to gush i wise surprising that I soon re:ichcd Ihe 

Uni*s month long ago — longer than ' tossing stage : and not long after found 



CtelH mrfcRM.] 



AT THE SIGK OF THE 



TOjiein^eftting m J pillow — very tin dicUvelj/ opened iny eyes — r^ot In tbftt dirpction, but 
I inuj*t cuiif<-aa+ At liist, in utter reckleaa' looking' towards tlie mntiniklii^ hy way of 
u^m^ I lay t*Ack, quite r^sigueti, »tit[ in:j iu exfierimeiit. The iirUite spla«h of Jiglit b^id 
ntost uritiatuml wjik* fidmss nt the gr^-at bf>w iji^t returuedj or nitlier Imd departed with It, 
wtfiilnw ffrroftite. The moordtgltt ^vnu still and the carved knob of the giutle-robe wita 
fctr iddiy in through the h^sen^na- there instead of bim, 

shiii jitat touching, rta it piiBsyd, With' Ah! a till there! Te*, Ml iu the moon* 

lillio white fipliwhen of Irght, prajeetiiig bit* ^ Hglit, ftud sitting ^t tlio tittle table wa^i the 
of the p<iUslied old fnnilture. I I'eniember . Bame figixre — a wonian^fl — wnUMjif she seemed 
pjtrti'^tihuly A pronnneiit knob on an nncii?iit, | to be. But so dim wtrre the outlines, so f lint 
q oi-erlyaful J jod parde-rob t*, vvlueh grew before 'and eolonrleaa its filmy texture, that eveiy 
niY eye"} to the likelier oC a nianii I kiii*f heftd, ' ij^atant I thought H would melt awfty nnd 
' with ff?!\t tires all compktp^ and whtch in pri>* i diasoU'e into the calm waste of monidiqht 
cewi of thiie appeared actiiully to wink fsirni*| playing iMund it* Such an unearthly bluiah 
ilai ly at me. WJiere had I seen hiin betWHj \ tini[e in that moonlight. 



I 
I 



Ay«*, that wa^ the question* At the diM*i' of 
the L\-^t anht^itfe, wa** it 1 Ferhaps §o* I can 
Hsk the eondnctor at tlie next ataf^^e, Ye«, 
th:it will do. Tim eoujid or eatiifdf:|ue U 
glutting very cold — very. Take chi e ! — take 
Ciire ! Go easy tiown the hill 1 Where am I 1 



There she tat, with her he%d bent over, 
intently wrilinj* it seemed ; yet so at ill — 'mo- 
tioiilesj) as death. And there was J, aitUfig 
up iii the bed watch hi g her, with atrJiinefl 
ey*baU«, perfectly faflcinated ; my frjrelieivl 
damp with a culd sweHt, my heart psdjiitaliDg 



What & gn'fHl idejw I u>nst hhve been ^ ua Hiat t could hear every beat* Tliere was 
doting^ that in, cert4*iiji. No longer in the a bell near me I knew, eien within reach of 
diligewee^ thank JJeavrn ! but in the old Cor | my arm* Bi*t, for all tiio world 1 dutat not 
d*Argent. There, overlienfJ. WTta the sombre have stirred. There she nat and wrote on, 



Giuopyi and tliere, thruugh the midliona of 
the grent J>ow-wit*diyW, w^as the riu>OfldJ^ht 
still 3trcandng in icily, and fidling^iBlant ii|M>ti 
the oiikcn ihmr, **How cunoua," thought 1^ 



mot ion less aa ever. She Imd long yelliiw 
liair^ which fell about her face Jts ahe bent 
ovor^ and reached nearly to the (rfonnd, and 
which looked ft bngiit gold colour where tiie 



"the a*«andAtion of idcjis;" sicd my eye?! wan-'tnoon fell on it, But what struck niej even 
dered over to the n>nnnikin'a head, which no 
d<Hibt bad aet me dreaming of the diligence. 
There he waa, atarttig me familiarly aa ever, 
with the sfime white Btieak of light upon his 
cheek. As I looked with a so it of Lizy re- 
cognition, I wa* % Uttlo puazled at finding 
thi) white iipot disappear of a auddea, and^ at 
tlie same tune, I iKjcame Cfrnflcloim that the 
light 10 the room had become cljscurt^d^ as if 
aome object bad interposed between me and 
the window, 

I turuHiJ round hastily, and saw — ^as it 
•eemeil to me — something very like a shadowy 
hnituiii figure flitting in the window. I did 
fiot fffttlier mrjre ttifm that ; for I ivaa so 
vtartfe^lf and— shall 1 confcisa tt^o flight- 
C&ed, thsit I shut my eyes tight on the in- 
ttant, without waiting to see more;, and satdt 
buck with a aaddeii opfireaslon on my chest, 



in all my agitation, was how airaight and 
hefivy it aeenitd to Jail — not elnatt-ring, or in 
wavy trejsaea : it seemed fts if it had been 
wet, And her dreas — ^ves, tliat aeemed, tiKj, 
al>»'dutely glistening and eUnging cl^jse to her 
aa if frejsh from the water. It wh^ stained 
all over with aand and ertivel. How in ail 
this to end, I thou^^ht^ with a sort of hojte- 
lesa despair. Just then »he aeemed to movf^ 
-^^to ridao her liead. The gohlen locks fell 
buck heavily^ ^nd she w^ia now ieaniag on 
her hand looking up to the aky. 'I'he hhie 
sepulehrnl light pa^^f^ed in a slanting line 
across the faoe, and lit up its outward edge, 
and the hand and arm. I watelietl with 
delirioua expectation. She had continned 
longjn that attitude, — looking up to heaven, 
— whenT on a flinlden, the golden locks dnjpned 
fistde — and I felt tliat she had turned lier 



which it h painful, evt^n b^jw, to recah 1 faee, and wjis looking fixedly at me * By the 
believe I am as courageous as the generality | yellow hglit, 1 sriw before me a marbie-hiok' 



of men ; but somehow I have always had an 
inatindive it read of anything of this sort ; 
for, *s f^*^*' «^ I conhl see, even in that **hort 
' lijce, there was a fdiay trans pare nyy about 
Ekt I ha«] seen that whispered me that tliis 

hh no buTi»an inti-utler. 

BudT! t*» he fiighttnied at a mere spectmm, 
at the ofliipnng of indige?*tionj of rebellions 
Burgundy and iratHes I Woll, I rauat aay I 
Lad hoped better thing* of myaelf. Beside, 
there were su^^h creatures nu nightmares, 
Wire there not ? To be snre there were. So 
reai!tonlng in this fiishinu I thought I would 
venture to take another look, and I would 
lay niy««lf ten to on tj it would be gone* 

Slowly, and with a pal|>Itatiug heart, I 



ing face, all bleaehed ; and dull, annken e vis 
ioi>king at me* Sneh a morne, melancholy, 
despairing gaze! Olteo have X seen it sinee 
in my dre!*nia. The sketchy, ahashiwy lignre 
was now qniv^ering in the broad hand of 
moonlight J like a dtFaolvtng view, l^efore it 
pa^ises away, Wm ahe going to p:us9 awziy ? 
No— she hail stood up, — nhe wan moving 
towards the bed — towards me J gliding un- 
warda with a soft lloating niolion scarcely 
perceptible* 0, the agony of that instant ! 
f he lack-lustre eyes never turned from me a 
moment ; and 1 heartl her drtsis sweeping 
over the lloor with a wet, sludgy sound I 
She was almost bealde e now, Tlmre 
a strange chill— a sudden dampueaa iu 



the air I There waa a shadowy figure bend- 
ing over me ! I gave a wild gasping cry ! 
Help ! And I felt a cold wet hand laid 
upon my shoulder ! 

I recollect nothing more after that. That 
night of horrors passed away, and morning 
came at last Whether I had had the night- 
mare or not, the reader may be sure I did 
not tarry for another night under the roof- 
tree of the Silver Horn. 



CHIP. 

COPY OP COURT-BOLL. 
A FEW years ago, four Acts were passed, 
each more mysterious than the other, for the 
Enfranchisement of Copyholds. These — like 
many other products of the wisdom of Par- 
liament — have been so hedged about with 
difficulties and are so unintelligible, that no 
good can come of them. We are still made 
to bear with some of the quaint old absurdi- 
ties of mediaeval times, and to hold our lands 
by copy of court-roll ; rendering homage to 



by wasting a long day at a dirty coaatrj 
inn. There are, moreover the customs, esta- 
blished by our ancestors and still daily prac- 
tised, of which I will mention only service 
days. Besides money payments, the tenant is 
obliged to give up mow-ilays, due-days, plough- 
days, and catch-days ; in virtue of which he is 
required to mow the lord's land, reap it in 
time of harvest, and cai-ry the com to the 
nearest mill to grind, so many times a 
year. 

I make no mention of the inconvenience to 
land-owners who have a small plot of copy- 
hold property (as is oilen the case) inter- 
mixed with their freehold, and which neces- 
sarily increases the expense of transfer; 
nor do I adduce one half of the evils at- 
tendant upon copyhold tenure. I would 
merelv assume in conclusion, that if these 
feudal customs were highly politic, and very 
necessarv (as they may have been) in the 
stormy days of our ancestors when lord and 
vassal were glad to baud together for mutual 
support, that now they can safely be dis- 
pensed with ; for, it is ditlicult to imagine Smith, 
the lord of the manor of Clodhopples — who 



the lord by service of render, user and prender; , 

paying a fine and a heriot on the death of reads the Mark Lane Express, makes turnip 

the loixl of the manor, and the like on every ! lanterns for the baby, and behaves in other 



alienation ; after the manner of our ancestors 
centuries ago. In spite of railways, tele- 
graphs, printing-presses, and of this very 
periodical itself, wo still cling in a few 
districts to the quaint fashions of the middle 



respects as a peaceable agriculturist — ^iuter- 
rupted in these pursuits by the appearance 
of Jones, the neighbouring lord of the manor 
of Clodipole, at the head of his vassals, buff- 
jerkins, hauberks, ** et tout complet,** the 



ages. We have so far improved certainly ®**^ Jones bent upon a raid on the quiet 
• ■ . .. . ^ - .. . Smith's cattle, and the forcible abduction of 

his cook. 

Do not let us boast of our high state of 
civilisation, until the best friends of the 
British Constitution have successfully abo- 
lished suit and service holdings, with many 
more of its existing absurdities. 



that no agricultural Damon of the present 
day can be robbed of his Phyllis by an insa- 
tiate li>rd ; nor can the whole of the tenants 
be termed "villeins in gross," and be sold 
iKxlily ; but he may be robbed legally never- 
theless. 

Take heriots as an example. A heriot is 
the best horned beast ; and the lord is enti- 
tle' i — in the manors of which I speak — to 
cne heriot for every tenement occupied by 
the tenant either upon every conveyance 
of the property (termed an alienation), 
upon the death of the tenant, or upqp the 
death of the lord. I could quote an in- 
stance of recent occurrence, where, upon 
the death of a tenant who was in posses- 
sion of fourteen tenements, the lord seized 
fourteen of the successor's best milch cows. 
Nor did the matter end here. On the occur- 
rence of any of the events above mentioned, 
the lord receives eight times the ancient 
rent ; and, as this rent amounts in most in- 
stances to three or four pounds, it was found 
that the heir to the unfortunate owner of the 
fourteen tenements, would be required to pay 
some four hundred and fifty pounds for rent ; 
and this after the disappearance of his milch 
cows. 

Then there is the attending the Lord's 
Court, and doing homage — not exactly 
'•openly and humbly kneeling, being imgirt, 



MUiVERSTON WO^THIEa 

It was a pouring wet morning in Milver- 
ston one Friday in May last year, neverthe- 
less the whole town was astir and exj^ectant 
Miss Prior had been planted at her window 
for an hour, with her sharp eyes peering 
down the High Street, that at the first hum 
of *' They are coming," she might be readv to 
dart off to St. Mary's Church, to get a good 
place to see the bride leave her carriage. 
1 myself had been conversing with the pew- 
opener in the vestry, where the clerk was 
growing momently more impatient. He 
obsei-ved, with dignified inditterence, that 
they had married so many people in their 
time, that he sees nothing in it — bless him, 
how it rains ! 

It did rain 1 Against the windows of the 
old church it drove so noisilv that it almost 
drowned the stealthy voices of the whisperers 
in \j^e gallery and vestrjr ; it poured * 



uncovered, and holding up the hands both I continuous stream from the spouts, and ran 
together between those of the lord, &c"— bat ' in the streets almost like a flood. It bad 






Chai%e>DlckBait] 



MILVETtSTON WORTHIES. 



47 



1 



t- 



gone on mnlng in this wny for tbre© days, 
ftnd people wei'ealitiost justtlied iu womlenng 
whetlier it tvet tijeatit to stop ; in ikil tliat 
tim« titer© Imd not been h gleam of smmhiije, 
the spring fiowera ami bud'tmii* trees looke^l 
dretjubed aiid BpiriUeaa; the very \nvdA hud 
eeAiiiid their mn^ m the churchyard elnjs. 

The pew-opcner^ i*erer a peri*ou of lively 
diapoaition, kept one ear open to listea for 
th«j roll of the ciirrlages, and talked, menu- 
while, ia a dreary utrarn of marriaj^ea that 
ahe ha<l witnessed in that very place, and 
whitih had niost of tlieni, to hwr knowledge, 
turned out ill She thought it a teiiipting of 
misfortune to choofle a Friday in Mitj for a 
ireddiii|f^ when there are three hundred ami 
Bii:ty*tive davs in a year ; atjd hoped it might 
turn out well» that wa» all. While she wiia 
dutiitliug & diiattroua story the clock struck 
eleven, ami the clerk, obaerviog that they 
coil hi Dot be long now, admonlahed his col- 
league to be in readinefls at the door to 
rt?ceive them* My gossip accordingly hobbled 
awaj, and I ensconced myself in a pew near 
the air it r, already occupied by Miss Wokt-y 
and Mrs, BrisketL The hitter whispered to 
me thftt she hojied it would dear at noon, as? 
it often does, she him remarked, but Mim 
Wohiey shook her head, and said she eaw no 
cbaoce of iL There were a nmny people in 
the chnrch in their worst bo no eta and cloaks, 
whose umbrellas hung dripping in tiny 
rivulets over the floor ; every bijdy was very 
Biltut as it* oppressed by the weather , and 
unable to get up the slightest fe^ftal eacpres- 
sion, 

Preaenfly entered Dr. Wyatt and Mr» 
Col bus, sti*eaming wet The pew- opener 
marshal let I them to the vestry, whence they 
iKBued folly robed, and took their seats 
within the altar rails. The jjeople were 
more »tiO than ever ; there waa quito a dead 
husli iu the church ; you might have heani 
ft pin falh A quarter pfwst eleven struck 
— half past. Dr. Wyatt whispered to the 
clerk, who went solemoly out into the rain 
bareheaded} aiid returned skekijig down his 
hair, to say quite audibly, *' No,*' But before 
he had tirne to get U'tck to his place, Miss 
Prior sewttered in noisily on pattens, aod 
whis^iered very loud, ** They are ooniing I " 
Immediately there was a com motion all t*ver 
the church; people got up and eat dowo 
aguin, aud coughed, ami then ha&tdy settled 
^em^elves as the irst detachment of the 
wedding party appealed aiid walkeil down 
the able. There waa Sir Bertram Sinclair, 
the bridegroom, as upright and proud as 
ever, with hift restleaa bright eyes glancing 
hither and thither, his grey curls brushed up 
fiercely, and hia moustache twitching over his 
ihia Itpa ; youuj^ Bhilip Wilton, and two 
itrange gentlemen witu snptrvnliona eyes* 
Th&i cume old Captain Wdtoti^ with hts 
dAiight«r Qii hla arm, find Mistrt^ss Priscilla 
Cooke^ her old nurse, following. I never 
' people come to & wedding in such i way 



before — not a single bridesmaid or female 
friend f 

The eeremony began, Dr, Wyatt reading it 
very islowly, solemnly, and dellberzitely, and 
giving to every word its awful weight. It 
almost made me iJl to look at Mary Wilton, 
We had heard whisperi that she did not love 
Sir Bertram, and that threats had driven 
her into making what, in a woridly ,fltinae, 
everybody called A great mati:h. She was 
covtfivd from head to foot wnth a fiue Ijice 
veil, and her faee looked like marble through 
it. She stood rather far njmrt frorn Sir 
Bertram, and 1 noticed that her whole frame 
qnivei't'd like napen leaves in w'md^ oa the 
Doctor said, " I chai^ge you both (as you 
shall answer at the dreadful day of jndL;mentj 
when the secrets of all hearts shall be dis- 
closed) that if either of you know any impe- 
diment why ye may not be lawfully joined 
to jf ether in matrimonT, ye do now con less 
it/' Everybody saw and notieed how she tretn- 
bled. The Doctor made a pause of unusual 
It ugth, ns vf anticipating some intt^rruiition, 
but at last he continued, and Sir KL-rlratn s 
sonorous *^ I wOL,'* citme out with a jerk as if 
the question took him unawares ; nubody, 
though they liatened breathl easily, c^>uld hear 
JVlary Wilton s voice, but I saw her lips move, 
and noticed the almost convulsive shudder 
that shools her as the ring was slipped upon 
her finger; Sir Bertram held her hand so 
firmly that the slender lingt?rs must have 
been almost crushed in bis grip, an<l for a 
second siie seemed to try to draw them away, 
and turned her liead to old Friscilla Cooke, 
who was cryinj^ belli nd ber. In a few 
ralnulefli more the ceremony was endeil, and 
they all went into the vestry to sign the 
book- 

Then TMrs, Brink ett remarked to me that 
the sun had not come out, aud that it wa^ 
raining faster than ever. There were no 
congratulations or hand-sliaktnga in the 
vestry, and in a very little while Sir Ber- 
tram and Lady Sinclair issued fortli^ he 
holding her hand upon his arm, as if force 
wer« neeessary to keep it there, and she, with 
ht^r hea^l det.diiied upon ber breast, and a faoe 
hke pjde marble. Those who saw it sjiid, 
that when put into the ciirriagc, ahe laid her 
hand upon the handle of the door, as if to 
escape, juid tliut Sir Bertram drew her back, 
and she shrank into the furthest corner, and 
liegan lo sob and shriek wildly as they drove 
to the gloomy old house in Manor House 
Yard. 

A* wo crossed the raarketrplace home the 
bells rang ottt so loudly^ tunefully, aud mer- 
rily, that we were half-ehe^tcd into the 
[ belief that we had been wntnessioff li J^^Ppy 
I marriage. The merry marriage-bells I They 
} should toll for such a bridal mstead of sernl- 
' ing lying echoes of joy up heaven wards, 
' wtiere the angels may be weeping over it» 
How often do Ihe flowers lift tneir beads to 
' hearken to such music when It would 



I 

to ^ 

J 



48 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 




better if they were blosaomiiig on the bride's if half of wlmt wn^ Haul of Sir Berb-am were 
grave] i true, she moat have hud a terriUts Liiiie with 

Bplte of the weaiheri many lltble com* | hitu abmad. People aaid tlmt he woul^l nev^r 
mllttes were held that aft-eriioou in tlie reeovisr^ that hi^ ]jrt?aeiit attack was fftr worde 
^lilvi*r.^t(fn lirAwiug-rooma to tjike the dAy*s than the former one, and thnt the B«*rv*uit9 
event into eonsidemtion. We all talkeil over were all leaving Winnin^iton j ndjody could 
Captiiiu Wilton's coiuing to the town fpnr support its drt^ailn^Bs: huo as it tnl^jrht be 
years [irevit>uBl\% witli tiia two young duldreOj .' witliin, it lo<;ked a |j;reat, dreary priaou house 
and ^rtluulated that Lady Sintdair eoiihl not be out-^ide. 

eighteen. TJie eaptidn had held aloof from TIjc t)Oor old caplam had lor^t a go^^^l deal 
■ociety^ and was avowedly poor ; nobody of his liang^hty looka before Christmas eatue, 
knew hini ijiUTuately, or hU daughter or son, iNobotiy couhl help but ]iity hini^ Im seetned 
but their alfairs had been miii^h discuss ad* I so downcnsit atid mi^ierable- The marriiigfl 
W"e Imd expeot4id II marri»|fetlu* year Ihfft^re, hail been hiti doing, aad now tliat lie mw 
for M.iry Wilton waa often aeen iu the Maiior what was ijome of it, and ttiat his dmighUr 
Ganleu^S with a tiandaotne odicor who eame wa^^ aacrificud to a mud man, his late retBorae 
duwii for frequent but ebort viait^ to her njuAt have l>een keen iorltfed. 
father 8 houae. Ilia iiitine w:ia Caplatu *' What elae could arjybody e^peet who wm 
Moore. W© chose to fancy tliey were cu- > bo niah a^a to marry oji » Friday in ^fav P 
g:^ed^ anrj to feel an iutoreat in tlierti ; but I was %lk» Wolaey a remark, She was aajiei^ 
at Iw^t ]MUa Prior told u* that we were all ! atitious and romantic, beiJig much given to 
wron;^% for Mary Wilton waa going to mairy liUfr^iture of that order, and atlriJjytetl all 
Bir Bertrara Sindftir of Wiuningtnn Oistle^l the Winnin^ton Ca»tW troubles to tJit;* unfor^ 
ami that Captain Moot e waa on his way to 
India, And tlie event proved her mfonua- 
tion connect. 

In these cases there is always a train of 
circumatnncos which no curiosity can ]t*^\ie- 
trate. Gossip exhausted itself, bitt nothing 
more e<>uld we aacertain than we had actually 
st^eii, feir P^rtraru aud Lady Sinchdr went 
abroad, and the castle wan lilltHi with work- 
men and upholaterera nnikjr^g ^jreparutiona 
for thc'ir return* Ciig>tain Wtltuu nnd bin 
Bon were often there Kuperinttfijiiing aiid 



tunate seleetion of the weddiri^-dav. *rhepi 
was a bolter reasoit thrin tbati Pride and 
mprcfeuary fetlhiga were what urged Captain 
VViUon to force Mary hito the uidou, wfcien 
he knew that Sir lkrtrarn*B pvcubnrititjs 
were alway*^ verglni^ on nientid di^om»e ; 
lilary herself knew it^and resisted «U"adfaatly 
until who can ttdl what rat^tivea were urged 
tfi tlnve her into the aacrilice of lier w hole 
life. Cajitain Moore uone,^ — her home p>or, 
loneJy, uncheered by love — ^for h^* father 
wft« a surly, aelf-conatjntrated man, and her 



giving orders; since hi^ dau^^hter*s great bmiher a weak, simple lad — even a inarriai|e 



tnarriage^ the old luuu held Ida heatl higher 
than evf r* He was aa proud a tntui to the 

rlull as Sir Bertram, 

St. Mary'^ hdU welcomed them home in 

VJLugUfit. Every thing woa done in oriier ; 
there waa a procession of teiiantry to nuet^t 
tbeni, and great preparations for rejoii^ing, 



witli Hir Bijrti'am mi:^ht h>ok h^s ten ible in 
eonteniplation : how she reganied it wbeo 
close at hand, her Atrauf^^e buhaviuur at her 
marriage betrayed but too clearly. 

But to eiul thia atory quickly, for it ti i 
very nielanebojy one. Ju January Lady 
Sinclair wjis con Rued of a stilldmrn ami, 



uin. 



but It was geueraljy remarked that Sirjwhoae birth aha aurvived only a few bouri 

Bertram locked very i 11^ w ben people «aid a Sbe wa^ buried with ^reat foneral |iomp in 

Sinclair **h?oked iil/^ we all knew well f the chattel vault at Winningt-jn Castle, raid 

enonj^b what was meant. There waa insauity thus closed tlie laat scene of a gretjvt matiih. 

in the family: hehimaelfj wben quite a young Sir Bertmni haa been removed abroaii, it 

matt, bad been for llixee yeara under medical ii sidd to Paria, and Captaia Wilton also haa 

aurveilhiuce abroad. It was a thin^ only I left Milveraton. The caatle ia shut up, and 

whiaperedj but everybody waa per fee Ely everything about it ia going to rack and 

aware of the fact. Of course, all the neigh- ' 

bourhood called at Winuington Cas^tlCi butl 

BO vialta were either received or returned. | 

A confidential physician <^me from abroad 

and took up his residfrnie there, and by^and- 

by it oozed out that Sir Bertram was so 

111 I well n« to be contineil to his apartment a. 

We met Lady Sinclair occasioQaliy driving 

abont in a pony carriage with her father and 

brother ; alie looked an icy, aufft;ring, patient 

«*eature tired with atrugcding against aorrow, Cantnlalng lUa Numbers iMiiod ^«t™a tha Niuet«en^ 

and passively end uring it. Her beauty was aMFifly^lx. 

iilded and almost gone — aa well it might be— , Complfltc aoti of Hmi*oh<jld WopU may alKay* bo bad 

!Be Mi(^ht o/Trumlating Ariklmfrom Household Woedi u rttsefved^jf ihsAuthm^g, 



'Sow toady, pdc« Hir« SblHln^ und gixpsuii^ lumily 

THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 
HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 




k 



a 



•* Familiar in thnr MQUtfts a§ HOUSEHOLB W0nD3,**—BBA%m^^A^ 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL. 
CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



N*- 38Sj 



Oi^ EDWARDS t CO., PUBMSIIERS, 



A CAMPAlGir WITH THE FEENCH. I 

Some few years ago, I spent twelve motiths ' 
hi Ihe cobujr of Alj^ma. Tha reaaona that | 
took fue to that some what out-of-the-way ^ 
plaee wer«, first & difiiudUiation to retui^n to 
India (where the cavahy rtfgiiiiem in which I 
held a cofuniiaaion waa etatioucii) before my 
furloiigh bad eicpired ; and second ly, a wbh 
to see fiomethiug of the mADnt^r in which 
our neigh boura toi^k the fidd against ibeU* 
enemies the fieiluuirijL Hiipf>ei)mg to spend 
m few weirks at a aea^bkthhi;^ pLac^ on 
th^ saat coast of France, I foimed some 
acqiaAintaivova anion g the ojfice rs of a regi- 
mfnt which had jiist returned froiu Alj^iera, 
and the accounts those gentlemen gave me of 
their adrentures, determined ine to vUit 
northern Africa lo return to I^ondon ; 
U» oh tain l&nve from the Hoi-se Guards to 
proceed to m}* desithmtion ; to pack up & suit 
or two of unlfono, atid fuhiieh mysalf with 
the necessary pMBaport and 1 altera of credit, 
oocupiefl no tnore than a formight. In six 
wei^ks from the day when ihe idea of going to 
Algi^iii hiid tir^t entered tu? head^ I fonod mj* 
■eit walking about, the streeta of CojifittLMtiue, 
having alrt-ady |>aid a flyuig visit to Phillij>- 
vUie, un<l the i-apUal of the colony, J wanted 
to see how the French troopii took the deJd, 
what amount of baggage their generals 
^Iow«d to accompany the coin inns in a cam- 
paign » and in what manner their Boldien?, 
officer*^ and superior com m and era, overcame 
thoee ddhcultiea which I knew from eipe^ 
ricnce were itkiepardbSe from active wai*fHre. 

There ato for ever military expeditions 
being eent Hg^intt refractory Arab tribes, 
and one of these was on the point of 
■larliug from Conatantine into the far 
ttiterior^ shortly after my artival at that 
places The orticer who waa to proceed in 
oommand of the Piu^ty. was a Lieutenant- 
Genera) to whum I had brought a letter of 
introdnution^ and I had no sooner ex- 
preMed a wiuh to accompany the detuch- 
Sient, than he met me more than half-way, 
•,nd inaUted unon my being his ^fueat as long 
«■ 1 reumiufa with the troopa in the fiehL 
Tbe exptnlition waa expected to be absent 
from UooAtantine about six montha, and the 
commander warned me that when once we 
gofc A certain distance from the compara- 



tively settled districts!, there would in all 
probability be no chance of m^ i^turning to 
the colony until the troopa should come back, 
since, without a strong cuard and great pre- 
via utioti, it was impossible to pasa through 
certain tracta of country, which were invested 
by maraiLdiog Arabe, 

The precise objects or intentions of the 
campaign I never could exactly make out ; 
nor, indeed, did I much care to know* Ya- 
rioua officers belonging to the detach m cut, 
endeavoured to impress upon me a detailed 
account of the ms^mlitien and dialoyaltlet ' 
of certain chiefs, againi^t whom we werti 
about to move ; but I never could get ft 
clear idea of the affmr. It was enough for 
me to know that the first gentleman into 
whose neighbourhood we were going was a 
certain Ben i- something ; who, wita some 
hundreds of armed foUowera;, had been 
pluuderiug certain well-behaved tribes Ihnt 
were nrotectcd by the French authorities, 
and wno paid their tribute regularly to the 
lawful officiidd of the Empire, This badly- 
behaveil person lived, as I waa inforniod^ 
at a distauca of sixty leagues — one hundred 
and ei^ljletiu mi lea —from tlie further moat 
French ouipoat^ and tlie latter half of tlie 
journey was acroas the branch of a desert^ 
where water was oidy procuitible in small 
quautiiiea. The atreugth of tht* small bri- 
gade waa about two thousand £ve hun- 
dred men^ Of these, six humdred were 
infantry of the line, three hundred be- 
longed to the now celebrated corps of 
Zomtviea, four hundred were hnafiars who but 
a few months bt^fore had been doing duty 
in Paris, and three hundred were Chasseurs 
d*Afiiqvte, In addition to thi* force, we had 
soma two hundred Spahis, or native cavidrv 
uaflerthe command of French officers, und as 
many more men belonging to thone admit ablj 
organ iaetl and most uacfurcorjJSj the Equipaj^o 
Mnitai res (transit corps), the Corpa d*Ouvriers 
(works corp^), and the Ambulance. Of 
artillery we had some dozen or so of Sight 
^eid-pieces ; for lu these expeditions agatimt 
the Arab tribes, the French ctjmmanders 
trust almofet entirely to infantry and cavalry ; 
the enemy generally keeping at too great a 
distance from big cuns to make any sort of 
projectile that can be used from them (except 
lihetls} of Uttb avail 



f OX. IXW* 



lSi,% 



f 



50 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



[Cmduladltr 



To the eye of a soldier there could hardly 
be a more pleasing sisht, than that expe- 



ditionary column, as it filed ont of Con 
fitantine a little before sunrise one splendid 
morning in January. I had previously served 
in India under Sir John Keane, General 
Nott, Lord Gougb, and Sir Charles Kapier, 
and had witnessed some magnificent bodies 
of troop take the field ; but I had never seen 
so workmanlike a brigade before. 

First came the infantry with their brown 
faces, small useful kepi on the head, and light 
grey cap6tes^ or great-coats, with the skirts 
turned back to give greater freedom in walk- 
ing. We laugh at French troops for putting 
on their watch-coats to march and fight in ; 
but the practice is not without considerable 
advantage. This coat makes the coolest 
and most pleasant ^rment for the weary 
pedestrian, while his regular uniform is 
lighter to carry on his back, and is saved a 
great deal of wear and tear. Another pecu- 
liarity of the French infantry is, the red 
trouser being always tucked into the gaiter 
on the line of march. This, too, is a great 
help in walking, for nothing can be more 
annoying than the dangling leg of a loose 
trouser during a long day's march.* In 
rear of the regular infantry, came the Zouaves, 
then in succession the artillery, Chasseurs 
d*Afrique, hussars, spahis, and the various 
equipages militaires. What struck me most 
forcioly when witnessing the march of this 
column, was the smallness of the amount of 
baggnge, the completeness and compactness 
of all the auxiliaries, and the perfect order 
with which every department was conducted. 
I had previously seen in India — and latterly 
have much oftener witnessed in the Crimea — 
how everything connected with the comforts, 
the feciling, and the general care of our 
men when in the field, was left to chance. 
When commanding in Scinde, the late Sir 
Cliarles Napier endeavoured to organise a 
baggage 0017)8, and to introduce something 
like oKlcr and regularity into the various de- 
partments which administer to the well-being 
of the soldier when in the field ; but he did 
not take much by his move. He raised against 
himself a host of enemies ; who, in the long 
run, proved mighty to torment one of the 
best soldiers tliat ever wore the ihglish 
uniform. 

Of military mismanagement in the Crimea 
we have all heard enough. Who that has 
witnessed the scene, can ever forget the 
crushing, ci*owding, confusion, and swearing 
exhibited amongst the followers, baggage, 
and commissariat of an Indian army when 
moving ? The immense quantity of private 
baggage allowed, the innumerable non-com- 
batiints in the shape of native private servants 
with their families and their followers, is 
fabulous. I remember, in eighteen hun- 
dred and thirty-eight — nine, during Sir John 

lint 



'Insularities," TolttDM tha ThirtM&tli, page tbn 



£leane*s campaign into AjQTghanistan, the 
average number of camels which each officer 
of the re^ment I then belonged to had for 
his own use, was no less than eight, whilst 
the native camp followers of the corps were 
in the proportion of five to every effectiva 
sabre in our ranks. How differently they 
manage these matters in Algeria ! I am speak- 
ing within bounds, in declaring that the 
whole baggage of the two thousand men- 
starting into the desert upon a six montha* 
campaign, and having to carry every neces- 
sary as well as every comfort of life with 
them — was not equal to one half of what 
followed mv own single regiment, when it 
took the field against the Sikhs in eighteen 
hundred and forty-five. 

But more surprising still, was the admir- 
rable order, regularity, and method which 
pervaded every department of the baggage^ 
When the column started in the morning, 
every mule was in its place, and marched 
dose up to the rear or the troops. The 
consequence was, that when we got into tha 
enemy*s country, a very small body of 
soldiers sufficed to protect it against tha 
Arabs. On the line of march every mula 
kept its place ; and, if wanted in a hurry, 
could be found instantly. The difference 
between this orderly proceeding and the con- 
fusion that exists among the camels, bullock^ 
carts and drivers appointed to carry military 
^?g^® '^^ India, led me to make some 
inquiries on the subject I found that 
each military division of the French army 
has attached to it three companies of 
equipages militaires ; two of these companiea 
bein^ composed of men to lead, look after, 
and if necessarv defend against the enemy, 
the baggage mulea ; the third company being 
compose! I of mounted men, some 01 whom act 
as postilions ; while others guard and keep in 
order the various carts, waggous, and anibu- 
lances on the march. With our division there 
were rather more than four hundred mules, in- 
cluding the spare animals and those destined 
to carry the sick and wounded. The equipages 
militaires are commanded by officers of rariom 
ranks, who have under them subalterns and 
other subordinates. These gentlemen take at 
much pride in the condition of their mules, 
and the regularity and order kept by tha 
^ggAge on tne line of march, as any captain 
of our Life Guards takes in the general 
appearance of his men and horses at a review 
in Hyde Park. This appreciation of work, be 
it ever so humble, is a most remarkable and 
striking characteristic of the French service. 
In our own army we are too apt to look down 
upon the commissariat^ and other adminia- 
trative departments connected with our 
troops. Unless an officer or soldier belongs 
to the fighting portion of the forces, we regard 
him as a being who has a questionable nght 
to wear uniform. No such preposterous non- 
sense is to be found among the French. Who 
does not reeoit with horror on reading desori|»- 



A CAMPAIGN wrrn the frencit. 



61 



tloDi of the retreat from Cabool 7 Ye% bad ' 
a tithe of the order and reff<ilarity raniu- 
tAined ftOTOBg the French military baggage 
&iiiiiifthi been enforcml among our Indtaa 
trooDfl, « large porlion of the Cabool array 
woul+i haire laade their way in eafety to Jel- 
IjiJabarl, where GenetiLl Side was waiting for 
them. 

Hidf a.a lionrbefore dawn, ibe fir^ notes 
«f ft bottle are heurd from Ihe tent of the 
chef-<r-6tat-mMJor j am^, live niinutea after, 
rII the drums in camp begin a noh% enough i 
to awaken the dead. Before leaving the 
gronnd, esieh goldtar h fit r nibbed with a (!iip 
of excellent blaek eoffee (that is to aay, coffee 
with oat milk) ; and, in half tin hour, all the 
Bmall t^nts d abri are struek, packed on the i 
men^fl shoiildem, i\w baggage anlmais loaded, i 
the men in tbeir plaoea^ and the wordj 
Mar-r-r-r-iM^h giveni with that pecuUar pro- 
longed sounding of the letter r^ whtch every | 
Frtiucli officer adopt® when ebouting tbe worn i 
of command. \ 

The motnent tb© troops move off, the band ; 
of tbe leaf ling regiraent strikes np, and plays | 
a Jiveiy mUitary march fur a balf a mil a or so. | 
When' the mtjajciaoa are tired tho cotjm ofi 
dm in men (the French have no fifers) beginn [ 
ita rub-ad ub, and worka away in right good i 
eament, while the column gets over another 
Hide or so. 

The regimental bands of th<J French army 
STO admiralty managed* In Algeria tbey 
are aa well kept np — the miMiciaiii! quite as 
nttm^rouSf tbe muiic is ai well pL-vyed, tbe 
Instmments are as good, and tbe baud-innater» 
fts exeeEleut — as if the regiment were sta- 
lioned in Paria. In our own army* goverriment i 
merely provides tba men for the baud ; tbe [ 
expense of leaching theui, of their instru- 
ments, of their clo tiling, and tbeir eitna pay, 
fkUing eittirely on the officers. To such 

fentlefnen aa have nothing bnt tbeir pay to 
ep«nd upon, thia is a heavy tax ; but it is a 
part of the magnificent How not to do it^ of 
tlie long line of Barnacles, Bloreover, an 
EngUaK regiment is only allowed to employ 
mie Ber^eant and fonrteen pnvat«*B as mud- 
cians ; bo that iu ease of three or four hap- 

Iieniug to fall stck, or of the player of a 
eading inaLinini#ut dying, the whole band is 
for the time useles*. In a French corpa, tbo 
muiicitns number between forty and titty ; 
the eotire exptfnse of tbe establishment being 
borne by the government. Tiie Ubef de Music, 
or band -master, is invariably a gentleman of 
eonsttlerable musical attainment, who ranks 
■i a sub-lieutenant in the t^egiment- l^or 
#tti the expense of these military bands be 
eonsidered as money wasted. The cheering 
oSe^ctB of the music on the men, and tbe 
manner in which it Keerns to make tbem forg^^t 
their trottbtes and hardships during active 
field service, mnat be witnessed before it can 
be 6iUy appreciated. We bad two bandt* with 
«uf cobnim, one belonging to the infantry, 
Aud one to the hussars. One or oUier of tbeae 



kept playing from time to time, so that In tbe 
course of each momiog's nmitib we were sel- 
dom more than a quarter of an hour without 
music 

One hour after the start from camp, a halt 
waa invariably directed. Tbe nien piled their 
arm^^ ffll out of the ranks, li^^hted tbeir pipes, 
munched the leaves of bread, or tbo pieces of 
biscuit in tbeir havresacks; and, if they Imd 
money, or credit, obtained a anmll — ^very 
smx%ll — glass of brandy from one of tlie vivan- 
di^'res ; who, akoj had bdt-mules, from which 
they supplied the office ra with snacks^ and— 
although the halt only lasted twenty minutes 
— even prepared small cupa of hot coffee* 
OflEicera then lighted their cigara or pipes, and 
chatted in groujis until the drnms aummoned 
them Ui their posts, when tbe bandit struck up, 
and we were ottce more on tbe tramp, greatly 
refrefibed by our brief rest. 

Ahbough considered no mean pedestrian, 
either on a Scotch moor, or in an Indian 
jungle, I foand myself no match at marching 
with the regimental infantry otlicers of tbe 
French army* Tbey never ride oii tbo line of 
msreh, as is almost the invariable rule in 
India. With the eloak rolled up, fevviige 
£^shiou, and slung o?er tbe left sbonlder, 
these gentlemen trud^^e along by tbo side of 
tbeir men ; field-officers alone being mounted* 
The French say, and not without some rea»on, 
that captains and suhalterns should show 
those under their conimand an example in 
bearing fatigue* 

At the end of tbe second hour's march 
another halt was called ; but, this time, only 
f[jr five minutes ; when off we went ag/itn. 
By the time three hours bad passed, tbe suu 
was generally pretty high, and very hot, I 
cnn say with truth, that I never felt the 
effect* of heat upon the head during a march 
in India, as I have in the interior of A li^di'ra ; 
yet the Frencliraen, otheer^ and soldieia, 
never appeared to feel it in tlie least Occa- 
SLonally, a mule carrying the cacolet^ (a sort 
of arm-chair s!nng on each side of a muje, 
which thus carriea a couple of sick men), were 
sent for from the rear, and a Boblitjrt <1 end- 
beat fix>m beat or fjtttgue, was placed u|xili 
it* Th is, I lo we ver, was q u it e an e xee pti enable 
case, and no man ^ver fell out during a morn- 
ing'a march ; which, although it would have 
sent half an English batt^iliun into hospital, 
never appeared to affect these tough little 
Frenchmen in the leaat. For this there must 
be a cauae^ or rather more than one causa ; 
and, from the experiences of nearly twi^nty 
years in our own servicej I am led to the fol- 
lowing conclusions ^ 

The French dresi thetr troops for service 
and for nse : not for parade or show. It 
is trne that the Fren^^h soldier carries a great 
weight about him ; but the articles with which 
he is loaded tend more or leas to his com- 
f>rt in the camp. He knows this, and never 
dreams of conr plaining. The tent d*abri, or 
amall kind of gipsy- tent^ is carried among 



I 



4 



4 



4 




three meih It is pitched in ^ve minutes, and 
serves every purpose of protection ajrainst 
either night air, sun, or m(xierate rain. Then, 
again, the French soldier^s bill-hook, axe, and 
spade, serve to dig trenches round his tent in 
bad weather, and help to provide him with 
fire-wood wherewith to cook his food. In other 
respects his health is looked after, although he 
is most carefully taught to depend upon hia own 
good sense, and his own exertions, less than 
upon what his superiors or the commissariat 
can do for him. He is a very much less help- 
less being than his English comrade^ and his 
officers luive consequently far less — ^indeed, I 
may say, none— of the fiddle-faddle work in 
camp, billets or quarters, which is an- 
noy iug to our ci^3tains and subalterns, and 
worrying to our men. An English soldier 
is everlastingly being inspected by some 
person or other. The corporal of his squad 
inspects him and his food to see that one 
is fitly dressed to sit down to dinner, and 
the other fitly cooked to be wholesome. Then 
the oi-derly sergeant inspects the whole com- 
pany — men and dinners. After that the orderly 
officer inspects the meal of the whole corps, 
and finally the captain of the day has his turn 
of inspecting the messing of the regiment. 
In many corps, by way of adding to the 
comforts of the Sunday dinners, each of the 
two majors inspects the meals of half the 
regiment, whilst the colonel inspects all round 
the barracks of the regiment. Judge what 
comfort the poor soldier must have with his 
dinner, afler all this formal worry and bother 
is over ! The French have none of this. The 
men are taught to rely on tlieniselves, to 
cook their own dinner in comfort and as well 
as circumstances will allow, and the con- 
sequences are, that off parade themselves 
and their officers are much less worrieil 
about trifles tlian is the case in the English 
arm 

Another circumstance which tends much to 
render the French sohiier hard^,and which is 
certainly of the greatest service to him in a 
climate like that of Algeria, is his tempemnce. 
During a service of fifteen years in India, few 
men exposed themselves more to the sun in 
following field sports than myself, and I never 
had a d ay *s sickness which could be attributed 
to that pursuit Judging from myself^ and from 
others who have at various times been my 
companions in the army, I attribute the im- 
punity with which I braved the effects of heat 
entirely to my never tasting spirits. The 
French soldier cerUunly takes his petit verre 
once or twice in the day ; but, to this day, 
in India, a soldier*s daily allowance of Bengal 
rnm or arrack, when on the line of march, 
would more than three parts fill an ordinary 
dinner tumbler. This too of a spirit com- 
pared with which the most fiery compounds 
of the lowest London public-house is as mild 
as milk. If any one aoubts what effect this 
diurnal dose of spirits would have upon men 
called upon to endure great fatigue under a 



tropical sun, let him try the experiment ia 
Lon<Ion during the dog-days. 

Another reason in my mind for the health 
of French troops in the field, is the companir 
lively few men who constitute each men^ 
and the excellence of their cookery. 

The distance we ^ot over each day, varied 
from twelve to eighteen English miles, and 
the time occupied was from four to six hoara. 
Sometimes, to get over long tracts of oouiitrjr 
where there was no water, we had night 
marches, which I shall describe by-and-fa^« 
As a general rule we arrived at the new 
eucamping-ground about eleven oVlock, and 
always &und that the place had been 
marked out previously by an officer of the 
6tat-major ; who, with his mounted orderUet 
and his Arab guides, had preceded the troops 
by a couple ot hours. Once arrived, camp* 
guai-ds were immediately formed, with care ; 
with equal care whether we were near an enemy 
or not. Here, too, — although to civilians this 
may ap|)ear a matter of no moment — the 
French exhibit their forethought, and the 
care they take of their men without appear^ 
ing to do so. In the English service the men 
for guard are taken iudiscriminately from 
the ten, twelve, or fourteen companies which 
compose the regiment—so many from each 
company— so that their rations and dinners 
have to be brought to them from so many 
different parts of the corps ; in the French 
army a whole company goes on guard 
together. Thus, not only can the men caiTj 
on their cooking as usual, but the officers and 
sergeants go on duty with their own men, 
and have thus much better op(>«»rtunities of 
knowing what each soldier is capable of per- 
forming, and how each one may be entrusted 
to guani a post of danger. 

The troops pitched their camp with mar- 
vellous celerity. I am within the mark when 
I say that in ten minutes after our halt every 
tent was ready, and that in another quarter of 
an hour, the cooking-pots were in full operation. 
The camp-kite liens which the soldiers dug in 
the ground, were most ingenious contrivance^ 
both to economise fuel and to prevent the 
wind getting at the fire. One hour after 
the camp was formed, the drum sounded for 
breakfast. A great wonder to me — who had 
long been accustomed to see our own soldiers 
devour their ill-dressed, half-raw food — was 
the savoury messes which the French soldiers 
managed to produce, with very slight means. 
The meat served out to them was almost 
invariably mutton ; beef being rare in the 
north of Africa. By mixing with their meat 
a large portion of bread or biscuit, and 
pepper, salt, and vegetables when procurable, 
they managed to produce a most savoury 
dish. 

The march being over, the men were 
left almost entirely to themselves. There 
was none of that everlasting looking after 
them which is so wearing to all ranks in 
the English service. Amon^ the French 



f 



A CAMPAIGN WITH THE rRENCH, 



5a 



t 



offiorrs c&mp-lifc was hy no toeftUi an nn- 
pleiiSjiDt ^xt^t^nee^ Thei« i^ no regiiucutNl 
iii€8a amoitgflt, tlie oflicei-a aa with us ; eacb 
Itidividtml L^fiyg left to fvtid hiia^i aa l>e9t 
suiu hiB iDctiimlioii or Iila jj04^kf;t. Diiferetit 
t%nkA never mix ttjgetberalthe dinner- tubie j 
Midf In c&mpg the getiunil rule seemed to be 
lor tmir a *^oztii aabalterns or aa many eiip- 
tatua to lurm a meflS^ The superior officers 
kt'pt to themaelvea^ aod those of the fiatiie 
regiment iu aiont iiiEitmicca took tlieir Jnei*l8 
tugeiher* To me, these blueiII re-uiaoiis 
weie pfuliculariy plensaut aud the simple 
inex^H^naive tuaniiei: in which n.11 ihe 
oflict^rs lived — i^hila evervthiti^ they Uad 
wm panieulnrly gt)od of iu kriid^wna itrnuh 
mcire agreeable than the mUltary e&ei^ftes ol 
oor owu service. The dinner hont wjia 
shortly after duak* Between tliu two meals 
•ume feiv ofBcera gen c^ rally left the c^inip in 
search of spui'i 1 but the lunjurity &]ipcare<l 
Ui hiive tUuir tluie fully t.%ken iip m atudy. 
They all kept official journtiU of the cum u try 
we (uarched Lhrotigh, aud tbey pljinued or 
drew it lit timpB and routes aa they went idong. 
Tht^e pur«uit« are aoifiebaw coDnectcti wiili 
their fulure advan cement in the service ; 
attljoogh I cannot reniember in what way. 
I know that any officer who wanl« to get on 
in the French ai^my, rnuat farid^b his Bnpe- 
rio»^ with proof that Ids vjim are not alwaya 
ahuU 

And I know that his pttifession is bb 
pride and Uts business on tlda earth^ — not & 
boie, to be escaped from^ and given the go-by 

tow 

Aliont three weeks after atarUng upon our 
eipediituLi^ I had an opportunity of seeing a 
ikirmi«U beiwuun Freucli troops and the 
Arabftr or Beduuins. The general imvin<x 
received in form at Ion that a hualile tribe hail 
fttiaeke^l ilie tent* of a chief whose folio wem 
were tributary to the French guvernnient 
and had dtiven off their flocks, de- 
tached two aqriadron^ of Chas«etirs 
d^Airiqiie in pursuit. 1 asked permission to 
seeompiojy the party, and J^ave waa fteely 
fft^uted* The enemy was said to be thirty 
Maguey or ninety mi lea, ahead of \utj and to 
Im Fapidly making their wny to ttie iar-otf' 
46Bcrlh Wlthiii an hour from the time the 
<iriier bad be«n g^ven^ tlie detachment was 
rsocly. It started from the camp without 
Until of any kind, with no bsgg:ige anituab 
|)«yoJjd what w*ire abi*olutely neceisary to 
etii ry food for the men, and which were all 
so h^jhtly liiden as to be able to keen «p with 
the CAvatry. The littler numliered two liun- 
dred, all of whom were Frenclimen. Hitherto, 
I had always cfju ordered the irregular horse- 
men of lliutiu^C^n the 6ue^t light cavalry in 
the world lor ciii^h expeditionSf but I was 
wmm convince that the Oh^is^aurs d*AlVique 
were much anperior in all tlie bet^t quaUhLU- 
tioua for light troops to any I had yet 
•etn. 

h^Ysr iu my liie dSd I see soeb soldiers as 



these to emlnre fatigue, heat, hunger, thiiat ; 
while tdiking the greatest po^^ible eare <if 
their borsea, and keeping themselves merry, 
and in good he^ilth. Wv starieiL at auni^et ; 
aiidp by sunrise the next morning, had 
got over eighty miles of ground. Here we 
hid ted at st/me wells, watered and fed the 
horseSy let the men couk and «tit a meal, and 
started again ao aa to overtake the Arabs 
when tbey h;dted for their niid-day re^L. Utt 
approaching their tents, we foand the whole 
tribe ready to give l»attle, rather thtm relin- 
quish their ill gotten wealUt <>f goiit«, abeep^ 
mares and hon&eB. The skirmii^iiei'd uf our 
parly were fii*ed upon ; and the enemy, 
numbering rather more than dotible 
onr number, csune forward with shouts of 
defiance, l^hei^ waa no help for it but 
to sited blood. As the robbers ktpt In 
small parties of threes and foors, and were 
greatly scattered over the plam^ a charge en 
masae of our two squadrons would have been 
alidurd. The ChaiM^isurs d'A Iriqoe are armed 
with swordSf pistols, and lung liL^dit carhiuesi 
which they carry shing behind their ba^ka. 
It waa with tlie last weafHjn that the ad^ 
vatjced half &t|uadron — dtftaebed as akir- 
miflhens — commenced the (igbt^ and the exe- 
cution they did with their tire-arms from 
boi'sel^ack anrpjised me* It waij, at rtr^^t, 
a battle of mounted sbarpiiliooteni againitt 
the same description of troops. The 
bravado and daring of the enemy rem in (ted 
me forcibly of the Aff^hans, In a very 
.^bort time the Arabs began to dintiuitfh con- 
siderably, and we couhi jsee miiny making 
ojfT alowly to the rear baiHy wounded. 
Gradually they began to draw more together, 
and at hu^t uearly a hundred and fifty horae- 
tnen were assembled in a body. The officer 
com man ding our party seized the pniper 
moment, and with his reserve iiquadion 
charged at tha enemy, A hand to hand 
tight ensued, but was over in ten minutes; 
the Arabs taking 6ight in all directioim. The 
chafiseurs pursued tbem for some diiitauce, 
until recalled by refieateil sounda of the 
trumpet; when the whole force was mu^ 
tere<l, and it was fuund that we lijid Wt 
n'lx. troopers killeil, beaides about a 
dozen wouJided ; the Aralts having left 
twenty dead, and some filiy pritionertt hi our 
bands. 

These prisoners were bold| dariag feUo^s. 
The sheep, camela^and horses which they hud 
carried off, were recovered very near the 
8pi>t where the fight bad taken rdace, and 
were made over to a party of tbeir riglitful 
owjiera who had accomp^uiied ns iu our iiai»ty 
march from the main column, Tlie plun- 
derers liad neither women nor cbiidren 
with their party; having left them *it a 
place of safety many miiea olE The wounded 
were well looked alter by the luediod oiiicers; 
and, fiiief a halt of four-aiHl*tweuty houra, 
the trom^s were once uiar^ reudy to take the 
road. Upon kavLug the bead-quarteiii of the 



I 

I 
I 



dmsion two or three days preyiously, we had 
moved off at nearly a right angle from the 
intended route of the larger bcmj of troope. 
The latter had, meantime, pushed on 
by forced marcbea, to prevent certain dia- 
turliauces amongst the tribes ; so that^ when 
our work with the maraudiing party was 
over, we were at a distance of two 
hundred and fifty miles from where it was 
supposed the general's camp would be found. 
We moved at the rate of fifty miles SKla^, 
and in ^ve days rejoined the column. This, 
together with our previous march, made 
about three hundred and thirty miles. In- 
cluding a halt of twenty-four hours, the 
distance was performed in seven days ; yet we 
returned to camp with only one sore back 
among the two nundred horses, and not a 
single man or beast on the sick-Ust, except 
such OS had been wounded by the enemy. 

When this statement is compared with tlie 
condition in which our cavalry returned to 
Lord Raglan's head-quarters after Lord Car- 
digan's reconnaissance into the Dobrudachka, 
it wrill appear incredible that such ditferent 
results could ensue from two somewhat si- 
milar tri.iU (if strength on the part of European 
dragoons. But the fact in, as Jacob Omnium 
has stated it to be, we have really no English 
light cavalry. The Chasseurs d'Afrique are not 
better mounted, nor are they better horsemen 
than our own men ; but they are very much 
lighter, and are famished with nothing that 
is not absolutely necessiiry for their efficiency. 
With saddle, bridle, and all other accoutre- 
>nents and arms, they weigh on an average 
fourteen stone English measurement ; whercus 
the re^ment of light dragoons with which I 
Berveci through three campaigns in India, 
ayei-aged in marching order very nearly 
nineteen stone. When this enonnous dif- 
ference is taken into con»«ideratiou, all wonder 
niiist cease if our cavalry are found to fail 
I'l efliciency when sent upon active service. 
'-TJie Chasseurs d'Afrique itook upon as almost 
the boau-ideal of light cavalry. 

Shortly after we rejoined the head-quarters 

of tlie column, an example of how horses 

J^*** be protected in wet weather, when in 

the field, was practically illustrated by the 

-* rench cavalry. Owing to some information 

**«pecting the movements of certain tribes, 

It became necessary for the general to make 

« detour into the hills with the whole of his 

itt » '^ leaving tlie cavalry— eight hundred 

"umber — ^to guard a pass or entrance into 

•o M to oat off the retreat of the 

Mold they be driven in that direc- 

psoting to witoess some figliting in 

^ I iwnained with the cava&y ; 

*^JVM eoDiidered certain that our 

thm Jbroo woiil^ not have to move 

'piokets lor ft week or ten days, as 

w« the infimtry at least that time 

^ <>liS{«ot for which they went into 



UM, ft 



^T after the genwal left 



storm came on. Our Arab guides, as well 
as the Fi-ench officers who had any ex« 
perience in tlie country, declared that there 
was every indication of the bad weather last- 
ing some time, and advised! the commanding 
officer to shelter his horses in the wav best cal- 
culated to protect them against wind and rain. 
The quickness and systematic manner in 
which the men commenced, under direction! 
from their officers, to dig oat temporary 
stables— if what did duty as snch can be called 
by thiut name — was, what an American would 
call ** a caution.'* Daring the last few months 
I have often thought it would have been well 
if some of our cavaky generals had received 
a few lessons from these French dragoons 
before taking commands in the Crimea. The 
commencement of the undertaking was mark- 
ing out in white lines the length and breadth 
of the intended pits in which the horses were 
to be placed. This was done in about an 
hour. Then the men began in earnest to 
dig as if making the foundations for a street 
ofhouses. In twelve or fourteen hours eveiy 
horse in the detachment was well protected 
against the weather. The animals stood in 
a apace sunk some three feet below the level 
of the ground, which was sloped as well as 
drained, so that it would retain no water. 
The spare earth turned up from these 
plAces was plastered into a rude wall to 
windward ; so that the horses were pn>tected 
up to their chests from the weather, although 
there was neither the time nor the materials 
to cover them in overhead. The precaution 
had not been taken in vain ; for a more fear- 
ful storm than that which burst over our 
heads before the job was over, or a more 
lasting soaking rain than that wluch then com- 
menced and continued for four days, it was 
never my fate to encounter. Had the horses 
been left unprotected, they would have all 
broken away. As it was, when the bad 
weather came to an end, they were one and 
all in as good condition as if they had just 
come out of the best stables in France. 

The enemy which the infantry portion of 
our column had hoped to drive out upon the 
plain from their mountain fastness, proved 
too cunning for the general. They eacaped| 
and never came near tiie cavalry which was 
waiting to give them a reception. The con- 
sequence WHS, that we who had been wait- 
ing for some days at the mouth of the passL 
i-eceived an order to make a detour, and 
rejoin the head-quarters of the colunm at ft 
place some thirty or forty miles off. This 
was accomplished without delay, and in the 
course of two days after leaving the place 
where oar temporary stables had been dug 
out, we rejoined the general and the force 
uniler his command. 

Here be^n a portion of the expedition 
which I enjoyed excestuvely. The main body 
of the troo(iS only moved canip^ while small 
parties of one and two himdreil men were absent 
occaaionally to collect tribute from the tribes. 



UkkftriL] 



A CAMPAIGN WITH THE FBENCH. 



a§ 



So &r AS I could ju(^g@, \h& imposts did not 
appeal' aevere, nor were harsh nn^asurea uaed 
Ui oolbct thtm. Fur manjr biiles around our 
camp* tlie ArikXm weie M friendly to tUe 
Jreucli^aod iKis gave luMijr of iman opportu^ 
uity of enjoying the sporla of the tieiJt Ab 
ft lfi*ii«ral nik% Uuwever, French oflioers are 
i£ldom i^tiortiineti. 

At lei >^ til lU^ whole furce was ordered to 
m&ruh agnmst a fort, in which a rel>ellbui 
Arab elik'f ba^l &bui hi ma elf up, bidding d^- 
finnce to the French anlhoritles. Ai It waa 
Important to surprisa the enemy, we started 
At sumset^ and Una invested tlie place by diiy- 
UghL Expei^ting to iind merely a small 
▼iliage, with |>erhapft loop"hok*d walk, I was 
Sinoh aurprij^d to see a town of cone titrable 
Mlztf witb a strong mud wall, and with out- 
works to defend the augles. The Aiabs, how* 
e^er, appear to rtfaeuii>]e Asiatics in some 
Doinis I OUI3 of which is ia variably to over- 
look tome weak poiiit in the cuti^t ruction of 
iheir foHa, With a soldier's trye, the geubral 
oomm^MdiDg at ouce saw that a bill itL the 
immediate vieLnity of tbe towu, would give 
biiu tbe oommnBd of the whole place* After 
th@ men had breikfiuted, an assault was 
ordei'ed on thia spot, and carried by a coup 
de rnrUn ; the party of the ODemy who 
defend i^d it mikiiig good tbeir retreat 
to tbe town. Seeing, too tatf, the inteutloni 
of the Frencli, tbe Arab chief came out 
to give us bjittie ; and, as tbe gieater part 
of our force was engaged in watching the 
other side of this town, and as the getieral 
had only tent some three hundred men up the 
hiUk tlie FrcNch were at ljr»t both outUaiiked 
atid oatniimbered^ They btood tbeir ground 
well, and fought manfully ; but the Arabs 
preased on tiiem very hani, aii*l thuir losses 
pegaa to be senous. While tliis wns going 
«a up the bill, 1 was witness of sevural 
liaiid to^hnnd tights iu Tanous parts of the 
fields and eertjiinty, whatever other troops 
Biay be, French soldi era are not wanting iu 
eournge or daring. Every man aoioiig theiu 
ftpl)«ars to have visiousof the Jt^gion of honour 
Wiore hU eyee ; and, in battle he doi^s his 
Utmost to obtain it. Stilj, ou occasion.^ 
where perfect order, great Bileuoei and moiit 
implicit obedience are required, I wonbl 
rather comuaand English than French 
troops. 

During tlie fight <m tKe hill, X wit^ 
sessed a TbmarkaLle act of eelf-tlevotion 
on the part of a sergeant of Zouaves* 
The enemy hehl a small redoubt, to take 
whieii beofinie of vital importance to the 
French. Tbe enclosure was a loop-boled 
wall about seven feet high, from inside of 
wbich, mme forty or fifty Arahg shot dt>wn 
tbe French as hist m they could load and fire. 
A hundred inon of the Zonuvt'S were or- 
dered to li^sault tbe place. They at t tempted 
three tloiea to do ao ; but ikiied eucb time* 
Tbeir captain wa» kilW, and lioth their 
other ofiicers wounded ; wlule nearly a tbii-d 



f of their number were epeeilily placed bors do 
combat* Bvcry man who atlemptirf! to get 
I Qver the wall was kUled on tbe tpot ; and 
tlie remainder of the party began to ehow 
symptoms of hesitation* Peitieiving this^ 
^a young sergeant turned round to his 
^comrades and said, ^* Take me upon your 
shoulders^ and tlirow mo over the waflj I 
shall he killed, but the rest of the men will 
scramble after me gomehoWj in spite of the 
bullet^.' ^ This, a^er some remonstrance was 
done. Tbe man was thrown over i and, lu 
Je»s time than it takes to write thete lines, 
bis companions followed bim in, and held 
posffession of tbe plaoe. Strange to say, the 
sergeant — a volunteer of respec table family 
-^although severely wounded, was not killed. 
Some six months after tbis event I beard 
that be had been immediately promoted, find 
bad also bad the cross of the legion of ho- 
nour conferred upon bim. I wonder what 
woutd have become of sueh a sergeant in 
England I 

After the fighting before tbe walls of the 
place bad lasted several boors, il was soon 
evident that the disci piiae and valour of the 
Frtjncb would prevail The enemy managed 
early in the day to get their women and cnU- 
dren sent ofi"; anil« tindtng themiieive^ bt;eet 
on all sides, vacated the place nndc^r cover 
of the nigbt. The route they bad tiikcn into 
the mountains was totally inacceamble for 
cavalry, and our infantry were too much 
fatigued witb Uieir long march and aulise* 
quent hours of fighting to follow. A few 
prisoneta were made, but there were no 
men of any importance among tiicm* 

Some days after this attair, I received 
letters from England which obliged me to 
hasten my returJi home. An escort of 
Chsjsseurs d'Afrique happened to l>e returning 
towards Conatantine, so I took advantage of 
tbe protection t litis afforded me, and set off 
on my return. I lef^ the French camp with 
a heavy heart', for I was truly soiry to part 
from men with whom I bad pas^se^l many 
pleasant months, and from whom I hail re- 
ceived much kindness. Few Englishmen have 
had my opportunities of seeing French troopa 
in tbe field, and of belonging, as it were^ for 
the timCf to tbeir own corps. 

Unlesa a great deal baa been of late 
months written and spoken Ju vain (which 
is lament^ibly probable), we ought to be 
on tbe eve of great changes in our own 
aimy. We have, near at hand, an excellent 
modifl by which to fafihiou any suck altera* 
tious ; and it is earnestly to be hoped 
that our alliance with France may pave the 
way for introducing into the service many 
alteratioua of wiiicb we stand vitally in 
need. It is true that we always learn Fiome* 
thing in each camimign, but would il nut 
be Ijetter, if, having bought our experience 
at a very large price, we kupt it by uti instead 
of inv.%riably tkruwing it away I I may l^e 
wrong, but it seems to me, that if a year beno« 




56 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



tOM*MMl%f 



we were— which God forbW 1— to engage in 
aiiotlier war, it would be the old story of the | 
Crimea in eighteen hundred and flfly-four 
and fifty-five over again. We do not appear 
to me, to be one iota more advanced in the 
very first principles of military orcranJRation 
than we were ten years ago. It is but 
a month ago since a Royal Commission, with a 
noble duke at its head, was gravely ordered 
to inquire whether promoting officers because 
they are rich, and preventing those who are 
poor from rising in the army, is, or is not, of 
advantage to the service ! 



THE SCATTERING OF SEED. 

Curious and remarkable facta, not so 
fallacious as Pitt thought them when applied 
to social subjects, have been gathered by 
naturalists and trarellers about the way in 
wiiich vegetation is continued and extentied. 
Nature multiplies her stock of plants most 
commonly by seeds. Many which the gar- 
dener propagates only by cuttings and layers 
in their free state follow the usual metho<i ; 
some, like the lily of the valley, extend their 
dominion by creepers under the soil ; others, 
like the verbena, by throwing out long shoots 
which produce roots at their joints. There 
is also, as most of our readers know, the 
singular mode of increase adopted by the 
Indian fig-tree. When sufficiently grown 
the branciifS let down fibres, which swiuff 
about freely in the breeze until they reach 
the ground, where Uiey take root, and grow 
into thick pillars, which support the branches 
in their further growth. An Armenian 
merchant at Madras is said to have had one 
of theiM trees in his warden with tliirty-eight 
stems firmly rooted in the ground, some of 
them nearly four feet thick and from thirty 
to fifty feet in height So 

dftughtert grow 
About the mother tree, a piUarM •hade. 
Some of the aged fig-trees of India, are said 
to cover as much as two acres of ground by 
the simple extension of branches, and regi- 
ments of soldiers have taken reiuge under 
the shadow of a single tree. 

In a seed, the mysterious origin of growth 
is a little morsel which, in its earliest hours 
of expansion, feeds upon the rest and greater 
portion of the seed ; until it has shot forth 
a rootlet to gather for it nourishment out of 
the soil. Some seeds are very delicate, and 
will not live unless nursed in the warm 
bosom of the earth soon after separation from 
the mother plant. The germs of coffee, 
roses, laurels, and myrtles must be sown 
soon after gathering ; and acorns brought 
from America are sown on l>oarti ship to 
save their life. Even hardy seeds generally 
seem to find in the ground the sah»t place 
of deposit. The selt-sown mignonette, and 
many other garden flower?, come up much 
stronger in due season than the mignonette 
we take so mudi paius to sow, as we think, 



at the right time and in the proper waj. 
Many gai^en beds wuuld bring forth flowen 
in abundance if let alone, after having been 
once stocked with plants. 

Of the greater number of seeds, it is to bo 
said, however, that they are harlv and 
tenacious of life to a miracle. Gerardin 
speaks of a bag of seed of the sensitive plant 
brought to the Jardin des Plantes upwards 
of sixty years ago, which even now suppliei 
good plants whenever it is used. Home, the 
eminent naturalist, says that he found graint 
of com which had l»een thrashed a hundred 
and forty years before, in possession of their 
living powers. Still more remarkable cases 
have been mentioned by others. M. Thouin 
sowed seeds of the climbing mimosa which 
he found under the routs of an old chesnut al 
Paris, and they germinated. Dr. Lindlej 
Rpeaks of finding raspberry seeds in a barrow, 
in company with a skeleton, with which coini 
of Hailrian^s reign had been buried, yet this 
seed, which the testimony of the nioiiey 
proved to be sixteen hundred years old, had 
not lost its vitxility. No doubt invariable 
temperature, freedom from damp, an<l the 
alweuce of the vital element of the air, was 
the cause of such extmordinary preservation 
in a dormant state. Under ordinary circum« 
stances seeds have to put up with much 
rough treatment and exposure. Many are 
lost, and fur such losses the supply leaves 
ample margin. The majestic Araucaria of 
Patagonia bears at the tips of its branches 
twenty or thirty fruits of one tree, and each 
fruit contains about three hundred kernels. 
Except by scattered families of the a-ivage 
natives who are mainly supiM)rted bv these 
fruits alone, and prize them so much as to 
forego political quarrels that they may be 
gathered, the country of the Araucaria is 
almost untrodden by man, and left to itself 
it has formed, according to the intereeiing 
account of Dr. Poeppig, immense forests, ex- 
tending north and south for eij^ht hundred 
miles. One of our own thistles is so prulifio^ 
that a single plant would by the second year 
be the pro-;enitor of alK>ut five hundred and 
eighty millions of plants, if all the seeds were 
to strike root. 

Some waste of material arises from the 
changeableness of season;*, or the unsuit- 
ableness of the spot upon which the seed 
happens to fall. Great is the care taken 
in bringing the seed to perfection, the 
most beautiful flower and delicious fruit 
are merely ministers to the necessities of the 
seed, and the microscope espeoiaily shows 
that the whole strength and powers of the 
plant are devoted to this one great object of 
perpetuation; but this exceeding care up|>eai*8 
to end with the perfect ion of the germ. Some 
few tribes of plants are exceptions to this 
rule. The ivy-leaved toatl-ttax, the sow- 
bread or cyclamen, the subterraneous clover, 
and some others, carefully bury their seetis. 
The pretty cyclamen — common at giirdeuers* 



THE SCAITEEING OF SEEB, 



07 



■t&lb in* t lie tnrlj sprliag — m a farourit© 
flower, &ntl lU curlotis appeamtioe wtlh fnce 
tuntrd to tliH luaulii, juid rosj pel a In ben I 
back til it Iheir benutjr may not V*e aUo^^tther 
lott, i$ entirt'ly owing to the hnbit of carry- 
ing the seeila to the ground. The clover, a« 
tbi? it me of [ili&ntiog approikebea, an r rounds 
the 8»'ed-r<*fiael wjtb apiiiy project ion a, which 
protect the genns T^hile aigging their way 
OQirii into the soii Maoy ^eeils when ripe 
aimpty escape from the Vt^isei in which they 
were boj Ut and fall to the ground, and this 
k done ao qnietly by some aa to make It 
&oi an easy nmtter to collect them. We all 
knovr how fivquetitly mignonette teed 
C«c^prs ; the Ktl 1^ bell in which the seeds are 
eon tA hied pennittiiig tbem to fall as they ajr« 
peHected, 

The fliJitribation of aucli aeeds must 
be over a ^tnaU tpacej niite^ they be taken 
&cm phme to place by any accidental pro- 
ei*8»i Bui there are, again, phtnU which 
diatrthule their seed a hy mechanical force. 
The balaam and touch-me-not wid, in thin 
way cast their little seed many feet around. 
If the ripe poda of the touch-me-not be 
toncheil with the finger it wilK alm^ist always 
fiTG a discharge of seetl ogainii the enemy. 
Those seeds which will bear aoiikijtg are 
freiiurntly distributed bj streams ', land ia 
contitimdlj being wasihed away from river 
banks or shores and thrown up again 
e Isi' ^ h ere . Th us Hu m bold t speaks o f eu ed a, 
which must hjiwe been born by plants and 
irteA in Jamaica and Culia, appearing on the 
«bf>n'3 of the Hebrides. B&^& and other 
insects do much pJantiug, Bheep alfio^ and 
other woolly animals collect seed as tliey go, 
»Ad carry it ahuvit ; in this way the leteeiis of 
sgriniony are disseminated. But man m the 
chief |>l:ijder ; not to mention the roots and 
Eerbs whk'h he hi^ brotiglLt from afar for his 
daily food, the common groundsel which now 
eomes up everywhere was brought from Asia 
with grain ; and the Canatiian ilea bane, which 
is now t5 be seen lUl over France^ Germany, 
H«*ll*rid and Italy, was brought over from 
America and planted about a nundred years 
ago in ruris. Sea^weeils pro]jagate their 
tpecies in an extraordinary manner ; indeed, 
they a^-iume the character of animals rather 
than phiiilA. Thanks to the beantiful aqua^ 
litim, u'ldch is beginning to be popnhir^ we 
may know more about water- we eda, but 
pa yet they ate little understoodi They 
do&TTO careful attentiou ; for not only 
do Ou^ae useful things revivify the sea 
by pouring forth bul>bles of vital air, but 
they »«pp»y ^^^ ^ith dyes, with manure 
wluch gives the blessing of fertility to the 
poorest heath-land, w^d with useful salts. 
They supply the physieiaa with a potent 
medicmp, and even give ua food in a few 
wholfi«i>me forms. In tlie sea-weeds we 
have the seeds crowded in cells on the 
tovigb leaf of the plant. They are very 
ntitiute, and lurrouuded hy hair gifted with 



vibratory motion when the little germs are 
about leaving home. In due time tho cell 
bursts, and forth potirs a future popuLiiion — 
each ^ed with its moving hairy employed iu 
rowing them away to a fit place of reat An 
oid observer who watched ail i\/tn in a few 
weeds placed iu aglaiai veaeel for the purpose, 
remarks that the sudden emptying of the 
bags of seed causes a great commotion of ilie 
water in their neighbourhood ; and the 
defmrtnre of the flocks appears to take place 
at fixed periods, generally betimes in the 
morning: one sea- weed choosing the hour of 
eight : anotlierf daybreak. 

One importJint agent in the sowing and 
distribution of seed is, of course, the wind; 
and thoae seeds which are intendtiil to be 
blown ahroad are either su flic ieutly light in 
themselves, or are asaisted by a flying appar 
ratu%t. Wff all understand how rhii seed is 
ficatltired from the feathery b.dl of the dando- 
Uun. This plant, excellent as salad, useful in 
medicine, and so much esteeniiid th»t peo^de 
roast its roots sm a Hubstituie for coflee, is one 
of many which supply thtlr seeda with an 
arrangement ot feathery hairn. Iu all tiifse, 
when the seeds are ri}»^, the ense iu whiih 
tliey are packed becomes exposed, releases its 
grsisp of them, and yields theju up to every 
|is&iing breath. The cottcju ^Ti»m is sup- 
plied with so much of this ft^thery mate^ 
rial as to give a eharacter to the flelds in 
which it grows. Mrs. S. C. Hidl said slie 
saw scores of bogs in Ireland loukiiig like 
fields of snow, from the imniejme qiiautity of 
cotton-gn*sft-di*wu witli which tl*ey were 
ctiV'ered. Hedges in which travellers' joy is 
abuudani, hnv« a beautiful ap(>earant'e at 
seed*iime, owing to the isilvery jilume which 
apfiears on the fruit. There is one plau^^ 
the rojiu of Jericho — perfectly uniq<tu ia its 
way of planting hy the aijency of wiiid» It 
grows hi the driest deserts. When the seed 
is ripe, tiie branches wither and cuil up into 
a ball ; theu, as the root has little holil of the 
ground, the wind easily ten it* it up and rolls 
It along until a moint spot is reached ; the 
brauehes then unfurl, and, by this unfurling 
motioD^are stop[»ed ; the seed -vessel bumis, 
and the germs are thus deptjeited where ihey 
can grow. 

Au immense number of seeds need none of 
these contrivances to help them on their way ; 
their lightnei$s and minuteness is asto- 
nishing. The spores of ferns are mere dust, 
those of the club-moss are but the eighteen 
thousamiih of In inch in thickness. The 
toadstool family is stdl more notable for its 
small spores, and the immense numbers in 
which they lure found in one plant. Fries tells 
us he connteil — by a microscopic caL*ulatiou 
— in a single fungus ten millions of 8|KJrei, 
and they were so small as to form a mere 
cloud when stirred into the air* Theie iicben9| 
mosses, and fungi, constituting the lower 
orders of vegetable society^ seem in an esp#- 
ciaL manner capable of universal distribution* 



zi 



58 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



Cr>MtM»iif 



The first yegetation whicb coTers a yolcanie 
mass, or a coral island, is composed of these 
lowest forms ; Melville Island is yet in ^eater 

Eart covered by mosses— and Captain Ross in 
is Son til Polar voyage, noticed a dreary island, 
called by him New South Shetland, marked 
with patches of mosses, struggling for exis 
tence. They will grow where no other vege- 
tation can exist, and when they die they lay 
the foundation of that good vegetable soil in 
which, in a succession of epochs, higher and 
more l^eautiful forms of vegetable life may find 
suitable support. Because of the exceeding 
lishtness of these precious seeds, it is not 
difiicult to understand how they may travel 
in currents of air many leagues overland and 
water before they settle. On the twenty- 
ninth of August, eighteen hundred and 
thirty, a lichen suddenly appeared among a 
plantation of pines in the neighbourhood of 
Dresden, covering the leaves on the side next 
the wind only ; and at auother time the sails 
of a ship at sea, near Stockholm, were in an 
instant covered also with a kind of lichen. 
This appearance— only to be explained on 
the supposition that the minute germs came 
floating invisibly upon the breeze — is said to 
be common in Persia, Armenia, and Tartary, 
where the people eagerly eat such lichens, 
saying that they come from heaven. If we 
venture for a moment to imagine the inex- 
pressible number of spores which a year's 
growth must cive to the world, it is not too 
much to say that they must be everywhere, 
and from their size penetrate into every 
place ; even the stomachs and other parts of 
animals, lliis circumstance has been made 
the ground of a belief that the cholera might 
be attributable to the iulialing of fungi, the 
otFspring of cesspools and other putrefying 
masses. So various are opinions on the 
origin and cause of that epidemic, that it is 
impossible to speak confidently on any one 
suggestion respecting it ; but it is a matter of 
fact that, on the last occasion of that disease 
appearing among us, an immense quantity 
of microscopic fungi were found in the air. 
If they were like many of the larger exam- 
ples of the order, extremely poisonous, it at 
least admits of being suggested, that those 
living in places where dense clouds were 
present, bemg in a state of body unable to 
rcjtist their deleterious action, died from 
a form of poisoning. Mouldinesa— the common 
term for minute fungous growth — is often 
found in such strange places as only the 
general and invisible disseiAination of their 
spores can explain. Pots of jam and other 
domestic articles which the housewife most 
carefully ties up, often become the tracts 
upon which enormous forests of little fungi 
grow. They will grow also on the back of 
the gold-fish, and indicate its speedy death. 
Deslongcliamps found mouldiness even- in the 
air-cells of the eider duck. 

It may create surprise that confusion does 
not follow from the plauting of nature in 



this lavish manner. If seeds are so scat- 
tered and spread, how is it that everything 
is not trying to grow everywhere, so that 
nothing couQ grow anywhere 1 The reason 
is, that each plant thrives subject to its own 
conditions of soil, heat, and moisture. The 
coltsfoot is a sign of clayey soil, the orchis dT 
a light one ; the fern loves the damp, but a 
little too much moisture destroys the cactus. 
The latter is a grateful vegetation on hard, 
barren places in the tropics, as the rockroii 
and stonecrop are elsewhere. Rhododen- 
drons and heaths like only the softest heath- 
mould. Every plant requires also a spot 
suited to the character of its growth, and 
without that cannot live ; in many cases the 
seed will not even germinate. An unin- 
formed gardener in the north of England, 
who received a larch fir, native of cool 
climates, and nursed it most carefully in a 
hoUiouse, soon found that it became a mere 
dry stick ; it was cast upon the dunghill, 
which proved much more to its inclinations : 
there it soon began to grow again. Agricul- 
turists pay rexpect to this Uatural system 
much to their pecuniary advantage ; the 
grasses popuUr with them they divide into 
Uioee suited to rich pastures, bogs, wet 
meadows, and sandy places. We are war- 
ranted iu supposing that innumerable seeds of 
many plants are coutiuually deposited in every 
spot, but that the surrounding circumstances 
permit only a few of them to germinate. The 
mvariable rule of nature, for which we may 
be thankful, seems to be expressed in that 
form of words which has elsewhere passed 
into a political proverb, ''The right man in 
the right place.** 

The chronicles of botany contain several 
cogent illustrations of the universal presence 
of seed. The decay of wheat was supposed 
to result from a mouldiness which super- 
vened, until a microscopist detected on the 
grains of living wheat spores of fungi, evi- 
dently planted there agamst the day when 
the grain, losing its own vitality, sufifcred the 
snore to start into active life. It appears 
tnat the fungus needs for its growth the 
presence of decay, and that is the reason 
of its appearing suddenly in any place, and 
then as suddenly departing : it is a true 
scavenger. 

There is a fact, well known to countrymen, 
that fields which have not been sown with 
clover, and have never borne ci ops of it at any 
time, may neverthelesti be covered with it if 
they be manured with lime, which, soon becom- 
ing chalk, yields a soil in which all clover de- 
lights. An old writer records a curious 
instance of spontaneous growth, the evident 
result of a favourable change of circum- 
stances acting on seed pUnted naturally. He 
says tliat during the famine iu fifteen 
hundred and fifty-five, the seaside pea, an 
English flower, but not very common, ap- 
peared iu such quantities near Duuwich in 
Suffolk, as to supply the food market^ and 



I 



prevent m&Dy pereoni fiom perlsliiDg of 
Attneen 

We &re erifkntly ifnomiit of id any way a 
in wbicli the germa of vegetntion are affecteci. 
Thus, the fundus is a myaUry-~cbange of 
ioii b riot atf that afTt^cts it, IVfushroom 
grpwera know thut certalu tnixtoreft of mat- 
ter exposed to pai'tiaular at^iti'S of atmotphere 
will tucreuae tliat 8tJ«eieSf ixnd none elie. It 
luu been eti^rrested that elect n city — an m- 
tu«*trce of which we know too littlo-^plays a 
great part iti the proceeding. A^axn^ w^ aae 
tntigi which arc peculi:ir to diiferttit sab- 
it Alices. Cheeae, jfrapes^ potatoes, old leather, 
aiiiil other materiiila, when montdy, alwaja 
t^hibit, each its own fuofftiSj and iio other, 
Kow. although we may h^ar in mind that 
the djstHbulion of tporeii ia universal — that 
they are superior to chatiges which wouhl 
kill higher veguiatloOf having been fouud 
ftlive even after n yearns inimei'tiion in fluid, 
Atkd can therefore bide their time — it U hard 
to conceive how one ecort of fungiia itpore goes 
all over the world for cheese, acid will not 
■ettle until it aieet^ with obeeia ; while an- 
other traveja with a like deierniuiatiou after 
An old Ahoe* 

If we love royatery^ wa can appeal, on the 
origin of the lower phiT^tat to curious invest!^ 
galione by Get man naturalists, KUtzlng 
coti^JulerA that nature does not always plant 
particular eg^s for each particular kind of 
vej^etable ; but the same general stuff will, he 
Miirt^ according to circumstances^ throw itp 
jbngi, lichens, sen-weetla, or moaaei. And it 
Wuuld apjjoar, from the rc«**ai*cbea of the 
Bame phtlrrso^jher, thnt at thia periml of 
natitre « etfurtsi^ not only are the four families 
of piants just named inten4iange:jhlef butthat 
tlie lowt^t t>Jtnv3 of an snml life ure like wise eon - 
Tertible uito those of the vegetabEe. He cut 
Up a species of jelly-fish, and put the pieces 
Into a buttls of distilled water, corking it 
eloBi'ly. Tbey soon putrelied, and finally 
dissolved; but after four days, myriads of 
Uttlt dots covered with hairs were i^een 
moving about in the bottle ; a swarm of green 
points on the surface of the water an|K^ared 
oe^tj which, through a lensi, ieemed to be 
those living dots glued to each other with 
ilime ; nnd, lu a few week a, a peculiar ^ pedes 
©f water- weed developed itsell' to perfection. 
Could the animal jeliy-fiah bare turned into 
A wi4t€r-we«d T 

MILVHISTON WORTHIER 

ly passing hy Miss Wolsey** shop y ester- 
1 perceived a frame full of likenesses 
ging at the door-post. In the centre 
I the counterfeit prescTrtraent of Miss 
Volfioy bei^elf, in all the crispuess of 
Suinlay silk gown and best cap ; two mili- 
tary ufticers flanked her on either Me ; 
Mr. Garn«t was over her head, and Mr. 
Uove Wluw her feet, widio four iufantme 
groupa occupied tlie angles* 



13 



So public im exposure of well-known chi^ 
racters surprised me, ** Never, never**' I 
said to rayaeif, "would Lydia Cleverboota 
make her countenance the gfiztngH^tock of a 
market-place I *' An J, with rather more than 
my usual severity, I entered the biin-^hop to 
aak what it all meant ? Miss Wobey did 
not allow me time to open my mouthy but 
said : 

*^The celebrated photogi*aphic artist, Mr, 
Buck, is in the towu^ Miss Cl«v<?rboota* You 
must see him. You will be delighted/* 

I replied, " O, indeed ! " 

nds simple exdamfltion, with the tone I 
threw into it, imm^diaWly diecked Miss 
Wiilsey's vivttmty^ She saw I was slightly 
ruflle'l,and she endeavoured to propltijite me 
by aHdiug : 

** There is no harm in it, Miss Clever^ 
boots. Many respectable people Imve been 
doncp" 

" Ho barm ! " I ejaculated, — ** no harm I 
when men in dignified professions, falhers of 
families (I alluded to Mr. Dove), allow them^ 
selves to be posted up on walls like sign- 
boards, or circus- bills ! 0» M iss Wolsey 1 " 
I have A res poet for the woman, and 1 eyed 
her with a mild rehuke. 

" I will have mine tiiken down, if you think 
it improper. Miss CleverbootA, I am sure I 
meant no oHence to anybody," she aaid, 
sadly* 

I did not su^er tlie impression I had made 
to pass a way J bnt rtjoined sharplyj ** Wiien 
yon are a public character, Mian Wokey, 
then be exhibited^ and not before ;*' and I 
walkeil with a tinn step out of the shop. 

At the corner by the church, 1 encouu-* 
tered Miss Prior, fresh from her early goasip* 
'* Uave you been done, my dear { " she 
exdainied, without eicbanging the usual 
compliments, -* Isu% it marveiltfus 1 ** 

1 asked slitily, what she mvant I 

'' From two-and-sixpffUce upwanls, aingli 
figures ; and every additional li^ure one 
sliilling extra,*^ was her rcfdy. I wisiki^d her 
good uiorning; for she was in a gasping state 
<jf mental confusion, owing, proljahly/ to an 
overfuln^sof news ; and 1 walked on to Mr, 
Dove's, 

Mrs. Dove was dressed to go out, with her 
tract-basket iu her h^inJ, and the two girls 
with thwir beat hats, and baby in his feather 
and scarlet coat, were all undergo ijig a full 
punide exnminutiou previous to accoLUpivny-' 
mg ber, I aaw at ouc© aome great uniler- 
taking was contemplated, Mv^ Dove is a 
fi^ivouritti of mine. I knew her, an extri-'mdy 
prtitty girl, before her marriiige, and have 
always been in the habit ot givini^ her 
at I vice about the training of her litlle oties 
<Lhe eldest, Jenny Polly, is my go^lehiLl), 
Therefore I was not surprised when she 
exduimed, grasping my band in her cordial 
wiiy t 

" Dear Miss Lydla, I was just coniiug over 
to your house to consult you abuut the 



I 







chilli ren*8 pictures. Must I have them done 
in a px»up, or singly ? Miss Prior has given 
me such an account of Mr. Buck*s skill in 
taking babies, that I was determined little 
Alfy should be done too.*' 

^ The whole town seems to have run mad 
about these photographs,'* I replied. '* Do 
you like such portraits ? For my part, I 
think them very displeasing. All those ex< 
posed outside the bun-shop look as black as 
ink," 

** Mias Prior said they were exquisite, and 
Mr. I)ove was done yesterday. Go with us, 
Miss Lydia, and you will see. Miss Prior 
will be waiting for us there now, by this 
time. I told her to go and prepare Mr. 
Buck for the anival ot a party," said Mrs. 
Dove. 

I consented. 

Tite photographic apparatus waa set up in 
Miss Wolsey's garden ; a bit of ground about 
six^en feet square. It consisted of a lof^y 
board over which waa stretched a white 
sheet ; a kitchen-chair stood with its back to 
it, aud, close by, a circular deal-table covered 
with a oroi'het-work auU-macassar. Opposite, 
was a machine supported on a sort of maho- 
gany scaffold. It had one large round glass 
eye, with a huge black patch of cotton velvet 
h.'iui?ing over it. I had never seen anything of 
the kind before ; but, as I never display my 
ignoruuce except when I cannot help it, I 
looked round reflectively, and was silent. Not 
so the youthful Doves, whom Mr. Buck re- 
marked, were not at all in a photographic 
humour ; for they capered about like danc- 
lug-dolls, instead of being quite still. In one 
comer of the garden was a dejected plum- 
tree ; and, on a bench beneath it, were two 
beehives, with all the bees in full buzz. Alfy 
wanted to touch them, and screamed for a 
full-sized bum-bee that had settled on Mr. 
Buck*8 bottle of what Miss Prior called 
the chemicals, until his distracted nurse 
pacified him with a bun, while Jenny Polly, 
and Lucv tuggeil at their mamma's skirts 
or made her the centre of a merry-go-round, 
and refused to be caught, to be inducted into 
the chair. 

I perceived that somebody must take an 
initiatory step, for the artist stood looking 
gloomily bewildered in the confusion ; there- 
foi*e I went forward, announced that I 
would be done the first, and took my seat in 
the chair. I felt a curiosity to see my own 
features portrayed ; for, though I have 
reached the seventh a^ of woman, I had 
never before been taken in any style. 

The preparatory expectation was almost as 
bad as the agonizing moments spent in a 
dentist's parh>ur, after you have received the 
plor.sing iuLelligence that he is engaged, but 
will attend to you in five minutes. Mr. Buck 
shut hiiust'lf up in what I have every i*eason 
to believe was Miss Wolsey's coal-cellar ; 
while, undtT Miss Prior's direction, I com- 
posed myself iuto an attitude : the left hand 



on my waist, the right resting gracefully on 
the anti-macassar. The artist soon re* 
appeared, aud performed certain mysterious 
evolutions, which Miss Prior saiil was focuss- 
ing me. Wlien I was focussed, he looked at 
me very intently, aud said, ** Now, ma'am, fix 
your eyes on this tree-trunk, and do not 
move them in the least : now ! " 

I do not mind confessing that I expected 
a flash, as of lightning, to burst upon my face 
wheu the great black velvet patch was tem* 
porarily removed from the awful glass eys^ 
and I immedUtely screwed up both my own 
eyes to avoid it. 

"Tish!" cried Mr. Buck, impatiently. 
^ we must try again ! '* And he disappeared 
iuto the coal-cellar once more. 

Mrs. Dove and Miss Prior both imme* 
diately began to give me instructions how to 
behave. 1 he first said, ^ There is nothing to 
be afraid of, dear Miss Lydia ; do keep your 
eyes o|)en the next time ! " ** And," added 
Miss Piior, "do not look so severe. Sav 
* plum ! ' It composes the features into such 
an aiuiable expression — ' plum ! ' " 

So I said * plum,' and felt that I looked 
idiotic ; and everybody else said plum, to 
show me its dulcifying efifect on the counte- 
nance. Mr. Buck reappeared ; and, this time^ 
with a strong efibrt I did keep my eyes 
steady, and was profoundly astouiahed that 
nothing alarming or unpleasant occurred* 
The artist rushed into the cellar again, 
aud Miss Prior explained, Uiat he haa 
gone thither to develop me. Dear me, I 
was never developed * before ! My pulse 
quickened. I believe everybody is anxious to 
see how they look in their ^lor trait, and I 
quite held my breaith when Mr. Buck 
came out of his retirement and exidbited 
mine. 

" O ! you are quite flattered ; but it is an 
admirable lik^iess 1 O admirable 1 " cried 
Miss Prior. 

" Jt is very ^ood ; the dress has taken so 
well," added Mrs. Dove. My dress was a 
bhick and I'ed silk plaid : I like a striking 
pattern and full colour. 

** It is indeed a faithful miniature of my 
face : it gives even the slight obliquity of mr 
nasal feature, the bumpiness of my forehead^ 
and the steady fulness of my dark grey eye ; 
but I do not agree with Miss Prior in con- 
sidering it too favourable. No : photography 
is not a flatterer." 

Jenny Polly, seeing that I had come out of 
the ordeal uninjured, now consented to be 
put into position on the chair ; but no amount 
of persuasion could induce her to sit still 
when there, and, after five failures, she was 
permitted to stand down, and her mamma 
undertook to show her bow easy it was to sit 
still and be good ; but, at the critical moment, 
turning her head to say, "You see, Jenny Polly, 
how quiet I can be," the result was that she 
was represented with two faces. 

** Nothing remarkable in that I " whispered 



CkailHDJcfe«J 



MILVERSTON WOHTHIEa 



61 



1^1^ Prior, who never lost the oppoiiunitj of 
njFJiig RA iil^ujitured things whellier true or 

The three ciiildr^n v^-ere next Rrran|»eil iu a 
group, oud the is^ue was i^etiand cuti fusion ; 
we exlifiusieU oursejve^ with devicee to tix 
tb#tr litttTUtion, but &ll in vniu. 

1 pitied Mr. Buck, He whs a lUtb old 
mmn, with a wild «Uqck of bluck hair^ beanl, 
iud luiiHstache, :ind a pidr of itfi^cible blui; 
eyes. He ivore a blouie of d.irk dotJi brlted 
round bis per&ou with a broad bniid of putt a I 
leather^ mid evideuU)? cprmulered htniijelf very 
picturesque. He wns hot and moiat^ and 
Lin hniida were ftpotted and etaiited with 
the cheiuicalsf nnd bis fojoe likewiieu Altoge^ 
ther, be looked as if he would hare been 
mucb the betti^r far a plunge into ibe 
water-butt, — -which occupieii a Urge aogle 
of the Littte garden — boUi aa to cleHO- 
Ime^ and coolness I wna growing tired, and 
auxloua to be awaj, for the beea, ags^ravated 
by our iioi*y invasion of their territovy, 
■ho wed flltugiiig projK'nsiLiee and bu£zed quite 
iava^elyi Deeply diaappoinled, J^lra, Ilove 
propused to pay and g*^ when Mia* PHor 
fiaidiibe should liketo bedoiie herself for half-a- 
crow It ; and Mr. Buck Immediately focusaed 
her. &he eeemed much ajfitati?*!, arjd ex- 
pre«aed a»toui»btnent at tue tirniuei^ with 
whieli I hod aui^tained niyeelf through the 
trying opemtiou ; but kept herself, nevertiie- 
le«^ au ^tiU AS a f^tatuc. 

" We iiball do/* eaid Mr* Buck triumph- 
Jiuily, aa be iaaued from the conl^eelkr alitor 
the develop I ug^ procesii; and indeed the por- 
trait he exLibiteil was a perfect inccea^ 

•*But it JM not a pretty likeueaa,*' said 
Mm Prior, ptaiutiveJy — ** not at alJ a pretty 
likeneae* \Vill you tty agaiu I " 

Mr Buck protiTjtieil bis utlher lip uligbtly^ 
and laid J if she desired it^ he would i but 
tljat it wad not likely be diouM obtain a 
better, ^It u younself, nia'am — your very 
ielf ! " he observed. 

Wheu I mf'ntron that Mks Prior has a 
high ccilour, chiefly concentrated id her tbiUf 
peitked Duae, and a drooping eyelid^ it will 
»e Bee^ at once how great were the ili^li- 
ciiltiea in the artist "s vay: she varied bcr 
ni^ciii^.n iivi., uert time, ar* us to hide the 
hv ^ but was sUll di^aatifified, I 

ki ■ Si Lick saiii snmGtbinjQf womse than 

•*Tiftb ! as be plurjged into the coal-cellar 
Oticf^ more ; for Ida voice was quite r,^spe4l 
when he cuine out and des^ired ber to 
fall into pfjfiltion again. It will scarcely be 
ert^dtted that thia fuoliah woman caused 
Mr, Buck to do her eiglit acveial times in 
eight dilfeitni attitudvn ; indeed she did not 
denut until tbtre was nothing left to take 
bat a back view^ and then abe t^id ber half- 
crown wiib a grndge, I wna aMtoniebeil at her 
iDeaune>» ; and to see her hesitsUlon over 
tbo^ ei^tit port rat t«t &b to wbieb abe ahrjuid 
have tiniKhed and fniined, waa htdieioui. 
A iter taking and rejecting every body *a adviee, 



ahe ended by keeping the first, which was 
eerUtuly the best. 

" After alb Misa Lydia,. I would rather 
have mine than yuure/' she aaid to tne as we 
were talking the matter over In the bun- 
$hop ; ^^yoa know it was portratta, not psc- 
turea, we went for, and it in easy to buy a 
fjitiey engniviug. I am glad mine ia a irue 
likeness ; I never contiider people realli/ ru- 
ptct UA when tb ey^aWer either in worda or 
deeds; and Mr. Euek haa flattered you oat of 
rtcognitjon/' 

I wad silent^ Miss Prior waa evidently 
mortitleti^ by the way abe eniphaaitsed her re- 
marka^ and it wa9 of no nse to nggruvate her 
further ; but Miss Wolaey, for the aake of 
the artistes credit, perhaps, took upon herself 
the reply : 

" Flattery, Misa Prior I there cannot ba 
auch a thing in photography : Mr, Buck ex* 
pUiueil to me ilie whole process. People 
coin plain sometimes that it makes tliem 
ujjher, but I never heard of anybody being 
mitde prettier.** 

" Juiit come and look, then — ^If you csin tell 
Lydta Cleverboot«*a UkeueAS you liave better 
es ea than I can pretend to have I *' retorted 
Mie:^ Prior ; and ahe led the way back to the 
gs^rden ■ all of U9 following in a body. When 
Mr Buck saw us, he put liia banda up to 
his bead, aud grasj^d bis bnir frantically i 
but WiiB pacified when Mi.ss WoJi?ey ex- 
plained why we bad returned^ and he brought 
tfie poilraitj forth, Mias Prior took mine 
sharply out of his hand, and bi^'gan to hold 
forth ou its demerits ; whvn suddenly a bee 
settled on her wri^t and atung her si^verely^ 
She gave out a shrill cry* and dropped my 
pretty lUtle effigy upon the gravel, where it 
was utterly obli titrated and destroyed. Mn 
Buck ejat-uhitfeti his litUe wonl a|:aiu, retired 
into the coal 'Cellar abruptly, aud did not 
eonie forth while we Btiiveit Mit*d Prior 
leigned deep regret, but I am aure abe went 
away in a ttetler and more contented frame 
of mind than ahe w^ould have done hut for 
the happy accident 

'*! will tell you where the fault lay, dear," 
she said, aa we parted at ^^iiut Mary^e corner ; 
^*itmaile you look too young. You aet^med 
like a handsome neraou of forty, or there- 
ahouta ; and yon know you are more than 
that; for I recollect you qtiitti a young 
woman when I waa a little ebit at Mi^ 
Tiioroton** achoob Don't you recollect ask- 
ing me to dinner oDCe, when I came in a 
white frock and blue aaah^ and we bad lamb 
and asparagus, aud goo^o berry- tart with 
cream utter 7 ** I did remember that time % 
it wa2i when Mr. Fen ton w;ia curate of Sidot 
Afary'a. He dined at our house the same 
dav, aud little Judith Prior cluug close to 
my elbow all the evenings and liiitvned to 
every word that we said. 

This morning 1 ptrceired that one of the 
military gentit*nien*i portraita had given 
place to MiH Pi'iur*4 ; and there ahe hangs 



4 



i 



0S 



HOtJBEHOLD WOBDa 



tOmAfllailf 



at this minate, in full view of the market 
people. I went as usual for my luncheon-bun, 
after doing my weekly purchases in country 

Froduce ; and, while eating it by the counter, 
heard the batcher's boy (Mr. Steele^s. Hot 
Mr. £dgeboDe*s boy) call out to one of his 
acquainlancf^My eye, Tom ! if here isirt old 
Miss Prior. What a stunning guy she looks I 
don*t she ! " And I fear Miss Prior heard 
also ; for she entered a moment after, exces- 
sively red, and immediately went into a 
tiracle upon the lowness, the coarseness, and 
the stupidity of the common people. 



LIFE AND THE BIRD. 

(SSB BXI>X*8 XCCLXSUSnCAL BISTORT.) 

EowiN, the SazoB King Northumbrian, 
Sitting one day and muting in bit hall-— 
Muting upon the manrelloua toul of man- 
Said to a priett, '^ Beliold 1 I am the thrall 
Of my own ignorance. What it Life?** The priett 
Look'd up, at one who heart a tudden call 

Ovpr dim fieldt at twilight, when the Eatt 
Deadent. ** O, King I the more we atk and Mivdi, 
Kver tlie more the wonder it increated. 

The truth thereof neither in tchool nor chureh 

Have I ditcover^d. That celestial light 

It darkon'd by our earthly tmoke and tmirbh. 

Sometimei, O, King, when here yon tit at nighty 
Peatting, and laughing in the merry thine 
Of tlie red fire, and of the torvbet bright, 

That quiver in the purple of your winey 
A little bird, out of the windy cold, 
Out of the darknett, awful and divine^ 

Comes fluttering through the door, and, waxing bold, 
Pliet round the walls, and on the loop*d-up sbieldt 
Flings hit quaint shadow, rapid and manifold. 

Whenee he baa come except tnm lonely fields, 
And empty night, and tighing wind — none knows s 
But be it here, and tummer nuliance Tieldt 

A brief delight, from which he quickly goet, 

At Life departt from ut. A little stay 

He makes, and dances for great Joy, and grows 

Rnamonr*d of his hon^e, and doet embay 
Himtelf in odoroot heat, and clapt hit wingiy 
Joying to hear the eloquent minttrelt play 

Their hymnt to Love and everlatting thingt. 
Without, the night it dark, the night it wide^ 
The night it cold and loud with tempettings,— > 

A vast, black hollownest, where, undetcried. 
The thapet of earth lie buried, a huge Naught, 
At it tecmi, but falsely, since for ever abide 

Strong ficts which by tlie Morning will bo brought 
Up from their graves beneath the oblivious dark. 
As they first issued from their Mailer's Thought. 

This stranger from afar, this bird, this spark 
Leaping from gloom, and shortly seen no more, 
Makes here brief dwelling, at in grove or park, 



Then pastel forth out at the farther door,-^ 
Out whence he came, out in the fothomlest Nigk^ 
Out in the long wind, moaning to the shore. 

And wo tball never know whereto hit flight 
CondueU him ; only that he onee wat here^ 
Almott at briefly at those bloomt of light 

That bod within the Western hembphere, 
The crimaon gardeus of the downward tun, 
Whote Antumn in a moment breathes them 



So with our Life. It comet (sent forth by One), 
A white and winged bird from sacred gloom 
Of ante-natal mysteries, close and dun. 

And itsues through the gatewayt of the woetb. 
And fluttert, rettlett, round the tweet, warm eartk | 
Then, through that other gate which it the tomb^ 

Wanes in dusk regions, seeking for new birth : 
But whence it eame, or where it goes, no eye 
Hu Doted : and our knowledge starves with dearth. 

Only we feel it gees not forth to die. 

From dark to dark, from haunted dream to diean^ 

From world to world, this bird-like toul will fly. 

For ever, down the ever-flowing ttream, 
Gaining from swarthy death white infancy. 
Somewhere — but vrliereF — within the eternal tcheme.** 



THE OPAL EING. 

An old street, which we shall name the 
Hue des Truaods, in old Paris, in times not 
old to us. To call it a street is little more 
than a form of speech ; it is rather a narrow, 
black, squalid passage that divides the tor- 
tuous rows of high, dark, ricketjr, bul^, 
sickly houses, irregularly pierced with ww- 
dows that breathe an atmosphere the nature 
of which may well account tor the unwbole- 
someness of their complexions. The place 
has evidently a guilty consciousness of its 
vileuess, but not the least intention to re- 
pent and reform ; for it crouches there in 
its filthy obscurity, shrinking from the light 
of heaven and spuming the sunshine, well 
knowing what his least ray would bring forth 
of shame and loathesomeness and ignoble 
squalor. There is no fla^-way, and th# 
pavement's rough irregularities are netrij 
concealed by the smooth, liquid, black mua 
that not winter nor summer ever dries there 
—that has spattered the houses for so many, 
many years that their fronts, for lAx or seven 
feet high, are cased with it — that when 
thunder-showers come, streams, yet mora 
diluted, in murky torrents into their low 
doorways. 

It is always cold there, and the atmosphere 
is always charged with a deadly damp and 
nausea. On the groun<l-floors of the houses 
are some shops that have no aspect of con- 
taining anything saleable, or of being the 
scenes where coumierce of any kind is carried 
on ; for you always seem to see the same 
£ided, untempting goods, of whatever natare 



or description they b«, in the dark, mud- 
ipLisbed wuidowa, Ijean^ gr^en, utulerMisted 
oliUdreQ, aom6 looking precoemiielj and vi- 
ciotiiJy intelligent, others tttolid in Uielr j^nmy 
mitery, hap^ about the doorways or listlessly 
dftbble in the tnire ; and towarda eTeningf 
which falia early there, the rata come oat 
and forag^f little disturbed by thetr vicinity* 
The Btrett is very quiet io gene ml, except on 
f^le drty% a^HDut some of iko low cabarets, 
from w]jt<nc6 there tlieii proceed fierce oaths 
and sttVftge roara^ which are supposed to 
be son 15s of mirth and jollity ; for even jo j 
til ere wears a mask of vice and debaaemeut 
and f<?rocity. 

Nurrow, creaking ataircasea, that never 
aaw a glewin of daylight, lend upwartl to 
^Uhy, dingy rooms ; tiome, lined with the 
wooden panelling put up at the period of 
their building, and now so amoke*dried and 
dirL-ilalned aa to bear no trace of Its former 
aspect or colour ; others hung, with sluiUby 
pafier, no lew undiAtinguishable. All have 
innumerable clo»eta in the walla, wuggeative 
of concealment and mystery, ajid not a 
few secret staircases and strange, un ex- 
plain e<i releases behind clumneys and in tlie 
thtckueas of the walls. Here and there, an 
attempt haa been made, long ago— probably 
by somo new*comer to thia God- forgotten 
place — to rear a pot of mignonette or wall- 
flower, or those parasites of the poor, scarlefe- 
mnner and the nasturtium, on the iiil of the 
dim windows ; but the |>oor things yellowed 
And sickened and dropped their leaves, aud 
nothing remained but a brown, dry stem, or 
m few stitf, dead tendrila, clinging round the 
aiick or stretched twine placed to support 
lliem. 

On a aummer evening, when the right side 
of Paris had not yet lo^t the hu^t beams of 
Ih6 sun that never fell upon the wrong, a 
woman turned from the gay quailer intcj tiie 
Hue dcf! Tntanda. She wa» di'eatied in dtKik 
gmrntenta and closely veiled^ eo that nothing 
but her heii^ht wna clnarly dlstinguiiihable ; 
and she waUied rapidly, an<l with the anxious 
air of one who is nervously con^ious of being 
io a fal^ position. She etopped at last 
before a cloaeif door, examined the aspect of 
tlje houae, consulted a little j>aper she held 
In her hindt and then knocked softly. The 
door opened in^tantl}^ and closed on her as 
she enttaeiS, kavjng her in tot id darknew* 

** FiMxr nuliiing, madame/* aaid the ah Hi I 
voice of the iuviJiible porter ; '* give mo your 
hand, and I will ^uide you safely." 

The vis I tor held out btfr hand in the dark, 
ftnd telt it taken by a handao cold, so lean^ so 
ex^traordiuarity small, that she coutd hai'^dly 
forbear shuddering at the strange, unnatural 
contact Thi^ous[h a room or passage, d:uik 
ajid earthy-Mueliing as a tombi up a ateep, 
winiling staircase, through & long^ creaking 
corridur, still in darkueiis, now Mid then 
fainUy and moinent^Lriiy broken by some in- 
Tiiible borrowed light^ the guide and the 



guest Lrroceedcd together in silence, till at 
the end of the passable they Btop]>ed, and the 
former knocked at the duor* Being bidden 
to enter, they did so ; and, for the first time, 
the viaitor, looking down to about the level 
of her own waist, saw her con<luctor, a 
dwarf hump- back of the female aex, but of 
an age perfectly undistinguishahle, who after 
peering upward with a quick* strange, ti<le- 
long glance that seemed to pierce her veil, 
noiselessly withdrew and left her stauding 
before the room's inhabitant. 

He was an old man, of a pale leaden com- 
plexion, with quick^ keen grey eyea, that 
peered from beneath low, shaggy blaek brows, 
while his hair and long thick beard were 
white. He aat at a table, covered with 
venemble^looking booka^yolbw vellum manu- 
scripts, and various instruments of singular 
aspect, on which a shaded lamp threw n par- 
tial gleam. Signing to the lady with a 
lean, long hantl to advance to a seat nenr 
hiniH, ha watched her movementa with a look 
of close and quiet acrtitiny and in profound 
silence, till she had taken the chair, 

" Excuse me, m aflame," he said, *^ hut you 
must raise your veil. I cannot speak to you 
without seeing your face," 

She hesitated for a second, then suddenly 
flimg it up, and boldly and steadily met 
his eye. Tiie action and the face ac-* 
corded ; both were proud, passionate, reso- 
lute — even defiant ; tlie latter, though not 
iu its Bt^t youth, Uantkome, Nothing of all 
this was lost on the old man ; neither did he 
fail to perceive that the hand ttiat threw 
back thif veil was small and white, and that 
a jewel flu-^hed from it iu the lamplight. 

'* I come," the visitor said, "fur a turn of 
your art/* 

Ho bowed, without removing hit* eyes from 
her face. His silent scrutiny aeemed to irri- 
tate and anfioy her. 

** Oan you, and are you disposed, to aid 
me? Fear nothing as to the extent and 
security of your reward ; ** and she laid a 
heavy pur^e on the table. 

He hppeared not to notice the movement 
as he said quietly : 

*' When you iiave etated the eaae to me^ 
madame, I shaLi be better able to Miswer 
your questiom" 

It waa evident that there was a powerful 
struggle in the mind of ihe vif^ttor; for her 
colour rffse, her nostril dilatecl, and 
when, after, a pause, she spoke again, her 
vui^?e was thicker and her words abrupt and 
biUTied, 

** I love, and wouhl be loved again, which 
I am not. I would purchase love^ — ^that ona 
man's love — at any i»rice,*' 

*^ At any price to mm, or to yoil ? " 

«To either, or to Iwth.^' 

"Is he heart- fr@e — or doea he lovo 
another t '* 

" He loves another— Tiis aflfmnced wife.'* 

** H u m i Cy m p I i >:atcd . " 



4 



ii 



" You have nothing more encouraging than 
that to say to me t ** 

The old man smiled a quiet, slightly con- 
temptuous smile. 

** Patience, belle dame ; this is not an 
affair of yes or no in the first five minutes. 
I must consider it.** 

She was obviously annoyed. 

** How long a time do you require for con- 
sideration 1 " 

^ I require until the day after to-morrow, at 
this same hour." 

" And you will tell me nothing till then ? 
Tou do not know what it ia to rae to 
come to this place. If you doubt my 
possessing the means to reward your ser- 
vices, here is only a small portion of what 
I have both the power and the will to 
bestow, in the event of your aiding me effec- 
tually ; *' and she held the purse out to him. 
He waved it back quietly. 

" Keep your money for the present. You 
have on your hand a jewel, which, if yon choose 
to confide it to me, shall, in the event of my 
deciding to accept this task, be made the in- 
strument of accomplishing your wishes, and 
shall, in any case, be restored to you in 
safety." 

His eye was fixed on a ring she wore — a 
serpent studded with diamonds and bearing 
on the head an opal of singular fire and 
splendour. 

•* This ring t It belonged to my mother 
and grandmother, and I promised never to 
let it out of ray possession. There is a 
family superstition attached to it." 

"As you will, madame. I have no wish to 
undertake the affair, and can only consent 
to do so on my own conditions." 

With fiery impatience she tore rather than 
drew the ring from her finger, and held it out 
toliim. The opal and the emerald eyes of the 
serpent siiot forth prismatic gleams, and the 
folds seemed to undulate as he turned it about 
in the light of the lamp. 

** No common jewel this," he said, contem- 
plating it ; " the opal is a stone of peculiar 
influence in the occult sciences, and I can see 
that this opal is more than usually gifted with 
such virtues. You did well to bring it ; it 
may aid the accomplishment of your desires 
more than anything else." 

"Then you promise me " 

" Nothing. Understand fnlly that to-day I 
in no way bind myself to anything in the 
affair. The day after to-morrow you shall 
have my final decision." 

He rose. The lady following his ex- 
ample, he rang a hand-bell, and the dwarf 
a^in - made her appearance to lead her 
through the intricacies of the house. When 
she got into the street it was almost dark, 
and as yet the few lanterns that at distant 
intervals were suspended across the alley by 
lines stretched from house to house, were 
not lighted. With uncertain steps, therefore, 
she made her way over the slippery filthy 



pavement^ not un frequently disturbing a 
huge rat that was ferreting among the gir« 
bage flung from the doors, for some nauseous 
morsel, the refuse of some wretched meaJ. 

More than once she was nervously con* 
scions of attracting the suspicious attention 
of a denizen of this iniquitous haunt ; despita 
her resolute nature, her heart beat high at 
the sensation of encountering a yery real 
danger ; and when she emer^i;^ on the broad 
open thoroughfares, still only in thelight^> 
load of alarm and anxiety was removed from 
her breast. As she turned a comer she sad* 
denly came on a group of three persons, aa 
old and young man, with a girl of about 
seventeen* She recoiled at the sight, as if 
something had stung her, and the yoang 
man, fancying she was startled at finding 
herself in such immediate contact with them, 
drew back with a " Pardon, madame ! " stand- 
ing out of the way, hat in hand, to let her 
pass. She rushed past him, and her dark 
veiled figure was soon lost in the dim light. 

Meanwhile the little party strolled on, 
talking cheerily by the way. That Qaston 
de Montronge and Genevidve Bouvidres were 
lovers, was a most UQmistakahle fact They 
were, moreover, affianced. The elderly roan 
on whom the girl leaned, was her father. 
He belonged to a family of the bourg(K>ise. 
and had made a considerable fortune in com- 
merce, from which he had not retired. His 
sister had married the Chevalier de Mont- 
rouge, and, by virtue of a family compact, it 
was agreed that her only son should gild the 
somewhat threadbare nobility of his father^s 
race with the louis d*or of his ancle's only 
daughter, when both should arrive at yean 
of discretion. At an early age, Gabton, 
through the influence of his paternal rela- 
tions, entered one of the most brilliant regi« 
ments of the guard. Soon after, his parents 
died, and from thence his nude's house 
became his established home, when away 
from his duties, — an arrangement which the 
woi-thy man in nowise objected to, as bring- 
ing the young people together, and tending 
to cement the contract cJready entered into 
between the senior members of the family, 
by engaging the inclinations of the partief 
more especially concerned. 

The result was eminently successfnl. 
Ghiston found his pretty, gentle cousin, with 
her nut-brown hair and h^el eyes entirely to 
his taste, and Genevidve thought — and not^ 
perhaps, without reason— tlmt the bean 
cousin was by far the most accomplished 
cavalier slie had ever encountered. Unfor- 
tunately, though, other and more experienced 
judges were of little Genevieve's opinion. 

At a grand gathering of the great folks of 
the Faubourg St. Germain, the Marquise de 
Vaucrasdon, a lofty hidy who had just cast oflT 
the weeds she had put on and put off with 
nearly equal satisfiiction, particularly dis- 
tinfl^uished the handsome young garde, and 
took every meanS| short of declaring the faet, 



E 



THE OPAL RlNa 



m 



' 



to mtike )iim a ware of the fiivourabk imprcs- 
MWU he hud pnnluced. Gastoii wa^, bow- 
ffveft •incereljf arui serioualy iiUachel to hia 
ciiimin, aud he h«\d, moreover, pcifttn^il the ftge 
*heu yciuihs are given to fsill tu love wiih 
Women mme ten years their ecoion He 
tbeivfore showed himself less BehsHUe of tlje 
grtfftt dunit? rt condesc^nmon than niight have 
bstu eijHicted ; and wheu on viLrioas suhse- 
quetit otC'isiona «he renewed her advaucefl, 
tnev were mt<i with a eoolneas thnt drove at 
Oiiee h^r Juve and her pritle to the point of 
■omc d^^jiej-ate reaolvej wblch the disooVery 
af the pf^altion h& and Genevieve held with 
rtfgnrd to ench other, put tho finbhing 
itnike to. 

He net? her viait to the B^i^e of the Bue 
de« TniAhd^, a man celebrated fnr hia skill lu 
the eumpoundLng of such devihsh contHv- 
i.nce« AM suited the Uusie and spirit of the 
a^«, eirer tnore ready to appeal for aid to the 
augfls of dHrkiieaa than to ttioae of hght^ 
an- 1 havUig fur atronger faith in the power of 
Salnn Hud hta mjnutLloDs than in that of the 
Bieana^l Vin;iti and all the legion of aaint^. 

On tlie diiy appointed, Mlid/ime de Vau- 
^rasaon^ who liad paased Botue hotii^ of not 
very enviahle anxiety, torn alternately be* 
tween hnpe^ fear, jealousy^ and anticipated 
tiiufuph, started once more for the dw tilling 
of the man of magie* Aa before, Uie do<ir 
opt-oeil iioiselesily at her knock, and the 
dwarfd coid little hand took her favered one, 
to hml her through the dreary Inbyrinth. 

Thes« d«?tiit]i liatl, however, passed withont 
her notice. Would the Bage accord her 
desire f Might aho hope through him to 
win Gaatoii f That was all her ihonght ; 
and, on entering the room, her emotion waj 
•o ctrong that «he could hardly command her 
Tviee lo aak the quention* 

The aimwer filled her with s thrill of wild, 
fiere«; joy, 

" f tiAve atndied the matter cloaely,*' the 
old man said, ''and, notwithat-anding all the 
dilficultiea and dangers—for there are dan- 

fers, ami to me especially, in the work — I 
•▼e decided on aeuepttng your commissi on. 
gucMN aa 1 cao promiso yon ; hut my reward 
must be in pLt>p4irtion. to the labour anU the 
mk." 

•* Name your terms/* 
' Ht; ii}ciJt(oned a sum that would have 
Marl led an appUeaut leia b^nt on the attain^ 
ment of her destret ; but the marquiae, with- 
out a moment'i hetitation, aceeded to the 
iktiinnd. 

*• A ltd the riog P she asked, 

^The rin*^, as I told yoiipflhaU he made the 
ina^rumtut of accomplishing your ohjeet. 
Ifetirrn lie re this dny week with an order for 
the fcfioi wt* liMve agreed ujk>d ; and ihe ring^ 
chaii^etl with the power to ptsrftjrm. the miis- 
*i*ni^ U yimiii/* 

l?h*? iclaajwd her ban da, with a gleam of 
tri*tfiiph ill her fliithing black evet* 

11»« evenlug of the seventh dj&y found her 



once more on her way to the Tnagictan*!* 
The old mnn took from a little box the ring, 
and handiid it to her. Never had it looked 
BO mai^ijiiicentt A thousand gotgeona ttnts 
played through the otml, every di^tmond 
flashed and sparkled with incrt^aaed luatre* 
while the emerald tycM of the ai^rpent gleamed 
with a Uvitig light, altiioijt tenable to look 
at. Madame de Vaucraaiion tunied it about, 
and contemplated it lovingly. 

"Whatever man wears, or even has ah out 
his person, ihat ring/* the sji^je iuid, **mn«tj 
so long^aa it remains In Ida pos^^suion, love 
yon paa4onabifly, no msdler what may have 
been his prevluus teutimenta, or what the 
ohatacltfa that lie be twee ti you* Bewarei 
therefore, into whose handa it fid Is." 

She gave htm the ornler for the sum they 
had agreed upon, and pre|iared to depart. 

'*I eJipent^ madame^ thM you will como 
and give me an account of your aueceas. I 
ah all require this," 

Tiie ttme waa so quietly authoritative, that 
ehe fell herself com] celled to njake the detiired 

Cromise ; and, eonceJiling the jewel in her 
osoui, she haatentid home witii all apt-ed. 

How to convey it to Ga.'^tou ? That wm the 
next step. She thought of various expedi- 
enta, but none wholly satiatied her. She 
reanlved, at all events, uevt?r to aep:irate her^ 
self from it, so that whatever occaaion chance 
nni^ht olfer, supposing she did not immedl- 
ately hit upon a deliberate plan of action, aho 
might pro lit by*. 

That night there waa a fi^te at the h6tel of 
the Duchesse de Mauhreuil, the house where 
she had firat met Gaston. Would he be 
there t Probably ; hta family waa eonneeted 
with that of the Due, and she knew he was 
always a welcome guest. 

Her toilette that evening waa performed 
with a care greater than she was wont to 
bestow on it. She wiahed to keep np some 
illusion even in her own eyes; sue wished, 
wht'U the ring did its work — the work she 
knew It was, by no power of hers, charged to 
perform — to ft^el or to fancy that her wo- 
rn a u's charms had some share in the effect ; 
She looked in her glass with prida and 
triumph. Hope and security had lent a new 
lustre to her beauty. The diamonds that 
blazed in her luxunant dark Imir were not 
more brill i ant tlum lier eyea ; and her che^k 
wore a bloom that need^jd no aid from art. 
Most men who saw her that idght might 
have thoU|^ht the aid of the ring stiperQuoua. 

As she entered the apartmeuta of the lldiel 
Maubreuil, there was a genend stir and 
murmur. Oaa ton was there* He heard it; 
looked where he saw other eyes directed ; and, 
for the firat time, was slruuk by the b'anty 
anrl majesty of theiroman whoae unconct^aled 
prefertioce he had bo cohlly and couaiantly 
discouraged* His eye foltuwed her through 
the crowd ; he saw how it bent in hom^i^e 
before her ; he &.iw with what di^^niti^Jd 
mdifTerence ahe reoeired it-^how valuele^ in 



J 



fiOUBEHOU^ ir-oiii>s. 






i<L:iil Wafc lilt: ftOurttliuL uf liiUM: V'iil 

I ou* fc wui^. ur L biulit iL- *.!-eaiiurt biiC 
lU'J vC AiiCi tiiit vuLuaL iibt iiuiuiiieu 
' vv ii.iii — iiu;. wtki:Ft:u uul f^r iiiu U- tir 

• <: "lit Cii^tr. 



!*▼ ije; uub, idit '^'»t'> Jier "f^* '«»«»t BLruliaL ens 

i\uvr tOMt ranslr ntt Llm, oijc: liidO^rL ius 
Ukuiier it iaIvvv^ kiiiil ii u fv^e** i*uiui;irauueL 

i2i;]jhU<sLi'jf: : BJXueiuutf h sun uf ji::;- lUg : 






eiiV-.-U'ty' lij^ VliUL UMltliri ; l! iiClL VMU. 11 Witt hi 

ebi w .'it! u^ubi i'.»bt viVb mill. Txut p.'^ubd 
iuiu. ku J u^ i Jilted fur us ucckiuoxi vueix iit 

igu<i b.;>-rvuti'jU;ri by ibe cuAer guevUL Biiv 
vjiuy^.UK'} 'jf iLt ju«ki, kbd Lfe iuuA«ti«d U; juhlJj iiiiu. 
trlDicj Vj fi'j'^'i'AiA hiw Uf out ot \ht ksaib will, Lixt ik 



bui XiL'V ^bfc Lufi ituktiit!^ iJiia iLi^ u< ij«r £ru 



i-b:iiii£ lb b KiloLiuL uf lilt jiij^jAerr, iib(f 

but tbeL L«T LftUjfcr biiane* iiis4, uui }iv 

vuuiihL'B ZikLure r'lMtB up lo deiuui &Bd 

I^ut, Ic^i har niDud !« viaa il 



*L« 'j'j.ct^^- ii.o.pi.4rcL I .£L^ tlii Mfc'ia.TDC de Vauouboh Ic^hh; 

J''««£:i ;/ tiijMu;:^ kirv«nJruciOtf,lbe3rreaic}*«id j u«ii iuer c-ratrl zuCLrt tkku m, shvai^c drl^giiS 
Ua^: i;tot <.'f i!)<; vu tft. wLlvL ujw bbcuuuii^' .lit iii« f»uff?nn^>i of tbe uiioSeiuuLi: ^-iri. 
iMftiii/ deK^rt/e'l bi' ibe r«u(»iiuu«juotrm«iit of | MtdLZivbile, Gjisu>i«'ft BHunaj luir iur ilie 
tiie <;u!a':J^;:, fcj.i, l«Miluj{ ber to a boUl, ^ n:l«iiiltfM wuinikzi iH::;iAres dikUjr a dernier kuid 
<jiii<i/y!i \/^j'a » pbiF;« b/ Ler M'i«. i on blu : c^iii^iii;; bin vbalc iai ure, lu&ufig 

Tb« o'^jji'HrcAi.viA MM r<»uiiA«:d, bj b«r, ixi|biiu vbci vni gentle, cbeerfuly auid b'ting. 
Ib« ^-ttxt: 'j&iiji. oi'iiiiikry 1/>iie ; b> luxu, wiiij | im^jbileiit, irhvkolc:, jeju&a«, At times AlmoiS 

A <X'JU:jj <.&J-ii«ri»llate«, wbi'.'b kbe Mrt:m4si Al , bruuL OcOksLuLiaJiTy tbi* firrc« }.aKU«ll 

finti iuJil.i I '^y put Mi/iv ; uul by ck^rees a* i iJiuoKi tkkM ibe Aspect of hate : be trv aU 

Aii>; tow-.W J.ie iii Url4:»l «Vi<i«iaiy lUi^tMhM;^, *Le I bvr ujlb tlTAIiDJ Aljd AOOTTk ; he bA<* A ibOU- 

jiiiiii'ii-<i :j> 1 iU'ti^ji'-r V> lebix, aii'i ber atpjiA- 1 wmd cftpxiL-es ; a iLuUfiAiid ex.gcxkc'eft| aoJ 
reiil tii -JiJciiri^'^; Uy ;!iv« wA^' t^> A Kofurr AHLie'.'t. ! fierce d eputes, exablttering aU Uieir inur- 

'^ J iiiij lol/J, J>J<^iMieur de JU'^iitrouj^e/ kbe . course, rise between ibexxL 
toal'J Hi J. i:*, " tiirii ^ vu Are ^'oixi^ tfi be uiAr- j At but, ibe ^lArqaise rememben the pn>- 
tiK^iVj \oiii ':oubiii. J:'or;{ive lue if I eoajmlt laiM tbe iiia^iu-iAU extneted frxim her, iiiAt 
All ii^'iUci • ti'yii ill it{AAKiiij{ thu« ou tbe LmI dA/ wLeu th^j parted. She bAi never 
eii)>j««;i ; bui i truki you^ will believe bow j fieifuruied it. PeriiAps to tbis net of dit- 

oLiedieuce ou ber part mAj, in soioe deme^ 



mu'itin: U tiie iuteieitt I feel iu augLt tbAt 
MO direj.ly ':wi'Xi$m your liAijpiueM.*' 

0:(;:i<yii \iAfi uiyloured violeutiy At tbe com- 
iiieii<:i'iij<:iit t,( iiKt epeecb. Geiievi^^ve 2 thin 
WA4 ihit way he wiui ke^piug iuvioUta UU 
bive uiA failh to ber ! J5ut, for thin eiuutioD 
bin wily IhU'tUHMlur wa« Cully prepAred, Aud 
elie pul iiibi the eoncluMoii ot bi,T •euteuce An 
•fiCttiiL tlmt eooii rcAMured biin. ttbe knew 
now that he loved Another; iihe bad regu- 
UU-d \wr own fevliiigH, or At leAHl, the expres- 
mIoii ol'thoiii, Accordingly; Aiid be uiigbt look 
ujAOii hvr now A4 A frieiuL tibe wae a uobb) 
wouiaii, Al'Li-r uU \ 

** Van will not be offeuded/* she sold, in 
the Muiie kindly, Ktuiling uiAUUor, 'Mf I Ask 
you to iu:i'i-jil u hlight token of the frieudebip 
1 lu4:l inv ym. Muny of ^our other friende 
will oir.r you nuu-ritigu-giiui. You will not» 
I liiiHt, di-ny nio u Himilar privilege.** 

An HiiiiHpokc, Mho drew the ring from ber 
liti:.;i;r, and iMtiwucn her wordji, glided it on 
hilt* IShd knew ihut, ouco there, ^o need not 
fi-ar hii idniuving it. 

I 111 Louk tho hand that performed tbe oct^ 
And ciiViiied il with jNiMaionutu kidHCH. 

1*0111' lilUii (j!(MiMvi(^vo*ii Hweot face boars a 
far diiUfrnt aHih-rl Ui Ihu eunny one it pro- 
aieutiiii iliai happy ewning whuu^ with liaeton ' other day/' 



be Attributable the unhappineaa tbe retjiti- 
tion of ber de»iies bAs brought ber. She 
will love no time in Attempting to Avert hii 
dhipleAsure ; and not biter than ti>-morrow, 
she will go to tbe Kue des Truands^ Aud laj 
ber diificulties before him. 

That nijfht Gaston came to spend the 
evening with ber. He seemed in beiier 
humour than UHual ; and she fancied that 
tbe magical power of the old man might 
have made him acquainted with ber resolve^ 
and that this had abready produced a certain 
amelioration iu the position. Uer detenni* 
nation was, therefore, more than ever fixed 
that the morrow should not pass without 
bringing the execution of her design. 

The evening passed quietly. Gaston WM 
more like his former self tlian she bad seen 
him since the commencement of their attach- 
ment ; and she rejoiced in tlie idea Uiat had 
presented itself to her. At bist the hour for 
his flcijoiture a])proacb6d. 

" Ilow long it is," be mdd, " since we have 
hod a day altogether to ourselves! Let ns 
go to-morrow into tbe country, and spend it 
there." 

*' Not to-morrow. Gaston. I have engoge- 
m<>nts in towxi: but the day after, — any 



I 



THE OPAL EINO, 



«7 



^ 



II 



** I will not have aaother daj ] Eog&ge- 
iseitUI When X command, what nther 

** Conimauti I Tliia to me t You forget 
jmir&elf atriingdj, monsieur." 

Xjong and loud was Uie dispute ; £erce and 
em el were the iiiflultd b^adiea btilwt^ea tUeia ; 
jaui witti far more of hate and veugeaiteei 
ttan of lovfe iti their heaita, Ibey pwted. 

At tiUD^t^t, the Marquii^e de Vaiiarajsson, 
difit'tiLHed aa of oldf atoie forth from tb« 
wbket hy which the garden of her hotel 
opened on a quiet street^ and after looking 
cautiouity n>ti«dj turned her «tepfl m tlie 
direction of tlie Hue dea Tniands. 

Hardly had she turned the first comer, 
when th« little door »lie bad locked behind 
h#r, opened a^aia» and a man with a cloak 
and a. aloiicbed hat aud drooping feather, 
itepf^ed forth, and proceeded in the direction 
aho ha«J takei}, follow iuy ber without ever 
approach ittg her ciotely^ntil she arrived at 
tLe entrance of the Eue dts Truanda, 

Here, the d.-Lrknt^a^ remleriug the rbk of 
losing sight of her grejiter/he ventured some- 
whut r^ dimiuiuh the diatunco that st'parated 
the or p and kept ber in view until the door at 
which ahe knocked opened and closed upon her. 

Just oppoeite to the house waa a low, dark 
ferchwayt lea,dtug no one could, from the 
street aud at tbie hour, diatiuguinh wbither. 
Beiieatli its eh»de Gaaton pliictid himself, aud 
remained in obaervation^ quite nncouecious 
UiAi while aU hia attention was riveted on 
the oppnsite aide of the street* he wae him- 
self tbe object of a no leaa rigid aurveiUonce 
on the patt of two men of peculiarly evil 
ai»poct liehiud him. 

Suddenly, he waa nia<ie acquainted with 
the fact by being seized from the bat^k^ 

Einioned, ^gg^^ and carried otf ; it v/ns quite 
npos^bio to aay whUher, for his cloak waa 
wrapped round his h<?ud, so a^ to exclude 
mw^ty other object from his sight. 

Alter some minutes, he found himself 
placed on his feet, and his head released from 
ita 00%'ermg, though his arms still remained 
lM>und^ Liuokiug round, he found himself 
in a low den, surround ed by three or 
four men whose appearance wa^ in no way 
•slculated to rtassure him, aiid who, with 
ooaj^e jokes and laugh ter^ mocked at hij^ 
meant ii>nitne«s, while they proceeded to 
itrip him of whatever obj^^cta of worth he 
iMui ttliuut him* 

Suddenly^ a thought ^n^hed across him. 
The i-ing I lie remembered not that tbe 
amii who bad tied hia haudj had silently 
dimwn it oH in the operation. Y^t, strange 
lo aav, not a tinge of regret accompnnied the 
naoUieotion. Ilia love for the donor ^ 
whither^ too, had it fled I ilarvellou* I The 
laetncity of it was btit like a ft;vered, hateful 
drc«tn, ^m which he had but that moineiit 
aw4l]un•d^ Love her 1 He mu^t hn^ve ha^J 
m ^t of tnadiiesa. Forsake Genevieve for 
ft woman I Was ho still in hia senses. 



or waa not the wlinle thing a troubletl vliion ? 
No, the present, at Itsost was yjniu fully real ; 
and it would be time enough when he should 
have escft[ied from his actuitl positioiif to try 
to explain to himself the feelings and events 
that had preceded it^ 

At hu^t the men fuund that there remained 
little eke worth taking, and they announced 
to their captive that they were bous entkna^ 
who had no wbh to do him any burt^ and 
that ae he bad not troubled them with any 
foolish and useless resistance, his liberty 
should be restored to hini j adding, however, 
that he must submit to bfing couilucted 
thence in such manner as they considered it 
desirable to adopt. 

Knowing the hopeleian^s of disputing 
the point* Gaston a3:4ented to their arrange- 
ments ; and his hi^ad l»eing again enveloped, 
he felt a strong hand bdd on hia shouhler, 
and himself, with viuious bri«f wjirninga 
and direetiouSj led through a variety of 
tortuous ways, now mounting, now didscend- 
in^, now turning to the rights now to the lefK 
until a certain chnnge of atujOHpberej aud 
nitered sound in bis own fooUteps and in 
those of his condnctors, warned him thut he 
hat) got iiito the op^u air. After walkiug a 
little further^ they stopper! ; auddt'nly^ be 
felt the cord that bound his hands loosened ; 
but before he could, with his ntmosi 
siieed, release his bead from the fulds of hia 
cloak, he found bimfielf utanding in the street 
under tlie quiet starlight, alone. 

He looked arouud, bewildered. The street 
he was in was one a considemble dia^tauco 
from the Rue det Truands ; thu aHUir eeeined 
U> become more dream-bke than ever i but 
one thing was clear: he waa free, and his 
way lay unobstructed bel\>re bim. 

How long a time had elitpaed during the 
progress of these strange evi^uts, the abeeuce 
of hia Witch preventeti his being ahlt? to tell. 
He guessed, however, that it coulil not be too 
bite to tiuii his uncle and iienevidve stiE 
stirrin? — Genevieve, towards whom bis 
whole heart yean^ed as if years of pain and 
cruet abt^ence bad kept him from her. 

With a rapid step he proceeded to the 
well-known door. Suddenly, when about to 
ring, he remembered the signal which of old 
used to announce to her his coming ; and^ 
passing on, he sofUy tapped at the window 
where she waa wont to sit of an evening at 
her f mbroidery. 

How long it was since she had heard that 
sound! She was watching there now^ but 
not for him ; her father was out, aud she sat 
alone, waiting his return. Formerly she 
used to fly to open the door herst^lf when 
that signal sounde*! ; now, with a voiL-e she 
straggled hard to modulate, she bade the old 
servant, Catherine, do so, while she oon- 
tinued to work, but with stitches aU of 
which must come out to-morrow. Giiston 
entering, fitopjied at the door, coutemplatiug 
her in sJencei. 



4 



I 



t 



I 



*^ Bou 8oir, mon cousin.** 

Site always luaiked the reUtionskip now 
when she addressed him. 

"Genevidve!" 

What WHS there in his voice that made her 
turn her averted look upwaird I Something 
strangely eloquent in that and in his face 
there must have been, for in another instant 
his browij-eyed birtl was in the arms he had 
opened to receive her. 

Meanwhile the interview of the Marquise 
de Vaucrasson with the man of mauic was 
come to an end, and once more slie steps out 
into the dark and squalid street. £re she 
has proceeded fnr, siie is conscious of a step 
behind her ; slie quickens her pace, the step 
becomes more rapid, still faster an<l faster she 
goes, still faster and faster the step ioUows. 
bhe is about to run when a hand is 
placed on her shoulder, and a hot breath 
penei rates her veil. 

'' Do not shriek ! " a hoarse voice says, " it 
is useless ; I mean yon no harm, only come 
with me quietly," and the other hand grasps 
her. 

She does shriek and struggle, but not long, 
for a thick muffler is pluce<l over her mouth, 
and she becomes unconscious. 

When the marquise woke from her trance, 
she found herself lying on a miserable and 
filthy mattrass, in a room which better 
merited the appellation of a cellar. By the 
dim, flickei-ing light of a wretched lamp, 
whose fumes added a fresh ingre<iient to the 
combiuutioii of loathsome odoura which tilled 
the den, she graduallv dintinguished the 
objects that surrounded her, each and all 
parUikiug of the same mean and disgusting 
aspect. 

bhe was alone, that was something, and, 
starting up, she looked round ; when there- 



held before her, a ring, which, even in that 
lini place, gleamed and flashed like a mirror 
in the sun. 

She understood her position now, though 
not how it came about* (Gaston — where was 
he ? Lost to her for ever, wherever he might 
be. ' One thing before all others presented 
itself to her ; she must regain possessitm of 
the ring, must free herself from the hated 
thrall of this wretch*s afTection— anTthing-* 
anything on earth was better than that. 

She knew the only course to be adopted 
was diMumulation ; and, though her sool re* 
coiled fi-om tlie attempt, she must feign a die- 
|K)siti(in to be won over to listen to hii 
detested ailvances. 

She would not irritate him, she would gain 
time, and trust to find an opportunity to 
attain her object. And thus temi>ori8ing and 
watching, the day, whose wan li^ht she was 
only dimly couscic^ of for a few hour% 
passed away, and a^mi night came. 

All that time she had, bn^en in body and 
spirit^ fiassed crouched on the wretched 
mattrass. Her gaoler had offered her food, 
but she had shrunk from it with loathing ; 
and tliough she felt not the slightest disposi- 
tion to eat, still the want of sustenance, and 
the sufferings, mental and physical, of her 
situation, had worn her down to a degree 
of painful prostration. Far on in the night 
she sunk into a troubled dose. A alight stir 
in the room awuke her; but she afSected 
still to sleem and with half-open eyes watched 
with cat-like vigilance. 

She saw her captor moving quietly abonti 
but rather as it in consideration for hw 
Hlumber than as though fearing detection* 
What had lie\to fear from her 1 She aaw 
him, after outing a glance towards where 
she lay, and listening to her respiration, take 
from the place where he kept it the £ated 



close by the head of the piillet — sat a mam ring. He hesitated for a moment, aa if 



watching her. She ahrieked, and hid her 
face in her hands. 

*' Do not fear me,** said the voice that had 
sounded in her ears just before she becaihe 
insensible ; *^ I would not harm you, ma belle, 
I adore you ! ** and he tried to withdraw the 
hands that covered her eyes. 

''Monster! I hate you — do not approach 
me — away !" 

** Gent ly ; I tell yon I love yon — love yon 
passionately — but remember, you are in my 
power ; do not provoke me, for I am not 
paiient And what does not yield, I break." 

Her utter, utter helplessness came across 
her stronger than any other feeling, and she 
wept aloud, in passionate despair. 

'* Lict me go, for Heaven^s sake I for mercy's 
sake let me go ! What can you gain by 
keeping me here? Only release me, and I 
swejtr to make you rich for life." 

*' 1 may not be so pour as I seem ; it is for 
your own suke I choose to keep you. Look 
here ! this is not a be«^gar'8 possession.** 

Uu took from some secret receptacle^ and 



doubtful where to deposit it, then, with 
significant upward toss of the heieid, that 
said as plain aa toss could say, ** While I have 
her safe, there is no danger for it,** he placed 
it in a little closet in the wall, and takmg hii 
hat, left the room, locking the door alter 
him. 

With every nerve on the stretch, the mar* 
quise listened for some minutes ; then, rem 
sured by the silence, she aprung with noise- 
less rapidity from the pallet, and in a moment 
was at the cupboanl door; she tried it, it 
yiehled to her hand almost without an effort. 
Again she listened, but t^e rapid beatihg of 
her heart was the only sound that came to 
her ears. Within the closet was a little box ; 
this she took down and opened ; and there, 
encii-oled in its own light, lay the jewelled 
serpent, coiled at the bottom, and glaring up- 
waitl at her with its malignant emerald 
eyes. She clutched it; the first step waa 
gaine<l ; the next — the next she was spared J 
the necessity of deciding on, by the sudden 
opening of ll^e door, with an oath. No love 



AT BRUGES AKB OSTBND. 



m 



now marked tlie expref^ton of the hated 
rtifHan fuce^ aa hij ntifioii upou her* Shriek- 
mg^ Rbe c'rnactied^ atlll graaphi^r the triug. 

** Giva it iipf or I eruah jou !" 

« Never I" 

04i« blow of hii clenched fi«t^£i her temple, 
ftfid^Bhe frl], white and nervele^, at liia ftr^t, 
winle thift riog dropped from her limp hand. 
The robf)er took it up; m nn matHnt bis 
fttpect tmibrwent a change ; be j^a^ed u^ion 
Hje prnfttrate fomi with despairing horror ; 
||0 veizetl her in bin arrim, earrlcil ber to the 
Uf hi, bent over her with [jassijouat^ excknia- 
itoni r>f letiilerDess and aelf-repraiich. She 
dill iiot shrink from hiiti now — &be did not 
turn tier fjtee from hla— fihc hkf unroaidtLiig 
m hiB nrtm — deiuL 



AT BRUGES AND OSTEND. 

•Tir-ety I"— "G; E, CT— three notes of 
the comnion chord, — -a crotchet, aatrmi^junver, 
and a dolled quaver in duration^ iire blinded 
on the conductor** braxen bngleiiorn, and tbe 
trait] liears ns away from Ghent in the direc- 
tion of Brngeap pa«l market- garde rm, the 
taat-e of whose ambr<j9ial aapttragus HtiU lin* 
ger^ iu oar penitive mouths ; over pastures, 
deliglilUd not merely to Ibe eye alone, but 
delicioua in their ultimate form of paU of 
biitttr, We gbde smootbly, partly necauae 
we daii strni^ht forward, through a country 
under j^fitrilen-ilke culture, the very foot of 
Die he^^lge which boundu the raLLway being' 
planted with a line of well^grown torreb 
N^al brick cottages look at ua cbeerfuUy, i 
and wiiih u» a pleasant journey j tlioughj for 
tbt^ir jiart, Ibey are perfectly content to re- 
miiiu wiii're tbey are, in the tuVl^t of their 
tiny fWirterrea of flowern, tlieir liiUe fiplil* of 
iajE, pcaji, or corn, with grass walks roaud 
tb«m, their lK>wers of wabjut and cherry- 
tfeea^ th»?ir Ibicketa of alder and willow copse. 
Flat And rich the land opens before ua, aa 
we penetrate successively to odd-named 
•tatiwnt* — to Landeghem, Hausbeke, Aaltre, 
Bl^^mennael, Oostcamp — ^and that u alb 
W« iiave just time to wonder how muob 
ehe«iie mnet be made, how many beevei 
&tted, wbftt risers and moiintains of beer 
mud \mooti must annually be yielded by the 
Kiil ve are traversing ; when we reach the 
Bruges station, an opeu inelosurei exposed to 
drowuing when it laius hard| to bUndmg and 
choking with dost when it btowaiiard, and to 
fryin^C ^beo theemi amiles down graciously 
oti Belgium* After a cramping on the rail^ 
H»y Aeat^ it la better to walk to our hotel — 
of course the cjc eel tent Fleur de BIS — if only 
lor tbp magnificent landtady*s sake, and the 
esticrifEneuts of her able chef de cuisine. 

Tbf porter by whose side we are walking 
into Bruges t» he leianrely truudlefl our 
bcunlbojtei on hta whe«lbarroW| aBowa us 
Ume to Inspect the phyatogaoiny of the place, 
\nd to eome to a conclueion in our own 
private menUd oouucil-ohamber, whether we 



think we shall like our nen^ aQqaalntanoe^ 

or not* For with towns aa with per'sons, we 
ofien make up our mind about them at the 
^tui glance, 

Brn^eii, I think, by the look of it, will do, 
Ttfrt; it will do. 1 like the fat-fnced Heuiiih 
children in thi^ir Sunday clothes, because it is 
fair-tLme ; antl the wateb maker's with his 
windowa full of urjeatceptiouable horological 
couundrnms. I like the print- ah oj>i». full of 
j local topo^^rapby ; and the tart**, and the bon- 
^ bons, and the ginger breadi 1 like the buiom 
I provincial dames, who exaggtnnte Pai i^iiin 
I fas hi oil a, with their enormous critiulines 
Betting out rich silk dresses to the capsicitx 
of Monster-Green ballona, ca[iabi© of taking 
eight or ten persons in or up. I like the 
fiimily groupa, comfK)sed of yourtt^ and old, 
Silting round the window^ from which ever/ 
bit of blind and curtain is removed, to gaze 
at the gaily- dressed folk who wauiier up and 
d<»wii. They ^aze at me too ; and I same* 
how think their fo reman ^^ grandmamma in 
an elaborate and blajsing cap — pronouucea tt 
favourable verdict as I pass, r^tuniiiig curi- 
oiifl peep for inquisitive i^lanee, and utitused 
simper f^r approving smile, I greatly like 
the novelties of costumti. Can anyihtng be 
handsomer than tbe ear-rings and brm Holies 
of the fanners* wives f bought, dtmbtless, at 
the coruer-ahopt kept by u, De Voa, who 
iuaeribes himself not only Goud-smid and 
Zilver-smid,but Diamaut-zetterf tocro^n the 
whole. How modest and becoming ai'e the 
rich dark cloaks with the hood ovei^badow- 
ing, yet not concealing, tbe face I — a decorous 
^'arnitnjt for elderly women, a coquettish one 
fi>r the young and pretty, Certidtdy, w lien- 
eve r the Parisian millinera are suffmrig from 
an exhau>ttlon of their inventive genius — a 
break-down which ought to i^urpnae nulnKly, 
were it to occur — 1 recommend them to go to 
Bruges in search of ideasi. There is a clears 
atiii'-atarched cap, folded together in front 
into a peak, and protruding beyond the e<lge 
of the liat^ which would cause a aens;htion at 
Longchampa. Another cap^ radiating from 
the faoe aj^oun^l the inner circumference of 
the hat, ta absolutely charming* Finally^ I 
like the beggara ; because it la certainly not 
a matter of duty to give alms to audi mendi- 
cants aa these, nuleas you chooae to do so, 
for tbe whim of tlie thing. An amaU^iit^ 
beggar, in a black velvet hood^ is succeeded 
by a flesby-viaaged boy, who tells you that 
his mother la dead, and his father in some 
other bliaaful stat«, with a grin that betray* 
his enjoyment of the hoax aa much as your 
own. When tired out with his following 
you, you take him by the slioulders and turn 
him right-about-^^e backwards, on the pivot 
of his beets ; be laughs out tight. Why, an 
hour afterwards I eneouotered the very aame 
bereaved orphan-boy driving a spruce donkey- 
milk-cart laden with cans; whether his iuhe^ 
titiknee or bis trust I had nomeau^t of learning t 

Tbe banda joined in supplication, c£a 



n 



I 



-^ 



TO 



H0T7SEHOLD WORDa 



tCbaduMCly 



antieipative kiss given to the tips of the 
fingera, the graceful professional attitude, 
the dignified thanks, the complacent smile to 
show approbation of your benevolent conduct, 
are well worth any trifle you may bestow — 
they convert it into money fairly earned. 
The Brusfes beggars raise beggary to the 
dignity of one of the fine arts. They take to 
begging with the determination to excel, 
which we admire when Talmas and Mae- 
readys take to acting. Your dole is the 
reward of merit, rather than the subsidy to 
want. A female veteran, to whom a single 
centime was given, as a psychological experi- 
ment, was too well-bred to break out into 
abuse of the niggardly donor, as a common- 
place beggar would have done, but took it as 
quietly as if it had been a double-sou piece. 
Many and many of the Flemish beggars do 
not look upon the alms you give them exactly 
as a gratuitous offering. One good torn, they 
think, deserves another, and they contrive to 
do it in their way. They firmly entertain, as 
an article of faith, the belief that the voice of 
the poor in behalf of the rich has special influ- 
ence. In a Flemish cathedral, a woman once 
begged me to give her something, not for her- 
self, she said, but for another poor woman, who 
had just been confined, and wno had not bread 
to eat ; she would pray the Bon Dieu for me. 
I gave her fuur sous which, she received 
thankfully, and immediately set about per- 
forming her part of the bargain. The two- 
pennyworth of prayers were commenced and 
concluded in my presence, that I might see 
she lutd not cheated me ; and I left the 
church by so much richer and lighter than I 
had ent(*red it. I like, too, independent of 
ecouoniic reasons, the trifling and even infi- 
nitesimal alms habitually given by many — 
themselves indigent — ^to beggars, such as even 
a single raw potato. Half-a-dozen potatoes 
so ohtiined would prevent death from actual 
starvation. 

It U Sunday morning, bright and warm. 
The streets are busy and bustling ; the front 

Sarlours are gay with clean curtains, fresh 
owera, and pot-plants, some of which, of 
trailing habit, are grown suspended in large 
sea-shells, llie maid-servants look out of 
window with inquisitive and shining fiices. 
The large irregular square, Grande Place, is 
hung all round with thick-clustered flags 
of the Belgian tricolor, with its somewhat 
sombre and ominous combination of black, 
yellow, and red, so different to the gaiety 
expressed by the bright French tricolor — 
blue, white, aud red. The draped and 
crowned statuettes of the Virgin and Child 
behind the lamps at the comers of the streets, 
look all the fresher in their faded finery for 
having had the class befure them polished 
clean. Smartly-dressed people are taking 
their places at balconies and windows, which 
latter are illuminated with lighted candles, 
whose insignificance is made ap{>arent by the 
brilliant sunshine outside. The members of 



the CafSS Soci6t6, or Club, have mustered 
strong under the awning in front of their 
billiard-room. On one side of the square 
rises the belfry — a marvel of brick and 
stone masonry, as are sevei-al other towers la 
Bruges — and from its ury summit, the 
famous chimes send forth an almost continual 
shower of notes, filling the atmosphere with 
the music of bells. Are there any chimes 
in Europe superior to those of Bniges f Com- 
pared with them, the carillon of Dnnkerque 
is no more than a tinkling cymbal, a tbin- 
voiced harpsichord. Round a comer, comes a 
little girl clad in white muslin from top to 
toe, with a flowing veil and a wreath of 
flowers. She is accompanied by, I snppoe^ 
her brother : a pretty boy with well-curled 
flaxen hair, in a skin-tii;ht pink silk dreeL 
with a sheep-skin picturesquely wrapped 
about his chest and loins. He is the repre- 
sentative of St. John the Baptist They 
are followed by a servant bearing in his arms 
a lamb, decked out with bright pink ribbons. 
They are going to their rendezvous at the 
cathedral For, to-day is the IBteof St Sacra- 
inent^ and they are to take part in the solemn 
show. 

At various conspicuous points about the 
town, temporary altars, reposoirs, or re- 
posing-places (for the host) have been erected 
and adorned with scenic columns, angels, 
pictures, flowers, candlesticks, steps, carj)ets, 
and green branches. Near one of these, close 
to a convenient comer, we will stop to see the 
procession pass, especially as an obliging 
shofHkeeper offers a chair for mademoiselle 
to stand on, and raise herself above the 
shouhlers and heads of the crowd. The 
Theatre of the Passion, in the fair close by, 
under the direction of Messrs. John Klep- 
sken, professors of jimnastic (sic), have ceased 
their performances, to resume them as soon 
as the pious band of town-pilgrims liave 
defiled out of sight into the omxisite street 
The great bell mso, in the Babelian belfry, 
which requires the united strength of ten 
able-bodie<l men to make it utter a sound, is 
l)oomiug away with all its might, bellowing 
forth a deep metallic roar wtiich, yon can 
feel, communicates its vibration to something 
within you, while the chimes scatter form 
their fragments of tune with an irregularitj 
which gives something of the wildness of an 
orgie to this out-<loor religious ceremony. Bnt^ 
hush ! Here are the handsome cnirasitiers on 
coal-black steeds ; and here oomes the band 
of mounted musicians on milk-white ditto, to 
mark the contrast between harmony and 
slaughter. Thei-e are files of little orphan- 
children reading their prayei^books and 
dressed in the costume of three hunrired 
years ago. There are lai^e silver lanterns 
with lighted tapers on tali poles, stretch inff 
out of the stomach-girdles of surplicea 
beadles. I long for one of those silver 
lanterns to serve me as a hall-lamp in my 
heretical home. There are parties of priests 



I- 



AT BRTTGES AKD OSTEITO. 



tomtng lt»«ns« \n t!ie air, followed by 
burners '>f velvet, ai!k, aTifl jewels ; tliere are 
crowrln of nttlf* Mys ringing tmj hanH-l>ell3 
is Qftfl^tiea^ pro<iiiein^ by aonikd tbe same 
ef^et on the ear as the fitittering of a swi\rni 
of l^nts has on the eje ; there is a double file 
of monH with shorn polls, eaniJaled feet, rope 
glrilli^a, browTt cloth ve^tnientfl, and — I miij^t 
f^ke the libpTty of adding as to theae parti* 
enliir mmikR — shocking bad beadj^ if there be 
any truth in phrenology. 

Then cornea the priest who camea the 
host tin Her a go!den canopy borne bj notahlefl. 
His eacresl charge is resit cd on tbe alt^ir ; 
the c1iini(>9 cease, hot the creat bell ke«p« 
going : erery toll Bounditijr Itke the discharge 
of a can n OIL Tlie prescribed prayefB are de- 
voutly Haiil i respectable J well-firesae<l, mtddle- 
aged m en p drop down on their knees on the 
hatiil paremeiit in the mlildle of tbe street* 
The patrrnoBters d\ily conchided, tbe boat is 
again borne V^eneath tlie gaOily canopy ; the 
cUlniea reftume their tinkling, atid the pro- 
ceasion inovea on, followed first by the bnrgo* 
mj%s|er aud tbe town authorities in their 
o^dal ^Mfltame, and then by great ladies ac- 
eoropanrnl by their bonnes in black lioods, 
aod then liy the mass of the religious pomila' 
item, which constitute a the m.ajurlty* They 
areeotie; they have disappeai-ed from the 
bright orH*n PL'*ce, down tbe yawning throat 
of a fthady fttr*^et. 

Are we dne aming t Have we seen a 
Tiuoii I No ; for here are the people pulling 
the altar to pieces and nn furnishing its 
finery, tm soon as it has served ifs purpose. 
The only perwm age in the multitudlnons pro- 
cetsloij who did not perfectly perform bis part 
was the l*e* rib boned hi nib. It would not go, 
and had to be pulled along with a string, Tlier 
were niahidrfjit aot to chooae a t;inie cot-Linib 
for the purpose* What destiny awaits that 
iymbt^ic: lumbt 'Will it be quartered and 
told ms vulsrar butchery's meat 7 Shall we eat 
any nf its chops for dinner to*mori'ow ! As 
lik**K .i^ t...f * fijj. || ^lyi a show Iamb, fat 
an i hd we are served with the beat 

of e ^ _j. The Fleur de B!^ skima the 
ererani ^d tiie mark ets^ even before it comes 
to ninrkL^t. 

patiently awaiting Fleur de Bid's dinner- 
lime, q trench we our thirst at the CM Foy 
with u hot lie of delicious beer, tbe native 
tiectnr of Belginro, like that we had la<?t 
liTght ff>r the uDeven pries of twenty-four 
ctfut ine^, or twopence-halfpenny minus the 
ienth of a jterjiiy. What can be the Belgian 
fancry f ^r ^on-^tanlly giving odd centimea 
in churi^^e ? They are not of sufficient value 
to offer to a waiter nor to put m the poor^s- 
bon 

*' Tj if yoa please. No 1 Wby 7 ** 

"* - ' sell beer, Monsiear, till six in 

ihm cT^ning ; we don't want common people 
to come in tinring the day." 

"Oood^ my dear little arlstoerat of a 
waiter. I was a common person, then, jes' 



tfrday, when I had good beer, with ham 

I and br^ad-and-buttep, by gaslight \ but I am 

' an uncommon one this mnrning, now thnt I 

pay vou a franc for bad Seltzer water, which 

yoa iiave spoilt m uncorking it. llt^iu I *' 

At five in the afternoon anyl>ody who Is 
anybody dnvea to the CasinOi the suburbnn 
eaf^villa-^arden of a PhiJharmonic Society, 
where a Splendid assortment of la- lies* and 
children's toilettes — with the wearern of the 
dresses insfde them, be it understood — ait 
under the shade of flowering trees around a 
treliised temple of harmony, listening to 
Sunday evening mnaic, regardless of the 
anathemas of Exeter Hall The most re- 
markable perfijrmance on the prespnt occa- 
sion was an eclogue sung by a couple of rival 
nightingales, accompanied by an excellent 
band, with such loud, clear, and lon|»*drawn 
notes, that yon might fear they were singing 
themselvea to death, Bnt when the concert 
was over, they were at it again, to settle the 
question who was the champion voe?dist of 
the grove. It was of no uae awaiting the 
issue of a strnsrgle that promised to Ltflt all 
night, and longer ; so we pasf^d up the end- 
less overarching avenue which embowers the 
road after its departure from Bruges. The 
mists were rising fast from the canal^ and 
wearied sight-sepi^ wei'e glad to re.it their 
ey^s m sleep behind the dense obecurity of a 
pnper-rolling window^bliud, in a-ldttlon to 
the ordinary curtiin of ealleo. 

"Tir-ely!'* From Bruges to O.^tcnd by 
rail is nothing bnt a butterfly's flitting over 
meadow laTi<L In winter yon miglit belieTe 
yoTtrself skating over tbe ditch-ice in a sledge 
of larger dimensions than usnal. At the 
Ship Ho( el you will lodge and live well ; but 
Oaten d life is rather peculiar. A-? a packet 
port, it is like other packet ports, but fluller 
and with less variety. It is a fort i tied town 
of apjirtnienU to let, well peppered with 
sand within and without, and eompoaed of a 
aet of recta nguW streets > many of iliem bor- 
dered by stunted lime-trees, whose heads are 
shorn into the shape of hayeocks. The land 
approach is over drawbridges and solid 
arched gates, which do not give too mueh 
room to pass ; and therefore, when going in, 
take care not to meet on mark et-d ays the 
herds of pannier-laden donkeys thronging 
out, whose impetuosity to get home to their 
thistle sweeps every obe^le before them. 
There is no mra! scenery aroimd Ostend ; 
nolhing bnt a sandy fls.t, withi^ut a hillock to 
vary it, except the range of dunes that rise 
in defiance of the angty ocean. Ff ora the 
town you cannot get a glimpse of the sea j 
and yet, during the ieason, a medley of three 
thousand straugersj comprising a large ad- 
mixture of Teutonic and Slavonic element^ 
over-run the place, sometimes thankful if tbej 
can be accommodated with a b«J under a 
din in jj- table. Out of the &ea3^>n^ Ostend 
would be a capital place whenever you want* 
to learn a language or get through a heavy^ 






4 



71 



HOUSEHOLD W0ED3. 



dead-pulling literary task. The one kand- 
some street, the Rue de Quai, and the two 
respectable sqaares, the Grande Place and 
the Grain Market, are then eqaally dull and 
dead. There is not the slightest pretext 
for an inUnd excursion. On the coast there 
is nothing to distract yonr attention on either 
side, but long lines of sand-hills stretching 
far away into invisibility. The oyster-park 
and the lubster-park are the neai*est approach 
to a zoological gardens. The only seaside 
promenade, faced at low water by hard, 
firm sands, and commanding an extensive 
marine horizon, is really a digue or break- 
water, built of brick, to prevent the 
sea from swallowing up the town. The 
digue, whose surface furnishes an ever clean 
and dry pavement, with a gentle slope down 
to the sands, is really a beautiful walk, and 
is the centre and the sum of the Ostend 
gaieties. Invalids who cannot budge far for 
exercise, can still inhale the sea-breeze here ; 
idlers may be amused by the airs and graces 
of the visitors, and by the ludicrous freedom 
which people often allow themselves when 
they are conscious of being away from home. 

The requirements of the neterogeneous con- 
course are impartially attended to ; the £tab- 
lissement des Bains is an unfailing resource for 
alL Hungry folk can betake themselves to the 
restaurant, which occupies one wing ; and if you 
have no otlier mo<le of introducing yourself to 
likely people, you Ciin always ask whether the 
water is cold to-day. For the foreign dames 
anii demoiselles, glacis screens are raised across 
the digue, to prevent the winds on either side 
from visiting them too roughly ; while the 
dames and demoiselles themselves arc as- 
sembled for the benefit of the native men- 
dicants. 

If you return to France either viA the 
semi-dead, prostrate towns, Nieuport and 
Fumes, to Dunkerque, or by rail to Lille, 
beware how you take with yuu, in the first 
place, publications offensive to the French 
authorities, — and abominable libels are 
printed in Belgium — and secondly, tobacco, 
cigars, or snu& A cargo of either will get 
you into trouble, or cause you vexation. A 
word might be said about the Flemish 
pictures in the churches which you ought to 
see — the Van Eycks, the Memlings, the Pro- 
buses, and so on, but their extortionate 
kee{)ers render the subject painful. Pictures 
are veiled with green baize curtains, in order 
to extract twenty >s(>u pieces from travellers' 
pockets, under the pretence of preserving the 
hidden trt>asure. 1 blushed with dis>;ust to 
see, at Bruges, the tombs of Charles the 
Bash, and Mary of Burgundy, blockade<i by a 
shabby wooden screen, on which was a notice 
that the guardian had oi-ders not to open the 
door until he had received from every visitor 
a ten-sou bit, for the Committee of Repairs, 



in addition to his private gratuity. The 
Braves Beiges lay a heavy tax on admirers 
of ecclesiastical art. 

There are other things in Belspum that 
might be chauged for the better ; for instance 
certain young ladies' schools have too great 
I a resemblance to prisons, both in material 
construction and in management High 
; walls that exclude the sun, inclosed cou^ 
yards and thickly-screened gardens, are mora 
likely to affect pupils with the home-disease^ 
; than to cheer their spirits or promote their 
I health. What sense is there in the etiquette 
', observed, as at Ghent, that young girls must 
j be concealed ? That the^ must not widk 
I out, even in formal procession, except to mass 
' or confession, through the streets of the city t 
i That, to have a half-holiday at a dismal place 
I called a campague, almost as isolated as the 
prison pensionnat itself, they must be driven 
'out of town in close vigilantes, — hackney 
one-horse coaches, with most moderate fare& 
— and be treated during their journey to and 
fro, and during their stay in the country, as if 
theywerean Old Baileyiury out for their Sun- 
day airing in Epping Forest ! Put naughty 
girls into spinning- houses and sequestration, 
as much as you like, and for as long as you like ; 
but for good girls, the hope and ornament of 
their homes, — poor pretty little dears ! — why 
incarcerate them in close confinement, at 
least before they have done something to 
deserve it ? I would not send a child of 
mine to such a conventual establishment, to 
have her spirit broken and her health en- 
feebled. I am answered that it is the custom 
of the country, long established ; that it is 
part of the peculitur views of the dominant 
religious party ; that such an education 
accords with the destiny which devotes a 
large nnmlier of females to a monastic or 
semi-monastic life ; and that English people 
have no right to make observations after 
rendering themselves the laughing-stock of 
Europe by straining at the gnat of a Sunday 
band, while whole caravans of camels are 
swallowed without a symptom of face-making. 
But, recrimination is no reply ; and before 
embarking a daughter to be educated abroad, 
I would first ascertain, among other things 
the amount of air, light, exercise, and food to 
be allowed her. May I recommend this 
precaution to Knglish parents t 



Now ready, prtoo Five ShilUngt and 81xp«iioe^ assUj 
bauud in duth, 

THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 

a. 
HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 

Contaluing tbo Numbers iwaad between the Ninetstnth 
of Juniuiry and the TwelfUi of July, Kigfateen Uundnd 
and Pifty-siz. 
Completo Mia of Houaehold Worda may always ba had. 



The BigU of Trantlating JrHcleMfrom Hovbxhols Wobpb ii ruervedby tlie Auihon. 



^IhmUiar in their Mouthi m MOUSETIOLD WOEDS." 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 

A WEEKLY JOUENAL 
CONDUCTED BY CHARL£S DICKENS. 



N^. »3».] 



DIX, EDWARDS ^ CO.. PUBLISBERS, 




EGO ET BALBDS. 

Tt wjis thii man and hia fr*find wto per- 
▼ftded Anw\d*B Exercises and other worka of 
th« Iik« PAiure in mj school days, and eausetl 
me io liattf tbcm from the firAt ; they were 
alwaj« putting tbenuelTes in out-of-the-way 
circnTustnLuecA, and demanding to liav^ tlif ir 
positiou rendered into lUe finest I^jitin. 

E^ et Balbns were about to inke a journey 
(witn dHigenee) across the hither Alps ; were 
on the f K>fnt of sailing over to Syracuse in a 
fiv«*bAnked gaJtey ; were revolving iti th@vr 
mlndfl a banauet of lampreys to the senators 
at a thousand eestertia a head ; were ptitf«d 
up irith what they knew a1>oyt tlie freed man | 
of Cains Graechus' mother-in-law ; were the | 
vnprofisnioiial augurs (and they bored ns a | 
|rood d«al) of everything that was about to 
Mippen in the State of Home ; were the 
peculiar oracks of intelligence of a! 1 lb at had 
tak«is place« from tlie very earliest time«» in 
the piMiee and tbe senate, and in the pro- 
inlale of the Falkland Isles, and every 
on^le was wrong. Once, and once only, 
raf opened that Balbus (thauk goodness !) 
Ami of a malaria fever that be caught tn the 
Pontine tnarahes, and t realty began to think 
I had got lid of him ; but^ a few pages after* 
WKrda Kgo et Balbus quietty turned up 
again, tipping some wine of Copras that had 
been bottWd in the consuUhip of FlanciiSj 
and setting everybody to rights as usual ; 
history, pnblk opinion, universal testimony, 
the crreea of iges^ I had to sweep away in a 
single sentence of indifferent Latin, with all 
the principal wonJa crowded to the end of it, 
JQgt aa children keep their biggest guck-a-bolis 
In the h^t,&nd all upon the private authority 
«f the prenosteroQs Ego et Balbus. 

When I left school and became an university 
man, I flfttt^red myself that I had done with 
iKese gentlemeor (^ whoso foible was omni- 
td«nce?*)^itogethen Alas j I ilien began to 
meet Ego et Balbna, for the first time, as a 
lirtng tsrm— -whereof Ballms was the Co, ; — 
the sleeping pulnery upon whose credit the 
whale concern ex in ted. The momentous 
political question which then happened to be 
Of J I ' I he Union Society^ waa^ whether 

Pt rent's foster-mother was a Alor^i' 

vi*xj- wcip of the junior nobility was kind 
enough to rtse^ with arm extended and gown 



tot- irr- 



folded after the first classieal models, and 
inform the honourable bouse, upon his honour 
of the actual and not to be doubted fact : 

" I waive my hereditary rank," he said, 
" and stake my veracity — the veracity of a 
private gentleman — ^upon this matter, for I 
had it from my nuble father himaelf/' 

I need not say that Ego et Balbus carried 
it by an over whelming majoritj* Balbus, 
indeed; is almost always the Mrs, Harris of 
assertion, and exists only in the imaginatioii 
and for the corroboration of Ego, He is in 
very great demand with the party who oppose 
themaeives sysiematiefdiy to public opinion, 
and there i% happily for them, an unliniited 
supfdy of him. The government is, at all 
tinte.4, under the greatest obligaliona to 
Bftlbus ; Ego is alw&ya ready with ijmu-* 
memhle ca^es which entirely dbprovc the 
aaaertions of its calumulatore, and put things 
in quite another view than that which they 
appear in to the world in general He happeus 
to have a frieud (one Balbus) very poor, very 
proudj very wist^jwho has beuetitteo the country 
by his writiiig for half a century^ whom the 
prime minister himself tilled upon in his 
garret^ ust aa the Ri^ht Honounible Henry 
Boyle called upitn Addison — and blessed him 
in the name of the people of England, and 
bestowed npon him three hundred a-year for 
life. E^o remembers, as if it were yesterday, 
the toudiiiig gratitude of a poor deserving 
fellow in the war department (one Balbtu), 
who wa^ made a head clerk, with goodness 
knows what salary, purely oti account of his 
sagacity and diligence, Bgo knowa an 
instance of a tax being remitted in favour of 
a penniless patentee (of the name of Buihua), 
for a most useful invention, by a committee 
of aympathbing offictabr who paid the money 
out of their own pocketa, *' I could cile, 
says Ego (with perfect truth)) " a hundred 
other such examples of ready assistance 
which govurnmcnt has held forth to talent, 
and of muu 111 cent reward which it has tie^ 
stowed upon humble merit.** BalhuiiV te^ti* 
monyj tci>, is by no means confioed to the 
excellency of the executive of his own 
country. He knows^ from his own personal 
observation, ttiat the abb^s and nun^ of 
Min!^k were dealt with rather leniently than 
the reverse ; and that the late Emperor of 
Kussia woji distinguiahed for mildneai of 



^\ 



character and Christian sentiments. Rilhns 
formed also one of a benevolent board in- 
stitute<l by the King of Naples, to examine 
iuto the state of prisons throughout his do- 
minions ; and he knows ventilation, comfort, 
and ^ciL•ntifJC amusements to abound in them 
all. for the benefit of every poliiicd captive. 

During the late var, this countiy was 
positively teeming with accurate £go«!^ and 
triumphantly diiqiroving Balbi. Balous was 
generally on service ; and sending, by every 
jKwt, " tlie actual facts, sir," to Ego, as they oc- 
curred. While the correspondents of every 
other journal, English and foreign, and of 
whatever sect or party, were unanimous in 
their censure of the delays, mi8management|» 
nepotism, ignorance, and imbecility of onr 
government at home, Balbus was steady in 
its praise. He could see nothing but men 
with a superfluity of clothing, dwelling in 
comfortaVile wooden liousea, and sipping r^idy 
ground and roasted coffee at their ease. He 
was in the trenches, where things occurred 
precisely different from what fo<iiish people 
at home were led to believe ; he was in the 
light cavalry charge at Balaclava himself, 
and must l>e allowed (said Ego) to know 
something about the C-ardigan question. He 
was in the ho8i)ital at Scutari from the vory 
first, and found everything clean and comfort- 
able until the Times commissioner came and 
, made a diHturbauce there, where he wa8n*t 
wimted ; (Biilbus generally knew some- 
thing about the Times commissioner and 
correspondent, "personally, sir," and could 
tell Komething about them, if he chose, which 
would shut up those channels of false intel- 
ligence at once). He was in the Line, and 
had, upon his honour, a profusion of luxuries. 
He was in the GuanJs, and on the Staff, and 
had nothing for four and twenty hours to 
subsist upon, except a small piece of elder 
wood that had been steeped in rum. He had 
paid particular attention to the cavalry, and 
— with the drawbacks incidental to a state of 
war — he had never seen horses better pro- 
vided for, tlmu theirs. As far as his (Balbus*s) 
obncrvation went, he could not but record it 
as his o})inion that both the government at 
home and the commanders abroad rather 
ncj;lected their own relatives and connexions 
from ftclings of delicacy, and went out of their 
way to promote unariiitocratic desert. With 
refrard to diplomacy, he would say that he had 
the ln-nour of the friendship of a much ma- 
ligned Lord, and that a more aifable, sym- 
pntldsincr, and unassuming minister did not 
exist : Lgo, going about indeed, during that 
wlndo campaign, with I>:dbu8*s letters in his 
hand, was a new horror a<lded to war. 

Ego has a sincere pity for simple ignorant 
folks, who arc led away by mere appearances, 
evideuces, and results ; and perhaps it is hiu 
nol)lo and generous nature which always 
prompts him to side with very small minori- 
ties. He has a firm belief that the province 
and the interest of all public organs of 



intelligence is to lie as maeh as possible, 
and that one word of Balbus is better than 
a column of printed facts. He -has a large 
clerical acqaaintance (of the Balbi family), 
of great piety and learning, not cue of 
whom has received a less meed of their 
merit than a canon's stall. He knows an 
entire regiment (the Balbi Buffs) where 
there is no such thing as jobbing or specu- 
lating upon commissions, and where the 
re<ndation prices are never exceeded. He has 
a humble friend (Ego is generally most mag- 
nificently connecteil, and liaiid in glove wiui 
the House of Lonls and all the landed gentry, 
as apf>ears abundantly in his conversation 
and anecdotes) who is a parish doctor—one 
Balbus, M. B.C. S. — who has » hundred 
pounds a year for attending a single district 
of two thousand souls, with medicines pro- 
vided bv the Board of Guardians, and who 
is considered by the county families as quite 
one of themselves. He has an intimate 
acquaintance with a London magbtrate 
(Alderman Balbus) who has put tlie whole 
wife-beating business before him in its proper 
light. ^The actual facts, sir** (one of Ego*s 
most favourite cleuchers), ** are, that it is the 
woman's fault nineteen times out of twenty ; 
that she is not beaten at all ; that if she is, 
she likes to be beaten ; and that any attempt 
to procure a separation would be the small 
end of the wedge for unchristianising the 
whole country." 

Ego et Balbus on political and social ques- 
tions are pretty well understood by this time. 
There was a good deal of mistaken delicacy 
at first on the part of the general public, as 
to whether it was correct to contradict Ego 
or to question the accuracy of his omniscient 
friend, as a matter of personal politeness ; 
but the two at last grew insupportable. 
The House of Commons got hold of Balbus ; 
but had soon to let him go again. ''I 
hold in my hand," said Ego, rising in his 
place from the ministerial benches, " the 
proofs, the written proofs, of our perfect 
ari-angemeuts at Balaclava. I am not going 
to dinclose the writer's name, indeed, to 
a nation excited to fury by a hireling press ; 
but will content myself with calling him 
B , Lieutenant B ." But, the opposi- 
tion were not going to stand that sort of 
thing ; and, on the very next night, to do them 
justice, they held in their hands whole reams 
of communications from their Balbus^ giving 
quite a ditferent account of Crimean unitters. 

In private life, however, and upon do- 
mestic, literary, and general mattei*s, the two 
friends are as immmount as ever. They 
know something startling about the Emperor 
of the French before his acce.'^sion ; and when 
you have heard that^ they can tell you some- 
thing else about the Empress. Ego usutJly 
whiK|)crs these ]>ai*ticulars under his breath, 
as if gifudurmes were behind the door ; and 
upon the authority, of course, of his reliable 
foreign ii'iend, Monsieur Balbd. 



f 



itHckitM.] 



THE LAST DAYS OF A GEHifAN EEVOLUTIOE^, 



7d 



K«xt to ftntedoiea about tho OouTt, Ego to <lefend ; wid anjong thefm, th© armjr of the 



is gr^at^a^ 1 think; iu reiDinisoeucea of tlit? 
Cump untl the forum ; and in many of these^^ 
if ii<? jij«lg« his auiiience to be a tit one — he 
wUL di:^pense wjth Batbiin Altogether ; he 
then figiirc^a alone ; generally, in racirsg expe- 
rienc<^H and tretueudoua wiuuinga and lotiings 
at iijilimited loo and brar^. 1 have ktiown 
^ih reu oo veral Egos who have given me 
to aiider«tand bj biiit and nod, and affect ed 
■eere^Yi that they were the authors of thht 
** Advice to peraons aboi^i to marry," which 
affpe:^red hi Punch, as ** Don't ! *' and 1 hav« 
kuo^m^ at least, a score who were acquainteii 
with tbat fortnnate and well-paid Balbus, 
wht» received from five to five*and- twenty 
pouudi^ fur that brief wittietflDi. The £lngUali- 
nmn^ in the Timea jiewa|mper, has been 
in tr Of! need to me {always by hie personal 
friend) as Lortl John liilbua, as Thoina» 
Bit>ingtoii Balbus^ Mr barauel Balbiis, Q.C., 
and wen a» Mrs. Barker Eulbus, and Miis 
kliE;i liiiJhus, poetesses- in the duf^ of the 
mjiii in the iron mask, and doring the cireu- 
lation of tite letters of Jimiu^, B^Jbus 
muit have had a busy time of it. He 
wad worked pretty hard, when The Vestiges 
of Creation titmt eame out, and lately, since 
the tntbiicatifm of CMmreh Fartiea m the 
E^iinlnirgh Keview ; nor is it indeed unit«urd 
for nie to hear my owd popular and bnllijiiit 
ariicli^s appropriated, in ti>to* by the mueh- 
tenipted J^^o^ on beliHtr of hts auo&yinotia 
but sparkling friend l^albas. 

All of u^, publicly and privntely, Individu- 
ftlly and prorissionallyp have fiutfere<l mneh^ 
from this arrogating |.iain Our only way 
ii to tfeat tiiCir corabincd evidence as so 
tuneh ghtiist-^oiy which we wdl steadUy 
rffii>F» tji K*^(ieve, uniess from the lips of the 
Ft iid, peihafjs, noteven then. Theiv 

is V fear of Balbus Imug prod need 

10 o.iurt, or anywhere else ; but aa for kilJ- 
ing outright, and nmkhig an end of him, it 
ii AS much out of the question and lis itn- 
iHMatble, aa in the old time, when he eanght 
lii deathly fever iu the Pontine mELTshes. 



THE LAST DAYS OF A GERMAN 
KEVULUTION. 

Kv^EHTBDPT Tecollecta some thing of the 
Oerfuan jiarlianient that mt not very many 
^ears tv^tt tit Fraijkfort-on-the*Maine, and ha^ 
of tiie conatitution ematiatiog from it. 
duya, princea had reasouB of their 
promiaing aotae aatiafaction to their 
tecta. TweDly*eii|ht of them accord in ^dy 
td this Germanic ooustitutiou, and 
aome cvea went so far aa to have it sworn to 
by their soldiers. Change* again occnrriug 
In the aspect of affnirs^, the princee bet^^an to 
back out of their ph^lg^s. Armies found 
tlmt tiie oiiths th'.'y itiKl t^vken wereajccounted 
dead wonls atter the hipse of a few weeks. 
8«>me of them were filow tg nnderataod why 
tlie/ were tiot to defend what they had sworn 




Grand I>uke of Baden rose in a maas^ declare 
ing that it would defend the Germanic consti- 
tathm, though it was their own prince who aet 
it at defiance. The same thirjg occurj ed in the 
Eavurian Palatinate ; a ad it was aupi^it^aed 
that the aaiue would occur also iu Wurt em- 
burg, Theae things gave courage to patruitic, 
or, if you will so have it, revolutionary 
people, and in the movement maity join»»tl*— 1 
among others. The proceedings iu which I' 
took part may be eousidered very denio- 
cratic, and altogether wanting iu respectap 
bility. For tlie reassurance of sonie reiMkrs, 
therefore, I may say, that the najuo I hear 
ja knowu iu history as that of one of the moitt 
fjtmona kings of Hungary ; my ancestors 
hzLVe been firiucea aud kings, and have had 
rmf>ero]i3 for blixKi-relattona. When my 
great-gi'a^nd father aettled in Prussia, he built 
a ca»Lle there, and bou<;ht aWut thirty 
knightly estates. My grand father, who liad 
twelve floua^ became a Pruasran general. 
Several of my uncles held ako the highest 
rank in die Pru^iaa army, and aome I ell in 
tbe French wat^ 

I was educated at the cadet-schoola of 
Potsdam and B^^rlin ; arid^ at the age of 
seventeen, paaaed ik» a lieutenant in the 
Prusfiian army. Then, I de^piat^d civilinnS} 
and talked agruust cannille. The long (.fcace 
wearied me of drdMng-|^nud, parade, aud 
drawing-rooto, KeflectLiua grew upon me. 
To the horror of alt my aunts and tjhe-cou»iu«, 
I quitted military aervice ; to the greater 
hoiTor of nil my unclt^s and he^eouains, I 
tieciiae an author. To crown my folly, I 
ab.'indoned Prua>«La, and became a citizen of 
the free city of Fnmkfort ; aftcrwaitl« of 
Leipt^ic. The opinious expresded in my his^ 
lorical and other books, caused my nam© to 
be wiiiten in the black books of the govern- 
ments of Germany, In February, eigliteeo 
hundred and fu ity*eight, 1 wiyi in Paris ; hut 
not as a ^[tectiktor only of the revolution there* 
Yet I h:td no par^ in th» abnurd schemes 
and fool Lib theories hy whieii many of my 
oomradcM helptsd to bnug the cause cd pubhc 
jibetty to wreck, Fr^^sh from the experience 
of Paris, 1 went to the revolted (iraml Duchy 
of Btiden, wheuae the grand duke bud fled by 
uipfht, sittim^ upon n gon-carriagCp 

I write tlda true skeU^i from i^erBonal expe- 
rience of the extinction of a liiUe German 
revolution, for an Kngtieh public that hi^s 
bet^n taught to dwell rather unduly on ita 
Uttlenesfl, Ihe I^len revolution — guided, no 
doubt, by the coun^ela of a grett many fooJiah 
men ; for there is no lack of hot-headed direo- 
tion among democrats— ^wae^ at any rate, sup- 
ported by a regular army of twenty thouaand 
men, both cavalry and infanti^y ; by plenty of 
very good artillery j by a militia (chiedy 
without arms) eighty tlrjusaud strong ; axtd 
by many thouaands of the ciLi^uus arjd |^0pld, 
Tl;e little revolution was so far considered 
Ibrmidnble^ that one Imudred and Iweut^ 



4 



I 



thousand men, most of them Pnuaians, were 
B«Dt to suppress it-. 

When Mannheim was attacked, General 
M — repulsed the Hessians frpm the Neckar 
side, near Kafertlial, while I defended the 
Khine si<le against the Prussians. The Hes- 
sians retired directly ; but the fight with the 
Prussians lasted, with IntenraUi of course, 
for three days ami three nights. Though in 
this we had ihe upper hand, other events of the 
struggle forced us to quit Mannheim, and fall 
back upon the important fortress, then unfi- 
nished, of Bastadt. My regiment, which had 
been chiefly composed of the inhabitants of 
Mannheim, disbanded itself on our departure 
from that town, and I had nothing to do in 
Bastadt but make myself generaliy useful, 
until, when I was at the gate departing from 
the fortress, I was detained by the soldiers, 
and appointed by them chief of the general 
staff; which position burdened me with the 
defence of the place against^the Prussians. 
To a public fresh from reading about Sebas- 
topol, I shall say nothing of our little siege 
of Bastadt. We made mJUcs, and endured 
bombardments ; but it was unreasonable that 
six thousand men should be left to their fate, 
without proper provisions, in an unfinished 
fortress, u>r the defence of which even twenty 
thousand would not have been force enough. 
Our little army was, moreover, disorganised, 
and the relief promised us in a fortnight, 
was thought about no more. We did all 
that was poasible; and, after a siege of 
four weeks, when the commander-in-chief 
of the Prussians, (General Count G — , 
summoned the fortress to surrender, and 
assured us that our case was hopeless, for 
that there was no sign whatever of an effort 
for our rescue, we asked leave, before giving 
him an answer, to send out beyond his lines 
persons who might see what hope the garri- 
son could think itself entitled to maintain. 
This leave was given, and I went^ accompa- 
nied by a Prussian oflicer. Count &— , and an 
old woman of a major of our own. We 
travailed through Baden to Constance, and 
assured ourselves that the garrison of Bastadt 
had been, a fortnight ago, left to its fate by 
tlie revolutionary army. The garrison, there- 
fore, empowered me, after my return, to sur- 
render on the best conditions I could get; but 
on some conditions, be they what they might, 
to surrender before nightnlL Many of the 
soldiers had become as unruly and as selfish 
as the meaner sort of men become on board 
a sinking ship. The stores had been all day 
ravaged by plunderers. At night, nobody 
could say whether, by some desperate wretch, 
the Prussians might not be let in, and the 
defenders of the fortress treated, not as the 
garrison of a surrendered town, but of a town 
taken by storm. All lost by this. The 
Prussian General had not been unwilling 
to accede to my suggestion that we should 
ne^rotiate for our capitulation with the Grand 
Duke of Baden, a more merciful man than 



the Prince of Prussia was supposed to be. 
The necessity for an immediate surrender 
made the surrender almost uuconditionaL 
Some favourable points were, however, con- 
ceded in the few conditions written by tha 
General Count G — himself ; namely, that we 
should be treated as prisoners of war ; that 
martial law should not be used against us ; 
and that "only a few of the ringleaders 
should be submitted to an examination." 
The general promised to use his personal 
influence with the g^rand duke, in a way 
favourtible to the garrison, and said he would 
remember me especially, if I caused the sur- 
render to be effected throughout, without 
conflict or disturbance. In all that he said, 
and afterwards in all that he did, I believe 
Count G— me&nt well, and felt well, aa an 
honest gentleman. 

All haviiiff been arranged, the general, 
after he had written down the terms of 
the capitulation, rode away, as I was told, 
to the Prince of Prussia. He did not re- 
turn ; but there came, instead of him, a 
major of his staff, who said that he had 
powers to sign on his behalf. Knowing 
that there was much work to be done by a 
commander who had to organise amon^ troope 
widely scattered, the prompt occupation of a 
town, 1 did not mistrust this substitution. 
Now, I believe, that it was meant to save 
the general from ple<]ging his name to pro- 
mises which it was thought inconvenient to 
fulfil In the afternoon, therefore, we marched 
out to lay down our arms. Means of escape were 
offered to me by a friendly family. But flight 
at such a moment would of course have been an 
act of baseness. Yet, had I fled, I might have 
been fit for the friendship of a knot of men 
living by revolutions, and most careful not 
to die by tliem, who said that I had received 
a million of florins as the price of Bastadt, and 
that I was living at ease in Spain. I beings 
when they said this, at Bruchsai pining in a 
solitary prison. 

On our way to the gates, I rode mero« 
the Bastadt market-place, and could not 
help laughing at sight of the town -hall 
dedced out with the grand duke's colours, 
and the mayor and corporation on the bal- 
cony all ready to repeat^ with a few modifi- 
cations, the same speeches they had made 
but a few months ago to the victorious people. 
*^ Good bye, comrades^*' I cried to them ; 
"the wind is changing, but your aaila 
are admirably trimmed." A battalion of 
militia snmanded me with words of hearty 
sympathy, as if I were already going to be 
shot; for that fate was to be expected for us 
ringleaders. 

Arrived at the last barrier of the fortrees^ 
I found, contrary to stipulation, the Plrussian 
troops already upon the gUcis. I cried out 
against this, and turned my horse. A Prua- 
sian lieutenant-colonel shouted to me, " You 
shall not return ; stay here." "I «>," I said, 
" to ensure order ; " and rode back, followed 



J 



AirtetDkka..] THE LAST DAYS OF A GERMAN BETOLUTION. 



77 



I- 



with msullin^excl&m&tionii. In tbis spirit the 
whcite act of Burrtfiiiier wab meU I forbear 
di't&ltdt Arms having been laid down, wg wera 
l««l by ftu cifiSeer and a stroui^ ^uard througb 
llie mrtin ditch iuto the largest of three 
f^rts of Koatiult. Our horses w«re i^kan 
from UB, riot« being mada of tbem, and of 
ilieif owEiers' oiitiieii ; njy c^u riage with our 
higgnge, siDt^e it could not follow througb t)io 
diU'h, hitd gone rciuod by the town gate, 
where it waa pluudered by the PruiaLin aol^ 
^iera. The eotiviu^ndaiit, however^ who wna 
a brave «t»d iioneet mnjurt procured restitu* 
lion* llie fortreas not beiiig known to th^ 
Primal ana, they were at a luas how to find 
quartent for ua of the general staff; and we 
were kept waiting till dark befure a Jocked- 
up woiKieu bannck. At last, ther« came up 
a Badt^n m&u, an officer^ who for hia pt'tty 
tyranny had be^a both turned out aud cud- 
gelled by his troops. ** So 1 " be aiud, ** I can 
find titter qniirti^t* than ibis bitrrack for the 
gentlemen of the staff.** By hm directions, 
we were led through a dark poatarn down a 
Btoue stHirca^ to the lowest casemates; 
namely, those which seized for the defeucQ 
of the mam djteb. Two little dens were 
there ateigaed to us; while, on our right 
hand, two hundred nieD were driven and 
ptniiod like sheep in the casematei situated 
m the escarps beueath the courtine. These 
places* never meant for human oecupation, 
were dripping with water, and the uii paved 
floors wens aimply pooU of mud. With niglit- 
fall, heavy rain set in, and the wind blew 
ihttAUgh the open loopholes, so that, although 
thes# events were hap{>euiiTg in the mid- 
soniitker seanon — for wJiich reason nmnj of 
us were clad thinly — we were very cold/and 
we feU severely the want of straw, light, bread, 
lad water — severely^ bnt not aerioualy* We 
choee to keep oiurselvea alive with soug and 
latightar^ Some of ug had good store of 
cigMfi about UBj and we bor^ our trouble 
well until we dropped one by one mtQ 
our h^la of mud, and slept. X did not like 
to throw m^'ttelf on the ground without 
XMne little ctreumspectiou, and lighted a 
matcbf to get a brief glimpse of the comer 
I had cho«en. A pair of fine large toada 
looked at me gravely with their bnUiant 
•yes, whereat my ejcckniationa awoke several 
■ie«p€m, of whom one or two eonld tell of 
nrrBterious touches on the face and hands. 
We mad« no great stir, and I went to bed 
upon two majors* They, being sound asleep, 
I laid my head on oue aud my feet on the 
Other, without putting them to any incon* 
venience. 

Next morning, we were all in wretched 
plight Major W — , always the trimmest man 
of ibe whole sUtf, was chattering with faverf 
moasiing in Frt'neb for eolfee, roaring in 
Polkh for deftruction upon Prnsaiaj;?* Alany 
4>f *MT men had taken, on tlie hiist duy of 
tbeir liberty, unwi^ diiiughta of the Sfiur 
Ua^en wme^ and were enduring agonies of 



thirst f while the whole atmosphere waa 

thick and sultry from the breathing and 
smoking of so many people in so damp aud 
narrow a den. The lioor was thundered at for 
wj*ter,and at last the Prussian sentinel brought 
ua a bucket full, and set it on the fitairciise, 
Dirty as this water waa^ there was a rush 
for it^a light for it. Many por feili>wa 
crept back nnniitistied, with parched lips and 
tbr«jbbing heads. All thla was litil^ in ac- 
cordance with the proniisea of General O— 
and the accepted terma of the ca[iitulatioa, 
1 wrote, therefore, a note to bim iu pencil, 
asking fur dog's allow an ce, simply straw and 
water* Towards night, we got plenty of 
water, and some very bad bread. We had 
made friends with some Prussian aoldiera, 
who procured for us a jug of wine, Tlje 
cigars still held out, and we held out too* 
singing ourselves to sleep, aa dLfiautly m 
ever* 

On the morning following, my note pro- 
dut^ed its effect; We oJhcers of the staff were 
oi'dered up to two small eiiaemates situated 
on the berme of the main ram pari. The 
berme being the brim of the main ditch on 
the eacarpe, theeio casemates were above 
ground, and reasonably dry. Their loop- 
holes were glared, aud a large window 
that 0|:>ened on a little yard lying between 
them gave sufficient air aad light. Stn^Wi 
aud a few coverlets and small camforta 
obtained for money, made this place of 
durance tolerable enough* In the course of 
a few more dnya, aUo, our relaiioim with the 
Fru^iau soldienj underwent considerable 
charvge. They had been taught to regard 
the democrats as ruthans; they found tihat, 
if misguided, our common soldiers (with ex- 
ceptions such as are to he found on both 
aiuee) were, on the whole, brave aud kindly 
folk, sons of farmers and others— persons, in 
Jact, of the same rank with themselveti - while 
the leadei^ who misguided tbem — if it must 
be that they did niisgnide — were gentlemen, 
in fact, more courteous and humane than 
many of the olhcem they were tbemaelves 
accustomed to obey* They fouud that wo 
had treated kindly all the prisoners we had 
in ilaatadt, Cowl- will sprung up, therefore, 
between us and many ot tlie meu appoiLited 
to keep watch about ns. This happened the 
more easily, since, of the regiments that had 
been brought against ua^ several Mere noto- 
riously dia posted to ayiupathise with our 
opinions ana efforts, and had been mai^hed 
to Baden, with the cannon, ready lofided^ at 
their backs* One i^ginvent, not to be quelled, 
was disarmed upon the road and Lwirched 
back into Prussia- 

W^e w«re most annoyed by the conceit of 
the yonng ollicert, Ueutenanta and others, 
who took jde^^ure in coniihg among IH to 
enforx^e lijuiage, aud, at a cheap rate, prove 
their dignity by a anfe insolence towards 
their elders and their betters. Major W^ 
commandant — ^though he was hrmly ot opinioa 



I 



4 



I 
I 



4 

1 



that we all onght to be shot— knowing what 
the terms of the capitulation had been, did 
all that he could to secure some approach to 
a fulfilment of them. He behaved like a 
gentleman and a Christian ; and we honoured 
him, though we did wish that he had not 
held it to be part of his Christian duty 
to preach sermons to us about our sins, 
and our sins to our people in the different 
forts and bastions, dnce, when some of the 
prisoners were shot while in the aet of 
escApiug, the major made sermons of their 
bodies, ordering them to be placed upon 
boards and exhibited in all the prisons. 

The revolution being quenched, and the 
people utterly quelled, no compulaion to 
mercy pressed upon the conquerors. Tlie 
government of Baden, conscious that it had 
provoked the outbreak by its own misma- 
nagement, and bein^r really in the hands of 
kindly men, was inclined to clemency. The 
Prince of Prussia and his adherents, glad of 
an opportunity, off their own ground, of in- 
flicting a severe blow on the Uennan demo- 
crats, without putting themselves to any in- 
convenience, urgcfi severity. The promises of 
General Count 6. were set aside as informal, 
being given without reference to a superior 
authority, that of the Prince, who was at the 
time present in Baden. Nothing more was 
said of us as prisoners of war; we were 
treated and spoken of as captured male- 
factors. Court-martial law was put in force 
against us, and our judges were Prussians — 
officers and soldiers of the regiments we 
had been fighting with ; men who had 
seen their friends and brethren fall under 
our balls, who themselyes carried woonds of 
our inflicting. 

Especially were the Prussians eager for 
the punishment of such of their own country- 
men, officers in their army, as had pailici- 
pated in the Baden outl»^eak. As I was 
known to have been at one time in the 
Prussian service, I was one of the first men 
called before the judge. It was not credited 
that I had ceased to be a Prussian and 
belonged to Saxony. I could have proved the 
fact easily, but gained several weeks of valu- 
able time by leaving them to arrive at their 
own assurance in the due official way. 

The spirit of revenge by which the Prus- 
sian leaders were actuated, seemed to us 
i)rov(?(l by the haste they showed in bringing 
I. R to trial. This gentleman had been 
secretary to the parliament ; and, during the 
Batlcn revolution, was attacheil as a non- 
combatant, to the ministry of war. During 
the siege of liaatadt, ho kept up the spirit of 
our ])eo])le by publishing a p.itriotic journal, 
in which the Prince of Prussia was not too 
politely dealt with. lie was the first man 
w'hoRO bloo<] soaked into the saml of llnstadt 
11ie soldiers, not yet used to fusillades in cold 
blood, wavered, and the victim still living 
after the muskets had been fired upon him, 
was despatched with bayonets. 



One of the next men shot, was onr governor 
of Bastadt, whom at the time I found it hard 
to forgive for having resisted every request 
to destroy his papers before the entry of the 
enemy into the town. He would not^ he said, 
bum historical documents ; and so he left 
them to be seized, and to furnish evidence 
enough for the destruction of a score or two 
of lives. The governor was followed to the 
fatal ground by an old colonel. The bullets 
carried far away, a piece of his skull with 
one of his long grey locks attached to it 

Prussian soldiers brought us tiding! of 
these things as we endeavoured to be 
cheerful iu onr casemates. Our servant 
had dressed some rou^h boards into a tabde 
and benches, upon which we played at oliesi 
with fiffures made of bread. The victnali 
allowe<^ being very bad, and the oon* 
ditions under which the men lived fearfuUj 
unwholesome, great mortality arose among 
them— pent in the cells to which we had at 
first been taken ; but of us, none became iU. 
We were better loilged ; and a doctor, one of 
our fellow-prisoners, had wisely coanaelled 
us to make free use of cherry brandy. We 
had among us no small store of learning, 
wit, and knowledue of the workL Old Colonel 
K. had seen a good deal of servioe during the 
French war, to which his scan bore honour- 
able witness. He had sojourned for a long 
time in Constantinople, and in several sta- 
tions on the coast of Africa, whence he cams 
to France. He had been on his way through 
B^ulen to hia home, where he had wife and 
children, when he was made, by the revolu- 
tionary government, colonel of the Hungarian 
legion. We disliked his Austrian uuuinera^ 
and a too subservient way towards onr con- 

Saerors ; but, he was a brave man never- 
leless. EL's ailjutant was a hungry fellow 
who could never wait for dinner, and was 
noisy in his sleep; for the last-mentioned 
crime he was banished of nights to an ad- 
joining compartment of our casemate, whers 
he talked to his Fanny, questioning her coo- 
d.uct, or quarrelling with her diooolate, which 
he said smelt horribly. Lieutenant T. who luid 
been in Finland, sang us Finnish songSL 
Major R, who whs an able en^neer, told us 
of the adventures he had had in Venice and 
elsewhere. Major W., who had fought in 
Polish battles, had good military tales to 
tell, and as the most onlerly nuin in onr 
party, was elected major-domo of the dun- 
geons. M. S., a handsome merry fellow, 
who had been editor of a liberal pa|)er, and 
as a born Biivarian believed in beer, amused 
us with incessant jokes, and sang almost 
hourly his beer l^Tic of Hihlebr»ind autl liis 
9fm Iladubraud. These wore tlie soi-t of 
men who formeil our company. 

The iirnt great siiock to onr mirth came 
one morning after we had finished our suiali 
dinner — ^a measure of soup with a hit of d(>g*s 
meat in it — when we were invaded by a lii>st 
of Prussian officers, corporals, even civiiiau% 



ok«rt«DM«L] THE LAST D^YS OF A QEEMAK REYOLUTION, 



70 



^KrttSi 



$md geiiii-d*dnnei, with attckSi whd bade lid 
pack up antl prepare to march* W0 expected 
changi; of quarters, but were mjirched Lntry a 
mfiaduw^ aud there ordered to strlp^ Wt» 
were ieftfched rigidly ; every thing that we 
had of 'vtdaBf our watches fiiid e^en our 
moitej, w&B taken from us, estcepb ao al- 
ran^ of teu piece a*pjece for oecesiiiry 
t ta each persofl ; aiid to rae, aa having 
ehief rank, the sum of half-a-erowu. 
T))e reitnon assigned for these proceed ioga 
WJW the ptundiiring by many of our soldiers 
in the las tr days of the siege ; for the recovery 
of utol^u prtoperty aearuli hud been made, the 
town anilioritiea aaaiatiaej through all the 
prbous aud upon th^ pe 1*8011 of all prisouera, 
Xlie re«nlt wiAi that La se ven*! caae matea— ^tpe- 
cinUy thoi« occupied by the artdleryraeu — 
81 uch «?■■'- -^ * -.--...» ^x ^, ,^g f^i ^^ j^ p^-, j^ ^y^ jg pj, aaon 

we «utl i were rol>bed iu turn. 

The ruc;^. ..,,., .;,..»^.:.ijit poase of staff offioera 
til stiirts and drawers mui^t Ijave very much 
fttii unveil oiirsearchi'ti, who, wheu they liatl done 
ill J, pointeit to li hi^ap of old clotheo, 

w t ' . 1 uiu nui of eu I u m on aold ie rs of th e 

Bttd^n jaiiiy, out of whicli they ba^Je ua fit 
ttaraeives with ^I'meitts. t)td Colonel IC^ 
■hAking with agitation ot niiud^ griimhled in 
hli Waird that Im ha^l been amou^ Turk» and 
Mttoi'df but never before hail seen conduct 
like this. Tfie liaden private aoKlier^ ate a 
Wan racf« ami pour K. lat>oured in vain to 
^% a (K^rUy per^n iDto any of tba troujicrs 
placed at hi^f diepu^aL 

When wo were all back iu our kenn^^^ we had 
i#vvr.il li.Mirs' amuMeinent at the expense of 
or:' We were grotesi pie 3peetaele»; 

Bin .|ue of all, our acrii|iult>uB friend 

Sh whueti hand^me figure and ne:it dreaa 
lilid always been the envy of biti clumsier 
ocmipaiipini. He hail arrayed bhut^elf iu a 
ootun^on aoldiei'a jacket much darned, with 
exceedingly shoi't skevea, and reactiiug 
sot quae to the waist, with only tUriat^ 
butloua ; trouaera darned and patclied in 
many phtcea, em^ing not V4^ry far below hia 
kntea, wfioUy tieititute of buttouSf and alung 
ovrr tlu3 tihuuldera with a piece of pack- 
thrvad. Old IL was still grumbling and 
ing imjioA^iijilllieR^ while Major W*, in 

Trecruit's old clutlics, pushed hia cap back 
on his head, and praoti«ed the gooee^atep 
wiih gteat relkli. The eomedy became a 
tn^Tf^dy uext momiiig, when we diaeovered 
Ibllt th«ae clothefi were iufesteil with vermin, 
. day or two afterwards, I received orders 
I olHcer to pack up and follow him. I 
so with a he;4vy iieart, for this looked 
like the beginning of the enil. Before the 
i^rn I wa^ deUiiucd to await the coming 
another prisoner^ who proved to be a 
iill«Lineu well known and honoured in 

Ji*4land — Dr. KmkeL* He had bet^n fellow 
deputy with me at Bertm iu the second de- 
HMcmik e^nsTBa^ I did not know liiat thtj 



• See Uou^hold W^^rdsi ToL IL, pa^ 13L 



good poet and able man had been in Badon, 
still feaa did I know thut he was prisoner. 
We were led to the same ba^ioui but not 
quartered together, I waa to replace, in a 
casemate on the second floor, a comrade wlio 
had just been shot. This chamber wa^ built 
for prisoners, and its tirat inmate had lieun 
M» von Strove* My conjj)anion in it waa a 
Bavarian maj<ir, who was confidently ex- 
pecting to be indulged by hia own govern^ 
ment with a few years* arrest^ as bis offence 
hail stopped short at the quitting of hia 
regiment. The hope was vain. Ha was de- 
livered up and shot. My positioii by change 
to this pnaon was again improved. We had 
pallets upon which to aleep, were allow tad 
to procure bouka, and could get d inn en 
from the towm Tfiere was also a yard in 
which we met other pnaouers when suiTtired 
to take our daily airing. 

One afternoon while I was confined here, 
Dr. Kink el called to me ; and, when I came tu 
tbo window, told me that my wdfe waa 
eoniing* She had written to me to die rather 
than fall into the hands of the Prnssiiimi ; but, 
having fallen into their haudi-t, w^o^ deter- 
minea that I should not die if woman^s zeal 
and devotion could prevent it, tsho had 
tr.'tvelleil to Potsdam ; she had plt^aded for 
my life with many iniluentLal peraons ; but 
they all told her that my destiny was in the 
handB of the generals at Baden, To Baden, 
therefore, ^he went ncKt, aud, being nt^ar me^ 
apeot her time altnost inceAaant^ on the 
road between Rastadl and leaden BadeUj 
where she appealed to the General, Cuuut G* 
Thence, too, she journeyed constantly to 
Carlaruhe, Mannheim, every place to which 
the ]ei\st giiinmtfr of hope enticefi her. 

Then it was t!iat the desire bt^amo strong 
in me to sjive the life she valued. I wrote to 
General Count G^ reminding him of his un- 
sought prutuisc to remember me if we com- 
pleted without disorder the aSatr of the 
suiTender* I even planned csciLpe and ground 
ti|ion our atones a rough key made of au iron 
hook tern from a shutter of th^ guard-la oui^e. 
It would turn ODe bolt of our lock, by the 
time that I leaiTit by a letter from Count G^ 
and by report of others that he had been 
honourably miniifal of his promi^; that he 
had interceded for me with the grand duke ; 
and that he meant again to do so. I wrote 
the good news to my wife^ and began hoping. 

My preliminary examination waa conducied 
by a Baden judge, who acted with gre^t faijN 
ness. Unfortunatyly^ the l;^te goveru'jr's hia- 
toncal documents were chiefly in my hand' 
writiiig, I was charged, esi>eciaUyi with hav iug 
convmand*5d the bomhurduientof the Prusiiiiins 
in Ludwigaliaven— oppnsite Miumhisini^ — and 
with having delayed^ by my epeeches and 
actions, the surrender of ^tstailt. L€:gal 
proofs would still have been ditficidt to bring 
agarnst me if my adjutant in Mannheim had 
nut — lieing absent in prlsoii'-^received the 
news of the iujrreuderof Rdistadt as evidence 



I 

ji 

li 




of treason on my part, and therefore felt no 
hesitation to play traitor against me, by 
offering such evidence as, taken with every- 
thing else, left me few reasons to show 
against my being shot. The jndge recom- 
mended to me, for my help before the court- 
martial, a very able advocate of BmchsaL 
This gentleman busied himself in producing 
and rebuttine evidence ; but, knowing how 
court-martia& act and think — since I had 
sat on them myself— I relied more on my 
own ])ersoual appeal It was not usual to tell 
the prisoners beforehand on what days they 
were to be severally tried. A Prussian 
officer, however, had the courtesy to let me 
know that the fifteenth of September (one 
thousand eight hundred and forty-nine) was 
the day on which I was appointed to appear 
and answer for my life. 

On the eve of that day I bade &rewell to 
my friends, and, covering the window with a 
cloak, lights not being permitted, I prepared 
during the night my defence ; then slept, 
while my good wife was busy in Mannheim 
searching after witnesses. She interested 
many who were to be brought up against me, 
and I think not withont e^ct. In the morn- 
ing the friendly hostess of the Three Kings, 
in Bastadt sent me chocoUte and a bottle of 
cood wine, to give me courage for the work I 
had to do. Breakfast was not over when 
certain gens-d*armes — who had once been 
ready to lick my shoes — now distinguished 
themselves by brutality of manner in their 
deaiiDgs with me. They came to convey me 
to the palace. The carriage the^ placed me 
in moved very slowly, because of the throng 
of soldiers who escorted it. Tlie people 
in the streets, who loathed these bloody 
court-martials, came to look at me oft«^n : 
not without loud expressions of their sym- 
pathy; and the gen3-d*armes were busily 
engaged in taking note of the chief sympa- 
thisers. 

The court-martial was held in a large 
saloon in the palace. I found it thronged ; 
and there was a crowd without, to look m at 
the windows. One part of the room was 
raised two steps above the rest, and, on this 
dais, there sat behind a table covered with 
green cloth, my seven judges. To the right 
of them, within a pulpit, sate the public 
prosecutor with a secretary at a little table 
behind. A little lower down, on the same 
side, was the pulpit of the judge who had 
conducted the preliminary investigation. 
Parted from the space given to these officials 
by a barrier, was the pulpit of the counsel 
for the prisoner; and at its side was the 
bench on which I sat, having gena-<l*armes 
with loaded arms at either elbow. 

The public prosecutor charged me with 
every offence puuitthable by martial law, 
treason excepted ; as I was not one of the 
Grand Duke*s subjects. He exhibited me 
after tlie manner of a showman. "There, 
gentlemen, you see the fierce and bloud- 



;y tiffer; 

brought before you, smaller vermin; but 
you see now the most cruel beast of the 
whole tribe.*' I was denounced in a 
speech full of virulent personal abuse as 
one of the beginners of European revolution, 
and as a person whom it was essential to 
see instantly shot. My own advocate wrote 
on a slip of paper which he gave me, that 
he was much pleased by this unskilful be- 
haviour. When my turn came to defend 
myself, I spoke for two hours ; speaking for 
m^ life, and trusting merely to the tone of 
this direct address for any chance of life I 
had. The speech was published and praised 
even in hostile papers. The impression made 
bv it on the assembly ;was certainly lavoiir- 

It was then asked by the President of the 
court whether I wished the witnesses to be 
sworn f They were sworn, and the^ per- 

§lezed the court much by their evidence, 
'hey were most of them artillerymen, who 
had served nnder my orders ; and in a 
former process against one of their captama 
(believing me to have escaped into Swiis- 
erland), they had, for the benefit of their 
imperilled comrade, diverted all the blame 
they could from him to me. Now that 
I was on the prisoner's bendi, they were 
desirous to reverse their policy, and gave 
their evidence as far as they conld with a 
view to my aoquittaL The public prosecutor 
losing temper, exclaimed to the judges, * If 
yon do not condemn this fellow, the world 
will say you favoured him because he was 
your countryman.** The audience, chiefly 
composed of Prussian officers, murmured its 
indignation. " It is more likely that the world 
would say he was condemned because be was 
vour countryman,*' my counsel answered, and 
he then made an excellent speech on my 
behalf: 

While my counsel was speaking I looked 
at my judges, and saw little hope in their 
faces. One, was a (air insignificant-looking 
corporal, who was evidently feeling the 
discussions tedious. Another, was a thin pale 
young second lieutenant, with a little head on 
a long neck. Tiie captain was evidently one of 
those whose soul poured itself out only on 
drill ; he had nothms in his head but buttons 
and shoe leather, llie first lieutenant was a 
man who drank, and liad wine in h i s braina The 
Serjeant was a man with a black beard, who 
kept his eyes gloomily fixed on the table, and 
the common soldier was a man after the shape 
and pattern of the major, who sat as presi- 
dent of the court in the middle, stout and 
stolid. When these j udges retired, I was taken 
into another room where a captain, who had 
been in youth one of my comrades at the cadet 
house, sliortoned the time for me with his con- 
versation. Atler the lapse of half an hour he 
bade me take courage, for the long delibera- 
tion was unusual, and a si^ of dbsagreenient 
among the members of the court. The deli- 



INGUSH COAST FOLK 



SI 



htrMiion cume^ hoircver, to an end, and I waa 
Jed biw?k to my bencJu I'he judge* enterlnsr 
fiT« minutes &flerwania^ looked rather 
fieahedf but that was alt " Wiiattrer the 
v«rdie%'* whi«f»erec1 tny mivoeate, ** I am sure 
yoti will bear it like a man," The court was 
huBheii, and, the vhole aaBemblj iLiuditii^, a 
loi*^' decision wai read by the preaideijt, 
«iiflmg with this: "Bentenced to death hy 
being i*hot^ and lo pay the expenaea," 

A low murmur ran through the aaB^mbly, 
The blood aeemed to run back to my heiirt 
(or WM instant. But I «jts soon myself a^aio, 
and might ha^e amileiJ ha^t I nut known that 
ioy p^^or wife was awaiting the daciHton of the 
oo«irt, cndy a few houcea oC 1 tJianked my 
*«t vocate. I i was the dark »erj cant, who I knew 
had been boldiog out againat bia oiSeera. 
The g«eiiad*aTme« mcoompauied m« back to the 
^itriaga wbicfa warn waiting In the eastle yard. 
A erowd snrronnded us ; butmy thoiighia were 
only witli nay wife in the hotel of the Three 
Kings. At laat the i^ensd'armea entered the 
earria^e^and ittrmTeiled r lowly over the rough 
pavemeut, Frniaiaai told t era c^u&rdlng jL In 
the upper atoty of the iou, all windowa were 
elo^^l; biit^ aa we ttamai the comer I heard 
A ahHek from behmd one of them of 
the groifnd-fioorf and aaw a hand stretched 
towardi me, I Ttcogn'metl my wife'a voice 
and leaned out tow&nia her. The ge&ad'amies 
putheti me bftck into my aeat^ and the coach 
foiled on* 

I bare toll* ** - Bofjen rerolntlon waa 
qtielleti^ T i what befeJ me at a »eii- 

t«tiGed refoliii.^^Mi^L i^ more petiKtnaL I will 
UU it ; but tuot t4>Hiay« 



ENGUSH COAST POLK. 

S^Sfe dfacnbers connect the motrntain 
I of Hie Btitkh blanda with what they 
^M 8«aAdhiaTian mnge. iWtaulfta find 
Ibe Scao^tBatiao S«;ra upon the Britiah 
Snoit^taina. The portton of the Scandinavian 
nui^ wkieh f<»rmi the montit^Liu ay ale m of 
SooUand, numing from north-east to toutb- 
vcatt lisea m the north -wetstem part of 
SeoCbnd Into m table-bad about a tbcvtaand 
orlwo Uidoaand f^t high, which ends abmpUy 
la ibe aea. It b covered with beath^ gtaaa, 
•ftfl iicat-t n on ea . Some of the retnaatiMof 
Ite HighJanden inhabit it «tilt ;aDd tbegrven 
y a icl i ea *■>■>§ tiie bmwii beathf mark ibe 
■Us of ib« homm of thm expatriated Celfa, 
§md tbe spoil horn wbence tfaej bave been 
dcarad away to Adke room for aheep and 
WlMn aecti frooi tbe top of Ben 
1^ tbt taomrdi of h«r moontatDa, Bco tknd 
a vasi nage of hkim hilla inlaid with 
nivar lakea Tbe weal eoast t» wild and the 
aMtkbliak. tTbe Mil vm the land oClh« 
f mad %M €*■! of tha Figlita The bleak 
Ml eoaet U evltifateid Ig &raiefi 
vhesua priaei b the agrlailtatal empeii- 
iioBB «f Che wmM. Al the a^Mthe of ibe 
of the eaei «eeat^ frou Berwiek to 



Cromarty, are a eenea of eeaporU wboae nbipe 
rlval^ for strength and apeed, tlio t>eet afloat 

I aubmit to the ethuologieul fltudentj that 
there ia a cur lone coineideuce nod a itiikuisf 
analogy between tbe physical and butitnical 
geo^rraphy and tbe Oc*eaaie itipri^niaey of the 
united kingiloms. Just aa the motmtalne 
bidang to the Scandioavtau range, the eove- 
reignty of the aeaa cau bo traced to the 
Stmndbi avian eol^mies eatabliiibed upuD the 
ooaata of Great Britain an^l irehinrl. Like 
oar mountain tlora^ onr aeafurlng population 
h chiefly of Banish, Swedish, and Norwegiaa 
oiigin. Wherever a port gave barboumge to 
sbip% and wherever a fish likg-stat ion could 
be aet np^ tbe Nortbmea eelxed po.-uicseloii of 
the cOMits, 6rthap bays, and emljouchuiee^ of 
tfie Britiab islands. The Eiorttiem piratesi ae 
the Latin nations calleii them^ who alartned 
theOanta of ibe Beine — the Ctdta of the Moray* 
and the S;4ions of the Humbert a thouaaiiJ 
year* ago — were indeed whiit they called 
themselveSf the Ben-kings g^ tbeir time, and 
Britannia ia th^flr daughter. Kesearehee into 
the origin i of nattoaa give a S^Mndinaviaa 
genealogy to the Lady of the Trtdt^nt on the 
backa of the copper coins, and the great aliip 
eeeti at her feet far in tbe offiag ii ber iiH 
berltance, 

Charlemagiie wept when he firat saw ibe Mt 
iaih of the Normana. Hltttoriamt say he roae H 
np from table, and going to a w inflow which ^ 
looked towards tbe eaett gazed from It a long 
time immoveiiye upon tbe ahifM in the die- 
tance* Teatu streamed down bis cheeka 
Nobodjr dared to speak to him. *■ My faitb- 
fuJ,** auid be to the grand eea around blm, ** I 
do not fear these pirates for my^elC But I 
am aiOicted that during my lifetime they bavv 
dared to insult tbli shore. I foresee tbe 
erils tbey will inilct noon my deaceudante 
and tbeir people.** Cbarlemagne was what Is 
politely caUeJ a conqueror, and tinptbtely a 
Drigand, and, of course^ he haii an ifi tense 
disapprobation of a pirate. IloweiF«r, brigandr 
age and piracy appear indeed bltherfo te bare 
disputed tbs mastery of tbs world. Omh 
^uerors or brigands, from Timor, AieTstioef^ 
and the Ctesaie, down to the OsmanlL the 
Hapebarfii^ the Hotnam^ and tbe 0ofia* 
partes ha^ lenled it over tbe parpuletieoe of 
the oeoiitieiite of Ekiro|»e and Am^ Their 
wdsoflTOii,eocesfti in gold andealMeeeptrai^ 
have terrified into »l^y^ the 
and races of men inhabiting the 
wbieb streteh fct*m tbe deseHe of 
the Straits of MaJaeea. Timor^dK _ 

and Bonaparte have had ofie a&d ihe awie 
fixed idea; *Tb«re is hut tm mac*" 
beaven«and there eii|^t to be b«ti e©s 
on earth.'* When, a ^o isart f 
Ca»r!emag|M mm the sails ef the 



he may have felt Imly and pr^pfa^»eeUT i 

1 ow with tbe so*«fy^^^ ™ 
Heia*araoswhee««ie***e»^" 



if was 




8S 



HOUSEHOLD WOBD& 



have not given the British of the nineteenth 
century a greater auperiority over the Chinese, 
Uiau their ships gave the Normans over the 
Franks of the ninth century. After domi- 
neering for a hundred vears over the north 
of France, a Frenchified colony of Scandina- 
vians, expressing northern ideas in Boman 
words, came over to England, and calling 
themselves conquerors, because the Norman 
pretender was victorious over the Saxon 
i>retender, have ever since given themselves 
the airs of masters among the inhabitants of 
the British islands. 

The coast folk of the British islands, by 
whom I mean the populations of ScancUna- 
vian origin, although they may not now be 
all ad<Hcted to seafaring pursuits, are the 
truest descendants and representatives of 
the Normans. ^ Their names prove it. Were 
I asked, what is the great aistinctive peeu< 
liarity of the Scandinavian, as distinguished 
from the Asiatic, Greek, and lioman nations f 
I should answer individual independence. 
From Paris to Pekin you will find tne notion 
prevalent, that it is right to have a master 
and obey his will. 

The passion for independence, which lords 
it over the whole of Scandinavian manners, 
luis ez})re8sed itself in many ways. I find its 
all-pervading spirit in everything I have read 
and everything I have ooserved of them. 
W hen Rollo, the ancestor of William, was 
bought with the duchy of Normandy to be- 
come a Frenchman ; Charles the Simple, the 
French King, required the duke to kiss his 
fout as his subject. The pirate refused, and 
i*equc8tcd a soldier to do it in his stead. When 
the AoMier stooped to kiss the foot he seized 
hold of it and threw the monarch on his 
back. I have seen a similar pride among the 
Sc(>tch Coast Folk. When the last of the 
Stuarts, instigated by their Jesuit advisers, 
tried to extinguish presbyteriauism in Scot- 
land, not a few martyrs were found bearing 
Scandinavian names. No doubt faith was 
strong in the Covenanters, but the hereditary 
independence of race must be counted for 
something in making up the strength of the 
heroiBm of which Scotland was the scene. 

The Scandinavian independence manifests 
itself among the Scotch Coast Folk by a 
severe abhorrence of debt. The penny wed- 
dinpr is a contrivance to avoid debt. Parisian 
work-people and French peasantry get into 
debt, proverbially, to give princely entertain- 
mente at their weddings. A short detention, 
they say, is of no consequence at the outset 
of the long journey of life. The Scotch fishers 
difler from this opinion entirely. A baker 
whose shop is near the head of tlie Leith 
Walk, Edinburgh, said to me, **I never re- 
fused credit to any of the Newhaven fishers, 
and I never had a bad debt During thirty 
years I have not lost thirty pence by them, even 
from mistakes." The humiliation of alms is 
still more unknown than the humiliation of 
debt. Indeed when any great calamity occurs^ 



such as the loss of many nets, or several bofata. 
they accept gratefully the money subscribed 
for them. Probably they distinguish, clearly 
enough, that in the presence of calamity no 
man upon earth can be independent of his 
fellows. But pauperism, the regular depen- 
dence of the poorer class upon the richer 
classes of society, is an unknown abuse. 

The stem austeritv of their manners in the 
last century was only another expression of 
their hatred of the humiliation of man hy 
man. Just as the Courts of Louis the Fooz^ 
teenth and Louis the Fifteenth, of a Duke of 
Weimar, or a King of Oude ^where the place 
of royal mistress was an olyect of ambition 
to all courtly families) are natural sequences 
of Ciesarism, the stem punishment of the 
pxx^igac^ which humiliates one man to 
another is a natural sequence of the proud 
independence of the sea-kings. Every young 
woman lived under the protection of the flag 
of the boat of her father. Every bride was 
enfolded in the flag of the boat of her hus- 
band. However stem the punishments of 
profligacy ma)r have been in former ages in 
Scandinavia, in the last centurj^ they had 
softened in Scotland into ducking m the river 
and riding the stang or pole. The Scottish 
Coast Folk had ideas exactly the reverse of 
the French, among whom court manners 
became popular morals. The results are as 
greatly contrasted as the ideas. Li Paris 
every third inhabitant is legally no man*s 
child. This saddest of all the forms of 
infancy does not occur in some fishuig vil- 
lages m Scotland once within the memory of 
man. Surely a hereditary code of manners 
which almost abolishes this form of cruelty, 
by which life itself is inflicted as an afiliction 
upon innocence, is worthy of the study of 
the students of society ! 

A story which was often told me with 
solemn awe, of a winter evening, related to 
an occurrence which took place at the Bridge 
of Don in the last century. A wealthy famuy 
from the south came to reside in a mansion 
in the neighbourhood. They brought with 
them several servants ; and, among them an 
impudent fellow who soon excited against 
himself the general detestation of the vil- 
lagers by his effeminacy and insolence. On 
arriving, the family took into their service 
an orphan girl whose father had been drowned 
at seS) whose mother had died of grief, and 
whose only brother had entered the navy 
during the American war. He had been 
persuaded to take this step by the gentle- 
folk who undertook to take care of his sister. 
The modesty, beauty, and forlornness of the 
orphan girl made her a general favourite. 
Early one morning the news spread 
from cottage to cottage that the young 
nursery-maid had disappeared during the 
night. Fears were entertained lest she 
should have fallen down aiuonff the rocks 
of the chasm and been hurt^ killed, or drowned 
in the Black Nook. That morning the fi<>hers 



QholtilHcivM.) 



ENGLISH COAST FOLK, 



Utgleeted tlie Bulmon^ tli« Inbourers their 
5efila) the workmen their ah ops ; ftud tlie 
De&reh for the lost girl woa the btiameM of 
the wfiole population. The poor youn^ girl 
^r^a fount I, lAittlng upon a ledge of rock in the 
chasm, with her he»d just utider the water, 
nnd her rigid haiuU cltitchlEig the edge of 
tlie ledge as if they were iron. How ahe 
could have managed to climb down, iiud 
where aueh a mild yonng creature oouLd hare 
got the coon^e of despair to hold fast 
while drowDingj were aubjects of diacussiou 
oflea dtBcuBsed by eerious people for many 
ji^fft afterwards. The explanation is in the 
ptiy&iologieal nature of asphyxia. The moment 
reapiratiun ceases^ the whole machine stops, 
When what Proffiasor Flourens calli tne 
brain of respiration, ia touched; when thti 
Tital knot la destroyed, the mnaclea retain 
th^lr poaitlon, j oat as all the wheeh and both 
the hand* of the dial of a watch mark the 
ItAtant when the main-spring snapped » The 
Bgi^d womati who performecf the luit offices 
of the deadj found out that the girl had 
beeu betrayed by her lorer, her unpopular 
feilow-serv^jit Proving his guilt by his 
cowaniioe, the fellow fled from the 
Itoua^* The enraged Yillagera suspected 
b© had iaktn refuge among tho trees and 
roeka of the northern cliff which over-hunga 
the eHasmi aud the sullen stream flowing 
through it. When his hiiliug-phice was 
di«coT€red, the village young men started off 
after him ; and rarely has there been a more 
femrfiil chace. Hii» fcar^ exaggerated his 
dangfT ; aud, to escape tlie eiposure of 
rkUng the stang or pole through the vil- 
iigf^ he risked death. Leaping from rock 
to rock ; a winging htmi^elf from tree to 
trii ; sctumbting among siirubs aud bushes ; 
concealed and discovered ; now fancying 
himself in security, anon perceiving his pur- 
tners to he surer-footed and more daring 
tlian he was ; he baffled the lads who hunted 
ham liM if be were a badger or a weasel^ until 
ht reachetl the very precipice beneath which 
Ml vietLm had been found a corpse. The 
&wd apprized him of the fact by their criea 
■xecrat i on. Farther escape hacl beeorae i m- 
Bible, for be was surrounded and hemmed 
\ ou all sides, Esmoiae and terror deprived 
jpm of hk head* After stagFering and spin* 
n>und, he fell, aud rolled from ledge to 
9 into the depths of the Black Kook, 
ten the boat which rowed swiftly to the 
bt filched him up^ the boatmen picked a 
entfd cor{:)^e out of a red circle of water 
the river. 
%,eepi as regarded a fow simple homely 
liOQaehold joys, tiie ideas of aJuuHement and 
reereatfou were sternly excluded from their 
cnMoma aud maunera. Youth waji brought 
1t^ itt accordance with the Ml I tonic line, 
*T<» icom deliglitji and liv6 l&bcitioui dajt." 
TKt^r loTi of indejjendeiiee gave them 
cvrjotfii notions of hospitality. Diners-out 
genondl/ will deem theii' notiotyi excocdinglj 



odd^ Spongeington, of the ancient and nobte 
family of the Spongfiin^toDB, will learn their 
views with equal surprise and scorn ; and 1 
fear he will say they are beneath contempt, 
without deigning to specify precisely wLat 
depth this may be* w hen an uninvited or 
unexpected guest arrived^ although a relii- 
tive, friend, or auld acquatntance, the circum- 
stance was not allowed to itivolve the family 
in an J unforeseen or unwelcome expHnBe.*?, 
He stood treat. It was not the bust, but the 
guest, who paid the extraordinary exjiei^ae of 
the social jolli'icatioo. Wlieu the visitor 
arrived, he wished to mve the chiMren a 
treat, having been a child himself, although 
now so big, aud eent one of them to the 
grocer's for the luxuries of the entertain- 
ment, including tea, sugarf aud splrita. The 
children, grateful for their sweet things^ 
always bttaated of the liberality of their 
visitor. "Uncle Willie came on Saturday, 
and was (spent) three ahillinga among us," 
** Uncle Bandy was four shillings the last 
time he was o'er the water*' — across the 
river. The Scottish coast notion m just the 
opposite of the idea which reigned in Castle 
Back rent of Hibernian renown i and |)erhap8 
it is none the worse for tiiat All over 
England and Scotland, wherever there is 
a neighbourhooii, there is a consul rac/ 
among the gentry to give mutual dinner 
parti es» Many a struggling man, when 
; sunk into difficulties by them, has been 
j readf to fancy them plots to~althou^h far 
enough from games at — beggar my ueigbtionr. 
But, the fishers were hospitable at their 
owu times and in their own ways. Old 
Gbriitmas or '^auP yeer* was always a season 
of good cheer. Labour ceased for several 
days. No boats went to sea. llie men lounged 
about, aud might be seen in the early pnrt of 
the day at the gabltveuds of their liousesj 
keeping themficlves warm by swinging tltelr 
arms with a movtiment which flans or chips 
the bands against the shouMera* iliey know 
their places in the world too well to ven- 
ture to remain within doors in the way of 
tiie women who wei'e busy preparing the 
feasts. Every boat*B crew gave a treat ou 
yeel day to their wives, their children, and 
a few iuvited guests. Generally, the guests 
were peraoua whose lot in life was lonely — 
such as single women, wiilowsj and widowers. 
The fare was capltaL The soup was Scotch 
broth, a soup only surpasseil by Scott^li hotcJi* 
potch : of course I aay this as an unprtija- 
diced Scotchman. The broth was ladled out 
of the pot, which stood near the flcv, as it 
wiLs wanted. The ouly fish eaten was a 
daluty prejiaration of dried Bkate, herbs, 
and other ingredients calloti tyawveu, I 
find myself sucking my lipa at the recoUec* 
tion of it. Did you ever eat itt No, of 
course not. Well, never mind ; we Cau*t all 
have en ten tyawven. However, I cannot me 
why tyawven may not be used as an ex- 
pression of insolence as well at caviar e* 



T 



Bi 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



COniMlM ^ 



Have I not belonged for forty years to the 
multitude who have had caviare thrown in 
their faces ? If a preparation of the roe of 
sturgeons has furnished an occasion for three 
centuries of sneerap why not permit a little 
self- glory over a preparation of ray -fish? 
Eoast beef and mutton formed the soliii 
strata of the gastronomical creation. A cake 
made of flour, raisins, and currants, was 
placed in the middle of the table, and at- 
tracted the happy eyes of the childien. The 
tattle equipage was less ample, it must be 
confessed, thau was desirable. There was a 
deficiency of earthenware plates. Only 
the carvers had knives, with which they 
hewed down the meat, which was eaten by 
the company with old-fashioned five-pronged 
forks. Indeed, some of the young laos wonld 
take out their sulors* clasp knives from 
their pockets, and cut their meat upon ships* 
biscuit. 

Beer, brandy, hollands, rum, and whiskey, 
were the drinks of the feasts. The sptnt 
was drunk out of turned cups or coopered 
cogt^iea. A foreign gohl coin was aometimes 
sunk into the bottom of the cup or coggie as 
an ornament to it The coggies were pretty 
little things, holding about as much as a 
couple of wine-glasses, and built of alternate 
pieces of red and white woods. They were 
sometimes hooped with silver. The cogffie 
was handed round i<epeatedly. Every child 
had a mouthful. Everybody was very merry, 
and the children laughed the loudest, 
although tliey did not understand all the 
jokes. Those who could sins;, sung; and 
those who could tell a story, told one. When 
the party broke upv the remnants of the 
feast were divided among the women and 
children ; and all went home sober, if with 
a drappie in their ee, and pleased and happy. 

But I must conclude what I have to say of! 
the ti*ue Normans. Just because I have had 
better opportunities of observing the coast 
folk in Scotland, I have written most about ! 
them, while well aware that cok>nies equally 
worthy of study are to be found upon other 
coasts. Unlike the Frenchified Normans of 
the court of the French Duke of Normandy, 
the Normans planted on the shores of the 
Arctic and Atlantic oceans from Iceland to 
the Bay of Biscay, have always been distin- 
guished by their excellence in the seafaring 
arts. Tliey have everywhere been marked by 
certain n*fat characteristics. They are sea- 
men and fishermen whose mission it has been 
to chase salmon, herrings, cods, seals, bears 
and whales. They have an hereditary know- 
ledge of ship and boat-building, and ship and 
boat-sailing. If not prior to any other race 
of men, better than any other race of men 
have they known how to brave and baffle the 
perfidies of winds and waves. Whatever they 
may be called — Finns, Pights, Swedes, Danes, 
or B;isqne8 — their chief physiological and 
social characteristics are identiciu. Every- 
where they are rather broad than tall, with 



laige round heads, broad brows, straight 
noses, deep-set eyes, and finely-chiselled lips 
and chins. As for the colour of the skin, 
hair, and eyes, it would be a mistake to look 
for the signs of race in the effects of climate. 
The simplicity, liberty, and equality of the 
manners of the Basques of Castile astonish 
equally French democrats and Spanish hi- 
dalgos. Fundamentally, the institutions of 
this race are identical on the shores of the 
Bay of Biscay and upon the coasts of the 
fiords of Norway. Unlike Mohammedans and 
Idttinft of every shade, who dream of conquest 
by the sword on the land, they pursue great- 
ness in ships upon the sea. Everywhere they 
refuse to be taxed without being represented. 
Everywhere they claim for every head of a 
family a share in the legislation and adminis- 
tration of his countiy. Everywhere they 
insist upon the publicity of public afiairs. 
Liberty of speech is maintained amoiij[ them 
by frank discussions, independent opmions, 
and satiric verses. Nowhere have they per- 
mitted the feudal hierarchy to establish itself 
among them. Despising the insolence of dis- 
tinctions of rank and the puerilities of vanity, 
their only title of superiority is simoly the 
head of a home : the ** etcheco yuana of the 
Basques being the ^ goodman** of the Scotch. 
Nowhere do Uiey deem any honest trade 
degrading. The nations of the world are 
powerful upon the sea in proportion to the 
numbers of the Scandinavian population 
upon their coasts, a circumstance which shows 
the importance of the cliaracteristics of thia 
race in the history of the human species. 

The explanation of this great destiny is 
easily found. It all comes from the whale 
fishing. Heraldry proves that the first 
renown bestowed among men and trans- 
mitted to families came from slaying wild 
beasts, many of them probably the monsters 
of paleontology ; but, of all the aiumals likely 
to task the courage of men and train them 
for victory in sea-fights, there is none com- 
parable to the whide. The man who first 
narpoon^ a wliale must have raised the 
standard of human courage and address. I 
have seen whales in the free sea measuring a 
hundred feet Ions from snout to tail, and 
blowing spouts thirty feet high. Why, the 
victory of men over whales is the conquest 
of Brobdincnagians by Lilliputians ! The 
race brought up to harpoon whales, were 
unconsciously trained for success in naval 
battles against men. The harpoonor was the 
apprentice sea-king. Of Otho, a Norman, it 
was said in the nmth century that he had 
harpooned sixty whales in two days. Hence 
the tremendous prestige for courage of the 
race-— a prestige which explains why tlie 
Franks preferr^ to buy the friendship of the 
Normans with money, rather than brave 
their hostility in battle. After a thousand 
years of braving the battle and the breeze, 
the consequences of the superiority of the 
sea-kings have become apparent, and to see 



AMERICAN PAETY NAUBB. 



es 



Usem yon kava only to whirl round jour 
Urreetrial globe, m*rkitig where their de- 
ftceiidimt^ are located a» m^ters^, in America, 
Indi&, Chiua, nod Auatralia* WhaliDg giive 
the Bitperiortty of the stfas ; aud this »ove- 
r^igutj once obtamed over the three'fourtbs 
of water, the aovereiguty over the oae-fourth 
of rock rtaing up la it seems ati iaev) table 
eonaequence ; ^ conAequeuce alrtsAdy so far 
iteitred tiiAt it would ptobaLdy Dot be pre- 
feut^ were a geologi>mi cat:\:4trop1xe to miud 
1 iidftl wave over the British idatide and 
luhmerge them for ever. The eupposllion Li 
iiidced not refrefthing, even ia the dog-dayi ; 
but it evpresses what I think Is thedommant 
he% of the condition of mttiikiti«l in the middle 
of the uiiieteenth century. Mr^reover^ geolo^ 
fical eAtantrophes apart, while the BritiEih 
ifllinda retain their unrivalled geographical 
po&iitou, and while tbeir cosiat folk shalL 
eontLuiie to poaseaa the ancieut qtialitie« of 
llfilr forefatbens, th« British n&tioaa will 
probably hold their present place among 
Lu«u ; and the jealoaiiy of rivals whetht:r on 
the Western or Easterti coEitinent^, is not 
Ukciy to ditutnidi the sliadow of Britannia* 



WISHES. 

0» BcmiBtlillfff trrTKe waIUi IaAj Ckre ; 

O fperir I iW purple peacock tltpro 

f bftt^B }i«t4«d ftiMl tmoathed by her hvid i« Mr I 

IjiAj CUn ilralk tliraugU Bntnthiirt ^roaiidi ! 
»ef« t (tnis of ihaik^ wliite ^rc)hiL»UT]dt 
Tbftlt ffttted hf brr, brt^ik olf in houudt I 

hi|>fkj tkkwi 1 O mi^bt f lUnd 
llooilcd ftiiU |cMedi «n Lady Ckr«'i Itaitdt 
T» ttoif It tlic bcruu at htr ^(jaimand ! 

!■ Brmsuhtlj'ft ehMlb<^^ & <^gt li huDf | 

llnl t« iti fildcd percb 1 clung, 

T« l« «ii*£M bj li«r «• I icreiLaiM ^d ivuog* 

ir«w I ilte liktr er^tt, m bic-it ! 
tn Ik^mibtirt cbapel devoutly prtuM, 
0^ t.»d; Obn, lo her licATitig brvitt t 

Bj 0»«itit1iiiri airr«ii Bonfutftional chair 
KunrU iMilf CUrc, ber hcMirt la Ure ; 
O were 1 tlie fftvy lauok lutcaiug llicrQl 

Bat fch \ lUal I were die l&cli*t ef pcwl 
la bvr ^i^Mmi htd ; <ir, tn^irc blcit, the curl 
ll krv«iiirea 1 O prkcd Ivfc-pgo of llio E^rU 

Hide on I O F&rl, liy ber palfie^v*! vtdet 
O iriAt I by Ladj Clare ini^bt lidc I 
Tli*t «Jke H ere ta b«, O E^U mj hn4^ I 



AilEBlCAK PABTY NAMEa 

- ^ ■- iilty of undei'stan ding Allien can 

i, ill tiiti fn^t placej from the 

..^*.i^ v.m diHertnco betwi^en the great 

<if tlie nation has, for eoiue time pnit^ 

iKit one of principle, the content between 

ihcm kaving, hibi reference to the heat per- 




sons to oceupy the fe^lertvl offices, aad per- 

hapa to the beat applit^ution to existing 
requirements of priucipieii of governiuent 
equally approved by alL E^ch party hii 
been for a long time elaimiug to be the 
best defender and adminis^trator of ths 
democratic republtean political theory of 
AcueriL^a, to which thei'e are do avowed 
opponents. 

At the present time there are fatir or- 
ganised national parties ; praetically, however^ 
as fa alwayn the case oh the approach of a 
presidential election^ there are but tvvo^the 
aAlminiRtrutiou and the opcMisUiou ; or, as they 
now call themselves, the Demoeratie fuid the 
Republican. The hitter fiarty are al9i> called 
tbe Free-«oUera, their purpose being to check 
the extension of slavery, aud are oppt^obinously 
termed Negro-worshipjteraL Tlie adraiiiiistra-' 
tl<m party is sometiaies designated, in return, 
Nejjro-drivera. 

The innumerable inb-classlScationa, arising 
on poiitU of merely lo»^d or temporary 
intereat^ greatl j puzzle a foreigner. If Uiere 
be, for instance, a discussion in any stale 
with regard to a change of the local laws 
licetuiing draiu-aho^*s ; immediately there i« 
formed a Liquet -law and an Anti-liquur-law 
party in that fitate ; and, as quesiiona of tliis 
ktDil arise In difTerent states, the local parties 
moving for a similar object, take to them- 
sdves differeut oaiuea* Thus, on the licenco 
question they are Moral iuaaiouiats, Free 
liquorites, Anti-coercionisis, and receive 
oUier opprolirious designations from their 
opponent^ such as Kumies, the Dniakard*i 
[mrty, &o. Then came the compound desig- 
nations as Liquor Demoerats, Xeniperance 
Aiiivrican% Uum-Republieaus. 

Besides tbese, tliere are titles expressive of 
minor di^r^reuces aud of cliques and catmla 
within the regular national parties. The 
names used for this purpose &re generally 
derivifd Uom iome accidental eircunifltauce. 
In a meeting of the democratic party in 
the city of Kew York, the frienJs of a 
certain candidate for tliat party's support, 
finding themaehes likely to be ouivoted, 
attempted to break up the meeting by putting 
out the lights I the friends of the op|x>$iug 
candibjate, however, remained ; and one of 
them, h:4viug in hia pocket aome matches of 
tJie sort tiien called loco-foco, re-lighteil the 
lamps, and the meeting was re-org^iuiaad. 
Hence the term Loco-foeo was first applied 
to one of tlicae temporary loeal divisions: 
aftei- wards it came to Lave & wider appli- 
cation. 

Of almilar diameter are the names Hard 
Shelb, Soft Shells, Half Shell*, by which the 
twoextr4.'mes,and a nentnil division of tlie de* 
mocratic par^y in Kew York, are designattfd. 
II art It in this 0tse, Las tlte aiguilicaoce of 
stubbonmeAa ; a Hard sliell, mfaniug an im- 
peiietmble t^kulh Ah M)on as this term tiegan 
to he applied, the Hiuxl Shells rt4.orted by 
applying the term Suit to th» urai imti^SL 



ii 




Soft Sheik are also called Sheddera,— ^is 
being the fiabemian'a synonym foraoft-ahelled 
crabs and lobeten. In New York, where 
oyatem are more largely consumed than any- 
where else in the world, they are cooked and 
served in a great variety of forms. One of 
these is called, Boasted on the half shell. 
Some one, favouring a compromise and union 
of the Actions of hard and soft, was set down 
as a H&lf Shell. An Adamantine is a radical, 
or ultra Hard Shell. 

Of the same sort are the words Hunker, 
Barn-burner, Silver-grey, Woolly head, Fogie, 
Bentonite, and Anti-Bentonite, Fierce-Demo- 
crat, Buchanan-Democrat,Seward-Bepablican, 
Fremont Eepublican, North American, Sonth 
American, Hunker is derived from a popular 
nickname for a self-satisfied, wilful, surly rich 
man ; a descendant of Old Hunks in Uct. 
Barn-burner, probably from a chArge of in- 
cendiarism having been resorted to by one 
faction for the puntoee of preventing a meet- 
ing of its rivals. Silver-groy (a term applied 
to a certain coloured horse) politically 
means a worshipper of the past,— a hoary- 
headed conservative. Woolly-bead is the 
retort ; referring to sympathy with the negro- 
slave. Fogie means a man who is befogged 
with regard to the demands of the present 
time, and who stupidly holds fast to old 
tntditious and dead issues. It is the corre- 
sponding term, in one party, to Silver-grey 
in another. 

The national parties are organised or re- 
organised once in four years by National 
Conventions. The delegates to these conven- 
tions are generally ap|>ointed in state con- 
ventions; the members of the state con- 
ventions by county conventions ; the ». em- 
bers of the county conventions at township, 
ward or school— district "Primary Meetinra** 
of all who avow or profess themselves 
friendly to what are generally understood to 
be the purposes of the party. The primarv 
meetings are also called Caucuses, which 
word is supposed to have had its origin in 
such meetings having been once held in a 
caulker's lof^ 

At the national conventions, candidates for 
the Presidency and Vice-presidency are agreed 
upon, and a series of resolutions is adopted 
setting forth the views and purposes of the 
party, and designating the line of public 
I>olicy proposed. This series of resolu- 
tions is what is called the "platform'* of the 
party; meaning the ground on which it 
stands, and which its candidates will main- 
tain. Each subject of the platform is spoken 
of as one of its planks ; thus we read of *' the 
slavery plank,'* "the tariff plank," "the an- 
nexation plank." These conventions meet at 
places and times previoualy a]^ointed by 
special committees, usually from Hve to seven 
months before the presidential election. The 
period between their seasiou and the election 
18 termed " the presidential campaign." The 
different conventions are referi-ed to under 



the title of the town in which they 
meet ; as the Cincinnati, or Pittsburgh, or 
Philadelphia convention. If two conven- 
tions meet simultaneously in the same town 
they are distinguished by the names of 
the halls in which they assemble. Thus we 
now read of the Apollo convention, which 
met lately in a music-hall of that name in 
New York. The Times speaks of the Cin- 
cinnati convention, as a convention of the dti- 
sens of Cincinnati ; but this was the national 
convention of the administration party, meet* 
ing at Cincinnati, but probably, with no more 
than one citizen of Cincinnati taking pari in 
its proceedings. 

Until quite recently the qnestion of the ex- 
tension ot slavery had never been a direct or 
main one between the great national parties. 
Moderate men of both parties and of all 
parts of the union had always laboured to 
prevent its becoming so ; and, whenever 
the danger of it seemed imminent, had 
alwa3rs succeeded in arranging some com- 
promise bv which the grand issue was de- 
ferred and a truce obtained, until a new 
attempt to extend the territory of slavery 
was made. 

For some time before the presidential 
campaign of eighteen hundred and fifty-two, 
the leading democrats in several of the 
southern states refused to act with the 
national democratic party, and threatened — 
unless it adapted itself to their purposes — to 
withdraw from it a large number of southern 
votes. The state of South Carolina — in 
which the ultra-slavery school of politidans 
is strongest, was unrepresented in the conven- 
tion which nominated General Pierce for the 
presidency. The leading minds of that conven- 
tion believing ttiat it was absolutely necessary 
to the success of the party that it should obtain 
the active co-operation of this school,intix>duced 
into their platform several unprecedentedly 
strong pro-slavery planks, or anti-free-soil 
resolutions, daubed over, to hide their pur- 
pose of courting the nullifiers and seces- 
sionists, with expressions of pure attach- 
ment to the Union. The result vindicated 
their sagacity as politicians. Every English- 
man will understand why, who remembera 
how easily the manufacturing class acquired 
a conviction of the inexpediency ot* the 
Com Laws, and how impossible it was 
to get a farmer to see them in the same 
light No one at the North finds his in- 
come immediately and perceptibly reduced 
by the extension of slavery ; auvi to secure a 
vote against it, it is necessary to convince a 
man of its immomlity, nnd to get him to act 
on that conviction, and perhaps that con- 
viction alone. But every slaveholder, and 
every man dependent directly or indirectly 
on slaveholdint^, knows that any annexation 
of slave territory, any extension of the 
field of slave-labour, at once puts money 
into his pocket, whatever may be its ulti- 
mate consequence to the nation. Geneial 



F 



C^»ilo DMoi.] 



AMERICAN PAETY NAMES. 



8? 



I 



Pierce waa elected, and, in grfttitiide for tH 
&id tie hail rect-nved I'rom the uUm-atavety 
fiartjf, appoibled, to mn impottatit Beat in his 
cMnet, QU9 cf tbdr number. 

Two jears before ilk Lb election, when the 
Fugitive SUf e Law were in iigitatloii, there 
iuul been an «atetnbUig« of delegates at 
Hempbia from everj Bla%*e state, with the 
oliject q( tlire^teniag the wtihdri%>^al of the 
Slave Btatea from the Unioij, It was then 
propo»eii to form an independent ilare re> 
pnbtic^ in which ahotdd be included with the 
Beeading ttatea of the present Union, Cuba, 
and Buch proprietors in South. America, as 
from the interest in slaverj of the proprietors 
of eetatea in ibem^ could be induced to favour 
the iicheme* There is no doubt that auch a 
purjKiee ib still kept in view hj many of the 
** tiniiifierB*' (of the Federal laws), *^seeea- 
BioniBte" <from the Union), and " fiiibuBterB," 
or land plratea* Theaa party names included 
the entire ulirarslaTery achool of aonthem po- 
liticianB, Their preient plan is to itrengthen 
the alave intereat, and to cu^umscrLbe and 
weaken the in l« reel of free labour withiu 
tlte present tlnioii aa much as possible, 
before openJy organiaing their ultinmte 
•ehemet. 

About eighteen hundred and tw«uty, the 
State of MiaBonii waa admitted into the 
Union^ with a alaTebolding conatttntion &nd 
with the privilege, common to all the slave^ 
ftateai of representation in the National Con- 
Fresimore largely; in proportion totheniun- 
hn of ita dtizeni^ than is permitted any of 
itw free Btatea. Xhe bill fur this pmrpoae 
hkd been atronglj opposed bj the repreaen- 
tativea of the free etatea at the ttmei and 
linaLly paBsed only after a Btipulation ha4 
bten attaehefi to it, to prevent the further 
txtencion of slavery ever after, in the region 
irefttof Mia^uri and north of a certain pa> 
imlld of latitude. This Bti potation warn 
•Qleiiuily recorded in the ar<;hives of the 
nation, and the aeries of measurt^s had been 
t^mMsrtd as a sacred compact between 
Honh ami South I and nnder tbe name of 
tlu) ilsaaouri Compromise Kab been reverenced 
«c]fuilly with the original cons ti tut icin of the 
Ibotfratiotip It was in its nature unreiveakble, 
tiia South having long einee aecured the chief 
advantagea it bad to gidn from it» Nevcrthe' 
Jmi^ bf tiie KanBas-^ebmska Bill, it was in 
mpiwm terma declared to be repealed, the 
gtotliierfi members of Con|reBS eicnting the 
ittfiunoua breach of £-dth of wliicb they were 
fitiliy in eupporting^ it^ on the ground 
that tlie |>ro|H}^ came from the north^ and 
Ut&t tbey Wiire Biniply acct?pting who^ waa 
«|fer«d them* As if a prisoner of war^ hav< 
ing bf>okea bis parole nf honour, cotdd be 
bj pteadinij timt the means of 
bo«n oifercd him by a traitoroua 



WfUi 



Willi a few honourable exeepUons, the Kan^ 
aaa^Nebraaka bill obtained the support of all 
tlte Saittbp-n Hembera of Congrcea, wiiliout 



regard to previous party df stinetionB. Not one 
of the ^>reVLouft frietida of the administration 
from the Bouth deserted it^ and it gained 
many more from its Southern opponenta 
than it lost of ita previous Northern 
friends. 

At the Buceeeding eleetionSf liowever, it 
was found that the northern cotislitneneie% 
w<fre leaa ready than their reprtsentativea 
to 5'ield to the demands of the fanattea 
of the south; and in the second eon^^sa 
of the Pierce administration — ^that now in 
seasiou^-the lower honfle, after a struggle 
of many weekiv could only or^nise itself Ijy^ 
electing a decided free-eotler from Ma^aa^ 
chusetts fia its Bwaker. 

The Kanaaa^NebraBka Bill opened to set- 
tlement two large districts of the public 
domain hitherto reeerveil from pnrchaae by 
immignmta. All restriction, as I have saiJ, 
was removetl from slavery ; but it was left for 
those who mT;^ht chanoe to be inhabitants at 
some future and nndefined time^when it 
should pleaae Congreea to permit them to 
govern themselves aa independent states of 
the confederiLcy^-to eatabliBh or aboUah 
slavery within their borders, iecordiog to the 
will of a majority. Previonaly to sadi time, 
a limiti^ loi^l legi^bition^in a method simiiar 
to that of tba Brittah colonies, was provided 
for, 

Nebraaka, far north, and adjoining exiat- 
ing free states, was impracticabte to a slave 
immigration. Kansaa, a much more attrne* 
tive field, adjottis the slave state of MiasoarL 
Emii^raiion thither^ from the north, bem^ 
difiicuh and ex f tensive, chiefly proceeded 
under the guidance— and with the economical 
advantages, obtjdned from wholeaala eo 
tracta with railways, steamboats, and liotei%' 
of land-8pe<ru]ation and commercial compa- 
nies>, called Emigrants' Aid Societies. As 
tke time approached for the election of the 
local legisln^tui^ it was ascertained that a 
large majority of the settlers were hoelile 
to slavery, Tb© people of Miaaouri^ however, 
having previously orgaidatd for the purpose, 
came into the territory, on the day of the 
dection, by thoua^iuds, in armed bands, took 
poaaesBion of the ballut- boxes, aud elected a 
legiBbtui^ to Bult their own viewsL The 
legi^^lature t litis elected enacted a seriea of 
aUitutes, to terrify Freeaoilera from coming 
into the territory ; forbi^iding, for inatanoe, 
siuiiments unfirLentiiy to slavery to be ad- 
vocated or uttered, on penalty of two yeai*' 
impnaonment ; and punishing with de»th 
any one even nnintentlonaUy assbtin^ a 
slave to escape from the service of hla master. 
These enactments were alao eoosUtuted unr^ 
peaLible for six years. 

Under pretence of enforcing these law^ 
the Miaaouriaua gnthenNl a mob of ioc or 
seven hundi-ed ri;iiiiuia, led by sevrral 
wealthy akve holders, with which tliey funat 
■ebsed an arsenal of the United States^ and 
took from it sevend field-pieoaSK ibftci^ 



88 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



XPmh ■■lly 



irards marching on Lawrence, the diief town 
of tlie territory. The Free-«oiler«, however 
assembled there in unexpected numbers, 
threw np entrenchments, and, bein^ appa- 
rently prepared to offer strong resistance, 
the pro-slavery army, after threatening the 
town for a week, and plundering every 
traveller who attempted to pass their camp, 
suddenly raised their siege, and returned to 
Mtraouri. 

President Pierce soon afterwards, pretend- 
ing to recognise the authority of the in- 
vaders* legislature, ordered the army of the 
United States to assist in enforcing its laws. 
At the same time large bodies of armed men 
from iSouth Carolina and other parts of the 
slave states hastened to the assistance of their 
friends, the Border ruffians of Missouri, who, 
under pretence of suppressing a rebellion, 
plundered and burned settlements of the 
Free-soilers ; and, aooording to the last 
accounts, guerrilla bands had possession of 
all the more settled parts of the territory ; 
the free state men geuerally being unwilling 
to oppose to them an organised resistance, 
lest they should seem to he fighting against 
the army of the Confederation. 

Under these circumstances the usual na- 
tional partv conventions preliminary to the 
Presidential campaign, which is to terminate 
at the election in November next, have lately 
met to arrange their platforms and nominate 
their candidatesu 

At the American, or Know-Nothing Con- 
vention, which first assembled at Philadel- 
phia, it was found that the delegates were 
very much more interested in the slavery 
question than in that of the repeal of the 
naturalisation laws, which was the avowed 
])urpose of their proposed organisation as a 
distinct national party. The Southerners 
present could not be associated in any party, 
a prominent object of which was not the 
extension of slavery. They insisted that 
resolutions expressing submission to the 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise should be 
introduced into their platform. Gaining a suffi- 
cient number of votes from the north, and 
being themselves unanimous, they carried 
their point. A large part of the northern 
niemlMsrs of the Convention including the 
whole delegations from most of the northern 
states, considering this course to have been 
unjust as well as impolitic^ withdrew from 
the convention, and nave since formed a 
Northern American ]>arty, which has also 
had its convention at New York, adopted a 
platform, and nominated candidates. The 
candidate of the slavery Americans is Mr. 
Ex-president, Fillmore ; that of the Aree soil 
Americans, Mr. Banks, the present Speaker 
of the House of Bepresentatives. As neither 
of these gentlemen has the smallest chance 
of being elected, it is probable that both 
will decline the nomination; and the votes 
of their friends will be given for the 
candidates of the two parties expressly 



representing the two tides of the slaveiy 
question.* 

Next assembled the convention of the admi- 
nistration, or democratic party, at Cincinnati 
A strong personal objection to Mr. Pierce 
himself was here exhibited, and the nomina- 
tion of Mr. Buchanan was made to the sne- 
oession ; but the great act of Mr. Pierce^ii 
administration was fully endorsed, and ewerf 
demand of the slave-holding interest was 
yielded to in the construction of the pUtfbrm 
apparently without hesitation or reaerva 
under the circumstances, the long aeries of 
resolutions adopted mean that, rather than 
surrender the administrative control of the 
country to their opponents^ the democratie 
party will adopt slavery as a national insti- 
tution, and will sacrifice eveir other interest 
to increase its security, profit, and perma- 
nence. 

It is evident that the leaders of the party 
felt eonfident of their ability to carry the state 
of Penn^lvania, the native state of Mr. Bu- 
chanan, m>m his personal popularity among its 
citizens, and doubted if they could, by any con- 
ciliatory course, succeed anywhere else at the 
north. Seeing the neceasity of securing the 
undivided vote of the south, they therefore 
determined to outbid the South American 
party, and contrived to do so by affirm iog 
that slavery could exist, and was entitled to 
the national protection, wheresoever it was 
not already forbidden by positive enactments. 

Mr. Buchanan though originally opposed 
to the Kansas-Nebraska BilL has puolicly 
accepted the nomination, ana avowed suIh 
mission to the purposes expressed in the 
platform of resolutions, and his willingnesi^ 
in case he should be elected, to be guided in 
the administration of government by them. 

Lastly, the Bepublican, or Opposition 
party, has had its convention at Philadel- 
phia, and has nominated Col. Fremont as its 
candidate for the presidency. CoL Fremont 
was bom in a slave state, but is the son of 
a non-slaveholder ; and is said to have had a 
bitter private experience of the evils of 
slavery. It was cliiefly owin^ to his great 
personal influence that the people of Cali- 
fornia persistently refused to allow their 
community to be saddled with slaverr, and 
insisted, against the entreaties and threats 
of those who wished to have this advantage 
of their unparalleled labour-market, <hi en- 
tering the Union as a free state or not at all. 

The platform of the republican party may 
be condensed into three sentences. Tint, 
they want Congress to rale the territories 
and to exclude slavery therefrom ; second, 
they want the restoration of the Missouri 
compromise ; third, they want to respect the 
rights of other nations. On the other hand, 
the Cincinnati platform takes a different 
ground : the Democrats want — first, Congress 



• Since this wu written, Mr. Banks has dAcUned, as I 
sniloliMted. 



C^Cftoi I»tdte«ik1 



MT LITTLE WARD, 



not to m^y Ee with the territorLe& ; second, 
Kiifisjia to be a slave »t<ite ; iKirdf to &cqtitre 
more territorj an i table for ilie further exCeu- 
vL<m of »UTery wttlicmt rt?gard to the rigbts 



MY UTTLE WAED. 

I Alt ijot ft rieb mj^n now^ but tea jeara 
jigo 1 wnA mn^h poorer,. Having a small 
fknilly likely to become % larne Que, arid a 
tm^l) Uvjiig in the north, wliich wai not 
likely to iMeconie a larj^e one ; the differ- 
ence of fare between tbe second aud tUird 
eliifui ciixriiLgei to London was of some con- 
itdc lotion to lue ; and whenever I had oc- 
eaaioii — which waa but seldoni^-to take that 
journey, I travelled in the Utt^r, We were 
a very long time, certainly, upoD the road — 
from e^rly uioming lo quite late into the 
Bi^ht ; but I seldom found h wearUome. Not 
omy because L am & clergyman do I make it a 
rute to collider nobody belonging to the 
Church of Ettffland aa foreign to me, bat it 
ii my DattinLl diffprjtiition to take a great 
interest in mil my tellow*creature8 of every 
d^'grt^e. Without any views of acquiring 
a^lditlonal infcirniAtion, of iucking the brains 
of thooe who have the mia for tune to come 
acriMS me, as is much riKKimmended by 
lii(iriliit« and phltosophert of all tinges, I am 
in the habit of listi'tiing greedily to com- 
mnnicattve travellers; of sympathising with 
their joys or troubles ; an«i of becoming for 
tht^ time, indeedf rather more wrapped up in 
them than their own mothers, I have many 
times, on tay dttftireut trips, felt aa if I could 
have die<d for my next neighbour, who msiy 
have got in at one station and out at the next. 
I actually did upon one occaalon^-not die, 
bat — tieciitne aiiswerahle to the extent of 
seventeen shiUin^s and sixpence for a p^is- 
ifiigt*r who had lost his railway ticket from 
Fr^ton : which money, by the bye^ ho after- 
ward « »ent me faithfully, as soon a^ he could 
ram it, like a man. The iltst-clasa passenger 
b tfnj rt«*jrved, not to say too airitied and 
selJiah for me, and the second-clasa takes his 
opi.M>>T,^ fV<irii the first at second-hand ; but 
ih I menlary tniin we are all of us 

per ituml and (we at least who have 

bftcks to our seats) at our ease, and our bcu- 
limenta i^re more original and not aeldom 
belter worth having. Our joumeyai unless 
we &r$ in an excursion train, are rarely 
QlldcrUikeii for pleasure's sake, and it may 
t0v gg t iw f»ily predicted^ from our personal ap- 
r^a(X% upon what errwnd we have set out 
the Lirger stations there are soor^ of 
always very much before our time, each, 
it were, a life-picture, dij^playing his or 
ber bio'_'raphy in v^^ry looks. 

This lal ►uurer, wayworn with the dusty roads, 
wboshoulderfihlsbeavy bundle,througlj which 
mh«?ilge-a4ick passes — to the hist never resliiig 
It a moment, but pacing up and down the 
pl&tf or^ lu though he might be soeetou* 






ward on his travel — has all his worldly 
w^eaith (and little it is) within it. He has 
walked tar and fast, but he does not join the 
boisterous throng about tlic Railway Arms ; 
not so much that he has but few pennies to 
spare, as that hla heart has talleu below that 
point whereat beer has |H3wier to cheer it. 
He is a pciwerlul man, and surely nut nn 
idle one ; (^tlll those two strong arms of his 
cannot earn btead enough — for whom t For 
Uie wife and Itiaims who will come up pre* 
sently In the train from a station lower down 
the line, from which he himself has walked 
round some twenty miles to save a ahUling* 
A kindly and unset (ish heart he baa, not- 
withstanding that knitted brow and those 
almost siniater eyes. Be careful how you 
address hiru, for he is rough and rude ; he 
I needfl none of your smooth lies, he says, and 
I he baa none to give you in return* There ii 
very little of that rose-coloured patHuttsni 
about him which we s«e and read of boasting 
itself in after-dinner speeches, with three 
times three and one cheer more. The first- 
da^ gentry who are forced to travel for & 
little way by the parliamentary! regard him 
gnspiciously, and write him down a Chartist 
in their hearts, and I think it vary likely that 
he is one ; but there is no fear of his upset- 
ting tlie constitutioa just at present, poor 
fellow I for he is going far away from 
England, and most likely for ever ; the ship 
that he will sail by, is but a tale to him, for 
he has never seen one ; the ocean that be 
will have to traverse is but a dream to him ; 
and of the distant land to which he is 
bound, and whither^ thank God J all that !■ 
most dear to him is going likewise^ he hardi|' 
knows the name, 

Thi^ maiden with the BaxoQ halr» to 
young that she scarce esteems it beautiful, 
and with the trustful light blue eyes, I trust 
leaves not her fatherland. Ttiat slender 
purse in her sunburnt fingers, the great 
marble-coloured box that stands beside her^ 
and that tearful leave-taking of the gr^y* 
haired old man, her father, seem indeed 
to threaten it; but, though his darling 
daughter, and the comfort of his old age, ui 
leaving him, it is not for so very long ; that 
is wlxat he tells her, or strives to tell her, 
and what the poor girl triea to look aa if aha 
derived consolation from. God gi'ant, pray 8 
be (but not aloud), that thy beauty majr not 
[irove thy miiiery ! She is going to the mighty 
city far away, where lovers are many and 
friends aro few, to the new mistress and the 
strange house. 

This mother and her son ; thej will be 
tog^eiher,that is something, at least lor thia i>ue 
journey. Her loving eyes, her cUiioing han^l, 
are making very much of him while he is yet 
within her ga^se and grasp, Ttarl<*^ ey<it 
and steady h«aids she has. She cornea ot a 
Htuitiy race, an Englishwoman born and 
bred ; sorrow and she have been far too 
long acquiiiutad for her to fear hhn ^ovf. By 



I 




the delicate wliito fingers, by the grace about 
the Hilvering liair, by the voice so low and 
musical, she has been nurtured tenderly, and 
known ejiae and comfort, if not wealth ; but 



lanet the loaded waggons waited at the long 
railway-gates to let us pass ; on the f>ther 
was mostly jMisture-lanu and green TiiUeva, 
which were shut to the westwanl with grey 



bv those welUwoni and coarse widowVweeds, hills; but the girl never looked to thiA or 
tfiere has been a long divorcement. The j that, or raised her eyes from off the pages 
bciy has everything a(x>ut him bright andioficn before her; they were not so very 
new : the blue jacket and the band of gold [entrancing one would have thought to sucli as 
round his cap — wliich he especially delights .she — the Life of Charles the Tweltth (in 
in— i)rochiim the middy ; and he is going to ! French) by Monsiear Voltaire. After a while 
join liis ship for the first time. There will j I saw she never turned one leaf over, hut 
be a little trembling of the lip at the very ■ used it as a mere pretext for thinking nndis- 
last, but that will Ite aU. He is his mother's i turbed. When we had been journo> ing many 
sou, and, if I read him aright, he will not ! hours, and even when we arrived hi a lai^ 
fear the wildest of seas nor the fiercest of | manofaoturing town where we were to stop a 
bftttlea ; and what would I not give to see ' little, and everybody was getting out for re- 
his mother's l(K>ks when first she rends his frealiments, I offered to procure her some ; 
name in tlie Gazette of victory ! What an but site oi)ened her basket, by way of reply, 
interest in the boy this climate-hardened and took from it a mighty hunch of braid 
■ohlier seems to take. He has come from ; and butter, and oonsnmed that, sitting quietly 
revisiting, on furlough, hii old home ' after j where she was ; it was not in the shape of a 
years of absence, and from gladdening the aandwicli, but just such a wedge as forms the 
ohl couple, his parents, to the core. Content morning-meal in educational estal»lisliiueuts, 
fur all their lives to dwell within their and I said, ** Where do you go to scliool, tuy 
native hamlet, without a di*eam of tliose dear young lady?" quite uatunlly. Her 
alien skies which had so bronzed his cheek, perfectly self-con trolledf and quite grown-up 
Uiey have drunk in hi^ tdes like children appearance seemed to be greatly dis- 



listening to fairy lore. Their simple pleasure 
will be from henceftirth to retail to neigh- 
bour ears theise records of their soldier son. 
^ Just the same, bless ye, just the t<ame as 



turlied. 

" I do not see why I should tell yon, sir," 
said she, colouring. 

** Very true," replied L "I merely wished 



ever, ' is their Geor^^e— or, at leasts so he to become friends with yon ; but as you will 
seems to them ; and, mdeed, though his look not t;Uk, may I ask you to change brjoks with 
is Buniewliat stem, his fiinged lipa somewiiat • roe, for I perceive vou are not greatly in- 
too tightly I tarred, he has still a dutiful if not i tereeteti in that one." 

a loving heart, llow he is looked up to by | She did so ; and I found, as I had ezpeeted| 
his felluw travellers, especially by the female ; in the title-jtage of her school-volame, her 
poitiun of them, and how they will strive to .. address and name ; Miss Jeannetie Smith, 
get in the same compartment I I Miss Mackaveth*B, Laburnum Lodge, Car- 

Stich character as these I almost always I lisle, 
find among my fellow-travellers by the par- i *' How came yon with tliat foreign accent 
liamentfiry ; but in addition, at a small : of yours, Miss Smith ? *' I asked, 
railway-station iu the north, in the summer | She looked at me for one instant a little 
of ei;;hteen hundre<l and forty- five, as 1 well , tigerishly, but presently began to laugh, 



remember, I saw for the first time this 
fii^ure. A somewhat stiff-looking but huly- 
like gill about the age whereat the ** Brook 
and river meet, womanhood and chihlhood 
fleet,'* who held in one hand a small basket, 
and iu the other a book. She was dressed 
well, but very plainly, in dovo-coloured silk, 
and seemed in no way disconcerted. Ab 
she was amongst the crowd with no one to 
take care of her, I offered — as the train 
came slowly u]i— to see that her Ini^ge was 
put in ; but she held up, first the basket and 
then the book, and remarked quietly, ^I 
have nothing more, I thank you, sir." She 
was going to Loudon then, for I had seen 
her buy her tick«'t with that doll's fit-out ! 



** You are too wise for me," she saiii, ** but 
I have left school now for good. I am going 
to my friends in London, they are French 
people ; that is why I talk a little strangely, 
as you sav." 

And Miss Jeannette Smith applied herself 
to the subject of my late stUiiies— Cri|>ps 
upon Chemical Law, I think it was — with 
the same enthusiasm that she had bestowed 
upon the monarch of Sweden. 

**Is it customary," said I, returning to 
the charge, after a while, ** for MIhs Macka- 
veth's young la«lies to travel in thiixl-cUiss 
carriages, alone, when they rctui^n to their 
j Iriends I " 

" When they are very poor, sir ; not 



I managed to obtain for her a comer-seat i unless ; " was the answer delivered iu a 
with back to the en^^ine, and placed myself! tirm tone, and not without a touch of re- 



be«ide her. The country through which we 
were tlien p-issiiig was very beautiful ; on 
one aile, lay the level cornland with the crops 



proach. 

This poor chill, solitary amidst so many ; 
not exhibiiiufr annoyance at tlio di'au;:hts^ 



either stanUiug ripe or bound in sheaves, and " tobacco-smok**, and other discomfovtH of her 
whilst we cut across the quiet country i position ; content to bear hei' lot without 



MY LITTLE WARDL 



91 



jepraing, at an age wTikh ii but little fitted 
ror carrying i la ownbuitUeiis; and woiMi(?r* 
^^ atj altuoit ei3S|,iiciout ofj eyuipat<by, how 
^^ aud strauge it ^eiucd I 

Tile even in fj was by thia time coming on 
•Iwtce, md the air grew chilly. I'biiily c]iiti 
»« ahe was, aUe nniiit have been cold eno^jgh 
«id weary enough with her long travel I gave 
ncp a «pare clcwi and shared with iter my nviU 
*^J"^vrn|iper, bat she seemed to grow paler 
*tid paler, and her features to wear a more 
^'^jj'^oa Jfiok aa we went on. 

It will be dark by the time we get to 

m^^ 1 f«ar," I said after a long paueft 
How ^U yoQr frienda be able to find you 

*mia»*t lOl thia crowd 1 ** 

# ,? j^^^j a'deuily, the tar^ti leai-a began ta 

M T ?^^ ^®'' ^^^" ^*"^ cheeks. 
I have BO fri(?nda in the worlds" she made 
ana wet-, in n vgiy« wherein juat a lit tie 
It^mhle thnllfid. «I have nm awiiy from 

fi A^^^^***"S** *he hdi grtne ao far as to tell me 

**! »be iJij ],0t pee in to ht*ve r^|iofled u.ny 

coiih.i £jce in me; but ruiher tohave atate<:l an 

j""**"^*'tt*te ftct^ whioh niii^ht appewr piti- 

»'*«^. i^iid to put iter in need of help, or not, ae- 

f^^im^ U> the nalare of the person It was 

I** ^^«*J» Jeaoiiette/* said I, "mr nbter, to 

|!! r^*^ ■'?o»^ I am going, will ghiJSy take you 

wi Tor thia ctight, 1 am aui-e ; and, to-morrow, 

.^« ^ill aee whs^t k to be done.** i^he thaiiketl 

f^^r *l!'^"*-*'"^ began to aob a Utile, but not 

^^\ **'* ^ took her with me to my sieter's, 

I , "»« next morning, after breiikfiuit, ahe 

II 11^ her little hiawjry ; how th*t she had 
mJiown her parents^ bat had remamed 
^^^y cbildfiooii tLi her late school j 

. At Drsit Alias Mackaveth hafi been kind 
«en au-l tlie girls also, »ind that nhe hiid 
'*ee'H maAle mu-.^h of; but that, lately, 
um^i been a ditfereoce ; »he could no^ 
*- *" lil-treateil, but rather was not con- 
' » id wa« 1 ook ed do w I m pon. Sh e tan gh t 
- r u iria n o w, ai m on itr^at, Frei ich a tn^ 
^ , ^ '•^as a good ttiiisician — eaceileut 

a » e li ke to hear her 1 She sat down 
pi&tio and executed two difficult pieces 
freat Qptrit ; and, on t>emg showrn a 
i-ewr melody, played it oif very credit^ 
*r «»g*»t. It was with an hiEention of 
iitil^ a temcher of music that she hail 
eome ap to X^indon by her*«?!j: The 
7 of A young la^ly, a Hciiool-frieoil ot 
m the €>hi tiine«, would have received ber 
Ht, dotibiIei«i« ; they were not aware of 
aoitiiri^ ; th^jr were great people, and 
»i m the KJ^ewrai-e BoaiJ, but she did not 
•* tbe number ol their house; mhe Wi 
^ to^ " *-i « i ers ta nd U ut t hat pmi li < in was 

'«ij-n* lt4ia.4 1 Wun reuUy only n third* 

y; if tho *^ Jt^i'e'J'^iiJWi *io had beeii 

her XV ^m goij:a£ to the aoftfeaipMa in 




a fpw day^v and if he won Id take her ; ahe 
supposed she had V>eUer go b:ick«g»jn» Bhe 
would much prefer his accom}}an>ing her to 
Lubnraura Lodge, but waa not afraid of her 
school nuiitresa, nevertheless. In the nie:4n- 
time I wrote to that lady to asiinre her of 
MissJeannetteV safety, and arrived witlau the 
week with the youug truant het^f at 
Carlisle. 

Mi9s Maekaveth seemed unfeignedly glftd 
to aee her little charge again. ** I have m 
true regard for her,"* suid bIjo, in the course 
of a long conrei^satiou I held with her in 
private, **and feel myself ei^pecUlly answer* 
ahla for her well-bt^ing. Eleven years ago 
she waa left, a very little child, iu my trust, 
and nnder very peculiar clrcum^tatuiea. A 
Frenchwoman, a mont respectable inb Id lo- 
nged |)erBon, declaring herself to l»e tl»e c<»n- 
li^lential servant of an Eugliah fauiily reiiding 
abroad, brought her hither, with iuatrui timia 
fi'om ber |>arenla, regarding her c'dot ation. 
A large sum of money, iu 1 rench notei4, was 
left with her: eoongh even to doimy all 
expended incurred up to the laat few mouths* 
I received letters from tiaie to time, puri^ort^ 
ing to come from Mrv* Smith , Jeiunoctu^s 
mother, a Frenf*h lady, but in reality written 
(aa I believe) by tlie servant whom 1 hiui 
seen. These letters grew fewerj and tbi*tii 
altogether ceau«d. When tlie money left 
with me was « upended, I wrot« again and 
again to Mr^, Smith in Pari*, but I received 
no answer. Upon personal inquiiy, which I 
eatised to be made at her a^ldre^d, I bar iked 
that no such person had ever livtil th«*n3, imt 
that some one of that name hail pnrcbaaetL as 
is not uncommon, the right of receiving 
letters at the house. She bud not beni thcr©, 
however, for a conBiilerable time, and hHlf^ar* 
dozen of mv communications Were tbt;n h U»g 
there unopened. Fe«ling pretty sure that 
Qm chitd wua really deserted, and era beittg 
abb fj airor'l to keep Jeanne tta in idleftttst, 
I set her to nta'at n» in tuition. I bnp« iny 
condnct waa not altered towards her in eai^ 
sequence of that: I hor»e my aij»t4£r% who 
carry on this estabU^m<fnt with me, ii»kd# 
no difference in thein^ For the yuun^ likdi«« 
X cannot answer I have had a cotiai4er«.^\^ 
eipetience, and I am afraid that girlia 
mtgenei-ous in these reapf^etai I never li 
them ; but I think it quite poMibl^ tk^i. 
of them, when provoke^l, may have 

fonudliug or cbjirity girL If Jraiitii^ta 

yon ao^ I abonld say they e«rta|iiijr dl^I ; 

she ifl very iruthfuL Aa I ha«v« sslmI, mw^ «v. 

have a sincere regard for lurr oa tutkMMx ^^ 

oouiits ; but not a warm aff«>ction. %V H ii< 

paying over-attetitioo to wl 

compcLAiona have «ai 1 of her, 

reaerved, imebeerful,and *^.i' 

tmpulut, fi'oor bitle Jcaui 

Iiow hard for aueu m yon f > h ^> i 

without a weKpoi^ to wtr mit*^\ 4^^ 

hcsarta!) I wa«i ahovn ^ " 

«»<& Auuoywd «l b«r 




HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



n 



I have forgiven her; it aball certainly not 
influence our future conduct towhrds ber, 
except to make ua endeavour to remove the 
— the uiihappinesa, if you will — that caused 
it 

MIm Mackaveth conelnded by again thank- 
ing uie very wai-mly for my conduct towards 
her pupil, and promised to let me hear about 
her from time to time. Little Jeaniielte*s 
adieu to me was of a tenderer kind than I 
had expected. I left with her my direction, 
which was then at a country vicarage not 
very far from Carlisle, and beg^^ed her to 
write, aud even to come to us, if in anv real 
trouble. My wife and the girls, I well kuew, 
would welcome her in her affliction, as though 
she were a daughter or a sister of their own. 
She was bathed in team, aud called me 
^ father, dear darling fatlier,** in the French 
tongue, as her custom wns when excited, 
repeate<lly. Poor child 1 She was considered 
reserved and secretive ; but I iear there 
was but little at Laburnum Lodge to elicit 
much demonstration of affection. 

Not venr long after this cirenmstance, I 
was translated, unexpectedly, to a London 
benefioe of considerable station and emolu- 
ment. A distant cousin of my wife, Lord 
Bactsares, was the first who wrote to tell us 
of this good fortune ; and she has ever since, 
from a pardonable vanity, ascribed it to the 
fact of their relatiunship ; whereas it is, 
without doubt, owiuff to the bishop*! appro- 
bation of my work on Christian Etliics 
(Withnocaws, Hopeful, & Co., Oxfonl), pub- 
lished in eighteen hundred and thirty, aud 
triumphantly disproves the idea of merit 
in the chni*ch going unrewanied. It — ^the 
preferment, not the Ethics— made rather a 
noise in our country neighbourhood ; aud 
among many pleasant letters of congratula- 
tion, tlie pleasantest to my miud was one 
from the liitle friendless orphan of Carlisle. 
She had refused our invitation to spend the 
last midsummer holidays with us at Scaw- 
dale, because, I verily believe, she knew 
we could scarcely afford to have visitors 
there ; but, upon our accession to comparative 
affluence, my wife wrote, at my desire, the 
next year, to ask her up to town ; and up 
little Jeannette came. 

She hail grown into a most distin- 
guished-looking young woman, aud had cer- 
tainly taken every advantage of the accom- 
plishments imparted by the Misnes Mackaveth. 
fc)he was conversant with all the modem 
languages, of which French, indeed, seemed to 
be her natural dialect more than ever. She 
sketched, she painted, she fabricated old oak 
frames out of what appeared to be shoe- 
leather, and very ancient china out of chintz 
and physic-ltotties. She wore — and I am 
sure this was an art — little artificial whiskers 
to stick her hair out with, so dexterously, 
that, instead of poking themselves out offlci- 
ously, like the stufiing of a lodging-house 



sofa, they positively improved ber appear- 
ance. She pUyed — ah, how little Jeannette 
did play 1 — upon the harp, the organ, and the 
piano-forte. J have seen her sweep the keys 
of this last iustrument so skilfully, and build 
up towering; passion, and. haughtineH, and 
imperial splendour extemporaneously, in such 
a manner as to draw forth the admiration of 
an entire company. That coldness and aecre- 
tiveoess of which h&t mistress spoke was cer- 
tainly not to be discovered now. if it had 
ever existed. Of herself and her eondi- 
tion she would converse meet freely, and it 
was a delight to her to excite the praise and 
wonder ot others ; because, as she said, of the 
pleasure that she kuew it gave to ua. Our par- 
ties — for we now had pretty frequent putiee— 
would not have been half so attractive, it mm 
owned, without her presence ; and even my 
church obtaiued in her an organist sueh aa 
scarcely any money could have procured. 
Ijefore the end of her six weeks* vacatioii, it 
was arranged between the Maekavelhs and 
ourselves that Mias Jeannette ahoold not 
return to Carlisle. 

At this time, there occurred the fint 
symptom in my ward of a characteriatie 
which was afterwards magnified into in- 
gratitude and want of heart She re- 
fused to write a single line to her late 
mistress. ''I cannot say I am aony to 
leave her ; I cannot tliank her for kind- 
nesses I have never received.*' said aha The 
poor girrs regard for truth waa exoeeaive^ 
and her sense of neglect keen. I had also^ 
by the bye, a letter from Miss Mackaveth in 
excliange for mine, written, aa I fear, with a 
design to prejudice me against Jeannette; 
though couched in expressions favourable 
to myself, and under the pretence of a 
friendly warning. Having burnt this (and I 
hope forgotten it) almost immediately after 
its perusal, I remember nothing distinctly ; 
but, as so many have since act themaelves 
(most unjustly) against my ward, I don't 
wish them to have it to say that I have con- 
cealed anything whatever, that may seem to 
tell against her in this account. If there had 
been any difference heretofore between our 
treatment of her and of our own daughterly 
there was certainly none from this time 
forth. As we had an endearing name for 
Hester and for Gertrude, so sister Jeannette 
was called Jenny by us all, for love and 
shortness. She was introduced to our old 
friends by the same title to put her at onoe 
upon a ^miliar footing. Her birthday we 
could not keep, because we didn't know it ; 
but we kept the day whereon I first met 
he^ in the train, instead. If she dressed 
better than my real daughters it must have 
been owhig to her superior taste;, for she had 
the same allowance. Thus little Jeannette 
lived with us for years. 

Among the friends who were accustomed 
to visit us pretty constantly, was a certain 
young barrister of the name of Hartley; 



MY LirrLE WARD. 



91 



lie wtkB the heii* preinmptl^e to Lord Buct* 
B&T^a, who was ft n old bachelor, but HarUey 
hiul no great fortune except in that ex^ 
pectntioth He grew very in ti mate At the 
nottae : and, on one occasionf ourselves ivnd 
the three girls went to a tasteful break* 
fnat which he gave in hU Temple roomi. 
Thev were very lii*fii up, and on a most for- 
bid JiT»g-Joiikingfltaipcnae ; bnt, the view from 
the wimlowa waa tui heAUtiful aa 19 to 
be tteeu in London. Tbe ple/iSFtnt gardens 
Iktiked by th«; qti^int phi buildings ; the 
brofttl, iwifl^ flowing river, here apunued by 
tnnasive archrs, here lighily cleared by the 
ttis[>«nMon hriil^e; the long, sharp-potnted 
atenni^rs flittinij upon its waters like hnge 
dragon-flies j tbe ilow nntvleldy barge drift* 
ing diagonally ncrDSs tlie stream ; beyond^ 
»nd opposite the dark hoii«e of commerce^ 
with their crowded wharves* and B^ibel 
chimneys, and a looming fnioke-clond, as of 
thumlijr, oTer ftlL I wjia wrapped up in the 
oltaervjition of thefte tbings, perhaps, too 
much to observe what wot going on wit bin 
tb« room ; for, my wife, when we got home, 
imketj my opinion upon *' Ibat alfair i>etwe«n 
Hartley and oar Gertrude/* — as thongh it 
had been delicately and discreetly metiiioned 
In the MomiBg Po«t oa betn^ a treacly on the 
tapift— t0 my intense a^tournhjuent. There 
was 110 objection to sucb an uUinnoe ; 
but^ I recommended a little more ob- 
Mrvation, and ftuiferiog thin^Ei to tidce their 
own course before our moving in the mat- 
tiTt and ahe aeqnitiflee^i in tlirit opinion* 
Alton t a month aflerwnrcis^ flnring whicli 
wriofJ I certainly renuirked thfit ilr* Hart- 
lev 'a vUita became very frequent, niy wife 
Bptke to me again after a quite d life rent 
£ftabion, 

'^l think Jeanne tte haa behaved mott 
biaely/' «aid alie. 

■^Good gracious t Impoaaible ! What can 
yon mean, my <1ear 1 " 

*I#»ok herei Wliat do you think of 
thiB f *' cried she. '^ I caught her showing it 
it bim in the conservatory, and heanl him 
'fluiTikiug her for the pleasure which it 

iibrdcKl him in proving but there, judge 

Ibr yourseif/* And she put into my hands 
ia exquisite watci^colour painting of the 
TOiry view that had so charmed me from the 
Temple windows* It was Jt?uny'a treat- 
ntent and composition all over^ I saw at a 
glance, 

^^And a moet beautiful sketch, and well 
worth anyhotJy'a thanks it ia," answered X, 
with unfeignea admiration. 

^Hia thanks 'for the interest in him he* 
trayed on the part of the painter/ mind you/* 
replied my wire, raising her voice aoraewhat 
higher than the occasion — I was quite aloae 
beaide her — teemed to demand, "Are jon 
blind 1 Ar6 yon deaf I Are yon dumb 1 " 
she added, aa I aat tpeechleas with astonish- 
tnent at her unaccnatoraed vehemency, " that 
you ha^e nothing to aay againat thb traitresa, 



who hat stolen from your daughter the 
alTectiona of ber engnge«i lover 1 '* 

*' SUip a little, njy love/* I urge*!, quietly, 
'*I liave never heard that Gertrude was 
engaged/' 

'* Not actually, in so many words^ but 
virtually* Everv body wuj* aware of it long ago, 
except yourself/' 

" Shonhl I then/* replied I, very gravely, 
"be the last to know of such a thing as thia, 
my dear wife F* And tbe good kind -hearted 
creature — who is the best of women at the 
core, although a Uttlu impetuous and ba^^ty at 
times in her conclusions^ — embraced uie ten* 
dei'ly a^ though abe had committed quite a 
ctimei ^^ But yon are ao unsui^pLcioua and 
court dinff, my dearies t busU-md/* a he said 
(and indeed it was always a auperatition of 
hem to believe me the most imposed upon 
and victimised of men) ** lliat you don*t per- 
ceive bow ungratefully you are being treated »" 

That sum e evening Geilrud 6 herself poured 
her sorrow into my eat^ j her sorrow, but not 
her an^t-r : she coufessed that she had long 
entertained for Hartley a more tlian kindly 
feeling, wbich be bad seemed to her to recipro- 
cate warmly ; that this sentiment had arisen 
before Jeaj me tie's coming, and oji* tinned for 
some time after it ^ but that of late it had 
become plain to her, m spite of her endeavours 
to diiilielieve it, that the affections of the 
young man w^ere being withdrawn from her j 
that they had been attracted to Jeannette 
Smith — that is, Jenny — instead, and that with 
ber they now remitined. She would not say 
that artifices had been use^l to deprive her of 
them; ibt* superior accomplishments and more 
atriking manners of ber adopted sister were 
cau^e enough, she knew« Jeannetle {I whh 
sbe had said Jenny) was at ill dear to her^ 
but she (Gertrude) would, if I pleased, prefer 
U> reside with her aunt in a neighbouring 
part of town until tbe marriage took place, 
to remaining under the same roof with my 
ward* Without a touch of malice, with only 
the shadow of natural mortification, she 
asked this favour, and I accorded it at once, 
I was perfectly sure that her generous slate* 
ment was the true one : that, uriknown to 
herself, my Ward bad fascinated tbe young 
man from bis allegiance ; and that perhatis he 
had never meant quite so much a^ Gertrude 
in ber own love had given him credit for* 

Jenny heraelf, with many tears and the sin- 
ceres t sorrow, declared that Mr, Hartley"! 
attention a had distressed her more than they 
had pleased her ; that abe had had in truth 
a very great esteem for him, but out of respect 
to my daughter's feelings, had striven to con- 
ceal it "^For, what love,'* cried alie, "O mj 
dear father, could repay me for making you or 
yours unhappy, even for a day I'* Perceivinflf 
aoon, she contiiined, that Gertrude had in truth 
mifltaken a polite and kindly acquaintance 
for a lover, ahe had conducted herself more 
naturally ; that tbe young barrister's inten- 
tiona had on this declared themselves undla- 



I 



I 



I 




HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



gatsedly, and had l»e€n bronglit to the poiut 
of an offer of niaiTiaj,'e by the diMJovery of 
the picture, as uarrated by my wife ; that 
she had accepted him provisioually, ami on 
the condition that I shouhl be satisfied with 
her conduct in tlie whole niHtt«T, and gave 
an unheaitatinjf consent, "without wliich," 
she ( oncUnled in the French tongue, "I cannot 
ex)»ect, dear father, in anything to prosper." 
1 was very much affected by these scenes, 
as may l>e imagined, and arranged for the 
intei view im tlie next day with Mr. Hartley. 
I explained to him the exact condition in 
whieli Jenny was place<l ; tiow it was un- 
known to ns whether slie was of high or 
hiniihle origin, or even legitimate or illegiti- 
mate ; but tliat, having tit-st itdopted her and 
taken her from her former pi-otectress, and 
after wan is brought )ier up in ali resi)ects as 
my own child,! considered myt^elf bound to give 
her the same dowry — not u large one^as if 
she were so. He thanked nie warmly, as 
tiiough he had expected nothing of this sort, 



with French people) as though thej were 
slaves, animals, dirt beneath their feet. 
Jeannette Lotteau was the nurse : Jcannette 
whose name their child has borne all its life 
long, was once struck, beaten upon the 
cheek, by madame in her passion. The scar 
was not great, but it has taken twenty yean 
to heal : now, however, that the countess was 
in London (an extract from a news|>auer was 
here given, announcing the arrival at a 
certain fashionable hotel of the count and 
C4»unte88 Lelamotte) let her at last dia* 
cover her lost one, late teacher at a PensioOi 
now a de^iendent in the house of a heretio 
priest ; it would be good for her. 

Jenny begged me to say nothing of this 
till I was certain of the truth of the whole 
alfair; but, for my own part, I felt pietty 
sure u}K>a the point ; and, when I took my 
way with my adopted child on the next 
morning to tlie hotel, it was with intense 
curiosity to look u]>on her real parents. I 
left dear Jenny, palpitating, in a room down- 



and indeed his love for Jenny was very jstiirs, while I went up to the aiwrtment 



strong, and quite disinterested, I am sure. 
The day ff>r their marriage was not fixed, but 
it was undei-stood tliat it should take place 
■oon. 

Some weeks after this time, on thefour- 
teeiiih of May — as I rememiier well, for it 
hpi)]K'ned to 1)0 the day on which we received 
iiiarria<;e canis from my wife's reUtive Lord 
B:ie(wireii ; and my wife, Hesther, and myself, 
had t>een to visit Gertrude at my sister 
Annie's house (who had, 1 regret to say, taken 
such a fiislike to Jenny by this time, as to beg 
she might not be brought within her <loors). 
On our return I found my Ward wishing to 
s])e;ik with me. " My deur father,*' said she 
when we were alone together in my study, 
** f>oe here ! " she took from her pocket a 
ciise of tiny jewels, necklace, brooch, and 
armlets, of exquisite workmanship, and com- 
prising almost every precious stone in har- 
monious combination. ** These were mine,** 
she continuetl, "when I was almost an 
infant ;** the tears came into her eyes, and a 
flush crossed her cheeks while she regarded 
the siill dimly remembered trinkets. '^They 
were loft for me by a little boy, months ago, 
at your door, without any sort of explanation ; 
I diil not know whether to tell you or not. 
I feared lest it might be some cruel hoax, 
but to-day he came again with these few 
p»]iers.** (I found afterwards that Jenny 
unintentionally miB8-date<l this, as the papers 
were left on the previous afternoon it seems.) 
They were documents in the French language, 
setting forth the whole particuLirs of Jenny's 
previous history, and affording ample proof 
of her birth. 

She was the only child of noble and 
wealthy parents in the south of France ; 
the count and countess Lelamotte ; proud, 
insolent, bitter-hearted — so it was written 
— yet loved their daughter to distraction. 



occupied by the couut and countess. It was 
one of the finest in that gorgeous mansion, 
a larce drawing-room, magnificently fur^ 
nished ; at one end of it, u{>on an ottoman, 
loun<;ed a gentleman with a newspaper ; and. 
at tlie other end, in an arm-chair reclined 
madame. It was late in the spring-time^ 
but a brisk fire was burning in the grate, 
and she seemed to have every need of iU 
Slie did not ritte at my entrance, and her 
huslMind only lifted his head up languidly, 
and demanded, in a voice strangely at 
variance with his words, ** To what happy 
chance he was thus deeply indebted for the 
honour of my presence ? ** I don't know 
whether he was practising the BU|)erpolite- 
ness of his countrymen, or whether he was 
sneering. 

** I come,** answered I, in such French as I 
could c<mimand, ** not without reason, sir. It 
is |>ossiblo that I may have been misinformed, 
and be mistaken ; but, I think that I bring 
some intelligence which will affect you botb^ 
very, very deeply." 

A little lifting of the lady*a pencilled eye- 
brows, a scarcely perceptible shrus of the 
count's shoulders were the only replies. 

" You had a servant once called Jeannetta 
Lotteau, ha<i you not ? '* 

A sharp inarticulate cry of rage burst from 
the count, the lady rose swiftly from her 
seat, and stood before me in an instant, white 
but without trembling — so like, so like my 
ward ! 

" And my child, sir, what of her ? Name 
of Heaven, speak 1" 

''She has been with me, madame, for 
years as my adopted daughter. She is well ; 
she is even now under this very roof ! *' 

That was in substance the whole of what 
passed between us. I left the two, at once, 
alone with their new-found oi&])ring. I 



They treated their servants (very imusoal 1 returned hooM and told my family all that 



CWrtn Dkknw^} 



PLURALITY OF ^nTEa 



05 



bsif] neriirred^ — for the ^rst time. I knew that 
my drni* iiiti# Jtnny must sooner or inter be 
tni^f^ii fmitii us for ever, and it itiivle me mid. 
1^'ub tUuu^ prouil artiliei&l p«reuiii of h^m — 
ilthott^h it wa» pi am they hved Her — I 
fltiabietl if nhe would be bo ' ^ beDcnth 

«piir ri»»»i^* I tJamjilit ot tf>o, and 

Ltiw hi3 utiion with my v%:um ^vuukj now 
pri'hjtr^^ Tiieet with ob&taclt-t. He s**emefl, 

1(CM*r It'ltrtw^ to exfjeet aji miieh hirti^f, hut 
it^ did tdOl dwell upoa it, pere^lvir.g I hn*] no 
grr*ftt A atirrow of my owd* Evenbodvt I 
UitJtk, snw thKt ; and, then and ein^, aU have 
ftirt»c*rin* to give me any nnnectv^ry j^iiiTj — - 
£ frel it) and t thank them. VV oi J a have 
dropper 1 lovoluBtjirUy »OTuetime» fnira thi«e 
moNi (t<»ar to toe, of anger atid uriehnrtly 
•g«.ihBt luy fittle Jenny . They did rrol know 
litrr as i knew her, or they waidil f^3*l h*iw 
deeply they hi^ve therein WTNinj^fd lier. The 
girin ar«? vtry hard upon hi r lUixi slii* hnn nnt 
takeii tiotipe of yt>uiig ilariiey hi nee, (we urm 
*11 at h — " *'"jt-ther a^^ain, mid thss is the 
ciidy 81 i we disuij^T^^tj ufiori) ; but \\<*w 

Qttij VT'j L .. . , iial harsh dLsji]4ine ahe may 
btf aubjpcted ; how this and that, which 
■eema to tts qoJte ri^ht and nainral, may 
luivo b<M?ii forbidden by her high^bom forvigti 
pftrtoiea i 

It dfjve B^em aad and at range never to have 
»ei*n «lepr Jenny more ; not one© to have 
ki ^i Ue Waril af*iirn^ aiid wlalied hrr 

G' II her new mid lofty way, 1 resid 

thai tilt' niro© wt*nt back to Puri* on tht? 
en»ttt;i{[> dny to tlk&t wherijin I saw them laat ; 
Uiw time how many, m:iiiy ye-ir*! 1 read 
umi^ Htfw ni*>nths h^:k^ tliat the Count Dtlii- 
moite was ium\^ ji mii^it^ler of the Kttiperor, 
That ia all i know. We ars very happy 
•I hofn«, thank heaven, ^^ all of na ; hut 
i abould like ibiit Btruii^e uegleet to be 
fSplttinftl to aatisfy otUera ; und how I 
itiH mhi«^iitkd how I long to aeei My little 



FLUEALITY OF MITEa 



"^ I WZLL aaleep the other evening after 
dinner. I had be^n ditnng aluiief jaul the 
Uioie sfrioua bijainev*ia of mcjLt aiid pitiltUng 
|i>i% ir.r ii^if.*! diapoeed of, I had aat fur isume 
t:i 'lyiiig wjth the cheese, tome loti^e 

dr; ly buta of which were lying about 

Mjr phit»** 1 fell aaleep and had a drenm, 

I dre^iint titaii in aome strauEje unejcplained 
BUOmcr (nbenwaa ever anything explained 
fa driAtti-^ ?> my rpM heieaitie all at onc?e eti- 
ilnw«Hl wiih itiicroacopic |)ower,aud bapi>eiung 
ti> l'\>*^it iifton A crumb of cbe«:^, t^ndd a 
^ ttj of mites. I watched their 

It J' Aa I looked, they aetrmed to 

|iirrt:.nHe ui aise, until I coidd diatinetly aing!e 
Oiii ifidividuaia from the nin.^, [ saw them 
0inv%»g and atru|:^^hng with ea^h other, 
aoikia ^ the weaker getting moat cruel Ly 
irimipM under foot by others who marc^ked 
€nrer tliem | I law them toilkrg with ditfi- 



ciilty np the caaeotis monntidnB^ or reating 
quietly in the Aeep ahady vnlley« into which 
the ineqi mil ilea on the mii^ace of the cheeae 
were mjignlheiL I saw Ktune of the lai*geir 
pluntp4*Hooking mites honrding np heajja Oi 
the rictt matter that formed iit once their 
food and dwelling-piace ; and 1 saw other 
leaiier ones wIjo^ dig aa deeply as th«y would 
into it^ Bul stance, never aeemed able to 
g(?t fr^ori etioili;h to ent. 

Thtiri^ j*s I looker I, f thon^ht I heard A 
Bound, like voices in the iliat^iEi^'es ^"*l bj 
degr^fes, my oara partnking of the &u|»cr- 
naturul pow^^ra already enjoyed by my eye«, 
1 ciMtgtit lli^ir aceenta^ found that I could 
undere^rand tlio langnage of the luittfs* 

** What n brnve world ia thit of onra ! ** 
cried au tild Tat mite whom I was watching (he 
ap>ke iouder than the others, and mt \im were 
the first wort i a that 1 canglit)* "How bunn* 
tihd Ih-is nature been in phidng us npoti it I 
Here, have we ail wt want — our IoimI pruvided 
for ua, and lo lie had aimj'iy for the picking 
np. Hnd we lieen cast upon the tlreary v«iid 
that sefuiriit^a ua from the nearest world to 
ihia^ we muet have died from ijunger. Ijook 
over yonder ; wl»at now aj^peaiia to you a 
ttny spot in tlio distance, once tbimeti portion 
of tiiia worht of our9^ Now, it m millionB c»f 
our longest measure from ua.^* 

On l}€J*ring tbia, I cf>uld not for the life of 
me refnuii from Iwuddug, ai>leep though I 
wa^ The dis(a.nt oVijecE. that he jK>inted out 
was one of the eromljei of chee<$e thrtt 1 lad 
fec:itteref] with my kuife Borne half an hour 
i*efore ; tlie <ire:iry vohl that intervened waa 
about two inches of the ptiite which cliatioed 
to ite una>vered, 

I listened agnin. The old mite waa di^ 
ootirt^tn^^ lenniedly about the atoms that inajria 
up tii%*ir universe. "Look wiiere we wdt," 
he Bfdd, " we find on every aide, far, immea- 
anr?ddy far from ua, amall apecka to all 
appearance, but supposed to be in reality 
worUis 1 1 ko our own. It hsa been said, in- 
deed, that they poaseaa inhabilAiita like oun ; 
but that we eamiot know* Convubiunfl do 
o&*nr Bonietimes that bring two worlds to 
g*^ther ; but, when this iiappens, ihoae re* 
i-idjng ucar the apot where tlie phenomenon 
occurs lehiom survive the shocks Whole 
natti»na iinve l»f en sometimea known to periab 
in the cuihaion : some bemg crushed to d^^ih, 
and othera thrown far from way habitable 
fipot by the concu^ion.'* 

Then cauie a mite, apparently much older 
than he who bail already 8f>okeu, and 
declared he knew of his own knowl&dir«>, that 
the 'worlds around must, to a great exteat^ 
resemble this. Long, long ago, ho re«olie^t©d 
that the whole formed one eoormooa maa^ 
vast beyond all conception ; that hj d^gr««i^ 
with fearful shocksj the worMs tltey amw^ m 
the far distjuice were, one by otie, detudied 
and Hew i4f into tpaea. He was too yotm^ 
when these diaruptionA happcne«1, to know 
much about it; but, he had pondered on it 



96 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



since, and felt oonytnced that all existing 
matter, their own world, and the thousands 
that they saw around them, once formed one 
mighty whole ! 

A derisive shrmt of laughter followed tliis 
assertion. Tlie thing was too preposterous 
to be belieFed. The younger mitei, especially, 
were boisterous in their incredulity. They 
were not going to be taken in by tales like 
that— they knew better. There was no other 
world besides their own. The bit of cheese 
they dwelt on was the only bit of cheese that 
ever was or would, or could, be habitabla 
See what a size it was. No mit^ could walk 
round it in a life-time. If what they had 
been told was true, how insignificant would 
this great world of theirs become, com- 
pared to the enormous whole 1 How 
utterly insignificant the individual mite ! 
No, no, there was no other habitable cheese. 

The old mite shook his head, and spoke 
not. For my own part, I felt half tempted 
to convince the sceptics of their error 
by scrapinjr all the crumbs together in my 
plate, and thus, once more uniting their 
scattered universe. But I had heard of the 
disasters that ensued whenever these convul- 
sions, as they called them, did occur ; and, 
having by this time conceived an interest in 
the tiny disputants, I spared them and con- 
tinued listening. 

'' Come, now," exclaimed one of the incre- 
dulous young mites, with an air of one about 
to put a poser, ^ if you have told us true, and 
everything we see around us is cheese like 
this we live in ; if there really exists as much 
cheese as would make a thousand of our 
worlds ; why may there not be even a thou- 
sand times as much as that again ? Why may 
there not be cheese enough in being, to form 
a million, million worlds, — all fit for mites, 
like us, to live on, eh ? " 

" Why not, indeed !'* the sage replied. ** For 
my part I believe there is.*' 

<' Ho ! ho I ho ! ho ! ** There was not one 
mite in the whole community that didn't 
fairly shake its tiny sides with laughter at 
this wild assertion. They all declared the 
old mite must be in his dotage. They 
kicked and cuffed him cruelly, and even 
threatened to ex)>el him from the cheese he 
stood on, and so compel him to find out the 
truth of his own theory by endeavouring to 
make a pilgrimage to one of the distant 
worlds he spoke oC 

Then, other mites came up to ioin in the 
discussion. There was one who had been a 
great traveller (how pr^ud the little fellow 
was of his experience I he had been nearly 
half-way round the crumb of cheese they all 
resided on). He astonished his hearers by 
dechuring that, in spots that he had viuted, 
there were objects visible in the distance 
utterly unlike the little specks they saw 



- from where they stood. One in parUcii- 
lar was more than fifty times as big as any 
they couhl see; but, even this was nothing 
when compared with the great world they 
lived in. 

(Mistaken mite I The object that yon 
saw was the distant lump from which all 
your pigmy worlds were shaken !) 

As to there being other bits of cheese 
inhabited besides their own, the trnveller 
would not hear of it. It was true that thero 
were other mites dwelling in distant portioM 
of their world whose manners differed in 
several ways from their own. (His audienet 
seemed surprised to hear that even this 
oould be ; but he had seen them, so there was 
no diaputinff it.) But as for other worlds of 
mites, the thing was too preposterous I 

Then came another — a mite of most im« 
posing as|>ecty and attended by a long train 
of foDowers. I soon found out he was the 
monarch of the colony I was observing. WiUi 
royal condescension, the sovereign mite 
paused to inouire into the subject of dis- 
cussion. On oeing told, his majesty grew 
wroth, and vowed it was high treason to 
suppose there could be any other communities 
to ^yem than the well-known and est*- 
blisoed nations of their world. It was an 
insult to the dignity of the few favoured 
mites who divided the sovereign sway 
among them, to think that there were 
others who in their own spheres might be no 
less potent (or even more potent— which 
was a horrible and blasphemous thought !) 
than themselves. So, the poor mite who 
broached the theory about other worlds was 
ordered to recant on pain of death ; and 
the fact was establishea unmistakeably, by 
royal edict, that there was no cheese—could 
be no cheese — inhabited, but theirs. 

Then I awoke, roused from my afleiw 
dinner dream by an Italian boy beneath 
my window, grinding on his organ Home, 
sweet home. It chimed in well with what I 
had been dreaming of. No place like home 1 
No people like ourselves, no country but our 
own, no worlds but the globe we live on« 
No cheese that mites can dwell in, but our 
own particular crumb I 

Yet cheese— and mitey cheese — is sold bj 
tons ! Yet suns and systems roll around us ; 
the planet we inhabit, but one atom in a 
mighty group ; that, in ita turn, an atom in 
another mightier one. Where shall we stop t 
Clusters of satellites revolving around a 
world : clusters of worlds revolvmg around a 
sun : clusters of suns revolving around— 
what) 

Take physic, pomp! Pride, get thee 
hence ! How little any of us, men or mite% 
can comprehend what may exist beyond the 
limits of our one especial crumb— whether of 
earth, or cheese! 



3^ EigM qf Trandaiing JrticleMfram Houbihold Wobsb u renrvei ly the AuUm^ 



^Familht m their Mmih m UOUSBHOLD WORBSl* 



I 



HOUSEHOLD WOKDS. 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL 
CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



N» 884.] 



DtX, EDWARDS A. CO., FUBLISHEBS, 



USHERa 

It iieefU« to me — who huve pit^efl & vefy 
long sLitil vaned ichaoHife — that there is do 
inch piilnhie claM m & civil bed community 
V ibfLi of ti»4ber$f and &t the ?^me tuue none 
so myi^ttiioua, No man ia br^ii An usher; 
no mun at^hUvea (if he can help it) usherdhip, 
U^hersh I p is fil w tlja thru »t n po u him* Bo rn aa 
Qsher 1 Wh.-it orteuN-e could fiither or mother 
hiive oommiited, to lia^e it vi^it^^d eo retighlj 
upOD their itii]0<vut ? Crmld its cheeks liAve 
ftv^r been eh^bby, &n4 ditupl^'d into smdes ? 
Hud It M*er nt nnj tiinii a will of ita own ? 
Conld the btiy Aif he grew up have ever 
Ijiii^lieil ont honestly among hiA fellows 1 
enjoyed hiin*etf in the playground like the 
tmA^ Cemid he Imve shirked irBpo^Utona^ 
broken boiUMk^ aJad hat^d and despiiied kh 
mlieri t Oonld he ever ha^e had holiday a, 
^-jjune bofue t Heaveri knows ! but, fioru 
vliAt i hnve s«en of hini aiuce he became a 
EQiLt). I ai«Ereely think It. 

Alone, ftnd aitdilat iv crowd of eDemie^; in 
aQUtoHtjf anii w;thiiut the ehadow of [Kjwer ; 
learner 1, axwI doujued to paee to and fro ujnm 
tlie low roads lo tearniiif^; a mas^ter and a 
MdrvAUt> A (jfentlernrm and an usher, — 1 pitj 
him U\m\ the bottoraof my heart. JSleek dergy 
of pttMic Euhfjolis with Itierative boardera 
ID j</AW «>wn l^oHsea, and grataitous montton 
to iuve TOU from all carking (^re^ it ia 
not you I m«>an. Nor you, liigh wranglers, 
wJio have oidy jujst mUsed your fellow- 
fthlfiA, and are sub- wardens or viue-principala 
in Butiie wed- en do wed grammar-aehool until 
your brilliunt teslimoniHlA and 0[iLime dio' 
ecaiitA abalt have dazzled a committee of 
iJdvrfti'MJ, and procureii you a better thing. 
Nor you, ireliiy r^hued geutleme% who^ 
]iii*#4ou it id to eduexte, under their anc^* 
tad roafri, otir futme hL^reditary legisla- 

; or to be offered the comforts of a 
f<ir a mere tbr^e huudred a year, and 

Iter hutidt^Kl lulded in eiae yoa keep a 

Ko! I mean the native resident wbo 

Gerumn, Frt?nch^ and the sword 

eiac, at Minerva Hou^e ; and whose ser- 
y loga ^ with wa^idiigj parental care, and re* 
Itglofkft trainings inchi»i ve —are to be procured 
by actidia of the nobility aad gentry for two- 
Ktid'twenly gyinea&s per aimumf and a laiiver 
iorfc fttid aifoou ; I mesan tbe intelligent 



TIHfe XIV* 



assistant by whom every biranch of mathe- 
matical study is impaired; I mean the 
geudeman from the university, to whom 
the junior dassical departmeut is en- 
trusted : I m^nxi the under* master in 
^nerdt, who partakes of the task of expand- 
iu«T youth with the Reverend the Prinei|jaJ, 
or with IVLi under Criehton Mivinsi, Esquire^ 
Licentiate of the College of Preet^ptoraj JiXjJ^ 
F.S.A,, and half the alphabet besides. 

The usher I was tii^t acquainted with, I 
rememWr but dindy ; and yet h« impressed 
tny infant tniud with the utter hopele^neag 
of ushership, more than any other usher did 
afterwards. Of all ushers I think he must 
have been the most miserable : his caae — hi< 
outward visible framework — ^appeared to be 
that of Peter Sehlemil reversed ; there waa 
the fiuadow of him, but there waa no Peter : a 
gaunt, wan, hungry-looking, tr£iiisp:ireut man, 
upeaking nuder \m brejiih, flitting about 
without a soqih), aud servings like an ob«« 
dt^nt spirit, Hts at^m master, Uabbakuk 
^traitlmie^ who must have bound him unto 
him by some unhallowed spell. I w^nt to 
Habbakuk's (who was a disssenting miuiiiter 
in ourton^i) ai^aday-bo^rder, and the shallow 
— --be&tuse he was so noi^eleds and inolfenslve^ 
perhapa — seemed to me to be kind and 
friendly. Strait hare had a habit of ^i rum- 
mi n<:; upon his desk (when ho wa^ uot drum- 
ming upon ua) with the en tl of his cant^, alter 
the manner of a crazy auctioneer ; of roar- 
ing Silence, when you miirht have heard a 
pin drop, and there was not the )eii:^t occa- 
sion ; of singling out during extemnorziueoua 
Erayers the very quietest ooy, ana ti'eating 
im in a spiritually anAtomic-il way, to the 
last degree distressing to the subje.'t, — and 
none of Uia^e thinspt did the shadow do 
or dream of doing. Therefore I ^'ot my 
governor to ask him home occasionally ; 
and, since I wae to have a tutor during 
the vacation, I chose hlm^ U]:*on the drat 
morning of his breakfasting with us, there 
was a piece of cold b^ieou ou table, which waa 
almoai gone as fjtr as slices weni, but had a 
bosb of rusty meat at the botlotu, into which 
nobody had carted to cut down iuto ; I re- 
member, qnite dintinctly, the shadow ear^'ing 
this objeciioimble stratum completely otf, and 
uonsuuiing it with uppai'eut relhih ; which 
gave me a terrible uotioti of the way 



I 
4 



4 



e way J 



98 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 






in which he most have been aeeostomed 
to put np with what nobody else had 
any fancy for. He had al flate, from 
which he was accustomed to distil the 
most melancholy sounds dnring the play- 
times ; and this was his only joy. The Doys 
filled it with dirt periodically, and at last 
broke it. He had low shoes with patches 
on them, and an umbrella worn down to the 
nib ; so the boys called him Snobby. Hab- 
bakuk, who was a Terv severe master, used 
rather to encourage the young ffentlemen 
in these respects. The hideous pleasure of 
inflicting pain upon unoffending and defence- 
less objects did not seem to oe considered 
cowardly, immond, or unchristian ; but the 
restraint of it, on the contrarv, as milksoppy, 
nonsensical, and (settler of all controversy !) 
un-English. The indolence of the preceptor 
is backed by the heartlessness aua follV of 
those who entrust their children to him. 
They foi^et the suffering of their own 
school-time, and don't care if they remember 
them. Certainly there is no social question 
so entrenched by stupidity or prejudice, on 
which the advocates of improvement have 
such difficulty in getting a hearing, as the 
moral training of boys : " Beat the non- 
sense out of them ;" *^ Let them rough it a 
little;" "Let them find their own level;" 
'^ Notliing like a little wholesome bullying ;" 
"Boys will be boys," are thrown from all 
sides at the educational reformer, just as 
rotten eggs and extinct cats are cast by way 
of argument at political reformers. It suits, 
somehow, old gentlemen in affluent circum- 
stances to extol their school days; while 
they are solacing themselves for enforced 
abstinence from port with the choicest 
Lafitte, to bewail the time when they took 
their half-dosen of gingeivbeer with impu- 
nity ; and, while they leave three-parts of 
their pine-apple as being hard and near the 
rind, to lament the epoch when gooseberries 
seemed the best of fruit. Fluffkins, who is 
a country gentleman of large fortune and 
excellent appetite, is accustomed to get (juite 
pathetic (after dinner) upon the bygone times 
when he had threepence a-week for pocket- 
money and the refuse of the bigger boys* meals 
for food. When he becomes a little stertorous 
in his breathing, and has a handkerchief cast 
over his purple face and protruding eyes, 
he will hold forth in gasps about the healthv 
moderation which he learned at school, 
and has never, thank Heaven, forgotten. 
'* Lessons of temperance are taught by what 
vou call hardships, sir— of temperance and of 
iron endurance y* and, befoi<e I cim reply, he 
is fiut asleep, trumpeting like an elephant ; 
having 'been utterly exhausted An rtdingover 
his farm and reading the newspaper, fluff- 
kins is my Aiend ; and I m.iy therefore be 
permitted to state that he is at once the most 
fawning and the most imperious of men : his 
fat face crinkles all over into smiles when 
sny lord oomes over once or twice a-year. 



from the Park, to dine at the Grange ; at 
whose approach, champagne and johannia- 
berg foam up, as though he were Bacchus 
himself (he looks much more like Silenua) ; 
and Mrs. F. puts on her diamonds. Now I, 
who have been a friend of the house for 
forty years, am regaled with what Fluffkins 
calls "a vexT drinkable port;*' and it is 
understood that I had much better not be 
contradictory. "Nothing,*' says F., "is like 
an English school for getting all the airs 
kpDck^ out of a fellow ; and for independence 
in after-life, sir." And he believes with all 
his soul that he is a proof of the effects of it 
With general statements of this sort he is 
armed at all points ; but, if I give him rope 
enough, he will tell me anecdotes, with a sort 
of horrid joy, of how he got hold of " a little 
bit of a boy, who had just come from his 
mother's apron-strings, and whom (Ha, ha, 
ha !) I gave a deuce of a thrashingto for 
being so small ; and Bullneck, and Mulker, 
and myself we buried him in a dungfaeap^ 
up to the neck, sir, and poured water upon 
him for a couple of hours, to make him grow, 
(Ha, ha, ha!) and he aid grow in conse* 
quence, sir, devilishly." It was Fluff kins, be 
sure, who stuffed the poor Shadow's flate 
with mud, and led the laugh against those 
clothes which were the best he could afford 
to wear. I cannot tell for certain, but I 
think if I had been the Shadow, 1 would 
have expended most of my remaining vital 
power m the personal chastisement of 
Master F., and would then have flitted away 
from the school-world and its Habbakulu 
altogether. 

Messrs.' Midas and Janty, assistant-masters 
at my first preparatory academy for the public 
schools, were a different variety of the same 
genus. They were the faithful slaves, indeed, of 
the Reverend Sloe Dumplin, but they served 
him under protest. Whenever a boy was un- 
lawfully or excessively punished Midas pre- 
faced it with — ^'Doctor Dumplin has requested 
me to set you an imposition of two thousand 
lines, I reoret to say ;" or, " I am about to 
perform the painful duty of locking you up 
in the dark closet for fourteen hours, at the in- 
stance of Doctor Dumplin." Mr. Midas was 
inflexible with the doctor upon the matter of 
disputed passages, and would not submit, 
either privately or in public, to have his clas- 
sical learning underrated. From his stubborn- 
ness in this respect, and from his general good 
temper, ho was called the Ox. Upon one 
occasion, after having argued during school- 
time with the head master, upon the Platonic 
Dialogues, I heard him whisper to Janty that 
Dumplin had been evidently studying the 
English version, which was forbidden— it 
seemed for very sufficient reasons — to us 
boys. " Ah ! " answered Janty, rubbing his 
hair until it stood upright, three inches 
high, "the Ox knoweth his master*s crib." 
Mr. J. exhibited his independence by the 
perfection of his polite phrases and de- 



USHEE3, 



99 



mewiour. ** I liope, air^ that jou have etjj oyed 
• refresliing fileep,*' waa the sort ot sniutation 
wkieh lie returned to the blunt " Good inorn- 
tng^of hkaupertor. The way in which he 
look off hii tyit to ^frs, DumpliD and those 
Uiree princ^aea, h^r Dffkpriog, whm tlic hnp- 
piest mixture of Georg^e the Fourth and Sir 
Oiarlea Qrandifloii^ that a polished romd c&ri 
OiMieeiTe. On those few festive oeojubuft^ 
when the great gnlf between Peda!;ogiie and 
Ufther wa« temporarily bridged over, and all 
aat down together before a cold collation— 
sfter gome ex peri men ta in the doctor'* lecture* 
loom, m tlectricity and ehemii^rv, calculated 
to exhilarftte us to the utmost limit — Janty^s 
general carriage and gracefuluees in ussii^t- 
in^ the ladies to ehicken and sheny, was 
eorvstdered iimmpeacUabie. Hie best wabtcoat 
(which I remember, poor fellow^ to have been 
the iame for a loni^ eotirae of jeari) retained 
to the last a briUiancf, of which words can 
give but a feeble idea ; it represeotedj by 
iprigi and threaili formed of the precious 
metaliy upon a aatia ground, the firmament — 
ann, moon, and itan competing upon it toge> 
tlier wilh an equal fervency ; and tbij eelestml 
wairtcfiat wa« Mr. janty's pride^ One of 
tbs few Qaberi whom I ever saw assert 
Ikii fiersonal diffmty was Ihla gentteman, on 
the occasion of an inault being offeretl to 
bis favourite garment. A boy of the name 
of Jonea pointed out thia miracle of art| 
one Sunday, with bit fitiger to the rest of 
u^, aa not being altogether the sort of pattern 
th*t ia worn for morning costume ; and Mr. 
J&iity ktiocked him down with a box upon 
hia ri^ht ear ; picking him up with a box 
upon lib left unmediatelyj obflerving, that 
be hoped he Qlt. Janty) knew bow to dress 
himself like a ffentJemim, 

Kjnii*be4irt^T pieaaaut fellows both he and 
Midaa were ! and they had a great mutual | 
atlaclmient fa rare event among depend 2Lnta 
of any kincl^ and especial ly among nshen^ 
wliOiiep into one another^a shoes^ and have 
to k«ep m favour wilh a common maater) \ 
bnt they botli broke down^ I am sorry to say, 
midef pfeasuf^^ and sacriticed truth and jua' 
tie* M the Ditrnplln shrine. TtiTLt cheap ex- 
Qt for dispensing with m^iny assitstant 
, which is called the motii tonal 
a, previale4 at Uoctor D/t, and a litile 
eight years old htiA, on one occa- 
, been tieat^n with a to»stiug-furk by a 
or -^ — ^nteen, fbr not browning bis 
'y; so that his Utile back 
.^e a xebra^s, and hia ja^^ket 
to rs^ Moreorer, a email bme of 
I ri^ht arm waa broken. Wilh the Iel\, 
kowrver, he managed to indite an epcstle 
fionie, setting forth the dreum^tancei* Whe- 
tlier he was too small to be made a man d 
Id Uat particular manner, and to feel a 
beonntifti pride in being paniahed nnjtiatlyp 
as flanbiss may opine, — or too young * to 
fXpm all i^iasttsement whatever, in- 
acliool anthortty, as joa tillable 



and betje6cial,*' aa »ome great educationalists 
of the present day may believe, — I do not 
venture to determine ; certain It i*, that lie 
wrote cotnplainingly ; and^ amongst other 
things in his simpie, tear-blotted, round-text, 
he Kaid, " I am veiry miserable, dear father, 
and have been crying for pain, throngh the 
entire adiool - lime * — meanings from ten 
o*cIock to one* His lather arrived in a few 
hours after the receipt of this ; and there 
waa & row. There was the cut jacket and 
the 2ebra Imck, eloquent enough ; but all 
the witne«aee were subpcnnaed upon the 
other side ; onrj, as it was desimble to prove 
the little boy to be a liar, it was arranged 
that the case should rest u|Jon that statement 
of hia aboat hia teart. 

The monitor, the victim, and the two 
uahe^^ had been sent for Into the drawing- 
room ; (mil presently (to my intepae discom- 
fort) I waa summoned also. The £iither had 
escpretted a wiah to see the boy who had sat 
next to his son during the particular school- 
time. The father, a fine military- looking man, 
not having at all the appearance of one who 
would desire hh son to be brought tip a 
milluop^ was sending by the door, with Jus 
Urtle boy^s hand claaped in bis own ; 
opposite, stood the young monitor, ehifting 
bis le^B and frowning, discon^rted md mal^ 
voleut ; next to him, Messrs, Midas am) 
Janty — ^the former very grave and deferen* 
tial, the latter with an airy politeness about 
bint, as though he shonld say, ** There ia a 
strange ^enlleman in the room, and it shall 
be my province to set him thoroughly at his 
eai«.** The doctor alone was seated ; he bad 
taken an arm-chair, as if he had nothing to 
do with the matter except judietaUy, and was 
endeavouring to represent, by the expr^sion 
of hii countt^uance, the onion of jvistice ami 
mercy, 

** With regar*!, sir,** he waa observing as 
i entered I, ** to Walpole minor (for we nave 
anotlier Walpole here, Colonel, of the ffreat 
Northumberland family: Wynkyn de Wal- 
pole we are familiar with so ^ly as lloomA* 
day Book) ; wilh regard to the qnevtion of 
bis having cri«*d the entire school-time (If I 
am incorrect in the exact words, pray set 
me right), it ia a mere matter of evidence^ 
and I fear there must have been some gro^ 
exaggeration. From my seat in the place 
appropriated for general stndyj I survey the 
wlioie school, and there was no boy crymj^ 
certainly — stay, let me be aeeutmte — yes, ihtre 
was one boy, 8traSbrd (son of Sir Dudlej 
Strafford, of the west eountnr, Colooel) was 
in tears from an honourable feeling of io^b- 
pftcity with regard to the meaning of a ehap 
ter in Tacitus, Mr, Midas, you remeiabcr 
our scholarly argoment upon Uytt aabfee^ 
wherein I fear you obtained a sli^t advan- 
tage T and, by the bye, air, yon mast k&ow 
that WalpoW minor wab not ciyi^.'" 

** Sir," replied the nsher, ** I wm in another 
part of the schoolroom from that iii wkkb 



4 



1 



100 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



the young gentleman was placed, (O, Mitlas ! 
Midas !) and therefore waa not in a positioD 
to hear him.** 

•* And I," ohserred Mr. Jantjr, with a bow, 
^happened to have my back! towards him, 
— ina«lvertently, however, believe me— and 
therefore waa not in a position to see him.*' 

I knew that both these two gentlemen 
were telling lies, and it devolved npon 
me — to whom the colonel turned somewhat 
impatiently— to contradict their evidence. 
Walpole had been crying all school-time, as 
most boys of eight years with the small bone 
of their right arm broken, would probably 
do ; and I said so. 

** This is, as jon remarked, Doctor 
Dnmplin,** said the colonel, when I had 
finished, * a mere matter of evidence. 
There has been a falsehood told, most cer- 
tainly, either by yourself and voar ushers 
on the one hand, or by my boy And his 
companion on the other. Yon are a cler- 
gyman, and those persona are under your 
control, so I say no more. For you, young 
gentlonan,** he added, turning to the monitor, 
''if I did not feel that you were in some sort 
a slave to a vicious system yourself, be as- 
sured that, before I took my son away from 
this school — which I shall do now and at 
once — I would thrash you as long as I could 
stand over you, wirh this cane ; *' which 
indeed I should have liked to have seen him 
do exceedingly. 

The next day I broke down, somehow, in 
a particularly well -conned task of mine 
before the head-master; and "I exceed- 
ingly re^rret," said Mr. Midas, ''that I must 
sulistitute lireail and water for your dinner 
to-day, and deprive you of your week*s 
pocket-money nlso, at the instigation of Doctor 
Dumplin." When I complained to Jantv 
of the injustice of my sentence, he replied, 
poking up his hair, that perhaps I had got up 
my lesson too well, ana that over-accuracy 
was sometimes injudicious. 

At this same school, a Monsieur Lncien, 
the French master and a Roman Catholic, 
suffered the torments, at the very least, of 
purgatory. He had served under Napoleon, 
and waa accustomed, upon great festivals, to 
wear a diugv yellow ribband in his button- 
hole—an order of merit which it was under- 
stood had been bestowed upoa him by the 
emperor*s own hands ; and tne emperor and 
the order and the Boman Catholic relicion 
were the three themes which the boys chose 
for their |>leasant aatire. 

Would Monsieur Lucy (Anglicd for Ln- 
cien) be so very kind as to state once again 
the circumstances under which he had ob- 
tained his reward of bravery ! Was it true 
that the great Bonaparte had laid himself 
down upon his stomach in the long grass at 
Waterloo, pretending to be dead, and that he 
had eventually escaped disguised as a daughter 
of the regiment, in short petticoats, with a 
paraaoll Was it Monsieur Lucy's serioas 



conviction that the whole of ns boys, being 
Protestants, would pa« a considerable portion 
of time in the infernal regions ? 

'*I do hope and tnist that yon all may, 
mon Dieu ! '* whs wont to be his fervent and 
not unnatural reply. 

•* What ! " added we, «' and Doctor Daraplin 
too? Do you hope that he may be so 
treated 1" 

•* Ah, well !*• replied Monsieur Lncy, with 
a twinkle of his single eye, ** the good doctor, 
he will, I do not doubt, have his reward." 
Which answer used to delii^ht us exces- 
sively, and made Monsieur Lacien populav 
for several minutes. 

At the great cramming school for Sand« 
hurst, at which I had the privilege of being 
a pupil in later life, there was a kalen 
doecope of ushers : fat and thin, grej-hairsd 
and red-haired, ignorant and learned, clean 
and dirty, gentlemanlike and very much 
otherwise. We had half a hundred of them 
in turn ; some four or five were types 
of the varieties of all the rest ; and, after 
fretting their little hour upon our achool 
stage — they did not stop much longer — they 
seemed to run round behind, as in the minor 
theatres,and appear again in another oost<i me: 
so like was one unto the other. They stood 
the insolence of Mr. Sackem, onr head* 
master, for spaces of a fortnight up to six 
months, and then threw up in desperation 
their fortj pounds per annum and the mag- 
nificent board and lodging. 

Sackem was a scholastic blacksmith; ha 
was of a coal J complexion arfi enormous 
bulk, had some little knowledge of nL-itbe- 
matics, and was famous for hammering out 
scintillations of intelligence even from the 
very densest masses. He was ludicrously 
ignorant upon all subjects except those 
which he professed to teach ; yet it was his 
custom to take every other master's dai^ 
occasionally, « to see if they kept their boys 
up to the mark.*' Mouthing out Horace, so 
that all the school might hear him, and set- 
ting the classical assistant's teeth on edee 
bv false quantities ; correcting the French 
cUsa while they conjugated ** ater (dtre), to 
be," while Monsieur Adolphe's shoulders 
rose ^ above his ears ; and endeavouriug, 
in his exceedingly gruff and monotonous 
tones, to point out the nice distinctions 
between wunle, wiirde, and werde. "Now, 
if he does it ein time more, so vill I give this 
up for gute," said the poor German master* 
But, it was of no use : it was impossible, under 
such an examiner, that any cUiss could acquit 
themselves well ; and, wnen he had caued 
the whole of it for their own and his inaooa- 
racies, he was wont to abuse the ushers as 
the causes of £ulure. Whenever a boy 
of his broke down in endeavouring to pass 
into Sandhurst, he found out in what subject 
he had been weakest, and instantly fell 
tooth and nail upou that particular professor. 
One veiy gentlamanljr person, cast hj 



tJSHESa 



101 



duty wbicb be was paid to do without being 
swayed by any nice cooilderatiotm. Such a 
course touk Smilax, ourgreiitprofes^r of tlie 
d^tic^ Aud such took Grimiih&w, our ao [up- 
time iDfltructor in Euclid* 

Grimshiiw was tlie vrorst tmlier of my ac' 
qaaintAHoe j tlie only Umrougldy wicked 
person of that eliua I ever met with. He 
seemed to have been bom for SAckem, om 
S»ekem was created forbim ; yettliey were not 
friet>d« by amy meana. A sympathetic smile 
— peculiiir &s one would have tb ought to 
demons — used to paas betwet^n them when 
the one aent up && unbappy victim to the 
other to be beaten (so far Molocb and bii 
high pnefit s«emed to have a mutual uuder- 
Ktandixig) ; but^ aa goon as the aacndce waji 
over, the erui^I bood Becmed to be diasolved. 
Sacki^m took a delight in conteaating himaelf 
with hiA atiU more ruffianly a^iatiuit ^'J 
fancy if Mr, Grtmihaw had tbe cautng of 
you^ joo would not get ofi^ air, ao eaaiJy ; ' or, 
^ Mr. Grim thaw tetU me i am too leDient by 
half.'* And per b ape Ihia waa the oolitary in- 
atAuce where our renpeeted head-maater 
eould hare hazarded a penoDal oompariaou 
without getting tbe worst of it, Grimahaw 
uaed to aver that he tiked a ro^e, but 



aome ihip^reek of fortune upon the 

^ckeru quickaimda^ wa^ his public and 

sotoriona utdL lie would ceaae lib own 

b^Uowiug^ for a minute or two^ to hsteu to 

Mr. VvmoQ^^me^fltired toites^ aa he instructed 

hm cijias Ubonoiiety and ^ttli patieuce, and 

Woo Id brvak in uf>on him suddeuly thua : 
** J^ow, A Jr. VenKjn, ihut uiilky sort uf way 

af yours njay l>e all very well at liablinj but 

it 4un*t puy here. Set them their Ifaaou, and 

hear them tbeir Jesa<m ; find, if they don't 

know ibeir U'SsoHj «etjd thekii up to me, and 

]Vt« got n p4^r^uader here (tUe ^ue) that 

will leJieh it th^tis, Vou eome up^ you boy, 

that et^em to be Mr. Yeruon^a p^t, come 

her<J 1 ril iee wbetiier youVe got your work 

ep well or not I" Amd tbe ise&iileni creuture 

tttfvcr iaileil, by liaiJgering the uuhappy icbo- 

"^ r in a vde Did B^nley sort of uia4iiierf to 
itain a pretext for uamg the cane, 
iAytou Wiis another kind-hearted usher 

^' >m Backem used to treat ma^t auper- 

4SiUciiisly« How tbia gentlemau ever came 

U> tiU hia poailLon amongst ua waa one of the 

Balier mytftfTiea. fCwasjuat aa though the 

■eiiap of bii family, tbe cigar-iu-dooi^~and* 

laU*h-k#y hobi«deb3y, tbe Belize Lile-readiug 

fi»-|0-tbe-l>erby-at^auv -price bkck ahe^p ot . 

his <i4Xiiieiil&c flodc ha«l been pitched upon to deteated a hypocrite ; by which he 

tbnii an aaibLaut instructor of youth. Hia 

impisUion bciok waa hi.lf full of beta ; hia 

Muhmie%kM\ eaamplea were founded upon 

boi t« ^%«;ts^ or th« ehaueea of rouge-et-Doir ; 

hb el« then imelt of tobacco terribly; and 

while he tnnt^htp be aat upoti the bind iega ot 

hi- ^ ; vvitb Uh tc?et in tue atr and 

b^ :n hia inmaera pockets. 

itiri^ mna aiso a jolly matbematicUn from 

tbe nofUkj werj fkt and lazy, in? ho waa oiy 

mpv^mi MOitnaioru, lie knew more when he | 

WitM «aJf«fi^ Uian Sackem waa ever m^iater of any of it* 

in lita wtdeit wakefulnea^; and he habitu 

ally Uiuuiaief«d buaine!<« with bja eyea eloaed 

Saekeaip wboae tjieciaUty it waa to appear 
W9tf btiaj rather than to be ao, uaed to be 
gftMf AficiaytHl by thi«^ He would ate^d 
toaud from lila own class and app^uf aud- 
diifiJj til Uie middle of Pemey'a, while 
llui MfiUeiUAii waa ailting in aileuce 
With Eia nMMith T«*embliug an enormous 
fly-entebcr on active avrvice ; but^ before 
th« atoma mifoM well Wgin, the canny 
Vorkxlitr^tiiBis wa« alwava reiidy with hia 
*Ni»w, l>.y»i, IVe thowie of a problem for 
yiita, btfCLc-i' tliaii yon or any other that 
joii*U liAcA In Ihe Sookai'* Dear old Fer- 
ity! Ai*ci y^t ta beJiAve gi«£ef ullj towarda 
hito^ or el V illy towards mtj tnaaWr, waa, in 
Iha irablie opinion, to apon^ and to cotton, 
a«ti| to do mil luiuherof iUn^ thiiiga expres- 
uLw^ td ^tttery M^ni fa-Aij;D'4 ba«eneas. The 
bcvt art tl< ^ practiae as far 

m kia <Mm < :ied, eeemed to 

be tbe iPAkM.^ ii..^^.i^ f^u^^Tspeudeai of all 
tym|«Ui/ mSid pitrwiEMt aoctal tdatlona ; to 
%ii$tT an «i|iiiii iiitiiltisrenco to tba opinion of 
or of the boya,a[id to taita the 



auppoeed to indicate that alight and in- 
uoceut veil with which Mn backem waa 
wont to cover, without at all conccjiling, hia 
more particularly unjuat actiona, Ibe im^ 
mediate €aui^ of GHmahaw^a being taken 
from ua, waa a polict^man. What he had 
really done we never knew for certain, bnt I 
don't think hu crime could bare Joat any of 
its aggravation through miaplaced tendec^ 
neat. He had the care of our cricket 
and foot*hall money, and we never saw 
Ten years ago^ when an un- 
fortunate person of th'ia name had^ Wen 
coo vie ted for burglary and mnrder at York, I 
met on tbe Great Kortliem a fellow-sufferer 
in thoae schoolboy daya, who was actually 
bound for that metropolis on the expreaa 
miaaion of aeeing the end of Grimshaw, if 
the felon ahould happen, fbrtuuately, to be 
he. BttI, he waa notj I regret to say, tha 



How Smihtt ever got among ua was the 
mj-Btery of myateriea ; he waa an ad- 
mirabltt Greek and Latin scholar, mud waa 
jtcarccly ever seen out of achooUhours with- 
out one of hia favourite ancient autbofrs. He 
uaed to mutter Greek temm to himself wtieii 
out of hamour— as abo^ I am aorry to ^jr, 
during the whole of church -time. He dre^- 
paraUela in the dead laUifUYgea betwe« 
."^kem and the roost awful villains of >^- 
quity I hia favourita anUtype of ti^nt i^M^ 
man waa Tbersitea. «Tberaite^ be^aato 
mumble, while Sackem waa bawtiag !f * ? »^ 
irregulanty in Smiia** cliit»i *' n^ir^ammmm 
the bas^fst Greek that ev«r cfim* t^^^5- 

Smil^jc was the wnrit ^<liJ^ i, 
thlagi «*» ^ 



aad 



the nearest 



lOS 



HOUSEHOLD WOEDa 



CCliliUll^ 



of any clAssical person I ever knew. He 
wiped his pens on his hair habitually. His 
hands were scrupolously clean, however, 
and he managed somehow to look like a 
scholar and a gentleman. His reli^on was 
tliat of an honourable heathen. His morals 
those of Epicurus, and his philosophy — it was 
no wonder — eftessively cynical ; but, it is my 
belief, that at some exceedingly remote time, 
and under circumstances at which I cannot 
m.'ike the faintest guess, Smilax was once a 
tolerably good and very kind-hearted man. 
He went^ eventually, the way of most 
ushers : he set up a school on his 
count, and failed. 



own ac- 



ON 'CHANGE IN PARia 

CHAPTER THB FIBftP. 

Not long since, there lived in the Bne 
Kichelieu, behind one of those lofty gate- 
ways which separate the highly-decorated 
shops of this great thoroughfare, one Mon- 
sieur Perrin. 

Monsieur Perrin occupied one of those 
sumptuous entresols in which the footstep 
is never heard ; where Sdvres china, 
vast mirrors, clocks and bronzes of fan- 
tastic design stand dangerously near the 
visitor^s cItow ; and where or-molu vies in 
magnificence with buhl and marqueterie. 
Immediately behind the door that opened 
upou the general staircase of the vajst hotel 
of which this entresol formed part, was a 
small room, devoted to Monsieur l^errin*s 
business. Here, were no ornaments what- 
ever ; a small bronze oil-lamp, capped with 
a dingy green shatle, being the only article 
upon the mantelpiece. Tliree or four cane- 
chairs were against the bare walls ; one 
comer of the room was partitioned off 
by a high wooden screen ; behind the rails 
of which green curtains wei'e di-awn, to veil 
the mysteries which young Monsieur Adolphe 
Beauvoir conducted on behalf of his em- 
ployer. 

Adolphe was the son of a wealthy Norman 
family. His father — once a notable millionuaire 
of France— had been n good friend to Monsieur 
PeiTin at critical seasons ; and, in fact, had on 
more than one occasion saved him from 
bonkrujitcy. But, at last, troubles came to 
Monsieur Beauvoir himself; and he was 
ruined in the railway mania. He fled to Al- 
geria where he died, the proprietor of a 
small caf6 in Constautine. Adolphe, when 
his father fled, was left to the care of 
Monsieur Perrin ; who, after having given 
him a sli^bt education, turned him to account 
in his office. 

At first Adolphe was little better than an 
errand-] )oy; and spent more than half of 
every day running to and from the Bourse. 
All his early associations were with the 
Bourse, therefore, and with Bourse men. He 
had passed his youth in the midst of the 
gamblers who fed upon the industry of the 



poor; upon the honest investments of the 
small capitalists. He had seen dozens of 
companies formed under splendid auspices ; 
advertised upon whole pages of the morning 
journals, sent up to extraordinary premiumsi 
to fall to annihilating discount. He Iiaa 
seen men whom he met one day in dingy 
attire, tricked out on the morrow by l>u- 
santoy, and dangling one of Verdier*s 
malaccas. He had, on the other hand, 
watched young men of fortuna slide from the 
eminence of a Stanhope drawn by a pur of 
blood-bays, to the cab at twenty-two sous the 
course. He had brushed past pale-fiused 
men looking desperately cam ; and on the 
morrow he had hoard that they lay in 
the Morgue. He had watched wretched 
women weeping in the bye-streets; and 
had seen others dart furtively from the 
office of their agent -de -change with a 
roll of notes clutched in their greedv 
fingers. To him, the Bourse was the world. 
He grew up to know it alone as the arena 
where a man might fight his way to wealth, 
like the people with whom he was in daily 
contac^ he even despised the men whom hb 
saw doing hard work for low wases. Why 
starve at a counter, when a lucky dash might 
any day make a bold pauper a milUonnaire I 
He had heard that his father died a broken- 
hearted man, serving out demi-tasses to lazy 
Arabs; but^ all his father's old friends had 
told him that Monsieur Beauvoir lost his 
head in the excitement of the railway mania^ 
and speculated alisurdly. One old man — to 
whom Monsieur Perrin sent him very often 
with letters, or bills, or mysterious messages- 
had favoured him with painful details on his 
father's short-comings as a financier. These 
communications were, however, offered with 
so many excuses, that Adolphe grew to like 
the old story-teller, and to anticipate a gossip 
with him on Bourse affairs with pleasure. 

Poor young fellow I On all sides he was 
gathering experience ; on all sides he sought 
advice. He had resolved at last, one morn- 
ing — when there was a great rise in the 
Rentes, and he had met three or four young 
fellows who had realised from te& to twenty 
thousand francs each — to give notice to 
Monsieur Perriu that he should leave him 
within a month. He would now act on his 
own account ; for he saw how each wheel 
worked within the other in that complicated 
machine, The Boui-se. Instead of making 
fifteen hundred francs a-year, he would realise 
a thousand francs a-niouth; he would be^^ 
moreover, his own master. 

Full of this resolution, he bent his way to 
the office of the old man who had told him so 
much about his father's affaii-s, just to ask 
his advico, before giving Monsieur Perrin 
notice. Tlie old m:ui wjis from home, and 
four or five gentlemen were sitting in his 
bui*eau waiting, in solemn silence. When 
Adulplie aakeil the clerk when he expected 
his employer back, a sneering laugh appeared 



ON 'CHANGE IN PAEI3. 



103 



upon tlie face of one of the geiitl^^nieD who 
i»-er« WMtiug* Adulplie thought tb&t the 
iii«eref was &a unhappy apecuUtori who, 
haviiig come to aak fur tluie, did not believe 
that UkQ old ge&tlemtm was out, and waa 
wait lUg doggedlj to wajlay htm. S« he 
went awajr, isttyuig he would caH tomorrow* 

Jireamin^ of hia platia, Adolpho wiinderetl 
off in ibe aftcrnocui to the Bui« de Boulogne. 
At that time there waa no Avenue de Tlm- 
pirat ti»;t! ; th«re waa no lake dotted with 
gufidohuE ; there was no green turf for grate- 
ful tctft iu Bummer tinie, Pede^triauB wau^ 
deri^d without plan ^ along the straggling 
walk», uuder densa fohage, ' or through 
tiMigLed underwood, Ado^pha sauntered 
mii> the ioueheet part of tlie woodj won- 
dering what hia old counsellor would Bay 
lo hitttf and huw he ahould ioveat the 
two ihouinand fianca he had contrived to 
■«v« iu Mooateur Ferrin'a haixl service. He 
vaa aroused bj & horae gallop lug pu^t him at 
full apeed. bearing a lady who waa paie as 
deibih, and who wildly geatiealated to him 
that there waa aome hurror behind her. He 
hurried lor ward till he aaw a group of nien 
and womea aurroundiiig suuietlting lying 
upon the ground under a di^rk tree, Thej 
beokouiHi him to approach. Peeping over the 
sbouldera of one of the git^up, he in^w the lea- 
turea— hxiwghaatly in death ! — of hia old coun* 
»eUor« A \mg black kerchief, dntwu by the 
hiavy weight it had bus tainted into a ti^ht 
tliin rope, Iftj upon the grass at hand, and 
told the diMe of the old inau'a atory^ 

It waa Adolphe'a Jirai view of de^LlU : he was 
inexpreasibly shocked : he was, tut a time, 
l&ngu^lied. The bystanders, seeing the pallid 
I '^orrur in hid £ice, shook him and questioited 
mm* hid he know tbe deceaaed t Prej^eutly 
hv was tkhlc to tell them. Some genadVrmes 
caiu« tip^ & cart wa^ soon at hand, and tbe 
S|>tciiIator*a body was carried home, Adotphe, 
too, got to MoDsieur P^riin's house, and 
wia Uie bearer of tlie aad news lo hia placid 
cJSiployer, who merely remarked : 

*' 1 thought thoee LyoiM at forty-six were 
A bad apeeulatioti/' 

Jiili<? Ferriu alune wept when she heard 
vi the old man^M di^atb^ ^Jadame Perrln 

iK^«d somewhat, but she waa a woiuau 
prided h^rru^lf upon her phdosophy. 

•^ fcliiji hrraelf up in tlie evening, however, 

\ ilotphe tbut he wQuU do well to 

''-- — he uinst be strong-uiLudiid and 

i ilii:; aecidenis of life wuh eulmuess. 

for Julie, she was a little bird that the 

would kilL Adolphe obeyed. 

1 her red eyelida in her pillows, 

3i.j[in!eur Perria went to bis c-nfu to 

htjw the old loan stood, and who 

uld bi5 the principjil satkrera by the 
afiiiir. Adolpbc^ took couustjl of bimaelf as 
I,*- ...r.A-i !i,^ JJvuifefViirds. He would remain 
w 4 iloyer, and went to bed with this 

lie waa &t his dutiea early on the morrow ; 



for, of iate^ he had aotnewhat neglected hia 
master ~ 3 books. H Ls d reama of auddeii wealth 
had disturbed him ; but^ now that tiiese had 
vaniehed, he bad reaolved to make up for 
lost time. It waa not more than seven o'clock 
when ha took his seat at hia desk ; the 
quarter after this hour had not struck, when 
a gentle tap against the screen behind which 
he worked roui^d him from a very perplex- 
ing sum. He called out pettiahly : 

** Come in," 

Julie Ferrin wished Adolphe good morn- 
ing very timidly ; then, seating herself not 
far from him, conjured up courage with a 
great and evident effort to apeak boldly to 
nini. Adolphe waa astonished and dumb. 
The blood aiood in two patches upon her 
young cheeks aa she spoke rapidly to him in 
a low whisper* 

" You were about to leave us, I know it : 
to lead the iife of your father — of my father 
^-of the jKJor gentleman who destroyed him- 
self JeaterdJ^y, it ia very bold of a girl like 
me to advise a man like you ; but let me 
pi'ay of you — let me iroplore you — to be con- 
tent here ; and Uf you csm, after a year or 
twO| to give youraelif souie nobler ambition, 
thaa that of becoming a aucce3«ful gambler 
on the Boutse, I have a father who hardly 
remembers my existeuee, and & mother who 
despijes me when 1 pity the sorrows of jwor 
wurk-people, or envy the simple country-folk* 
I btilievc that you, Adolphe, Imve a nature too 
uoble to succeed on the Bourse, Remain 
where you are, to plan some honeat coui^se of 
life- I have got up early to speak to you, and 
to m^e you promise. 1 have not slept all 
night lor thiukiug of the poor old gentleman 
who killed himself yesterday. Promise me." 

Adolphe promised heartily; and when tiie 
girl retreated hastily from him full of shame 
at her own boldne!^ the ligureii over which 
he had been poring, only gt>t into a denser 
tangle aa he worked at them. First, h# 
counted bis bidance ; then he Wi^nt over 
itema i but no, it was no use ; he must put 
it otf uutil another time, Juliea are the 
sworn enemies of arithmetic. 

Monsieur P^rriu was a trifle sterner than 
usual, m he jjresen Uy passed through the 
office on his journey to the Petite iiourse, 
before the Upera Arcade, He bade Adolphe 
get his books in order as soon at possible: 
Monaieur Perrin had hardly turned the 
corner of the Bi>uleviyds, when "hie wife 
drifted also through the office, and turned 
down the street in ihe direction of the Bit^ 
liothSqua Imf.'^riale. Still Adolplie could 
not work. He had been in the habit of 
seeing Julie daily for years past ; and heir 
presence had never disturbed hia caJeula<- 
tions. But to-day, tbr^t serious little face, 
with tears beading the eyelida ot the 
tender eyes, thrust itaelf before every rnJe 
of three he endeavoured to adjust. So he 
Ment out to execute his morning eomuii^ 
sions J after having listened to his httle cou 



I 




104 



HOUSEHOLD WOROa 



[CnAKMily 



sellor pnictising — he thought lessbnsklj than 
usual — her favourite ttieces of ninsic. As he 
descended the stairsy lie met Madame Perrin 
entering the bouse, and wiping her heated 
fiice, as she gave money to a cab-driver. 
Miidame is fond of spi'ed, thought Adolphe, 
as he noticed small spots of foam upon the 
flanks of the cab-horse. 

1 ovo, in modern times, has been the tailor*8 
best friend. Every suitor .of the nineteenth 
century spends more than his spare cash 
on pt-i-Ronal adornments. A laultless fit, a 
glistenhig hat, tight gloves, and tt<|hter boots 
prf>cl;iiin the imminent peril of his position. 
Adoiphe WAH hardly in love ; he was hardiv 
u|Hin the uttermost circle of the whirlpool. 
Yet, had he closely examined the current of 
his thoughts, he would have found that they 
were almost iniperct-ptibly failing into the 
fatnl circles. The proof was, that it sud- 
denly occurred to him that his hat was 
shabby and that his gloves were soiled ; that 
he was tempted, in the Kue Vivieune, to buy 
a very showy dressing-gown ; that he ordered 
home some pateut-hratlier boots ; and, if 
further proof were wanting, that he bought a 
fresh stick of cire de moustache. Then he 
turned towaixls the Bue Hicheliea with a 
lighter step than usual 

He ftmnd Monsieur Perrin at home, and 
in the bureau. Glancing sternly at the young 
nian^s new light gloves, he asked him coldly 
for the keys of the desk. Adolphe, accustomed 
to the serious moods of his patron, gave him 
the keys carelebsly enough, as he excused 
himself for his inability to work at his books 
that dav. Monsieur Perrin silently opened 
the desk, drew out the books, and began to 
examine them. Adolphe thought the cool 
e]^culator wanted to see exactly the state 
in wliich he stood with the suicide of 
yesterday. Tlie master threw off his hmt 
as he went deeper into the figures; and 
then turned to Adolphe, telling him to go 
to the Rue Tronchet and there wait till Mon- 
sieur Biche — his client — came in. He was to 
be sure and see him, and tell him that if he 
chose to sell his dock shares he might realise 
ten francs at their last Quotation. Adolphe 
defiarted on his errand, having been told to 
close the door gently behind him, as madame 
was ill. 

lie had no sooner departed than Mon- 
sieur Pfrrin hastily shut the little gate 
to the partition, behind which the desk was 
placed, and went again nervously to his 
examination. Julie entered the room 
timidly, to tell her father that her mother 
seemed to be very ill; but Monsieur Per- 
rin only bade her leave him. He was 
engaged. A« the affrightened yirl closed the 
door, she sUirled to hear a volley of terrible 
oatlis uttered in a shrieked whisper from 
IkIkikI the ])artition. What could be the 
muiter! "Scoundrel! thief!" muttered 
Mi.nsieur Perrin, as he chinked the gold and 
rulUcd the bauk-pnper in the desk. At last 



he closed the desk with a slam ; locked it ; 
buttoned the keys securely in his pocket, as 
if he feared they might be filched from him, 
and strode through the salon to madame's 
bed-room. Julie watche<i him, and trembled. 
She heard him talk in low, rapid sentences 
to her mother. In a few minutes the door 
was re-opened, and Monsieur Perrin appeared 
with his coat buttoned up to tlie chin. It is 
curious, but no Frenchman takes a strong 
re8oluti(»n without buttoning his coat to its 
highest button-hole. 

" Go to your mother,** said the broker to 
his child, wivvine his hand impatiently, as he 
walked rapidly through the salon. 

Julie went to her mother's bed-room. To 
her astonishment she heard that they wero 
both going into the country that night. Julie 
saw that her mother's eyes were red. Had 
she been crying ! No ; years had passed 
away since Madame Perrin had shed a tear. 
Julie would have been delighted to feel one 
dripping from her upon her own cheeks. 

**I>oi?t stand starins at me, child,** said 
the invalid. ** Tell Madeleine that we go to- 
night to Tours." 

Julie went, sad and confused enouch, on 
her eiTand. She had to jwas through the 
bureau to reach the kitchen. As she was 
about to leave it, there was a knock. She 
turned aside, and opened the door. It was 
Adolphe. He raised his hat to his pretty 
counsellor of the morning. She was looking 
very doleful. Poor girl, she had felt more than 
an ordinary interest in him for many months. 
She had regarded him as the only bit of honest 
nature m the house; and now, the thought 
of being buried in her mother's conntry^ 
home, near Tours, was no pleasant prospect 
Adolphe at once questioned her; and, ia 
reply, heard a plain description of all that had 
passed since he left. He, too, heard the news 
of Julie's departure with vivid I'egret. A key 

Sut in the lock of the door disturbed them, 
ulie flew on her en*and, and Adolphe seated 
himself at the desk, as Monsieur Perria 
entered, telling somebody behind him to 
wait one minute without. On seeing AdoI{^e^ 
however, he stepped a pace or two back, 
and beckoned to his companion. A eefgeLt- 
de-ville entered the bureau. Monsieur 
Perrin pointed out Adolphe ; and, sayinff 
to the police-officer " Do your duty !* 
walked hastily into the salon, shutting the 
door firmly beliind him. 

We pass over the indignation of AdoIphOi 
Julie, who returned from the kitchen while 
Adolphe was expostulating with the officer, 
was caught by tne arm by her father, wlio 
heard her voice and her subbing. The young 
man was soon on his way over the Pout 
Noeuf to the Prefecture, pale and 8]>eechless 
with anger. He soon learned, wlnu he had 
threaded three or four of the large and 
gloomy |>aR8age8 of the sombre C*>iieier^'erie, 
p»8t rowM of Killow detectives, that Muiisieur 
Perrin had charged him with robbery. His 



OlarlH DlrUvk] 



ON 'CHANGE IN PAEIS. 



105 



#books were in an unt^tisf^ctorj st^te : luou&j 
— a large turn — was niiasifig ; and that whieb 
deepenetl BU^pkioa a^amat him was, that 
while he alotie had access to the di^ak where 
y» maeter'a nioaey waa kept, he Imd only 
within the last few da^a liad an ide^ of 
leaving hia employtuent Tii&n, he had 
bought a number of tilings for pergonal 
■Comment. Adolphe vehemeotly aaaerted 
hia lEtiocence ; while the priaou oflicer simply 
told him^ in a cooHy poUte voice, that ha 
would aoon have a fair opportuiitt^ of prov- 
ing tt^ 

Adolphe in due time ^aa tried^ It waa 

Erfived ihat he alone eoulil have poaseaaed 
imaelf of the tuiasinjf money. MormUur 
PerrinU counsel dwelt upon the temptatioui^ 
to youth in & g^reat and fascinatlug aity Uke 
Fsria. He enlarged upon tile <*otifideuce 
th.it had been placed — alas ! with the moat 
kmentMble results-^^m the pnaoner ; upon 
hii sudden love of dreaa ; &ud» ahove all, upon 
his evident idea of going on the Bourse with 
money filched from hi^ employer- lu reply, 
Adulphe*8 counsel denied the chnrge, asserteil 
that the money spent by his clieol was part 
of hia aaviijgj^ and wound np by telliufj 
thtf jury tliut the prisoner, whom he had the 
honour to defemf, had tranaacte^ husi^neaii 
for Monsieur Perriii to the extent of mil- 
liouii, withoiit ever having touched a singlt" 
oeotime* Tho procure ur spoke agninat 
Adolphe ; and the jury convicted him. The 
poor fellow turned d^a^lly pale as thv Judge 
•enteueed him to a long term of imprii^n- 
nsentf bidding him lead an honest life on his 
return to the world. 

CHaPTEft THE SECOIOJ, 

Juhm hajd a^jcompanied her mother to the 
ODuatry honse near Tours on the day of 
Adolphe's arrest. Her mother Imd shut 
heraeir up in her room ou her arrival, and 
had handed Julie over to the care of a 
toaiden aunt, who endeaTOUted in vain t^ 
aolve the problem of the child^a profound 
melancholy. Ky^tj d&y*% journals had been 
eagtfHy rijad ; and, when Adolpb« was c^iu- 
Ttcted^ a burst of grief declared to Monsieur 
Fi^ri^*a sister tlie atate of Juliets mind. She 
loved the thief f Mademoiselle Bollin was 
one of those ladiea to whom love was 
m monster of hideous mien, and in whose ey*:^a 
Caliban very fairly represents all men. No 
prayers would have prevented her from re- 
veling a tender secret to even the harshest 
ot moth era. She rather gloried m the ofEce 
of informer ; and, on the present occaston, it 
wai certftioly with a atep wonderfuUy eLiatio, 
eonsidering Ma^^letnoi^ file's age and ligure^ 
thait she went to htr siiter'^ bedroom, 

Ma«lame Perrin heard all Mademoiselte 
Bollin had to say with calmness; but then 
calmne9^, with Madi^me, was paasion. Tliat 
lady ejcpreaaed the most Ben dish anger by the 
most delightful amik^a. Her emotions ap- 
|keared to nave been so long at war with her 



face, that there was no relation l>etween them. 
The moat sagacious reader of the human eye 
couhl not huve read in those of Maikme 
Perrin a true word* She puz^leil her aiater 
utterly ; and, when she heard of her daugh- 
ter*s grief at Adolphe's coftviction^ she simply 
answered that 'Vlt did not matter, since the 
young man had been convicted, and mar- 
riage or correspondence with him was im- 
poasible/* 

Julie was left to her melanclioly thoughts, 
white Adolphe went through his daily round 
of humiliations, in tlu^ midat of rogue:^ and 
vagabond!*. At iirst he was atnnned ; hut 
there he was, a branded felon — he who had 
never harmed a human creature t Then he 
broke out in imploring prajera to the gaolera, 
who looked knowing, if they did not laugk 
For, nearly all prUonera begin with de- 
clarations of innocence ; to which the prison 
authorities listen generally with the moat un- 
believing of eaj-a. At laatj worn out by hia 
strong emotions, the poor fellow became re- 
eijL^ea and calm ; and did hia work without 
muttering a word. He fiwallowed all the 
dreadful bitterness, with which, at Srst^ he 
had regardtid Mouaieur Perrin'a ruth leas 
uature. He thought no longer of the atem 
face that rose up against him in the courts 
and proved that he was a thie^ to the satis* 
faction of a jury, aud with the concurrence of 
the judge — but of Julie ; of that LiJit look 
ahe gave him, as her father dragged her 
from the bureau — he could not fail to think 
he saw the story of her love, and cursed 
himself that he had remained blind so long. 
But, now, of what avail could the gioiioua 
knowledge be to him ? 

MouHieur Perrln talked of Adolphe'a 
conTiction as a aalutary leason, which, at 
the coat of hia own tender heart, he had 
presented to the young men of Paris. It 
was highly necessary that confidential clerks 
should have such an example before ibem. 
It went horribly agavnat hia nature to prose^ 
cute — but both he and Madame Perrin felt 
their mor^l res ponai bill ty ; and that^ to let 
the thief escape^ would have been to imperil 
a neighbour. Therefore Monsieur Perrm 
could boast that he had always been an in- 
dulgent employer, whoae heart bled when he 
gave hia clerk into custody, and was lacerated 
when be brought him to triaL All this was 
Bald over and over again, in various caf^ 
near the Bourse, as the sbarebroker took hia 
abaiuthe with a cUeut^ 

After three or four months spent In the 
country, Madame Perrln and Julie returned 
to town. Julie almost burst mto tears when, 
on entering the old familiar bureau, ahe saw 
nobody at Adolphe^a desk ; while his office 
coat slill hung in a corner, as of old. Her 
father kissed her on the forehead and her 
mother on both cheeks, aa they entered the 
aaloD, and then begged them Lo leave him, as 
he had business with the sallow yotmg man 
who was seated on the sofa. 



I 



I 



Julie's heart waa iced ; everything waa 
har«l and cohl ; the very air seemed to want, 
even on that Jaly nif^ht, a genial warmth. 
It was odd to see that the flowers in the win- 
dow kept their bloom, even for four and 
twenty nours. 

Madame Perrin went out immediately to 
pay lier varioas visits, leaving Julie at home 
to fret. Poor girl ! the world looked sad 
enough to her, as she went into the bureau, 
and indulged in the thoughts it brought to 
her mind. But, how infinitely was this sad- 
ness deepened when, on the following day, 
her father and mother told her that the 
sallow young gentleman she had seen on the 
day of her arrival, was destined to be her 
husband t He was rich ; his family was 
good ; and all the preliminaries had been ar- 
ranged. In Pu*is, the custom for ]>arent8 ia 
to choose husbands for their daughters ; — 
it is the custom for daughters to accept 
suitors, without knowing them, or earing for 
them. Julie had read of refractory children 
in various romances, but in real life she had 
seen onlv obedience. She loved Adolphe, 
even in his convict clothes, and in her soul 
believed him innocent Her mother, to 
whom she confided this belief one day, told 
her angrily never to express such a convic- 
tion again, if she valued her love. Adolphe 
hail V»een fairly tried and fairly convicted ; 
and she begged that his name might never 
more be mentioned in her presence. 

Therefore, how could Julie ; in the presence 
of parents to whom money and family were the 
guiding stars of life ; whose eyes were cold as 
winter moonlight when they fell ujx)n her ; 
whose words were rigid, and meant to be 
commands ; how could she, timid as a bird, 
venture to go iu the face of custom and say 
that she would not marry the husband of 
their choice ; that she despised money pur- 
chased at the cost of every social virtue; 
that she loved a convict f She bowed her 
head and wept ; and her hand was placed in 
that of a Strang young man, who bowed 
low and kissed it formally. She was thus 
betrothed, and went away to her room in 
mortal horror of the time when the cold lipa 
that had pressed her hand would claim the 
right to chill her cheek. 

Tlie marriage once determined on;' the 
preliminaries wore pressed forward with 
great vigour. Julie was in agony ; the sight 
of her mture husband disgusted her. She 
was told that she was too young to know her 
own mind ; that she would Icanito love him ; 
that many of her school companions, who had 
mniTied the husbands of their parentsVhoice, 
had lived to acknowledge the parental saga- 
city. She passed nearly all her time in her 
room ; her father, since Adolphe*s con- 
viction, had kept the keys of his bureau 
liiniself, and had also attended to his own 
b<K)kH. He was certain, now, that he could 
not be 8wind1c<]. But, he told his wife, 
one evening, in Julie's presence, as he pored 



J over his accounts, that he had been so long 
I accustometl to a clerk, that he had almost 
! forgotten how to cast up the simplest »*um. 
'Tliere was a wide margin between the sum 
he ought to have in hivnd, according to his 
books, and the sum he actually possesseii. 

" Try again," replied Madame Perrin, 
calmly, as she laid out her embroidery over 
her knee, to notice the effect of the pattern. 
"Try again, monsieur; it must hd your 
mistake." 

Monsieur Perrin sat up very late that 
night, poring over fibres, and twisting 
and recasting them, in tiie hope of obtaining 
a satisfactory result. Yet there were one or 
two thousand francs unaccounted for. The 
keys of the desk had never left his pocket ; 
therefore, this time, he could not have been 
robbed. However, the sum was not lar<je, 
and the marriage preparations demanded 
considerable time, so the rich broker could 
afford to forget the discrepancy for the 
moment, promising himself to go into it 
again at some future time. Madame Perrio, 
too, begged that Monsieur would not suffer 
so trivial a matter to interfere with the mors 
important affairs he had in hand. It was 
small and mean. How could he expect to 
arran^ all his vast affairs in a day or two f 
Monsieur Pernn saw the force of his wife*! 
observations, and busied himself simply with 
his balance in hand, which he took remark- 
able care to keep under lock and key, the 
key being per])etually in his own pocket He 
would not eutntst it to any person on the 
face of tho earth again, since Adolphe had 
deceived him. " The young rascal, too, had 
such an innocent look of his own," re- 
marked Monsieur Perrin, as ho twirled the 
key round his forefinger. 

In three days Julie was to be married ; in 
three days the sallow young gentleman was 
to be happy. Biadame Perrin was very busy 
indeed, and very serious. But, that was 
natural in a mother who was about to lose 
her only child. She was continually out, 
thinking of trifles for her daughter; and 
then, wnen she came in, she invariably went 
to her own room. Monsieur Perrin was also 
very busy. In three days all this bustle 
would be over, and Monsieur and Madame 
Perrin would bo alone. Mailame could not 
sleep ; at least, three nights before the mar- 
riage, even at one o'clock in the morning-^ 
when, standing iu the vast courtyanl of the 
hotel, there was not a light to be seen in the 
long rows of windows that towered to a sixth 
stonr — through the dense red curtains of 
. Madame Perrin's boudoir the close observer 
might have percciveil the faint glow from her 
: lamp. She was still sitting up. The eye that 

■ couhl have peered througn tho red curtains 
' would have perceived the lady, with thnje or 

four oi)en letters before her, clevouring their 
'. contents one after the other ; then rising, ap- 
'parentlyto listen at the door; then walking 

■ to and fro uneasily. The monotony of all this, 



cmrried on a« it was, during two or three 
hoars — till indeed the eruiterii nky was paling 
bttfur^ the comitig Bttti — would have drlveu 
*njp ouUside observer &wuy. h&t ua, how- 
ever, watch em ut ions that lefive the 
lines deept^r in t)ie calm, wan fcice« It 
ware even a gliAStly pallor, wbea pro- 
tnidod between the curtuiim iuto the blue 
rnGTumg light, Madaiutf P^rrin seeing the 
dMwn^ .Hppeared to gather energy, and to 
set &t»oiit the object she Lad evidently 
beUJ in view througbout her vi^il, with 
fitspiiess^ From a di'awer she Uh>k a key* 
■teultliiU^ qiaetiy. Th^ii holding it to her 
bust/ Pi f :x^ a, treasure she feare^l to lose, Bhe 
orcpt to thts door^ gently opened itj with the 
imu^tk In out; hand, aud glided across the 
imlou*— 'tawardd the bureau 1 

In a ii3itmt« ehe was before the open desk, 
Jintl rolls of gold and notes lay before her. 
Til ere wa^ not a drop of hlood in lier fiioe ; 
and OS her nimble fingers flew about the 
treii£ure-*they lookad Like the l!t^$hJe»s liauds 
of a skeleton. Al every tui^ she gtaneed 
furtively ruund* Preiently she bo^an to 
eixjnt the tuoneyi and to select some of it 
Unhappy woman ! she knew not that two 
eyes Vffta ghiriug upon her — were iUi*d with 
sa^ai^ fertfeky u]Kin her hands. Still she 
knew not that as she moved from the desk| 
md pasi!»ed to the salon door, in the culd 
fioQcu, iey hand^ would be laid upon her 
araif and alie would be asked lo reuder up 
an aa^tmt of her theft. Fooliish woman f 
how cleverly she re-arrang^d the money she 
lef^ iu thi? desk, as she hvd arranged it before 
— *o that et'ery thing looked as orderly ai 
when she ha<1 lirnt lifted the lid. ^till^ in 
the filll COtttidence of old guilt succead fully 
GOJicealed, she remained to fold u|j the 
ahstr^tcted notes, — and to enclose them in a 
ktter whieh she touk from her pocket. 

ibid then * Why th«n the eves tJiat had 
glared npon her all along, met hers ; the 
Hands ill At had been clenched in an agony of 
supiu^e^vd nige feli heavily upou her shoul* 
der I and hsr husband bayed out hia charge 
at her more like a mad dog th^ui a mau. 
dhe fell to the ground and moaned^ while 
Honaicur Penin, recovering his self-pos- 
iesaion as the wordt^ Hew through his 
lipa^ poured out all his wrath. It was she 
Who nad i^tolen his money i who had dai-eil 
lo see Adolphe sent i^ prison ; who had 
«altuly al^pt, white tiie jouivg man worked 
is frluu diithe« ; who huii Uuked tnte mor:da 
over his full ; who haii seen his a^jony unmoved 
lud liAil borne witut;^ ugitinst uim. Aa thia 
oombiniititm of horroi^ i^rew to its cloaej 
Julie ciept to her hunting mother's side, 
and sof*|jiirted her. When Monsieur Peniu 
iuuld uuly pjice the i-oom hurriedly, to find 
at abort ijitervals new epithets to ca*t at 
the fiillen womim, Julie, her eyes biiuiming 
with tcnj-B, forgot even Adolphe, iu her atl«u- 
tj^in to a mother fiom whoae lipa ahe bad 
iurely beard a tender word* 



The letter in which Madame Perrin had 
enclosed the money, explained alh She bad 
been i^ambHng on the Bourse. She had won 
at times, and had hoarded up her winniugs. 
She grew miserly as the fasctuation of tbe 
game fastened itself upon her, and she learned 
to care for neither husband nor child. But, 
in an evil hour, she had lost all her winnings;, 
and was in debt Her agent, with whom she 
had stolen interviews, threatened to apply to 
her liusband for payment, unless his af^count 
was at once settled. Sue dared not raise 
money on her little property near Tours, 
leat the mortgage should come to the know- 
ledge of her hnaband j there remained hut 
one resource^to rob him. She reconciled 
the aet tlie more readily to her conscience by 
perauading or half-persuading iier^lf that n 
wife couiu not stcid from a husbHud, And 
so she stole Adolphe*a key. That is, she 
took it one day, and it was missed before lihe 
had had time to replace it^ so tliat she waa 
compelled to keep iL It was searched for, 
and at last given up. Adolphe bought a 
new one. Tiiia left her at liberty to draw 
more than once npon the ca^h-box ; while 
AdolphCi who had neglected for a month, or 
so to balance his bookSj and had resolved to 
make up for lost time, a few days before that 
on whicli he would go through them, accurd^ 
ing to cuBtom, with Monsieur Penin, re- 
mained for some weeks unconsciouii of the 
deficit. The calmness with which 5iiulame 
aflerwarda aaw Adolphe arrested, tried, and 
condemned, was feigned, but with a utruggle. 
She had not the courage left — ^Adolphe once 
arrested — to denounce hei-aelf to tlie world. 
Her flight to Tours was aimply an esf^ape 
from the daily, the hourly torture of her 
huabaud'a presence. Her very severity, when 
Ji^peaking of the young man^a crime, was but 
the cloak in which it was her ince^ant 
struggle t-* hide her own guilt more effec^ 
tu^lly. The long life of studied hypocrisy 
fthe bad Jed, had well prepared her to play a 
virtue usl y ind ignaji t part to wa rd* Ad t p ii 

As the grey dawn grew into a briLUant 
morning, Monsieur Perrin became less and 
leas imHsionate. He spoke at longer intervals 
and Lu a calmer ¥oice than wlien he began his 
chapter of reproaches. He paced the ix>om 
leaa hurriedly. Still, every now and then, as 
a new light broke in upou him and showed 
him another view of his family disgrace, he 
would burst out over more^ and pour out a 
fresh volley of imprecations, Madamo PeiTin 
never spoke a single word. She left her hand 
ch^sped in that of Julie ; and while poor Julie, 
pjJe as death, timidly followed tlie move- 
jucnts of her £ither, vvithout daring to inters 
pij8e a syllable. At last, Montiieur Perrin 
halted before tbe sofa ; tmd assuming great 
authority said to Itladame : 

" L^ave this by the lir^t train, for Tours : 
and there, I^Iadame, liave the goodness to 
draw up a full and accurate history of this 
atlair. I shuU need it to effect the liberation 



4 



108 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



of the younc; man joa have mined, together 
with your husband and your child. Julie 
may go with you." 

It was strange to see the haughty Madame 
Perrin, in the cringing and meekly-obedient 
woman who now crawled across the salon, 
and went to the room. Julie followed, having 
kissed her father*s forehead. 

In due time Adolphe was liberated. Mon- 
sieur Perrin calmly went through the forms 
necessjiry to establish his wife^ guilt, and 
Ado1phe*8 innocence. He sought an inter- 
view with the prisoner ; but, Adolphe de- 
clined to see him. He remembered too well 
the stem face that had risen up against him 
in the court of justice. 

The young prisoner was liberated at 
length, and the day that saw him outside 
the prison walls, also saw him on his way to 
Havre. It is supposed that he went to Ame- 
rica ; but, to this hour, he has never since 
been heard of. All he left behind him was a 
letter for Julie ; which that sad girl keeps 
warm in her bosom, as she follows her 
mother from room to room in the far oflf re- 
tirement to which Monsieur Perrin has con- 
si>;ned them, and which, poor man, he shares 
with them. 

We have here, only one of the many little 
tragedies that are played out, from day to 
day, on the Place de la Bourse, to the horror 
of the bystanders, and to the profit of news- 
paper reporters. 



APOTHECARIES. 

About one hundred and fifty years affo, 
talking like an apothecary was a proverbial 
phrase for talking nonsense ; and our early 
dramatists, when they produced an apothe- 
cary on the stage always presented him as a 
garrulous and foolish man. It was in what 
may be called the middle period of the history 
of the apothecary's Galling in this country 
that it had thus fallen into ^ave contempt. 
At first it was honoured, and it is now, at last, 
honoured again. At first there were few of 
the fraternity. Dr. Friend mentions a time 
when there was only one apothecary in all 
London. Now, there are m England and 
Wales about seven thousand gentlemen who, 
when tyros, took their freedom out to kill (or 
cure) where stands a structure on a rising hill, 
Nigh where Fieet Ditch detcendt in table ttreMni, 
To wish hit tootj Naiadt in the Tbamei, 
namely, at the Hall of the Worshipful Society 
of Apothecaries in Blackfriars. Of course 
apothecaries do not monopolise the licence 
to kill, or we never should have heard 
of that country in which it was a custom 
to confer upon the public executioner, after 
ho had performed nis office on a certain 
number of condemned people, the degree of 
doctor. 

A eainst doctors, surgeons, and apothecaries 
in this couutry, and at all times, many a 



sneer has been levelled. What is said againsl 
doctors and surgeons is equally true or false 
here and elsewhere. The whole medical 
republic may assert itself. Much, however, 
that is said about apothecaries in this country 
seems to be true — and is not true, for in 
England the apothecary is a person tlififering 
in almost every respect but name from the 
apothecary of the continent ; the word 
Apothecary means even in England what it 
does not mean iu Scotland. We believe that 
we are usefully employed in showing what ii 
really represented in this country by Apothe- 
caries' HalL 

Once upon a time, says Herodotus, in the 
land of the wise there were no doetora In 
Egypt and Babylon the diseased were expoaed 
in tne most public streets, and passen-bj 
were invited to look at them, in order thit 
the^ who had suffered under similar com- 
plamts and had recovered, miffht tell what it 
was that cured them. Nobody, says Strabo^ 
was allowed to go by without ofiering his 
gratuitous opinion and advice. Then, since it 
was found that this practical idea did not 
work to perfection, the %yptian priests made 
themselves students of medicine, each man 
binding himRclf to the study of one sole 
disease. Nature, it is said, was studied, for 
it was reported that the ibis taught the use 
of itojections and that from the hippopotamoa 
a lesson was got in phlebutoniy. Pliny is 
the authority for this, who says that the 
hippopotamus, whenever he grows too ple- 
thoric and unwieldy, opens a vein in his leg 
with a sharp-pointed reed found on the banks 
of Nile. The Greeks adopted and enlarged 
what they found taught elsewhere about the 
healing art, and htul enough faith in the 
necessity of medicine to provide the goda 
with a professional attendant. Pluto, we are 
told upon the best authority — ^Homer^s, of 
course— when wounded by the arrow of 
Hercules, applied to Pason, the physician of 
the gods, for surgical assistance, and obtained 
relief Pteon then was a general practitioner, 
accepting oases both in medicine and rar- 
gery. 

In this country, there are, at this tim«^ 
three- classes of men following the healing 
art — ^physicians, surceons, and those who 
are best defined under the name of general 
practitioners. Elsewhere there are two 
chisses only. Celsus and Galen both of them 
lay down the divisions of the profession die* 
tinotly. There were first the men who 
cured by study of the processes of nature 
in the human body, and by adapting to them 
regimen and diet; these were the original 
physicians, nature-students as their name 
pronounces them. Secondly, there were the 
chirurgeons or surgeons (hand-workers is 
the meaning of their name), who attended to 
the wounds and other ailments curable 
by hand. Thirdly, there were the pharma- 
cists, who cured by drugs. Some of the 
first class of practitioners used drugs; but^ 



APOTHECAEIES. 



im 



II 



bj mmtif , the tue of them was f«pudtated. 
ilik triple division of the healing &rt whj 
•tiil ftckuo pledged to tbe sixteenth ceutuiy, 
when there were few great phyiictans who 
wrote book* and did not write oii diet &ud thf 
art of cookerf. Thus tlie ph?ftictAt)« were, at 
fii9^ ill close aHiance with the cooks. Souie- 
tiEQei^ indeet^y the alltanc« was more clo^e 
tkan wholesome. One of the earliest illus* 
trmtiont of the f^et that in old times the 
phmFtnaciflt, as an apothecarj in the Atrict^st 
aet]«e, watt employed aa an adviser of the 
tiek occurs in a story told hjGicero of a nmn 
ziaraed Lueius ClodiuSf a travetltug apothe- 
cary, who was aceuatomed to set vtp as a 
diftirihutor of advice and rue«lictne io the 
market-places of the towns through which he 
passed. Tbta man happened tu paiis through 
Larinum at a time when the grand ruuUier of 
Oppta^tjicua was ill^ and was employed by her 
aou to attend her. Now thia son was an in- 
fatuoua tellow^ who kept a phyBician in his 
|iay to d^itfoy by hia preacriptions every one 
who waa euppoied to be an impediment upon 
Ilia path. Hla mother was among those 
whom he deedred to p<»iaon, but shC} being on 
her gUArdj steailily refused both the atteud- 
anee and the medicine of her son^i favour jle. 
Application was made therefore to the travel* 
lin^ pharmacopolisl, whom she agreed to 
trust Unhappily the apothecary was as 
bad as the phyiiician, to^k hb bribe, and 
killed his patient with the lirst dose he 
admiiiiit«re4> 

We apeak of the pbarmacopoUat who 
practuaed ; but it is to be understood that in 
tboae days the physician kept hia own driiga 
in his house — the list of niedicameots vrm 
amallertban it is at present — and compounded 
bia own medicines, Galen attempts to show 
that Hippoerates, father of medicine, made 
up his own prescriptions ; Celaus and Galen , 
it ia c^rtain^ both dispensed their medicines 
themselves, &tid Itnew notldng of the refine- 
ments of dignity that were to be mtrodueed 
by their successora. If Hippocrates did not 
dispense hia own physic^ it can only be said 
that he Wits not true to hia principles ; for 
*a^ physician,^* he says, in one of his bi>oks, 
•ought to have his shop provided with pliiiity 
of ajl neovanary things, as lint^ rollers, splints ; 
let thi^-re be likewise in readiness at all times 
anotlier small cabinet of such things aa may 
strve for occasions of going far from home ; 
let biru have aJso all eorta of plasters, potions, 
Kiui purging mtdicines, so contrived that 
they may keep some considerable time, and 
likewise sacb aa may be had and used while 
they are fresh/* 

The ideal physicLan of Hippocrates is^ in 
this country, the apothecary of the present 
day* UaJeu says that he had an apothek^ in 
irbj0h his drugs were kept, ajid where kli) 
m«Miichiea were always made under his own 
#ye» or by his hand. For one moment we 
pAUae on tbe word arpoLhek6, whence apo the- 
ory ia derived. It meant among the Ureeks 



a place where any tit in g Is put by and pre- 
serve. I, — especiJilly, in the firat inslance, wiua. 
The Romans had uo wine-cell jilts, but kept 
their wine- jars upon up|»er flocjrf, where tlit*y 
be lie veil that the conienta would ripeu fj&ster. 
The small flo<^r» were en lied fummiii, ihe 
large ones apotUecss. The a|H^theca beiitg a 
■Iry, airy pkce, became, of cour^, tlie l^t 
pu&3iblti store-room for drugs, and many 
ajiothecaa became drug-atorea, with an apo- 
theciirina in charge. It ia a mi^sfortune, tiien 
— >if it be one— attached tu thf^ name of 
apothecary that it h^ in it aasi^ciatiun with 
the shop. But, to say nothi[i>( nt Pod a Ur^ us 
and M&chaoo, Cull en and William Hunter 
dLipensed their own medicines, 80 aUo did 
Dr. Peckey^ who inserted in the i'ojrfman of 
the sixternth of January, in the yejtr seven- 
teen hundrt^d, when dociors and apothecaries 
were at hottest war together, this advertise- 
ment; 

At the An|?t and Crowu, in Baling Ijouo, naaf 
B«w Lftue, livrv J, Peckejr, a fmduile iii tlw Unl- 
T»mt^ of Qjrlord, i.nd of taKHj ytwn* tlaiidiiig in tb« 
CuUcg^ of PlayticlAtif, LondoQ ; ^Ijerc all irck |9«Dpl# 
UiAt aamn to liim m&j have for tixpcnce a rbilhful 
accuutit df tlieir diw?**^, ui4 ^Ijun dirrctioni far «li«t 
and Dihcr tiling* tlicy ean prepare ih«ui»rlvet ; Aud 
iut;h M liq.VQ OCC41I0I1 for metlicinw may \iikfti tbcm 
of Itim at rfiuonaUlc n&tet^ wUhout, ^) ii»g anyibinf 
for advice : and lie nil] visit any «ick perioii in London 
or ihe libvrtict thereof, in tlie daytimtj, for two 
ihillingt and lixpence, and anywhere eJ»e witUm Iha 
&ti\M of Mortality for fire ihilliugi^ 

Doctor Peckey'fl charges are extremely 
modeat, which hat not been at all times the 
case among those of hia brotherlioo^l. The 
present practice amoug piiyBieim^a of bein^ 
paid only by voluntary hm, aeema to bav^a 
arisen out of a law passed to prevent ex* 
tortiom In Galen's timet reapeelable phy* 
dcians would not undertake small cases, but 
they had acquired the habit of com pound iog 
secret noatrums, which continued iu fuH 
force for gene rati oue, and wa^^ common alio 
in the sixteenth century, when all classical 
customs wore revived. Aetma comphdiia 
much, iti hia writings, of the immense price 
aiked for respectable nostrums* Nicoatratua 
us&d to ask two talents for hia isotheoJi, or 
antidote against the colic. At laat Yalentiuian 
estabiiahed in Home fourteen salaried phy- 
fticiana to attend gratuitously on tlie puor^ 
and obliged, by the aaroa law, every other 
physician to accept the voluntary donation of 
every other patient, when he hi%d recovered 
from hia disease, without mnking expreta 
charge, or taking adviintage of any proiiiisei 
raahiy made under sufferiuK. Here we have 
not the fee system, but mogt probably the 
ground- work of it. Thia mode of after- 
)iayment remained for many cei^turies the 
ctietom of the empire, A physician of the 
tifleenth cenlnry, Kric;ua Coidim, comiihiint»d 
much of tUe reluctatice of hia piitieuts to 
reward him properly when tliey wt^re we 11^ 
for iirfioe done to tb^m in sicknem. 



110 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



In the eighth and ninth centuries surgery 
and pharmacy began to decline in repntution. 
The apothecary, said a Latin couplet, is the 
physician's right hand, the surgeon his left 
hand ; but this meant ^at the physician was 
the head and body of the whole pi-otession, 
with the hands entirely subject to his will. 
At the same time there grew up among these 
doctors panimount so strong a faith in 
asti-ology, in charms and magical medica- 
ments, that it became necessary, as some 
thought, to warn them lest they gave advice 
destructive to the soul ; since it is better for 
us, as said Theodorus, to be always sick, than 
sound by til e contempt of Qod, 

In an old liistorioal account of the proceed- 
ings of the College of Physicians against em- 
Eirics and unlicensed practitioners written by 
^r. Charles Goodall, a fellow of the said col- 
lege, we read how in King James's reign one 
John i^auibe, having acquired great fame by 
his cures, was examined at the College of 
Physicians by request of the Bishop of 
Durham, and among the examination ques- 
tions put to him we find thmt^ 

^* Being asked in Astrology what house he 
looketh unto to know a disease, or the event 
of it : and how the lord ascendant should 
stand thereto t 

'*He answereth, he looks for the sixth 
house: which being disproved, he saith he 
uudei-stands nothiug therein, but what he 
hath out of Caliman : and being asked what 
books he hath read in that art, he saith he 
hath none but Caliman." 

It was long, in fact, before the traces of these 
false ideas of nature were removed from the 
prescriptions of the doctors. Doctor Merrett, 
in tlie year sixteen hundred and sixty-nine, 
denounced the frauds of apothecaries who sell 
to their TAtients sheep's lungs for fox lungs, 
and the bone of an ox's heart for that ofa 
stag's heart ; and, at about the same time, 
Cul|>epper, in translating the Pharmacopoeia, 
or otiicial catalogue of medicinal remedies 
and preparations issued by the College of 
Physicians, ridicules some of the contents in 
a list like this, inserting his own comments 
by parenthesis : 

^ 'i he fat, grease, or suet of a duck, coose, 
eel, boar, heron, thymallos " (if you know 
where to get it), ** dog, capon, beaver, wild cat, 
stork, hedge-ho^, hen, man, lion, hare, kite, or 
lack" (if they have any fat I am persuaded 
\ia worth twelve-pence the grain), "wolf, 
mouse of the mountain " (if you can catch 
them), "pardal, hog, serpent, badger, bear, 
fox, vulture " (if you can catch them), ** east 
and west benzoar, viper's flesh, the brains of 
hares and sparrows, the rennet of a lamb, 
kid, hare, .'Uid a calf and a horse too " (quoth 
the college). [They should have put the 
rennet of an ass to make medicine for their 
a<ldle-braiu8.] "The excrement of a goose, 
of a dog, of a goat, of swallows, of men, of 
women, of mice, of peacocks," &c., &c. 

AVeli might the founders iu this country of 



the science of physio speak even at a time 
later than this with little reverence for the 
learning supposed to be proper to their 
craft. 

"It is very evident," wrote Sir Bichard 
Blackmore in his treatise on the small-pox, 
"that a man of good sense, vivacity, and 
spirit, may arrive at the highest rank of 
physicians without the assistance of great 
erudition and the knowledge of books ; and 
this was the case of Dr. Sydenham, who 
became an able and eminent physician, 
though he never designed to take up the 
profession till the civil wars were composedy 
and then being a disbanded officer, he entered 
upon it for a maintenance, without any 
laming properly preparatory for the under- 
taking of^it. And to show the render what 
contempt he had for writings in physic, when 
one day I asked him to a«ivise me wliat books 
I should read to qualify me for practice, he 
replied, ' Bead Don Quixote— it is a very 
good book. I read it stilL' So low an 
opinion had this celebrated man of the learn- 
ing collected out of the authors, his preile- 
cessors. And a late celebrated physician, 
whose judgment was universally relied upon 
as almost infallible in his profession, used to 
say, as I am well informed, that when ha 
died he would leave behind him the whole 
mystery of physic upon half a sheet of 
paper.'* 

He who said this was Doctor BadeU£Re^ 
physician to King William the Third, the 
most successful practitioner of hb own day, 
and one of the honoured patriarchs of the 
I^ndon College of Physicians. It is requi- 
site thus far to understand what the phy- 
sician was during the years of which we now 
proceed to speak. Up to the time wliea 
Ghirth's Dispensary was published, there con- 
tinued to be much general truth in the ins- I 
pression here conveyed. After that time, in " 
the days of Mead, the erudite physician, and 
of Clieselden, the skilful surgeon, whom 
Pope linked with each other in a line — 

I'll try what Mead and Cbetelden adviie, 

and who consulted together on the esse of 
Sir Isaac Newton, there began with us 
another and a better epoch in the history of 
medicine. 

The first doctors in England were the 
Druids, who, by-the-by, collected their own 
misletoe. The second race of doctors was 
provided also by the religious orders ; they 
were the monks (whose practice the Pope 
afterwards forbade) ; and there came next a 
transition period, during which there was 
much wavering between the two callings of 
physic and divinity. Thus, among other in- 
stances, we find that Bichard, the sou of 
Nigel, Bishop of Ely, who is called, not the 
physician, but the apothecary to King Henry 
the Second and the two succeeding m<>uarclL% 
afterwards was created Bishop of London. 
There was no CoUtige of Physiuiuus then 



DIefteu.] 



APOTBTECARIES, 



111 



cxistfng, and this king*! npoiheeary — ^tlie 
firftt mfin, we beUeve, to whom the callinj^ is 
mscribeil upon our EngLiflh records — evidently 
WAS no shopkeeper of arnfilL importance. No 
douUt he J practised mediciue, CertJtinly, in 
the y&nr one thousand three hundred and 
forty-tive^ Coursua de Gtuigeliuid, cftUed an 
apotdecary of Ix^ndnn, servinf^ about the per- 
ftOR rtf King Edwai'd the Third, received a 
peii>ii)ti fif si^ipenee a-day a^ a reward for hia 
nttnidance on the king during a serious ill- 
nwifl whieh he had in Scotland* Henry the 
Eighth gave forty marks it-year to John 
gbdfi, apothecary^ as a medical attendant on 
the I'rinersn MarVj who waa a delicate un- 
healthy young woman, so that we thus hare 
the first indications of the position of an 
Kcii^Iish apothecary, as one whuae cfklHng for 
two hundrtnl years maint*iinfld itself, and 
continued to nia^ntatn itself till a few yeara 1 
after the ealablishment of the Cullej^e of, 
Pbyakmia, as that of a man who might be | 
eitpigi^d even by kings in prautice of the' 
hi aliii^^ art. But in the third year of Queen \ 
Mury '^ leign, thirty'sevtfn years after the [ 
estnhlishment of the College of Physicians, 
both «iur^«?on3 aud apothecaries were pro- j 
hibtted tlie pnietiaing of phyrtic. In Henry 
thtj Eighth's time it hati been settledj on the | 
ether hand, that surgery was nn especial | 
mrt of phyi»ic, and any of the cotnpauy or 
fellowship of phy«ictana were allowed to 
euga^e in it, 

\Ve remain awhile with Henry the Eighth, 
whose reien ia important in the history of 
ttie tnedieal prof^f^^ion in this oc>untry. In 
the tUir*! ytar of th:it king there was lt?tria)a- 
tien Against unskilied pi-actitioners and wo- 
men who introduced witchci'aft and sorcery, 
|litji pretended nostra ids, to the high dijj* 
as ore of Gmi, the great disgrace of the 
ullyy and tlie^rievon^ damagfeaud destruc- 
tion of the kiug*M ]iege subjects. It enacted 
that no person within the city of London, or 
R elrcnit of scvan mi lea thereof, ahidl take 
npon himself to practlee either as physician 
or ffttrgeon tilt he liave been examined and 
ippmved of by the Br^thop of London or 
Dean of St, Paurs, asisisted by four phTsicians 
or OTjr^rw^iis of established reputatmn, ac- 
e»"i ' Mie branch of practice designed to 

b' ! iUj under the pemdty of fiva 

ptM.t, ,.^ |.i i month for non-eompliimce, A 
siraUar rule was to govern the profession in 
other di«>ceBe«, fellows of the imivtirintiea of 
Oxford am) Cambridge being m all cafies ex- 
eapteil and pix>vided against. 

Til is law removed a|>othecaries to a lower 
level ; tliey became mixed np altogether lui 
mere drugging with the gr^^cers, Tliey had 
neither obtained Uidvei-sit^ degrees^ nor 
jmrsed any ordeal of ej^annnalion ; if they 
atlvi^ed the aick, they did so on the faith of 
the skill tliey picked up by observhig the 
preiieriptions of more learned men. Beven 
jears at\cr the act passed, the physic iiuis 
were established by Kmg Henry the Eighth, 



in acolle^re, — had aroyal charter of ineorpc^rir 
tioa,— and in another four or five year,* wlien 
it was confirmed tothem, the office of e^^amiu- 
ing candidutes fur admission into any V>raiich 
of the profession^-for they declareil surgery 
a part of physic — was taken out of the h^uds 
of the clergy and conferred, as a new prLvi- 
Inge, upon the College of Physicians, In 
Queen Mary's reign the College of PhyaiciauB 
actijuired also a right of scrutiny over apothe- 
caries* shops. Doctor of Medicine waa thtm 
aupi^rae ; apothecary was a druggist only, 
who wore a blue apron, but had fe w ideas 
beyond his mortar, and sold not aimply dings 
but also spices^ snutf, tobacco, and sui^^ar u,nd 
pUimi9. In the time of James the Fn^st the 
apothecaries were incorporated with the 
grocers under a new charter in the fourth 
year of his reign. But they did not remain 
for more tiian nine years so united. King 
James was at all times ready to make 
money by the granting of new charters ; 
that was, indeed, one of the ways and 
means famUiar to the royal family of StuarL 
James the Fii'at granted fifteen incorjwjra' 
tions, Cliarles the Firat the same numbej", 
Cromwell oneg Charles the Second nine 
or ten. The apothecaries had been formed 
into one guild with the old fratt^niity 
of grocers in the reign of Edw/ud the Third, 
and the charter several times renewed! baa 
been conlirmed by Henry the Slatth, who 
granted to them the power by skilled per- 
sons—competent apothecaries — of ae arching 
and condemning drugs ; the same power 
which wss atter wards conferred nj^on the 
C^(Ue£re of Physiciiins. To the charler-graut- 
iug Stuart his two body phyairiaiis re pre* 
tented the prayer of sundry apothecaries on 
behalf of their Ixwly, that they mij^ht have & 
diwtinct incorporation as "Sipothecjiries; and 
this separation from the grocera Wiis etiVcte^l 
in the year sixteen hundred and fifteen. 
The higher class of the ariothecariet) had 
again eart»ed cr&Ut for their callings their 
guild waaeal led not aComjKuiy buta Society^ 
and had so much of royal favour that King 
James used to call them his own guilds being 
nioveil nnich to favour them by hi a apo- 
thecary, Gideon do Lanne^ whose efligy, as 
that of a benefactor, is still to be seen at Uie 
hall in Ulaekfriars. Gideon, aays a d^sci'iid- 
aiit of his, lived piously to the age of ninety- 
seven, was worth as manv" thonaand pounds 
as he lived yeara, and had by one wife thirty^ 
seven children. 

Thus the apothecaries became organised, 
and more able to cany on the war wldcli for 
a time it Wria their pai*t in this country to 
wage with the physic:ians» It has been already 
Naid that In Queen ^{ary^s reign surgeons ai^d 
apotht-cfiries were prolabited the piTicU^ing 
of physic. In Charles tlie Firai's time, I he 
phyaieiana found it requisite to pt^titii^n for 
another royal edict, that no apothecary fe^hould, 
under severe penalties, compound or ad- 
minister medicines without the prescription 



« 



4 
I 

I 
I 



of a physician then living. The interdict 
had little efficacy, and at last became so obso- 
lete that in the sixth year of William the 
Third an act passed which was made per- 
petual in tlie ninth of Qeorge the First, ex- 
empting apothecaries from service in parish 
offices and upon juries, because unless so 
exempt they cannot perform the trusts re- 
posed in them as they ought, nor attend the 
sick with such diligence as is required. 

The practice of Uie apothecary was, in fact, 
slowly becoming a necessity imposed by 
the growth of the middle orders of society. 
The physicians in this country have not 
altereni their position with relation to the 
population as tlie population has changed its 
position with regani to them. They have 
maintained themselves, wisely we think, as 
a class of special counsellors, with counsel- 
lor's fees, not ofVen to be lowered without loea 
of dignity. Therefore, the apothecary haa 
been called upon to adapt himself as a pro- 
fessional adviser, to the wants of the million. 
He has done so. On the continent of Europe 
it is the physician who has done so ; he is, in 
many thousands of cases, just what the apo- 
thecary in this country has been called upon 
to make himsflf, and haa through much 
trouble and conflict come to be. £ven in 
Scotland, the same pressure upon the apothe- 
cary has not produced out of him the same 
thiD|r. Scotch surgeons were examined in 
medicine, and entered as matter of course 
into general practice, when in Eoffland suiv 
geons were confinea — as they still are — to 
surc^ical examinations, and obtained license 
to deal only with a class of cases which do 
not form more than one in ten of all that 
demand treatment, while the physicians stood 
upon their dignity, wisely, as we have said ; 
but in a way thaf has made the production 
of a clnas of general practitioners quite un- 
avoidable. 

The Society of Apothecaries, then, obtained 
its separate incorporation, and seceded from 
the grocers in the year sixteen hundred and 
fifteen, three years prior to the first publica- 
tion of a Pharmacopceia, and one hundred 
and thirty years before the surgeons were 
dissociated m>m the Barbers* Company. The 
first demand upon the apothecary was to pre- 
scribe ; he was to be, in Adam Smithes words, 
''the physician to the poor at all times, and 
to the rich whenever the disease was without 
danger.*' To unite the calling of apothecary 
with that of the surgeon, was to become what 
the public wished to have, namely, a man 
available on easy variable terms for daily use 
in every emergency. 

In our days this problem has reached, or 
is reaching, a most excellent solution. jBut 
it has not been worked out without difficulty. 
The physicians not seeing that they fought in 
rain against necessity arising from a social 
want which they were not themselves pre- 
pared to meet, not only contested the right of 
apothecaries to advise, but even in the chafe 



of controversy went so far as to ''enact and 
decree that no surgeon nor apothecary, nor 
any such artificer, who has exercised any less 
liberal art, or bound to servitude has served 
his apprenticeship in a shop^ be admitted into 
the cUss of candidates, or of fellows ; lest| 
haply* if such be elected into the college, wo 
shall not sufficiently appear to have consulted 
either our own dignity, or the honour of the 
universities of this kingdonL** 

War to the knife was thus declared, and 
during one or two generations led in aoms 
instmces to ver^ scandalous results. Tha 
physicians, judging it derogatory to com- 

rnd their medicines, were often obliged to 
extremely heedful of the dispositioii 
towards them of any apothecary to whom 
they might send their prescriptions. Active 
pills were maliciously made inert by the use 
j perhaps of liquorice in place of steel and 
I aloes ; the quarrel was of more consideration 
I than the patient. 

j When physician and apothecary were good 
friends, and the physician was a man who, in 
the phrase of the trade— for here we must 
needs call it a trade— could write well, some* 
thing like this was the result We quote 
only one dav's medicine, prescribed by a 
physician and administered oy an apothecary 
to a fever patient. The list of medicine 
given on each other day is quite as long, and 
every bolus is found in the same way duly 
specified in '*Mr. Parret the apotheeary*s 
bill, sent in to Mr. A. Dalley, who was a 
mercer on Ludgate Hill" We quote the 
supply for the fourth day*s illness : 







Augutt 10. 


Another Pearl Julap 







6 10 


Another Hypnotick Draught 









A Cordial Dolus . 









A Cordial Dranfht . 









A Cordial Pearl Emultion • 









Another Pearl Julap 









Another Cordial Julap • • 









Another Bolui , • 









Another Draught • • 









A Pearl Julap • « 









A Cordial Draught • 









An Anodjrne Mixture • 









A Olatt of Cordial Spirit! • 









Aoother Mucilage . 









A Cooling Mixture . 









A Bliitering Plaitter to the Neck 







Two more of the lame to the Arms 







Another Apocem • 


, 







Spirit of HarUhora 


, 







PUiiter to dreu the BlUten 


• 








One day's medical treatment is here repre- 
sented, as it was often to be met with in the 
palmy days of physic, when 

Some fell by laudanum, and tome bj steel. 
And death in ambush lay in eT*iy pilL 

Then truly might Dr. Garth write of his 
neighbours how 

The piercing caosties ply tbdr spiteful powV, 
Emetki wrenchy and keen cat h sj r tics scouiw 



J 



Clterki |)kte*4j 



APOTHECARIES. 



n% 



\ 



The dead I V druji in cltiiiWc da*c» fly ; 
And p£fi1es pcitl ft i»Drtiji.l I) m^liony* 

In tbe year ^ixl^eii hundred aiid nittetj* 
four llie DUitiber of niiotliecariea bud iji- 
ei^ased in Etrr^liiiul Trum nbout ti hundred to 
nbotit a tliuHSuiid ; they b;til Ijt'Cuiue ftti 
itidueniiftl body, and their chdm to pr<?sc*ril>e 
for the k^:^^ w&mltijj st^ciion of the }>ubli^ 
that cult Id not tttTurd to t»fty, first the pliy- 
aicisths fur ndvice^ liit^ti tlie HpoLhtc^iry ft>r hU 
mrtliLTiue, e](L-ittnl a discujcs^inii tiuit had 
refiched ii« botteftt jiomt* Theo it ^iia thjd 
eoiu« uf ihe physicians, out of niutive^ haW- 
beneviiWitt hujl'-i'outi'ov&i'uitilr united iu Ih^ 
citfthli hnieut of diapeii*iHi«, at wJiiulj they 
woidti j^ivo fcneir uwii advice to the prmr, 
cliff 41 ply or griituitotHly, and caha^ luedjcmg 
to h^ ^ohl nearly tit prime cost. Uuo of the 
dis|reiji)ibriea w^b in a room of the theu 
VoUvgti of PhyfliciniiB (uuw a bntzier'a 
preuii^tja), in Warwick Lane \ ant>[lier w^is S 
m 6t. Mfirt'iu^a I^iie at West in i lister ; a 1 
thirtl ill St* retpr*3 Alley, Coriihilh Tliej 
camif into of«mtiou in the njonth of 
Felifnj*ry, aixtten hnmlred and ninety seven, 
tUrfl u>r.v ^t^nti resorted to Uy rich and poor, 
ti dbo()s at which the a].mthecuHed 

wen ^ T I. d with and nnderhidden by ibe 
faculty* A wur of tongnes aud jwinipldeta 
vna, of eoun?*, excited by this meu^Lire, of ' 
»hwU tlie only durable record — and that a i 
recohi now almost loit out of aight — is the | 
poeni that hiLs been once or twice quoted in 
this i>i^p«r. The iliftpeuuary ; a Poem in iSix 
Cantos, by l>r> Garth* Uf conrie the phy- 
ili!iau» y^ry moti abandon eii the tnide part 
of the Ui^if syslem they had caii«d into 
tiii»l«iice. 

As a linal effort^ the pltysicians then tested 
in ^ cH»nH of law the rigtit of the aputbeearlei 
to Jbd^ise us well its cuiuponjid, John Seal, a 
butcher, ht¥i been attended by Mr* Willlain 
Hoiie^ Mn mjotheoai'y, and there was obUvined 
from him thLa evidence i "May the 15th, 
1704, These are to certify that I, John 
8«al, l>e!ng sick and applying my^eif to iIiljs 
llr^ iloij^e the apothecary for liiJ* direct iuns 
and tilted ieine«, in order for my cure, bad h\A 
Advice an 1 1 medicines irom. him a year 
togethf r ; but waja ao far from being the 
Wuer tor them, that 1 was in a woi'se condi- 
tion th^n when he undertook me ; and utter 
a very ex|ien:*ive bill of near iilty pound a, 
WAM ttirc'd lo apply myself to ibe di&pt'ijiiiny 
ftt the (Joile^e of FhystciiUMt, where I r«- 
eeived my cure in about six weeka* tinie, far 
nndf-r lurty sbiilinga charge in medictuee* 
liVitiK-^i* my hiuid*" 

Ujjon thii Gtt«e issue waa raia*^!, and after 
A *|*«-i.'ial veixliet, luUowed by thrte ai'^U- 
fi^utvi in tiie Conrt of Qneen^e Bench, it was 
dec'dcil thiit HiMe ha<l prjicii«ej phy«ie, 
aHii iti so dolnf^ had contr.'ivened the law, 
AjfainKt thm decision the Society of x\\HiiUe- 
C»Hfa ajipiMled to the Hoo^^u of Lords, Jiud 
by that auihority the judgment given in tii@ 



Qiteen^s Eeucb was reverse d» Then it wat 
iinaUy ilecided th^it the duty of the ajjothe- 
cary coni^isted not onty in preset ibiii*' and 
dlapenmng^ but also in directiui^ and or^teriug 
the renieiiiea einfdt»yed iu the tivutmenfc of 
tii^iease. The poBition of the a pot Leeway thus 
became what it had b^vu ut tltc liiiist, and ao 
renijiined ; but obviuMuly whftt wiu^ ik&iurud 
w^ut* m*t siuflident for the due prutectiou of 
Iht public 

Fur a lung time nothing was done* Tlie 
Society uf Apothecariea — which has never 
been a wealthy frmid — e^tiibhslicd a libenil 
organise tii'n among it^ members. It puid 
i^rt'at hted to the ttutiinic garden at Che Lea, 
wirich it had begun to lease from Lord 
Cheyne^ in sixteen hundred and sevt-nty- 
thiee, when the dispute with the piiyaictaua 
was rapully appruauhing it4 climax, and 
which, not many years after the st^^tirment 
uf the dispute, in seventeen hundred and 
twenty-twu, wiis made over to them in per- 
petuity fur a live- pound rental by Sir Hans 
Sloan e who had bought the manor^ on cuu- 
dition that it was to be mainiaiaed aa a 
pbjEiic ■garden at tbe charge of ttie apothe- 
caries, '* fur the manifefltation of the power, 
Wisdom, and glory of God in the woi ks of 
the creation, and that their appi^ntictfs aud 
othei-a may better diatinguiah good aud use- 
ful phiut^/" The charge of the garden hna 
accoi diogly been to this day maintained, 
witliout grudgiugj by direct annual pay- 
ment from aU members of tiie Buciety of 
Aputbecartea, 

There ha* I arisien also, in connection with 
AjKJthecariea* Hall— by accldent^*a tirade* In 
sixtfen hundred and tweiity -three, some 
metuber^ joined to form a dispensary, nnder 
iui^pectiun, for the sake of obtaining — for 
their own use only^ — pure and honest dmga. 
Half a century loter, a aubseription among 
members of the hall added a labor atory for 
the supply of chemicals used by themnelve* 
in then own pitujttces* The credit of their 
prepamiions caused others to apply lo these 
geutli^meu for leave to purchEii*e of tUem ; 
and thi« leave, at iinit reiused, was ukim;aely 
conceded, a few > e:irs before the date of the 
est Abbsh meat of the Dispensary at the Phy- 
isiciatjs* College, A drug trade was thu« 
etjmnienced, not by the Society of Ajjoth©' 
caries, but by some of ita members at iu hal!, 
aud tUeIr s^uUsL^riptlons and promts w^i-e their 
own piivate ctmcem, paid to aud tukeo from 
what they termed '^general stock/' In the 
early pat t o( the reign of Queen Anue^ much 
ilittienlty having been foun^i ia the prucnring 
o! pure drugs for the British navy, Prince 
Greorge of L'enmark, Lord Higli Admiral, 
persuaded the 8i>cieLy to tiudertuke tiie 
supply, Tliey then opened a sep imte com-* 
mei'ciitl ea^aiiisUment. under the title uf the 
Navy 8ltck, in which it was t>ptiu2ial with 
any member Ui take alia res. Afti-r ii time 
the^iB two stockii were joined as a cumuMm 
in teres tf and became what is now known as 



1 
4 



the United Stock of tlie Society of Apothe- 
cariefl. It is a distinct commercial enter- 
j)ri«e, Carrie*! on, not by the society, but by 
members of the society at its hall, and under 
its sanction. It has its own sei)arate officers , 
aiid committees, by whom, not by the master 
and wardens of the company, its accounts are 
audited and its affairs controlled. It is well 
managed, and yields iiigh dividends to its 
prcijiiittoi-s, which were increased by one- 
third, in Consequence of the demand for drugs 
during the recent war. It has been also an 
important agent in the keeping of bad drugs 
out of the market. 

Wlioever pays a visit to the Hall in Black- 
friai-s, will be shown how it is composed of 
two distinct parts. From a steam-engine 
room he in taken to where great mill-stones 
powder rhubarb, rows of steam-pestles pound 
in iron mortars, steam-rollers mix hills of 
ointment, enormous stills silently do tlieir 
work, calomel sublimes in closed ovens, 
magnesia is made and evaporated, crucibles 
are hot, and coppers all heated by steam are 
full of costly juices from all corners of the 
world. He will find in the cellar barrels 
fresh tapped of compound tincture of carda- 
moms, tmuture of rhubarb, and such medi- 
cated brews; he will find in a private 
laboratory the most delicate scientihc tests 
and processes employed for purposes of trade 
by a bkilful chemist ; he will find warehouses 
and packing-rooms, perhaps, heaped up with 
boxes of druffs to be sent out by the next ship 
to India, and apparently designed to kill or 
cure all the inhabitants of Asia. These are 
the premises of the United Stock. From them 
he will be led into the Hall itself, the great room 
on the walls of which he reads who has been 
mindful uf the widow — for sixteen widows of 
poor members the society provides annuities 
— and round the tables of which, he ma^, 
perhaps, see young medical students deep m 
the a«'onies of an examination to prove that 
they have been educated as becomes those 
who are to join a liberal profession. There is 
a separate examination-room in which those 
pass as licentiates who can ; it is hun^ with 
old pictures, and there is a small library 
hidden away in that anti-chamber, known 
irreverently as the funking-room, by nervous 
candidates. This is the domain of the whole 
Society. Here it does its appointed duty to 
the commonwealth. 

For, as it has been said, the decision of the 
House of Lords that an apothecary might 
prescribe, did not provide ail that belonged 
to the public want which has brought the 
English apothecary of the present day into 
the avenige position occupied by the phy- 
sician of the continent. If apothecaries might 
prei«cribe, skilful or unskilful, there was 
danger to bo feared. Therefore there arose 
at the beginning of this century an agitation 
among many of the apothccaiies to procure 
for theiiiftelves an examining board that 
should exclude incompetent men from the use 



of the privileges they enjoyed. There was an 
agitation for some years ; several bills were 
intro<iuced in parliament, opposed and aban- 
doned ; but at last in eighteen hundred and 
fifteen an Apothecaries Act was passed which 
gave to the Society of Apothecaries the 
appointment of a board of their own members 
for the licensing of all who wished to exercise 
their calling, and conferring privileges well 
known to the public. Before this aot passed 
such was the state of the profession tnat not 
more than about one person in nine of those 
who practised medicine had been educated 
for the work in which they were engaged. 
Not only has the operation of the ApoUie- 
caries Act changed altogether this coudiUon 
of aifairs, but it is due to the Society of 
Apothecaries to admit that by » high-spirited 
discharge of its new function, and a constant 
caieful raising of the standard of oompetenoe^ 
it has compelled strictness in others, and is 
adding continually to the impoi*tance and 
efficiency of that body of medical adTiseni 
which it has been called upon to iumisli. Its 
work, which never has flagged, had at the 
end of the first twenty years of trial proved 
itself so well, that to a select committee of the 
House of dCommous, Sir Henry Halford coik 
fessed — *^ I was one of those who were sorry 
that the power was ever given out of thi 
hands of the physicians to license praotir 
tioners of that description ; but since they 
have had it, I must do the apothecaries the 
justice to say, that they have executed that 
act extremely well ; and that the character 
of that branch of the profession has been 
amazingly raised since they have had thai 
authority." 

That is still the universal testimony. If 
we have told our story clearlv we have shown 
that the apothecaries simply have became 
what--cousidering the position taken by phy- 
sicians in this country — ^they could not aiap 
becoming; and that since the apothecaries* 
license does not qualify for surgery, while ai 
the same time the surgeons' diploma does not 
qualify for medicine, the class of surffeon* 
apothecary was quite as inevitably called for. 
That all this liistory is only an illustration of 
the stem law of supply and demand a few 
figures will tell at once. There are in 
England and Wales at this time only four 
hundred physicians ; with an English license^ 
including as such Doctors and Bachelors of 
Oxford, Cambridge, and London, Fellows^ 
Membei's, Licentiates, and Extra-Licentiates 
of the Physicians' College ; but there are five 
thousand five hundred and eighty persons 
engaged in general practice with the two 
qualitications provided by the English apothe- 
caries and the surgeons ; one thousand eight 
hundred and eighty more practising with the 
single diploma of the English College of Sur« 
geons,and one thousand two hundred with no 
more tlian the English Apothecaries* license. 
Eight thousand live hundred is now tlie number 
of the class that the physicians once thought 



C»*iieiBft«l<M4 



THE GIGLIO FEOTA. 



115 



tbemaelyai able to crush, and the country 
Sud^ that i% can luau&ge with no mora thaa 
four hundred pbyaiciaus* 

THE GIGLIO FESTA. 

A CEQWi> hwB assembled round the gates 
of Ike Naples rail way- office to go to the 
fc«tival of tbe GigHos at Nola. Young men 
witb th^ir '^ spo«e '' dieased out in the lich 
And vari^ eoloora \vhich n:iture herself seems 
to suggest in Italy ; others wlio had onee come 
down alone with said wiTea, but who now 
hting three or four black and brown-akinDed 
Ptfjetitiona of papa anil tuamma iu addition ; 
foreigners, like mjaelff intent on seeing a 
eni'ioua fke ; tradesmen, priesta, soidiera, 
flower^girU, fiaher-women^ and boys aiid girlat 
of every rank and costume ; all nmking such 
a crowd that the gates are ordered to be 
abut^ and no more tickets ij^sued. A bell 
tiuklea, and the waitir»g-rooma being opened, 
out we mih and take our ieata. Tinkle, 
tinkle, aaja another bellf followed by some* 
Ihiiig between a ahiiek and a whiBtle, and off 
we Btart for Nola. 

A gJance round the capaoioua carriage 
ahowi me several hard-workiug trodiismeu 
whuDi I li:Ld seen in their ahirtsleeves in Toledo 
d'l weeit. Mow happy they look with 

Uii L en heaide them 1 Life is not then 

one pt^rputaal round of toil and trouble. Sun^ 
day IS not, to tbeir minds, what the week had 
been to their bodies — a weight and a cloud, 
Oppre«aitig and saddenuig. no ! their 
bright faces aay^ as P^'^^b' ^ ^^^^ *^'^ ^7* 
ihtil amldal all the unavoidable auxietieaaud 
sufferingii of hfe, God had not fui'gotten to 
be graciona, and that He had brought them 
out Ihia day to look upon the lovelinesa ol 
Nature* I'hen they look out of wiudowa on 
the visiea which are trained in dch featooti^ 
horn tree to. tree, forming, down long lines 
of poplars^ such pretty vistas ; and on the 
aun burnt corn being cut aud carried through- 
out the whole couutry as we pass aloug; 
and on the mulberrj-treee with their thick 
gjlbteniug foliage, and the hemp and the 
lax-tiekla — forming altogether such a picture 
of calm beauty that, had they ever read the 
Bible {which 1 am very sure they never had). 
they would have thought of Jesus Christ and 
hm disciples walking through the corn-fields 
m a 8ufi(iny. At Caiicello, the road diverges 
Ml thtj iefL to Gbaerta and on the right to 
Kola, So we are compelled to change 
our train, and mingle with fresh coiupaniuns. 
In the comer is a poor woman, a native of 
Nola, so ill with malaria fever, that no more 
Ulsti a few days of exbtence appear to remain 
§0t her. Yet the prospi^itof aeemg the Giglios 
had given hcratreugtli enough to \tij fie r haps 
her laat vi^it to her birth-place* By her aide 
m%M a stout, burly-looking man, with two 
■mall children, ovidei&tly great pets, 

** And where is the wife 1 '* said the dying 
voman* 



** Ah 1 " aaid the roau, " a misfortune I 
God's will be dmie 1 '^ and so the strong aud 
healthy could not boost himself above the 
weak. Chid had touched him, as well as the 
poor attenuated being at Ida side. He is an 
mtelligent man, and gives me a great difui of 
information. Kola, he aay& has a popidation 
of fourteen thonsand souJji. It ia in the 
province, and under the government of the 
lutendente (Lord Lieutenant) ot Avetliuoi 
It has also a Sottintendente, a Syndic, lio^ al 
Judge,! Inspector of Police, and extensive 
barracks for soldiers. In fact Nola is not a 
place to be sneezed at. There is no sUiple 
trade here, continued ray informant, the i\o* 
lanese are an agricultural people, and, besides 
grain, grow a great quantity of oU aud small 
wine. Look at tho^ mouutains J they are 
covered with thousands of olives. As to the 
stunii wme, that vthm a fact evident from 
the mode of cultivation, for I never knew 
good wine produced from feetootied vines. 
And this makes me think of another subject 
showing the intimate yet almost invisible 
connection which often OEists between tliinga. 
The antali wine ; or, perhape, the adulte- 
rated wine couacquenion the univeriial grape 
failure has mined the silk of this year. It 
is ^the custom of the Kolauese, and of the 
people of this country generally, to ateci» the 
egga of the silk-worms id strung pure wine 
for a abort time — the silk in this way ao* 
quires strength. The opei^atioii is de^^cribed 
as making the eggs drunk, but this year^ 
they did not get drunk, and perhajjis not 
more than one third of the eggs were h.-itehed. 
Hence, a most unusual sight at this sezison 
of the year ; — the mulberry- trees were clothed 
with foliage, the fruit had actually ripeiied, 
and quantities were continujdiy brought 
into the town to make mnli terry wmt^; 
and very good it is too, said the j<>lly 
widower, smacking his iipa* Do you ace, 
he continued, thatquarrydooking place on the 
right I VVell, that was the old Cam|io Marxo* 
There were found some of the moat precious 
vases which now gmce the Museo Borl^onico. 
and which have set the modem woHd mad 
with admiration. The government has now, 
however, prohibited excavation ; and, since 
eighteen hundred and iifty-two, it has been 
cultivated as you see. 

Here we are, Ijowever, in Kola^ a largo, 
irregularly-built city on a vast plain, with a 
background of mountains. The thousands 
in the city are waiting for the thousands 
continnaUy arriving. Through a mob of 
coachmen with various coloured feathi^rs in 
their hats^ we figlit om* way to the lair. 
There are cloths and cottona from Saldino 
and Scaphati, very gay, and not very had; 
there is crockery from Ns^ples and isehiii^ 
there are fruits and sweets from everywhere ; 
small boys are lookin^i on with longhig hices ; 
dark bri;i^ht eyta ai-e gliateuiiig, w*hile itaii^n 
Johnny Kaws are sUnUing by with hau'ls in 
their ^K>cketa, wishing to be generuus. A few 



i 



4 




Bteps farther, and we enconnter the tent of 
tlie inspector of the police flaunting with pink 
di-apery ; and then we enter the principal 
street. What a disphiy of finely in the 
shops ! Barbers' brass basins, as they hano; 
upon his door, are as bright as mirrors ; and 
fesUions uf teeth declare the skill of the great 
practitioner ot Nola. But brighter still are 
the eyes, and far whiter the teeth, of the 
pretty daiusela who crowd the windoww above. 

I scarcely know why it is, but a crowd is 
always in motion, without any detinit^ object; 
it pushes on because it can go farther, and so 
I moved on, thinking that i must be right aa 
lone as the crowd kept moving. At length I 
exclainied, *'How that steeple shines like 
burniidieil cold ! and it is covered, too, with 
flowers, and flags, and evergreens ! Mercy ! 
it moves ! '* ** Steeple I ** said my friend. 
^ Why, that is one of the Qiglios." At leuffth, 
I had attained the object of my visit ; I had 
Been a Giglio. 

But wlMt is this Giglio ? asks the reader. 
I sliall describe it first architecturally. The 
frame- work is made of wood interiac^ with 
canes, and consists of a series of towers one 
upon the other, tapering gradually away. 
In this one there are forty-one towers, 
all tastefully decorated with architectural 
ornaments, with flowers and evergreens, 
with drapery, paintings, and even statuary ; 
whiUt at each comer of each tower there 
floats a flag. Anything more original, d^ 
zling, or pretty, cannot well be conceived. 
The summit of this fabric is surmounted by 
the stitue of a saint of the brotherhood who 
constructed it ; and, as its height is upwards 
of a hundred feet, his sainuhip oomnuuids 
a very fine view. Of these Giglios there are 
nine, and this is the history of their con- 
struction :— The ditfereut trades associate to- 
gether to defray the expenses. Thus, this year 
amongst others, there were the gardeners, 
the slioemakers, the butchers, the tokers, the 
confectioners, the tailors, and others; and 
each trade vies with the other who shall 
make the most beautiful Giglio. I am com- 
pelled to confess that the gardeners bear the 
bell, as might have been expected in a country 
strictly a^riculturaL That there may be no 
mistake either, as to the proprietorship of the 
Giglio, each trade hangs its emblems on some 
conspicuous part of the structure. Thus, the 
shoemakers disphiy shoes ; the tailors, some 
waistcoats ; the butchers, some joints of 
mutton; the bakers, biscuits; and the gar- 
deners, festoons of flowers and gardening 
impleiueuts. Around the basement of the 
lowest tower is seated a full brass band ; 
and, on the upper towers stand, at rather a 
perilous height, both men and boys. The 
Giglio derives its title, I believe, from some 
fancied resemblance to the flower of that 
name, the lily. Its height, and its swaying 
backward and forward wiien in motion, give 
it some resemblance to a Brobdignag lily. 
Of course the Giglioe are the centi*e of 



attraction ; and, pressing forward, we find oar- 
selves in the piazza before the Sottintendente's 
house. This is evidently the west end of 
Nola ; and, before starting in proceasion, the 
Giglios assemble there to dance befoi-e his 
excellency. Nine mighty steeples, one hun- 
dred feet hii;h, dancing ! How could it be t 
Each Giglio is bume on tbe shoulders of fifty 
men, with relays, and the exertion ap|iears 
to be tremendous, even to raise the struc- 
ture from the ground. Yet a species of 
devotion as ardent as that which inspires the 
followers of Juggernaut, tempts the beat 
men from Napl«« to bear these Christian 
idols. l<>om four hundrod to five hundred 
or more of the strongest porters of the 
capital throng Nola, tilled with religious 
fervour— whicu is not in the slightest degree 
diminished by the fact of their reeeiving a 
piastre each, and as much as they oau eat and 
drink. 

llie procession is at length in morement ; 
hundretls of priests and singing boys are at 
the head of it ; the windows, and the tented 
roofs of ever^r bouse in the city, are crowded 
with the curious and the devout. Look at 
the poor bearors ! 1 never saw muscle so 
strained. It seems as if they must sink 
beneath the enormous weight of the car. 
Jbiach with a pole on his shoulder, and with 
the other arm resting on his neighbour, they 
bend and struggle on for a few steps^ and 
then reposing, again resume their labour. In 
this way, for tluree mortal hours, they parade 
every street in the town ; returning at last 
to the west end in front of the great mau's 
house. It had been my good fortune to 
make the acquaintance of the great man ; 
so I find myself in his canopied drawing-room 
on the roof, with all the notables of the 
neighbourhood. Thero aro princes and dukea 
enough to send an American traveller into 
fits of ecstacy ; and ss to marquises and 
counts, their number is positively astonishing. 

** From what time does this curious custom 
date t " I ask of one of the dignitariea. 

** From the time," he replies, ^ when Saint 
F^lino wrought the miracle on our belL 1 
it was a great miracle: the saint ran hit 
finger through the bell, and the hole still 
romains ; but whether the bell was in a 
state of fusion or not I cannot say.'* 

** Whether cold or fused," 1 observe, with 
a grave face, ^ the miracle would be ecjualiy 
romarkable." The subject, however, is too 
delicate to pursue. 

''The festa began,** continues the same 
person, ''last nignt. Some thousands must 
have entered town during the evening, 
and it is little sleep we have had, I can 
assure you. You know, signer, the custom 
which persons or parties have of sending one 
another defiances, clialleuges to sing ? They 
place themselved at considerable intervals 
from one another, and the challenger begins 
to ini[)rovise some words in a liiugular chaunt* 
The others take it up ; then the challenger 



I 



THE GIGUO FESTA* 



117 



Tesumes, nnd «o they contioue, tiour after 
hoor, uutU they work th^uiieWes up Iq ft 
8* are of fury (for the cliauiit k gcDe rally 
full cif gihe9 mid Hdiculea of Uie oUier 
pstrty>( Hiiil Bot uufrequeutly the chaJleage 
^tnl^ in hlfjfML So it did 'last night. A 
fiarty ojime iuto iKe town, rented a window, 
wjd e**iit a chali*-n^e, whioh w«a accepted by 
i^niithi^r pftriy ; but the chanat of the chal- 
lenger was too biLmg. and it ended m one 
siimii beting etaUb«d» W@ wtre enabled," he 
g*ten on to aay^ 'Ho atop qub dai)g^ix>us 
ftffkir* Four men from Monte Yer^^itie, de- 
dlcatcdp aa you know^ to a cekbraleJ 
Ha^Jonna, B^nt aehallehge to cbauat with fo or 
men in Nobi; but the polico got aceutof it 
mnd arretted them/' 

To ibe rfligioua feativliy nowmicceed tbe 
(piite aaserronBoperatbna of entiug and drink- 
ing. About fifty tliou^saud people bete crowded 
itjto the town ; so that if the honsra b:id Iwmi 
tamh of Imlia ru!>ber, it would b^ rropo^aible 
to tikke the entire crowd lU. Witli treea^ 
tb^rtf Eore^ and flowers, hmidreda of tt'Uta were 
tniprovi^ied, and tbe appt^aranca of the place 
inij^'ht sngge^t fiome ulea of the F^aiit of 
Tabertimdcff. 

Frt^jB my window, wbere I am enjoy- 
ing the hospitaiiiy ^f a jttlly captaiji in 
the giianiii, I look down on one of theae 
icencsi. There are a variety of tables. As 
tlie kdies ent^r, tbey go behind two mul- 
herry treei^ and prepare their dinner toilette 
by taking oi' their go wo a and jewellery, and 
wiping their faoea. 'The genitetuen take ulF 
their oiiata. ^ere are mouiitfun.<3 of maccaroni 
with pomi fVuro and ehet^ise, luid grt-at huuka 
of mgout, and rlcotioid iQiersperaed with capers 
mad anchovv, ftnd iiumenae glasi fla^oua of 
wine ; m called by courtt^ay. And tbere is 
shriek lu^i and Jan^hing^ and no end of nierri- 
ment. The tabled are at last thrniit aside, 
and up atarta a young woman whoehullengea 
a man to daoce, Tarantella, and she tirea bim 
down, and then comes on another — and they 
.^ dance, anil clap hands, and pint, and at last 
jb^l^ give over by mutual oon»ent ; and so 
^H|Keing be cornea general, and many hundreds 
^^^ffNola areoverfl<twing with happiness. About 
I four or live o'clock there is a general more 
amonjjat the merry crew. Eagtfr for variety, 
they have bad enou^rh of Nola, now that 
tbts Cjiglios, and the ffastipg, and the danc- 
ing are over ; and off they must gallop to 
Kaplwj where they have to dlspky themselves 
ant! their finery to the terror-tttricken aristo- 
crats^ who are enjoying their vt*ry proper and 
very duBty drive in the Biviera di Uhiaja. 
It is a fuimy bight as they move off one by 
Every species of earrtai^e is to be seen 
was ever invented. The carrozzella, 
msA the carritella, and the cittadina, and 
ivagg0ii% aiid planki — all Tea toon ed and 
covered in with brancltes ot trees and 
flowers. Tbey looked m ucb more pte to resque 
tiian any gilded carriage on a court duy- 
Th€ti t^ero ftt% borseSi and donkeys, and 



mil lea, and oien— one, two, throe abreast— 
and all dressed outwitb ptiruhasaacbamete:^ 
istic of the fositival. Every steed has its ]ilume, 
and its roaaiy of bui-Kernels, and all are 
covered over with bouquets. As for the 
tenants of these singular vebielesi, their 
bats are of coiir^^e decorated with painted 
feathers and gulden leaves — not with trl* 
colored featliera ; for was not a French 
atiac}i6 receutly stopped by the police on bis 
return from a country flite thus adorned ? 
Their necka, and w^alst^, and arnts, and eani 
bung with chains of nutr kernels in comtue- 
moratiou of the f^te. 

Time waa perliaps when the religious ele- 
ment prednminated in these fi^rea - and the 
pione pilgrims brought away ivory ros^rit^^ 
as reoorda and preservers. In tha prenent 
day, jierhapSj the pb^j^sure element predomi- 
nates ; the rosai'iea are made of nut^ and 
all are euten^ even (hose which have de* 
comted the donkeys* necka, Ea4^h man carries 
a g}\y Bag made in NoIa« in which red is most 
conspictiouH, ami it is dotted all over with 
pici-t-a of gdt leaf. Waving these, and shout- 
big, sJngingt acreaining, off tbey »t;trt for 
Naples as rapidly as their steeds can carry 
them« In the cnpitnl, many thousand eipec- 
tanta are waiting to receive tbem ; the win- 
dows are lined with spectatora, who laugh at 
t be jolly pilgrims. 

It ia nn necessary to say that It is not 
cotisiilered genteel to leave Kola so early. 
Besides, there si'o some races to coma olf, 
KO thkfct 1 fouml m^'self, through the tntei'est 
of my military friend, in the grand stand, once 
more with princea and dukes. There are 
bodit*9 of cavalry to keep tb© grottnds, wh« 
gallop about, rear, and appear to hsive a vaat 
deal to do. One by one the running hoi^jea are 
bi*ought out, with their small joekeyii by their 
sitle, dressed in clothes a world too wide for 
tbem* One horse has a white towel tied over 
one eye, and another bliukeiia ; and, hieaa 
my heart, bow they kick and rear ! At 
Iftst the ridera are mounted, and oS they 
ateirt^ What a sensation on the course I 
The favourite boi'^je won't move bey and 
a certain point, however, spite of three men 
who run behind to whip him. No ! he 
won't move upon compuUiom There ia no 
knowing what he might cbooae to do if left 
to himi^elf ; and thus the race is won, not by 
half a neck, but by half a mile. The next race 
la ft very close one ; ibe whipj^iers keeping 
near to the horses all the way, and they came 
in almost no^e to nose. A proud diiy it 
is for the wiuneri who la iuimediutely 
surronnded by a crowd of friends, who con- 
ducted him in triumph back to Nola. Aa for 
the unfortunate loser, he was greeted with 
hlaaea* 

And now, goo<bbye to San PaoHno» and to 
Nola town — the bc:iutiful motLutaiua behind 
it are piiinted in vivid pnrple; cos ties and 
monaateriea are glowing in the Jj4at deep 
tints of the seltiug sun, and the shrill whittle 



^ 

I 



I 



4 



118 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



of the railway warns us that it is time to be 
off. Fighting and fltmgglinr^, we manage at 
length to get to our seati. But come to a dead 
stop at Oancello. There are no carriages to 
take on the hundreds who are waiting. 

At last, however, I find my way oack to 
Naples. 

As we enter the capital at half-past ten 
o'clock^ it seemed as if we had passed from one 
festivity to another. Our Nola friends arc 
either driving about and shouting as vigor- 
ously as when last we saw them, or are else 
seated at tables ranged along the pavements 
of the streets. Good night, my merry friends ! 
May this festa be not your last, and may I 
live to meet you all again next year ! 



TWO HUNDRED POUNDS REWARD. 

"If I were to tell you all, sir, they cannot drag 
me from my death-bed here and hang me, 
can they ? . . . Besides, I am innocent ... But 
what does that matter f More innocent men 
th^n I have been hung for less crimes than 
murder before this. I will not tell you." 

" Murder ? " said I, with unfeigned asto- 
nishment: " Munier, Charlton I " For this 
man I was atten<iing in mvcai)acity as house- 
surgeon of the Henborough workhouse. I had 
known him for years, and of all my present 
patieiita lie had seemed the simplest and least 
violent; his anxious eyes — which closed so 
lightly even in sleep— his averted looks when 
sj)oken to, his nervous timidity at the sight 
of any strange face, I had set down as the 
outward signs of a broken spirit and a 
waning brain ; for he had had enough of 
sorrows to shake a stronger mind than his. I 
could remember him with wife and children 
alM)ut him, in a respectable, if not an exten- 
sive way of business; and why it suddenly 
fell off and was given up, and what mis- 
fortune liad changed the couple who had 
been before so blithe, I had often wondered. 
Their sou, Robert, was now in the Crimea, a 
sergeant ; their daughter, Clara, a milliner's 
apjaeutice in the noi-th ; Mrs. Charlton had 
died a few months after the failure of their 
trade, of a lingering and somewhat strange 
di.se:ise ; her husband was indeed, as he had 
said, upon his death-bed. I had offered to 
send for Clara at my own charge, but he 
would not hear of it 

** I would not have a soul at my bedside, 
save you, doctor, for worlds," he said. 

He was quite friendless, too. His chamber 
was common to five other workhouse folk, 
but it was a Julv day, and they were sunning 
themselves in the paved coui-t outside ; the 
noonday beams which poured into the long 
bare room found nothing fair to rest upon ; 
no print uix)n the whitewashed wall, no com- 
monest wild-flower in any of the few drab- 
coloured mugs that strewed the table; no 
sign of comfoiii anywhere. The sick man lay 
upon his little iron bed, and I was sitting 
upon the wooden stool beside it; his hand 



lay upon mine, and his face was turned 
towards the door, listening. I rose, and 
locked it ; and it was then uiat he began, as 
I have said, to speak of murder, and his 
innocence — ^to ask if it would be dangeroas 
to confess alL 

I sidd, " No ; nothing can harm you, now. 
What yon say to me is a secret as long as 
you shall live ; you may speak as if I was the 
clergyman" — whom he had refused for aome 
reason, I knew not what, to see. " If it will ease 
your mind to tell me anything, say on.*' 

** You have known me, doctor, this twenty 
years, and will easily believe me when I say 
that I no more expected to become denendent 
on the parish ana to die in this worjchonae^ 
than I dreamt of the possibility of my com- 
mitting— any very terrible crime. I was 
young to the world then, and foolieh ; and 
my wife was not older or wiser. We were 
not strong-minded folk— nor, alas! even 
straightforward; through a plausible story 
of dear times coming — which may yet have 
been partly true — we sold man^ a pound of 
butter and ounce of tea ; and if it was not 
always a pound nor always an oonce, it was 
never over the just weight, bat under. 
Spirits, also~*there being no public-house 
close by — which we of course had no licence 
to sell, we would let our best customers pur- 
chase, and drink in our back parlour, which 
appeared in their weekly bills under the 
head of candles, or what not ; so that speaking 
l»efore our own children, we had to fabricate 
strange stories, and give things their wronr 
names; and many other devices we had, 
which, though they got us little gains, seemed 
not much, on the whole, to benefit us. I have 
purposely told you the worst of us, because it 
will explain our future conduct the more 
easily ; out you must not suppose that we 
were thieves, or very wicked people ; we 
scarcely knew what wrong we were doing to 
others, and far less to ourselves; and I 
don't think in other respects we were a bad 
pair. I know Sarah loved me, and I her 
and our two children, dearly. Our shop^' as 
you remember, was between Henboroogh and 
Swaffliam, which were then quite separate 
towns, with straggling houses and long lines 
of railing to connect them. Our house was 
the farthest of the last row, not detached.** 
Here the sick man raised himself on his 
hands, and whispered : " Are you sure there's 
nobody at the keyhole ? — ^nobody at any 
crack or cranny, nor at the skylight t ** 

I assured him that there was not; and 
then the wretched creature pulled outfrom a 
sort of opossum pocket in his very skin, and 
under his flannel vest, a thin piece of paper, 
folded ; keeping it carefully beneath ihe bed- 
clothes, so as to prevent its beuig visible 
from without, he opened it, and I r«ad these 
printed words : 

TWO HDHDRBO MUMM RKWARD. 

The above will bo given to any person not aetaally 
eoncerned in the crime, who shall give inch infonns' 



C&tfk-DicknaJ 



TWO HUNDRED POimDS REWARD, 



lit 



1 



[ 



1lonMthkin««4 IQ lfi« dIfcovtTj ofthfi martlerer or 
tnQrrl«ff«^ri of John Spi^t, In the SwafThatn UntiA^ 
Hrftlmroti|j;li, gin tho uiglat &f Detwrnber the tbirtjf- 
dlfmEt fi|;Hteeti hundred uid thJiLj-BTc. 

" Wij, ymi, Charlton, were ooe of the jury- 
men, if i rt^membor right, who were upoa the 
ioqn^tt in that matter 1 '* I aaid. 

•* 1 was, iloctor ; and are yoa sure there's 
nolKMJy under the bed^ or in the cuplioardj or 
l5€litna the chlmnej-board t — aad hb mur- 
detrr alao 1 " 

" n.,rM! luviveos ?'' I exdaimed. "Why what 
*}i '\ riifhan jou muBt have beeu ? ^' 

" , ^ood doctor, have mercy upon 

me : don't tell, don-t tell \ and doii^t thbk no 
hardly of me until you have heard me out; 
I am not to bad as I seem ; 

"It Wtt^ on a New Years Eve ; uear twenty 
years ago, ^ud very late at mght — eloae upon 
twtflve, — when I had put up my last ah utter, 
and was facing to lock the door of mj shop, 
that a Biranger GftUed. He had come from 
the Bwaifhjini end of the road, and 1 had 
n^ver eeen !jini before iaxM my life ; lie could 
hardly speak at all, be W3w ao awfully drunk, 
Rfd in face, thick in Bpeech, and trembling 
all over like a leaf ; he said he must have 
more mm, I told him that we only had 
gingi^r-beer and such like drinks ; and, be- 
sides, that it was too late at that time of 
night to sell people anything. He a wore 
horribly at this, aaid that my wife (who was 
•tiil iK^hind the counter in the shop)^ and I, 
mt'Tis both Jiarti, that we had sold rum often 
snoiigh to other fulks^ he knew very well He 
majm^eti to slaj^ger up the two atoiie strpa 
«nd pnsh in at the door He should get ii-to 
tbii buck |Tarlour, and Bleep there all night, 
he ftni<L I took him by the collar^ intending 
to net him outside the door, but he was a tall 
and a tot It-made man, and I ctmld not-^he 
•tm^fgled with me in a dull heavy manner, 
I hstd hard matter to thrust him fi-om the par- 
lour* I did do BO, and pushed him violently, 
and he fell on the floor at full length, like a 
hjg ; lit? never groaned after he had touched 
Ih* flrMif, but lay silent and motiouleaa, 

** My wife cried, * Wliat have yoti done, 
Georjrt* } YouN'e killed the man.* 

***Nr>nBeiiBe,' I said; but when we tried 
to nti!»« him, and saw the ghisay look of his 
ryi?-i, 1 knew it wa:* true, A hundred hor- 
rible ihoughta would have crowded into my 
min<l at once, bot that, swifter than they, 
dtvict^s for getting the corpse away, and 
removing sogpicion from otira^lves ha«l al* 
Tttkf^y filkd it ; the aimple honest plan of 
telliii!? the truth, and calling in the police, 
at *:n)ce» never so much as »nggested itself 
WTint It a neighbour should step in, as this 
tpoor niunlered man had done, and liod him 
lying there 1 If one of the children even 
thoiild btj awakened by the nolae, and come 
down into the shop ! If the watchman hira- 
•el^ Aeeiug our door yet open at that time of 
fiight, shotthi call I There was not a moment 
ta lose I I took the dead man by the head. 



and my wifct, ail in a tremble, managed to 
raise hi a lega, and ahutting the door care- 
fully after us, we bore our dreailful burden 
about fifty yards along; the Sivatfham Eond ; 
we trie*! to set it a^^ainat the railings which 
ran along bnth sides of what ia now M:tcart- 
ney Street, hut the inanimate thing slipped 
down agaiu each time in a mere hi^ap. It 
was surprising how anxioua we were to prop 
it up, and, althougti every inst&nt was pre- 
cious to ua, we spent some five minutes in 
doing so, — it seemed inhuman, somehow, to 
leave it on the pavement. In a aort ot 
desperate terror at last, I twined the arina 
about the bars, and we fled back in silence* 
Nothing was stirring. We heard the tread 
of the watchman outside our closed door^ and 
hi* " Past twelve o*clock 1 " die away in the 
distance, but we had put out the lights, and 
felt certain he had observed nothing unuHual, 
—nothing of ours^^oh horror 1— Jroppeil in 
the road, while we had gone about our ter- 
rible task. One of the children, Clara, bf*gan 
to cry out, * Where have yon l>een, mother ? * 
She had heard us, then, leave the house. 

** * I only helped your father to put up the 
ahnttera, child,' she anawered, and the girl 
was quieted by the ready lie. 

We went to bed immediatelyi but not to 
sleep ; our ears were on the stretch for the 
moment when the cry ahould arise, aud we 
should know the body was fountL One 
o*ctock, two, three, four : the time crept on 
With painful slownesa, and the hours and 
quarters seemed to prolong their iron voice 
horribly. And now the dawn was bnaking, 
and there was light enough for a eh^uce 
traveiler to see the corpse. We saw it all 
night long, tm we were to see it for years 
and as I at^e it now. Five, aix : it waa time 
for us to get up and open the shop, lest aus- 
pEcion ahould arise that way, and we did so. 
There was a turn in the S waff ham Road 
beyond our house, and it was farther thun 
that ; and yet I dared not look in that direc- 
tion AS I undid the shuttera, 

" ' Watch, watch 1 Help, help !* Then they 
have found him at last ; and the street tills 
with a hurrying crowd ; and I run with 
them, among the first. But my wife, she ia 
faint with terror, and <lai*ea not move, telling 
the children who have heard the cries, that it 
is nothing, 

**It Itana against the railing where we set 
it ; but Its right hand — yea, by heaven, it points 
Id me ! Nobody saw my face, they were all 
so horror-struck with the dreadful thing, or 
1 should have been carried off to prison at 
once, without any further proof, 1 know. 
As they were about to take it down, Doctor 
Scott (your predecessor at the union, sir), 
who WM in the crowd, cHed 'Stop J ' and 
called attention to the poBition of the arms : 
* I do not think — bear witne^ all of you — 
that any fit, or etroug convulsioti whatsoever, 
could have thus twisted them-' And 1 bore 
witness loudly with the rcat. I was^ m jou 



I 
I 



I 



I 



J 



have snirl, sir, upon the jary. I thonglit it 
best, saf'fst to be, despite the tbins; I had to 
deal with. When all the evidence, which 
Wi\a chi'*fly me<Uad, had !»cen given, I w;i8 
with the minority for ' WilAd munler against 
some pel-son or persons unknown,* airainst 
the rest, who were for * Death by a()opiexy ;' 
and we starved tlie others out. O, sir, the 
shifls and lies I had to invent, the terrors 
that racked me by night and by day — and all 
bcL'otten by my cunning dishonest ways, 
would have been punishment for a murderer 
indeed ! Aliout this great reward here, of 
two hundred pounds, there was a ceaseless 
talk ; and the wildest surmises as to how it 
wouhl be gained, amonest oar neigh l>our8. 
They came mto our little back parlour just aa 
usual, and wounded us with every word. 
*Now, mark my words,' said one, 'the fellow 
will be discovered in the end and hanged ;* 
and *Ay, ay, murder will out, sooner or 
Liter,' said the rest. ' Sooner or later ! ' 
Great heaven, how those words haunted us I 
for now indeed we had played a part whiuh, 
if discovered, would have proved us at once, 
guilty : my wife took to her bed, and fairly 
sickened from sheer anxiety. She had fever, 
and was delirious for weeks ; and I never 
dared to leave her, or let another watch by 
her bedside, for fear of what she might rave 
upon. When the end came at last, my poor 
wife wanted to see the clergyman ; but I said 
'No.' It was for the same reason that I 
would not send for Mr. Il«)laud here, myself; 
he was a magistrate. You*re not a magis- 
trate ? " deman<led poor Charlton, suddenly, 
with the damps of tenx>r mingling with those 
of death upon his forehead. I quiete<l him 
as well as I was able, and beg<red him to see 
his mind at ease as to any earthly tribunal. 
After a little time, and without noticing 
the warning contained in my last words, he 
continued— 

"Amongst the folks in our parloiir, one 
man in particular, a tailor, by name Deckham, 
seemed never weary of talking of Spi gat's 
murder. lie was a miserably poor ill-favoured 
person, who had drilled his way into our 
company by means of a sharp tongue. One 
ni<£ht I trild him flatly enough I did not like 
such mournful talk, and was quite tired of 
that theme . * Why, one would really suppose 
that you killed the man yourself ?* he retorted. 
It seemed as if an arrow had darted through 
my bmin for a moment, and I could hardly 
keep upon my legs ; but laughed it off as 
well as I could. He stayed, however, to the 
Tery last ; and when we too were alone, he 
drew a small strap, such as fastens trousers 
at the foot, from an inner pocket, and asked 
me whether it was mine ; ' for I found it,' said 
he, 'inside your house, betwixt the back 
of the door and the wall.' ' No, it is not,' I 
replied, but rather hesitatingly, for I saw he 



had some purpose in the question. * I thoui^ht 
so,' he went on, ' for it is the fellow to that 
found upon John Spigat, the man who wa« 
murdered fifty yards from here, in the S waff- 
ham Road.' 

I could not speak at first, nor do anything 
beyond making deprecatingand pitiful motions 
with my hands ; but af terward^^ I itia«le shift 
to tell this Deckham the whole truth : 
" Likely enough, Master Charlton," he aVid, 
quite coolly ; ** atween friends, however, 
such things looks better than before a jutlge 
and jury ; Til put a padlock on tills here 
tongue, safe enough, if you'll fit it, as I'm 
sure like a sensible man you will, with a 
golden key." I felt the halter already round 
my neck — this friend jerking it loosely or 
tightly as he would ; but there seemed to be 
then no help for it. I paid five pounds that 
evening — miserable dolt that I was — as a 
retjiininj^ fee to a villain for working my 
total rum. Many and many a time did my 
children and myself go without the barest 
necessaries that that man might have the 
means to indulge in debauchery and extrava- 
gance. Isold the shop, and removed with my 
motherless bairns to another paiiiof the town; 
but Henborouffh itself my tyrant would not 
permit me to leave. Loss of custom, loss of 
health, and almost loss of reason followed, 
of which you now know the cause. This 
incubus bestrode me day and night, and wore 
my Tery life out Often and often hav« I 
been a murderer at heart because of that 
mocking fiend ; once, indeed, he confessed to 
me, that a vague suspicion had alone induced 
hiiu to try me in the matter, and that the 
titrap story was only au ingenious touchstone 
of his own. Cunning as I was then, I had 
been overreached, and anxious to efface the 
very breath of slander I had given a gratui- 
tons proof of guilt Here, in this workliouse^ 
friendless, penniless, I am safe from his per- 
secutions ; but I tremble for my children, 
lest he use them also as his tools.** I strove 
to comfoi-t him, and to represent the folly of 
having submitted to such a treatment mfc 
first ; but I was speaking to ears that eoold 
not listen. The wifeless, childless man was 
dying fast, an awful lesson to the crafbr and 
untruthful. What a little leaven, of dis- 
honesty had leavened all this lump ! How 
the path of life had been darkenea to it for 
ever by the merest shadow 1 While I almost 
doubted whether he was alive or dead, he 
sprang up once again into a sitting postarsu 
and pressed the paper, which he hadconcealed 
so carefully, into my nand. A sudden dread 
of awakening suspicion, even after death, had 
nerved dissolving nature for that effort, and 
hardly did the grey head touch the pillow 
before his worn heart ceased to beat Near 
twenty years, as long as most bum on in froit- 
less hope, it had throbbed in groundless fear ! 



TJie Bight ofTraiulating Articles from HocssnoLD Wobds U reserved bif theAuihore, 



*- FamUiar tn ih»ir Mouths ai HOUSEHOLD WOHDSr^ 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 

A WEEKLY JOmiNAL. 
CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



N* 83i3 



DIX, EDWARDS & CO.. PUBLISHERS, 



MY SPINSTERa 

Mt youDg bsichelor fi'ienJ^ suspend your 
ordinary iwoc^itiuuA Air & Uw niiimtea and 
iLaten to lue. I wiU *lo you no Imrm. I am 
odJ/ & beut^voleul old geutl^maiif remdiog la 
fc sweet country town, possessing a coujjort- 
»ble proper t.y^ a di^ rotted housekeeper, and 
iome chs^t uimg 4omtf»tlc aiimiala, I have no 
uife, HQ childretu tio poor reUiioDS^ no cared 
to Worry me^ aud uuUiing panic ular to do* 
I am a (itL*e, liiLnfdi^» idle old miui. Come, 
\httfu to me freely, my galkuit yoii^g baclii^Jor 
(rieiidfl. 

I iixve a mania. It i9 not aavin^ money, 
not goijd livuigj not niuaiq, norsmokiugj nor 
angling, nor poiiery» nor old pictures. It is 
iiothiji^ of tlie A^iijab sort It is, m^ young 
frictDiUj sijnply sm amiable mania lor pro- 
moiing tba marrlngi^s of the ein^de ladltfs of 
my acqimiutanee, I a^W theai all Sly 
Spin«ti!t-a ; and the one InduitrLotis ohje^t of 
my idk* taiittnct m to help them to a set Ue- 
m^jut fur i«fe. In my owji yoiiLli 1 mis9*^d 
the chance nf getting it wife, as I have always 
firmly ii^Ucved, for want of meeting with a 
Icticlet -htarted old gentleman like niyself to 
heln me U) t-ho neceasiiiy spi pater. It is rjos- 
siblw this redaction which originally Ita to 
the r^rnixiLlou of tbe beuevolent mania that 
DO .^ me. Perhaiw sheer idlenes,^, a 

g»U ^f miuil, and iiving in a sweet 

ooutitry t«>wn have had ttometlung to do with 
it MitG* But* I cannot undertake to aceoaiit 
pnc»i ly for this one tender aud remarkable 
iiariiy of mine. I can only confess to it 
[y at tlte oat#et. Yon know the worst of 
now from my own iipa. Surely I am 
" " ns a harmless ohl man I 

ti been very succesbfulj con- 
iidt,*.,. .„^ .,..,..iti!ss of the timet, in setting 
the marriage-bellfi riuglrtg and atimuhitiii^ 
thjj weilding-eakti trade of my tiMive town, I 
mudt stdl jicknowiedge, with just as nmch 
diMjippoiuLriiriit and regret as it la possthle 
for so amiable an old man as m^ielf to ft;el, 
Ihid the Biiml>er of My Spinsters now on 
band iattometliiug litUe aliort of prodigious. 
Not frum any Jefieiency of the uecessaty 
Utractian on their parts — nothing shall ever 
iadtiue me to admit that — but solely from 
waiit of j& BuHieient)^ lar^^e bachelor public lo 
app<£id tob The aweet eouniry towu m which 



I live is also a small country town, and my 
spinsters are wnating amid a miseiably re- 
duced populaiion of eligible men. 0uder 
these disastrous circumstances, I must try if 
j I cannot get them settled iu life by making 
I them known beyond their own limits — 'in 
I fact, by asking the Conductor of this widely- 
,' cli-culated publication to let me try the eflfect 
I of advertismg one or two siample lota of mar- 
I riageable women in his columnii. Yon see I 
I shirk nothing. I do not attempt mxy decep- 
I tion as to the motive which iuducet me to 
call you together, I appear before you in tha 
character of an amiiteur matrimonial agent 
having a ft^w choice spinsters to dispose of* 
ami r can wall patiently, my brisk young 
bachelor friends, until I £nd that you are 
ready to make me a bid. 

Let us now proceed at once to bnslneaa. 
Shall ive try a soft and sentimental lot to 
bt^gin with ? I am anxioua to avoid mis* 
takes at the outset, and I think softness and 
sentiment are perhaps the safest attractions 
to stait upon- Lut One. The six unmarried 
sisters of my friend Mr. Bettifer. 

I bcaime aci^uainted, gentlemen, with Mr, 
Bettifi^r in our local i-eadhig-rooma imme* 
diately after he came to settle in my neigh* 
bourhood. He was then a very young nmo, 
in dvllcate health, with a tendency to be 
mehiut^lioly and a turn for metaphyiiic^ He 
was kind enough to aik me to call on him | 
and I found that he lived with aix aiaters at 
my first visit, and under the fo Ocfwing agree^ 
able circumstances. 

I was sbown into a vei7 long room, with 
a piano at one end of it ami au easel at 
another. Mr. Bettifer was alone at hia 
writing desk when I came in* I apologised 
for interrupting him, bat he very politely 
a^ured me that my presence acted as an in* 
estimable relief to his mind, which !iad beett 
strc tidied — to use hia own strong language— 
on the metaphysical rack all the morning* 
He gave his forehend a violeiit rub as he said 
that I and we B;it down and lcx>ked atrioiisly 
at one another in siknce. I am not at all a 
bashful old man, but I began neverth^dcBa to 
feel a little confuatsd at thia period of the 
interview, 

**X know no question lo emharrassing," 
said Mr. Btttifer^ by wpiy of starting the iilk 
pieasuntly, ^'as the question, on which I 



lAh 



122 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



te«iMi«t%f 



hare been engaged this morning, of our own 
Personality. Here am I, and there are you 
— let U8 say two Personalities. ^ Are we a 
permanent, or are wa a tranaieut thing? 
There ia Uie problem, my dear sir, that I 
have been yainly trying to solre since break- 
fast-time. Can yoa be one and the same 
person, for example, for two momenta to- 
gether, any more than two successive 
moments can be one and the same moment t 
—My sister Kitty." 

The door opened as he said these last 
words, and a tall young lady glided serenely 
into the room. I rose and ^wed. and the 
tall young lady sank sofUy into a chair oppo- 
site me. Mr. Bettifer went on : 

<* You may tell me that our substance is 
constantly changing. Iffrantyou that; but 
do yon get me out of the difficulty ? ^ No ; 
you only plunge me in deeper. For it is not 
substance, but My sister Maria." 

The door opened again. A second tall 
Toung lady elided in, and sank into a chidr 
by her sisters side. . Mr. Bettifer went on : 

''Not substance, but consciousness which 
constitutes Personality. Now what is the 
nature of consciousness I — My sisters Emily 
and Jane." 

The door opened for the third time and 
two tall young ladies glided in, and sank into 
two chairs by the sides of their two sisters. 
Mr. I^ttifer went on : 

** Now the nature of consciousness I take 
to be that it cannot be the same in any two 
moments, nor consequently the personality 
constituted by it Do you grant me that t " 

Not understanding a word he said, I, of 
course, granted it directly. Just as I said 
yes, the door opened again, a fifth tall young 
lady glided in, and assisted in lengthening 
the charming row formed by her sisters. Mr. 
Bettifer murmured indicatively, '* My sister 
Elizabeth^" and made a note of what I had 
granted him, on the manuscript by his side. 

*' What loyely weather ! " I remarked, to 
chan^o the conyersation. 

'' Beautiful 1 " answered five melodious 
▼oices. 

The door opened again. 

** Beautiful, indeed ! " sud a sixth melo- 
dious yoice. 

"Aly sister Harriet," said Mr. Bettifer, 
finishing his note of my metaphysical ad- 
mission. 

They all sat in one fascinating row. It 
was like being at a party. I actually felt un- 
comfortable in my coloured trowsers— -more 
uncomfortable still, when ''my sister Har- 
riet" begged that she might not interrupt 
our preyious conversation. 

" We are so fond of meti4)hysical subjects,' 
said Miss Elizabeth. 

"Except that we think them rather ex- 
hausting for dear Alfred,** said Miss Jane. 

"Dear Alfred!" repeated the Misses 
EinUy, Maria, and Kitty, in mellifluous 
ehoms. 



Not haying a heart of stone, I was so pro- 
foundly touched, that I would haye triea to 
resume the subject But, Mr. Bettifer wayed 
his hand impatiently, and said that he re- 
jected the conclusion at which he was now 
obliged to arriye after my admission — the 
said condusion being, that our present self 
was not our yesterday*8 self, but another self 
mistaken lor it, which, in its turn, had no 
connection with the self of to-morrow. As 
this certainly sounded rather anaatiBfactovyi 
I agreed with Mr. Bettifer that wa had ex* 
hausted that particular yiew of the subject 
and that we had better defer starting another 
until a future opportunity. An embarrassing 
pause followed our renunciation of lAta- 
physics for thedajr. Miss Elisabeth broke 
the silence by askmff me if I was fond of 
pictures ; and before I could say Tea, Miss 
Harriet followed her by asking me if I was 
fond of music. 

"Will you show your pictores, deart* 
said Miss Elizabeth to Miss Harriet. 

" Will you sine, dear ? " said Miss Harriet 
to Miss Elizabeth. 

" Oh, do dear ! " sidd the Misses Jane and 
Emily to Miss Elizabeth. 

"Oh, yes, dear! "said the Misses Maria 
and Kitty to Miss Harriet. 

There was an artless symmetry and balance 
of affection in all that these six sensitiye 
creatures said and did. The fair Elizabeth 
was followed to the end of the room where 
the piano was, by Jane and Emilr. Ihe 
loyely Harriet was attended in the directloa 
of the easel by Maria and Kitty. I went to 
see the picture first. The scene was the bot- 
tom of the sea ; and the subject, A Forsaken 
Mermaid. The unsentimenUl, or fishy lower 
half of the sea nymph was dexterously hid- 
den in a coral groye before which she was 
sitting, in an atmosphere of limpid blue water. 
She had beautiful long green hair, and 
was shedding those solid tears which 
we always see in pictures and nerer in 
real life. Groups of pet fishes circled anmnd 
her with their eyes fixed mournfully on their 
forlorn mistress. A line at the top of the 
picture, and a strip of blue above it, repre- 
sented the surface of the ocean and the sky ; 
the monotony of this part of the composition 
being artfully broken by a receding golden 
galley with a purple sail, containing the 
tickle fisher youth who had forsaken the 
mermaid. I had hardly had time to say 
wliat A beautiful picture it was, before Miss 
Maria put .her handkerchief to her eyes^ 
and, overcome by the pathetic nature of the 
scene pourt rayed, hurriedly left the room. 
Miss Kitty followed, to attend on and con- 
sole her; and Miss Harriet, 'after covermg 
up her picture with a sigh, followed to assirt 
Miss Kitty. I began to doubt whether I 
ought not to haye gone out next, to support 
all three ; but, Mr. Bettifer, who had 
hitherto remained in tlie back ground, lost 
in metaphysical speculation, came forwsjrd to 



m^kn*.] 



MY SPraSTERS. 



in 



I 



i^mlnd me that the music was watting to 
cUuni mr ad ml rati cm next« 

** Excuse tli^lr excessive senftibiHty,*^ he 
wtdd^ ** I haive done my beat to harden them 
And malce them worldly ; but it is not of the 
diglitest use* Will you com ^ to the pl&no F* 

MUm EUzabeth begim to mng immediatelj, 
with the atleotlant lylphs, Jaue and Emily, 
on either side of her, to tuiTi oirer the rauBic. 
It wjiB a ballad com jiofsi lion — muBio and 
words by tho lovely singer heraelf, A ladj 
WM dreammg in an ancient cantle, a dog waa 
howling in a ruined ooortyardi an owl waa 
hooting in a neighbooTing foreut, a tyrant 
Wa« Kt rifling in an echoing hall, and a page 
was elngiijg among moonlit flowers, Firat 
Hve versea. Tune, so like the M tat I e toe 
Bough, that the composer of the same ouj^ht 
really to hare been aahametl of hlmuelf 
Sixth Terse, the lady wakea with a scream. 
Seventh J the tyrant loads his arquebus. 
Eighth, the faithful page, hearitig the »ci*eam 
among the moonlit flowera, advance?* to the 
caatlo. Kinth, the dog gi^es a warning 
bark, and the tyrant lires a chance shot in 
the darknefts. Tenth, the page weLterhtg in 
hifi blood, the lady dead of a broken heart, 
Mi«a Jane so affected by the catastrophe thai 
Hid^ Emily is obliged to lead her from the 
room, and Uiss ERzabeth so anxious about 
them both »s to be forced to shut up the 

Ei^nOy and hasten after them with a smelllng- 
ottle in her hand* Such gentlemen, w<?re 
Ihe intereating circumstances under which I 
was fint introduced to the six sentimental 
Spinatera now on view in these pai^ea* 

YeSj my fortmiate young bachelor friends, 
incredible aa it rotuit appear to yon, after the 
brief introductory narrative which yon have 
juat perused, these mx atigels of sensibility 
ans real] y aingle a nge I » stUL Te 11 yon nselir ei 
elT to the corresponding number of half-a- 
doicn, with your *ffei's ready on your tonguea, 
and your hearts thrown open to tender in- 
vest igatlon, w hi le fa vo u rail I e ci r cu lustan ces 
yet give you a chance, Firat bachelor^ do you 
want pictorial genius, hair In plain bands, and 
iweet aorrowful dignity in every movement 1 
— pnwue >tisa Han'iet and bo happy. Se- 
©onrl bachelor J Do you want music, poetry ♦ 
ringlets, ami a snaky gracefulneea about the 
re-^^on of the wai^itl— keep your eye on Mi$s 
EILcabeth. Third and fourth bach eloi*s; Do 
3N*ii want sensitive appreciation of pictorial 
^ii' ■ hairariraperatrice ] Fifih and 

■II F ^ra : Do you want equally sengi^ 

tiv^ nation of musical and fjoetlcal 

geii three glossy curls on either aide 

5f4A^ .,.,. theek t— kneel before Emily and 
Jane ; fly to Maria and Kitty ! Finally (for 
I mtiat end, after all, for the sake of brevity, 
by apeak ing of the six sentimental Spinsters 
in the aggi-egate), do you, young gentlemen, 
WaM vai^ cheeks, Umpld eyes, swan-like 
n«ck4L low walata, tall forrua, and no money ? 
Toil do — I know yon do- Go then, enviahk 
yoothj i'— go teJiderly^— go im mediately —go 



^ 



all six, and try your luck with the ICaa 
Bettifera I 

Let me now appeal to other, and po^ibly 
to fewer taates, by trying a sample of a new 
kind* It ahidi be aome thing neither aoft^ 
yielding* nor hysterieal thia tuao- You who 
agree with the poet that 

Diteoune mav w%tit ma lUiimaled No, 

To timih tbv iurfnioe and to mukfl it flaw-^ 

you who like pirls to have opinions of their 
own, and to play their parts spiritedly in the 
give and take of couvorsation, do me the 
favoor to approach, and permit me to intro- 
duce you to the thi^ee Miss Crutiwells. At 
the same time, gen tU men, I must inform you, 
with my usual candour » that this lot is short, 
sharp, and, on occasion, ahrill. If you have 
not a talent for arguing, and a knack at 
instantaneous definition, you will 6nd the 
Mia^ Crutt wells too much for you, and had 
better wait for my n<txt sample. And yet 
for a certain peculiar claflS of customer, these 
are really very choke spinai^m. For instance, 
any young leg;il gentleman, who would tlbe 
to have his wits kept sharp for hia profession, 
by constant disputation, could not do better 
tliaii adtlress himself {as logically as possible) 
to one of the Miss Cruttv^eOa Perhapa the 
yonng legal gentleman will be so obliging aa 
to accompany me on a morning calL 

It ia a fine spring day, with a light air and 
plenty of round white clouds flying over the 
blue sky, when we go to pay our visit. Wo 
are admitted, and find the three young ladies 
in their moniing room* Miss Martha Crutt^ 
well Is fond of stattatlcal anbjects, and is 
annotating a pamphlet. Miss Barbara Crutt* 
well likes geology^ and ia filling a cabinet 
with ticketted bits of stone. Mi«f Charlotte 
Crutt well has a manly taste for dogs, and is 
nursing two fat [ntppies on her lap. All throe 
have fforid complex ions, whicli they set off 
impressively by wearing dingy dresses. All 
three liave a winning habit of .winking both 
eyes inceasautly, and a delightfully" cha- 
racteristic way of wearing their hair very 
tight, and very far off their faces. All 
three acknowledge my young legal friend's 
bow in ^- what may seem to him— a very 
short, sharp manner ; and modestly refrain 
from helping him by say i tig a word to 
begin the conversation. He is, peihapa, 
unreasonably disconcerted, by this, and thex^e* 
fore, starts the tnlk weakly and oonvention- 
ally, bv saying that it is a fine day* 

" Fine 1 exclaims Kisa Martha, with a 
look of amazement at her sister. " Fine l " 
with a stare of |>erplexity at my young legal 
friend. **Dear me I what do you mean, now, 
by a fine day ? " 

** We 'Were just saying how cold it was,** 
says Miss Ba.rtiara. 

■^And how vijry like rain,*' sayi Misa 
Charlotte, with a look at the white clouds 
outside, which hap|»en to be obscuring thd 
I sun for a few minutes* 



I 



1 



^But what do yoii m«aiiyiiov» by a fine 
dav?** persi8(8 ^1i»R Marllia. 

My young legal frieDd ia put on his mettle 
by this time, and answers with professional 
readiness and precision : 

''At this uncertain spring season.my deftni- 
tion of a fine day, is a day on which you do 
not feel tlie want of your great-coat^ your 
goloshes*, or your umbrella." 

"Oh, no," says Miss Martha, "surely not ! 
At least, that does not appear to me to be at 
all a definition of a fine day. Barbara? 
Charlotte 1 " 

** We thjlnk it quite impoasible to call a day 
—when the sun is not shining — a &im day, ' 
says Miss Barbara. 

"* We think that when clouds are in Uie sky 
there is always a chance of rain ; and, when 
there is a chance of rain, we think it is very 
extraordinary to say that it is a fine day," 
addsMlis Charlotte. 

My young legal friend starts another 
topic, and finds his faculty fur impromptu 
definition and his general capacities for argu- 
ing, exerciseii by Uie three Mi8S Cm tt wells, 
always in the same useful and stimulating 
manner. He goes away— as I hope snd 
trust — thinking what an excellent lawyer's 
wife any one of the three young ladies would 
make—how she would keep her husb:ind*8 
pmfesdional power of disputing everything, 
constantly in activity — how she would send 
him into Court every morning bristling at 
all })oints witli argumentative provocation, 
even before he put on his wig and gown. 
And if he could only be present in the spirit, 
after leaving the abode of the Miss Crutt- 
wells in the body, my young legal friend's 
admiration of my three dittputatious spinsters 
would, I think, be immensely increased. He 
would find that, though they couhl all agree 
to a miracle in differing with him while he 
was present, they would begin to var^ 
amazingly, in opinion, the moment their visi- 
tor s subjects or conversation were referred to 
in his absence. He would, probably, for 
example, hear tliem take up the topic of the 
weather, again, the instant the house-door had 
closed aft^r him, in something like these terms: 

"Do you know,** he might hear Miss 
Martha say, " I am not so sure after all, 
Charlotte, that yon were right in saying that 
it could not be a fine day, l^cause there were 
clouds in tlie sky ? " 

'* You only say that,'* Miss Charlotte would 
be sure to reply, ** because tlie sun happens to 
be peeping out, iust now, for a minute or two. 
It' it rains in half-an-hour, which is more 
than likely, who would be right then 7 ** 

*'0n reflection,** Miss Baibara might 
remark, next, ** I don't agi*ee with either of 
you, and I also dispute the opinion of the 
gentleman who has just left us. It is neither 
a fine day, nor a l)ad day.** 

** But it must be one or the other.'* 

** No, it need*nt. It may be an indifferent 
day.-* 



''What do you mean by an indifferent 
day?*' 

So my three dbputatious spinsters would 
go on, exercising themselves in the art of 
alignment, throughout their hours of domestic 
privacy, by incessant difference of opinion, 
and then turning the weapons which they 
have used against each otner while alone, 
against any common enemy in the abape of 
an innocent visitor, with the moat aisterly 
unanimity of purpose. I have not presented 
this sample from my collection, aa one which 
is likely to suit any great number. But, 
there are peculiarly constituted bachelors in 
this world ; and I like to be able to ahofr 
that my assortment of spinsters is various 
enough to warrant me in adtiressingeven the 
most amazing eccentricities of taste. Perhaps 
if no legal gentleman will venture on one of 
the Miss Cm tt wells, some of my philoso- 
phic friends who lament the absence of the 
reasoning faculty iu women, may be induced 
to come forward and experience the sensation 
of a|p-eeable surprise. Is there really no 
bid S}r the Disputatious Lot ? Not even for 
the dog-fancying Miss Charlotte, with the 
two fat puppies thrown in ? No t Take 
away Lot Two, and let us try what we can 
do with Lot Three. 

I confidently anticipate a brisk competition 
and a ready market for the spinsters now 
about to be submitted to inspection. All 
marriageable young gentlemen who believe 
that fondly-doting daughters and perpeteally 
kissing siatters are sure, when removed from 
the relatives whom they paa<ionately adore^ 
to make the most devotedly-affectionate 
wives — all bachelors who believe this, and 
what coarsest bachelor does not ?— are recom- 
mended to cluster round me eagerly without 
a moment*s delay. I have already offered a 
sentimental lot, and a disputatious lot In 
now offering a domestic lot, I have but one 
regret, which is, that my sam])le on the 
present occasion is unhappily limited to two 
spinsters only. I wish I had a dozen to 
produce of the same interesting texture and 
unimpeachable quality. 

The whole world, gentlemen, at the |Hetent 
writinj^, means, in the estimation of the 
two Miss Duckseys, papa, mama, and brother 
George. This loving Lot can be warranted 
never yet to have looked, with so much as 
half an eye, beyond the sacred precincts of 
the family circle. All their innocent powers 
of admiration and appreciation have been 
hitherto limited withm the boundaries of 
home. If Miss Violet Ducksey want^ to see 
a lovely girl, she looks at Miss Ilose Ducksey, 
and vice versft ; if both want to behold patri- 
archal dignity, matroolv sweetness, and 
manly beauty, both look immediately at 
papa, mama, and brother Georee, I really 
cannot speak composedly of the delicious and 
brimming affectiouateness of the present Lot 
I have been admitted into the unparalleled 
family circle, of which I now speak. I have 



fcinifeiHj 



M¥ SPINSTKea 



185 



11 



1, — f> uaj' notliing, for tl>e present^ of papik 
and niwma — I haveaeen brother Gemg© come 
in from bosiuetiS, ami sit dowtt by the fire- 
aAdt, sJid be welconiH bj Mus Violet t^tid 
Mhm lti«e (sipproprtatelj Bwiiet mimes to-r 
liiK- '' i^eub ere^itures) m if lie had 

jii' d, after hiiving beeii ntjjortetl 

dtstj^if Moijn the other tini of the wmhL I 
Ift^ mv^ thoie two devoted Ktst^rs iklp 
pnntouiity a«;rostt the room in fond conLentiun 
Which filmiild «lt firat on brother Qeorj?e« 
I hav-e eireti seen botii iit upon him 
ther^ each taking a kDee, when he h;%B 
htilf^ftn-hour biter than usual »t the 
odire. I hare nei^er beheld their Jovelj 
arms tired of elaiping bmther George a 
n^ck* never beard tbi?ir rijsy lipa ceaae kiaa- 
iug bioth^r Geor^re'^ cheeks, except when 
they were oth*?rwifie occupied for the mo- 
ment m cnJiiiig iiim " LHsar 1 " Ou the word 
of! ! a hfirinlesa spiiister^fancying o]{l 

m-' ' '^ that I hnvii tecu brutlier Ueurge 

f(>iiitT:<, ^^, ^ucb an extent by inn maters th&t^ 
aJthiui^h a lutiiy and Ian g-jriuifc ring j^outh, he 
hiis talleii asleep ntjder it tVum tsheisr exhaus* 
tiuti. £^611 then, 1 h^ive observed J^Iiflti Kom 
mud MiAA Violet contending (in each otUer'H 
ann-H) tor w^ijch sbouUl have the privili^ge of 
CJtiting ber handkerehief over his face. And 
thttt giaceful stnfe oi:induded, I have quitted 
th« liuu»t! at a late hour, Ifiiving Violet on 
pafMi's boioiAf and ICose gut wined round 
m^ituma's Whist* Is there uot Home tlii Tig to 
till thft t^^M with tearsj geu tinmen, in iho 
eoiitenipbitiott of mieh B4.«eiie!> ilu these j Sorne* 
thing to pidl appt-alin^ly at our hearUtriijg% 
aii*l not by Hoy mejinu to let go of them 
anain in a hurry ? 

Aio i «xag^rating t Go, and judge for 
yonraislirta, my bachelor fnendtf. Goj if you 
Ikke, and meet my domeatie lot at a Imlt. 

My ba<!hrlor ia introduced to Mu^^ Violet, 
Wtil t«ke« hi« piftoe with her in a quaniUe. 
Be begins a lively convei^Ballou, Hud tinds 
k«r attention wandering, ^he has not heard 
a word iliat he h-ut he^n »ayiitg, and &he in- 
terruptji huuin the middle ofu sentence wiLh 
a (|iieaiioQ which has not the «i|ghtest rela- 
lioti to anything that he has hitherto offered 
by way of a r«aiark. 

,**Have you ever met my tmt^ Rom 
1 ' 
No> I have not bad the honour — " 

*^ £|He i% elnndLng there, at tlie other end, 
in a iilua dretia, Now^ do tell me, does ahe 
ftot look charming 1 ^' 

My bachelor makes the necessary answer^ 
«i>d tfoes on to &iaodier ftubjeet. Mis^ Viokt'a 
attcniicm wanders again, and she a^ks an* 
Dtiirr abrupt que«tion. 

•* Wlmt I lid you thmk of mamma, when 
yott were in trod need to her 7 *^ 

My bac^heior fritrnd makes another neces- 
nrjr ftsitwvr. Mijis Violet, witlmut apt>e£ir- 
ieg to ha much impi^csi^ed by it, looks into 
llm dtvliiikco in iiearrh of ber niaterual parent^ 
iknd tbeu aiidrefl«es her partui&r u%mk : 



^ It is not a pl^ftAant thing for young 
people to confet^ she says, with the most 
art lens canduur, *^ bnt I really di> think that 
mamma is the band^otne^t woman in the 
room, Thei^ she is^ taking ain ice^ next to 
ilie otd lady with the diamonds, la she not 
beaulU'ul 1 Do you know, when we were 
dreBaing to<night, Boas and I beggeii mid 
pniyed her not to wear a cap, we said, 
* Don't, mamma; please don't. Put it; off 
for ai^other year/ And mnmma said, in her 
BWeet way» ^ KonaenEse^ iny love^ 1 I urn an 
old wom^ui. Yon mu^t accustom younieivea 
to that idea, and jou must let me wear a cap; 
you must, darlitigSj indeed/ And we said— 
whut do you thiuk we said ? '* 

(Another neceni^ary answer.) 

" We RHiilj * There ia papa. (He was 
knocking at the door to know if we were 
; ready, just at that moment)* Yon are 
Btiuiyiiig papaya iee lings — you are afraid, 
dear, of being taken for our } ouoge*t sifter 
I U yon go ill your hair, — «nd it ia on papas 
account that you wear a cap* Sly maium:* 1* 
— Have you been iutroduced to jmpa 1 ■ * 

Ltiter in the evening my bachelor friend la 
presented to MUs iloi^a. He aaka for the 
honour of dancing with her. She inquires if 
it is for the wait£, and hearing that it is, 
I drawa back and curiae}' a apologetically * 
' *' Thank you, I must keep the waltz for my 
brotlier George, My siuter anil 1 aiwaya 
keep waltzi-s tor our brother G- ijr^e," 

My baehelor draws back* The dance pro- 
cee^ii^ He hears a soft voice bebiod uim. 
It bi Miaa Violet who la apeak iug. 

" You are n jutige of walixing ? ** she inysj 
in tones of the gentlest in&muatiou. ^* Do 
pray look at George and lloae, Ko, thank 
you; I never dancH when George and Kose 
ar« wallxmg. It is a much greater treat to 
me to look on, I always look on. I do^ 
indeed," 

Perhaps my Vaebelor does not frequent 
bsdls. It in of no consequence. Let liim ha 
a diner^ut ; let him meet my dome^tte lot 
at the social boai^d ; and he will only witness 
fresli instancea of that all-absorbing intereiit 
in each other, which is the praiseworthy and 
remarkable peculiarity of the whole Duck*ej 
family, and of the young ladies in }mriicular* 
He will tind tlLem admiritig one another 
with the Siime touduu^ and dt^inoii^trative 
tttfectiou over the dixies on the diimtr- 
table^ as amid the mazes of the dance. He 
will liear from tlie venerable Mr. Duckaey 
that George never gavo hiiu a nioment^s un- 
eaisineat from the hour of bis birth. He will 
hear frorn Miii. iJnckaey that her one regret 
in this life L^, tliat bhe can never he thankful 
enough for her daughters. And, furthermore 
(to return to the )0ung ladies, who are the 
main objects of thesse remarks), he wiU fitnj, 
by «Dme audi frzi^^ents of dialogue as th« 
fallowing, thai no genend subjt?t,tt* of con- 
versation wliatever, have tlie power of al- 
luring the mhidd of the two M^sa Duckseys 



^ 



las 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



away from the eontenplation of their own 
domestic interestB, and the faithful remem- 
brance of their own particular frienda. 

It is the interral. let us eay, between the 
removal of the fiflh and the aj^pearance of 
the meat The most amusing man of the 
company has been talking with great spright- 
liness and eflfect, has paused for a moment to 
collect his ideas before telling one of the 
^od stories for which he is mmoos, and is 

iust ready to begin, when Miss Bose stops 
tim and silences all her neighbours by anx- 
iously addressing her sister, who sits opposite 
to her at the table. 
"Violet, dear." 
"Yes, dear." 

(Profound silence. The next coarse not 
coming in. Nobody wantinj^ to take anj 
wine. The amusing man sittmg back in his 
chair, dogged and speechless. The hostess 
nervous. The host smiling uneasily on Miss 
Hose, who goes on with the happy artlessness 
of a child, as if nobody but ner sister was 
present.) 

'* Do YOU know I have made up my mind 
what I shall give mamma's Susan when she is 
married ? " 
•* Not a silk dress 1 That's my present** 
" What do you think, dear, of a locket with 
our hair in it?** 
" Sweet" 

(Silence of the tomb. Hostess angry. Host 
uneasy. Guests looking at each other. No 
meat. Amusine man suffering from a dry 
cough. Miss violet, in her turn, addresses 
Miss Bose across the table.) 
"Bose, I met Ellen Davis to-day." 
" Has she heard from Clara Jones 1 ** 
" Yes, the Pervincklers ai'e not coming." 
"Tiresomepeople ! And the Griggses f 
" If Jane Griggs's cold gets better, she and 
that odious cousm of hers are sure to come. 
Uncle Frank, of course, makes his usual 
excuse." 

So the simple-hearted sisters prattle on 
in public; so do they always carry their 
own innocent affections and interests about 
with them into the society they adorn ; so 
do they unconsciously and extingoishingly 
cast the pure sunshine of their young hearts 
over the temporary flashes of worldlv merri- 
ment, and tne short-lived blaze of dinner 
eloquence. I might accumulate further 

S roofs of the characteristic virtues of my 
omestic lot ; but, the effort is sureljf need- 
less. Without another word of preliminary 
recommendation, I can confidently submit 
the Miss Duckseys to what I antici])ate will 
be a remarkably brisk public competition. I 
can promise the two lortunate youths who 
may woo and win them, plenty of difficalties 
in weaning their affections from the family 
hearth, with showers of tears and poignant 
bursts of anguish on the wedding day. All 
properly-constituted bridegrooms, however, 
feel, as I have been given to understand, in- 
expressibly comfort^ and encouraged by a 



display of Tiolent grief on the pari of the 
Ividewhen she is starting on her wedding 
tour. And, besides, in the particular case <x 
the Miss Duckseys, there would always be the 
special resource of taking brother George 
into the carriage, as a sure palliative, dnring 
the first few stages of the honeymoon tripi 

Here, for the present at least, I think it 
desirable to pause before I exhibit any more 
samples of My Spinsters. If I sliow too 
much at a time, or the diarmiog stock-in- 
trade which it is my privilege to assort, over- 
look, and dispose of, I risk depreciating Uie 
value of my colleetion of treasnres— I uirow 
a suspicion on their variety — ^I commit the 
filial profanation of making them appear easy 
of aooesi to all the world. Let me, there- 
fore, be content with the cautious proceediii^ 
of offering only three lots at a time. Let 
me reserve for future opportunities mv 
two single ladies, whose charms are matured^ 
my lovely Tomboy, my three travelled Graces, 
and all my(other spinsters not included ia 
the preceding categories, to say nothing of 
my two prize-widows^ who cannot ponibly 
be referreid to anv category at all. Ming a 
methodical as well as a harmless old genUe- 
man, I think it may be as well to add, oefors 
condading, that I shall require practical 
encouragement from my young oachekr 
friends, in the shape of invitations to wed- 
ding breakfasts, before I can consent to 
appear in public again. I make no Jipology 
for expressing myself in these decided temi% 
for I think none is needed. It is clear to me 
that somebody must keep the torch of 
Hymen trimmed in our part of the world, 
or it will be in imminent oanger of going out 
altogether. I trust to have the pleasure of 
knowing, ere long, that I have made it flame 
to some purpose by the few words I have 
benevolently spoken here on the subject of 
My Spinsters. 



SEASIDE EGGa 

EvxRTBODT thinks he knows what an egg 
is ; and, after much weary reading in many 
languages^ the inquirer learns that nobody 
knows all the secrets hidden in an egg. Ilggs 
are the most puzzling things in nature, ^ggi 
become to profoundly curious minds, whoi 
once they obtain glimpses of their aeerets, 
the most interesting things in nature. Ex- 
ploring a forest, or wandering on a sea shon^ 
we stumble over epgs, and in such unlooked- 
for shapes and unlikely places that there are 
no other things in the worlds of life which 
excite half so frequently the question, "What 
is this ? ** He is indeed a master of com- 
parative embryology, if such a man exists 
who knows all the sorts and shapes of egcs 
when he sees them. Most people not merely do 
not know eggs when they see them ; they will 
not believe thev are what they ar^ when told. 
Nor is this to be wondered at The study of 



I 



SEASIDE EGGS^ 



127 



c^ggs Ie quite & modem br&tich of ktiow ledge. 
IJttk mote than two liumlred ve;ira liave 
elftpfted aitice Willtaoi Harvey of Folkestone 
tc sealed the greateJit secrete of nutritton 
tail reprodiictioa, the use of tbe vn.lvea on 
tl]« dfcakriaQ of the blood| a&d the evolu- 
tiori of all animak from egga» 

Maqv of my seafliJe readers may kick eggs 
with tbt'ir boot«, without heediog tlveni, in 
their stroIU upon the te^ shore. Kver Bince 
they liiped iQ numbers^ 

Twirjitk, iwriJikU litde ilu, 
Huw I wonder wliat yoa 



they may hxw9 thought, if they had the 

handling of the itarB, and conld turn them 
over, tost theia about at pleaaure to observe 
tbem, and didsect tbem under their micro- 
•CO pea, they would aeke the opportunity 
eagerly^ fiiitj few study eggs, aid lo ugh at 
liand — acceaaible, plentiful 

I have ILO call hero to plunge into the 
depthi and difficultiea of embryology* I am 
writing f^jr town fglka who have t«iuporarily 
become C<k»&t FoUcj^ and who wli^b to know 
what the things are which they find at the 
aeaalde. Seeking a mouthful of fre«h air, 
they have not gone to the coaat to study 
dvology, although glad enougli, while redden^ 
ing their blood with oxygeu, to cheer their 
lELuida with li few fn^h ideaa. It indeed is 
Cine of the wtaest faahiona of our time which 
drirea town IbUca to the coaat every year to 

r out Um vrittea irotiUl«« of tlie lunii^/' 



hf pboto^r%pbing upon it pictures of new 
iCf oea and ttrauge otij^cts. If 1 may ex- 
press myielf in the^JAT^ou of the Xaulinn 
pUihjeopby^ objectivity la the remedy for 
ih^ AorrowB of iutijeciivLtyt When the miud 
ba^ become diaeaaed by too much reject iou 
and caj^ the remedy ia to be found in the 
icUvity of the observing faculties. A ahell, 
a weed, a fotail^ or an egg, can restore an 
07erwrougUt| or miimter to a diseased, 
iiiiii4 

It ii annoying to meet with common things 
^©qnently of whidi we are ignorant. This 
Ignorance U indifed a seaaide annoyance, anil 
ftOihing excites it more frequently than tht 
fggi of ahell-lhih, akatea, and laharka. 1 was 
once tsenac^ by lo4:)ks and gesturea because 
I truly told a strong man, in giving a civil 
anawer to a mde qutrstion, that the tilings he 
held in hL^ baud were eggk It was U|>ou the 
bcAch at Brighton, upuu one of those days 
when Brig lit lielmatoue, the city of the shim- 
IBCsing atones, is seen to mo^t advanta^^. 
Uatll the Brighton iana shall have the wia- 
i to paint their houses green, very bright 



ay days will always bring out disagreeably 
the blinding whiteness of their h^^uses and 
of their clLlSi, When there is too luuch suu, 
mansioDSi with large windows ali 
pg and glaring from them, of this Loudon 
ibe aea» Uiok like rows of oucktieys 
parade to quiz 




f lasses the blushing and beautiful ocean. 
Brighton is best seen on a day when there la 
just enough of sun to sprinkle sparkling 
patches from angubr rays here and there 
over the vast surface of grey green water* 
I was wandering upon the beach ujjon such a 
day, when I observed a tall, powerful m^io, 
dreaded in black, pick Lug up tbiug^ left by 
the tidal waves. On coming near hini, he 
seemed one of those strong men who^ mus* 
cular system is hardeued by working in iron. 
Ills comrades were in advance of turn, and 
he wai indulging a curiosity more lively than 
theirs by pidtitjg up every strange-looking 
thing he saw, and examinijig it attentively 

Ijrior to throwing it down a^ain. When 1 
ookad at him closely, I perceived he was in 
a state of intense excitement He held in 
hU hand a light froth -like mass resembling a 
bit of a WAsp'a nest, or a collection of liltle 
half-inch bladders lighter than wafers. 

** Wli:^t U this 1 '' ne asked me in a tone 
which seemed to say his great eHgemess to 
know, made ceremonial politeness unneces- 
sary, and to iutimate to me that I was bound 
to uiiwer him ou pain of displeasing a man 
stronger than myself, and ready to ex precis 
his displeasure in tlie most forcible way. 

*' It IS a collection of ^gg^/^ I answered, 
smiling at him- 

Uis lips moved as if restratning impreci^ 
tious ; and his gestures seemed to t^Ll me he 
was the stronger man of the two, while he 
said: 

*' You are making a fool of me,** 

** Rub it," I replietl, " in your fingers, and 
you will see the tiny shells of young whelks.^* 

Wheu he had rubbed the froth-like mam 
against the palm of hia left iiand, there waa a 
little heap of tiny u id valve shells in it Im^ 
proving my advantage, I asked him if he 
knew whiit a whelk was I and he said, O, 
yea ; he knew whelks, but was very igno- 
rant of the aea, having never aoeu it before, 
and having^ only come down by the excur^ 
alon train m the morning to return in the 
evening* 

While he spoke^ a wave, advancing Ita 
thin edge rapidly up the beach^ wetted hla 
boots* 

** AVhy/' he said, " it baa come out farther 
tban any of the others I Doea it alwaya do 
that!" 

*^It advances to a certain point twice in 
every twenty-four hours ; and the extreme 
limit of the last tide is marked by those lines 
of dry seaweed which you see stretched along 
the coast** 

My rough pupU received every little bit of 
comniou Lnformation 1 gave him as if it b^d 
been a blow, and could not have been more 
humbled tf I had beaten him in a boxing or 
a wrestling match. On hurrying away with 
a gruff and hasty salutation, to join hm oon^< 
fikm, who were waitiug for hini, he gave nae 
Pt vM^*.*<.j- a look whicb strangely mingled exprea^ions 
with their 1 of shaniei gratitude, and vexation, I h&ve 



I 



I 
I 

I 
I 



1S8 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



L 



often wondered Bince what tlie conseauoDces 
would Iiave been if this bully of ])hy8ical 
force liad met a bully of book lore, who 
would Lave stunned his ears with Greek and 
Latin wonls, and auewereii his questioa by 
saying, **Sir, these arc the ova of a gas- 
teropod mollusk, called the buociuum un- 
datum/' 

The word whelk signifies an animal, hard 
and rolled with knotty protuberances. The 
egg3 of the whelk are dejK)aited by theur 
mother in deep water. Storms detach the 
froth-like masses from the rocks ; and the 
progress of the young lives of the whelklings 
is frt- quently arrested for ever by their beiug 
washed high and dry \\\)on the beach. 

£gg-clustei's of shell-lish, akin to the 
■whelk 8, are found in rocky hollows. The 
kind called purpura is ver}' commoiL Dozens 
of them are attached to flmall stones, by little 
stalks, and look like tiny egg-cu|«, with the 
eggs in theui. Tliey are elegant miniature 
urns. The shell is white and coarse, and is 
often 8trii>eil with brown and yellow bands. 

Tiie eg^s of sea-suaiU, called >iatica, oit-en 
present tnemselves. They arc little, gri^tly. 
noof-sha]>ed, semi-tranRparent, and ele^'ant 
things, finely coated with 8;ind. Eight sided 
spaces mark the iK)hitions of the eggs in the 
eluslre, and the bliape of the cluHt,t;i*s adapts 
them for lying flat u|>ou sand, without being 
imbedded in it. 

Storms drive lanthincs ashore upon our 
coa>ts. The lanthincs neither crawl nor 
walk, and seldom swim, having a floating 
aTj])aratu8 consisting of a collection of little 
bliulders, which flout them ui>on the surface 
of the waters. Wlien they choose, thev can 
sink, and moor themselves to the rocks by 
means of their suckers. In the spawning sea- 
son they float, and 8US})end their pendant egg- 
clusters under their collection of egg- bladders. 
When tiic eggs are about to hiitch, the cluster 
is detached from the mantle of the moUier, 
and the young are confided to the guidance 
of their instincts and the mercy of the 
waves. 

In the months of July and Aueust the sea- 
side rambler will hardly fail to observe upon 
the rocks or the tangles, or in the rocky 
pooln, small gelatinous masses. THey are 
jclly-liko splashes of different shapes and 
sizes, which will not bear rough handling. 
Indeed, they look like drippings of soup with 
globules of oil in them. Wlion examined 
under a microscope, or a magnifying-glaas, or 
when the globules are advancing towards 
matui ity, the forms of the shells of what are 
called mollusks and conchifers can be dis- 
cerne<l in them. >»ear the holes of pholades 
I have often observed these B|>awn-jellie8. 
PlioIaK is a Greek wonl signifying a lurker 
in a hole ; and the S])ecies which lurks in 
shijis is cilled by sailors the shipworm. 
Itocks, breakwaters, and Blii|)8, are destroy eil 
by the pholades, which once threatened to 
submerge Holland, and which still force 



builders to bottom ships with copper. Bits 
of chalk which they have perforated are 
picked up by ganleuers, and tulips are often 
seen in gardens sprouting throu>;li the holes 
which pholades have bored in marhie rocks. 
Tlie Sftawn -jellies dissolve and seimrate when 
the eggs become larves. Toe larves swim 
about actively for some hours, their swimming 
machinery being little active hairs. During 
this period, they move about in search of a 
locality where they may fix themselves for 
life, like squatters in seaixih of a location. 
While they have a necessity for moving from 
place to idiiCe, they have a locomotive organi- 
sation. When they resolve to settle down in 
life, the vagrant or^^ans di8:ippear, and the 
creatures l^ome adapted for a staid resi- 
dence in an immovable home. Their agility 
and their little hairs di8ap(>ear together, and 
their shells grow into the tthu|)es i^f augnrs 
or ra«i>s to pierce their holes, while their 
bodies become living s<)uirts. As the 
pholas, or the teredo, the pidilick, or ship- 
worm, loses the power of swimming, it gains 
the power of boring. The young teredos 
are often seen ufran bits of floating timber. 
A little attention Ls necessary to distinguish 
between them and the minute worms ^led 
serpula. 

Long as all the world have been ac- 
quainted with the flavour of oysters, the 
savans have not as yet discovered the secret 
of their amoura. Thei*e is a scientific crown 
still awaiting the man who shall tell us the 
Btory of the loves of the oystei-s. in spring 
time and summer, when, as the people say, 
there is not an r in the month, the o^-sten 
spawn their gelatinous sphishes, whiclt the 
fishermen call *' spat." The spawn looks like 
drojts of tallow or whitish soup. The spat 
adheres to loose oyster-shells ;md stones. 
When examined under a m:ignifying-ghisi^ 
there are seen in the S{)at innumerable little 
eggs like ill-made pills of a brilliant white- 
ness. As they diaiige, they become com- 
jnessed, and approach more ami more 
towards the shape of the oyster. Little hairs 
appear as the egg-cluster breaks up, and the 
thousands of the brother and sis er nstrea 
swim off to seek their fortunes. When the 
steady age comes — I ou^ht rather to say the 
steady hour— the settlmgilown epoch, the 
hairs give place to layers of rough sliell, and 
an oyster of experience establishes himself 
where he can feed with least risk of serving 
as food. Microscopists estimate tlie eggs in 
a spat by hundreds of thousands. Lewhen- 
hock counted scvernl hundrcils of thousands 
of eggs in the fecundating folds of the mantle 
of an oyster-sjiawner. This marvellous 
fecundity is necessary to enable the species 
to sun'ive the ravages which the 8{>awn sus- 
tain from their numerous enemies. The 
8f)at is a tit-bit for fish, crustaceans, worms, 
and shell-fish. The feelt-rs, or tentacles of 
seqniles, bn lanes and polypes, are east forth 
continually, and ply unceasingly to devour 



f 



8EA8IDE EGOa 



129 






jfmng wad innocent ojiten. When th«lr 
■WU are HUtHcieuUy grown to protect tbem 
fruui tbe ueta ot th^^e enemies, sUtr-tisLea «md 
erabs vatL'b contitiuiiUy for occanions to 
pmciiae Btiiprrsiil^t, ami whip the soft ami 
miixiiltiut butlies of the oatrea from lii«ir 
valves* i3ai*y a five-fiitgereii star-fiiih loses 
m fitiger ill tlie ^ittrmpt when the oyattfr is 
wid« awnke aiiil d<j&t*a ]v\n valv'es upon it 
with & Miidilen aitd powerful ijufip. 

Miufieb (ittfieh Uieir ejiawu to aen- weeds 
Ttry early in the spriiig* They are en- 
coirtitcr^il in thiin^ait<l^ u|K>n the mo^at eiL~ 
poaed brows of rotrk*? at low watt-r. BpJiwn* 
ing In Marcb, tlit^jr yonng are as Irirge as 
■plit p€a^ in hhiVt ami of the size of heaiia m 
the mouth of July. NaturattAta a^ iniire their 
cabiei, Rfiil iudetid tt ]i» a e^ieat^tck- better 
than a pUy to wateh rock-inuAsels at work 
^ionlng ami liling their auclmrjng tatikle. 
The whole pio>:ri>afl of the life of a nju^i^el^ 
front the embryon l4i the a^luit^ and from tlie 
spat to the givtwth of the apsivvner, Is a sub- 
ject which ciitv be obA4*rvecl easily, and which 
wilJ abunduiitly rt^wiu'd oli«t*rvaliuQ^ 

What are tVdltd **tnun«e gnip«?s" drifV 
Ashore, or ioai about attauhed tu sea-weeii^. 
Dark-<;*>Umre<*, rouml-ahnjied brigs, coiled 
■round st^a-wet^d^ by ilt^^liy twitiJug stalksi 
ilieir jx^pidtiT name well de^crib^a thrtr 
general appearatiue. T\m marine gmpes are 
Ihe «^g-ckjf*ter«3 of cultte-rtalitfs. Ciivierand 
hi» Gchoot cbiHit rbeiUiiIe-li^jlies with tho iati- 
tfdlies and uatii^a, tnusi»elii and oysters, lie- 
cau8c their tiervonti svHiem la, he tbtnk^, 
irrt'' - 1 - M the ^jtiij»* pbin i^nd phi-ed under 
tin Oftiah The name of nioUuska, 

fri' -oft)^ ia i^iven to a great number 

of iiich ihe Gr«eka cnlled cotidiy- 

Uorj , ;>■ I hey h^id barii tihells. Marine 

mjies are very differejit b>okiug egg-cluaiera 
from th^ upat of oyaUMs, idiolades and 
tQUaarls^ and, inil»'«il, ihoy are not very like 
the doating <;bistt^r^ nf whi;lkEj ai^d iajiLhines. 
At lh« [loiiit of i'Uiili of these leathery egija is 
A tJipple, through which, when come to 
matofttj^ tl»e young cnttU^fish emer^ei* into 
K}^ety. Cnviifr bt ing^ t€»;f ether in his great 
esubranchmt^itt ntuthijacay tJiekraken, and the 
periwinkle ; and the octopus of l^m^Lr(;k» 
whose eight ai uif can embrace a boat or 
drown a man, 1:^ made of klnd^ if not of kin, 
with the agreeaUlo ijunchjbonj whiah we 
wiud out i^f bin abell with a pin. 

Egg'ftht^Us of riiy-fish nud sharka are very 
frrqueutlj foil ltd i!{>on the sHrk^hore. On 
9tytue [larUi t>r tJie i^on»t, the »hrlld of the ray- 
£sh nro calJed hau^i-barrowa* Indc'ed, they 
look like littte fom -handle liund-barrowt four 
Of five iriclies Um\^ auil an inch and a half 
broad. They aie of ^i dark brown cuLour and 
a bard horny or leathery substance. Ihe 
•hells arts muat frequently found empty, but 
sometiiiies tn the spring and early sunimer 
ipecimeua ureobt^luvd with the young sharka 
In tli«Ji], Ui'serVf ra aduiire the eod of their 
looig imlM, Auother name for these eggs is 



m erm aid pn raes. Pt>e tical mi persti tion, s u p- 
i>06hig seals to Vie women of the se?s coubl not 
let them be without moneys any iiiore than 
tlie Viear of Wakefield's daughters', and these 
egg' clusters are, of conrae, their porte- 
nionnaiea. 

Being destitute of a spinal innrrow, the 
whelk and the cuttle-6sh axe deprived of the 
suite of boxea to hold it^ called veiiebi-w. 
Skate and shai^ka have spinal marrow a and 
TertebriE, the conttnts and the bujtea, 
G*^otrroy St. Hdaire h*is remarked, that the 
diJference ia leas than it looks, the sliell- 
fish having bojtea which contain all their soft 
|m.rtS| anjojjg which their uervt-a are di*tn- 
butCiL The vertebrated animals have IfOiet 
to protect their spinal marrow only, whde the 
conchy lions have boxes to pi*otect comjiietely 
thewboleuflheirsoft organs. Th e co I o h r of 
the eggs of the sharks is not browniah but 
yellowtsh* A long tendril iasnes from each of 
the four handles of the haiiil-barrowii itf the 
ftharka, and bangs from it curlingly* Coaat 
Folk use them as barometers. When there is 
a moisture in tlie air they become straight, 
and when the atmosphere is very hot and dry 
they eurl up eriaply. 

Such are the moat common of the sea-side 
eggs. My object has not been to talk about 
wouder% but vulgar things, and avoldin;^ th^ 
marvels which a little trouble cau tiiirl, to 
dejicribe suflieiently for recognition s<ime 
objects which obtrude thenuielves upon every* 
body*8 not Lee. 

A few wards to help young observers 
to reeognise 4£ggs when they find them. An 
^gg is & suoeeadon of envelopes in enve- 
h^pes. Au egg 18 a series of bags iucaaed 
in ci&ch other without eeams and without 
aperturea. Fuzilea of ehips in bottlt^a or fiica 
in amber ai'e nothing to the puzsle:^ how 
these euvdojies come to vnwrap each olhor* 
In a hen^s tgg thei^ are eight or nine of 
these sacks in sacks, but I shall notteo 
the principal which belong to eggs in ge- 
ueral r 

1. The akin, called in Greek the chorion. 
The chief function of this wrapper, is the pro- 
tection of its contents. It ia the sack of the 
wicks. 

2. The provision<sack, which ie called in 
Latin the vitellua This bag contains the 
nutriment or yolk. 

3. The germ, the conteute of which burst 
and pa^ into what the Fi'^nch embryologista 
call the disique prolif^re. Thus, thrive gi^at 
physiological facta are represented in au agg^ 
— protection, uutritioui and fecunrlation. in 
other words, in every complete egg there are 
the envelope and the yolk, and, in tlie yolk, 
the germinative vesicula and the gt- rmiuati;re 
sijot, which are both little tiaiiapareut 
globules. In the globules is the life, 

1> nil, intle eil, of soy 1 m uat the ma u be i n w h o m 
an egg doea not inspire emotions of awe and ad^ 
miration, wonder and worship. The circle of 
life is from the ^gg to the adult, and ft om the 



i 



130 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



adult to the egg. Thia is the yital round >' 
the beginning and the ending, the ending and 
the beginning. The wheel goes round con- 
tinually, life kindling sparks of life ; and what 
is called death, is the worn-oat forms becom- 
ing cold and decaying away. 



CHIP. 

A COLONIAL PATRIOT. 

Tub following interesting scrap from Mel- 
bourne, addressed to the conductor of this 
journal, bears reference to two artides which 
appeared in the twelfth volume :^- 

" I pray you to pardon this liberty ; but I 
could not refrain from thanking you for the 
very favourable manner in which mv conduct 
has been reported in your jourmJ for last 
December, headed Old and New Souatters. 

Unknown to you, but through Mr. Arnold, 
bookseller here, I have had your Household 
Words and Narratives from the very firsts 
and also almost all your published works, 
though I left England on the twenty-fifth of 
April, eighteen nundred and three, in the 
Calcutta, to found the colony of Port Philip, 
Bass Straits, and was removed to the present 
Hobart Town in February, eighteen hundred 
and fuur, yet my affection for the &therland 
has caused me to expend what means I could 
afford in purchasing the works of the best 
authors, and also some of the periodicals. 
From eighteen hundred and twenty-eight to 
the ruinous year eighteen hundred and forty- 
three, I .imported for my use — through tiie 
house of Brookes, merchant^ London — six 
newspapers, six magazines, three quarterlies, 
three annuals, and generally made up fifty 
pounds a-year for books. 

In eighteen hundred and forty- three, I 
was deprived of all my thirty years' labours, 
and had to begin the world again. Vic- 
toria — before the gold days — ^was a won- 
derful country. In five years and a-half— 
beginning with March, eighteen hundred 
and forty-eight — I had secured another small 
fortune. I am fond of books and paintings 
and engravings. I have, in this out-of- 
the-w.iy part of the world, a library of near 
four thousand volumes. In eighteen hundred 
and fifty-three, I expended about one hundred 
and seventy pounds for books with the house 
of H. G. Bohn, and yet expend about fifty 
pound a-year with Mr. Arnold of Melbourne. 
To the Art Union of London I have 
remitted sixty-three guineas-^fifty of which 
were remitted in eighteen hundred and fifty - 
four for five shares for each of the next ten 
years — in one sum of fifty guineas. It was 
mentioned in their catalogue, but not my 
name. 

Victoria, before the gold days, remitted 
largely to the mother-country for books, 
newspapers, periodicals, and music, also for 

Eaintings and enijravings. We — ^that is the 
ulk of the Englishmen resident here — ^love 



the old island that, scarcely raising her head 
from the ocean that cabins her shore, has 
spread, with her handful of freemen, an exupira 
such as earth never witnessed before. This 
colony is one proof of the above ; founder! by 
freemen, without any aid from the British or 
colonial government, it had gone on rapidly, 
healthfuUy, and with much comfort Inde* 
pendence was the rule, poverty the exception 
(and that generally caused by the foul spot of 
the colonists— drunkenness) ; but, with the 
discovery of gold we were inundated with 
people many of whom were utterly unfit for 
labour of any kind. I believe that Uiese 
people thought that they could pick up gold 
in tne streets or the forests without labour. 

We have had many changes— some have 
risen high ; some, after making princely fiir- 
tunes,have speculatedand lost all. Misery and 
want have visited us ; but now, thank God ! 
all seem going on welL We of the legrislative 
council have checked the reckless expenditure 
of the rulers, and now we are all employed. 

I hope you will excuse this letter ; I have 
often wished I dared write to you ; tout 
tales and essays have beguiled many an hear 
of my life, and I am thus in your debt I 
was much pleased with your favourable notice 
of me, and, to add to it, the Argus (the 
Thunderer of Victoria and Australasia), just 
as your number for December arrived, was 
pleased to praise me even more than I do 
deserve. You will thus see that your or 
your contributor's article was not at varianoe 
with the feeling of the colonists here. On 
that point I have sent by this post the ne?r8> 
paper of date Wednesday, the sixteentli of 
April, eighteen hundred and fifty-six. 

Wishing you many years of healthful em- 
ployment in the highly useful manner you 
have been so long engaged, I am, dear sir, 
One that would like to call myself your 
friend." 



HAWKSWELL PLACE. 

PAAT FIRST. 
I. 

Wits greylj-penciird cloudi the twilight < 

Silent dong the slope of purple wold, 
Upon whoee brow a liag'ring san-touch ilecpi^ 

Like eye of faded love caressing cold. 
Wreaths of white mist, noiseless as spiritt,.rite 

From the deep hollows of the autumn hills. 
Steal ghastly np, as day-light slowly dies 

HovMog on skiru of woods and haunting riUs; 
Hanging in mystery over darkling pools. 

Which hidden lurk in wild, lone, moorland q»oU; 
Winding about midst stilly wooded knolls 

Where the mass'd, fallen foliage, lies and rotf ; 
Drooping unwelcome over cottage caves, 

Or gliding, ghost-like, round the church-yard grafa; 
Melting in noisome dews on russet leaves, 

Shrouding the uight in their soft, fleecy waves. 



From out the dark, bronied shade of ancient woodi^ 
Peer gables, moss'd with lichens grey and hoar; 



Wilh row mild hff UTiflpi, wrc*th«d la fluodj^ 

Are muliion^d: wiidowi quuoUjr ijmferic<d o'er. 
In the deep porcb the lurking wimU lio tuuie, 

DeiiiijV tiiesoe fuanb ifae lifoken, IfttcJilett door ; 
Yhf ••«»'ii-j>nivirii ipthwnyi echo to no foot — - 

1' '"'t ittoi ihaXl eelid never more ! 

T iQijgh til c dim and oiurkj nighty 

V. ..,,. ^...^uem Gomn wilh tiLiLh«r fnooQ nor itftr, 
SliooLi out mU> the miAi & ^lowiDg tii^bt 

Frum one low window, iliinin^ itraight Ukd fkri 
A lisflii of diccry Are, oret**rkling ht^ud, 

11 1;;^ pilrti tipon the bftarthtione^i ftCnplc ipac« ; 
Ki» eu^, no hall« DO {idaee in Ibc Inrtd 

SJiowi rver bnglitflr hearth tlian HawIciwcU Plftoe. 



One uideiil room ttill ve^n ft tD<ik of liome^ 

A It^ok of hoinetfotiie Gftr ye^ri mgn ; 
You h*if eipcct to lee tiie rnajier cora*, 
I And ut him down to rett^ aJI iircd ftnd loWi 
Old pictuirm imlle Euuiliv from the ivatl^ 
^^^^Old bftoks upon old tablet dutlj lie ; 
^^Hj^, faded Gunainfi on dim carpt-U fiU!, 
^I^ptfae iiitii|fie cfaufi tiit »tiff« and worn ^ &nd high. 
Tlw leaping flamel the ruddv watnieot (lUi 

AhoT« the mantelj, loven * br«ken g\m» ; 
Alt i« ■« huilied^^io ^<)^dtff deadlf itiM, 
T^At tirnott j«u eouM hvnr 9. tbtdow ptML 



Willi ^femmf eye, Iml heart and c^ir amke, 

I>iinc A»ie« iii« li^H« the flowjuf brandi ; 
Sltr pm^ f^ lijcn lifti,, then yiii.\ 1 for hit d^ ^^ 

Who w^nilcn far airi]r in unknown landi. 
^Bi hai ihc wsidtfd for thirty ytsum and more ; 

Sliff etti U41 cttRji: npcin hrr^ alll uiiheard ; 

I ir«iri^ natf though ofi her heart ia tore : 

I D4»t, thovf It be? hopo jt long deferred. 



|fa«^llii|Ff'd Iftuin flrmnhlet frftll and |at« ; 

Wlndevn «« dwk with matted laivei and flowed ; 
Th« tpjdffr wfaTci het web in nwniB of atate ; 

Tbe unroord hill ftaodfl ^ide to hraven^a ahowen. 
But til it V9» A«t, «i>d ke majr come a^n 

UTitbaul a vaminf word — come at he went ; 
"ncitK, till^ldfh lonf }eai^p hi« fa^vonrit^ books have lain, 

Thmt Awi/em ^nlta, Ker £uth and bope unepent. 
H'adf the ptrturet of oM timea retcirn, 

Pivig^tfid with toTTow, v«ih*d and worn irilh Ian; 
Atd fel,m tfuinj tbem, her heart will huni, 

Fw^lten all tJias, cliiUiiig waste of jnra^ 
Hitr iMmera fen tie tone^ bU grare tad fai^ 

BSEi ^nittt ttudcnt wajra and dreamy atr^ 
ffii IsMiQua «j«i — ^tboae ejr^ Uke all hia moe^ — 

So bcaaiifuli let thnridcr-fiaufht with <af«> 
Tlwit iKinr ij|»**ii her itill from out (heir frame^ 

Tf<wi*-i . hut thfi remeiuben weU 

A^ ■«&)• y OftihM with lifbtairtg flante ; 

Thtnj V ^L ^^M.^ lUfkneia, like a i:utyu% felL 



I. 

la tk« dJiD miom« a timntrv frctb voi«e went itngiag^ 
And he Would lit and iiiun in hit diair« 

Wbil« e*Vjf p<ilie in bii (uuud hrsrlvna riogiug 
T<t thai iwert («iie an et'hu of devjutn 

A wutirijr fa£«p wnnld cnuie i^iih trild, ihy frntlet 
To brrfci^'n Couitii PririP out to plftj ; 

AimI t$]«<rt;ti hit ftronf hear! wrkhrd ai^ bitni*d the 

Bk «»ti)d be €rm» aM Iroim that fa^ tvij* 



A Kifl white nnu ofl round hit neck wotild ceo], 

No tltufi of K'tpciit deadlier In iti m^ht ; 
He put, it off, &n6 to ugh t, in night-long toil. 

To qttenc^b bb pu»ioti'i lOTcd jet fearful light 
If her bright perfuined hair but toutlied hia cheeky 

It burnt in fialn for many a tortured hour ; 
If her fui^ll ro«y lipa a kiaa did leek^ 

Hii toul vaa melted by their wondrtyui power^ 
niched, and weakf and wavering for a. day, 

Mad'happy with vtld hopoa and vrilder dreamii 
TIU with the purple tinge 0f twih dcc^yf 

One deadly thought iwept olF their roicalo heami^ 

II. 

Half-child, half* woman, ^n^ m WMDen am, 

Yet tender, lorjngt pa^nonatf^ and proud ; 
To liioi Ekn Aflgeit graeiou% kmd, and fair. 

At whcav brlglit fe«t lib heart unwilling bowM. 
The little baud* that oa«e would hlind LU eyei. 

The mimic voic« that bade bim fueaa who paia'd. 
Teamed him no more; inatiad, a bluth would rlis; 

The friendly time wai gone — the loved at lait 



Connie] he tof^k ifithtn hit item, elosed heajl, 

Shv%\ hitter rountel in tbe night^* dead hour; 
" We loTe^— >we love ; for tbii we two niutl part : 

The ctitae ia on nt both — tt jet Tnay lour ! 
O Gnd, my God ! Thon giveit me lirtngth to bear 

Tltia Iscavy, burning crotaj thruugb mj dark iifoi 
Shi^lt^r Tbou Lilian from all partly ly ^e. 

Keep bcr aloof from angiilah lud from atrlfe t 
My hcritage^ — a heritage of an trow — 

Never will I bequeath to ton of mine, — 
To tremble daily for the djwd lo-morroMr, 

Till lofrt 1* rtason — all t^f man dititie» 
From Tlie* I aik but potienci^, O my Cod I 

Patimce to Uve my »pan of aunleaa dayii, 
Calmly to look beyond the lifted rod, 

Wbile I tluvad out the ra% of tbia dark tnazo I*^ 



A iummer night il waa when bo departed. 

Moonlight aud ftarlight, huihM at death or aleep; 
Still firm and true, be weotj ihougb bixikcu*h£arted. 

Yet nqt too prond or firm at loat to weep. 
Dame Avice law her matter neaf the limea, 

Looking up tky^'a.rd, with uncover' d bt^dj 
A« if he praY'd, or listenM to toft diimet. 

Or waveleU liiekling o'er a iiony bed. 

^- 

In that dim boar be Htten'd to hii heartp 

To fond warm pleadings («r more aweet than hoik, 
Or voico of many wate™ when they pari 

With roomy Naiidi In their apiirkUtig «ella, 
Uitcn'd and lingerM till temptation girw 

Atmoat UMi *tt«ng for hit i^uioki comciont loiil; 
Sweet Pkaaion twsnd bit heart her tn^mmelt threw. 

Urging tttbmittioii to her aoft eontn^ 



On him fait r«ee% emea might iie?cr MV ; 

Wai not bit reatoa attunf » hit apiht cloafP 
Why put away Ltfe*a dcatctl eharm of all. 

For tttch a va^e^ vaeeftun, dUtaal fetf f 



** Be ttnmg to tnfler, be not weak to tin,"* 
Whi*j>er'4 God'i wamer in liit aKrloltiBf ^'t 

3^ itrortg., and overcome t tf Paaaioo «iii« 

PeAce ihaU pua tna thee, Umwhag m\th t^e* F'* 



[ 




13t 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



A c'iill dim spectre — over at thy tide, 

With oiitfipread frozen wing;* 'twixt thee and HeftTeii| 
A shadow of the srave, an ehbing tide, 

Tbj heart upo# it from the Life-shore driTen.** 



*' Lilian, sweet Lilian, wake from out thy dreim t 

Wal(e, Lilian I** sigh'd the night- wind 'gainst the 
pane ; 
** O, Lih'an ! saj farewell !** The white moonbeam 

Crt'pt to her eyes, and kissM them once again. 
A wavrring smile toy'd on her parted lips, 

Wliile Peivie*s name stole from them, dreamy low. 
Like zephvr playing on the daisy-tipt, 

When falls the rain-dew, silent, soft, and slow. 
** O, Lilian, he is gone ! ** The winds made moan, 

All nionnifully, against the window-pane. 
* Swert Lilian, wake and weep, for he is gone— - 

Percie is gone — is gon»^nor comet again I " 



PART THIAD. 

1. 
up mse the dawn, with sunshine on the wold. 

With hymn« of hirds and incense-breath of flowen ; 
The shadows fled into the forests old, 

And opening: buds lookM up for dewy showera. 
The siinimer slaked his thirst in the swift rill, 

The hri'ezes hid away in shady nooks. 
The mavis sanf one wild continuous trill. 

And whiie-cyed pebblet peer'd from out th« brooks. 



The ruby light woke Lilian with a kiss, 

Then nestled in her waves of silken hair; 
Stole to her bosom like a soft caress, 

Then changed to rosy snow, and lingerM then. 
Draped in her maiden purity, she lay 

Radiant oa early summer, fresh as spring, 
Half-»lcepine, half-awake, wiih thoughts astray, 
' In dream-land wand*ring still, on pure white wing. 
But the vatnic, beauteous vision of the night 

F&dcil so fast, her heart could scarce pursue ; 
Vainly she strove to stay its wavering light. 

It died away la formlcM shadowy hue. 



Then rose she up with sudden smile and sigh, 

And let the sun in on her momina: prayer ; 
The nioted rayleta, floating noiseless by. 

Were fuin to stay and make a halo there. 
Forth from her chamber-door she slowly went,' 

LingVinir from step to step in tranc5d calm ; 
Up from the open porch, with odours blent. 

Flew the fresh air with morning kiss of balm, 
To o(>e the blushing rose upon her cheek. 

The lustrous beauty of her eyes to light. 
To give her sweet Good-morrow ! and to deck 

Her lips with smiles of gracious, loving might. 



Her little foot paused not, nor slackM its pace^ 

As on ►he went to Cousin Percie's room, 
A moment's kindling blush dawn'd on her facoy 

To fade as fast before the chamber's gloom, i 
The curtains hung adown upon the floor. 

And o'er the windows, shuttinir out the mom, 
And. thoiieh the suubeams red, rusli'd by the door. 

Still it lookM dim, foniakcn, and forlorn. 
A lialc while she waited in the porch. 

And livtca'd for his step with ear intent ; 



Then through the sunshine, yet too pale to scorch. 

Along the garden-paths her ways she bent. 
And as she sometimes linger'd, and then ran. 

Still •* Percie, Cousin Percie ! " was her cry ; 
" Where are you, Percie t " Then her pulse began 

To beat a little faster, and her eye 
Ranged o*er the tangled woods, where echoes lay. 

And answer'd her with distant mocking tone : 
** Lilian, sweet Lilian, he is fitr away ! 

Lilian, bright Lilian, where is Percit gone?* 



They sought him far and near, in wood, on woU, 

'Neath the black Urn that lurks within the hill; 
Yet vainly sought. The keen autumnal cold — 

Yule's frosts weie come, but Percie came not stilL 
Then Lilian, losing hope, grew wai^and weak. 

And fiuled like a snow-wreath in the sun; 
Her morning eyes were dim, white was her cheek. 

Wasted her youth ere it was well begun. 
Dame A vice spoke to cheer her, ** He will come; 

Be of good cheer, O Ijilian dear," said she ; 
But Lilian answer'd sadly, ** Though he come. 

It is too late — he will not come to me.** 



And Lilian truly spake ; for, ere the siyring 

Merged into summer over Hawkswell Cbaee, 
Across the shadow'd hills there thrill'd the ring 

Of passing bells for one at HawksweU Place* 
For fairy Lilian, dying in her prime. 

As die the violets ere the rose is blown ; 
For angel Lilian rang that gathering chime 

With a low, sad rebuke, in its deep tone. 



PinT TBI LAST* 
I. 

The snow lay deep upon the open Chace, 

The sky above was murk, and dull, and drear; 
The winter winds were out on their mad race, 

Driving the clouds along like hunted deer. 
In the church-tower were clanging Christmas*beUi^ 

Mingling their carol with the loud free breeae^ 
Whicli bore their echoes far o'er the bleak fells. 

Then left them sighing midst the tall bare X 



Twilight was past, and darkness had come dowB 

O'er Hawkswell Place, in a thick starless Ttll; 
Dame A vice sat beside the fire alone. 

Watching and waiting, silent, grey, and pale. 
The ancient room was full of fragrant heat, 

From Yule-tide logs upon the hearth piled high; 
Stood in their ruddy glow their mAster*8 seat. 

With Christmas cheer upon the ublo nigh. 
Old wine of ruby lustre, clear as light. 

Waited his lip to drain its sparkling tide ; 
While sconc6d walls, with garlands gay bedight. 

Shone mocking down, the stillness to deride; 
For, they were deck'd, as if for Christmas gtiests. 

With wreaths of bright-gemm'd holly twined aboat? 
Above the mantel, picture*, and old chest% 

Which shone and glittcr'd as the blaze flamed onU 



The night sped on, the lung, long Christmas night, 
The bells were still, the mild wind wilder grew; 

Bow'd the great oaks before its Me.nly n»ii{ht, 
Sbiver'd the elms, and groan'd the darksome yew. 




SLATES AND THIIB MASTEUa 



lai 



Jjowft ftnd lowrr fell ttie dying flnuiCt 

M iilt! tbe w\*he ube* on tli« bmad hc&nhstonc ; 
Tb^ qtijvriing tluJoin twifilj wnit ftitd cmnipj 

Tlie iilv«r tcouca dvkeii'it «n« b;p quo. 



t^DAk atti itito ihr wuie af hbftk white moWf 
Wlicre witiiH ibaiivir* of the night, iwrcp br* 

M^ish «niitirl]irt«| tmckl^l* plep^ arjd moftninf low t 
I Ktretuh'd ntid tlmrign^ c^r, (zet thee U» mt 1 

Mori ting; in eaiuing fram lh« dotidv cut ; 
The yMh--i;ide Are ai tiut, llij p'^.^fr iitihlriF, 

IfnimirhMf ant^^ted, ittndt the Yule bdc fcaiL, 
O ! tci-af)' ^g^l* iE^^pt with flrk€4ji nT trar* ! 

O ! faithful hifart T O ! mfer,. SAiHiing^ hearti 
Wc«m>t thou tivt vith all ttiaw vmi^tiig }rnn F 

YcftrAeit tfa^tt uoi ta rett thee luid depcirt ? 



* K<»l ?cf , Dot jrt, « Httle longer tpcs ; 

A Ifv men btmr% i few more muntlii of ptUi | 
Qoaiier m kttr 1 «Ml ■» bii fue^ 

It iA & vary WKtcb, but ikoi in Tmin 1** 



"Us^ffi ! m mtiffled faot ii[ion the ioaw« 
A lieaTj iK«d ■rroct the cmptv lifttl ! 

Mf iPttMier ! O ! my tnutrr, ii it iliou ?*" 
Ciied AHoCf «iih * mid and jojrout ealL 



Br&nij»d «M Kk fiee lod ironcfrej hii lulrp 
Uii etiri wrrt' dim witfai iliifk uufallen lemrt ; 

I>ert»-riirfQ«'dl «■* bin brow iriifa pi'm ind eur,, 
SiyMo*4l vitSi ih^ woe of man r h npcleM jeui. 

** O ' miiUfr. vek^iDe, welcome to Kkf home 1** 
Oic4 AtLc^. foisf on hii itrrti dark &ee. 
. •• 1 i^oiit iiict^ A^ioe. Quick, ^d LilbQ cam* t ** 



^lilaa, Bj nwilfr ! Lxlum U not bef% 

t^m heth tkm beuefttb tke churrUjard Md; 
fliffiit ber Itteiaif b«ut, uid dcmf her »r, 
, fii^ htdj i«it, ber para toul |Doe to God P 



iwvfd tftJk^ hit but from hit bf»tli a {701% 

Tbe fvul-v^ *9^1 ^^ bi» dark Fife» 
l<iM,wkb Il« tliHIl of bculbr«ak- in \U lAHCw 

ftqir^iagij for Mji hii time of pirtlilf ilcifct 
lai at Anfrl I^lLaLo'i fret, 
, ea ifce elMtAg yiAr*! liM daf . 
lattT »*«i fum f!Ad ibe lefcad jret, 

*Miam lf?tb liLtaA L^ifb aod Fmme Gt€jJ* 



iLATES AND THEIR MASTEBSL 

Tti£ lUTe-^iraeii <if tb« Sailili«rii Stales 
fi^ Jlii>«^rica lltmii^lj nailemaiiii tliat ibdr 
ifiUBi M imiiig tiM^enigli & erak. Sons 
M^ to iktc •r«r the ilaa jcer of rafbrm, and lo 
l(«tot iM fild diaJBi iigkUr tliaa erer trr 
iMbsU^ arvtriiig tlit Utiimt ; olhiTs^ of & 
kstATttfft, an r^j to aiiopl aii;^ conrae of 
iilM wKkii akmll be at imae pnu^i^ aud 
Jt«t ; wlitch ikall m^ Jbr ^be of an ^tliieal 



not fotmt] its hunmniij to the one side, nn 
QVMf^hy to the other. Thta is preeiafly the 
prubl^m »Q tlifireult to solve, if Jcffvrri^iu'a 
plan had been ailopted when propo«i.»Jj thi r© 
wciiihl havt- beeu no aUvea now to vex the 
politics nntl umif i tuiiie Uits prftt*perity of the 
Bout hern Statics. iiia wi^h WrtU, thdC rvll 
negroei biru after the pik^^rng of a o^^rtuu 
law; should be deehirtd frt<f ; tUitt they 
sliQuld reinnin with their pureuU uiitil of 
A eertfiin age, that then thvy «Uiiuhl l/e 
itrtuji^lit tip lit tho public expense to tilli^e, 
nru, or sde;ieea, ncc'«>rdiiig to thtfir geuJUM 4, 
till the fecQiilea abt^uhl be eigiiteeii| tmd the 
nude^ twenty-ot»e yean of ii^e^ when they 
slmuhl tie eoloirlited to ati^h plnce AS th« 
cti-CiKufltAucea of the time ihould lender 
rjioat proper, tending them out with intplij- 
mfuts of hou^hiild and the ban«tierjhft 
arta ; tliftt tU^^y ihould then be deebi ed 
to tie n free and indep^ndifnt peitpte ; that 
prot^rtioii aad iissi^tauee filirmla b<^ a^uriJed 
them until they tiad iLcquired ^tteiigth ; aud 
that, at the aame time, an equni number i>f 
white prople^ from other p^rta of tbe world, 
ihould be ioduoed, by pi'opef e]iGoarag#" 
tueti l«^ to mi ^rat e iti to Y i rgi n ia. If the ilaire- 
owneni W(#tdil coriiieDt to thitt alavery wtmid 
dk graduiLlLy and gently, without cnuHinj^ a 
■oeial earthquake and wiihont ititf«ci.ing a 
chaa wront;, 'Vh'n wma Jelfttrson'a w:heme ; 
and thin is «till ttie only pracitcable'lookiiig 
theory Bet forth by the more moderate 
abohtioiiistaw 

Indeed, id the imperial city of Wa;ahin^ton, 
slavery ia gradually dtfcreoaukg by its owa 
Diitunkl Tetroce««iot] before ^^e labour. So 
mnch eo, that people are vpeeulntin^ on the 
lime when it eball be dem*nd^d of the general 
govemmettt to itieorporate Wa^Llugtoii 
among the Free States, by the eua- 
iitaiit imtiiigratiou of free white labour; 
which ift chea;>er at)d more eOifient thaa 
that of the eimlaved black. There nr^ 
already, more Iridh an^l Cf^rman UhonreiB 
tbao iiUvei m WaiKbiagtoit : attil their nntU' 
bera mcreaie yearly. The majority of aer- 
vnDta are fnf« oegroefl, thia cUae conttitutiug 
one-Bth of the popnlatjuu : the shvea betng 
oiie^tifleiMjth. The oe^'roca of WaahiQgti^i 
are often persriDe of jrre»t inteilrciiiai 
devehipment : bot they are n«jt gen^nooaly 
dealt with, ifVeu in WaahingtaQ, In April 
last y««r> " Iwenty-four g«titeel coJouied 
men, * bo tJeseribed in the Puike Bepott^ wero 
arrtaiteii an the charge of meelliig together 
in a T>nvLL'e hijwin uti tseeret bontueM: ihm 
law t 'iitg^ wbat»)««^ e# 

the c , oiA o^erliHikerf lif 

one witii^ iitJMi^ »t tW la^mL Oo W^ 
Kerrhe^l, a bibU, a 7Uiiai#oC8ei»eea e lfniaii% 



life in f^onot, cliefmitQd immitaliiw «f m 
, - Society lo ndler^ tbe «ck md hmf Ite 
de«ii/* u^rihtf wifh a mk\menuumwm^ %m 
^f>urebaa^ tbe ftvcd^ia of kjsm il»^f4»" 
wiumi h^ owner wm wijlio^ ^ 

MX bmdf«4 §md Mf 



I 




134 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 






upon them. The object of their meeting did 
not protect tliem. One of the prisoners, a 
slave, by name Joseph James, was flogged ; 
four others, free men, were sent to the work- 
house ; and the remainder were set free, 
ou payment of costs, fines, &c^ amounting 
in all to one hundred and eleven dolhirs. 
Mr. Olmsted truly says, if such a thing had 
happened in Naples, or any other desnotic 
kingdom, what an outcry there would have 
been ! But in democratic America, no one 
cared for this flagrant breach of justice and 
humanity to twenty-four genteel coloured 
men. 

Of course in different states in the South, 
slaves are treated differently ; but, before these 
differences are pointed out, it will be well to 
consider what the fundamental relations sub- 
siHting between master and slave are. The 
first doctrine is, that a slave — whether he be 
a negro or American Indian or other bondman 
^8 a chattel : owned upon the same condi- 
tions as, in other countries, a farmer owns his 
cattle. A Mr. Uholson, a member of the Vir- 
ginian Legislature, stated the whole case, when, 
in answer to a proposal for the manumission 
of slaves, he sneeringly exclaimed : ** Why, I 
really have been under the impression that I 
owned my slaves ! I lately purchased four 
women and ten children, in whom I thought 
I had obtained a great bargain ; for I reidly 
supposed they were as much my property as 
were uiy brood mares.'' When Mr. Adams 
brought before the House of Kepresentatives a 
petition signed by a certain number of slaves, 
Mr. Wise declared that the right of petition 
belonged only to the people of the Union. 
Slaves are not people in the eye of the law, 
ho added. They nave no legal personality. 
Another gentleman declared that slaves haid 
no more right to be heard than so many 
hordes and dogs. Tlie result was, that, over- 
borne by southern slave-holding votes, the 
supreme representatives of the great republic 
passed by a large anajority ^on the eleventh of 
February, eighteen hundrea and thirty-seven) 
this resolution: — Kesolved, that Javet do 
not possess the right of petitioning secured 
to the people of the Unitea States by the con- 
stitution. 

In obedience to this dictum, which 
banishes the image of the Almighty from the 
human family, a • man and a brother " may, 
in the slave-holdinff states of America, not 
only be bought, sold, and mortgaged, seized 
for his master's debts, and transmitteil by in- 
heritance or will, but, being property, cau 
possess of himself no property whatever. 
The members of his body, even, are not his 
own. Tiie Natchez Free Trader, of the twelfth 
of February, eighteen hundred and thirty- 
eight, published the following advertise- 
ment :— 

Found. — A ncgro't head was picked up on the 
railroad yesterday, which the owner can have by 
calling at this office^ or paying for this advertise* 
ment. 



The head may have been of use to the 
master of the victim as evidence in establish- 
ing a claim against the railway company for 
the destruction of his property. 

Slaves caifnot make any contract ; even 
marriage is no more a solemnity nor a bond 
among them, than parentage is amongst the 
lower animals. " The association which takes 
place amongst slaves, and is called marriage, 
being properly designated contvhemium^ is a 
relation which has no sanctity^and to which 
no civil rights are attached.** * Their offsprinff 
is the property of their masters, aa foals and 
calves would be. Therefore the slave has no 
marital rights ; no parental rights ; no family 
rights; no educational rights. He has no 
sort of redress against his master ; because, 
being a chattel or article of property, he 
cannot be legally injured by his master ; who 
may feed or famish him ; keep him clothed 
or unclothed ; houseless or housed, at his own 
convenience or pleasure ; and, if he prove 
refractory, he may kill him with impauity. 
His relations to the state are of the same 
character. A slave cannot be a party to a 
civil suit His testimony is rejected in the 
law courts. Not only may his master alwavi 
forbid his being educated and receiving reli- 
gious instruction, but the government steps 
in with direct prohibitions of its owa 
Emancipation is obstructed by all kinds 
of obstructions, and the constitutions of 
some states actually forbid the abolition of 
slavery. 

The law is, however, in some stately 
relaxed in the slave's favour. The negroes 
of Virginia, the "Ole Virginny" of their 
affections, stand high in the scale of treat- 
ment. Of all the slave states — excepting 
onlv Louisiana — Virginia is the one 
which treats her slaves with the most 
consideration, and comes nearest to respect- 
ing the rights of humanity in them. Poorly 
enough, even at the best ; but still more 
liberally than the rest Virginia slaves have 
" educational privileges ;" they have preachers 
of their own, right smart ones, too ; although 
the law agaipst their assembling together 
extends even to their religious worship, which 
in the cities, a white man generally conducts 
in churches specially set apart, while in the 
country the olack service comes after the 
white — still they have black preachers, slaves 
like the rest, devout and gifted ; and they 
have a great deal of spending-monev, obtained 
by working over hours; but which, since 
religious bigotry has put down innocent 
amusements, is generally spent in frivolity, or 
debauchery. Some of them dress more ex- 
pensively than the wealthy whites, though 
the wealthy whites of Virginia are invariably 
full-dressed at breakfast, with silks and 
satins, and gay dinner costume sweeping 
down the muddy streets at eleven in the 
morning — still, in spite of this excess, the 



* Stroud's Sketch of the Slave Lawa^ sUty-fint pagii 



IHcfcc»] 



SLATE3 AHD THEIB MASTEEa 



13^ 



ii 



negro exquisite outshmea the white. Hie 
newspapera of Virgium are begituuDg to 
emiipUiti of ** inaoTeoce and iiiiubordmn- 
titJii" nruoDg the D«^gToe«» o^lugj tbey &ay, to 
^« un^iue priiri leges granted by tbeir mastera^ . 
aaid to their oTerfamUiiii-ity with them. Btit 
thk coro plaint does not seem very w«!l 
fomiJeri ; for one seldom hears c*f aay iustaiiee 
of ti'fiistanoe or ielf^ossertiou among the 

ted* foUowed a Legro- funeral out 
of ^-.^.. .L. ..^d, the capital of Virgiuia, A 
lieftne dmwti by two horses ; six hackney* 
otmchea folio wing ; *'tix well-dressed men 
mounted on handsome aaddJe- horses, arid 
rldiii<r them w«ll,'^ in the rear of tbem ; and 
twenty or thirty women walking on the canae- 
way. Among them all not a single white 
person. When they came to the burial-place 
titey fouud the interment of a child almost at 
an riuL The new-comers svt dowu thvlr coffin 
&t\tl jomed in the labours of the preoediug 
ptt.tty, uulil the little grave was filled in and 
mouKlr^l oi^er* Wheti this was completed, 
one of thcjoe who had heen hr^ndlmg a spade 
tigh«^tl deeply, and feivently offering upa pious 
ei^cululioD, exelaimed^ in the same breathy 
Kow — ^yon, Jim — yon I see yar j you jia lay 
dat ytit ahovel croas dat grave— so fHsb^-tlar, 
yes ; dmt'a right.*' The coflin^ which haii been 

" w?«d oa the tools, as on trjcstlesi, was lowered, 
I th e fun e ral hegan^ O ne of the men ate ppi*<i 

Hhe hc'ftd of the grave, and holding up a 

1 ; -f, as if it wert» a book, pronounceti 

a rtation, as if he were rea^iing fixna 

it iALL n was genuine and touching', not^ 
with Stan ding certain grammulical )aj>ses ; 
anil treep ihungh OTerlookt^, for form^a sakt^, 
by a |H>tice^<pfficer, 

sf . '. .- \:i }*nur — ChatteUiood — revenges itself 
Oil era in the tie^digenceandstu|»id]ty 

w.r It 13 perlurmed. So widely ditf*fr- 

ent %o the Liljonr of even the least enet^etic 
or indu^trioius free man — white or bhick — 
who works for himself, and whose zeal or 
laxity reacts only on hi^ own deatiny. The 
fr#e negi-o works with a very different will 
to tb« »Uve ; and the slave puts an energy 
an. ^2T into his ** overtime" labour 

{v. lowed in some of tiie slave states) 

whin rm .vriiount of coaxiug Of fio^i^Jug cau 
set him to put into hia master*!* valuable 
tif^f-w a^...-ved and neglected; new tools 
%\< ken, and no jiersiuiaion Bufficient 

it I - * anything lighter or more couve- 

uitmi than the duraay old hoe, which is made 
to tjo every kmd of work ; the most entire 
W&nt of forethought, care, management^ eco^ 
aoftiy, and r«Iiahieneis — iu shorty of every 
tirtiie UBiially looked for in a labourer — 
tltfse are the cbarai!teristlca of abive labour, 
A «egro, oUiag the wiiet^U of a railway-truin, 
wiJJ bold his OiU so tlmt a wtream of t^iJ, co6t- 
£flg perhaps & dollar and a-half a gallon^ will 

KeiuArk^ «ii tbfSir KcQiiatuy, Bf Wtadsii^ Iaw 

OiJiLAtcd- 



be wasted on the OTonnd the whole length of 
the train. Posl-horses left to the care of 
negi'oea will be neither groomed nor fed, and 
are more likely to die of hunger than not. 
Large fires will be recklessly mswle on the 
floor of a Wf>oden hut, and very oflena whole 
range of cabins will lie burnt down. Negroes 
will carjy heavy weiglita the entire round of 
a field, where even an Irishman would cut 
across the corner, and take one step for 
their huudred. But nothing eouM make the 
negro to do this if he has been aecuat*>metl to 
go round the field ; plodding slowly in single 
tile, and losing hours over the work of 
minutes. Nothing can exceed his attach- 
ment to old habits ; unless it be the intense 
jetupidity with whteh he clings to them. Yet, 
mjtsters, more stupid j>erhi>ps, dread their 
slaves becoming too smart; because this 
l>egets in them a habit of takiug aire of 
themiielves; which, once fairly esublished, 
will, they believe, destroy the very life of 
slavery. The problem with the Southern 
planters is, how to Tuake his negro a good 
labourer without letting him become so clever 
and so self-reliant as to be able to take care 
of himself. At prci^eiit, so rare ai^e the in- 
stdmeeii of profitable self-care among the 
negro^ that tlK^ slaves of aristocrat ic fami- 
lies think themselves a great deal better off 
than the free negroes; "dirty free niggerw 
got nobody to take cjtre of 'em 1 *' they say, con- 
temptuously, when exulting in their own fine 
clothes, good food, and wealth of spt^nding 
money. It is one of the worst riet^s and 
most demoralising charac tens tics of slavery 
lo honour and love its condition, A« a boily, 
slaves desire to be free ; and often talk of 
the time \\ ben they fchaJ! gain their liberty ; 
aiid they are restle^^s ; and the l>etter educated 
among them full of hope or of discontent^ 
according to Iheir temperaments ; but th« 
pam leered houi^e-slave is generally contaat 
with his condition. 

If it could be proved that slavery does not 
paj', the slave question would soon be settled; 
aiid what Mr, Ulmsted saw on a iree-kbour 
farm iu Yirgluia goea some w»y to prove that 
slavery is not an economical kind of service* 
The owner was an abolitionist and freed 
his sh'ivts, from political and religious 
motives, Since then he had employed freo 
men, and had f<>und iheir labour cheaper 
Ami mum etScieut than thitt of slaves ; 
cheaper, Itecause of the high price of slaves 
now in Tirgiuta, and more emcient, because 
done with energy and intelligence ; qualities 
only to be found in labour that has & direct 
iallueuce on the labourer, llie slaves who 
hail been freed^ and who had gone chteSj to 
Africa, bad suooeedetl very welh Some had 
attained wealth, and almost all were prosper* 
ing b<3tb in morals and condition. ^*y aaid 
this abolitionist^ the negroes in America are 
all of a higher character tb»n the nAtivd 
African. There has been so much ii^t^rtaix- 
turo of white blood that rety few are « lidl 



I 

i 



tM 



blooded " now, and coDRcquetitly have pained 
some of tlie intelieeiuul dfVelopnient of tlie 
race niin'^Ied with their owu. Dt-aths, old 
age, sicktieHsi, sulks, taking to the swamp, 
tliett — often of most valuable pr<»perty, 
many dollars* worth, to sell to a chicken- 
trader (a dealer in stolen goods) for a dram — 
all these Ciisualiies ietiseii materially the 
wealtii of a slave-owner. And all these are 
cliances which the employer of fi*ee labour 
does not run. Children are the great sources 
of a slave owner*H wealth. One man calculated 
his at, " every nigger-baby worth two hun- 
dred dollars the instant it drew breath.** 
There does not seem to be much difBculty in 
rearing them, at least, not in Virginia, the 
nursery of the slave states. Slave-women are 
not ch(«en nor esteemed so much for their 
working qualities as for their health, strength, 
symmeiry, and aptness of maternity. A 
woman with children is worth one-sixth or 
one-fourth more than one without. But, in 
spite of all this care, the slave-population 
is yearly on the decrease, and slaves are 
becoming more expensive as laltourers. 
When once free-labtmr can be proved to be 
cheaper and more productive than slave- 
labour, the question of emancipation, going 
then to the depth of the pocket, will ap- 
proach nearer a solution than all the 
preachings of philanthropists could hope to 
effect. 

Down in the swamp, where slaves are 
emphtyed as lumbermen on wages, instances 
of sulkiness, or rascality, are very rare. The 
men's manners are chsuiged. Frank, manly, 
strai'^htforward, they lose all the cringing 
servility or the downcast suUenuess of the 
plantation slaves. Neither overseer nor 
driving is needed. The stimulus of partial 
free«iom is sutlicient to awaken energies aud 
ambition which slavery crushes to the dust. 
Among the swamp lumbermen, forethought, 
industry, and economy, are general ; all 
beaiuse they are quasi freemen, and their 
conduct reacts on their destiny. They 
answer somewhat to the serfs k rabrok of 
Buhsia: each having to pay a certain sum 
to his nuister, kee))ing the remainder of his 
wages to himself. It is strange how, with 
such examples before their eyes— and others 
yet more striking of emancipated ne^oes 
amassing large fortunes and obtaining high 
social positions — the partisans of slavery dare 
still persist in declaring that a negro left to 
himbelf, would starve for very hiziness. 
Advocates of the like doctrine at home 
should examine personally the effects of free- 
dom on the character of a slave, before they 
countenance the monstrous untruth, that it 
is by God's ordinance that one race of a lower 
ty))e of organisation is made the slave of 
another, higher ; or that the earth and 
the good ot humanity demand labour which 
this lower type wdl not give of free- 
"will, A negro with freedom and educa- 
tion will have artificial wants, like other 



men ; and will labour, like others, to gratify 
them. 

These swamps are near the Dismal Swamps 
whore runaway slaves hide, to be famished, 
hunteil out, or shot, as the case may be, 
"But some on 'em would rather be shot thaa 
took," said a negro, simply, speaking of the 
runaways. When asked how they were dis- 
tinguished from the lumbermen, if met by 
chance, the negro anawei-ed, "It was very 
easy : they were strange and skeered, and 
not ilecent '* (starved, frightened, and bailly- 
clothed). What a volume in these three 
words ! 

A certain Dr. Cartwright has written on 
negroes and their diseases. Amongst otherii 
he particularises one as di-apet«iiuanta, a 
malady like that which cats are liable U^ 
manifested by an uurestiaiuable pro|>en8ity 
to nn away. His symptoms are sulk and dis- 
satisfaction ; his remedy — the lanh. Another 
disease, under the lesurn^ head of dysBesthesia, 
hebetude of mind, and obtuse sensibility uf 
body, vulgarly called rascality, is also put 
down as a ne^ro ailment. But for this, and 
its sequence, negro consumption, a disease un- 
known to the medical men of the Nortliem 
United States and of Europe, he recommeudi 
care and kindness, and the removal of the 
original cause of the dissatiufaction and 
trouble. Mr. Olmsted speaks of the well- 
known malady nostalgia, and observes that 
Dr. Cartwright's last piece of advice is very 
suggestive. It must not be thought that 
there is the slightest ridicule or cunscioue 
quackery in this {)seudo-pathology. It is put 
forth as genuine science dealing with recojg^ 
nised forms of disease. 

Virginian out-of-sight life and byeway 
travelling are none of the smartest But 
Virginia is a model of care and correctness 
compared to other states. Farther towards 
the south, where slavery has a darker skin 
and wears a heavier chain than in Washington 
and Virginia, the necessary consequence of 
unthrift and neglect become very glaring 
in North and South Carolina whatever is 
decently done is done, by a northman ; the 
natives themselves can do nothing but raise 
rice and grow cotton. The white meu here 
are very religious ; talking scripturally, and 
undergoing spiritual experiences with tre- 
mendous activity. But they fl«>g their slaves, 
and sell the child from under the mother's 
hand ; break marriage- vows, and disregard 
maidenly virtue. A barkeeper soils his stock 
in trade and goodwill, and sets out with the 
following advertisement : 

FAITH WITHOUT WORKS It DEAD. 

In order to engage in a more honourable businea^ 
I offer for tale, cheap for caih, my stock of Dquori, 
Bar Fixtures, Billiard Table, &c. &c. If not wld 
privately, by the twentieth day of May, I will sell the 
same at public auction. **Shew me thy (aith without 
thy works, and 1 will shew Uiee my faith by my 
workfc- 

E. KsTiia. 



MJriii Pi^-hffc] 



SLATES AKD TlXEfB MASTERS. 



137 



^ ITi&t bar-keeper would pobably liave soW | AmeFica, By denying Che nftgro the iuipre- 
lili owo tliilU and \i& sliiv^ lot^ther at a scripiible rights of humanity^ the Bluve- 
dAllir fiiitfit, aiul have thought himself jus- , owner has but increAJaed hm 6wn anxiety and 
i^ : doing. Indeed, UQ6 ot lLe moat \ lo^Bea. Instead of intelligent, self-retiant 

hi ; aturea io this mo^t horrible tniffic \m^t\^ he haa wished for ignor.^mt machines; 

i» the ff^ct that fathers sell their chihtren J lust^ad of Bery^nUi, he haa asked for alaveSj 
ftud bfuthera their brothers, without thoiiglii and now ha ^nds thnt hm machines go 
or care ; that fathem and hrutherii do worsti [wrong without inch inceBsant overloofciiig aa 
than iell lO another master their daugbt^-ra j rnake^ fife one long day of toil, and that hh 
tnd eisters ; that all natural duties are t alaves do not in very truthj aerre him. The 



par 
hri] 



violated, and all natuntl bqnndaneji over- 
pjiaiitjtl In no other country, and under no 
other condition of »Liveryj liavc anch thinga 
\^. ., t . J . . , -. ; fefore* In M oh a iii meda n slavery, 
!►; :ire rtfpected as aacredlyaa the 

ixi'...-. ^ . -sjily legmi UeSj and the moralities 
of s<>cicty are regarded and enforced <rum 
bond i43 well as from free. But ia Amertea, 
the ab^re has no morality to regard. He baa 
no UMtur^ in eommon with the n^at of hu- 
mmiity ; he it ranked with beasts of toil 
and burthen, and hia life ia modelled on 
theirs un^ier the nece^ary mod ili cations of 
his human deEui^. He has no wife : he haa a 
I tner. A woman haa no children ; she 

ri»^'it forth youn^ who belong to the maiter. 
HiMljaijd and wife, after they have gone 
thrfjugh the mockery of a marriage-ceremony 
and have had ehddreu together, may be ftcpa- 
mted at a ro^ment'a notice j the wife wilt be 
{breed to accept another huaband. so aa to 
have more children, and the huaband will 
ehoos# another wife. Slave-ownera would 
as soon think of preserving conjugul fide 11 ry 
among their sheep and horse* as among 
their shives^ The farmer who sella his calt- 
ftnd the planter who aella the suckling 
fruin the mothers breaat, act with exactly 
the aame ^^i^ling^ and from the same motive. 
Both bciieve their gain to be superior to 
the laws of nature, and regard! as property 
wliMt (■'"[ gave to freedom. This has 
&t in any age of the world's 

hi- ^ jre, Judaism, the Greek and 

fiornan timefl^j Moiiammedaniam, all reeog^ 
i]t«ed the rights of nature in their slaves. 
Chriittiaiiity is the only faith whose pro- 
fei«or« have viulated and destroy t.-d the^e 
^i^^ I J^^ Christian ity is the only faith 
wbo»e es^ntial element has been human 
•foaltiy. 

81aTe testimony not being received in 
Atti^ncA, is, like all natural injustice, 
beginning to work reflective eviL In aeveral 
instances where the t*;8tiniouy of a slave 
Voidd he most valuable, the law ittepa in, and 
by it* tuicidtd enaetment nullifies jus (ice, 
StjiTe-owners f^ this so much, that many of 
lli«cn are considering the propriety of ad- 
ting C'diiured teiUmony ; in self-defence, 
_^ ' for »eU4tttere«t ; not for equity* Vet such 
'% ftt4?p would meet with viuleut opptisitiou, as 
fec**;f "i^ing the |>osseasion of intellectual per- 
e#ptrr»nH in «liivea ; at present dt*nied and 
rHu«».*d Ui them. It ia but fair that wrong 
ihi'fuld recoil on the head ot the wrong-doer \ 
mud tlii^ Is essentially the ca»e at preti^ut in 



evil he has done to others has come l^ack on 
himself; he hiia sown the wind, he is now 
reaping the whirHind. 

Still, the question of era an ci pat ion is ai 
difficult as ev^r ; though its solution is not, 
perhaps^as far off as ever Virginia and Wa^h- 
mgtun iu*e approaching that solution, but very 
gradually; and it will be long before the 
like influences spread farther southward. By 
the introduction of free white hiboiir, in con* 
n edition with the gradual emancipaiioa of 
individuals and small grou|)s, and their con- 
sequent morul, social, and intellectual eleva- 
tion used as eiamples^ the difficulty seems 
to us in a fs^v way of being in the dii^tant 
future overcome. Again we say, convince 
the planter that slavery ia unprofitabltj 
and slavery is at an end. If a native 
Virginian can confess, as one who wrote to 
the editor of the New York Daily limes, 
that "where you would see one white labourer 
on a northern farm, scores of blacks ahoaJd 
appear on tlie Virginian plantation, the best 
of them only peiforming each day one-fourth 
a white man's daily ta^sik, and ad requiring 
an incessant watcn to get even this sniall 
modicum of labour/' we may be sure that 
many others feel the same disai I vantage and 
the same distress. The Rev. K J. Stt^arns, 
of Maryland, shows by an elaborate calcula- 
tion, in hia criticism on Uncle Tom*a 
Cabin, that in Maryland the " cost of a 
negro at twenty- one years of age has been 
to ihe man who raiaed him eight huntirt^d 
dollars. Sii per cent iutereat on this 
coat^ with one and three quarters per 
cent, for life iniurancea, per annum, makea 
the lowest wngea of a negro, under 
the m(»gt favourable circumstiuicea, sixty-* 
two dolhirs a year, or five dolbrs a montk 
paid in advance In the shape of food and 
clothing/' 

Slave-holding is degrading to both master 
antl slave, despite ihe sophistries of the 
a 01 it h to show its mercy and its vnine. The 
bttter class of pknters — acknowledging the 
bitter truth that the inatitution which they 
defend so warmly ia a degradation Io tbem- 
selves~send tht^ir children to be educated la 
the north : they confess that the influence of 
slavery demoralises -the young freeman as 
much as the negro himatlf ; and what git^ater 
CO ndeiu nation than this can a fathtsr or a 
citizen pronounce t 

Let ua hope that though alowly we are 
certainly approaching the end of iilave 
times. The blind violence of its partiBaiiB| 



138 



HOQSEHOLD WORDa 



Cftatertri ^ 



their overrunning of Kansas with slave- 
state military, and laying waste towns 
and villages ; their striking down a defence- 
less senator at his desk; their virulent opp<>- 
sition to all proposals for mediation and arbi- 
tration ; their ridiculous pretensions to birth 
and blood, supported with revolver-fights and 
laudatory addresses to Preston S. Brooks, 
are so many means to an end predsely op]x>- 
site to that end which they strive to attain. 
Tlieirsober,earneet,reflectivefenow-citizensof 
the north are only strengthened both morally 
and politically by every outrage, either against 
common sense or common humanity which they 

Serpetnate. Tlie assertion that slavery is a 
omestic institution of their own, with 
which other states have no right to inter- 
fere, is a vain and a false one. Slavery is, 
in the abstract, an abomination ; but per- 
sisted in under snch laws as those existing in 
the CTuited States, it is something more, fhe 
federal legislature has interfered in favour 
of the institution by passing the Furtive 
Slave KU, and it is equally bound to inter- 
fere against it. 

Mmiy of the views here stated are those of 
the thoughtful and thorough abolitionist, 
whose journey in the Sea-board Slave States 
we have already mentioned. Mr. Olmsted 
observes with accuracy and reflects with care. 
He would not carry out manumission — as 
its opponents prefer to perpetuate it — at the 
point of the swonl, or male the freedom of 
the slaves with the destructiou of the masters ; 
and, although he is not prepared with a 
remedy for American Slavery, he is a careful 
and temperate pathologist of the disease. Some 
of his descriptions have unusual merit So 
little are they tainte<l with exaggeration that 
his most hideous traits of slave life are de- 
picted from the unconscious revelations of the 
masters themselves. 



TWO-PENCE AN HOUR. 

FiasT and last, she has had a pretty hard 
battle of it ; and may be allowed, as a woman 
of experience, to lay down the law concerning 
it She always says this when she has been 
brought out on the subject of Governessing. 
She always asks, when she hears that any 
mother meditates training her daughter as a 
teacher, or that any girl is intending to strike 
for independence through the briary paths of 
knowledge, " Is she pretty ? Is she gentle- 
spirited f Is she of a loving disposition 1 Is 
she of attractive manners ? " These ques- 
tions being replied to in the affirmative, she 
immediately responds, "Then, she won*t do 
for A governess," and proceeds to explain 
categorically why those qualifications, which 
are most pleasing in women genendly, are 
hindrances to teachers in particular. Miss 
Green is then supposed to be reciting the 
fruits of her own ex|)erience. She was a 
contemporary of my own at Miss Thoroton^s, 
and possessed, in an eminent degree, all those 



endowments which she deprecates as stain- 
bling-blocks She is forty-seven now, metho- 
dical quiet, and very grtsy* Nobody woald 
ever suspect that she narl been of a lirel^, 
aniniated beauty, and cheerful temper. It u 
the life, she says, that destroys that^ Teiy 
early. 

I have known, she adds, in a candid 
matteivoffact way which does not inrite con- 
tradiction, I have known govemeasea called 
Impertinent for looking pretty; forward, 
presuming, forgetful of tiieir stations— what 
not ? Tlie women do not like it^ and — ^yea- 
let her be as modest, as self-possessed, and as 
quiet as she will — the men (it is th« young 
ones, whose sense and moustaches are not 
fully fledged) will speak to her cavalierly, and 
stare at her rudely, as they would not do at 
their host*s daughter. In nine cases out of 
ten, ffovemesses put up with the insolence 
caliu^ ; a slight blush, perhaps, and a little 
quiver of womanly indignation, disturbs 
tliem for a moment, and passes. There are 
not many Becky Sharpes amount na. Ws 
take the extended brace of digits and are 
thankful. Women snub us, or patronise oi, 
or walk over us, and we are silent under the 
harrow. We cannot afford to play the aama 
pranks ; and I do not think, as a dass, w» 
are disposed to do it We are^ hard-work* 
iug, conscientious, well-principled, and well- 
educated race of young persons; a little 
despised, a little pitied, ana a little neglected; 
all of which it would be advisable to support 
with a little more equanimity, seeing thai 
long experience has proved these trifles in- 
se(Mira1>le from our condition. People have 
written books about us, and have invested us— 
or tried to do so— with an interest we have not 
got ; and, generally speaking, they have done 
us more harm than good. Becky Sharpe, for 
instance, is quite exceptional ; Jane Eyre less 
so ; in short, her govemness experience, up 
to her flight from Thornfield, is true. I have 
known parallel cases, in which, with tempta- 
tion not less tlian hers, girls have fought 
their battles as bravely, as painfully, and u 
successfully; but, with the final romantio 
result, no ! Little Miss Cann, Miss Quifflev, 
and £uth Pinch ai*e satisfactory, especiaUv 
Miss Cann — a clever, shrewd, kind-hearted, 
sharp-spoken, plain little woman, with just 
romance enough about her to be a woman 
and not a machine. I approve Miss Cann. 
She is respectable, she is gCKxl, and she is nice. 
I dare say everybody who employed her, 
from her youth upward, designated her, in 
the distinctive phraseology, as applied to 
governesses, *'a pains-taking young person, 
and a very deserving woman,'* and treated 
her with a civil impertinence as a domestic 
serf and necessary nuisance. Pretty and 
attractive a governess ought not to be ; it is 
not set down in the bond that she should he. 
A set of sliarp features and a sedate manner 
are most becoming to her. She must not 
straighten her waist and pUy with her cha- 



^ulMlH<tin4 



TWOPENCE AN HOUR 



13d 



t^lMney HA ^oun^ women who are not gover- 
H^oea mtiy do ; indeed, she han uo buslnesa to 
llive either waist or chjitelmiti^. A good atiff 
^t«Viap€tUke £i bitck-board^aiid & silver warm' 
ingpjoi-wtttch dependiriir from het apron-belt, 
Ajre appropriate belonging ; and if nhe have 
II due seuae of proprietjj bhe will obtaia them 
it whatever Siicrlfice^ Though ;i goveruesi 
mAjr bf» a weU^mformeil woman, ba many 
gOTBTntmca are, if an j body boneficeuUy 
ireaiA her to ootiveraationf site ougUt onl^ to 
gettemJIse on the charms of her office, the 
dtligbtful di$po«tiona of piipiH and, if eti- 
t04irage^i bo wr, on edit cat ii^nal hooka and 
tystems. Litei^tiire m itot her topic, and 
ik«v«r let her he profefisloiial out of her 
•cljool-Toom ; if anyone blunders or appeals 
to her for information, let her memory fnil, 
but never, never let her know more than 
her «ui)eriors — ^it ia a delumon and it Aiiaro^ 
It U my belief that when Mr. Snob asked 
Miffi Wirt tha.b question about Dante 
Algbieri^ she coincided with lum as to the 
origin of the ainiame, that she might not 
pique him by a correction. Any judicious 
tfo^emeis wotdd^ to a strange man, be equally 
J^suttl^wl, What buiiineas had he to eo< 
tiearour to teat her knowledge t I don^t 
ipprove of tych gratuitoua examinntiona ; 
aud, if Mr« Suob liod J^ked me the mieation 
he propounded to Misa Wirt, I should have 
returned the Bame answer a« aha did. I dare 
not contemplate the coodeauences of a gover^ 
Head in a well-regulated family knowing 
wltat an honoureii giieet appe&rg not to 
know. Mr. Scob tiev«rr was a governeds^ or 
el«e he would he aware of the treacherous 
danger of auch an aasuinptlont 

Bupipoee, again, that a teacher ia gentle- 

Spirited and of a loving dbpo^Uioii ; the 
r»t soon dwindle* into a feeble non-i-esist- 
inctt of injuries!, and the last hungers and 
thir«ta often until it perishes of inanition, 
I know it ij £t shocking thing to say, but 
dbUdre n are mo«tly aelS^sh ; so long aa you 
are admutiiterin^ to their amusement or 
eomfort, they wilflove you, but the moment it 
becomesi neoe^ary to thwart a whim or control 
* pik«i[ion» you are altogether hateful ; and they 
biAte you, for the iimt: belu^, very cor^lially. 

^^va been loved and hated myielf a dozen 
^^Hb^ &*week ; aod I know a little damsel 

^ffr who, when her tem|>er ii crossed, telU 
ker govemeaa tbi^t ihe ha tea her pet eat, and 
b tiot above giving the innocent pussy a aly 
blow or kick aa proxy for ita muc^^enduring 
vistresit^ I do not ehooae to talk much 
About wounded feelings in connection with 
our position. I think it ia nei^er well to 
espect more than a courteoua civility — and 
likfttf exee[4 from bear^ and bearesaea^ we get 
ttdw^A-days almost aa regularly as our sala' 
rici but what I do complain of b» the 
wretched pay. People demand everything 
Ibr |uiy tli»t is next to nothing-^about two- 
p«iiie@ - halfpenny per aecumplUhment per 
qiuuter I A governed who ia six professort 



rolled into one getv from fifty to a hundred 
guineas (lucky woman^ but a guvAmesa 
who is uuder that statue geta twenty, twenty* 
five, or thirty pounda, and is thaakful, poor 
soul t 

^lifls Green belongs to the latter clasg* 
When I consider what lies before my old 
friend I do not wonder at her strictures* She 
began to teach at seventeen, and she will 
continue to teach till seventy, perhaps, and 
then she will retire into a little room and 
exist, poorly enough, on the scrapinga of her 
talariea and two meal* aniay, as the super* 
a^iinuated ^Utcrhood is in the habit of doing, 

1 have lately diacliarged a com minion for 
a friend — namely, in examining the register 
at one of the many institutions for pn)^ 
viding govern esses with situations and 
employers with governesses. I and my 
eouiiiu, who accompanied me, were admitted 
by an nohealthy buttony boy, who was 
regaling on a [Kittle of strawbemes, into a 
large room with a long t^ble and a row of 
ladies, who wers studying the registers. All 
the books being engaged, we were refreshed 
by the inter rogaton^ of a pei-son who ap* 
pea red to be the superintendent, She spoke 
in a hard sharp voice, as if^ — to use a York- 
aliire phrase — we were dirt under her feet* 
It was the mistr^a- voice, to which many 
jjoor heaxts will get accustonjed in the servi- 
tude they go to seek. 1 thought to myself. 
Day after day come here aching^ hoping, 
weary wom«n, and you give them a foretaste 
of what life will probably be to them, 
WouUl it not be as easy to speak with a 
friendly kindness, to encourage them, instead 
of pjitrouising so severely I Woman, if yoa 
have been A governed yourself, you ought to 
know how relreshing a woi'd^ a look even, of 
sympathy, is to an anxious creature I Th*!y 
come to your institutioUj not when they at-e 
well placed, but when they are homelee^ 
these poor teachers, and you B{>eak to some 
of them as 1 would not speak to & well- 
conditioned dog. For shame t You may 
be — probably you are — an excellent woman, 
but you ai^ too angular in manner, and I 
have not the slightest hesitation in saying 
th;it if Mii&s Green had been in my placeu 
she would have gone away discouraged, ana 
I probably crying under her velU S|>eaking 
' daily to poor women, to depenflsjits, may 
have something to do with your uncourteous- 
ness, but I should like to see you receive the 
Duchess of Fowderpulf, now on the books as 
wanting a governesd, 

I had time to make these reflections before 
I was bid to ** Look over with thut lailyt" ^^ ^ 
curt| impatient tone ; 1 sat down, all obedi- 
ence, and reml the entries of p<*Lge after page, 
selecting here and there a curiosity. One hidy 
[demanded a first-mta governess for thirty 
r pounds ; another, wbhed for a widow ] a third, 
j for a good^temf ^red person who *lid not wear 
I spectacles ; a fourth, ottered a situation to any 
! lady who, posse«siug Urge ao^uiremeutiw 



I 

I 



I 



140 



HOUSEHOLD WOUDS. 



[Conduct*!^ 



woiiH be sntisfled with a smull salary 
and tlie consciousness tliat she was doing 
good ; and a fifth — concluding the list of 
actH>M)p1i>hment3—' desired in tiie following 
reniarka-'le manner : *' No one need apply 
wi>b iins not confidence in her own gooil 
teni].)er." 

Tiie salaries, generally speaking, were low 
— vt'ry low ; Hixteeii, twenty, and from that 
to forty pcmnda being the average ; a few 
were fifty and sixty. One family ofFcred eighty, 
an«i one a hiinilred ; but nil denmnded mnch 
ni'tre than the value of their money. To know 
Kn»;li«h genendly, German, French, and 
Italian — acquire.) fn their re»|>ective countries 
^to tie an accomplished pianista — to sing, 



songs and doing Italian lessons, and the odd 
penny for the natural philosophy and physical 
geography thrown in as make- weights. 



CONDEMNED TO DEATH. 

Having been condemned to be shot fop 
what the court-martial at Bristadt, sitting 
in judgment over political offenders tleclared 
to be capital crime, I was cai rieil back to 
the Fort, and place<i in a dungeon used as a 
condemned cell.* The day was S;iturday, the 
tifleent h of September, and the hour three ia 
the atlernoon. 'Vhe rule wiis, that men 
sentenced as I had been, shou:d he shot at 

^ ^, five o'clock on the morning following their 

diaw Hhd dance, w\'re the u«unl group of ac- condemnation ; but, if the next day happened 



coniplisliuients demanded for the liberal pavof 
thirty anil forty pounds. One or two ladies 
had cau<:ht hold of a hanl idea called Natural 
Pliilusdpliy, and oUiers wouhl not be satiufieil 
without a knowle<lge of Physiciil Ge<»graphy ; 
but, I did not observe that a higher rate of 
pay was lieM out as a bait to draw Natuml 
female Philosophers and Physical feminine 
Geographers into the bosoms of families of 
tliirt 8ii|>f rior order of cultivation. Tlie re- 
flection was forced upon my mind that many 
ladio.s who want governesses must l>e pro- 
friundiy foolish to imagine that women like 
tlx'niHelvt's can be proficients in a half-a- 
doziMi arts and sciences which, separately and 
singly, form the whole life study of able men. 
I'ht' cheap syrttem prevails to a ruinous extent 
aniong.st governesses ; it has lowered them as 
they never ou;^l)tto have been lowered ; they 
are eou)pelle<l to seem to know what it is 
imfxistiibie that they should know. Sup- 
posing a c:i"«e ; if I lost my little pro- 
pt'rty, I should natunilly turn to the 
scholastic profession — everybody who loses 
her little property does, to speak literal 
truth, I should only advertise myself 
as possessing a tolerable knowledge of my 
own hin^unge and its litemture ; and what 
sort of salary should I get 7 Perhaps sixteen 
pounds, as a nursery-governess. Therefore, 
liKe thousands more, I should add French, 
Italian, munic, and drawing, in various 
branches, and then my value— not real, but 
nomiual—might rise to thirty, f<»rty, even 
sixty pounds ! People will be deceived in 
this way lontinnally, so long as the cheap 
sytftem holds gooil. 

Alto;:elher, my study of that Register for 
Govt-rnesBos ilid not please me ; it made me a 
convert lo -Miss Green's opinions of the hard- 
8hi)M of her class. A governess at twenty 
poiindH a-ytar gets thirteen-pence per day ; 
reckoning her to work only six houi-s a 
day — which is almost the lowest average — she 
gets a fraction more than two)»ence an hour. 
Twopem-e for an hour at the ))iano, two{>ence 
for an hour at cbalk-d rawing, twopence for 
an hour of English less<>ns, twopence for an 
hour of French, twoi)ence for an hour of 
German, twopence for an hour of singing 



to be Sunday, the execution was to take 
place the same evening before . dark. At 
three o'clock in the afternoon, on a S.-iturday 
in the middle of Septeml>6r, T had not, by 
this calculation, very long to live. 

Under these circumstances it was not ne- 
cessary that I should be critical respecting 
the accommodation furnished in my chamber. 
On a raiseii board in one corner there was a 
tumbled litter : the bed occupied by a com- 
rade of mine who had been shot that morn- 
ing. A gaoler came with rueful looks to ask 
whether I wished for anything, and whether 
he might not summon the clergyman. I asked 
fir writing materials, a good dinner, a bottle 
oflihenish, au'l a few cigars; for, boilily 
refreshnlent I did need ; and as to spiiitual 
help (though GckI knows I needed that too), 
I knew it wa4 not to be obtained from a min- 
ister who had found nothing to talk about over 
the gnive of a fallen officer out Nebuchadnez- 
zar and his pride. While I sat writing on the 
board that was my table, I looked through the 
grated wimlow at the sentry, who kept 
guai-d over me, a red-cheeked, honest fellow 
from Thuringia, who liked his work so little 
that he was fairly blubbering. A little of 
the sentry's sympathy would have made of 
the chaplain a better man for his all-impor- 
tant work. 

But the best sympathy was being spent (m 
me elsewhere. My wife during the past 
week had not been idle. A few da^'s before 
the trial she was in Carlsruhc. She hod 
then called on the minister-at-war, Colonel 
von Moggerliach. He is now dead, and it can 
hurt noUxly to name one who received a 
suffering woman with humane emotions. " I 
am rising,*' he said, *' from the sick hed to 
which I was brought by grief at these sad 
things. It is not with my wish or approval 
that so muoh blo<jd has been s.:>ilt. However, 
we have ordered better now that all sentences 
of death not decreed unanimously by the 
court-martials, shall be forwarded here for 
ratification. Tliat is your only hope of mercy." 

My wife attempted, too, upon the veiy morn- 
ing of the trial, to see the Giaud Duke. She 



* 6e6 page 75 of the itreaGiit volume. 






CONDEMNED TO DEATH. 



^ 



141 



Wfskl to Ibe fmlnee, but found ooua who 
wouli) ftniiouiice ber. Footmen rui from hrr, 
©ov^dug ihtnr tye** She wamirred IhrwtigU 
tli# rooms, t\nd loat h«r#eh in h gr^al s^iloou^ at 
IJm v«rv t^tiie that I Atood, as abe knew, befiire 
my milithty judg^^ A kind fixice timidly 
peeped ilifv>ijgh a door ; for tbd aeryatiU^ 
Attirtfl were with ber, and their eyt^a were ii|iOo 
kcr; mnd & faltaring ifuic« cried, " HUt I W^ 
fan?*' * ot all.. IV v-qj iQ the duktf, mv lady ; but 
Ills , r? is DOW coFiiiu^ til id way ; 

he : / sJi h igh iiesa* Speiik to b i m ; 

bat I were to Ul to do bo.'* The 

km-'i d, aud the secretary, whu 

GAiiiri ^'^ ^d, Ue coub) not take the 

WJi'e t<i ; 1 the duke a pre^^uce ; but 

pvonm^ io ^\\ on ber f^art, an miioh a» 
poailbkt. Afitrr this, my hetpi»r biirrit^ tmck 
i& Rftiffii^*^! and reached her ina there about 
nooft^ At the inu i^e found aoiui^ people 
who had been in the earStte. 'i'liey gave her 
bo|^ ; Mkl ibftt I ball wob much by lu^ 
speech in df^-^^'^-* *hnl. the *itue«sifs hud 
i^iokett to In :e, .'kod that »U weut 

OD well. liti -- :.--- came at la&t ; and did 
Ftad the is^Hue lU his t^iee. Slie ba^l obUiue4i | 
leave to visit me before my executiou. And 
now 1 will gire, from ber diary, ftouie para- i 
graphs to ibow the woman '« aide of tbea^' 
«xpe deuces ill the life of a man whoae crime 
it vt^^ to belii^ve in t^e existence of * Gerutan 
paOjde. Il b the wifa iff bo now apcAk^^^ 

"He i« comin^,*^ s&M the pople in the 
Vftr-ivjoni, and ruiibed to the i^iuJow. I fjl* 
lowetl tbeixL There came tlie carrit^a nvut- 
rooniiiid by lohliers ; geudai^mea s«it iu it, 
and be m tlie midst of ibem. Knowing that 
I Wfti in thai iMti, hi^ mourutui eyes were 
leekiug for me. AliDoat seuseleH^ I fell back 
in the anus of the kind- hearted hostess ; bnt 
I i^covereid aoon, ai^d called bis name. It 
was a ery of anguish coming out of the very 
de|»tb of my heart. I strore to get through 
ihm window into the etri^et, thiuking the 
orriage would stop ; but, I was held back, 

' 1 pMsed half an hour almost mad with 
griet At lengtb I was again able to thiuk, 
and mj hop^a clung with all the energy of 
dc»pair to the plan of deliv^erance prepared 
1^ me. I went with my brother Fran^ into 
my loom^ and gave him my clothes, tied hh 
hair^ and tried the hooil an^L the bonnet. He 
bvcajoe perfectly dhigulsed, aod his appe&r- 
AUce was not straoge at all The $;own bad 
the due leu^^h juid width, &nd Franz himself 
Qgitft-d t^ doubt our success. The:»e garments 
my hitabatifl must put on; it was to see 
whether alt wtis right that I lirst tried them 
tm my brother, who waa of like si^e and 
ibape, 

iftreeigthened and animated by the hope of 
I, I went to Otto, He waa already iu that 

ematf, behind which the sentenced usually 
I ahot. The hope of saving him suppuried 
SMS. The prison was almost d&rk^ and there 
was notbing in it but two bundks of atraw^ 



a pitcher with water« and the half of a black 
c^iarse loaC Otto was wrltitig letters lo his 
friends and to the German pvtjple, for which 
he wsa to die. When I entered the prUon, he 
came towards me with haatj pac«.*a, and 
taking drmly my ban if he said: *' l-our^^e, 
Hel«ne, courage I It tuost be !" Hi^ firm- 
ne^ supported mine ; but t spoke much and 
quickly, to have no time for n we;tkne^, 
which had already ovei-coxne my brother, 
who ait weeping ou the ground. 

Tbey brought in the dinner, provided by 
the town. Otto tried it, and a%id : ** Thia is my 
la^t meal'^ (the Ueuikera^ mahfreit) ; *~ let Oi 
see what they have sent to me, and whether 
the wme i^ gooiL No, it ia not got^l ; 1 will 
not drink much of it^ and I will not cat 
either ; my appetite is gonir." 

Wheri the gaoler was gone, I told Otto my 
plan. He would not approve of it. He had 
doue with life, he said, luid conquerfrJ the bit* 
terness of d«ath. His fate was not to be 
avert4.-d, 

**Ah, biit it may," I cried, "aince yon are 
not coudt*mned unanimously. Dr. K— and 
tite juilge of examination are gone to 
Carls rube to obtaui au alteration of the 
sentence^'* 

** No^ it ia impossible ; there were fivie 
Toices against me/^ aaid Otto, pacuig bis 
prison with me* 

I I myself became doubtful now, and sf^nt 
I lor the lien tenant, who had bomfLncrly left 
me aluue witii my hu^baud, attboa;^h biniud 
to be tireseut at nur interview. VVbt:u he 
came, ne continued what J bad said, and 
adde^l, tliat in any case Otto would nut be 
shot, late ttst it then was, before Monday 
morning. 

** Now we will think of notfiing elas,*"* I 
said, ^ than bow to save yon ; and befoie ally 
my brother must leave as^ that he may not 
be involved.** 

The carriage that brought me to the prison 
Wiuted before tite postern, a dark vaiiiied 
passage under the main rantpai-t. After 
liaviug used the carriage, F — was to send it 
back, and to give notice, whetijer tbu gate 
btid b^en passed without questiou. lu Imlf- 
andiour the gaoler brought me a smMli Mip 
of paper, upon which was pencilled, *' Or. K — 
is gone to Carls ruhe^p^issed without impe* 
dimeut,'* 

Next, I sent for a dinner to my inn, and 
urgeil my bu::ibiud to eat : *' For,'' 1 aaid. 
*i you cannot tell how long you may be forvea 
to hunger on your flight," But he add : ** I 
will not fly ; I canuot do bo> What is to 
become of the otHeer who ia so kind aa to 
permit our being together all tl»is time, 
against bis orders ? \Vhat is to t»eoome of 
yuti, if you stay here instead of me, expused 
to tiie anijer of a troop of soldiKrs ? '' 

Afterwanlii, I fvuod that he had pride of 
his own in staying. He wouUl not fly ; a 
liidy wlio biid o^ered him the means an 
hour before the suTHrender^ told me that b« 



J 



4 
4 



y 



had refused her also. He preferred, he told 
her, to be shot, since flignt would expose 
him amoD^ his friends to the suspicion of a 
treachery in the surrender. Having put 
aside my plan, he now dined with good 
appetite, and took two glasses of wine. 

It became dark by*and-by. and mr heart 
was very sore. The good-natnred liea- 
teuant came to fetch me, but I begged his 
permission to slay with my husbud, and 
he had not the heart to resist. At five 
o*clocky he said, the carrii^ should be 
before the postern, to convey me back into 
the town. 

It was then seven o*c1oek in the evening, 
Olto was happy that I should be a few hoars 
longer with him* I was depresMd, bat had 
strength enough to conceal my weakneas. 
I became more and more sorrowful, and 
watched with anguish every step of the 
sentries and patrols. The hours flew with 
rapidity, and yet the minutes were verv long t 
On a sudden, I heard the tramping of many 
feet cominff to the prison, and awakened Otto. 
He rose directly, and went into the other 
compartment of the casemate, where was the 
door, to speak to those wlio came. They 
wei*e two officers, who whispered to him— 
but I heard eveiy word— that the soldiers 
for the execution were ordered for next 
morning at half-past four. 

''It is hard,** answered O— , ** that the v make 
with nie an exception, for there should be no 
executions on a Sunday.** 

" We have thought so too,** answered the 
officers ; ** but it is ordered, as we say. More- 
over, you have our word oif honour that we 
know nothing positive beyond the order for 
the fKitrol to be ready ; and we must request 
your la<ly to leave you at three o'clock, when 
we will have the honour to fetch her and 
accompany her to her hotel.'* 

'^I thank you, gentlemen," my husband 
said ; " she will be ready.** 

It is im|K)88ible to describe the agonies of 
those hours, the remembrance oC which never 
can fade from me but with m^ life. They 
could not be borne, I think, twice in a life- 
time. Fear to give way to weakness, and to 
move Otto too much by it, made me so col- 
lected, that I shed no tear, and seemed almost 
deprived of feeling. We spoke all night to- 
gether. My liusband held me in his arms and 
tried to comfort me. But I had only one 
thought : his hand so warm, his breath so 
hot now, and all will be cold to-morrow : he 
will be dead — an inanimate body. 

At a few minutes before three o'clock in 
the morning the two officers came bock to 
fetch me. 

When I was alone in my inn bedroom, I 
opened the window and looked out towards 
the dawn. 

These are some portions of the journal of 
my wife. From them I turn back to my 
own experiences. When she left me I out- 



wardly prepared myself for the last passage 
of my life, by putting on clean linen, taking 
off the locket I wore roand my neck, and 
catting a lock from my hair for persons dear 
to me. I chose also a red silk neckerchief 
with which to bind my eyes. I had a strong 
sensation which was not fear ; or, if fear, was 
a pleased fear. I had known nothing in my 
former life so much resembling it as the 
sensation upon entering, while still a yonth 
and inexpert, a ball-room, in which there 
were many beauties, I had also— as I had 
had the (lay before— a peculiar longing for a 
rose. As for anything like the experienees of 
Victor Hugo*8 Last Hours of a Condemned, 
they may m described from natare, but the 
nature tney describe was happily not mine^ 

At dawn I heard In the yard many steps. 
They are oominff, I thought farewell 
beautiful earth ; urewell to the old mother 
who takes up day after dav the paper with a 
trembUng hand; farewell my dear good 
wife! There was no need for such leave- 
taking. The first of my visitors whom I 
distinguished through the gloom of the osU 
was ti^e city major. 

** Is it time, gentlemen t ** I asked ; ** I am 
quite ready.** 

** No, friend,** said a voice from behind the 
rest— the voice of my late advocate, Dr. K.—- 
" we bring you better news.** 

This brave helper, havinff a friend in the 
Ministry of War, had paia a night visit to 
Oarlsruhet and had come back, daring the 
hour after midnight, with distinct news of the 
alteration of my sentence. Prossian *'mis- 
nnderstandings *' caused in those days many 
to get their reprieves after they were shot, 
and in my own case I am tolerably sore that, 
but for Dr. K., I should have been shot on 
Sunday morning, and the commutation of my 
sentence would have been announced on 
Monday. 

Words of true sympathy, written under the 
strongest of emotions, well or ill writtea, 
must have an interest of their own for 
human eyes. Therefore I again take scraps 
fitmi my wife*s diary to carry on this 
narrative. 

I would go directly to see my husband, 
bat I was not permitted, and wrote letters to 
my brother, to my Mannheim friends, and to 
my good mother-in-law. At half-past six I 
was with Otto, who was very calm, and 
liked not to show his gladness. He tried to 
bear with the same equanimity this happy 
change. But I myaelf felt veiy happ^, 
infinitely happy for him ; for he loves tnis 
life very mueli. Through my entreaties, I had 
been permitted to stay as lone as I liked 
with my husband. All the day through 
came Baudin, and even Prussian officers, 
and many common soldiers, to the iron grate 
before the window, and expressed their plea* 
sure at his escape. There was a much greater 
interest shown towards him than to any one 



DlrktK] 



CONDEMNED TO DEATH. 



143 



of hifi comrades wlio liftd sujfered earlier. 
An old sei^e^&nt told me th&t there bad been 
lUQch ilin iiig amongst the comnioEi soIdit^rA 
in the barr&ckfl, who liked mv husbandp far 
bia kaviDg b«:hav@d so well towards his 
iioldiera of the garrlaou of BasUdt, atid that 
they had been tuuch di^scoutetited witL the 
ieBtence of death. He said to me tbat oo 
the eveiiiog before, at the time fixed for th« 
execulionr the crown of ihe main I'ftmpart 
hzMJ been crowded with more tbao a Uiou- 
mud soldtt^rs, notwithataudmg that the being 
ibefQ in that way was forbidden under & 
thpiat <i f li ve day a iiu pHfon men t He 8{>ok e 
vtrf TuyBterioaalyi ana I did not quite under- 
itaud at w^h&t he waa almizig with his Uinta. 
Hy good kind hoateaa sent a very goofl 
dinner and beautiful fruity and Otto fetl 
to with very much good-wilL How happy I 
waa to aee him etti so heartily again 1 

Monday, ITih September. The oommand* 
ant gave me yesterday a ticket for the fort 
a&d garriaon, and the Fru^iati cajitain of the 
guar^ was so Idud aa to giire tt me back 
again^ and even to permit me, upon his own 
rtspLiusibility, to itay till the morrow with 
my husband. 

Early in the morning there came ta our 
window the prisoner who had been brought 
011 the previoua afteraoou into a little build- 
ing opfjoaite aur deu^ and separated from 
is only by a narrow yard. The aentriea 
were very gooti, and permitted him to 
■peak to tiAp although it waa against their 

orders. He was a R\rou von 11 j who 

hail I before thu revolution, buen a Prussian 
first'lloutenant in CoioguBf but left the 
service. My husband had procured him the 
ci^iunjand of a hataliion in hia own regiment, 
but he becniDB ill, and waa ibrced to remain 
in Heidelberg, When the Prussians occu- 
|iied thai town, he was so imprudent aa to 
give hi rose If up to them as a priiioDer of 
war. Huving a fever, he waa unable to 
flr. How pile and wretched he looked] 
How exciteu he waa, and how cast down at 
the same time ! Pour weeks ago they had 
declared against him the sentence of death, 
Mjud be wad awaiting then the ratification of 
it from Eerhnl The Prueaian autborities 
were very bitter against prisouera who had 
formerly served in the Prusaian army, and 
moat bitter against ofEcers ; therefore the 
pocir sick man was put into one of the moat 
gloomy and unhealthy caaemates ; where he 
waa left quite alone. By the humanity of a 
Baden lieutenant who had care over the 
prisoners of this fort, however, he at last had 
a few comforts allowed him^ and was moved 
to A more healthy place. Glad to see Otto 
agmiH} and speak to him, he heartily partook 
of my joy. 

In the afternoon he waa removed to a 
better prison* He gave me a letter for bis 
bftilher which I volunteered to take ,care of. 
JL ^w days afterwards this fiiend of oui^ 
waa ahoi^ 



His place was filled by Idr, T*, who had 
l*een chairman of the ai-tisan- union in Co- 
logne. This was a brave, high-spirited young 
man# who had preserved his courage. He waa 
one of the truest followers of my husband, 
who became acquainted with him in Stras^ 
botirg. He also liad beeu sentenced to death, 
and waa watting for the rati location from 
Berlin. At firat, he said to me, it was an 
ugly feeling, when the soldiers in the morn- 
iug opeued the d>xir of his prison ; then he 
thought always, **They are coming to bring 
me out. But uow,^* he said, " I am used to 
it s and I care not what may come ; but I 
must not think of my bride I After having 
searched for me everywhere she has been 
here, hut was not allowed to see me/^ He 
said this iu a careless tone, hut there was a 
quivering in his voice that I could well under- 
stand, 

Mr, T. comroanded the battalion of Baron 
B^ when tlmt gentleman became ilh The 
soldiers of tliis Yolkswehs battalion being 
mokit of them inhabitants of Mannheim, 
staved in their town when my husband left it, 
and dispelled, Mr. T, riding quite alone on 
the road towards Htiilelberg, to rejoin the 
revolutionary army, waa caught in a hollow 
way by the {)easants of a neighbouring vil- 
lage, who thou^^ht they would win the good 
opinion of tbe Prussians, by presenting to 
them, when they came, a revolutionary officer 
as a prisoner* This happened in the first 
days after the entry of the Prussians into 
Bajlen, when they were very much excited 
against tbe rebels. The cuiras&ieni who trans* 
ported T. to Heidelberg, dealt very barbiu*- 
ouily with him. Fettered hand and foot 
with a hejivy iron chain, he must needs go at 
tlie same pace with the horses ; and, when be 
(lagged, they drove him on with the points of 
their swords. Even passuig foot^soliiien 
could not refrain from abuning him by 
words and blows ; and, when he arrived at last 
at Heidelberg, his body was beaten brown 
and bine, ami the blood trickled from it. On 
his head alone he had seven wounds, and the 
blood so flo^ved over his ^e, that he could 
not see. Ofiicen to whom he complained of 
the rudeness of the soldiers, aaia to him, 
*^ tiiat the soldiers must have their fun also/ 
He waa lodged in a very miserable prison, 
whence, scarcely recovered from his wounds, 
he was brought to Hastadt, and shut up in 
one of the most unhealthy dungeons they 
could find. 

The sentries being very reasonable, he and 
my husband talked all day about the re vol a* 
tion. If an officer came near, the sentry 
always cave us warning, and we separated, 

Tu^day, 18th September. Otto is contented 
with his situation^ notwithstanding the damp 
straw and tbick water-d™>ping walls of his 
prison. My company ana the good things 
sent every day by my kind hosiesa, are very 
thankfully accepted by hinu How liai"d ia 
the lot of the paor prisoners, who are glad 



1 

4 




144 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



when even a sentry appears to them ! How 
horrible is their solituue without occupation, 
light) bookf<, or tobacco, so much wished for 
by them all I 

The officers who visited my husband to- 
day, said it was believed that the change of 
his sentence w^ould be to arrest in a fortress^ 
and one of these officers — a Baden one — 
whose parents live at Kiplau (that ])lace 
being a fortress) was so kind as to promise 
us letters of recconiraendation to his friends. 
Grant Heaven, that these reports may have 
truth in them ! 

I had a great sorrow to-day, when the 
captain of the day fetched me from the case- 
mate. The lieutenant on duty had recom- 
mended me not to show myself, when this 
captain should come, because he was a very 
severe man. Therefore, when the sentry an- 
nounced him to us, I hid myself in the dark- 
est corner of my husband's litter, and he 
threw fiis cloak over me. But this was use- 
leffii. When the captain entered the fore- 
most compartment ot the casemate, he said 
to his prisoner : 

"I have heard that your lady is here. 
Where is she ? " 

"Sl»e is asleep just now," he answered. 

'^ Well, then, awake her. I cannot permit 
her staying any longer with you, for she has 
only pcrnusaion to see you for about half-an- 
hour, and in the presence of an officer ; so 
runs our order." 

Otto was obliged to take away his cloak ; I 
rose from the straw, and, quite confused, fol- 
lowed the capUiin. My husband told me, 
that it was the same who sat in the court- 
martial. I dare not to go again this day to 
the commandant to get a new ticket of ad- 
mission ; I will go to-morrow and stay at 
home to-day. My hostess and her daughters 
are compassionate. Tliey both knew my 
husband, who had often dined in this 
hotel. The young girl was very glad 
when he sent her his riding-whip as a 
token of remembrance. What a comfort 
are such kind people when one is so very 
sad ! Tho landlady told me that the 
city-major Yon M. had lost his place for 
having brought, beforehand, and without 
authorisation, the news o^ the alteration of 
the sentence to my husband. Probably they 
would have announced it to him when he 
was standing on the sandhill, or when he 
was lying there a bleeding corpse. It would 
have boon only a misunderstanding. 

Wednesday, 19th September. 1 was very 
quiet and happy with Otto in the prison. 
The coramanclant-maior Von W. was un- 
commonly polite, and gave me a ticket^ on 
which was markiHl that I could see my 
husban<l without the presence of an officer, 
and for as long as I wished. But the sen- 
tries of the day were rough. A red-haired ! 



man behaved as one in a passion, althoui^h 
noboiiy had done him any wronar. He 
always knocked with the dog of his gnnlock, 
and seemed to have a mind to shoot poor 
T. whenever he showed himself near his 
window. When my husband gave an ex- 
planation to him, he cried : 

** No stirrinff ! Once you were a lord, now 
is my turn, and you have to keep silence." 
Even to me he used ill language, and be- 
haved ill. But this is the only soldier I have 
yet had to complain of. 

To-morrow a court-martial will sit, and 
my husband will then hear his altered sen- 
tence. The officers pretend to know that it 
is arrest in a fortress, and Otto is believing 
too much in their foresight Grant Heavea 
that he may not be mistaken ; for the House 
of Correction would distress him more than 
ten decrees of death. 

On the forenoon of the t?rentieth of Septem- 
ber, I" was brought before the court-martial 
again. I saw that the sergeant who had nnt 
voted for my death, opposed to the strong wish 
of all the other judges, was no more a mem- 
ber of the court; there was in his place 
another sergeant, who perhaps knew hif 
duty better. In Baden the Prussians made 
very free with the lives even of their own 
subjects, which they dared not do in Pruaria. 
Von B. and Von T. were shot, and I myself 
should have been shot also, had the verdict been 
unanimous, or had I been tried eight dayi 
sooner. For, that order to send the sentence 
to Carlsruhe in case of any difference amonff 
the judges was only a few days old, and I 
was the first to profit by it I had good 
help too, in the fact that the public prose- 
cutor himself was in too great naste to have 
me killed, and in his eagerness behaved 
imprudently. When my wife afterwards saw 
the B;iden minister of war, she thouirht it 
pro|>er to say a few words of thanlu to 
that gentleman ; he replied : 

<*^ere is no occasion for your thanks; 
the sentence could not have been valid, 
owing to the unjustifiable manner in which 
the law officer of the crown provoked it" 

The sentence of death was changed into 

one of TElf TEARS III THE HOUSB OF OoBp 
RECTIOSr ! 



The Bight qf Translating Articles from HousxnoLi) Words w reserved by the Authors. 



^FamiUm* in iMr Mouth* m ROUSEEOZD WORDS: 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL 
CONDUCTED BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



K". ase.] 



DIX, EDWABDS ii CU., PUULISUKUS, 



NOBODY, SOilEBODY, AK0 EVEBY- 
BODY. 

The power of JTobcKiy U becoraiDg so enor- 
moti% in Eugl iuti» hij4 be alime ia rt?iipoixaibk 
for ^t> mttuj pioee^lijiga, both in the way of 
o&mmiB&ioti jttjd otnia^l^ju ; lie bti^ so luucb to 
auaAvt*r i'A\ jtmi ia so instantly called to j 
ijccotiut ; thftt a Cgiv reoiarka upou liLm mny i 
not W iH'lhiit?d. 

Tbii Imnd ^'Ividi this iurpridog person . 
EimI in the lat^ war ia amazing to cousUler. ! 
It Hiis he U'h«> left the ientd behind, who left 
Uie Ki44tf3ii;t* Iwhtrid, who cbose the wot-ftt 
pdissib/e groiiiid bir encarapmeuta, who pro* 
TJti*^i uiiT fjiennA of Irikiisport, who killed the 
bor«ei«> wii-i j>arA!)^^*etl tb« commiaaamt, Tvbi>| 
ktjcw ii*>t(uiig of the bnsiuesa be proCes-^ed to 
know and mom^polUed, wbo de^iruated the | 
Enkf Jish H»»ii^% It was N^jboilj who gjive out 
tii ' 1 - Xfi. 1 eo tTt^e, 1 1 wsiA N ubu* 1 y n b o 

Rt ■!*! mtirtj horrible than Inn-' 

giii*-.- . ,^^^ .^»^ iil»»^, it was Nobofly wbo ou- , 
eiui^^bc'd alt the dire conftiaion of Ihilikkhiva , 

ft 

^ 
III. 



■l.r, 



M ^m even Nobody who ordered the 
iva csjyiilry efiartje. The Hou- 
rs w ts shti work of Nobody, and 
. t severely auff«i'«d for 
tlon* 

It U JiJ£iculi l\jr the iiilod to span the 
^r*^r «*f Nobody, The sphere of action 
©p uis wooderfid person, so enki^ges 

«^ that the limited faculties of! 

AiniMHiy are too weak to comp^uia it, 
¥1% the n&ln]% of the laiit tribunal ei- 
|ij.»,._t. ^*>poi(ited for the deLevtion and' 
P'- of Kobo^iy maVj as a part of 

tit .L .^ _:,:loua history, lie glanced at' 
villiciut wirikiu^. 

At the Old Baik*j, when a pei^an under 
•tr icion of mal -practice B ia tried, it 1 

^ Lc» (the rather as tbe strong aaa- 

piciou bii^ been found, by a previoiiR enquiry^ ^ 
to ea.iiSi)> to conduct the trial on strmgeut 
Driticijjles, and to cou^de it to imparLial bands. 
It ha^ not yet become the practice of the 
eriiiiinah ^t even of the civil courts—but 
Uipy^ indeed, are coiiBtiiii ted for the puniab- 
ujp,, t . t ^^^ifnebody — to invite the prisoner's 
or it's friendsj to talk tbe matter over 

wl - it* a cosy, tea-aud-muftin sort of 

Wa%% atid iimke out a verdict together, that 
•luijl lie what a deposed iron kiug called 
iottkitig things "pleaaaut."' But, when 



Toii. aa^4 



Nobody wai sbowo within these few weeks to 
hare occasioned intolerable misery and loaa 
in tbe late war, and to have incurred a vast 
amount of guilt m bringing to i>ada result* 
whicrb all morally sane persous can under- 
sUud to be fraught with fatal consequeocea, 
far beyond present calculation, tiuM coay 
course of prot;ee<]iug wiw the course pursued. 
My Lord, luleot upouestabliahiug the rei»poti- 
sibility of Noboiiy, ws^lki^d ioto court, ha ha 
would w:dk into a ball-room ■ and Mv Lord'a 
friends and ailtuirers toaidied and fiiwued 
upon bim in court, X13 they would loiidy him 
and fawu ufiou him In the other aasemblY, M^ 
fjord carried bis head very higli, and took 
a nnglity great tone with the coinrnoo people; 
and there was no question as to auythiug My 
Lord dtd or ariid, aod Nobody got trinm- 
phautiy fixed. Iguo ranee euough atid loconi' 
l>etency eoougb to bring auy country that 
the world hiHA ever aeeu to defeat and 
shame, and to lay any bead that ever was in 
it low, were proved beyond question j but. 
My Lord cried, ♦* Ou Kobody*s ey4?a be it \ 
and Jkiy l4orLi*s impaneled chorua cried, 
"* There is no impostor but Nobody ; on him 
be the shaiuu and blame I " 

Surely, this 19 a rather wonderful state of 
thtuns to be realising itself so long after 
tlie Fb>od, ill such a country aa Kuglaud* 
gurely, it ^suggests to us with some force^ that 
wlierever this ubiquitous Nobody ia^ there 
mischief is and there danger is. Fui^ tt is 
especially to be bortie in miud th^it wherever 
fiidure is accomplished, tlitre Noljuidy 
birks. With success, be ba^ nothiug to do^ 
That ia Everybody's buJiiuess, and JiU 
mauuer of improbable people will lu vari- 
ably be found at tbe l>ottom of it* liut^ 
it is the grciit feature of tbe priseut efK^ch 
that all public disaster in tbe Uulted 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is 
itasu redly, and to a dead certainly, Kobodyi 
work* 

We have, it is nob to be denied, puiiiabed 
Nobwly, with exemplary rigor. We have, as % 
nntion^ allowed ourselves to be deluded by no 
influences or inaoleaces of oMce or rank, but 
have dealt with Nobody in a spirit of equal 
and uueom promising justice that hna moved 
the admiration of the world. I have had 
sotn© opportuuitiea of reruarkiug, out of 
Kuglana, the impreasioa made oil other 



I 



I 




146 



HOTJSEHOLB WORDS, 



tCttad«nfii|f 



I: 



jieopL^s by tlie Btcrn Saxon apirit with wbiclij 
the liefiiuU proved aud tbe wrong done, we 
hiive tracked down nad punished the de- 
friulttir auil wrong-Joen And I do here 
deolnri? tuy aolemu belief, founded on much 
I have aefn^ that the renienihrance of 
our frightful failures within the last three 
jfeurs, and of our reUliation upon Nobody, 
will be more vivid and potent in Eiirope 
(mayliap In Asia, too, an<l in Atnerica) 
for yetti^ upon years to carae thnu alt 
our succesaea eince the daji of the Spaumh 
Arriiatla, 

In civil mat tells we have Nobody equally 
netive* Whc?a a civil office breaks down, tbe 
bi^eak-down is sure to be in Nobody^a depart- 
ment, I entreat <m my reader, diibioua of 
thii propoaition, to w^ait until the next 
brenk'dowu {the reader la certain not to 
have to wait long), and to obiserve, whe- 
ther or nOf it is in Nobody's depart^ 
juent. A dispatch i>f the greatest motuent is 
sent to ft minister abmailf at a most important 
Ortsm; Nobody reads it, British subjects 
»re wffrouted in a foreign territory ; Nobody 
in ti:?r feres. Our own loyal feUow -subjects, 
A few tbovisand miles away^ want to ex- 
chwniie political, commei^iul, and domestic 
intelligence with us ; Nobwiy stofss the 
mail. The government, with all jU mighty 
means and appliances, is invnriably beaten 
and outstrippefl by private enterprise ; which 
we nl! know to be Nobody ^s fault Somelbiug 
will he the national death of us^ some day ; 
ttud who can doubt that Nobody will be 
brought iu Guilty ? 

Now, might it not be well, if it were only 
for the novelty of the ex|*eriment, to try 
SoineWdy a little ) Reserving Nobody for 
statues^ and stars an.'] garters, and batons, 
tj,tvl places and pensions without duties, 
wiiat if we were to try Somebody for real > 
woi k t More than tliat, what if we were to 
punisii Soruebody with a moat inflexible and 
grliu sever! t3% when we caught hlin pompously 
undei'tjikiug in holiday- time to do work, auS 
found him, when the workiug-time oame, 
altnjiether nnable to do it ? 

Where do F, aa an Englishman, want 
Bonit^hoily ? Before higli Heaven^ I want 
him everywhere ! I look rouud tbe wbole 
doll horizon, and I want Sonjebody to do 
^ork wbili* the Brazen Head, already hoarse 
with Cluing ''Time is ! '* pusses into the 
second warning, "Time was ! ** I don't 
want Somebody to let oflf Parliamentary 
penny crackers a^rainst evils that need to be 
stormed by thti thunderbolts of Jove, I «Ioii*t 
want Somebody to sustain^ for Parliamentary 
RTid Club entertainment, and by the desire 
of several persons of distinction, the character 
of a light old gentleman, or a fast old gentle- 
man, or a debating old gentleman, or a dandy 
old gentlenian, f*v a f Vee-aml-casy old gentle* 
man, or a capital old gentleman considering 
his years* I want Somebody to be clever in 
doing tlie buslue^Sj not clever in evading it« 



The more clever he is in the la tti^r quality 
(which hti9 been the mating of Nobody), the 
worse I hold it to be for me and my children 
and for all men and their children* I want 
Somebody who shall be no tietioii ; hut a 
capable, good, determined workman* Fur, it 
seems to me that from the moment whi:n I 
uecept Anybody iu a high place, whose func- 
tion in thnt place is to exeliangv? winks with 
me instead of doing the serious deeds that 
iMflong to itj I set afloat a system of falw 
pretence and general swiudlingt the taint of 
which soon begins to maiiift?st itself ita 
every department of life, from >Sew;^aU 
to the Ctjni't of Bankruptcy, and thene* 
to^ the highest Court of Appeal For 
this reason, above all others, I want to 
see the workii^g Somebody in every i^ 
sponsible position which the' winking Some- 
body and Nobody now monopoli^ between 
them* 

And this brings me back to Nobody ; to 
the great irresponsible, guilty, wicked^ blind 
giant of this lime* O friendi, countrymen, 
and lovers, look at that erircase smoUirag 
strong of pniHftic acidj (drunk out of a silvtr 
milkpot, which waa a part of the plundtir, (a 
as the leas pernicious tbiei^es call it, the 
swag), aimheririg Hampstead H<^?iih by 
London town I Think of tho history of 
which that abomination ia at once the begin- 
ning and the end ; of the dark social seene» 
daguerreotyped iu it ; and of the LordsUlp of 
your Treastiry to wdiich Nobody, driving ft 
shameful bargain, rtiised thts ereiiture when 
he was alive. Follow the whole atory^ and 
finish by listening to the prtrlinmenlnfy 
lawyers as they tell you that Nobody kuowi 
anything aliout it ; that Nobody is entitled 
(from the attorney point of view) to believe 
that there ever was such a busiue» at 
all ; that Nobw?y can be allowed to de- 
mand, for decency *a sake, the swift expulaiijn 
from the lawmaking body of the survivii^ 
instrument in the heap of crime i that smell 
expulsion Is, in a word, just No body ^a buM]K9% 
and irmst at present be constitutionally left 
to Noliody to do. 

There is a great fire ragin!X in tho lan^ 
and— by all the polite prt*cedenta and pi^ 
scrip tiona 1 — you shall leave it to Nobody lo 
put it out with a squirt, exfjctjted homV in 
a year or &o. There are inund.ations bnr^tini^ 
ou the vallt'Y*, and — by Uie grkme pie^'cdt^uti 
and ]ireBcri^>tiona !— you shall trust to No* 
body to It. lie the water out with a bottoint- 
lesa tin kettle. Nobody being ressponsihle to 
you for his perleet success in tlies^P little 
feats, arid you ennfiding in him^ yoti shall go 
to Heaven. Ask for Sf>mebody in his steady 
and you slmll go in quite the conti*ary di* 
rection. 

Antl yet, for the sake of Evepvbo^ly, ^l^i 
me Somebody ! I iiiis« my voice iu the wil* 
deniefis for Somehodj*. My hea,if, a-^ the 
itallail say.^, is nore for Someboily» NtdwHiy 
has done mure haim iu this single generation 



:m 



t»lekai.| 



BEATFira AGAINST THE BARS. 



147 



than Everv!)ody can mend in teo generfttbns. 
Come, responsible Sumebodjr^ aocoimtable 
Bloc khf Ail, cuzue I 



EEATINa AGAINST TEE BABS. 

I HAVK told in two aketcHea preceding this 
bow, Hs & loader in tbe B;kdc?n revolution 
sft^r the iurrendifr of R:istadt, I became 
imlijrct to the pouer of the <irnnd Duke and 
the Prinee ^f Prussia ; how I wii9 impi isoned 
in the fortr&s^^ trtetl bv coiirt-miuilal, fteti- 
te.nccd to he ahot^ — btit not aliotj becaiiiie in 
th« coui't that sentenced me there was one 
djit-5entient j adge»* My Bentenco was chfin^ed 
to t*^n yeai-ii in the house of correction^ which 
•e^nieil wo me than deaths 

On the railway journej to mj prldoo I had 
■till aonie , inaults to so^er from young 
Prufidan office m. At tiie station in Cnrh- 
fiihe stood ti great many gentleiiTen in wJiite 
neckolothB, wlio probftbly came from a court 
dinner, and wialied to enjoy the BiE^ht of & 
i^kM?l in chjima. ** There are C. and hiH wife 
in tbiit oirriage,*' inid one,- nnd they all came 
andftlnredat nie ; but they saw no fettet^. 

I S3.t ajuong ftoldiers who behaved in a most 
friendly mannen There wiis uotbing more 
mekithiiniatlc than the grief of Joy noor wife, 
holding my hand as she h,-kd done all the way. 

II wrta aimo^ dusk when we arrived at 
Bmcltsah With a heavy hean I took leave 
of my true wife^ and was conducted iji the 
midsb of Boldiei^ through the town. Th© 
eor^fonil of the eaeort did not know the 
lix-idlty; and the inhabitants, having more 
iympa.ihy with conqtiertd than witii con- 

Saeror, took little ptiins to show where 
be honae of con*ectlon was. After moch 
ring to and fny we left tiie town by another 
l|e^ and reached a gloomy castellated 
lIldiD^. W© atopptM.1 at an iron grating in 
Oie walh 
*• More than ten years 1 " asked the warder* 
« No,' 

"You are wping then,** and he directed 

the way to the oldlionseof corrt?ciion. That 

wm the tii'St glimpse of my dungeon — the 

■ prison on the sep;irate Mid aalitary 

— ^in which six yeai's of my period of 

oonujce were spent 

I hflii m fellovv-^tttrerer on that first night 
*" -- TrtilkrvmfiQ of llsmtadt, who wa* taken 
ritf hito the guard-room of the old 
vvh* re two old people in lii^ht gr^y 
,il 'v^^.*- -jiiolera on duty — reeeived us, anvi 
I J 1 Jje pre»(iriae of tlje governor. That 
^Hicer gave a receipt for us to th« corpora), 
and 9^nt n« for tlie night to the rectf|ition- 
fvoni^ My blood tinglt^d wht^n my whole 
pirrBou was handled and ae^irched. But a 
pe«ioe-<)fferins[ came in the shape of a 
tap|Hfr of bixjlh, which aeemed to lie coni- 
(»ji*ed tif had g lipase ami iJoUitoesp very much 
prabicd by Uitj ^'aolers. 



* ||«« pa|^ MTauiy 'tl^Q &tid inn; Tmudf ad iJid forty ot 



Not havhig been undressed for a long time^ 
and having slept only on damp straw, I 
received the coarse but cleanly Ved in the 
reception-room as a great luxury. At about 
nine o'clock next morn log 1 was t4iken to tho 
governor, a worthy m.in, who was unable to 
hide hta re^entmeiit at the cruelty of the Prus- 
sians^ in inflio ting upon agentlejoau thepniush- 
ment of thieves* He prepared me for the 
ceremony of the prison toilette. On this repre^ 
aenULtlon, he said* Major M, and t'apta'm S.^ 
who were his prisoners^ received back their 
own clothes ; but the PruAaians, haviug heard 
of It, instantly remonstrated, and lie was daily 
expecting orders to put them agstiu into con- 
victs' uniform. Carried off to the watch- 
room by a thickset gaoler — who had a har^h 
manner but was not an unkindly man — my 
beard was swept off by the razor, my hair was 
cropped by a prisoner, who danced about me 
like an imp while he was anipping and shear* 
ing ; then, when he had m^le my head look 
like a shoe-brufih, he leapt away. I was 
ordered to nn dre^ nnd ptit on the convict's 
uniform^ which lay up^sn n bench ready to my 
hand, Thei'e was a pair of stock iiiffi? coming 
hiid* over the knee, ami made of thick liftmj> 
tftlne, hard as a grater ; there wa* an ascetic 
shirt, large enou;^h to be taken for a carter's 
frock, made of the caai^stat hemp Uneoi that 
felt upon the skm as if there hud been woven 
into it a bundle of toothpicks. This gar- 
ment Vieing quite new^ and never having 
touched Walter, was so stiff and Imhi, that 
after an hours wearing, it had aanired the 
akin of my whole body, tiU I aeemt?d to wear 
a ahlrt of Ncdaus, The trousers wt-re of the 
coarsest kind of hemp trellis, and the jacket 
of the fiame materiab 1 thrust my arm in it 
too fast, and scraped a piece of the skin from my 
knuckles. The was at- -oat and Jieckcloth were 
of like material, dyed with a bad blue. Alter 
I hnx\ put on a little hempen cap I tlnjught 
the himiness concUnied* But there lay on ihe 
form Botnt thing else that wj*s t^ belong to 
me. It looked like a sheet of gray paste- 
hoard, but a red line running through it 
Hatistied me that it was a tissue. T tuok it in 
my hand and no fo hied it with difficulty. It 
was so stitr that it retained every farm into 
whicJi it wfis ttcnt. 1 could not make out 
what this was, and asked iti* use ; the garder 
who had been am tilled at my |>erplexity 
inlurnied me that it wew tny pocket-hand ker- 
chief* The ( ri^onersT I round, I nit the^e ham I* 
kerchiefs in water, and then oeat tUt^m with 
stones until it becomes ^loaj^ihle to uise them. 
There were next given to me a pair of very 
rongU pt^aaaut shoes, a httltt wuuilt;n tablet 
with m> number piiinted upon it^ii small horn 
comb, and a low eh 

I was then taken into the wo»l saloouj 
which was to be my future scene of labour* 
Thirty pii?ionera were at wurk^ piekiug nnd 
apinning the wool, which lilled the room— . 
(J titer wise spacious and rejtsonahly ctieerfiil 
— with a ielid odour. The stiiineds, onlj 



4 



n 




148 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 






disturbed by the peculiar rattling of the large 
wool spinning-wheels ; the repulsive faces of 
many of my new comrades; the whole house- 
of-correction atmosphere, made, quivering yet 
under the impression of the toilette, a very 
strong impression upon my mind. Every- 
thing whirled before my eyes. 

By-and-by I recovered, and coald look 
about They had not, on that first day, 
given me any work. One of the convicts 
attnicted me, with noble features and a hi<rh, 
beautiful forehead. It was Dr. K. of Heidel- 
berg, spinning wool with the earnest mien of 
an old lloman senator. His neighbour to 
the right looked like a student ; but he was 
an incendiary. 

Near a smuning-wheel at the opposite side 
there stood a voung man like a Theseus, 
with long-lashea eyes, and a mouth delicate 
as that of a girl ; it was a young student of 
medicine from Mayence. He had been only 
three days in Baden, and, being ill while 
there, had never seen a fight, or carried 
arms. Intending to return to ]Mayence, he 
passed Heidelberg, and there he was arresteil 
by a clever gendarme, who sagaciously con- 
cluded that the perfectly new cap he wore 
must have replaced quite recently the hat of 
a rebel. Young R had indee<l belonj^^ed to a 
patriotic corps which was formed in his native 
town, but had dispei*sed before it reached 
Baden. He was sentenced to imprisonment 
for ten years, like myself. After two years 
of punishment, he obtained pardon. His 
parents and relations l)eing well off, spared 
no money, and apj^lied it in the right direc- 
tions. 

In the afternoon, we were permitted to 
walk for half an hour in the yard. During 
this time I became acquainted by sight with 
many of my fellow patriots. Thousands of 
them still languished in the casemates ; where 
they were perishing by hundreds, ne^dccted 
and forlorn. The government of Baden allowed 
so little concern in coming to a sf)eedy end 
with the examinations, that only three juilees 
were appointed to this business in Eastadt ; 
where no less than five thousand six hundred 
accused men were held in durance. 

At seven o'clock we had our supper. It 
consisted of a pint chopin of soup made of 
water, very mouldy black bread, and less 
than half an ounce of a detestable fat, called 
smear ; generally used for the greasing of car- 
riage- wlieels. This horrible soup was not 
seldom given thrice a day — for breakfast, 
dinner, and supper. After supper, we pro- 
ceeded directly to the bedroom ; in which 
there might have been some forty beds. 
After the gaoler had said pray el's for us all, 
he locked the door and went away. He could 
always look into the room by a wicket, where 
lights were burning all night. 

I had managed to have my bed at the side 
of Dr. K., with noboily on the other side. K. 
had a mind to talk ; but this was impossible 
tome. During all the day I had forcibly 



held back the tears ; now I hid my head 
under the blanket, and wept like a child. 

At half-past four in the morning we were 
awakened by the ringing of a bell. Every- 
body rose, and made his bed and his toilette. 
The latter was a curious proceeding ; for it 
was a toilette without glasses, basins, tooth- 
brushes, or even soap. The washing apparatus 
for these forty people consisted simply in one 
tub of water and an empty tub, together with 
I a small tin drinkingcup. Since, for the whole 
'; business, to forty persons, only a few minotee 
wei-e allowed, our ablutions were always very 
incomplete. 

I After a prayer spoken by a gaoler, the 
j workroom was opened, and we began oar 
.labour by the help of dim oil-lights. I 
was ortiered attend a large spinning- 
wheel, and received a quantity of wool to 
, convert into thread. One of the work- 
' masters showed me how to proceed, and I 
; began my task. When my wheel got en- 
tangled, my neighbour to the right came and 
I put it in order, without speaking a word. 
, riiis was a young Italian, who, in animated 
,' dispute, had thrust his knife into the body of a 
Buden subject. I could see how excitable he 
was. His blood w;is always in extraoi*dinary 
motion, and when he came to help me he 
I blushed like a girl. 

I ^y neighbour to the lefl was a venerable 
;old poacher, who sometimes offered me 
! stealthy pinches from his little bark snuff- 
box ; and I could not find it in my heart to 
refuse this little kindness. The director had 
taken care to place me betwixt the two most 
honest knaves of his collection. Generally, 
the common criminal felt that the political 
ofFenders did not belong to their set They 
forbore to show any intimacy ; although ail 
wore the same dress, and did the same work. 
If any one of us spoke to them, they were 
pleased, and showed their acknowledgments 
.; \jy many little services. 
I Before tlie breakfast, half loaves of very 
coarse black bread were brought in baskets, 
. and, when the gaoler called a name, each of 
us went forth to fetch one. In the first 
I days, I was always struck by my name as brr 
a dagger-thrust The bread was very bad, 
for it was mixed with common field-bean 
meal ; but it was not safe to complain too 
loudly; a few common criminals who had 
I done so having been punished. None being 
I ))ermitted to have knives, every one that de- 
' sired to cut a bit of bread (one pound and a 
! half was the daily allowance) had to go to one 
I of the pillars, against which ^a blunt knlfo 
I hung by a short chain. 
I The dinner at twelve oVlock consisted of a 
chopin of soup and a chopin of potatoes; 
I lentils, peas, or another vegetable : meat was 
I given only twice a week, four ounces at a tima 
On the Satunlay came a gaoler, and asked 
; which of us desired to write a letter. I was 
; of that number, for I had promised to my 
I wife to write to her as soon as possible. 



Di«kc»M.] 



BEATING AGAINST THE BAES. 




149 



On Sunday we rose at batf-f^asl five o'clocki 
*mi ]t:Ml 110 work to do, We attended 
diifliio service iu a lon^^ salooo, arrauged like 
a ehtiidi. Iti the afteruoon^ each of U9 as 
would write Jettere wetit to the guard'tt»orii. 
There, aecordiugly I sal, mixed with the 
refusie of hunmii society, to write to my dear 
wife ; whose iiriuie I would have thougLt aul- 
lieil if apokeu t>ef*>re them. 

There wita in Brucliaal a railwny office t 
who had ahtfcoudefl witli &ix thouaand florins. 
Alter liavhig ^peiit the munt^y he eame t^aek. 
He had his ow^u clothe;^ ayd hia own rooju m 
th*? piiatiii with mnny comfortSj and was uc- 
en{»:ed willi keeping ilie bookij of tht^ umna^e* 
tnent. A frauiliikut wivtclimaJter or jeweller 
worked 01) h Lit own aceouitt ia hia own room ; 
ind such eianifde* wtre by no mean a riue 
oiteA. TUm could not be througti fraud or 
negllgexice iii the director * for the prisoua 
wt?rt? viaiteil every month by the members of 
the miuititry. If critoiiuili^ of this kind ba^'e 
% claim to nnlder treat man t, how mucii grt^aler 
clHim had we, who brcaoie tor the moat p^irt 
crtmittiahi from motives which shouhl be the 
Btjvn^^ah ANil not the weakne^ss of a Btat« 1 
But fifler a time we obutiiied, through the 
r^'prefiijiitations that we made, much idaxa^ 
tioii of the prison diBciplhia. Yet, scarcely 
had Wi* Warm to apprtiL^tats the bt;tttrii*g of 
Our eonditton, when tbtire happened to me 
inew trotiblc. 

Qn Sunday, the tbrrtieth of September^ a 
mi kee|»er of Broctiaal, i Involved in the 
tlutioii, was delivertril iu to our tstabliiih' 
mfftd. lie was pojmlar in Briic!istit, and 
In the afternoon about a liuUilrwl youn^ ki- 
lo w» assembled in the town, and boasted they 
Wijuld fre#< the pi iaom?rs. It was mt^re hec- 
torio^ i but the Prussians and tlielr obedient 
ierv.-inis m CarUruhe neized on tbia pretty xt 
til the puniiibjnent of eeriain of 

tlj .i. CoiiaL-quenily^ in tlie after- 

noon ol tije second of October five of iia were 
called to tlie director, who received ua with 
Ui«i' ' ^ "iuu* He told \m that he had re- 
fit ' : ^ to send ns immeiliattily to the 
ji*)w lii.^ut; pibon — the terrible cellular peni- 
Uuttary. 

A detachment of Kaasau soldlerB tratis- 
ported ua in our slavt^gear tbruu^jh the 
*lioi<? town, where many a pitying gir^a 
eye tuct oura as we paaged, Thu gaolerji 
had t*>ld ua muny ttmea of the new priaori 
lo which we were giing ; and with other 
Hiinga, that the pi-iaouer» there were abli^ijd 
to viLaj visors. 

We anivcd ; we entered- We were broiigVit 
Into a pr»*|>ajratory cfll | where we Bludied 
With di^iTiiiy the reguhitioua of the bouse. 
TbiTi T*e were separated, and I wiis led 
into a cell towarde the noi th ; where 1 was to 
live for yeai^ away from other men, always 
aloue^ I lost even my Ituuian name^ und 
became number two hundred and aeveuiy' 
dghtj eneloi^ed within four bare walk, in a 
(pace four yards by sixj under m ceiling lU^d n 



coffiii-lid. My little iron bed was chained 
againit the walL In one corner there waa a 
little open cnpboani with a pitcher, a table, 
a board, both fixed on the wall — and that 
was all. Of the whol«j priaou It is enough to 
Bay that it ia a coaily masiive a true tare c<in- 
tnved on the principle of that at Pentonville» 
It had not long been finiabed — indeed waa 
not wholly finished — when I entere*! it. But 
of my ]iale >cllow cell there aJre some thing! 
that I muyt narrate : — 

The floor iu the Bruebsal cells la covered 
with little gtiiiai-e tiles, bo soft that the pri- 
soners iweep from them every morning more 
tliaii a pint of Uie finest brick niust, which 
penetralea everywhere, and of course gets 
mto the lun^. To make thia worse, the 
Bboe« of the priaonera are thick-set with 
largo naib. Of late these ahoe» have been 
aboijslied, and a fevr of the tloora have been 
|wiinted with linseed oil ■ but tltia coata for 
every cell abcjut two shdliiiga^and the Biiden 
goveiiimtut ia not easily induced to expend 
so much on the mere health of priaoneia* 

Beneath the ceiling in one of the hmger 
walls, a a*juare hole is placed, through which 
cornea m the hot nir iu the winters corre- 
apouding to it i:i another such hole on tlie oi>- 
lM>;4iie siile, but ner*r the floor, intende*! to 
tiLke bad itir out* The theory of ibia heat* 
ing and airing may be very good | but the 
praclice provea very deticiHjjt. The open* 
\n*r& work very often more after their own 
mind than after that of the inventorj on« 
tillini^ the cell with cold air, and the other 
apMUtiiig suioke. 

The heating witli hot air^ the penetrating 
brick- duatj the bad water, and the draught 
alwaya ft: It in the cell bo atrongly that the 
hair of I lie ptiaoner ia moved by the wind 
even in bed, are the greatest calamities inci- 
dt'oL to priaon life at Bruchaal from architec- 
tural re:LHona, It ia a fact, that every plant 
dies in one of these celU after a abort time, 
even hi summer, and that a bird rarely will 
outlive a winter* Hot air ia esiceUent for 
large hrdla in which ]>eopIe assemble now 
and then for a ie%v bout-b; but it is mur- 
derous in euch a mail clo^eta* I will not 



dwell upon the decompoaitiou of the air by 
this manner of he^iting, but only snenk 
of the dryness produced by it» Every tning 



in the cell ia dried to the utmost p The win- 
do W'fitimes — which are of wood instead of 
caat-iion — are so njucli ahj'unk, that they let 
the draughts In freely, and with doora it is 
the same, A cloth aaturated with water dried 
In a few minutes ; and it is evklvnt^ that this 
dry air muat o)>ei*ate iu a like manner on the 
body ui the priaonera. I leave it to physidami 
to tell wlnit muat be the conseqiiciice of ex^ 
potsure to this dry heat when combinetl aa ft 
state of aufTering wltb bad and itUiufhcient 
food. Hot air Jilla only half the cell ; the breast 
and bead of the prisoner are swimming in it^ 
whilat the other half of the man morea in m 
cold current The water cornea from ike k\U& 



4 




at tbe foot of ifrliich the prison is situated, | 
and is led to even* story by a conduit which ^ 
is very much admired, but which has only 
the fault of being always out of order. In 
winter the pipes are frozen for months, and 
in summer, the water is dried up, or the 
pipes arc subject to repair. On many a hot 
summer*s day we had no water at all. More- 
over, the water itself is bad ; a few drops of 
vitriol put into a pint of it will produce a 
thick ])recipitate of plaster. If I dared to 
drink only a mouthful of it during the 
night, it always produced colic and diarrhoea. 

The dress of tne prisoners is the same as 
that of the old house of correction, with the 
exception of the hc<id-dress. This consists 
here of a skull-cap of blue woollen cloth, to 
which is attached a very large visor, which 
covers the whole face, and in which are cut 
two holes to see through. This horrible cap 
must be worn always when the prisoner is 
not locked in his cell. When in the yard, the 
prisoners must be always fifteen paces dis- 
tant from each other ; and, if two of them 
meet by chance, this regulation catisesagi'eat 
embaiTassment. The greatest crime in this 
prison is that two prisoners should speak to 
one another, or endeavour to communicate 
by any other means. 

In every w^ing were employed five or 
six turnkeys, called at Briichsiil overseers. 
That one under whose care the directors very 
considerately placed me, was the best and 
most courteous in the house. It was indeed 
a comfort to me to be under the orders of 
this man ; who behaved with the utmost 
deliciicy. He was an old soldier, and bluslied 
all over when he wjis com])elled by his duty 
to show me how to use the B2)inning-wheel 
placed in my cell. 

i have not space for an account of the 
routine of model prison life. The meat of 
the model dinner was allowed only upon 
alternate days, and the nllowance then was 
two ounces of boiled beef! For breakfjist, 
dinnei-, and supper together, government at 
that time paid to the managers daily a 
penny three-farthings; from which, provision 
was to be made not only for all the pri.^^oneis 
consumed, but also for servants' wages. 
>.'everthelcss, the woman who then was 
manager made money by the contract. 

"NVhen I had been only two days in the 
house I was brought by the head overseer 
into his room, where I found my wife, my 
mother, and my only sister. The latter hat! 
come from the Prussian frontier. 1 had not 
seen her for twenty-seven years, and she had 
become a grandmother in that time. My 
mother I saw then for the last time. The 
expression of my poor wife's face in looking 
at me rent my heart. She had not seen me 
yet in my base dress, disHgiired by the 
scissors ■ and the razor. AVe thought this 
meeting a very sad one, and my situation as 
bad as possible : but in a few years later what 
would we not have given even for such a 



meeting 1 Only one visit in the month is 
permitted to the prisoner. It must be in the 
presence of an overseer and only of half- 
an-hour's duration. 

When my wife was in Bruchsal she spoke 
to the dii'ector, and he proposed to the 
Council of Control several favours to be 
allowed to me ; and, in consecpience of this, I 
was ])ermitted to wear woollen drawers ; to 
shave myself ; to have in my cell portraits 
and other not ofTensive nictures ; to have 
fiowers, even in i>ots, and to paint in oil ; 
after havin<^ done half a day*s work for the 
administration. The leave to paint in oil and 
to have flowers was of an immense value to 
me, and I became so cheerful with my occu- 
pation that my ovei'seer was quite astonished* 

When the director of all the prisons 
in Baden made me a visit, I asked leave of 
him to have my own lamps, instead of tbe 
smokinff kitchen lamrts then used, which I 
detested. But even he dared not to grant 
such an immense boon on his own respon- 
sibility, and was obliged to bring this im- 
portant concern before the ministry ; by whom 
it was allowed. 

But all this was to be changed very soon for 
the woi-se. When Captain S— — fled from the 
old house of correction by help of his sister, 
who visited him ; and who was, as was said, 
supported by the bribed head - overseer, 
all corres{X)udence with our families aud 
Iriends was prohibited, and their Tisits 
also were disallow^ed until the completion 
of the model parlour. Most of the favoun 
granted to p<jlitic:il prisoners by the Council 
of Control were annulled, and a reproof civen 
to them into the bargain. They prohibited 
especially my painting in oil, because it was 
said to be against the seriousness of the 
phice ; but they permitted me to paint in 
w^ater-colours. I never understood why 
water-colour i)ainting was judged to be more 
serious than work in oil. 

The Prussians, especially the officers, be- 
haved as if they had conquered Baden. Tlieir 
insolent and despotic manners were not liked 
at all, even by the Biiden oihcers who had re- 
mained faithful to the old government 
These had been living for many vears under 
a constitution, and were shocked by Prussian 
tyranny. Besides, North German sharpness 
very seldom agrees with South German bon- 
hommie. 

Prisoners who never see for years a green 
tree or field are very excusable if they trr to 
find means to get a steidtliy peep out of their 
windows. So doing is forbidden, and if de- 
tected is punished. The Prussian sentries 
would have done well to re}X)rt against such 
tre8i>asser8 ; but they had received orders to 
fire at them. Almost every day shots were 
heard in the court-yard, and many of the 
prisoners had narrow escapes. Of course 
the political convicts were very much shocked 
by such severity, and the belter pai-t among 
the officers of the house were shocked also. 



Oulfi |lldii^u.| 



BEATING AGMNST THE BAES, 



191 



OonipUuita were without purpose; oti the 
oontraryf ilie soldiers were pr^iiiseil by tht^tr 
ofEcer^, Mid it waa only re;;^ re tied that uot 
one oi' these demoarata was hit, Sometlmea 
I B&w the seQtriea hid behind mma wood 
watching tlte window with their ciiu^keta 
read}*, as if" they were sports tneu stalking 
det!r. OtiL'tt I heard the report of a muaket 
1?cry n^ar iiie, a crj, &ud tl^en the trzirapiij^ of 
mAuy people, who seemed to be (uin^ying a 
bcEvy burdeti. X afterwat-ds was tolil, it 
was a piHjr prisoner emplu}'€d to \vhliewa^li 
A c*»ll He WHS just about to replace the 
window, wtauditig upon a step, when he was 
spi<?d by a seutry and shoi^ throiii*k the 
treatit. The poor fellow liad yet etrength 
enougli to descend the steps^ and to set a&ide 
the windov^ wfaieb he held iu both his lianda. 
Then he fell dowBiand died a few daysaftei'^ 
warila. This atrocity was mi?xcusabU% iaaa- 
miicih as the sentry hail been wariit^d not 
to tire at prlsotL&ra who worked aa mosouB 
in the cella. 

This waa not all our trouble. The sentries 
running upanddown the courtyard, near and 
tinder the wiadows af the cellSj used to call 
to one aj]other in the n ight. Becoming a ware 
that tbiii calling rexed the prisonerSf who 
mre awakened by it, th« sentries amused 
theftist^lves by shouting all night^and as loudly 
Lth«y catt-ld to the greatest vexation of us 
One sight they did no in suc^h a manner 
't the house was roused. They roai-ed like 
lnie% animated to do so b/ a lieutenant 
had just been visiting the guards. 
Several of the pruinners elHiubered to the 
windows, and one of t lie sentrie!* shot at them 
without etfect. At the same Uuie I heard 
one of Uie ]irlsaDers angrily exulaim against 
the man who tired. 

Go the day following i;^ien all the highest 
offii^rd of the prison had left for tlieir dinner, 
Juid Qixly the newly made head-o verse era were 
pfi \ ' iti am>eared id the establishment 
til 1 mihtary officer in conmiand, ac- 

Ctiuip.iij, ,1 i>y »ever:il officers, corporals, and 
a [lairul with loa^Ied &:iusketa; two corporals 
Itn ] ^iu^\iA in their hands. Major Von E. 
I orn the head oreraeer, the de- 
' inmates of three cells he pointed 
I and wliom be accused of having, on the 
vlous night, insulted the aentritis, The 
1 ovei-B^.'er was perplexed, and did as the 
mnjor ordi.'1-^d. By the noUe in the court- 
yard the prisoner weri attracted to the 
windows, in spite ef the danger. The major, 
fpMg thiA, itivtted them to come all to their 
dnwji, and see what he was about to do. 
Iirue of tlte prisoners were tlieu brouglit 
fjjto ih*: eourt-jard and barbarously caned in 
prvhencc of the major and his suite. When 
the mnjor alter this heroic deed passed 
tentfath my cell, L heard a laugh and my 
fkamcf ; probably one of the ofEcer^s i-egretted 
that I had tiot Wen one of the receivers of a 
Urilbbtug» The director resented thia iu- 
fin^cUoii of his authority, and complajued of 



it to his ministry in the mc^t energetic 
manner. The i-esult was that he was i*uii- 
denly dismissed on the next excuse that 
could be met with. 

That head overseer^ who delivered the 
priapnera to the major, was a living memento 
of the taet of the Badisli minis try. He had 
been a BadUh lieutenant iu the year eighteen 
Imudred and forty-eighty and was^in eighteen 
h tin d red and f or ty ^nin e^ eho«en ea ] i tal u. Aa 
such he participated in the re volution, and 
was present at most of the fights. Mtutiover 
he had good connections j and, when he w^iS 
examined, he said that he had been forced by 
tlie soldiers to stay with his regiment. He 
was not only acquitted, but was plueed as head 
ovei'seer in a hou^e of correction, when.^ he 
was the auperior of comrades aiid soh^iei-s, 
with whom he ha<^l shared in the same cnme. 
This m;in wm neitlier a spy nor a bad man ; 
I did not grudge him his good berth, but it 
was base to place him in it. 

When my fii"St overseer received promo- 
tion I was removed to another cell, whti^ru I 
had many overseers at hand, who did all they 
could for money, and who would have dono 
mom with a Utile courage. Througii one of 
them I received a letter Irom a youn^ girl of 
Brucbsal, Kate Z, the daughter of a Tmieher 
there, who olfered me her services. I did not 
know her ; but she gave heia^lf much tpotible 
to serve the political prisoners. Several of the 
overseers boai'ded at her fntlier's house, and 
she knew how to persuade them. 

Without the supply of food which I re- 
ceived through tUi±» channel, 1 do not know 
howl could have lived through the brat half- 
year. Of the prison diet my a to raach lultr^ited 
almost nothiug but the soup, bad as it was, 
and I was always s^ hungry om a wolf. Chu^a 
on the way to the yard, one of the overseers 
found an opportunity to give me a nii^e piece 
of boiled b:uu, wrapi>ed in paper. 1 put it 
into the breast poeitet of my jacket to eat 
when I returneil into my cell ; but this plec« 
of ham burned more upt>n tay heiwt tlutn 
almost anything I ever had uptm it^ ily 
mouth began to water like that of a well- 
behaving dog, who is kept long txpctant of 
a morsel. At last canine appetite overcame 
every sense of shame or even caution ; 1 hid 
myself as well as 1 could, and bit into the 
ham with ati eagerness that would have done 
honour to any beast. 

By the care of my friend Kate, who was pro- 
vided with money by my devoted wife, I was 
at this time very well served. I received 
every moruiug coffee or chocolate quite hot 
in a dat brandy bottle, and held wai*m in th« 
hroiist of the overseer, who ran witji it from 
the town to the prisou as fudt aa h*i could. 
Sometimes I had wine, meat, and even cigara 
and newi^papers. By one of thtse people, 
whom I p^ii'l very well, of course, 1 received 
every morning a writteu report of everything 
that occurred in the bouse, and what he had 
heard of other political priaonera* B^ ^iaa 



I 



I 



1^ 



15$ 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



tOs&fnriiii If 



I 



"i 



menna I gained ft kiiow]eiige of all circum- 
stall' ca, fi ml of tLe coustniciiun of tlic house 
it ft* If, ^'hich iwfts necesaarj to effect uiy 
ilight ; tor wJiich wll jini^Hnttiona were coiu- 
pWied liy tlie s|>riiig of tkc jear eightetu 
LuitfJied jitjJ fifiv one, 

B) c4iELiit.*L' I eiw iu the roora of tlie head 
overs t^er a pl'in of the prisotij aiitl tbia behieil 
me very uiiicli to jiian niy jiroject. tIi« 
mo it* I brooded over htlw moie iia praclba- 
l»iilLy l>^x':4iiie oV)viou£i ; ttllf at laeit, 1 entrie to 
tlt^ resohitiun not to go alone, Ittit to Iree all 
tilt' puUtlcal prlfonei^ in tqMe of all the 
PruMiiiiiB. The ]ilfln wits buld but the eaEU-r 
for it* \H>liliief!e, and was bv no means im- 
pmctii^nUfe. Mm-liatjces frustrated it at la^t, 
and tlit^rtf art*! oeed not. narrate it in ditalL 

Aft^t the flight of Captain S ail 

ilitercoiirse with my wife was forbidden for a 
tinie J but, liltifi" tho tiniifbing of liie model 
pa I lour J I consulted the director, aiid wrute 
to her to come and see me* She may tcH 
hcrwtdf the ailveniurea of thia little journey* 
1 will giv<? »g*iin an extract of ht-r diary : — 

♦* B\bruary 2f)th> 1 rose to<:» late to go 
by iW. firi^t train^ bm 1 intended to see my 
liannheim fneods | hut to this delay 1 owe 
tht? aecnnipiinmifnt of Fdt^^eben {tVierieriea, 
a fritiid i»r uiirfl) and her Utile HeleLa, The 
JDUiiH'V seeiiied to me very long; I could 
think of tjatbing else but how 1 would fuitt 
you^ nay dvar husbjind ; the sadticst imagina- 
tion ti ptir8Uitig ine, Whrn I arrived in Iht? 
boti-l lit Bruclisal it was yet d^iy, and I 
dared mA to go for Kate. At last it grew 
dark ; and^ puUiug on an old hood, I ventured 
into tlie i^ti'^et. I had the goud luck to 
find Kate. 

" Feb* 27th* 1 rose early and went out to 
buy ilowern for you betoje going to the 
prmm ; for l\wHe 1 hatl bi ought with me were 
two days old and fzuicd. I at^io wished to buy 
&n i^'y ID a pot, that you might have aonit'- 
iliirfcg fresh and living in your solitary ce!L 
It was lijitf paat eight wLen I was about to 
b*?ivo my rw^m with Fritzcheii and the cbiJdj 
when two policenven came and asked for my 
]uisti[U)jt. I told thcni| that 1 had neither 
jvisKpoi t nor olber pjija'i"Sj my luisbnnd being 
a pii&oner and having teen plundered by 
the rrnsaians mul others t>f his property and 
pa| ers. The policemen went away to the 
eijmmandant of Drncbsal, but came very aoon 
bafk, bringing with Ihem a writLen order, 
by which 1 was not permitted to leave my 
room before fonr o^etock in the aftcrnoois, 
being a prisoner till further orders. No 
reason wass menttorted. Upon tltis I wus 
induced to go niyaelf to the captain. The 
politH men would not snffer me lo leave the 
r*ii>m and hiitel ; they even htld Frit2che!i, 
(who hr^t ovej^tepped the threshohl)^ by her 
arm and {;o\vn ; but she abutted them so^ that 
tbey becaiue nnceriaini nud loAt the courage 
to retain by force such a beantiful and angry 
womaoi Moreover, they followed ns cloee. 
The eommaudaiit was very polite^ excused 



himself for fulfilling the duty of office ; but 
abided by the execution of the order. It 
was only with much trouble 1 p<*rsuaded 

him to go and see Director D , atid 

to consult witb him, wbf^tlicr it wouhl bt 
loo dangerous lo permit me an interview j 
witli mv unfortnnate husband* Very soon ht 1 
came into the hotel and told me that I cuulc]] 
go to the prLson^ but only aceouipanitfd by thai 
policemen, 

** I went directly, but I inquired in TldoJ 
for tlo wt*ii3. Ihe nearer the momeut eame t<>l 
see you, the more sorrowful 1 became, audi 
my heaii' throbbed more vebemently. More^ I 
oveVj the thought that I must not iJ^crei 
your sorrow by showing mine; but on tlie| 
contrary try to ins|>ire you with courajpe) [ 
gave me strength. Sometimes I se;ircely couJd 1 
believp that you were indeeil in a House of 1 
Correction ; it seemed to me like an old I 
dream* 

'* When we reached the prison and entered 
tlie room of the porter^ I aaked R»r Lbs 
director, to a^lc why he had expreisiy 
forlndt!en my friend Fritzcben to sec mf 
husband* I think it was because be beJieYid 
Fri lichen *s buEiband to havs written a ]>al>er 
against sotitary imprisonment; bitt he was 
not to be seen* Close to the room of the 
porter is the parlour, and connected with it 
by two doors, I'hat tbrouLjh whicb the over- 
seer (whose duty it is to be present at an in- 
terview) enter:*, hsiagla&s window^^ ; the other 
door led to another compartment of the room, 
which is limited by a barrier and a network 
of wire. A third compartment, likewiae 
tiniited by a barrier and railings !& to b« eci« 
tered from the inside ofthepri.sun by a mawive 
iron door. Being in the porter's rot>m, 1 saw 
my husband in thia compartment, throngh tiie ' 
Windows of the dbor. When the overtevr 
entered his compartment, Bituated lntwi?t'ii 
the two others, I followed him ch»aely to givd 
to my husbatid my liand ; but with<.>iit pjty I 
wns pushed back and ushered througfi tht 
other door into that i^art of ibe liarloa; j 
destined for the visitor. 

** O, this parlour is one of the most cruel 
invent! 003 I I am not able to express in 
words the torture of the mind enanred in 
tbese few minutes. During only half-an-hour 
the wives, parents, or children of a jirt^ont^r 
are peitnilted to see him* Kvery fond word 
is restrained by tlje presence of a gaoler, 
whose face is showing his im] salience ha he 
countiS lime by I lie strokes of the clock and 
not by those of the heart. 0, this was a 
t>ainfu I, frightful parting— bearti*en ding to see 
my poor Otto, thy pale face» thy muurnfiil 
eyeSj and thy comjireased colourltiis h|>9 ! U 
wttji a moment in which to become mad with 
grief. What horrible thonghts thronged at 
once to the mind* To see a loved Detng 
descend again living into hra grave ^ Wiu 
he ever come back — and if he comea, how 
will hs be I Perhajis, with a sickly body t pro- 
bably a disttirbed mind — a broken inaiu 



CkwlMi T>Tefera».] 



BE^TIKG AGAIKST THE BARa 




153 



"At j*boQt fonr o'cjlo<rk the oommftniknt 
c«me to my hiitel, and told me that I 
could depart ta 0000 nA 1 wiahad ; but tliat, 
till thf n, I wnfl to k€<3p my rf>Dm^ fjtiarded by 
& poIteetDan, and tiiai I must suffer myself 
to be accompanied aa fur aa tLe frontier 
of 6adt?ti by a gemlanne, I would de- 
part, I saiJ, next nintumg'j and wrote a 
letier to ycnj, which I rtqueatad Fritz* 
cben to convoy to Kate; but, when she 
luov^d to leave tJie room, she foutjd herself a 
priaoner like me. I aetit the letter by the 
WMiter, aitd hafl th« good fortune to receive 
your answer the earae evening/* 

Tlie two lafhei ^ere indet;d accompanied 
by a geudarnie, after the maniier nana I when 
any vai^fiboud Is brought by *^achur* (abore) 
over tb« frontier ; a wanton insult agamwt a 
woman which might easily have been avoided. 
My wife waa forbf4iden logo to Baden wttbout 
leave from the prince of Pruaaia or tbe 
General von ScbreckensteiD* 

My pre^^tratioDtt for escape were ripening* 
I h&d keys and many n^ce^ary implements 
Apparently* nothiitg remained wanting but 
the remo^*al of »ome b.:irs from an unguarded 
cellar window. A fenifiLe friend of unne pass- 
ing throuj*h Frank for tj had luld my wife — who 
then lived ia that ttiwn-^tbat she would 
venture to iulw through, during the night, 
the iron bars which separated me frotn 
liberty ; that she would an rely do it for me 
when she came back from a certain iiacesaaty 
jvurney, My wife, thinking she could do aH 
much ifl any other womau, determined at 
once to undertake this perilous a*l venture 
herself ; but she did not break her intention 
to &ny one; knowing very well that her 
parenii and friends would have restrainetl 
Wr from an uudei taking, which they would 
have called sheer madjieas* In truth the 
undertaking was an extremely dangerous 
otte I fbr sfie would meet with death or 
worsts if detected by the Frusaianfl. But 
whenever did a true wife reflect on danger, 
when a husband could be saved t My wife 
forgot not only danger, but many neceaaary 
things aiso ; and^ when she left Franks 
Cbrt, her plan was but traced ia ooafaied 
outlineB, 

Not being permitted to enter the duchy 
of Baden in tier own character » ahe set olf 
at four o*cKock, in the afternonn, riding in the 
third class, in mean clothes. In the carriage 
she met a poor Jewlah pedlar wojuan, who 
tiv«d near the Baden frontier, and was on her 

Crney home. My wife proposed to buy her 
ket with every thini^ in it, and also a black, 
Irontbt to didgnise her better ; for ahe desired, 
ma she said, to make a je^t with some of her 
CH ends. The poor woman waa very glad to 
get rid of b^^r bstaket and the worsted, on my 
wife's prunusjing to replace them, if possible, 
tm which end she noted the Jew woman^s 
nddreaa. 

With this frontlet and liftsket, my wi^e 
eould act the part of a JeweBa — none the 



worse for being the daughter of an Italian, 
and having upon her ^ce the rich tints of 
the glowing south. 

Arrived at a certain station, my wife 
stepped out, and met^ in a village not far 
from Bruchaal, a young man recommended by 
Kate aa an enthusiffcstic and truat worthy ad- 
mirer of the pohticol prisoners. He was 
ciigerly willing to l^e serviceatble ; but recom- 
mended saving nothing of the flight to Kate, 
wlio wiks a chatterbox ; althuugh a very good 
girl. Lie knew some old people who had 
a room to spare ; and, aller having be- 
spoken everything necessar)^ my wife went 
away to try whether she could get thb room. 
For a silk neckerchief and a few ribbons she 
suGc^ded* 

Then she prepared for action, and set right 
her watch -spHng saws, and the black was 
which waa to conceal the cuts made in the 
bar* The old people of the house went very 
soon to bed, ana slept aouudly when my 
wife's young helpmate gave the appointed 
signal She left her room stealthily, and rilso 
the cottage^ an^l met the young man. It was 
past ten, und the night dark and raiuy— juat 
such a night as was b^t ailapleii fur the 
execution of her purpose. At about eleven 
o^clock the prison waa reached, and my 
deliverers could hear the regular steps of tka 
sentries on the WiilL The houses now stand- 
ing bdbre the entrance of the priaon were 
then only partly built, and not inhabited at all 
Protected by the darkness of the night, my 
wife advanced along a ditch at the foot of the 
external wail, till she came to the gate, at 
the ^ides of which were to be aeeu the im^ 
portaut cellar air-holes. Her com pan Ion 
remained behind j for she would not involve 
him any farther in an enterprise which might 
make him unhappy for life. 

She began sawing, but this was no easy 
work. It was not to be done by her with 
those Uttte flexible eaws, especially in the 
darkness, and agitated as she waa. She cut 
more deeply into her own flngera than into the 
iron bar; and, at last^ left off working, and met 
her companion ; not (^uite dissatiatied for she 
had seen how negligently the houae was 
guatxlt^d, and that it really was possible to 
succeed with better implements, 

When she returned to Frankfort, she spoke 
to the locksmith who had made the keys tor 
me, ami told him what she had been about. 
He laughed much, and gave ber iusiructiana 
how to pi'oceed betti^r with a certain old 
saw, which he boasted could cut irun like 
wooii Thereafter, my wife spoilt ail the bars 
in the cellar air- holes in her father^a house, 
to try whether she could cut them without 
noise, and how much time ahe would wjint 
for her purpose. 

Whilst my brave wife thus was employed, 
I, to my great vexation, waa removed to 
another wing of the prison, I succt^ed in 
cairying away with me my key«, aaws, and 
other things J but was very much puzzled 



I 




104 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDa 



when I saw that in my new cell the old 
hiding-place was wanting. It cost some little 
in£:euuity to find another. Afterwards, my 
ceil and clothes were suddenly changed. 
Taken by surprise, I lost both tools, keys, and 
money, and the hope of escape with them. 

Furthermore, my friend Elate and her 
whole family had been arrested ; for, during 
a house-visitation, several letters from pri- 
soners had been fofund which that foolish girl 
had kept, notwithstanding my often-repeated 
requesc to her to bum every bit of paper that 
came out of prison. Vanity — or some kind- 
lier thought — induced her to keep scraps 
from each of us ; probably to show that she 
was a friend to men, who were then very 
popular. The poor drl was very much cast 
down ; for her imprudence had brought ruin 
upon her family. By law, there was not much 
to be done against them : but the government 
has many means of punishing poor trades- 
people. Kate*s father was a butcher, and had 
to deliver meat to the soldiers ; this charge 
was not only taken from him, but even the 
soldiers and other people connected with the 
government were forbidden, or, at least, 
induced, to keep away from his shopi 
Kate was confined for some time in prison. 
My wife caused the law* expenses to be paid, 
ami gave help out of her own pocket ; although 
I h^ nothing to do with the detection of 
Kate*8 dealings, and she came only into 
trouble by her own imprudence. The poor 
thing did not recover from her fright, and 
died a few years afterwards ; very soon 
followed by her father, who ended his days as 
a ruined man. 

From this time I was determined to induce 
no person inside the prison, or outside, to 
endanger himself for my benefit. Others 
were not so conscientious, and the new 
director caused to be chased away, in about 
three years, no less than forty-six overseers, 
most of them only on suspicion. 

Thus far I have told of the solitary 
prisoner — immured for love of freedom- 
beating for escape against his pnson-bars. 
But there belong other and gentler features 
to his destiny ; there are other ways — some 
simple and some strange — in which huma- 
nity asserts itself against all odds. Life in the 
cell has two different sidesL I have here 
shown only one side. My narrative will 
be complete when I have shown also the 
other. 



TIMBER-BENDING. 

"You may break, but you cannot bend 
me,*' is a phrase that has hitherto been 
applied indiscriminately to persons who are 
either very heroic or very obstinate. It has 
al8o been applied to certain woods, such as 
oak nnd lignum vitoe. A great deal of brag- 
gadocio has been put into the unconscious 
mouths of trees (if, by a figure of speech, we 
may talk of trees having mouths at all) about 



the stubbornness of heart of oak, and about 
the monarch of the forest never yielding to 
the storm ; which, indeed, he seldom doe% 
unless absolutely torn up by the roots; al- 
though Shakespeare, who was not a bad 
observer, talks of the wind making ^ flexible 
the knees of knotted oaks.** Bu^ in plain 
truth setting sentiment aside, the unyielding 
nature of timber has been one of its disaf 
vantages for many practical and soientifio 
purposes. Give a bar of iron to a smitht <nr 
place a mass of material under the gentle 
persuasion of Nasmy th*s steam hammer— and 
you may have what you will made out of it 
Von may have it moulded like clay by the 
hand of the potter ; may expand it^ or con- 
tract it ; shape it and rohape it ; twist and 
contort it ; bend it into a sword or a plooghi- 
share^ an anchor or a rifle-barrsl, a coloma 
for some Mry yet substantiid palace, or a 
ffirder for a suspension bridge.] You may 
lengthen it into a line of raOs for the swift 
passage of steam, or a Menai tunnel to spaa 
an arm of the sea, like some gigantic brae^ 
let Subject metal to the furnace, and yon 
have a fluid stream, whereof you may cast an 
Iron Duke, or any other shape of man or 
god you please. Sullen and hard at first 
sigh^ this ductile substance is your very 
slave, in fact ; a genie of the mine, who waits 
your bidding to do wonders ; a Proteus, to 
whom is given the power to change into a 
thousand forms. Not so has it Men with 
wood. Place a piece of timber under the 
hammer, and it is shivered into fragments ; 
give it to the furnace, and it is consumed. 
You may saw and join it ; you may carve it 
into fantastic and beautiful designs ; but yon 
have not hitherto been able to use it with 
that facile manipulation which btdonga to 
metaL 

One result of this deficiency has been a 
great circumscribing of the uses to which 
timber might be put ; another result has 
been excessive waste of materiaL When, in 
building a house or a ship, or in making a 
piece of furniture, it has been found neces- 
sary to employ a bar of wood of a curved 
shape, there were no means at one time of 
obtaining this curve, but by searching for a 
branch which was naturally bent in growing 
(and which, of course, could be met with only 
rarely) or by cutting a solid mass of timber 
into the required form. In the latter pro- 
cess all the outlying parts of the wood— all 
those portions not included in the curve 
itself— were wasted, or were only available 
for very trivial purposes ; for the curve, ez- 
tendiuff aci-oss the block and dividing it, 
would leave only small fragments of the mate- 
rial, of useless shapes, on each side. In Hie case 
of metal, the process is easy and obvious enough ; 
^ou have mei-ely to take a stiaight bar, heat 
It, place it beneath the hammer, and coerce it 
into the needful convexity. Metal, therefore^ 
has hiul an immense advantage over timber 
on the very important grounds of facility and 



TIMBEErB^roiNa 



155 



ecoBomj ; for, in the one case, you only uflc 
preokely what you want, while in tli« other 

J9U iiae mord than you wanL When Mr. 
ooes, haviDg reached the Buminit of hh 
e&rthlj desln^ iu obtain iug the cousent of 
idias ^mith to tuatry him (arid al^o the {son- 
•etit of Mr, Pater Smithy and Mrs. Mater 
Smith), looks out for tablea, ehairti atid other 
ei cet^fHB^ wherewith to rornish that deairable 
eottage residence in which the happy couple 
ftre to take up their abode m the company of 
loTo and a young servant, he pays more for 
these houaeholil eomforta (meaning thereby^ 
the tables, chairs, &c.} thau he otherwise 
would pay, beciuae of the waste of material 
nece^aitatad in their conatructlon. The case^ 
however, ia not uow as it wns formerly. In a 
happy moment, some mechanical ^nina be- 
thought hirn of a process of bending timber 
by the application of heat to it* 

hike the Eeform Bill, howeTcr, it was 
only a step; aod^ if any old torylied engineer 
with a dream of finality in hia mind, had 
regarded the aaceess already achieved aa the 
sum mum bonnm of such matters, Mn Jones 
^not to speak of Mrs- Jones-^would have 
had a right to qnarrei with bim. For Jones 
might have ealicd his attention to tho fact 
that the timber had a tendency to a debi- 
litated coiiatitutton, very awkward in those 
articles of fnmltnre whi^reof the first reqni- 
lite m atrtogth ; ttiat it was weak and 
Ir&gile^ not iiufrequently breaking under a 
moderate preaaure, and m>me times absolutely 
Uibending and returning to primitive 
siraightnei^ like a youog lady^a carefnlly 
goUnp coirJa on a daiup day. All this 
Mr. Jones might have exhibited out of 
dlt«fal ei]>erience ; but, of the rea^n — the 
cause of the effect — be would probably have 
been ignoranL The e:](planati0n, however. 
Is not very abstmae* In the ordinary pro* 
fleia of bending, the iabre la strained. Thus, 
any carved piece of wood is weakest m the 
iharpeat part of the curve, Scientifio men, 
indeed, have argued that, for practical pur- 
poses^ great curv^ are impossible i and they 
oare de lined their theory thus : — To bend a 
piece of wood^ you muai extend the outer 
drcunfercDee and coRiprH» the inner. Now 
as wood ia inexpansible, you cannot bend it 
without iujuringthe ^hire, aud Goaaequently 
weakening the whole majs. 

Euch was the orthodox theory i but^ In the 
same way that the knowing ones on the race- 
oonrae often make the most aatounding mis- 
takes in their forecaitiugs to their own great 
peeunifLi'y disadvantage and the edil3 cation of 
a cetif^oriouB world ^ so will it frequently occur 
that profeeaed scientific men, too miudfLil of 
ib«iract theories to make practical iunova^ 
Uqu% find themselves suddenly confronted 
with some new application of those tbenries, 
0r some complete reversal of them* These 
«ttdjicions exMhitione of scientiiio heterodoxy 
have of late years been niore common in 
America than elsewheie* The active, volatile, 



knowing States' man is as little dispoaed to 
submit to antiquated authority in ititellectual 
matters as In political afiairs. Ho will tiot 
have an hereditary monarchyj guarded with 
fictions of divine right in the regions of dis- 
covery, any more than in the ph ysicjil terii- 
tories which he occupiea. He will have an 
elective president in the Bepublic of Ideas | 
and he will reserve to himself entire liberty 
to set hini aside when his time for being 
useful has gone by* Every mnu in that 
republic shall Imve a vote ; and tlie best 
candidate shall carry the day. Ther*^for« 
has it come to |xiss that Jon nth an, diai's* 
gaa'ding the assertion that wooni cannot be 
bent without weakening the fibre, has set 
to work to see how he cau overcome 
the difficulty, and has discovered a method 
which, to judge from the accounts given by 
the most eminent engiueera^ both of America 
and England, will be of the greatest service 
in ahip^buildiiig and domestic arcbitecture, 
and in the construction of all pieces of furni- 
ture in which it is necessary to employ 
curved timber. It has been already so em- 
ployed in the United States, whei^ a E^iman 
Catholic cathedral is surmounted by a dome 
fkahioned out of wood bent by the new 

firoceas. This dome has been found to l)0 
ighter, stronger, cheaper, and more elegant, 
than the domes usually formed of mclal, 
brick, and papier- mach 6, 

By this invention! which has been patented 
in America, and is now just introduced into 
England, the strength of the wood is in- 
creased at least seventy-five per cent at the 
point where strength is most required. The 
cnrve, moreover, never relaxes. Ihe timber, 
as in the old proi:^ess, is fir^t eu Injected to 
the influence of steam, which sot Lens tlie 
whole mass, and puts it in a fit state for the 
action of a machine. The principle of 
bending, as employed in this new apphcuti^^n^ 
is based on end-pressure, which, in cun denying 
aud turning at the ^ame time, destroys the 
capillary tubes by forcing them info each 
other. These tubes are only of nm when the 
tree is growing ; and their anmlgamatiou in* 
creases the density of the timber, the pressure 
being so nicely adjusted that the wood ia 
neither flattened uor spread, nor ia the outer 
circumferenee of the wood expanded, thongh 
the inner is contracted Now, tiie error of 
the former process, as expouuded by cum- 
f>etent judges, lias arisen from the dUin- 
tegrating of the fibre of the wood by expanding 
the whole mass over a rigid mould. Wood 
can be more easily compressed than ex- 
panded ; therefore, it is plain that a process 
which induces a greater closeness in ih^ coni- 
potiLint f>arta of the piece under operaiion*— 
which, as it were, locks up the whole masa 
by knitting the fibres togut her— must aug- 
ment the degree of hardn*?8a and power of 
resistance. The wood thus becomes almost 
impervious to damp and to the depredations 
of insects^ while it^ increased dcns^^^ T«.\i4t^ra 



^ 



ne 



HOUSEHOLD WOBIMS. 



it less liable to take fire ; an<) the present 
method of cutting and shaping timber being 
superseded, a sairing of from two to three- 
fourths of the material is brought about. 
The action of the machine throws the cross- 
grains into right angles ; the knots are com- 
pelled to follow the impulse of the bending ; 
the juices are forced out of the cells of the 
wood, and the cavities are filled up by the 
interlacing fibres. In the same wa^, you 
may sometimes see in the iron of which the 
barrels of muskets are made a kind of dark 
grain which indicate that the particles of the 
metal, either in the natural formation or in 
welding, have been strongly clenched in one 
another. These specimens are always greatly 
valued for their extraordinary toughness, as 
well as for a certain fantasticad and mottled 
beauty. 

Another of the good results of this new 
method b that the wood is seasoned by the same 
process as that which efiects the bending. The 
seasoning of wood is simply the drying of the 
juices, and the reduction of the mass to its 
minimum size before it is employed, so that 
there shall be no future warping. But, as we 
have already shown, the compression resorted 
to in the American system at once expels 
the sap ; and a few hours are sufficient to 
convert green timber into thoroughly sea- 
soned wood. Here is an obvious saving of 
time, and also of money ; for the ordinary 
mode of seasoning, by causing Uie wood to 
lie waste for a considerable period, locks up 
the capital of the trader, and of course 
enhances the price to the purchaser. Time 
also will be saved in another way, iu searching 
for pieces of wood of the proper curve for 
carrying out certain designs. " How de- 
lighted, NLjB Mr. Jervis, the United States* 
inspector of timber, " will the shipwright be 
to get clear of the necessity of searching for 
crooked pieces of timber! There need no 
longer be anv breaking of bats in the frame, 
as we have been wont to break them. We 
shall see numbers one, two, and three fu^- 
tocks, at least, all in one piece.** An Engli^ 
engineer (Mr. Charles Mayhew) remarks that 
one of the advantages of the American 
method is that, "in its application to all 
circular, wreathed, or twisted work, it not 
only preserves the continuous grain of the 
wood, which is now usually and laboriously 
done by narrow slips of veneer glued on 
cores cut across the grain, with mauv un- 
sightly joints, ill concealed at best ; but it 
will materially reduce the cost of all curved 
work, which now varies, according to the 
quickness of the sweep, and will give the 
artist gi*eater freedom in his design, by 
allowing him to introduce lines which are 
now cautiously avoided in order to prevent 
the cost of their execution.** Dr. Hooker, 
Mr. Fairbaim, Mr. Rennie, Mr. Galloway, 
civil engineer, and other eminent scientific 
men, confirm these jnd|;ments. A specimen 
of bent oak now lies berore us, and exhibits a 



beautiful continuity in the sweep of t 
fibres. 

Timber-bending has reached a new sts 
of development ; and it is not too much 
anticipate that it will have considerable i 
fluence on the industrial arts. 



THE ANGEL OF LOVE. 

Oh ooiteleM wing, one tUrry night, 

From lier b1e»t homo above, 
Down, dove-like, came that angel brigb^ 

Whote care it human love. 

A rote upon her botoro lay, 

Freih cuU'd from Bden*i bowers ; 

Unlike the rote, whoae iwrett decay 
On this aad earth of oura. 

Within its cup it found a balm 

For'loTe*t tereiett pain ; 
Detponding hearts to raise and calm. 

And five them hope again. 

Where Jordan's tranquil waters shiike 
Beneath the snirs warm nys, 

Two sisters fair, of Hebrew line. 
Had poss'd their quiet dajs. 

In nntual love and virtue blest, 
Thej scarce had dream'd of woe. 

Till hopeless passion marrM their rest, 
And forced their tears to flow. 

Both loved, alas ! a Christian knight : 

Both shared an equal pain : 
For Christian vow no Jew may plight,-* 

Thej knew they loved in vain 1 

Kor angry thought, nor envious strife 

Stirred either gentle breast : 
Each would have yielded love and life 

To make the other blest. 

The gradous Angel was not slow 
Those maidens' griefs to feel, 

Nor ever wept for human woe 
She did not strive to heal 

The sisters watchM in speechless dread 

Her radiant form appear : 
" Fear not ; my name it Love," she said^ 

" And peace my mission here. 

''No sigh, how faint, how sad soe'er. 

Is heard in vain on high : 
A balm of power divine I bear 

To soothe and sanctify. 

*To her who loves with deepest love^ 
This flower of life be given ; 

It has been rear*d by saints above. 
And bathM in dews of Heaven." 

The Angel to the elder spake : 
^ What can'st thou, wilt thou do^ 

Or bear, for thy beloved one's sake. 
To prove thy love is true ? *' 

** Oh, doubt it not,** the maiden cried; 

** All joys would I design, 
So I were sometimes at his side. 

And dared to call him mine! 

^ My father's land, my sbter*s home^ 

Mine ancient creed forego, 
With him on distant shores to roam. 

And share his weal and woe! 



MOTHKIt SHIPTON. 



1^7 



Kv 0iiwr hcvpc be fpTcn ! 
life *«e Q«t kfe mtbaiu bk We^ 
Aq4, irith it, eanh vm hie*ff«<iP 

flM AafH lo lli« y o ap ggf «ptk« : 
* Whmif maid/nf wAi thoq do 

Or mflW* far thj IavtJ 4nc'i wkc^ 
To proTC ih j lew ii true ? ** 

* I Idtb Kiv wrlL^ ttic Biald rt|iliied, 

** And landi vp&tild t r««^p 
To be for ever at his tide. 

Ami keo« hii beajrt. «mt aiini^ 

* Mr (klbirr^t at^ it dcmirr Jet^^ 

Mine macimt nem mttd tiKibe t 
Tlirn brcalc, nij iMan T cfv 1 faffel 

* Ytt^ tlMttgii m J TO vi I mmj Dot bre^ 

To iIh^ oC1are« for bit loTcd (ake, 
Mj da«o i <«a«ccr»ic 

*Ko oibcr lore ihit heart ilall tbu% 

To liif for ^ye comigu'd^ — ' 
Kb tboagiit of evil en Iff whem 

Hu iinfe II enibriutd t 

''But ] ibe urk mnd pOAf «IU teikdp 

M t hfe Uk i^fftrting make 
In fvK— ttiKt IlcmrcD Du hiin tSftJ e«94 

▲ MMiiDf for m^ f^ike r' 

Hk Aifel MnilFd ; "^ Tbe rtioe t« tMM | 

Smit lowt ia l^^t Liidtrri! : 
io !««« — 04 livo ; «ad love diTine, 

FJmn^ be tbf a»c«d 1 ** 



MOTHER SHIPrON. 



!f« tome nttmea wMc^ attftui a 
Cfe'lebriu* without potftcrilj know id;; 
iKMlj whj or wherefore. That of Mother 
Sh^^mt m one of thti mml tioled in the bu* 
ditkmmry auiudt of tbi« count ry. Her fame 
it « |irQffli«lrai has extended ttironghottt the 
land ; a/id her eavinga have become, in the 
l M ii4ei t eoniers, lit/erskliy Hoaaehuld Wortii. 
CJiMk»tibt£dlj there have been witches — for 
il thmX Bkitgi*ty must Mother Shipton \^e 
ela>»«d — who have played the oracle aa weJl 
m alie ; imt^ aa ffecirrMllv bappefit, the multi- 
tude are loiit aigbt of in the conrse of time, 
and the wiaiiom of the man? is eventual ly 
■scfibed to one. Homer, J^njp^ Solomota-^to 
saj uothiDg of that fiienri of the deatitute, 
Jue MiHer-'-^ftre amoQ^st a thouK&nd inatancea 
of «otioeairai«d Tepnt^ttioQ* Every hour*« 
•xfjerieiH^ indeed, atf'>rda example of this 
t«adai»cj to apecial attribution ; and there 
very few of oa, perhaps, who have not, at 
lime or latlier, eoutributed our mite to 
op tlie popular sect of the day. 
Duriitf a lucent excursion in one of the 
BtidL-iiid coUT^tJea^ the ootiftideralion of thi^ 
qia^atioa waa foiled upon me by a local legend 
€f wbidi MoiUer Shiplon was the h engine, 
although noiluiig ei.iiiia to show that ahe ever 
aet her foot on tlie spot, and njore itian three 
hnudreti jear^ have eJa^^ed ein^^e her death. 
Butt U;f^f« i add the fltc»ne I haira gathered,, 



nm 



to the genetml he«v it may not be ont of 
place to relate the Malory and propheeiea of 
ilita remarkable woman, aa I have fuund them 
recorded lii pamphleta now tome what acarce. 

Ursala Shipton, whoee maiden name waa 
Southitfl, was bom near Knareaborough, in 
Torkahire, <mi thje aixth of July, fourteen 
hundred and eightj-eight; three years after 
the accession of Henry of Bichmond to the 
throne of England. She waa baptiaed by 
the Abbot of Beverley, and probably an 
nglier child wat never held at the font — m 
eontemporaneoua account stating that ^her 
atature waa mad) httger than eommon, her 
body crookedf and her &oe frightfuL*^ But, aa 
a aetK^lf to her peraonal deformity^ her nnder^ 
standing ia apoken of aa having been eitra- 
ordinary^ ; and it waa probably for thia reaaan 
— ceruanjy not beeauae of her beauty — th*t 
Ur^ula'a hand wna aought in marriage when 
ahe bad reached the age of twenty-four« Her 
anitor, a bold fellow to venture on such a 
strodg-minded woman, wna one Toby Ship- 
ton, of the village of Skipton, not &r fiom 
York, He waa, by profeaaion, a builder, 
though whether he added an} thing to the 
architectund glories of the Min&ter, or aii- 
quired a Peckaniffian celebrity for ^ifioea 
which he never hel^ied to raiae, ia a point on 
which uo information has been obtjuned^ 
Hia fame rests entirely on the fact of 
his bavinc^ bestowed hii» name on the be- 
witching Ursula ; for, with that exception, 
we hea.r nothing at all about him. Of two 
things^ oue,aa the French aay^. Toby Stiipton 
either crawled through life the moat hen^ 
pecked of huslimida, or abused off his mortaf 
coil after a very brief season c<f conjugal 
felicity. The laat hypodieeia ia the more 
likely. 

I am ignorant at what penod of her life 
the gift uf prophecy descended upon Mother 
Shiptou, but^ hiizarding a eonjeeture, I ahontd 
aaj it was aa aoon aa ahe discovered the 
nuiatery she had acquired over the minds of 
those around her. Her finit prophetic enaya 
were probably a few ambiguoua worda baaed 
on shrewd obeervudon, the reaulU of which 
naturally came to pass. Her speeches then 
ks:^umed a darker mc^aniug, chanee proving 
the tasuep or the ob«cunty in which they 
were couched leaving the event otily doubt- 
ful- One lucky hit iu matters of prognoeti- 
cation ia always better remembered than a 
hundred fiiiLurea. It ia a commun thing to 
make jiuatakea ; a rare one to be right 
.Mother Sbipton aeeiDa to have been a must 
aucc^ful aoothsayer, and with the accom- 
plishment of thckae predictions which con- 
cerDed her own neighbourhood her reputation 
spread, until, it ia said^ it filled thcr whole 
land ; and even bluff King Harry quaked 
i%ith dread when he heard the words of 
Grsnia. The most striking story that ia lold 
uf her vaticinations haa reference to the fote 
of hia great minb<ter, Wolatfj* and that of 
ihoae of the monarch's most diatinguiahed 



I 



158 



HOUSEHOLD WOBDS. 



favonrites. In a nnall volume in the British 
Maseum, which meriU the particular de- 
scription of it wliich I shall afterwards give, 
that story is thus narrated : 

*^ The Prophesie of Shipton's Wife in the 
time of King Henry the Eiffht. 

** When she heard that Kin? Henir tiie 
iSghth should be kinff, and Cardinall Wolsev 
should be at Torke, we said that ' Cardinall 
Wolsey should never be at Yorke/ which 
the king and cardinall hearing, being angry, 
sent the Duke of 6uffi>lk and Lord Daroy to 
her, who came with their men disguised to 
the king's house near Tork, where, leaving 
their men, they went to Mr. Besly, in Vorky 
and desired him to goe with them to Mother 
8bipton*8 housej* where, whoi they came, 
they knocked at the doore. She said, ' Come 
in, Mr. Besly, and those honourable lords 
with you ; ' and Mr. Besly would have put in 
the lords before him, but she said, ' Come in, 
Mr. Besly ; you kuow the way best^ they doe 
not* Tlib they thought strange, that she 
should know them and never saw them ; 
then they went into the house where there 
was a great fire, and they dranke and were 
merry. (Mother Shipton was, at all events, 
no curmudgeon.) " ' Mother Shipton,' said 
the duke (not altogether requiting her hos- 
pitality), ' if you knew what we came about, 
you would not bid us so welcome ;' shee said. 
*The messenger should not be hanged. 
'Mother Shipton,' said the duke, 'you said 
the cardinall should never see Torke ; ' ' Yea,' 
said shee, ' I said he might see Yorke, but 
never come at it.' 'But,' said the duke, 
'when he comes to Yorke thou shalt be 
burned ; ' ' Wee shall see that,' said she, 
and plucking her handkercher off her head, 
she threw it into the fire, and it would not 
burne ; then she took her staffe and turned 
it into the fire, and it would not burne ; then 
she tooke and put it on againe. ' Then,' said 
the duke, ' what mean you by this ? ' She 
replyed, ' If tliis had burned, I might have 
burned.' ' Mother Shipton,' quoth tbo duke, 
what thinks you of me 9 ' ' My lord,' said 
she, ' the time will come you will be as low 
as I am, and that will be a low one indeed.* 
My Loid Piercy said, ' And what say you of 
mel' 'My lord* said shee, 'shooe your 
horse to the quick, and you shall do well, 
but your body will be buried in Yorke pave- 
ment, and your head shall be stolea from 
theBarre,aud carried into France ;' at which 
they all laughed, saying, 'that would be a 
great lop between the head and the body.' " 
(A marginal note here says : " This proved 
true, for hee rose in i*ebeUion in the north ; 
and by not fiyin? when hee might, hee was 
taken and beheaded in Yorke, where his body 
was buried, and bis head was stolen and 
carried into France, tempore Eliz. Beg.") 
"Then said Darcy, ' And what think you of 
me ? ' She said, ' You have made a great 

* It was ono of what were oftllcd the " Bring ** houeee. 



gunne, shoot it off, for it will never doe yoa 
an^ good ; you are going to warre, you wiO' 
paine many a man, but kill none.' So th^ 
went away. Not long after, the cardinaU 
came to Cawood, and going to the top of the 
tower, he asked, where stands York, and 
how &r it was thither; and said that one 
said he should never see Yorke. ' Kay,* said 
one, 'she said you might see Yorke^ but 
never come at it' He vowed to burn her 
when he came to York. Then thev ahowed 
him York, and told him it was Imt eight 
miles thence, and he said that he wouki 
soone be there ; but being sent for by the 
king, he dyed on his way to Loadmi, at 
Leicester, of a luske. And Shipton'a wifii 
said to Mr. Besly, ' Yonder is a fine stall 
built for the cardinall in the MiBster, of 
gold, pearle^ and precious stones, goe and 
present one of the pillani to King Henry ;* 
and he did so.'* 

In this alleged prophecy by Mother Ship- 
ton, all the principal conditions were fulfilled; 
the discrepancies in the story are to be laid 
at the door of tlie narrator. After Henry the 
Eighth had plundered his minister, and 
banished him to his diocese, Wolsey, travel- 
ling by slow stages, finally established hioi* 
self at Cawood, preparatory to making hii 
entry into York, for the purpose of imtallap 
tion. 

He went thither from Scroby, a home be- 
longing to his see, about tiie end of Septem- 
ber, fifteen hundred and tliirtv, and the 
ceremony of installation was fixed for Mon- 
day, the first of November, following; 
On the preceding Friday, however, tlie £arl 
of Northumberland arrived with order firom 
the king to arrest him on a charge of high 
treason. He was at once removed in cnrtudy 
from Cawood, and he died at Leicester <hi hu 
way to London : he certainly never entered 
York. 

Of the three lords who visited Mother 
Shipton as the tradition relates, and were too 
curious concerning their own fortunes^ the 
Duke of Suffolk was executed in fifteen hun- 
dred and fifty-four, for his share in Cour- 
tenay's insurrection, which precipitated the 
fate of Lady Jane Grey. Sir Thomas Ferev (the 
Lord Percy of the legend) suffered, in 
fifteen hundred and thirty-six, for oartioi- 
pating in Aske's rebellion, known aa tne Pil- 
grimage of Grace; and Lord Darcy, who 
was implicated in the same rising, was 
beheaded on Tower Hill. Hespecting these 
noblemen, it will be observed tliat, with the 
exception of the special warning addressed to 
Percy, ambiguity of phrase was Mother Ship- 
ton's great resource. As a time must have 
come for all men to die, the death of the 
Duke of Suffolk would necessarily bring him 
some day as low aa herself; and the predio- 
tion concerning Lord Darcy was as vague as 
astrology itself couKl have framed it. With 
regard CO the more precise indication of Percv's 
I fa^ I am afraid something was subsequently 



t.) 



MOTHER SHTPTON 



•dde4 to the dark speech of the prophete^ 
by (ho«e who remeiuber^d in wh&t roMiiier he 
mctuiUI/ died. But wbeUier tb© wife of Ship- 
too (na Bhe U mo<leatly style<i) uttered the 
wordd set down for her or not, the Assooiatioa 
of her nam© with anch high pei-sooage* 
m^iriJa evidetice, at i«U t^veols^ of the repute in 
which alie wftji popuhul y held. 

Of &11 her oont«mpora[L«ous admirers Mr. 
Bittly fleema to haire beeti the most devoted 
lad the most fuvoured. It waa to him the 
fPHLt lords ftddreaued themaelvea before they 
ventured to approach Dame Ursalii^a habita* 
tiOD I and he it waa who knew the way in^ 
which the rest did not. I look upon Bdily 
as a tort of aeini-wizarJ^ who waa in the habit 
^fl hutting up hiB shop ia the Micklegate 
wy-Uer than hk neigh boura, in order to go 
and paat bis evening with Mother Bhiptou — 
Tuby being defuni^t^ — and propiilatiDg her 
with a bom-handle to her stick of his own 
worktu&usbip^ he lieing^ probably^ a dealer 
in ham-ware, cotnbift, lanthomi?, drinking- 
nt«tiftils, arid lo forth ; but propitiating her 
siiU mora by the rapt attention which he 
gav0 to jiar pmpheciea, an^l the leading quea- 
Ibtw by whteh he brought theui out Aud it 
is, no doubly to Ee^ly that we are indebted 
for the preaervation of such of the savings of 
the Wife of Shipton as are extant. I infer to 
much, aa weil from what has already appeared 
aa from what more I propose to take ^oni the 
curious Tolufue already mentioned. It pro- 
oe#da thus: 

*^Mt, Bealy seeing these things fall out as 
ihe had foretold ^' (this is not absolutely the 
&ct, if it be true aa is generally stated, that 
Mother Shipton died in fifieenhu mired and 
fifty ^ne, three y^ars betl^re the Uuke ol 
Suifallc) *'da!sii'e<i her to tell him some more 
prophedes." The old la*ly opened upon him 
like a do<Hl*gate, *^Mr. Bealy/'said ahe, '^ before 
that Owse bridia;e atid Trinity ChureU meet, 
they shall build iu the day and it ahali fall in 
the night, untill they get the higheat atoQe of 
Irioity steeple to be the lowest stoue of 
Ow«« bridge." The editor of tbia collection 
of propheciea;, acting aa chorus Uu:ougheut> 
giv«i m note of ex pin nation here : ^ This 
mimB ta passe ; fur Trinity steeple in Yorke 
warn Mown downe with a tempest, and Owae 
1ttidg« waa broken down with a great flood ; 
Aod what they did with repairing the brid^re 
in the day-time with the stone oi the steepie 
fisU down in the night, until they remember* 
illl^the prophe^ie, laid the hi^^best stone of the 
steeple for foundation of the bridge, and then 
tho worke stood. And by thia was partly 
^m^ed aiioth«:!r of Mother Shipton^s pro[>he> 
ntfl, vLe^ That her niaid should Llyo to driye 
Imt eow over Trinity steeple." 

A mystical announcement of wide^spread- 
lag ef^il d»aie next : 

"* The day will come that the North eh all 
nie it wondrous sore, but tlie South ahall me 
it fbr evernioare ; when Hares kindle on cold 
li«aiik-»toa@0 i and lads shall marry kdies 



and bring them home ; then ahaU yon have 
a yeare of pining, hunger, and then a dearth 
without Cornc, a woful day ahalt be seene 
in England, a King and a Queen e/' Chorus 
observes upon this : " Supliosed to be meant 
by Buppresaioa of Abbiea and other reliLfioua 
houses; and at the Ijoi-d Wtl. Howard's 
house at Kawarth, a Hare came and kindled 
in his kitciieu upon his hearth.** Very goo<i- 
l>ut how about the king aud queen t Did 
she mean Philip aud Mary I But the pro^ 
pheey seema to have been left unfiniahed. 
Terhiips it waa too much for the nerves of 
Mr. Bealy ! 

Mother Sliipton next tned her hand at 
this story, 

** The first coming of the King of Scots 
shsli be at Holgate town, but Ixb eh all not 
come in through the Barre, and when the 
King of the North shall be at London, his 
tayle ahall be at Edinborou^^h." Bays the in- 
terpreter : ** This waa fuUilled in K. James 
coiuuiing in {to York); for auch mnltitndea 
of people stgod at Holgate bar to behold 
him that, to avoid the preaae, he waa forced 
to ride another way/* Respecting the latter 
part of the prophecy, he observe?* i " When 
K. James was at Lotido% hia children were 
at EiUiibfougb, preparing to come to Eu^- 
land/' 

Domeatic su\\jecta follow ; — ** After this 
shall water come over Owse bridge, and a 
windmill shall be set on a tower ; and an 
elme tree shall lie at every man^s doore ; and 
at that time women shall wear gr^t hats 
and great bands/* Chorus remarks: "This 
ia ventied by the condueting of water into 
Yorke streets through bor&i elniea ; and the 
conduit-houae hath a windmill on the top 
that drawa np tlie water/* Of the women*i 
great bata and bao<1s he saya nothing ; they 
were, probably, not so remarkable as the 
great petti eoats of the preaent day. 

** And when," cuntinuee Ursula, " there ia^ 
lord-mayor at Yorke, let him beware of a 
stab. AYhen two knights shall fall out in 
the castle yard, they shitU never l>e kindly all 
their lives after. When aU Colton hath 
borne croj>a of corne, seven yeares alter you 
shall heare ne^v^eH, tben shall two judges goe 
in and out at Wiihugate barre/' Here follow 
the commentainea : ** A lord-mayor, whose 
house was in the Minater yard iu York, was 
killed with three staba. Sir T. Went worth 
and Sir John iSaviH, in chooaing knights in 
the ahire, in the castle yard at Yorke, did »o 
fall out that they were never well reconciled. 
Colton hagge, in her time, waa woodland 
ground, full of treea, which boi^e corne seven 
yearei, and tlie seventh yeare afler this wua 
the yeare of the euinming in of the Saots^ 
and their taking of Newcastle. In the year 
alxteen hundn^d and six, two judges of aasizs 
went out at a gate in Yorke, wher^t never any 
judgea were knowne to goe out before."' 
More remiLtkable things than theae happen 
in our times uupredi^st^ by Mother &lupton« 




I 

I 

I 

I 



leo 



HOUSEHOLD WOBD& 



I will back Tiptree farm against Ck>ltoii- 
^^S^ ; <^<i u ^o ^^® ^'^J ^^ which the judges 
went out of Tork, look at the way in which 
they now " goe " in — a fly from the railway 
station conveys all the dignified horse-hair 
and ermine. 

It is not easy to determine whether Mr. 
Benly, in this place, asked Mother Shipton to 
iaTour him with a song ; bat, if he did not she 
gave him one of her own accord, breaking 
out into the following doleful strain : 

<< Then Warn tlutU begin in the tprinf^ 
Much woe to England it shall bring ; 
Then shall the ladies crj well-awajr. 
That ever we liv'd to see this day.*' 

But she soon resumed her customaiy rhyth- 
mical prose : 

*" Then best for them that have the least^ 
and worst for them that have the most ; yon 
sh^l not know of the warre overnight, yet 
jou shall have it in the morning ; and when 
it comes it shall last three yeares ; between 
Garden (Calder ?) and Aire shall be great 
warfare ; when all the world is lost, it shall 
be called Christ^s Crott. When the battell 
begins, it sh^l be where Crook^ck Richard 
began (ended ?) his fray." Chorus interpolates 
in this place, "Neare Leicester, where 
Richard the Third was slaine in battell, there 
Colonel Hastings was one of the first in 
armes, endeavouring to seise the commission 
of array in opposition to others that were 
settling the mihtia.*' 

But the prophetic fury is on the sibyl, and 
this is her descant : 

"They shall say to warfare for our king 
for half-a-crowne a-day, but stirre not ^they 
will say) to warfare for your kiug on pam of 
hanging, but stirre not ; for he that goes to 
coroplaine shall not come back againe. The 
time will come when England shall tremble 
and quake for feara of a dead man that shall 
be heard to speak. Then will the dragon 
give the bull a great snap, and when the one 
is downe, then they will goe to London 
towne. Then there will be a great battell 
between England and Scotland, and they will 
be pacified for a time, and when they come 
to Braramamore they fight^ and are agiune 
pacified for a time, then &ere will be a mat 
Wtell between England and Scotland at 
Stock more. Then will a raven sit on the 
cross and drinke as moch bloud of nobles as 
of the comoDS, then woe is me, for London 
shall be destroyed for ever after.** Chorus 
remarks here : ** It is to be noted and ad- 
mired that this cross,*' (Which cross 7 It is 
as indefinite as ** this Turk ** in Lord Bate- 
man*s ballad) "in Shipton*s days, was a tall 
stone cross, which ever since hath, by degrees, 
been sinking into the ground, and now is 
sunke so low, that a raven may sit on the 
top of it^ and reach with her bill to the 
ground.*' Chorus, however, says nothing 
about the utter destruction of London. Pro- 
bably it had not occurred in his timet 



I can fiincy — still not so vividly as I eoold 
wish — the awe-stricken astonishment of Mn 
Besly as he listened to what follows : 

^ There will come a woman with one ey% 
and she shall tread iu many men's blood to 
the knee ; and a man leaning on a ttafTe by 
her, say to him * What art thou 9" And h% 
shall say, * I am the King of Scots,* and the 
shall say, <Goe with me to my hoose^ finr 
there are three knights,' and he will goe with 
her and stay there three dayes and three 
nighU ; then will England be ioet, and Ihej 
wUl cry twice a day ' England is lost !' * (Ai 
popular orators continue to cry, though aoai»- 
wbat oftener than twice a day.) ^Theii 
there will be three knights in Fetergafee ii 
Torke, and (this is terrible) the one thail not 
know the other ; there shall be a child boni 
in Pomfret with three thnmbe,*'--(aUow 
Choms to make an observation on this pro* 
dtgy : ** There is a child not many yearet 
since bom at Pomfret with three thumbs ! ^ 
— -^'and those three knights shall give him 
three horses to hold while they winne 
England*' (Chorus does not verity tbiapaTt 
of the prediction), ** and all noble blood soall 
be gone but one ; and they shall carry him lo 
Sheriff Button's castle, six miles fi-om Tork% 
and he shall dye ther, and they shall chae 
an earle in the field, and hanging their honsi 
on a thorne, will rue the time that ever they 
were borne — ^to see so much blood shed." (I 
picture to myself Mr Besly bursting into 
tears at this juncture ; but Ursula goee mi 
implacably.) ** Then they will come to Torke 
to besiege it, and they shall keep them oat 
three days and three nights ** (this is surely a 
civil war between the parts of speech) * and 
a penny loafe shall be within the bar at half- 
a-crown, and without the bar at a penny; 
and they will sweare if they will not yeeld ** 
(who are these turbulent parties t) ''to blow 
up the town walls ; then they will let them 
iu, and they will hang up the mayor, eherifBi^ 
and aldermen," (Thank heaven, "they" have 
hold of something substantial at last !) ''aiid 
they will goe into Crouch church ; there will 
be three knights goe in, and but one come 
out againe, and he will cause proclami^ 
tion to be made, that any one may take 
house, tower, or bower for twelve yeares, and 
while the world endureth there shall nev«r 
be warfare againe," (here Mr. Besly wipes 
his eyes) " nor any more kings or qaeenes ; 
but the kingdom shall be goveme^t by the 
lords, and then shall Yorke be London." 
(Perhaps the editor of Notes and Queries 
will kindly say whether the familiar expree- 
sion, ** York, you're wanted 1 '* has any rela- 
tion to these coming events^ for at present 
they have not yet happened.) **And after 
this shall be a white harvest of corne gotten 
in by women. Then shall be in the north 
that one woman shall say unto another, 
' Mother, I have scene a man to-day,* and for 
one man there shall be a thousand women. 
Then shall be a man sitting on St. James's 



.1 




MOTHER SHIPTON, 



161 



hill wtepmg hm €11/* (Like 

11 bad enoagh, bat worie remaina 

■* AiJil nfter that a ship eball come say ling 
up iht Ttifiiuea till it cotiie i^g^iiiList Loudon. 
1 the iii;iiitt*r of tlie ship shall wee])e^ ana 
! lUAiriut'i's jiball n*ke him why Is e weaptrtl*, 
he hiiih niaiie so good a voyji^e, aadi 
ifiiiH wiy, 'Ah! what a gocnlly city this 
'; noue in the world compamblo to it ; 
iQil liuMf there iA scarce left, any house that 
em I<?t 12* have drinke for our moiiej !' " 

I Mil Jii^rry to be ohiiged to aay with 
p,.£j. ,,. u.. **Uh, most lain© and impotent 
C*M ' for this m tht? last of Uraula^s 

pr j^ _ , Ciiorua, however, uttera a part- 
ing iiowLf hfler tlii^ faehiois : 

Bui l**l*t*y *^ '^^'^ ''**'' SUiptoa*! ififc MVts : 

Hfi tlio norid al*l aga !H» wonjio diiil furi3t«U 

fitnngQ ibingi tbkll Hetp, wUkb iti unr liitici h«v« felU** 

Th«t bad flranifuar of Chorus muit be for- 
fi V "* ! , e sake o f hia mou ru fu I rhy me, 

''i ; from whence the foregoing ex- 

tr*** i^ .*ie s.iken, is a ihin quarto of tive or six 
leAres^aQd hears the following tttle : "Mother 
Shiptoti*s Propheeies ; with Ibree and XX 
more, all moat terrible and wonderfulL 
Pretltctiiig atr^nge alteratioas to befall this 
etimate of Kn^hmd, ContE^nts : 1 of K. 
Biehai^ IIL 2. Mr, Truawell, Recorder of 
Linoolne. 3, Lillie'a Prediction, 4. A Fro* 
|)U^i4! aUudiug to the Scota* la»t invasmn. 
d* I^Datrua his propheaie, 6. Mm, M'htte^s 
mphcaie. 7. Old SyhiUn's prophesie* S. 
Mil * phesies. 10, Mr* BHglitman**. 

11 irebnerus PrOk 12. A propheaie 

in uHi j,ij^ji^h metre, 13. Another antient 
proph. l4 An other short but pithy, 15. 
Aji other very obscure* 16, Saltioant bis 
predtct. 17, A atrunge prophesie of an old 
Wirlfth woman* 16. Bede'a prc^phesfe. 19, 
Wdlinm AuibrOfttf. 20. Thomas of Aatle- 
ddwne* 2*X Sanndersi hk predict! on, 23. 
A propb^flia of David^ CartlLimU of France, 
&Ci (A wooileutj to be described, fills up 
the rest of tlie pnge, and then comes the Im- 
jirint, as follows: '^London, printed by 
T. P. for F. Col»rs, and are to be sold at his 
ihop At tlie sh^ii^ of the Lam be in the Old 
Baily, neiir t!te Sessions Ilonae. 1663,*') 

The fruiitii^pleee represente ** The Pop© 
tupt'" ' I Uy H. 8," Hcury sits on his 
tin I a drawn sword in Ms right 

h^ii: , : iiig a eopy of the Bible from 

Crai^mer, wJiaj, like the other personages 
inlrodocckl, i-s liibdled with his nurae* The 
monareli'ij ft!et are botk tirnily set on the 
body of Po[»e Clement the Seventh, who is 
struggling on the daia^ his triple erown 
faOei/otf, nod his haiidisoutati etched Bii^hop 
Fmhef find Cardinal Pole stand on either 
side of him ; the first stoopittg, with ooe hand 
undir tlie Pof»e*s arm, and the other with a 
haitil on the Pbp«'a body, Cromwell and 
otben are ronnd the throne, and the fore^ 



grouml is jllled with despairing monks* But 
the wooilcul oil the title-psige is ilii? curloisity. 
Conapicuoua in the cuotre tlstre is n [lortrait 
in prodle of Mother Shipton ht^rt^elf, in an 
attitude of prt^dictioii, with two lingi^ri of the 
left hand extended. Hhe wtvEins a black 
gown and a while head-di^sa^ like a nian*a 
nightcap, the point thrown well to the rear 
atid curving upwards. Her dark hair straggles 
wildly over her face, her nose and clim are 
portentously hooked, and on her cheek ia the 
ai^ni^a laiL'e wart — which it so much glad- 
defied the heart of Mathew Hopkins, the 
witch-tind^ir, to discover. Site holds a itiak 
in her other baud, the top of which repre- 
sents the hi^ad of a bird with a veij slnmter 
eve — probiibiy the portrait of a fiimiliar* 
That tbere may be no miis taking her for any 
of the celebrated beauti«a of the day — ^ 
Henry*a wivea amongst them — the wurd 
Shipton is written iu legible letters over her 
head. But Urt^ula is not ''alone in her glory.*' 
She is the centre of a systt^m, of which the 
satellites are the Pope's he:kd in a circle, 
Bupfiorted by demons iu animal forms ; 
Cardinal Wotsey shut up in a casile, with a 
companion who resembles Charles the Flist { 
Henry the Eighth, apparently at the altar 
with Anne Bult^yn and another pef^ou ; and, 
more piyjminent thnn miy exeept the pro- 
phetess herselft the renowned Mr, Snltmarah, 
a prophet on his own hook. This geiiUeman 
appearSp with the exception of a cineturt;, in 
the eoitnme of Eden belbre the fall, and 
stands under a grand canopy ^ the curt^dnfi of 
whieh flow over hia fetrt in ample folds i he 
bears a flaming torch in. one hantl, and a 
sealed book m the other. What Mr. Salt- 
marsh did to merit posthumous fame may be 
briefly tohh During the period when l^ord 
Fairfsut and the general b were at Windaur, 
Mr* Saltmarsh, b^ing moved by the Spirit. 
went Ihitlier for the purpose of predicting idl 
manner of misfortunes. Hii omens do not 
seem to have disturbed the i parliamentary 
leaders, who contented themaelvea with ask^ 
ing after hia health^a very pertinent m* 
quiry J and Mr. Saltmarsh wendird hia way 
home agiiio, having taken nothing by hia 
motion but an illness which cariied him off 
a few days afterwards, Fortunately fur the 
world, he died speechless. 

So much for the moat attractive part of 
this book, which benrs the signature of Mr, 
I. O. Halliwell, the weO- known archneologistj 
and was acquired by the Museum alKiut lour 
years ago. It is marked as extremely 
scarce, with an intiniation that there is a 
copy iu the Pepysian Collection, The pressr 
mark la 8610, <h I may add that the Museum 
contaioF, moreover, a Dutch translation of 
the Pixqjhecies^ without the emljelfi«l*mtjnt^ 
published at Gravenhogen in aiitevn hundred 
and sixty-seven, Besidt'stlie prect-ciing, there 
is al»o in the National C<^llectii>u a Life of 
Mother Sliipton, under the title of ** Won- 
ders ! I j [^last, present^ and to comei being tU^ 



I 





I 



162 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



fCoBlntlsdhr 



I 



Btriijge jirn|iln*c4es and unconniioa pr^fdie- 
iUiU% of ttie r:4iiH>ua Motlier Shipton, ktiowu 
hy the uppelblioti of the Yorkshire Pro* 
pile teas, Lotjiloii, 8vo. 1797/* IJjia book ia, 
in pulnt of style, a very ^vorthleas pro- 
dtictionf Init it iiitUcatea one or two poinia lu 
Untlier Sliiptoii 8 careen lii^tgiveii elsewhere. 
We leai'D tVniu it thflfc the pruphetes^s died iu 
fifteen bumiri.:d mid lifty-one,^ — not at the 
elake, like Anne Aakew or Joau Ikcher, 
for ahe was too wine to nietldle with doctriniii 
Bulijt?cts-^but quietly iti her beit^ herluatpie- 
dkHion baving relereuee to Uie period of her 
own deceaae. After her death a tnonuuieiit 
WH9 ereeted to her memory uii the biyb 
north road, ab<>ut a mde fioin York, vhere^ 
tojud^e by the froiiliBpiece of tbin Life, abe 
fii^tired in tlie bigh sleep le*cn>wned bat aiid 
costume with wh*eb her personul appearance 
k usually jtsftociated, lier epitaph U said lo 
have run thiia r 

** Here hvi orie wHa tie^er Iv'd, 
Whditf^ tk iiil often has Ltecn trjM; 
licr pi-apbefici shall tull •urvive, 
Arvd ever keep bcr aaaic idlrv/' 

After thia long exordintu^ which resem- 
hi'ta n purLyiideal fjrace introductory to rery 
shcirt cmiimf>na — like the ehaplaiJi'a benedic- 
tiQii on Sir Dvjgahl Dal|,^orty a meal at the 
Caatle of Arderroohr, — I proceed to tLe 
lej^euil eoneeming Mother Shipton : — 

On a high ridire which aeparatoi the 
soutbern extremity of Wurwicksbire from 
the eonnty of Oxford, and distant abunt four 
miles fj-om the pictureaque market- town of 
Chi PI nng Not'ton, are buU to be aeen tbe 
remniua of a very mte re stingy monument^ 
imdoubtedly of Bruidical origin^ alLliuugb 
»acribe<l hy looU tradition to the agency of 
Mother ShTjitoti. Arcbffiologtsts know tbia 
mononi>;nt by I be nnmc of lloUricb Stoucis, 
but tlie inbabittiits of the adjacent viUagea 
of Great and 1MI& RoUewright give the 
eepHrflte parts various deai^'Hatioiia ilbistra- 
tivfl of their own belief. The priiicipad fea- 
ture of these remalna ia a group of stonea 
forming a ring wliicb is not eoiupletely cir- 
cular, tbe longest diameter, from uurth to 
Boutii, be i Off nearly tbirty-six yardtij and the 
fibcuiest not quite thirty* five, UH]^ inaily 
they all »tood upright, but not more tbau 
Beveu- and -twenty ot the number^ which is 
(taled to have been sixty^five, remain iu that 
poaition, tbe rest lying prone on the earth, 
tLalf*bidden by the soil and long waving 
cm?»9. Owing to this circum stance it is very 
difficult to count tbem correctly, and tbe 
peiisauts eay, wutb an air of niyaLery, that it 
la not pofiaible to do so, no two persona agree- 
ing m tlkC tiile, nor the same number being 
aniv'ed at by a repetition of the experiment, 
X found tbia ti ue iu my own la^tance, ami 
tbe iiunjber I reL-kotied certainly ditJ'ered 
considerably from the result of an attempt 
mhde by an other pei^on. As we bad not 
time to verify our sei*arat* atatements or 
Correct our own miatakes^ the magical difli- 



culty was left unsolved^ None of tbe stonii 
in tbiB circle are more than five feet high, 
and some of them ai*e barely twelve inches 
above the g^-ound ; but at a distance of a1x»ut 
eii;bty or ninety yards to the east ward ^ stand 
five o the 1*9} of consider able height^tbe taUeat 
being nearly eleveu feet — wbich, as they 
lean towards each other, with an f^i letting 
from the west, are called the Five Whi-ijmr- 
ing Kni*.dita» Nor are these all that reiiiaio, 
for, at about the aame di stance from tbo eijcle, 
to the noctb-ejiai, and in a tield by itself^ 
divided by tbe road which separates the 
counties^ stands one large atone in aiiUtary 
majesty, popularly known aa tlie Km^*» 
Bvone. It h upwanls of tive feet broa«l and 
between eight and nine feet high, and fjom 
its twtsteii sliape and rough-ijruined^urfaee 
{iia it may well pref^eut, after a buffet with the 
weather of a c^jtiple of thooHaud years) in the 
most remarkable of tbe aeries. '*rbe learned 
Camden and, ufter him, Dr. Plot, the author of 
the Natural History of Oxfordahiret pronoun* 
ced the mouumeut to be a memorial erected by 
Rgilo the Dane, who won a great victory some- 
where about tbe beginning of the tenth eca» 
tury, but their specttlatioua were aet at reil 
by Dr* Stukeley, who, with greater reaiioa, 
declared the remains Druidie^tl, the crrcle 
having been a temple, the five detaebed 
stones a ci^tvaeti or cromlech , and tbe soli* 
tary one a card in id point. IiKlepeiideotly 
of the form of tbe larj^er groups l.h\ Stukeley 
relied upon its etymology, derivioi^ U<*llrich| 
not from liollo tbe Dane, but from Jtbulil* 
rwyg^ the wheel or circle of the JJrui<i«; 
and this, without doubt, U the true inter- 
pretation. 

Kow for tbe popular opinion of the monu- 
ment, 'llie atones, accordiuj^ to nntTei^al 
acceptation amongst the peasantry, ai^ 
neither more uor less than a petrified camp 
or army* Never look for clm>noloL^y in thefle 
matters, but take tbo legend as you find it 
If y*iu believe that men have otxc^t beeo 
turned into stone, it is not worth your whiln 
to question wlio performed tbe feat, or Ut ask 
when it happened ; so the story runs aa 
fuUowtj : 

A certain ambitious warriort bein^j in i tided 
to reduce tbo whole of England ben«*ath Uii 
sway, set orut one day (from w4iat place i% ncit 
fltftted) with a train of five kni^diu and a 
wetl-appoiated band of sixty tine liardy 
soldierly to effect his meditated coni|Ueat* 
Adv'ancin^ from tba south in bis pr^jgrtflt 
towards the Wrdera of Warwickshire, where 
the iasue of his adventure, as it had been 
darkly foretold him, was to be deteruiin^i| 
the king baited his little army for the night 
on tbe edge of Wbichwood Forest, not i&F 
from tbe spot where now at studs tlje htlle 
village of bhipton-under-Whiohwood. Hia 
reason for pausing there is allej^ed to have 
been his desire to confer with the wisi 
woman, who dwelt at Sbipton at that tiuiei 
and who afterwards bequeathed ber tiauus tn 



L 



MOTHEE SHIPTON. 



108 



tfa« place. The kv»^'a councU wiii compoaed 
of ihe kDighU alreiMij men Lion ed ; but on 
thb occfiA^oD, ea eking ndTioe from none^ he 
left tiie emnp liloue— though not unobe^rved 
by ttiij fire, who fi>i lowed at a difltAncc — 
ftiiii proceeded to the dweUlng of Mother 
Shiploiu He wa4i seen to enter her hut, but 
what tix^k [>]^c€ within fias been onlj imper- 
(<^tlj gue&st^d alj noLia of the knights having 
Cdumge etjou^h to venture »ufficieutly near 
to hviir exiiciiy wh?4t passed between their 
li.'jMiiH- and til a dredJed witch. It ii believed^ 
however, ttiat in order to obtain her aaaiat* 
ilic«y the warrior proposed a certain corn- 
met ; hut the oouditioua which Mother 
Shipiou strove W exiXQt tiiuat have been too 
hard, for high words arose between the two 
^-80 much was ascertaiued by the listeners 
Wfore thej diacreetly withdrew — and her 
har»h Toieo waa heard to threaten the wnr* 
rior, who caiue forth in great wrath from the 
hut, and strode hack to hi >3 tent How he 
spent the remaitider of the night la not on 
record ; but, at hreidc of day be waa iu the 
taddie, m&rahalHug hla tneu ; and, long be- 
fore the 0UI1 had gilded the t<>ps of the 
breat trees, lie led them across LyBham 
Heath, and skirtiug Knollberrjr Bauka, left 
ili« old Baxon mart of Ceapeu- Nor tb town 
hehi udf and [dunged iulo the woody gladea 
tliat vet interpo«ed between him au^l the 
objt^tit of hiH de^ires^ After a toiWjme march 
of tiire hours, he caiue to a ateep aacent^ 
where the com grows now, but whieii 
ihcti was a dest^rt waste. Laboriouslj hia 
fuUowera eliuilHfd tite hill, nor rested until 
the cre*t of the ridge wa^ nearly gaiued. 
II ere t>iej paused, aod the fiTe knights stood 
tome distance apart^ while their eager leader 
gpurrcd to wants a slight emiueuce, which, 
Irom tljst point, wad all that impeded the 
view iuto the broad valley beyond, the haven 
of hb eipeetations. Btiddeuly, a fetuale 
6^1 .: lied on the rising summit of the 

kii ill the clear moruing light, the 

five k-iti^^ncif^ who watched the motions of 
their ehiefj recognised the unearthly liuea- 
meuts of Ursula Sbipton. The events of 
tiie prt?vious night catntj biLck to their memo- 
r^isiy Mid they whimpered .^uiong each other, 
For Sii bistant, the bold adventurer wsa lost 
to thetr YieWf but presently he re-i^ppeared ; 
attd, as be breasted tbe last aaceut, they 
b«ird bb Toioe ; ^- Out of my way^ Hag I " he 



* If Loi^K ContptoD I mftT tte, 
Tlien king of EuglmnJ I ibftU be t" 

But another voice — the voice of Ursnhi 
Shtjttou^^^zclaimed ; 

** Hi»e lip liill < Stftiid fut. Stone t 
Kiug wf linf bud, thfiii thdt be nans 1** 

She wared her arm as she sp*>ke ; the 

' earth swelled ; and the anibittous chief, the 

five whisfwnng kuigkte^ and the whole of 

the warnor's mestiie, were at &nm trans- 

ibmied to stone I 



Six pacea further, and the villaee of L^^ng 
Compton had been distinctly seen ; but, where 
the kbig's stone buries its b^ise in the ground 
nothing li visible but tbe hill-aide. 

There ia yet another traditioa connected 
with K^jUneh Stuuea. 

A certaiu man of wealth, the lord of the 
manor of Little Hollewright, Humphrey 
Boflin by name, resolved to remove the Km^j's 
I Stone to the courtyard of his owu dwehiiig^ 
about a mile distant^ at the foot of tbe hill. 
The country people dissuaded him from 
making the attempt, telling him that no good 
would come of it ; but he, bnng au intenipe* 
rate, violent man, would uot be thwarud of 
his headatrong will, and commenced the at- 
tempt* He thought to accorapliah his pur* 
pose with a wagon and four horses, but, 
th origin the latter were of a famous breed aud 
remarkably strong, they could not stir the 
itone a single inch* He then yoked other 
four to the team, but still without success ; 
again aud agaiu he made the same addition, 
uor was it until four-and-twenty horaaa had 
been attached to the loati, that he w^is able 
to e^ect Its removaL At length Hump^irey 
Boflin triumphed, and the King^a Stone stood 
in the ceutre of his own courtyartl. But his 
triumph was of short-lived dunitiOD, lor no 
sooner had the shades of nigiit appeared, 
than au iudescribable tumult appejured to 
surround his hou^, waxiug louder aud tieicer 
as the uight drew on ; nothing wjia heatd 
but groans and shrieks, tiie clash of weu}>on3, 
and the direful diu of battle, which noises 
lasted tiil the momiugf when all again was 
stiJL Humphrey iloftiu was greatly fright- 
ened ; but, tor all that, hb heart wati not 
changed, and in spite of omens he swore he 
would kt'ep the stone. The secoud night wai 
wone than the tir^t ; ou the third, the up* 
roar of the two were combined, and then 
Humphrey BoHingave in. Adopting his wife a 
countel (for she, clever woman, aaw at once 
where the shoe pinched), he agreed to re,^tore 
the King's Stone to the place where Mother 
Sh i p ton uadcommandcditto stand. £ u t ^ the 
dithculty wns how to nceomplisb tbe t^ui^k. It 
had taken four-nnd- twenty hotses to drag the 
stone down bill. How many must tliere be 
to carry it up again I A sii^gle puir settled 
the question : they were no sooner in the 
shafts than they drew the wagou with per- 
fect ease j nor did they stop to breathe nor 
did they turn a hair on their up-hill journey 1 
Ti le coun try people, h w eve r, w ere ri gh t^ The 
attempt did Humplirey Boffiu " no good f 
the civil war breaking out shiirtly after- 
wards, his homestead waa burut and hia 
house ransacked by Crom well's troo|>eni^ and 
lie himself, endeavouring to esca[>e — without 
Mrs. Bo ditj —tutu bled into a wtll and was 
drowned. The lady, it is add+^d, eventually 
consoled herself by marrying the captain of 
the troop, who, when the wars were over, 
became a thriving farmer and leader uC tlie 
conventicle at Banbury. 



164 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



Strangers in search of Boll rich Stones may 
fiud tliciu more quickly than I did by direct- 
ing their stejis to a clump of lofty tir-treea, 
which, grown within tlie ai*t;na of the Druid 
teni])ley form a landmark for several miles 
round. 



CHIP. 

PEN AND INK PIES. 
We profess a resjiect for literature, but we 
also love cooks. Well, what is wiitiug an 
article, but making a pie ? You roll out your 
crust, <ir uenend subject, which ia a nutriiious 
compound of wheaten flour, buttt^r, milk, an«l 
UBolul knowledge. You prepare your fruit, 
or meat, or jioultry, or s{)ecial and novel 
iufurmation. You throw in a few bits of 

E reserved quince, or anecdotes, or forcemeat 
alls, or happy illustrations. You sweeten 
to your taste with syrup, brown sugar, or 
amiable pidlanthropy ; or you season with 
jiepprr, Rait, and smart remarks, dusting the 
inifiior of tlie pato with fine-cliop])ed lemon- 
pei'l. aromatic herbs, and all tlie small fnig- 
ments of wit you can mufitor. When 
you have roughly got the whole together 
into si 1 ripe, you jKiii«h up ; you cut off round 
the e(i«'es rtui)eiHuou8 bits of pante and re- 
dundant ]))irases ; you diviile into i)ara- 
graitliH and mark out into portions to help ; 
you sniootl), and scrape out, and decorate 
with flfiwers of elo<pience or maearoons and 
moulded butttms of crust ; you varnisli with 
white of e^'g or glibness of style ; and, when 
the \\h(»le is iinished to your mind, in the 
shape of a fair copy and tlie disli of a neatly- 
trimmed tart, you send your handiwork 
or your minditcoik to the oven or the 
printing-office. 

Ihcn comes the rub and the test ; the pi*oof 
of the pudding and the page is in the eating 
and the rea<ling. If your com(H)silion be 
badly put together, the oven and the press 
will only make it worse ; little cracks will 
gnpe open wide, and small weak places will 
become yawning holes. But, if your task 
have V»een artistically completed with a 
spontaneous touch of impulsive genius, it 
will often turn out better than you ex- 
pected. You will be agreeably surprised at 
the result of your efforts, and will chuckle to 
find it read (or eat) so well. No man can 
ju<lge of hirt own ]>erformauces in their crude 
manuHcript or uncooked state. Sometimes, 
however, bakers, or editors and printera, 
will s]H)il all when you don't deserve it. They 
will slick your pie or paper in a corner that 
is too tierce or too slow for it ; they will keep 
it too long, till it gets heavy and loses its 
flavour. What you exi)ectcd would be light 
puff ]»a8te proves a leathery and imiigestible 
substance. Sometimes they will jmll out the 
plums and tit-bits, for mere mischiefs sake, 
to show they arc somebody with a right to 
have a finger in; but^ against that we 



ought to set their frequent abstraction of 
tasteless morsels that are as much out of 
place as chiiM in porridge. Occasionally they 
will make sad errata and fractures, which let 
out all vour spirit, juice, sense, veracity, and 
gravy. The dropping of a letter or a baming 
hot patty-nan will make a mess of what was 
perfect when it came into their hands: 
indeed, t'e teclmical t^'iiu for a coufosion of 
tyf)es is the very thing ; printers call it 
'*pie.** For such misfortunes the only 
remedy is patience, sceinc that both bakeii 
and printei-s and cooks and periodical writeiB 
are but imperfect creatures at the best. 



SCHOBRY THE BANDIT. 

Of Schobry, the Hungarian captain of 
banditti, there are told some Bobiu Hoodidi 
stories. If I repeat one, it is not for any love 
1 bear to bandits. They ai'e thieves at best^ 
and often something worse than thievet. 
They are not greatly to be admired if they 
will now and then do that upon impiilsa 
which honest men do always upon principle. 
As for their generosity with other men*s poi- 
sessionfl, I do not quite see the admlrableuen 
of it, and 1 never did. It is the light going 
of what has lightly come, — the wrenching of 
hard earning.s from the man who had aa 
honest and >yise use for them, and scattering 
them away, if not in vicious indulgence, yet 
in idle waste. Schobry has been known to 
commit a daring robbery, buy jewellery and 
rings with the larger half of the proceeds, and 
dis8i}iate the remainder in rcveli-y and indis- 
criminate donation. Schohry took great 
pleasure in laughing at his Austrian pur- 
suers, and amused himself with many prac- 
tical jokes at the expense of the armeu force, 
when it was called out m consequence of 
some audacious act of his. 

The last joke of this kind preluded hie end. 
Disguised as a common gnusier, he waited 
u]>on an imperial-royal colonel to represent 
that Schobry had robbed him on a particular 
i*oad, and that he thoui^lit he could point out 
the brigand's den. At the aame time he went 
to the head of the police, and declared that 
he knew Schobry *s hiding-place, but would 
consent to indicate it to the civil power only. 
This assurance was a^^roeable to the police, 
inasmuch as a largo reward had been offered 
for Schobry's apprehension. Of the military 
expedition, led by a major and directed by 
Schobry's lieutenant, four soldiers took occa- 
sion to desert, two wore suffocated in a most 
intricate swamp, and the rest of the imrty, 
having lost their guide, returned next day 
to quartei-8 in but sorry plight. The police 
did not fare better. They were to be posted 
in a cavern, twelve miles from the moraai 
chosen for the manoeuvres of the military, 
and in an opposite direction. Into the cavei 
it was said, iSchobry would pass, unarmed and 
drowsy, at the time of taking his fiiesta. 



BCHOBRT THE BANDIZ 



^ 



im 



itfiQii K Hme tlna eavem liad served as a 
of T*f*ik'« ff.jr ibe Magyar* when pressed 

* Oamiiiili^ ami aume sixty jeara be fore 
»rv wiisi born, It Jmi boured a formblable 
Ui| who Wisre iiltimatelj sarprtsed by a 
.if b u;$Bara, aad the grejiter part of tbem 
t&l by that niodifieatioii of Lyiich-taw- 
, tli<> Jlagyai' oppresaors call Stand- 

c Jf course lUe cjive is h aim tod by the 
I of Uieie men, tind by worae apirits 
No peasant vakiiut^ hia safety would 
Eiear it ut utght, nnd, moreover, it lies 
f the track of h^*bi tat ions. When, now^ 
neti, ti ixvighbuurlug magnate brought a 
to the csive, twenty peasants were sent 
ril with torched to light op its gallerieat 
laee a small portable bridge with iron 
>ver a chasm on tlie fioor of it^ which, 
i^«h ooly ube feet wide, was said to be 
f f<it}t 10 depth. 

* paHy of police, then (thirty-four per- 
il all), was conveyed to the village near 
ucky ridge lu the rapid lynlrivea light- 
of the couutry. As^ in this case, each 
carded not two eouutry people, bat 
lued ptdleemen, and they went by ingbt^ 
were four hours in reaching the ap- 
id apoU Many of the pulicem«n were 
kf|;eants and corp«jrals, and otie among 
^irhiie loadiag hIa rusty c^'trbioe) de- 
■bat be had aeen Seh^ibry once, and, 
Ifc he might be disi^^uiaed, could not 

hhn* Si^hobry smiiftt encoura^^ingly, 
kid be was sure his memory would very 
be t<?at^4 *' How deplorable it Is," he 
, "that «ueh a fellow should not only 
fvin habitually out of hts pursuers, but 
m triekft ahouhl so often be the munns 
^[mable members of society, like 
it of their pr^i per homes and beds 
HI aiju rainy nights/* 
t Ui« police did not complam of thia, for 
baiJ agreed amongst each other that 
mn^tt need^ be gold anil other spot]?} of 
kTHliM ; ;n f]m cave that Scliobry watched 
self of idgbts. Tiiere^ how- 
,^ the party a little wenaeu- 
o\d corptymlj who eyed Schobry with 
hiag of niititruat, although his senae of 
Hb<rrdin:4tjOn bad restrained bim from 
uting of anapieion to the commissary, 
t the party were within a quarter of a 
of the cave^ Schobry liimself proposed 
le and four men should go forward and 
imt the ci>ast w^aa clear. The small 
rdt inrttantiy volunteered for this light 
ry duty. When within the cav*i, 
>ry turued tx^und, and noticed that the 
ml*i carbine was not only at full-cock, 
\\ms directed to wank bim from the 
Dg jMkaiti un. He atfeeted not to notice 
ind coolly went on with \m exploration. 

lighted two torcbea^ found the little 
e in the upright position in which it was 
ly lefl when not wanted^ aod, as it fitted 
|rf>oves on either side the ebasui, tlic 
waj' ftcrosa was soon aecui'ed, The 



t 



five returned, and reported all safe ; the 
main body advanced ; the cuve was occupied. 
More torches were theji U;t;htod, nnd tlie 
bridge waa crossed. The Utile corporal atiil 
kept near Schobry, scowling upon bim eji- 
presaivelyi 

The 8|>ceial-commiaaary, who was lefider of 
the capturing detach meutj had under hirn two 
of the best apies of the Yienna police, and eu- 
tertiiined a lirm belief that he whs acting 
upon certain hif^jmnitiou, while be au]>poa«Hi 
that the military detachment of whotie march 
he had been secretly iuformeil, wasoua wild- 
goose chace. Hia main dvluaion^ however, 
waa, that Schobry, who had borrowed n good 
passport^ was no victim, as he en I led binistflf 
but A past member of the baud, who hsid 
aome reason for desiring to be reveiigeil upon 
ita chiefs Sfihobry gave a aquaru- bottle of 
apiritii to bis next neighbour, the corporal^ 
signed bim to drink from it, and [tasA it 
round. Then addrvsMug himi«elf to the head 
functionary, aaid, ** Gracious Lot^l-Comniis- 
sary, it is now seai'ceiy six o* clock, and we 
will lie in wait ; fur he never cornea to hia 
lair, in that conier, until past eleven. I will 
take you to a flanking gallery of the cavern, 
whi^re the torches cau neither be aeeu nor 
smelt ; your worthy suite can then reat nnd 
lake some refreshment, until the Sfntint;;ls 
you huve io w^iaely posted near the eotmuce 
gtv« tht aignal to us. The commissary^ evi- 
iientlj disturbed at the information that the 
cave bail so many rami tic at tons, gave the 
ortler to explore the passage indicated^ 
Again the littte corrx^nd went as a volunleef 
upon the service, k>r he waa reidly brave, 
and restlessly auspicioua. The others ijegan 
to prepare the mat? I ve** for ease atjd repose, 
when the advanced guard retui^ned with ihe 
announcement of a remarkable discovery* 
Schobry, and certainly nut less than thirty of 
his followers, mu^tbave been disturbt-d while 
feasting there upon the previous dsiv, because 
a t:iblo had bf-en diacovered spremi wiiti all 
kinds of got>d meat and wine. Inatant wm 
tiie rush of men eager to verify tbi^ state- 
menti Subur^liuatiou put quite of qnestton^ 
the commanding commissary only ordered 
hia band to be seated, and to make the best 
use of the knives and forks they found* To 
nave apiteaninces, and preserve due res|Hict 
for his own dignity, be took the head of the 
table antl began to carve. After an hour's 
time Schobry and hia adherent the corf>oral 
were almost the oidy aober people of the 
party. Then said the baudit to hit^ double, 
iti a confidential tone, ^^ Tliia really is going 
too far ; there i& nothiog but wine and spirits 
on the table — no water to mix with it. I 
will lake these two jugs — you can carry the 
two othera ; we had better till them at ths 
tank close by. Now it was evidently the 
coriwral's plan to do anything together with 
tlie guide he wua miatrutttiugr but not ta 
^llow that gentleman to pass out of hia sight, 
Schobry ac^rdingly led the way^ tilled the 



4 



166 



HOXTSEHOLD WOBDSL 



tClD«4 



four pitchers, and aijrned his companion to 
take up his share. The latter stooping low, 
obeyed, and at the instant turned a summerset 
across them. Before he was well on his feet 
again, Schobry, who had helped him across 
tho pitchers with a sadden kick, had crossed 
the chasm, and drawn after him the bridge. 
The shoals of the betrayed re-echoed through 
the winding vaults, an«l, before Schobry 
reached the cavern's mouth, a ball from the 
corporal's carbine whizzed near his head. 
As to the outside sentinels, they had been 
ffiigjed, pinioned, and carried off by the ban- 
ditti long before. 

The next thing to be done was to prevent 
the carts from travelling back to their start- 
ing-point, and giving an alarm. Schobry, 
therefore, walke<i back to them, and was met 
by the two police-officers in charge of the i 
wagjjfon- train and several of the drivers, who ( 
eagerly inquired what the report of fire- 
arms signitiedl The answer was: "The 
object for which I brought the party here 
has been attained ; we are now going acr(»>ts 
country to Nagy-SOlOpschek with our prisoners. 
The s|>ecial-commi88ary and I have therefore 
resolved that you should go tliere by the 
road, and wait in tho town for us. You are 
afterwards to give your horses plenty of 
corn and twenty-four houre' rest. There will 
aUo be allowed to each man one florin a 
day bevond the pay agreed for." As Scho- 
bry liail been seen by all these men to direct 
everything concerning the expedition, no 
doubt was raised as to his authority, an<l 
there w.ts the less murmur in yielding to it, 
becHuae he confirmed it by giving to the tlder 
policeman a nmall bag of zwanzigers on ac- 
count of subsistence-money. Now, the town 
of Nagy-S6liij)schek was tully nine German 
miles otf, and it was plain that no alarm 
could be raised at head-quarters for the next 
four days, during which time the special -com- 
missary and his retinue wouUl have an ample 
o])portunity of sleeping off their wine, and 
layin<r in their rheumatism. Whether they 
would have any food left, or any torch-light 
bv which tr>seek for the fatal tank, were con- 
siderations that did not trouble the plaimer of 
this vauabond's revenge. It was not, however, 
his purpose that the imperial and royal func- 
tionaries and their troop shouM die of hunger 
or «!espair ; so he wrote, on the third day, by 
a \ illaue-no.-^t, to say that the whole party hail 
joined Scliobry's band, and was inhabiting the 
famous cave. The consternation of autho- 
rities may be conceived. Three companies of 
regular-infantry were sent to capture the 
polioo, antl in that manner th»'y were rescued. 
This jest proved serious in its results. Esta- 
fetLes galloped in all directions ; such vigorous 
me.'i8ui*es were adopte<l boih in villages and 
towns, danger grew imminent. Under the 
uri^'ent iieceHsity of removing as far as pos- 
sible from tho scene of his exploits, Schobry 
wentto Sirmia, in a close carriage, accom- 
panied by two of his most faithful loliowers, 



attired as servants. He is said to have b 
on this occasion, a sum of' six thousanc 
hundred ducats, and jewellery of great 
somewhere near Voukovar. His first i 
was, to cross the Saava, and take refu 
Servia until he could escape to a seapo 
he was convinced that nls old trad 
broken up. 

The vigilance of quarantine establish] 
and of the military police on the fn 
were, however, greatly to be dreaded, a 
had also a strong disinclination to ren 
his country. 

While he was revolving such cons 
tions in his mind, hundreds of functio 
were at work spinning out schemes f 
destrnction ; anci the most inveterate of 
was the special-commissary whom h 
exposed to ridicule. Yet this official hi 
been greatly to blame. It was to the i 
of a superior authority that the discom 
was due. That officer had receive 
anonymous letter (the preparatory port 
the hoax) to say tliat, within a certain 
a party irritate*! against Schobry wonU! 
the local authorities of a place nam 
deliver the redoubtable bandit into 
hands ; and he hastened to tell this l 
hand, and as reliable information, les 
provincial subordinate should subseqi 
take credit for original action in the 
Schobry knew very well that the Aus 
like a sneak, and wouhl put more fait! 
little underhand meanness of tale-ln 
than in any information offered to th 
more manly form. 

It seemed that the small corporal 
had ventured to hint his suspicions ; b 
commissary checked the ex[>re8sion of 
by saying, "I know who and what 
quite Veil." The corporal was, of couf 
way behind the commissary in zeal f 
venge. 

Now in a small garrison town c 
Austrian military frontier, there wj 
imperial-royal lieutenant of infantry be 
twenty and fiveand-twenty years old, ii 
monthly stijiend of twenty-six florins (p 
bank or state-])aper, which is usually 
heavy discount), less certain dedm 
There was the daugliter of a small em 
endowed only with good looks, hou? 
knowledge, ami an inordinate love of 
and ornaments. Let her be called 
Petrav its, daughter of t)ie worthy post-* 
at Semlin, who himself enjoyed a sah 
eiu'ht luHKlred florins a-year for the disc 
of his troublesome duties, and for the su 
of his mother, wife, ami seven chi 
Two such persons are liable to suffer < 
pointment in the mean« of marrying 
upon this head it is needful to expl 
certain Austrian military regulation. 
Austrian lieutenant in the rei^ular ai*m. 
receive the im))erial permission to n 
unless he, his betrothed, or others on 
behalf, can deposit a sum equal to aboi 



I 



SCHOBRY THE BANDIT. 



bbSidrni poufiild BteiHug. Tlie mterest of] 
tliL0 c^4j4tal h paid to tbe S|>otiseiif and it 
ultiiuiit^ly forma a fund for the widow'a 
pvctiimti 111 C3£<ti of hha liiii^Wnd'st d^'Uth. Cikp- 
tniiit) iind tieLl-oJlict^rd iiHj^t furniali propor- ' 
liouiitrlv Urger auras, if they are not too old 
Ut vi]di fjr thU miiiiiQer of settleru^ut in II few j 
Kow, uMU*i]>pklv, neither Lieutenaat Wiir- j 
mei^t*.'Iii iitir Julia Petravita bad the re- ^ 
iMut^^^l ohshiice^ in the ordinary course of 
provwi'ai or inlieritaoeei of ev^er beiug able 
ta cotupafiaa a twentieth part of the re- 
paired fit! II u Tli*Y bad danced together at 
Ufee Qoldeu Augel, and were irretrievably 
in lov^* 

A relative, wbo liad carried on a lacrati™ 
bojTtineA^ as aa apothecary at Gallatz, mm 
ai>|>lied lo« and would wilUngly have re- 
i}>o tided f^LVourably to the apj^eal ; but he 
had married a poor Greek girl, tliirty-five 



yeuc /• r than himself, atid she was 

Uu* > divorce hiui, and to have bis 

pri>i i .- -.-raestered, if be g.tve more than 
twenty- five ducats towards Jutia-s happiness. 
Forfir Julia etied for &ix hours after recti ving 
with the mouej this quwlifled refueal ; af^er 
which «lie Wfiit out aiid apent more than half 
the ducatit U(M>n varioua ctvquettirth articles 
of i'rifM, ad if beat upon driving; Warmerst^iu 
totally mud with adiiiinition. The remainder 
Wt^iili bftvp l^^eeu diasijiated m the same wuj ' 
BL\ ', but that a bright (and aa fihe ; 

hi i.:d) thought Btrnck her during ! 

|1j> night which intervened. By 

|«ii' lorina each time on three niuu- | 

Vm» ^* Mn. Lotto, which was^ provideutially, 
firamn at 'j cities war every teti days^, a tdruo j 
troiiid !*e formed^ entiUinjj the holder to I 
mao lIioiJ5;ibd ab: bundled fl oralis. She tcx>k , 
the numWr a^xording with her own ag^ 
fifteen ; Uie aj:e*jf her iufatitry adorer, twenty- 
fbur; und their united ages, tbirty-niaej 
Coutti tiiiire be a prettier teruo aeceo than j 
nuiwbf^ra fiilk?en, twenty-four, thirty-nine ? I 
Fortuji© mnst be the most nnfaeUng jada in 1 
existed et*. if she failed to friVuur so sweet a ' 
cot^ ■■ ■ ' Nothing was more simple than 

thi ition of the gaiua^ — florins six 

tht/.. .... . » .ur the caution-money would be 

forw.iriI(f*i to Vienii!*, by the paleraal poiit, 
without an hjatant*s delay ; and then there 
woo Id reniaiii, from the' pro*Juct* of the 
Unto ?r . - . 

flon 



upwards of three thousaiMJ 
r<id i}m expenses of a fir^t 
:^ afUr having allowed for a 
U^ litfj parentd equal to their jearlj 



I 



i * ■ 1^ an actual scan dalj if 

Il6t \ The little strip of, 

' 1 i <- c LI 1 1 <-tto r ann ouuced on e, 

-ni> siJtty-eight, di^htv-ejglkt, as I 

I fibers *lrawn from the wheel, 

lie scrolls marked from one to 

i^^'e* . i 

** Wi-iat 1 " txclairoed Julian ** these numbers 

»re adualijr absur^l I They reprcaeut nothing 

^«i liUaiAcjr aad old ag<^*' 1 



In the next drawing, her own age and 
the united ages were Indeed drawu, but 
not the lover's age; so nothing Vfi\M 
got by that, except a sort of prospect 
promUe of improvement. At lenj^th ihe 
sacre^i fund* as welt as a pnit of eiirnugs, 
bad been devoted to the ;^'oddess For- 
tune of Tenieswar. As a cHmax of evil 
destiny, the regiment was ordered ofFj and 
bound to march within a wei*k or two* 
Wiirmerstem became a sbre to platoon pre^ 
pari^tioDS. 

IT|>un the mominff of a magnificent tropieal 
day in August, the disconsolate Julia strolled^ 
with her younger si^iter^ to those celebrated 
heights from whence Belgrade had b**en . 
bombarded. Little Katlnka collected wild 
fiowei^ and pensive Julia sat on the so^ 
moss, gazing nuconsdoufilj upon the Danube 
and the minarets of the Turkish city, whea 
she and lenly discoTered that the dark eyei 
of a fltranj^eu were upon her tearful fiico. He 
was luintliomely dnes^dj and the fingers of 
his ungloved hand were covered with rings, 
aocordmg to the Huiii|arian fashion of all 
tiiue& Hcj raised his foiaLMng-cap from his 
head, and respectfully addresised some in- 
quiries as to the topography, in a German 
so accentuated and cadeucod that there could 
be no doubt as to the Magyar origin of t!ie 
speaker* In her innocence of woridly ccui- 
vent ion all ties, and in courtesy to a stranger, 
Julia answered all his questions with the 
grace and iotelligeuce that belongud to her, 
lieaide«, ho uppeur^jd to htn* ipiitc an old mail, 
and she was uot alone with lum, for she had 
beckoned Katinka to her side^ The manner 
of the stranger seemed to be so sy m path lain g, 
that she ended by reeouTiting evtry poitioa 
of her simple history. The st range r*s mt^ 
rest was luanif^^ated by a proniii^t^ that if 
Julia wo'dd meet him in the samti ptace, 
on the following day, he would be able to 
give her good advit^e, only she must saj 
nothing to her parrnu. At the appointed 
hour the panies niet with hicrtik&i'd into rest, 
and spake as confidentially as if they had 
known each other for years. At length the 
Hnn^Wian ajiid, " Dear child! your ho^>e of 
happmess sliall not be lost for the matter of 
a few thousand florins. I will supply thenif 
but have not the money here. By jill that Is 
solemn ** (be signed himself with the cross), 
**if you come t-j tlussfK>t at nine oVdock on 
the moruingof the twelflh of next month, \ 
will put the bank-notes into your hand, 
asking nothing of you in return but a parting 
kiss^ and a promise that you wiU not any 
longer think ill of Schobry^ because I am 
Sohobry." 

Jnlia w^ ftt home more silent than ever 
She told the lieutenant that she had a hopo 
still I and he conclnded it to be something as 
promt^iiig asthepoasible terno ; so he «m^»ked 
his pi]^, ^ud troBted that the quait^^i^ he 
was moving to might bring bim more aob- 
stauttal luck. 



4 



I 



168 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



Having examined the batiks of the Danube 
and of the Saava, in case of flight becoming 
unavoidable, Schobry proceeded, unsnsfiected, 
in his handsome equipage to Stulilweisaen- 
berg, where he had appointed to meet one of 
his agents, who had extensive means of 
knowing what was going on in the camp of 
hostile police and railitury cohorts. The 
accounts were anything but reassuring : tlie 
wliole country was raised ; minute descrip- 
tions of liis person circulated everywhere ; 
and particular instructions had been sent to 
the commandants along the military frontier ; 
consequently, Voukovar, Peterwardeiu, Mitro- 
vitze, and Semlin, were the most dangerous 
places to wliich he could go. It was pro- 

?osed that he should remain quiet in the 
'ransylvanian mountains. His recent visit 
to Voukovar had by some means become 
known to the authorities a few hours after he 
quitted ; and if he had not, by mere accident, 
taken a cross-country track, he would have 
been intercepted. Yet, after learning all 
this and more, his confidant was dismayed at 
hearing him say, in his firmest and most 
deliberate tone, '' I shall be obliged to go to 
Voukovar and Essig, and I shall be obli^red 
to go to Semlin, or close to it." A good dis- 
guise, and a new passport adapted to the 
travesty, enabled him to do as he pleased at 
Voukovar, where the police were off their 
guard, little expecting a fresh visit so soon 
after a hot pursuit But on the frontier all 
the public guardians were on the alert, and 
they have often penetrated masquera«ling8 
that passed undiscovered even in Vienna. 
It is said that Schobry went from Voukovar 
to some part of the BaUchka county, or to 
tlie Biinat, on his way to Semlin, quite alone. 
In the small hostelries on the road he oflen 
heard himself spoken of, and quite as often 
spoke of himself. One evenino: he arrived 
(after losing his way to a farm-house, where 
he had a friend), wet and weary, at a village 
inn, and went to bed at once ; merely light- 
ing a candle, drinking a tumbler of wine in 
the common room, and ordering his supper 
to be brouglit to him a couple of hours later. 
But that lighting of a candle was the extin- 
guishing of his own life. The little corporal, 
his restless foe since the adventure of the 
cave, was there among the smokers, and 
instantly set off to tell the commander of 
troops in the village who the new guest 
was at the village inn. The captain, 
a cautious old Kaiserlich, made full in- 
quiry before he decided upon his course, 
t was known that Schobry always went 
well armed ; and the point of skill was, 
therefore, to take him alive, without giving 
him a chance of killing one of his as«)aii- 
ants. 

The innkeeper (a docile Saxon, whose dis- 
cretion could be trusted), as well as the 



?i 



battalion-surgeon, were called to th 
tains quarters. There it was ar 
that a bottle of a superior kind of re 
should be drugired, and supplied, at 
past seven o'clock, to Schobry wi 
supper ; afterwards twenty men, ut 
lieutenant, were to rush into the 
with loaded muskets and fixed bay 
these were to bind Schobry as he 
under the influence of the narcotic. 
corporal volunteered to enter first, h 
a torch. 

As he sat down to supper, Schob 
served to the innkeeper's wife (who 
on him, knowing nothing of his qualil 
his impending fate) that he never befc 
such gloomy forebodings, and request 
to be extremely careful that night : 
fire, as there was so much wood i 
building of the house, and he had i 
that the room next his was full of flax 
woman replied that she herself waf 
nervous about fire, and always i 
through the house with a lantern 
going to rest for the night. He drank 
half the wine, and must have taken \ 
a sufficient over-dose of opium. Befo 
supper was removed, he reverted to th 
ject of fire, observing, that if such a i 
tune were to occur, he could save, i 
rate, himself, the windows of the room 
only a couple of feet fi*om the ground 
little knew that he was already w. 
through those windows by the eight i 
four sentinels and the two eyes of the 
corporal, who helped to watch unt 
bandit was in bed, and had put oi 
candle. 

All was ready at midnight for the ca 
The door had been gently opened, ai 
victim's hard breatliing was heard, 
corporal entered with his torch, and Sc 
either started up, or uttered a cry 
sleep. Contrary to tlieir ori^'inal c 
four soldiers fired at him from the 
way, and three of their balls told, 
cording to some accounts, Schobry 
killed on the instant, and his dead 
exposed next day to the terror < 
doers ; while another version is that, 
only wounded, he was executed pi 
after a brief trial. 

Under the pillow of the bed in wh 
slept, a square packet was found, and 
the blood-stained cover there was aora< 
written. The contents were six "V 
bank-notes (at one of those rare p 
when these were at par) for one 
sand florins each, and twenty not 
one hundred florins. It is not 1 
who received that treasure ; but ii 
tainly did not reach Julia Petravits. ! 
lovers did not marry, and were mis 
ever after. 



The Eight of Tramlating Articles from Houssuolb Wobds i$ reserved by the At 



■Amfitr M Heir MmtOt m HOUSXHOLD WORDS."- 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 

A WEEKLY JOFRSAL 
CONOUCTEO BY CHARLES DICKENS. 



Jf*«37.] 



rax, edwabos * ca. nTBLtsraERS^ 



MT BLACK MIRROB. 

Bjls tfYCTjliodj beuil of Doctor Bee, ihc 
Sftgicijui, ubi af tfaa bbefc vpeenlinB or 
mlrr^ ir «■! cMntl eoal^ bi wlikfc m could eee 
«t will MToy^yKg IB the wide worif, ami & 
^ fOo4 jMsaj tliiy beyond HI If m^ I ntaf 
""" * r to m J fvndeis ui line CMMsii 

SOeUir £Ni^ loa I prof^i tlie oeeolt arl to ; 
Uie eiloft tf keepuif m Umek »mr, made 
exaedjr ifte iM node} of ^uA po^&^etl bj 
IB|^ iiiiif niiigi it micmuir* Mj wfteaimtsL like 
Ilia, »• ^^iMiiulinl dC aa onl pieee of caimd 
oq«It ^Uf petii>iul» sod n* <m a woc4«ft 
*" k vt£k « lMih4le to hM, it %. K^idiiD^ 
I hm riiijJtf t^a its sfipeazaiiee ; Botliiiig 

tilM alwajA tifeai tbe iMTflOii MU^ it be » tne ' 
i d ry L Any i*ii vfat iJithdir^Tinrthiincft m 
tv«» ad««u Lift liim set m vii«e of A&ncl 
«4HMh It J^f, cftM U before «« with I 
hamlfc^ciiie^ retm to &' 
mvofce tte BftMo of 
at, 
^iilbck 
1/ he 4i^ neA Ke aD)Hh!ttg he Ehei^ 
mSUr thM, |sgty fffi^esO, or fuiicrc, then ki 
Um <ftyiai qp U lhet« k oone qieck «r faw 
ff hirt i drS^ m him Bating mmd he ia eoaae- 
qttmiH txat m trmm adepC The varMlava 
mtmmi ef eeal will arrer be tiiofe to him 
Ikmm the pMtne wm to Fkter Bdl; aad 
tlw Ajd tofKEftfioii of hii caroer maj be 
Ciriluul eertain ajKOcr er later, ha wili 
«Mi ca bfiEjjaoChiaKbstatatidtti' 
I, wU h»w aot oM Mwl of 
afeottt Mr ; I,wh» asi aa trae aa adeft at If 



•oaedaj, bod mrtualjaoljiiat j««. Whem 
tli0 pracael fiMliioa eha^^ei^ I bWi |o cnH 
with a aoeegaj ta ■¥ battoti-hol^ aad ai«et 
the bdy af Che Mack aiirTor, I ahaU bow, 
amiH aad aaj, * Madia, I adore ytm** 8h« 
willeaHaey,4gh,aadttj,*Iii Ihaieaae^nn 
joo had be«i«r Ukm mj haial*' Aad wa 
alMll be B»me4 aad fittdlj ehetU mA 
ether Ibr tlM nal ef aor tiv«a. I know all 
thai mAf frum I^NAiqf al the ouutd coaL 
Who woaid aet be a true adejit f 

What ii BIT prea^ wtmliowj and how 4t> 
I sake raj bhA rainor appBciMe to ii f I 
am at jpmeai ia tha pnaitinii of moat of 1^ 
other mhabitaiito of Loadoa ; I an th 
of iooagott^onifif iovm, M|r tilaafpr 1 
a wmj ia ao IfltocV Hid » j waadi 
fxiisded, at home and atwow^ 1 
dt»elioa^ that I eauoot hope, tlue time, to 
Yxait aair ivaily beaotifiil 



to mo* I«99cilil oatv pt to 



(Rsato mtJ^-woami^ tavofce tka aaa 
Ho^Uo* Skm, that both eyee for a mm 
OM opea them ^am nddcn] j oa the i 



abM»hitdj _^ ^ __ , ^ 
poatUTv noiHtie% oj pamuig all 
dazi^ of mj fbrmer expeditifma ; aad thl^ 
at I hare mad, I havo aot leiMre aaoagb to 
acoomfRliriL €3 — cqoe atiy, I maat go to aoma 
pbeelhatIhavttnMt«dbc£]re; aadlaiai^ 
m ooatmoa lei^Knl to mj own boli^j la- 
tcRita, take good eaio that it ia a phoa 
wher« I bave a kead j t h o r o oahl y «|o y od 
KEjael^ vitbottt a aiogle dtmwbadc: to mf 
pleaeara that ia worth mcBlaani^c^ Uadir 
jfl 



r maj be man, wbai ehoald I do f WeazT mj msaoty 
r, be wilijto hei^ mo to deddo oa a ftcotlnat»m, 1^ 



I J^ lif «^ iR the good old timm Ctbe Agm 
' •^^ kaa tiffy froperly 
i) fiad arjnraft&g inlerial aad oeea* 
Lf tiaA mimir. For evciTlhiiig I 
\ aad fer erefjihi^ I wmai to 
The other Jar, te tOiCaiice, 
bather 1 dmmU eiar 
ti«d» I wcttt thro^ the nmkile 
.amd looked oa the cMmloda A 
MO aBvaBoed townrw 
Ber ^vaet aaa bigmM^ to etyrcr her 
^_ J k9 aokka wma n rraanBellj yjable ; 
amd mm 




. allhonih I OB liil bf^ 
exprrknea that of ail m j ^cultlea mmumj m 
the leant rimlj to aet at mj adll, tlm toeai 
eerriaaUa at the vofj tiam wbca I 
waat to emiilaj IL Aa a Inio ad^i^ 1 1 
better thaa to givo mja^ mnj velea 
tioiibia ef thia asrt. I leciio to m j imtato 
take ^ atj blidk mirtw, Bie»- 



% 



thk tbt I 



to bi mairied 



of tbe eumd ooai tho ima^ oi mj 

teaTelt famm bdbre ai^ ia m. iwo* 

of dteamaeeam, I tanra mjfa^ 

, aad I mako mjr preaoMt ehmm 

o«t of t&cn hr the cfi de a c e of mj nw« 

aad I maj add, bf Ihht of mj i 

— Hwibeiforaaiamji 

aadi 



r 



^ 



170 [SeiKmWr ^ MSC] 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



tOaodMtoikr 



Shall I go on the continent again ? Yea. 
To what part of it? Suppose I revisit 
Austrian Italy, for the sake of renewing my 
familiarity with certain views, bnildin^irsy and 
pictui^s which once delighted me ? But let 
me tinst ascertain whether I had anv serious 
drawbacks to complain of on making ac- 
quaintance with that paii; of the world. 
Black mirror ! show me my first evening in 
Austrian Italy. 

A cloud rises on the magic surface — rests 
on it a little while — slowly disappears. My 
eyes are fixed on the cannel coal. I see 
nothing, hear nothing of the world about me. 
The fii-st of the magic scenes grows visiV>Ie. 
I behold it, as in a dream. Away with the 
ignorant Present. I am in Italy again. 

The darkness is just coming on. I see 
myself looking out of the side window of a 
carriage. The hollow roll of the wheels has 
changed to a sharp rattle, and we have 
entered a town. Vie cross a vast square, 
illuminated by two lamps and a glimmer of 
ri'flet'ted light from a coffee-shop win<low. 
We get on into a long street, with heavy 
nUniG arcades for foot-passengers to walk 
uniler. Everything looks dark and confused ; 
grim visions of cloaked men flit by, all 
smoking ; shrill female voices rise above the 
chittcr of our wheels, then subside again in a 
moment. We stop. The bells on the hors«e8' 
necks ring their last tiny peal for the night. 
A greasy hand ojiens the carriage-door, and 
helps me down the steps. I am under an 
archway, with blank darkness before me, 
with a smiling man holding a flaming tillow 
candle by my side, with street spectators 
sih iitly looking on behin<l me. They wear 
hijj^h-ci-owned hats and brown cloaks, niyste- 
riuusly muflling them up to the chin. Bri- 
ganils, evidently. Pass, Scene ! I am a 
peaceable man, and I don't like the suspicion 
of a stiletto, even in a dream. 

Show me my sitting-room. Where did I 
dine, and how, on my first evening in Aus- 
ti'ian Italy ? 

I am in the presence of two cheerful 
sl«»venly waiters, \\ith two flaring candlos. 
One is lighting lami>s ; the other is setting 
brushwood and logs in a blaze in a per- 
fect cavern of a hearth. Where am I, 
now that there is plenty of light to see 
by 1 Apparently in a banqueting-hall, fifty 
feet long by forty wide. ThU is n»y private 
«iLting-room, and I am to eat my little bit of 
dinner iu it all alone. Let me look about' 
observantly, while the meal is pri?panng. i 
Above me is an arched jKiinted ceiling, all i 
iilive with Cupiiis rolling ahout on clouds, ' 
and scattering perpetual roses on the heads i 
of travellers beneath. Around me are classical j 
landscapes, of the sfchool which treats the 
spectator to umbrclla-shapi'd trees, calm green ! 
oceans, and foregrounds rnnipant with < lancing ; 
goddesses. Beneath me is something amaz- ] 
in;rly elastic to tread upon, .«?melling very like; 
old straw, which indeed it is, covered with a 



thin drugget. This is humanely intended to 
protect me against the cold of the stone or 
brick floor, and is a concession to English 
prejudices on the subject of comforts May I 
oe grateful for it, and take no fidgety notice 
of the fleas, though they are crawling up ray 
le"8 from the straw aiui the drugget already. 
What do I see next ? Dinn»'r on the table. 
Drab-coloured soup, which will take a great 
deal of thickening with grated Parmesan 
cheese, and five dishes all around it. Trout 
fried in oil, rolled beef steeped in snccnlent 
brown gravy, roast chicken with water-cresses^ 
square pastry cakes with mince-meat inside 
them, fried potatoes — all excellent. This is 
really good Italian cookery : it is more fim- 
ciful than the English and more solid thm 
the French. It is neither creasy nor garlicky, 
and none of the fried dishes taste in the 
slightest degree of lamp oil. The wine Is 
good, too — etTervescent, tasting of the rails* 
catel grape, and only eighteen-jience a bottle. 
The second coui*se more than sustains the 
character of the fii-st. Small browned birds 
that look like larks, their plump breasts 
clothed succulently with a Counterpane of 
fat bacon, their tender backs rejKising on 
betls of savoury toast, — stewed pigeon, — a 
sponce-cjike pudding, — baked pears. Where 
could one find abetter dinner or apleasnnter 
waiter to serve at table ? He is neither 
servile nor familiar, and is always ready to 
occupy any superfluous attention I have to 
spare with all the small talk that is in him. 
He has, in fact, but one fault, and that con- 
sists in his very vexatious and unaccountable 
manner of varyinjj the language in which he 
communicates with me. I speak Fi-ench and 
Italian, and he can speak French also as well 
as his own tongue. I naturally, h<»wever, 
choose Italian on first addre.«*sing him, be- 
cause it is his native language. He underftt^inds 
what I say to him pei'teetly, but he answers 
me in French. I bethink myself, nj)on thii^ 
that he may be wishing, like the rest of us^ 
to filiow off any little morsel of learning that 
he has picked up, or that he may fancy I 
under.stand Fiench better than I <fo Italian, 
and may be politely anxious to make our 
colloquy as ca«»y as possible to me. Accord- 
ingly I humour him, and chancre to French 
when I next speak. No sooner are the wonls 
out of my mouth than, with inexplicable j>er- 
versity.he answers me in Italian ! A 1| through 
the dinner I try hard to nnike him talk the 
same language that I do, yet. excejiting now 
and then a few insignificant ])hrjises, I never 
succeed. What is the meaning of his playing 
this game f»f ])hilological see-saw with me 1 
Do the i»eople here actually Ciirry the national 
politeness so far as to flatter the stranger by 
according liim an undisturbed monop«>|y of 
the language in which he chooses to talk to 
them ? I cannot explain it, and «lessert sup- 
prises me in the midst of my pHiplexities. 
Four dishes again ! Parmesan chec-^e, ma- 
caroons, pears, and green figs. With these 



DlfrUu.1 



MY BLACK MIRBOE. 



MHMMr<;1«J 17i 



ftBcl another bottle of the eiferveBcent wine, 
bow brightly the eveniwg will pasa a way hy 
i\n* blazing wood fire. Surely, I cannot do 
better than go to Austrian Italy again ^ after 
iaving met Tritli aiich a first wt^lcomo to the 
country aa thiB. SI mil I pat down the cannel 
coalf and decide without any more ado on 
paying n eecoud visit to the land that ia 
cheered by my comfortable itin ? No^ not too 
haatily. liet me try the effect firit of one or 
two more scenes from my pitst travel Ihtg 
experience lu this particular division of the 
Italian peniiiBula. Black Mirror! bow did 
I end my evening at the comfortable inn ? 

The doad passes again, heavily and thickly 
thia time, over the sin^fsice of the mirror — 
clears away slowly — sliows me myself dozing 
luxuriously by ihe red emWrs with an empty 
bottle at my side-. A audJenly^opening door 
wAket me up; the landlord of the inn ap^ 
prnichee, pJace« a long^ official-looking book 
pii the t2&ble, and barfds me pen and ink, I 
en^^uu^ pee via I dy wViat I am want^ to wriU 
at that time of m^ht^ when I am just digest- 
ing my <littner. 'J'he landlord anawers re- 
ap* *et fully til at I am required to give the 
ptdice a full, true, and particular account of 
myself. 1 approach the table^ thinkm^^ this 
deniaud rather absurd, for mj passport is 
ahead y iti the hands of the authorities. 
However, as I am in a despotic country, I 
keep my thoughts* to myself, open a blniik 
paga in the official-looking book^ see tlmt 
it h divided into coluranSj, with printed 
ilea dings, mid find that I no more under- 
stand what they mean than T understand 
mxi assessed tax paper at home, to which, 
by-lbeby, the blank pajie bears a strikint? 
general rcseinljbmde. Tho lieadings aie 
teehuieal official words, which I now meet 
with as parts of Italian speech for the first 
time, I am obliged to appeal to the polite 
landlord, and, by his assi stance, I get gra- 
ditally to undcrstaud what it is the Austrian 
^lice want of me* 

The police require to know^ before tliey 
wiU l(?t me go on peaceably to-morrow^ fii'^t, 
What tuy name la in full T (My nnm 



I am marrletl or single ? Landlord, what ia 
the ItjilSan for Bachelor r ^* Write Nubile, 
Signer," Nubile ? That means Marriage^ 
abte. There h an epithet to designate a 
bachelor, wliich is sure to meet with the 
approval of the ladieSi at Itsast. Wliat next ? 
(O distruatful despots 1 what next ?) Seventh, 
What is my condition? (Fir^^t-rate condi- 
tion ^ to be sure, — full of rnlled beef, toasted 
lark*, and effervescent wine* Condition ! 
What do they mean by that 1 Frofeasigu, is 
it ? I have not got one. What shall I 
write 1 " Write Proprietor^ tignort." Very 
well ; btit I don't Know that I am pro- 
prietor of anything except the clothes I stund 
np in: even my trunk was Ix^rrowed of a 
friend.) Eighth, Where do I come fromi 
Ninth, Wheri* am I going to 1 Tenths 
When did I get my passport ? Eleventh, 
Where did I get my passport I Twelfth, 
Who gave me my pnasport t Was there ever 
such & monstrous string of que^^tii^n^ to 
a^ldi'eaa to a harmless idle man, who only 
wants to potter about Italy quietly in a 
postchaia© ! Here, landlord, take the Tra^ 
vellers* B'jok back to the police. I eon 
write no better answera to tueir qtiestlons. 
Take it away ; And nmy the Emperor of 
Austria feel all the mfer on hia thrtine, now 
he knows that I waa bora at Merthyr 
Tydvil^ and that I liave not yet been so for* 
tunate as to get any lady to marry me l 
Survly, surely, sneh unfounded and injurtont 
disirUiit of my character as the production of 
this book at my dbmer-table impliea, and 
such perpetual looking after rae as tt prog- 
nostieates fur the futnref while I rem a In in 
this country, form two serious drsiw batiks to 
the pleasure of travelling in Austrian Italy. 
Shall I give up at onco all idea of going 
there again? No; let me be deliberate in 
arriving at a decision^ — let me pauently try 
the expeiiment of looking at one more ticene 
from the pstst. Blac-k Mirror ! how did I 
travel in Austrian Iialy afier I bad paid my 
bill in tiie momuig; uud had left my comfort- 
able inn ? 

The new dream-see ue shows iiie evening 



full U Mat tlvew O^Donoglme MThinn Fhip*l|igMU. I have joined another English tra- 
Mfti Dee; and let the Austrian authorities' veller in triklng a vehiL*W that they c^ll a 
read it if they can, now they have got it,) ^c^dcche. It is an unapenkabty old and frowsy 



Smjond, What is my nation J {Britishj and 
giad to ca?^t it in the tt-etb of coutitiental 
tyrants.) Third, Where was 1 born ? (At 
^lertbyr Tydvih I shonll be glad to hear 
%he Austrian autboriti<'S pronounce that, 
when th'-y biive c'ven up my name in de- 



kiml of sedan-chair on wbei^ls, with greasy 
leather curtains and cusbiuna. In the duya 
of ita prosperity and yonth it mij^ht h:iv# 
been a siate-coaeii, and might have carried 
Sir Pvnbert Wal|>ole to court, or the Abi4 
JJuboi-s to a supper with the Itegent Orleaim, 



rir.) Fourtli, Where dti I live ? (In Lon-jlt U driven by a ttdl, cadaverous, nithudy 
(, and I wish I was thi.re now, for Ijposfdi<iu, with h!a clothes all in r.vz^, ami 
would write to the Tinies about this nuisance i without a spark of mercy for his fnseruble 
before 1 sb'pt.) Fifth, llow old am I ? (My I horses. It smells badly, looka badly, guea 
ftge is what it ba^ been f;>r the last sei^en J badly ; and jerks, and cracks, and ttHtei^ ik^ 
yeai's, and what it will remain till I have [if it would break down altorrutiitsr, whon it is 
married thu Udy whi>m t siiw in my Mntri^'gudilcnlv stopjicd on a rough &toiie ^KLVt-mt^nt 
Glass— 'twenty-five exactly, Married did I]in front of a lonely post house, jnsi:is the sun 
aay f Hy nil thnt is iuquisitive ■ here are la sinking and the nlgiit is netting in. 
tiiie police wantiJig to know (dixth) whether 1 The postma;ster comes out to au ^ler Livt«bu4 



172 l8ep(emk«rAlM] 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



IGviMitaiv 



the hnniessing of fresh horses. He is tipsy, 
familiar, and confidential ; he first nposiro- 
phiscs the calccho wit)i contemptuous curses, 
then tiikcs me mysteriouiily Hside, and de- 
clai-es that the wliole hig)i road onward to our 
inoming^s destination Awamis with thieves. 
It seems, tlien, that tlie Austrian police 
reserve all tht-ir vigilance for innocent tra- 
vellers, and leave loc.d rogues entirely un- 
molested. I make this refieciion, and ask the 
postmaster what he recommends us to do for 
the protection of our portmanteaus which 
are tied on to the roof of the caleche. He 
answers that unless we take s})ecial pre- 
cautions, the thieves will get up behind, on 
our crazy toot-board, and will cut the trunks 
otf the top of our frowsy travelling-carriage, 
under cover of the night, while wo are 
quietly seated inside, seeing and 8U8[>ecting 
nothing. We instantly express our readiness 
to take any pi-ecautions that anyone may be 
kind enough to suggest Tlie postmaster 
winks, lavs his finger archly on the side of his 
nose, and gives an unintelligible onler in the 
patois of the district. Before I have time to 
ask what he is going to do, every idler about 
the posthouse who can climb, scales the 
summit of the caleche, and every idler who 
cannot, stands roaring and gesticulating be- 
low with a lighteil candle in his hand 
While the hubbub is at its loudest, a rival 
ti-avelling-carriage suddenly drives into the 
midst of us, in the shape of a huge barrel- 
organ on wheels, and bursts out awfully in 
the darkness with the grand march in 
Seniiramide, played with the utmost fury of 
the drum, cymbal, and trumpet-stops. Tlie 
noise \a so bewildering that my travelling 
companion and I lake refuge inside our car- 
riage, and shut our eyes, and sto]) our ears, 
and abandon ourselves to despair. After a 
time, our elbows are jogged, and a string 
a-])iccc is given to us through each window. 
A\ e arc informed in shouts, accompanied in 
the most inspiriting manner by the grand 
march, that the strings are fastened to our 
portmaiiteaus above ; that we are to keep 
the loose ends round our forelingers all 
night ; and that the moment we feel a tug, 
We may be quite certain the thieves are at 
work, and may feel justified in stopping the 
carriage and fighting for our baggage with- 
out any more ado. Under these agi'ecable 
auspices, we stirt again, with our strings 
round our forefingers. We feel like men 
about to ring the bell, or like men eng:i[red in 
deep sea-fishing, or like men on the ])oiut of 
pulling the string of a shower-bath. Fifty 
times at least, during the next stage, each of 
us is certiiiu that he feels a tug, and popn his 
head agitatedly out of window, and sees ab- 
solutely nothing, and falls back again ex- 
hausted with excitement in a conier of the 
caldche. All through the night this wear and 
tear of our nerves goes on ; and all through 
tlie night (thanks, probably, to the ceaseless 
popping of oar heads out of the windows) 



not the ghost of a tliief cornea near vm. We 
begin, at last, almost to feel that it would be 
a relief to be robbed — almost to doubt the 
policy of resisting any niercifuUy-bircenoui 
Lands stretched forth to rescue us from the 
incubus of our own baggage. The morning 
dawn finds us languid and liagganl with Uie 
accui-sed portmanteau-strings dangling unre- 
garded in the bottom of the ealOche. Aiid this 
IS taking our pleiisure ! This is an incident 
of travel in Austrian Italy ! Faithful Black 
Mirror, accept my thanks. The warning of 
the two last dream-scenes that vou have 
shown me shall not be disregarded. What^ 
ever other direction I may take when I go 
out of town for the present season, one iomI 
at least I know that I shall avoid — the roed 
that leads to Austrian Italy. 

Shall I keep on the northern side of the 
Alps, and travel a little, let us sav, in German- 
Switzerland 7 Black Mirror ! now did I get 
on when I was last in that country 1 Diil I 
like my introductory experience at mj first 
inn? 

The vision changes, and takes me again to 
the outside of a house of public entertaiumeut ; 
a great white, clean, smooth-fronted, opulent- 
looking hotel — a very different building from 
my dingy, cavernous Italian inn. At the 
street-door stands the landlord. He is a 
little, lean, rosy man, dressed all in black, 
and looking like a master undertaker. I 
observe that he neither steps forward nor 
smiles when I get out of the carriage and ask 
for a bedroom. He gives me the shortest 
possible answer, growls guttural instruc- 
tions to a waiter, then looks out into the 
street again, and, before I have so much as 
turned my back on liim, forgets my existence 
immediately. The virion chmiges again, and 
takes me inside the hotel. I am following a 
waiter up-stairs — the man looks unaffectedly 
sorry to sec me. In the bedroom corridor we 
find a chambermaid asleep with her head on a 
table. She is woke up ; opens a door with a 
groan, and scowls at me reproachfully when 
I say that the room will do. I descend to 
dinner. Two waiters attend on me, under 
protest, and look as if they were on the point 
uf giving waruhig every time I require them 
it} cliange my plate. At the second course 
the landlord comes in, and stands and stares 
at me intently and silently with his hands in 
his pockets. Tliis may be his way of seeing 
that my dinner is well served ; but it lookS 
much more like his way of seeing that I do 
not abstract any spoons fror:) his table. I 
become irritated by the boorish staring and 
frowning of everyboily about me, and express 
myself strongly on the subject of my recep- 
tion at the hotel to an Knelish traveller dining 
near me. He is one ot those exasperatinff 
men who are always ready to put up with 
injuries, and he coolly accounts for the be- 
haviour of which I complain, by telling me 
that it is the result of the blunt honesty of 
the natives^ who cannot pretend to take an 



Jg f BtA CK MIBROR 



^««pttiiiWr V, UMll 1 73 




mtere»t in me which thej do not really feel 
Whit do I eare abo\it the ft'elitiiza uf thts 
stolid I&ndlord aiul the iutky waiters I I 
require the comforting outward show from 
Iheiu — tlie inward aubataiicv is not of the 
smallest consequence to Die. When I travel 
In civilised conntriefl, 1 want such a reeeption 
at Ttiy inn as ahall genially finiu^ ami gently 
Mcklf^ uU the region round about my organ of 
•©If-trpteem. Biunt honeJ5ty which ist too 
ofTi'iisively truthful to prt^tend to be ^Ud to 
mt me, auowa no correspojiding integrttj — sks 
mj own ex[iertence mfnrma me at this very 
i — About the capa ci t it*s of i ts w i n e hot tl ea, 
gives me a pint »nd char^^ea nie for a 
in the bill, like the rest of the world, 
4unt honeaty, although it is too brutally 
ncere to look civilly, distressed and ^ym- 
pntht^tic wher^ I &fty that I am tired after my 
Joiiruey, dot^jt not hesiitnte to warm up, Mid 
prv*f nt before me as newly-dreased, a >iethu- 
»elEib of a tiuek that has be€n cuoked iievet^ 
tsuies over, aevei-al days ago, and paid for, 
though not eatwn, by my traveii'mg predeces- 
iara. Blunt honyisty tleec^fa me accord iog to 
mvrty esiahliahed predntory hiw of the laud- 
^>r*^'tt coite^ yet tihtiuka from the amiable 
dupHcUy of fawning; affeeiionately before me 
all the way up stairs when I first present 
Diy^elf to he fiwinilled. Awuy with such 
detestdihlu Kijioei ity a« this \ Away with the 
boii^^ty which hrutalUeii a landlord's manners 
wrlbrmt r*'formiuf; his bottles or his hills I 
Away with my Gi^rnuin -Swiss hotel, and the 
sitortioiiate cynic who keeps it ! Let other* 

E%f tribute if they will to th?it boor in inn- 
eetier^s do thing, the colour of my money he 
diail never see again. 

Suppost^ I avoid Grerman-Swttzerland, and 
try S**itz«rlftnd Proper i MiiTor I how did 
I trarel when I last fouud myself on the 
Swiss Hide of the Alpa ? 

The new vinion removes me even from the 
siott tlistant view of an hot^l of any kindj 
and pl:t;ceH me In a wtld niountaln country 
mhei^ the end of a rough road is lost in the 
dry bed of a torrent* I am seated in a queer 
li(tk box on wheels, called a Char, drawn by 
a fuuhi and a mare^ and driven by a jovial 
eoochcfian in a blue blouse. I have hnrdly 
time to look down alaruiedly at the dry bed 
of the t^rrent^ before the Char plunges into 
it^ Kapidly and recklessly we thump along 
over rocks and stones, accliviii^s and dedivi^ 
lies that would shake down the stoutest 
EatfltMh tnivelling-carriftge, kn<H*k up the 
red Eiighsh horst'S, nonplus the most 
log Kngllsh eoachman. Jovial Blue 
singing like a nighlingale, di'iv^ 
regai'diesd of every obstacle — the mule 
re t*^ar along madly as if the journey 
t enjoyment of the day to them—* 
Lcks, rends^ sway>^ bimi pRf auil tot- 
tcTSt buL».urnflv as becomes a hardy liitleniouu- 
tjLin vehicle, to overturn or <X)nie to pieces. 
When we aro not amoog the rocks we are 
foUixig and heaTing in sloughs of bhusk mud 



and saudt like & Dutch herrini^-boat in & 
givjund-awelL It is all one to HUie Blouse 
and the mule and mare. They are just HiS 
reiidy to drag through sloughs as to jolt over 
rocks ; aud when we tia come occjisioually to 
A bit of unencumbered ground^ they .'lI ways 
gallantly indemnify themselvai for ptwst harli- 
ship ami fatigue by gi(llo]Mng like mad. As 
for my own sens^aiions in the ch a meter o! 
passenger io the Char they are not, phyHically 
a]j«Hkuigf of the pteasautest jMssiblt^ kind* 
1 can only keep myself inside my velilele by 
dint of holding tight with both hands by any- 
tliing I cun find to grasp at ; and I am i^io 
shake u throughout my whole anatomy that 
my very jawa clatter again, and my feet play 
a perpetual tattoo on the bottom of the Char. 
Did I bit on no nieLbod of travelling mors 
composed and deliberate than this^f I wonder, 
when I was last in Switzerland ? Must I 
make up my tuhol tr> be half-shaken to pieces 
iM am bold enough to venture on going there 
again t 

The surface of ths Black Mim^r is onee 
more cloinled over. It clears, and the vision 
is now of A path along the side of a precipice. 
A mule IS following the path, and I am the 
atlventurous traveller who is astride on the 
beast's back. Tite drst ol>eervatton that 
oCL^ur^ to me In my new position is^ that 
mules thoroughly deserve their reputati*m 
for ob^itinacy, and tbat^ in regard to the iiar^ 
ticular aoioial on which I am rkliu^, the less 
I interfere with bim and the more I comluct 
myself as if I was a pack-saddle on his back, 
the better we are sure U> gel on together. 

Carrying puck-^iaddles is bis maui business 
in life ; ana though he saw me get on his 
back, he persists in treating mo as if I was a 
bale of goods, by walking on the e^u^eme 
edge of the precipice, so as not to run any 
risk of rubbing his loail against the Haf4.% or 
mountain, side of the path. In this and in 
other things I find that he is the victim of 
routine, and the slave of habit. He b^ia a 
way of stopping short, placing himself iu » 
sUnting poditton, and fid Hug mto a profouud 
meditiition at some of the moat awkwai'd. 
turns In tlie wihl m<iuntaiu*^roads. I imagine 
at tirst that he may be halting in this abrupt 
and inconvenient mannt^r to take breath ; 
but then he never exerts himself so as to Uix 
his lungs in the smallest degree, and he stojw 
on the most unreus<mably iiTegular prin- 
ciples, sometimes twice in ten minutes,-^ 
sometimes not more than twicts in two houi's 
^^vtdently just as his new ideas happen to 
aWorb his attention or not. It is part of his 
aggravatijig character at these times, always 
to l>eeome immersed in refleatiou where the 
muleteer's statf has not room to reach him 
with the smallest e^ect ] an I where, lofuting 
him with blows being out of the qu»*i*iion, loaa- 
ing hiiu with abusive langinige U the only other 
av:ulable process for getting hini on. I find 
that he genertdly turns out to be susceptible 
to the induenee of inj uncus epithets utter bs 



4 



^ 



174 tiMni«ilMW3 



HOUSEHOLD WORDS. 



has heard himself personally insulted five or 
six times. Once, his obdurate nature gives 
way, even at the third appeal. Ho has just 
stopped with me on his back to amuse him- 
self, at a dangerous part of the road, with a 
little hard thinking in a steeply slanting 
position ; and it becomes therefore urgently 
necessary to abuse him into proceeding forth- 
with, l^irst, the muleteer calls him a Ser- 
pent — he never stirs an inch. Secondly, the 
muleteer calls him a Yroa — he goes on im- 
perturbably with his meditation. Thirdly, 
the muleteer roars out indignantly, Ah 8aci*6 
nom d'un Butor ! (which, interpreted by the 
help of an Anglo-French dictionary, means 
apparently, Ah, sacred name of a Muildle- 
head !) ; and at this extraordinary adjura- 
tion the beast instantly jerks up his no&e, 
shakes his ears, and goes on his way indig- 
nantly. 

Mule-riding, under these circumstances, is 
certainly an adventurous and amusing method 
of travelling, and well worth trying for once 
in a way ; but I am not at all suro that I 
should thoroughly enjoy a second experience 
of it, and I have my doubts on this account 
—to say nothing of my dread of a second 
jolting journey in a Char — about the pro- 
priety of undertaking another trip to Switzer- 
land during the present sultry season. It 



possessor of the Black Mirror. They exhibit 
a spectacle of luxury which would make an 
ancient Spartan shudder with disgust ; and, 
in an adjoining apartment, their baiid is 
attending on tliein, in the shape of a musical 
box which is just now playing the last scene 
in Lucia di Lammermuor. Hark 1 what 
sounds are those mingling with the notes of 
Donizetti's lovely music — now rising over it 
sublimely, now dyins away under it» gently 
and more gently still t Our sweet opera air 
shall come to its close, our music shall play 
for its short destined time and then be silent 
again ; but those more glurious 80un«3s shall 
go on with us day and night, shall still swell 
and sink inexhaustibly, long after we and all 
who know and love and remember us hav« 
passed from this earth for ever. It is the 
wash of the waves that now travels along 
with us grandly wherever we go. We are at 
sea in the fastest fairest scliooner yacht 
afloat, and are taking our pleasure all along 
the southern shores of the English coast. 

Yes, tliis to every man who can be cer- 
tain of his own stomach, this is the true 
luxury of travelling, the true secret for 
thoroughly enjoying all the attractions of 
moving about from place to place. Where- 
ever we now go we carry our elegant and com- 
fortable home along with us. We can stop 



will be wisest, perhups, to try the elFcct of a ' where we like, see what we like, and always 
new scene from the past, representing some ! come back to our favourite corner on the 
former visit to some other locality, l^fore I sofa, always carry on our favourite occupa- 



veuture on arriving at a final decision. I 
have rejected Austrian Italy and German 
Switzeriaud, and I am doubtful about Swit- 
zerland Proper. Suppose I do my duty as a 
patriot, and give tlio attractions of my own 
country a fair chance of appealing to any 
past influences of the agreeable kind, which 
they may have exercised over mel Black 
Mirror ! when I was last a tourist at home, 
how did I travel about from place to place 1 

The cloud on the magic surface rises 
slowly and grandly, like the lifting of a fog 
at sea, and discloses a tiny drawing-room, 
with a skylight window, and a rose-coloured 
curtain drawn over it to keep out the sun. 
A bright book-shelf runs all rouutl this little 
fairy chamber, just below the ceiling, where 
the cornice would be in larger rooms. Sofas 
extend along the wall ou either side, and 
mahogany cuplK)ard8 full of good things 
ensconce themselves snugly in the four 
corners. The table is brightened witli nose- 
gays, the mantel-shelf has a smart railing 
ail round it, and the looking-glass above is 
just large enough to reflect becomingly the 
face and shoulders of any lady who will 
give herself the trouble of looking into it. 
The present inhabitants of the room ai*e 
three ^rentlemen with novels and newspa|>ei's 
in their hands, taking their ease in blouses, 
dressing-^owns, and sljppei*8. Ihey are i^e- 
posing on the sofas with fruit and wine 
within e;isy reach of their liands, and one of 
theui looks to me very much like the enviable 



tions and amusements, and still be travelling, 
still be getting forward to new scenes all the 
time. Here is no hurrying to accommo«Iate 
yourself to other people^s hours for starlings 
no scrambling for places, no wearisome 
watchfulness over baggage. Here are no 
anxieties about strange beds,— for have we 
not each of us our own sweet little cabin to 
nestle in at night ?— no agitating dependence 
at the dinner hour upon the vagaries of 
strange cooks — for have we not our own 
sumptuous lanler always to return to, our 
own accomplished and faitliful culinary artist 
always waiting to minister to our special 
tastes 1 We can walk and sleep, stand up or 
lie down just as we please, in our floating 
travelling-carriage. We can make our own 
road, and trespass nowiiere. llie bores we 
dread, the letters we don*t want to answer, 
cannot follow and annoy us. We are the 
freest travellera under Heaven ; and we find 
something to interest and attract us through 
every hour of the day. The ships we rneet^ 
the trimming of our sails, the varving of the 
weather, the everlasting innumerable changes 
of the ocean, afford constant occupation for 
eye and ear. Sick, indeed, must tnat libel* 
lous traveller have been who first called the 
sea monotonous — sick to death, and perhaps, 
born brother also to that other traveller of 
evil renuwn, the first man who journeyed 
from Dau to Beersheba, and found all 
barren, 
iiest then awhile unemployed, my faithful 



Ckwin Dlflikcii«J 



THE ORSONS OF EAST AFRFCA- 



t9«pt«iab«f a 1SI&] 175 



Blau^k Mirror ! The ]sm% eceue you have 
sbowu me i;s fiuffictent tu answer the purpo^ff 
for which I took you up. Towards what 
point oi XUe comjmsa I maj turn after \tnv- 
int^ IriNiidou in more than I c*iji tell ; but tliis 
I kntjWj Unit my next post-hori^a shall be the 
wiudii, my next stagea ooa^t'towns, luy next 
road ovtr tlie op^n waves, I will be a sea-tra- 
veJler once nture jmd w^ill put CktT roauming my 
laud jourijcyings tmlil thciinivid of tiiat most 
itViigiiig of all c^iuveuieut periods of time^a 
future opiJyrtuoitj, 



THE ORSUNS OF EAST AFHICA. 



Among the nooku of the world that liavc 
Hot been explored by Eurupeaim there 
ftre aoitit* of «.ll uizm in Africa, m\d until the 
En^iisli Hajji^ — who has viBited thi^ fihriuea Cif 
tlie propht-t— Chptaiu R. F. Burton, obtained 
l*ave to vmi Hnrtur, and did visit Ilhrar, that 
tOMU together with the diatricU round about 
it was Among ih© places known only by 
rtiiDouf* What TinibuetoQ used to be to 
Wertam Africa, Harar has been to Enstern 
Africa. What the Geogniphical Society re- 
commended, what the Ea*t India Company 
uuderiofjk, why and how Mr, Burton » dLa- 
gUAed hs an Arab merchant^ went to Xlar^r 
and re til rued olive — not quite two years ago j 
how he set out again, what mTSadveiitui*e 
bappened ; and why &hipa of the Enftt Indian 
Kfcvy now overawe Berberah — we ran at leave 
tHj one, who will, to read in Captiiiu 
Burton a very interesting book. We mean 
ncitii«r to review that book nor to sketch its 
#0Lit«iit«, but aimplj by help of it to aiunae 
0Ur^l?es with a few sketches of the way of 
life in a remote regiou, about wLIch none of 
our coanlrynicn have heretofore had» from 
tJieir own knowledge, anything to t<!iL Of 
oourse^ there i^ a strong fanHly-lIkeneHs 
amoBg mmny African tribe^j and, to a great 
tJtUfnt, ajs are the known, so are the unknown^ 
Of oonraep aJao, — ^but aa to the matters of 
conrst^ — why need they be mentioned 1 

' warnt^d that be was going to bis 
d' ^dn Burtou sailed from Aden With 

oiiyfieu attend ante. The slipper of blesB- 
_^_ WM thrown after him, the anchor raised. 
Mid, once at sea, the pilgrLm^e comrades 
removed from Uieir head$ the turbans of 
drilbatiou, wore only their black skins and 
thelf' loin -clothes '^d betook themselvea to 
IbeiT own natural ways* One die wed his 
tobacco and ashes, another smoked bis 
tobacco through the shankbone of a goat, 
while others made use of their own shank- 
bones as napkins^ after fearful meale of 
faolcTtut^grain and grease. There is courtesy 
wnoijg tUe^ lavages, nevetlbelesa* Abtly 
Abokr — who, becanae oF his rascality, wfis 
call^ by bis friends, alluding to the corrup- 
iioti propb&aie<l as coming in the latter days, 
tie End of Time — AbtJy Abokr would not 
profkne anytbing »o rovt^rend m the hair upon 
mM m&ster^a chiHf by naming it in plaiu 



and ugly words. He used stroiliiudes. Did 
he obBtTve a grain of rice sticking about hiii 
«acred beard, he would aay, *' The Gazelle is 
in the garden/* to which hU master^ proiuis- 
iui^ to rt move it with hie fingers, answered, 
« We will hunt her with the five." 

Zayla w^is the pi 1 grimes landing- place, a 
town approached by a creek which eoj^d reefs 
make ffilficult of navigation, and which is de- 
scribed as a strip of sulpliur vulltt^v sand, 
with a deep blue dome above, and foreground 
of the darkest indigo* Upon the yellt>w atrip 
is tho old Arab town seen in the shape of a 
long row of white houses and minaret^ peer- 
ing over a low line of brown wall, flanked by 
towers* Having landed in a cock -boat the 
tnfcvellers put on, while upon tlie beiich, 
clean tobes — the tube ia a seamless white 
robe, the dress proper to the region— tt^ok 
shields and lances, and at the seaward-gat« 
of the town were met by a tall, black spe^o^- 
nian, with a — " Ho, there I To the governor I " 
The native crowd jKJured out into the dusty 
streets to see the strangers pass to the recep- 
tion-ehamher, where they liad au eastern JU' 
terview with not a cup of coffee or a pipe 
to break ita diilness. There is not a cotl'^e- 
house in Zayla, and aa for the n^^ighlMiuriug 
Bedouins, they say, philosophically, ** If we 
drink cufiVe once, we shall want It a^ain^ and 
t!ien whtre are we to get it t " xV littJe 
further on, the Abyssinian Christians posi- 
tively make it a point of conscience to object to 
coffee and tobacco, white the Gallas tribes 
take It when out on forage% not infuseiJ, 
but powdered and made into a ball with 
butter, 

Zayla la a town about as large as SueZ| 
built for three or four thousand iidiahhanis, 
and eontainiuff a dozen large white waHhed 
stone-housea with some two hundred thatched 
huts, each surn>nnded by a fence of wattle 
and matting. Favourite building-mat eriala 
are mud and coralliue. There is a good dL^al 
of open space with hi the walls^ an*l the town 
k cooler and healthier than Aden, It exjjorta 
slav&i, ivory, hidea, honey, antelope-homa, 
clarified butter, and gums, and tla eoaat 
aboutids ia sponge and oaralj and small 
pearls. 

Provisions are cheapw A family may live 
there upon thirty pounda a-year, eating much 
meat and no vegetables, exot^pt hoi cus -grain, 
rice, and boiled wheat. In case any one dis- 
posed to make the most of a small income 
should think of setting out for 5Sayhi, we will 
give some further notice of the way to live 
there. Break Gist at six in the morning, upou 
roast mutton and sour grain-cakes, visitoi^ 
looking in to help. Then sleep. Th^'Usitup 
to recirive company that will come and must 
not be denied* liative gentlemen will enter 
by the dozen, taking off their slippera at the 
door, deposit their spears in a corner, shake 
hands and sit down for nuceremouioua tutk. 
In (heir talk tliese people pride tlieuiselvee 
upou a style of couveraatiou not eUemiuately 



I 



1 



176 rtvptni6«ii;»&] 



HOUSEHOLD WORDa 



civil Tour friendi will comb Iheir own 
liMii wliiiu they ciitcrtniii jou, and will watch 
the bjiri>er m he gives jour head (bat> of 
coursi-% n<it your chin) its inorDiug shave. 

At eleven before lioon, when the fresh 
wftttir liaa come Froai Uie welU, which i*ie 
three or fuui* mile* distant from ihe town, 
the time will have arrived for diEiog upoji 
gi-t«!isy mutti^D &tew, boiled rice, maize cakes 
luid etird^* There are fowl^^ but tht? neiijh- 
bc^uris will not like to £ee a pei'son eiitin^' 
biid«, aiiii uf courae there will be neigh bjui^ 
to Match iiml help at the dining ; there Is 
Esh ti\&M m plenty, and it may be eaten, but 
tlif ri* is chance theu tliat the Beilouins may 
say, "Speak not to me with that mouth 
whit-'h er*i*^th fisli.^* 

AlXf^i- diniierjthe house having been ckared 
of vis^kivrs, i^lt^ep may lie enjijycd, until, at 
two t/elcA!k, ther^^ is a clamour of more neigh- 
bours ut the out^r door, who come to af>end 
thtf atternot>n, Towurda sunset one may g*' 
out for a walky taking the shanLarah-boaidj 
— w ti ic h is T li e Etist A f ri can d mu g h t boar 1 1 , — 
for a game under the shi^ul**, or if disposed k> 
practice with the neighVKJurs, one m^ij leap 
uijd Uirow the iaveliu. At the southern gate 
the bu^s may be seen playing at hockey, or 
tht* citizt^na mjiy be joined in ou« of their 
great m etches of balh Theise ai'e so roughly 
playedj that at the end of every game tlit? 
Bcaoty and old clothing that the players 
clmi>«ie to wear, b taken tiome in i-ags; there 
la at^o^ ;vhen the niat^h la ovLTf much dancing 
and sli outing of the victora, who proceed in 
triumph through the towu» Bc-yond the 
hock* y- J (tillers and the bail players, one may 
pui^A iiho into an encampment ot the Bedouiu^ 
wliit-'h b outside the gate. These suburban 
pe^iple dwell iu low and smoky lenta, carry 
ihiidd, sjKar and dagger, and have huge 
beat I a of lihot^k hair, dved redj and wet with 
butter. Each head of hair carries as orna- 
ments its three-pronged comb, and the stick 
used aa u iscratcher wuen the owner does not 
wish to grease hia fiugers. Some heads are 
adorned alao with the ostrich plume, which 
memis iliat he who wears it liaa destroyed a 
mMn,— not neceasai'llj in open fight, more 
coQinKudy by s^teaith or treachery, 

Btfnra sunaet it is necessary to return into 
the town, becauije at sunset all the gates are 
locktdj and the call aoundi to evening 
pra} er* Whoao n<*glecta pmyer at the fivii 
raver-timea on Friday — the ^lojjlem Bub- 
lath— auffrrs basitinado. Butj there are ways, 
and again ways, of praying. Captain Burton 
heard one of the natives of these tiarta iament- 
itig in the night seaaou. She wits sutlering 
fiom toothache^ and the groans of her upirit 
wcre,"t>h,Airiih, may thy teeth achelike mine ! 
Oh, xVllah, may thj^ gums Ih? sore as mine ! *' 

Neigh hours as^istj fimdly, ia lihoHcning 
the hours of mi^ht over sujkper and super- 
fttltiona talk, — they talk of men who take 
hyr'nn forms, tell fortunes with beads, or tidk 
qH what Ai-abft call El Jksar (with us the 



I 



Elixir) whichf in this piirt of the world, m m 
kinii of wood t!\at cauS' s milk-pails t<j be full 
t/f silver. They bdk also of vampyre», of the 
uvil eye, of ujifecidiff brewed by wyiuen* 
'^ Wit m a woman," one saya. ** is a habit of 
running away in a dronjedury." — ^** Allah,** 
says another^ ** made womjiu of a crociked 
^)one ^ be who would straighten her, breaketh 
her." 

At an early hour Tisitors depart^ ToaCs am 
spL'cad, and one may go to bed Somali fajthlozi, 
with the head upon a hollow pedestiil of 
wood for a pillow. And one may sleep well 
ii, during ibe day, too much kat has not been 
chewed. 

The leaves of the drug ca,lled kat are th^ 
chief sout^e of pleastirable e^xcitement in 
thc'se districts of Bust Africa. Botanisti, 
taking the natives imme for the plant^ turn it 
into Cutha edulis, eatable kivt. It is much 
used by the Arabs, to whom it ia aent ia 
camel loads, consisting of a number of small 
(laroels, each containing about fojty slender 
twig^p with the leaves att/iched, carefully 
wrapped, SO as to avotd exposure to the air* 
These leEivea are chewtid, and act upon the 
tipirlU of those using them, much as a strong 
ihiAti of green tea acts upon ua iii Europe 
when it acts agreeably. Europeana used to 
stronger stimulatits, are Utile alTectod by the 
use of kat, but among the more lem|>erat# 
Arabs it is so welcome a provoealiv'e to good 
Immuir, that about two hundred and eighty 
caujeMoads of it are used every yeiir iu Ad«tt 
only. 

The way to Harar ia among eat era of kal| 
across a land that ia a Gc*aheu to the drug* 
j;;ist ; a land iu which the caator oil pL^nit 
flourishes, where aloes abouuil, where the wind 
rustles through leaves of senna ; where the 
toiTent bede are overgrown with long lines of 
green eolocyntl), and uiie meets consbmtly 
with clumf*s of jujube trees. Tiiere arc ser- 
per*ta iu those regions, which the native ^^omal 
hold it to be a religious act when f^oH^ible 10 
kill It la a religions act abio to kUl a cixiw, 
^for the crow, which was created a whits 
bird, buciime black through sin. When the 
holy prophet and Abubekr were hidden ha 
lite eave^ the pigeon also hid there, and 
avoided the purs ad's, but the crow sat out* 
side and screamed ** Ghar 1 ghar I " (Ui« 
cave ! the cave !) whereupon Mahomet cir- 
dered him into eternal luouiiiing for hii 
traitorous behaviour. 

AfLer a very considerable delay, Mr. Burton 
aad his little caravan succeed<?d in de|>ariing 
out of Zciyla, under the care of an AbUui or 
protector, which ia the digni^ed shape n:^ 
AUmed iu thoae parta by agailc. The ruler 
at Zayla could not compreheuil the diKgulsed 
English man *s intention. Small- j>ox ^as de- 
poimlatiug Hanir, the road swarmed with 
brigiUida, tho Prince of liarar would cer- 
tainly destroy him j asad besides, he said 
privately, for he knew w*hat was below the 
Aiab merchant's dress^ ** If the English wiali 




ClMlf Pi8i—>.| 



THE OESONS OF EAST AFEICA. 



lUpwmbw K in<^ 177 



to take H^rftrf lei them send me five him* 
dred soldiers ; if not, I can give nil in forma- 
tion.*^ The Al>ban, who ^ugaj^ed only to go 
A certain diatauce, gave w^&ruiDg &ka of 
disaster* The cokl, he aaiJ — ^for it was then 
late itx the jear — had driven the wandering 
tribes dowu from the hilU mto the warm 
plains they were to t inverse -, find, as Abdj 
AU*kr» the End of Timfij remjuked, in com* 
ment iiereupoo, ^ Mun eata you up ; the 
desert doea not/' Just then, too, the Ay yd. 
Kiili Ifiiuail, a wild tribe of tro