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Familiar in their Mouthi as HOUSEHOLD IFORDS. "—Siu»««r«*mi, 


9 BHreftlu Sountal. 




From twe 2dTH or Skft£MB£ji to thx 22kd of Marob. 
Bfingfrom No, 27 to No, 52. 



v&AOBUBT AMD BTin, PBnrmi» wairsnuAiu. 


MAY 2 5 1971 

1/, 5- 





AbUloln of TvU 


A«lventttir» « ^-4 


Advttfttunai «f ft Tramlftdon 

, flC 

Advertise iiM nt» (Ocmnanj 


Ai. Jc, A Story of 

. 4fi 

A .CoRillUouof 

. 562 

A- .mjU 

, file 

Au^M-Joti^ of ih* Iruh Foot L«w 

, M 

AtlUtiC WftTM , 

, a 

Back Sb««t ConcvrvKtoHui . . S71 
Banm f<f Repf and tbe Marauts of 

V. ass 

p •.•«&• . . $iia 

B^ ^ rtiue of . .903 

IWr. ._> ..sjrygf . . . . #8 

B«1cu(ii, Story of • . . .MO 

Bill^»»llnir ^vnttm, TIm* . . 806 

C- t ' . Wl 

It . 420 

'■ ' Snu , fifOd 

u.--. ...i. ,.■-" ..,....,.^sas,sa5 

Ucilcftr, Ji'lrn^ Two gcfocn iu tb« 
Llfcyf . . . . -ISI 

,..,.,,., In j,,;,^ atdand 81 
\ i<!ir of the Ijut 

■ '■'■■'f'ii« . . ass 

unm|j, »t Unnleti 
Ln, A CrUU in Ibe 

1^ * " . ' , i 
f.lly . 
Kilign, on Our N»- 
Bgaliut Edooft- 





CAuromicu, i^Tbe Irith) . ,348 

Callforniiw A ibort Cut to . .597 
CAllfoniiiv A WoiiMiii* £xpQ^ 

rlence In ..... 400 
C«Bibxidg«> DegTM CNif at . . 4dl 
CamMdgsi, The PmbmMi't Prok 

<t«fli ftc leo 

Cape Cout Ciwso . . . . m 
CftM Colony. Prior of Land, 
Stoeis Cftttle; Advioo U> Fu^ 
man and BetHen . . . IM 

Okje of Good Hopa^ htm w« v«nt 

*iiaWinro«: , . . Be 

Capa Sk«teb« ... llfl, 106 
CarUnjrtoD U^hUieafe . . . 377 
Casa del Mattl, Count VtmaCa 

VWtto Ul 

Market at fo(»f . . . S5& 
lAncfte* . .610 

icenr^ Tb« If artyn o/ . SSO, 499 
I'a BictotT of Encbuad 410, 694 
Cbtmy try la EofUad . .616 

CbamlaliyofanatorBMr . . 498 
Obtpa, M, 148. l«a, 1«» f 10, 275, 333, 
4i8, IfiO, 475, 491. 64.i 67S, Wft 
ChHitiiias among tite LoDdou Poor 

«n4 Slrk ..... 304 
ChriiitniA^ In tli« Ituih . . 908 

CUriatmju la the Frosen HefHouM 308 
Cbri«tmas \n lodia 

Chsinifoaa In Lod^tiv -j% 

to Muaieh .^Oii 

CkHttioaii tn Uie Nary . 

Chrtattnas Pudding 

Ctirifltmai Tree 

Cbarch Festival at Munlcli - 

Charchynrd, Tbu Sca^dii 

Cionamof] Garrtcn 

dergymaa in Dli^ciim*^ (X Titk<; 

r .'ou . . . - 

r inn, Acroinit rif » 

< -ioiiJ<,A Kt-'inedr fr>r 

t'oill*rn" HjikwloiiA, Tbe Tnio 

BcioedT for 

College of Siir^vune, Htnitertai) 

If nariink At 

Cooeert uml Flny nl Mtmieh 
Cooeartei^ Tbrr Mflit»trr Promenado 
Cortfldcnt IVcdktlM) . . , 

Coinaerv«(<>r{#«, llact StnS't . 
Coral Ficbcry In tbo MMitor- 

Cow wltb tbe IroD Tail 
Cnullea . . , 

> Viay-iiotiV 

I I tc call do 

bUaib iu IIm! lifVUtl UlUikl't 

l>aath In the SuK'ir-plutn 

Daath In tbe Tcflinit . 

D«aUi of a TK^bltii . 

DceetnWr VUimi 

tlegTe« Day at Cambrldgv . 

D«al{ni, The Feinala School uf 

Despair. l^fTort^ ef a Q«Qtleiuan In 

Search of ... . 
tirvonuhlrc DorJid.' 
DIrinlnff Crystidji . 
CKicks Tbe l^iiiUoit 
Dodora, A Great Day fur Llic 
Doom of KngUsib WilU I, £&. 13&, 


of WitneBBoa and J nrymco 











J I'j 








EDDTtTtiuni LlebtbooM, fioea- 

(on'a ){arrative of . . . 878 
Education, Our National Defeoeea 

afalnftt 813 

Eduratiou, PIfib-iHddkcumb , . 479 

Electric TrlpRmpti ... 841 

Enwrrpenclea, lltnta on . . . 47 
jjHAucia, Urc In an . 180. 810, 233 

FicmaT, Pood for tbe . , . 8«5 

Fair at Munich 635 

Faiber ijnbriel; or, Tbe Fortunca 

ofaFurtner . , . €7« 85 

Father Thanj«B 446 

Femala S*booJ of I>eaign , . 677 
P»tlval of the Church at Hunkh ISO 
Fine Ear, Story of . . .863 

Rnl of October .... 187 
Ftod iSor tbe Factory ... 

Freshman's Pins»Bs at th« Unt- 

TW»iliea .... IfiT 

Froien Riglona, C\»rt*tin»a ^n ^^ Vltt 

Galvaxig Battery, Crooodilea 

kUledbya 64A 

aamsl,TU other (A Tula) . . 88| 

deniuit and Liberty . . . li 

Gentleman in Seardi nf Detpnd' . 880 

German AdviTtitcnivnl* . . 38 

tiomian Picture of lti« Scotch . . 71 
Gbont that appeared to Mrt. 

Wharton laa 

G\ovKDu\ Bttlxoui, Story of , , 540 

Giro WiMly(Au Anecdote) . 117 
GlaM Palace, Private Uiatof}' 'f 

the SSS 

r,u^ W^rki, A VUli ♦n rff« 

VlAla . 4fla 

r?coftb. fit 

ML.'fn , vSJ 

t..r,,i -re, Tl« 51 

GokhI 1 v Sttiry of the 

\(r\< . . . 48 

GoikHtp uixui i>i u<:>«i« , . .48 

Uottfrlett KInltcl (A Llftf* la Tlir^'o 

Pieturm) ..... ISJ 

Grand Ajnetnblr at Mtinlcb . 156 

Great Day for the Doctor* 117 

GuUd Clerlt » Tal« 1.17 

Uunpowdtir and (Jhalk . 00 

IfKAKT-vf.T^.I.M Mi.i.1l..t,-,n . . SIS 

Mv , -,. — ,■ : . . ,00 
hV* ao,ri34 

!:■ pi„U,^L ::...-, S, Vi»lt 

i» ...... 458 

UouBchold Worda and Eu{;lUJi 

WUla 181 

Hov wo went Wbaliag off die 

Cape of Good Itope . . . G8 

How to be Idolised . . . . 4A6 

Htmtorlan MuBBum . STT 

Ijfcn Capo, or Dell-Rock Li^bt* 

botiso ..,.-. 377 

IftOla, ChristntBA In . . .106 
Indian Kailniada and Driti«h C'nni- 

merce ...... 680 

tovaaion Invited .... 476 

Irish Califonila . . 848 

Iri«b Poor Law, Aneedote of 94 

Iriah Butloner .... 89 

Irtah Dte of tbe Globe . . At 

Janu the Flrat. SpMch by . M3 

Judc^ Not . . . . . . 481 

K»a of the BtU-Sti«kan, The 

Lajtd, Ho I port Jarksro . . 978 

Laat WordB of tbu Old Vear . 888 

Law. The 4OT 

Letters of Introduction to Sidney 187 
Life in an Estancia . 190, vrlO, 8SS 

Life in a Saladero . . . 4lr 

Life of Giorannl Belaoni . 618 
USo of John Bods«r, Two SqentiJi 

In the . . . ... 484 

Light HooBtf and Light Boats . 1^73 

LlT^ljTurtlo .... 98 

Lodginss, Wh^ people Let them 
Lod^ing;!it Cbrutmaa tn . 
\. \jon&vik IM^A 





Undon tIo«plUl, VIrtt to H 

L-m.lMn Milk . 

MurtyTB or LUiAftrtPiy . SflO, 4U» 

MHllormiicikn, ComI Fl»tMrx In 



1 Hon. 

I'll.- Tvruiil of 

Birth*" ttW 

. . flir 

miim . PO 
rr^sm, mt, 497. 4BI 

KrinV . . fisa 

Ken Ye . 

Mioamh Bull . 

North ForelamJ;l.thou3*i 


U'J, 1»» 
. 4f» 

O* . > MM 

Ou, ;... .,,.,, . . 400, »1Q 

0<<i»rij, 1 be FraiuDan's Pnt^rcw 
M. WO 

Palacs of GUis, PrtT»t* Illtl«r7 


PuJermo, LmiftttoAMluBi}* . . 
P»ri«, SliiuRhiOT BooaM mod 
Cuttle Mvkvts , . . « 
Parliuacnt, Tlia Opmlniref 
Pnuint, A Vmr Mui'i Talttof « , 
P«>niMiuu»htp, H, Van t)atm. An . 
P«D-Mfflrfft, Tbo W«U oif (A TftJo) 
Ffntiv Rir»»*1 ... 

Pt.' ■■■ ' ' |..MTi,iie« . 

Pi il In L>nilgli 

. (ijr, IrntUid 
r 4II Muiiioh 

Pi ,Ii(»»«r.fii 

PI, (._.. .!._.. 



Po. , ■ ;<.,;. , 

Vtar anil Smk, Ctkmunu aimnnff 


Pfuitiii.. nni. .... 

P nAdent . . . 

Pr shMp, uA CatUa 

i.i ...,-. , ..uj- . , , 

PrUott Am"ct(ote .... 
Prlrntfl History of the Palom of 


n«di«Al.Tbc Ho4«ni(ATtl«) . 
Prot*ct«l CrmdlM .... 
PuUk 11*11 at Hanldi 

Qt'irKM'g Bauar. Tho « , 

ijuMiu'* S];»MCU OB OfK'uIng l'*f- 

Qii««n'« Tobftcc/> Pi;'. 

V T.,4lan; and lliU(«b 

J: .. , . ..:k:c« '.*.*,! 
KuiUnv VVAifs and 8trays . 
ICanford'ii (.li4n,t Ktw Year** 


R«4 TafM , 

ll-k;l'.ir,<r-r;,n. ml. A VUU to ttwi 

I'' ' I' . 

' rsoflh* 

' I i(a P«ather 


Jtayal :^|i«m^Ii by .lamaatlHi Pint 
tOtaxian JpAticc, 8t>«ttin«a of 

Saii^om' ttunie 
i«kderr>, LIfv In a 
MlOrowl , , . . . 
BalMMl of ttttftlan, tlw Fottiata . . 
ai«4bnt, 81r >^%leDtln« SAltear** 
VUU to . , . . . . 
Soa-Slda ChDtvhyahl 
rfen. 'rf''rt*iiii.-n .if tl,4i, 

-Tftphyftf . 
Kojral Navy . 

intxIitetloH to 

*t«iM LlglkthoaM 
amthltald Market . . . . 
telUiileia of Paria 
Bndthflelil, a Model of tba Uod«l 

dntUUfivM , . . . . 
Aw of, 
I* tluib^ndry ... 

ch bv JartKH flie Flmt , 
Spoedi, I'lie Qutwu* 
S]»wlmen »f ItuuUn .Iiiisti^ 
|pM«ra' Hilk 
8uhieri(itlMA Mot 
fltibuTban CoimeiuaMi 
0tilnirliau Horoanoa . , 
Snnitny Qiicxtlail la tba L«jt 

L'ontiiry .... 











Tji pk, K#d 

Tin Krlllr. I'Im- VIrat«rH«i of a 

'i ::<rM'iOetty . 

Tlwtp r..r All TMMHff . . 

T.'l' '-•.•■■ ]'\i". The VjuiH-ir* . 

M^n in DIflleiUllM" 

Kin Dgtithanfe 
TiUiiilurljii, AdTtniturTj of a . . 
Trvaiitirtya of th«i Dc«p|» 
Turtk' ,,.... 
TviMily-four Hour* fu a Ivcmdoa 


Twn Scmina In Uw Ufe of Joba 


Tyrant nf Hinnlglnm&gen . . 

tJjriviasiTt tlducaUoo 
Unlvsnl^ Oml^tan aiul Coo- 






VAa PliKic (Mr/i on Punnianvhlp , 


W«onoair, |,l»u(enanl« and liti 

Widow , , : . 

Wall*rr> fMf.1 rtfurnioti, tn 

Curl ,,„] 

Wilili .,1 ■; A mil',' 


Wall A Talel 19, ■ 

^'-" Urqtils of, and 


*7tM-,tt that 
-lido if 

^ *^' 

Wlti)OJi«^« and .JofTuvin, Tlw 

Dutlc" i-'f . . . K 

W«Qjan'* Kitwriunrc In CallATmla 
W<M»da, Tlui W»aJtJt nf , 

SAraaaru^rK, Th« Mcrv 2««liui4 

(ATaJe) . . W, IM^ 

Zaolo||:t«a] 8<«»1oDfl . 


Avne . 


Y^f^\vix Cl^n^ 

n ... 







\ Legend) 

' 277 



\\v FTlMirti Povrttf 

Lir.rrH nm ill I'lllflT licO 


M.inory,A .... 



Mother-a tm% 


Kvw Ymi** Kw 


Peaoa and War 


Bnithfleld BtiU and Itia €cm*i« of 

St. Vdaaela* . 
Tbamaa Harlo^rr 
Tw^o Tppea 
Waal* of War . 
W»vrDimr.|| Towa 
^ Wla 


FamtltAr in tJmr Mouthi as HOUSEHOLD WORDS "^BB^MMMr^nm. 





CPlMCB 2d, 


Theeb 9ur«i Tcvr Urm>;:s Id this beautiful 

itrv 'if Eriifland, more picturesque to the 

b]o to the tVuic^, than an old 

, Seen in UiL* djstanc€, rising 

aiiiLiig t:orn-lk'ld», l^msturea, orchards, 

IciiH, wcjoJIr, the river, the hridye, the 

'":''■ '^ :'iia of 


riut-er wiu»l ;iDti summer sun, tower^ like a 
historical |»re4i<.niee, above the city, 
to the i-uilest mind associations 
t Tnth the dusky Paat. On a 
r Hpj)r(>a<jli, tliia interest ia heigiht^jDed. 
lh the buUtUng, by the long pei'^>ec- 
of [iillju"s and arches ; by the earthy 
pr€',iehiijg more eloquently than deans 
t of the common doom ; by 

t>v ires of knightd and kdies on 

i:.*i 1-11^^ genei-ations 
d LO-ound them ; 

. j^... ^. ..^.. .. ,, softening and 
^ the light; by the 0i\kon car\iiigs 
it sUllfl, where the shorn rnonk.s told 
■ bcfuJ« ; by the battere<l effigies of arcb- 
>p9 .tnd bi»hop«, found built up in the 
lie World had Ijeeii unconscious, 
f their bhmt stone noses ; by 
k ; the crypt, 
in long gle&ma 
iL limii lUL- ^ ii'iat'irs where the 
il where the ivy, bred among the 
li - twines about theb- graves ; 
f the bells, high up in the 
b^' the universal gravity, mys- 
li^-cay, and Silence. Without, by the old 
liufj Cnthedrrvl-cloBe, with its ivd-briek 
arn-l '"-US ; by the same stained 

so < lit side though so bright 

by \h>i p'lvement of haljt-ohliterated 
ones ; by the long echoes of the Tisi- 
)otfite[i3 ; V ♦ I " ■ rlcet gate, that seems 
, the iivo. out of that retire- 

liv til.- .1.1 jackdaws that 

il' Tcvices, where 

reminds them, 
of the wiiid niuuiig the boughs of 
_ )ftj' tree«; by the ancient scrajw of palace 
axidl gateway ; by tho ivy agam, that has 
grown to be so thick and atron^ ; by the o«.k, 
uunous in all that part, which hi» struck ita 

mighty root through the Bishop^s wall; by 
the Cathedral organ, whose souna 6Us all tbafc 
space, and all the spa^ it opens in the channetl 

T^ere may be flaws in this whole, if it lie 
eikamined, too closely. It may not bt« improved 
by the contemplation of the shivering choria- 
ters on a ^int^r morning, huddling on their 
gowns na they drowsily go to scamper thr«Migh 
their work ; by the drawling voice, without a 
heai%, that drearily pursues the dull iijutine ', 
by the avaiicious fuuctiouary who lays aaida 
the silver mace to take the silver pieces; and 
who races through the Show aa if he were the 
hero of a sporting wager. Some uncomfort- 
able doubts may, under special circvimstancea, 
obtrude themselves, of the practical (."hriatian- 
ity of the head of some particular Foundation. 
He may be a brawler, or a proud man, or a 
sleek, or an artful. He may 1)C usually 
silent, in the House of Lords when a Christian 
minister should s[»eak, and may make a point 
of £Ej>eaking when he should W silent. He 
may even be oblivious of the tnith ; a stickler 
by the letter, not the spirit, for his own pur- 
poses ; a pettifogger in the supreme court of 
God's hign law, as there are pettifoggers in the 
lower cottiti* administering the Law» of mor- 
tal man. Disturbing reooUectious may ariae, 
of a few isolated canes here and there, where 
country curates with small incomes and large 
families, poor gentlemen and .scholars, are 
condemned to work, like blind hoi*3es in a 
mill, while others who do not work get tlu-ir 
rightful pay ; or of the inconsistency ami iu<ii*- 
corum ol the Church l>eing made a Bol>e and 
Candlestick question, while so many sluning 
h^hts are hidden uuder bushels, ;md so many 
black-cloth coat« are threadbai'e. The que»- 
tion may present iteeif, by remote chance, 
whether some shovel-hats be not made too 
much on tho model of the banker's shovel with 
which the cold ia gathered on the counter, 
and too Httle in remembrance of that other 
kind of shovel that renders wishes imto ashes, 
and dust to dust. But, on the whole, the visi- 
tor will probably bo content to say, *' the time 
was, and this old Cathetlral saw it, when these 
things w^ere infinitely worse ; they will be 
better ; I will do all honour to the cood that 
is iu them, (which is much) and 1 wiTl do what 
in me lies for the speedier amendment uf tho 






[Of wittct*"! %r 

sre in Cistictioud gla3s-c.'Uio unk^r. After 
<lo(l^nc^ the rain-dropa wliich HUter throwirlj 

tlie ceilmg,dowTi ntM ' i- Icrujiitij unctions 

of llie Jeatl, ^fn \< ihle to exaiuiiie 

one or two bnodJc^ mul rot ure »o 

omiiiuotoiit m this dam]) deiwaitory, that 
the shelves liHve, in aome ulaci^a, broken and 
cnitnliletl away. A inonieut's comjm.rison 
K^twi'tMi tbe relative powtTS of w'oo<l and 
pftpcr, in l•e3islIn^f water, will give a vivid 
idea of the comlitvon of the willa in thm Arch- 
diiiconal ahoWfr-bath. Tbe corners of most 
of tbu i>llea Mve ns thoroughly iwindctl oflT, as if 
II popiuoiia (Xtlony of water rats ^the DnlJnary 
gpecies could liot have exLstoil there) had 
been dining otT them since the days of King 
Stephen, Othera are teatanientary agglo- 
merfttionj*, 8odden«>d into pulp, — totallyule- 
gible and inseparable ; hiiTing been ctmverted 
by AgUi much rain, and inordinate neglect, into 
pcnt-mortetn jmpier iurich6. 

All these, are origiiixd wills : no 9uch copies 
of them — which Iiegifltrai*8iire enjoined to pro- 
vide — haviuj^ been made by the profleceiisors 


A PRoDioiotJs number of complaiuU and 
other noisetJ at unseasonable houry. fi' >iu Ibfit 
Lai^e class of our feUow-creature^ 1 1 

so erroneouHly cai led •' d u mb " an s r 
seriously dlsturbe<l the haM' r 

an d {Mjaceful con ten t of tbe Z< s 

in the Rogent^s Park, during the : r 

two, the Secretar}', Mr, Mitchell, c t 

neoessary to iu^iuit^ a close iuqun y nU'^ liie 
cause. He waa not long in discovering this. 
Some of the " dumb " ci-catuttis did not at all 
mince the matter with him, but spoke out 
boldly at once. 

The compbints and di«titrljance« took the 
usual form of growla, i-oars, Ikellowing*, bark- 
ings, chatteringB, ginmtings, gnaahes, squeaks^ 
hooting^ hiafleg, yells, screania and aqaawka ; 
but each and all of them had direct reference 
to the same Bpecial cause of grievtmco. Tlie 
nature and tendency of tlus having been ascer- 
tained, Mr, Mitchell, not being aliloto renieiiy 

of the preaent pluralist. In order tliat tbe | tbe alleged evil, saw no alternali 
durability of parchment should be of no avail i venc an extraoitlinary meeting i«f t 

}^.<* t. 

in am^stLng the most complete doatnietion 
within the scoj^e of jwssibiUty, it is the abeep- 
hkin testamenta of thiB collection that are 
regularly shredded to bind up the modern 
wills rniiged in books below. 

The very sight of this place, shows the 
futility of an^^thing like reacjirch. Mr. Wallace 
e.iauiiiieB a i"ew of tbe documentf?, only to aee 
theii" extreme liidtoric;d aa well as local im- 
portance ; turna away ; and deacemk the 

" Thu-s then," sayH Mr. Williivm AValhice 
solemnly, ad he ttdtes a narting hnjik at the 
ancient Gate-liomie, "ai-e documents, involving 
the |>ei'»onid and leal projierty of 8even 

of the CJouneil to a 8|»eciAl Court ol i > 

be held in the Oaitlens, with a view to giving a 
full and d!^prL«aiouiite hearing to the cauaca of 
dift and Cfimplaiot from the ilifTe- 

leu > inhabiting the Oarilenn, or 

thoisc ikpiittd to ap[ie;ir profesaionally in 
their behoof. 

The day being fixed, and eight o'clock in 
the moming name*) aa tlie hour mrtst suitable, 
because no visitors are a-ibviitted till nine, the 
Members of the Council duly re|>airetl to the 
Zoological Ganlens, aiid entei-ing the mar- 
quee erected fur the ocoaaion, in the encloaur*!i 
of the Eleph.nnt*a house, to<jk their »eat-B in 
regular form. Lon! Bcimbleby h*il aliiwly 

Engb.ib Counties;, allowed to crumble to de- arrivetl, and was unanimously voted into thi 
btnictiou ; thus, ia ruin brought on families chair, in virtue of his T)OFition aa a innii of 
by nei^'dieaa litigation ; thus, do Registrars I science, no leAi than in deference t<:> his great 
roll in carriages, and Proctors grow rich ; I legal knowle<lge and exj>erioiice. Professor 
thuy, are the nistorieal records of the gi*eat < ^wen, by the exrjrciia wish, it wa3 underatood, 
English nation doomed — ^l>y an oflicer whom i of His Royjd Highue*t8 Prince Albert^ a)t- 
tho nation pays the income of a prince to Ive) tended to take note* for cert-iun learned ao- 

their conaer\'ator — to rottenne^, mildew, and 

Mr, Walhwe having added nothing to the 
object Of his pursuits and Imjulnen, m the Re- 
gistry of thia Cathedral numuer one, deiiart«^ 
at ov ze for Catheihral nuud>er two. How lie 
fjuvd there, the reader ahidl soon learn. 


Usi geutlo words, for who can tell 

The blesainge they impart ! 
How oft they full (as manna fell) 

On some nigh-fainting heart ! 

lu lonely wilds by light-wiugVl birds 
Itiirc t;ceds have oft boon sown ; 

Aitd hope has tpnmg from gentle words, 
VVlicn! only griofs had groMii« 

eietiea in Paris ami Lerlin. We also observed 
Mr. Justice Bi*oderip of Wcstminater, author 
of "Zoological Re*ei*rcbe8/* in company with 
Mr. Yarrell, aiid ch^ee to them Miv llioraaa 
Bell, on the part of the Royal Societj^, 
Jind Mr. John K^l ' y* head natu- 

ndiat uf the hiei Lament of the 

IVitltih Mnscimu m- mitoi^ of idl the 
chief jounuds of natural hititory noun after 
enteretl, together with Mr. 15«.lwin Landseer, 
and several other artists of emiuenc*.*, among 
whom were Doyle and Wolf, as uinttcr of 
course. In company with these we ;di»o no* 
ticeti Mr. Van Voorst, and Messrs. Reeve, 
I^nham, and Reeve, who idl took their seata 
with very grave countenances. We should 
not forget to mention that Mr, Poot, the 
great pigeon- fancier, was present, e\ideiitly ia 
a aomewhat perplexed state of mind m con* 



PM^ucDoe of tbe eighteeTj-j>ent)y veal^and'liAm 

nw. Iir }>M.] 1,, .1 l.t in the littJe aide pocket of 

, for limcli€on, onusing a 

uberaiice in his oiitUue on 

aiiie. ^ '.' no means oinit to record 

itd this i tightifnetl aud completed 

the ArrivyJ uf a number of ladieii of high 

in elegant moming dresses ; ftmoug 

ilie DowMper Dnchess of 

r tw*o charming niaceei^ 

*'Xii'»v^ l."^"^':>l^-.^^ i filtfo the Coimte«3 of 

'owtw^court, and Lady Forester, who Bup- 

rw.i-K.l <.5, 1m t irni the graceful figure of the 

Lrocjuvt, wliose husband 

' in a Bkirmiwh with the 

Lk 1 row opened the procee4- 

ig» h\ i'^i^Uii^-iting the ladies who hjul jiint 

itcretl, to settle theuiselvea na quickly luid 

I H possible, beeauiie he ex l>ect€Hil 

[J- end, the Chevalier Bunsen, 

i\ PI. -iLn arrive. His Ixtnlshm then 

piadled Jipon the Secretary*, 'Mr. Miteneli, to 

f'>rward the dilfereut plaint Ife in suc- 

ftnt personage who presented himself, 

• it. Tlie Seci*etary informed tlie 

preferejice had been ahown, 

iQ courtesy to the Elephant, on 

li&ins they wei-e now eucroaching, 

lor his eminent sagacity, and tlie 

")iirnty of hia manners to all who 

%ith iiim. The two head keepera 

suTt?d him tha,t the lion was too mag- 

lous to feel any offence at it. 

The El*'|ihaut atlvanced with his usual cau- 

^ona steps, hia eyes being alternately cast on 

nun«l immefliately l>efore his broad toea, 

'tiien taking a qiiiet look at the faces of 

comjAfuiy assembleiL He now alowly 

miseKl hi* tnink over tht?ir heads, and made 

lus grand mliiom. 

It "WM not, he said, without eonsiderable 
T>-'""*"""'^ thdt he enme forward to make a 
nf !UiytH.Mly in the Gnrilens — espe- 
< : -^ >ji«^ fi'i eminent for amiability and 

originality 5 j i ;• ter, as the porHoxiage con- 
ceruing wh mu i tir^e complaints had arisen. 
If he ha<l l»een obliged to rej>ort his own 
keeper for inattention, or vraul of respect, 
would have cost him much ^ain ; but no 
rorda couJd describe hi* discomlort at finding 
' ^'l^ed to appear in that Court aa 
i^oxeeman of a eerioud complaint 
LL .Against one of Iiia fellowH3reature8. 
not mean any ofienee to any learned 
^rioofl gentleman present, and of 
not to any lady ; but it would be mere 
ktion in him to dia^ise the fact that he 
le<l hi.H fellow-captives in th<jse Gar<lenB 
loi-e condcquenc« in theaode of ci-eation 
any of those who held dominion over 
lem, or wlio came to 6e« them. They were 
:afc position by virtue of their 
iea, which made them objects 
It. i.-v uii^i^aat to tbe le^-endowed race 
>f luaiikind. 

Lord Buwhlfhy. I camiot allow thei^ iixtro- 
dnctory n-tl'- ii5"i»-» to proceecb For my own 
part, I ti nt iTom them, as no doubt 

do all th 

\iembera of Co^mdl. 

The Elepiiaut apolt^aed if he had said any- 
thing diflcuurteous. It was not his intention. 
Some people might think that the superior 
size and strength of other people were of lees 
importance thim their own deficiencica in those 
resj>ects. But wliatever might be the natiUHS 
of the complaint now about to be made, it 
would not so much involve disagreeable cora- 
paidsoua Iwstween the noble captives in the 
Gardens and their Council, Keepers, and 
visitors, fks an exposure of erroneous es- 
timate* formed of one particular erentun*, 
and of undue favours shown him, to the injury 
or neglect of many more deserving such, or, 
at least, no less attention. 

Lord Bumliely. You really must not bo 
HO prolix. Come at once to the question. 
"What is the cause of the disturbance and 
disorder that has of late been among you. Of 
whom, or of what do you complain i 

All ears and eyes were now turned towards 
the Eleijhaut, who, dropping his ti-unk, and 
placing Ills leg& — the right fore-leg in advance 
of the left, and the right hind-leg in advance 
of the leftr— commenced a sawing to and fro 
of his body; presenting th© api>eiirance of 
some colossal toy, the Dody of which waa 
moved forwards and backwards by means of 
a bit of very simple machinery, while his legs 
remained fixed to the board he stood upon. 
He continued to do this for several minutes. 

Lord BmnMih^, How much longer are we 
to wait for a reply ? 

To this question the Elephant made no 
rejoinder, but shifted his legs, placing those 
in advance which had previously been behind, 
and then resumed his sawing motion. 

Lord BundAtb^. Is this aU the answer you 
intend to ^ve the Court T Can anylwdy 
translate this oriental performance ? 

An extremely small, thin, squeaky voice, 
which seemed to come from a group of animals 
collected round the open entrance to the 
marauee, was now heai'd : — 

" It seems, my Lord,** saitl the Uttle voice, 
" that the Elenllant eamiot m.«ike up his mind 
aa to the reply he should give. It is too 
difficult and full of ups and downs, and high- 
ways and by-ways. But I can skip over all 
these, and tell you at once tliat the cause of 
our complaints b from the favouritism «liown 
to the fat water'pig !^ — ^that *s wliat we are al I 
making mouths at ! " 

Aftur much looking about, the little voice 
that had uttered this was disco vereil to proceed 
fi-om a very tiny nisset-green Marmozet 
JVlonkey, with little brown tufts of ears 
standing out from each side of hi5 head, and 
with very bright quick isyea, having a deli- 
cate tint of clear hazel in them, and of great 
intelligence, though displaying a considerable 
degree of nervous alarm in ad<lreAsing the 
Court. He was Be!&\;e& o^ ^^^^i \.a^ ol>5w4 V^ 




[CAii4lwM« If 

sKouliler of the Vilue-unsi'tl IVtUKru^ w}iile 
si>eakliig. Init t>fl !ip tittpntl tlie inaei ward« he 
ennyrui; "«lle wf ihti Wk of UiO 

Oimffe, ! V. 

You lui 

tAiip iuul the Ci^urt., that i'or his uwii ptirt 
he Wi uo c^peeml cAiise of gt'icvMtec. lie 
hwA iiumly cotiie fctrwan.1 oil the })re«rmt 
occiisiftn ftt tho i^m-nfst request of a ituiut»er 
of I M,(U. As lur httiisclf, whut 

wit , and other [U'eseiiU, uiil h 

coii.^ i . 1 1 1 . ! I u '.' 3 i 1 , 1 1 c of li be rt y mid utteut iou, 
he h.i*\ III* ivM^onriKle j^^rouiid fxfv ilisaaiaBffte- 
tioii ^' '] f'-' «}iuuUl alwihVji look duwu upon & 
Hi ^ 

V ,W£^ (tiddrt»»in^ ike frmt^ of 

AmmaU), Lei me diutiuctly fusk for a cleeidLMl 
.awl defmite reply. Uus, the MiLTUiozLt rightly 
lUid truly estatcd the purpose of your C4JUi^%iut 
—one at id all ? 

yuin>erau4 Voict* cf various lindi. He ku ! 
— h^ hins ! — he hiw» ! 

lAjrd /f ' " 'I'' '■ ' ^ ma hag thjit sdtDe 
one lun i^ and guai-dnKlf 

MJid 1- -- 'cutioiia thart the 

El iir to walk forth, 

aua e of the niattt'T. 

At the^e wonk tiie i^iun »ti-ode tujyaBlically 
into tb<» mid Uc of the 0>urt, and aft*r »evend 
heavy swinges of hki tail, ns he looked with a 
Very gimv« fore»t-lofvl eounteuaiice on all 
fu'ouii^ ibddreaaed hi« Lordflhip ftnd the 
Council, in a deep voice, 

Hif said tluit to his own mind, as a Liou, tlie 
whole contpiaiut waa andMified aad hiii- 
ciiJoua ; Lttit aa a litmiwn of tne GardeoB, aud 
one of the otdeat of ita noblea, he felt boniul 
to eapouae lh« conu&oa oauae, wid exiter kis 
iiToti^t /«^niab'l the grcHis favouritistii that had 
Wn dUiphiyed towajxlii the HippQixttaiiiLia. 
At tssif a Littla oif ihi« w«« aU veiy well — in 
fact, it wad ejcpectod, vitli a tiews:otner of 
more thou onliuary pretennoOB. But things 
had been cjirried much too far. The Hippo- 
potamus hiul bes-ome a faaLion^ble furor. Ab 
to Ihv aiiimal hixofieli^ he haxl nothing to say 
Hgaiiidt Uiiu ; the qucistion waa ooe of a broad 
public kind. Was It nght ttywajrda all the 
other iuhftbitaoitii of the Ganie&fly many of 
tliein posseBSLQ^ points and nualitiea worthy 
of the highest iitterest and estimatioiL, thut an 
^diaoei excliuiive devotion should be shown to 
this oue ii)dividunJ 7 He thtj Lion bLanied no 
one in esjjecial — but evervbody, aa the iiyury 
waa c^timuitted by exerybody* He had fdt 
■o irritated at it — not on his own account, for 
he was gencs^allv half aaleep all day, but »« a 
public inault — that he had taken to scratch hia 
neck, aa ho Uiooght of it, till he had toni nearly 
all the hsit off oii« aide, aud cuueed the worthy 
Secreiiiry great dtstreaa at thin injur)' to lus 

tionoff ' l»e Uipjxuxjtamua 

iu hiij rich ccuse ; aiaJ a 

•;*i'!u i'*l apvli'^) ij I In- i.i^uiicil Mid viMitora, ait 
htrjio, be luailo to ,'dl the olhor tuiiuiidfi^ 

^' ' fo hid Lordslup Iwnl linic to n pU% and 
t lie lion liflwi retired to join thi* gmup 

,1^ '^ !•*,--,. \A:.\- f.„.l.l,< TMI, I, •,,.;,„(»«, 

■ he 



-r ;h» 

Lwidy tiuit o\^ 
the Court. : 
Lmidou, tol 
of, tidkiiii; ab 
niitiir svviuni I 

ail, -Ml"] ri\>'' 

And MJiy ?- 
lireteud i 
As to hi 

penoiml n^ieanmcts. He concluded 
ptieaaingr lug opiuion thait tiha lidiculons 


to a hoi"»e ! 


U . . 

ml thi<> dii^t 1 — vkit* it ii4>t 
eu^irt'iiiity of ef<wV mtlk and 
he wouldn't 

. iuid in 


iiildJUMUii in iln 

r*filat ilat-w* ({or 

dry yellow I'. * 

ones), and i uuule with tli> 

maize m- 1 ■ '■- ■■•" '-" 


was giv ; ;.. 

i^enerai ^^ but gr 

blue b«Mi >, m luojxy 

the Lion and tlic Tiger hail reluM-st, — but givco 

lo /<««*, merely because the ko jx-r km vr thnt 

he liad a lower jaw capiible * ' 

which thfi Lion would not,&ii 

not break ! Waa he, the Hyttiu^ io ci 

thie 2 Shrieks and fanc^wrasigWa I Ki 

Split the tip of Li^ i^h a halch«t» tt] 

wouLl aitiTer it ui No !*— iio !- 

But would he stllJ : m. .,. .,. through 

— would he? — would he? — Would h«1 ha! 

ha I would he ? Y^-^a ! yoa ! yoa 1 FUkj 

h'm akin with rake* and tjuugn, he would glHt 

ha ! ha ! hoo } ahriek aad yell hia utNinip 

tlons, and tear at 

Here five keepera aoddenly r*in ^nrwmi, 
and with great difficult . ' 

speaker, and dragged i i 

mane aiid tml, and one muu leg. ii wixn wtn 
they did, as «dl the l^ea aiMi iuo«t »f Urn 
ge&tleoien ha^l riaeu Xrom tboir aeaia^ aaA 
weme joat preparing to HMke a predplMAft 
retreat. The Buchcaa of F1u.stt'iuUjtr hail 
her mtlendid tippet quite ' riil 

Mr. PootB veai-and-hjun } ^'V 

csGa{ie of heiiur siDMlied in i 1 1 J 

inore of aach ahiniiefy bel. ' , I 

aliall vac4tte xdt aeaA. Mr. ! m 

uaed to deal with thaaa obsitivj»t.>: MUdi <•{] 
tern in the performaiiee of hia i 
duties in Weatminater — peiiuHj^ia lie 
good aa take the chair. 

Mr. Broi)en{> eiprewed hi.s rr^.-illntj^ tii 
tlda. He considered it hi>^ 
on the score ot his uiagi»t > 
\3U.t ot Vda Uboun m tv&iural hL>tui ¥« mttk 


UilfrMt lt# took in iL Mr. Mitcli«?ll, huw~ 

:i]id injindible step, 

*MX uuw auiic ktrwMiA by a aiiletotig 

IBO¥«m«*iit. Willi Ji mast cllffitlciit iiir, Itia 

e^ran itimerl tuceklv to the ^^touutl, he 

■JdlCii 1 hiH LorJahip iu a aiuootli ajmI 


whiJ i>«^' 

ulii hiu ittti^iition, hi* fUiit), aii 

iiiil.le inilivkiiuil like iiim, to 

<e K^ftKt riijht t«>(X)n»|>lfUJji 

*>«tow«Ki on iuiy ot^ier 

-* iiB, Nt} — tfutt w.'w iml 

a ure tiian it Winihi hiive 

tiiju-c He knew liium»'lf Iw'ttvr. 

vvrntuni to jirf:s»eut hiiriself uu tlio 

* ' ' ' '"d of hi** 

» niiother 

I gluey tears iu him i 

Sice, lie ftppea^^d, 

of th<* GnsHt Tor- 

loted him od to the 

ifr. MilrJitU). 

ldI OS to niiT otiier IxKiily 
nt*.l iiii ttalking h«re. 

• litres to say pooh, 

A-w^l that the vtiietf had pro- 

I > bad 1m>€ii hixm^'ljt 

luanffei's ivny, siup- 

wh^^irfw cyt-s Were 

iwitul. I'hey bad 

L Vuii arc ui 

a it WAA the 

I the Tortoine 

nae at. his r&te 

hitn &t lefist 

Irom his enclosure 

.otl where they now 

this satis- 

r» ground, 
iieasL To 
i y favours 
tiie imlivKiaai caiit?ti the Hip- 
he, tl t? Fox^ cm the part of hi« 
ivgijHl muat respectfully 
i»-iit.v flTRSM unjust as it 
1 ? Might 
L pliwie. ou 

•OtfOel/ altavt! on« Iwelvrniorjth, whllo that 

of his client amounted to no leas than ona 
hunrlrwliviicl Berenty-nifie yeftre. He vvna, c»«- 
rritJy, not otilv llie Oldest lidiabit,*intt»flh* 
Ions, but iu ail EnjrtAiitl— probably i" aU 
i'^uro^ie, T)ie Hgt^R of bfilh |)arti«i weiv iiuthen- 
tidtUy known. Ht« cUent came fiviin C#*1ln- 
pagoe, on the west coast of Sonfb 
close to the equator^ briuping his ■ i 

with him. He nlj»o lived at the < 
small matter of sovenl}* or oi;^'! 
T}*,,... <i,,t^.r^ w ... ^11 on recortl, ; 
in Cict, by tin 
s with whom li i 

in > IS the old ont« died off. Ab lV,i 

the « person commonly Cftlle«l the 

Hip{^K>iK>UimiiA, it w?ia lauRluibly e.T^y to attest 
that, Ht* w^ii>i fi more mushroom — a brown 

Lord ' WU'f do Ton peniat itt 

' ' the individual •♦ called '* 

He u a HipjiofiutiyBllJl 1 
i.. .. ,.........oL 

The Fox Itejiged ttn thonsAnd p.ijnlons ; he 
had heard tlii* ]>oint mueb contestotl in the 
Gardens among his friends and companion m, 
who had amved nt tlip rniitdnsinn that the 
boast known : ^, Wfw. in 

truth, a youu, i th«* am- 

phibious variety ; L'LiL It Ills ie;iiLi«-i ' ', 

whose universal mind might be i 

'- "" ■ I'hilkioufl^ but n*^ ('•^iiaiiy 

I i^ieoufi« had Mettled tM 
.p.v. ^n .= , tifie Fox, an obacun* und 

humble i- s eure he should not ex 

cee^l the J nis iufitructions b> n-n iii<r 

on the |mrt of l»is ehent, that he bi s 

Lordship's dcn^^inn. nnd admittal, i '^ 

preisent i 1 »ly% that the pig woa 

a horse. ,| 

Lord BtimUeOi/. An iriidi bull, yoa menu 
Don't be impertinent. Sir. 

Tlie Fox beg^^e^l lea hundred Ihousmd 
pardons. Tliei-e was, howerer, another ques- 
tion on wbich he Had a few worda to offer. 
A thinij, whether olive or dead, waa valued 
in EngkuMl, by no meanus ao tunch for itsell^ 
and its intrinsic merits (tfaiiy) as for its 
scarcity, and the money it cost to obtain it. 
Suppose nature ha/1 ro\'eraed the oj>ler of 
thinua with himself and the Hipfwf>p»»<?ttfiim. 90 
that, while there were a coun' 1 

water-pigB — ^he b^ged ten \in i 

miliiou ]>arilous J he meant lui— 

there should at the siime ti: y one 

Fox in all En^dand J WAat a 1 .-< would 

be I His earsi, how acute ami pointed to a 
hxiir ! His nose, how line aud infallible ! 
Hia eyes, how bright with keen and secret 
intelligence 1 His mouth, how formeil for all 
the loves and graces to hover ixitind I Hia 
physiognomy, how matchless in the *linrpnr«B 
of its angle; witli wfrnt a devel ' 

cramum above ! His bruah, ho 
and giiitfious ! His step, how Jign' ii«i 
elegant ! His 9j>eeil, how fleet — his ioiia* 
winded endurance, how wonderful * Hia 
courtkge, w\ieii sn.Tvou\M\sA,\v/« tiKA*sw3i^\xx<{^\ V 

Familmr in Hmr Months as HOUSEHOLD WORDS "— snAwa-tAi 






TtiKRK ar«* fi'W titiitgs in tJib beautiful 
coiiuU V < f England, more pictiircjiique to the 

nlile to the fancy, than an old 

nt». Seen m the distance, risLng 

com-fiekla, pjistui'ea, orchaiila, 

hIs*, the river, the hridire, the 

: • ,■ :'" :.' :' • -, of 


■ iiUiuli fi I yiviOi I' V tlje 

I'T «uii, tower, like a 
..... ,. .k'uce, above the city, 
th»j nulisst mind associations 
with the vlusky Paat. On a 
nwut' r approfich, tlii3 interest is heightened. 
Within t}i4\ building, by the lon^ perspec- 
tives of piUai-s an<r arehe^ ; by the earthy 
nuell, rir«'.'i«-irnju' niove r.'kM^nontly tkin deans 
autl c!i ' " 

the pr.i 


» custU or 

apr - 


■inou doom; by 
t^ and ladles on 
'" 'rations 

them ; 
iig and 
I rvinffs 
iK-i told 
i elfigiea of arch- 
i built up in the 
' ! the wuiid li^iU been unconscioijE, 
of their blunt etone noses ; by 
. the crj7>t, 
loan; gleams 
.:■' \ lOLHii 13 where the 
ivy, bred among the 
* Ko I J t their graves ; 
high up in the 
i-aal |rravity, mys- 
Without, by the old 
«igt% with its red-brick 
- J by the sauie stained 
side tliough ao bright 
it ttf hall-obliterated 
' lioea of the viai- 
t gate, tliat seema 
ft of that retire- 
. i.. .^d J4ck*lttWH that 
ts m steeple crevices, where 
the chimes reminds them, 
of the wind among the boughs of 
orty trees ; by the andent acrara of prdace 
And gate^vay; by the iv>' acam, that baa 
ffrowu to be so tJiick and stronji ; by the oak, 
UmooA in all that part, which baa struck ita 

the toi 
of sons 

by tu- 
rn ' 


their litvuiij ; by t i 
bi5ihoj>s r>nil bUli 












toi- .., 
to shut 
merit - 


lofly trei 

mighty root thronj^ the Bisliop'a wall ; by 
the CAtliedral oi^gan, whoee sound fills all lliat 
space, and oli the space it opens in the charmed 

l^ere may be flaws in this whole, if it be 
examined, t^jo closely. It may not \*ts Improved 
by the contemplation of the ahivering choris- 
tera on a winter morning, huddling on their 
^wuB aa they drowsily go to scamper thi-ongh 
5ieir work ; by the drawling voice, without a 
heait, that drcioily pursues the dull routine ; 
by the avaricious fuuctionary who lays aside 
the silver mace to take the silver pieces, and 
who races through the Show as if he were the 
hero of a sporting wager. S(jme uncomfort- 
able doubt** may, under special circamstances, 
obtrude thomseives, of the practical Christian- 
ity of the head of some particular Foundation. 
He may be a brawler, or a proud man, or a 
aleek, or an artfiib He tiiay W usually 
silent, in the House of Ix'rds when a Christian 
minister should speak, and mav make a pjint 
of speaking when he should he silenL He 
may even be oblivious of the truth ; a stickler 
by the letter, not the ypirit, for his own pur- 
pft^es ; a t>ettifogger in the supremo court of 
God's hign law, as there are pettifoggers in the 
lower couita aiiministering the laws of mor- 
tal man. Disturbing recolleotious may arise, 
of a few isolated cases here and there, where 
country curates with small incomes and large 
families, poor gentlemen and scholars, are 
condemned to work, like blind hursea in a 
mill, whUe othei^ who do not work get their 
rightfiil pa}' ; or of the inconsistency and Lnde- 
conim of the Church being made a Robe and 
CimtUeHtick question, w^hile so many shining 
lights are hidden under bushels, and so nianiy 
black-cloth coat3 are threa^lLiare, Tlie ((ue«^- 
tion may present itself, by rejnioto eliance, 
whether some shovel-hat'? be not mad© too 
much on themcnlel of the banker's shovel with 
which the ^oM h gathered on the counter, 
and too little in remembrance of that other 
kind of shovel that renders ashes unto a^hes, 
and dust to dust. But, on the whole, the \isi- 
tor will probably be content to say, *' the time 
was, and this old Cathedral stiw it, when these 
tilings were intinit^Jy worse ; they will be 
better ; I will do all honour to the good that 
is in them, (which is much) and I will do what 
in me liea for the speedier amendment of the 



(tvn^ Jjotd hia word of liiMiottr Umt he 

«noiil^ Dewr Aniu nlhide U> ( owl, ai* 

thoi^h he nniitw permitted to say, jarl' !— 

to mfff k^rk—yarkf — Irat Uttt *s neither here, 

ji T^ wonW b^ Icsve to tttbstitutc 

13 t«()niill7 ui«HtoriouB aiul rc^ 

ji. : la tigltneeB — ^he referred to the 

f I'lMJiHii f \\\\. TUnt wibs an luiimal who 

• ' ' •• 'it .l^fil of attention At 

^ r«einblance he 

r »ii liothdchUd^s — 

ruuucly 2»tnrBiini linvuau, whose health wafl 

driMtk the other My iu treble X, by Me4Mi*&, 

BtarcUvV dravtiuti. 

l^e^ ButfJtl4f>^, I hiAttft upon it, thAit no 
fidore cf these — 

Th» JsM-k Paw ha^iteued to anticipate his 

Lord!»h ' namh— and waa rlumn, ho fkr 

HA til riwrhioeii I/jTii— Flatnaa ke 

mcAnt I ..^ w'i3 eonccrneil. Of the Ott«« 
he wotiid be sileui : the constant exidbi^ 
tion of their talents always collectetl an 
admifing erowd. The auaie might be Raid <3^ 
the Monkey^ whose cries — which he mmitaAy 
wvTtt exactly like the drawing of a number of 
■Ball atid very olietiiiate corka — never faile<l 
to attmct apectatom to their perforniaDoea. 
But of tlie more uicwiest, yet equally original, 
merits of the AmerioiMi Tapir, whose noae ia 
a lliick fore-linger (.Mjid the samv curioiia 
churt /t«'rl*rir V>r tioI^mI in tlio lUuiioceros) ; 
f.' s ; mid of the 

K ^ ive coiue from 

BM^I^ay, but whu, it) reality, l>eloiig9 to the 
KiDgtiom of Pantomime — ^lie c<jTild hold forth 
jfrom tliitj time till t4>iuorrow inoniiDg. He 
undcirsUxxl the look uf tho nolile and learned 
Lur^l, and wuuld hot t\*i ^o. He w«j>uld concbide 
by reminding therii of one omiiiouH fact. The 
youngei^t of the (rirfiff^s, beiji": quit»^ unable 
to endure the nj*?lnirichf»ly aij^ht of the con- 
tinnal KKvourilism — juoncy kvishwl — and all 
aortsi of Irtxuriea anxiously provided (br the 
Hlppopotama'jk — had recently dqiarted for 
Antweqj- with a solemn vow never to retnm. 
Let the Couneil and Atr. Mitchell hx<k well to 
itl let thera l«e warned in time, lefit other 
ohoic^e creuttiri^si took an opportunity of etfeet- 

11 * ' ' ' ' * iving this un- 

,, , / 

h - ' 

snr, Ji!"<":n i • I f i v»- JnrHJiii?«iOn, TOy LOrd, 

to aay one M'ord. I will confine isyaelf to the 
rvmorks niade of the oTeatureslaatnieniionefl. 
Thig expbiiuition will go to prove that neither 
in cx(>€risf, nor in attention, has any such 
exclusive favour been shown to tho Hippo- 
potanuiB as the various ajieakers wooild have 
you believe. Take the example hint given. 
For a long time the Gardena poiaeeaed no 
specimen of the Giraffe. After many vain 
attonipts to procure one, we niade tlie follow- 
ing public oner. Tlie Society would •' ■ • 
thousand pounds to anyl»o«ly whu wim 

to the Gimlens the tii^t Gindfe, a: 

well ; eiffht hundred poimds for tlie 9<'<i«iiid ; 
ftU hundred poujiiia for the thinl ; hve hun- 
^Hid pounds for the fourtli, and t^r ua many 

to A! 


sax, 'Iwo -hed r-M 

l»roni^Kt four to us, 

seven 1 ■ — - ' 


tamus. (' 
from Uui ffi 

more a3 could be prc*mired. 


» — tnth aome innrmmn 

Profcieor Owen cravwl the indulgence rt 
the f^mrt for a niinute lnn^r»f. "jlc bnr! 
alrcfttiy dechire^l that his 
the fli^trvit?e of any anim 
merits. The Giratt'ea had \h--a 
A Gimlfe had diiKl at the GanI 
ago, from a bad cold, and aoii 
stelidiug. He, the Prof»rsH«>r, I 
anxious to odd to the Mn-. n i,, , 
Surgeons a apeeiineu 
GLraife. To obtain tl» 
dissection several days in 
the dejjth of winter" H* vh-^ 

tainin^ tho wh' ' i.a cortL 

Ue had a yhuss i t UU\vm 

on pnrpoao to hi i , j ! • 

to au«tain the -! i 

be aeen at the ii^^^.n ^. ....-, •. : i., 

by any of the cjmptvny present. 11 , 
attention he waa nvi.K t.. .1i:.i,lny l.u a;i', ..i 
the group of animal- -icnt ! {U'ltL 

»€rntti(ton,) And he in- theoi thit 

their apina] conis and nkclcUjaH {Incrraiied arit- 
»aH<yn^ and mdH^% frwvt^ment) would be pre* 
served lu tho Muaeum with evetry duo regant 
Uy their merits. 

With a roar and a y«ll, and rl nnd 

e cr e M n% and strange eriea, n\v ;*ed, 

and scramliicd, and ran, mi.l ' ' 

creatures !— HtTRivting by tine ^m 

eonfuaion of tlinir Mi-'hi n pni; ;., .1 

the a«Bembloil -vi-py ono nt whom 

ran he knew n ' The Burhcis of 

Flusterwing nuule iiLrai';;ht for the Uon*ff 
den ; the noble and U»Amed I»rrl, in kiA 
flight, embraced the neck of th»« KhiuoeenM 
by niif^take for somebody vl3*\ Mr. Yarrr-li 
ran dirt'<»t towanl* the canal, :iiid jiituixfl 
in ; Mr. Doyle dash«Ml into one of tho boun- 
dary het Iges ; and M t . Pont ^ , ■ • • wnj 
at random, pitched he/ui foi< the 

enclosure of the Tnri..v<f u\:.] .ninL' 

up" to collect hia ie, he ¥ox ejitu 

the remains of a ^ m pie, wi-i 

aome vegetable mitrruwa viven him on ''.o- 
count" of fees due to him by the Tortoise. 



It has been declared, with tiiith, that 
...1 "Tf charity aceomnlishcs more in thia 
ry than in any otner in the wnHd. Hie 
. . I lice to be deduced from this fitct mtutt 
luj carefully drawn. Many inllueuoea ewcJl 
the amount of "charitable dunatiuns;*' and 
it is by arriving^ at something like an estimate 

of til o fmre charity, to be peneniUy traced in 

I^ct lis 

- . . .- .1 siitxscrij)- 

jd osfnttd. The tirst ntune we 

BooM)«ai this Ifidly is 8tnciat>e1y lieslrous 
Ui» kosMtai tlitie patranmed shoalil \w a 

of b-i- *« - v..o„. ..r I -.-.fribntion ; 

c of Mias 

IA\ ^idreaa nt 

1^, l> leiy tlmt her 

iletit dt nth the ftict 

bei- rborou^li 

ako' . u to the 

at Lu^^c, llic ccxt lints on the list 

Mr*. JMittt P»ii»r** 

If Mr, Feuapiis be feuk to extend 

the itacfuInQK of the !i' y did he 

' ' n^te li oBce wiuH^m untj^ji^Tig iu 

la h« pltiAsed to Fee hiB tmme 

,' .^^f...^*,.,i ;», tii^ list; or has 

in aecLng ljer*elf in 

^ . L die Pampftaes look 

uuati^r rathci- ns a bit of clienfi 

th.m Jia ft rciil goodness per- 

Ti. Mr, Pamttaa, we aiv tohL, 

uLur about noving his uonie 

1 1 1 for aprefulitt^ a gmftll amaaut 

V n\'jr A h\- "* of publicity w 

Btrikbgly c . by the next 

the KlRbt ttmirarkbU Lodr Oittim . 

•l< Uluwiltf 

, 5 

. . t « 

itfK«l«PiiiJt(lejtlMrcIiBttiunt. fl € 

I Is on ecacotnist. No one 

hftu liei* lsijiyahi|> how to l&y 

iOfft in charity with prolit to 

: iMU of her muneroua family^ ^Vbat 

of preoodoo* mnnificence is ex- 

•,' who happen to know that 

' deuburgh JBitteiTi has not yet 

it. . < ^ •• .-,■, < ..c ^iignity of being fihort-euat^ ! 

Th(^ next nameworiby of bote is that of our 

frieud — 

W- ' ' ' I : thifi ffiib- 

cript . aa *:%- 

amount ot suti'« ; how 
many new pat! vcd — but, 
■Wfio htfcve you ii«:H T' 'VUr un- 
folded hiM list; "Well, Sir,*' wo 
have the Jjord LieuteiiiUit (tift \ , the 
Sigh SherilT (mr Jtounds), /,. / I; luUe, 

one hundred and five pouniia. Yon ace, Sir 1 " 
continued the v '^ ' • ' nnwing his man, 
and remembtr , " \\ c do not 

malce up our L .. .^ , ,,. %, but accord- 
iiig to amouuta.** 

" Htun ! " considered Tomliiison, molting to 
the cause when he remcmbei-cd h<;jw com- 
pletely out of Firht fhf *'T'8" were stuck in 
forracr advert "Huw iijuch has 

Sir Skinner Fl mh ? ** 

"Twerrtv .Mr."' 

"Very down twenty-fire oppOBite 

to njy naiiii-. x..ti see,** was Tamiinson*^ 
aside speech to Uft, " one must do the thin^ a 
liffK* fiin.Uniiu- MS a new comer into this 
ihe country, or one gets 
y by these people : I may 
say, blown ujjou*'' 

It Is a 6orry inference, theo— but, alas, a 
true one — that TomJinson's mon^y wfta not 
put fort!i to lend off suffering froni the erick 
poor, but aA ' ' shield for himself 

against the col i of the rich. 

^ Sir,'* said tiu -v, i, ..iiy, when h=- •"^' ' -i 
the chief proprietor of the Whltei! 

Chi*onic]e. ** We spend twelve 1. , i 

year in newspaper a(ivertlsin}:» ; besidea twa 
hundred per annum in printiu«: circulars. 
You could not have a bnetter medium for 
making your cxeoUent publication extensively 
known to the public. I^t me say five." But 
aa the . person appealed to, knew that the 
notification would be repeate<l in just as many 
impressions lt?ss money, we find it stand 
thus : 

Proprirlora of tl»« %M»il«! Sepuklini Clurinlcto £3 2a. 

CouM the nricc and day of publication have 
api>eared, the donor cuiKlidly owned he would 
have been glad to give the five- 
Glancing the eye over other parta of the 
fiubacriptiim list, we do not find it wholly a 
record of pomps and vanities. There are a 
few scarcely perceptible oiitriea almost over* 
shatlowed by the big letters of the great sub- 
scj'ibera. Ihev are simple initials aet Jvcuiust 
small sums ; t\ ■ " ' ' ' ;■ 

than either ot I 
"A Friend" ocvM.o .....,i. ,..,^. .,/.......,.... ^.u 

shillings is bestowed l>y " an Old Patient." 
Such contributions speak tn»e charity out of 
the fulneis of genuine gratitiuie. 

Our former instances are, we reluctantly 
own, not overchai'ged demonatrations of vrhib 
goes by the name of charity, in a ^reat many 
eaj^ea. A new ward is to be built in a 
hckspital. Experience proves that to demon- 
10 the necessity and utility of such an 
ion, is but a seconrhiiy necessity. The 
,.< . iiiotem know, that to succeeii they must 
get the undertaking gracetl with the names 
and jiatrouage of halfa dozen peers^ a sprink- 
liriiT of the llouse of Commons, and a juuicioua 
sek'ction from wealthy neighlwurs. Tlie list 
is publisloiil, and suliscriptions flow iu. WTiy 
do they flow in \ Because the undistinguished 
I'ich — ^the tnob of ^jenlleiaeiv who ^v^ witb 
ea^e — ^bave, loo o?\.eu, tv ui^^xXsv^ \<^\v^ V^ W\ 





tlieir naiiiea raugefl olongsitle those of " Goovl " 
I>u1;«>«i, Peers, aiitl M.P'a. 

ITie tnith is, deep, s)Tnj\ithising, effectual 
benevolence does not often hud its way iuto the 
sul>s<*-ri|jtiou Ufit at all. Neither tl>e?* it go 
Al»out in in^T^terious melodraniAtic diarnil^e, 
on piirpoHe to be foii«d out and lie all the 
Jnoro blazoned ; but, with unoHtentatioiiB e.-uii- 
eatness, gives it« intellect and its time, i\& 
well ti» its mouey, to the needy and tJufTeriiic. 
It discriminates, inquire*, and affortL* judi- 
doUH help rather thnii uiiqunlified almd ; 
which though it niny bless the j^ver, seldom 
blesi^ta the receiver ; imlees in cases of utter 

Meek Charily never thrusts her baud into 
her pur»o with the bomiciug let-nie-kiiow- 
what-I-hftve-topfiv,-aJid-have - done - with - it, 
profufcion of a rich " subscriber." She ia a 
^eat economist ; for had abe millioos, ahe 
Id not cover and heal all the sore* of 
srty that cover the laud. She knows tlmt 
an wise profuaion to one cuae in gross injustice 
to many otliurs that must be couBequently 

It may be arffued, tliat whatever be the 
motives of the advertiaers, for their seetuing 
chanty, the result U cood. They give their 
money and that in uaemllv appbcil. 

As a general rule, we Joubt tlib. The re- 
gular clnuities, of which routine advertiae- 
meute are conatautly api»earinij in the Sprijig, 
are, many of them, gigmitic jolja; operating 
less for the excellent objects pretended in 
them than for the payment of lai'ge tialanea 
to tlieir ofBcers anti managers. Most of the 
subscribed canitid jl'ocs to buHd magnificent 
l^alncea for a tew children, who ai'e supiiosed 
to lie bom in hovclH ; to jKiy the billg of 
ti*ea8urerri, who manage to get elected aa 
Buch becimse they are f>rititeni, or contrac- 
tors for nrticles naetl in the injatitution, and 
enormously overcluu-getl The pureat we be- 
lieve to lie medical charities ; but some of 
ihesQ are full of abuses — abuses often occa- 
sioned by their very affluence, and which they 
have attained by means of a doner and 
constant working of Tub Sukscrlttion List. 

I linger in the deepoiiing |ljI*>ujii, 
Half hoping with the dead to meet ; 

To Imnit in mmc now vacant ixjom 
The music of my childrcn'i feet 

I cannot leave ill home behind, 

My heart— my bcsfirt would curoty 
Thetf fore, sweet birds, the* now cotifiaod^j 

Tis love that doth ibj prieon make : 
When wavefii aromsd us oeoae to fuun. 

Your cantor's hand thaU sot jou free; 
And you rLaII aing to mo of bomc^ 

In tiiQ far land across the sea. 


" Thf.Ms T«»»e1ii c^rrjr out bnasetf And every necouary 
rw]til«lti» for damattc oom/crt oo tnodlDR ; nad, Blninitftr u 
II m»f lu^m, every VAriMy of Eo^li^h Hliitflnii-bii^. wLlcb, 
uit laudiug, the, oolonltta irUl ruloa*?, tu order tiiBttbey 
tuny pn»p&g%te/' 

To dii^taot lands across the sea 

I go, a happier lot to Heck, 
And tho' not one will mourn for me, 

The teai-s are welling doi^ii my cheek ! 
Por wife and chlldron sleep beneath 

Tho shadow of yon age<l yew, 
Ajid I but Bceni forostalHng death 

In bidding all 1 loved adieu 1 

Tliia house, tho' only wood aud stone, 
lias lang\uigo in each time-woiij widl ; 

For, as I turn and woidd be gone, 
Loved Bpiht-volcoa on me call I 



Mast travellers know the ^ Rutland Anna * 
at Bake well, in the Peak of Dei^-i - - It 
is a fine large inn, belonging i<> nf 

Kuttand, standing in an airy lit et- 

Place of that clean-looking fcittk* town, and 
commanding from its windows jdeasfint peep* 
of the green hills and tlie great Wieks«5j> 
Woods, which shut out the view of (!)iat»« 
worth, the Palace of the Peak, mIuoJi lids 
behind them. Many travelh^rs who u#ed to 
travenjo this road from the south to Mnji* 
Chester, in tho days of long coaches and long 
wlntr)' drives, know well th»> •'Kutlana 
AmM " and will recall the sound of tho 
gujird s bugle, aa they whirled up to the <loor, 
amid a throng of groonu, waiters, and nllage 
idlers, the ladder abready taken from iis 
stand by the wall, and placerl by the olficioua 
Boots in towering position, t^ady, at tlio 
instjcmt of the coacli stopping, to clap it under 
your feet, and facilitate youi' descent. Many 
travellers mU recall one feature of tluit 
accommodating inn, which, unitijig aristo- 
cratic with comnierci;iI entprtainnicnt, has 
two doors ; one lonJly and ho^v in front, to 
which all can-Li^es of nobility, pitlatn', and 
gentility natumlly draw up; and one at the 
end, to which all gigs, coaches, mails, and stiJl 
le^ dignifiwl conveyances, as naturally aro 
di-iven. Our travellei*s will aa vividly rc^ 
member the paamge which received tiiem at 
this entrance^ and the room to the IcA^ the 
Travellers* Room, into which tlicy were 
ushered. To that comer n>om, having win- 
dows to the Market-Place in front, and one 
small peeping window at the Bide, com- 
manding tne turn of the north nml, and the 
inter^ting arrivals at the secondaiy enti-ancey 
we now introduce our readers. 

Here sat a solitary gentleman. He was a 
man apparently of five-And-thirty ; tall, con- 
siderably handsome ; a face of the oval cha- 
racter, nose a little aquiline, hair dark, eye- 
brows dark and Strang, and a light, clear, 
self-possessed look, that showed phunlv 
enough that he waa a man of active mind, 
and well to do in the world. You would have 
thought, from his gentlemanly air, aud by no 
meaus commercial maunex*, that he would 
have fomid his way in at the great front door, 
and into one of the private rooms ; but hs 

VWa**'*- i 



^me oy^er mglit by Clu* mail, an«l, ou l^euag 
Aftk-r !. oti r nti iiti<:j the luiUHe, by the waiter, to 
*i1 ra he woukl be shown, Jin- 

g^ \ aiid abruptly, "an^'^here." 

llt'i^s; hti v> a*, scatcil in the back Lfl-haial 
Cfmier of ih*^ r«Mtm, a hmj'*^ «k*rtfea between 
' ' " .<* liiiii A tiible 
.ipjviratujs^ — 
ut trom the 
r-rQ. roirnd of 

It Wft9 a moi*miig as desf>enitely and 

deluLHiiL'tv niiny as aiiy that ^howeiT region 

vvu. In the plinis*;* of the country, 

n, or run, ua if thiou^h a sieve. 

^ wii streamed the pkntcous *?lo- 

in , iucessant, and looking as if it 

\tfouM UoM on the whole <h»y thi^oiigh. It 

thuudejMvl on the roof, beat a sonorous tune 

oTi ■ "^ - ' ' • ■i-ctions of door and win- 

<]■ rits ou window-silla, aud 

- ... , ..... ruahwl along the streets 

i lie hiliii were hiddtiu, the very 

!i to rooat — and not a soul was to 

be secii out of d'XjrR 

Freaently there was a Hound of hurrying 
Uj A sprinj^-cart came up to the side 
witJi two uieu in it, in thick ^eat coats, 
v> ' ' over their shoiddera ; one 
held over their heads, aud 
tljwy jinu lUDi liorse yet lookin;^ tViree partj3 
drowned. They loat no time in pitching their 
to the ostler, who issaeil from the 
tleacendiu^ aud ruahing into the inn. 
next moment the two countrj'uien, 
di vested of their sack:^ and gi'eat coat,-;, were 
lashered into this i-oom, the waiter, makiug a 
8uri of apoloff)', l^ecause there was a tire there 
- — it wiw in the middle of .Iuly» The two men, 
t\I « d iVjik fjimiera, with hard hands 

w nibUfd at the fire, and tannetl 

aim w ,n»'n OT'inplexions, onlered 
breakfast — of coffee arul bivkile^l ham — which 
speedily mad© its apiwanmce, on a table 
pW-oti fliiectly itt fruiit cif the before solitaiy 
stnmcer, b<»twe«ii the side look-out window 
and the frvmt one* 

They looked, and were eoon perceived by 
our BtTHuj^er, to be father and son. Tlie old 
man, of npnarently upwards of sixty, was a 

no Herculean mould, 

t\ and with a face tliiu 

'•^" ' inintanee 

ion waa 

. . ...... ..,, , ^li-iii^ else, 

was thin iiml irri;^zled, 



ni - . :. 

and his haii*, vihich 

was coiulxil bftckwnnl from hia tl;cv, and 

liun^ iu miiasts alMiut his ems, Tlni s<ii» vrrin 

mofh t:i\\f'i- than the fithrr, n ?d:ofiipin;[^ ti^)a>:% 

*! liair, a hif_ ht blue eyes, 

ii ler a very . 1,, 

1 i\>' . i.( iriiui ijcemed t'l r tt v,iih little :ij»|»e- 
tite, and to be aunk into himself, ;is if he was 
oppresaefi by some hea\7 trouble, V"t lie 
every miw anil then rouscil himself, c;i.Ht an 

LloUB look at his sou, and sh'mI^ "Joe, lad, 
eata nothii^/' 

**Xo, fay tiler,** was the Cjonatant reply ; "I 
towd you I nliouldn't* Tlii* rcen 'a enough to 
Uik au>!>iKly*s R]>m'tite — ami these t'other 
Uiinca,* casting a glance at thi Btranger. 

The slranger h.'vd, indee<l, his eyes fixed 
curiously upon the two, for he ha<l >M?t?ii 
watching the coosumpiive ten I ' the 

a^in ; not iu >my cough or h < . or 

peculiar palenes.% for Vie had a p^Muv -iv aun- 
bunit complexion of his own, Kut by the ex- 
tniordiiiary power he posae^eti of todsing 
down cotfee and ham^ ^nth enormous pieces 
of Uihat and butter. tFntler his oi^eiTitions, a 
hirge dish of broilenl ham raj »idly lUsappeared, 
and the contents ♦if the cotfee-p«>t were in jw 
active demand. Yet the old man, ever and 
anou, booked up from his revericj aii<l repeated 
his paternal olvservation : — 

" Joe, hvl, thou eats nothing J " 

" No, faythcr," was still the reply ; " I towd 
you I shouldn't, lt*8 this reen, and these 
't'other things" — again ghmcing at the 

Presently the broiled ham hsn\ kitiiUy 
vanish wl — there had been euough for six 
oniinarj' men. And while the sou wjis in the 
net of holding the cotfee-pot upside down, 
aud draining the last drop from it, the ol«i 
roan ouce more repeated liis anxious athiioiii- 
tion ; — '^JoeTlad, thou eats nothing 1 " — ^and 
the rcjjly was still, " No, fayther, T towd yo\i 
I shouldn't. It s this reen, aud these t'other 

This WHS accompanied by another glance fti 
the stnuigcr, who Wgau to feel himself vety 
much in th^ way, but was no little relieved by 
the son rising with his phite in his hand, anil 
coming acrtiss the room, saying " You Ve a 
prime round of beef there, Sir ; might I 
trouble you for some ? '* 

*^ By all means," Stiid the stran^r^ and 
caned off a slice of thickness and diameter 
prop<ntioued to what apijeared to him the 
apjwtito of this native of the Peak. Tliid 
six^eilily dii^apix'ared ; aud na the son threw 
down tiie knife and fork, the sound ouce more 
roused the old man, w^ho addtnl, with an air 
of increuied anxiety, "Joe, lad, thou eats 

*' No, fayther," for the last time responded 
the son. " I towd you I shouldn't. It 's this 
reen. and this t'other matter ; — but I 've done, 
ajii\ so let *s go.'* 

The father aud son arose and went out* 
Tlie stranger who haii witnessetl this extra- 
tad it uu'y scene, but without betraying any 
anaisoment at it, arose, too, the moment they 
i^losed the door after them, luid, acivancing to 
the window, razed fixedly into the sti'eet 
Presently the father and sou, in their great 
coats, and with their hnge drab umVn*ella 
hoisted over thein, were seen prc»oeedin^ down 
the market-place iu the midst of the still 
p^'uring rain, and the stranger s eyes followed 
them intently till they dLsapfK«ared iu the 
wicdintj of the street He still stood for 
some time, aa li m ^«e^ ^iXisya.^V., *bsv\*0(\K^ 


[CmIuhm «r 

turning, rung the bc-U, orderetl the breakfoBt- 

tlvinga troin liJa taM I " '^liioing ji wiiiM,.,. 

ciwo, witc down to v -,. He «xiii 

wnt,il»L^ iviiiHiTi"; ;i' .Is, aihl 1" 

sU. .' hiiu ua in deep tlumght, for 

aKi I , wheu the door ripprifi, nini the 

Peitk luj Jiiei liiid his son a^nl- They 

weru j« Ui«»ir wot kjwl «u«ru *'r>nt<* 

The old niati appeared ] :" 

the son see that the hor 

nil; *V '' '^ 1 »- I „ n_,,[ ,,, 

ll;i. iull. ho < 


paneed, shook bis heiul li v, iuid raut- 

lerod to himself, "Ha. —no fellow 

feeling I — all over I all over ! " AVith a stif)- 
preiwev:! jTronii. h«? asnin continued Lis pAcijis? 

'1 I broached the old in&ii, 

iuni h:\ui, WHIT .1 [K iiiiuuly s\'Tnpathiaing tone, 

** Excuse me, Sir, but you s+eeui to hnve Home 
ht'RV}' trouble on your mind ; I should be gWl 
if it were anything tluit were in my power to 

The old man stopped suddenly — ^looked 
■temlv at the sti*ancer — j^ecme^i to recollect 
hitus«lf, and said rather sharrJy, w if feeling 
an unauthorised freedom — " Sir ! " 

** I bee; jMinlon,** mud the 8trang:er. " T nm 
awjtre that it must seem atrangc in me to 
tiddr tlma ; but I cyuinot Imt |>crccive 

th?ii \'j (iistiTssea vou, and it mis; lit 

jH:tii;:.i.'.j t.^niiva tliat I might be of wa« to 

Tlie old man looked at him for some time 
in ailcnce, and then Baid-^ 

" I forgot any one waa here ; but yon can 
be of no maiuier of use to nte. I thank you." 

** I am tmly sorry for it ; pray excuse my 
free<iom," 5ai«l the stranger with a slight finish ; 
** but I am an American, luid we are more 
accu ' ' ^ I ask aiid commnnicate matters 
tJiiii at with English reserve. I beg 

you ...i. J -a. iuu mc." 

"You are an American?" aaked the old 
man, Uiokins' at him. " You are quite a stranger 

•* Quite ao. Sir,** replied the strwiger, with 
some little embaiTiisanient, " 1 wa« once in 
thia counti'j' before, but many yearg ago." 

Tlie old man still looked at Kim, was silent 
awhile, and then ftaid — " Von cannot help me. 
Sir ; but I thank you all the same, and 
heartily. You aeem really a very feeling man, 
juid »t) I don't mind opening irr -r" * ».» you — 
I am a ruined man. Sir." 

'- 1 wi\s sure you were in vt:j , rouble, 

Sir," replied tlie stranger. " 1 will not seek to 
peer into your affau-s ; but 1 deeply feel for 
you, and would say that many trouDhjs are not 
6o dct^p as they seem. I would hope yours 
aw not." 

'• Sir," replied the old man — ^the tears starts 
ing into his erea — " I tell you I am a ruined 
man, I am heavily behind with ray rent, — 

all my stock will not snuffic* lo pay it ; : ir.. i.-,v..i ., f-. ..iitrcftt then: 

ui.>t h<iir 118 ; bt 

*' Tiiat is hard, sm\i the stranger. * But 
l'o^l arc hale, — ^j'onr i**:»n ia youn^ ; yon csui 
becrin the world anew/* 

" IV^win the world nn^w ! " exclaimed tbi 

! : ur. •* Wlicref— 

—then? is Dab»> 

iiiu'w HI tkll^ iiMiijiijt. Til " ' ' ~ mm 

riiat time is past with t .ui 

■' Oh, OiKl? Uh, G*hI: J;,J1 

I, for he hrts a wife mid family, 
1 nithin^ hut a^tout a farni/' 

'And ihera are fknua stilV* nid tfa« 

" \ es ; but at what rentals T— and, thisB, 
where is the capital ? " 

The old man ^cw d« M " ' * . i1. 

* In this country," s;i ?i 

deep ailcnoo, " 1 bclievi: tu- d, 

but in mine they iii*o not so. ' i v 

old man; jjo there, and a i-- ^-v. -^.af 

open to you. ' 

The stranger took the old roan » hand ten- 
derly ; who, on feeling the strancer'a gnvsp, 
suddenly, convulaively, caught tlie hand tu 
both his own, txnd shedding plentilHd t4suri^ 
eiclMraed, " God ble^s you. Sir : God bl< 

Ab ! audi kindn««t 
«untry% but I feel thnt 
icre !— no, no ! — Uiere 

are no iniMiiH." 
i," said the stiimger, 

his eye*», *• are very 

von ! 


it i:v.'s ni y 

I xhall Miivei 

"Tho V 
ti-ara, »i 
FmalL '< iLild, no doubt 

*• No, no I " iniemipteil him the old intix, 
deeply amtatad ; " there arc no friends-Hiot 

''Then why should I not be a finend, bo 
far 1 " aaid the stranger. ** I ha>*e means — I 
know the country. 1 nave somehow conoeiired 
a deep interest in your misfortones.'' 

" \ on ! " said the old man, as if bewildered 

Tilth astonishment ; *' you ! — but come along 

Mitli us, Sir, Your wonla, your kindneav, 

J comfort me ; at least you can counsel with 

118 — and I feel it does me good.'* 

" I win go witli all ray heart,'* said thei 
strangea". "Yon cannot live far from hei^, I 
will hence to Manchester, and I can, doubt* 
leaa, make it in my way," 

* Exactly in the way ! '* said the old laaa, 
in a tone of deep pleasure, and of much more 
cheerfulness, "'at, not out of it to signify 
— though not in the great highway. We con 
find you plenty of room, if you do not diadoin 
our humule vehicle." 

"I have henvy luggage," replied the 
strancer, ringing the uelL " I will have a 
post-diaise, mid you fchall go in it with me. 
It will suit vou better this wet day," 

'M:)hno!'l cannot think of it. Sir," anid 
the faiTner. *' I fear no ndn. I am used to 
it, and I am neither sogar nor salt. I studJ 
not melt." 



TIm cthi man*B son apfiroticbed BinmltADe' 
otttlv thlU th** wjiitcrr to «aj that tho r--' 
1fm«' Kuidy. llic stnuigcr ordered n y 

ehaia*! tOftCCOlUpJUiy tin' Iti line -Lr vs.J.i.1i 

•on itloM wiUi an o, 

Htiiiv. w!ilo!i -wcnild h' 

o' I ut dill uot move u muacie of 

1* ive and kiudly (tux. 

I'rKman will go vfUh xim,^ 

a. Sir r* soiil the son, tsiking 
«) tnAldng li law bow, "yoit sat 

h ic^niMS ; bol il tf * ]>oor place, 

lijiiMl llixkt^*' MAid tk6 old 

off AD'i t^U MiUioeot to get some 

^jat«^i that the old man 
t^i apaiij him ill the chaije, 

mjid **j tlii; soil Walked t»ff to i>rej>are for their 
OoawJTii;. Soon the stnuigt-rs ininka were 
'^ the chjuflc, md the old 

priiitchiHl a 
Wf>fwl th:i 

ritU'-c-s. I'll 
troop »jf 1 1 ' 

hi ■ 


'-'n.ta time along f*^'* 

uin)Hl off to 

irseiipa vaJJey i..i 

road, which wound 

hill, and then ap- 

H liouse, backed by 

>ni the north and 

inenae view, chiefly 

lating fielda, intei*- 

. other house was 

at several miles 

'^' • TJphtnda, were 

for & gontle- 

' neatly kept 

shrtibberiea ; 

A aix>iuid 

vims and 

ti about A 

e in tlie field 


ujT^r ob- 

h • v-ked 

; ern 

ii ^ I . . . . .-. f,H?. 

Tlio Btone lioars were worn, tav\ 

•iui"1<h1. The nxttn into which lie v 

ductoii, ao< '. 

for dinner, 

oa'^pctcd fl'Xjr II 

ochre andpij)e-< ' 

mcAgrp amount ui n\. iry 

04kk tjibles, A little fili :ua- 

tiAca, and a yvllow-fi*c-t...x...r,.r.. ^i. -.i.i...L.y and 

tbod-luuking loaid-dervaal vaa all the do« 

lUtfAticw H^n witliin or without. 

Joe, the simple-looking boh, receivcil them, 
atstl the only ubject which Memed to give a 
chorrin^ imni>eaaiou to the atran^r, wa* 
Joo'a wtfev *'Ho present^] hfrvlf wit-h ;i deep 
eortsey. Tbegoeatxv; her 

« vtry eojiwly, freeh r.|y 

•tumble vomau, who rv l*iv..j mm with a 
IdfSiIly caniiAJitj and oUive grace, which 

table was ;d ready hud 

)\y in hftviri'^' the un- 



made him wonder how such a woman ccmid 

V . . . allied heraelf t^ ench a mwi. There 

lour or five children ivl>oat her. all 

rlv wr^slM'd and put into their he*t 

nnd who were picturet of 

Mn*. A\ ai-ilt>\v tcHjk off the old man's grcftt 
coat with an affectionate attention, and drew 
hia plain elbow chair with a coehion oovcred 
witli a large-patterned check on ita nuth 
bottom, towards th£ fire ; for thei^ waa a fire, 
and that quite acceptable in tlds cjild refrioti 
aiter the heavy rain. Dinner was lueu 
haatUy brought in ; Mn. Wariiow apologising 
f<ir itii aimpticity, from the short notice she 
hod received^ and she might have added from 
the }>aiiiful news which Joe brought with 
him ; ibr it was very evident, though she 
had Bought to efface the trace of it, by copions 
waslking, that she had been weeping. 

The old man was obvionaly expressed by 
the ill remit of his morning's journey to the 
steward^ and the position of lus ai&iiB. His 
i.MV'hter-iudaw cast occasional looks of aifeC' 
e anxiety at him, and e&deavoured to 
...., him in such a manner aa to induce hmi 
to cat ; but appetite he had little, Joe 
played \m part aa raliiintiy an in the morning ; 
and the old man occasionally rouslujg from 
his reverie, again renewed the observation of 
the breakfiuil- table. 

'' Joe, lad, thou cnta nothiug ;** adding too 
now, **Milly, my dear, tlwu eats DOining. 
Yon cat nothingr, Sir. None of you have any 
appetite, and I liave none uiyaell God 
help me !'' 

An ordinarr stranger would scarcely have 
i^esisted a soiile — ^i 
of the guest 

After dinner they drew to tlie fire, which 
consisted of lai-ge lumps of coal burning 
under a huge beamed chimney. There a little 
table was set with spirits .md home-made 
wine, and the old man and Joe Ht their pipes, 
inviting the stranger to joiD them, which he 
did with right good will. There was little 
oonvenadon, however \ Joe soon said that 
he must go over the lands to see that the 
;vttle was all right ; he did moj^u, and even 
>le^t in his chair, and the stranger proposed 
bo Mm Wariiow a walk in the garden^ where 
the afternoon sim was now shining warmly. 
In lus drive hither in the cliais<f, he tnu.L 
learned the exact position of the old fiuTaer. 
He was, as he hayd observed, so heavily in 
arre&r of rent, that his whole stock would 
not discharge it. When they hruJ suated 
themselves in the oM arViour, he communi- 
cated his proposal to her father-in-law to 
remove to America ; observing, that he had 
c«>u6eived so c^reat a sympathy for him, tliat 
he would readily advance him the means of 
conveying over the whole fiunily. 

Mrs, Wariiow was naturally mnch nur^ 
prise* 1 at the diaclo«ure. Such an offer from a 
casual stran^r^ when all frienda and family 

-mme appeared on the faee 



tations for niit, was aom*?tliinL' ^o iinproUiljle 
that she couM not renliiie it. '" How can you^ 
Sir, a stranger to U8, valurUeer so large ii sum, 
which we mny never l>e iu a poBition to 
repAV 1 " 

Tlie etj*anger assured her that the ffum was 
by no meaijfl large, Thnt to him it was of 
little cou«t'qti£Hcc», tuid tliat snch waa the ficope 
tor hidii8trj' and agiicultural skill in Amcrioa, 
that in a few yeans they could readily refund 
the nxmey. Here, fi'om what the old g:eutle- 
iiifln had told him of the new aujipiieDted rate 
of TCTital, there wajs no chjuiee of rticovoriug a 
coi^dition of ease and oomtVjrt. 

Mrs, Warilow Beemetl to think deeply on 
th^ new idea preaented to her, and then said, 
"Purely G<h1 had sent ilr. Vandeleur (so the 
strniiger had given his name), for their de- 
liverance. Oh, Sir ! '* added she, " what shall 
we not owe you if bv your means we can ever 
arnvu at freedom trom the wTetched trouble 
tliat now weighs us down. And oh 1 if my 
pwr father t<lifjuld ever, in that countrj^ meet 
again his lost son I — '' 

** He hajB lost a s^jn 1 " said the stiuiger, 
in a tone of deep feeling, 

" All, it ia a wvd thing. Sir,'* contmued 3ti*8. 
Warilow, '* but it is that which preys on 
father's mind. He thinks he did wrontj in it, 
and he believes that the blessing of Heaven 
has deserted him ever since. Sure enouch, 
nothing has prospered with him, and yet ue 
feels that if tlie young man li^'es he has not 
been blaineleas. He bad not felt and forgiven 
»8 a son should. But he cannot be living — ^no, 
he cannot for all these yeara have V»om resent- 
ment, and sent no part of his love or hia 
forti»ne to his fannly. It ia not in the heart 
of a child to do that, except in a ver)' evil 
nature, and snch was not that of thia eon," 

" Pray go on," said the stranger, " you 
interest me deeply." 

"Thia thing occurred twenty years ngo. 
Mr, Warilow luid two aona. The eldest, Sami uel, 
wiyj a tine active youth, but always with 
a turn for travel and adventure, which 
was very tiring to his father^a mind, who 
would have his sona nettle down in this their 
native neighbourhood, and pursue farming as 
their ancestors had always done. But his 
eldest son wished to go to sea, or to Anierica. 
He reail a vast dead about that country of 
winter nights, and was alwaY's talking of the 
fine life that might tie led there. This wjis 
vei'y annoying to hia father, ixxid matle him 
very augr>% the more so that Josenh, the 
younger son, was a weakly lad, and had sorae- 
ibing left up<.m him by a severe fever, as 
a boy, that seemed to weaken his limbs and 
Ida mind. People thought he wouJd be 
an uiiot, and his father thought that Ins eldest 
brother ahouUl stay and talte care of him, for 
it was believetl that he would never be able 
to take care of himself. But this did not seem 
to weigh 'with Samuel. Youths full of life and 

rit don't suliiciently consider such things, 
then it was thought that Samuel imagined 

that his father canjd notldng for liim, and 
c'lre*! only for the p<.»or weakly non. Ho 
might bo a little je^dous of this*, an* I tliat 
feeling once getting into people, makes them 
see things dillferent to what they othrrwiso 
would, and do UiingB that else tliey wouhl 

" Tnie enough, the father w.i« always piw^ 
ticularly wn^pped up in Joseph. He seemeJ 
to feel that he needed especial care, and he 
[ appeared to watch over him and never hare 
I bun out of his mind, and he dm's so to thi« 
d;iy. You have no doubt remarked, Sir, that 
my husl»{i!id is peculiar. He never got over 
that attack in his boyhood, and ho atterwardi 
grew very rapitUy, and it was thought h* 
would have gone off in a consumption. It is 
generally believed that he is not quit** sharp 
m all tldng(*, I speak freely to yi*ii, 8ir, and 
as long habit, and knowing before 1 marrieij 
Joseph what was thought of iiini^ only rotdtl 
enable me to speak to one who feels so kindly 
tow.ards us. But it is not m — Joseph is mora 
simple in appearance than in reality. No, 
Sir, he has a deal of sense, and he has n very 
good heart ; and it was because I perccivea 
this that I was iftiiting to marry lum, and to 
be a true help to liim, ami, £>ir, though wft 
have be**n very unfortunate, I have never 
repentetl it, and I never shall." 

The stranger took Mrs. Warilow** haiid^ 
nreased it fen ently, and said, ** 1 honour yoir^ 
Madam — deeply, tinily — pray go on. Tho 
eldest son left, you say.'* 

** Oh yes, Sir ! Their mother diet! when the 
Iwys were alxiut fifteen and seventeen. Samuel 
had always been strongly attached to hi« 
mother, and that, no doubt, kept him at home ^ 
but after that he was more restless than ever> 
and begged the father to give him money to 
carry himself to America. The father refused. 
They grew mutually angry ; and one day, 
when they had bad high words, the &thei' 
thought Samuel was disrespectful, and stnick 
him. The yoimg man had a proud spirit. 
That was more than he could b«5ar. He did 
not utter a word in reply, but turning, walkwi 
out of the houist^', and from that hour has 
never once been beai-trl of, 

** Hia father was very jmgry with him, and 
for many years never spoke of him but with 
great bitterness and i-esentment, calling him 
an unnatural and uugmteiul son. But ot 
late years he has softened very much, and I 
can see that it pm's on liis mind, and aa 
things have gone againnt him, he has conic to 
think that it h a judgment on him for hid 
hardness and nnreasouablenejis in not letting 
the poor boy try hia fortmie as he so ycarneS 
to do. 

** Since I have been in the family, I have 
led him by degrees to talk on this subfectj 
and have endeavottre<l to comfort liim, telling 
him he had meant well, and since, he had seen 
the thing in a different UghL Ah, Sir ! how 
differently we see things when our heat of 
mind ia gone over, and the old home heart 




Iv !• in ns again. But, since he bos 

i3 A rt'pented of it, Grod cauDot con- 

ti , ajid so that eanuot be the 

c,. in fort line*. No, Hi IV I don't 

-EMiL things have altet'efl \'ery 
le reai-a iu this conntrv. The 
vi^ .a thifl Teak couiitrj- used t«» bo let 
low, ver>' low indeed ; and now they 
\^ been three eeveral times vaJueil aod 
nused eiuce I can remember. People cannot 
livf t'rn them now, tliey reAlly cannot. Tlien 
tl i-^ii, as farming grew bad, 

fty I tiun*«'5, find that waa much 

wor^. , ho did not m ' 1 it, and was 

Borv^ly imp*)8ed on, au < *v er of money; 

oh! «o mn ' "^ ' <- ;t uhmtv to think of- 
TbeiJ, as tt > say, fly like crows in 

e^v, ......;..- n very wot gnmraer, 

:.i ileiL Tliat put a 

tl: , lie was obliged to 

qnic the old tanu where the Warilows hjid 
be*»ii fi^r ftiy-^, and thivt hurt him cruelly — ^it 
i^ 1 1 trees, shifting old people is 

*- ^^ to the new soiL 

i reuiely knowing in 

v: .rm— it 's a grent 

. rrr-vvH liimdi*ed acres, and 

You would not b<'lieve it, 

*iiiK i>Tii' man on this faim 


1 the stranger. 
*^ Ah» Sir, very, but that we don't mind — 
Irttt it ia a great burden^ it does not pay, 
>^nt A8 to the lost aon. I came to per- 
•w Borely tliia sat on father's mind, by 
that whenever I used to read in the 
>Ie, on the shelf in the house-placej 
t* ' ■■' '*' 'elf At the Prodigal 

Bon. and bo I watched, 

luiil I ...■' .. the old gentleman 

rea*! in it < -, he waa always looking 

there. It >* ume l»efore I veutnre+l to 

ipeok about it j but, one day when father was 
wonderitig what could liave been SaraueFa 
&tc, I «ud, ^Perhapa, father, he wdll still 
oonj«? home like the Prodigal S4:>n in the 
& uid if he does well kill the fisitted 

c 1, and no one will rejoice in it 

tiiDre vniiv than Joseph will.'" 

*' When X had aaia it, I x^'iahed I had not 
•aid it — for lather e^eemod struck as with a 
et&ke. He went a^ pale as death, and I 
thou ell t he would fall down in a fit ; but^ at 
Imt, be burst into a torrent of tears, and, 
«<tn™tchTng out his amuL said, — * And if he 
ane he '11 find a fiither's arm« open to 
. iiim.* 
'• Ah, Sir I it was hard work to comfort him 
sgiun. I thought he wcmld never have got 
over it j^gain ; but, after that, he l>e^an at 
tkacn U) f^jxeak of Samuel to me of hmiselfi 
and w v'^ I'd a deal of talk together about 
him. ^ tjither thinks he ia deail, 

•aid .*?• lie thiidcs he ia not ; and, true 

enoughf of late yeara, there have come flying 
nimoura from America, fi'om i >eople who have 
gone out there, who have said they have seen 

him there — and that he was a very great 
gentleman— they w^ere sure it w^n him, But 
then there was always sometiii tidu 

in the account, and, above all, 1 he 

never could believe that Samiui wttjs u great 
gcntlt?nmu, and yet never could fftrgive an 
angry blow, and write home thntugrh tdl theae 
yeara. Tliese things, Sii', pull the old man 
down, and, what with his other trouble:;, 
make me tremble to look forward." 

Mtb, Warilow stopped^ for she wa» soT' 
prised to hear a deep srunpresaed sob from 
the stranger; and, turning, she aaw him 
sitting with hia handkerchief before his fiuie. 
Strange ideaa shot across her mind. But at 
this moment the old farmer, having finished 
his afWr-dinner nap, wa-i coming out to seek 
them. Mr. Vandeleur rose, wiped some tears 
from his fice, and thanked Mra. Warilow for 
her communication. ** You cannot imagine/' 
he said, with much feeling, " how deeply you 
have touched mc. You cannot believe liow 
much what you have sfdd re$enibleH inculents 
in my own life. Depend uiion it. Madam, 
vour brother will turn tip. I feel stixingly 
incited to help in it. We will have a seai-ch 
after him, if it l>e from the St. Lawrence to 
the Red River. If he lives, ho will he found ; 
and I feel a persuasion that he will be." 

Thev now met the old man, and all walked 
into tlio house. After tea, there was much 
talk of AmerifVi. Mr. Vandeleur rebte<l 
many things in his own history. He drew 
such pictures of American life, and iarming. 
and hunting in the woods ; of the growth of 
new families, and the prosperous lutundance 
in which the jieople lived ; that all were 
extremely interested in his account. Joe sate 
devouring the story with wonder, luxuriating 
especially in the idea of those immense herds 
of cattle in the prairies ; and the old man 
even declared that there he should Uke to go 
and lay his bones. "Perhaps," added he, 
"there I should, some day, find again my 
Sam. But no, he must he dead, or he would 
have written. Many die in the swamps and 
from fever, don*t they, Sir ? " 

" Oh ! many, many," said Mr. Vandeleiu-, 
"and yet there are often as miraculous re- 
coveries. For many yeara I was a Govern- 
ment Surveyor. It was my business to survey 
new tracts for sale. I was the soUtary 
pioneer of the population ; with a single 
man to carry my chain, and to aaoist me In 
cutting a path through the dense woods, 
I lived in the woods lor years, for months 
seeing no soul btit a few wandering Indians. 
Sometimes we were in peril from jealous and 
savage squatters ; sometimes were compelled 
to flee before the monster grisly bear. I have 
a strange fascinating feeling now of those 
days, and of our living for weeks in the great 
caves in the White Mountains, since become 
the r^ort of summer tourists, with the glo- 
rious 'Notch* glittering opposite, far above 
us, and above the ancient woods. These 
were days of real baxdaA\i>^,M\d ^% o^^ m«w 


tights of aad sorrow, Farailir- ^:— r ii^^^j. 
W*y to disUtct and wild Uh-u lered 

ajid iti l>y t!i' luuicQoafi I irrialunji^v ^i^uadofUin 

nil aloue in the wikltTiicsji, 

*' All ! I rw HRiiibta* now ouc oj«e — it Ib 
nearly twenty years ago. V>ut I twvcr i'nu 
forget it. It w;i5 a jomig, thin mail — lie eould 
Bcwcely b<» twenty. He bad l»c<*ii lel\> \>y \um 
pari}' iu the List eta^ti of fcv«r. They hnd 
roiivd a (slight bun:'- ' n bu^be^ over 

him» and ]»bM':«'d a | "11 of wAter by 

his side^ and n brok .i — ,,;. to holp hiiua4^Lr 
with ; bnt hi< wn^ tij<» vvi.'ak, mul \m» fiifit 
aiuking tha"e all alone iji that vaal wildciucas. 
The {>al(;iiess of doath ajux-ared iu lii^sunktu 
features,, tlie feeblene*i6 uf death in hi*, wiwUsd 
limbiii. He wa» a youth who, like uxiaiy 
others, hafl left his frienda In £uroy>e, and 
now hmgtd to hi-t tliem kuow his ind. He 
suminoritil LLa fiiiliiii^ |x»wera to ^ive me a 
sAcitHl iiiesange. lie lueiitioued the place 
whence he last cam*?/* 

" Where wiis it /" * \i>1 urn**d the old man, 
iu a toi»« «*f wild i% ' Where — whi^t 

waa it? It muHt U ; *' 

**No, Ui&t could not U«, ' tijiid tlie 8trMi;5or, 
utaillod by the old mau'« eniotiou ; ** it wiw 
not thi« plixvL — it wu« — I rei»it'inl>or it — it w.w 
aaotlier name — WoU — Well — W^dloiid was 
the plaofc," 

Tile i>ld ni;in iravo a cry, and wouM have 
failcu from his ' ■• * it the stranger apiniiig 
forward and in hi8 arma. Thene 

wfi3 ii niuiiitii: --. u, broken only by a 

det'p i^roAU t'rjni the old man, and a low mur« 
mur trrmi his lipa — " Yea I I knew it — he 
la dead!** 

** No, no f he is not dciwl ! " cried the 
stranger — " he Uvea ; ho reoovered ! ** 

" Wliere ib he thmi I— Where is my Sam 1 — 
let me kjiowl" — cried the old man, recovuritig 
and standing wihlly uj) — *' I must see hiiu ! 
I lutwt t<> him I " 

" Father ! — father I— it is Sam ! "—cried 
liifl son Joe — '' 1 know hiin ! — I luiow him I 
— thvi ia he ! " 

** Where ?— who t *' exchumed the father, 
looking round bewildered. 

"Here I " aaid tii« Strang, kneelLug before 
the old man, and et».sping his hanrl, and 
Iqithing it with teaiB. " klari^. father, is your 
lost ami : ' son. Fatiier ! — ^I return 

like the 1 >iu ' I hare aluued before 

Heaven a.K. m i..i> ajghtj make me as one of 
thy hii^isl acr^imtft/ " 

The old man clai4pt»d hi* son in his arma, 
and thev wept in aiknce. 

But Joe was impatient to embrace lua re> 
covered brotlK^r, and he gave him a hue as 
vigorous as one of thoae grisly liears Uiat 
Sfun hati mentitjnetl. '* Ah ! Siim ! *' — he said 
— " how I hav»* wautwi thee, but I always sivw 
thee a Rlini cbup, nueh as thou went away — 
and now thou art twice as big, and twice as 
oUi, and yet 1 knew thee by thy ejea." 


The two brother^ ^ "^-Hy «inbni«M, 

the returned war. • nnbnMBiad 

comely sister alTeci _, , and wdd^ •* 

hari nearly found me out in the jr:irde«." 
" Ah, whnt a BUu'l-Ie yon frnw me ! *' 

r»*plied, w)pin){ iiway her Usay&, " lnU ' ' 

so unexjK'etvd, so hear«nh*/* Slit* r 

and returniti^ with the wfndo it 

cliildrcn, »aid, "There, Utcrc is 

hxt UMcle 1 '' 

Tile nneie caught them up, 

another, and kissed them niptitf i 
'* Do you know," aaid thf i i ; 1 

her lumd on the head of the • i 

roey-kiokiu^j felh»w, " wl^t : 

It 19 Sttnuiel Wtiriluw ! W « 

thn ou« i\ml was :ivvav." 

" lie will tind Jtnothfr Sainnr! in Atni^netw' 

Siiid his um-le, again ftuateh is 

a. Joe, and a ThomUis, tlie gl :! 

My UeB3e<i mother thert* Jiws ;<^';nn 

lovely biHe-eye<l giil ; and should G*jd 

nie aaoUivr daughter^ there ahall be a 

cent, too I '* 

MeanCiioe the old man stood Raaoj 
I satiably un his son. " Ah, Sam 3 '* said 
|as his son again turned, and t<3(tk hi<« h.i 
\ " I Wtts very hard to thee, and y* '• 
, iHjiin liurd to lis too. Thou art i > > 

:uwl, wifh uU our name* graJiWd on iic\s j*Uj 
I tiiou never wrote to us, U wob not welL" 

•* No, father, it was not weJL 1 ackuow- 
1 ledge my fault — ^ruy great fault ; but Ust we 

jufil*'^ V1--H'. I ne\^*r forgut • ": ^^nt 

for n-4 I w»s a waiuh I '« 

' uiif.. ^ - laan. My iiriilc \v. 

UH3 ftcml imd^'r IbeRo < 

who had nlwa^'s aiad I'l 

beggary afid shame. Ea4>um; lue, Utat i tu«u- 

tkm these hnrd words. My pride wna alvva>'« 

great ; and those words Iiaunted nte. 

** But at length, when Pruvidunee hanA 
Metsed me greatly^ I could enikue it no 
koiger, I dtftermined to e>»meanl snttk W* 
givencna and rceonoilintiim ; nn<L, tiod ito 

{iraLntsd 1 I Imve found lM»(h. We will uwar 
lome together, father. 1 ha\*c weal 1 1 1 1 1 \ m id 
all my wjints and wishes ; luy j. y 

will be to bestow sume of it on iV 

early profuasion of a sur\-eyor gavo me gii^Mt 
opportimitiGs of perceiving where the tide of 
populatiofi would diret't itself, and protwrtjr 
consequently rise i:apidly in value. 1 tavr»- 
fore purchased vast tnicts for simll suiusi, 
which are now thickly m»ople<l, *uid my 
possessions ai^ iuimenrie. I am n meudicr of 
Congress, The next day, the 1 wo bruth«r» 
drove over to Bakewell, whei^ Joe liad the 
aaiiafactioii to see the whole arrears j>aid 
down to the ajstotdtihetl steward, on eoudition 
that ho gave an instant release from the farm ; 
and Joe or<lered, at the aiJCtione4!r\ large 
]x«sters to be placonled in all the towns and 
villages of the Peak, and advertisements to 
be inserted in all the principal papers of the 
Midland Couiitios, of the sale of hia etock 
that day fortnight* 



.1 U»*t it •iild well, I 
; WellanJ, aii J more i 
I' :inu, art do^v '' ' 
ujore plefiaant A\ 

• ' n ci.'rt*un liLH. i>.i. i. 
, elltj* BGCss bi^h ifik ii i 
._ , on Uke lefl Lxiik of 

; ft* The 8i-eamer ofipronchw* the 
M(>\uitiiinA. Thei"« live the Warilows, 
> on the rich filapen that ltt> Vrchiiid 
tis, aud in riciher meadows, inii'- 
l»v forests and other hills, rovu tlie 
tl' herda of Jo<i ; &jjd there comes 
when the Sewion at Washington 
sdrrouiided by »tm» and Dephcwa, 
^,] « .,j. .., .1 ^hoot« the hill- 
nnd tilt tuother comely 

•lOimewlmi it tine with the 

OOUMly «ad nent, the 

III ; aud A 

•ic** *ui llio ciu'|>et at their 

of Welhuid all bleas the 

t lie one of ohl, caaie 

lather, ruid made the 

?iii b. utiiL grow young ii|gaui with joy. 



ucd Tua thjeuon. 
'ure and Archi- 

I *' rty ; 

P '■ v-'^' hir, 

j praisco. 'w tidnjUB have heen «o 

' mtif?! Tvi I I or abuYMML, f>r have »o 

i iiji*.le H t;li>ak for unworthy de«i|^Tia. 

^ V ! — lirtw mr^tiy frimeB have btt n 

i the luottniful 

< \ ^ i; I mxd eift^'d 

' he recent 

Ktrtion betwcM: rid geohiii 

forcfd nor h It is no 

n of the ' iitter 

'nee At th Sun- 

.1)1 i to the Uuwcr limn 

-»f L'cnius. "WitlmtiL 

ionro« I 
iniTid vb, „. , 

liistfjiri* provr> eintion — 

of nalioh Lial to Ihi 

ivfUt v{ jy^liiuB ; that jcreninB t 
up Iwit where there exists priu 
*y aiid the self-inspect of the fi-eeuiiiu ; 
that^ where existiiif, it never am-vivea 
extinction. Lft um transport ourselves 
two thouftand years, and take a picture 
Ihr aiinals of ^ : ' - • ' 

, howfver fiui i 

art whir'' ^ .- ;. ,, , v »-i 

Lomer a- uirte whence it 

le ;ujii I 
Serene beneuitli ;t . ii, wvlden 

tjie H£;ht i.f A II vvc behold 

Atheua, nwiiiujl with ieiu^iA« and tliitiieB, 

smiling f .^ujumit of her Acropotia 

u^xtU th- J vratei9 of tlie Bay of 

". Viriiid, .'Hill iinuij^ ujto her c-! • ■ " l\ dkloa 
<'*nsaxid sh.n{)e« of daz^li Ou 

■ .1 ' • ' • 'd summit, v,j, u.i. .ii.^ iioUo 

wnl I ^>ii, Aspasia and the gnu^ 

liod i _ - aie gazing in nJiiilvuimn 

on the m-itdiiii;!^ stfitut* uf Mii 

pUiced on it^ i^edtFtal ; -ivljif^- Vuir ^ 

Phidia.<*, '. kitt 

newly co: 

the Vir^' 

— Itifitlr 


Yonder the lively, imprewible Atheniauaiir© 
pouring at mid -day from the oj >' ■ ^ '^ ^ of the 
Thfiitn', >viLh heart aiid soul - ng to 

the wumlerful ti-ageilies of .. _wi, fuid 

Sophocles — the earliest whieh the worltl ever 
flaw, aud still iuiecli)Med in their ateru cukMtfftl 
grandeur. As the ci-owd spread tlieuiaelves 
over the public ai:iuare, tht^y are arrested by 
the ever-welcome sight of a miister-pieco <M 
Xeu.xis, A pitUire of a boy and t:mpt« la 
atti{i«tuiiNi there for public ck-iliourni, So 
admuuble in the Uunuer'ti BklU — thna vuim the 
legetid— tlv • *' iniwin^' IjimIm irtt<i' ' -k 
at the V.' lit. Rut Itesid- a 

rival eltcu . . , . .. n.^ — am.! tliHcUu . ..,.^.1 
dechle to which t! : uieiit ls to t>e 

Hwnixie^L Thy cri'v, un«>uHly u|K«n li 

dn*[tery which eecma t« hide it fivin view, 
Tliey wonder what lootn could prodtice so ftiid 
a texture ; colouns of mioh glowing karmqifty. 
** "Withdraw now your curtain ! ^ iXfJntn« 
Xfiixii^ proud of the tribute whi^ 1 
derem of the air have T-endinnl to 
and no Ic^er able to ' ' ' ' miiMrav. 
ParrhauoB, his rival, sui liautly :— 

" Xeuxia deceives birds ; - ... . _ Xeuxutt ! ** 
That dmpery wna the picture I — It Is the 
heyday of Paintltii^ 

A caowd in tlie Agora ! Tl»e vnrj'iiitf 
robe:} besiieak the uiingliug of noble and 
artisan alike ; and that awMfxubly ie swaying 
to iu»l fro ^ith tcnip'jatuoua impube*— 
aijoating for the sufirrimicy of j\ ' 
liiaiidiug the giiuntlet of mortal cv 
" - in the teeth of tdl tiref'ce, m 
ith the tiery vdiemenee of y< 
ud of Mars to the oliv 
Athene. But lo^ how ti 
stilling? — Mark, how li 
lijsidea! Pcridca ia tnouuiing ti»e 
Beautiful in lunu, tiery and cmmii- 
juviienatve in intellect — ever self-poaaeaaed, mb 
if the calm of the pasaionteM gods vnte 111 
his breast — ^ewpreme in wielding the hearts of 
men to all lofty pui'p<.»tfea — in that hour of a 
people's ivQuzy, 

" He caned across the tumult, 
Aud it fell ! " 

Has aodit'uco sud it tbundered and li^himod, 
as the)* listened to that rolling: ilaiihing elo- 
quence. — It ia the triumph of Oratory. 

But the gM^MB of Greece ia riaiti^ ia beaatf 




everywhere, on land and «ea — the blue JEgetin, 
gemmed with the " sparkling Cjdaclefs" 
tearing, like floating flowur-basket^, the leles 
of Greece on its cal^ .siirikc^. On tlie lovely 
bay-iiideuted 8hores of Ionia, whwre the vines 
are trailing in featooua from tree to tree, 
ilghtiug the eiueraJd wooda with their piirple 
cluaters, site merrj' Anacnioii, sinpng of love 
and wine in luid^-ing strains. liffht^hearted 
old man, aing on ! — until, in luckless hour, 
the choking graiKMstoue end at onee thy lays, 
thr loves, and tny life ! The lofty sti'ains of 
Aleieua and Sinlonldea make the ^gean 
shores to re-echo their undying hatred of 
tyrannic power ; while, on her Leebiiui isle, 
hapletMi Sappho, w^eaiy of a fame that cannot 
Virmg her luve, teajw ti-om the clitfs of Ijeucaa 
into the sea ; l»ut lives for ever in her coun- 
try's menior\^ as the Tenth Muse. 

^Vhcnce catne the efllorescenee of Grecian 
gi«niuH, in the age of PerieleH i The Peraianf* 
had recently Wen defeated: a handful of 
Greeks hail overthrown the pi'outl chi\Tilry of 
Asia ; the thnnderboUis of Marathon and 
Plftta«a liad hurlet^^i the iixvnxliug myriada from 
the Hellenic slione*. A about of exultation 
and joy arose over the length aiul brea<lth of 
the GreciJin lantL They were free ! — they 
were ft nation ! In a single generation Grecian 
gt^niuM reuched its zenith ; but in another 
eentury it was over — its lustre was past, its 
light dying. Philip of Macedon first struck 
down jfilelienic liberty on the held of CTha?- 
rouea; and blow after blow foil nwe<i, levelling 
the ohJ Greek jjride, enishing the life out of 
the nation's hetut ; till at length the haughty 
I{i)mnn strode in, ami laid his mailed grasj» 
on all. 8uch were the anteeedenta of the 
heyday of Gi'eciau genius — such were con- 
comitants of its decline. 

Foreign conauest has in all a^es been the 
great extingnislier of national genitu. Let us 
imagine a cjumj near home. Suppose an enemy 
Were suddenly to 9\irp>riae usj. With the tirst 
Bound of the enemy's cannon, Cienius would 
formU^e her studied. She could not see the 
idejU through the smoke of the foemans 
batt«'rieH. In that huur of national degra- 
dation she w^ould hear alone the voice of 
Patriotism ; but sharing in ita fall, would 
languish, if not utterly expire. Ajchitecture 
woiUd ce:ise to adorn a land no longer our 
own ; the sculptor would break hi* chisel, 
rather than ininiortalifie the fonus of his 
tyTiUif .s ; Poetry, shorn of her many -coloured 
betuns, would survive only in elegy, or in 
degrading etlusions in honour of the victori- 
oufl invftdei-s. Pride would be cruslied from 
the nation 'a heart. 

The noble spirit of independence, which ia 
tlie acGoni}iianiment of all real genius, would 
find a place no more in the bo^m of slaves. 
The old heroic recollections of the nation, 
the hentage of centuriea of glor)', would be 
swept at once away. The deech* of our an- 
cesttu-a would no longer thrill like a trumpet- 
call to the heart of the nation, stirring us to 

emulate theii- exj^loitB. Present subjns^tian,. 
present degradation, woidd srweep in lUte 
obscuring cloud, and hide from us the m» 
Hpiring vision of tlie Past. Tidce from man 
hia dignity, hi* self-ii'!af"'>t "'T you dry iip 
the fountains from wli flows. Ex» 

oellence is bla^ti^l, tli i verity may 

remain. A slave may do hia t.isk — may 
sweat his hour in the gangs of the planter fvr 
in the ranks of the despot ; but I •■ 
there for genius — that ia the di\'ine of 
of Freedom alone. 

Had not the diaastjcr of Moacow broken the 
wing of Gallic ambition — hail the ct^nonest of 
Najxjleon been hande<l down unimimined to 
his succeaaiirs, we wotdd Iwive had too latnAt* 
corroboration of thia in our own day. 
cracy in modem EurojK^ ban j*o strenv 
the vitality of nations, tfmt they live t 
a thousand perils that would have < 
the old empire*^ of the world ; and it is to 
this vitAhly, and the almost superh^mian 
\'igriur with whi< 1 •, ' • i < ma resist or flin? 

off the fetters of i rit the progress of 

civilisation has bin ii uin-nFJvco among w- -'* ■■ 
the da}'» of Charlemagne. It was •■ 
that smothered ci\nliflation in the ol . ._ 
versal empires ; it was oonnuejit that succes- 
sively terminated in each a long career of im- 
provement. The triumphant proceHsions of 
Victory are alwa^ia closed Wiith the wan and 
broken shade of Genius. Tlie grave wl ' ^~ 
cla<)es over lalwrty aL«o hides Genius 
the ui>per earth. 

Pride of country — ^national egot" 
far Btmnger in old times than even 
The enriy nations of tlm world grew up 
— without intercommunication — without 
rowing anj^thing firom their ueighlMnirR 
worked out for itself ita own civiliaatic 
And each accordingly esteemed itself the light 
of the world, and ail other, barbarians. Each 
hat^ and despised the othex ; and to be 
quered by the stranger — ^to see their 
glories, their own pride, dashed into the d\ 
and a i>c»oplo whom they hatl tlespised, loi ' 
it in their palaces, utterly broke the natic 

Nineveh — whoee mighty ruins, after the 
lapse of three thousand years, are asti^mishine 
earth's sages — ^built no more after the rivfd 
standards of Babylon vrere planted on her 
walls; and liab^Ion the Great, which has 
left ita name aa a byeword of opulence and 
spendour, dates ita decay from the bloody 
nocturnal entry of Cyrtis and his Persians, 
From the day wh^i the battle of Arbela 
struck the diadem from the brow of the 
second Darius, and the war-<,'r>" of the Greeks 
rang through the streets of Persepolia, art 
and genius Ibrsook the land of Zoroaster, the 
royal cities of Persia began to crumble. Al- 
though stately with edilicea, second in beauty 
only to those of Greece, thenceforth no hand 
waa put forth to uphold their splendour ; 
their environs once made fertile by irrigating 
streams, grew parched and flinty deserts ; ana 


CJ»)m tMckcM.) 



very sit<;«i »li{ipcil from tho worlil'a 
koiy. Not l^^'Dg fljgo, a tmvftller among 
\e barren tiutl wziterlesa mountains of Poma 
ii*- iiiinJtp'fteiUv on ft niAg;[iitkent ruixi 
fet " ' '' "n a deserted 

I uken coluuins 

vuL- .-vu .vit .1 ,,.1, It w;id the 

Ar, the HnU of Pilliirs, built by tUe 

,<l the Anilm, auiid the hjiie deswrtti 

uaht. But history tald another tale ; 

h nuvl(i plrvin to the world that 

»t4:»od the long-loat rains of r<jval Pei*- 

i, the citj^ of the Grent Kiug — t hut thert? 

all its palacoa that had surviv-nd thd 

torches of AJexander, and the 

dcjcay of Tiiuc. 

at the woudroaa Yalley of the Nile ; 

fter the desohition of two t»>.<'-:"-l 

what do we yet sec 1 A hajii 

of moiiumeiitfi* reai'e^l by < > 

[ but endurlug in their pride and 

only wbi£ libertv lusted. Thie 

SilaUy teem with seulptora — nume- 

aa swjvrming Lnaea — carving out 

ohtloa : — Sphiiixea, Meumous, and 

m the wjUd rock. They retire for 

their labour to-inorrow ; 

over >w bursts the insatiable 

iua, the whole nation is 

If by cncbiintment. To- 

- _L-boat traveller — «tand in 

junrries, and believe lliat tlie morrow of 

_ x^tiaaad yeai's ago still eurvivea. Yoii 

tbo iimrkfl of the very tools with which 

U3 wrrnjirbt ', yoii behold her worka in 

I ^h-hewu Apia, there 

1 waiting the one last 

-■u ir i: .'lit rock. The 

of the \\ h had come to 

,ic statue v-.. ^... .>. iv ^' 'i'>"-^"'Hare 

leu CAmbj^s^a, flualj' ^oi'yj 

* hJdowo hand the In ^ I bull 

comriuuided Ihebonesof the Pharaohs 

beAt*fn >vitli rodf*, he Rtruck to the heart 

niua C'f the Kile. She could no lon^^er 

\m)i\ and her erofk glorious with 


-i-re proaeribed, 
; a. The heai-t 
iuiol)t*t Liberty 

i Otpitol, 
ilul thuii 

1 1 




'li miiitreaa of the world, 

-Jih'St <jT lllL' UliivtifSul 

! one 


jM'd on the hdl 

uf the Eternal 

• Seven-Hilleii 

North. Two 

' ■ •« not leas 

1 •!• Ut fin'ttSL 

that dr 
t>et riuig 
Hi A hUu'U 
to had 
^. iiuur 

" Gothic 

ling city, 

lie couchuA 

ui*ehca sbves. That wa« 

the old Botaii^Adifc No 

latial edifices built. The Goth ruled in 
the Capitol, and G<*uius forsook hei* old 

Aa foreign thnddotu extin^i^^hea ^culua 
m a couutr)% sodal slavery piii ^ , 

in the individual, and where tli 
there can be no flBpirntv.i .- 
ca.ste — wkich divides n 

and dilferent rrtiiks, eteru ^ i 

station and pui'suit — has at some peiiod or 
other euisteil more or lofia Mtrintfently in all 
fiartaofthe world. In the early dav.Ti of civi- 
iiaation, such a sv3tem,\n^wod in i i^-^mrd to Art 
fdoue, was ijideed ad . " " .:; was 

then unknown, and 1 > . The 

interchange of idea« nw i ii».' w-, wn n. n u-w pcr- 
raeatea eveiy eonier of society, hatl then no 
' ^ '-'ence. No one knew what waa going on 
[it in his Immedmte neijt,dd>oiirhfiod. In 
J cireutu.4tance«, the system of ca^te was 
the niodt hkely to obviate the initjediiuents to 
the preaer\'ation and propagation of know- 
ledge in the arts : for the discoveries made by 
the lathers were thu3 tninaniitted dii*ectly t^) 
their childieu ; tmd the spread of improve* 
uients waa eotnpaiatively ea«y among a clasd, 
all of whose members were bound together by 
community of station and emplopnent. But 
when knowled ■ • ' ^ ••'-"-'■' >f comnmniration, the 
system beeom i-i. Knuwled;_^i» isthe 

life-blood of t< , : I must, when it can, 

be spread and circulated. When confined to 
CBffte of atation, GeniuB droops for the want of 
it. Genius is aapiring, but caste chains it 
immovably to one station. Genimi is impulse, 
action ; it cannot move in fettei-?*. Pent up 
within the walla of eouventional rauk^ Ge- 
nius collap»ea,-^her inspirations ciui oidy bd 
drawn from the atmoapherea of boundless 

Conquest and tyranny numt ever be short- 
lived, A frte state always, in the end, lives 
down a <leapotism. Tlie latter rlenvea talent 
from one class oidy, while in the former it 
leaps up from all. Even wlieu LibeKy ia 
bom in blowl and nurBetl on carnage, she is 
the foatei* child of (ienlus. The extrnordinaiy 
development of talent by France during hei" 
first Iii4>volution, baa no parallel amuufj the 
then desj^jotic powers of the (.'ontineut* 
Though the Htrify was horrible aud san- 
guinary, it summonerl every man in Fwuice 
to exertion ; while the path to the guillotine 
waa trodden amootli by victims, it tlwew open 
the road to honour, and thouaiuuia entereil. 
The man who raisetl himself from aubulteru 
of artilleiy to the Imperial tluone ; who be- 
held the liklf of Eurcipe beneath the bIjsuIow 
of bis sceptre ; who wedded the daughter 
of the Cffisara, and rai»eil around hia throno 
a martial galaxy unparalleled Ui tlio world's 
hifltory — ^waa the offepringof Liberty ; of gory 
Liberty; audi Liberty aa makes GeniuH»nino 
forth witli preternatural luatrc — but only 
develops it m a few at the expenstt of the 
of tkq lltl U>3 




ifi^efice unrestrained Aiid uutamishcd. She 
ebokei not genius with cnste. Our imatocmcy 
i» even iu^ngorateil from the ranks of the 
commona. ^ores of titled familie* die out in 
a century, and their place in tilled up with 
the worthiest of the nati«>n. Be ft man the 
aoD of acottl-merchant, like Etdon and Stowell 
— or of a ootton-spinner, like Peel — the path 
to weiilth and fame m ever open to him, A 
tradesraan'a eon may lUe on the wooliack. 
A clerk may riae, like Olive, to be a Oov«mo»^ 
General. The fourth son of a wuntry person, 
like Nelflon, may find a t4^?iib among the great 
ones in Westmiruiter Abbey. Turn to our 
i^iate ; consider ita annals tor the last aixtj 
yeani, and my if Fmnc*, witli her triple 
Hevolntionj can pre^sent a parallel to the 
^niuH there developed — if France, Htirrwl to 
the very dregs by frantic atrujaj^lea after 
liberty, can equal the Bt^ody gluriea of a 
nation inured to freeilom. 

Owe word more^ and we have done — one 
word to the student who may peruse these 
pBlgee — to the you:ng aspirant, who sees life 
tun yet only tJirou^^h the bright colouring of 
you til, or in the unreal guiae which it wears 
Co the recluse. 

There is a 8elf-impo«ed thraldom more fatal 
to gvniua than the blight of external opprea- 
aion ; beneath the allurements of paaaion 
there lurks a wors^ than Egyptian bondage. 
No man ever excelled without the exercise of 
much selfnienial. ** To live like a hermit, and 
work like a horae,"* is the «ui-est of all roa<1s* 
to fame, and Has been the uninviting path 
trodden by moat of those who have risen t*:» 
permanent renown. True liberty, the liberty 
whicli genius demands, consista as much in 
exemption from the aiaveiT within as &om 
the afavcry without. Let the young aspirant 
ever remember, that whatever elevatea man^s 
nature, whatever Ufta him above the trammeta 
of earth, and places him nearer heaven, pio- 
portionally elevates his genius ; and, on the 
c«»nt,niry, that eveiy pa^aion immoderately 
indulged ia a fetter placed on his intellect ; 
tliat every loitering in the mazes of uuwhole- 
eomo pleaaure, if redeemable at tdl, must one 
day be reileemed at too dear a priiNe, •* The 
Present and the Future are livals," said 
Sir Joshua lleynolda to his pupils, '* ami 
whoever pays court to the one, muat reiign 
the other. * 


One hri&k Mai^h morning, ia the vear 1846, 
tUe bimve Ste-iru-F^liin. Tlib. rnia, rolled about 
in themo^t ij i^n on the brci^l 

Atlantic, in n :ty-one, ojid weat 

longituiie thLi'ty-ei^ht, ili'ty — the wind bhjw- 
ing a haj'tl gafe h'otii the we&trsoutU-we>t. 
To most of the ]- the m-audeur of 

the walei's w:iji a the line beju-ing 

of the ship only u nMm-^hjfi and a snare. 
Everything waa made tight on deck ; if auy 

• Lord GUon'i wvri*^ Rpplled to Mmiclf. 

I^naaaenger had left at'' * 1 Jie 

aeate, he would aasurcM u^ 

to a near raili-ng. JImikc v^.u^ i.tiium jinout 
every imaginable item ; and water dripped 
&om every spar of the gallant vesael. Now it 
seemed as though she were travelling akog 
through a brilliant gallery, flanked on either 
side by glittering walla of water ; now die 
climbed one of the crested walls, and an abjae, 
dark and terrible aa the famous Maelstrom, 
which can't be found anywhere, yawned to 
receive her. The snorts of the engine seemed 
to defy the angry waters; and occasionally 
when a monster wave coiled about the ship, 
and thundered against her, she staggered for 
a moment, only to renew the biittle with Ireah 

The cooks and etewards went plaiddly 
througli their several daily avocations on 
board this rolling, fighting, shaking craft* 
If they ha*! been Belgravian acrvanta^ or 
clul>-house waiters, they could not have per- 
fomied their duties with more pix)found un- 
concern. Their cwlnesa appeared notlung 
less than heroic to the poor tumbled heapa 
of clothes with human betuga inside, who 
were scattered about the cabins below. An 
unhappy wight who had never before been fiine 
miles from Boston, wna anxiooaly incpiriiig 
of the chief steward the precise time m tJbe 
coarse of that evening that the VMsel might 
be expected to fouuder ; while another stew- 
ard, Mrith provoking pertinacity, was asking 
how many would iline in the saloon at six, 
mth the same buaineas-like imconcem, aa if 
the ship were gliding along on glass. 80 
tremendous was the tossing ; ao extreme 
the apparent uncertainty of any event ex- 
cept a watery terminus to all expoct^vtion, 
that thid sort of coolness appeared almost 

Then there was a monster in British 
form actually on deck — not braving, it wa« 
said, but tempting the atorm to a weep him 
into eteraity. He astonished even the ship's 
officers. The cook did not hesitate to venture 
ti strong opinion against the aanity of a man 
wlio might, if he chose, be snugly cnaconeed 
in tlie cabin out of harm's way, but who would 
refiiain ujxfn deck, in momentary danger of 
l»eiijg blown overboard. The cook*B fliwwy 
was not ill supported b^the subject of it ; for 
he was continually placing himself in all man^ 
ner of odd places and grote^pie postureji, 
S*>metime8 he scrambled up on the cuddy-roof ; 
then he rolled down again on tiie saloonniock ; 
now he got himself blown up on the paddle- 
box ; t/iitt waa not high cnoufjh for him, for 
when tlie vessel sunk into a trough of the 
sea, he stood on tip-toe, trj'ing to look over 
the nearest wnx-e. A consultation wa« heUi 
in the cuddy, and a reeolution wn.-? unaai- 
mou^ily pajBded that the amateur of wind ai»d 
water (which burst over him evers^ minute) 
wa.^ either an escaped lunatic or — a College 
- It was resolved nem. con, that he was the 



Inttier ; and frr^- 
giirjirifted at fii 

f\*-n whiW the 1. 
%v:i-.! (he tiintc was 


nioraent noWly was the eye. This iminenae elevation occarred 

rai^ht clvoo^w to \h\ aV»out «very sixlJi wav«. Now and then, when 

w'lc; 1m 1 titti n ! I IT 111 tMi> fiiirj^L' lit :"i iM-riiiii." wivf* \^is inip*irti- 

\)f}T liquid giant, 
, their brenkiug 

lie dw'^ist of the mitferera bcJow, wlio i creaU would ahwut upwttt^l At least ten or 

.tit it was enough io feel the height j fift<aen feet higher — »houi h»lf the height of 

«s, without goincf to the trouble of | the monument^-and then iioixr down a mighty 

th*»mj pnr?;»»»*d fu» oVi«pi*vations in I flLHid upon the poor Proressor in revtmgo for 

pt to rocifiiiie theb- MiKJesf.ies. No 

"F salt wuter, however, o<nild wash 

I hid posi, till he h.'ul >;ftti;<fnctorily 

tht> ship'^ I proved,, by acrnnite oV)servutiiin, thfit the 

wave wliioh pitaaeil the vessel waa 

il to the heir'nt of hia eye — or thirty 

inch*»a — ^jiud that the mean highest 

!udiii2 the fighting or broken 

I'Mrtit torty-threo feut above the 

level ul tliu hollow occupied at the moment 

by the ship. 

Satisfied at length of the tiniih of his obeer- 
▼atioQS, the Profeegor, half pickled by the salt 



tljo hfV[^bt <.«f th^^sc; uuijcblic witve:*, but he 
found ibrit thf ot-pMh rr>a** 9n tvr jvlwve the 
hori*t>ti If iv-wnsatamliny:, 

tbnt it w; without guln- 

(1, tliat he 
I the Bub- 



of the ftt 

1 ^. ,i,^ ......r I ..». ■, uMii, u,, .jdddy-njof water, iind lookiuj[^, it must Ix' confessed, very 

TOVed, however, Wyood a doubt, tluit the coM and miserable, tleaceuded to the cabin. 

Throughout dinner- lime a converBation was 
kept np between the Professor and the Cap- 
tain — the latter appearing to be about the only 
in*lividual on boai'd who took any interest 
whatever in these scientitic proeee^; lings, Tlio 
ladies, one ami all^ vowed tnat the Professor 
waa ft monster, only doing **all this stuff" in 
mockery of their sufferings. Towanb night 
the wind inci'caaed to a hurricane; the aJnp 
trembled like a frr^^ditened child before the 
terrible ciuiibat ni tlif elements. Night, with 
her pall, cloaed in the scene : — it was a wild 
and Hcdemn time. Towaids moniinff the wind 
aliated. For thirty hours a viofent north 
west gale Iiad swept over the heaving bosom 
of the broad Athmtic. 

This reflection hastened the dressing and 
breakfasting operations of the Professor, who 
tumbled up on deck at about ten o'clock in 
the moniiug. The storm had been subdued 
1 ' for several hours, and there was a visible 
decrease in the height of the waves. He 
took up hia old position on the cuddy-roo^ 
:md soon obacrvea, that, even then, when the 

^. aea wjta comparatively quiet, ten waves orer- 

th<rn» ifid the drva-jtook the vessel in succession, which all i"oae 

''>n li«» ]! ui;^»>ther thirty above the apparent horizon; conisequently 

\v waited till the thry muat have been more twenty-thrc?e 
t few rninntfs into I ft-t^i — probably about twenty-six feet — from 
' ' to hallow. From the larboard paddle- 
lo which the Profeaaor once more scram- 
j'm: (h i...,u.i II'.. -i, he ol»3er\*ed that occasionally four «ir 
L of the wiive | five waves in ERicceasioii rose above the visible 
< 1. ijiitori Ills liii: iyriT*'f* they musfc have l)ecn Tnor*» 
t waves. He abn obsei^rd 
^ no longer tiui in long rid ^^^s, 
liut presented more the form of cones of 
moderate elongation, 
o to Having so far satisfied himself aa to the 
de- height of Atlantic waves in a gide of wind 
< .1. filH' Ptr.f s:-; [\-< estimate must not be tukeii 
IS ;!i 1 I irement of the highest known 

waww, bui oimply m that of a rough Atlantic 

rurii.Mrv '.I Ttu:^e rolunu ni.»>:^fn oi water 

h ht of coil uore thati 

!• [, meji«n4i3i;_ trough of 

he Kw* to the creeta of tlie waves*. But the 

ifessor was not satisfied with this negative 

roof; and in the pursuit of his interesting 

juir)%did not fed inclined to be baffled. It 

nble to know what the secret thoughts 

TUfiB At the wheel were, when the 

-'•-'•,;h;1 hia intention of 

»v from the cuddy- 

1" V. Now he was 

I the motion of 

ing to a chain- 

iig himstilf into the 

Now he is buried 

rt%\% and a tt:\Y minutes aflenarards his 

form Is seen cUnging to the rails which 

a tlie patldlc^ boxes, 

*»te the st«trm without, a calm mathc- 
U going ^" "-►I ;.- ^i. > 

ndiri'Tf .^t .1 hi 

ih %..i< 
lat ut k 
rpted V«y 
rcf th(j horuou. 1 1 
oliskTVCHl lor 
y;mls rv 
►a tbi'fi 

Boa)f he directetl lus att4>ntiou to tuinuter afid 
more difficult obsen'attoDS. He deteruuned 
to meiwui*e the mriod of time occupied by the 
rt'fftdar wave« in overtaking the ship, their 
width front crest to crest, and the rate of 
their travelling. The firat point to be knowTi 
"wrns the sfteed of the ship ; this lie fLseertaiuc'd 
to be iiiiie knots. HU next object waa to 
note her course in reference to the tUrt>ctiou of 
the wavea. He found that the true course 
of thi; veasel was eaat, and that the waves 
eaiue from the we-«t- north -west, bo that 
they passed under the ve&8«?l at a couut- 
deruble anj^le. The length of the sliip w:w 
«tateil to tn? two hundred mid twenty feet. 
IVoviiUnl Willi tliii*! infoiTnatioti the Professor 
i-euewe*] his observatiouii. He proceed e<l to 
count the seconds the crest of a wave took to 
travel froui Btem to stem of the vetwel ; these 
he ascertained to 1>e six. He then counted 
the time which intervened between the 
moment when one crcat touched the atei'n of 
the vessel, ami the next touched it, and he 
found the average inttJivjd to be aixteen 
tjeconcbi and a fraction. These re«iilu gave 
him at once the width lietweeu creet and 
ereat As the crest t ravel letl two htindred 
and twenty feet (or the lengtli of the vesael) 
in six seconds^ and eixteen et^coniL* elapse4l 
before tlie next crest touehe<l the btern, it was 
clear that tlie wave was nearly tliree times 
the length of the veiidel ; to wnt© accurately, 
there wstA a dij;tance of six hundred and five 
feet from creat to cix^at. 

llie Professor did not forget that the 
oblique course of the ship elongated her line 
over the waves; til i ' ion he estimated 

at forty- live feet, r ' probable ave- 

i-age diaUmcu lK?tWivii Liv-u ;aidcrebt to five 
hundred and lifty-ulne feet. 

being quite satisfied with the result of 
tliifl experiment, the haidy Pi'ofesaor, atUl 
iMilancing liimaelf on lu« giddy height, to the 
wonder and amusement of the wiilora, found 
that the calculations lie had already made 
did not give him the actual velocity of the 
waves. A wave-creBt certainly pajwed fi\>m 
stem to stem in six seconda, but then the 
ship waa travelling in the same direction, at 
the rate of nine geograuhical mUes per hour, 
or 15"2 fet't per second ; this rate the Pro- 
fessor atlded to the former meaaure, which 
gave 7i>0'5 feet for the actiLai diatance tra- 
versed by the wave in 16-5 seconthj, being at 
the nde of 32t)7 English milea per hour. 
Tills computation wfia afterwards comparetl 
with calculations made from totally dilferent 
data by Mr. Scott Buasell, and found to l>e 
C|uit«:* coiTect. 

With these facts the Professor scrambled 
from the larboanl paddle-box of the IHbcniia. 
He hiul also made dome obiien^ations on the 
fornix of waves. When the wind blows 
Btea«Uly from one point, they are generally 
regular ; but when it is high and gUf^ty, and 
ahifts from point to iwint, the sea is broken 
upj and the waves take a moi^ conical shape. 

and assume fantastical cr««ta. 'WTiile the soft 
ran high, the Pix»f< ved now and ihon 

a riJgeof wavea ex i i ii alx>ut aqumter 

to a tliird of a mWo lu nngth, forming^ as it 
were, a rampart of water. Thbi ridge wa» 
sometimes strai^dit^ and sometimes bent as of 
a crescent form, with the central mas* of 
water higher than the rest, and not unfre- 
quently with two or three S(!mi-clliptical 
monn<is in diminishing series on either side of 
the highest ]>eak. 

When the wind hiul subsided^ a 'ew of tha 
bolder pas8Gngei*s ci-awled upon deck in th« 
oddest imaginable costumes. They had not 
much to encounter, for about a thirtl part of 
the greater undulations avei*a^cHj oidy twenty- 
four feet, from crest to hullow, in height. 
These higher waves could tte seen and selected 
from the pigmy waves about then), at the 
distance oi a quarter of a mile from tb« 

The Professor had Ijecn very unnofmlar on 
board while the stormv weacJicr nistcd, and 

the ladies had vowed iLat he wjia a sai 

creature, who ^rouid have his little joke 
the gravest calamities of life ; but i\& 
waves deciijased in bulk, .and the Mind lull 
and the sun hhonf, luid the men <<^ - ^ ''^* ' ''* 
oil-skin ccata, and the cabin-wi: 
opeuetl, the frowns of the fair v< ■ 
off, Pertect goodwill wits cener i ! 
ship sighted Liveiiiool ; and even i 
he prc|xned the hi.*?t dinner for the paaBcugi 
was he^anl to declfire (in coniidenco to 
the stokers) that-s, after all, there mil 
something worth knowing in the Prof 

When the Profcaaor landed at lively 
he would, on no a/'connt, sufter the cnrpet-b 
containing his cideuhitions, to bo tidcen out 
his sight. Bevend inquisitiv*' im i-on, 
evei", made the best use of 1 1 
ascertain tl;o name of the « 
sei'ver, and found it to lie Irj^ibly nmcribed 
with the well-known name of Scon^by. 

That his invcHtigationa may be the nioro 
reailily im^iresscd on the i*eader's minil. wo 
conclude with a summary' of tliom, It would 
seem from Dr. Scoresby s intn-piil ijivt*.'^i iga- 
tious, that the highest waves ot the Atlantta 
average in 

Altitude 4.1 fart 

Moai! l>ii«itaDMJ bctwt*n cadi Wiivo . ftiW ^ 
Witlth (nm Cmii to Cro»t . . . Oou ., 
Inturrol of Ttrao between each Wam IM lecondM 
Vdocity ofcMh Wkvo per honr . . Sl^i niiU'« 

Xpvt rt'nitft Price ^t.lid, i**ntl^ Bowtd ia Cloth, 



ruUuhhu MflNthlif, PruA 'Id,, St^mpfrl^ 3d 


a huktrjf nf iht jfTtvitn* montA, it untd rtgmiarljf vttk Ot 

nttBMj$»J»t tJtt OdTcfj Ad. J4 Wc/liaclon direct ?{qrU>, S»fmii<l. rnaV.fliUj' Qakbai'mT k I.y^'sv \VjW,i»W*«»1 

Familiar in their Mouthi as HOUSEHOLD WORDS "—SnAsmi^K. 







^t u %Vu.Lf A VI W \ Li^iciL liiivittg t'iken some 

lily, fuid having 

. impaired for 


' alRe^atry 

■\ visit to 

try nmn- 

M-H that, 

I .1 fino 

1. would 


I, tliat the last 

I nieiiikre notex- 

vy*!i\ liUti Itiiit their deposiiaiies 

to be kept aa dry — say as 

which are a cheaper luxury 

with th« further advantage 

xpt-ihtion, l)eck*:med 

n«l "Indeed/' Biud 

I he second 

giving one 

oi rh« \*kHni h»a titie ; enjoying 

A Lord Mayor of its own ; an 

I notable phvce ; r<Lfnowncd for it« 

fitmoiis for ita Catht'dnil ; j>o»- 

-tvrnR, a caatle, 

' tnsion House ; 

u ftui.. ., ,,.., y^,*-' iv.i ,iu unimpeachable 


mind much wicotinuretl. and his 

y nuKt^d, Mr. Wallace eni- 

iwiil il..-p:irtf^>i for tin- North 




'bii .. .-. , , .,-■...« ..I luv 
Tj. He could h.ardlj 
that Impcirtant buillin.; 
itf in a severe etylc 
tlie jail. Tliere tv;\> 

IS, to take 

hia fancy 

IK iiupeachable 

liit Mfjon the 


ImliouB — but it wait 

w€T*? others that ] 

'^y were private 


was a 
,1 de- 

appeared to l>e nothing in the way of Rogiatry 
luiswerine to the ^auouii tuotikiak legend iu'a 
certain Cnapter-House : 

As shines the rose iibovo all comtnon fiowccv^ 
So above common piles this building towen. 

Yet 8uch a building must be somewhere * 
Mr. Wallace went into the town and bought 
a Guide-book, to find out where. 

The four gates were in the Guide-book — all 
right — the six posterns were there, the aaaeni- 
bly room was there, the jail was there, the 
niiuisiou house was there — ^but no Registry. 
"This is extmonliiuir)/' said Mr. WaTincc," 
"An unimpeachable Registry there indubitably 
must be ! ' 

He walked through the quiet narrow 
streets, with their gabled homsea^ craning 
their necku acrua* the road to pry into one 
another's a^&UTB ; and he saw the churches 
where the people were maiTied ; and the habi- 
tations w^berc the doctor* lived, who were 
knocketi up when the people were born ; jaid 
he accideutallv passed the residence of Mre. 
Pitcher, who likewise ofliciateil on those occa- 
eiouB ; and he remarked an infinity of shopa 
where every eomniodity of life was sold. 
He saw tlie offices of the lawyers who made 
the people^s wills, the banks where the people 
kept their money, the nliops of the under- 
takers who made the people's coffins, the 
churchyards where the people were buried^ 
but not the Registry where the people's wills 
were taken care of. ^' Very extraordinary ! ** 
said Ml'. Wallace. " In the great city of a 
great eccleaiaatical see, where all kinds ot 
moving reverses and disastet^ have been 
occurring for many centuries ; where the 
Romans were, where the Danes were, where 
tlie Normans werej where fire and sword 
and pillage and massacre were, i^iu i^"d 
again ; wliere Ulphus the eon of Toraldus 
hung up his drmkiug-hom of elephatit's- 
too£ at the altar, and, by that token filled 
with wine, bestowed his fruitful lands upon 
the churdi ; where all manner of old foun- 
dation and usage, pietr, and superstition, 
were, and a great deal of modem wealth 
is, a very interesting; and an unimpeachable 
RiecTBtr}' there must oe, somewhere ! " 

jSi seai*ch of this great public edifice, the 
indefatigable Mr. Wfihwe prowled tlirough 
the citj. He discovered many msnaiouB. 

roc. ix 



r CflBiluMal I 

Ud tKtUfied LimseirnVMtut the aichltishop, the 

tltraii, the precentor, the chftncelJor, the huI»- 

<U*Wit the four ftfcJi<l n ..ri>. the t^^nnti* rli^bt 

jrt*ebcoiimes, the js 1 

*iojii>y the !iev«n h»> 

lh« four vergere, uiui liie oi! 

*<aviiijt« of the little atafT i. 

' ' ' 'if he oouid not s.ui'^n JurTisi n 

iu... .. — '-'^" >Jr VV..n *- .^.;-« w,. 

thfiv mil- . , , 

aiid Lliat where ther^ was a wili (wul a gn\'it 
lujtiiy willB^ Uiere was no w.iv rit all. \\t Ue- 
tQok himaflf to the Cat); 
*h>wu hh vnieommotilv i 



ll*:' dill. conm'lv't>f ln)ni 111 lU V fi'"U"K 

liimi WalLioe inquirc<i if that w;ia to bd 

nu' answer li 
Arehbibhop ? 
when the aiM 
t\'u\ he WMiit 
njpt'atfcl thnt 

iiiolt bill 


il LUstct'lll 

»Xt"8» ijito 

■' were 

1 the 

..,..» Ihat 

V i«?'^hr 


p»<Uk-... - 

such as is nsu 
Itself, OM if it 

liAVffj of ivjat, iintl I 
** Do yoTi know x^i 
askeid A fiirmer-looking man. 
•' Tlie wa'at ! *' haj*1 he. 
**The Registry ; where ther keep the wills ? " 
*■ A' «UnT!o( kiiow fwr sliower,** auid th<« 
- rrrtiiui. " Ding J if I ahoodji*t 
■ f wiir it ! " 
.M ' ' ' '' iTi^inp ftp- 

I, when h< 

. ..i..Lv.fhh.Hi— 

:i lean-to^ — s<]nee;diug 
, III vury go<Hl rofwon) 
aahHUi'^d, into the soiith-wc'^t coni*>r of the 
f rosB, which the £ri*tmiid-pbn of thu catheJml 
ftjrmH, ftiid sticking to it 11 k«^ a dirty little 
pimnle. Bnt, whnf wnp hi*^ disroav, on going 
thither t«» I lti»( thi^actimlly 

WAS the I I ly ; Mid that n 

* i-n wirjiiri, \vn!«"n wi. old have i ■ ! 
I'-Dt chandler's shop^with a, jh- 
ii,.^.. ...iuimcy 111 it, UUing it with wai .;.v 
like A Lftpljuid hut, wna the '* Sefurehinc 

Mj\ Wjdiaee wna anon tau^jtht that Rt'veii 
thoitBiind pounds p<*r amittai ia, after all, but 
31 pi*or jihtanrc for the lipgistrRr of a simple 
bUhopriek, when caleubited by the ecdeaiaati- 
C!i\ mil* of thrt*« ; fur the registry of Cathedml 
nuuil)er two, produces to its forfnnalie p»- 
(euUes twenty thousantl per annum ; abouf 
ten thourand a year fi>r The lIiuyiHtnir who 
<iloea noti"' "^ the like amount for hi* 

iu the siii 

' 'to tvjMVi-y tr> thft 
about to rciirK_% 
. .. ..lied liira. What 
' i li for? Mr. W.nllacc 

I i^ mI>;, , t was wholly litrrary 
and Archfw>loj{»<*«"d. 1 he thirf clerk who herw 
eojne iu as a reinforcemr»Tit, was po ^on<\ aj 
(o ijitimab that he"d:' f 

it." Wherennon astro 1. 1 

tlint Mr. WttJlaee waiite.1 - !y to 

obtain pedigrees, and to c< 
pnr.-.--''M* '. !*ory of cr 
thi 1 V th<? he:i 

bv .. ,, -'►v..,,, f]y, i: , 

to whom 3Ir. 
*d hmi in state 
»y a Surrogate 

{apiMiTtiur ly reUiiubLl ou pLaptjse to eross-ex- 

nmine 5tr Walljice) and the elerks. Mr. Wal- 

! i ioned that he believed the Aj'ch- 

l wi'itten to t!u^ Depnty Keiristnur to 

Mi every facility in consulting the 

> under his charge. Tlie Deputy 

owned that the Aivhbish"!* had 

but d<»clared that the Arehbisho 



JumI nojurmlictiQn whatever over liiiu ; and. 

have held his position ;i 

firmly. At length fh 

trentv were proposed by th*- *>jjyuiy, ih. 

of which wore tJlat Mr. Wallaee »\u<u 

allowed to consult any records doted 

the vear otie thousand four hundred ' 

the fullne^a of a ivgpcct for the 
which they IumI refraim^l fix»m O'l . ,, „ 
to ; — Mr. Wallace iui;j;ht coilfuis 
documents up tn the vo.irfiflrrii hnndnvl. 

With thi8 ! 
hice was obli:. 
to venture on aaoliiLi siipuJaLiua ; — 

The researehea which he had pn-jpowNl tu 

.^11 Ji Hi' '1 u'i-!-(i ii:-ili.i I '14. 11 (-■» I ": i*;t ti 

by the J'. Could he have acccfiK to 

I the doeu! uiselvea i 

The ettect which this Himple request pro- 
♦iiiced iu the office, wru prodigious* ! A small 
Mchnolboy who should, at diimer, ask for a 
piece of the master's apple-pie ; or a drummer 
oa ptuade, who should solicit from his cap' 
taiu a loan of tive shilling, could not produce 
nbllme degree ot inJi V- 

iji that which glar 
^..M iv iiom the faces of tiie : 
the surrogate, the ehief clerk, ; 
clerks, then and there fi^>. n i 
protluce<l an;ounte<i to t ( ; 

the principals neither H]. i ^: 

eubordiuate« left off writing tuM j>oking the 
fire, So superlntlvi' w.i;^ the audnciry ».<f th»r 
request, that i I thependii 

small, rusty, ■ ky old v I 

dock, and 8toppf*<i tim wrrka ! 

Refusal iu words wa,s not vouchsafed to Mr 
William Wallace; neither did hr t ^ *^ r 
eondeiiceiifiion. The wilent but exi>r 
t omime was enough. As the liiist > . . ,. . ^ . ; t 


yesBgcsttire of 

rt TTWK ; so Mr. 

tbftt tubttat 

*i baad ft'/i 

f ilf !»»■. !»<•■« HUTU, Ol- III illM.-iUlii 

to St. Piiiil"* CAtbedml withou 

Ht tli«rt/o(rovsved u» pcri 
hmm uf the trtaty, Fw 
r, ihc iniilaovof titAt gv^tlcimui u< hunily 
:-r t-n hrti^: tlwBU ru.'qaniuteil with the! 
*h0 ln»»t iuifioseil on tht> i 

, 3Lp* Eilwnrrl Fro* 
I oath, thst in the 
I he h«<i >isitc-fi the 
■ '--- '- - '-- ■ --,1 
Uh! aecmaolaliim < 

makisi^ of (be Bch-^^.t --^ ^ 

and nmiiber two^He dtHskrei its docw 
\i !:.i' . ' * . u iKt « Kaaddoiw «Ute, *' I i 

itifiuctt, •'^pcrfeclly to aecorci 
^ Hfiiiaii I h»<i rect'iTied from 

y ami anttqimrian charnoti^rs 

have owTi«»i that tli# place of r 

frilb ts a r»oni not !ii*e-j>roof, vi 
bo<iy knew; bnt that it wa>* i 

Hump. wHi<»h WS13 not in acconlriri 
T n<K'noe, It is "«t«if 

ventY-rwo feet I<jiip, 

' ' "^ ►♦ aixe of nn nnnririrr 

not veiy colli Vet, lii l«6r», u has 

no greater u tico* thnii it had in 

1832, when. i«^i hiif »*, it was not fto full of 
<n\ok'?- fw» Mr Williara WtilUcc fouml it* No 
' tTiMing w amoke-prooC any racr© 

vise of th. * • ..r-^, = . ... 

which w:4 ^ 

. i'tweeii th .... i,,4 

,n-i»e tvorvl*, ** H , -t to l»e 

Thftt, Mr. Wallace nepKed, wtmlA dejmA 
upcvu the facilities alTonied hini. th* otKudttioi!, 
of the calendara aAil iniJexe.», and ih^ ftMbt- 
anee he might t>e allowed to call in. Aftor 
murh hntthnf^, the conference eudf*l \>y Mr. 
Wililim A\allace, and ^ fri^'nd who accnjm* 
|vmied hiju. Knng allowe*] tu h^et to wi trk n[K>n 
(in* .^■.\..u.\'.r^ .a' ^i,,.i, umIU fo5 had been de- 

AJi tiLi HpBoe «ad secaritj." Some of* 
thie imtfi;^ lie Ibvuiil '■" *"' 
^m n Ktata of the mv 

OtLcni iJi " two aiMTtin 

the wiLU are 

with common 

1 ;i'_^ to them ; 

\ lap of the 

their res^'arciies ' 

aminin^ their dff - 

stale of filth firom the siinike wi« I 

oflice had hern i\\]c'\ fhiriiTCf the m 

of this i 

oV>lige<l ' 

linen, i 

aqch a I 

!iave wmmenwd 
\' t oidv, on ex- 

iml it m «Ttdi n. 

- their 

II ,.-.11^ \f.. Wrr 

To tba^voproleoled 
B«fSi«Unr trw potaHpa 
to d«ftj noeiitft; hr M 
adilitiQo tltat. ''If U V, 
•noa t> 


' , -^ _iimdr«d iiud tMitjpHiine, the 

Dfipntr HfegtMiv Usmlf i« neoitled to 

in the j>laee v i. 

tervciT ; yet I r 

smoking fate with tWtitud^. U»o wa»* lu U'-iii 
a second nfttui'c ; and every man ^v^nneoted 
\?tth the»« Registries mviwi V.*e v 

innreil to «lu8t. Bnt the man of ^^ 

He atid hir* friend opcne«l th' i 

(liivftlv 111 the tjice of the en« 

V. i I . -io |[rreiit whb their nitloti i 

A li.ii woiiid become a little moi i 

.( ^s auiuky. 

rhat day and the next day they bored 

on with j)atience and pereeveranoe throudi 

even* obstacle. Wlien they foimil in ihn 

;ioe to what tliey winted, 

iMle tnts thrown in their 

■I dfjcinnent " •- ■^'^•"'* 

, or had Ml 
:...ri reason to ' 

lost J or had 1 ^ 
was there tht 
tlds was trae. 





searchers that one cIam of documents at 
leiuit hnr! hf»en actually made away with by a 
font I ReKi^trar* Dr. Thelwall, of 

Nev te m the Gentleman's Maga- 

jtiue lor i^iL*, pfige four huurlred and ninety: — 
** It is ft fact well known that, by a Canon of 
Jtiaitm the Finst, th*? clergyman of every 
puiah WK8 re<inired to H«na a copy of the 
Re^l^ister annually to the BLniliop of the 
Dioceee. The most ehameful negligence is 
attributable to the pei-son (the Dejiuty Regis- 
tnir) in whose keeping they have been place<l. 
Indeed I have some reason to flup(>ose this, iia 

I lately saw in the poeseaaion of a friendf a 
great number of extracia from the Register of 
a certain pariah in this neighbourhood, and, 
on (jjuesttoning him as to the way in which he 
became poaaeaaed of tliera, I was infonu<.*tl 
they were given to him by lu» cheeaemongnr, 
antf that they were copies fon*'arfled by the 
clerkynian of the pariah to the proper otficer 
in a D^irdering dioceije, and had oeen allowe*! 
thritugh the negligence of their keeper to 
obtain the distinguiahe^l honour of wrapping 
up cheese and bacon." 

Tliia mode of " preaserving" such documents 

II accounted for by Sir William Betham, 
Ulster King at Arms, in his evidence before 
the Committee of 1832 ; — he had occasion to 
flearohat Cathedral number two, and went for 
the express purpose of searclilng manuHcripts 
of Parish Bi^iatera. Ha found them lying 
unarranged and unconeultable in the o^ce. 
He asked the reason, and was answered that 
the Act of Farliameut which ordered this claaa 
of fiecords to be sent to the Biahop^a R*^try 
gave no direction about — (was there ever 
such a piece of jmrliameutary treason against 
even the lay childien of Mother Church J) — 

The flale of Reeoi'd% for waste paper, waa 
the mvHle adopte<i to revenge the meannesa 
of the Icifmlature, In not providing the under- 
laid Itegistnira with remuneration for this 
addition to their duties. Was it poaaible to keep 
lil'o and soul together ujx>n the ten or fifteen 
thousands sterling T>er annum which these two 
p4Xjr fellows were then obliged to starve upon 1 
Cort^ily not ! Therefore, t^j eke out a "wretched 
exiistence, they found theniaelves diiven to sell 
the pnjperty of the public, if not for the ne- 
ce-saarics, for the luxuries, of life. They had, 
perhaps^ managed to keop their families, by a 
rigid, pincliing economy in bread — drj* bread ; 
but to butter it ; to indulge themselvea with 
the proper diet of even Church mice, th^y were 
obliged to dispose of paper — worth, p*;rhar«3, 
thousanda and thouaanas of pounda to toe 
parties whose names wer© inscriti^d on it — 
at a few pence per pound^ to the clieese- 

From this doom of some of the parochial 
records of the province, Mr* William Wallace 
inferred the degree of care and exactitude 
with which the wills were kept. Previous 
knowledge had prepared him for it ; but he 
wm not prepared to find that the vhok of 

another and mo«t important class of records^ 
op to a compamtively late date, had be«i 
aljstracted, in the lump, from the Registry of 
this Cathedral number two. llie caec waa 
this ;— 

In the course of his investigations, it 
neceaaary for him to refer to a "marv" 
allegation,^' — that ia, a copy of the RUit 
made by a bridOTOom ijreviouft to coijn 
himself, by the help ot the Bishops 1 
into a husband. He then learnt that m 
such doeuineuta are the "private prop*irtv" 
of one of the clerks, who Kept them in W 
own private hoode ; that he had bought 
them of a deceased member of the Herald*s 
College^ and that for each search into then* 
he charged accoi'ding to a sUding scaJc*^ ar* 
ranged according to the station of the appli- 
cant, the luiiiximum of which was live |x)unds 
for the sim{>le aearcb^ and five fiounds tuore 
if what the pwty wanted were found. Th* 
English of this ia, that the present cust^iier of 
these pajwra purcliased of a dead Hrndd what 
did not belong to liim ; and what tlit-ix- conid 
have been no difficulty whatever in restoring 
to the true owner ; (because no one could have 
known lx?tter than the purcbaner that thi 
were pul)lic proi>erty) ; and that their proj 
place was not his private house, but the 
vineiid Registry. The produce of this 
atraction is an illegal income better p^issil 
than the legal gains of an Admiral or a Go- 
vernment Commissioner ; double that i»f a. 
physician in good practice., or of a pliilan- 
thropiat in easy circumstancea, — and treble 
that of our best dFamatist, or our best poet^ 
This manifest abuse is so [perfectly established' 
and recognised, that the fortmiate posseaaor 
of the&e documentary mines of wealth deliver* 
his little hilJH for feea on ivguliir printed forms. 

Besides these hindrances, which rould not 
be helped, a certain number of wilful obstruc- 
tions were thrown in the way of ourinouiring 
Mends, because they had been desired Ijv the 
Archbishop to be placed on the fee frw-list. 
They were watchea by the entire oftice ; fur it 
became Argus for the ocoaaion. Remarlcs of 
a satirical character were discharged poin^ 
blank from behind the deaks, whenever a 
gooil o(>ening occurred. The non-paying 
search eiii were ** in the way " — (this was true, 
so unfit is the apartment for public accotnmo- 
tlation) ; " what people got they ought to pay 
for, as other people did. ' Spies slid silently 
out £i*om beluud the ram(:»ai't8, or (leska, to- 
look ovt«r their shoulders, and to a«e that they 
did not purloin any information posterior to^ 
the fifteenth century. 

Mr. William Wallace stood all this man> 
fully; but his ally was obliged to retire 
at the expiration of the second day. Mr. 
William Walhice at length found he could 
not advance the objects of his inquiries any 
more efficiently at this Cathe^lral uumlier 
two, than he had advanced them at (^atheilral 
number one ; bo, at the end of a week, he beat 
a dignified retreat with all the honoun of war* 



\n the uzum- 
i;U mutiber 

U'-Ihiil: ii>i it''H<- 

THE IRISH ".siAll<.>NER.S/* 

_•* Tp % oil wfikr o luintlkcrcWef tied on your 
' »* ttbW to [yfisa every when? with- 

, hnMn?ver, to adopt thi» counter* 
let! wilt of A pik'iim, uiy compimion 

l\»ittuitu. You vrill tit Icjiitt be careful not 
lo »bow nil} diKreapef't, nor pry too much 
ittio wliAt you miky see going on ai*oiind 

1 I ftsnirvd him, tl-* *- • ■■'• - - ■ '-hlxiurs 

la ibicir cvoedmi ■.< what 

I almoM K. ^ 

f ,; ..ivriilor<\ 


sity ti'iihin 


'■'-'' made ?ir* 


1 thtit celebmted 


i^^rimjige ex is tin;; 

-OOl • 

i'ounty Done^-al, 


^ ias tilleen thou- 

vi.;:i ; j • ■ 

i<. tired to do 

1' ■ ,-.> 

rn the Hrat 

^ ' 

vM-uBt in ^^ch 


:hiil the Qiimtters 


ri of 1&50, is not 


Iioura' duration. 


li Ki-ne, whose 


. k 'n by woody 

V, irin^ their velvety 

1 .H with «'han«eAble 


• r and 


L'd the 

1 anr,is, an«l, 


igo, entered 


road became 


r and less 


!.>r© scraggy 


i the bnd iwggier and 


last thf* xievr on eVery side 

pr»*»jutc4 u.*ilii 

u^' imt V hills^ with 

mnrah nt th^^ir 

tWt. n heather on 

here and there a 

s, scarcely dia- 

weaibcr-l»e«teD rocks 

•f turf which were 

^- - ■ 

-. ^.iie«rless uplands. 


13 ting-oar at a hovel by the 
fde3 on foot towards the 



vFM about a mile tliatfint. 


^Ay paaaed many pilgrims 
from, it, and now soon 


nversation with three 

irrying the uaual 
1 buniUe on her 

' ' Hbtty 

..f the 


iiOweA-er, liAii 

1 Vl 

gii t't-um tli^ i*fuoti?st tkittth- 

em cc»merg of Ireland^ others (but thest* of 
course not ou f«x)l,) from various parts of 
EiJjj(lHnd iuwl Soothuid^ aud mmy*^ *ivei» from 
Anu^rii'fu It was by uo means im imuauid 
thin.!:, I was a!isure«\ that a prsoii should 
ori»38 the brond Atliintio fr»r the stii^de pur- 
poat« of " making the wtatioiw '* hero. In most 
of such imitAnocfl, and indc-ed in mmiy of the 
othcxB, the pilgrimage ia undertaken in di»- 
char^e of vows made during fdrkness, Ot 
the renminder, the miyority are vttluntary 
penitents ; the uumber of those on whom the 
penance is enjointxl by their pricarts being, it 
IS said, very small. 

Tht' Lough soon uidblded itself to our sight ; 
an in^es^ilar sheet of wat«r that seeme<l about 
two mih's acroas, surrtmnded by a wining 
cnrcle of wild bniwn hills. 8'v-.r.l ...•♦M»n 
ialanda were strewn on its sui a 

small fleet of white washeil hou ^ l^d 
together "stem and stem," which rtppeannl to 
float on the water about half-.a-mile from the 
shore where wc stood, aoon nioiinpoUsed onr 
attention. These edifices are, in reality^ Imilt 
upon the StAtion laland, almost hiding it from 
view (its dimensions being^ly uo more 
than one hundred ym^h by forty).\ind com- 
priise two Chapels, the Prior's house, and tzve 
lotlging-houaes. At the end of the pilgrim* 
season the island is altogether desertt.Mi. 

On the small iicrap of ground uubuilt upon 
near the oeutna of tte Isuuid rose a noliuur 
tree ; and round this, and across by tlie wall 
I of one of the hoiLsea, and disappearing behind 
its gable, we couM see a constant succession 
of figure* moving in Indian file. 

After satisfying our first curiosity with this 

Ivi-ospect, nnd leaiiiing that it would probablj 
)e a conaidi?rubl? time l>efore the appearance 
of a boat to ferry ua m-roaa, we joined (with 
some consciousness of an un-pilgrim-like ex- 
terior) a party of pilgrims who were lolling 
on the gtiiaa be«ide a boat-tjuay of nnie 
stone8,and not far from a building resembUng 
a coach-house, inscribe*! " Pilgrim Tjodg*?, 
which had a thinl of its length inside cut oft 
by a wootieu partition, and a slit in this with 
*' Tickets " written above. Not without 
qualms in concealing my character of u 
heretic, though determined not to assume 
that of a true believer, even ao far as it might 
havi? been accomjUishe*! by takiug off my 
gloves and brushing my hut the wrong way 
(thia suggested itself to me, I confeas), I re- 
clined among the way-woni and anxiona 

Two wrinkled old women, who had made 
the pilgrimage many tianes before, conversed 
oarnejstly ab<mt the picture of the Virgin at 
Rimini, said to have lately become endowed 
with motion ; I'cpeatedly ejaculating their 
praiftfs and thanks in reference to the 
mirru^ile ; thoitgh as to whether its dirfot 
object was the cursing of ProteatantA or the 
Ideasing of C^atholics, they were una>>l<^ to 
form a e<jnclusion. A stout, midtU^-a^e^l 
wonmu, with u IjoaXV \iTO«ga«^ ^ho »«)i»l 


— (lir J. 

«nc ^. 

im to liow >' 

othtiTS ; au^l iri>m tlii*, ^ujiitnl tu tlic i 
dlH|x.uitiMii ^>( til© j)eo|>l«, it n^aiilt* tl. 
tormalioii iti tinMst rejwlily t!}veu to th» 
c^xivf I'K hy Uiusc who have been n i 

But iioMT the (itleution of the old m 

mik, .... 
be ul li 

ltd iviiiiy it wxfc htu\l U) uvind 
! br thi* ?iin])le riouuetice and 
i whicii ho «poke 
to fall t)ii Ihe 

\klA 'II til'' flHhi'S <>I tl*' ;-r;i, uMil Oil 

tho tViiits of tho ciulh, mid - i il iiid, oa 

now ill r * fTiltiliuuiit ; in N^iii'/li the 

by nuirmuiing &iiort I 
ijiuytms, !'■ iUt'ir ho.uhi atid t'yt"*. ! 

Thi^ii en <d llie rest how the 

V lost, with it* cttrgo 

WMim 11 
*h«^ii en 

of ptliTiiuis "<id hew it ia /<> ^^ h>«t the tbll^ 
timt: , and Ufxl» the (j|ivt«tiou 4Lixi*t\ whether 
(Jio^*^ ISO drowiu^l jiJ-« etntitled to smy B|i«>m1 
" U< iietit " in the future mate fran* the nature 
of their dcnth ; upciti which opinions Boenidd 
to *tiJl'i'4-. A CMiisidcrablc time wore on in I 
talk of this kind, iuiiig:lt'd with isgiiie iuter- ' 
ciifiti>:t'< '») (••Milidrjuc ou MU'tv jM^t-itciiijd ailftii^. ' 
in wiiieli I rcmni'licd, iia I uftcii h/ive ftiuo!i;;^t i 
th< liinli j>en*{uilry,a hi^h iiverstp^c ofdilicuy , 
oi' liijiiiuer, Ix/th in naking aini Auswcring 

1 luuy lueatiou, that, hearing one noifson 
iiliuded to tw "» Stjilioncr fi\»m Stralwoe,'* 
[ Inbouvcd for aoiuc time tuidcr the mistake 
that he ' ' - ' I . sold' 

|iu]»er,«]i t'uwhetl 

upon mt' iL.Kii i...L.,i -y,^ Liir^' ni^huieal 

nuine for' n Pilj^'t im^ 

An old hu^le pounded from Pilgrim Lodge 
iiot ^iAving buccecded in calliiiig to wa the 
attention of those ou the Lihuid, the oon- 
vurHittion* ttt htmt in the kitor of Sutioticre 
with wluch I caii4oi-to<h graduttlly dr<Ji*}ied, 
ami 1 ^ais left to qiubq m eidence over the 
nuuiy stifuige fA>ct« &ud traditions connected 
Viith the hike, wliose dear water was rippliut? 
over little iMihbleij up to the gra&s ou which 
we hvy, while its iiiLk were lujw cliecred witli 
Biiufihiiie Ainid the breadtiu of shallow thrown 
ou thcni by i* circle of great white clouds 
lauged wt tfieir backa, Fionn-loiigh, the Fair 
Lake, was it^ uauie, B.iy the old legends, until 
bftptiited Lough l>erR, the lied like, in the 
bkiod of A moiiiiter wbo Lnhubited it, fthdu by 
Siiiut Patrick. Whether the ishvnd '* PurgR- 
lory '* WM8 ufitinUished in the fifth century by 
tlie s;uiit hiniJ5.'Il', or in the ninth, or the 

u the itcKit in \^ 
hn aayon the mn'v. 

H crt'V,d ul' iiL\v pilgiiniJ* v 
wc Are now waiting. All ; 
the blind old nioii in huidtii*^^ ; a w>. 
hiuxtl iovjiehf'S lii» ; and CW^idfin. 
pauaiiig. ext'lrLiaifi, in ft tone of sn — r'-- 
tfled wifh d<^i']» fHclini^f *• That 5- 

Jiridgct CruifJLi I " He wrta not , 

was the hand of hi« first love, wlio 
iiwpiivdi his tineat »ong when hlji hear 
wttrin and his ^'eiiiuH in its pritne ; th' 
had bc«n a aUrfiuger to the touch oi 
many u loii^ year, 

liy this time a coueoun^ of betw<M»n tli 
wid furty Tttlgrima have arrived ui ' ■ 
some of them, to my comfort, n 
All th« women, rich' and pinir, art 
but not (dl the men ; for it vb not 
juoeH.3an.- to take off th+* ^'"^"^ -n*:? ♦».- 
of the ]>riuuiee be eoin 
kmt, n liirj^'e ciuni^y 
over the stern -fiheeifi, quitH ih> 
•lowly nenrs the qotiy ; the dehiy i 
caused by ita alwienee on a tripVi th<^ 
Inland,* diatAnt alwjut a qiinrter of 
from Station I**hind. It r ^ 

and tluf piiKsfncora, chiefly v. 
and exi' r.eting* bt 

thoeo wii lit to lak- 

tatter obi.. ,u ... ^^L-i, price ftij.|.v.-. , ,. 
from the Leaaee of th^^ igLunl, n kIi 
jovial maji, ireorin;; a gkizeti bat. who 
on every trij>, and \u\b a g^ood-han 
for cvorybotly ; the bt^at {/eta icv:i^ 
with t>^WBi^ugerei ; the rowcM :i place titoiut^tdi 
two or three to each of the heavT our* : lb« 
rope is cast off, and we crawl away h-- 
shore^ iiu]>elled with short splaahiug - 
and steered by the Lessee hinn*elf, eeau- 
nealli the awuin^^ among the "decent'* 
nority of the eoiupaiiy, who |j«y 'A tthli 
each for thifi di8tiug\u4ili(<d pontion on 

At the Island quay loauy of both sexea 
waiting to reoeive tbs new' anivala. We 

* SAlutH tatftod «u tbc oripmMl altflof the Pnrnl 
bot WM (uittxd U, be tan UCMMlole frotp th« flbcw. It i 
UiM tbe roltife of ui abbey, uid •««»• fertlto of 
pUgrtans vtait It occuioBtllj. 

anii ]»a3e tip nt | ct?e<l» to a rt»ck qd a riiiog groiintl^ and thero 

IpimIr til 


broken stem oV 
I four feet high, 
emboUlslmiei ' 
mee to\uh\ tl 
;icli tuiie 
his back a 

;j) ami8^ declares 

i t\.r. Flesh, and 

is to the 

of ix^rhapi 

Burromided nv 

'hrce feet liigli, 

1 o tlie irne- 

;.!<? the 

the central cir)^, 

tlif n«it j?^'/, where 

ve<^! ; thence to 

^li , aflcr whieh 

two of the 

"\v\rh spreiid 

St the 


iii?.« wunoutj and 

atoge 13 to the 

.11 isliore» where ten 

puttied wtntjdfTi;^:, and 

i'';.'Ttv^. I'f tw 

Frum t.h< 


ne full li. ..>tUi Itilniijkit^d. A 

r who iw d in liis diitiaB, 

:iiiil t^et rao>t> so harmo- 

thiit tyich pruyer ooiu«b 

' proper part t>f tlie 

r huny or dtlav» A. 

.-.....,„_... ,n. ;. nt i;i i./r,... ... 

tune, it) 

grave ih- . ■ ■ ,. 

iiud idleuesa. 

After looking am closely m we might, witJi- 

^>o curioua ftt the nevier-ending:, 

4 pi"Oce88iyn ronnd th*' <*Jio|»^| 

we entered ox " ' ^ ' - 

we wore c- i ' 

L L«:;i and lllV:u,l and Vmiifi. *> <.- miji^uf. 

e had niont too. for the nakin^ ; nil things 

i,f lutv-tn! hf-fore the 0'>iiii>A*i).,',on.-fit ..rutV.^r 

'-uof onc'b ' :^- 

^ : the Ui^' II 

three miies of the Liike i« strictly piYjhibited. 

Whilp' enjo\'inK o»ir|ciTp of t*^^l Ohmfdi l!>e 

I &icy, A sniftck of ' r 

forms it« diluent, >w 

• notion of a pilgnni ,i iuiime 

last. It is, we find, usually «& 

iui'.vK- — .->ay that he enters tin ^ ' ^ tn 

Moudny evening ; he sjecures a i* 

sistent witii his means, — the lo i -^ 

ranpiTig froru a snu^ alated hou> !, 

and the number expected to sleep I, 

bearing an inverse proportion to tlie c^ost, — 

takes care to eat a hearty meal, and then 

repaim to evening pravers at the Chapel, 

where he heirs the niglitly warning against 

in-orthodox practices while on the Isklaoii j 

amongst which are included the use of intoxi- 

catingdrinks, a!ma-givinga,and **< — i*. -.:.;» 

that is to sa3% expreti^oiifl of i^eli 

or jov, aa unfit for a time of p)«7Ti;i.i, .- i 

a nigtit, prolxibly, of aoxind reix^ae., in spite of 

all inconveniences, he is roused at font ou 

Tuesday morning by the bell which »ainmoTj& 

hint to join the multitude alwut to floek to 

the Prior's mominv mass *, that ovar, he in 

I likely to set himself to make his firat statical 

* round the Chanel and the Beds. V ' se 

[ stations must w accomplished dn y, 

but the time when is left to his i^ :^ 

perform all the three without int- 

I On Tti'-'*"^' '^^-'''"'^ Unt^T.^f ► 

' since t! 

j refresh i 

'and then goes into " Prison." It i» ueuessaai^ 

' for the true appreciation of the nature of hm 

- to nndei"stand that the tpit?^ is the b«:»cgy- 

/onred water of the lake, drank hot. The 

-riuis speak loudly of its whol- i- 

-;, ay well as of its rich au i s 

: Tiavour ; bat on the second point, ..i ■■ -- uiy 

I opinion vh d'\«5t\ncl\v o^poawi V>\i^^^^s. Tl\ey 



o-triuiK- however, g;ive tho beet proof of their 
■y driiiking it in brge quantities, and 
- olraoat 8oa]<!ir«g out of the kettk. 
About Bevpn o'clock, tlit?ii, our SUUioiier goes 
into " rrisoiw" that is, into the Chiipe!, 
na substitute lor the now oblitemted purga- 
torial cave ; to stay without i'wd or sleep 
until the sniue hour on the folio wiuj^ evening. 
He is not. however, obligwl >ibsokttely to 
remain witlun the thjora of the Chajx'l Juring 
the whole of the tiiue, but hits liberty to posB 
in and out, under certiiu restrictiona. 

In the Clmp*h the men are grithered ou one 
aide, the women on the other,— some of them 
on » bench that runs round the wall, some on 
the nlUr-stepe, hut most on the ground, aeatetl 
or kneeling. When the bhades of evening 
hjwe deepeneil, a few^ candles are liyhteil here 
And there, throwing fmnt glimnienngB over 
the confusetl gi*oui)8, — the women in blue 
clonkfl or red shiiwla, drawn over the heiuU of 
lunny of the wearers ; some coti vending in 
whispers, some gioaning und rocking them- 
selve-s ; some in eornei^ tcllinc; t!ieir Iteads 
with ceaseleaa perseverance ; the men, with 
eoloured haiidkerchiefa or nightcttm <»n their 
hejuls, and all barefoot (as ai-c tlic women, 
too, though less obviously), occu|ned in a some- 
what simihir manner ; vjiried, oceJiKionally, 
by the umging of a hymn, to which a pilgrim 
plays a tivmmous accompaniment on the flute. 

About midnight, some one well acquainted 
with the ritual, and who n«>t unproudly 
ftssumea the otfic© of teiupomry leader, com- 
mences the Rosary alo^d, and ib followed by 
all ] I resent ; the re^jwnsee being audibly 
repeated by them in the pro]ier phiees. They 
are now performing one btatiou of the prison- 
day, with the same prayers as are nsed on the 
other days in performing the Stations out of 
dmn's ; and to mark their progress the more 
plainly, the leader caUa out at ijitervala j^m 
tuH place on the altiir-atepp, " Now the Bed on 
the top of the hill ;" " Now the Big Bed ;" 
** Now the Stone ;" and so on, assigning the 
proj»er prayers to each stage of the imaghmry 

ITiree Stations have tlms to l»e gone through 
occupying, perhaps, from four to five h out's ; 
at the end of which time the candles have 
bnmt and guttered away, and the new day- 
light looks in through the Chapel windows on 
« liot, sleepy, and raoat uncomtort^^ble cruwd ; 
Borne of whom begin to stretch their cramped 
limbn and seek the refreshment of open air, 
even at the riak of an increased appetite,— 
under the circum8taiiceri a mos+t unde&irable 
acquirement ; for the con3umptif>n of as much 
as a cruDib of bread would cause them to 
" lose the benetit of their Station,*^ — a possi- 
bility which ia always hanging in terror be- 
fore the mind'a eve» of the pugi-iuia. With 
bumpers of wine, howevei', they lu'e pei-mitted 
to regale themselves unreatrictedly, 

la the eoui"Ke of this day the Prisoner iai 
examined by a priest on the leadiug points 
of hid creed, iuid if hia auawera be Hutij^factory, 

he is {nditdtd into the Oonfefiiiozial by mQHYn 
of a ticket, for which the Prior r* 
peneci, and which the holder ma\ , 
any of the four priests on the ifihuid. 
sum, and that f>aid at tlie ferrj^^ ai*e th* 
charge.H incuiTed by the pilgrim, in AdditiQU 
to those for his lx)ani and lodging. 

On Wednejiiday evening (huviug gone into 
prison on Tuesday evening) lie is present lit 
evening ju-ayers, though vwietlier in a «tate of 
very vig^dant attention may Iw doubtetl ; aflw 
which he is released; and returning (i Vrj; 
hxkdng-house, refi-eahes his Mx\r.\ 
with the stated allowance of bn :t i 
white, and the usual unlimited fto» ol 
In a great many cAses, however, tea i 
mittej Ilia next step, it can 
doubts, is to btKl ; where he slti 
till roused at four on Wedni ' 
renew bin acfiuaintaiice with t 
Beiis outride. The rain, perl i.j-. - .>. 
fiercely at hia window. No Ijelj* — he 
brave it; and aa he easts a ^lllM[ I. in 
out into the dim, miserable ■ 
a string of drenched figures ;ii 
along the prescribed course, tniiiu^ lluur 
" rough road i\;tumiug in a n<und," w)»r.» ImV'^ 
probatdy been so ongagetl during tlie - 
pait of the night; for pilgnnm conn 
their jjenances when they ehooae, and jui ti 
various stages are going on in the IsUii 
■ simult^meouHl)'* 

This third day, Thursday, the Stationer 
**receivea" (the Communion i n.-.l. ^ ili,.,. 
Stations, and attends evenii 
mediately after which Iub p 
end. He may be supposed to eat a h* 
nieid (the tirat since MondAy),and wither ipiii 
the Island that evening, or remaina until the 
following morning. 

Thex"e are some, however, who " ii 

six ihiys' penance, and a few nine •! \ 

every ceremony 1 have descril)ed in p. »; 
— ^in the firat cjujo twice, in th»^ second 
I wjis told of a woman who atleniL* fui ....... 

days regularly every season. In mowt iu- 
Htances, it is said, there is u perceptible im- 
provement, on their return home, iti the 
conductof those who have made a jtilgrimage j 
but it is admitted at the same time that the 
eflect with the gieat majority is traiwient; iti 
term of duration being very, 

TVTiilst we were at tea in the lodging-hou«e. 
pilgrims were constantly awaj-miug in aiiti 
out, like liees in a hive ; one asking another 
if he were " in Prison," or ** going out '* (t. t^ 
of the Island) ; or what Station he wa.s in ; 
or mentioning that he had just mmle hi^ third 
in fifty-one minutes (implying, l>y the way, 
the possession of a watch) ; in idl the motley 
crowd, however— there and elsewhei*^— every 
one appeared to me to behave with great 
seemliness and consisteiney. 

AImiui six o'clock in the evening, we went 
to the Chapel, and lieard the Prior preach. 
His sermon was an excessively strange one to 
unaccustomed em's : for he addrosaed his 


there i> - 

ftl is^nt 

:ug bvjt 

kI llic Trior stKtkt^ Jiku a 
tntrrest in whnt li* 
jis Isuiguage, til' 

• vciy itiui.'U to tlif 
it ion. on the ^vli 
; Imt there ts 
u« who encoui 

ptioagly^womi^ n?j»nA«f(», In itarcuthesis, Irtmi 
werf* uK-ient from the 
herefure, we 

ima on the 
I uur vi5.n to be about 


tender in them. The nerer 
i^i-siMe^cting the fortuno of 
ws that these urc any- 
;ho hf-nrt. A iiii<l<lle- 
of money, generally 


nred to the 
* Hc»at, autici- 1 

>, ; ...lily ivstored 

A nv\y ^xxoup -jf Sta- 
w tvi I i It I uf t rannj k> rt cition, 
hat iti-hamed to 
mUI the*? 
•lie Church, 
not pnrsne out 
A hen all Ii< 
r tlje uicli 
our ruail 
"^s stootl 
-ky, it 
_ into a 

liecD thoagfat by niah gpeculatists 

diii uivelit, 
MS suppli»d 
iher of our 
ug tiiAt is lost, 
a boltiui: i 

aatidfies the fct^-uliniFiit of the Ailvrrtiser 

Wliere i-efkl feehug ia eonremed, we Enj^ltsh 

p it jw sccitt HA possible We do uot^ 

.>'. Gemuin juveniles, othertise our broken 

LiHs, but when they are frfii^urcd gather up 

■ pieces as sjwedily as jxwsible, and hure 

Hieni mended in fiecreey and eilen '' ''ng 

snfhcient expre>*ion for the aspii ir 

inmwt Bouli in the tremulou* .„, ^ 

private intereoui-se, or in ]>eu-and-ink ont- 

- iiriuffs through the penny post, wc have 

not yet acquiivd the haSit of aht*»]<liug 

our passioiuile protes?tations and ferve^it Ap- 

peals over the columns of the public jonmalu. 

Expensive as wh arc said to be in ail our 

habits and gmtificfitions, we have not yet 

coutracteti the costly habit of publishing to 

the world the mj^tures and torments of our 

lovea and our griefs, at from sixpence to onn 

shilling j*er line — Government duty inclode<i 

It m true that ** O. H ! " sometimes pi>>- 

mises in the third column of the letxAin^r 

journal to me«5t Mary Anne*' at the old j>lace 

at aeven ; yet he wait* till that delightful 

hour to t«ll her all he hopea, and feels, and 

fears. The German is, it would appear, too 

ately impatient for this ; he makes his 

tiou at once, not to Fraulin U*?rtha 

;u<uiu. i»ut to the whole world. He doe? not 

merely whimper liis tale of love into her single 

eor : t>nt plnces it in the Cvdogne or Prussian 

Gazettf, l>eforp the eyes of Europe, He c&r 

never pLice his hand on his heart, and feing — ■ 

•• I !mvc 11 silent sorrow here, 

A gHef I 'U ne'er iojpart : 
It hneathc* no sigh, it sfied* no tear, 
But it con^umoij my hoiirt." 

The German swain's son>5w, so far from 

remaining silent, obtrudes itself in to the l»osoui 

of every family which takes in the newj^papcr, 

t^' whose columns it is conveyed, hot from 

the press, to hia adoi-ed Bertlia ; and his 

heait is consumed — like an ox. on a rejoicing 

day — iu the most public manner possilAe, 

Young ladies reciprocate. Here is a spe- 

nwn ft-om a (hunsel in Cologne to her lever 

Berlin. She conveys her secret sentimaits 

lu the largest Gemuku tejct of the Cologno 

Gazette, tluis : — 

HStd de la OomfVftme. 
)AEDON. Pardon, it was not my feult Tbou 
dcsircst a letter, hut how and where 1 Here 
I cannot remaui^why, thou must midottitaod- 
Thc last was read and burnt When shall it bo> 
Not before Whit«untide. It ia poaaible thoo 
miirl» obtain permisaion after harvest if thou 
it, i ^ r' ' 'rrandpapft condn— but— yet. If 
I foar not that I shall always love 

Absent lovers congratulate each other on 
their respective biilh^lays in the aazQe fashion. 



ilfJilBlltic fiMiiiL'Pi Hir ;♦ 

Oeruirtii «ljini*>«3L Like tl 

"wtuA fto vjmi of httving l>eiM* . , . ;. * 

awnvtt, that she told it t<* uvervixMiy ; t- 
is -s.j TU'iti'l "f li**!* forblddtfii attHcimui. 
tl> it to tJhc wliole c?oiitittciil. 

Ti jutjial "e" of « pronoun, 

■U'hicli ocvia m a recent advertisement in the 
Ooi'jgiie CinxeUf, flihows it ewauatos from » 

litNO LovDgreet- 
Hviiry R . , . , nt Neu- 1 

i^} to 


'* Yes, ia tboe 1 have firm Confidence." 

The love, affetrtiou, and friemUhij) of the 
GeniiiiiiK, as e\|»n**»e<i on each other * 

<ia\> Mi<l holiclnya, form u vt^ry c<m^ 
«o'i' "* »,.L..,,M. to the propnetoi> 
Bj Tliey sel'Jotn p\i 

liu. sume liaJf-tlozen < . 

gret'tiitji^. A tew of them are ft little puzzling 
to Eii^ieh readers. Out* would ihhik, fur 
itiKtiiiiee, lliAL ljetwe<^u limther jaid Hister 
theTr* wrnihl he a sufRcicntly t^kcit under- " ' * ' nc;e, t!io oijL' wmiM live 
ill wjieu a hijthdaj' cmiie 

rtJUiJi. i>ut a |muiMT congnilula,tioii w pre- 
feiT**<i. Here ia ouu : — 

M*0 my dear sbtcr Minna At Brcttlau. a lumrty 
^ Lmhoch OH thjK her birtb-duy, from her 
brother at Cologne. 

A whole circle of friends occasioniUJy club 
a *' Lebehoch '* for the local paper, thus : — 

*T«0 HEN'IilETTA A .... . of Obcrpleis, a 
-»- tebchocfi on thli her ntiTtic dny. 

From wvoml frionda in Cologne. 

A great propoi-tion of these conipliinenlAry 
addresses are in vei*»e- We would ipve ei)eci- 
roeim of this advertising iuithoIi»yy — it wt? 
could ; but moat of th»*in nn* bo eiet'mbly 
uiiintelligihle, that the tiirtk of trnnalation is 
aiuuply inipjssfible. 

It is only in the Austrian paiT>er9 tb»i 
matrimoniiii advertiift^nieiita nbountl. iMiV. 
«i» well &8 ju^j^utlemen, with large heai-t^ ru 
small piiraes, seek auitnble pu-tnei's for life in 
pithy purjtose-like advertisements in which 
no woi'da aro wasted : the Vieinm Oazette of 
the nth iuMant^ displayB the following : — 

with a fortune of IO'.'Jmio florins, \>ieheft to 
mMT^ a young lady, either a widow or a miudoa. 
Address \V. D. S.. Potfe J(t*tanU, Vienna. 

r* I . laiiieSj thnt ouc hundreil thou- 

Bii, is otdy ten thousand pound.^ 

iri/.tuiii.;, ;uni the*'twentyH&ight-yejir-old uoble^ 
luiitj " la moat [/rohablv— iai Austrian. 

A huuibler aspiraut advertised upon a poltit 
of tusLe. Beauty is evideuLly hi^ object :— - 

mauriaoe invitation ! 

ASl>'GLE YOUXG UAIS, of ngiceobio exterior, 
and not without education, who deriTOe firom 

a yaarly luconwv ' 

lijilltl lUl'il IMLtC ^leil LI ■!•' I 11 <^ 'iir, 4-:3 i vi.|i*«-^i 

ftddrcKi*. X. Y. Z., PotU Uoftantc 

Another ia a wily specimen of yiriSv 
It ia craftily addressed to *' \)car\ 


can be proved to aven^t 
I Ddi'ln^ per annum, <3estro« au i 

; rvspectable fn'-'f'- «i<'i"p he ^\L- 

I tiinity of Tj ha yoiuii 

|aii|Jt'rty, wit; ithoreeif. 

I all partiON i*^ *^Ui loto n 
I'nt. Poronta or guordiaui- 
Lortftin thi« proposition, m;r 
' j'c li'\t(anff. VicnniL 

The next ** Marriri;;!' in\Ht/ii 
light upon, m from a vot/iry of 
as of Ii}Tiieu : — 

^ and musical in hi» iMtet sad pwiteBUro, 
to marry a gentle maidon or widow who haa 
tJTQted the aame art* Ab iu the i£ > 
ho lioa been blessed with orory on' '4 
ridios, it wore reiy deoiimbJo iL,:. ...^ . 
pos«eseed a certaia fortune. Addroaw bgr 
mlscionf T. Z., Pottt JUttaitte* 

On the Irt ultimo. A STRONG AtAN 

advertised ia the Vipt^"* (^r..,.*... t... -v «,r^ 
He gave a miuute 1I 
with oil the naivete 1 

were i^quested to take notice limt ho had 
a fair Iward, but dark eyr« ; Itnl liv' vtob 
t\hov^ the common height, and ' ro- 

portion; bad an »^ree«ble voir uimj, 

and wtis altogether of a charuct i ^aj and 
iu fa*;'t, just the sort of peraon to 


Ulightful Her " .'' ' i^h 

were to addr***;-. 'jf# 

' , .; lu^n a i>ersoual ia .->..,, ,...;^,.i l#e 

d. No one who had not an inrlepen* 

need ap]>ly : — for it apjx>nrB that m 

Vienna "strong men" are at a jHeinianu In 

the next nuuilter of the snuie pnpr-i', n modcft 

^* jeune Monsi<^if"' expreasea u wi^h for " v»f 

jeune tlamt'^ aa a travelling C4>ni|ianiou to 


■Elxce[jt the lant, readers of certain Knjrliah 
newepapera are not tsv" ' * ' adH- 

vertiBcnients na the ;' .ra. 

1' in the 

jHi ^ _ M,...on* 

ditiou have, howev^er, t -je 

*' fair and forty ' havi (he 
matter ; thf*y prodaliu ibeir wisii^'s some* 
times with a littl<* res^s-v**, but riiore ft-e- 

quently without n Frutti 

amouc the covert 1 igbanda 

we select two. in - m-^t , of thv 


tho entire obarg« 
f .r him nlfo- 
\a 762. Ut 

o;Ss reminds us 

„ T ,..1, ^. 1... 

-he livexi .i 

ti luAn Lriiji u* nufi-i^ alt fully set :^- 

HALF VEAUr.Y, nt i).e h,yn^ of mi 
liuiy, of vhpcrfvii H-iNv 

ui:t»je«b'l»AiBjbor, ii«r'n- ;•. I'u>r :■ 

■: tUoA A mi<'< ■ ■ ^.-iii.. uiiui 

<i cioel £ M . 

Hw tntomlians of tlie unmarried hkdy of 
'<die«rfal di(i|p>M>l)im, wKt* ^trefers a middle- 
.v*d **fttiMrl6*' i^vtxtlenuiii, but vei'v much 

- ft*ul«M«r*o- ■ 1 .....1. '....... .... 

It U> con 
OKldi KwWj kit. . 

▼micvt fpeed* 

HsMffv !• 110 Sm ' * v^r in the next 

mlvtrtkettieut vtt »h»ii ^ir^^zscut ; — 


A gcotl 
of Gem 1 

1 ''-'''*'': " "^ ■'- . * 'i " 

of :i- 


a - 



U T* 




ftve goii 

111 <he 

Tinnnv-^ ■ 

111 hi3 

., '■.Juliu ■:!»uiilh ";, umi bidditii* 

; fnr he will not pxr tiwv of 

:■ , ' - - ■•' ■' .' Mfi 

ij^i mi--, i.i'? 

LviiJ-iiwii.-'i-: ._. i.-.mi ._»jiiiiij ■,'Lj:x-ii-.cUl- 

btT. AiC). 

W.. Tm.1 

iii tl:;- sriTiM'^ ik'iT'f^r xhni nimihov 


h childlew, of tinspottcd character, 

I '. iiniiiiBii i1 of prcpcrty to tb« value of about 

S fu way ffnaranteed. 

fi appeared 

viiLK MISS, fi-oe, 

i pwtt%-. but i*till 

- • ■ ■ 4 

I unioii 


11 forty and 

a and debts, 

bii'i tiikvvngc:uMLra Kiiiinuonora L>vi!uric«A. Those 

I vbo Bii«y nOfCt on lliki prapoiiftiaa with Krirnn- 

1 ^ "' of b<r>th 

III in ftn»st 


*' "oVid '* go« 


d and 


kjiD, nil ont* to puff Uim * ^r bat 

Mcod or lover, to aaktrtiBt Jn'mmlf, 

cunst-qiiejiv,*^^ t^j the whole oi' ^uiM|>e. ilis 
atiu<juuceiueiit commeuciis with Ti startling 

NOTICE!—! beg my mimerou* fricivU and 
acqu'^ •^♦^"••'^ •■! tho Mvcyral part* of Enrope 
who nuiv - W cotai«unicftt« wilh luc. to 

II tdre% rs to uie at tho Mat of wur, 

lieswig-UolcUjiu.— Jiruus H^ , Cftptatu of 

Jinny of HcUleswig-Holfitem. 

As the gftllAut captain hoA not no id ns for 
odvertiainff his whereabouts, we have aiii>- 
presaed all but the initial of his n&me. 

Births are always mwlekisown in thepfijiers 
by the husband; and in the weal of Genuimy, 
when the male i>opTilation is increased, 
the new comer if alvvnya descriln-d ns a 
** powerful" boy. I'^eatlia ure aimouiice<l iu 
long-drawn epitaplig, describing ;U ' -'^ ' is 
length not <-!ily the \irtue« of ti 1, 

but the'v — ^-''1- -•«-■-■ ra-,r,, 

We r 
CiirioaiLi. _ _ _ ' '•' 

WfinerZntujujoi^ Imok ** tor all t^iasses,' tliat 
we fear has already had a very extensire sale 
in the land wliicli ongiuated the bowl and 
dagger school of literature : — 

ron ncACCRS or aix ajkssa. 
* with the wonderful interveotioua of ProTitlenoo 
for then' discovery and pimi»bmeut By Dr. 
Ch. Fhkd. Ghebh, with copper plate engravings. 

I . Til " r Mr. O'Ccmaaor by th« Mantiings; 


U. Tl. ...... .a Murder by Jamoi* mot>mCt?ld 

Ruah ; with other trials. 

** Give me the balkuU of a i ;d 

Voltaire, *' and I w'dl wi-ite their ti ." 

Hati he lived till now, he would iu.^^r », viud 
the adverti^emi.'utji of a people a Ijetter index 
»- their social tastes and habite. One Sup- 
meut of the Times, a file of the Conttiiu- 

Kftel^ or a few nmnbers of the most cxten* 
sively cirG\daled of the German pjxpers would 
be more siijjueative of the hvhU* ainl nianners. 
iuiXiuiotivc. liteniry, ami couiutr^rcwl habiu ol 
theii' nu-ioua readersj thiui all the betfft trwk- 
tiiJcs ever penned. 




Tbx Autumn uigkt i« far n^lvnuccd ; 

And as I juijsb, with Imnying feot, 
Tho blind bkck boviM>e all necm tnuictxi. 

And icarcc a living Lhiug I mc«t; 
Only a beasar Bluilfiiog botoe. 

Or ' " ^ Iccni and sBuntcrs by, 
t)r, 'p, ftomo poor child 

SJl , ,. luitth tbo opeu sky. 

Tbo dreamy lAmp-ligbt on the stones 

Broopa, and liido« off by «low degrees ; 
From for uight^^lliunB, mingled tonoB 

Come like faint Bigbiuga out of trera. 
Below, the earth is bush'd ; above, 

A waste of cuipty diu-kbcsa spreads, 
Drowiring the UeaTcna. Sleep W got^ged 

Louduii, the bea»t of million heada. 

But suddenly I bear a sound — 

A buwaiig murmur, low, yot clior^ 
Of many feet upon ihe gnwnd. 

And numy voioofl. Then apf»oaf 
Lights dancing to and fro, and aoon 

A dark moaa aweUa in aigbt, which, when 
The dittanco lesseufi, abakos apart. 

And ucaltors into throogs of men. 

Amidst tbem, four night-guordiaus boar 

A diamal hniidbier, upon which 
I ate eonio locks of wandering bair, 

Like weedH in n neglected ditch ; 
And, lower down« soma heaving ngs 

^Stmpp'd horo and tlicre, yet poitly free), 
Fnmt which two lenu and naked arms 

Tot» up, Like \MXH3kfi upon tbo sea. 

Time tnars us. She whom now we call 

A raging tigreaa, wild for blood— 
A daagar to boraoiC fend all 

Who ofYNM her In her deaperato mood — 
Perhaps had oueo a fair, smooth fiice, 

A womu.u'i:( hcnrt, a human aoul ; 
Kept chime with HeaTou'a eternal lawa, 

And blent with munic of the whole. 

But poverty waa in her home. 

And lovclciis sights and sounda were there : 
Filthy hunger, cold, were fi-eo to roam 

Within thoee precincti btaik and bore. 
She had one only way to 'scape 

The druar monotoiiy of wont. 
To lull the heart th<it"ate iteelf 

And make the world less spoclnilgaunt. 

Judge not too haralJy of her fault, 

Tile bitter growtli of bitter fine. 
The chimiiol of l»cr life weie salt 

With crufiteil tears ; and grief u dull weight 
Pound cane within tho^e splendid dciis, 

Wieut'o flows the Letho of the i>oor» 
And duwus of Eden seem to ftuwh 

Beliind the mauaive Mviuging door 

She pimiged into a fiery tide, 

Weltoriup ou wnvos of atmgiug joy ; 
But now there cunjc« the doleful side ; 

She tastes the terrible allyy : — 
A wnsttng fever in the brain, 

A doaolation without bound. 
And marble aspects of de^piur, 

That liTc in ttilenco, atanding round. 


Mr. PrATT> V-s \v:is -1 iMM.r tiiali. 

wife and n I 
and big iirint 

a very slender iuc^uue. Uia ueigUi'ou 
wondered bow he contnve<.l t.u imal 
enda meet. They knew nothing 
strujffile tlmt went on within i\w walla uf 
Mr. r*i-attle«'8 eKtabliabmeut, The sm i 
ing tradcftmen wei*e btB cuatomers. I ' 
a fthi*ewd notion of business, however, *t i., ,, 
tbe grocer over the way gave hiiu an onb'r to 
print fifty copiew of '* Fine Congou at tliji-^i*- 
ond-aixfM'uce," be knew very well ti 
gixwer down tbe road woul«l Htwin ei 
bim to print billa atlvertlaing " Hue * 
at thre*-iind-fivepence three farthiin 
whicli would be added the further int« I 
that *• now wob tbe time !" 'Hie ke* i 
competition in the neigh bourbuod, tVi*- 
for Mr. Pnittleai. Among oUier j 
ordera, Mr. Prattles one day receive*! .t .,,- 
inand to strike otf a thouiiand lul>td» for ** Mr. 
Smith's Univem'd Pill." No B<x>oer b.i.l b** 
delivert'd the finst iMitcb of Inbela, 
Hei'ond onler waa given for five th 
more labels ; and the aecond onler w «« itu^ 
mediat«ly aucceedend by a tliird, tuid ti tbird 
by a fourth. 

Thia influx of business euiju'lscd Mr,. 
Prattlea ; and he Wgan to envy tbe 
perity of Mr. Smith. Preacntly it 
mm that it waa no difticult ninttor t*' 
factun? .1 pill. But how could b« !i 
invent a storj- so plauaible as th.'d vi i. 
veloptMi Mr. Smitii's pill-l)oxe«. 'I n 

difticulty here. LIr, ymith bnd A r .- 

Beif in every possible way. He bail «< i' 1 
tbe most obi»ciire villages of the coutitrv lr..i;t 
the gttjsett^^er, and had written veryol.i:, 
teristic testuuonials from imaginnry pui ; hi.-, 
resitting nrtir these remote lo«yditii«. liw 
pill waa— tht*se Hpurioua documents declared 
— Jtn infallible cure for every disease. He 
tacked to his pill the properties of ibe entire 
pharmaeoiKxria. Mr. iSmitb'a pill ^^ '■- 'ii.i- 
tiaed to accomplish everything of v 
oaJ science waa capable.* Tlie hist 
Smith'B Pill wa» a narrative of blt««iii. 
fen-ed upon frail mortality. By tho s>i 
of Mr. Smith's Pill John *Dobbin« of Cwyi- 
ytehriuwll, in Walfs. bad bt?en cure*! of w Iwd 
leg. which bad batiled tbe iugeuuity of tbe 
tinit s\irgeon8 in the country. Mr. Smith 'a 
Pill restored Mia« Brown of Bnar Cot- 
tu^'Cj near Battlednre-cum-Shuttlecock, to 
lite, when the rjatle« were in her throat. It 
cured tuithma, comsumptioQ, water on the 
brain, di-ojiisy juid influemta ; it was infiUliblc^ 
in Bcaj'let fever, yellow jaundice, and blue 
cholera, gout, rheuniatiflm, tic-<loloreux, sci- 
atica^ locked jaw, and cancer invaiiably dis- 
appeared from every patient reapectively and 
coucujTently afflicted with any or all of theiae 
ilLseaBCfi, after the third box. 
Mi% Smith's iiigeaiiiiy was not even emr- 

cfcM m otogM.1 



lutufttcd with tbe«G a^r 
»to<xi h'lA business ] 

nts. He mitler- 

td lelt tlia.t, ill 

'pr to make his ]> m, it wjis neoes- 

to fteoiii-e the j la peer uf the 

With this VI i- Lci'^i'd into nego- 

h Hpoor nobleomii rcsidiug abroad. 

etioxi was a long time pendiog, but 

itiigth it was signed and HeaJed between 

Smith and the Etirl of EottculKi rough, 

that hits lonlship should, for and iu cousidera- 

tit>u of the aimi of six hundred per aimum, to 

\te paid to him, the Earl of Rottenborough, 

Hthe n:i\i\ Mr. Smith, conaeut to be cured 
public advertisements, by menna of Mr. 
Liths Omnipotent Pill, of any disefuse of 
lich the said Mi\ Smith might choose to 
1 upon him, the Eari aforesaid, to toaiify 
luul it«eji curetL Under these auspices 
y.^. Hmith'a PIUs had thrived excee<iingly, 
but it was not till Mr, Smith conferred uj>on 
hiuiMeUT a diploma^ and inducted himself uito 
tlic chair in a college which he endowed, for 
'f ■ ' ■, ftome where, that the 

und in every reaipectable 
... . ., . - .^iii;;:jdunis, aH the sT»ecial and 
pill of Frotc-ssor 8mith, M.D , with- 
signatur*.? all others were spurious. 
(»r Prattles ! liow could he, who bad not 
enty pounds in the world, hope to compete 
th the rich Profeaaor Smith. Wliea he 
teii the advautageQ wliich his rival 
and reflected upon his own money- 
OOndition. he was re:u:iy to mve up ma 
de«|.iair. At this crisis of hia fate his 
day in purest jest, told him that care 
»oou make him ktok as old ajs Methn- 
This simple remark, he affectinjocly 
Is at th** pne«t;r>t time, decided him. He 
mid have a Methxisaleh Pill ! His wife 
e<l hrad t'> diMfiuiwle him from embarking 
*• ' I n 8|>eciihilioii, but he was desu 

h» ■-:. He wrote forthwith to hia 

uain, w ho wii» a chemist at Bath, and asked 
U* mix liim a harmless pill. *" Let the 
iea it coutaina neutralise one anjjther." 
IS the &impie direction, A bribo of a 
share in the speculation deci<leil hia 
the chemist, to set to work imme- 
y. Tlie next step wm to fnime a very 
I hiHtJ>ry of the piU — to tnice its descent 
McthufiAleh to PratUes. With thm 
Pn«tt)ej» consulted a Kattere<l old 
oolimiLster of hii* fl**qiir/intance, who«o sorapa 
of ancient lore ..rthe |)riuter *» ]>ur- 

|K»*e. lo a f*'W ry interesting story, 

r.--.--^'--. tlif II rv Ml tJie receipt, wjis 
I I • Jv fur the press. It r&u as 

'• It is wtll known io mo»t peoiile that the 

lierable MethM*jd«jh liveii t*, the jfotxi <djl 


YHAJvS. The srv r. f -T ,, lonv n life 

agMti remained tiu I '■ P.LE 

In th**i*o 'i men 

to j^jyte 111 iifu ; 

fs of ' were 


What jMDtent j>om*pJ' — what subtle eli 
held IxhIv and s-oul together for fio long a 
period? 'Th^* ^^ '^'-^ -niestiou/ Alxjiit two 
veiu^ ago tW' u were trfi veiling iu 


They fell in, one evening, with an eneamnment 
of Amba. They were mo«t hospitably re- 
ceived by the Mussulmen. The first pecu- 
liarity they remarked amonnf the Aralis waa 
that there were severid men in the encamjv 
meDt who, thou^'h they lo<*ke«l \'cry old, were 
nevertheless active in their jj:mi and lively in 
convoi^sation, Ourtravellei's entereil into con- 
versation Math one of these hoary sons of tlic 
desert ; the old man was ver)- commimicative. 

" * I was in your country msmy years ago, 
when Charles the Second was King. I played 
tricks before him :-:-he was a jovial tellow. 
Ah ! I was young then/ And th*» old man 
heaved a deep sigh. Tlie travi^Uei's, it may 
well be imagined, were surprised ; and, at 
first, somewhat incredulous. 

" * There la a man — but he is very old now — 
who fought in Palestine when one of your 
king's sons lielped in a foolish war — T think 
you Christians eidled it the Holy War.' The 
old man pointed to a figure crouched to the 
earth. It waa that of a very old man, whose 
hair was white as silver, * That man,' con- 
tinued the Arab, who was addi-essing the 
tmvellers, ' is upwards of six huu«lred years 

** ' LicreiUble ! ' our travellere exclaimed. 

" ' Hush ! ' the old Arab continued ; 'yoit 
of the degenerate West know nothing of this 
matter. The seci^^t remaiiw with us— to yon 
-t is unknown — an undisooverefl mystery. 
Have you evei* h*aird of MethusRleh ? ' 

"The travellers replied in the alhrmative, 

" * Do you know by what sfcret he prolonged 
his life to the ripe old age of nine hundred 
and sixty nine-yews I * 

"The travellers confessed their profound 
ignorance. Forthwith the oM Amb fiuubled,, 
witli his ebon hmids, about the folds of his 
tuibrui, and presently drew tlierefrom a tat- 
tfcrcfl piece of parchment, so<liity, besmeared 
with grease, and discoloured by age, that tho 
Arabic chanu'ters i^Titten upon it could l)e 
deciphered only by the most ]»ractiscd Arabic 
scholar. One of the travellers happened to 
b« a proficient in Arabic. He begged the old 
man to allow him to peruse the precious docu- 
ment. Tf» this the wily A nib consent^xl, on 
the conditions that it bhould be re^nl iu hia 
own hands, imd that he should ivceive a large 
sum of money for allowing the tnivellera to 
tranacril>e its contents. Tliese prellumiarie* 
IjaN'ing Ijeen an-nno^ed, the party enten^ the 
nearest tent, and tho travellers beciiine pos- 
8p.«?<cd of the invaluable life-prepen'er. On 
their return to England th^i Iravellei-a entered 
into a negotiation with the pi*e«cnl proprietor 
of the recipe, who offers his 


ic at 



peEDV per i»ox* None uws £C<suuiue unles* 
sigTje!.l by the pivjprietor, JoJiii Pi : 
Agents wanted for evevy pail of the •. 
N. B. The Metliasaleli 'Pilla are cai«lully 
tnftde op after the Methuwileh Iteceipt, from 
poi'ticulftr h*^rbs known only to the proprietor 
lif vhU invjilimblfi uiedit^inir, Afi a proof of 
the . "' ' ,, . ^ ." ' ---:•• 


hftVi: ^j;iui'-ii i" iJiT- j'j v'f'i ivi.'.'j .T, I" Lilt- <_.K'.i"' 

aion of all prtteudei-Sj the us*? of a splendid 
pretending to be MethiisKileh Pilla without 
tiiia stamp m-o forgeries, and all iniiUtioQ of 
it in felouy." 

Thia notable pixwpectus was concocted in 
the back parlour of Mr. Prattlea'a house. Mi*. 
Prrttlles tad not been a printer all h'lA life for 
nothiug ; he had pickeu, up with his l>i)«a, 
the trick of editorship, and re\nsetl the school* 
master's rough-draught with skill* Mr* 
Prattles then wore a pfifjer cap and {ui aprou. 
He fjublished liia pi-oapetitus, addiug now and 
tlteii new V.)ttfv, to give it additiomd zest* At 
one time it was headed 


Ajiotlier, the prospectus began witk 


lu a few years Mr. Prattles was a man of 
proptfrty, in time he was even able to sneer 
at Pix>f^88or Smith, with hia tool, my Lord 

When some foolieh old man, in a remote 
nirtil district, died at on advauced age, publie 
attention wajs pTuticubirly called to I*i'iittle» a 
pateut, hy a statement on the part of the 
lirni, that the \- ' ■ f longeWty in question 
w:is inidoiibt*-- ' t of the Methusaleh 

i*eoeipt. Pruu,. -» ,.•..,.. if d hia shillincra, and 
sniilefl at the woi Id : he laughed and wuu. 
To make all aiiuaiv^ as far as pjsailjle, he even 
went to the length of e-ating a few ehai'ity 
dinuet^ and suwcnbino' a few pounds in aid 
of h<iiapital and other funds. 

Prnttles'ft Pills sold prodigiously. When- 
ever a donbt was expressed respecting theii* 
efficacy . it wiis aikuced by relerence to the 
Banctiun of Her Majesty'a'Govermueut, whose 
mark picturesquely ailomed each box, to 
pixive the g(-i.ii:n.ati.^c4 ^f (1^^ Methusaleh 
Pilk ; just ah j ifwelleiy are stamped 

by the hssny ft* to show the standard 

excellence of the gtdtl or silver. Publicly, 
!Mr. Prattles corai»lained that the Govern- 
meut charged hiiii threehalfpence per im- 
Tir«^!<fiion, for these " Hall Mailts ;" privately, 
be wld»f)«riHl that to them he owed Iub 

Like all those who have much, Mr. Prattles 
wanted more. After b« had eiported millions 
oHr- Ar..n.M.-.l,.l, Piik ,.,,.,„„.^ .^.,1-ucr of the 
1^11. tempt-ed to 

intt ^ lie mai'keta. 

To III:, oil 

i.-i \h.'. 

of thai 

Daltry revenue. Un lLc coi/ 
Mr. rrattlea learnt, whij w^f 
^ things oil ' ' 
I : evtn 

all I i to a lioar*i 

m*.'! t <i inguLshed for t; ^ .•»- 

ency in pharmacy and metlidno, who diMnde 
whether the non-profes«ioiml public cau Uv 
?«ifely trusted w ith them or noL Mr, PnUtlea, 
however, made a brilliant foitnne by bia gul* 
lible countrymen. 


I AM A Dutchman. My father, Mr. Laat- 
man van Ploos was, for many yeni^ one ^t 
the piinclpal writiug-ma«t«rB in AiQBterdajn. 
He taught ladies asud gentlemen, na w«U as 
lawyers clerks^ with much credit to 1uiq£#1^ 
aud advantage to them. But the class lunoog 
whom he vr^a considei-ed to be the moat i %p«rt 
and successful, waa that of the merchimU^ aod 
traders' apprentices, whom he taught to write 
a free, bold, rapid, legible hand. Some few 
were not ao good, of course ; and no two wer« 
exactly alike ; 1 »peak, however, of tin iLat 
balance in his favour. The most | 
who had learned to write of Mr. i n 

Pboa could be known by their li h 

were accounted the most exctdleii . -*i, 

aiiick writing and eac^ reading, in all Ant-^tep- 

There was a large family of us. I am iiiinaid 
to aay how many brotliei-^ and aihtera I hod, 
especially sisters ; Vmtall of ti •- " -r- ♦ „,..\.^ 
writ lug by my father, ajid ll 
better than others, the wh . . ..^^ 

van Plooses wrote good hands — with cmm 
exoeptiom That melancholy oiie, vvwj L 
What pain it w.'4s to my fathei' to receive th% 
letters I wrote to him ! Yet it was not lik 
fault ; for he did not teach me. 

I mil explaiu how thia wa5L A few wonii 
will fihow why my writing did not, niid to 
thia day does not, deserve to be called A 
'' hand,' but i*ather a elaw^ — and a broken 
claw, too, Bometimeh. 

My father iiaWjig made a considerable sum 
by hia le^^on* in WTitiug. entered into a small 
trade in pipes an«l tooaeco. He vraa so 
successful in thia that he soon became a 
merchant ; abandoned pens auiJ pap^ for 
meerschaums and kamwt^r ; aud determined 
that one of hia boub should be educated in 
England, an*l bet^jme hiis f^jcni there m »oou 
as he was old enough lor so inij>ortant aa 
office. 1 wft.H the '^ ' -■ i ■ted for thia pur- 
pose, and at the a:. I waa comiigued, 
together with a lai^ <<i Dutch pifHi<i, to 

•*• b^Moi.! 



n,i of rav tiiib' ' '^ ^^\lllu .•!■ 
Aler in \ 
% — n. mv^ . 
liondoo, I wjk& plftced under the 
of Mytibeer TruiLkeuhi-K^ma agent';? 
mt, from wl»M«i I received the fhvt radl- 
ffitft of 1 ', till one dav 

y*i ej'i' I'd l»r tlie a<lv! 

lir. >- -'■-■- -'-■' --' " 

SkAd edu 
six and i..^> ^, , 
ljv«n the best of di* 
requisite t<j 
84? excellent a tbiug that abt? jfprt:- 
_ the ca»e in the most elomienl maimer 
Mjiihter TnmkenljwxJins on liia neit visit 
Ivfmdon, who rb»>Uirht it would be jiist 
rhat mv i* " ' ■ rdingly I was 

•ut to 111 ri Spijihlicfitr, 

}]' Mlfiervv: niu^H, ruij.niweU, H«"iford- 

I ttball «ST Uijlhiiii; abiMit my genernJ educn- 

jou. I sludl Bijenii orily of the "writing de- 

uiitJeut of t\n»i mvmk-iuy. Oh, it wna vt rv 

lillWent ill it« tncth^d lo that of my f;.' 

re ^voTT twu cL'i?"K?'5^ ; J he* big KiTrf' • 

t,] v?' oLi>-, I was in the LUkr. 

k uvery (L\y we wei'e called to 

jj a,ud 1^1 laced id the same desk as the 

cUws had u?*ed l>«fore us, and on the 

Ibnna. Tljesc' foraia, to save the ex- 

Auited to the different 

'^ ivru classes^ were e^j 

1 , beLog tCMD high for 

M', for us little one^. 

always present e<l u long 

:% and boya' noses pomt- 

lowu their qtulls ; while 

nt^Ml a lon^ row of ^titl* 

1 ■ s pointing np t " 

! ut was well ei. 

t IT sized boys; but un 

ill th<? position I have 

ote with quills ; Siteel- 

come iuto use. Our 

ill fnl tills 

1.1. ,f r1, 


Of tWi 






not then 

<'lduta siyi»» 1 n^ • we could not mend 

oursMdvt\- thweil not iwk to 

rs'Tu run - when this favour 

-te, the acqui- 

' compimied by 

uii tke cUccl. diieoUy the pen waa 

or n cnwrk on the crown bv one hai-il 

the bov 
ler crown 
of a nrf 

it. A crack on 
from the bonv 

rds. i 

1 n fv.i.t 


to dt!at li. or eUu d Wiiii » uind pain. 

Mr, blmon »Spi]>Urti?jite vrna a preacher, and 

lirul a suhacription nieeling-hoiifei*. He stood 

MX f*^t two, out of his shoes. He was ^exy 

' f had large iMinej*, Hia face wn« 

Itby r>nle^ with a mouldy tint In 

. ii.j»'k, ana his great nose w : " n, 

red at the end. He ba*l h, 

, i Wunj silver apectaeles will 

round gbssea. The ujiper parts -: 

were thin, but from the knees down . -y 

were extremely large^ and always ciised in 

long black gaitera, sti*ap]>ed under the slioe, 

and buttonoil all the way up to the bend of 

the knee. Thia dreadful Hgiire, fwhich^ to the 

I -i ions of a little boy, under ray etr- 

•3, waa not so much like that of a 

-".II..: "! his own Bj>eciea, as of some gigantic 

foreign bird,) staUcerl up and do\>Ti behind our 

[backs all the tune we were writing. The 

suddenness with which a blow would fall — or 

tlu- homble expectation of it, us he srtood 

thing down through hia nostrils upon the 

Iv of my head — ma/ie the whole time of thia 

\c6iion a tortui*e of the mimi. We all wrote 

w& in fear of our lives. 

I When the leason waa over — oh, what a 
moment this waa ! True, it was over ; but 
, then we all had to show up our eopiea to him 
in sfuccesfiion. He now sto^Hi twirhng a abort 
ruler in hia fiu'^ers, Wliai the writing waa 
veiy K%d, or l»lotly, he eeized one of the 
culprit'ti haud3~often the right hand — and, 
bending the fingers down, beat it over the 
knuckles ; so that in a few minutes afterwards 
they were swollen a? large a.^ miirbles, and all 
of R red f^nd purple hue. Thia it was oflen my 
I waa four years at Minerva 
iiy. Of the methods of inatruo- 
ipni ill iiii^Mi-'' ., ; -T". in Tjatin : " ' f ' -k 
rudiment*, U\ , and in y 

and the abuse I'l vn- ^vUi^s, I will sj* » ,.-iu..ig ; 
but as for writing, I came away with no 
epistolary *'hajid" of any kind, no notion of 
how it was to be acquired, and with a nioi'tal 
hatred of the fine art of penmanship in which 
all our family excelled. 

Ml". Spiphlicate gave me cake and wine on 

the morning I left ; and, all amilea, shook 

haudd wilIi me at parting; but my heart shud- 

I der«d within me at lii^s touch. Tlie r<-'eoHec- 

I tion of his smile-s, and the suVlue<l .and tender 

I'ld of his voice in sajing "Gootl-bye, van 

'h/* puzzletl my conec]>tions of Ijunian 

ire for yeara aJtervvju,!^ '000*1" with 

i\ tone, and a risii n — '^ Oood 

*'* — and the Bj\\htw m gnffiu I— 

n. I think of it now, thoajL^h twenty- 

:i yeor^ have ulapsi>d, 1 sometime* feel 

t I alhxUd like to smaeh his spectacles 

u his face, and aaanult him witn u neir 


of about thirteen I left the 

being refoae<i admission into several merchants^ 
conntinff-howse* on account of uiv " hand,*' I 
Wr ' * ^-itji a wholesale tobacconist in 

it^ to leani the busineag. My 
ۥ1 13 iit an end, and my penmanahlp 
It- lUflf, to proceed upon the beau- 
ti! Illation jtnrt described, I gradually 
fell iuU-t ji s*^»rt of writing of the very worst 
kind — slow and ahapelesa, or rapid and il- 
legilile, and aeldom twice alike. Tliia con- 
tinued through yeani, under vorioua circum- 
8tAjjc«a of life, till here I am, a loU^cconist of 
forty, who can't write hie wfe'a Christian 
nanic in a manner fit to In? rt*iu\ I 

It may here be aaked, by those who coii- 
rider this nmtter of Imnd-wrltin;/ in a nieoha- 
nical light, whether theru is hut aomtthing 
Awkwara or \inaui table in the shap of my 
hand and fingers, or a certain inflexibility, 
inapt at all neat and curious manipuiationa } 
Not so ; but the ountniry. I innerit from 
niy father an firtist^a hand — not elegant in 
shape, but aniatl, flexible, and hanng a 
natural instinct an<l running for luiy nice 
operations. My father, besides his nmt«hlesa 
** ptjnmajiship/' w^aa not only a devout ad- 
m\mv of Cleranl Dow, and all the Dutc^li 
paintexa, who iiniwhed tJverytliinL' to the 
minutest touch, but oilen aii\tiiied hiiuaelf 
with making copies of aonie ftnii etchingB 
from these. Tiiia I tdso did, and attained 
gncli proficiency with my pen in making i>en 
and ink drawings that they could Hcarcely 
be known from copper-plate etchingis, 1 like- 
wiae took readily to muiiiical inntruments ; 
and I did not find the sanie degree of diffi- 
culty in the niauipulation of strinfa, the 
fltofiping of " ventiges," or the touching of 
kev», that l» cjomman to nearly all Iwginners. 

1 ll>egan with eme^ and alwaya improved 
rapidly in prt>iKtrtiou to finding time tt) prac- 
tiae. I have a tuni for cabinet-making, am a 
£0od plain carpenter (I hiui almotit s}ud 
"cook ), have some skill in practical mecha- 
Ttlog, and the use of all the took and inBtrit' 
nienta, luid beiieve that if I had been a 
dentist I could have Uiken out a doable tooth 
in a manner that would have delighted you. 

But ie there no other reanoii, liesidea early 
misdirection and ci-uel treatment, for the in- 
famous Bcniwl I write ? Is thei^ iiothin*' in 
my nervous temperament and character which 
may account for it, or at learft bring in a new 
jiikI iraport^mt element to the consideration ? 

If my father was a slow, pkilfiil, mins- 
taking, fine-finishing, phlegmatic Dutchman, 
what was my mother ] I shall say briefly, 
that iladmn van PIoos was a fiery-epirite+i 
BptinLsh lady, who alwayn very much looketl 
down upim my fiither, and despised hii* 
'*hand.*' Her parents hafl matle up the 
m.itc)i, she l>eing quite a girl at the time. 
She WHS my futlier's opiMDsite in mu«t things. 
She luwl no ^jatieuce, no sort of aj>plicntion, 
Jio natural aktU in anything ; she had eitni- 
ca'dinar)' energies tuid animal »pirit8. did 
everything upon impulse, aiu] alttniAtea the 

waimett ftflectkniB s>r ' ' 
quent boTBta of fair ' 
ratherV pftn fiy r^ 

But let us n( 
La going *>«i " ^^ 
ordloary^ i* 

My thought** ideas, or in short, tho impi 
sions and opinioti^ T wi<i!h to convty njs 
paper, conn? mjk.) 
all at the pit eur 

to get throii^jh th'.- duui=lL:iL I hui\- , 
lutely no patience to make u letter, but 
sci-awluig along, no that it oftt.jj li,. 
cannot myMelf read what 1 have wi 
turning to it a few d^yB after wnr 
r«>aAon is — It is nut wntiag iit all, br 
strange marks and eyj>)iers of n^ 
Would any good early teaching \ui \ 
seized this I I thinlC in a gi-eat .i 
would. It would not have prevented .» i 
scrawl, wliicJi is the result of a pecuj 
cluu-acter in mind and temj»€raii>eut ; but 
would have a strong tendency to render t 
scrawl legible. 

llie question of how far the chai-acter 
men is t*> \n> known by their ha!i«'^v*^» 
involves many \'<ery curiour* and ii 
ccnmid*^rations. Pv s.hik' it hafl been i ^ : 
as a matter of d I i conjuiing ; but 

liny case there i^ true to bt^ maile 

it. 'Wa ae« adveriij^emtiil^i, from time to t 
b the newepapetv, oflering U* divine 
dividge the charTioter of any unknowii jterson] 
whose handwriting ia brought to them, at 
small charge of five ehilllnga jxir charat*lef. 
By these meana men^ al>:>ut tn engage 
partnerslup, or to have import^'Uit tm-i * ■ 
with any one, may know liefore I 
character of the person with whoni L 
have to do ; in like manner lovera mav tii6j 
maile wise beforelnmd, and thone who fmi 
seci-et enemies may he warne<l and onnbl 
nrepare for the worst. Is this all not 
Not ail; but it is simply pushing, as 
commoidy see, a fact beyona its legitima 
l>ound8, till it becomes; an abaurdity, and m 
fact at all worth a pinch of snuiT 

Sitting in the UtUe back jiarlour of my shop] 
at Knight.sbridge, trying thenieritJi of sevenj 
new cases of pipes from Hollinit i,» *. . li 
they iwrformed, 1 fell into a It 
tlie iitlier tlay, on this very sul »j«'« ; 
after cloud rose with august placidity ini«j ih*] 
air, and bowed its volume down from thc^ 
ceiling, to exjiand and disi^rse itself alloverthtf i 
room, it seemed to me that 1 had ehibin?a<M! 
and mastered the comprehension of I he wholtti 
of the subject, — though I had loat several I 
customers in consequence, who, I lielieve^ haxil 
entered my sihop, and gone out agjiin, none th«5 

In the [JiMpositioii tliut cliai-fictor can be 
discovered by the hajidwriting, there is some 
truth, which may be considerwi tinder several 
distinct heads i-^ 

Ist. Physiologically. As the nervous s>'S(tem 



of neccaaity an influence on the hand- 
j, the jiiucniiit of excitability in the sys-, inoi'+i i>i* leaa, accoiilin^ to the 
of Uri moment. Yon may often 
iise the phyeiaJ teuitK'niinent very 
miy- The cohl mun, whose blood mo%^ea 
r will generally write Biowly. ciuefally 
lly, if not formally. Tli«' jHin uf the 
blood moves quickly, diwhefl aloug, 
the shape of lettei^ of «if nif iking 
iUl. The nnai of impulse utid the 
am of deli^Je^.1tif^n are thus very ol'teii Uiiuie 
>|mreut. It must , however, be b<inie in mind 
It the impulsive nmu may tje very cap»Ue 
tUe tnoet eerioiia delihurAtion, Aiid the de- 
lve man (thoujrh this is ieaa likely) be 
\e of impulse. A gti"iier,i! ini|iiy.ssion Is 
tt cjin be airivt-d at, in mixst .aKea. 
Sc'Ooudly. Let us look al this Metaphyei- 
My. Tlist the miml iuflufucea the budy, 
lobcmly doubts ; and it is only reanonublc to 
I't tfrif (lie peculifirity of individual minds 
I, will eommuDieato itself to 
1.: hand m writing. Ttiuse who 
iploy the rtrttsomng puwer-a chiefly^ will 
»uftlly write jslowly and legibly — (perhnpa 
Uh any i-egidftrity, for that dt'f)end8 upon 
licftl aptitude) — while those whose ima- 
^ron, fiftsaions, or fancy, is chiefly called 
^to play, Bcniwl ni}>idly and geldom very 
jihlv. We expect the logician to write 
rvr\' word with cleaniei!i3 arid precision ; we 
;f i,,.tiL;i.., of the BorL from the rb-amatist. 
aia are sometimes in a hurry ; 
ly Mcmwl wildly aa the drama- 
that a judgment on general nrinciplea 
it Cfin reaaonably be exytected. 
rtril\v<, we will look at the question Bio- 
r,'iphi«*nny. How were my previous positions 
f I found, by reference to Niehola'a 
'rt collection of Autographs^ and the 
'^ '' ' ' * (which I one 

fuaeura, leaving 
Uiii.M^. ... .1 ,..,tu..;, that in many 
so* tlie writing was vei^' mueh what I 
havtt expeeted ; in othei-s, it was just 
»te. liere are a few of thooe I mo8t 

UistihtJJt. She was taught win ting 
^ :Uan>. ITer tirat copy-l>ook \h to 
In thr ' l/ibran*. ' ^he began 

rcll, and ixup; ly, W^'liile FiiiictHd, 

lie ajriie lo \sni«'.i inuitiful r-i hand 

AvM ami nguhu* iilniOHt ai* ; hlj of 

It- • '■•■■'■" ! ••> t*---' ..-!.: after 

'1 did wimt 

-e! The 

now I the liTies 

rui liflv ■ Hu of her 


\\' ; inunen>te« 

lt*Uii*]v b I(jMv:i — -tJjil U»»"n anoili^'i' 

\ with a rti;^intiiri' wurkwl between, 

haviiiM il n ont- 

»<5 wild h food 

Martin Luther. Tlie writing waa linu and 
le'fible, though nut very equal nor very straight. 
This 1 thought a true version ; as he had 
strong piii^wions, as well ua strong ivjisous for 
what he diiL 

Sir Thomas More. By no mean* displaying 
the oalm firninesd be possessed ; the fine* 
crcMnkeil, and tumbling down hill. 

UaUnA. Mimly, bold, — with a ourcleBa caso 
and cleaniews denoting raaater>' of hand. 

Lord Bacon. Very like an elegant mo^lem 
shorl-hand. Clear, neat, and regular, Tho 
signature involved with broken lines, a.*i if 
a fly had struggled and diwl in, a spider's 

VoUaiit, Very dear, regular, steady, and 
straight ; evidently not wiitteu rapidly, but 
wttli a continuous eaae, which might go on 
writing book after book in just the swime way, 

Oliver Cn»iiwtll, Large, bold, legible, 8tej^idy, 
sham and straight. ITie signature ma«le 
wy 01 bjUWrda and pointed paliaaties. But 
another letter of lu3 was not at all of thiK 
cluu'acter. It displayed a perplexe<l and un- 
deeideil mind — at the time it was "ftTitten. 

Prince tie Condi. Not at all in aeeorda«e(> 
with tlie strong expreaaion and buffalo-features 
of Ilia face. 

Ch/trhttf Cordatf, Fimi, clear, steady, l)ut 
not without emotion, 

OinniT. Very like the writiiig of Charlotte 
Coniay, but not so utrong and compact. 

Ikinton. Wilful, daring, without methwl or 

George the Fourth. Not at all the very gen- 
tlemanly hand moat people would exptjct — 
rather like a houaemaid*9. 

Pope. Very bad, small, full of indecision ; 
a very hedge-row of corrections :uid erasures. 

Cardinal Wohei/. A good hnnd, diaturlx'd 
oiJy by nervous tinerg>' and self-wiO, 

Porsijii. Conect and steady ; the reverse ot 
his per«(>n.\l appearance and habits. 

Shaksi>enre. A very bad hand indeed, con- 
fused, crowded^ crooked in the lines, and 
gcarcely legible. 

ynp'oleon. Still more illegible. No letters 
formed at all ; the signature a mere hajaty 
'* (Scrimmage" with the pen. 

A few wort Li of general goasip on the 
subject. Of womtsn's hand-writing not so 
much can be said, at least, in our own day, 
when the ay^item of writing a fine baud of a 
pai'ticuhir kind renders so many of them idl 
idikt— hnndfi which seem to l>eVery beautiful 
and legible, but which are often not at all >^\ 
from the lettera i/t, ??, !/, i, and very ofl.en «, *, 
ftUil r, Vteing a mere series of up and doT^Ti 
elegancicB, which are indistinguishable. But 
among those which display charjicter, it baa 
ofttn l»eeu of a very different kind to the one 
expected. On the other side, see what Shak- 
BjM'are's experience haa noticed — 

Malt'**!io. By my life, this iw my la>] ,' ' ' ' - 
Tilt 40 ho hnjr very c's, her u's, and I I 

thuB makes sho her great Vi^ It Lii 
of question my lady'a hand. — Tiee^tf^ iVij 


sit 111 ^li" 1^:"'* *l^' Itnif*. 

actiiAi ciiiu-act<fr oi tiit* iwiy is tjli« grunt putai 

at lyjue. 

ilcrt) ttjc two wrv obJLrai:U*rietic observa- 
tioim of t\\ u > eiy ccU^limtcd meiu LAK'ke sityfi, 
iu a I'Htor to Benjamin FarJy, thftt ' 
qukKir A nuu) witles, ihe slower otliers 
v' ' ' hxs written! — UiMp" he painUniv 
u' n leiiKuk (luii njay oonc^rn ilie 
/"'/* as well AS letl<«»." L^i'i 
« ^ in otw nf Ills l*?Uer8 t> 

«■ ui who has tl»e uee of hia < ; 

biid ot ills haud, call write wluitever Imtid he 

1 hjul nmde noto« ni the Museum for miiuv 
mort\ rt^itsuckm, but, ou netuinijug hu»»« to 
I f^iund thai the little black 
vilii fiuthera, who hjuj>,'H i»M 

lae, with the Rtmlv 

, jtreaent^ that I j^h li! 

I Will rufTeiy coodude wi 
Frriich hi*!tc)riau I have li- 

K - • ' 


I In; 1' 1 1. -u.( ' 

which hj»H 

ofhunuui li... 

drop my pvu. 

stcrv from a, 

rca<f, whicli I think udmirably to the poiut. 

And wilt now trjittHlitc 

In the cai'ly i>art of the reign of LcMiia the 
Frturtec>uth; u Ib^U^j^aieae, u&iued IVimi, whti 
]>■ ' ' ' fno4S, aud wae i 

V r who had uti 

t J i.uiir by the Wat iu«, ui:- 

: e to Frunce to *e« what good I 
I il him. Iiuriu^ hia journey U. .1 

1 iris he ui:uk the acquainUuice of 

I" Duvnl, a jmilicularly clever euter- 

inisiug jK'i"son, wlio on their oirival jireaeuttiitl 
mm to tho Aby de Li Baume, alterwtirdH 
A I '• of EiubriiLu This reverend |.>ei- 
F lenly roiioflvt*d the idi^n of plaviui,' 

ott a \\n\t:i " ■ A kich ba» [i^eu 

Ctilk'd U7i^ on. Finding 

in the IwWu.^:. ,.M i wMv-:-. VI iVimi, together 
witli hin diah-rt, made up of Italiau and 
French J his adj*«»inn>s nui peiist^nal siddresa, 
all (ho tjiKililie^ -t the exi^cution of 

hi^ ]>rojeot, he s If up i^ith him for 

ftix wet^k^ set'iug uuIkxI v else, cjccepting xhe 
l>uke de Vetid^imt*, and tbo Grand Prior of 
Fkiucv, hid brother, to wliom he pr««enttHl 
rrimL All three employed the whole of thiii 
tim© in teaching Primi the private hifltors^ of 
pemouB of tin? Court — their intrigue«, tfieir 

J?' '"^•v-J, their love«, their hatreds, kc. 

- ' - they considered him sufficiently 

ill- :, the Abb6 de la Bimnie spivad 
it abroad that he knew an Itnliitu from whom 
nothing in the pa^t or future was hi<lden, 
the moment he set eyes on the handwriting 
of Any fxjrsun concerninc whom miything was 
floijght to be known- They took care that the 
first signature ahouW be tbit of a person whose 
hi- ! ^ fully known to Primi, by their 

i ' . Liords aud ladies, all the wealthy 

Hi*,, li, . wi^.-, men ;xnd women, the court and 
the city, luinied to Primi with autograph 
lettdra and aiguatuies in their hands, and all 

•'ftm«'i aWSV d«inilt-r.ini!JHi"*'il ni hiN ^IkI 

I what ht 
v*Hi all h. 

i.'onnt»'>*Hof S'ibantUH, »LiuV(;:4l]. 
hff pntrumige. From her he 
tra<.':t»?il all hvtXs i>f iir 
whole of which he i 
' .iccount. V 
i told her 
o-i,,. I- 

Li^ 1. 

iViiui. The ludiun < 
informed the C'ouiit 
that of an old ml&er, a 
pawnbriiker, — a fellow u. 
action. The lady Btoo«i <r,: 
a^eui^eii him that tliis ouc« hi 
moat stupidly ; but Primi p 
j?ming her that he had nj«il 
Tlu'r..iini.>.- torik back the 1f'.i« 

lungvnugc eti 
< tation of t^f^ 
hiind writing. 
. for the letter 
iuuidHiiting, but that of AL U 
1 Ilia iirivate aei"retar>', wh<» ho 

learnt I 

: , . IujV.' a,- 

with the pi 1, 

Ko»»e, The kiii^; w . 

the myatery. It wh-h iiM* deej' 

to be endure^l. Thf> noxt itior: 

his chief w/rt 

to him in hid [ 

hia Majesty, "1 iiavc <'>i\ly tw 

— ^)'onr secret ! — for which I ^ 

penaioQ of two thtiuaand ix)nnil- 

gallows!" It in hanily ne< - 

which of the two was choten by lL.. 




• It 


The nunicrouB heterogeneoua trait =; in ttfj 
.Hel^ui ehanicter (a^d^nable, of 
the mijted Rices of which the i^eoplt 
|>of*eil), are, in the opinion or the 
amusing of travelled gosteipe;, Herr 
ty^jified in the outwanl physio^ 1 
site of the Belgian cajiif/j. ii 
correaponili"- .„..-.m1;..,-;,;,,^ ju ^,^,_. ,, ;,^, 
Eurojjoaji f wlucli he con< 

exhibit t<.N ^ typed of th« 

racter of the nations to wKich they res 
itivelj belong; that chai'a»!ter lii»Li»g i 
^ fest m the locality and buildings of tbi^ 
themselves^ no less tban in the social 
pfjliticid relations of their inhabitants. 

**In St. Petci'slmrgh, with its gew-ifaw 
pducea, its ncwT ' ted streets 

in 8traig]it pjn it« total 

of historic m« i. la.iiL^, obiiervea ^.f 




' t> the shi 

the m.i 
where i i 

fvffrty, whilst the J 
Xew 1 

■ 'H ilo W<i T:'-^ 

of all b 
II tlie ruiiJ- 
', Uouspd 

<1 the arrogtint 

T^tate of taste 

Russia. In 

. atc'd fjiivirou^, 

;i!l'l i}iv niiato- I 

' Old 

-. of! 

■it oi%^''rvrr the' 

The scenery of Belgium is plafising rather 
Ihun graiKl ; conwBting chiefly of cidtivated 
plains^ here and there vftrieil l.v L'.ritle 
eminences. The«e fvaturce i ' 

coimtryiu tlie immerl»rtt*» envli 
At a little cl'-' , iLc \ullcy 

of the Sc'iine ■ nivt* iihiiiu 


of tiM? OJd j 

nnd closes i 

' :l;uul| 


'Hi L'j rcja-eat'iit 

iwlaru!-?, ecrioheU hy newly 

: ' :aid tnuie. Itt Vieuoa, 

1 .'-e, in alnioat all ^reat 

>vf ,,,ni K «iti*etch of ituii- 

-es, fill" I f'ulilic 

,lyphJCSj which, 

' d, revwil the liLstory atid chu- 

i tioii ruvd people to which ejich 

lliia uotiou njAV posaibly be domewhat (ah- 

ciful ; lL»ut, nevertheleBs, Mr Kohl supporta 

it by mjtu^ very iii^^fui'>ua rwisouingt ftud 

P' " ' it hy a multitude of curioiia fiictfl 

i to the Belgiau <:apitalj some of 

- "...f,. 

ud to be a fruit which 

^ tht! tree wliereon it hna 

Tlie mingled eleiueuts 

_ I oj jjeople are distinctly 

t I tli« wbule ouiwiuxl BApect of theii* 

ite (dd iipeciraetiB of arehi- 
' 1 11149 y» wttU as Gothic, Ix^iur 


: dominioD 

^ i Itch rale ; 

theiieo to the present Bel^aj) 

1 In pruning fruTiu on^ ^;1i^t^if*t of 

it is ninxf !.^ to 

i-^nts; of I ^e« as 

who, whilst 
to what Ls 
l»tttude Lti 

umum M 

the ajiti* | 







the wov»deU and hilly Walloon 

tu'l the mwHhy kiid of" Flaudera ; 

the lonn»'i' rerat'senletf by the Forest at 

iyoign^, and the Wter hy the»wampy rueiidowt) 

aluiijL; the Setiue. 

lirui^ela Is not oaly aujTouiided by parkit 
utid gardeiiH, but even within the city ^allfi 
the eye is contijiuallv refreshed hv the night 
of bhady trees and bltjomijig fiower-botls. 
The atriuiger, ou fij-st setting foot i/i llie eit^. 
La inipreaswl with the conviction tlmt he is m 
the heiu"t of a hi|,ddy cultivated and feitile 
land. iVIadi-id, the capital of a country in 
which agicultnre Rud Rardeuin^ are in a. very 
backward atate, lb UD.iaonied with vegetation ; 
nndf fis fiu- us regrirds trt^es and flowers, the 
HpLuiah ciutital, compru'ttl wath Bruflsels, is 
like a city m the mid»t of n desert. 

In nuirlted accordjuice with the elements 
of the |x>pulation, and with the natural 
featm-es of the country, are the occupations 
of the Belgians in theii* capital. Art aiid 
science, nianuf act urea and luuidienifls, flourish 
in Bruaaels, and an ent^:*r[»riaing ami specula- 
tive gpirit in trade ia a dititinctive trait in the 
Belgian charactei*. ^Liuiy branches of ujanu- 
facture have been brought to the highetit 
point of perfection in BrusseU, which is not 
mei*ely the residence of the Belgian court and 
noViility, but has from the moat remote times 
* ii an active tradinc: and man :'' - P2 

It is not lesfl celt^brated for 1 
.wi cloth and carpet-weaving^ thak ... o. .cu- 
tific and artistic efforts, and their succesafoi 

Aiuoug the residents of Brusaela we find 
rich banI<;oi"fi, merchuntt^ and raanufhcturere, 
as well as retired eapilalifita and land-o%inag 
nobles. In piiaaiing through the city, one fre- 
lauently finds a spacious gan.len a<\joliiing li 
aeusely-bnilt jji uup of houses ; or an elegant 
newly-erected building abutting on a venerable 
<»ld wall, the veatige uf paist eeutiiries ; or^ 
'^"+ r pressing a nmge of stately hoiHcs*. de- 
iiig the name of palacea, one suddenly 
r3 a manufacturing i^uarter of the city, 
with ita tall towering chimnej^a ; then, pro- 
ceeiiing a little further, w^e arrive at a CAiud, 
where ever-plying boatB keep up continuouB 
intercourae between the busy tnulintj diBtiicta 
of the city. Nobles who are proud to tmco 
their line»f?e, even in the twentieth docrrec, to 
John of Brabant and M.-ugaret of Famia^ 
drive their emblazoned e<^uipng;e>< (hrough 
*^' ' aame etreeta In which the humble hice- 
ijiii sit at work, and in whicli carpet- 
vei.s ;.a»lilsniitha, turners, dec., display at 



the doors mid mindows of tlio houae« the 
product** of their iiidu^ti^ aud skill. 

It I* H ffvct Uifjiily honourable to the Bel- 
gians, tliai they hiive earaed distiDction in 
alnictst every br-jiuch of human industry ; and 
tliat even* clf(»rt turning to a ueefiil purpose, 
^►htftiim frojit (hvni ready tinconj*ayenifnt an«l 
]'\ * ■ I fiict, no less • 

ii M DO clas8 or | 

Ciiji^mi.iiiiiil; i\ j'.ni uf i]w ;LjTesHt I 

ftuaily, in depreciated or dt'SptSfMl in 
This trail of the national chanicter U — . ,.j 
jimrkt'd iu Bruivn-ls, where priestJB, soldiers, 
govemnient olhciala, noblemen, trndcsmen, 
luerchaiitii, and mochnnicK, Uvt> in clow con- 
tact, not onJy umE^turlH'd )>y lioittile feelinj^^, 
"but on A footing of mutual respect, 

T\\\it Bt^itrt f»f things has, :ui loaj Daturally 
1 ' \Mi\ riae to a voaI degree of 

1 ion. In Brussels the Jews 

1i;m t 1 11 ' ; I : : Pro tcflt^-intA of varioua 

sects hnv'^ otive ]tliicea of worship, 

and id! an <,^. wll<»w their own religions 

«h«ervancea without iutederence *ji' uiole^iiii- 
liou- On her emancipation from Austrian 
nnd Dutch dominion, Bel^rium began to enjoy 
n runaonablo share of ixditical freedom ; and 
gince the restonition of national independence 
juid the esinblifjhment of the Constitution of 
1831, UruaseLs hm been the favourite aaylum 
of political refugees from all imrta of Europe, 
During the la«t twenty year», great numbers 
of foreii-uer** have settled in Belgium ; and 



m are f«*rsoua of all nvnks and 
. ploasure-Beeking men of wealth, 
;«nd nuthore, princes, noblemen. 

poiwible for any one writing 
on BrUbaeU, to omit some notice of its ^rin- 
t^pal squares, streets, anrl i>ublic buildin^js, 
aeveral of which excel all similar obiects 
of iutei*est in many other European capitalB. 
The Crnutd S^^uare, called the Place de nlOtel 
de Ville, hn.s ni>t its equal in any city of 
noitheni Eurojic, and is *>ul3' excelled by the 
ffi-eat ojicn placea in the towns of Italy ; as, 
for exsiUiple, the Piazzai of St. Mark, at 

The Place do PHStel de Ville ia a afMicion.i 
pnndlelogi'am, sun-ouuded by buildings i-e- 
niarkable for their giundeur and beauty, and 
deeply intcroating fur their antiquity. In 
other partfi r»f Ihni^wels many old streeta have 
been entirely pulled down, and whole dis- 
tricts have been newly built : but here, in the 
centre, and na it were the sanctum jptnicfonon 
of their cupihd, it would HOam that the citizens 
of iVuaaelH have preserved everj^ object with 
A Bort of religiouM care. This may be, because 
it lA the !i*|>ot" on which all their ruoflt fondly- 
cberiahed nalioiml recollections rally ; or, 
lieomise it would Vie extremely difficult to 
0|j«srate any change in that part of the city, 
owing to the solid and substantial nature of 
the buildings. Several of the honae.s iu this 
great square are of genuine old Spanish 
structure ; othera ana Gothic and Flemish 

buildings: nil l>ear the stamp "^ vf»n 
antiquity ; and time has vrvwi 
much fewer ravages than ar. 
the Piazjea of St, Mark in Venice. 

The Staflhuis, or to cjill it by Hi 
genendly adopted French name, the 
Ville, exceed.s in architectural Vm»»ii 
■ lilding in the Netheil 
the Statlhuis ia uu 
ii.tis'i^MMio Structure, The ,-^i«ii.i<-i 
whicli surmounts the roi:>f of llu« 
fifttel de Ville in one of the moat 
I creations of architectural skill ; on its 
{ stmtda a statue of the Archangel 
which, Btrmigely enough, is made to 
the funetiona of a weathercix'rk. Evm 
privfite houaea ia the Place de THilVtel 
Ville are all more or less pnjfasely d 
with ai"chitectural oniauient*. §ome Im 
been the scenes of great eveiita which hoi i 
pr€>minent place in the world'- ^ " 
othera are asuiociatwl trmilr 
strauge domestic incidental, \vi... ,. 
jireserved in the memory of the i i 
Irum generation to generation, dui 
or four centuries. 

I aaw the window from which the O 
i^iont and Hoom 8te|iped forth to tiv 
Bcaffold prej)ared for their execution \v- 
Germana, whithersoever we go, 
thoughtfi wandering to Goethe an 
In Switzerland we seek the 8}xH rriii. i 
memoriible by Tell's renown, nnd we Wf-rnl 
our way to Kussnacht and 7'"' " • 
Genoa. Fieaco s palact> i^ our 
attrriction, and m Belgium c . 
are absorbed in everything an»ociat434 
Goethe's Egmont. 

It waa iu the great Hall oi the Brui 
Stadhuis that the Emperor Chnilt'!^ tb< 
perfornjt'<l his solemn act of 
son Philip kneeling' at Ida feet, 
a^Aemblage of Prmce^ and >»..M»*3 
luxkund him, Thia abdication m a auQ 
which Belgian artiata would aeetu to 
a strong prtHlilcction, and in many of 
paintingH thia scene ia ably iuid f»ow 
povirtrayed. Few hiatorical subjects 
a deeper and more varied intereat, or 
l»etter opf»ortunity for the employment 
grand pictorial accessories. 

One of the moat remarkable of the Oi 
hiatoricjd houses on the Place de riTi'itel 
VtUe at Bruaaela, ia that now diatiii-. " ^ ' 
the name of the Ilotd tie Bt'asseurk, 
to have been the residence of Ch.ui 
Fifth. Another hffuae knowm bv the 
lation of U Pot (TEtaiJi, is that in whii 
Duke of Wellington eabibli^luHi his h 
quarters in the year 1815, mid whore he ga 
a ball on the eve of the twittle of Waterloo. 

But the house which moat hrmly rivets 
obaerver'a attention, ia one fronted 
balcony. From that balcony the Duke 
Alba witnessed the execution of Egmont a 
Hoorn. There, whibt the fatal axe wj 
raiaed over the head of the noble Egmo] 




Alb* ].' ' ' " V ^hed those crocodile 

temn ^ r m his Historj' of 

Fail '- _..t...,v..,, 

ben I visited the H6t«l de Ville, I was 
tlie kt>B of tlie city gates, wJvidi it is 
ry lo' |-jreaent (aa a mark of honour) 
'jgm aiid other cjistinguished per- 
*u Ihbir solemn entry into BniHselfl. 
["Itep Rre niatlc of silver, and tuv niajitei-- 
of workmanship. On the himdle of one 
them, the city itself is repre5ente<j in moat 
'' ■ key?* hjwl tongiieH 

' hey not tell of the 
ii x.^^..i<. -y. which Bnisseli^ ha* 
]je< D the scene 1 During the last fifty years, 
tJie keys of Bi-usseli have lieen presented 
Tinder very various circumatances to three 
'very dlifereut mastera ; — Nnpoleon, William 
of K»i«&&ii, and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. 



Ko one cait question the gix^d inteDtious of 

oiir country iii persisting in the slave blockA<le* 

Putting out oi consideration the enormoua 

emii- iLU over-taxerl people are mmie to con- 

' to this Africain slave war, th«? question 

iKSL whether such intentions areprLMliic* 

live of und etid they have in view, Tnnt the 

liorror* of th*» i^tASAager from Africa U:> Brazil 

idly aggnivateil by the dread 

1 [itiire by oixr cruisers, is M'ell 

^uiiw li, 1 a:iL, uiiitead of proiidiug something 

ie & convenient Bpjkce for their human 

...»•,.,., 'jj,g to land all in health 

i:orH in human fl+*ah now^ 

Hi and alighteat"clippera" 

Iri which tbt»y Btow aa many slaves aa they 

can posaiVily pack together, stud only strive to 

umkv the run aa fast as ihc^ can, is equally 

w^Il knowii And why f Because our 

cr ' lined the price of hhiek flesh 

ii luarket, and the slave trailer 

' can only escape capture once 

anti on that occaRion hmd 

.• - li,. >. .^. hia cargo alive, he will have 

xuiuli^ an exctUcnt proiit on the thrt^e 
*♦ venture*,** 

How hanl a slaver ^"ill strive to ei«cape 
i:^pfnrt\ and how <j:n?.i1y she will tumble to 
the follo^v h will show. It is 

Hfriry in » Imt n«Ti>^a. 

Huu and 


♦I'j'v I i>. W, couif?e 

ue. Save the 

■' ■ - iix>k-out»" in 

ven,^ one aeeiae*! takiuj? it easy. 
d tlierK wan no inducement to 
for the sky Wii« cloudless, and the 
if ih:i* brdmy warmth that 
mcj r. TIk* men, 

jfor»", ; as " ns they 

■ he deck ; the 
uv teas<Mi the 
#Ookt til** Hui>;v<ut oiviue*! tiin 1x1116 between. 

watching thf> flnng-fish and readia{> a new 
work on anatomy (t!iou(;h he never turn«'d a 

f.v.^», ,.:.,,..^ . ^^^l,]],. f}... I-Mtfliaut of th« 

L;ne," or occa- 
'^tx'pe the blue 
hilis ot Madagascar in the dustance. 

'* Sail ho I ahouted the look-out in tho 

" Wlii*re away 1 " cried th<» Uoutetiant, 

Hpriuiting to hia feet, while at the aaroe- 

inormnt every man seemed to have lost hiii 

I liMtleaaueaa, and to be eager for action of any 


"Over the starboard quarter, makinff Soa- 

1'he captain hastened on deck, while th© 
second lieutenant nm zdofli to have a look a^ 
the strange craft. 

" What do you make her out, Mi. Saunders ? '* 
asked the captain. 

"A fore-and-aft schooner, Sir, hull down." 

*' 'Bout ship," crie<l the cfiptain ; and in an 
instant every man waa at his po«t. 

" HcIui'b a lee '* — ** raise tacks and sheets ^^ 
— " luainsjiil liaul," &c. ; and in live minutea 
the SemiramU w*m standing in pursuit of tho 
atiTinger, while the men were employed in 
** cracking on ** all siiil to aid in the chase. 

What is it that makea a chase of miy kind 
so exciting ? Tht? ijidescrilmble ea^^emeaa 
which inii>els human nature to hunt any-thing 
huntahle is not exaggerated in "Yathek, 
in which the population of a whole city is 
dedcribed as followiuL' in the chiwe of the 
black genie, who rolletl himself up into a ball 
and trundled away before them, attracting 
even the halt and the blind to the pursuit. 
Btit who shall describe the excitement of a 
chase at sea I Mow eagerly is everj* e^'e 
atrained towards the retreating aaila ? how 
auxioualy is the result of eacb successive 
heaving of the log Listened for ! how many 
are the conjectures aa to what the stranger 
a-head may prove to be ! and how ardent 
are the hopes that she may turn out a prize 
worth takW ! For be it rememberetl that, 
unlike the diase of a fox on land, where no 
one cares for the object jjuraued, cupidity is 
cnliated to add to the excitement of a cluise 
at sea. Visions of prize-raoncy float before 
the ey^ of every one of the pursuerw, from 
the captain to the cabin-boy. 

The Seroiramis beiuff, on the tack she had 
now taken, conaideramy to the windwaixl of 
the stranger, there wa^ evei-y chance of her 
Aoon overling her, proridecf the hitter held 
the course she was now steering. But who 
could hope that she would do that 1 Indeed, 
all on boanl the brig exjiected every moment 
to hear that she was lying off and rmming 
away. If she did not do so, it would be almost 
a proof tliat she waa engaged in lawfid com- 
merce, and not what they luid expected, and, 
in truth, hojied. 

An hour had passed, and the Senurarais had 
visibly gained on the schooner ; so nmcli »o, 
that the bull of the Utter, which wjm luag» 


:-,!, "-Mcingj cuuM noir l«| 


ffi.1111 th« tunixil-up. 

*• I botwj nhe will tarn out a tk^tter pme," 
r«»nlit»il till' L'upUm. 

^Hic inilL i«» they luwl ciptureil that tttne 
poll Fctlroj cotidemnecl htsr. and V»rokw» her 
up. The capUiu wa*\ ovsnerti of her hsul 

ho'w/* KJiici the tm tlie T 

** mny be sUi-' waf '»vr UHi Otf ^ 

by |»retHn<linx tu W iiil right ami j>rujMrr, and 

not tn have n. notion tliat we can he coniiTig 

after hi^r." 

tioo to bi 

AOfd it 

I WI18 ■ 

.^^.,....,...,1 . .,., ,.,r»tj to the antii^actioii of the 
j\ -lie VPJU4 no/ iMipii'^eJ in tb*- 

^ 1 n'liiiyrnu.'ijitv. « M-i'v in&o on 

] I at her' 

(■ . quot.l of 

vciujg jjii/ It Muald be iropoM*ibl* Xo 

'\\ , w.'ig a Koi :tnxi«tT \*'ith which aII on btmt^i *Jl» 

oil boo.; J the fe*jiiai;iiiiia. I raraifi now watcbed the litUc I 

Another hour i'l:i|>»cd : the bull pt the wjw literally msliiug into 1 1 

iH ' ' js'an Ui.\ui viftil ! "' "Ic* ihtdk of stractiivn ■, ' ' 

t dhew;uinvi nii crafl : ee.%9ive w 


'1 ha ImmeDse adTnntAg* 

ptxjkn. ..4 .^.iucipfttion 

Lrina; in w theiu. 

<1< I] ( aIUt c«uij*i'. anv- 

Sbrtw the colours," ci'ietl the eapi;^ on the quite irre«5pective* of the pme-i 

iig at that motnent 
the little cnwfl 1. .4. 
iunS wuled m gaily, ber wl 
iip«ra flaabing in the bth, 
]inniuera mentally prayeil lot- 


k ; ** Itst *a »e4f wliat flajj a1 
i«h en«igTi was soon Ion 

tl • ; but the Bcboonei ai 

^ rs in renly. 

'n-t lientcnftnt, wbo tv ,^ 

V !i the gijisa, cried 

Then? wtvi a. ftboi-t pttuae. Evcrj' KorL ul 
«py !^!n5<^ in the ship wns in ie<]ui8itw»u, Kvery 
I " I lined to its utJaoat viHunl teii&iou. 

"1 :: broke tbe tfiknce with *' Holloa ! 

hin < e.tsing off; going to run for it nt 

M loaf b)^ her de»tnictio 
doet not like to see t\] 
.<ri...^ie,&t any pritv;, 

I Tlioy begfiin ulitjo< lo llilnk tbe scl 
"l».f»» a chinned life;" t'n w1.». ^^^.-m^id 
lug over the very , lad 

>' foam of the Vir*aj:< i l>ete«i 

round Iut. 

<* Bleaaed, if I don't Ibink nheS ^hr Fit* 
Dutchman^*' aaid one blnc-jacV 
^' Goxnmon, Bill — ain't wv r 
and don't you know UmtV ju-r, wUe 
Flying Dutchman never eould get 

She 'a a Uftle too late/* wud the lieutenant, replietl bi* meswnnle. 

*' Befoie the wind these ltir»vjuiit'aft schooners 
nrr tniiv ^Imhi -h r,n tbe wind they're clippers/' 
lie LS clear that the t^chooner bud 

ftt Uvt lu jMLii f^rberlifo, Hy going 

otf with tiie will J 'i , t n nr.>od Ptart of the 
bri^' ; fuid, althMn.i ,t . ,i^ h*'r worst point of 

The little schooner bonnda onwai-ds in 
— 'Buddonly she staggars* and etisTy 

•* She baa struck ! *' cry twenty 

Now j^ Hmob with a coming wavo, and 

unifing, still the breeze was so light that, while she aettien down iigain with a viftlence 

it auited b'-*r, it was iutufticient to niake the 
b**rivler briif i«»ll welL 

For tbruo hounj the chase continued, and 
neither vp«8el seemed to gaitj ou the other ; 
1ml the br* eze was now frcahenin^% and the 
Bendramis at length bet^an tn diminish the 

distance l>etween herself and thf< Brjixiban. rent asumJer— her crew nre stimg^tjUuff jj 

Ri^bt ft-bead, in the coui^e they were pur- 
»iung, lay a point of land projecting fnr into 
the eea, and tbe cbait showed a tremen- 
dous reef of rockd extejiding some three 
miles beyond it. It wn* certain that neither 
ve»8el could clear the reef, il" they held the 
course thev were then steering, 

"Keep her a little inore to windward/* 

brings her topm^ats on the d<»ck, 
^ Out with the boatjt/' is the order 

ImmitiI tbe *Semirami«, and the men fly to 

ecute it- 
Another wave lift* tbe schooner — ftnot)i< 

ft?ai*ful crash — aho rolls over — ^licr «b 

water — and with them («!ver)* niftn 
at the Bight) hundreds of negro<»a, mani 
to each other and fetteied to the lower d* 
are shot out into the fimm. 

Brav<»ly pulled the aeamen in the bonta of 
tbe S ■ ; but two Ktrong swiramei 

who ' their way tbroiigb the l»o*dini 

aurf, wLie au they saved. So sLigbt was th< 

^Ul(M f>U^M«.| 


■? As a i' r 
ill cJise L'. .....;. oc 

caiieci on to pilot a «hip ; nor a tmkfci 

'T pneiinifttics Lest rnf.y some 

him to construct n*! ; so a 

Mpdc'J'^ aciih, two Mily of tilt', 
iturivoii to t«}U of tbv numWr 

StureJj tJili& aad tale xudv ut least bu »»l*l<*ji 
okiftloLiie of ills prtjAnoeil by Eu^lAnd « 
j»»t^iitiona " iu slm-iiig to Buppres« the 


Ay innof^nit-lookifisr littl<» book lies on our 

+'i>r which 


' ► mer- 

[31 ^e LB 

1 1 appears 

V hcnu«, as 

itvoductfi stic Medicine 

every f\y> It ia niennt 

■ lie lii»i>»e 

U uud \u\Lv,, utliers and 
i'jory of what they rtnn uever 
|tT7n-tiee; yet tho very turn, 

- «»f their existence — their 
' r sTrLillc^t fictions by day 

lly not a 

aiiu'Ut at smF!!- 
duv twt:<T>r;. ;, . 1 

eithi'i' tit f iubc W'.i 
t»> Ije called into ai.i 
emergency^ the &lii f > 
the divHr woidd be s 
Wiied for lifn. Ij, 
cifdlVya little ' 
gtfTooB, It is a : 
Th«CKlore Huuka 

•* :irul tins 

lnd<»eil if 


Jt;ini Willi"!*' 
end, and y^ur[ 


uLs hnp^rtdi in 
V don't liHppcn 

were predpieeB, door-stepM jg^ 

-. not iii«reiy a diizi- 

Curisin William " has 
alre**iy raiated the perils of domfstio medi- 
cine in tne piv 1 - -■ ^ - ^ * . t, , 
eer his aunt, i 

her power ot u^-.u ii, ...,=. ., > .t^ 

Dick Turpin cleaned out t\ ii At* 

power of their wealth : but sL .. hftrm- 

teeci nuisance compared with an Uncle Thomasu 
a Mr. BriggH, or an Annt IHargerv, armea 
witli a pair of forceps, n lancet, or a AcalpeL 
Euphemia has swoomed ! " Open an artery ! '* 
exelaims Uncle Tom, and rtishea to his t«xt- 
htyttky ties up the arnu opens his lancet, then 
the vein ; and lastly, being perfectly innocent 
of its existence— the arter}- below. ' This i& a 
mortal injury. Enphemia lin^'ora, and only 
reriveg after the applicatiun of much profea- 
aional skill and a yearns ilhieiss. 

How vei-y straight-forwiu'd and mechRuiciil 
appears tlie act of tooth-drawing ! ]Mi'. I'lHigg* 
tries his hand on the dentals of bis heir ; but 
breaks down the jsruma^ lacerates the cheeks, 
and fracturea the jaw-bone of liis eldestdmrn. 
Ever\'body ^uptKtses it easy to lance an infant '0 
IS or divide^ with a pair of scissors, the 
membrane which holrh* down the tongue 
111- J causes what is called ''ttmgne tie," but 
there are blood-vessels aronnd, which cannot 
)e wonnded without danger. Aunt Margery 
Inrings the sweetest of her nieces to deaths 
l.jor \\v trying that very- oj^eration. The art 
y is so mnch a matter of tact and 
xtcrity, that even some profesBiooiaia 
practise it with certain im- 
I its. It is not every fnefol»6r of 
Cuii^e of Surg^eons wh^ ^v 

5 bandaiEre with the requ 

iii-i-uinr jx>wer 
! . ' The late 
■ ■ ..' tiuul: .»f 
rhe eiepiiant. lis 
Imt tlie delicacy of h 
that ho citiild lay dutiuci h^A^t 
objcv't. IJut wluM^e is thia e^tn 
tion of manual aptitude to be fuiuK t 
Brings may bo very clever in 
Mr. 6rii ■ 


tluS p0Wef of ** viiv» • lint nf wliAf 1|h^ hT^ 

ibow Aoeomf)! 

»iiaioiziy, aiitl dex 
liii^Mie-kmfe, thr 

^ery, to tht i 
(together witli 

It sui 


Im of lamb! 

We must Dot^ however, forget that 
and ettkeargencles do ooczuiioimlij ooinir in 
domolic uie. in which aome knowledge of 
m«diciiie ana surgexj is demnndtMl^ and mjiy 
be moot efTectuAlfy put into practlee. Such 
are the occaeionfl when ^ a little knowledge ** 
U no< **& dangerou* thing,^ for we maj 
thereby mitigate suffering, and even save 
human life. The line of demarcation, how* 
ever, mtiei be drawn between tboee cases which 
an onprofeaBional person may deal with **pro 
lent/* and those which it would be dangeraua 
far him to meddle with at all. "Thus far 
sbalt thou go anil no farthtir." Every good 
bouaewife £ould know as well how to make 
a poultioe as a plum pudding, and whether 
made of bread-and-water, linseed-meal, bran, 
veaat, ti-eacle, or mustard, she should bear 
in mind the emphatic words of Abemethy, 
"Poultices are either bleflsin^ or curses as 
they are w«U or ill- made." She shouM have 
some knowledge of embrocation^ the should be 
learned in linimeDta and lotiona— hence, with 
iuutfihom and oil, opodeldoc, soap-liniment, and 
Goulard Water, her acquaintance should be 
intimate. She should be able to droaa a blister, 
nut on leeches, apply poor man's platster, 
bttttflagw A apcain, foment chilblainfi, put on 
sticking plaiater, and administer other harm- 
less Atyrytics, includiog burnt and intact tag. 
She might also be allowed to dispense simple 
nie<Ue*mea Like sennar-tea, magnesia, ihubarb, 
Epsom salts ; but we should strictly prohibit 
her ftvm using opiatea, mercurial prepara- 
tions, including that eternal '" hydrarg.*' which 
DLppears at the top of every preliminary pre- 
scription of every routine practitioner, beside 
iodine, and many other potent remedies which 
ma; * sly miaapplie«l. It should always 

hti ! 'l that Medicines differ from 

poi»o.. ..... iu their doaes, in other words idl 

medicine is poison if administered ignorantly 
and in excess. 

For advice aud instioiction in these harm* 
lesii helps in need, the Kltle work we are now 
cousideriiig will be found exceedingly effica- 
cious. It is to the surgical operations it re- 
eom mends and detoribes that the force of 
objection U greatest. 

The practice of domestic surgery, ought 
to be eaoeedingly limited. The' idea of 
** Every man his own Surgeou," which we now 
eouteiid against^ wo\Ud be curioualy absurd, 
if it were not a pix)blem how &r uxy man 

i'ki»iMh«j (u t^ (;aff«,t\«. Ik M 




-1 v.^M,,! 


iri^ty be trusted to desl surgieUIy with 

ri frame. Onr own opinion ia, tbi»t 

_ ' tiroate agency is extremely eont rueted. 

a all conceivable '* Hint<i vn l^iei^itcsea^ 

li?tt nature are entirely thrown away. W< 

\ cijiifess that we see no ol^ectif ~ 

-^Jf-8urL'ical oj^jeratiomi in which 

, ' re or len^ .'« 

i?y. We 

hand, he mar cat his own corns ; ai 

be a stoic and don*t mind ridicule, oi 

mistaken now and then for an escaf>ed 

he may cut his own hair; but wv* i! 

emphatically protest against hi^" 

own broken thigh, or diiawin 

teeth, or cupping liimseli^ or r 

fracture of his own arm ; or a* 

ing tetanus instead of haatening 

feasional Bui*geon, and^ Ull tlieu 

holding hi* jaw. Gowper, t>i. i 

that if any son of his ever n. 

and flew from Eieter to Fu 

be exceasively an^ry with him 

motive for indignation would etist from pp^ 

cisely the game cause towards any person 

who should attempt on Ills own person any 

of the surgical feats we have named. 

Amateur surgeons should be equally chary 
of their advice and interference with the 
Itmbe and diseases of their neigh ):»ours. Th«y 
should not be appointed Surgeons to the 
household without a regular traJuing ; but in 
some stations and non-me«iical professiot.^ 
that training is necessary. Cleigymen livr 
in remote districts, who may not nave even 
village doctor to consult in a case of en i 
gency ; captains on board ships, who may 
deprived of the sendees of tL 
ofticers ; travellers on land, espe< 
East : intelligent emigrants t.i^-- 
into a thinly popula^ ooloi. 
vided with certain surgical 
such articles as maybe foi: 
stored medicine chest T» 
must enlarge the prescribed boundary, ami 
recommend that all such persons should 
acquire as much knowle<lge of household 
smqgery and medicine as they i)Ofi*ibly can ; 
there is no secret mystery to uu ravel, fur 
happily, the principles of medical science hav^ 
been so cleiu4y elucidated that any man vf 
ordinary intelligence may, with Appiicaticin 
and study, soon acquire sufiicient k bowled^ 
to guide him on his way to alleviate human 
sufiering, and restore health to the afflieiud. 
As a manual, such persona, but euch only, will 
find *^ Household Surgery ; or, Hints on JSmer- 
genciea," very usefiiL 

yov rradjr, /NnicM &*.^^ nt^p Smtmd m <7>a«ft, 



Ffluad V SKAMCfti a trM% 

Fumitiar in their MoutU tu HOUSEHOLD TF0i?i?5/'— auA^arroi. 



W^ 28.] 


[rntdx 2<L 


I OCR c<>rrespandejit, the Eavcn iii the Happy 

V .v.,;k ^T,-r,.,.6;(e(|[ in thet<e ffiigt^, nut loug ag**, 

ijf a meeLiijf,' Wiii^ l^^lJj to 

1 J f'Luninaiy arittiigonieuts for 

" tjoi* iin «Mjue»trian sttatue U> the Hiiipo- 

I' ''.*(jui8. We nxe happy to havo received 

**<*iiio excliLsive inWiimUon on tliis intereeting 

iiiil»jt'Cl, ami to Ini autliorised to lay it belore 

It appears that Mr. Hambt Safi Cankana, 

leArnbr:': ■-■-•'' ,. i... ^„i.- ,.,, ^........^....^ 

1 mna Ut thrtt ilis- 


(who la remarkable lor c^uidoiir) ha« 

iiatcd to HAvthat, but for his accidentttl 

connexion with H. R. H^ he Mil Cak- 

would 00 douht have remained to the 

nd of hi3 duyj* oaohsc'ure intUvidualf perfectly 

kiioVp-Ti to fimie, and pogs*<."ssiDo^ no ftort of 

Inim ori the pi'iV' "' -ioiu H. It. H Jiaviiig 

en the uif; iDf; Mr. C.vknana's 

(t* iri«'* T,i ,, ^,_veral oqcj> -'■'•■>'■---. '^"d 

t . Ca«xaj;a vuil 

.11^ into the i: . ^ > 

Ai^^.iAA haa felt hlui-sclf under a del)t 

ude to H. B. H^ requirini,' some public 

ovIiHlffmeiit and return, Mr, Canxana, 

iiiui'li (^^i iijsideration, has \*een able to 

uni, at once so uutonous and 

luonunjciit to H. 1\, H^ to be 

Hi Mj' 7^1- r Tse. "We cannot 

'ly sti»< vNANA founded 

lea on oi: ' '^ .,,-,,-,-^t l,.*-.^ 

deed, W' 

il^tecl ii _ ^ 

'lij>p»jai'»»d — bu I 1 1 is not ciaiaiing 

mch for the of our Con-e- 

ml to hope that it may have confirmed 

f.C*AX!f AXA in a very nohhs, a vary aeiiBible, 

\ iinder(^akin«. 

to record Ha history, as fiu* as 

Bah Cahkaka, having con- 

itnurtivply diating^iijjhcd iii the | 
of that .MonuuieuUv AiW 
id profound cogi 

Caxnana was suddenly inspired vrith tbo^ 
wonderful thought of calling him the " Ge>od"" 
HipiKJpoLaiiiua ! 

This y, 30 obviouMlv :in iii.m .ir.itum, — a fancy- 
resen'ed, through ages of the 

world, for thk ejttr in, — thatW6 

have l»een at some judiuj to ivnct it, if possible, 
to its source. But, as usually happens in 
such cases, Mb. CAiiNANA can give no account 
of tlio process by which he arrived at the 
result. Mr. Caxwana's description of him- 
»j*ilf^ rondi'ted into En^rliiih, would be, that h? 
waa " bothered f that he liad thouffht of a 
iiun»l»er of adjeeti\'t^ as, the oily Hippopo- 
t^LUiUS, tlie bland Hippo jxjtamus, the liMhiiKf 
Hippj>potanius, the expeUBive Hij >, 

the v:uiant Hip|>opotaTuuH, the si' .; ; /j* 
pot^uus, when, in a moment, tm it wei-e in the^ 
space of u thkih of lightning, he found he had 
written down, \\'ithout knowing why or where- 
fore, and without being at aU able to account 
for it, thc»se enduring words, the *'G<'od"^ 
H ippopotarana. 

Having got the phrase down, in blaeic and 
wliite, for speedy xjublication, the nes.t stqr 
waa to explain it to an unimaginative public. 
This nrocess, Mb. Can.s'a>-a ciiu deafiiVie. 
He relates, that when he came t« consider the 
vast quantities of milk of which thcHippopo- 
tamuH paitookj his amazing consumption or 
meal, ids unctuous appetite for date.*, his 
jog-trot manner of going, his majestic power 
of sleep, he felt that all these qualities jK»inted 
him out emphatically, as the " Good " Hippo- 
potamus. He never howL^, like the Hyena ; 
he never roared, like the Lion ; he never 
scix*eohcd, lllce the Parrot ; he never dajmiged 
the topa of high trees, like the Oii'ftffo ; he 
never put a trunk in people's way, hke the 
Elephant ; he never hugged anyb<Mfv, like the 
Bear ; he never projected a forked tongue, 
Uke the Serpent. He was an ensv, basking, 
jolly, Blow, moffenFive, eating and drinking 
Hippi»potanms. Therefore he waa, supremely, 
the '* iluod " Hippopotamus. 

Wheu ilEU Caknaita obeerved the Bubject 

from a closer y)oiiit of view, he to tind 

\h',i ir fi H. was not only the " Good," but 

Uu* to the whole human race. He 

>t, neither did he spin, truly — but lie 

bathed in cool water when the weather was 

^tflept when he came out of the bath ; 

thed and slept, serenely, for \h» 

H fio 


public gratLCcaUon. People, of oil ageiB and 
conditioiia, nishetl to see him batoCf and 
ilppp, And fe«d ; and H. R. H. had no ob- 
jection. Aa H. R. H. lay luxuriously winking 
ftt the striving^ public, one "wami aumrner 
fby, Mr. Camnana diBtinetly perceived that 
the whole of 11. E. H.'r time and energy waa 
^.evi^ted to the Ber\neo of that public, Mb. 
Casotana's eye, wandeniig rrtiind tho ludl, 
and observing, there assembled, a number of 
persons labouring under the terrible disorder 
of having nothing particular to do, and too 
much time to do it in, moistened, as he reflected 
that the whole of H. R H.'b life, m giving 
thein some temporary excitement, wan an aet 
of charity ; was " devoted " (Mr. CAJfNAH a 
has since printed these w^ords) " to tlie pro- 
tection ana aflfectionate care of the sick and 
the aJflicted," He perceived, upon the instimt, 
that H. li H. was a Hippopottmus of "unsnr- 
pussed worth," and he drew up an advettUe- 
ment so describing him. 

Mb, CAinf ana, having brought hLs project 
ifaufl far on ita road to posterity, without 
BtiimbHng over any ohatacle in the way, now 
wnaidere^l it eipedient to impart the' great 
design to some other person or pers- 
who would go hand in hand with liiin. > 
ooneluded (having some knowledge of lu- 
world) that those who had lifUMl them- 
aelves into any deiree of notoriety bv nnniis; 
of H. R. H., would be tlie mo«t Ukefv ( ' 
A8 l^ist knowing him) to posResa alcii' 
of hiii unaurpnssed worth. It is an instance 
of Mr Caknana'is sagacity, that he communl- 
cate^l Tvith the Milkman who Biipi>lie8 the 
Zoological Gardens, 

The Milkman imci*^ ' it down his 
name for ten pounds, L i- five pounds, 

and each of their twin l luim - ti iur two ttoujids 
ten. He added, in a spirited h*ttcr, addressed 
to Mr, Cajtwajia, and a copy of which i« now 
before us, ** You may rely on iny assistance in 
any way, or in every way, that may be nseful 
to your patriotic project, of erecting a Monu- 
ment to the * Good ' Hit>i>opotamiifl. We 
have not Monuments enough. We want more. 
H, R. H.'a conBumf»tion of milk has far ex- 
ceeded, from the firat moment of liis nn- 
weaiied devotion of himself to the happiness 
of Mankind, any aniinara with which I am 
aoqiiaintCfl ; aud that nature muat be biifie 
inmHHl, that would not vibrate to your 
nppcaL*' Emboldened by this sympathy, 
Mn. C-'asnajta next addrtBaeil liimself to 
thtj Mcalman, who replied, "This is aa it 
shouKl be,^' and enclo8e<l a aubscriptiuu of 
tevcn i^ounda ten — with a r^xiuest that it 
might be stated in the published list that the 
number of hia house was ojfE hundrkd and 
^BVESTr-ForR B, at the right-hand comer of 
Higli Street an«l Blue Lion Street, and that 
It hud no connexion with any feimilra* eetah* 
JjBinn. tv»w ;,. <1h same neighbtrtu'hood, which 
l\ na. 

\ now proeeeded to form a 
Committee, The MHkman and the Meal man 

both consented to »cr\'e. Also the tv. 
men usually on duty {und«r Mb, f 
UMapicjes), in H. R. H'a den ; 
Maney-t«ker at the gardens ; tli' 
early in the acaaon, wan apmimi-ti 
Cannan'a) to a jK»st on H. R, H'a 
ar»d all the artilicer;^ empl<iycil ' • 
Cannana's directions), in coi 
exiating accommodation for TI 
dedication of hia life and n 
tion of the afllictwl Still, M' 
it neceasary to hia project to luiit^ 
aolid plialanx all the leading pr 
keepers of Show Aniniala in ami 
and this extensive enteii>rise L 
pursued, by circular^letter fi 
Safi Casnasa, getting forth 
and intlispcnflable necessity c*[ 
permanent monument in lionour of t 
Hippopciitamua, which, while it Vi. 
record of gratitude for hia aelf-sacrifi 
canae of charity, ahall serve ns a ^n 
example to all who wiah to become the bcsb^ 
factora of mankind." 

Tlie response to this letter, v -i«tJ 

gratifvin^ nature. Mr, Womtv iiK«rt| 

' ■■' i iTuittee ; all ^ ' 
il, enroUr 
111.' ; the exhil 
>\ forward with 

i " Punch's OjM . . - . 

.'^ doga in Europe,"' becnmc 
man; and th»j hoai-se L'«M.t(,;.tiiitaj 
who trains the birds to t\\n\y lud 

the white mice to climb the ti',:* I jn 

up ladders, gave in his ad! 
that d id dpal honour to 1 
Tlie Italian Ixvya were once thtu^ijt i>t, iji 
theae Mil. Cannana rejected as low ; for 
Mfu Ca>'n.\% ' fadings are chajuct 

b>* a delicai 

The Conu. ...... .iainj,' been thiw 

tuted, and being reinforced by the pxil 
to the different anini:il$ (whi* are ohe* 
to be very strong in the caitse) held 
meeting of their body, at whidi Mil Ca*- 
yjkjsx explained hia gencivil \'i«jWa. 
Cajtnana said, that he had propoflcd kft 
varioua keepers of Show AiunMila tl 
Bent, to form themselves into that i 
the erection of a Moi ' " --,--*- ' ,,j 

Hip] K'pota^tie, been 1! vi- 

dual i."ii..ii'-ifa it aj"j.M_.... *''- 

cau&e tual of "m 

was, ill . common 
Animals. There vnui o(no point of virw (Mr. 
CAN>'Ai?A anid) in whieli the design ibey Iiad 
met to adv;mc»', appeared to him to be ex- 
ceedingly imiiortant. Some Show Animals hid 
not done well of late. Pathetic appeals hail 
been made to the I^iblic on their behalf; but 
the Public had appeared a little to mistiiiat th« 
Aniinrds — ^h}\ lie could not imagine — and 
their !'"'''' I'l not bear tV ■'' v - -^ -ti fo 
their < v, wliicii ted. 

Now, li .. thev, the 1. ......... _^ of 

those Show Animal, about, one and all, to 



the Public on the subject of the 
' Good *• fl'yyf * ■ - If they took the 
>1U1 grotmd t to take ; if tbcy 

' In telliiv, • ■ Tublic without any 
mg that hft was a creature "of mi- 
sed worth/* that '*hls whole Ufa was 
Icvoted to the protection ami affectionate 
9st*i of the oick and the afflicted ;'* that his 
gel f ' tod the rmbli c adiuinition 

^m\ . . i th:it he was "a ^lide 

and ejCLin^ile to all who wished to become the 
benefa<:'toi>* of Mankind -."—if they did this, 
. ! if. he Mr. Caunan'a sai<l, vma, that the 
iUc would judce of their representations 
K<\ liieir Show Animals generally, by the self- 
n'ident nfitnre of these statementa; and their 
low Aniroals, whatever thev had been in 
past, could not fail to be handsomely 
[eupporte*! l/y the Public in future, and to 
^n their utmost confi^Ience. 

Tliis position wa.H universally applauded^ 

)iit it wu I o still plainer terms, by 

6tra d pentlenian with the 

lioarse voic<- ww ir '' ' "rd and mice, 

'' In short " i>?»i«11 ■ man, ad^lreaaing 

., <'ivv»vXj -'it >, .^:.^s ont this here 

Public will know in a miunte 

ft a morael of Humbug about 

Mm, CAJorA3fA replied, with earnestnesa, 
Exiictly Eo ! My houoTirable friend haa 
itatf'd precisely wh.nt I mean ! '* 

11 * 1 of the caao was much 

ipji greatest satiBfaction i;i>pany. 

It ^ .^H'sted by the Secretary, 

[i^ A! I ♦!,..» ..r.,.-.r.<,i thouaand 

uta (with ft 

I shortly call 

ut to be immediately 

: Sati CANKA5A, ad- 

d, &ud pOttteJ, This work, Mr, Cannaka 

>k to sniM^nntenj], and we underatand 

Inland of these letters have 

The gentleman in wait- 

% Sloth (who is of an 

4 of opinion that the 

[y vote subscriptions 

from the fuuda of 

!tments : conBidering 

"Im did not belong 

importance to the 

election of a MwuumeuL to tne **Good" Hip- 

reaolvefi to defer 

fueling on the 

! an opj'ortunity 

haa yet raachcd^ is the 

t Jixk1 " Hip- 

imllcd, we 

it haa 

id, in 



OsGS Oil a snltr}' auinmer s day a tmrelkr 
halted for rest in a thick wood, beaide a 
mountain etream. Delighting in tne grateful 
shade and hilled by the cool ripple of the 
water at hia feet, he then conai Jerod hiniaelf 
happy among mortals, " Vain world," he 
said, " Iiave I at hist C8ca|3<}d you ? Men, buay 
gnats, who would l>e eagles in your flijfht, 
have 1 your hum no longer in my ears ? The 
gossip of the rivulet* the whisper of the wood, 
replace the criea of paaaiou anil the htjjvrt- 
gikting jest. Here ia water ; were there hread- 
miit on a single tree, here I would lie down 
and live ; here I would live in j>etM3e, and toil 
no raoTC." 

A troubled sigh, more human than the aigh 
of wind among the fohage, disturbed the txar 
vetler, *' Be thankfiU to your guardian angel," 
articulated the same voice, " be thankiiil to 
your Ck>d, young stranger, that in this forest 
you have not escaped the sound of a man 
B[jeaking.^ The traveller yawned restlessly, 
and felt within himself by no meana thankful. 

The person who h(ul* interrupted hia en- 
joyment was a hermit of the mountain, not 
yet old. He said, "Will you come with me 1 " 

** Why, really" — answered the traveller. 

" I have a sight to show that you will long 

"A sight!" said the young man; "but 
I assure you I have aeon so many exliibitious 
and things of that sortr— Venice, the Cos- 
monmia, the Industrioua Eleas, the Pope, the 
Eruption of Vesuvius, Tom Thumb, Simplon, 
Jenny Lind, that really'' — 

" What I will show you ia a thing that you 
have not yet seen." 

" O yea. some relic — some skull, or a aauit's 
finger nail ; I assure you, my dear fellow, I 
have seen torm of relics." 

" Still I will show you something that you 
have not seen in all your travelling. ' 

" Wmt ia it then r' 

"Tlie World." 

"The—what?" ejaculated the traveller, 
with a slow elevation of Ids eyebrows. *• The 
world 1 Well, now, that is particidarly cool 
No, no ; it won^t do ; you can't show me uny 
up or down, in or out, comer or square acre 
of the world I have not already seen. From 
the Cider Cellars in London to High Mass in 
Smnt Peter's at Bome I am equidTy at home. 
All over Europe I am as familiar with Welch 
rabbits as usith Lachrymffi Chriati. Nf», no. 
I know the world quite well enough already." 

" You do not ; como along with m<i," 

"I'll tell you wlmt," said the traveller, 
holding out his op«n hand; "I'll lay you a 
new liat that you can show me nothing new. 
Is it a bargain i Done then. So como along." 

Aa they went up the mount«dn aide tn« 
young man chattered idly, 

"Why do you talk thn-^ ^< 

JueT* asked the hcuuit. ' -u 




speaking onty to youi*aelf, your words were 
earnest, thouoU they were i>ot true ; why «lo 
you Bpoak diderently to a fellow-creature I" 

** Fellow creatm*e ! ha ! ha ! What a way 
to tjJk to a gentleman t" exclaimed the tra- 
vell^jr. " I soe h>>vf it ii, I *m in for a sorriion.** 
He Bftoppod suddenly. "80, out with it at 
onct'— '^ud'len death is my motto. I hate 
lingeriiit: agouy. Where 's your text t " 

The hermit' waa dlent. They continued 
to climb tlie ffteep. 

'* You talk of teaching me to know the 
world 1 " continued the traveller, ** Why 
you don't know even the rudiments of educi- 
tion in it We don't have our hearts given 
U8 to keep them In our pockets, and bring 
out ou all occnaiotiii j they ai*e [«u.ked up out 
of sight in a houy ca«e, not to be come at 
L-jwily- You, for exau)|ile, look aa dij and 
harmh?5» iw* a dead leat ; and I might take 
you and talk to you fts ijart and imrcel of the 
woodljvnd «cener}% a log of it, I nia)' &ay — ^a 
piece of lupium vitfv ; or perhmw a male 
nymph ; if I stopped here as 1 wished to do, I 
might tidk ray heart out to you, and we micrht 
be very iober upon brookwater: by the by, 
do vou drink that, and doea it give you 

ffou?€ r 

The hermit paused before an overhang^ing 
rock. A rude pon^.h oversown with pa^ion- 
flowers Bheltered the entrauee to a cave, and 
under thia there was a stone l>ench placed. 
The traveller aai down. 

"Now, hoHpitable frjeurl," he said, '* can you 
refresh a pilgi-ira with some bermit*^ fare ? 
Pnxluco your pumpkins." 

** Presently. But thia ia not my home. 
First kt us " — 

" Oh ! T)y all means ; first let ua see the 
curioaitiea. This, I auppoae, in your rauaeum," 

The hermit with a grave look piiaacd into 
the cave, and his companion followed. Within 
the cave there waa a dim light and an earthy 
ftniell ; across one part of it there hung "a 
curtairi beaide which the hermit 8t^. 
" Wltiit you are now about to isee "— he 

The young man interrupted him. "Tliia 
really is too bad. I euppoHe yon 've got there 
thirty miles of Nile or MitwisMippi, rolled up 
in a few vania of paint and canviis. I niight 
aa well liave 8tepped in out of Piecadilty. 
Spare the lecture. Draw the ciirtain. Well, 
what *8 here ? A globe ? Pooli, man, I 
learnwl the globea at school. Odd, tliough, 
certainly." And the young man approached 
the apectacle quite silently. It was a simple 
globe, revolving slowly, without \'i8ib!c aujv 
port, suapende«r in the air, aud all ai'ound it 
the air glittered with a «tran|/e, inexpUcable 
mist. The mist spread mpidly throughout 
the cave, enveloping the hermit and the 
traveller ; but tlj rough it the revohnng glcAyo 
atjpeared to shine with new disttoctness. 
The traveller had 4ome fear to conceal, for it 
appeared to him that on that Uttle orb the 
land waa land, the rockji were rocks, the seas 


were seasj although incj^m J ^: 
The glitter of the Uttlo i-c . 
but as he gazed ou any spot it ^/'.ns. 
eye was lijte<l with terror. Waves 
under it. He knew no 1 ' ' ♦h* 

cavern, or the henuit, or t ] : ; 

there were but two thiiiu^^ 1 ^xii 

mind, himself and the gn-at p ^tt 

underneath u liot bright sun, \ dh 

spread sails floated by so close before lom, 
that he drew hack Huddenly aa if to i!tnnd iytu 
of ita j»ath. Sailors were in it, < -i n^ 

with \m wife ; their child, a blu< . u- 

headeii little man of five years* oM, wils j-by- 
ing at the stern, and dabbji'd with his roar 
lingers in the water. Suddeidy he logt hia 
balance, tliere wiui a aphuih, a cry— anotlier 
chf', the mothor'a — ^rmd the falljrv • -i ' ••^it.j 
the »ea to twive him. Our tr.i Tt* 

forward with a Ix^ating hcjurt, t An 

vainly ; he will leap in to the r .m 

unknown jjower bindB him» as it; 

and he stands motionless, awl an 1 !ii« 

eyes away. When next he look . m 

ocean, but the little globe rcvoivui^ m vti 

•'How it glisten* — glares at us. It ia Mi 
much : drop the curtam, hermit ! " 

The hemiit draws the ciniain. "'"^ ! '^'-* -"^ 
togf^ther in the cj»ve again. *'I hu * 

wild grapea in the wood, and m i . 

vLsioa," said the tnivi-ller, ** or werti yuu 
pLiyiug tricks with other vapt»ur ? Pooh, 
fj-ieud ! I have breathed elitorofumi a doMO 
times ; I am not to be cheated with inert 

'^ Shall I cxpUin ? '* asked the htmSt 

" Ceitainly — confeae." 

*''When 1 wua a young mau,** ttud thd 
hermit, **inilolent and caieleas, I soon thooghl 
that I had seen the world. All its excite* 
ments were run through, and 1 felt wearied » 
I waa what the French pronounce &fieui, just 
as you ,'vre now." 

" Just as I am. Yes, vety good. A strong 

" And so I said to my.sclf, * I w 
world. For all pui'poscs of ami 
a failure.*" 

"For all pmnio»e« of amusement H ^if] 
failure ! " echoctl the traveller. 

** I read :ill the novels " (the : 
groanetl), "seen all the exhibitions, kiu .. .^.. 
were the etock-themes in tint newspajiera, wsMk 
1 thii-sted after eomctliing new.** 

"And thirsting v.'didy,'^ said the traveller, 
" vou shrivelled up into the dry thinif I now 

" PiuYlon me," said the hermit, ** I did nai 
tliii-gt vainly. I Ijetook myself to antiquitiea, 
there found the novelty I reqiiiretl in studying 
black letter. I bought books of magic, and 
became "^ — 

" Upon my won!, I honour you,'' the tra- 
veller once more interrupted. '' You f^^ll back 
noon the forgotten wigaom of our ance^ora. 
Wore a white waistcoat, did you not I Yoa 

■rvt't** wrtwi t 




ir^it m the DUraeU-Stnyth- 

1, and c&mc out u Yuuug 

I learned tke secret 
• It 

<if luk, the Httltf Iwy, tlie 
I fodee, tho Bultari hi his 

tnricof ttblot of inkr' 

f which sec"— con- 
-" neither the cabala, 
volume of antiquity, 

lilot of ijik. It 

■'.^ if iO» prove ment«. 
ter uow til an it was 
1. I \l back Dobler 

hermit, " is simply 

ver part you gaze 

your eyea, fLtid you 

[>e hiding place in 

it. The conaition of 

, tliAt 1 must abi«Je hy my 

the worU; the si>ell would 

f«r. Wclir*— 

le hither, put tn^* globe where 

t, fiixeil my htmnitage dose by. 


■ • 1 

ti^aveller. 1 studir 
now the world, 


;ind things in it 

V sccluijiou, and 

r of my feHows; 

' ' reUiina me. 

est speak- 

luve ; speech, 

Hiiinced ; to me 

^..i toy, and lam 


** A ^^ « *rsft V'-tiA 

Mi for misr-nr I never heard," 

"As for your 

a sort of Ulua- 

understand the 

!, and this time 

en the i*<Aui of 

i an exliibiting 

i'«L i • 

" ' let tia lK»th 

look nt V 

11 show me 

Mac of ( • 


__^^^«w fleifiho ! " 

Ql^e tnv 


Htariitalcyusiy : the 


•isi Ol 

. and 


^kd tlio .';ia 

: niijvvl',. 

*U tho picture! 

^0r and f»i1^i^ 

t}x^' trnv 

"^'Il'T, with some im- 


•je ground, 

ft 1 

' watttc. I have 

Yea, now you stop, I see \* I 
Pkddies iknd pig^ more tL. 

children, a mud hut with a hole for a' door 
and a hole for a window, and one room inside 
for the pig-3ty, parlour, bedroomii, <lrowing- 
room, and kitchen. My tlear f.dlow, that la 
b'ehutd, oD« of the most hackney al and tire- 
some of idl suhjectB, Aa an MJ:*., I liavo 
read blue-booka for a new excitement ; read 
Lord Devon's Conmiiaiiou, lieard cverlaatiDL' 
speeches, sp^^keu myself, know facts and 
%urt'S, Oh, it *a too bad ; indeed it ig ! I 
know, out of speeches in parliament, precisely 
what tlmt hut contains. A kettle (that *s to 
boil potatoea in), just a few plates, a heap of 
straw and a bench." 

" You know that ?" aaid the hermit. 

" To be aiuro 1 do. Here are statLstica for 
you, from Sir Robert Peers sjieech on the 
Irish ftunine. In these mud cabins, or mud 
aheds, w! ^ ond room ; — pl.-icea unfit for 

human 1 ;md which rather compro- 

mised thi,- I iiiu,nL<-r of pigs, who liap[iened to 
be joint tenants — there lived forty-st*ven per 
cent, of the inhabitants of Donegal, ditto of 
Leitrim and Itosoommon; fifty per cent, of 
Sligo men, and fifty-two of Galwav ; tifty-tive 
per cent, of Limerick folka, and ^fty-six per 
cent, of Cork and Claro ; sixty-two per cent, 
of the inhabitants of Mayo, and aixty-aix per 
cent, of the inliabitants ot* Kerry." 

** You know that 1" »aid the hermit. 

" To be sin-ii I do. And glad enough the 
people are to have even these mud huts, and 
chance enough there is of an eviction even 
d'orn them. Filty thousand families were 
turned out of such homes in 1849, imable to 
pay rent." 

" The liUle rent that it must be ! " 

"Tlie little rent ! You undertake to t«ll 
rae of the world. Why, my good niau, the 
people bid against each other reckJe&sly to 
get a holding. If they get a bit of gi*onnd 
and plant potatoes, they can eat them. If they 
have no land, they can have no potatoes, and 
they cannot eat. Men are known to have bid 
six tim^ more for a small bit of land than 
tlie amount that could be got fi"om it by the 
most skilful miinagement. See Mill*a Poli- 
tical Economy, pooh, why I am teaching 
^tt the worlcL" 

*' They cannot pay this rent 7 " 

** Pay it ! They pay all their surplus, and 
they owe the reA, and are of course always 
Uable to eviction. If a windfidl cornea, it pays 
arrears of rent. Nothing can better them, so 
they are reckless, and we laugh at them for 
their improvidence." 

" \Vliy do they bid so recklessly 7" 

** Six hungry mouths are offering ag^nst 
each othermmiue prices for a platcml of 

"But are they not hot-blooded reckleai 
Celts, do you not think ? ** 

"Ah, you mean satire, but I'll answer 

pkinly. Facta, history, are all clear against the 

' ' — '- f an inherent perverscness in the Irish 

I'iie Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1850, 

.v.c... . ju, my dear ftUow, to wltneaaw feoni 



itll '>'" '"^— ''*«?, examixied before the r '^•^- 
Httt.i ttee. Mr, PemWrton ftii 

lir} a _ : :»t tb* BUCCCM of Iruihiii; 

Cttmda. Mr. Perley nmaaks for th«ni iu New 
BinuMwick« Ti» N^ovn S^^itiathurnrrT vouched 
for by Mr. V n the 


<8 f'jr them ta the 
;u *,».--■• ►-M.«vv.-, <^,«i.M. V, ajid Ai]»iiidia ; — they 
gft to nKmra&d to grumble quite oji readily 
:iA A n (rJci-Sar o 1 1 k *' 

i " i\vs hermit loid. 
'ii»i(i by luikiBi^ whether I 
kni*w diiit { i iuiow it and ta%y it. Tlic fervid 
cluixacti'r of the Irinh makes trR*m &« a{>t for 
hope Afl for dcBfjotr ; iu their mud cabhis the 
hAve uever rec^'ived Hope for gut^8t ; 
Dercr eoid ft grace to the [K}tatrjea. The Irish 
charftcttt-kMiiot Annoll reeembl&nce to the 

.^^,...^^ tUii 



'^rceiu; luidwhf^n 

for iiotl 

th&t tr 


"Pftf^on me,** wud tlw hermit, •'I reqieot 
DMtiifiw I only wonder that you, 
iia aad knowitig so much, ibke do 
u«err«c m boBkt tffiiir«." 

^FiBttfiuity, oh mort imiooe&t hermit, 
htt b(tt!— "--'»■- ! •• The traveller here 
f%WM^ k tlidkt I have come into 

the woo-i- -- ...i: about *the Triah Diffi- 
culty,* Weil, 150 ou, Mr. Showman, 111 be 
Ifictitrer, and Let you see that I dou't need 
yvor leaaoua. Pray for^ve these yawna. Tea, 
thoc ve have dttaolnng riewa again. Ah, 
DOW it growv. I eee, I uuilerttaad. Thady is 
woridtuf on a poich of wacte land on the out- 
akirt offt farm. He ia allowed that patch of 
waal* Und fur hia own for three yean, Mr. 
Hermii, during which time he mar eat vi' >^ 
bf fi& grow iHxm it. At the eoii of 

She will DftTe ttmied it into toli, 
ajid then it ^oea into the &rm, and 
y starts fresh with another bit of moor. 
Deliaoua fruit of labour to the farmer, but I 
would la ooon be Sisyphiia as Ttiady — Silenc«, 
hermit, I will diw^targe now for your benefit 
a vast amonnt of knowledge : — 

"IreLyid*! a fine oonniry, * first flower of 
ibe earth,* and ao on« luu fine hArboun, 
lioblo rivera^ and a fertile huui Of this rich 
IftDd nearly ocis4liird is bog, moor, waste, 
totally uncultivated. The cultivated land has 
not inoreaaed in quantity, but dwindJcd. The 
land was held by few men, bouii<i by the 
hiwa ot land, enewnbered, and almost unable 
%o sell ; hundreds of thousands of acreB have 
emie oat of cidtivation. In one baronv in 
ti« oooniy of Cork, Sir Itobert Peel "told 
ua m 1840. extending over eighty thousand 
acr«B| all the lands weiie thrown waste. A 
recent set fadJitates the sale of encumbered 

a ri acrea rci 

siKi , llenuif, 

report ulALf. ^jiiiiith to Lonl I 
nmsHjofi) ; two and a half raillioii 

lire. Two aiid a hall 1 

calls hopelessly waste, bii 
Boii HHfielesstoaKiiuUl propn 
mit, 1 quote J^ihri SliLtrt M 
Wiiate» bought by (jovcrnmejiv ..1 
or Bold at once by their possess 
freehold properties, to the yuMM 1 
each would spend such en. 
domain as would soon tiuii ; 
into a little honip Auatralb. N*-' ..i 

thousands be fud and nuVd Into 1^' "U 

what is now mere useless ground, but :i ucw 
thing would be Been, — a oiultitudo of Icifipv 
peasants in the sister island. 11. 
Zurich, and have seen how uiej) 
vr,t ..f .-r.,,,..t,l^ love it juid noui 

. water eolicitoualy < rj 

with the sun. :iJi.; 1 

upou th< II 


the Lii4<i ivves them, and muke^ iUifUi k 

Bomi* jiretwnt«.' 

" BufV *»id the hermit, "^ ha« not tids 
tendency to root men to one Rj>ot— to s 
them a.a firmly into a small imfccU *>f tluj « 
as the vegetables they grow ? docs it 

gjjjp,4K .. .. . ....A ''ifck enterprise I " 

ve u ro<.it/* rei>liril lbs 

**fa-v- _ ^ l..:r, "or it sui..;nf^ tm 

branches ; so with man^ Give - «, 

and he educates his family to 1 :it, 

standing and to support it. 11 ^Li 

diildren out into the world t<» »r 

stan^iing places for themsdvea ; he ti.u«3 
them to expect this, and not to Jivo lo sjuilrh 
away g. 
become ' 
r^ sprciiLi . 
earth ; w 1 

-rival. 11 




1 at. mid 
: ^ -._!.: ijund and 
I ot t>opulftlion,'* 
-aid the henuit, moriii^ 

the Campine," said the trfivi»1Jet. 
"Yes,! vbouttt. Th^'T ,. a 

waste vi Look to tli d 

u ' :1s 

\ .1 

str r. 

willseesome i 1 ; 

thevoutitaii U 

it then fur (b. i;) 

leaves have e I -e 

roots have mvcu it cynii;iiuijcv, 11 t^ 

the industnouii proprietor will i p, 

or turn it with ih ' ' hi, or 

even rye, wiU grt^ And 
is reajH .*ji i ^^,jli ^m,y ihm 

after tlua 





K,oiiu' mill 

iiiriinT ' i^ilitvi-r jLtiil rMjtatoesI 

ami till iiiti Itirtiltj jrkiii which yon 

Lo the left of you, O HerniiU ItAS 

b^fcii juiulc tlina out of saxdhilis, by tbe 8oIj- 

cituJe of fimall proprietors. TUem it rcmu- 

1 * ' ' V gave their ow 1 

ire. It would 

- *" "-le owulu «.'j j'.iv 

/ of tUiii laud ; 

fi ^1^^^ by hwtl- 

iir it TTiis 

;:, *'to turn 

[ thrive^ They 

eoonoray ; but 

I extraordinary 

Lthefl bv want. 

th&t Li U' 
yewn of l 

him a c 

s U) llieir patrimony. It id 

1 kK-ea ijitereat in the work, i 

of such r«tuiii as hurmui ' 

1 1 1 look for^ thi\t makes [ 

■i rioua ; tliia aeiwe of 

Mie by hai-d work to j 

•yiut peaceable I 

interest in the 

It ia because i 

lud, can, by iio 

; :::Lall 

L- _ „_ _.-.. i,^: crtcd, 

vrh^sx at home, into an energy of reckless- 

**B«t," Raid the hermit, "how can you 
ernjTcrt these wretched men into proprietors 
tH l;ixn\ \ Tlicy cannot ouy kind ; 
i lutve it ei%'cu to them 1 " 


It ia ■ 



•' J--' 

, 1 '» 1. ->■>.'( I \t 111 ir-iijunV 

all 1. 


SIi*? wants a course of 

1 iS brr-n niitst, ijiitiurlv 

Uu txia uuuivrou^ e^iated wiiich, 
for tli^ Irfsndit of creditors, come 
iiitai able to Tvork tliem 
A ono symptom of disease ; 
- becoming cul- 
i land becoming 
aded lo^ givu 
vaates were, we 
^emment, their 
^tiimii, tiiey wonii be 
ftiw teres in rnct"'nt. 
hi«:U a UU^urer might i 
i' itidnatry. Fncilitt**** c , 
{ucomentto ! 

encouragement, I would bock auy Iri^hnaan 
ri^^nst a Ileimng. " 

'• Are those your prividc notions ?" asked 
tJie hermit. 

"No: what I think about the Ii'Iah chii- 
racter, I think in common with ail men who 
lifive paid uiiprejudicetl attention to the suVj- 
ject. I say of waste 1 " ^ id 

economy, for the frrinding m! s 

use a ^iill much and dejaervc^j, ■o...ixi.-Li ,u 

" And BO you get your Irish pHnacPU ?'' 

"So I get no panacea, Mr. Hermit — tli^jre 
13 no single psmacea for a social evil. Bodii>fl 
politic are complex things ; but ii*o I get a 
^ood preacriptiou, which may advantageotittly 
b« worked into the treiiiment of a i^se which 
certainly is not incurable. Now you may 
t let down your curtain, firicnd. I tola 
there Wiis nothing to be tauglit mo of 
a.^. world. As for your globe, ns I before 
sidd, it is just an llhistrated Newspuper. 
1 'm aick of news. As for 30 ur ma^Ic, pooh 1 
What magic of the piist would not be* clumsy^ 
if put ne3Lt door to the commou-plMi^s of to- 
day. Well, it s no fault of youra. .4jid so 
thtb toy of yours has made you mlwrable.*' 

"Yeei, Traveller, this vivid picture of the 
world lias max^le me fret a^aiust the spell 
which keeps ma lx»nnd to Know and never 
use my kuowlcdg**. What reality of heaven 
can there be for me, to whom t' • 'Mii, aud 
all the men and women lovin . , and 

labourifig upon it, are but n .i>. i toy? 

Yet von profesa to know the world, jind 
fly it I " 

" Certainly, ray frieniJ. For you must 
undei'stand that habit, chance of education. 
temj»er, and a thousand accidents of Ufe, all 
fly to a wan^s eyes^ and there is no audi thing 
as the poaaibihty of live men aeeing every thing 
alike. One sees a ball, and saytt it 'b round ; 
two sa>n3 it 8 square; tliree conaidera it a 
pyramid; four says it's like a mai'linBpike ; 
and live saya there is nothing to be seen at 
all. They are not perverae. There are not 
many perverse people now-a-dayg, but we do 
eec ihin£i:i 30 very dilTerently, that I coiniider 
eyes to be of no use in the world at alL" 

" But oilier senaes "- 

'* Well* it's extremely liard for a matt to 
feel a thint,' and own that it feels roimd, when 
he 6ec43 positively that it 'a square. He goea 
by lule of squiue, antl then we call it pre- 
judice ; n pardonable matter after idl*** 

lidts, Uieyyi'dd in the 
Tu N work, Hermit." 

Vou who were impatient 
,<er for a phantom child, 
rctuio Lk> light the tide of difficulty, even to 
help a nation in distress/' 

"There are plenty of men at work, my 

friend, trying their strength agiuiist lli« 

■"ivr?a. Now let me try my appetite. Tia 

! 1* toftce the world than tmd om» dinner 

all ' ies, eacaminecl before the Coloni- 

&iLi iittee. Mr. Petoberton and Mr. 

Bj-> i.Mu- luest the Bucoeafl of Irishnien in 
Caiittda. Mr. Perley speaks for them tii New 
Brunflwick* In Nova N'< t i.i th.>v are vouclied 
for by Air. Unincke ; 1 tern iu the 

United States j in Austi v an Dieinan'a 

l^nd hy Colonel Miteht-ll, ColoueJ M'Arthur, 
Mj\ Vemf^r. Ml*. Ckiuniu^hain, Mr, Besnard, 
Ml*. Jii ' v, and the Rer. O. P. Lang. 

Count > ;inRwei^ for them in the 


Australia ; — ^they 
"h quite aa readily 

iL'!-i 'it said, 
I II ; whether I 
V L Tlie fervid 
^ till tn AS apt for 

Unit^'.l •-::-. - 

get (•< jir':^;irr.ii A Vn -n 

" You know that 1 " t 

"What do you mean 
know that ? 1 know it : 
cliaracter of the Iriali m 
hope A9 for deapair ; iu their mud cabins they 
h/ive never i*eceivt?d Hope for guest ; sm 
never said a grace to the potatoes. The Iriah 
chanvcter haa not a small reeemblance to the 
temperament of the ancient Gi-eeka j and when 
her yeATs of misery are over, Ireland may run 
a i-ace of honour with the »ifit«r Isle. Speeches 
and books cannot be read for notliing," Biiid 
the traveller, joerceidng that the hermit 
smiled, • 

** Pardon me,** said the hei*mit, " I respect 
Tottr eamestneflfi. I only wonder that you, 
feelitig thus and knowing so much, take no 
int^ieat in home affairs." 

" Frimiliarity, oh moat imjooeot hermit, 
haa bred — H^igho ! " The traveller here 
yawned ''To think that I have cotue into 
the woods to talk about Hhc Irish Diffi- 
culty/ Well, go on, Mr. Showman^ I'll be 
lecturer, and let you see that I don't need 
your leBBona. Pray forgive these yawna. Yes, 
there we have dissolving views again. Ah, 
now it grows. I see^ I understand. Thady is 
working on a patch of waste land on the out* 
skirt of a farm. He is allowed that patch of 
waste land for hia own for tluree years, Mr. 
Hermit, during whicli time he may oat what 
he can grow uiKm it. At the end of three 
years he will Imve tumwi it into tolerable 
land, and then it goes into the fai'm, and 
Thady start*! frtah with aiiuther bit of moor. 
Delicious fruit of labour to Iho farmer, but I 
would on soon be Sisyphus as Thiuly — Silence, 
hermit, I wdl diseharg© now for your benefit 
a vast amount of knowledge : — 

"Ireland's a fine country, * first flower of 
the earth,' and so on, has fine hrtibours, 
noble rivers, and a fertile land. Of this rich 
laud nearly one-third is bog, moor, waste, 
totaily uncultivated. The cultivated land has 
Dot increased in quantity, but dwindled. The 
land was held by few men, bound by the 
laws of land, encumbered, and almost unable 
to sell ; hundreds of thousands of acres have 
gone out of cultivation. In one barony in 
the county of Cork, Sir Robert Peel told 
na in 1849, extending over eighty thousand 
acres, all the lands were thrown waste. A 
recent act facilitates the sale of encumbered 

property, aiid will in some degree check this 
evil. But of the waste land, whUe the Iriaii 
bid their famine prices for potatoes, there Are 
a million and a half of acres ret-laimAble for 
spade or plough — fhere. Hermit, I qu iti' Mm 
report of Mr.CirifSth to Lord Devoi/ 
mission) ; two and a Imlf millions re* It 
for pasture. Two and a half niilliuuo AU\ 
Griffith calls hopelessly waste, but tliere i« na 
soil hopeless to a stnidl proprietor. Here, H«*^ 
mit, I quote John Stu.ort Mill. Were theM- 
waatcs bought by Government ivr' ' ' lo, 
or sold at once by their poasc*^^ J I 

freehold properties, to the poor Ik.^u ,-■,,,! its, 
each would spend such energy upon his oftii 
domain as would soon turn the nwis^ (A' v, .iste 
into a little home Australia. N* i Id 

thousands be fe<l and raised into < ^ lun 

what is now mere useless ground, L*ui ri utw 
thing would be seen, — a multitudt^ of lir*pp? 
peasants in the sister island. 1 have 
Xurich, and have seen how men wlu 
bit of grotuid, love it ' / ' ut 

every corner, water t -!« 

cabbage, rise with the ^^^lu. an.i .n-ia .-.«.ad 
their holidays ujxin the cherished soil. \Vhett 
people come to love the land after that fiwihiuo^ 
the land loves them, and makes th«m Inuul^ 
some present**." 

" But," said the hei-mit, « has not this a 
tendency to root men to one spot — to &tidc 
them as firmly into a i^mall jiatch of the tarth 
as the vt>getables they grow 1 does it not 
smother energy and check i ; '** 

" Eveiy tree must have u lied Hhg 

"fast" young traveller, '" vr i 'no 

branches j so witli man. Give ii, 

and he educates his family to ut 

standing and to 8ui)))ort it. 11 iils 

children out into the world to l;ir 

standing places for themselves ; iio trains 
them to expect this, and not to Tno to snatch 
away some of Ida hard-earned ncifs, or to 
become his neighbouring rival. 1 1 i;s bninches 
are spread till they extend to other ]n\ri8 of 
the earth ; where they, in turn, tal<e root, and 
thus bce<i:)me ceutt^::s of the sauje sound atitl 
beneficial cxjuinsion of population." 

" Look here/' said the hennit, mo^iag. 
the globe. 

** Flanders, the Campinc," said the travella^ 
" Yea, I know fdl about it. There we have a 
wajBte of sandhills. Look to the right ajii 
you perceive «ome spaces where the aaudhillji 
have been levelled and sturouuded by a 
trench ; broom is sown there ; a few potatoes 
straggle up, and here and there some clover. 
Keep your eyes about you. Hermit, and yow 
will sec some patches where the broom is cut ; 
they cut it after three years* grow th, and sell 
it then for faggots — by that time fiiUeu broom 
leaves have enriched the sand a little, and iho 
roots have jrivcn it consistency. Then, Hermit^ 
the industrious proprietor will plough it upy 
or turn it with the spade, and buckwheat, or 
even rye, will grow without manure. And 
after ihis is reiqied the ground will pay ihm 




^ to the left 
lis tliu^ 

II g ; c!iiTi?r and potatoes 

aw froio 

iu wlikli you 

<-i\\ 11 '-Hi <■ nun 

.ill hfivtf aii- 

uii^r to }*ay 

is Liud ; 

iiV hiivd- 

ibour it Wttt* 

IS it. "to liU'iL 

-". They 

mv ; Init 

• IS 

iru VL^ Jiutrum | 
i\ thfkt mak^ 
tliu flenae of 
liaiti work to i 
I >uaeeable | 
-^t in the I 


^ because 
tu, by no 

-J -, -V. ^,., ug in Iro- 

slf in Ui« 0OCUU sc&le, that all 
diAnKetcr bos been perverted, 
Into on energy of reckleaa- 

tlia hermit, " how can you 
WTM^h<*«l itieo into urojiriftora 
~ t.t l>uy land ; 

She w&nta 
Im-s been mo 

a course ofi 

si I'l;. .Dcrly 


Qum aUt* lo wuik them 
lYmptoxQ of dkease ; 

»ivk niiuMiuiiM 
ilM licnefit of 


h% wuMt^ werc^ we 

, ^fovemmcnt, their 

being aiDftU, they would be 

of a {rw MCTt's in extent, 

labourwau-! by 

' FWaJfli" uiily 

1 be an 



1 of 

r«r, dt II on 

iu i'»iu , . -i of 

eiieoura^ement> I would biick any Inshmoa 
agidiLst a Flemin^j, " 

^' Ai^ these your private notions V* ask<^ 
tlte hermlL 

*^No; what I think nltnnt the Tnsh 
racter, I tliuUv in i< 
have jiaiil unprojml 

jecL What 1 B:iy ot , ., ,...,:, •„.i 
economy, for t)i<' ..i':.'::! •■' v.].:.;; [ ; iv, ;'-. ■^' 
U2ie a ^lill much m-A d.ij^t:.i \ cdly csLcclucU iu 
En j; Land,*' 

** jVnd so you get your Iriah panacea T* 

" So I get na panacea, Mr. Hermit — ^there 

is no sin^^ie panacea for a social evil Bodies 

jMjlitie are complex things ; l)ut so 1 gut a 

j^md preecription, which may ad%'antageoualy 

s rked into the treatment of a caae which 

uly it* not incurablu. Now ymi may 

lai let down your curtain, firieod. I tela 

ou there was nothing to be taught me of 

Liie world. Aa for your globe, as T h. i;... 

said, it ia juflt an Illustrated K 

I *ra sick of news. As for your ma^ i 

What magic of the past would not Uj cluiuHy, 

if put next door to the common-placoe of to- 

iLa^, Well, it's no fault of yours. And so 

thm toy of yours bus made jou miserable.** 

*'Y^y Travellvr, tlds vivid picture of the 
world haa made me fret a^amst the sf^l 
which keeps me bound to Know aiid never 
use niy knowledfje . What reality of heaven 
can there be lor me, to whom th'-- ■ "tl., and 
all the men and women lovln*/, and 

labonring upt:>u it^ an? but a i : fjyt 

Yet you profess to know the world, and 

" Certainly^ my friend. For you muat 
und<3:rBtand that habit, chance of education, 
temjier, and a thousand accidents of life^ all 
lly to a man's eyes, and there is no such thing 

' ^ ' possibility of five men seeing every thing 
One sees a ball, and says it 's round ; 
. .. .. iiays it 's square ; three cottuiders it a 
pyramid ; four says it *9 like a marUospiko ; 
and live says there is nothing to be seen at 
alL They are not perverse. There ai'e not 
many pervei'se people now-a-days, but w» do 
see thlugii so veiy differently, that I consider 
eyes to be of no use iu the world at alL" 

" But olb**r senses " 

"Well, it's extremely hard for a matt to 

" ' ' I o\*Ti that it feels round, when 

ly that it 'a square. He goee 

M, .-.1- ' ' niid then we call it pi**' 

judice ; a matter after all/' 

"Butpr , leldr' 

" Not very often iu adults, they yield in the 
next generation. Slow work. Hermit." 

" Slow, but sure. You who were impatient 
to leap into the water for a phantom child, 
refuse to fight the tide of dimculty, even to 
help a nation in distress.'* 

"There are plenty of men at work, my 
friend, trying their strength against the 
waves. Kow l«t me try my appetite. 'Tia 
eaaicr to see the world than tind one's dinner 
in it." 





8d till' atrangvr ate a dinner in ♦i ■• ^" 
cell, and, tlic sumo evcuiiii:, rtv-i 
▼ela. HjuI he grown weary of ih 
We met kim, ten flays afterwarde, in London. 


. f i'» 




Most Kngliali people acqunlutcd v iih mo- 
dorti Gfrmnix Utemture Tiave lit-aril of iJetiiuA 
Breiituno, (Frau ron Arnlm.) a luuue fami- 
linrly known in G»;rmany, tlirouf::li lier pnMl- 

c^ntion of "Goiithe's < ■-. - —^ -"i, ^ 

CliiR" Iiil83A,iii) i>^ 

ductiou of !i moat l . i . ., im 

iMsued Irom the press. The idolisetl P'X't Jind 
b^en i>lat3ftl to say, that every line of J^ttina't* 
letters conlnine<l materials for a poem ; he 
had read them daily ; and, as eA^ery thin;!;' that 
threw light, or promised to throw light, on 
sutflit appertainmfr or relatinsr to Ooiithe wm 
x-m" ' ' t for ami ' ' ' liv hia 

c« w ork ^v^ > ) i gl 1 1 at, 

iin . i.H... . -M.. lead throu^l, M, ; ,, , uiaJiy. 

It i* not our intention to comment on the 
pnhlii^'ition. Many «>f otir reader may have 
read it iu the origimd ; but it may l>e inter- 
ejstin^' to them to know \ww it fuvrl wtli 
Bettina'g eanje.nt desire of appearinj,' l>efore 
tli«» Uritish pnblir, lis f*he had the tlji*ee 
vohinieg translated iu lM:jy, printed off seven 
thousand copies forth Mitii in Berlin, at a djst 
of seven hm^dved })t<uud«, ami dispatche*! 
them to Eng-land, buoved with the nope of 
A cortlial welcoiuo on Biitiah groiuid. The 
adventwrea of the work may not also }}0 
devoid of general iotfrest, as in them we have 
Another proof of how hard onr mtemational 
rcfttrictiofts tell tipoti indixHduab. To cet the 
work tran5<lated at all, Bettma had ua{tle<l 
with diflieultiea against which only a will 
strong a.s her own, and her pecnliarlv «an- 
ffiiiue temperament, could have held out ; 
but uo Eii^li»h pennon could sl^e find wlllini' 
to nnd^^rtake the third volume of her ** Diary. 
Still bent, however, on carrymnr out her 
object, Bhe continued tlie translalion hei-scdf, 
with wo further knowled*,'© of our huiguage 
than what she hail acf[uired by compjiring 
her Gei-man mauiiaieri])t with tlie achieve- 
menta of her trans?latora, with which sJie 
(tppears to have been anylldnf; bnt satisfied. 
To give :iny idea of the difficulties of such an 
undortakinL', we must be allowed, pri«?entlv, 
to quote wliat the autlioress hcrHelf aays m 
her preface, or Preamble, a« she terms it, anfl 
let u few extracts from the " Diary " bear wit- 
nesa to h^r numeroui^ jH-rplexitiea, 

After mwch trouble, and ?reat expense, the 
work was dispatched to England. The Bril isti 
authorities honoured its arrival by demandin;^ 
II high import duty on tlie .■jeven thousand 
oopiefi, bearmg no certificate of being printwl 
in Prussia. Ailer lengthy correspondence to 
and fro, they were sent back with fifty iwun^k 
coBt of freight and warehousing, Tlic Pruasiaii 
euHtom-houfle, in its turn, dt-mauded a high 
uu{H>rt duty, which is nowise to be shirked. 


^'^rophe of ih'-"" * 
Uen the ] ;t 
-J found to 
couid hardly Im? otherwise, as i 
not calculated for twelve yeai*a' 
damp of our London dock«. 
while mildew and custom-hoi 
were doing their worst upon | 
literary ventui-e, her booK v 
A II d veiT c'X)11t turned 

t ! ><?nt of the pirates. 

ji.Li.i.i.,w licgins her thir*^ *■"' 
apofttiN>phe to ** Tlie Eri;,di: ' 
men ! '' She writes*, •' Tht 
nadlifllimus tongue, so often l>hiii 
mortality, here filled with r»dfl, 
fiery flraught, do not refM 
reliwh iti« spirit to be h*: 
homeboiTi," And in her*' prtiimhlr 
" I was not acquainted with Uir 
tongue, therefore relied on the 
of my translators, lite i-cri, 
their version I tried to follow, ^, .v 
ing it to the German text, <.)ricfi ni 
hurt by words lack of rauaical rhyii 
in the German text, by their h;» 
youndrt, and even by the union of tb- 
parts, awake |>aetic sensation ; I mu- 
nave them supplied by i»neh f^*i wrt)!i 
Fti^uin. To all my < ^ 
translator opi»08ed tli 
lating it, the rigour ai:;i!itsi un 
in that language, and, beside^s, i i 

allowjj no great dmice, it con^* x "'^ .u 

thirty thousand wonie, I thougbl, if T only 
did know tkem^ to be sure 1 would find tli 

Whether Bettinn always found the right 
w<irds, or whether they were «ueh n» are cal- 
culated to awaken *'|:K>etic aensit'tou" — whM 
in short the exactions of the T. 
have hjtit to the British pulilit 
m'^^nK of MiNa Von An ■ ' ^ 

iSp^aking uf her (j 
lator, and of tlie ditL. ..uiLr, , 
writes : — 

** Uneoimciously, I pmrmed my task, confld* 
in^ in my genius, tliat would preserve m« 
from doing any harm by untit, or even unusual 
expressions, and persisted often in my wniSff 
way, wlien my advisers would have subverted 
my construction, as they were ai«unlitie«. 
Often my ver«ioUj larded with 
expressions, gave way to miKiin 
then I could not ally tlie corrt' 
meaning, and would not Vw di 
my wite, impaBflioued as I was t 
out-turn, for which I htv] numti 
and poetrj'.and never won! 
sheet, which to-day will i 
and I am like one to whuuj, aiter a iong 

Erison, spring is beatowed in the fre« ail". 
^ 'oraooth, I saw in the last year no ro«es, — no 
tree blowing. Mv intelligence lay narrowly 
grateii u]> in the dictionaTy of good Johnson, 
and the gr.ammai^ that 1 took to my couch, 
and fell ii^leep on them ; and had ako a verr 

ill -lio\v. 
.» tnui*- 
Laak, aha 

1 th 

press ; 




Lftl bed to n. 

r huA miforttmately 

Rtti* I. ,;.."....- 

'io:il kantin^ 


frightened me 


■ for rny vrr^inn 

^^^^H t 



or, I 


1>y a 

^^^B 1 

d at 

^^^^^1 . 

— - - ...... lic'vcr 

^^^^K _ 

, . . . Had Uyron still 

^^H|h V 

• vnilsed mv attempt, — 


r the book's sake ; 

^^B_wa» "^ 

L^ mind, propuding 
iia. He woxud liave 



'itln, ffoodly graces; 


* u'ly blesaed me. 

^^ft 1 

yonder, and no 

^Dn)*'-^'* ' 

it flies fmm its 


to climate in a 

fencifpci bi. , 

ij n'v-ittMl in 

OieMuiJ. The^. 


M^^^^Brta m< 

.^ my 

■■bet Uiia ii 

i»le iuaerUiil in 

^^Hj^Pterlj or 

It Keviews, for 

^^^Stl^ that if ther<t; mc still otlier Eng^liBh- 

^^Embti^ *^'* Byron wouLl Iiave clone, are 


deep mind, and 


!©il fedinffs, I 


- ofmylUary," 
h<?r book tlie 


HEb ' 

!i.-' l'*ITlk^? of flit' 

TOlno litul Iht' 

■ 11 - Iw u-Mi]:, n 

Briel'to.'i] s»-u-. 

' '■"••'"o ••'L^'^'^'i^ 


s: — 


;j!r jt't.":? ftxrttt our Lord, 


! 1 ears for tlie 


J was contem- 


The wonder- 


it they reacheti 


^' stupefied 

I, coajse- 

...c over the 

w it up. ... . 
Vi V. niby^lied, 



, where it 

in satfron 


iiioment, deair- 


whole uature 





. the friend of GoSthe 

■l-cap or X t»«4l^l, and agtiia 

^t of 


^t'd >*▼ tlie«!, hailing 


ildeu voji*el8y 
frws neck. 1^...-.. .m..,» w ^.^ .ii.-io 
joLuittd *J/ t&e guthared ihwevs, the 

wild herb« in thy bc»soio, and laid my hand 
upon it to fix them there. Thou knoweat no 
more of my hand withheld mid thy breast, 
and that them eallodst nit; the wilil hop which 
would root there to wind its tentlrils ijrowinc 
np around thee, that nothing might be seen of 
thee but only tlie wild hop. Lot in thia 
double-wall of rock and monntain-depthi 
abides of eeho '^ ; ■ '-^ calk Lo ! my breast 
is Buch an nt : umI double w^dL, that 

ever and arjob .., times th<i joyous 

shunts of so sweet a tale echoes across thy 
bi-cath in which Ctod-inmiortallty hath V*!own 
the breath of inspiration, Be pleased to hear 
me siu;,; onre more the melodieij of my fairest 
paths of life, and in the excited rhythm of 
momentary joy^ where of epirit and sense the 
vit^l aoui'cea stream into eiujh other, and fto 
exalt e^'ich other, that not the inexperienceil 
alone become sensible and ■visible, but the un- 
risible, unheanl of too, bo known and heard of, 

" Is it of drums and tinunpets the jubilating 
chime which shxdcen the clouds ? — ^is it of 
hai'ps and cymbals 1 — is it of thousand jp- 
stniments the tumidt, that at &3mmand*a call 
disposing solves itself into the measure of pare 
strains, forms warbling ahapes, pronounces 
accents of celestial influences, peoetnUes into 
man's spirits, with hue and light espouse* 
sense and mbd I Is it this genial f)owei", 
which running tlirough the veins conjures the 
'l>lood the earthly to reject, to nurse, to bring 
f^'ith of supeiTiiLl love, of supeiiml light, the 

u I line fruit? Is it not thou who has cou- 
-i!Uiiuateil it in me, when it fulg;urates within 
my soul 1 Yea. it fulgurates when I think ot 
thee I Or is it only tkalma — museiul and 
weening, only gazing phantas)% not espousing 
with its revelations what I have to contide to 
these lea.ves \ W^hatcver it be I all into de^ith 
this music of the first love may lead me. At 
thy feet I plant the bass ; it shall pullulate a 
palm-grove for thee to wander in its shades ; 
all what of lovely and sweet thou hast said to 
me, that I shall whisper from twig to twig 
like soft carob of twittering binla : be your 
kisses, your caj*eraes, between us the honey- 
droppin;c; fruits of this grove: but the element 
of my life., hftrmony with thee, with nature, 
with God, of whose loss arises the abundance 
of genemtion upwards to light into light, de- 
cay mg into lignt — be that the torrent the 
moiit powerful, which encompasses this grove 
to make it lonely yfM\\ me and thee. 

"Tliou lookest upon me from celestial 
heights ; let it be unknown to me, for I would 
not l>ear it : thou hast t^ikcn me frtjui mydelt 
— where stsuid I firm l The ground reels — 
I feel myself no more on earth. My soul 
buoys up, I do no more know any one, I have 
no thought — I have no will but to sleep, 
bedded in clou<L^ on the steps of thy C4>lestial 
chaii\ Thy glance keeping over me fire-vieil, 
thy alUnarrning spirit bending over me in 3ie 
blossom -carouse of thy loveH-arols. Thou ! 
lisping over me, nightingale-fluting the groans 
of my hmguisbing pnntft, *I\io\i ^VoniKsv^ 



over rae» -^ent? 
|wwMifjn. Thou, 

'u' the frenay of 
heaven-itrgitig the 
ctcru:d hyrojis oi* love, that warblmg rebottnd 
on the h'eart. Ay I at thy feet I will siecj), 
w! ' ' '' * one — Poet ! Priuoe ( 

p m:! olcmds, e vol veat your 

hiu... ,,.- i ^ in my heart." 

A little further on Bettina Brentano ^ytm 
it lis her oimuou, that '' Beauty, by diviue 
amrit, inculcates itself to human features, 
through which inspiration ix»i-spii-es a halo, 
and, unhurt by lowness, its fragnmce freely 
evolves.*' Goethe's personal beauty at forty 
was " immarcessible, and at aixtywM **re- 
queencd " by g«uiua. 

Some of the Uiou^hts in the original are of 
the higbcst order of fer\-ent ]>aetry ; yet they 
are much marred in Engli&li by the com* 
paj'ativo ignoranw of tlunr author of our 
language. It would never do to apply to a 
fair poeteai who translates her on^ti work 
into a foreign language, the proverb which 
deiinea what a client is who Vteconica hia own 
lawyer. In the case before U3 it would hai-dly 
be just ; for everj' allowance should be made 
for the difficulties she had to overcome. 


At Algoa Bay, in the eastern provinces of 
the Cape Colony, there is, and has bean for 
thiit}' veAFS, a' whaling establifihrncot. By 
what instinct these monsters of the deep 
ascertain the settlement of man on the shorea 
they frequent, it would be difficult to aay. 
But that they do so, and that they then coui- 
mratively deaert such coasts is undoubted. 
Where one whale is now aoen oif the south- 
eastern coast of Africa, twenty were seen in 
former times, when the iidiabitant* of the 
country were few. It ia the same in New 
Zealand, and ever}' other whale-frequented 
coftst. Nevertheleaa, the whaling esUibhah- 
tneiit I have mentioned is Btill Kept up in 
Algoa Bay — and with good reason. One 
whale per armum will pay all the expenaea 
and outgoings of ita maintenance ; evei^ other 
whale taken in the courae of a year ib a dear 

The value of a whale depends, of course, 
rt]yr>n its size, — the average is from three huu- 
dv Is to six hundred pounds. The 

c i iit in Algoa Bay oonsiKts of a 

Bltiia-iiTiij,r. house for the reatdenceof the fore- 
man, with the coppers aj\d boiling-houses 
attJiched ; a wooden Ijoat -house, in wTuch arc 
kept three whale-boata, with all the linos and 
tackle beloiigiug to them ; and a set of 
javelins, harpoons, and implcnieitts for cutting 
up the whales' carcases. Tlien there are a 
boat's crew of picked men, six in number, 
besides the coxs^vain and the huqiooner. 
There are seldom above two or tliree whales 
taken in the course of a year ; occasionally 
Hot one. 

The appearance of a whale in tl 
known immediately, and great is tl 

Purt ' 


:intl unexT)ect*d <'alft, got up kn 
mcnt of tlie mhabiUuits, with i 

A trt^at of t)u9 sort is 
the first appeamuee of a v, 1 
Tackle-boats and men aio g 
twinkling. We j ump into the 
the boat. Six weather-be i * 
ai'e at work at the oai-s, aii ! 
stands the haii>ooner, prcj.L.. 
ft boy is by hw side. Ccnlg of li 
feet, with harpoons attuclu'd i 
two or three spears or javelins. 

" PuU away, boys ; there she blown a^iin *• 
cries the coxswain, and at each 9U 
strong men almost lift the little cr 
the water. The harpooner eav 
is a vciy silent fellow : but wo*- ' 
whale that comes within the ^v^lIJ < 
unerring harpoon I 

Meantiniv "» ♦' ^ friend of tlie '^"'* 
rolling hi I! '. im if such i 

harpoims in 1 ; a>» if he av» :i\ 

in javelins. We arc u] 
dozen more strokes and v 
aim. Yet the haipooner scsemu 
moved rus ever ; he holds tlf^j 
true, but he seems to graa]i it i 
to make any preparation for 
knows the whale better than ^ 
than his crew. Ho hna been n 

thirty years, and once \vv ■ , i* 

whalus in one with tml. 

was right not to hurr)' li .. u sec, 

the whale htw at hist caun^ht sight i>f U8, 
has plumbed below the surface. 

Now, however, the harjwoner n 
imperceptible sign to the coxsw.iin. 
swain says "give way boys," > 
hia breath, and the boat skin 
ever over the waves. The hm i 
dutches more tightly the hn» I 

slowly raises his arm : hia mrmth i^ vumyi 
but hia face is as cahu as ever. A ftiw 
a*head of us a wave acema to sw. 11 -Au^vt 
others— *' Whiz "—at the verv 
catch sight of the whale's barl 
the water, the harjwon is in it t ; 
deep, hurled by the unerriag arii ■. 


Tlje red blood of the monster <rw*ihe4* fn 
" incamadinina; '* (i\s Macbeth sn 
" Back water, shouts the hai | 
whale writhes with the pnin, : 
huge body about with foi'ce 1 1 
mcrgo twenty of our little crafi.. ... 
But he has pliuiged do\\ni agiiin 1 
surface, anvl tlie pace at which he 1 1 
may judge of, by the wonderiid rapiility >vitii 
which the line attached to the luupoou runi 
over the Ixjwb of the l»oat. Now, tuo, y«l 
see the use of the boy who is baling walcT' 
from the sea in a small bucket, mu\ \y*mnnf^ 




H lUMwmlJv OTcr the oiIj^b of the boat 
vbori tlie luH) ruiLs, or in two minutea the 
voald set fire to it. 
Ym begin <<» ikink the uhale ia never 
bock ; brat the crew kuow better. 
ibocif Ibe liiic u running out more slowly 
trmrj ixMteni : it r«iUM^ jJtogether now, and 

aP9 n^ tcvr Iname])t^ 
iiw liKrpooiier is g»n 
4iilf 4^ ihft JAv^Uika. I i 
akacrr-" *^ -"^ the harp' 
«tlf Tli« hn 

Itmt he Ls not 

mhttm, V 
A irtifr— »?« 

tVn* font's si»io 

Ho is 


^ ... ,jje 
i«— the 

" Fiiii again boys '* 

■\-Z in th«? line as &at 

jw. Agnin 


I. o the creatnre'a 

last. Suddenly, 

: rw:Lriii. No need of 

s now : we are ^viiig him 

■ ' c;u«, yet he ia taking 

r the' rate of twenty 

«»ne would ^cy 

velins have only 

lood he hAa lost 

strength. Not 

r«3 now : we *re 

the water. 

and we jippit>aoh ; 

i-ivolin pierce him. 

I B(»ek revenge. He 

-what can Bave u»1 

ries the barpooner, while 

"' ♦he hint at the same 

of his onr (he little 

f f-urvet baekwarda, 

t ug unharming, 

pT'Oner, cool aa 

i deep into 

.113 imjKitent 

< lull well, Ixxlea a 

it. The rtd I) lood ia 

V * -^ as 

Vol 0^1 


on bis tl 

In two II! 

for shlpmeut lo iiiiglnnd. 
which linni his m<«nth, a? 
whjltfbon*. t3 Triv^ 
h0Rm nri^'^iy \f , U 

.: :--^ . '...^. --.^.__ , -__-- lie 

tc« on the water — and the 

'I bini, and 
le, opyjosite 
• jwd is col- 
■ l u]) on the 

uses to wifieh 

(jta by 

ii& landmarks on the different farma about the 
countrj*, for which purpoae they are arlmi- 
riibly adapted. Meauwhile our friend the 
harpooner and his crew are r'^ui^^in- nn their 
laurels, and looking out for ; while 

the proprietor of the estut ia live 

hundred pounds the richer from thia ^* catch- 
ing a whale." 


BEAttTiruL fictionii of our trusting youth, 

(Visions we eigh that we have only drenmod ! ) 

When Fancy mocked the eearching gaso of Trnth, 
And the whole earth with bright endnntmentB 

How have we loved to forest ^lade? to flee ; 

By haunted etroama (m tbonght) to take our 
stand ; 
To watch you circling round tho greenwood treo» 

Or trace your gambols on the moonht stmiid I 

Or, when in gorgeouB panoply arrayed, 
To grace some pageant of tbo Elfin Qucon^ 

You pricked along, a gallant CAMnlcade, 
Faulting the verdant turf a Uvelior green ! 

Nor laaa we loved you^ when^ with pitying air, 
And hand beneficent, around you ehowerod 

Gifts, might the world'a and nature's spite repair. 
And leave the homeliest miuden doubly dowered. 

But the bright realm of Fairyland is gone ; 

Its iria-iintod troin hath passed away ; 
And Ariel, Mab» Titonio, OberOQ, 

But graoo tho painter ^ Bcone, or poet's ky. 

E>n f*uck, dear imp of mischief and of mirth, 
" O'er bUl and dale/* at length bath ooased to 
rango ; 
Though long^ored ''Bottoms" cumber atill the 
Whose " aasea' nowls " be is not htr^lochasiga ! 

Tho " Sword of Sluirpness ** is no longer keen ; 

The '* Seven League Boots *' we dibtonee now, at 
Omr solo surviving " Giant '* ia the 8pleen, 

Whichj we, like David, with a stone can kill ! * 

No more, no more, upon tho velvet mead. 
On nmihroom tables arc your banquota spread ; 

No more with flying feet the dance you speed. 
Till dimming glow-worms hint 'tia time for bod t 

No " fiiby &vour8 ^ now reward the fmr t 

Nor pearls nor diamond ire told; 

No elfin matron makes L' 

With puzao exhauatlcs^ .li..^- ...-i- ^wi v gold. 

Tour un?ocn aid, like angel-help, in vain, 
Tho toil-worn hind may, in Ma strait^ implore ,* 

The " slmdowj' flail " to oaae his tssk will imk 
Ita stalwart blows in his behoof no more ! 

Virtue no longer, in her sorest nced«> 
ISy fairy hands is rescued from her thrall ; 

And rampant Vice, how dark soe'er his deeds. 
Your wellHsamed frowns may now uo bioX: 
appal ! 

• Green ia hta exivlliait pc«n, " Thu Spleep,*' mjtjs- 

• FUng ^t a rtona, ^fl» ^^*a^ «!«a^ 

Tbe nipexfitiiJoiM sweet tlut cluuinod our yoath ; 

Tbe Wigo belkf that bftde iu still dtcftZD on ; 
Th» dear illuaon^ wo mt&took for tmtli ; 

Tbe " shaping power ** that giwe them grace— 
oro fliawol 

Vet iheie fiur fictioas of ow earlier day 
Wo have but cfajiuged for guides less kiml and 

The glittering cheats that lead ui now astray, 
Are £ih<or far than ihoee of Fouy Laud ! 

Lore, Friendflhip, Hope, Ambition, Glory, Ptidej 

AlL ignia-^tuue-like, by tui j 
But when we follow, make a ^ 

Wliere fielda are dank, aod i - ...^dxnw their 

light 1 

T ' ts Btill, aa they were wont of yore, 
love to Mcv legends ding ; 

TL. .- IS half-dispeUed, for they no more 

" Believe the magic wonders that they sing ! ** 

Tet, till the Muse firom earth ia driven away. 
And young Bomanco hath broken too ha- wand ; 

Will elfin lore stiU grace the poet'a lay. 
And his hcart'ii homo bo Btiil in Fairyland ! 


Sib VALBSTons a^TEAs wm a worthy 
gentleman, who had made a large fortune by 
GOiiBtantly exporting Iriah llDena and lawns 
to France (from whence tBey came oyer to 
England as fine French goods), for which 
service to the trade of the three comitries a 
dJBcemb^ miniJitcr had obtaine^l liim tbe 
honour of knighthood. This fortune he had 
in part expended in building for himself a 
great mansion on the ae&'Coaat of Kent, com- 
manding a fine view of the country from the 
back windows, and the great ocean from the 
front. Every room on the first and second 
floors was furnished with a brass telescope, 
thnt could be screwed on to the window-aasb^ 
or by means of a pedestal, into the window -silL 

In the front of his house was a great field, 
in which he and his visitors used to play at 
cricket. It was bounded by the high, white 
chalk cliffs, which descended precipitously to 
the sea. 

The diflBt however, were unfortunately much 
undermined by natural caverns ; so that every 
yefir, and, iu fnct, every time there was a 
storm at sea, a large portion of the chalk- 
rock fell down, and in the course of six or seven 
yeiu-B he was obliged to rail off as "dan- 
gerous" a ^>art of the ^eady reduced field 
m tmnt of his house. He couM now only play 
at trap-ball, or battledore and shuttle-cock. 

Still the sea continued its encroachment*, 
and in a few yeai^ more the tra|>-ball was all 
over,^ — it was too periloun, even if tiny liad 
not coutinuaily lost the ball, — and he and his 
60US were reduced to a game at long-taw, 
aud hop-acotch. 

Clearly perceiving that in the coume of 
A few veara raoro his field t.ports would be 
limited' to spinning a tee-totura before his 
front door, ne engaged the services of an 

eminent architect and civil enciJii'^^r i. 
him a sea-wall to prev^^nt the ft i 
ment of the enemy. The estiiii 
waa fi^-e thaosand pounds. and» m » i na ti k T *4 
course, the work, by the time it waa fituiilM«lf 
cost ten thousand. Thia was tiearix aa mu^ 
aa Sir Yakntine 8altear had paid for tbe 
building of his house. 

But uie worat pan of the buidneia was, thai 
the verj next atorm which occiirped at sea,, 
and only a few weeks afu»r, the waves dashed 
down, and fairly caiTied nwav tli'.- whole ol 
this protective walL In > 

dean gone, as though no - :> i 

been Siere, and a great juitUticfnal eap wad 
made in the cliff, plainly showing that the 
watery monster was auite bent on swallowing 
up Sir Yalentine^s house. He broudht an 
action for the recovery of the money he 1 ' \ 
paid for his wall ; but while this was pen>i 
he saw his hnise being underr^'' "-i '"'•■ ^^>^ 
to day, and in sheer deapa 
obliged to apply to a still mor> 
engineer. The estimate thi.s gentieman in 
for the construction of a sea-wall — 'jne t .. . 
would stand — was ten thousand pounds. It 
might be a few pounds more, or lass — prob- 
abh' less. But the recent exfjerience of Sir 
Yalentine making him fear tb.'vt it would 
probably be double that amount, be heutated 
as to engaging the services of this gentleman. 
He even thoTi:^ht of sending over to Ireland 
for fifty bricklayers, carpenters, and masons^ 
and superintending the work himself. He 
was sure he could do it for six thousand 
pounds. It never once occurred to him to 
pull down his house^ and rebuild it on high 
ground a quarter of a mile farther otf. 

In this dangerous yet undecided state of 
affairs. Sir Yalentine one morning, breakfast- 
ing at his club in Waterloo Plnce, read in a 
newMiMiper a notice of the grand mining oper- 
ation ajid explosion that was to take iilace at 
Seaford, the object of wliicU was to throw 
down an immense mass of chalk cliff, the 
broken fi"agmenta whereof would, at a com- 
panitely Binall co«t, form a sea-wall, at an 
elevation of about one-fil'th the heidit of the 
parent rock. Why, here was Sir \ alentine*8 
own case ! Hi.s house was up<jn a very high 
chalk rock, and a sea-wall of one-fifth the 
height wotild answer every purpose. The 
only difficulty was his pesent proximity to the 
edge of tlie cliff. Still, he thought he could 
spare thirty feet or so. without losing liis dooi 
stef>a, and this width (>eing exploded down to 
the base of the uliU; would constitute, by 
its faU, a very capitil mound of protraction 
which might 1,'tst for a century or more. He 
therefore determined to see the explosion at 
Sej^ford, .'md if it proved successfulj to adopt 
the very saiue f jlan. 

Sir Valentine, accordingly, on the nine- 
teenth of Septonil>er, awallowetl un eai'ly cu{i ot 
chocolate, funl hurried off to the lirighton 
i-ailway tennintia, and touk hi^ pLaco in the 
Express train for Nt whaven. It wjls a retom- 



r waich he paitl the sum of 

^ii Kvi^iiT-sJon traiD 


; but Sir 

tiiat it wuulJ at on at every 

uid mi^ht not be m time 

iuid pnidently chosen the 

ce ; immt'lv. one poimd 

nta of the I 

:•-<'» tr ill u 1 1 1 II »[t."' 

Fii - ^ ; but there 


liU I 1, thoiigh an 

AT. WLeii it 

18 all had to 

11 wliich vrns 

JbLSt a train arrived. It 


Blr Valentme^ " why, I have 

re*s !^ — ^fipBt-class— one [x>imd 

this long train was. Pre- 

"ShoQt.-'l n'Tt that thc^re was 

in a s- rarrin^e. 

6ne!*"> ^ir ViUentine, 

fpre^iin^'tr in a threatening 

giiani!, and jumped in. In 

hy no means in a huny, the 

lin amviftd. 

blr Vali:; ' 1 denmndevl of 

he I ir it was to 

lu't know ! to 
inient and contcin|>t of the 
1 1,. - l..,l the next person; 
I! t the very least 

him at the "tap." 
>ked on all sides to see if 
flif>, or vel»icles of any 
ul in a group at 
^diat fownrd« them at 

ig- ftfriik^^a f' ^ ■ .d over- 
liieition a* to tl). allowing 

IxiwUnz — I wo Hiilea aa a 
umr tnWv* l»y the road ! — two 
! — four' by the ro-o-o-o ! " 
the vehir.lca, the knight 
of them either euj?aged, or 
rn\W aa a matter of favour 
admitted as ^one over the 
u> iu-»ideof a ftnudi van without 
bcsadp tin** h«»t and crushing, 
hraught and 

series of 
lie of ve- 
while a 
ere de- 
roas the 

ing around, to^Tther witli booths and wheel* 
bariowa, set out with appke. rmf^ Jrf.i.-l 5i»,.l 
cheeee, and gingerbeer of a | 
stream. Sir valentine havirt i 

early, hajstily, and lightly, was by this time — 
a quarter to two — extremely aharp set ; he 
endeavoured, therefore, to m.<%ke his way into 
the house to get a bottle of stout and some 
or cold beef for luncheon. But after ten 
N^4* continuous efforta, he found he waa 
M.n l*etween the door-postn^ and the noiay, 
choked-np window of the "bar" as fai- from 
his hopes as ever. He abandon'"! t)u- .♦t.^-iTipt 
in diaguflt — but not without a 3 iira* 

self to a seafkiing man who wa.s ^ with 

his hands in his pockets, lookimr on . — 

" Is this sense ? " said the ^ight. *I>> 
you call this common sense ? Do you thtuk 
you are acting with any mor« reason than a 
dog possesses, to treat the public in this way ? 
Then, your own interest — look at it !*' fpoiiit- 
inff to the crowd st niggling in the door- way), 
" If you had any foresight, or a hea^^l for the 
commonest arrangements, would you nr>t have 
a barrel of ale on wheels outside nere ? " 

The sea- faring man swung roimd on his 
heel with a smfle, and Sir Valentine^ liaving 
made his way into the field, obtained six 
pennyworth of gingerbread and a dozen of 
small a]iple9. with which provender he in some 
sort reiived his exliausted frame. Ho now 
bustled on towai*fls the fwt of a broken em- 
bankment leading up to a lofty rising ground, 
the summit being the cliffs, a'large portion ot 
which was shortly to be detached, and thrown 
down bv the explosion of a mine. Tlie i>art 
to 1)6 f)Iown off was marked out by broad 
belts of white^ where the chalk ha»l l»et'ii 
thrown up, which raatle an imi>o8iug appcu-- 
ance even on the distant heiffht**. 

The sun slione bri^htlv. All over the fiehls 
and fallow ground that lay between the halt- 
iiig-phice just described, and tlie foot of the 
steep mount, the visitors were scatteivd, — 
pedestrians, with here ami thern? a horstenian: 
si^ht -seers, — ^the old and the young — men of 
science from various parts of the wnrld, — 
infantry soldiers, sappers and miners, laiiies 
and gentlemen, sailors, marines, c«>untry 
people, milway labourers, policenieu, lx>^s 
and girls, and — fax in the rear of nll^ with dis- 
approving looks — two or tliree oUl women in 
spectacles. Renovate«i by liis gingerbread 
and apples. Sir Valentine made his way man- 
fully up the steep gnis^' ascent of the hill, — 
chalk mountain, it might be mt>i*e pn/perly 
termed, — and, in the course of a q\iarterof an 
hour, he found himself at the spot whei-e the 
exploHion was to take place. 

It was a tolerably level surface, of some 
hundred yards in dialneter- Trans^-orse belts 
of excavated chalk, with sevend trenches and 
pits half tilled up, marked out the huge frag- 
ment of the solid raxss which w.'w to be ?epi<- 
i*ated. The boundary w?ifi further indicated 
by sm.all flagstaff^, and aW> \>y »txvl^tve\»,^';\vi 

W6r» stolid* I pre vented any of tiie vlnvWra tvovftUeaY^^^^^^o 


i a 

an the datigcroTia grouad, wl t i ^^^^ 

tliQY all bail a lialWelicLi ^h 

to pcnujibiilate, aud to f^'^^\ ; i to 

be uloTAij to atoina by u mm ■ : . in. 

Ikmeatli the ^uirt nnikL 1 .'i 'v lii. tli;;- 
niaffs ajiiJ Bflntinela, at a ijrcat dcptJ\ iii tbii^ 
tiudk track, were burtwl many thousand 
(the Brighton Herald mtXd twuiity-suvcn Ihon- 

rtd •) j^>onnda of g:unix>u'iicr, distributed in 
dii' nnl>crs and galleries, one commu- 

Iii ;i nuother by Tii(ian8 of a platina 

\»uri\ I iiLs Mire wixa carried up through the 
ix>ck liita a liltlu wooden hous*;, iii wliieh 
certain cUeiiiical myBteries wore bcin;;; ^secretly 
CWTiGil oh by ungineer ofticcrs. Uliore was 
a little wiiiilow iji frout, out of which the 
snyeterious oflicer now ami theu half thnist 
his head, — looked out with profound gi'avity 
«pon the belts of chaik ou tlie space before 
him, aud, witbout appearing to sec any of tlie 
cro^vding visitors, withdrew from the w iudow. 
Presently another oflicer cjuue, and did the 
siiJiie- "Come like bhwlows," muttered Sir 
Vnientine, " so depart ! " 

But, wishing that iJiey might "show hi« 
eyes " the inyatenous opemtiona in the little 
woimIcu hoiist^ however grievous it might be 
to his fceliaga, our anxious knight hurried 
i-ound to the back, where he took it for 
granted there M'as aome means of entrajice, as 
lie had seen uo otlicer get Ln at the v.iudow. 
He WM right. There was a small narrow 
door of plauks, with a sentry atandiuf beft^re 
It, who wore a f^l ' ' " ' iniport- 

aiicc. And now, : ctaeles 

approached, and urMu-.i, i.. m. .-Lijiujel, who 
ta])ped at the door. The dour was uidockei.1, 
and the favoured mari of science entered. 
Tlirough the closing door, Sir Valentiue 
caught sight of a sort of long, sliapeleas tal>le, 
covered irith chemical iiistniment^ and uten- 
Bik» — in short, an apparatuH excitinj,' great 
Cttrioaity. The door closed, just as Sir Valen- 
tine handed up his cai*d to the aentinel. The 
door was openecl again, — his card given in ; 
flomebody took it, and it seemed to ny over a 
rowof small wldte porcelain painters' psdh'tte^y 
standing raid-deep in water, and then dirsap- 
pvarod, ai tho door was suddenly tL *si i1 .I'^ain. 
A voice witliin wrwa heanl to aay. Iv, 

*'I really am afndd we can't be -i ' 

"Cant you!" exclaimed Sir Vaieutine, 
addreasiu"; hlniBclf to a sei'X'ant girl, with a 
child in her arms, who was trying tu L'ct a 
l>eep in at the door : — " Cwi't you, indcenl I 
What treatment do you call this? Do yon 
think guiitlemen would take the trouble tu 
come ifown here, such a distance, and up her ■ 
such a ht'i:.'la, if thoy did not e.vjwct ti> 
all tliat could (Wflaibly be aeon '( la this V" 
duty to tlie public who |m'8 you? \\Uy 
simuld you conoeid any thing from me | A in 
I not apei-son of aullicitnt wwdtli and ri^spec- 
tabilitY to bo allowed to know of all your 
doings up here ! ^Tiat brings you her«> but 
the public service? Who m your master ? 
tell me that ? ** 

«E^ ' ' ^' ^ ^^ vr;3rd,"iuMwetisdll» 
girl, ^. but I don'^t 

abit'i, ....,, .-. .,.,..^. wa!" 

Bir Valentine brushed past the gixl wiik 

a "T*>wli. r.-li;iw ^ *" ()L;^<r\ni" it \irrut 

p 1 .'u!t! J il.1 ti U trti t> ci uc '^. ' dt 

and foimd that it w;l ' *n 

It became important tu ticcuic oh ; 
ad van tageouH place to take up a p* 
onler u.* have the best view of lb' :: .: 
explusion. Some of the vis-itors — in i:. , • 

COILsit 1-^1-1 1-1 ■• --••'■' — 1"-l •■'■ 1-'^ ' - 

veiy I 

upwai . _ -^, .. - 

distance of a hundred anii two biuir 

dred yards beyond the lia apot 

Another crowd took their poatii «4; ikbout Uit 
same distance below the £iital 9|v-rt. eadk 
crowd being widely scatterod, V -x m, 

each being nearest, the moiit t fm«» 

thest off. Another ci ' : tian w.'oj 

largfflt by iar — liad *' lo th«s 

to see, from below, the i.i.i. oi iha c"i*cjtt 
of lody rock. Many lukd taken ixtaiSy 
rowed, or aaiknl out, to behold it fi-om & 
directly opposite, yet safer portion. 

Now, Sir Valentine Saltear, bein^ a 
tluLsiast in sight-seeing, had not the leatft 
doubt but the way realTy to enjoi/ the thii^ 
would be to stand u}>un tlie portion of Ibt 
cliff that was to be throvt^i down ; and^ lea]iii|( 
from crack to crack, and from maaa to maa^ 
aa it majestically descended, reach b^* tUii 
means the sea^ into which a good dive fbr- 
waiiln would render your escape from danger 
comparatively safe aud easy. On serosyd 
tlioughta, however, he uaw that it was praca- 
rioua, because if tlie charge of powder wcr« ia 
excess of the weight to be separated, a great 
mass of fragments might fly upwaids 'fnto (hr 
air, and who could aay but one of thi 
be the verj' place on which he hii 
standing 1 He, therefore, cotit' i 
with advancing to the extreni 
clilT, and peering over upon the i t^nM i>A 
The heigJit was protligious ; the civtwd* 
w/dking about below were of pigmy size. Th* 
lH>at3 tnat were hovering about on the em 
looked no bigger than mussel shells. Sir 
Vjdeutiue ouce thought of going out in a 
boat, but immediately recolleclii|g that by 
doing BO he should lose the flnc effect of tht 
tiijniblmg of the eai-th, he at once abandoned 
the idea, Ifhemountctl above the sctue •/ 
surtiun he should lose the gi^audeur of the 
• • - -Tit of the ma^ ; if he 8too<ion the mount 
ir distance below it, he couLl not see 
nface crack and gape, tht rngli h»' l,i.'^^ 
be ♦^xpt>sc^<l Uj flying fr«^mcnts. lie, ' ' 
decideil forthwith on goiu^ down to th 
and accQixlingly he hurried along the gmssy 
r1o^>o, nud t\\on mnde his wny do\m a pro- 
«■- '■ in the saiwl hiU below. 

tttling and limping ovci" 



kqit liiH 

a XDomeut 

oa to 

1, «-iLh 

. iiu one 

i^ imtj Wiis ver_y 

dark crow<1 of 

of til .nu being at lenst 
Mid bftlf oC 

VlUaAtlBe, After mi cxruuination of all 
Cff the CTisp, rlytted to have a 

in tin; ^ 

thst til* esi< 

', inn*' tbOr WHY, rLL 
(I ftJVhfl l««ik«^ roc 
troii Ibc iiataat It^ .> 
of fr^i^imcaiU iu Ums air 

not be »Xil^ to \ 

lo tlie flagstAtT; 

thf possibility 

ud up a jcireat 

jht come riyin^j 

' rg by their 

ecu re a re- 

■i-'-i" -1 1 


r for 

r. A 


lisc^^riiL**! hy the 

ULi I ut 

* upon tho 

,.rv month 

ail wna mienc 

itftmk, . I 

loat upAu ihv 

■iMlMiMke inst.Mitiy rt»i^e. .'iud obacureil 

knows but more ciitf may be coming ilomi. 
Iu the course *>( h:Uf n mliiate the cloud of 
dtiflt had sufficiently liifiyicrsed itAP.lf to reudt*r 
the fullen ni;i8s vi«ibJo. It formed tx &ort 
of ilouble hill about one-fifth of the heijLjht 
of the rocks alH>ve, the iuter hill neaicia the 
e^A (\v\u ^ ^ ' ! •' ' . ,d Atid sliouldem 
of the fi for the L'ujrest. 

It waa 4. .., •'^•^ <»f all sljstia, 

from amnll i up to huge 

blocks of cll;^ , \\<er(* two or 

three feet in thickiieaa, iiitemiixtxl vrith m&^SM 
of tlie upper crtist, having grass upon iho 
uf»per enrfaccj. 

TowaRia this Larger hill of broken miuaea oi 
chalk, the frout rank of the crowd Iwlow, ou 
the bti&ch, now I'ushisd, But after a few 
yards, they ftgnin Htomictl alirufitly, brin^litg 
every bo<ly behiuil tJtt;iii biunp up agAlBSt 
their bocks. Anain, tit '^' " -^ -i '■■■•' ^-^vft^ 
iii^Hy, wlien middciily a A 

T'l-k detached itself ft . , i .uc 

\ug doMm. Back rushed the front line, — a 

iiic took place, nnd thousands retreated, 

till they found the elilf was not ootniug 

ntU»r thvm, when they gradually drew op, 

'd about, and ixjturaetl to the oniict At 

.;th it b<«(mmc a complete charge: the 

ut rank made directly for ^' V broken 
lud, in the face of clouds chalk' 

1 ', nvsl fritrly carricil it by iir--,.iuii. — luount- 
ii^ \r( iMK'kA, or picking their way round 
.Lin ut ii . Ixs, or between several blocka, 
and tbiYjD^di roII masses of chalk, and so 
npwarda to the top, — two soldiers, three 
iiatlors, a lx)y, and Sir Valentine, l>eing the 
lirat who reachetl it. Thereupon they aet 
up a Cihortt of victory% which was eclioed 
by thousan«ls fixim below. Fifty or sixty 
more were soon up af%«r them ; mvl one 
enthnsLxst, who luyl a very clever little 
brown horse "-'-rMv contrived to lead 
him up to t d then mounted him, 

amidst the ]>- jI tlie delighted heroes 

who surrounded him. Kvcrj' body, horse and 
all. waa covered v^ith the continual rain of 
chalk-dust. The herooi were all &8 white aa 

It was aJmost aa difficult to de«c?end as it 

had bfon fn ^et up. However, Sir Valentine 

■ : this with I ' ' ' ic 

^^\i^ wny li: !ie 

! I.<1 U|t_' lUtlC "public, »!Ul llllLUl, U> 

lire a fijv or nlher cunveyancc, before they 

■ ■.o ill ..j^'iMi I ;ii-,l \\\' the nuT'^"'''"^ 1"" '^-'"1 left 

beaeh. ^ t>« 

4v;^ed, ih ds 

hastily, and was lortnnate enough Lo ovprtnke 

n large pleasure-cart, into which he got, and, 

'T suffering the vexation of seeing o\'ery 

jicle pass them, he at length arrived at the 

JNewhaven railway st5it>i<m. 

There, every \io<\y Nvaa vii cooSuaVan, w\\t5» 




JnlorTniitinn about the Express-ti-ain — for 
vbidi Sir Valentine had a return ticket — 
eoald be obtained itom any body. Nobody 
knew any thinj^. Meaatiiue the crowd Wgau 
to incraafie twofold. 

Sir Yalentme was dying with thirst He 
Uftde his way into a large w^ting-room, and 
aaw laottles'of wine, and atoiit, and so^Ia- 
waltr, bobbing and sailing OTi^r {Kvples' 
lieada; but It was in vain to try oiul get 
near the window ; and as to waiters, not a 
fellow or shadow of the kind was to be found. 
He waa recommendeil to " try the tap '* out- 
aideu Here it was still worse — ^though eoinc 
fortunate indlvidiuJa had, nevertlieless, con- 
trived to get drank. Sir Valentine held up' a 
ahillin^ in the air for a glaa» of {wrter, till nia 
ana waa ready to drop off; and then he 
abandoned all hope. 

eric i r who waa lean* 

ifig H; wall: — "You 

W2utt to -i'-y \^itU all your aouJa; 

and yuu .. apid to know* how^ when 

the money ia ieady to be Uiro^ra into your 
nuMitiia. "Look at your tap, there 1 Look at 
all iham struegliiig outnde. Why ahoold 
not a beer-caa^/ as eaaily aa a watei^cask, be 
set on a truck and wheeled out here — two or 
three of them — and ao accomuodate the 
f iililic and take all the money that could be 

•hI ? But no ; not you / not y^u / You 
v> ii Bome cleirer Frenchman or German, to 
come and show you the way — the smple 
means — and then you'll bawl and acream 
: ""Hi for^gnan coining and taking the 

>'l out of your mouth ! Here have I, for 

11 <i iji 

to ft 


le sonnded from the rail way nlat- 
Valentine hurried away Irom 
iarmer, who had juat awoke 
(be geatlemau waa mad. 
1 on the platform had by thia 
t4enfold. A long train of car- 
rtagea waa there — and on the nno or rail on 
tb? other «ide, lher« was another. But 
t mid tell Sir Valtintine which was 

I .^-train. Thia stat« of things ecu- 

tuiuL^i at Icaat a quarter-of-anhour beyond 
the time when the Esprea&^train ought to 
have atarted. At lengtn a luilway officer 
waa able sufficiently to collect himself t<i 
liaten to Sir Valentme, and inform him that 
Uu wifl the Expreaa which waa now going. 
Up and down atru^^L'lf I Sir Valentlae amid^ 
the crowd ; bu' t^LiBa carriage waa 

AtUof face» — ^< so oomfortame and 

amiiing, aa ht - anxioua £ace in at 

IIm wmdowa, i ' whiafck blew again, 

. * ' *pwr ivir \ aicutine scrambleii into 
I v:ioa]|t seat remaining in one of the 

L^ caniagea. The engine- whiaUe 
:tnd onwwd thty rolit^l 
*...^ IS th« wayytm treat gentlemen!" 
exdidmed htv looking round at his feUow- 
pasaanfp^rs. ** You nnikc them pay oiie pound 
Iwiir ahillings for a firat class li:jc|>nsas4Jrain — 

■. if 

and yo\i oblige them to get into a seccaid-dass 
Civiriage !" 

" In an Excursion-train !" drily adilcd OM 
of Ihii pasaengers, a grazier, who was but* 
ton^d up to the chiu in a grey duffel coat, 

**TJie Excuraiou-train !'' ejaculiUnl Sir 
V.*ileutine. There he atopp'd ; 
want of breatli ; partly frouj rri^ 
more because of the ridicule he ] 
should encounter from hia fellov; 
He therefonj endeavoured to j« 
laugh. ^*Ha, haT' waid he, in a 

Arrived at Lewca, the train 8topi«*d. The 
atoppage continued a long time, axul Ui<»a 
the whole train waa thruat backw . 

a mile, when again it stcppe<b A \ r 

quarter-of-an-hour some of tlie p» - 
out and looked about them, lli* 
their &ienda inside that the engiu ..., . - , .. 
taken away. So, here atood the tniin in tbo 
bend of the tailway, forming an iiimienae cres- 
cent of carriages all crowded — with no appa.- 
rent chance of advancing — and no explana- 
tion of the cause of the delay ! The jiajs- 
aengers now began to make all aorts of noises 
^^nouta, hootinga, hiaaes, whistles, yells, and 
stamping with the feet. Stilly not a wt>«\) 
of explanation from any officer or jxirtet^^ 
indeed, only one or two appeai*ed, and liur- 
ried away, refusing to reply to the simplcat 

AB«r lialf an hour of this "fim,**a tmia 
came up on the furthermost Unc. It paused 
a few minutes — then went on before tne ooe 
which had been bo long delayed. 

" No doubt but tAat is the ' Expres,^ " sadd 
the man in the duffel c<iat. 

The vociferations and noiaes now increased. 
The paasengera banged vnth sticks a^nst thf> 
panels of the carriages, and uttered acreruns 
and cat-cidls innumerable. In th- ""•!-< --f 
this, up cornea another train — al 
London. After waiting a few hhl , 
also rolled onward. As it passed the dai 
stationary crescent of carriages, all manner 
yells, hisses, hootS;, and ha-a-us of rage and 
disgust followed the happy train, the nai»> 
sengera of which answered by a victoriotka 

Tlus was too much to bear, and the d<serted 
crescent now upUlltxl ita voice in a most 
furious manner, and scvei-al of the most out- 
rageous endeavoured to smash panels and 
aeata with their sticks. At leucrth some* 
body with heavy boots fell to animming, 
and tlus pmluaUy took a measure*! cadeucv^ 
till all along thetie ^ty or sixty compai^ 
menta resounded the heavy drummin'^ of a 
monotonous tune, with which ' 4 

mw so pleased, that it put j 

humour, notwithstanding tins vu- im 
treatment, which they liad now endure J in- 
wards of three-qoarters of an h<:>ur. 

Certainly, Englishmen tn vutttt ax« vcj^ 
wady to W pieihaeii, and verv gooti-natui>^ 
umler tr^'i^g drouuslanoML fiiere, dow, w&m 



r oijo wonl nf 
!♦ ttiuse of this 



1 - . 



-. .1- 

• sniM— ^'No — 

f»t : cxijlfination, is 

t^ -1 ■ -'? !*' The train 

- di^dcribed, a %vlioli5 

' K on the Tvav to 
o move was* the 

; "- 'TB, ill 
er of 

....... , .....Ui WM 

I the third chss with 

nd other Ingubrioua 

lu Smilhfiehl. 

nr^tirrod titl the train 

terminus, in order to 

'■'^, Wlienthe;]fnaiil 

I\*e*.l the tirkots 

-e, he iiiAil" n 

r 1 .u tiv i,iLi'-t, and then said, 

mi^jiicons hjok — ^'•This Is not 


wili till" Aud u© 

nay over again,** said the 

' Sir Vtdcntmc, " Of 

I prui] on«» iK>um! 

"n the Exprijfls- 

idH'hise carriage 

uhjch these gentli"- 

id fonrpence ! I 'II 

he t^iard, with an 
, ..xi\ "I dwe Bay this 
nioveil on to the next 

illne^ addreasing the 

xt, "this 19 the cool 

?e upon the public ! 

H n Pcn-wall, set up a 

in a train 

wder and 

" I tear's 

< yon 

.. ............. w,. ...,^ht, by 

made uncomfortable mid 

i hf?ti oiJi it yoqrvelf !" eald the porter. 

urenent holda a fiatare in it, 
** ruad its tiosoxawcret ritrht, 
«re «ae the goldt^n doe kd4 wia it, 
our Uftad to work with, bout and might. 
t T»i Mr© shall ii*^t I'^L*^ "I -t-*- 
loy he WT>^ 
.imuui floc> i V, 

.Aiiall ahioe whcu wu ii.iV4i Uitl'diiud died. 

fore, tliout'li f.vf praise or helper hcetl us, 
ui ", lj«»d, or heart» ur hand, 

ror wm k; if e ufi^ »€ed li^i, 

VTr »;us: hfd'^ uiu- time to tikke its fitind, 


To the tollowinjr Udp in turn sUalJ lend. 

Erich siriz^ / " ' ' ' 

Failure ai.>. ..v...^ .... .... ,w.....,....v...... 

Our teoi^ absorbed, will make some future min. 

Let U8 toil on; the work we Icr/ ' }■.*, 

Though ineomplete, Gciris Imi jibalm. 

And uso ii some wny: »nd the uk -. . .,.,, Did ui 
In hoftTeD above, and sweeten eudleaB ooloi. 


Urged by the incrt>a&ed demand for the 
threads which the silk-worm yiekb, many 
ingenious men have endeavoured to tium the 
CMX-oons of other insects to aecount. In 
search of new fibres to weave into L'armctjta, 
raeu have dived to the bottom of the sea, to 
watch the operations of the pinna and the 
common musseL Inn^enioiis experinieutAUst.s 
have endeavoured to mli^t tlie threada 
which hold the mnssel firmly to the rock, 
to the purposes of the loom ; and th*» day 
will probably arrive when tbe minute threa*! 
of that diminutive insect, knowi as the 
money -apinner, will be reeled, thrown, and 
woven into fabrics fit for Titania and her 

In the early part of bst oentun*; an cnthu- 
adastie French gentleman turned his attention 
to apiders' webs. He diaeovereti tliat certidn 
spiders not only erected their \vel»s to tmp 
nnsujspeeting flies, but that the females, when 
they had laid their eggs, forthwith wove a 
cocoon, of strong silken tlire.-uls, about them. 
These cocoons are known more faniiUarly as 
spidera* hivss. The common webs of spiders 
are too align t and fragDe to he put to any use ; 
but the French eitpertmcntalist in juration, 
Monsieur Bon, was led to believe that the 
cocoons of the female spiders were more 
solidly built than the mere traps of the fero- 
cious males. Yarioua experiments led M. Bon 
to adojit the Bhort-lcgged silk spider as the 
most productive kind. Of this speciL's he 
made a hirge collection. He employed a 
number of persons to go in scare) i of them ; 
and, as the priaonera were brouglit to hhuj 
one by one, he enclosed them m seixii-ate 
paper cells, in which he pricked holes to 
admit the air. He kept them in close con* 
finement, and he observed that their imprison- 
ment did not a]ij>eai' to affect their health. 
None of them, so far aa he could observe, 
sickened for want of exercise ; and, as a 
gaoler, he appears to have been indefatii^alde, 
occupying himself catching flies, and deliver- 
ing' them over to the tender mercies of his 
prisoners. After a protracted confinement in 
these miniature Bakiles, the grim M. Eon 
opened the doors, and found th:it the majo- 
rity of his prisoners bad beguiled their tima 
in forming their bsga. S^fiaeTa exude theii 





Uuruaulfl from pamllsB or nipples, pLictMl at the 
hjuuler part oi tneir boily. Tbe thread, when 
it leav*r«^ thfm, is n izhif'ityma liquid, which 
har-^ \v. It hnA been 

IbuL Ilt, and placLnjf 

the fiD^fjr fv^aiiixT ir^ y ., the liquid of 
which th« Utread or t'ii^ i hIo mny be 

"'* *" - "-at length. 

rivid experimentalist to 

i that the piipiilui arc 

Kiiise mimb«r of bmaller 

i of which a minute and 

iuci tiinsiMi jj» <ipun. He njB&erted thftt^ 

vklth a micn»c'ope, he counted as Tnany as 

Bevfnty dii^tinct fibres proceeding from the 

papUhie of one spider, and tLat there were 

mure tli minute and numerous 

mpute^ 1 to a I'esidt, bow- 

; that ia *uiii' MuuiV astouishiug, nainelj, 

thttt a thousand distinct fibres pr^x^e^^^d from 

[- Sill f.iTii!l:f ■ rxfir] there bein^ five lai'ge 

thread of spider's ailk ia 

t five thousand fibrea. In 

the ht-at uf that cuthusiaHnij with wliieh the 

microscope filled fi|)ecuhitive mindi) in the 

bcginninij of Uuit century, M Leuwenhoek 

vjutiired to assert that a hundretl of the 

threftfli! of a full7grown ayjider were not equal 

to tlie diameter of one single hair of his beard. 

TliK -*: .- ■ --r];^ to the fLstoundiiig arith- 

rnti lu'tt if the spider's threads 

fujd I - I'fl hair l>o both round, ten 

thouaanii threads are not bigj^rer than such 
a hair ; and, computing the diameter of a 
thread Kpuu by a 5'oung Apidcr as coaiftared 
with that of an adult apider, four millioiis of 
the fibres of a young srxider'e web do not 
cqniil a single hair of M, Leuwenhoek's beard. 
TIi>' ' * ' MrtentaliHt must have 

huJ! 1 lorn under the razor. 

wiUi .-uu;i ;ui lAnu'-'iaLi-d notion of hid beartl 
as tliese calculations must liavo ^iven him. 
A clever writer, in Lardner'tJ Cyclopccdia^ 
notices these measurements, and shows that 
M. Leuwenlioek went far beyond the limits 
of reality in liia calculation. 

M/ Bod's collection of spldei^ continued 
to tlirive ; and, in due aeaaon, he fomid that 
the greater number of them had completed 
their cocoons or bti^. He then dislodged the 
bsijLja from the paper boxea ; thi-cw them into 
warm water^ ana kept washing them until 
they were quite free from dirt of any kind. 
Tlic next process w;is to make a preparation 
of soap, Baltpetre^ and gum-arabic ilisiiMjlveKj 
in water. Into thia prejiaration tlie bags 
wero tlirowji, and set to bod over a Rjeutle fire 
for the H[«u;e of three houi-a. When they 
were taken out and the eoap had been rinsed 
from them, they aprjefu^^d to be composed of 
fine. eU org, ajsii-eoloured silk. Before being 
canle<l 011 fine cards^ they were set out for 
some days to dry thorouxidy. The c^^tnling, 
acconiing t«:> M, Bon, was an easy matter ; 
and he aiiirmed that the tlu'ead^ of the silk 
he obtained were stronger and finer Ihaii 
those of the silk-worm. M. Keaimiui-j Jiow- 


ever, who was dispatrhe<l to the fccrnc 
M. Bon's inve«tigrii BoyaJ A 

of Paris, gave a versioti 

ujatter. He foimil, that wKci' : 
of the spider's bag will siL-t ' ; 
bLx grams, that of the silk worm 
a weight of two draehme and a I) 
tiuieij the weight sustained b_\ 
thread. Tliough M. Bon wjlb • 
enthusiast on behalf of spid. r. M 
as undoubtedly had a strot 
favour of the bombyx ; on 
these contending prejudice!* wtwi, tbiii M- 
Bon'fl iuvealigations were overrated by ft 
few, and utterly diareganled by the n»- 
jority of his countrymen. He injuretl him- 
self by rash Jissortitma^ He endeavoured to 
make out that spiders were more ]iroili£c, 
and yielded a proportionabl- ^ ■ - 
of siik than B'dkworma, 
were disproved, but in no 1- 
M. Heaumur. To do away witli 
sion tliat spiders and their wel 
nomoua, M. Bon not only assetUsi, with 
trutli, tiiat their bite waa harmless^ but ha 
even went so fiir as to subject his tavoi 
insect to a chemical analy-sis, and he su 
in exti-actin^from it a volatile salt which 
christened Moutpelier di'ops, and 
mended slronj^dy as an efficacious 
in lethari^ie itate^s. 

M. 1*011 undoubtedly produced, fti jm iho 
of his spider*, a moteriid tliat read 
all kinds of dyes, and was capal 
worked Lu anyloonL With his cjud-i -[ i' 
silk the enthusiastic eatperimeniuk?; 
gloves and stockings, which he preaonted to 
one or two learned aoeieties* To tluise pro 
ductions several eminent men took panic 
exceptions. They discovered tliat the fine; 
of the sepani-te threads of the silk dei 
fix)m its lustre, imd inevitably produced 
fabric less refulgent tlian tlw^A u,r. 
the ai Ik worm. M , Reaumui ' 
fact against the adoption of . ■ 
article of manufacture, was deduced it ' 
observatioiis on the eombiitivene&a of 
He discovered that they had uv^ lI 

tluit state of civilisation when com 1 1 : id 

it most to the general advantage 10 live on 
terras of mutual amity and confidence ; on thft 
oonti-ary, the spider-world, iiccording to M. 
Keauuuir (we are writing of a hundred atid 
fniiy yeaj-s ago), was in a contiis'i ! -=(.*-. .►f 
warfjue — nay, not a few spiders v.' i.d 

cfuitdbals. Having collected alMj( I .ni- 

-lavid spiders (enough to sciire tiie most 
courageous old latly), M. Iteaumur shut theiti 
up in conjpanies varying in number from tiiiy 
to one huudi-ed. On opening the veils. aft«r 
the lapse of a few days, "what was the horror 
of our hero," as the graphic novelist writotL 
"to behold the scene wliich met his gaae ! 
\\licre fifty Hpiders, happy tind full of liifl, 
had a short time before existed, only 
two bloate<i insects now remidneil — they 
devoured their feCow spiders ! This hoi 



«f the ipider-warld accoimts for the 
roportioo of Bfadent iii 
hftiiM AQtober of e<^ w i 
So ligmAidjlblv "'"' -it)' cuuid uixly 
bvRantig c in a sepniiitc 

ictliertt OAO b« 
t>alt! iw]uire — L» .» .^.i^.-i i^l 

>r r. .ii'« ttttfttue ou behalf of 
[I aomtir urged further 
' «J, that wh<"n coinparttd 
., apider'a silk was defi- 
V &&d in 4u:uitity. His 
uciiL ;o ailiaw that tlie silk of 
^AAew% dki not more %htm equal that 
botii' ' ' t no Icjte tliao fifly- 
rvd and iiiiuily-sLx 
mtixL !«. ii^- " '"••-^- '" ^'V'-! 

ntt^ , and t) 

iid» frvotini \ 

lu nrat of I ioiutt hu cvuid 

ali cz[i«niiiJii^U aJTu valuable .as far 
gt>; ifiiilcr's ulk luay be saftlj act 
I an tuitmd raw matorlil. The ob- 
oi JtL Reaumur, reasoiiable In some 
fi«iroiu>t "• "^' ^?aclafiive, It ia of 
Bilc9ual< silkxv'orm produoes 

qitalllit '. ri" .•iTi\- >?Mri.'». I if 

bat, an 

fitki ^ 

mggci^iTc. 1 
to o(iav«rt ; 

istily its 

Lji Show, 

gpeuLmeos of 

n» would be 



u iLiu of 

lutt this 

ipider-^ric, eua aat 



Hbu>b^ Mtalioo la the Buah, or even a 

d to make mentj aud 

luri:<ov(' or 

^ motliei iits ; 

tmd bane beat^u %v t tk, 

<p«ti!re <jf ganli'u, .' I be 

r A atodw ;t in 

I hia authority, to hold very little communica- 
tion witli his metL 

As for the men, UanuBod a&d haggard 

1 lookingj ragged, uuahnTen^ unwashed, Uu^y 

I crowd together in aii ewnin^, perhaps li^eeii 

' la uiimlnir, smoking, and swearin^% 

mg with two or thi-ee black giina, 

i,ii._ii *Muy It'Djalii cumpamona, purebase^l, 

I stolen, or strayed from a iuVi;,'hbomiiig tribe. 

I But on the stations of mairied aquatt&n?, or 

I where amall laettlers of a gojd seal have scttlial 

either ou grants or purcluk^es, n^ dair}' .'uid 

grain-growing foriaerss, a very dilforent sight 

La presented,— ^wivea and gardens, cliildren .'Uid 

green vegetablegj improve the fxu-e, the sceiiory, 

and the society. Ihrudt heaven, every day 

fixity of tenure is making ita way. 

few years there is no rejisou wl] , 

^ " ' I fiiiitjWith ijiimeuse iidvautttge5 

ul not resemble that pasUtrn: i 

< domestic vixtiiea have allv-. i -,j 
exquiaite pictures for po«t« atiii n>- 
When I first lamWl in the Colony, agricul- 
ture was reckoned vcr>^ low, the Highland 
spirit of contempt for rural toil had descended 
on our nomrnlic firiatocracy. Not being bred 
to it, I could not share the feeling ; and after 
months of men-comi>anIons, and suit meat and 
j damper fare, grateful to my eyes was the 
I view of wliat I wiU call (to mention n^al 
nr* 10 fa would not be fair) " Father Gab licVa 
(■y Valley." A bright ooaia, that within 
memory of the oldest settler had not been 
tuuched by drought ; green, imd com-wy ving^ 
when all around the other side of the r^nge 
waa bro^TO and barren ; cheerful and ali v»t too, 
with &t children rumuRg and riding in p^ay, 
for children with us ride almost as sojji as 
tliey walk ; hamlsome young wives, and nice 
tidy old woman buMy waahing under tha 
verandahs of thcdr cottageei, or in their gai*- 
,]rn< .,t rntdting cheeee in the open air under 
', converted Into part of amachiner 
From a great tield of oaten liay, "The 
mow el's* Bcylhes sent back a flick eriug eiivor 
aheeu," where Father Gabriel, a ha!i» old 
man, led the way licfore a long string of 
sons and sons-in-law, while tlie little unes 
followed juid boim<.l the slieavea. It woa 
' almoet a home scene, beue^kth a brighter sun 
ind clearer blue sky than ia ever found ui 

Father Gabrie!, having been one of the 
early free farmer settlers, had obtamed a grant 
in thlft favoured spot, and made thd most of 
it bv ari 'twiug wheat in increasing auantities, 
whicu during a four yeary' diought,ne sold at> 
14$. and 15«. a bushel. With the help of a 
long family he became really neb ; but instead 
•f turning ^'^ gendcman^' after the vulgar 
' iiial fuahion, or entermg tnt«j wild specn- 
'lA, hti had purisued his plain Yeonuufe 
,.T.c of life, collecting round lam a& many aft 
txjanible of hia netgliboui-s from hia native 
oountiy, so that he had formed a sort of 



1^ Ira 


>^^,.4i „ ♦.^. ^. wi ..,♦ ,,m i^ff },y hnrren 

l;i jjv^ar contact with 

pii, ; . juiBboil on bt-voutl 

thoni. We ami bii? fritiuda bad Imilt a flt«"»nG 
ch}ii>cl, from which on Stiudays the jiowerful 
voict* of Frtthor Oabnol lai^ht \k* hontd <>x- 
jKniuding tho Scripturi'S, somotiiinjj in the 
nwmier of a Prffebyterhin of CmmweirB diiy. 
Ho di3et>utinue<l this prnctice when a dls- 
gontin^' mini tied the distriL't a few 

Vvni-8 jifter J This chapel was ver}* 

like :t bam, i « ^■i, , > „ i , .i wood alaV« or ahingloH ; 
boili;^ the only stone* budding in the distrietj 
it usked to be very much athnired. During 
Bervi*'© there were aomettmes tifteen or twenty 
honscs, with a fair share of side-saddh^s, tied I 
lip in waiting, btdungin^ to faniiliea who had 
ndden tea and even tweiity miles, to service. 
But they were sehlom nlkjwcd to return any 
gin^at tllstancrt without sharing the hospitality 
of the el (lei's. 

I made the acquaintance of one of the aona, 
(the old man had twelve childi'en, and twice 
that iJiimbor of gnmdchiMreu) at a Kangaroo 
hunt, and we became mtimate* aa he was 
ttlwiiya asking questions about Ent^lfuid, 
Euclbh fanning. Entail ah a]v>rt«, and I was 
fflan to leani BuKhniarwhip, in which Kit 
ilabi-iel was a perfect nirt?*lcr. One «biy he 
Oflkod me over to a shearing fcj^t. Wc had 
to cr:iS3 a country, wliich 1 will describe, 
because it \s a fair specimen of the grand but 
monotonous scenery of Australia, I love 
Atuitralia ; there I spent my happiest dny^^ 
triumphing over the ill-fortune that drove 
me from England ; there I found friends of 
the warmest and tmeat ; there I miaifed deep 
the cup of hospitality, and found no dregH. 
With that bright land are associated the 
mcmoi7 of cheerful daya of toil and nights of 
bamilesa revelling, of deUcious gallopa over fai* 
rolling plains, of alow-pacing rides tlu-ough 
miW of silent forest, of thought-inspiring 
reveries, within sight and sound of tho broad 
cnhn waters of the Pacilic. But although I 
can recal scenes of horrid grandeur, worthy 
af the pencil of Snlvator, and of wild joyoui 
l)eauty, to which evon the imagination of a 
Turner or Dauby could scarcetv do justice, 
I must own that the sameness of the scenery 
for hundreds of miles, and, still more, the 
sameness of the everffl*een foliage, except in 
the tropical zones, and the abi?ence uf j.ierfect 
cultivation, rendei-a the givater part of Aua- 
«ti*alia inferior in natural l»eauty, and tlie 
jwwfr of calling up plea-sing associations, to 
the districts of England, where wild scenery 
and high cultivation may be ^newe^l at one 
gliknce l>eneath a summer or autumnal sun. 
As^ for iTistanee, in Derbyshue, with its ros*i- 
covered cottages and woo<l-crowned hills ; in 
Kottingliamshire, Mith its trim farms and 
forests of oM oaJc ; in Gloucestershire, with 
ita green valleys streaked with silver streams, 
where even the fulling mill and the factor)', 
become picturesque. And then, again, Aug- 
tratla has no Past .-—but she h;ia a Fuiurt^ 

and it should be the endeaTOiir of 
colanist to make that Future read well* 

But to return to my ride. <'>ur \vi\y 
over a hard aand-track ; on one : 
rather chain of puola ; on the ut ! 
((.\>luniany, ridqen), covered with AvuJ 
Pine — a Keautii'ul tree, with eicelleut t\u 
for working freelv, with a colour ana 
like sandal-woofl, Wit useh^sa for houae 
it breetlfl vermin. After an hour, we 
up stony ridgea, thinly s]»vinU!cd witl 
bai'ktrees for three nnh*8, until th*> 
broke off short, in night of a broad 
which we forded, and^ driving the riv. r. 
over undulating ground, tiudnTed 
and iron-bftrk ; then over a thickl^ 
sandy, scrubby ridge, at the en*! of \"^ 
course lay for a mile tkroueh an • 
forest, beautifully grassed^ like ari 
meadow, which oponeti upon a 
plain, as thinly dotted wit! :v 

man's park, widch extend. .a 

the eye could I'each, until, |..-. *• 

Ijefore us^ appeared a dark 1 
forme«i by a dense forest. Eu, 
several miles, during which w*o v 
staatly, but almost imporoeptiV>ly, d< 
we came to a river never known to fiul. 

It was iu a valiev, intersf^cled by this riTa,i 
that Father Gabnera settlement h\y. SooB 
we could hear the lowing of the heifet^l 
answered by their calve.<* in tli^ ' 
pens ; the swnsli-swa'^hing of ;i 
threshing-machine, a receTjf • 
patriarch^ ; ami jirnsentl 

vard sound:*, tho shrill tn ..-. 

1 don*t know wliicli w;is moyt jileasant tuul 
homelike, A lot of horses, still hot^^ wi ' 
saddle-marks, in a i>addotk ; two young j 
fellows and a girl in a nankin habit, rjintiui 
in front of us ; and a lot of men, wa 
shave^l, and in holiday costame, gave n 
the gathering. 

A young liushman, in his bixmd'leai 
with two yards of taiiirta flyin'/ ^'• 
intelligent fice, hair, beard, an i 
neatly trinmied ; blue or led HI 

kkose trctusers, broad l>eJt ; i 
ocntaur on his half-b»*ed Arab ; i i > M i 

pictui-eaque a figure ma you may yue anywheni 
m a voyage round the world. On tliis aftfs^j 
noon, not one, but some dozen such, wer« at] 
the gathering. 

We passed the chapel, and can ' * V' f 
the house, planted on a declivii 

the river, but out of reach of wi^i-.., > i. j, ; 

a composite building, wliich first consisted of 
A mere hut and pvrden ; then grew% by 
addition, to a li/Hjtl, six-roonied, one-flttoriwl 
cottage, of sa'w^l boanls, with glazed \iindowiL 
a verandah all round, covered with beautiitil 
creepers, eventually inci*eased by a large 
double room of stone, tho work of the stooe- 
mason colonist, who, having eiiay-working 
material within reach, thus paid off' a debt to 
Father Gabriel. It vtsa most comfortable, 
convenient, and capacious as a barrack ; but» 






r"^n"* 'vtrri^ 

li-urruumicd by muU 


aoyUimg like it, unglutsl wid flat, had tnivdle<l aU the way 

I from " the North Couutrie,*' and recoirmiencc4 

^'T tt.^. -'.tr- rf'fhe concert onr prc-^euce liad it* - / '. 

Pollv Gabriel, lit* goil-ciiiUl and f l t 

Mweet little thiivj: in the bloom .;, 

tucked a violin under her cUia. Bob Grundy, 
)KK>tniaker i\nd fcLtpheni. blew away on tlie 
flageolet, while Jack Hackrow, tax erergreea 
veteran peasioner of engineera, fiumer aud 
joiner, drew ehrill notea from a honu»-iPwle 
tin iiietrument, a cross between a pennj- 
wliiatle and piccolo flute. 

One, t\v'D, three, four, reels were formed, 

and off we went iu double ouick tiiut", for hy 

iiiBtiuct I soon joined, as by degre<?s did a 

.: L Tlie wrw->l ..f' i-^iMid mnnv \ntuout distinction v( age or 

bad Vwea va\-' r Gabriel, as active a* juiy ; 

<«1, HTitI the I ^ the red-headed maiilfn, in a 

ther with all frit iids red aj»d ytlluw gown without shoes or stoek- 

>^venty luiles, who ' iiigs. Famously vre jiggeil, tliumped the 

rate a feast at the I tloor, and snapped our fijigers, and wondnrfid 

a on thnt side the I were the steps m toe-and-heel, and woavc-tliL- 

' ' ' " ^ ' blanket, there and thi-n |iorfitmitHlj andil ibte 

shoutinjr* wh'de at d<x)r and window, with 

nynn i uc , lafgo ftiJiiiirinnr eyes, the shrphrrds and otht^ 

, fiiir, and Bush sen^anta l<x)ked on aiii>rovmply, as may 

,. . )>roo«l as be seen when polka i* perfonned In some 

r Gabriel had Eiifjlish manor-house ; the balance of surprise 

/Did U'fu&le 
t'ti^'fjged in 
rree hat. 
' ough me 
lians, and 
iueks and 
.X uicii lay neg- 

11 oft^n see in 
i powerful, large 
rntherhiifh cheek 

;m most men of 

- h^< 1^ and eyebrows 

cious f<»rehead gave 

.ru-. ivi.jHj would 


.^, Hard 

o have melted 

v.^ that, at his 

hy, if not 

d; Uttle, 

etly fair, 

1, auburn 

' thair 


d of 



• r cousin 



, and 

Lht' eldest 

-a tailing 

Ls. Buskmen 

\f\:'i uij QjLer 

, was 
< I ties 

the tuning T had heard on arrival 
ien^wl &om a eomer. Mr. Bmli^'e. 
uth and clerk, the um\''ei:sal genius of 
lem«nt, took up his l^eloved bus, which 

and admiration being however wdth our Bush* 
men. Tlien we changed to country dances ; 
.^. ...^.. ^„-..™ up the middle and down a^ain ; and all the 
•h the Austra- company, but two or three elders, inobuUn^ a 
burn out ; a little, lame, old man, with a cnitoh-handlod 
1 rather lai-ger stick, got in motion, and it did strikr? me that 
' one or two of the outsiders joined in a sort of 
voluntary' accompaniment at the door end of tli»? 
room. "tVHum I pulled up iu my turn, reil and 
breathless, I was close to the musl. 1 n < i i<v 
birds in the Bush, and this lot i 
enthusiasts. Little Polly, her eyes 
her cheeks glowing, her brown curU h.tngm;i 
all mautier of ways, cuddled her fiddle as i? 
she loved it, and ran up and down the strings 
with the taperest, if not the whitest fingeiia 
that ever patted butter, — ^lost to dam^es and 
admireps, everything but her own music, — but, 
whOe Budge sawed away as s^demuly and 
earnestly as if he had been blowing his own 
bellows, and Grundy blew as if his life 
depeTided on his exertions, Jack Hack row 
found time to admire his own performimce 
and give directions as to the figures, to which 
no one paid the least attention. *' I 'rac 
blessed," I heard one of the Stockmen say, " if 
I b'lieve the governor and the bishop lia\*o 
got such music" And all the bve-atandera- 
seemed of the same opinion, in whiclt, indeed, 
I fullv agreed. 

Alf things must have an ent.1, so did the 
dancing, from sheer exhaustion ; then came 
supper : the table, sheets of bark laid on bushds, 
on which, ranged in glorious profusion, were 
mutton chops, boiled beef, hoaey, potatoes, 
melons, grapes, puuipkin pie, eels, jjarrot pic, 
tJL^.-j, I'oast piglings, and dampers a vanl in 
• liaiueter, serving often for bread and uhites 
too. Jonmu of tea, strong and sweet; bowk 




^ntio.j home-made wine, 

: riiuj, which on such 

i]y introduced m A treat, 

y the scrnpltfB of our hosts. 

,.,. ..-, , -,. . ., x^.^^Xq 


...;.......,..-.. Id 


of milk , mifl 
forrnod fhf ' 



cri,.-.._T i'--. ■•■■ 
th*it evcrv' mmi pulled out liis o\\ i'e, 

thftt only six li>r*ks couM bo m rjd 

that no particubr order waa olwerved iu the 
eating, I have said evcrythiiig. Soon after 
fa»j>p€.r, the ladies retired ; the men took their 
&tnoKe ; those living near saddled up^ the far 
away ones unroUetl their bliinketa and stretched 
out on tl»e lloor. iJefore and since I have 
Attended biilU and eunpers more refined, but 
never so eujojnble^ hecauBe it was a real 
luxury, uo other Bnsli-cstAbhshraent having 
«o much music or bo nuuiy pretty girla for 

The next day a party act out to form a new 
fitation in the interior, which had been pre- 
viouuly explored. Tbe aheep, in two flocks of 
ax hundred ejwh, had gone torwiird two days 
previouely. The youug m* t ' <-oQie up 

from Father Gahnera out v<re waa 

a 7 ' -'*'if'ring. Tlie hea4 -i in"- jNtrty was 

}i 1 by, husband of Polly Gabriera 

ftUi. . J i.i. The old folks had,l 
fortunes for the young people in si 
they had determined to push on quite 
the furthest stations on ground lat«ly dis- 

Two bullock drays were loaded with every- 
thing needed for a station. The little old 
hmie man, with thecmtch-handled stick, came 
tip ridiurj a lialf-bre<l Timor pony, with a pair 
of draught bullocks, which he insisted on pre- 
senting to the young couple aa regular "good 
uns/' iiisteati of a pair that seemetl not quite 
steady. A mixed lienl of six htindred head 
of cattle were collected in a stock-yiu-d, to go 
forward under chai'ge of Granby'a brother, 
one of the young Gabrielu, and an experienced 
stockman^, with four volunteer ; the other 
eplittcra and fencena and serv^inta had gone 
with the sheep^ 

The strangest sight, and the prettiest, was 
Myra Granby on her grey mare, with a great 
yearling colt nimiing alongaiae, all ready 
Mrith blankets, tin pota, holster, and proviaion- 
bags, strapped on, to march into the interior. 
Contrary to all precedent, a sJionherd's wife, 
ritling ou one of the dniys, was the only other 
wonum. ITiis move of ifyra'a created a uid- 
Versal outcry, but she ma<lo no answer to 
the last woixia, except cmckiug her stock- 
whip : and, looking at hor firm, though rosy, 
iQOuUi, and verj* decided eyebrows, it was 
clear that when Myni made up her mhid, 
Hsirry liail nothing to do but give way. 

Amid the prayers of the fathers an<l 
mothers, gfxyd wishes of the young ones, n 
volley of old dioc^ from Dora and Molly the 
maid-^ei'vants, the reiwrta of the bullotik- 
diivofTs'' whirM, the shouts of the stockmen, 
and the barkuig of the cattle-dogs^ — the 

port}- moved off into the wilderaess. To 
them winding along in the distance, 
almost a scene from the days of A 
aiid Lot. 

As the last straggler pr-^- ' --"' tl 
of the range, ** There," fci < 

"there, young gentleman^ : i 
swarm off our ^TJung bee8 in 
No landlord, no rent wortl* aji. 
taxes. But come, let ua mount aiid 

Tlie skill and industry of a North 
fanner, with a large supuly of UbtJi. 
own family, applied to fei '' " > t 

the plough without cleari^ it» 

without winter and withuuL, i «( 

done wonders. The cro])a ^v ii.l; 

but, to an eye accustome*! to g - , . i» or 
£nglis!i fanning, everything eeemcd rudi^ 
slovenly, and unfinished. But, as thu old 
man truly observed, "Good, neat iarini«^ 
don't nay in a colony : labour ia daar« bbI 
land cheap. A ci»op might bu got out oi Hn 
acres while you were stumping ono acre. For 
the same reason, no man can nuike a liTiu 
tm A farmer who cannot work with hu 
own liandiJ, and get help in liia own familt. 
Gentlemen like you, sir, should keep Ut 
.^im it ting w*ith sheep or cattle; tkud 
1 To<:ik after your men, you ca 
i nothing vou can help, and do 
can for yomveu. That*s the 
lonial success. 

" T have spent more time ami 
garden than ia the custom in t] 
then I wished to keep mv 
and for years only hired t\ 
sons did all the rest. We ivf^i^ti *n\r cm 
on the same day as our hut^ and we cat 
own cabbage and bacon the first year.** 

Thus cmoitting, wc rtachoil an einin«?ncs, 
where I could look down on the wild and 
reck-imed land, " A lovely scene," I observsd 
" how bright and clear everything comes 
under these cloudless skioi.^' 

"Whyyesj^smd Farher Gjd^nid. *'it 



look very pretty ; and t 
liked it even better tli 
grass breast high, full «.: 
water holes alive with bin 
cans : but pretty as it wrti.^ * ... 
made my heart sore to think 1 
ray family into such a wildeiii. , 
suiTOunded by Uoo^lthii^ty savjii^^ea, so 
from help, and such a deal of new kind of 
work to do before 1 could make it anythixig 
like the place wdiere we were all reared. If my 
old woman had not hatl a good heart, and tlie 
youn^ ones been all such hard*bitten ones and 
hopetul^ I think I should never have pulled 
through. There were not many immiifrants 
in those days, and England seemed a CTejit 
deal further off than it docs now. J tut, thiuik 
God, I would not change places now with the 
owner of Brancepeth CaslJe,'* 

"But," said I, **you speak so fondly ot Old 
Etigland ; you seem so glad to welcome anjr 

CftMlw D<eli*M.] 



English Cvrc, whether from the north nr aotith ; 
that I ?«,hno«t wi/uder yoa ccnitd ever find 
fieart to leave home>, issiiecmlly im pe<>}»le 
KTcre oot crowding oot ns t)icy nrc now, 
<an(pvii^^ fortimcs are to Ijc picked i7p on 
the bcitch T •* 

Itfitcri li I've never 

tmcti ...,. . - - : , i. lielpt'd^ie to K 
tieej tnit the tact ia, I came for the only 
r^auion thAt n man ever onght to leave his 
country, tu my thinking — Wcauae I was goinr* 
down hiU fast', with a Irmi? family coming, and 
iu an evening silthig over the fire, tiying to 
make out what would l>e left afler rent w.ia 
paid, I useal to think I could see a gaol or a 
workhonse in the hot coala.'* 

The Patriarch then told me hia atory, 
wbich I mil te^ to the rexidcr in another 
P«per. ^______ 


Soke notion of \v^ '^ for an Englisli- 

tnan ou the Contiiv was eonvej'ed 

^- ■-.-!- rrn.'f-r- f-i ^i ■- -- - '' -tp tirst 

-.<:■■■:-. :j, few 

«■ obCiiins emriincj and cr^euce amongst the 

A wna, About the time we were 

wri! rnier aiiicle, |n'o<lnce<l at the 

il.tijitre of Vienna. The acene is 

-:. Peterehargh ; the real hero is a 

V known to dog-fanciers aa a 

; but the noDunal chief cha- 

i^sLuker from Glasgow, named 

laiKl. He had f tilled in hia native 

in Kusslft he became a great man ; 

the favourite money-dealer of the 


know the stren^h of a Scotch con- 

tttntion, Hit VTP also kno\v the severity of 

vi.'inter : yet Mr, Sutner- 

f to hia audience, amidst 

of that ice-bound city, 

1 abroad to be the re^ 

' le of a citizen of 

r, jack boota and a 

' '-rove of funereal 

reatherB. Mr pite his ac/^ntv 

lelher co^tin- ^^ be in cxccl- 

liealth ami sjnntit lie h:v3 thriven «o 

*"wrll in thr wor! i t!tnt,, hi nivoixlance with a 

ihe Caledonian 


' 'oim at homo 

in i^ftV . 

. send him 

ltd. On> 

1 the hero 

■. . ir.ite, shutfv, 
1. TIk^ li-iiikcr 


part tin- 


ITc lij.d 

ly received the 



•,»ec« thr 
h the atM 

^ ;^^^^j2^0 

too gliid to be able to gratify a royal caprice 
at Btj li^ht a cost, • 

She* lu the fen'ency of her gratitude, named 
the dog after the donor — a great oompli- 

AlaB I oue day, the dog, who hnd eaten too 

. ' ■ ' ■ -1^ been 
poisoned by the prime mini^ter^ a piece of 
wlio*ie letj he had digested the day before. 
The Em]jrc3a sighed far more over the loas of 
her dog. than she would have done for that of 
the minister. The one might have been easily 
replaced ; she knew at least t^'ent^' waiting 
open-mouthed for the vacancy* But who 
could renlac© her four-footed friend ! — she 
monma nim as a loss utterly irreparable. 
She onlers the ^-eatcst mark of adectionate 
respect it is possible to altow to be performed 
on the dead terrier. 

The scene changes ; it is night. The 
fortnnate banker is seated at deaaert, after an 
excellent dinner of " mutton rosbif/* nnd " hot- 
:i-mealo pour-ridges^ iiiul pntitas," " ' a- 

ble to a North lii-itou ; his letjs nir lia 

feet rest ujion a monstrous '" ' i-u he 

take^ care to inform us he 1 1 i fi-om 

England, as he sita sipping i ,, .ri port 

bier," aud Koliloquisin^ pleasantly over the 
various cliances of his life. He is just about 
to finish hia evening with some *'croc " the 
English name for the pleasant invention of 
Adbuiiral Grograra ; his servant enlcra, to 
annoxmce that the chief executioner with a file 
of soldiers have just dropped in, to say a wonl 
on a matter of business Irom the Empress. 

The awful functionary, on stalking into the 
room, exclaimed, " I am corae — '' 

"Well, I see you are," replied the Banker, 
tr^g to be facetious, but feeling like a man 
with a Bndden attack of ague. 

" By command of the Einpresa ! " 

"Long may she live!" ejaculates Suther- 
land, heartily. 

" It ia really a very delicate affair," fiaya 
the eiecntiouer ; who, like the French Sam- 
son, is a humane man ; " and I do nut know 
how to break it to you.*' 

" Oh, pray, don't 'hesitate. TVTiat would you 
like to take ?" asked the Rinker, spilling the 
^rog- he tried to hand to the horrid functionary, 
trom sheer tright. 

llie Envoy shakes hia head grind v, "It is 
what wc must all come to some day,* he adds, 
after a short pause, 

** Wliat is / In Heaven's name do not keep 
me longer in auapense !" cries the Banker, 
his very visible knees knocking to;;ather with 
agonising rapidity. 

" I have been sent," answers the awfVil 
mes.senj.rcr ; ag.-dn he stops — looks corap«»- 
sioniitcTy at his destined %actim. 


" By the Eiupress "— 




"Stuffed!" saitli the EiecuUoner moum- 

'Tlic Ernikcr 3Lneke<l, 

*' Stuiied !" repeats the xnan^ Iacf>nically 
IxaintUig U> a bird ill a glass caiae, to prevent 
there l»eiug any niiatake in Sttt)ierlaiid'« miud 
M to fbo uftture of the operation he ia to be 
t'fillod uxMja to undergo. 

The* Executioner now lava his hand signi- 
fiiioiitly on poor Sutherland's ooltjvr, >md looks 
itiU.> bis fjOLce as if to inquire if he had any 
pai'ticular or peculiar fancy oa to the mode in 
which he would like to go lhi*ough the prepa- 
mtoiy opei'ation of being killed. 

" 1 liave brought the sl.niw," he says, " and 
two iuisistants are without. The Euipreaa 
cannot wait ; and we have not got your 
measure for the glasa case yet.*' 

The Banker looks the veiy picture of 
abject misei-y ; Vjut Britona in foreign couie* 
dieSj are always ready to buy everything, 
lUid the Banker had Lived long^ enough in 
Rusaia to know the value of a bribe. He 
therefore offers one so considerable, tliat his 
ijrlui visitor is touched, and endeavours to 
bill his fiense of duty to sleep by a sopdiistiy. 

" I was toldj indeed, to have vou stuffed," 
he i"e:u?oiia, " and got ready for the Empreae ; 
but nothing was said aliout tinie ; so I don't 
aiind giving you half-an-ljour if you can 
Halisfy these gentlemen — and he turuH to his 

Tt is briefly done, Tlie Banker payn like 
a man whose life depends on his lilierality — 
wc fiU[»poae several millions — for the Execu- 
tioner remarks tliat he cannot forget that 
jt groom in England firequently receives 
several thousandd ateriing a year; this b 
I ver>' prevalent idea among the Fmnk* 
teh and Teutonie nations of tlie Continent 
Wc once he;u*d a Spanish general assert, 
in a lai-ge assembly, that the u»ual pay of 
an English ensign was five htmilred pounds 
a month, .\a idea doubtless derived from eorae 
Iberian (iranialiat ; and therefore a public func- 
tionary bke the Executioner must be remune- 
rated proportlonably higher. The euomious 
pet'iuniiu-y sacrifice gets for Siitherhunl eome 
nalf-hour'a respite ; which he wisely uses 
by flying to the British Ambassador, Sir 
Bifstik, and awaits the result with gi'eat 

sir Eifbtik goes to the Eniprefti*. He is 
admitted. He tiaks if Her Majesty be aware 
of the ixtdition of a British subject named 
Sutherland ? 

•* Excellent man," says Her MajestT, " No J 


sir Difetik bows low at the toneu of the 
Imperial voice, and now begins to explain 
himself with something more than diplo- 
matic haste; thinking, perhaps, that already 
the fivtal straw rotiy be filling the Banker 'a 

Imperial Catherine does not, of course, con- 
eider the putting to death of a mere Scotch 

AJtiiJUfkf at cA« OfBt^ Jr«b 4 Wtmagtm »iem liatfli,8tTud. rilu«4%f lla4»M&t b \&^ui». 'n\ 

Banker, and making him in ^f---^'^*^ 
fitjme of hia brethi^en are sou. 
figuratively — a man of stra%\ 
fttStj I and seta the ambassador dowii 
miud as a person of wild republican 
who ought to be recalled hs noon as 
by his Oovemraent, and placed under 
Burv'eilhmoe ; but nevertheless, fthe 
some enquiries to I»e niatle, and learns 
it Ls in eoneequeace of her having ox 
" Sutherland " to be stuJled that ho 
bably then undergoing that operaiion. 

Sir Bifstik exjn-eascs such horror and 
steruatioa at this intelligence, tlmi 
Emprei^ believes his mind to be iIistm 

** What possible consequence can ' 
dental stufting of a Scotcn banker b« U# yo<fc.| 
milor ? " she suith. 

*' ' The ac-ci-dcn-t-al atuJf-ingia of a > 
Bankei-s ! " in a German idiom not 
used by our nobility, g:usj>s Sir 
mechanically, with pale lijts and ' 

" Take him away ! He is mad I " 
the Empres^ thinking thrd nu sm 
could be conccmeti about ^ 
and in another moment li 
international laws would h.ive L>eeii 
(on the stage), and Great Britiiin in> 
profane hands being laid on the pei-sou uf Lcr 
ambiiBsador, when all at once a h^'ht brvAk* 
over the mind of Her Maj' 
of somethhig forgotten. *^i 
Rusaian noncltnlance quite - 
" Oh, I remember ; now it i 
My poor little dog (1 hatl : .^ 
died yesterday, and I wisheil li 
preBer%^ed. Cher chkn ! His i 
same as thai of the Banker, I y 
that cruel Death sliould lake »// 

** But Mr. Sutherhvnd has, pei luq.<?, **Uts.t*l¥ 
been mui-dered ! " gasjia the ambn^^rMlor. *M 
pray that your Majesty will h , 

Laving him released, should he 1 

"Ahy true I I never thought oi nun ; 
turns the Empress. 

The order is finally ifflued ?'"' ^^'^'hoft- 
land rescued, just as the Execu yra 

angry at his unreasonable i-eniM , rr- 

soh^es to delay no longer in executing the 
Imperial commands. To put the co-jp-^it- 
ffrace on the comic agony of the iioor liankeir, 
bis immense red crop of hair lias, in that 
htdf hour of frightful miccrtainty^ ttinicd 
white as snow j 

Sam rtady, Friee 5j,6J., ntAtl^ Bound i« ClitA 



ISAUtMwf MenlM^, friu %L, Stamped, 34, 



THwt MmtVjf Suffkmmt ^ tt,tu*thclJ WordM^ eanbiinlmf 
*iH«rjt &/ the f>twi$fii moiUK '« ^m«| rcguUitlff with iM 

'•Familiar in their Moulhs as HOUSEHOLD fTORD^."— SnAEi 




aATURDAT, OCTOBER 19, 1850. 



n« for print. What 
Eibours le» (some 
iu^d CiirLitui:t3 Time aud Easter 
led) tliAn twelve or fourteen 
T ' been aaked to 
. ot to say ; and 
. „ it to the best of 
will find excuse. 
1 n, but have worked 

mm Ml (what yen would 

fall '»1 I Shops), ahnost ever 

aiO)0e 1 %. time. I ser^'od my 

a]rfTrrti*?f^ 1, nigh where I wuh 

I ' 1 ma a iiuiih by trade. My name 

I have been called "Old John*' 
letet^n year of age, on 
much hair. I am fifty- 
^ e present time, and I 

myself with more h.<iir, nor yet 
to signify, than at nineteen year of 
ive been married five and thirty year, 
WfXi April. I was married on All 
Xitxy. 1^ them laugh that vda. I 
gitad wife that day, and it was as 
e a iIhv to me, ra ever I had. 

of ten children, aix 

idest son is engineer 

•cet " Mezzo Gioruoi, 

^ and Naples, and 

''■>m, ana Civita 

workman. He 

'? thiuga that 

two sons 

i Walea— 

lium. Une of my 

1 an* I for a soldier, 

'vine six weeks 

1 lo^ed in his 

e wim his own 

\'j;. One of my 

itortable in her 

be chest. The 

juil run away 

A she and 

ns. The 

tans (Jatnes) 

jber in ti 
thr«e cli 

_ MX ytAi* ^ old, hask a tarn for 

I am not a Chartist^ and I oflttr w^as. I 
dimH mean to say but what T tee a ^oo«l 
nnuiy pubU*: points to Mm plain o^ atill 1 

don't think that 'a the way to set them right. 
If I did think so, I should be a Chartist. 
But I don^t think bo, and I am not a Chartist. 
I read the paper^ and hear discission, at what 
we call '*a parlor'* in Birmingham, and 1 
know many good men ajid worlanen who are 
Chartists. Note. Not Physical force. 

It won't be took as boastful in me, if 1 
make the remftrk (for I can't put down what 
I have got to say» \\nthont putting tlmt down 
before going any further), that I have always 
been of an ingenious turn, I once got twenty 

found by a screw, and it's Ln use now, 
have been twenty year, off and on, com- 
pleting an Invention and perfecting it. I 
perfected of it, last Christmas Eve at ten 
o'clock at night. Me and my wife stood and 
let some tears fall over the Model, w^hen it 
was done and I brought her in to take a look 
at it. 

A friend of mine, by the name of William 
Butcher, is a Chartist. Moderate, lie is a 
good speaker. He is very imimated. I have 
often heiixd him deliver that what is, at every 
turn, in the way of us working-men, is, that 
too many places have been made, in the 
course of time, to provide for peoj)le that 
never ought to have been provide*! for ; and 
that we have to obey forma and to pay fees to 
sxipport those places when we shouldn t ought. 
'*True;* (delivers William Butcher), '*all the 
pubUc has to do this, but it falls heaviest on 
the working man, because he has leaat to 
spare ; and likewise because impedimenta 
stouldn't be put in his way, when he wantii 
redress of wrong, or furthei*ance of right." 
Note. I have wrote down those words from 
William Butcher's own mouth. W. B. de- 
livering them fresh for the aforesaid purpose. 

Now, to my Model again. Tliere it was, 
perfected of, on Christmas Eve, gone nigh a 
year, at ten o^clock at night. All the money I 
could spare I had laid out upon the Model ; 
and when times was bad, or my daughter Char- 
lotte's children sickly, or both, it had stood 
still, months at a sjwlL I had pulled it to 
pieces, and made it over again with im- 
provements, I don't know how often. There 
it stood, at List, a perfected Model as afore- 

William Butcher and me had a long talk, 
Christruaa Day, respecting of the Model. 
William is very sensible. But sometimea 




cranky- William sjiid, " What will j'ou do 
with It, John ?" I said, "Patent it/' Wil- 
linm said, ** How Putcnt it, John 1" I »id, 
"B^- taking out a PiiWiit."* WiUiam tht-n 
deUvertx] that the law of Patent wo^ a cniel 
wrong. "WilJiara sjiid, " John, if you make 
your invention public, befoi*e you get a Patent, 
anyone may rob you of the fruita of your 
hanl work. You sire put in a ch»ft itick, 
John. Either vou must drive a bai^ain 
very much agaWt youreelf^ by getting a 
|>aity to come forward buforcihand with the 
great expenaea of the Patent ; or^ you 
nui8t tw [lut about, from pogt to pillar, 
among so many parties, tiding to nuake a 
better bargain for yourself, and showing your 
invention, that your luvcntion will be took 
fi'om you over your head." I said, " William 
Butcher, are vou cranky ? You are aome- 
tinica cranky.' Williara said, '*No John, 
I tell you the trath f whieli he then deli- 
vered more at length. I said to W. B. I 
wo*dd Patent the inventitvn mygelf. 

My wife's brother, George Bury of West 
Brom-wich (liia wife unfoilunately took to 
drinking, made away with evervihLng;, and 
aevcnteen times committed t<j Birmingham 
Jail before happy release in every point of 
view), left my wife, his sister^ when he died, 
a legacy of one hundi'ed and twenU'-eight 
pound ten, Bank of England Stocks. Me and 
my wife had never broke into that money 
yet. Note. We might come to be old, and 
paat our work. We now agreed to Patent 
the Inventinn. We said we would make a 
hole in it— I mean in the aforesaid money — 
auii Patent the inventioru William Butolber 
wrote me a, letter to Thomas Joy, in I-ondon. 
T. J, i» a carpenter, «ix foot four in height, 
and pUiya quoits well. He lives in Chelsea, 
Li>ndon, by the church. 1 got leave from tlie 
»hop, to b2 took on again when I come Iwick. 
1 am a goo«l workman. Not a Teetotidler ; but 
never drunk. MTien the Chriatmaa holidays 
^gtn^ over, I went up to I^ndon by the 
•Wiirliamentary Train^ and liired a lotlging for 
9, week with Tlioiiiiui Joy. He ia raajTie<l. 
He has one in>u giMie to sea. 

ThomaB Joy delivered (from a book he ha^l) 
that the first «tep to be took, in Patenting 
the inveotaofi, was to pref»are u petition unto 
Queen Victx^ria. William Butcher had deli- 
vere4 sinular, and tlrawn it irp, Kote^ Wil- 
liam w a ready ivTiter. A deetaration before 
a ^Tnatcr in Chartcery was to be added to it. 
Tlvat, we Vdtcwiae drew up. Alter a ileal of 
trouble 1 found out a Master, in Southampton 
Buildings, Chancery Lane^ ni^h Temple Bai", 
where 1 made the declaration, and paid 
eighteen] ience, T w.xs told to take the declara- 
tion ana iH'tititm t^j the Home Office, in 
Whitehall, where I left, it to be signed by the 
Home Secretary (after I had found the oMce 
Otttj and where I paid two pound, two, and 
aixpence. In six days he signed it, and I 
was told to take it to the Attorney-General s 
chambers, and leave it there for a report. 1 

did act, and i>aid four pound, four. "K^ 
Nobodv. all thi^uch, ever thankful for tl^i 

n-p- -■ '- " ■ '■-■I 

1 i:is Joy's was fiov hii>4 
fi.. ..., , ,..,creof t'l'' 'i'»^ - '^'■' '■■' Tr.^e, 

The j\ ' Tieral mii' l.^l 

a Pep i^e (mv ii . m 

William P-utckcr had deiivertn] iMt'ore Kt-irnic; 
unopjiofted), and I waa sent back wjtb if t^f 
the Home Office. They made a Cop} rf \ 
which was called a WaiTant, For tl>v. w^. 
rant, I paid «e#Bn pound, thirteen, nrul nix. 
It was Bent to the Queen, to Fii^m. Tlx r^ieai 
sent it back, signed. Th« ^' ; "' in 
signed it again. The goi i ■' a 

at me whan I called, and it 

to the Patent Office in IJji ,** 

then in my third week at i jjj* 

living very sparing, on acconnt ot' feoi 
found myself insuv;z honrt. they 
*'( mj 

ri<j •:'.'r tho 
P)-i ^v 'S«rvl 

At the Paten « 
made "a ib-aft 
invention, and a " dv- 
five pound, ten, and - 
grossed two oopee oi iH' imjI ; 
Signet Office, and one fur tlie 
Omce." I paid one pound, proven, oi; ' -•" ' ■ 
this. Stamp duty over .'mid abv^ 
pound. The Eiigroasing ClejU < f 
office engrossed the Queen'd > 
tore. I paid him one poiuid, 
duty, again, one pound, teiu j 
take the Queen's bill to the Att« 
again, ami get it feigned again. I to. 
paid five pound more. 1 fetched it ii 
took it to the Home Secretary agaiti. Ue 
sent it to the Queen again. She signod \i 

again. T paid seven f>ouud, thlr ' - 

more, for this. I had been ov 

Thomas Joy's. I waa quite wore .i., j .,. .-..,- 

and pockets 

Tliomaa Joy delivered all thin 
on- to W'ilUam Butcher. Will 
delivered it again to three 
Parlors, from which it got i'> 
Parlors, and was took, n& I I 
since, right through all the ^h^i'-A in 
North of Enghmd. Note. WilJiiim Bu 
delivered, at his Parlor, in a s|>eech, that it 
wa« a Patent way of making Chartists. 

But I hadn't nigh done yet. The QueaC^ 
bill was to be took to the Signet Oflioe Sa 
Somerset House, Strand — where the stiusip 
shop is. The Clerk of the Signet mflde **• 
Signet bill for the Lord KeejxT of tlie 
Seal." I paid him four pound, wrven 
Clerk of the Lorrl Keeper of the Pri 
Seal made "a Privy -Seal bdl for 
Lord Chancellor.'* I paid him, four 
two. The Privy-Seal bill Wiia hajn" 
to the Clerk of the Patents, who en^ 
the aforesaid, I paid him five pound, 
teen, and eight ; at the same time, I 
Stamp-duty for tlie Patent, in one 
thirty pound, I neit paid for "* K „ 
the Patent," nine and aixj>ence. Note. Thomas 
Joy would hare made the same at a profit 






one lump, 



ythtn f ^^^ 
for Ok 



tion. Bui 

isakc a xaxu IlU ;i^ ii^ lu 

■imu liaproTfsitait roeiml 

" :;iKi '^ h<*a Ut the 

i I *' fees to the 

Itouiid, thirtet-ii. 

, ity Clerk of the 

I next pairi, to the 

■■-' poimd, eleven^ and 

to tU*j Deputy 

." ten aliillingB 

' Thomas Joy's 

PpciBed Patent 

* ' >\ cost 

' thnn thi'ee hundred 

\ ijie up but vety 

it*-. So much the 

y. J say the some. 

vyear youngei*thau 

>'ear juore. If 

i to Pateut an 

: than 


if so 


-^ .^and 

il that ejcpeoBe 

r! Make the 

J a to nliifty'Rix 

No nu>re, and 

I way a£Aiu«t Williaia Butcher, 

' '*>-"—' ^ ' ^ rr-tary, 

. the 

..u, the 

. the Lord 

rk of the 
[ tlio IIraii.'i|M'r, 
Deputy rhalf- 

rf my being tired 

t iiig uiy inven- 

. L reasouable to 

iiiviLjiting nil bige- 

to do ^ocifh be liiul 

.3 at 

LVkviili^ Olit a 

:xi the expense, 

' . Ill t K-i . '. ii m [ i-i» 


T b 

hiws of this country wi i ' ' v 

ought to be, you would \ u 

— registeretl au ei;i * ' u .mu iii.)%vnig 

of your mveutioL t-A-crown or so 

for dobig of it— and ......... and thureby have 

got your Patent." 

^Iv opinion ia the same aa Thomns Joy, 
Further. In WUlmm Butchcra delivering 
" that the whole gang of Hanapera and Chatf 
waxoi mnst be done away with, and that 
Eoglaod hiut beeu cha^kl and waxed iuM- 
cient," I agree. 



EvERTBODT who loves wonderftil mneic 
knows, or ought to know, Mostart's Magic 
Flute {Zavberji^te) ; but we are <|uit€ sure 
there are few, indeed^ who know anvihing 
about the Magic Flute wliich a certaiii New 
ZttJand chief invented fur a spin^itd and 
ori^al occasion, and played uptui in a very 
gi'im an(i ori^iinal manner. This story, though 
a curious mixture of the grand and grott'sciue, 
and, perhape, the improbable, is nt>t without 
its serious moral meaning. It ehtiuiB to be 
regarded aa hiatoiicab For the authenticity 
of ita foundations we refer the rejidcr t^ an 
extremely interesting work, entitled, " Savage 
Life aiid Scenes m Austi-alia and New 
Zealand,'* * by George French Angaa^ who, in 
the course of a journey of eight hundred mUea 
on foot through the latter country, actually 
Baw the chief, who is the hero of the tale, 
together with the Magic Flute on which, 
many years ago, he was ao unintentional, yet 
so extraordinary, a perfbnner. 

'* Taonui, King of Mokau," says our traveller 
'* was one of the moat powerful and Bupcr&titious 
of the okl heathen chiofB, and was scrupulou&ly 
attached to the religion of the Tohunga. Around 
his neck he used to wear a small flute, constructed 
out of the leg-bone of Pomor, a northern enemy of 
his tribe ; and upon thia instrument he at one 
time played with peculiar satiafiiction.'* ToL iL 

p 8a 

We have ako heard tlmt this barbarian 
chief luul in hia poasesaion a auit of ai-mour 
which waa given by one of the kings of England 
to the Bay of Islands chief, the v;SiriT)t h^!i<m|,H, 
or E. Hoiigi, when that wmnior nipi f I 

on some Question of terri tor}'. Tla l 

history ot the armour since the timo ^A ^ui-rj^ji 
L^ very curious, but by no means so extra- 
onUuanr* and interv-'Sting lus the subbequcnt 
historj^ of the fiutc, which we have obtained 
from private aoujcea, and now present to oar 

Taonui was a great chief in Mokau, when 
the king of that country was at war with a 
neighbouring potentate nameil Te Pomar, of 
the ti'ibe of Waikatoto. The king being very 

. , ^ ' : . , J • C>r, on ArtiBfa ImnrtMimt of Gmattrift owJ f^opl* <• 

lu me. wUm We parted, ''Juhn, Lt the|iA«.i»*ip«lrt^Two^«li,;B»V«H,l.>A«r,%tA<io^\ss«fl. 



ill on the lunrmng of a Kettle, ordered himself 
to be carried to the field on a litter, and set 
down ID the thick of the fight. In this state, 
witli the diirts, and clubs, and tomahawka of 
friends and fues all whirling about hb head, 
he sau^' his war-Bong, nud iso died. A tenible 
sontest then U^dk place over Ids body, which 
WJW eventually carried otf by Te Pomar, not- 
wtthfltmiding all the furious efforts of Tadniii. 
But the great warrior Te Pomar, knowinff how 
much the old king had been beloved, and also 
greatly revering hini for the heroic manner of 
his death, nobly restored the body, and sent a 
present of honour with it for the funeral cere- 
tnoines. Hi} aJso proposed honourable terms 
of future peace, which were accepted by a 
majority of the chiefa of both trii>ea. Thia 
nobleness of To Pomar galled the nnde of 
TaOnui as much as the caiTying off the body 
from the battle-field had eurjuytni bis warlike 
spirit. However, he bore it all with haughty 
and unbroken nilence. 

But a contest over the body of a very dif- 
ferent kind now ensued. Several Catholic mia- 
gionaries ha<:l been for Bome tirao in Mokau, 
where by thuir skill in m«diciue and surgery 
they ha^lmuch in^^ratiatcd themselvea with the 
people, and they hati contrived ^adually to 
make a great many converts. Hitherto they 
biM.1 managed all this verj'^ gently, and b)^ 
i*ca6oning, aud strong appeals to the imagi- 
nation ; out the death of the king waa a great 
opportunity for a bold elfort at a wholeaale 
conversion. They, therefore, stepped forward, 
jiud declaretl tliat the permisflion which had 
been given them by the old king to dwell in 
his countPr^, and teach their religion to tho«e 


CiK ^ 
to thei 
roBe it 

'"< to listen to theio^ was a aign that 
] I .id been a convert in his heart, — 
, ))»• i^hould be buried according 
I cei-emoniea. At thia, TaOnui 
<\\d inaiated that the body of 
the king sliMuld t>« buried in a secret cave, 
according to their old heathen custom with 
the greatest chiefe. He prevailed. But whUe 
they were bearing the tody to a place from 
whence it was to )>c taken by night to the secret 
cave, there suddenly arrived the daughter of 
Te Pomar. Her najue wit» TeOra ; she w^as a 
l>eautiful girl of thirteen, and had just become 
a convert to Christianity. She came with 
ninny attendants, and presents, and propoeals 
of laBting peace bc'tween the tribe of her Mher, 
the Waikatotos, and that of Mokau, These 
were accepted by the majority of the chiefs ; 
but a miaaiomiry who accompanied her, then 

Eroceeded to request that the late king should 
e buried al^er the forma of the new religion 
that had licen brought among them. Aided 
b^ the joun^ Teura, he was bo fai" successful 
with the chiefe and poople^ that the body 
waa placed in a shell of baaket-work and 
broad leaves, by way of a coffin, and, being 
hoisted on the shouldera of six of the converts^ 
they were bearing it o^ attended by a large 
itinrourse. They approached the entrance of 
a wood, where a grave had been dug. At thia 

juncture, Taonui, in his war-n 

all his arms, met them on th* 

darted at the coffin,— overt hi> n> 

violent a shock, that fouj- »>f the si 

rolled over with it on the gni«^ hr 

the l»rly of the old king out of 

calling upon all those who r» 

heathen faith of their fathei-s •' 

ancestoi-s, to rally roiuid him, cam* 

body, after a brief struggle, in wliiuL aoWi 

were wounded on both sidea, smd oevinfl 

killed. TeGra rcturne*i to Te V 

bad newH ; and Taouui, for thl^ 

and valour, Nvaa immediat-!' ^ 

Mokau. The missionaines, 

of the converts, were dri\ .: . 

religion of the Tohunga, with ali 

heathen fomiB,waj8 re^establiuhed in n 


Te Pomar held a council of cliief* to d 
mine what amount of reparation the 
demand of the Mokaurie tribe for t 
outrage on their offers of ]»eaf"t» ; thi 
however, waa epeedll}* «eUle-d 1 ;, 
who declared war upon f^ m 'i 
theh* interference with tli 
monies ; — and all the forn:. . :. ..... 

immediately resumed. 

In the first pitche<l battle that 
Tadnui, with a \iew to gi^niig the 
alarming importance to the occiwRion, cam 
the suit of nisty luiuour (steel, inlaid 
brass) which had l>een given to one of 
great predeocasora by th«' V 
carried amidat the front 
warriors. It may be maUn n 
King Tafinui diil not in^-mt i 
armour, but the thought never 
to him, because it wan held i;: 
reverence, as coming from tin 
of a great and distant warlike nation, wh 
they took for granted (little dreaming 
his Britannic Majesty of that date " 
a great powdered wig, but never mn' 
other sort of powder), had 
it in battle. For anybody el- 
wear it, would have been irrrv. i. ju i* t 
"great friend over aeji ; " it xtwint also 
eoufe8se<l that Tadnui, being wdl aw 
tho weight ; (havintr once, in secivt, tri 
armour on, after he l>ecame king) ; J»ad 
that it would impede all those movemeuti 
active skill ana chivalrous diuriiji; whl 
chanvcterise the battles of the aborigm*^, 1 
therefore displayed it «mply «s a "teri^ir, 
and to show that the spirit of the gnuit over-1 
sea English warrior aided the righteoa^ UittJef] 
of the people of Mokau. 

The result, however, was lar from grat 
to the supei-wtitious feeUnga of the Mokau 
Th^ won this first battle, it ts time, but 
without considerable havoc among thei 
warriors ; while, to add to the chagrin of 
disastrous victory, Te Pomar himself carri* 
off in his embrace the suit of sacrend armour 
The speare on which it liad been ele\'ated were* 
broken aud cast upon t)ie earth, and th 

irM fifiati J dragged by ropea through 
b^mntLurj riTer, and so lost to the 

OD hla return, ufsemblcd all hia 

varriorB that baiuh ni'jjht, and led them 

rk wood i I ^vaa the cave of 

IdoL A . inff some of the 

t)%k«^u in ('Utile, aocortung to their 

while the priests sung one of their 

^'Ds^tbe king made all his chi*?f8 

■a a s>olemn vow of vengeance 

uiar, and that they never would 

U> nxake war upon the Waikatotoa, till 

iUuiif and his mole relations also, 

the women were made the slavea of 

m\. TVn? was accordingly' sworn by the 

tnd the priesta informing 

-[ten of the Idol assured 

o! >iii.vv.^ itinj went home very much 

t.:. ..;,!.. .^-^^n. ^ week passed 

juiering parties, 

.. ^.ither a battle in 

•^ts (yillagefi), or im 

lo surpriae Te Pomar 

. o Fomar acted grandly in 

< 'HT. He said he preferred 

to mu-, oii'J did not like his waixiors to 

<Ki account of a batlle^ess which 

' wear ; he therefore offered 

to return it to TaOnui with 

'— "^ ^ -'■ ]vosed thn.t thoy 

il> and hritohet, 

... .i.trely stipulateil 

MokiiniiL'rf shoiiidl 

iv. to his rt't:iiiiing| 

tar the fyto showthut; 

>TceTi c . I snrrender the \ 

It eo of his own free 

>. -ii w\th a dt^Lru t)»ut 

'Mniiuo'iitica ^iiouJd be forgiven and 

' '*" — -^ 1 TePomfvr, 

:i heathen, 

, ... sent tilt! 

and ] It' ply he could 

- , " 't 1 rub the heads 

! ; '»tatoe8and 

1 . he inoll take 

*4 U^ »Wiky tiro'Ui him at the same 

▼ar to the death liecame 
tlusee two s^reat chiefs. 

le o 
was 8eci..._, ,.^„.^.^ „ ^..i..i,vL .,.v,.. i,. 
all ihii warriors and tightiug^uion lie could 
1 11^1* r. Ai» soon as he wia reaiiy, he as- 
tire force one mght,^ — crossed 
ines with pp(Mr^l thcii over a 



biUiAii rivti, ioid then t' 
wht«rU lue^uis he ouue m 
"■ " who thought It V, 
v^ P*rt>'i until sun 
A great slaughter v. a 
icc»^ Te Pomar faUiug among t 
hand of T----, -» i^^^. 





his daughter, TeGra, with other women of 
his household, to beoome slaves. Further- 
more, Ln fulfilment of hia vow, and to gratify 
his vengeance, for what he chose to call his 
wrongs, and the imiignities put upon him, 
TaiOnui cast the remains of Te Pomar amon^ 
a heap of broken and worn -out war weapons, 
and aomestic utenails and refuse, presening 
only the lai^e bone of one leg. This he care- 
fully dried and prepared, and then manufac- 
tured Into a native flute. He luatle some 
rude carving over it, deacribing his last great 
battle and victory. 

Upon this Hute the king Rometimea aroufied 
hia savage fancies in phiying ; and on great 
occaaiona he even woi"e it round hia neck 
attached by a leathern thong. The sound of 
the instrument was truly strange and doleful. 
If a leg-bone could have memory, and lament 
its iDilTen state, a lamentation to that effect 
was the only impression that the ear of a pro- 
perly-constituted human being could derive 
from the sound. But the savage feeling of 
Taonui was far from appeaaed by the death of 
the great Te Pomar, whose noble character and 
actions were well remembered by the chiefs 
of both the tribes ; and however silent the 
Mokauries might be on the subject (becanae 
after a chief is dead his name must never be 
mentioned), what was in their minds now and 
then glanced forth accidentally, which re- 
newed the rage of the king, tie, therefore, 
took a wicked pleasure in plnyinor tlii.^ doleful 
flute, with which he often celebrated the 
memory of Ida final vicloiy over the departed 
chief. In a very short time, he took to 
wearing it constantly dangling from his neck; 
and whenever he sat fltill, and was not 
smoking, or after he had remained thoughtful 
for hall an hour, he always solaced himself 
with a tune upon this unfortunate flute. He 
even taught his son, Waipata, a tine youth of 
seventeen, to play the same hideous tune, and 
exhorted rum to treasure up the same vindic* 
tive feelings. 

Meanwhile Tcdra, the daughter of Te- 
Pomar, now a beautllul young gu'l of fifbi^n, 
waa a slave to Kaitcmata, one of the vriris of 
the king — the oldest of them, the ugli*i«t, the 
most ill-tempered, and the one he most hat^tjd. 
He could not venture to get rid of this wife, 
because, according to a superstition of his 
nation, very ugly old women who were wivea 
of chiefs, oflen became witches, and he did 
not know what mischief Kaitemata might be 
able to do him, or his gouts and ponitrj-, to 
say nothing of his great drovra of wild pigs. 
So, to keep her mmd occupied, and also to 
giTitify his hatred of the race of Te Pomar, 
he gave Teora into her charge. 

To the surprise, however, of th<> kin?, he 
found that this cross old wife neither i>:at, 
nor even scolded TeOra. The old wcman waa 
in truth, brought into aii amiable state 
towards thia young gii'l by her sweet and fur- 
giving disposition. But* TaOnui attributed 
this to a different caiisft— ^\uA ol >KMi.^ <cS. 


ve9p^ to himself; uud, Imving removed 
TeOrA to wiother of liis \viveB, he urdered hts 
sou Wnipattt to give ber a beating over the 
BlKiiild»i» every diiV with a whip mruJu of 
Btrir>s of dogflkiJK 

Now. the vouth did not dare to diaobey ; 
but Aa he \iiu\ the utmost repu^niuiee to strike 
this young ghl, hu contrivecT it) adnmiisler 
the hlowd iii a way not to give the slightest 
paiiJ — in fut-^t* after a few mornings, TeOm 
ceased to shed tt^ai-a at the ifldigrdty, hut only 
held down her head, and smiled timidat her 
bUttdiea, Sh«» evi»n, «.fter a few davs, entered 
Uil ' )iim,dui-iugthebt*ating, 

v> I vei-sioa to Chriatianity. 

ill' ujii- ^>ii-- iftM lung in findiajLj t>ut how 
he waa again clieuted. Ho sent hig aon off to 
a distant hunting-ground, with orders not to 
speak for throe months and three davB ; and 
tnen sat himself down to cou«ider what cruelty 
he should inflict upon TeGra. He could not 
condescend to raise his hnnd against her, 
COUbidering it beneath hLa dignity as a king 
and a vjihani wairior ; but, alter mature re- 
fli ' unsolved to wound her hi another 

\\ ; thia view^. he ordered her into 





over her mi 

Having gntlihed 

■<-' her dance^ amidst her 

i.itioiui, whik* he played 

in its londeat and nw«t 

• bnttion of his triumph 

i father. 

his reinorsdeaa love of 
Vieogeance, lie betook himself to a wood at 
some dist^nncc, and seating himself at the foot 
of a trecj began to smoke and meditate on all 
that \mu\ oc»nu're<l before he ln'came king of 
Mokau ; till gradually he fell into a train 
of speculations on his present state, and hud 
r*lans for provoking fresh hostilities with the 
\V.U— f i--r iji the hope of ultimately sub- 1 
jit ui under nia own rule, or else' 

dr ^ lu awayr and seizing uuon their I 
country. The ann hiul now set, ana his |i)|k? I 
was laid aside, but he still contiimed occupied I 
with these thoughts. 

The tree beneath which the kinjj waa sitting 
commanded a trcblo prospect. I^ere was the 
dai'k furest itself, with its great trunlcs^ its 
wiiuUng ways, deen nooks, and down-sweopiug 
masses of thick, broad-leaved foliage ; and 
there waa wi oi^en space on the left, that led 
downwirda to a grassy glen, covered with 
ridi IxuU vf the greenest gni^ over wliich, 
&t intervals, lay clusters of the t«a-tree shrub 
iu full bloom, and the crimson fuchsia, over- 
run by a creeper w^ith little white, bell-shaped 
blossoms, the glen terminating in several 
ristaa ol wild loveliness and changefid colour 
in tlie fading light. To the right, there was 
a largo Xwi)k in the forest, through which an 
undiUAting sweep of land appeared^ clothed 
with numerous armies of featner-leaved ferns, 
of red and of russet hue, that stood in separate 
dirisaons, over which coutinually went flutter- 
ing a number of black and wlute moths, like 
bean-flowers dancing adrift on the wind ; and 
beyond the curling crests of the dense amjt 

of these vegclabh? warrior*, st 

long BWjunps of tohi-tohi grtiu"^ 

dark wall of bulrushes^ till f ' 

the fix*t of a range of ' 

mou n tains — over tii f ' 

blue and grey mom 

whose heads again, , 

peaks were just visiliie, nimgied with 

clouds and filmy vafjoura. 

Let it not be supixusod that the mind 
king wfi8 at all occupied w*ith thin Vjeaf 
scenery; he hod only ch<- i 

favourite smoking and u 
account of its distance fri 
little chance of being disti' 
the shadoi* of evening \s 
prepared to ilejjart ; fi>r, t ' 
valiant waniur, nnd !'l^' 
of men in Ids mind, 
of his superetitiuna \» 
of the ahirm coiuuku 
prospect of l)eing \^ 
Before he ixtse, howevti, 
pcrfonned hi« u«ual tiino 
and, 1 • ■ 
of spii 

struiiki lii» fiplcn* 

•-"■^ ■ ■, ■ ■■ "' 

1 iinju*. As he ^ 

:u he liail ai'lsei 

last part of the stnun, or r; 

squealing, waa repeated by th 

— ^then hy the echoes fi 

time with certain mo<lii! 

the \'istas lK?yond the jk;l«n — l 

undulating land» with its ani 

still with graiAatious th;(< ^ 

harmonious — till finally, 1 1 

fvi T" ^ ' ' us part^ of th« . 

: illy modulated : 

ir :_ ai of music. It M.i? ^ 

and solemn, like the lofty deaUi-mHrcb 

aoiae great hei'o. 

Tadnui sat listening with a p- 

sion uf Hwe, Tlie march w;t« 

all aroimd wiis silent, Ur 

to understand, nor what h 

somehow or other, he a- 

tune of triumph he hmi 

and conse<iuently with i 

Pomai*. Sliould he fear .^ 

he had defied and ovi rtl 

No : — and yet,— the U 

come back, luid then 

or at all events able i 

iarly when the air Wi- 
lt was now tv^-ilight, .Uid ;^s ihe kiui| hftd 

no mexms immediately at Imnd of proeuri]ij|& 

lighted stick, without tlie j * V L 

no Mokauiie likes to lie 

he started up, and strode um • 
He had not jji-ooeeded far, b^ t 

adihaxned of Ins r* nx ,11 ,-.!,,,, 

and proportion:. 

Recovering him> f 

head, he presently arrived at the opituon tLxt 





L«< ki*l rt^W beard no micii tiling — it wtta a 
I— he hnd laileu asleep without knowing 
wiis a«leep vrhen he had fancied hini- 
rnte. How shoiild aoch munic )>ii:>c*ied 

frrnn fh*' vile flute { It waa not ^^Rjfisihle. He 

viiujM pinv ruj^vm, as he walkc^l homi»W!irti ; 

aa<i 1 ''s intent, hi 

mtch he flute. 

WHS ; ^ . and \\<^ < 

dowi -for the 1 ' > 

hy -which the tlut 
Im hmid behiud L 
►fiir from him a* pL>«4iiblv,ha»U;u«d h 
with loner siridea. 



es — and Ije onrac t^» a 

the earth with rage, lie 

""»«d biick t^^ thtf sfK>t 

lllltL' — ^touiid it — 

-«i Mud raislriL' hin 

he tlute i I 

acQ and 
bone had 

id his neek iu biii 
»?t»!fMi townnlft his vi 

>li ill 

ti turned 
i li he judt 

*Hd not lead a veiy 

old tune again 
^ii nothing' could 
It to himself, he did not 
Mrre. Very Boon this 
jlit I to his mind. It waa 

unli^iu^'W ijitly took the flntev 

' ' ' ^. Nothing came of it* 

• y in the evening, in some 
<-, II' M I lie cchoea,And Alone ? Yes, 
fy he would — ^not jiuw, perhaps — 
mt — but wheueTe-T he took it into 

rbil'-. Ito would iiitt n vukr- nor nAux 



1 111* did not 
vYUfid of fho d. 

i "iiiar. 
ti in Bome 

ihfy Titrxt 


ruinod tomb 

of a great cliieii visible at aorae three hundred 
yar<ia distance in the liox:rk -ground, U w;ia half 
ovei^rown with rank ve»;*rtjition. Its forni 
waa that of a log-hut without a door* Kiui 
having n huge projet'ting tx^of, anpporied with 
heads of bideons figiireA, carved ovit of tree- 
trunks. %vhoBe eyes were foi-mtxi if r 
pi>,arl ahellij, wliifh htu\ a niost g^i • 
cbolv etfect iu the dl^stance. Tl; iy 
in the wood-work of the tomb w^ f y 
with decorations of coloured stun , Is, 

1 the feiithers of the gi'een mid polden 

koo and the alt»atrcjes. To ke<'p olf thv 

flierc bad been a row of low 

and it, painteii red — the New 

oioiir for mourning ; but (w it is a 

I" to repair a tomb, they hod nearly 

:»ii Mihn to decay, and only prtACtniffd bei"e 

and there a prong or fang of dingy rod. 

Thi« I'i . . .1....,;, l«?tiij,' lupUy or sjicred, 
TaOniii I A it, with a vogue feeling. Iftli ^.. : I fe Jb'uniitr. or any devili^ 
iiidcome, in consenuenee of his p*?r- 
on the tiuie, it would l*c a good 
thiiig to have a tomb in the bnckgrouif-l into 
whieh he might thmel the devtl^ or retr»?at 
himself, if the evil one wjw too strong Ibrhiiii. 
He thought this a perfectly legitimate use of 
thp! tomb, becaii«s all spiritii undcmtood ono 
an*^her. The king derte«l all tnorial men, 
and epirita too — only ho did not fee' » » 

as to the result*; of a nfnte^t wltli 

To thifl dedohite trnck nunti (1 :' 

Mokau, a nuinbtrof wiM h^/s ru I 
away at his appruach. and takin- t 

amon|( the volcanic i*emaii)w, wiit-ie Ri^-at 
stoncg of pumice and leilges of lav/i, lialt- 
covere*! with rank moss, interFperae<l with 
white violef^ and the Neu Zealand daisy, or 
hall" hidden in loiiehwood, forme«l a ai'^rt of 
centre to the uncouth re^nou, he turned him- 
self on all sides, toaacertaui that ho was alou**, 
and that nothing could eonie iip»n hiiu by 
Burpme. He then took up the doleful llute — 
and commenced playing. Nothing rniue of 
it for some tinie^ except that the bone bouau 
to >'ibnite under his hngera iu a manner that 
much disturbed him : atiH, he would not 
% and concluded with a squcaUug flouriab 

iiiHult to the memory of Te Pomur. 

1 he flute vibrated with electrical force, anil 
shot forth sparks at every poi*e. TaOiim'a 
fingers had instincti vel\ • ' ' " : ' - ♦ ' . r 

ft moment'a pause, he " 

-"■T» 'r-w,.i -l-ath-raanl! 

»f modula'iM: 

:__ui __i _i u'i, but app'j ;'-!■! IV ' -- '—-''>i 

the duitf itself, though with a dim and smo- 
thored aouudj as if buned iu the receascs of 
the bone 

Tatoiui shuddered from head to foot, as well 
he mij^ht. with snch a flute hanging u*om hia 
neck. The music ceaied. llie kiujc:, in move- 
' ' \ 1 »tarmg dowt» 

i.'M after it had 
i". ,. «..^ .L.wa a tiut€ 

— til iie of hti> f'jmiar em 


Ub Iwofl down to tt^ — and 

Nij sound came 

iL He glADced 

I *? — ^tlitjn 11 deli* 

ii.-.oyea were again 

t,riili'- :ind &II the 

coiue to 

• lisnmy he 

rUiug the flute 

..V into it, nnd 

of a11 hia intentions 

li and triumph, 

iiot«:a, echoes, 

i>iMiiulat«d into the 

hero ! 

but the strain was 
nd h'lB head, in tones 
-it rolteiJ — it was in 
mn t^ii prtjnd him — its ^reat gonss luid 
>m\Miln vftTii now thundering and bash- 
mitil ItfumtiUi; round his feet — it oune 
IpT «i»f -c r»«biDg bumtjf from the funnel 
§l0)tfk9 of th^ volcaoiMniters-'it airain be> 
mim9 mttumnd and sustaiDed. and swept 
mmf ov«r tbs blcK^ of lava and pumice, and 
4«ir all tbs nuik vegetation, .lud Hcttled above 
lllf fu.f ,,f f>if. ruTned mautioleum, TaOnui 
illf^ aud thither with each 

dlUHi (U thii* tremendous orchestra, 

ami, I he n»f of the mnuaoleuu), Ire 

giuij*- ^h. and whirled his arum aloR, 

ii'^difiuinv- Whereat, 
iires with peai'l-ahelj 
M ir lower jawa, aud «.^t- 
■^ing which, TaCrmi, with 
lI fjiat away, ff>l lowed by 
long succession of .similar yellN from the 
'&lien jawa of the figures <»f the tomb I 

Without inteuding to imply tbut any of 
thei*e extraordinary actinf!* wor*i (hn wurK of 
tlie renowned witches of New Zealand, wo 
eh all content ourselves with stiktiii^' the fact 
that tuaJbiitUj or witchcraftj whs uio»t im- 
plicitly iMilieved in by the Mukaiiri*? trilMt, 
M by nearly all the other tnlnrs, and is, to 
t1u0 day, most fully behevcl ii» by all whn 
fWoaitL unconverted, and even by somo of 
these, — who say "the diblik- (diVil) m t+w 
ftrun^ to let go. ' Even so recently im 1844, 
tk celebrated witch of Wmkato, namwl Eko, 
posaetsed such jx)wer over the imaginations 
of tliH people, that having been itisultiHl by n 
^'ay 3'oung Maori fellow, she calmly told hiin 
a lew dayn aAerwards that she had taken otit 
his luiart- — it was gone ! Fully impresned 
with this belief the poor young fellow actually 

From whatever cause he ci[)njecturiid the 
recent event's to have proceeded, not one wtjrd 
to anybody, of any part of them, sj^iake the 
kittg. In deep and sullen silence lu' bru<>diHl 
over the bu&ines^, and the more he thought i»f 
it, the less he understood it, ami the lc*s 
eottld his hjiughty and orcrbcaring naiui-*' 
codurt the sense of defeat which he felt he 

with J* MJlXol Hi 

th« liill wix»deri 

it V cij III iuu I ' 

had suffered from the flut«v Of course he 
identified this legboue mstmmciit witVi hi« 
aneient foe, Te Poraar. But, what waa to be 
done ? Here was he, the King of the 
Mokauries — and here was the leg-wjtie ♦ '■■- 
slain enemy, who had serend times triii i 
over him : — which was to be the maat 
make the other tremble and do his bj. 
The answer was simple. The King of ? 
must be the master. Is he to be ahxm 
his own music-^the loud sounds be •. ., 
to T>roduce 1 And if witches have m 
witn the wooden images of the tapu houae 
a dead chief, so as to make them gape and _ 
— let the witches go and live in the toixili^' 
they like, and dare to do so. All titia 
nothing to TaOuui, who is a great wairicff; 
and lord of all Mokau. 

Thus did the king silently reflect, wrbUe 
seated alone on the ix>of of his royal house ; 
solacing himself, however, with a pipe, or by 
chewing cowdie gum and roa^teii buU<n)uw 
root. Sometime* he condescended to ~ 

his spleen by abusing his c^ueen — the 
who enjoyed the honour of being regarded 
his chief wife ; — but never did he deign 
breathe a word of the mixed wonder atul 
awe of his recent affair with the fiutc. 

While seated in this way, outi eveoing, be 
saw a chief hastening towards hirt house with 
manifest signs of alarm — and ijrt^Bently another 
— and soon a third- The king came down 
from his seat on the roof, and went out to 
meet them. They all came with the 
story. The uuburied remains of the 
King of the Waikatotoft (Ihey avoide^l m» 
ing liia ruune ahmd) \^'hith had been i 
perish among rubbish within sight of t i 
where his daughter the slave Te6ra 
were coming tu life a^in — not in the fuj 
a warritu-, but in the form of a spirit. 

TaCmii was alxiut to cvy out angrily 

he did not believe it — but he checked Imitselt^ 
and .accompanied the chiefs in silence ; for he 'j 
(lid K'licve it. 'I 

WIteu they arrived within \iew of the '' 
mound of ndjbish on which the V ' 
once great Te Pomar had been flo 
wtopped abruptly. Luminous: ^ 
coloured flakes of light wn H 

over the mound, and beautifn. . t" 

dancing a\K>ve it. The chiefs whu - 

tTkanied the king decamped with su 
ationa — for it is considered no di 
warrior Uy be afraid of spirits, J . 
though ho heartily wiahed hiniself a Luiidi ^ 
miles away, firmly held hb ground, aL . 
watche*! the spectral appearances. 

Perplexed to the utmost, he mechanically 
l)ent tun steps towards the hut with a vague 
notion in his mind, or rather in his impulaes. 
of killing TvOra as »h.. n^^ .viable cause of adl 
this. Arriving at who 8lK)uld he 

»ce but hia oKl disi Kaitemata, who 

had taken tip her ftl»t«.iiM*ith TeOra f This 
»CH«m»'Hl to explain everything to the king. 
Ail the recent magical events wero i«veal3 



He imme- 

lofty scowl. la 

'^?< (witchci-aft), 

I chief to be rent 

that o\t\ Kaitemata was 

i ief — ^forhadshe 

T of his enemy 


'•ne blow. He, 

iiis by Bome means 

^o unexpectedly, and 

nd or weapon npon 

should be no excuse 

Iheii' favour, iSuch 

which he deceived 

I ri itself, hia territory 

^UajQtagea for anir pur- 

.ircidentid destruction. 

" ; iTjd contains so 

need not require 

t'lon among the 

, «?matiiraL As 

s of this which 

sent the reader 

travels of Mr. 

u^ in New Zealand, whose 

iues are crowded with 

^id iiiterestiiig information. 

' I Tisiiod Che iKttliug springs which iasuo from 
•nie Ki ■ steep mountain sbove To Rapo. 
Biearlj one hundred of them ; they 
oot» lml»bting up from little orifices in the 
widch «a« not more than a few inches in 
■bmI the steam ruahea out in cloada with 
f<H-oe: the hillddo is covered with 
tasd a mcr of hot water runs down into the 
'the toil arcHxml ia a red ami wliitc oliiy. 
airHM^lf inipr«gpEtsted witli ■olpUui^ and hy^lrugeu 
cut : pyntea also occur. Several wonion were 
boBjr cooking bsiskets ot potatoes over Bomo of the 
■nailer oti&ceA; leaves nnd fern were laid over 
lw»)e% upon which the food wns placcil ; 1 
the potaUawas, and tncy wore 

.;les from this plaoo, on tho edge 
y flat, I met with a number of 
some of them of very largo 
We tot' ' r flowiog swiftly 

kke^ V. -l by the snows 

*^il ' ►■^ TT iLi 1 . kHiTiro. In many 

e water boilfi up 
li ' ' neath, auddcolj 

',■1 <> etiidain, to the 

l1 who may he 
_,_ AvM^;/ ii fftif: fruau v/ artmiui J tutord 
Ihf. waUr haiXim^ riolenUjf hmm the enut over 
mh-irh I xrift tyrntJino, Tt n fcry dangopoua 

1 break, iiicfdding 

• *?4 t!ie Kotunia 

n:il[\ . hot 

BpTLL'. (j^tttllt 


a an- g^-: 



' il tijt: ['vTiil-^ un.' rjiuc*v foet in 

V illed with tTHosparent ptlo blue 

boiling wfttcr, sending up columns of steam. 
Channels of boiling water run slong the ground 
in every direction, and tho surfooo of thas cal- 
careous fiat around the margin of the boiling 
fiondfl Ls covered with beauti^ encrustatioos ol 
ime imd alum, iu somo parts forming iSat Bo.ucer- 
like figures. Husks of maize, moss, and branehcii 
of vegetable substanoos -were encrusted in the 
same manner. I also observed small deep holes 
or weUs here and there unongat the gzuas and 
nishes, from two mches to as many feet in 
diameter, filled with boiling mud, that rises up in 
large bubbles oa thick as hasty-pudding: those 
mud pits send up a strong suiphureous smcIL 
Althoiurh the ponds boiled violently^ I noticed 
sjjmU fiiti Katkifig swiftly, or itxther ruwiing oa 
their twfftue. The steam that rises £n>m those 
boiling springs is visible at a distance of moujr 
miles^ appearing like the jets from a number ot 
steam-engines." Vol. ii. pp. 113. 114, 115. 

To a certain cavern, beneath which the 
king knew there was one of these boiling 
sprigs, he determined to semi bt>th TcAra 
and Kaitemata, as soon as he ha*i hewed away 
the pumice floor to so thin a substarK-e, that 
it would be certain, before long, to cmck rmd 
fall in with their wBight. He should tluis 
be rid of two witches — for that the}- were 
such, he now regarded as an ascertained fact. 

Of th ifij if any additional proof were neeiied. 
the king received fiirther coiifinnation that 
very evening. A Maori runner came from 
the distant hunting-ground where TaOnui had 
exiled his son W^^vata, on account of the 
favour he had shown to TeOra, to inform him 
that Waf^ta had secret communicatioiis with 
the young aiavc-girl, who had induced him 
to abandon the religion of Tohunga, and be- 
come a Christian ; and, finally, that his son 
had gone mad, and wore troueere ! 

Ta(inui, smotliering his indignant fury, 
still prefterved a Imughty silence, not un- 
touched with an air of melancholy, as be 
reflected on the humiliating fall of Waipata, 
He entertaiue<l no doubt but his son had^ne 
mad. Vengeance and the boiling spnngs 
were, however, at hand ; and he now hastened 
to his preliminary work in the cavern. 



Rmnff Young Opemtive, "Please, father, 
what ia a bltie-l>ook 1 " 

Patcnutl O^raiive, "A blue-book i« a thick 
heavy catechism done up in blue coverr^/' 

«* "V\Tiat is it for ?"— " Why, when Parlia- 
ment sets some of its Members to intj[uir© 
al>out a Hubject, atjd hear evidence quietly 
in a room for to get at facts, thej' print the 
eWdence and so on, and send it to all the 
other Members, so that they may reail and 
know the facts." 

"Wliat is that blue-book you have V>or- 
rowed to read ? '* — " It is all about Savingi 

" But do not tlio "Par\iaaQ«iA TU.«ii AKWi^ 



all alnmi Smnugu BmiIcs alrcAilj t '*— " Not a 
Ml Thait^ft wby they have ia make th«ae 
kag* blae-UKJcB to t«ll Vtn. Thk otte i« on 
Ilia *Aiviiiai of tfi* Middk and Working 
CImml* As MenUiy to tmr «bop«avtiigr 
^Bbi I WM flMBnincd oe one of the Vltnenefl.** 

iiifiii«eune 4E^EH0utfr. Dcti't yon tliifik it 
ii a atft^ j!ftwUli!T> tliat if a mu), *nxri*a ATicmgli 
to boT tJ 1 he 18 3i law to 

dbaci'r- . . iL'r suiufl i rie hun- 

4nd aail ^i^fm htmdnd pouncb it 'a ehockiugly 
<Ki6mili to fli good and «fe mrestmenta of 
aajr matt hnm tSe m-cMiit ctate of the law/* 

^^ If yxm wasDt to buj a bit of land you caii't, 

i p aciaJly If it la aiartoaged, — caa you I '* 
«-^Kfjt bY no aiaaaa. Why it ooeta more 
4liaii tba land is vorih to what they call 

•Hmh people ^"" '' "1'^^' «r..,ll Biuufl and 
bapartavrsinaDii yT'— «Oh, 

Uaaa jtm, bo 1 i « without a 

Cbaitar or an Act ot Parlbuueiit, every one 
«f tbcBk ia nsspikusible to no ent] nf mouey."* 

^ ^JkJ paople who know w I : • about 

4oa\«lil''-'"Nu,iudml ! [IS fifty 

piMmb^be canH aay hv will ^iiii?rriK rive to a 
cmioeni and lose ao much if it foil. He must 
ba read/ to loae aU bk fiftv if it faiU. People 
vilii ftva bundled potmcu to ijiveat^ can't 
i an< l llfty aa a abare ia cacb an euterpnae 
aad M no IktHber. Hicy sntiat riak all their 
irn Euadiad oa Ibe trantur^ Ibougb they are 
aar* of tadj getlii^ profit on th« five. 8o 
lliev doa^ iavui in tnat way wbeu they *ra 
bat tbe rteklMa do.''* 
Vbai ia tbe eaine of tbat t * --" Tbo Law 

leca not that aflect tbe neb as well 1** 

i vt^ bal a larger eulaiyriML witb money 

of ia iniam i, affurta to bay aa AA at JPiutlia- 

but thai buaurj ia too «x- 

l\ aKuifvZiartakiiw! 1 *"— 

** s ittit of DwaiiM 

iki r Buildiii^ Bma 

ar r tbat 





CbaHer c(Mt1* 
iMpov^ iba 


tv«cvi vat 


Wel^ w^ wbal aaai I "~« Why 

lbe«a%iUiHf«Mtbaiti]i ar a 4aaaa iMbr 

a»MM» ^ il iiKil VMto «}l tbe nn aa Owy . 

Iba coal yi% Cbartofv dbMabMM^ lb«r 

hm la «ba Oaaai v^okvix 


Wbat ag^^^ wimiU a iVstor bavi* dpaa 

M Wtor wv>abi ba^ f^^vail Ibaaa 

9tt * *4 ymMtmtMffk **»> ea ab b it Ibe 

pmjectora and 9oyiport«Ts of th« *fhnrtty to 

contribute to li ' >ji»l 

Without it they t^ 
succefc- '' " 

By tbe i^^.. 5-.. ..." ' . j-w... . .i.p,allpart«i«a» 
are aiiswerable \iitii their whole aubetan^e 
for tbe acta of auay one,*' 

"You aay by the English law; but da« 
not the same law exist iii other conn tries T **— 
** C<ei"tiUJily not. All civilised c< 
from England in the law of 
They huve either partnerships iii v. 
responsibility is alto^ibtf liniited, '■ 
being in each case known; or they ii_>> 
kind of partuerahip called comma nfd'tc** 

"And what ia eommfynf^^f" :■••' -Hittl 

— " Here you have it : 7 

commandite allows any ii< 

eubscrilw money to an ' 

limited amount; they are ti 

and they are not allowed lo peiform 

of management ; the managers of ,. 

nej'ahip en commandite becocQie respoushl:: 

with all their property/' 

" Is not thftt the same a 
of an Eiigiigh partnership 1> 
ftupjalie^i elsewhere by comm • '" 

it is not. The lender ia a • 
creditoi^^ but the commaiK' 
cUim until all otber orewl 
firm thiit borrows^ multii>l 
atoaiea advaaood ea eomrnattdiu stiui 

** Doen the English law deter ptt^le 
epeculation ? " — ^** Quite the oontrajy, U 
v«rts wholesome enterprise into a gana 
fisk* and converts numerous 
jjj^ .^.. ..T .: : Trhich would otberwiaa 
tv u to patnuniae, to 

auii.i .- .<:.... I'irans.. It filtexa a 
peo|il% aad leiia tbe recklasi pastbroagiti 
tba maaagineat of ndaable prc^eetaw 

**How doea tbia act npoii 
wan and opwaliw I'*-.'* Xot dutntly, la 
Uttor pouit of view. HJakboorlahb^kS 
it ia aot madi to bim to loae h» aO of 
Bal HJalan p«»leof ibaauddDe 



._i. ... . _ 

tkMa ; nmlcc them legtJ oniler a law nil theii* 
fvs. cualW " ng tlLsputee before a 

ttt^jiCxmt* tiy punish Any one 

snoQig th*.» 1 >,).. -u uid wt diishoneatly to- 

these Xiulustrukl ABBOcmtLoiia, what do 
waiu with them 3 "— ** WelJ, 1 Mi 
Look At my cmc. Oucij I worked 
to n rich mail, who ostablkhed 
wiili y» capitxl n Inr-^' ahop, r*rjti bought for 
hiflaelf A coui^ He lives In his 

toastiryAwnstiy > i sees his shop ; he 

fmya wagc6 to .(. uu -► luimber of workmen, 
XBoeirca tbcir work, tiod sellfl it to the public 
At A pr>c* wliik'h vTOfthJwa him to jviy a manager 
lor overtnoking a«, wid live at ease upon the 
larplns, duixtg authiii^. That made ns think 
thai If ■oaw of w^ wlu» were steady, clubbed 
iogcilMr t<L» tiLHtiitaiii A tthon, we might sell 
<mr work ■ ! vca, and so divide among 

oondTve of our labour ; it goes 

M>w ta A a)jut<4- \v L(i do<ta nothliig, and whose 
waHn advtmtngG over u# ia that of having 
*Bttl fwir AjBoctationa might not answer t " 
; but we aay is, that the 
■H man tK>wer to use us, and 

r the 

- ; no 

j.\aai one cheat among a 

W« mj that we Are 

* not a right to earn 

wny we c«n, Tt*8 

vould still prefer t^ 

ftjid we^d be weJl 

I so b J onr own free 

content because we 

( ">_« Why we 

. . t making our- 

A %' . C'ompAnj, and coming 

ft I ^wa made for people who 

ip up tvei> penny we have in a five- 

We want extended reading of 

Bodct4es Act.) to thnt we may 

to combine our labours if we 

tiheAfi protection, when we d 

«Bodi«r. We wtuit no at 

W., ..^1^ ,.....r ...,,.,.,, 

. . , .:.. lor us 
fair turn cmr money to 

; d'j. . I 1W to work for a 

and put Uy t>ur iju ', • :r. rive Savings 
Backi. or Tbr*?o per < Vn' i iv >»e some 
' ' rus, 

'' > out 

T win '/» u 

tp^ ; and 

r Jpriial r if 

working-classes, ia to thow them ihist yon 
look on them aa men and not ;u child ren^ and 
to give them choice to earn their bread on 
any path they like, that is an houeist one. 

** Do you think we onght to liave what we 
want]"— "Of course, 1 do. Whytlier Uie 
plan of lodustriAl AvooiAtaons wonhl suc- 
ceed is, of eoune, yet nnoeirtjun, but it well 
deserves a trial. More than that, — we ought 
to have the right of trying it Then, if we 
ftiil, we shoidd know who ia to blame ; and 
those few (for there would not, at first, be a 
large number probably) who commenced with 
the experiment woald go back to the old plan 
of wages." 

'^But if they mieceeded and this system 
spread ? *" — *' T^en that would be a bleieintf to 
this country. The class of middlemen who nye 
upon the work of others ia now very targe ; 
that would decrease, and the country would 
be enriched by a far largei* number of pro- 
ducers. The loss of intermediate proiit-taKers 
would also cheapen produce, and a more ex- 
tended sense throughout the country that 
each man was working for himself would im- 
part to the whole body of the |>eopl« a free 
njanly tcmt', and give to all a greater interest 
in peace and onler, I think, that although 
the result may possibly not realise a sanguine 
vision, yet, tliat it is oujust to forbid attempts 
which point in a right direction. If we 
neglect these wiaheA of the working- classes, 
we cannot wonder if they say tliat rich men 
make rights for themselves which do not fit 
the uses of the poor, and give the poor man 
no equivalent." 

" What are they going to do about Savings 
Banks 1 "^" Government says, it intends to 
be responsible for their security, and that 
will take away a prevalent impression that 
they tu-e unsafe, JPoesibly, as they are the 
safest, »3 they are the beat investment for 
the savings of the wo|rking- classes^ but we 
have no right to drive them to this kind 
of hoarding. The mere sense of ao mudi 
money being kept for them by other people, 
out of their siglit, has not so great a moral 
T M upon their minds as would be ha*i by 
thing which they eyery day could see use. If they invested savings in their 
daily work, in cottages, or, better atill, a [jiece 
of ground, which thev could call thdr own, 
man is so constituted as to be morv usefully 
acteil upon by that visible fi-uit of his ex- 
ertion than by the alietroct idea of poss^sing 
its equivalent in money. That ia truer of a 
man the more you find him uiiB<:>phi8ticAted. 
I would, therefore, have the workmaji's labour 
and the money, or the finiit of it, to be Ids 
own, and remove all removable impedLoaeiitA 
to his free use of either," 

"Yon think much of mvestmoit in a 

r. it age or a piece of land T' — ^'•Yea, all ex- 

tnce abroad, and all we know of history, 

i all we see doing about us, show how 

bciieJicijd such iuve*tmeiiU atia." 

**AU this being iVve Gak»*^,>v\\ut4o"5<yckTiiSsa3^ 




to say at tlie next meeting of our Shop 
Sa^ngs Bank 1 " — " Why, I mean to maJke a 
speech. I mean to nay, that both the middle 
and the working-claseea of men desire to invest 
money in lantf. That the uncertainty and 
complexity of tltiea, the lengtli and expense 
of conveyances, together with the cost of 
stamps, place such inveatments beyond com- 
mon reach, { * Hear, hear ! ' from the Riaing 
Young Operative and the Shop-mate). Tliiit 
sinipllfyiug titles, f9hortemnc conveyances, 
would be a good thing for the landowners 
themselves, by increasing the avaUablf value 
of their propei-ty. And then I Bhall wind un 
by saying, that 1 know, fi'om wdiat 1 wa» tola 
by a lawyer, yesterday, that it won Id be easy 
«uough to eimplify the present hiw." 


The Boiiifl's * home wai a lordly hall^ 
And his land atretch'd &r and wide. 

And maoy Mtout ierviug-men came at his call^ 
And great were hla pomp imd pride. 

Near ihia mansion there stood a neat little cot* 

NeetUng in bush mid tree ; 
The owner, a peasant of humble lot,* 
Withouo vcrgQefof land from hifi forefathers got, 

None ha[>piGr arcem'd than he. 

He loved hi* childron, ho loTcd hia wife. 
Their words and their acta were right ; 

So they led in the cottage a peaceable life. 
Though they labour'd &om mom till night 

Ko ipring there was on the peasant's ground^ 
But, whoe'er in the cot might dwell, 

(It was known to tho couatiy folka many milee 
Had a right to the rich man'a wdIL 

Allien hifl earthen pitcher the villager brought 

At tho rich laau's well to fill ; 
How tlic Btiiliff grudgetl, lie little thought* 

ms dranghts from tlmt limpid rilt 

And why wcm he vex'd wtien the man he saw ] 

Oh, why for the water otirc { 
Twos bccau£o tho man had a ri^ht to dmw. 

That ho hated to see him there. 

'Twould not perchance have been e'er denied. 

Had he begg'd it eve and noon, 
But it Kidly offended the BailifTe pride 

That he had not to ask tho boon. 
" Thy laud ond hut I deaLro to buy," 

Ue aaid one day with a frown ; 
" Nome tho smu you expect, bo it over so high, 

I will instantly pay it down." 

Poor Hasaey bow'd as he humbly Bpoke— 

" My &thcr first drew his breath 
In this cottage ; I prize it for his dear sake. 

And will never resign it till death. 

" I lost my mother while yot a child, 

But once it was her abode ; 
Could I part with the homo where my mother 
smiled — 

\Vhero she taught me tho fear of God 7 

* Tbo BufliS, df elilvf Judge, In tho Ra/al Court of 
<f uornMj is niiiDad bv tbo Eiij^lliih »nTerri^. Ga&ltierde 
J* Bklle, tbe fir»t B»UIflr, ira-i apjHilt.led III 12!W. 
t Ftfgtt* About bait nu English ooro 

*' Tia here 1 Ve Uvod with my loving wife, 
And little ones, now in Hoavon ; 

And thoae who survive me shall hove it 
To them by the law it is given*" 

On illiM fancied grievance the Bailiflf dwelt 

Ab Mtuaoy his pitcher fed ; 
Such hatred at length to the pea^nt he U 

That he wish'd the poor man dead t 

But he knew the cottage would then by law 
Descend (and it vex'd him sore) 

To those who would come for the wator^ : 
Am their £&thor had done before. 

But if be periah'd with infamy^ 
The land woidd never be theirs ; 

By the Sovereign daim*d« no relatiaiis 
Accounted a felon's heirs. 

At length there came to the Bailitfe heart i 
A plan — ** and it must aucoeed." 

So he said to hlraBeIf» for he dared not 
To any the shameful deed. 

In the vmikini^ * scftsoa he went nnc day, 

And a rich tdlver cup he bore. 
When tha peoaant and &mily all were ai 

And he enter'd the uulock'd door. 

Ho approached the tiniowom oaken choal» 

And lifted the unlock'd lid, 
And under the raiment, their holiday 

The bright silver tankard hid. 

He wont away with a hurried jiaee. 
And closed the door ^rith mre ; 

But Uie eyes of the Lord are in every 
And they surely beheld him there. 

In the deed of night he wont forth onoe 
To a com-atack that stood hai-d by, 

And a heavy burthen of pinto he bore, 
And concoal'd it from mortal eye. 

Tho morning dawn*d and the Baililf ] 

And tmmmon'd hia menials Roon 
" In order my costliest service di«*j)os 

For gucata will be here at nofju." 
^ich man has now hi^ .f... .;m*..| ^j^g^j.. 

For tbo semce of ] ; 

Then questiona in whi^ v feuj-fidly; 

And ore hurrying to and fro. 

Tho Bailiff listens — at length a pr^go. 

In tho tremulous voice of fear, 
Annouuce« the loss ; and Iuh well-fcigu'd 

It was dreadful {they aaid) to hear. 

Like a savage man, of EeoHo bcrcfl. 
With oath8 he reviled them all ; 

And throaten'd, if no one acknowledged 
Hia vengeance on each shoiUd £dl : 

But promised pardon to every one 

Who by noon had tho crime confeaa'd 
They were innocent all, bo ere setting of i 
Tho oonatablca came^ and the searx^h waa 
In tho preaence of many a guest 

The stately mansion below, above, 
And the arbours for ptoaaure round. 

Are eearoh'd, and the servants their innooeni 
prove ; 
No plate oaa be anywhere found. 

* Tratk\>«GAr'«CA& ««£&.«& tv^vxui'vaftffiiifeiL 




And then, ptirsning his ^cked plan^ 
(AdcI, oh, with what rile iutont t) 

To the oottuge of MuBsey, good peaceable man. 
The Bailiff bis coostabl^ Bent. 

The man'* surpiiso iras, indeod, extreme, 
Tbou^ nnuTBd there could be no cause ; 

Their visit nppear'd like a, tToublesome drG&m 
To him who oe'cr broke the laws. 

** My frioud," loid one. in a kindly tone, 

Our errand 1 'U briefly state ; — 
In this cottage it seema not as yet to bo known 
Tliat the Bailiff liaa loet bis plate. 

["Throughout hia mansion and grounds we sought; 
Kot even a cup waa aoen ; 
And thoAjgU to Bea2x:h here wo a warmut have 
We eh all find nothing here, I weea," 
Do etmightwiiv wont to the oaken chest. 

And liiW the tmlock'd lid ; 
Then forward with wonder they every one press' J, 
For under some raiments the countryman a beet, 

tIL A tkh idlrer cup was hid. 
^P^waa the lareat man'a tankard, beyofid Boatike: 
li Hi" -—" '•■'—- • .'i-avcn fair; 
° Will Ma&<cy rolomnly epakc, 

"' I pr '1 may my cMlcLrcu forsake. 

If i kxjuMr how iha cup came thoro t" 
At the -tAtplv ninn.Jon tho nowa they hcoT, 
Tl found at hist: 

The J at tho cottage appear, — 
And Quw the plot ripcna fiut. 
He orders Maasoy at onee to jail^ 
Right glad that he had the power ; — 
Thoy who heard the poor wife and her little ones 
Could never forget that hour. 

I And joy waa ar^ V o« to ahmc, 

Ab he waw ih depart ;^ 

The Tcrgco cit i^,..: _^l..„. surely L« mine," 
He eoid. in hia wiok*d heart 

\la her lonely oottnge the mother kneels, 
The little ones round her cry ; 
lo epcaks not a word, for too keenly she feela ; 
Her proycr is a deejvdniwn sigh. 

he cell ^ol-! not tho captivo long, 
T' okd no delay; 

^ ■ :t, bo EAvage, so atrong, 

1 1 ' "tie hifl prey. 

Tlie ntiion'd, they meet in haatc, 

111' ' a prcaidea; 

[Af'cu I I iliobar UiereifiplAood 

Tht 1 ! ' 'Od confidooi. 

phci case ia itato^l, and clear his gui]t» 
So moiit in the Caur' v.-.iu...-^ _ 
Now prove thyself I irely thou wilt 

Bo houg'd — there ir^ e." 

With the learned (noid Matt^) I nrgue not, 

To theii- skill I make no prateDoe ; 
Jut from childhood till now a ^d name I have 

cwmot tell how the cup oune iamy cot ;— 

And that ia my acde dettaoe," 

' A poor defence I " woa on many a tonftue, 

The Bailiff rises, to paaB no doubt 

Tlic sentence of Bhomeful death, 
When proceedingTi are stopp'd by a cry without ; 
3Ion, women, and children, unite in tlie siiouc, — 

In nishca a man out of breath. 

He gasps awhile, he id faint and weak. 
And wondering they gather round ; 
His errand to learn they all eagerly seek. 
Then fiiiiitly he uttei-s, Hcarce able to speak, — 
♦* Tho plate of the Bailiff ia found I " 

Up rose tho Judge with on angry fro\m 

(Yet his teiTor was great to see), 
'' Tfiot waa not tlie Btaok which I bade thorn takt 
down — 

What man has done thiB to me .' " 

On leaving home that important mom. 

He had given hia men command 
To remove from the threshers a largo stack of 

To which he then waved hia hand. 

Mocvey can aay no wore 
l^iiity or not the poor i 
tho iKKiUtfr hia pan^': 


Which stack their maater was pointing at. 

The men did not rightly know ;— 
In one waa the plate, they began taking that ; 

It waa God who had order'd it so, 

Tho Judge forgot that hia words of ire 

Would surely himself condemn ; 
And no stronger proof did the Jurats* require. 

His guilt was quite clear to them. 

Poor Mosscy hia cyea was seen to raiBO 

With n grateful look to heaven ; 
Xo word did he Bpeak, but acceptable praise 

To God from his heart vas given. 

•* And now, good man, you may go in peace. 

No longer detained you are," 
The Jurats are happy to give him releaae, 

And the Bailiff la placed at the bar. 

lliat just and right in that ancient time 

W^n« the law of the lalcjf we find ; 
He was sentenced to die for hia terrible crime ; 

The doom for Massey deaign'd, 


"Y^oc see my family had been fanners and 
freeholders in the coanty for more than two 
hundred years ; but ray father being a more 
forward aad colonial-like man than the itist ol 
hui neigbbom-s made a good bit of money. He 
waa Ibrtuimte enough to get some of Mr, 
CoUinrra's caJves, the bej^Itming of the cele- 
brateiil Durham Itreed, and to know their ^^dne 
before other peojtle did. Tlien a co^d field bein^ 
found near his ftinn^ and part of it wanted 
for works, be was able to sell that for n gootl 
price, and keei>iug onr old houae took a lot 
of additional land aa a tenant on tbe V 
estate. He held at last near n thousand acres, 
and had all tho benefit of war prices at an 
easy rent. It was Like coinin^^ mauey in 
tho&e days. We ilidn't st- 1 up to be gentle- 
folks like some, but we kept on aterulily. 
There were ten of ua, but as it hapi^eneil, all 
irirls but uie,and I wa^ t^". v..ini> . ■>' i.ii tWo, 
My elder aiatert were III ■.<* 

well-fiivoured lflaBe ii.aaLk» u v.^w |..,u i'-.i> -d. 




'^ I was five-and-twenty tunied A«rheii I met 
my raisaia at IS'* jnr .ntli one aoranier ; she 
was a neighbour^ ; trnt he being a 

widower, she had h y with an aunt, m 

Nortbuinberlaud ] We soon settled to b« 
marriGd in the Autiinii^ but my mother dyiii^ 
put it off till the wiftttT. Well, this dcnth 
fvud my t'^iti^j; th*j only son, brought it about 
that, inatearl of ray father stocking a farm for 
me, I took my ¥ril^ to live with him, and took 
a sliare of hii» farm, and I often think that, 
imdiT Pi-ovldence, thia waa the roatl that letl 
me to Auatrali;\, 

" Having a fancy that way, I took s|ieciftl 
ohai'ge of the homed stock ; to please my 
m\B»h I had given up bimting, and so &et to 
work to follow Mr, CoUingB*e example^ antl try 
whal could be made of the short-horns ; partly, 
perh/ipti, because our neighbour laughed at 
the notion, and I always like to think for 
myself. My head herd waa a Yorkshireman, 
by the name of Tom Birkenshaw ; he h»A 
been our head cartel-, but having broken his 
ankle bone, which net stiff bme, and ao bad 
for travelling', he was miule biilUierd. 

" Tom was, indeed, I may say he is, for he 
don*t live far off^ although he 'a getting old 
now, aa knowing a fellow about cattle or 
horses as ever walked in ahoe-leatlier. Yoti*ll 
mind a little man in a l>lue night-cap, with a 
crutch-haiKlled stick. That wa* BirkenBhaw. 
He hail but two faults : he waa apt to get a 
drop too much beer now and then, and he 
couldn't leave tlie mme alone. There were 
presurvea ail round ua, luid if he 'd been 
oontant with what -was Ibtmd on our farm it 
would Dot have mattered so much ; but that 
did not suit him — he muat be |xtaching in 
the very midat of the preaervea. Tliea he 
had two dogs that could do anything but 
speak, aa regidar poachers and as fond of it 
aa Tom himself wuti. 

" Well, fnibcr witrned him, and I warned 
and threatened, but it waa no use. Go into 
his cottage when you would lietween August, 
when the leverets are ao tender, and February, 
vou were sure U> amell ganie, though not a 
bit of fur or feather wj*^ to be seen ; he used 
to say to me, *lilees your heart, Mai*tcr 
Gabriel, it *a not the beaaties I care for ; it 8 
going atler tliem^' Hia lame leg rather intet^ 
fered with hia sport j for before that accident, 
there wag not a man in the county could get 
nigh him if ho got a tair at^ut, Well, m I 
tohl him, ti> make a long story abort, he waa 
caught, one moonlight night, by tlie eail's 
gamekeejier, when he and his brindled dcig 
ratch were enjoying themselves in a twelve- 
acre meadow of the Eai*l of D ^s ; Patch 

driving the harea into the ginis, imd Birken- 
ehaw taking them out and resetting them. 
Til per shot the dog from behind a 

hti- heliiwl been lying waiting, and 

cli - t uv man, overtook him, and knocked 
him doxm. John jumped up, his hjood 
boiling at the loss of Patch, caught the 
kwsper a crack with a abort cudgel, that laid 

liim flat, took to his heels, and ran home 
told DO one. 

'♦ Two houw afterwarda a party of ^ 
found the keeper l^ng where .1 
stretchwl him, groaiung, blood v, 
ble. The next day he recover 
and by midnight poor John w 
Caatle, heavily iiuned. He wa,^ 
next assizes, and sentenced to be inui/ij 
for life. It WM ooAy br y«ry •trong iat«rfli| 
that he escaped beinff fmrr-'^i 1**^Venfftuiir 
told the judge he would soi^ ^^-'d, iirul 

many of his friends a^pi^eed iL ^ai;: wnU 

not bo won»e — so blmd tire w* poor ruortalt 
to what is best for ua. We prcnniMd t<> tak* 
care of hia wife and two httle Iwys. Join 
wiifl taken awav ironed, on the t*»p ^ thf 
coach tor London. He paaseil 'he 

village and our farm, and there ' ry 

eye. The miners wanted to rescue i.mK t.nt m 
p>er8Uaded them It would do no good. Yftan 
passed before we ever her^r ' •.»•■•»-- ' - — - 
dead or aliv^. His poor wi ! 
an^l died, and tho two liii.. 
ufi. You'd acaroely believe it ; i 
fiither hml Ijeen gone six monr t 
them and my eldest son Ralnh in the hvy* 
loit n:iaking gins for hares. ^ ou lOAy bw mut 
I threshed them all well- 
Just before the war ended, whsn mf tUft | 

, big euoadb 

tuiher ttoal 

' ^•inn,dat 

' ivn 

eldest were grow 

to ride to mark 

agreed to take auut m 

\xmi been \&ry badly 

on a long le^o ; we 

bargain, and that it would be rea<i^ 

time mv sonEalphwaa old enough t" iAk( 

for although mv father was v 

years, he was as hale and as hem 

man of fifty. But the very wet- !. 

the lease, as the old man was i > 

Durham on his mare, that ha^l 

without shying or stumbling fi«i 

years, she slipjied up in con.:: 

road and threw him ag.i 

breaking his coUar bone aii^. ... 

o[ien ; there he lay. through a 1 V 

many hours Ijefore ne waa foun< I 

several weeks, but never ndliefl. 

had lived together ; I ©eemed Um hIm 

just when I needed him most. 

" Before the year waa out }>eacc was mmtA^ 
and down went prices. I had to pay olf njf 
sisters* fortunes, fixed bv will whwj wncat 
at 120«, a quarter. Th 
to pay as security, thai 
a relation, who hr^'^ '■ 
great wuna thrc»i 

gretat mistake. A ucc: 

a coalpit we haii a he:i •n, and 

which 1 took from my si- iso th<i»y 

had raai'ried far away, buiist out with fire- 
damp, was tilled with water, and th* m could 
not V»e cleared. So one way or another, y^hxt 
wiih the heavy sume needAl lor stocking nmi 
l>uttiiig in heart the new farm, my ready 
money allme\led aww. 1L\^^.*^\ ciMu*»,A^tt x 



i4iwct glMWn of sunshlDe, a iwil&r fall of 
|iric«SDf *"-^ '* '-alprodiMJe. The landlords 
ftM.<k* (a> ve JIB &n act of parliament 

ttiot llir» - - . .1 1 keep com at SOi.^ though 
enm tMl would scarcely do for some of ns ; 
ht/L we liki^d askd drank' toasts, hnrrahed, and 
^nt home aatts^ed. Mt'at. vool, and com all 
vrntdowii ; ttwai quite plain, that if suchtimee 
•ootiiRiMi, ni the Mune reiita, Vjr(iak we all muj^t. 
TVm that h»d WvM fa^ v^ith sraall capital, 
htffm to go firat. But jou know, mir, a fanner 
Ses MB hftfti MA a fox: or a dingoe ; he can't 
•hiit his pWot «o esu^3' aa a tradesman or a 
bfticivrer ; uid ht* takes a longer time to 
f,-e tK.< liLiull.iiNi who's the chief 
wiT time, knowing he 
veep away alt. Well, 
lake a goo«l fight with 
lown expenaefl, wcar- 
l to the plough ; 
»r the children i 
; and 
'i.'iisjMi Ku leave 

»ir i».ri«i 

^Tid although 
.nt ftud Ht 
• any real 


litcrwKKU. ^. 
WUho <ssrt ' 

•tit to 111*, ns ou*- 

f«gular (!• 

gOI10y I WBB 

u» n hail"" 

rhhigsffotTafybSAek mi<1> «^< 

tai£iJ[ rtr^ lottd i 

«oitiily maetiii^ T eoui 

dmAM of geodprioea. 

** Wtit, mT<* 4%r whrt ahfMild come up with 

ni Mr. L&mbton 

Ing gentleman, 

a Mr. il , want- 

hI diort-homs, both 


v....i» and a 

:^ out. He WM 

II him where to 

I ro<ie abont 

k, and naturally 

ii him, was Biir- 

. the only place 

■ uth Walee, 

that I was 

^^Tirrra to use his 

'•ut with my J"rimily 

.1 ,.,.-. ., .......r .--f land 

;id no 

ir.h ld« 

. be was sure, make 

^nd a ]nt more ahrmt 

and sheep. 

it Ht first; 

.J land, 

y Bay. 

<[»e iia not say 

ot), aa well nn ; 
It np my own 

.1 and riveiid 
h*\a tht same 

I found the use of it, and ao have 

way, and 

*' Well, aa thin^ got wowe, I cut down all I 
could^ worke^I oany and lat«tj a£id lired as hard 
neai-ly as my grandfather* and my wife nerer 
orumbled^ or evem looked sad, when I was by, 
but I ofled to tee the tears running down her 
cheeks as the lay aaleep, for we bii»th knew 
there would ba but one end, unless aome great 
change took plaee in rents and price of <Nim^ 
and that end was nUn. We were l>i 1 ' 1 1«^ 
of what Mr. I^unbton'a friend had it 

we said nothing to each other, for no 

people in the country looked on u 

and tranjiportation as much the __. -—^'^i 
and Australia waa thought a country of thieves 
and saTagea. 

" It waa a few days after I had paid my rent, 
I had tded to get a reduction, but the land- 
lorda of the aeoond ferm were cmly trustees, 
and aaid they oould not do it ; for the third 
ye.'u 1 i had come out of my capital, and 

I AN .smoking a pipe, and wondering 

whui ^*.i« M* itecome of us all, and whetlier 
Botany Bay was as good a place for a farmer 

as what Jtr. M had told me, when the 

lx>et-boy comes up on hia ponv, on his way to 
the caatle^ and wM&tles aa having a letter 
He wai a new post^mau (Bob Spurrier, that 
other ladjOnliEted in the dragoons and waa 
killed at Waterloo ;) the lasses were all in the 
dairy, 8o I atept out myself Saya he, * Is 
there a woman here by the name of Molly 
Birkenshaw. 'cause I Ve a letter for her, and 
it 'b four ana elevenpence^ a letter from fuirin 
ports, I take it/ 

*^ When he said this yon might have knockeil 
me down with u feathc-r. I knew in a moment 
where it was from, — the very place I had been 
thinking on that minute. So I stared at him 
a bit, aM then I sjud, quite slow, * There was 
a wench o' that name, but she's dead, but 
you can give me the letter, for her lads are 

** * Aye,* aaya he, ' but you must pay for it.' 

'* With that I snatches the letter from him, 
and throws him a crown piece, and off he 
goei», and I stood looking on itaa if I was in a 
dream. There it wsa, niain enough, * MoUy 
Birkeiishaw, GnarledoeJc Farm, Jingscroft, 
near Durham, England,' and stamped 'Sydney, 
New South Wales, Ship-Iett»^r.' Chris.' Birk- 
enshaw came in soon after ^^ith a team, and 
we broke it to him gently. The poor lad 
cried above a bit. WeH, we i ' ' ,' letter, 

and, sure enough, it was fr her. I 

can show it you, for I keep il > iir i.>rke<l up ; 
I call that letter my title-deed, for without it 
I should never have wonned hei'e. 

** He told how he had written several times, 
but his letters never came to him<l, as he 
guMsed himself. It seemed he hnd done welL 
having cot assigned to a master thjtt treated 
him well— he being valuable from hia know- 
U^ Ige of cattle and horses ; and Uml after a few 
jeara he had got hia pardon ibr shooting a 



you tho letter when we get horae) * he put 
two ballfi through my hat ; but I fetche<l him 
down with one of my snap ehota. without 
putting the gun to my shoulaer, aa ne looked 
Toxind a tree. You mind, Moggy» how I 
used to knock the rabbita that war, holding 
the gun across my knees ; but there *8 no 
rabliitsi here, nor game worth speaking of. 
which ia a great pity ; but perhaps it is all 
for the best.' Then he went to tell how he M 
got a fifty-acre grant and a small lot of cattle, 
and had made money by his wageB and by 

attejiding to tho cp:*eat Mr. L "b herd of 

bree<ler8, and had bought grants of laud from 
dnnking ftUows; and what a good country it 
waa for all kinds of live stocK • and what a 
profit wlieat paid, the government wftiitinff 
such a qnajitity of meal tor the priaonen* ; and 
how 1au<1 could be had on grant by a farmer 
with aome money ; and how drunken many of 
the people were, and how well sober people got 
on ; for,' sava he, 'I 've given up drimc^Moggy, 
ever since I got my liberty ! ' Then he n^Ked 
after hia old friends, and even the game* 
keeper, hoping he had got over that clout ; 
and after his old master, that was me, aiiti 
wished Master Bowsted, a wild young gen- 
tleman that used to go poaching with lom, 
might tliink of coming out; and then he 
gave a list of prices of cattle and aheep, and 
wages ; and ended by saving he had sent 50i.^ 
to be paid through the Durham bank^ to 
Mister Gabriel, that 'b me, for the passage 
of his wife and family; and if he did not hear 
this time, he should not wnte no more, but 
giv^e it up for a ImuI job. And, Bure enough, 
tiiree days after came a notice that the money 
huil oome. 

"' Well, we speUed it over again and again ; 
the two lads wept, and ao did my wife ; 
and r could seaively help weeping myself, to 
think what a ct>mlbrt it would have l>een to 
poor Mo^'TTj' BirkenBhaw if ehe had lived, and 
to think, t4jo, what a help and warning this 
letter seemcti. Well, I got on my nag, and 
took a turn i-uund the farm, just to give me 
time to consider what or whether I should stay 
any thing about emigrating to my wife. The 
time was come for me to make up my mind 
Tom Birkenahaw's letter had turned the scale 
with me ; but when I looked round, and eaw in 
the dintance the gpire» of the cathedral that 
had so often been a glad sign of home near, 
after a long absence, my heai't almo8t failed me 
Tlie thouj^ht of a farewell for ever to the 
countrv and the county and t?ie pariMh wdiere 
I wail horn ; of seeing no more the fields in 
which I had labom*ed and sported for nearly 
forty yeanSj seemed indeed a draught too 
bitter. Then, again, I recalled my present 
position, sliding surely, in spite of my strug- 
gles, in spite of my eUn^:ings to everj- twig of 
stay — ilowD, down to rum •, ruid my heart w^as 
hardened for any change that offered &ir 
hopes of an honest living. 

**At length, my mind was made up. I 
would apeak to my wife tliat very evenings 

and find whether she would croat the 
fight it out with poveHy at home, 
this resolution I rode bock, firmer in 
8a<ldle than I had been for many a <\nx 
was dusk, and sup{>er laid out : tb< 
waiting for me for prayers ; it was m 
son Bamaixi's turn to read a chapt^^i. 
wife (it was not her custom) wetit 
fetched the Bible, a lighted can*l' 
putting her finger on a place, aoid to I 
in a voice that sounded oa if she >s 
lowing her tears, ' Tha^t^ read Mov/ 
boy read : — 

** • Now the Lord had said unto Ab 
thee out of thy country, and from thy 
and fratn thy father*s house^ unto a laud tii^i 
I will shew thee.* 

•*Then I looked at her and with :. 
serious smile, her eyes answere<l nr 
knew we were agreed. 

"The next day we began to prepM^ Uf\ 
our long journey. Weary work ■* "-^ na' 
painful, deciding what to tak«^ u 

sell. Many a treasure was sj> t( 

oak presses, chairB, uid betlat*-. uiu 

l»e longed to our family for *•< m 

to go under the auctionoer's hammtif. Ba 
we went at the work with a will, atn 
cleared away wholesale. We, who ^> 
and the fulbo^wn, were B«d ; 
cliildren playeS and enjoyed the o<tiiiusi^.L 
which made us still sadder. 

"Having chosen what fiirniti?' '' ^ 

use^ as well as what wouM ' 
room and sell for nothing, nu.l • 
muster of tools and agnciil 
lialf of whicli turned out 
three of my finest yearling bull 
barter of other stock for a car. 

" The sorest trial was the day of sale 
the remarks of my friend * 

No criniiual was ever i 
doomed man ; and on lookm- i.,.«k, i > 
wonder how I had courage to persevere, 
pot rid of my farms at a gi-eat sacrifioe ; Hirt 
having made up my mind to go, 1 thought tht 
sooner I was guue the better. 

"The only parties who would j<«in roe Ic 
emigrating were two young men, smsL 
farmers, Granby's father an< 
wood, who WfiH killed by th 
where we stand ; he's burl ' ' i 

but you can see the mound, 
over the savages. Budge auu ^uuixn i 
US two years afterwanhji. It was on I I 
very hard up that would think of civ^., 
the sea. 

" As for the Squires they were very 
th^ did not like the example set to 
and abused me as if I had been a d 
or a traitor. Emigration wu not in 
as it is now. 

**0f friends of my own 
not like the sea, another th* 
mend, another was getting 

Will Black- 
Bliifkft n«*f 




" iiHM hit 

wife stopped hita, and so they stayed. Ont 

C^atU* Di«k»«.l 


of a do2ea all came dowu to the workhouae 
or dtty-lul)oui% excj^yi one, and he went to 

Canada ajul did welJ. Mr, M » tV'j> -,,.,, +l.. 

iiiuii from New South Wales, was 

to hear of my going with such a \id^ ^ 

tmd got me a cheap passage, on condition 

of our looking afler nia bulls, rams, and 


" We were a bu^ party, and every one able 
to work, except the baby ; bnt my capital had 
dwindled to a few hundred pounds^ Even' 
<me of my servants haa done welL Bill 
jiouBer^ my head farm-aervant, paid hia own 
poaaoge ; he 's one of the richest men in the 
colony DOW. The two young Birkenshaws 
mavned two of my daughters; one of them 
is in Poll Philip. Bettv Ludlow, the dairy- 
maid, lonn ied mv secontf son, Barnard. Huj^h 
ijamla, my ploughman, haa a nice farm on the 
river ; you saw him last night, a dark, stout 
liltlo man ; and Dolly Rusaell, our nnrae, has 

married the rich Mr. N , and lives in 

L J' iter style than the governor's lady, which 
! ieserves, for ahe was &« good as she was 

"We sailed to Lr^ndou irctm Newcastle in a 
smack, and sent the stock with the men and 
two of my latls by Jan J. The misery of tiie 
voyage xuid the lodging in Loudon would 
almu>st bavti turned us bivck if it had not been 
t'VT htr'. Only my wife never gave in ; and 
ii iMm it,air» in emigrating, a wiie of 

»rt is half the battle. 

1 \'e months fromLondon to Port 
'■.'j; in at the Cai>e for water and 
..-tijui*, but we only lost one bulL 
c were ready to kin the ground when we 
uded. ^ly third son George took a fancy 
the sea ; and though he stayed at home 
til we were settled, he went ofi", and now 
€onimaudH a whaler out of Sydney. I found 
he^t t4t sell my live stock, for wliich I got 

- es. Mr. M "a letters put me 

it; but within a week of landing, 

eushaw limpefl into our lodgings. 

tten to him when we maiie up our 

the letter did not ai-rive much 

ourselves. Tom was much older, 

and L'jN V. with downcast look, but still 

ihe idea of momiy in both 

r4 tidy nac. The meeting 

tw<;; iiim and his orphan lada was a very 

oviriff sight. It aeemed curioua that times 

turn round, that my best friend 

>uy herd, Mid he a prisoner too. I 

L.ia iiiJMh nco tn ' hI grant, and Birken- 

»haw jiijt me u l^d to ask fur, and 

ciflicialgc!!.. ..., .liiiondliate by letting 

ve uiie of n»y horses on his o\ni terms, 
haw bought my ttaim of oxen and 
ftg^nn ; I had a tent; he engaged me my 
b»D^ a buUock-driver, a stocknxan and 
two otheni, all from ottr oeigUboorhood, all 

* I c<anio down t^o thw place ^ •■ was 

aol A Btittlvr within a huii' . and 

my t«nt. a ttan^^^d. one. 

ruck - 


on the river side. Ha^ang t . tntomed 

to find house and outbuildii . fields, 

rriii-.iMiid beside shojja for all v.v-l... .- .i.,il imple- 
iidy to our hautht, we had every thing 
, and vt-jy little to make it with. But 
1 pulled "fl I i\ at and begfui, and for fifteen 
years, i'ir>\n ^J tv i;^lit to dusk, never left off for 
six days a-week, besides teaching the children 
in the evening, when they were not too sleepy 
to listen to me. A/ter fifteen y^ears, I found I 
could rest a little, and now I only give a hand's 
turn at harvest or shearing time. But then I 
have had six more children bom to me, besides 
grandchildren ; and in this country truly we 
may say with the Psalmist, 'Children are an 
heritage of the Lord, As arrows In the hand 
of the strong man, bo are ehildreu ; happy ia 
the man that hath his quiver full of them,' 
for food grows faster than mouths, and 
they are well earning their worth, when at 
home they would want a maid to look after 

*' It is tinio I have been vei7 fortunate ; 
there will never be such times again for 
making money — since the free grants of land 
and the assignment of prisoners have both 
been done away with. Then my land has 
always been free from dwiught, and is right 
down good land, neetling little work for 
clearing ; although, as for that, you may take 
my word, theie la more good land than the 
squatters like to owo. Why, I have had four 
sets of sen-ants that have done well, besides a 
lot of idle drinking follows. There was my 
first bullock-driver, Frank Fetlock ; he was 
transported for stealing com to feeii his mas- 
ter's horsest ; when he was before the magis* 
trates they offered to let liim off if he would 
enlist, lus he was a very fine-looking fellow. 
He often laughed about it, saying what a 
good job it was he wouldn't consent, ^dthough 
he rued his answer when first sent to the 
hulks for transportation. Prank was an in- 
genious fellow, alwa}^ at work on straw hats 
or stockwhips, or something, when not busy 
for me. When he left, he had a m/ue, a few 
head of stock, and a little money saved up to 
begin with. Yorkshire-like, ho wils a rare 
hand at chopping and swapping, antl now he 
la one of the richest men in the district. Then 
there was Tom Nash, a stcxjkman of mine ; 
he came out as groom to Colonel I— — , quite 
a fine gentleman flunkey when he arrived, 
a cockney too ; he threw up his liverj", 
because he saw where money was to be 
made, gave up all expenses, saved money, 
and is a squatter now, with perhaps as tine a 
stock as any in the colony. Those of my old 
neighboui'8 from Gnarledoak, that have come 
out and laid down to work, have done well ; 
go where you will, the hard workiugman, with 
a largo family, is thriving. But then there 
are lailures. Parmer Cudworth had 3000^, 
when he lauded ; he was alwa}'s gi'urabling, 
hated the country, hated the people, and made 
them hate him, fjpent as much money ou 
clearing and fencinjg tweot/^^iHHMBliouId 




Imve gone to crop a hand red ; would stick to 
all h\» o1<i rountry notious, lost his money, 
took t<i '11 inking, and died. Squire Riamrs 
8*j 1 rue with A iefter of i 

he .., wcmkl not wait t 

thitt^ butight aheep the Sydney Uuik i^w] \v 
moftg4ia# on — a regolsr bed Hot ; then left 
nil to itis ovt'i^Hoer wbile he wms dADcliig 
fit the goveruor'a ImlLi, playing the f&flhiou- 
uUc, juid mstd« a oompiete &llure ; he went 
home, Atui <o yo« «ee, air, the long and 
ihort of it iH, thnt for r» '"."*t.-n> .in work 
liinuielf, ihtM i» u iAriivn i i kewise 

money 18 to be made i uag o^t 

mouuy in aftjiik atid waiting tor the increase ; 
hot a» A ^'eneral rule the money made by genr 
tlewon wlio hATL< not much capital, and have 
ncjt been accustomed to soil their hatidsi is by 
saving, liviaisf l*ing choap and neither shoi) 
nor t'jisihionisi in the Bosh to tempt into spena- 
biu My. 1 could tell a score of stories 

a) I 'vl» known, of all aorlB, that 

hav> Mwtii .>t.ll, rmii that have made a regular 
mull of it. Fair wordri and hani work will 
cairy yon through; it's better to aay come 
than ffOj if you want work done in the Colony, 
^rhfirtf was young C— — ►. But whut 'a that by 
the fallen giun-tree ; as I live there'* a dingoe 
at a sick *,'we. Loo Boomer, Loo Boun^r! 
at him, good dogs ! ^ The hoimds c&ngbt 
idght jofit ax master Dingoe began to ateal 
acroa* the i^ht^in, juat like a fiy^ hill f 
only^ insteaa of c^irrying hi* bruah saUaiM 
in the air, it Mixa lucked miserably Detwru 
hid legs ; awav went the houmls, at full Hpood ; 
we followetl, leafiing lallen treca and cracki*, 
the old man Mtandijij^' up in hi« stirntp, with 
hia hat in liis hand, cheering the dogs at the 
lop of Itis voice ; after a i^harp burst, just ae 
master Dingoe was getting into a scrubby 
thicket. Boomer turned lum, and Bf.ninder 
puUetl him down, not without receiving a 
grab that nearly fiit off his '" ' . in one 
minute my knite laid the bi t open. 

This ended our coaaip for u h I sus^ 

pect Father Oabnel was rut It li nod that 
old sportm^ instinotA and hatr i .a ihe Buah- 
man'B curse, the nadve dog, should have nude 
him forget hia poritionaei au elder at Oal triers 

taj»* •■• " ^'--n he geta back to^ laoflon MmA 


we ijij'. 
to niui 
Talk r„ 
ail m- 
of ^»- 


"How pictoreaque I" says Mi-s. Smith, as 
aho -^ '1-1- in the eentrr of a group on bcxard 
a I irer, all of whom are looking up 

at I 1 «3iKtles along the choice portior 

of the iNuiks near 'Bhliz, 

** How po€tii.>nl !" says her daughter. Miss 
Smith (just budding sixteen), who has been 
reading the acrapj* of Bjroiv and Southey 
quoted in that ubiquitoiaa red volume, Mur- 
ray* '' Handbook." 

'** Crack wines grow hereabouts, I believe V* 
says the eon of twenty-two, who smokes, aad 
w^hfis to be able to talk about what he haii 

by rubbiiig uu tin- lu-U\s:iy auU p'r 
the h^ikta that came d'^wn thia n\ 

111 ' ■ : ■ ' 

anoeatoTH, onr wise 
beaten ami mblicd. i ^ 
but we, Sir, know better," Ati 
Smith di'ew up his head in a v* 


Mr. Smith used to go every 
giite or to htli^hUm ; but cb*': 
cheap staMnboKta huvi^ lurefl 
^" where he thank* I 

li ItOO^in these oin 
VM' i-jiiibera of that iamou.^ .->ijr-.wu atv: *m^ 
posed to exist only in it^ leg«ud». SitufM 
Mr. Smith 1 

The Iwld robber-barons of th' 
and the fiuuoui) Schinderltam 
mo*lern «Ute, are gone, it is true j 
chjingo an ICnglish sovereijjrn on 
steamer, &penk £ngli»h nt a 
or stay but one day at Wi»'sWl< 
or Baden-Eadeu, and it \\ - 
enou;i(h thut w*? have lui 
(,\,i ,.,.; .;. ,,i.^ — j.^^1^ living, bivu I 

1 « I s robliersi of the lib 

;_ ., . i frimilv b'^'l 

tor B<4L'!:.i, .-,■ I ',.,■,' M'i 

they hii'i in II Mil H.,!i,i,. , 
knotty prolJjeia, " How t , 
They had tftoppeid, too, at hv 
hotda, and had been still ii 
ever by the myatenous ret : 
made in Bavarian floriiiB ol 
BCtmetinifai in German florii 
they had tried in vainto nm:<\ri irp tuifrt nuv 
of kreutzers and silber groschcn, of thaleiii 
and golden, and, more t&ri all, to iiutku up 
thflir miods what could he the vuluc« of tJie 
nmnbcrless varieties of lilil'- d\r\v .-.Im thcr 
received in *-'hjinge for ah 

gold Young Smith, v : lOgy 

hail discarded de«criiJtioiia ami im^uii lezi, and 
had determbie<l upon n plnn of lus own tbr 
the study of Couuntu nmtics. He 

had duu^d a sovei* [,« landed afc 

Oitend into the moufji ut oei^um, 



tiercut denumiiuitions* Into a 
I ; li^ put the cbAiige so takim, 

HuJo uu^ m, it vroK of pieces of tlve fraucs, 
^ranei, hnU-fhmcs, qunrter-fjuncs. two h<>m», 
sooiif nnd centimes. On his roiui li 
theao; niwl when he cfot to the 
JPrnaniH •' " ' ' ' 

kouao an- 
progr-- .... ..^._ .-, ... , 

meaiK isiiin ooins. !N 

eite« \Ail>m with thr 

steam took them to 
n therr, a third Ki-rip^t of 
Ot'iiui wttit: iii it:iju<*.t, ThcmoDcycif 

WilUlUU ^ft** OOTIVH-I^l ITltO <hf*t of 

Duke c»1' N w;ls 

ehAnged j At 

Uie ♦ ket were from 

the 1 kti. Tile very 

I ail way "f that potentate 
t - Byusle, whence Schauff- 

hukuatfu wiut wicitii) e:t^y reach. Here, at the 
IVIU of th** Uhiti*?, the yonng Dumisntatie 
J (1 his money into the 

; Switierlaiui — batzea and 

r.ii [ ,s- ' of this profTreas — at 

<-.'•< 1 1 "1.;- 1! icnl iliustrfttion of 

«^' ''■:■• -the whole 

I had been 

iUiiv? w^-. .. - -= 'l by irin- 

fithel* ti rnonej-H of 

whisre tii wm com- 

At f*<»hnT»fniatwen tbii-e w*r«, HA txsniil, 

iw^n who, fthK> fts usual* ha<l a 

the moneys and the hf»tcU. 

' : nyself pf actirAlly itc- 

iicy in a way of my 

•* i I me of the group of 

traV' i»in-' Mil the anbject, 

** 1 'liined our 

hfT- -li what I 

; iheu chrttige'l that iij 

a ; and that A'^aul in th* 

rt; and ho on rcj^neRtwl 

. and Bjivaria — in Jact, in 

?,vij Mtyur.!'.*' juri«dictioti through which we 

passed. ' 

lear," itiff- 

I Kiiv'Hi^n, 

" 'lUu'- It ijs," 
Action to ihf word. 
of hi ' 


lookisig a jumi 

ymir pom 

1 the 


rui Israelite counted out in the Jews' Lane, at 

*' Count it up," aaid Smith the younger, 
*^V»ry good," aaid tho Oemian, ;^nd h* 

fmncs — t«jn-— " anid Sirnd 
ou.ip/* pr.M the 'I-TTTinn. " ^^ -s 

I and Fivnrl, tr-.. !■■.■: ■.'■ - 'W'-i i. " i- 

♦'-'■-lit ValiUo. J will U-li Vuu t;.,, ......t,.. ijf 

henp." He went to work lf» tell th'»in 
, and fitiit^d tbo result in batzen mu! 

" And how much ia that worth in English 
sterling coin 1 " a&ked o bystander. 

**Juat fourteen shillingB and u penny 
farthing,'* replied the (Jei-niau. 

" %\Tiat l *' shrieked Smith. 

'' FriTirt ". :, .-l.illliiga and a |MJUiiv mrtiung 
i-::,ji!:,-l .■ i. ;--'-! the German. 

.Ui'l - jI u^u-^, anre enough. Exa<i,!y five 
shiJJiiigH and teii|>ence three farthinga wjk 
the prieo of rli ii-In- a sovereign bi*tween 
fist end and laen. Tliat was th^ 

trifling toll tal section of the modern 

robbera of the UliLut; I 

ExpreaMons of surprise and indignation 
were numerous upon this diiscorer)', :md 
fttrai^'htway e,'u::h of the f»arty bec-an to 
detail hia own apeeijiJ grievaiRre, witn such 
warmth that adl were Epeaking and B*.Tiroely 
one listened. The enormous chargea for lug- 
gage on the railwaj-B had raised the ire of one 
traveller; a »eeond groaned over the pay- 
ment of so mnch a T»ftck.^.ge fur insurance of 
his |)ortJuanteaQ on uoard the Bteumer from 
Cologne to Boiui, from Bonn to *\)blenl2, and eo 
oti at every stage, til I the coata for bjig^age were 
almost greater than the fare of its owneir. 
A third vented hia wrath U}x*n the aistcm of 
charging every innocent Eiigbsli tourist mhn 
fare at the office of the Khine steamer, the 
st-iid iifthn Iveing a mere means of getting an 
extortionate price which no German paid, be- 
cause everybcKly who paid Beeond-clnaa had 
precisely the Mune cabin, the ideoti<7j accom- 
modation and attendance, bestowed on the 
victim of gaUn prices. Another growled out 
that the de^reat wines came from the same 
bin with those of moderate price ; another. 
ihat an Englishman waa charge<l oT>«-tliirfl 
more for everything than a Frenchinan, and 
tw jce riA much as a German ; but the ;;rievance 

of grievance* came from a middic^a- ' My 

Bquire, who was travellinij witli I d 

» party of relationjsi. Tliey wtt .id 

the lA<lie8, Ixdng unwilling to endure great 
exertion, had made short sta;^e^ and thus 
' consnineti three weeks on tbc way from 
Ostetid to Scliaufl hausen. '* Three bctis appear 
in evei7 bill, of courae,'* growleil the el'lerlj 
i^eiitleninn ; "and in every Vjill one b<^rl^ I 
Hnd, irivt>lve» two wax Ught«, 1 h:n d 

up, Sir," continued the matters' ;f 

most emphatically; "I hnv t 

caloulatiun, Sir ; and I tind J i e, 

between Col*3tfnc and Scli .....,-...., 

eighteen days, It luis taken joat od« Imn 

and eight wax candles, price one bundred aiid 
eight mtnca, to light im to bed ! " 

Here was atiolher filif,'ht glimpse of the 
presence of mofJim rohberH on the Rhiue. 
Bui the gTPJit Tn^iJ of the plundering tnule 
ai"* not to hi? found hidden in the guise of 
makre d'/dtel^ money-clmnger, or 8team-lK)at 
condiwtmr; they wear another coBtume, aud 
assnine u lotlier denoimiuttiun. 

In literature, id science, in art, we find 
Germany quite on a level with the present ace. 
She has pr<xluced men and books equal to ine 
men and books of England or France, aa the 
named of Goethe, Schiller, Humboldt, Liebeg, 
and a score of othera bear testimony. But 
whilst in poetry, philosophy, and science, she 
is on a par with the l>eat portions of mo<k»rii 
Europe ; in inolitics — in the practical science of 
government— she ia an ind!efinite number of 
centuriea behindhand. Govemraentally, aho 
ifi now where the English were durinc the 
Saxon Heptarchy, with seven or more King- 
doma in a space that might be well governed 
by one sceptre. Where she might get along 
veiy well with two, she has a doxen petty 
kings, and petty courts, and petty national 
debtK and petty pension-lista, and paltry de- 
bases! and con fitting coinages, and petty cab&lB, 
quarrels, and intermixture of contenrling 
interests. England, long ago, wiuj relieved of 
separate Kings of Wes»ex and Kings of 
SVlerctn, Kinga of Scotland and Kings of 
Wales ; France ban no more turbulent Dukes 
of Burgundy or Alsace claiming sovereign 
power over portionjs of a line country, na- 
turally one and indivisible ; but poor G«r» 
many yet sufTera from such troublesome 
divisions of dominion. Imagine a King of I^an- 
cashire, with two free cities of Manchester and 
LiveqKJol in its confines ; a King of Yorkshire 
and a Grand Duke of the Midland Coumtiea ; 
an Emperor of Middlesex ; a Sovereign Elec- 
tor of Kent and Sussex ; with i^iguing 
Dukes of Hampshire and Gloucesterahire 
and Wiltshire ; a King of Scotland, and then a 
King of Wales, who claimed besides all the 
little odds and ends of territory, got — some by 
aiarriage, and some by conquest— in various 
disjointed parts of the countr>'. Imagine some 
of these petty divisions fiouianist, and Home 
Protestant, and some of mixed faiths ; different 
coinages, opposed intert»sts, each backed bv 
slanimig armies, in which every man, high 
and low, was for some years conqiclled to 
aerve. Imagine all this to exist in our 
country, arid we have some idea of the 
govenmientid condition of Germany in 1850. 

Out of tliis division of territory ai'ises, of 
course, a number of small poor princes ; and 
as p«X)r princes do not like to work hard 
when their pockets are low, we find them busy 
with the scljenies, shifts, and contrivances, 
common from time immemorial with penni- 
less people who have hirge ftpi>etite3 for 
pleasure, small stomachs for honest work- 
real, living, reigning Dukes though they be, 
they bave added to the royal ^* bujsinesses " to 

which they were bom, little pri 

tions for the encouragement oi 

and roulette. These small princes u.w 

turned gambling-house kee|H*r8 — helj 

in the ^^dgarbut exprefisive slang of u -. 

police court — proprietors of edtabl' 

where the ^-icious and the imwar}% the 

hawk fuid the silly pigeon, congregate* tho OMI 

to plunder and the other to l>e pluck rd, 

which has been expelled from 1 

as too great an adcUtion to its ^ 

3uite expelled, is carried on with iilm: iorrcl 
oors, unequal at times to protect itu followwi 
from the iwlice and the infamy ■ ^' •" — 

that whicn has been outlawrnl fi m 

Koyal and Paris, as too Ixnl evtu . .- ^..- I41 
morality of a meet free-b\'ing dly— tiatj 
huge vice which caters to the Tow »«aiMs«f1 
cunning and greediness, and tempts men tA 
lose fortune, position, charooter, even hop, 
in the frantic excitements of, pcibajift, Mn?' 
desperate night — such a vice is houi*cd in hv. 
buildincs rwaed near mineral springs, »ur- 
rounded by beautiful cardens, cnliven^-^l hy 
music and sanctioned ny the ojien patroaafv 
of petty Germui princes holding sway in t£| 
vauey watered by the Khine. In *'* "^^ "* 
scrupulous speculators are found it> 
German gaming-tables at Gej-rurm 
iug the sovereign of the countrv 
sands of pounds a year for th' 
fleecing the public. 

Tlie weakened in body are naturally we^- 
ened in raentjil power. The we^k in bo^f 
are promised health by " taking the watew* 
at a Genuan bath. Tlie cjirly hours, tlie 
pleasant walks, the goo<l music, the pri>mi»«l 
economy, are inducements. The w< 
mind w^ants more occupation th:tn 
for these places are very monotonous, 
gaming-table is placed by the bovk 
the country in a noble room — the fitt 
to aflbrd excitement to the visitor, and 
— ^the profits of infamy — to hini-self 

There are grades m these great 
houses for Europe. Taking them 
order in which they ai'e reached from 
logne, it may be said that Wie*«b,tiien 
finest town, having very pleasant en"^ 
luid th© least play. The Grand Duke 
Nassau, therefore, has probably the amoUeit , 
share of the gaming-table booty. j 

Homburg, which comes next in order, \jk 
fai' more out of reach, is smaller, duller-— (it 
is indeed very, very dreary) — and has to kedp 
its gaming-tables goin^ all the year rotmd, to 
make «p the money paid by the lessees of tJie 
gambling-house to the Duke. The nuige «f 
the Taunua is at the back of the " town {a 
village about as la^e, imposing, and lively sa 
Hounslow), and a^rds its chief attraction. 
The rides are agreeable if the visitor baa a 

ffood horse — (a aiflBcult thin^ to get in that 
ocality) — and is fond of trotting up steep tdll^ 
and then ambling down again. In beauty of 

niition^ and other attractions, it is xatj far 
ow both Wiesbaden and Bnden. 





CbulM Dkclw9i*T 



£sulen-Bftd«^n is the thiml, and certainly 

lost bertutifn] of these German gambling- 

>wns. Tlit* town nestl»i9, aa it were, iu a 

nait'ltr^rxT vrdlrv. Opening amongst the liiJls of 

st. In summer its asspect is 

it' And pleaMOit ; but it looks 

«u> U lu WAuter it must be very damp and 

liable to the atmosphere which provokea the 

Sowth of ffoUre. At Baden there is said to 
more play than at the other two phioes 
mt togetuer. From May till the end of 
epteraber, roulttU and rou^je et noi'r— the 
lutter of the man who deala the canJs, and 
he nUtle of the marble — &re never still. The 
jrofits of the table at this place are very large, 
le man who had them some years ago re- 
Ircd with an immense fortune ; and one of hi& 
succeflBors come iixan tlie Palais Hoyal when 
public pcadog was forbidden in Paris, and 
;wfta little leas successful than hia predecessor, 
'he permanent rodents at fiaden could 
Due form any idea of the sums netted, and 
iJy such of those as were living near the 
inkers. They could scarcely av^^.l -xHTrr 
the bags of Eilver, five franc piei 
thrvt pjiKKod between the garniug-T i 

! 1 Luk. A protit of one thousand pounds a 
i night wss thought a sign of a baa season ; 
ij«l jsm it must have Ijeen, when it is ctxlcolated 
thegiunliiing-table keep-r paid the Duke 
r four thouiiand T>oumls a vear as the 
ahare of the ptunder, and agreed to 
two th<3U8and a year in decorating the 
Baden. The play goes on in a noble 
' tk, . ' ''raations House, deo^rated 
ed Up nio^t handsomely. 
tl I _ ilia tliie ornamental 

"With v: 1 and fine avenues of 

ami .1 been paid for by the 

Its of ronktu aiiii ruugt et noir. Seeing 
it may eaude siirjjrLse that people play at 
all ; vet the fascination is so great that, once 
withm its influence, good resolutions and 
■ ' em alike unequal to resistance. 

(•Diough, and some appear to 
self-love suggpists, " Oh, my 
carrj^ me tlirough ! " The 
; jed that some win and some 
Hi table having, it is said, 
Ki i.;eof cliance in its favour. 
Thv3i>tj cliaiict-s ifcTt avowedly greater at rttulttti 
thiui ttt rott^i it n^ir, >)ut at both it is prac- 
wn that tli ' III the long run, 

s. Jt is I that, contrary 

'^ V rji:ivnu, < uivitmg flfoe* thrive 
; and those who have watched 
K w.v . i>..f.4. ».uikerwon 
■Ian. He 
. uiKjn the 

tiiblti, and tii'^n backed the uiher side. He 
Alwa^'s won. 

Oo into one of the rooms r liese 

whom do you see ? our- 

5 HMUi cities — prut' -- i . iblers, 
'all sorts of ;r i - ; p n.-julesa 
; and 


citements ; a multitude of silly gulls, attracte<l 
by the watere, or the music, or the taacination 
of play ; and a sprinkling of passing toui'ists, 
who come — ^"just look in on their way," 
genei-ally to be disappoiiited^ — often to be 
fleeced- Young and haudsome women are not 
very often seen nlaying. Gaming is a vice 
reserved for miatUe age. Whilst hearts are 
to be won, dollanj are not worth playing for. 
Cards and rouge, and dyspepsy seem to be 
nearly allied, if we may judge by the specimens 
of humanity seen at the baths of Wiesbaden. 
Homburj^', and Baden. The playei'S — and 
player and lo^er are almost eynonymous teiTna 
— are geneniliy thin and imxious ; the bankers, 
fiit and stolid. As the brass whirls round, 
the table-keeper has the look of a quiet 
bloated spider, seemingly passionlesss, but with 
an eye that glances over every chance on the 
board. At his Hide nee an elderly man, pale 
antl thin, the muscles of whose lower jaw are 
twitching spusraodicaliy, yet with jaded, 
forced resignation, he loses his Ijist five 
pounds. Nest him is a woman highly 
dressed, with fidae baLt" antl teeth, and a 
;^reau deal of paint. She Inis a ciud in her 
hand, on which she pricks the numbera 
plajed, and thua flatters heraelf she learns 
the best cbaikces to take. N^ext to her see one 
of the most painful sights these places display, 
A father, mother, and young girl aie all trying 
theii" fortune ; the parents giving money to 
the child that they "may have lier good luck,** 
reckless of the fatal txste they are implanting 
in her mind. Next is a Jew, looking idl sorts 
of agonies, and one may fancy he knows he is 
losing in an hour, what it has cost him yt^rs 
of cunning and self-<ienial to amass. And so 
on, round the table, we liud ill-dressed and 
well-dressed Genua iia, French, Russians, 
Engliah, Yankees, IriBh, mixed up together 
in one eager crowd ; thirsting to gam gold 
without i^ivuig value in return ; riak^ing what 
they have in an insane contest which they 
know haa destroyed thousands befoi-e them ; 
losing their money, and winning disgust, 
despondency, and often despair and j)rema- 
ture death. Never a year is said to go by 
without its complement of ruined fools ana 
hasty Biucides. The neighbi>aring wchhIs 
aObrd a convenient shelter ; and a trigger, 
or a handkerchief and a bough, complete the 

Let us sav no more of our civiUsation haTiog 
banished Schinderhannes, and his predecessors, 
the half-aoldiei-s, halt-thievea, who built the 
stone towers now crunibliug up above the vine- 
^ds of the noble German river. Their l(o<.ty 
in a year could not have equalled the plunder 
of a simple month at Wiesbaden, Homourg, or 
Baden-Baden, Tlie real fi*eeboot«rs of the 
place aie still extant, and cai*ry on their 
trade under the banner of ehieftJuns who 
ahare the spoil— the reigning Dukes of 
Nuasau, Homburg, and Baden — who are 
the veritable grand modem, 







\Vr . .V nitroducc the folI<^^nig (%\p by 
rn .at, .ifc the intrixlnctioii of tlie 

l*< ao Ij-eland^ the workhou?fr» were 

buiJt by Nieaiia of loftns, advanced by the 
Government, on the aectirlty of the rat*«. 
Const rU'.-tvi] geneT;illy in that «tyle of ai'chi- 
tecture /»fl1Va '* KbzMM'thn.n,** thpy were the 
iu< * iion ant! 

fri retohed 

SUbu I 'ir, ui lo^T, IIS ;uii I v uM^f.'*, HJI UIi_"*l IlDlOngst 

the crunjblinjL^ him I moas-^preen cott'i;;;ea, a 
lileitsiDg ccmtiftrit In the eye of Ujc tijuri&t. 
Tliey were cjtlctilalt^d to acconimodate from 
five* hundred to two thousand inmatea, ao- 
conling to the iirea and population of the 
ivancxL-d di«ti*icl, hut some of them remained 
for years altog^-tlicr closed, or, if open, nearly 
unoocu]Mod^ owing to the incemonfl ahiftft 
of the " Gnw-dians," ouder tno advice of 
the "Solicitor of the Board." Their object 
wj»a to ceonomiflo the reaourcea of the Union, 
to ke«|) the rates down, and in some instances 
they eva*Jed the making' of any rate for years, 
nfter the ffUpi»ort of the destitute waa mode 
nominally imperative by the law of the land. 

As there was a goodl deal of patronage in a 
sqnnll wr^y placed at the disposal of the 
" < ' gr^J^t anxiety w&b mnni tested by 

thv lo the office. Most Justices of the 

Peace were indeed, ipso/acio^GnsnyM&nB, but a 
Donniderahle number had to l>e elected by the 
rat Jind an aeti\'e canvass jr V ' 

er. 1. A ^eat deal of hclh 

eon.i>;, if not gaiety, waa the re&Uii, ►.4... 
more apparently imjiortant aifairB were neg- 
lected by many a fanuer, ahojjk«o|>cr, and pro- 
fesaional man, to eunture it in beimf elect«fl a 
" Gnai-dian," while the unsucceafiftiltook pains 
to prove their indifference, or to vent their ill- 
himionr in vjuiona wh^-b, sometimes causing 
1ms iunocuotLB c'fiecta than the followixi|r 

At a certain Coui*t of Quarter Sessions, 
during the d<>g-day heat of one of these con- 
tefita, ft buily fellow was arraigned betore 
" their worships" and the jur)% charged with 
some pL'tly theft; and as he perceived that 
the proofs were incontestably clear against 
hira, lie fell into a very violent trepiMtion. 
An attonicy of the court, not overbuniene<l 
with buHinesB, and fond of occupying his idle 
time in playing otf practical jokes, perceiving 
how the case stood, ajtldreaaed the prisoner in 
a whisper over the side of the dock with a 
very ominous and commiaerating shake of his 

"Ah, you unfortunate man, ye *11 be found 
guilty ; ajid ais sure as ye are, yc*Il get woi^kj 
than hangin' or thranBportation. Aa Burc aa 
ever the Ixarristher takes a ninch of snntl", 
that 'js hla intention j ye 'U aee nini put on the 
black cap iniraaydiately. Plaid guilty at once, [ 
np.l 1 11 tei^ ve'what ye*U say to him afther.'' 

poor I 

and aiifi a ^il«Jtl .tim 
tween thejn, which 

bUhtle "t' ll" < '.^iir-l-n, 

fiions, i 
oaper v 
lord, I ]daici jfuiity, — i bqj yisr «ortchi|:i'« An*! 

their honours' pardon !'* 

u Veiy well, said the 
whose duty it was to advi 
each case, and preside at tl 
costume ; " very well, Sir. ' 

Seveml voices imnn'li > 
geticaJly for silence, ijn) r, . , 
with grave ideas at oncui uf tus v, l.. ...j, _ ^ 
importance, and the serious nature of 
coming senti-nce. 

"Withdraw the plea • 
take one of guilty to llu- 
the assistant-Larrtster, tiik uiT 

and turning round to «•■ her 

ma^istnitea .ns to the term oi n tr- 

ee i-ation, 

** Don't lose yer tiir: >clii! 

the attiamey, with : at thi 


"Will I be allowed to srnaki? one trof^t 
yer wortchii^ r* said the unf^iluittc ail|«it. 

« What has he t<» say V 'XwiiilttU 

barrister with cousidcrabl* 

** Go <»n, ye fool ye ! "^' - et. 

" My lorcl, ver wortchiji ■ #v 

tlu! iury,*' ex(^aime<l the cu 
o* the counthry, or into jail 
r walkin' on the threadraiii, <» 
1 the cooi^Bc 0* natun?, us y 
jiUyseM ; but for the love o' tht* » u ^iu 
d<^ni make me a * Poor Law Oatytn,^ 


Soke of these treasures were fi^li^^ np, and 
brought to our rcailers' knowlidi^o in our 
article on Billingsgate in onr U^n*M nu^ 
ber. We received an a<lditj 
tion of the subject from a con t 

*'^ T* ' ' Ik of the "ti'easure 
^\ I ly a very confused ; 

ovi u ..I, .i.^aig, if, indeed, ttif- V 
ing at all Ptx)l»ably the me 

herent ideas of rich mercL , :hflt 

gone down with their costly ciirf^^oea, 
with coral reef:j and pearl fwheni*«, as fv 
no inconsiderable portion of ihotm 
But how often do they 'think of the. com 
riches which the sea pro<lucfs in the ]i{ 
things that dwell in it ? Tak»s frir iHur* 
the whale alone. For ten '. r 

this was becalmed in the la ' > rt» 

or Wtstem lalea. Ourin^! m (liai 

period huge whales were Milow* 

ing' i" f'V. IV .llf.'<-*ir.>ii rr t, \i 

many ; . b« 

seen i" ? of 

the isea, and puthng up i uf 

Bprav into the air. At a nn on, 

two hundred and fifty wlmlus wer^ &«eii iiram 

I D- Ae^K) 



* OB© ten days. At an equalJy 
l:ition^ cacll whjilc was worth 
luiiOrea pounds. Their grow value was, 
Be nuDdred thousand poumla ! '" 



"ChabMiko place this/' said a mad Wiy U- 
U« l<K>king out K}£ a wndow of tb^ 
liunatic Aeyluni in NMitli Bi'itain ; 
,l»liK?d^ eo qui«?t, so genteel, bo remote 
itlie busy burn of men aiid wytnea- The 
you percjeWo is lovely — quite sylv&n 
■e were two tr«cs in the remote disUutce) 
„ „ . ,.^.p jgr.ujTid,' ** ^^-'^ P'-^t saj's, aud 
Sir, i(v c£» fio^ o^i^ut street ^ndt 

mquijy, w« wea^e told that tl>i« patient 
WJUi a IjoiMion literary lady. Her mama, like 
Mofoiw in Ben Jon»rni'a Epicure, was against 
ta^' ^ho wiiAtaiitly pj-aved for deafueas. 
sL iihoea^ and spoke in a whisper 
to othera. The iminediate 
t tur confinement had not been aacer- 
1>ut wo have no doubt that she had 
;, -.,. . K^jt niftd by the street diswird of 
\) We JlrmJy belit:ve hev case 

. ^„„i. Judging from our own eX' 

of the extremeat brink of ins.iuity, 

we have been occasioofdJy driven by 

id Pandean peraecutiona to which 

been sutijected, we ghouki say that 

of the madness exlstii^ and wrought in 

County of Middlesex originaiea in street 

0<mQolly canoot bear ub out in 

Lo . flhall oe rather aatoiiiBhecL 

itk ui ui Liioughtful habit, and ef a timid^, 
nerrvoua tempei-aineut, has only to take iini nts iu what lodgii^/ 1'' n--" ^"•epers 
call in their ach ^> *' a 

-libourhood/' to be t' nv of 

hiw next move in a strait wai 
ftsyhtm for the inaane. In retired ,si. 
•mnit Hy or '' rows," where the mot e 

ptes^ of carty coachj aud cab wheels 

loen nut itijuund, the void is i]i*<.'or«lautly 
up by peripatJL'tic conoeits, wiiiok laat 
"' — ' (Virctjd, each rnoniing, 

h p^m ^oanod out 
^.. , at breakmst you ars 
I -liea of a wiietchea w^Uts 

f' >> a baas ti!iomboii« [ azid 

momiji^ is ruined for study by the 
lin«^^ of n Tvftrrfl y^i ft no forte ; nt luncheon 
n itself to your 
F of a bin^-drura ; 
lc>o ;, aud 

Icrii com- 

-i'lu lo \alk : 



y the 
1 you 
' you 

Vet tliis is a land of liberty^ and every 
man^ci house ia hia castle ! 

A man may have every comfort this world 
can afford — ^the prettiest houf^e, the sweetest 
wife, the most ujiexoqjtionable cook, lorely 
cbiluren, aud a good library— but what are 
ili< s(> when the enjo^Tnent they afford is 
1 by an endlvds chnrlvan ; wheu do- 
itppineas is matle misery by street dis- 
(^uiU i whfim. Mi Engliali gentleman is denied 
what i» insured to cveiy PentonviJle T«ri»ouer 
— peace ; when a wise legislation naa pa- 
tente<i the silent ayptem for convicts only, and 
supplies no fre^-bom Briton with a defence 
from hideous invasions of his inmost privacy : 
a legislature which, here, in London, in the 
year of grace eighteen hundred and fifty, 
where civilisation is said to have made some 
advances — permits btg-pifi^ ! 

This is a subject upon wiich It is Imposaible, 
without the most superhuman seif-coutrol, to 
wi'ite with calmness, 

Justiee is euppc^ed in this country to be 
meted out with an even hand. A humane 
maxim says, ** Better let ten guilty men escape, 
than one innocent man suffer." Yet what have 
the public, especially of '* quiet neighbour- 
hoods," done ; what crimt* have we committed ; 
what i*etributioii have we invoked ; that we 
are to be visited v^ith the indiecriminating 
punishment, the excruciating agony, souealed 
and screecked into our ears out oi that 
instrument of inefi^ble torture, the Scotch 
bagpipe 3 If our neighbour be a slan<Ierer, 
a screw, a giver of bad dinners, or any other 
sort of criminal for whom the law hiis proAnde<l 
no punishment, and a b&ff-pipe serenade be 
your mode of revenge on nim, shut him up 
with a piper or pipers in the pjuldod room 
in Bedlam, or take him out to the £<M3rstone 
lighthouse ; but for the love of mercy, do not 
uKike ua, his unoffending neighbours, par- 
rs of his probably just, out certamly 
'ligUi punishment ! 

We have, however, a better opinion oi 
human nature than to l>elieve in such extreme 
vindictiveness. We rather attribute these 
public jjerfbrmances of »onoi*oii8 savagery to 
the perverted taste of a few uufortui ;' 
dividuals, who pretend to relish the rli 
and who actually pay the kilted execuu .---. 
of harmony. The existence of such wretched 
amateurs might be doubted if we did uot 
remember that the most revolting propen- 
sities are to be fouud among mankind. Tnere 
are people who chew tohsACO \ a oertain tribe 
of Polynesian .'iboiigine« deem asaiibe^da the 
most delicious of perfumee ; aud Sonthey, in 
his Travels iu Suain^^ states that the Galiciau 
carters positively refused to grenae theu' 
wheels because of the delight the creaking 
gave them. Yet although the grating oi 
wo<Klen axles, or eveai the sliari>emng of wkwe^ 
is DJUHic to the pibroch, it u\u-,vt>.r>. fmifi a 
variety of evidence tlui I bad i ty 


, even ia tbo 

mm* I. 


L - 





We acarcely believed our eyes when we read, 
Bome d9,ys aincGjthe following police report : — 

" Maolboiiopghstrebt. — Two boys, named 
Campbell, dressed na Highland pipera» and i>Acli 
provided \Tith a pair of bagpipe^ were charged 
with bAving refused to quit Suffolkstreet, where 
tlioy were playiog, wheo requeated to do so. 

*'A clerk to Mr. Oamttt, an inhabitant, aaid, 
about 1 1 o'clock the boya pat their pipes at work, 
and kept up such a concert of groaning and 
ecroeohiug with them, tliat hia employer gave him 
diroction» to toll them to remove. Wituesa did 
BOi and the boys refufing to oomply with the 
request, a oonstable was employed* and they were 
brought to thia court. 

'* The boys said they were the sons of a Scotch 
piper. Tlieygpt their living by playing on the 
bag^pipce. and they had been employed by a Utdyi 
who itltd hagpipi karvwrny, to play before the 
door of tho hotel in Suflblk^Btrcet, where she was 

*' Mb. Hardwtck told the boys they must not 
odopt Bxicb a mode of getting their own living xxa 
would hinder other people from getting tbeii-a. 
It would bo impoeaible for profecBional men or 
tradoHmeii to carry on their daily aYocationfl in tho 
hearing of Buch a diu of di&cordaat eounda Aa 
would bo caused by a couple of pairi of Scotch 
bngpipea. To tho street musical abominations of 
the (tolian boya had recently been added that of 
Scotch bagpipers, — a kind of couc«rt euJhcieut to 
di'ive invalids and ordinary people craay. The 
fitroot musicians must be told that the law obliged 
them to go awny whenever they wore told to do 
so by any housekeeper in etroots where thoy were 
playiug. For tho present offence he would inflict 
a flue of one Bhilling only, which should be mode 
twenty shillings on the next occaaiou.*' 

Ml*. Hardwick did the best he could. If 
he could have transported the patroness of 
bagi>ipea for life to Staffii or to the lesser 
Cumbraea, the justice of the case would have 
been fully met. But, aa we have before com- 
plained, tho IttW, as applicable to nuisauco- 
noiaes, la exccediuuly tlefective. 

I>o we wiah to bfiuisii all music from the 
busy haunts of tueu ? By no meami. Good 
music ia sometimes emitted from our pave- 
ments — the kerb sends forth here juid there, 
and now and then, sounds not unworthy of 
the l»est appjiijted orchestra. WTiere these 
3Uj:>erior street |)erforraer3 I'eceived their inii- 
Hicfd education it i« not our business to in- 
quire ; but their arrangements of some of the 
most popular opera music, show that their 
training hjifl been strictly profcsaiund. 
Quintette, Sertette, and Septette Ivuids of 
brass and strinc are occasionally heard in the 
open street, whose performances show tfiat 
the pieces have been regulai-ly scoreil and ri- 
ji^dly rehearsed. " Tune, time, and distance " 
are excellently kept; the pianos and fortes 
are admirably coloured — there is no v.'imping 
of b.'»s8es ; no "fudt;iug'* of difficult passages. 
We lcK>k tipon sucL pbiyers as luusical mis- 
sionaries who purvey the best music from 
the opera houses and from the saloons of 
tiie nobility to the general public, to the 
improvement of its rausical taste. But where I 

even these choice pai4 profeasionigt.- 
at a disnd%*antnge is in their discout 
excellent music at precisely the tii» 
we do not want the souuds of the cj 
charm he never so wijstly. The habit 
the " ouiefc neighbourhood," fond as h 
CoMia hiva or the lUwn WnU^, would 
not be indulged with them jnst as 
commencing to study a complicaU^l 
or while he la computiu|( the dvx\fl of a i 
cult surv^ey. When he wants music he 
to go to it*; he never wants it to come 

Upon this premise we propose, i 
benefit of the world at lai^, a "*^ 
street-music reform -, fmd any oii 
member of Parliament is tmite Wul 
the draft of a bill on the subject; with whkfc j 
we now conclude : — 

Tlie bill should be entitled, 

^* An Act for the better Ppcscrrfitirtn oftTiF 
Public Peace by the better ' 
oeilain kinds of Street . 
utter Abolition of certain otlur k in iJ^ yl 
Street Music," 

The first proviso should givi ■:' ' - 
cei^in competent muaiciniis, 
mudciiuiB, to play at certain api- .tu.._ . ►..i 
at certain apjiointed hours of the day, 
under certain regulations. 

That the places apnointnl 
mimmer, the Parks aua Pub! 
and around London ; and in 
covered spaces, to be set ajiart 
by the proper authorities. 

That the performers shall have ne% 
remuneration than the ctm i ' 
listeners, which will be nn^ 
the pleaaui-e they give, cou-' piMiLn,. i<_, 

That no unauthorised grinder of 
music-millB, or hurdy-gn plies ; no 
of bagpipes, PanVpipes, horn^, r*)iTK»i 
trombones, tnimpeta, clarionet- 
no scraper of fiddles or vi« i 
scratchera of harpe or guitars ; m 
drums, dulcimers or tamborincf*. — l»e alU 
to disturb the public thoroii' 1 
pain of various penalties, to I 
agreed and aettlm on ; whereoi 
shall be imprisonment and hai'd lal 
no leas a period than ten d '^^^ ^♦">" ■ 
flutes, hautboys, or Pan 
heaviest — only applictible t ^ ; ^ 
{©rtaUon for life beyond the llordf r. 

Tivat li^ina / 


FabUMAiny Montklg, Pru:* 24., St^jn/ytd, M. 



Tki* MmMf Aipplememt «/ flouMehuLi Wordf, 


Familiar %n their Mout/a a$ HOUSEHOLD WORDS "— si.a.c»6,,a««. 



IP- 310 


[Price 2rf. 


I HAVE a comfortable property. What I 
spendf 1 spend upon myself; and what I don't 
spend 1 save. Those are inv principles. I 
am warmly iittached to my priiicipl^a, and 
stick fH> them on &11 occtusious. 

I niri not, AS some people have repreaented, 
mcaij inaD. I never denied myaelf anything 
».^t i thought 1 aliould like to have. I may 
LVtf siiid to myself *• Snoadt " — ^that is my 
"you will get those peaches cheaper 
you wait till next week ; " or, I may have 
id U) myself, " Snoady^ you vnli get that 
wine for nothing, if you wait till you are 
aaked out to dine ; " but I never dejiy myself 
auytUhi^. If I can't get what I want with- 
out Iniymg it, and pa3^ng its price for it, I do 
buy it and pay itij price for it. I have ail 
A]*]HJ ved upon me ; and, if I baulked 

it, 1 nsider that I waa flying iu the 

or i roviMonce. 
I have no near relation but a brother. If 
\e want« anything of me, he don't get it. All 
men arv Ttiy livothera ; and 1 see no reason 
why 1 Hhoitld make his, an exceptional case* 
I Jive at a cathedral town where there is 
old corporation. I am not in the Church, 
tut it rnay be that I hold a Itttle place of 
le sort. Never mind. It may be protitable. 
^crhftpd yr.s, perhaps no. It may, or it may 
)t^ be a sinecure. I don't choose to say. 
1 iiU^htened my brother on these sub- 

I f consider all men my brothers. 

i.t :,^io in a man ;ind a brother — should 
1 hoM mviiclf aL'covmtable for my position 
iu life, Co Aim f Certainly not 

I oft*u nm up to London, I like London. 
Tho way I look at it, is this. London is not 
cheap place, but, on the whole, you cjvn get 
of the real thing for your monev there 
■I mejin the bt«it thing, what^fver it is — than 
fou can got in most places. Therefore, I say 
(k thn nii*n who has ffot the money, and wants 
hL» thing, " Go to London for it, and tremt 

When / go, I do it in this manner. I go to 
Urs. Skim's Private Hotel ;triil r'.,.i.Mi.-.ri d 
;ing Honse^ near Alders;. 
is advertised in "Brad-; 
',*' where I tirst found it), and there J 
£m btid and br>'akfwiU wijit ftliit. two 

Now, I have made a calculation, and I am 
satisfied that Mrs. Skira cannot possibly make 
much profit out of me. In fact, if all her 
jjiitrons were like me, my opmion is, the 
woman would be in tho Gazette next month- 
Why do I go to Mrs. Skim's when 1 could 
go to the Clarendon, you may ask ? Let ua 
argue that point. If I went to the Clarendon 
I couhl get nothing in bed but sleep ; could 
I ? No. Now, sleep at the Clarendon is an 
expensive article ; whereajs sleep, at Mrs. 
Skim's, is decidedly cheap. 1 have made a 
calcidation, and I don't hesitate to say, all 
thiuf^ considered, that it 's cheap. Is it an 
infenor article, as eompiared with the Cla- 
rendon sleep, or is it of the same quality ? I 
am a heavy sleeper, and it is of the same 
quality. Then why should I go to the 
Clarendon \ 

But as to breakfast ? you may say. — ^Very 
welL As to breakfiwt. I could get a variety 
of delicacies for breakfa-st at the Clarendon, 
that are out of the question at ]Vtrs. Skim's. 
Granted, But I don't want to have them ! 
My opinion is, that we ai-e not entirely 
aninial and sensaal. Man has an intellect 
bestowed upon liim. If lie dogs that intellect 
by too good a breakfast, how can he properly 
exert that intellect in meditatioUj during the 
day, upon his dinner ? That 's thi? point. 
We are not to enchiiin the soul. We are to 
let it soar. It is expected of us. 

At Mrs. Skim's, 1 get enough for breakfast 
(there is no limitation to the bread and 
butter, though there is to the meat) and not 
too much. I ImvG all my GvcuUies about me, 
to concentrate upon the object I have men- 
tioned, and I can say to myaelf besides, 
"Snoady, you have savwl six, eight, t<;n, 
fifteen, shillings, alreatly to-day. If there is 
anything you fancy for your dinner, have it. 
8no*uly, you have earned your rew^ard,'* 

My objection to London, is, that it is the 
head-quarters of the wonjt radical ^entimenta 
that are broached in England. I consider 
that it has a gpreat many dangerous people In 
it. I consider the present publication (if it*« 
••' Household Words ") very diuigerous, and I 
write this with the view of neutralising some 
of its bad etfects. My political creed is, let 
us be comfortable. We are all very com- 
fortable us we are — / tyu V6^ egmforUUkltt m 
I am — Irnvi? us 



All mankind ai*© my brothers, and T doii\ 
think it Chriatian — if you come to that — to 
tell my brother that ho is iguoratit, or d*- 
grmleci, or dirty, or Anything of the kind. 1 
think it 'a abusive, and low. You meet roe 
with the obsei-vation that I am required to 
love my brother. 1 reply, " I do.'* I am 
aiire I am always willing to say t^ my brother, 
•• My good fellow, I love you vei-y much ; go 
sdon}f with you ; keep to your own rond ; 
l«av«.« me to miDe ; whatever i«, ia right ; 
wh.'Utfver ian% is wrong; i' ' a dis- 

turhatice ! " It acenLB to me, ( ' it once 

the whole duty of man, aiul i-.- "i.k lemiter 
to go to dinner in. 

uoinx; to dinner in this temper in tlie City 

of Loiidoii, one d&y not long itfo, nSter h bed utt 

Hf«. Skim*a, with meat-break&t wnd servaLUta 

iuchideil, I was remmded of tlie ohaei*vji.tion 

whidi, if my rncmary does mat d<?eei\-e me, wna 

!i^ by somebody on some occ«nion, 

^ Irara wifldoni from the lower 

It i» » beauitiful fact,, in my ojtinion, 

> t wisdom ia to be learut from that 

jjMiin iniinal the Turtle, 

I hnA made up my mind, in the course of 
the day 1 ppeuk of^ t^^ have a Turtle dinner. 
I mean a dmuier mainly composed of Turtle. 
Just a comfortable ture^*n of .soup, with a jiint 
of punch ; and nothin*; solid to follow^ but a 
tender juicy steak. I like a tender juicy 
«teak, I generally say to myself when I 
order one, *' Snoady, yuu have done ngkt." 

Wlieo I nuike up my miii<l to have a 
fldioacy, •xpenw is im ooDBidcratiiin. The 
question resolves itself then, into » quHtioo 
of the very best I went to n friend at auie 
who u ft Mimibtr of th« Common CouaeU, 
Mul with that friend 1 held the following 

Sidii I to him, "Mr. Gvo|;gi»» lira b«Bt 
Turtle ia where ? " 

Says lie, "if yon waatu \mmxi ft»r lunch, 
my opinion ia, you can't do lietter than drvp 
into isirdh'a," 

Said I, " Mr. Grogg^ I thought you liad 
known me better, thaa to suppose me capable 
oi a bamn. My intention u to din& A 

5ay6 Mr. Groaglefty inihiMit a moment s 
coiuuclerataon, and in a detfsrmined voice. 
" Bight opposite the India Hooae, Leadeuhall 

We parted. My mind wac luai inactive 

durinif the day, and at mx in the afternoon I 

to the hi>u«e of Mr. Grogg^'s 

idatioo. At the end of the paange, 

itNN^wiiL; it'om the atreet into the ooffee-room^ I 

«bi«rved a vart and solid dieit, in which I 

thHfi Knu^TMiMd that a Turtle of muisual aize 

deooaiied. But, the correspondence 

I tta DuUc and that of the charge made 

for my tliuner, aftei-wards snlistit'd me tluU, 

It muaL be the till of the e.sUbliahnient. 

I 8tat«<l io the waiter wliat hsul brought me 
there, and I mentioned Mr. Groggles's name. 
He feelingly repeated afU^r we,**A tureen of 

Turtle, and a tender juicy 
manner, added to th«* manner of 
in the ir-— "'••" — ♦^ ^ 
The ah 

ferous V. . . , ( 

sands of gallons, consumed within itis v.ilU, 
hong, in savoury grease, upon their siitlju>;. 
I could have inscriWi ray u;imc witl 
knife, if I had been ao diapoftc'd, in ihf 
of innumerable Turtles. I ]^vv\ 
into a huni^ reverie, brought on 
bj ' " r* ►' place, and to think <n u» »S^ 
It lie lalaud of Ascension. 

Im . ij.!iji'-r came — and xvr-' ♦ t ..;ii ,;^^ 
a veil over the meal^ I will i, 

the empty tureen, and iji< r sg 

wowdcrfnl — and that I 

I eat meditating, wJi n th# 

iiiif>crf«2jct nature of our |irtt^-ul m 

which we cam eat only for a > «« 

when the waiter roused me with tLtuc vri:inik j 

Said he to me. rug he bruahed the crumbs^ 
the t^vble, *^ Would you like to we the Tuitk | 
Sir ? »* I 

"To see what Turtle, waoler 1" id^ 1 
(cahnlv) to him^ 

'* The tanks of Turtle below. Sir/ mad h# 
to me. 

Tanks of Turtle ! Good Grndoos * «• Yat 

The waiter lic:hted a candle, and omtliqclfA 
me down Btidr^ to a nmge of vaultod apa^ 
flieiita, deaniy wMttwashed and iHntmiwtol 
with gas^ wbtfe I nw a »«i'dtt of tha 
Mtoatahing and gnti^fum '^ 
trstive of the grratneii of it 
"Snoady," was my firat ol»^M^■ln 
aelf, "Rule Britannia, Britounia. mJe* 
wavea ! " 

There iMve tw^^KrHimt hundriH] 
the Taaked aimftiiiflnta — all alive, 
taaks^ aud aonie taking the air in 
waUcfl Uttered down wiUi atiraw. Thi^' 
of all BLzea ; many of them enorr 
of the enormona ones had eTi*.-M 
selves with the smullei 
squeezed themselves i^ 
liitaover water^pipe^ arja ibrir nc.i.i;* 
waJNb| wii^re thev were npopl 

atr^""'*'"** 'ind splh^hinu, ^' "■•^'h 

hi> y. Otbera v ,\i ihM 

bur ! ' tanka; others ...^_. ^ riaii^ 

to the eurfaoe. The Turtle in Um> walhi 
littered down with straw, were coliu 
motionlcsa. It was a thiil ling sight. 1 
imah A aight. It roosee my imagination, 
you wi«h to tr}^ itJ? effect on youraj 
call risht opposite the India Iloiuie anf 
you pleaBc — <lint; — pay — and n^ to be 

Two athletic young men, without coiaUi^^ 
^•ith the sh^vea of their shirts tucked 
the iihouldei-a, were ia attendance on 
noble animala. One of th^m, wreatlia^ 
the most enormoua Turtle in eomi^mn-. 
dragging him up to the edge of t ' 
me to look at, presented an i^lna i 
I never had before. I ought to obser^ t: tliai 



I likie aa isieo, I sa?, wiicn I get a ntw owe, 
« Sbo^, b(M>k thai !* * 

My fum» on tlw present ooeiwon, wnc^—Mr. 
nr.H'Pi«-i ' If wiLi not a Ttiriletkxt I 8»w, 
It wjt« tlic demd iiiu^^e of 
was dnggtHi up to can- 
I liM wjuatcoAt — if I m«y l^ 
x\mvaaott — tjows&rds me ; juid it 
ly th« wai*t<ro«it of Air. Groggl<ss. 
ii^pe, %'i>rT n^farly the wmie 
WMSted a gold w»teli-eli«m ssd 
•«ak» to i» the ^wiueleoiit of Mr. 
*Cliaii vw wbnt I thonld call a 
»bout liini in general, 
IISIdK tlif i'Vinv<>;o!i iii' Mr. 

I hoii 

fnL, I ftntoii to 
'• traenL 
u to Kiy, 
of oorrc 


the AllileUe ;. 
mi4> tli« tamk 


ail 111* wr 

ralotKmtiCs wfn? - 
mid /, 

aiHl the tJi 

» we *f 

li*! a 


!y tltoae uf Mr. 

intelligvnt eye 

enough for a 

i 4e9, and not 

" '^Tr. Grogglen, 

im ^o, and, 

nd neaTily 

he manner 

• ooze away 

iry motion 

to myself, 

t an idea, 

>; involved. 

Lite young 

iuTtle to ll»e 

I found thf'ii] 

tr.Cirogglr" ^' 


■:ii3, w, 

:\nd other Re- 


' from this, is, 

<^e brtwi?«u tlic 

nothing. Jt 's 

it the pr»:v|jer 

1 that 

< the 


•o lltk, • Yon have hit it. Yon 

-% vrry iinieh, b«cftnse, if I 
<^* wotid, it *9 chan^. 
no misIoeSB in the 
li^ with it, and isn't 
»«i'.*a >> hui M :.^ I think I hav. 

fm«d) to Iw ' .. 1 look at v 

my. Let ti« I >e fs 'iitii/rtaye^ and lenre 
Now« whim the voiuur man (ht 

m Gtofigica — 1 


cxxircaMdiu L 

I hiine tKTtv 


tin: lUfUii^ U 

ii wn* wbsit 

. . to that 

I w%mu A 
« mimd, old 

f>t hM 

be a 
% if I 

I hrnr 

cnswon. One eloquent speaker objected to the 
French as wearing wooden shoes ; and a friend 
of his r'eniiuded him of another objt-ction U^ 
that foreign f>eople, namely, that they eat 
^toi^. I had feared, for many years*, I xm 
gorry to say, that these "wholeaome pnnfiples 
were gone *vnt. How delightful to hnd them 
still rt'inaining among the great roea of the 
City of London, in the year oae tlioiwand 
eight hnndi'ed and Mty ! It made roe tJduk 
of the Lively Turtle. 

But, 1 ^>in tboufjht more of the Lirelj 

Tu,-*! ^ T>.. Ks^]^ ^yj^j RcvoJutioaists 

\ii\ ' the Coninioii Council 

^v, finl jw« OTii* «if the last 

8tri.!jLJi' !■ - •■( "11 ' ifi:i't-3 .•'.ii'^tihiti- ', : niid 

SpPf'.'lii ■; WrV'^ ni,Ml>', ."Jniilf TT'TinviTl;.' Sllllth- 

fielii Maiket^ — wViich I consider to l^e a pai-t 
of that Con.stitiition — ^and about appointing a 
Method < )ffici'r for the City, and about pre- 
serving the pnbltc health ; and other treason- 
able piT^ itiiaeil to ChuTvh and State, 
These I Ir. Groggles, aa mijjht liave 
been expiv.t.. it snch a man, r- i' >• o^ 
waiTiily, thftt, lis I afterwards wji^l jti 

Mrs. Grogglea, he had rather a r'.j... , ijk 

of blotvi to the bead that night. All the 
Groggier party resisted them too, and it waa 
a fine constitntioni^ sight to skns waisieoat 
after waiscoat riae up in resistance of theto otid 
anhside. But what struck m© In the aight 
was this, ** Snoady," said I, ** here is your i«lea 
canneil out, Sir ! These Eadicals and Re- 
volutionistH are the athletic young men in 
' ii-t eleevea, dragging the Lively Turtle to 
edges of the tank- The Groggleaea are 
v.iL Tm'tle, looking out for a moment, and 
flopping down again. Honour to the 
Groggleseg ! Honour to the Court of Lively 
Turtle » The wisdom of the Turtle w the 
hope of England ! " 

There are three heads in the moral of what 
I had to say. Firsts Turtle arnl firo^^es are 
identical; wonderfnllv .alikt^ \, won- 

derfully alike mentAlly. S« rtle ia 

a g*x'Mi thini,' every way, and irie nvtiiness ot 
the Turtle la intended oa an example for the 
liveliness of man ; you are not to go l>eyond 
that. Thirdly, we are all qoite eomfortable 
Leave us alone ! 


Thkt say Ideal Boaiity cannot enter 

The boTi'^c of nuguiah. On the thrr'liold stands 

Ti Imago witii the ahaV 

Greek Slavo : as if It int h«i 

Shadowed, no: panda) 

To, 80, oonfroTir md^ 

With man 8 ideal bcu^ie. Pierce bu th« osntre. 
Art's fiery finger f and break up eroloog 
Th« eerfiloin of thia world. J^peaL, £ur Btotniv 
From God's pure heights of beauty, ag^nst man'i 

Cfttch up. In thy divine face, not alone 
EiL-t -lietfs, but wcst^ and strike and ahamo the 

tors of whVto alentia, OTct^tcmtu 









I AM not a yoirng man, nud liavc passed 
much of my life iu our Criminal Courts, I 
wm, and have been, in ai'tive prActice at the 
Bar, and I believe myself capable of offenug 
siiymv hints towards on improved adminlvtra- 
tiou of juatice. 

I do not alladc to any reform in the law, 
though I believt? much to V>e neede*!. I mean 
to confine injuc^f to aniendmeuta which it is 
in the jK>wer of the peoj)le to make for them- 
selvea, ami indeed, which no legishitui'e, how- 
ever enlightened, can make for them. 

In no country can the hiwa b« wsll ad- 
ministere<l, where the pc*j>nlar mind standa at 
a low ptiint in the senile of intelligence, or 
where the moral tone ia lai. The latter 
defect is of course the most important, but it 
is so intimately comiecteil with the fonu«*r, 
that they conimoidy prevail together, and the 
rnitMcH which remove the one have, almost 
without exception, a ealuljtr)^ effect upon the 

lliat the genei-al difiusion of morala and 
intelligence is essential t^ the healthy working 
of jnrisnnidenco in all coimtriea, will be 
admitte<l, when it is recollected that no 
tribunal, however akilful, can iu-rivc at the 
truth by any other way than by the testimony 
of witnesses, and that consequently on thtir 
tni8t-worthin»^i48 the enjoyment of property, 
character, and life, must of necesrilty depend. 

Again, wherever trial by Jury is established, 
a further demand arista for morals and in- 
t^jlligcjice among the people. It follows then, 
a« a eonBequenee idniost too obvious to justify 
the remark, that whatever in any country 
enlarges and strengthens these great attributes 
of civilisation, raUes its caj)acity for per- 
forming that noblest duty ol social man, the 
administration of justice. 

Let me first Ri>eak of witnesses and their 
testimony- It ia s^mietiniea supposed that 
the deaii*e to be veracious is the only quality 
CBscutml to form a tnistworthy witness ; and 
an essential quality it is beyond all doubt ;but 
it is possessed by many who are nevertheless 
very unsafe guides to tiuth. In the first 
place, this general desire for truth in a mind 
not carefully regulat*.'d, is apt to give way, 
oftentimes unconsciouslvt to impre^ssions which 
ovej-power habitual veiaeity. Ic may be laid 
tlovm aa a general rule that witnesses are 
jiartis;uis, and that, often without knowing it, 
their evidence t;ikes a colour from the feeling 
of partisanship, which gives it all the ijijurious 
etfects of wilful falshooil — nay, it is frequently 
more pernicious. 'Die witness who knowinj^ly 
nen-ei-ts the tnith, often betrays hia mendicity 
by his voice, his countenance, or his choice of 
words ; while the unconscious jjei'verter gives 
hia testimony with all the force of siiicerity. 
Lt't the witness who intends to give evidence 
worthy of coniidence, be on hia guard against 
the temntations to become a partisiiiu. W'it- 

ncflses ought to avoid consorting togetbcr on 
the eve c? & trial ; still more, discussiiig tJu 
matters in dispute, and comjmring thctr fan 
tended statements. Mmricians hfivr fi^Kscrt^ 
that if two inatmmenta, not in r 

dance, are playe<l together, they ,- 

dency to run into hamiony. AVjtne^ ■ .jv. 
precisely such instruments, and act on umi 
other in like maimer. 

So much with regard io the mond tone of 
the witness, but the difficulties -wl-i' i- r u^^ 
pjinted out may be surmounteii, i 
his evidence a very distorted min 
real facts. Consideration ran at I 
the intellectual requirements of a A 
was the just remark of Dr.JohnRun tluiteoi 
plaints of the memory were often very nujott 
towards that faculty, which was reproached 
with not rctahiiug what had never been con- 
fided to its care. The defc t ' ' r* 
of memory, but a lack of le 
ideas have not run out ot .... ...u., ,i**y 

never went into it. 

This is a deficiency, which mti t U; 
dealt with iu any special rel.H 
subject in band ; it can only 1^ • 
cultivi«ting a general habit of 
which, considering that the <lwu - 
of others may be imperilled by ii 
out of the neglect to observe accn 
he looked upon in the light of a dm \ 

A stUl gi-eatcr defect ia the absrnoe of the 
power of distinguishing fact and infe 
Nothing but a long experience in Coui 
Justice, can give a notion of fh<* i-xtot\t' 
which tealimoiiy is adulterab-d \>\ 
It is often exemplitie«l in the (]• 
witnesses, or rather in the compai 
the depositions which, as your n .. 
are taken in writing before the coi 
magistrate, and the evidence* given OH 

Circumstances on wliich the witticsa hail 
been .*iilent when examined l)eforf- 
trate shortly after the event, 
appiearance in his evidence on 
trial ; so that his memory purport < 

Inaccuracy in proportion to their ii 

ha£i; elapsed uuoe the transaction of which 
speaks ! 

I have ob8cr^'ed this effv • 
marvellous degi'ee in cases *.<l 
in civil suits are often awnr-iii, uuii ^v 
Irequently take place years afitr the evculj 
which they relate. The comi«ij"is<m of 
evidence of the .same witiict^a jm* it Kt^utds 
the short-lifunl writer s notes of the two ti 
would lead nn unpractised i^cadrr to the con* 
elusion that nothing but perjury couM ac- 
count for the divemities ; and this imprf -^i^on 
would be contirmed, if he slK»u]d rtn<l. .ns jii 
all prolwtbility he would, that the p«Jtjii4 on 
which the latter memory was bett«'r supplied 
than the cailier, were just those oa wl»ich 
tlie greatest doubt hjtd prevailed on the 
former occasion ; and which were made in 
favour of the party ou whose side the wititesft 



hatl WtUi calieU. B«U the critic would be 

niiMfik'iiu Tlie witrn -i^ wiw not diahoneet, 
bat hiui foiled io k' ♦ p wntch over the ope- 
rmli' ' ' *■■' «>^*ii liiiiid. He had perhaiie 
otUi to tilt? 8itbj<-*ct, and often dia- 

it , until at k Mgtli he confounded 
\rhich had occnirrtnl, with the in- 
lich ho had di74wu from siich facte, 
^lishmeot of the existence of othens 
\*{ in r*miity no place except in hia 
' IK but whicn after a lime took 
uiemoiy with its original im- 

The best BK&gUKrd a witness could em|>loy 
to preserve the imalloTed memoiy ctf tiTutsac- 
tkiiiAt U to commit hi» narmtive to writh)^'^ 
a# aooo After the f veut iva he shall h^^e )«.'amt 
Ual lib trvi> r \ne them is Ukely to 

III nardly recommend 
.Mi so little is the world, 
. lion of the world which 
u Courta of Justice, acquainted 
y be called the Philosophy of 
_... vuaia conscientioiw endeavour of 
fklsu to preserve hie testimony in it.s 
^ ,..;.^».t ;l^w upon him the iniput^ition 
: icat«i his narrative ; and this 
Kil*U^ heeause fidfte witnesses 
aken SEunihu* means 

. b i»<»rihy of uotv how much these dis- 
IfTf *^w<*es, both moral and intellectual, 
B portions of e\'idence which 
Mit ^e to distt>rtion. Wonls, as 
'i'*i inguahed from facts, exemplify the 
of ihia position ; every witue^is ought to 
* '^ V.;,,, ,if jjj giving evi- 
jiiage, if it runs 
to . .^. , . lo b© mifluuder- 

1 ^ It to be weU understood at 

T I i e exact wording of it can rarely 

I leas the witneMS memor)' wej-e 

taiitajuouiit lu minuteness and accuracy to the 
rtcckrd ckf a aburt^hajid writer. He is con- 
1 to give nn abstract, or, as 
!, tlie »uV«tance of what 
' 1 - " new difficulty arises ; 

to an intellectual effort 

* Ji ^ rarely accomplished 

ith a -. 11 to perfection. Let 

;hejurjnii lu luiad- He will be 

ten t*:nipt*jti t<j itly «)u alleged confesaiona 
{xrisoners sworn to by witnesses who cer- 
desire to speak the truth. These con- 
often go «o stnughl to the point, that 
ofler to tne juryman a species of relief 
I that state of doubt, which, to minds 
trnpractised in weighing probabLUties, is irk- 
Aome, almost l»eyc>nd deaoripticn. Speaking 
from the exp»^rienee of tl^irty }"*»j^ 1 should 
pronounce the evidence of wonU ti^ be so 
cangeroua in ita mtture as to dtnuLiid the 
fKiiiw»t vi^Uuice, in all CMsen^ be&n> it in 
tlle««rl to mflncRCo the verdict to noy impor- 
tant ext«iit^ 

Whilv 1 3UD on the 8itl»i€ct of evUience^ 

infirm in its nature, 1 must not pass over that 
of identity of person. The number of |>ersi<ina 
who resemble eaeh other is not incouHiderable 
in itself^ but the number b verj' large of 
persona who, though very distinguishable 
when standing aide by eade, are yet suffi- 
ciently alike to deceive those who are without 
the means of immediate comparieon. 

Early in life an occurrence impressed me 
with the danger of reiving on the most con- 
6dent belief of identity, I was at VauihalL 
Oardeua where I thought I saw, at a short 
distance, an old country gentleman whom I 
highly respected, and wliose favour I should 
have l»ecu sorry to lose. I bowed to him, 
but obtained no recognition. In those days 
the company lunused themselves by walking 
round in a circle, some in one direction, Bome 
in the opposite, by which means every one 
saw aud was seen — I say in those days, be- 
cause I have not been at Vauihall'for a 
quai*ter of a century. In performing th^e 
rounds I often met the gentleman, and tried 
to attract hia attention, until I became con- 
vinced that either his cye-fiight wus so 
weakened that he did not know me, or that he 
chose to disown my acquaintance. Some tim^ 
afterward^ going into the county in which hf 
resided, I received, as usual, an invitation to 
dinner ; this led to an erphmatioti, when my 
friend assured me he had not been in London 
for twenty yeare. I afterwards met the 
person whom I had mhttakcn for my old 
triend, and wondered how I could have fallen 
into the error. I can only explain it by 
supposing that, if the mind feels satisfied oi 
identity, which it often does at the first 
glance, it ceases to investigate that question, 
aud occupies itself with otlier matter ; as in 
my case, where my thoughts r.\n upon the 
motives my friend mi^ht have for not recog- 
nising me, instead ot employing theinselves 
on the question of whether or no the indi* 
^idual before my eyes was indeed the pereon 
I took him for. 

If I had had to give evidence on this 
matter my mistake would have l>een the 
more daneeroua, as I had full means of know- 
ledge. The place vk'aa well lighted, the inter- 
\-iewB were rejieated, and my mind wjjs undis- 
turbed. How often have I have known 
evidence of identity acted upon by juries, 
where the witness was in a much less favour- 
able position (for correct oljservution) than 

Sometimes, a mistaken verdict is avoided 
by independent evidence. Rarely, however, 
is this rock escaped, bv cross-examination, 
even when conducted witli ade<|Uate skill and 
cxjjerieuce, Tlie belief of the witness is belief 
in a matter of opinion resulting from a com- 
bination of fiicts ao slight aud unimportant^ 
separately considered, that they furnish no 
handle to the cross-citaminer, A striking case 
of this kind occurs to my recollection, with 
which I will conclude. 

A prisoner was Indvciei for f5iawAAi!L^ia!c>(JsA 





prouecrutor, with intent to kiQ him. The pro- 
aceutur awor*? that the prisoner ha*J demjuiJed 

hhi money, and ih-* "i .-•.,.. i .. i i,, ^^j 

coiupl;)- with hh j 1, 

by the fbiih of wL... .... ._ .: i— . le 

ptfrftf'.'lly visible; the ahot did not take etlect, 
fljtd the pristmer niaile off. Here the recog- 
uilic»n wa.-* momentary, «uid the prosecutor 
coukl hanily have bijen in an uudistiurbed 
Atate of miiid, yet the coafldence of his belief 
mm\n a stroug iinpressioD on all who heard 
the evidence, aii J piioLably wouhi have sealed 
the fiLt4.^ of the prLsuuer without the aid of an 
jyUlitiooHl CipCtof very slight imjx^itauce, which 
was^ however, put iu evidence by way of cor- 
robtiration, that the prisoner, wlio wiia a 
Btrsuiger to the neighbovirhooii, hail been seen 
psi&iLiig near tht^ Bpot in which the iktt.'ick 
WHS jumie HtK^iit tiOun of the fcuime day. Tlie 
judge Wlonged to a chis,g now, thank God ! 
olmolete., who ;dways acted ou the rev»^T*ae of 
the eondtitutiotuil niiixim, and considered 
every man guilty until he was proved to be 

If the cane luul clcised without witneauas on 
belmlf of the pristjntT, Ids life would have be« 
gr,iii:> ^1 1 1 1'li.ntely, he poases^ed the means ui 
ciu; .dile and zealouet Attonic-y, aud, 

moi i( ly, it 641 hap|K-n^d that several 

houna belore the attack the priaonex had 
niJLiuiiteti tipou a c-ojmh, and was many miles 
frcrni tlie seeue of the crlcaQ at the hour of itii 

With gi^'at labofir, and at coDBi<lei^l:4e ex- 
pcnsc'T all the posiiengers were *iought out, and 
with tl»e c(mcnman aiid giiard, were bi'ought 
into courts lUid te^titied to the iii'esMj:iieeaiuuug 
ther*? ■ f' •'-■ ■^' ' iier. An mt'U ia always a 
su^j and by no man was ever 

moi , - . v.:itched tlian by tliis jud{^e, 
Ihit whoa witucisa after witness appearevi, 
tluiir namea corresponding ejtaetly witli the 
w^^y-biU proiiuced oy the clerk of a re»iJ4jot- 
able eoach-ofiiee, the moat detenniued acepli- 
cism guve way, and the prisoner was actjiiitt^d 
by acchmiation. He waa not, however, save<l 
l)y liift innocence, but by his good fortune. 
How frequently doeii it Imtipen to us ail to be 
uwuiy houna at a time without having wit- 
ne:s»i 8 to protTe our abiietice Ci"om one sfwt by 
our presence at another ! And how nuuiy of 
us ai-« too prone to avail oureelves of 8uch 
proof in the instances where it may exibt I 

A rcTuarkable instance of mustalc^ hi iden- 
tity, whicli put the life of a priaoner in 
extrcnuj lierif, I heard from the lipa of hia 
cijunael It - ' ^ the Special Commij*- 

eion held :ii N after the riots con 

tequent on tli, ^.j ,.un of the Keform Bill 
by the House of Lords, in 1831. 

The prisoner was a yoimg man of prepos- 
iiflftBmg appearance, belonging to wliat may l»e 
caJk'd tlie lower aeetiou of the middle rank 
q{ life, being a framework knitter, in the em- 
plojTuent of hia father, a master manufacturer 
m a dmall wav. He was tried on an indict- 

ment cl: ' :fa with the otfenoe 

A mo'\ • iie was alkg-ni to bi* 

burnt L-i.ii.fv ilail, near Nottiijghnin^ 
residence of >Ir. Miu^ters, the hiisb<uj<; 
Mai-y Cbaworth, whose n;uue i« no 1 1. 
liukeil with that of Byron. ThLs 
lady waa approaching the lost stago 
sumption, when, on a cold and wet evetoiii;. 
autumn, ^hc was driven from her uuui-m 
and compelled to take refuge ainoiii^ the tTvct . 
of her ijhi'ubbery.— <m outitlgc whii-'U probably 1] 
hastened her death. 

The crime, with ita attendant ci reutojataxi 

created, as was natui-:'^ - *• — • - 

againat the crioiInalH, 

so praijtewotihy b itsc.., ._ .._ 

a fjtrong teadency in the pul i| 

lielieve in the guilt of a party ace* 

sometimes a«em to hunger anil 

criminal, and are dlaappointed \ 

out that they are migtaJtea in their iiuui, 

fti'e, consequently, alow to belii^ve th^i 

an eri'or ban been made. I ' i^^ 

prcat^iou ia received into oft* 

• ' ^ ; but although on un p%r- 

. it is all the mure il Ijj tlu» 

— ., ^iie prisoner w:ia Idtii..... . .>y »«vvnli 

witnesses its having taken an adirc port iftj 
setting tiie to the h<iuse. 

lie had been tindei' their noUoe for 
conai'lcrfible sj^oce o( tbtie ; they i^nxe tlirli 
evidence against him without h- 
probably the alighteijt duul^t of 
His defence was an ali&i. The fi 
he worked had its place near tii 
the warehouse, the room fi 
customers and all who luul 
act at the manufiLcU>ry ' ' 
as doorkee]>er, and in . 
seen diid sjjokeii with ' ^ 
in their eridence more than covti 
time which elapge*! Ix'tween the ;; 
mob at Colwick Hall and its depa^ turr* 'J' 
alibi was beUeveil, and tho prixfuer, aft^c^ 
trial which lasted a whole day, w. 

Tlie next morning he was to I' 
on another indictment, chai*gi)' 
having set fire to the Castle at 
ITie counsel for tlie prosecu " i ■ 
motives of humanity, and fi^ : 
the prisoner's guilt on both 
counsel for the prisoner to .- 
plead guilty, undertaking I ; 
be spared, but obsening at tho satue 
that hia social position, whieh was su] 
to that of the otlier prisoners, would 
impossible to extend the mercy of the 
to him unless he manifested a due 
his offtuces by foregoing the chance of 
"• You know," said they, '' how larely a 
obtains credit with a Jury, You can hai 
other defence to-day thaii that cf \l^si 
I'he Castle i.** much nearer thiiu ( 
to the numufactory, and a veiy ^i 
from his work on the pjirt of the pri^oK 
might reconcile the evidence of all tlls 
witnesses, both, (or him and agaiunt hinxj 



iorcovnTf who ever heard of a suecesaixil tf/t&t 
no« ru&mng I " 

The ccmi^ai^ for tLe prisoner had has clieiit 

h*iu into a room adjoiukiig the court, tun} 

iviu^ exitlaiuexl to luiii the extreme ilanger 

qrhicli lie gtocwl, Tnformeci liim of the offer 

by the ] ' i. The jouu^r mtux 

some ( ..d asked his coun^d 

ivi«e wh;it ^ttp ht whould take. "The 

he wa3 fuiswered, ** must def »end upou 

t ! M' nl one—his guilt or 

h haoce of esca|>c wus 

in the J >ner, wovd< I ajty, 

X>erU, h 1, would induotr 

M to plead guilt/. " The prisoner was 
further lolJ* that in the course' of a trial cir- 
cumstaucos oflen nro&e at the moment^ uji- 
,foir«eou hy all parliea. which dlacloaed the 
'truth ; tluit thia . ' 'ion was in his 

feivoar, if he were ii ' ijhowe<l at the 

ttm« tho' '1 '^^ chances of 

If ho \ , t of which 

nut he r L surmised, 

^outhf with f^errect aelf-nogfieasion, and 
nm tnmte&Af replied, *^I am imioeenty 
wtU take mjr trial'* He did so. Maaxy 
\\ Uoiira wore away, e^^ery moment 
ibig the prisoner's chance of acquittal. 
It aeemed utterly extinguished, when 
trifline matter which had e3eji{«ed the 
Mry of tbe narrator, occiuTed, leading him 
It «... .... i I . .1 ..♦ 'Luother [.jei-soUj 

pnsoner, had 

- .. - ^.-xiy was instantly 

Uunily, whether they knew of aiiy 

ibhuiee ; wlien it apiHiared that the ' 

Wftn^ had a (.*o\is)n so much like himself, 1 

Lt the two were frequently accostini in the j 

to far tite other. The cousin ' 

fv ' 

li doubtless ti-Tic, ' 

l«*t it ion could Luvti 

V' ' ' tQce of audi a 

J appeared iii>t , 
■J wus iL«suredly 
a, c«juld be in- 

■ Uy iift 


I tho re- 

[le couo^^I 

k.iirir CiiAe^ ex- 

I ¥ritjueiM*^d hati 

a mistake of 

nnrrntor *ilihj«l. thut an alili stood a less 


; place re- 

'..^y, hi CMM of the 

. .utrdcrto^ oofniniit***! 

which they thought oppressive to working 
mea, an aiilii he said^ na/l ^i*^-^^' ' '^''-octed, 
which was feueceBsful in «a^ ■ of a 

man notorioeiflly guilty, and v. i there- 

fore added to the disrepute of tliia qiecit<ii of 
defence. The hypothesis was, that the pri- 
soner, at the time when the crime win com- 
mitted, at Loughborough, sixteen miles from 
Nottingham, was engaged at a s\ip[>er-party 
at the hater place ; and tlie prisoner liiiviug 
the aympathy of a larae class in hia favour, 
whose battle he had been fighting, no diffi- 
, nlrv T.i;ii kvj^erienced l»y hla friends in liud- 
willing to mipport this hj-po- 
1 oaths ; hut it would liave been 
a la^ih LUi^ajs^uru to have called them into the 
box unprepai'ed. And whfu it in considei^ 
bow reathly a preconcerted storj' might have 
been destroyed ijy crosa-examination, the U\&k 
of pi'epariug the witnesses so aB to chide thia 
test, waa one requiring no ordui.'iry cmti and 
skill. ITio dan|«:er would arise thus :— Every 
witness would be kept out of court, except 
the one in the box. He would be asked 
whero he aat at the supper ] where the pri- 
soner aat, and each of the other giieal€ ; what 
were the dishes, what waa t!ie course of coa- 
veraatioD, and so forth— the queati^m* being 
capable of multipheatiou ad it^niium ; so 
that, howevc-r well tutored, the wttnei^ed 
would inevitably contradict each otber upon 
some matters, on which the tutor had not 
foreseen tliat the witness would be croas- 
examlned, or to whicJi he had forgotten the 
answer prescril>ed. The difficulty was, how- 
ever, siiruiount«d. After the priaooKr^a ap- 
prehension, the aelceted witnesses wore in- 
vited to a mackerel supper, which to<^>k place 
at an hour correa[xniding to that at which 
the crime waa committed ; and ao careful was 
the ingeuioua agcut who deviiied this conspi- 
rncy against the truth that, guided by a sure 
iiistijict, he fixed upon the a^une daj^ of the 
week a.*? that on which the crime h^wl been 
cuioiuitted, thoucjh without knowing how 
furluuute it would W fur the prisouei* Uiat ha 
tcujk this precaution. WbcUj on croflv-esttooi- 
iiation^ it was found tliat the vfitneaaes agreied 
as to the or<Ur in which the guesta wero 
seated, the contents of the tlisb^, the conveiv 
^atiun whidi had taken pUoe, and so forth i 
the counsel for the Crown 8uapect«xl the plot ; 
but utjt imngiuiii;^^ that it had been io dct- 
feetly c'hihn'niteJ, they inquired of their 
attorneys ,-w to whethta* there was any occur- 
rence )>eculijir to the ijay of the wetik in 
question^ a ud were toUl tluct upon the evcuing 
of sudi ilay, a pubhc Inll was always rung, 
wliiidi must have been heard at th^- -in.i.. i . it 
it had taken place at the tim* I. 

The witneises were ae^MiviUely • *^k 

and questioned as to the bell. They iiad all 
heard it ; and thus not only w*>re the cto(»- 
exauiiinera utterly l»affleil, but the cix*a»^ 
• xruuhmtiou gave tenfold support to the ex- 
n in chief, tbit is, to th« vvidciust 
( by the witueBaeH tu uiswer to th« 




queationa put by tlie priwner'a ooonsel iu his 

The triamph of falsehood was complete. 
The prisoner yvns acquitted. When however 
the attention of prosecutorB ia cidied to the 
possibiUty of such fubriciitiona they become 
less easy of management. The frietidn of a 
prisoner aie often known to the police, and 
may be watched — the actora may be miiprised 
At the rehearsfii ; a fklse ally may be inserted 
among them ; in abort there are many 
chances of the plot failing. Tliia however is 
an a^e of improvement, anil the thirty years 
which have elapeed aince the (Lijtb of Lucidijsm 
have not been a barren period in any art 
or science* The mystery of cookeiy in dishes, 
accounts, and acilis, has profited by this 
general aiivancemeiit. The latest device which 
my actjuaintance with rourta has brought to 
my knowledge is an alibi of a very refined 
and subtle nature. The hypothesis is, that 
the prisoner was walking from point A to 
point Z, fdon^ a distant road, at the hour 
when the crime was committed. The wit- 
nesses are aiippoaed each to see himj and 
some to convei"8e with him, at points which 
may be indicated by many or all the letters 
of the alphabet. Each witness must be alone 
when he sees him, so tliat no two may speak 
to what occurred at the same spot or moment 
of time ; but, with this reservation, each may 
safely indulge his im agination with any ac- 
count of the interview which he haa wit to 
make consistent with itself, and firmness to 
abide by under the storm of a crossHeiamina- 
tion. "The force of falsthood cnn no farther 
go." No rehearsal is necessary. Neither of 
the witnesses need^ know of the existence of 
the other* The agent gives to each witness 
the name of the spot at wliich he is to place 
the prisoner, Tlie witness makes biinaelf 
acquainted witli that spot, so as to stand a 
cross-cxaraiuHtlon as to the surrounding ob- 
jects, and his education is complete. But as 
panaceas have only a fabulous existence, so 
this exquijite aJiii is not applicable to all 
cases ; the witness must have a reason for 
being on the spot, plnuaible enough to foil the 
akill of the crcias-examiner ; and, aa false 
witnesses cannot be found at every tuni, the 
difficulty of making it accord with the pro- 
bability that the witness was where he pre- 
t^nids to have betm on the day and at the 
hour in question, is often insuperable ; to say 
nothing of the possibility ana probability of 
its being clearly established, on the part of 
the prosecution, that the prisoner could not 
have been there. I ehould mid, that, except 
in towns of the first magnitude, it must 
be difficult to find meudacioua witnesses who 
have in other respects the proper qualifi- 
cations to prove a concocted nhfn, save always 
where the prisoner is the champion of a 
class J and tnen, aecoi-ding to my experience, 
—sad as the avowal is, — the diihcuity is 
gre«fctly reduced. 

These incidents illustrate the aoundnesa of 

the well known proposition, ihnt imxture (wf 
truth with falsehood, augments to the highcit 
degree the noxious jvjwer of the venomoufl 
ingredient. That man was no mean proficient 
iu the art of deceiving, who first diBCoT«r«d [ 
the importance of the liar bemg p&rBimonlofn] 
in mendacity. The mmd has & stomacli 
well as an eve, and if the bolus be neat fal 
hood, it will be rejected like an overdose <^J 
arsenic which does not kill. 

Let the jurymaii ponder these tlungs, 
beware how he lets his mind lapse into a con- 
clusion either for or against the piiAonef. 
To pej-forui the duties of ms office, so that the! 
days which he spends in the jury-lwjx willj 
bear retrospection, hia eye, his ears, and hii] 
intellect must be ever on the watch. A^ 
witness in the Ixjx, and the same 
common life, are different creatures, 
to give evidence, "he doth suffer a law cii.j.nL; 
Sometimes he becomes moi-e truthful, aa 
ought to do, ]f any cliange is necessary ; 
unhappily this is not always so, and lea 
all in the case of those whose testimony is ( 

1 remember a person, whom I frequently | 
heaid to give evidence quite out of harmony] 
with the facts, but I shall state neither his] 
name nor his profusion. A gentleman wIm 
knew perfectly well the umpidatable d< 
nation which h\s evidence deserved, told 
of his death. I ventureil to think it vm 
loss which might be home, and touched 
hia infirmity, to which my friend repli< 
perfect sincerity of heart, ** Well f afterl 
I do not think he ever told a falsehood in 
lifii! — oiU of thi icUntix box / " 



Havtno made up my mind to sail 
Australia, my next care was to select a 
Thev were not so plentiful, so puni-itual, or ^ 
much puffed as they are now. For want 
knowing any better, and partly from a diaUkel 
to crowds that has always been part of my' 
chai-acler, and pcrlmps did much t<»^v4ird* 
making me happy in the Bush when frteuda 
and companions of the siune age were miser- 
able, I took a passage in a small, fa.»*t-sailinff 
brig, under two hundred tons burden, which 
Wits intended to be sold for a coaster in iht 
colony. The captain was ^oing out to settle ; 
he took his wife with him, but 1 was the only 
passenger. Captains on shore, and captains 
at sea are quite different creatures. This was 
one of the old school. On shore, he seemed 
like a jolly fellow, rough and good-natured^ 
at sea, he was a perfect brute, got drimk 
every evening, thrashed Ids wile, and ill-nsed 
his men j but, although profoundly ignorant 
on most subjects, a thorough seaman. 

On the moitting we were to sail, we lay in 
the strtiam of the Mersey, blue Peter flying 
and tmchor tnpi^ed ; we wjiited for the captain 
and mate ao long, it seemed as if we should 
miss the tide. At length he came, as fast us 



J 0/1 

i» jKiir of o(U*a coiild mill him, looking very 
usid tui|2T>* ; tio maii% but a strange man 
iiiiit^' in the stem sheets iHiside buii. It 
Jdiineiti the mate had given him the slip at 
le laBt Tnumeut, anil he hail )»e«*u oViligtid to 
ijjjnge the straDj^er, vith veiy littlo enqiiirv. 
'lis tu:in was a. lanky north couikLry miin, 
»» J. .ilU pale face, without wliiskcrs, iv 
f ill immense mouth, blfick yyti«, 

|uint, ami a costim^e of seedy 
he looked much more like a 
-ter than a aailor. He carried 
;t*l ol »>ca-faring clotliea in his band, 
the captain had been obliged to buy 
at the neare?jt slopshop. He })roug>it 
else, but a truge very light chest* and 
iU', But, in spite of hia 
^arance, and sliorc-going 
\i\ one© recognised him as 

Indeed, by the time he 

^ and loose trowsers, and 

fbrtnigiit of out* fare, if he did not grow 
»mer, lie seemed, at any rate, trans- 
Jed into the atyle of man that attracts 
nuidtTH of npplause in a minor theatre as a 
At lea^t, that wag ray im- 
aflcr a fortttight'f? landsman's 
* VI '[u Mij derk in the Bay of Biscay, 
" not " in mountains rolling," 
I'lbpnx)! ; and our mate, ]Vlr. 
'Q verj' much improved 
vjiter, taking his tiu'u at 
* old salt style," 
the long sea voyage half- 
iunl have come to the same 
1 at the end of my first — that 
ai tj \ :! V tyw who can do much real work 
h. Ou shore it is very eaay to prejKire 
■^e of study, lay in a st<jre 
1 1 when once you get into 
I th becomes a very Caatle 
it with Bea-sicknesLS, and 
IToH-^ voiir recover}', you 
!ti luied byeatinjf, 

^ .jj:, reUeved by 

'liuvci or pJ.wiiig a game at carrln. 
ttxceptioHF, w*, perhaps, on board a 
icrc ytjii ran -^'o a^liorc when you 
but, M :i ii.MirraJ rule, gossip and 
ly-aiid-wrvtor Aie the two greAt resources 
long voyo^jv* — more ghame to the weak- 

>f th*- r,:i^^.T-...v>v. 

Tor m\ lo I got my aea-lc^ 

hn^I •^^ . I to study, for the 

I ikiH wilf? were no companions to 
reati my atuie of book») twice over, 
^ice a rope, and, after a fashion, 
iC "«• «t»***r ; Ii»m1 a t;(X)d deal of chat 
d " ' I rds became one 

h, but the end 
' prejudice, 
the mate, 
' ■"■•'-' who 
it h(» 
, 11- not 
I J on was & ncceflsity 
i jubt he would have 

Lnn or a 


related his adventures to a Black 
Police officer, sooner than remain silent. 8o 
I iL3ed to sit smoking in the evening, and far 
on into the night, while he murmured away 
hia adventures in his strong northern buiT, 
like a talking niount^iin torrent. 

I soon found that my companion waa a 
finished scoundrel up to the chin, in every 
sort of rascahty. On shore I should never 
have spoken to him twice : at sea lie wm» 
amufling. He ha<l been every^^here, and 
in evei*y sort of cfftft, according to his o^ti 
account ; had had money and Mved in qjeat 
style, told storiei? of whales, slavers, In*liamen 
and pirates, by the dozen. He early conJidcd 
to me that nothing but misfortune woidd 
have driven him to engage in such " a miser- 
able little tub of a ci^t, imder such a know- 
nothing lubber aa Captain Glum. A misfor- 
tuue, Sir, that any gentleman might have 
fallen into." 

This misfortune he presently let me know, 
consisted in having been convicted of bigamy 
and sentenced to two years' imprisonment. 
He had only been discharged a couple of 
days, when he joined ua. To hear him, he 
was a victim, — just one of those heroic vic- 
tims of London pasaiona one meets with hi 
French and German novels. He ended hi.'i 
story by saying, 

" So 1 've piud the penalty ; and now I 'm 
free, and next time I shaJl manage better." 
For he had his eye on a tliird wife. 
After thi^i, before tuiming in for that night, 
he begged a couple of shirts of me. 

A lew days stifterwards he again drew me 
into convet*sation, saying, 

" Excuse me, but I ^ve been thinking what 
ft pity it id that a smart, clever young gentle- 
man like you, should go to bury yourself up 
in the linsh, l:>eyond Sydney there. I've 
been uj) there myself, once ; but there 's uo 
life, no fim, nothing suitable — nothing go-a- 
head, aa the Yankees say. The aea'a the 
thing for a man of spirit.'* 

'*f thought there waa very little to he 
done at sea, now-a-days.*' 

'* No more there is in the old jog-trot ; but 
yon have behaved very much Eke the gentle- 
man, and I don't mind telling you a thing or 
t wo. I 've been ui a whaler hailing from 
Sydney ; and it wasn't wludefl we made our 
money by, I can tell you. Tlie time, it 'a 
about five years ; we *d been out four months 
after sperm whale, and done next to nothing. 
I was second mate ; the first mate waa a 
Yankee, and the e;iptaiu was A native Aus- 
traban. The crew were a lot of all sorts and 
colours. One of << i 
New Zealander, aii 
Hudson^s Bay^. Ivmi 

'rupoonera was a 
I. hiUf-breed from 
pi one seamen among 
trusted ashore. AVefl 
nibbling aboat our bad 
lera are manned on th© 

i(and I 

them, but not to be 

there was a regular 

luck ; for you see wl 

'lay.* No wa^es, every man baa a share in 

the take. I 'd noticed the captain and the 

mate very thick, iawing together in a whispei 



up and down the qnarter-deck ; »od to one 
day, it was & Suuday^ miDil. tbe oaD^m slips 
into the cabin mid »oon afler aetiaft for me. 
Tliere whb be with the sitiril-caiae before hiju, 
aiid the maHe sitting cheek by jowl. ' Take a 
Beitt. A slnsa of grog, Mr. CUnk ;* aays be, 
ciiifce civU, &ud the mate geta up and shuts 
toe door ; ' ht^lp yourself ;' ai»d witlk that he 
aboitiiii tlie njim ovor to tue, 'and doti^l spoil 
it with water.* You may believe I dian't 
Wiiit for twice askix^ ; and it wa« prime 
gtuir, flurely ; slipped down oue*» thr*>at like 
new milk. ' Take another/ says he ; and 
when he aaid that, I knew there was mi&- 
ohiof up, let alone hie lj«iug so civil. When 
I'd d rawed my breath, the captain began 
again — 

"'Bad luck «o fer, Mr CHauk ; we Bban'l 
lia^^u much to tnke home far our wives and 
flWeolheartSj at thia rate.* 

" 'Wit no/ says I, * we couldn't have been 
more unlucky i/ we \1 bad a black cat or a 
parson aboard.^ 

** ' And yet/ ptita in tbo mat«, * tbere 'a 
better thinga than whaled to be found in these 
seas sometimes for thone that have the pluck 
to pick tb(im up ! * I could me the captain 
WMJS watching me all the time. 

** 80 I ajiswei-s, rather blow, * Well I'm game, 
nfl long lis it *fl follow my leader.' The cnptain 
gives a deep * <?/*/ as if he was satiftfied, and 
tuniiu|» to the mate, with a wink, aaya, ' Well 
I think we may pat her about/ and «o he 
oflfcrywl hifl box of Maaill.'ifl Iti take my choice, 
which I took for a hint to baek out. 

*' That night we shifted our counc until we 
got right Into the Strait« of Bnnda, 

" Due afternoon, a short tinuo after this ttdk 
in the cabin, the mute cal' nd putv 

hiB glafla into my hand, uiv to take 

tk squint at sometldug righi^ .i^.tva on our 
BtArnoard bow. 

*' ' What do you make out ? * saya bp. 

" ' John Chiniunan/ Ksiys I, ' a regah*** 
^oidt'B ark j one, two, three, a regular fleet 
of junka.* 

" ' That *8 juift it/ «ayB the mate. ' thfane are 
better tbAD sperm whales. That 8 the Mon- 
ftoon fleet going down to buy ^oods at Singa- 
pore. There's a merchant in every one of 
ih<me junks with a mbin like a parlour, a 
repilar ahop all to hinMelC He has his eooda 
alf nicely packed in small Wbckai;^, and his 
money in silver ingots and do&rB in jam 
ranged round like an anothecary'a 9biO|> ; la 
Aa Moon as it 'a duak, I think we must go and 
do a bit of trade with the ^^inanian * 

*" I dropped down in a minute. You loEiow, 
Sir, I wouVl nc»t, on any account, have done 
auythiag ivc|;iunHt Chrif<tiauB like ourselves, 
but you see to take auv'tl ing from tlieae 
Pagans, with their Idol.? and tho J* Joss Honuiea, 
wn:- : ' ' iliug the l^j'pliau — spoiling the 
E^-. 1,"* 

;vi . . J ..;.Laig friend, who had Iteen drinking 
all the time at my exnense, said this with a 
sort of hypocritiod suiiffle, quite indeacribable ; 

perhaps be was afnud of S"m^ f ha fhr 

mc. He continneil, "We \ 

on till it was dnrk, just kt< 

in view. I had a couple 

and ^ome picked hatids, a I 

a dozen hfuidspikiaj at tlie 

under a sail. Wr Raid n\ 

to have a trad*' " ■ '• '^ 

lights of the jv 

by ; we did it : 

could be. The first junk the cnrw 

anleep until we were on deck, tl 

waa a be.'tvy climb, but we had bouL* 

that all ready. 

" The mate knew whcr*' 
to lie found, walked strai 
Imt three kept ' " '- 

than half an h' 
haLf'ft-doiten buu.i-- ■•. -.. 
flfiOond jonk we bad to 'v^ 

tbott^ generally a do^^en v p 

before one of aur «ort. A u 

a very good night of it, .n u.i^ 

were clean out of sight ; smd we pUr^ i\al\ 
game as long as the season histcfi. T*»f ^mp 
were very well Biitiafied ; we i* ii 

Americ^m Porta, and gf»t riil .4 

knowing. WlK*n we got 
my shai^ was bett<?r tli 
ponuda. I don't know wLji. u^v ^j^LUi. ^ 
to the ownem, but they seemed ven- nrfl 
content to rtsk no qucstiona.** 

** Why, ^rood heavens ! ** I 
and foolishly exclaimed, at tli 
rascally relation, *Hhat waa r.*ir 

" Oh no, Sir, otdy not lik<- i ' 
square-rigged »hip ; those > 
Iowa, with their pigtails, w 
on their oathfl ; oidy ; 

So sajing, be took 
It was too duHk itndri ' 
sail for me t-o ma I he exju 
tenance, or ibr him to see ll..:. .... ......... .... 

montbtHl his pet phnise as if it hndbeen 
answer to evtrrythln^'. 

Warming with the grog, ai> 
wliich he took for coiiatmt. he i 
"Why, Sir, tliat s nuthing to M,iuJL ,1 iiuiA 
of mine did to get a cur^n r^f Fi-»mhd-woaL 
You Hee he was master of n i.tHmer b 

the sandal wood trade— 1 -irtcrb^ 

trade with the* S+Jutli ' vrhc» xr« 

most of them fierce jumr .tf 

them canjiibals. He . .^ -^^tj 

well and went into [trirt ' Iv of 

airticles for bart4?r, and )i , , ^vd 

spree he did, to that extent that he not oi4y 
spent all his money, but, when be came to mr 
sober, he found he had married a \ns9 thai hi 
certainly would not have chosen if he had 
known it ; a regubr vixen, above five fe-et Ua^ 
with a colour like a rose, an<l a lot of &2r 
hair Uiat huns to her waist nearly ; a real 
beauty ; but when her back waa np, and that 
wsjB aVx>ut twice a day, she *d smaah eveir- 
thing and everybody near. Well, here was a 
pretty ooDoem, his money spent and a 



oil his luwdii tb&t would run him iti more 
dtibt in A mootU tlmo be eoatd pay off in a 
year* However, it wns done ; he could not 
give up the i>ort, it wn* too {irofitabie ; so ha 
V' ' I ij cAse over ddmly, &iid »ood uiAde 

'^' '1 his wKb to go to sea for a 

h ake W1U vei-y wiUing to do. 

t^eks «he'd given the capt^n 

ttud brt»d a lantiny. The men came 

i^Ved on tlie lady b*?iug put aab'^re ; 

however my friend managed to paciff them. 

" At length thev roached the Sandal Wood 
IblAnd and Kiiig Settle came on board ; an 
Indiriu king, bo called because he had made 
a crttwn of a bright copper kettle. The 
cnptoiu pr^einted him with ti second-hand 

<*•■(■ '■ - - *>t. beAldcs other valuables, and 

to his wifti, who divided the 
i . Mtion with the coat ; he liad 

n<>ver seen any white woman but on old one 

*'The captain wejit on shore with King 
Kcttiii, and thtt next day without the usuiS 
deliVR, the luttivea bemui bringing: a cargo of 
KiudVl wood down to tlie bea<.:li ; thc\ L'ot. the 
t^Ui^al lot I evtir saw ; when it was loaded, 
King Kettle invittni the captain and hia lady 

1 .J. .... fr, a feast and dunce. T will aay 

e was afndd of nothing ; the 

iJl the crew, recommeiids her 

not to gOf and that makes her positive Uiat ahe 

woulii. Bhi; put* on a %ht green satin dreea 

witli rea, scarlet satin turban with 

tat V her, all her hair hangii^ in 

curls down her Wk, and a pair of pocket 

pistoU in her ttelt^ She looked so grand, for 

all thi* CTCW w«' ■ with her goings on, 

they gave her • n when she stepped 

•"' T;un came back 

^ ifo would stop, 

: body but one 

tor arming a boat, 

At any lute, they 

kIioi and made sail, for it was a place 

m^^^\' titan one gljip's company had 

HoT**ever, there were people 

it ho sold his wife to Kiu^ 

' ipua cai-^'o of sandal-wood ; and 

Ive montliH aft^r, newij came that 

'■ '''^^ ^' ^ lipping hid white wife 

' patieiice exhausted 

1 , uqI only killed but 

eaten her, according to the custom of the 

count r}' : my fi'leiuT'* only remark was an 

of woDfier vhettier he digested 

luse,' says he, *if he did, King 

only person abd ever couS 


•w, who wtis 
V heeded him. 


up. W 

•li ;,t. 1-^ 

' ' nie finished me 

Ut aud a very 

j^ !• » dige^iou, 1 

tttrn»"*l 111'. ;rt^'!]. • r'l,-.-; J..;i,].-1 my pistols and 

put l!i. ::. :;i. '• , i,, -, ;, ,;.,vi, , \|v .b-...',tn< wcre 

■ liL 'r v.,.,r., . odd 

■ ■ > 11, 11 .Lij-.plair, ■ I. ■ ■! L^ienJy 

i'loiu ihe uaLui security of civiU^attoa to the 

middle of th« jcean, boond uy in Um spHAe ot 
a few squaie feet, oertidnly without a friend, 
and probably with a felon< 

I wa& awakened by a fearful cry, and rushed 
upon deck at the same time as the captain. 
Tnere was a large idaip bearing right down 
upt»n UH, the man at the wheel in his fright 
threw the brig up into the wind. 

" Starboard," roared the captain to the 
stranger ship, snatching np a speaking 
trumpet. " StarlMjard" we all shrieked in 
choma, the shrill voice of the captain's wife 
above all. Through the moonlight I saw 
somctliing white dash at the wheel of the 
sttauger, aud Just aa her bowsprit was over us 
she paid slowly off, and pa«t us, grinding along 
our stem with a soimd that chilled me to my 
heart. We were saved. Tb-^ .-int-Mfi'a wife 
I fell on her knees and retnmtM r our 

jwondcrl'u] escape; most of u 1 her 

example, but ^^en Uie mate, who had been 
lying in a drunken sleep on deck, came up 
rubbing his eyes, the captidn auatched up & 
handspike and knocked hmi down ; the mate 
junlpt^d and Dew on him like a tiger, but 
the crew were too quick for him and got him 
down ; lu the mean time the captain had run 
for his pistols, but after a great row the mate 
went forward, and we all coiled down again 
in our berths. 

A few days ailerwarda, the water turned 
bftd. The owners^ to save money, had given 
us half-cleansed beer-boirelB, so It wiia decided 
to put into Bio de JaoeiiH:i. After the 
running-down night, the mate had been dis- 
rated, and sent fonsard among the men, for it 
was his watch, and it seemed as if the watche« 
in bfjth vessels bad been asleep. Frtmj that 
time he was never sober. He nad found out 
the way to bore a hole m a cask of nmi, and 
suck at it through a thin bamboo tube every 
evening at dusk. 

I was sitting one morning reading Don 
Quixote for the second time, wneu Clank came 
with a piece of wood in his hand, and asked 
me to lend him a large case-knife, that, among 
other foolish thinga stuck into emigrants, I 
had purchased for my outfit, I hnuded il to 
him without a word; he went stiiL* V' ' '' >* 
grindstone and bcijau to aharijeu it. 
cried impudent Bttle Duds, the ...,....>, 
"are you going to kill a pig this morning; I A 
bit of freda meat woidd be a tre?;t.'* " You 
shall have fresh meat enough in five minutes,*' 
was the answer. "I'm going to cut that 
Infernal captain's Hver out I ** and with that 
he si>rang at the captain, who wjia just coming 
on deck. As Inck would have it, one of the 
men, a sharp fellow, was condng aft, with a 
handspike. In an instant he threw it ao 
cleverly, it took the mate between the legs 
and flung hiui flat ; the knife flew out of his 
hand overix>aixl, his head striking the captain 
in the middle of his fat paunch, upset him. 
Two or three of us jumped on top of the 
mate, who b*3gr\n to howl like a demon, and 
no wonder ; lor» in my anxiety to keep him 


down, I never thought of the cigar in my 
iiioMlli, and all the time the crow were? nmkin;^ 
A tftrt'ead eagle of liim, I wiis Imming a hole 
ui uie back of his neck with the red end of it. 

We ina/le Jiiin hnrd and fast, for he was 
raving mad with d^firimn trt^frwnjt. To coid 
him, every time the watch wiw called, the 
cnptain Imd n bucket or two of Bait water 
tliroT^Ti over him. 

Four days before we rcRched Rio, a low, 
lon^, black schooner hailetl and asked very 
aiixiouBly for news fi-om Eiuope. They sent 
a boat aboard us, and we all fully thought we 
were in for a regular clearance. Tlie officer 
in eommand, a olack-bearded, neat-looking 
little fellow, epoke broken English witli a 
French accent. Whether it wtm that they 
were only alavei's, or that we were not worth 
robbing, or that they bad better btnniness on 
liund ; after accepting a file of newspapers, and 
asking me C8y>ecially, a.s I spoke French, what 
news from France, thej'^ were about to depart, 
when t)ie officer'* eyes' fell upon our prisoner 
in chains. 

With a start, and a French oath, he ex- 
claimed, "T'icn eeat toi, Monsieur Loiiche, 
tpie diable fait-tii ioi?" 

Tlicn followed a wlii.>4pering, which ended 
by the Frenchman coolly aaylng to the captain, 
" Dw ia a fni'iitl nf ndue ; I vil save yo\i de 
trouble of taking him any more/' With that 
they hurrierl into theu* l>oatt and in a t*ew 
minutes we had seen the last of the Dominie, 
ftfl a Scotch sailor had named him. 

Yearsi pasBed before we met again. 


I SAW two trees. Tl»e one wna fair and high. 

And threw its leafy branchea roand it wide ; 
So perfect was its filiapo, that ov'n the sky 

Bt»eincd proud to have that space tUuii occupied : 
Yet was it noUow ; all its heait. wm gone ; 
But yoar by year it swell'd and ttourifih'd on. 

The other was by grandeur bo untnxLrk'd, 

Tliiit it wis acaros distinguish 'd whem it Rtood 

With many more — somotimo before inip^u-k'd 
From the lui»t vertigo of an ancient wood — 

But though braall glorj' clotbod it os it grow. 

Its heart was to the core Btiil sound and true. 

And AB it plcaHod the lord of that domain 
At length to try the truth of those two oaks, 

The proud one with a few sbarp clefts was Klain ; 
The humble one sustained a thousand strokes ; 

And when at length at eveutide it fell, 

A nobler fall was not in uU the dull. 

Tbe proud oue, yielding little but its dreaj, 
Was left upon the spot to rot away ; 

The humble one lived still — in uso to bless, 
Tn ornament to chana, from day to day^ — 

Transfcnr'd into the mansion's fitirost roomi 

Whei'o Genius flings round Art itamortal bloonu 

Also I knew two men, like those two trce^i : 
The one was in profeasion grfsat and high^ 

And scoru'd the other, who could not so please 
^^'ith much display the HuperficiaJ eye. 

ViTio docs not see how mock tnie worth may stand, 

Wliilst great pretence would cumber all the landT , 

For he (the humbler) powerful was, but n\ilil- 
Teacher of teachers, strong, profottild, but clear ; 

Uuoftcatatious as a K' ' ' ' ', 
Yet in sagacity an r * 

And thotigh hiH day> \ .^ .... n public spent. 

He gave o^'ain, through man, what God had leut 

And while an epitaph upon a wall, 
WTiich many criticise, but few believe. 

Now of the faded PhariBee tells all — 

KjEcepting what he did to make ua gnevc — 

His aeighbour's uses dwell in Wisdom's hearty 

jVnd imbo all his race their good import. 


When the child of the Lancashire or York- 
shire ojierative first sees the litrht, it is aj?!«viled 
by every pofisible dinadvit ^ ►' >t can stunt 
its growth and enfeeble m ' . It ih dis- 

armed for the battle of In -. ihroihold of 
existence,— its liniVis are palsied liy ilrugs, and 
deformed by ca.rele3s nursing, sona-tLmeB by 
crimimd nursing. The expense of providing 
for her family drives the mother to the 
factory, and learla to tlie employment of an 
ignorant hireling nurse, wh<>, to wtrn the 
pittance with a minimum of ■ c ' * s 

to the chemist's shop, and pu) s 

CordiaL With this notable mu\i um -u« 
rt-'turns to her charge, stttjtitio."* it, and no rai-na 
'' peace and qiiietneay,*' ftra^iually nhe f\in\s 
that the Cordial has not the nil ctfect, — that 
it is not strong enough ; to remedy this, she 
adds a little lauduuuin, or, nmyhap, some 
cnide opium, to the mixture, antl a;?«tn is her 
charge as quiet, almost, as death, s; ^^ 

her miraery ; "takes cni-o of," perl t 

or nine infanta, and becomes a goo<t cil^n hht 
to her neighbour, the chemist. 

Indisputable facts prove the extent to which 
this system is adopted. Walking about Man- 
cheJ^tor and Biruiingham, advertisements of 
" Mothers' quietness," '* Soothing SjTup," 
arrest the attention at evety turn. It is easy 
to perceive that the druggists are cbivinga 
go(Kl ti-atle— that the nuiet homes of the pool- 
reek with narcotics. The Eeport of the Board 
of TIcalth fnniishes some appalling facts on 
this head. In Preston, twenty-one druggisfci 
sold, within the space of one week, no less i% 
quantity than sixty-eight pounds of narcoticai, 
nearly ail of which were for the use of chil- 
dren ; and the calculation of the quantity of 
Godfi^y'a Corfial sold in Preston, gave a 
weekly allowance of half an ounce to each 
family ! Genemlly, Godfrey's Cordial is mixed 
in the proportion of one ounce and a half of 
pure laudanum to the quart,, and the stronger 
it ia the faster it is sold. It may be had at 
public-houses and gener;^ ;is well aa 

at druggists' ; and on m he people 

fi'om the surrounding nci«4iiiMni! noods regu- 
hirly provide themselves with this " mother's 
comfort," .IS they purchase other houaehold 
provision,^. AWjut two thousand gallons of 
Goilfrey's Cordial are sold in Manchester 
(done every year. .Mr. F. C. Calvwi, »t t 





rectifit meeting at Manolieistcir, stated tliat in 
one chemist ^5 ishop m Deansgal*, two htmdreHi 
wid fifty gatlotis wer© stdd lu the course of a 
yeKtf the same quantity in a shon, one hun*ii*ed 
g|dloiitt per annum in another, the same q\ian- 
Ijtv in a abop in Hulme, and twenty-five 
fifailons cadi in two shops in Chorlton-on- 

l*hcse nurae^ to whom the childi'en of the 
fiictory people are entmated, are either lauD- 
di-easefi or superannuated crones. The more 
they drug the children entnistetl to them, the 
iJTrvat^LT n\imbcr they can undertake to mani^e. 
This consideration act* as a powerfid incentive 
to drug. 

Thiit wholesale death is the result, is fully 
prove4l. Among the genti^ in Preston, for 
instance, tlie avei"age number of deiitha of 
children under live years old was seventeen 
p*r cent, ; among tradesmen, about thirty- 
eight per cent. : and among operativea fif^y-tive 
per o-'tit Of every one hundred children bom 
among the gentry, ninety-one reach theii* fii-st 
year ; eighty among the trading classes ; and 
sixtviiignt among the operatives. The vital 
statiHtic^ of l*rei4ton for six years show that 
no leas than three thousand and thirty-four 
children were swept away before the}^ had 
attji" ' " i fifth year, who, had they been 
the f wealthy paj"ent«, would liavc 

survi,,_ ^ ,.-..., jferiod of their childho^Kh 

But, of all the localities epeeitied in the 
return of the Boar«i of Health, ABhton is 
the nn>st fiicn^L The proportion of infant 
deaths in thia Godfi-ev's stronghold ia thirty- 
four per cent. In I^fottingham it is thirty- 
three per cent. ; in Maneuester, thirty-two 
pCT cunt. ; Bolton, thirty-one j>er cent, ; Lei- 
eester, Salford, and Liverpool, thirty per 
oent* These towna may be chissed as the 
heAd-<)uarter8of factory labour — the localities 

whe-- ^i,..r^ ni^e away from their children 

iroui J t after nightfall. In London 

the J , li of infant deaths is twenty- 

ihrm per cent. ; in Pl>Tuouth, twenty-one per 
cent. ; and in Both, Shrewsbuiy, and Reading, 
twenty-one per cent. In these places mothers 
generally atiend to their own otTspring. A 
v.i8t proportion of the mortality in Alau- 
cbetiter 19 that of children under the age to 
hibtjur in the mills. More than fort^'-eight 
per cent, of the deaths in Manchester are 
thofse of sufferers under the age of five yeaw ; 
and more than fifty -five per cent, are under 
the api of ten years ; while in the aggre- 
gate of purely rural districts the proportion 
la not more than thirty-three per cent. Dr. 
Charlea Bell, in tho course of a speech deli- 
vered in Manchester, at a meet'uig convene*! 
to consider the propriety of establishing Bay 
Nurseries in that town, stated, that " tfiirty- 
eight p^r cent of poor children died, who 
would not die if they were properly attended 
to." Mr. Clay's inveatigation-S showed, tliat, 
out of about eight hundred famUies of nmr- 
ried men employed in the millB of Preston^ 
Uie children living in each family averaged I 

27, dead, 1*0; an/1 that seventy-aix out of 
every hundred had died under five years of 
age. Yet this calculation does not ffive us a full 
conception of the mvages which death makea 
amongst the children of the p«x»r ; inafimuch 
as the investigator declare-a, that, of the eight 
hundred families he examined, only one hun- 
dred and thirty-three mothers appeared to be 

We have adduced sufiicient evidence, how- 
ever, to prove two important facta ; namely, 
that an extensive system of careless nui-aing 
and criminal drugging is puj'sued in the manu- 
facturlng towns of Eaiglaiid, and that, amouj^t 
those classeii by whuiu this system is carried 
on, the rate of mortality is thirty-eight per 
cent- higher than amongst those clasat^ where 
children are properly clothed, fed, and cared 
for. Absence of samitory precautions, in- 
«utficient food, and, in many cases, the nulure 
of thi'ir employment, increase the mte of mor- 
tality amongst the ai'tisan claisiea ; but tliese, 
it would uppeiir, from the maas of authentic 
evidence wliich liea before ua, are inlluencea 
of minor Lm[>Qrtance when taken in relation 
to the streams of laudanum and aniseed which 
stupify their childhood. Much baa been 
litely written on the degeneration of race in 
our manufacturing towua. Many writers 
have phtcal thia physical decline to the 
account of the loom ; but it ia fair to inter- 
pose the drugs upon which weavera are 
suckled. It ia reasonable to attribute the 
atunted forma, the bloodlew cheeks, the 
nerveless limbs, which are to be met in the 
^eat factories of England and France, to the 
torsaken cradle rather than to the labour of 
the workshop. Mr. John Gi-eg Harrison, one 
of the factory medical-inspectors, thus de- 
scribes the effect of the drugging system : — 

" The consequences pi"oduced by the system 
of tirugging fhildren, are, suffusion of the 
bmin, and an t?x tensive train of meaent^'ric 
and gkmdular diseases. The child sinks *mto 
a low torpid state, wastes away to a skeleton 
except the atomacK producing what is known 
as pot-belly. If the children survive this 
treatment, they are often weakly and stunted 
for life. To tliis drugging ayatem, and to 
defective uuraing its certain concomitant, and 
not to any fatm effect inherent in factory 
labour, the great infant mortality of cotton 
towns must be ascribed." 

Those who regard the rapid increase of tho 
population with dismay, and ai'e prone to 
foaier any system whicli tends to diminish 
the great circle of tho human family, will 
perha|)3 be inclined to throw a veil Ij^efore this 
child-fihiughter, and to let the deadly system 
effect an ext^imve emi^*ation of souls fix>m 
this world ; but to those whose human 
sympathies are quickened at a tale of grievous 
Boeial wrong committed upon helpless child- 
hood, who .acknowledge fully the sanctity of 
life — that life ia to l>e cared for before all 
other human considerations — the drugKing 
syatem, of which we have faintly sketched an 






ouOiDe, will appear as an c'vll aiid » ]niVjlic 
BtigniiL, to be removed at any nrfc or ct>9t. 

A& it is iinposHible, in the present Rtat< of 
thingH, to remove the mother from the factoiy. 
tlic point to whicii att>ention must be conceti- 
tTHt^il, IB to the means of providing tht* safest 
ciisttjdly for her Infant during her absence. 
The B^>licitude with which niat^iriial duties 
are dischai^ed, cannot perhaps bo hired at 
any coet from a etranper ; yet, aa we shall 
ahow, a well regnlatW system of nursing, 
under scientific and other responnible supei^ 
vinion, may supply all the physical requisite© 
of which infancy stands in need. Motherly 
tenrlenierjS cannot, perhaf>9, be guaniuteed at 
Bo much per khis» but a judicious selection of 
expcrieno«l and well-diBpORcd nureea, under 
the control of ladies* comraitteea, may be 
saft^ly relied upon to provide all that ih 
^WHitively necessary to the health of uncon- 
Aciou«i infancy. 

Home few yean ago, M. Marbean, who i» 
known to jiolltical etu dents aa the anthor of 
various worku on jxilitical economy, wna 
employed by the civil anthorities of France 
to rejK'rt on the state of the infant schools of 
Paris. He pursued hi« investigations with 
enthusiasm. He saw how well the state pro- 
Yided for children from two to six years old ; 
how admirably the primiiLTV schools for more 
tuivanced chihlreu worketf, and finally the 
national gratuitous atlult classes abounded, 
where the jioorest — ^the pauper and the work- 
man — might acquire Bomid and in\'igorating 

tfiiia admirable machiners* gtmck him, how- 
ever, aa being easentially and rjulically de- 
fective. It provided lor the mental growth 
of children above two years old ; but where 
w;i« the provision for the firat tvo years of 
exifrtenco 1 In whose hands were the infants 
of thos*^ poor women who were employed from 
home throughout the day 1 His investiga- 
tions into this matter, diacloRed a system of 
infant training that sufficiently accovinted for 
the Iftj-ge proi>ortion of deaths amongst the 
children of th*e poor. He forthwith suteiitted 
to the authorities a schemo for the establish- 
ment of criehes (or cribs) in the different 
BuburVjfl of Paris. These institntions were to 
be Dny-Nurseriesi for the chiMren of the 7>oor. 
With the help of a few charitalily-tlispoaed 
uidtvkluols, M. >farbeau opened the first 
public cr^he. which he dcscniies in hta work 
on the Bubject : — * 

" The superior of the So?nrs de la Sagesse 
provided, noar the house of refuge, which is 
under her care, a very hnrabJe place, but 
which sufficed lor our first attempt. This 
place was pot at our disposal on the 8th, tuid 
oti the 18th of November our troche was 
opened. Tts funiitnre consisted of a very 
few chMTS, some baby chain*, a cnjcifix, and k 
framed copy of the ruled of the establishment. 
The cost of its fitting np was barely three hun- 

* Wo quote Uio pft«Mi£« M trv tiWtl 11 traiuvULtMl, \}j a Udy, 

dred and sixty franca (nearly fifteen poundflr). 
At first there were but eight cradles; but 
charity ^ocm furnished meana BufiSdent for 
twelve ; and Unen was plentifaUy eapplied, 

" The finperin tending eomixuttee cnose two 
nurses amongst the pool* women out of work; 
both were mothers, snd worthy the confidence 
of other mothers. Agreeably to the rul^ 
laid down, the committee refosed to admit 
any other children but those whose mothers 
were poor, well conducted, and who had work 
at a distance from their own homes. At first 
there were scarcely twelve children, but thie 
number waa soon exceeded. When the 
CWclie St. Louis d'Antin wfia opened^ there 
was not one single child registered there ; a 
week afterwards there were oz cuudidatea, 
and a month aiter that, eighteen. They were 
obliged to enl:irge it. There can be nothing 
more interesting, tluin tlie ait'^'' "•' ^^^^ little 
criche between two and thr- when 

the mothers come wid eucki njdreii 

for the second time in the day ; they seem ao 
pleased to embrace their little ones, to rest 
firom their work, and to liless the institution 
which proeares them so many benefits. One 
of them used to pay seventy-five centimes 
(sevenponoc-halfpcnnv) a day — half her own 

earnings — and tne ciild was bad? -' rl 

to ; she now only i>ays twenty ), 

and he aa well taken care of aa thv ^ . — w. :i 
rich man. Another kept her little Ix^y, eiirbt 
years old, from school, to look after tlie luaby, 
and now he ia able to attend school regularly. 
Another ia pleased to tell you that her hu** 
band has become leas bnital since she ]iaid 
ten Hous less for her child — ten aotis a A'd^y 
make such a difference in a ynjor fumily. 

" There is another, who wjis only n mfiiied 
a fortnight ago, suckling her new-born child. 
She ifl askeonow abe would have done with- 
out the crichc f 

" ' Ah ! Sir, it would have been m it vrns 
with his poor brother. I sell apple?*, him] can 
scarcely earn fifteen sous a day ; i t 

spare fourteen to have hiiy l r, 

I'oor Utile fellow! he died when hi s, li m- 
teen months old, from want of can < ! Sir, 
my little angel would have Vjeen a, 

if there had been a criche six mr i 

M. Marbean^B experiment I ' d 

in variona parts of Fraud , 

with uniform imoc^as. In 1 
nuraerifii open every morning ;i h I ; ^ ' \c^, 
and dose every evening at li.«h |«,. t - i-iit— 
that IB, they open hwf-an-hour before the 
time at which work is usually commenced in 
Paria, and dose half-an-hour after the time 
at which work is generally over for the 
<Uiy. The children arc required to be under 
two years of age, arid the ofEspring of poor 
and well conducted parenia. No child is 
admitted till h haa been vacdnated, or while 
it is ill. Tliis latt«r cause of exclusion de- 
clares the infancy of the institution. Day- 
ntirseries without an infirmary or faick ward 
attached to them, can be calj a partial boon 




!oua poor. The motlier bringa 

r!y wrajjt up and provided 

1 'y ; crtteuds piujctuully at 

suckle h^ jujj fetches it 

i«e inflititutiun in the even- 

dtl by the mothers ymr 

. .^ lwoj]»enc'e, and tiireepeuce 

for i ''iL I'he nuraes are apjhjinted 

:tn.J ' tlu lady mnnttgfi"s. The room 

> I i and the diet stud other 

ijider the inuiiediate direc- 

lunj I \ unpointed mt,*dical men rmd 

lady ^ In most of these niii-serits 

tlieV*: in a. iiuiltre^ in the middle of the chief 

ApArtment. wbt^re the childivu can be laid at 

• ' ' f. ly. At the pre«eut 

-Ive of these useful 

■i},r..i,,'l...,.r Paris. 

Li was 

ijr'7i'.'> , , Ms^ the 

wumbcr of chiidi^u iu wiiich av«rug»*<i li'om 

Iwriitv f^ve to eii^hl^\ at a C04»t avei-agiugj for 

it, ttom Bixty to seventy ceutiiacs 

AL. iSJLai'besi.u'8 exp^jrimeut haa l>een imi- 
lat^'d in Eiii^laud^ aud it is to its extension 
tlutt we de«iie tu iliaw t^fjeciaJ attention. 
Liist March, u Iiouse waj? o|jtfned in Nassau 
Stittl, Marylehone, fur tht? reeeptiou of in- 
6iLil«; and lately a nursen, under the control 
of the pai\»chijil authorities, has been etsL'tb- 
U^Kxl at Kei\:?Iugtou. The Nuasaii Street 
tiur*trry oontidus two large airy rooms. It i* 
fund*licd with eight wlnvwork cradle^s. All 
cKildmi admitted must be the offspring of 
lit*. They must be V3iccinAte4l, 
I the aiies of three mouths aiid 
' ' ■ JH for daily fotwl and 
|jer child, and four- 
J-. .ji. .^ .^-. Luiiily. The authors 

»jf the [■ 1 " Day-Nurseiies," 

edicw i-vi: ^ tliut these charges 

HTii not suJiicjent to maintain a self-support- 
ing niu^sery ; but that five pence per diem 
wdl sufiice for the proper cai-e and feeding of 
fWrt infant. A r^<'ent nieeting of influential 
^ater L'la elucidated in a 
luer the subject of Day- 
II I'* jjirihop of Maij'-'heater very 
y declai-ed, tliuit *' it wii.-, not merely 
u. .......1 per ct'ut^u'e— the IhirLy-eight in 

fcvejy hundred who died— but the iuimitely 
worse sixty-two who lived— lived to be ti-aineil 
to habits of idleness^ axul to l>c driven to 
habits of diaaipation." The Bishop ahjo 
*iupi>ort« the views of the authors of "Day- 
Nurseries*' on tlie ^-oint that thf-»e nuraeriea 
should not bi. itiouB, but 

»elf-tiup]HJrtiiJg :ljunetl by 

the co-openitiou >j\ iia- \. This 

i« a judidouB and a whu^ :ortl' 

ing t-o the caloul.vtion Uj-i^ u-v i mother 
might send her child to a " Day-NuPbery," 
whiiru i t would receive e%*ery comfort, incl » i ■ t u mt 
vbohrsome foo^i wid eouud medical car 
the weekly cliATge of haif-a-crown. I, 
the ppeaent drugving system, mothers usually 

pay the washerwomen, to whom they are 
obliged to commit their babes throughout the 
day, from four to five Bhillings we<3tly. On 
the score, therefore, of pecuniary economy, no 
\v9s than in discharge of tliat fiaci'ed duty 
which the ]mreijt owes to the helrdeaa beinir 
he has broug^ht into the world, tne working 
man whose wife Ls away from home through- 
out the day, is bound to aid, as far as he is 
able, in the immediate estabUfiliment of 
wholct^ome, well-direc^ied NuTBeriea. 

The Committee of influential townsmen 
now fiDrmed at Manchester to establish such 
Nunaeries throughout their great manufac- 
turing city, can do little if they be not 
auijported by the workpeople. 

It haa been urged, in opposilioa to the 
establishment of Day-Nurseries, that such 
institutions tend to encourage the con- 
tractinj^ of imprudent marria^s or illicit 
connexiona. This view cnimot be supjxjrted 
by any evidence, nor be proved by the most 
tortuous logic ; on the other hand, experience 
demonstrates that the destruction of inftwnt 
life has the effect of iacreasino; jKjpuhxtion, 
by lightening the probable obligations of 
marriage. Another objection i-aleed by M. 
Marbean^s opponents is, that these NuTBerica 
will inevititldy' relax the strength of donicstic 
affections. This plea is so groundless that it 
is wonderful to raid any voices raised in it» 
supporL In the firat place, the proiwsed Day- 
Nurseries are not intended to De iTecej>U*iclc8 
for the children of mothers who ai"e able to 
take care of their own progeny. They are not 
intended to foster a system of rearing children 
away from home ; no — the object aiiue*! at is 
to nrovide the best and tenderest nursing for 
chJJ«U"eu who are ineviud*/j/ deprived of the 
watchful attendance of a mother. In the 
place of an ignorant nurse, redolent of lauda- 
num, it is propo8e<l to place a skilfiil attend- 
ant under medical surveJlhuice. Instead of a 
squaUd apartment, reeking with all kinds of 
unwholesome tmd offensive emissions from the 
waah-tub, it is proposed to raise lofty% well- 
ventilated rooms ; and, lastly, it ia ptoposed 
to rock children to sleep in the careful arms 
of a nur«e, rather thiin by the i " , f 

opium and aniseed. To us, these j i ^ 

savour rather of that enlightened c^*.x^ « ..i. h 
we are beginnin": to feel for every grade of 
the human famiTy, than of that carelessneas, 
in respect of tlie public morals, which the 
narrow-miuded ana the bigotted would fain 
attach to thejm The atrocious practices at 
pi'CAeut openly pursued towards children^ 
must JuBtilv the promoters of Day-Nurseries, 
in the opinion of all thbikers, be they on the 
opposition or majority beuches of any house 
or assembly. 

Advertisements of the rea*line»3 of certjuu 

Day-Nurneries lo receive tenders for the 

^ triply of 'Hops and bottt^ms," rattles, baby- 

l;et8, ci*adlea, and oot«, will form a new 

1 ure in the columns of the morning papem ; 

and it is more than probable that the vicinity 




I.Cowiiiet«d hr 

of one of theie eatablkhmenta would not be 
choaen aa the most quiet epot upon eartb, bj 
uny nervous ol*i gentleman, when a round 
clcizt'n of the ytnm^ hiniates were teething. 
It is not fhffiL'ult to imagine the look of horror 
with which the ghost of Malthus (if auclt 
f hin^»»4 be) will rise to witneBs the ceremony of 
Inying the foumlatton atone for tije first iW- 
NiiT-sery. As the advocate of nierceniu-y 
niatohft?, this amipositious spirit will assur- 
edly nujke some kind of demonstration on the 
oecflflion. Yet it is hardlj' neccsaory to invite 
the fifhoat, sin«» so many ©till cling to his 
crotchctj?!, and a few would not oven daiih the 
cup of poision fj'om an infant's lips. There 
cannot be many who would leave the cradle 
nngnarded, — ^the hapless Kibe to die by alow 
degrees, A regard for the future— for the 
genr-rationa with which our children will 
work and live— ia that to which the advocatea 
♦ if these Nurseriest direct our narticular atten- 
tion. It is a question whetiier the artisan 
claMH shall dwindle, io pb)*Bical iit&mina and 
in mental capacity, to poor, dwarfed images 
of ihyil, under the laudanum doses of Prestou 
Mid Mancl>eat«r ; or wljelher, by showing a 
parental solicitiule tor those chihlreu, whose 
parrntd arc cdled away to the factory anil 
the loom, by affording tliem, at a fair rate 
of remuneration, the advantages of scien- 
tJtic treatment and honest care, we will 
endeavour to give them a fiur chance of 
becoming strong and intelliffent English- 
men. The question of Day-Nurseriea^ — ^thc 
question of Protraction for the Cradle — has an 
intrinsic importjuice which reaches beyond 
the c3Ltgencie8 of the hour; it ia one that 
concerns every man, and will interest every 
man who acknowledges that social duty, 
which ha"! never been publicly derided even 
in th»' darkest passages o£ the world's history 
— tlic duty of the adult to the infant. 


SoMvmnB in halls of beauty and of lovo, 

Whero many fair and many proud onea be, 
And where the recklcaa and the thoughtleaa movG, 
I picture thoe. 

Thy memory oomee to my lone heart cnfoldcn 

In strains of sweetest muaic ', murmuring luWj 
Strange tales of dames and knights in pageants 

And courtly show. 

The lonely wbd that stgbs in mtirmttzs deep 

Round eomo old ruin dear to love and fiime. 
Luring the passerby to pause and weep. 
Might breathe thy name I 

I picture thee the spirit of some spot 

fieautiiiilly haunted by an olden ipell ; 
Some waving wood, or sIlTer^treamiiig grot, 
Or perfumed dclL 

Ever retiring in thy simple grace, 

A gentler^ dearer presence, never shone 
From mortal figure or from lady's £iice^ 
Than ihy dear one. 

A vei7 roae-hud to the gaxer's eye, 

Yet to the sense thou art n blooming flcwV» 
Pouring thy fmgrance on the eiunmer sky 
At evening hour. 

Ever in dreams thou com'st. I may aot trace 

In waking hours the presence of that ^ptll 
Which holds me bound with such a wiuniiiLC gmce. 
— FVctfWcll I 



The spot t^ which the king bent his thought- 
ful steps, waa situated at fi(»me miles' distance 
from his village, and was, in fact, on the ex- 
treme twrders of the country of the Mokau- 
ries, and not very far from the tlistrir^t to 
which he had banished his sun Waipata. 
Not only was the place itself uufre<|Ut'nte<i, 
but the way to it was among the most hmely 
of the many lonely tracks that abound in this 
country. After some two hours" journey, 
you might, in passing across a moist slo|)e of 
CTa»H and reeda. or an undulating reach of 
k'rns, come sinhlenlv upon the motionless 
IkmIv of a MaiTri binf-catcher, lying u^ikhi Ida 
fw?«>, half covcrcfl with leaves nud l? "s 

having one hand extendeil with i 

** 04ioHferouB " pork, or shark's fl*-. I 

in his fingers, to att ract the binl- 
hand also embedded in the ci*a8s, b . ., - ,t ly 
to seize the bird directly he had lixed hia 
beak and claws in the bait. Or, in walking 
by the borders of a still river, vou might see 
a thick mass of broken reeds, drift-wootl, 
duck-weed, and decayed bullrush slowly float- 
ing down the stream, which is, in sooth, a 
native flsherniiaii, who lies on his face, with 
his nose and mouth turned sidewa^-s now and 
then, for Vu-eath, in who^e extendeil hand, a 
similar bait for fish, or bird, iw grasped. 
These not very enlivening varictii « mIiH a 
distant view of a party of wild h 
were the only intcrrujjtioris t<» thf i n 

solitudes through which the king wuimU lii^ 
way. Til© loveliness of Nature had lio voice 
for his ear ; or rather he hatl no ear for 
Nature's voice. At every step, he either 
breathed veugeance upon TetSra and Kaite- 
mata, or tumml over in his mind his ingenious 
plan for its execution. 

Full of this (k^icrn of rendering the cavern 
over the boiling springs, to which he was now 
making his wa3% the efficient meiuis of de- 
stnictiou, TaOnui arrived at the nipids of a 
river, which terminated in a series of cat*- 
ract^. The gleaming waters shot, wavering 
and heaving along, till they reached the t*dg© 
of the tabfe-land, over which they rushed, 
and fell foaming from rock to rock in their 
descent — here a cataract, green and vivid ; 
there, another one, grey and puqjle^ — now 
falling gloomy in the shadow of chasms and 
over-hanging ledges, — now one level sheet 
below of seething foam, hurrying to utter 
darkness. A narrow, fljnng-bridge, con- 

Btruitcil by tho Mftories simpiy of pluits of 
tcmgh Hajt-leavea knottedi together, and 
£Qi£teiJtHl to buftbea on one side, nud to a fallen 
tr^i'-tntnk on the other, was the only means 
. + : the giilf botwceu the two pre- 

I I -ath wiiich rushed the succedslon 

i ts on their downward course. 

I strength of tliis swinLong bridge 

Willi H 11' ioot, to 8ce if these flax -leaver were 
yet i\>tten, and deciding tliat it was sutfident 
for hi« weight, the king at once advanced 
upon it, with the liglit &Xid hasty foot of his 
ualion, when hia progrMs waa arrested, mid- 
way, by obaerving aomething black projecting 
from the rapids above, as Uiey came hurry- 
Bcurrj'ing onward towards the verge of the 
roi-kHi. He c«5uld not take his eyes from this 
1 < t. It was a human leg ofgigantic 

5 ^ — and nothing more. However 

liKigini<<-<i, lie felt it waa the leg of Tc Pomar, 
thefellow to the one, the chief Ixjne of which he 
now wore hanging to his neck^ in form of a 
flute f The leg pMsed over the verge of the 
precipice, and disappeared. But lookxng down^ 
and fitnuning his eves towarda the onward- 
speeding foam at the bottom of the last of 
the cataracts, he acain saw, through the 
nuAt and ispray, the leg sticking upright and 
sailing away into the darkness;. 

The fi-ail bridge swayed aaUut with the 
|, . K., . torm of Taunui, as he gazed after 
I rippaiition of the leg — some of the 

k .....kiKfand gave way — and the brid«je 

elongated and swayed down in the middle, 
so that the king had a nai'row esea[}€ in 
hastUy scrambling over, and catching the 
long, wity tohi'(oAi grass on the other aide, 
to secare his iafe arrival. These things 
however, are common to savage life, and he 
walked onward without tunimg his head ; 
but the vision of the other leg of Te Pomar — 
tAat was not an ordinary occurrence, and the 
king was not a little discompose^l by it. 
w;r,-}.,M-*t> I of course, it waa all witch- 
• Teora and Kaitemata should very 

rjcr for it. 

iiuch sights on this are unpleasant, even to 
the strongest miud, and Taduui, as he sjped 
onwardj had more than once a tingling 
impulse to look behind him, fully expecting 
that he should see the gigantic leg making 
loi^ hops after him, and perhap with the 
addition of the half of the body belonring to 
that Side ; but his proud nature womd not 
allow him to manife«it any such signs of fear, 
ftnd he accordingly pursued hia course till 
be ariived at the entrance of the cavern. 

The rock in which the cavern had been 
scooj)e<V partly by age and decay, and partly 
by the natives, had once been used for some 
of the oeremauie^ and rites of heathen wor- 
ahh). Figures of men in various ugly atti- 
tudes had been carved in the ro<^ ; and 
some of them were painted in red and yellow, 
but all of them beong destitute of mouths. 
The interior was gloomy; and on entering the 
inner jmrt of the cave, a hand and arm, all 

black, ap[>eared to \te thrust tltruugh soui« 
hole in the side of the rock. Tliis was not 
really so. The exact shadow of a hand and 
arm had been marked out on the side of the 
cave, and painted black, while the rock 
behind it waa painted white, so that it gave 
the appearance, to any one suddetdy entering, 
of a hand and arm being thrust throu|^h the 
rock, and thus admitting H^ht. At tins, the 
king waa not at all surprised, having 8i*en 
such things before in various cavema ; he 
was, however, not at all pleased to find on the 
present occasion, that the hand and arm 
strongly remindeKl him of Te Pomar. As he 
stood looking at it, either the lights and shades 
from without gave it a vibratory appearance, 
or else the arm made a slight wavering 
motion. He stood awhile to contemplate 
this. No further movement took place. It 
hiy fixed to the aide of the rock. Being 
assured of this» he now proceeded to scrape 
away the rough upper-crust of the pumice 
floor of the cavern with a sharpenea stone 
aflixed to a h^mdle which he had Drought for 
that purpose. Ailter working a short time, 
he distinctly heard the wat^r of the spiinga 
boiUng beneath. 

Tadnui w&B so rejoiced at thls^ from the 
speedv end which he now imagined there 
woul J be to all his troubles, that he paused in 
his labour, and took up the flute, to give a 
httk flourish of joy expressive of his final 
triumph. With this intent he i^ipUed the 
aj>erture to Ids mouth. A strange expression 
passed across his features— and ne withdrew 
it. A long black thorn had projected itself 
from the mouth-hole straight into his mouth, 
while a bright green and golden lizard wrigglea 
itself out at the other end, and £aUing on the 
pumice -dust beneath, flashed out of sight A lao 
the tbom sUpped hack into the flute, and 
could not be got out by knocking or shaking, 
neither could anything like it be seen on 
holding the flute up to the light. 

Now, the lizard is one of the aiuas, or minor 
gods of New Zealand, and is accounted sacred. 
"Well," said the king, after a pause, "the 
aiua is on my side, and has come to tell me 
so.'* He T^dlfully chose to overlook the fact 
that the black thorn had come to him, and 
the lizard-god had fled from him. He had a 
certain mistfiving as to how the matter stood, 
but he would not permit the warcing to have 
a ti^e inteqjretation in his mind. " The aiuaa 
ju^ on my side " exclaimed he, catching up hia 
Lomaliawk, and resuming his work over the 
pumice-floor of the cave with I'enewed vigour. 

He hail not given many blows when he 
became aware of a shadow that wrought up 
and down in the comer of one eye— on the 
aide next to the hand and arm. It aeemed as 
though the black arm rose and fell at every 
stroke he made. When he looked directly at 
it, and raised his arm, the black arm was 
Ktationai'y ; when he bent his eyes downwards 
and raised his arm, the black arm undoubtedly 
did the same. He looked op suddenly ! — 




ICMitdaeied k 

with Ilia. But he C' 
till be ^vae really »i 
At. the evaaivc ii 

filial-, in the m 

then was the hbkx^ turn In its pUee. He 
went on with bin work slowly — and with his 
€jo6 turned to the floor of the cave — and he 
*iw sure that the hhrk una row mid fell 
! oh it. He tried 
vatioti juid nigv 
iii^ new diftrom. 
11 maofOf the pamice 
the cave, to coti^- ' -^ 
this TU]plea»mt phtoomenoiL He aci 
VI jiinl "Timiis at the impoRuhilltj of Btu .:._ 
•n, oue way or the other. And ob he 
.ronnmg, :iiid phickLnj? out the hftirB 
ln*ju hiit chin, with a fxsir of mu.ssel-shell 
tweezers, the pumice -cruet of the fkioring 
cracked nil rouud him, ruid the n^xt iujstant 
he full tlirough, imd found liini.self bi a huge 
uatuntl cauhlrtiii (»f btihti^^ wnter, 

A great quantity of the floor Im^nnjj fatlcTi 
with hiujj he ha<l mogt forti ' * '^ hnded 
n\H>n a sort of pi'otecting sen: ■ and 

^ ihI uogrcat d«?pih lY' ■ i.fa«?e; 

he M\t ujxjn » verj liovel mu\ un- j 
y hot throne, with water hoilin-j iiM 
t-outid him iu a hissing and huhhliTi;3j • 
A greftt ateam rose up through tlie • 
over-hwid, and (jlle<l the cave. i 

Beini^' unable to rencli the bi*oken e<ljjea of I 
tli« i: " ' through which he hadf''' 

even ini would h.ive pcnnitt^d 

woudd have bcon par^-^*-' 

They i 'y obeyed ; and TaOnui rfi- 
inaiiieil ^ liin W'k a;2:aiuBt the rock 
for aevend hi- h/* manner of difrnirted 
chiefs in N<'\v who often "n't fbn^ to 
meditate ajid iiniukti, but arc yvt u 
in a Btat« tjf utter apathy. T>»o I 
ever, wa« by no mt^mia the prt'stn n 
of TtiOnni ; nor can we say th<? f< ' y 
" ■'•'"*i->n, m implied a ct^rfaui Mf— ..^' ..f 
Ho «xt, the speetaclo of a hard 
: i..:xijhleil, h^^i ui,t -r.ff^'nwl. 

Alter a kn -•', and l>ent hi« 

comT«) home%^ r^t rides. If he 

had been hnmhl^il, tin r now. Aa 

he pnsaed across the nw; leaf bridge 

h« shook hifl tomahawk at the; vtater, (^haward 
he aped, lookiniT riiP»ilher to the rit^ht nor to 
the left, T " ■ • ^ •' V ,, 

!t »car< 


Ne^v . 
late del. 

»f the 

:ii, hm 

to B*.^ 

hiJs He,it before long, liafl not the st 
from the mouth of the cavern a 
y'Hjntj hunter to tlie s]H>t. Tliis w .; 
thnn hia son, Waipata ; a cireumKi 
fortunate, thour,^i not veiy remarkable, aai 
the district ^^ which he liaAi t»eea sent was ] 
only a few miles tliutant fmm the oivem, but 
the frw't of hi* bnving IVr hia comi-MinitmR Teora 
' '' w.tH, no doubt, a v» r 

lous tf> this event, i 
iiji.i i"< ti n.|j-'wed for s»'veral days li^> a 

fiig who had one e-ye, and woiild i 
eav(^ 'ii > •I'x'l i^i^i^ h.kviii'- m:iMile her rc^i 

in \\> ^ated her feaj-s 

to T' . were besetting 

the kiii;^, whom aii»T^ lia*l accordingly waichcd. 
and followed to this place, having peranoded 
the umial>le Hlave-<drl to bear her company. 

To the ALiori bui?h-e:dl of " A'oo-i, Aoo-'i f '* 
(" Where are \x»u 1 ") the half^mothered 
voice of the kinjL!^ responded from hia hot 
vaiiour-bath below ; and the three, with the 
htip of a conJ of t\nsteil flai-leaves and 
fpMia, presently enabled TaOmii to emerf^^e 
into thtj upi>er air. They a»<;ist^d hhn to a 
Beat on a ledge of rock outside the cavern, 
aud here Tf*ora fanned him with a large fan, 
luwtily made of leaves. >Je fKvt looking at 
each of them alternately iu mute astoniflh- 
ment^ until his eye beeajue rivette<l on the 
emkV ' ' i/. that strnxl with its auout at 

Kail '<U ; a grim nmile then pn^ed 

over Mitr 1.111- ^^ featui-ea. For a famili*ir pig 
to I'ollow a Ir\dy was no uncommon sight — but 
a pig with orje eye denoted mischief Directly 
he could apeak, he bode them all begone ! 

f. op til. \ 

anddilatr , u 

ilia ("h! tunc. 

A mom? aome wf the tribes of New SCraland, 

' ^ lxI to the outi^ r f rk of a 

L war-bell, or n, the 

' nown as ♦'• ' /'■ -/m, or 

Tb'sR in lon to tho 

It ifj a ii . - ten tube of 

r\XH\ at th** moutb-jnier'e, 

1 :\t the fCmndHeml, which 

etaittt*<l a kmd, d» > t not.^fe, and was 

only uaed to dennt« ^ndn^ «>f e<>ming 

danger. From th-' of hit 

villat'C, did all mrn 'hI^ at 

''•rt ma<le I'V inonn - fhite. 

il. Tlie pah-tnmi; I He 

l:L« rtute to his mt'i.i.. • ^'in 

red to 7»lay it. The ] t 

I \vith all he intendo.l t- , - 

tlute, aud in prolonged ruid t- 

That tho king, in hia bai I , wa^t a 

valiant-hearted fellow has b*?fu siiiliciently 
di««lave<l ; the utmost bravery is, in faet, 
indiwpeuHaltle to every great chief; but amtmg 
idl hia chiefs there waa certainly no one 
who posseted the same amount of mental 
courage as TaOmiL In the jtr'^^ent rnMtanco 
he felt wrought up to a pitch that would have 
enabled him, — 

" To look on tliat wLicli might appal ihu devil." 

He, therefore, attempted i^ bully hia own 
common sense into the notion that the sounds 
last heiinl had been, not merely of his ottu 
making — for in un indirect way this vfna so—* 
but of his own will and intention. " I b!»*w 
with all my might," ejaculated he. "I wUftitl 
to m.%ke the pfthtrumi^et echo ; and 1 will do 
thi^ *' in!" 

I ' I '3 loud roaring noiae of the war- 

hor.., >...... was this time the grand death* 

uj arch ofa hero, aoundiug as if beneath the earth. 




a: ^>ra* tisie tSler TaOuui Iwui 

\w 1 1 tti frQiu hU mcmUi. It ceased. 

Ibite, witU » iuiUgUly, seJf-willtfd, fjitrbliiiti, 
pMirom^gAiri ''tkou haai piayed well tiiia 

" ' ' ! ' etiiaidattftktdc 

r. litic bony loot 
.. «,.<•> ,u^i<'iu. j^.w.r it was n kick 

of £ctm*^ khiLJ or otlier, [le Uad 

liii.iwMi ' ..r itio acute H kii^il to 

(] re was the ad^ail- 

1.1 ;uhl 1-uiuitL TLi^e 

riiit*t lie 


L rathttr I impiHl, to warda 

wi:i^ alu»ly. He proaeully met a 

vraA oUmxI tu u&k — but nuikleuly 

T Tho diief begttu a brief 

h hdtn oo a lUfW metbr»il uf 

■■'' ' ' r Ittmertu (a sort of 

l-Misacil ou. Nut a 

w-mIi :i hkeletau 

' the ptkh- 

...•-■ tu tili^e 

\: iiieiit 

1,, un'w ii.iuHelf 

ui., y. The cbiel" 

:in kuugAt'"- -■ 

._,'.. iviii.-: on 1 . 

m erA-c«ui^ liitil aj I :i4i hour 

jmdi utT* :ill in H^:>'>1 i. Ukely to 

...•4YV. AChi ^v^e him h <*dj.*lutl urri.^L Not a 
MflUU« ai^iiyitiLr. se^liig nu> Hp^tiaiiioii with a 
jutclf^uu kg Uid fout — uoi' t)f th<3 roaring 

Arrued ,*t huuics * 

ling liiiu 

met Tftoaiii 
verutnluh of 
'■■•^•n biwily 
t. siJi)|;H;r 

lU "11 
C<»kc4 vv'it! 


jjt hot ti long 

/ Uit 1 have 

fcakei, fiitum 

*i glit>et- 

itj word. 

. alxiut t" 

. i , heart of a 

c pttlua-ti^^" aaid the queen, 

ttiiiUDeri ^'also tome butter- 

L .villi tumipeL Oh, I tee— it ^s the 

' ■ -- V^ — they bAv« arrWwi." 

iiire it II and 

loiinth *• , the 

1 he in tin* poor 

i3 it bl«jwnl — fccil 

- »- a^x- ...... . ., .ves, and th^ wooieii 

<i akkvcs of hia hausehokl, all came ruahing to the verandah. *' Tell me t/ioi / " he oott- 
tUiued to sny, ** tell uie who did it, ai»d why . — 
tell me, all of y»xi 1 — any one !— atmicbwiy ! " 

Nobody fc]Kikf . They all stood looking at 
each other. Nol»ody had heard it 

In£irtLcuIat« \»ith the f xerpleuty of hu) lagi^ 
Xdjonul glared all rrtmiui at the aBBCiubuad 
grou[», — and cnutiiiUt^l Uj do »<\ till (tnuiuaUy 

the seaae of beiiig bewhcit ' - --'■ U'lMf 

and his patsioii bi^^an to .-< lage 

ctimfiision with hunaelf. . _ . . ^eeii, 
and heanl, and felt, were all very real to him ; 
yet nolKHly eUe a|>f>oi%red U» have the least 
cogDisauce of it. Where were their benae^ — 
or, what had hAii(>eued to h'^ ^ A^ to his 
h:tving cau^d the won<lerfiil in ■ «^»wii 

frtru will, if he hail »liU wilfui urcd 

to persiiiidc hiniaclf of that, ht\ .'il k.-wi, knew 
very wt-ll thai he hud not kickt?d hk own 
iihiijs. Th*t viulent blow ooii^ ':^ ■•*' 'he air 
— out of nothing— but not (i It 

waa of no use tu tiy luid cinicf;-. , iiuott 

from liim&eli' oiiy longer. He could not 
hai-ilen himself uj;:viii»t m.* many odda 

Fixim thiij {>oint. the king's haughty and 
▼iudictive Bpii'it )>e;;UiU to topple on its bar- 
baric eleTfiUon, and hu felt moat bitterlv the 
want of human sympatliyoud fi-iendly aiUice. 
He even onoe ihuosht of opening his iixind to 
the queen ; wliftcll he might have done with- 
•^ -^ny djflgrace, becjiuse the estimfttvon in 
a women were held by his peo[>le wag 
, uj uieatia no Uiw a» is common with savage 
tribes ; but this ven^ natural and eensiblo 
thought waii destroyed by IiIh pride almost aa 
aooo tks it liad ghmced across him. He refused 
to a«e or speak with any one Cor 8ome days ; 
he even would not go imd look at the kauga- 
i^ooa. Finally he iletermiued to call a cutmeil 
of the oldest !iud wisest chiefs of Iklokau^ and 
rel&te to them ail that had happeue^i. 

"^f '•■ - !iile, he retained esongh of hta 

ami revengeful feeling to give 

r hl-H 8111 Waipata, ;*n In- h:A i^m- 

. ii . b^houlil in&i ' tljie 

i.iu. I , ;uid go aii'i 1 the 

uuii!St, near one of the miaaiouaiy *tationa : 

directing, at the same time, that TeOra bhoutd 

be taken to a lonely and deseil^sd hotiite, once 

celebrated in accordance with ita horrid name, 

viz. jksii Utti^atii, or Eat-man House. A supply 

of food and water for a certain penv»d were to 

be placed within, and the door was then to t>e 

faatened, and TeOm Ictl to her fate. As for 

old Kaitemata, he took no st4;ptt againii 

her lor the preaent^ 

There waa no sort of donbt about the love 
that eiisied between TeOra and Waipata. 
They had roved away together for .-^inrntl 
hours erery day while the king wu ' 

in hia moody state at home— a | 
andonbtedly oprxjse*.! to New Zeahuul iiL^ti'iib 
of propjnety ; but their cii'cam»taiicts were 
peculiar. Tiicy were now seikteil in th« tleptha 
of a great forcat at the uioaay f<iot of xi lolly 
iotora tree, with the fuUage of which the flower- 
ing clcanatiB hatl mLngle^l, imA tLscehdiitg to tliO 

^totho M 




rCo»4*in»4 bf 

very sammit, it fell down on all sides in anowy 
cludtiB and garlmidlji. A wreath of the white 
Btiury blosttoma of this odorous creeper were 
bouiid round the divrk tresaea of the young girl, 
and fell with them over her shouldere and 
bosiow. Around grew the mighty trees indi- 
ff^ous to the country, having, like the tree 
beneftth wliidi they i^at^ their own huturiimt 
folinge enwoven with hrifrht and elegant jKira- 
sitieal plimts rising to their very topmost 
orowua and pinnaclea, and often hanging down 
in beiuitiftd featoons, and gracefully BwayiuK 
wreftths. One old and dec^iyed tree, a grand* 
sice of the wookIb, was visible among the 
others ; but even hla hoary sides, and broken 
mouldering bfirk, were clothed with moBsea and 
orcliida, and his dark hollows were filled 
with scarlet ftingi. Beneath all this there 
was a prodigious undergrowth^ among wliich 
appeaml the tree fern, tlie nikau palm, the 
wild fuchsia — ^with its double set of flowers, 
one green and purple, the other purple and 
rod, tne pollen on the anthers of the former 
being of tne moat brilliiait cobalt blue — shrubs 
and plants, some of yellow-tinted leaves, 
others of the darkest purple-green, almost 
like glossy black ; while her© and there lay 
fallen trunks, some nearly overgrown with 
graaaea and lichens, and others with the ex- 
qiiisitely-sceutciil horopito, atraggliug about in 
clusters of ti-umpet-shaped blosaoms, varying 
fi'om the deepest crimson to the most delicate 
pinky white. One opening through the foliage 
admitt^jd a peep beyond, which coDsisted of a 
series of gentle hills, enclosed again at no 
great distance by the circling belt of the 
great forest ; but the whole of uiese hilla were 
covered with the wild cabbage in blossom, 
and presented beneath the sun one eutii'C 
surface of shining gold. 

lu this equally magnificent and lovely scene 
of nalure^a prol'usiofi, sat Teura and Waipata 
di^eourfiiiig, in accenta of love, the leading 
tn»ths of "that religion of deep-hearted hu- 
manity which they liad so recently adopted 
in place of their luitive creed of ignorance and 
cruel [^kassioim. 

Tliese happy hotii"*, however, were soon to 
be at an end. Even in tliis deep solitude the 
emissaries of Taunui very speedily discovered 
tliem, and they were imrae<liately disjioaed of, 
accotding tu hia du-ections — ^^VaipAta being 
sent to the sea-coaat, and TeOra tastene<i up 
in Eat-mau House, with the means of pro- 
longing existence only for a certain time. 

The day appointed for the council of chiefs 
having arrival, TaOnui attired himself in the 
most imi)oaing mamicr for the occasion. Over 
hiK large, bony »houlders he threw his aniple 
war-cloak of dogs'-hair interwoven with flax, 
tlung aside, however, in Buch a manner ns 
ii> display the rich tattooing of his cheat and 
limba, over which all sorts of lines, fie noes, 
and CTOt^sque figures had been engraved in 
purple ancl black lines. His close-cropped 
ulack hair was adorned with a bunch of the 
fe-athera of tlie Jlxihij or brown parrot, indigo- 

noii« to New Zealand, to which he bafl aihied» 
for this important occasion, a bJoasom of the 
warrator, a large flower of a deep crimson 
colour. Round his neck he woi*e a mighty 
necklace of boars*- tusks, while his ears were 
adorned with costlv specimens of the teeth of 
the tiger-ahark. Those parts of hU legs which 
were not tattooed, he had iMiintod Vfiihloi'oirmt 
a sort of red ochre ; but Ta<5u\ii cAre fully 
avoided all covering or ornament on his feet, 
lest he should in any degree obscure or injure 
the effect of the six toes with which nature 
had especially honoured each foot»— a distinc- 
tion, however, enjoyed by two or three other 
great chiefi^j in N^w Zoidaud at that period, 
and aLso at the f>resent day. 

The most eminent imionc^ the Mokaurio 
chiefs assembled as the king had commanded, 
and retiring to a forest they all seated them- 
selves in a circle and began to smoke. At 
length the king stood up in the midst, and 
began a speech, in wliich he reLited the 
wonders and offenaive performances of the 
flute, up to the perioil ot the thundei^march 
iu the \iciijity of the ruined mausoleum. 
Seeing, or fancying he saw, doubts mingled 
with surjirise in the grave features of the elder 
chiefs, Taunui paused, A long silence ensued. 

One of the oldest chiefis then proposed that 
the king should immediately phiy upon the 
flute as before, that tliey might be the better 
able to judge of the elfect. 

With this request th^king immediately 
complied, and he distinctly heai'd the granu 
deiitii-nuirch, na before. " There 1 " naid the 
king, with a look of grizzly satisfaction. Bu; 
nobSdy else hikd heaid it. He played again, 
and heard the marcli. Nobody else heard it. 
The chiefs ail looked at each other, and then at 
th« king. 

Taonui, now getting quit© desperate, went 
on with passionate energy and volubility to 
uariate the rest of the events, till he came to 
describe the prodi^ons sounds that issued 
from the pali-trumpet ; whereuix)n the cliiefa 
began to exchange significant glances with 
each other, and some of them even touched 
their heads and nodded, clearly indicating their 
opinion that the king hml gone mail. Secretly 
as all tliifl waa done, Taonui had, in part, 
obaej*vcd it, or rather become conscious ol' it, 
and snatching up the flute he was altout to 
blow with all his strfugth, in the wihi hope 
of producing some terrible result which should, 
at least, compel them to believe his Uile, wlien 
a loud cry of women was heaiNl to iijaue frc»m 
the pah, followed by the actual blowing of the 
pah-tnimpet iu signal of alarm. 

The council was broken up in an inatanti 
and TaOnui, with all the chiera, hurried out of 
the forest and flew towanis tiie pah. At the 
outer Htockatle, l>eyond the last range of stiles 
and fences with which the king's p£ti was for- 
tified, they met the queen and all Taonui'a 
household, together with many boys and a 
score of yelping dogii. The cause of this-^ 
and which the queen and a dosen Toieea in 







chorus loudly relate^i at the same inataiit, go 
that it was impossible to iiuderstfind it — was 
the sa<M«Mi breakiiijj loose of all the kanga- 
roos, who had made their ei*c*ape, and were 
now in full flight aerosa the countiy. 

A«* soon aa this intelligence became intel- 
ligible, Taoninj who was onlyt<30 glad to break 
up BO unaatiMlactory and maddening a con- 
ference, formed a hunting-party with several 
chiefs, and st*t out in pursuit of his property 

linded of TeOra by the qut'on, and 
ler be intended! she shoul'l remain 
lej Ini starved to <leath in Eat-nian 
Honse ; but he turned a deaf ear to this, and 
TO^tking no reply hurried away after hia kiui- 

It should be understootl that kangaroos, 
not lieing indigenc^na to New Zealand, the 
arri>ral of such a pr^ent as nine of thofie 
creaJLtirea was an event of considerable im- 
portance, as it was to be hoped that the breed 
niijtrht l>e propagateil, and thereby afford an 
admirable atlditioQ to the very limited live- 
stock or the countr}-. Valuable, however, a.8 
thisfie creatures were in the eycH of the king, 
it WTW not the excitemerit of their escape that 
rendered him nnable to attend to the queen 
wJien she reminded him of Tedra, but rather 
that he wished her death to happen by a sort 
of indirect process^ since he wa» withheld from 
Villi ug her in an otf-hand way, La consequence 
of the influence of the flute juad lui its 
u ' 

he hiinting-party sped, men and 
d he nine kangaroos, who with their 

i' aps wci"e OL'tking their way across 

ti'.- v,^ — now secreting themselves in 

fon^*i, now springing forward again in 
terror at the sound of tneir approaching pur- 
euersv — till, finally, having turned their course 
to the rai*re open spaces of the sandy scrub, 
over H'hose drj* clumps and ridges, bushes and 
iRhrulw, they could rapidly make way in a 
^'i ' ' ' fta, while their pursuers were 
' all sorts of windings and 

ii.iviiM,^.>, iuvv completely distanced them, 
aivd, for a time., were loAt. 

"GIVE wiisely:" 


Oke evening, a short time since, the cnrate 
of B., a small \'iLIage in the north of France, 
returned much f;ttigned t^ his humble dwell- 
ing. He limi been Nnsiting a poor family who 
were suffering from both want and sickness ; 
and the worthy old man, besides administer- 
ing tlie f^itisolations of religion, htul given 
them a few sniall coina, aav^ by rigid self- 
denial from hia scanty income. He walked 
homewarils, leaning on his ritick, and thinking, 
with 8om>w, how very small were the means 
he pofisessed of doing good and relieving 

As he ent©re<l the door, he heard an un- 
wonte«l clamour of tongunst^ taking the farm 
of a by no mean^i harmonious duet,- 

unknown male voice growling forth a hoarsd 
bass, which was completely overscreeched 
by a remarkablv high and thin treble, easily 
i-ecognised bv the placid curate aa proceeding 
from the well-practi»ed throat of hia house- 
keeper, the shrewish Perpetua of a gentle Don 

"A pretty business this, Monsieur t" eridd 
the dame, when her master appeared, as withi 
flaahing eyes, and left arm a-kimbo, she pointed 
with the other to a surly-looking man dressed 
in a blouse, who stood in the haJl, holding 
a vtiy small box in his hand. " This fellow, 
she continued, "ui a meaaenger from the 
diligence, and he wants to get fifteen franco 
aa the price of the carriage of that little box 
directed to you, which I m sure, no matter 
what it contAiofl, can't be worth half the 

" Pea«e, Nanette," said her master ; and 
taking the box from the mail, who, at his 
app>roach, civilly doffed his hat, he examined 
the direction. 

It was exti^emely heavy, and bore the stamp 
of San Fj-ancisco, in Califomia. together witn 
his owM address. Tlie cui-at^ paid the fifteen 
franc3, which left him possessed of but a few 
sous, and didndssed the messenger. 

He tlien opened the box, and displayeil to 
the astonished eyes of Nanette an ingot of 
virgin gohi, and a alip of paper, on which 
were written the following words : — 

" To Monsieur the Curata of B, 

" A slight token of eternal gratitude, in 
rcmembroncG of August 28th, 1848. 

" Charles F 

" Formerly gerjeont-m^or in the ~tli regi- 
ment ; now a gold-d^ggor in CaUfomla.** 

On the 28th of Augxist, 1848, the curate 
was, as on the evening in question, retunkuig 
from >n&iting his poor and sick parishioners. 
Not far from his cottage he saw a yoimg 
soldier with a haggard countenance and wild 
blooclshot eyes, hastening towards the bank 
of a deep and rapid river, which ran through 
the fields. The venendile priest stoppe^l him 
and spoke to him kindly. 

At first the young man would not answer, 
and tried to break away from hia questioner j 
but the curate fearing that he medi lotted 
suicide, would not be repulsed, and at length, 
with much difficulty, suoeeetled in leading 
him to his house. After some time, softeneu 
by the tender kindneaa of his host, the soldier 
confe5se<l that he had spent in giuublinp^ a 
sum of money which had been entrusted to 
him »is sergeant-major of his company. This 
avowjd was made in words broken by si*li«, 
and the culprit repeated several times, " My 
poor mother ! ray poor mother ! if she only 

The curate waited imtil the sold-er had 
become more calm, and then addresse«l him ij* 
wordfl of reproof and coimael, such as a tender 
father might beatow on an erring eon. He 
finished by giving him a bag containing otit» 

Gterla l»li 



ti sty grenerally given them 

t 'J nsited MaIacc^ 

Til- very good Ikerd&ioeo ■ 

Mod Si ' iu L'uiiliug goods from 

Hm fi \i: I Bay, Tliey ai*e a 

fljEM^i). II, lie aufl iudiiiitrioQA, 

luui r r -I'ftr-:. The mouey 

mhidi ii the vartb in 

tii-iiiselves, iuiil *B 
Lt is by no means 
r in paymeut «ome 
liuiiiircU or i,w<j ot s.^ illia' '4 aud sUpe&oes €n- 
cmiHted iu dirt, tm^iug been diig tip ifter, 
liroliably, two year*" interment Many of 
wcm luxKe a bargaiti with their tuastera to 
x^ecive to mzuiy cows {x&r ajinnm instead of 
j]aoii«y, as thia sjiccit* of property is the 
luj^hcsst of ail iu tbvii* e»tiutaiu.*u. And hei'e 
I luAy Dieniion a elreamstauce, probably not 
ltii(i'«it Tu tli^ f/»^Hf>-rJ i>'jiiler, and to which 
li atrons Kjii^ war- 

I ii». Katirs, that each 

tiuui ^itH pmrcktim lua wil'd from her father, 
by payment d a oeriain number of head of 
catUe aeoording to the youne la*iy'is rank m 
life. Now it ofleo happened :mioiig Katixs, 
aa amop^ cirilised Europcatia, that 3 oung uien 
of very amall moai^ or of none at iiil, fell in 
' .young niaidesia whoae papaa were 
I dt>^-e(% said turii^ up their noses 
• IS. Tlie .liJrnc voatha thus re^ 
■rate must be 
w I 1 fjsses. Tliere- 

furtt, Uiivki*^ iju \c:r>' gi'KSMJL respect for the 
dis'tinpti'^r? of riffuui and inum^ they would 
walk ' iindiuy into the cohHiy, pick 

oat tl. uiuiiW of cattle from the 

fii-st iwr«l llji V saw, drive tbcm to their own 
kraala and tJben — daim their bridea. The 
Cokfaisti^ nut txiklng a runiiaitic view of the 
prooBediug, calJed it theft ; and one day. 
catling a lover thus employed, he waa lodged 
In g,arol H« waa aflerwarda beiag conducted 
by a vexy amall escort of soldiers to a town 
ou tht» frontier for trial, and waa haudcufl«d 
io a HotUnitoL prisoner. On the ruad, a 
go party of armed KnJin rushed out of tiie 
nh, attack atl tlw^ guard, chopped oS the 
" t in order to free their 

>i^ companionship, and 
■ over from the anr* 
Ueir wa}" back into 

-Lii^ i- i'a amputated arm 

> ihe wruit of the lil»erart'd Katir J 
•r I if :1k.' colony sent t<) the chief 
tliey were tnKke<i, to 
up of the offenders, 
ic cimef icluiitd iuul told the Governor to 
come and fytch them '*if he darad." The 
other chieia joined in th^' detiance ; and war, 
4>rc(UJm«f, lie«:anie inLn'iU'il>lv. 

TJie other ooloiireii tribe* I liave mentioned, 
iiLre lesa numerous witJiin the colony. The 
**-***—* : I, ft,., r,,.,.* ■ \ ilb^ed of them all 
n he lum hitharto 
liian the virtuea of 
avilbsitiuij. Astiona emerging from bai^a> 

ri«rm pass thix)u^h a tranaition state, which, 
thiiiigh leading to good in the end, ia worae^ 
while it htstfiythan the origina] savage con- 

The kind of EtraopnaK uuioub required, 
muflt now be cowuderedL It may eaaJy be 
inmgine<l from the above rough sketch Jf ihe 
aLoriLfinal tribes of South Afri-i t1i it j^icnd- 
ing their arrival at a state of , the 

Jiuropean settlers ai'e very bad I 1 iving 

to depend unon their Lxbour uud services in 
farming ana domestic operations. The an- 
noyance to good housewives in having a set 
; of dirty and drunken servants, u beyond 
. description. Therefore, ou the amval of 
every shipload of emigi-ants, (and thiy are 
far too few,) tliere is a perfect rush to ihb 
I beach to offer en^fagements to the new comen. 
Twenty 'five ana tliirty, or even tliirty-aix 
pounds a year are freeW oifered aa house^ 
nmid*s wages to any girl from England, with- 
out an inquiry wiiethor she h&s ever been 
I into »er\ice bef<jre. Unfortunately these g'tfls 
have frequeiitly been spoilt on the voyace by 
j tlie idleue3A in which theijt' days have oeen 
sj'TUt ; besldt^a beiug none the better for 
" Jack's " society, who, though an excellent 
fellow iu hi:» way, is by no ukeans " the house- 
maid^s beat companion." 

Farm servants are in gre^t r'>n ti.>^t A 
shepherd will get from fifty to uuda 

a year,a house to live in, and ii ions 

for himadf and fkmily, however numerous. 
Few are tke slieep-larmera fortmuUe enough 
to Dossess a good Rngllah or Scotch aliepherd. 

Very superior shepherds — men of some 
education — ^may become large sheep-owners 
thesmselvea in time, thus : — Merchants and 
shop-keepers of property have generally 
farms La thie oomatry, which they cannot of 
course attend to theroiselves. They are glad, 
therefore, to select a competent person, one 
thoroughly acquainted with sheep, with a 
good knowledge of the country, aivd able to 
speak Dutch, to take clmrge of their fann, 
receiving aa a remuneration one third of the 
increase of the flock each year. Dutch k 
indiapensable, because half yooj* neighbours 
and turee-fourths of your servants meak no 
other hmguage. It is ea^v acquirea — espe- 
ciiilly by Scotchmen, who lieclare tluit it is 
*' niickle Like their ain bonnle tongue.^ 

The lowest rate of wages paid to any. 
journeyman artisan is five shiUings per diem. 
Su^^eTii, carpenters, bricklayers and amithiSi, 
earn much more. Plumbers and glaziers are 
in great request. If you are unfortunate 
enough to break a pane of glass, you may 
frequently have to wait a weeit or ten days 
before ih4 glazier can find time to come and 
mend it When I was in Port EHiabeth, 
there was but a solitary ghuder there (in a 
town of three tliousand inhabitunts), and if 
sent for, he would probably reply with great 
dignity and composure, 

^ Mr, C/s complimenta^ and some day next 




week be will see what he can do for you ! " 
Ml". C waa very fund of cricket mid Cape 

One of the first tUingtj that strikes a newly- 
arrived settler in a colony is the position of 
•• l«l)Oiir," — exactly the reverse of what he 
hxis seen it at home. Here labonr goes beggin^r ; 
in the colonies, it is the employera who are the 
petitioners. I have known a lady walk alwut 
the whole day, calling at Hottentot huts, and 
'>fferlng bribes to any dirty wench she might 
find there, to come and be her servant, and all 
without BUCcesB. Yet the lady waa oon- 
aidered the moat popular miatreaa in the town. 
I have turned out iu a now Bhooting-coat, and 
l«en immediately n«aailed with the question, 

" Who made it I" « S /* I have replied. 

" Oh, do you think he will make me one just 
now ? Are you in favour with hiin 1 If ho, 
put in a word for roe," &c. ; though my ques- 
tioners were perfectly ready with their money 
to jxty for the coat, if the tailor would only 
"be kind enough" to make it. A wateh- 
maker once kept my watch three months, 
though he only had to put a new glti&s in it ! 
He waa very fond of huntirig and horse- 

I have a CTUftt respect for '*the rights of 
lal»our,^ ana I think a day's work deserves 
a Hay's pav ; but when the supply of work so 
fiir exceeds that of workmen, the employer 
stands in a very uncomfortable position, while 
idle fellows, by only working an occaRionaJ 
hour or two at their craft, get vcrj' decent 
livelihoodft. The cricketing glazier and the 
horae-nuang watchmaker were prosperous 

Trk Settlers formerly hml a mutual dis- 
tnist and dislike of each other. The Englinh 
and Dutch settlers were ever mdulging in a 
rancorous domestic warfare ; but thiit is 
rapitlly disappearing and intemiarriagea are 
frequent. The only subject on which any 
feua is at present likely to he raised ia the 
Church. Any attempt on the part of Govora- 
ment to make the Church nf Eugluud an 
Estofflis/fment in the colony will be met with 
the most violent and rancorous oppiosition 
from the Dutch coloniata. It is not t/mr 
Church, and they were owners of the soil and 
jnilerR of tb0 lan<i, before the EngliBh set foot 
in South Africa, 

The Dutch are a very liberal and hoapi- 
tftble set of people at the Cape of Good Hujh:'. 
In Cape Town many of them are merchants 
of the highest standing and consideration* 
In other parts of the colony they are princi- 
|ially "boers," — ^that being the Dutch word 
tor '* farmer.*' In England we attach some- 
thing reproachful to the word *' boor,"' which 
the persons it designates do not deserve. The 
Dutch coloniKis ^re seldom engaged in tnide. 
They are most frugal people-, and generally 
prosiperous; but they are certainly unc^lueatcd, 
and severely *' Don^progresaionistK." They use 
the same plough aa their ancestors used eighty 

years ago, though it is the most lumbering 
machine ever beheld, and takes twelve oxen 
Ui draw it. They shear their shee[» with the 
wool all dirty on their backs, though every 
Englishman washes his most carefully, and, 
conReqiiently, gets a much higher price for his 
wool They rejex*t steAm-mills and every 
other imn roved contrivance for grinding their 
com, and still adhere to the piimitive method 
of pounding it with a kind of peatle and 
mortar, A flail is unknown junong them, — 
the com ia trodden out by horses or oxen, as 
described, or alluded to, in the Laws of Moaes ; 
thus entirely spoiling the straw. 

In |>er8on, the Dutch' boers are the Enest 
men in the Colony. I have constantly seen 
them from six feet two to six feet six inches 
high [ brood and muscular in proportion. 
Their strength is gigantic, and though a very 
peaee;ibiy disposiMl set of men, they evidently 
entertain a compft«sionate contempt for any 
diminutive " Englander." Their adnui"ation 
of feats of daiing, fictivity, and strength, ia 
unbounded. Such a man as Kr. Gordon 
Cumming would be welcomed with open arms, 
and begged to stay for any length of tinte at 
the poorest Dutch boers hut in the Cjipc 
Colony. They marry young, and have gene- 
rally very large families. To the seoomi and 
third generation they live at the same home* 
ijtead, building an additional hut for each 
newly-wedded couple. As many nf them live 
to a gi'eat age, it is no unconiuioo thing to see 
a grandfather and grandmother of ninety, 
surrounded by haLf-^02en sons, having m 
their turn, each one, another half-dozen grown 
up children. They are a very religious peophi, 
and observe the sabbath with the greatest 
decorum,, however far they may be situated 
from church or chapel. And indeed it is a 
sight calculated to impress the beholder with 
the most pleasurable and enduring ismotions, 
to see assembled in the large room of the 
principal dwelling in a Dutch homestead, a 
whole family, numbering perhaps forty or 
Ei^y, from the g^ey-headed grantlsire to the 
tlaxen-locked infant, listening with devout 
attention to the hallow-e<.]| wmrds of the saci^ed 
liook, and joining in pi-aver and praise to the 
Great Father of the whole Inmiau family. 

Four times a year the sacrament is ad* 
miniatereti in every Dutch churdi in the 
colony. And theu, from far and wide, the 
waggons pour into the towns, bringing 
lamilieB who have ti-avelled even one hundred 
and fifty miles to partake of the Lord's Supper. 
New Year's Day is always one of these occa- 
sions, and indee<l it is a general holiday 
thiv>ughout the land, and is the miM sacred 
day in the Dutch Calendai*. A stranger 
would imagine that some ii&te or ^reat enter- 
tainment, some fair or festi\'al, had drawn to- 
gether the crowds of young tuid old as8<?mltled 
m the towna on this flay. liittle would h« 
imagine that they hail been summone*! there 
only by the recollection of the tiivine wurda, 
"This do in remerabranoe of me,'* 


t|Altrtt< m At OScii no. ML Weilfictoo Sti««t RcAh. Soib4. Prtntcd br B»49«nT a E«^«. WUtaftlic^ Loautai 

*' Familiar in tJmr Mouths at HOUSEHOLD WOUDS "— 8H*it«sr.eA«ii 



N"^ 52.) 


[Pmrci 2d. 



ToM winter of 1844 was a Mvcre one in 
Gerauny. Both aides of the Ilhine, for many 
miles between Coblenz and Cologne, were 
frozen hard enoxigh to bear a horse and 
cart ; and even tbe centre, save and exoept 
. a thin stream where the current peraisted 
in displaying ita urgent vitality, was covered 
over with thin ice, or a broken film that waa 
constantly endeavouring to unite and con- 
solulate its quivering flakes and particles. 
We were ftayuig in Bonn at this time. All 
the En^liahmcn in the town, ^ho were 
ekateni, iflsued forth in pilut-coata or dread- 
ikought pea-jacketSf and red worsted oomfort- 
ers, witri their skate» dangling over their 
Hhooldcra. Holding their aching noaes in 
their left handa, they ran and hobbled through 
the slippery atreets, and made their way out 
at the town^^tes near the Univeraity. They 
were on the way to Poppkadorf — a little 
villiig© about a mile distant from Bonn. We 
were among them ; — vvd comforter round 
neck — skates over shoulder, 

Tbe one great object in this little village is 
a somewhat capncioufl and not unpicturesque 
edifice called the Schloss, or Caatle, of Pop- 
pleedorf. The outer worka of ita fortification* 
are a long avenue of trees, some pretty fir 
grovea and wooded lulls, numerous vineyards, 
and a trim Bcries of b<)tanic gardens. The 
embrajsurea of ita walla are armed with 
batteriea of learned tomea ; iu soldiers are 
eradite professors and doctors who have 
chambers there ; studenta discourae on phi- 
losophy and art, and awords and beer, and 
KBolce for ever on ita peaceful drawbridge.* ; 
and* on the wide moat which surrounds it, 
Englishmen in red comforters — ^at the time 
whei-eof we now speak — are vigorously skating 
with their accustom if<l gravity. This scene 
was repeated daily for several weeka, in the 
winter of 1844- 

One morning, issuing forth on the same 
serious business of life, we perceived that the 
peasantry of Popplesdorf, who have occasion to 
come to Bonn every maiket-day, had contrived 
to enliven the way and facilitate the journey 
by the gradual coustructiou of a series of 

tttal long alidee. We stood md contemplated 


these lengthy curves, and sweeps, and stjiange 
twisting stnpes of silver, all Reaming in the 
morning sun, and aoon arrived at the con- 
viction that it was no doubt the pleaaantest 
market^pathway we had ever seen. No one 
waji coaung or soing at this moment ; for 
Popples in but a Little dor/, and the traDic is 
far irom numerous, even at the busiest hours^ 
Now, there was a peculiar charm in the clear 
shining solitude of the scene, which gave ua. 
at once, an impression of loneliness combinea 
with the brightest paths of life and activity. 

And yet we gradually b^an to feel we 
should like to see somebody — student or 
peasant— come sliding his way from Popples* 
dorf. It was evidently the best, and indee^l 
the correct mode for our own course to the 
frozen moat of the castle. But before we 
ha<l reached the beginning of the first slide 
(for they are not allowed to be made quite up 
to the town pites), we descried a figure in the 
distance, which, from the course it was t^ng, 
bad manifestly issued from the walls of the 
castle. It was not a peasant — it was not one 
of our countrvmeu ; be it whom it mighty he 
at least took the slides in first-rate style. As 
he advanced, we diaoemed the figure of a tall 
man, dressed in a dark, long-ekirted frock 
coat, buttoned up to the throat, with a loW' 
crowned hat, from beneath the broad brim of 
which a great mass of thick black hair fell 
heavilv over his shoulders. Under one arm 
he held a great book and two smaller ones 
closely pressed to his aide, while the other hand 
held a roH of paper, which he waved now and 
iheji in the air, to balance himself in hia 
sliding. Some of the slides rei^uired a good 
deal of skill ; they ha*l awkward twirls naif 
round a stone, with here uiid there a sadden 
downwanl sweep. Onward he <^me, and we 
presently recogniae<l him. It was Dr. Gott- 
fried Kinkel, lecturer on Archaeology ; one of 
the most able and estimable of the learned 
men in Bonn. 

Gottfried Kinkel was bom in a village 
near Bonn, where his fiither was a clerg}'- 
man. He was educated at the Gymnasium of 
Bonn, and during the whole of that period, 
he was especially remarkable, amou^ com- 
panions by no means famous for ataid and 
orderly habits^ «a a vefT quiet, hodustrioua, 
young man, of a sincerely religious bent of 
mind, which gained for him the notice and 



[CABaartisi kf 

regikrd of nJJ the cler^'v and the moat dftvmit 
among tht? iiihabitjurt^ of the lown. His 

p^*' ' ^' ■ v'Tc liberal; but never 

which were comiuoidv 

t : : i!i.' l»v Ti.»»rlj all men of 

etlncalion. He etii'l lyat the TJni- 

vemty, where he gi Jiguiahed him- 

self in various brant^lieH of learning, and 
obtAined the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. 

He first pre/iched nit Cologiif, atiul with 
^rent success, his oratory being coni-iidered as 
brilliant as hia i-eaaoniilgH were convin 
Hi8 sennons were tubaeqaently publi 
Aud became very popular, and be %*as cli»r^. .1 
as a leiKiher of Theology in the University of 

He n^xt turned liia attention i,o the stivly 
of the Arts. On this 9u>*ject he wrote and 
published a History, and lectured on " Ancient 
and Medieval Art," both in the University 
and other public inatutiona, with unparalleled 
enccf^ts and applause. 

His labours at this period, and for a long 
time after, were ver\' anluoiift, generally occu- 
pying thirteen hours a day. J^ing only what 
m cjillerl a " privat-docent," he did not as 
yet receive any salaiy tit the University ; he 
was therefore conipelletl to work hnird in 
various ways, in order to make a eniall in- 
come. However, he did this very cheerfully. 

But his aliandonment of Theology for these 
now Htndlea, caused him the loas of most of 
hla devout friendyi. Thpy shook their heads, 
feared that the change denoted a step 
from the true and severely marked 
of orthodox opinions. They were right ; 
for h« soon after said tb.iit he thought the 
purity of religion would be best attained by a 
aeparation of Oiurch and State ! 

Dr, Kinkel suffera no small odium for this ; 
out he can endure it. He has uttered an 
honest sentiment, resulting from his i)a«t 
studiea ; he has become a highly applauded 
and deeervefily eateenied lecturer on another 
itibject ; he is, moreover, one of the best 
sliders in Bonn^ and is now Kilaueinp; his tall 
figure (a» just described) with b<wka under 
one arm, on hh way to the University. 

Happy Gottfried' Kiukel ! — may you have 
health and strength to slide for many a good 
winter to come ! — rare Doctor of Philoaopby, 
to feel BO much boyish vitality after twenty 

f'eara of hard study and seclusion ! — fortunate 
ecturer on Archaeolo^', to live in a country 
where the &im|ilicit^ of mannen will allow a 
Professor to slide hia way to his class, without 
danger of being reproved by hia grave and 
potent seniors, or or shocking the respectable 
mhabitauta of hia town t 


The Caatle of Popplcedorf comroandfl the 
motft beautiful views of aome of the mo«t 
beautiful pATts of RheniBh PruBsia ; and the 
vwTY beat point from which to look at them, 
ii the window of the room that used to be the 
atudy of Dr. Gottfried Kinkel, That used to 

be — and ta not now — aloa, the day f But we 
m\iMt not auticipato e\'ila *, they will come 
only tcto soon in their natund eours^e. 

1q this room, hia libniry and study, we 
called to 5e« I>r. Kiiikel. ITiere he sat^ 
dreasing-gown, aliiTtpers, and cloud-compelling 
pipe. The walls were all shelves, the shelves 
all books, — some lx>und, some in boards, 
*' some in rags, and some in jags," — ^together 
with papera, maps, and scientific instruments 
of brass and of steel. Tliere stood the Hebrew, 

■k, and Roman authors ; in another divi- 

, the Italian and French: on the other 
-r it, in long irregular ranges^ the old Germau 
and the motieni German ; and near at hand, 
the Anglo-Saxon and English. What else, 
and there wa» much, we hflji not time to note, 
Ixnug called to look out at the mndow. What 
a window it was ! — a simple wooden frame to 
what exquisite and various scenery ! Let the 
reatler bear in mind, that it is not winter now 
— ^but a bright morning in May. 

Close l>eneath the window lay the Botanic 
Grardena, with their numerous parterres of 
flowers, their lines and divisions of shrubs and 
herbfi. Within a range of a few miles round, 
we looked out upon the jjeaceful little vilkges 
of Popjilesdorf and Kessenichj and the fertile 
plain extending from Bonn to Godesberg — 
with gentle hil w, vales, and ridges, all covered 
with vineyarils, who«o young leaves eave a 
tender greenness and freah look of bri^tand 
joyous childhood to the scj-nery. Beyond 
them we saw the Kessenicher Hrjhe, the* blue 
slate roofe and steeples of many a little church 
and chapel, and the broad, clear, serpent 
windiugft of the Rhine, with the grey and 
pur|>le range, in the distance, of toe Seven 
Mountains, t^?rminating with the Drachenfek. 
Over the whole uf this, with the exce[)tion 
only of «uch soft, delicate shades and shallows 
as were needful to display the rest, there lay 
a clear expanse of level sunflhine, so tender, 
bright, and moveless, as to convey an im- 
preaaion of bright enchantment, which grew 
upon your gaze, and out of which nipture you 
awoke aa from a dream of fairy land, or from 
the contemplation oi' a scene in some ideal 

Fbrttmate Dr. ICinkel, to have such a 
window as this ! ft was no wonder that, 
besides hia studies in Tlie(.>logy, in ancient and 
medice^Til art, and in ancient and modeni 
languages — besides writing hia History of the 
Arts, and contributing Teamed paj^era to 
varioTiB periodicals— besides prcn ' ■ ' '- 
turing, and public and private I ^ 

soul was obliged to compose a voUnu . ,, , ;u.'i 
— and again displease the severely orthodox, 
by the absence of aU prayers in verse, and the 
presence of a devout love of natiire. 

For, here, in their placidity. 
Learning and Fooey abide ; 

Not slumbering ou the uufathomed ieD« 
Yet ull unoouecloua of the tido 

That nrgps on mortality 
Id oddios, and in circles wide. 


CWriM IHrknt.1 



Ah. bcfe. tine soul onn look abrond 

E ii gold from ! foni, 

^'arkling to t ■ atn ; 

y«t be no taiser with ila ho.Tir<l, — 
Fo dmmer of the oommou dream. 

TbuA aang Dr. Kmkel, in our imperfL^rt 
truuihUiioo thus modequat^t^Iy ecLocd ; said 
Ifcere he vmDUght hanil in his vocation, amidst 
the smilea of aome of the loveliest of Nature's 

But be«ides the posaeanon of all the«e booka, 
and of this wonderful window. Dr. Kiukel 
wiia yet more fortunate in his domestic rela- 
ttotUL He was marnetl to an amiahlef highly 
educated, and arcom|»liah€d ladv, who cnaea- 
voured, by all the mean» in her power, to aeabit 
hifl lalionrSj and rentier thein leas onerous by 
her own exertion*. She was a very fine 
mnsiciaiif and a superior pianoforte player — 
otie of the favourite pupik of Moschelea^ aiid 
afterwarda, we believe, of Mendelaaohn. She 
divided her time equally between aansting 
her huaband, educating their child, and giiaii|^ 
|»nvmt4» lesaona in music ; and beoiaae this 
accomtiE^ed hanl- working couple did not 
find tneir eotin^ea quite worn out by toiUng 
for thirteen hours a day, they gave a privi^te 
concert at the Castle once a month, at which 
a whole opera of Mozart or Weber was often 
gODO throQgh — ^both the instrumental and 
vocal parta l>eing by amateursi, or pupUa of 
Madam Kink«?L 

80^ once Rgain, we say, notwithstanding all 
theae labours, Dr. Kinkera life in the Caette 
ol Poppleatloif, was that of a fortunate and 
hamy nuu;^ At this period he was about two 
aild thirty years of ase. He couUl not have 
been more ; probably ne was leas. 


It it* tJie year 1848, and the Continental 
Revolatfoiis nri^ shaking all the foreign 
thrones. Evervht^^ly, not dirtictly or in- 
directly in the pay of a Conrt, fet Ib that the 
lot ^.f tlit- people should be ameliorated. The 
] ' 01 all nations have borne enonuoua 

I ith extraCTi dinary patience, for a 

vci> — «ay a thovisand ye4irfi — and 

at U.- .^ no more patience left. But 

what is ail rniA to abaftiact thought, to learning 
and Bcience, to poetic raptiirfs and picturesque 
«aae ? ^"^ ' ■ nitherto been r^artled as too 
gFom\ 1, or of too coarse and common 

apnir ...: r the great majority of those 
whose lives were pa;a8ed in abstnict studies 
and refinementa. Ay — but this must not 
eontintie. Tlic world has come to a pass at 
which every soul must awake, and should be 
"up lu 

Dr Kinkel, now, beaideB hia other 

honours :i!nj Muoluments, and private earn- 
ings^ ia instiUled na a salaried Profesor in the 
University of Bonn. It cannot be but auch a 
man mast aw.ike, and take an intereat in theae 
Continental revolutions which are boiBng up 
all ronnd him. Still, it ia not likely he will 

step into the vortex, or approach it. His 
worldly p..-ii'i.»i^ i-j «trong against it- — all his 
interests t it ; moreover, he has a 

wife, and i has now three children. 

Howbeit, Dr. Kinkel does lise with these 
events, and hia wife, so far from restraining 
him, feels the same enthusiastic patriotism, 
and exhorts him to step forwanl, and swell 
the torrent of the time. He feels strongly 
that Pnissia should have a constitution; that 
her intellect and sober character deserves a 
constitutional monarchy, like ours in En^and, 
with such improvements aa ours manifestly 
needs, and he places himself at the head ot 
the popular pai-ty in Bonn, where he delivers 
public orations, the truthful eloquence and 
Doldnesa of which startle, delight, and en- 
courage his audiences. 

He is soon afterwartls elected a member of 
the Berlin parliament. He nidee with the 
Left^, or democratic pally ; he advocates the 
cause of the oppressed people and the poor t 
he argues manfully and perseveringly the real 
interests of all governments, in granting a 
ratiomvl amount of liberty, showing that in 
the present stage of the moral world, it is the 
only thing to prevent violence, and to secure 
gsHMl onler. His speeches breathe a prophetic 

The revolution gathers fuel, more rapidly 
than can be well disposed, and it takes fire 
at Baden. The flamea reach near and far^ 
many are irreaistibly attracted. T'" - '• ve 
seen, and too well remember, the f i 

and treachery of governments — ^tli., 
the moment has come to strike a blow which 
shall gain and establish the constitutional 
liberty they seek. Dr. Kinkel immediately 
leaves his Professorship ; he bclievea he 
ought now to join those who wield the swonl^ 
and peril their lives in support of their 
principles. He propc»aes to hasten to Bailen, 
to defend the t^'natitufion framed by the 
Frankfort parHauicnt. His patriotic wife 
consents, and in the evening ho takes leave of 
her, and of his sleeping children. 

It mivst not be concealed that with this 
strong feeling in favour of a constitutional 
monnrchy, there was an infusion of princicilea 
of a more sweeping character ; nor woula it 
be going too far to say that amidst the insur- 
gents of Ba<len were some who entertained 
opinions not far remove<l from red repubU- 
cxmism. Be this as it may, w© are persuaded 
that Dr. Kinkel's political principles and aims 
were pui'ely of a constitutional character, 
however he may have been lirawn into the 
fierce vortex of men and circumatances which 
surrounded him. 

Dt. Kinkel serves for eleven days in a 
free corps in Baden, where the army of 
the Insurgents have assembled. At the com- 
meiicement of the battle, he is wounded, and 
taken prisoner with arms in his hands. Tho 
sequel of these struggles is well enough 
known ; but the fnte of the prisoners who 
Burvived their wounds, must be noticed. 



According to the Prufisian law, Dr. Klokol 
ahould have been aentenced to aix yojira' con- 
fineineut as a state prisoner This Hcntericc 
is accordindy passed upon the uUmr ptt- 
Bonera ; aud with a wifie and comtuendable 
clemency many are set free after a Hhort Liiue. 
But tkB Dr. Kinkel is a man of high education 
and celebrity, it is thought beat to give him 
a very ^vere punishment, according to the 
old ignoranoe of what is called ** making an 
example," — a^ if thb sort of example did 
not pixivoke and etimulate, rather than deter 
others ; and, ns if clemency were not only one 
of the noblest attributes of royalty, but one 
of its best safeguardii m ita effect on the 
feelings of a people. 

Dr. Kinkel ia, accordiDgly, aentenced to be 
imprisoned for life in a fortreflg^ aa a state 
criminal ; and away ha ia carried. 

But now cornea into play the anger and 
reaeutment of many of tnoa© who \i^ once 
BO much admired Kinkel, aud held him up 
ft9 a religious chimipion, until the woeful day 
when he left preaching for the study of 
the arts ; and the yet more woeful, not to call 
it diabolical hour, when he announced his 
opinion that a aeparatiou of Church and 
State might be the beat course for both. 
After a series of intrigneSi the enemies of 
Kinket induce the Ki^ to alter the sen* 
tence ; but in order to avoid the appeai'ance 
of uuuBual severity, it ia announced that his 
sentence of imprLaonment in the fortress 
shall be alleviated, by ti-ansferring him to an 
ordinaiy prison. In pursuance, therefore, 
of these suggeatious oi hiB enemies, he ia 
ordere<l to be huprjaoii«id for life in one of 
the prisons appropriated to the vileat male- 
factors — viz., to the prison of Naugard, on the 

Dr. Kinkel is dressed in sackcloth^ and his 
head ia shaved. Hia wedding-ring ia taken 
from him, and every little memento of hta 
wife ami children which might afford him 
couflolation. Hia bed ia a sack of straw laid 
upon a boanl. He has to scour and clean hia 
cell, and perfoim every other menial ufiice. 
Light is allowed him only ao long as he toils ; 
and, aa soon aa the requisite work is done, the 
light is taken away. Such is Ms melancholy 
lot at the present moment ! 

He who used to toil for thirteen hours a 
day amidst the Iciirned langua^ea and the 
works of antiquity, iu the study of Theology, 
and of the arts — the clo«]Uent preacher, lec- 
turer, aud tutor — is now corapHalled to waste 
his life, with all its aoquirumeuta^ in spinning. 
For thirteen hours every day, he ia doomed 
to spin. By thia labour he eama, every day, 
tlureepencc for the Htate, and a halfpenny for 
himself J Thia latter aum, amounting to 
threepence a week, ia allowed Imu in mercy, 
and with it he is permitted to purchase a 
ilried herring and a amall lo^if of coarae 
brown bi-ead, — which, furthermore, he ia 
allowed to eat aa a Sunday dinner, — hia ordi- 
naiy food consisting of a aort of odioufi pap 

iu the morning (after having spun for four 
hours), some vegetables at noon, and soma 
bread and water at night. 

For months he has not enjoyed a breath ot 
fresh air. He is allowed to walk daily for 
half-4m-hour in a covered passage ; but even 
this is refused whenever the gaoler ia occupied 
with other matters, and cannot attend to^ 

Dr. Kinkel has no booka nor papers ; — there 
is nothing for him but spiiming — e[>tniiing — 
spinning ! Once a month he ia, by great cJc- 
mency, allowed to write one letter to hin 
wife, which has to pass through the hands of 
hia gaoler, who, bemg empiowered to act ai» 
censor, jmUcioualy strikea out whatever he 
does not choose Madam Kinkel to know. 
All Bympathiaing letters are strictly withheld 
from him, while all those which severely take 
him to task, and censure his politiad opiuiona 
and conduct, are carefully pbced in his handH, 
when he stops to take his breath for a minute 
from hifl eternal spinning. 

Rehvtives are not, by the law, allowe<l b> 
sec a crimiDaJ during the first three mouth» ; 
after that time, they u^y. But after having 
been imprisoned at Naugard three months — 
short ot a day — Dr. Kinkel ia suddeidy re- 
moved to anotiicr prison at Spjuidou, thei'O to 
re-commence a period of three months. By 
thia device he ia prevented from seeing hi»' 
wife, or any friena — ^all iu a perfectly l^a I 

The gaoler is strictly enjoined not to affonl 
Dr. Kinkel any sort of opiiortunity, either by 
writing or by any other means, of making 
intercesaiou with the King to obtain pardon, 
or the commutation of his sentence into 
banishment. All these injunctions are fully- 
obeyed by the gaoler — indeed the preeent one 
is more severe than any of the others. 

Nevertheles!^ the melancholy truth ha^ 
oosicd out^ — the picture has woni its tearful 
way through the denaa stone walls — and here 
it t» for ^ to see, — and, we doubt not, for 
muny to feel. 

' Oottfrie<l Kinkel, so recently one of tlie 
most adinii-ed profesaore of the University of 
I^nn, one uf the ornaments of the scholarship 
aud literature of modem Germany, now 
clothed in sackcloth, with shaven head, atid 
attenuated frame, sits spinning his last 
threads. He utters no reproadiica, do com* 
plaints ; but bears his sufferings wiUi a sweet 
resignation that savours alrcaoy of the angelic 
abodes to which his contemplations are ever 
directed. He haj entreated his wife to have 
hia heart buried amidst those lovely scene* 
on which he ao often ga^ed with sei-ene 
rapture, from his study-window in the Castle 
of Poppleailorf. 

Thoae who behold tliis la«t picture, and 
revert to the one where the professor came 
happUy sliding hia way to his class at the 
University, may perchance share the emotion 
which minkes us pass our hands across our 
eyes, to put aside the irrepressible tribute of 

narrow which dinui and confijAeB the page 
before na. Hia worst eueniiea could never 
l.nvn r>r.rit«mplated wn'thmg BO Bad as thia. 
leecC hare already relented, — but let 
I reeding voices be heard before it is 

too l&t«. 

The literary men of no country are united, 
or they might moye the whole kingdom. Still 
Ittm ure the litar&ry men of different eountnea 

1 " ■ * Mit move the world. But 

without a common ervm- 

2 1 1 . .iter? We are eure this ia 
ji .f tn- <^:i.-r ; '.:u<\ making this appeal to the 
literary men of England, we believe it will 
not be in vain. Nor are we without hope, 
that a strong sympathy of this kind, being 
duly and respectfully made known to the 
Kin|; of Prussia, or to Baron Manteufel, the 
Miniater of the Interior, may induce His 
Majesty to consider that^ the revolution being 
at an end, clemencv ia not only the " brightest 
jewel in a cTown,*' but ita nobleat strength, 
and that, while royal power can lose nothing, 
it tDtui ffiin bonour by remittine all ^rther 
imialahxnent of one who has onfy shared in 
the political ofTenc© of thousands who are 
now at liberty. All that the fricndi*, at home 
and abroad, of Gottfried Kinkel ask is — hia 
liberation from prison, and a permission to 
emigrate to England or America, 



T«8 core of the inquiiy which Mr, Wil- 
liam Wallace had at hearty lay imbe^lded in 
tka denositoriea of un impeachable Eccle^ias- 
tieal BegiMtry number tliree. To the dty of 
that See he therefore rejiaired, warmed by 
that flaming xaal which only bums in the 
hrtamt of an earnest antiquary, and which no 
amount of disappointment can quench. Though 
aanguine.; even for an antiquity- hunter, the 
liones which rebounded from his previous 
failurea, sunk within him, when he remem- 
bered that whereas he was in former instances 
iMitiftcd with letteni of recommendation — 
almost of command — ^firom the Bishopa of 
each Diocese; on this occasion, he had to 
fijght single-hwided, (like another St. George,) 
"" 5 dmgous that "guarded" the treasures he 

ight, He had no better introduction to the 
^<(llsra Denuty-Registrar than an honest pur- 
pose ; ana, his former experience taught him 
that that was about aa unpromiaiiig an usher 
into sneh a Presence as could be imagined. 
Mr. Wallace therefore commenced this new 
Attack with no strong presentiment of success. 

Streiwthened with an ally, in the person of 
a frienoly attorney, Mr. William Wallace 
marched boldly to the great fonctionaryV 
house, a splendid edifice in the Cathedral 
Close, with thirty-three windows in front, 
extensive grounds behind, detached stables 
and a tasteful boat-house at the edge of what 
Is here called the ** Minster Pool.^ 

Into this great house of a great man, Mr, 
William Wallace was ushered by his friend. 
Nothing cotild exceed the obsemiiouaneas of 
the man of law, and great wna tbe civility oi 
the man of wills. The interview was going on 
pleasantly and the antiquary was beginning 
to believe that at Inat he bad found a pattern 
Deputy- Registrar, when the lawyer happened 
to mention tliat Mr. >Villiam Wallace was a 
literary man. Mr. Wallace felt that this 
would be fatal — and it was so. He knew the 
condign contempt Ecclesiastical Registrara 
entert'iined for the literary world, from the 
little circumstance of hearing only the week 
l»efore in another Registry, tbe most eminent 
historian of the present day, and our beat 
archaic topogriipher, designated aa " contemp- 
tible pemiy-a-liiiera.*' Mr. Wallace was there- 
fore not at all aatonishe^l when the Deputy- 
Re^str&r folded up his smiling countenance 
into a frown. He evidently knew what was 
coming. Literary men never pay, and Mr. 
WUliara Wall nee wanted to consult *hia* 
reguters gratia. 

when this shrewd surmise was, by a word 
from the attorney, realised, the Registrar strug- 
gled hard to smoothe his face again to a con- 
dition of bland composure ; but m vain. The 
wound which had pterced through his pocket, 
rankled within. Tlie depravity of literary 
people in endeavouring to dig and delve for 
nistorical information witlvovit paying for the 
privilege of benefitting the public by their 
researcnei!, was t&o abominable ! The Regis- 
trar was ao good as to sav that he would 
grant Mr. WaJlace the privilege of consulting 
any wills he nleased — on tbe usual terms : 
namely, two snillittga and sixpence for every 

With this condescending permission (which 
placed Mr. Wallace on exactly the same 
footing as the great l>ody of the public which 
had not done itself the honour of visiting 
the Deputy-Registnir) he repaired to the 
Searching Office. The point he had set liim- 
self to ascertain at this Cathedral Registiy 
number three, hinged upon an authentic attes- 
tation of the deoease of the father of a distin- 
gnished general under Charles the First The 
name was a very common one in tbe diocese^ 
and of course continually occurred in the 
index* Will after will was produced by the 
clerks ; half-crown after half-crown fell glibly 
out of Mr. WaUace*8 pocket. Still no success. 
Of all the namesakes of the person sought, 
who had become teatatora in the early part 
of the seventeenth century, the one particular 
testator whose last act and deed Mr. Wallace 
sought, was not to be found. This proved 
an expensive day. Mr. Wallace had had to 
pay, in the course of it, twenty-five pounds ; 
although he was not allowed, aa at the other 
places^ to make a single extract 

For this large sijm Mr. WaDaee gained 
nothing but materials for a litUe wholesome 
criticism on the indexes or calendazv. Somo 
of the WHIb in thia R^^ry are dated aa 




early as the beKiiining of the fourteenth ecu- 
iunr ; but all Loe Kcgistrai's aiuce that tLai«, 
with their progresisivt'ly enonuoua incomes, 
have not found it coufiistent with their 
duty to have a list of these early WilLa nuide; 
for tlie fixat volume of culeudara eommeiicea 
with the Wills uf lo26, and enda witli those of 
iriGl. It iij a vohime only in name. It has 
DO buck ; all the Ifaves are loose, and it ia 
brought ia and thrywn down to whomever 
wishoa to consult it as if it were a lude of 
dAjQiig«d goods out of n wreck. Like more of 
lh« early indexes, th^ alphabtitical arran^e- 
mout is not of Buruamee, but of Chriatian 
iiiunes ; bo that the Bearcher has to ruu the 
i^Huatltit down intcrmijiable columns of the 
" Johns," '' Thouiaaee." •* Janieaea,'* and 
♦' J..11 ii hnns'* that briBtle uj>oneach page like 
Hunt said of the *' Sniitlis " in the 
J J the iron railinga along a London 

Bireet. riiia lump of almost Ujtele^ leaves 
baa never been copied into a legible ibnn 
by any Kegistrar since it became unfit for 
uae, 'rhe income of the office ev^jn of Deputy 
r ■ 1 sometimes admits of tbe Jnjuiite- 
from six to a do2eu racehorses, but 
In... -:A|.ciKse of compiling pa}>er calendars 
couUl never be tolerated. To make indexes 
of wills that have never been cataloged 
would be quite out of the question ; for 
the Registrar charges hla clients for tlie time 
of his clerks in middng searches, and it 
was owned to Mr. Walhu?e thai it would 
tfike a year (at from one to two guineas per 
thy) to find any will dated before the year 

The searcliin^ office of this Registnr waa, 
bke the othera, uiconvenient, small* ana often 
crowded. The noUcy of the clerks waa, there- 
fi»re| to despatch the inquirers as faat as pos- 
aihlO) so as to ensure a rapid change of visitors 
and a streaming influx of half-crowns. On the 
Mflond day of Mr. Wallace's search the trouble 
he had given on the previous day for his money 
wna intelUgibly hinted to him. He was broadly 
iiAd that he was *' verj^ much in the way ;" for 
room wna so much required that some appli- 
Otfita were plainly told that they must '* come 
acain to-morrow." To othei-s who had not 
their inquiries ready cut and dried, in a 
business form, and who threatened long 
explanations resj>ecting testatoi's, a d&aS ear 
was turned, or a nretcuded seaich was made, 
and they were told " there was no auoh will 
in the place." A pleaaant caae occurred 
on the second morning. An illiterate labourer 
tried to make the omcials understand that an 
uncle of bis wife had, he had heard, left him 
a legacy, and " he wanted lo know the rights 
o* it.'' He gave the name and the exact date 
of the death, and a clerk retu'ed under pre- 
tence of searching for the document. In a very 
short time he returned with — 

" No such will in the place — balf^a-crown, 

"" Ilalf-a-croone 1 " taid the oountryman, 

*• Half-a-crown ! ** rei)eateti the clerk, 

" Wat, vor telling me nought t " 

" Half-a-crown ! was again let off with 
a loud explosion, over the stilf embrasure 
of white cravat. 

** But dam me if oi pay't," persiisted the 


li:_ L . ijfTuan went on raising a storm 
in the oiJice, iii midst of which the " Half-a- 
crown ! " minute guns were discharged witli 
severe regulanty. At length, however, the 
SCTicultui'iat was obliged to succumb, and 
alter a mighty effort to disinter the coin 
from under a smock-frock, and out of the 
depths of a huge pocket and a leather puxne, 
the poor man was obliged to produce and 
pay over what was probably a filth of bis 
week's earnings. 

This clrcumfitano« having attracted Mr. 
Wallace's attention and pity, he tix>k a note 
of the name of the testator ; and, after the 
inquirer had left, found it in the Calendar, and 
by-and-by, by dint of a little manoeuvrinij, got 
a sight of the will. In it be actually found 
that the poor man had been left a small 

The ejttent to which similar practical 
pleasantries are indulged in, it is impos' 
Bible to estimate. Many of the most cruel 
wrongs inflicted and suffered in some {&- 
militt, arigiiubt^ m the infinite varieties of 
carelessness and ne^^lect that pervade the 
unimpeachable Ecclesniatical Registries of thla 

Meanwhile Mr. William Wallace bad been 
actively employed in calling for wills and 
paying out hal^-crowns. It w- ^■'■♦"*^\ident 
from 9ie calendars that no i e w«a 

taken of paper ajul pai'chnieni n'm the 

other Bcj^triea. Severid x*'ilis entere<l in 
it, as having been once in the de}K>aitory — 
wherever that was — had against them the word» 
** wanting " and *' lost." Tiiat ancient records 
should in the course of oenturiea fall aaide^ 
cannot be wondered at, even ia a Registry^ 
which produces at present to its officen from 
seven to ten thousand pes annum ; but what 
excuse can there be for the loss of compara- 
tively modern ones'/ Certain wills wen? not 
to be found of the years 1746; 1760; X753 ; 
anti 1737. 

Mr, Wallace soon found that in a place 
where dropping half-crowns into the till 
and doing ma little as possibl'^ in return for 
them, ia conaidered the onl v ^ ^i' 

ness, he was looked upon e\ e 

pounda per day aa a sort vi mm ...i^.nu, 
who required a great deal too much for hia 
money. They could not coin last kMi..n,ri, }iy 
Mr, William Wallace, and the Di; •?- 

trar indulge*.! the otlice with his _ n*- 

aeuce to inform him, that aA he gave sij uujch 
trouble for the searches he was making, bo 
must pay, besides two-aud-six- pence for every 
future search, two guineas per diem for the 
use of the office I 



It Iuipf»ene<l that the Bishon of ♦ ' 

liniril>t*r three wtis theu in th« city, 
it " tiij Rijd to ]iiiii Mr. iViLiiaiui 

\ lined to a^iply for r€ili«sf from 

liu^ t'JtLui ii. II. II« eDcloeeJ Ut his Lonkhip 
hi» lettei-s from other prelates aud stated 
hifl CMse. The answer he reCt?Wed w:ia 
the Bishop's utiqiuilijied anth&rU^ to search 
wherever aud for whatever he wanted in the 
BegiBters of his Loixlatiip's dioceee. 

Although this letter wa» addreBsed by the 
] lie servant or deputy of Aiiaervatit, 

f , AT, yet Mr. Wallace's dear-boQght 

fia^aciiy riad taught him to place vcrj* httle 
iailh iji a Bishop'a power ovej- hia inferiors. ] 
As it turned oxii, be found himBelf one of^ 
tliose who aje blesBed, because, expecting' | 
ii..thii»L- they are not disapj>ointed. The 
] i^'istrar received hia superior 'a nmn- 

I. supercilious mn^-fmid. The old 

ulory — *• The feiahop had Wjuriadiction what- 
ever over hiiii," but this once, &c. he. 

Mi, WlUiam Wallace had met in Cathedrala 
oiusbeiv one aud two, repulaet and rudeness. 
But each Cerberus who pretended to grmrd 
the documentary trea&ui'es of those dioceses, 
honestly showed his teeth. Thtjf had not 
been guilty of deceit. Deputy-Registrar 
nntnber throe was wiser in his generation. 
He ff»Te a cold assent to the Bishop's 
maniute In A£r. Wallaoe's behalf; but with it 
such wily instructions to his clerks, as ren- 
dered it as nugatory as if he had put it in 
his waste b&8ket or had Ijcrhted his cigar. 
During the two ^Xi^ys tliat half-crowns mined 
IV. - ' " '^howere fj-ora the Auti<iuary'8 ijurse, 
I • V Will he jLsktvi for was pro«:mced; 

i u the third duj, when the Bishop's 

loeed his purso-stri nga, Mr. Wallace 
document afler document, and was 
toiii by the ** Consen-»t* »rs " of this* imtioi-tant 
land of public property, that they had "been 
lort,'' " oouJd nut iMi found,'* *" raisliud/' But 
the most fri«<jueiit return was, " destroyed at 
the siege of the City» in the year 1643 "—Stolen 
away with the Tomb of Maruion when 

** Fanatic firooke 
The fiur Caihedral atonn'd and took." 

The result of the three days' inventigations 
stood thu3 : " Durine the two paying days, 
out of a hundre<J Wilfa asked for, eighty were 
produced. Throusj^hout the non-paying day, 
out of ninety Wills asked for, only one waa 
prodace<l !** 

When half-crowns were rife^ not one word 
was said aljout " the siege of the City, in the 
vear 1C43/' although nearly all the Wills 
Mr, Wallace was obliged with a sight of, 
were dttted anterior tu that destructive 

For Bome cirplrirLxtion Mr. Wallace repaired 
to the De] ' trar's abode. It was t€»o 
late TViH i. knew what was ctiming 

— and retrcutt. 1 tVum the field. The idTaiit's 
to Mr, Wallace wna, 
Out of town, BUT ! '* 

But Ml*. Wdluwu Wallace wa^ foiled even 
inor^ completely in another poitj I : he had a 
great desire to see wliere ana Ivow the Wills 
were kept. He knew their condition in 1832, 
from what XTlater K'--' -Arms s^iid before 
th^ Ecclesiiietical ' ii» "J corxsider 

the records very •! y have not, at»- 

]»arently, been dusted tor many years," Tne 
remarkable result of Mr. Wfilljice's urgent 
inquiries was that not a soul he asked ci^uld, 
or would, tell in what jjUice the ecclesiastical 
records of Cathetlral number three were 
depc»site*i, It waa vouchsafed to him tlmt 
moderii Willi* were prcsei-ved in the Begis- 
tnvr's aplenilid edifice ; but whether the ancient 
Wills la) interred in, or were hoidtet^l 
into lo/ls, or abated the mangers and coni- 
biiis of race-horses, no amount of inquii-y, no 
watching the clerks when they went out ot 
one door of the searcldng office "to procure the 
documents demanded, and then cxunc in at 
another, could discover. An old, stout, surly 
clerk, declared, in as staid a tone as if he 
were telling the truths "that he did not know 
where the records were kept,'* 

Mr. Wallace gave up this investigation in 
despair and left the city. The loau of the 
documents Wa» to him a myst^rry and a 
wonder ! 

The habitx of the antiquarv do not, how- 
ever, disffose him to indulge in listless despair. 
To find out the secret masses of the records of 
Cathedral niimber three was a task Mr. 
William Wallace had so eamestlv set himself, 
that next to his domestic relations and his 
literary labours, it grew into one of the duties 
of his ejcisteuce ; therefore, on hia way to 
Cathedral number four, he piwd anotlier visit 
to the city of Cathedral number tliree, for- 
tifted with letters to some of it«i clergy. To 
be sure tkey could clear up the mystery. 

His first application was to one of the 
Canons. Did he know where the eccle- 
siastical reconls were kept ? Well, it was odd, 
but it never entered his heaii to mquire. He 
really did »k>f know. Perhaps some of the 
Chapter olBcials could tell. 

To one of these hies Mr. Wallace. E>'en 
that functionarj' — whose courteousness, to- 
getlier with that of his colleague, was pleasant 
to the appUcant by the force of mere contrast 
— wjis equally unable to reveal the secret. 
" But surely,'' he added, " such a place cannot, 
when one sets about it, be so impenetrable a 
mystery. I have an idea that the MiUer could 
enlighten von." 

"The Miller r* 

" Yes. He knows everything about the 
town. Try him.** 

Mr. Wallace had bnsinesB at the searching 
office, and having transiictetl it, determined to 
make another em>rt in this legitimate quarteTr 
The following short dialogue occurred bietween 
him and the clerk :— « Pray/' said Mr. Wal- 
lace, "- where are the Wills kept T '* 

" Til at '& not your business ! ** was the 
answer. Mr.Waliace returned to the charge 






but the clerk became deaf, aiid went on with 
Aoine wi'iting, precisely ;ia if Mr. William 
WnJkce warv iuvimblu and inaudible. 

The Miller was the oidy resource. He waa 
from home, imd his wUe gave the same 
aii»wi»r as everybody elae had done. " But^" 
she said, i»oiutmff to ao individual who waa 
sttuntcrinx i^^to the Close, " there 'a one a« can 
tell Vls He e a ratcf^U^ man — he ia.*' With- 
out waiting to inquire the meaning of thia 
strange e^cpreBaian^ olfBturtd the reoora-hunter 
upt)« the new aecret. He run* down hia ^me 
in no time. It conaiat-s of a burly biped^ 
bearing a cage of fine lerreta. Eound hla pcr- 
Bou LB (Wplayed the broaU liialguia of offioej — 
he ia a ratcatcher. 

Here Mr. William WalIace*B penBevenmce 
trill mpha. The llat-catcher knows adl about 
it *' \Vliy you see, Sir/* he said, " I contracta 
for the Registrar." 

•'What for?" 

•* What for ? Wliy, I catches the rata for 
liim at 80 much a-ycar." 

'* And where do you catch them f" 

♦• When^ do I catch them ? Why, where 
th© old wills ia/* 

*' And where i» that ? " 

*• Where is that ? Why, Mrrtf." 

Tlie Kat-catcher pointa to a sort of ham 
that riaea from the edge of the Minster Pool. 
It has no windows on the ground-floor. On 
the first-floor are six — two in the front of the 
building .and four at the end,^ — twcntynaeven 
windows leas than ai'e diaplayed in the front 
of the Ilegistrar's (jcauti fully glazed house ; 
but much of the little glijaa afforded to the 
registry is bi*oken. To mend it upon seven 
thousand a-year would nov er do, especially 
when old parchment i» lymg about in heapa. 
Wliy pay glazici-s' chai'^ea when ancient willis 
and other ewleaiasticjid recorda keep out wind 
and Weather aa well as glass % — -for light ia a 
thiniLj rather to be shunned than adniitttHi 
into dueh places. Accordingly, aa the Rat- 
OAteher points to the ahed, mx\ WjUlace ob* 
neiTetf numberlesB ends of record rolls and 
bundlca of engrosseil testaments jioked into 
the broken windows: in some places varie- 
gated with old rags. 

Judging from the exterior, and from the 
contract for rat-catching, the interior of thia 
depository of the titlea of hundreds of thou- 
aands of pounds worth of property, muat be 
an archiBological Golgotha, a dark mouldy 
aepulchre of parchment and dust. 

Lawyers say that there is not an estate in 
this country with an impregnable title ; in 
other worda, it iw on the cards in the game of 
ecclesiastical and common law, for any family 
to be depiived of their possessions in con- 
sequence of being unable to establish a perfect 
title to them. How can it be otherwiae when 
the very deeds by which they have and hold 
what they enjoy^ are left to be eaten by rats, 
or to be sto^d mto hroken windows ? 


'* ThU \» the Btrifo, and clco t|i« aiTnOA, 
And Ui« Um\t tbAt liuieU) »lo."— CuAiian. 

Tnonan his heart may daro to gloiyi 

ConsciouB of a Ckxl innate — 
Tet to read his fuiura storyj 

To foresee hia future fute, 
To foro-fiiag his future singittg, 

Never doth the Poet hood : 
Every day to him is bringing 

All of which the day bath need. 

Faithful is his hand and fearless : 

Wholesome seed, he knowoth well. 
May be sown in weather cheerless, 

But will spring up where it felL 
Seed was given to his keeping, 

And from Heaven it was scut ; 
He baa sown it la it elocping 

In the soil? — he is content 



It 80 chanced that the direction taken by 
the kangaroos led towards th« sea^ooast, and 
to that quarter of it where Waipata had l>een 
sent since bis convei-sioii to ChriHtianity. The 
Voimg man being out witli three or four of the 
Maori youths, omuaing themselvea in praC' 
tismg with their speara, were suddenly alarmed 
by the advance of largo wild creatures of a 
kind they had never seen befoi^, and, therefore, 
regarded as very strange and dangeroujs 
monfltera. Onward came tnenc nine monsters, 
almost in regular succession, witli their large 
dark eyes staring like lamp« l)efore them — 
their long ears Htickiug up like horns — their 
long thick tails stretching out ati-aight l>cViind 
— and taking leajM of ten or twelve feet high, 
and from twenty to thirty feet in length. As 
the first passed along, Waipata — partly in fear, 
and yet partly from a daring spirit, flung a 
spear at the creature. The weapon pierced 
it deeply in the &nk. — so that the leaping 
flight was at once turned to a limping escape. 
The inatant the effect was seen by the other 
youtlis, away sang their spearo, ami down 
stumbled three more of the poor kangaroo*. 
The hunting mania wjks now in a blaie. and 
with a loud yell, the young men gave ouaae, 
and in a very short time, the kaugarooti, who 
though wounded, had all contrived to keep to- 
gether to the last, lay rolling on the sand near 
the sea, with their huge hind legs kicking 
in the aii'. At this moment Ta5nui and lu« 
party made their way round a rock, and 
nehtild the slaughtered creatures — and who 
had done it ! 

The king aat down upon a stone, and bent 
forward, looking at the dying and dead kan- 
garoos. The chiefs explained to Waipata the 
mischief he had done ; but Ta^ui said 
nothing. He saw how it all was. Witch- 
craft—the " dibble " — the influence of his old 
enemy Te Pomar — of Tecira — of Kaitemata 
and her black onenByed pig — and of theina^c 
flute ! Against all explauatiou and apologies 


frctm his sod, he only waived his hand — 
and he continued to do thk till Waipftta, 
and his friends, and, in fact, all the chiefs, and 
everybody else, left him sitting there alone. 

Thoa fflit the king till evening ; and, feteling 
tliat nothing woree could occiur to him than 
had already happened^ he would not move 
even at night. A Mauri youth, however, 
\r'^° c^^t.* j^,y Waipata frum the missionary 
Ij^'lit a fire near him for company 
L ; lion, and also with a Inittle of rum 

to prevent a^e from the nlght-dewe. Tai^nui 
received the^ att«ntiona without giving any 
token of recognition ; after the young man 
waa gone, however, he took a copious draught 
of the rum, and then «at and conttniplnted the 
fire in a state of grim apiithy till he fell asleep. 

He had not slept long before the thought 
of the flute presented itself to his mind in the 
moat perBuasive fonii^>roposing to him, as it 
aeemed, that he should be recpnciled to tlie 
memory of the great Te Pomar — that he 
flhould never again exult over hie fall — ^that 
he ahould liberate TeOra before it waa too 
late, and ceaae to persecute her, or punish his 
Bon, for embracing the Christian religion. 
But in vain — he would not attend to it-— -he 
would not be softened and humaniaed — and 
It. m-> .." } he transformed the snggestiona of 
into a taunt that he dared not play 
i; , .: ::j:ain. 

No soituer did the irle.i pi*esent itself then 
up went the flute to hijB mouth, — and, instead 
Of a discordant inault to the memory of Te 
Pomar, in an instant he received a violent 
kick on the ehin, as if fixim some prodigious 
log 1 Ho started up. Who had aone this ? 
^obotly wad near. Nothing waa to bo Been 
but the <lylng embers of the fire, and the 
horrid heap of sLnutditered kangaroos, all 
with thtir huge hind-lcga eticking up in the 
air. Ilnd they lK?en nlive, such a kick might 
have bceu administered by one of these legs ; 
but they were all rigid in death. 

While the king was looking at the man- 
gled imd hideous bean, one of the limba 
moved — certaiidy it haa moved — and now it 
moved again. Presently there was a horrid 
" atir " all over tlie oiisanguined mass — one of 
the kangaroos lifted its head up, and, with iU 
ears bolt upright, and its eyes turned towards 
the king, gave a sneeze bo loud that it aeemed 
to split the adjacent rwk. Whereupon, all 
the nine kangaroos started up^ and made oflT 
at long leaps across the sands. 

Taonni looked nfler them ! Had he been 
deceived, aiWr aU ? An irresiBtible impulse 
made him snatch up hia lone speaT) and give 
chase with his ntmoat spee£ They were a 
considerable distance a-head of him^ yet he 
was aurprised to find himself ^dning upon 
them, as their large bodies fl<3, with long 
fljdnjg leaps, across the sands, the clear m^ion 
ahimng brightly down upon their glossy bocks 
and loDg thick out-stretched tails, giving them 
the strange appearance of creatures made of 
a sort of ghostly silver, flying, with the seA 

on one aide of them, and the land on the 
otheT, and belon^ng to neither. They now 
turned a comer of the difii and were lost to 

Taonni pursuing at full speed, tumed the 
same comer. The kangaroos were at a eroat 
distance^ but one of them had detached itself 
from the rest, and was turning back. Yes — 
it was coming to meet him. There wsa 
something stately, if not thi-eatening, in its 
air. Coidd the creature InteDd to ftttai 
him 1 

As the figure advanced, the moon ^-adually 
shone brighter and brighter upon it, tiU the 
king could clearly diatiuguifih the suit of 
armour giveu by a king of England to the 
chief Shongi E. Hougi m days of yore. It 
was absolutelv the suit of armour — but waa 
anybody inside it t A K-ittle wjw intended by 
the armour — that was apparent. At the dis- 
tance of a epear*8 throw, the figure paused, 
and made signs of defying the king to single 

Ta^nui would willingly have declined it, 
but it was too late, and, besides, he would be 
shun if he did not fight. Without further 
hesitation, therefore, he flung his spear. It 
smote the suit of armour on the breast with 
unerring aim, and broke oS at the point. A 
strange noise issued from the inside of the 
armour. It waa evidently not empty. Some- 
body was inside. It advancetl^ apparently 
having no weapons, though with a very con- 
fident bearing. 

Taonui now whirled his tomahawk through 
the air. It smote with a loud ringing sound 
upon the helmet, an<l fell down in the sand. 
Tlie king, then, in a sort of despair, uttered 
his war-cry, and rushing onward with Ida 
meri ponamu (a green, flat war-club), com- 
menced a valiant assault upon his inexnflicable 
antagonist, who, however, contentea itself 
witli turning its Imck — raising one leg — and 
administering a kick in the king*s ril« so 
tremendous that he flew before it, and dashed 
up the sand for several yards, as he rolled 
over in all sorts of wild postures. 

Expecting, as a matter of course, to be 
killed by some novel process, the fallen TiiDnni 
looked up, and saw long ears sticking out at 
the sides of the helmet, and a long projecting 
nose. It was one of the kangaroos } And 
now the others all returned, and after per- 
fonmng a series of exulting leaps round aoout 
him, the nine kangaroos idl danced upon the 
prostrate body of the king, till ho became 

The religion of the Tohun^a, which was the 
established chui-ch of New Zealand at this 
period, and continues to be so to this day 
with most of the tribea who t«main firm to 
heathenism, could by no means be de«gnated 
as idolatry. They had small household gods, 
such aa lisards, and little deformed figures 
hung round their necks : they also had great 
fear of spirits, devils, and apparitions of all 
aorta, but no definite adorationa on a grand 



[CouiliietcA kf 

scale. Sometliing of this kicid, h<:iwever, 
ftpj^ears to have been ihe cn^ at aii earliei- 
date, as the rvrnairm of certain temples j>lainly 
indicate. Cue of these, in a very Becluded part 
of the interior, contjiined the remaiaa of a 
grotesque Idol, whose advice was sought on 
ver)' nnfiort-ajit occasion^L by the prieet«, or by 
the chiefs whom the priests could influence. 
T\\e approach to the temple of tlie idol was of 
couriio tapu — nobody dai-ed to go near it, 
Miiiiy little spota on the outskiits, where an 
ancient chief or great pi-iest had Htoml, were 
tOArkeU off by a circle of sticks. The remains 
of a treble row of atukea were stuck round 
about the entmnce t<» thia temple, intervaDed 
with tall npright poets, on the tope of which 
were carved figurci*, larger than lite, of men in 
all sorts of frightful altitudes, moat of whom 
were thruating out cnomioua tougiicj^ with an 
expreswitvn at once of the most savage pro- 
vocation and thrcatcjiing. Tlie ccirvinga on 
tlie outer walls of the temple were coloured 
with black, red, and white ; but the intesrior 
was in darkness, except, here and thei'e, an 
uncertain light admitted thrr^iT'*' .^-,^1,^ and 
crevices, which cast a hazy mi mya 

Ut»on the squatting figure of a <i ^i-een 

Idol, with red eyes encircled V»y tiaiie white 
rings — a great gourd-like huM?, elnlxirately 
tattooetl m black — tall flat eju'a, immenaely 
wide, speckled, atid of a blotKl-atone colour — 
and a large black mouth in two archesi 
not unlike the form presented by a Byiiig 

Gradually returning to a atate of coiUMaons- 
nCM, the first thing '1 - 'r^^' '^^<rceived waa the 
figure of thia Idol ' *ti a mound of 

Band, with ita red v^. i g directly upon 

Ills face. The king sat uji — and they Ikoth 
remained seated for some time^ looking at 
each other« 

At length the Idol arose, and beckoning 
Ta4nui, led the way acroaa the aanda into the 
acmh, The kuig having arisen, had followed, 
QB if by some drejulful laaoiaation ; but he 
hesitated to advance among the ahruba and 
ridgea of the acnib. ITie po^od, jicrceiving 
tliiw, jK>inted to the flute which hung from 
TaOnui's neck, aud immediately a tuncral 
march resounded — not Hke the one he had 
rt-KXMiily heardy but made up of all the most 
discordant and vile sounds he had been 
accustomed to play in hia first uae of the 
instrument. To thifi march, the king folt 
himself obliged to move in measured time, 
after his " spiritual " conductor, who now 
advanced without once turning his head* 

The Idol led the way through the arid 
and 9tunt«d mazea of the scrub^ and thence 
aoross the country, and through a forest, — 
now fortling rivers, — now climb'mg over 
rocky ridgea, — the dlacordaut muaic of the 
march ringing in the king^a ears all the time. 
He had thrice endeavoured to tietach the flute 
firom hia neck, but all he could cSect was to 
half strangle himself; on which occaaions he 
always eaw the aquab ahould^a of the pagod 

shake with ailent laughter. In thia manner 
they proceeded, till they arriv*.Ml at the 
bor^lera of a channel, across which they 
poa.'iied in a canoe made of the hollowai trunic 
of a tree, and landing on an islajid, proceeded 
to a ruined pah, whidi Tafinui well knew, for 
almost the only building in it, that waa still 
8tan<iin|U waa Eat-man House. 

Thia nouAe, with the objectionable cidinaiy 
name, had several histoncal traditions con* 
nect«d with it, which we pass over with a 
shudder, merely remtarkins <iat its present 
external arj)earance was c»y no means sug- 
gestive of pleaaing thoughts. The door^ioat 
and boarda of the portico were carved with 
figures having flat shell eyes, with their 
tongues protruded as hi aaviuge insult and 
defence ; and the row of stakes round the 
house was adorned in various placea witli 
dried human heads of chiefs who had Cdlen 
in Kittle — the mouths of the victors being 
carefuOv sewn up close, while thoae of the 
vanquiybed luwl been distended to the utmost, 
and theu sewn bock in thnt horrid position, 
to indicate that they were still in a constant 
terror, and calling out ! A large head over 
the door, intended, Dcrhapa, to represent the 
original owner of tne house — the renowned 
Shougi of Eatman,^ — ^was elaborately tattooed- 
and adorned with a long beard made of dogs 
tails. In this ftightfiil place was TeOra now 
fastened up, and perhaps had been starved to 

To a aemicircular space in fitiut of this 
lonely house, the Idol now led the way, and 
took hia seat on a high stone which bad been 
jilaced against the door to keen it fastened. 
At the &ame moment, a polntea flamu Vmi-st 
out of the ground between TaOnui and the 
pagod, the feet of the fonner becoming Hxed 
to the spot where he stood. Presently 
TaOnui perceived a tigure seated on his 
right, closely shrouded ui the long war mat 
of a great ramalift. A socoud fiume now 
burst out of the ground by the side of tlie 
firat ; mid presently Tauiini'Tn>tioeii a second 
ftgurcT, seated o]>ixisite to the other, shrouded 
in like manner in hia war-mat. A third 
6anic arose — and with it a tliird shadowy 
cliief aro^e and took hia ae^t ; a fourth flameu 
and a fourth shadowy figure, and so ou, till 
all the flam^ uuitLng in uie centre, tliere was 
a great fire, and round it were seate*! a circle 
at shadowy warriors, whom the king now 
discovered to be those "Waikatoto chiels who 
had faUen in battle by the aide of the great 
Te Pomar. 

A strange stir and bustle was now going 
on among the trees of a grove just behind 
Ta6uui. He could not turn his head to see 
what it was ; but, somehow, he became aware 
that it was the preparation for a great feaat, 
A long roasting-stake was thrown over his 
head, and fell near the fire. Sevei-al vessels 
made of baked clay, and of stone and shell- 
work| were also pushed witldn the circle. 
But what were they to eat ? Wliere was th« 


CkMto* DtdMu-l 



fe^ifirt I What was to be roasted, aod c&teu 1 
His kAiigarooa, perhapa ; and to tbm, the 
king ah*r the ta eattuent he had received, had 
no uort of objection. Meanwhile all the 
aeakted fij^res maintained a solemn eUence. 
Tju^bUi Koked from one to tlie other, but 
eoidd gather nothing from their ininiovftble 
faces, all of which were painted with loix>- 
teai or red ochre^ denoting the importance of 
the ocoaeiou. 

At Ipiigth a Toic€y which evidently came 

middle ot the fire, cried luoud^ — 


n silence^ during which nothing ap- 

|peai'*Hl, all the ahadowy chiefe answered m 

chorus, •* Koo^i, koo-if^' — where are you 1" 

Tiionui giueed all round, wondering why 
the victims wore not brought, as he now 
clearly saw that a cannibid feast waa in- 

'* Bring forth our feast !" a^ain cried out 
the Voire of the Fii-c. Nothing api)eared. 
TnCnui again looke^i roAind at the faces of the 
elwulowj" warriors seated a^wut the fire till 
at last hia eye encoimtere<l llial of the Idol, 
who* after holding him with serpent-like fiiaci- 
nation, relax e«l ita features in a hideous 
5niile. Whereuiwn all the 8ha«iowy chiefs 
uttervd a ^ndffen laugh, and tumeri their 
<ieail eyes full upt^^n Ta*3nui, who now under- 
stood that he himself was the victim — the 
*• feast," who was to be brcmght forth. 

The shadowy chiefs now rose up, and with 
ahouts and ycUa nerformcd a war -dance, and 
then a funeral dance, and then a festive 
daoce, in rapid succofi&ion round Ta4&nui ; 
they then seized htin,^-dj-agpe<l him to the 
fiff hia cl<>idc, [irejMireil to 
! of the roasting-etake 

fir»i. — ;unl tk 

his last moment had 
-elf to die as became a 

I'he k i i 
arrived, U' ■■ 
great woi rior. 

'• r caiiaot dance my war-dance amidfit 
your haiidV* he cried ; *' but I dance it in 
my soul, with deii^ajce and econi. I curse 
you, my Idol ; and I thrust out my tongue 
at all your priesta, and at the religion of 
Tohun^, I also defy the powers of witch- 
craft ; and I here call u^wn the et>int of the 
young slave, Todra, who ia dead, to do her 
worst, in revenge for the slftnsjhter of her 
father, and all the injuries I liave heaped 
m»on hLs memory. And now I shall renmin 

Taonui having conclude*! this, his last 
«poet*li, which, as is usnnl, he wm« Hllowed to 
finish without intenniption ; the point of the 
fltake wa* insertt^d in hus sboui.hjrs ; bnt the 
hands that were thrusting it in, were then 
arrestetl by a colossal arm, which the king 
recogni«cii a« thp one he had ieen in the 
cavern; ^vT ut leg at the aaane time 

trampk'ij ^ One aide of the wall 

of Eat-mari ii-ust^ now fell down, and the 
same great <lark ann, which Taouui had pr€^* 
vioufily felt must lieJong to the dead chkAainf 

Te Pomar, led forth Tedra, who waved ft 
^land of liUeB and blossoming dematia, — 
m the gweet odours of which the shadowy 
warriors, the hideoua Idol, and all the fright- 
ful prepanitiona of vengeance, feded away. 
Teora emlled forgiveueaa^ and took the hand 
of TaCmui, whose iienaes gradually left him, 
and a wft slumber came over him* 

When he awoke, he found luniaelf again on 
the 8ea-«hore. It waa still night> Had he 
been visited with a dreadful dream ? No — 
he felt sure it bad been more than that. It 
waa no witchcraft, ao far aa Tedra was con* 
cemed. Aft^r idJ, she waa no witch— ahe had 
saved him. And the spirit of Te Pomor had 
saved him, too — ^thus returning good for evih 
If the new religion had tanj^ht this, it waa 
better than the religion ot Tohunga, He 
resolved never to play the magic flute again, 
but uury it la-ith funeral ceremonies. 

A soil harmonious music now arose from 
the sands ; it swelled into the gran^l fuiiei*al 
march of a hero, and passed onward till it 
died away over the sea. Then came a deep 
silence — and in that silence, the king heard a 
giii:antie pacing up and down the sands close 
to the margin of tne sea. No one was viaible. 
The pacing up and down continued. Tlien 
the moon rose, bringing into \4ew pile upon 
pile of clouds, commencing in a purple - 
grey hue from the horizon, formed by the 
distant cui'viug line of the aands, tlie purple 
getting fainter till tlie clouds were edl grey, 
up to the bright mountain pe^s that en- 
vironed the riaing niCHin, Still the gi^^antic 
inaciugcjj^n tinned (though no fiueurewas visible, 
the king felt it must be the once miglity 
chief), and after a time, it seemed to pass 
close to Mm, as in friendly reconcilbtion, and 
thence on — and on — till something like a lofty 
Shadow seemed to step from the distant line 
of sandfl u|>on the lowest purple ridge of aky, 
and thus ascended, step by step, into the 
towering clouds, till lost amidst the brightest 
of the grey and mountaiuouji peaks. In 
remote echoes across the sea^ the noble death* 
maroh of a hero waa again faintly heard, 
aa the moon sailed onwnrd on her course, 
majestically drawing after her all the masses 
anu piles of clouds. 

Taotiui stood for a time entranced and 
elevated hj the stately quietude of this mag- 
nificent vision. Coming so soon aft«r the 
horrid scene from which he had been liberated, 
it was too much for the most obdurate uatme 
to endure unmoved. The proud heart of 
TaOnui was softenetl by the uobleuess of tins 
acts of Te Pomar and his daughter, and soiJic* 
thing not unlike tears giished into hie eycvi 
for tne fii-st time in hia life, as lie sank down 
and pressed his face upon tlie sand, overcome 
by emotions which were perfectly new to him. 
If he had knotsTi a Christian prayer of manly 
penitence, he would have poured it forth ; 
out what he sincerely felt was essentially the 
same thing. 

The missionary station near which AVaipata 





had been sent to reside, waa aitiuited on a 
gentle acclivity, fronUug one of the miLtiy 
Jieautlful picturenque bays which are foimil 
round the comt of New Zealand. It wjis a 
long low-roofed house made of wood and reeds 
lx>uud together with flax, pamted wliite, 
having a large verandah eutLrel^ covered with 
roaea, genuuunia, nud woodbine, imported 
from Europe ; aniidat the luxuriance of wiiidi 
many biixis had built their nests^ nut only idl 
over the roof, but in every one of the thickly 
gailanded poata that upheld it. The wild 
pigeon and the graceful tui flew from tree to 
tree, and the hum of Vieea tilled the air. Tlie 
Eea lay blue and bright below, and so exqui- 
fiitely liTinapiirent, tlmt any one Wn ling over a 
rock might see familiegof ahell-iwh with th*'ir 
coral heada and shoulders projecting fkr out, 
all bamly feeding at the bottom, to the dtjitli 
of twelve or lift^n feet Bhujk swana sailed 
along near the aliore, retl-billa lay iKinkinj; in 
crannies of the rockn, and the snowy albiitio^ 
often passed across the blue aky. The n inn- 
grove fringeil the borders of the Iwiy, together 
with beautiful tl*e«a in fuU blusftonr, whde 
Bea-birds sat on the bouglia pruning tlieir 
lustrous feathers in the aun, as the B}i;u-kliQg 
drops of the briny wave flew from their 
expanded pinions. 

It was a delightful thing to l>chold TaOnui, 
very shortly alter the events last descried, 
advandog towards this miusionaiy station, 
at the head of a number of his chiefs, and all 
those of his tribe who had been converted, 
holding his son by one hand, and the daughter 
of Te Pomar b^ the other, AseembUng all 
who followed, in a great circle, the Icing 
addressed them in a spt^ech. He reminded 
them of all his wars against Te Pomar — of 
the hatred he had borne him — and of his 
victory. He then spoke of his revengeful 
feeling after *he death of that great warrior, 
and told thera it had cost him very dear, as 
he ha<l sufferetl, in various ways, far more 
than he had inflicted, or could possibly inflict. 
But now a Good Spirit had deacentled upon 
his soul, and tauMit him better things. He 
gladly sanctioned the love of his son for 
TeOra, whom he had now brought to be mar- 
ried according to the forma of the Christian 
religion. He did not tell the chiefs around 
him, nor any of his tribe^ that he should him- 
self become a Christian. A man who was 
sincere could not suddenly adopt any new 
reliigion. But he for ever abjured the reUgion 
of Tohunga, with its idols and gods of all 
kind ; and he promised his utmost pi-otection 
to all who taught, and all who embraced the 
Christian faith, and that he would strive to 
conform in all his future feelings and actiona 
to the teaching of the preeepta of that 
divine priest and master whom they called 

TeOra and Waipata were married the same 
day at the missionary station, and TaOnui 
with his own hands collected the remains of 
Te Pomar, which, together with the won- 

derful flute, he buried in the evening with the 
highest fiineral ceremonies of his tribe. The 
last part of this consisted in bearing tho 
reinams to a secret cave. 

To render tliis secrecy the more eflectual, 
and therefore the more to sliow honour by 
its solemn mystery, the king, at night, unao- 
oorapuiiLHi by any one, took up the remains 
of ibe dojiarted chief, enveloped in a cloak of 
the finest flax, and carried them in his arms 
through a forest into the deepest recesses of a 
beautiful stalactite rrotto he had fixed upon^ 
and there deposited them with profouna 
reverence, and a truly contrite heart. As he 
came forth a^aiu into the open air, the lofty 
funeral march of a dead hero sounded witn 
its gnuid and elevating pathos, and TaOnui 
now. in sympathy with its harmony, beheld 
the VmjuI^^ti Phantom of Te Pomar slowly rise 
before hiiii, its arms extended nobly towards 
him, and thus j\»cending into the night, till 
its shallow mingled with the air, through 
which the stara^ one by one>, cam$ gently 


Tbe father sits, nnd marks his child 
Through the clover racing wild ; 
And then as if he sweetly dromm'd. 
Uo half i^mcmbcrs how it socnt'd 
WhoQ ho, too, wss a reckless rover 
Amon^ the beo-beloved clover : 
Pure airs, from heavenly places, rise 
Breathing ike blindncsB from bis eyss, 
Until, with rapture, griefi and awe. 
He sees sgain as thou bo saw. 

As then he mw, he sees sgua 
The h4»vy-1oadod liarrcst wain, 
Hanging tokens of its pride 
In the trees on either sido ; 
Daiaies, coming out at dawn, 
In constollations, on the lawn ; 
The glory of the daffodil ; 
The tltrc© black windmills on tho lull, 
Whoso magic arms fling wildly by, 
With magic shadows on the rye * 
In the leafy coppioOj lo. 
More wealth than miser'a dreams can 
Tha blackbird's warm and woolly brood. 
With golden beaks agape for food 1 
Oipsiea, all the tammer seen, 
Native as poppies to the green ; 
Wiut^ir, with its frosts and tbawi^ 
And opulence of hips uud haws ; 
The mighty marvel of tho snow ; 
The happy, hnppy ehips that go, 
Sniling up and talUng down, 
Through tho fields and by tho town ;— 
All tho thouBdod dear events 
That fell when days wtsre iucidentti. 

And, then, his meek and loving mother— 
Oh, what Bpeeehleaa fsehngs smother 
In his heart at thought of her ! 
What sacred, piercing Borrow mountiv 
From new or uuremembered founts, 
While to thought her ways recur. 
He hoars the songs she used to sing ; 
His iean in scalding torrents ^rii^; 

Oh. might Ue hope that 'twotild be giveii^ 
Either io this world, or in heaveo, 
To hear guch flon^ as those ■giin ) 

— But lifo IB deep aad words are Toiii. 
Mftrk yonder hedgerow, hero and there 
Spnuklwl with Spring, but mainly hare ; 
T' i'd bank beDeath. where hlowv, 

I rowda^ tbe fresh primroco : 

''.V..^. . „... of oolonr thus could amifce 
Tlie troubled heMt-etrings tbro* the sight ; 
What magic of ewect speech express 
Their primeveral tenderooss? 
C^ these not utter'd be, and can 
The day-&pring of immortal ixumi 


The following tmila of life in Munich are 
trsi£«d by a yoaag Jady who is atudving painting 
in tliat city, under a master, and in eumpany 
with » feixuile &iend. Thia little preface is 
necessary for the reader, to Tinderstand, better 
thAtt he would without it, several of the fair 
writer's idlasaona^ and to acquaint him with 
the indei>e&dent kind of life twu young ladies 
can lead, with perfect propriety and security 
in *• the capital of Art '* : — 


ThJa iii August and the nighta are now and 
then so hot and close, that after our tea. spite 
of itB being twilight, we sometimes feel l>ouiid 
to tttke a walk. The other evening, for ex- 
ample, we betook ourselves, therefore, along 
one of the old streets of Munich — a street 
very long, and very ill-imve^l, and with the 
hoose-fi'onts handsome with old carving and 
■taooo-work ; a street where in the evening 
fdl the inhabitant* gossip at their open win- 
dow* and doora ; a street much infected with 
bakers^ shops; and where, through quaint^ 
old wiiidow panes, you catch gumpses of 
aneer, old witch-like women, or young girla 
hke Faust's Margaret, sitting spinniitg ; a 
street which, if one could write graphically, 
one would revel in deacribing. I always 
vastly enjoy going up this street, and wanted 
to «ee it, aA well as to see the effect of the 
stmset behind the tall tower and building 
which surrounds the Bavaria when once you 
pass through the Bendtiger Gate and get out 
on the plauL 

Just about the middle of this queer old 
street we met a crowd, heard a hum of voices, 
saw banners waving, cruciiixes borne aloft. 
It was the return of a pilgrimage. Hot, 
weatry, dusty, foot-aore, on they came, i^rst 
walked priests, with their dusty banners and 
cnxcifixea ; white-robed children followed, 
carrying &ded wreaths and garlands, their 
poor little headd drooping with fatigue. Now 
a hand of men, a Bru(krscha/ty dreswd in their 
pilgrim garb, large blue cloaks with heavy 
canes, on which conepicuoualj showed the 
pilgrim cockleshell ; then a groap of young 
^u, many canying bulrushes in their hands 
instead of paLm-brauches, and relics from 
the holy ipot they had pilgrimed to ; next 

trooped on men, men, men, their shoes covered 
with white dust^ tlieir heads bare, their hands 
folded ; old men, middle^ed men, larls ; here 
and there a picturesque, &naticid-lookine 
head, with lank locks and hollow cheeks, and 
sunken eves ; or brooding and morose-looking* 
with wild, bushy hair, and huge growth of 
beard ; a strange assembly I — but neverthe- 
less, the greater number were of the quiet, 
re^pectablcj citixen class ; and one felt how 
strange it was to see such jolly-looking, every- 
day sort of good shopkeepers joining in a 
pilgrimage ; they seemed so oppoaed to eveiy- 
thing like Aeutiment and enthuaiadm. And 
all the men muttered prayers, every now and 
then their hoarse voices rising in^J a mono- 
tonous chant of the word, lieUiitt t Ileiligtl 
Heilige ! And ou they came, and on ! like a 
stream of phantoms in a Ijewildering dream. 
They rushed past in the twilight, walking bo 
fajBt with theu' dusty feet, and muttering their 
monotonous words, till one felt almost 
delirious. And now in the distance the 
young girls' voices, and the voices of the 
little children swelled into a solemn strain, 
and on came women, and women, and women, 
old and young, and middle-aged, luid dustjr, 
alao, and pi'aying and muttering also ! AU, 
with the exception of one Lidy m a bonnet, 
who walked in the middle of the procession — 
a singular, gaunt, fanatical-looking woman — 
all, with this exception, appeared to be of the 
humble class — worn, hara-featured. suffering 
women. Yet on tliey streamed, till one felt 
breathless ! It was a striking, and, some 
way, to me an imusually thrUUug sight ! 


And now we were out on the quiet plain, 
which stretched awav into an horizon of deep 
blue mountain-like clouds ; a jiale amber »un- 
set'Streak fading away by the most delicate 
of gradations into a lovely azure, athwart 
which stretched a fantastic mass of dark 
bidigo clouds ; the moon trembling al»ove the 
BuuBet light, and here and there a dainty star 
twinkling in the amber and azure ; whihst be- 
hind the dark mass of the Bavaria tower 
flashed ever and anon rose-tinted summer 
lightmng, turning the mass of blue clouds 
Into a range of lilac mountains, and the 
Bavaria bunding into an enchanted castle. 

We were so charmed with our walk, that 
we determined, whenever we could, to make 
a point of going out to see these effects, and 
then trying to remember them, and put them 
dowii on our return home, The next evening 
we took our walk out through the Triumphal 
Arch at the end of the Ludwig Strasse, I 
must certainly have mentioiieu how inex- 
pressibly beJiutiful the Ludwig Straase looks 
m the eveumg, the uniformity of the Byzan- 
tine architecture broken, yet not destroyed 
by the pale and harmonious tints employed m 
the various masses of building ; delicate rediL 
and stone colours, and greys, with here and 
theze a mass of pure dajiatling white, all 


faroushi mio tli« most delidoas harmony by 
th© glow of evening ; the two white alender 
U>w«i'« of the Lud'ft'ig church rialng Bolenmly 
into th« blue heavens^ and auiinonnted each 
with a golden crodn^ which ever seems to 
CAtch the rays of the mm, and to glenm and 
spftrUe wlien all el^e is sonibre and dark. 
Then iu tlje evening and twilight, how cool 
atiil refreBhing, and soothing, is the q)k»h of 
the two fountains which play in the open 
R|}noe l>efore the University and the Jesuits' 
School J How I flhoohl love, were I a youth, 
to BtUily in the University ! That pure, 
aoteflnU) oalm, beautiful building, white aa of 
the purest marble, with it« long rows of roiind- 
ATched windows ; ite long band of medollioufl 
alao, A me<]allion between each centre window, 
and enclosing the hciid of a legialator, a philo- 
flophet*, or a poet I And as the wcateiii sky 
ia lit up by the aetting aun, ita light streama 
throiign painted wiuoowa, and tiie conti^aat 
between ttic cool building, seen in shadow, 
and these gemmed, glowing windows, is 
majfipicaJ. There is a monastic (^Im nlxiut the 
buuding, whicK to a studiouii and poetical 
nature, be delicious. The Jesuita' 
School i» of R pjUe, warm, alone colour, of the 
aazne style, but by no mcoiia so Ijeautiful. 
Bat the whole effect of thi« square ia very 
)x>eticai and fitrikring, as you can believe, and 
when the Triumphal Arch at the end of it ia 
completed, will be something aiiite unique. 
T)ie gateway is to W surmounted by a figure 
of Bavaria, drawn by liona, in a triumphal 
cur ; on the front raid side* of the gate are 
vvry beautiful baeso-rilievoa, and »tatuea of 
white mai'ble, 

Tlic rotttl beyond the Triumphal Arch is 
lineil by fioplars, and the entrance by this 
road into Munich, moat impretseive. For 
about half a mile on one side the road, are 
MAttorcil villain and ca/t4. The Queen baa a 
lovely little villa there, simple and elegant, 
and built in the style of domestic architocture 
peouliar to Munich, and which strikes one as 
htaag aingiihirly beautiful and appropriate. 
I wonder what Raskin would say to It i 


But now for more fjcroonal matters ; And 
first, for a concert. As the tickets were sent 
late, we hrnl but very little time for prepara- 
tion. We dreaaed in a desperate huiry, put- 
ting off with our working dreasea, our cha- 
racter of art-fltudeijt«, and with our tickets in 
our hajida, and our two keys — the latch-key 
and key of our rooms — set off across the 
Reaidenji Plntz and the Platz. It was 
a reheard coucert of the students of the 
Conscrvatorium, and the large hall was 
crowded to overflowing already. 

At the tirst door we found such a cruah of 
officer and Btudenta, all blocking up the 
entrance, that it waa quite impoaamle to get 
in ; but the glimpse we caught of a painted 
oeillnff and crowds and ci-owds of people, 
ieated in long rows and filling the galleries, 

was qiut« exciting. We thought that perhaps 
in the gaUeiy there might be room, so rashtng 
lirsrt down atepa and then up aterps again, we 
came to what we supposed a gallerj^-door ; 
but no, it waa a door just opposite to the one 
we had tried to get in at, and close to the 
orchestra, and a capital place. Of coume, we 
had to sUod, and so had numl>er3 of others ; 
but it was voy amusing aa well as intei*esting» 

The performera were all pupila, and many 
of them very young. There was one little 
violinist, not more than twelve certainly, who 
played splendidly, and with such beautiful 
eamesjtness and composure, and with such a 
world of feeling ! The applause waa immenfle, 
and you felt how proud his mother and his 
friends must be ; but he was like a Uttle un- 
moved statue, with his white face aha«ied by 
its dark brown hair. It was all a matter of 
course to him. 

The friends and relations of the pupils were 
a marke^i feature of the scene ; many of them 
quite p»>or peonle. And such numbers of 
little Lida ! we had a whole host of th*»ra just 
before us, and very much amutwr*! we were. 
One little lail leaned with all the air of a uned- 
up man of fasliicm, against the bahislrade of 
the orcheatra, in the face of the whole com- 
pany, and yawning with the greji(^t di&iain 
of ali present, whilst he crosaed his little legs 
and played with his little glove*! Lfuuia. 

It might strike you aa strange that we 
venture toconcei-ts and theatres by ourselves; 
but nothing is easier or more comfortable. We 
walk quietly to the Optra, in the pleasant sun- 
ahine. The Theatre looking so beautiful with 
its fresco^paiutcd pediment, h11 the square 
alive with a gay crowd titreaming als^^ tlnjati'e- 
wanls. Wo take our places quietly in the 
r^rved seats ; and having thorougldy eu^ 
joyed ourselves, at the cost of one shilling and 
eight twnce, equally qtiietJy and comfortably 
walk uomc again* Tlicre is no cnwhiiig of 
camagos and cnlts, no shouting of w^ileruicu 
and haekney-ooachmen. Two or three car- 
riages iQAy bo there, their lamps alunini^ out 
like huge glow-worms at the bottom ot the 
tiight ol steps ; but people who have carriages 
quietly get into them, and there is no stir and 
bustle ; find those who have none wend their 
way home singly or in groups ; and the moon 
lights up that beautiful little square, with its 
palace front, its theatre, its Fompjian-Hke 
post-office, its cmaint aule of old shops ; or 
the stars look down out of a deep blue, calm 
sky^ and all is sileoce and j)oetr}% 

The other night we went with some ac- 
quaintance to the theatre in the An — th© 
Iieople*8 theatre — but not the one that you 
and I went to, and where I behaved w> ill 
by Inughiiig at a tragedy instead <if 'vrj^inc. 
No, this is quite a grand affair. It n*nuntla 
one of a handsome ■t€ani~l>oat cabin ; just 
about the same sizei, And gilt and dt^corated 
iu the same taste— or rathtr wanr 
All, however, was very bright and J 
the acting very good. We laughe^l iiutn. ij- »,>, 




It w« A little piece called "Tlie Gniunil 
Floor and the Second Floor ; or, the Freaks 
of Fottime/* You can imagin« the sort of 
thing ; and how there were two stages, a» it 
were, so that you saw what was going on in 
two fkmilies ftt once. Of courae, one £uniJy 
was a very gra^nd, and the other a very poor 
one. It waa r&ry droll in parta, and ftm of 
im-Englifih things, that pfulicuhiTly amused 
U& There wei'e two little children that act«<i 
beaatifolly *, one a little girl, aV»out ten, who 
SfOted * boy. The way those children ran 
aboBt thtf 8i4«e, and played, and sUpped each 
oUlMr^ and plagued their mother, was the 
pfvttiest thiug I ever saw. 


It rained in torrents as we went and 
t^turned, and as it was Hne when we set out 
we were not at rdl prepared for wet. I don't 
know what one is to do in this diaiu|;eabls 
climate* When we were on the Isar bridge 
Ui<> nun C4Wiie down with such fury, and the 
wind blew so fiercely, that I thought the long 
proctjssion of umbrellas, and people returning 
liram the little theatre, would certaanly be 
carried away into tiie river. Prince Adelbeit, 
tho present king's brother, was there^ and he 
bad to walk home also in the rain and mud. 
Of course there are two perfomuinces daily at 
this theatre, one at four o'clock, the other at 

Althoingh, when the weather is fine, we enjoy 
oiirwalk wick from the theatre to oar house, we 
do not so much relish our getting into our own 
rMums from the street door, the lock of which 
is very stlC I am considerably developing 
the muscular strength of my hand by un- 
locking this door ; and when we hAve adiieved 
this &xst difficulty, oar real disagreeable com- 
meacMk A hot, close fttra<3s]jhere meetii you ; 
aJi is perfectly black ; there is iio light ; you 
liMi as if entering an Lifenio. It is a sort of 
Mnsation to return to in delirium. You gruy>e 
your way to the wi<le subcase ; you fmd the 
tialuatrade ; you mount with careful steps ; 
you feel as though the darkuc^j^arul blacki^eas 
weighed on your brain ; you perhaps hear 
some other nightly wanderer tumbling up 
8tA.ira ; you do not know whethei* it may not 
be some druukeu man ; but he can't see you, 
so you keep yourself quietly in a daik comer 
till he passes ; you can often see who is 
coming by the glimmeriag of a burning cigar ; 
but you have Dothing to betray you. Well, 
at length having r. irlu ,i rour door, that in 
sny the door of tli \k passage which 

shuts in your roon iJ*ick it, and then. 

in a certain pbce, } uu hnd the thu'd key of 
jour own especiiil sittix]||^«>f>om door, and 
which has been hidden by yon. And now, 
thank G<.>odne&i, you are in ygur own dear 
little bonke ! Thtj light from tne street lamp 
shines in thixiugh ttie four whit^-cui't'dned 
windows. Ou the table stands the c^uidle- 
stick ; you strike a bght, in the Gt iniuu 
tashioUy by rubbing the match along the door 

or the wall — there *8 nothing else for it — and 
your prila are past I Yes, this coming up 
that aark staircase is not attractive, but wo 
are become quite accustomed to it now- I 
can now find my way perfectly well I asked 
why they had no lamp, but ran the insk every 
nigltit ot breaking a bone ; — ^they said it cost 
so much. Neither are there any bells in th« 
house, another terrible bore. How Germanft 
can exist, year after year, age after age, 
without the common^t conveniences of life, 
Ls a mystery and puizle to me. 


Very fliffereut to this evening waa ray 

visit to the Baronesa von 's. On our 

return from dinner at the Jf^otiMhen Qarten 
yesterday, I waa informed that the lady 

of the ' Ambassador liad calle*i and 

enquired for me. I was not in a visiting 
hmnour, and the idea of going to these 
grand people quite alone daunted me. I 
have courage for most things, I am sure I 
could travel to China, very easily to America, 
by myself-, but going alone to a ball, or 
even a little party, among strangers, is my 
id^ of desolation : and this evening I b^ 
Ueved there was a grand party at the Am- 
bassador's. 1 waa in despair ; it was a wet 
day and I felt ill, and even if I did screw up 
my courage to a pitch of heroism, how was I 
to get there ? how in all this rain \ Where 
wajB my^ carriage ? — ^where even a cab ? A cab ! 
yes, that reminded me that I might go and 
return in a ftncra, 

When, therefore, on rotoming home, 1 
found that I could improvise a toilet, and felt, 
after a cup of tea, really better, and foimd 
that, with a deal of trouble and bargaining, a 
driver of a Jiaere would condescends for such 
really was the c^ae, to take me at the late hour 
of eight o'clock — they leave their stand at seven 
and go home for the night ! — and then bring 
me back again at ten, an*l all for the enomuous 
sum of two gulden, and he would not take a 
kreuxer leas. Well, when all this was ar> 
ranged, I dreased ana set out, having of course 
been inspected by the whole family of the bouse 
from doors and w^indowa — father, mother, 
daughter, little children, W^Uhelm, and two 
apprentices with white rolled-up shirt sleeves. 
Wnat amussment the idle ijcople could find 
in seeing one of the English fraulein walk 
down stairs in a simple white dress and with- 
out her bonnet^ and ^et into a lumbering old 
coach, I cannr>t conceive. 

After a short wet drive aci-oss the Residens 
and (jdean Platz and w^i the red WeUdhach^r 
7\f/<iM, the palace wnere now hves the old 
Kin^ Ludwig, and which strange, i-ed, iJ*jtliic 
pile IS guarded by two enormous stone lioni 
seated on each side of the gateway, into the 
Belgravia of Munich ; we stopped at the house 

of tbe Buron von , a beautiful house. A 

iiiXif melancholy looking footman ushered me 
] n and to my delight I found there waa no party. 
My spirits rose/l like Madame von -, and 


"^ 130 



I knew it would be a cliarming evening. 
HHiVinc; been received by ajjotluir tiill, me- 
lauchoTjr uervant at the top of Uie ftU^ii-^ luid 
conducted thivugh a uuuibcr of ajiti-rooras 
and i>retty Vjoudoiits I found the \uAy of the 
hou^, and a LjiU ai'istoeratic lookin^-muu, 
with a very good-temiJKire<i German face, a 
veiy intereating, elegant ^ouiig lady, and a 
lively, pretty little girl, sitting in a comfor- 
table little drawiji<;-room, comfurtable though 
splenrlid. The wallciwere hmig with j)jcturc» 
and rich velvet draperies ; thesofa^iuid chains 
were covered with criniiioii velv»-t ; there wiid 
gold cvcr>'where ; nrirron^ and tall vase-a of 
Bohemiiin ghi*H and rich china. All wa« very 
cofttly, but the prints, and books, and pictureti, 
and the yle^uvuit hunp-liglit, and the kind, 
beaming mcea of the gi*oup at the table, nuw!e 
me feel iuBtautly at home aud hanpy. The 
lovely young lady with this cidm brow, like 
one of £astULke*8 women, aud tltoBc delicate 
tapor fingers loaded with rings, was a relation 
of the Baroness, and the genUemau waa her 
brother. They had travelled in Ejigland and 
Sootlandj aud were v*reU rcatl in ICnglish 
literature, of which they w^ le vei^ fond. We 
had a deal of pleasant talk, not only about old 
England, but about beautiful ami intureslinc 
pajla of Germany, with which, foHunutely, I 
yna acquainted ; about b<JokA, and pictures^ 
and Kftuibach, whose geniiis wo all s^xed in 
ranking so high. 

llien come in tea on a rich wlvertray, all 
BO elegant and attractive, and the little cakc« 
were so delicate, mi<l the lea «piite fitroug and 
fruffrant, like English tea. And after our 
rude, though most poetical life, the calmness 
and propriety, and elegance, of this anntocratie 
existence had an unusual charm for me. I 
loved to look at the cloewy liair of the tiristo- 
oratic little girl, at ber round arms^at the 
delicate hands of the young lady so imprisoned 
in her rings ; they were to my fancy a Rort of 
faii-y creatures, who roust ever livo juuong 
gold and rich satin and perfume, and the idea 
of her ever walking in dust or mud, or in 
wet or darknees, was like the idea of an 
angel's wing beinff srtlaahetl with the mud of 
a London cab-wneei J No, theru waa an 
iinuflnal piquan^ in conung from our free, 
unconventional fife, BuddeuTy into a court* 


One day lately, the streets were so gay 
with people, and the sun shone down into my 
very heart. 1 longed to be among trees and 
fields. I told my companion ao ; but she was 
thoroughly tired by her week's work, aud 
preferred remaining at home. But, I thought^ 
Why waste the beautiful day in sleep l And 
was there not a Kirch w€ih in the Au ? — the 
church-fcativid of that beautiful church there. 
And thither I would go. I would not mind 
going there alone, but would leave my j>oor 
tire<r companion to sleep off her fatigue. 

Tlirough the gay streets I accordingly wont, 
erowdfl ot holiday people moving towards the 

Isar Gate, and over the bridge, and pa«t tho 
Folk's Theatre. 

The An std^urb waa all alive with dance, 
mxisic sounding' from the public-housed and 
gardens ; the bttle balconi^'s were unusuiilly 
gay with flowera ; all the Ma<luuiuii* had ulejm 
cambric jiockct-handkerohiefs nut into their 
haruls ; how comic they looked hoKJing their 
handkerohictjs like fme ladlos at a ball ! And 
by-the-by, in this Huborb there are not a few 
Itlnck virgins, who aro here regarded as pecu- 
liarly sacred. Numbers of little Htalia were 
act out covered with Kirchweih N\ullf^ a y^ry 
good soil of cold pudiJing, Tlio ofMj-n space 
in which the lovely Au church otands, wa» 
very gay, and under the acacia-treoa, which 
form an avenue along one side of the square, 
liundreds of j>eople were congregated. 

Two .^itreams of people were ajseeiuling and 
descending the church stepa ; so great, mdced, 
was the crowd, that I think I must have etotxl 
twenty minutes before I could gain admittance ; 
they were jpriiicipiilly peasants. When I did 
enter the church, it was along with peasant 
women, m their Tartar fur chits, ajid with 
roear^ and prayer-book in hand, and with 
men m i-ed or broad-«triped waistcoats, and 
with long'skirted blue coats. And then how 
impressive was the sight ! The air was heavy 
with incense ; the graceful, slender, white 
colurauMi r<»t>e up like the clustered stems of a 
pLdm-grove ! The sun shone and glowed 
through the glorious painted wliulows. They 
i-cprpHent the Virgin, Chriiit, and the Apos- 
tles, moving among groves, or qiuet, solemn 
tempi Cji and halls, or relieving themBelves 
agamst brilliant or pearly skies. In one com- 
partment the Virgm, a child of twelve or 
thirteen, is taken by her |>ai'euU to the High 
Priest, She kneels V>efore him, and Joseph 
places the ring upon her linger. In another 
she aits witli the inftuit Clhnst on her lap on 
the asfl, on the journey towai'ds Egypt. And 
m another di\'isiou she is seen ascending to 
heaven. I knew that these windows were vcrv 
beautifid, but it was only to-diiy that their full 
beauty burst upon me. The exquisite groujis 
stained upon them, with their correct drawing, 
and rich (h-aperies, are enclosed, as it were, 
in jewelled shrintfs ; the upiicr iiortioiis of the 
window being filled v^ith the moat exquisite 
Gothic work of every brilliant colour, hke the 
i-ichest missal images. 

But if the windows excited my first atten- 
tion, the people utLfrtcted my attention in the 
siecoud place. All 1 he seata were tilled with 
devout pesisants, imd numW's stood. Aa the 
chuixh, however, was large, there waa no 
unpleasant crush. AU waa silent as death , 
except when, from tlie far end of the church, 
came the voices of childi-en chaunting, or you 
caught the mmiuurwl words of the priest, as 
he raised the Host before the High Altar ; 
and then the crtjiwd rejq)onde<l with one deep, 
sonorous voice, which could alone be compared 
to the lioarse, monotonoua, wild sound of 
billows, solemnly rolliiig inwaixl to the ahort^ 



—not wben then la a rongh sea, but when all 
it solemn Mid calm. 

After a Ume, I left tbe church ; and not 
being incliued to return home^ and findmg 
thftt all the music from the pubtic-houAes, and 
all the eating, and the dancing, were very 
inkonuomous to my then state of mind, I 
fraudered on towards the plain, and feaeted 
my eyee on a view of the Alps, which to-day 
seemed fairly to have stalked towards Munich^ 
ao near did t Key seem, — of a tender, quiet, blue- 
grey, but their forma gigantic, stem, Alpine ! 


Another evening, after a day of real hard 
work, when we were in a particularly cheerful 
mood, I suggested to my companion that, as all 
waa BO sunny and deUciou3j we would drink 
our coffee in a picturesque old orchard, which 

I had discovered in one of my exploratory 
expeditions through the suburb of St. Anna. 
It w a pretty walk this, through the suburb 
to the coffee-house orchard, which joii>» the 
£ugliah garden. You cross first the come:* 
of ^ very large field, acres and acres of which 
are covered with huge heaps of timber — enor- 
mous pines, which nave i>een floated down 
&om the Alps. The tall trees of the Eagliab 
ffarden form a back* ground to the field ; and 
tnen passing orchimk, and cottages, and 
oouotry houses, you arrive at the conee-house, 
a bright white house, with a deal of pale sea- 
grecn paint about it, standing high, approached 
by a dight of steps, and having a Kind of a 
^isslan look. Tlie orchard in which it stands, 
Is a grand old orchard, full of old apple-treea, 
under which are siome hundreds of seats. On 
the former oocasiouH when I passed it, there 
must have been many hundre<i people drink- 
ing coffee there. On this evening, however, 
aIT was deserted, — so much so, in fact, that 
there was no ooffee to be had. After resting, 
Ui^^fore, a few minutes under an apple-tree, 
we proceeded on our way, when, turning into 
the English Garden, behold! another coffee* 
house, a very small one peeping out from 
under the treles. " Coffee and Wine-houae of 
the Kingdom of Heaven " (Zum Ilifnmd-nich) 
was painted on an arched sign over the gate. 
So extraordinary an appellation could not be 
disj-egardefl, however contrary to our English 

" Let us try how coffee taste* in the King- 
dom of Heaven," said I ; and in we went. 

The J&ingdom of Heaven, however, wna also 
ai^iarently deserted, except by a pair of lovers, 
-HI young girl in a white driras, and a student 
in a scarlet cap and black velvet coat, and by 

II picturesque group of old peasants, men and 
women, who sat on a bench before the door, 
and drank beer ; the student also drank beer, 
— the girl took nothing; she sat with her 
hoick turned towards him, and evidently looked 
Tcry unhappy. I think they had just had a 
cniarrel ; what a shame to quarrel in the 
Kingdom of Heaven ! I went mto the house, 
and ordered cofiee from a woman whom I met 

T^-ith a hute coffee-mill in her hand. She said 
it should be ready in a minute, capital freeh 
coffee ! So we seated ouraelvee at the end or 
a long verandah, which waa covejred witli 
vines, at the end opposite to where the lovers 
were, and noticed all around ua, to occupy the 
time till the coffee appeared. Coffee at length 
made its appearance, — vile coffee and peppery 
bread ; and leaving the lovers still unrecon- 
ciled, we bade amen to the *" Kingdom ol 
Heaven," and betook ourselves home in the 
delicious twilight 


The first of October is a great day for 
the doctors. The sportsman may look out for 
the same time, because then pheasant shoot- 
ing begins ; the fanner, because it auggeata 
certain arrangements between malt and hops 
preliminary to Christmas and the comforts of 
long 'n'iuter nights ; the lawyer may take 
October the first as a hint of the gradual 
death of the long vacation, and the near 
advent of Term time and Novanber the 
second — its writs and summons^ judgments 
and executions ; the draper may regard it 
shrewdly, aa affording a good time for a 
" frightful sacrifice,** and an "" extensive dale 
of autumn goods, preparatory to the com- 
mencement of the winter seaaon." Each and 
all of these, and many more may have an 
intereet in the first of October; but their 
claims are ns nothing to that of the doctors. 
To the medical folks of these three kingdoms 
— but to those of London more pre-eminently 
— does the day especially belong. To them, it 
is the opening of a new year — the commence- 
ment of^a new activity. On that day the great 
majority of them commenced their career 
as students : from that they date the years 
of preliminary reading, and lecturing, and 
hospital " walking," to lie gone through be- 
fore the terrible day of examination. Scat- 
tered over the globe they may be — and they 
are ao scattered, much more than the men of 
other professions, the Navy alone excepted — • 
yet the first of October always remains a 
sort of red-letter day in the mind of the 

It is a time suggestiye of old thoughts and 
companions, old pranks, and old stories. Such 
feelingH bring most of those who are within 
reach to the old scenes on the first of October • 
and hence, on that day, there is at the London 
medic4kl s«'^hools an aaaemblage of doctors in 
all stages of growth — ^from the raw country 
student in green ooat and highlowa, to the 
■t^nid ho<;pital professor in black scholastic 
gnwn, through all the intenaediate niceties 
of fast students and dow students, reading 
students with specs and note-books, ana 
smoking-^tudents with cigar-cases and im- 
periala ; the matter-of-fact workeys of the 
Borough, and the gentlemanly idlers of SL 
George's ■ the country doctor up for the day 
by nui ; the suburban pracUtioner, who wi A 



[CgaiKi«(«\! i>f 

many miogivings has left hia burgery At 
leliiigtoa or H&Qktiey, iii charge ol' the uew 
ftpprentice ; the W*ifit End ditto who drives 
Up to tlitt Icciure-rctoni in hiB trim gig, secxire 
in tlie ccrtauiLy that nobody will want him, 
becaustt ** iioinjdy'fd in town jct C mid the 
enjy digoitif'd posaeatior of the prizefs of medi- 
cal lifo, & haodK I'lgo, aud lour or five 
thousAuda a yv eeda of ai'ial oeiutic 
pructice. Ail L^,^.- ,^.^ietie8 of the madiwil 

feniis are druwn together by the subtle in- 
ut?nce of thi« rnettieal day. Not all itito one 
paity or cue building, laecaose the medical 
schools of the Metropolis are about a dozen 
in Tin ruber ; and each aohoo) has its set. But 
Btill they do coiigi-egate, as those who me 
cvirious aTvjut the matter may prove on any 
first of October, on any year hereafter. 

The Uitroductory lectures are the great Blgnal 
for aasembliiig ; iind of these there were deli- 
vered c»u the Erst of October just past, no leas 
than a dozen. The diBcoiir&es vary in charac- 
ter, of coiirae ; partly under the influence of the 
locality where delivered ; partly in obedience 
to the cahbre of the lecturer j and partly by 
the circumatancea of the institution in which 
they are given in. Each large London hos- 
pital has itA medical school ; but the hospitale 
are very differehtly circuiuatauced in other 
regpecta. Two of them, Guy*s and Bartholo- 
mew's, are enormously rich, having revenues 
told in ten? of thousan^ls a year arising &om 
landed and other property, and they are there- 
fore entirely independent of pubhc subecriji- 
tions. Not many years ago, Guy 'a Hospital, very 
wealthy before, received, in one legacy left by 
a Mr. Hunt, two hundred thousand pounda ! 
Bartholomew^^ enjoyi the rcnta of houses in 
important City streets yearly rking in value. 
St. Thomna'H Hospital has bkewiie extenmve 
property ; Middlesex Hospital enjoys endow- 
ments, particularly one of considerable ex- 
tent, for the support of a ward for the re- 
cej^>tion and maintenance of unfortunate people 
ainicied with cancer. University College nas 
recently been blessed by many handsome 
legacies ; and St. George's, and WestniinKter, 
and the Londonj have incomes aming from 
independent property. The renta of uie last 
three, however, are not to be compared with 
tho»« of the huge institutions of the Borough 
and Smithfield ; and they are compelled, 
therefore, to rely i>fti*tly u|)on the means of 
support which their stUl less fortunate com- 
peers at Cliaring Cross, the Gray's Inn Boml, 
and King's College, have almost wholly to 
rely upon — the voluntary subscriptioua oi the 
charitable section of the public, The first of 
October in some respects varies in its aspects 
at these different places. At Bartholomew's, 
for instance, the audience numbers five or six 
hundred^ or even more ; because, after the 
lecture, the noble hall of that establiahment 
is thrown opuu for a soiregy in wliich brilliant 
lights, abundant refi-eshments, servants, and 
& full assembly of medical dons, add many of 
the attractions of on evening party to those 

of a frifeudly scieutiiic conclave, wlukt fK*orer 
iiisti tut ions can only oiFer the les» Benaual 
attractions of a discoiu'sc on science, au<l a 
friendly greeting. 

The mental cidibre of the various lecturera 
^liiTeni amajsingly. Some of them have no 
higher notion for an "introductory" than a 
hiiitorj' of medicine, dug up bodily from an 
lUicirnt editi«»u of " Reea'a Cyclopaetiia." ^Mien 
a teacher of this sort begins his harangue, the 
older hajidn iuuong liiri audience IcKtk 8Uwj>icioU» 
and uneivsy, They know what ia cuniing — 
the old threadbare story they have often slept 
over before aWut " Hippocrates, the father of 
Medicine," — '* the erroi-a of the early writeiV* 
— " the immortal laljoiuii of Veaaliua,'' — with 
a ffrand climax about the etjually immortal 
Jomi Hunter, and the ble^ising the etudenta 
experience in being allowed to follow in the 
footsteps of that ph mological geniuB. Anothei- 
almost equally set form for an opening dis- 
course; is when the lecturer thinks it " best 
to open the dawning seasion with a mpid 
glance over what has been duno for science 
since we last met,*' — ^appending a variety of 
incidental remarks upon men and hoflpitals 
at home and abroa*l j sfiid remarks being 
inviwiably laudatory both of doctors in genend 
and of medical institutions in particulai-. Tliis 
style is deaer\'cdly more popular than the 
chapter from the C'rclojuiKua, A third spe- 
cies of discourse taies the sermonising form, 
and lectures "the young gentlemen we see 
assembled around ua" ur>on the conduot 
most pi"oper to be pursued during their career 
as students — ^prescribes a close attention to 
books and lectures, and imdeviating attention 
" at the be<laide " in the hospital. 

The claas of lecturei-a who a<lopt this mode 
are always favourably received if the gocKl 
ad^nce is supported by the career of the man 
who gives it, and if he speaks \rith sincerity 
and cleverness ; but is pooh-poohe<l, vcrj,* 
sincerely, if the speaker is a dummy, or his 
practice is kuowTi not to be in accordance 
with hrs precept. The most popular medical 
tqjeechification of all, however, is that — not 
very often to be heard — of the eminently suc- 
cessful man who comes from the intensely 
busy life of full jtaictice, fidrly and honour- 
ably won, to speak of the opening career of 
the students whom the first of October calls 
together. Allowing the occasion to carry his 
thoughts back to the day when he himself 
was a ycniDg seeker for medical knowledrre, 
such a teacher, feeling young again, lets his 
feelings out ; and, in the confession of his 
own old thoughts, struggles and final suc- 
ceasesi, foresliadowa what may be the life 
of any one of the hundi-eds who listeii. The 
first sanguine anticipations ; the growing 
difficulties ; the diaai)pointmentB ; the crush- 
ing influence of the day when he is first driven 
to beUeve that finesse and quackery are con- 
stantly reaping the rewsyrds that his sense 
of right suggests should be the prize of worth, 
honesty, and science. The struggle with igno- 

CIritfW* DtekcM.j 





|-aiice — oftt?n with |x)verty wid lioi>e defcrretl 
^and theii tlie final gradual triumph of 
i.._. ...t ..,,j ;^^ r.«..,.,i in diatmctiou, 
;• Ic lives. ThU 

1 raj-ers. Each yoiuig 

1 Ilia own, and, ajs Ilia 

iiigli-iuWB trdiiipk dowu the Bt^drojise when 
the lecture is over, he h Ihinkin;,' of the driv 
when he m to step out <»f tlie hall of a Bick 
ducltesa into a yflloTV chariot, to be driven 
round to a host of equally disttnguiahed 

At time^, »'"' "' ♦ ''o often as they might he, 
thfiie oijeii! 1 aihlre^ea are enlivened 

hv ;iLi. »! 1 iH of human experience, 

r u lecturer who so enlivened his 

i \ tj?cd to rain the heart* of his 

Hy when heen- 
4 , now the great 

li^>fiul^ ii^fU, mu-lv L>uimi.='rrt t^-lM-uiii with. 
One diiv he was describing his iv ' .t tend- 
ance on A grand operation* at wkicL a senior 

«irpe<in seeing him stand by, ^hl, *' Mr. 

»eo if you can feel the artery." " I put my 
digit into the wound/' confesijed the future 
great opea-ator, "and so prot^ed it, but the 
eJLamJ n^itiou gave me about as much infonna- 
tion UA if I haS put my finger into the Atlantic 
to discover America." 

But this great day for the doctors in all 
ce9 at the proeent time presents a great 
trH>5t to thinga aa they were, even in the 
^..►,. ,.v -f thoae who are now active and 
ich meetings ; and as the change 
u- - - the age we live in, it may well be 

Every living bein|p — every man, woman, 
and cniUi — endures a certain nscertAined 
amount of aickneas during life, for the allevia- 
tion of whidi, medical knowledge and skill ia 
re<]tjirvd. But medical efficiency in the tre^it 
ment of disease cannot be gained unless the 
y<»itiig doctor basee all his subsequent studies 
upon u thorough knowledge of tue structure 
ol tlie human body. This information can 
only be had by the use of the scalpel upon tlie 
de^. The very notion is apt to send n thrill 
through every ncr\*e of those unaccustomed to 
retpuxl the subject in a phllosophiod light. 
But tlie terms ar© absolute: no dissection — 
no ki ' ' ^ . rations, such means 

of ill ' Uieu to the student ; 

and i-^t***^ t^cti^i^vL .-, uiw, and abhorrent to 
jiopular feeling, the uiducky doctors had to 
run all sorts of risks, and to resort to all 
kiinU of improper and disagreeable expe- 
dients to procure the means of teaching the 
art of the anatomist. Hence sprung up a 
race of "resurrection men,*' as they were 
called, — men who stole the bodies of the dead, 
to sell them to anatomical schools for dissec- 
tion. Their robberies of th« grave were 
carried on at great riRks. The pubUc de- 
testation of the crime was so ^^at, that 
■when a clumsy or unlucky follower of it was 
detected, he mid to fight for his life, or aub- 

rnit to be kicked and lieaten^ and trampled to 

IJii t « 1 V .' !n r- 1 (>f October ia nt^ 1 "1 ' <-'- '■ rirmreded 
by 1 ' »f the " resui r '" no 

long- I by the lack of i i- pur- 

suirtg the branch of study on wliieh the 
sutMirstructure of medical knowled^ must be 
nused. A population of two millions has 
ever some members dropping from the ranks 
8olitar>' and unknown — tJie wiiifs and strays 
of society — without friends to know or to 
mourn their fate. .\Jm08t always paupers, 
oflen criminals, though their lives may nave 
l>een useless, or woi"se, they seem to make, when 
the fitful stniggle is over, some atonement 
after death. The wreck of their former selves 
h offered at the slmne of science for a while, 
and when thereafter ihey are gathered to the 
kindred dust of the graveyard, they may sleep 
none the leas calmly for having contributed no 
mejin help to the a 1 t of that branch 

of human knowK'< I has its annual 

ovation on the first ^.» ^ >. i^^o^r — the gre^t day 
for the doctors. 


"WfliN my mother was a girl, some rumotirB 
began to steal through the town where she 
lived, about something having gone amiss 
wnth old Mi*8. Wlmilon : for, if Mi's. Wharton 
was not known by all the townsiwople, she was 
known and respected by so many, that it was 
re&Uy no trifle when she was seen to have the 
contracted brow, and the pinched look about 
the nose that peo^de have when they are in 
alarm, or living a hfe of deep anxiety. Nobody 
could make out what was Uie nmtter. If 
asked, she s^d she was weU. Her sons were 
miderstood to be perfectly respectable, and 
aufticiently prosperous ; and there could be no 
flouht Ml)Out the health, and the dutLfulne9B,and 
the cheerfulness, of the umimiTied daughter 
who lived with her. The old lady lived in A 
house which was her own pi-oiKirty ; and her 
income, though not large, was enouch for 
comfl^rt. What could it b« that maae her 
suddenly so silent and grave ? Her daughter 
was just the same as ever, except that she w«» 
anxious about the change in her mother. It 
was observed by one or two that the clergy- 
man had nothing to say, when the subject wsb 
spoken of in Ms heai-ing. He rolled and 
nodded his head, and he glanced at the ceiling^ 
and then stuck his chin deep Into his shirt- 
frill : but those were things that he was 
always doing, and they mi^ht mean nothing. 
When inquired of about his opinion of MtK 
^^liartons looks and spirits^ ne shiiled his 
weight fix>m one foot to the other, as he stood 
before the fire with his hands behind hu% 
and said, with the sweet voice and winning 
manner that charmed young and old, that, a0 
(ar as he knew, Mrs. Whaiton's external 
afiaii^ w^ei'e all right ; and, as for pe.ace of 
mind, he knew of no one who more deserved 





it If tlie counw of her life^ and the temper 
t>f her mind did not entitlo her to pence 
within, he did not know who could hone for 
it. Somebody wliispered that it would be 
dreadfiil if a Bhockiiig morlAl diseAae flhoiiM 
be aeixinpf upon her : whereupon he, Mr. 
Ournev, olwerved that bo Ihou^'ht he should 
liave knovsii if miy such thing wjia to be 
apprehended. Ah far as a tif itf indigt'Hlion 
weijt, he believed she suffered occaiiiomdly ; 
but she did not henself iidmit even that. 
Dr. Kipbinson, who wan preBont, said that 
Mre. Wluirton's friends might Ihj quite ea«v 
about her health. She was not troubled with 
mdigestion^ nor with any other comjjlaint. 
P^ple oould only go on to aak one another 
what could he tho matter. One or two 
that Mr. Guniey had made very 
ajnawera, in which he was much 
auisted by hift curious customary geaturea ; 
but that he had never said that he did not 
know of any trouble Ijeing on Mrs. M^iarton's 

Soon after this, a like mysterioua change 
Appeared to come over the daugliter ; but no 
diwisters could be di8covere<l to have haii- 
pened. No disease^ no money losses, no fajnily 
anxietiea were heard of; aiid^ by degreea, 
both the ladiea recovere<i nearly their fonuer 
cheerfulness and ense of manner, — nearly, but 
not altogether. They appeared somewhat 
'Vubduad, in countenance and bearing ; and 
they kept a solemn silence when some buY»- 
lectn vv^re talked of, which often turn up by 
the Christmas fireai<ie. It was years before 
the matter was exi)lmned. My mother was 
nuirried by that time, and removed from her 
smoky native town, to o much brighter city 
In the south. She useil to tell ua, as we grew 
lip, the story of Mis. Wliarton^ and what she 
endured ; and we could, if wo had not t»een 
BBliamed, have gone on to say, ob if we had 
atill been little children, "tell ua again.*' 
When we were going into the north to visit 
our eraiulparenU, it was all vci-y well to tell 
ua of coal-waggons that we should see running 
without horses, or iron railK laid down in the 
roads ; and of the keelmen rowing their keel- 
boats in the river, and all at once kicking up 
their right legs behind them, when they gave 
the long pull ; .njiri of tli»^ gla&s-houftes in the 
town, with fire coming tmt of the top of the 
high chimneys ; ana uf the ever-imniing 
mounds near the mouths of the coal-pits, 
where blue and yellow (lame^i leaped alwut, 
all night, through the whole year round. It 
was jUI verj' well to think of seeing these 
thing.i ; but we thought much more of walk- 
ing past old Mm. Wharton iiouse^aud jjerhaps 
inducing Mr. Gumey to tell tis, in his way, 
the story we had so* often heard my mother 
tell in hers. 

The story waa thia. 

One Midsunimer morning Mrs. Wharton 
was so al«ent at breakfast, tSiat her daughter 
found all attempU at conversation to be in 
vain. So she quietly filler! the coffeenpot, 

which her mother had forgotten to do, and in 
the middle of the forenoon ordered dinner, 
which she found her mother had alio for- 
gotten. They had just such a li ' ^ i-ir* 
three tiroes more daring the ne\ i" 

Tlien, on Miss WJiarton crossing tli.- ji;iJi, nlie 
met her mother in tjonnet and shawl, about to 
go out, 80 early as half-past nine. The cir- 
eumatance would not have been remarked, 
but for the mother's confused and abashed 
way of accountiug for going out. She should 
not be gone long. She bful only a little call 
to make, and so on. The call was on Mr. 
Gumey. He had hanily done breakfast^ 
when he was tohi tliat Mrs. Wliarton wished 
to speak with him alone. 

When he entere<l the study, Mrs. Wharton 
seemed to be as unready with her words oa 
himself ; and when he siiook hands with her, 
he observed that her hand was cold. She 
said she waa well, however. Then came a 
{lause during which the good pastor was 
shifting from one foot to v^e other, on the 
hearth-rug, with his hands behind himj though 
there was nothing in the grate but shavings. 
Mi-s. Wharton, mea.ntime, was putting her 
veil up and down, and her gloves on and off. 
At last, with a constrained and painful smile, 
she said that she was really ashamed to say 
what she came to say, but she must say it ; 
and she believed and hoped that Mr. Gumey 
had known her long enough to be aware that 
she was not subject to foolish fancies and 
absurd fears. 

" No on© further from it," he dropped, and 
now he fixed his eyes on her fare. Her eyes 
fell under his, when she went on. 

" For some time past, I have suffered from 
a most frightfid \'isitation in the night." 

*' Visitation ! Wliat sort of visitation 1 *' 

She tumed visibly cold while she answered 
" It was last Wednesday fortnight that I 
awoke in the middle of the night — that is be> 
tween two and three in the morning, when it 
was getting quite light, and I saw — ■ 

She choked a little, and stopped. 

"Welir* said Mr. Gumey, "What did 
you see 1 *' 

'' I saw at the bottom of the bed, a moot 
hideous — a most detestable face — gibbering, 
and making mouths at me.'* 

" A face ! " 

"Yea; I could see only the face (except, 
indeed, a hand uj>on the bedpost), because it 
peeped round the bedpost from behind the 
curtain. The curtains are drawn down to the 
foot uf tlio bed." 

She stole a look at Mr. Gumey. He was 
rolling his head ; and there was a working 
about his mouth before he asked — 

'* What tune did you sup that night ? " • 

" Now," she replied, ** you are not going to 
say, I hope, that it was lughtmare. Most 
people woM ; but I honed that you knew me 
l>etter than to suppose that I eat such suppers 
na would occasion nightmare, or that I should 
not know nightmare from reality/' 



^ But, my dear Mrs. Wh&rtoD, what eLie c&n 

*'P«rliit|»a you had better lifltcu ftirther, 
before yoa Bay aiiythinK/' 

He iicHltietl and amiledi as much as to say 
that was true. 

** 1 hftire BeeQ the same appcaraoce on three 
ocoaicuia ttoce." 


**Yea, on three eevenJ nights, about the 
same hoar. And, smee the first appearance, 
my Slipper has been merely a little bread and 
butter^ with a ghus of water. I chose to 
exclude nightmare, as I would exclude any- 
thing whatever that could possibly cause an 
appearance so horrible." 

^ What sort of face is it 1 " 

** Short and broad ; — siUy» and yet sly ; and 
the features gibber and work, — Oh! fear- 
f uUy 1 " 

" Do yoa hear it come and go 1 " 

*'No* When I wake — (and I never used 
to wake in the night) — it La there: and it 
disappears — to say the truth — while my eyes 
are covered ; fur I cannot meet its eyes, I 
hear nothing. When I veDture a glance, some- 
times it is stiU there ; sometimes it is gone." 

" Have yoa missed any property 1 '* 

"No ; nor found aiiy trace whatever. We 
have tost nothing ; and there is really not a 
door or window that seema ever to havft been 
touched : not an opening where any one could 
get in or out." 

** And if there were, what could be the ob- 
ject ? — ^What does your daughter say to it ? ** 

" Oh I " said Mrs* Whartouj rising quickly, 
** Bha does not, and indeed she must not know 
a word of it. I ought to have said, at first, 
that what I am tellmg you is entirely in con- 
Mence. If I told my daughter, it must then 
go no ftirther. We could not keep our ser- 
vants a week} if it got out. And if I should 
want to let my house, I could not 6nd a 
tenant. The value of the projierty would go 
down to nothing; and, in justice to my 
daughter, I must oousider that ; for it is to be 
hers hereafter. And we could never have a 
^eat to stay with us. No one would sleep 
m the house a single night. Indeed, you 
must not .....** 

** Well, well ; I will not mention it. But 
[3. don't see " 

He paused ; and Mrs. Wharton replied to 
his thought. 

"It is difticult to form conjectures, — to say 
anything, in such a case, which does not 
i^ipear too foolish to be uttered. But one 
must have some thoughts ; and perhaps — if 
one can talk of possibilities — it is possible 
that this apjpeai%'uice may be meant for lao 
aioue ; and therefore, if I can conceal it from 
ray daughter ..... till I am convinced 
whether it is meant for me alone " 

"1 would soon tiy that," obaerved Mr, 
Gurney. Seeing Mm. Wharton look wistfully 
at him, he continued, 

" My advice is that yott have your daiighter 

I Bleep with you, ailer heanng your story. Try 
whether she can see this face. * 

" You do not think she would 1" 

" I think she would not. — My dear firiend, 
if I were a medical man, I could tell you facts 
which you are little aware of, — ^anecdotes of 
the strange tricks that our nerves play with 
us ;— of dclusiona so like reality '* 

"Do you think I have not considered 
thatr* exclaimed the poor lady. "Mr. 
Gumey, I did not think that ^u woidd try 
to persuade me out of my senses^ when I teU 
you, that four times I have seen in davlight, 
and when wid^ awake, and in perfect health, 
what I have siiid." 

Mr. Gumey was very gentle ; but, as he 
said, what cauld he suggest but indigestion, 
or Bome each cause of nervous disturbance i 
Yet hia heart smote him when his old friend 
Laid her forehead againat the mantel-piece^ 
and cried heartily. 

He did all he could. He tried indefati- 
gably, though in vain, to persuade her to let 
her daughter share the Bpectade : and he^ 
went, the same day, when Misa Wharton wtm 
out for her walk, and the servants were at 
dinner, to examine the house. He made no 
discovery. The grating of the under-ground 
cellars were perfect, llie attics had no trap- 
doors ; and the house had no parapet Thfr 
chimneyB were too high and narrow for any 
one to get in at the top. No window or door 
was ever found unfastened in the morning. 
Mrs. Wharton did not think she could engage 
for courage enough to get out of bed, or to 
look beyond the curtains. Nor could she 
promise not to draw her curtains. The &oe 
nad never appeared within them ; and they 
seemed a fjort of protection where there waa 
no other. 

Without having made any promisoi^ she 
went so far as to start up in bed, the next 
time she saw the fiice. Tlie eyes winked 
horribly at her ; the head nodded — and waa 

ue. The beating of her heart prevented 
er hearing anything that time ; but once or 
twice during the autumn she fancied she 
heard a light and swift footstep in the passage. 
She always led her room-door open, for the 
Bake of the same sort of feeling of security 
that most people crave when they shut ana 
bolt theirs. If this was a ghost, bolts would 
not keep it out ; and she could fly the more 
easUv tnrough the open door if her terror 
should become too great to be endured alone. 
For the first time, she now burned a night* 
light in her ch.-uuber, as the nights lengthened, 
and not a dim, fltckerim^ I'ush caudle, but a 
steady wax-light. She knew that her daugh- 
ter wondered at the strange extravagance ; 
but she could not bear darkness, or a very 
feeble light, when the thing might be behtnd 
the curtain. 

Throughout October the visits were almoii 
nightly. In the first week in November th«y 
suddenly ceased ; and so many weeks passed 
away without a return, that Mis. "Wharton 




(CoDiBcM hf 


betgftH to lie s little al Armed nbont her own 
wita, imd to aak het-seli" whether, oftt-r all, it 
VP9S uot possihie that thia wnfi a trick of the 
uervei. One iii^;ht in January, that douht, 
at l<>io*t, was settled ; for there, at tlie aanie 
bcflpost, was the aaine £aoe, Mra. Wharton 
w«» »".w niter ihia inter\'al, sviUhiiul at "i' < 
S <>rne, for half-a-yeur, her pn 

;-^ I uf her digestion and of her 

auu nuw, ahe reoJiy wanted a3niipnthy. She 
let hiin toll her daughter {let him, rather 
thwi tell it herw?lf, becanne he conld make 
light of it, and «Ue could not) ; find she ghvily 
agreed to let her daughter ^\ee\^ with her. 
^r long, slie gainvd nothing by it. During 
the whole fortnight that the vasita now con- 
tinued, Mifls Wharton never once saw the 
&ce. She tried to wake the moment her 
mother to\iohe<i her ; she tried to keep ftwake ; 
bnt ahe never saw the face : and Atler that 
fortniglvt, it did not come again till April. 

One bright May dawn, she snw it. Her 
mother pulled her wrist, and, she waked up 
to a sight which bunied itsi4f in upon her 
bnuii. She mippre^»ed a shriek at the mo- 
ment ; but she could not tell Mr. Gumey of 
it afterwanls, without tears. She wanted 
that day to leave the houae immediately ; bnt 
the thought of her mnther'a long-auffenng 
with thia horror, the consideration of th« 
seriuiia conaequences of declaring themaelvtaa 
ghoBt-fleers in the town, and of the diaastroua 
effect upon their property, and of the harm- 
m^m of the ghoBt, induced her to summon ' 
her counu^e, and Ix^ar on. She did more. 
»en a littw innre<l, ahe one night api'ang 
out of bed, mahed round the foot of it, ami 
out ujwn the lau«ling. The stairs wei't htill 
dim ill the dawn ; but ahe was confident tliat 
Bhe «»w something mosing there — paa^kig 
down to the hall. As ik^on aa she could make 
the dcrvontH jttteud her, she told them ahe 
believed aomebody waa in the houae ; and aU 
the four women— two ladiea and two niaida — 
went, ai-med with poken aod ahovelR, and 
examined the whole honae. They found 
nothing, neither in the chimneys, nor under 
the beds, nor in any clcaet^ — nothing- from 
cellar to attic. And when the maids haxi 
reoorered a little, they a<^eed what a tire- 
aome ami weaiTiiug thing it waa when ladies 
took fia,ncica. Iliw waa oidy their fii-at night 
of diaturbauce, Miaa Wharton called them 
up three timea more ; and then she gave 
the ttuitler up. The aervanta thought her 
strangely altered, and wished she might not 
be going to be ill. 

'rhufl mattei-a went on for some years. The 
oddeat ttiing waa the fjeriotlicity of the riaita. 
In winter they wei-e rare ; but there was 
generally a short aerica in or about January, 
after wliich they ceased t'dl the end of March, 
or the beginning of April. They went on 
through nearly the whole summer, with one 
or two intervala of about a fortnight. The 
aervanta never auapected even the exi*<tence of 
the mystery. Their ladiea never mentioned 

it ; and no article was ever displaced at nidit. 
The ladiea became in time so aceustomed to 
the appearanoe aa to bear it alij^< it 

uneftftineaa. It occurred to them ^, 

how odd it waa to be rnnrig tit' ^ 

of such a mysten' ; and they i 

> '*tt8 were tidked aljoni. antl . . . ..*d 

serious when they were lnui^hed at t but 
t alarm ha«l mibaided. The Thing never 
did them any harm ; and they had now got 
merely to open drowsy eyes, to see if it waa 
there J and to drop aaleep the moment it waa 
there no longer. ThiB may seem stranjrP to 
thoee who have not (and .also to tho^e wbo 
have,) seen ghoeta ; but we none of us know we may c<ime to ; and these two Indies 
reached the point of turning their hetulft on 
their piUows, without much lie/Uih • <i*" ilie 
heart, under the gibbering of ii hM L 

One ciroumstance worth iiotin«; le 

Thing once apoke. Aft*r one of it^ m«»ekuig 
noda^ it aaid, " I come to eee yon wlienever I 
pLeaae," ^Vhen Mr. Oumey waa told this, he 
asked whether the laitgiiage waa English, and 
what sort of English it was. It must hrwe 
been EngUeh, as the ladiea did not ohaerve 
anything remarkable. As to th*' '♦i'f- •+ it 
hiul math? no particular impresaion • . 

but when they came to remember rn i r, 

they thought it must have been the broad 
dialect of the district, which they were ac- 
customed to hear in the kitchen, and in the 
streets and &hopB, every day. This waa all, 
Amidat the multitude of nightly ncfitationa, 
no explanation — no new evidence — oceurreil 
for -< ' T ! ' ira. Mr. Gumey waa not fond 
of i letl. Hia plan waa to dirtmi^a 

froxu .... ..^ what puzzleil him. He seldom 

inquire<l sd\vv the gh«>8t ; and when he did, 
he always revived the same auawer. 

One moming, after tlu8 lapse of rears, IMr. 
Gumey called to aicik the lailies if they would 
like to join a party to see a ghvaahons**. Tlie 
reaidenta of manufacturing tnwna cannot 
intrude in such placed at their o^\i 
but (aa is well known) take their > 
when an arrival of atrangera, or ,l.mi .-,u k 
occaaion, opens the doora of any manufactory. 
Mr. Gurney waa the lirst man in the town^ 
in regjud to doing the honours of itv All 
strangers were introduced to him ; aiid the 
doors of all Bhow-places flew open before him. 
He waa wont to mvite hia fi'ienda in tnrn to 
accompany him and hia party of fo 

these ahow'placea ; and he now 3 

Wliartona to the glaaahonae. Misi^ Vv niiiLon 
waa unavoidably engaged at the school, but 
her mother went. 

When the whole partr were standing near 
one of the fumacea, observing the coarsest 
kind of glass blowing — that of green-glaaa 
bottlea — Slra. WTiaiton suddenly seized Mr. 
Gurney'a arm with one band, while with the 
other ahe i>ointe<], p«st the glare, to a 6gure on 
the other Kide of the furnace. 

" Tli;4t 'a the face ! " ahe excUimed, in great 
agitation j " Keep quiet, and pull down your 


veiL"jfc«J ' ■"' ' ' .me}- m her ear. She drew 
ht^V fr '»w, and let tlown her veil^ 

ftl^ )^^T^^g a^ .. . .vi.ile to atani], Mr. Game]r 

^ad not offio' her an arm ; he had something 
^»t> t4t do. 

•*Who ia ihiii man V he inquired of the 
fbtvmMi, who was showman at the moment. 
The man inquire<l iill»oyt lociked scarcely 
Iranian, H«* wjw stunted in fienrire, large in 
ilMse, ojt 1 ' — making all allowance for 
the pnl^ 'lis cheeks, as he blew vigo- 

ronaiv at uil- t-ud of the long pipe he was 
twirlmg in his babootilike hands. 

•*That poor fellow, sir? His la 
Ifsddlcton. He is a half-wit, — indeed, very 
hmH? a complete idiot He ts just able to 
do what vou see—blow the coarsest sort of 
^nmr ' 

Mr. Ourney ^snahtnl to speak with him ; 
mi»l LliM ^HK»r i*n*!itnit? wns mimmcmed. He 
<jji! ' he grinnenl yet more 

vl d to ahuw the: glass- 

fa' i. Mrs. Wharton, with 

b< 1 her friendV arm ; and 

tVi ..- . t, wlms was reraarkflbly 

li. I for a wonder), to the place he 

Tk;, t .nd of. He t4>ok them <iown to 

thr Aiiiir»iing chamber; and then he oheerved 
thnt h wn^ **n nice warra place o* nighta." 
Tl'r ? how he knew that, he began 

•^ li hta tincer at Mre. Wharton, 

under her bonnet. Being advisea 
' in the fa^ce, she raised her veil ; 

\i ..^ .M vuleil and gigdetL and said he had 
seen her many a time wlien she was asleep. 
wvd Tii:iTiv ,1 time when she waa awake ; ana 
»t r too, who was not tht?re. He 

hi'i down here when the other men 

went j*v*aj>- — it was aio warm ♦ and then he 
could go when he pleased^ and see "Aer there,** 
Aod the ulher, when they were aaleeji. Mr. 
Gorney enticerl him to whisper how he 
it ; »n\l then, with an air of silly 
J, he showeil a httle square trap-door 
wall, close by the floor, through which 
he iutid he passed. It seemed too small for 
the purpose ; but he crept in and out again. 
On the other side, he declarejl, was Mrs. 
Wliart<in*a cellar. It was so. Far tlistant as 
the glftsahouse fleeme<l fr<:mi her house, it ran 
back so fai', the cellar j-unning back also, 
Ui&t tliey met. No time was lost in sending 
round to the cellar ; and, by a conversation 
held throiiL,^h the trapnloor, it waa aacert^ued 
that when Mrs. Wharton's stock of coals was 
low, th:it is, in summer, and before a fresh 
supply came in in mid- winter, Miiidleton 
eoujd get in, and did get in, abnost every 
night. Wlien he did not appear, it was only 
the coals covered the tnu>door. 
shall say with what saitsfaction the 
watched the nailing up of the trap- 
door, and with what a sense of bUasful com- 
fort they retiivd to rest heneeforthl Who 
fthaJl eiitiniate the complacency of the good 
clergyman at this complete solution of the 
greatest mystery he h^i^l ever eucountet^i 1 

WTio will not honour the courage and forti- 
tude of the hulitsa, and ivjoite that their 
dwelling eaca|Hjd the evil reputation of being 
a Haunted House ? Ijijstly, who will not sjij 
that most of the gtiblua tales extant may, it 
inquired into, be as easily accounted for as 
thsit appertaining to the good Mrs. Wharton ; 
which has this advantage over all other ghost 
stories :'— it is perfectly and literally trae. 



Sir, — Your article in a recent number, on 
the suViject of street music, was very good as 
far as it went. But I have this fiiult to tind 
with it, that it leaves untouched a series of 
nuisances which are much more awftil and 
heart-rending than those which it attempts to 
describe. Somebody must start up to be the 
Cobden of these abuses. Somenody must 
arise to put them down, or perish in the 
attempt I venture to offet ro^'self on the 
shrine of my suffering country. 

Three days ago. Sir, I returned to town with 
my friend and coUaborateur, Jones, We are 
writing a three act drama of inteniie and ap- 
naUing interest ; and have, for certain reaii9n% 
been spending a foi^tnight in Paris, On our 
return to Ix>ndon we agreeti to nick out some 
quiet lodging wbeTc, imdisturbed by the roar- 
ing of cabs and omnibuses, we might coutinue 
our work without molesftation. For this pur- 
po»e, we fixed upon one of the street* running 
from the Strancl to the river, which by their 
quiet air and aeclude<l appearance, invite the 
attention of the passer-by, and seem to pro- 
mise an eternal repose. It may not be 
generally known that in some of these streets 
— I allude, of course, to Craven Street, Norfolk 
Street, Cecil Street, and theur parallels — grass 
actmdJy growa In Cecil Street we secured a 
convenient two-pair front ; and, moving in 
there with our cai7>et-bags, indulged in dreams 
of tlie success which we were about to achieve. 
We drew out the career of the ru^an, killed 
him at the end of the tliird act, made puns 
for the comic charactei'S, wept over the 
suflrering heroine, and determining to set to 
work betimes the next morning, went to bed 

Well, Sir, no sooner had the breakfiiat 
things been cleared away, ?jid we were engaged 
upou the opening scene — ^a chorus of Peasants 
and Peaaaatesaea, I necxl hardly m\y — than we 
were alarmed by a fiightftil noise outside the 
windtjw. It was impossible to contiime our 
work while it lasted, so 1 went to the window 
to see what waia the matter. Will it be be* 
Ueved 7 Three individuals were standing on 
each other's heads, and from each of the arms 
of the topmost, two infants of tender yean 
were 8us{*cnde«i. A mob of butcher Doy% 
servant-maids, policemen, and other unein* 
ployed persons, were shout" *' ■ • r - 
applause around them. 
Qt our melodrama demandi. . ^ „. u ,j 




Bomethjng vigoTona. We aocordiugly sent out 
tlio servaat-of-all-work, a& a defiutation, with a 
Bbilling, aud a request that they would " mov<a 
OD,*' Hjs there whs a gentlemau iti the hauae 
niflicted with liimhago. It had the desired 
effect — the donative, not the meiBiago Mud 
we thon^ht we were free, 

Fallacioos hope ! 

We had scarcely net to work again, and 
IimI got one of the peasants in the drama upon 
his knees, offerbg a rose to hia beloved^ and 
pointing to a djst^uit cottage on the Rhine, 
when a more terrible noise invaded our eurs. 
Tliis time it was a " Punch," to which a retired 
half-pay officer and hia family in the first-floor 
front are partial and which had come, by 
their express ordera, to perform in front of 
the houae. The habituU of this kind of exhi- 
tion, gathered round in denae array to witness 
their favourite performance, andf there we 
were, stopped again for a full half-hour. But 
everything mueit have an end, and the 
" Punch " at len^h departed amidst our aup- 
presaed maledictions. With difficulty, indeed, 
was my heroic friend Jonea prevented from 
rushinc out and administering a kick to the 
dog Toby who, with a pipe in nis mouth, had 
added ten-fold to our agony, and contributed 
to the horror which, for my part, I have 
always felt for precocious animaia. 

Well, Sir, we had no aooner congratulated 
ourselves on tlie termination of this dWracefiil 
scene, when an individual habited in a Turkish 
garb came into the street, to swaUow a sword 
aud to balance a walkin^^-stick on hui coppei^ 
coloured noaa Neither sixpeDces, nor sMlliDgBL 
nor pro testationa, could get rid of this infernal 
Orientid. who — in perfectly good English — 
informed us that he had not been that way 
for a whole fortnight, and that he really must 
perform. It was in vain that we requested 
uim to retire— if not to his own country, and 
the emiling babes he had left behiDd him 
either in Damascus or in Houndaditch — at all 
eveutfl, lower down the street. He was in- 
exorable, and for full twenty minutes large 
pebbles and other heavy articles seemed to 
disappear down his capacious throat, and 
were brought up again before our reluctant 

He was succeeded by a Hindoo chieftidn 
who donoed the national war-donoe, howling 
at tlie same tune the national war* son^— upon 
a deal plnnk, two feet fiquare. 

I shall not prolong this painfid subject much 
further. At half-paat one, wc had a Fan- 
toccini ; at three, a performance of Ethiopian 
serenaders j at four, a select band of Scottish 
youths, to execute the fling ; intcn!j>er8ed at 
intervals with barrel-organs, organs upon 
wheels, bruss bands, violinists, flute-players, 
and every other kind of known and unknown 
musieiniis. Now, Sir, just to show you the 
effect that these accursed artists have had 
upon one of the most promishig dramatic 
pieces of the sewon, take this passage oa I 
find it written in my MS. : — 

Btrirtint. Beloved Anna, cost not upon me that 
coQtctnptuouif looL The false Ferdmimd lovos 
thee not* Oli ! say, chftrmer, wilt thou be minel 

Anna {mMin^ tmderly). Curse that Turk ! ! 

I could put up with bai'rel-organs. I could 
bripg myself to suffer^ almost without re- 
pining, under " Lucy Long." I could even en* 
dui-e ^* Ti-ab Trab/' But to be molested with 
these Punches and Eastern performers is too 
much for me. To watch one of these Abo- 
rigines (I supnoae I ought Ui say an Aborigo) 
tearing his hair and making pretence to 
munch his enemies; 1^3 hear ttie particulars 
of the last half-dozen bnrglariee and murders 
shouted under my very noso ; to listen to a 
usavl and six siiuUl cliildren bellowing at the 
top« of their fitinitorian voices that they have 
not partdken of food for three days, and are 
ready to drop down with exhaustion. All tlua 
is too much for me. It occasions, in the 
sensitive mind of a melo-<iranjatist, a degree 
of phrenzy that makes him ready to tear hijft 
hair, Kke the Aborigo ; to yell, like the 
whoophig ludian; to drop down, like the 
fatherless and motherless children and their 
exhausted but strong-voiced parents. 

Is there no law. Sir, to protect these un- 
happy streets from the vagrants who infest 
them ? No iuteruational tr«ity to compe} 
Oriental nations to keep their jugglers and 
curiosities to theniselvea? No untenanted 
patent-theatre where Punch aud Judy, and 
Fantoccini, might find a secure retreat t No 
policeman lying in ambush in a larder, ready 
to spring out upon the offenders I 

My mind is made up. I shall take a. 
lodging in the most cab-frequeutetl street that 
I can find, and com|x>se my master-piece 

Even as I write, and the shades of evening 
are stealing upon me, J observe an individuiJ 
advancing slowly out of the Strand with a 
huge drum and a fiie. Two other luiscreanta 
are following him, wrapped up in large great- 
coats. A secret presentiment tells me that 
the wretches are about to throw off their 
great-coats and stand upon their heads in 
front of my window, I can, consequently^ 
write no more, but must remain, 

Your \cry obedient and afflicted Sealant, 

Join« %iivni^ Dramatic Autficr* 

Cecil StP8et» Strand. 

Now readg:, Prtc4 6d,(lW, ntattif It«vitd in Chth, 





ThiM Monthly Bufplemmi tff HtmmkaUt Word», MMteMnf 
a hUUry of |A« frwuem mimA, it umttd rt^kUtrlff mitk Um 

raMiiha4 M Oc OflM^ Mo* l§. WcUlMto Btf««t Nofth, Bu t&d. ttiatvi hf Bum«*t a Bmh m, Wy IcMmk Ln4«« 

FamilUr in iktir Mouth* as HOUSEHOLD TrOHD5.**— StfA««r«««. 






It wj»« four o'clock in the roorning, — and the 
Cow with the Iron Tail prepared for tlie 
diiti«a of the day with her accustomed sto- 
lidity. Standing bolt upright, at the eiid of a 
dusky (^ourt-yan^, where day-break found it 
Vfti-y ililiicult to penetrate^ she submitted to 
theVixure of her irou tail by a sturdy Welsh 
girl, aod a« it waa raia«d up and down, ahe 
spouted forth from her iimocent nozzle a oon- 
8ci«(Utiou8 stream of wat«r into the unconsci- 
entiouB vesaek of Mr. William Yawl, the 
dluiTiDaD, whoae neat little ahop waa situated 
'^^ A con venient distance. This shop, or dairy, 
__ , a low-fronted wlsdow, in which were seen 
^eercfml tin cana, ranged round a small slani- 
iii|; board, whereon appeared the poHxait of 
a tvd anil white cow, between whose legs and 
the wimiow ^hias was thrust a little Maket^ 

1, "- " -' and a cobweb. A gera- 

j ly leaves and a very red 

w.., .-... , „. . , .„ Uie background. Over the 
lodg(« of the door stood a small field-sate^ 
originally painted white, but being made of 
tin, it had aevend stains of rust running 
down the bars, and had also lost somewhat 
of itA (»ri<,^in&l shape and attitude. Into this 
door came httrr>'mg a Welah girl, with two 
woodtiai pnails, just filled from the Cow with 
the Iron Tad, standing bolt upright in Pump 
Court, Skartou's Buuilings, High Holboni. 
Tl^e Rirl was soon followed by a boy, who 
brougnt a large pitcher fiill of water. He 
jostled the girl in the narrow nassage, as she 
was busthug forth again with W ^ils for a 
fresh supply ; and this went on untU the 
quantity required had been obtained. 

Between the Dairy of Mr. WvUiAiu Yawl 
and Puinp Court, there intervened an alley, a 
mews, and a narrow street. At the comer of 
the ha4.ter. and commanding a peep down the 
alley, and a squint rourid 5»e mewa, perched 
the thin, tltret>-wiudowed house — one window 
standing on the top of au other— of Mr. Tim 
Blivvrs, the barber, whose blue-and- white 
8]gn-|Hile projected from his second window, 
so as to attract customera at right angles, 
acut« angles, obtuse angles, and from ovcr- 
the-way. Mr. Yawl's water business being 
ovtj*, he had hurried off to Newgate Market, 
and was now on hla way back, at long strides, 
with something large and soil, carefuUj 

folded up in a buudle-haudkerchicf Wlit^n. aa 
he was passing the comer just de^> 
bolted Mr. Tim Slivers upon him — ti 
shutters of his shop were not dowu— and 
seized liim by the coat-tail 

" Stop ! " said Tim. 

"Oh, good morning, Mr. SUvers," said 
Yawl, much startled and embarrBssed; Tdid 
not think you ever got up so soon." 

"Never you mind about that^*' answered 
Mr. Slivers, keepLoe his hold on the coat-taiL 
" I 'm up too early for you, it seems ;*' and he 
cave a knowing, and rather lualidoua smiling 
look at the large, soft bundle under Mr. 
Yawl's right arm. 

** What do you mean 2 '' cried the alarmed 

"Just this," said Mr. SUvers. "You've 
left my es^y-shaving shop for the oyster- 
knife scraping of Ptxlgj- Green, and I won*t 
stand it. Mark that! One thing more," — - 
and Mr. Tim Slivers raised Ids (orelinger — 
** I'll peach ! '* Uttering thi? J».:..lf.,l .i-,.,)^ 
he lowered the tip of his !, 

poking it deep Into the surfacr . <^ 

bundle, gave a wicked grin, and ran book into 
his dark doorway. 

The face of Mr. William Yawl turned sa 
pale as one of Ids own milk-pans, as he stood, 
staring stupidly at the dark doorway into 
which Slivers had just skipped out of ught. 
He next looked down at his bimdle, glanoju 
all over it^ to see If any aperture had betrayed 
its contents. No aperture of any kind was 
visible, and he slowly turned aadde, and bent 
his way to his D^iry with oppressed and 
anxious feelings. His batch of nulk son! out 
that morning was a fadure ; it wa^ more than 
usual in quantity, but not of its usual good 
colour, and bad, if attentively consioered 
before mixing it in tea or cotfec, a very queer, 
and, to the uninitiated, an inexplicable twang. 
Apprehension — nervousness — that was tha 
cause of it. 

Mr. Yawl was unable to eat anj breakfast ; 
and after many hesitations dunng an hour 
and a-half, he bent his tremuhms steps 
towards the threatening pole of ^Ir. Tim 
Slivers, and entering the shop, announced, 
with a foolish smile, mtended to be easy ana 
cordial, that he liad come to be shaved. 

" So then, at last, you really do want shav^ 
ing," said Mr. Slivers, assiduously ooutinaiz)g 










hifl work of Btropi/iii;^ a razor, which waa 
effe<:ted hy means of a l>ng atroj*, the top of 
which was oailed half-way up the -wall, uhil*? 
he held the other end in hia hmid. drawiug 
out the ieatiier to the propier Angle af tdHskni. 

"YeV re|>lled Mr. Yawl, prit ting up hit* 
liAnd to hia chiu, with a weak attempt at 
undei-standing the irony of Mr. Sliver* in u 
literal genise, " Yes, Sir ; I think I do." 

*' Oh, you do, do yc«i ? Well, then, now 
I 'm ready for you. Sit dowii. Lean back. 
Easy, yoTi know, as usnal. Don't sit bo stiff. 
Ther*— quite with your l»aok against the hhck 
of the abftviug- chair. My lather 's not hot — 
don^t flinch. S«> — ah — ahem ! Cold moming, 
this morning — oarlr, I mean." Here he 
adju«t«d the white cloth befi«ath bis patient's 

"Ym" said Mr. Yawl; "it irtu rather 
cold ; — not so ven% neither/* 

" Butchera' markets tiBually ib cold," re- 
m^rkt'd Mr. Slirera, tnckinc the cloth in 
round the thn)atj "'specially in the early 
part of the morning. fk> much stone. an<l 
wet. * * ' Hope you got a good lot of 
Bhe. V' 

'..;,.. ,.. j.uns<*nie ! WhAt do you mean, 
Mr. Slivers 1 *' 

•* What you had in yonr btindje, tliia inorn- 
ing. 1 felt 'em, you know— poke- i 
into the «>ft phimpness of trie h; 
I know'd it wba sheep's braina, directly I 

''No Buoh thing, Sir!" aaid Mr. Yawl, 
tryinc to look bold and offended, and avoiding 
tile advnT ' ' 1 of hia operator. 

"Well. then."* 

"No, rvi.. .-,.,, -lis, nor bulJocki*, neither. 
Whvuhould 1—" There he wtop^nyi. 

"Then," said Mr. Sliirera, with a confident 
tone, beginning to apply the lather, " it wna 
calves* — yes, calvea' brains for break fa«tj and 
A goorl thing too, ain't they ? " 

**For those who like them," replied Mr« 
Yawl, guardedly. 

" We mu«t learn to like them, anyhow." 
wdd the perwsverinc barl>er, " both at bi^ftk- 
fittt and tea, couaiaering we ^-nn't gtt our 
mid good without some such thing. Come, I 
know all abotit it." 

" I dan*t care what you know," aaM i>oor 
Mr. Yawl, his face beeomiug aa white and 
quivering as curds and whey ; " it ^a nothing 
to me what other dairytnen tto.** 

** *Coarse not ; yon can't help what they do. 
I say So. Hold up j'our cliin ! They send to 
the CV>w with the Iron TmI, and they mix a 
pint at least — some on 'cm a pint and a-half, 
ur more — tn every quart of milk. Hold up 
your chin a leetle higher. Then the milk, 
ymi know, looka too thin, so they beats 
up the lirains in a moi-tar— <*!ves' waina is 
besty because it oom« nearer to the nature of 
ft eow— «nd when they are well worked up, 
and mixed with the milk, they give it the 
tluckness it has lost, and restore its colour. 
Chin up— 1 can*t cleverly get at you, if you 


rillii. _., .. 

irig til in ; 
• l«>ot-;'r"s, an 
balk, iitade 

jxjint your nose down at yom* toe, in that 
w;iv. Then, there ^s some as uses clialk, or 
- - .' , put J 

up the 
a. -.01 look> 
(0 a secret 
.V orange-red 
njysienous stuti^ which, being 
well wi.rkfMl round, nicUs graulufJly, and gives 
the uic»j yellowish tint what's wanted. And 
I /a/jy he.'ii'd— I necuse nobtwiy in particuLur — 
that when a nice froth is wanted to the top, 
tboy ^omsrtimen throw in a number of snaiu^ 
stir them round - ' ■ 1, and then strain 
them off, so that j ne the wiser." 

"As 1 hope to - L," exclaimed Mr. 

Yawl, *' I never did any such thing ; and I *d 
send »way anv sefraut or boy of mine, as 
hinted at such — ^that I ^x)utd." And Mr. 
Yawl rose to hi^ fnll height^ with the white 
cloth still close rttund his throat, and hanging 

" Dont't ^<t up ! " cne<l Mr. Sil U* 

ing hia victim by the shoulder*, .. ig 

him down upon the hard wc>tMirii-:i«:4Led 
chaitj *' Why ao yon get up ! 

"why, have*nt yon done both sides V 
inmiired Mr. Yawl. 
'^ Tes ; to Ik* sure T have ;" iviid '^fv 81ivCT«, 


»ar hair ii* in a shock 


neglected — all 

comes of vour U;. 


that infftmntiji 

ouaHe, Pfk<l?v Or 


he took 

1 Kow, 

sit atdl 

Yon mil 


Mr. AVmi' 

i<»;iu<.vj ifjv 

'' m! 

rcprAted to 

:% melo-»li 


he had receiu. 

. ii< ...,i at a nalo'-.w 

1. 1... ,iv L^.'^— • 

* t am— I feel it — in this villain'H poww f *^ 

"You, see," pursued Mr. Tim Slivfi-ft. ap* 
plying hie large comb with i :>- 

aore/and opening the jsfwa * ui 

their flill width, as he stood astnd«i in front 
of his man, "You see, it cau\ be pure milk 
as we all drink, and I *li show yon how it 
ctnt be. Say there 's two noUions and more 
of us here m Ijondon ; and suppose each 
ponjon, on the average, takes hfdra-plnt of 
milk a*d.ay — " 

* But they don*t do it " intorpo«e<l Mr, 
Yawl, " that *s much too high a nestimote. 
Half-n-nint 1^1 wish they did." 

"And so they do," proceeded the na- 
conauerable Slivers ; " there 's tea and coffee 
in tne morning — good ; and there '• tea and 
coffee in the evening — good. But besides 
this— mind, 1 said one with another— thei-e *s 
bread-snd-milk for break£fist, and paps, and 
bottler of milk for hinfa&ta, and thei^ 's pies 
and puddings, and cakea^ blce-Ti - '"^ "nd 
costards, and soaps and sarces, ^ >r 

the sick, and curds and way, and i^ ; h, 
and mm-and-milk — nice thin;?, you know— 
and Sometimes a bath of milk, for tho«se a.*i 
oanH swallow : — nounehmeot gets tl trough tlie 
pores, my boy ! "—and amaok dosed the iawa 
of the scissors with the bst word, and aorwii 

Ckkrt* DMMft ) 



fell * (rr»t tuft, of Mr, William Yawls hair 
mv>Ti the upper leather of his left boot. 

\\*\ kx>ke<i down at the tuft of hair 

- [ ' . ' . ' *' ' 

Ail LA*iiiti"li 1 i'.CAv 1 i'rlii iiii i«-ii ^*ll. .'^ii^'-is. 

'* A great many," repli*?d Yawl, Tkrighteniu^' 

*^: : SUvera,:- 

uiv .i c of hair t ■ 

. m;^' the blades of the 8ci*soi-s W their 

■ .Hpe» "now, hifclf'tt-pLDt aday for two 

lu ! r . t r.'jple amounts to five hundred 

tl i-^ T; t iji ;iits; to obl^a which we must 

r fitly thousand cows, each producing, on 

verage, ten quarts a day. So, vou see, 

rding to Corker, we're thirty tLousand 

ws ahort of oar pnjper complenaent^ — 

.1 tT,^. mill- f.f ftll these has to be supplied 

h the Iron — Tail, my boy ! ^*-^ 

- second great tufl of hsir.and 

-Lose be&ide his ahom oompanioa o& the 

" An«l pray, where did you learn all this ? " 
etjr^nirwl Mr. Yawl^ in a quainog voice. 
" " ' ' M yon all these thincs 7 — ^though it 's 
! ' me, vou know — 1 *m not a cow- 

*' To be sure you ain^t. I know that reiy 

^xoi-\ — very *'— (here Mr. Slivers performed 

dance round his victim, operating 

I rously with his comb and scissors) 

■— vet^' — very well, you see. But there 's n 

knowmg old fellow comes here to >»e shaved 

twicip a week, and I was telling him of your 

Wring roe for old Podc}* Green, and so we 

Ik and cows, and then he 


in I? Ml* vuiker, as you spoke o^ I 

MoppoBn ; he *d better have mind^ Ills own 

Itii;4nn>ii " fiiiir] ^fr. Yawl. 

'<J Slivers, making his scissors 

s ery eye, " it was not Corker ; 

i I mm, your landlord, to whom 

X quarters* rent," — and clash 

Utrut Liic Si.Lic5.ors m their final performance. 

It w.ia true ; Mr. Yawl aid owe three 
^[O&rters ; ard he remained moodily specu- 
ikimg on liifi (kllen tufts, bunches, and short 
^nd* of hair, as they lay scattered around liia 
boots, while Slivera amused himself by twist- 
bj'- ij»» smoking paper with a pair of hot 
<• ns, 

ott^" resumed the inexorable barber, 

whrti I have said isn't a hundredth part of 

rhat old Dignum told me. The management 

of LoDfh'ii cows is certainly T«iy carious — 

and hothh-fying.** 

*' You know I "m nci & cow-keeper ! '' in- 
terrupted Mr, Yawly \rith a look of aUnn. 

*' 1 know you 're nofr," said Mr. Slivers^ — 
** don't flinch'so ! — the irons ain't too hot I 
mm awaro as vou don't keep cowa, aiid don't 
know much of such things as I 'm going to 
tell von ; but you ought tu know — ^it "a veiy 
much your interest to know. l>on't flindi so, 

X say. First, as to the purchase. Poor, lean, 

nmiigy, o^-^er-diviv, feverish cows are bought 

cheap at Sraithfield. That's liad, to begin 

witJi, .lin't it 1 But suppose the cows as are 

u cent kind of aniiuaJa, 

hey soon hav« to lead. 

.V ^j- >ii jiMiiKn . ,-t ,u,' London milch cows 

live ill dark, damp dt^uu*, undtr intone .M'clnfa the Thames In one of these ranges 

. or ^y cowB are packed, in a spaoe nut 

_'j enough for a doaten ; the shed is lit with 
ya*, which adds to the hot steam of the breath 
and the hides of tlie cows ; and tha wentiU- 
tion tliey get is by means of a hole, of less 
than ctne foot sqtiare, in the wall of the lane 
that leads to the halfpenny steam-boate. 
Maybe you don't know where that is ? " 

"I don*t know aa I do,** murmured poor 
Mr. YawL 

'*I thought not. Well, that's oue of the 
kind of pLacea they live in. Other oow- 
kcepers have sets of cellars^ aud other under- 

f round phices ; othen pack them in yardfi^ 
irty lanes^ or any holes and ooTDera^ and 
often in comiwoy with swine — and the bof- 
fensive hodours are enough to pyaon all tlte 
neighbourhood. When cowa live in dark 
dens, or filthy yards, in the worst of company, 
or else with their smooth, hinnocent noses 
doM up against dead wall»r— with all manner 
of the foiueetest aocumuhUions, no drainage, 
and no atom of wentUatioa^-^Ul of which 
causes diseases, aich as manget, and other skin 
diseases, besides consumption, and a bad foot, 
so bad, sometunea, tliat the hoof rots off — 
what sort of milk are such miaerable hanimals 
at them likely to perdooce 1 " 

** Mt/ cow-keejx-'r'B cows don't live in such 
pUceaJ" interposed Mr. Yawl, with an effort 
to rally ; " they live hi proper sheds, with 
plenty of air, good draina^, and h>ta to caX." 

**Ohj no doubt— certaiuly^ — ^the milk tliat 
comes to you, Mr. Yawl, is quite good — ^very 
good indeed — in the first instance— whew !— 
but I was alluding to London cows as they 
are for the niost part. Then^ you talk of 
eating ! What sort of food do most of the 
den-kept» unaired, undrained hanimals get f 
If you don't know, I 'U tell you. London 
cows^ for the most part> are fed from the offal 
and sweepings ot the Loudon wegetabU 
markets, ttnd of greengrooen* shopa, aa was 
discovered by Mr. Hocson Bu£g, » lunthnjkte 
friend of Mr. Dignum'a. CabUa^ a 

aU colours, half-rotten turnips, <: -s, 

bad potatoes, and such like ; and othtar pro- 
vendjer, as will keep, is stowed away in loft^ 
or on shelves just over the cowa, ao as to 
absorb all the hsui steams and bad smells that 
rise up, which, after a Cew weeks, don't make 
verv mce eating. 'Stead of nice fresh wege^ 
tables, these cow-keepea^ feed the poor cr«a- 
tm'eti with brewers' aud distillers* graiua, and 
dLitlllers* wash ; and Mr. Bugg says it 's thar 
chief article of food, whereby their livera ars 
very much enlarged, become hard, refuse to 
perform their naytural baziatomical hol&oa^ 




tC««4<Nin*A ty 


and ao the poor Waata i^'t Ihe yellow jaundice, 
just the same aa with men who are alwaya 
ooBotting theraaelveHi with beer and gin." 

"J/w/fr Slivei'8 ! " exclaimed Yawl, rifling 
from the Iftrge wooden arm-chair — hi« head 
covered all over with little, hard, araoking-hot 
curk^ — find the long white cloth, which had 
been tucked in a ring close munfl hia throat, 
still hanging down, *' Muter Slivers ! — it isn't 
in flesh and blood to endure tliis any l«)ng«r' ! 
I feel that all this is meant for me — it 'a said 
at me — apitefiilly at m«\ Mr. Slivers, filthough 
ou know very well tliat I am not a cow- 
eeper, that 1 never iw* a cow-keeper, nor 
none of my family, Sir, nor my father before 
me, — wn-found you ! " 

Jdr. Slivera 8tep|>ed back a pace or two at 
this tmexpected exhibition of spirit in the 
usually meek Mr. Yawl ; but mBtantly re- 
covering his preHence of mind, he applied the 
tin of Ilia curlini; irons to one aide ol hia head, 
wi^K-h he gently ta])pe<l, in a quaint, knowings 
indolent, quietly threatening manner, as he 
softly uttered the words—*' C^tlves' brains ! " 

Mr. Yawl I'eeletl, and lo<>ke<l ready to faint. 
He placed one hand languidly upon the top 
of A wig-block at his aide, not Beerng what it 
waa, to support himself. 

8iowly, Aiid with a serious countenance, the 
remorBeleaa Slivera adviuiced towards him ; 
gently untucked and pulle<l out the cloth fix>m 
Around Mj\ Yawl's throat ; folde<l it np ; laid 
it upon a shelf, together witli his ciirliug-iroiis 
and nciftsoi-B ; went to a little dusty glass 
case ; pushed back a slide ; took down a 
^lilK>t ti'oni the top shelf, and a bottle from 
u cotifu«iou of uickiiacks below ; and agidn 
approached Mr. Yawl. 

** Here," atiid the baiber, extending the galli- 
pot, " is some Pomatum de Frenclupostrum, 
just come from the Tivoll Gardens of Paris, 
It will cool the skull at\er the heat induced 
by ctirltng, and halluy any little soreness from 
oloso pinching, It ^rill' likewise materiaUy 
assist the growth of the hair, and give it a 
ffloss. And here is a Iwttle of Iioron von 
Softei-smere's Anti-Peatiferish Wash, which 
I sti'ongly rekkimend to your use every day, 
after you Lave tinished themauifiu^kturofyour 
milk, to peFwent the hotlours of your work 
from betraying of your secret." 

Scarcely conscious of what was being done, 
Mr. Yawl allowed the gjdlifjot to be placed in 
one hand, and the bottle in the other, as he 
mAile his way out of the door, — the detestable 
Slivers whispering as he j^isaetl that he 
trusted he snould see him every morning to 
be shaved — and cut and cui-led on Sundays. 

Such, then, is the result of the discoveries, 
not only, let us say, of Mi-. Digimm and the 
pertinacious Mr. Tim Slivera, but of the more 
elaborate 1^1 r. Kug|, who has put forth various 
pApei-8 on the subject of the manufacture of 
London milk, and, in especial, a jjampblet, 
wherein he collects all niii forces on this 
important Metropolitan subject. 

That there is great tnitli in Mr. Rugg*8 
statements, we are, in many respects, well 
aware, having obtained, in Tierson^ a know- 
ledge of the same \ — that there is another 
yiew to be taken of Loiidou ^lilk, we are also 
prepared U) show. 

Let the reader accompany ua half-a-dozen 
miles out of Ijjwn. We pass thrtmgh Cam- 
berwell, thr ' " Mitra, and Peekham Rye, 
and we |trv ourselves in a dLBtrict 

that looks lit,. ....i.-Mjly like "the count rj'," 
considering how short a time it is since wo 
left the " old smoke " behind us. We alight 
and walk onwania, — and certainly, if the 
sight of green fields, and cows, and hedges, 
and farm-yards, denote the country, we aii© 
undoubtedly in some i-egion of the kind. 

We pass down a winding road, between 

[ high hedges of bush and trees^ then cUmb 

I over a gale into a field ; cross it, aJid then 

; over another gate into a field, ft-om which we 

commence a gradual aaceut, field aft<?r field, 

, till finally the green slope leads us to a cour 

siderable height. We are on the top of 

Friera Hill. 

It is a briglit sunny morning in Septembei% 
and we behold to perfection the moat oora- 
plete panorama that can l>e found in the 
suburban vicinities of London. ♦Stjiiiding on 
the broad green summit of this hill, wiih 
the face turned towanla Fr" T v Farm^ 
wliich is about a mile di u'; you 

see, on yonr extreme righi, .mwHri's Hill, 
Blackheath, and, on clear days like this, th« 
tops of maats of vessels coming up tlie river. 
Then, Greenwich Hospital, with trains on th* 
railway — like little fan v curria-jre!^. or magic 
toys, roiming alone— <:■ u On a 

clear day, also, you rau} . ;is now, 

the nifist-head. containing uLo laiilhur u, of the 
Nore Light- Boat. Next, Deptford, with tha 
masts and sails of shijja gliding onward, 
beyond and above fields and house-topa, — ia 
the strangest manner, even though we know 
how it all is. Drptf^nl Doekyartl, Limehouse 
Church, and, still fullowing on the circle, the 
Tcwcr of I/>ndoTi. Next coiues the Monu- 
ment, between which and the hill where we 
are standing, we descry below in the meadowR 
the Dsiry Fiii-m of JViern M-onor, But leC 
your eye again ascend to mo%'e along Ihe 
[>anoramic circle, as before. There you see tLe 
grand sombre dome of St. Paul's ; and, on 
the highest ground, as you move onwards^ 
Highgate Church ; further onwards, the next 
great object that arreats 3''oa is Westminster 
Abbey. Then, Harrow Hill, Richmond, 
Thurlow Park, (we are moving round, re* 
member,) and Dulwidi College. Below this, 
you see Noi-wood Hill and Cemeter)', then 
Dttlwich WoolL AVe are working our way 
into good field-sport grounds. There is Forest 
Hill ; fields ; scnib ; pitches of furze, lying 
dark and colourless, with here and there /k 
streak (»f bright light j and, again, Shooleir's 
Hill, from w^hich point we starte«i, thus com- 
pleting a circle, comprieiug an extmordinary 





s&umber of liaportant ob]ect«, all sees from a 
^.-- -: I "V :i9 yet, we believe, unknown to our 
1 ftaint^ra. 

..... it haa thia panorTima and this ffreen 

KU1, Vj do wiU» London milk 1 Step down 
with TI3 to yonder hedce, a Little below the 
«|X»t where we have been standing. We 
Apprt:>ttch the hedge — ^we get over a gate, and 
ve guddeidy find ourselves on the upi^ier part 
of an eiionnous men sloping pasturase, 
cov*?red all over witli cows. The red cow, the 
white cow, tlie l»rowTi cow, the brindled 
cow, the eolley cow, the dappled cow, the 
atreaked cow, the spt>tted cow, the liver- 
cnd-whlte c<.w, the etrawberry cow, the 
Mulberry c<jw, the chesnut cow, the grey 
B[iecklc<l cow, the clouded cow, the black 
tx»w, — the ahort-honxed cow, the long-horned 
cow, the iip-curHn^ horn, the down-curling 
boro, the atraight-homed cow, and the cow 
with the crumpled horn — all are here — be- 
tween two and t Viree hundred — iq>rea4l aU over 
the broaii, d'Avuward sloping pasture, feeding, 

TuminnfmL' ' '"ir, UHng, gazing with mild 

cai-nestnes in characteristic though t- 

fiiLtiesa, bk- J -i-^, L r wandering hither and 
thither* A soft gleam of golden sunsliine 
Hfirt^ads over the poBture, and faliB upon many 
of the cowa with a loveljr, picturesque effect. 

And what cowa they are, aa wo apprt»ach 
and pias amongst them ! Studies for a Mor> 
land, a Gaiosborougli, a Conatable. We haii 
never before thought there were any such 
ooWB out of their pictures. That they were 
Ki^bly naefid, amiable, estimable creatures, 
who eontinually, at the best, appeared to be 
mumbling gr&as in a recuml)ent {xieition, and 
compodi^ a aonnet, we never doubted ; but 
that they were ever likelv to be admired for 
their biMuity, especially when beheld, oa many 
as these were, irom a disadvaDtageous point 
of %'iew, a« to their position, we never for a 
mamoat suspected. Such, however, is the case. 
We have lived to see beauty in the form of a 
cow — a natural, modem, milch cow, and no 
deooendant from any Ovidiau metamorphosis. 

We will now descend this broad and popu- 
lons slope, and pay a visit to Frierii Manor 
Dairy Farm, to which all these acres — some 
two huntlred and fifty— belong, together with 
all these ** horned beauties.^ We find them 
all very d*x;ile, and undisturbed by our 
presence, though their looks evidently denote 
that they recotjnise a stranger. But those 
who are reclimn^ do not rise, and none of 
them decline to be careesed by the hand, or 
seem indifferent to the compliments addre^ed 
to them. In passing through the cowa, we 
were spedally presented to the cow queen, or 
•* maiiter cow," as she is called. This daily htia 
been reoogni&ed during twelve yeara as the 
Bovereign ruler over all the rejit. No one, how- 
ever large, disputes her supremacy. She is 
a short-homed, fthort-Iegged cow, looking at 
fimt sight iiuher «m,ill, t>ut on closer exami- 
nation you will find that she is sturdily and 
•olidly built, though graceful withal. " She is 

sweet-tempered,** observed the head 
keeper, **bot when a new-comer doubts nbout 
who is the maater, her eye becsomes dreudfuL 
Don't signify how big the otlier cow is — she 
must give in to the master cow. It ^s not her 
size, nor strength, bless you, it 's her spirit. 
Aa soon as the question is once settled, aiie *a 
aa mild jib a lamb again. Gives uu eighteen 
quarts of milk a day. 

We wore surj^»rised to hear of so great a 
quantity, but this was something abated by a 
consideration of the rich, varied, and ubuudant 
supply of food afforded to these cowa, besides 
the air, attendance, and other favourable cir- 
citmatanoea For their food they have man- 
gold- wurtzel, both the long red and the orange 
globe Borts« parsnips, tumipa, and kohl-rani 
(Jewish cabbo^), a curious kind of green 
turnip, with cabbage leaves sprouting out of 
the top aU round, like the feathery arma of 
the Pnnce of Wales, Of this last mentioned 
vegetable the cows often eat greedily; and 
sometimes endeavouring to bolt too large a 
piece, it sticks in their throats and thnatens 
atrangulatioD. On these occaaiona, one of the 
watchful keepers rushea to the rescue vnih a 
tlung called a prohang (in fact, a cow's throat 
rami-od), with which he rams down the ob- 
structive morsel. But bemdes these articles 
of food, there ia the unlimited eating of grass 
in the paatures, so that the yield of a lai^ 
ouantity of milk seems only a matter of couiBej 
though we were not prepared to hear of ita 
averaging from twelve to eighteen aiul twenty 
quarts oi milk a day, from each of these two 
or three himdred cows. Four-and*twenty 
quarts a day is not an unusual occurrence 
Vrom some of the cows ; and one of them, we 
were assured by several of the keejiers, once 
yielded the enormous quantity of twenty-ekdit 
quarts a day during six or seven we^ks. "nie 
poor cow, however, suffered for thia munifi- 
cence, for she was taken very ill with a fever, 
and her life was given over bv the doctor. 
ilr. Wright, the pi-oprietor, told us that he 
sat up two nights with her himself, he had 
siich a respect for the cow ; and in the 
morning of the second ui^ht a^^er she was 
giveii over, when the butcner came for her, 
he couldn^t find it in his heart to let him have 
her. " No, butcher," said he, "8he*8 been a 
good friend to me, and I *11 let her die a quiet, 
natural death." She hung her bead, and her 
horns felt very cold, and so she lay for some 
time longer; but he nui*sed her, and was 
rewarded! for she recovereii ; and there she 
stands — the strawberry L>urham short-hom 
— and yields him again from sixteen to 
eighteen quarts of mnk a tlay. 

Reverting to the "master cow" we en- 
quired whetlier her supremacy in the case of 
new comers was establishetl ** nie»mericjUly '* 
by a ghuiee— or how 1 The eye we were as- 
aure*i liail a great deal to do with it. Tlie 
stranger cow rend it, and trembled* But 
sometimes there was a contest ; juid a cow-ligbCy 
with such fresh strong creatures as these,-^ 



(CwtdMUQ \>J 

aU used to tbeir full liberty, nnd able ta roD 
or l< ' ' 'ne a serious A^ir. If no keeper 

Wa I sepanUe tliem, aiicl the tight 

got ^. .>......, . that one of them fell wuii«fkd, 

it wm A cLanct? but the whole herd would 
«urrr»unvl the fiiileii cow, and kill Ik r Tliia 
wna uot out of wickcdneiss, hut H' : H 

the whole affair that put them K 
s^lvee^ and they couldirt hear the li 
aiid so tried t^ pet rid of their 
wellnath ' ' i vio- 

lifisice, '1 td did 

not witTte*M iiiH nu'iu, !>u' i«'uiv tO the 

discovery of blood that ]; jilt. They 

would stare nt it -^'"l "I'l snutT 

down at it, aii 
it — and pi?t m« 

tho whole herd would L>egiu to niahaliout tiie 
1at;ld Ijell owing nnd mad, and make nothing at 
laat of leaping clean over hedges, fencea, and 
ftve-lirirreii i^iiiGS. But strange to Bay — if the 
blood they found had not been spilt by vio- 
lence, but only from some caus« which the 

•liter or I by the doctor 

^-Jthen tiL. i,.. . ,. nicuiTed. They 

took no notice of ii 

We found that i auty, cows pos- 

Mised some imagination, and were moreover 
very suaceptible. The above excitement and 
mad ftanic soinetiniea occurs from other 
cansMi, Once some boys brought a great kite 
into tlie field, with a jmiitoniiine face piunted 
upon it ; ami diivctlv this began to riae over 
the iidd. ' '' '1 up at it, ami 

iaw tln*i tlie fiice looking 

down at 1-.... — i.*.mi -h : *_>h ! what a bel- 
lowing ? — hnd away they rushed over each 
other, cjnite firantiCr On another occaaion 
eome experimental gentlemen of ecience 
brought a fire balloon near the x>wturage one 
night after dark. It roae. Up started idl the 
CowB in a panic, arid round and round they 
rushed, till finally the wliole herd made a 
charge at one of the hiffh fences — tore down 
nod overleaped everytliin>r — burst into the 
lanes, and ma^le their way into the high road, 
and seemed to intend ti» leave their owners 
for some otlicr state of existence where tii'e- 
ballo«'>n» and horrid men of science were alike 

Instead of proceeding directly down the 
aloping fields towards the Dairy Farm, we 
made a detour of about half a mile, and passed 
through a field well enclosed, in which were 
about a dozen cows, attended by one man, who 
gat beneath a ti*ee. This was the Quarantine 
ground. All newly purchaaed cows, however 
healthy they may appear, are fii-st placed in 
thk field during four or five weeks, and the 
man who niilka or attends npon them is not 
pennittwl to touch, nor indeetl to come ncm*, 
any of the cows in the great paature. Such is 
the susceptibility of a cow to the least conta- 
mination, that if one who Lad any slight 
diaeose wer« admitted nraong the lierd, in a 
▼ery thort time the whole of them would be 

affected. When the proorietur haA been 14> 
p\n*cha«e fredi stock, and It- - . i- .miontr 
^tranj^e cowsi, t\sp«*ci:dly ut " he tn- 

variably changes all hia cloU,. .>,. . generally 
taken a bath odbre he ventures among bis 
own herd. 

From what has already been seen, the> 
rt>f»*1er will not be iistoniflhcd on hia arrival 
at the Dairy Fru-ni, to find e%*ery ar- 
ut in accordance with the tino coiny- 
tH n or the cows, and the er]\ ^ Jlothtf- 

cows) circum^tancca in whi , Tilt 

cow-ahedri aits divided into Imv 
and the appearance presented j 
riftli^. Ti*^atucas and order of cava. ;, ^i,i._M 
til ia marked with a MumV>er ; a oo^ 
ling number is marked on one horn o! 
the Cow to whom it belongs ; ami in winter 
lime, or any inclement season (for they all 
sleep out in fine weather) each cow delibe- 
rately finds out, and walks into her own stall* 
No. 173 once got into the stall of No. 15 ; but 
in a few minutes No. 16 arriTiai, and " showed 
her the differenoe." In winter, when the 
cows are ketJt very much innloors, they are 
all regularly groomed with nir. vv..Lnd>$, 
By the side of one of these sh- a 

cotta^ where the keepers live^i ad 

attendanta — each with little iron bedateada, 
all in orderly soldier fashion, the foreman's 
wife acting as the hotwekeepcr. 

These men lead a comfortable lifiy, bat they 
work ha^l The first "milking" begins at 
eleven o'clock at night ; and the second at 
hMi!^ " in the morning. It takf> ' 

tiiii I cow insists upon V»eing > 

in h. ■ . „,v , 1^— - 'I pful to herscli. ,. <.- 
taining no u - ther cow — or, if she 

sees it, she ia \ _: 1 l ly to kick it i ', .r. 5^iO 
will not allow of any mixture. ] r i> 

would seem a strange instinct, ae< h 

her extreme snsceptibiltty to contaiiiiniiti...u. 

The milk is all passed thnvugh several 
strainers, and then placed in great tin cans, 
barred across the top, and seale^L Tliey arc 
deposited in a v- ' ' ' ' "" 'ho 
Tarm nboitt three a 

at the Dairy in F.^ii...^ ^.i^c .v vw^n 

three and four. The seals are then carefully 
examined, and taken off by a clerk. In come 
the carriers, commonly called ** milkmen,'* all 
wearing the badge of Friem Farm Dairy ; 
their tin pails are filled, fastened at top, and 
sealed as before, and away they go on their 
early rounds, to be in time for the early 
breakfast-people, The late-breakfasts ar» 
provided by a second set of men. 

Such are the (acta we have nacertained 
with regard to one of the largest^ of the 
great Dairy FnrmB near London ; so that 
from this, and other hrraA similarly con- 
ducted, it is quite clear that by takmg « 
little pains to ascertain whei-c, a Ixmdonei' 
wkiy, it he chooses, obtain pnre, rich, milk " ua 
it comes from the cow," Tliat the previous 
accounts we have gi\'en of the adultemtiooa 
of Loudon milk are equally trut?, we ar^ to A 





^ that s 
•ier on 

hali tlie cliiidieii i 

.'Utvl. That the a(lu 

At, ajid aconimon Dntctke uc 

a while we iua concluding this 

ihc Hjysterioufl doctor's ** milk- 

wJiichAIr. Tiui Slivers taunted 

has been ^ -^ * to us. As 

the ihii ina out to 

idi i^ hiii — ^ ^auuj^ and 

mly to coloiii" chee«*r. JBut itt 

it givea, with few excejrtioas, to the 

kirynmi]. b«ro Iji the simple I'eeipe, 

>ia the best authority ; — Wrap tli^ 

np in a piece of ikoiud : then take a 

, of wiiUr fot every two quajfta of milk, 

<! lie hall 141 the w»ter, whirl it 

d (aa YOU would use a blue- 

iiiiLU liic wwter occomea the coloui* of, 

lilo ; then pour it into the milk, and stir 

1^ wh-.l^' t^nrt'thr-f until tlir' II I ilk -?md' water 

canay con- 

shft4:ii , iie Hippo- 

ttiiiuuck the deception in a very 

dU-yi^ L.J unicated ni^ discovery to 

Soii Caun&na, in hh peculiar way. 
it«d on double Ids fonner qu:aility of 
K,te WT it. So 
ry, ivnd with 
li. . ; 1 1 I . 1 ; \ , i^[/<)KL: lii ilj>s ; ** I thinkj Sir, 
ii 1m n r keep our own cow. The milk 
it wiihiii, we know: — but the outaide 
w« don't know," 


Ti uKi'dfi of treating the inaaney 

rhii i that the keepers of old were at i 

[rii!-!ir<, has, happily, been, 
I. ; : i I.I i'lud oommeoc^d the^ 
syawm in hruucOf and it hiti been 
with the best effeots^ not only in 
Britain, but throughout Europe. 
rao«ut im^irovomeoU La the treatment 
'ii 'lim e-i^ui^try^ hare been widely 
1 many ways by the 
in account ha» a]>- 
i a ball at St* Liidcc'^a 
>f se%-vrity and re- 
M joined. Kot 
I l.y tbe English 

fii iMN esc6U«nt cau«« 

M* We are, therefore, 

_iv^ .» I. rtii^i.mwu of MX intereating 
of ft viait to the C<xsa dd Matti^ in 

Sevatml t^^^u^ ai;o Count Piaani, a Sicilian 
>U«$jzian. a tour tJ\; rope, 

:Ud I. n to the ftbe 

1 by 

at to 

*i'«'Tiing, to convert his beaiT*'''"! ^'''-^ ^^'vt 

rifio into a Lunatic A*^v 

1 the name of the Ca,*a id 

ing to a more humble plaott of abode, 

.d hU fortune and ener^ea to the 

piupusiij of carrying oat hia pmhmthixjjiic 


Count Fiaam hunaelf ofibred to conduct me 
over the e^tabliihmeut. After a short walk 
we arrived in front of a apacioua manaioni the 
ext4iritir iispcct of which presented nothing 
differing from that of a handaome r» ^^ 'f-^ »-»- 
sidence. The windows, it 18 true, \\ ' ; 

but the gratings were ao ingetit 
trived that had not my attention t>©erj j>fir- 
ticalAiiy *llrocted to them, I should not have 
duicoverud their fexi&tenoe. Some represented 
vine leavtifl, tendi-ile, or bunches ol grapes ; 
others weie faahioned Uke the long learefl 
and blue flowers of the convolvulus. Foliage, 
fruit, and flowers were all painted in natural 
colours, and it was only from a very near 
point of view that the artiSce could be de- 

The gate was opened by a man, who, in- 
stead of carrying a huge stick or a bunch of 
keys, (the umum insignia of the porter of a 
mad house,) hod a &ne nosegay stuck in the 
breast of his ooat, and iji one hand he held a 
flute, on which he had apparently been playing 
when interrupted by our summons at the gate. 

We entered the building, and were prO' 
ceeding along the corridor on the ground-floor, 
when we met a man whom I took to i-*^ ^ 
servant or messenger of the establishm 
he was 1 MiTving some bundles of firv 
On ; us, be laid down his burden, 

and r^ to Count Hsani, reBj)ectfully 

kissed kiii hioid. The Count enquired why ho 
was not in the garden enjoying the fre^h air 
and amusing himself with his companions. 
" Because," replied the man, '' wintei* is finst 
coming, and I have no time to lose. I shall 
have enough to do to bripj down aU the wood 
from the loft, and stow it away in the cellar.'* 
The Count commended hiu forethought, aad 
the miui, taking up his fjgoti^ bowed, aud 
went Ida way. 

This man, the Count informed me, waa ih« 
owner of large estates in Castelveleiimo ; bat 
owing to a natural inactivity of mind, and 
the ab€«uce of any exciting or useful occu- 
pation, he sank into a state of mental tor- 
jior, which terminated in insanity. When he 
was brought to the Castt dei MaUi, Qoimt 
Pisani drew hiju ajrtide, under ^1' ' »"' ^Mice of 
having a must imiK^rtant c- ;..>n to 

make to him. The Count iuJ i that 

he had l>eeu clianged at nurse, thai he was 
not the rightful owner of the weulth li*^ ha«l 
heretofore enjoyed ; and that the 
become known, he was dispossi 
wealth, and must therefore work f 
tenanoe. The madman believed ti ^ 

showed no dis|.>ueition to rouse him-^tu i/>:'ai 
tha state of bdolenc© which had been th» 
primary cause of hia mentid aberratioiL om 

all ijswi to their full liberty, and able to nm 
or leap well, was a R*'riou8 affiiir. If no keeper 
was at hand to sei«irAte H--'" '^,,1 tli- ♦^,r>,t 

raerions, ao that one < ! 
was A ckaiice )*tit th*- i 

surrotind the fallen cow, ainl kiU her. Tiiis 
was not out of wicko«Lnes»^ but something in 
the whole affair that put thorn beside them- 
selvefii, aiid they couhln't beAitb** h«»rri<i si^ht, 
niid so tried to get rid of lli 
well as the unfortuuatc olijeet, 
knee. The etTect was th e aatiie j j 1 1 1 1- 1 1 ■ i • i u i - 1 
Hot witness the hjrht, but came Buddenly to the 
diacovery of blood that had been spilt. They 
would Htnre at it, aiid g-lnrs nt it, and snuff 
down At it, and snjff tip ut it,mjd prcwl round 
it'^-and get more and more excited, till ut hwt 
(he whole herd would b^gin to rush alH>ut the 
field bellowing and mad, and make nothing at 
hmt of leaping clean over hedges, fences, and 
five-barred gutes. But atrauge to say — if the 
blood they found had not l^en split by vio- 
lence, but only from some cause which the 
" homed beauties " understoo<l, such as a 
Bister or aunt having been bled by the doctor 
*-then no effect of the sort occurred. They 
took no notice of it. 

We found that bearides beauty, cows pos- 
sessed some imagination, and were moreover 
very ausiceptible. The above excitement and 
Iliad panic soraetimes occuta finom f>ther 
caoaea. Once some hoys brought n 
into the^d, with a pantomime fa^ 
Upon it ; and directly thia Ijegnn to n^i 
the field, and the co'w^ looked up at it. 
taw the great glass eyes of the fiK*e ltx>.MM- 
down at them — than Oh ! Oh ! what a bel- 
lowing ! — and awny they mshed over each 
o^er, qtdte frantic. On another occasion 
Botne experimental gentlemen of science 
brought a fire bsdloon near the pasturage one 
night after dark. It rose. Up started all the 
<Jow8 in a panic, and round and refund tlaey 
rushedj till finally the whole herd made a 
charge at one of the high fences — tore tlown 
and overleaped everj'thing — ^burst into the 
Unes, and mft<le their way into the high roatl, 
and seemed to intend to lea,ve their OMTiers 
fbr some other state of existence where fire- 
balloons and horrid men of science were alike 

Instead of proceeding directly down the 
■loping fields towards the Dairy Farm, we 
made a dotour of alwut half a mile, and [lassed 
through a tield well enclosed, in which were 
about a dozen cows, uttended by one man, who 
mt beneath a tree. Thlis was the Quarantine 
ground. Ait t^^-.. i^' purchased cows, however 
healthy til -psar, are fii-st pboed in 

this fi«>ld >; ^ r or five weeks, .^nd the 

man who miika or attends upon them is not | 
permittetl to touch, nor indeed to come near, 
any of the cows in the great pasture. Such is 
the auisceptibility of a cow to the least conta* 
miniition, that if one who had any slight 
disease were admitted among the henl, iti a 
twy thort time the whole of them woidd be 



affect€<i When t!ye pr 
purchase fii-csh stock, 
stnuige f'jwv ,-- 
takee a i 
own licril. 

Prom what has alreaify been sccu. 
reader will not be a«tomsUe<l on Kb aij 
with us at the Dairr JWm, to -find 

cow-flheds are divided into fifty st 
and the appearance presented" re 
of the neatness and order of cav; 
Each stall is marked with a num 
responding number is marked on one 
the cow to whom it belongs ; and fn 
time, or any inclement seaaon •:' 
sleep out in fine weather) eacji 
rately finds out, and walks into 
No. 173 once got into the stall 
in a few minutes No. 15 arrived, 
her the difference." In winterj 
cows are kept very much in-doonra, 
alt regularly groomed with 
By the side of one of these shells 
cotta^ where the keepers live — ^m 
attendants — each with little ii*on 
all in orderly soldier feshion, the 
wife acting as the hou8ekee|>er. 

These men lead a comfort.t^ 
work hard. The first *'mil 
' Ten o'clock at night; sma iiie 

!-past one in the morning. It tnJcci 
liiue, for each cow insists tipon 
in her ofwn pail^ — »,«. a paU to he: 
tmning no milk of any other oow 
sees it, she is very Ukely to kick it 
will not allow of any mixture. In 
woulil seem a strange instinct, acco; 
her extreme susceptibility to oon 

The milk is all pwased throi 
strainers, and then placed in 
barred across the top, and st 
deposited in a van, which 
Farm aboxit three in the mor; 
at the Dairy in Farringdon t^fl1 

three and four. The seals arc .^.-.^j, ...^-^i 
exumineil, and taken off by a clerks In od 
the carriers, commonly called " milkmen," 
wearing the badge of Friem Farm I>aii 
their tin pails are filled, fastened at topTi 
sealed as tiefore, and away they go on t] 
early rounds, to be in time for the ( 
breakfiat-people. The late-breakfeats 
provided by a second set of men. 

Sucsh are the facts we have aacerblis 
with regard to one of the largest, oi 
great Bair^' Farma near London : «- ») 
iTom this, and other farms sini 
ducted, it is quite clear tliat hy „., 
little jjains to aacertmn where, a Loaded 
m/iy, it he chooses, obtain pui-e, rich, milk * 
it comes from the cow." Tlmt tht previa 
accounts we have given of the adultemti< 
of London milk are equally true, w© art^ tl 



mtt exteuty convluced, though we inuBt, ux 
mknwSf adrl that st>me of the statements of 
JIj. I; r on exaggeration — ^for if not, 

we u tolf Uie ohiidreD In LondoD 

tBcaj^c l>tiin^ poiaotied. That the adulteration^ 
tkSfwrtvtTf Mre gret^ and a commoo practice wc 
knoir ; and even •' ^ — - . i„ i: — ♦t.u 
Article <me oft! 

balls** with 
poor Mr. ^ 
to the " ID} 



dtrivvil li 
hall up ill 

•yi:-"' '^ - 

ling this 

i "tuilk- 

1 taunted 

' uti. As 

riii!; out to 

i'l' i: ' • liuuujg-ti, and 

•, ■ c^'^i-. lint as 

'lid, to the 


:— Wrap the 

then trike a 

'■i\ kVTLi 4U&rt« of nidk, ■ 

1 in tho water, whirl it 

u -...i ...... .,w youwoald uae a hW-^ 

ontii thifi water Deoome8 the colon 
^._. Ale ; lb«ii nour it into the niilk, &ud 
the whole togetner until the milk-and-wnter 
the rich, sofL, yellowish, creiuny con- 
ly required. Our fat fiiend, the Hippo* 
laoUaaxm, iound out the deception in a v&rj 
Few <layt^ and coxmuunicated Lis disi^overy to 
Hamct Safi Caunann, in his peculiar way. 
He jn&isted on double his former quantity of 
milk, yet manifftBted a dUtaete for It. So 
JSamet went u-> the Secretary, and with 
' dntd siij oke thus : " I think, Sir, 

had bet nu" own cow. The milk 

we g«t witiiin^ we know :— rbut the cmtalde 
milk, we don'i know.** 


Tbk ancifint mode of treating the insane, 
which showed that the keepers of old were as 
mad as their patientB, has, Imppily, been 
ciire<}. £gquIrol and Pine) oommeoced the 
hiunane eystem in France, ami it has been ' 
folI.jw<jl \\\\]i rill' Iw^rtt, i^ffVt^fc;. Tint only in 
<-- l^e. ' I 

[ re&tment 
in iii\s coimtry, have haesx widely 
1 J the public in many ways by the 

press i rmd only kUfcly an account haa ap- 
peared in the newspaper of a ball at St. Lukre 
^' T ^- a stronghold nf " v and re- 

f^ which the pa' :&L Not 

b lowever, is knuv^^^ u> lu^ English 

I ue progress of this ekoelleni cause 

li ith of Europe* We iu^ therefore, 

giad to give a translntion of an Interesting 
account of a visit to the Casa ^i M<Ut^ in 

Sevwal years ago Count Pisani, a Sicilian 
BOblemacL whilst on a tour through Eiuope, 
directed his attention to the ci ' * fthe 
nceptacles for lunatics in soi: urin- 

ei|.'.T -...,.t;.,,...»;^i cities. Deeply iiA4.iw>t:d by 
t '■ iuid often cruel treatment to 

>v Lapp^ in mutes of those estab- 

liahmenis were subject, he detcrmiiied ou le- 

tuxning, to convert his beautiful villa near 
Pnkrnio into a Lunatic A'vlnni, ^Ahich ro- 
' uaiue of the ' 1 

11^ to a more h. 
lie (Icvutcd his fortune aiid tiit-r^^ita to i1j»3 
purpose of c&rtying out his philauthi'opic 

Count Pisani himself ofiereti to oonduot me 
over the estabLishmtJit. Al\«r a afi'—'^ ^r^-ik 
we arrived in front of a spacious m 

ext4*rior iispect of which presenU': ^ 

ditfering from that of a handsome private re- 
jiideuce. The windows, it is true, were ^rat^ ; 
but the grating wei'e so ingeniously con- 
trived that lia^i not my attention been par- 
' > them, I should not have 
tence. Some represented 
vuic ita^cjh-f ii^iujz d«, or bunches ot grapes; 
others were fashioned like tho lon£ leaves 
-.r^A }>lue flowers of the oonvolindus. Toliag& 
, and flowers were aU painted in natural 
Ill's, and it was only &om a verr near 
point of view that the artifice could oe de- 

The gate was opened by a man, who, in- 
stead of carrying a huge stick or a bunch of 
keya^ (the usual iosiirnia of the porter of a 
mad house,) bad a fine nosegay stuck in the 
hreast of hia coat, and in one liand he held a 
fiute, on which he had apparently been playing 
when interrupted by our summons a» '* - '''»'^. 

We entered thti building, and 
ceeding along the corridor on the gir < ; 

when we met a man whom I took to be a 
servant or measeoger of the establishment, as 
he was carrying some bundles of firtj-woo^l 
On peroei^-ing ua, he laid down his biirrkn, 
iUdd advancing to Count Pisani, ri 
kissed his hand. The Count enquii 
was not in the garden enjoying the hcsei air 
and amusing himseU' with his companions. 
'^ Because/* i-epLied the man, '' winter is fast 
coming, and 1 have no time to lose. I shall 
have enough to do to brio j down all the wood 
from the loft, and stow it away in the cvllar.'* 
The Count commended his forethought^ and 
the man, taking up his 0lgots, bowed, and 
went Ids way. 

This man, the Count informed me^ was tha 
owner of lat>ge estates in Castelveleruno ; but 
owing to a natural inactivity of mind, and 
the absence of any exciting or useful occu- 
pation, he sank into a stat« of muutal toi> 
por, winch terminated in insanity. When he 
was brought to the (Jam ddi MatCi, Count 
Pisani drew him aside, under the pretence of 
having a most important cominmucation to 
make to him. The Count inturmed htm that 
he had been changed at mirse, that he was 
not the rightful owner of the wealth he had 
heretofore enjoyed ; and that the fact having 
bi'uome known, he was dispossessed of bis 
wealth, and must therefore work for his main- 
tenance. Tlie madman believed Jbe tald, but 
showed no di&^^Knsition to rouse himaelf £kam 
the state of indolence which had been tlui 
primary cause of his meiitaJ aberration. Ha 




fold«K| his iirm% and sjkt dowD, doubtless 
exjx'ctlug that in duo time a servant would 
enter m ubtiaI to inform liim that dinner was 
ready. But in tliia he whb deceived. 

Dinner hour ai'rived, and no servant tt|>* 
peared. He waited pati<?ntly for »om© linif ; 
mi at len^ftli the [»aug3 of hunger rt»ui*ed 
him from his liatlessDefls, and he began to call 
out loudly for eoraething to eat. No one 
answered him ; and he ptiased the whole 
night in knocking on the walla of hh. npai-t- 
raeuti^ and ordering his servants to bring him 
hia dinner. 

About nine o'clock next moraing, one of 
the keef>era entei'etl the apartment of the 
new patient, who^ etnrting up with more 
energy than he usually mauifefited, imperl- 
ouBly ordere<i his breakfast to be prepired, 
Tlie keeper offered to go into the to¥iTi to 
pureltase isomethinc for his breakfast, if he 
would give him the money to pay for it. 
Th© hungry man eagerly thrust his hands 
into htB pocket, and to hia dismay, having 
diacovoruU that he had no uu^ney, ho implored 
the keeper to go and procure him some break- 
fast on credit. 

" Creilit V exclaime<l the keeper, who had 
received the renuisite instructions from Count 
Piflani, ** Credit, indeed ! No doubt you 
might easily have obtained credit to any 
amount, when you wore living at CaKtelve- 
lenino, and even'one believed you to l>e th© 
rightfiil lord of tho94* fine domains. But now 
that the truth has come out, who do you 
think will give credit to a pauper T* 

The luuKtic immediately recolleeted what 
Count Ptfiani had told him respecting hia 
altered position in life, and the neceaaity of 
working for his daily brea<l. He remained 
for a few moments as if absorbeil in prt>found 
reflection ; then, turning to the keeper, he 
aaked whether he would jioint out to bim 
some mode by which he eould earn a little 
money to sstva hiniaelf from atar^'ation. 

The keeper replied that if he would help 
him to caiTv up ^o the loft the fagota of fire- 
wood which were in the cellar, he would 
willingly pay him for his work- The pm- 
posal Wiia readily accepted ; and after carrying 
up twelve loads of wof>d,the labourer received 
hia hire, couKisting of a little money juBt 
Buflicieut to purcliase a loaf of bread, which 
he deroureti with a keener apj>etite than he 
ever remontbeied to have felt thix)Ughout tlie 
whole i)reviuua course of hia life. 

He then set to work to earn his dinner as 
he had earned hia breakfast ; but instead of 
twelve, he carried up thirty-mx loads of 
wood. For tins he was paid three times as 
much aa he )md received in the morning, and 
hia dinner wms proportionably better and 
more abunduiit than his breakfnst, 

Theuceforvv;ml the busine&s proceeded witli 
the moat uudevLiting i-egularitv ; and the 
pAtient at hist conceived such a liking for hia 
occupation, that when all the wotxi had been 
cwried from the ceUar to the loft, be began 

of his own voluntary accord to carry it down 
from the loft to the cellar, and vice rersd. 

WTien 1 aaw this lunatic, he htid been em- 
ployed in this manner for about a year. Th0 
morbid character of hiit madness had com- 
pletely di«apj>eared, and hia b<^Mrily healthy 
pre%HoUslv 1mw1, whb now re-e8tablished. Count 
Pif*ani infonneil me that he intendetl soon to 
try the expenment of telling him that there 
w^a« some rciwton to dcnd>t the acrnracy of 
the statements which bml caused him to lose 
the property he once enjoyed ; and that he 
(the Count) was in quest' of certain juipops 
which might, fterhaps, prove after all, that he 
was no changeling:, nut the rightful heii'to the 
estates of which he had been depri\*ed. 
** But," added the Count, when he told me 
this, " however complete tluB man's recover}' 
may at anj' time seem to be, I will not allow 
him to quit this place unless he gives me a 
solemn promiMe that he will everyday, where* 
soever he may be, carry twelve loads of wood 
from t!ie cellar to the garret, and twelve Io»da 
down from the garwl to the cellar. On that 
condition alone, ahull I feel any security 
against the riflk of hia reUpse. ' Want of 
occupation is well known to be one of the 
mast fi-equent causes of insanity,^* 

Each patient had a separate apartment^ 
and several of these Itttle rooms were 
furnished and decorated in the most cMiri* 
cious style, according to the claims of their 
occupants. One, who beUcved himself to 
be the mn of the Emperor of Cliina, 
had liLs walla huug with silk bannerH, on 
which were painteu dragons and peqientau 
whihit all sorts of omome&ta cut out in gola 
paper, lay scattered about the r<jora. Tiiia 
lunatic was ^;ood>temp«red and cheei-ful, and 
Count Pisani had devised a scheme which he 
hopcil niight have some effect in mitigating 
the deluaiona under which he laboured. He 
propoMd to print a copy of a newspaper, 
And to Insert in it a paragraph announcing 
that the Emneror of Cliina had been de- 
throned, and nad renounced the sovereignty 
on the part of hia son and hii* descend.int9. 
Another patient, whose hallucination con- 
sisted in believing himself to be dead, had hia 
room hung with obck crape* and his bed con- 
atructed m the form of a bier. Whenever 
he aroee from his bed, he was either wrapjied 
in a winding aheet, or in some sort of drftpeiy 
which he conceived to be the proper costume 
for a ghost. This appeared to me to be a 
very desperate case, and I asked Count 
Piaani whether he thought t>tere wan anjr 
chance of curuig the victim of flo extraordi- 
nary a delusion. The CouDt shook hia head 
doubtfully, and observed that his <mly hope 
rested on a scheme he meant shortly to trv ; 
which wiii^ ta eufleavour to i>ereuade the 
lunatic that the day of judgment bail arrived. 

As we wero quitting this chamber* we 
heard a loud roaiing in another patient'* 
apartment near at hand, llie C^unt aakea 
me whether I bad any wish to »ee how h© 



manJM^ rRviiig madmen I " None whatever/* 

I replied, " unlesa you guarantee my pereonaj 
stifvty 1 " He a^isurcd me there was nothing 
to k-iWj And, taking a key from the hand of one 

kee^^ers, he led the way into a padded 
•^r In one corner of the n>om waa a bed, 
Ked upon it lay a man, wearing a 
' cioat, which oontined bis arms to Ms 
fastened bim by the middle of hU 
lie bed, I waa informed that a 
an hour previously, thia nuui had 
1 with such a frightful fit of raving 
4^^, . '•'•• 1^— f'His weire obliged to have 

recoui t, veiy rarely resorted to 

iu til tit. He appeared to be 

u' ty yeara of age, wm exceedingly 

ii , he had fine wk eyee, and features 

of the ioitique mould, with the figure of a Her- 
cules. On hearing the door open, he roared out 
In a Toice of thunder, uttering tbreatg and im- 
preoiition.s ; but, on Itjoking round, his eyea 
met those of the Count, and tiis anger softened 
down into expresflionB of grief and lamentar 
tiob. Count Pisani approached the bed, and, 
in a mild tone of voice, aaked the patient 
what he had be«n doing to render it nece»- 
sarv to place him under such restraint, 
"lliey have taken away my Angelica," re- 
plied the maniac ; ** they have torn her from 
me, and I aim resolved to be avenged on 
Hetlora ! ** The unfortunate man imagined 
Imnsflf to be OrUmdo Furioso, and, as may 
readily be supposed, hia madness waa of the 
wildest and moet extravagant cbaracter. 

Count Piaani endeavoured to soothe his 
^ioknoe by aasuriu^ him that Angelica had 
hmn. carried off by force, and that she would 
doubtless seiase the first opportunity of 
escaping from the hands of her captors and 
rejoiniuj^^ her lover. Tin is addurance, repeated 
e»m^\\' hut gently, speedily had the effect 
f' the fury'of the maniiw;, who, after 

a , requested that the Count would 

II IS strait- wai^teciat. This C4>unt 
1 ' <'d to do, on condition of the piitient 
pi..v,,...^ liiif word of honour that he would 
not pro^t by bia liberty to make any attempt 
to pursue Angelica. * This sympathy for 
imajginary misfortune ha*! a good effect. The 
patient did not attempt to quit hia bed, but 
merely raised himself up. He hati been a year 
in the establishment^ and, notwithstanding the 
deep grief into which his fancied misfortuues 
plunged him, he liad never been known to 
abed tears. Count Piaani had several times 
Okdaayoured to make him weep, but without 
■Dieceaa. He proposed soon to try the cxperi- 
xnent of announciutr to him the death of 
Ani^clLja. He intended to drees up a tigiiro 
i ! garments and to prevail on the 
J I Ktn Orlando to be present at the 
int^^ruieut. This scene, it was expected, would 
have the effect of drawing tears from the ey^s 
of the sutferer ; and if so, Count Piaani de- 
glared he should not despair of his recovery. 

In an apartment facing that of Orlando 
Furioeo, there was another man raving mud. 



When we entered his room he was 
in a hammock, in which he was 
down, for biting his keeper. Through the 
gratings of hia window he could percpive bia 
comraaes atrolUng about and amusing them- 
aelvea in the garden. He wished to be among 
them, but waa not allowed to go, because, oo 
a recent occasion, he had made a very violent 
attack on a poor harmless creature^ suffering 
from melancholy madness. The offender waa in 
oonaequence condemned to be tied down in hia 
hammock, which is the aecnndary punishment 
resorted to in the eatabliahment. The first 
and most severe penalty being imprisonment ; 
and the third the strait-waistcoat. — "What 
is the matter?" said Count PisanL "What 
have von been doing to-day I " The lunatic 
looked at the Count, and then beean whining 
Uke a peevish child, ** They will not let me 
go out to play," said he, looking out of the 
window where several of his companions were 
enjoying the air in the garden. ** I am tired 
of lying here ; " an«l he began rocking him- 
self impatiently iu hia hammock.^ — ■'' Well, I 
doubt not it is wearisome," said the Coun^ 
" suppose I release you ; " and, with thoae 
words, he unffistened the ligatures. 

The lunatic joyfully leapt out of his ham- 
mock, exclaiming, "* Now I may go into the 
prden ! " — " Stay," said the Count ; " auppoae 
before you go you dance the Tarantella." — 
"Ob, yes!^' exclidmed the lunatic, in a tone 
which showed that he received the proposal 
as tlie greatest possible indulgence ; *^ I shall 
be delighted to dance the Tarantella." '' Go 
and fetch Teresa and Gaetano," said the 
Count to one of the keepers ; tlien turning 
to mo, he said : "* Teresa is also one of our 
violent patients, and she sometimes gives us a 
great d^ of trouble. Gaetano waa a teacher 
of the guitar, and some time ago he became 
deraniFed. He is the minsti-el of our establish* 
ment. In a few minutes, Teresa, a pretty* 
looking young woman about twenty years of 
age, was conducted into the room by two men. 
who held her by the arms, whilst she stmvgledl 
to escape, and endeavouied to strike ^m. 
Gaetano, with hia guitar slung round his neck, 
followed gravely, but without being held, 
fur his madness waa of a perrectly harmleas 

No sooner did Teresa perceive Count Piaani. 
than, by a violent effort disengaging heraeli 
from the keepers, she fiew to him, and draw* 
ing him aside into a corner of the room, she 
began to tell him a long 8tor>' about some ill- 
treatment to which she alleged she had been 
subjected. " I know it. I have heard of it," 
said the Count ; **and, therefore, I think it 
just to make you some amends. For this 
reason I have sent for you, that you may 
dance the Tarantella." Teresa waa delighted 
at hearing this, and immediately took her 
place in front of her intended partner. ** Now 
Gaetano, presto! pteao!'^ said the Count, 
and the musician struck up the air of tht 
Tarantella in very spirited style. 

I hare frequently witneiwed tli« ningicail 
tffmct which tnifl air never ikila to prculucc on 

Korne dispate witb a Nt 
of quietly putting intf. 

into h\H hftTifl, w<*nt out u i 

to f' 'i^ gTanrd w^is 


tlM aidliana; \mt I never Gonld havG con- { which Jaks^u (u 
tiKed anjtliiDff like the cbimge it wrcnig:ht 
ttpatithc«e two lutmtics. The ninetjciAii began 
to piny the mr m the time in which it in 

\- ■■ \ but the daacers m 

vnd Tiioi-e ^cklf « i 
' became ind~ ' ' 
niarkecl the f 

—-^}'>n hv enApi ,i,-, .. .. 




I, '«\ iiri>'ii'in 111 I <ii|i'i-;i Ml',, ,!;_ 

Other flolrliers. cam*? to i r 

iiade, iMid '■ ^^.i'r« ^t- u 

tiiis rapid njove-[ tlie course of ■» n 

lOttt will , 'i-'^y to] a quarter I th« head wlu l 

of AH hour, they bt me syiup-j He was conreyiMi to jnima in a ,- 

tknni of fktigne - the firat senaibility and placed inac«*ll«wlr ih 

to ffive in, and, ovei come 1 y the exertion, left; for the night. Kext moniing, v. hen it 
he threw himself ou a l>en<'h which stood of> was intended to conduct him before the judge 
one mdif of the room. Tr ' for examination, he was dcmisd to be |»erfec?tT)f 

up a very animated p'> inwine. 

minutea after the loaa of liHi ijhuu r, iPmiii This young man's iiiadne<'' » * • ' j^ 

very poetic turn. Sometime 
aelf to be Taaeo ; at another t e 

or Ghateaubriand. At the ti r 

te the achdum, he wm deeply i h 

the delusion of tmiigining himaeltto be Uante. 
When We approached him, he was pfieiiig up 
and down an alley in the earden, pleasantly 
ahaded by tree«. He held in one hai>d a 
pCTicil, and in the othCT* aome slii ' r, 

and he was buBily enffiu^ in ooi • 

thirty-third Canto of hia Inferno, 'a 

he r\ibbe*i hia forehead, as if X<^ 4 

scattered thoT»>^>>^'> ""•* ^^^"^ he ^^v ..v-i^ 

down some Uii 

Profiting bj, J.. rui"^ which h** 

BMtned to nmerge trDm : 
tion, I stepped up to hn 1 r- 

stand, Sir^ tnat I have the huLji>ui' vi H«idr««»> 
ing tnyseif to Dante," 

" That is my name/' replied Lueea. ** Wlist 
have you to say to me 1" 

" To assure you how raueh f ' ^ ' M 

feel in innkiug' your aeqaai 
coeded to Flor '•"^'- •" ♦*'- ^^^' i,, ...j; v/u 

there, but yon 

"'Then/' aai^i 1- 1 mv. nmrk 

sort of utterance > 
persons, "Then, it - 

of my having- been driven ironi Floiebce, and 
that they charged me with having f>tol?»r] the 
money of the Republic ? Dant^ ■ >f 

robb€a7, forsooth ! 1 slun^ my «y^ <y 

side, and having collected the ni»i m.ven 
Cm it OS of my poem, I departed ," 

This fftrange bM^'i -•' ■ *'^^t) exdted my 
K"onvenmtioTi, 1 
, . L-Lktm yon between 
Fettre and Monte^feltro." 

" Oh t I at:iid only a very short time there," 
said he. ** Why did you not go to Knv.-nnat'* 

**I did tjo there, and found otdy yoitr 
tomb ! " 

"But I WAS not in it;* observed h«s ** Do 
you know liow I esca}Mwl t '* 

I ivpUed in the negative. 

**I have discovered a mode of resKoriB|[ 
one's life.*' 

length she also found herswlf com pell od to 
■top. The man vraa placed on his bed, and 
tphe woman was conducted to hei* apartment. 
Both were so completely overoome by the 
violence of their exerttonif that Count Pisaoi 
observed he would animrer for their remaining 
quiet for twenty-four hours to come. As to 
tke guitarist, ho wa? allow*»d to go into the 
gnrtlen to i - tia. 

I was M a large hall, in 

which the jriTieni>i» want uud am Use thefu- 
•elve^, when wet weether prevents them from 
going out. ThM plttce wa« adorned with a 
profusion of flowiiV} growing in pota and 
vaees, and the walls were covered with fresco 
naintings, representing humorotts eubjecta. 
The hau contained embroidery frames^ spin- 
oiiig-wheeUf and even weavers^ looms; all 
pweated traoes of the work on which the 
MBilicB had been enga^^ed. Having named 
tippugh the great ball, I was conduoted 
to the i^arden, which was tastefuliy hiid 
out, ahaaied by large spreading trc< s and 
watered by f^sh fountains. I was iuforme<l 
thatf during the houn allotted to recreation, 
mdit of the patients may be seen wandenng 
abevt the garden sepu-ately, and without 
hoidmg any oommunicatioo one with another, 
each following the bent of his or her own 
particulai' humour, some noisy and others 
silent. One of the most decided charaeter- 
isUcB of madness is the desire of solitude, It 
leklom happens that two lunatics enter into 
eonvireation with each other ; or^ if they <lo 
eOf each merely gives utterance to his own 
train of thought, without any iwAi-d to whnt I interest, aufi, pur 
ia said by his interlocutor. It is ditferent when said, " I hop«Ml to h: 
tliey converse with the strangeifl who occa- 
■ionally visit them. They then attend to any 
otaervatioiiB addressed to them, and not uiifi'e- 
qnetitly make very rationjil and shrewd replies. 

The first patient we met on entering the 
garden, was a young man apparently al>out 
mx or ei^ht and twenty years of a^. Before 
he lost his atneea, he' was one ot the most 
diadngnished adrncates in Catania. (^ne 
evening, at the theatre, he got involved in 




♦* Ja it a. secret 1 " 

"No ; I wiU tell it yoa. When I feel that 
I aiu dying, I order .a gr&re to be dug^— a 
very fleep grax'e. You are aware that in the 
^ ' f' eai'tli there is an iDimftBge lakf^ 

fci iter — and — and^ — '' 

Cv'ixit I'lsani, wh'» liad ovei^ieiivd the Iatt«r 
f«rt of thin eouver^tiork, hone BtkUknly inter- 
mpted Lucca, saying, '' Signor Dante, these 
pe«j)ple are very lUixiouB to have a dance. 
Wia you indulge tliem by playing a quadrille ? " 

He then hurriedly difiyjatchidl one of the 
aitendanta for a violin, on which iuatniment, 
h« infonned ma, Lucca was & maeterly per- 

The violin being brought the Count handed 
it to Lucca, who hegfoi to tuud it. !5Iean- 
vhile, the Count, dmwing me aaid«, Baid^ 
** I interrupted yoar convoraation, just naw, 
a0i]ii0what abruptly ; becau&e I observed that 
Luna was heguuung to wander into soma of 
bia metafihyBical delosiona^ and I n«var allow 
him to talk on such aubjacta. Theae meia* 
phyaieal lunatics are always very difficult to 

**■ But jtonder comee one who will never ba 
cured I ^' pursued the Count, nhaiting hia 
head, sorrowfiiUy. wliiiat he directed my 
notice to a young temaJe, who waa advancing 
from another part of the garden^ attended by 
a fauiale aarvant or nuise. By tbU time the 
danceiB had begun to range ihemBelvea in 
(bair pkcae, ana the young lady & attendant 
waa drawing her foi*ward, with the view of 
4tipliifting> her to ta^ part in the quadrille. 

The young hi4y, whoee dreaa and general 
^Aogukea of appeanooe aeemed to denote that 
«ht waaa peraon of auperior rank, was diaiu' 
•dJEoed to danoe ; and aa the atte^kdant per- 
liiUd in ui^g her forwiml, aha atmgglea to 
and at length fell into a paroxyaoi o^ 

grief ' 




" Let her akma i Let her alone ! " 
Count Piaaiu to the attendant. '' It m 
to contend with her. Poor girl ! I fear she 
^U never endure tc» see dating, or to hear 
music, without ihia violent agitation* Coma 
hither, Coataitta," aaid he, beckoning kindly 
to her. " Tell me what m the matter I " 

" Oh, Alhano I Albano ! " ehrieked the poor 
maniac '* Tlxey are going to kill Albano I '' 

And then, overcome by her emotion, she 
eahauat^ed, into the arms of her attend- 
ant, who carried her awav. 

Meanwhile, the aound of the violin had 
dnwu together, from varioufi parta of tho 
ganlen, a number of patieuta, male and 
IbbhiI^» and the quadrille waafonued. Among 
the moet conapicuoua figiirea in the group 
were the son of the Emperor of China, and 
the man who believed himself to be dead. 
T!i !e on hie head a eplendid 

«n t paper ; and the hUler, wh^ » 

I ii> a ^'hite ahe^t, stalked about 
ve and solemn air which lie con- 
commoD to a ghost. A toelau- 
€^oly madman, who evideuUy ahared in th^ 

fieativity with t^luctanoe and regret, and who 
was, from time to time, itrgm on by hia 
keepcrsy and a woman, who fancied herself to 
be Saint Catherine, and waa 6ubj(%t to strange 
fita of ecstasy and improvisation, were alio 
couapicuoua among the dancers. Lucca^ who 
played the violin with extraordinary apiiit^ 
every now and then marked the time by 
stamping his foot on the ground, wlukt, in a 
stentoi^an voice, be called out the figuiia^ to 
which, however^ the dancem paid not the 
ali^hteat attentios. The scene waa inde- 
aenbable. It waa like one of thoee iantaatlc 
vLaiona which are sometimi» coloured up in 9 

As we were paaein^ tlirough the court yard, 
on our way out, I espied O^tanza, the young 
lady who had ao determinedly refused to join 
In the dance. She waa now kneeling do^n 
an the edge of a fountain, and intently gaztno; 
on her own countenance, which waa reflectoa 
from the limpid water as from a mirror. 

I asked the Count what had caused tlie 
insanity of this intereating tjatient " Alaa !" 
replied he, 'Mt i^ a melanrtioly story of 
romantic vendeita, which might almost tigiu'e 
in a work of tiction." Oostanza^s husband nai 
been murdered on her bndal day by a rival. 

When Costanza waa first brought to the 
establishment, her madneas was of a very 
violent character ; but, bv degrees, it had 
softened down into a placid mclaticholy. 
NevertheleaB, her caae wus one which admitUal, 
of no hope, i 

Some time after my viait to Palermo, I mat 
Lucca in Paris. He 'was theU) to all appear- 
ance, perfectly himself He conwcaed very 
rationally', and even appeared to recollect 
having seen and conversed with me before, 
I enquired after poor Ooatanxa; but he sliook 
hia head aorrowfully* The Count a prerlictiou 
waafiTl'"- "^ rt Xiooca bad recovered hi» 
senses tan^oi waa atill an inm^fA q£ 

the C*i^- u — ^Mi. 


Two centuries ago poisoning waa a acienee ; 
now, thanks to a sluggish and ** nevws 
minding " legislature, the art may he aafii^ 
pwtised by the meaneat capacity. The ea. 
citing extent to which mumer baa been re« 
oently done by poiaon fills a colimin of evaiy 
newsqpi^iar and fumiahes a topic for geaeral 
couversatiou. Nor is it a new thing, A par* 
liamentary return states, Lhat^ in the ten years 
which encled with 184^ — putting aside acci- 
dental ]>oisouiugs, which were countless — ^tha 
appalling numli^r of two hundred rinl fifty 
nine persons were murdered by ^ efly 

by arsenic), yet the pi^actical ^, ot 

det^.'ctioa were so great t)iat uo more than 
tughty<lSve convictions took place : thus out of 
every three poisoners one only could be de* 
tected. So easy is murder by poison and 80 
difficult is detection I The mVBtety is tOAj o£ 
solution : as we shall soon show. 





A arportinjy friend ^iTites to us, that, having 
«hot away /ul his powder, the other day, he 
hiu\ occuaion to go into & mral grocer'« ahop 
for more. Wldle he was being served^ there 
came in a little girl, who ended a long onler 
for t«a, HUgar, «0Ap, currants, red-herrings, 
and flour, with the remarkable deuumd — 
"and two ouucea of arsenic" No comment 
whatever was made by the abopkeeper ; who 
puUt'd a small blue pa|ier of poison, out of its 
proper ocrmpurtmeui in a drawer, with I he 
aame coupo«are lu he handed over the 
pftdu^es of tea, imcnir, curranta, and flour. 
The httle girl jummed them all into her 
apron, and went her way. "Perhapa,'* re- 
marked our friend, **9ome of those ingre- 
dients are for a pudflinc." 

•*Loikely,** anawered the htixter, with a 
ati-orig Derbyshirit Hceent. 

" And should the blue paper burst, or a 
little ruistuke Ik3 ina*le bv the cook, the whole 
fauiilv will lie ijoiHOiied.'*^ 

" I'liej ehould moind what they 'ro at/' 

Thbt was the only Ufe-preaervcr which 
occiutchI to the chandler's mind — ^"They 
ehould mind what they 're at ! " His con* 
scictKSO waa not concerned in the tnLnsactiou ; 
but If its dictat«4i had been awakened, they 
would have been perfectly aatiafied by his 
knowl*?dge of the fact that his custoroem were 
troubled with rate ; and he enquired no fiir- 
ther. The sportsman mentioned the several 
caflea of poisoning which hail recently occurred 
in various j^tarts of the country; some acci- 
dentiJ ; some wilful ; but the grocer could 
get no further than — ^" They should moind 
what they *re at." 

It must occur, howeverj to everyone, that 
while })otJtons are allowed to be mild as un- 
re»trictedly as bread, the public — esjjeciaUy 
the* humbler ixurtion of it — even mipposine 
them to l>e '* minding what they're at with 
unceasing vigilance, are never wholly free 
from the djui^'er of hnvLuK ^^^ doom to which 
they »ent«T»ce vermin, tnmsferred to them- 
selves, citlier by accident or by vicious 

In country places lileVbane is procurable 
more e.a*iily tlian many of its necepwrnes. 
The inscription over every chandier^s door, 
Bays that he must be ** licensed *^ to sell teia, 
coffee, tobacco, and snuff; but he may sell 
arsenic without the smallest restriction. In 
spring and summer seasons, tons and tons of 
tliat de-iilly material '[jasa over the counters of 
geneni,! deaJera iu the ni|:ricultural districts, 
to be U8e<l either to prevent smut In wheat, 
to cure sheep of tcmies^ or to kill vermin. 
Hence arsenic becomes as much a piirt of the 
stores of a larraer's, shepherd's, or oottager^s 
cupboard, as his famil/s food. It is by no 
means uncommon to see a provincial drug- 
gist's apprentice '^weighing up" two-ounoe 
packets of arsenic, and di»j>enBmg medicines 
over the 

end of a counter, their wives ai-e often 
serving out Bfyoceries to customers at the 
othei*. In this way, it has been asserted 
by medical practitioners, that minute doses 
of poison get mixed with food or medicine 
oftener th&n is imagined. The partakers 
of st>ch food fiaU ill, and the only pathology 
they can arrive at is, that " they have 6at<m 
something that has disagreed with them/* 
though they never know what. 

Atter the poison has left the shop, the rtsks 
increase a hundred-fold. Take the cottar's 
case. He lives in a small cotttige ; his 
single cupboard (at onoe the receptacle of 
food and physic) contains in a broken rug 
at the top-shelf a packet of araenic. The 
label, if ever there was one, is torn away, 
or, if there, unintelligible to the unlearned 
eottar^s timily. This is the remains of the 
arsenic he used in summer for his sheep, 
or in spring to steep wheat-seed. It is put 
away, unknown by nia family imd forgotten 
by himself. His child some day falls iU ; he 
b at work; the wife "fancies she has some 
cream of tartar somewhere, and that is good 
for a fever." She m% to the fatal jug, deals 
out the poison, and innocently kills her oflP' 
spring. At the inquest a verdict of Accidental 
Death is retnmed. This poor woman, through- 
out her embittered life, is the victim to tho 
want of legislative enactments to prevent such 
catastrophes. Her neighlmure look on her 
for n time with ft strange mixture of pity and 
superstitious undelineti suspicion. 

For the criminal, arsenic is the most d« 
of all drugs to their victim, while it is 
safest to themselves. Besides the numberl 
feasible excuses they can frame for having it 
in their iKisseasion, it can be administered 
with the least fear of detection. OxaUc add 
disgusts the palate with a sweet acid taofte i 
and, to be murrlerously etlectual, must ba 
mlministered in large quantities. Not only 
the taste, but the colour and smell of laudanum 
betray its secret at once. The favourite, 
because most efficient, of the three poisons of 
unscientific murderers— arsenic — is colourless^ 
flavourless, and inodorous. Hence, in 
recent ctuses of wilful poisoning, arsenic 
been the poisoner's drug ; for he has art enc 
to know, without reading blue-books, that 
chances are two to one in his favour. 

While the legislature refrains from admrnia^ 
tering some check to the sate of di-ugs de- 
structive of life, in every other Eurojietui 
country, no person is allowe^l to sell poisou 
without a license and r' -"'M^.Tit^^e that he 
is fully alive to the prer esaaiy, not 

only U) its sale, but to \n , , ring it. In, 
however, imposing a neceMarj' restriction iu 
this country, it must not be forgotten that, 
I^itimately employed, arsenic, in particular, 
is a most useful drug, and the liberty of the 
farmer and the nntnufacturer to obtiun it 
To compel, tliere- 

the same coimter — prhaps with the should not be shackled, 
aamo scales! When the muumerable hux-ifore, an agriculturi^^t to scour the cc»untiy 
tan are busy at the same work at one I to obtain a magistrate's or surgeon^ dgiia<* 




yenieuce ^>- 
to id«ntLfy th' 
mil/ impropi^r 
the mint I 
•troMiely r 

tw before he could get hiii ten poanda of 
ftivemc, aa liouio liave BugKested, is unques- 
i ; for oetddeA the bcoa- 
to the purchaser, it tencla 
' o or the doctor with 
1 might be made of 
these gentlemen would 
li use of their names. 
Tho ^lesL ot ail aafeguarda is that of eou- 
fiiung the Hale of poinon to tho^ only who 
ttm qoalifi^ by educAtiou, to exercise whole- 
■ome care, oud tii use a aound judpfmetit in 
dSfpenaiiig it ; uid thuB be the subject of an 
i]M»n»eiwive Ucenae. 

Minor prec^itiona might aI«o be added. 
The Dlan of forciog vendors of poiaoiia to seU 
it in bottles of particuL&r shapes, or in papers 
of a certain colour, could not always te ad- 
hered to, in spite of tlireatened pains of fine 
and foHeitnre. Of this class of preventive, 
the beat we have seen in the sympathetic 
powderf which Mr. Slade Davieit propoaea 
shoaid be added to arsenic, in the proportion 
of one |»er cent. When brought m contact 
with liquid or other aliment, it immediately 
changes colour so as to ensure detection. 


A. Blackbird in s wicker ctge. 

That hung and awnag 'mid fruits and flowers, 
Bad learat the aoagH:haru], to sauagB 

The dreamese of its wingless houxiv. 

And ever when the song was heard, 
Fimn treeji around the gtassy plot 

ftiisk'd another glomy bird, — 

Whose mate not long ago w«t shok 

Kot to conaole ito own wUd smart, 
But, with a kindling instinct strotig^ 

The norel feehng of its heart 
Beats for the captive bird of song. 

And when those mellow notca are still. 

It hops from off its choral parch. 
O'er path and sward, with busy bill, 

All grateful gifts to pock and search. 

Store of ouxol dainties choice 

To thoise white swinging bars it brings ; 
And with a low oonsouiig vmoe, 

It talks between its fluttering winga. 

Deeply in their bitter grief 

Thoso sufTcrerv reciprocate. 
The one mng>? for its win«M life.— 

The other for its murder'd mate. 

Bat deepor doth tho secret prov«^ 

Uniting thoK« sad creatures so ; 
Humanity s great link of love, 

The oommon sympathy of woe. 

Well divined from day to day, 

is the 4rwiit speech between them twain; 
For wheu tlie bird is scared vnj, 

Tho captive bursts to song agsi& 

Yet daily with it* flattering voice. 
Talking amid its llutterinjf wings. 

Store of otuel dainties choice. 

With bosy bill the poor bird brings. 

And sltiU I sa^, till weak with age 
Down from its drowsy branch it drope^ 

It will not leave that captive csge, 
Nor cease those busy searching hope Y 

Ah, no 1 the moral will not strain ; 

Another sense will make it rang«, 
Another mate wiU soothe its pain. 

Another season work a change. 

But, through the livo^long summer, tried— 

A pure devotiOD we xany see ; 
The ebb and flow of nature s tide— 

A pitying, loving sympathy. 


UROEirT buadneas demanding my preneooe at 
Yarmouth, some few weeks Vkgo, 1 was induced 
to entrust my life and limbs to the care of the 
Eastern Counties Railwuy Comrainy. It hap- 
pened to be about the time of tlie commence- 
ment of Term at Cambridj^e University, and 
the remaining compartments of the carriage 
in which I found a phice, were ^ed with 
Freshmen — ^young men who, as the term im* 
plies, are about to make their larst experience 
of the pleasures and advantages, the perils and 
temptations, of a colleffe life. These are 
among the many for whose axl vantage and 
wel&re the Royal Comniisiiion to inquire into 
the Condition of the Uui versitiea,wtta nominally 
appointed Will the rcjiult of its laboun 
eventually descend to the freshman under- 
graduate — ^to, in short, my fellow-travellers I 

Youth is proverbiJilly open-hearted and 
communicative. Tliere 'i& seldom much to 
think upon, beyond the passing object of the 
hour. There is no imi^uiet turning of the 
mind to visions of a sick family at home, 
falling funds abroad, or founderinc shipe at 
sea, which stamp moodiness on the i>row, and 
an air of abseuce on the replies, of older 
tnivellera. Before we had reached Brox- 
boume, we were all perfectly well aL*quaintedL 
One waa goinff up Ut Trinity, a second to St. 
JohnX a thira to Christ's, The hopes and 
anticipations of each were rather sunered to 
ooze out, than given in so numy words ; but 
they were not, on timt account, the less easily 
to be perceived. It was clear that one had 
set his mind on academic hotiours, and would 
commence his careei' with the determination 
— or Concying that he felt the determimition— 
to win a high place by his exertions, A second 
seemed to be ttlle<l ^^i-ith an auticipation of the 
pleasured rather tlmu the advantages heM out 
by a college course. While a third appeared 
to have mei^ged every other sensatiom, m one 
of unmitigated delight at his escape frooi 
school — from the bullyuig tutor, th*-* eleven 
o'clock lesson, Poetae Gneci, and the block. 

My young friends got out at the Cambridge 
Station ; and when, after a vain attempt to 
drink down a boding cup of tea and miatcb a 
hurried bun, I again threw myself um*el>eshed 
into my seat^ I found that I wae alone. A 
feeble attempt at a huup, let in thi'ough tho 




HH as 



roof of Uie cHTUige* aeemed, by ite flickerm^ 
iii}«, trv fvttMt, rather thjin to dijipel, the 
prieiience of nitrht. A thick fog- poUec] owr 
th^ ftlrea'lr tfnpVfned fieldft, and prcsaed 
ngiunst thi rulowa. I oouid not help 

iijinkine r>' hi^ajtedoompamona fi-oiii 

whom fhajl jiiaL parted ; I tbought — fthall I 
own i<— with regrvt utKni my own oollegv 
career ; I thought upou the Universltieai tliem- 
«elv(*B, not as Bome do vtith a feeling akin to 
eAT«f"t»ii.» 'vs though tl'"^ Tv-.»v. Augean fltablea 

V \mt a Mei 1 aeauet; ; uor 
ho gaze i., with raptur*;. 

it' beholding an enjlrtuiievl (>erfection ; but 
mtber with a fienae of reg;T«t as of aometbing 

l)le, which has been diverted fi"oiu its right 
It appeared to me—and the circam- 
rtauicen of time, scene, and plaee, mil recount 
fbr, if they Ho not exciute tne poor mataphor 
— ^that I !in^ *" ^ ^*^ . ., >:t^.-. torn from the 
iron nMld o' n nlowly aloog 

the great L ., ........ by a pair eS 

hroken-winded, iU-conditioned old aulea, 
Sloth and Bigotry. 

Tbcw young men too, the cnrrent of whose 
UvtV hftfl' l>een ordainid for a few moments to 
mingle with mine, in what ligiit would they 
look haok njMin this vei-y evening, if it 
ill " liAunt them on a kn 

j. -haniber ? They Wi 

<xiu\,«-*u|nj«iv ii, !irMji;ijj»t, OB ft new era m tit 
csittanfle, but an era of what kind 1 Of more 
i^mmt Terser ei*aiioe, of incrcaaed uwiiiliieas, 
i' 1 [ni3 and aspirationa ? Or of fftTariab 

€^ '' , unreal pleasure, dissipation aoid 

debt i W'onlrt the University, upon whose 
bonkft th<»ir namea were enrolled, put forth all 
b energies, employ all herresouitsM, 

t m on in the one ])atb, and t/) keep 

tb*rn trum the other ? Or wmdd these be lett 
to thdr own choice? Such tancies mingled 
^^ *^ "' ' '^ xperience of post yei^^rs, and 

V tor thp future, rai8«d by the 

It-:. ... Lhe public were getting itn* 

patient of the rusty teachhig aud lax tmtnmg 
of the two ancient sorU of learning. Thia 
atream of thondit flowed on until it seemed 
to aasnme a dennite form, and out of it I 
ahaped a picture for myseif, not like that of 
poets and dre^unera, drawing its colonra from 
an unseen and uureal world, but needing, 
ala*i I only the framework of oanie and in* 
diridualit'y to become a true repreaentafcion 
of what is taktufT place every year — yea, every 
year, that Mr, Chnstie riaea to demand a 
reform in our Universities, and tliat Sir Robert 
Inglis sounds the alarm at his jMwt to aave 
the Academic Oapitol from invadeni, which. 
have at last made a small and {M)liahed breach, 
through which, in ample state, the Boyal 
Commiasion is about to cuter, 

I pictured to myself a young man, of 
eigiiteen or nineteeiu leaving home for the 
fir.«)t time. His father, the good old clerpTi*- 
man, is in the hall beside the corded trunks, i 
MiH mother and his sidaters stitnd around him, i 
A moment more and the trunka are on the ' 

fly. A tender farewell u waved to him from* 
the hands of the assembled fiunily. littli* 
Bcr»,\m e)f at! vice and affeotion are wuf^ed to 
him on their latest brpath. Crack ^^oes th» 
whip, the wheels go - green garden- 

rt- openg with a cr jtjd— ag if it too» 

ral Hoiicitude— and a 

iTjiiu- Ltius vuutiL; lutut— call him what TOQ 
please — ta Imiryin^ o&warda towards a sdaoA 
of which hfS lusi hitherto bad no expen«o«e^ 
let OB pauae for a mommt and consider hia 
true poaitiosi, aa well as that of hundreda of 
others who are simihirly situated. Divestxi^ 
him of the tiotitioua interest, with which the 
time and civettznatanoea may, in the ojiinign of 
some, appear to inveat him — ^loainc sight for 
a Minuto of tlia het that ho ia aboi^to ^ walk 
in the sbadsa of Academe,'' or " to breatka 
the Bpuit of Mathesia," or '^ to atray on tha 
hanka of the airgent Gam," or « to beeooie a 
bulwark of onr glorious GoUeeiato inatitin> 
tions/' — ^let u» calculate some of Uiedifficoldaa 
which will txrat present themaelwa in hia 
future course, and how be is prepared t» 
guard against them. 

He has been educated at home, perhapa, 
strictly under the parental «^e-~for 1 know 
iv jiarente who think this kind of educar 
the surest Tuxitection against future 
1-11 iL^-iuptation. He naa not been suflered to 
leara what vice t& He has been guarded 
from the society of the profligate Smiths and 
Joneses of tba neighWurhood. His reading 
has been aapeiiufcended in the same carefiu 
manner. His " Hume's History of Enghmd '* 
is a '^ Mitoheira Hnme '' witli the aoeptical 
paaaa^ea left out. He has never heard of 
Hon JuMLj or been Inside a theatrei. The 
races take place twice every y^ju: witlus a 
mile of the vicaiage, but he luis never Iteen to 
them. He htm never been down in the 
morning later than half-paat aeveo oVlock, or 
been out of bed by ten at night. He watew 
the mignonette hi?* la with his ttstert after 
breakfast, and listens to the touching English 
ballads which they sing of an evening. A 
youth, so brought up, ia anrely — if any one 
can be — secure from barm. 

In a woixl, ho hss been kept aa a child up 
to the ytry moment of his becoming a man. 
With the thoughts of a diiltl, and the feelinga 
of a child, and the strength of a child, he is of 
a BuddeD to be brought in oontact with the 
world of Cambii'T " " < »v fV.f-.i^ which, though 
on a smaller ae; hful repreeeiita' 

tion — it ia a da^. i : a miniature — 

of the great world twyona. He may, of i.'ouraei 
stand tne ordeal — in very many oases, he doea 
— but it will be in spite* of his early training, 
not hy means of it. 

1 would not, however, be perfectly sure tliat 
the youth whom we are pict.iring to ouraelvea 
is so Innocent aa his Irienda give him credit 
for. To the deepest dungeon and the most 
secluded hermitage some whispers of lhe 
world wiU float, of that world which, pe^hapi^ 


trom her 


t-flfiak of 


^HH we cdi>' pinDgv into the more tLeepl\% the more 

^^ WQ £Mtic\' fchAt WB have thut it out fi-om our 

I fie«7. ^licre is no Kick mi^ciently slroDtc to 

I loecp cm! vii^ious prnptiisitles nrtv more tLaa 

I the J 

^H Wr whom you ao } 

^Hl iniuibetl the first ruiumL 

^H flnmi the lAboarer who w< i 

^^H be iiiny have drunk out iji 

^^1 my Iutii'c< ^rnT»«'k<!eper, whom he meets in liis 

^M wiijks, when you are not by • he may have 
Iddru tn ogle the girls of the N-illage, and you 
tume the wisher. Thii^gfl DOt in themselves^ 

HpQrh»{«, iiarticulai'ly vicious or criximuilj but 
Live Are the materuis readj laid ; and let bat 
the s\yvkrk of college teniptation be appUe^l, and 
they niAy btim up all the lierc«r and brighter 
for hnviug lain dry fto long. 

Butt under any circumataooei, aad sup* 
pottiuc him to have alreMly UDdAf^oo* tbd 
oidou of a school^ or a frtvats ttttor'awlmhlish-^ 
SMBitr'^I wish to be undoratood as npfking of 
tbe ^iAiUttg cltABes — ^there are some pe<*imAr 
inids to be noted, which uow^ more partiefl^ 
iariy than ai any other period of his mt^ will 
MBai] «nr jnarc- Irtend. He haa iiet«r in hia 
life t' I with a larger sum 

Ifaan pfi he is with dfty 

pounriid 111 Ills }r.M'kei aii^i (thoui^ benugrnot 
y«t be aware of the fikC^ by bitter eocpodfloee) 
credit to aD unlimited ejctent. He haa nevtnr 
in hta LiJie purchsised for himself an artiehs of 
|;reat«r mbSob azid importatice than a crtdcipt' 
Sat eir a fthinff^rod ; yet here he is about to 
potide hmuidf wUh all the articles of a 
oachslor's cslabhahmaaL, without the 
id«a of their market ]>rioe — ^without 
whether the sum he gives fur each will be 
tweuty-fi^-t per ceat^ or fifty per cent, or a 
Irandnsd per oent abwe its proper value. If 
hia aodca imiv« wanted darning at home, one of 
Um maid-aervaatd has darned them accord- 
im^y \ ikew shires and new fiaimel waisteoata 
kave auiceeeded to the senior portion of hia 
Ijoen hy an easy and trnperceptiDle process, by 
his mother's wiitdifdl car^ without bis payiug 
any attention to the matter. He remembers 
that to have helped himself to a thii -d ghus of 
port wine after dinner, wi>uld have called a 
m>wn to the face of his father ; now, he ean 
drink ohampaiome or lu>ck for hk bmiUdaiai, if 
he feeld so disposed. To be out idler ten 
o^elook at night would assuredly have 
xttfoirtd some ejcplanatioB at thv Vicarage; 
tumfj he is not reauired to he in his L'uUt^ 
till iBtdiiight — witnin those prectacts he can 
g9 wfa«re he chooses, and speiid the whole 
lii||1it an a nmteriug party, it he lias a mitid 
to do so. If he run into debt, the discovery 
^ n aJI probability, be m&du for three 

a quarter, till he takes hta degree, 
^-uijruin*? — by that time his fiither's 
uaiu may have dropped o^ leaving 
litui u jurvune. A thousand things may have 
]u^l|ie&ed. Nor should it be forgotten that — 


paradoxical as it may seem — the t ^« 

to which A Kiv-slimaxi is i'XT»OBed ;! - id 

greater ; lord than if he 

couJd he I rtio tinif^ of life, 

and with ihv nga in 

I>^ndoll, and r. uetro- 

^ itself J a*:, i>urroutvdt*d 

\irtiifrtiM i witli persons 

Older than hi jk his ooodnct, 

he mj^t b« ] tH by the very 

magnitude of .*., , .. , ,,. >vhich he residesL 
It would stitft up before litni like iv phantom 
in the gaa4igbted street, it would vimlic^te 
its existence m the coUimns of the newspaper, 
but it would not l:»e a dweUer in the same 
oolkge^ iu the eiuoe qtiadrangle, on the same 
stairoftse, p*M4iaf» in the very next r*?fmL 
For the s»ii. ^" ■ ■" ■ • ' i ,■■:.! .t 

Yioe ha» ^ 

obtrude Imtrtwii vuMtu 4»ur urtiiy wruKa and 
occupations, and I am not one of thoae w4ko 
believe that he is always hated aa sooii 

In the midst of all this, at the period of aU 
others when he most requires advice and 
asaistaLnce^ what wtll his lator^ — his College 
Tutor — do for him 1 Is that fiinctlonary reaufy 
what he is presumed to be — the goaminn oi 
youth, the overseer of his pup'ds, their miviser, 
their reprover, their comforter, their friend i 
— or dofca the multiplicity of h ' ^t 

and the number of his pm >> 

hundred and fifty to em^*' * i 

prevent him from beinL^' ' - 

off ft"'l i"ii*-OiV>ulous b' h 

gro^\ he old le it 

bank rum, and - .i 

love of antiquity, or — ^to spMik the r 

troth^— a p^^on seen^ at most, <> -« 

beginning and once at the end of every Teim, 
on hurried visits of ceremony 1 Will th^ 
Fellows do anything for him— the Fellows, 
whose salariee w^ere ortjrimlly accorded ta 
them, on the grouii'* *'— * *' ny ahould act as 
tutors to the uml ^■■nl t>r is the 

orieinal intention ot ;,.. ..iiider adhered to 
in uiote caaci only where it is clearly unsuited 
to the i>reaent day ? Are the grt^aier vn it of 
the FeUowf reeidiitg elsewherej ai 
ceiTtng their Btipen(& T Are the I 4 

to continue, like the P\Tamida, iiuiuutable 
and unehangeable in our land of change and 
nmtability ? Will the Royal CommiesiAB 

Trt on these things ? 
Euu not, hov — Vt 
if I were, I w. 
evidenos thai 
Fellows, who V 
aa to what T>? 

Royal Commissioti^ 
my report on other 


the Dignitaries and 

irse, have their riewe 

necessary — I would 

evidence that would reveid the rotten- 

of the system which urges the yonng 

friend whom I pictured departing from the 
door of n poor Vican^, amidst the adieus of 
his f^ and anatious friemls^ into a 

earn rmd vice. 

1 WfMK ou pictui-ing to royeelf this young 
man after a residence at College of a few days. 




He has filnuBhed bid rooms ; he h&a got tO' 
gether hia crockery ami hia gbus. He has 
B^nt all the money which he brought with 
him for hU outfit, (with the exception of a few 
pounds which he reserves to meet the current 
expenses of the Term,) and stUl fresh want« 
are oontitiually springing up. He could not 
Imve imagiaed thai so many things were 
neceBBury to fit up two small roonui, — coal*, 
ctuidles, candle«tickBy bmaheB of every size 
and make, for the iiiBati&ble bed-maker. Tliere 
are Btill some tirticleH which he must abso- 
lutely procure: what is he to do? He has 
fiilthfuily promised to pay rea*ly-money on 
all occaaiuDM ^ yet he is distnclined to write 
home so soon for a further sunply. He feels 
that his ignorance may have M him to pay 
too higli a price for his tables and chairs, or 
to purchase some articles, (a aolk and arm- 
chair, for instance, pressed upon him by the 
winning ways of the upholsterer,) which were 
not absolutely needed ; the money ought, no 
doubt, to have gone fiirther. A thought 
strikes him. He knows that bills can be sent 
in "throogli the tutor," Tliey will be sent 
home at the end of Term, and paitl by his 
fiktber, together with the College expenses. 
This is not running into debt. He sallies 
forth, and finds a shop of the kind that he 
reqnii^es. The oeoeasary artieles are selected ; 
be requests the tradesman to send in the biU 
for them to the College Tutor. The trades- 
man hesitates. " Why, is it not done every 
day r' The tradesman hesitates still further. 
♦» Wliere is the objection T' " Well, the ai-ti- 
cles are not of an^ very great value, — perha|>s 
the gentleman will pay tor them next Temi." 
** Yes ; but why not send in the bill to the 
Tutor?'' The tradesman looks cautiously 
round the shop. The fact is — ^lie would not 
wiah it to go any further — ^but if the bill is 
sent in to the College Tutor, he shall not, per« 
haps, get his money for a couple of years. 
For such a trifling article it is not worth hia 
while. He would rather trust to the young 
gentleman, — he would indeed. He may be 
stepping that way next Term, and then be 
able to pay for them. Perhaps he may be 
wanting BomL'thing else, too, before that time. 
The aiticles shall oe sent to his rooms forth- 

There is no resisting this argument. As 
for the articles themselves, they may be of tlie 
most trifling value, — a pair of brass candle^ 
■ticks, a basin and jug, -an eight-day clock ; 
but the principle is the same, and, whatever 
they l>e, our young friend leaves the shop, for 
the lirst time* in his life, in debt. 

The scene cliangea. He has been up a Term 
or two by tliis time, and hm acquired a little 
expeneuce. He has a few debbj, Imt »tLll they 
mount up to a trifling sum only. He has 
found out that his College does very little for 
him, and his private tutor (whom he pays out 
of his own nocket) ev*?rythiug. The two 
rudimentary lecturis which he was at lirst 
ibrced to attend, are now pressed less earnestly 

upon his notioe. In fact, ho can almost 
entirely " cut ** them, if he likes, and does cut 
them accordingly, as a waste of time. Hia 
College, possibly, has only two tutors, both 
mathematicians ; so that one of them is forced 
tti lecture upon classical subjects. The mis- 
takes which this lecturer makes would dis- 
grace a boy in the third form of a gnun- 
mar sohooL It is to his jjriirate tutors, or 
** ooachesy" that he looks for instmctirm. They 
are costing his poor father a heavy sum ; and 
as he turns to hia trif,^onometry with a sigh, 
he thinks that he might juat as profitably De 
reading at New York or Ispahan, and coming 
up at the end of three years to take his 
degree. The fire is burning low in the grat«. 
How he wishes that he had his sLstem by him 
now. Dear, dear, how lonely it feels ! 

Suddenly, tlirough an opening door, con- 
\nvial sounds burst upon his ear. They come 
from the opposite rooms — the rooms of Smith, 
the good-humuured ra£ui, whom he meets 
sometimesa and s^ieaks to, on the staircase. 
It is his turn to entertain his Boat Club with 
a supper, and he is doing so right merrilv. 
Presently Smith himself dashes m, his hair 
standing up on end, his utterance thick, his 
face more good-humoured than ever. Has be 

got a saucepan ? For the love of Heaven, has 
e got a saucepan ? It is a new discovcty, a 
culinary era, an epoch in the annals of drinks I 
They are about to concoct something wonder- 
ful with whisky, and eggi, and beer, if they 
could only fin<l a saucepan. Heaven be 
praised, here is one ! A thousand thanks ! 
But won't he step in and join them Y Supper 
is quite over. He must be lonely there. WeU, 
it t* lonely^ and he thinks then? would be no 
harm in joining them, for half an hour or soy 
just to see what it is like. 

For a mrtment or two he can only hear dis- 
cordant noises ; jie sees nothing. Twenty 
London fogu niic rolled into one oefore him* 
Hb eyes begin to water, and his head to ache. 
Presently, as the mist dispels;, he beholds a 
Jar;^ party of youths seated in ungraceful 
attituoes round a table, cigars in their mouths, 
oaths on their hrm, glasses of steaming liquid 
before them. He is introduced and made 
welcome. Let me see, wasn^t he from Guttle- 
borough School ? It was by a Guttleborough 
man that the Club was founded. No I Ah, 
then, it must be some one else yerv like liim. 
Would he not wish to be a memDer of the 
Club 1 He is confused, and acareely knows 
what to say. Ah. well, he ahall be proposed. 
He is accommodated with a jorum of milk- 
punch, ajid is induced to make his first attempt 
at a cigar. The mirth grows more furious ; 
everything provokes roars of laughter. To 
stick a pin into a neighbour's leg is considered 
very droli To tumble off a chair, establishes 
at once a character for facetiouaBeBs. He 
feels no longer lonely, but indnlgefi in more 
punch. Emboldened by its effects, he repeats 
a bad pun which he remembet^ to have met 
with in the speech of some great ataiesmaxi ; 

VkAria Dkkrak] 



it is resceivetl with frantic applAose. But, 
{|dIt!Jice ! silence tor a song ! 

A g^utlemau with a hosky voic*» carok forth 
a Jitty. It luia no wit in it, and very few 
iV ' lit treata on a aiibjoct in which all 

I 'i-est. An indiviiJual with an tin- 

V14UM iiMMiH name — Uuggiiis, or Noggina, or 
Buij^'"a.— ** weut vip to Loudon one day, 
fol de rctl, diddle dol, diddle dol dee; And 
met with a heautifnl actress, de diddle de 

But the youth hears no more I Ogara, 
flmoice, bi'okon glasses, bent capa, tattered 
ffmrna, pale fa<?e% all &de from his view. 
He sinkfi from hia chair insensible ; and, to 
the dolight of the st>ectators, in a most con- 
venient and corkable position- Hie face is 
corke4i accordiD^rly ; and an hour afterwai-ds 
he snores heavily upon his bed, with the 
ef^ff^ of a gallowa on hia forehead, and a 
beard and mustache that a Genaan patriot 
miVht tuvj. 

But, Oti, the morning ! He has never felt 
flo before. How he curses his folly and 
wicke<liie«g ! What is he to do t Smith, 
whn ilrops in at alxiut two o'clock, baj'b, 
' 1 »:de ale I *' He drinks it, and feels 
refreshes!. " Never mind/' says 
.SjuiiJi, uiie gcMjd thing has come of yotir lajBt 
night's parrloiiabje weakness. A meeting 
has been held this morning, and you are 
elected a member of the Hjsao ajud leakdkr 


Longj vacation has commenced. He has 
pulled in a good many matches by this time, 
and won " pewters," and drank out of the 
twwtcrs which he has won. He has added a 
UttJe to hia debts, too. Five months at the 
Vicarage becomes rather a dreary prospect. 
What should he be doing vnth himself all 
that time ? Besides, he really must be read- 
ing. At legist, so he says in his letter to his 
father^ who consents,, upon the recommenda- 
tion of his College Tutor, that he shouM fonii 
one of the readmg-party who are going with 
Mr. OrbUiua to the beautiful town of Pluck- 

Wliat a neighbourhood is that of Pluck ville ! 
What a lovely lake to row upon ! What an 
admirable and convivial cricket-club attachetl 
to the town > What splendid fishing ! What 
enchanting rides and drives ! Wliat slap-up 
shooting to look forward to, as the month of 
September cornea on ! No wonder it is a 
favourite resort of reading-parties. There 
Are one or two other parties in the vicinity 
now, besides that of Mr. Orbiliua. All the 
young men lodge in the town. They frater- 
nise. There is an ordinary for those who 
(' M job, at halfpast six punctual, at 

^ <i'8 Head. There is not, jwrhapsi, 

V' I t jijucii reading going on of a morning; 
but Mr. Orbiliua does not fall ill on that 
account. He is a philosopher, and knows 
how to put up with tlst.^e kiriil of tilings. 

If this little paper could Ih? enlarged into a 
transoendaxit work of fiction destined to live 

in every age and clime, this might be fixed 
upon by the critics as the identical place 
where the hero should fall in love. A beauti- 
ful heireas takes a fancy to him and admits 
him to her cMumt. TTiia brings him into 
collision with a haughty duke. They fight^ 
and so on. 

For my part, I should prefer him to fall in 
love with one of the doctor's pretty niecea, 
who are good amiable girls, or even with the 
att*jmey'3 bhiujk-eyed daughter. Such an 
affair of the heart wouM bring him into 
immediatt collision, not with a duke, but 
with some of the ideas which have of late 
taken possession of his mind. It would sober 
and stMidy him. His companions — except 
the utterly profligate, would respect tne 
scruples of a man who grew more particular 
in his conduct, on the plea that he was en- 
gaged. However, to tell the trutk, love did 
not intrude upon the picture that I was 
drawing out for myself; except the maternal 
love — deep, unspeakable — which endrpled 
and overshadowed the boy, when at the dose 
of the vacation I thought I saw him return, 
not much improved m any respect by his 


Perhaps all this is tedious. Well, life 
itself is tedio^is. We cannot all of us be earls 
and princes, carry off our lady-loves on milk- 
white palfreys, or be slabbed in oudnight 
encounters. Most of us w\l\ live on in tnia 
dull tedious kind of way, without any extra- 
ordinary piece of good luck turning up at the 
end of the third volume. Here he is, after 
another Term or two, in chapel It is a cold 
winter morning as he sits on the hard oak 
benches of the College chapel. He remembers 
when Divine Service called up feelings of 
devotion in his youthful mind. Tlie organ, 
as it sounded, thrilled through his fnmie. 
He now thinks upon going to chapel as he 
would think about gotng to Oie dentiHtV He 
has been deluged and arenched with chapeL 
He is even now sitt'mg there, as a punish- 
ment ! " As you have niiled to majte up ifour 
number of chapels the two last weeks, such 
are the very words of the Dean, " you will, if 
you please, keep every diapcl till the end of 
Term." How «m he revere oee that which he 
is taught to look upon aa a penalty attached 
to a crime ? " All they appear to reouJre of 
you here," he thinks disconsolately to nimsclf^ 
"is to eat dinners, and to go to chapel. 
Lectures are, comparatively, of no importance. 
Can this be called an tJniversiity edu--1 " But 
the sen'ice Is at an end. The pompoua, red- 
uced Master stalks out, bowing to the two 
young noblemen undergraduates who walk 
WaiJe him. Then follow the other dignitaries. 
And last t>f all the vulgar herd of students, 
many with their great coats buttoned up 
over their night-gowns, and their hair un- 
bruslied, having oeeu calle<I forth by the 
ring of the bell, to coroe and sleep on the 
chapel l^enches^ instead of continuing to sleep 
in bed. 







What Is thia aoene which strikee apon his 

ill the mu<J, to 
(' ' ■ I.. *') for Mm lir- I ' 

yutuig uieti rid !i tUe luwti in 

intr cofctuiue, f Ueir whips. L»i 

lolUiwiii^ btjkiiiU iu dosz-cnrts, theiv 
mtifflecl up from the cold in thick n*! 
ruga. The meet is a long way off tv : 
Tliey are gtartiug botinie« lo go to cover, 

\v1 i •■' 1 lie not flo out himfleUi iuid 
havt Mjyment ] He has beeu penned 

iu Hu i . - i L up quite enough of late. He 
used to follow the hounds, on Iub pony, eomo- 
tlmcs at home, on the alj'. He cainKet {tcroas 
country as well as aome of them. To-morrow 
ihe meet Is quite close. Ah ! but then there is 
evening chapel ; supnuae he ehoidd not get 
back in timo for that I He ia i.ow conij^elled 
to attend eterj' one. A lucky thought ; he 
will get an " tej^ratftl/' or memcal, certificate 
of illncHs. He kuowa Dr, Lifepill. Dr. Life- 
pill will give him one in a moment. He 
knocks at the Doctor a door. He h^a a ^md 
oold — rheumatism — ^he muat lie up for a day 
or two. All riffht, it tihall go iu. He is oil" 
to the stable and ordei-d hid bor»e. 

I fancied a young man so situated, looking 
ajTOund him after a while, and finding hia ex- 
peuses increaaing on every aide, his debt« 
^tliering as they run on. Then there ai-e 
nnea for everything. Everything is }>ecuniiirj'. 
A fine for beiiig out after diirk without hiB 
Cftp iuiii gown — a fine for coming in a^fter a 
certAtu hour at night — a fine for walking 
acroBU the maa-plota of his College — a fine for 
evtry time ne mi«se« chapel— « fine for coming 
iu late to an examination — a. fine (I have been 
credibly infonued, and have never heard it 
contradicted) /ar iwt taking the Lord't Supper. 
Then the charges at the kitchen of his 
College are euorinous, and he mtut have his 
provisions from tbeuce. He lias aequired. be- 
- ' 1 • - • 1 rioua tast es, and feel« that he must 
I m. I can fancy (indeed it does 
:. . . .^ ,.re a ^reat stretch of inrnglnatioD) a 
young man, under theae circumstances, going 
to a money-lender, either at Cambridge or in 
London. But Imagination followed no furtlier 
th(LQ tlie fearful dwr of the usurer, and what 
phased inside formed no pai t of my picturet 
simply because I have never, myself, tatl the 

f;ood luck to be aequfonted with a money* 
ender, either iu bis owm htjspltable mansion, 
or in society. Neither do 1 fancy the ruin 
and the misery which follow fest upon an 
iiitix»duction to the good man. These are not 
fancies, but dire realities which we have all 
of us witnessed, somewhere or other, in our 

There is one more scene that requires our 
Attention. It is his htst Term at College* It 
is nuw so Ions; aince he has made a practice 
of study, that he must set to work in earnest 
in order to gmn an ordinary degi-ee — ^a sad 
desceut from the high honours that his father 
hoped and almost felt sure that he would 

take ! He applies to Mr. Crammer, Mr^ 

t '« '.iinmei' ia a cel^bnitid "loju-h" for huey 

atupid meji^ ej i-j own 

h hiw met v He 

w9 his customers periectly wuii ; he m 

» e that* tidceu from tlieir pi pew arnl their 

, the^' are like fish on ! 1 ; tJie 

I pent in which theyluxuri;' udeed, 

.-|'\-M--iiji ikr, and such lit'^' ,.I',(a9 113 

I ' I - ' " 1 li Jive r+jiwvli 11 r I L , - " . ^ ■/ away 

wiicu HUMMuLt-iriL to the ' other 

atmosphere. They ace* round 

a table at which Mr. Ci.t- i otfi* 

ciates as chairman. Every • ur his 

favourite drink, and his favou[ -o, A 

** gyp ^* is in attendance to Utk*: ihv oniers. 
EaciL one, In liifl turn, construes the lesson or 
dfcinonsti'ates the propo«itioii a]>poinled for 
I the day. No other sound is allowed, siive and 
except the calU for liquor, N ' d 

to leave th*." room, or lo <Uisr .^ 

ami drinking till the I«^ ^ » 

1 cone the round of tJie \s i - 

bled. At the conclusii s 

of Wtrning under dlffi« 1 

to find how much iiu vc 

acquired and how quickly the time has 
'passed by. 

I But even Mr. Crammer ia like a physiciiLD 
.called in to a hopekai caae, and he is 
Fluckkd 1 

I So many great writers have exhausted thdr 
pMhof upon tins fatal event and its ou&se- 
' queuces. our book-Citses contain so many 
\ vMictmataUeaujp of fi'antic duns and de«i«^ 
I rate shuts, of weeping parenU und contrite 
i sons, of the sgouks of miatttled debt weigh- 
ing upon the mind, and haim ting the midnight 
pillow, dwelling side by pide with the law- 
student iu his lonely ci -tending by 
the preacher in his pii <i.' "P like 
black Care behiuti tlii ti i ' ' ni 
unwiUhig that tho [ , ii:j« I 
up iu my own imix^^iLiitLiou, oLuu v 
the oontniat, and — like the works < ' -u 
academician — be stuck away <ii>t s 
it were, amidst theae gre^i' !. 
Experience v^ill supply a b* ^ u- 
tion than any daub of mine. 

Let it not be supi»oat-d, however, by thoE© 
onaoquainted with College life, that the 
career which I have indicated above, is that 
of the majority of young men. ■ uf 

more than a small, — I wish I c< itt 

inaicnificant minority. There tired, .^i...^, u^ 
in these inattera ; and what would Lw? a lavfoJ 
expesise in the ca^e of ouv, .vuuld be an 
unpardonable act of extnivagauce in another. 
If, however, onl^^ half-a dozen such cases 
occurred in a year, it wouU be time to ask 
whether the authoiities are doing all that 
they can to guard their youthfijl ch 
from the evils and temptations which 
them. Let us hope that tlie Uuivei^ity 
mission will answer this questiou ; and if 
be really any unsoundness in the Cuileg 
System, propose an efficient remedy. 



MoAOwhilC) one pcmbng obwrvntion may 

]^ r,^n>u The chiioea from »;hool »<• . oll.-..^, 

^straint* of iK.yhood to < ' 

ill-ffniwTi man 'w. ss in-u 

stand, nut^ly too marked^an* ! fftpid. i remem- 

l»ef ill my own ct<ae— biit tfiat la manj veara 

it U tnie — ^that I \ras floggtMl for Dot 

Tj^w tny lessons, not many week* before I 

.r ' I that the ti-ansition 

.ret wflfi mimediatej 

aj k ^^'^ ' ' i^ricvl, too, 

wj>: Lf to rea<il 

f , ;ij re, seems 

1 could, in their 
Ti! 1 ud with perfect 

cnse, the nrn 
they have ultiisi 

to obtain the Baclitlor of Aiti* degree. Fur 
th«e^, two jnewra (according to the siiggefttioti 
of the pres«it tutor of Trinity Hall) WOTild be 
att|>ly etiffioient. And in that citse^ matters 
might be 30 arranged, that the young man 
ihould take kis degree as nearly as pn'ssible 
ft* tV... T«^nod of hui coming of age. But I 
i enough. Ab my old tutor used to 
I ) me — poor man! he Urtd to auch 

mn extretne age in single l»Iefisednes», that 
there are wow noTj<» left to weep over him but 
^ iin which the eieeutors 

out, and, I beliere, never 
piui [.»!■ — »is luy Old tutor used to say, ** Wait 
till you are youwelf a Fellow, V>etnr© you 
talk of Uni'relwty reform." So that it is of 
the Fellows that you must nak vh ether the 
Fdlow« have not too little work to do. Wait 
till you are a Fellow yourself; before yon pre- 
iPOme to say whether the Fellows must be 
made to reside in Cambridge. Meanwhile 
you and I, n ndier, are not to have an opinion 
aboir --r. 

Bv the train was stoppm^. The 
lownot Yarmouth was in ' ' *T 1 

©at to exchange the dre 
i&d the thick-eMuing fancit-N i.i mi^ u.iiim, ht 
the realities of homely, plodding, every- day 



Tms ia an anawer ffiTen in some of the 
States of Amezica when a gentleman has 
decamped from hi* wife, fi-om hia creditoi-s, 
or from any other reBpoiittl>ility which lie 
finds ft troublesome to meet or to suppoit. 
Among the carious instances of the aiipli- 
,.r.+;..r. ..f ^iiia plirrtae is an adTenture which 
to myself. 

e boast of the bloods of the State of 
Itackinsack, in Arkatmas, that they are bom 
with skins like alHgators, and with stren^h 
like bears. They work hai'd, and they ^y 
^liiuxL Gaming it* the recreation most in(5u1ged 
hit WKi the gamine-houses of the western 
part of Arkauaas have branded it with an 
unenviable notoriety. 

One dark «umnier night, I lounged, as n 

mere arpectator, the different rooms, watcliing 
the various games of hazard that were being 
plHye<L Some of the pUyere seemed to have 
set their very aoula upon the sbikea : their 
eyes were hloodahot^ ajad fixed^ from beneath 
their wnTikled brows, on the table, as if their 
evos ! -d or woe depended thei*e upon 

the t the dice ; whilst others — the 

fiuiahc!! ttiacklegs — aasumed an indifferent 
and careless look, though a kind of sardonic 
smile playing round their lipa, but too plainly 
revealed a sort of habitual desperation. Three 
of the players looked the very counterparts of 
each other, not only in face, but expreesion ; 
both the ph}'aical and moral likenett waa 
indeed itriking. The oth^r player was a 
young man, a Btmngei', whom they call a 
* green one," in this and many other parte 
of the world. Hia eyee, his nose, hw whole 
phyaaognomy, seemed to pi-oject, and to be 
capable of growing even atill longer. 

" Fifty dollars more," he exclaimed, with & 
deep-drawn breath, as he threw down the 

Each of his opiKinents turned up his cards 
coolly and confidently ; but the long-visaged 
hero laid his stake before them, and, to the 
ajstonishment of the three professtonak, won. 

" Hurrah ! the luck hiis turned, and I 
crow I " he cried out in an ecstasy, and 
pocketed the cash. 

The worthy trio smiled at this, and rccom^ 
menced pliy. The ffreen youn^ mnr '' - ' : j 
a broad but silent grin at his gm 
and often took out his money to co.;.,. a i^.wr, 
and see if each piece was good. 

**Here are a hundred dollars more," cried 
the sylvan youth, " and I crow.** 

" I take them," said one of the trio. The 
youth won again, and ** crowed" louder tins 
time than he did the first. 

On went the game; ' ' T 

won. Grailually the roi! 
dwindled down to a three or lour mi a >ii;ii>4^ 
or so. It was clear that the gentlemen in 
black had been luring him on by that best of 
deooTB, success at first. 

"Let me see something for mv money. 
Here ^ a stake of two dolhrs, and \ crow ! '* 
But he s^ke now in a ver^' frdnt treble indeed,^ 
and looked penitently at the cards. 

Again the cards were shuffled, cut, and 
dealt, and the ** plucked pigeon " staked his 
last dollai" upon tnem. 

**The last button on Gabe'a coat, and E 
cr— cr — ; no, I '11 be hamstrung if I do f " 

He lost this too, and, with as deep a curse 
as I ever heard, he rose finm the ^reen board* 

The apartment wsjs very spadous, and on 
the ground fl«5or. There was only this one 
gjuning table in it, and not many lookere-oa 
Strides m}nBel£ Thinking the gaming w:i* 
over, I turned to go out, but found the dour 
locked, and the key gone. There was evi- 
dently something in the wind. At all events, 
I reflected, in cajse of need, the windows ;:re 
not very far to the ground. I returned, and 




mtw the winneni dividini; the spoil, ruid the 
iXK)r ghora *' greenhoni, ' lewimg over the 
Dftck of their chain's, etaring inteutly at the 

Thrji tjotps were 1 ' ' t *,1y sprejfkd out, 
one iifl^r another. '! h the loaer had 

8t.jiked were nyw, (i ,. ...ii the pivea, he 
BAid, and tlicy were svoiled into a heap dbtinet 
from the reat. They wore twoHlollar^ thrptv' 
dolhtr, and tive-d*>]liU' notes, from the Indiaua 
Batik, and the J5auk of CoJumbuH, in Ohio. 

"I WiV, Ned, 1 don't think these notes are 
iPCMxl," uaid one of the wlunci's, and examined 

** I wbh they wore *nt, and I M crow," cried 
out the hmer, vefy rhoii-fallen, at hi* elbow. 

Thi» simple sneech IilIUmI the ftu«piciona of 
tJie tx>«nter, ana he rcaumed his couuting. At 
last, as he t4x>k up the hist noU% and eyeing 
it keenly, he exelainiedf in a most emphatic 
manner, " I *ll be hanged if th«y are genuine ! 
They are forged ! " 

** No, they an't !" replied the loser, quite as 

A very opprobrious epithet was now hurled 
at the klter. Ue, without more atio, knocked 
down the speaker at a blow^ cafiaized the 
table, which nut out the lights, and, in the 
next instant, darted out of the window, whilst 
a bullet^ fired frtjm a ijistnL, cracked the pane 
of glasm t)ver hie head. He had leaped into 
th« emaU court-yard, with » wooden paling 
round it. Tlie winners daahed towaros the 
door^ but found that the "green one" had 
aeciircd it. 

Wheu the three worthies were convinced 
that the door would not yield to their efforta, 
and when they heard their *' i^ictim " gallopijiK 
aw*)', they gave a laugh at the trick played 
tbetn, and returned to the table. 

"Strike a Ught, Bill, nud let's pick up 
wlmt note« have fallen. 1 have ue^irly the 
whole lot in my pocket-" 

The light Boon made its appearance. 

" What ! None on the tlin.r 1 Capital ; I 
think I must have th<*iii all in my jjocket, 
then :*' saying which, he drew out the notes, 
imd laid them on the table. 

** Fire and Fui-ies ! TliL'se aro the forged 
uoteB 1 The raacal haa whipped up the other 
heaj) I " 

Wliile Jul this was going ou I stepped 
tow^ards the window, but had not stood there 
long, before I heard the clanking boofa of a 
borae beyond the ualing, and a snout wafted 
into the room — " Slofied for Texas ! " 

The woj*8t part of the story renmiuB to be 
told : it waa my horse on which the rogue 
was now galloping off. 


We derive the foUowing Chip from the 
manuscript journal of a traveller : — 

On we ruatled, ateadily jia^aing and answer- 
ing the hail from the forts that crown the 
sock, and emerged into San SebaBtian Bay. 

Wliat a V i.nJl I forget it. An 

mlaud L-iL mIp"^ in circumference, 

stretched Kl' 1 with ships of 

every clime. A arid Stars of the 

Great liepul>hr ; (u^- ii-i'.i<li'r >-i' tli.- myid 
sailor. Joinville ; my heart u.n l !.► fh« 
British Union jack beneath the luiu I piixlaut 
of an admind. Hundreds of canoe« manned 
by negroes in scanty costimie, glided swiftly 
over the placid wat«r», plying between the 
ships and shore ; in front rofte the white 
city of Rio de Janeiro, Churches and con- 
venta, and tall warehousefi, backe«i up by 
mountains, all covered with the richest tropical 
vegetation, save wheiij the bare j»eak of 
Corovado toweretl above ail. A sky of that 
clear intense blue only seen in the tropica, 
framed this matchless panorama. The oua- 
rautiue boat, pulled by twelve negroes in white 
canvaa shiru without sleeves, and drawers 
reaching to the knee only, first reached and 
examined us. 

On landing, it was impossible not to be 
struck by the crowds of black boatmen, 
childish, submissive, and gay ; the Europeans 
with ghastly white faces, white broad- 
brimmed Panama hats, white Jackets, shirts, 
and trowsers, hurraing about rafiidly ana 
earnestly amon^ the huiguid deliberation of 
thp tawny Brazilians. 

Threading my way through a wildemesB of 
hogsheads or sugar, and bags of coffee, I entered 
a long ati^eet oi lofty white houses ai»d green 
jalou&, undrained, ill-paved, and never 
cleaned. Before I had gone many yards, I 
WM startled by a strange compound of 
sounds of rattling, singing, and groaning; 
from a cross street, prancing r4:)und the 
coraer, came a hideous half-naked black ; in 
hi^' hand he held aloft a sort of gigantic 
«vtcker hour-glass full of stones, shaking and 
waving this, like a drum-major in front of his 
regiment, in regular time to a song, part 
words, jmrt grunts, part groans : he led the 
way capering, fifty n^roes followed in single 
tile, some more hideous, barl^arous, and un> 
efiTthly than any I ever before beheld ; esAh 
cjUTied on bis bock a huge bag of coiTee, and 
tdl ijined in an unearthly chorus. I irt4>od 
tnxnstixed with amazement until they diu4>> 
peared like a procession in a pantomime; 
surprise, diaguat, horror, pity for these poor 
beast* of burden, overcame me. Next I en* 
cuuutercd an enormous ne^rea^ a pei'feot 
tuountain of black flesh, in a blue cotton robe^, 
with a red and yellow cotton hftndkerchief 
round her head, garnished with large-headed 
gilt pins and strings of many-colourai lieads 
as a necklace. She carried a basket full of 
tempting fruit, ftinilinv the goofl-humoui^ 
smile peculiar to Africans, she invitetl mo by 
signs to select something from a stock of 
oranges and bananaa. Oh, after A sea-voyage, 
salt meat and no fresh vegetable for many 
weeksi, what a treat it was ! The oranges, 
full of juice, and cold ss ice, were more 
delicious than any thing I ever l«fore tasted i 



hut whether it wan the s^ipetite or the fruit 
ihaX wns so superior, I know not. 

The fruits, the flowera, the birds exposed 
for feile, werv all ma^ificent ; but the city of 
I ier tiian, ami very inferior to 
e, or Marseillea. 

1)11 uiv luiiowuic du.y after a very bad 
dinDer on at^jikis which it would be a libel to 
oompar " *• L\..>i,^K i...,s:...t^^3ji^ I went to 
the c> ^ for 9ome of 

lier fe:4.- :. „ .:,:.,_. i- few manulhc- 
tOTM ectabUshed in Brazil* In a long lofty 
room, opening on a verandah, I found the 
mistreas of the est4i.blishment, a well-dressed, 
coquettish Frenchwoman, seated in the midst 
of at lea»t forty iprls, of all ages, from ten to 
twenty, and of all colours, fr<Mn jet black to 
til ' -kade of mixed blood ; some of them 
f. |»retty, and all attired in very be- 

ctiiuiii^ LUiritumes. Baskets full of feathera, 
eadi 0? some colour and shade of the richest 
dyes, were arranged down the centre of the 
ioom« Fix>m these their nimble iixtgers were 
engaged in fasluoning exact repreaentatunui 
id the moat gorgeous tropical flowers, aa well 
M rosea, carnations, tulips, cameiliaa, and all 
tlie garden ^vourites of Europe. Beside the 
hftsketa of feathers^ all around hung perches 
and cngea containing parrots and other birds 
of gi*eat TflJue even in Brazil ; numbers flew 
about the room like tame pigeons, and every 

tw and then there was a regular chaae and 
'fiutti'i . vvlien the httle muUttoea had to pluck 
M-r from a living subject to finish 
u 1 of a queen or a princess. In a de- 

testttiiie countiy, Madame Finot's bright bii-ds 
and merry girls are almost my only pleasant 



Thbre is an old Gape proverb which is not 
all encouraging to new comers. It pro- 
it to be a land of " flowers without 
birds without song, and rivera without 
It is indee<l true that the Indigenous 
flowei^, varied and beautiful aa they are, i&re 
almost destitute of odour ; though of course 
those which have been transplautetl from 
other dimes retain their origmal perfume. 
T' Mt*s of birds of lovely plumage and 

V izv, are almost innumerable; but 

*n.u iM. u chii^nug is incessant, not Ason4fia 
ever ht^arJ in a C!aj>o wood. With regard tu 
rivers, immeniie channela are to be seen in all 
parts of the country, which, if filled with 
water, would form noble stxvama navigable 
for hundreds of miles, yet many of themliave 
never a drop of water in them (except what 
may collect from the rain in hollows), and 
otliers are mere bubbling brooks at ordinary 
times, though enormous roaring torrents after 
a thunder storm in the distant momitaius, 
from wher- '' ' ke their rise. 

We, in i ive not much to boast of 

in the w;v, .., igable streams; but we 

know Little of the want of water for agricul- 

iHTu] or manufactming purposes. " A never- 
fiiiling spring " of water on a Cape farm is a 
great attraction in an auctioneer s advertise- 
ment, and though, probably, the said spring 
may be a miserable little ai^ritr, it will at lea^ 
double the value of the fiirm that possesses it. 
Artesian wells are much talked of, but I 
never knew of one being sunk. Even common 
wells are rare, though in almost every place 
water is foand, when bored for, at no great 
depth below the surfaoe. On a great pro- 

Sortion of farms, the stock and tlieir master 
epend entirely on the supply of water fnDm 
the clouds, collected in the " vle\*s,*' or pcmds 
dug on their farms^ A glass of this water is 
exactly the colour of pea-soup, and if you are 
"a freshman*' in the colon}^ yon wiU fee! 
considerable hesitation in putting it to your 
lips ; yet, when you come to travel much in 
the land, you will often have to long in vain 
for the luxury of such a draught. 

I was travelling over towards the north- 
east of the colony, and for eighteen honrB my 
ox&n had tasted no water. The poor brutes 
were, consequently, so faint and wearv, that I 
began to fear for their lives. Still it wa» 
necessary to urge them on that we might 
come to some oasis in the desert Suddenly, 
the whole span of a dozen set un a i ' r 

their tails straight up^ and dasnei) 
the waggon at a gallop. My fir^L iu.,u^j,fc 
was " a Sou," and I seized my double-barrefled 
mm to make ready, but in a few seconds my 
lean were allayed, for right a-head of me lay 
a large ** vley '' of water, to which the cattle 
were making at their best speed, and inta 
which they dragged the wagon, and slacked 
their thirst without waiting for the ceremony 
of being outspanned. Tliey had scented the 
water long before they could see it We had 
previously passed several empty ** vleys," dried 
up from the long drought. 

A compensating provision of natare giv<M 
to the part of the colony most expos^ to 
drought, a succulent little birch, growing Wt 
tufts, like the knots of hair on a negro's head. 
It is called " Karoo," and is a substitute for 
grass. Cattle which feed on this herb, scarcely 
require water : but animals coming from the 
grass country do not relish it, and will not 
touch it for a long time. I have lost cattle 
in consequence of this want of education on 
their part. 

The Price of IaUtd ^iiries in different putr 
of the colony acconiitig to its situation in 
reference to the marketa. Perhaps the ave- 
rage price may bo state^l at about eight to 
ten shillings per acre. Thus, a farm of two 
thousand acres is worth from eight hundred 
to one thousaAcl jioondB. It is generaUy sold 
at a credit of one, two, and three years — the 
purchase-money in the meantime bearing 
mterest at six ^r cent (the legal interest oi 
the colony). Farms are seldom of a lew 
extent than two thousand acrtes : oocasionftUy 
they are much Urger. They may also M 





£U1I1, Wrur 

ior t'^a.mple, it Ih nitugHt Lnif»oiiailil« U^ )^ 
tQod wool oil fkrnid bordering on the 
The character of a farm ia aiw.i_\8 well kDowni; 
■o th«i by niaJcbg proper eo<^tijries„ a pur- 
chmer mav alwavs avoid bong deceired. 
Newly ftm\'ed oolomut* are wary apt to be 
attracted by r^retty sceoerr, and toe park-like 
appeanmoe of many parts of the colony ; but 
it ir.v.,,M^ii*ly happeoA that the spots moit 
tl natund beauties feed the beat 

hi- e farmers find H nseesmaij to have 

the f»rm8 at a cnusiilerable distance unom each 
other, in order to aflbrd their stock a change 
of pasture. Thia b occasioiiaUy ceoenaiy, for 
another r«aftnn. It often happena thai a farm 
v.i Ik rive admirably^ and produce 

1> wool, ia situate in so dry a 

di>iriri, iiiHi. Ill the heat of summer there is 
not flidfioient paBturage for the stock. 

A farm of two thouttkod acres will support 
about the same number of aheep, and a bun- 
drtsd head of cattle, honiM, Ac^ which in a 
&ir farming stock. Probably the owner 
would Ihv out about thirty or forty acre« in 
^iden ground and agriculture. 

The Price of Sbikp antirely depefnds on 
the breed to which they bdbn^. The original 
Cane Sheep ia a perfect cuiioBity to aatmoger, 
and ia, in met,j£radual]y beeomtQg Mntse in 
tke Colony. Woolied sheep vniy in pHce 
from five ihillinga to twenty-dve Bhiuin^t 
each, according to the quality of their wool, 
A hir average price for good woolied sheep 
of the Merino creed is about ten shillings 
€ttoh. Thorough-bred laios are very valuable, 
many of them being worth fnum thirty to 
fifty guineas each. 

There is not much vanation in the Pbioss 
or Cattle. They cost about two pounds ten 
ahillings, or three pounds each for cows and 
working oxen ; about four pounds to four 
pounds ten ahillings for fat slaughter oxen. 
The oowBi however, do not yield nearly one 
half the quantity of in ilk that id obtained from 
them in England ; uqt do the oxen furnish, 
by any mean^ such fine or rich beeC 

Ho rau i ftfe vety cheap. For all ordinary 
porpoBiB you may purchaae excellent hor»e» 
TOT eewn pounds, ten pounds, or twelve pounds 
each. If you winh to have something smart, 
well groomed, and in firat^fate condition, you 
may have to pay twenty pounda to tweuty- 
fiye pounds. But all above Meen pounda may 
be raaarded as mere /ancy prioea. They tre 
wonderfully strong and hardy, and their 
powers of enduraiioe are immense. Sixty 
miles in a day, with no other food than grara 
and Witter, ia a Tety ordinary jonmey for a 

' vrry his ridei'. I once started on • 

rh four horB43a — one of theni ridden 

• 'her let! by me, a third rid ^n 

and the fourth (carrjin"^ 
, ...1 by him. I was very iiukL 
I time, suid had two hundred and 
niUce to accomplish. I completed 
y, with the same hoTRea (chxinging 
4 from one to another) in four 
not one of the four nags was nearly 
1 when I reached my destination, as 
1 nave generally found my hunter, hi England, 
alter m ten or twelve miles burst acroas the 
country with the houada. I mtist observe, 
however, that I obtained good forage for them 
every day* Not one of thera had cost me ten 
pounds, and ih* hardiest of the lot only four 
poonda ten shiUinge ! The &vmirite tra- 
veling pace is a kind of easy ambJe, and, with 
an occasional walk, averages Uttle more than 
fix miles an hour, 

I could not advise any one to oommenM 
Shssp FARMfKO in South Africa with leas 
than one thousand five hundred ^Kjunds 
capital, imleaa he is nrepared to undergo very 
great privations. Ifi/A that capital be might 
make a vety Uir start ; of course, only hiring a 
farm at fizvt No man should oommence with' 
out six months' experience in the Colony, 
which time be ahotdd employ in via? ting 
fanners, who m always delighted to receive 
him, fraqiMBtiBg the markets, fitudying the 
character of the natives, and picking up Imd 
Ihitoh. He should then be very careful in 
his selection of a farm, taking care to vinit it 
in the dryieart aeaaon. He had better not pnr- 
chase the most expensive quality of sheep, m 
any loss, from mismanagement or otherwise, 
would fall too heavily on a beginner. Let 
liim be content to tnve seven anillings and 
sixpence to ten shiilings a-piece fot them ; 
ana buy a few rams at ten pounds each. A 
wagon wiU cost him seventy or eighty 
pounds; and a span of oxen thlrty-fiTe 
pounds; a hoTM, saddle, and bridle, about 
eighteen poumds ; and beyond thi ^ '1 

only require a plough and two or i 
cultural implements, whicV ^-^ "-'i^ !.., - ..._._4> 
enongb. It he is a bach^^^i nestic fur* 

niture will coat him someLi _ nitesimally 
small. If he is a married man he will, if wise, 
take what he requires with him from Bngland. 

I abail conclude theee aketcbes with such 
observations as my experience suggests to be 
useful to SETFLERa. Let me commence by 
saying, that there is scarcely a trade, or an 
art, a knowledge of which is not useful to a 
colonial settler ; above all things, let him 
know bow to hundle carpentcr^s tooUi, for he 
will often find such knowledge put him in 
poneasion of a dosen little oomforU which he 
would not otherwise enjoy. 

It is remarkable that aome of the most 
suoceasful farmen in South Africa are men 
who were originally "Cockneys." On tha 



1 hand, maoy wUo w«&re farmera in 
4 ud bare £ddied to «<4Uial tlie to^iism^n 
111 their iucceaa Perliajw the caiwe of tlm 
4ipj}ar£!Ut anomaly b, tliKl the former, beiag 
niwrl y ignorant of the agricultural or pdietonu 
artgL before arriving in the Colouyj have 
stuaied them as pnhctlsed iu the coimin* they 
dwdi m ; while th^ othera £'incy they know 
all ahout them b^forehimd, pursue their own 
8Tst«in, &nd land that what uuiwered ill 
Ebglaud fails in Africa. 

HtiX'k of all kiudd feed on gtnsa ftlone tiH 
the year rouiid> Sht^][) are turned out of the 
r.M'(tbe "kraal*' it id called) about tea or 
' u in the mornings and are diiven to their 
jjuolore ground by the herdamsii, who reuiaiiia 
with them all day, driviug them home iiffaiii 
H little before euo^^t. Except couutiBg tbem 
out aud counting them into th« kraal morn- 
ing and ereuiog, the aheep-iarmer hojs no 
trouble at all with his stock ; unless during 
the shearing or lambing season. The con- 
0equ«3koe is, tliat the youmr gentleman a apt 
U> set •xoeediikgLy lasy, and to fall iuto other 
bod habita, iu^ead oif cultivating his mind 
and a garden, and ndoti^ goodly fruit in both. 
SorvanU follow the example of their master, 
mad become good for nothing. 

Many farmen fall into such indolent habits 
of mind and body» that they have not even 
the eooi^ to amuae themaelycs, or to im- 
proTO their daily fare, by shooting some of 
the gnxae with which their farms abound. 

Fortunate is the settler who takea with him 
some gooil Engliah servants, who are suffi- 
eiently atta4?hed to his person to remain with 
kim liter his arriyal in the oolouy. I have 
known many instances where men have 
brought out their own ser\'ants, supplying 
thetn with good outfits^ and paying their 
ftasBi^ money, and have been deserted by 
them within two months of their reaching 
the Caf>e— the servants faxurjring they could 
'* better tbenuielves," or speculate on their 
own account. The consequences have gene- 
rally been annoyance and disappoiutment to 
the master^ and no good to the servant. 

ScrvMits and labourers of all classes (both 
male and female) are constantly spoilt by 
their evO asaoeiatioiks and their bad manafle* 
jnent on board emigrant ships. I ouc« saiMd 
m one myself^ and a viler oonglomertttiAa of 
UgfnffSB and immorality I never beheld •vvoi 
in St, Giles's, or any ue^^bourhood where 
curiosity has tempted me to search for siidi 
acenea. This subject is too extensive for me 
to enter upon here \ but there is one sugges- 
tion I would make-'that every emigrant on 
board ship should have some daily task to 
T^*'^' *"" "^nd only receive his mtiMis on con- 
; 4 being done properiy. 

^„,.v ii one comfort wnerewHh every in- 
lending CBaigraat should provide himaelil He 
may \*e gave that he will take nothing dse 
m valuable to him in ever? sense, 
live fifty miles from his neighbours ; 
ehouli his alfiurs prove occasionally leas pros- 

perous than his hopes ; should his servants 
desert him, and he be obliged to work with 
luj»own iKmda — in a word, wliatwver of good 
or ill may be^l him^ he will tind this the 
most valnkble of all his puasessions — a Wife 1 


Tbb oontrivanoes and struggles of what the 
vulgar call '^ gentiUty ^' to make two hundred 
pounds a-yeaj' psfis for five hundred per 
annum, rank with the tragedies of large towna. 
Star\7itiou for a mouthy aud a sumptuoua 
festival four times a year : a white satin di«s 
for the muther of ragged children: a bone 
of mutton for the family, and grouse and 
for visitors : hired plate for state 
and Britannia metal for ordinary 
service. Such are among the shifts and con* 
trivanoes of ''poor, but genteel" eetabliah- 
menta. The cold mutton is contentedly 
swallowed, when seasoned with the comforting 
convictiou that the Tomkinees over the way 
beiieve three oooraes and a dessert, are the 
daily comforters of the family. The genteel 
do everjithing for other people. They never 
see with tlieir own eyes^ but through those el 
their neighbours. When Mrs^ Jones smrveya 
her best carpet, it is not with her own sigh% 
but with that of the Preecotts next door, 
and the rest of her habitual viaitora. *' Insa- 
tiate vanity " and a foolish fear of the world 
are the mainsprings of this miserably &lae 
condition of things. It is one of the wontt 
results of an adoration of gold : — ^it is a 
oonsequenee of that stigma which is too 
generally attached to poverty in this country. 
It is a result of tluit teudency of mooey- 
worahippers to look at a man's waistoont 
rather than his actions — to his niatecial 
ions rather than to his moral worth. 
IS A more considerable person in the 
of the world who poaseasea fifty 
than he who is a paittem of fifty 
virtues. This being eo^ we do not wonder 
when we detect the existence of an univei^al 
system of hypocrisy on the subject of riches ; 
and a wish to appear well before the world- 
whatever the world's standard of excellence 
may be^^will always form a marked trait in 
the national characWistics. 

There is a Aishion in virtue as in dress, and 
now, unhappily, the vii-tue in vogue is — 
wealth. To l»e fashionable in this respect a 
thousand sacrifices ar0 daily made; ^oasy 
clothes are liiu^l with sackcloth. ETervthw 
is made for show — ^to counterfeit wealtn. U 
is a race to escape from the stigma of poverty ; 
and, in the crowd, the mtRionaire is not die- 
tin^iishable from the begginff4e4ter writer. 
The advertLsing columns of the daily papers 
are crowded with painful insrtanoee nt\1nTT.>-£H'e 
su^ring; but in no part of theee j 

we find such tmequivocal sympttu ue 

struggles of poor " gentility "' as m that where 
peo^e who let lodgings advertise the 
tions of their respective houaeholda. 



It is obaervftble, that not two in a hundred 
«f the people who lot hvimugs, receive 
lodgers for the sake of aiJdin^ to their 
incomcn Thi'v »cf»m such a merccnjiry cori- 
sid'tf'nittun. Tlieir house is too Urge for 
then) ; they are auxious to tuhl '* a few 
com)«:iuioim to their sociiU circle ; ""■ — or they 
let their njiartnientd, '*uot fur the sake of 
emuluniont, but to nie<»t with a reeqMCtahle 
nl." People wlio let lodgings are invari- 

\y ti;ecuBtome«I U* the lughest society, and 
ttoi give the moat imprefisive referenct^a The 
Altnwtioiis they otfer are overwhelniiiig : 
^y«!uni ciii\ he nothing in coinp«.riBon with 
the coiiiforU to h*? hat.! in an lalinxton firat- 
flo<ir, nt filleen shillincii per week, ^fhe most 
fiistidiouB must Ape«aily be accouunodated. 
It must be a real ptetutore to appropriate one's 
first '6oor to a genteel tenant, aince emolument 
b never sought by ** people of the highest 

liow hapjiy people in lodginga must be ! 
They may be "surrounded with all the comfort* 
of home Without its cai*e«" atanominaJ rat* of 
payment ; they are at liberty to join ^' a cheer- 
luf mit«iici»l circle," where " rent is a minor con- 
wdemtion ; " they may direct their luggag* 
to a serene e&tabliahmeut ** where there are no 
chililren, or any other nuiiianees,'* upon pro- 
miaing to i>ay ^' the quiet and Henous lady of 
the house no more tlian the mere weekly 
of twelve ahillings ; and it m their 
fiiult if they do not catch at ** an oppor- 
tanity which Beldom occom" of ensconcing 
th euiBel ves in a turn i ly where there are '*n o oth er 
Ic'" '^ ...,,] where a man-»er\'ant ia kept." 

li«» let lodgings, in addition to thair 
hi;_i ^ lability and carclesBhess rb to the 
payment of rent, are frequently prodigies of 
teaming. Conceive the cultivated utate of 
that circle whence o\xr DJiktive language ii 
banisKiMl, and " FVeoiok i» the tongue daily 
spoken at tuble." IxxIgingTs mny not unire- 
quently l*e securfii in a houtie that ia attended 
by the best profensorB of everj'diHtijic't branch 
of learning, where le»soria in Hebrew and 
c:r.j.*4< — together with bt»ot-eleaniug — are in- 
. in the unusually low terms of one 
t per week. Thia magnificent offer is 
usually made for the sake of se>curing '^afellow" 
student for the advertiser's son;'* ofcourse, the 
guinea per week it* merely a nominal matter. 

Some let hxlgings only to present ad- 
vantages to har>py lioehelora and maidens 
** deprived of a iiome/* For thirty shillings 
weekly, it is possible to rent a iirst floor in a 
highly reimectablc nei^dilMjurhood, of partiL« 
whtjise ** religious principles are in strict cou- 
fofmity with the Est^^blishtHl Church." The 
beatitude of occupying pai-lour» underneath 
High Church ^)eoi>le, ia t+Kt evident to need 
& i*yllabie of elucidation. There are also 
lodgingletting widows^ whnw only wish is to 
lift the responsibility of housekeeping off the 
fihotdders of ''a respecUible bachelor or 
widower/" and with a touching self-sacrittce 
to place the bui-den upon their own back ; 

h T - ^ -if hoosekeepers, who devote theix 

ition to their IcKigers, to the exdu- 

ty other earthly '■"''^'■''^'"♦'■■v • nnJ 

I A the lowest ] f^'r 

v ^ young ladies" me." 

Wonifl cariuot atlequat«ly tiescribu the 
splendour and the beauty of some of the«e 
homes. ''They are otiered to a homeless 
public because, being furnished in th<^ hund- 
somest mauuer, with particular V' 
comfort,'* they are too gooil for the 
who ia too well off, and bcnevoleuLlv wirtru-s 
to share his domestic bliss with a lens for- 
tunate individii,(l "wln^j. references wiU bear 
the strictest in n " Such domiciles 

often command • and varied sceneiy ; 

they are, without exception, in the mo^ 
faahionable locality; they are lofty and well 
ventilated ; they have all liern i-ecently fitted 
up ; onmibuflcs pass the do<»r every five 
minuti's ; and they are throughout scnipu- 
lously clean. They are Utopins of eler^mioi^, 
comfort, learning, morality, and respectability. 
No wonder marriages are on the decrease in 
a country where a hachclor may hire a para- 
dise, kitchen fire includetl, for a mere trifle. 

What a devoted, self-sacrificial race must 
the loti^ng-house keepers of London be ! 
Tlieir virtues defjr computation. Tliey offer 
splendour, the highest Tespectability, morality, 
music, French, and natural soHcitnde, at the 
lowest possible figure; for "money is no object." 
They are too genteel — too tumy in their cir- 
cumstances for cash to be to' them of the 
slighteat coDsequence. No, they odveillso 
their virtues and their splendour, for the 
Samaritan pleasure of ndniitting stnaigers to 
be partakers of their good fortune. 

We have gathereu this little history of 
people who let lodgings from their own modest 
autobiographies, as we find them in tha 
advertising columns of the momint? pnpers. 
It nmy, perhaps, vindicate t^ -ned 

clasa of |)ei-»*f ins from certain ] ' t^ry 

generally entertained against lipm. i tuple? 
to whom rent is no olij^ct, will ui>t purloin 
port ; a serious family will not appropriate 
a lodger's |:K)nmtum ; no eheeriul musical 
circle can entert-ain a particular rcganl for 
their lodger's lumps of sugar ; no High 
Church famUy would peep into their lodger a 
tea-caddv ; and certainly no housewife whoso 
maternal solicitude can be had a bargain, 
would think it proper to appropriate her 
adopted cliild's bi*eaa-and-butter. Therefoi'e 
the colunmies circulated to the prejudice 
of jjeople who let hMJgtngs shoidd J>e ex[K>std, 
and the authors of them be held op to public 
obh>quy. Peojtle who give and exchange the 
highest references, and who let their best 
rooms for the pleasure of Uving in the kitchen, 
and not with any idea of emolunienf , would 
not st«»ij> to ii**ti-y thefts of the above mean 
and det4^8tjd)le description, 

Tlina the cause of people who let lodgings 
may he vindicated. Their lodginss are letj 
and tlieir gentility is not compromsaed. 

rnkhikbs^M ilMOa««.}l«. mir«ma<w« HfOTi J»ar«*.SuM4 frmtr* W BauavaT * Itui^ frMl«Mm» Uii i fc 

** Familiar in their Mouths as HOUSEHOLD WORDS "— 8uAitwric««. 





[Piuc* 2<i. 


Will you be saved or roiued ! asks Tom 
Dolorous, who Lis a theory on the condition 
of tho couiitr}^ Tom with a portentous look 
caa*ries hiA hftuda behind him^ aad aaka Great 
Britttiii which hand she wOl have ; in one 
he ciu'iiea min, in the other salvation \ both 
very much at her service. "Poor mouldy 
creature/' Tom cries to his country^ 'Hhero 
you go, like the botanist who tells of himself 
m the moist valley of Nepaul : a walking 
frame for Mucedine®. There 's one variety 
of mould ui)ou your liat, xmother on your 
shirt, another on your coat^ one on your 
knapsack, another on your boots (ye^i, one 
upon the upper-leather of your boots and 
quite another on the soles) ; an«^l, if you take 
your telescope to get a sight abroa<i, there's 
a new species of mould upon the glass to 
hinder you. O, my poor country, ai^er me 
to clear these growths away ! ^* 

Tonrs measures of salvation are extremely 
And go no farther than the scrap'mg of 
ition's outward man. NowBobiSla^is 
^uil^J a diifeient reformer. How sweet are 
hirks, Bob meditates, and who can turn away 
from oyaters. Here ts a nation with rude inati- 
tutlona calling itself civilised, but it admits of 
vast improvements. Permit me, if you please, 
to taku in hand this rude hog of the state, 
and, after Roman fashion, I ^^ill make a Trojan 
Pig of it. Casting away its vulgar entrails 
I will have it stuffed with thrushes, larks, 
beccA^cos, oysters, nightingalea, and othei- 
pleasant things ; I wiU have it bathed with 
wine and unctuous gravy. Bob becomes 
enthusiastic in dilating upon the advantages 
of his ref^irm. Whereas, Will Perfect says it 
is Incomplete. It will not do, he says, to scrape 
the outside of a nation that requires to be 
reformed, or to neglect the outside while we 
tear out the mistcies which lie within. He 
would compare Great Britain to a pippin. 
In the first pbce, we must peel the pippin, 
and then we must cut out the core. 

But we put no faith in any man vho says 
we must be saved or ruined. In our humble 
o^nion that noble animal who (in company 
with the smnXl end of a wedge) is so well 
known to British audiences, the British Lion, 
is a worthy beast, with many faulte, but, on 
the whole, magnjimmouB. Let us discusa this 

Jiueation quietly, and with our feet upon the 

Perhaps there is no better guarantee or, 
peace and progress to this country than the 
freedom of the Press. Opinion is King oi 
England, and Victoria is Queen, Every nhaao 
of opinion speaks through some book or 
journal, and is repeated widely in proportion 
to the hold it takes upon the public. Govern- 
ment is the representative of wnatever ojjiniona 
prevail j if it prove too perverse it ialls, — 
ministers change, without a revolution. Then 
too, when every man^s tongue is free, we are 
accustomed to hear all manner of ^ild sug- 
gestions. Fresh paint does not soon «iazrTe 
us ; we are like chddren lavishly supplied with 
toys, who receive new gifts tranquilly enough. 

la King Opinion an honest ruler t x es. 
For the Snglish people speak unreservedly 
their thoughts on public matters, and ai'e open) 
though it be with honourable slowness, to 
all new convictions. We must add, however, 
as a drawback, tlrnt the uneducated class 
amounts to a distressixig number in this 
coimtry in proportion to the whole. It forms, 
as lon^ as it is ignorant, a source of protit ta 
designuiff specumtors. Nonsense is put into 
the mouths of men who mean no evil, but who 
sincerely desire their own improvement. Truth 
ia muniere<l, and her dress is worn by knaves - 
who burlesque sympathy with workiiig-meE^ 
for selfish purposes. The poor man's sincere 
advocate, at last, cannot speak truth without 
LQCurring the suspicion of some treasonalUe 
purpose against honesty or common sense. 
The very langua^ necessary to be used in 
advocating just nghta sometimes becomes as 
a pure stream betoulod by those who have 
misused it. 

Therefore, in England, the imeducated 
classes aiTive slowly at the privileges which 
they must acquire. They are impeded by 
false friends ; but, even false friends are 
not able to delude them beyond a certain 
point. Among us, for example, even the most 
Ignorant well know that there ia no field for 
a vul^ revolution against such a monarch 
as Opmion makes. Arguments must be used 
for barricades, and we must knock our neigh- 
bours on the head with facta ; we must tii'O 
newspaper articles instead of cannon-balls, 
and use colloquial banter for our small shot. 
In aU disputes an English citizen has, fur his 







lCDDi}ue<*d ir 

li:it it 

cw li- 

Iftst appeal, Opinion *, m a citiaan of 


a niition's mouth. ruidl! 
has to auy, will Im? iii«, ..,,.. , 
bilt^'U. The untiou will, sonic <fay, 
and make amends for evon- luir 
Btraint with lusty ehoutiuj^. 
tinental states which snil 
Il^volutious of 1M8, Tv^T^ Boiiw* in whiob 
the ]K;opl« liod less of social evil to com- 
plain of than we have in England ; bnt 
they TTcre fretted hy jtolitical refltriationR, by 
a ayatem of espial wliioh tabooed all conr^ 
tion uiKUi j»ublic matters Ijefore any str.' 
ami itiey were glad unough to get u. .. 
tongues at liberty. Adam, the old trndituuvs 
Bay. was niatle of eight jwands : — a |M>nnd of 
earth, his flesh ] a pound of fire, his blooti ; 
a ptmnd of cloud, his instability ; a pound of 
graw* (how that wa« weighed the legeml s,*iyeth 
not) hia Btature ; a pound of bloissont, his eyes ; 
A pound of tlew, hia sweat ; a pound of aalt, 
hia tears ; and. fbmllf, a ixjund of wind, Iuh 
breath. Now GoYeniment^ which don't allow 
eadi man hia fiound of wind, get themselvea, 
sooner or latrr, into certain trouble ; tor, 
wheu the wind does come at laat (which it is 
inre to do), it cornea in a atorm. 

The freedom an<l the power of Opinion in 
"England, have given an importance to the 
press which is attached to it, as a direct ngimi 
in producing social reforms, in no other 
r 1 country, 'llie jounialist Iajb every 

s of fiM?t« before oU people capable 
I J the adult who haa learnt only to 
1 read, acquires his rt^maining educa- 
[.... - •'.'» .i..^..i.. .K!e in amount — from 

V Bentham, speaking 
] J 1 13 rites by which it 

waa intended to exorcise evil spirita,aaya very 
tinily, " In our days, aud in our country, the 
satme object is obtained, and beyond com- 
fiariaon more effectually, by so dieap an in- 
•tmntent as a common newspaper. Before 
ibi« iaJimnnn, not only devils but ghosts, 
vampires, witches, and all their kindred tribes, 
are driven out of the land, never to return 
^gttia 1 The touch of Holy Water is not so 
illlolerftble to them aa the bare amell of 
SH^ter^ Ink.'' 

Whfti can a man leajo liy skimmingthe 
QdvqiApers and journals of*th«day1 Why, 
in the northern seaa tlierc floata a very httlo 
tihn of oil, where wludea or seals have been. 
So thin a film, no bird could separate from any 
wave, yet there are blixU who become grossly 
fat on no other nourishment. The storm 
petrel, or, in the Fai-oeeo phrase, Motlier 
C!ftrcj''fi chicken, akims the surfitee of the 
troubled water, till the feathers of it-5 bn*^p<t 
arc ch.'iiv^crl w ith ull ; xuid then feeds heailily 
on tl tod Avast nutnber 

ofh<» lull over the dehator 

and the discusisur of the newspaper, like storm 
pulrel.^, and thrive upon wlud akimminga they 

Since the pres ii) 
free (and many of 

was not ' ' '" * 

more |ir' 

Wtt hai. 

we are rHiiv : n-. ■ : ■ 
not all fii I aivav. 

poaito. We 


the din 

hl.^ \ 

of ti. 

^t a strong gtis|iicion of our 
lndivW!ti?tl fallibility; new facts come out, and 
(I is I oiBlpiks in an une3Epet»ted light. 

W« ir opponents, when they dcsei'^rej 

re8jH?ct, aijri on the whole ar< ' " I , 

Of conrae, our views in i oflaa 

icd by our sense of p^i^ t, but 

111 In nothing very won that; 

., ;^Lure intends man to cry > l shoe 

pinched him. But, there is i 1, oon- 

cerning social que«tiona» n d^ i .ar all 

that can be said about them ; to li^»)erate, if not 
to respect, conclusions that op|)oae our own; 
a reatrmess to seek for the lignl course, and a 
desire to follow it. 

Into religion, unl " l.ia gjjirit of tole- 
ration has not yet fVir tolerance has 

made a clog of wbiiJ ^■.i-m i.w W n "- tir 

exertion, ao that, of late yeai-s, il i^ 

necesvary to teaoh even 8u*l» < l 
trinea as chanty and the fiiv^ r 

religion, by the direct voice c r r. 

The free press has strength io ' 
tariaa pride, as it hAs am^^y d« . i.* 

bigotry of party. That is a work of Ume. ; at 
preaent we may be content to know how much 
work has been done. There is a readiness in 
politics to find out and to follow right, there 
IB an active spirit of n nniping up 

daily a lai^ge flood of i u, which is 

not poured out in vain. i.,^. ,.ae, we tran* 
quiUy content ourselves with the enutinna] 
jwocTess which this countrj' mrdces, and ha^** 
no faith in any man who tells us (lud it must 
be saved or ruined. There is a pirtaie in tha 
Navifl Stultorum, of some men \ir\io go out 
fowling, each with a goose ujion his wTist. 
The gentlemen who sport these mi n-c*r- salva- 
tion crotchets, fowl with the wrong bird also, 
we imagine. 

Hence, we have no fear ab<>ut the country; we 
know very well that great ixrforms ^^^ • 'i'«.itd, 
but we believe^ ateo, that after en fy 

has been well talked about, and b i iy 

comprehended, the relbnns will come. The 
most pressing want of our community is educa- 
tion. There are eight millions of us who cae 
neither read nor write ; and mor^ » h^n h.^lf our 
children are now growing up t ' >d fuid 

womonl^ood without aaai^: i the 

school Of those among us, \\ 1 1 and 

write, a large number arc tao edu- 

cation they have had, to ih* i...,,.i „, more. 
Even our wealthy classes cAunot secure, very 
easily, for their own children more than 
a comparatively useless Iralniui^, since four 
out of five schools are conducted on a systeoL 
fasbionable in the iniddte-i^es, and icjnorethe 
greater part of what has since become the 
wisdom of the world. 



It b A fpK&t |>ity that nny ouan'cl &boat 

!f»dn<-ti-inAtKJn into creeds, bIiouIq impede edu- 

Everybodv vho bas iater- 

u ktvows tluit they jure in- 

c^iiarui (>i uii' ' r *^ r.'— - aubtletiecu 

'e iDAV put .imd make 

fi..^... r.-.ii ;,}>r,ui. , ,....-.-,,13 wc may 

1 J k f it/j ; but they can no 
i.i I act >rnso I Lt of the woixU than 

sAVour iv'jm the etones ; nor are we aJble to 
compel them so to do. Nor hare we any need 
to eagfiffe in the ho]^1eea trial ; with the 
record of the life and lessons of Christ lying 
ready to our handB, and HIb own Prayer^ an 
etenial model to ns in it« grand simplicity. 

Bnt there ia someihiiig else whicn may be 
worth considering. 

Before the French devolution of 178J), the 
feadal S3^em prevailed throughout Europe. 
All land was the property of m-eat proprietors 
who weTe the lords of a hmdlewt pe««autry. 
In France, the Revolution overBct that state 
of things ; and land waa made attainable by 
people of all claasea. Napoleon in conqiieiitig 
some continental nations gave, as a boon, to 
please the masses of the oooQueied, this free- 
trade in land. Others wiUtngly and deli- 
berately adopted the new principle as an 
advance upon the feudal system. So, the 
Prussian Government, under two Frusdan 
Peels, the ministers Btein and Hardenburg, 
i&tix>duced the system of small properties in 
181 1, and laid the ibundatiou of a social 
fWbric, the strength and excellenoe of which, 
we arc, just now^ beginning to comprehend. 
Thus it happena, that since the great French 
Bevoliition, the feudal eyBtem of ownership 
in land, Ima been superseded in France, Ger- 
manv, Holland, Switzerland, Lombardy, the 
Tyrol, Denmark^ Norway, Belgiiun, a great 
part of Italy and America. It is rt^tained 
only by ^Kigland, Ku^ia., and some of tlie 
worst governed portions of the Austrian Em- 
pire. Lot us coarader whether we have not 
hed upon another drawback to the 
1 oats upon which Englishmen have 
just vL^t to congratulate their countn'. 

Sir William Manor is a large lande^i pro 
prietor, whose estate is his own, to do witli 
ever>' acre of it ss he ple«MB ; that is to say, 
he holds in fee-«imn]e. He has no children ; 
but» to preserve the dory of his honse, he 
makes a settlement, before he dieS| in favour of 
two nephews, Montague Johnes, aeed twenty- 
three, and Villiera Wilkinson, agpd six. Mon- 
tague Johnes is to be heir to his estate, which 
Montague Johnes is to use daring his life- 
time to let and have subletted, to moi-tg-.i^e 
or sell, but not to alienate from the family, 
beeansc it has been entailed. When Montague 
Johoes dies, Villiera Wilkinson becomes sue- 
oeBBor to the whole. Into a vsjiety of com- 
pUeated relations Villiers Wilkinson may 
«ltsi\ — lie may sell tlie land, but hit power of 
cads with his life ; the whole estate must 
when he is dead, without the dimi- 
unticm of aa acre, unto Hugh Toi^bobbean, 

Hugh Tombobbean was a luaty child of one 
year old when the entail was settled, and he 
was made the tliird man in the list. Hugh 
Tombobbean reigna after Villierg Wilkinaon, 
and must have all the land^ but must not 
alienate it until he shall have n son who shall 
attain the age of twenty-one. In the a«lult 
son of Hugh Tombobbean, one entail eirnrea, 
and the estate may then l^e sold, if Hugh 
Tombobbean^s son desire, and if all other 
persons named in the entail be willing, anil if 
no other person named in the fir5?t settlement, 
(and l>eing dead), has left Ijcliind hi»n n bomioBt 
which sh5) provide for the ch ' of this 

most interesting game. Ifn Uout a 

settlement,, the property gtR-s iniuivitied to 
the nearest heir, l^ch individuftl in an en- 
tail may bargain with his property to the 
extent of his own right : and so there niriiscii 
a great legal game of hide and seek, a moRs of 
Uws, and contingencies, and poeaibilitieftj and 
impossibilities, and shades of title to a ptuk or 
a potato ground, wliich nobcxlv can fathom 
but a lawyer who has made such matters his 
especial study — and, very often, not even 
he. So, people buy land at a risk, who buy 
it on the word of a seller ; the seller himself 
may not know what claims and rights beyond 
Ilia own can be established on it. So, gieat 
estates are kept together, by a system ol>- 
vioualy uiyust. If great estates be worth 
preserving in this country, as we lielievo 
they are, in the hands of solvent pro- 
prietors, they may remain for ever, or by 
monied men they may be got together. But, 
it is pretty certain that they are h/irdly worth 
maintaining by a system so little in niiiaon 
with the politics or morals of the nineteenth 

Land differs from other propert;- ' '" ' vis- 
much as we know the utmost po^ il 
of it. Flocks can increase — more - „ Lkj 
collected and be coined — more wares can be 
manufactured ; but after we have tuinwd to 
use our millions of waste acreage, and liave 
reclaimed a few more acres from tne sea, there 
Lb no more land to lie got, and, therefore, it is 
all the more essential that no portion of the 
soil we have, should l>e placed out of the reach 
of human dealings. It would l>e le^ mis- 
chievous to entail forks and a{>oons than poL» 
and furlongs. 

Let us suppose Mr. Walkin^^ame, a shop- 
keeper, aideti by kw on the entail nrinciple, m 
an attempt to perpetuate the family respecta- 
bility, lie settles his furniture and lunety 
pounds on Jones and Wilkinson. Jones may 
De idle and extrava^nt ; but, hi.«i furniture is 
entailed, and no Imiliff can seize it. He may 
spend every farthing of his money ; but, at his 
death ninety pounds have to come back to 
Wilkinson. Wliy need we pursue the |Mfc- 
rallel ? Laws of this kind may give to the 
fortnnes of individuals a sickly buoyancy, but 
thej are* in fact, injurious to all whom they 
affect (except the myrmidons of law) ; liks 
the unwholesome waters of the Dead Se^i 




•■' -tM in no 

tbev ffUHtiiin a swimmer on the sarfnce, thoj 
innkH Bifikii)^ diflRcult ; but, a cleiLr hike of 
JT 1 iaticated element is much to be 

1 HI ; ^- (irawbficks, we hrr 
ill-hurnoiired or disheartf: 
xiiu»tl be gradual, we lintv 
not, for a long time ] i 
In our own time, we ni.v r ^ ij ^1 
in vilhigca and towns ; we may »e« land 
civising to be spell-bound, saleable by those 
who amirot nmke A use of it, .and purchjL»eable 
by tbfir fnendB who can — we may get titles 
f ' ' d and proved for half-a-crown. 

\ 1 1 en, fnhftU see Chancery abusefl 

Iju. ;ijiimj - ii.' tiliAHitiy k'geuds of the past. 
Every new adainnjent, poiuts, and will al- 
vn.H i..Hi>t, to something else beyond. We 
H' 11 and proBjM-r, so long aa we are 

ill ; and tonlay we afv in earnest. The 

civiiiifCil world has not, in all paat hiatory, 
A period upon which to look back, bo full of 
human hofie arising from the thoughts and 
deettn nf iiaiionii, as our own. Men have begun 
! ' lud each other; and they qiiarrelj 

tl leas. Let UB, in En^lan<l, do onr 

puiv , MM us find out our faiiftj* and mend 
them, wliile we are modestly conscious of our 
inerita. No theory will save uh or ruin uu, 
but "i)hjce[)t must, be upon precept, precept 
upon precept ; line upon line, line upon line ; 
here a HttU and tbeix* a liltle." We may 
then go upon our way, advancing, with tjoiet 


^t by a J 

. with hero ;itia nit'io m-i^ht 
en paint ]>ortal and a whitened 

DO W HE TftlES. 

TuE jjoyment of sixpence at the London 
station of the BlaclcwaJl Kail way secures 
not only a firHt-clnas ticket for the Shad- 
well station^ but the m-ivilcgo of looking 
from the carriage window into the apart- 
ments of all tho upper-floor inhabitants be- 
tween Fenchurcb Street and the st^'ition in 
St. Geortre's-in-the-Eafit ; the Kailway, aa 
« I ' kwall sailor and every Black wall 

at^>r knowB, ninnint,', like a giant 
l>i,.n. ..a..-iuortar wall, straight througli the 
huUdings, on a level with many of their roofs, 
and permitting the passenger to look, like 
Aamodeus, into the aiugy tenements of this 
Ea«tem region. A few minutes suflBce for 
the journey, and ntepf^ing from the train, the 
paiiBenger deseends a stiine stair, to find him- 
self in the parish of St. Goorge^s-in-tht-East, 
A district which could not be more full of 
contrasts l-o ita nameaake at the other ex- 
tremity of the moilern Babylon — St. George's, 

^•"" ' ' "^ ' r^ — ^if it were forty infitead of 

< < . The honses in the Eastern 

^ • ^ te almost all small, and the 

fitreet* and alleys form a sort of labyrinth — 
a tingled web of dingy structures — ins and 
outs^ and twisted meshes of lane and alley^ 
having only tlie one feature in common, 
that feature telUng of poverty — not always 


for ; 

or d- 



of a population I 

the outside of 111 : ..... I 

a street or tw o, contammg the Bhoiis of the 
chief traders of the place, in whieli s'lgnn of 
more affluence may be detected ; but within 
this crust lies one mass of almost tmre<ieemed 
poverty — a jwipulation of very nmny thousand 
soula^ located upon a very few acres of ground. 
Scores of housea, of six rooms, holdmg six 
famihea ; wores of housea, of five rooma, nold- 
ing five families • hundreds of houses, of four 
rooms, holding four families each. "Time 
was," said an old inhabitant of the spot, 
when the people could get two rooms — one to 
live in, one to alecp in. But the e\ictii*ns at 
the west-end, and other circumgtances, have 
80 increased the numbers, that rent* have 
risen, and the people can affoni but one r»x>m. 

Such a spot offers bo few attractions fn the 
class who are able to choose a l^ i 

thcmaelvei^ that there are no resi<1 
tn the place. Thoae who own th* 
live away from it. There are no ) I 

housea offering a contrast to the sui: ... ;;..,^ 
ix)verty ; no wealthy people who may l»e 
rwked to lend a little help to their poorer 
neighboura One in evei7 fourteen of the 
whole jjopulation of the parish are paupers. 
Surely such a spot offers few induceni' t f 
for its selection au a place of |>ermimeut td - ■ i.\ 
Yet here^ some years dnce, came a hojartui, 
zeolouB, hard'Wijrking man, who seeing and 
feeling the wants of the neighbourhood^ went 
single-handed to work to sec what gofnl in- 
tentions, backed by )»erwivcrance, could do in 
a hand to band fig^it with poverty, ignoraneo^ 
iiirt, neglect, and crime. 

Twenty years ago, the then roctor of St. 
George's-in-the-Eajit, was a Doctor of Divinity 
of the old schfMil, whose pride it to leave 
the world at large, and his own iMirish in par* 
ticulm-, just w^here he found it The iluHt and 
the modes of past times should, he thuught, 
be preserved m violate, and hence, tK<»ugh 
ignoitincc 9tA.lked through his parish un- 
challenged, save by the feeble- . <r,ni-t.: .,i" . i ,i 
small charity school, he lived 
troubled by any idea that pop i. /:■ 

should be promoted among the liock ot a 
Loudon rectcjr. The jiatronage of the living 
was the gilt of hia college, and with him it 
was a refigioua duty to leave things aa thejr 
were. The worM let him live quietly, why 
should he disturb the world ? 

One fine day the rector found liinv^' '^ - 
out a cumte, and as the done « 
poverty .stricken streets of his pai .,. ..t 
every year many hundred tenants for the 
parish grave-vard ; and aa the young men and 
women, notwithstanding their povei-ty, would 
be young men and women, and made tip 
amongst them scores of matnmomai matcbea 




in the tArelvt?-month ; aud as, moreover, imiu- 
T,i..i-.M.- llirh' t»l..l..-; ..f affection hutl to be 
r space of time, the 
working man." The 
frit*n<is oi tij»j ructor pasa^d from one to 
Another the ilemand, " Wanted— n Cui'ate ; " 
Init curates soejuol io know what aort of a 
Msu:e HL George 's-in-the-East must be^ and 
the aitmctions of one hundred and fifty pounds 
a jaur -IS the reward for burying a little army 
of d. ' Iiic^ no end of '"' happy couples, ' 

jwd - nundreda of young cocknem 

did .. VV...1. a crowd of applicants for tne 
vacant post. Days ran into weeks, and the 
rector lelt desperate. The grave-yard was 
dank and clayey, and air blew coldly through 
the inasts and ligy^g of the ahippLng moored 
in the Thaniea and the docka, and amongBt 
the smoky chimneys all round about. The 
perpetual iteration of the services was more 
liiborious than chimed with the idea of the 
rector, and " Wanted — a Curate " became day 
by day a more pressing necessity of his caae. 
At bv^t n stray letter, explainii^ the reverend 
gentli luiui'a neoesedfeiea, round its way into an 
ont-of-the-way Wiltahire pariah, in which 
there was a young curate who had distiu- 
gtiished liimateif by zeal in getting up Bchoole 
and clid*a for the poor. Theae humble estab- 
liahiuents in their quiet way bad done much 
goo<i, and had obtained for their promoter and 
BUperintt'udjLnt, the curate^ quite a reputation 
in their locality ; but he ha^i got them into 
ga(n\ tiini, and aa they worked well and there 
were no more difficulties to be encountered, 
the curate felt a longing for a wider sphere. 
Hia p.atr' tn, the pariah clergyman, had often 
saitl that London was the place for a mind 
fiO active as his, and when the intelligence 
came that a curacy miglit be had " in St. 
Geoj^ge'a, London," tne proper moment seemed 
to have arnved for moving the curate to hia I 
natunU st)here of usefulneaa. A friend was I 
foimd to do temporary duty in the church, to I 
** ^ve an eye to the Bchools, and to look after | 
the siek,"* and off set the curate to aacertain if 
be coxild secuie the \'acant post in the modern 

Arrived in town, his firet duty was to call 
upon the writer of the letter that had in- 
duced him to quit the country in seitrch of a 
new field for hia laboui-a. His reception was 
cordial and encouraging. The post was still 
vacant ; indeeKl the reverend gentleman in 
whose pft it was had kept it specially for 
our yviuig friend, for he had hearil of the 
WilUiiirc schools, and of the industry' di.s- 
phiyed by their promoter, and was surd he 
waa just the man to encounter the labour of 
a metrrjiont/iu cure of souls. After much 
more ol such conversation, it was proiwjsed 
that they should go together to the rector, 
to settle the ailair, and few minutes more 
foimd til em on their way. 

Tliey pasj^td street after streeti but they 
were all city streets ; and one after the other 
they grew (iirtier and dirtier, until at last a 

climax of abominations greeted eye and nos* 
tril and weli-|jolifihed shoe m they threaded 
Rag Fair. 

"Surely," interposed the curate, "this 
camiot be the way to St, George's ?" 

*' Certainly it is/' was the reply ; " and thla 
very place is in the diatrict you are to take 
charge of." 

" Tliis V* gasped the ctirate with astoniah- 
ment. Ana he stood aliU .'is he spoke, half 
shuddering amidst the crowd of J< 
raga, filth, foul smeU», and wre^ 
his mind and spirit flew back to :!.; 
scenes and country friends, he had that moru- 
ins left. 

" Here ! I could never live here. The 
air seems thick with impurity. 1 thought 
St. Geoi^^s meant St. George^a, Hanover 

His companion laughed. " You longed 
for fashion, did you ? You wanted to five 
amongst lofty people ; to change the rural 
sounds of Wilts for the clatter of daahin 
vehicles, and to marry and bury loi'ds 
ladies ? No, no. St. GeorgeVin-the-. 
it is that wants a curer of souls, and beJl 
me you ai*e just the man for the place," 

Foraard they went in silence, until they 
reached the rector's door. 

"I cannot undertake it," repeated the 
country curate. "The smells, and sights, 
and noisea, are frightful. I could not live 
in thia atmosphere, I *m aui'e." 

" But the rector has .kept the place vacant 
for you," was the response ; and as he ejx»ke, 
they were ushered into the presence of that 
dignitaiy himself. 

More friendly greetings and kind ^ceches 
Tlie curate was uie thing ; he would soon be 
used to the neighbourhoo<l. He firmly de- 
clared hia repugnance. But what was he, the 
rector, to do i He had been waiting for the 
curate;. He should bo groAtly put out of hia 
way if he were to l>e disappointed at this 
critical moment. Indeed he was verj* ill. 
He reaDy hoped he should not hear of any- 
thing like refusal And a gi'eat deal of 
talk resultetl in an arrangement that the 
cuKitc aliould tri/ for a month, whilst the 
rector sought for anothei* to .wcce^d him. 

In a little old house close by, some little 
rooms were selected as a cheap temi>orary 
lodging, and there our country friend s*>on 
located himself The occasionai fiinet*al duty 
of the countiy was changed for the constant 
day by day, week by week, repetitions of a 
gorged London grave-ynitl. Work, work, 
work, was become the order of his life, and 
work too without knowing the people for 
whom he was mlniatering, and in a field so 
vast that there seemed little chMice of liia ever 
gaining a knowledge of the souls now under 
his spiritual cham. Whilst yet astonished 
at the change, and whilst longing for the day 
that should i-eleaae him for his retiu-n, a letter 
reached him, saying the incumbent of his 
Wiltshire pariali wa^— dead l Ease and abiin- 






dxace had been succeeded by the deruou that 
foUowa in their iiit\f'- A.>...,i^xy^a scene of 
oonfuaiuu and diatit rifj lor rlocton^, 

who came ouly to u- aid shidce their 

hends — and the curtjuu fell, leaving a widow 
to tooiirn^ a preferment to deltcht aome lou^ 
ex|>ecbmt, anii a cuj'atci out of jJnce. Thin 
liitttl termimiti..iu of his old patron's career 
came at a critical moment. WUlfchLre no 
longer beckoned t)ur humble hero back. St. 
Georj;v's-ij(-tlie-Eju3it hm\ lum in it* clutches, 
luid the one huiidred and fifty pounds a year, 
."■-^ "I I'' ' '■»■' ni;<l'ulDt:tw, Nvjiii l_ML*tter tliau 
If lulnft upon the world ; and 
iz , H th:U, instefwi of leuvinif his 

small Kxlging at the eud of the month, he 
Uved there for many years. 

Aud how were the»e ye^n paa^d ? The 
work of the plac« — the clerical work — w»s 
amply etitfficient to fill up hia time, but the 
curate had desires, and felt he haJd a »luty 
beyond that routhie, lftl>oriuua though it 
might be. The rector, tme to hia ci*eed, 
would hear nothing alK)ut schools, or societiej*. 
Tliere wm the one diarity school when he came 
to the U\ing, and there should be the one 
charity school oidy, when he left it, and all the 
curate's th oughts' :4nd plana htid to be kept to 
himself. But stUl he went au tryinff, aud 
kept steadily on, making himself acquaints. d 
with the L neighbourhood; visitin;^ 

tlie aick, ;i Idle and the improvident, 

and comlorfiii^^ mo atHicted, till tue people 
round about began to tiud that "a parson " 
might be a very comforUJde person to know, 
if, as they aaid, he was *^one of the right 

Years rolled on, and the day arrived when 
the Bishop of the diocese made a crnnd 
appeal to the public for help in the buildiug 
oi new churches ; and so readily was the 
reqtiejit re.^tponded to, that a sum of two 
hundred lliuuaand pounds aecumulat^ed in the 
haiivln of the Imnkere to the fund. The im- 
poEaibility of one rector — supposiug him to be 
Ml iu7tive man, and not, aa our rector wn&^ a 
kuid of * clerical yleepin^; p.artner,* with one 
cumt« (though a curate ol treble curate power) 
— ever gnispmg the i^])iritual needs of such a 
parish as St. George's-in-the-East, with it« 
forty thouatuad inhabitanlB, must long have 
•truck the church reformera of London ; 
and when our friend the one curate mAde 
up his ndnd to write to the Bishop, point- 
ing out certain Btroii" re^^iaons why a por- 
tion of th« two hundre<l thousand |M»unda 
ahould be spent in hia part of the world, the 
letter coidd scarcely fail to receive attention. 
In due time, an anawer came from the epis- 
copal di^peoHer of the budding fund, stating 
that a grant was in abeyance for the builrling 
of a church in the most neglected i^ml. of the 
parish, but there was a difficulty in obtain- 
mg a site. Thitf waa hint enough. To work 
Went our curate, to trt/ what could be done. 
A l^iiituro on oue spot only set him on to 
■«»rch for another, and at length he was 

directed to a small street, from tlio back 
windows of which, it wan 8ai*l -' • -• •■ ii<.i(^..,| 
atone-yai-d could be seen. 1 i 

ycaiis tihut up behind small, i u 

tenements, tliat few people kciew of its ex- 
istence ; but thero it was, sure fnough, 
grown over by w^eeda, and strewed with 3ie 
dirt and refuae that poverty, and London oat«, 
rtnd London smoke, somehow bring to.-i i 
whenever a spot remains unoccupied. > 
of Btoue were scattered abtm* ' 
too small, or to<j ugly for do« s ,- 

atones, y«rt too heavy for tre^i ;.> 

throw ttfc one another, or to !• ii r ;i Mie 
wiudowH of the neighbouring iinpiy i ikos, 
and of no value per pound at the marine 
store dealers*. Aud there they lay, uncared- 
for for years, until the eye of the curate fell 
upon the spot, and straightway tliey reared 
themselves, in hijj mental vision, one upon 
another, into a tall church tilled with wor- 
shippers, w^ith th« cui-jite himself ministering 
there. But dreaming wtw no u<»e. The 
ciinito went forth to irr/ what h»^ ...1,1 .in, 
Work, work, work; taik, Udk, 1. 
and to smother; lettei-s hei-e, t^^ la 

there, until, at length, the site was secured ; 
until the buiUling was begun, continued, and 
furnished. The chosien plan wa« one that 
would aeciu'e the largest amoimt of riccora- 
modation for the simi to be spent-, and the 
day aiTived when church-room wm itvuly for 
sijct4?en hundiied [>eople, within a ' d 

builduig, in a district set apart ; 1 

chjTStened " Chriat Church.*' But - • n . . ... 1 1» 
were no fittings ; no stores •, no organ ; no 
preacher's homie ; no prexichcr'* pay ; no 

The cfurate who had worked so Jong and 
80 satiafactoiily in the parish, wa« naturally 
the man who should occupy the church he 
had contrihut^d to rear j but having by thia 
time been the sole working clergyman of the 
mother church for twelve yearsi, aud having 
still only Uh one hundred and lifty pound* 
a-year to rely ujion, he hesitntoil to give 
u|> that. Nobody waa willing to Udce the 
eujiity church — the Iwue walb— the aliell — 
without even an income sufficient to feed 
the legendary mice siippoa©! to be a piart of 
eveiT parish. Still, after a while, Be thought 

The tenns he made with the old r«<ctor 
were (and the said old rector hiul veiT, very 
serious doubts about all these new-tangted 
church-buildings ; but being quite an old 
gentleman, he thought it very much the 
bishop's al&ir) — tho curate's terms, we say, 
were that he would accept the iueund>ency of 
the new district upon condition of contiiiuine 
to receive hia stipend, out of which lie would 
pay a curate to perform duty at the old 
church, whilst he himself went to Uibour with 
the new. 

He began his labours in a rery buameaa- 
liko way. He took stock of his new dis- 
trict, counted his flock, estimated their 



qiiality as it were, luiil f>iind thjit upon the 
•ixt}'*il»i>M' awrreft comimttwi to his clerical 
daftjfigi'i there were aeventy-eeveii streets 
lyid courts, coutniDtD^ upwAnLs of iAvti 
ibouflaiitj ttix Ltuulretl liousea, hoM' 
than €oveiit<?en thoiiatiud tuen, w 
chiMreu< For <*very four buil«Juj-? Lnai 
might, iu the oouveiitiouRl sense, be calJeil 
" respectable ]»riFate honaea," lie found 
there was on an average one public-house, 
or beer shop^ mid that more than half of the 
total mniil»er of houses were essyutially the 
dweliuigis of the very poor. These very poor 
Dumbeivd tifleeo thousand out of the totid 
inhabitauta, and the nmks of this army of 
Boverty were described as being lilled with 
" aiiUors aiid men dependent \ipon the tmoer- 
tain IftbodLT of the docka ; '^ the women being 
MUetnBj '' aeuniBtreBBee, working for the 8lot>- 
Sto|i8, whidi abound in the neifihbonrhooii ; 
—pool* ci^Kitorea belon|;ing to the class now 
so well known as *diatreased needlewomen,' " 
The nverHge rental of the houBes — housed in 
Loudon be it remembered — was only eight 
pouuds ten shiUingB a year j 

Such a locality could not be enpipoaed to 
aflbrd much in the ahape of pew-reata, but 
on j*ew-rent8 aione must the prencber depend, 
as there was no endowment. So, giviujg six 
hundred free-seats for those unable or uu- 
wilii:..* fn contribute, our curate began bin 
<us in the new church. His seal 
. iieuc« of uurpoae and conduct, had 

■eciired him friends and sympnthisora — and 
thtioo qnaliticH now soon began to bring hijn 
a congregation. In hi* veatry he koi^t an 
alphabetical index of the poor, in which was 
note<i what help had been given to each ap- 
plicant — who had received a ticket for me 
' who a letter for the dispensary or 

f/d ; who ha*) been attemied by the 
iu-,L..--u >i«iitor8; who had been helped by the 
hlsnket loan society ; whose childran ousht 
to be got into the National or the Sunday 
School ; and so on. Some of the warmest 
and best of the &ee-seats were supplied witli 
books, \n lar^ type, suitable for ajreil eyes — 
and Botm it wb« found that old folks b^gan 
to congregate, in numbers, in Cit>nt of the 
church doora long before they opene«J» that 
thi^y might aecare these beat seats, where 
they ec»uld tee and bear, and haTe a larg^ 
tym^ Prayer-book. 

The kin<lly sympathies which enlisted the 
poor di<l more thjuj that. Amongst the richer 
people friends wei^ found. Tlie pews tilled ; 
A suliscnption In the parish paid for gn»- 
fittings and other needful appointments ; and 
though, the first year, the curate's gsxina^ 
after he had paid his curate at the motlit*r 
church, were nil, yet the next yptar he found 
hiiuself with an income, si '■ something. 
And now another e%'ent i The old 

Stolor died ^ and tJie ' I his 

vtwft Iw had taken the on hottt 

ilttiiigi and without pay ;... p,., .. ,....,^for 
new rMtota bring new curates. He had 

trtfd his best ; striven with the difficulties of 
a high duty ; and had again not gone alto- 
gether nnrewimietl. 

The church was a very freat step ; hat, 

111! 1 'CVlli Ml '^ln. Ilji4i ■'! IIIC iJULC Jv VV .11 1 J i„_l t II ■l^ ,||,y 

arches. He set to work to try what eoutd be 
ilonc in that and in othor directions to meet 
the many wonts of his i>arish. He ruhh-eased 
letters to clergymen with good benefictja ; and 
to wealthy laymen ; an«i then he, with the 
aid of a curate juid a scripture-reader, besged 
his parish through Irom door to door. Tney 
were more than a foi-tnight going from house 
to house, " when gi^at anxiety (saj-s a report 
of this experiment) for the estahiishnieut of 
the aflliool was expressed by the jv ' !?, 

but the amount collected waa or a 

pounds, fifteen shillings— <i large ^ . . ,. af 
which was in pence." liarger auma ultimately 
came from other f^uai'ters to aid the work, 
and first one school and then another w.'ts 
got into o{)eration. Amidst all tlu^ tod the 
curate — (or we must now call him the in- 
cunilw-nt, for we have followed him Into hk 
own church) — ha<l found a wife anioni^st his 
flock, and had become a father. His chililren 
were enlisted in the work in hand. They 
foldt'd circulars and hel]»e«l to seal them ; and 
one Christmas Eve there was a great feat 
accomplished, — for on that day there went 
from the door of the house of clerical industry 
two cabs filled with lettera which the post 
would deliver on the C*hristmaa morning upon 
the breakfast tabh'3 of the wealthy, telung 
how on that day of Christian rejoicing one 
parish of the Great London ha#J thousands of 
people who knew no church, with thousands 
of cliiUben who knew no schooL And tlioso 
Cluwtmas holidays were gladdened by a uoble 
rf:jpou3e from the cliarity of this English 
nation. Hundreds of jwuuda were subscribed 
towards the works our clergyman had now in 
hand ; and stUl greater gladness was there in 
his household, when an old man walked one day 
into luschui'ch toseo what wasbeiug don^, nnd 
asking what was wauteil, and being told tlie 
orgau was iu debt, put into the ].>arson'*s hiindL 
as they left the building together, a piece of 
paper, with a request that no name bo uieu- 
tioned. It was a cheque for a lnunlred 
jjounda, and next Sunday the organ poured 
Ibilh a Btraiu more than ever lieikUlilul in 
that preacher's ear — for the debt was gpn^ — 
wi]*ed out by the benevolence that vSka no 
blazonry in return. 

And \iit*her and higher still rose the glad- 
ness of the imr&ou'g home, when one day ho 
returned from a country dinner, to which 
he had b«n bidden by a rich olil phpictan, 
who was ' Ilia last yoara In a quint 

nn^d h. .kL a day-tiokvt haal 

carried Uir w-i -t to the oM man's hotise. 
They hud chatted, and dine<l, and tjdkod of 
maiiy th'mga, but never of money ; and m th« 
ttme drew on wheti the last train left for 

London, thoy stroUe*! t*tigelher towairda the 
fttulion. The whiz and the Iniatle of the 
Mtop]»ing Irrmi, the filaminiug of dirrlttge- 
dooi-Sj and the hurry of jc;nanlfi, were jukI 
ovor fia the pai'soii took ^'i- ^"f iiI-ti his 
host, the kmd old ex-phy; (hfil 

In your gooil works, In it ii my 

name." As he 8j:x)litj he gnvt? the piinjou ;i 
ptiper, tm he shook hands with him- Tlte 
engine was off. I^et his nstonUhjueiit be 
imaglneri, when he opened the ulip of jiitper 
ill his hand^ and found it a cheque for one 
lliousand pounds • 

TI»o douor was the same old man who had 
reJeaaed the organ from it^ dilHcultiep. He is 
1=.,,.,,. L, ..j . }jLit ]|)*m girtjn t(.tW}U"ds tlie needs of 
II don p.*iri6li stand a hwHtlug record of 
u _ : ve chaj'ity in the list of dooSitions 
to Christ Church, St, GeorgeVin-the-Eftst, 
where hia oOering figures thus : — 

A Family Fund 


Juftt helow it on the list, ia another Lirge 
donation^ also made hy one of the really chii- 
ritahlc, who ajsk no advertiaement in retiirn. 
Two wonls t«ll the story : — 

AnomymouB . . . £700 

MonumentB enough, these, to prove the ex- 
istence, if proof were needed, of true charity 
in Englaniij and of the virtue of "/ *U tiy?^ 
But more remains yet to he told, 

Eiieom-a^ed hy aiicci'sa, the plans of our 
incujiilient Iwoame holder and bolder. Here 
la the aubetance of one of his appeaia ; — a list, 
in fiM:t, vf what was wanted to meet the 
Bpirittial atiil educational destitution of hia 

1. A parsonage for the minister of the 
preiient church, estimated, including the sit^, 
at one thousand four hunLbN^d poun<ls. 

2. Three new schools, for six humired 
children, with three residences, estimated at 
about two thouBand four hundred pounds. 

3. A fund for the «upjX)rt of the schools, 

4. A new church, of stone, plain but aul>- 
stantial, for one thousand persons (of which, 
if a suthcient endowment can be obtained, all 
tht? s<?at-*i will l>e. free), eatimutc^d, \^ith site, at 
fiv*> thousand pounds. 

5* A pfu-8onago for the minister of the 
new chui'ch, one thousand two hundred 

e. Endowment. 

At iifBt bluBh tide mieht seem too much 
to }io]ie for ; but, by hai'd work, by hopeful, 
never ivasing endeavour— ^by again jmd tigtdu 
recurring to the cheerful elfort that follow* 
the deteriuifuttion to try — much, nay, nearly 
allj of that which was once a project are now 

At the time we write, the incumbent has a 

oomtortable parsonage, the arches of the 

Blackwall Bailwav hold three of lii-s schools ; 

infant school a hoy^a school, and a giiTs 

achooL In the same pkce he Juvs a pence 
brtnk» to which the p<"Mor of the neighbourhood 
brir '' ^ ♦ - nowaraountiii iv 

!i 1 1 :i year, and a I 

reJi io .diich, for a jw-'Ui.* ., v*.. k, 

lli« light, and warmth, and newa- 

pa)H natructive and amviHiug booka. 

More tluui six thousrmd reiulera havealtviult*] 
the place within the p.'>st year. ITc has likt- 
wise & Bagged School, in which the %'i^ry 
poorest are taught to read and write. The fin© 
mrge schoola he once honed for to hold six hun- 
dre<J children, %vith resitiencea for mastera and 
mist rease^^, have been raified„and are occupied. 
Altogether, he has now a thousand child i-cn 
at iM;hool ! He h,Ts, moreover, m>cured a second 
church for the neighbourhood — the chrnxsh of 
stone he hoped for — to hold athousand persons. 
He got money to buy a aite, when a peer who 
heard of the efforts he waa making, stepped 
forward and built, and endowed the churdi, 
at a coat of ten thousand pounds ! 

Tlma far suoceaBful beyond what were 
once his wildest hopes, he is still striving on. 
He is at this moment trying for Batlia and 
Wnslihouaes, and for a Sftilor^s Home — ^to 
clejmse the poor, and to save the seamen from 
plunder by erimj>3. With him, U» \\^\^w U to 
ffo on, and to go on is to succeed ; but if any 
like to help or imitate him, let them take, in 
Fenchurch Street, one of the sixpoi my railway 
tickets we spoke of at the opening of this 
paper, and stopping at tlie Shadw(*U StaUon, 
ASK for the incuraijent of Christ (.^mrch, in 
whom they will soon recognise the Uving hero 
of this true story of VU tr^. 


At one of Mr, Bagges's small scientific tea- 
partiea, Mr. Ilarry Wilkinson delivered to 
the worthy gentleman a leckure, baaed prin- 
cipally on reininiacences of the Hoyal Institn- 
tion, and of a series of lectures delivered 
iheiv, by pROFBflsoR Fa rat ay addressed to 
children and young people. For it is not the 
least of the merits of that famous chemist 
and great man. Professor Faraday^ that he 
delights to make the mightiest snbiect clear 
to tiie simplest capacity ; and that be shows 
his mastery of Nature in nothing more than 
in being thoroughly imbued with the spirit 
of her goodness and simplicity. 

This pfirticular Lecture was on Natural 
Philosophy in its liearings vn a kettle. Th© 
entei-tamment of a " Night with Mr. Bagges ** 
was usually extemj:>onmeous. It was so on 
tills occasion. Thu footman brought in the 
tea-kettle. " Does it boil 1 " damanded Mr. 

t have biled, Sir," answered the dc>- 

" Have bUed, Sir !" repeated Mr. Baggee, 
"Have biled I And what if it has * bile<i. or 
boUedf as I desire you will say in future 1 
What ia that to the purpose ? tVater uu»y b« 



frozen, yon simpleton, uotwithatandrng it luu 
bciUcd. Waa it l»oiling» Sir, eh ? when you 
took it off the tiie \ lliat is the question, Sir/* 

" Yes, Sir, that \va8 what I mean to sniy. 
Sir," replied Tlioiuaa. 

•• Mean to say, Sir ! Then why didu^t you 
say it, Sir ? Eh ? There — no, don't put it on, 
Sir ; hold it still* Hwrry, reach me the ther- 
raometer," ^d Mr. Bagjgeii, putting on his 
gpectAcle^. '* Let me see. Tlie twijiliug point 
01 WAter \& two hundred and — what ?" 

"Two hundred and twelve, Falirenheit," 
answered Master Wilkinson, " ii' commonly 
purcv (iud boiled in a met^dlic vessel, and 
under a pressure of the atmosphere amount- 
ing to tineen pounds on every 8<|uare inch of 
gurface, or when the bai>3meter stands at 
thirty inchea." 

'* Gracioufl, what a memory that boy baa ! " 
exclaimed his uncle. " Well ; now this water 
in the kettle — ehl — why, this is not above 
one hundred and dfty degrees. There, Sir, 
now set it on the fire, and don*t bring me up 
cold water to noake tea with again ; or else, ' 
added Mi\ Bagees, making a vague attempt 
at a joke, '^ or eke-— eh 1 — ^you wul get your- 
a^lf into hot water/' 

Mr. Tiiomas waa seLEed with a convulsion 
in the cheat, which he checked by suddenly 
api>tyiii!4 bid oi>en hand to his mouth, the 
eifort distending IdA ebeeks and causing his 
tyv» to protrude in a very ridiculous manner, 
whilst Mr. Bagges disguised his enjoyment of 
the electa of lui} wit in a cough. 

* Now let me see," said the old gentleman, 
musingly contemplating the vessel atmmering 
on the fii-e ; "^^ how k it, eh, Haa'ry, you soia 
the other day that a kettle boUs I " 

*' La ! " interrupted ilii*. WiUdnaon, who waa 
of tb« party, ** whv, of course, by the heat of 
tll0 ooals, and by blowing the lire, if it is not 
hot enough." 

" Aha ! " cried her brother, *' that *8 not the 
way wf account for things, Harry, my boy, 
eh I Now, convince your mother ; explam 
tiie boiling of a kettle to her : come/' 

** A kettle boila,^^ aaid Harry, " by means of 
the Eictiou of currenta." 

'* What ar© you talking about I Boiling a 
plum pudding in a tea-kettle I " exckimed the 
my^ibed mjMntn a^ 

** Currents of heaied pajticlea — of particles 
of hot water," Harry explained. " Suppose 
you put your tire on your kettle— <m the lid 
of it — instead of your kettle on your tire, 
—what then ? " 

*' You would be a goose," aaid his mother. 

" Exactly so — or a gOBunff,*' — rejoined her 
aoD ; ** the kettle would not boil Water is a 
btvd conductor of heat Heat passes throujih 
the Bubatiince of water with very great difti- 
culty. Tberefoi*e, it woidd have a hard umtter 
to get fiom the top of a kettle of water to the 
bottom. Then how doea it so easily get from 
the bottom to the top ? " 

" Ah 1" sighed Mr. Ba^ea. " In my young 
d^]ra we ahould have aaH, becaujw ttie heat 

rises, but that won't do now. What is all 
thut .aKiUt the— eli— what— law of ex — ^what ? 
— panaion — eh 1 '* 

'' The law of expatudon of fluids and gnsea 
by heat. This makt« the currents tliat 1 
spoke of just now, mamma ; and I should 
have spelt the word to explain to you that I 
didn't raeim plums. You know frhat a 
draught la ? " 

"I am 8ony to say I do,** Hr. Baggea 
declared with much Beriouaneaa, instinctively 
canying his hand to the rctfion of the human 
body from the Latin for which is derived the 
term, Lumbago. 

'' Well," pursued Harry, ** a draught ia a 
current of air. Such currents are now 
passing up the chimney, and simply oiidng 
to that trifling circumstance^ we are able 
to sit here now without being stifled and 

" Goodness ! " ejaculated Mi-s. Wilkinson. 

"To be Bure. The fire, in biimbtg, turns 
into gaaee, which are rank poison — carbcnio 
acid, for one \ aulphuroua acid, for another. 
Hold your noae over a shovelful of hot cinders 
if you doubt the fact. The gases produced 
by the lire expand ; they increase in bulk 
without getting heavier, so much so that they 
become bghter in proportion than the air, and 
then they rise, and lliis lising of hot air ia 
what ia meant by heat going upwards. The 
currents of hot air that go up the chimney in 
this way have currents of cold air rufihing 
after them to supply their place. When you 
heat water, currents are formed jui>t aa when 
you heat gas or lur. The heated portion of 
water riaea^ and some colder water cornea 
down in its place ; and these movements of 
the water keep going on till the whole bulk 
of it is equally hot throughout,'" 

'* Well, now," interrupted Miv Bagges, " I 
dare say thia is all very true, but how do you 
prove it j '' 

'' Prove that water \& heate<l by the i-iaing 
and falling of hot currents ? Get a long, 
silender glass jar. Put a little water, coloured 
with indigo, or an^^hing you like, into the 
bottom of it. Pour clear water upon the 
coloureil, gently, so as not to mix the two, 
and yet nearly to till the jar. Float a little 
spirit of wine on the top of the water, and set 
tire to it Let it blaze away ;i.s lon^ as you 
Like ; the coloured water will remam steady 
at tlie iHjttom of the jar. But liold the flame 
of a spirit- hmip under the jar, and the 
coloured water utU rise and mix with the 
clear, in very little time longer than it would 
lake you to say Harrys Wilkinson.'* 

"^ Ah ! So the water gets coloured through- 
out for the same reason that ii gets heated 
throughout," Mr. Bagges ob«er\'ed, "and 
when it gets thoroughly iiot — w^hat then 1 " 

" Then it boila. AnA what id boiling I " 

"Bubbling," suggested the young phiJo- 
Bopher'.s mamma. 

"Yes ; but ginger-beer bubbles," said Harry 
" but you woul£i't exactly call that boiling. 



|X' he escaping of Ktoam. Tliat cauaeR 

ib«t liti? in oul V tlie (ri£;ti Utat U*« water boils. 

But wlmt oceiiftinti* lln* v»ctt]ie of ihf gteam T" 

**Th<? hwvt, of course — the — whiiL b Uw 

rijfht woni 1 — the caloric," a(iitwej*e<l Mr. 

^'^TViw ; bat wliat Uoat ! Wiy, tlu' rttc*«8 
of Ileal ovrr two liiiiirlrot! aad tv i- ■' - rcH^a 
—taking tluil iui tUc avcrupo \- i of 

water. Yow aw lieiit wnler u]. ; ^mt, 

And it remaiiw wntcr; Imt every Uejpee of 
hcut yoti cauBc to uatoi into it nlx>ve lliAt. 
iunis n quMJitiiv «>f iTit- wntfr into stc/iiu j ana 
flics otT in the stcnm, luiiesB the st^^ani ]a 
hitwlcrvJ froju eHCn|»iug by cxtriiorclliiary 
firenure. Klow the fire under that kettle 
as much afl you will, and you •will nuiko 
the water boil fiuter, but you won't make it 
a bit hotter tlmu two huiidi-ed and twelvn 

^W«U, to be iiire!" Mre. Wilkinson 

"If wAtvr," continued Harry, "could keep 
em letting hotter and hotter abov** the bulling 
point, why, wc lui^ht have onr potatoeu 
oharrod in the pot, oi- our nuittott bulled to a 
cinder. Wlmn watrr \a oonrtneil in a st»v>ng 
vtM«l — and atrong it njuat U* to provt^nt a 
tremendoiis blow-«j) — eontinevl, I any, ho that 
no Atean) can o»iicaf)«, it luay be heatetl almost 
r«d'hot ; aiifl there is a remel m»de for heat 
iog water imder |>reMnre, oalleil Fnpiti'H 
ingeflrtor, whioh will di§Ml ilnoet anytlung." 

^What an enviablo appiamixM ! ** exctnimed 
Mr. BaKg«B. 

" WeTl»" rcaumo*! llai-ry ; " «o the boillnc 
iK)iut of water drpenda on the degree m 
forciit which the air f>r what not ia preaaing 
on its surCftcc with. The higher the spot on 
whieJi you Iwil your wnt*?r, the lower the 
point it IkmIh at. Thefofore, water boiling at 
the to|> of a nionntuin is not so hot na water 
boiling at the mount/iirj*s bftsc. Tlie Itoiling 
ijoint of water on thr smumit of Mont Blane, 
u Wi low a>» <^»nf hundred and eighty-four de- 
gr<ses. So, if wntoi' must, be at two hundred 
and twelve degtH?e8, to make ^^mmI tea, <lon*t 
choose too high a hill to V»uil<f a teujp<»mnee 
hall on. The heftvicr, also, the air ia, from 
the quautity of moisture in it, the hotter 
water bticoniea before it Ixnihi. If the atmo- 
B])herc were earlwuic iicid ffaa, water would 
get much hotter without boiling than it can 
under " — 

''Presemi arrangementa," iuterpoaed Mr. 

Consisting of a mixture of nitrogen luid 
oxvgcn," continued Harry. *' Water rbcjulres 
only a very low heat to' make it lK>il in an 
exhausted reGeiver^ out of which the air haa 
b«en pumped, bo oa Ut leave none to pj'ea* 
upon )l«t euH'aco. Uwing t.o boiling defjend- 
ing ur»on i^rossiire, you can ;u!tuaily make 
water noil IfV meruit^ of cold,*' 

'* What iie'xt r* aighed Mm Wilkinson. 

''You can, indeed. Put a little boiling 

water in a •alati-oil fl^sk ; so that the floak 
mav be a qimrtcr full, say. (k>rk the ftaak 
hf'htly. Ilie 1 ]«; and the up|>er 

thrci'fourtha > ;. jiii» full of vaponr. 

Squirt a jet of icc cold water ujK»n the 
rtfwk, above whwr* the water ia, and the 
wntt-r below will iijHtantly l>egin to bolt 
Thci reatton *hy, U ihiB. Tlie VHpour in the 
fiisk t • -- - . n the surface of the hot waier. 
The uses the vapour — l\ini» it htktk 

to w I . i.:iL takes off the pre«mtre for the 

time ; and then the liot water direct I) flies 
into vapour, and boile^ and so on, till it cof>iii 
down too low to boil any longer. What 
reihicei* th** I soiling jwint of water on a hill 
or ii ia, that the ]>reAenr(^ of th« 

atni«' leaaee ae you aaeend. A rlee 

of liv. i.iiutu'd and thirty feet in hei|^t 
ab«jve the level of the sea, makea a ditfersooe 
of one d^sgree ; go, give me a kettle of wmt/er 
and a thftnnoiueter, and I *ll tell you exactly 
how n<*ar the moon we are.'" 

*' 1 Rhould'nt think one C50uld make good 
hot mixed puneh up in a balloou, now," ob- 
aa*ved Mr. Baggea, refleotivelv. 

" Then," Hariy proceeded[, " it r«quii*es 
more heat to make water boil in a glaaa veMel 
than it does in a metal one. A metal veeeerit 
Limer surfa4» ia made up of very funall pointa 
and dente. Scratching the iu»ide of the 
glass so as to give it a rou^hneea doni»- 
thiug like what the metal hM, maJras tli« 
boiling ixtiiit lower ; and a law iroo filinp 
thrown into water iKiiling ill glass at two 
hundrc<l and fourteen degrees^ will bring it 
down to two hundred and twelve. The 
filings, and the roughness of the glam, are so 
many more points for the heat tA pitts into 
the water from, and form otsAJS. and the 
water does not cling to thttn so hard .<is it 
clings to a nmooth nirfeoe. Tltrow a lot of 
hay Into a pan of hot water, and it makes a 
quantity ot st4?am rise direotly ; and I have 
hear* I a <loctor say that some fKwr |>«*ople are 
in the habit ofigivisfftiiemKlvet cheap nteam* 
brtthxS by this meana/* 

** A very ^jood thine for rheumatic p^iiuB, I 
should think ; ceilainly a much more rational 
reme<ly than pnteut medicines or Govemmeut 
jioison/* Mr. Jia;,'gaB remarked. 

" There are some salts,^' oontino* 
''which, if dissolved in water, will i 
from Wdlng till it ia heated to two niiuin*! 
and sixty lour degrees, aa if tht-y held the 
wat«r back from flying into strCjim. So, theu, 
the boiling of water muy be hind^in^l, more 
or leaa, by pr^sure from without, iiid at- 
traction from within. The l> it of 
water depends on rtnother n : fact 
which the kettle always mentiuiir^ Vulbro it 
boils, although we don't all of us undei'stand 
the ketil*?'e language. The singing of the 
kettle tella us '*— 

"That tlie water b going to boLV inter- 
nipted mamma. 

"Yea, and that water contAina air. Tlie 
singing of the kettle is the noiae made by the 

iru ,...,•.... 

tUAJSR wiiich ^ 
it would UOL 
hcAteU to iw 

deprived of air. 

tiscatpe of the au*, which is driven off by the 
hcAt. The air sticks »iid linngs iu the water, 
till Ibe heat cxiuajda it aiid makes it rise. 
Put a gljiss of water under the receiver of an 
nir-panifv and exhaust the rfc«iver. As you 
pump, the water l>egins» to bubble, as if it 
were boiling : but the bubbles are the air coii- 
t&iued in the water, beini^ pumiced out. The 

'' ' ^e little 



-o hiinl tluit 

...... - jil, till it was 

I r . d and seventy degrees, 
v I »<>iUiig aame water quite 
And not only that, but 
when it did boil, it would boil all at once, and 
blow M\i with a tremendous explfjeion ; which 
would be ti alill greater inconvenience in 
boiling a kettle." 

•A pietty kettle of fkh, indeed 1 '' Mr. 
Bngres observed. 

•^80," said Harty, " Btrietly pure water 
would not be quite so great a blessing to 
119 as you might think. Of courae, tou 
know, undo, I dou*t mean to say tlLat 
there is anv ft*lvAntAare in the impurity of 
such wnter m the Tlmniea, except when tuKHi 
for the i»ijrjKise of fertilising the earth. I am 
apeaking of water m pure aa to contain no air. 
Wftter of such severe purity would be very 
unnuuiag«able stufll ^o ^m couM live iii 
it, for one thing, I have already given you 
one goo<l reason why it Mould be unsuitable 
to our kettle ; and another ia, that it would 
not be good to dnnk. Then water, as we 
ifind it in the world, has a very useful and 
fticeommodating disposition to find ita own 
level. Pump all the air out of water, how- 
eve r» acd it loses this obliging character in a 
great measure* Suppose f tiuce a beait glaaa 
tube^ and fill one arm of it with airless water. 
Then I turn the tube mouth upwards*, and if 
the water were common water, it would 
instantly run from *me ann into the other, 
aud Btan'l ^* i»*^ same level in Iwth. But if 
the wai Ti exhausted of its air, it re- 

noAiast i>. ^ in the one arm, and won*t 

tali 1 give the table a smart rap, and 
ahake it So, but for the air eonUine*! in 
water, we could not make the water run up 
and down hill as we do. If water were 
depnvL-d of air, Iiondon would be almost 
deprive«l of water/* 

'* And wat-^T," observed Mr. Baggea, " would 
be rol»l»ed of a very valuable property," 

" G*jnyd again," uncle. *^ Now, if we could 
eee thr«*ugh the kettle, we should be able to 
observe the water bjiling in it^ which is a 
curious sijLdit when looked into. To examine 
water Willing, we must boil the water in a 
glasa vessel— a long tube is the beat— heated 
with a eptrit lamp. Then first you see the 
water in nit»tion, and the air bubbles being 
driven otT by llie heat. Aa the water geta 
hotter, other bubbles appear, rising from the 
bottom of the tid>€. They go up flir a little 

way and tlien they elirink, and l)y the time 
they get to the top of the water, yoti can 
haiiily distinjpiiah lliem. Tl:e»e are bubbh-a 
of steam, and they get snmUer d« Ihcy 1 iac, 
liecauae at tli-st the tv-ateria coMoraltove limn 
Iwlow in pro^Mjrtlon to the distance fit>m the 
flajue, and the cold gntdualty condenses the 
bubl>les. But when the wute*' gels tlmrnuirhly 
hot, the Vnibbles grow latter ami rise quicl&cr, 
rani go of the same size nght up to the top of 
tlie water, and there escape — il \t»u choose ta 
let them. And steam was tdIowe«l to escnjie 
so for many many ages, waa'nt it uucle, l»efore 
it Wfia set to work to spitt cotton for the 
worlrl, and tfike ua to America within a. 
fortnight, and whirl ua over the ground 
aa tile crow flies, and almost at a crow's 

"For fdl which;* remarked Mr. Bagm, 
" we have principally to thank what 'aliis 

"Watt wtu hia name, I V»elieve, uncle. 
Well ; heat tuma water into steam, and I 
dure say I need not tell you that a quantity 
of water becoming steam, fills an immenae 
deal more space than it did aa mere water. 
Cold turns the steam Ixick into water, and 
the water fills the some space aa it did before. 
Water, in swelling into steam and ehrinkiug 
back into water again, moves, of coarse, twice, 
and mighty motions these are, and mighty 
uses are iuaile of them, 1 aliould rather 

" I believe yon, my boy," smd Mr. Baggea. 

" And uowj'* aaked Harry, " have you any 
idea of what a deal of heat there is in 
steiim t " 

** It ia hot enough to scald yon,^* answered 
his mamma, " I know that." 

" Yea ; and hot enough, too, to cook 
potatoes. But there is much more heat in it 
than that comes to. Take a k«ttle of cold 
water. See at wliat degree the thermometer 
stands in the water. Put the kettle on the 
fire and observe how long it takes to Iwil. It 
will boil at two lmndr»?tl and twelve degreea ; 
and therefore, during the time it has taken to 
boil, there baa gone into it the ilifTerence of 
heat between two hundred and twelve degrees 
and the degree it stood at when first put on 
the fire. Keep up the same strength of fire, 
so that the heat may continue to go into the 
water at the same rate. I^et the water Iwil 
quite away, and note how long it is in doing 
so. You can then calculate how muoli heat 
has gone into the water while the water has 
been boUiTif» away. You will find that 
quantity of lieat great enough to have made 
tlie water red-hot, if all the water, and all the 
heat, had remained in the kettle. But the 
water in your kettle will have continued at 
two hundred and twelve degrees to the last 
drop, and alJ the atejvm that it ha^ turned into 
will not have been hotter— / to the 

thermometer— than two In : twelve 

degrees ; whereas a red heiit is ou-- thousand 
degrees. The diflference between tvo hundred 


And ^ 



Aud twelve dej^recs and one thousand dtfjn'eea 
if 8ev«n hundred and eiijlity-eight degrees ; 
and what haa become of jdl thiaheftt 1 Why, 
it is eutmdy contained in th<» slvaiii, though it 
does not make the steam hotter. It lies hid 
in the st*.*am, and therefore it is called latent 
heiit. When the steam is condeaaetl, all that 
latent heat corner out of it, and can be felt, 
hbJ ifw i'Mrtntity of it can he meaaared by a 
t) r. The waniith that issuea &oni 

si ; ; nsed to wairn a hooae, ifl the 

latent hvat of the steam that eiOBpea as th« 
8t«aiu tunii4 kiack to water/* 

** Latent heat ! latent heat ! *' ret>eated Mr. 
fiaggee, scratching his hewh " En T Now, 
thAt latent heat alwayft puzzlea me. Latent, 
IjSflg hid. But how can you hide heat 7 
Wlien Lhti! zany in the pantoinline hides the 
red-hot pykor in Idi* Docket, he cnuterises 
hia jwraon. How — eh? — how can heat be 
latent 1 " 

*'Wliy, the word heat has two meanings, 
imolc. In the first place, it means hotnen, 
Hotueaa caimot be latent, aa the clown finds 
when he pocketa the poker. In the second 
place, heat means n something the nature of 
which wc don't know, which ia the cause of 
hotncsB, and alao the CHiise of another effect. 
Whilst it ia causing that other effect, it does 
not cauae hotneaa. That other elfeet which 
heat cauflea in the instance of ateam, is keep- 
ing water in the form of ateam. The heat 
that there is in stoirni, over and above two 
hundred and twelve degrees, is employed in 
this way. It is wholly occupied in preserving 
the water in an expanded state, and can^t 
caubc the mercur}" in the thermometer to 
ox|Mtiid and rise as well. For the same renson, 
it could ^ve you no feeling of hotneas above 
what boiling water would — if you had the 
nerve tfj te*tt it. Whilst it is mttkiiiij steiun 
continue to be ateam, it la hittnt. When the 
ateiuu becomes water again, it has no longer 
that work tii do, and is set free. Fi*ec heat is 
what is commonly understood by heat. Tliis 
is thw heat which ootka our victuals, the heat 
we feel, the heat that singes Mr. Merriman. 
Latent heat is heat that doean't warm, singe, 
or cxKik, becauae it is othei-wise engaged. If 
YOU pnsBB m suddenly into a fiuid^ the latent 
heat of the gas is set free. You seem to 
squeegee it out Indeed, the same thing hap- 
pens, if you violently force any substance into 
a closer form all at once. Everything appears 
to have more or less latent heat in it, between 
its little particles, keeping them at certain 
distances from each other. Compress the 
particles within a jsmaller compass, and a part 
of the latent heat escapes, as if it were no 
longer w:uitetl When a sabetance in a com- 
pressed state expands on a sudden, it draws 
m heat, on the other hand. Wlicn a huW 
bathes her forehead with eau-de-Colt>gue tu 
cure a hea*.lache, the heat of the head enters 
the e&u-de-Cologne, and btxonifs latent in it 
whilst i t evaporates. If you make steam un der 
Vdgh pressure, you can heat it much above 

two hundred and twelve degrees, Suppoao 
vou let ofl* steam, so compressed and heated^ 
liy n wiile hole, from the wiler, and put your 
hand into it as it rufthea out " 

" Wluit ? Why, you 'd scald your hand off I" 
cried Mr. Bagges. 

*' Ko, you wouIdn^t. The st r - • ^ ^ out 
tremendously hot, but it exjiaii s so 

very much, that the heat in it du l .. . . . ; .uuiea 
lat^int in a great measure ; which cools it 
down sufficiently to allow you to hold your 
hand in it without its hurting you. Bat 
then you would have to mind where you 
held your hand ; because wliei^e the steam 
began to condense s^aiu, it would be boiling 

*' I bad rather take your word for the 
experiment than try it, young gentlemai^** 
Mr. Bagges observed. 

" AnoUier very curious thing," proceeded , 
Harry, " in regard to boiling, has been disco- 
vered lately. A kettle might be too hot to boil 
water in. Take a little iSlt of sUver, heated 
very highly ; dip it into wnter. At tirst, you 
have no boiling, and you don't have any at all 
till the silver nas cooled some degrees. Put 
a drop of water into a platinum dish, heated 
in the same way, and it wiU run about without 
boiling till the heat dimiuishee [ and then it 
bursts into steam. M. Boutjgny, the French 
chemist, made this discovery. Vapour forma 
between the drop of water and the reil-hot 
metal, and, being a bad conductor of heat, 
keeps the heat of the metal for 6ome time 
from flowing into the water. Owing to tliis^ 
water, and mercury even, may l»e irvzeu in a 
red-hot Tessel if the experiment is managed 
cleverly. A little more than a couple of cen- 
turies ago, this would have been tljought 

*' And the philosopher/' added ALr. ^^ 
would have been ined instead of his water^ 

drop. Let me see— eh ? — ^wbat do they call 
this singtUar state of water ? " 

**Thc spherddal state," answered Harry, 
" However, that is a state tliat water does not 
get into in a kettle, because kettlea are not 
allowed to become red hot, except when they 
are put carelessly on the fire with no water 
in them, or suiFered tfj remain there after the 
water has boiled quite away ! '* 

*' Which is ruination to kettles," Mis. Wil- 
kinson ohserveil. 

" Of coui*8e it ia, mamma, because at a red 
heat iron begins to unite with oxygen, or to 
rust. Another thing that injures kettlea is 
the fur that collects in them. All water in 
common use contains more or Less of eailhy 
and other salts. In boiling, these things 
separate from the water, and gnwlualiy 
foiTu a fur or crust inside the kettle or 

" And a nice job it is to get rid of it," said 
his mamma. 

" Well ; chemistry has lessened that diffi- 
culty,'* rephed Harry. "The fui' is mostly 
carbooote of lime. In that case, all you have 


to do is to boll some aul-ammoniiic — otherwise 
tDuruite^ or more properly hydrochlorate ol 
amnjoiiiaF — in the ftirred vessel. Tlie hydro- 
ohioiic lucid unites with the lime, .'uid the 
earboaic acid goes to the ammoum. Both the 
compowndjB formed in this way di^olve and 
fWuaii nvrtky ; and bojoul may cleau the foulest 

liler or kettle. Tni« is a rather important 

'^fliacovery ; for the effect of fiir in a kt^ttle ia 

to oppose the passage of heat, and therefore 

to oocaaion the moro fuel to be required to 

)U wnter in it, which is a serious waste and 
'•crpense when vou have a large steam -boiler 
to dexd with. br. Faraday mentiona the case 
of a Ctoveminent steamer that went to Trieste, 
ajid during the voyage had so much fur 
formed in her boUer as to oblige all her 
to be consumed, and then the engineers 
forced to bum Fpars. rigging, bolk* 
and even chopped caoles, ana to use 
up every shaving of spare timber in the ship, 
Soot tmdemeath the kettle, as well as fur 
inside it, is a hindrance to boiling, as it ia a 
bod conduetor ; and that ia the reason why 
one ean bear to hold a kettle of hot water, 
which ifl very aooty on its under surface, on 
the flftt of the hand. So a black kettle doesn*t 
give out its heat readily to what touches it, 
and so far it is good to keep water hot ; but 
it gets rid of heat in another way ; as I dare 
aay von know, uncle." 

** feh r* said Mr. Ba^es, *' why, what 1-^ 
no^I did know sometlung about it the other 
day — but I Ve auch a memory ! — and — eh 1-^ 
no — I 'v© quite forgotten it." 

" By radiation, jou know. All warm 
bodies are constantly giving off rays of heat, 
as Bhioing ones are giving oflF ra)*s of light, 
although the heat-rays are invisible." 

"How do we know that f asked Mr, 

a couple of concave mirrora — a sort of 
copper basuie^ polifilied iufflde. Stand them 
fifcce to ta£&, acme yards apart. Put a hot 
iron ball — not red hot — in the focus of one 
mirror. Put a bit of phosphorus in the 
focus ot the other. The Dhoaphonis wiH 
take fire ; though without tne mirrors you 
' ' V it much nearer the hot iron, and 
i not burn. So we know that there 
oi^ i. » T ri heat, because we can reflect them 
na we can raya of light. Some things radiate 
better than others. Thoee that have bright 
metal surfaces radiate worst, though such are 
what arc used for reflectors. If their surfaces 
are blackeneii or roughened, they radiate 
better, A bright kettle gives off fewer rays 
of heat than a bhick one, and so far, b better 
to keep water hot in. But then, on the 
other hand, it yields more heat to the air, 
or the Lob or hearth tliat it stands ujjon 
—if colder than itself. The bright kettle 
givtis off heat in one way and the black in 
anr*ti,»., I ilon't know at what comparative 

'ue, and half-a-dozen of the other," 
Mr, iiagges suggested. 

"Now look at the wonderful relations ot 
the kettle, uncle ♦" 

" Relations ?— Eh ?— what the pot and the 
aaucetHin I " said Mj- Rogjies. 

^ Oh, oh, uncle ! Ko ; its reUtiofna to the 
pressure of the atmosphere and every cauao 
that affects it — to the conveyance, and con- 
duction and radiation of heat^ — to latent heat 
or caloric, to the properties of water, to che- 
mical decomposition — and to steam and its 
astonishing marvels, present and to <-ome !*' 

" Well," said Mr. Bagges, it is wcmderfiil j 
and the kettle certainly is y&ry I'e^jpectably 
connected. Eh ? And I hope to proflt by the 
subject of our conversation j and so, I aay 
pour me out a cup of tea." 


The tongling wealth by June amoaaed 
Left rock and ruin vaguely seen : 

Thick i^y-csbles held them fast ; 
Light boughs descended, floating greea. 

Slow turned the stoit^, a hreathlcsa height ; 

And flur above they set me free^ 
When all the £uks of golden light 

Were doauig down into the sea. 

A window half way up the wall 
They led to J yet so high was that^ 

The t^cst trees wore but ao tall 
Aa just to reach to where I sat 

Alod within the mouldered tower 
Dork ivy fringed its round of aky ; 

Where slowly in the deepeoing hour 
The Erst new stars unveiled on hjgh* 

The rustling of the foliage dim. 
The mui-mur of the cool grev tide,— 

With teare that trembled on the brim. 
An echo and to these I sighed. 

earth, I sighed, full strange it 
I weep to feel how &ur thou art ! 

O heaven, instinct with tender boama; 
It is thy mildness wrings my heart ! 

tide, no smalleBt wave there runs 
lu dying ripples round thy shore. 

But murmurs, " What thou owned'st onoe^ 
Is lo6t, aud loat for ovormore ! " 

Moeit faintly faUs thy ceaseless tune ; 

Tbo cloud along the aunset sleeps ; I 
The bhantom of the golden moon 

la kindled in thy quivering deeps. 

Meseema a magic term I fill. 

Fixed in this ruin-window etrauge ; 

Through yeara of audneaa watching atiU 
A moon, a sea, that never change. 

And yet the moon ia mounting slow ; 

And yet the aea is ebbing &st ; 
And from the du^ niche 1 go ; 

And this^ Uke former dreams, ia peat 

And other clearer voices call 

To towers that are not builded yet ; 

And, stepping from the perished wall. 
My feet on ateadiast earth I set 



lCoiil»eM4 If 


ijj TWO cuirrr-ns. — t'lurxKH i. 

Or a IniJiilret! traveUera who Hpcnd a iii^'lit 
al TrO-M:uloc, in Nortli Walce, tt>erc i* not 
one, pcrlmps who goc« to the neij;^)l>o«nng 
-village of IVn-Moi?ft. llic new town, Iniilt 
by >1j'. Sliuldocks, Shrlley'e fiiei>i1, hria taken 
awAy id\ tlie importance of tlic nncitTit 
%Tll.*ij;e— fonuciiy, :ia its nwii'? iDi|>or(s, " the 
heft*! of th^ uuirali;" thai maiBh wliirli 
Mf ^* '' ks <!rjuiio<1 and dykt-U, and n- 
ch( I he Trarth Muwr, till 1 'en-Marf;^ 

a^r; < I Is of whose cottajfjca the 

wi 1 iti fornif r dav8, liJia come 

to I diy, throe milea from the 

Bt>a, on ft disused road to Cii/(?nmrvon, I do 
not think thore has hcen a new cottAj^e built 
in Pen-MurfA thia hunib-ed years ; nix^ many 
an ohi on<^ hiis dates in some ol>scnre corner 
which tell of the rtflecmth century. The 
)o')8t« of tirnl*er, where they m©et overhewl, 
are bbckoned with Iht* stuoke of centuries. 
There is on*' Inrjjje room, round winch ilie 
b^da arc built like cupboards, with wikhIcu 
doorg to op*'n a»»d shut ; «t»mewhat in the old 
Sootcli fjiHmuUj J iuiftgine ; and below the bed 
(nt IcAst, iu one iiiBtazioe I cmi testify thnt 
this wiw the Cftse, /uid I was told it wiui not 
uncoramou,) i^ a mat wide wooden drawer, 
which couUdue«l the oAt-cake baked for Bome 
mortths' consumption by the family. Tliey 
call the pi'omonti:)i'y of Llyn (the point at the 
en<l of CHornarvoiwhiro), Wet^h Wales ; I 
thijik thev luight call Peoi-MorlH n Wtlsh 
Welsh village ; it is so national iu its wavH, 
Aitd buildihx^, and inhabitant's, and so dif- 
fereutfi'om uie towns and haralets into which 
the £uf;ti«h Ihronff in eunimer. How theae 
eaid iidiabitaut^ of Pen-Morfa ever are dia- 
tioguifihed by their names, I, unitiated, can- 
not tell. 1 only know for a fact, that in a 
family thero with which I am acquainted, the 
eldest 9011 'a name Is John Jones, because his 
father's was John Thomas ; that the second 
son is called David Wlliams", because his 
grantlfatlier waa William Wynn, and that the 
girls aiv. called indiscriminately by the nonjes 
of Thomas and Jonea. 1 have heard liome of 
the Welsh chuckle over the way in whicli 
they have baltlcd iha Vtarristers at Caernarvon 
Aseizfs, denying the name under which they 
had been BubiKi^naed to give evidence, if they 
were unwilling witnoBseK, I could tell you of 
a gre-at deal wliich ia iKJCuliai- antl wild in 
theae true Welsh people, who are what I 
«uppo«e we English were a century ago ; but 
I must hasten on to my tale. 

I have reccive^l great, true, beautiful kind- 
new from one of the members of the family of 
whom I juHt nowflpokt? as living at Pen-Morfa ; 
and when I foimd that they wished me to 
drink tea witli them, I gladly did so, though 
ray friend v,ns tlie only one in the house, who 
oould Bp«ik English at all fltiently. After 
tea» I went with thcra la «ec some of their 
finendu ; ard it woa then 1 saw the interiora 

each side of 

we wiiDi in 

• Toetl to 


:r> She 

of the ho\i«e« of which I have epoken. ft 
wns lui nntumji evening ; we left n\ellow 

SUnMet-lI'Ut In llu. i,r...T» ■',;r «tw-r, v .. ..,.f.,,.^^ 

the ho in 

the rii ^ _ the 

windows wvvv very BmaJl, and deep fci in the 
thick walla. Here were an ohl couple, who 
welcomeii nie in Webb, and brougla forth 
milk and oat-cake with palriarchril hoHplulity. 
Sons and ihuighterB had mairjed away from 
them ; they livnA. alone ; ho waa blind, or 
nearly so j and they f: " 
the fire, so old and ^ 
and bi'oke the silcnrt,, ... 
tns listvning for Doath. A 
lived a woman atcni and st \ 
was busy hiving a swarm of bees, aluue and 
uiiafisisted. I do not tltiidc my compai>iop 
would have cho.sen to Fpeak to her, but weing 
her out in her hill-didc garden, she ma*le some 
enquiry in Welnh, whieii was aiutwered in the 
most mournful tone I ever heard in my life ; 
a voice of which the freshneaa and ** timbre '* 
had been choked up by tears long years ago. 
I aakcd who she waa. I dar<* tsAy tf\e story la 
common enough, but the sight of i\w wotmui, 
and her few words had impressed me. She 
had be«n the beauty of Pen-Morfa ; had h^ai 
in Ber>'ice ; luul been taken to L<mdon by tho 
family whom she served ; Ijad come down, in 
a year or bo, back to Pen•Morf}^ her beautv 

fone into that sad, wild, despairing look whicn 
SAW ; and she about to oecome a motlien 
Her father had died during her ' aid 

I left her a very little money; ; Ip»>p 

' child waa born she took the 1 i^ 

where I saw her, and made a 6Cm 
the produce of her be^, STu* n~ ; 1 1 

no one. One event had m ;> 1 

distrustful to her kind ."^ _ i fi 

aloof that it was some time before- it LHrouno 
known that her child was dtpformeil, and had 
lost the tise of its lower limbs. Poor thing 1 
when I saw the mother, it had been for fiidecrn 
yeara 1 ' - ' ; but go past when j'Oii 
would, ht, yt>u saw a light b\i ruing j 

it W!w -Ml' II uiut of the watching mother, 
Bolitar)' and friendless, soothing the moaning 
child ; or you might hoar her crooning eome 
old Welsh air, m liope« to Rtill the pain with 
tho loud, monotonous music. Her sorrow 
was so iliguified, a&d her mute endurance and 
her patient love won her such reeywct, that 
the ueighlwurs would fain have been friemis ; 
but she kept alone and sjobtary, TltiH is a 
most true story. I h< : und her 

child are dead now, an »ve. 

Another story which j nvwu 'm iheseold 
prinaitive dwelimgs I mean to tell at some- 
what greater length : — 

There are rodcs high above Pen-Morfa; 
they are the same that hang over Tr? ?\T;idoc, 
but near Pen-Morfa they sweep ^re 

lost in the plain. Ever}'whciX' t h e \ i ul. 

Tlve great sharj) ledgci* which would other- 
wise look hard and cold, ait^ ailMrnc«l with the 
bnghtest^ooloured mofis, and the golden 



Close ti^i yoM B«e the scfurlet leaves of the 
crwicVbill. wkI the tofta of purple heather, 
whkh till up every cleft And craoBj ; but In 
th<t diMance you see ouly the general effect of 
ir ' Itueaa of coloui*, broken Lei-e and 

tl >3»t maves of ivy- At the foot of 

tiiCTc *^>eivB come a rich veriknt meadow or 
two i tod then yon ai-e at Peu-Morfa, Tlie 
liUbige weU is sharp down un^I. r tlie rocki). 
Then ftTQ one or two l&i pieces of 

tUUM in that last &eld, ou r i adiii^ to 

the wdl, which are always slippery ; sUppery 
In tJie euiumer'a heat, ahuottt aa much as io 
tli« &oBt of i^iiiter^ when some little ghtasy 
stream that runs over them in turned into a 
thin abeet of ice. Many, many years hiwk — 
a lifetime ago— there lived iu Feu-Moi-fu a 
widow and her daught4»r. Very Uttk id re- 
quired in those out-of-the-way Wekh vdlagoa 
The wants of the people are ver>' simple. 
Shelter, fire, a little ocit-cake and buttermiUc. 
and garden produce ; perbapa mma pork and 
faaooo fiN>m the pig iu winter ; clothing, which 
ii principally of home manufacture, and of the 
moat enduring kind : thete take very little 
money to purchase, eapecially in a district 
izito which the large capitali^ have not yet 
oome, to buy up two or thuM fhcrea of the 
jM<Mfttji« ; oud nearly eveij man about Ban* 
tAnrfa owned, at the time of which I speak, 
dwt^llif ' ;.rn1 <r,me land beside. 
Jle. I rited the cottage (by the 

hand as you go from Ti-fi- 
Hadoc w reu-jVloriaX in wluch «he and her 
huBband haii lived all their luarried life, and 
m noaU garden ftlopiDe aoathwarda, in which 
\tr \ie*m Ungerdd bemre winging their way 
1 * e distant heather. She took rans 

neighbours as the pofise^H^r of a 
axMitrMte independence — not rich, and not 
poor. But Uie young roeu of Pen-Morfa 
thought her verr rich in tlie posseHaion of a 
moat bveiy daughter. Most ol us know how 
very jwetty Wewh women are ; but from all 
aeeounta, f^^tt Gwynn (Nest, or Nesta, is the 
WeUli for Agnet) was more reguhirly beauti- 
fol than any one for miles around. The Welsh 
are still fond of ti-iiula, and " as beautiful as a 
summer's momiug at sun-rioe, as a white sea^ 
ffuU on the green sea-wave, and as Nest 
Wwynn,'' id yet a saying in that district. Nest 
knew she wns beautiful, and drlighted in 
H^ JT' •■ ii...M.^r sometiro*^ ..i.^..l-,^i y^^^ m 
her J I and eomc nded her 

that I" a great- -J (for the 

Welsk are a vivry pious people) ; but when she 
began her little homily, Nest came dancing to 
her, and knelt down before her and put ner 
fiwe up to be kisse^l, and eo with a sweet 
'> 11 Bhc Btoni>ed her mother's lipa. 

j'irits maae some tew shake their 
nwi some calle<l her a flirt and a 
e ; for she could not help tiying to 
all, both old and ym?' ■' ^ •• i^ ^'v-f; fuid 
A Yen' littk (in 1 fur 

this ] a sweet ghttering aiui.,, ., . . i ,. Lmd- 
ueMA, a merry gUnce, or a little sympathy, all 

f ed and attracted ; she was like the 

1 child, and drowed inestimable 
gUL^s. Uut some, who had interpreted her 
smiles and k'md words rather ns their wi^lu^ti 
led them tluui ii» they were really ^'^ 1. 

fouiid that the l>eautiful^ beaming "^ 
Ihl! decide* I and saucy enough, aini r?- . 
revenged themselves by call'mg her a fl:i 
Her mother heard it and sighed; but >«c--l 
only laughed. 

^t was her work to fetch water for the 
day's use from the well I told you alxmt. 
Old people say it was the prettiest sight in 
the world to see her oome steppinj,' figlttly 
and gingerly over the stones, with the pad ot 
water l»alauced on her head ; she was too 
adroit to need to steatly it with her hand. 
The;^ say, now that they can afford to be 
chaiitable and speak the truth, that Ln all her 
dianges to other people, there never was a 
better daughter to a widowed mother than 
Nest, There is a picturesque old fiirm-house 
under Moel Gwynu, on the road from Ti*^ 
Madoc to Criccaeth, (»lled by some Welsh 
name which I now fwet ; but it* meaning in 
Engliah is "The End of Time;" a stranpe, 
boding, ominous name. Perhaps the builcu^r 
meautnis work to endure till the end of time*. 
I do not Icnow ; but tliere the old bouse 
stands, and will stand for many a year. 'Wlien 
Neat was young, it belonge<l to one Edward 
Williams ; his mother was dead^ and people 
said he was on the look-out for a wife. They 
told Nest so, but she tossed her head and 
reddened, and said she thought hu might look 
long before he got one ; so it was not atran^e 
that one morning when she went t^ the well, 
one automn morning when the dew lay hea^*y 
on the graa^ and the thrushes were busy 
among the mountain-ash berries, Edw^am 
Williams hapi^eued to be there on his way 
to the coursing match near, and somehow his 
greyhounds threw her paU of water over in 
their romping play, antl she was very long 
in tilling it sgmn ; and when she came home 
she threw her arms round her mother*s neck, 
and in a passion of jovous teara told her that 
Edwani Williams of 'The End of Time, had 
asked her to marry him, and tliat slie ha^l 

Eleanor Gwynn shed her tears too ; but 
they fell quietly when she was alone. She 
was thankful Nest had found a protector- 
one suitable in age imd apparent character, 
and above her infortune ; but she knew she 
Hliould miss her sweet daughter in a thousand 
household ways ; miss hei* in the evenings by 
the lire-side [ miss her when at night she 
wakened up with a start fi'om a dream of her 
youth, and saw her £ur face lyin^ calm in 
the moonlight, niilowed by her siae. Then 
she forgot her oream, and blessed her child, 
and slept again. But who could be m seltish 
as to be sad when Nest was so supremely 
lia}jpy ] She danced and sang more than 
ever ; and tlicn sat silent, and smile^l to 
hefwslf : if spoken to, she started and came 








back to tbe present with & Bcurlet bluAh, 
which told what she baii been thinking of. 

Tbiit was a B\tirj)y,happy,encKanted ftutumn. 
But the winter wxus nign at hand ; and with 
it came aoirow. One line frosty morning, 
Neat wont out with her lover — abe to the 
well, he tc> Bome fiimiiug bnainesB, which was 
tt> be t>Tfmsaeted at the little inn of Pen- 
Moi^a, He waa hito for his appointment j so 
he left her at the entrance of tne village, and 
hftstened to the inn ; and she, in her liest 
clonk and new bat (put on against lier 
niother*s advice ; but they were a recent 
pnrchftae, nnd very becomini^,) went through 
the Dol Mawr, raiiiant with love and happi- 
ness. One who lived until lately, met ber 
going down towai'ds the well^ that monaiBg ; 
and ftaid he turned round to look after ber, 
she Reemed unusually lovely. He wondered 
at tbe time at her wearinfr her Sunday 
clothei* ; for the pretty, hooded blue-cloth 
cloak is kept among the Welsh women as a 
churcth and market garment, and not com- 
monly used even on the coldest days of 
winti^r for such houseboM errands aa fetching 
water from tho well. However, as be said, 
" It wju* not jfMTsaible to look in her &oe, and 
'fault* anythmg she wore." Down the sloplng- 
etones the girl went blithely with her j^>ail. 
8ho filled it at tbe well ; and then 8he took 
off her hat, tied the striJigH together, nnd 
elnng it over her arm ; she lifted the heavy 
pail nnd balanced it on her heaiil. But alas I 
:u going up the smooth, tdippery, treacherous 
rocK» the encumbrance of her cloak — it might 
by such a trifle as her slung hat — Bometbuig, 
at any rate, took away lier evennesaa of poiae ; 
the freaiiet bad fi-ozen on tbe slanting atone, 
and w:lh one coat of ice ; poor Nest fell, ana 
put out ber hip. No more flaahing rosy 
colour on that sra'eet face — no more look of 
beaming innocent hai>pioess j — instead, there 
Wfui d^ly pallor, and ftlniy eyes, over which 
dark nhadea seemeti to chase each othi^r as 
the ehoots of agony grew more and more» She acreamed once or twice ; but 
the exertion (involuntary, and foroeti out of 
her by excessive pain) overcame her, and she 
fainted. A child coming an hour or so after- 
wards on tbe aame errand, saw lier lying 
there iee^glued to the Rtone, and thought she 
was dead. It flew crying back. 

" Nest Gwynn ia dead ! Nest Gwynn i» 
dearl !" and, cnuty with fear, it did not stop 
until it hmi hid its head in its mother's laii. 
Tbe village waa alarme^l, and a!l who were able 
went in naate towards the well. Poor Neat 
bad often thought she was dying in that 
dreary hour; hwl taken fainting for death, 
and struggled agaiiist it ; and praj-cd that 
Goil would keep her alive till she could see 
her lovcr*a fiace once more ; and when she did 
eee it, white with ten*oi', bending ovta* her, she 
^ave a feeble smile, and kt herself faint away 
mto unconsciousness. 

Many a month she lay on her bed unable to 
move. Sometimea the was delirious, some- 

timea worn-out into tl^e deepest depre8«>ion. 
Through all, her mother watched ber with 
temlerest care. The neighboun would com© 
and offer help. They would bring present* of 
coimtry dainties ; and I do not suppose that 
there wan a better dinner than onlinary 
cooked in any bouflehold in Pen-Moifa pariah, 
but a jxjrtion of it was sent to Eleanor Gwynn, 
if not for lier sick daughter, to try and tempt 
her heraelf to eat and be strengtheueH ; for to 
no one would she delegate tho duty of watching 
over her child. Rlward Williams wiis for « 
long time moat aasiduoufl in his inquiries and 
attentions ; but bv-and-by (ah ! vou see the 
dark fate of poor Nest now), be BWkeueil, «o 
little at first tliat Eleanor blamed herself for 
her jealousy on her daughter's behalf, and 
chid her suBpicious heart. But as spring 
ripened into summer, and Nest was still bed- 
ridden, Edward's coolness was visible to more 
than the p<x>r mother. The neighljoura would 
have spoken to her about it, but she shrunk 
from tbe subject as if they wei'e probing a 
wound. " At any rate,*' thought she, '* Neet 
shall he strong before she is told alx»ut it. 
I wUl tell lies — I shall be forgiven — but I 
must save my child ; and when she is stronrar 

IterhapB I may be able to comfort her. Cm I 
wish she would not speak to him so tenderly 
an<l tnist fully, when she is delirious. I ^H)\^\a 
curse him when she does." And then Nest 
would call for her mother, and Eleanor would 
go, and invent some strange story about iho 
Buimnonses E<iward bad had to Cacniarvon 
assizes, or to Harlech cattle market. But at 
last she waa driven to ber witii^ eutl ; it waa 
three weeks since be had even stopped at the 
iloor to enquire, and Eleanor, niad with 
anxiety alwut her child, who was silentlj 

flitting off to death for want of tidings of h«r 
over, put on her cloak, when she hoiJ lulled 
ber daughter to sleep one fuie June evening^ 
and set otT to **The End of Time." The grcSb 
plain which stretches out like an ampbi-* 
theatre^, in tbe liulf-oirol« of hills formed by 
tbe I'anges of Moel Gwjnm and the TrB- 
Manioc Kocks, w«s all golden-green in the 
mellow light of aunaet. To Eleanor it might 
have been black with winter frost, ftbe never 
noticed outwfird thine tiU she reached 
The End of Time ; and there, in tlie little 
farm-y(U'd, she was brought to a senjae 
of her preaent hour and errand l*y seeing 
Edward. He was examining wome hay, 
newly stacked ; the aii- wm aocntetl by ita 
fi'agrance, and by the lingering sweetiieas of 
the breath of *the cows. When Edward 
tiiiTieti roimd at the footstep and saw 
Eleanor, he coloured and looke<l confused ; 
however, be came forward to meet her in ft 
conlial manner enough, 

" It *s a fine evening," said he, " How is 
Nest 1 But, indeed, you're being here is a 
sign she is better. Won''t you conie in and 
sit down f " He spoke hui-reilly, as if aHeoting 
a Welcome which he did not feel. 

'' Thank you. Ill iust take this mUkifig* 



' -rn here. Tlie open air ia like 

\ ^ abut up 30 l«.>iig-" 

" ll i^ a k<ii^ time," he replied, " moro thnn 
fiv*]i iDontlia." 

^' * v>Tiii was ti-cmbling^ at li^art. She 
1. r which slie did not wi^h to show ; 

f<>i, .; -,, m.iiii festal ions of temper or re- 
8eiitui«:*iiit she leaaened or broke the wiiuiug 
thr^Ail of attfichment which bound hiiu to her 
dmigltter, ahe felt she should never forgive 
heraelC Slie kept inwardly saying, " Patience, 
Mtience ! lie may be true and love her yet ; " 
oat her LndigDant convictions gave her words 
the lie, 

" It *» a long time, Edward Williams, since 
yon Ve V»ecn near us to ask after Nejit ; " said 
fthe. *' Slie may be bett«:r, or she may be 
worse, for aught jxm know." She looked up 
at him reproachfully, but stpoke in a gentle 
qtjiel tone, 

** I— you see the hay baa been a long piece 
of work. The weather has been fi-actious — 
and a roaster^s eye ia needed. Beades," said 
hej as if he had found the rcaaon for which he 
•ought bj account for his absence, **I have 
Ikeaix) of her from Kowland Jones. I was at 
the surgery for some horee-mediclne — he told 
me .^bout her ; " and a shade came over his 
fece, ;is he remembered what the doctor had 
paid. Did he think that shade would escape 
the mother's eye ? 

*■ Yoti saw Rowland Jones ! Oh, man-alive, 
tell me what he said of my girl ! He 'll say 
nothing to me, but just hems and haws the 
more 1 pray him. But you will tell me. You 
must tell me," She stood up and spoke 
In u lone of conmiand, which his feeling 
i: ' ' " , weakened just then by an 
:. nee, di<i not enable him to 

it«i-... jir ^, i\>ve to evade the question, 

" It was an luducky day that ever she went 
to the weU ! " 

Tell me what the doctor said of my 
repeated Mrs. Gwyiin, "Will ahe 

re, or will she die 1 " He did not dare to 
disot)ey Iht* iniperious tone in which this 
question was put. 

*'0h, ahe yn\{ live, don't be afraid. Tlie 
doctor fenid she would Hve.** He did not mean 
to lay any ]^HK'aliar emphaais on the word 
"live," but ??omehow he did, and she, whose 
every nerve vibrated Tvnth anxiety, caught the 

" She will live ! " repeated she. ** But there 
is something behind. TeU me, for I wDl know. 
If you won't say, I *li go to Rowland Jones 
to-fught and make him tell me what he has 
siud t*) you." 

There had passed something in this con- 
rereation between himself and ^e doctor, 
which Edward did not wish to have known ; 
smd Mrs. Owynn's threat had the desired 
eflbct* Rut he looked vexed and irritated. 

" You have such impatient waj^ with you, 
Mrs. Gwynn," he remonstrated. 

** I am a mother asking news of mj sick 

child," stud she. " Go on. Wliat did he say ? 
She'll live — "iw if ^ving the clue. 

" She '11 hvc. he has no doubt of that. But 
he thinks — now don't eleueh your hands so— 1 
can't teU you if you look in that way ; you 
are enough to frighten a man." 

" I 'm not sneuddng," said she in a low 
husky tone. " Never mind my looks : she 'U 

'* But she '11 be a cripple for life.— There ! 
you would have it out," said he, sulkily. 

** A cripple for life," repeated she* slowly. 
" And I 'm one-and-twenty years older than 
she ia ! " She sighed heavilj'. 

" And, as we Te about it, I 'U just tell yott 
what is tn my mind," said he, humed and con* 
fused, " I Ve a d^ of cattle ; and the farm 
makes heavy work, as much as an able healthy 
woman can do. So you see — " He stoppeo, 
wishing her to understand his meaning with- 
out words. But she would not. She tixed 
her dark eyes on him, as if reading hia soul, 
till he flinched imder her gaze. 

** Well," said she, at length, "say on. Re- 
member I Ve a deal of work in me vet, auc 
what strength is mine is my daughter's," 

^' You 're very good. But, altogether, you 
must be aware, Nest will never be the same 
as she was." 

"And you Ve not yet «wom in the iace of 
God to take her for better, for worse j and, 
as ahe is worse " — ahe looked in his face, 
caught her breath, and went on — '^ as ahe ia 
woi-se, why, you cast her o^ not being church- 
tied to her. Though her body mav be crip- 
pled, her poor heart is the same— olaa !— and 
full of love for you. £dward, yon don*t 
mean to break it oflf because of our sorrows. 
You Ve only trying lue, I know," said she, aa 
if Ihcgging him to assure her that her fears 
were ud^ "But, you see, I'm a foolish 
woman — a poor foolish woman — ^and ready to 
take fright at a few words." She smiled up 
in his tace ; but it was a forced doubting 
smile, and his face still retained its snUen 
dogged aapect. 

"Nay, Mrs, CJwynn," eaid he, " you spoke 
truth at first. Your own good sense tola yon 
Nest would never be fit to be any man's wilo 
— unless, indeed, she could catch Mr, Gtilliths 
of TjTiwntyrybwlch ; he might keep her a 
carriage, may-be." Edward really did not 
mean to be imfeeling ; but he was obtuse, 
and wished to carry off his embarrassment by 
a kind of friendly joke which he had no idea 
would sling the poor mother as it did. He 
was startled at her manner. 

"Put it in wortl^ like a man. Wlmtever 
you mean by my child, say it lor yoursel \\ and 
d<m't speak as if my gooi sense had told me 
anything. 1 stand ' here, doubting my own 
thoughts, cursing my own fears, Don 1 1)e a 
coward. I ask you whether you and N«t 
are troth-plight 1 " 

** I am not a cowai-d. Since you ask me, I 
answer^ Neet and I uere troth-plight ; hut we 
are not. I cannot— no one would expect me 




LC4jb4AcM4 ky 


tnniOiT to 
the riood- 

' .. ' ■■••y. 
c^iiuc ; V, ii.ti. an 
r;uais MUiltleiily 
do in; litjhtmug 

to wed a cripple. It *» your own doing I 've 
told you now ; I hnd fUAcle ii]i my mind, 
but I tthould Imve waited a Hi before telling 

"Very well/' «.iid ft! ' 

go nwjiy ; but her \\ 
mites, uud swept away .iii^< i 
Rion^lit. She moved itiid gtcnv i 
Her lip}* pru^Unl, bi;* "^ .-. i..|,l 
h>*8toncnl mot.iuij y\ 
up to hi'uven, 119 ii 

towanls the ^j-ey old houKe to whk^li ahe 
pointiHl aa th«y fell, and then she spoke : — 

" The widow's cliUd vt uutrieuded, A» 
imrwly na th<» iS?iviour broucht the Hon of a 
widow fi 1 1 to life, lor her tear« iumI 

cries, Kt> I God and Hia angels watch 

over my A-ni, :iu'\ av.iij' her cruel wrongs.'^ 
She turned uway nv. ].,i ,. uud wringing ner 


EdwBinl went in-doors ; he hsid no more 
dc«ir« to reckon hin ittores ; ho sat by the 
lire, looking gloomily ht the red a«hes. He 
might have been there liair-tuidiour or moio. 
whvn tome ouc knockL*d at the door. He 
would not apeaik. Ue wonted no one*« oom- 
p«oy. Another knrjck sharp and loud. Ue 
did not apeak. Then the visitor oi>ened the 
do' 1 ' I TiBe — alruottt to his 

all: i!L canie in. 

*• i Mi-.> v.-M i>. 1.- ii- re. I knew you couM 
not ^(t out into thn clear, h<^4y nigid, a"* if 
nolhmc hml happened, <di ' .IJ I cuiiie yoii / 
It' I did, 1 beg you to I ; and 1 will 

try anil ?iak the AUuigl ^ you, if you 

Will but have a iitlli^^* merry — a very Utile. 
It will kill my Newt if Hhe know« the tmth 
now-*«»he in so very weak. Why, ahe cannot 
ftved homelf, ftho ia so low and ffebl«», Ymu 
would not wi«h to kill her, I think, Etlwjird ! '* 
She kniked at liirn aa if expecting an answer ; 
bnt he did not «i»euk. She went down on her 
knees on ih«« iLv^A Uy him. 

" You will give me a little time, BJwarrI, T«' 
get her strong, won't you, now j I ask it * 
my l>eitded Ktiecji I Perhaps, if I pnjmir 
never to curse you a^^aln, you will come »oaie- 
tiraea to nee l>er, till she is well enouch to 
know how all is over, and her heart* hopea 
cru»he«l. Oidy say you 11 come for a month, 
or »o, Afl if you still loved her— the poor 
cripple — forlorn of the world. I *ll get htr 
strong, and not t«x you long." Her tears fell 
too (nMt for her to go on. 

"Get tjp, Mr«, Gwynn," Edwartl iiaid, 
" Don't kneel to mo. 1 have no objection to 
ooroe and see Nest, now and then, so that jdl 
l» clear between you and me. Poor thiuf,* ! 
I *m Borry, as it happens, ahe 'a bo tak«n up 
with the thought of me." 

" It waA likdy, waa not it I imd you to have 
b»jen her husband before thin time, if— Oh, 
miserable me ! lo let my child go and rlim 
her bright lii'e ! But you 'U forgive me, and 
come aometimcfl, iust for a little quailer of an 
hour, once or twice a-week. Perliape she '11 
b« asleep Bometimes when yua call, and then, 

you know, you nee<l not come In. If aha 
were not m ill, I \[ never ask vou." 

So low and humble wna tfics poor widow 
brtmj^ht, tlirough her exceeding love for her 




Facts have come to our knowlcdL^e sinof 
the publieation of ** The Life mid Ltiboura of 
Lieutenaut W;ighiim/' * whieh Umi\ wi'y 
much to absolve tin- '"' ,rid the 

Eitgi India Cotupany niton of 

not having duly rewium^i ..n. >» a^hoin for 
hiR i»4M*\ncoBf nor ad«qu;U«ly peu»ioneil hia 

It appeiars, beyond all doubt, tliat bwiidea 
having beeu promoted to the rank uf Lieutenant 
in tlie Navy, aoUly for hia onetxy in ypening 
the Overland Houto (for Mr. \^':i>jh jrn liad 

not been, durin;^ s<.«ne time, acti^t 
in Hit Majpiitv''* wrvitv), h*' r» 

hi- '■ ' ■ ' ■ 

t: usury 
V Th« 

■ ■•Ii 


icTrieMt4;$ routs, waa one for boll 1 
Hia claim waa aix thousand pom,.. , 
BiMU'd awaixled to the Lientenroit 1 
thmi two thouadnd poumlii : fom m 
jxaniiU were iiecordiuijly paMl ii 
fur that special service. This lii- 
waa not, however, without auUtetiueut egm- 

When the Qu»\«<tionof Lieutenant Waglioni'l 
general sorvieeii waa brought furwxuxl, tha 
a . . ■ ' . ■•■ ■• ";-:.ut 

oi 1 he 

SailH.- itni«- a « i.-iti Lit, 11 mr ^■^,^^^l Ijiuiii »^«jm- 

uany would coiue fut wni-iJ with the hko sum* 
The Directors, howevt^r nr.r.ii, ,1 ...uNerting 
the craiit into a life ;i 1 it at 

Iwo uu]jdri.'d 



was alierwainU pla 1 ii 
order of the Qucrcu, i i va 
liuuJrcd ixur auuum. The Blnte of titu Cund 
wa.**, however, Huch, that the penaiou could 

«1; but 

. a pay 
of two 

n Lieu- 

m1 K;i3t 


r 1:1; it Wil- 
li hun- 
A\ aumt of 
another lif^e penaion for the tike amuttuL 

We, ip »->►»»"■. fi with maiiv ..r .i.* .oiitem* 
porarit > have e< i^tated 

(on aulJ J . . could not at -•• doubt) 

not then (1846) be f 
in order tlmt Licutfi 
RUtttaiiJ no loss from thir> * n 
ment wnji ma^lu <^iunu^ tli« 
hundred pountls out ol the ; 

The iiccount, thereftu-e, 
tenant \V.-i|y;hom and the M 
Tutlia Company, s-toixi thu.-- 
career unhappily elosoti : — 1 <- 
paid four thousand {>ouuds fui di^ 
m opening the Tri«'!9tt> rnutf, l/n'uti 
honi hiwl obtainc'l 
dred pounds, and 
a year, together wuu uk' uim ( 

CVul«a DwkRiA.1 



the " rxtrt-me «ltwtitutioii " of Mrs. Wftgbom. 
Mr. \S i4jhoru La<l but recent Ij married; and 
when At his Ueutli a ]>ezL{slou wha mkml for 
Ma wi<low, uiilj forty poiinda of the sniAil 
aiuiunl faiid &t the dbpoBal of the Govern- 
ment applicable for such a purpose^ remained 
uiuipprojiriftted. To gnmt Uie whole of this, 
whil^ Mrv- Wajfhoru was &h*eady in the receipt 
of ' flie widow of a iiflv'y 

I; peratmvim bessides 

It jmny, was thought 

h \ , only twenty -Ave 

....;. balance was at first 
miisetl ; but, when the pension year was 
Fi^early ut lui < d<]. tin- other liftetMi pouutls 
a«idc Waghom's friends 

1 8he now atauda 
iy p*mnds per annoni, 
ng thus imwe up to one 
1 iorty pounda a-yeiu'. 
ire this explanatory and not very 
we feel boimd to 
the foregoing tact a 
L:,,,,..l,.|cje— that, 
ui was iu 
r diisputes 
between Mr. Wagiiom and the authorities 
hiii lift^ — ^hia widow has not been 
\y dealt with eince his denth. 

tbougUt tl 
on that I' 
her entire i 

In- ■ ' •• 

State — and we i 
were not pi .■>"-■ 
however > ; 
the right 


"UQt'seiiOLD VTOaoa* and englisb wills. 

Tpv ' ' icd which have anpeared in 
thia 1 i, under the heaa of "The 

P sh Wills,*' have been desig- 

T f our I orrespgndtnta, as "a 

Lu.v . ,. J. ..V- ., expanded by a good deal of 

We muat remove these chaiitaUe mi*- 
-. The evidence iu out* hands, of the 
!:il facts, is f\dl and complete ; there is 

hing tictitioua beyond the manner of telling 

story. Tho tale itaelf ia as correct as 


lut, one of the Reci&trara of York, (" Ca- 
! ' two ) deaires ue, in a verj^ 

_^^ ^^uileoua letter, to