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sponsible for its return to the library from 
which it was withdrawn on or before the 
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are reasons for disciplinary action and may 
result in dismissal from the University. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



MAR If 
MAY 8W 



FEB 12 

|EB 1 1 1975 

|0EC 4 W 







1 2Q,cop. 2 

HOUSE PLANTS 



BY 



ROBERT VAN TRESS 




THE LIBRARY OF THE 

APR 2 01937 

Botany 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Leaflet 20 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

CHICAGO 
1937 



The Botanical Leaflets of Field Museum are designed to give 
brief, non-technical accounts of various features of plant life, especially 
with reference to the botanical exhibits in Field Museum, and of the 
local flora of the Chicago region. 

LIST OF BOTANICAL LEAFLETS ISSUED TO DATE 

No. 1. Figs $ .10 

No. 2. The Coco Palm 10 

No. 3. Wheat 10 

No. 4. Cacao 10 

No. 5. A Fossil Flower 10 

No. 6. The Cannon-ball Tree 10 

No. 7. Spring Wild Flowers' 25 

No. 8. Spring and Early Summer Wild Flowers . . .25 

No. 9. Summer Wild Flowers 25 

No. 10. Autumn Flowers and Fruits 25 

No. 11. Common Trees (second edition) 25 

No. 12. Poison Ivy 15 

No. 13. Sugar and Sugar-making 25 

No. 14. Indian Corn 25 

No. 15. Spices and Condiments 25 

No. 16. Fifty Common Plant Galls of the Chicago Area .25 

No. 17. Common Weeds 25 

No. 18. Common Mushrooms 50 

No. 19. Old-Fashioned Garden Flowers 25 

No. 20. House Plants 35 

CLIFFORD C. GREGG, Acting Director 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
CHICAGO, U. S. A. 



THE UttMfl 
OF THt 
flNBSfl OF WW* 




FIDDLE-LEAF RUBBER PLANT 
(Ficua pcmdurata) 



5So 

' Field Museum of Natural History 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 

Chicago. 1937 THE LIBRARY OF THE 



<2^Mp' £, 



Leaflet Number 20 
Copyright 1937 by Field Museum of Natural 

U H IVERS I TY OF I LL INOIS 



ABB 2 01937 



HOUSE PLANTS 

As a means of satisfying an interest in plant life and 
a love of flowers, window gardening is open to practically 
everyone. For thousands of persons residing in apart- 
ments or hotels there is no other way of having growing 
plants. 

The plants illustrated in this booklet are the ones most 
favored as house plants in this country. A few of them, 
e.g. Beloperone and Dieffenbachia, are not so well known 
as the others but they are rapidly growing in popularity. 
Approximately one half the plants described here are 
esteemed especially for their foliage, and where conditions 
in general are unfavorable to plant life one of this group 
may be grown. 

To be at their best, house plants require plenty of 
light, humidity in the air, and good soil. For most of 
them, light is more important than a high temperature, 
and for flowering plants a southern or southeastern 
exposure is best. Even when plants are well placed in 
good light they should be turned occasionally so that 
all sides may receive it equally. 

The hot, dry air of our living rooms is more injurious 
to plants, especially to flowering ones, than any other 
factor. Opening the doors or windows and thoroughly 
airing the room at least once a day is helpful, as is the 
use of humidifiers to increase the moisture in the air. 

The amount of water that a plant requires depends 
entirely upon the nature of the plant and whether it is 
in a growing or dormant condition. Plants in a dormant 



4 Field Museum of Natural History 

or resting stage require very little water — only enough 
to keep the stems from shriveling. On the other hand, 
just before blooming and while they are in bloom an 
abundance of water is necessary. In watering, it is not 
sufficient to wet merely the surface but water should be 
given until the whole ball of earth in the pot is moistened, 
which is indicated by water coming through the drainage 
hole at the bottom. When water is necessary it should 
preferably be applied in the morning of a sunny day. 

Foliage plants should have their leaves washed fre- 
quently to free the pores of dust. For close handling of 
leaves a soft sponge is a great service and it can be used 
in the house without danger of dripping. Never use an 
oily cloth to shine the leaves of your rubber plant! Syring- 
ing the whole plant is very beneficial and helps keep the 
leaves clean as well as to keep insects under control. 

Insects which are most prevalent on pot plants are red 
spider, scale insects, aphids or plant lice and mealy bugs. 
Red spider is so small that good eyes are required to see it 
but it may be detected by examining carefully the leaves 
which look yellow and sickly. The most effective way to 
rid a plant of red spider is by repeated syringing. Scale 
insects which appear frequently on palms, and mealy 
bugs which look like little specks of cotton are kept in 
check by a combination spray of "Volck" and nicotine 
sulphate (5 tablespoonfuls of the former and 2 of the 
latter to one gallon of water — ingredients to be had from 
any seed dealer). 

Some plants, like the Amaryllis, which do not need 
repotting yearly, are benefited by fertilizing, which should 
only be done when they are in a healthy growing condition. 
For this purpose there are a number of commercial plant 
foods containing the principal essential elements — nitrogen, 
phosphorus and potassium — in suitable proportions. They 
are convenient to use and safe when directions are followed. 

R. Van Tress 



House Plants 




BOSTON FERN 
(Nephrolepis exaltata and vars.) 
The Boston Fern ranks as one of the most popular 
of all house plants and one that will succeed in a north 
window. There are many forms or mutants with finely 
cut or crested foliage, of which Whitman's Fern is probably 
the best. Varieties with more finely divided leaves are not 
suitable in the home. A common reason for failure with 
Boston Fern is the use of a jardiniere in which water is 
allowed to stand. 



Field Museum of Natural History 




NORFOLK ISLAND PINE 

(Araucaria excelsa) 
This exotic conifer is a beautifully symmetrical plant 
for decorative purposes, and is often justly prized above 
all other evergreen pot plants. It keeps well in a cool 
room near a window during winter, and the temperature 
should not be above 60 degrees at night. In summer, place 
it outside on a veranda or in some place protected from 
direct sunlight. 



House Plants 




SCREW PINE 

(Pandanus Veitchii) 

The sharp-toothed, pendulous, green and white leaves 
give the Screwpine a graceful appearance. In time it 
grows too large for the small house. In its native home, 
Polynesia, or when planted in the tropics, it forms a large, 
widely branching shrub or tree supported by a mass of 
proproots. As a house plant, the Screw Pine stands up 
well under adverse conditions but for best results abundant 
moisture and heat are required. 



Field Museum of Natural History 




DWARF PHOENIX 

(Phoenix Roebeleni) 
The smallest of all the Phoenix palms, from Farther 
India, a dwarf relative of the Date palm, is named for its 
discoverer Roebelen, an orchid collector of Singapore. Its 
graceful, fountain-like aspect, its extreme hardiness, and its 
slow growth make it one of the finest of all room plants. 



House Plants 




KENTIA PALM 

( Howea Forsteriana) 
If conditions to meet their requirements of space and 
a night temperature of 60 degrees can be furnished, several 
species of Palms may be grown in the house. The most 
popular are Howea Belmoreana and H. Forsteriana, both 
natives of Lord Howe's Island in the South Pacific, better 
known under their synonym of Kentia. The two species 
are similar, but the former, with curving pinnae, is the 
more graceful of the two. 



10 Field Museum of Natural History 




DUMB CANE 

(Dieffenbachia Seguine) 

The Dieffenbachia of Tropical America is decidedly 
ornamental with large leaves spotted and feathered with 
yellow, cream or white. The stems contain a very acrid 
juice, which has a paralyzing effect if taken in the mouth 
and will cause temporary loss of speech. 

A warm temperature is necessary and an abundance 
of water in the growing season. Arum Family. 



House Plants 



11 




WANDERING JEW 

(Zebrina pendula) 

For a hanging basket no plant will give more satis- 
faction under adverse conditions than Wandering Jew. 
Although a native of Mexico and other tropical American 
countries it thrives in a wide range of environment. It 
propagates so readily from cuttings that it is always 
possible to have a supply of plants. Frequent pinching 
of the tips causes the plant to become bushy and therefore 
more decorative. 

A closely related plant, Tradescantia fluminensis, a 
native of Brazil, commonly grown in greenhouses, shares 
with Zebrina the appellation Wandering Jew. Both are 
of the Spiderwort Family. 



12 



Field Museum of Natural History 




ASPARAGUS FERN 

(Asparagus Sprengeri) 

As a substitute for ferns the South African climbing 
asparagus plant A. plumosus and its relative A. Sprengeri 
are suitable basket plants. The former has finer foliage 
but is not as easy to grow as the latter. Lily Family. 

A rich soil and plenty of water in the growing season 
are important points in its culture. Less water is required 
in winter when the plants are relatively at rest. 



House Plants 



13 




HYACINTH 

( Hyacinthus orientalis) 

Because of the beauty and fragrance of its blossoms 
the Hyacinth has long been a favorite. A native of the 
Levant, it was introduced to cultivation about 1590. 
Lily Family. 

The bulbs should be obtained early in September and 
potted without delay. The usual practice is to force the 
bulbs for one season only and then throw them away. 
Although they are not suitable for forcing again they may 
be planted out in the open borders if the foliage has been 
allowed to develop properly and will bloom there for 
several years. 



14 



Field Museum of Natural History 




CORN PLANT 

(Dracaena fragrans) 
The Dracaena is a straight stemmed African plant 
related to the Dragon-blood tree. It is esteemed as a 
foliage plant. Its common name suggests the resemblance 
of its leaves to those of the Maize plant. Variety Lindeni 
has creamy-white bands on the leaves and Massangeana 
has a broad yellow stripe down the center. A native of 
the tropics of Upper Guinea, it does not thrive in drafty 
places or where the temperature falls below 55 degrees at 
night. Lily Family. 



House Plants 



15 




BOWSTRING HEMP 

(Sansevieria zeylanica) 
The Bowstring Hemp comes from Ceylon. Its large, 
sword-shaped leaves are firm and leathery. The form with 
leaves banded by creamy yellow (var. Laurentii) seems to 
be most in demand. S. cylindrica is an interesting species 
with round tapering stems. The latter are both from 
western Africa, respectively Belgian Congo and Angola. 
Lily Family. 



16 



Field Museum of Natural History 




CAST IRON PLANT 

(Aspidistra elatior) 

This stemless foliage plant lives up to its common 
name by withstanding hard usage, dull light and poor 
soil to a greater degree than any other house plant, with 
the possible exception of the Wandering Jew. Its native 
home is China. There is a form with variegated, green 
and white foliage. 

When the plant becomes pot-bound it will astonish 
you by producing purple, intensely fragrant flowers just 
above the surface of the soil. Lily Family. 



House Plants 



17 




AMARYLLIS 

( Hippeastrum vittatum and hybrids) 
Hippeastrums are large-flowered bulbous plants of 
tropical America. Lily Family. 

As the flowers fade, the leaves will appear in profusion; 
give plenty of water, light and air, for on the growth 
of these depend your next year's flowers. When growth 
is completed give less water until the leaves turn yellow 
and fall from the bulb. Then keep the bulb dry through 
the winter in a temperature of 45 to 50 degrees until the 
flower spike shows an inch or two of growth. 



18 



Field Museum of Natural History 




INDIA RUBBER PLANT 

(Ficus elastica) 
Although there are many more desirable plants, the 
common Rubber Tree is a favorite. It has the advantage 
of thriving in a hot, dry atmosphere in places where the 
light is poor. A slower growing, broad-leaved species, 
the Fiddle-leaf Rubber Tree, Ficus pandurata (see Frontis- 
piece), seems to be replacing the commoner one. Mulberry 
Family. 



House Plants 



19 




HOUSE HYDRANGEA 

( Hydrangea macrophylla var. hortensia) 
A favorite house plant seen about Easter time is the 
Hydrangea, a small shrub with large bolls of white, blue 
or pink, papery flowers. It is a native of China and Japan. 
Saxifrage Family. 

When the plant is through blooming, cut back about 
half the growth and put it outside in a sunny position, 
watering plenty during the summer. Bring it in before 
frost and store in a cool light place with only enough water 
to keep the wood from shriveling. Started into growth 
early in January it will bloom again for Easter. 



20 



Field Museum of Natural History 




GERANIUM 
(Pelargonium hortorum) 

Of all pot plants the common Geranium may be con- 
sidered the universal favorite. The parent species was 
introduced about 1710 from South Africa, and since then 
the aim of florists has been to secure sturdiness, fine form, 
large flower clusters and floriferous habit. Geranium 
Family. 

Geraniums do best in a heavy soil and require a sunny 
window. It is customary to keep them outdoors during 
the summer. The same plant can be kept from year to 
year by vigorously pruning it in September before bringing 
it into the house. New plants can be raised from cuttings 
of the old one. 



House Plants 



21 




MARTHA WASHINGTON GERANIUM 
(Pelargonium domesticum) 

Pelargoniums are among the most beautiful flowering 
plants suitable for growing in the home. Their colors are 
in every shade of scarlet, cherry, pink, purple, to lilac and 
white, and they may be blotched, marbled, or spotted with 
velvety black and maroon. Like the allied common or 
garden Geranium, they are derived from South African 
ancestors. 

They are easy of culture, but require a rich soil to 
flourish well. During the summer set the plants outside 
in full sun giving them a good rest. Take them in the 
house again before danger of frost and repot at that time. 



22 



Field Museum of Natural History 




POINSETTIA 

(Euphorbia pulcherrima) 
The popular gift plant for Christmas is the colorful 
Poinsettia, a tropical Mexican spurge, tipped with brilliant 
vermilion bracts. Though grown out-of-doors in the south 
it is tender and should be kept out of draughts. If given 
a long period of rest after blooming it may be repotted and 
started into growth again in May. After the new shoots 
are growing cut off all but one. Keep the plant outdoors 
during the summer, but take it in again and shift to a 
larger pot when the temperature drops to 55 degrees. A 
growing temperature of about 65 degrees with plenty of 
moisture in the air is required at that time. 



House Plants 



23 




BEGONIA 

(Begonia spp.) 

Three groups of Begonias are commonly used as house 
plants— Begonia semperflorens, varieties and hybrids, 
valued for their winter blooming habit, Begonia Rex, plants 
grown for their attractive foliage of many shades, and a 
third including Begonia coccinea, B. metallica, and B. 
maculata with a pleasing combination of flowers and 
leaves. They are natives of Brazil. Begonia Family. 

All of them thrive in a compost of loam and leaf mould 
with a slight portion of sand. They require warmth and 
plenty of light and air. 



24 



Field Museum of Natural History 




FUCHSIA 

(Fuchsia hybrida) 

As a pot plant for summer blooming, the Fuchsia is 
unsurpassed, being very floriferous with attractive foliage 
and symmetrical habit. All of our cultivated varieties are 
hybrids from ancestors introduced from western South 
America and Mexico. Evening-Primrose Family. 

The best place for a Fuchsia in winter is a dry cellar, 
free from frost, where it should be kept nearly dry. About 
the first of March prune back all side shoots. Prune in the 
roots also and repot in as small a pot as will hold the 
roots. Use a soil consisting of peat, loam, and leaf mould. 



House Plants 



25 




ENGLISH IVY 
( Hedera helix) 

Historic associations, ease of culture, rapid growth and 
the evergreen character of its shining five-angled leaves, 
all combine to make the European Ivy the favorite vine for 
hanging basket or trellis. Aralia Family. 

It seems to do well in poorly lighted situations and does 
not require much heat, making it well adapted for use 
in halls or balconies or rooms not well heated. The soil 
used should be a rich loam and the richer the soil the more 
rapid will be the growth. Slips taken off at any leaf joint 
root readily in soil or in water. 



26 Field Museum of Natural History 




AZALEA 

(Rhododendron indicum) 

Azaleas are native of North America and Asia. They 
are generally distinguished from Rhododendrons by having 
deciduous leaves, but this species is an exception. The 
so-called Indian or Chinese Azalea is of Japanese origin. 
With evergreen foliage and flowers produced in great 
profusion, it is admirably adapted for a window plant. 
Heath Family. 

The soil which suits them best may be made by mixing 
three parts of fibrous peat, one of loam and one half part 
sand. If the plants are set out of doors in the summer in a 
shady place until September, they will bloom for years. 



House Plants 



27 




CYCLAMEN 

(Cyclamen persicum) 

The Cyclamens are native of Europe and Asia. The 
cultivated one is a spring-blooming plant with showy 
flowers ranging in color from white to reddish purple. 
The deep green leaves are attractively marbled with pale 
green or silver. Primrose Family. 

Usually secured annually from the florist, it may be 
grown for several years if given a resting period after 
blooming. The plants are commonly carried through the 
summer by plunging the pots out of doors in a shady place 
where they are allowed to run quite dry. 



28 Field Museum of Natural History 




CHINESE PRIMROSE 

(Primula sinensis) 

The primrose is one of the most satisfactory winter 
flowering plants and for continuous bloom it cannot be 
surpassed. This Chinese Primrose, as well as Primula 
malacoides, the Fairy Primrose, does not cause primrose 
poisoning, and they are therefore to be preferred to P. 
obconica, a sturdier plant, often offered for sale under the 
name Japanese Primrose. 

They are objects of easy care, requiring attention only 
in watering. When in full foliage and bloom they need 
more water than most plants. These are house plants 
that are best secured annually from the florist. Primrose 
Family. 



House Plants 



29 




HELIOTROPE 

( Heliotropium peruvianum) 
Modest in appearance but always admired for its 
fragrance, the Heliotrope is an old-time favorite in the 
window garden. It is a native of Peru, in cultivation since 
1737. The ease with which it may be grown either in pots 
or garden, the color and fragrance of its dainty flowers, 
and the long period of bloom, have all contributed to make 
it one of the best known pot plants. By pruning about 
midsummer it may be kept in good condition for years. 
Borage Family. 



30 



Field Museum of Natural History 




SLIPPERWORT 

(Calceolaria crenatiflora) 

The Calceolarias of western tropical America — the 
name comes from the Latin word for a slipper — are grown 
for their beautiful clusters of golden, crimson, maroon or 
rose-colored, purse-shaped flowers, either plainly tinted 
or curiously mottled and flecked. Figwort Family. 

They are plants that ought to be purchased from a 
florist and merely carried through the blooming season. 
They should be kept rather warm in an atmosphere that 
is not too dry, and be sparingly watered. 



House Plants 



31 




GLOXINIA 

(Sinningia speciosa) 

Gloxinia is one of the few midsummer blooming pot 
plants. It is a native of Brazil. Gesneria Family. 

After the Gloxinia has finished blooming water should 
be gradually withheld until the leaves are lost. The tuber 
may be stored in a warm, dry place over winter, and 
started into growth again early in March. The atmosphere 
should be warm and moist and the growing plant should 
never suffer for lack of water, although the leaves should 
not be wet on the upper surface. 



32 



Field Museum of Natural History 




AFRICAN VIOLET 

(Saintpaulia ionantha) 
One of the loveliest house plants in cultivation is the 
so-called African or Usambara Violet. The Hannover 
botanist Wendland named it for its discoverer, Baron 
Walter von Saint Paul. Florists have several improved 
varieties on the market now, one of the best being Blue 
Boy, with deep blue flowers. The plants may be flowered 
the entire year or given a period of rest by partly with- 
holding water. A warm temperature and plenty of light are 
necessary. Gesneria Family. 



House Plants 



33 




SHRIMP PLANT 

(Beloperone guttata) 
This tropical American herb, or small shrub, is still 
comparatively unknown as a house plant but is rapidly 
growing in favor because of its curious but attractive 
appearance. The small two-lipped flowers, white spotted 
with purple, are borne beneath reddish-brown showy 
bracts, suggesting a flower of the hop plant. Recently 
introduced from Mexico into cultivation in the United 
States, this species is one of about thirty of its genus. 
Acanthus Family. 



34 



Field Museum of Natural History 




CINERARIA 

(Senecio cruentus) 

Few greenhouse plants are more attractive and showy 
than the profusely flowering Cinerarias, and the improve- 
ment made in the size and coloring of the flowers, varying 
from white, blue or pink to an intense red or purple, has 
led to their great popularity. They are commonly grown 
as annuals by the florist and should be purchased in Spring 
already grown and in bloom. The Cineraria is a native of 
the Canary Islands. Daisy Family. 



House Plants 



35 



OTHER POT PLANTS WHICH MAY BE GROWN 
IN THE HOUSE 

Besides the plants illustrated here, many others less 
common may be grown successfully as house plants. A 
list of such is appended. Plants of the kind generally 
known as succulents are not included as they will be 
treated in a separate leaflet, nor are plants like tulips, the 
Easter lily, Polyantha rose and others which usually are 
purchased in full bloom and ordinarily have but a short 
life in the house. 



Common Name 

Maidenhair Fern 
Glory Fern 
Manda's Polypody 

Table Fern 
Holly Fern 
Mexican Tree Fern 
Umbrella Plant 
Golden Feather 

Palm 
Petropolis Palm 
Chinese Evergreen 

Ceriman 
Calla 

Golden Calla 
Chlorophytum 
Red Dracena 
Star of Bethlehem 
Lily of the Valley 
Snake's Beard 
Sea-Onion 
Kafir Lily 
Chinese Sacred Lily 
Marica 
Peperomia 
Baby Tears 
Ice Plant 
Madeira Vine 
Houseleek 
Strawberry 
Geranium 
Bermuda Buttercup 
Croton 
Sultana 



Scientific Name Family 

Adiantum cunealum Fern 

" gloriosum " 

Polypodium aureum var. 

Mandaianum " 

Pteris cretica " 

Cyrtomium falcatum " 

Cibotium Schiedei Treefern 

Cyperus alternifolius Sedge 

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Palm 
Syagrus Weddelliana " 

Aglaonema commutatum Arum 
Philodendron cordatum " 

Monster a deliciosa " 

Zantedeschia aethiopica " 

" Elliottiana " 

Chlorophytum datum and vars. Lily 
Taetsia (Cordyline) terminalis " 

Ornithogalum thyrsoides " 

Convallaria majalis " 

Ophiopogon Jaburan " 

Urginea Scilla " 

Clivia nobilis Amaryllis 
Narcissus Tazetki var. orientalis " 

Marica coerulea Iris 

Peperomia spp. Pepper 

Helxine Soleirolii Buckwheat 
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Carpet-weed 

Boussingaultia baselloides Basella 

Sempervivum Orpine 

Saxifraga sarmentosa Saxifrage 

Oxalis cernua Wood Sorrel 

Codiaeum variegatum Spurge 

Impatiens Sultani Balsam 



>- 



36 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Grape Ivy 


Cissus rhombifolia 


Grape 


Flowering Maple 


Abutilon hybridum 


Mallow 


Tuberous Begonia 


Begonia tuberhybrida 


Begonia 


Christmas Cactus 


Zygocactus truncatus 


Cactus 


Myrtle 


Myrtus communis 


Myrtle 


Coral Plant 


Ardisia crenulata 


Myrsine 


Oleander 


Nerium Oleander 


Dogbane 


Periwinkle 


Vinca major var. variegata 


(i 


Wax Plant 


Hoya carnosa 


Milkweed 


Cathedral Bells 


Ceropegia Woodii 


<< 


Glory Bower 


Clerodendron Thomsonae 


Verbena 


Lantana 


Lantana Camara 


n 


Lemon Verbena 


Lippia citriodora 


tt 


Coleus 


Coleus Blumei var. 


Mint 


Jerusalem Cherry 


Solanum pseudocapsicum 


Nightshade 


Red-Pepper 


Capsicum frutescens 


tt 


Kenilworth Ivy 


Cymbalaria muralis 


Figwort 


Cape Primrose 


Streptocarpus kewensis 


Gesneria 


Bouvardia 


Bouvardia Humboldti 


Madder 


Italian Bluebell 


Campanula isophylla 


Bellflower 


Chrysanthemum 


Chrysanthemum hortorum 


Daisy 


Leopard Plant 


Ligularia Kaempferi var. 






aureo-maculata 


tt 


German Ivy 


Senecio mikanioides 


n 


Velvet Plant 


Gynura aurantiaca 


<t 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS 



THE LIBRARY Of THC 

APR 2 193^ 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



Most of the photographs in this leaflet were made for Field 
Museum by Hermann Lusche and acknowledgement is made of the 
courtesies and cooperation extended in this connection by Garfield 
Park Conservatory and by the greenhouses of Frank Oechslin & Co., 
in Berwyn. The latter also loaned the photograph of Poinsettia, 
Vaughan's Seed Store those of Hyacinth, Cyclamen and Amaryllis, 
American Bulb Company that of Cineraria.