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HOUSING 

UP-TO-DATE 



SUPPLE M EOT TO THE 
HOUSING HANDBOOK. 



By W. THOMPSON. 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



HOUSING UP-TO-DATE. 



HOUSING UP-TO-DATE 

(Companion Volume to the Housing Handbook) 

BY 

ALDERMAN W. THOMPSON 

(RICHMOND, surrey), 

Chairman National Housing Reform Council, 

Author of " The Housing Handbook^'' ''Housing of the Working Classes,'' 
and " Richmond Official Housing Reports 



A PRACTICAL MANUAL GIVING THE LATEST 

FACTS AND FIGURES FOR THE USE OF OFFICERS, MEMBERS, 

AND COMMITTEES OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES, MINISTERS 

OF RELIGION, MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT, AND ALL 

SOCIAL OR ^^JNICIPAL REFORMERS INTERESTED 

IN THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING CLASSES. 



Published by the National Housing Reform Council at 
432, WEST STRAND, LONDON, W.C. 



COPIES MAY ALSO BE OBTAINED OF— 

W. THOMPSON, 37, Mount Ararat Road, Richmond, Surrey, 

and 

P. S. KING & SON, 2 and 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W. 



1907. 



LEICESTER : 

CO-OPERATIVE PRINTING SOCIETY LIMITED, 99, CHURCH GATE. 



h 



HV 
7333 

INTRODUCTION. 

TTHE following pages have been written in compliance with numerous 
requests that the facts and figures in the Housing Handbook, as 
published in 1903, might be brought up to date, so as to include the 
most recent developments of Housing Administration and Legislation. 
Fortunately, the corrections are extremely few and unimportant, and the 
general conclusions arrived at as to the nature of the problem and the 
relative efficiency and success of various methods of solving it remain 
unaltered. However, a great deal of additional work has been done, and 
several interesting experiments have been carried out which deserve to be 
brought before the notice of public bodies and public men, or public spirited 
bodies and public spirited men, who wish to have in a convenient form a 
fairly up-to-date and accurate statement of past work and present 
conditions. 

The text of the Housing Act of 1903, with explanatory notes and the 
most recent circulars, forms, and instructioris issued by the Local Govern- 
ment Board are contained in an appendix. 

If the information here given on any given subject appears to be 
insufficient or incomplete, it is probably because the matter has been dealt 
with ill the Housing Handbook, and can be found there by reference to the 
index. 

Indeed, the giving information in the form of a supplement instead of 
re-writing the Handbook was decided upon because it would enable the 
comparative progress of the movement to be ascertained by reference from 
the one to the other. In order to facilitate this a special page and line 
index of corrections and additions to the Handbook is contained on the 
following pages. 

The writer's thanks are again due to the officers and members of the 
various local authorities and societies mentioned, who have so kindly 
supplied the necessary information and material, and particularly to those 
who have been good enough to allow the use of the various illustrations 
and plans. This applies, in a special degree, to First Garden City Ltd., 
the Co-partnership Housing Council, the Housing Committees of 
Birmingham, Liverpool, and Sheffield ; and personally to Councillor 
J. S. Nettlefold, of Birmingham, Mr. F. B. Turton, of Liverpool, and 
Councillor Cattell and Mr. C. S. Wike, of Sheffield. 

Corrections and additional information, in the shape of reports and 
other documents, will be most thankfully received, so as to enable the 
Handbook and Supplement to be periodically revised and brought up 
to date. Communfcations to this effect should be addressed to Alderman 
Thompson, Richmond, Surrey. 



;i94S(« 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I.— Review of the Position. 

Steady improvement — Rural depopulation aud urban overcrowding — 
Comparison of death-rates — Child-life and physical deterioration— Money 
cost of bad housing — Inaction of local authorities — How municipalities are 
shackled — A National Housing Policy — Municipal building and private 
enterprise — Alterations in the Law by the Act of 1903 — Housing accom- 
modation unsuitable where sufficient — Inspection of dwellings — Record or 
register of housing accommodation — Adaptation of dwellings-— Small 
Dwellings Act, 1899. 

Chapter II. — Slum Ending or Mending-. 

Local Improvement schemes— Slum buying under Parts I and II — Slum 
improvement under Part II — Work procedure and results in Birmingham — 
Slum improvement under Part III— The Camberwell experiment — The 
Kensmgton experiment, 

Chapter III. — Dwellings Built by Local Authorities. 

Action under Part III — Municipal lodging houses — Block dwellings, 
analysis of site cost, building cost, site area, rents — Tables showing number, 
rooms, rent, cost of municipal block dwellings — Tenement dwellings, 
analysis ancl tables — Cottage flats, analysis and tables — Cottages, analysis 
and tables — Financial results of schemes for municipal dwellings, showing 
capital outlay, rents, rates, taxes, repairs, management expenses, and net 
return on outlay. 

Chapter IV.— Municipal Housing in London. 

London County Council clearance schemes- -Suburban cottages — 
Analysis of accounts — Slum sites and housing valuation — Proposal for 
reform of Housing Acts — Eight useful facts — Tables showing rooms, rents, 
and costs of L.C.C. dwellings — Housing in the City — Metropolitan Borough 
Council's housing schemes, with tables. 

Chapter V. — Municipal Housing in the Provinces. 

Special notes and general information as to fifty towns — Table showing 
loan charges on the annuity system — Birmingham's leasing scheme at 
Bordesley Green — Financial and social results at Glasgow— Tenements for 
dispossessed at Liverpool — Hornby Street and Adlington Street areas — 
Financial and social results at Liverpool- -Twelve interesting points — 
Manchester — Newcastle single room dwellings — Sheffield municipal 
cottages at Wincobank — Summary of receipts and working expenses of 
municipal dwellings. 

Chapter VI. — Rural Housing. 

The experience of England — Result of recent inquiries in rural 
districts— Recommendations of the Select Committee on Rural Housing- 
County Councils and rural housing— Results of applications to adopt 
Part III— The Erpingham case— The Chipperfield case— Need for housing 
commissioners — Schemes carried out under Part III — The Example of 
Ireland — The Labourers (Ireland) Acts— Procedure— Cost, subsidies, 
rents — Analysis of building cost — The labourers' ladder— Forms of 
representation. 



Chapter VII. — Housing by Private Enterprise and 
Co-operative Societies. 

Rowton Houses — Artisans, Labourers, and General Dwellings Company 
— East End Dwellings Company — Guinness Trust — Metropolitan Associa- 
tion for Improving Dwellings — Peabody Donation Fund — Sutton Housing 
Trust — Tables showing number, rooms, area, and cost of sites — Cost of 
building, rents, rates and taxes, repairs, and management expenses of block 
and cottage dwellings — Ecclesiastical Commissioners' estates — Co-operation 
and housing — Statistics of dwellings built by co-operative societies. 

Chapter VIII. — Cheap Cottages. 

Letch worth Cheap Cottage Exhibition, 1903- Second Cottage Exhibition 
at Letchworth— Sheffield Municipal Cottage Exhibition — Prize Cottages at 
Sheffield, plans and particulars — Newcastle Municipal Cottage Exhibition, 
particulars and site plans — Cheap municipal cottages at Altrincham, Bangor, 
Exeter, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath, Sheffield, and Stretford— New scheme for 
cheap cottages at Sheffield — Model village and cheap cottages at Leigh. 

Chapter IX. — Town Development. 

Land, housing and transit, the main elements — Town planning — National 
housing deputation, 1906— Central Commissioners and scientific areas — 
Municipal land purchase— The example of Germany and Holland— Existing 
planning powers in English towns — Powers necessary for all municipalities 
— Mr. Lever's suburban development scheme— Agricultural belts — Altera- 
tions made in the bye-laws — Rural bye-laws, new styles of streets wanted — ■ 
Table showing cost of land and its development for cottage estates — Roads 
in Earswick Model Village— Wildau Garden Village, near Berlin — Site 
planning — Two methods of planning — Limitation of rooms per acre — 
Societies of public utility — Co-partnership Housing, facts and statistics — 
Co-partnership site planning at Garden City, Hampstead, and Ealing — How 
to form a Co-partnership Housing Society. 

Chapter X. — Garden Cities and Garden Villages. 

First Garden City, Letchworth — Statistics and general information — 
Port Sunlight — Bournville — Earswick Model Village— Hampstead Garden 
Suburb — Mr. Justice Neville's proposal— A Town Development Bill. 

Chapter XL — Housing Notes from other Countries. 

International Housing Congress, 1907 — New Zealand Housing Acts — 
Summary of housing information from Austria, Belgium, England, France, 
Germany, Holland, and Italy — Chief housing laws and provisions of latest 
laws — Authorities entrusted with housing powers and duties — Town planning 
and site planning regulation — Land purchase by towns, procedure, extent, 
and cost — Building regulations — Loans by the State — Taxes on working 
class dwellings — Area and height of rooms — Thickness of walls — Extent of 
accommodation and overcrowding — Death rates in various countries — 
Municipal dwellings — Rents, wages, and cost of building — Norway — Sweden. 

Chapter XII. — General Information. 

Cheap transit — Tube railways — Tramways in the United Kingdom — 
Example of Belgium — Free Tramways for certain areas — Cost of equipping 
surburban land with trams — Housing Finance — The Public Works Loan 
Commissioners — Housing Loans to private individuals and Societies — ■ 
Regulations— Cheap money — Savings Banks and Charitable Endowments 
— Income Tax on Alunicipal Houses — Rates of interest paid by Municipalities 
— Rents — Rates — Repairs — A Swiss example — Closing Orders — Darlington 
Local Act — Rural Housing Inspection — Examples of Small Holdings — 
Small Holdings Act, 1907. 



APPENDIX CONTENTS 



PAGES 

I. — Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1903, text and ex- 
planatory NOTES - - - - - - 279 

Schedule as to re-housing ..... 284 

II. — New Forms for Closing Orders .... - 287 

III. — Local Government Board Circular as to New Procedure 

FOR Closing Orders ------ 290 

IV. — Procedure for Improvement Scheme under Parts I and II 

of the Housing Act of 1890 .... 294 

V. — Provisional Order Instructions for Part I Improvement 

Schemes ....... 295 

VI. — Standing Orders (Housing) of the House of Commons - 296 

VII. — Compulsory Acquisition of Land for purposes of Part III 

(Provisional Orders) --.--- 297 

VIII. — Memorandum of the Local Government Board with respect 
to the provision and arrangement of Municipal 
Dwellings .-..--. 300 

INDEX - - - 305 



PLANS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Birmingham Slum Improvement. 

Court in Brass Street {Before) - 23 

„ {After) 24 

Interior of Court - - - 25 

Court in Summer Lane {Before)- 29 

„ {After) - 30 

London Municipal Dwellings. 
L.C.C. Cottages, Tottenham - 69 
L.C.C. Millbank Estate - - 70 

Battersea Council Cottage Flats 

82 and 86 
Westminster Council Municipal 

Dwellings, Regency Street - 86 
Trongate Area, Glasgow {Bdore 

and After) - - - - loi 

Liverpool. 

Birdseye View of Hornby Street 

Area - - - - - 104 
Plansof Hornby Street Dwellings 

106-108 
Elevation of Adlington Street 

Dwellings - - - iio-iii 
Elevation of Upper Mann Street 

Dwellings - - - - 112 
Sheffield Municipal Cottages, 

Wincobank - - - 119-121 
Cheapest Cottage, Letchworth, 

1905 - - - - - 157 
Best ^150 Cottage, Letchworth, 

1905 - - - - - 158 
Plans of Best Wooden Cottage, 

Letchworth, 1905 - - - 159 

Sheffield Municipal Cottage 
Exhibition. 

First Prize Site Plan - - 161 

First Prize Cottage, Class A - 162 

„ „ „ Class B - 163 

Plans Prize Cottage, Class A - 165 



Newcastle Cottage E.xhibition, 
Site Plan, First Prize - - 167 
„ Second Prize - - 168 



Cheap Municipal Cottages 

Bangor - . - . 

Exeter - - . . 

Guildford - - - - 

Neath . - . . 
Merthyr Tydfil - 

Stretford - - - - 
High Wincobank, Sheffield 



- 170 

172-174 

- 175 
1 77- 1 So 

- 182 

- 183 

- 184 



Sheffield Cottages and Flats i85-i{ 



Site Plans and Cottage Plans. 
Site Plan Model Village, Leigh 
Elevation and Plan of Cottages, 

Leigh - - - - 188- 
Section Main Road, Wiesbaden 
Station Avenue and Poplar 

Grove, Earswick - 
Wildau Garden Village 
Two Methods of Planning 
Site Plan, Ealing Tenants 
Site Plans, Bird's Hill and Pix- 

more Hill - . . . 
Cottages, Bird's Hill 
Site Plan, Westholm Green 
Site Plan and Cottages, East- 
holm Green - - - - 
Garden City Site Plan 
Site Plan, Port Sunlight - 
Labourers' Cottages, Earswick - 
Western Terrace Cottages, 

Earswick . . - . 
Hampstead Tenants, Site Plan 

and Cottages - - - - 



187 



195 

203 
204 
206 
207 



;i3 

!I7 



226 
229 



HOUSING HANDBOOK REFERENCES 
AND CORRECTIONS. 

This table is intended to be utilised when reading the Housing 
Handbook, so that the information on any given pages can be 
corrected or brought up to date by looking at the first column, which 
contains the numbers of those pages and lines in the Housing Hand- 
book that have been c >rrected, modified, or otherwise referred to in 
this book. The subject of the reference is followed by the number 

of the page in this book where the new matter may be found. 

Housing Handbook. Subiect 

Housin? Accommodation ... 
Census Figures 
Saniiary Defects 
Consequencf-s of Bad Housing 
Cost of Slum-buying 
Co-operative Ilousing 
Representations 

Housing Act.s 

Health Officers 

Rural Bye-laws 
Improvement Scheme 
Closing Orders 
Demolition ... ... 

Action under Part H 
("Neighbouring Lands 

"3° t Part H Schemes 

Part HI Schemes 
Shops ... 

r Loans 

Section 75 

Labourers' Acts 

Rehousing Schemes ... 
/Improvement Bills ... 
I London Clearance ... 
/Part I Schemes 
iLfindonand Part I ... 

Part II .Schemes 

London and Part II 

Action under Part HI 

Details of Municipal Working-clabS Dwell- 
ings, alphabetically arranged 
Municipal Lodging Hou.ses.. 
(ilasgow Family Home 
Block Dwellings and Tables 
Tenement Houses and Tables 
Cottage Flats and Tables ... 
Cottages and Tables 
Summary of Tables 



Page 


line 


2 


4 


4 




6 




7 




8 


10—17 


11 




16 


12 — 16 


18 


8-13 


19 


18— IQ 


20 


27-28 


29 


29 


30 


la.st 


31 


15-34 


32 


I — 17 


33 


20—30 


34 


21 — 27 


35 


13 


35 


34-48 


36 


1—4 


36 


10 — 14 


37 39 




41 


S— 44 


42-45 




46-48 




48 




49-51 




53-54 




54-62 




65 




66 




68-69 




70-71 




72-73 




74-78 




78 





This 


Book. 


Page 


line 


11 


25—30 


2 




14 


22 


3-5 




19-20 




152 


4 


12 


7—10 


12 


2 


136 


10 — 14 


15 


27—32 


200 


22 


12 


II — 21 


12 


28—32 


12 


33-38 


21-22 




12 


46 


12 


11—28 


7 


I — 13 


12 


49—54 


13 


X — II 


12 


47 


136-142 




13 


15-25 


19 


4-28 


64 




19 20 




65-66 




20 


40 


65-66 




82-85 




38 




89-97 




39 




40 




40-44 




45-48 




49 52 




52-60 




40 





HOUSING HANDBOOK REFERENCES AND CORRECTIONS 



Housing 
Page 

79 

82 
83-84 
85-86 

90 

91 

92 

94 

98 
100 
104 

to 

107 
107 

108 

109 
109 
111 
113 
126 
126 
131 
133 
134 
138 
139 
142 

155-160 

160 
161 
163 

164 

165 
165 
168 

172 

179 

181 

183 
184-187 
186-187 

190 

191 

192 

193 

193 

194 

195 

197 



Handbook. 
line 
34 



(Continued). 

Subject. 
Loan Periods, London 
L.C.C. General Summary ... 
L.C.C. Dwellings Table 
Financial Results, L.C.C. Dwellings 
L.C.C. Suburban Housing 

4 Glasgow 

7 Cost of Building 

I — 12 Working Expenses ... 

37 Liverpool 

27 Financial Results 

41 ] 

-Manchester, Hlackley Estate 

20 j 

21 Financial Results, Manchester 

16 & 46 Birmingham Financial Results 

I — 4 Borde^lrv Green 

6 Salford ' 

31 Hornsey Financial Results 

New Schemes, Ilornsey 

I — 5 Richmond 

18 — 37 Richmond Financial Results 

2Q Conclusions ... 

18 Rural Municipal Cottages ... 

34 Penshurst Cottages ... 

36 Applications for Schemes ... 

16 Ireland Rural Housing 

21 Small Dw-ellings Act 



41 

32 

6 

1—39 
I — 20 

30 



24 

27 



28 



8 
27 

7 
38 
28 



Cost of Sites, Roads, and Buildings 

Loan Periods... 

L.C.C. Housing Surplus 

Table of Loan Charges 

Loan Periods... 

Cheap Money 

.-Working Expenses ... 

Financial Results of Municipal Housing . 

Co-operative Housing 

Woolwich Co-operaiiv'e Society 

Ealing Tenants 

Small Iloldint^s 

Garden Ciiy Plan 

Capifal Outlay 

Artizans' Dwellings Company 

,, ,, ,, Cottages . 

Cost of Building xVrtizans' Dwellings Co. 
Management ,, ,, 

Port Sunlight 
Financial Results 
Bournville Trust 



This Book. 
Page line 

13 I 

65-67 

77-80 

72-74 

67-71 

100 

43 

102 

100 

46-47 

103^117 



117 

117 

63 

99 

98 

94 

91 

91 

93 

93 

94 

133 

134 

127-133 

136-142 

18 
41-52 

and 

202 

13 

76 

97 

/ 13 

I 38 

270 

i 272 

I 123 

61-63 

and 

123 
152 
153 
207 & 209 
274 
217 
216 
145 
150 
146 
145 
221 
222 
222 



1—4 

20 

I 

10—35 



28 

11—46 

7 

30 

14 

iS 

41 
36 

40 
42 
I 
42 
10 



I — :o 

27 

19 
I — 10 

4—14 
20 
40 

IT. 



19 

20 

I 



HOUSING HANDBOOK REFERENCES AND CORRECTIONS 
(Continued). 

Subject. 
Byelaws 

Cheap Building Materials 
Battersea Dwellings 
Glasgow Dwellings Company 
Adaptation of Dwellings 
Camberwell Experiment 
Electric Tramways ... 
Tube Railways 
Municipal Subsidies 
German Housing Statistics ... 
Belgium, France, and Germany 
P.W. Loan Commissioners 
Belgian Savings Banks 
Dutch Housing Law 
Public Utility Societies 
Housing Loans 
Should be 2 per mil. 
Rehousing Committee 
Repayment of Loans 
Rural Housing Bill ... 
Fair Rent Courts 



Housing H 


ANDBOOK. 


Page 


line 


203 


25 


204 


6 


214 


35 


216 


12 


218 


46 


220 


4' 


230-235 




236 237 


21 


245 


44 


247 


22 


248 




253 


47 


254 


42 


256 


29 


257 


14 


261 


5 


265 


25 


267 


10 


268 


6 


269 


24 


270 


38 



This Book. 


P.-ige 


line 


200 




156 


16 


82&87 




18 


12 


17 


6 


32 


22 


264-265 




264 




266 


26 


256-257 




231-260 




268 


34 


270 


28 


236 


42 


208 


4 


38 


4 


270 


20 


270 


21 


124 


4 


271 





APPENDIX. 



The following pages of the Act of 1890 in the Appendix to the 
Housing Handbook are affected by the passing of the Act of 1903. 
See Appendix to this book. 



PAGE 

3, Sec. 7a, line 2, 7b, line i. 



4 , 


, 8(4)(7). 


5 , 


, 10. 


7 , 


, 16 (i), line 5 


13 , 


, 32. 


14 , 


, 34(1). 


18 , 


, 39(1)- 


23 , 


, 46(5). 



PAGE 

24, Sec. 49. 
25 „ 53(1). 
28 „ 65. 
31 „ 75- 

3;^ „ 87. 

48, Third Schedule. 

49, Sec. 91. 
51 Fourth Schedule. 

Pages 59 and 60- New circulars have been issued by the Local Government Board. 
See Appendix to this book. 

Page 81, Sec. 234. See page 13 of this book. 

Pages 85 — 92- Byelaws are modified as follows. See pp. 196-7 of this book. 

Page 109- See revised list in Appendix to this book. 

Page 101- Cheap Building at Liverpool. See page 1 1 3, line 19 of this book. 

See Page 276 for details of alterations. 



HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS. 



THE NATIONAL HOUSING REFORM COUNCIL. 

President : 
Sir John Dickson-Poynder, Bart, M.P. 

Chairnia7i : 
Alderman W. Thompson, 37, Mount Ararat Road, Richmond, Surrey. 

Treasurer : 
Councillor W. G. Wilkins, J. P., 59, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby. 

Secretary : 
Henry R. Aldridge, 18, Dulverton Road, Leicester. 

OBJECTS. 

To educate and to stimulate public opinion and Local Authorities so 
that the fullest possible use may be made of existing Housing and Sanitary 
Legislation. 

To urge that Parliament shall remove from the Municipalities and 
Societies of Public Utility those shackles which cripple or render difficult 
the execution of Housing Schemes. 

To promote experiments and organisations tending to secure better 
and cheaper methods of town planning, rural development, house planning, 
and house building. 

WORK. 

Conferences on Housing and Town Planning have been held in all 
parts of the Kingdom, and have been attended by some thousands of 
representatives of Local Authorities, Workmen's Associations, and Housing 
Societies. 

Parliamentary joint meetings of Housing Reformers and members of 
Parliament have been held at the House of Commons since 1903, and 
useful suggestions have been made to various Presidents of the Local 
Government Board in connection with Housing Legislation and Adminis- 
tration. 

The International Housing Congress was organised and carried 
through by the Council. 

Cottage Exhibitions. — Three Exhibitions to encourage model planning 
of sites and economical construction of workmen's cottages have been 
promoted under the auspices of the Council at Letchworth (Garden City), 
Newcastle, and Sheffield. 

Public Meetings to the number of some hundreds have been addressed 
by the officers and members of the Council, so as to cover nearly every 
district in the country. 



Publications. — "The Housing Handbook," a practical manual specially- 
prepared by the Chairman for the use of Local Authorities and Housing 
Reformers. (Price 6/-.) 

"Housing Up-to-Date." — A supplementary and companion volume to 
"The Housing Handbook." 

"The Housing Handbook Up-to-Date," being the above two volumes 
bound in one cover on art paper (7/6). 

Monthly Reports of the work of the Council appear in the " Municipal 
Journal." 

Report and papers of the Eighth International Housing Congress. 

Of¥icial Catalogue, Sheffield Cottage Exhibition. 

"A National Housing Policy." Price 2cl. 

MEMBERSHIP OF THE COUNCIL. 

Those approving the programme of the Council, and subscribing 
annually not less than 5s. to the funds of the Council, may become members ; 
any association, council or society subscribing annually not less than los. to 
the funds of the Council, may become affiliated to the Council. All 
subscribers to the funds of the Council will receive copies of leaflets and 
other literature issued by the Council. 

Subscriptions will be gladly received by Councillor W. G. Wilkins, J. P., 
59, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby. 



Other Housing Societies are — 

The Garden City Association, 

602, Birkbeck Bank Chambers. 

Secretary — E. C. Culpin. 



Rural Housing and Sanitation Association, 

Parliament Mansions, Victoria 5treet, 5.W. 

Secretary — Miss A. Churton. 



First Garden City Limited, 

Secretary — Harold Craske. 326a, High Holborn. 



Co=partnership Housing Council, 

6, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Secretary — Crossley Greenwood. Hon. Secretary — Miss S. Gurney. 

Workmen's National Housing Council, 

120, Sugden Road, Clapham Common, 5.W. 

Secretary — F. Knee. 



Mansion House Council on the Dwellings of the Poor, 

Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, E.C. 

Hoti. Secretary — W. F. Craies. 



SOME USEFUL HOUSING BOOKS. 



In addition to the books mentioned on page xi of the Housing 
Handbook, the following works may be studied with advantage by all 
Housing Reformers : — 

GENERAL. 

" Housing," by Alden and Hayward. Headley Bros., Bishopsgate Street 
Without, E.C., IS. net. 

"The Housing of the Working Classes," by M. Kaufman, M.A. T. C* 
Jack, Edinburgh., is. net. 

"The Housing Problem in England," by Dewsnap. Manchester 
University Press. 

"Municipal Year Book — Housing Section," by W. Thompson. Edward 
Lloyd Ltd., 12, Sahsbury Square, E.G., 7s. 6d. net. 

A National Housing Policy, Official Report of the Housing Deputation 
to the Prime Minister (Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman, M.P.), and 
to the President of the Local Government Board (The Right 
Hon. John Burns, M.P.) National Housing Reform Council, 
432, West Strand, 2d. 

LAND PURCHASE AND TOWN PLANNING. 

"The Example of Germany," by T. G. Horsfall. Manchester University 
Press, 2s. 

Birmingham Housing Committee's Report. Town Hall, Birmingham, 2s. 6d. 

"City Development," by Patrick Geddes. The St. George's Press, Bourn- 
-viiie, Birmingham. 

"Where shall I Live?" (Guide to Garden City), containing Towtt Develop- 
iiiefif Bill for Great Britain. First Garden City Ltd., 326a, High 
Holborn, 6d. 

COTTAGE EXHIBITIONS AND CHEAP COTTAGES. 

Official Catalogue Sheffield Cottage Exhibition. National Housing Reform 
Council, 432, Strand, W.C., 6d. 

"Where shall I Live?" (See above.) 

"Modern Housing in Town and Country," by James Cornes. Batsford, 
94, High Holborn, 7s. 6d. 

" Country Cottages," by Home Counties. Wm. Heineman, 6s. net. 

"Cheap Dwellings," by Paul N. Hasluck. Cassell and Co., is. net. 

RURAL HOUSING. 

"Rural England," by Rider Haggard. Longman's, 2 vols., 21s. 

Report and Special Report of Select Committee on Rural Housing. Wyman 
and Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, E.G., 4s. Qd. 



IRELAND. 
•'The Law of the Labourers," by IJarrett and McCann. Sealey, Bryers 
and Walker, Middle Abbey Street, Dublin, 6s. net. 

INTERNATIONAL. 
Report and Papers Eighth International Housing Congress, London, 1907. 
H. R. Aldridge, National Housing Reform Council, 432, West 
Strand, W.C. 

LOCAL CONDITIONS. 
*' Housing Improvement," (F. M. Lapton). A summary of ten years' 
work in Leeds. Jowett and Sowry, Leeds. 

"Housing Conditions in Manchester and Salford," by T. R. Marr. 
Sherratt and Hughes, Manchester, is. 

"Problems of a Scottish Provincial Town" (Dunfermline), by T. H. 
Whitehouse. 

"Poverty" (Study of York), by Seebohm Rowntree. Macmillan, is. 

'* A Housing Policy," by J S. Nettlefold. Cornish Bros., Birmingham. 

Glasgow Municipal Commission on the Housing of the Poor. Extracts 
from minutes of evidence. Percival Jones Ltd., Town Hall 
Printing Works, Birmingham. 

" Dwellings of the Poor." Reports of the Mansion House Council. 
31, Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, E.C., is. each. 

GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT. 
"Housing in Town and Country." Garden City Press, 6d. 

" Modern Civic Art ; the City made Beautiful," by C. M. Robinson. 

Putnam, los. 6d. 
"Garden Cities in Theory and Practice," by A. R. Sennett. Bemrose, 

2 vols., 2 IS. 

"The Garden City Movement," by C. Montagu Harris, M.A. Garden City 
Press, 6d. net. 

"Garden Suburbs, Villages, and Homes." Garden City Press, 6d. 

LEGAL. 
*' A Guide to the Housing Acts," by A. P. Poley. Eyre and Spottiswoode, 
East Harding Street, E.C., 3s. 6d. 



CHAPTER I. 

A REVIEW OF THE POSITION 

Steady Improvement in Recent Years. — The public con- 
science is more alive to-day on the subject of the housing conditions 
of the people than it has been for many year?, and it is only right to 
say that the steady, if slow and somewhat expensive campaign of the 
more enlightened sanitary authorities, against bad and insufficient 
housing accommodation is beginning to rid the community of the 
worst evils of the house famine and the slum. Overcrowding 
has decreased ; a smaller number of persons are found in one- 
room dwellings ; the number of persons per house is slowly but 
surely growing less ; some of the most deadly of the old slums have 
been cleared or improved, while the liberal provision of better and 
cheaper transit, especially by electric tramways and electric trains, has 
encouraged the dispersion of the population from some of the most 
crowded centres. It is true this process of dispersion already tends to 
create an aggravated form of what has always threatened to be the 
danger of the future, " the old slum changeth giving place unto the 
new," but if the new development is controlled, regulated, and assisted 
in time by new legislation and administration, the next decade will 
witness a still greater improvement in the housing of the people. All 
this, however, is not to say that the time permits of a slackening of activity 
on the part of housing reformers and public bodies ; on the contrary, to 
quote the speech of The Right Hon. John Burns, president of the 
Local Government Board to the National Housing Deputation on 
Novemb r 6th, 1906: "The time for sentimental claims for housing 
reform had almost gone by, and the moment for practical ameliorative 
achievement was nearer at hand than it was some years ago." When 
the magnitude of the improvement is recognised it only brings into 
greater relief the vast mass of evil that has to be overcome and rooted 
out, and it only makes the more urgent call on every true friend of 
humanity and lover of his country to greater efforts than before. Let 
us briefly note how matters stand at present, and let us take stock of 
the evils that are with us still. We shall then not only see by com- 
parison with previous conditions to what extent things are better, but 
we shall know exactly how much work we have still to do. 

Rural Depopulation and Urban Overcrowding.— Our young 
people still leave the country districts, while others are unable to go 
there because suitable dwellings cannot be obtained. Between 1891 and 
1901 no less than 500,654 persons migrated from rural districts to urban 
districts, where we find 507,763 persons living in 251,667 one-room 
dwellings, in addition to 2,158,644 persons living in 658,203 dwellings 



of only two rooms. The census returns of 1901 show 2,667,506 persons 
or 8-2 per cent, of the population living in 392,414 overcrowded 
dwellings, and of these 245,586 were in one-room dwellings. In 
London there were 726,096 persons living in overcrowded dwellings 
and 304,000 of these were in one-room dwellings. In Glasgow, out of 
163,258 dwellings, there were 42,623 of only one room, 71,207 of two 
rooms, and 9,971 of three rooms, figures which are far worse than in any 
of the large towns in England. 

The overcrowded persons in 1901 numbered in Birmingham 53,936, 
Leeds 43,239, Liverpool 54,390, Manchester 34,147, and Sheffield 
36,159, while the percentage of persons overcrowded in Northumber- 
land was 3 1 '5 1, and in Durham 29"56. 

It would be untrue and unfair to attribute all or any of the 
following social evils and financial burdens entirely to bad housing 
conditions, but it is most true and most fair to say that these conditions 
are among the main and primary factors that cause a large proportion 
of such social evils and financial burdens. 

Deaths and Disease. — Death rates have materially decreased, 
but in 1903, when the death rate was the lowest on record, it is 
estimated that there were not less than 100,000 preventible deaths in 
England and Wales. The following figures help to show the truth of 
this estimate, and particularly to bring out the startling contrasts 
between the deadliness of some large districts and the comparative 
healthiness of others. 

Comparison of Death Rates of various Districts with about the 
same Population. 



County. 



Case i — 
Durham 
Essex 



Percentage Infant Mortality 

Population of Deaths. ^^ ^ y^^j^^^ 

C)vercrowJing. '^ 

1,194,442 28 '4 21,962 
1,062,452 27 14,913 



156 1 Durham 3 deaths 
1 1 5 I to every 2 in 



Essex 



Excessive deaths in Durham 



7,049 41 per 1,000 births. 



Case 2 — 

Northumberland 
Sussex 



602,859 
605,763 



32-0 
15 



10,997 
7,925 



152 
95 



1 Northumberland 
f 8 deaths to 5 in 

Sussex. 



Excessive deaths in Northumberland 

Case 3 — 

Lancashire & Yorkshire 7,203,613 
London, Middlesex,! g g 
Berks, Hants, Surrey/ '' '^ 
Exessive deaths in 

Lancashire and Yorkshire 



3,072 57 per 1,000 births. 



128,212 
104,194 

23,268 



152 
118 



Lancashire and 

Yorkshire 5 deaths 

to 4 in London 

and District. 

34 per 1,000 births. 



Case 4 — 

The Death Rate (1904) in Birmingham was I9\3 per 1,000. 
,, ,, Bournville 6*9 ,, 

Infant mortality, which varies almost arithmetically with housing 
conditions, is still too high. Although children under five ar^ only 
one-ninth of the population, they furnish one-third of the deaths. 



Of 944,703 children born in 1904 no less than 137,490 died within 
12 months, that is 40,000 infants unnecessarily sacrificed. 

The infant mortality in 1904 of St. Mary's, Birmingham, was 331 per 1,000 births. 
,, ,, ,, Bourn ville 65 ,, 

The death-rate for the last six years at Eoiirnville has been 7*5 per 1,000 ; the 
-death-rate in Birmingham for the same period has been 17 -9 per 1,000, or nearly two 
and a half times as great. The infantile mortality per 1,000 at Bournville during 
the last six years has been 78 '8, as compared with 170 per 1,000 in the city, or more 
than double. 

No less than 139,447 cases of infectious disease were notified last 
year in half the country. These cases are four times more numerous 
in overcrowded districts than elsewhere. 16,981 persons became 
paupers by having medical relief in public infirmaries, and there were 
116,152 orders for medical attendance in London alone. 

Intemperance and Lunacy. — Where the light of day is shut out it 
is hard for the light of reason to remain strong and bright. Drunken- 
ness and pauper lunatics are found most in the overcrowded districts. 
An L.C.C. return five years ago gave the following figures : — 

Persons per Acre. Lunacy Rate. 

All London ... ... 58 ... ... 1-9 

Bethnall Green ... ... 171 ... ... 67 

Holborn ... ... 186 ... ... 8-2 

Strand ... ... ... 143 ... ... 1 1 'o 

In England and Wales there were 85,821 pauper lunatics. 

Professor Koch told the delegates at the British Congress for the 
prevention of consumption, " Consumption is by no means hereditary, 
germs do not pass from father to son in the blood, the worst peril is to the 
poor, in over-crowded districts. // is 7iot poverty itself that favours con- 
sumption., but the bad domestic conditions in which the poor people livep 

Unemployment and poverty follow closely on the heels of spells of 
illness and lowered vitality. The slums make many unemployables. 
Physical deterioration is an inevitable result of bad and overcrowded 
•dwellings, and hooliganism prevails most where lads are driven to 
spend their evenings in the streets through having no proper accom- 
modation for remaining at home. 

CHILD LIFE AND PHYSICAL DETERIORATION. 

Some striking facts and figures as to the influence of environment 
■on child life were given in August, 1907, by Mr. George Cadbury for 
Bournville, Mr. W. Lever for Port Sunlight, and in a Blue Book of the 
Scotch Education Department in respect of the City of Glasgow. A 
brief summary is appended hereto. 

Bournville and Birmingham. — The boys at Bournville school, on an average, 
were 4 inches taller than those in Birmingham, and the chest measurement was 
3 inches greater. 

Port Sunlight and Liverpool.— Dr. Arkle, of Liverpool, has made a careful 
•examination of the children in the various grades of schools in that town, while a 
similar investigation has been made at Port Sunlight. The Liverpool schools may be 
grouped in four classes : — 

Higher Grade Schools, where the sons of well-to-do citizens are educated. 
Council Schools. — (J ) Type of the best Council School, where the parents ot 
the children are well-to-do, and the children have mostly comfortable homes. 



Council Schools. — ( B) Type of school where the children are mostly of the 
labouring classes. It was selected as a type for the children of the labouring classes, 
whose parents have constant employment. 

Council School ( C), the last of the Council Schools, is a type of the poorest 
class where the parents of the children belong almost entirely to the unemployed or 
casual labour sections. To this list may be added a fifth class, viz. , 

Fort Sunlight Schools, which may be taken as equal to type (B) of the Council 
Schools, the parents are mostly of the labouring classes, in constant employment, but 
with the difference that the houses in which the children mostly live are built with 
ample air space, not more than seven houses to the acre. 

At 7 years of age the average height and weight of boys was as follows : — 

Higher Grade Schools... 
Council Schools (A) 

Do. (B) .. 

Do. (C) 

Port Sunlight Schools 
At II years of age : — 

Higher Grade Schools... 
Council Schools {A) 

Do. [B) ... 

Do. (C) 

Port Sunlight Schools 
At 14 years of age : — 

Higher Grade Schools ... 
Council Schools (^) 

Do. {B) 

Do. (C) .. 

Port Sunlight Schools- 
These figures show that the sons of artisans and labourers in Port 
Sunhght produce superior height and weight at equal ages 10 that 
produced in Higher Grade Schools among the children of the well-to-do 
citizens of Liverpool. 

Glasgow. — Returns were made by the teachers for 72,857 children — 36,883. 
bo}s and 35,974 girls — and not only were their height and weight taken, but 
particulars as to their housing and general physical surroundings were also ascertained. 
The schools were divided into four groups, viz. : 

Schools. Children. 

(a) Poorest districts ... ... 26 ... 24,661 

\b) Poor districts ... ... 27 ... 25,348 

((-) Better class ... ... II ... Ii,453 

(rf) Higher class ... .. 9 ... 11,395 

It was found that as surely as a child was found in group (a) he or she was 
likely to be smaller and lighter than the children from group {b), and so on with the 
other groups. But it was when the average height and weight were classified in 
correlation with the number of rooms in the houses in which the children lived that 
the most striking results were obtained. 

Taking the children of all ages from 5 to 18, the average weight and height 
classified according to the number of rooms was found to be as follows : 



Height. 


Weight 


Inches. 


lbs. 


47 


49-3 


45-3 


44-1 


44 '3 


43 


44 


43 


47 


50 s 


55-5 


70 


53'i 


61-4 


51-8 •• 


59 


497 


55-5 


57 


79 '5 


617 


94-5 


58-2 .. 


95-8 


56-2 


758 


55'2 


7I-I 


622 


108 • 



One Room : 

Boys 

Girls 
Two Rooms : 


Height. 
. 46-6 in. 
. 46-3 in. 


Weight. 
52*6 lbs. 
51-5 lbs. 


Three Rooms : 

Boys 

Girls 
Four Rooms : 


Height. 
50*0 in. 
49 6 in. 


Weight. 
60 -6 lbs. 
59-4 lbs. 


Boys 
Girls 


. 48-1 in. 
. 47-8 in. 


56-1 lbs. 
54-8 lbs. 


Boys 
Girls 


51-3 in. 
51-6 in. 


64-3 lbs. 
65-5 lbs. 



As the report states, "it cannot be an accident that boys from two-roomed 
houses should be Ii7lbs. lighter on an average than boys from four-roomed houses 
and 47 inches smaller. Neither is it an accident that girls from one-roomed houses 
are, on the average, I4lbs. lighter and 5*3 inches shorter than the girls from four- 
roomed houses." 



Money cost to the Community. — At the same time the com- 
munity is busily engaged paying towards the cost or what we may truly call 
the " working expenses" of existing accommodation. For example there is 
the direct cost to the ratepayers and taxpayers of work and institutions 
that would be far less expensive under improved housing conditions. 
Here are some instructive figures : 

Loans outstanding Expended in one Year, 
in 1904. 1903-4. 

Out of Loans. Out of Rates. 

£ £ £ 

Cemeteries ... ... ... 3,110,275 153,379 415,841 

Hospitals for Infectious Diseases 6,205,134 636,961 1,43.2,496 

Lunatic Asylums ... ... 9,446,986 845,622 2,849,029 

Purchase of Slums (about) ... 4,500,000 700,000 100,000 

Workhouse and Poor Relief ... 12,711,817 1,281,447 9,9835804 



35,974,212 3,617,409 14,781,170 

The total spent on building workhouses and similar institutions up 
to 1905 was ^31,668,161. There is also the direct cost io individuals 
and the indirect cost to societies and the ratepayers, through loss of 
employment, sickness, and death, due to preventable disease. This 
■cost must run into many millions sterling, and though it cannot all be 
measured in figures, its magnitude may be partly gauged from the fact 
that fourteen large friendly societies with 3,342,255 members spent 
;^3,245,328 in one year (1904) on sick and funeral benefits, or nearly 
j£i per member. In the ten years 1892-1901 the 100 principal trades 
unions with about 1,000,000 members spent over ;^2, 500,000 on sick 
pay alone. 

There is in Sheffield an excellent Federated Health Association, and 
the following passages from its report indicate the attitude of the best 
minds in the town towards expenditure on housing reform. 

The committee is encouraged on witnessing a considerable fall in the death-rate 
in Sheffield from zymotic disease : a class of disease which can and therefore ought to 
be prevented. For 1899, the year in which the Nether Hallam Health Association 
was started, the zymotic death-rate for Sheffield was 4-56 per 1000 of the population. 
Last year, 1903, it was reduced to 3-10, which is still the highest in the whole 
country, excepting Warrington and Wigan. The general average in the 76 large 
towns last year was i -89. Sheffield is still therefore in the unenviable position of 
suffering from a zymotic death-rate of nearly 100 per cent, above ike average of large 
towns. 

Some critics regard the health movement as expensive, but the truth is that 
whether considered as to health, life, or the money standard, it makes for economy. 
Within the last quarter of a century, the Sheffield Corporation has borrowed nearly 
;^i50,ooo for the building of fever and isolation hospitals, which entails about 
;^6,500 per annum for interest and repayment charges, and about ^{,20,000 a year for 
their maintenance and upkeep. 

Most of this great expenditure is for the cure of preventable disease. Observe 
what the reduction of the death-rate by just one per 1000 signifies : — On a population 
of 400,000 it means a saving of 400 lives in 12 months. But the number of deaths 
from zymotic disease implies a far larger number of cases of preventable sickness 
among the living. The late Lord Pla^air says : 



" Statistical investigations show us that for every case of death in public 
institutions for the sick, there are 34 cases of serious sickness, so that the deaths 
must be multiplied by that number in order to give you the minimum cases of 
preventable sickness." 

The statistics show that the cases of sickness last on an average 18^ days. Now, 
taking Lord Playfair's basis, and reckoning only one death per 1, 000, and assuming 
the loss in wages from the cases of sickness to be two shillings a day, it means that 
Sheffield, with over 400,000 population, sustains an annual loss in wages of over 
£2j,ooo through preventable sickness. This is equivalent to over 4d. in the £ on 
the rateable value of the whole of Sheffield, to say nothing of doctors' bills, personal 
suffering, and other losses. 

Seeing that the preventable death rate is over three per 1,000 (and the illustration 
gives the figures on the proposal to save only one) it will be seen that if a clean 
sweep could be made of zymotic disease, the advantages would be three-fold greater. 

On the ground of economy, therefore, it is manifest that money judiciously 
spent in sanitary improvement is not unproductive taxation, but capital bearing- 
abundant interest. 

Inaction of Local Authorities. — ^Although, as previously stated, 
much good work has been done in some directions by some local 
authorities, none of them have done what is necessary, and a large 
number have entirely failed to fulfil their health and housing responsi- 
bilities. The outstanding loans of local authorities amount to about 
;^394,ooo,ooo, but only ^^4, 000,000 has been borrowed for building 
workmen's dwellings as distinguished from slum-buying. 

The annual cost of Local Government to rates and taxes is 
^^68,559,329, but probably less than ^25,000 of this is in respect of 
building •woxYxng class dwellings, which are self-supporting except where 
built on dear slum sites. 

Although the Right Hon. John Burns issued a special circular in 
January, 1906, to urge the amendment of Building Bye-laws on 
common sense lines, to facilitate the building of cheap but good 
cottages, only twelve Rural Councils, out of 667, had submitted new 
bye-laws up to the end of May, and, in fact, only 131 had replied to 
the circular. 

In 1904, which is atypical year, only 5,708 dwellings were repre- 
sented as unfit for human habitation in the whole of England and 
Wales, except London, although there are 5,000,000 dwellings under 
;£iS annual value. Only 195 Rural Councils out of 667, and only 125 
Urban Councils out of 803, reported action taken in this respect. 

Less than fifty councils out of over 1,500 have made any use of the 
Small Dwelling Acquisition Act, while only 160 have done anything 
under Part III of the Housing Act of 1890. 

Only eighty of the various Urban Councils, and only six of the 667 
Rural Councils, have built Municipal cottages. 

Only 10 applications out of 27 made by Rural District Councils 
were granted by County Councils for permission to put in force Part HI 
of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. 



LIMITATIONS ON FREEDOM OF ACTION UNDER PART III 

A paragraph on page 34 of the Housing Handbook states that 
Part HI enables local authorities "to build at any time and for any 
reason which may seem good to them," and this is correct so far as it 
goes, but where the carrying out of a scheme would involve borrowing 
money for the work to be done, which is nearly always the case, the 
powers of the local authority would, of course, be subject in such case 
to the usual sanction of the Local Government Board for the necessary 
loan. The Sheffield Corporation, for example, bought land with some 
available funds several years ago, and all went well till it was considered 
necessary to take up a loan for the land. Then it became necessary 
to get the sanction of the Local Government Board, and some difficulty 
was experienced in getting it, probably owing to the fact that they had 
not consulted the Local Government Board from the beginning. 

Local authorities have failed to do what was necessary under the 
Health and Housing Acts, partly because of apathy, ignorance, preju- 
dice, and vested interests, but even more largely perhaps because of 
costly and difficult procedure or the inadequate powers contained in 
those Acts, while so far as sanitary improvements in existing dwellings 
were concerned, the scarcity of other suitable accommodation resulted 
in the penalising of the tenants by increased rents, following on the 
execution of sanitary repai'S. 

How Municipalities are Shackled. — The building of 
cottages by Town and District Councils is above all other forms of 
activity rendered very difficult from the fact that the present legislation 
and administration put so many weapons into the hands of obstructive 
and reactionary members of local authorities and others who may be 
interested in preventing a large number of cheap and healthy dwellings 
being provided to compete with their own unhealthy hovels or highly 
rented dwellings, or those of their friends. The wonder is not that a 
few mistakes have been made, but that anything has been done at all 
successfully. Thus land is made dear by the present clumsy and 
costly procedure based on a very defective system of valuation which 
is all in the interest of the landlord, and generally enables him to make 
public bodies pay twice the actual value for land required for public 
purposes. The development of the site is also made unnecessarily 
expensive in many cases by bye-laws which require new streets to be 
made too wide, in too costly a manner, or for small groups of dwellings 
that only require simple and inexpensive approaches. The cost of 
building is unnecessarily increased by the bye-laws or regulations 
expressed or implied that exist in the codes of the various districts, or 
that accompany the granting of loans for municipal cottages. These 
regulations neither guarantee the erection of healthy dwellings nor 
permit sensible experiments and new departures in building construction 
except with great risk and difficulty. 

The annual charges on capital account are excessive when compared 
with the market rate of interest, and with the rate of interest (2^ per 
cent.) paid by the Government to working class depositors in the 



8 

Savings Bank, while the period for repayment of loans is often too 
short. The cumulative effect of these and other artificial obstacles 
placed in the way of municipal housing schemes is to necessitate, in 
many cases, either that the cottages should be let at higher rents than 
would otherwise be feasible and desirable, or that a burden should be 
cast upon the ratepayers. When the estimates show that under present 
conditions sufficiently low rents can only be obtained by putting some 
slight charge upon the rates, the slum owners and jerry-builders rise 
rampant in their wrath, and after whipping up all their friends who are 
interested in maintaining high rents for cottages and high prices for 
land, they carry out a vigorous campaign to frighten the timid and too 
often overburdened ratepayers into strenuous opposition to the scheme. 
The weak-kneed among the housing reformers promptly climb down 
and find reasons for giving up all further efforts, and the few stalwarts 
who continue to put the life and health of the people before such a 
matter as the fractional part of a penny increase in the rates are lucky 
if they retain their seats at the next election. 

A rather common feature in recent housing schemes was developed 
at Teddington with exceptional force, and as it is typical of what may 
be attempted elsewhere, a brief account may be useful. A number of 
local slum owners, cottage owners, and house and estate agents, took 
alarm at the low rents proposed to be charged for the cottages, and 
organised an association to wreck the scheme. The local press was 
deluged with letters periodically for about six months prior to the 
annual district council elections, and leaflets were scattered broadcast 
containing all sorts of misrepresentations with regard to the Act of 1890, 
and housing schemes carried out elsewhere under Part III of the Act, 
while all the public-houses but two had petitions at their bars against 
the scheme. Appeals to the prejudices of well-to-do ratepayers, and 
to the fears of the tradesmen, lest their rates should be increased, were 
made with such success, that although the working classes voted almost 
solidly for the housing scheme, half the new members elected were 
returned as opponents of it, and in one district consisting mainly of 
villa residents and tradesmen, the chairman of the Council, who was 
the chief supporter of the scheme, was hopelessly beaten at the polls. 
The clergy, and with few exceptions, the great body of organised 
Christian men and women were idle or apathetic, while the forces of 
greed and self-interesl were unwearying in their exertions against 
the supporters of the scheme. Fortunately a majority of the Council 
are still in favour of better housing, although, as a result of the 
elections, the Local Government Board have requested the Council to 
obtain tenders for building the cottages before giving their sanction to 
the necessary loan. 

Wanted a Municipalities' Disabilities Removal Bill.— In 

spite of all these drawbacks, a great deal of useful work has been done 
by many municipalities. A careful study of the particulars in the 
following pages as to the working out of the various schemes of local 
authorities, will convince most people that Parliament should as a first 



step help the local authorities by investing them with powers to deal 
more cheaply and efficiently with inspection, closing orders, slum 
clearance, town planning, land purchase, together with schemes under 
Part III of the Act of 1890, and the borrowing of the necessary money 
for carrying out such schemes. 

Individual Initiative and Government Stimulus. — The next 
step should obviously be to give greater powers of initiative to individual 
citizens in requiring local authorities to exercise their powers, while at 
the same time more advice, assistance, and pressure should be given by 
the central government, who themselves need new power, new 
organisation, and additional machinery for this purpose. The facts 
and figures showing what has been done by the pioneer authorities are 
given as fully as possible, so that they may serve as examples for other 
bodies either to imitate, modify, or avoid. 

A NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY. 

One of the most important events during recent years in connection 
with the Housing Question in Great Britain, was the great National 
Housing Deputation, representing all sections of the Housing move- 
ment, and consisting of men and women of all shades of political 
opinion, which was received by the Prime Minister and the President 
of the Local Government Board on November 6th, 1906. 

A memorandum was put before the two right honourable gentlemen 
embodying twelve points of reform, upon most of which nearly all 
housing reformers are agreed. These proposals were not exhaustive, 
and there were individual objections even among the members of the 
deputation to certain clauses, but so far as a body of men representing 
nearly every section of the housing movement, and holding all shades 
of political opinion, could agree to a common platform, the memoran- 
dum may be accepted as embodying what we would call the greatest 
common measure of the reforms advocated by those whose experience 
and studies qualified them to speak with some degree of authority on 
this subject. 

Nearly every proposal can be based on the recommendations of the 
Royal Commission of 1885. The main points have been approved by 
an unofficial Parliamentary Committee in 1903, mostly Unionist 
members, presided over by Sir John Gorst. Numerous conferences 
have approved the main proposals, including the Housing Conference 
of the Liverpool Trades Union Congress. 

The chief proposals may be summarised as follows : 

I. — Extension of the power of "representation" by private citizens so as to 
stimulate the provision of new dwellings and modification of bye-laws, as well as the 
abolition of nuisances and unhealthy dwellings. 

2. — Establishment of Central Housing Commissioners to advise, assist, and 
stimulate local authorities (cf. Small Holdings Act). 

3.— Compulsory quinquennial house to house inspection with a registei; or record 
of size, sanitary accommodation, rent, light and air space, and names of all owners. 

BI 



4- — Strengthening of law with cheaper and quicker procedure as to nuisances, 
overcrowding, and houses out of repair, as well as closing of unhealthy dwellings 
and clearance of slum areas. 

5. — Revision of bye-laws as to streets, open spaces, and structure of walls and 
buildings. 

6. — Town Planning and Site Planning powers to be conferred on all local 
authorities. 

7. — Establishment of joint committees or advisory boards to promote the proper 
development of urban areas contiguous to each other or forming part of an 
agglomeration round big towns. 

8. — Powers with respect to Land Purchase, Transit and Housing to be vested 
in one and the same authority. 

9- — Promotion of the proper development of villages by encouraging small 
holdings, co-operative agricultural societies, and village industries, accompanied by 
cheap and adequate means of transit. 

10. — Municipal Land Purchase on a large scale on the outskirts of growing 
towns to hold for future needs and to facilitate the establishment of model suburbs 
and garden villages by public bodies, " societies of public utility," and individuals, 
in combination or separately. 

II.— Valuation, taxation, and compulsory purchase of land to be improved, 
cheapened, simplified, and correlated. 

12. — Money to be lent for housing purposes by the Public Works Loan 
Commissioners, the savings banks, charities and ecclesiastical bodies at the market 
rate of interest. 

AMENDMENT OF THE LAW RELATING TO RURAL WATER SUPPLIES. 

The following detailed suggestions for the amendment of the law 
relating to Rural \Vater Supplies, were submitted on behalf of the 
Rural Housing and Sanitation Association in 1907, to the President of 
the Local Government Board ; 

I. — That local authorities should have power to provide, or cause to be provided, 
a supply of water for a group of houses, and to apportion the expense as they deem 
just amongst all the owners having houses within a reasonable distance of the source 
of supply, and the question of reasonable cost and reasonable expense should be left 
to them, subject to an appeal to a Court of Summary Jurisdiction or to the County 
Council. 

2. — That when a house is occupied without a water certificate ih'ere should be, 
in addition to the penalty referred to in Section 6 of the Public Health (Water) 
Act, 1878, a daily penalty until a satisfactory water supply is obtained. 

3. — That it shall be the duty of the Sanitary Authority to get an order to close 
a well when the water is shown to be polluted and dangerous to health. 

4. — That sanitary authorities shall make and enforce regulations with regard to 
the structure of wells and their protection from contamination. 

5. — That further facilities should be afforded for the combination of parishes 
(where these are in more than one sanitary district) for the purposes of providing a 
public supply. 

6. — That where, on the complaint of a local Medical Officer of Health, or the 
> County Medical Officer of Health, any parish or group of parishes is without a 
proper supply of wholesome water and such a supply can be obtained at reasonable 
cost, the County Council shall be responsible for providing such supply, if, after due 
enquiry it is shown that such supply is not likely to be provided by private enterprise 
or by the local authority. 



HAS MUNICIPAL BUILDING CHECKED OR STIMULATED 
PRIVATE ENTERPRISE? 

In October, 1906, the writer asked a number of Town Clerks 
and Municipal Engineers in towns where municipal housing schemes 
had been carried out whether such schemes were followed by a 
decrease or an increase in the number of dwellings erected by private 
enterprise. The first answer received indicated that the rate of 
increase of new houses had doubled. Then followed replies that new 
dwellings provided by private enterprise had increased in Folkestone, 
Finchley, Esher, Heston, Islevvorth, and Wrotham, after municipal 
schemes. East Ham, Edinburgh, Croydon, and Burton-on-Trent said 
it had had no effect, and only Bradford and Burton-on-Trent reported 
a decrease, though in each case other causes were obviously operating, 
as the period of tight money had just begun to tell in the building 
trade. At Noel Park, near the London County Council dwellings, the 
Artisans' Dwellings Company is going on building, but at the Streatham 
Estate, where there are no adjoining County Council dwellings, they 
are holding their hands somewhat over new buildings. 

Although there was a relative decrease in housing accommodation 
in London during the years 1891-1896 (London Census 1896) there 
■was a more rapid relative mcrease during the years 1896-1 901 (Census 
Returns 1901), and as the building of municipal dwellings by the 
London County Council began and synchronised with the latter period, 
the theory that private building enterprise is necessarily checked by 
municipal building enterprise does not fit in with the facts, and so far 
as London is concerned falls to the ground. 

In this connection it may be added that it is no longer strictly true 
to say that there is a lessening of the rate of increase in the building 
of new rooms, but rather that a larger proportion of the new dwellings 
built are unsuitable for occupation by the workmg classes, and 
thus the additional supply of such dwellings may be said to increase 
less rapidly. 

Reverting, however, to other towns, it is a remarkable fact that so 
far from killing private enterprise, the threat to build municipal 
dwellings seems at once to stimulate apathetic private individuals and 
companies and to bring out the best that is in them. All the best 
housing schemes by private or co-operative effort are in or near towns 
that have been pioneers of their class in building municipal dwellings, 
although only a small number of towns have built municipal dwellings 
There may be no direct connection, but the facts are unmistakeable. 
Birmingham, one of the first towns to build under Part III, has 
Bournville at its doors ; Liverpool has Port Sunlight quite near. The 
Co-partnership Housing Societies at Ealing and Sevenoaks followed the 
introduction of a municipal scheme. Hampstead Garden Suburb has 
followed the erection of dwellings by the Hampstead Borough 
Council. (See also pp. 86 Llandudno, no Liverpool, 123 East 
Grinstead, and 140 Noel Park). 



ALTERATIONS IN THE LAW.-THE ACT OF 1903. 
Since the publication of the Housing Handbook the Housing Acts 

of 1890 and 1900 have been amended by the Housing Act of 1903, 

which makes a number of important changes in the powers and duties 

of local authorities. The text of the Act, with forms, circulars, and 

explanatory notes, is given in full in the Appendix, but a brief summary 

may be usefully inserted here. 

Representation. — The twelve or more ratepayers who may appeal to the 
Local Government Board in connection with a representation as to an 
unhealthy area (sees. 5 and 16 Act of 1890) 7ieed not be the satne twelve 
who made the original representation. 

Advertisement of Schemes. — Schemes under Part I (sees. 7 and 8 Act of 
1890) may be advertised during three consecutive weeks in any months, 
and notices may be served during the thirty days next following the 
date of the last publication of the advertisement (sec. 5 (i) ). 

Confirmation of certain Schemes by Parliament not required. — The order of 
the Local Government Board as to such schemes (sec. 8 (4) (6)), need 
not be confirmed by Parliament {a) if land is not to be taken com- 
pulsorily ; [b) if no petition has been presented by owners of land 
proposed to be taken compulsorily ; or {c) if such petition having been 
so presented has been withdrawn, but shall under such conditions have 
the same effect as a provisional order confirmed by Parliament. 

Enforcement of Scheme by Local Government Board. — If a local authority 
fail to make a scheme under Part I after an official representation has 
been made to them, the Local Government Board may order the local 
authority to make a scheme either under Part I or Part II of the 
principal Act, and to carry such scheme into execution as if they had 
passed the resolution required by sees. 4 or 39 of the Act of 1890. Any 
such order may be enforced by mandamus. 

Modification of Closing Order Procedure. — If, in the opinion of the local 
authority, any dwelling house is not reasonably capable of being made 
fit for human habitation, or is in such a state that the occupation 
thereof should be immediately discontinued, it will not be necessary in 
luture to give notices (3rd -Schedule Housing Act, 1890), to the owner 
or occupier to abate the nuisance (sec. 8), but a summons may be applied 
for and a closing order may be granted forthwith. 

Possession may be recovered in cases of closing orders under sec. 32 of the 
Act of 1890 by proceedings under sees. 138 to 145 of the County Courts 
Act 1888, or under the Small Tenements' Re overy Act 1838, and ex- 
penses may be recovered from the owner as civil debt (sec. -O). 

New Forms have been prescribed for Schedule IV of the Act of 1890, 
sec. 8 (2). {See appendix page g). 

Recovery of Expenses of Demolition. — When the local authority demolish 
a house and sell the materials to pay expenses, they may recover any 
deficiency from the owner as a civil debt, or as under the provisions of 
the Public Health Act relating to improvement expenses (sec. 9). 

" Neighbouring Lands " may now be included under a Part II scheme. 

Contracting out of Section 75 of the Act of 1890 is forbidden by sec. 12 of 
the Act of 1903. 

Provision of Shops, Recreation Grounds, etc., under Part IIL — Local 
authorities may now, as part of a scheme under Part III, provide shops, 
recreation grounds, or other buildings or land which, in the opinion of 
the Local Government Board, will serve a beneficial purpose in con- 
nection with the requirements of the persons for whom the dwelling 
accommodation or lodging houses are provided (sec. 11 Act of 1903). 



13 

More Money— longer Loan Periods. — Money may now be borrowed for 80 
years under the Housing Act, and the usual practice of the Local 
Government Board is to grant 80 years in respect of the land, and 60 
years in respect of the buildings. Loans previously granted for shorter 
periods in respect of schemes under Part III already carried out have, 
in many cases, on application, been extended to 80 and 60 years 
respectively (sec. i Act of 1903). Unfortunately the Public Works 
Commissioners are at present limited by their special Acts to 50 years' 
period for loans, but a Bill is promised by the Government for removing 
this anomaly, {cf. pp. j§-6 and 160-4 Housing Handbook.) 

The limitation to two years rateable value has been removed (sec. i Act 
of 1903.) 

Rehousing obligations are now extended in connection with future 
improvement schemes by sec. 3 of the Housing Act of 1903, and the 
schedule thereto as follows : 

(a) The rehousing obligation is extended to cases where working 

men's dwellings occupied by thirty or more persons of the 
working classes are to be taken. 

(b) No e?ttry shall be made on such dwellifii^s till a scheme for re- 

housing has been approved ordeclaredunnecessary,and entry 
may be delayed by the Local Government Board till the new 
dwellings or some of them are completed and fit for occupation. 

(c) In calculating the number to be rehoused, any person displaced 

within the previous Jive years shall be taken into con- 
sideration. 

Housing Accommodation often unsuitable where 
sufficient. — The main object of Housing Reformers is to secure a 
larger supply of healthy, suitable, beautiful, and accessible dwellings 
for the working classes, with pleasanter surroundings, and at the lowest 
possible rents. 

All housing laws, bye-laws, and administration should be so ordered 
as to promote these desirable ends as far as may be, though it is not 
■easy to secure all of them at one and the same time. 

For example, a large supply of new and more or less healthy 
housing accommodation has been provided in the suburbs of London 
and other large towns, but the greater part of it consists either of shops 
or small villas, unsuited for occupation by the working classes, and let at 
too high rents, where it is not difficult of access, or with unsatisfactory sur- 
roundings. For all practical purposes this may be considered non-existent 
from the point of view of working class housing accommodation. 

On the other hand, there is in many districts a fairly large supply of 
old and purely working class housing accommodation, some of it 
empty, and at '■^ money rents" which are low compared with what would 
be charged for new houses in the same situation. It is, however, not 
healthy, and the heavy toll that has to be paid by the occupants in the 
shape of, more or less, death, disease, lowered vitality, physical 
degeneration and consequential poverty and misery really constitutes 
an additional rent which is none the less objectionable because it is levied 
in forms not always easily recognised, and because a part of the price 
has to be paid by the whole community either in money or in kind. 

Up to now nearly all housing schemes, except those on open land 
under Part III of the Housing Act of 1890, have necessarily been more 



14 

or less subsidised by the community, owing to the unsatisfactory nature 
of the law and administration regulating slum buying, slum improve- 
ment, land purchase, and rehousing. 

It may therefore be asserted not only that it is necessary in the 
vital interests of the nation to pay for better housing conditions, but 
also that it is desirable from the mere pounds, shillings, and pence 
point of view to spend money in taking "the stitch in time that saves 
nine." It is, however, none the less urgent that all obstacles adding 
unnecessarily to the money cost, both as regards initial capital outlay 
and subsequent rents of new and better housing accommodation should 
be removed, while all measures tending to lessen capital outlay and 
rents should be encouraged, provided they do not miHtate against the 
healthiness and other proper conditions of the people's homes. 

We can, however, only know what to supply, where to supply, and 
how to supply the extra accommodation when we have full information 
as to the nature and extent of existing accommodation and of the 
facilities for providing more. 

It is, therefore, essential that every local authority shoul begin its 
housing work by a complete survey of the existing dwellings in their 
district as well as the land available for new dwellings. The informa- 
tion thus secured should be properly recorded and made conveniently 
accessible, and on this should be based the town policy of the future. 

INSPECTION AND INQUIRY. 

The remarkable facts brought to light whenever there is a fairly 
complete system of house to house inspection or inquiry in a given 
area, show pretty clearly that there must be many districts where the 
local authorities, and those who elect them, are ignorant of the real 
conditions of housing in their areas. If inspection were made com- 
pulsory and the results known, the public demand for better conditions 
of living for the poor would become irresistible, and such complete 
information would be obtained as to existing accommodation that 
future needs could be estimated and provision made for them by a 
system of town planning and land purchase. 

What Inspection reveals. — For example, in Liverpool during 
the two years 1903 and 1904, 37,443 nuisances were discovered through 
19,362 complaints made by inhabitants, but no less than 162,921 
nuisances were discovered as the result of a house to house inspection 
of 59,684 dwellings. There were 9,386 cellar dwellings in Liverpool 
in 1904, about 3,000 of which were occupied separately as dwellings 
by 9,160 persons. 

Out of 22,488 sub-let houses 1,148 convictions for overcrowding 
were obtained before the local magistrates. During the year in question 
2,174 new houses were erected and 293 taken down, including both 
public and private action. 

Most useful work follows the knowledge of existing conditions. 
The Bishop of Wakefield says that it was shown through inspection 
that eight per cent, of the infant mortality in that town was directly 
traceable to damp houses. 



15 

In Manchester there has been a gradual reduction in the number of 
pail closets at the rate of about 700 per annum, privy middens 700 per 
annum, and wet middens 400 per annum. The death rate was reduced 
during the same period to 21 '3 per 1,000. 

A house to house survey in Coventry having shown that 593 houses 
were overcrowded, and at least 4,495 persons were living under con- 
ditions which were not good either from a moral or hygienic point of 
view ; the result was a decision to adopt Part III of the Act of 1890. 

Women Sanitary Inspectors in Liverpool visit houses at which 
births have been registered in the districts with heavy infant mortality, and 
leave cards of instruction with the mothers as to the care of infants, 
besides giving information when required as to the feeding of infants and 
other matters. In one month 1,869 such visits were made. They also 
visit school children suffering from minor infectious ailments, such as 
sore eyes, sore heads, and skin diseases, suggesting treatment and remedy 
in slight cases, and urging a visit to the doctor where necessary. In 
one year 3,491 such visits were paid, besides 1,821 visits to diarrhrea 
cases. In addition to these duties, they visited dirty and insanitary 
houses at the rate of about 18,000 per annum. Nearly all large cities 
with any pretensions to a proper sanitary service now have one or more 
women sanitary inspectors. 

Supplementary Travelling Inspectors for large areas. — 

In many districts, however, in the past, these house to house inspections 
have only been fragmentary and spasmodic, owing in many cases to 
inadequate staff or resources ; hence an increase in the number, and 
efificiency of both medical officers of health and sanitary inspectors is 
required. A slight improvement is going on in this respect, ac- 
companied by an increased tendency to appoint women. In 1904 there 
were 1,661 medical ofificers of health and 1,601 inspectors of nuisances 
(of whom 22 were women) appointed in the provinces, under the 
regulations of the Local Government Board. In London the similar 
appointments were 30 medical officers and 319 inspectors of nuisances, 
of whom 32 were women. The smaller authorities, however, especially 
in rural districts, can only get this work well done by availing them- 
selves of the temporary and periodical assistance of a staff of peripatetic 
trained inspectors in each county, or other suitable area, all or some of 
whom could be available to reinforce the purely local staff for special 
work as a quinquennial house to house visitation. Local authorities 
who want to carry out a house to house inspection, under present 
conditions, find it difficult and costly to get satisfactory temporary 
additions to their staff, and some such plan as this would help them 
materially, and the results when recorded could be transmitted to thelocal 
sanitary authority who could retain all their existing powers for the 
necessary administrative action. In this way it would only be necessary 
for the larger authority to interfere with the actual sanitary administra- 
tion of any given district in those cases where the local sanitary 
authority was seriously in default, as they would be if they allowed bad 
conditions to exist which were brought to their notice. 



i6 

A Statutory County Sanitary Committee might be established 
in every county or other suitable area with advisory and default powers 
over matters connected with housing and sanitation. They should be 
the employers of the supplemental sanitary staff, and could so arrange the 
survey of their area as to cover the whole of it in the course of five years. 

Record or Register of Housing Accommodation. — The 

Select Committee on Rural Housinghave recommended that there should 
be not only inspection and survey, but what is perhaps the most vital 
and effective part of any scheme of inspection, that there should be 
established a record or register of the conditions of every dwelling 
occupied by persons of the working classes, giving the following 
particulars, which should be open to public inspection at the office of 
the local sanitary authority, 
(i) Situation and address ; 

(2) Rated occupier ; 

(3) Beneficial owner ; 

(4) Freeholder ; 

(5) Area of site ; 

(6) Number and description of rooms and offices in each house ; 

(7) Number of occupants and their sex and approximate age at time of survey ; 

(8) Sanitary condition of property ; 

(9) State of repair of house ; 

(10) Water supply ; 

(11) Rateable value ; 

(12) If let in lodgings, number of rooms and of lodgers. 

For the purpose of securing information on these matters. Form A, 
as prescribed under Section g (3) of the Representation of the People 
Act, should be served on the owners of all dwellings used or to be 
used for human habitation, and should have extended clauses requiring 
information dealing with the points above-mentioned. 

A similar suggestion was made by the Royal Commission on 
Labour, presided over by the Duke of Devonshire, which recom- 
mended : — 

"That the owners of all houses let at a rental of less than ^^lo a year should be 
obliged to make an annual return to the sanitary authority, stating the number of 
persons in each cottage, their sex and age ; whether the house is provided with a 
proper water supply and a closet, and W'hether the premises are in good repair. 
We think that the obligation to make this return would have ihe two-fold good effect 
of periodically calling the attention of the sanitary authorities and of owners them- 
selves to the condition of cottages." 

A Summary of the record should be furnished annually to the local 
authority, the Parish Council, the County Council, and the Local 
Government Board, and in the case of Rural District Councils, a copy 
of that portion of the register comprising the dwellings in any separat-: 
parish should be supplied annually to the parish council or to the 
parish meeting of such parish. 

In Birmingham a special return prepared by the overseers showed 
that there were vacant dwellings as follows: — 714 at 4/- or less per 
week, 1,500 at 5/6 or less per week, and 1,041 at 6/6 or less per week. 
These figures have been hotly disputed. A proper record w-ould show 
the exact truth. At the same time there should be inspectors appointed 



I? 

by the Government to supervise and assist the work, even of the larger 
authorities, especially in the direction of giving an independent report 
as to the extent to which existing powers were being utilised to remedy 
known and specific housing evils in the various areas. This is done in 
Hesse and Holland. 

ADAPTATION OF DWELLINGS. 

Several new schemes have been carried out under section 59 of the 
Act of 1890, on the lines of those described in the Housing Handbook 
(page 215), but unfortunately they have been confined to the adaptation 
of dwellings that are already in a rather bad state of structural and 
sanitary repair, and the scheme tor " making down " decent but 
deserted or badly let middle-class streets into workmen's quarters, as 
advocated by Dr. F. J. Sykes and the writer (page ^19), has yet to be 
carried out. 

Quite a number of persons, fairly well off however, are claiming 
exemption from house duty on the ground that their dwellings come 
within the provisions of the Customs and Inland Revenue Acts, 53 
and 54 Vic. sec. 26, and 55 and 56 Vic. cap. 25, sec. 4. In this con- 
nection it may be well to point out the requirements of the Medical 
Oflficer of Health for St. Pancras, who lias specialised on this branch of 
housing reform, for not all the persons claiming exemption as above 
described have a dwelling complying with these conditions. They are 
best seen from the accompanying copy of the certificate of the Medical 
Officer of Health under the Act. 

CERTIFICATE OF MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH. 

Having been informed that the assessment to Inhabited House Duty of the 
house described below will be wholly or parily discharged by the Commissioners 
acting in the execution of the Acts relating to Inhabited House Duties, provided 
that a Certificate of the Medical Officer of Health be produced, and having been 
requested to furnish the said Certificate, I hereby certify that I have examined the 
house described below, and am of opinion that the house is so constructed as to 
afford suitable accommodation for each of the persons inhabiting it, and that due 
provision is made for their sanitary requirements, these words being interpreted to 
mean that the house is so constructed : — 

I. — That the common staircase is permanently ventilated at each floor leve 
or by through ventilation, so as to break the common air connection. 

2. — That there is at least one water closet, properly and efficiently supplied 
with water, for every twelve occupants or less on each floor, dis- 
connected aerially from any dwelling in the interior of the building. 

3. — That there is at least one draw tap and sink, with a constant supply of 
water thereto, for every twelve occupants or less on each floor. 

4. — That the buildings are in conformity with the Building Acts and By-laws, 
especially as to damp courses, dry areas, concrete basements, etc. 

5. — That the water supply is in conformity with the By-laws and regulations. 

6. — That the drainage is in accordance with the By-laws and regulations. 

7. — That each dwelling is so arranged as to be through ventilated from one 
front to another. 

8. — That each of the habitable rooms is at least eight feet six inches in height 
and ninety-six square feet in area, and has a fire-place and chimney flue. 



g. — That on each floor a sufficient space or open lobby is provided accessible 
to and for the use of the families on each floor, for the deposit of 
refuse, etc. , and 
lo. — That accommodation for clothes-washing is provided sufficient for each 
family to occupy the washhouse and appliances one day in each week. 

Name and Situation of House 



Name of Owner or Agent. 
Date 



Medical Officer of Health for the 
Borough of St. Pancras. 

The Glasgow Dwellings Company, described on page 216 
of the Handbook, do not report quite so favourably on the adapted 
property. For nine years the Company paid a dividend of 4 per cent, 
to its shareholders, but in 1905-6 the dividend was reduced to 3I per 
cent., owing to an abnormal loss by unlet houses. There has been a 
general depreciation in the market for property of this kind and in this 
position, owing largely to the effect of rapid transit by electric cars, in 
redistributing the population mainly to the outside of the city. The 
amount lost in bad debts has increased for the same reason. 

The Winchester Cottage Improvement Society also finds it a 
struggle year by year to pay its 4 per cent, in spite of most careful 
management. 

Small Dwellings Act 1899. — -Loans have been sanctioned under 
this Act up to 31st December, 1905, as follows : 
5 County Boroughs. 



Birkenhead 
Worcester 
West Ham 
Bristol 



17 



£ 




£ 


3276 


Liverpool... 


2176 


800 
1042 








10,847 


3553 






■ Urban 


Councils. 




£ 




£ 


800 


Cheshunt (Herts.) 


1160 


14924 


Tollbridge (Kent) 


800 


530 


Tottenham (Middlesex) .. 


250 


750 


Enfield 


IIOI 


3312 


Southall-Norwood 




34720 


(Middlesex) 


815 




Hanwell (Middlesex) 


150 


1430 


Maidens and Coombe 




5000 


(Surrey) 


240 


413° 






945 




71057 



Erith (Kent) 

Gillingham (Kent) 
Amble (Northumberland) 
Bedwellty (Mon.) 
Cherton (Kent) ... 
Ilford (Essex) 
Waterloo-with-Seaforth 

(Lancaster) ... 
Barking Town (Essex) ... 
Walthamstow (Essex) 
Abersychan (Mon.) 

One Rural Council — Pontardawe (Wales), ^340. 
The total is only ;^82,244 in six years. The periods for' repayment 
have been 33 per cent, under 20 years, 33 per cent. 20 years, and ;^;^ 
per cent, from 25 to 30 years. 



CHAPTER II. 

SLUM ENDING AND SLUM MENDING. 

SLUM DESTRUCTION. 

We have first to consider the schemes for buying and clearing, 
large slum areas, with subsequent rehousing or attempts at rehousing 
carried out by provincial towns. 

LOCAL IMPROVEMENT SCHEMES AND RAILWAY BILLS. 
Liverpool. — In September, 1902, a street-to-street examination of the whole of 
the city revealed the fact that 9,943 structurally insanitary houses remained to be 
dealt with, notwithstanding the fact that up to that period the Corporation had 
dealt with something like 8,000 houses, the balance, about 4,000, having been, 
demolished by owners for the purpose of providing sites for business purposes. 
Since 1903, the Corporation has in a similar manner dealt with a further 400 houses, 
in addition to which 710 houses have been dealt with by an improvement scheme 
under the Housing of the Working Classes Act. 1890, Part I. A further 233 houses 
have been demolished by owners for business purposes, leaving a balance of about 
8,60c still remaining to be dealt with, but as many of these are situated in wide open 
courts, and are very far removed from those which have been demolished, they do 
not consequently demand immediate attention. The total cost of these demolition 
operations has been nearly ^490,000. 

Glasgow. — The purchase and improvement of lands and buildings have 
involved the expenditure of ^2,000,000, and new buildings have cost over ^400,000. 
Property has been sold and feu duties created to the value of ;^i,ooo,ooo, and the 
municipality holds property valued at ;,{^88o,ooo. The amount drawn from the rates 
in 30 years is about ^600,000. The total revenue for the year ended 31st yia.y, 1906,. 
was ^'105,462 13s. 2d., and the expenditure ;[{'i03,445 13s. 8d., showing a net 
surplus of ;!;^2,oi6 19s. 6d. The rate has never exceeded fd. in the ;i^. 

Douglas. — The Council has spent ^55,000 on clearance schemes, and 
;i{^l6,ooo on three blocks of artisans' dwellings. Other new dwellings are to be 
erected. 

SLUM BUYING UNDER PART I. 

Between 1891 and 1905 inclusive, loans for about ^2,200,000 for 
this purpose have been raised as follows : — 

/. £ 

Bath C.B. ... 10,012 DevonportC.B 79,284 

Birkenhead C B. 40,597 Dudley C.B. ... 180 

Birmingham C.B. 30,100 Leeds C.B. ...923,318 

Bolton C.B. ... 4,540 Leigh B. .. 25,631 

Bournemouth C.B. 1,100 Liverpool C.B. ...178,981 

Bradford C.B. ... 26,992 Manchester C.B. 285,005 

Brighton C.B. ...111,861 Plymouth C.B. ... 96,600 

Coventry C.B. ... 1,277 Prescot C. B. ... 13,120 

Details as to some of these schemes are given on pp. 45-51 of the Housing 
Handbook, but the following additional particulars may be of interest : — 

Bath. — Lampards Buildings have been cleared, and 34 houses, containing 
38 dwellings, situate in the upper part of the city have been erected to 1st November, 
1906. Nearly all are tenanted. The rents are collected weekly, and give very little 
trouble. This has been rather a costly scheme owing to compensations to owners of 



Portsmouth C.B. .. 


£ 
. 4,000 


Sal ford C.B. 
Sheffield C.B. 


• 69,940 
.131,208 


Southampton C.B. 
Stretford U.D.C. .. 


61,005 
. 26,650 


Sunderland C.B. .. 


. 8,245 


WiganC.B. 


• 76,598 



property and other charges, also owini; to the fact that retaining walls had to be 
erected to support properties, etc., as tlie site is upon a very steep gradient. A 
wonderful improvement in the neighbourhood has been effected. Cost of erection of 
houses, ;i^7,200 ; compensations, purchase of ohl properties, erection of retaining 
walls, street works, etc., etc., ^,9,500 ; total capital outlay, ;;^i6,700. 

Birkenhead. — Cleared 2^5 acres of land and 23S houses, and built 18 cottage 
dwellings and 70 tenement dwellings. Four areas forming part of the last scheme, 
and containing 3,457 square yards and 95 houses, have been purchased, but the 
houses have not yet been demolished. Tenders for erecting 18 additional tenements 
are under consideration. 

Brighton. — Cleared areas in Cumberland Place, St. James's Street, and Spa 
Street, at a cost of ^^105, 892, less .^^15,587 received for land sold. 

Devonport. ^Cleared areas in James Street and Ordnance Street, and covered 
them with 105 tenement houses. Capital cost £a,%,2'T]. 

Leeds. — Carrying out scheme for clearing 75 acres. Cost ^500,000. 

Manchester. — Cleared Oldham Road and Pollard Street areas, five acres, 
costing about ^^107, 000. Displaced 1,870 persons, and rehoused 1,824, at a cost of 
;i^ 1 13,922. Death-rate of district materially reduced. 

Plymouth. — Cleared 7,973 yards and displaced 813 persons, at a cost of 
;^34,667. Ikiilt blocks and flats to house about 1,600 persons, at a cost of ;if59,623 
•excluding land. Income ;if3,i38. Expenditure ;^i,373, in addition to capital 
■charges. 

Prescot. — Borrowed ;^6,ooo for clearance scheme for 80 years under Act of 
1903, and carried out some of the work. In 1905 another sum of ^^1,750 was 
borrowed for completing the work. 

Salford. — Cleared areas displacing 1,459 persons. Built municipal lodging- 
"house for 2S5 persons, with block dwellings and cottages to house a total of 2,432 
persons. Total capital expenditure ^272,136, involving a subsidy of ^3,217 from 
the rates. 

Sheffield. — Cleared the Crofts area of about five acres, at a cost of ;^I05,327, 
and built 124 dwellings on part of the site. Further dwellings are to be erected. 

Southampton. — Area of about three acres cleared, and lodging-house and 
artisans' dwellings, flats, and cottages erected at total cost of ;,{,77,652. 

Stretford. — Cleared area and built 20 double tenement houses. 

Sunderland. — Cleared area at cost of £2 14s. id. per yard. Built 48 two- 
roomed dwellings at 3s gd. and 4s. per week, and 36 three-room dwellings at 4s. 9d. 
and 5s. per week. 

Wigan. — Cleared area. Built 160 cottages, and sold them recently. 

SLUM BUYING UNDER PART II. 

Schemes under Part II have been very few in number, and the total 
amount borrowed from 1890 to 1905 inclusive only amounted to about 
;;/^i 16,000, made up as follows : — 

Coventry ... 145 Hereford ... 3,195 Manchester ... 22,995 

Darwen ... 32,492 Lancaster ... 1,200 Ormskirk ... 960 
Eccles ... 37,015 Leeds ... 10,983 Tamworth ... 6,001 

The total amount borrowed under the Artisans' and Labourers' 
Dwellings Acts and the Housing of the Working Classes Acts by 
local authorities, outside London, in England and Wales, during the 
last 20 years was 3^4,653,133, out of a gross total of loans during that 
period for sanitary and other purposes of ;j{^i 19,663,1 12. About half 
this was spent on slum buying, and the other half in providing new 
dwellings. That is to say in 20 years little more was spent on housing 
ihe tv or king classes than the cost of tivo battleships. 



SLUM IMPROVEMENT. 

Local authorities are beginning to recognise that the obHteration of 
the slums under the existing law is impossible on account of the 
enormous cost, so they are trying to brighten and improve them by 
letting in more light and air. 

In Manchester the procedure now is : 

1. A house to house inspection by the inspector. 

2. The UnheaUhy Dwellings Committee make a visit. 

3. An order is made for repair, improvement, water supply, provision of 

paved back vard, or closing the dwelling, as the case may be. 

4. A small subsidy is paid owners who convert pail closets into water closets. 

Between 1885 and 1905 no less than 5,772 back to back houses 
were closed, and 4768 re-opened after the demolition of some to provide 
yard space, either by taking away the rear half of one row of houses or 
by demolishing alternate houses, and removing houses at the blind end 
of the numerous cul-de-sacs. 

In Nottingham 205 houses were cleaned out and repaired in the 
year by order of the sanitary authority. The Medical Officer says, 
however, that : — " One of the greatest difficulties in the^ way of drastic 
action under Part II and the Public Health Act, is the fact that the 
closure of the houses concerned would mean financial ruin to certain 
thrifty people who, attracted by the relatively large return afforded 
while the houses remained open and occupied, and knowing nothing of 
the risk of owning such property, had invested their life savings in 
purchasing them. On the closure of the houses the income of these 
people ceased, and with regard to their indirect resources they were not 
in a position to obtain the means of rehabilitating them. Some steps 
ought to be taken to warn people and deter them from buying poor 
and decayed property, however large the immediate return from it." 

The Worcester Town Council have been busy under Part II, but 
there have been objections to putting in a damp course to houses, and 
considerable opposition to the action of the committee from several 
agents and owners, one a member of the Council. 

In London during the years 1903 to 1905 the average annual 
results of action under Part II were as follows : 

Houses Houses Closing No 

represented, patched orders. action, 
up. 

Eight Borough Councils ... 122 56 20 44 

In the provinces during the years 1903 to 1905 the number of 
authorities taking action was about the same each year. Average 
annual results were : 



22 

Average Average Average Average 
Average number of Average of of houses houses of of de- 
Councils, population. repre- patched closing molition 

sented. up. orders. orders. 

41 County Boroughs 5,926,814 1,446 436 302 44 

57 Boroughs ... 1,248,566 566 265 76 II 

T2I Urban Councils 2,004,723 1^,295 774 ^4^ ^^ 

186 Rural Councils 2,592,411 1,762 i)394 98 17 



405 11,772,514 5,o6g 2,869 622 88 

Several cf the larger councils took proceedings under local Acts or 
under the Public Health Acts, and these are not included. On an 
average about 600 houses each year have been voluntarily demolished 
by the owners after being represented under the Act. The totals for 
the seven years ended 1905 were as follows : — Representations, 33,746 ; 
houses patched up, 17,210; closing orders, 4,220; demolition orders, 
748. 

It will be noted that the reported representations were more 
numerous in proportion to population in the rural districts than in the 
other districts, but the proportion of c'osing and demolition orders 
granted was much smaller, being less than 6 per cent. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Birmingham is a city with a population of 528,181 persons, living 
in 109,942 tenements, half of which are of four rooms and under, 
while between 30,000 and 40,000 of these are of the back-to-back type. 
The census of 1901 showed that there were 53,936 persons living under 
conditions of overcrowding in tenements of four rooms and under. 
On the other hand, it was reported by the Housing Committee m 1903 
that the number of void houses in that year was as follows : — 859 at 
4/- per week, 1,912 at 4/- to 5/6 per week, and 1,729 at 5/6 to 6/6 per 
week, or a total of 4,500 houses. Be this as it may (and the last- 
mentioned figures are hotly disputed by some of the working class 
leaders), it is obvious that in a town containing just 1 10,000 houses 
built in the early days of the great industrial development in England, 
there must inevitably be a large percentage of " unfit " dwellings which 
ought to be kept empty till they are rendered less dangerous to health 
and life. Large numbers of the houses are in mean streets and courts, 
described in the following words by Dr. H. Bagster Wilson, Medical 
Superintendent of the Birmingham Mission : — 

These streets, from which every suggestion of beauty has visibly departed till 
familiarity breeds a weary tolerance on the part of the observer who becomes 
accustomed to meanness, sordidness, decaying walls, patched windows, unhinged 
doors, nay, even to filthy and exposed public conveniences, and litter not only in 
every corner where the wind can drift it, but in the streets themselves, which form 
no little part of the nursery accommodation of the children swarming therein. 
Poor little mites, what other play-ground have they ? I have seen them punched out 
and struck out, ill-clad, and munching at the last moment the crust of dry bread 
provided to sustain life and to produce Englishmen and Englishwomen of noblest 
physique, prepared to sing " Home, Sweet Horr.e," and " Rule Bri/annyet !" 



^ZSZ"OXCZS. 



sSurpjmg ' 




•paAomsi ^ 
s3arp[mg " 




26 

But what are these archways, these long, low tunnels, where you may tread a 
child down as daylight fails, and through which your bicycle can scarcely be pushed ? 
You enter one with a house on your right and one on your left. You pass along. 
Where does that house finish ? Go on. You emerge into a dirty square, and now 
there is a house right and left, but behind yon ! Therefore those four houses must be 
back to back ; two have the street pavement for a back yard, and the other two have 
a part of the square. They are "back-to-back" houses, and the square is a 
"court." As if the air of our area were not fetid enough to start with, society com- 
pels our people to live in homes round which, and througn which, a free circulation 
of such air as there is, is absolutely precluded by bricks and mortar. However 
saturated with effluvia the walls may be, though one or two sick children may sleep 
with the healthy, or a man, slowly going to pieces through consumption, with wife 
and two or three children (perhaps half grown up girls) though most of the births, 
must take place in one of the (usually two) bedrooms, and the downstairs room is 
occupied from morning to night for every purpose except the night's rest, and is often 
crowded — there is no through ventilatiuti ! 

A large proportion live in tenements of three rooms, that is there is one common 
room for kitchen, sitting-room, nursery, j arlour, the same room for meals, smoke 
room, dressing and undressing of children, preparation of home lessons, sewing, 
nursing a sick child downstairs, etc., etc. Where there are children, home life is at 
times intolerable except where high principle rules, and, in any case, there is almost 
no scope for the development of the aesthetic side of existence when a whole family 
lives, moves, and has its being within an enclosure the size of a butler's pantry. 

It is pretty clear then that the quality of much of the existing 
accommodation is very bad, and although opinions are divided as to 
sufficiency or otherwise in quatitity, the margin is obviously too narrow. 
In twenty-five streets, with a population of 9,878, there were 1,559 
deaths in five years, or a mean death-rate of 31 "6 per 1,000. 

The following figures were published in 1903 by two of the leading 
workers in the Birmingham Medical Mission (Messrs. H. Bagster 
Wilson and George B. Wilson) relating to the Floodgate Street area at 
Birmingham. 

The area consists of seventy-six acres, and has a population of about 7,000. 
The death-rate in the area was 32 per 1,000, as against 16 per 1,000 for the whole 
town. The infant mortality rate was 252 per 1,000 births, as against 157 per 1,000. 
A medical mission treated in less than three years 1,146 cases of sickness, the 
greater proportion due to preventable causes. All the denizens of the area lived in a 
state of under-health or non-health. 

Out of a population of under 7,000, the recipients of public or private charity 
numbered 2,500 in these proportions : 

General Hospital 625 cases. 

Workhouse Infirmary ... ... ... ... 150 ,, 

Orders for Workhouse (half-year) ... ... 227 ,, 

Orders for medical relief (half-year) ... ... 37 ,, 

Orders for poor relief (half-year) ... ... 48 ,, 

Cases treated by Medical Mission ... ... 280 ,, 

At City Asylum 9 .. 

Children clothed 162 ,, 

Children fed at school in winter 230 per day. 

Convictions of all kinds 388 cases. 

Complaints investigated by Society for Prevention 

of Cruelty to Children 21 ,, 

Charity in money or goods ;^500 a year. 

Cost to the public, not less than ... ;^io,ooo ,, 

In October, 1901, an unhealthy area in the parish of St. Lawrence, 
was "represented" by twelve ratepayers, under sec. 5, Part I of 
the Housing Act, 1 890, and reported accordingly by the Medical Officer 



27 

of Health. After investigations by the Housing Committee it was 
decided in March, 1902, that as schemes under Part I had everywhere 
proved to be expensive, cumbrous, and subject to delays and hitches of 
all kinds, it would be preferable to deal with the area under sections 
30 to 38 of Part n of the Housing Act 1890, by removing obstructive 
buildings, and either closing or securing the improvement and repair of 
unhealthy houses 

The city of Hull had already done a great deal of work on these 
lines, for between June, 1898, and May, 1902, no less than 1,425 
houses had been represented under Part H, and 362 buildings of 
various kinds demolished, on a total area of 16,861 square yards. 
Under the vigorous and able leadership of Councillor Nettlefold, the 
Birmingham Housing Committee have since followed up this policy, 
and have improved even upon the example of Hull. Between January, 
1902, and December, 1906, no less than 3,303 houses were represented 
by the Medical Officer of Health under sections 31 and 38 of the 
Housing Act of 1890. The law with regard to this work will be found 
in the Housing Handbook (pp. 30-32, and App. 13 and 15), but it may 
be both interesting and instructive to give a few details as to the 
practical methods, the nature of the difificulties, and the general results. 
In the year 1904, Dr. Robinson, the Medical Officer of Health for 
Birmingham, described the kind of dwellings dealt with by the 
committee as follows : — 

A large proportion of the houses are badly constructed, and have unhealthy 
surroundings. Most of these have damp floors in the lower rooms through the tiles 
being laid on the bare earth. The walls are damp from absence of any damp course, 
from defective brickwork and pointing, and from defective spouting. The woodwork 
is decayed and rotten from damp. The surfaces of the walls and ceilings are not 
smooth and hard, and therefore allow of the accumulation of dust and dirt. In many 
cases the filth of ages is accumulated aVjove the lathing of the ceilings and behind 
skirting boards and wooden dados erected to hide damp. 

In addition to the above, the environment of such houses is distinctly Ijad. In 
many there is insufficiency of daylight. In a large number there is no chance of 
getting a reasonable supply of fresh air, from the fact that the houses are built in 
crowded courts. 

In many of these courtyards pan closets still exist. The stench from these, even 
when the pans are empty, pervades the courtyard, and can be smelled in the interior 
of the houses. These closets, like the houses, are of the cheapest and most slim 
construction. They are constantly getting out of repair. They are, like the yards, 
used by more than one house, and it is only reasonable to expect that one tenant will 
object to cleanse away filth made by another. 

The method of procedure is clearly and fully described by 
Councillor Nettlefold in his recent report on "A Housing Policy," 
pp. 39-46. It is briefly as follows : — 

I. — Houses are represented to the Housing Committee by the 
Medical Officer of Health as being unfit for habitation. 

2. — Notices are served on the owners to make such houses fit. 

The name and address of the owner have to be traced and notices served. This 
is often a very lengthy business ; owners of slum properties are not always anxious to 
disclose their names. In the case of obstructive buildings, the proceedings are also 
very tedious, so the Housing Act requires the co-operation of all the interests before 
the houses can be removed, and it is often necessary to deal with freeholder, lessee, 
sub-lessee, and mortgagee, before finally proceeding against any obstructive building. 



28 

3. — Owners are invited to interview the authorities before spending 
any money, so as to avoid useless expenditure through failing to know 
what was required of them. 

Every endeavour is made to consider each case from the point of view of the 
property owner, as well as from that of the local authority. Negotiations are often 
delaved by the property changing hands once, twice, and sometimes even three times 
before some one is found willing to undertake the necessary repairs. Even then the 
negotiations often take a considerable time, after which the work itself has to be 
carried out. 

Under the provisions of the Act, considerable time has to elapse after the 
notices have been served, to allow the owners an opportunity of taking action on 
their own account. In Birmingham it is usual to allow more than the statutory time 
to elapse, in consequence of a wish to this effect frequently expressed by the local 
magistrates. Specifications of work to be done are supplied when asked for. 

4, — If negotiations with the owner fail, legal proceedings are taken 
and closing orders are applied for. 

When closing orders are granted progress is greatly helped, but when adjourn- 
ments are allowed great difficulty is experienced in getting the necessary repairs 
promptly and efficiently executed. 

There are other houses and courts where repairs have been executed by property 
owners themselves, not under the supervision of the Corporation, but under adjourn- 
ments granted, in spite of the strongest and clearest evidence given by well-known 
authorities of the highest possible standing. Work done under these adjournments 
has not been done thoroughly, and has brought discredit on the Birmingham Cor- 
poration in the minds of those who thought it had been supervised by the Housing 
Department. That is not all. Repairs done under adjournments invariably cost 
the property-owner more in the long run than repairs done under the supervision of 
the Housing Department. There is, therefore, the double disadvantage of work 
badly done and greater expense to the individuals concerned. 

The following are instances of houses repaired under adjournments 
where the work has not been satisfactory done : — 

No. 41, Clarkson Street ... ... ... Adjourned eight times before house 

was repaired. Work unsatisfactory. 

No. 51 Court, Summer Lane Six adjournments. Work unsatis- 

factory, and yard unpaved. 

No. I Court, Banbury Street ... ... Five adjournments. Work unsatisfactory. 

No. 27 Court, Hatchett Street Four adjournments. 

Nos. 6, 7, and 8 Courts, Cecil Street ... Six adjournments. 

No. 14 Court, New John Street ... ... Four adjournments. 

Each adjournment puts extra and unnecessary expense on the ratepayers. 

The following statement by Councillor Nettlefold of work done is 
well worthy of consideration. 

Work done by the Birmingham City Council Housing Department 
from January, 1902, to December, 1906: — 

Houses represented as unfit for habitation 3>303 

Houses rendered habitable ... ... ... ... ... 1,203 



Houses undergoing repairs 
Hou.ses demolished ... 
Notices unexpired 
Closing orders obtained 



312 

520 

1,268 

923 



SXSX-OXCiES. 




31 

In addition to the 1,203 houses rendered habitable, 267 have been repaired 
without notices. In every case the pan closets have been converted into w.c.'s, with 
new drains, the latter being provided with inspection chambers, intercepting traps, 
vent shafts, etc., which in some cases incurs a considerable expense to the owners. 

Of the 1,268 outstanding, 318 are awaiting the statutory time limit (including 
three months suggested by the Justices), and in 189 cases proceedings are being taken 
for demolition. This work has cost the Corporation nothing Vjeyond small legal 
■charges. In the remaining 761 cases negotiations are proceeding for the removal of 
obstructive buildings, etc. 

Fifty-six courts have been opened to their respective streets by the removal of 
■94 houses, at a cost to the Corporation of /,3,i32 5s., and at a cost to the owners, 
including repairs done to houses in the courts, of approximately ^[{^30,000, showing an 
expenditure by the owners of nearly ;^ 10 for every ;^I spent by the Corporation. 

These figures apply exclusively to courts that have been opened out by the 
removal of obstructive buildings. 

Numerous properties have been repaired and reconstructed according to the 
Committee's specifications, and under the supervision of their inspector, at a cost to 
the owner varying from ^^200 to ;^I,400 per property, without any expenditure by 
the Corporation. 

The photographs of courts herewith, showing what they were before 
being dealt with by the Housing Committee, and also the present con- 
ditions of the same courts, will be interesting and instructive. 

The objections urged against extending this procedure on a large 
.scale are : — 

(a) That it forces up rents by amounts variously estimated at 
6d. to i/- per week. 

(^) That the number of bad houses is so great that the process of 
selection can only be arbitrary. 

(c) That it inflicts great financial losses on persons ill able to 

afiford them, especially in the case of those who have 
acquired the short unexpired period of a lease. 

(d) That in a few years the property will be bad again, and that in 

the meantime the site, surroundings, and structure are so 
saturated with deleterious matter that even completely 
renovated houses cannot be really healthy without 
demolition. 

A'-more serious objection, however, is that in the present state of 
the law the magistrates will not enforce really adequate improvement of 
the dwellings. The Birmingham bench of magistrates, for example, 
had to deal with a case in which the minimum requirements of the 
•Committee were as follows : — 

(l) All decayed and loose tiles to Vje taken out and roofs repaired; (2) vent 
shafts to be fixed to the drain at the building line ; (3) sanitary sinks and water 
service to be provided at each house, with 4-inch gullies to take the discharge ; (4) 
new casement windows to be provided to bedrooms where necessary, and at least 
-one-half of the window area to be made to open ; (5) ventilated food cupboards or 
pantries to be placed in four of the houses where they are not already provided. 



32 

The case came before the court twice, and it was alleged that the owner had 
gone on with repairs to the houses without consulting the authorities, and that, in 
their opinion, the work was very badly done, and amounted to nothing more than 
slum-patching. On the suggestion of the Bench a note was then given to defendant 
setting forth the committee's requirements. A difference of opinion arose on the five 
points insisted on, and the committee were prepared to say that unless they were 
carried out the houses were unfit for human habitation, but they left the case in the 
hands of the Bench. If the justices decided that the requirements were unnecessar}', 
then theie would be an end of the matter. 

Dr. Robertson, the City Medical Officer of Health, said he was of opinion that 
sinks and an inside water supply were absolutely necessary in town districts. Often 
the dirty habits of tenants were attributable to the fact that they had to go outside 
for water. 

The owner's representative said they did not see their way to give in to the 
Housing Committee on the third requirement. They were strongly advised that 
sinks would spoil the property. 

Evidence for the defence was given by an estate agent, who regarded sinks as 
objectionable additions to this class of property. 

Eventually the Bench decided that the third requirement as to sinks and water 
service need not be carried out at the present moment, but a better outside water 
supply should be provided. 

THE CAMBERWELL EXPERIMENT. 

Reference to the Camberwell Experiment was made in the Hand- 
book (p. 220), and as the scheme has been in operation five years, 
some idea can now be formed of its working and its lessons. Briefly" 
stated, the experiment is an attempt on the part of the Metropolitan 
Borough of Camberwell to reconstruct and improve the Hollington 
Street insanitary area, consisting of nineteen streets, containing about 
571 houses, by gradually acquiring the various leasehold and freehold 
interests in the property under Sec 57 (2) of Part III of the Act of 
1890, instead of making a scheme under Part I. 

The original state of the district is thus described by Mr. Charles 
Book (Life and Labour of the People, Vol. i, p. 273). 

Of the bad patches the most hopeless is the block consisting of Hollington 
Street, Sultan Street, and a few more lying to the west of Camberwell Road. It is 
the despair of the clergy, who find it impossible to put any permanent social order 
into a body of people continually shifting, and as continually recruited by the incoming 
of fresh elements of evil or distress. Bad building, bad owning, mismanagement on the 
part of the Vestry, and apathy on the part of the Church, have each had their share 
in bringing about the condition of things which now demands and tasks the best 
united efforts of us all to put right. This block, as is so often the case when bad 
conditions triumph, is without thoroughfare .... and it would seem that no radical 
change can be made in its fortunes except by altering this. 

Mr. George R. Sims also wrote in the Daily Telegraph : 

I knew something of Hollington Street — its hopeless poor, its criminals,? its 
haddock smokers, its human wreckage, and its environment in the old days. _jThis, 
until recently, was one of the most hopeless districts of London. Here vice and 
poverty pigged side by side, nauseous trades which poisoned the atmosphere were 
carried on in dwelling houses ; ruffianism was rampant and crime found a harbour 
of refuge. 



33 

Procedure. — ^The Housing Committee's plan which offered the 
Dest hopes of success, and the only possible means of providing the 
very poor with housing accommodation, at the low rents they are able 
to afford was : 

1. To gradually purchase house property in the area by agreement, as 

opportunity offered. 

2. To demolish the worst of the old houses, and rebuild good cottages or 

flats on the site. 

3. To adapt and put other houses into sanitary repair, by expending on 

whitewashing and repairs what would be the landlord's profit over and 
above the return on capital outlay, which of course the Council would 
require to provide. 

4. To let light and air into the narrowest and most shut-in streets by removing 

obstructive buildings and making new thoroughfares. 

5. To remove nuisances from the yards, and to prevent filth accumulating on 

the surface of the street, by putting down easily cleaned asphalt. 

6. To make the pavements wider and plant trees at the sides of the roads. 

7. To continue to let the houses out to the poorest class of tenants at a very 

low rental, and under better sanitary conditions. 

8. To endeavour to reduce sub-letting to a minimum, bj' making the Council 

as fas as possible direct landlord to every tenant, thus getting a higher 
rental return without any increase on the part of the tenants. 

In pursuance of this policy the Council has acquired an interest of 
some kind or other in just 500 houses, at an average cost of about 
:^ioo for the freeholds and ^160 for the leaseholds. The total loan 
expenditure on purchases so far has been about ^60,000, and the 
amount spent on adaptation has been about ^6,000, which works out 
at about ^45 per house dealt with, or ^6 los. per room, thus bringing 
the total cost of each six-roomed house to ^300 freehold or ^50 
per room. 

It will readily be inferred from these figures that the Council has 
done only a minimum in the way of adaptation and structural repairs, 
and as most of the houses are very badly built it would be extremely 
difificult to do anything in the nature of really effective structural re- 
arrangement or improvement, except at a greater cost than building a 
new house. Hence the appearance of the adapted dwellings leaves a 
great deal to be desired, and the Council are somewhat reluctant to 
enforce strict rules as to cleanliness on the somewhat difficult class of 
tenants they have to manage. It can, however, be said for the social 
results of the scheme, that the Council are becoming the owners of the 
area without displacing the tenants, and that as regards surroundings 
and simple sanitary accommodation, the people are 30 per cent, better 
off without having their rents increased, while the frequent cleansing and 
the improved standard of sanitation — poor though it may be — is having 
its effect on other adjacent properties belonging to private landlords. 

'J'he Council has also widened the present footways of Crown, 
Hollington, and Sultan Streets, taking up the old paving and sub- 
stituting asphalte for footways and roadways, and planting trees along 
the footpaths. Beckett Street, long notorious for its loft. roadway and 
insanitary houses, has now a roadway double the width and good 
sanitary houses have been built. Baily Street, a new 40ft. road, is 
nearly completed, and will open up the neighbourhood. 

c 



34 



The houses on the north side of Beckett Street were so bad that they 
were demolished. They cost p/^1,050 for the leasehold and ^1,700 
for the freehold, and W'ith ^750 for the freehold of an adjoining block, 
a site was provided for the erection of four houses of six rooms and two 
sculleries, or 24 rooms and 8 sculleries, besides 18 flats of two rooms 
and a scullery, or a total of 60 rooms and 26 sculleries. The cost of 
building by direct labour was ;£3,4°3 o'' ^57 per room, and 6'i6 per 
foot cube. 

Financial Results. — Assuming the cost of acquisition and 
subsequent adaptation or repair of the 571 houses to average ;^3oo per 
house, the total cost of acquiring the area will be about ;^i 70,000. 

The first purchase of property was made early in 1902, and during 
the first two years the accounts showed surplus balance in hand, owing 
to the fact that only a few loans had been taken up in respect of part of 
the purchases, and consequently only a small sum appeared for loan 
interest and redemption. Moreover, during the first year no expendi- 
ture was incurred out of revenue for repairs, these being capitalised and 
spread over five years. The following is a short summary of the 
accounts during the five years to 31st March, 1906 : 



Income. 
Gross Rental 

L-.ess — 
Empties .. 1672 12 
Irrecoverable 

Arrears... 699 17 
Allowances 120 12 2 


£ 
16,210 

2,493 
13,717 

*i,589 


s. 
3 

I 
2 



d. 
6 

2 

4 
II 


Expend 

Working Expenses 
Rates, Taxes, 

Insurance 

and Water 3813 
Repairs 15 per 

cent, on gross 

rents ... 2192 
Repairs Fund 779 
Management and 

Sundries Ii53 

Loan charges — 
Interest .. 2835 
Repayment 2539 


ITU 

12 

7 
8 

13 


re. 

5 

7 


I 


7939 

5374 
1992 


s. d. 


Total Income 
Deficit ... 









6 


7 
10 


7 5 
14 9 




Ground Rents 







;i^i5,3o6 3 3 ;^i5,3o6 3 3 

*The deficits from previous years bring up the total to ;^4,470, and a rate of ^d. in 
the £ has been recommended to wipe this out, instead of keeping the amount 
in a suspense account until the gradual acquisition of the properties, and the 
expiration in 1909 of some temporary loans improves the finances and wipes out 
the deficit. 

THE KENSINGTON EXPERIMENT. 

The Notting Dale area of this royal borough adjoins the Shepherd's 
Bush terminus of the " Twopenny Tube," and has had a population of 
4,000 living under sad conditions for years. The general death-rate was 
49-5, and the infant death-rate during a period of five years reached the 
appaling figure of 454 per 1,000 births registered. With a view to 
retaining the tenants by avoiding an expensive demolition scheme under 
Part I, the Council decided to buy and adapt the dwellings in Kenley 
Street under Part III, sec. 59 (2) (3). Owing to the obstacles placed 



35 

by the existing law in the way of public bodies buying property at its 
market value, the first purchases were effected without publicity from a 
fund advanced on the personal responsibility of the Mayor. In this 
way the freehold ground rents of 28 houses in Kenley Street, ground 
leases with possession of six of these, a freehold at 16, Tobin, Street, and 
a leasehold ground rent of ;j^2o per annum on five houses in Hesketh 
Place and Thomas Place were acquired at a total cost of ;^i 2,335. ^t 
first freehold ground rents, privately purchased, were ^200 per house, 
but afterwards the Council had to pay ^300 when it was known the 
Council was buying. The houses on the north side with four habitable 
rooms, were as a rule let at 16/- per week, nearly half the rooms being 
sublet by house farmers at rents as high, in some cases, as i/- per night 
for a so called furnished room. In buying the leasehold and other 
interests there were, as a rule, two or three persons interested in a 
single property, whose solicitor's and surveyor's charges had to be paid. 
It was decided to remodel the 26 houses on the north side, which had 
two floors and no basements. The improvements comprised new 
floors, ceilings, and partitions, increased light and ventilation, with the 
addition of a separate scullery and sanitary convenience to each of the 
52 tenements made out of the 26 houses, to some of which a new 
living room was added, making three-room tenements. The high yard 
wall of the houses was replaced by an iron railing ; new ranges, stoves, 
dressers, larders, and cupboards were also fitted. 

This section of the scheme may be thus summarised : — Twenty- 
six houses adapted, providing 31 three-room suites and 21 two-room 
suites, at a cost of ;j^8,i59, or rather over ^60 per room. 

Two houses were pulled down and replaced by a three-storey house, 
containing six two-room dwellings, with scullery and lavatory complete, 
at a cost of ^1,552 or ^129 per room — far too high an amount. 

The south side of Kenley Street being only T6ft. yin. in depth, and 
with no space at the rear, the building line was brought forward, and 
six detached blocks, with ;^6 two-room dwellings costing ^116 per 
room, were constructed. In the process of reconstruction of the area 
the road was widened by 4 feet, and 1,500 square feet added to 
Avondale Park adjoining. 

The houses in Hesketh and Thomas Place were converted into 26 
single room tenements, at ^92 per room, making a total of 120 tene- 
ments with 245 rooms. Unfortunately, most of the old tenants have 
gone, only 84 out of 350 being rehoused on the area, the other 
tenants coming mainly from the surrounding neighbourhood. This 
experience emphasises the fact that the mojority of the really inveterate 
slum dwellers will escape living in dwellings where their sanitary 
standard of living is compulsorily raised, but even more where their 
method of getting a living is not exactly regular or reputable, as was the 
case with many of the old residents in the Notting Dale area. 

The freeholds and leaseholds of the 50 houses with 200 rooms cost 
^23,045 ; law and other expenses ;^i,5oo ; rebuilding, remodelling, 
repairs, and architects' fees ^20,485. Total _;^45,o3o. 



36 



The financial aspect of the scheme is seen in the following esti- 
mates of income and expenditure : — 



Inxome. 

;^ s. d. ;^ 

8 single-room suites at 3/6 180 

x8 single-room suites at 4/- 3 12 o 

18 two-room suites at 6/6 517 o 
42 two-room suites at 7/- 14 14 o 
12 three-room suites at 7/6 4 10 o 

19 three-room Suites at 8/- 7 12 o 
Cottage, yard, etc., at 26/- I 6 o 



Equal to per annui 



58 19 o 

2,025 



Expenditure. 








£ s. 


d 


£ s. 




d. 


Fire Insurance ... 12 


15 









Rates 340 












Taxes ... ... 63 












Water 45 












Caretaker 78 












Repairs, clean- 










ing, etc 150 












Loss of rent, two 










weeks ... ... 79 


5 









Gas 36 












Contingencies .. 20 












Establishmentcharges loO 







09 A 





Q 






y^4 










1,101 


8 





Add freehold ground rent 










(until Christmas, 1929) 




19 








Net income 


1,120 


8 






^45,030 at 34 per cent. 
Annual instalment ... 



Loan Charges. 

1,576 (Interest first year) 
750 (Assuming 60 years' loan) 

2,326 
1,120 



1,206 Estimated charge on rates to Christmas, 
1929 (decreasing annually as loan is 
paid off by ;^26 5s.) 

In 1929 the rack rents of the Hesketh Place and Thomas Place properties, 
estimated at some £28^ per annum, will be receivable by the Council, which will 
thus reduce the charge by some ^266 per annum. 

It should also be noted that the ultimate net deficiency of (say) 
^940 per annum, will be almost met by the annual instalment of 
principal, and if the central government would treat Kensington as it 
treats Ireland in the matter of loan charges, they would only be 
^1,463 per annum, and the whole scheme would be practically self- 
supporting. At the same time reasonable alterations in the law and 
practice of slum buying and building would quite easily have reduced 
the capital outlay by 30 per cent., although even under present 
conditions, Kensington has paid too much for building its new dwellings. 



CHAPTER III. 

DWELLINGS BUILT BY LOCAL 
AUTHORITIES. 

LATEST AVAILABLE STATISTICS. 

The preparation of a fairly full and up-to-date record of the various 
municipal housing schemes throughout the country has made it 
necessary to adopt some method of stating the work done and the 
financial results in each case, which will give the essential information 
while keeping within the limits imposed by space. For this reason the 
main facts as to each housing scheme are put in tabular form for 
reference on the following pages, so that any person wishing to visit the 
municipal dwellings in various towns will find in the tables a sufficient 
guide in nearly every case as to the size of the town ; the locality of 
the houses ; the approximate date of erection ; the number and kind 
of dwellings built ; the area of the site ; the cost or housing valuation 
of the land ; the cost of roads and sewers ; the cost of building per 
house and per room, with full particulars as to the weekly rents charged 
to the occupiers. 

In order to show the extent and character of municipal housing 
during the last five years, since the publication of the Housing 
Handbook, the additional or newly included dwellings have been 
marked in the tables with an asterisk. It has been a work of con- 
siderable difficulty in some cases to get accurate official particulars 
sufficiently complete to supply the necessary information on each 
point, but it is believed that the various tables include 99 per cent, of 
the municipal dwellings built under the Housing of the Working 
Classes Acts up to the end of the year 1906. 

A close examination therefore of these tables will furnish students 
of the housing question, whatever their point of view may be, with 
some useful data for assisting them to arrive at fairly reliable conclu- 
sions on a number of vital points connected with the solution of this 
great and intricate problem. 

A summary of some of the principal features of the work done may, 
however, also be useful to all concerned, and the following figures, 
which are as substantially accurate as it is possible to get them, can in 
nearly everv case be corrected by reference to the tables themselves. 

ACTION UNDER PART III. 

Appended are particulars as to the number of Councils that have 
adopted Part III, the amount of loans granted, the usual loan periods, 
and the names of certain Councils who have adopted the Act, but as to 
whom the available details are not complete. 



38 



Part III has been adopted by the London County Council, I2 MetropoUtan 
Borough Councils, 28 County Borougli and 41 Town Councils, 49 Urban District 
Councils and 12 Rural District Councils, or a total of 142 Councils. 

During the years 1 890-1905 loans were sanctioned under Part III for 
about j^2,ooo,ooo as follows :— 

£ £ 

5 Rural District Councils ... 10,300 16 Non-County Boroughs.. 182,551 
40 Urban District Councils. ..512,305 25 County Boroughs ...1,223,345 

Before 1903 about 85 per cent, of these loans were for periods of 40 years and 
under. 

Under the Act passed in 1903 loans may now be granted for 80 years, so that 
80 years is the normal period in respect of the land, and 60 jears in respect of the 
buildings. In 1905 the periods were as follows: 80 years, 25 percent.; 60 years, 
20 per cent.; 55 years, 28 per cent.; 48 to 52 years, 13 per cent.; under 40 years, 
14 per cent. 

The following districts, not otherwise mentioned, have adopted Part III of the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890 : — 



Abercarn U.D.C. 
Annfield Plain U.D.C. 
Ashton-under-Lyne T.C. 
Basingstoke T.C. 
Bedlington U.D.C. 
Bedwellty U.D.C. 
Blaydon-on-Tyne U.D.C. 
Blackburn C.B. 
Bonsall U.D.C. 
Brynmaur U.D.C. 
Cardiff C.B. 
Cheltenham T.C. 
Conseit U.D.C. 
Coventry C.B. 
Dawlish U.D.C. 



Ebbw Vale U.D.C. 
East Grinstead R.D.C. 
Greenford U.D.C. 
Hanley T.C. 
Hertford T.C. 
Ham U.D.C. 
Hanwell U.D.C. 
Hartlepool T.C. 
Lancaster T.C. 
Lichfield T.C. 
Marlborough T.C. 
Morpeth T.C. 
Nantyglo & Blaina U.D.C. 
Nantwich U.D.C. 
Newport (Mon.) C.B. 



Ossett T. C. 
Panteg U.D.C. 
Quarry Bank U.D.C. 
South Molton T.C. 
Stockton-on-Tees T.C. 
Selby U.D.C. 
Spalding R.D.C. 
Stourbridge U.D.C. 
Tarn worth T.C. 
Tunbridge Wells T.C. 
Tunstall U.D.C. 
Twickenham U.D.C. 
Wimbledon T.C. 



The following Councils have adopted Part III, and have borrowed money to 
begin schemes for building cottages : — 



Name of Council. 

Alnwick U.D.C. 
Bodmin T.C. 
Brentwood U.D.C. 
Chiswick U.D.C. 
Dudley C.B. 
Edmonton U.D.C. 
Hendon U.D.C. 
Malpas R.D.C. 
Rotherham T.C. 
Wood Green U.D.C. 
Workington T.C. 



Amount borrowed. 



Purpose of loan. 



16,620 


Land and buildings. 


6,000 


Land and buildings. 




Land. 


— 


Land for 86 cottages. 


1.255 


Land. 


2,500 


Land and cottages. 


11,427 


Land. 


3.300 


Site. 


3.315 


Land and 18 cottages. 



The municipal dwellings erected include common lodging houses, 
block dwellings, tenement houses, cottage flats, and cottages. Appended 
are details as to number, cost, and financial working of the municipal 
lodging houses brought up to date (cf. pp. 62-66 Housing Handbook). 



39 



MUNICIPAL LODGING HOUSES. 













Cost of 




Town. 




Beds. 




Total cost. 


building 

and 
furnishing 
per head. 


Charge per 
Night. 










£ 


£ 




Aberdeen 




252 




18,363 


61 


5d. 


♦Belfast (1902) 




222 




12,310 


55 


6d. 


Croydon ... 


{ 


84 men 
17 women 




7,435 


71 


men 6d, women 5d. 


Darwen (1S98) 


{ 


no men 
20 women 


} 


7,920 


61 


5d. 


Glasgow— seven (1871-79) 




,166 men 
248 women 
163 men 


1 


107,000 


39 


3|d. and 4|d. 
f 3d. and 5d. 


Huddersfield (1880) 


1 


12 women 


[ 


7,500 


38 


\ 5d. 




10 double 


1 






[ 6d. 


Lancaster (1896) 




99 




750 


Adapted. 


4d. 


Leith (1894) 




200 




8,833 


41 


5d. 


London — 














Parker St., Drury Lane 




345 




22,816 


66 


6d. 


*Carrington House 




802 




54,885 


68 


6d. 


*Bruce House ... 




699 




49,600 


70 


6d. and 7d. 


Manchester (1899) 




363 




26,148 


65 


6d., or 3/- week. 


Salford (1S94) 




285 




16,880 


51 


6d. or 2s. 9d. week 


Southampton (1899) 




181 




15,837 


87 


6d. 



Built since the publication of the Housing Handbook. 





Receipts. 


Expenses. 




Details 


OF EXPEN 


SES. 




Town. 


Interest 


Repay- 






Rates, 








on 


ment of 


Working 


Repairs 


Taxes, 








Loans. 


Loans. 


Expenses. 


&c. 


and In- 
surance. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


/^ 


£ 


Aberdeen (2 years) 


1,865 


1,937 


783 


inclusive 


1,155 


incl'sive 


— 


Belfast (I year) 


1,713 


1,730 


279 


168 


584 


607 


92 


Darwen (i year) ... 


497 


990 


225 


217 


470 


19 


59 


Huddersfield (2 y'rs) 


982 


919 


125 




592 


117 


86 


Lancaster (4 years) 


424 


474 


100 


— 


308 


54 


18 


Leith (3 years) 


1,465 


1,180 


177 


200 


575 


122 


106 


London — 
















Parker Street 


2,942 


2,844 


655 


196 


1,422 


230 


341 


Carrington House 


4,967 


3,768 


1,740 


357 


2,440 


600 


728 


Manchester (4 years) 


3,890 


4,324 


— 




2,030 


450 


272 


Salford (3 years) ... 


2,075 


2,621 


460 


336 


1,314 


305 


223 



The seven Glasgow lodging houses show receipts ;^i 3,282, working expenses 
£9>^37) riet return ;i^4,045, equal to £^ los. 9d. per cent, on the original capital 
outlay. 

Other lodging houses have been or are being provided at Blackburn, Bury, 
Paisley, and Perth. 



40 



Glasgow 


M 


unicipal Family 


Home. 


-The 


charges have been modified 


as follows : — 












Widower 


and one child 






ys. 4d. per week. 


,, 




two children 






.. 8s. 8d. 


,, 




three ,, 






.. 9s. 6d. ,, 


,, 




four ,, 






.. IIS. 6d. ,, 


,, 




five ,, 






.. 13s. 6d. 



These charges include lodging for men and board and lodging for children. The 
tariff for board for adults is, breakfast, 22d. ; dinner, 4d. ; tea, 3d. Nurses are 
provided without any extra charge. 

The average daily number of inmates of the Home, computed for a period of 
three months in 1905, was 240, and this may be taken as roughly representing a 
general average. 

The average income for three years was about ;!^3,ooo, and the average 
expenditure was about ;i^3,300. 

SUMMARY OF TABLES. 

The total number of dwellings of all kinds dealt with in the tables 
is as follows : — 

12,165 block dwellings, with 27,523 rooms. 
2,507 tenement houses „ 6,068 ,, 
2,004 cottage fiats ,, 5 747 ,, 

3,830 cottages ,, 17,611 ,, 



Total 20,506 dwellings ,, 56,949 „ 

The number of rooms per dwelling is as follows : — 

One Two Three Four Five 

room. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. 



More than 
five rooms. 



1,940 



676 



Over 

71- 
6,082 



Dwellings ... 1,740 8,048 5.306 2,796 

The rents of these dwellings are as follows : — 

At or under 

3/- 4/- 5/- 6/- 7/- 

per week. 

1,498 1,664 2,939 4,312 4,oiT 

BLOCK DWELLINGS. 

The following table gives particulars of 12,165 block dwellings, 
with 27,523 rooms, of which 5,900 dwellings, with 13,707 rooms, or 
nearly half, represent the additio7ial dwellins;s sxncti ihe. publication of 
the "Housing Handbook" in 1903. The additional dwellings are 
divided as follows : — 







Dwel- 
lings. 


Total 
Number 

of 
Rooms. 


N 


umber of Dwell 


ngs containing 




c 

r> 






3 S 




.2 

fa 




.a 
in 


London 


County 


















Council 




3,300 


8,726 


82 


1501 


1364 


215 


138 


III 


M e t r p 


ol i t a n 


















Borough 


s 


1,241 


2,926 


126 


617 


426 


72 






Scotland 




915 


1,547 


337 


529 


44 


5 




54 


Ireland 




444 


508 


380 


64 







i6 






5,900 


13-707 


925 


2,711 


1834 


292 


138 


181 



41 

It will be seen that more than three-fourths of these dwellings and 
four-fitths of the rooms have been built in London. The London 
County Council has doubled its previous figures, and the Metropolitan 
Borough Councils have entered into the field very largely. \"ery few 
additional block dwellings have been built in English provincial towns. 
As compared with the 6,265 earlier block dwellings with 13,816 rooms, 
dealt with in the Housing Handbook, the additional dwellings every- 
where showed a tendency to contain a larger number of rooms per 
dwelling, the percentage being : — 

Four 
One Two Three rooms 
room, rooms, rooms, and over. 

Earlier dwellings up to 1902 ... 12 60 215 4 

Additional dwellings, 1902-1907 7 46 31 7 

Cost of Sites. — There has been considerable difificulty in getting 
at the actual cost of sites in the case of individual blocks of dwellings, 
inasmuch as it has been the custom in England and in some parts of 
Scotland to write down the site cost to what is known as the " housing 
valuation," which varies from ^2,000 to ^4,000 per acre. It may, 
however, be said that as compared with earlier schemes there is little 
variation in the actual cost of the sites, most of which are adjacent to 
or form part of slum areas that have been bought under the various 
Housing Acts. 

The London County Council bought 35;^ acres of slums under 
Part I at a cost of ^910,000, and 4I acres under Part II at a cost 
of ;^9o,ooo, or a total of 40 acres for ;^i, 000,000. so that the site cost 
may be averaged at ^25,000 per acre, though it varied from ^10,000 
to ;2^7o,ooo per acre. In the case of 40 per cent, of the dwellings with 
5,300 rooms built in central districts, the cost of site was ;!^72c,ooo or 
_;^i36 per room. 

The Metropolitan Borough Councils erected about 2,000 rooms on 
26,000 square yards, costing about ^104,000, equivalent to ^4 per 
square yard or ;^52 per room 

In Glasgow the cost of sites has varied from ;£i los. to ^7 per 
square yard, and the cost per room, including the portions of the site 
used for roads, has come to about ^100. 

In Edinburgh the site of 827 rooms cost ^62,231 or ;^75 per room. 

In Manchester the cost has been from ^i^i 3,000 to ^^32,000 per 
acre, or ;^40 to ^100 per room. 

Cost of Building". — The cost of building has varied from ;^7o 
to ;^i4o per room, the latter figure being generally due to the ex- 
cessive cost of foundations in the shape of concrete piers, arches, and 
piles. Four fifths of the dwellings have cost between ;^8o and ;^iio 
per room, the percentages being as follows : — 

Per cent. £ Per cent. £ 

7 under ... 70 23 under ... no 

13 „ ... 80 3 „ ... 120 

20 ,, ... 90 4 over ... 120 

30 „ ... 100 

CI 



42 

The average building cost per room in London County Council 

dwellings has been reduced from ^102 to ;i^92, or a decrease of 

10 per cent. The comparative percentages of cost per room have 
been as follows : — 

Fercentage Percentage 

Cost. up to 1902. 1902 to 1907. 

Under ;z{?8o ... ... 5 ... ... 40 

^80 to ^100 ... 37 50 

^^^looto^iio ... 50 8 

^iioto^i40 ... 8 2 



In the case of the Metropolitan Borough Councils the cost of 
building has been — 

50 per cent, under ^90 per room. 

25 ,, between ;^9o and ;,^iio per room. 

25 ,, over ;^r 10 per room. 

In Edinburgh 827 rooms cost ^77,731, or an average of ^94 per 
room. In Glasgow the cost, including roads, has been about ^100 
per room. In Sheffield the cost of recent block dwellings has been 
about ^91 per room. 

Rents of municipal block dwellings continue at about the same 

average amounts, viz. : London County Council 3/1, Scotland 2/3, and 

provincial block dwellings in England and Wales about 2/1 per room 

per week, but owing to the increase in the average size of the 

dwellings there are a larger proportion of London block dwellings let 

at rents over i/- per day — two-thirds of them being at rents of from 

7/- to to/- per week, and one-third under 7/- per week. 

Taking the country as a whole the percentages of block dwellings 

at various rents are as follows : — ^ , ,,- 

rer dwelling. 

Rents ...Up to 4/- 5/- to 6/- 7/- to 8/- 9/- to 10/ Over 10/- 

Percentage of 

Dwellings ... 27 22 32 14 5 

Most of the high rents are in London, and in the main it may be 
said that a week's wages are required to pay a month's rent in muni- 
cipal block dwellings, except in Scotland, where the workman pays a 
smaller part of his income for house room than the English workman, 
by the simple expedient of accepting a smaller number of rooms in his 
dwelling. 

Area of Site — Rooms to the Acre. — So far as can be 

ascertained, the area of site and the number of rooms to the acre in 
typical estates are as follows : — 

London County Council 

Metropolitan Boroughs 

Edinburgh 

English Provincial Towns 



Area of Site 


Ni 


amber of rooms 


per room. 




per acre. 


20 




240 


16 




300 


30 




165 


14 




345 



43 



It is probable that the differences are accounted for by the extent 
to which new roads have been taken out of the available area, and not 
reckoned as part of the site. 



BLOCK DWELLINGS 


ERECTED 


BY LARGE 


CITIES. 


Name of Council, 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Cost of 


Area 


Cost of 


Cost 


Date of Erection, 


in each. 


Week. 


Building. 


of 


Site. 


per 


and Situation. 










Site. 




Room. 










£ 




£ 


£ 


Dublin 
















Montgomery St. 


380 


One 


2/0 to 3/3 


) Total 






and Purdon St. 


64 


Two 


3/6 to 4/6 


[ Cost 


— 


— 133 




16 


Shops 


12/6 


J 70,000 








Scotland, Part I. 
















Edinburgli 
















(1897) High School 


r24 


One 


2/7 


r 12,680 

\ inclusive 




ti4,520 




Yard - -\ \ 32 


Two 


3/6 to 4/3 


1310 




(i898)Tynecastle - 


/24 

1 40 


One 
Two 


2/0 to 2/6 
3/6 to 4/0 


/ 9,800 
\ inclusive 


2758 


per 
acre. 




(i90o)Cowgate 


^97 


One 
Two 


2/7 

3/8 lo 4/3 


f 17,000 
\ inclusive 


8740 


— 




><cPortsburgh Square 
1901 


/49 
1 12 


One 
Two 


2/0 to 3/0 
3/6 


j 6,900 
) inclusive 


1176 


— 


94 


jfcBedford Crescent, 
1 902 


r34 
^ 4 


One 
Two 
Three 


2/6 to 2/11 
3/10 to 5/0 


118,330 
J inclusive 


4840 


— 


120 


*Polter Row, 1903 


(19 

\l2 


One 
Two 


2/1 1 to 3/2 

3/10 


\ 5,525 
i inclusive 


1228 


— 


128 


*Pipe Street, 1904 




One 
Two 


2/0 to 3/1 
3/0 to 5/0 


I 9,100 
/ inclusive 


2896 


— 


97 


*Greenside, 1904 - 


if 


One 


1/9 to 2/9 


} 










164 


Two 


3/0 to 3/10 








Glasgow 

Glas^cnu Improvements 


431 


One 


2/0 to 2/9 


373,565 


— 


^I IDS. 


126 I 


921 


Two 


3/2 to 5/2 


inclusive 




to 




Acts. 


152 
II 


Three 
Four 


5/9 to 7/0 






£(> los. 
per sq. 






187 


Shops 








yard. 




^Additional Dwell- 


139 


One 


2/0 to 3/0 


86,400 


— 


— 




ings in four years 


360 


Two 


3/2 to 5/2 










1903-6 - 


40 

5 

54 


Three 

Four 

Shops 


5/9 to 7/0 










Eng-'and. 
















London 


81 


One 


3/6 to 5/0 


789,000 


38 


136,000* ^81 to 


County Council, 


1530 


Two 


4/0 to 8/6 




acres 


+about 


>^i38 


1893-1901. 


1188 


Three 


6/0 to 10/6 






£ 


for 




217 


Four 


7/0 to 13/0 






I 000000 


Build- 




7 


Five 


12/0 to 13/0 








ing. 




3 


Six 


14/0 to 14/6 










133 


Shops, 
etc. 












^Additional Dwell- 


82 


One 


3/6 to s/o 








70 B 


ings infouryears 


1501 


Two 


4/6 to 8/6 








to 


(see special 


1364 


Three 


6/6 to 15/0 








140 B 


London tables) 


215 


Four 


8/0 to 13/0 








aver- 




138 


Five 
Work- 


9/6 to 13/0 








age 
90 B 




III 


shops, 
















etc. 








1 



44 



BLOCK DWELLINGS ERECTED BY LARGE CIT\Y.?>.- Continued. 


Name of Council, 
Date of Erection, 


No. 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 
of 


Cost of 
Site. 


Cost 
per 


and Situation. 










Site. 




Room. 










L 




£ 


£ 


London 
















Boroughs 
















Bermondsey - ^ 


126 


One 


3/6 to 5/0 








65 B 


Chelsea 


617 


Two 


4/6 to 8/6 








to 


Hammersmith - 


426 


Three 


5/6 to 12/0 


— 


— 


— 


128 B 


Shoreditch 


47 


Four 


6/6 to 12/6 








aver- 


S. Marylebone - 










1 
1 


age 


S. Pancras 














92 B 


Stepney - 
















Westminster 
















(See special 
















London tables) 
















Liverpool 


75 


Two 


2/6 to 3/6 


14,756 


3,290 


*.^2,96i 


50 B 


Artisans' and 












*i8/o 




Labourers', etc., Dwell- 
ings Acts. 












sq. yard. 




(1869) St. Martin's 


38 


Three 


3/6 to 4/9 










Cottages - 


16 


Four 


4/9 to 5/6 










(1885) Victoria Sq. 


21 


One 


1/9 


57,952 


9,000 


*IO,I25 


91 B 




164 


Two 


3/0 to 4/6 






(22/6 sq. 


15 s 




86 


Three 


4/9 to 5/6 






yard). 


106 


(1890) Juvenal St. 


45 


One 


2/0 to 2/9 


13,121 


2,537 


*3,045 


81 B 




54 


Two 


3/6 to 5/0 






(24/0 sq. 


19 s 




2 


Three 


5/6 






yard). 


100 


Manchester 


48 


One 


2/6 to 3/0 


60,577 


7,779 


•5,585 


116 B 


Part I. 
















(1894) Oldham Rd. 


237 


Two 


3 '6 to 5/0 






(t97,48i) 


II s 


(No. 2 Block) 














127 


(1894) Pollard St. 


5 


One 


2/6 


26,220 


3,383 


*i,69i 


98 B 




130 


Two 


3/0 to 4/0 






(t9,546) 


6S 
104 


Npttingham 






• 










A rtizani and Labourers 


16 














etc., Dzvcllings Acts. 


Bedrooms 


1/3 
2/3 to 2/6 


14,000 








81 B 


(1875) Victoria 


14 


Onei 








Dwellings - 


25 
15 
12 


TwOg 

Threei 
Fouri 


2/9 to 4/6 

3/6 to 4/0 

5/0 











* Nominal Housing Valuation. f Actual Cost of Land. 

I Inclusive of Building and Site. B Building. S Site. 

* Denotes additional dwellings not g'ivett in Housing Handbook and mostly 
btiilt during the last Jive years. 



45 



TENEMENT DWELLINGS. 



One 


Two 


Three 


Four 


Five 


room. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


56 


514 


206 


12 


— 


M3 


595 


7^5 


150 


42 


199 


1,109 


931 


162 


42 



The following table gives details of 2,507 tenement dwellings, 
containing 6,068 rooms, of which 1,655 dwellings with 4,318 rooms, 
or nearly two-thirds represent the adiitional divellings constructed 
1902-1907. They are divided as follows : — 



Up to 1902 
1902-1907 

Total 



It will be noticed that the average size of the tenement dwelling 
tends to increase, and that the greatest increase is in the dwellings 
with three rooms. 

Sites. — The sites vary in area from 18 to 24 square yards per 
room, and average 21 square yards per room at an average cost of ^4 
per square yard or ^84 per room. The housing valuation averages 
from 12/6 to 13/- per square yard, that is £^\2 los. to ;^i3 per room 
in Liverpool, and 10/- per yard or j[^\ i to ^12 per room in Manchester. 

Cost of Building. — The cost of building the additional dwellings 
which has been less than that of the earlier dwellings has amounted to 
^300,000 for 4,318 rooms, or an average of ^2^70 per room. 

The comparative percentages are as follows : — 

Under ^60 ;i^6o to ^70 ;^70 to ;^So ;^8o to ;^ioo 
per room. per room. per room. per room. 

Up to 1902 ... ... 10 40 10 40 

1902 — 1907 ... ... 8 65 12 18 

Rents. — The average rent of the new dwellings has been at the 
rate of i/io per room, and they are let as follows : — 

At (or under) per dwelling .. 



3/- 


4/- 


5/- 


6/- 


7/- 


over 7/- 


443 


434 


597 


116 


58 


7 



The comparative percentages are as follows : — 

Per dwelling. 

Under 3/- 4/- 5/- 6/- over 6/- 

Up to 1902 ... 14 38 i2> 12 3 

1902-1907 ... 27-26 37 7 3 



46 



TENEMENT HOUSES ERECTED. 



Name of Council, 

Date of Erection, 

and Situation. 


No. 


Rooms. 


Weekly 
Rent. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 

of 

Site. 


Cost of 
Site. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 


Aberdeen 

8 houses, 7 1 tenants 


32 
16 

24 


One 
Two 
Two 


2/0 
3/0 
3/6 


£ 

151209 


2i 

acres. 


£ 

2,700 


£ 

70 B 
12 s 

82 


+6 additional houses 
with 56 tenements 


14 
30 
12 


One 
Two 
Three 


2/0 

3/0 
3/6 










Birkenhead 

jfMason Street 


(J 

V 22 


One 
Two 
Three 


2/6 

4/0 
4/6 


[ 7,372 


— 


f 767 s 

j i,o6oR 


71 B 

17 s 

88 


Getley Street 


20 
8 


Two 
Three 


3/0 to 4/6 
5/0 


} 4,194 


— 


f 659 s 
t 254 R 


65 B 

15 s 

80 


Devonport 

(190 1) James Street 
*Ordnance Street - 


(23 

I 3 
43 
20 


Two 

Thiee 

Four 

Two 

Three 


5/0 to 5/6 
6/6 to 6/9 

7/6 
5/0 to 5/6 
6/6 to 6/9 


7,793 
} 14,314 


2,730 
sq.yds. 

2,730 


4,929 


74 B 
98 B 

32 s 

130 


Leicester 

(1900) 


18 
24 


Twoi 
Three^ 


3/0 to 4/14 
4/0 to 5/1 1 


6,758 


2,689 
sq.yds. 


1,232 


62 B 

12 S 

74 


Liverpool 

(1897) 

Gildart's Gardens 


60 

26 

2 


Two 
Two 
Three 


2/3 to 2/9 
3/6 
4/6 


7,687 


3,048 
sq.yds. 


1,828 


44 B 
10 S 

54 


(1901) Drydenand 
Rachel Streets 


160 

16 

6 


Two 

Three 

Four 


3/0 to 4/0 
4/6 
5/6 


26,554 


5,943 


3,633 


67 B 
II S 

78 


*Gildart's Gardens 
(additional) 


31 
22 

79 
9 


One 
Two 
Three 
Four 


2/0 to 2/6 
2/9 to 3/6 
4/0 to 4/6 
4/6 to 5/3 


-24,462 


5,955 


3,574 


70 B 
10 S 

80 


3<f(i9G2) Kempston 
Street - 


^38 
{30 


Two 

Three 

Four 


3/3 to 3/6 

5/0 
5/0 


1 17,425 


3,810 


f Subject 
1 toannual 

Rent 
(. Charge. 


83 B 



47 



TENEMENT HOUSES Y.KE.CTY.T> .—Continued. 



Name of Council, 


^n Tvnnm^ 


Weekly 


Cost of 


Area 


Cost of 


Cost 


Date of Erection, 


XNI \J. IVVJVJlllO. 


Rent. 


Building 


of 


Site. 


per 


and Situation. 










Site. 




Room. 










£ 




£ 


I 


Liverpool 
















{Continued) 


(70 


Two 


2/9 to ii<:, 


\ 








+(1903) Kew Street 


34 


Three 


3/9 to 4/6 


\ 19,884 


3,897 


*2,338 


70 B 




I 10 


Four 


5'o 


J 






8 S 




US 
^ 70 

|i35 
I 18 


One 


2/3 to 2/9 


"j 






78 


*(i902-3)Adlington 
Street area - 


Two 
Three 

Four 


2/9 to 4/0 
4/0 to 5/0 
4/6 to 6/0 


M2,03i 


10,363 


*6,2i7 
(approx. ) 


63 B 

9S 




{ '^ 


Four 


4/6 to 5/3 


1 






72 


>^(i904) Stanhope 
Cottages 


J 20 
1 ^ 


Three 
Two 


4/0 to 4/6 
2/9 to 3/6 


J- 12,259 


2.840 


b 4,265 


74 B 
26 S 




1,20 


One 


1/9 to 2/6 


' 








1 19 


Four 


4/9 to 5/6 


[11,895 






100 


*(I904) Mill Street 


Three 

Two 

One 


3/9 to 4/6 
2/9 to 3/6 
1/9 to 2/6 


2,305 


b 2,766 


87 B 

20 S 


*(i904) Hornby St. 


] 68 
'^ 20 


Two 
Three 


2/9 to 3/6 
4/0 to 4/6 


^ 






107 




Four 


4/6 to 5/3 












{ 9 


One 


1/9 to 2/6 


■58,661 


17,857 


*io,7io 


65 B 


*(i9o6) Hornby St. 


I 64 

1 lOI 


Two 
Three 


2/9 to 3/6 
4/0 to 4/6 


c 






12 




I 18 


Four 


4/6 to 5/3 


J 






77 


*(ioo5)Clive Street 


r3o 


Two 


2/9 to 3/6 


1 






79 B 


and *Shelley Street 


U2 

112 


Three 
Four 


3/9 to 4/6 
4/9 to 5/6 


M8,574 


3,960 


*2,376 


10 S 


*(I90S) Eldon St. 


12 


Three 


3/9 to 4/6 


4,072 


413 


*247 


113 B 


(concrete tene- 














4 


ments) 














117 


+(1905-6) Upper 


46 


Two 


2/9 to 3/6 


[18,307 








Mann Street 


21 


Three 


3/6 to 4/6 


5,020 


3,012 


76 B 




21 


Four 


4/9 to 5/6 






13 s 
















89 


Manchester 


36 


Two 


4/3 to 4/6 


17,941 


3,914 


1,957 


90 B 


(1899) Pott Street 


39 


Three 


5/0 to 5/6 




sq.yds. 


(ti4,62i) 


9S 


(Three storey) 


3 


Four 


6/0 to 6/3 








99 


Chester Street 


36 


Two 


4/6 


14,801 


4,554 


2,277 


82 B 


(Two storey) 


36 


Three 


5/9 to 6/0 




sq.yds. 


(ti5,i4i) 


12 s 
94 



48 



TENEMENT HOUSES ERECTED.— Continued. 



Name of Council, 

Date of Erection, 

and Situation. 


No. 


Rooms. 


Weekly 
Rent. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 

of 
Site. 


Cost of 
Site. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 


Manchester 

{Continued) 
Sanitary Street 


16 

32 
16 


One 
Two 

Three 


3/0 

4/6 

5/9 


Each 83 
,, 166 
,, 249 


4,880 


£ 

2,440 
(t27,486) 


£ 

83 B 
18 S 

lOI 


^Rochdale Road - 


32 
32 


Two 
Three 


4/6 
5/4 


} 11,981 


2,444 


1,225 


75 B 

8 S 

83 


*Norwich 


^3 

^3 


Two 

Three 
Four 


2/0 

2/6 
3/c 


1 1,800 


700 
yards 


— 


55 B 


Plymouth (1898) 


19 


Three 


4/0 to 5/0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Salford 

(1898) Queen St. 


69 


Two 


4/6 


ii>730 


2,968 


111,762 


85 B 

86 S 

171 


Sheffield 

(1901) Croft's area 


8 
62 

54 


One 

Two 
Three 


3/0 
5/0 
6/0 


26,700 


5.071 


5.440 

(t27,200) 


91 B 

19 s 

no 


*Snig Hill (dwell- 
ings over shops) - 

*Westbar 
^Gibraltar Street - 
3<cKelvin Buildings - 
♦ Whitehouse 


{ 17 

I 
J 
10 

I 16 

2 

8 

6 

8 


Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Five 

Five 

Five 

Five 


4/6 to 4/9 

5/9 
6/0 to 6/3 
6/6 to 8/0 

6/0 

6/6 

6/6 

6/6 


637 
1,600 
2,040 
2,300 


Us26 

600 
730 


— 


64 B 

68 B 
58 B 


*Wolverh' mpton 


60 


Two and 
Three 


2/6 to 3/0 


5.032 


3,970 


546 


42 B 



C Including Four Shops and Coal Yard. * Housing Valuation. 

t Acttial cost of land. 

+ Denotes additional dwellings not given in Housins Handbook and viostly built 
during the last five years. 



49 

COTTAGE FLATS. 

The following table gives particulars of 2 004 cottage flats, with 
5,747 rooms, of which 1,423 rooms, or more than two-tliirds are 
additional dtvellings. They are divided as follows : — ■ 

Dvvel- Total One Two Three Four rooms 
lings. Rooms. Room. Rooms. Rooms. and over. 

Up to 1902 ... 581 1,780 — 141 262 178 

1902-1907 ... 1,423 3,967 79 487 509 348 



Total ... 2,004 5)747 79 628 771 526 



These dwellings show no tendency to increase in size, but two- 
thirds of them are of two or three rooms. 

The greater number of these dwellings are to be found at Battersea, 
Dublin, East Ham, and West Ham. 

Sites. — The average site area is from 29 to 30 square yards per 
room, equivalent to 160 rooms to the acre, and the actual cost of the 
land is in nearly every instance charged to the scheme, the amount 
varying from ^,^8 los. to ^13 los. per room, or from 5/- to 9/- per 
square yard. 

Cost of Building. — The average cost of building varied from 
;^40 to ;z^8o, and average about ;;^7o per room. The comparative 
figures are as follows :- 







Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 


Over 






^50 


£60 


£io 


^80 


/80 






per 


per 


per 


per 


per 




Dwellings. 


room. 


room. 


room. 


room. 


room. 


Up to 1902 


... 581 


— 


100 


325 


54 


102 


1902-1907 


... 1,423 


180 


12 


Z^Z 


Z^l 


545 


Total 


... 2,004 


180 


112 


628 


437 


647 



It will be seen that the later cottage flats have cost rather more to 
build than the earlier ones. This is mainly accounted for by the fact 
that they have been built in or near the London area and the city of 
Dublin, and other districts where the cost of building is very high. 

Rents. — The average rent of cottage flats is about 2/3 per room 
per week, and the comparative rents are as follows : — 
At or under 
3/- 
Up to 1902 ... 54 

1902-1907 ... 185 

Total ... 239 





Per 


dwelling. 




Over 


4/- 


5/- 


6/- 


7/- 


11- 


53 


127 


139 


85 


123 


100 


211 
338 


107 
246 


374 
459 


446 


153 


569 



COTTAGE FLATS ERECTED. 















Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Weekly 


Cost of 


Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Rent. 


Building. 


of 


Roads, 


per 












Site. 


etc. 


Room. 










£ 


sq.yds. 


£ 


£ 


*Battersea 


8 


Two 


6/6 








85 B 


Top. 168,907 


166 


Three 


7/6 to 8/6 








to 




146 


Four 


lo/o to 10/6 








114 B 


Birmingham 


24 


Two 


3/0 


10,100 


4,030 


1,007 


62 B 


(C.B.) Milk Street 28 


Three 


4/6 


including 






6S 


5 


Three 


5/6 


roads. 




■ 




4 


Four 


5/0 to I i/o 






! 


68 


Brentford 


14 


Twoi 


5/0 


395 


1,733 


960 


66 B 


(U.D.C.) 


14 


Three^ 


6/0 


double 






II S 


Top. 15,163 








flat. 









Starnage Road 














77 


Carlisle 


30 


Two 


3/0 


5,333 


2,100 


667 


60 B 


Pop. 48,000 (T.C.] 


10 


Three 


4/0 










*Dublin 
















Benburb Street - 


65 


One 


1/6 to 2/0 


1 Total 

y cost 
26,500 










65 
9 


Two 
Three 


3/0 to 4/0 
4/6 to 5/0 


— 




112 B 




5 


Shops 










Bow Lane 


76 


Two 


2/0 to 3/6 


— 


— 








5 


Three 


4/0 to 4/6 


— 


— 






Blaclihall Place - 


6s 


Two 


3/0 to 4/0 


] Total 










15 


Cottages 


7/6 


y cost 


— 




65 B 




5 


Shops 


— 


J 13.000 








St.. Joseph's Place 


80 


Dwellngs 


4/6 


26,000 


— 






St. Bride's Alley 


138 


Dwellngs 


6/7 


— 


— 






Ealing 
















(T.C.) 


36 


Three 


5/6 to 6/0 


— 


— 


— 




East Ham (T.C.) 
















Pop. 124,000 
















Savage Gardens 


30 


Threei 


7/0 


363 per 


I 78 per 


60 per 


54 B 


(1900) 


30 


Four^ 


7/6 


double 
flat. 


double 
flat. 


double 
flat. 


9S 
63 


:*Savage Gardens 


72 


Four ^ 


6/9 to 7/0 


N 400 


178 


50 


50 


(additional) 








y double 


dou ble 


double 


13 


♦ Brooks Avenue - 


80 


Four ^ 


6/9 to 7/0 


J flat 


flat 


flat 


63 


Hornsey 
















(U.D.C.) 
















Highgate 


24 


Two^ 


6/0 


3,986 


2,500 


500 


661 B 

lo^ S 

77 



SI 



COTTAGE FLATS ERECTED.— Con/inued. 



Name of 
Council. 



No. 



Rooms 
in each. 



Weekly 
Rent. 



Cost of 
Building, 



Area 

of 
Site. 



Cost of 
Site, 

Roads, 
etc. 



Cost 

per 

Room. 



Liverpool (C.C.) 

Arley Street 



j^cArley Street 
(additional) 



*Newcastle-on- 
Tyne (1906 - 
Pop. 268,721 



Plymouth (C.B. 

Princes Rock 
Looe Street 



14 

112 



Richmond 

(T.C.) 
Manor Grove 

*South Shields 

Pop. 111,402 



Stretford 

(U.D.C.) 
Pop. 40,119 

West Ham 

Pop. 301,617 
Bethell Avenue 



Corporation Street 



3f:Eve Road 



Two 
Three 



Two 
Three 



One 
Two 



Three 
Two 
Two 
Three 

Twoi 
Threei 



Three 5 
Fivei 



Two 
Three 



Three^ 
Threei 



Three^ 
Four^ 



Two h 
Three i 



4/0 to 5/0 
5/0 to 5/9 



4/0 to 5/0 
5/0 to 5/9 



2/6 to 3/0 
4/3 to 4/9 



3/0 to 5/0 

4/0 to 6/0 

2/0 to 5/0 

5/6 

4/6 
5/6 



5/6 
7/6 



3/3 to 3/9 
4/6 



6/0 to 6/9 
6/6 to 7/3 



7/6 
8/6 



6/0 

7/0 



5,262 



sq.yds. 
1,658 



1,011 



I 1.992 
j- 19,092 

33,000 
30,000 

1,932 



322 

double 
tenement 



5.912 



13,040 



23,927 



[ 15,409 



556 



317 



10,46414,696 SR 



2,500 



4,400 I 4,900 
28,ocot 

1,600 I 250 



yards 
3,148 



4,117 



4,229 



9,182 



7,176 



1,300 



J34 

per 

annum. 



1,900 



3.333 



2,675 



£ 

66 B 

12^ S 

78J 



age 
55 fB 
iiiS 

66^1 

80 B 
20 S 

100 

90 I 



65 B 
9S 

74 

40 B 
12 S 

52 

62 B 

7 S 

69 



81 B 
12 S 

93 

66 B 
9S 

75 

77 B 
_r3S 

90 



52 



COTTAGE FLATS ERECTED.— Conh^m^ed. 











1 


Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Weekly 


Cost of 


Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Rent. 


Building. 


of 


Roads, 


per 












Site. 


etc. 


Room. 










£ sq.yds. 


£ 


I 


West Ham 
















( Continued) 
















)<flnvicta Road 


27 


Two \ 


6/0 


^ 








*Rendel Road 


27 
9 


Three k 
Two \ 


7/0 
6/0 


'-13,739 5,697 


2,322 


76 B 
'3S 




9 


Three \ 


7/0 
















89 


*\Vise Road 


47 
47 


JThieeJ 


8/0 
8/6 


[27,454 10,190 


Leasehold 


81 B 


(single houses) 


II 


Five \ 


12/0 


J 







+ /;; the case of Brentford, Ealing, East Ham, Hornsey, Newcastle, Richmond, and 

West Ham, the actual cost of the site is given. 

X Roads and sewers cost Stretford £^1"], West Ham ( BeOiell Avenue) ;i^539. 

(Corporation Street) ^1,057, Hornsey £2."]^. 

COTTAGES. 

The following table gives particulars of 3,830 cottage dwellings, 
with 17,611 rooms, of which 2,160 cottages with 9,801 rooms or 
nearly three-fifths are additional dwellings The comparative figures 
are as follows : — 















Six or 




Total 


Total 


Three 


Four 


Five 


more 


Period. 


Cottages. 


Rooms. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


rooms. 


Up to 1902 .. 


1,670 


7,810 


12 


678 


864 


116 


1902-1907 


2,160 


9,801 


172 


882 


888 


218 


Total 


3,830 


17,611 


184 


1,560 


1,752 


334 



The average number of rooms per cottage, which was 475 in 1902, 
decreased slightly to 4*5 in the following five years, but the bulk of the 
cottages in both periods contained four or five rooms, exclusive of 
the scullery, which is generally described in the tables as half room. 

Sites. — The average site area has been about 50 yards per room or 
230 yards per cottage, thus allowing an average of about 90 rooms or 
21 cottages to the acre, but the tendency is to give more land for fewer 
cottages. 

The sites have varied in cost considerably, partly owing to difference 
of locality and partly to differences in the cost of developing the site 
by the construction of roads and sewers. The average site cost has 
been 3/- per square yard, or ^7 los. per room. 

Cost of Roads, Sewers, etc. — The average cost per room in 
respect of roads and sewers has varied from jQ\ los. to ;^9 per room, 
or ;^4 I OS to ;^45 per cottage, and has averaged ^£2 per room, or 
^9 per cottage. 



53 

Cost of Building. — The cost of building cottages is best seen 
from the following comparative figures : — 



Period up to 1902 

Percentage 


At or under 

;^l5oper 

cottage. 

No. 84 
5 


Up to 

408 
25 


Up to 

£100. 

218 

13 


Up to 

^225. 

192 

II 


Up to 
£'2--:>o. 

307 
19 


Up to 

;^275. 

292 

17 


Over. 
^275 
169 
10 


1902-1907 

Percentage 


200 
9 


274 
13 


410 
19 


479 
22 


347 
16 


137 
6 


15 


Total ... 


.. 284 


682 


628 


671 


654 


429 


482 



• 59 

• 70 


241 
160 

401 


146 
270 


2.^0 
259 


434 
532 

966 


206 
181 

387 


344 
688 


129 


416 


499 


1,032 



Percentage ... 7-5 18 16-5 17-5 17 n 12-5 

It will be seen that whereas 46 per cent, of the cottages used to 
cost over ^225, this proportion is now reduced to 37 per cent., and 
the percentage of cottages at ^150 and under is fast becoming a 
respectable total. 

If we take the cost of building per room, the figures are as follows : — 

At At At At At At Over 

or under or under or under or under or under or under £e,^ 

£3° per ^35 per £4° per £^5 per ;^50 per ;^55 per per 

room. room. room. room. room. room. room. 

Period up to 1902.. 
1902-1907 

Total ... 

Percentage ... 3-3 10-5 107 13 25-4 10 27-1 

Roughly speaking half the rooms have been built at a cost of under 
;^5o per room, and 25 per cent, have been built for ^40 or less per 
room. 

Rents. — The relative figures as to rents of cottages are as 
follows : — 

Period. 

Up to 1902 
1902 to 1907 

Total . . . 

Percentage ... 4'2 io"5 29 20*5 20'8 15 

Of these only 54 are in rural districts., and their rents are as follows : — 
Up to 1902 — 14 five-room cottages, 8 at 2/3 and 6 at 5/- per week. 
1902-1907 — 38 five-room cottages, 10 at 2/6, 10 at 3/6, 12 at 3/9, 
and 6 at 4/9 per week, with 2 four-room cottages at 4/- per week. 
The average rent is about 1/6 per room per week. Half the total 
number of cottages are let at about 6/- or 7/- per week, and two-thirds 
of them at or under 7/- per week. 



Under 










Over 


4/- 


5/- 


6/- 


11- 


8/- 


8/- 


90 


80 


583 


385 


306 


226 


70 


322 


528 


386 


493 


3(^1 


160 


402 


I, III 


771 


799 


587 



54 



COTTAGES ERECTED. 



Name of 
Council. 


No. 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building 

each 
Cottage. 


Area 

of 
Site. 


Cost of 
Site, 

Roads, 
etc. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 


*Aberystwitli 

(T.C.) 
pop. 8,013 


24 


Five| 


4/6 


£ 

180 


^ acre 


£ 

OR 30 
158 R 


£ 

36 B 


*Altrincham 

(U.D.C.) 
pop. 16,831. 


2 

4 
4 


Two 
Four 
Six 


3/0 
4/6 
4/9 


1 138 


I acre 


56 s 

240 R 


32 B 

loSR 

42 


*Bangor (T.C.) 

pop. 12,500 


34 
9 


Four 
Seven 


4/0 to 5/6 
7/0 to 7/8 


} 154 


I acre 


1,580 S 
324 R 


33 B 
loSR 


Barking Town 

(U.D.C.) 
pop. 28,500. 


85 


Fouri 


6/9 to 7/0 


200 


3 acres 


1,365 s 

1,782 R 


43 

50 B 
9S 

59 


^(additional) 


72 


Four 


5/6 


■ 147 


2^acres 


975 S 
711 R 


37 B 
8SR 


*Bames (U.D.C.) 

pop. 25,500. 
Mortlake 


21 
21 


Four| 
FiveJ 


7/0 
8/3 


225 

247 


part of 
2iacres 


1,600 S 
680 R 


45 

56 B 
12SR 


(additional) 

*Birkenliead 

(C.B.) 
pop. 117,203 


25 
18 


FourJ 
FiveJ 


7/3 to 7/9 
6/6 to 7/6 


224 
353 


part of 
2^acres 


i,oo4SR 


68 
51 B 

70 B 
12SR 

82 


Birmingham 

(C.B.) 
pop. 522,204 
Ryder Street 
Lawrence Street - 


22 
81 


Five 
Five 


5/6 to 6/0 
5/0 to 6/3 


182 
175 


yds. 
2,100 
7,066 


— 


38 B 
35 B 


Bognor (U.D.C.) 

pop. 6,180 


2 


FiveJ 


4/6 to 5/6 


225 


968 


200 


45 B 
20 S 

65 


*Bradford (C.B.) 

pop. 288,544 


66 


Four^ 


5/6 


247 


— 


— 


62 B 



55 



COTTAGES ERECTED.— Con/tmied. 











Cost of 




Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Building 


Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Week. 


each 


of 


Roads, 


per 










Cottage. 


Site. 


etc. 


Room. 










£ 




£ £ 


Brighton (C.B.) 














pop. 128,005 














St. Helen's Road 


28 


Fivei 


7/6 


266 


part of 


Gift S ; 53 B 












4 acres 


490 R 




*Dewe Road- 


30 


Four 


6/6 


201 


4,684 
sq. yds 


374 R 


50 B 


*May Road - 


25 


Five 


7/6 


243 


part of 
4 acres 




49 B 


*Tillstone Street - 


30 


Six 


1 1/6 


294 


'4,911 
sq. yds 


706 R 


49 B 


Burton-on-Trent 


50 


Five 


5/3 


180 


part of 


175 s 


36 B 


(C.B.) 










5jacres 


per annm 


pop. 52,922 










, 1,850 R| 


* (additional) 


38 


Four and 
Five 


5/0 and 5/6 


160 


— 


— 


40 B 


*Chester (C.B.) 


12 


Four 


4/6 


180 


— 


— 


45 B 


pop. 38,309 








inclusive 








Clonmel (T.C.) 


25 


Four 


2/0 to 2/6 


156 


— 


— 


39 B 


Ireland 


7 


Five 


5/2 


195 








Croydon (C.B.) 


12 


FiveJ 


ii/o to 13/0 


294 


— 


1,950 


59 B 


pop. 151,000 














33 S 
92 




46 


Fivei 


7/9 


250 


35acres 


1,571 s 


50 B 


*2nd 


40 


ThreeJ 


6/6 


190 


— 


2,122 R 


64 B 


Scheme. 


I 
shop 


Five^ 


16/6 & taxes 


450 






loSR 












sq.yds. 




Darwen (T.C.) 


6 


Four 


4/9 


185 


6,300 


35 S 


46 B 


pop. 40,000 


14 


FourJ 


6/6 to 7/0 


244 




per acre 


61 B 




II 


Five| 


7/6 


280 




35 R 


56 B 




II 


SixJ 


8/0 


300 




per house 50 B 


Ealing (T.C.) 


104 


Fivei 


7/6 to 1 0/0 


t32,ooo 


5 acres 


+4,000 57 B 


pop. 46,000 












2,500 R 9 S 
















66 












sq.vds. 






Eccles (T.C.) 


46 


Six 


7/3 


243 


7,308 


61 GR 


41 B 


*East Grinstead 


18 


Five 


7/0 


226 


f acre 


412 S 


45 B 


(U.D.C.) 














5SR 


pop. 6,094 














50 


Erith (U.D.C.) 


24 


Five^ 


8/0 


239 


2 acres 


2,310 


48 B 


pop. 25,296 


24 


Six^ 


8/6 


260 






44 B 














1 8 S 



56 



COTTAGES 


ERECTED 


— Continued. 






?^">^ "f No. 
Council. 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building 

each 
Cottage. 


Area 

of 
Site. 


Cost of 
Site, 

Roads, 
etc. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 










£ 




£ 


^ 


*Esher (U.D.C.) 

pop. 9,489 


10 


Four 


6/0 


220 


I acre 


300 S 


55 B 

7SR 

62 


*Exeter (C.B.) 

pop. 47,753 


49 


Fouri 


5/0 


156 


— 


860 s 
1,587 R 


39 B 

12SR 


*Farnliam 

(U.D.C.) 
pop. 6,401 


10 
10 


Four 
Five 


4/6 
6/0 


^ 181 

/inclus'e 




— 


51 
45BS 


Finchley (U.D.C.) 
pop. 30,750 


12 
12 
18 
18 


Three 
Four 
five 
Six 


5/9 
7/6 
8/6 
ii/o 


180 
230 
252 
288 


4lacres 


1,850 s 
1,000 R 


60 B 
56 B 
50 B 
46 B 


Folkestone (T.C.) 

pop. 34,000 


SO 


Five^ 


8/0 


305 


2 acres 


1,130 s 
1,071 R 


61 B 
9S 

70 


*Grays (U.D.C.) 

pop. 13,834 

*Guildford (T.C.) 

pop. 23,000 


25 


Five^ 

Five 
Six 


7/6 

6/3 
7/6 


2lO 

1 200 


2iacres 

part of 
4 acres 


449 S 

1,700 s 
400 R 


43 B 

40 B 
21SR 

61 


*Heston Islew'r'h 

(U.D.C.) 

pop. 30,863 


8 
7 
7 


Four 
Five 
Six 


5/9 
6/9 

8/3 


\ \ 232 


6 acres 


II2833SR 


46 B 
25SR 

71 


*Hereford (City) 

pop. 21,382 


21 


Five 


4/6 to 5/0 


190 


1,682 
yards 


615 S 
400 R 


38 B 
loSR 

48 


Hornsey (T.C.) 

pop. 88,000 
Highgate 


68 
40 
12 
24 


FiveJ 
Fouri 
FiveJ 
Four! 


8/6 
6/6 
9/0 
7/6 


249 
217 
281 
224 


4Jacres 
2 acres 


2,738 s 
2,060 R 
2,000 S 
1,070 R 


50 B 

54iB 

9iS 


r 36 

^(additional) J 1 38 
1 1 40 
'- 26 


Threei 
FourJ 
Fivei 
Sixi" 


6/6 
8/0 
9/6 
"/3 


210 
260 
310 
360 


j acres 


3,600 


70 B 
65 B 
62 B 
60 B 
6SR 



57 



COTTAGES ERECTED. 


— Co7iti7iued. 














Cost of 


Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Building 


Area Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Week. 


each 


of Roads, 


per 










Cottage. 


Site. etc. 


Room. 








£ 


£ 


£ 


Huddersfield 


■57 


Four 


4/8 to 5/6 


170 


3 acres 


187 S 


42 B 


(C.B.) 












Der annm 


11 S 


pop. 95.047 












2,198 R 


53 


KeigWey (T.C.) 


24 FourJ 


5/6 to 5/9 


257 


— 





64 in- 


pop. 41,564 






inclusive 






clusive 


*Leeds (C.B.) 














Derwent Avenue 


10 Five 


5/9 


204 


— 


441 


41 B 


pop. 463,495 














9SR 


Leigh (Lanes.) 














50 


(T.C.) 










sq.yds. 






Piatt Street and 


20 


Four| 


5/6 


162 


1,192 


880 S 


40 B 


Organ Street 


14 


Four| 


5/6 


176 




379 R 


95 


pop. 44,000 
















Linthwaite 


4 Four^ 


3/6 


225 


— 


48 S 


56 B 


(U.D.C.) 












per annm 




pop. 6,879 












289 R 




Llandudno 


19 


Four^ 


7/6 


212 


2,250 


562 S 


53 B 


(U.D.C.) 












260 R 


loiS 


pop. 9,310 














63^ 


^(additional) 


32 


Three to 
Eight 


5/0 to 1 1/0 


143 to 

274 


13,940 


1,463 S 
1,926 R 


48 B 


*LondonBorough 
















Councils 
















Battersea [ 
Camberwell \^ 


88 


Three 


7/6 to lo/o 


1 _ 

r 






73 B 


112 


P'our 


8/0 to I I/O 


— 


— 


to 


Woolwich j 

Manchester (C.B.) 


34 


Five 


1 1/6 to 14/6 


J 






85 B 
















pop. 637,126 
















Miles Platting 


60 


FourJ 


5/6 


220 


7,011 


2,711 S 
i,4i9R 


55 B 
i7iS 


(Oldham Road 














72^ 


area No. i.) 
















George Leigh Cot's 


18 


Five 


7/9 


327 


2,910 


1,455 s 

325 R 
(ti 1,842 


65 B 
16 S 



81 


*Blackley Estate - 


94 


Four 


6/4 to 7/0 


239 


8jacres 


406 R 


48 to 




56 


Five 


7/9 








60 B 


*Merthyr Tydfil 


100 


Five 


5/7i 


171 


18,58c 


69GF! 


34 B 


(T.C. 
















Penydarren 
















pop. 73,90c 

















58 



COTTAGES 


ERECTED 


— Co7itiniied. 














Cost of 




Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Building 


Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Week. 


each 


of 


Roads, 


per 










Cottage. 


Site. 


etc. 


Room. 










£ 




£ 


£ 


Middlesbrough 


5 


Four 


5/0 


173 


552 


37 s 

per 
cottage 


43 B 




12 


Four 


5/0 


204 


1,172 


33 R 


51 B 


*Neatli T.C. 


21 


Four 


4/0 


121 


2 acres 


— 


30 B 


pop. 13,729 


18 


Four 


4/6 


141 




1,900 


9SR 
39 


Nottingham(C.B.) 
















Coppice Road 


100 


Five^ 


6/3 to 6/9 


266 


7,973 


71 per 


50 B 


pop. 254,568 












cottage 
inclusive 


12 s 
62 


Plymouth (C.B.) 


3 


Five 


8/0 


— 


part of 


— 


— 


Princes Rock 


14 


Five 


8/0 


— 


27i 






pop. 118,000 


10 


Four 


7/0 


— 


acres 






Looe Street 


3 


Four 


8/0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


*Prescot (1903-4) 


33 


Four 


4/6 


1^5 


6,120 


725 


41 B 


(U.D.C.) 


5 


Five 


5/6 to 5/9 




yards 




5SR 


pop. 7,855 














46 


*Rhyl (U.D.C.) 


12 





5/6 to 7/6 


230 





260 


46 B 


pop. 8,473 














4SR 


Richmond (Surrey) 














50 


(T.C.) 
















pop. 31,677 
















1894 


28 


Four^ 


6/0 


190 


5f 


4,250 s 


47iB 




22 


Six^ 


7/6 


254 


acres 


1,873 R 


42iB 


Manor Grove 1899 


14 


FourJ 


6/3 


240 






60 B 


jj 


16 


Five^ 


7/3 


245 






49 B 


" 


40 


Six^ 


7/9 


276 






46 B 
9SR 


+ 1905 (additional) - 


2 


Five i 


7/6 


302 


— 


— 


60 B 




I 


Six 


8/0 


332 


— 


— 


56 B 


*Risca (U.D.C.) 


50 


Six and 


6/0 


215 


9,200 


^56 I OS. 


36 B 


pop. 11,000 




Bath 






yards 


G.R. 




Salford (C.B.) 












340 R 




pop. 231,514 


36 


Four 


6/6 


158 


— 


8,434 s 


40 B 


Hopwood Street 












678 R 


61 S 

lOI 


r 


210 


Four 


5/9 1 

7/0 [ 






8434 s 


48 B 


+Seaford Road --{ 


II 


Five 


170 


— 


5142 R 


15 s 


I 


7 


Six 


9/6 J 








63 



59 



COTTAGES 


ERECTED 


. — Continued. 














Cost of 


Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Building Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Week. 


each 1 of 


Roads, 


per 










Cottage. Site. 


etc. 


Room. 


Salford 








£ 


£ 


£ 


(Conthiiied) 














^Barracks Site 


no 


Four 


5/9 


195 lojac. 


35. IOCS 


40 B 




122 


Five 


7/0 


average — 


7561 R 


27SR 




87 


Six 


9/6 


— 


— 




67 


Sheffield (1905) 














pop. 447,951 
















(C.B.) 














Hands Lane 


20 Five 


6/6 


255 


2,555 


1,100 


51 B 


(1901) 














iiSR 
62 


J^clligh Wincobank 


12 


Five 


7/0 


202 


part of 


i3,ooofor 


40 B 




20 


Five 


5/0 


126 


60 acr. 


60 acres 


25 B 




41 


Five 


6/6 to 7/3 


210 






42 B 
107 


jftButton Lane 


2 


Four 


5/3 to 5/6 


} 205 


445 


445 S 


50 B 




5 


Five 


6/0 to 6/6 


yards 


13SR 
















63 


*Cliffe Street 


3 


Five 


6/0 


237 


233 


233 s 


48 B 
15SR 

63 


*Edmund Road - 


II 


FourJ 


— 


} 186 


8 200 


5,944 S 


47 B 




59 


FiveJ 


— 




1,615 R 


22SR 
















69 


*Southend- 'n-Sea 


40 


Four and 


7/5 to 9/2 


296 


5 acres 


2,644 


70 B 


(T.C.) 




Five 










14SR 


pop. 50,000 














84 


Southgate(U.D.C) 


12 


Fivei 


6/6 


250 


— 


— 


SO B 


pop. 26,000 
















*Soutliwold(T.C.) 


16 


Five^ 


4/0 


150 


— 


— 


30 B 


pop. 28,000 
















♦Stafford (T.C.) 


31 


Four 


4/3 


198 


7,i68i 


Perpetual 


50 B 


pop. 20,895 


9 


Five 


4/6 




su. yds 


chief rent 
^32 4 6 
per ann. 




♦Stanley (U.D.) 


24 


Four^ 


6/0 


218 


2,160 


— 


55 B 


pop. 12,290 










540 






♦Stretford 


40 


Five 


4/9 


212 


7,900 


1,300 S 


42 


(U.D.C.) 












900 R 


II 


pop. 40,119 














53 



6o 



COTTAGES 


ERECTED. 


— Conti7iued. 














Cost of 




Cost of 




Name of 


No. 


Rooms 


Rent per 


Building 


Area 


Site, 


Cost 


Council. 


in each. 


Week. 


each 


of 


Roads, 


per 










Cottage. 


Site. 


etc. 


Room. 










JL 




£ 


£ 


^Swansea (C.B.) 


4 


— 


6/6 


259 


— 


— 


65 B 


pop. 100,671 
















^Wellington 


16 


Fivei 


5/0 


198 


— 


1,200 


40 B 


(U.D.C.) 














15SR 


pop. 7,104 














55 


Wexford (T.C.) 


59 


Four 


2/3 


75 


— 




— 


*Wliitley, Upper 


6 


Five 


— 


223 


— 


— 


45 B 


(U.D.C.) 








inclusive 








pop. 764 
















Wigan (C.B.) 


160 


Five 


5/0 to 5/6 


160 


— 


— 


32 B 


pop. 82,428 
















*Workingt'n(T.C) 


18 


Four| 


5/6 


149 


1,704 


640 SR 


45 B 


pop. 26,143 
















*Wrotliam 


12 


Six 


6/0 


246 


I Nacres 


150 S 


41 B 


(U.D.C.) 












170 R 


5SR 


pop. 3>57i 














46 


Rural Councils 
















*Linton (1906) 


10 


Five 


2/6 


130 


2i 


125 


26 B 


Scheme 










acres 




3S 


pop. 1,530 














29 


*Maldon (Essex) 
















Bradwcll 1905 


6 


Five 


3/6 


233 


f acre 


50 


46 B 


pop. 783 














25 

48 


*Malpas (1906) 


12 


Five 


3/9 


188 


I i/ii 


108 


41 B 


pop. 1,139 










acre 






Sevenoaks (Kent) 
















(1900) Penshurst - 


6 


Fivei 


5/0 


263 


f acre 


130 


50 


+(1903) Penshurst - 


i6 


Fivei 


4/6 to 4/9 


} 232 


I acre 


;^5 5s. 


48 loB 


pop. 1,678 


l2 


Four| 


4/0 


ground 


58 oB 














rent. 




Thingoe 
















(Suffolk) Ixworth 


8 


Five 


2/3 


^192 lOS 


4 acres 


160 


37i 


(1 89 1) pop. 856 
















*Westbury (Wilts) 
















Bratton (1905) 


4 


Five 


3/6 


223 


i/5acre 


40 


46 B 


pop. 560 














28 

48 



% These figures include, respectively, the cost of building and site of 18 cottage fiats, 
each with kitchen, scullery, and two bedrooms. f Actual cost of site. 

B Building. S Site. W Roads. SR Site and Roads. 

+ Denotes additiojtal dwellings not given tn Housing Handbook and mostly built 
during the last five years. II Sufficient land for 100 more cottages. 



6i 



FINANCIAL RESULTS OF SCHEMES FOR 
MUNICIPAL DWELLINGS. 

Appended are two tables giving the fullest available returns as to 
the financial working of a number of municipal dwellings, showing the 
period of accounts averaged, the capital outlay, receipts, working 
expenses, and net retur7i per cent, on outlay — that is to say, the 
percentage that would be left for distribution if the dwellings were run 
as ordinary commercial undertakings having to pay dividends to share- 
holders. As the rate of interest on loans was in most cases from 3 to 
3^ per cent., it will be seen that the first group may be considered 
self-supporting, but the last group (dwellings on slum sites) shows a 
total deficiency of one per cent, per annum, in addition to the capital 
loss caused by writing down the costly slum sites to " housing 
valuation." It will be well to compare these figures with pages 165-172 
of the Housing Handbook. 

COTTAGES AND COTTAGE FLATS BUILT IN URBAN 
DISTRICTS AND BOROUGHS. 



coun'cil and pl-riod of 
Accounts Averaged. 



Capital 
Outlay. 



Rents 
Received 



Working Expenses. 



Rates, 

Taxes, 

Water, 

and 

Insur'nce 



Repairs 
Light- 
ing, and 

Main 
tenance. 



Sup'rin 
tendent 
and 
Sun- 
dries 



Total 
Working 
Expenses 



Net 
Return 
percent. 

on 
Outlay. 



Aberdeen, 4 years 
Barking Town, 4 years 

Barnes, 4 years 

Brentford, 3 years 
Brighton — 

St. Helen's Rd. , 3 yrs 

Dewe Road, 3 years 

May Road, 2 years 

Tillstone St., i year 

Elm Grove, i year... 

Burton-on-Trent, 3 yrs 

Chester, 2 years... 

Ealing, 2 years 



£ 
18,213 
20,105 
18,900 

6,950 

8,720 
6,845 
8,710 

18,742 
2,83s 

18,104 
2,160 

39,822 



908 

1,440 

978 

357 



£ 
"5 
428 
274 
97 



£ 

105 

208 

77 
18 



£ 



533 


"3 


63 


496 


132 


59 


525 


134 


16 


Sio 


220 


14 


170 


46 


18 


1,189 


475 


109 


139 


33 


2 


2,717 


563 


289 



£ 
260 

668 

374 
125 

189 
203 
169 

254 
73 

587 
38 



£ 
3-55 

3 '84 
3-20 
3-29 

3 "94 

4-28 

4-08 

2*96 

3-41 

3-3 

4-67 

4-55 



62 



COTTAGES AND COTTAGE FLATS BUILT IN URBAN 
DISTRICTS AND 'BOROUGHS. — Con/imted. 



East Ham — 
















1-24, SavageGardens, 
















4 years 


5.700 


413 


129 


34 


15 


178 


4-12 


25-132, Savage Gar- 
















dens, and Brook 
















Avenue, 2 years.. 


42,300 


2,751 


869 


350 


"5 


1,334 


3-35 


Enth, 3 years 


15.523 


809 


282 


98 


9 


389 


2-66 


Esher, 4 years 


2,497 


156 


44 


4 


3 


51 


4-2 


Farnham 


3,628 


257 


71 


2 




73 


5-07 


Folkestone, 6 years ... 


17,424 


1,041 


259 


no 


.5 


374 


3-80 


Grays, i year 


5,910 


421 


137 


23 


3 


163 


4-37 


Hornsey, l year 


94,485 


6,552 


1,700 


613 


68 


2,381 


4-41 


Huddersfield, 15 years 


28,945 


1,928 


675 


no 


— 


785 


3-94 


Mertliyr Tydvil, 2 yrs. 


17,064 


1,394 


375 


138 


65 


578 


4-80 


Middlesbrough, 5 yrs. 


3.900 


222 


55 


28 


9 


92 


3-3 


Nevvry 


5,600 


278 


4 


68 


9 


81 


3-52 


Plymouth, 3 years 


45,539 


2,047 


594 


208 


95 


897 


2-53 


Prescot, 2 years 


6,120 


412 


82 


27 


27 


136 


4-52 


Richmond, 1st, 3 years 


18,202 


1,112 


202 


no 


47 


359 


4-13 


,, 2nd, 5 years 


38,729 


2,435 


531 


238 


67 


836 


4-13 


Salford — 
















Barracks, 3 years ... 


140,33s 


6,551 


780 


125 


423 


1,328 


3-38 


Sheffield- 
















Hands Lane, 2 years 


6,104 


325 


lOI 


14 


— 


"5 


3 '44 


Southend, 3 years 


14,466 


603 


22 


32 


12 


65 


372 


Stafford, 2 years 


7,900 


466 


157 


47 


n 


206 


3 "29 


Stanley, i year 


6,200 


368 


68 


31 


2 


106 


4-33 


West Ham — 
















Bethell Avenue, 5 yrs 


14,969 


900 


256 


144 


23 


423 


3-19 


Corporation St. , 4 yrs 


}45,344 


/ 1. 541 


471 


138 


62 


671 


}3-38 


Eve Road, 3 years... 


t 1,122 


333 


74 


51 


458 


Wix Road, 2 years... 


27,454 


2,250 


920 


154 


93 


1,167 


3-94 


Invicta and Rendell 
















Road, 2 years ... 


16,061 


770 


240 


131 


44 


415 


2"2I 


Urban Totals 


796,880 


47,129 


II,Ql6 


4,027 


1,466 


17,424 


376 



COTTAGES BUILT BY RURAL DISTRICTS. 







£ s. 


d. 








;^S.d. 




Maldon (Brad well) ... 


1,450 


54 12 





— 


— 


— 


14 2 


27s 


Sevenoaks (a) (Pen- 


















hurst) 


1,867 


76 





— 


— 


— 


764 


3-57 


Sevenoaks {i) 


1,962 


93 12 





— 


— 


— 


1140 


4-27 


Thingoe (Ixworth) ... 


1,740 


45 16 





— 


— 


— 


*32 


o-8o 


Westbury 


934 


36 





— 


— 


— 


878 


2-95 


Rural Totals 


7,953 


306 





— 


— 


— 


73 


2-93 



* Exceptional. 
Slight discrepancy between total working expenses and total of separate items is 
due to use of round figures. 
N.B. — In nearly every one of the above cases land is charged to capital outlay 
at its full value. 



BUILDINGS ON SLUM SITES, MAINLY BLOCK DWELLINGS, 
TENEMENTS AND FLATS. 

(In connection with schemes under Parts I and II.) 









Working Expenses. 














Net 


Council and Period of 


Capital 


Rents 


Rates, 


Repairs 


Sup'rin- 


Total 


Return 


Accounts Averaged. 


Outlay. 


Received. 


Taxes, 


Light- 


tendent 


Working 


percent. 








Water, 


ing, and 


and 


Expenses 


on 








and 


Main- 


Sun- 




Outlay. 








Insur'nce 


tenance. 


dries. 








£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Birkenhead 


11,566 


644 


170 


25 


35 


230 


3-60 


Birmingham — 
















Ryder Street, 3 yrs. 


5,000 


339 


64 


49 


9 


122 


435 


Lawrence St., 3 yrs. 


17,500 


1,220 


229 


464 


21 


714 


4-66 


Milk Street, 3 yrs. 


16,100 


625 


127 


85 


16 


228 


2 46 


Bradford, i year 


19,023 


994 


274 


76 


— 


350 


3-38 


Devonport — 
















James Street, 4 yrs. 


19,243 


727 


157 


76 


45 


278 


2-33 


Ordn<ince St., 2 yrs. 


29,034 


935 


215 


98 


60 


373 


1-94 


Douglas, I year 


15,629 


743 


173 


34 


— 


207 


3-48 


Hereford, 2 years 


7,820 


251 


50 


23 


— 


73 


2-28 


Leeds, 2 years 


2,697 


144 


44 


10 


— 


54 


3 "33 


Leicester, 5 years 


8,036 


443 


122 


83 


21 


226 


270 


Liverpool — 
















St. Martin's Cottages, 
















36 years 


17,928 


1,125 


208 


582 


59 


849 


3'09t 


Victoria Sq., 19 yrs. 


68,077 


2,994 


553 


766 


127 


1,446 


2-38 


Juvenal St., 15 yrs. 


16,166 


360 


141 


271 


38 


450 


3-06 


Arley Street, 8 yrs. 


7,583 


452 


104 


62 


17 


183 


4-12 


Gildart's Gardens, 
















8 years 


37,558 


1,672 


350 


.305 


86 


741 


2-57 


Dryden Street, 4 yrs. 


30,196 


1,351 


270 


362 


98 


730 


2-21 


Kempston St., 3 yrs. 


28,492 


747 


156 


138 


30 


324 


1-56 


. Kew Street, 3 years 


22,312 


593 


196 


157 


25 


378 


1-29 


Adlington St., 2 yrs. 


48,250 


2,533 


511 


350 


107 


968 


3-i6 


Stanhope Cotgs. i yr. 


11,408 


471 


103 


98 


23 


224 


2-i6 


Mill Street, i year 


11,896 


319 


99 


87 


14 


200 


I"00 


Hornby St., i year 


29,945 


1,802 


249 


141 


66 


456 


2-i6 


Manchester — 
















Oldham Road (2) 
















10 years 


66,162 


3,089 


719 


955 


189 


1,863 


1-85 


Pollard St., 10 yrs. 


27,911 


943 


279 


456 


176 


908 


0-I2 


Chester St., 6 years 


16,875 


907 


239 


199 


22 


460 


2-64 


Pott Street, 6 years 


19,899 


904 


236 


191 


20 


447 


2 29 


Oldham Road (i) 
















6 years 


32,174 


1,793 


320 


265 


26 


611 


3-67 


Plymouth, 3 years 


30,926 


1,007 


289 


56 


67 


412 


1-93 


Salford — 
















Queen Street 


88,762 


756 


200 


53 


115 


368 


3-29 


Hop wood Street ... 


6,257 


569 


184 


45 


80 


309 


4-00 


Southampton, I year 


9,498 


292 


116 


46 


— 


162 


I 37 


Swansea, i year 


1,038 


58 


30 


6 


4 


40 


175 


Wolverhampton, 3 yrs. 


5,575 


306 


84 


7 


20 


III 


3-50 


Yarmouth (Great) 2yrs. 


2,500 


125 


30 


6 


4 


40 


3-40 


Totals of dwellings 
















on slum sites, &c. 


789,036 


32,213 


7.291 


6,627 


1,620 


15.538 


-4. 



Slight discrepancy between total working expenses and total of separate items is 
due to use of round figures. 
N.B. — In most of the above cases land is only charged to capital outlay at 
housing valuation. 

t The percentages and the detailed iigures in Liverpool refer to different periods. 



CHAPTER IV. 

MUNICIPAL HOUSING IN 
LONDON. 

LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. 

The London County Council up to 31st March, 1906, had 
provided accommodation for 33,853 persons, calculated on the basis of 
two persons to a room, in 6,326 dwellings of one to six rooms each, 
and 1,147 cubicles in lodging houses. The cost of buildings and the 
housing valuation of the land amounted to about ^1,900,000, and 
the gross rental value of the dwellings completed and opened was 
approximately ^136,000 per annum, or 7 per cent, on the estimated 
outlay, the net rental being ;^i2i,583, and working expenses and 
interest ;^ioi,69o, leaving ^11,106 for sinking fund, ^^5,441 for 
repairs, renewals and reserve, and ^3,346 net surplus. 

It has to be remembered, however, that in the case of the block 
dwellings and lodging houses which furnish about five-sixths of the 
above accommodation, the actual cost of the land in most cases was 
five or six times its housing valuation, and in some cases even more. 
It has been difficult to get the actual figures for dwellings erected during 
the last four years, but assuming the site cost to be £(io per person 
accommodated, it is necessary to add about ;^5o per person to the 
above total of cost, and this brings up the capital outlay on 16,840 
rooms to about ^2^3, 500,000, and thus reduces the percentage of rent 
to 3*8 per cent, gross on outlay. This means, of course, that the 
dwellings would under this supposition be burdened with the cost of 
clearing the slums created by the negligence and wrong doing of 
previous generations — a very unfair proceeding. 

In addition to the schemes carried out under the Housing Acts, 
the Council has provided dwellings capable of rehousing 11,198 persons, 
in place of dwellings of 10,988 persons displaced in connection with 
the construction of tunnels, the widening of streets, and other public 
works. The principal schemes and the number of persons provided 
for have been Blackwall Tunnel, 1,464 ; Kingsway and Aldwych, 3,090 ; 
Rotherhithe Tunnel, 1,610; Thames Embankment Extension and 
Westminster Improvements, 2,368 ; Long Lane and Tabard Street 
(Bermondsey), 400 ; Mare .Street, Hackney, 606 ; York Road, Batter- 
sea Rise, Garrett Road, and Merton Road, 536 ; Nine Elms, 238 ; 
and Greenwich Generating Station, 220. 

Fairly full details of these dwellings are given in the tables on 
pp. 70-73, as well as in the Housing Handbook pp. 79-90, but so much 
has been done since 1902 that the following particulars will be of 
interest : — 



65 



GENERAL SUMMARY OF WORK DONE OR TO 
BE DONE. 





o § 


r ° 




P c 
U^ 


More 
than four 
Rooms. 


Total 
dwellings 




Cost ..f 
Lnndand 
Buildings 


Dwellings Completed... 

Dwellings in course of 

erection 


163 
26 


3031 
413 


2552 
880 


432 
207 


1 48 
118 


6326 

1644 


33.853* 
10,577 


1.857,519* 
574,142 


Totals in hand 


189 


3444 


3432 


639 


266 


7970 


44.430 


2,431,661 


Total dwellings being 
planned 














52,634 


2,517,281 




97,064 


;^4.948,942 



* These figures include 3 lodging houses with 1,846 cubicles, which cost ^127,301, 
and 6,326 dwellings, containing 16,350 rooms, and accommodating 32,706 persons, 
at a cost of about ^i^i, 860,000, that is ;^55 per person, or ^iio per room, or ^^jOO 
per dwelling, built as above stated in connection with improvement schemes under 
Parts I, II, and III of the Act of 1890. 



Clearance of Slum Areas. — The following additional schemes 
have been undertaken by the London County Council under Parts 
I and II of the Act of 1890 (see page 51 Housing Handbook). It 
will be seen from the table that the land cleared under Part I cost 
;^32,6oo per acre, or ^78 per person displaced, while that under 
Part II cost ;^i9,7oo per acre or ^50 per person displaced. The 
disparity is mainly due to the more central position of the areas dealt 
with under Part I. They bring up the total spent in London on slum 
buying to ^3,400,000 for about 100 acres. 

The net expenditure, after receipts for sales and housing valuation 
of sites for dwelliiigs, has been about ^2,600,000, of which half was 
incurred by the old Metropolitan Board of Works in clearing 57 acres 
of dwellings occupied by 24,100 persons, and the other half by the 
County Council and Borough Councils in clearing dwellings on 51 
acres occupied by 23,337 persons. 



66 



RECENT CLEARANCE SCHEMES. 















Total 




Acreage 
cleared. 


Gross 


Persons 


Persons 


Total 


net cost 


Name of Area. 


cost of 


dis- 


to Ije re- 


cost of re- 


of clear- 




clearance 


placed. 


housed. 


housing. 


ance rate- 














payers. 






I 








L 


London County Council. 














Part I Schemes. 










£ 




Churchway, St. Pancras 


1-98 


43,200 


1,096 


832 


47,676 


34,502 


Burford's Court ... 1 














Tucker's Court ... V 


0-89 


16,420 


576 


630] 




10,891 


FavoniaSt., Poplar J 








\ 


38,648 




Providence Place, Poplar 


0-87 


11,170 


361 


400 1 




11,170 


Garden Row, Ruby St. \ 














Baltic St. and Honduras \ 


2*62 


117,115 


1,193 


1,216 


— 


103,651 


Street, St. Luke's J 














Webber Row, Welling- 1 














ton Place, and King's |- 


S-i6 


100,264 


997 


1,130 


— 


90,246 


BenchWalk,Southw'k j 














Aylesbury Place and Union 














Buildings, Holborn 


276 


190,610 


1,402 


1,414 


— 


171,938 


Nightingale Street, 














Marylebone 


0.88 


6,000 


576 


576 


— 


702 


Total of additional schemes 














under Part I 


i5'i6 


484,779 


6,201 


6,198 




423,100 


Part II. Schemes. 














Brooke's Market, Hol- 














born, 1891 


0-54 


8,930 


55 


60 


3,767 


8,072 


Mill Lane, Deptford, 1S92 


1-98 


23,341 


715 


946 


63,138 


19,644 


Ann Street, Poplar, 1893 


075 


11,089 


261 


630 


26,041 


8,754 


Falcon Court, Borough ... 


1-49 


50,538 


824 


680 


44,121 


45,497 


Total of additional schemes 














under Part H ... 


476 


93,898 


1,855 


2,316 


137,067 


81,967 


Combined Schemes tender 














Part II. 














Queen Catherine Court, 














Ratcliffe 






133 


108 


— 


5,574 


London Terrace, S. George- 














in-the-East 






100 


nil 


— 


1,364 


Islington — 














Norfolk Square 






214 


nil 


— 


6,748 


Limehouse — 














King John's Court 






49 


56 


— 


16,003 


Rotherhithe — 














Fulford Street 






736 


980 


40,960 


29,120 


St. Pancras — 














Branborne Place 






7191 
581/ 


896 




16,940 


Prospect Place 








11,273 


Chapel Grove ... 






501 


400 


— 


32,970 


Eastnor Place 






189 


100 


— 


9,?24 




3,222 


2,540 




129,513 



67 

There were on ^ist December^ igo6, a total of 9,416 " lettings " 
on 48 estates, including 5,971 tenements in blocks, 1,348 cottages and 
cottages flats, 1,845 cubicles in lodging houses (see pp. 39 and 77-80), 
and 252 shops, stables, etc. 

The rents have been as follows : — 









s. 


d. 


s. 


d. 




One room 


170 


at 


2 


3 


to 5 





per 


Two rooms 


• 3>262 




3 


6 


„ 8 


6 




Three rooms .. 


• 3.136 




5 


6 


» II 







Four rooms 


542 




7 





>, 13 







Five rooms 


206 




7 


6 


.. 13 







Six rooms 


5 




14 





„ 14 


6 





or an average of about 3/- per room per week. 

The 1,845 cubicles in the lodging houses are let at 6d. and 7d. per 
night. 

The gross capital expenditure was about ^2,250,000, and the gross 
rental ;^ 166,070. It is estimated that if the Council completes the 
development of all the estates the actual outlay will be about 
;^5, 000,000, and the gross rental ;^5oo,ooo. 

The nine estates of block dwellings built under Part III 

consist of dwellings for 4,559 persons, on 5^ acres, at a cost for building 
and land (housing valuation) of;^236,702, or ^52 per person. 

Some of these are in Central London, but four of the more recent 
have been established in what may be called middle London. They 
are as follows : — 

Wedmope Street, Upper Holloway. — A site has been pur" 
chased for ^11,650, and Wessen Buildings erected for 1,050 persons in 
blocks containing five one-room, 140 two-room, and 80 three-room 
tenements. 

Caledonian Estate, Islington. — Purchased for ^16,000, and 
five blocks of dwellings for the accommodation of 1,388 persons in 
tenements of one to five rooms each have been provided. 

Brixton Hill Site, Lambeth. — Purchased for ^7,000, and 
Briscoe Buildings erected to accommodate 718 persons in tenements. 

Hughes Field Surplus Lands, Deptford. — The Council has 
utilised under Part III of the Housing Act of 1890, three plots of 
surplus land acquired in connection with the Hughes Field (Part I) 
Clearance Scheme, by the erection of three blocks of working class 
dwellings, accommodating 600 persons. 

SUBURBAN COTTAGES. 

Especially since the passage of the Amendment Act of 1900 has 
the County Council been active under Part III of the Act of 1890. 
This will be readily seen from the following table, which gives par- 
ticulars of sites acquired for the [)urpose of building cottages under 
Part III of the Act, apart from any rehousing obligation, up to 



68 



30th November, 1906, including present and future development. 
The actual cost of the land is included : — 









Accom- 


Accom- 




Total for 






Accom- 


modation 


modation 


Total 


estimated 


Estates. 


Area. 


modation 


in course 


to be 


accom- 


cost of 






provided 


of erec- 


provided 


modation 


land and 






for 


tion for 


for 


for 


buildings 


Norbury Estate Cottages, 

Croydon 
Totterdown Fields Colt- 


31 


388 


344 


5,068 


5,800 


£ 
283,000 


ages, Tooting 
While Ilart Lane Cott- 


38^ 


4,815 


298 


3,319 


8,432 


400,238 


ages, Wood Green 
Old Oak Common Lane 


2254 


1,495 


948 


40,067 


42,500 


1,972,602 


Cottages, Hammersmith 


54 


— 


— 


9,200 


9,200 


450,000 


Total 


349 


6,698 


1,590 


57,644 


65,932 


3,105,840 



The Tooting op Totterdown Fields Estate. — The rentals 
of the four classes of cottages on this estate vary from 6s. to 13s. 
per week. The scheme is being carried out in three sections, of which 
Section A contains about 9 acres, Section B about 14 acres, and 
section C about 15 acres. The construction of the roads and sewers 
on Sections A and B has been completed, and 706 cottages, accom- 
modating 4 960 persons, are in occupation. Of these cottages six are 
on Section C. This section will be developed at an early date, the 
roads and sewers having been completed. 

The Norbupy Estate. — An estate at Norbury was the first to 
be purchased by the Council under the provisions of the Act of 1900, 
which allowed operations to be conducted beyond the limits of the 
county boundary. The site is about 31 acres in extent, and lies about 
a quarter of a mile from the county boundary. It is the same distance 
from the station of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, 
but the tramway service of the Croydon Corporation gives direct access 
to Thornton Heath and Croydon. The roads and sewers on Sections A 
and B of the estate, consisting of about 8 and 11 acres respectively, 
have already been formed. Five blocks containing 52 cottages with 
accommodation for 3S8 persons, have been completed, and 43, 
additional cottages will shortly be finished. It is estimated that 
accommodation for 5,800 persons can be provided on the estate. 



The Wood Green and Tottenham Estate. — This estate, 
purchased under the provisions of the Act of 1900, is situated in the 
parishes of i'ottenham. Wood Green, and Edmonton, and comprises 
altogether 225 acres. It consists of two detached portions, of which 



71 

the larger, or southern portion, of about 178 acres, lies between 
Lordship Lane (which is a main thoroughfare from High Road, 
Tottenham, to Green Lanes, Wood Green) on the south, and White 
Hart Lane on the north, and the smaller, or northern portion, of about 
47 acres, is'some quarter of a mile distant, and is approached from 
White Hart Lane. It is estimated that accommodation for 42,500 
persons in cottages and in tenements over shops can be provided on 
the estate. The cottages, which will be two storeys in height, will 
contain three to five rooms each, and each will have its own garden. 

The northern portion of the estate is not yet ripe for development, 
and building operations are at present confined to the southern portion. 
Section A, consisting of about five acres, has already been developed 
by the erection of 141 cottages, providing accommodation for 1,006 
persons. These cottages have been completed and let. On Section 
B, which comprises about 15^ acres, the roads and sewers have been 
constructed, and 60 cottages have already been completed. In 1903 
the Council accepted a generous offer of ^10,000, made by Sir Samuel 
Montagu, for the development of about 25 acres of the estate. The 
principal condition of the gift is that the tenancies in the cottages 
to be erected on the site are to be offered, in the first instance, and 
from time to time as vacancies occur, to residents of Whitechapel of not 
less than three years' standing, without distinction of race or creed. 
On the Tower Gardens section, which has been allocated for the pur- 
pose of the gift, 122 cottages are now being built, and it is estimated 
that in all 568 cottages and a large garden of about three acres can be 
provided on this section. 

Old Oak Common Lane Estate, Hammersmith. — Ihe 

Council has purchased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners a site of 
54 acres of fiat land at Old Oak Common Lane, Hammermith, at the 
price of ^550 per acre. It is proposed to develop the estate so as to 
provide for about 9,200 persons m 1,250 cottages of four different 
classes. According to the estimates of the costs of such a scheme, it 
would appear that the cottages could be let at reasonable rents, and 
that the net income would be sufficient to enable the Council to pay 
the price of the land and to comply with all the financial requiremeiits. 
A portion of the estate is required by the Great Western Railway Com- 
pany for the purpose of constructing a branch line of railway, and the 
development of the estate has for this reason been delayed. 

The following table shows the principal dwellings erected by the 
London County Council, with the situation, date of erection, accom- 
modation, capital expenditure, net rental, working expenses, and 
return on outlay. (Slight discrepancies in totals due to use of round 
figures.) 



LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL WORKING GLASS DWELLINGS AND LODGING HOUSES. 

Analysis of Accounts fok Year 1905-6. 
Dwellings Opened for more than a Year. 





Accom- 


Capital * 






c c 


Dwellings and Date of Opening. 


modation 


Expendi- 


Net 


Mainten- 


j;S-S 




(persons) 


ure to 31st 


Rental. 


ance. 


.-■-13 

V ^ 






Vtar., 1906. 






t, S. 


Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. • 








, 




Part I. 




jE 


J£ 


£ 


* 


Brook Street dwellings (1894-1900) ... 


308 


17,114 


1,024 


479 


3"2 


Boundary Street estate (1895- 1900) ... 


5.524 


337,536 


25,777 


12,046 


3-8 


Gold smith's Row cottages (1895) 


144 


8,128 


458 


207 


3-1 


Hughes Fields cottages (1895) 


666 


39.476 


1,742 


859 


4-8 


Cable Street dwellings (1896-1901) ... 


800 


41,252 


2,901 


1,212 


4'1 


Shelton Street Dwellings (1896) 


284 


24,392 


1,526 


557 


4-0 


*Millbank estate (1899-1902) 


1,536 


82,266 


6,565 


2,433 


5-0 


Churchway dwellings (1901-2) .. 


832 


47,676 


3,841 


1,427 


5'i 


Hardy cottages (190 1 ) 


306 


13,298 


840 


409 


3*3 


Duke's Court Dwellings (1902) 


458 


23,360 


1,792 


680 


4-8 


Russell Court dwellings (1903) 


293 


15.950 


1,135 


401 


4-6 


Preston's Road estate ... 


269 


12,737 


377 


269 


•9 


StLuke'sdwellings,Wenlakebdgs(l905) 

Fart II. 
Cranley buildings (1897) 


496 


24,534 


1,840 


688 


47 


60 


3,767 


284 


109 


4-6 


Borough Road dwellings (1900) 


400 


29,014 


1,827 


730 


37 


Cobham buildings (1900) 


278 


15,107 


1,091 


410 


4-5 


Ann Street dwellings (1901-2)... 


630 


26,041 


1,914 


1,009 


3 '4 


Sylvia Cottages (1903) ... 


144 


6,053 


466 


188 


4-6 


Part III. 












Parker Street house (1893) 


345 


26,565 


3,302 


2,341 


3-6 


Carrington house (1903) 


802 


57,085 


4,967 


3,768 


2-1 


Dufferin Street dwellings (1892) 


174 


6,614 


598 


362 


35 


Green St. and Gun St. dwellings (1897) 


420 


24,934 


1,720 


660 


4-2 


Millbank estate (1899-1902) 


230 


12,318 


937 


347 


47 


Holmwood buildings (1900) 


72 


5,227 


367 


178 


37 


Totterdown Fields estate (1903-1905)... 


3.740 


199.853 


6,432 


2,479 


2-0 


Preston's Road estate {1904) 


1,035 


38,648 


1,509 


1,079 


i-o 


Hughes Fields dwellings (1904) 


440 


17,072 


999 


491 


2-9 


White Hart Lane estate, Sec. A (1904) 


1,004 


40,528 


1,739 


684 


2-6 


Wessex buildings (1904-5) 


1,050 


58,161 


2,756 


1,283 


2-5 


Improve.ment Acts. 












Battersea Bridge dwellings {1901) 


286 


17,054 


1,117 


465 


3-8 


Council buildings (1894) 


238 


17,041 


710 


385 


1-9 


Armitage and CoUerston cottages (1894 


464 


33,456 


1,259 


568 


2-0 


Idenden cottages (1896) 


400 


18,656 


1,058 


462 


3-2 


Cotton Street dwellings (1901) 


360 


14,168 


982 


560 


2-9 


Barnaby buildings (1904) 


400 


17,806 


1.371 


653 


4-0 


Durham buildings (1904) 


536 


27,001 


947 


585 


1-3 


Duke's Court dwellings (1902) 


152 


7,786 


597 


226 


47 


Russell Court dwellings (1903) 


97 


5,316 


378 


133 


4-6 


Herbrand Street dwellings (1904) 


680 


33,491 


2,719 


988 


5"i 


Bourne estate (1902-4) ... 


2,640 


186,131 


12,798 


4,406 


4-5 


Millbank estate ( I S99- 1902) 


2,664 


142,681 


11,254 


4,172 


4"9 


Swan Lane dwellings (1902-4) 


1,270 


60,356 


1,972 


1,290 


i"i 


Brightlingsea buildings (1904).. 


340 


13,664 


686 


397 


20 


Darcy buildings (1904) 


190 


9,701 


692 


280 


4-2 


Hughes Fields dwellings (1904) 


220 


8,536 


499 


245 


2-9 


TOTALS 


33677 


1,867,563 


119,785 


53,622 


3'6 



* These figures are arrived at by reckoning the sites in many cases at " housing valuation." If 
the actual cost of the land is charged, the capital outlay would have to be taken at about ;6i, 000,000 
more, and the net return on actual outlay would then be reduced to about 2 or 2J per cent. 



73 



A more detailed analysis of the outgoings of London County 
Council block dwellings, with 14,900 rooms, for the year ended March, 
1906, shows the amount and percentage of the total in respect of the 
various items as follows out of a gross rental of ^115,165 : — 



Rates and Taxes 
Actual Repairs ... 
Repairs Reserve 
Collection and Supervision 
Lighting, Heating, Water, 

and Insurance 
^■Empties 

Irrecoverable Arrears ... 
Caretakers' Quarters ... 







Amount per 


Rent per 


Total 


Percentage 


Room 


Room 


Amount. 


of Rent. 


per annum. 


per week. 


£ 




£ s. d. 


pence. 


21,000 


i8-2o 


I 10 


692 


8,050 


7"oo 


II 6 


2-65 


4,000 


3-50 


5 8 


I "3° 


5>75o 


5-00 


082 


I 90 


5>925 


5"i5 


8 5 


I 94 


8,.522 


7-40 


012 2 


2-8o 


158 


•14 


2| 


■05 


832 


•72 


I 2I 


•27 



Interest — 
Land . . . 
Buildings 



[1,172] ^ 



732 



4i'5o 



398 15-96 



Repayment of Loans — 

Land 1,475! r, . 

Buildings ... 8,401] 9' ' 

Surplus ... ... 2,320 

115. 165 



8*50 o 14 O 3"2I 



2 -J 



044 1. 00 



5 8 3/2 



*No less than ;i^5,924, or 70 per cent, of these empties, were in respect of Swan 
Lane, Preston Road, Wessex Buildings, and Durham Buildings, with only 14 per 
cent, of the accommodation. The normal amount for empties would seem to be 
nearer 3 per cent., or id. per room per week. 

These figures are very instructive, indicating as they do : — 

(a) The extremely large capital charges in respect of building, and therefore 
the vital importance of trying to reduce this item in all housing 
schemes. 

(6) The hea\-}- burden of rates and taxes amounting to 2/33 per week for a 
four-roomed house, or more than the total rent in many four-roomed 
houses in rural districts. 

{c) The unnecessarily heavy sum charged for repairs which enters into the 
basis of rateable value, and therefore increases the rates and taxes 
paid on the dwelling. 

Slum Sites and Housing Valuation. — Reference has been 
made on more than one occasion to the fact that it is the practice of 
many municipalities in connection with rehousing schemes, to charge 
to the dwellings account only the value put upon the sites by the 

DI 



74 

Council's valuer, instead of their actual cost. The vagaries that are 
possible under the present system are easily seen from a study of the 
comparative figures of the Brightlingsca Building site acquired for 
re-housing purposes. 

Cost of acquisition of Site ... ... ... 12,000 

Commercial value of Site ... ... ... 2,150 

Housing valuation ... .. ... ... 1,000 

Value charged to Housing Scheme ... nil 

Thus assuming the ordinary expenses of management, the rents 
should not be less than 3/8 per room per week to make a commercial 
profit, but they average only 2/2 per room, so the dwellings are 
subsidised to the extent of 1/6 per room per week. 

The Bourne Estate site cost ;^2o 1,000, and the buildings cost 
^142,131, or a total of ;!^343, 131 for 1,320 rooms, which are let at 
average rents of 3/9 per room per week, producing ;^i2,798 gross 
rental. Working expenses amount to ;^4,4o6 per annum, and loan 
charges, which are only ^6,863 when charging simply the housing 
valuation of ;^44,ooo for the site, ought to be ^12,700 if the full cost 
of clearance and rehousing is reckoned. This means that to pay all 
outgoings and to make a strictly commercial profit the rents ought to 
be ;^i 7, 106, or 5/- per room per week. Thus the already high rents 
are really subsidised to the extent of 1/3 per room per week. The net 
capital equivalent of this subsidy is ^157,000, or nearly ^60 for each 
person housed, and ^120 for each dwelling provided. 

Similarly the Boundary Street scheme was subsidised to the extent of 
^270,000, or at the rate of ;^63 for each person housed, and though 
the average rents are 3/3 per room per week, they ought to be 4/5 per 
room to be commercially profitable. 

The better plan would be to charge the dwellings with the whole 
cost of acquiring the site, and then to show the ratepayers and 
Parliament what a serious loss must result. If this had been done 
everywhere from the beginning, a reform of the law would have been 
inevitably secured long ago. 

PROPOSALS FOR REFORM OF THE HOUSING ACTS. 

The following proposals for amendment of the Housing Acts have 
been sent by the London County Council to the Local Government Board : 

(i) That the Council, having cleared an insanitary area and covered 
it with dwellings, shall not be compelled to sell it at the end of 
ten years. 

(2) That cleared sites useless for dwellings purposes may be sold or 

exchanged. 

(3) That the obligation to re-house displaced persons in the vicinity 

of the displacement shall be removed in favour of the provision 
of suitable sites in outlying districts. 



75 

(4) That the Corporation should be compelled to contribute towards 

the cost of clearing insanitary areas. 

(5) That the Council should not be liable for poor rate and land tax 

for cleared areas not built upon. 

(6) That loans for working class dwellings shall be spread over 

100 years. 

(7) That when a house becomes a public nuisance it shall be 

demolished. 

(8) That the Council's lodging-houses shall not pay inhabited house 

duty. 

(9) That private persons displacing any working class person should 

be liable to pay for the privilege. 

In connection with this last important proposal the Council 
recognise that it is out of the question to expect private persons to 
provide a housing scheme in the ordinary sense, and they therefore 
suggest an amendment of the law on the following lines : — 

(i.) That a fund be created to be called the " Purchase of Sites Fund," 
under the control of the local authority. 

(ii.) That the fund be used to defray only the difference (if any) between 
the actual cost of a site acquired, and its value for housing purposes. 

(iii.) That no person, body of persons, or authority shall hereafter be at 
liberty to displace any persons of the working class unless and until he or 
they shall have paid to the fund a sum equal to the difference between the 
commercial and the housing value of a site sufficient, in the opinion of 
the Local Government Board, for the provision of the required accommoda- 
tion within a reasonable distance of the displacement. 

(iv.) That any payment under (iii.) shall not liberate the person, body of 
persons, or authority from any obligation or condition requiring him or them 
to compensate each working-class tenant for the reasonable expenses of his 
removal. 

EIGHT USEFUL FACTS. 

1. The death rate in London has fallen thirty per cent, in the last 
17 years, and is now only i5"6 per 1,000, as compared with i8'3 in New 
York, i9'3 in Vienna, 2o"6 in Rome, and 25 in St. Petersburg. 

2. The extra lives saved in 1905, as compared even with 1 891-1900, 
number nearly 20,000. 

3. The phthisis death rate and measles death rate have declined by 

one-third ; epidemic disease death rate and whooping cough death rate 
have declined by one-half, and typhus has practically vanished since 
1890. 



76 

4- The death rate in the model dwellings on cleared slum areas is 
under 13 per 1,000, or one-third of what it was on the old slums before 
clearance, viz., 40 per i.ooo 

The interest and sinking fund charges on all the dwellings amount 
to 47'86 of the gross rental, and the working expenses to 40"23 percent. 

6. The occupations of the tenants vary as follows : — 



Labourers 


789 


Tailors ... 


155 


Packers 


97 


Clerks 


312 


Cabinet Makers 


146 


Engineers... 


87 


Policemen 


251 


Canvassers 


122 


Dressmakers 


41 


Shop Assistants 


202 


Cigarette Makers 


118 


Coachmen 


31 


Warehousemen 


183 


Widows 


116 


Motormen 


26 


Printers 


182 


Tram Drivers ... 


no 


Milliners ... 


19 


Charwomen ... 


182 


Postmen 


107 







7. The average rent of L.C.C. dwellings, including suburban estates, 
is 2/1 r per room, the average rent of new houses provided by other 
agencies 2/4 per room, but it is very misleading to compare these figures 
because the L.C.C. dwellings are mainly central and recent, whereas 
the others are less central and less recent. 

8. The total financial result on all dwellings and estates from the 
date of opening the first block in April, 1894, up to 31st March, 1906, 
shows that a sum of ;,^56,882 has been temporarily defrayed out of the 
rates, of which a sum of ^'17,798 has already been repaid out of 
revenue, leaving a net contribution from the rates of ^39,084, owing 
mainly to the fact that during the time the houses are being erected, 
and before any rent can be received for them, the expenditure is bearing 
interest but brings back no return. 

On the 31st March, 1906, however, there were credit balances in 
respect of dwellings in occupation as follows : — 

Sinking Fund accumulations ... ... 72,216 

Repairs and Renewals Fund accumulations 27,889 

or a total of ^100,105, so that except in respect of slum buying the 
dwellings have more than paid their way. 



77 



DWELLINGS ERECTED BY THE LONDON COUNTY 

COUNCIL. 





ui 






1 


K c ^ c 




District, Situation, 

and 
Date of Erection. 


•of 

Q 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 

of 
Site. 


Cost of Sit 

(aj Housi 

Valuatioi 

(<5)ActualC 


Cost 

per 

Room 










£ 




£ 


£ 


Battersea, S.W. 














Battersea Bridge \ lO 


One 


5/0 


15.704 


— 


1,350 


109 B 


Buildings, Bridge ' 44 


Two 


6/0 to 7/6 








loS 


Road (1901) ' 15 


Three 


8/0 to 9/0 










*Durham Buildings,! 56 


Two 


4/6 to 6/0 


24,621 


_ 


2,380 


92 B 


York Road (1904) 52 


Three 


7/0 to 8/0 








9S 


Bermondsey, S.E, 














♦ Barnaby Buildings 40 


Two 


5/6 to 6/0 


16,374 


— 


1,432 


82 B 


Leroy Street (1904) 40 


Three 


7/6 to 8/0 








7 


♦Swan Lane, 135 


Two 


5/0 to 5/6 


55,356 





5,000 


87 B 


Rotherhithe 115 


Three 


7/0 to 8/0 








88 


(1902-4) 1 5 


Four 


8/6 to 9/0 










Bethnal Green, E 














Boundary Street 15 


One 


3/6 


275,526 


15 


62,710 


103 B 


Estate (1895-1900)533 


Two 


5/6 to 8/0 




acres 




23 S 


388 


Three 


7/6 to 10/6 












98 


Four 


9/6 to 12/6 












7 


Five 


12/0 to 13/0 












3 


Six 


14/0 to 14/6 












103 


Work- 
shops 












Clerkenwell, E.G. 
















*Mallory Buildings, 


I 


One 


5/0 


9,900 




2,120 




S. John St., E C. 


15 


Two 


6/0 to 7/0 










(1906) 


17 


Three 


8/6 to 9/6 










Deptford, S.E. 
















♦ Raleigh, Drake, 


38 


Two 


5/0 to 5/6 


24,325 


— 


1,283 


74 B 


and Ben bow 


74 


Three 


6/0 to 6/6 








4S 


Buildings, Hughes' 


8 


Four 


7/6 










Fields (1904) 
















♦Sylvia Cottages, 


24 


Three 


7/6 


5,053 





1,000 


70 B 


Brookmill Road 














14 s 


(1902-3) 
















Jinsbury, E.G. 
















Costerniongers' 


29 


One 


2/3 to 2/9 


4,714 


— 


1,900 


54 B 


Dwellings, 


23 


Two 


4/6 to 5/0 








22 S 


Dufferin Street, 


4 


Three 


6/6 to 7/0 










S. Luke's (adapted 


12 


Sheds 


I/O 










1892) 


12 


Stables 


1/6 










♦ Wenlake Buildings 


25 


Two 


6/6 to 7/0 


19,534 


_ 


5,000 


80 B 


Ruby Street, 


46 


Three 


8/6 to 9/6 








20 S 


S. Luke's (1905) 


15 


Four 


1 0/0 to 10/6 











78 



DWELLINGS ERECTED BY THE LONDON COUNTY 
COU'NClh.—Condmied. 



District, Situation, 

and 
Date of Erection. 


_c 

Q 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 

of 

Site. 


Cost of Site.* 

(a) Housing 

Valuation. 

((5)Actual Cost 


Cost 

per 

Room. 










£ 




£ 


£ 


Greenwich, S.E. 
















East Greenwich 


30 


Two 


5/0 


32,308 


— 


1,148 


139 B 


Cottages, Black- 


20 


Three 


6/0 to 6/6 








5S 


wall Lane (1894) 


28 


Four 


8/0 to 8/6 










Hardy Cottages, 


51 


Three 


6/6 to 7/6 


12,298 


f acre 


1,000 


81 B 


East Street, 












(17,535) 


7S 


Trafalgar Road 
















(1901) 
















Hughes' Field 


71 


Two 


5/0 to 5/6 


35,756 


4i 


3,720 


107 B 


Cottages (1895) 


61 


Three 


6/3 to 6/6 




acres 


(83,793)! II s 




• 2 


Four 


7/6 






t 




Idenden Cottages, 


SO 


Four 


8/6 to 9/0 


17,156 


— 


1.500 


85 B 


Tunnel Avenue 














8 S 


(1896) 
















Hackney, N.E- 
















*Darcy liuiklings, 


25 


Two 


6/0 to 6/6 


9,701 


— 


— 


— 


London Fields 


15 


Three 


8/0 to 8/6 










(1904) 
















*Valette Buildings, 


39 


Two 


6/6 to 7/0 


18,160 





3,000 


87 B 


Mare Street (1905) 


34 
7 


Three 
Four 


8/6 to 9/0 
10/6 










Holborn 
















Cranley Buildings, 


6 


Two 


8/0 


3,017 


1/5 


750 


100 B 


Brooke's Market 


6 


Three 


10/6 




acre 


(8,018) 


25 s 


(1897) 
















^Bourne Estate, 


16 


One 


4/6 to 6/0 


142,132 


2S 


44,000 


102 B 


Clerkenwell Road 


306 


Two 


7/6 to 8/6 




acres 


(201,000) 


32 S 


(19C2-4) 


167 
48 
23 


Three 

Four 
Shops 


9/6 to ii/o 
ii/o to 13/0 
4/6 to 6/0 






t 




*Herbrand Street, 


20 


One 


3/6 to 4/0 


26,491 


— 


7,000 


78 B 


Russell Square 


240 


Two 


6/0 to 6/6 








20 S 


(1904) 


120 


Three 


8/0 to 8/6 










Shelton Street, 


3 


One 


3/6 to 4/0 


19,292 


I 1/5 


5,100 


III B 


Drury Lane (1896) 


45 


Two 


6/6 to 8/0 




acres 


(68,419) 


29 S 




II 


Three 


9/0 






t 






4 


Four 


ii/o to 1 1/6 












21 


Work- 
shops 


4/0 to 6/0 










Islington, N. 
















*Wessex IJuildings, 


5 


One 


4/0 to 4/6 


45,661 


— 


12,500 


87 B 


Wedmore Street, 


140 


Two 


5/6 to 7/0 








24 S 


HoUoway (1904) 


80 


Three 


8/0 to 9/0 











79 

DWELLINGS ERECTED BY THE LONDON COUNTY 
CO\]l<iC\'L. — Contin2ied. 



District, Situation, 

and 
Date of Erection. 


c 


Rooms 


Rent per Cost of 


Area 

of 

Site. 


Site.* 
using 
tion. 
a.1 Cost 


Cost 


c^ 
2 ^ 


in each. 


Week. Building. 


tof 
Ho 
alua 
.ctu; 


per 
Room 




Q 










1 












£ 


i £ 


£ 


Lambeth, S.W. 
















:+: Lennox Buildings, 


3 


One 


5/6 to 6/0 




— 


739 





Wandsworth Road 


17 


Two 


6/0 to 6/6 










(1905) 


20 


Three 


8/0 to 8/6 


-11,608 








^Clere Cottages, 


7 


Three 


8/6 










Wandsworth Road 
















(1905) 
















Poplar, E. 
















Adelaide Buildings 


25 


Two 


5/0 to 6/0 


' 








Ann Street (1901) 


15 


Three 


7/0 to 7/6 


















I 23,781 


facre! 2,260 


76 B 


3(<:Melbourne and 


65 


Two 


5/0 to 6/0 








7 S 


Sydney Buildings, 


30 


Three 


7/0 to 7/6 










Ann Street (1902) 








J 








Cotton Street 


30 


Two 


5/6 


12,768 


— '• 1,400 


71 B 


(1901) 


40 


Three 


7/6 to 8/0 




; 


8 S 


Council Buildings, 


30 


Two 


5/0 to 5/9 


16,420 


— 


621 


136 B 


Raleana Road 


20 


Three 


6/6 to 7/6 








6 S 


(1894) 
















*Preston's Road 


140 


Two 


4/6 to 5/0 


44.435 


— 


6,950 


70 B 


(1904) 


124 


Three 


6/6 to 8/0 








ir S 


Shoreditch, E. 
















Goldsmith's Row 


8 


Two 


5/6 


7,129 


— 


1,000 


99 B 


Cottages, Hackney 


12 


Three 


7/6 to 8/6 








14 S 


Road (1895) 


5 


Four 


1 0/0 










St.Pancras,N.W. 
















Church way Estate, 


2 


One 


4/6 to 5/0 


39,127 


2 acres 


8,550 


94 B 


Seymour Street 


124 


Two 


7/0 to 8/0 








21 S 


(1901-2) 


50 
4 


Three 
Four 


9/6 to 12/6 

1 1/6 










Southwark, S,E, 
















Borough Road 


52 


Two 


6/0 to 8/0 


24,014 


' 


5,000 


120 B 


Dwellings (1900) 


32 


Three 


9/6 to I 0/0 




.1* 
i acres 




25 s 


Cobham Buildings, 


40 


Two 


6/0 to 6/6 


13.007 


1 


2,100 


93 B 


Pocock Street, 


20 


Three 


8/6 to 9/0 








15 s 


Blackfriars Road 
















(1900) 
















Green Street and 


13 


One 


4/6 to 5/0 


21,075 


^acre 


3,860 


100 B 


Gun Street, Black- 


71 


Two 


6/6 to 7/0 








20 S 


friars (1897) 


18 
8 


Three 
Sheds 


8/6 
6d. 










Holmwood Build- 


12 


Two 


8/6 to 9/0 


4,777 


— 


450 


133 B 


ings, 97, Southwark 


4 


Three 


12/6 








13 s 


Street (1900) 

















8o 



DWELLINGS ERECTED BY THE LONDON COUNTY 
COUNCIL. — Contimied. 



District, Situation, 

and 
Date of Erection. 


P 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building. 


Area 

of 

Site. 


Cost of Site.* 

[a) Housing 

Valuation. 

((5)Actual Cost 


Cost 

per 

Room. 










£ 




£ 


£ 


Stepney, E. 
















:+Brightlingsea 


5 


One 


3/6 to 4/0 


13,665 


■ — 


1,360 


81 B 


Buildings, Narrow 


20 


Two 


5/0 to 5/6 








8 


Street (1904) 


35 
5 


Three 
Four 


7/0 to 7/6 
8/6 to 9/0 










Beachcroft Build- 


20 


Two 


5/6 


11,736 


I acre 


1,200 


117 B 


ings, Brook Street 


20 


Three 


7/0 to 7/6 








12 S 


(1894) 
















Cranford Cottages, 


18 


Three 


8/6 to 9/0 


4,397 


— 


600 


80 B 


Brook Street( 1900) 














12 S 


Cable Street, 


20 


One 


4/6 to 5/0 


37,592 


i\ 


3,660 


94 B 


.Shad well (1896- 


100 


Two 


5/6 to 6/6 




acres 


(40,516) 


9S 


1901) 


60 


Three 


7/6 






t 




*Westininster,SW 
















*Dukes Court, 


10 


One 


4/0 


25,548 


Part of 


5,600 


84 B 


+Drury Lane (1902) 


75 


Two 


6/6 




Clare 




18 S 




35 


Three 


8/6 




Market 








10 


Four 


(0/6 




site 






^Siddons and Stir- 


10 


One 


4/6 


17,267 


5-23 


4,000 


89 B 


ling Buildings, 


30 


Two 


6/6 




acres 




21 S 


*Russell Court, 


35 


Three 


8/6 










*Drury Lane (1903) 


5 


Four 


10/6 










Millbank Estate 


2 


One 


3/6 


202,927 


8 acres 


44,340 


92 B 


(1899-1902) 


485 

392 

16 

I 


Two 
Three 

Four 
Five 


6/6 to 8/6 
8/6 to 10/6 
12/0 to 13/0 
12/6 








20 S 


*Croydon (Surrey) 
















♦Norbury Estate, 


6 


Four 


S/6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Palmers Road 


2 


Five 


ii/o 










(1906) 
















*Tottenliam, N. 
















*White Hart Lane, 


81 


Three 


5/0 to 6/0 


38,018 


5 acres 


2,510 


75 B 


Lordship Lane 


40 


Four 


6/3 to 6/6 








5S 


(1904) 


20 


Five 


7/6 to 8/0 










*Wands worth, SW 
















JttToitcrdovvn Fields 


32 


Two 


6/0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Upper Tooting 


241 


Three 


6/6 to 8/0 










Road, Tooting 


76 


Four 


8/0 to 10/6 










(I903-.5) 


"5 


Five 


9/6 to 13/0 




i 





t Actual cost of area in Brackets und rneath. 

* New dwellings built in the four years since the preparation of the tables in 

Housing Handbook pp. 8j — 84. 



HOUSING IN THE CITY. 

The City Corporation has not erected any artisans' dwellings under 
the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, but it has put up three 
blocks of dwellings under other powers and one voluntarily, the costs 
being paid out of the city's fund. 

The buildings erected under the Artisans' and Labourers' Act are 
situated on a site in Stoney Lane, Middlesex Street, which was cleared 
between 1877-1879. The site covers 79,198ft., or nearly two acres, 
and five separate blocks of dwellings have been erected, at a total cost 
of ;^2oi,4i5. Each of the blocks is five storeys high, counting the 
ground floor, and altogether they contain 241 tenements. Under two 
of the blocks are 20 shops, with 34 rooms at the rear, and this brings 
the total number of habitable rooms, exclusive of the shops, up to 535. 
The rents are as follows : — Large shop, with one room, 28/- per week ; 
shop, with two rooms, 25/-; small shop, with one room, 16/- ; shop and 
basement, 13/-; small shop and basement, 10/-; three-room tenements, 
8/6 to 9/- per week ; two-room tenements, from 6/- to 7/6 per 
week; and one-room tenements, 4/- per week. Rentals in 1905 
amounted to ^5,930, against an expenditure of ;^5,4io, including 
;^2,933 interest on loan. There was thus a balance of ^223 in favour 
of the account. 

Tower Bridge buildings, in Dockhead, were taken on lease by the 
Corporation for 25 years. They are of the model dwelling style, and 
comprise basement, ground, and four floors. The area of the site is 
approximately 6,830 square feet, the buildings covering about 4,720 
square feet. Excluding the shops on the ground floor, the dwellings 
consist of 70 rooms, divided into 31 suites of one, two, and three 
rooms, providing accommodation for about 30 families. The weekly 
rents range from 9/6 to 3/6. The rents for the year 1905 
amounted to ^875, and the outgoings to ;£i,o']b 13s. lod., leaving a 
deficit of ^314 OS. 4d. to be made up from the funds of the Bridge 
House Estates. These are about the average figures. 

Viaduct Buildings stand on a site which, with a covered yard, is 
8,400 square feet. They are four floors high, including the ground 
floor, and contain 40 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery w.c, etc, 
and one bedroom. The number of persons occupying the dwellings is 
178. The total rentals for 1905 amounted to ;^784, the rents charged 
ranging from 8/6 to 6/- per week. 

The dwellings erected voluntarily by the Corporation, in Farringdon 
Road, were built in 1865, at a cost of ^54,568, and extended in 1880, 
at a cost ot ;^5, 199. The area of the site is about 26,800ft. super. The 
buildings are six floors high, including ground floor, and contain twelve 
shops, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, etc, and two bedrooms; 84 
dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, etc., and two bedrooms ; 
and 84 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, etc., and one bed- 
room. The total number of persons accommodated is 833. The rents 
per set of rooms range from 4s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. per week, and the total 
rentals for 1905 amounted to ^3,892. 



82 



METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS. 

Battersea. — -The Council has built, by direct labour, tenements 
and houses, on the Latchmere Estate, for 315 families of the working 
classes. Each house or tenement is self-contained, is wired for electric 
light, id. in the slot at 4d. per unit, and is provided with combined 
food cupboard and dresser, and ample shelving, with patent combined 
kitchen-range, copper, bath arrangements, and back garden. The walls 
are of hard stock bricks, the fronts faced with picked stocks, with red 
hard courses and quoins to the windows. The roofs are of Welsh 
slate, capped with red tiles. Wages paid by the Council were : — 
Plumbers and plasterers, rid. per hour; carpenters, bricklayers, 
electricians, and masons, lo^d. per hour; lathers and painters, gd. per 
hour ; scaffolders, 8d. per hour ; labourers and watchmen, j^d. per 
hour. Forty-eight hours was a week's work. The price of the building 
worked out at under yd. per foot cube, or ^78 per room, not counting 
the bathroom-scullery, with an area of 75 square feet. The houses 
are supplied with water by an artesian well, 456 feet deep, sunk on the 
estate. The average cost of electric light to the tenants is ifd. per 
night in winter, and fd. in summer. Streets and buildings cover nearly 
eight acres, while nearly four acres are reserved for a recreation ground. 

On the Town Hall Estate there are 14 houses containing two three- 
room tenements each, and four houses containing two two-room tene- 
ments each, fitted up similar to those on the Latchmere Estate. Wood 
block flooring, however, is provided on the ground floors. The last 
financial returns were as follows : Latchmere Estate — receipts ;^7,405 ; 
expenditure (including interest and repayment of loans) ^7,503, deficit 
;^98. Toiv7i Hall Estate — receipts ^760, expenses ^851, deficit ^91. 
When the repayments are balanced against this the result is that they 
may reasonably claim to be self-supporting. The houses are divided 
into three distinct types, viz., four-room tenements, three-room tene- 
ments, and five-room houses. The height of all rooms is 8ft. Qin. clear, 
and each tenement has its own separate entrance and back garden. 



L. R. denotes Living Room. 



Bed Room. 
Scullery. 
Passage. 
Bath. 
Coals. 
Food Cupboard. 
Area in Feet. 




rouR 

ROOMED 
TENEMENTS 










C. 
F. 

Figures 



^n- 



5CALE 
20 as 



» so ree^ 

Battersea Cottage Flats — Latchmere Estate. 

Four-roomed tenements (see tables following). 



Bermondsey. — The Borough Council, under Part II of the 
Housing Act, 1S90, has erected four blocks of model dwellings capable 
of accommodating 980 persons in 490 rooms, on the Fulford Street 
and Braddon Street area. These dwellings were constructed from 
competitive designs, adjudicated upon by the Vice President of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects. They are on the balcony 
system, and cost ;^83 per room, or Sfd. per foot cube. 

Camberwell. — Two schemes are being carried out by the 
Council under Part III, one in Camberwell which is described 
elsewhere, for reconstructing an insanitary area [sec. 59 (2) (3)], and the 
other in Grove Vale, Dulwich, for providing new dwellings under 
sec. 59 (i). 

Ttiere a plot of land, about eight acres in extent, has been 
purchased for p/^5,400, after setting aside a proportion for public im- 
provements. Ninety-five houses have been erected to accommodate 
183 tenements. The scheme is completed, and the total cost of the 
site and houses is over ^60,000. This estate is quite self-supporting, 
after setting aside the unnecessarily liberal proportion for repairs fund 
as required by the London County Council. 

The financial results show a surplus at March, 1906, of ;^82 iis. 
after paying all working expenses, with interest and repayment of loans 
and a sum of ^554 in respect of loan charges and contributions to a 
repairs fund while the buildings were in course of erection and pro- 
ducing no income. Empties last year were ^2 17s. yd., and arrears 
nil on a rental of ^4,798. The estimated gross profit for the year 
ended March, 1907, is ^3,492 — sufficient to pay ^1,478 in rates and 
all the above charges, and to give a surplus of ^659. In a special 
report on this subject the Borough Accountant shows that the repairs 
fund already contains ^1,300, and that the accumulated surpluses of 
this Dulwich scheme will amount to ^4,474 in 19 14-15, thus almost 
paying for the deficit on the acquisition and improvement ot the 
Hollington Street area. 

The total outlay of the Council on all its housing schemes is about 

;^I20,000. 

Chelsea. — -The Council bought Onslow dwellings in 1901, and in 
Beaufort Street, near Battersea Bridge, also purchased, about four 
years ago, a cleared site, some i'6 acres in extent, and has erected 
artisans' dwellings thereon. These dwellings consist of five blocks of 
six-storied houses, known as Sir Thomas More Buildings, and contain 
262 tenements, with 583 rooms, costing ^89 or 8fd. per foot cube. 
A drying room, day and night hot water supply, including boiling 
water for kettles, and eight bath rooms are also provided. All 
partitions are of fire-proof material 2^ inches thick, and the walls are 
finished with distemper. The floor area is 239 square feet for one-room, 
380 square feet for two-room, and 538 square feet for three-room 
tenements. In 1905-6 the Council erected Pond House upon the site 
of Nos. 21-23, Pond Place. 

Hackney. — The erection of tenement dwellings in Urswick Road 
at an estimated cost of ^21,000 is under consideration. 



84 

Hammersmith. — In November, 1903, three blocks of eight 
tenements for 24 famiUes were opened in Yeldham Road. The rooms 
are hghted by electricity from the adjacent works. The buildings, the 
total cost of which was ;^5,5oo, were built on vacant land. 

Hampstead. — A site was acquired in Lower Cross Road, at the 
corner of Upper Park Road, and three blocks of dwellings, with 
accommodation for about 250 people, have been completed and are 
occupied. The sets of rooms are self-contained, each having its own 
scullery, water closets, etc. 

St. Marylebone. — The London County Council sanctioned a 
loan of ;^i2,265 for the buildings on the condition that the Borough 
Council set aside ^103 a year as a repairs fund. The buildings were 
completed in March, 1905. They consist of seven stories in red 
Ibstock facings, relieved with picked Fletton bricks, which are largely 
used throughout, and set in Portland cement mortar. The back part 
of the roof is flat and used as a drying ground. Entrance halls, 
corridors, staircases, landings, and wash-houses, are of glazed brick- 
work from floor to ceiling. There are two wash-houses, each with two 
washing troughs on each floor, with dust galleries for sanitary dustbins 
between. There were very many more applicants than tenements. The 
Improvements and Housing Committees submitted a scheme, under 
Part II, in relation to an area known as the Devonshire Place area, 
but owing to various circumstances it has not yet been proceeded with. 

St. Pancras. — The London County Council, under Part I of the 
Housing Act, has cleared the area known as Churchway, and erected 
model dwellings thereon. The Borough Council, under Part II, 
proposes to deal with four other areas — the Brantome Place, Prospect 
Terrace, Chapel Grove and Eastnor Place areas. Brantome Place 
area has recently been demolished. Prospect Terrace area is about to 
be demolished. It is proposed to erect model dwellings in both areas, 
which will re house 520 persons — 320 in Brantome Place and 200 in 
Prospect Terrace. This, however, will not re-house the whole of those 
displaced, and to provide for the surplus the Council has erected 
working-class dwellings in Great College Street. The site extends to 
15,404ft., and the buildings accommodate 332 persons. Each tenement 
is self-contained, having its own wash-house, copper, and sanitary 
conveniences, and a small covered balcony on which a dustbin stands. 
The contract for the erection of the buildings amounted to ^17,734, 
but to this must be added the cost of the site — -viz., ^6,500. Model 
dwellings are also proposed to be constructed on Chapel Grove and 
Eastnor Place areas. In the first case accommodation will be provided 
for 400 persons in the place of 501 who will be displaced by the 
execution of the scheme, while in the latter case, 100 persons will be 
re-housed, 189 being displaced. 

Shoreditch. — The Shoreditch Vestry cleared a large insanitary 
area in Moira Place, displacing 533 persons. Artisans' dwellings were 
erected in 1899, capable of re-housing 400 people, and further blocks 
of dwellings, with shops, have been erected for another 148 persons. 
Under Part III of the Act the Council has also purchased an estate at 
Haggerston, and intends developing it for housing purposes. 



85 

Stepney — Two schemes under Part II were inaugurated by the 
late Limehouse Board of Works, the sites being practically cleared 
before the Council came into existence. The Queen Catherine Court 
scheme was sanctioned at the end of 1893. The number of persons 
displaced was 133. The area of the whole site is about 9,000 super, 
feet, and a block of dwellings (" Edward Mann Buildings ") has been 
erected on 6,000 super, feet, and the remainder of the site has been let 
as a store. These dwellings accommodate 128 persons. The Council 
has also purchased under the provisions of Part III of the Housing of 
the Working Classes Act 1890, seven private houses adjoining the area 
in Dorset Street and Brunswick Place, which the Council let as 
workmen's dwellings. 

Westminster. — The Westminster City Council purchased a site 
from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, with a frontage to Regency 
Street of 305 feet, to Page Street of 175 feet, and to Vincent Street of 
228 feet, containing a superficial area of nearly i| acres. Three 
parallel blocks, known as Norfolk House, Probyn House, and Jessel 
House, have been built, six storeys in height, including half-basement 
and attic storeys. There are two roadways, or playgrounds, 40 feet 
wide between the blocks, at the ends of which arcading has been 
constructed to connect the buildings, so as to form continuous and 
artistic frontages. The buildings house about 1,600 persons, there 
being 793 rooms divided into 342 tenements. The rents include 
chimney sweeping and the free use of Venetian blinds, baths and hot 
water supplies, and drying room. The cost of the land and buildings 
has been approximately ;^95,ooo, or about ^^5,000 less than the 
architects' original estimate, and the rents are adjusted to a scale that 
will, after providing for a sinking fund to repay the total outlay on the 
buildings in 60 years, and on the land in 80 years, give a net return on 
the expenditure of 3I per cent, per annum. The scheme is therefore 
self-supporting, ample provision having been made for all outgoings. 
The dwellings are occupied only by members of the working classes 
principally employed at limited wages, within the City of Westminster. 
The one, two, and three-room tenements are on the associated 
principle, but the four-roomed are self contained. The elevations are 
faced with red Leicester bricks, relieved with artificial stone dressmgs 
of a pale buff tint, while carved cement ornament has been introduced 
with good effect. The landings and staircases have dados of white 
tiles with borders of blue tiles in relief, and ornamental panelled 
balusters have been used instead of plain bars. Each living room has 
a dresser and shelves, a self-setting close range, with removable oven, 
a cupboard in two parts, ventilated at the top for food, and arranged 
as a coal bunker below. Each bedroom has a stove and a clothes 
cupboard. The windows have special arrangements for affording 
ventilation when closed, and there are ventilating fanlights over the 
doors of the tenements. Gas for lighting and cooking is supplied on 
the penny in the slot system. On every landing there are sinks and 
taps, besides a laundry fitted with boiler and washing trough, of which 
each tenant has the exclusive use for one day. There are nine bath- 



86 



rooms on the basement of Jessel House, free to tenants at separate 
times for males and females. Hot water can be obtained at all times, 
day and night, from taps on the areas, while in an urn room are copper 
kettles, from which boiling water will be served at breakfast and tea times. 
There are, in addition, workshops, a drying room, free of charge, and 
lock-up sheds for cycles and perambulators, at 2d. or id. per week. 

In July, 1906, there were opened the City of Westminster Dwellings, 
Marshall Street, Golden Square, W The building is five storeys in height, 
and has a total of 20 tenements, containing 50 rooms. The rents are 
higher than in Regency Street, owing to the increased value of the land. 




Westminster Block Dwellings — Regency Street, 

Associated, Single, and Two-room Tenements. Rents, 




THREE 

ROOMED 

TEMEMEJiTS 



Battersea Cottage Flats — Latchmere Estate. 

Three-room tenements (see under Battersea and tables following) 




L.R. denotes Living Room. 



B.R. ,, 


Bedroom. 


Sy. 


Scullery. 


P- 


Passage. 


B. 


Bath. 


c. 


Coals. 


D. 


Dresser. 


F. 


Food Cupboard 


Figures ,, 


Area in feet. 



8? 



DWELLINGS ERECTED BY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH 

COUNCILS. 











Cost of 


. 1 




Situation and 
Date of Erection. 


No. 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Building 

and other 

Works. 


Aiea 

of 
Site. 


Cost of 

Site. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 


*Battersea 






£ 




£ 


£ 


Latchniere Estate 


69 


Three 


7/6 










Cottage Flats 


69 
73 


Three 
Four 


7/6 
1 0/0 






Land, 


85 




73 


Four 


10/6 


.98,303 
Ss. I id. 


7 acres 
I rood 


Corpo- 
rate Pro- 


4R 


Latchniere Estate 


2 


Three 


7/6 


284 pis 


perty, 


89 


Cottages 


I 
28 


Four 
Five 


1 0/0 
1 1/6 






4,142 
Road 




Town Hall Estate 


4 


Two 


6/6 11,421 


4 acre 


Ditto, 


114 


Cottage Flats 


4 


Two 


6/6 




319 






14 


Three 


8/6 




Footpath 






14 


Three 


8/6 








*Camberwell 






1 








HoUington Street, 


243 


Two 


4/6 "1 Adap- 




Varied 




230 houses in slum 


56 


Three 


6/6 j 1 ted 


5i 


Tenures, 




remodelled and 


67 


Four 


8/6 j 45 per 


acres 


3.500 




adapted into 370 


4 


Five 


10/0 J house 




Road 




dwellings 














Grove Vale 


86 

88 

6 

I 


Three 

Four 

Five 


1 0/0 
ii/o 
14/6 
20/0 


[46,902 


6i 
acres 


5,540 s 

5,597 R 


73B 
17SR 

90 


*Bermondsey 
















Fulford Street and 


25 


One 


3/6 


42,082 


5,000 


36,780 


86 B 


Braddon Street 


165 


Two 


5/6 to 6/0 




sq.yds. 




75 S 




45 


Three 


7/6 to 8/0 








*Chelsea 






1 








Onslow Dwellings, 


45 


Two 


4/6 to 5/0 


Already 


I acre 


Land and 


66 


Pond Place 


63 


Three 


5/6 to 6/0 


built 


4,779 
sq.yds. 


Build'ngs 
^18,350 




Sir Thomas More 


37 


One 


3/6 to 4/0 


51.704 


13/5 


CI 2, 500 


89BR 


Bu Idings, Beau- 


130 


Two 


6/0 to 7/0 


inclusive 


acres 




22 S 


fort Street 


94 


Three 


8/6 to 9/6 








III 


Pond Houje, 


8 


Two 


7/6 


8,372 


1/5 


^2,300 


95 B 


Pond Place 


24 


Three 


9/6 to 10/6 I 


acre 




24 S 


*Hammersmith 












119 


Veldhani I^oad 


12 


Three 


6/6 to 7/0 5,684 


640 


240 in- 


65 B 


(1903) 


12 


Four 


8/9 to 9/0 


6s. 8d. 


sq.yds. 


clusive 


3S 


*Hampstead 


















12 


Two 


6/6 to 6/9 


11,496 


I rood 


1,296 in- 


93 B 




20 


Three 


9/0 




17 pis. 


clusive 


10 S 




10 


Four 


1 1/6 








103 



DWELLINGS ERECTED BY METROPOLITAN BOROUGH 
COUNCILS.— ConHnued. 



Situation and 
Date of Erection. 


No. 


Rooms 
in each. 


Rent per 
Week. 


Cost of 
Building 
and other 

Works. 


Area 

of 
Site. 


Cost of 
Site. 


Cost 

per 

Room. 










I 




£ 


£ 


Slioreditcli 
















Moira I'lace 


36 


Two 


6/6 


18,386 


li 


4,420 


91 B 




62 


Three 


8/6 




acres 




22 S 
"3 


*S. Marylebone 
















John Street Dwel- 


18 


Oi:e 




12,265 


1,045 


7,400 


128B 


lings (1905) 


24 
10 


Two 
Three 






sq.yds. 




80SR 


*S. Pancras 
















Great College 


2 


One 


5/0 


17,618 


948 


6,500 


106 B 


Street 


2 


Two 


7/0 to 8/0 


8s. 4d. 


sq.yds. 


inclusive 


39 




48 


Three 


9/6 to 12/0 












4 


Four 


12/0 to 15/0 








145 


*Stepney 
















Edward Mann 


II 


Two 


6/0 to 7/0 


5.639 


641 


^51 


85 B 


Buildings, Dorset 


14 


Three 


7/0 to 8/0 


3s. 9d. 


sq.yds. 




13 s 


Sireet, Ratcliffe 
















(1903) 














98 


Potter Dwellings, 


15 


Two 


6/0 


5.974 


918 


^1,110 


90 B 


3, Colt Street, and 


12 


Three 


7/6 


6s. 4d. 


sq.yd.s. 




17 s 


Limehouse Cause- 

















way, Limehouse 














107 


(1904) 
















Nos. 25, 27, and 


^ 3 


Four 


6/6 and 7/6 


450 in- 


133 


408 


— 


29, Dorset Street 








clusive 


sq.yds. 






(1904) 
















and Nos. 3, 4, 5, 


4 


Four 


7/6 


450 in- 


170 


408 




and 6, Brunswick 


. 






clusive 


sq.yds. 






Place, Ratcliffe. 
















Houses purchased 
















(under Part III. 
















Housing Act) May 
















1904 


^ 














*WestniiTister 
















Norfolk House, 


44 


One 


3/0 to 4 '3 


63,000 


ih 


32,000 


79 B 


Probyn House, and 


159 


Two 


6/0 to 7/0 




acres 




41 


Jessel House, 


126 


Three 


8/6 to 9/6 










Regency Street, 


14 


Four 


1 1/6 to 12/6 








120 


Westminster 
















Golden .Square, 


10 


Two 


8/0 to 8/6 


4,600 


356 


2,700 


92 B 


Marshall Sireet 


10 


Three 


ii/o to 1 1/6 




sq.yds. 




54 
146 


^Woolwich 
















Manorway 


25 


Four^ 


8/0 to ii/o 


8,480 


- 


— 


8s B 


Cottages 

















c Roads and Sewers included in Biiildiii!^ Cost. d Housing Valuation. 

* New dwellings built in (he four years since the preparation of the tables in 

Housing Handbook, pp. 8j — 84. 



CHAPTER V. 

MUNICIPAL HOUSING IN 
THE PROVINCES. 

This chapter co7isists of two parts (i) Short alphabetical notes on 
various towns j (2) Fuller particulars as to Bir/nin^haiii^ Glasgow, 
Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, and Sheffield Cheap Municipal Cottages. 

Altrincham, Bangor, Exeter, Guildford, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath, 
Prescot, Stretford and Sheffield are dealt with in Chapter VIII. 

I.— SPECIAL NOTES AND GENERAL 
INFORMATION. 

Aberavon. — A scheme prepared for 24 houses at 6s. per week, 
costing ^165 each for building and ^322 for the site, has been strongly 
opposed by various " interests." 

Bath. — Dolemeads Dwellings have been erected in a low-lying 
district on the river level. There are 42 houses erected on what was 
formerly a very unhealthy district, being subject to serious fioods 
occasionally. The site has, at a cost of about ^S,ooo, been raised above 
flood level. The rents are collected weekly, no arrears being 
allowed, and although somewhat costly a vast improvement has been 
effected. The Council has approved of a further outlay of _;^8,ooo in 
this district, upon similar dwellings and street widening. 

Barnes. — " The houses are all tenanted and continue to be 
extremely popular. They involve no charge on the rates." {Report 
M.O.H.) 

Birkenhead. — It is proposed to acquire 1,798 yards of land for 
;^i,573, and pay ^1,138 for a portion of this as a site for new muni- 
cipal houses. 

Bradford. — A committee has been formed to work on the lines of 
Miss Octavia Hill. Sixty-six workmen's dwellings, as an instalment 
towards the provision of accommodation at a distance for the persons 
to be displaced from an insanitary area, have been built and occupied. 
The cost per house is : Land ^28 iis. 6d., buildings ^183 os. 6d., 
streets and sewers ^28 8s., establishment charges ^7 4s., or a total of 
;^247 4s. Building cost per foot cube 4W.; rents 5/6. Plans for 
tenements in the Longlands District are before the Local Government 
Board. The cottages have two fioors and an attic. 

Brighton. — Some of the cleared area was sold under a condition 
that working class dwellings should be erected. Thirty cottages and 
ten double tenements have been thus provided by private enterprise. 



90 

Carlisle.— Receipts from dwellings ^135, working expenses ^73, 
net return ^62 towards loan charges. 

Chester. — Agreed to build on Corporation land the following 
additional houses : 8 one-bedroom houses at 2/6 per week instead of 
2/9 ; 16 two-bedroom houses at 3/3 per week instead of 4/7 ; 4 three- 
bedroom houses at 3/6 per week instead of 5/7^ — the difference 
being contributed by the rates, provided it does not exceed the amount 
of the annual contribution to the sinking fund. Half the tenants of 
the twelve existing cottages earn under ^i a week, and the other half 
under 25/- a week. 

Croydon. — Eighty-six cottages have already been erected on land 
at Woodside, and a scheme is being prepared for utilising additional 
land purchased at a cost of ^4,550. The cost per foot cube was 7d., 
and the relative sizes are : Class A, 6,561 cubic feet : and Class D, 
8,943 cubic feet. 

Camberley. — A scheme is being promoted under Part III, in the 
face of considerable opposition, for leasing 3^ acres of the Crown 
lands, off King's Ride, at ^12 per acre, and building only eight houses 
to the acre, at a cost of ^^200 each, to be let at 6/6 per week. 

Cambourne. — Alterations are being made in the bye-laws to 
enable a scheme to be carried out with financial success in place of a 
previous proposal which, it is alleged, was killed by the unnecessary 
requirements of the building regulations. 

Chelmsford. — Seven houses of an inferior type, dilapidated and 
out-of-date, were purchased conditionally by the Town Council for 
;^495) wi'^h a view to their adaptation under Section 57, Part III, of 
the Act o: 1890, but the Local Government Board advised the Council 
not to spend money in this way on such bad property, but rather to 
erect new tenements or cottages. 

Coventry. — The Council has adopted Part III, and proposes to 
carry out a scheme for erecting 70 houses, to be let at 5/- per week. 

Chiswick. — Twenty houses have been built at Strand-on-the-Green 
in two blocks, 10 houses with 19ft. frontage, costing ;^400 each, and 
10 with 18ft. frontage, costing ^365 each, the land and roads costing 
;^973. The rents are 4/9 and 6/3 per week. 

Devizes. — In addition to letting out 54 building plots, the 
Council have built 12 cottages, at a cost of ^158 12s. per cottage for 
building, ;£iS 12s. for roads, and ^6 6s. per annum ground rent, or a 
total cost of ^174 4s. per cottage. Ten are let at 5/6 and two at 6/- 
per week, and they are expected to be self-supporting. It was said in 
the Council that speculative builders had done and were doing a great 
deal in Devizes in putting up small villas, but the difficulty lay with the 
cottages, which they failed to erect in sufficient numbers. It is found 
that several plots of land originally leased to workmen occupiers, have 
now got into other hands, owing to the workmen leaving the town. 



91 

Ealing. — Five acres out of an estate of 6J acres have been 
covered by 103 cottages and 36 flats, at a total outlay of ^40,000. 
The flats have two bedrooms, kitchen, and scullery, and are let at 
5/6 and 6/- per week. The Council has not availed itself of the 
extended period for repayment of loans granted by the Act of 1903. 

Finchley.— Sixty cottages are now erected, and there is land, part 
of the site, divided into 30 plots and let in allotments. 

Flockton (U.D.C., population 1,280). — Out of 259 houses in this 
district, only 100 h ve more than two rooms, and the Council has 
appropriated, for building six houses under Part III, a portion of four 
acres of land acquired for a sewage scheme, at a cost of ^66 per acre. 
The six houses are to cost ^1,275, and to be let at ^10 each per 
annum. 

The rents are 6/6 per week, producing ;!^i62 10s. per annum. 

Hampton. — After a very full investigation by accountants and a 
special committee, at the instance of hostile critics, it has been officially 
decided that these Municipal cottages pay their way, and are no charge 
upon the rates. 

Hendon. — The Council offered a prize of ^20 for a design for 
cheap cottages, not to exceed 6d. per foot cube, and adopted the plans 
of iVir. Hornblow. A scheme is going forward for the erection of 
houses on five acres of land, forming part of the present Child's Hill 
allotments, to be bought from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for 
;^2,38o, in addition to an expenditure of ^2,610 on roads, or a total 
cost of ;^4,99o. The estimated cost of 34 houses, with 15ft. frontage 
and 120 houses with 13ft. frontage is ^34,980, making altogether 
;^39,97o for land, roads, and buildings for 150 cottages, with rents at 8/- 
to 8/6 per week, or ^3,276 per annum. The scheme to be self-supporting. 

Hereford. — It was reported to the Council that there was only 
one empty cottage in the town below 5/- a week, and a scheme has 
been put forward for the adoption of Part III, so as to purchase nine 
acres of land, and lease it to a company or an individual to build 
cottages thereon. 

Heston-Isleworth. — Twenty-two cottages are built, and there is 
land available for 100 more houses. 

Hornsey. — One hundred and forty-four cottages and 24 flats 
have been erected for some time, and 140 houses fitted with Corne's 
combination bath, were completed in 1904. The cost per foot cube 
was class A 6d., class B 6^d., class C 6^d., and class D 6|^d. A further 
scheme has now been adopted for erecting 120 cottages on 6h acres of 
land at Highgate. The complete Hornsey schemes, including 308 
cottages, costing ;^94,485, showed in 1905, receipts ;^6,552, working 
expenses ^2,391, gross profit ;^4, 161, equivalent to 4f per cent, on 
outlay. Rates, taxes, and water are estimated in the new scheme at 
22 per cent, of the gross rental. Empties and repairs at 10 per cent. 



92 

The cottages as designed by Mr. E. J. Lovegrove, the Borough 
Engineer are to have forecourts of lo to 15ft., with gardens at the 
rear 25ft. to 65ft. deep. They are to be built in red brick, with rough 
cast fronts, in blocks of six to ten, and are to be of five types as 
under : — 



Cottages. 


Rooms. 


Frontage. 


Weekly Rent 


22 


six 


2lft. 


12/3 


26 


six 


17 ft. 6in. . 


10/6 


24 


five 


13ft. 6in. . 


9/9 


22 


four 


13 ft. 


9/- 


26 


three . . 


13ft. 


7/6 



All have a scullery and a bath. The cost of land is ^5,700, and 
the estimated cost of building ;^39,69o, or a total estimated cost of 
^45,390, to be borrowed for sixty years at 3f per cent. 

The Borough Surveyor advocates very strongly the principle 
of the four-class scheme carried out in Hornsey, whereby a 
certain percentage of the houses, rather larger and better than the 
ordinary cottages, are let at such fairly high rents as 11/3 per week, 
thus facilitating the supply of a cheap cottage for 6/6 per week, giving 
combined living and sitting room, scullery, bath (hot and cold water), 
larder, W.C., and coals, and two bedrooms, with a front and back 
garden — accommodation at a rental not to be found elsewhere in 
London. It also appears that even these higher-rented cottages were 
taken up by working men of small wage but with wage-earning families 
who desired to keep under the parental roof instead of taking lodgings. 
Certainly the idea of varied accommodation is the very essence of 
success in housing schemes. 

Hull. - In addition to the 40 tenements in blocks the Council 
have erected on three sides of a quadrangle 11 six-room dwellings, 
with gardens, at 6/6 per week, and 34 four-room dwellings at 5/3 per 
week, while 32 four-room dwellings at 6/- per week are in course of 
erection. 

Llandudno.— The cottages built by the Council have been 
contuiually let at 7/6 per week, and there is a very long list of 
applicants for vacancies. Each cottage has a frontage of 18 feet 
4 inches, and the depth of the plot of land is 56 feet. The accom- 
modation consists of living room 14 feet by 13 feet 9 inches, kitchen- 
scullery 13 feet by 9 feet 6 inches, pantry, coalhouse, and w.c. on 
ground floor, with three bedrooms 13 feet 6 inches by 9 feet 6 inches, 
15 feet 3 inches by 8 feet 3 inches, and 11 feet 9 inches by 8 feet 
6 inches respectively. The external walls are of rubble local stone 
cemented and pebble dashed externally. The internal walls are of 
brick with lath and plaster stud partitions on the first floor. 

The height of rooms is 9 feet on ground floor, and 9 feet 3 inches 
on first floor. The roof is of Bangor slates laid with a 4 inch lap. 
All the rooms on the ground floor are paved with blue Staffordshire 
tiles on 4 inch of concrete. 



93 

The cost of building has been as follows : — 8 flats at ^143 per flat, 
6 houses at ^177 per house, 8 houses at ;!^207 per house, iq houses 
at p^2i2 per house, and 10 houses at ^274 per house. 

The Council are satisfied the cottages have supplied a long felt 
want. Their action has also been an inducement to private speculators 
to build a more more modest class of house than had been the practice. 

Nantwich, — The Housing Committee of the Council report that 
there are 707 houses, or half the total number in the town of Nantwich 
containing only two bedrooms, while 30 houses have only one b.Croom. 
Part III of the Act has been adopted. 

Plymouth. — The Council has built four blocks of flats containing 
245 rooms, at a cost of ;^2 2,420, on f-acre of cleared area, under 
Part I. It has also bought 29^ acres of vacant land on the outskirts, 
at a cost of j£,\f^ 600, and has built on part of it 153 houses (mostly 
flats), at a cost of ^^37,203 for 559 rooms. Nearly a fourth of the 
area cleared is still available for building purposes. The rents are as 
follows: — Five rooms, 8/-; four rooms, 7/-; three rooms, 5/- to 6/-; 
two rooms, 3/- to 5/- per week. The total income last year was 
;^3, 138, and the working expenses were ^1,373, leaving a net return 
on capital of ^1,765 The Admiralty have recently offered to lease 
the site of Millbay Barracks to any public authority or syndicate who 
erect suitable working-class dwellings, and give a preferance as tenants 
to Admiralty employees. Naval ratings and marines. The Town 
Council considered, however, that the present buildings are useless, and 
the cost of adaptation would be too great. 

The sum spent on clearance and building 317 dwellings for 1,585 
persons was ;^io8,ooo, involving a charge on the rates of ^2,800. 

The average death-rate of the borough for the past ten years 
(1896-1905) compared with the previous ten years (1886-1895) is as 
follows : - 

Average 10 years. Average lO years. Reduction. 

1896-1905 1886-1895 

i8"47. 2i'2i. 2*47 per 1,000. 

This reduction is equal to a saving of 323 lives a year. 

The averages for the district in which the unhealthy area dealt with 
under Part I of the Housing of the Working Classes Act of 1890 is 
situated, viz.. How Street and Looe Street, are as follows : — 

Average lO years. Average 5 years. Reduction. 

1896-1905 1891-1895 

i8"8. 22*5. 37 per 1,000. 

Richmond — At Richmond there are now [35 houses, containing 
666 rooms and 135 sculleries, costing altogether ;^38,729, or an 
average inclusive cost of about ^58 per room. The income to 
March, 1906, averaged ^2,435 per annum, working expenses ^1,195, 
and the gross profit ^1,240, equivalent to 4^ per cent, on the total 
capital outlay. The estimates for 1907 show a balance in hand of ^360, 
and the balance sheet shows a balance of assets over liabilities of nearly 



94 

^4)Ooo- The twenty conclusions (p. 131 Housing Handbook) hold 
good, except that the period of repayment of loan his been extended 
to 58 years. A scheme for clearing three acres under Part I has been 
begun at an estimated cost of about ^^38,000, and already ^22,122 
has been spent in the purchase of part of the area. The scheme for 
rehousing 300 of the 500 persons dispossessed will, unfortunately, be 
crippled from the start, owing to the site for the first 200 being situated 
in a somewhat inaccessible position at one of the most distant parts of 
the borough, and costing no less than ^2,000 per acre with roads. 

Risca. — The Council are erecting 48 houses, each with living 
room, kitchen, scullery, bath-room, and larder on ground floor, four 
bedrooms on first floor, and outside coalhouse and W.C., all. for 
6/- per week. 

Rotherham. — A loan has been obtained for ^i 1,426, and ten 
cottages, to be let at 7/6 per week, have been erected. Each house has 
165 square yards of land at 1/3 per yard, and the cost of building is 
^237 per cottage, or 4d. ber cubic foot. 

Salford. — The Council have built a lodging house, a street of 
tenements, and three cottage estates, at a total cost of ^210,118, 
of which ^117,598 was for the building and ^75,034 for the site of 
2,861 rooms in 652 dwellings, being ^^41 per room tor building and 
;^2 7 per room for site and roads. The model lodging house cost 
^1,555 for site and ^15,326 for building (see pp. 63-64 Housing 
Handbook). Front streets are 36 feet wide and back passag s 12 feet 
wide, are all paved or flagged. The buildings are faced with hard red 
coal shale bricks, which are very impervious, the living-room floors are 
grooved and tongued boarding, the kitchen floors of red tiles on 
concrete bed. The gross income for the Queen Street and King Street 
dwellings has averaged ^1,365, and the working expenses, including 
rates, ^,678, leaving a gross profit of ^dSy, equivalent to 3! per cent, 
on the cost of building or i|^ per cent, on the cost of site and buildings. 

Shipley (Yorks). — The Council is borrowing ;^6,525 for 29 
new dwellings, each with four rooms, scullery and bath, to be let at 
5/6 per week, to rehouse persons displaced by improvement works. 
The estimated cost of building is ^197 per cottage. The site of 
nealy an acre cost ^229, and street works are estimated at ^560. 

Southampton. — The capital expenditure up to 31st March, 1906, 
has been ^73,308 ; the income ;^2,84i ; working expenses and loan 
charges ^4,575. Sixty-nine cottage flats have recently been erected at 
a cost of ^17,577, and the Trade and Labour Council have asked for 
more to be built. 

The following particulars as to cost and construction may be 
interesting : — 

The lodging-house, including furniture and utensils, cost ^^S^, 19s. 
per bed, and is generally filled. The 24 tenements cost ^116 per 
room, or 8d. per foot cube ; brickwork was ^14 per rod. The aver- 
age depth of foundations is five feet. 



95 

The cottage flats consist of a living room, two bedrooms, and a 
scullery, the upstair flat having one bedroom larger t^an that below. 
The cost per flat was ^201, per room ;£(>■], per cube foot 6d., per rod 
of brickwork ^13 los. The average depth of foundations is 3 feet 
6 inches, on account of the site not being level. 

Stafford. — The sinking fund of ^124 is met by the rates as a 
matter of definite policy. 

Swansea. — The Council has decided to build five more houses 
on land belonging to the Property Committee, thus bringing the total 
to 31. The mistake in Swansea has been building the dwellings piece- 
meal in isolated blocks. 

Teddington. — -After a series of elections fought mainly and 
successfully on the housing question, the District Council, by an 
almost unanimous vole, decided to buy 6^ acres of land in Shacklegate 
Lane, at a cost of ;j^4,2oo, and to utilise 4^ acres, valued at ;^2,8i6, 
for the erection of 72 four-room cottages at 5/- per week, and 42 five- 
room cottages at 6/- per week, at a total estimated cost of ^24,393, 
including 2^ acres of land, valued at ^1,384, which is be developed 
afterwards. At the time of writing it is difficult to say whether 
these tenders will be above or below the estimated figures of;^i8o and 
jQiSo for five and four-roomed housed respectively, but in view of the 
figures for Altrincham, Bangor, Merthyr, Neath, and Sheffield, it would 
appear to be only a question of modifying plans and specifications to 
secure the erection of the dwellings at the figures mentioned, even if 
the first tenders, as at Richmond, come out in excess of the sum for 
which they may subsequently be constructed. 

West Ham. — Sites have been purchased for ^16,766 for other 
schemes at present postponed. The income from completed schemes 
was ^6,477, the working expenses ;^8,2ii, and the net return ^3,196 
or 3 "8 per cent, on outlay, as against ^4,950, or 4'8 per cent., the 
actual loan charges on outlay. 

Wolverhampton. — A site of 3,970 square yards was bought for 
jQS-\^^ ^""^ 5° tenements on the flat system have been built for 
;!^5,o32, or ^40 per room, and are let at rentals of 2/6 for two rooms, 
and 3/- for three rooms. 

Yarmouth (Great). — Eight dwellings, built for ^930, have been 
let at 2/6 each per week, and twelve dwellings built for ;!{^2,5oo, have 
been let at 4/- each per week. 

SCOTLAND. 

Aberdeen.— The receipts from the workmen's dwellings were ^873 
in 1906, and the total outgoings, including loan charges, were ^1,074. 

Edinburgh. — Slum areas have been bought for ^107,023, and new 
houses containing 1,032 rooms have been built for ^87,970 or ;^85 per 
room. There are altogether 275 one-room dwellings at 2/- to 2/9 per 
week, 368 two-room dwellings at 2/6 to 5/- per week, 4 three-room 
dwellings at 5/- per week, and 9 shops at rents of from ^10 to ;!^40 
per annum. The sites have been written down from their cost of 
^^14,520 per acre to one-fourth or one-fifth of this amount for re- 



96 

housing purposes. The receipts for 1905-6 were ^{^5,199 7s. 2d., the 
working expenses ^2,817 i6s. 8d., and the net return on capital 
;2^2,38i los. 5d. towards total loan charges of ;i^8,73i los. 4d. Thus 
the gross profits were only sufficient to pay 2f per cent, on building 
cost alone, and the actual rent?, averaging 1/4 per room per week, 
were subsidised to the extent of 2/3 per room per week to meet 
the cost of site. 

Leith. — Action has been taken under Parts I, II, and III of the 
Act of 1890. Capital expenditure, ^125,718; receipts, ;^6,394 ; 
working expenses, ^1,161 ; loan charges, ^4,624. 

Perth. — Two large blocks of working men's houses were built 
under a local Improvement Act of 1893, which required the erection 
of new houses in place of others demolished in the formation of new 
streets. The first block was completed in 1900, built of stone, four 
storeys in height ; 58 dwelling houses with four shops and offices on 
ground floor; 16 one-roomed houses at 2/4 per week including rates; 
4 three-roomed houses at 5/4 per week including rates, the remaining 
houses are two-roomed, at rents varying from 3/4 to 4/7 including 
taxes; cost ;^i 2,220, equal to about ^15 19s. 6d. per square yard. 

The second block was completed in 1903-4, built of brick and 
rough cast, four storeys in height, 44 dwelling houses. Eleven 
single roomed houses ; five three-roomed, and the remainder two- 
roomed. Rents similar to those in the other block. Cost p/^6,300, 
equal to about ^11 6s. 8d. per square yard. All the houses are built 
on the balcony system, with staircases open to air. 

IRELAND. 

Belfast. — Free house tickets for houses over 5/- per week rental are 
common. The tram fares are id. for about i^ miles, and workmen's 
tickets by train are 2d. return for three miles. Rents are very low, 
and self-contained dwellings are the rule for even the very poorest. 

Thirty-three thousand seven hundred pounds has been spent on 
clearance schemes. A model lodgin.u-house, erected for ^9,844 in 
1902, now enlarg d at a cost of ^^2,465. 

Drogheda. — New dwellings, costing j^5,ooo, have recently been 
erected by the Town Council. In addition to these a sum of ^5,000 
was provided many years ago under the late T. Cairn's will, which has 
been expended in erecting houses which are let at very low rents, and 
as these rents accumulate the sum thus created is applied to the 
erection of more houses. 

Dublin. — Fifteen streets, containing 1,665 families, have been 
declared unhealthy areas by the Medical Officer of Health. Since 
1879 more than 3,000 houses have l>een closed as unfit for habitation. 
At present there are 532 derelict houses. On the south side of the 
city there are 786 houses in a very defective condition. They com- 
prise 2,982 rooms, occupied by 2,149 faniilies, or 7,844 persons. On 
the north side there are 700 similar houses containing 2,401 rooms, 
occupied by 1,496 families, or 5,802 persons. The number of families 



97 

provided or shortly to be provided for is as follows :— By the Corpora- 
tion, 1,041 ; by companies, 4,028 ; by private persons, 325 ; total 
5,394 families, or 19,000 persons. The municipal dwellings are in 
eight districts, and are let at rents from 1/6 to 3/3 for one room, 2/- to 
4/6 for two rooms, 4/- to 5/- for three rooms, and 7/6 for self-contained 
houses, the average weekly rent being 3/4. The average cost of these 
dwellings has varied from ^79 to ^126 per room, including the 
acquisition of the site. Altogether, it is estimated that ^^500,000 will 
be spent under the Act of iSgo. It may be mentioned that loans to 
the extent of over ;^25,ooo have been applied for under the Small 
Dwellings Acquisition Act, 1899. 

Rathmines. — The Council has recently built 291 dwellings, let 
as follows : — -Three rooms, 4/- and 4/6 ; two rooms, 3/- and 3/6 ; one 
room 1/6 and 1/9 per week, providing accommodation for 1,200 
persons. The total cost of the new dwellings with land was ;^4o,5oo. 
There are also 58 houses, costing ;,^ 11,000, which have been built for 
some time, and are paying 2^ per cent, on capital. 

LOAN CHARGES. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE. 

The following table is given in response to requests for figures as 
to loan charges at rates of interest higher than those given on page 
163 of the Housing Handbook. 

Table Shewing the Instalments for Repayments of a Loan 
FOR ;^ioo, WITH Interest on the Annuity System. 



Years. 


32 per ' 


cent. 


3f 


per 


cent. 


4 per cent. 


4^ per cent. 




£ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


100 


3 12 


3f 


3 


16 


Hi 


4 


I 


7h 


4 6 4I 


80 


3 14 


9i 


3 


19 


2 


4 


3 


7i 


482 


75 


3 15 


8f 


4 


c 


of 


4 


4 


5i 


4 8 II 


60 


4 


4 


4 


4 


3 


4 


8 


4| 


4 12 7i 


50 


4 5 


3i 


4 


9 


If 


4 


13 


li 


4 17 4 


47 


4 7 


4 


4 


1 1 


2 


4 


15 


o* 


4 19 


42 


4 II 


l\ 


4 


15 


3f 


4 


19 


I 


5 2 II 


40 


4 13 


7f 


4 


17 


3f 


5 


I 


oh 


5 4 10 


35 


5 





5 


3 


6i 


5 


7 


if 


5 10 9f 


30 


5 8 


9 


5 


12 


2 


5 


15 


8 


5 19 2^ 








Weekly 


Instalments 








Years. 


3% per 


cent. 


3f 


per 


cent. 


4 per cent. 


4^ per cent. 




£ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


100 


I 


4f 







5f 







6f 


I 8 


80 


I 


5i 







6i 







7i 


I 81 


75 


I 


Sh 







6i 







7i 


I 81 


60 


I 


6i 







ll 







81 


I 9I 


50 


I 


7f 







u 







9^ 


I 10^ 


47 


I 


H 







9 







10 


I I of 


42 


I 


9i 







10 







I of 


I iif 


40 


I 


9h 







loi 







Hi 


2 o| 


35 


I 


II 





2 








2 


of 


2 l| 


30 


2 


I 





2 


2 





2 


2f 


2 3^ 

E 



98 

II.— BIRMINGHAM, GLASGOW, LIVERPOOL, 
MANCHESTER, NEWCASTLE, SHEFFIELD. 

BIRMINGHAM LEASING LAND TO SOCIETY. 

The Housing Handbook gives particulars of the great clearance 
scheme under the Act of 1875, and a smaller scheme under Part I, as 
well as the provision of 103 cottages and 61 cottage flats on slum sites, 
all of which have been subsidised to some extent out of the rates, 
owing to the cost of buying slum sites being greater than their value 
when sold for the purpose of building workmen's dwellings. It is not 
to be wondered at, therefore, that a very active minority of the housing 
reformers in the city have advocated the erection of a large number of 
cheap houses in the outskirts, so as to empty the slums by drawing the 
population outwards to better dwellings, in the hope of preventing the 
steady increase in rents which the working classes say is going on for all 
classes of cheap dwellings in the city, especially those in the courts and 
slums and other areas in the central districts. 

Bordesley Green Part III Housing Scheme. — It was 

mainly in pursuance of this policy that the Council in August, 1900, 
bought 17 acres of land under Part HI of the Act of 1890, at Bordesley 
Green, near Yardley Road, three miles from the centre of the city, for 
the purpose of erecting 500 cottages, at a total cost of ^120.000, to 
meet a reported deficiency in the supply of cottages, at a rental of 5/- 
and under per week. The scheme was, however, rejected in 1903, on 
the plea that the houses would not be cheap enough for the poorest 
poor to occupy, and that there was a superabundance of low-rented 
houses in the city. 

It is now proposed that the land shall be leased for 109 years to the 
Ideal Benefit Society, at a rental of nothing for the first year, ^200 the 
second year, and ^400 per annum thereafter. The society to build 
not more than 22 houses to the acre, and to spend not less than 
;^4,ooo on road-making and ;^i 2,000 in building on the land within 
three years, and a further ^28,000 within the ten years allowed for 
development. The Corporation to contribute ;^4,ooo to the cost of 
the roads. The society also owns lof acres of land adjoining the site, 
and possesses options on about as much more. It has 2,000 members 
living within a mile of the site. No limit of rental is contained in the 
conditions of lease. The carrying out of the scheme would involve a 
subsidy from the rates for the first 21 years amounting altogether to 
;^4,78i 1 6s., but this would gradually be reduced in each succeeding 
year, and the accumulated profits during the next 77 years would 
amount to ;!^26,784 13s. 6d., leaving a net profit in 2016 of over 
;^2 2,000, in addition to the reversion of the houses themselves. 

These financial proposals have been adversely criticised, and the 
Birmingham Trades Council have strongly opposed the scheme on the 
ground that it is not proposed to compel the society to build labourers' 



99 

dwellings of the type and at the rental suggested when the land was 
secured. A strong resolution of protest against the leasing of the land 
has been sent up to the Local Government Board, and at the time of 
writing the matter is waiting confirmation from that body. 

On the one side it is alleged that the Corporation has had to pay 
out ^i,8oo in respect of the land because it has not been utilised, and 
on the other hand it is claimed that the land has increased in value by 
more than double any temporary payment from the rates. The land, 
moreover, is to be leased to the society on the basis not of its actual 
present value, but of its original cost, which is probably 30 per cent. 
less, so to this additional extent the scheme is subsidised by the rate- 
payers. The great justification for the lease is that it will encourage a 
useful experiment in site planning, though it is perhaps to be desired 
that other land should have been specially acquired for the experiment, 
and the advocates of municipal building look upon the use of this 
particular site as a misappropriation of land acquired for housing a 
poorer class than those who are likely to occupy the dwellings of the 
society. 

During the six years that have elapsed since the first inception of 
the Bordesley Green scheme, the Housing Committee of the Cor- 
poration, which was appointed in November, 1901, mainly as the 
result of the persistent efforts of Councillor Nettlefold, have been 
particularly active in other directions. To encourage the supply of 
new and cheap houses, it was necessary to remove certain obstacles 
imposed by " the excessive stringency of some of the bye-laws which 
increased the cost without increasing the eflficiency of the houses built." 
After six or twelve months' continual pushing, this most desirable 
object was attained by the alteration of the bye-laws in several im- 
portant particulars. 

The Milk Street Cottage Flats, like the majority of dwellings erected 
on slum sites, do not give satisfaction. Repairs are heavy, and the 
gross return on total outlay is just under 2^ per cent , reckoning the land 
at ;^6,ooo for 4,000 yards. 

So far all the Birmingham housing schemes, whether for slum 
•clearance under Part I, slum improvement under Part II, or site 
planning in connection with private enterprise, have involved a subsidy 
from the rates, but the saving of life and promotion of health are more 
than worth all the money. Birmingham's chief claim to the gratitude 
of housing reformers, however, is rather for what we hope this great 
city will do rather than for actual improvements accomplished. The 
adoption of the Housing Committee's report on tow^n planning and 
land purchase, marked an important epoch in municipal history, and a 
vigorous movement, organised by Mr. Napier Clavering, Mr. Nettlefold, 
and others, in support of the first of these two reforms, is already being 
pushed forward, as only Birmingham men know how to do. The 
Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain is a vice-president of the new 
Birmingham and District Town Planning and Housing Association. 



GLASGOW. 

Financial Results. — The Corporation have erected 2,280 new- 
dwellings, containing 4,013 rooms and 241 shops. They have also a 
quantity of property in hand under the Improvements Acts of 1866 
to 1895. 

Full and separate details of all the new dwellings, distinct from the 
old property, are not easily available, but the following figures will be 
interesting and useful, dealing as they do with part of the new property 
as erected under the Improvements Acts of 1897 and 1902, and all the 
buildings under the earlier Acts. 

Dwellings valued at ^400,000 for buildings and ^300,000 for 
land show the following results : — 

Gross rental ... ... ;^3o,6oo or 4*37 on outlay. 

Rents actually received ... ;^3o,ooo or 4*28 „ 

Empties and Arrears ... ^600 or 2 per cent, of rental. 

Taxes ... ... ... ^2^4, 230 or i3"8 per cent, of rental. 

Insurance... ... ... ^500 or 17 ,, 

Repairs ... ... ... ^2,760 or 9*0 „ 

Management and Sundries ;^,"i,o6o or 3-5 „ 

Total working expenses ... .;^9, 150 or 30 ,, 

Net return ... ... ;^2i,45o or 3'o6 ,, 

Dwellings under the Acts of 1902 and 1907, valued at about 
^^280,000 for land and buildings, of which a little more than half 
was in respect of land, showed the following results : — 

Gross rental ;^i 5,342, or 5^ per cent, on outlay. 

Rents actually received ;£ii,gio, or 4.^ per cent, on outlay, or 
excluding dwellings in course of erection 5^^'^ per cent, on outlay. 

Empties and arrears ^3,428, or 22 per cent, of gross rental, but 
leaving out dwellings in course of erection only 8"5 percent. 

Rates, taxes, water, and insurance ;^2,oi9, or i3"2 per cent, of rental. 

Repairs, lighting, and maintenance ;^7io, or 47 per cent, of rental. 

Superintendence and sundries ^689, or 4-5 per cent, of rental. 

Total working expenses ^3,418, or 22^4 per cent, of rental. 

Hence the gross profits of ^8,492 are just sufficient to pay 2,-^0 per 
cent., equal to the interest on actual outlay, thus leaving the sinking 
lund to be met by the rates ^8,400. 

Social Results. — Most of the houses have been erected in the 
central districts, and are occupied chiefly by artisans. Only 28 per 
cent, of the houses built so far have been intended and reserved for the 
poorest class of tenants. The total amount taken from the rates in 
thirty years has been ;!^6oo,ooo, and the justification for this expendi- 
ture is, although the city has nearly doubled its population in the 
interval, its death rate has fallen from 30 per 1,000 in 1866 to a 
little over 20 per 1,000 in 1906. 

In 1887 the common lodging houses accommodated 6,273 persons,, 
but to-day they accommodate 9,705 persons. They are registered 
and regularly inspected by the Corporation, and must contain 400- 



cubic feet per inmate. In this respect they are an improvement, but 
at all times these big lodging houses are but -necessary evils. They 
offer a distinct encouragement to illdisposed husbands and fathers to 
desert their wives and families, and the residence of 300 or 400 men 
in one tall block, although each man has a sufficient air space in which 
to sleep, is in itself a serious overcrowding on area. 

Over 400,000 inspections for nuisances are made every year, and 
over 150,000 inspections for infectious disease, the latter bringing to 
light in one year 2,864 cases of infection, or 13 per cent, of the total 
which had been concealed from the doctors, and would otherwise 
have gone on spreading disease and death in the dark. 

However, to quote Mr. R. L. Bremner's interesting little pamphlet, 
" The vigilance does not end with discovery or registration. Thousands 
of cases are removed to hospitals ; thousands are treated at home • 
rooms, lobbies, and closets are fumigated and whitewashed ; clothing 
is washed ; carpets are beaten ; beds, pillows, and clothing are 
disinfected under steam pressure ; vaccinations are carried out ; byres 
and dairies — a fruitful source of typhoid — are inspected ; and these, by 
no means, exhaust the restrictive energies of the sanitary departments." 

The facts as to a cleared area of 4! acres in Bridgegate and Wynds 
are very instructive. The old buildings have been swept away except 
the Tron Steeple — new streets and spaces have been opened out and 
new dwellings built. The relative proportions of buildings and open 
spaces are almost exactly reversed, for only li acres are now occupied 
by buildings, while 2^ acres are devoted to streets and open spaces, 
the remaining half acre being taken up by railway lines. 

The death-rate was 43-68 per 1,000 before the clearance, but fell to 
26 per 1,000 eleven years afterwards, and is still decreasing. 

Tron'gate Area, Glasgow. 




Before Improvement Scheme. 



After Improvement .Scheme. 



s. 


d. 




o 


5i 


weekly 


2 


9 


)5 


o 


5 


)) 


o 


5 


5) 


o 


4 


>» 



102 

The cost of building in Glasgow has increased by 20 per cent, 
during the last 20 years, and as the following ordinary example, worked 
out by Mr. William Fraser, F.S.I., demonstrates, it accounts for two- 
thirds of the rent even where land costs ^6,000 per acre. Taking a 
two-roomed tenement of ^11 rent, and allowing a site area of about 
14 square yards per room at 25/- per square yard, the site cost per 
tenement would be ^{^35, and the building cost would be about ^72 
per room or ^^144 per tenement, and the rent of 4/3 per week would 
be accounted for as follows : — • 

Ground Rent at 3^ per cent, on site, cost 

Interest on cost of building at 5 per cent. 

Landlord's taxes 

Repairs and upkeep 

Collection, Insurance, and Management ... 

4 3 

Even assuming land at ^12,000 per acre, the total rent in respect 
of site would only be iid. per week out of 4/9, whereas if the house 
were built on the outskirts upon land at 5/- per square yard, the ground 
rent would be i|d. instead of 5 id. per week, though this 4d. per week 
would not pay the tram fares from the suburbs to the centre. 

The real economic advantage of suburban housing would be in 
the cheaper building that could be effected by constructing cottage 
dwellings at ^48 per room instead of block dwellings at ^72 per 
room, for there would not only be the saving in building cost, but the 
reduction in the price of land that would inevitably follow a limitation 
of its unduly intensive use as a building site. It is somewhat note- 
worthy that on the outskirts of towns like Glasgow, where block dwel- 
lings abound, the average price of land per square /oof is about as high 
as the price of land per square yard in a similar position in towns 
where cottage dwellings are the rule, such as Liverpool and Manchester. 

Prizes of p^75, ^50, and ^25 have been offered by the Glasgow 
Corporation for the best competitive designs for laying out the Riddree 
suburban estate as a model village in self-contained houses of not 
more than four or five rooms, competitors to state the rent which they 
consider should be charged. 

The Glasgow Municipal Commission on the Housing of the Poor, 
appointed by the Corporation in 1902, has now presented its report 
and recommendations, and the latter, so far as approved, have been 
remitted to various committees interested in order that they may con- 
sider and report as to what action should be taken in the direction of 
carrying them into effect. 

The balance sheet of the Trust shows liabilities ^^i, 229, 055 
(mainly loans), and assets ;^i, 259,251, made up of tenement buildings 
^700,000, lodging houses ^111,375, land and sundries ^127,964, 
capitalised value of ground rents, etc., ;!£"3i9,9i2. 



I03 



LIVERPOOL.— Tenements for Dispossessed Slum Dwellers. 

[pp. 95-100, also App. loi. Housing HandVjook.] 

The city of Liverpool has expended up to the year 1907 about 
;^920,ooo in demolishing houses unfit for habitation, reconstructing 
areas, and building new dwellings for the dispossessed. The demolition 
of some 8,000 houses and the clearance or purchase of land have cost 
about ^500,000, and the building of 2,046 dwellings with 4,961 rooms 
on 17^ acres, has cost ^^350,000. Each room has required on an 
average about 17 square yards of site, valued for housing purposes at 
i2s. per square yard, or an average of about ^11 per room, while the 
cost of building has varied from ^44 to j£iis, and averaged ^"jo 
per room. 

There are 193 one-room dwellings let at 1/9 to 2/6 per week ; 965 
two-room dwellings at 2/3 to 3/6 per week; 719 three-room dwellings 
at 3/6 to 4/6 per week, and 167 four-room dwellings at 4/6 to 6/- per 
week, with 20 shops. Details of rents, costs, and situation are given in 
the tables on pp. 39, 41, 46, and 58, as well on pp. 95-100 of the Housing 
Handbook, but the following additional particulars will be useful. 

The cost of demolition was about lid. in the j£ on the rates, and 
the cost of rehousing f d. in the ^, or 2^d. in the ^£ altogether. 

The total gross rental is about ^20,160, or an average of i/6| per 
room per week, and the net rental has been ;^ 16, 600, while the 
working expenses, including empties and arrears, have amounted to 
;^io,99o. Thus the return on actual outlay has been ^9,170 or just 
over one per cent., and the return, reckoning building outlay alone, has 
been 2% per cent. 

The income of the block dwellings to 1907 averaged ^4,479 and 
the working expenses ;^2,745, thus leaving a gross profit of only 
^1,734 or about if per cent on the cost of building and the housing 
valuation of the land. 

In the case of tenement dwellings costing ;^227,64o, the receipts 
averaged ;!^9,94o and the working expenses ^4,204, thus leaving a 
gross pr ;fit of ;^5,736 or 2^ per cent, on the cost of building and the 
housing valuation of the land. 

Eleven per cent, of the gross rent has been lost each year in 
empties and arrears taking an average of 10 years, and of this 8*2 per 
cent, was in respect of empties, and 2 "8 per cent, for irrecoverable 
arrears. 

The rent received has varied from 58 per cent, of the gross rental in 
Mill Street to 97 per cent, in the block dwellings. The results 
varying according to the class of tenant, but the average of the 
tenement dwellings has been a little over 80 per cent. There is a 
gradual improvement in the percentage of receipts each year. 



Birdseye View of Hornby Street Area, Liverpool. 




I05 

In view of the exceptional activity of this city in trying to rehouse 
the dispossessed in cheap tenements, some details as to two of the more 
recent schemes are here given. 

Hornby Street Area. — The new dwellings, which contain at 
present 330 tenements, having 891 rooms, with six shops attached, 
are on 18,059 yards of a site acquired as an unhealthy area under 
Part I of the Act of 1890. 

The scheme, which is the largest yet attempted by the Corporation, 
has involved the demolition of 511 insanitary houses and 23 sanitary 
houses, having a total population of about 2,500, to be followed by the 
construction of 23 blocks, containing 445 new dwellings Hornby 
Street, which runs from Vauxhall Road to Scotland Road, has been 
widened, and the distance between dwellings increased in places from 
36 ft. to 70 ft. There is a recreation ground containing 1,755 square 
yards. Plans of the three floors of the earlier blocks are given here, 
together with a bird's eye view of part of the reconstructed area. 

The buildings as a whole are three stories in height, each living- 
room containing at least 150 superficial feet, the principal bedroom 
125 superficial feet, the second bedroom 100 superficial feet, and the 
third bedroom, where one is provided, between 80 and 90 superficial 
feet. Each house is provided with a separate sanitary convenience, 
and also with a separate scullery. 

The average height of the rooms is 9 feet clear. The materials 
used in the construction are local grey brick with red brick dressings, 
buff terra cotta being sparingly used and only in the entrances All 
the staircases are lined with glazed bricks, the roofs slated, and the 
floors constructed with small steel joists with coke breeze concrete, 
the flooring boards being nailed direct on to same. The ashes are 
discharged into bins by means of shoots at the back, and are collected 
daily by carts. Gas is laid on to each tenement, and supplied if 
required by means of an automatic meter. 

The approximate floor area and cubic space in the rooms, excluding 
the area and cubic space in passages, sculleries, etc., are as follows : — 

Floor Area. Cubic Space. 

38 four-room dwellings each ... 506 sq feet. 4)554 c. feet 

167 three room dwellings ,, ... 368 „ 3)3i2 ,, 

116 two-room dwellings ,, ... 274 ,, 2,466 ,, 

9 one-room dwe lings ,, ... 157 ,, ^A^3 >? 

or, a total of 113,890 square feet of room floor space, and about 
1, 000,00a cubic feet. 

The cost of building has averaged about ;^65 per room, equal to 
I OS. per square foot of floor area, or ;^56 per 1,000 cubic feet of room 
space. 

EI 



io6 



HORNBY STREET DWELLINGS. 

Cost of Building ;i^65 to £^0 per room. Rent, three rooms, 4/- to 4/6 per week. 



5S^^^^^SS 










h 



«■ 



^• 



^• 



^■ 



W- 



lU 



DC 



lU 

zn 
O 



107 



HORNBY STREET DWELLINGS. 

Cost of Building £6^ to ^70 per room. Rent, three rooms, 4/- to 4/6 per week. 




< 






HORNBY STREET DWELLINGS. 

Cost of Building ^^65 to ^^70 per room. Kent, three rooms, 4/- to 4/6 per week. 



P: 



U_J 



^ 









ID: 







^ C^ 






log 

The rents of the respective tenements are : — 

One room. Two rooms. Three rooms. Four rooms. 

Ground floor ... 3 at 2/6 42 at t,!^ 54 at 4/6 11 at 5/3 

First floor 5 at 2/- 37 at 3/- 58 at 4/3 12 at 5/- 

Second floor ... i at 1/9 29 at 29 54 at 4/- 14 at 4/6 

The total gross rental is ^66 los. 3d. per week, equal to 1/6 per 
room per week, or 1/3^ per 1,000 cubic feet of room space per week. 
The rent actually collected was equal to 74 per cent, of the gross 
rental tor 1904-5, but improved to an average of 80 per cent, for the 
three years 1904-6. 

The loan periods are 80 years in respect of the land, and 60 years 
in respect of the buildings. 

The net receipts for the year ended 31st December, 1906, were : — 

The rents for 1906 were ;^i,9i5, and the working expenses ;^73i, 
thus giving net receipts of ^1,184 in respect of a capital outlay for 
building of ^58,268, equivalent to 2 per cent. With the actual cost 
of land included this would be less than i per cent., but, on the other 
hand, as many of the dwellings were in course of construction, it may 
reasonably be assumed that the bulk of the ^1,543 difference between 
gross rental and rent received will be available in future to swell the 
income side of the account, and bring the return on building outlay 
to, say 3^ per cent., and on total outlay (including clearance of the 
area) to \h per cent. 

Adlington Street Area. — The illustrations show the elevations 
of houses consisting of two-room and three-room tenements respec- 
tively, and containing a total of 671 rooms in 271 dwellings on 10,363 
square yards. 

The approximate sizes of the rooms are : — 

Living Room. 
48 four-room dwellings .. 13' x 11' 
135 three-room dwellings 12' 6" x 12' 
70 two-room dwellings 14' x 10' 3" 

48 one-room dwellings 14' 5* x 10' 

The floor area is as follows : — Four rooms, 492 square feet : three 
rooms, 372 square feet ; two rooms, 244 square feet; and one room, 
144 square feet ; or a total room floor area of 83,068 square feet. 

The height of the rooms is 8 feet clear, except on the second floor, 
where the height is greater owing to the rooms being partly in the roof. 
This gives a cubic room space as follows : — Four rooms, 3,936 cubic 
feet ; three rooms, 2,976 cubic feet ; two rooms, 1,952 cubic feet ; and 
one room, 1,152 cubic feet ; or a total of about 665,000 cubic feet. 

The majority of the tenements have separate sculleries and separate 
yards, and each has separate W.C. accommodation. At the rear of 
one block an enclosed playground has been provided. 



Bedroom. 


Bedroom. 


Bedroom. 


13' X 11' 


10' X 11' 


11' X 8' 9' 


13' X 9' 


12' X 8' 9" 




11' X 9' 2" 







ADLINGTON STREET AREA. 




Two-roomed leneiiicnts. CusL ol ISuilcling ^,63 per ronm. Rents 2/9 to 4/- per week. 



Ill 



ADLINGTON STREET AREA. Three room tenements. 




Cost of Building £bi per room. Rents 4/- to 5/- per week 
Built to replace insanitary property. 



LIVERPOOL— UPPER MANN STREET TENEMENTS. 




Cost of Building £^(i per room. Rents, two rooms, 2/9 to 3/6 ; three rooms, 3/9 to 4/6 
Four rooms, 4/9 to 5/6. Roof available as an open space and drying ground. 



"3 

The cost of building averaged about ^^63 per room and ^63 per 
1,000 cubic feet of room space. 

The rents of the respective tenements are : — 

Four Rooms. Three Rooms. Two Rooms. One Room. 

Ground floor ... 12 at 5/6 to 6/- 45 at 5/- 22 at 4/- 24 at 2/9 

ist, 2nd, and 3rd I 6/- at 4/6 to 90 at 4/- to 48 at 2/9 to , 

floors. / 5/6. 4/6. 3/9. 24 at 2/3 

The total gross weekly rental is ;^52 i8s. 3d., equal to about 
IS. yd. per room per week, and is. yd. per 1,000 cubic feet of room 
space. 

The rent actually collected was equal to 87 per cent, of the gross 
rental for the years 1902-6, but improved to 92 per cent, for the year 
1906, when ^2,542 was collected out ot ^2,751. Working expenses 
were ;^i,202, including a special outlay ot ^185 for external painting, 
and the net receipts were ;2^i,34o in respect of a building outlay of 
^42,033, equivalent to 3 i-5th per cent If the actual cost of the 
land be included the return would probably be only i| per cent, or 
even less. 

The Eldon Street Concrete Slab dwellings (app. loi Housing 
Handbook), are not the cheap buildings they were expected to be. 
They cost ^4,032 for building, instead of ;^i,23o as estimated, but 
this was largely due to experimental conditions. 

ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL RESULTS. 

The following figures should be valuable as showing the very 
heavy losses and expenses that accompany schemes where houses 
erected on cleared areas are reserved for and occupied by the poorest 
and worst class of tenants : — 

Dividing the totals of each column by the first column it will be 
seen that the provision of one room on a Liverpool slum area is 
accompanied by an outlay of ;^7o for building, with a rental of 
^'4 per annum or 1/6^ per week ; and that the Corporation spends 
annually on each room for rates and taxes 13/6 ; insurance 8d. ; 
lighting 3/2 ; management 3/- ; repairs 9/6, or a total for working 
expenses of ^i los. per room per annum, and that there is a loss of 
14/- per room in empties and arrears. This gives a net annual return 
of only ^i i6s. per room per annum, and entails an annual cost to 
the rates of about ^30,000 or 2d. in the ^,. The loss on 
building for the dispossessed is estimated at about ^d. in the jQ on the 
rates. It may therefore be said that reckoning the land at its full 
value the rents are subsidised to the extent of 2/6 per room per week, 
while if the building cost only is reckoned, the subsidy is about yd. 
per room per week. 



114 
DWELLINGS RESERVED FOR DISPOSSESSED. 









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Victoria Square 
Juvenal Street 
Arley Street ... 
Gildart's Garder 
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Kempston Stree 
Kew Street ... 
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Stanhope Cotta: 
Mill Street ... 
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115 

It ought to be clearly recognised that the conditions are exceptional 
at present as this is the transition period from slums to new dwellings. 

Prior to the erection of these tenement dwellings and their 
reservation tor the dispossessed tenants of slum areas, private enter- 
prise had built nearly 900 dwellings on sites sold by the Housing 
Committee for that purpose, and the Corporation had themselves 
erected St. Martin's Cottages, Victoria Square, and Juvenal Dwellings ; 
but it is safe to say that the number of tenants who had been displaced 
and who occupied a new dwelling house provided by either private 
enterprise or the Corporation was infinitesimal, a fact which it is not 
difficult to realise, when it is known that the rents of the houses 
provided by private enterprise were generally double those paid 
by the dispossessed tenants, and even those in the Corporation block 
dwellings were much in excess of the same rents. 

The large amount lost in empties is partly accounted for by the 
fact that many of the dwellings are new, and that they are reserved 
exclusively for the dispossessed. This rule of the Corporation is 
firmly adhered to wherever possible, and in the case of the first 
portion of Hornby Street dwellings no less than 71 per cent, of the 
displaced tenants became tenants of the Corporation. These persons 
are extremely poor, with average earnings not exceeding 15/- per week, 
and it is not surprising therefore that the irrecoverable arrears for ten 
years on a total rental of ;^9i,54i amounted to ^2,610. The 
percentage of working expensrs to net rental are as follows : — Rates 
and taxes 20"2, repairs i4'3, lighting 4*9, management 4"6, insurance i; 
total : 45 per cent. 

REMARKABLE RESULTS. 

The death-rate of the areas dealt with averaged about 60 per 
1,000, but the death-rate in the new dwellings has been approximately 
25 per 1,000, which, though twice the normal rate, is a remarkable 
result for families who, throughout their whole existence, lived under 
conditions seriously prejudicial to health, and cannot be expected 
immediately to escape the evil consequences of bygone surroundings. 

In the case of one area where the houses of 1,393 persons were all 
pulled down and rebuilt between 1894 and 1904, the head constable 
reported that offences against the law, which in 1894 had numbered 
202, in respect of persons living in the area had been reduced to 84 in 
1904, and the number of cases which happened in the area itself had 
been similarly reduced from 62 to 12. 

The improvement in the condition of the tenants in their new 
habitations is very noticeable. The cleanliness of the habitations has 
greatly improved. Even the little item of polishing their brass letter- 
plates and door handles is looked after. The provision of window 
blinds and curtains gradually takes place, and even occasionally efforts 



ii6 

are made to grow plants. Another feature which is noticeable in the 
tenants is the efforts made to improve their habitations by adding bit 
by bit to their scanty stock of furniture and bedding. 

Many instances are known where the tenants have by sheer 
misfortune had to leave their houses by reason of their inability to pay 
their rents. In most instances, however, they come back again, and in 
several cases this operation has been repeated several times over. In 
one case a tenant has been ejected no less than three times, and has 
now been taken back again for the fourth time. 

TWELVE INTERESTING POINTS. 

1. The loss through empties in 1905 was £i,6g^, equal to 9'8o of the rental, but 
this included new dwellings, and ;^ 1,544 represented the loss on these and the 
dwellings with tenancies restricted to the dispossessed. 

2. The loss through irrecoverable arrears in 1905 was ;r^484, equal to 2 'So of 
the total rent, and ;i^420 of this was written ofi" in respect of dwellings reserved for 
housing persons dispossessed from insanitary property. 

3. The rates increased from 6/6 to 7/10 in the jC during the six years 1900-1905, 
and averaged 7/1 in the £ for the whole period, but the rates in respect of Stanhope 
Cottages, Mill Street, Clive Street, Shelley Street, and Upper Mann Street were 
8/io| in the £ in 1905. 

4. Of 678 tenants removed from the dwellings (exclusive of transfers) during one 
year, 348 or 16 per cent, of the whole of the tenants were given notice to quit by the 
Corporation, the greatest number of removals being at Arley Street, Dryden Street, 
Stanhope Cottages, and Hornby Street, where they numbered half the occupants. 

5. The average population is about ij persons per room ; varying from 1*21 to 
I 79 per room. 

6. The average rent per habitable room varied in 1905 as follows : — 





s. 


d. 






s. 


d. 


Juvenal Street 160 rooms at 




2 


Hornby Street 


384 rooms at 


I 


5i 


Fldon Street 36 




4i 


Gildart's Gardens 


348 „ 


I 


5S 


Clive, Shelley, and 






Dryden Street and 








Upper Mann Streets 378 ,, 




4i 


S. Martin's Cottages 708 ,, 


I 


6^ 


Gildart's Gardens, 






Adlington Street 


671 „ 


I 


7 


1st scheme 178 ,, 




4l 


Kempston Street 


210 ,, 


I 


8 


Kew Street 282 ,, 




5 


Victoria Square 


610 ,, 


I 


9 


Mill Street and Stan- 














hope Cottages 280 ,, 


I 


5i 











Or an average throughout of 1/62 per room. 

7. The percentage of outgoings to net receipts varied as follows :— 

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 

49-27 52-09 51-78 48-63 49-91 

8. The l)irth-rate averaged 55-87 per 1,000, and the death-rate 13 per 1,000 in 
1905, the latter reaching 32 per 1,000 in the Dryden Street tenements. 

9. Seventy cases of infectious disease, chiefly scarlet fever, occurred among 
5,294 persons in one year. 

10. Of 1,121 tenements f)ccupied in certain districts, 801 of the tenants were 
those who had been dispossessed by slum clearances, and 282 were removed from 
houses or cellars certified as overcrowded. 



117 

11. From 779 houses demolished or cellars closed, 376 tenants entered Corpora- 
tion tenements in 1905. 

12. The principal classes of persons occupying the dwellings out of a total of 
1,661 Were : — 



Lahourers 




Porters 




80 


General 


... 328^ 


Hawkers 




64 


Dock 


... 251 


Sailors 




45 


Mill 


::: % 1 ^" 


Scavengers ... 




40 


Builders' 


Cotton Pickers 




17 


Foundry 


14 


Painters 




15 


Ship 


4 J 


Bag repairers 




15 


Carters 


120 


Warehouse women ... 




II 


Charwomen 


103 


Coalheavers 




II 


Firemen 




Coopers 




II 


Marine ... 


- 7^1 93 
20/ ^-^ 


Cigar makers 




II 


Factory ... 


Widows, etc. 




50 



The housing .schemes have not affected private enterprise, which 
goes on regularly in the outlying districts, averaging 2,200 per annum 
for houses built 1896-1906. 

There is a demand that the city should acquire powers of land 
purchase, town planning, and also that municipal cottages should be 
built on the outskirts. The electric trams do not seem to have made a 
great deal of difference in the price of land, which is ;^2oo to ^^500 
per acre on the outskirts, probably because they do not go further out 
than before, but house owners near a penny stage can get 6d. a week 
more. 



MANCHESTER. 

On the Blackley estate 150 cottages hat'e been built (see page 106 
Housing Handbook), viz., 56 class A at ^"246 each for building, 55 
class B at ^248 each, and 38 class C at ^243 each. Rents are fixed at 
from 6/4 to 7/- per week. In Rochdale Road 32 three room and 32 
four room dwellings have recently been erected at a cost of ^13,206, 
inclusive of site. The average income from block dwellings for the ten 
years ended March, 1906, was ^4,032, working expenses ^^2,764, and 
gross profit ^1,268, equivalent to only i4 per cent, on the capital 
outlay. The tenement houses showed for six years' receipts 
;^3,6o4, working expenses ^1,518, or a gross profit of ^{^2,086, 
equivalent to 3 per cent. 

The gross profits on the cottages for three years ended March, 
1906, were _;^ 1,032, but the cost of the sites was ^21,000, so that 
the rate of return was, strictly speaking, only about 2| per cent. If 
the land be put at housing valuation of 10/- per square yard the rate of 
return would be 4I per cent. The total expenditure on housing 
construction and improvement has been ,-£,451,932. The total loss 
during the last seven to ten years, including loan charges, has amounted 
to about ;£^54,240. 



ii8 



NEWCASTLE.— SINGLE ROOM DWELLINGS. 

The Corporation made its first experiment under the Act of 1890 
by erecting dwellings at Walker Road, Hawick Crescent, and Lawrence 
Road, on a site containing 10 464 square yards, partly in the hands of 
the Council, close to the river, and in a busy district. The cost of 
additional land was ^2,916, street works came to ^1,780, and ground 
rent was ^^87 iis. 6d. per annum, or an estimated total capital sum of 
^7,000. Buildings containing 14 one-roomed dwellings and 112 two- 
roomed dwellings, or a total of 238 rooms, cost _;^i9,o92, or ^80 per 
room, thus making the total cost _£iio per room. There is an 
asphalted recreation ground of about 740 square yards near the centre 
of the area. 

The following is a description of the single-room dwellings : — 

Each dwelling is self-contained, and comprises a living room, 16 feet 9 inches by 
12 feet 9 inches, with a bed recess 6 feet 6 inches by 5 feet ; a scullery 7 feet 6 inches 
by 7 feet, containint; a sink and set-pot, a food cupboard, and a water closet. The 
block is two stories in height, the rooms being approached by a stone staircase in the 
centre, with a balcony along the front for entrance to the upper dwellings. Each 
dwelling has its own entrance door. There is through ventilation provided by 
windows in both the front and hack walls of the general room. An iron rod with 
rings near the ceiling is provided in front of each bed recess for the purpose of 
hanging a curtain and screening the bed fiom the room. 

The two-room dwellings are in two-storey flats, each flat being 
self-contained. 

The ground floor dwelling comprises a living room or kiichen 12 fett 6 inches by 
10 feet 10 inches ; a bedroom 12 fett 6 inches by 10 feet 3 inches ; a scullery 8 feet 
9 inches by 6 feet ; wiih sink and set-pot, a food cupboard, coal house, water closet, 
etc. The upper dwellings have similar accommodation, excepting that the bedroom 
is 17 feet 4 inches long, with an average width of 9 feet 9 inches. Each dwelling 
has a separate entrance and yard. 

The two-room dwellings are to be let at 4/3 per week downstairs, and 4/9 per 
week upstairs, and the one-roomed at 2/3 per week. An open space is to be provided 
in Hawick Crescent, to be used as a playground for children, containing an area of 
about 800 square yards. The buildings are of a simple character, faced wiih red 
pressed liricks to the streets, with common bricks at the back. The work is being 
carried out by Messrs. W. Franklin and Sons, Ltd., under the direction of the City 
Architect, Mr. F. H. Holford. 

All the one-room dwellings were quickly let. It is also proposed to 
build 72 one-room tenements at 3/8 per week, with complete equip- 
ments, suitable for aged people without fanjilies, on a site adjoining 
South Byker playground. In the Ouseburn Valley 74 unoccupied 
houses have been acquired by the Corporation to rehouse dispossessed 
tenants near. Proposals are under consideration for the acquisition of 
24 acres at Fenham, and the erection thereon of five-roomed semi- 
detached cottages, 10 or 12 to the acre, at a rent of about 8/6 per week. 

A Model Cottage Exhibition is being arranged on municipal land. 



119 



SHEFFIELD MUNICIPAL COTTAGES, WINCOBANK. 
Class A. 
■o 5 



iO o o 

SO^LE. I I I I I h I trf 







THXEE- BEDKOIJMO. 



BEBKODM PWN. 



■cr~7o o o c^ 




SHEFFIELD MUNICIPAL COTTAGES, WINCOBANK. 
Class B. 




^lEDXacn. :pUAM. 



_iiiliiiii:iiiiiiiimiii'Aiiiiiuiiiiiii)ioiM»ftiiiijiiMw 



BACK pAS-oflC^C- 




SHEFFIELD MUNICIPAL COTTAGES. 




SHEFFIELD. 

Other details of the various dwellings are given in the tables on 
pp. 43 and 54. The Corporation is clearing a large insanitary area 
(Crofts) at a cost, to 25th March, 1906, of ^105,492 (after allowing for 
value of site charged to cost of dwellings which have been erected on 
a portion of the site). The capital outlay on the dwellings to 25th 
March, 1906, including value of site (^3,169 7s. 6d.) is ^29,285. 
124 dwellings (on the flat system) and two saleshops have been erected. 
Attached to each of the dwellings is a small scullery and a separate w.c. 
and coal-place. A further block of buildings on this site has just been 
erected, to include 57 dwellings, three lock-up shops, and 11 store 
rooms, at a contract price of ;^i 0,000. 

The Corporation has also erected a block of 20 cottage houses in 
another part of the city (Hand's Lane) under Part III of the Act. The 
total cost to 25th March, 1905, is;^6,io4, including ^715 for site. 
The accommodation includes larder, kitchen, coal-cellar, sitting room, 
and three bedrooms, with w.c. for each house. These let at 6/6 per 
week each. 

The Corporation has also purchased three other sites in various 
parts of the city at a cost respectively of ;^i6,266 for 74^ acres (High 
Storrs), ^10,219 for 60 acres (VVincobank), and ;^5,97o for if acres 
(Edmund Road). Nothing has yet been expended on the erection of 
dwellings on the first-mentioned site. The second is an estate on the 
north-east side of the city, in an elevated position, but within compara- 
tively easy distance of the great engineering works. The estate has 
been planned out, and 73 houses have already been erected. These 
houses consist of three types. Class A, of wh ch there are 35, contain 
living-room and scullery, with coal-house, pantry, and w.c. on the ground 
floor, atid two or three bedrooms and a separate bath-room on the first 
floor. Class B are a little larger, and contain the three bedrooms, with 
all the other rooms as mentioned in Class A, and are let at 6/6 and 7/- 
per week, clear of rates and taxes. An important feature in respect to 
the above scheme is that each house has an area of 200 yards of land. 

The capital expenditure to 31st March, 1906 (exclusive of value of 
sites as given above), is for Wincobank ^12,91 1, and for Edmund Row 
^3,253. On the third site the Corporation is building 70 houses, and 
contracts are let for ;^i;^,ooo. 

An entirely new development of the question of artisans' dwellings 
has taken place in ShefSeld within recent years. A section of the 
Corporation's local Act of 1900 authorises the Corporation to appro- 
priate any surplus lands acquired by it, and not required for the 
purposes for which they were purchased, and utilise them for various 
objects, including the erection of dwellings under the Housing of the 
Working Classes Acts. Certain pieces of land in the centre of the city 
or near to it have come into the possession of the Corporation as a 
result of street improvements carried out under local Acts, and the 
Corporation has erected thereon saleshops and dwellings, and flats over 
the same. Five blocks of property have been erected on such lands. 



123 

comprising 19 flats and 43 dwellings, at Snig Hill, Westbar, Gibraltar 
Street, Kelvin Buildings, and Whitehouse. Unfortunately, the shops 
have not let at all well at the rents originally estimated, and they are 
now being let at reduced rents. 

Cheap Cottages — a remarkable scheme. — The third class are 
remarkably cheap houses, built from the plans and specifications of 
Mr. H. L. Paterson, at a cost of ^126 per cottage, and let at 5/- 
per week. Details are given under the heading " Cheap Mimicipal 
Cottages." 

Model Cottage Exhibition. — An experiment of a novel 
character and of great practical value is being carried out at Sheffield 
on municipal land which other large towns might very well copy with 
advantage. Details are given in a subsequent chapter. 



III. -RECEIPTS AND WORKING EXPENSES 
OF MUNICIPAL DWELLINGS. 

The following summary of the financial results of the municipal 
dwellings dealt with in pages 32-118 will mdicate the nature and relative 
proportions of the chief burdens in the rent. The various schemes 
may be roughly divided into three classes : — 

1. Subsidised Sites and Buildings. — Where the rents are insufficient to pay 
the market rate of interest on all loans for the actual cost of land and the cost of 
buildings as well as working expenses. These are mainly on slum sites in provincial 
towns, and let at very low rents. 

2. Subsidised Sites. Where the rents are sufficient to pay working expenses 
and the market rate of interest on the cost of Ijuilding and the housing valuation of 
the land, but insufficient to pay the interest on the full actual cost of the site. These 
are mainly on slum or central sites in London. 

3. Non-Subsidi^d Dwellings. — Where the rents provide for the market rate 
of interest on all capital outlay as well as working expenses. 

The figures are as follows for all three classes : — 





Capita! 
Outlay. 


Rents. 


[Rates and 
Taxes. 


Repairs. 


Superin- 
tendence 

and 
Sundries. 


Total 
Working 
Expenses. 


Return 

on 
Outlay. 


Subsidised Sites 

and Buildings 

Subsidised Sites 

Non - Subsidised 

Dwellings ... 


£ 

997,c3i 
1,867,569 

796,880 


£ 

42,497 

119,785 

47,129 


£ 
8,840 

23,396 
11,916 


£ 
7,280 

21,344 
4,027 


£ 

2,058 
8,882 

1,466 


£ 
17,942 
53,622 

17,424 


2-47 
3-6 

376 


Percentage . . 


3,661,480 


209,411 

5"8 on outlay 


44,152 

21 'i of rent 


32,651 

i5'6of rent 


12,406 

5 "9 


88,988 

42-6 


3-29 



Worked out in the case of 12,000 rooms in cottages costing ;^67 per room, we 
get the following results ; — 

Average rent £1^ per room, or 1/6 per week. 
Rates £1 per room, or 5d. per week. 
Repairs 7/- per room, or Ifd. per week. 
Management 2/6 per room, or say id. per week. 
Total working expenses, j^i 9s. 6d. per room or 7d. per week. Gross 
profit 3fd. per cent, or iid. per week. 



CHAPTER VI. 

RURAL HOUSING. 

THE EXPERIENCE OF ENGLAND. 

A most valuable report on the subject of Rural Housing was 
presented to the House of Commons on the nth December, 1906, 
by Sir John Dickson-Poynder, M.P., as chairman of the Select 
Committee on the Housing of the Working Classes Amendment Bill, 
brought in by Mr. F. Mackarness, M.P., which passed its second 
reading on the 27th April, 1906. 

The outstanding facts brought to light by the evidence were : — 

1. That the Rural District Councils did not do their duty 

either under the Sanitary Acts or under the Housing Act 
of 1890, and that those who tried to act were met by all 
sorts of dangers and obstacles. 

2. That the County Councils, so far from stimulating the Rural 

Councils to provide better housing accommodation under 
Part HI of the Act, were either apathetic or put all sorts 
of obstacles in the way. 

3. That the various Central Authorities, while freely circularising 

the Councils as to their duties, either could not, or would 
not, give those facilities for securing cheap land, cheap 
building and cheap money, that are absolutely essential to 
the production of cottages at the normal rents prevailing in 
rural districts. 

4. That the laws with regard to Land, Housing, and Sanitary 

Administration were cumbrous, inadequate, and costly to 
carry out, and while burdening willing authorities with dear 
land, dear building, dear money, and difficult procedure, 
have failed to provide machinery for giving effect to 
enlightened public opinion as against the great power 
possessed in and over local authorities by those who are 
interested, or, rather, think they are interested, in opposing 
the improvement of existing dwellings and the provision of 
more and better new cottages. 

5. That even if the above-named legal and administrative 

difficulties were removed, new cottages could not be 
provided at the rents prevailing in many of the purely 
agricultural rural districts where, as survivals of the old 
" furniture of the estate " practice, labourers' cottages were 
let at nominal rents of from i/- to 2/- per week. 



125 

RESULTS OF RECENT INQUIRIES IN RURAL DISTRICTS. 

In June, 1906, the clerks and overseers in a number of rural and 
small urban districts were asked by the National Housing Reform 
Council to state the percentage of persons paying rents under 2/-, 3/-, 
4/-, 5/-, 6/- and over 6/- per week. The answers from 102 districts 
showed a total of percentages as follows : 

Under 2/- 3/- 4/- 5/- 6/- over 6/- 



935 1352 852 1147 874 867 

The explanation of the unexpectedly large number of comparatively 
high rents, is that the inquiries were largely made in the rural districts 
where the highest death-rate and worst overcrowding occur, and these 
are partly industrial, and men are able to pay more rent for bad 
accommodation. 

In reply to a question as to whether there was a scarcity of workmen's 
dwellings in the district, 54 replied yes; 54 replied no; and 10 were 
doubtful. 

Replying as to the causes of scarcity, 37 complained of the difficulty 
of getting land ; 9 complained of bye laws being too stringent or rigid ; 
4 complained that money was too dear ; 3 complained of the con- 
stitution of their councils ; 2 complained of influence of employers ; 
and 2 complained of bad or deficient water supply. 

In 16 districts there had been a house to house inspection of the 
district. In 9 districts part had been under house to house inspection. 
In 53 districts the inspection was only occasional and partial. In 34 
districts the answer was that there had been no definite inspection of 
the district. 

Returns from five rural cottage estates, with a capital outlay of 
;^8,ooo and rents of ;;/^3io, showed working expenses ^{^73, and net 
return on outlay ^237 or 2 '96 per cent. 

In the case of 21 rural authorities who had uced the compulsory 
powers of the Parish Councils Act for hiring or buying land, the price 
of land varied from ^i 6s to ^4 per acre, being over ^2 per acre in 
nearly every case, for hiring, and from _£6^ to ^100 for purchase, 
whereas the assessment for such land varied from ^i to ^i los. per 
acre — a rather marked disparity. 

The costs of order and award varied from ;^i6 to ^90, or an 
average of ;^5o in each case, equivalent to ;^3 6s. 8d. per acre 
acquired. In most cases the rent paid after compulsory hiring was 
about double the rent paid by the previous tenant. 

Mr. Wilson Fox issued questions to agricultural correspondents in 
rural districts asking whether the supply of cottages was insufficient or 
more than sufficient, and the replies showed that it was insufficient in 
56 cases, sufficient in in cases, and more than sufficient in 32 cases. 

Similar questions to various estate agents and landowners showed 
that it was insufficient in 9 districts, variable in 6 districts, sufficient in 
1 1 districts, and more than sufficient in 4 districts. 



126 

These returns probably err in the direction of understating the 
deficiency of cottages, for included in the districts said to be sufficiently 
supplied are Linton (Cambs.), Forehoe (Norfolk), Maldon (Essex), and 
Sevenoaks (Kent), where cottages have had to be built or applied for 
recently under Part 111 of the Act of 1890. 

Miss Constance Cochrane, whose name is a household word in 
connection with rural housing and sanitation, has enquired as to the 
number of bedrooms per cottage in 44 villages divided among 17 
counties. She found 464 cottages with only one bedroom, 1,852 with 
only two bedrooms, and 759 with three or more bedrooms. 

Similar enquiries as to wages and rents in rural districts showed an 
average wage of 12/9 per week in eleven villages in the Eastern 
Counties, and an average rent of 1/8 per week ; an average wage of 
16/5 per week in four villages in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, with an 
average rent of 3/1^ per week. 

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE 
ON RURAL HOUSING. 

The following are the recommendations of the Committee : — 

1. Transfer of the administration of the Pubhc Health and Housing of the 
Working Classes Acts from the rural district councils to the county councils, retaining 
to the rural district councils power to Vjuild under Part HI of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890, subject to confirmation by the Local Government Board. 

2. Statutory duty of county councils to appoint a medical officer or medical 
officers of health, and a sufficient number of sanitary inspectors for the purpose of 
carrying the statutes into execution. Proper qualifications, as prescribed from time to 
time by the Local Government Board, to be insisted upon. Officers to devote the 
whole of their time to the duties of their office, to hold their appointments during 
good behaviour, and to be removatde only with the consent of the Local Government 
Board. The Local Government Board to issue a more specific memorandum of 
instructions to medical officers of health, and to require compliance with the same. 
County council to appoint a statutory public health and housing committee. 

3. Register of survey of all buildings intended for human habitation to be com- 
piled and revised periodically. Owners of dwelling-house property to make an annual 
return of sanitary condition of every dwelling-house. Penalty for making false returns. 

4. The sections of the Public Health Act and Housing Act, which deal with 
sanitary defects (Sees. 91-96 Pubhc Health Acts, Sees. 30-39, Part H, Housing of 
the Working Classes Act), to be widened in their meaning, to include not only 
houses "dangerous or injurious to health," but houses in a bad state of repairer 
neglect. 

5. County council to be empowered, alone or in conjunction with council of 
adjoining county, to construct impoundini» reservoirs. 

6. County council to frame bye-laws for every district, subject to the approval of 
the Local Government Board. 

7. Local Government Board to register plans and specifications of model cottages. 

8. Simplification and codification of the law under the Public Health and 
Housing Acts. 

9. Statutory right of complaint to the Local Government Board of default of 
county council to be given to every rural district council, parish council, or parish 
meeting, or to any four householders. Local Government Board to hold inquiry and 
to make order enforceable by mandamus. Or the Local Government Board to be 
empowered to appoint a person or persons to execute such order, the consequent 
expense to be recoverable from the county council. 

10. Local Government Board to appoint a staff of travelling sanitary and 
housing inspectors to supervise the administration of the public health and housing 
laws by the county councils and their executive officers. 



127 



11. Simplification of the law for acquiring land compulsorily. 

12. The Treasury to lend money for the purposes specified in the report at the 
lowest rate at which the Treasury can themselves borrow {a) to local authorities 
(county council and rural district council) up to the full amount of the security upon 
the minimum terms ; {d) to public utility societies up to 75 per cent, of the security 
upon the minimum terms. Period of redemption of loan to be lengthened. System 
of increasing the rates or interest in proportion to the length of the period of loan to 
be abolished. 

13. Grants from the Exchequer to be allocated to and administered by the 
county councils at the discretion of the Local Government Board. 

APPLICATIONS TO ADOPT PART III 

The following particulars as to action attempted in rural districts 
have been taken from the report and other official sources. Following 
the tabular statement is the substance of the official reasons given by 
the various councils concerned, for such action as was taken or not 
taken in each case. 

Applications to adopt Part III were made by the following councils, 
all being Rural District Councils except those marked with an asterisk, 
in which cases action was taken by the Parish Council under sec. 6 of 
the Act of 1900. 

In each of the following cases Part III was adopted for the parish 
only or for contributory places, except East Grinstead, where it was 
adopted for the whole district and nothing done. 

Rural District. Parish. County Council. Result. 



Linton 


Linton... 


Cambridge 


granted. 


Malpas 


... Malpas 


Chester 


,, 


Sunderland 


Ryhope and Tunstall 


Durham ... 


,, 


'Chester-le-Street ... Usworth 


,, 


?) 


Maldon . . . 


Bradwell 


Essex 




'Pontardawe 


... Ystalj-fera 


Glamorgan 


shelved. 


King's Lang 


ey ... Chipperfield ... 


Herts 


uncertain. 


Mailing ... 


Mereworth 


Kent 


refused. 


Strood 


Rural district ... 


,, ... ... 


,, 


Tonbridge.. 


Hadlow 


,, 


,, 


Sevenoaks... 


Penshurst 


,, 


granted. 


Barrow-on-S 


oar ... Rural district ... 


Leicester.. 


refused. 


East Elloe.. 


... Whaplode 


Lincoln (Holland) 


,, 


Spalding .. 


... Donington, Moulton... 




granted. 


St. Faith's... 
,, 

." 


... Wroxham 
Horsford 
Great Witchingham .. 


Norfolk 


refused. 


Erpingham 


... Aylmerton 


,, 


,, 


Forehoe .. 


Costessey 


,, 


uncertain. 


Brixworth... 


... Rural district 


Northampton 


granted but 

dropped 


Hexham . . . 


,, ,, 


Northumberland 


refused. 


Thingoe . . . 


Ixworth 


Suffolk (West) ... 


granted. 


Croydon . . . 


Mitcham 


Surrey 


refused. 


Eastbourne 


Rural district ... 


Sussex (East) 


dropped. 


>» 


Pevensey, Westham 


5) )> 


refused. 


East Grinste 


ad ... Rural district ... 


)> >> 


granted but 

dropped. 


Westbury .. 


... Bratton 
... Edington 
Hey wood 


Wilts 


granted. 


j> 


... Dilton Marsh 


,, 


refused. 


Kiveton Par 


k ... Wales 


Yorks 


dropped. 



128 

APPLICATIONS REFUSED. 

NOTE.— The excuse in each case is that of the Cotittty Council responsible 
for the refusal in each case. 

Mereworth. — That the adoption of Part III would unduly burden the rates of 
the parish. 

Strood. — The necessary information was not furnished to enable the County 
Council to determine whether it was prudent for the District Council to adopt 
Part III. 

Hadlow. — The District Council failed to show that there was any demand for 
accommodation for the working classes. 

Barrow-on-Soar. — The need for increased accommodation was established, but 
the difficulty was met Ijy private enterprise, and no order was recommended. 

Wrox'ham. — A local landowner offered to build. [Note. — The application 
of the Council was refused, but the promised cottages were not built, and much trouble 
was experienced by several families until the member of parliament for the district 
built six new cottages.] 

Horsford. — The County Council stated that there were sufficient empty cottages 
in the parish to meet the difficulty. 

Hexham. — The County Council did not consider it prudent for the District 
Council to adopt the Act, inasmuch as they were not satisfied that accommodation 
would not be provided by private enterprise, and they feared that the project if 
carrieil ■ ut might impose a considerable liability on the rates. 

Mitcham. — The person who held the inquiry did not certify that accommodation 
was necessary. 

Eastbourne. — The result of the inquiry was to the effect that there was no want 
of accommodation in the rural district generally. 

Pevensey. — It appears unjust that the ratepayers of the whole rural district 
should provide the capital to build the cottages, the freehold of which would 
ultimately pass to Pevensey and Westham. [It was urged by opponents of the 
housing scheme that the District Council would have to pay 2/6 a week per cottage 
to enable the dwellings to be let at 2/6 per week.] 

Diiton Marsh. — The Council refused their consent on the ground that the 
circumstances of the parish did not render the intervention of the Rural District 
Council necessary. 

Kiveton Park. — An inquiry was opened by the County Council and adjourned. 
An offer of 1 ind on lease subsequently received by the Rural District Council made it 
unnecessary to proceed further with the inquiry. 

Great Witchingham — The District Council could not furnish any idea of the 
cost of any scheme and to what extent it would effect the ratepayers ; therefore the 
County Council did not deem it prudent to grant consent. 

Whaplode.— When it was f lund that the expenses incidental to the adoption of 
Part III would fall on the parish, there was such strong opposition from the 
parishioners that the County Council decided not to grant their consent to the 
adoption. 

East Grinstead. — Municipal action stirred ut) private enterprise. 

The following letter, written on March 25th, 190T, to the Local 
Government Board, fully explains the case here, and incidentally drives 
home what is so often the case, that dormant or suspended private 
enterprise is stimulated to action by steps being taken to carry out a 
municipal scheme. 

Sir, — Referring to your letter of 13th instant, I am directed to reply that the 
Rural District Council, after local enquiry held by the East Sussex County Council, 
obtained an order enabling them to adopt Part III of the Housing of the Working 
Classes Act 1890, in the latter part of the year 1895, and in January, 1896, they 
communicated with all the parish councils in their district, and from the replies they 
received it appeared that in three parishes there was no urgent need for more 
cottages ; in another parish the Parish Council expressed their intention of making- 
inquiries, and in the remaining parish it was stated that cottages which could be let 



129 

at 3/- or 3/6 a week were needed, but that new cottages which had been erected in 
that parish were fetching 5/6 and 6/- a week. In all parishes it was found there 
would be great difficulty in the Council obtaining land for the erection of cottages at 
a reasonable price, and the Council, considering that the local inquiry would probably 
lead to the erection of more cottages in the district, took no further action in the 
matter. The following return shows that the anticipation of the Rural District 
Council was realised, and they believe that the new bye-law, very recently confirmed 
by the Local Government Board, under which cheaper cottages can be erected, will 
have the effect of further increasing the number of new cottages erected in the rural 
district. The return gives from 1895 to 1900 a list of new cottages erected : In 1895, 
15 ; in 1896, 39 ; in 1897, 38 ; in 1898, 46 ; in 1899, 39 ; in 1900, 59, making a 
total of 236. 

APPLICATIONS GRANTED BUT SCHEMES DROPPED. 

Moulton. — The reason given by the Clerk to the Parish Council for the failure 
to take action was that the rate of interest, 4 J per cent., at present charged by the 
Public Works Loan Commissioners on loans repayable in fift}' yeais was far too high. 

Costessey. — The Forehoe Rural District Council gave the rate of interest 
charged by the Public Works Loan Commissioners as a reason for not adopting the 
Act for Costessey. 

Donington. — The failure to acquire land at a reasonable price prevented the 
District Council from carrying out a scheme. 

Brixworth. — The District Council took no further action after the certificate 
was granted. 

THE ERPINGHAM CASE. 

Aylmerton and Great Witchingham. — The Erpingbam Union over ten years 
ago tried to put Part III of the Act in force, without- success, but in 1902 the evil had 
become so acute that they again applied to the Norfolk County Council for an 
inquiry. The County Council said, " Vou must name one parish where you say the 
need exists."' The effect of this, of course, is not only, to make the provision of 
cottages for all the forty-eight parishes an interminable matter, but to throw all the 
expense on a tiny area. By preventing the whole Union from co-operating the law, 
as generally administered, makes a sufficient scheme an int Jerable burden to the 
selected parish. The District Council named the parish of Aylmerton, and the 
County Council decided in 1903 to g ant an inquiry, but little else has been done. 

As the result of a question in the House of Commons, the following 
two interesting letters were written. They explain the whole case, and 
throw an important light on the main reason for the dropping of several 
rural housing schemes elsewhere. In reply to a request for information, 
the Clerk to the Norfolk County Council wrote to the Local Govern- 
ment Board on August 17th, 1903 : — ■ 

The Rural District Council of Erpingham on the I3'h of March last, applied to 
the Norfolk County Council for powers to adopt Part III of the liousing of 
the Working Classes Act, 1890, with respect to the parish of Aylmerton, but they 
have since withdrawn such application. In amplification of the foregoing reply, I 
beg to Slate that a similar application was received at the same time from St. F'ailh's 
Rural District Council, with respect to the parish of Great Witchingham. Both were 
laid before the County Council, and Sir William Ffolkes, the chairman of the County 
Council, was directed to hold an enquiry at Great Witchingham into that application, 
and the F.arl of Kimberley to hold an enquiry at Alymerton in respect of the 
Erpingham one. The Witchingham enquiry was first_ held, and I beg to enclose a 
copy of Sir William Ffolkes' report thereon. On the' 31st day of July, I wrote by 
direction of the Earl of Kimberley, to the Erpingham District Council, with a copy 
of Sir William Ffolkes' report, which had been adopted by the County Council in 
July, and requesting to know whether they would be ready with any scheme for 
supplying better cottage accommodation at Aylmerton, the cost of carrying it out, 
what return in the shape of rent, and what liability would fall upon the rates. I 

F 



130 

received a reply to such letter from them on the 14th in.st., stating I hat they were not 
prepared with any scheme, and that their Council had resolved that, in view of the 
facts which have come to the knowledge of the Council, they do not at present take 
any further action in the matter. Herewith are appended the report of the 
Witchingham inquiry, my letter to the Erpingham District Council and their reply. 
Owing to the application having been withdrawn, the County Council are not aware 
of the merits of this particular case, but speaking generally, the stumbling block in 
all these cases appears to be, that under section 2 of the Act of igoo, /paragraph D, 
the County Council shall have regard to the liability which would be incm red by the 
rates, and to the question whether it is, tender all the circumstances, prudent for the 
District Council to adopt the said part of the Act. It is perfectly clear that suitable 
cottages cannot be built and let at a rent which will save the rates from liability and 
loss, and it can never, therefore, be pi'iHent for the District Coimcil from a financial 
point of vi CIV to adopt the Act. As long', therefore, as this clause defines the 
law, it is very unlikely that the Act will be put into force in the rural districts 
of a poor agricultural county. 

On the 8th September, 1903, the Local Government Board replied 
to the letter in question as follows : — 

I am directed by the Local Government Board to advert to your letter of the 17th 
ultimo, with reference to the applications which were made to the Norfolk County 
Council in March last by the rural district councils of Erpingham and St. Faith's for 
powers to adopt Part III of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890 ; and as 
regards the statement made at the end of your letter, I am to state that it does not 
appear to the Board that there is any provision in section 2 (2) of the Act of 1900 
which requires that it shall be shown in every case that suitable houses can be built 
and let at a rent which will save the rates from liability and loss before the County 
Council can consent to the adoption of Part III of the principal Act by a rural 
district council. 

The following paragraphs throw a strong light on the mischievous 
conditions that have had to be tolerated in the Union in question : — 

Mr. Tuddenham, the Sanitary Inspector of the Erpingham Union, found at 
Bodham, not far from Sheringham, thirteen people sleeping in two small attics — 
parents and eleven children of Vjoth sexes, from 25 years old downwards. At 
Roughton a most respectable family — two parents, f^ne grandparent, four girls, aged 
12, 10, 5, and 2, and five boys, aged 20, 18, 16, 14, and 7 — slept in two small rooms. 
At Thorpe Market six people slept in a room nine feet by seven and a half. At 
Northrepps nine people slept in two small rooms, at East Runton ten people in two 
small rooms, at Hanworth twelve people in two small rooms. Besides the parents, 
there were daughters aged 20, 18, 16, and 5, and sons aged 22, 14, 11, 9, 3, and 2. 

In spite of this terrible overcrowding, which goes on unchecked from year to 
year, the number of cottages is yearly going down. At Roughton four cottages have 
gone out of use in the last four years. At Aylmerton ten cottages have gone in the 
past few years, at Beckham seven, at Bodham five, and so on right through the Union. 

Difficulties at Costessey (Forehoe R.D.C.). — The difficulties 
attending housing reform in rural districts are fully illustrated in the 
appended report of a discussion at a recent meeting of the Forehoe 
Rural District Council. It will be seen — 

(i) That first the sanitary law could not be enforced owing to 
the scarcity of cottages. 

(2) That the granting of the scheme involved the fear of a 
burden on the rates, and especially on the small area, 
and was consequently opposed. 



COSSEY HOUSING TROUBLES. 

Mr. Gunton presented the report of the Sanitary Committee, which called 
special attention to the report of the Medical Officer of Health, on the sanitary 
arrangements at Bird Cage Row, Cossey. 

Dr. Lack reported that the sanitary arrangements of these cottages were 
inefficient, and that two of them were overcrowded. Ihe owner had, however, given 
the occupiers notice to quit, and had promised to improve the sanitary arrangements 
according to his suggestion. 

Mr. Gunton said he believed the owner was about to apply for an order of 
ejection in one case, bitt the tenant could get no one in Costessey to let htm have a 
larger house because ot his large Jatnily. It was a hard case. 

Mr. Oldfield said the owner was also in a difficult position. 

Dr. Lack said the house was too small for the family, and therefore they must 
have notice to quit, while the people at Costessey protested against an eviction. 
What was the owner to do ? 

Mr. Fryer thought the Council had not had a scheme that would be likely to 
benefit labouring men. Some time since, when it was proposed lo put the Housing 
Act in force in Wymondham, they were told that if it was adopted Wymondham 
would have to pay. But now he found that Costessey did not want the cottages 
if they had to pay for them. He should most s rongly object lo the burden being 
thrown on to the whole district. If they did, then Wymondham might as well ask 
for sixty cottages. The rents of the cottages proposed were too high for labouring men, 
and they would, no doubt, be occupied by workers at the brickyard or at the mills. 

It may be added that the District Council are considering a scheme 
for the erection of twelve cottages in couples, on 3^ acres of land, so 
as to give 32 rods of garden for tach tenant. The houses, estimated to 
cost ^200 each inclusive, are to have two rooms and scullery below, 
with three bedrooms above, and to be let at a rent of 2/6 a week, which 
would probably involve a deficiency of ^32 to be met from the rates. 

The following is the official reply to an inquiry on the subject : — 

We want a cottage with three bedrooms and \ acre garden, rent not more than 
£^ 5s- per annum. 

My Council would have put the Act in force, but are met with the difficulty that 
the interest and repayment of a loan from the Public W'^rks Loan Commissi ners 
would result in a hea\y loss to the ratepayers. 

There is a deficiency of decent houses in some parishes, the cause undoubtedly 
being that with the present agricultural outlook very few landlords can afford to 
build cottages. 

The remedy we suggest is that the Public Works Loan Commissioners should 
advance money' to the rural district councils, who are willing and desirous to adopt 
the Act, at say 3 per cent for a long term of years. We do not consider that, as at 
present, the P. W.C. should only lend money to the public when they get a fairly 
large profit. In this district a double cottage could not be built in a substantial 
manner for less than ;^350 (or £i7S each inclusive), including cost of site. The 
chairman of our Sanitary Committee has gone very closely into the mat'er, he 
estimates that at the present rate of interest charged by the P.W.L C, to build four 
good cottages would entail a loss to the rates of about i|d. in the pound, and in 
point of fact XQxy few (if any) ricral disrict councils have put the Housing of the 
Working Classes in force, sitnply because of ihe loss which tnust ensue at present rate 
of interest charged for loans. 

NEED FOR HOUSING COMMISSIONERS. 
The Chipperfield Case. — The ex:|)erience of an attempt to put 
Part III into operation in tlie village of Chipperfield, adjoining Kings 
Langley, Herts., as well as the cases above mentioned, shows that an 
effective power of appeal by labourers to a Central Authority with 
Commissioners as in the Small Holding Act, is absolutely necessary if 
the Act is to be anything but a dead letter. 



132 

Three years ago Mr. Arthur Aronson moved a resolution at the 
Kings Langley Parish Council to the effect that there was a dearth of 
cottages in Chipperfield, and that the District Council be asked to 
exercise their powers under Part III of the Act of i8go. A report 
was prepared by a committee of inquiry appointed by the Parish 
Council, confirmed by a second committee, accepted by the Parish 
Council, and forwarded by it to the District Council, with a request 
that the District Council would take action to supply the deficiency. 

The County Council, however, ultimately held an inquiry, and the 
evidence was so strong that the Commissioners decided it was desirable 
to prepare a scheme, but instead of carrying it out they referred the 
report to the Parish Council for their opinion. It may be mentioned 
in passing, as an illustration of the difficulties, that the chairman of the 
Parish Council (who was opposed to the application of the Housing 
Act) was .the chief landowner in the district, and also chairman of the 
District Council, and is, in addition, the local member of the County 
Council. 

The dearth of cottages as admitted in the report, and the condition 
of existing cottages was declared to te bad. 

The District Council, however, instructed its own Medical Officer 
of Health to make an independent report, which he did^ and sub- 
stantially confirmed the Parish Council's report in all salient 
features, admitting that there was a want of cottages, and stating that 
the cottagers were afraid to complain, for if they did so, they would 
probably get notice to quit. 

Notwithstanding this, the District Council refused to build, but 
proceeded to tinker with existing cottages (many of which can never 
be made to conform to iheir own bye-laws). This has had the effect in 
many instances of raising the rents, and as notices were served on 
some of the cottagers to abate overcrowding, the position became worse 
than it was before, because there were no houses lo turn to. 

The Kings Langley Parish Council then appealed direct to the 
County Council under sec. 6 of the Act of 1900. The County 
Council asked the District Council why it refused to build, and its 
excuse was in effect : "7/ aoriciiVtiral labotirers alone lived in the 
village, the accovmwaation would i>e ample" That is to say, that if all 
labourers, other than those that worked on the land, such as brick- 
layers, roadmen, and others, were deported, the housing problem would 
be solved — and this at a time when all classes and parties are lamenting 
the evils ol rural depopulation. 

The dearth of cottages is most serious. For the sons and daughters 
of a labourer to get married is out of the question, as there is never a 
single cottage to let. 

Mr. Aronson says : — 

A labourer's wife (whose name I am quite willing to furnisli) came to me with a 
notice in her hand, served upon her to desist from overcrowding (there were two 
families in her cottage), and asked me what was to be done. She said she had tried 
to get a cottage, not only in this village, but also in the two adjoining ones, but 
without success. We have some 60 per cent, less children in our schools than we 
]iad fifteen years ago. The young and the vigorous are rushing away as from a 
plague, and we are left with the old and infirm. 



133 

The County Council admitted the need, and suggested the building 
of ten cottages at Chipperfield, but estimated that the scheme would 
involve a rate of i^d. in the ^, and sent a report to the Parish 
Council for their observations, but at the Parish Council election the 
inhabitants of Kings Langley, who had the greater share of voting 
power, opposed the scheme, and returned a new council [pledged to 
oppose it. 

There are really two separate parishes (Kings Langley and 
Chipperfield) under the same parish council, and the inhabitants of 
Kings Langley feared they would have to pay rates for the benefit of 
Chipperfield, so local feeling and selfishness were brought in to the aid 
of the slum owners, thus accounting for the complete rout of the 
advocates of better housing which ensued. The matter is n )w in 
abeyance. 

ACTION BY OTHER RURAL DISTRICT COUNCILS. 

Driffield (R.D.C.) — High rates of mortality from pneumonia 
and bronchitis, due largely to unsatisfactory bedroom accommodation, 
have been reported. The Council in this district have done nothing 
and will do nothing under Housing Acts. 

Sunderland (Rural). — Part HI has been adopted for Ryhope 
and Tunstall. It is proposed to build at Ryhope twelve two-roomed 
dwellings at 3/9, twelve three-roomed dwellings at 4/3, eleven three- 
roomed dwellings at 4/9, and 26 four-roomed dwellings at 5/9 per week. 
At Tunstali there will be twelve two-roomed dwellings at 3/9, twelve 
three-roomed dwellings at 4/3 to 4/9, and 2^ four-roomed dwellings at 
5/9 per week. The Ryhope dwellings will cost ^11,000. Those at 
Tunstall will cost ^10,500. A difficulty has arisen, however, with 
reference to the site and ground rents. 

Usworth (RD.C.) — Out of 542 houses inspected, 266 or 49 per 
cent, ae overcrowded, in many cases the walls are of soft limestone, 
which absorbs rain, and they are frequently without proper floors. The 
colliery owners are principal ratepayers, and have not provided sufficient 
cottages. The Parish Couucil appealed under section 6 of the Act ol 
1900, because the District Council of Chester le-Street refused to adopt 
Part HI, and they proved their case. The County Council now pro- 
poses to buy five acre? of land at ^350 per acre, for the erection of 
cottages under Part III. 

Yeovil (R.D.C.) — An inquiry has been held showing that there 
were in the district 113 houses with only one bedroom, 1391 houses 
with only two bedrooms. Four parishes said there were insufficient 
accommodation and 230 insanitary cottages. The Council has de- 
ferred the adoption of Part III till the Rural Housing Bill is passed. 

SCHSMES CARRIED OUT UNDER PART III. 

Only two rural housing schemes, comprising 14 cottages, are 
described in the Housing Handbook, but since then 40 additional 
cottages have been built or planned at Bradwell (Maldon R.D.C), 
Bratton (Westbury R-D.C), Linton (Linton R.D.C), Malpas (Malpas 



^34 



R.D.C), and Penshurst (Sevenoaks R.D.C.)- The following particulars 
about them may be interesting. All the councils have had to pay too 
much for land, buildings, and interest, and in several cases rents had 
to be increased beyond the original estimate to meet the difficulty. 



Parish. 


No. of 
Cottages. 


Cost of 

land 
per acre. 


Cost of 

land 

per cottage. 


Cost of 

building 

per cottag 


e. 


Rents 
per week. 






£ 


£ s. d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 




Bradwell 


6 


200 


8 13 4 


223 








3/6 


Bratton 


4 


200 


10 


240 








3/6 


I^inton 


lO 


50 


1 2 10 


130 








2/6 


Malpas 


12 


1 00 


900 


187 


10 





3/9 


Penshurst 


8 say 130 


lease 


232 








4/- to 4/9 



Penshurst — Warren Cottages. — No land could be bought as 
a site for the second scheme in this village, so an acre of land was 
takeh on lease for 99 years at ^5 5s. per annum, and eight cottages 
have been built for ^^1,860 (borrowed at 3^ per cent.), and let at 4/- to 
4/9 per week The walls are of double brick, with air spaces between 
up to the first floor, but above that weather tiles nailed on brick. Six 
houses have three bedrooms and two have only two bedrooms. Dr. 
Poore's open-air drainage system is not quite successful owing to the 
sharp fall of the ground at the rear of the cottages. Each cottage is 
assessed at £6 los , and the r:.tes, which are compounded, amount to 
about 6d. per week per cottage. I'he rate in the ;£ to meet the annual 
loss is ■13d., an expense which money at the market rate of interest 
would easily have avoided. 

Miss Anne Escombe has kindly given the following interesting 
information : — 

I collect ihe rents and add 6d. a week per rate (poor and special expenses) ; the 
rates now slightly exceed 6d. a week, even when compounded for. The Parish 
Councillors agree that the rates derived from the co tages may be expended in repairs, 
reckoning which the second scheme of houses is self-supporting. 

The loan for the Pioneer Cottages was contrary to the wishes and ai-rangenient 
with the Parish Council, made repayable in equal half-yearly instalments, instead of 
by annuity covering the expense. This may be eventually of benefit, but it is hard 
on the ratepayers. 

All our expenses for building, or rather our council's, were calculated on interest 
at j\per cent., but at the end 0/ the lo7t^ process of delay the amount was raised, we 
fouitd, to j2 per cent. 

The cottages have been continuously let, six weeks' rent being lost during the 
whole time, and the whole of it when cottages vacated on account of the occupants' 
change of employment. Any expenses incurred for so-called repairs has been in 
relation I o smoking chimneys, changes of kitchen ranges found unsuitable when the 
cottages were first occupied. We should plan differently now, for the cottages with 
only a kitchen and scullery, as the tenants mostly live in what we meant for a 
scullery, but has now become a small living room, the large room being used only 
occasionally. Otherwise the cottages are, I think, satisfactory. 

Bradwell (Maldon R.D.C, Essex). — Six cottages have been 
built at a total cost of ;^i,45o inclusive, on an acre of land costing 
£\^ There are on the ground floor parlour, living room, and kitchen 
8 feet high, and on the first floor three bedrooms 8 feet 6 inches high. 
They are let at 3/6 each per week. The loans were ;^i,25o at 3I per 
cent., and ^200 at 4^ per cent f I 



135 

Bratton (Westbury, Wilts.)- — Four houses have been built at 
a cost of ^887 on land costing ^30 for 32 perches (at the rate ot 
^150 per acre), or a whole cost, with architect's fees, etc., of ^970. 
Each house has two rooms and scullery on the ground floor, and three 
bedrooms on the first fioor, and is let at 3/6 per week, tenant paying 
rates. The Clerk to the Council writes : — 

In this village there is not now a great need of cottages, the population at the 
last census was only 560. 

In building the before-mentioned block of four cottages, the chief difficulties 
met with by the Westbury R.D.C. arose from the stringent requirements of the 
L.G.B., from whom we had to wait long for sanction to borrow. 

There was a scarcity of workmen's dwellings, but since the R.D. C. tniitt one or 
two private owners have built also. 

Linton. — Application was made by this Council to the County 
Council, on behalf of five pari'^hes in the district, but the others are 
standing over until Linton has gone through. Land is being obtained 
from a small owner, as the big landlords did not care to provide land 
near the village. The clerk wrote as follows in June, 1906 : 

As regards the closing of unhealthy dwellings, this Council could close several 
in Linton, but there is nowhere for the families to go except the Workhouse. We 
are proposing to build len cottages, and almost every one is spoken for. It is hoped 
to build for ;r^l30 per cottage, then let at 2/6 per week. Land cost £i2.z^ for 2' acres. 

Provided the money could be obtained from the Loan Commissioners at a fair 
rate, there would be litile or no charge on the rates. As it is we anticipate about a 
penny rate. 

Malpas. — A loan of ^2,500 was obtained for 60 years, and 
twelve cottages provided at an estimated annual cost to the rates of 
jQw per annum on an assessable value of ^4,891. Only part of the 
land has been used, and a rent of ^4 per annum is being derived from 
the unbuilt portion. The clerk to the Council says : — 

The Government should give greater facilities for obtaining money at a reasonable 
rate of interest. We tried every possilile means but failed to get advance under 
4 per cent. The land was acquired at ^100 per acre. We purchased 2\ acres, and 
intend putting up 12 more cottages if found to an.swer. 

ACTION BY LANDOWNERS UNDER IMPROVEMENT 
OF LANDS ACTS. 

Landowners have borrowed under the Improvement of Lands Acts 
a sum of nearly ^18,000,000 for improving their agricultural estates, 
the annual loan payment being met by "charging orders" of the Board 
of Agriculture on the lands improved, and the commonest period being 
40 years. Only p^i, 258,535 of this amount was for labourers' cottages. 
The sums chai-ged in respect of 80 cottages built in 18 different 
counties during the year 1905 were as follows : — 

5 single cottages costing about ^243 per cottage. 

26 pairs of cottages costing about ^"218 per cottage. 

23 cottages in blocks of three to six costing about ^212 per 
cottage. 

For 80 cottages the average was about ^218 each. 



136 
THE EXAMPLE OF IRELAND. 

( H'lKSing Handbook pf^. ijg an i J2-J4). 

At the end of March, 1906, there were 20,634 cottages erected in 
Ireland under the Labourers Acts, and in that year a new Act, the 
Labourers (Ireland) Act 1906, was passed, giving still greater facilities 
for houses for labourers. 

As the Labourers (Ireland) Acts have, in comparison with ihe 
Housing A.ct of 1890, been so effective in securing the provision of 
labourers' cottages in rural districts, a somewhat full account of their 
provisions and the proceedings under them up to the present time will be 
most useful to those interested in the welfare of the English rural labourer. 

The I abourers' Cottages and Labourers' (Ireland) Acts consist of 
the Acts of 1 88 1, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, 1891, 1892, 1896, 1897, as 
consolidated or amended by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, 
sections 93 to 97 of the Irish Land Act 1903, and finally the Labourers 
(Ireland) Act 1906. 

I he main and vital elements in the law and practice as to the 
provision of cheap cottages for Irish labourers are : 
(i) The representation. 
(2) The simple procedure. 
( -^) Cheap money. 

(4) The subsidies. 

(5) The machinery of administration, including 

(a) the central authority. 

(b) the central fund or funds. 
The provisions as to these are as follows : 
Representation. — Where "the existing house accommodation for 

agricultural labourers and their families is deficient, having regard to 
the ordinary requirements of the district, or is unfit for human habitation 
owing to dilapidation, want of air, light, ventilation, or other convenience, 
or to any other other sanitary defects," a representation may be made 
to the sanitary authority, '" who shall . . . proceed to make an im- 
provement scheme." Under the original Act this representation was to 
be signed by not less than twelve persons, rated for the relief of the 
poor withii"! the sanitary district, but this has been modified by the Acts 
of 1 89 1, 1903 and 1906, so that now any three persons are sufficient, 
whether rated or not, provided in the latter event that they are 
agricultural labourers working in the district, sec. i (2). 

The definition of agricultural labourer is extended by Sec. 97 of 
the Act of T903, to " any person (other than a domestic or menial 
servant), working for hire in a rural district, whose average wages do not 
exceed2/6a day,and who is notin occupation of land exceeding one acre." 

The plan of enabling representations to be made is very effective 
for bringing about the building of cottages, but it is now provided that the 
Council may initiate a scheme upon a report of the Irish Land 
Commission or without any representation at all, and the Local 
Government Board, if satisfied that the District Council have failed 
to make an adequate scheme, may step in and carry out a scheme 
themselves (sec. 7). 



137 

At first 14 days' notice had to be given of the Council meeting to 
consider a representation, but this has been reduced to seven, and the 
three days' notice required of every meeting called in connection with 
a decision as to the representation is now only required in regard to a 
meeting at which the final resolution is passed (Lab. Act, 1896). 

The procedure consists of ten steps — 

1. The representation. 

2. Council adopts scheme. 

3. Advertisement of scheme. 

4. Notices to owners and occupiers. 

5. Petition for confirmation of scheme. 

6. Local inquiry. 

7. Provisional order made and served. 

8. Report of service of order. 

9. Confirmation or disallowance of order by L.G. B. 
10. Application for loan to County Council or Land 

Commission. 

Confirmation of Scheme. — In the case of the purchase of land 
by agreement, it is no longer necessary to use the complicated machinery 
of scheme, petition local inquiry, notices, etc., but the scheme may 
become absolute on the inquiry into the loan, thus saving six or seven 
steps and four or five months in point of time. The Inspector holds 
an inquiry and makes the order, while the appeal is to the Local 
Government Board instead of to the Privy Council. 

The publication of the scheme " during three consecutive weeks in 
the month of September or October or November," has been reduced 
to " any two consecutive weeks " (Lab. Act 1896). 

The original requirement that the notices on the owners of land 
proposed to be taken compulsorily should be served " during the month 
next following the month in which such advertisement is published," 
has been altered to provide thit such notices could be served at the 
same time as or any time after the publication of the advertisement. 

Owners or lessees must reply to notices for compulsory taking of 
land within 21 days (Sec. 4), but the notice must have a plan attached 
sufficient to enable the person to identify the land proposed to be taken. 

A provisional order, after being served on persons interested, is to 
be confirmed by the Local Government Board, and has the effect of an 
Act of Parliament, unless within one month a petition is presented 
against it (Sec. 6, 2). 

If a petition is presented, the Local Government Board, after con- 
sideration of a full repv^rt of the evidence of the original inquiry, and 
after such further local inquiry (if any), as they may deem necessary, 
may either confirm the order with or without amendment, and the 
County Court may award costs, to be paid by or to the petitioner or any 
party opposing the petition (Sec. 6, 4). 

Before the Act of 1906, the chief drawbacks on the operation of the 
Acts were: (i) The great delay, averaging two years between the 
inception of the scheme and the acquisition of the sites. (2) The un- 
necessary expenses of carrying out schemes. fi 



138 

A return issued in April, 1904, showed that the incidental expenses 
of carrying out schemes for 4,092 cottages had been, law costs 
^34,342 or ;^8 per cottage ; engineering expenses (exclusive of fixed 
salaries) ;^i 5, 221 or ^{^3 15s. per cottage, and miscellaneous expenses 
such as advertising and the preparation of provisional orders, ^^24, 123 
or .-,^6 per cottage, thus making a total of ;^73,686 or ;^i8 8s. per 
cottage, as against ;!^78,469 or ^19 12s. per cottage for the land. 

In one district the law costs averaged ^42 per cottage, in 
another ^4 i6s., in another district ^44 per cottage, and in another 
not far away, ^3 7s. In one case where the compensation awarded 
by the arbitrators was ^34, the costs of owner's solicitor for proving 
title w-ere ;£6^. 

It may be mentioned that solicitors' and engineers' fees have 
been strictly limited by the new rules. Another factor in the cost of 
the cottage is determined by the rate of wages obtaining in rural dis- 
tricts for masons, 18/- to 22/- a week. 

The conditions as to building have been that there should be a 
kitchen and at least two bedrooms, every habitable room to be at least 
8ft. high except attics, where half the area of the room must be 7ft. ; 
each habitable room to have windows with area of at least yV of the 
floor space ; all bedroom floors to be boarded or tiled ; the ground 
floor should be 9 inches above the external ground, and a proper 
privy should be constructed at least loft. away from the dwelling house. 

Cost of Building. — At first, cottages of stone, brick, or concrete, 
with slate roofs, including expenses, averaged only ^iro for building, 
but the average cost now, including half an acre of land, is ;!^i5o, owing 
to the increase in price of building materials and the absence of 
effective competition among builders. The contract prices have been 
lower for large quantities, while the legal and other incidental expenses 
have only been about the same for many cottages as for few, if provided 
under one scheme Altogether 20,634 cottages have been built, and 887 
are being built at a total cost, including site and expenses, amounting to 
^^3,415,280 or ^159 per cottage, though the prevailing figure is ;!{^i5o. 

Rural district councils in Ireland have managed the building 
economically and effectually, erring as a rule on the side of economy. 
The number of cottages authorised up to 31st March, 1899, when the 
Irish Local Government Act came into operation was 16,056 or an 
average of 1033 for each of the sixteen years since the first Labourers 
Act came into operation. The number of additional cottages 

authorised up to 31st March, 1906, was 8,260, making 24,316 in all. 

The loans up to 1899 were ^1,958,680 or _;^i3o,5oo per annum, 
and since that date have been ^,'1,456,600 or _;^2o8,ooo per annum. 
The cottages provided up to 1906 were : 

Built. Building. 

Ulster ... 1,663 ••• 204 

Munster ... 10 617 ... 235 

Leinster ... 8,018 ... 384 

Connaught ... 336 ... 64 

20,634 887 



139 

Under the Act of igo6 money may be obtained for rural housing 
from the PubUc Works Commissioners up to a total ^4,250,000, re- 
payable by annuities of ^3 5s. per cent, for 68^ years, as in the case of 
the Irish Land Act 1903, thus saving the ratepayers jQi 12s. 2d. on 
each ^100, or say ^£2 8s. 3d. per cottage, nearly i/- a week. 

Analysis of cost of builditig. — The following analysis of the cost of 
building a cottage last year, in Ireland, under the Labourers Acts, may 
be interesting : 

Excavation, 14 cubic feet, at 6d. 

Masonry in foundations and walls, 59 cubic yards, at 13/- ... 
Windows, 5r square feet, at 2/3 
Chimney breast and shaft, \\\ cubic yards, at 20 - 
Doors, 59 square feet, at 1/2 

Concrete flooring in kitchen, 23 square yards, at 3/- 
Other floors, boarded, 2 squares, at 37/6 
Window sills, 1 6 cubic feet, at 2/3 
Studded brick partitions, i^ squares, at 27/6 
Roofing complete, 7 i squares, at 70/- ... 
Eaves, gutters, and pipes, 12 lengths, at 2/6 
Plastering and dashing external walls, 102 sq. yds., at lod. 
Plastering and whitewashing internal walls, 138 square yards, 

at 8d. 
Plastering and whitewashing ceilings, 52 yards, at 1/3 
Door call 6/-, and heel blocks 8/- 
Painting and bargeboards 

Fitting up press is,/-, fire guards ro/-, bracket and sheeting 15/- 
Hanging gate posts 20/-, entrance gullet ^2 ics. 
Privy of galvanised iron on wood 
Fencing ... 
Gates and posts 

Overseeing 42/, advertising 20/- 
Contingencies 5 per cent, on ^129 

Total ... ^141 17 I 

Subsidy from the Imperial Exchequer. A sum of ^^37,000 
per annum for rural districts, known as the Exchequer Contribution, was 
formerly distributed in proportion to the expenditure in 1887 on main 
roads, but it is now altered by the Act of 1906, so that each district 
will receive a pro rata amount equal to ^i 9s. per cottage already 
built, from an annual grant of ;^3 1,000 for the purpose of meeting the 
deficiency on existing cottages. The sum of ,^,22,000 from the 
Labourers' Cottage fund is to be taken annually for paying 16 per cent, 
of the annuities on labourers' cottages, and a further sum of ;?{!^28,ooo 
from the Ireland Development Grant is to be applied in paying another 
20 per cent, of the annuities. 

Subsidies from the rates. — By the original Act local authorities were 
empowered to levy a rate not exceeding 1/- in the jQ for housing the 
labourers, which if reached throughout Ireland would be ;z{^56 1,000 per 
annum, but the maximum rate in any district was io"8id., and the 



£ 


s. 


d. 





7 





38 


7 





5 


14 


9 


1 1 


10 





3 


8 


10 





9 





3 


IS 





I 


16 





2 


I 


6 


26 


5 





I 


10 





4 


5 





4 


1 2 





3 


5 








14 





1 


6 





2 


c 





3 


10 





4 


10 





7 








3 








3 


2 





6 


9 






143 

total amount of the subsidy actually taken from the rates was ^63,000. 
Repairs and management bring the total charge on the rates up to- 
^2 17s. 6d. per cottage. As a general rule the farmers raise little or no 
objection to the labourers having cottages and land on rate-aided terms. 
Proportion of payments of rent. — Formerly the tenant paid }^%, the 
ratepayers i|, and the Imperial Exchequer ^ of the cost of the cottages, 
but under the new scheme of higher rents (1/6 instead of 1/3), it will 
be tenant 15^ thirty-thirds, ratepayer 6h thirty-thirds, and the Govern- 
ment II thirty-thirds. 

Effect oj subsidised rents on 7vaxes. — I'he average rate of wages has 
gone up during the last six years by 8i per cent or gd. per week from 
10/2 to lo/ii, but this is attributed to the labourer being more 
independent through not living in a "tied cottage." 

Rents and rates. — The average rents for a good house and half an 
acre of land are now iid. per week with rates, an addition of about 2d. 
per week as compared with r/- or 1/3 per week formerly paid to the 
farmer for smoky, sooty, and insanitary cabins, with little or no land. 
Near Dublin the rents are from 1/9 to 2/6 a week. In view of the 
increase of gardens from ^ to i acre, it is anticipated that the labourers- 
will be able to pay about 20 per cent, more rent in certain cases, say 
1/6 instead of .1/3, and 1/3 instead of i/- 

Repairs, collection., ana tttsi/rance. — 'fhe collector gets as a rule 5 per 
cent. ; repairs average 15/- per cottage ; insurance 1/6 per cottage, or a 
total roughly of about 25/- per cottage per annum. 

Loan expetises. — The average annual charge for principal and 
interest on existing cottages at ;z£ 150 has been been ^^7 5s. gd., showing 
an adverse balance of ^4 17s. gd. after the receipt of rents ^£2 8s. 
per annum. The total loan expenses in 1905 were in round figures 
;^i 52,090, and the rents being only j£4-],^>^o, a subsidy was paid by 
the Government of ^4r,')Oo, and another from the rates of ;!{^63,ooo. 

Six interesting points — 

I. — The size of the ganien was limiled to half an acre by the Act of 1893, but by 
the Act of 1892 it has been enlarged to an acre. 

2. — The cost of land for acquiring the interest of Ijoth owner and occupier is 
estimated at from ;,^35 to ^40 per acre. 

3. — A question as to encouraging the ownership of the cottage was raised by the 
select committee on rural housing, but the assistant secrt-tary of the Irish L.G.B. 
stated that " Repairs would be neglected, and in case of storms or other damage 
involving much work, the labourer could not meet the expense " (Sul ivan 3721). 

4. — The Irish clergy are helpint^ to carry out the work by all means in their 
power, issuing leaflets, letters, and circulars. 

5. — The Irish League keep a stock of forms for rt prtrsentaiion. 

6. — The area of charge is the entire rural district. 

Afo.iel plans and specifications. — One of the duties of the Irish Local 
Government Board under the new Act is to supply free plans and 
specifications to local authorities to assist them in providing the most 
suitable and economical cottages for their respective districts. The 
Board have awarded prizes of ^50, ^30, and ^20 for best designed 
cottages to cost ;!{^i3o. There were 350 designs, and the prize winner's 
plans and designs with specifications are being sent out to local 
authorities, and can be purchased direct from Messrs. V/yman ^S: Sons. 



141 

The Labourers' "Ladder." 

En/ar<^e7nen( of cotiat^es and ^s^ardens. — Existing cottages may be 
enlarged without making improvement scheme, and with consent of 
L.G.B. gardens may be enlarged if land may be acquired by agreement. 

Small Holdiuiy^s. — Under the Act of 1906, a labourer who has lived 
five years in one of these cottages, and paid his rent punctually, may 
have an advance to purchase a small holding of 5, 10, or 15 acres, for 
.sale, alongside of him, but he must leave his cottage. 

FORMS OF REPRESENTATION. 



In pursuance of the powers vested by the Labourers (Ireland) Acts 
1883-906 in the Local Government Board for Ireland, the Board has 
issued rules and regulations under the said Acts, of which the folUnving 
are four Clauses : — 

4. A representation for the purposes of the Acts may be made in 
one of the Forms numbered i to 7 inclusive. 

5. Every Council shall provide and keep at all times available a 
supply of forms of representation and shall give a form free of charge to 
any ratepayer or labourer applying for the same. 

6. \\'ithin one month from the first day of November, 1906, every 
Council shall give public notice by means of advertisements (Form 37) 
in some two or more newspapers circulating in the district, and placards 
posted throughout the district, that representations for the purposes of 
the Acts may be lodged with their Clerk on any day up to the first day 
of February, 1907. 

7. All representations lodged as aforesaid shall be submitted to the 
Council at their meeting next following the first day of February, 1907, 
and the Council shall thereupon fix a date, not later than fourteen days 
thereafter, upon which a meeting of the Council shall be held for the 
consideration of the representation. 

The most important forms of representation are as follows : — 

(Additional Cottages to be provided). 

Rural District. 

District Electoral Division, 

W'e, the undersigned, being agricultural labourers or ratepayers, 
represent that there is not a sufficient number of houses available for 
the accommodation of agricultural labourers in the above-named 
Electoral Division, and that it is the duty of the District Council to 
take proceedings under the Labourers Act for the making of an 
improvement scheme in respect of such Electoral Division. 

We suggest that cottages should be built with suitable plots of land 
attached thereon on the holdings, and for the agricultural labourers 
mentioned in the schedule given below. 

{ 7 hen follow signatures and addresses together with schedule 

of particulars ). Form 2. 



142 

(Cottages to be built in substitution for insanitary dwellings). 

Rural District. 

District Electoral Division. 

We, the undersigned, being agricultural labourers or ratepayers, 
represent that the undermentioned labourers are living in houses which 
are unfit for human habitation and should be provided with suitable 
house accommodation, and that it is the duty of the District Council to 
take proceedings under the Labourers Acts for the making of an 
improvement scheme in respect of the above-named Electoral Division. 

We suggest that cottages should be built in lieu of these dwellings 
on the holdings named in the schedule set out below, and that suitable 
plots or gardens should be attached thereto. Form 5. 



{Houses to be acquired and repaired). 

Rural District. 

District Electoral Division. 



We, the undersigned, being agricultural labourers or ratepayers, 
represent that the houses mentioned in the schedule attached hereto are 
in need of improvements and repairs to render them suitable as 
labourers' cottages, and that it is the duty of the District Council to 
take proceedings under the Labourers Acts for the making of an 
improvement scheme in respect of such Electoral Division. 

We suggest that these houses should be acquired by the Council, 
improved and repaired, and that suitable plots of land should be 
acquired in conjunction therewith. Form 6. 



(Tracts of land to be acquired). 

Rural District. 

District Electoral Division. 



We, the undersigned, being agricultural labourers or ratepayers, 
represent to the Rural District Council that a necessity exists for the 
acquisition of the tract or tracts of land referred to in the schedule 
hereto with a view to the same being parcelled out in allotments among 
the agricultural labourers whose names are set out in the schedule. 

And we do further represent that it is the duty of the District 
Council to take proceedings under the Labourers Acts for the making 
of an improvement scheme in respect of such Electoral Division. 



CHAPTER VH. 

HOUSING BY PRIVATE ENTERPRISE 

AND 

CO=OPERATIVE SOCIETIES. 

It is remarkable that in England, the land par excellence of 
municipal building, experiments of the greatest number and of the 
most varied kind have been carried out by private individuals, 
companies and societies. 

Ten philanthropic societies have built dwellings for 125,000 persons 
in London, while six lodging houses, accommodating 5,162 persons, 
have been built by " Rowton Houses " alone. Co-operative societies 
to the number of 413 have built 46,707 houses, at a cost of ^2,603,438, 
twenty per cent, of which are owned by the societies and let to tenants. 

The co-partnership Housing Societies, one of the most admirable 
torms of private enterprise, corresponding as nearly as may be to the 
societies of public utility on the Continent, have quite recently provided 
about 400 houses at a cost of about ^100,000, while the Garden City 
has been steadily developing at Letchworth ; and three cottage 
exhibitions run by private enterprise are, or will be, in full swing 
shortly — two of them at Newcastle and Shefifield on municipal land, 
and the other at Garden City. 

There are, in addition, some 2,000 Building Societies (which are 
not Buiiding, but Loan Societies) with over 600,000 members, who 
have advanced on mortgage about ^10,000,000 in one year, and who 
have total assets of ^66,000,000. 

Finally there are the remarkable model villages of Bournville, 
Earswick, and Port Sunlight, each of which is a lesson in itself 

SOME BIG HOUSING COMPANIES AND TRUSTS. 

Rowton Houses (Lodging Houses). — Of^ce : 16, Great George 
Street, Westminster. The Rowton Houses are hotels for working men, 
originated by Lord Rowton in 1892, to meet the needs of the many 
workmen who lived in the very unsatisfactory common lodging houses of 
the metropolis. They are now six in number and are situate as under : 

Rowton Mouse, Bond Street, Vauxhall, London, S.W. , 484 beds, opened 

31st December, 1892. 
,, ,, Calthorpe Street, King's Cross Road, London, E.G., 678 

Ijeds, opened 1st Fel:)ruary, 1896. 
,, ,, Newinyton Butts, London, S.E., opened 23rd Dec, 1897, 

New Wing, 211 beds, opened Feb. 28th, 1015 beds. 
,, ,, 221, Hainmersmitli Road, London, \V., 800 beds, opened 

December 2nd, 1899. 
,, ,, Fieldgate Street, London, E. (near the London Hospital), 

8i6 beds, opened nth August, 1902. 
,, ,, Camden Town, 1103 beds, opened 7th December, 1905. 

Total, 4,896 beds. 



144 

The King's Cross House is being enlarged to have 944 beds, and 
will be finished in 1907. 

The charge for accommodation is the same at all the houses, viz., 
3s. 6d. for seven nights, payable in advance on Saturday, or yd. per 
night for any other bookings. 

Residents at Rowton Houses have free use of the folknving rooms : 

I )ining Room, where food can be purchased at the following prices — 

Soups, various, per basin, id. & ijd. Coffee, per cup, id. & id. 

Joints, Roast Beef, per portion, 3d. & 4d. Cocoa ,, hd. & id. 

Vegetables, in season, per portion, id. Bread and Butter, |d. & id. 

Pudding and Pastry, per portion, id. Jam, ^d. & id. 

Salads, id. & 2d. Marmalade, ^d. & id. 

Tea, per cup, gd. & id. Porridge, id. 

Convenient fires and cooking utensils, crockery, teapots, etc., are also provided, free 
of charge, for residents who wish to prepare their own food. 

Smoking Room, with newspapers, chess, draughts, etc., for use of 
residents. 

Reading and Writing Rooms, with a plentiful supply of books, 
magazines, etc 

Hot or Cold Baths, including soap and towels, may be had for id. 
Footbaths are free. 

There are also lockers, parcels' room, laundry, barber's shop, shoe- 
maker's shop, and tailor's shop. 

The six houses will. provide accommodation for 5,162 residents. 
Adjoining the Newington Butts House there is a completely equipped 
steam laundry with every modern appliance, which is sufficiently large 
to deal with the laundry requirements of all the houses. 

The Rules are as follows : 

I. — Admission to bedrooms. The staircase gate is open every quarter of an 
hour after 7 p.m. A ticket must be shown at the gate. 

2. — Bedrooms must he vacated before 9 o'clock in the morning. 

3. — Smoking in bedrooms is strictly prohibited. 

4. — The public rooms will be closed and the gas turned off at 11.30 p.m. on 
Sunday, and on o her nights at 12.30 a.m. 

5. — The dining room will also be closed every morning, except Sunday, from 
II to 12 o'clo:k. 

6. — Card playing and gambling are sti icily prohibited. 

7. — The Company will not be responsible for the loss of any property, unless 
such property has been left in the charge of the Super ntendent, and a receipt 
obtained f(jr the same. 

8. — The Company reserves the right to cancel bed tickets at any lime. 

9. — Lockers are provided for the use of residents. Sixpence is charged for the 
key, and when the key is returned, fivepence will be refunded. 

The preference capital at 4 per cent, is ;!^2 25,000 authorised, of 
which ;,{, 1 70,320 is paid up. 

The ordinary shares, on which 5 per cent, is paid, amount to 
;^225,ooo authorised, of which ;^i8i,86o is paid up. 

The capital expenditure on lodging houses so far is '^347,882 on 
finished houses and ^^45,892 on works during 1905, or a total of about 

;^400,000. 

The receipts were as follows in 1905 : Rent of cubicles, ^37,168 ; 
catering, ^^16,489 ; sundries, ;^324. Total ^53,981. 



M5 

The expenses were : Rates, wages, and general expenses, ;!^i7,i83 ; 
catering, ^15,794 ; repairs and renewals, ^3,105 ; property and income 
tax, ^'895 ; sundries, ^1,703. Total ^38,680. Balance profit, 

Artizans', Labourers', and General Dwellings Company. — 

Office: 16, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. Preference capital 
at 4^ per cent., not to exceed at any time three-fourths of ordinary 
capital, ^1,000,000 in ^,10 shares, of which ^872,940 is paid up. 
Ordinary capital at 5 per cent., ^'2,000,000, of which ^^i, 703,890 is 
paid up. Reserve funds, ;£^2 43,486 

The company has provided for a population of 50,000. Owing to 
the reduction of the compounding allowances by the rating authorities, 
notices were given by the Company in 1905 to 2,000 tenants at Queen's 
Park, to pay their own rates, and this resulted in more of the tenants 
leaving than in previous years. The figures being 240 changes in 1903, 
227 in 1904, and 429 changes in 1905. A further result was the 
increase of ^800 in repairs, due to getting the house ready for new 
tenants, and an extra payment of ^,360 for 2,100 new agreements. 

The following paragraph from the report of the Company is worthy 
of notice, because it applies generally to a great deal of existing 
cottage property elsewhere. 

The Queen's Park Estate having been built upon about 30 years ago was 
constructed to the sanitary requirements of the local authorities of that time. Those 
requirements were considered satisfactory, as long as Qu-^en's Park belonged to 
Chelsea, but, when Queen's Park was taken from Chelsea and put into Paddington, 
then the sanitary requirements came under a different authority. The Medical 
Officer of Health and the sanitary authorities of Paddington were much more 
exacting than those under whom the Estate was built. The result has been that 
practically the whole of the drainage of Queen's Park has been required to be taken 
up and renewed, and th:; ultimate cost -will be about ;^20,ooo. We are pioceeding 
with it year after year, as it is impossible to do it one year, but as a large part of it is 
entirely new and was never dreamt of at the time the houses were built, the way we 
have dealt with the expense has been that we have charged two-thirds to capital and 
one-third to revenue. In 1905 ;i^3,300 was spent on this work of sanitary re- 
construction, which will take about six years altogether. 

Noel Park is growifg rapidly,, the rental in one year being increased 
by ;^4)348, and although the estate is in the neighbourhood of the 
London County Council dwellings, only a few of the older houses are to 
let, owing to the tenants wanting to go into the new dwellings. 

At Leigham Court, Streatham, there is no County Council com- 
petition, but the Company and private builders have overbuilt dwellings 
of a certain type, viz., shops with rooms above, small villas and flats or 
maisonettes, all of thern above the cottage class, for which there is a 
demand but not a supply. 

The arrears on the weekly property are only ^^554, that is i^ days' 
rent, equal at .'^haftesbury Park to G^d. per ^100, at Queen's Park to 
2/4J per ^100, and at the block buildings to 3/6 per ^100 of rental. 

The insurance on the cottages has been dealt with by putting on one 
side a capital sum of ^£"5 000 to meet the annual losses, but the total 
losses by fire in the year being only ^i i 7s. 5d., the amount has been 
charged to repairs, and the Company has effected a saving on this item. 



146 

The cost of building is now higher, and the rents are 5/9 to 13/- for 
weekly cottages, and 5/- to 8/6 for small flats, an increase on the 
figures given in the Housing Handbook, pp. 191-193 

The block dwellings of the Company are let at rents based on an 
average of 2/9 per week, but larger rooms and specially good positions 
are charged at a higher rate. 

The addresses of the block dwellings are : 
Portman Buildings, Lisson Grove, S.W. 
Seymour Buildings, Seymour Place, Bryanston Square, W. 
Crawford Street and Homer Street, Marylebone. 
East Street Buildings, Manchester Square, W. 
Shepherd's Plnce Buildings, Grosvenor Square, W. 
Carpenier Street Buildings, Berkeley Square, W. 
Gray's Inn Buildings, Rosebery Avenue, E.G. 
Gray's Inn Residences, Clerkenwell Road, E.G. 
Goldbath Buildings, Rosebery Avenue, E.G. 
Northampton Buildings, Rosoman Sreet, and Skinner Street, 
Clerkenwell, E.G. 

East End Dwellings Company, Office, 27, Chancery Lane, W.C. 
Preference capital at 4 per cent. ^50,000 in ^10 shares authorised 
and paid up. 

Ordinary capital at 5 per cent. ^250,000 in ^10 shares authorised, 
of which ^"151,440 is paid up. 

The Company have been able to borrow ^16,500 from the Public 
Works at 3I per cent, in 1905. 

The death-rate was rr5 per 1000 for 1905, on a population of 7,259. 

Cottages are more popular than block dwelling in Bethnal Green, 
and the Company are building several. 

The dwellings are mainly situated in Bethnal Green as follows : 

Globe Street, Cyprus Street, Moravian Street, Evesham Houses, Victoria Park 
Square, Katherine, Lolesworth, and Museum Buildings, Gordon Dwellings and 
Strafford Houses, Cromer Street. 

The rents have been slightly lowered and thus enabled dwellings 
to become fully let, which for some time had a large number of empties. 

Four per cent. Dwellings Company. — Office : 36, Hallam 
Street, Portland Street, W. Capital ^500,000 in 20,000 shares of ^^25 
each. TheiX)pulationis 6,332,of which only 2,754 are children under 14. 

Guinness Trust.— Office : 5, Victoria Street, S.W. Sir E. C. 
Guinness (Lord Iveagh), gave ^200,000 in 1889, to which the 
Goldsmiths' Company added ^25,000 in 1893, and the net income 
from rents and interests have been added to the original capital year by 
year to the total amount of ^152,674, in the same way as the 
Peabody Fund. On December 31st, 1906, there were 9,668 persons 
living on the estate, and the birth- rate for three years averaged 43*3 per 
1000, while the death-rate was 12 '5 per 1000. Only persons with less 
than 25/- per week are accepted as tenants, and preference is given to 
the poorer applicants, but earnings are frequently understated, though 
it is asserted that the average weekly earnings of the head of each family 
is 19/8 per week. The dwellings are situated at : 

Brandon Street, Walworth. Vauxhall Walk, Lambeth. 

Marll)orough Road, Chelsea. Page's Walk, Bermondsey. 

Columbia Road, Bethnal Green. Snow's Fields, Bermondsey. 

Lever Street, Finsbury. Fulham Palace Road, Hammersmith. 



147 

There are laundries, club rooms, costers' sheds, and perambulator 
sheds. The baths, the boiling water supplied from urns morning and 
evening for making tea, and the constant hot water supply for washing 
purposes, all of which are free to tenants, continue to be appreciated 
and largely used. 

I'he Trustees have made arrangements for some years past whereby 
their tenants can obtain coal practically at cost price, the coal being 
contracted for, as far as possible, at wholesale' summer prices. The 
quantity sold in 1905 was over 1,100 tons. 

Metropolitan Association for improving the dwellings of the 
industrious classes. — Office : i, Pancras Square, Pancras Road, 
London, N.^^^ Mortality i3'38 per 1000, and birth-rate 2 7 "51 per 1000. 
Owing to decay in some of the walls they were reconstructed. It may 
be noted that the financial results of the different dwellings vary 
considerably from if to 7 per cent, net profit on capital. The 
average population was 5380. Situation of Dwellings : 

Albert Family Dwellings, Albert Street, Mile End New Town, E. 

All)ert and Victoria Cottages, Pelham Street, Mile End New Town, E. 

Albion Buildings, Bartholomew Close, Aldersgate, E.C. 

Alexandra Cottages, Beckcnham,- Kent. 

Carrington Dwellings, Hertford Street, Mayfair, W. 

Enfield Buildings, Aske Street, Hoxton, N. 

Farringdon Road Buildings, Farringdon Road, E.C. 

GatlifF Buildings, Commercial Road, Pimlico, S.W. 

Gibson Buildings, High Street, Stoke Newington, N. 

Hamilton Square, Kipling Street, Snowsfields, Bermondsey, S. E. 

Howard Buildings, Alliert Street, Mile End New Town, E. 

Ingcstre Buildings, Ingestre Place, Broad Street, Soho, W. 

Pancras Square, Pancras Road, N.W. 

Russell Scott Buildings, Jamaica Road, Bermondsey, S.E. 

Peabody Donation Fund, Offices : 64, Queen St., London, S.W. 
This fund was started in 1S62 by gifts from Mr. Peabody to the extent 
of ;2{^5oo,ooo, and is continually growing, owing to the fact that all the 
sums received for interest and profits on rents (^993,747), have been 
added to the fund, making a total of ^1,493,727 to 31st Dec, 1905. 
The mean population of the dwellings was 19,615, or a density of 600 
to the acre, and the average rents were 2/3! per room, and 5/2 1 per 
dwelling including rates, but excluding rates rates i/iii per room and 
4/4 per dwelling. The average weekly earnings of the head of each 
family was ;£\ is. lod., but of course other members helped to swell 
the family income. In 1905 the birth-rate reached 52 g per 1000 and 
the death-rate i3'o per 1000, while the infant mortality was 113 
per 1000. 

Heme Hill Cottages of five rooms are let at 10/2 per week, of 
which 2/2 is for rates. One hundred and fifty-four five-roomed 
cottages have been built at Tottenham, close to the L.C.C. dwellings. 

The rates vary as follows for block dwellings : 

One room dwellings, 4id. to 5|d. per week. 
Two rooms ,, 8d. to iid. per week. 
Three rooms ,, i/- to 1/4 per week. 

Four rooms „ 1/5 to 1/7 per week. 



148 

The principal occupations of the tenants are : 

Labourers 670. Charwomen 483. Porters 429. Carmen 287. Warehousemen 253. 

Needlewomen 231. Policemen and Pensioners 209. Servants 175. Packers 142. 

Plumbers 135. Machinists 121. Coachmen 119. 

The newer block dwellings are situated in : 

Stamford Street, Pimlico, Whitechapel, Bedfordbury, Great Wild Street, Drury Lane, 
Orchard Street, W., Whitecross Street, E.G., Herljrand Street, Russell Square, and 

Merne Hill. 

The older dwellings are in Spitalfields, Islington, Shadwell, Westminster, 
Chelsea, Bermondsey, and Blackfriars' Road. 

Wharncliffe Dwellings Co. — Office : i6, Great George Street. 
Originally erected for the Great Central Railway to rehouse dispossessed 
tenants. Preference capital at 4^- per cent., ^75,000 authorised and paid 
up. Deferred capital at 4^ per cent., ^75,000 authorised and issued. 
Irredeemable debenture stock at 3 per cent., ^100,000. The net 
receipts were sufficient to pay 4I per cent, on preference, and i per 
cent, on deferred shares. The dw^ellings are occupied by persons not 
of the working class. 

The Sutton Housing Trust. — The late Mr. Sutton, who was a 
member of the firm of Sutton & Co., Carriers, left property to the 
estimated value of some _;;!{j2,ooo,ooo in trust to three trustees (Mr. 
C. T. Sutton, Mr. C. E. T. Lamb, and Mr. Watson), for the purpose 
of erecting dwellings in London and other populous places, the 
following being the chief provisions of the scheme : 

Upon trust to purchase or acquire from time to time freehold or copyhold land 
in London or any other populous place or town in England as sites for the erection 
of the model dwellings and houses hereinafter mentioned (with power to enfranchise 
at any time any copyhold land so purchased), and to pay all moneys for the purposes 
aforesaid out of the trust premises. 

And upon further trusts to build upon the sites to be purchased or acquired as 
aforesaid model dwellings and houses for use and occupation by the poor, and from 
time to time to repair and rebuild the same, with power to enter into any contracts, 
and to employ any persons necessary in the sole judgment of my trustees. . . . 

And upon further trust to let the said buildings and houses when so erected to 
the poor in the sever il districts in which they are erected at such rents (being below 
the full rents which could he obtained for the same) as my trustees shall in their 
uncontrolled discretion in each case from time to time determine, but so that the 
rents received \>y my trustees therefor shall be held by them for the general purposes 
of the trust intended to be hereby created, and shall form part of the trust premises. 

The model dwellings and houses when erected to be called the Sutton Model 
Dwellings. 

.... It being my will, desire, and intention by the means aforesaid to create 
a continuing trust for the purpose of supplying the poor in London and other 
populous places or towns in England with proper and sufficient dwelling houses or 
lodgings at such rents, however low, as my trustees shall in each case in their 
absolute discretion consider the tenants can afford to pay, and see fit to charge them. 
But I wish that some rent, however small, shall in each case be reserved and paid, 
and that no person or persons shall be allowed to live in the said dwelling houses or 
lodgings rent free. 

Up to now little has been done beyond the erection of a few block 
dwellings, but greater activity may shortly be expected. 






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ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSIONERS' LONDON ESTATES. 

In leasing land for housing purposes the Commissioners have as a 
rule preferred responsible companies willing to let the dwellings at 
reasonable rents and to be satisfied with only a moderate return on 
capital. They have leased sites for 43 1 dwellings to the Victoria Dwellings 
Association and to the Metropolitan Industrial Dwellings Company at 
about two-thirds of the actual value, in order to help to keep down the 
rents. They have also in these cases lent the greater part of the cost 
of the buildings on mortgage at 3 per cent, for 10 years, to be 
subsequently repaid by terminable annuities at 3^ per cent. They 
have also sold i^ acres to the Westminster City Council for ^32,000, 
and 55 acres at Hammersmith to the London County Council for ^550 
an acre. In every case this has been below the market price. The 
Commissioners have also built workmen's cottages and tenement houses 
on their London Estates as follows : — 

Southwark. — Winchester Cottages: 14 four - room cottages. 
Union Street : 44 three-room tenements. 

Westminster. — Garden Street and Dorset Street: i;^ six-room, 
2 five-room, and 19 four-room cottages, and 20 two-room tenements. 
Regency Street: 3 five-room, 16 four-room, and 42 three-room 
tenements. Dwellings being built in 1907 : 18 tour-room, 9 three-room, 
and 19 two room tenements. 

Lambeth. — Mitre Street : 6 five-room and 23 four-room cottages. 
177 four-room tenements, 50 two-room ditto, and one single-room ditto. 

The above 476 houses contain 1,488 rooms, and cost about ^ 1 20,00. 

The Commissioners possessed an estate of 22 acres just off the 
Walworth Road, which was covered with small houses and shops, 
many of which had to be demolished and the streets widened or rebuilt. 
This work has been going on for some time, and a sum of ^200,000 
is being spent on new dwellings, consisting of 96 cottages of four and 
five rooms, 106 cottage flats of three rooms, and 566 tenement 
dwelhngs of two, three, and four rooms. The weekly rents, including 
rates, vary from 5/6 or 6/- for two-room tenements, to 9/- or 10/- for 
cottage flats and 14/- for five-room cottages. They average from 2/8 to 
3/3 per room. It may be noted in passing that ike rates alone vary 
from 1I2 per tveek for two-room diveliings, to jj- per week for four and 
five room cottages. 

The rents are collected by Miss Lumsden, who is helping Miss 
Octavia Hill. 

COOPERATION AND HOUSING. 

Some facts and figures as to Co-operative Housing action, with a 
special account of the work of Woolwich Society and the Ealing 
Tenants, are given in Chapter XIV of the Housing Handbook. Since 
then the latest figures show an increase of 20 to 25 per cent., chiefly in 
advances to members for the accjuisition of their houses, the increase 
in houses retained and let by th- societies being least of all. Less 



15^ 



than one-fiftli of the money was spent on houses intended to be held 
permanently by the societies, more than four-fifths being used to 
promote individual membership. 

The most recent return shows ^9.603,000 expended up to 1906 in 
respect of 46,707 houses by the distributive societies, in addition to 
301 houses provided in five years, at a cost of ^iog,ooo by four 
co-partnership housing societies. Details of all these are given in the 
following tables : — 

SuMMARv OF House-Building by Ordinary Co-operative Societies, 

See Housing Handbook, p. 179. 



Sections of 


i 


Houses Built 

and Owned by 

Society as 

Landlord. 


Houses Built by 

Society and 
Sold to Members. 


Money Lent by 

Society to Members 

to Build Houses 

for themselves. 


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£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




Midland 


56 


570 


323 


122932 


520 


297 


137570 


70711 


724164 


481105 


3292 


Northern 


62 


1012 


240 


253085 


593 


224 


1284S7 


84395 


713593 


338185 


3508 


North-Western 


171 


4892 


187 


924068 


3511 


215 


743195 


523018 


4049711 


2561526 


22594 


Scottish 


64 


1465 


193 


398194 


80 


215 


19399 


15707 


187218 


112915 


841 


Southern 


35 


432 


309 


107764 


685 


269 


167795 


131862 


420563 


271350 


173 


South-Western 


10 


25 


157 


4424 


57 


186 


23777 


4292 


212620 


131218 


759 


Western 


15 


134 


190 


28602 


131 


200 


11850 


11668 


224427 


147343 


1433 




413 


8530 




.1839069 


5577 




1232073 


841653 


6532296 


4036642 


32600 



No. of societies making returns, 413. No. of societies which have replied stating 
they do not carry on a building department, 335. Total replies, 748. Total number 
of houses, 46.707. Total amount of Co-operative Capital invested, £9,603,438. 
Average cost per house built by societies, £210. 

As a general rule houses acquired by individual co-operators through 
their societies, differ very little from ordinary houses. They are 
scattered about the district and are bought and sold, and may eventually 
pass into the hands of ordinary investors in huuse property, or even 
house farmers and slum owners. It is different with tho-e retained and 
let by the society, in which case there is a real piece of joint ownership 
and democratic regulation in the common interest. 



153 

The Woolwich Co-operative Society's Estate is a case in 
point (pp. 181-3 Handbook). "This estate now stands in the books at 
;^i23,5oo, and comprises 190 acres, of which 143 acres are building 
land, 20 acres a wood on the hill side, and 27 acres agricultural land 
largely let in allotments. About 760 houses are built, and there is 
room for about 1,500 to 2, too more, reckoning 20 to the acre. About 
99 houses are let on weekly tenancies, but nearly seven times that 
number have been sold to members for a term of 99 years, subject to 
a ground rent of 5d. a yard or ^4 per house." 

The Co-operative Permanent Building Society, founded in 
1884, has ^319,000 outstanding on loan to members, in sums nearly 
all under ;p^5oo, and in the year ended De.cember, 1906, advanced no 
less than ^80,000 to co-operators for the purchase of houses. 

The various Co-partnership Tenants' Housing Societies, with 
property worth over ;^i 50,000, are dealt with elsewhere. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CHEAP COTTAGES. 

SOME INTERESTING EXPERIMENTS. 

The great financial problem in all schemes for workmen's dwellings 
is how to reduce the capital outlay so as to enable good dwellings to be 
let at low rents, and although no attempts to lower real and necessary 
standards of quality should be encouraged, the writer has continually 
urged that the cost of production of the dwelling, like that of other 
manufactured articles, ought to be capable of reduction as a result of 
experiment and production on a large scale, coupled with the abolition 
of bad or too rigid building regulations, and the application of m.re 
scientific methods. Great advances have been made in some of these 
respects during the three years 1904-1907. 

The demand for cheapness has, so far, guided us towards better 
rather than worse sanitary conditions for our dwellings. The cottage, 
with its simple construction, slight foundations and ^comparatively thin 
walls, costs half as much per room to build as the block dwelling with 
its elaborate construction, costly foundations and massive walls, and 
the cottage is by far the healthier of the two. 

The cottage, tvithoiit back addition, is now frequently produced in 
cheap cottage exhibitions, and costs less than the cottage with a back 
addition which shuts out light and obstructs the free ventilation of the 
rooms at the back. 

The healthy and growing tendency of the population to leave the 
dear land in crowded centres, and dwell on the cheap open land in 
the outskirts, had its origin in a desire for a cheaper dwelling. 

The cottage with large rooms is cheaper to build per cubic foot 
than the cottage of similar construction, but with smaller rooms. In 
the same way dwellings arranged along paths or small accommodation 
roads in quadrangles open to and abutting on the road are less exposed 
to dust, effluvia, noise, and other conditions prejudicial to health, which 
affect those that are merely arranged in dreary and interminable rows 
along wide wastes of macadam. 

The substantial walls of the confined back yards found in so many 
provincial towns, decrease the supply of fresh air and sunlight, just as 
they add unnecessarily and seriously to ihe cost of the dwelling. 

So also with the aesthetic consideration. The " brick boxes with 
slate lids " are gradually giving way to a more diversified type of 
dwelling, in which well utilised tiled roofs, tile hung half brick upper 
storeys, and rough cast exteriors, are not only produced at a saving of 
cost, but are far less ugly than their severe stodgy and monotonous 
predecessors. 



155 

Cottages built of wood give every satisfaction in rural districts in 
Norway and Switzerland, but very little use is made nf this material in 
England, even where it is abundant and fairly cheap. 

The cost of building wooden houses in Scotland, according to the 
experience of Mr. Munro Ferguson, M. P., has been as follows: One- 
roomed bothy and scullery (24 feet by 17 feet) cost ;£ss- Three- 
roomed house with outbuildings (36 feet by 15 feet) cost ^100. 
Four-roomed house cost ^125. Five-roomed house with scullery, 
larder, and coalhouse, all under one roof, cost j^ijo. He has experi- 
mented largely in the last mentioned type of house, and he advocatc-s 
the setting up of some permanent sphere for practical experiment in 
building and sanitat'on by combination between the Government and 
its inspectors, and architects, builders, and others interested in the work. 

Much of the improvement shown in respect of the above matters 
has arisen as a result or accompaniment of the movement initiated by 
Mr. St. Loe Strachey in the Co2intv Gentleman^ which ultimately ended 
in the Cheap Cottages Exhibition at Letchworth, an experiment which 
has smce had several imitators— one at Garden City, and two on 
municipal land at Shefifield and Newcastle. 

THE CHEAP COTTAGES EXHIBITION, 
LETCHWORTH, 1905. 

Prizes were offered for cottages suitable for a country labourer or 
artizan, built without the restrictions of unduly stringent byelaws, for 
a sum of not moie than ^150. Each cottage to have living-room and 
scullery not under 7 feet 6 inches high, and three bedrooms, containing 
not less than 2,000 cubic feet altogether. The first prize was awarded 
to Mr. P. B. Houfton, of Chesterfield, for No. 14. 

The' prize for the best pair of five-roomed cottages (including 
scullery), erected at a cost not exceeding ^300, was won by Messrs. 
Potter and Co., for No. 35. 

The prize for the best group of three or four cottages, each with no 
more than six rooms, at a cost not exceeding ^35 per room, was won 
by Mr. Geoffrey Lucas, with No. 01. 

The prize for the cheapest cottage in the exhibition was won by 
Mr. Clough, who erected cottage No. 71 for ^120. 

The prize for the best wooden cottage was won by Mr. Troup with 
cottage No. 80. 

The prize for the best cottage built of cement-concrete (unlimited 
as to price) was won by Mr. G. Fraser, with cottage No. 58, costing 
about ;^25o. 

Builders' profits, architects' fees, cost of site, and carriage of non- 
local materials to the site were expressly excluded from the stated costs. 
From 25 to 30 per cent, should in all cases be added in order to 
estimate the approximate market value of the buildings apart from the 
value of the site. The cost of boundary and enclosure walls, as well 
as roads and sewers (if charged), should also be added. 

Garden City is well chosen for economical building. Bricks are 
cheap (19s. to 24s. per thousand). Local red tiles, sandfaced, 31s. 6d. 



156 . 

per thousand, and nine inch red tile quarries ^^3 5s. od. per thousand. 
Cement and lime are both moderate in price, and excellent ballast and 
sand can be had on the spot for 4s. per load, or the cost of digging, 
sifting, and carting. Timber can be obtained at reasonable rates, as 
the railway journey to the nearest timber ports is comparatively short. 
Artisans' wages are also relatively low, bricklayers and carpenters being 
paid 8d. to S^d. per hour, painters 6d to 6|d., bricklayers' labourers 
^^d. These facts should be noted in making comparisons. 

The cottages were erected practically under the Rural Model 
Byelaws of the Local Government Board 

Some sixty exhibits, comprising eighty-five cottages of various types, 
were completed. Of these sixty per cent were in brick, ten per cent, 
of other incombustible materials, and ten per cent, or more, mainly 
wooden cottages, the rest being various combinations and composite 
materials. Bricks and mortar were so particularly cheap at Garden 
City that there was little opportunity for special construction, but the 
following analysis ot some of the materials for external walls (other 
than brick or ordinary timber framing) prepared by Mr. T. W. 
Aldwinckle, F.R.I.B.A., is interesting, as showing some of the most 
recent new materials. The figurts refer to the number in the exhibition 
catalogue. 

No. 25. Brick-nogging, rough cast. 

35. (Single.) Concrete 7 in. thick, rough cast. 

35. (Pair.) Steel construe ion 3 in. by 3 in. with steel lathing on sides, 

covered externally with rough-cast, air space internally. 

36. Solid oak posts with 3 in. compressed cement concrete slabs filled in 

between (into grooves). 
38. ]0 in. by 8 in. h.illow concrete blocks finished externally in imitation 

of stone. 
40. Brick-on-edge, reinforced with ironwork as patented by the Fire-proof 

Partition and Spandrill Wall Company, with rough-cast externally. 
47. Timber frandng, expanded metal lathing, and Portland cement 

rendering. 
48(7. " Mack" slal)S 4 in. thick, cove-red with rough-cast: 
50. 6-in. timber framing pugged and covered with rough-cast. 
53. 4-in. timber framing covered with " Uralite " Kent board. 

58. Concrete blocks, 32 in. by 9 in. by 10 inch, finished externally in 

imitation of stone. 

59. Concrete 7 in. thick. 

69a. 6-in. concrete ca^t slabs slightly reinforced with steel. 

72. i-in. weather boards, one layer of inodorous felt, and asbestos cement 

sheeting J in. thick. 

73. Two 2-in. concrete slabs wi'h an air space between. 

77. Overlapping vertical boards, 8 in. by i| in., interlined with ferol 
sheeting, and lined with maichboarding covered with Cannon and 
HalTs distemper. 

80. 4-in. timber framing covered with insulating paper and weather 
bearding. 

85. 6-in. concrete and timber. 

The exhibits may be divided into freaks, rubbish, swindles, "poor 
but honest," and a sufficient number both good and honest to allow the 
exhibition to be pronounced, in spite of all shortcomings, a remarkable 
and epoch making success. The average cost of municipal cottages 
has been reduced by 20 per cent, since the holding of the exhibition 
as the result of the stimulus given to cheaper building. 



^57 



LETCHWORTH EXHIBITION (1905). 



Cheapest Cottage in the Exhibition, Cost £120. 

Mr. Clough's Cottage has il inch brick hollow external walls on ground 
floor, and above this tile-hung vertical framing 4 feet 3 inches high on the first 
floor to the springing of the roof. One bedroom on ground floor. Stairs 
enclosed only by matchboarding. Total area of coitage 455 sqare feet. Cost 
about 4d. per cubic foot. 




Note. — The plans are reversed, so that the front is at the top. 
f ■ ' ' -4 _ y * * 1 



r^ f 




Q^f^ouritD -7=>A/^r/ 



— /:s--o -- 




f o <f- 



:iT.n z 'ft 



J^^^RODM T^'/JfrV- 



1^8 



The best ;£i50 Cottage (Letchworth, 1905). 

Contains living room 194 square feet and scullery 92 square feet 
(no parlour), and three bedrooms 180 scjuare feet, 188 square feet, and 
78 square feet, all over 8 feet high. Walls are 9 inch brick, covered 
with rough cast, whitewashed. Roof, a 
simple span, covered with local plain 
tiles. Obviously intended to be part of 
a group or pair, owing to position of 
chimney. Area of cottage 478 square 
feet. Cubical contents 10,272 cubic feet. 
Cost 3|d. per cubic foot. 





bLbUDK plm: 



]lCllO!i'H' 




cooo 



159 



*' Concrete Block " Dwellings. — Mr. Stanley Barratt thinks 
cement concrete blocks cheaper than brickwork under the following 
conditions : — (a) Best Portland cement at 35/- to 38/- per ton delivered. 
{b) Sand equal to " Thames," 4/6 to 5/- delivered, {c) Labourer 5d. per 
hour, {d) Layer gd. per hour, and the following proportions for mixing 
^ yard sand as above to one bag Portland cement and one pail of water. 

The labour of four labourers for 10 hours makes 120 blocks. One 
block is equal to 25 brirks. The labour of laying (employing all 
" layers " at 9d. per hour), 
cost two -thirds that of 
brickwork. 

A comparison of cost 
between concrete blocks 
and brick walls showed 
on one-floor bungalows a 
saving of 2,2,}; to 50 per 
cent, on external walls. 
On two-floor buildings it 
was about two-thirds cost of 
brickwork. If the blocks 
are laid carefully, the plaster 
can be much thinner than 
on brick walls, thus saving 
in material. 

The above data are 
obtained from a contractor 
who has carried out several 
buildings with the 'Pioneer' 
concrete block machine, 




UPPER FLOOR 
PLANS OF BEST WOODEN COTTAGE. 

(Letchworth, 1905.) 
4 inch timber framing with weather lioardinc;. 




tf<m<x//i,~^ 



GROUND FLOOR 

> iX »t H 1! 

— I — I — I — I — 1 — — 1 — C— t— 



mixing six parts sand 
to one part cement for 
the blocks, and four 
parts sand and one 
part cement for the 
mortar for the joints. 
The machine cost 
^80. The blocks can 
be made 8, 16, 24 and 
32 inches long, by 9 
inches thick An or- 
dinary practical la- 
bourer can make 
these blocks, and it 
is possible they could 
be suitable work for 
the unemployed. One 
ordinary labourer, 
after a day's use, can 
^"" look after six 



men without any experience. One layer at each corner of a building could, 
on"straight walls, look after other men who had no experience of laying. 



i6o 

SECOND LETCHWORTH EXHIBITION. -URBAN COTTAGES AND 
HOMESTEADS FOR SMALL HOLDINGS- 

In 1907 a second exhibition, under the ausjiices of the National 
Housing Reform Council, was held to show in its urban section what 
may be done with a small site in an ordinary suburb of any industrial 
town. An area of five acres only, has been covered by sixty cottage 
sites, grouped along complete streets, with all the conditions of various 
aspects. It is easy to design single cottages with a southern aspect, 
but it is a difficult matter to arrange rows of cottages with east, north, 
or west aspects, in close proximity to one another. 

The planning of the exhibition site has secured absence of 
monotony, economy in frontage, and the elimination of built up backs 
and long projecting sculleries, which so often block out light and air 
from important living rooms. 

There are four distinct classes of cottages, varying from ;^i75 to 
;^225 in cost, and comprising 52 cottages of 32 distinct types. They 
are divided as follows : — 

Class A. Two bedrooms, living room and scullery. Cost ;£i'JS- 

Class B. Three bedrooms, parlour, kitchen with sink, and outside 
washhouse with copper. Cost ;^2oo. 

Class C. Three bedrooms, parlour, kitchen and scullery. Cost 
^240. 

Class D. Best artisan's cottage not limited to cost. 

The cottages are built to the Garden City Building Regulations, 
which are substantially the urban model byelaws of the Local Govern- 
ment Board. Any doubt as to the stated cost of the cottages was 
precluded by the conditions of the exhibition, which contained an 
obligation to sell or reproduce elsewhere on the estate similar cottages at 
the stated cost ^ and a detailed priced bill of quantities was required to 
be furnished to the judges. 

Each cottage is a bona fide investment, showing a commercial 
return on capital, and there was a novel provision that the First Garden 
City will, if required, guarantee to the actual exhibitor for five years a 
rent equal to six per cent, on the cost of the urban cottages within the 
limits imposed by the conditions of the competition. A similar 
guarantee, but of only five per cent., was given for the homesteads for 
small holdings. 

The Small Holdings section was not so large in entries, but is 
interesting It demonstrates how an intending small holder, having 
;^2oo to ^300 capital, may lay it out in buildings and homestead to 
the best advantage. The conditions of tenure are anticipatory of 
present legislation. Situated on the fringe of the town area, an ^-acre 
plot is let on 99 years' lease at a building rent of about 30s. per annum, 
fronting a road and having water supply. Behind this three or four" 
acres are let at an agricultural rent of 25s. to 30s. per acre on a 21 
years' lease, with an opportunity of extending later. 

The exhibits generally comprise a fairly simple cottage, with a set 
of homestead buildings for one or two cattlr, pigs, fodder, and young 
stock. Elaborate fittings and buildings are out of the question, as 
rigid economy is essential to the solution of the problem. 



i6i 

MUNICIPAL COTTAGE EXHIBITIONS. 

The Sheffield Cottage Exhibition. — This Exhibition on the 
Corporation's High Wincobank Estate, just beyond Firth Park, was 
opened on August ist, 1907. As the result of a site-planning competi- 
tion, gold medals were awarded to Messrs. W. A. Harvey (of Bourn- 
ville), and A. McKewan (of Birmingham) for the accompanying design 
which has been accepted as the basis of the development of the estate. 
Only a small part of this area, however, has been used for the Exhibi- 
tion. Forty-two cottages have been buik in three different classes as 
follows : — 




The area of the portion newly planned 
is about 24 acres, and the scale is 
roughly about -^^ of an inch to 100 feet. 
The portion already built upon is shown 
towards the top of the page. 



l62 



SHEFFIELD COTTAGE EXHIBITION, 1907. 




[Ilhctrations kindly hnt hv the "Munic!/>al Journal."] 

FIRST PRIZE-CLASS A. 
Architect, H L. Paterson, A.R. I.B.A., iq, St. James Street, Sheffield. 
Builders — Thomas Roper and Sons limited, Mowbray Street, Sheffield. 

The sites are leased for 200 years at a ground rent based on (a) the 
capital value of the land taken at ^200 per acre ; {b) the estimated 
cost of making roads, sewers, etc. ; {c) an extra charge for specially 
good sites. 

This method of utilising municipal land, taken as a whole, is very 
interesting, and well worth the attention of other municipalities. 

The following interesting calculations were made by Mr. E. M. 
Gibbs, H.R.I.B A., one of the judges in the Sheffield competition, as 
to the difference in the cost of road and sewer-making between the 
cheapest plan and the most costly plan of development : — 

Capital Outlay. Maximum. Minimum. 

£ £ 

Cost of Land (24 acres at ^200) 4,800 ... 4,800 
Cost of Roads ... ... 16,000 ... 9,000 



20,800 13,800 

Difierence in capital outlay, ^7,000, or ^291 per acre. 



163 



SHEFFIELD COTTAGE EXHIBITION, 1907. 



AE^2 CT • 




[Iliusiratio?is kindlv lent by the ^' Municipal Journal."\ 

FIRST PRIZE-CLASS B. 
Architect, Frank W. Chapman, Imperial Chambers, Norfolk Row, Sheffield. 
Builders, Dawson and Jones, Sheffield and Huddersfield. 

Class A. — Cottages to contain two bedrooms, living room, scullery, 

and bath. Maximum cost ^175. 
Class B. — Same as A, but three bedrooms. Maximum cost ^200. 
Class C. — Same as B, with /ar/«?/;r in addition. Maximumcost;^'2 2 5. 

The prices include architects' fees and builders'^ profits, with fencing 
and drainage, but not the cost of land or roads. 

Of the cottages erected 23 are in Class B, 10 in Class C, and 9 in 
Class A. 

The houses are built in blocks of two, three, and four, and the 
average number of houses is twelve to the acre. 

To ensure that the stated cost should be bond fide, the exhibi- 
tors were bound, if called on to do so, to sell the cottages to the 
Estates Committee of the Shefifield City Council at the catalogue 
price, and in addition to build twelve similar cottages at the stated 
price within three months from the close of the exhibition, if required 
by the Estates Committee. The houses are built under the Sheffield 
bye-laws, and in accordance with the "Fair Contracts Clause" of the 
Sheffield City Council. Two-thirds have tiled roofs. None of the 
houses have back additions, and as the site is an exposed one, the walls 
are double, with a cavity of li or 2 inches, so as to make a total thick- 
ness of 1 1 inches for the first lower rooms, while the upper walls are 
9 inches, plastered or otherwise protected. 



164 

Reckoning interest at 3^ per cent , and allowing 100 years for the 

repayment of the loan, the respective annual ground rents would be 

as follows : — Maximum. Minimum. 

jC s. (1. / s. d. 

Land per acre ... ... 71410 ... 71410 

Road, etc., per acre ... 24 2 8 ... 13 11 6 



31 17 6 21 6 4 

Reckoning 12 houses to the acre, the effect on weekly rents would 
be as follows : — Maximum. Minimum. 

s. d. d. 

Land 2Hd., say, ... 03 per week ... 3 per week. 

Roads 9/vd , say, ... o g^V » ••• 5tti 



or a differetice of about 4d. per cottage per week. 
It is well worth noting, moreover, that with reasonably cheap land 
the cost of development is a far more serious matter than the actual 
purchase price. 

The Judges' report of this Exhibition in September, 1907, ruled 
out six cottages as not having complied with the condition as to limit 
of cost. In an interesting report they say : — 

Tiiose of us who have had the opportunities of seeing other Exhibitions are of 
opinion that the cottages at High Wincobank are of a high standard as to convenience 
and construction, and paiticularly charming internally, and are remarkable productions 
for the limited cost, especially as this is inclusive of everything ready for occupation 
except wall-papering or decoration. 

There are, however, defects in some of the cottages to which attention should 
be drawn, viz. :^Outer doors into living rooms without intervening porch or passage, 
too many doors into living rooms, in some cases on opposite sides ; fireplaces 
awkwardly placed in corners of living rooms; windows with heads not near the 
ceiling, not opening at the top, and in some cases impossible to clean from the inside; 
sanitary arrangements not sufficiently screened from view ; bedrooms in roofs exposed 
to excess of heat or cold. But these defects are the exceptions, and serve as con- 
trasts to the others, and to show the general high qualities of the whole. 

In Class A they unanimously awarded the Gold Medal to Nos. 23, 
24 and 25. Architect : H. L. Paterson. Builders : Thos. Roper and 
Sons, Ltd. The specification accompanying this exhibit was as follows : 

Two End Houses — Ground Floor: Living room, with range, 14 feet 6 inches 
by 12 feet ; scullery, with sink, copper, and bath, 8 feet 9 inches by 8 feet 3 inches ; 
pantry, store, coals, and w.c. First Floor: Bedroom No. i, 12 feet by 12 feet; 
bedroom No. 2, 12 feet by 10 feet 9 inches ; three wardrobe cupboards. 

Centre House. — Ground Floor : Living room, with range, 14 feet 9 inches by 
II feet 6 inches; scullery, with sink, copper, and bath, 8 feet 6 inches by 8 feet 
3 inches ; pantry, store, C'lals, and w.c. t'irst Floor : Bedroom No. i, 18 feet by 
8 feet 6 inches ; bedroom No. 2, 8 feet 9 inches by 1 1 feet 6 inches ; bedroom No. 3, 
8 feet 9 inches by 8 feet 6 inches. 

Walls. — II inches, hollow, with galvanised iron ties to lower portion, faced with 
" Winco " pressed bricks ; and 9 inch walls covered with rough-cast stucco to upper 
portion. 

Roofs covered with plain red tiles. 

Floors boarded on joists in living room and bedrooms, concreted in scullery, 
pantry, coals, and w.c. 

The two end houses have more than usual cupboard space, while the centre 
house has an extra bedroom. 



i6s 



SHEFFIELD COTTAGE EXHIBITION. 

FIRST PRIZE— CLASS A. 




FIR5T 



V....^....^ 



FLOOR 

20 



PLAfS 



5 cab ofTeet 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN 

[Illustrations kindly lent bi/ the " Municipal Ji)urnal.''\ 

The Gold Medal in Class B was awarded to Nos. 15 and 16, 
■which were described as follows: — 

Ground Floor. — Living room, i6 feet 3 inches hy 12 feet ; scullery, 12 feel by 
8 feet, with copper, sink, bath, and gas stove for cooking, coal house, larder, w.c, 
and ashes pan. 

First Floor. — Bedrooms, 16 feet 3 inches by 12 feet, 12 feet by 8 feet, 9 feet by 
7 feet xo inches. Wal's are brick, with 2 inch cavity, covered outside with cement 
and rough cast. 

Flojrs. — Ground floor living room, wood ; all other parts cement concrete. 
First floor all wood. The front faces west. 

The special features of these cottages are large, airy rooms and 
every convenience necessary for an artizan's family. The price does 
not include wall decorations or gas stove, nor outside asphalting. 

// oti/y remahis to he added that in October, igo/, the Sheffield City 
Council decided to purchase the model cottages at High Wincobank for 
the sum of £S,jqt, being the total of the amounts declared in the 
competition. 



i66 

NEWCASTLE EXHIBITION OF MODEL COTTAGES. 

Arrangements have been made for a North of England Model 
Cottage Exhibition to be held in 1908, on a portion of the Walker 
Estate of the Corporation, under the auspices of the National Housing 
Reform Council. The Estate and Property Committee have arranged 
to place at the disposal of the Exhibition Committee about 16 acres of 
land on the north side of the Newcastle and Shields Road, east of the 
railway bridge, near Walker Gate, on which to erect 12 houses to 
the acre. 

Each site is to be leased from the Corporation for — 

{a) Ninely-nine years at the customary ground rent of 4(L per square yard for 

the land occupied by buildings, and id. per square yard per annum 

for garden ground. 
(d) The Corporation to provide the land for two streets and construct them. 
(r) The payment of street-making expenses to be spread over the first ten 

years of each lease, if so desired, and paid by the lessee. 
(d) The plans of the Exhibition Committee for laying out the land to be 

subject to the approval of the Corporation. 

It has been arranged by the committee that three classes of cottages 
should be erected, namely : — 

Class A. — Cottages to contain two bedrooms, large living room, and scullery. 
Maximum price ^IQ5. 

Class B. — Cottages to contain three bedrooms, large living room, and scullery. 
Maximum price ^225. 

Class C.- — Cottages to contain three bedrooms, parlour, large living room, and 
scullery. Maximum price of this class of cottage ^^250. 

The price is to provide for a bath in each cottage, and to include architect's fees 
and builder's profits, but not cost of land or roads. 

A new class of cottage for artisans, to cost ^350, has been added 
to the competition, but the number of rooms is not specified. 

The Council has made application to the Local Government Board 
to sanction the appropriation of one acre of the Walker Estate of the 
Corporation upon which to erect four cottages of each of the three 
classes specified ; and also for the consent of the Board to a loan of 
^^2,640 to defray the cost of erecting the twelve cottages, and of ^600 
to defray the street formation expenses. Owing to delays over sewerage 
and other difficulties, the exhibition, which was to have been held in 
1907, has been postponed to 1908. 

A competition was held however for the planning of the site, and 
out of 19 designs submitted, the gold medal was given to that of 
Messrs. Watson & Scott, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and the silver medal to 
Mr. T. Myddelton Shallcross, Liverpool. 

Each plan provides for 170 hoi:ses on the i6| acres, but whereas- 
the former plan allows about 3^ acres of the site to be taken up by 
roads with a total length of only 1,180 yards, and a width of 40 feet 
throughout, the latter plan allows for 4f acres to be taken up by roads, 
with a total length of 1,336 yards, of which a central avenue 63 feet 
wide takes up 310 lineal yards. This means a difference of from 12 to 
20 per cent, in the cost of development. 









Onr^^^tlH 



SfeS!^ 






^h-. K$? ■ KTU : <X:i -*"~' ™^ 



*- 



/,/r 



>! 




^ 



-"1 



Sfi^BlfiBf'.^^ 



r-!V 



J ^""'^ ^^V^-^"' RXic^at. 




1st Prize Site Plan Newcastle Cottage Exhibition. 

[Ilustrations kindli/ lent bi/ " The Contract Journal.''] 



t^iriLr' NATIVE. AT V 







tc/^r or rcrr 



2nd Prize Site Plan Model Cottage Exhibition, Newcastle. 

llllustratwns kimlhj lent hy ''The Contract Journal."] 



1 69 



CHEAP MUNICIPAL COTTAGES. 

// ivill be noted that nearly all the following towns have lately built 
cottages for less than j[^iSO each — the others are only slightly in -excess 
of that sum. 

Altrincham (Cheshire). — Ten cottages have just been buiit at a 
cost of jQt^^SII ^"^ fi^^ semi-detached pairs, as part of a scheme for 20 
cottages. The land was obtained at a nominal cost, but owing to the 
nature of the site the cost of the foundations was heavy, as they had to 
be carried five feet below the ground level, while all the walls A'ere 
built on concrete, and the whole site was covered with a 4in. layer of 
concrete. There are no back yards or back passages, but the land at 
the back is divided into garden plots for the tenants Each cottage 
consists on the ground floor of front kitchen 13ft. 6in. by 12ft. 6in., 
back scullery loft. 2in. by 9ft., and pantry 7ft. 3in. by 3ft. ; on the first 
floor two bedrooms, size 13ft. 6in. by 12ft. 6in. and 13ft. 6in. by 9ft. 
respectively. The W.C. is taken out of the scullery, and there are no 
outbuildings. The whole scheme was designed and carried out by Mr. 
H. E. Rrown, the surveyor to the Urban District Council. 

Bangor. — In 1900 the Council purchased a plot of land containing 
about 4,500 square yards near the centre of the city. 

Ten dilapidated cottages stood on the ground, which were taken 
down, and new streets formed, drains laid, and the river Adda, which 
formed its northern boundary, diverted and covered over. 

The Council invited competitive designs for 43 cottages, and those 
submitted by Mr. Owen Roberts, Architect, Liverpool, were selected 
and approved by the Local Government Board 

The dwellings are of two types, Class A and Class B. 

Cottages of the A Class. 

The nine houses of the A Class have a frontage next Sackville Road 
of 17 feet 3 inches, and a total depth of 44 feet. There are small 
gardens in front of these houses, and the pathway is paved with tiles. 

The front entrance is by an open porch into a lobby 3 feet wide, 
leading to parlour, 13 feet i^ inch by 10 feet 3 inches, containing an 
ordinary firegrate, and side cupboard. 

Kitchen, 13 feet by 11 feet loi inches, containing a Yorkshire 
range, with bath boiler, food locker with vent from outside, and 
cupboard for cylinder. 

The scullery is fitted with glazed stoneware slopsink, with hot and 
cold water supply, and a washing boiler heated with gas. 

The space under the stairs is used as a storeroom. 

The back yard is 17 feet by 15 feet, partly paved with 9 inch square 
tiles, and the remaining portion is used for garden purposes. 

GI 



170 



BANGOR MUNICIPAL CHEAP COTTAGES. 




P3 ^ 

■r S 
■r. ^ 



'^ 




u 




The coal house is under the steps leading to back door. 

Front bedroom, 13 feet 3 inches by 10 feet. 

Back bedroom 1 1 feet 9 inches by 9 feet 9 inches. 

Small bedroom over entrance, 10 feet 3 inches by 7 feet, ventilated 
with air grids. 

Bathroom 6 feet 3 inches by 5 feet, lighted and ventilated as above, 
and fitted with 5 feet 6 inches bath, having hot and cold water supply. 

These houses let at 7/- per week, including rates and water. 

Cottages of the B Class. 

The 34 houses of this class are built in three terraces, two facing a 
new 36 foot street and one an existing street. Twenty-four have small 
gardens or forecourts. 

The houses are from 12 feet 4 inches to 13 feet 4 inches in width, 
and are entered through an open porch into a living room 1 2 feet 
3 inches by 12 feet, fitted with Yorkshire range. 

The scullery is 10 feet by 9 feet 6 inches, fitted with glazed stone- 
\vare sink with cold water supply, washboiler and Dundee grate. 

A portion of the space under stairs entered from scullery is used as 
food locker, with ventilating grids to external air. 

The coalhouse is also under portion of stairs and entered from 
back yard. 

The back yard is the full width of the house, and from 15 feet to 
17 feet 6 inches deep, with watercloset and ashbin, and is paved with 
tiles similar to those in the back yards of Class A houses. 

Front bed' oom is the full width of the house by 12 feet front to 
back, fitted with firegrate. 

The back bedroom is 10 feet 9 inches by 9 feet 6 inches. 

The rents of these houses are 4/- and 4/9 a week, according to size. 
The rent includes rates and water supply. 

In both classes the rooms on the ground floor are lighted with sash 
windows, and those on the first floor with casement windows, and the 
staircases are all 2 feet 6 inches wide. 

Cost of Scheme. 

£ 

Purchase of land ... ... ... ... ... ... 1580 

Diversion of River Adda, and removing old cottages ... 500 

Building 43 houses, viz., 9 A Class and 34 of the B Class ... 6316 

Supervision ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Forming Roads and laying drains ... ... ... ... 300 

Sundries, including fence walls, etc. ... ... ... 36 

;^9002 




EXETER. 

Municipal Cottages. 

Cost of Building, 
£149. 

Rent, 5 - per week. 



niu strut ions kindly lent h]f 
''.-,, the Editor of _ ,_^ , 
"" '^ " The Surveyor." 



Exeter. — The 
Council were requested 
by the Local Govern- 
ment Board to erect 42 
houses to provide ac- 
commodation for dis- 
possessed tenants in 
connection with street 
improvements in Alph- 
ington Road. As there 
was more than sufficient 
land for the 42 houses, 
the Council decided to 
adopt Part III and build 
49 houses of class B type 
and 9 houses class A 
type. 



Ground Plan. 



173 




In March, 1906, the 
49 cottages of class B 
were completed, at a 
cost of ;!^i49 each for 
building, or a total of 
p^7,3o6, being at the 
rate of 5d. per cube foot 
on 6,669 cubic feet. 
Land and contingencies 
were ;^i,28o inclusive, 
roads and sewers 
;2^i,4i4, making a total 
cost of about ;^io,ooo. 
Loans were sanctioned 
for 80 years in respect 
of the land, and 56 years 
in respect of building 
and street works. The 
rent of the cottages is 5/- 
per week, which barely 
pays in respect of the 
rehousing scheme, as 
the land for the road is 
charged wholly upon the 
42 houses built under 
the scheme. In the case 
of the seven houses 
built under Part III the 
accounts balance. The 
cottages have a frontage 
of 13 feet, and a total 
depth of site averaging 
about 65 feet. They 
each contain living 
room, scullery with bath, 
two bedrooms, a larder 
under the stairs, and a 
coal store and W.C. in 
the yard. 



bJ 



Exeter. — First Floor I'lan. 
^Illustrations kindly lent by " The Surveyor:"] 



174 
EXETER MUNICIPAL COTTAGES. 




GUILDFORD MUNICIPAL COTTAGES. 




The Borough Surveyor's design. Cost of Building, £22$. Rent, 7s. 6d. per week. 





Mr. Capp's design. Elevation and 
plan. 

Cost of Building, ;^I96. Kent, 
6s. 6d. per week. 

Both photographs taken by Mr. H. 
Fentum Phillips, when in course of 

Blocks kindly lent hy Sune/^^^,,,. 
ttser, with kind permission of M. j ' 
Fentum Phillips. '' ^^• 



Ground Plan. 



First floor Plan. 



lyo 



Guildford, — The Town Council has built i8 cottages in Cline 
Road, eight from the design of the Borough Engineer and ten from the 
designs of Mr. Capp, who sent in the prize design in the Council's 
competition. The Borough Engineer's cottages are in two blocks, four 
in each block. Each house has a small hall, parlour, kitchen, and 
scullery on the ground floor, and thre^ bedrooms above. 

There is also a coalhouse and W.C., a small garden in front, and 
70ft. of ground in the rear. The cost was as follows : — 

Land ... ^192, or ^^24 per cottage, at 4 per cent, for 80 years. 
Buildings ^1,883, or ^235 „ at 3I „ for 60 „ 

Roads ... ^51, or ^6 los. „ at 3! „ for 20 „ 
Sewers,etc. ^"71, or ^8 los. „ at 3! „ for 30 „ 



Total ^,^2,196, or ;^2 49 ,, inclusive. 

The total annual repayments for interest and principal are ^95 per 
annum. The rents are 7/6 per week, producing ^156 per annum. 

Mr. Capp's cottages are in one block of i o, the elevation being relieved 
by gables. The walls are brick, with rough cast on the second storey. 

The front door opens direct into the living room or parlour, and 
there are three bedrooms above. There are also a scullery, larder, 
coal cupboard, and W.C. The garden is about the same as the other 
cottages. The cost was as follows : — 

Land ... ^219, or ^21 per cottage, at 4 per cent, for 80 years. 
Buildings ... ^1,916, or ;!{,'i96 ,, at 3! „ for 60 „ 

Roads ... ^66, or ^6 los. ,, at 3! ,, for 20 ,, 

Sewers, etc ^§5) or ^8 los. ,, at 3! ,, for 30 ,, 

The annual repayments of principal and interest are ;^99 per annum. 




CoRNEs' Model Cottage 
Pioneer Combination. 



177 



Neath. — A site of 2 acres, i rood, 22 poles, has been bought for 
^1,240, or at the rate of ;£s°° P^^ acre, and will be covered by 
61 houses, of which 39 are erected or in course of erection, in blocks of 
six or eight. Of those completed 14 are of Class A, let at 4/- per week, 
costing ^121 each for building including paving footpath, and 12 are 
Class B, let at 4/6 per week, costing ^141 each for building. The 
cost of roads and sewers for 39 houses is ^667, that is to say ^17 per 
house, or about ^400 per acre for site development, as against ^20 
per house or ^500 per acre cost of the land itself. The houses are 
intended for workmen earning not more than 25/- a week. A loan was 
sanctioned in 1904 for ;^7,ooo for carrying out the above scheme, and 

a further loan of ^4,650 has been 
applied for to complete the scheme 
by building 22 cottages Class C, 
costing ^180 for building, and to 
be let at 22/6 per month to workmen 
earning not more than 30/- per week. 
The houses comply in all respects 
with the borough byelaws, and 
each house has separate drainage 
with manhole for access to all 
branches, and with ventilation. 
The rents have been fixed through- 
out to coverall outgoings, including 
capital charges. 





Ground Floor 



FIRST Floor 



[Plans khxdly lent by the Borough Surveyor, Neath.] 

CLASS A COTTAGES 



178 



MUNICIPAL ^^120 COTTAGE— NEATH. 




UM 



D 




Front Elevation 



,-,,•«"*' 




NEATH. 



Class A Cottage. 



Cost of Building, 
£121. 

Rent, 4/- per week. 



[Plans kindly lent hy the Borough Surveyor Neath.] 




Tront Elevation- 




NEATH. 

Class B Cottage. 

Cost of Building, 
£141. 

Rents, 4 6 to 4/9 
per week. 

Plans kindli/ lent by the 
Boronuh Svrveyor, Neath 



P)'?3f,c/<Wo// w'rfi Tfuhhlc hockfif 



yUAMA/f/ r 



:,;.g;-;ri--— - 

it/ce/bfor '^ 









NEATH. 

Plan of 
Class B Cottages. 



Spsh^ylnaotV 




Plans kindly lent hy the Borough 
Surveyor, Neath. 



i8i 

Merthyr Tydfil. — In addition to the loo houses already erected 
at Penydarren, the Council are constructing 38 cottages to be let at 4/- 
per week, at Penywern, Dowlais, at cost of ^5,700 for building. There 
are numerous applicants for these, and a local inquiry has been held as 
to a scheme for building 50 cottages at Twynrodyn, at an inclusive cost 
of p^8,ioo. The surveyor has also been instructed to secure a site for 
50 houses at Aberfan. Closing orders have been applied for in respect 
of 100 houses unfit for habitation. 

The chief interest in the Penywern cottages lies in the fact that they 
have realised the ideal of the ;^i5o cottage. This sum includes not 
only the erection of the cottages, but provides for the making of streets 
and back passages, drainage, and salary of the clerk of works. It is 
anticipated that there will be no extras in carrymg out the work. 
There are 23 cottages to an acre, including streets 36 feet wide and 
back passages. The houses are built in blocks of eight or ten. The 
actual extent of land built upon, without reckoning lanes and back 
passages, is 5,340 square yards, or about 140 square yards per cottage. 
The site was acquired by the corporation on a 99 years' lease at a 
ground rent of ihd. per square yard per annum. 

Each house contams an entrance lobby ; living room, measuring 
9 feet 2 inches by 7 feet 4^ inches, fitted with Comes' Model Cottage 
Pioneer Combination ; pantry, passage 3 feet wide between scullery 
and pantry ; cupboard under the stairs, coal cupboard, and w.c. At 
the rear of the scullery is a flagged yard, and beyond this a garden, 
yard and garden together being 55 feet 6 inc es in length. The gardens 
are fenced on either side with unclimbable fencing, and at the extreme 
end is a boundary wall of stone, 18 inches thick and 4 feet 6 inches high. 
Over the kitchen are two bedrooms, each of which has a fireplace. 
The larger measures 14 feet by 7 feet 8 inches ; the smaller 11 feet 
3 inches by 7 feet 8 inches ; the height is 8 feet 6 inches. 

The cottages are built of brick, roofed with local slates. The whole 
of the brickwork is stuccoed, and although the elevation is, as can be 
imagined, of necessity plain, yet the cottages are of decent appearance, 
and the demand for ihem is enormous. The amount borrowed for the 
scheme was ;^5,7oo at 4 per cent., and the period of repayment sixty 
years. This means an annual capital charge of ^126 14s. iid. The 
ground rent, as already stated, is very low, and we understand that it is 
the intention of the Corporation to let the cottages at an inclusive 
rental very little, if anything, exceeding 4s. per week. 

The contractor, Mr. William Brown, of Merthyr, assured the 
representative of the Municipal Journal that he is willing to duplicate 
them under similar conditions elsewhere. 



l82 



Cheap Cottages, Merthyr Tydfil. 
Inclu-ive cost ^ 150. Rent 4/- per week. 




It will be seen from the plan that 
the " Model Cottage " fireplace is 
arranged on the angle, and thus two 
cosy corners are provided. This is 
the fireplace which is being so ex- 
tensively used by other munici- 
palities, and it will enable the 
ordinary scullery copper, with its 
indepemient flue, to be dispensed 
with It economises space, and is 
found by the housewife to effect a 
saving in coal and labour The 
fire-box has, on the suggestion of 
the borough surveyor, been made 
verv large and specially strong, for 
the reason that the collier is allowed 
at a trifling cost an allowance of coal 
per month, and in the winter time 
the fire kept alight day and night. 

The copper which provides hot 
water to the bath is also used for 
laundry purposes, and is fed auto- 
matically by a low pressure feed 
system. There is no ftar of ex- 
plosion as there is nothing sealed 
The \\ater in the copper is kept hot 
by the range fire, and the hot bath 
can be taken in the coldest weather 
under these conditions with com- 
fort, the room being warmed by the 
lieat radiated from the apparatus. 
This point will be appreciated by 
the miners for whom the cottages 
are being built, as under existing 
conditions they are not able to get 
a warm room combined with privacy. 
They have to sacrifice one or the 
other, and it is not infrequently the 
privacy that goes to the wall 

A secondary grate is provided 
under the copper, so that the water 
can be heated in the summer, or 
when the range is not used. Thus 
the fuel which heats and cooks in 
one room also provides hot water for 
boiling clothes, bathing, and general 
domestic purposes in the other. 



[Illustrations kindly lent hy the " Municipal Journal."] 



i83 

Prescot. — Thirty-eight houses, built at a cost of ^'6.200 are let at 
Zlz to 5/9 per week, but owing to ihe excessive rates of interest asked 
by the Public Works Loa-'s Commissioners, the money had to be 
borrowed locally. 

Stretford. — -It appears that in the five years before 1900, about 
1,500 houses were erected, of which only 30 were rented at a minimuin 
of 6/- per week, so the Council decided to build low-rented houses. 
In addition to 40 dwellings already provided at a cost of ^5,912, or 
;^62 per room inclusive, the Local Government Board has sanctioned 
a loan of ^25,015 for 58 years for the provision of 112 semi-detached 
dwellings on a site of about four and a half acres. Rents to be 4/9 
to 5/- per week. Cost of land ^3,750, sewers, etc., ^2,500, buildings 
^18,765, or ^33 IDS. per room. Forty houses are completed. 




- 36 6 



(Sr ?QanrofQLryn Fi r?ST Floqi? ^lp ^ 



\ Illustrations kindhj lent hy the "'Municipal Journal."] 

STRETFORD MUNICIPAL COTTAGES. 

Cost of building. ^148. Rent, 4s. gd. to 5s. per week. 



1 84 

SHEFFIELD. 



HIGH WINCOBANK COTTAGE DWELLINGS. 



BACK CAROerSS 



t»/v,C.K t»/K S S /«>v«i E. 



Rent 5/- per week 

Cost of Building £\^(i. 

Twenty Manicipal Cottages, as under, have 
Ijeen built and are fully occupied. 





BEDROOM PLAN 

An analysis of the cost of one house 
gives roughly these figures : — 

£ 

Excavator, Mason, and Bricklayer's work 62 

Carpenter and Joiner's ,, 3^ 

Slater's ,, 8 

Plasterer's ,, 9 

Plumber and Glazier's ,, 7 

Painter's ,, 4 



Gardener 



126 

2 



Total 



... ^i: 



GROUND PLAN. 



The details of cost of one house are as follow : — 

Cost of land, including roads at ;i^l50 per acre, allowing 

200 yards to each house and garden exclusive of roads... 
Cost of street works at £z los. per yard of frontage (each 

house has a frontage of 15 feet 7 inches ... 
Cost of sewer and first formation of street at 16/3 per yard 

of frontage ... 
Cost of Building 
Cost of front garden forming 
Proportion of Architect's Commission, based on 5 percent. 

for first house and 3I per cent, for remaining nineteen 

houses ... 



£ 


s. 


d. 


8 


8 





13 








4 

126 

2 


4 


5 


8 





4 


10 





£^h^ 


7 


8 





New Scheme for Cottages 
and Flats. — Other and cheaper 
houses are now being built in Win- 
cobank Avenue on the Wincobank 
Estate. The scheme will consist 
of three blocks, each containing a 
pair of f^ats at each end, with 
two-storied cottages occupying the 
remainder of the block. There 
will be 23 dwellings in all. The 
object is to provide houses to be 
let at a low rental and which will 
not be a charge on the rates. 




< 

r 

Q- 

Ql 

o 
o 






i86 



It is proposed to let the two-storied houses at about 5/3 per week, 
and the flats at about 4/- each. The Corporation baheve that by 
combining houses of varying accommodation in this way provision will 
be made for tenants who have no family or one child only, and who 
may thus have the accommodation they require without being compelled 
to take lodgers. 

The two-storied houses contain each on the ground floor a living 
room with an area f 170 feet, a scullery with an area of 76 feet, a 
pantry, coal place, and w c , and on the first floor three bedrooms with 
an area of 140 feet, 85 feet, and 68 feet. 

The ground floor flats contain each a living room with an area of 
167 feet, a scullery with an area of 65 feet, and a bedroom with an area 
of 126 feer, with the usual offices; the first floor flats contain each a 
living room and scullery combined with an area of 153 feet, and two 
bedrooms with area of 110 feet and 95 feet, besides the usual offices. 

In each dwelling a bath is provided, the hot water being supplied 
from the copper. 

The houses will be built of local bricks, picked stocks being used 
for all facings, and the roofs will be slated. The whole of the ground 
floors will be of concrete and the upper floors of joists and boards, 
except in case of the flats, where breeze concrete with steel bars 
embedded will be used. 

In the rear of the houses, and separated from the yards by a 5 feet 
passage, garden will be provided, the total amcjunt of land, including 
that on which the houses stand but excluding roads, being calculated 
on the basis of 200 yards to each two-storied house, and 138 yards to 
each single flat. The cost of the buildings is estimated at ^'2,997. 

The work will be carried out by Mr. W. Malthouse, of Sheffield, 
from the designs and under the superintendence of Mr. H. L. Paterson, 
A.R.I.B.A. 




SCME.,F[i:T It 

I,, .,1 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN 

'? '1 ^ 



i87 



MODEL VILLAGE AND CHEAP COTTAGES, 

LEIGH (near Tonbridge, Kent). 

This scheme is being carried out for the Kent Cottage Company 
Limited. Mr. A. P. Hedges, M.P., and others, se ing the cottages 
were urgently needed in the neighbourhood, formed a private company 
to build a Model Village. Their aim was to build cottages to let at 
low rents, but to return 5 per cent, on the capital. The company 
leased a field of a little over two acres from Lord DeLisle. The houses 
were built in 1906-7. It will be seen that they are grouped about a 
central green, round which is an 8ft. wide private road, with gravel 
paths to front and back doors of cottages. The roads and paths cost 
only ;^8o complete. The drainage and water main for the whole 
village cost ^{^205. The architects, Messrs. Barrett and Driver, of 
York Place, I3aker Street, W., have arranged for 32 cottages to be 
erected on the site. Fourteen were erected upon the plans illustrated 
in one group of six, and two groups of four, at a cost of ^126 per 
cottage — a remarkably low price for a five-roomed cottage. The rents 
at 3s. 6d. to 3s. gd. per vveek will provide 5 per cent, return on capital, 
when the village is completed. 






5-18 ■ i\&b^l 
19*22 • £175. 

■APCA °r Sire — 



aA AI76niTE6TS 

25y9gi/ gA6C — 
— lyhbSh.W 



FUPTIiEg 




D2Mi rP9n TShBPIC^OE T? LEIGM' 



Paths to cottages 2 feet 6 inches wide. Road rounci green S feet wide. 

Site 360 feet frontage to main road. Cent al green 140 feet long l)y 46 feet wide. 

Entrance road 14 feet iietween paths, each 3 feet wide. 



G^TTA^^!). \fhll ViLL/XGr. L C16/A. l^mT. 




rLf\DrC6TI\Jt \J\IV 



Rents from 3s. 6d. and 3s. gd. per week. 
For further particulars see site plan. 

Details of Cottages. — Design " A." 

Accommodation: parlour, 12 feet 4 inches by 9 feet 6 inches; 
kitchen, 12 feet 4 inches by 9 feet 6 inches; scullery 7 feet by 
6 feet (with sink and copper and larder), W.C, and covered way, 
coal cupboard 4 feet by 4 feet. Enclosed porch. The plans and 
sections will show the ingenious arrangement for utilising space over 
stairs by constructing a baulkhead in the corner of a bedroom. Three 
bedrooms 12 feet 4 inches by 9 feet 6 inches, 9 feet 6 inches by 7 feet, 
and 7 feet 9 inches by 6 feet 8 inches respectively. There are no 
passages, therefore no waste of room. The space in roof is used for 
boxes, etc. The walls are 9 inch brick, cemented outside, and rough- 
casted. The architects claim that this method of finishing makes the 




— Q\°\im fpn Finn - 



riRDT ri^n rmn. 



- soniE: °r fECT - 



— a yoRis TL<\i,t r>'>,t^t^ 3t w — 



wallas weather-proof as an 1 8 inch wall, faced with red bricks. The 
roof is tiled with thick, patent tiles, which keep the rooms at an even 
temperature. Solid ground floors on the architects' special system, 
9 inch of brickwork all round the building, are warmer than the usual 
floors, and cost less. All rooms have picture rails and picture hooks, 
thus saving the plaster from being knocked about, and the ceilings are 
whitened down to this rail, thus giving a greater area of reflected light. 
The walls are distempered inside with washable sanitary water paint. 
The woodwork is stained with wood preservation green and brown and 
varnished. This costs much less than paint and lasts better. Kitchen 
ranges are self-setting, with Eagle Pattern, raising fire. 

COTTAGES AT LEIGH. 



Sectional Elevations. 

Note the ingenious arrangement of a baulk head in a corner of the bedroom over 
the top of the stairs. 



ILJL 




'■'• i^'rV '..zr.\ 7 : : :':'i^~Mi: 

.Section frunt to back. 




Section end to end. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TOWN DEVELOPMENT. 

TOWN PLANNING, SITE PLANNING, BYE=LAWS, AND 
SOCIETIES OF PUBLIC UTILITY. 

The great question occupying the minds of leading housing 
reformers in England to-day is how best to establish and regulate a 
proper system of town development whi'ch shall provide for the 
organised dispersion of the population of over-crowded centres, either 
in the first stage to residential suburbs, or in the second stage to 
industrial villages, quite detached from the main centre, or in the third 
stage to agricultural districts, whose growth may be encouraged by the 
adoption of an improved system of land cultivation, and by the 
development of rural industries. 

The developments that are taking place in the transmission of 
electric power, point to big movements is this direction, because they 
will make it possible not only that industries may be carried on at 
distances from the centre, but also that there shall be such a cheapening 
and improvement of the means of transit for both goods and passengers 
as will tend largely to destroy the obstacles of time and distance which 
at present, though to a less extent than formerly, render it n'icessary to 
crowd factories together in certain areas, or to cause the undue 
concentration of population in certain districts. 

Land, Housing and Transit should be combined. 

Cheap transit alone has inflicted on us jerry-built suburban houses 
of the wrong type overcrowded on area, and has inflated the price of 
land for the benefit of the speculators, who too often absorb the differ- 
ence betveen the old rent paid on the dear land in the centre and the 
true economic ground rent that should be paid for the agricultural land 
on the outskirts. Hence, it is vitally important that the control and ower- 
ship of suburban land should be more in the hands of the community 
than at present, and that one and the same authority should have powers 
over transit, land and housing — the raw materials of Town Extension. 

If the authority that supplies the houses could also supply or control 
the means of communication and acquire the land at its original value 
before so equipping it, or before indicating that it was to be so equipped, 
then the rent charged to the tenant need only consist of a sum sufficient 
to pay working expenses and a reasonable return on capital outlay, 
which would be comparatively small in respect of land, and would, 
therefore, enable the conimunity to give or secure a liberal allowance of 
garden and other open space for the various dwellings and districts. 

An effective system of Town Planning and Site Planning, with 
revised Bye-laws, and extended powers of Municipal Land Purchase, 
coupled with the encouragement of Building Societies of Public Utility, 



191 

will go far towards promoting these desirable ends, and will enable us 
at one and the same time to prevent the creation of new slums, while 
securing sites and facilities for the erection of really healthy and suit- 
able working class dwellings. 

TOWN PLANNING. 

A brief reference to this form of housing improvement was maie 
in pp. 250-251 of the Housing Handbook, but thanks to Mr. T. C. 
Horsfall's excellent book " The Example of Germany," and to his 
thoughtful and earnest advocacy of town planning in all parts of the 
country and before all sorts and conditions of men, the subject is quite 
in the front rank of immediately desired and expected reforms. The 
success of the great citizens' meeting at Manchester, in favour of town 
planning, paved the way for the still more effective action which 
followed the adoption by the Birmingham City Council, of the report 
of the deputation of the Housing Committee which visited Germany in 

1905. The report itself is a most valuable document, showing as it 
does the nature and advantages of town planning as carried out, and 
the extent to which German Municipalities are allowed to purchase 
and hold or otherwise deal with land in large quantities in connection 
with present and future needs, with the benefits both social and 
financial which arise therefrom. 

The National Housing Reform Council, on the 6th November, 

1906, organised a most representative deputation to the Prime Minister 
and the President of the Local Government Board, when Messrs. Cadbury 
and Horsfall most strongly urged the need for Town Planning and Site 
Planning powers being given to local authorities. The Prime Minister 
said that he "recognised the fulness, fairness, and reasonableness of 
the proposals" made by the deputation, and that the Government 
"hoped to find time to do something at least towards carrying out the 
objects " they had in view. Mr. Burns also promised that " next year 
they would see what could be done on the broad and general lines that 
had been indicated by the deputation," and true to his word lost no 
time in preparing a Town Planning Bill, which was ready to be 
introduced among the other big bills of the session of 1907, but the 
exigencies of time and other conditions of the parliamentary situation 
have necessitated the postponement of its introduction till the session 
of 1908, when it should have a good chance of being carried into law. 

Thanks very largely to the energy and activity of Councillor 
Nettlefold, Chairman of the Birmingham Housing Committee, yet 
another step has been taken forward in the preparation of a Town 
Planning Bill by the Association of Municipal Corporations, which, 
although a very modest measure, is at any rate a step in advance on the 
right lines, and has the practical advantage of the support of a body of 
men who are not likely to be wild enthusiasts for social reform, or for 
bold strokes of municipal policy. 

In reply to a deputation from this body on August 7th, 1907, Mr. Burns 
referred to the National Housing deputation above mentioned, and said : 



192 

"After the deputation last year to the Prime Minister and himself, they set to 
work to prepare a draft Housing Bill and a Town Planning Bill, both of which they 
had hoped to run concurrently in this Session. Other matters had elbowed both the 
Housing Bill and the Town Planning Bill out for this year, but they sincerely trusted 
that both would be dealt with next year. With regard to the Association's scheme 
as compared with the Government draft Bill, he did not think the scheme was as 
good as their Bill." 

Central Commissioners, Scientific Areas, and Land Purchase. 

It is pretty clear from this reply that the Government realise the 
need for something more than a mere amendment of bye-laws, valuable 
as this would be. They have shown by their encouragement of the 
schemes for federation of towns in the " Potteries " and " heavy 
woollens " districts that the time has come to consider the question of 
scientific areas for administration. 

Our system of local government, of which in many respects we are 
so proud, and which affords so many opportunities for well-meaning 
individuals and communities to give practical effect to their ideas on 
sanitary and social reform, has its drawbacks and its dangers, We need 
new areas for dealing with the regulation of town development, as what 
should be a self-contained community is too frequently made up of a 
number of different local government areas, the growth of which has 
out-stretched the boundaries often arbitrarily determined for them many 
years ago. 

There is little doubt but that we shall shortly have such Town 
Planning as will provide for main roads and other streets of adequate 
width, in the proper direction, and in sufficient numbers to meet future 
needs, as well as for the reservation of open spaces before the land near 
them is forced up to speculative building prices. According to 
information supplied to the Association of Municipal Corporations in 
June, 1907, it appears that the approximate expenditure out of loans 
by two-thirds of the great towns and municipalities in street improve- 
ments and street widenings during the pas^ ten years was ^9,789,798, 
and the amount spent in the same period in providing open spaces was 
;!^i>857,538, apart from gifts and public subscriptions. If we include 
London and the other towns, the total expenditure for this purpose may 
be put at ;^i8,22 1,004, and it is estimated that three-fourths of this 
amount, or ^13,665,753 is the amount that might have been saved to 
the ratepayers of England in the last 30 years if we had had intelligent 
town planning. Sir John Wolfe Barry estimated also that in one 
crowded district in London there was a loss of ^2,250,000 per annum 
to the citzens owing to the congestion of traffic. 

If, however. Town Planning is to effect an all round improvement 
in housing conditions, it must be associated with land purchase on a 
larger scale than is practised or allowed at present, and to facilitate this 
it would be well that a Central Town and Village Development 
Commission, acting through local bodies, such as county or borough 
councils, or special statutory committees established for suitable areas, 
should have large powers over land, housing, and transit, the three 
great factors in town and village growth, and also with a special fund 



and borrowing powers if necessary for doing this work effectively to 
some extent on the Hnes of the powers and funds connected with the 
Irish Land Commission. Special powers for securing land for main 
roads, recreation grounds, sites for public buildings and workmen's 
dwellings, together with facilities to encourage the provision of small 
holdings, the promotion of agricultural co-operation and the improvement 
of transit, might be conferred on these central and local authorities. 

MUNICIPAL LAND PURCHASE. 

Under the present law public bodies in Great Britain may as a rule 
only raise loans to buy land — even by agreement — for some imvieaiate 
and specific purpose. If they acquire it compulsorily for public pur- 
poses, they generally have to pay a price out of all proportion to the 
value of the land as assessed for taxes for public purposes. It is, there- 
fore, essential to have improved facilities for the purchase of land, both 
compulsorily and by agreement, and the price paid for such land should 
be based upon the amount at which it was assessed for rates and taxes 

The experience of Richmond as an illustration. — Twenty- 
one years ago there were 660 acres of open land suitable for building on, 
in what is now the Borough of Richmond, Surrey, which has a population 
of 32,500, and a rateable value of ^325,000 a year. It would have 
cost less than ^250,000 if bought by the town, and the interest and 
repayment of this sum would have amounted to ;!^io,ooo per annum 
for 60 years. Since then, however, the ratepayers of Richmond have 
paid p^5o,ooo for 35 acres of this land ; the Hammersmith ratepayers 
;^32,ooo for 32 acres ; The Fulham ratepayers ^20,000 for 20 acres ; 
and the Barnes ratepayers ;^i 5,000 for 17 acres ; or a total of ^125,000 
for 104 acres, hvo-thirds of it being for cemeteries alone. The cost of the 
loans for the above was about ^6,000 a year. Some 50 acres have 
been let or sold for building purposes, and after allowing for the 
annual cost of making roads, etc., the bare land has for some time been 
producing ^2,000 a year in ground rents. The agricultural rent and 
other receipts from the remaining 500 acres amount to a net sum of 
about ;^2,ooo a year, so the three items of income already exceed 
what would have been the annual charges on the ratepayers, had the 
town bought the whole 660 acres 21 years ago. The capital value of 
the remaining land may be estimated at nearly ^^500,000 — indeed the 
Town Council has recently paid as much as ;,^2,ooo per acre for some 
of the least accessible portions as a site for workmen's dwellings, 
although it may be added the land was only assessed at ^4 an acre for 
purposes of local taxation. 

If it be suggested that ^^250,000 is a large sum to be invested in 
land by a small town like Richmond, it is only necessary to point to the 
example of Ulm in Bavaria. This town, with a population of 51,680, 
is not so wealthy as Richmond, but the Corporation and the town 
institutions own four-fifths of the total area of the town, 1,126 acres, 
and between 1891 and 1903 the Corporation purchased 625 acres of 
land. In five years a profit of £,230,000 was made by the town, while 
the increase in value on the land still held is estimated at ;,^i, 500,000. 

H 



194 

THE EXAMPLE OF GERMANY AND HOLLAND. 

More than a hundred years ago Goethe laid down his famous 
dictum at Heilbronn : "A town is prosperous through the land which it 
possesses, more than through any other consideration — the best token 
of a good administration is that a town is going on buying land.." 

To-day we find the Prussian Government urging the towns which 
have already bought large areas of land, to continue and extend this 
policy of land purchase. 

Frankfort owns lo per cent of the existing town area in addition to 
over 8,000 acres on the outskirts, and is continually buying more. 

Cologne owns 2,780 acres, or one-tenth of the total area of the town. 

Dusseldorf owns 67,674 acres, and made a profit on revenue 
account of ;^i8,ooo a year. 

Mannheim spends at least ^10,000 a year in buying land — mostly 
on the outskirts, at prices of from 3d. to 3/- per square yard. 

During the years 1890 to 1900, twelve German towns, which 
already owned a total of 20,528 acres in and outside their boundaries, 
purchased no less than 16,156 acres in addition, so that the average 
amount per inhabitant was in no case less than 10 square yards, and 
amounted in three cases to between 100 and 250 square yards. 

Under the new Dutch Housing Act, 1903, land has been bought already 
by the following towns. The four square miles bought by Amsterdam 
were acquired compulsorily, and an extension plan is being prepared : 

Town. Population. Quantity of land purchased. 

Amsterdam ... 560,000 ... 2,500 acres. 

Rotterdam... 

Gravenhage 

Utrecht ... ... 115,000 ... 325 ,, 

Arnhem ... ... 63,000 ... 1,500 ,, 

Schiedam ... ... 30,000 ... 250 ,, 

Dr. Mewes, of Dusseldorf, in his report to the International Congress 

in London, August, 1907, suggested that the following things should 

be combined in the process of town development. 

(a) Municipal Land Purchase of Large Areas. — A well thought out land policy 
is e-senlial for all towns. Land purchase should be extensive — Frankfort, Mann- 
heim, Hanover, Strassburg and Freiburg i. Br. own from one-third to one-half 
of the land in their precincts. 
Municipal land may be utilised in one or all of the following ways :— 

{a) Sold, with registered conditions, toprevent misuse or exce.^sivespeculation ; 
(d) Built on by municipalities as at Strassburg, Freiburg and Schwcinfurt, 

where municipal dwellings are let ; 
{c) Leased to individuals or companies, but preferably to societies of public 
utility. 
{d) A General Plan providing for main roads and transit facilities ; careful grading 
of districts in zones ; varied streets and open spaces ; reservation of front gardens 
for futuie widening of streets, if necessary. As in Baden, Hamburg and Frank- 
fort, plots belonging to different owners should be pooled and re-apportioned, 
if necessiry, after making the town plan ; 

(c) Building Bye-lawrs varied according to zones and providing for : restrictions on 

intensive use of land ; cheaper streets in suburbs and purely residential 
quarters ; bringing down of the regulations for small houses as to thickness of 
walls, hfii^ht of rooms and other details of construction. 

(d) Local Railways and tramways should be constructed to develop the spread of 

population as well as to serve districts already populated. 



390,000 ... 1,250 
238,000 ... 750 



195 

Section of Main Road, Wif^sbaden, Germany, showing tramways 
and motor tracks, cycle track, road for horse vehicles, foot promenade 
and riding alleys. 




EXISTING PLANNING POWERS IN ENGLISH TOWNS. 

Some interesting information as to the law and practice with regard 
to site planning and the laying out of new streets was submitted to the 
Association of Municipal Corporations by the Town Clerk of Leicester 
as the result of questions sent out in 1907 to a number of towns. The 
following is a summary of the chief points : — 

Site Plans. — Plans of new streets for works actually being undertaken must be 
submitted to the local authority for approval, but except in rare inslances, and then 
only by a straining of the law, no English town can insist on a plan of the whole of 
a building estate showing for approval the method in which it is proposed to lay out a 
building estate and the relations of intended streets to others. The bye-laws usually 
prescribe the deposit of plans in duplicate, and not more than four sections with 
information showing the names of owners of land dealt with, the points of the com- 
pass, the gradients and levels, and the size and number of the intended building lots. 

Width of Streets. --As to width, streets are divided into classes, in respect of 
which the requirements of diflerent towns vary considerably. In 63 towns 24 feet is 
required for carriage-way, with a footpath 6 feet wide on each side. By special 
provisions in a local act the streets in Barrow-in-Furness are classified as follows : — ■ 

((?) Main thoroughfares (first class) 80 feet wide, with 40 feet carriage way 
and 20 fret footpaths. 

(d) Main carriage road (second class) 60 feet wide, with 36 feet carriage way 
and 12 feet footpaths. 

(f) Subsidiary front streets (third class) 40 feet wide, with 25 feet carriage way 
and 7 feet 6 inches footpaths. 

(d) A liack street 20 feet wide must be constructed at the rear of a continuous 
line of dwellings, unless the Corporation otherwise allow. 

In section 44 of the same Act it is provided that ^/le Corporation may at their 
discretioit reduce the zvidth of the street if a7i open space is left along one or both sides 
of the street in front of the houses. 

In a few other towns a discretion is given to the Corporation to vary the width 
of any street. Nottingham, Leicester, Bacup, Bolton and Huddersfield may in each 
case determine the width. In Sunderland there is power to increase the width to 
50 feet for a leading thoroughfare, and 60 feet if the buildings in it exceed 27 feet in 
height ; Vjut the Corporation must bear the cost of pavement of the increased width. 

Direction and Position of Streets. — In most towns there is no power to 

alter or vary the direction or position of the streets shown on the plan, but some 
corporations have acquired exceptional powers by local Acts, and Leeds and 



ig6 

Nottingham have full power subject to a compensation clause, Blackburn, Bourne- 
mouth, Bradford and Brighton have certain limited discretions. Barrow-in-Furness, 
Huddersfield and Leicester Corporations may require the direction or position of a 
new street to be altered for the purpose of securing more easy and convenient 
communication with any other street near thereto. Bolton, Ealing, Liverpool, and 
St. Helen's possess like powers subject to compensation. 

Construction. — There is considerable variation in the materials and character 
of construction. In Barrow there must be slag foundation of 12 inches for a first- 
class road, 9 inches for a second-class road, and 7 inches for a third-class road and 
4 inches of macadam. Footpaths in Barrow must be flagged with flags 2 to 3 inches 
thick, whereas in Exeter tar paving is allowed for footways, and in Bournemouth 
3 inches deep of gravel. 

In many towns streets are required to be paved with stone setts, and provided 
with flagged footways, but often plans are passed for a street which w ill however not 
be "taken over" by the Council as a "highway repairable by the inhabitants at 
large" (see 150, Rural Housing Act, 1875), until further works have been carried 
out on it. 

Building Line. — In a great many places the Corporation have power by local 
Acts to prescribe a building line, but always subject to a compensation clause. In 
Bournemouth, Birmingham, Leeds, Bolton, Eccles, and St. Helen's the power may 
be exercised in existing streets if they are narrow or inconvenient, or without a 
regular line of buildings. 

Air Space. — The requirements as to a7-ea of air space at the side or rear of 
dwellings vary from a minimum of loO square feet in Bacup to a minimum of joa 
square feet in Ci-oydon. 

In 85 towns the minimum area is 150 square feet. Other typical minimum 
figures are as follows : — 

Burnley, 120 square feet. Coventry, 300 square feet. 

Blackburn, 180 ,, Newark, 400 ,, 

Cheltenham, 200 ,, Pembroke, 500 ,, 

In Newcastle one-fourth of the entire area of the site, exclusive of the forecourt, 
must be open space ; in Huddersfield one-third, and in Southport one-half. 

In 28 other towns the Corporation has a discretionary power to vary the 
dimensions or area of the open space to be left at the rear or side of dwellings. 

Depth of Open Space. — The depth required varies in proportion to the 
height of the buildings, generally from 10 feet to 30 feet. In 52 towns the 
minimum de[)th for the lowest buildings is 10 feet ; in 14 towns the minimum depth 
is 15 feet ; in Liverpool the depth varies from 5 to 15 feet. 

Great Yarmouth Town Council possesses a large corporate 
estate, and is applying some of the principles of Site Planning to its 
development. It is proposed to lay out at once an area of 18 acres on 
the North Denes for 207 houses, 115 of which will be in terraces and 
92 detached or semi-detached, along curved tree-planted streets, 36 
to 45 feet wide, and to lease them for 999 years at rents varying from 
^i 6s. to ;£i I OS. for the terrace house sites, and from ^5 5s. to 
^7 7s. for the others, thus bringing in a total of ^^4 18 per annum. 
Additional payments in respect of roads, drainage, and tree planting 
are estimated at about two years' rent. The scheme is especially 
interesting, because old Yarmouth was notorious for its narrow streets 
and rows. 



197 

POWERS NECESSARY FOR ALL MUNICIPALITIES. 

In the application of Town Planning to England, all the foregoing 
methods might reasonably be adopted, but it would be necessary in the 
first instance to make special provision for dealing with the overlapping 
of areas above referred to, and the construction of big main roads and 
other means of communication between various districts. For this 
purpose the area to be planned would often have to be regulated by an 
authority covering a wider area than the local authority itself, but the 
powers of the larger body should be in addition to and not in deroga- 
tion of the powers of the local sanitary authority. 

Every urban sanitary authority should be empowered to prepare 
with respect to all or any of the land in the district, whether already 
built on or not, a scheme which should at least make binding 
provisions as to — 

Streets — 

{a) The width, level, direction and method of construction of all new streets, 
and the proportion of such streets which shall be laid out as a carriage- 
way and footway respectively : together with the street lines and 
building lines in each case. 

Dedication or Acquisition of Land — 

{d) The extent to which any land adjoining such street may be acquired by the 
local authority, or shall be dedicated to the public and vested in the 
local authority subject to compensation as provided in the schedule to 
this Act to any person or body of persons proved to have sustained 
actual loss by reason of the dedication of land other than that required 
for making any street the prescribed width. 

Open Spaces and Sites for Public Purposes — 

(c) The parts of the land to be appropriated for open spaces, and sites for 
public buildings, institutions, and dwellings for the working classes, 
and for other public purposes. 
Limitation of Rooms on Land — i 

(a?) The graduating by districts, streets, squares, and other areas of the extent 
to which sites shall be covered with buildings, and in particular the 
fixing of a tnaxiiiium 7iiiinber of rooms per acre that may be built upon 
the land. 
Building Zones — 

{e) The separation of particular districts, streets, and squares, in which the 
erection will not be allowed of buildings which are likely in working to 
cause the neighbouring inhabitants or the general public danger, injury, 
or annoyance by diffusing bad smells, thick smoke, or unusual noise. 
Disfigurement of Public Places— 

(/) Proceedings against buildings which disfigure the streets or pulilic places 
in towns or in country places. 
Prevention of Dilapidation — 

{g) The plastering, painting, pointing, and keeping in general repair of 
buildings mainly serving as dwellings, and of all buildings situated on 
main streets and squares. 
Places of Natural Beauty and Agricultural Belts - 

{h) The preservation, wherever practicable, of natural beauty spots, and of an 
agricultural area for allotments or small holdings. 
-Hire or Purchase of Land — 

(?) The extent to which any land in or adjoining their district may be hired 
or purchased or scheduled for future hire or purchase on the basis of its 
assessment for purposes of rating or taxation, subject only in the case of 
compulsory hire or purchase to the consent of the central authority. 



198 

Mr. Lever's Suburban Development Scheme. — Mr. Lever 
suggests the following scheme for municipal land purchase, site 
planning, and subsequent development. Land should be bought at 
;^2oo per acre and properly planned. Only the n.iddle of the roads 
should be made up in the first instance, and in addition to widths of 80, 
60 and 40 feet for the various classes of streets, the building line should 
be set back from 2 i to 60 feet on each side of the roads. The cost of 
road making to be as under the Private Streets Works Acts, and charge 
on the frontages. The municipality shou d lease this land for 99 years, 
at cost price, and should offer to advance one-fourth of the cost of 
building cottages, but not more than ^100 for each house. The other 
money for building could be raised partly by mortgage and partly by 
the capital of the individuals or societies building the houses. 

At 10 houses to the acre the municipal outlay would be ;^2oo for 
the land, and from ^500 to ^1,000 for the loan, according as the house 
cost ^200 or ^400 to build, so that the total would be from ^^700 to 
to ^1,200 per acre. The loan charges on tliis at ^^ per cent, for 80 
years would be ^^2 10s. to ^4 5s. per house, and a ground rent 
could be fixed on each house accordingly. These ground rents 
would be perfectly secure, as they would be a first charge, ranking 
before any other claimants. 

An Interesting Suggestion. — PLmning and land purchase 
are necessary in some measure, even in purely rural villages, and the 
following interesting suggestion made by a Surrey landowner (Mr. 
Charles Hodgson), chairman of the Wonersh Parish Council, would be 
well worth carrying into effect with perhaps some increase in the propor- 
tion of land to population, and a right of appeal from the County Council. 

" Every community should have the power to register a piece of 
building land in or adjoining the village, as the building land of the 
village, giving the owner power of appeal to the County Council to 
prevent arbitrary or unsuitable registration, and in any case the approval 
of the County Council to be obtained to the registration. 

" Land at the rate of one acre per 1,000 inhabitants to be registered, 
and such land to be registered at its capital or selling value, such value 
to be fixed by the owner and to be assessed for local and Imperial 
taxation accordingly." 

American Schemes for Town Planning. — H. G. Wells, in 
his book "The future in America," describing the work of the 
Metropolitan 1 arks Commission says : — 

I suppose no city in the world (unless it be Washington) has ever produced so 
complete and ample a forecast of its own future as this Commission's plan of Boston. 

An area with a radius of between 15 and 20 miles from the State House has 
been planned out and prepared for growth. Great reservations of woodland and hill 
have been made, the banks of nearly all the streams and rivers and meres have been 
secured for public parks and gardens, for boatintj and other water sports ; big 
avenues of vigorous young trees, a hundred and fifty yards or so wide, with drive 
ways and riding ways, and a central grassy bank, for electric tramways have been 
prepared, and indeed the fair and ample and shady new Boston — the Boston of 1950 
— grows visibly before one's eyes. 

I found myself comparing the disciplined confidence of their proposals to the 
blind enlargement of London, that, like a bowl of viscid human fluid, boils sullenly 
over the rim of its encircling hills and slops messily and uglily into the home counties. 



199 

A PLEA FOR AN AGRICULTURAL BELT. 

Miss Sybella Gurney, who as the honorary secretary of the 
Co-partnership Housing Council has done a great deal to forward 
better planning in a practical way, urges strongly and very properly the 
extreme importance of securing an agricultural area near all urban centres. 
She directs attention to the fact that the problem is becoming more urgent 
and difficult in proportion astheopencountryside recedes further and says: 

" The preservation of an agricultural belt is important for many 
reasons, partly because it brings the country within the reach of all, 
partly because of the advantage to health thus caused to the town 
dwellers, partly because in this way an agricultural population is main- 
tained, provided with a market at its doors, and prevented by its 
situation from leading a life too retired and too cut off from human 
intercourse. It is on a large scale a repetition of the advantage of 
mixing classes in a suburban district. It is far better for both town and 
country populations that they should be to some extent intermixed. 

But can we trust local authorities to provide such agricultural 
belts ? The answer I fear must be no, the temptation to increase the 
high rate-paying area is too great — further it is obvious in any case, that 
the areas of existing urban authorities neither leave room for such belts 
or for the planning of the new districts so urgently needed. What 
happens at present is that new districts grow up anyhow, often under 
a rural authority, and are spoilt before a new urban authority is 
constituted, or they are add d to an old one. 

What we need is the mapping out of England by a central 
commission into such scientific building areas and agricultural belts. 
The new scientific building areas will often cover much more than one 
local authority. The local boards which are to deal with the develop- 
ment of such areas, must therefore represent all the authorities 
concerned, and should also include a proportion of experts on the 
matter of town planning. Such boards would deal with railways, 
tramways, high roads, as part of the general plan, and would be of the 
greatest importance. They would include the functions of traffic 
boards with that of makers of the general plan, and co-ordinators of 
local plans. It is an interesting sign of the times that Mr. Charles 
Booth approved and Lord Ribblesdale seconded a resolution carried at a 
recent conference of London District Authorities in favour of the proposed 
London Traffic Board having ' Advisory powers of Town Planning.' " 

BYE-LAWS. 

In the planning and development of sites, however, it will be found 
that the various building bye-laws will have a far-reaching influence on 
the cost, appearance, and convenience of the dwellings erected, and 
they deserve some consideration in view of the need for reform in 
many respects. 

Alterations in the Bye-laws. — New Model Bye-laws were 
issued by the Local Government Board in 1903 for Rural Districts, and 
in 1904 for Urban Districts. It is open to the council of a district 
partly urban and partly rural to adopt parts of the urban and the rural 
model code, and so frame a blend that may suit the local requirements. 



The Urban Bye-laws have been slightly modified in several respects. 
Attics may now be built on nine inch walls above the second storey, if 
within the limit of height. The conditions as to the erection of one 
storey buildings of galvanised iron, etc., have been modified so as to 
permit of greater elasticity in the distances of buildings from each 
other, according to size. Secondary roads are permitted in a larger 
number of cases. Concrete covering of sites may be four instead of 
six inches thick. A no e to clause 13 suggests a kind of town planning, 
or separation by districts, for the application of regulations as to 
building on sites subject to floods. The Board also state they would 
be prepared to consider a proviso allowing walls to be constructed of 
steel framing. Tile hung timber framing is to be allowed above the 
first storey without requiring brick backing. The details as to the 
exact composition or nature of several parts of the building have been 
omitted or made more general ; walls 35 feet long are differentiated 
(as to the required thickness) from those longer than 35 feet. Cement 
concrete is omitted from the materials for walls that must be one-third 
greater in thickness than the figure precribes for brick walls ; an 
alternative clause is provided to that requiring party walls to be carried 
through the roof twelve inches, enabling walls to be simply brought up 
to the under side of the roof. The size of windows is modified slightly 
in certain cases. 

Bye-laws in Rural Districts. — A rural district council has no 
power conferred upon it by the Public Health Act, 1875, to make bye- 
laws, but it can obtain the power in either of three ways : — 

(i) Apply to the Local Government Board for an order investing the council, 
under sec. 276 of the Act of 1S75, with the power of an urban authority under that 
Act for the purpose of making bye-laws. 

(2) Adopt so much of Part III of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, 
as can be adopted by rural district councils, and thus obtain power to make bye-laws 
in respect of new buildings and the sanitary condition of buildings without any 
intervention on the part of the Local Government Board or county council. These 
powers are conferred by sections 157 and 158 of the Public Health Act, 1875, as 
extended by section 23 of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, and are not 
covered by the Local Government Board rural model code of bye-laws. 

(3) The Local Government Board may under section 5 of the Public Health Acts 
Amendment Act, 1890, declare any of the provisions contained in that Act to be in 
force in a rural district or part of it. 

The rural model code relates to eight matters only: — (i) the 
structure of walls and foundations of new buildings for purposes of 
health ; (2) the sufficiency of space about buildings to secure a free 
circulation of air ; (3) the ventilation of buildings ; (4) the drainage of 
buildings ; (5) water closets, earth closets, privies, ashpits, and cesspools 
in connection with buildings ; (6) the closing of buildings unfit for human 
habitation; (7) the keeping of water closets supplied with sufficient 
water for flushing ; (8) the observance and enforcement of such bye- 
laws by requiring notices and plans. 

The structure of walls and foundations of new buildings is limited 
to purposes of health ; stability does not come in, as is the case in 
London. Wooden cottages may therefore be built where the rural 
code obtains or where the urban code has been adopted with the 
exemption clause, or of course where no bye-laws exist. 



Out of 667 districts 427 have bye-laws with respect to new buildings. 
According to a return obtained in 1905 urban bye-laws were then in 
force in the whole or part of 283 rural districts ; bye-laws on the rural 
model existed in the whole or part of 138 rural districts ; and in 245 
(now 240) rural districts there were no bye-laws as to new buildings, 
and consequently no power to supervise. 

Unfortunately the local authorities have so long been slaves to the 
old methods of land development and house building, engendered by 
the old byelaws, that they nearly all of them continue to hug their 
chains and work under the old bye-laws, instead of availing themselves 
of the new liberties which, although but small and few, are steps in the 
right direction. 

Bye-law Reform still needed. — On the other hand, some of 
the authorities who are trying to secure a more rational set of byelaws 
find that the central authority cannot help them to carry out their good 
intentions. For example, bye-laws may be made prescribing the 
minimum height of rooms, but not the minimum area, although the 
latter is the far more important of the two. 

The Levenshulme District Council were recently informed by the 
Local Government Board that "district councils have no power under 
the existing law to make a bye-law prescribing the minimum area of 
living rooms or sleeping rooms, and the Board could not confirm any 
bye-law with that object." 

New Styles of Streets Wanted, — So with regard to new 
streets. The paved or macadamised road surface about 40 feet wide 
required by the bye-laws for all kinds of streets (except secondary 
approaches) is not only expensive and unnecessary, but also objection- 
able from the aesthetic and hygienic point of view. It ought to be 
quite sufficient if side streets used solely as approaches to private 
residences were allowed to have only a 16 leet to 20 feet macadamised 
road, provided the spaces between the houses be increased so as to 
substitute air space for road space. Under present conditions the 
roads of newly developed estates on the outskirts of towns cost from 
;^20o to ;^5oo per acre, or more than the land itself in many cases. 

In many districts, especially in the North of England, any 
departure from the normal type is rendered impossible, in consequence 
of the regulations about paved streets. The cost of 40 feet of road 
paved with granite setts in front, and another of 16 feet to 20 feet at 
the back, is so great that in the interests of economy it is necessary to 
reduce the frontage of each house to the lowest possible minimum, 
and thus crowd the houses in rows. No other policy is remunerative 
financially ; thus the existing bye-laws have the effect of stereotyping 
the worst methods of house building. 

The monetary value of a concession allowing cheaper roads may be 
put at over ^100 an acre, and in the case of land costing ^200 an acre, 
or less, this would allow of one additional acre in every two being given up 
for open spaces in the shape of gardens, village greens, and public places. 
In this connection the following figures will be most instructive, 
indicating as they do how often the cost of developim^ sites under present 
conditions exceeds the cost of the land itself. hi 



o 


site cost 

per 
cottage. 


..^ooooocooo 0000 

.0000 "-iMD 00 1 "^ 1 1 

< .C<3 On ■rt- r-~ rocc ~ r^ CO -^ -rj- w-l u-i 
Nero's TtrOM rnt^rt t|-vO rf M tJ- 


o o o 
12 2 1° 

r^ — LO 

f^ N "3- 


o 

o 

N 


GO O O O 

^ O O O O 

•* N I~^00 On 
L'l N •* O no 


c 




^00000000000000 

.0000 mo omooooioi 1 

i/1 MM M ^ M 1 1 

S? (M N MNNPOMPOvNM N 


O O O O 

1 O O 1 O o 

MM 

ro M 


45 

10 

22 10 

23 
44 


"S "-) 1) ^ 
> P 1- 


NOO^^NOOOOOOvOw^ 

^9 ro T N CN03 NVOLOONONrOrJ-ICZ) 1 

^N r^ f^ rr> w^ N ■* "-OvO 'O "-I rf "^ r<-) 1 •* 1 


o o o 
1 c/o - 1 - 
1 lo - 1 ro 


o 


LO NO 
IN t^ " 
1 " NO 00 LO 


Cost of de- 
velopment, 
i.e., roads 
and sewers. 


^OtTM OONu-iOO-ON O 
V-)Ot)-NCO |'0>-oc)u-iO'~)I^N IvO I 
^ " N ro r^ 1 Onco " OpO "-1 O O n I " 1 


no NO r^ O 

1 NO 1 LO ^ 

1 On ■* 1 00 ro 


LO On 
1 " OnnO ro 


'6 

c 


<l^ SJ 

j3 3 


T^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
,^0000000l000000ir)0000000 

'^^MMM M MMM MM 

t -, M mvO vOrO'^fOOONOMNNO^in^iOOt^iDM 

N^ro fOMM(MinMNrofnNMNNM(M-!rMMcn 


O 
O 
'J- 

M 


00 000 
100 000 

MM M 

On(M ir)u-)io 
M NOO N 


_ctf 


0>OOinOOi'^0"'iOOLr)0"iOOO'*0000 
, ., O >J->:» u-1 On O t^CO t^ O On NO O-^OOOMOOOO 
N:^ LO LO LO m r^QO -^OO OO ro "^ rooo no O no — t^o t^ i-^ 


00 N 

r^ t^ N 

- « On LO 
« N ro 


c 
jS 


"^ On 

ONOO"^"~iO'~^>-"00000 "-^OO O O lonO lo O 

V? "^ LOCO NO t^ O r^NO O "-1 ro O — i"Ono ON .NO 

^ !>, LO fO OnnO -^LO-.000"NNOt^ONOO-/'"N 

„». „-Hm-ht1-«m NNrON" -:)- 


O " 


00 -+ 

CO LO Tl-OO 
_ _ ro OnOO 
M LO 


^=1 


(J ■-ii-.rONNLoroi-cLO-^N ThNNOr^ro no 


^1 


HM r-^ HHl 
M " N 
NO 


Cottages. 


■^ O "^ LO N f^OO NOroONOOui — COO 
N - rJ-OO t^NO CO CC LO "-OnO lo N N O no 


O M O CO N 
^ LO O ►- ro 


o 

LO 


rn N 'T 
r^ ■- -* i^ ro 



















Aberystwith ... 

Altrinchani 

Bangor 

Barking Town U.D. 

Barnes U.D. ... 
Burton-on-Trent .\I.B. 
Croydon C.B. 
Darwen 

Ealing M.B 

Kinchley U.D. 
Folkestone M.B. 

Grays U.D 

Hereford 

Ilornsey M.B. 


Llandudno U.D. 
Merthyr Tydfil 

Neath M.B 

Richmond 1\L B. 


u 

5 


.Sheffield (Highwincobank) 
Wrothani 

Land not open : 

S tret ford 

Sheffield (Edmund Road) 
Leigh U.D 



One example of a better system has been provided in Earswick 
Model Village, where the macadamised roadway, just wide enough for two 
vehicles to pass each other, is bordered by strips of grass and a simple path. 
Road in Earswick Model Village. 




STATION AVENUE, EARSWICK — BLOCK OF PARLOUR COTTAGES. 

Rent £jf los. per quarter, for 7 rooms. 




POPLAR GROVE, STATION AVENUE, EARSWICK— LABOURERS' COTTAGES. 

Rent per week, 4/6 for 5 rooms. 



2 04 



Wildau Garden Village (near Berlin). 
Showing houses surrounded by gardens instead of macadam. Note however 
the unnecessarily heavy ' type of building. Cost ^i 19 per room inclusive. 




One of the Groups— Schwartzkopffs Works, Wildau, Germany 




General View— Wildau Model Garden V'illage. 



205 

SITE PLANNING. 

A proper system of Site Planning will do a great deal in 
helping to solve the question. Given the necessary alterations in the 
bye-laws they will enable the ground to be so planned as to secure the 
maximum of open space with the minimum of macadamised road 
surface, while permitting the erection of an equal number of houses 
with the most diversified types of open spaces in connection therewith. 
An excellent example of the way in which the same area can be planned 
in the two different methods above described is to be found on the adjoin- 
ing page, where there is first shown an estate of 4| acres planned in the 
usual way, with all the buildings abutting and fronting directly on 1,555 
feet of rectilinear roads and providing for 75 houses, with no open spaces 
except the back gardens and a small strip of front garden. Secondly, 
there is shown the same estate with only 1,130 feet of curved roads, 
and the same number of houses and buildings arranged in crescents, 
quadrangles', or other forms, round open spaces abutting on the roads 
In the one case the owner would have to pay, on the average, for 20 
feet of road frontage half-way across the street in respect of each house, 
whereas in the second case the average road frontage would only be 
15 feet per house or a reduction of 25 per cent, in cost, not to speak of 
the vastly improved appearance of the estate. In any case it is to be 
hoped that the old style of fronting every house on and parallel with 
the street will be departed from more frequently than it is at present. 
A multiplication of areas arranged like that under consideration or like 
that of the Leigh estate of the Kent Cottage Company, would 
materially reduce the cost of road-making, sewer construction, and 
other items of site development. 

Another method is that adopted on the model workmen's colony 
of L. Schwartzkopff's engineering firm, at Wildau, a few miles outside 
Berlin. Here the dwellings are built in short terraces at right angles 
to the road, and surrounded by gardens, the immediate approach to 
each terrace being a simple pathway no wider than a country lane. 

The firm purchased about ii| acres of land for ^1,750, and during 
the years 1900-6 built on it 76 houses somewhat similar to those on the 
illustrations, each containing four dwellings. 

They comprise 255 dwellings with two rooms at 5/- per week, and 
26 dwellings with four rooms at 8/8 per week. The cost of building 
was ^73,250, or ^119 per room. 

The Kent Cottage Company at Leigh has some 32 dwellings 
arranged in a kind of quadrangle, round a central green and approached 
by a simple road, costing only about ;£?>o. 

A striking proof of the need for revision of the bye-laws in this 
respect is to be found in the fact that Hampstead Garden Suburb 
Trust, who desired to imitate the above-named examples and develop their 
estate of some 240 acres on these lines, actually found it necessary to 
go to Parliament and get a special Act passed enabling them to vary 
the provisions of the bye-laws of the Hendon Urban District Council as to 
the construction of new streets. 



The Two Methods of Planning. 

(By kind permission of Garden City Association.) 





207 

Site Plan Ealing Tenants. 




Site Plan of Estate of 31 acres for Ealing Tenants Limited. The black rectangles indicate 
the houses and other buildings which border on a proposed tree lined avenue and other streets. 
The darkly shaded areas are recreation grounds. The shops and public buildings are grouped 
together near the centre of the main avenue. 

The development of the Ealing Tenants' new estate of 31 acres has 
been crippled in several most valuable features by the stereotyped 
rigidity of the street bye-law^s. Although the area has been 
admirably planned, and the number of houses to be built limited to 
13 per acre, the same hard and fast rules have to be applied to the 
new streets as are enforced on the most overcrowded and " jerry- 
planned " estate permitted by law to exist. 

Limitation of Rooms per Acre. — This brings up the question 
of the limitation of the intensive use of land for building purposes. 
It is now notorious that where law and practice permit of the largest 
possible number of rooms to be erected on a given area of land, the 
price of such land and the adjoining areas is forced up to a high figure 
far above its normal value. The price of land per square yard in the 
suburbs of Manchester and Liverpool, where dwellings are of two 
stories, is no higher than the price of land per square foot in the 
suburbs of Glasgow and Edinburgh, where block dwellings and 
tenement dwellings are the rule. Hence a vicious circle is set up. 
Intensive use of land forces up the price, and high prices call for the 
intensive use of land. The proposal in some quarters to limit the 
number of houses to the acre would be of little value in the long run, 
because houses may be of any size. It is necessary, therefore, to 
graduate each town area into building districts, and prescribe a 
maximum number of rooms per acre, varying with the situation of the 
land, its cost, and its distance from the centre. 



208 

In Manchester the buildhig bye-laws have been under consideration 
for nearly two years by the Improvements Committee, and in their 
modified form have been sent to the Local Government Board for 
approval. Among the new proposals are the following : — 

Open spaces to be provided with each dwelling-house, so that including the site 
and half the width of the adjoining streets co-extensive with each dwelling-house, there 
shall be an aggregate area of not less than 150 square yards if within a radius of one 
mile and a half from Manchester Town Hall, and beyond that zone 200 square yards. 

It is not yet Known whether the Local Government Board will 
sanction this bye-law. 

The drawback to this method of securing adequate open space is 
that it tends to make all gardens uniform in size, and prevents that 
variety in form, distribution, and size of open spaces that is so desir- 
able from both a practical and an aesthetic point of view. 

Some of the best examples of site-planning are to be found on the 
estates of the various Co partnership Housing Societies, the advantages 
of which, in developing a proper system of site-planning, are thus 
described by Mr. Raymond Unwin : — 

" There are certain advantages in very large gardens and the ownership of a 
very wide area of land. These advantages, in the nature of the case, can only be 
enjoyed individually by a very few rich folk, but by the introduction of Co-partnership 
in housing it is possible for great numbers ot people living in quite small coUages to 
enjoy a share of nearly all these advantages, and the architect must specially rejoice 
in every scheme which will enable him to deal comprehensively with residential areas 
and particularly wiih areas devoted to the smaller class of house and cottage." 

Advantage may be taken of spots of interest or beauty on ihe ground. Houses 
may be grouped &.xo\xnA these spots, around open greens ; or in many other such ways 
may be arranged to take advantage of aspect and outlook by departing a little from 
the usual regular plot ; and in addition to sharin ; the responsibilities and profits of 
house owning, it becomes easy to arrange for ihe tenants to share also the enjoyment 
of open spaces, tennis lawns, play grounds for children, and particularly beautiful 
spots or views which could not bs secured to a series of detached individuals. 

Not only so, but the whole spirit of co-partnership suggests the grouping of 
buildings, and those whose requirements or whose income cause them to want quite 
small houses need not necessarily be banished into baok streets, but houses of 
different sizes ca 1 be grouped together, thus introducing variety of treatment of the 
buildings and giving ihe architect an opportunity to design picturesque croups such 
as adorn our old village streets where we always find a most complete admixture of the 
different sizes of house, the larger houses of the doctor, the maltster, or the retired 
storekeeper being intermixed and even joined on to the smaller houses of the village 
wheelwright and smith, or the tiny cottage of the shepherd or the ploughman. 

As these bodies correspond very largely to what are called on the 
Continent "Societies of Public Utility," a few words as to their 
respective methods, work, and functions may be useful. 

SOCIETIES OF PUBLIC UTILITY. 

Combination of Public and Private Enterprise. 
The function of these societies abroad is mainly to do the building 
of new houses on "public-spirited" lines in cases where the financial 
resources, administrative restrictions, or other limitations of the 
municipality render it difficult or undesirable to undertake the erection 
of the dwellings. They effect their maximum of efficiency when 
building on lanid leased to them by the municipality, but they do not 
confine' their operations to such sites, and they often become free- 
holders of both land and houses. 



209 

In any case they play an important part in town development 
abroad, and are probably destined to extend largely in this country in 
the future. 

There were 715 of such societies in Germany in April, 1906, to 
which the Imperial and National Exchequers had lent 60,000,000 
marks, while the National Insurance Institutions had lent 100,000,000 
marks, or a total of ^8,500,000 from public funds. This total had 
advanced in 1907 to over ^10,000,000. 

The conditions for receiving help from the community are 
that they should be bound in their articles of association : — 

1. To seek the main object of providing in houses built or bought 
by them, wholesome and suitably arranged dwellings for families of the 
working classes at low rents. 

2. That the dividends payable to the members be restricted to not 
more than 4 per cent, on the amount of their shares. 

3. That in case of liquidation not more than the nominal amount 
of the shares be payable to the shareholders, any surplus being used 
for public purposes. 

The chief ways in which towns can help such societies are: 

1. By providing them with sites at a low charge and allowing delay 
in the payments for the same. 

2. By placing at the disposal of the societies without charge the 
co-operation of the building officials of the town. 

3. By remitting in their favour part or the whole of the cost of 
streets and sewers, or by deferring for a considerable time payment of 
the costs of making the same. 

4. By taking some of the shares of the societies or guaranteeing the 
interest on their bonds. 

5. By helping them to obtain loans cheaply and for extended 
periods. 

6. By acting as intermediary and guarantor in connection with loans 
from the Government and the Insurance institutions. 

DSVELOPMENT OF CO-PARTNERSHIP HOUSING. 

The first society that attempted to establish a truly co-operative 
system of owning houses was the Tenant Co-operators Limited, formed 
in 1888 by the late Edward Vansittart Neale and uthers. The society 
acquired iive estates, and has now property which cost ;?{, 28,600. In 
addition to paying all expenses, including four per cent, on capital and 
providing a reserve, dividends of 9d. to 2s. 6d. in the ^' on the rent 
have been placed to the loan and share accounts of the tenant members. 

The EaUng Tenants Limited (page 183 Handbook) based 
their society on the principles of the Tenant Co-operators' Society, 
modified however so as to make the society more thoroughly co-opera- 
tive in the sense of springing from and relying upon those who were to 
benefit by it. The means were 

(1) To confine operations to a limited area, so that all the tenants of the society 

might be neighbours who could know one another and act together. 

(2) To require of each tenant, as far as possible, that in making himself a 

member he should be responsible for a substantial sum in the share 
capital — say £,y:i. 



At the end of June, 1907, th s society had grown till its property 
stood at ^62,000, including 120 houses and an estate of 32 acres still 
unbuilt upon. The active local life among its tenants, and their great 
interest in the society, are most noteworthy. An excellent social club 
and institute has been established, where lectures, debates, concerts, 
games, dances, and other social meetings are held. 

A boys' club, a ladies' sewing circle, a tennis club and a cricket club 
are also in existence. The Ealing Tenants have now been followed by 
quite a little crowd of societies on even better initial lines. 

In 1905 the Co-partnership Housing Council was formed as a propa- 
gandist and advisory body to promote and guide these societies, so that 
considerations of site planning, proper grouping, with healthy and 
artistic construction, have now greater weight than in the earlier days. 

In addition to this a federation (The Co-partnership Tenants Ltd.) 
has been formed, in 1907, for business purposes, and especially to facili- 
tate the raising of capital. 

It is during the last three years that the various societies have begun 
to do their work on the most useful lines. 

The methods adopted by these societies are briefly as follows : — 

(a) To secure suitable building land around a city or an in- 
dustrial town, and plan the same as regards roads, 
number of houses to the acre, open spaces, and arrange- 
ment of buildings so as to ensure for all time healthy 
and cheerful houses and surroundings for the tenants. 
(/>) To erect substantially-built houses, provided with good 
sanitary and other arrangements for the convenience 
of tenants. 
(c) To let the houses at rents which will pay a moderate rate 
of interest on capital (at present 5 per cent on shares, 
and 4 per cent on loan stock), and meet working 
expenses, repairs, depreciation, etc., and to divide the 
surplus profits among the Tenant-Members, in pro- 
portion to the rents paid by them. 
Each tenant-member's share of profits is credited to him in shares 
until his share capital equals the value of the house in which he lives, 
w/ien it is paid ifi cash. 

The following table shows \he progress of the societies in existence at 
Midsummer, 1907 : — 



Name of Society. 



Tenant Co-operators 

Ealing Tenants 

Sevenoaks Tenants 
Leicester Tenants ... 
Garden City Tenants 
Bournville Tenants 
Manchester Tenants 
Hampstead Tenants 



Date 


Number of 


Number of 


Capital 


Present 
Share 
Capital. 


Loan 


Value of 


Formed 


Members. 


Houses. 


at Start. 


Stock. 


Property. 








£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1888 


320 


122 


500 


5,286 


9,030 


28,680 


1901 


182 


120 


300 


8,926 


13,935 


62,000 


1903 


57 


53 


700 


1,200 


3,500 


13,500 


1903 


40 




390 


520 


250 




1905 


120 


174 


600 


6,126 


16,504 


39,000 


1906 


66 


20 




2,271 


1,165 


4,000 


1906 


30 






2,060 


670 




1907 


139 


10 




2,693 







The following details as to sites, rents, cost of building and 
roads are not as full as in the case of municipal dwellings, but have 
been derived from such statistics as were available : 



Statistics of Co-partnership Housing Estates. 



t of 
ads, 
5, etc. 




,-— ■« 
-co 

U to 

c o 


8 


o 
o 




lineal 
f road 
11 side 
proach 
only. 




Cos 
Ro; 

ewers 










t. C cS (X tn 




C/3 




1—1 u 








■?:^<£S" 






































o 
















"3- 








T3 "?"^ ?^ 




Cost 

of 

Sites. 






o 
o 


o 




3 ^ S? rt 




^ 


^ 


e4 u3 




- ^ >- 

O 3 l; ,; 






0) 






0) >*5 tU 






U 


u 


o 


So <-> 




< en 




>.o -a t: 


rt 


rt 


cd 


isi CS * 






x: M I-! o 

N rt o 


ni-i" 




Hn 
O 


vO t^ 2" 








vO u, 
















" O 




















^.^ 








Cost 

of 

Building 






O 

o 


t-~ o 

Oh 




8 f 

o o 


8 

1 


^«5 






C) 




Tenants pay all rates and taxes. | 


^ 
m 


^O -^ 3 


u^ 




O 


o 





i-i 


0\ « .-3 


?) 






VO^ 


On 


vO 


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0^ 


00 


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ro 












r-; 


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~^ 




























g 


rt rt 'S 


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m 




^ 








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% c4 


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cy 


cy cy cy 


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lo 


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* 










V*H 




u 












o . 




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<u S 




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umb 

of 

'ouse 


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VO U-. N w 


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O 11 




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^ i i 














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H 


TS 


Z ^ 


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c75 ^ 


^ 




W<1 


1-1 


H-g^ 


^ 




Name and 

ol 

Esta 


W 
H 

O 

;z; 


o 
o 


< 2 
> 


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o 
"o 




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1^ >-i 

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3 

_o 




< 




w 




< ^ 


<U 1- X 

^ s s 


rt 




w 




!/} 




o w 


> 



Co-partnership Site Planning. 




Site Plan of Birds Hill, Letchwokth, Garden City Tenants. 
Area 7 acres o roods 25 poles — seventy houses. 
CAS2Dm C^lTY lnAnT5 L- 

RaM 5K0W\N6 CtVClPPHEinT OF 

fi^MoCEi Hill Lstate ■ 




Site Plan of Pixmore Hill Estate, Garden City Tenants. 
Area 13 acres 3 roods 29 poles — 168 houses. 



213 



Co-partnership Housing. 

Jia/f ^li McA = /foci 




A ip^ 



/yrjf F/oor P/an 
Cottages on Birds Hill, Garden City Tenants. 



214 



Site Plan, Westholm Green. 




TfoRVon "^ o a c£ Wort-on Se BaldocK 



Site Plan of Westholm Green, Letchworth, Garden City Tenants. 
Area 5 acres 3 roods 29 poles — thirty-two houses. 

Sites have been acquired for development on similar lines as follows : 

Ealing. — Thirty-eight acres, on which about 500 houses will 
be erected. 

Garden City Tenants. — Thirty-four acres, upon which 300 houses 
are being erected, and will be completed at the end of this year. 
Further land is being secured. 

Sevenoaks. — Five and a half acres, on which 60 houses are 
being erected. 

Bournville Tenants. — Twenty acres, on which about 200 houses 
will be erected, and the Society has an option of further land. 

Hampstead Tenants. — Forty acres, on which about 480 houses 
will be erected. 

Fallings Park Tenants, Wolverhampton. — Twenty acres, on which 
about 240 houses will be erected. 

Oldham are acquiring land and will build at the rate of 10 houses 
per acre. 

Manchester. — Eleven acres, on which 130 houses are to be erected. 

Leicester (Anchor). — Fifty acres, on which 500 houses are to be 
erected. 

A Society is being formed at Warrington to take up 42 acres, and 
erect 500 houses. Also at Harborne, Birmingham, to take up 53 acres 
and erect about 530 houses. Other societies are in course of formation 
at Beacon Hill, Bromley, Brighton, Berkhampstead, Cardiff, Hindhead, 
Oxford and Swansea. 



215 

HOW TO FORM A SOCIETY. 

The order of progress is as follows : First obtain your society, then 
your capital, then your land, and then your houses. In every town 
there are a few men and women who would like houses with large 
gardens at a fixed reasonable rent, undisturbed possession, pleasant 
surroundings, and the means of accumulating property to stand in good 
stead in later years. They meet together as a group to talk over 
matters, and quickly discover that instead of being bound to consider 
single 20 foot frontages at high prices, as they would acting individually, 
they can talk of buying or leasing an estate of five or six acres at a 
materially reduced wholesale price. Even if the land costs ^400 per 
acre, they can secure a plot of land with 400 square yards for less than 
^2 per house per annum. Having decided to make discreet enquiries 
through a representative, they meantime spend two or three pounds for 
books of rules, application forms, minute book, stationery, etc., with the 
help of the Co-partnership Council (6, Bloomsbury Square, W.C), who 
will advise as to the registration of the society when eight members each 
taking one share are ready to sign the rules for registration. These 
eight members generally constitute the provisional committee of 
management till the society is registered, when they retire and a full 
list of officials — president, secretaries, treasurer, committee, auditors, 
etc., are appointed in accordance with the rules. The shares are 
recommended to be of the value of ^10, and can be paid up by 
instalments. The next step is to select a secretary and a registered 
office and to draw up a piospectus, which should include a plan and 
full description of the estate if one has been secured. 

The most vital part of the work is the planning of the estate and 
the choice of a suitable architect to advise the Plans Committee as to 
the building, which should in all cases be so controlled as to harmonise 
with the general scheme. If building is done by direct labour a saving 
of 10 to 15 per cent, may be effected by securing a good manager, who 
should be in close touch with a specially appointed Works Committee. 
There should also be a Finance Committee and possibly an organising 
secretary for the purpose of raising capital. The accounts should be 
audited by a respectable and trusty firm of chartered accountants, and 
rigidly scrutinised by the Finance Committee, so as to give every 
pledge of credit to the outside public as well as the shareholders. 





Plan showing arrangement of Houses round Pair ot £150 Cottage> Exhibited by Co partnership 

Common Green. Tenants' Housing Council, Cheap Cottages 

Exhibition, 1905. 

Site Plan of Eastholm Green, Letchworth, Garden City Tenants. 
Area 6 acres 2 roods 1 1 poles — fourteen houses. 



CHAPTER X. 

GARDEN CITIES 

AND 

GARDEN VILLAGES. 

GARDEN CITY (Letchworth, Herts.) 

Municipalities are provided with an excellent experimental area for 
object lessons in Town Planning and Site Planning schemes at Garden 
City (Letchworth), where public land ownership, planning of main roads 
and side roads, the formation of agricultural belts, the division of land 
into manufacturing, trading, and residential districts, the reservation of 
open spaces, new types of roads and grouping of houses, and the 
leasing of land to those representing varied forms of building enterprise, 
are all to be found more or less exemplified. It is true that the means 
of communication at present leave much to be desired, and this is one 
of the greatest drawbacks to the rapid development of the new city, 
but the earliest and most elementary stages of town development can 
be studied here with considerable advantage. 

A brief account of the principles, plans and ideas underlying the 
Garden City movement is contained in pp. 186-190 of the Housing 
Handbook, and it will be interesting to compare this with the actual 
work carried out so far in the establishment of the first Garden City 
between Hitchin and Baldock. 

This experiment already has a literature of its own, and it will only be 
possible here togive a skeleton outlineof the main featuresof the new city. 

In 1903 First Garden City Ltd. was registered under the Companies 
Acts. Capital ^300,000 in ^5 shares, limited to a cumulated 
dividend of 5 per cent, per annum ; all further profits to be devoted to 
the benefits nf the town and its inhabitants. The head office is at 
Letchworth, Herts. 

The site was bought from several owners and formed into a com- 
pact estate, the shape of an egg, measuring three miles from north to 
south, and two-and-a-half miles Irom east to west, having an average 
altitude of 300 feet, and containing 3,800 acres, the original cost being 
;^4o per acre. It is 34 miles from London (Kings Cross), or 40 minutes 
by train, and i^ miles from Hitchin. 

The subsoil is chalk, the upper part being sandy loam ; in some 
parts clay, with beds of sand and gravel. The soil is specially suitable 
for flower culture, and a thousand varieties of herbaceous perennials 
are being planted in various reserved plots and other unoccupied 
spaces, while 250 varieties of trees and shrubs have been planted as well. 

There are two main divisions — the Town Area of 1,200 acres which 
occupies the centre, and the Agricultural Belt of 2,600 acres, which 
surrounds it. The Great Northern Railway to Cambridge runs through 
the middle of the estate, where a temporary station has been made. 



217 

^ The Plan of the Town Area is shown herewith. Existing 
country roads, commons, parks, plantations, trees, and other features 
of natural beauty have been preserved and worked into the plan with 
due regard to the natural contour of the land. The following districts 
have taken shape already. 

Central Square. — South of the railway, with roads of ample width radiating 
from it in all directions, so as to give easy access to all parts of the city, and to afford 
glimpses of the open country from the centre. 




2l8 

Cottage Exhibition Areas.— The 85 cottages, built in 1905, are north of 
the railway, between the station and Icknield Way. The 52 cottages, built in 1907, 
are south of the station and west of Norton Way. 

Cottage Estates. — The Garden City Tenants have built on sites as follows : — 
Bird's Flill 70 co tages, and Pixniore Hill 168 cottages (in course of erection), both 
south of the railway and east of Norton Way. Eastholm Green 14 cottages, and 
Westholm Green 32 cottages, adjoining each other to tlie north-east of Norton 
Common. 

Factory Area. — The factory sites are grouped together on the eastern portion 
of the estate adjoining the southern side of the railway and screened from the 
residential and shopping areas by a hill and belt of trees. The following firms have 
taken sites and nearly all have built factories and are at work : — 
Asphalte Manufacturers — Vickers and Field. 
Bookbinders — W. H. Smith and Son. 
Engineers — Heatly-Gresham Engineering Co. 
Geyser Manufacturers. — G. Ewart and Sons. 
Mineral Water Manufacturers — Idris and Co. 
Photo Paper Manufacturers — The Standard Co. 
Printers — Garden City Press. 
Arden Press. 
Wheeler, Odell and Co. 
Publishers— J. M. Dent and Co. 
Swiss Embroidery — The Garden City Embroidery Co. 

Open Spaces. — Two hundred acres have been set aside for this purpose, in 
addition to the agricultural belt and many small greens in various parts of the estate. 
The chief spaces are : Norton Common, 70 acres, two minutes north of station ; 
Howard Park, south of railway and east of Norton Way ; Letchworth Park, 
62 acres, south-west corner of the estate. 

Villages. — The estate includes the whole of the parishes of Letchworth and 
Norton, and parts of Willian, Great Wymondley, Baldock, Radwell, and Stotfold. 
The first three are about to be combined into a new civil parish with a Parish Council. 

Roads. — In all the yf miles of roads made by the company up to 1907 
ample provision has been made for future widening, and all are planted 
withdifferentvarieties of trees, including pear trees, as in manyContinental 
towns. The principal road will be Main Avenue, 100 to 150 feet wide, 
from Letchworth Park through Central Square to the Railway. 

Electricity is at present to be supplied only in the business area, the 
prices being id. per unit for power and 2d. per unit for lighting purposes. 

Gasworks are beyond the factories, and screened by trees. They 
can produce 20,000,000 cubic feet per annum, and about 500 houses 
are already connected. 

Sewage — Ten miles of sewers have been laid, and the sewage gravi- 
tates to a low-lying area on the west of the estate, where it is treated by 
broad irrigation. 

IVaterivorks. — The water is raised from a borehole near Dunham's 
Lane, Baldock road, 220 feet deep, protected by steel tubing, and is 
pumped to a reservoir, with a capacity of 250,000 gallons, on the Weston 
Hills, 480 feet high, thus giving 160 feet head to any building part of 
the estate. The cost of the works, including 16 miles of mains, and a 
supply to provide for 6,000 people, was ^^16,500. The company sup- 
plies 30,000 gallons daily to the Baldock Urban District Council. 

Land Tenure. — Leases for building land are granted for 99 years at a 
fixed ground rent, with an option of renewal at a rent to be agreed upon 
by independent valuation, irrespective of the value of buildings erected 
thereon. Hence, the reversion of the lessees' and tenants' improvements 
will go to the community as a whole, and not to private individuals. 



219 

Rents. — Land for cottages and residences varies from ^^15 to 
;^25 per acre according to situation, so that ttie ground rent of cottages 
in the town area can be had from 25/- upwards. Rent is only charged 
on the net amount of land occupied, and not into the centre of the 
roadway, and generally covers all costs of road construction and laying 
of sewer, gas, and water mains. As the cost of highways and open 
spaces falls on the company, these rents compare very favourably with 
similar districts elsewhere. 

Rates. — The county and local rates average about 2/6 in the ;£, 
including poor and education rates, and though they will probably soon 
be 3/-, they will always remain low because many expenses charged by 
the local authorities on the ratepayers, are being, and will be, defrayed 
by the Garden City (Company from the rents. 

Bye-Iaivs. — The building bye-laws adopted by the companyare framed 
on the model bye-laws of the Local Government Board with certain 
modifications, but embodying thoseof the Hitchin Rural District Council. 

Small Holdings. — Some 420 acres of land on the agricultural belt 
have already been let for this purpose. Two societies, the Norton 
Small Holders Ltd. andthe Co-operative Small Holdings Ltd., containing 
42 small holders, have been formed to develop the holdings north of 
Norton Common and to deal with the distribution and sale of produce. 

Societies. — No less than sixty societies and associations of various 
kinds have been formed to minister to the commercial, educational, 
poli':ical, religious, and social needs of the inhabitants. 

Fopidadon. — In 1907 the population was about 4,000, as compared 
with 400 three-and-a-half years before, when the estate was bought. 
The ultimate population is intended to be 30,000 on the town area, or 
23 persons per acre, and 5,000 on the agricultural belt. 

Vital Statistics. — Average of seven years : Birth rate 24 per 1,000 ; 
death rate under 13 per 1,000 ; infant mortality 93 per 1,000 births ; 
epidemic death rate i"o, diarrhoea o'6, cancer o*8, phthisis 0*5 per 1,000. 
Nearly half the deaths have been in persons over 65 years of age. 

General Information.- — There are six churches on the estate, viz , 
the three old parish churches of Letchworth, Norton, and Willian, to 
which are now added the Free Church in Norton Way, the Society of 
Friends' meeting house, and Howard Hall. An "open air school" 
costing ^20,000 has been built by Miss Lawrence in the shape of a 
building freely exposed to light and air, and apparently intended to 
serve the purposes of a monastery, convent, college, church, lecture 
hall, and convalescent home rolled into one. 

The following statistics as to the positional Midsummer, 1907, may 
be of interest : — - 

Total area 3,818 : Town area 1,200 ; agricultural belt 2,618. 

Expenditure ^286,474, viz. : Capital subscribed^i 54,000; mortgage 
^83,697 ; debentures, etc., ^48,777. Houses 860. Population 4,000. 

Suhsidiary Companies. — The chief of these are various building 
societies and associations, such as Garden City Tenants (who pay 5 per 
cent, on shares and 4 per cent, on loan stock), Garden City Share 
Purchase Society, and Letchworth Cottages and Buildings Ltd. 



Architectural Features. — The dwellings so far erected consist 
to such a great extent of cottag. s and small villa residences, that it is 
unreasonable to expect any imposing architectural effects at this stage 
of the City's growth. An effort has been made however, to give an air 
of brightness, colour, lightness, warmth, and variety to these small 
dwellings by the free use of red tiles, expansive steep pitched roofs and 
gables, dormer windows, rough cast and whitewashed walls, and green 
painted woodwork, casement windows, grouping of dwellings and other 
features foreign to the construction of those solid stodgy rows of small 
villas with stone-framed bay windows, smoky red or dirty yellow walls 
projecting in ugly bars through monotonous areas of gloomy coloured 
slate roofs, so dear to the heart of the practical man who has been 
building our suburbs so substantially — and hideously — for years. 

Another excellent feature in Garden City, praised by some but 
condemned by most of the "practical" men, is the practice of grouping 
the dwellings to get a sunny aspect for each, and as far as possible to 
prevent the creation of that back yard of hoary suburban tradition, 
which so often becomes a storehouse of rubbish and refuse to greet the 
eyes and mislead the judgment of the intelligent foreigner who sees it 
from the railway train. 

Some Criticisms. — It is these new and valuable features that are 
mainly chosen as the subject of attacks freely made in some quarters that 
Garden City "has succumbed to the craze for medievalism, and sacrificed 
comfort and convenience in the dwellings for artistic effects and 
hygienic fads." 

In certain instances, as must necessarily happen, the criticisms are 
just. In some cases the placing of the houses so as to secure outlook 
and sunshine has not been managed without some loss of privacy and 
orderliness of arrangement which might otherwise have been secured. 
In the early days a good deal of freedom was given to individuals in the 
large plots at Letchworth to place their houses so as to get the utmost 
out of their site, and occasionally the freedom was abused and the general 
effect of the whole not sufficiently considered by the individuals building. 

There is no rule at Letchworth in favour of casement windows in 
preference to sash windows, but the former have been largely adopted, 
although some persons complain that " they tend to act as a kind of 
wind trap, encouraging the entrance of dust and rain, and therefore, 
often kept permanently closed." The sash window, however, requires 
much greater stiffness and symmetry of design than most of the people 
doing cottage plans at Letchworth would like to use, and hence case- 
ment windows are adopted as more suitable for the particular design, 
and more easy for unskilled designers to manipulate, and a very large 
proportion of the houses at Letchworth are designed by builders and 
men who have not had much architectural training. 

The real explanation of many of these adverse opinions doubtless is 
that so many people have gained their experience and architectural 
education in our nineteenth century " bye-law-made " domestic architecture 
that, " like the dyer's hand subdued to what it works in," they have 



formed their tastes and opinions upon it as the standard and ideal. 
But Garden City in the main is doing a most valuable work for the 
nation and indeed for all nations. There have been mistakes and 
departures from the early ideals, but there is ample time and opportunity 
to remedy these. The original capital was too small for such a big 
undertaking, but if only a satisfactory supply of cottages could be 
secured there is no doubt that the commercial success of the undertaking 
would at once bean accomplished fact. The marvel is not that mistakes 
have been made and that difficulties have still to be overcome, but 
rather that in so short a space of time so much has been accomplished 
in a period of national depression, and that success is only a question 
of time and money. 

GARDEN VILLAGES AND SUBURBS. 

In the planning of suburbs or villages the lessons of Earswick, Port 
Sunlight, and Bournville and the proposals of the Hampstead Suburb 
Trust will be most instructive. Port Sunlight and Bournville are 
described in the Housing Handbook pp. i94-.:oo, and only a few brief 
notes are given here to bring the facts and figures up to date. 

Port Sunlight. — Some interesting facts and figures as to child 
life are given in Chapter I, and to these may be added that the birth- 
rate of the village for the past seven years has averaged 45 '6 per 1,000, 
and the death-rate only 9'8 per 1,000. 

The gymnasium is most successful, and on the occasion of the 
visit of the International Housing Congress to the village in August, 
1907, an admirable display by the children was intensely appreciated 
by the 300 delegates from foreign countries who were privileged to 
visit the village. Indeed nothing is more striking in the village than 
the care and interest manifested towards the children and the happy 
results that have followed. 

Christ Church was completed in 1904. 

The Lever Free Library and Museum, with 4,000 volumes, and the 
Technical Institute containing a lecture hall and well-fitted classrooms, 
are comparatively recent additions to the village. Mr. Lever has found 
that the practice of doing all repairs for the tenants at the cost of the 
estate has been economically and otherwise unsound, for it has dis- 
couraged self-help in small matters, and increased what would normally 
be rather heavy repairs account by all sorts of vexatious little jobs 
being put in the hands of the estate workmen. 

Bridge Inn was originally conducted on temperance principles, but 
a six days' license has recently been granted to a Public House Trust 
Company as the result of an application made after applying the 
principle of local option. Mr. Lever stipulated for a three-fourths 
majority, and after every man and woman resident in the village had 
been given an opportunity of expressing an o[)inion, the result was for 
the license 472 ; a-^ainst 120. Those responsible for the good 
government and management of the village have assured the writer that 
the change has been beneficial rather than otherwise to the social and 
moral well-being of the inhabitants. 



222 
Site Plan. Port Sunlight. 




Mr. Lever estimates that with the land at the purchase price of 1890, 
one acre cost ^240, i.e. about i/- per square yard, and a? there are 10 
cottages to the acre, every cottage takes up a space worth ;Q2\. The 
average cost of building, etc., being ^330 per cottage, the capital sunk 
in a house amounts to ;!^354. With interest at 3 per cent, and \ per 
cent, for depreciation, the cost price per cottage represents a weekly 
rent of 4/9, and will reach 8/- when repairs and other expenses are 
added. The actual rent paid for such a cottage being probably under 
5/- per week, the balance is met by the application of part of the 
profits of the business for this purpose. In this way some ^17,500 a 
year, or ^8 each in respect of the 2,200 workmen and girls resident in 
the village is paid by the firm. 

Bournville Village. — The following statistics may be interesting: 
Number of houses in village ... ... ... 569 

Houses adjoining village, belonging to Messrs. 

Cadbury Bros., Ltd. ... ... ... ... 22 

Houses adjoining village, belonging to Alms 

house Trust ... ... ... ... ... 39 

Total ... ... ... ... 630 

Population 3,00c. The majority work outside Bournville. 
Area of estate 502 acres ; of this only about 100 acres have been 
developed for building. The lowest rents are 4/6 per week. 
There are 21 houses let at rents under 5/- per week. 



59 
123 

„ 83 
These rents do not 
houses at higher rents. 



, of 5/- ., 
„ ,, from 5/3 to 6/- per week. 

„ 6/3 to 7/- 
include rates. There are also several larger 



22;^ 

The smallest house is now of a different type altogether. 

There are now bathrooms in the moderate sized houses, and in the 
smaller ones cabinet baths. 
The vital statistics are : — 

Death rate per i,ooo. Average for four years ending 1905 : 

Bournville j't,. Urban District io'5. England and Wales 157. 

Infantile mortality per 1,000 live births. xA.verage for four years 
ending 1905 : 
Bournville 72*5. Urban District loo'o. England and W^ales 1347. 

There are now two children's playgrounds ; Stocks Wood is now 
known as Camp Wood, being near the site of an old camp. 

Six new shops and a post office were opened early in 1906. 

As a result of continued garden tests, the produce per garden per 
week is now given as i/io per week. 

Owing to the buiding up of vacant sites, the number of allotments 
has been reduced below 100. 

The flower show entries for 1906 were 1,210. 

The Tenants' Committee is now known as the Village Council. 

There are now in the village the following public buildings : — 
Village Meeting House, Ruskin Hall, Day School. 

The total value of Mr. Cadbury's gifts up to date may be fairly 
stated at ^225,000. This figure mcludes cost of schools, meeting 
house, and a considerable portion of the cost of Ruskin Hall. A 
further gift of ^6,000 was received in 1905 from a gentleman who 
insisted upon remaining anonymous. 

The gross revenue of the Trust may now be stated at about ^9,000 
per annum. 

Bournville Tenants. — Mr. Cadbury mclines strongly to a policy 
of municipal land purchase with the idea of leasing land for building 
under proper restrictions. He has therefore done everything in his 
power to encourage the development of the Bournville Tenants' 
Co-partm rship Housing Society to lease some of his land largely as an 
object lesson for a similar combination between municipalities and 
societies of public utility, such as the above-named society and others 
of the co-partnership type may rightly claim to be. 

The terms offered are as follows : — 

Lease for 99 years at ;^ii los. per acre, with option of renewal at the end of 
every 99 years at revised ground rents on the expiration of the terms ; the houses 
Ijuilt thus never pass into the possession of the landlord. The land to be taken in 
blocks of 5 acres as required. One acre added rent free for open spaces for every 
9 acres taken by the society. The streets also to be wide and planted with trees. 
Not more than II houses to be built to the net acre. Workshops allowed if kept to 
separate area. All plans to be sanctioned by the Trust. No licensed houses to be 
allowed. 

If the total sum of ^{^2 1,000 be subscribed from other sources, Mr. Cadbury will 
invest on loan ^7,000, so making it up to ;^28,ooo, and the same in proportion for 
any smaller amount. This loan is repayable at the option of the society, when it 
will again come into the hands of the Trust to assist in the formation of similar 
undertakings. Dividends on share capital are to be limited to 5 per cent., and on 
loan stock to 4 per cent. , 



224 

EARSWICK MODEL VILLAGE. 

The Joseph Rowntree Village Trust. 

Within a short distance of York a garden village is in course of 
erection. The village had its genesis in the desire of Mr. Joseph 
Rowntree to make a practical contribution to the housing question. 
With this end in view he founded a Trust in December, 1904, of which 
the following clause is vital to the appreciation of the experiment : — 

The object of the said Trust shall be the improvement of the condition of the 
working classes (which expression shall in these presents include not only artisans and 
mechanics but also shop assistants and clerks, and all persons who earn their living 
wholly or partially, or earn a small income i)y the work of their hands or their minds 
and further include persons having small incomes derived from invested capital, 
pensions or other sources), in and around the City of York and elsewhere in Great 
Britain and Ireland, by the provision of improved dwellings with open spaces and 
where possible gardens to be enjoyed therewith, and the organisation of village 
communities with such facilities for the enjoyment of full and healthy lives as the 
Trustees shall consider desirable, and by such other means as the Trustees shall in 
their uncontrolled discretion think fit. 

The essence of the experiment is the provision of a better house, 
and with it a garden in which the worker can enjoy a fuller and freer 
life. With this personal improvement there is joined a communal 
improvement, the whole made possible and varied by the very catholic 
definition of the working classes. 

Earswick village, where the experiment is being made, is two and a 
half miles north of York, and a mile from the Cocoa Works of Messrs. 
Rowntree and Co. Ltd., of which Mr. Joseph Rowntree is the chairman. 
The land, which comprises 120 acres, lies on both sides of the Haxby 
Road, and is intersected by the River Foss. Earswick station, on the 
York and Hull line of the North Eastern Railway, adjoins the estate, 
and affords easy and convenient access to York city. At the present 
moment the village has scarcely assumed any definite shape, not more 
than one-tenth of the houses having been erected, and only suggests 
that plans have been matured for future developments. Such plans 
have of course been made, Messrs. Parker and Unwin, the architects of 
the Garden City of Letchworth, having prepared a scheme for the 
entire village (which, when completed, will contain several hundred 
houses), with open spaces of from 10 to 12 acres for recreative purposes 
of all kinds. The houses already erected have cost about 5d. per foot 
cube, and are chiefly of three types. 

Description of the Three Classes of Cottages. 

First there are the cottages built in groups of four. They contain 
on the ground floor, a hving room 20 feet by 12 feet 6 inch, with a 
bay window at one end and a casement window and front door at the 
other end. This arrangement gives through ventilation and plenty of 
light. The floor is covered with red tiles, which also serve as a skirting, 
thus avoiding any accumulation of dust. There is an open grate with 
a good oven, suitable for baking bread. In a recess by the fireplace 
there is cupboard accommodation with three or four drawers. 

A larder opens out of the living room, fitted with wooden shelves 
and two stone slabs (on which milk, butter, meat, etc. can be stored). 



225 

EARSWICK MODEL VILLAGE. 




POPLAR GROVE, EARSWICK — BLOCK OF LABOURERS COTTAGES. 

Rent per week, 4/6 for 5 '■ooms.^ai^ifAj 




IIKST FLOOR PLAN. 







I Livitti 
Room 
ieo'.6--li-6-| 



EARSWICK — GROUND PLAN, LABOURERS COTTAGES. 

Rent, 4/6 per week. Length of Block 71 feet. 

In the larder there is both floor and window ventilation. The scullery 
contains the sink, copper, and bath. The copper is fitted with a patent 
steam exhaust which makes washing day in the home a less obtrusive 
function, while the bath has a lid which serves as a table when the bath 
is not in use. There is also ample shelving in the scullery. The houses 
are, in most cases, furnished with hot water supply and water closets. 

K 



226 




EARSWICK — WESTERN TERRACE COTTAGES. 

Rent per week, 4/6 for 5 rooms. 




EARSWICK I.ABOUKKKS' COTTAGES — GROUND I'LAN. 

Length of Block 166 feet. Rents 4/6 to 6/- 
Upstairs there are three bedrooms, each with a large window and 
fireplace. On the landing there is a capacious cupboard which serves 
as the family wardrobe, and contains a large shelf for house linen. The 
staircase is lit by a special window, two of the casements of which can 
open to provide a through ventilation in any of the bedrooms. Every 
room is papered and a picture rail provided. Tenants are not allowed 
to drive nails into the walls. Attached to each house is a garden of not 
less than 350 square yards. The cost of this class of house is about 
;^i8o, and the rent is ^13 13s. or 5/3 per week exclusive of rates. 



227 

The main question which is doubtful at present is at what rentals 
the cottages can be let. It is somewhat uncertain whether, if the scheme 
is to pay 3^ per cent, net, the trustees will ultimately be able to let the 
first type of cottage at less than 5/6 per week. On the other hand, they 
will certainly be able to build a simpler cottage, and they are trying 
now to build some at 5/- per week, though at the moment building 
prices are in some respects heavily against them. 

Second, there are a very few semi-detached houses. They com- 
prise a good living room with a large square window built out at one 
end. Out of this room opens the scullery, which contains a bath en- 
closed in a cubicle, a sink, copper, etc., and a fireplace, with oven for 
purposes of cooking in summer. The larder open out of the scullery. 
Upstairs there are three bedrooms. The houses stand in their own 
gardens well back from the roads. They are rented at ^15 a year or 
5/9 per week, exclusive of rates. 

Third, there are the parlour houses. These contain the usual large 
living room with scullery and larder attached, and hot and cold water 
is laid on both to the sink and bath. There is the addition of the 
room on this floor which gives the name to the house — the parlour. 
In it there is a parlour grate with tiled hearth, and cupboards with 
glass doors on either side of it. In a few instances there is a French 
window opening on to the garden. Upstairs there are three bedrooms 
with cupboard accommodation, etc The rent of these houses is ^16 
per year or 6/2 per week, exclusive of rates. There are variations in 
this type of house — the rents ranging from ^16 to ^20 per year, 
according to the accommodation provided. 

The walls are in each case built of 9 inch brickwork, whitewashed 
on the outside, which gives a bright appearance, and helps to 
weather-proof the walls. The roofs are covered with red pantiles with 
overhanging eaves, and the woodwork is painted in bright shades 
of green. 

Mr. Rowntree's desire in creating the Trust was to provide sanitary 
and artistic houses, amid healthy surroundings which, while letting at 
rentals which working men could afford to pay, would still bring in a 
commercial return upon the capital invested. 

The Garden, it is seen, bulks largely in the general scheme. 
The Trust Deed here says :— 

That houses to be built shall not occupy more than one-fourth of the sites on 
which they are built. 

The average size of the gardens is 350 square yards — a size 
■determined upon after careful consideration of the amount a man can 
easily and profitably work by spade cultivation in his leisure time. 
Prizes are awarded in competition for the best kept gardens. There are 
many well-cultivated fruit, vegetable, and flower gardens, which have 
proved a great source of health and enjoyment to the villagers. 

The Rates (from 8d. to i/- per week) are paid separately from the 
rent, the object being to awaken an interest in the life of the community 



228 

as to their rights as citizens. The point of this will be seen later when 
considering the communal life of the village. Meanwhile attention 
may be drawn to a clause in the Trust Deed relative to this point : — 

Nothing may be done to prevent the growth of civic interest and a sense of 
civic respotisihility among those who may hve in any community existing on the 
property of the Trust. 

The administration of the Trust shall be wholly unsectarian and non-political, and 
there shall always be a rigid exclusion of all influences calculated or tending to impart 
to it a character sectarian as regards religion or belief, or exclusive as regards politics. 

Development of a Community of Life and Interest. 

The tenants themselves have begun to develop a communal 
existence in two directions — administrative and social. On the latter 
side a club has been formed. Premises have been secured, and many 
activities have been created round it as a centre. The religious needs 
of the community are at present served by the Church of England and 
the Wesleyans, who share the club premises on Sundays — the one 
taking the afternoon, the other the evening. 

On the administrative side a Village Council has been formed. It 
is a consultative body and deals with matters affecting the interests and 
development of the village It consists of seven members elected 
annually by the tenants, and six nominated by the trustees. It meets 
quarterly, and on special need arising. All plans of proposed new 
cottages are submitted to the Council, and many helpful suggestions 
regarding them are made by the members. For example, the need for 
the erection of pigstyes arose. The Village Council took the matter 
up, discussed way? and means, etc., and finally drew up a scheme 
which is now in operation. A Folk Hall is in course of construction, 
and it is hoped that it will add to the social life of the village. 

When completed, adequate ground will be provided for recreation. 
One-tenth of the whole estate, i.e., lo to 12 acres, will be entirely given 
over to this end. 

The roadways are comparatively narrow — 18 feet — but there are 
verges of grass about 6 feet wide between the roadway and the foot- 
path on each side of it. The gardens again adjoin this, so that from 
house to house there is an actual width of 50 feet. Trees are being 
planted in the verges, so that ultimately avenues will traverse the road- 
ways. In the laying out of the village, trees and any natural features 
of the land are carefully preserved, and an old thorn hedge is worked 
into the gardens. All this has given the new village an already settled 
appearance. The gas and water supply is obtained from York, but the 
village disposes of its own sewage. 

In conclusion, it is well to point out that the Trust scheme is so 
contrived that the appointment of trustees is largely a public matter. 
The finances are very simple. Mr. Joseph Rowntree provided the 
initial sum, and the interest on this, plus the rents derived from the 
village, togeth -r make the income of the Trust. At Earswick there is 
room to develop a village of several hundred cottages, but when the 
work there is completed, the experiment will not cease. It is a 
snowball scheme. The success of Earswick means the promotion of 
similar schemes elsewhere. 



HAMPSTEAD TENANTS LIMITED. 

Plan of proposed development of Land. 




Houses will be erected and let from 6/- to 15/- per week. Rates and Taxes extra. These 
amount to about 7/6 in the ;C on the accessible value of the house. 




Type of Cottage to be built by Hampstead Tenants Limited. 



Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust. — This trust, under the 
capable and earnest leadership of Mrs. S. A. Barnett, have secured 
240 acres of land adjoining Hampstead Heath, with frontages of 2,500 
feet to Finchley Road, 2,200 feet to Temple Fortune Lane, and 6,500 
feet to the 80 acres of open land recently acquired for the enlargement 
of the Heath. It is within twenty minutes of Charing Cross by the new 
Hampstead Electric Underground Railway, and there is a station 
adjoining the estate. It is proposed to lay out the estate as a garden 
suburb, and while letting some of the beautiful sites round the Heath 
to wealthy persons who can afford to pay a large sum for their land and 
to have extensive gardens, about 72 acres have been reserved for 
the working classes, who will be able to get a cottage with a garden at a 
moderate rent within a 2d. fare of Central London. To carry out this 
latter object the Hampstead Tenants' Society has been formed on co- 
partnership lines, with the object of building houses not exceeding 12 
an any given acre, while making provision for commons, greens, and 
recreation grounds. The foundation stones of the first pair of houses 
houses were laid on June 5th, 1907, by Mrs. S. A. Barnett, and several 
houses to be let at from 6/- to 15/- per week in addition to rates and 
taxes, are in course of erection (1907). 

Mr. Justice Neville's Scheme. — In an address at the new- 
Reform Club in 1907, Mr. Justice Neville said the Garden City 
remedy for overcrowding was the redistribution of the people upon 
the land in order that they might carry on their industrial pursuits 
under more congenial conditions than in the great towns. The carrying 
out of the idea ought to be taken up by the Government and not left to 
private enterprise, though the Government would not move until 
private enterprise had shown the way. 

If he were made Dictator, one of his first acts would be to acquire 
large tracts of lana, fiotably on the east coast, which at present carried 
the value only of the game raised npon them. A very large part of this 
land zvas admirably adapted for towns, and most of itivas suitable for the 
creation of large industries. He would ?nake a rough plan of the places 
ivhere towns ought to be erected, and of how the different totvtis should be 
linked up with raihvays, waterways, etc. He would then leave it for 
private enterprise to build those towns under the supervision of a proper 
authority. When their schemes were approved, the promoters should 
be able to borrow money at the low rate of interest which the State 
could ensure. It was to pave the way for some such scheme that the 
Garden City at Letchworth was started. 

An England Development Bill.— The writer has drafted a 
Bill based on clauses in existing legislation, showing how the Garden 
City, Garden Village, and Town Planning ideals can be carried out by 
the Government and local authorities in conjunction with private 
enterprise, should such a measure be deemed desirable. This draft 
bill is contained in pages ig-28 of the Guide to Garden City, price 6d.y 
published by First Garde fi City Ltd., 326a, High Holborn, London, W. C 



CHAPTER XI. 

HOUSING NOTES FROM 
OTHER COUNTRIES. 

During the week August 3rd to loth, 1907, the International 
Housing Congress was held at the Caxton Hall, Westminster, and 
there were present over 600 members representing 14 governments, 
many municipalities and all the most important housing associations 
in the world. Valuable and interesting speeches were made at the 
inaugural meeting by the Right Hon. John Burns, president of the 
Local Government Board, and Sir John Dickson-Poynder, president 
of the National Housing Reform Council and chairman of the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons on Rural Housing. After an 
address by the President of the Congress, Alderman W. Thompson, of 
Richmond, Surrey, papers were read as follows : — 

Housing Inspection. — Messrs. J. H. Faber, Zwolle, Holland ; W. de Man 
Utrecht, Holland ; M. Roupinsky, Brussels ; Harold Shawcross, Rochdale, 
England. 

The Land Question. — Dr. Wilhelm Mewes, Dusseldorf, Germany. 

House Building and Management. — Mr. H. R. Aldridge, England. 

House Finance and Taxation.— M. Lucien Ferrand, Paris ; M. Vincent 
Magaldi, Italy. 

Tovyn Planning. — Dr. Stlibben, Berlin. 

Transit. — Professor E. Mahaim, Liege. 

Rural Housing. — M. E. Tibbaut, Brussels ; and Miss C. Cochrane, England. 
These papers and a report of the proceedings are published 

separately in the report of the Congress, issued by the National Housing 

Reform Council, and they contain much valuable information. No 

resolutions on questions of policy were submitted, but there was a 

general consensus of opinion in favour of the following aids to housing 

reform : — 

1. l7ispectio7t to be more complete and systematic; the results to be 
duly recorded ; greater powers of initiative to be given to private 
citizens, and health or housing associations, or to local advisory boards, 
constituted on the lines of the Belgian and French Comites de Patronage. 

2. A Central Housing Authority in each country to advise, assist 
and stimulate local authorities and societies, and to promote an effectual 
combination of public and private housing enterprise. 

3. Town Extension Plans to be made for all growing urban districts, 
and to be accompanied by greater facilities for ensuring cheaper transit 
and the provision of adequate quantities of land to meet future needs 
in respect of sites for working class dwellings, and more especially to 
check land speculation. 



4- Cheaper money to be provided for housing schemes by the 
organisation of credit with loans from State funds and State institutions 
at the market rate of interest. 

5. Redticed taxation or exemption from taxes to be secured for all 
working class dwellings complying with certain conditions imposed in 
the public interest. 

6. uWodification of Building Bye-laivs to be secured so as to allow 
of greater elasticity in administration, and less costly street and building 
construction. 

The chief differences of opinion arose on the questions of municipal 
building \ the erection of block dwellings as against cottages in the 
suburbs of existing towns ; and the extent and nature of reforms 
involving the valuation, taxation, and acquisition of land for public 
purposes. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Mr. W. Pember Reeves submitted the following interesting 
particulars on the two most recent Housing Acts passed in New 
Zealand : — 

The Workers' Dwellings Act, 1905.- This Act, passed in 
1905, enabled the Minister of Labour to acquire land and build 
dwellings for workers. A "Worker" is defined as a male or female 
person who is employed in work of any kind or in manual labour, and 
who at the time of application is not in receipt of more than ^200 per 
year. The cost of erection of these dwellings is not to exceed ;^35o, 
if in wood ; or ^400 if constructed of brick, stone, or concrete. 
Every applicant must satisfy the Land Board that he is a worker, that 
he is landless {i.e.^ not an owner of any land whatever either jointly or 
individually), and that he is in all respects a suitable and deserving 
person. The rent to be paid by a weekly tenant is fixed at 5 per cent, 
on the capital value of house and land, plus (i) insurance and (2) rates. 
A worker may lease the house for fifty years, or may acquire the free- 
hold by {a) payment in cash of the capital value at any time not less 
than twenty-five years from the date of his lease ; {b) by monthly 
payments over a period of thirty-two years, at the rate of 8 per cent, 
per annum (being 5 per cent, for rent, i per cent, for depreciation, and 
2 per cent, for capital value) in addition to the cost of insurance ; or 
{c) by an insurance on the worker's life effected with the Government 
Insurance Commissioner for the amount of the capital value of the 
worker's dwelling. In this case the worker pays rent monthly at the 
rate of 5 per cent, per annum on the capital value of the dwelling, and 
the premium to the Government Insurance Commissioner. The 
insurance is for a fixed number of years — not exceeding twenty-five — at 
the end of which time, or in case of death, the insurance money can 
be utilised to acquire the freehold of the dwelling. Every worker 
acquiring a dwelling is required to reside therein, and no sale, assign- 
ment, lease, &:c., of the property can be made without the consent of 
the Land Board. The dwelling, fences, gates, drains, windows, doors, 
locks, &c., are to be kept by the tenant in good order and repair, 



233 

chimneys are to be cleaned and swept once a year, and the gardens are 
to be kept properly tilled and cultivated. The Land Board — i.e., the 
Government — undertakes the painting of the exterior of the dwellings, 
including picket-fences, and the necessary repairs to all walls, ceilings, 
and roofs of the houses. 

Under the Act an Advisory Board was set up in each centre 
consisting of Mr. James Mackay of the Labour Department, the 
department's agents, and the Commissioners of Crown Lands at 
Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin respectively. 

At present dwellings have been erected near Auckland and 
Wellington, and at Christchurch and Dunedin. Each house has five 
rooms and all necessary conveniences, including, of course, a bathroom. 
The rent of the houses ranges from 9s. 3d. to iis. per week. 

It is proposed to erect somewhat less pretentious houses so as to 
reduce the rents to- 8s. and less per week ; these houses will be of 
four rooms, and will be provided with bathruoms and a hot-water 
service. 

Government Advances to Workers Act. — This Act became 
law during the session of Parliament after the Workers' Dwellings Act 
was passed. It provides for assisting workers to build their own 
homes. A "worker" is defined to mean "a person employed in 
manual or clerical work, and who is not in receipt of an income of 
more than ^200 per annum, and is not the owner of any land other 
than the section on which he proposes to build." 

A worker wishing to erect a d^velling-house for himself and family 
has to apply to the Superintendent of the Advances to Settlers 
Department, stating that he desires the loan for the sole purpose of 
erecting a home, and if the Superintendent is satisfied with the 
security he may grant a loan of ^350 for this purpose. The maximum 
amount of loan under the Act cannot exceed three times the value of 
the land held (freehold or leasehold), that is to say if a worker owns 
land to the value of ^100, he may borrow, under the Act, a sum of 
;^30o for the purpose of erecting a dwelling. The loan is for a term 
of thirty-six years and a half, and the worker pays interest half- 
yearly at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum (subject to a rebate of 
\ per cent, for prompt payment). By simply paying the interest 
promptly the loan is repaid at the end of the term, thirty-six years and 
a half, but the length of the term may be reduced by the payment to 
the Superintendent of any sum not less than ;^5, or a multiple of ;^5, 
in reduction of the mortgage debt. Special provision is made for 
very low legal charges to obtain the necessary loans. 

The cost of erection varied from ^350 to ;^387 per cottage, and 
the rents from 9/3 to 10/6 per week, the majority being under ro/- per 
week. It has to be remembered that money wages are higher in New 
Zealand than in England. 

The illustrations and particulars accompanying the report showed 
the designs of sixteen different cottages, nearly all of which were one- 
story dwellings of five to seven rooms, constructed largely of wood, at 
EUerslie, Sydenham, and Windle. 

KI 



234 



5unnARy or hou5iino iNroRriATioM 

mon VARIOU5 COUNTKIE5. 



The following particulars have been kindly supplied by cor- 
respondents for the various nations concerned as a first step towards 
standardizing as far as possible information and statistics on the 
housing question. It will not be safe to draw comparisons too 
strictly on the various figures as they are very incomplete and 
partial in several cases, and conditions also are variable, but it is 
hoped it will be possible later on to so complete and classify the 
various facts and figures as to secure really valuable and standard 
International Statistics and Housing Information. 

Any corrections and additional information will be gladly 
welcomed and dealt with in later editions if sent to Alderman 
Thompson, Richmond, Surrey. 



CHIEF LAWS RELATING TO THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING 

CLASSES. 

Austria. — Act of 1902 — Encouraging the building of cheap 
working-class dwellings. 

January 7th, 1903 — Executive order under the above Act. 

Belgium. — (1) Act 1889 — Instituting Comites de patronage. 
Act 1892 — Relating to Credit Societies. 

Act 1896 — Modifying right of inheritance of survivor of two 
married persons. 

Act 1900 — Modifying manner of succession to small properties. 

England. — Act of 1890 — Housing of the Working Classes, etc. 
Act of 1900— Ditto Amendment Act. 
Act of 1903— Ditto Amendment Act. 

France. — Act of 1894 — La loi Siegfried. 
Act of 1902— Public Health Act. 
Act of 1906 — Housing of the Working Classes. 

Germany. — There is as j^et no law on housing relating to the 
German Empire ; but endeavours are being made to establish one. 
Legislative and administrative powers on housing belong to the 
competency of the single states of Germany. 

Holland.— Act of 1901— Pubhc Health Act. 
Act of 1901 — Housing Act. Came in force August, 1902. 

Italy. — Act of 1903 — Housing of Working Classes. 
24th April, 1904— Regulations, No. 164. 



235 
PRINCIPAL PROVISIONS OF LATEST LAW. 

Austria. — Exemption from taxes for healthy and cheap work- 
men's dwelHngs for 24 years, under certain conditions, the most 
important of which are : — 
Certain sanitary prescriptions. 

Interdiction against taking sub-tenants and bedfellows. 
Fixing of a minimum area for rooms and windows (1/10 of the 
area), and maximum number of inhabitants (4 m^ area per 
inhabitant for sleeping rooms). 
Fixing of rent, stipulating a maximum profit. 

Belgium. — Law, May 16th, 1900 — Modification of rules of 
Civil Law concerning small inheritances. 

England. — (1) Facilitating the financial working of municipal 
housing schemes by removing certain restrictions on borrowing 
powers, and by extending the maximum period of housing loans to 
80 years : 

(2) Slightly simplifying the procedure with regard to closing 
unhealthy dwellings and clearing unhealthy areas ; . 

(3) Permitting the erection of shops as well as houses ; 

(4) Imposing more stringent conditions as to rehousing in con- 
nection with the demolition of workmen's houses under Railway 
Bills and Local Improvement Acts as follows : — 

(a) If "30 or more persons " are to be displaced under Parlia- 
mentary powers the promoters of the undertaking must 
first obtain formal approval of a scheme for rehousing. 

(b) In fixing the number to be rehoused, persons of the working 
classes displaced during the previous five years are to be 
considered. 

(c) Defining more clearly and stringently the conditions under 
which, and the persons for whom, and b}^ whom, rehousing 
of displaced persons mu5t be carried out. 

France,— (1) Public Health Act, 1902, February 15th. 
Law of 1906, April 12th. 
Regulations, 1907, January 10th. 

(2) The Law of 1906 establishes Committees of Patronage for 
Workmen's Dwellings, to the extent of at least one in every Depart- 
ment, and provides for grants in aid by the Department. 

These Committees may give certificates of healthiness to dwellings, 
e ititling them to exemption from certain taxes, provided the annual 
rents are limited to the following figures : — 

Rents of Dwellings. 
Towns of not less Population than Collective. Single. 

1,001 inhabitants frs. 

1,001 to 2,000 inhabitants .. .. „ 

2,001 to 5,000 inhabitants .. .. „ 

5,001 to 30,00-0 and the suburbs of towns 

with 30,001 to 200,000 inhabitants 

in a radius of 10 kilometres. . . . ,, 250 275 



140 


168 


200 


240 


225 


270 



236 

Rents of dwellings. 

Towns of not less Population than Collective. Single. 

30,001 to 200.000 inhabitants with the 
suburbs of towns -. "er 200,000 in- 
habitants within a radius of 15 kilo- 
metres, and as well as greaterParis, 
that is to say, districts between 15 
and 40 kilometres from the fortifi- 
cations frs. 325 390 

Nearer the suburbs of Paris, within a 
radius of 15 kilometres, together 
with towns over 200,001 inhabitants „ 400 480 

Paris ,550 630 

The various Benevolent Institutions, Hospitals and Savings 
Banks may apply a part of their funds in subscription for Shares or 
Debentures of Housing Societies or in loans. 

The Savings Banks can in addition build themselves, or lend 
money to individuals. 

The Towns and Departments can within certain limits subscribe 
to Shares or Debentures of Societies, and assist them with land and 
all its development, they can moreover guarantee to the extent of 
3 % and during 10 years, the interest on Shares and Debentures of 
the Societies. 

Allotments and baths are included in the benefits of this law. 

The Assurance Office is authorised to grant Life Assurances, 
guarantee the re-payment of annuities in case death of a mortgagee. 
Under the Act, the law of succession is modified in certain respects. 

The Shares and Debentures of Societies for the better Housing of , 
the Working Classes are exempted during the 12 years from Property 
Tax, from the Door and Window Tax, the Tax on Revenue, and the 
stamp duties on Shares and Debentures, while there is to be complete 
exemption from Stamp Duties on Registration of Societies. 

Germany. — Among the German States prominent for legislation 
on housing are : Kingdom of Saxony, General Building Act of 1st 
July, 1900 ; Grand Duchy of Hessen, an Act to provide for housing 
of the working classes, 7th August, 1902 ; an act to establish amort- 
gage bank, 12th July, 1902. Wurtemberg and Baden are preparing 
General Building Acts. A Housing Bill for Prussia was drawn up by 
the Government in 1903, but met with strong opposition. The 
fundamental law for Prussia is still the law on planning streets of 
2nd July, 1875. 

Holland. — The Public Health A ct provides for a general Sanitary 
service, under the Minister of the Interior. 

The Housing Act forces the local authorities : 

(1) To frame bye-laws with regard to the building and re-building 
of houses, and the maintenance and proper use of dwellings. 
These bye-laws have to be approved by the Provincial 
authority and in case of neglect are drawn up b}^ that Author- 
ity under approval of the Crown. 



237 

{2) Owners of small dwellings (containing three rooms or less) 
have to fill up a schedule giving information about their 
dwellings, whenever a new tenant enters. 

(3) The local authorities have to examine the condition of the 
existing premises, they order improvements or repairs, and 
the clearance of premises unfit for human habitation. They 
have to do so of their own accord, but the local boards of 
health or even inhabitants of the neighbourhood can claim 
them to take action, and can appeal to the Provincial Author- 
ity, if the local authority remains inactive. 

{4) Empowers the local authorities to take land compulsorily if 
necessary for the aims of the Housing Act. The resolution of 
the Council to be confirmed by the Crown. 

<5) Empowers local authorities to prohibit building or re-building 
on sites that have to be reserved for streets, canals or squares. 

(6) Authorises local authorities to make grants and loans to 
Societies and Companies that operate exclusively for the 
improvement of the dwelling conditions of the people. 

The local authorities can get the money the\^ require for 
these aims, or which they want for building themselves, or 
for slum-clearing, from the Exchequer at market rate. 

The mone}' has to be paid back in fifty years, by means of 
equal instalments or annuities. If the building or slum- 
clearing Society or Corporation has to work with a deficit, the 
exchequer will bear half the loss, if the corporation takes the 
other half. 

Italy. — ^The principal provisions relate to conditions of persons 
who occupy workmen's dwellings, value and hygiene of houses, and 
exemption from taxes. (See M. Magaldi's International Housing 
Congress paper.) 

AUTHORITIES ENTRUSTED WITH POWERS CONNECTED WITH 
HOUSING, AND THEIR RESPECTIVE DUTIES. 

Austria. — No special authorities. 

Belgium. — (1) The Government. 

(2) The Provinces (approval of the deeds of the local authorities 
and the Charity Boards. Right of intervention in the appointment 
of the Members of Comites de patronage). 

(3) The Commimes — Construction of houses for the Working 
Classes, regulations concerning_ sanitation, etc. 

(4) Charitv Boards — Construction of houses. 

(5) Comite; de patronage (propaganda in favour of houses for 
the working classes, ins]5ection of hygienic condition of lodgings, etc.) 

(6) Inspection of hvglenic condition of lodgings by the Medical 
and Public Health Committee. 

England. — The borough councils and district councils with 
slight powers of supervision by county councils. 

France. — Housing Societies are under the jurisdiction of the 
Ministry of Works, and the direction of the Insurance and Provident 



238 

Boards. Side by side with this control is a superior Housing Council 
which is called upon to advise in all questions concerning the housing 
of the working classes, especially the approval of all rules, subjects 
and accounts of Societies who avail themselves of the advantages, 
financial and otherwise, accorded to them by the Housing Law. 

The superior Housing Council has delegated its powers to an 
executive Committee of twelve Members presided over by Mr. J. 
Siegfried — assisted by MM. Picot, Cheysson, Paulet (director of 
insurance to the Ministry), Cha lamel, Hausser, Ferrand, etc. 

Germany. — The State and the local authorities. 

Holland. — See answer to next question. 

Italy. — The Municipalities may purchase land compulsorily^ 
and sell for housing purposes, and also build workmen's dwellings to 
let exclusively, also popular hotels, public and free dormitories. 

CENTRAL STATE HOUSING DEPARTMENT AND ITS DUTIES. 

Austria. — Has no Central State Housing Department. 
Belgium. — The Ministry of Works looks after the situation of 
lodgings, and effects of the law on same, the activity of Comit^s de 
patronage, the development and results of Societies for the con- 
struction of houses for the working classes. 

The Office of Public Health and Housing Hygiene (Agricultural 
Board) is entrusted with housing hygiene. 

The Financial Department is entrusted with the housing Laws, 
viz. : (a) fiscal favours ; (b) approval of the Savings Bank relating 
to loans. 

The Local Authorities have power to remedy nuisances, for which 
purpose they are aided (a) by the Medical Committees, (b) the Public 
Health Committees, (c) the Comite^ de patronage. 

England. — No central housing department. 

France. — In each Department, one or several housing Comites 
de patronage must be constituted, whose duties include mission of 
propaganda ; the giving of certificates of healthiness for dwellings, 
and in certain cases necessary advice on the constitution of Housing 
Societies. The Superior Council is described above. 

Germany. — The Empire has no Housing Department, but there 
is one in Hesse and the beginnings o others in other States. 

Holland. — No Central State Housing Department, but a State 
Council of Hygiene acting under the Minister of the Interior — Chief- 
Inspectors of Health (4), Inspectors of Health (16), among them 
8 for housing matters — Local Boards of Health (130). The Members 
of the Central Board of Health, the Chief-Inspectors and the In- 
spectors, are Government officials, the Members of the Local Board 
are honorary, only the Secretary is paid for. 

Italy. — No Central State Housing Department. 



239 

LOCAL OFFICIALS ENTRUSTED WITH HOUSING HYGIENE 
AND ADMINISTRATION OF HOUSING LAWS. 

Austria. — The Municipalities for sanitary, housing hygiene, 
and administration of housing laws. 

Belgium. — The communal administrations must look after 
health and housing matters. They are assisted by {a) the medical 
commissions, {b) committees of public health, (c) comites de patron- 
age who supply information and advice. 

England. — ^The Medical Officer of Health, and the Sanitary 
Inspectors or Inspectors of Nuisances, under him, subject to the 
control of the local authority. 

France. — The Housing Laws are administered by the Mayor and 
the Committees of Hygiene. 

Germany. — The Police generally ; deputies and inspectors 
specially. Some towns have special boards (Wohnungsamter), as 
Stuttgart, Strassburg, Heidelberg, Mainz, Fiirth. 

Holland. — Burgomaster and Aldermen, aided in the more 
important corporations by Municipal Directors for the Sanitary 
service and housing policy. 

Italy. — Medical Officers, and employees of Municipal office of 
hygiene. 

REGULATIONS FOR THE PLANNING OUT OF LAND WHICH IS 
TO BE DEVELOPED FOR BUILDING PURPOSES BY PRIVATE 

INDIVIDUALS. 

Austria. — Carried out by the Municipalities. 

Belgium. — Local Authorities (communal administrations). 

England. — By individuals themselves, subject to fulfilling 
prescribed regulations as to width of roads, construction of sewers 
and drains and open sp)ace to each house. 

France. — The Mayor and the Municipal Council. 

Germany. — The Local Authorities settle such plans. 

Holland. — As a rule the ^Municipal Councils. 

No Street can be built without the consent of the Municipal Council 
which has to approve the width, level, pavement, etc., also drainage, 
sewers, gas pipes, etc. 

Amsterdam has just published a plan for regular extension on 
municipal sites. The plot measures 473 H.A. divided as follows : — 

Streets, canals, squares — 165 H.A. (35 %). 

Sites for exhibitions, sports and park— 118 H.A. (35 %). 

Sites for dwellings in rows— 111 H.A. (23 %). 

Sites for villas and separately built dwellings — 79 H.A. (17 %). 

Italy. — The Municipalities. 



240 

BUILDING REGULATIONS. 

Austria. — These are made by Diets of the Provinces, there is no 
model code. 

Belgium. — Made by Local x\uthorities, no model code. 

England. — By Town and District Councils ; built on an urban 
code in urban districts and a rural code in rural districts. 

France. — These are made by the Mayor and Municipal Councils. 
There is no model code of bye-laws, although the Government, after 
the passing of the Public Health Act of 1902, has made specimen 
sanitary regulations which prescribe certain requirements as to the 
construction of dwellings. These specimen regulations have been 
pretty generally adopted. 

Germany. — For Saxony the general Building Law of 1900 gives 
certain minimum rules, with power to the local authorities for 
raising the requirements, if they think it fit. For Prussia, the 
Building Statute for Berlin is accepted and copied by a large num- 
ber of towns. 

Holland. — Made by Local Authorities, or if they fail to do this, 
by the Provincial Committee. 

Municipal building bye-laws have to be confirmed by the Provincial 
Committee, who has to take the advice of the Housing Inspector 
(Inspector of Health). After this confirmation, the bye-laws 
must be sent to the State Council of Hygiene for control. 

Italy. — The Municipalities, no model code. 

TOTAL QUANTITY OF LAND BOUGHT OR OWNED BY TOWNS 

TO PROVIDE FOR THE FUTURE GROWTH OF THE TOWN, 

IS AS FOLLOWS : 

Austria. — None acquired for this purpose. 

Belgium. — Communes only become land-owners in case of 
dispossession for public purposes, and always try to sell the land; 
again as quickly as possible. They don't provide for future needs, 
but only make plans tracing out future streets. 

England. — None except for cemeteries. 

France. — None of the Communes have acquired land with this 
object. 

Germany. — A deliberate town-extension policy is adhered to by 
several towns, as Frankfurt, Mannheim, Ulm, where the muni- 
cipality owns a large portion of town-extension lands. Other tow::s 
like Gorlitz own large forests (30,777 hectares). In Mannheim the 
total quantity of lands owned by the municipality and its application 
is (year 1905) : streets and roads 244 hectares, municipal works 41 
ha., municipal buildings 22 ha., parks and shrubberies 173 ha., 
wharfs and building land 289 ha., forests 753 ha., applied to agricul- 
ture 900 ha.— making 2,432 ha. in all. 



241 

Un the reverse, large towns like Berlin, LnarlottenDurg, etc., re- 
frain from town-extension policy and leave it mainly to the land 
speculators. 

Holland.— Amsterdam, 560,000 inh. x 1000 H.A., just now 
takes 500 H.A. compulsorily under the New Housing Act. 

Schiedam, 30,000^ inh. x 100 H.A. 

Rotterdam, 390,000 mh. x 500 H.A. 

'sGravenhage, 238,000 inh. 300 H.A. 

Arnhem, 63,000 inh. 600 H.A. 

Utrecht, 115,000 inh. 110 H.A. 

Several other important towns have an important area of their 
■own, as Nymegen, Deventer, Vlaardingen, Leeuwarden. There is 
a growing tendency to buy land and an awakening tendency to keep 
it, letting on leases. 

Italy. — None for this purpose 

Is Consent of Higher Authorities necessary in the Purchase of 
Land by Agreement for Housing Purposes ? 

Austria. — ^This is not necessary. 

Belgium. — ^The Communes must get the consent of the perman- 
ent deputation of the Council of the Province and of H.M. the King. 

England. — -Yes, if a loan is required to be raised. 

France. — ^The Towns are not authorised by law to build houses 
themselves. They can acquire land compulsorily in connection 
with unhealthy areas under the law of 1902, in manner prescribed 
"by the law of 1841. 

Their decision must be approved by a Government decree, and 
in some cases by a special Act of Parliament. 

Germany. — Not for buying ; but for raising the money if by 
loans. But this is a mere formality. In fact, there are no limits 
to a town buying land for housing purposes ; buying is encouraged 
by Government, especially in Prussia. 

Holland. — Local Authorities are under the control of the 
Provincial Committee as to the management of their finances and so 
they have to get the consent of that Committee, when they buy or 
^ell land. 

Italy. — Consent of higher authorities must be obtained. 

In Reply to the Question : 

Have the Towns power to COMPEL land-owners to sell land 
for Housing Purposes without a special law or order of Parliament ? 

If towns have no such power can they get it for a special purpose 
by application to the higher authorities ? 

The Answers are — 
Austria. — No. There are necessary Special Laws. 



243 

Belgium. — The communes have no power to compel landowners 
lo sell land for housing purposes. But they have, in accordance 
with the Constitution of Belgium and the legislation, the right to 
dispossession for public purposes. In that case there must be a law 
or royal decree to be taken. The construction of houses for the 
working classes seems not to be a motive for public purposes. 

England. — Compulsory purchase of land can only be effected by 
means of a Provisional Order of the Local Government Board, con- 
firmed by Parliament. Housing is one of the purposes for which 
compulsory powers of land purchase may be so granted. 

France. — The towns are not authorised by law to build houses 
themselves. They can acquire land compulsorily in connection 
with unhealthy areas under the Law of 1902, in manner prescribed 
by the law of 1841. Their decisions must be approved by a Govern- 
ment decree and in some cases by a Special Act of Parliament. 

Germany. — Generally no landowner can be compelled to sell his 
land for housing purposes. Expropriation is granted by State 
authority only in case of public benefit, i.e., if the land is wanted 
for public purposes, planning of streets, construction of railways, etc. 
A special law for the city of Frankfurt-on-Maine gives power to 
the city, if the majority of the owners of a certain plot demand it, 
to combine, clear and redivide to the former owners plots of land 
which could advantageously be used for housing purposes in their 
actual condition (Law for combining and clearing scattered plots of 
building land). 

Holland. — Local Authorities have the power to take sites com- 
j^ulsorily (under consent of the Crown) in case the}^ want the land 
for :— " 

(a) The clearance of slum areas ; 

{b) The removing of premises which impede the improvement 

of dwellings ; 
(c) They want sites, built or not built on, for a housing plan or a 
plan of regular extension. 
Italy. — The towns have power to compel landowners to sell 
land for housing purposes by the law on popular houses and in 
accordance with the law dated June 25th, 1865, on compulsory 
purchase for public utility. 

Comparison of cost of land situated on the periphery of towns 
at the nearest points, and the cost of land situated about two or 
three kilometres farther from the centre ? 

Italy. — At Rome in the periphery land costs about 50 francs 
per sqiiare metre ; two or three kilometres farther, about 5 francs. 

Austria. — No information. 

Belgium. — At 5 or 6 kilometres in Brussels, land has fetched 
£14,000 per hectare. At 3 or 4 kilometres from Brussels, 5 or 6 
or 7 times as much. There is always a great difference between the 



243 

cost of land situated in the periphery of towns and the cost of land 
situated two or three kilometres farther. That is reckoned upon the 
importance of the localities. Examples of this fact would be of no 
use as the cost depends also upon other circumstances. 

England. — See pp. 69, 155 and 176, Housing Handbook. 

France. — ^The price of land does not always vary according to 
the distance from the centre. In Paris there are sites cheaper than 
in certain suburban communes and in the same commune the price 
varies enormously according to the situation, size, surroundings and 
nearness or distance from means of communication. 

Germany. — See below. 

Holland. — As a rule there is a big difference. 

Amsterdam (560,000 inh.) £4000 a H.A. on the periphery, £400 
a H.A. a kilometer further on. 

Utrecht (115,000 inh.) £3000-£1000 on the periphery, £200-250 a 
kilometre further on. 

Zwolle (33,000 inh.) £1500-2500 on the periphery, £150-280 a 
kilometre further on. 

In Leeuwarden the difference is much less : £625 on the periphery 
and £300-450 a kilometre further on. 

What is the average cost per hectare of Building Land before 
roads have been made ? 

Austria.— Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — Information not supplied. 

England. — The cost of building land before roads are made (a) 
varies from £100 per hectare in the small villages to £5,000 per 
hectare at the periphery of large towns, but the greater number 
of sales are effected at between £500 and £1,500 per hectare, i.e., 
between 2s. 6d. and 7s. 6d. per square metre. 

(6) When a given quantity of land is used for building new work- 
men's houses, the area occupied by the streets varies from 10 to 25 
per cent, of the total area, and the number of rooms on such land 
varies from 200 to 500 rooms per hectare of the total area. 

France. — No answer. 

Germany. — It is to be kept in mind that in Germany land is 
bought and sold right out, with the exception of a few instances of 
long-term leases granted by public bodies (State and towns). Con- 
sequently the rent and value of the building to be erected amalga- 
mates with the value of bare land. I divide lands in the town- 
extension districts into 3 classes : — 

1. — Agricultural lands, from 50 pfennigs to 2 marks per square 

metre. 
2. — Speculation lands in the hands of wholesale speculators 
expecting to cut up their land with the extension of building. 
No average price, of course, can be given for this class. 



244 

3. — Building plots, ready for construction of houses. Prices of 
these vary according to {a) The system adopted for con- 
struction ; system of 5-storied building fetches 50-70 marks 
per square metre in the working-men's districts ; system of 
3-storied buildings fetches 20 to 30 marks. (&) District of 
town where the land is situated. High class district, of 
course, fetches more than working-class district. 

Holland. — An average cost for the whole countrv cannot be 
given, but in Amsterdam, £3,000-£ 18,000 ; Utrecht, £900-£3,000 ; 
Zwolle, £l,000-£2,500 ; Leeuwarden, £650-£l,000 ; Enschede, 
£l,500-£2,000; 

Italy. — Francs 20 per square metre at Rome. 

What is the average cost per hectare of Building Land when 
roads have been made ? 

Austria. — Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — It is impossible to answer this question, because the 
cost of land depends on its situation and other local circumstances. 
As a rule the price of land is increasing most rapidly in the case of 
dispossession for healthv purposes. At Brussels the cost of land 
per square metre in unhealthy areas amounted to 100-190 francs. 

England. — The cost of building land after roads have been made 
varies from Is. per square metre in small villages to 20s. per square 
metre in the large towns, but the greater number of workmen's 
houses are built on land costing between 3s. and 10s. per square 
metre. 

France. — Information not supplied. 

Germany. — See above. 

Holland.— Amsterdam. £10,000-£ 12,000 ; Utrecht, £4,000- 
£5,000 : Zwolle, £2,000-£2,500 : Deventer, £3,000-£4,000 ; Enschede 
£2,500-£3,000. 

In the case of Amsterdam a square metre building site will cost 
£2 10s., as only about 40 % can be covered with buildings. In the 
other towns the proportion will be more favourable. 

These prices are for one H.A. the building sites inclusive streets 
and squares. 

The Amsterdam figures are taken from a report of the Director 
of Public Works on the extension of the town and are calculated 
with the interest on the money during the building and leasing. 

Italy. — Francs 50 per metre. 

The Average Cost per hectare of Agricultural Land is very 
variable. 

Austria. — Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — 1,000 francs for mediocre land ; 3,000 francs for 
average ditto ; and 5,000 francs for first-class land. 



England. — Tlie cost of Agricultural Land varies from £30 to 
£500 per hectare, but the prices generally paid are between £50 and 
£100 per hectare, and the average of recent sales has been about £60 
per hectare. 

France. — There are farms which sell for 200 francs per hectare, 
and others for 10,000 francs. The conditions are so variable that it 
is impossible to make comparisons. 

Germany. — See above. 

Holland. — Very poor and uncultivated soil (heather), far from 
any centre, £2-£8 a H.A. ; poor soil cultivated, £10-£60 a H.A. ; 
grass and arable land, £150-£350, medium, £250 ; garden, bulbs, 
cabbage, £500-£ 1,100 per H.A. ; gardens near towns perhaps £1,500- 
£2,000 per H.A. All these prices are for agricultural use. 

Italy. — Fr. 0.50 per square metre. 

When land-owners have been compelled to sell land, the price 
is fixed as follows : — 

Austria. — Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — In case of dispossession, if the price of land is not 
fixed by agreement, it is fixed by the tribunals following its real 
value. 

England. — By arbitration or a jury based upon the value 
estimated with an extra allowance, generally 10 per cent., for com- 
pulsory purchase. 

France. — By a jury. 

Germany. — By estimate and valuation ; but if not accepted, 
then by the courts of law. 

Holland. — The price is fixed by the judge. The Housing Act 
declares that only the real market value has to be paid. 

Italy. — The price of land is fixed bv experts. By the special 
law for the improvement of Naples, 1885, land is valued on the 
average of the market value and the rent for ten years last. If it 
is not possible to ascertain the rent, then the price of land is its 
rateable value. 

Cost of land per square metre in unhealthy areas acquired by 
City Councils for clearance of insanitary dwellings ? 

Austria. — Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — Prices are very high and very variable, in Brussels 
such land has cost from 100 to 150 francs per square metre. 

England. — See pp. 59, 61 and 155, Housing Handbook. 

France. — Information not supplied. 

Germany. — No definite figures. 



246 

Holland. — No exact figures can be given. Until now these 
areas have not been bought compulsorily. Amsterdam paid £4 4s. 
and 15s. 4d. on another occasion. Kampen paid 2s. 4d. 

Italy. — Land covered by buildings costs when expropriated in 
clearing unhealthy areas from £1 to £25 per square metre, but in 
the greater number of cases has been between £4 and £8 per square 
metre. 

THE PROPORTION OF BUILDING SITES THAT MAY BE 
COVERED BY BUILDINGS is settled as follows :— 

Austria. — In the greater number of cases, 85 %. 

Belgium. — In towns and other important localities, the height 
of buildings is in suitable proportion to the width of the streets ; 
generally speaking, a building may have as height, the width of the 
street plus 6 meters. In the same localities 1/5 of the building site 
may not be covered b3' buildings. 

England. — There must be 24 feet of open space along the entire 
frontage of the building, and there must be a clear depth of open 
space behind, varying according to the height of the building from 
10 to 25 feet, with a minimum area of at least 150 square feet. 

France. — There is no rule in this matter, but the free space 
opposite a window must be over 4 metres and in Paris sometimes 
8 metres. 

Germany. — {a) Maximum regulations — 75 %. 

(b) Minimum regulations — 50 %, in a few cases 40 to 331 %. 

(c) Medium regulations {i.e., the greater number of regulations)^ 
For the town-extension districts, 67 to 50 %. 

Holland. — Apart from streets and squares, the maximum will 
be 4/5ths and the minimum in rural districts will be sometimes 
l/5th, but in the greater number of regulations is 3/4ths. 

Italy. — Under the regulations of 1904, the court-yard surface 
of working-class houses shall be no smaller than l/5th of all the 
area within the limiting walls. In Rome, court-yards shall have 
neither side shorter than l/3rd of the length of the building, nor an 
area smaller than the square of the shorter side. In Turin, the 
court-yards' area must be no smaller than l/4th of the area within 
the limiting walls. The proportion of building site that may be 
covered b}^ buildings is 2/3rds. 

NEW STREETS AND ROADS IN WORKING CLASS DISTRICTS. 

Austria. — Information not supplied. 

Belgium. — No town has constructed quarters devoted entirely 
to working-class dwellings. The country has (1) Government 
Roads paid for b\^ the State ; (2) Provincial Roads paid for by the 
Provinces ; (3) Parish Roads j^aid for by State, Province and 
Commune together. 



247 

For new districts added to towns the cost of streets is paid either 
by the land-owners or the Communes, but in the last-named event, 
a rate is levied to meet the cost in alternate 3'ears. 

England. — AU streets used as carriage roads must be at least 
36 feet wide, except secondary approaches which may be 24 feet 
wide. Owners settle position and direction and pay for new streets 
and give the necessary land, but the local authority may construct 
or improve them and recover by periodical charges called " Private 
Streets Improvement Rates." 

France. — ^The town of Paris does not allow any streets less than 
12 metres wide. As a rule the owners pay for new streets in pro- 
portion to frontage, but this is not always the case in rural districts. 

Germany. — 





Total 
area. 


BuUd- 

ings. 


Streets, 

roads, 

railwys. 


Parks. 


Ceme- 
teries. 


Rivers. 


Waste 
land. 


Berlin 


ha. 
6350 


ha. 
3000 


ha. 
1820 


ha. 
360 


ha 
60 


ha. 
100 


ha. 
1009 


Aachen 


3915 


371 


296 


34 


14 


13 


3187 


Francfort 


9390 


1145 


768 


35 


45 


158 


7238 


Gorlitz 


1784 


217 


246 


61 


33 


26 


1201 


Mannheim 


6606 


579 


510 


84 


30 


623 


4781 


Liibeck ... 


2972 


370 


254 


32 


10 


249 


2)56 


Freiburg ... 


5285 


292 


313 


68 


30 


40 


4542 



To make out percentage of building to streets, roads, and rail- 
ways, the waste land should be deducted from the total area. 
Mark the differences betwen he single towns. 

The cost of street -making per unit room depends on width of 
street and class of pavement (asphalte, wood, granite). No definite 
figures available. 

The adjacent owners pay the cost of new road of various kinds, 
but the cost may be advanced by municipality and recovered from 
adjacent owners. 

Holland. — In the development of working-class districts, the 
proportion of the total area of building sites devoted to new streets 
is on an average about 2/5ths. The owner of sites pays the cost of 
new streets, but in small towns a part is often defrayed by the 
■community. 

The cost of street-making depends on the surface, but 7s. to 10s. 
per square metre will be a fair average. In many towns the sites 
must be brought on a decent level which may cost from 5s. to 6s. 
per square emter in towns like Amsterdam and Rotterdam. (The 
whole site and not the streets a one has to be raised.) 



Itaty. — In Turin no new streets may be narrower than 15 metres. 
Article 43 of the Regulations of 1904 prescribes that all street works 
for working-class houses shall be made by the municipality. 

Cost of Roads and Sewers. 

Very little information is forthcoming about this most impor- 
tant item, but in England where the new roads are generally about 
12 metres wide, the cost of street works, including canalisation, varies 
from 5s. to lOs. per square metre of road surface, and from £500 to 
£2,000 per hectare of the total area of the building land developed, 
the greater number of workmen's houses in the suburbs being built 
on land which has been provided with the necessary roads and 
sewers at a cost of about £1,000 per hectare of the total land devel- 
oped. 

Expressed in terms of cost per room, the figures shew that the 
cost of making streets, exclusive of the value of the land, varies from 
£5 to £10 per room, and the cost in the first instance of the total 
area of land dealt with varies from £2 to £20 per room, thus making 
a total site cost of from £7 to £30 per room, but the greater number 
of sites cost a total of about £10 per room. 

THE STATE HAS LENT MONEY FOR HOUSING PURPOSES 
AS FOLLOWS :— 

Austria. — None. 

Belgium. — The State as such has not lent money for housing 
The working classes, but the law of 9th August, 1889, has authorised 
the general savings banks to make loans for that purpose. Up to 
the 1st January, 1907, the savings banks lent {a) to towns, 574,200 
francs ; (6) to societies, 71,644,447 francs ; (c) to workmen 
(upon security for 1/3), 163,727 francs. 

England. — The municipalities have borrowed about £4,500,000 
for slum-buying, and £4,500,000 for housing, but most of it has been 
borrowed in the open market. The Government through the Public 
Works Loan Commissioners have lent £2,318,765 to towns and 
£1,619,929 to societies, companies and individuals for housing 
purposes — the houses being let and not sold as a rule. Under the 
Smah Dwehings Acquisition Act, 1899, the sum of £82,500 has been 
lent to workmen for acquiring the ownership of their houses. 

France. — On the 31st December, 1906, there had been lent 

by the Savings Banks, 5,828,851 francs ; charitable institutions, 

350,000 francs ; Caisse des Depots, etc., 6,467,000 francs. (The 

Marseilles Savings Bank alone has lent 55,475 francs to individuals.) 

Germany. — To Societies (building societies, constructing houses). 

{a) B\' the German Empire, 25 million marks. 

(b) By the Prussian State (up to 1907), 36h miUion marks. Loans 
are a'so granted by other States — Bavaria, Saxonv, etc. 

(c), By the Public Boards of Insurance against invalidity (1906), 
173 million marks. 



249 

All the above has been lent to building societies. The Empire and 
the States, as a rule, give the loans on the condition that the houses 
constructed are to be let to officials and working men in the State 
service. State administrators, State railways. Imperial Postal 
service, etc.) 

The Boards of Insurance, on the condition that the houses are to be 
let to persons to whom the Imperial law of insurance applies. 

Holland. — (a) To Towns — The State only lends to local authori- 
ties who can build themselves or hand the money over to societies 
and companies. The Housing Act is only beginning to work in this 
regard and much difficulties had to be overcome before everything 
was settled. £40,000 has been granted until now and some 
£110,000 more is voted by the local authorities and apparently 
wiU be granted within a few months. 

(6) to Societies, nothing ; (c) Direct to workmen, nothing. 

Italy. — National Exchequer does not lend money for housing. 

The Rate of Interest charged by the State for money lent for 
Housing purposes is as follows : — 

Austria. — No money lent. 

Belgium. — ^To Towns, 3.25 % charged by the Savings Bank. 
To Societies of credit for lending to others, 3 %. To Societies for 
construction possessing real estate, 3.25 %. To Workmen or 
individuals direct, the rate was formerly 3 %, but these loans are no 
longer made. 

England. — Var^dng from 2| when the market rate was 2J to 

4^, but always above the market rate. 

France. — The Savings Banks generally lend to Societies at 
between 3 and 3h %. The Societies generally lend to individuals 
at 4 %, but some loans are at 4-| %. 

Germany. — (a), (b) Empire and State : 3 % interest and 1 % 
sinking fund, to societies consisting of employers of government 
serv ce on y. 

(c) Boards of Insurance, 3-4| %. 

Towns and Municipalities also advance money to building societies. 
In 1903, in the Province of Rhineland, 57 municipalities had ad- 
vanced money or stood security for construction of workmen's 
houses. The same policy is to be found among the municipalities 
in the Grand Duchy of Hessen, in Saxony, Baden, etc. 

In agricultural and town-extension districts of Prussia, the law on 
small holdings is now being applied for creating small holdings for 
workmen, the purchase-money and capital for building being ad- 
vanced to the holder. As the application of the law to working 
classes is only beginning, no figures can be given as yet. Examples : 
County of Dortmund ; district of Segeberg, province of Posen 

Holland. — (a) To Towns. At market rate. The exchequer 
here has to pay about 3|%. 

Italy. — No information. 



250 

The number of years allowed by the State for the repayment 
of loans is as follows : — 

Austria.— No loans granted. 

Belgium. — The Savings Bank allows (a) Towns, 25, 40, 60 or 
66 years, (b) Societies, 10, 15, 20 or 25 years, (c) Individuals, 
10, 15, 20 or 25 years. 

England. — Before 1905 about 85 per cent, were for 40 years 
and under, now the usual periods are 60 years for buildings and 80 
years for land. 

France. — Generally 25 years for separate houses and 40 years 
for collective dwellings. 

Germany. — {a), (&), Empire and States — 47 years, 
(c) Boards of Insurances : periods vary. 

Holland. — Fifty years. This is generally regarded to be a 
much too short period and the Minister of the Interior has promised 
to introduce a law to prolong this period to 75 years. 

Italy. — State does not lend. 

TAXES CHARGED UPON WORKING-CLASS DWELLINGS 

upon buying and selling premises : — 

Austria. — No information. 

Belgium. — The taxes of enregistrement and of mortgage 
transactions are respectively 5.50 and 1.25 per cent. 

Reduction of one-half for working-class dwellings under the law 
of 1889. 

England. — Practically nothing — lawyers get the equivalent of 
such taxes in costs of conveyance. 

France. — 7 % cf the selling price on changing hands. 

Germany. — No information. 

Holland. — Purchase Tax, IJ % ; Registration, 2 %. 

Italy. — 1 % on the value, but working men buying their dwel 
lings only pay ^. 

Taxes charged upon the Tenants each year : — 

Austria. — No information. 

Belgium. — The personal taxes charged by the State government 
are as follows : — 

(a) 5 % of the assessable value, which is less than the gross 
rental. 

(b) 1 to 2.28 francs according to the population of the commune 
and the number of doors and windows. 

(c) 1 % of the assessed value of personal estate (always below 
the actual value). 



251 

The total taxes charged by provincial and local governments are 

equal to the total taxes charged by the National government. 

Working-class dwellings, the assessed revenue of which does not 
exceed a rate fixed according to the local population, have no 
personal tax or any similar one to pay to the local, provincial or 
National governments (laws of 9th August, 1889, and 18th July, 
1893). 

England. — The expenses of local government amounting to 
from 20 to 25 per cent, of the rent are charged on the tenants. 

France. — Two to thirteen per cent, each year. 
Legally there is no difference between working-class dwellings 
and others, but the Communes in assessing the tax are authorised 
to make slight reductions for low rents, but the arrangements for 
carrying this into effect are very complicated. In Paris all rents 
are exempt from the " contribution mobiliere " where the value 
is below 500 francs. 

Germany. — No difference. 

N.B. — For Berlin, taxes on houses, for sewers and water supply, 
cost of maintenance and repairs of house, losses on empty premises 
and on rent, in fact all charges and expenses, are generally estimated 
at 10 % of the rent. 

Holland. — In the very poor houses the tenants pay nothing, in 
the better houses the tenants pay some taxes, depending on the rent 
of their dwelling, but no average can be given as all depends on the 
locality and the percentage is only levied from a reduced rent. 
When for instance in a certain district, houses of a rateable value 
of £4 are exempted, the rent of the better houses is reduced by £4 
in the calculation o their tax. 

Italy. — No information. 

Annual Taxes charged upon owners : — 

Austria. — No information. 

Belgium. — The State Government charges 7 % of the assessable 
revenue which is less than the gross rental. 

England. — Very light. 

France. — Nine to sixteen per cent, of rent, according to the 
commune. 

Dwellings constructed according to the conditions of the laws of 
1906 are exempted for the first 12 years from property tax, and the 
tax on doors and windows. This reduction is in favour of the owner. 

Germany. — 1 to 2 % of saleable value in a great number of 
Prussian towns. Rates are higher in Bavaria, Saxony, Alsace, 
where the tax is assessed by Government. The old Prussian tax on # 
" assessed value " of houses is being abandoned. Towns in Prussia 
are applying now the tax on " saleable value " of houses, agreed to 
yearly according to the requirements of budget, varying from 1| per 



252 

mille to 4 per mille each year. Then there is a tax for sewers and 
for water supply. 

Holland. — From 4 to 1 1 % from the rateable value (corresponds 
with lOd. to 2s. 4d. in the £). 

Italy. — Nothing for 5 years in the Kingdom, and for 10 years at 
Rome. 

Special Site Tax laid on Plots not yet covered by Buildings. 

Austria. — No information. 

Belgium.^The Property Tax is applicable to such plots, but 
it is a very small one. 

England. — No special site tax. 

France. — There is no tax on unbuilt-on land except at Paris, 
where there is tax on gardens ! but this has mainly a " sumptuary " 
character. 

Germany.- — Some towns have established a tax on the " increase 
of value of land " (Wertzuwachssteuer, Franckfurt, Cologne, 
Gelsenkirchen, etc.) The number of towns charging the tax is 
increasing. Rates are generally from 4 to 10 % of the increase of 
value. 

Holland. — No. But those sites form part of one's fortune and 
taxed as such, though very low. 

Italy. — Municipalities may be empowered by the Government 
to rate a tax on plots not yet covered by buildings, and no more 
than 1 franc per cent, of their value. 

The Ratio of Total Taxes to the Rent is as follows :— 

Austria. — No information supplied. 

Belgium.— Variable. 

England.— From 20 to 25 per cent, of rent. 

France. — See paper by M. L. Ferrand. 

Germany. — English rates should not be compared to German 
rates, owing to the difference of system and the great number of 
taxes in Germany. House tax is heavier in England. On the other 
hand, direct and indirect taxation is heavier for the working classes 
in Germany. Income tax in Germany begins at an income of £45 
to £60 with a progressive scale from 2 to 4 %, municipal taxation 
adding an increase of 100 to 200 % according to the local rate. 
Other direct taxes and the charges of the protectionist system are to 
be taken into account. 

Holland. — For owners it will be in the future 4| % of the 
supposed rent. For tenants information difficult to give, but 
the tax is very light for the really small houses. 

Italy. — No information, but see paper by M. V. Magaldi. 



25S 

LIMITATION OF A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ROOMS PER GIVEN 

AREA. 

No countries have made building regulations prescribing a 
maximum number of rooms on a given area of building land, but 
all have endeavoured to secure a certain amount of open space by 
other means. 

AREA OF ROOMS. 

Austria. — The law of 1902 prescribes for workmen's dwellings 
favoured by it a minimum area of 16-25 m^ for one room ; 20-35 m'^ 
for two rooms, 30-80 m^ for three or more rooms. 

Belgium. — ^There is no minimum area prescribed for rooms by 
the regulations. 

England. — No minimum area prescribed. 

France. — No minimum area is prescribed, but no room may be 
constructed of less than 25 cubic metres cubical contents. 

Germany. — No information. 

Holland. — As a rule the building bye-laws prescribe that every 
dwelling shall have at least one room of at least 14 square metres 
(max. 20, min. 12 metres). Other rooms have to measure at least 
6 metres or are left apart. ^lost bye-laws further prescribe that the 
whole house has to measure at least, say, 30 square metres. 

Italy. — Eight square metres (and 25 cubic metres). 



HEIGHT OF ROOMS. 

The height prescribed for rooms is as follows : — 

Austria. — (a) Maximum regulations, 3.20-3.50m. 

(b) Minimum regulations, 2.20-2.60m. 

(c) Medium regulations {i.e., the regulations most generally in 
force), in the towns, 3m. ; in the country, 2.60m. 

Belgium. — Most of the local regulations in use prescribe at 
least 3 metres for the ground floor, and ordinary floors above with 
2.50 for underground rooms, and 2.60 for the entresols. 

England.— Varying from 2.34 to 2.75 and 2.90. 

France. — A minimum of 2.60 is prescribed, but this figure b 
generally exceeded and averages 2.90. 

Germany. — (a) Maximum regulations — 3 metres. 
(&) Minimum regulations — 2.80 to 2.50 metres, 
(c) Medium {i.e., the regulations most generally in force) — 2.80 
metres. 



254 

Holland. — (a) Maximum regulations 3 metres from the floor 
to ceiling or beams ; in a very few cases 3.25 metres is prescribed. 

{b) Minimum regulations, 2.50 metres measured as heretofore, 
this minimum is an exception, 2.60 might be the real minimum. 

(c) Medium, 2.80 metres measured as before. 

Italy. — Minimum, 3 metres. 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 

The figures ordered by the building regulations for the t lickness 
of walls are as follows : — 

Thicknesses in Centimetres. 





1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 




Storey. 


Storey. 


Storey. 


Storey. 


AUSTRIA (Vienna)— 


cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


Five or more storeys : 










Maximum 


90 


75 


75 


60 


Minimum 


75 


60 


60 


45 


Four or more storeys : 










Maximum 


75 


75 


60 


60 


Minimum 


60 


60 


45 


45 


Three or more storeys : 










Maximum 


75 


60 


60 


— . 


Minimum 


60 


45 


45 


— 


Two or more storeys : 










^Maximum 


60 


60 





, 


Minimum 


45 


45 




— 


BELGIUM— 










(following local regulations) 










Minimum — 










Less than 15 metres high 










Front wall 


38 


28 


28 


28 


Back wall 


28 











Gable 


28 


— 


— 


— 


More than 15 metres high 










Front wall 


46 


38 


28 


28 


Back wall 


28 


28 








Gable . . 


28 


28 


— 


— 



255 



ENGLAND— 

Height up to 25 ft. 
Height up to 30 ft. 

Minimum 

Maximum 
Height up to 40 ft. 

Minimum 

Maximum 
Height up to 50 ft. 

Minimum 

Maximum 



1st 
Storey. 



cm. 
36 

36 
54 

54 
72 

72 
86 



PRANCE— 

There are no regulations prescribed 



GERMANY— 

One brick=25 cm. 
Five or more storeys : 
Maximum 



Medium . . 

Holland- 
No information. 

ITALY— 

Five or more storeys 
Maximum 
Medium . . 
Minimum 

Four storeys : 
Maximum 
Medium . . 
Minimum 

Three storeys : 
Maximum 
Medium . . 
Minimum 

Two storeys : 
Maximum 
Medium . . 
Minimum 



77 



64 



64 



51 



44 
33 
33 



44 
33 
22 



33 
22 
22 



22 
18 
11 



2nd 3rd ; 4th 

Storey. Storey. Storey. 



cm. 
33 

36 
54 

54 
54 

54 
72 



bylaw on 



51 



51 



33 
33 
22 



33 

22 
22 



22 
18 
18 



22 
18 
11 



36 

36 
54 

54 
54 



this sub 

51 
38 



36 
36 

36 
54 



ject. 



Sto ey. 

38 38 

Roof. 

25 
38 — 



33 
22 

22 



22 
22 
22 



22 
18 
18 



22 
22 
22 



18 
18 
18 



256 

EXTENT OF ACCOMMODATION AND OVERCROWDING. 

Austria. — According to the census of 1900 there were in Vienna 
1,363,298 persons Hvmg in 319,139 dwellings, and of these 592,134 
persons or 43 per cent, lived in 161,063 dwellings of one room or 
one room and kitchen. 

Of these last there were 165,000 persons living in 27,397 dwellings 
under conditions of overcrowding, i.e., six or more than ten to a 
dwelling of one or two rooms. Altogether from 200,000 to 250,000 
or one-fifth to one-sixth of the population of Vienna were over- 
crowded on this basis. 

One-fourth of the housing accommodation is in the form of sub-let 
dwellings or lodgings and no fewer than 170,709 men or 12.5 per 
cent, of the Viennese population lived in the dwellings of other 
people. 

A fourth of the people occupy dwellings on short tenancies subject 
to a fortnight's notice, which in the great majority of cases does not 
exceed 14 days. The greater number of the working classes lead a 
nomadic life and cannot possibly develop home life in the best sense 
of the word. 

Things are no better in Prague and especially in the suburbs. 
Zizkow, the largest of these, had 2,545 dwellings containing 18,622 
persons, or 42 per cent, of the population, overcrowded. In 60 
Austrian middle towns, 150,519 out of 226,526 dwellings or 63 per 
cent, had not more than one room or one room and kitchen, while 
25 per cent, of these were overcrowded. 

Belgium. — There are no general statistics, but in the whole 
country there are 503 persons per 100 dwellings ; in the metropolis 
798 persons per 100 dwellings, and in the urban and rural districts 
from 449 to 586 persons per 100 dwellings according to the popula- 
tion of the district. 

England. — The census definition of overcrowding is more than 
two persons to a room counting two young children as one person. 
In 1901 there were in England and Wales, 2,667,506 persons living 
in 392,414 overcrowded dwellings. There were 507,763 persons 
living in 251,667 one-room dwellings and 2,158,644 persons living in 
658,203 two-room dwellings. 

France. — Information is not available as to overcrowding — an 
attempt was made to get figures for Paris, but it must be accepted 
with caution. 

Germany. — The English measure of calling " overcrowded " 
a tenement containing more than two occupants per room, cannot be 
applied to Germany at all. It is difficult to say how many of the 
wo kmen's dwellings would not be overcrowded, in this case. Tak- 
ing four occupants as a measure, the figures for Berlin (in 1900) 
were : — 

Tenements consisting oi" one room and kitchen. 

°p"rVTn? 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314 



Number of 35 917 23,024 12.108 5,511 2,281 820 270 77 13 

Tenements 



257 

For Prussian towns, in 1900, a considerable percentage, varying 
irom 10 to 24 per cent, of tenements consisting of one room or of one 
room and kitchen had 6 and more occupants. 

PERCENTAGE OF DWELLINGS. 





One 
room. 


Two 
rooms. 


Three 
rooms. 


Four 
rooms. 


- 
Fiverooms 
and over. 


Austri a : 

Centre of Metro- 
polis 
Urban Districts . . 

England : — 

Whole country 
Metropolis 
Urban Districts . . 
Rural Districts . . 

Holland :— 

Whole country 
Metropolis 
Urban Districts 
Rural Districts . . 


6.07 
28.4 

2 

20 

2 

6 

281 
19 
23.1 
33" 


32.23 
36.0 

8 

27 

9 

6 

30i 
251 
301 
31 


28.33 
15.3 

11 
21 
12 
11 

171 

22.^ 

isi 

161 


11.86 
8.3 

24 
10 
24 
26 

151 
24 
17 
131 


21.51 
12.0 

55 
22 
53 
57 

Six and Over 
Seven. Seven 

4 4 

5 4 
5 5^ 
31 2^ 




Berlin. 


Ham- 
burg. 


Mun- 
chen. 


Leipzig. 


Dres- 
den. 


Breslau. 


Germany : — 

One Room, in most 
cases kitchen extra. . 

Two Rooms, in most 
cases kitchen extra 


0/ 

/o 

50.41 
28.11 


0/ 

/o 

23.83 
31.20 


0/ 

/o 

27.82 
30.13 


/o 
26.95 

36.35 


0/ 
47.40 

30.30 


0/ 
/o 

43.51 

26.60 


See note N.B. 
Three Rooms 
Four Rooms 
Five Rooms 




78.52 
21.^8 


55.03 
44.97 


57.95 
42.05 


63.30 
36.70 


77.70 
22.30 


70.11 
29.89 



The one and two room tenements form the bulk of the dwellings in 
large towns, amounting as above up to 78| % of the total. 

N.B. — No general definition of the word " room " can be given. 
In the greater part of German statistics, especially in Northern 
Germany, the word is applied to rooms fitted with a stove only 
(heizbares Zimmer), so the kitchen is, then, not included. This 
should be accounted for, if comparing with English statistics. 

L 



258 



The DEATH RATES in the various countries are 





Death Rate 


Tuberculosis 


Infant Deaths 




per 1000, 


Death Rate 


per 1,0 )0 births 




all causes. 


per 1,000. 


(in the 1st year). 


The whole country : — 








Austria 


24.1 


3.36 


188 


Belgium 


18.9 


1.30 


160 . 


England 


16.2 


1.24t 


145 


France . . 


19.4 


— 


— 


Germany 


*2M 


2.07 


194 


Holland 


15.31 


1.79 


131 


Italy 


22.25 


1.59 


403 


The Metropolis : — 








Vienna 


19.9 


4.18 


185 


Brussels 


18.9 


— 


— 


London 


16.2 


1.60t 


146 


Paris 


- 


— 


— 


Berlin 


— 


— 


— 


Amsterdam . . 


13.66 


1.83 


110.1 


Rome , . 


— 


— 


— 


Urban Districts : — 








Austria 


28.8 


4.67 


— 


Belgium 


20.06 


— 


— 


England 


17-90 


1.37t 


158 


France . . 


— 


— 


— 


Germany 


— 


— 


— 


Holland 


11.56 to 24.97 


1.82 to 2.9 


58.1 to 258.4 


Italy 


— 


— 


— 


Rural Districts : — 








(under 2,000 mhabitants) 








Austria 


24.0 


2.89 


— 


Belgium 


18.04 


— 


— 


England 


13.54 . 


1.16 


117 


France . . 


— 


— 


— 


Germany 


— 


— 


— 


Holland 


11.56 to 24.97 


1.82 to 2.9 


58.1 to 258.4 


Italy 


— 







* Average of 10 years. 

t Phth. sis only — all forms of tuberculosis amounted to 1.777 for England 



and Wales 



25Q 

MUNICIPAL DWELLINGS. 

Belgium. — Only one commune (St. Giles) has up to now built 
dwellings for the working classes. 

England. — 12,165 block dwellings with 27,523 rooms : 2,507 
tenement houses with 6,068 rooms ; 2,004 cottage flats with 5,747 
rooms ; 3,830 cottages with 17,611 rooms — Total, 20,506 dwellings 
with 56,949 rooms. Ireland.— 20,634 cottages. 

France. — No dwellings built by municipalities ; there is a 
strong opposition to this in France. 

Germany. — Freiburg, Ulm, ^lulhausen, Diisseldorf, Strassburg, 
Lamprecht, Schweinfurt, Miilhausen, Emden, Apenrade, etc., for 
employees of municipality only. Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Worms, 
Niirnberg, Heidelberg have all built municipal dwellings. 

Holland. — Volendam built 10 dwellings ; Vries 1 dwelling, and 
Franeker 20 dwellings in 1905. Franeker will build 30 dwellings, 
and Hellendoorn 6 dwellings in 1907. The new Dutch Housing 
Law favours " Societies of public utility " rather than munici- 
palities. 

Italy. — Dwellings have been built by the towns of Carrara, 
Fermigano, ]\Iilan, and Parma. 

BUILDING COST. 

The cost per room for building cottages varies as follows : — 





Rural Dist. 


Small Towns 


Large Towns 




£ 


£ 


£ 


Belgium 


25 


50 


60 


England 
France . . 


30 
32 


50 


60 
60 


German}^ . . 

Holland 


25 


30 


48 


Italy 


— 


54 


62 



Brussels. — Three-storey houses built in the suburbs by a Society, 
cost from £12 to £15 per square metre or from 13s. to ISs. per cubic 
metre. 

Four-storey houses cost from £11 to £14 per square metre or 
irom lis. to 15s. per cubic metre. 

[The site cost of dwellings in Brussels varied from 8s. 6d. to 27s. 
per iquare metre.] 

Cost of Building Block Dwellings : — 

Be gium, £70 ; England, £90 ; France, £52 ; Germany, £ — ; 
Italy, £40 to £50. The quality and nature as well as the size of the 



26o 

rooms provided vary considerably, so that these figures must not ber 
used as the basis of comparison between one country and another, 
but only as a rough indication of the cost in the country concerned. 

In England the rooms are as a rule smaller than in other coun- 
tries, the contents varying from 30 to 40 cubic metres, the most 
common size being 33 cubic metres. 

The average COST OF BUILDING per square metre :— 

Germany. — (a) Houses for one family in Rural districts : — 

Small towns, middle towns : — 90 marks (IJ storeys). 

{b) Tenement Houses (3 storeys) : — 

Small towns, 54 marks ; middle towns, 51 marks ; large towns, 
53 marks. 

(c) Block dwellings (four or more storeys) per 1 square metre of 
each storey : — Middle towns, 67 to 77 marks ; large towns, 55 to 
69 marks. 

The above figures are taken from houses mortgaged by the 
Imperial home department and built in different parts of Germany. 

Figures given by a Building Inspector shew that the cost of 
building per 1 square metre for houses of 1 storey, 81.7 ; 2 storey, 
73.7 ; 3 storey, 70.3 ; 4 storey, 70.7 ; 5 storey, 72.3 marks. 

Holland. — In the great centres of population there are tenement 
houses and blocks, though the latter are scarce and not to compare 
with the gigantic blocks in Berlin or Vienna. In the smaller towns 
and in the rural districts the cottage is still all-prevailing, and 
dwellings for more than one family are seldom built, but in some 
towns there are a lot of old and dilapidated houses left by the better 
classes and occupied by three, four or even more poor families. 

The building costs per square metre vary in the rural districts, 
for well built but plain and simple houses from £1 10s. to £2 16s. 
and a fair medium might be £2 8s. In the smaller towns the costs 
are about £2 to £3 with a medium of £2 15s. These prices are paid 
by building societies, and a jerry builder would pay from 10 to 20 
per cent, less and build 30 per cent, worse. In each case the above 
prices are for one-storied cottages with a timbered roof and two or 
less bedrooms in that roof. The area is generally 30 to 40 square 
metres. 

In Amsterdam and other cities the cost per square metre is 
higher, and the accommodation is less, because of the different type 
of building causing a loss of area in staircases, etc. The costs of 
streets, sewers and sites are also greater, while the working expenses 
are heavier through empties and losses of rent. 

THE RENTS OF WORKMEN'S HOUSES vary according to 
the number of rooms they contain and the district in which they are 
situated, as follows : — 

In Belgium the dwellings provided by societies and otherwise 
for workmen become in most cases the property of the workmen . 



26l 



Other rents are as follows :^ 



One room. Two rooms. 


Three rooms. , Four looms. 


HOLLAND— Weekly 










Capital and large 
cities 


1/8 2/- 3/- 


2/6 3/6 5/- 


3/6 4/- 6/- 


4/2 5/10 7/- 


Small cities and pro- 
vincial towns 


lOd. 1/8 2/6 


1/8 2/4 3/4 


3/4 4/2 4/7 


3/9 4/2 5/5 


Rural districts 


5d. 1/2 1/8 


1/- 1/5 2/1 


1/8 2/1 3/- 


none. 


ENGLAND— Weekly 










Capital and large 
cities 


2/- 3/- 6/- 


3/6 5/- 6/- 


6/- 8/- 10/- 


8/- 10/- 12/- 


Smaller towns 




2/6 3/9 5/- 


3/- 4/- 5/6 


5/- 6/- 8/- 


Villages 


— — — 


— — — 


1/6 11- 3/- 


1/6 3/- 4/6 


ITALY— Monthly 










Naples 


9/ 13/6 


12/- — 27/- 


17/6 — 3V- 


— — — 


Small cities 


1/4 — 14/- 


1/6 — 16/6 


3/- — 24/- 


— — — 



WAGES in the building trade vary as follows in the principal 
capitals : — 



Bricldayer or 
Mason ... 



Carpenter 

Joiner 
Painter ... 

Unskilled labourer 



Vienna. 



4/- to 
4/8 

4/5 to 

4/7 

4/- 

4/- to 
4/1 p.d 

2/4 to 
2/6 p.d 



Brussels London! Paris. 



Amster- 
Berlin. | dam. Rome. 



4/9 



1/8 to 

II- 



lOd. 

to 

I I0|d. 

per 

hour. 



1/8 to 7d. to 
11- p.d. Sd. 

— , 7d. 

per hr. 



30 i 5d. to 

to 7d 

40 
marks 4-Jd to 

per 5d. p.h. 
week. 



3W. to 

4 id. 



2/6 
per 
day. 



1/S to 
!/-p.d. 



In the small towns of Germany, Bricklaj'ers and Carpenters are 
paid from 20 to 25 marks a week. 



262 

In England most workmen have to pay 20 to 30 per cent, of 
their wages in rent — sometimes more. 

In the small towns of Holland, wages are — Masons, 5d. ; Car- 
penters, 3-^d. to 4|d., and Labom-ers, 3d. to 4d. per hour. In the 
rural districts the figures are : Masons, 2|d. to 4^d. ; Carpenters, 
2Jd. to 4d., and unskilled labourers, l|d. to 3d. per hour. Similar 
proportionate reductions are found in other countries. 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 

Norway. — The chief sanitary rule for all new quarters in 
Christiania is that the streets should be North and South, so that 
all rooms in houses should get some sun. If adjoining owners 
arrange, or the area belongs to one owner, the normal breadth of 
two house areas (or depths of covered site) and one street of 20 
metres is 42 metres, or in the case of older streets, of 15"70 metres, 
a breadth of 37-70 metres or sometimes 32-50 metres. If another 
building is erected on this area, the unbuilt-on ground has to be so 
big that it becomes more expensive, A building section or estate of 
normal size and shape is a rectangle about 100 metres by 42 metres 
with a carriage way down the middle of the plot through the centre 
of the short ends, and with an interior courtyard about 78 feet by 
20 feet. New streets have been cut through old quarters and old 
houses taken down, and the new rules enforced for new ones, which 
tend to empty the old tenements so that the latter will not let. 
The municipality has often hastened the work of improvement by 
buying old narrow alleys and single houses Where old buildings 
have been declared unfit for habitation, it has destroyed them and 
used the areas for open spaces and streets. 

In 1894 two funds were created to lend money. (1) To help in 
acquiring a house. (2) To help in acquiring land in small parcels. 
But only the first was made use of. 

In 1903 a bank was set up which lends (1) for acquisition of 
small holdings up to £150 at 3h% with amortisation in 47 years, 
the first five years' payments being excused ; (2) to acquire their 
own houses up to the value of £110 at 4%, to be repaid in 28 years, 
and no part repaid in the first two. 

Although the sums lent have been small in proportion to the 
total cost, yet the Bank has done much good. Unfortunately the 
State demands the guarantee of the commune as well as mortgage 
security. 

Wooden Houses. 

A Society was started in 1900 by printers with the object of 
getting members their own homes in Christiania, and began by 
buying 600 hectares outside the town, each house to have two 
hectares. Already 54 have been built and 28 measured out. They 



263 

are wooden houses with tiled roofs in different styles, generally with two 
rooms and kitchen below, and three above. The Society is Co-operative 
and has a Committee. Rents are from ^11 to ;^13 a year, and this 
covers interest and paying off capital. In 18 to 20 years the tenants 
will own their houses. The 550 inhabitants have introduced various 
Co-operative arrangements for the supply of goods and management of 
the houses. The cost of houses was ^11,000. 

SWEDEN AND TOWN PLANNING. 

The following extracts from the Swedish Building Law of 1874 will 
give an idea of its provisions on town planning. 

Section 9(1) For every town there shall be prepared a plan for the regulation 
of its general arrangements and of the building within it. The plan shall regulate 
not only the buildings but the streets, the markets, and other public places 



(3) No building which contravenes the regulations of the existing plan must take 
place in a town, nor shall a town be extended into a district for which no building 
plan has been prepared. 

(4) Should the extension of a town into a district which is not included in its 
building plan become necessary, or for some other reasons be desired, a plan must 
forthwith be prepared for the said district in order that no difficulty may be created 
by the erection of buildings before a plan is prepared. 

Section 12 (1) The Town Plan must be so prepared that the requirements of 
traffic in respect of ample space and convenience shall be supplied ; that the light 
and air needed for health shall be provided ; that danger fro/ii fire shall be guarded 
against, and that there shall be the open spaces, the variety of construction, and the 
beazit}' necessary for aesthetic reasons : For this purpose care must be taken amongst 
other things — 

(a) That streets shall be wide and shall run in the directions most suitable for 

traffic. 

(b) That large and suitable sites shall be provided for markets, harbours, and 

other places where there vsill be much traffic. 

{c) That wide promenades or bottievatds with shrubbevies in the middle, and 

roadways on either side, or with other suitable arrangements, shall 

traverse the town if possible in various places and in different directions. 

(d) That as many as possible other \i\xhX\c planted opoi spaces shall be provided 

in the town. 
{e) That on the one hand the residential districts shall not be so large or so 
crowded with houses as to prevent the free passage of fresh air or to 
interfere with the work of extinguishing fires, and on the other hand 
that in the said districts the building sites shall be of sufficient size to 
allow of the erection of commodious dwellings and the provision of 
open and well-ventilated yards. 
(f) That where it is found to be possible lines of back gardens shall be so 
arranged in the residential districts of the town that there shall be on 
each side of the gardens a line of building sites ; and also 
{§) That where it is found to be desirable and possible there shall be front 
gardens between the houses and the streets. 
(2) In no circumstances must the said back gardens and front gardens be built 
over or used for any other purpose than that of gardens or other form of planted 
space; and it shall be the duty or the surveyor to see that this regulation is enforced. 
It shall be the duty of the owners to keep the gardens always in good order. 

Section 13 prescribes widths of roads as follows : — Normal width 58i feet. 
Specially exempted short streets, roads at sides of boulevards and streets with 
buildings only on one side may have a width of only 39 feet. " Streets which have 
front gardens on one side or on both sides of them, provided that the distance 
between the two rows of houses is at least 59^ feet, may also have a width of not 
less than 39 feet." 



CHAPTER XII. 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 

Under this heading will be found a tmniber of useful facts and 
figures supplementing many of the particulars given in the Housing 
Handbook, or embodying information on various points as to which 
the writer has been from time to time questioned by housing reformers 
and members or officers of local authorities. 

CHEAP TRANSIT. 

(See pp. 22 1 to 246 Housing Handbook). 

There are indications that the big railways will abandon the area of 
excessive competition and short distance traffic in inner London to the 
tubes and trams, and will seek financial salvation in the development 
of a ring of outer suburbs. The Great Central policy is definitely to 
give facilities to such places in the hopes that presently they will grow 
and be remunerative. From Beaconsfield, 23 miles out, a morning 
train does the journey in 36 minutes, and the season ticket is ;^i4 
per annum. The L., B. and S. C. R. issue second class season tickets 
to Brighton at ^12 the half-year, and the morning journey is only 
70 minutes. Similar facilities are given by other lines for Hitchin, 
Watford, St. Albans, Harpenden, and Bedford. 

Tube Railways. — Of the lines mentioned on page 237 of the 
Handbook, the following were open at Midsummer, 1907, Baker 
Street and Waterloo, with extensions to Elephant and Castle, Edgware 
Road, Great Northern and City, Charing Cross, Euston, and Hampstead, 
Brompton and Piccadilly, with extensions to Great Northern and 
Brompton, and part of the district deep level extension to Hammer- 
smith. The Great Northern and Strand line was nearing completion. 
The enormous capital outlay on these lines has made it difficult to pay 
their way at the low fares established, viz., 3d. and 4d. from end to end 
of London, with lower figures for intermediate distances. 

Electric Tramways. — A comparison of the following table 
with the figures on pp. 230 to 235 will show that the cost of con- 
struction and working expenses are slightly higher ; the number of 
municipal tramway systems, the length of track and the number of 
passengers have nearly doubled. 

In 1905 no less than 1,780 out of 2,116 miles of tramway were 
worked by electricity. It may be added that the profits of tramways, 
applied in relief of rates, amounted to about ;^2 10,000 in 1905, or an 
amount equal to more than 3d. in the jQ on the rates, and varying 
from 2d. in the ;^ at Sheffield to 7|d. in the f[, at Leeds. 



265 



TRAMWAYS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 





Local Authorities. 


Companies. 




1905-6. 


1904-5. , 


1905- 


1904. 




Number. 


Number. 


Number. 


Number. 


Undertakings owned 


175 


174 


137 


T46 




/. 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Total capital outlay 


37,156,460 


32,964,144 


21,021,372 


19,711,008 




Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


M iles. 


Lines open 


i,49ii 


i,3Q5i 


748? 


721 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Cost per mile 


24,916 


23.616 


28,072 


27,628 




Number. 


Number. 


Nuni' er. 


Number. 


Undertakings worked 


123 


'15 


127 


123 




L 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Capital outlay 


31,147,306 


28,477,864 


26,305,028 


24,164,831 




Miles. 


Miles. 


.Miles. 


Miles. 


Track operated ... 


i,273i 


1,199 


.9^6 


952i 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Gross receipts 


6,853,486 


6,089,991 


3,789,692 


3-827,145 


Working expenses 


4,323,734 


3,873,394 


2,512,029 


2,691,655 




Per cent. 


Per < ent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Ratio to income ... 


63-08 


63-60 


66-28 


70-33 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Nett revenue 


2,529,752 


2,216,597 


1,277,663 


1,135,490 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Equivalent return on capital 


8 


n 


4i 


4S 




Miles. 


Miles. 


.Miles. 


Miles. 


Car distance run ... 


154,965,781 


138,572,117 


89,183,683 


88,706,966 




d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


Nett revenue per car mile 


3-91 


3 •■^3 : 


3'43 


3-07 




£ 


^ i 


£ 


£ 


Nett revenue per track mile 


1,660 


1,848 


,1,365 


1,192 




Number. 


Number. 


Number. 


Nuii.ber. 


Passengers carried 


f.529>596,438 


1,355,366,775 


706,416,339 


713,547,361 




d. 


d. 


d. 


d. 


Average fare per passenger 


1-05 


1-05 


I -20 


I -21 



The Example of Belgium, — It is possible for town labourers 
in Belgium to live in remote rural districts and travel daily to and 
from their work, owiiig to the cheap fares and weekly tickets issued by 
the Government for the express purpose of binding rural dwellings and 
town industries together. Excessive prices for land in urban centres 
and the erection of block dwellings have been largely checked. 

Professor E. Mahaim has given the following interesting facts and 
figures on this subject : — 

The nation owns 4,046 kilometres of railway out of 4,578, and 
will ultimately acquire all. 

Belgium has 15 kilometres of main railway and 25 kilometres of 
light railway per 100 square kilometres, or one kilometre of main 
railway for 1,150 persons and one kilometre of light railway for 

LI 



266 

931 persons. Tramways are also provided to the extent of one 
kilometre of tramway for each 5,700 of the population, and the fares 
are from five to ten centimes for any distance in each town. 

On State railways alone, one-quarter of the working class travel to 
and from their work. 

Some journeys last three hours — this is too long. Fares are 1/6 
per week for a 20 miles double journey each day ; 2/- a week for 
44 miles and 2/6 a week for 66 miles. 

Interesting diagrams sent to the International Housing Congress 
shewed : — 

(a) The average length of journey to and fro on the railways 
was 12 kilometres in 1872 and 17^ kilometres in 1905. 

{/') The total number of journeys made has nearly trebled in 
the last 10 years and amounts to 58,060,495, costing, 
however, only ^28,368. 

{<) The average cost has been 1/3 a week for six double 
journeys. 

(d) The area of the labour market of Liege extends almost to 
Ostend, and out of 5,830 workmen travelling, no less than 
1,063 lived more than 50 kilometres from Liege. 

Cheap fares in Belgium have stopped the depopulation of rural 
districts and the congestion of towns in a very large measure. They 
have by opportunities for extreme mobility enabled ownership of 
dwellings by workmen to be carried out on a large scale with less 
objections on the score of restricting opportunities for work. 

The' National Society for promoting Light Raihvays has been often 
put forward as a model for the organisation of a National Housing 
Society. 

Its capital comes from the State, provinces and towns, to the 
extend of two-thirds, and from individuals to the extend of not niore 
than one-third. 

It is managed as a trading concern by a nominated board, on 
which the various interests are all represented. 

The Government has a voice in the amount of fares (these are 
from 5 to 7 centimes the kilometre for short journeys). 

Dividends from receipts go first to the shares of the public 
authorities. 

FREE TRAMWAYS FOR CERTAIN AREAS. 

Roads, bridges, and ferries constructed at a large capital outlay and 
maintained at a large annual cost, were not free for public use until 
comparatively recent years, but now, in the interests of the public, they 
have in many cases been made quite free, so that all the working 
expenses and the annual charges on capital outlay are defrayed by the 
general body of ratepayers. Thus the workman who has no vehicle of 



267 

his own has to contribute towards the upkeep of means of transit for 
the owners of motor cars, carriages, omnibuses, and tradesmen's carts. 
At first sight this may appear unjust to the workman, but on second 
thoughts it will be seen that while many services maintained at the 
public charge, only benefit one section of the community or benefit that 
one section more than any other, yet all round justice can be done in 
the long run by attending to the needs of all, so that although it helps 
to pay for a service which specially benefits B, compensation is obtained 
by B helping to pay for a service which specially benefits A, and so 
through a multiplication of cases and persons. Thus we now find the 
question of free or subsidised means of transit advocated in some 
quarters as a set-off against free roads and bridges. 

It is, however, much more likely to arise at a very early date in a 
partial and tentative form in connection with the development of new 
suburban areas on the outskirts of our large towns. Just as free lifts 
are part of the normal equipment of buildings where the vertical 
extension of dwellings has been fully carried out, so free trams will, 
before long, be part of the normal equipment of buildings in certain 
districts where horizontal extension of dwellings prevails to a great 
extent. It is, of course, only reasonable to urge that experiments in 
this direction should a.K first be confined to cases and areas where the 
cost of such free trams can be included in the rents of the dwellings 
occupied by those who are allowed to travel free. A few statistics as to 
the possible working out of schemes of this kind may be suggestive as 
to the possibilities in this direction, but they cannot of course be taken 
as rigidly accurate, though they are based on the actual ascertained cost 
of all the tramway systems in the British Isles. 

The cost of equipping suburban land with trams may be taken at 
^25,000 per mile for initial capital outlay, or including working 
expenses and loan charges, ^5,000 per mile per anmmi. This is on 
the assumption that there is in each direction a five minute service for 
twelve hours each day, and a ten minute service for another six hours, 
or a total of 131,400 car mile per annum, and that the inclusive cost 
is 9^d. per car mile — an outside estimate. 

It is difficult to say how much land could be served by a mile of 
track, but reckoning fifteen minutes' walk as the maximum distance on 
either side of the trams, we get an area of say 1,760 by 2,500 square 
yards or 1,000 acres, so the annual cost of free tramw^ay equipment 
may be put at ^'5 per acre per annum, and this sum capitalised at 30 
years means ^150 per acre as the initial capital outlay per acre, that 
ought to be sufficient to convert comparatively inaccessible land into 
accessible building sites, with free trams running to and fro for 18 
hours each day. Now, assuming an average of only four houses to the 
acre, this means less than 6d. per house per week rent, to include free 
travel, and it is well-known to most students of the question that the 
difference in ground rent and other rents caused by a mile or so 



2 68 

difference in distance is often considerably more than 6d. per house 
per week, even when the houses are, in the latter case, crowded 
together on the land. The annual cost of free trams in the Metropolis 
and large urban centres would, of course, be more than ;^5,ooo per 
mile of route, owing to the more costly system of installation and the 
more frequent service, and would vary from ;^6,ooo per mile in 
Manchester to ;,^i 8,000 per mile in London, but even in the latter 
case it may be pointed out that the initial capital outlay on the southern 
system of the London County Council Tramways was only ^^3, 000,000 
for 30 miles, and that the working expenses in addition were only about 
;^45o,ooo per annum for carrying 141,845,555 passengers with the 
further result of reducing overcrowding to an enormous extent. 

If we compare these figures with the fact that London has spent 
over ^3,Goc,ooo in buying 100 acres of slums, besides _;^z,ooo,ooo in 
rehousing 36,000 persons, we must readily admit that a vast economy 
could be effected by carrying out a combined scheme of land purchase, 
suburban housing, and free transit for residents on the new estates or 
garden cities, rather than subsidising slum owners and building 
comparatively costly and less healthy block dwellings in congested 
centres. Put the workman near his work in terms of time, cost, and 
readiness of access, and the necessity for rehousing in dear blocks on 
dear sites would largely be done away with. 

HOUSING FINANCE. 

(See pp. T53 to 178 Housing Handbook). 

The Public Works Loan Commissioners. — This body gets 
its funds from the National Debt Commissioneis, supplemented by the 
proceeds of local loan stock, _;^20,ooo,ooo of which has been borrowed 
from the Savings Bank — which gives 2^ per cent, to its depositors. 

The Commissioners are supposed to assist minor housing authorities 
with loans, and also housing companies and societies, as well as 
individuals willing to erect dwellings for the working classes. The 
total amount advanced for housing purposes up to 31st March, 1906, 
is ^^,938,604, viz., ;^2, 3 18,765 to local authorities on the security of 
local rates, and ^1,619,929 to companies and private persons on the 
security of property. 

T/ie period for repavntent is limited as follows : I-ocal authorities, 
England and Wales, 50 ytars ; Companies and private persons, Eng- 
land and Wales, 40 years ; Local authorities, Scotland, 30 years. 

The rates of interest are fixed by Treasury minute from time to 
time. From April, 1904, to September, 1907, they were as follows 
for local authorities : 

Loan period not exceeding 20 years, 3^ per cent, per annum. 

!' V 1 3° " Z^ " '' 

)) ■) M ^'^ J) 4 11 !) 

It )> J) 5'-' !' 4^ !' )) 



269 

On September 13th, 1907, a Treasury minute reduced these rates to 
3I per cent, for 30 years, and 3! per cent for 50 years. The fees 
payable to the Board vary from ^\o los. for a loan of ^1,000, and 
jQ22 5s. for a loan of ^3,000, to ;j^3i for a loan of ^10,000, in 
addition to fees for services by the office of works and for out of 
pocket expenses. The mean rate of interest for the last 32 years is 
about 3! per cent., and the average rate in 1906-7 was ^3 13s. 7d., 
the highest rate for 21 years. The amount advanced has averaged 
about ^2,637,322 per annum, and the amount now outstanding is 
^^49,636, 95 5, of which only ^945,165 is for housing loans. 

Housing Loans to Societies of Public Utility and to 
Individuals.— In lending money for housing purposes under Section 
67 of the Act of 1890, it has been the practice of the Public Works 
Loans Commissioners to discriminate between those borrowers who will 
agree to restrict the dividends to not more than 5 per cent., and those 
not so agreeing. 

The Treasury minute of 1904 provides for lending to the companies 
and individuals who will agree to restrict their dividends to not more 
than 5 per cent., at the same rale of interest as that charged to 
Jocal authorities. 

The Regulations vyith reference to such Loans are as follows : 
Applicants for loans must furnish — 

{a) A plan in duplicate of the site upon which the dwellings are to be 
provided. 

(b) Detailed drawings of the dwellings intended to be erected, and of the 

drains, 
(f ) Specification of the works to be executed, and estimate of the cost. 

The plans, specifications, etc., will be submitted by the Public Works Loan 
Commissioners to His Majesty's Office of Works for their approval, and their report 
as to the suitability and sufficiency. 

The Commissioners of Works will require to be satisfied that all proper 
conveniences will be supplied, and particularly that sufficient water-closet accommo- 
dation will be provided for each tenement, and sufficient dust-bins ; that the 
dwellings will have sufficient light and ventilation, and will be sufficiently \ rovided 
with water. 

Parties to whom monies are advanced will be required to enter into the following 
covenants with the Public Works Loan Commissioners : — 

{a) To produce accounts when required showing the income and expendi- 
ture in respect of the dwellings, and the rent charged to each 
occupant. 

(3) To insure, and keep insured, the buildings against fire in such amount 
as may be agreed with the Loan Commissioners, and to produce the 
receipts for the annual premiums when required. 

(c) To cause the dwellings, passages, staircases, etc., to be kept clean. 
{d) To cause the water-closets, etc., to be kept in good order. 

(e) To cause the dust-bins to be emptied at intervals of not more than 

seven days. 
(_/) To take precautions against any interruption to the supply of water. 

{g )To keep the windows in good order and repair, and the chimneys swept. 

{h) To keep the drains in order and execute such works as may from time 
to time be necessary to keep the dwellings in a sanitary condition. 



270 

(/) To keep the dwellings in good substantial and tenantable repair. 
(k) To allow inspection by Commissioneis of Works at all reasonable times, 
and do all such works and repairs as may from time to time be 
required by those Commissioners. 
(/) That the dwelHngs shall be, as far as practic.ible, occupied only by 

persons of the working classes, 
(w) Not to permit any dwelling to be occupied by more than one family, or 
the tenants to underlet or take lodgers without the previous consent 
of the Loan Commissioners. 
And such other covenants as the Loan Commissioners may consider necessary 
or desirable. 

Where a loan is to be advanced by instabnents the Loan Commissioners will 
require to be satisfied before grantini; the loan that the applicant has sufficient capital 
in addition to the proposed loan for completing the buildings. 

The outstanding loans to ten private individuals under Section 67 
of the Act of 1890 amount to ^68,815, while for nine Welsh 
companies it is ^40,515, for eleven Welsh building clubs it is ^51,260, 
for nine London Dwellings Companies, ;^787,6ir: and for the 
Tenant Co-operators' Society, ^9,075. 

Cheap Money and Parliamentary Committees. — The 

report? of the committees on rehousing obligations and repayment of 
loans {pp. 267-8 Housing Handbook) have been substantially embodied 
in the Act of 1903 (see Appendix herewith). 

The recommendation of the committee on Savings Banks Funds to 
reduce the rate of interest has not been carried out. The loss on the 
present system of investing the funds amounted to ^617,330 in 1905, 
and was estimated to be ^300,000 a year in future. It may be added 
that in Belgium, up to 1904, the Savings Bank had advanced a total 
sum of ^2,510,176, of which ^1,121,941 was at 2| per cent., 
^1,220,374 at 3 per cent, and ^60,131 at 3^ per cent. M. Hankar, 
the new director of the Savings Bank, has introduced an ingenious 
system for making these loans even more beneficial to the working 
classes. 

Cheap money (3^ per cent., including repayment of loan) has 
already been voted for Ireland to the extent of ahout ;£i per head of 
the population, and if the example of Belgium is followed by our 
Government we can get ^36,000,000, or about ^i per head of the 
population, by borrowing one-fifth of the ;z^ 180,000,000 of working- 
class money now in the savings b inks^ lent to the Government at 2^ 
per cent, but for which municipalities have been charged as much as 
4 and 4^ per cent, when required for housing purposes. Our endowed 
public charities also have ;^24,820,945 invested in various securities at 
an average rate less than 2| per cent., and if these sums are set free for 
housing purposes as in many other countries our credit will only require 
improved organisation to enable us to meet all housing needs. 

In addition to the foregoing, however, the Church Estates Com- 
missioners have p/^9,072,091 invested in consols at 2|and 2| per cent.,^ 
besides ^10,307,096 in other securities, and large areas of land. 



271 

Queen Anne's Bounty, another semi-philanthrop'c institution, had 
over ;^5, 000,000 invested in various securities, in addition to owning 
large areas of land. It may be mentioned as an encouragement to 
promoters of housing schemes in towns or villages where there are 
large endowed charities, that one board of Charity Trustees were 
allowed to invest ^^220 in the Winchester Cottage Improvement 
Society. The amount is small but the precedent is surely invaluable. 

The following clause from Mr. Mackarness's Rural Housing Bill, 
examined by the Select Committee in 1906, ought to be embodied in 
any new legislation : 

Any university or college in any university, and any trustees for charitable 
purposes holding land, may and are hereby (notwithstanding any Act of Parliament 
or charter, or any rule of equity to the contrary) authorised at any time to erect on 
their own land, houses for the accommodation of persons of the working classes, and 
to expend on such purpose any funds at their disposal or to lend any sums at their 
disposal or in their possession, to local authorities or recognised societies of public 
utility, at such rates of interest giving not less return on the sum lent than the same 
amount invested in Government consolidated 2i per cent, stock. 

Income Tax on Municipal Houses. — As questions are often 
asked on this subject by those preparing housing schemes, it may be 
useful to point out that the charge for income tax on an estate of 
workmen's dwellings is made as follows : — The houses are assessed in 
the ordinary way to Schedule A on the net annual value, from which 
the usual one-sixth is allowed for repairs; this is paid in full, but the 
Council retain the income tax on the interest on the loans borroived for 
workmen's dwellmgs. The Richmond hgures in 1903 were as follows • 

I 

Schedule A Assessment ... ... ... 1597 

Amount of interest on Loans .. ... 1140 

Difference on zvhich the Fund taas charged 

at 1/3 in the;^ 457 

The right to retain tax on interest is of course the ordinary one 
possessed by all mortgagors of property, although in the case of a 
Corporation, the property is not specifically mortgaged. 

Fair Rent Courts. — A proposal to fix fair rents in towns 
finds much favour among many working class leaders, but apart from 
the question of practicability, there is a danger of stereotyping existing 
high rents. On this matter the Irish members of Parliament can speak 
with some authority, and the following extract from a speech by Mr. 
John Dillon, M.P., to the Irish Town Tenants League in 1906, put the 
case in a nutshell. He said : 

I was particularly anxious to hear the views of the delegates in connection with 
the question of judicial rents in towns. I listened most attentively, but not a single 
speaker alluded to this very important subject. I have given it a great deal of 
thought, and I must confess that I find myself in great difficulty regarding it, while 
I am intensely anxious to be in a position to be able to draw up some clause to 
carry out the proposal. 

The Difficulty of Fixing Judicial Rents in Towns 
is incomparably greater than that of fixing fair rents on farms in the country, and yet 
we must remember that the system of fixing fair rents on farms proved a total 



272 

failure. I would ask you to remember this — that the old Land League never 
accepted the principle of fixing fair rents, and Mr. Davitt will bear me out in that. 
Twenty-five years ago, when the proposal was made to solve the Irish Land 
Question by fixing fair rents, Mr. Davitt and myself, and all the old veterans of the 
Land League, stated that that system would break down, and that it would never be 
a success. A quarter of a century of experience has 

Entirely Justified our Prophecy, 

and we are now engaged in sweeping it completely out of the country. 

Actual Rates of Interest charged to local authorities on 

loans for housing purposes (only about half of these bodies borrowed 
from the Public Works Loans Commissioners) : 



Aberdeen 


■• 3. 35 


Esher 


3i 




Salford 


• ^^'J* 


Aberystwith 


• 3i 


Farnham 


-, 1 




Sheffield 


• 3' 35 


Altrincham 


■• 35 


Folkstone 


3 




Southend ... 


• 34, 4 


Bangor 


•• 32 to 33 


: Grays 


3i 




Southgate 


• 23 


Barking Town ., 


• • 3i 


Guildford 


4 




Stafford 


• 3i 


Barnes 


.. 3, 3i 


Hampton 


3i. 


3l 


Stanley 


■ 4 


Bradford ... 




Heston Islevvorth 


3i, 


3l 


Swansea ... 


• 34 


Brentford 


■• 3 


Hornsey 


3. : 


54 


Tottenham 


• 33 


Brentwood 


■• 3h 


Huddersfield 


34 




West Ham 


■ 34 


Brighton ... 


•• 3, 3i 


Leicester 


34 




Wellington 


• 34 


Burton-on-Trent . 


•■ 3 


Merthyr Tydfil ... 


3i 




Whitley Upper .. 


■ 35 


Chester ... 


■ • 3h 


Middlesborough 


34 




Wolverhampton .. 


■ \ 


Ealing 


- 3i, 33 


Newry ... 


• 3i 




Wood Green 


■■ 3 


East Grinstead . 


•• 34 


Plymouth 


. 2f, 


3 


Workington 


• • 34 


East Ham 


••32'3f>3i Pi-escot 


• 34, 


3f 


Wrotham ... 


•• 34 


Eccles 


•• 32 


Rhyl 


• 33 




Great Yarmouth . 


•• 34,4 


Edmonton 


•• 3i 


Richmond 


• 3, 


3i 






Erith 


•• 3i, 33 


Risca 


• 4 












Rural Councils. 








Maldon ... 


•• 33, 4l 


Malpas 


• 4 




Westbury 


•• 3l 


Sevenoaks 


•• 3* 


Thingoe ... 


• 3i 









Some typical sinking fund charges are as follows (per cent.) : 

Bradford i4 Ealing li Erith if 

Folkestone ... 2\ East Grinstead ... 2i Stafford i\ 

Rents and Rates. — Rents are sometimes fixed at such a high 
figure that the rates are charged upon the higher scale, and what is 
gained in gross receipts is lost by increased outgoings. Irrecoverable 
arrears of rent are often remarkably small. In 1906 the Warner 
Estate only lost ^24 in bad debts from 4,000 tenants, with a rent roll 
of ^67,549. See also pages 34, 61, 62, 63, 73, 100, 103, 114, 116, 
123, 145^ 149- 

Repairs vary considerably accordingly to the nature and manage- 
ment of property. In some exceptional cases they amount to 20 per 
cent, of the rent actually received, but on the other hand they are as 
low as 8 per cent, in the case of the 4,000 cottages of the Artisans' 
Dwellings Company, and a fair average might be taken at 10 to 12 
per cent. See also panes 34, 61, 62, 63, 73, 100, 114, 116, 123, 143, 149. 

The writer has always urged the need for giving the tenant an 
interest in keeping repairs low, and in this connection the interesting 
experiment of Russ Suchard and Cie, of Sevrieres, on Lake Neuchatel, 



273 

is worthy of consideration. This firm have built three types of 
•dwelhngs for their workpeople, let at rents of i7"5o fcs. to i8'5o fcs. 
per month. 

(i) Out of these rents 2'jO fcs. and j'^o fcs. are ^(f/ aside 
for repairs. 

(2) Inspection is made at intervals by the Surveyor, who 

fixes repairs and debits the cost against the tenants. 

(3) Every three years the accounts are made up a?icl the 

balance not spent is returned to each tenant. 

The effect of this measure has been excellent — the workmen have 
realised that it was their interest to take care of their dwellings and to 
make small repairs at once. 

The up-keep has been so perfect that the firm have been able to 
repay to several tenants the whole of the sum put in reserve, and 
to most of the others the half. 

Closing Orders. — Most housing reformers think that local 
authorities should have power themselves to issue closing orders 
subject to appeal. Powers of this kind were given to the Corporations 
of Darlington and Newcastle in 1872 and 1882, but attempts by other 
towns to get similar clauses in local Acts have been opposed by the 
Police and Sanitary Committee of Parliament. The clause in the 
Darlington Act is as follows : 

DARLINGTON LOCAL ACT, 1872. 



Simplification of Procedure for Closing Orders. 

If the Medical Officer, the Sanitary Inspector, and the Borough Surveyor shall 
certify in writing to the Corporation that any house or building is unfit human 
habitation (in which certificate they shall state heir reasons for so certifying), the 
Corporation may, by their order affixed conspicuously upon such house or building, 
declare that the same is not fit for human habitation, and it shall not, after a date in 
such order to be specified, be so inhabited, and every person who shall after the date 
or time mentioned in such order, let or occupy or suffer to be occupied such house or 
building shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding forty shillings. 

Rural Housing Inspection. — A Parliamentary Return applied 
for by Sir J. Dickson-Poynder, MP., and issued in September, 1907, 
showed that 6S2 rural districts had appointed medical officers of health, 
and that in the case of 645 medical officers and 656 sanitary inspectors 
the County Council paid half the salary, thus leaving only 37 districts 
where the salary was not so paid. In 30 cases districts had combined 
for having a medical officer of health. 

Only four single districts have a full time AI.O.H., but 23 combined 
districts have officers independent of private practice. Salaries average 
about j^io per 1,000 inhabitants. There are 597 inspectors of 
nuisances holding other appointments, 140 following private occupa- 
tions, and only 98 giving their whole time. The inspectors include two 
licensed victuallers, one farmer, one poultry dealer fancier, one land- 
owner, one auxiliary postman, one newspaper man, one monumental 
mason, one estate agent, and one solicitor's clerk. The salaries of 
inspectors vary from ^,9 to ^200 per annum. 



274 



SMALL HOLDINGS. 

The great influence of the multiplication of small holdings in 
arresting rural depopulation and urban overcrowding has been dealt 
with in pages 184-188 of the Housing Handbook, and although the 
reverse current of population in Denmark to the rural districts has not 
been maintained, the main arguments still hold good till the population 
on agricultural areas has reached what we may call saturation point. 
The movement in England is very far indeed from reaching that point, 
and there is room for a great and useful increase. We imported from 
abroad in 1891, butter, bacon, eggs, poultry and cheese to the value of 
;^27,oi7,442, and in 1904 this had increased by ^20,000,000, or about 
80 per cent., to a total of ^48,731,599. Allowing for cost of 
production and assuming ^75 as the net return per holding, this 
increase alone might mean a living wage for 150,000 small holders, or 
nearly a million persons. 

Mention has been made in the Housing Handbook of Lord 
Carrington's pioneer efforts in this direction, and it only remains to be 
added that as Minister of Agriculture he has arranged for some 2,500 
acres of Crown Lands to be cut up for small holdings in addition to 
farms at Bromham and Barwell. The last named farm used to employ 
13 cottagers and 26 casual labourers, but is now let to 75 small holders. 

The small experiment at Spalding seems already to have almost 
stemmed the rural exodus, for whereas the population of the 19 parishes 
round Spalding decreased between 1881 and 1891 by 2,282 persons; 
during ten years 1891 — 1901 there has been a decrease of only 115. 
The following notes on other examples are interesting : — 

Isle of Axholme, near Ep2uorih. Mr. Rider Haggard was told that 23 men 
now farming from five to 120 acres each all began life as labourers. 

'■^ Rock — Worcestershire." 160 Holdings in 20 acres, gradually reclaimed from 
the forest of Wyre. Pauperism only 6 per I, GOO. 

'■'■Evesham.'''' Surrounded by 10,000 acres of Small Holdings, three to eight 
acres each, mostly tenancies. 

" Winterslow— Wiltshire.''' A farm formerly employing three labourers now 
supports 50 to 60 small holders with their families. 

'■^ Rew Farm — Dorsetshire.''' 343 acres had twenty-one people in 1888, now 
the population is 100 — rateable value increased by 60 per cent. 

'■' Blairgowrie— Scotland." 600 acres formerly worked by twenty hands, now 
gives employment to four hundred on small holdings for fruit culture. Wages 
formerly ^728, now ;[{^io,5oo a year. Produce formerly ;!^632, now ^^27,000 a year. 

^^ Catshill — Worstershire County Council.'''' Has thirty-two holders with an 
average of 4^ acres, and in nine cases houses and farm premises have been built at 
an average contract price of ^286, of which the County Council has advanced 
three-fourths. 



275 

Small Holdings Act, 1907.— Lord Carrington and the Right 
Hon. L. V Harcourt, M.P., have piloted through Parliament a most 
useful measure in the shape of the Small Holdings Act, 1907, which 
may be briefly summarised as follows : — 

(1) A small holding is defined as one not exceeding 50 acres or ^50 annual 
value. 

(2) County and Borough Councils are to be provided with compulsory powers to 
purchase land, or hire it for 35 years. 

(3) For the purpose of acquisition these authorities can raise money on loan, 
repayment being spread over 80 years. 

(4) They can lei this land, but cannot sell it. (Land acquired by agreement can 
be sold under the Act of 1892.) 

(5) If a County Council fail to enforce the Act, the Board of Agriculture, 
acting through Commissioners, may frame schemes themselves, and compel the 
defaulting Council to pay. 

(6) The Board of Agriculture will have a small holdings fund of ;^ioo,ooo in the 
first year, and will be empowered to pay the preliminary expenses of small holdings 
schemes. 

(7) Rents must cover interest and sinking fund of County Council loans. 

(8) Powers for the establishment of co-operative agricultural societies and 
credit banks are conferred upon the Board of Agriculture and County Councils. 

(9) An allotment under the Act is defined as a plot not exceeding five acres. 

(10) The Parish Council will be the authority for acquiring and apportioning 
land for allotments, and it will have compulsory pozoets for hiring or leasing land 
subject to the County Council. 

The advantage of compulsory powers may be judged from the fact 
that less than 3,000 acres of land for allotments were obtained before 
the Parish Councils Act gave compulsory powers of hire and purchase. 
In the nine years following 18,000 acres were obtained, not by direct 
exercise of powers, but because the powers were known to exist. 



276 

MODIFICATIONS OF ACTS CONTAINED IN HOUSING 
HANDBOOK APPENDIX. 

The Pages are those i?i the Housing Handbook Appendix. 

Page 3, Section 7 {a) line 2, delete " in the months of September, or October, or 
November." 
{b) line i, delete " during the month next following the month in which such 
advertisement is published," and insert "during the thirty days next 
following the date of the last publication of the advertisement." 

Page 4, Section 8 (4) (Section 5 Act of 1903). An order under this section need 

not be confirmed by Parliament (a) if it is not proposed to take land com- 

pulsorily. 
{b) if no petition is presented by any landowner within two months of the 

service of notice. 
Section 8 (7). Insert Section 6 Act of 1903. Modifications may be made 

in a scheme by confirming authority to meet objections. 

Page 5, Section 10. Insert Section 4 Act of 1903, which provides for enforcing 
scheme by order and mandamus where the local authority fails to act. 

Page 7, Section 16 (i), line 5, delete "such" and insert "any twelve or more 
ratepayers." {Section 4 {2) Act of i go j.) 

Page 13, Section 32 (Section 8, Act of 1903). "Procedure for closing orders is 
amended so as to dispense with the notice to abate the nuisance." New 
forms instead of those in 4th Schedule 32 (2), line 5. 
Section 10, Act of igo^. Simple method of recovery of possession from 
occupying tenants in pursuance of closing orders. 

Page 14, Section 34 (i) (Section 9, Act of 1903). Gives power to recover cost of 
demolition from owner as a civil debt. 

Page 18, Section 39 (i). After paragraph (b) insert Section 7, Act of 1903 — 
" Part II scheme may be amended so as to include ' neighbouring lands,' if 
confirming authority so decide." 

Page 23, Section 46 (5). Section 14, Act of 1903, provides for agreement between 
L.C.C. and metropolitan boroughs as to respective payments for scheme 
without an order under 46 (6). 

Page 24, Section 49. Substitute Section 13, Act of 1903, which permits of service 
of notices by registered letter. 

Page 25, Section 53 (i)- Definition of lodging houses extended to include "any 
building adapted for use as a shop, any recreation grounds, or other 
buildings or land which in the opinion of the L.G.B. will serve a beneficial 
purpose in connection with the requirements of the persons for whom the 
dwelling accommodation or lodging houses are provided." [Section 11, 
Act of igoj.) 

Page 28, Section 65. Amended by Section 15 of Act of 1903, to provide for 
maximum period of housing loans being extended from 60 to 80 years, 
and that the limitation on borrowing powers imposed by Section 234 (2) and 
(3) of the Act of 1875 shall not apply to housing loans. 

Page 31, Section 75. Section 12 of Act 1903, prohibits " contracting out" of 
Section 75. 

Page 33, Section 87. Section 13 (2) of Act of 1903 permits service of notices by 
registered letter. 

P.\GE 48, new forms substituted for those in third schedule. Notice under Section 
21 in connection with proceedings under Section 32, Act of 1890. 

P.'^GE 49, new forms in place of Section 21. 

Page 51 (fourth schedule). Delete Form A. 

Page 59 and 60. New L.G.B. Circular. 



APPENDIX. 



HOUSING OF THE WORKING GLASSES ACT, 1903. 



[3 Edw. 7. Ch. 39.] 



Arrangement of Sections. 



General Amendments of Law. 

SFCTION. 

1. Maximum term for repayment of 

loans. 

2. Transfer of powers and duties of 

Home Office to Local Govern- 
ment Board. 

3. Re-housing obligations when land 

is taken under statutory powers. 

Amendments as to Schemes. 

4. Provisions on failure of local 

authority to make a scheme. 

5. Amendment of procedure for con- 

firming improvement scheme. 

■6. Power to modify schemes in certain 
cases. 

7. Amendments as to scheme of re- 
construction. 



SECTION 

10. 



Amendments as to Closing 
Demolition, etc. 



Orders, 



for 



•8. Amendment of procedure 

closing orders. 
■9. Power to recover cost of demoli 

tion. 



DN. 

Recovery of possession from occu- 
pying tenants in pursuance of 
closing orders. 



Miscellaneous. 

11. Powers in connection with provi- 

sion of dwelling accommodation 
or lodging-houses. 

12. Conditions in contracts for letting 

houses for the working classes. 

13. Service of notices. 

Special Frovisio7is as to London. 

14. Agreements between London 

County Council and metro- 
politan borough councils. 

15. Provisions consequential on ex- 

tension of period for repayment 
of loans. 

16. Substitution of .Secretary of State 

for Local Government Board. 

Siipplemental. 

17. Short title and extent. 
Schedule. 



Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1903. 
CHAPTER 39. 

An Act to amend the Law relating to the Housing of the Working 
Classes. [14th August, 1903.] 



B 



E it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

General Amendments of Law. 

Extension of period of loans. 

1, — (i) The maximum period which may be sanctioned as the period for which 
money may be borrowed by a local authority for the purposes of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890 (in this Act referred to as " the principal Act "), 01 any 
Acts amending it, shall lie eighty years, and as respects money so borrowed eighty 
years shall be substituted for sixty years in section two hundred and thirty-four 
of the Public Health Act, 1875. 



\_Il is now the practice of the Local Government Board to grant eighty years in 
respect of iatid and sixty years in respect of buildings. ] 

{^The Public M^orks Loans Commissioners are timitcd by another Act to fifty 
years, so this provision cannot apply to loans advanced by thcm.'\ 

Statutory limitation of housing loans abolished. 

(2) Money borrowed under the principal Act or any Acts (including this Act) 
amending it (in this Act collectively referred to as the I'lousing Acts) shall not be 
reckoned as part of the debt of the local authority for the purposes of the limita- 
tion on borrowing under subsections two and three of section two hundred and 
thirty-four of the Public Health Act, 1875. 

[ The amount which a local authority may borrow under section 2J4 of the Public 
Health Act is limited to two years assessable value of the district, but in future housing- 
loans are not to be taken into account for this purpose or to be affected by the limitation\ 

Transfer of powers and duties of Home Office to Local Government Board. 

2. — (l) His Majesty may by Order in Council assign to the Local Government 
Board any powers and duties of the Secretary of State under the Housing Acts, or 
uuder any scheme made in pursuance of those Acts, and the powers of the Secretary 
of State under any local Act, so far as they relate to the housing of the working 
classes, and any such powers and duties so assigned shall become powers and duties of 
the Local Government Board. 

\_Ati Order in Council of 2'jth Febmary, igob, effected this transfer as from the 
1st of March, igoj, so that the LLome Secretary'' s powers and duties in London under 
the Housing Acis are now exercised by the Local Government Board.'] 

(2) Section eleven of the Board of Agriculture Act, 1889, shall apply with 
respect to the powers and duties transferred under this section as it applies with 
respect to the powers and duties Iransierred under that Act, with the substitution of 
the Local Government Board for the Board of Agriculture and of the date of the 
transfer under this section for the da' e of the establishment of the Board of Agriculture. 

New re-housing obligations. 

3. Where under the powers given after the date of the passing of the Act by- 
any local Act or Provisional Order, or Order having the effect of an Act, any land is- 
acquired, whether compulsorily or by agreement, by any authority, company, or 
person, or where after the date of the passing of this Act any land is so acquired com- 
pulsorily under any general Act (o'her than the Housing Acts), the provisions set 
out in the Schedule to this Act shall apply with respect to the provision of dwelling 
accommodation for persons ot the working class. 

[The Schedule referj-ed to contains some veiy important provisions as to re-housing 
schemes other than those under the Housing Acts rvhich are excepted because they 
contain special provisions. ] 

Amendments as to Schemes. 

Local Government Board empowered to enforce scheme w^here local 
authority is in default. 

4. — (i) If, on the report made to the confirming authority on an enquiry directed 
by them under section ten of the principal Act, that authority are satisfied that 
a scheme ought to have been made for the improvement of the area to which the- 
enquiry relates, or of some part thereof, they may, if they think fit, order the 
local authority to make such a scheme, eitner under Part I of the principal Act, 
or, if the confirming authority so direct, under Part H of that Act, and to do all 
things necessary under the Housing Acts for carrying into execution the scheme so 
made, and the local authority shall accordingly make a scheme or direct a scheme to- 
be prepared as if they had passed the resolution required under section four or section 
thirty-nine of the principal Act, as the case may be, and do all things necessary under 
the Housing Acts for carrying the scheme into effect. 

Any such order of the confirming authority may be enforced by mandamus. 



28l 

'^■'^{_Seciton lo of the principal Act empowers Local Governvient Board to hold a 
local enquiry where Councils fail to follow up an official representation by making an 
improvement scheme, but the L. G.B. had no definite power to enjorce the making of a 
scheme until the enactment of the above subsection.'\ 

(2) Any twelve or more ratepayers of the district shall have the like appeal 
under section sixteen of the principal Act as is given to the twelve or more ratepayers 
who have made the complaint to the medical officer of health mentioned in that 
section. 

[/^ will not be necessary for the future that the complaining ratepayers under 
section 16 (/) of the Act of i8go and the appealing ratepayers should be the same 
persons. ] 

Amendment of procedure for confirming improvement scheme. 

5. — ^i) Section seven of the principal Act shall have effect as if the words " in 
the month of September or October or November " were omitted from paragraph (a), 
•and as if the words " during the thirty days next following the date of the last publica- 
tion of the advertisement " were substituted for the words "during the month next 
following the month in which such advertisement is published " in paragraph {b). 

[ Under section 7 of the Act of i8go the local authority had to advertise Part I 
schemes during three consecutive weeks in the month of September or October or 
November and to serve the prescribed notices in the month following. 7 he new 
provision enables the advertisetnents to be published for three consecutive weeks at any 
period of the year, and will allow the nonces to be served during the thirty days next 
following this period. ] 

When confirmation of scheme by Parliament unnecessary. 

(2) The order of a confirming authority under subsection four of section eight of 
the principal Act shall, notwithstanding anything in that section, take effect without 
<;onfirmation by Parliament — 

{a) if land is not proposed to be taken compulsorily ; or 

{b) if, although land is proposed to be taken compulsorily, the confirming 
authority before making the order are satisfied that notice of the draft 
order has been served as required as respects a Provisional Order bv 
subsection five of the said section eight, and also that the draft 
order has l)een puljlished in the London Gazette, and that a petition 
against the draft order has not been presented to the confirmmg 
authority by any owner of land proposed to tie taken compulsorily 
within two months after the date of the puljlication and the service of 
notice, or, having been so presented, has been withdrawn. 

\^Previous to the enactment of this subsection any Provisional Order made by 
section 8 {f) of the principal Act confir/iiing an improvement scheme had under section 
8 (6) required for its validity confirmation by Parliament. In the cases indicated this 
confirmation is no longer necessary. ] 

{3) For the purposes of the principal Act, the making of an order by a confirming 
authority, which takes effect under this section without confirmation by Parliament, 
shall have the same effect as the confirmaiion of the order bv Act of Parliament, and 
any reference to a Provisional Order, made under section eight of the principal Act, 
shall include a reference to an order which so takes effect without confirmation by 
Parliament. 

Po^ver to modify schemes. 

6. — (i) If an order under subsection four of section eight or under section thirty- 
nine of the principal Act, which, if no petition were presented, would take effect 
without confirmation by Parliament, is petitioned against, the confirming authority or 
the Local Government Board, as the case may be, may, if they think fit, on the 
application of the local auihfirity, make any modifications in the scheme to which 
the order relates for the purpose of meeting the objections of the petitioner 
and withdraw the order sanctioning the original scheme, substituting for it an order 
.sanctioning the modified scheme. 



282 

(2) The same procedure shall be followed as to the publication and giving 
notices, and the same provisions shall apply as to the presentation of petitions and the 
effect of ihe order, in the case of the order sanctioning the modified scheme, as in the- 
case of the order sanctioning the original scheme, but no petition shall be received 
or have any effect except one which was presented against the original order, 
or one which is concerned solely with the modifications made in the scheme as 
sanctioned by the new order. 

{^Under the Act of i8go there was no power for the Local Government Board to 
introduce modifications inio a scheme under Fart JI or section 8 (4) zvhen once it was 
sanctioned, although certain reasonable modijications might have met the objections 
contained in any petition against the order. Now, such modifications may be tnade 
with ihe consent of the Council, and a new order substituted sa7ictioning the modified 
scheme, thus possibly avoiding further costly pi'oceedings and delay. ^ 

"Neighbouring lands" may be included in Part II schemes. 

7, Where a scheme for reconstruction under Part II of the principal Act is 
made, neighbouring lands may be included in the area comprised in the scheme if 
the local authority under whose direction the scheme is made are of opinion that that 
inclusion is necesi^ary for making their scheme efficient, but the provision of subsection 
two of section forty-one, as to the exclusinn of any additional allowance in respect of 
compulsory purchase, shall not apply in the case of any land so included. 

{^This virtually makes the provisions of Part II of the Act of i8go uniform with 
those of Part I itiihe t?iatter of '■' neighbouring lands^^ which may be taken If beneficial 
to the scheme, although not comprising builaings in themselves dangerous or injurious 
to health.^ 

Amendments as to Closing Orders, Demolition, &c. 

Preliminary notice to abate dispensed with. 

8. — (i) If in the opinion of the local authority any dwelling-house is not reason- 
ably capable of being made fit for human habitation, or is in such a state that the 
occupation thereof should be immediately discontinued, it shall not be necessary 
for them before obtaining a closing order, to serve a notice on the owner or 
occupier of the premises to abate the nuisance, and a justice may issue a 
summons for a closing order and a closing order may be granted, although such a 
notice has not been served. 

[// tvas previously necessary to give notice to the owner or occupier of the house to 
abate the nuisance before applying for a closing order under section 32 of the Act oj 
iSgo. Now such preliminary notice is not necessary where the Council thinks no 

tiseful purpose could be gained by serving ?V.] 

New forms for closing orders. 

(2) The Local Government Itoard may by order prescribe forms in substitution 
for those in the Fourth Schedule to the principal Act, and section thirty-two of 
the principal Act shall have effect as if the forms so prescribed were referred to 
therein in lieu of the forms in that Schedule. 

\An order prescribing the new forms in question was tnade on the yth January, 
igo$, and sent to all local authorities and courts of summary jurisdiction in England 
and Wales. Copies of the forms are printed herewith after the Schedule to this Act.^ 

Power to recover cost of demolition. 

9. Where the amount realised by the sale of materials under section thirty-four 
of the principal Act is not sufficient to cover the expenses incident to the taking down 
and removal of a building, the local authority may recover the deficiency from the 
owner of the building as a civil debt in manner provided by the Summary Jurisdiction 
Acts, or under the provisions of the Public Health Acts relating to private improve- 
ment expenses. 

[This meets the case where the sale of the materials under section ^4 of the Act of 
i8go does not meet the cost of demolition and other expenses. '\ 



2 83 

Recovery of possession from occupying tenants. 

10. Where default is made as respects any dwelling house in obeying a closing 
order in the manner provided by sulisection three of seclion thirty-two of the principal 
Act, possession of the house may be obtained (without prejudice to the enforcement 
of any penalty under that provision), whatever may be the value or rent of the house, 
by or on behalf of the owner or local authority, either under sections one hundred and 
thirty-eight to one hundred and forty-five of the County Courts Act, 1888, or under 
the Small Tenements Recovery Act, 1838, as in the cases therein provided for, and 
in either case may be obtained as if the owner or local authority were ihe landlord. 
''Zj'Any expenses incurred by a local authority under this section may be recovered 
from the owner as a civil debt in manner provided by the Summary Jurisdiction Acts. 

[ This is a more speedy and efficacious way of obtaining possession of a honse in 
respect of -which a closing order has been made than that pj-ovided by section j2 (y) of 
the Act of iSgo.'\ 

Miscellaneous. 

Power to include recreation grounds, shops, and other buildings under 

Part III schemes. 

11. — (i) Any power of the local authority under the Housing Acts, or under any 
scheme made in pursuance of any of those Ac s, to provide dwelling accommodation 
or lodging-houses, shall include a power to provide and maintain, with the consent 
of the Local Government Board, and, if desired, jointly with an)- other person, in 
connection with any such dwelling accommodation or lodging-houses, any building 
adapted for use as a shop, any recreation grounds, or other buildings or land 
which in the opinion ol the Local Government Board ■will serve a beneficial 
purpose in connection with the requirements of the persons for whom the dwelling 
acconmiodation or lodging-houses are provided, ar.d to raise money for the purpose, 
if necessary, by borrowing. 

\_This is a verf itseful and important enactment for, subject to the consent of the 
Local Government Board, it enables both the finance and the adva7itai>es of an estate 
of municipal divellings to be improved by the provision of shops, or other buildings, or 
recreation giotin.rs, cither by the Louticil alone or jointly with some o her person wheie 
the persotts to be housed may derive any beneficial purpose in connection therewith.^ 

(2) The Local Government Board may, in giving their consent to the provision 
of any land or building under this section, by order apply, with any necessary 
modifications, to such land or building any statutory provisions which would have 
been applicable thereto if the land or building had been provided under any enact- 
ment giving any local authority powers for the purpose. 

Contracting out of section 75 prohibited. 

12. T Section seventy-five of the principal Act (which relates to the condition to 
be implied on letting houses for the working classes) shall, as respects any contract 
made after the passing of this Act, take effect notwithstanding any agreement to the 
contrary, and any such agreement made after the passing of this Act shall be void. 

Notices may be served by post. 

13. — (l) Any notice required to be served under Part II of the principal Act 
upon an owner shall, notwithstanding anything in section forty-nine of that Act, be 
deemed to be sufficiently served if it is sent by post in a registered letter addressed to 
the owner or his agent at his usual or last known residence or place of business. 

(2) Any document referred to in section eighty-seven of the principal Act shall 
be deemed to be sufficiently served upon the local authority if addressed to that 
authority or their clerk at the office of that authority and sent by post in a registered 
letter. 



284 

Special Provisions as to London. 

Agreements between London County Council and Metropolitan 
Boroughs. 

14, The council of a .metropolitan borough may, if they think fit, pay or 
contribute towards the payment of any expenses of the London County Council under 
subsection five of section forty-six of the principal Act in connection with a scheme 
of reconstruction, and borrow any money required by them for the purpose under 
subsection two of the said section ; but an order under subsection six shall not be 
necessary except in cases of disagreement between the County council and the council 
of the borough. 

[Prior to igoj it was necessary for the Home Secretary to make an order before a 
Metropolitan Boroiis^h Council cojild make a contribution towards the expenses of the 
London County Council in connection with a reconstruction scheme. The above 
section provides that this shall be unnecessary except in cases of disagreement between 
the County Council atid the Borough Council.'\ 

Provisions consequential on extension of loan period. 

15, For the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Act as to the 
maximum period for which money may be borrowed, eighty years shall l)e substituted 
for sixty years in section twenty-seven of the Metropolitan Board of Works (Loans) 
Act, 1869, and such sum as will be sufficient, with compound interest, to repay the 
money borrowed within such period, not exceeding eighty years, as may be sanctioned 
by the London County Council, shall be substituted for two pounds per cent, in 
section one hundred and ninety of the Metropolis Management Act, 1855. 

[C/nder the Metropolis Management Act, 185^, sections 18^ to igi, Borough 
Councils may borrow with the consent of the County Council, but 'lection igo requires 
them to set aside each year not less than TWO per cent, on the amount of the principal 
to form a sinking fund. The borrozving powers of Borough Councils for Part II atid 
III of the Act of iSgo were subject to this disability till the above section was enacted 
to enable the payment to the sinking fund to be reduced to as little as )^ to y^ per cent.] 

Temporary duties of Home Secretary. 

16, The Secretary of State shall be substituted for the Local Government Board 
in the\application to the administrative county of London of the provisions of the 
Schedule to this Act and of the provisions of this Act which require the consent of 
the Local Government Board to the exercise of additional powers given to a local 
authority by this Act in connection with the provision of dwelling accommodation or 
lodging-houses, until the powers and duties of the Secretary of State under those 
provisions are transferred to the Local Government Board in pursuance of this Act. 

Short title and extent. 

17. — (i) This Act may be cited as the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 
1903, and the Mousing of the Working Classes Acts, 1890 to 1900, and this Act, may 
be cited together as the Mousing of the Working Classes Acts, 1890 to 1903. 

(2) This Act shall not extend to Scotland or Ireland. 

SCHEDULE. 

(Sections 3 to 16.) 

Re-housing scheme to precede displacement. 

(i) If in the administrative county of London or in an}' borough or urban 
district, or in any parish not within a borough or urban district, the undertakers have 
power to take under the enabling Act working-men's dv^^ellings occupied by thirty 
or more persons belonging to the working class, the undertakers shall not enter 
upon any such dwellings in that county, borough, urban district, or parish, until the 
Local Government Board have either approved of a housing scheme under this 
schedule or have decided that such a scheme is not necessary. 

[Formerly the maximian of displacement that could be effected without reqzitring 
a housing scheme was ' ' ten or more houses occupied either wholly or partially by 
persons belonging to the labouring classes.''''] 



285 

What houses and persons affected by re-housing powers. 

P'or the purposes of this schedule a house shall be considered a working-man's 
dwelling if wholly or partially occupied by a person belonging to the working-classes, 
and for the purpose of determining whether a house is a working-man's dwelling or 
not, and also for determining the number of persons belonging to the working classes 
by whom any dwelling-houses are occupied, any occupation on or after the fifteenth 
day of December next before the passing of the enabling Act, or, in the case of land 
acquired compulsorily under a general Act without the authority of an order, next 
before the date of the application to the Local Government Board under this schedule, 
for their approval or decision with respect to a housing scheme, shall be taken into 
consideration. 

Displacements in previous five years to be considered. 

(2) The housing scheme shall make provision for the accommodation of such 
number of persons of the working class as is, in the opinion of the Local Government 
Board, taking into account all the circumstances, required, but that number shall not 
exceed the aggregate number of persons of the working class displaced ; and in 
calculating that number the Local Government Board shall take into consideration not 
only the persons of the working class who are occupying the working-men's dwellings 
which the undertakers have power to take, but also any persons of the working 
class who, in the opinion of the Local Government Board, have been displaced 
w^ithin the previous five years in view of the acquisition of land by the undertakers. 

\_This ret7-ospective clause meets the case of those companies and authorities who, to 
avoid re-hoicsmg, have purchased %vork7nen' s houses in large numbers by agreement 
before going for compulsory powers. ] 

Power to acquire sites for re-housing. 

(3) Provisions may be made by the housing scheme for giving undertakers who 
are a local authority, or who have not sufficient powers for the purpose, power for 
the purpose of the scheme to ajipropriate land or to acquire land, either by agreement 
or compulsorily under the authority of a Provisional Order, and for giving any local 
authority power to erect dwellings on land so appropriated and acquired by them, 
and to sell or dispose of any such dwellings, and to raise money for the purpose of 
the scheme as for the purposes of Pait III of the principal Act, and for regulating 
the application of any money arising from the sale or disposal of the dwellings ; and 
any provisions so made shall have effect as if they had been enacted in an Act of 
Parliament. 

Sites to be "ear-marked" for twenty-five years. 

(4) The housing scheme shall provide that any lands acquired under that scheme 
shall, for a period of twenty-five years from the date of the scheme, be appropriated 
for the purpose of dwellings for persons of the working class, except so far as the 
Local Government Board dispense wih that appropriation ; and every conveyance, 
demise, or lease of any such land shall be endorsed with notice of this provision, and 
the Local Government Board may require the insertion in the scheme of any 
provisions requiring a certain standard of dwelling-house to De erected under the 
scheme or any conditions to be complied with as to the mode in which the dwelling- 
houses are to be erected. 

(5) If the Local Government Board do not hold a local inquiry with reference to 
a housing scheme, they shall before approving the scheme, send a copy of the draft 
scheme to evr-ry local authority, and shall consider any representation made within 
the time fixed by the Board by any such authority. 

Power to secure erection of new dwellings before demolition of others. 

(6) The Local Government Board may, as a condition of their approval of a 
housing scheme, require that the new dwellings under the scheme, or some part of 
them, shall be completed and fit for occupation before possession is taken of any 
working-men's dwellings under the enaiiling Act. 

\^This prornsion is most valuable if acted tipon, for it is only too often the case 
that the tenants of houses demolished have to leave the area long before the re-housin^ 
scheme is carried out. ] 



286 

(7) Before approving any scheme the Local (lovernment Board may, if they think 
fit, require the undertakers to give such security as the Board consider proper for 
carrying the scheme into effect. 

(8) The Local Government Board may hold such enquiries as they think fit for 
the purpose of their duties under this schedule, and subsections one and five of section 
eighty-seven of the Local Government Act, i888' (which relate to local enquiries), 
shall apply for the purpose, and where the undertakers are not a local authority shall 
be applicable as if they were such an authority. 

Penalties. 

(9) If the undertakers enter on any working-men's dwelling in contravention 
of the provisions of this schedule, or of any conditions of approval of the housing 
scheme made by the I-ocal Government Board, they shall be lialjle to a penalty not 
exceeding five hundred pounds in respect of every such dwelling ; 

Any such penalty shall be recoverable by the Local Government Board by action 
in the High Court, and shall be carried to and form part of the Consolidated Fund. 

Enforcement of re-housing schemes. 

(10) If the undertakers fail to carry out any provision of the housing scheme, 
the Local Government Board may make such order as they think necessary or proper 
for the purpose of compelling them to carry out that provision, and any such order 
may be enforced by mandamus. 

Modification of schemes. 

(11) The Local Government Board may, on the application ot the undertakers, 
modify any housing scheme which has been approved by them under this schedule, 
and any modifications so made shall take effect as part of the scheme. 

Definitions. 
Who are affected by the re-housing obligations. 

(12) For the purposes of this schedule — 

(a) The expressitm "undertakers" means any authority, company, or person 

who are acquiring land compulsorily or by agreement under any local 

Act or Provisional Order or order having the effect of an Act, or are 

acquiring land compulsorily under any general Act : 

[Pro/>eriy acqidred by agreement iitider general Acts is exempt from this schedule.^ 

{b) The expression "enabling Act" means any Act of Parliament or Order 
under which the land is acquired : 

(c) The expression "local authority" means the council of any administrative 
county and the district council of any county district, or, in London, 
the council of any metropolitan borough, in which in any case any 
houses in respect of which the re-housing scheme is made are situated, 
or in the case of the city the common council : 

{d) The expression "dwelling" or "house" means any house or part of a 
house occupied as a separate dwelling : 

Definition of "working class." 

{e) The expression "working class" includes mechanics, artizans, labourers, 
and others working for wages ; hawkers, costermongers, persons not 
working for wages, but working at some trade or handicraft without 
employing others, except members of their own family, and persons 
other than domestic servants whose income in any case does not exceed 
an average of thirty shillings a week, and the families of any of such 
persons who may be residing with them. 



287 

NEW FORMS (under Section 8 (2) above). 

Order of the Local Government Koakd, dated jth [miuary, igo^. 

ITO tbe several ILOCal BUtbOritieS in England and Wales for the 
purposes of Part II of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 
1890 ; — 

To the several Courts of Summary Jurisdiction in England and Wales ; — 
And to all others whom it may concern. 

WHEREAS by subsection (2) of Section 32 of the Housing of the Working 
Classes Act, 1890 (hereinafter referred to as "the Principal Act"'), provision is made 
with respect to proceedint;s by the Local Authority for the purpose of causing a 
dwelling-house to be closed, and by that subsection it is enacted that the forms for 
the purposes of the said section may be those in the Fourth Schedule to the Principal 
Act or to the like effect ; 

And whereas by subsection (2) of Section 8 of the Housing of the Working 
Classes Act, 1903, it is enacted that We, the Local Government Board, may by 
Order prescribe forms in substitution for those in the Fourth Schedule of the Principal 
Act, and that Section 32 of the Principal Act shall have effect as if the forms so 
prescribed were referred to therein in lieu of the forms in that Schedule : 

NOW THEREFORE, in the exercise of Our powers in that behalf, We do, by 
this Our Order, prescribe th'' forms hereinafter set forth in substitution (or those in 
the Fourth Schedule to the Principal Act. 

Form A.t 
Form of notice requiring a dwelling-house to be made fit for habitation. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occupier''\ of the dwelling-house \siuh a description of 
the dwellin^-honse as may be sufficient fo' its identification.\ 

Take Notice, that under the provisions of the Housing of the Working Classes 
Acts, 1890 to 1903, and of the Enactments applied by those Acts, the {^description of 
ihe iocal aHthority']hemg satisfied that the above-mentioned dwelling-house is in a 
state so dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit for human habitation, do 
hereby require you within from the service 

of this notice to make the said dwelling-house fit for human habitation. 

If you make default in complying with the requisition of this notice, proceedings 
will be taken before a Court of Summary Jurisdiction under the Acts and Enactments 
aforesaid for prohibiting the use of the said dwelling-house for human habitation. 
Dated this day of 19 

Signature of officer \ 
of local authority I 
t This form is not required to be used ij, in the opinion of the local authority, a 
dwelling-house — 

(a) is not reasonably capable of being made fit for human habitation ; or 
(^) is in such a state that the occupation thereof should be immediately 
discontinued. 

Form B.t 

Form of summons for closing order. 

To the [" Owjier" or " Occupier" \ oi the dwelling-house {such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be sufficient Jor its identif cation.'] 

[[Name of County or ^ You are required to appear before {description of the Court 

other jurisdiction.^ of Summary furisdiction] at the {''Petty Sessions" or ''Court"] 
County (77- Boioiich i/,j, .1 

orT>\smctoi , holden at on the 

to wit. j day of next, at the hour of in the 

noon to answer the complaint this day made to me by {name of person 
making the complaint.] 

' That the above-mentioned dwelling-house is in a state so dangerous or 
injurious to health as to be unfit for human habitation. 

Given under my hand and seal, this day of , 19 . 

t This Form should be used in every case in which a Notice in the Form (A) is 
O'equired to be served. 



288 

Form Ct 

Form of summons for closing order. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occupier''''^ of the dwelling-house \such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be sufficient for its identifica/ion\ 

[IVa?ne of County or \ You are required to appear before [description of the Court 

other Jurisciktion.] I of Summary /urisdiclioti] at the V' Petty Sessions" or '' Court"^ 
County <7r Borough >i,i^' -^ , -' 

c^T- Disirict of , holdenat on the 

to wit. j dayof next, at the hour of in the 

noon to answer the complaint this day made to me by [name 0/ person 

making the complaint\ 

That the above-mentioned dwelling-house is in a state so dangerous and injurious 
to health as to be unfit for human habitation, and* that the said dwelling-house is 
not reasonably capable of being made fit for human habitation or that the said 
dwelling-house is in such a state that the occupation thereof should be immediately 
discontinued. 

Given under my hand and seal this day of 19 . 

t This Fo7-m should be used in every case in which a Notice in the Form (A) ts 
not required to be served. 

* Omit from the rest of the Form any passage which does 7Jot apply to the actual 
circumstances of the case. 

Form D.t 

Form of closing order. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occupier"^ of the dwelling-house [such a description 0^ 
the dwelling- Jiotise as may be stifficient for its identtf cation']. 

VName of County or \ WHEREAS on the day of , 

other purisd,c,ton.^ I complaint was made before , Esquire, 

County <;?- Borough > r u- n t • .. ' t ^- r ..v, n ^- • j r 

or District of | °"^ '^' "^^ Majesty s Justices of the Peace, acting in and for 

to wit. ) the [7tame of County or other Jurisdiction] by [)iame of person 

}?iaking the complaim] that within the District of the [description of local author ityl 

the above-mentioned dwelling-house was in a state so dangerous or injurious as to be 

unfit for human habitation : 

And whereas [naine of the Owner or Occupier, followed by the words "the owner" 
or " the occupier" as the case may be] hath this day appeared before [" us" or " me," 
followed by the description of the Cotirt] to answer the matter of the said complaint : 

*And whereas it hath this day been proved to [" our " or " tny "] satisfaction that 
a true copy of a summons requiring the [" Owner" or " Occupier"] of the aforesaid that 
dwelling-house to appear this day before ["?«" or " me"] hath been duly served in 
pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890 to 1903, and of the 
Enactments applied by those Acts : 

Now, on proof here had before [" us" or " me"] that the said dwelling-house is 
in a state so dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit for human habitation 
["we" or " /"Jin pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890 to 
1903, and of the Enactments applied by those Acts, do prohibit the using of the said 
dwelling-house for the purpose of human habitation, until, in the judgment of a 
Court of Summary Jurisdiction, it is rendered fit for that purpose. 

Given under the [" hands and seals of us" or ^ hand and seal of me," followed 
by the description of the Court] this day of 19 . 

t This For '11 should be used in every case in which a Notice in the Form (A) ?> 
required to be served. 

* In case the party summoned do not appear, substitute this passage for the 
preceding passage. 



289 

Form E.t 

Form of closing order. 

To the [" Owner" or " Ociitpifr"] of the dweUing-house [^such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be stifficient for its identification\ 

{Name of County or ^ WHEREAS on the day of , 

other Jurisdiction.} I complaint was made before , Esquire, 

^r Di'sTriTt o r , I oneof Ilis Majesty's Justices of the Peace, acting in and for 
to wit. ' J the [name of Cotinty or other /itrisdiction']hy [name of person 

making the coi/tplainf] that within the District of the [description of local anthority] 
the above-mentioned dweUing-honse was in a state so dangerous or injurious to 
health as to be unfit for human habitation ; and that the said dweUing-house was not 
reasonably capable of being made fit for human habitation : 

And whereas [name of the Owner or Occupier , followed by the words '^ the owner" 
or " the occupier" as the case may be'] hath this day appeared before [" us " or " me," 
followed by the description of the Court] to answer the matter of the said complaint : 

*And whereas it hath this day been proved to [" our" or " my"] satisfaction that 
a true copy of a summons requiring the [" Owner" or " Occupier"] of the aforesaid 
dwelling-house to appear this day before ["z/j" or " me"] hath been duly served in 
pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Acis, 1890 to 1903, and of the 
Enactments applied by those Acts : 

Now, on proof here had before [" us " or " t)ie "] — 

That the said dwelling-house is in a state so dangerous or injurious to health as 
to be unfit for human habitation, and tha* the said dwelling-house is not reasonably 
capable of being made fit for human habitation : 

["IVe" or "/"] in pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, 1890 
to 1903, and of the Enactments applied by those Acts, — 

Do prohibit the using of the said dwelling-house as not being reasonably capable 
of being made fit for human habitation. 

Given under the [" hands and seals of us " or '■^ hand and seal of ine" followed by 
the description of the Court] this day of 19 . 

t This Form should be used in every case in which a Notice in the Form (A) is 
not required to be se7-ved. 

*In case the party summoned do not appear., substitute this passage for the 
preceding passage. 

Form F.t 
Form of closing order. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occupier"] of the dwelling-house [such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be sufficient for its identification]. 

[Name of County or \ WHEREAS on the dav of , 

"co^dZr^oo^'l ^ complaint was made before ' , Esquire, 

o^^DisTrict of* °"^ i ^""^ *^^ ^'^ Majesty's Justices of the Peace, acting in and for 

to wit. ' j the [natne of County or other /urisdiction] by [name of person 

making the complaint] that within the District of the [description of local authority] 

the above-mentioned dwelling-house was in a state so dangerous and injurious to 

health as to be unfit for human habitation ; and that the said dwelling-house was in 

such a state that the occupation thereof should be immediately discontinued : 

And whereas [name of the Owner or Occupier, followed by the words '''■the owner" 
or ^' the occupier," as the case may be] hath this day appeared before [" us " or " ;«e," 
followed by the description of the Court] to answer the matter of the said complaint : 

*And whereas it hath this day been proved to ['^ our" or " fny "] satisfaction that 
a true copy of a summons requiring the [" Owner" or " Occupier"] of the aforesaid 
dwelling-house to appear this day before [" its" or " me"] have been duly served in 
pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, 1890 to 1903, and of the 
Enactments applied by those Acts : 

M 



290 

Now, on proof here had before [" 71s " or " w<"] — 

That the said dwelling-house is in a state so dangerous or injurious to health as 
to be unfit tor human habitation, and that the said dwelling-house is in such a state 
that the occupation thereof should be immediately discontinued : 

["IFe" or "/"] in pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, 1890 
to 1903, and of the Enactments applied by those Acts, — 

Do order that the occupation of the said dwelling-house shall be immediately 
discontinued, and do also order and declare that this Order shall have effect unless 
or until a Court of Summary Jurisdiction shall, by Order, determine this Order. 

Given under the \^'' hands and seals of tis" or ^' hand and seal of nie" followed 
by the description of the Court'\ this day of 19 . 

t This Form should be used in every case in -which a Notice iii the Form (A) ?-f 
not required to be se) ved. 

* In case the party sufuinoned do not appear, substitute this passage for the 
preceding passage. 

Given under the Seal of Office of the Local Government Board this Seventh day 
of January, in the year One thousand nine hundred and five. 

(L.s.) WALTER H. LONG, President. 

S. B. PROVIS, Secretary. 

L.G.B. CIRCULAR TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES AS TO NEW FORMS 

IN Proceedings relating to Closing Orders. 

(Section 3, Housing Act, 1903.) 

Local Government Board, 

Whitehall, S.W., 

gth /anuary, igoj. 
Sir, 

I am directed by the Local Government Board to draw the attention of the 
Local Authority to the provisions of sulisection (2) of section 8 of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1903, by which the Board are empowered to prescril)e forms in 
substitution for those in the Fourth Schedule to the Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890. 

The Board, after consultation with the Law Officers of the Crown on certain 
points of difficulty which have arisen in connection with the preparation of the new 
forms, have now issued an Order prescribing the forms. Two copies of the Order 
are enclosed. 

Copies of the Order and of this letter have been sent to the Clerks to the Courts 
of Summary Jurisdiction in England and Wales. 

Questions which have arisen in the preparation of the forms. 

The following statement shows the nature of the questions which have arisen, 
and the conclusions at which the Board have arrived in determining them for the 
purposes of the forms : — 

L Subsection (i) of Section 8 of the Act of 1903 gives authority for two new 
varieties of " Closing Order." 

A "Closing Order" may now be made where, in the opinion of the local 
authority, [a) any dwelling-house is not reasonably capable of being made fit for 
human habitation, or (b) is in such a state thai the occupation thereof should be 
immediately discontinued. 

The Act of 1903 contains no new definition of what is meant by a Closing 
Order ; and the Board have considered that these additional Closing Orders will have 
the characteristics of the Closing Order of sections 32 and 33 of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890. 



291 

Accordingly the Board have thought that the new Closing Orders may be 
properly described as made in pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes Acts 
1890 to 1903, that, with the exception of the preliminary notice for abatement of 
nuisance, the procedure (i.) for obtaining a new Closing Order, (ii.) for an ajipeal 
from a new Closing Order, and (iii.) for determination of a new Closing Order, will 
be similar to that applicable to a Closing Order under section 32 of the Act of 1890 ; 
and, as in the case of that Closing Order, the proceedings lor obtaining the new 
Closing Order may be taken against the owner or che occupier of the dwelling-house. 

II. In the forms now prescribed the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, 
1S90 to 1903, and the enactments applied by those Acts, have been cited as the 
statutory authority for the procedure. 

It will be remembered that section 32 (i) of the Act of 1890 requires the local 
authority in the circumstances therein-mentioned to take proceedings against the 
owner or occupier of a dwelling-house under the enactments set out in the Third 
Schedule to that Act. 

The enactments are described in the Third Schedule as "enactments applied for 
the purpose of proceedings for closing premises in England . . ." and comprise a 
limited selection of statutory provisions (i.) from the Sanitary Act, 1866, and the 
Nuisances Removal Act, 1855, which in 1890 were in force in the administrative 
count}' of London, and (ii.) from the Public Health Act, 1875, then and now in force 
elsewhere than in London. 

The effect of subsection {7) of section 142 of the Public Health (London) Act, 
1S91, is to substitute corresponding provisions from that Act for the provisions 
applicable to London. 

A difficulty, however, arises out of the applied enactments and the Act of 1S90, 
since the applied enactments do not extend to many details of procedure, and the Act 
itself does not expressly supplement the applied enactments in these particulars. 

Thus, to take a single illustration, the applied enactments provide for the issue 
of a summons, but they do not, in themselves, indicate the manner of service ; and 
the Act of 1890 nowhere expressly supplies the omission, either by reference to the 
Summary Jurisdiction Acts or otherwise. 

The Board have consulted the Law Officers on the point, anvi they have advised 
the Board that the scheduled enactmenis cannot be read as eniirtly isolated and 
self-contained, but that the ordinary procedure must be read as incorporated. 

Observations on the new forms. 

With regard to the forms now prescribed, the Board desire to make the 
following observations : — 

In the forms the expre.ssion "Court of Summary Jurisdictinn " has been 
invariably used. 

It has been left to the persons concerred to distinguish any instance in which the 
Court may be appropriately described as a Petty Sessional Court. 

Form A. — This form does not differ essentially form the original Form A m 
the Fourth Schedule to the Act of 1890. The form has been framed so as to be 
inapplicable to cases under section 8(1) of the Act of 1903. 

The only detail to which it seems to be necessary to draw attention is the 
footnote in italics. 

Upon this footnote it is to be observed that section 8 (i) of the Act of 1903 does 
not expressly prohibit the service of a preliminary notice. As, however, the purport of 
the notice would be to require abatement of the nuisance, the notice wcjuld not be 
a])propriate to the circumstances of the ftrst case mentioned in section 8 (l) of the 
Act of 1903, namely, the case of the dwelling-house which, in the opinion of the local 
authority, is not reasonably capable of being made fit for human habitation. 

The other case mentioned in section 8 (i) of the Act of 1903 is that of the 
•dwplling-house in such a state that its occupation should be immediately discontinued. 



292 

In this case, although the interposition of the preliminary notice might 
occasionally have results such as could otherwise only be attained through a Closing- 
Order under the last-mentioned enactment, the delay attending such procedure must 
be regarded as counterbalancing all possible advantages. 

It has, therefore, been considered that no provision should be made in the new 
forms for the permissive use of a preliminary notice in the case where immediate- 
discontinuance of occupation is required. 

Form B and Form C. — Form B is applicable to the summons prior to the 
Closing Order under the enactments applied by section 32 of the Act of 1890, and 
Form C is applicable to the summons prior to either of the Closing Orders specially 
authorised by section 8 (l) of the Act of 1903. 

With regard to Form B, it will be seen that the corresponding form in the Fourth 
Schedule to the Act of 1890 gives the effect of the complaint as being "that the 
premises above mentioned are used as a dwelling-house, and are in a state so 
dangerous or ii-ijurious to health as to be unfit for human habitation." 

In the new form, the complaint is stated to be " that the above-named dwelling- 
house is in a state so dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit for human 
habitation." 

It has been considered that the decision in Robertson v. King (L.R. (1901)' 
2 K.B. 265) renders it inexpedient to reproduce the wording of the original form. 

Form D. — In the new form the prohibition of the use of the dwelling-house is 
qualified by the words " until in the judgment of a Court of Summary Jurisdiction it 
is rendered fit for that purpose." 

In the Form C prescribed by the Fourth Schedule to the Act of 1890, the 
corresponding words are, " until in our (or my) judgment they are rendered fit for 
the purpose." 

It has been considered that tht-re is no longer any sufficient reason for the 
limitation implied in the language of the original form with regard to the particular 
justices or magistrate by whom the Closing Order may be determined. 

There is no provision in section 32 (2) or in section 33 (i) of the Act of 1890 
which expressly requires that the subsequent Order to determine a Closing Order 
shall, in all cases, be made by the Court of Summary Jurisdiction making the 
Closing Order. 

It would seem, at least, that the effect of section 97 of the Public Healih Act, 
1875, as applied by section 32 (i) of the Act of 1890, is that the Court making the 
Closing Order and the Court determinii-ig the Closing Order need not consist of the 
same justices or magistrate. 

And in the case of London, the doubt which formerly arose out of sections 12 
and 13 of the Nuisances Removal Act, 1855 — enactments applied by section 32(1) 
of the Act of 1890 — may be considered to be removed by the language of section 5 
of the Public Health (London) Act, 1891. The form of expression — "a Petty 
Sessional Court " — in subsection 8 of that section would be inconsistent with an 
intenlion to limit the power of cancellation to the particular justices or magistrate 
who constituted the Petty Sessional Court of subsection i, namely, the Petty Sessional 
Court hearing the complaint and making the Closing Order. 

Form E and Form F — In the wording of the new forms it has been considered 
that, where the dwelling-house is not, in the opinion of the local authority, reasonably 
capable of being made fit for human habitation, the Order of the Court of Summary 
Jurixliction which, in effect, confirms the opinion of the local authority, should not 
be determinable by another Order of a Court of Summary Jurisdiction. 

Accordingly Form E is framed so as to show that determination of the Order is 
not contemplated as a possible or appropriate contingency. 

On ihe other hand, it is assumed that the prohibition of the use or continued 
occupation of the dwelling-house cannot properly be made final. The prohibition is,, 
therefore, qualified as in the concluding words of Form F. 



293 

It is, of course, to be inferred from The Queen v. De Rutzen and Vestry of 
Chelsea (9 Times L.R. 51) that a local authority, by prompt action with a view to 
demolition, may prevent the exercise of the power of determining the Order. 

Nevertheless, there would seem to be no sufficient authority in the Statutes for 
recognising this particular variety of Closing Order under section 8 (l) of the Act of 
1903 as necessarily final in all circumstances, while the Closing Order of section 32 of 
the Act of 1890 is determinable. 

Forms of order determining closing order. 

In the Fourth Schedule to the Act of 1S90 no form is prescribed for an Order 
determining a Closing Order, and the Act of 1903 does not empower the Board to 
prescribe forms for this purpose. The Board, however, have thought that forms 
of this sort might be practically useful, and they suggest that the forms set out in the 
Appendix to this Circular might serve the purpose. 

Purchase of copies of order and circular. 

The Order and this Circular will be placed on sale, and copies may shortly be 
obtained, either directly or through any bookseller, from Messrs. Wyman and Sons, 
Limited, Fetter Lane, E.C. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

S. B. PROVIS, 
The Clerk to the Local Authority. Secretary. 

Appendix. 
Suggested form of order determining closing order, t 

I This Form is suggested for use only in cases to which the prescribed Forvi A is 
applicable. 

To the {descriptio7i of local authority^. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occtipier"'\ of the dwelling-house \_such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be sufficient for its identification']. 

[Name of County or 's WHEREAS on the day of , 

other Jurisdiction.^ I ^ Closing Order in respect of the above-mentioned dwelling- 

^rSkt 0°''°"^'! I house within the District of the [description of local authority-] 

to wit. ' J was made by a Court of Summary Jurisdiction acting in and 

for the [name of County or other Jurisdiction] and by the said Closing Order the 

Court of Summary Jurisdiction, in pursuance of the Housing of the Working Classes 

Acts, 1S90 to 1903, and of the Enactments apphed by those Acts, prohibiting the 

using of the said dwelling-house for the purpose of human habitation, until, in the 

judgment of a Court of Summary Jurisdiction, the dwelling-house should be rendered 

fit for that purpose : 

And whereas in the judgment of [" ?«" or " me" followed by the description of 
the Court] the said dwellmg-house has been rendered fit for human habitation : 

Now therefore ["we" or "/"] do hereby determine the Closing Order 
aforesaid. 

Given under the ["hands and seals of us" or " hand and seal of me," followed 
hv the description of the Court] this day of 19 . 

Appendix. 
Suggested form of order determining closing order.! 

t This Form is suggested for use only in cases to which the pi-escribed Form F is 
applicable. 

To the [description of local authority]. 

To the [" Owner" or " Occupier"] of the dwelling-house [such a description of 
the dwelling-house as may be sufficient for its identification]. 



294 

[Name of County or\ WHEREAS on the dav of ,. 

otherJuris^ctionA I ^ Closing Order in respect of the alwve-menlioned dwelling- 

or^'xli^^i of°™"^ I house within the District of the {^description of local authorily'\ 

to wit. ' ) was made by a Court of Summary Jurisdiction acting in and 

for the Sjiame of County or other /nrisdic:ion'\ and by the said Closing Order the 

Court of Summary Jurisdiction, in pufsuance of the Housing ot the Working Classes 

Acts, 1890 to 1903, and of the Enactments applied by those Acts, did order that the 

occupation of the said dwelling-house should be immediately discontinued, and by 

the said Closing Order did also order and declare that the Closing Order should have 

effect unless or until a Court of Summary Jurisdiction should, by order, determine the 

Closing Order : 

Now therefore ["we" or "1," followed by the description of the Court] do 
hereby determine the Closing Order aforesaid. 

Given under the ["hands and seals of us" or " hand and seal of me," folloii'c 
by the description of the Court] this day of ig . 

PROCEDURE FOR IMPROVEMENT SCHEME UNDER 
PARTS I AND II OF THE HOUSING ACT OF 1890. 

Circular to Town Councils. 

[Note. — This circular, with sjibstitution of ivords "Urban District" for 
" Town" was sent to all Urban District Councils.] 

Session 1906. 

Provisional Orders under the Public Health Act, 1875, the Housing of the 
Working Classes Acts, 1890 and 1903, The Gas and Water Works 
Facilities Acts, and the Local Government Act, 1888. 

Local Government Board, 

Whitehall, S.W., 

1st September, igo^. 
Sir, 

I am directed by the Local Government Board to state that they deem it 
desirable to follow the practice of previous years, and to fix dates before which all 
applications must be made for Provisional Orders under the Public Health Act, 1875, 
and section 54 (i) [a) of the Local Government Act, 18S8, and for all Orders under 
the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, which may become provisional in 
accordance with the provisions of section 5 of the Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1903, if it is wished that the Order should be confirmed during the session of 1906. 
The necessity for this course is the more apparent in view of Standing Order 193 (a) 
of the House of Commons which provides that no Bill originating in that House 
for confirming a Provisional Order shall be read the first time after Whitsuntide. 
Experience shows that unless this date is strictly adhered to, it will probably be 
impossible for Bills to confirm Provisional Orders to reach the House of Lords by the 
date necessary to ensure compliance with the Lords' Sessional Order relating to the 
Second Reading of such Bills. 

The Board have accordingly determined that all such applications must be 
received by them not later than the dates mentioned in the Provisional Order 
Instructions enclosed herewith, and it must be clearly understood that those dates 
are fixed as the latest at which applications for Provisional Orders can be received. 
It is oliviously desirable that, wherever practicable, the applications should be made 
earlier, and the Board therefore trust that every Town Council who may propose to^ 
apply for a Provisional Order, will make their application as soon as they are in a 
position to furnish the requisite particulars. Early application in the case of an 
Order under the Housing of the Working Classes Acts which may become provisional 
is the more important in view of the fact that under section 5 of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1903, a period of two months from the date of publication of 
such Order must elapse before it can be determined whether the Order will become 
provisional and require Parliamentary sanction or not. 

[Paragraph dealing with another subject omitted.] 



295 

The Board have carefully revised the Instructions which they have been 
accustomed to issue relating to applications for Provisional Orders under the Public 
Health Act, 1875, the Housing of the Working Classes Acts, and section 54 (l) (a) 
of the Local Government Act, 1SS8, and copies of the revised Instructions are 
enclosed for the information of the Town Council. 

****** 

I am to add that in connection with applications for the sanction by the Board of 
the costs incurred by a Town Council in promoting or oppo-ing a Provisional Order 
under section 298 of the Public Health Act, 1875 (which section is made applicable 
to Provisional Orders under the Local Government Act, 1888, by section 87 (2) of 
that Act), it is the practice of the Board to require that such costs shall be taxed by 
the Taxing OfBcer of one of the Houses of Parliament. It will not, therefore, be 
necessary to submit such costs for taxation by the Clerk of the Peace. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

S. B. PROVIS, 
TAe Town Clerk. Secretary. 

\^The Instructions referred to in the foregoing circular simply modify the 
Instructions issued 2Sth August., i8gy {see pages ^g- 60 Appendix Housing Handbook), 
in certain respects so as to comply tvith the alterations effected by the Housing Act of 

1903 ■'\ 

[ The modifications are printed below in black type. ] 

Session 1906. 

Provisional Order Instructions C. 
Instructions as to applications to the Local Government Board for the 
confirmation of improvement schemes under Part I of the Housing of 
the Working- Classes Act, 1890 (53 and 54 Vict. c. 70), by Orders 
which may become provisional in accordance with the provisions of 
section 5 of the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1903 (3 Edw. 
7. c. 39). 

1. The application must be made by a Petition of the Local Authority 
containing the particulars required by section 8 of the Act of 1890. The Petition 
should be under the seal of the Local Authority ; and if it is desired that, in the event 
of any Order which may be issued liecoming provisional, such Order should be 
confirmed during the session of 1906, the Petition must be presented not later than 
the l8th December {see page §g Appendix Housing Handbook, last two paragraphs). 
It is, however, very desirable that in such cases the Petition should be presented at 
an earlier dale, so as to prevent the possible loss of a Parliamentary Session in the 
event of errors being discovered too late to be remedied. 

2. The Petition should be accompanied by the following documents : — 
(a) A copy of the official representation. 

{b) Two copies of the improvement scheme. 

(c) Two copies of the estimate of the cost of carrying the scheme into effect. 

{d) Particulars of the scheme, giving the acreage of the area affected by it, the 
number of persons of the working class who will be displaced, and the 
number for whom, and the place or places at which, dwelling accom- 
modation is to be provided. Where this accommodation is not 
intended to be provided within the limits of the area included in the 
scheme, the reason for this cause must be stated, and the distance by 
the nearest public thoroughfare from that area must be given. The 
particulars should also show, as far as practicable, in what way the area 
included in the scheme, and the place or places at which dwelling 
accommodation for the working class is to be provided, may be dealt 
with so as to carry out the purposes of the Acts and the proposed scheme. 



2g6 

(e) Particulars showing, by reference to the numbers of the properties on the 
maps, (i) the area included in the official representation ; (2) any lands 
(a) excluded from such area Ijy the Local Authority, or (d) included in 
it by the Local Authority, under section 6(1) (a) of the Act of i8qo, 
and the reasons for such exclusion or inclusion ; (3) any lands included 
for widening existing approaches to the unhealthy area or otherwise for 
opening out the same for purpose of ventilation or health, under section 
6(1) (b) ; and (4) the lands proposed to be taken compulsorily. 

(/) Maps showing (i) the area included in the official representation, and (2) 
the area included in the improvement scheme (which maps are herein- 
after referred to as the "deposited maps"), (3) any site where dwelling 
accommodation is to be provided which is not within the area included 
in the scheme, and (4) the position of each site in relation to the area 
included in the scheme ; and a book of reference to the deposited maps 
in duplicate. The several properties should be numbered consecutively 
on the deposited maps. Each parcel of land, notwithstanding that 
several may belong to one owner, should be separately numbered, the 
outside boundaries of each parcel being defined by hard lines, and the 
buildings (if any) on each parcel being linked into it, so that it may be 
seen to what properties each number applies. The Book of Reference 
should be prepared on the groitnd-jA. the same time as and in conjunction 
with the deposited maps, each parcel of land being numbered to 
correspond with the deposited maps, and being described so as to show 
what properties are covered by each number. 

[g] A Statutory Declaration, specifying in which of the modes mentioned in 
section 7 of the Act of 1890 the notices have been served, and the 
names of the persons so served. This Declaration should be made by 
the person who served the notices. 

(li) A Statutory Declaration made by the Clerk to the Local Authority, 
showing that all the other requirements of section 7 of the Act of 1890, 
as amended by section 5(1) of the Act of 1903, have been complied 
with, and that the Petition stales the names of the owners or reputed 
owners and lessees or reputed lessees who have dissented in respect of 
the taking of their lands. Copies of the newspapers containing the 
advertisements, and also of the form of notice served on the owners, 
lessees and occupiers, should be annexed to the Declaration as 
exhibits. 

3. Standing Orders 38 and 39 of both Houses of Parliament (extracts from 
which are appended) must be complied with, and immediately after the last of the 
deposits required by the Standing Orders has been made, the Board should be 
furnished with an Affidavit, for production to the Examiners of Standing Orders in 
proof that the requirements of the Standing Orders referred to have been complied 
with. This Affidavit must state definitely that the Plans, Sections, Books of 
Reference or Maps deposited at the Private Bill Office and at the Office of the Clerk 
of the Parliaments respectively, in compliance with Standing Orders 39 above 
referred to, are in accordance with those QxAq.xs duplicates oi\\\o%^ deposited with the 
Board. 

4. Every Statutory Declaration and Affidavit must be made or sworn before a 
Justice of the Peace or a Commissioner for Oaths, and must be stamped with a haif- 
crown impressed stump, and each exhibit to a Statutory Declaration or Affidavit must 
be marked by the declarant or deponent, and by the Justice of the Peace or 
Commissioner for Oaths, as the case may be, in the usual way. 

Extracts from Standing Orders. 
Standing Order 38 (House of Commons). 

" Where any Bill contains or revives or extends power to take compulsorily or 
by agreement any land in any local area as defined for the purposes of this Order, and 
such taking involves, or may involve, the taking in that area of any house or houses 



297 

occupied either wholly or partially by thirty or more persons of the working' 
class, whether as tenants or lodgers {see page 60 Appendix Housing Handbook, 
line ^i) the promoters shall deposit in the Private Bill Office* and at the Office of 
the Central Authority on or before the 2ist day of December, a statement giving 
the description and postal address of each of such houses, its number on the 
deposit^ed plans, the parish in which it is situate, and the number (so far as can be 
ascertained) of persons of the working class residing in it, and also a copy of so 
much of the deposited plans (if any) as relates thereto. 

"This Order shall not apply where a statement in pursuance of this Order was 
deposited in respect of the Act, the powers of which are proposed to be revived or 
■extended. 

" For the purposes of this Order the expression ' local area ' means — .... 
as respects England and Wales (outside London) any borough, or other urban district, 
and elsewhere than in a borough or other urban district, any parish ; 

"The expression 'house' means any house or part of a house occupied as a 
separate dwelling. 

"The expression 'working class' means mechanics, artizans, labourers, and 
others working for wages, hawkers, costermongers, persons not working for wages 
but working at some trade or handicraft without employing others except members 
of their own family, and persons, other than domestic servants, whose income in any 
case does not exceed an average of thirty shillings a week and the families of any of 
such persons who may be residing with them. 

"The expression 'Central Authority' means .... as regards England 
and Wales (outside London) the Local Government Board .... 

"The expression 'Bill' includes a Bill confirming a Provisional Order." 

* In Standing Order jS (House of Lords) the " Office of the Clerk to the 
Parliaments " is substituted. 

Standing Order 39 (House of Commons). 

"Whenever Plans, Sections, Books of Reference or Maps are deposited in the 
case of a Provisional Order . . . proposed to be made by any Public Department 
or County Council, duplicates of the said Documents shall also be deposited in the 
Private Bill Office* : provided that with regard to such deimsits as are so made at 
any Public Department or with any County Council after the Prorogation of 
Parliament, and before the 30th day of November in any year, such duplicates shall 
be so deposited on or before the 30th day of November." 

* Ths Standing Order ^g (House of Lords) the " Office of the Clerk of the , 
Pat-lianients^' is substituted. 

N.B. — // is particularly reqiiested that the Petition, Declaration, Affidavit, 
Notices and other Documents may be on foolscap paper of the usual size, and that 
whenever more than two copies of any of these documents are required for use such 
doctiments may be printed, so as to facilitate examination. 

S. B. PROVIS, 

Local Government Board,' Secretary. 

Whitehall, 

1st September, igoj. 

COMPULSORY ACQUISITION OF LAND FOR PURPOSES 

OF PART III. 

[Note. — Under the Housing Act of iSgo land for the purposes of Part I II must 
be acquired under the Purchase Clauses of the Public Health Act, i8yj (sections ly^- 
178), and section ij^ hereinafter referred to determines the procedure. 1^ 



Session 1906. 

Provisional Order Instructions A. 

Applications for Provisional Orders to put in force the compulsory powers 
of the Lands Clauses Acts, under section 176 of the Public Health 
Act. 

1. (a) The application must be made by a Petition under the seal of the Local 
Authority, containing the particulars required by section 176 (3) of the Public Health 
Act, 1875. In case of a Rural District Council it is not necessary (unless special 
circumstances would lead to saving of expense) that a separate application be made 
or separate proceedings be taken as regards each Conlril)utory Place affected by the 
proposals. The lands proposed to be purchased should be specified in the petition 
by inserting therein before the prayer of the petition an exact copy of the book of 
reference mentioned in Instructi(jn 4, amended if necessary, so as to show by 
alterations in manuscript any changes or corrections ascertained between the 
preparation of the reference and the sealing of the petition. 

(5) Where it is only intended to carry sewers into, through, or under lands, such 
lands should not be included in the Petition, as the local authority are empowered by 
section 16 of the Public Health Act to carry sewers into, through, or under lands 
without purchasing the lands. See also section 54 as to water mains. 

2. The Petition must be presented not later than the 31st of October if the 
advertisements of the proposal were published in September, not later than the 30th 
November if they were published in October, and not later than the i8lh December 
if they were published in November. 

3. (a) Attention is drawn to the provision in section 176 of the Public Health 
Act, 1875, which empowers local authorities to give in the months of September and 
October, or of October and November, the advertisements and notices which are 
required before they can apply for a Provisional Order to enable them to obtain lands 
by compulsory purchase. The local authority should avail themselves of this power 
as far as jiracticable, so that the Petition may be presented at an earlier date, and so 
as to prevent the possible loss of a Parliamentary Session in the event of errors being 
discovered too late to be remedied. 

(/') The Board have found that in some instances a misapprehension has 
prevailed as to the period within which the advertisements and notices prescribed by 
section 176 of the Public Health Act must be given. The section provides that the 
advertisements shall be published during three consecutive weeks in the months of 
September, October and November, and it is necessary that the three weeks in which 
the publication takes place should all be included in the same month, whichever of 
those above-mentioned is selected for the purpose. Moreover, the advertisements 
'must be published in the newspaper each week, and the notices to the owners, 
lessees, and occupiers of the lands which it is proposed to purchase must in all cases 
be served in the month immediately tollowing that in which the advertisements are 
published. 

(c) The Board have also found that in some cases the deposit of the plan of the 
proposed undertaking at the place to be named in the advertisement referred to in 
section 176 (2) (hereinafter referred to as the "deposited plan") has not been made 
until after the advertisement has been published ; but the deposit should always be 
made at such time as to enable the deposited plan (and sections, if any) to be seen at 
all reasonable hours at the prescribed place so soon as the first advertisement appears. 
The plan should be marked " Deposited Plan" when deposited, and should (together 
with the sections, if any) remain open to inspection at all reasonable hours from the 
date of the deposit until the time when it is sent to the Board with the Petition in 
accordance with Instruction 4 (d). When the deposited plan (and sections, if any) 
are returned by the Board, they should be re-deposited and remain at the prescribed 
place and be open to inspection at all reasonable hours until the Bill to confirm the 
Provisional Order, if an Order is issued, has received the Royal Assent. 



299 .] 

4- {a) As regards the deposited plan and the book of reference, the following 
directions must be strictly complied with : — 

(i) The deposited plan, which should be carefully corrected on the ground, 
should show not only the lands to be purchased, and the parish in 
which they are situated, but also the manner in which those lands will 
be ulilizrd for the purposes in view, and the position, as nearly as 
practicable, of any buildings, tanks, reservoirs, or other works to be 
erected or constructed on the lands. The position in relation to the 
lands of any sewers, pipes, or other works, which may be contemplated 
as part of the undertaking for which the lands are required, should abo 
be shown. In the case of land required for making a new street or 
widening a street, the frontage line of the new street, or of the street 
when widened, should le shown by a hard line of colour ; and the 
deposited plan should be accompanied by sections showing the proposed 
level of the new street in relation to the adjoining lai ds and to any 
existing streets which will communicate with the new street, and 
showing any alteration in the levels of the streets to be widened or 
altered, so far as it effiects lands in that street or the communication 
with any existing streets. In the case of any street proposed to be 
widened, the deposited plan should be figured so as to show the widths 
at all material points of the existing street, and of the street as proposed 
to be widened. Any tramway in such street should be accurately 
indicated on the plan, and the space at material points between the 
outer lines of the tramway and the footpath on each side of the road, 
both before and alter the contemplated improvement, should be given. 

(ii) The deposited plan should be coloured so as to distiuguish the lands 
proposed to be actually purchased, and each parcel of land, notwith- 
standing that several may belong to one owner, should be separately 
numbered, the outside boundaries of each parcel being defined by hard 
lines, and the buildings (if any) on each parcel being linked into it, so 
that it may be seen to what properties each number applies. 

(iii) The book of reference should also be prepared, on the ground, at the 
same time as, and in conjunction with, the deposited plan ; it should 
show the parish in which the lands are situate, each parcel of land 
being numbered to correspond with the deposited plan, and being 
described so as to show clearly what properties are covered by each 
number. [See Instruction i (a).] 

(iv) A copy of the book of reference should be placed with the deposited plan 
at the time of deposit, for local inspection. 

(d) The Petition should be accompanied by a copy of the deposited plan (and 
sections, if any), or of so much thereof as relates to the Petition, and by a book of 
reference (in duplicate), altered (if necessary) to correspond to the copy included in 
the Petition in accordance with Instruction i {a). The deposited plan (and sections, 
if any) should also accompany the Petition for comparison with the copy, and when 
returned by the Board should be re-deposited in accordance with Instruction 3 (r). 

5. [a) A Statutory Declaration specifying the manner in which the notices under 
section 176 were served upon the owners, lessees, and occupiers, and the names of 
the persons so served, should be made by the person who served them, and the 
service must be effected strictly in accordance with one of the modes prescrilied by 
section 267 of the Act. The service should be effected by a responsible person. In 
the event of difficulty arising in ascertaining the actual interests of several owneis, 
lessees, or occupiers where the boundaries between lands are not well or clearly 
defined, and the interests may overlap, it would be well to describe the lands as 
belongmg to all the parties who claim or who are believed to have an interest in the 
lands, and to serve the notices accordingly, so as to avoid possible objection to the 
lands being taken on the ground of want of due notice. 

[6) A Statutory Declaration should also be made by the Clerk to the Local 
Authority, showing that all the other requirements of section 176 and of these 
Instructions have been duly complied with, and the following exhibits should be 



annexed, viz. :^(i) Copies of the newspapers containing the adverrisements ; (2) a 
copy of the form of notice served upon owners, lessees, and occupiers ; and (3) a 
statement showing, with reference to the numbers of the deposited plan, the several 
parcels of land in respect of which notice was served upon each owner, lessee, and 
occupier, and what reply, if any, has been received from the owner, lessee, and 
occupier in respect of each parcel of land. 

6. In the case of land required for widening a street, the fact that the street is 
repairable by the inhabitants at large should be stated in the Peiition. 

7. The Declaration or Declarations should be sent to the Board with the 
Peiition, 

8. Standing Orders 38 and 39 of both Houses of Parliament, extracts from 
which are appended, must be complied with, and immediately after the last of the 
deposits required by the Standing Orders has been made, the Board should be 
furnished with an Affidavit for production to the Examiners of Standing Orders, in 
proof that the requirements of the Standing Orders referred to have been complied 
with. This Affidavit must state definitely that the Plans, Sections, Books of 
Reference or Maps deposited at the Private 13ill Office and at the Office of the Clerk 
of the Parliaments respectively in compliance with Standing Orders 39 above referred 
to, are in accordance with those Orders duplicates of those deposited with the Board. 

9. Where the taking of the land will not involve the acquisition of any house 
or houses, occupied either wholly or partially, by thirty or more persons of the 
working class, whether as tenants or lodgers, this fact should be stated in the 
Affidavit, so as to show that the Standing Order does not apply. 

10. Every Statutory Declaration and Affidavit must be made or sworn before a 
Justice of the Peace or a Commissioner for Oaths, and must be stamped with a half- 
crown impressed stdim"^ ; and each exhibit to a Statutory Declaration or Affidavit must 
be marked by the Declarant or Deponent and by the Justice of the Peace or 
Commissioner for Oaths, as the case may be, in the usual way. 

MEMORANDUM WITH RESPECT TO THE PROVISION AND 
ARRANGEMENT OF DWELLINGS. 

It is extremely important to note that the contents of this 
memorandum are only suggestions and not obligatory building regulations 
imposed by the Local Government Board as a condition of sanctioning any 
housing loan. Mr. Noel Kershaw, Assistant Secretary to the Local 
Government Board, made this clear before the Select Committee on Rural 
Housing, June nth, 1906, in his answers to questions 267-272. In answer 
to Mr. Jas. Rowlands, M.P., he stated that the Board do not impose 
any conditions as to plans and specifications for the construction of 
dwellings under the Act over and above those required by the model 
bye-laws, although they have made suggestions on small matters in 
exceptional cases. 

It may be added that exception might quite reasonably be taken under 
certain circumstances to the detailed enforcement of the suggestions 
indicated below (but not in the original) by brackets. 

The Local Government Board, in connection with schemes and proposals 
submitted to them by local authorities in pursuance of Parts I, II and III, of the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, have had occasion to consider the 
principles which should be observed in the construction of new dwellings, when these 
are provided either by the local authorities themselves, or by other persons under 
grants, leases, or contracts, to which the local authorities are party. 

In this memorandum the Board have summarized their views upon the more 
important of these principles, so far as they are applicable to the erection of (a) 
separate houses or cottages, whether detached, semi-detached, or in rows or terraces ; 
(b) tenement dwellings in houses or blocks ; and (r) buildings intended for use as 
lodging-houses, occupied other than as separate dwellings. 



(a) Separate houses or cottages. 

The ordinary dwelling adapted to the working class family should comprise [a 
living room, with a sctiUery atid pantry attached, and two or three bedrooms — one for 
the parents, and one or two for the children — together with the necessary conveniences 
and out-offices\ In rural districts accommodation may sometimes be conveniently 
arranged in a one-storey cottage, but in urban districts it will be found economical to 
arrange it in a two-storey cottage. 

It is important that every dwelling should be arranged so as to have ample open 
space both in front and at the rear, and on this account back projections should only 
be made where the width or frontage of the building is quite sufficient to secure 
adequate light and air to the rear windows. It is also important that windows 
should open \i7ito such space'] in each storey, so as to ensure adequate through 
ventilation of the dwelling. 

The living room, being the principal one and used by all the inhabitants in 
cominon, ought to be as large and commodious as practicable. [It should have an 
area of not less than 144 square feet and preferably more, with a clear 
height of from 8 to 9 feet.] The pantry or larder is better entered from tne 
living room than actually within it. and, in order that food may l)e kept there without 
being affected by heat or by the air ot the living room, it should, in either case, be 
well lighted and ventilated by a separate wind iw opening into the external air, and 
be well removed from any fireplace or chimney flue. The scullery [which should have 
a floor area of some go square feet, should be entered airectly from the living j-oom, and 
be fitted zuith a sink (with water laid on ), plate-rack, tjr'r. ] and a boiling copper for 
washing purposes. In some districts a bread oven may also be provided in the 
scullery, in which case an oven in the kitchen range in the living room fireplace is 
not so necessary [but a boiler, for hot-water supply, is always indispensabl in the 
kitchen range.] Tne fuel store, whether for c )al or wood, may be ei.her outside m 
the back yard or in a cellar, but wherever a cellar is provided it is important that 
special care should be taken to protect the interior of the house from damp and 
ground-air penetrating the walls of the cellar. The cellar should have means of 
light, and of ventilation into the external air ; and, whether a cellar be provided or 
not, the site of the building should be covered with an impervious layer of cement 
concrete {especial y] if on made or damp ground. Cellars should not be constructed 
in damp or low-lying areas. The staircase should be as independent of the rooms as 
possible in order to obviate its conveying vitiated air from the cellars or living ro 'in 
to the rooms above, and for this reason \_lhe ari-augement of the staircase between the 
front and back rooms is to be avoided] as far as possible. Means of light and 
ventilation should be provided for staircases. There should be a separate wa'er- 
closet for each dwelling [with an entrance under cover if possible — as from a porch — 
direct from the outside]. The bedrooms ought to be as large as the circumstances 
permit {and from 8 to g feec in height throughout]. There should be one bedroom, 
containing at least 1,080 cubic feet, for parents and a child. The second bedroom 
should contain at least 720 cubic feet, and if the space admits a third room somewhat 
smaller may be provided. , 

{The above accommodation will be found adequate for an average of some five 
persons ifi the dwelling.] It may occasionally be desirable to provide an additional 
bedroom in an attic storey, but this is rarely needed for the family, while, where it 
is not so needed and is still provided, it tends to encourage the practice of receiving 
one or more lodgers — a practice which is by no means free fi om objection]. Where 
persons needing lodging accommodation are at all numerous, the sanitary authority 
would do well to consider the expediency of providing suitable lodging-houses under 
the Act. While, however, accommodation in three or four bedroo'ns is 
recommenrJed in each tenement or dwelling, there may frequently be demand for two 
or three-room tenements by persons of a class who would be reluctant to avail 
themselves of the lodging-houses ; and it may be worth considering whether some 
such accommodation might not usefully be provided in the class of dwellings referred 
to below. 



302 

(b) Tenement dwellings in houses and blocks. 

Tenements in houses which consist of a ground-floor tenement reproduced with 
separate entrance upon the first floor come practically within the category of separate 
houses and should he arranged accordingly. In this class of dwelling particular 
attention should he paid to the provision ot suitable access to the first floor dwelling 
[/;-(?/« the fronf^ and access to the yard at the rear, sufficient space being provided 
at the rear to enable such space to lie divided so as to form an adequate {^separate 
yard for each teiieincni~\ and to aftord room for sanitary conveniences for each 
tenement. 

Where tlie dwellings take the form of tenements or flals arranged in blocks, as is 
often necessary in towns and thickly populated areas, care should be taken so to 
arrange each building that ample open space may be provided both in its front and 
its rear, in order that there may lie ample light and free circulation of air about the 
Viuilding. To this end it is desirable to limit the height of the blocks to some three, 
or at most four, storeys, unless the distance across the open space to the front and 
rear be unusually great ; also to restrict the lengih of each block in order that wide 
gaps may be provided between one block and another for promoting circulation of 
air. Blocks of buildings should not be directly connected together at a right angle 
or an acute angle. {^7 he staircase giving access to the several dwellings in a btocR 
should be quite open, on 07ie side at least, to the external ah-\ and of convenient width 
and easy rise, winder steps being avoided as far as practicable. 

■ In the planning of buildngs in blocks, care should be taken that the rooms are 
so arranged that a current of air may pass through them. Ter ements arrangrd back 
to back, or without through ventilation, are open to objection ; and it is undesirable 
that more than two rooms should be approached one from another en suite. 

The dwellings are best arranged so that each staircase will give access to two 
dwellings — one on each side of it — in each storey. Balconies or galleries in each 
storey, having a staircase at each end, are generally objected to as means of access to 
a range of dwellings in a block or serie-; of blocks, as failing to give the same amount 
of privacy that is afforded by the staircase between the vertical sets of dwellings. 

Where dwellings are arranged in blocks, or on the house tenement principle, 
special care becomes necessary that the water-closet requisite for each dwelling is 
contrived so as to be practically outside the dwelling. It can generally be entered 
from a recessed open verandah, which will also be found useful for other purposes. 
Space will have to be found for a sufficient s'ore of fuel, and it is desirable to contrive 
this so that it may be filled from the staircase and thus avoid the dust and dirt that 
would result from bringing in sacks of coal and emptying them inside the dwelling. 
So, too, a dust shoot from each of the upper floors should, if provided, be exterior to 
the dwellings, and would need special contrivance, by means of double doors opening 
and closing together, or by some other means, to prevent it from becoming a nuisance. 
The provision of sinks in the living room is undesirable and should be avoided as 
much as po-sible. 

The construction of the block dwellings must be as reasonably secure from 
danger of fire as possible. The stairs must, of course, be of incombustible material, 
and it is highly desirable that the floors should also be so formed as far as practicable. 
If the roof is constructed flat in order to serve as a place of recreation for children, 
or as a drying place for linen after it has been washed in properly arranged wash- 
houses which may be constructed there, it ma}' serve, in case of fire, as a useful 
means of escape from a staircase which may be temporarily obstructed to another 
staircase in the same block. Where the roof is constructed in this way, however, it 
is desirable to make it not only weather-tight, but as sound-proof as practicable, as 
otherwise the occupiers of the dwellings immediately under the roof are liable to be 
inconvenienced by the noise of children and others above them. 

(c) Lodging-houses. 

It is desirable to limit the size of any building intended for occupation as a 
lodging-house, so that it may be of a capacity to hold \jiot more than some 200 lodgers^ 
It should be arranged so as to secure ample means of through ventilation within it, 
and the utmost facilities for the access of sunlight and for free circulation of air about 
the outside of it. 



The accommodation within, if intended for Loth sexes, must be arranged for the 
complete separation of one sex from the other, except in any case where married 
couples may be received. It should comprise, for each sex, an entrance and a 
staircase to the upper floors, an office being provided in such a position as to control 
the respective entrances for the males and females. A day room with floor-area 
affording some 1 5 square feet to each lodger is requisite, and unless a proper kitchen 
range is provided therein, a general kitchen will also be requisite with suitable range 
or ranges and other appliances where the lodgers may cook their food. A scullery, 
where the food utensils may be cleaned and kept, is also desirable. 

In lodging-houses of large capacity a common room should be provided in 
addition to a dining room. 

The sleeping rooms may appropriately be in the upper storeys, and are best of 
moderate size, holding not more than about 20 lodgers each. They should .be some 
[10 or II feet hi height'] and if provided with good means of ventilation by windows 
in their opposite external sides they may be arranged so that each bed will have some 
5 feet lineal of wall space, 40 square feet of floor-area, and from 300 to 400 cubic feet 
of air space. If, however, the means of ventilation be indifferent, those amounts of 
space ought to be increased. The windows should be arranged as far as practicable 
so as not to come immediately over any bed. 

It may often be desirable to provide a certain proportion of the accommodation 
in separate rooms or cubicles for lodgers who may be able and willing to pay at a 
higher rate for the privilege of privacy. 

The water-closet accommodation should be provided at the rate of one closet for 
*very 15 to 20 lodgers, with urinals for the male sex, and lavatories, with fixed basins 
and strong taps and waste pipes, in the proportion of one basin to about every 10 
lodgers. Sufficient baths and footpans should also be provided. Both the water- 
closets and the lavatories should be on the ground floor, the closets for each sex being 
in a separate yard. But at least one water-closet for occasional use in connection 
with the dormitories may be provided in the upper storeys if it be properly separated 
from the interior of the building by a well-ventilated lobby. A good slop sink, with 
water laid on, should also be provided near the dormitories, likewise a dry clothes 
store closet in which a supply of clean sheets and blankets can be kept. A hot water 
cistern ma}' conveniently be fixed in this store closet, and thus tend to keep the sheets 
well aired. A properly contrived hot closet is also desirable as a means of drying 
the wet clothes of lodgers. 

It is useful to provide in some convenient position a set of lockers in which any 
lodger may place under lock and key any small articles and property which he does 
not desire to carry about with him. 

The structure of the building should be as secure against danger from fire as 
practicable, and in every case it is desirable that alternative means of egress from the 
upper floors should be provided, so that in the event of the staircase in one direction 
being temporarily obstructed by smoke or otherwise, a safe exit may be afforded in 
another direction. 

It must be understood that, in the lodging-houses, as well as in blocks of 
buildings comprising separate dwellings, a certain amount of systematic supervision 
will be requisite to ensure proper cleanliness and order throughout, and to protect the 
several tenants from neglect or carelessness on the part of their neighbours. 

Local Government Board, 

January, iQoj, 



305 



HOMESTEAD SUITABLE FOR SMALL HOLDING, 



LETCHWORTH EXHIBITION, 1907. 

Mr. A. H. Clough's Cottage and Outbuildings. 




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Outbuildings : Floor area, 1,238 ft. super. Stables, 12 ft. by 14 ft. 
Cow Stables, 12 ft. by 12 ft. Piggeries, 26 ft. by 6 ft. Sheds, 26 ft. 
by 10 ft. Barn, 16 ft. by 12 ft. 

A slatement of the cost at which this cottage and farm buildings can be erected 
is exhiliitcd in the cottage. As a guarantee of its correctness, the exhibitor is 
prepared to build one other set of buildings not more than 50 miles fnjm London at 
this price, viz., ;^i65 for the cottage, and jQS^ for the farmstead. 

The cost has Ijeen considerably exceedetl ior the farmstead at Garden City for 
the following reasons — 

( 1 ) The site was very unlevel. 

(2) The long narrow shape of the strip of land allotted made it necessary to 

manage the pigstyes and cart-sheds in the manner shown. 

(3) Drainage, not needed in a rural district, was required. 

(4) Concrete floors were required in the stable and cowsheds. 




The Exhibitor wishes 
to state that while he 
considers the buildings 
shown to be as g' lod value 
as can be got for ;^250 
or ;i^300, he would him- 
self, if less binding con- 
ditions had been laid 
down, have preferred to 
exhibit the buildings of 
which he has sent in 
drawings. 

These are (i) a double 
tenement cotiage costing 
;^22b for two cottages, 
each with four rooms, 
and outbuildings ; (2) a 
farmstead containing a 
cartshed, space for two 
cows and a horse, a pig- 
stye, and space for fodder, 
costing ;^50. 

In his opinion the 
most important element 
of success for small 
holdings is cheapness. 
The cost of equipment 
for each holding with 
these buildings would be 
^160; with ten acres at 
15/- an acre, they could 
be let for ;i{."l6. 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Aberavon, Part III scheme, 89. 

Abercarn, adoption, Part III, 33. 
Aberdeen, financial results, 61, 95 ; 

municipal lodging house, 39 ; 

tenement houses, 46. 
Aberyschan, Small Dwellings Act, 

18. 
Aberystwith, municipal cottages, 

54- 
Accommodation for dispossessed 

tenants, 12, 66, 103, 297. 
Accommodation for working classes 
—nature of. 256; percentage of 
dwellings, 257 ; unsuitable, 13. 
Accumulated funds, L.C.C. dwell- 
ings, j6. 
Acts of Parliament — • 

Housing Act (1903), 12, 279. 
Labourers Ireland Act (1906) 

136. 
Small Holdings Act (1907), 
275. 
Adaptation of dwellings, 17. 
Adoption of Part III, 38, 127. 
Advisory Boards needed, 10. 

Agreements between L.C.C. and 
Metropolitan Boroughs, 284. 

Agricultural belt, 199. 

Agriculture, Board of, and Housing, 
136. 

Air space for houses, 196. 

Alnwick adoption Part III, 33. 

Altrincham cheap municipal cot- 
tagerj, 54, 169. 

Amble Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Amendments of Bye-laws — forms, 
287 ; Housing Acts, 12, 279 ; 
Metropolitan Board of Works 
Loans Act (1869), 2S4 ; Metro- 
polis ^Management Act (1855), 
284 ; Part III, 283 ; Public 
Health Act, 280 ; Procedure, 
281; Rehousing obligations, 284- 
286. 

America and town planning, 198. 

Amsterdam, land purchase, 241 ; 
town planning, 239. 

Analysis of dwellings built and 
financial results, 39 to 63, and 123 ; 
also under Liverpool, London, 
companies. 

Annfield Plain, adoption Part III, 
38. 



Applications to adopt Part III, 6, 
127. 

Area of land cleared in London, 6^ ; 
bought for housing, 67-72; bought 
in German and Dutch towns, 194; 
rooms, continent, 253 ; cost of 
in municipal dwellings, 39-63 ; 
sites of municipal dwellings, 39- 
63 ; company dwellings, 149, 
150 ; co-partnership societies' 
dwellings, 211. 

Arrangement of dwellings, L.G.B. 
regulations, 302. 

Arrears of rent irrecoverable — 
Artizans' Dwellings Company, 
145 ; Liverpool, 103 ; London, 73. 

Artizans' Dwellings Company, 145, 
149, 150. 

Ashton-under-Lyne, adoption Part 
III, 38. 

Austria, 234 to 263 ; see also " Con- 
tinental Housing." 

Aylmerton, rural housing, 127-129. 

Bangor, cheap municipal cottages, 

54, 169, 171. 
'Bannerman, Sir Henry Campbell-, 
and housing proposals of National 
Housing Reform Council, 9. 

Ba;rking Town, Small Dwellings Act, 
18 ; Municipal cottages, 54 ; 
financial results, 61. 

Barnes, municipal cottages, 54 ; 
financial results, 62 and 89 ; rate 
of interest paid, 272. 

Basingstoke, adoption Part III, 38. 

Bath, Dolemeads municipal dwell- 
ings, 89 ; slum buying, 19. 

Battersea, cottage flats, 50 ; Latch- 
mere estate, 82 ; plans, 82, 86 ; 
tabular details, 87 ; L.C.C. block 
dwellings, yj. 

Bedlington, adoption Part III, 38. 

Bedwellty, adoption Part III, 38 ; 
Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Belfast, free travel tickets, 96 ; 
municipal lodging house, 39. 

Belgium, 234 to 263 ; see also 
" Continental Housing " ; cheap 
fares, 265 ; cheap money, 270. 

Bermondsey Borough Council dwell- 
ings, 82, 87 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 

77- 
Bethnal Green, L.C.C. dwellings, tj. 



Bills, England Development Bill, 
230; rural housing, 271. 

Birds Hill, Garden City, cottages, 
213 ; site plan, 212 ; statistics, 
211. 

Birkenhead, financial results, 63 ; 
municipal cottages, 54 ; new 
scheme, 89 ; slum buying, 19, 
20 ; Small Dwellings Act, 18 ; 
tenement houses, 46. 

Birmingham, action under Part II, 
27-32 ; Bordesley Green leasing 
scheme, 98 ; municipal cottages, 
54 ; cottage flats, 50, 99 ; courts 
and slums, 22, 23 ; death rates, 
3 ; financial results, 63 ; Flood- 
gate area, 26 ; infant mortality, 
3 ; overcrowding, 2, 22 ; 
slum buying, 19, 20 ; town plan- 
ning, 99. 

Blackburn, adoption Part III, 38. 

Blaydon-on-T}Tie, adoption Part 

lii, 38. 

Block dwellings, additional, 40 ; 
area of sites, 42 ; building, cost 
of, 41 ; cost per room, 43, 44 ; 
rents, 42 ; rooms per acre, 42 ; 
statistical tables, 43, 44 ; work- 
ing expenses : London, 72, 73 ; 
provinces, 63 ; Glasgow, 100 ; 
companies, 149. 

Bodmin, adoption Part III, 38. 

Bognor, municipal cottages, 54. 

Bolton, slum buying, 19. 

Bonsall, adoption Part III, 38. 

Borrowing powers of local authori- 
ties — consent of Local Govern- 
ment Board necessary, 7 ; exten- 
sion of, 13, 279 ; of individuals 
and societies, 268, 269. 

Bournemouth, slum buying, 19. 

Bournville, death rate, 2 ; child life 
and infant mortality, 3 ; develop- 
ment of village, 222 ; tenants' 
society, 223. 

Bradford, slum buying, 19 ; muni- 
cipal cottages, 54 ; details of 
housing, 89 ; financial results, 6^. 

Bradwell, rural housing scheme, 
127, 134- 

Bratton, rural housmg scheme, 127, 

134. 135- 
Brentford, municipal cottage flats, 

50 ; financial results, 61. 
Brentwood, adoption of Part III, 38. 
Brighton, municipal cottages, 55 ; 

financial results, 61 ; general 

notes, 89 ; slum buying, 19, 20. 
Bristol, Small Dwellings Act, 18. 
Brixworth, rural housing, 127, 129. 



BrynmawT, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Building Byelaws — alteration of, 
199 ; apathy of local authorities, 
6 ; town planning, 194 ; con- 
tinental, 246, 253 ; reform needed, 
201, 207 ; rural districts, 200. 

Building companies, 143, 269, 270. 

Building, cost of, see cost of build- 
ing ; in Ireland, 138, 139. 

Building line, 196 ; regulations, 
continent, 240 ; regulations. Local 
Government Board, 300 ; zones 
suggested, 197. 

Burns, Rt. Hon. John, M.P., circu- 
lar on byelaws, 6 ; at Inter- 
national Housing Congress, 231 ; 
promise to National Housing 
Reform Council deputation, i, 
191 ; statement to Association 
of Municipal Corporations, 192. 

Burton-on-Trent, municipal cot- 
tages, 55 ; financial results, 61. 

Byelaws, alteration of, 199 ; 
building, see building byelaws ; 
rural code, 200 ; streets, 195. 

Cadbury, Mr. George, and Bourn- 
ville village, 223 ; and town 
planning, 191. 

Camberley, Part III scheme, 90. 

Camberwell, Grove Road muni- 
cipal dwellings, 83 ; HoUington 
Street area, 32 ; slum improve- 
ment procedure under Part III, 
33 ; tabular details, 87 ; finan- 
cial results, 34, 83. 

Cambourne, byelaw difficulties, 90. 

Cambridge, County Council and 
Part HI, 127, 135. 

Capital outlaj-, on Housing, 38-60, 
61-63, 123 ; London, 64, 65, 
72, 87 ; slum buying, 19, 20, 65 ; 
tramways, 265. 

Cardiff, adoption Part HI, 38. 

Carlisle, cottage flats, 50 ; financial 
results, 90. 

Charitable endowments and Hous- 
ing, 270, 271. 

Cheap building, see cheap cottages. 

Cheap cottages, 154; exhibitions, 
Letchworth, 157, 160 ; New- 
castle, 166 ; Sheffield, 161 ; Leigh 
model village, 187 ; municipal 
experiments, 169-186 ; purchase 
by Sheffield Corporation, 163 ; 
Sheffield, first prize. Class A. 162 ; 
Class B, 163 ; 

Cheap fares in Belgium, 265 ; 
land, 192-4, 216; money, 
Belgium, 270; Ireland, 139. 



Chelmsford, adaptation, 90. 
Chelsea, Borough Council dwellings, 

83. »7- 
Cheltenham, adoption Part III, 38. 

Cheriton, Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Cheshunt, Small Dwellings Act, 18. 
Chester, County Council and Part 

III, 127, 135. 
Chester, municipal cottages, 55 ; 

financial results, 61 ; new scheme, 

90. 
Child life and Housing, 3, 26. 
Chipperfield Housing scheme, 127, 

131- 
Chiswick, municipal dwellings, 90. 

Census returns, overcrowding, 2. 

Central Housing commissioners, 
need for, 192 ; urged by Housing 
deputation, 9 ; lessons of Chip- 
perfield case, 127, 131. 

Central small holdings' commis- 
sioners appointed, 275 ; State 
Housing departments, 238. 

Certificate of IM.O.H. as to adapted 
dwellings, 17. 

Circulars, Local Government Board, 
byelaws, 6 ; closing orders, 292, 
296. 

Clerkenwell, L.C.C. dwellings, jy. 

Clonmel, municipal cottages, 55. 

Closing orders, granted, 21, 22 ; 
Hull, 27 ; Birmingham, 28 ; 
new forms, 289-292 ; new pro- 
cedure, 12, 284 ; L.G.B. circular. 
292-296 ; Darlington local Act, 

273- 
Clearance schemes, London, 61; ; 
provinces, 19, 20 ; see also 
" slum buying." 

Companies, housing estates of, 143— 
148 ; financial results, 149-150; 
loans to, 268-270. 

Commissioners, see Central Housing 
commissioners. 

Committees, Parliamentary, select 
on ; rural housing, 124 ; recom- 
mendations, 126. 

Community of life and interest 
encouraged at Earswick, 228. 

Compulsory acquisition of land, 
241, 245, 275. 

Concrete block dwellings, 159. 

Consett, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Construction of streets, existing 

powers, 196. 
Consumption and Housing, Dr. 

Koch on, 3. 



Continental housing law and prac- 
tice, 231-263 ; accommodation, 
nature of, 256 ; authorities, 237 ; 
building, 240 ; chief housing laws 

234 ; compulsory land purchase, 
241, 242 ; cost of building, 259 ; 
death rates, 258 ; duties of 
authorities, 237 ; land purchase, 
240, 193, 194 ; loans by State, 
248 ; latest laws, provisions of, 

235 ; new streets and roads, 246 ; 
open space near dwellings, 246 ; 
rate of interest, 249 ; rents, 261 ; 
rooms, area and height, 253 ; 
site planning, 204 ; taxes on 
dwellings and site values, 252 ; 
towm planning, 194, 239 ; walls, 
thickness of, 254, 255. 

Contracting out of sectiofi 75 

forbidden, 285. 
Co-operation and Housing, 151. 

Co-partnership housing societies, 

209-215. 
Cost of bad housing conditions, 5 ; 

building block dwellings, 41, 43 ; 

cottages, 53, 54 ; cottage flats, 

49, 50 ; lodging houses, 39 ; 
tenement houses, 45, 46 ; see 
also 259, 260, 149, 150, 152, 154- 
189, 211 ; developing land, 162, 
164, 201, 202, 206 ; equipping 
land with free trams, 266 ; land 
in continental countries, 242, 
245 ; repairs, municipal dwellings, 
61, 63, 72, 272 ; roads and 
sewers, 202, also 52 ; tables, 
53-60; sites, 41, 43, 45, 46, 49, 

50, 52, 54 : slums, 5, 19, 20, 65 ; 
superintendence of municipal 
dwellings, 61, 63, 72. 

Costessey, rural housing, 127, 129. 

Cottages, Artizans' Dwelling Com- 
pany, 150 ; analysis of number, 
rent, rooms, cost of building and 
sites, roads and sewers, 52, 53 ; 
cheap, see cheap cottages ; co- 
partnership estates, 211; model at 
Leigh, 187 ; municipal, details 
of, 54-60 ; financial results, 61-62 ; 
rates, repairs, superintendence, 
see working expenses ; regula- 
tions for building b}- L.G.B., 303 ; 

Cottage flats, municipal, analysis 
of site cost, site area, building 
cost, and rents, 49 ; tables giving 
details, 50-52. 

County Councils and Part III, 6, 
127-133 ; sanitary committee 
should be statutory, 16. 



Coventry, adoption Part III, 38 ; 

slum buying, 19, 20 ; new scheme, 

90. 
Croydon, municipal lodging house, 

39 ; cottages, 55 ; new scheme, 

90 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 80. 
Darlington, closing order under 

local Act, 273. 
Darwen, municipal cottages, 55 ; 

slum buying, 20. 
Dawlish, adoption Part III, 38. 
Death rates, comparison of, 2 ; 

continental countries, 258 ; cities, 

75 ; decrease in London, 75 ; 

Liverpool, 115 ; Glasgow, 100. 
Definitions, 288. 
Demolition orders under Part II, 

21, 22, 28 ; recovery of cost, 284. 
Deptford, L.C.C. dwellings, yj. 
Depth of open space for dwellings, 

196. 
Devizes, leasing municipal land, 90. 
Devonport, slum buying, 19, 20 ; 

municipal tenement houses, 46 ; 

financial results, 63. 
Direction of streets, existing powers, 

195- 
Donington, rural housing, 127, 129. 
Driffield, rural housing, 133. 
Drogheda, municipal dwellings, 96. 
Dublin, clearance schemes, 96 ; 

municipal block dwellings, 43 ; 

cottage flats, 50. 
Dudley, clearance schemes, 19 ; 

adoption of Part III, 38. 
Durham, County Council and Part 

III, 127, 134 ; death rate, infant 

mortality, and overcrowding, 2. 
Dwelling house, definition of, 286. 

Ealing, municipal cottages, 55 ; 

cottage flats, 50 ; financial results, 

63, 91 ; Tenants Ltd., growth of, 

209, 214 ; site plan, 207. 
East EUoe, rural housing, 127. 
East End Dwellings Company, 146, 

149. 
East Grinstead (Rural), adoption of 

Part III, 38 ; result, increase of 

private enterprise, 128. 
East Grinstead (Urban), municipal 

cottages, 55. 
East Ham, municipal cottage flats, 

50 ; financial results, 62. 
Eastholm Green, cottages and plan, 

215. 
Ebbw Vale, adoption of Part III, 

38. 
Eccles, slum buying, 20 ; municipal 
cottages, 55. 



Ecclesiastical Commissioners' estates 
151. 

Edinburgh, municipal block dwell- 
ings, 42 ; details, 43 ; financial 
results, 95. 

Edmonton, adoption Part III, 38. 

Empties, amount lost by — Artizans' 
Dwelling Co., 145 ; Glasgow, 100 ; 
Liverpool, 116; London, j-},. 

Enfield, Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Erpingham, rural housing difficul- 
ties, 127. 

Esher, municipal cottages, 56 ; 
financial results, 62. 

Essex, County Council and Part III, 
127, 134 ; deaths, infant mor- 
tality, and overcrowding, 2. 

Exeter, municipal cheap cottages, 
56, 172-174- 

Expenses, see working expenses. 

Expropriation, see compulsory pur- 
chase and clearance. 

Extension of periods of loans, 279. 

Factory area. Garden City, 218 ; 

areas reserved in town plans, 

194-197. 
Fair Rent Courts, John Dillon, 

M.P. on, 214. 
Farnham, municipal cottages, 56 ; 

financial results, 62. 
Financial arrangements, continen- 
tal and various, 248 ; England, 

268. 
Financial results : 

Birmingham leasing scheme, Bor- 
desley Green, 98, 99. 

Companies, 149, 150. 

Municipal housing schemes, 61- 
63, 123. 

Ireland, 138-140. 

Slum buying schemes. Part I, 
19 ; Part II, 20 ; Camberwell, 
34 ; Kensington, 36 ; Liver- 
pool, 103 ; London, 65. 

Tramways, company and muni- 
cipal, 265. 
Finchley, municipal cottages, 56, 

91. 
Finsbury, L.C.C. dwellings, TJ. 
Flockton, Part III scheme, 91. 
Floodgate Street area, Birmingham, 

26. 
Folkestone, municipal cottages, 56 ; 

financial results, 62. 
Forehoe, rural housing, 127, 129, 

130. 
Forms, new for closing orders, 289- 

292 ; of representation by la- 
bourers, 141. 



Four per cent, dwellings, 146, 149. 

France, housing law and practice, 
234, 263 ; see also under con- 
tinental housing. 

Free Tramways, 266, 267. 

French Housing Law (1906), 236. 

Garden City (Letchworth) — archi- 
tectural features, 220 ; building 
byelaws, 219 ; capital outlay, 
216 ; cottage estates, 218 ; exhi- 
bitions, 218, 157, 160 ; electricity 
works, factory area, gasworks, 
land tenure, open spaces, 218 ; 
plan of town area, 217 ; popula- 
tion, rates, rents, roads, small 
holdings societies, 219 ; sewage, 
waterworks, 218 ; some criti- 
cisms, 220. 

Gardens, enlarged by municipal 
action (Ireland), 141 ; import- 
ance of Earswick, 227 ; produce 
of, Bournville, 223. 

Garden Suburb, Hampstead, 229 ; 
Shefiield, 161. 

Garden Village, Bournville, 222 ; 
Earswick, 224 ; Port Sunlight, 
221. 

Gillingham, Small Dwellings Act, 
18. 

Glasgow, children, comparative 
heights and weights in various 
kinds of dwellings, 4 ; cost of 
building, 102 ; Dwellings Com- 
pany, 1 8 ; municipal block dwell- 
ings, 43 ; family home, 40 ; 
lodging houses, 39 ; results, 
financial and social, 100 ; Tron- 
gate area, loi ; slum buying, 19. 

German land ' purchase, 194; site 
planning, 204 ; societies of public 
utility, 209 ; towns and housing, 
234—263 ; town planning, 194. 

Germany, housing law and practice, 
234-263 ; see also Continental 
Housing. 

Glamorgan, County Council and 
Part HI, 127. 

Government, central and local au- 
thorities, 9. 

Grays, municipal cottages, 56 ; 
financial results, 62. 

Greenford, adoption Part III, 38. 

Greenwich, L.C.C. dwellings, 78. 

Guildford, municipal cottages, 56, 
175, 176. 

Guinness Trust, 146, 149. 

Gurney, Miss Sybella, on town 
planning, 199. 



Great Yarmouth, municipal dwell- 
ings, 95 ; site planning, 196. 

Great Witchingham, rural housing, 
127, 128, 129. ^ .,i 

Hackney, Borough Council dwell- 
ings, 83 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 78. 

Hadlow, rural housing, 127, 128. 

Ham, adoption Part III, 38. 

Hampstead, Borough Council dwell- 
ings, 84, 87 ; garden suburb, 230; 
tenants, 214. 

Hampton, Part III scheme, 91. 

Hammersmith, Borough Council 
dwellings, 84, 87. 

Hanley, adoption Part III, 38. 

Han well, adoption Part III, 38 ; 
Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Harborne tenants, 214. 

Hartlepool, adoption Part III, 38. 

Health, statutory- committees, 126.. 

Height of rooms, bj-elaws, 201 ; 
continent, 253. 

Hendon, adoption Part III, 38 ; 
scheme, 91. 

Hereford, municipal cottages, 56, 
91 ; financial results, 63 ; slum 
buying, 20. 

Hertford, adoption Part III, 38. 

Herts, County Council and Part III, 
127. 131- 

Heston Isleworth, municipal cot- 
tages, 56, 91. 

Hexham, rural housing, 127, 128. 

Hodgson, Mr. C. D., rural land 
purchase scheme, 198. 

Holborn, L.C.C. dwellings, 78. 

Holland, 234 to 263, see also Con- 
tinental Housing ; municipal land 
purchase, 194 ; Public Health 
Act, 236 ; town planning, 235^. 

Home Office, powers transferred to 
Local Government Board, 282 ; 
temporary duties, 286. 

Hornsey, municipal cottage flats, 
50 ; cottages, 56 ; financial re- 
sults, 62, 91 ; new scheme, 92. 

Horsford and rural housing, 128. 

House agents, campaign against 
better housing, 8. 

House to house inspection needed, 
9, 14, 16. 

Housing authorities, 237 ; finance, 
268 ; laws, 234-235 ; loans, 248 ; 
municipal schemes. Chapters IV, 
V, VI, VIII ; valuation and L.C.C. 
slum sites, ji. 

Housing of Working Classes Act 
(1903) alterations effected by, 12 ; 
text and notes, 279. 



How to form a co-partnership 

housing society, 215. 
Huddersfield, municipal cottages, 

57 ; lodging house, 39 ; financial 

results, 62. 
Hull, closing orders Part TI, 27 ; 

municipal dwellings, 92. 

Ilford, Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Improved Industrial Dwellings 
Company, 149. 

Improved housing conditions in 
recent years, i. 

Improvement schemes, amended 
provisions as to, 12, 282 ; con- 
firmation, advertisement, en- 
forcement, and modification, 12, 
283 ; Local Government Board 
circular, 296 ; see also under 
clearance, slum buying, etc. 

Income tax, on municipal dwellings, 

■ 271. 

Infant mortality and housing con- 
ditions, 3, 26. 

Infectious disease, cases notified, 
3 ; various districts, 5, 75, loi. 

Initiative powers, needed in Eng- 
land, 9 ; possessed in Ireland, 
136, 141 ; 

Inspection, house to house, needed, 
6 ; what it reveals, 14 ; rural, 

273- 

Inspectors, independence necessary, 
15 ; rural, 273 ; women, 15. 

Intemperance and housing con- 
ditions, 3. 

International Housing Congress, 
231 ; facts and figures, 233-260. 

Ireland, example of, 1 36 ; munici- 
pal cottages, in rural districts, 
138; representation by labourers 
141. 

Islington, L.C.C. dwellings, 78. 

Italy, housing law and practice, 
234 to 263 ; see details under 
Continental Housing. 

Keighley, municipal cottages, 57. 
Kensington, slum buying. Part III, 

34-36. 
Kent, County Council and^Part III, 

127, 128, 134. 
King's Langley, rural housing, 127, 

131- 
Kiveton Park, rural housing, 127, 

128. 

Labourers Acts (Ireland), 136. 

Lambeth, Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners' estates, 151; L.C.C. 
dwellings, 79. 



Lancaster, adoption of Part III, 
38 ; municipal lodging house, 39 ; 
slum buying, 20. 

Lancashire, deaths, infant mortality 

Land, acquisition of, 240-246 ; 
299-302 ; development, cost of, 
201, 202 ; equipment with free 
trams, 267 ; housing and transit 
under one authority, 190 ; pur- 
chase necessary, 10, 192, 193 ; 
raw material of town extension, 
190. 

Landowners, housing under Land 
Improvement Acts, 135. 

Leeds, overcrowding, 2 ; slum buy- 
ing, 19, 20 ; municipal cottages, 
57 ; financial results, 62. 

Leicester County Council and Part 
III, 127, 128 ; municipal tene- 
ment houses, 46 ; financial re- 
sults, 63. 

Leigh (Kent), model village, 187 ; 
plans and elevation, 188. 

Leigh (Lancashire), municipal cot- 
tages, 57 ; slum buying, 19. 

Leith, municipal lodging house, 39 ; 
housing schemes, 96. 

Letchworth (Garden City), 216 ; 
cottage exhibitions, i55-i'58. 

Lever, M.P., Mr. W. H., and chil- 
dren, 3, 221 ; Port Sunlight, 
221, 222 ; suburban develop- 
ment scheme, 198. 

Lichfield, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Lighting, etc., cost of in block 
dw^ellings, see working expenses. 

Limitation of rooms per acre, 207, 
256. 

Lincoln County Council and Part 
III, 127, 128, 129. 

Linthwaite, municipal cottages, 57. 

Linton, municipal cottages, 60, 135. 

Liverpool, Adlington Street area, 
109-112; analysis of financial 
results of housing, 113; block 
dwellings, 44 ; child life, over- 
crowding, and physical deteriora- 
tion, 2, 3 ; concrete dwellings, 
113; cottage flats, 5 1 ; dis- 
possessed tenants, rehousing of, 
103, 112; tenement dwellings, 
46, 47 ; Eldon Street concrete 
dwellings, 113; financial results, 
of housing schemes, 63, 104, 114 ; 
Hornby Street area, 105 ; local 
improvements .=cheme, 19 ; Small 
Dwellings Act, 18 ; social results 
of housing schemes, 115; twelve 



interesting points, ii6; Upper 
Main Street dwellings, 112. 

Llandudno, municipal cottages, 57 ; 
effect on private enterprise, 93. 

Loan charges, excessive, 7, 27, 272 ; 
other countries, 249 ; new table 
showing annual instalments, 97. 

Loans, limitation for housing pur- 
poses abolished, 282 ; period 
extended, 281, 286 ; Part I, 19. 
66 ; Part II, 20, 66 ; Part III, 
38, 65. 

Local Acts closing orders, 273 ; 
rehousing obligations, 282 ; au- 
thorities, inaction of, 6 ; reasons 
for inaction, 7. 

Local Government Board, building 
regulations, 302 ; circular, 290 
control over borrowing powers 
7 ; powers transferred to, 280 
may enforce improvement scheme 
280 ; may modify scheme, 281 
may prescribe forms, 282 ; may 
permit provision of shops, re- 
creation grounds, etc., under 
Part III, 283 ; may require new 
dwellings to be built before dis- 
placement, 285 ; may determine 
number to be rehoused, 285 ; new 
forms issued by, 287. 

Local housing officials, 239. 

Local option at Port Sunlight, 221. 

Lodging houses, L.G.B. regulations, 
304 ; municipal statistics as to 
beds, cost, charge per night, 
receipts, expenses, repairs, rates, 
taxes, 39. 

London, Borough Councils, block 
dwellings, 44, 87, 88 ; closing 
orders. Part II, 21 ; cottages, 
57. 87, 88. 

London, Count}'' Council, 64-76 ; 
analysis of housing finances, 65, 
66, 72, 73 ; block dwellings, 
additional, 43, 44, 67 ; clearance 
of slum areas, 65, 66 ; closing 
orders, Part II, 21, 286 ; cottages 
erected, 57, 68 ; lodging houses, 
39 ; financial results, 72 ; general 
summary of work, 65 ; rooms 
provided, 67 ; tabular details of 
dwellings erected, jj , 78 ; work- 
ing expenses of dwellings, 72, j'i,. 

Lunacy, in overcrowded districts, 3. 

Management of dwellings, see work- 
ing expenses. 

Materials, cheap for building, 156. 

Mandamus, to enforce improve- 
ment scheme, 282. 



Marlborough, adoption of Part III, 

38. 
^Nleans of communication, 10, 190. 
Memorandum, L.G.B. on building 

municipal dwellings, 302. 
Mereworth, rural housing, 127, 128. 
Merthyr Tj^dfil, municipal cottages, 

57, 181 ; financial results, 62. 
Metropolis, Management Act (1855) 

amendment of, 286. 

Metropolitan Association for im- 
proving the dwellings of the 
industrial classes, 147, 149 ; 
Boroughs, see London ; Loans 
Act (1869) amendment of, 286. 

Mewes, Dr. W., on tovra. develop- 
raent, 194. 

Middlesbrough, municipal cottages, 
58 ; financial results, 62. 

Mackarness, M.P., Mr. F. C, and 
Rural Housing Bill, 271. 

Mahaim, E., Professor, on Belgian 
railwaj^s, 265. 

Main Road, Wiesbaden, 195. 

Main roads and town planning. 

Maidens and Coombe, Small Dwell- 
ings Act, 18. 

Maldon, R.D.C., rural housing, 60 ; 
financial results, 134. 

Malpas, municipal cottage scheme, 
38, 135- 

Manchester, closing orders. Part II, 
21 ; municipal block dwellings, 
44 ; cottages, 57 ; lodging houses 
39 ; tenement houses, 47 ; finan- 
cial results, 63 ; overcrowding, 2; 
slum buj'ing, 19, 20 ; 

Mitcham, rural housing, 127, 128. 

Model cottages, see cheap cottages. 

Money, borrowing, allowed for 80 
years, 281 ; London, 286 ; cheap, 
see cheap money and loans. 

Morpeth, adoption of Part III, i^. 

Moulton, rural housing, 127, 129. 

Municipal building has stimulated 
private enterprise, 1 1 ; cottage 
exhibitions, Newcastle, 166 ; 
Sheffield, 166 ; disabilities re- 
moval bill wanted, 8 ; dwellings, 
continent, 259 ; England, Chap- 
ters III, IV, V, VI, VIII, ; family 
home, Glasgow, 40 ; housing 
how crippled, 7 ; wrecked, 8. 

Municipal housing, London, 64. 

Municipal land purchase, example 
of Germany and Holland, 194 ; 
comparison of Richmond and 
Ulm, 193 ; lodging houses, 39. 



Naiityglo and Blaina, adoption of 

Part III, 38. 
Nantwich, adoption of Part III, 38 ; 

reports, 93. 
National housing deputation, 9, 

191 ; policy, 9. 
National Housing Reform Council 

and town planning, 191. 
National Society for promoting light 

railways, 266. 
Neath, cheap municipal cottages, 

58, 177-180. 
Neighbouring lands and Part II 

schemes, 284. 
Nettlefold, Councillor, work in 

Birmingham, 27. 
Newcastle-on-Tjme, cottage exhi- 
bition, 118, 166; cottage flats, 

51 ; single room dwellings, 118 ; 

site plans, prize designs, 167, 168. 
Newport, adoption of Part III, 38, 
New Zealand, recent Building Acts. 

232, 233. 
Neville, Justice, and land purchase, 

230. 
Norbury, Estate L.C.C., 80, 88. 
Norfolk, Countjr Council and Part 

III, 127-129. 
Northampton, County Council and 

Part III, 127-129. 
Northumberland, County Council 

and Part III, 127, 128 ; deaths, 

infant mortality, and overcrowd- 
ing, 2. 
Norway, 262. 

Norwich, tenement dwellings, 48. 
Notice to abate, unnecessary under 

Part II, 284 ; service of, 285. 
Nottingham, action. Part II, 21 ; 

block dwellings, 44 ; cottages, 58. 

Occupations of tenants of munici- 
pal dwellings, Liverpool, 117; 
London, 76. 

Old Oak Common Estate, Ham- 
mersmith, 71. 

Open spaces, 194, 197, 199 ; Garden 
City, 218, 239, 246. 

Orders, see provisional order, clos- 
ing order. 

Ormskirk, slum buying, 20. 

Ossett, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Overcrowding, continent, 256, 257 ; 
urban, 1-3. 

Panteg, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Parliamentary committees, re- 
housing, repayment of loans, 
and savings bank funds, 270. 

Part I, schemes, 19. 



Part II, schemes, 20 ; closing orders 
under, 21, 22 ; representation of 
unhealthy houses, 22. 

Part III, applications to adopt, 127; 
refused, 128 ; granted, 129 ; 
limitation on action of local 
authorities, 7 ; schemes in rural 
districts, 133-135 ," in urban 
districts, 38-64 ; loans granted, 

38-64- 
Paupers receiving medical relief, 3. 

Peabody, donation fund, 147, 149. 
Penalties for contraveningrehousing 

law, 288. 
Penshurst, rural housing, 127, 134. 
Period of repayment of loans, 38 ; 

continent, 250. 

Perth, municipal dwellings, 96. 
Pevensey, rural housing, 127, 128. 
Physical deterioration and housing, 

3- 
Plans, see town planning, site 

planning. 
Plymouth, municipal cottages, 58 ; 

cottage fiats, 51 ; tenement 

houses, 48 ; financial results, 62, 

63 ; slum buying, 19, 20 ; social 

results, 93. 
Pontardawe, Small Dwellings Act, 

18 ; Part III, 127. 
Poplar, L.C.C. dweUings, 79. 
Population of various districts, 2, 

3, 4, 40-60. 
Portsmouth, slum buying, 19. 
Port Sunlight, gymnasium, local 

option, repairs, 221 ; height and 

weight of schoolboys, 4. 
Possession, recovery of, 12. 
Powers, new, needed — closing or- 
ders, initiative for individuals 

and societies, inspection, land 

purchase, representation for Part 

III, slum clearance, stimulus by 

central government, 9. 
Prescot, municipal cheap cottages, 

183, 58 ; financial results, 62 ; 

slum buying, 19, 20. 
Private enterprise, housing by, 143 ; 

stimulated by municipal activity, 

1 1. 
Provisional orders and Parliament, 

instructions, Part I and II, 295 ; 

standing orders, 298. 
Public Health Act, amendment of, 

282. 
Public Works, loans commissioners, 

268 ; regulations for loans, 269. 
Purchase of land, see land purchase. 



Quarry Bank, adoption of Part III, 
38. 

Rates andrtaxes,f272 ; :' on munici- 
pal dwellings, provinces, 61-63 '• 
Glasgow, 100; Liverpool, 113- 
114 ; London, y^ ; private com- 
panies' dwellings, 149, 150. 

Rate of interest, continent, 249 ; 
England, 272 ; 

Rathmines municipal dwellings, 97. 

Ratio of taxes to rent, continent, 
252. 

Receipts of working class dwellings, 
61-63, 113, 114, 72, 73. 

Recovery of possession, 285 ; cost 
of demolition, 284. 

Recommendations, select com- 
mittee rural housing, 126. 

Recreation grounds, under Part III, 
285. 

Reform of Housing Acts, L.C.C. 
proposals, 74 ; national housing 
deputation, 9. 

Register of housing accommoda- 
tion — ad\ocated by Duke of 
Devonshire's commission, 16 ; 
national housing deputation, 9 ; 
select committee on rural hous- 
ing, 16. 

Regulations for loans to housing 
societies and individuals, 269. 

Rehousing, obligations extended, 
13, 282, 288 ; penalties for neg- 
lect, 288 ;, power to acquire sites, 
287 ; schemes, L.C.C, 64 ; to 
precede displacement, 286 ; work- 
ing classes affected by, 287. 

Rents of municipal dwellings, 
blocks, 40-44 ; cottages, 53-60 ; 
cottage flats, 49-52 ; tenement 
houses, 45-48 ; on continent, 
260. 

Repairs, municipal provincial dwell- 
ings, 61-63 ; London, y^ ; Liver- 
pool, 113, 114; companies, 149; 
cottages, 150; general, 272. 

Repaj'ment of Loans, see loans and 
loan charges. 

Representation, forms of, Ireland, 
141 ; of dwellings unfit for habi- 
tation, 6 ; under Parts I and II, 
283. 

Rhyl, municipal cottages, 58. 

Richmond, municipal cottage flats, 
51 ; cottages, 58 ; financial 
results, 62, 93 ; Part I scheme, 
94 ; land purchase, 193. 

Risca, municipal cottages, 58, 94. 

Roads and sewers, cost of, 52, 202. 



Rooms, area, and height of contin- 
ent, 253 ; number in municipal 
dwellings, 40-52 ; London, 67 ; 
cost of, 40-60. 

Rotherham, adoption of Part III, 
38 ; municipal cottages, 94. 

Rowntree, Mr. Joseph, and Ears- 
wick village, 224. 

Rowton houses, 143. 

Rural depopulation, i ; housing, 
124 ; inquiries, 125 ; applica- 
tions to adopt Part III, 127 ; 
water supplies, 10 ; inspection, 
273- 

Salford, municipal cottages, 58 ; 
lodging house, 39 ; tenement 
houses, 48 ; financial results, 62, 
63, 94 ; slum buying, 19, 20. 

Savings banks, loans from, 270. 

Schedule to Act of 1903, 286. 

Schemes, see improvement, also 
Part I, II, III. 

Scientific areas for town planning, 
192. 

Selby, adoption of Part III, 38. 

Sevenoaks, municipal cottages, 60 ; 
results, 62 ; tenants, 208. 

S. Faith's, rural housing, 127. 

Sheffield cottage exhibition — j udges' 
report, 164 ; prize cottages, 162, 
163, 165 ; site development, cost 
of, 162 ; site plan, 161 ; cheap 
cottages, 68, 184; Health Asso- 
ciation, 5 ; slum buying, 19, 20 ; 
municipal cottages, 59, 119, 121 ; 
tenement houses, 48 ; financial 
results, 62 ; overcrowding, 2 ; 
cost of bad housing, 5 ; Winco- 
bank Avenue scheme, 185, 186. 

Shipley, municipal dwellings, 94. 

Shops, provision of, under Part III, 
285. 

Shoreditch, Borough Council, dwell- 
ings, 84 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 79. 

Sinking fund, see loans charge, 
repayment, etc. 

Site development, comparative cost 
of, 162 ; planning, 162 ; Birds 
HiU, 212 ; Ealing Tenants, 207 ; 
Hampstead, 226 ; Leigh, 202 ; 
Newcastle, 168 ; Pixmore Hill, 
212; Westholm Green, 214; 
Wildau, 202. ; Unwin, Raymond, 
on, 208. 

Site taxes, continent, 252. 

Sites of municipal dwellings, area 
and cost, 41-60. 

Size of sites, rooms, etc., 40-60. 



Slum, analysis of cost to public, 
20 ; buying under Part I, 19 ; 
Part II, 20 ; improvements under 
Parts II and III, 21-36. 

Small Dwellings Act, 6, 18. 

Small Holdings Act, 275 ; exam- 
ples, 274; Garden City, 219. 

S. Marylebone, Borough Council 
dwellings, 84. 

S. Pancras, Borough Council dwell- 
ings, 84, 88 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 

79- 
Societies of public utility, 209 ; 

loans to, 269. 
Southall-Norwood, Small Dwellings 

Act, 18. 
Southampton, rhunicipal dwellings, 

94 ; lodging house, 39 ; slum 

buying, 19, 20 ; financial results, 

63- 
Southend-on-Sea, municipal cot- 
tages, 59 ; financial results, 62. 

South Molton, adoption Part III, 

38. 

South Shields, cottage flats, 51. 

Southwark, Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners' estate, 151; L.C.C. 
dwellings, 19. 

Southwold, municipal cottages, 59. 

Spalding, rural housing, 127, 38. 

Stafford, municipal cottages, 59 ; 
financial results, 62, 95. 

Standing orders. Parliament, 298, 
300. 

Stanley, municipal cottages, 59 ; 
results, 62. 

Stepney, Borough Council dwellings 
85, 88 ; L.C.C. dwellings, 80. 

Stockton-on-Tees, Part III, 38. 

Stourbridge, adoption Part III, 38. 

Streets and roads, continent, 246- 
248 ; construction, 196 ; cost, 
248 ; direction, position, and 
width, 195 ; new styles wanted, 
201 ; Earswick, 203 ; cost of 
widening, 192 ; obstruction, 192. 

Stretford, municipal cheap cottages, 
59, 183 ; cottage flats, 51 ; slum 
buying, 19, 20. 

Strood, rural housing, 127, 128. 

Subsidised housing, 13 ; Birming- 
ham, 99; Ireland, 139: sum- 
mary of, 123. 

Suffolk, County Council, and Part 
III, 127. 

Summary of municipal dwellings 
erected, 40. 

Sunderland (Rural) and Part III, 
133- 



Sunderland (Urban), slum buying, 

19, 20. 
Surrey, County Council and Part 

III, 127, 128. 
Sussex, County Council and Part 

III, 127, 128 ; deaths, infant 

mortality and overcrowding, 2. 
Sutton Housing Trust, 148. 
Swansea, municipal cottages, 60 ; 

financial results, 63. 
Sweden, town planning law, 263. 
Swiss system of repairs, 272, 273. 
Sykes. Dr. F. J., and adaptation of 

dwellings. 

Tamworth, adoption Part III, 39 ; 
slum buying, 20. 

Taxation of working class dwellings, 
250 ; see rates. 

Teddington, house agents and hous- 
ing scheme, 8, 95. 

Tenant Co-operators, 209. 

Tenants, see Rehousing, Occupa- 
tions. 

Tenant Societies, see Co-partnership 
Housing 

Tenement dwellings, additional, 
cost of building, number, rents, 
sites, 45, 46, 48 ; L.G.B. regula- 
tions as to building, 304. 

Thickness of walls, 254. 

Thingoe, rural housing, 60. 

Tonbridge, Small Dwellings Act, 
18 ; Part III, rural, 127. 

Tooting Estate, L.C.C, 68, 80. 

Tottenham, L.C.C. housing estate, 
80 ; Small Dwellings Act, 18. 

Town development, 190 ; amended 
schemes, 198 ; planning, 191, 
263 ; necessary powers, 197 ; 
Mr. Burns' promise, 191 ; exist- 
ing powers, 195. 

Town Planning, see Town Develop- 
ment 

Tramways, statistics, 214-268. 

Tube railways, 264. 

Tunbridge Wells, adoption Part III, 
38. 

Tunstall, adoption Part III, 38. 

Twickenham, adoption Part III, 38. 

Two methods of site planning, 206. 

Ulm land purchase, 193. 
Unhealthy houses, closing of Part 

II, 21, 22 ; in Birmingham, 27 ; 

Camberwell, 33 ; Kensington, 44. 
Unsuitability of much existing 

accommodation, 11. 
L^rban cottages exhibition, 160 ; 

overcrowding, 1-3. 
Usworth, rural housing, 127-133. 



Valuation of land, lo. 

Victoria Dwellings Company, I49- 

Vienna, housing figures, 256, 258. 

Wages in building trade, 261. 
Walls, thickness of, 254. 
Walthamstow, Small Dwellings Act, 

18. 
Waterloo and Seaforth, Small 

Dwellings Act, 18. 
Wellington, municipal cottages, 60. 
Wells, H. G., on America and town 

planning. 
Westbury, municipal cottages, 127. 
West Ham, municipal cottage fiats, 

5 1 ; financial result-, 62, 95 ; 

Small Dwellings Act, 18. 
Westminster, Borough Council 

dwellings, 85, 86, 88 ; L.C.C. 

dwellings, 80 ; Ecclesiastical 

Commissioners' estate, 151. 

Wexford, municipal cottages, 60. 

Wharncliffe Dwellings Company, 
148, 149. 

Whitley. Upper, municipal cot- 
tages, 60. 

Wigan, slum buying, 19 ; munici- 
pal cottages, 60. 

Wildau model village, 204. 

Wilson, H. B. and G. B., on Flood- 
gate Street area, 26. 



Wilts County Council and Part III, 
127, 128 135. 

Wimbledon, Part III, 38. 

Wolverhampton, tenement dwell- 
ings, 48, 95 ; results, 63. 

Women Sanitary Inspectors, 15. 

Wood Green, adoption Part III, 
38 ; L.C.C. estate, 68 ; 

Wooden cottages, 159 ; Norwa3^ 
262, 263. 

Woolwich, municipal dwellings, 88 ; 
co-operative housing, 153. 

Worcester, closing orders, 21 ; Small 
Dwellings Act, 18. 

Working class, definition of, for 
purposes of rehousing schemes, 
288. 

Working expenses, municipal dwell- 
ings, provinces, 61-63 ; London, 
72, 7$; Liverpool, 113, 114; 
Glasgow, 100 ; summary, 123 ; 
dwellings companies, 149. 

Workington, adoption Part III, 38 ; 
municipal cottages, 60. 

Wrotham, municipal cottages, 60. 

Wroxham, rural housing, 128. 

Yarmouth, Great, 63, 95. 

Yorkshire County Council and Part 
III, 127, 128. 

Ystalyfera, rural housing, 127, 
Yeovil, rural housing, 133. 



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