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Publication No. N159 
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THIS volume is frankly an economy Yearboo^. Unfortunately the 
only effective way to reduce costs in a publication of this kind is 
to cut things out; so we have left out this year the long section on 
state and local housing activity, the shorter account of NAHO's 
doings, and the editors' annual summary. 

Our regret about the state and local section is lightened somewhat 
by our tentative plan to include it, possibly in revised form, every other 
year or so. Yearbook readers will thus be able to keep in direct touch 
with developing local programs, and the repetition that has crept 
unavoidably into this section in past Yearbooks will be less. This year 
seemed to be a good one to start skipping the section, both because 
many local authorities simply have been finishing up work under way 
and also because war housing problems are dealt with in considerable 
detail in other parts of the Yearboo^. The story of NAHO's principal 
activities has been running serially in NAHO NEWS and is also sum- 
marized at the Annual Meetings. The editors' summary of the year 
would have been necessarily and to a very considerable extent a repe- 
tition of other parts of the Yearboo^. 

While the 1942 Yearboo^ was still in the early stages of preparation, 
the President reorganized the federal housing agencies. This act 
affected the volume in three ways. We included a brief statement on 
the reorganization and the texts of the Executive Orders that brought 
it about. Further, we asked the writers of articles on federal housing 
programs during 1941 to extend their accounts to the time of the reor- 
ganization, February 24, 1942. Finally, we gave up plans for an inclu- 
sive directory of housing projects because the reorganized agencies 
could not be expected to undertake the considerable work that the 
directory would have entailed for them. 

The chief innovation of this Yearboo^ is the sizable article "Activi- 
ties of National Unofficial Housing Agencies and Committees for 
1941." Although we have included short statements on a few of these 
organizations in the past, this is the first time that they have been 
given much space. In one sense this record balances last year's sum- 
mary of the organization and activities of citizen housing associations 
and councils. Should the Yearboo^ be continued, we hope to stress 
different types of housing agencies and programs each year, perhaps 
alternating articles on citizens' efforts with the reports on official state 
and local programs mentioned above. In many respects this plan seems 


to us to represent a more effective use of our resources than does a 
table of contents that is identical every year. 

Again we are grateful to a long list of housing officials and repre- 
sentatives of associations and agencies for preparing articles and for- 
warding information for the directories. Many of them are working 
under extra pressure because of war duties and uncertainties. This 
fact increases our debt to them. 

Again we ask for comments, criticisms, and suggestions, both on 
the makeup and contents of this Yearbook and on the tentative plans 
outlined in the Foreword. 


April, 1942 



FOREWORD ...'.. v 


The Editors i 

PUBLIC HOUSING IN 1941 Herbert Emmerich 10 




HOUSING , . C. B. Baldwin 27 



Charles H. Palmer 47 


of the Federal Works Agency . Brig. Gen. Philip B. Fleming 56 

NAVY HOUSING: Official Statement of the Bureau of Yards and 

Docks, Navy Department . . . . ... Y~ . . . . 64 



Karl Borders 75 



COMMITTEES FOR 1941 .-" . . ... 85 


Official Administrative Housing Agencies . . . . - , . . 129 

National Agencies . . . . . . . ~. v . . . . 130 

State and Regional Agencies . . ..... . . . 130 

Municipal and Metropolitan Agencies . . : . . . . . 137 

Official Advisory Housing Agencies .182 



Unofficial Housing Agencies . . ..,.,. 183 

National Agencies 183 

State and Regional Agencies . .... . . . . . 184 

Municipal and Metropolitan Agencies . . . .... 186 

INDEX 191 


The Reorganization of Federal Housing Agencies 

EIGHT of the ten federal agencies described in the following articles 
were directly affected by Executive Order No. 9070, of Febru- 
ary 24, 1942, which established the National Housing Agency and 
consolidated under it most of the housing activities of the federal 
government. It seemed appropriate, therefore, to introduce this series 
of articles by the following comments on the reorganization. 


A number of conditions contributed to the need for reorganizing 
federal housing agencies. The pre-reorganization pattern of the federal 
government's housing activity was largely a result of the government's 
assuming various housing functions over a period of fifteen or twenty 
years and under widely varying circumstances. The objectives of some 
of the programs varied as widely as did the major forces responsible 
for their growth. 

Starting with the early fact-finding and reporting activities, such as 
were carried on by units of the Department of Commerce and the 
Department of Labor, the federal government proceeded to: (i) con- 
duct research in housing construction materials; (2) conduct and aid 
various types of housing surveys; (3) arrange rescue financing for 
distressed home owners; (4) lend federal funds to private corporations 
for the development of large-scale rental housing; (5) extend federal 
credit to home-financing institutions; (6) insure investments by indi- 
viduals in home-financing institutions; (7) construct and operate 
large-scale low-rent projects; (8) grant loans and subsidies to local 
public housing agencies for the development and operation of low-rent 
public housing; (9) insure mortgage loans made by private financial 
institutions for the refinancing, construction, or repair of housing; 
(10) conduct research in low-cost construction materials and methods 
for housing; (n) construct and operate Greenbelt towns, rural reset- 
tlement communities, permanent and mobile camps for migratory 
agricultural workers, and make loans to tenant farmers for the pur- 
chase of land and farm homes; (12) grant disaster loans that included 
the repair and reconstruction of housing; (13) construct and operate 


housing for defense purposes; and (14) grant priority ratings to enable 
both public and private agencies to secure critical construction mate- 
rials needed in defense housing. 

The national defense and war periods required emphasis on all fed- 
eral housing activities that would facilitate the provision of adequate 
housing accommodations in critical defense or war production areas. 
In addition, renewed emphasis on the rehabilitation of blighted urban 
areas and the possibility of new or at least modified forms of federal 
action to meet this problem, raised doubt about the adequacy of the 
existing pattern for federal housing activity. 

The administrators and staffs of the federal housing agencies, other 
executives in the national administration, and members of Congress 
became acutely aware of the confusion caused by the lack of a coor- 
dinated housing policy and of administrative control, and the conse- 
quent loss in efficiency and effectiveness of each federal agency. The 
greatest harm was probably done in local communities, however, 
where officials and citizens who should have been active in the devel- 
opment of comprehensive housing plans for their localities were either 
estranged from each other by participating in the squabbles among 
federal housing agencies or were so confused by the chaos that they 
assumed an apathetic or cynical attitude. It must be admitted, how- 
ever, that the reorganization finally came about at least as much 
because of concern at the top as from any widespread or well-organized 
demand from the bottom. 


In August, 1935, the President authorized the establishment of the 
Central Housing Committee to facilitate the interchange of informa- 
tion among the executives and staffs of federal agencies engaged in 
housing. The Committee had no actual control over the policies and 
practices of any of its members. Those who participated in the work 
of its various subcommittees acted more as technicians with common 
interests than as official representatives of the various federal units. 
The work of the Committee, nevertheless, resulted in the elimination 
of some variations and duplications in the work of the participating 

On July 1 8, 1940, the Advisory Commission to the Council of Na- 
tional Defense announced the appointment of a Coordinator of 
Defense Housing. The Coordinator's function and the later assignment 
of his office to the Office for Emergency Management are described in 
the following article on the Division of Defense Housing Coordina- 
tion. From the outset the Coordinator had to deal with federal agen- 


cies, some of the functions of which were either overlapping or 
contradictory. The pressure for speed naturally not only revealed the 
serious absence of any basic plan for federal activity in housing, but 
contributed to intra-agency, inter-agency, and Congressional-agency 
conflicts. It was always difficult for the Coordinator to delimit his func- 
tions so that they would not intrude upon the administrative functions 
of the various housing agencies that were entrusted with producing the 
housing he found to be necessary. 

In the fall of 1941 it became known that Judge Samuel I. Rosenman, 
who had advised the President extensively on studies preceding the 
organization of the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board, had been 
asked to make investigations and recommendations on the reorganiza- 
tion of federal housing agencies. 

It should be kept in mind that the extensive reorganization recom- 
mended could not have been carried out without Congressional 
authorization until the declaration of war by the United States made 
it possible for the President to exercise reorganization powers vested 
in him by Title One of the First War Powers Act, 1941. It should be 
kept in mind also that prior to the Executive Order various organiza- 
tions and individuals favoring reorganization of federal housing activ- 
ities differed considerably on the basic form for reorganization. There 
was difference of opinion, for instance, on whether there should be 
two major independent agencies, one to deal with public housing and 
one to deal with private housing; whether these functions should be 
represented by separate divisions under a single administrator; or 
whether they should be dealt with by agencies having separate adminis- 
trators, but subordinate to an over-all housing administrator with his 
own agency and staff. 

NAHO was prominent among the many agencies and officials con- 
sulted by Judge Rosenman from the very beginning of his study. At 
last NAHO's President, Mr. Edward Weinfeld, forwarded to Presi- 
dent Roosevelt on February n the recommendation of the Associa- 
tion's Board of Governors, which was reached only after several 
governors had been consulted individually, a committee had made 
detailed suggestions, and the Board had considered the whole subject 
thoroughly at two meetings. The Board recommended a single admin- 
istrator, of cabinet rank heading up an over-all housing agency with 
public and private housing divisions or sections. The Board's statement 
made it clear that a complete reorganization and not a mere reshuffling 
of existing agencies was deemed imperative. The recommendation was 
limited to these two basic principles and did not include any more 
specific suggestions or names of any existing agencies. 



Reprinted below are the two Executive Orders of February 24 that 
reorganized all major federal housing activity for the duration of the 



By virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the First War 
Powers Act, 1941, approved December 18, 1941 (Public Law 354, 77th 
Congress), and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as 

i. The following agencies, functions, duties, and powers are consolidated 
into a National Housing Agency and shall be administered as hereinafter 
provided under the direction and supervision of a National Housing 

(a) The Federal Housing Administration and its functions, powers, 
and duties, including those of the Administrator thereof. 

(b) All functions, powers, and duties of the Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board and of its members. 

(c) The Home Owners' Loan Corporation and the functions, 
powers, and duties of its Board of Directors. 

(d) The Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation and the 
functions, powers, and duties of its Board of Trustees. 

(e) The United States Housing Authority and its functions, powers, 
and duties, including those of the Administrator thereof. 

(f) All functions, powers, and duties relating to defense housing 
of (i) the Federal Works Administrator under the act of October 14, 
1940, entitled "An Act to expedite the provision of housing in con- 
nection with national defense, and for other purposes," as amended, 
and under acts making appropriations to carry out the purposes of 
said act, (2) the War Department and the Navy Department with 
respect to housing units for persons (with families) engaged in na- 
tional defense activities (except housing units located on military or 
naval reservations, posts, or bases) under Tide IV of the Naval Appro- 
priation Act for the fiscal year 1941, and (3) any agencies heretofore 
designated (including the Federal Works Agency and the Farm Secur- 
ity Administration) to provide temporary shelter in defense areas 
under the Urgent Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1941, and the Addi- 
tional Urgent Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1941, and the Third 
Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act, 1942. 

(g) All functions, powers, and duties of the Farm Security Admin- 
istration relating to such housing projects as such Administration de- 
termines are for families not deriving their principal income from 
operating or working upon a farm. 

(h) The Defense Homes Corporation and its functions, powers, 
and duties, including those of its officers and Board of Directors. 


(i) All functions, powers, and duties of the Federal Loan Adminis- 
trator, the Federal Works Administrator, and the head of any depart- 
ment or other agency relating to the administration or supervision of 
the agencies, functions, powers, and duties transferred hereunder. 

(j) All functions, powers, and duties of the Division of Defense 
Housing Coordination established by Executive Order No. 8632 of 
January u, 1941, and of the Coordinator of Defense Housing: Pro- 
vided, That such Division and such Coordinator shall continue to exer- 
cise such functions, powers, and duties until the appointment or 
designation of the National Housing Administrator. 

(k) All powers, rights, privileges, duties, and functions transferred 
to the Federal Works Administrator by Executive Order No. 8186 of 
June 29, 1939: 

Provided, That with respect to any functions, powers, and duties enumer- 
ated in sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) above, any agency now engaged in 
the construction or management of any project shall continue such activities 
on behalf of the National Housing Agency until such time as the National 
Housing Administrator shall determine that it is expedient for the Federal 
Public Housing Authority, herein provided for, to discharge such functions, 
powers, and duties with respect to such project through its own facilities. 

2. The National Housing Administrator shall be appointed by the Presi- 
dent, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive 
a salary of $12,000 a year unless the Congress shall otherwise provide. 
Pending such appointment, an existing officer of the Government desig- 
nated by the President shall act as National Housing Administrator. 

3. There shall be three main constituent units in the National Housing 
Agency. Each such unit shall be administered by a commissioner acting 
under the direction and supervision of the National Housing Administrator. 
The unit administering the Federal Housing Administration and its func- 
tions, powers, and duties shall be known as the Federal Housing Adminis- 
tration, and the Federal Housing Administrator shall serve as Federal 
Housing Commissioner. The unit administering the functions, powers, and 
duties of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and its members shall be 
known as the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, and the Chair- 
man of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board shall serve as Federal Home 
Loan Bank Commissioner. The United States Housing Authority and its 
functions, powers, and duties shall be administered as the Federal Public 
Housing Authority, one of the main constituent units, and the Adminis- 
trator of the United States Housing Authority shall serve as Federal Public 
Housing Commissioner. The agencies, functions, powers, and duties enu- 
merated in sub-paragraphs (c), (d), and (k) of paragraph i shall be 
administered in the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, and those 
enumerated in sub-paragraphs (f) and (g) shall be administered in the 
Federal Public Housing Authority. The agency, functions, powers, and 
duties enumerated in sub-paragraph (h) of paragraph i shall also be ad- 
ministered by the Federal Public Housing Commissioner. The Adminis- 
trator of the National Housing Agency may centralize in the office of the 
National Housing Administrator such budget, personnel, legal, procure- 
ment, research, planning, or other administrative services or functions 
common to the said constituent units as he may determine. 


4. The capital stock of the Defense Homes Corporation shall be trans- 
ferred from the Federal Loan Administrator to the National Housing 
Administrator, and the Federal Loan Administrator and the Defense 
Homes Corporation shall take all necessary action to effectuate such transfer 
and carry out the purposes hereof. 

5. The Central Housing Committee is hereby abolished, and all of its 
assets, contracts, property (including office equipment and records), and 
unexpended balances of funds available for its use are hereby transferred 
to the National Housing Agency. 

6. All assets, contracts, and property (including office equipment and 
records) of any agency hereby consolidated, and all assets, contracts, and 
property (including office equipment and records) which other agencies, 
including departments, have been using primarily in the administration of 
any function, power, or duty hereby consolidated or transferred, are hereby 
transferred, respectively, with such agency, function, power or duty. 

7. Except as provided in paragraph 8, hereof, (i) all personnel of any 
agency hereby consolidated, and (2) all personnel of other agencies, includ- 
ing departments, who have been engaged primarily in the administration 
of any function, power, or duty hereby consolidated or transferred and 
who within thirty days after the appointment or designation of the National 
Housing Administrator are jointly certified for transfer by said Adminis- 
trator and the head of the department or agency to which such personnel 
is attached, shall be transferred, respectively, with such agency, functions, 
power or duty; but any personnel transferred with functions, powers, or 
duties pursuant to this paragraph who are found by the National Housing 
Administrator to be in excess of the personnel necessary for the administra- 
tion of such functions, powers, and duties shall be re-transferred under 
existing law to other positions in the Government or separated from the 

8. The following personnel are not transferred hereunder: (i) The Di- 
rectors and Officers of the Defense Homes Corporation, (2) the members 
of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board other than the Chairman, (3) the 
Directors of the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, and (4) the Trustees 
of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. The offices of the 
foregoing personnel excepted from transfer by this paragraph (except in 
the case of the Defense Homes Corporation) are hereby vacated for the 
duration of this order: Provided, That the offices of the members of the 
Federal Home Loan Bank Board shall not be vacated until sixty days from 
the date of this order. The personnel of the Division of Defense Housing 
Coordination and of the Central Housing Committee are not transferred 
hereunder, except that the National Housing Administrator, within 60 days 
after his appointment or designation, may take over such of this personnel 
as are needed. During such period, all personnel of such Division and of 
such Committee may be retained by them in connection with the winding 
up of their affairs. 

9. So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, authoriza- 
tions, allocations, or other funds (not otherwise transferred hereunder) 
available for the use of any agency in the exercise of any function, power, 
or duty consolidated by this order, or for the use of the head of any 
department or agency in the exercise of any such function, power, or duty, 


as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine (with the 
approval of the President), shall be transferred, respectively, to the National 
Housing Agency or the main constituent unit therein concerned, for its use 
in connection with the exercise of the functions, powers, or duties, respec- 
tively, to be administered by it hereunder. In determining the amount to 
be transferred, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may include an 
amount to provide for the liquidation of obligations incurred against such 
appropriations, authorizations, allocations, or other funds prior to transfer. 

10. All housing now owned by the United States and located on a mili- 
tary or naval reservation, post, or base is hereby transferred to the juris- 
diction of the War or Navy Department, respectively, having jurisdiction 
of such reservation, post or base: Provided, That with respect to all housing 
developed by the War or Navy Department under Title II of Public 671, 
approved June 28, 1940, the Federal Public Housing Authority shall take 
all necessary steps to transfer such jurisdiction and carry out the purpose 
hereof, including the transfer of title to the United States and including 
repayment (out of any funds available therefor) of the cost of such housing 
for reimbursement of the Bond Account from which funds were transferred 
to pay such costs. 

11. The Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall allocate to the 
National Housing Agency, from appropriations, authorizations, allocations, 
or other funds available for the administrative expenses of the Federal Loan 
Agency and the Federal Works Agency (relating to the administration of 
the agencies and functions transferred therefrom hereunder) and of the 
agencies and functions, powers, and duties consolidated hereunder, such 
sums, and in such proportions, as he may find necessary for the adminis- 
trative expenses of the National Housing Agency. None of the agencies 
established or consolidated hereunder shall incur any obligations for ad- 
ministrative expenses except pursuant to appropriations, allocations, or other 
authorizations of funds specifically available now or hereafter for adminis- 
trative expenses. 

12. The National Housing Administrator may appoint necessary person- 
nel and make necessary expenditures to carry out the functions, powers, 
and duties of the National Housing Agency. The Administrator and the 
Commissioners hereunder may delegate their respective functions, powers, 
and duties to such agencies, officials, or personnel as they may designate, 
respectively. Until the appointment or designation of a National Housing 
Administrator, the Commissioners respectively shall exercise such of the 
functions, powers, and duties of the National Housing Administrator as 
relate to the agencies, functions, powers, and duties to be administered by 
such Commissioners respectively. 

13. Nothing herein shall impair or afreet any outstanding obligations or 
contracts of any agency consolidated hereunder or of the United States of 
America (including its pledge of faith to the payment of all annual con- 
tributions now or hereafter contracted for pursuant to the United States 
Housing Act, as amended), or of any Insurance Funds created under the 
National Housing Act. 

14. All orders, rules, regulations, permits, or other privileges made, 
issued or granted by or in respect of any agency, function, power, or duty 
consolidated hereunder shall continue in effect to the same extent as if 


such consolidation had not occurred until modified, superseded, or repealed, 
except that the regulations of January n, 1941, relating to defense housing 
coordination shall hereby be revoked upon the appointment or designation 
of the National Housing Administrator. 

15. All unexpended balances of appropriations, authorizations, alloca- 
tions, or other funds transferred under this order shall be used only for the 
respective purposes and in the administration of the respective functions 
for which such funds were made available. 

1 6. Transfers of available funds under this order shall include funds 
available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1943. 

17. This order shall become effective as of the date hereof and shall be 
in force and effect so long as Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941, 
remains in force. 

The White House, 
February 24, 1942. 



Whereas by an Executive order issued this date under Title I of the 
First War Powers Act several agencies were transferred from the Federal 
Loan Agency to the National Housing Agency established by such order, 
and it is deemed advisable that the remaining functions of the Federal 
Loan Agency be administered in the Department of Commerce; 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the 
First War Powers Act, 1941, approved December 18, 1941, it is hereby 
ordered as follows: 

Sec. i. Transfer of Functions. All functions, powers, and duties of the 
Federal Loan Agency and of the Federal Loan Administrator which relate 
to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Electric Home and Farm Au- 
thority, RFC Mortgage Company, Federal National Mortgage Association, 
Disaster Loan Corporation, Export-Import Bank of Washington, Defense 
Plant Corporation, Rubber Reserve Company, Metals Reserve Company, 
Defense Supplies Corporation, and War Insurance Corporation, together 
with all other functions, powers, and duties not transferred by the Execu- 
tive order establishing the National Housing Agency, are transferred to 
the Department of Commerce and shall be administered under the direction 
and supervision of the Secretary of Commerce. 

Sec. 2. Transfer of Records, Property, and Personnel. All records and 
property (including office equipment) and all personnel of the Federal 
Loan Agency used in the administration of the functions transferred by this 
order are transferred to the Department of Commerce for use in the admin- 
istration of the functions transferred by this order. 

Sec. 3. Transfer of Funds. So much of the unexpended balances of the 
appropriations, allocations, or other funds available or to be made available 
for the use of the Federal Loan Agency in the exercise of any function 
transferred by this order, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget with 
the approval of the President shall determine, shall be transferred to the 


Department of Commerce for use in connection with the exercise of the 
functions so transferred. In determining the amount to be transferred 
the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may include an amount to provide 
for the liquidation of obligations incurred against such appropriations, allo- 
cations, or other funds prior to the transfer. 

Sec. 4. Effective and Termination Dates. This order shall become effec- 
tive as of the date hereof and shall continue in force and effect until the 
termination of Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941. 

The White House, 

February 24, 1942. 


As the Yearboo^ goes to press no definite information is at hand 
on the exact form of administrative reorganization that will be worked 
out under the National Housing Agency. It is reasonable to believe 
that two of the three agencies under NHA, the Federal Housing 
Administration, and the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, 
will undergo no drastic organizational changes in the immediate fu- 
ture. On the other hand, the National Housing Agency itself will 
have to be built more or less from the ground up and the Federal 
Public Housing Authority also will face a considerable period of 
organization and reorganization. 

The hazards of self-satisfaction over the recent reorganization must 
not be overlooked in dealing either with the immediately pressing 
problems of wartime housing or with a long-range program. These 
hazards are pointed out in the following quotations from the associa- 
tion's newsletter, NAHO NEWS, of March 14, 1942: 

One serious danger, however, necessarily accompanies a move of this 
kind. Under the feeling of relief and gratitude for a needed step taken 
under difficulties, it is very easy to fall into the error of thinking and acting 
as if underlying, substantive housing problems had been solved. 

This simply is not true. Reorganization has solved no housing problems; 
it has simply provided better tools for working on them. The real tasks of 
fashioning a well-knit war housing program properly tied in with post- 
war needs and of putting this program into effective action still remain to 
be done. We simply have better governmental machinery in Washington 
and a new leader for these crucial undertakings. 

Furthermore, no one should forget that executive reorganization 
does not alter the powers, limitations, or appropriations voted by Con- 
gress in the acts under which the various reorganized agencies for- 
merly functioned or were financed. In other words, administrative 
reorganization does not constitute a carte blanche to rewrite either 
wartime or peacetime housing policy. 


Public Housing in 1941 


Commissioner, 1 Federal Public Housing Authority 

ON February 24, 1942, the powers, functions, and duties of the 
United States Housing Authority were transferred, by Executive 
Order of the President, to the newly-created Federal Public Housing 

Transferred to FPHA also were the Division of Defense Housing 
and the Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division of the Federal 
Works Agency, the Defense Homes Corporation of the Federal Loan 
Agency, the housing functions of the Public Buildings Adminis- 
tration, of the War and Navy Departments (with the exception of 
houses on military and naval reservations), and the non-farm housing 
functions of the Farm Security Administration. 


Each month in 1941, more and more homes under the USHA local 
authority program were turned over for occupancy by war workers 
as soon as construction was completed. By end of the year, public 
housing was on a 100 per cent war footing. New urban building was 
for war housing alone. After the completion of projects under construc- 
tion, the slum-clearance program for the duration will consist only 
in the management of homes for low-income families. 

Approximately 65,000 slum-clearance and low-rent homes in defense 
housing critical areas, which by the end of the year were under con- 
struction or ready for occupancy, were converted to war housing. 
Work on approximately 12,000 low-rent homes planned for non- 
defense areas was ordered halted for the duration of the war to con- 
serve building materials needed for war production. 

By the end of 1941 the 6,344 war homes had been constructed in 
accordance with Public Law 671, authorizing USHA to use its funds 
for defense housing; of these 5,714 were opened for occupancy 
or occupied by war workers. This was the first defense housing 
program of World War II. Started in June, 1940, less than 30 

1 Mr. Emmerich was appointed by the President on March 17, 1942. During the 
period for which its activities are reported in this article the United States Housing 
Authority was headed by Nathan Straus and later Leon H. Keyserling. Mr. Straus 
resigned as Administrator, January 5, 1942, at which time Mr. Keyserling assumed the 
title of Acting Administrator that he retained until February 24, 1942, when his tide 
became Acting Commissioner of the Federal Public Housing Authority. This report was 
prepared prior to Mr. Emmerich's appointment. 

i 10 


days after the formation of the National Defense Advisory Commis- 
sion, this defense program consisted of 20 projects constructed by local 
housing authorities with USHA funds, in much the same way as 
low-rent homes were being developed. These projects have been 
planned and located so that they may become a part of the slum- 
clearance program for the housing of low-income families after the 
war. In November, 1941, the first projects, in Montgomery, Alabama, 
and Pensacola, Florida, celebrated their first complete year of oc- 

In addition to war housing constructed with its own funds, USHA 
had been assigned up to December 31, 1941, an additional 113 
war housing projects providing 29,392 family dwelling units to be 
developed with Lanham Act funds. Of this number, 25 projects 
representing 6,021 homes were in the planning stage, 34 projects pro- 
viding 8,793 units were under construction, and 14,578 units were in 
54 completely or partially occupied projects. Construction costs of 
dwellings on Lanham Act projects were held down to an average 
of $2,851 per home, well below the Lanham Act limit of $3,500. 
Construction schedules of from 90 to 120 days for a project were 

Even before the USHA program was completely converted to war 
housing, homes in many low-rent projects were opened to war workers 
or they were given preference for occupancy. During the year many 
critical housing shortages developed in defense areas where low-rent 
homes under the USHA local authority program were about to be 
occupied by low-income families. Whole blocks of these projects were 
turned over to industrial war workers and their families or to soldiers 
and sailors and their families. In Pittsburgh, for instance, 450 homes 
in Terrace Village were thrown open to the hundreds of families 
whose former houses were demolished to make way for industrial 
plant expansion in the Pittsburgh area. Likewise in Columbia, South 
Carolina, 100 homes were made available to the enlisted personnel 
coming into nearby Camp Jackson, where housing facilities were not 
available. In Savannah, Georgia, 150 units in the Garden Homes low- 
rent project were occupied by families of noncommissioned officers 
transferred to the newly created air base. Similar action was taken 
throughout the country to ease critical housing shortages. 

Aside from its program for the actual construction and management 
of war housing, USHA in 1941 contributed to the defense and war 
programs in other ways. Local housing authorities throughout the 
United States were asked to cooperate fully in the "War Against 
Waste" campaign because of its peculiar significance to low-income 


families. These families, it was pointed out, would be more affected 
by rising prices than any other income group. 

Small manufacturers were favored in the purchase of building 
materials used in public housing projects. This action was designed 
to enable small but important plants to continue operations and to 
keep workmen employed. Also, it was hoped that this policy would 
speed construction of homes by getting earlier deliveries from small 
manufacturers than would be possible from large plants already 
swamped with war contracts. 

Standards of designs and specifications for materials and equipment 
were revised to eliminate or minimize the use of critical war materials. 


The slum-clearance low-rent housing program of USHA moved 
forward impressively during 1941. At the end of the year 349 projects, 
providing 121,965 homes, were completely or partially occupied. Of 
this number, 295 projects and 99,370 units were USHA aided urban; 
and 1,150 homes were in rural areas. The total also includes 21,445 
dwellings in 49 projects built under the old PWA housing program. 
Projects to the number of 277, representing 40,352 homes, had reached 
the planning stage, and 142 projects, providing 35,402 homes, were 
under construction. Together these make a grand total of 197,719 
rural and urban low-rent homes in 768 projects at the end of 1941. 
These totals include the war housing financed with USHA funds. 
At the end of the year, almost 420,000 persons were living in PWA 
and USHA homes. Of these 165,000 were young people less than 16 
years old, and 86,000 were children under six. 

The USHA program accounted for approximately 10 per cent of 
all urban residential construction in the United States during 1941. 

Despite this new construction, the need for decent housing remained 
acute in many areas, even without the added burdens imposed by 
migrations of defense workers. During 1941, there was made available 
a compilation of official real property surveys conducted in 419 dif- 
ferent localities during the past seven years by actual inspection of 10 
million dwellings. It showed that 29 per cent of the urban homes 
were substandard. Surveys covering 7 million dwellings disclosed that 
one in six needed major repairs or were unfit for use; 16 per cent had 
no toilet; 22 per cent lacked bathing facilities. 

Similar figures came out in the early tabulations of the First Federal 
Housing Census (1940) which began to appear in 1941. Paired with 
the fact that only 6 per cent of the new homes were priced at rents 
within the range of the 33 per cent of the population earning less 


than $1,200 a year, this statistical proof of the housing need led to the 
following statement in the final report of the executive secretary of 
the Temporary National Economic Committee, which appeared in 
October, 1941: 

The potential field for USHA activities is enormous. There is a genuine 
social need for more than 3,000,000 new units suitable for occupancy by 
families with incomes under $1,000. Since private building for (these) 
families is virtually nonexistent, an important source of new houses for this 
group is the USHA program. 

However, the magnitude of the housing problem for this income class is 
so great that the present USHA program is not sufficient for its solution. 
If it is assumed that these new units should be provided over a period of 
20 years, the USHA program would have to be stepped up to 150,000 new 
units per annum. 

Although this housing program cannot be carried forward now, 
it was made the nucleus for post-war planning activities during 1941. 
Local housing authorities cooperated fully with the Public Works 
Reserve in establishing a shelf of housing projects to be undertaken 
immediately after the war. The value of an expanded public housing 
program to take up the slack in employment after armament produc- 
tion stops was brought to the attention of a Congressional committee 
considering whether to establish a post-emergency economic advisory 
commission. Under the direction of the USHA Regional Director, 
housing authorities in the western states considered a long-range pro- 
gram for planning now for housing in the post-war period. 


Public housing passed many milestones in 1941. The first slum- 
clearance project, Tech wood Homes, in Atlanta, Georgia, observed 
its fifth anniversary in September, and two months later the first two 
defense housing projects in the United States completed their first year 
of service. USHA marked four years of achievement in November, 
1941; during the year construction was started on its 450th housing 
project, and loan contracts had been authorized for more than 700 
projects. Louisiana became the first state completely organized to 
build homes under the USHA program for farm families; regional 
and parish authorities were established to serve every parish. 

One additional state, New Hampshire, passed housing enabling 
legislation during 1941, thus bringing the total number of states legally 
authorized to build homes under the USHA program to 39. Twenty- 
four states broadened their laws to permit additional cities or rural 
areas to participate in public housing, or clarified their authority to 
house families of defense and war workers. The enactment of such 


a supplemental law in Missouri was closely followed by the creation of 
a housing authority in Kansas City, leaving only 5 of the nation's 30 
largest cities without local housing authorities. 

Approval of the state housing law by the highest court in Idaho 
brought to 28 the number of states in which housing has passed the 
legal test. It has failed in none. The South Carolina Supreme Court 
sustained its housing law in the first legal test of the rural housing 

The number of local housing authorities increased from 507 to 622 
between November, 1940, and November, 1941. Many local housing 
authorities were formed by communities such as East Hartford, Con- 
necticut, which wanted to build their defense homes through the 
USHA-local partnership so they would have a voice in their locating, 
planning, design, and management; others were regional rural author- 
ities economical administrative units combining several counties and 
enabling each to build cheaper and better. The increase in the number 
of local housing authorities and of the states with housing enabling 
legislation is shown in the following table: 



On December 31, 1941, 360 of these local authorities had USHA 
loan contracts, as compared with 213 at the end of 1940. 

Many of the new authorities were in smaller cities and rural areas, 
giving the USHA program an even broader national base, and prov- 
ing that slums are not a problem peculiar only to the great metropolis. 
At the end of 1941, 259 of the 622 local authorities had been created to 
develop USHA farmhouses, in contrast to the one rural authority 
among the 46 authorities existing when USHA was organized. 

The following table shows the distribution of the USHA-aided low- 
rent housing projects by size of communities as of November 30, 1941 : 

Size of Communities USHA Projects 

Per Cent 

Under 25,000 26 

25,000 to 100,000 29 

100,000 to 250,000 13 

250,000 to 500,000 11 

500,000 to 1,000,000 7 

1,000,000 and over 5 

A new plan developed in 1941 by six Arizona cities may make 
public housing feasible for even the smallest American urban com- 
munity. The experienced Phoenix Housing Authority joined in a co- 

November 1 


Local Authorities 


November 1 



November 1 


.. 266 

November 1 



November 1 

1941 . . 

. 622 


operative agreement with five nearby authorities representing Buckeye, 
Glendale, Flagstaff, Holbrook, and Mesa, each with population of less 
than 7,000 persons. A single executive director and one central office 
stafl handling all administrative matters will operate the programs 
of all the smaller authorities, which are building from 28 to 56 homes 


During the year, rents in USHA-aio\ed projects continued to be 
very low, which is the best answer to the criticism that the pro- 
gram was not reaching those for whom it was intended. As of De- 
cember 31, 1941, shelter rents averaged $12.64 a month in the 270 
USHA slum-clearance projects in continental United States for which 
rent scheduals had been adopted. Those in the South and there were 
165 of them have monthly rents averaging $10.51 a home, excluding 
utilities. In the North, where incomes and building costs are higher, 
monthly rents averaged $14.47, excluding utilities. The nationwide 
average for shelter rent plus payments for utilities furnished was $17.82 
a month. 

Figures are now available showing rents paid by families before and 
after moving into USHA-aided projects. A typical example is Brent- 
wood Park in Jacksonville, Florida. The 232 families living there pay 
an average monthly rent of $10.14 t r decent homes. Before they 
moved into the project they paid $14.65 for unhealthy slum shacks. 
In the slum areas of Bridgeport, Connecticut, project families formerly 
paid an average monthly rent, including all utilities, of $21.96 a dwell- 
ing. At Yellow Mill Village their average rent, including payments 
for heat, hot and cold water, gas for cooking, electric light, and electric 
refrigeration, is $20.72. 

Average family income for residents in USHA slum-clearance 
homes was $837 a year as of December 31, 1941. The following table 
shows the percentage of project families in the various income groups: 

Per Cent 

Under $400 2.7 

$400-500 4.9 

$500-600 9.4 

$600-700 15.7 

$700-800 152 

$800-900 127 

$900-1000 121 

$1000-1100 10.9 

$1100-1200 7.1 

$1200-1300 5.5 

Over $1300 3.8 


During 1941 graded rents steadily gained in popularity. In the 
middle of 1940 only 6 per cent of the developments with approved 
rent schedules had more than one rent and income grade. By January, 
1941, no less than 40 per cent of all the developments for which rent 
schedules had been approved had graded rents. Six months later, by 
the end of June, 1941, the figure had risen to 62 per cent, and the 
increase continued through the end of the year. 

Graded rents proved the salvation of many housing managers who, 
because of the increased employment in defense work, were faced 
with rising incomes among the great majority of project families. 
Small increases in incomes were matched with proportionate increases 
in rent by moving families into higher rent grades. Larger income 
increases forced many projects to establish an extra rent grade for 
the families whose incomes went beyond the limits of the previous 
top grade. This extra grade is not to be used as an entrance grade, 
and new families entering the projects must have incomes below the 
fixed maximum limits. Thus the low-rent, low-income character of the 
projects is preserved. 


Although 1941 witnessed a rising price level as well as growing 
shortages in building materials, it is significant that low construction 
costs continued to prevail under the USHA program. On the 406 
projects which had been placed under construction up to December 
31, 1941, in cities under 500,000 population the dwelling facilities cost 
(excluding land, site improvements, and non-dwelling facilities) 
has averaged about $3,192 a home a little over $800 less than the 
$4,000 maximum set by the Housing Act. The 56 projects placed under 
construction in cities over 500,000 population showed an average cost 
of only $3,708 a home for dwelling facilities, or about $1,300 lower 
than the amount allowed in the Act. 

The cost comparisons reveal that net construction costs of dwellings 
on all USHA-aided developments under way by the end of the year 
averaged about 24 per cent less per family unit than the comparable 
costs of private residential construction in the same localities. In cities 
where projects under the USHA local authority program have been 
started, the average construction cost for homes built by private oper- 
ators is about $3,600 a home. The comparable cost of USHA-aided 
projects under construction or occupied in the same cities average 
about $2,726 a home. The USHA figure applies to homes that in every 
case are constructed by labor paid the prevailing wages and that in 
every case are built strongly enough to last for at least 60 years. 


These low costs have been made possible by the cooperation of 
union labor in settling disputes without strikes, by the use of advanced 
building techniques, by large-scale production, and by the familiarity 
of the local authorities with local building conditions and procedures. 
Awarding construction contracts after public advertisement to the 
lowest responsible bidders has been another major factor in keeping 
costs down. Financing costs have been minimized through the exten- 
sion of local borrowing from private investors. 


The year 1941 also witnessed further extension of the practice of 
local borrowing at low rates of interest from sources other than 
USHA. Under arrangements worked out by USHA, local authori- 
ties have been particularly successful in obtaining private capital on 
short-term loans for financing their projects during the development 
period. Instead of borrowing money from USHA at the rate of 
interest USHA is required by law to charge, local authorities have 
been able to enlist private capital at much lower interest rates not 
only during the actual construction period but also to a considerable 
extent in their final financial structure. 

During 1941, local authorities sold a total of 124 issues of short- 
term notes amounting to $392,135,000. Interest rates on these issues 
averaged only 39/100 of i per cent. Many of the issues sold at even 
lower rates. In Providence, Rhode Island, for example, short-term 
notes were sold at the rate of 28/100 of i per cent. On December 31, 
1941, a total of $201,830,000 in short-term loans was unmatured and 

Banks and syndicates of banks have been the largest purchasers of 
local authorities' short-term obligations, although investment dealers 
have also purchased many of the issues. These notes have been espe- 
cially attractive to private investors because they are noncancelable 
and of short duration, their terms ranging from 3 to 12 months. 

Since the rate of interest USHA is obliged by law to charge would, 
on the average, have amounted to more than six times as much as 
the average rate obtained from private investors, the savings that 
have been effected in development cost are considerable. Local author- 
ities selling short-term notes have saved an average of about i l / 2 per 
cent of the development cost of their projects. Thus it is conserva- 
tively estimated that development-cost savings ranging up to $20,- 
000,000 over original estimates will be made by local authorities as 
the result of short-term financing. 

Similarly, the experience of local authorities in selling their long- 


term bonds has been gratifying. This permanent financing takes 
place when projects are approximately 75 per cent to 90 per cent 
complete. Local housing authority long-term bonds represented, when 
first issued, an altogether new type of security containing many fea- 
tures to which the bond market was not accustomed. Nonetheless 
an excellent market has been developed for such bonds; investment 
bankers throughout the country have bid for and purchased these 
bonds at prices comparable to high grade general obligation munici- 
pal credits. 

As a result, a large number of local authorities have sold to private 
investors bonds representing substantially more than the 10 per cent 
of development cost which by law must be obtained from sources 
other than USHA. In the majority of cases during 1941, local authori- 
ties sold 20 maturities of their total bond issues to private capital 
instead of the 16 or 17 maturities which constitute 10 per cent of the 
issue. In Utica, New York, for instance, 25 per cent of the local 
authority's bonds were taken by private investors; in Syracuse, New 
York, and Allentown, Pennsylvania, it was 21 per cent. 

Moreover, these bonds were sold to private investors at consistently 
lower rates than USHA itself must charge the local authority. The 
last group offering during 1941 sold to private investors at an average 
interest rate of 2.1475 P er cent * For bonds taken up by USHA with 
respect to the same projects, the average interest rate was 2.5 per cent. 

During the calendar year 1941, 76 local authorities in 20 states and 
the Territory of Hawaii sold an aggregate of $22,701,000 of their 
bonds to other agencies than USHA to finance the development of 
155 low-rent projects. The cumulative total for local capital participa- 
tion, as of the end of the year for 115 local authorities in 25 states and 
Hawaii, was $42,507,000 for 227 low-rent projects. The estimated 
development cost of these projects aggregates $308,385,000. 


The daily activities of the thousands of families now living in 
USHA-aided developments proved that public housing is more than 
merely the provision of shelter. The variety and scope of these 
activities indicate that with the attainment of adequate homes new 
energies are released. Soon after occupancy begins the organization 
of social clubs, recreation programs, consumers cooperatives, credit 
unions, tenant newspapers, tenant associations, formal or informal 
nursery schools, health services, libraries, home-making programs, 
forums, and other community activities are undertaken. 

In 1941 the trend of tenant activities veered sharply toward volun- 


tary participation in the national defense and war effort. A survey 
made of defense activities in 76 housing projects covering 51 cities 
and 20 states, revealed that: 

1. Of the 76 projects 67 reported active cooperation with local de- 
fense councils in preparing for civilian protection against air attack. 
Their programs included training of auxiliary police, rescue squads, 
blackout and air raid wardens, volunteer firemen, demolition clear- 
ance, repair, and bomb squads. 

2. The Red Cross programs for first aid, nurses' aides, knitting, 
sewing, and bandage-making were represented in almost all projects.- 
Classes in first aid were being conducted in 37 projects, and in some 
cases instructors were secured from among the tenants. 

3. In 27 projects conservation programs were launched to save 
scrap metal, paper, furniture, clothing, and other types of materials. 

4. Programs for the purchase of defense bonds and stamps were 
set up in 24 housing projects. 

5. Consumer study groups, nutrition classes, carefully planned 
garden activities, and instruction in the care and conservation of 
household equipment and clothing were among tenant-consumer 
protection activities. 

6. Child care, recreation programs, physical activity and health 
programs, all invaluable to a nation engaged in war, were inaugurated 
in many of the projects. 

Many individual projects reported unusual programs. *In Miami, 
Florida, the tenants of Edison Courts took the initiative in providing 
mobile fire fighting apparatus. In Hartford, Connecticut, a tenant 
with college training in dramatics and a former school teacher started 
a dramatic club for training and production. At Liberty Square, also 
in Miami, a blood-donors association was formed. 

These defense activities in public housing projects do not constitute 
a complete summary, but they do indicate the type of contribution 
public housing residents are making to the nation's war effort. 

Mortgage Insurance; A Stimulant to War Housing, 
Home Ownership, and Housing Standards 


Commissioner, Federal Housing Administration 

THE Federal Housing Administration is an officially designated de- 
fense agency. For the duration of the war, it is devoting its facilities 
and energies to the war effort. As a member of the newly created 
National Housing Agency, it is functioning with even greater effective- 
ness than before. It is one of the few self-supporting agencies of the 
federal government. 

One of the major long-range objectives of FHA is to enable any 
family with a reasonably steady income to own a home of its own, 
with monthly payments like rent over a period of 20 to 25 years. For 
the duration of the war, however, its immediate objective is to encourage 
and help private industry and capital build houses for war workers, 
chiefly for rent. Rental housing is one of the most urgent and imme- 
diate needs on the home front. Provision of adequate shelter for war 
industry workers is regarded by FHA as much a part of the war effort 
as provision of barracks for the armed fighting forces. 

In areas where the housing demand probably will vanish after the 
war, the government itself is providing the necessary housing for war 
industry workers through other members of the National Housing 
Agency. In areas where a continued housing demand after the war is 
reasonably certain, private industry can supply a major part of the 
needed housing through the medium of Title VI, "Defense Housing 
Insurance," of the National Housing Act. 

Entirely aside from its functions under the National Housing Act, 
FHA acts as agent of the War Production Board in processing appli- 
cations for priority assistance or the allocation of critical materials in 
the construction of defense housing. 


FHA began the year 1942 with a conference of its field organization 
at which its facilities were streamlined to give more effective aid to 
war production, particularly under Title VI. 

This Title was established by Congress in March, 1941. It provides 
for long-term insured mortgage loans up to 90 per cent of the value 
of the completed property to be made by private financial institu- 
tions (FHA itself lends no money) to operative builders, subdivision 



developers, and others concerned with new dwellings in officially desig- 
nated defense housing areas. The mortgage insurance rate was estab- 
lished at three-fourths of i per cent on decreasing balances until the 
mortgages were taken over by individual owner-occupants, after which 
the rate dropped to one-half of I per cent. 

The maximum mortgage loan permitted under Title VI is $4,000 on 
a single-house, $6,000 on a two-family house, $8,000 on a three-family 
house, and $10,500 on a four-family house. Under Section 203 of Title 
II, 90 per cent mortgages are eligible for insurance only for new 
single-family houses occupied by the owners, with a maximum 
amount of $5,400 and a maximum term of 25 years. 

In streamlining Title VI, monthly payments were reduced for the 
first five-year period by about n per cent through the elimination of 
the accelerated amortization provision. Effective January 15, 1942, 
the sum of principal and interest payments on new loans became sub- 
stantially the same throughout the life of the loan. Defense housing 
loans insurable under Title VI are eligible for insurance only under 
that Title, and Title VI commitments cannot be converted to Title II 
commitments as had been possible previous to this date. 


At the same time it was announced that adjustments were being 
made in FHA construction cost estimates in local areas, in relation 
to actual building costs, where increases in costs were stabilized and 
adjustments justified. FHA appraisal of the value of the property 
when completed determines the amount of mortgage insurable under 
the National Housing Act. 

FHA field offices were instructed to regard certain other adminis- 
trative and technical policies under Title VI as liberally as possible, 
in view of the need for more private building to house war industry 
workers and to conserve materials needed for armaments. They were 
requested to review their minimum construction requirements to 
determine if additional modifications were necessary in order to per- 
mit the use of alternate materials, and to encourage local authorities 
to review building codes as a further means of conserving critical 
materials and stimulating building of low-cost homes. 

The City of Chicago was the first to respond to the plea for building 
code revision. For the duration of the war, the Chicago City Coun- 
cil has embodied FHA minimum construction requirements as its 
War Building Code for certain designated areas suitable for war 

Gratifying response to the streamlining of Title VI was evidenced 


immediately in FHA records. In the week ending January 17, 1942, 
mortgage insurance applications under Title VI numbered 1,675. The 
next week they jumped to 2,797, an< ^ ^ or tne week ending March 14 
they totaled 6,600. 


The Federal Housing Administration was established under the 
National Housing Act in June, 1934, "to encourage improvement in 
housing standards and conditions, to provide a system of mutual 
mortgage insurance, and for other purposes." Each year since its 
establishment has meant for FHA vigorous growth and increased 
importance in the field of home-building and home-financing. 

FHA has led the fight against jerry building, especially through 
the establishment of nationally recognized property standards and 
minimum construction requirements. It has helped bring livable, 
attractive, soundly constructed homes, located in well designed and 
protected neighborhoods, within the reach of almost any family with 
a steady income even if it is as low as $1,500 a year. It has stimu- 
lated the establishment of planning commissions and building codes 
where there had been none, and the revision of building codes and 
zoning laws where they had become obsolete or ineffective. It has sta- 
bilized home mortgage lending throughout the United States, and has 
made the FHA-insured mortgage standard in value. 

For the past two years, about half of all the new non-farm single- 
family homes built in the United States by private funds have been 
constructed and financed under the FHA program. 

As an indication of its importance in the home financing field, the 
cumulative volume of loans insured by FHA through December 31, 
1941, amounted to $5,262,117,975 and numbered 4,534,005, the bulk of 
which were for the construction or improvement of single-family 
homes. The gross volume of business totaled $8,018,146,573. From 
its inception to the end of 1941 the Administration has either insured 
mortgages or definitely agreed to insure mortgages on 709,092 new 
dwelling units. 


Insurance written during 1941 by the Federal Housing Administra- 
tion under all titles of the National Housing Act amounted to a new 
record total of $1,185,852,709, compared with the previous record total 
of $1,026,049,609 written in 1940. 

New dwelling units started under FHA inspection numbered over 
215,000, of which about 170,000 were located in defense areas, compared 


with 185,000 started in 1940. Most of these units were single-family 
homes valued at less than $6,000 each. 

Income for 1941 from fees, premiums, and reinvestment of funds 
was $27,134,023, of which $13,874,919 went for operating expenses and 
the remainder to the various insurance funds. Such income in 1940 
was $21,241,076, of which $13,258,734 went for operating expenses. 
Current income for the last quarter of 1941 was at the rate of $2,565,- 
600 a month. 

The actual volume of business transacted in 1941 was much larger 
than the insurance written, as shown in the more detailed accounts 
which follow. 


Although Title VI is forging ahead in the early weeks of 1942, the 
principal FHA activity during 1941 continued to be the insurance of 
small-home mortgages under Section 203, Title II, covering single- 
family homes almost exclusively. During the year, 291,199 mortgages 
for $1,358,312,975 were selected for appraisal, 210,237 f r $93^384,425 
accepted for insurance, and 198,799 for $876,707,384 insured. The 1940 
record was 282,880 mortgages for $1,271,983,776 selected, 202,281 for 
$876,431,018 accepted, and 168,293 f r $73^49>344 insured. 

The ratio of new-home mortgages accepted under Section 203 for 
1941 was 82 per cent of the total accepted, as it was for 1940. All loans 
under Title VI are for new construction. 

As of December 31, all mortgages insured under Section 203 totaled 
832,822 for $3,583,060,123; outstanding commitments, 75,733 for $351,- 
568,850; mortgages in process, 63,689 for $293,346,670; expired com- 
mitments, rejections withdrawals, and adjustments, 411,946 for 
$1,935,062,286. This makes a grand total of 1,384,190 mortgages for 
$6,163,037,929 which have been processed by FHA underwriting staffs 
in seven years. 

Mortgages insured under Section 203 are protected by the Mutual 
Mortgage Insurance Fund. As of December 31, gross assets of this 
fund totaled $49,715,137 and liabilities $11,098,316, leaving net assets 
of $38,616,821. 

A total of 3,355 of the 832,822 premium-paying mortgages insured 
under Section 203 through December 31 had been foreclosed by mort- 
gagee institutions and the properties turned over to the Administrator 
in exchange for government-guaranteed debentures bearing 2% or 
3 per cent interest. The administrator had resold 2,959 ^ tne properties 
at prices which left a net charge against the fund of $1,749,767. The 
remaining 396 properties were held awaiting sale. 


As of December 31, certificates of claim paid or to be paid under 
Section 203 totaled $189,993, and certificates canceled or to be canceled 
totaled $989,342. 

It may be recalled here that certificates of claim, representing certain 
expenses of the mortgagee institution not covered by the debentures, 
are paid by FHA provided the sale of the property brings in sufficient 
funds. Money that remains, after all expenses and the certificates of 
claim are met, is returned to the mortgagor instead of to the Mutual 
Mortgage Insurance Fund. 


Activities under the restricted Section 207 and repealed Section 210 
of Title II were in decreased volume in 1941. Under these sections 
mortgages amounting to $12,997,841 on 27 projects containing 3,001 
dwelling units were insured; this figure is compared with mortgages 
totaling $13,017,900 on 48 projects with more than 4,100 dwelling units 
insured in 1940. 

As of December 31, insured rental and group housing mortgages 
numbered 344 and amounted to $139,950,516, and firm commitments 
were outstanding to insure 15 other mortgages for $9,369,000. The 
number of dwelling units provided by the 359 projects totaled about 

The Housing Insurance Fund protecting these mortgages as of 
December 31 had gross assets of $14,518,633 and liabilities of $13,162,- 
069, leaving net assets of $1,356,564. 

Fourteen of the 344 insured mortgages had been foreclosed as of 
December 31, and one mortgage note assigned to the administrator. 
Four acquired properties had been sold with a resultant net charge 
against the fund of $6,966. The other n projects were operating under 
FHA supervision. Certificates of claim to be paid totaled $10,141, and 
certificates to be canceled totaled $82,268. 


Title VI went into operation in April, 1941, with an initial au- 
thorization of $100,000,000 of insured mortgages; this sum was 
later increased to $300,000,000 with a Defense Housing Insurance 
Fund of $10,000,000 allocated from the Reconstruction Finance Cor- 

From April through December, 48,617 Title VI mortgages amount- 
ing to $180,113,632 had been selected for appraisal, 40,793 for $146,413,- 
340 had been accepted for insurance, and 3,778 for $13,431,250 had 
been insured. As stated before, there has been great acceleration in 


Title VI activities since the streamlining of FHA facilities for the war 
effort, January 15, 1942. 

Gross assets of the Defense Housing Insurance Fund as of Decem- 
ber 31 totaled $10,295,702; its liabilities totaled $5,000,000 and consists 
of unallocated funds from the RFC. Net assets of $5,295,702 remain. 


The insurance of property improvement loans under Title I, due 
to end on June 30, 1941, was extended for two years. New records 
were established last year with 687,837 loans for $282,716,234 reported 
for insurance. This compares with the previous record of 662,948 loans 
for $276,541,365 reported in 1940. 

As of December 31, a grand total of 3,697,061 loans for $1,525,675,- 
496 had been reported for insurance under Title I. 

Since June, 1939, a premium charge of three-fourths of i per cent 
has been charged by FHA on Title I loans. As of December 31, the 
Title I revolving fund amounted to $4,581,537.83, against which 
$9,071.23 in unliquidated obligations was outstanding, leaving net 
assets of $4,572,466.60. 


As stated before, FHA itself lends no money. It insures funds 
advanced under the various titles of the National Housing Act by 
private financial institutions approved by it for these purposes. Par- 
ticipation has been increasingly widespread. Many institutions new 
to mortgage lending entered this field because the insurance of a 
mortgage by FHA assured its standard value and made it an easily 
negotiable instrument. 

A total of 8,072 institutions located in every section of the country 
has handled the volume of Title II small-home mortgages insured in 
the past seven years. Of this gross total, 2,455 national banks handled 
26.7 per cent, 2,967 state banks and trust companies 22.8 per cent, 
savings and loan associations 10.7 per cent, mortgage companies 
20.3 per cent, insurance companies 10.8 per cent, savings banks 3.6 per 
cent, and all others 5.1 per cent (including 0.03 per cent by federal 

Institutions holding FHA-insured mortgages numbered even more 
than those originating the loans, as some large banks and life insur- 
ance companies engage mortgage companies and smaller banks as 
correspondents. As of December 31, a total of 8,761 institutions held 
FHA-insured mortgages in their portfolios. 

Sales and transfers of FHA-insured mortgages in 1941 totaled $483,- 


921,332. The grand total of transfers from 1935 through 1941 was 


Several research studies were undertaken last year, and one of the 
most important resulted in the publication of a Handbook on Urban 
Redevelopment for Cities in the United States. The Technical Divi- 
sion continued its studies of new building methods and materials, and 
of new uses for accepted materials particularly as substitutes for critical 
materials needed in the war effort. This Division also sponsored a 
movement to have various cities in defense areas modify their building 
codes in order to facilitate defense housing construction. 

The Land Planning Division continued its cooperation with land 
planning and zoning boards throughout the country, and with sub- 
division developers and operative builders, in the planning of livable, 
attractive, and stabilized neighborhoods. An increasingly large per- 
centage of homes covered by FHA-insured mortgages are located in 
communities planned with the cooperation of FHA, and an increas- 
ingly large percentage of these planned communities are designed for 
low-cost homes. 

The Underwriting Division continued its educational and super- 
visory work in maintaining high standards for the underwriting staffs 
throughout the country. The Underwriting Manual remains an 
authoritative work on appraisal methods. 

Farm Security Administration's Seventh Year 
in Rural Housing 


Administrator, Farm Security Administration 

EXPANSION of the migratory labor camp program to help alleviate 
farm labor shortages has been one of the Farm Security Adminis- 
tration's major contributions to housing during the past year. Pre- 
fabricated temporary houses also have been built for several hundred 
farm families displaced by government purchases of farm land for 
Army purposes. In addition, during the past year and a half FSA 
has provided trailers, dormitories, and demountable houses for war 
workers in designated areas, and has continued construction activities 
in connection with the tenant purchase program. 

An Executive Order signed by the President February 24, 1942, 
merged the housing activities of a number of federal agencies into 
the National Housing Agency. As a result, it is presumed that all 
non-farm housing activities of FSA will eventually be transferred to 
the new agency. This will include defense housing, Greenbelt towns, 
and some of the resettlement projects where farming is not the major 
source of income for the residents. 


Shelter for agricultural laborers has become increasingly important 
with the advent of war. "Okies" and "Arkies" were considered a 
social problem back in the days of John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath, 
but most people thought the problem was confined to the West Coast. 
Subsequent studies by Congressional committees investigating migra- 
tion have revealed that such migration extends to many sections of 
the country. 

Now an all-out farm production campaign is under way. The 
United States must produce nourishing food for its Army, for its 
allies, and for its own civilian population. Continued production of 
millions of dollars' worth of food on the big, commercial farms of 
the country is vitally important to the nation's war effort. On these 
farms, transient agricultural labor is necessary to plant, cultivate, and 
harvest the crops. Now, as the Army and war industries draw men 
into their ranks and the number of agricultural laborers decreases, the 
mobile camp program of FSA is becoming an increasingly effective 
method of directing labor into areas where it is most needed. 



Instead of following rumors of labor needs, migrant farm families 
now follow the camps. As mobile camps are moved from one crop 
area to another as the growing season advances, farm workers move 
there too, and are thus shifted from places where they are not needed 
to areas where the expansion of war industries threatens to cause farm 
labor shortages at peak seasons. In 1941, mobile camps operated by 
FSA were instrumental in preventing the development of acute local 
shortages of farm labor in a number of areas. This year the need for 
such camps will be even greater. 

At the end of 1941, FSA had completed 58 camps which would 
accommodate 13,674 families at one time. Each shelter is used by 
different families an average of four times a year, so that temporary 
quarters were actually furnished for more than 54,000 families. Most 
of the camps were located in the West California, Oregon, Washing- 
ton, Arizona, and Idaho; others were stationed in Florida, Missouri, 
and Texas. 

There are two types of camps, permanent and mobile. The typical 
permanent camp consists of a group of community buildings around 
which are grouped the shelters, small structures built of wood or steel, 
in which the families live. At practically all permanent camps a num- 
ber of small inexpensive cottages, known as labor homes, are provided 
for families who have year-round employment. The permanent camps 
are located where the demand for migrant farm laborers exists most 
of the year. 

Mobile camps, on the other hand, are designed for use in areas 
where workers are needed for only a few weeks at a time. These 
camps can be moved from place to place by truck. Both workers' 
families and such community facilities as laundries and showers are 
housed in tents. Large trailers house other basic necessities such as a 
power plant and a first-aid station. 

At the end of 1941 there were 35 standard camps and 23 mobile 
camps including 6,792 permanent shelters, 4,906 tent shelters, and 1,976 
labor homes. 


Forty-three additional camps, with accommodations for 6,993 ^ am " 
ilies at one time, were under construction at the close of the year. 
Sixteen of these camps are standard and 27 are mobile. They include 
1,594 permanent shelters, 5,133 tent shelters, and 266 labor homes. 
Twenty-five of the camps under construction are to be located in 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Michigan, New Mex- 
ico, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. In addition, 18 mobile camps, 


providing shelter for 2,700 families, will move up and down the East 
Coast states of Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North 
Carolina, and Virginia. Forty camp sites of 20 acres each are being 
selected by FSA officials in harvest areas along the Atlantic coast, and 
the movement of the 18 camps from one site to another will be deter- 
mined by local farm labor needs as they develop during the growing 
and harvesting seasons. FSA representatives will cooperate with farm 
placement officials of the United States Employment Service in rout- 
ing agricultural workers to camps in crop areas where laborers are 
most needed. 

The 43 camps under construction, including the program for the 
eastern seaboard, bring to 101 the number of labor camps already oper- 
ated or under construction by FSA in various parts of the country. 
This expansion of the camp program will make it possible to provide 
shelter for as many of 75,000 migrant families in a 1 2-month period. 
Accommodations will be available for 20,667 families at any one time. 

Basic shelter in the new mobile camps will consist of 150 Army-type 
tents with sidewalls or platforms. Each tent will be furnished with 
a portable stove and one double and two single, or four single, beds. 
Each camp will have a community tent and a placement-office tent. 
Electric power for lighting and other purposes will be provided by 
connections to existing lines. Other facilities will include a water 
system and pumphouse, a water heater, laundry equipment, and 
showers. Camps will be moved from one site to another on trucks 
and trailers. Medical care will be provided by a panel of physicians 
drawn from cities and towns adjacent to the 40 camp sites. The 
physicians will supervise FSA nurses in providing clinical services and 
preventive medical care. 

Migrant camps have received a great deal of attention from archi- 
tects and engineers because of the development of a variety of building 
and community plans. This variety exists because FSA engineers were 
not bound by stylistic conventions but worked out structures that 
best suited the community and the needs, because all types of building 
materials have been used, and because in addition to furnishing shelter 
the camps provided a new pattern of community life. Moreover, the 
villages had to be built on inexpensive land with the most economical 


Community plans vary with the existing camp site, in order to 
minimize the amount of road building, and to provide the greatest 
possible amount of space for allotment gardens and recreation facili- 


ties. Temporary shelters are usually placed in hexagons or double 
hexagons surrounding the community buildings. In some cases they 
are closely spaced around cul-de-sacs with road space enough to take 
care of the family car. In other places row-shelters border parking 

Semipermanent shelters are either small single or double houses, or 
two-story row houses, usually for six families each. They are generally 
arranged in parallel rows, often at an angle to shut out the wind or 
let in the sun. Double and single houses are frequently built around 

A typical camp with both temporary and permanent facilities con- 
sists of a hexagon of shelters and several rows of labor homes. In 
these camps, the community buildings are placed in an area accessible 
to both, but generally closer to the transients. Rural hospitals and 
health or isolation wards are usually at some distance on an outlying 
border of the property and serve as rural health centers not only for 
the camps but also for the neighboring districts. Community centers 
also serve residents in areas outside the camp as well as the camp 
residents. Fan-shaped and rectangular developments have been used 
where the terrain and trees made these plans feasible. 

Community buildings vary from a simple single hall to larger 
buildings with separate rooms for library, clubs, and classes. At 
Westley, California, for instance, there is a large hall that can be used 
for meetings, classes, or for a living room. It is flanked on each side 
by smaller spaces for toilets and kitchens and in front by a raised 
porch that can serve as a stage for outdoor meetings. Other com- 
munity buildings are L-shaped, containing a meeting hall in one wing 
and laundry facilities or a store in the other. These buildings have 
been constructed of wood in some localities, and of adobe in regions 
like Chandler, Arizona. Sliding doors often permit the classroom 
areas in the community buildings to be added to the assembly area. 
Some buildings provide special play terrace spaces off the nursery 
schoolrooms, where a broad projecting roof gives shelter from rain 
and sun. Community buildings are adjustable to almost any use 
nursery schools, adult and child education, and recreation and social 

Laundry areas are usually open to the air on at least one side. 
Shower rooms flank both sides and a boiler and water heater is placed 
in a central position on one side of the laundry so that plumbing is 
reduced to a minimum. 

In permanent shelters, an effort has been made to provide the 
greatest flexibility of use and the greatest privacy with the least pos- 


sible building o partitions and special finish. For instance, at Arvin, 
California, they consist of but one room with a sleeping porch in 
the rear. 


The war has created an emergency situation in many areas where 
it is necessary to provide temporary housing for families. In these 
areas called "defense relocation areas" the government has pur- 
chased huge blocks of land for maneuver grounds, air fields, war 
plants, Army posts, etc. Farm owners or tenants who have had to 
move out have been helped by FSA to find new homes in nearby 
counties. In cases where no farms were available for the displaced 
families, FSA built demountable homes at the edge of the evacuation 
area to provide temporary housing. As families settle on other farms, 
the temporary houses are taken to another evacuation area or trans- 
ferred to some farm and converted into a permanent farm home. 

Houses erected for temporary use have two bedrooms, but when 
they are made into permanent homes a third bedroom is added. A 
typical house will have three bedrooms, each with a closet; a kitchen 
and dining bay, a living room, a small entrance porch on the front 
and a screened work porch at the back. In the kitchen is a sink and 
drain, with connections for running water. In some of the houses 
there is a small room which can be converted into a bathroom, if 
utilities are available. 

Walls, built of prefabricated wood, are constructed in sections at a 
mill and shipped by train or truck to the building site, where they 
are set on concrete pillar foundations and painted with a spray gun. 
The houses were designed by FSA engineers and built by private 
contractors. Extremely rapid construction has been possible because 
of the prefabricated construction. 


Because of its experience in the construction of more than 20,000 
low-cost homes under its resettlement and tenant-purchase programs, 
FSA became one of the construction agencies for permanent defense 
housing provided for in the Lanham Act of October 14, 1940. From 
the appropriation, FSA was allocated $5,710,878 to provide permanent 
homes at four projects: 200 family units in one locality and 150 units 
in another in Virginia; 1,000 in Maryland; and 72 in California. 

At the end of December the two undertakings in Virginia were 
practically complete, construction work was well under way in Cali- 
fornia, and 152 units were ready for occupancy at the Maryland proj- 


ect, with 144 units nearing completion and 704 under construction. 
Permanent houses are single-type dwellings with the exception of 
those at Greenbelt, Maryland, which are multiple-type similar in 
design to homes already there. 

The major part of FSA's war housing program consisted in provid- 
ing temporary facilities. These are of three types trailers, dormitories, 
and demountable houses. By the end of 1941, the President, upon the 
recommendation of the Coordinator of Defense Housing, had approved 
allocations to FSA for 16,500 units, 6,500 of which were then available 
for occupancy. Nearly half the facilities were trailers or houses for 
family occupancy and half were dormitory accommodations. Since 
the beginning of the year additional projects have been approved 
which will bring the total number of facilities to 28,763. This work 
will be part of the "non-farm housing projects" turned over to the 
National Housing Agency in accordance with the President's recent 
Executive Order. 

The trailer program was devised to fill the time lag which occurs 
between the period when housing is needed for workers in war indus- 
tries and the time when the more permanent units are ready for 
occupancy. In many instances trailers are used in areas where no long- 
term demand for housing is expected but where there is an acute 
short-term need for dwellings usually for construction workers. 

Trailer camps are usually ready for use within 60 days after an 
allocation is made. There are two types of trailers standard and 
expansible. The former house four persons; expansibles accommodate 
six and comprise about 20 per cent of each trailer camp. 

Standard trailers are 8 by 22 feet and are set on a lot 25 by 40 feet, 
which provides a parking space for an automobile. Each unit is 
equipped with a gasoline stove, refrigerator, lo-gallon water tank, 
wardrobe lockers, and two studio couches which can be opened to 
make double beds. The trailers, made of plywood and pressed board, 
with painted canvas roofs and one inch of insulation, cost approxi- 
mately $945, and rent from $6 to $7 a week. 

Expansible trailers provide 2,569 cubic feet of living space, as much 
as a small house. They are made of masonite and are insulated. The 
trailers have two wings which unfold from the central segment and 
furnish additional rooms. The average cost of expansible trailers is 

Each trailer camp has utility buildings or utility trailers providing 
toilets, showers, lavatories, and laundry tubs. If the utilities are housed 
in buildings, the structures are demountable so they can be moved 
when the camp is no longer needed. 


Portable houses are of two kinds single and duplex. Both are pre- 
fabricated, with floors, sides, and roofs made in panels and bolted 
together. Built on wooden piers, the houses are made of plywood or 
wood siding with %-inch of insulation board. Pitched roofs are 
covered with 90-pound mineral-surfaced roofing paper, which will 
last ii years. 

Each unit in a duplex has a living room 12 by 14 feet, a bedroom 
8 ! /2 by 12 feet, a bathroom, clothes closet, and a sink and tray cabinet. 
Plenty of light is afforded by three casement windows in the living 
room, cross ventilation in the bedroom and one window in the bath- 
room. Duplex houses, furnishing accommodations for two families, 
cost $2,860. They are convertible, so that when the emergency is over 
the duplexes can be made into single houses with more rooms. Usually 
only about 60 days elapse from the time the contract is let to a private 
bidder until the houses are on the site. Four men can put up a house 
in three days. Single houses are quite similar in design but have the 
advantage of an additional bedroom. The cost of furniture for one 
of the duplex units, including stove, refrigerator, oil space heater, 
double bed, dresser, two straight chairs for the bedroom, davenport, 
four straight chairs and table for the living room, and window shades, 
averages $217. 

The dormitory program is designed to provide temporary shelter 
units for defense workers without families. Each dormitory houses 
62 persons and contains double and single rooms, a heating plant, 
toilet and bathing facilities, and a lounge room. The average cost of 
a dormitory is $20,000. 

Dormitories are operated with usual hotel services. Bed linen is 
changed twice a week, and clean towels are furnished every day. 
Rooms are furnished simply, with wooden equipment, and the aver- 
age cost of furniture is $58 per person. Rentals range from $3.50 to 
$5.00 a week per person for double, and $5 to $7 a week for single 
rooms. The buildings are T-shape in design, and a limited number 
of parking lots are provided for the residents. 


Under the authority of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, FSA 
each year lends a limited number of tenant farmers the funds they 
need to buy a farm of their own. When necessary, these loans include 
funds to repair the existing house, or to construct a new dwelling. A 
somewhat larger percentage of the funds approved for borrowers this 
fiscal year is being used for property improvements on the farms 
acquired. Something more than $5,600,000 was set up for this purpose 


from July i through December and about 37 per cent of the amount 
was for new dwellings. 

During the 1941 calendar year, 5,759 new dwellings were built on 
tenant purchase farms, bringing the total number of new farm homes 
built under this program to 11,162. The average estimated cost of the 
new dwellings for this year's 'borrowers was $1,537, as compared with 
an average of about $1,400 since the inception of the program. In 
addition, 1941 saw the repair of 4,500 farm dwellings so they would 
be suitable for the families buying the farms. This brings the number 
of repaired tenant purchase homes to 11,832 at an average cost of $435. 
From the beginning of the tenant purchase program through Decem- 
ber, 22,868 buildings other than dwellings had been constructed or 


FSA had built nearly 48,000 housing facilities and had approxi- 
mately 23,500 more either under construction or allocated for imme- 
diate construction by December 31, 1941. These include homes built 
on projects, homes built under the tenant purchase program, migra- 
tory shelters and platforms, defense trailers and houses, and dormitory 
units for war workers. In addition, more than 12,000 homes had been 
repaired or remodeled, and community buildings, utility buildings, 
roads and streets, and other essential facilities had been constructed. 


The Interbureau Coordinating Committee on Post Defense Pro- 
grams of the Department of Agriculture issued a statement in October, 
1941, which shows the increased need for rural housing. 

According to the report, the first figures from the 1940 Census indi- 
cate that the value of farm dwellings is declining. The value of all 
farm buildings, including dwellings, fell from $12,950,000,000 in 1930 
to $10,405,000,000 in 1940, a decrease of 19.7 per cent. In these 10 years, 
the combined value of land and buildings decreased 29.7 per cent. 
This decline in the value of all farm property is in part a result of 
the general depression; whereas the decline in the value of farm 
dwellings shows also the results of 10 years of additional use without 
adequate repairs. 

In 1930 the total value of all farm dwellings (without the other 
farm buildings) was $7,083,600,000, with an average value of $1,126 
per farm house. Farm houses of very low value are general through- 
out the South. In Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and 
Georgia, the average value of farm dwellings was less than $500. 


A comparison of the value of owned and rented farm homes also 
is interesting. The median values of the tenant homes in the North 
are considerably higher than those of the owned homes in the South 
and West. In one Western and four Southern states, even the owned 
farm homes have a median value below $500. 

The minimum requirements for a farm dwelling recommended by 
the United States Department of Agriculture call for at least five 
rooms or the equivalent for a typical farm family, including both boys 
and girls. This minimum dwelling should have three bedrooms, and 
either a kitchen and a living room, with dining space included in one 
or the other; or one very large room for cooking, eating, and living 
space. The Census and other studies show that many farm families 
are living in crowded quarters. For example 17.7 per cent of the farm 
families in Colorado, Montana, and South Dakota occupy houses with 
three rooms or less. In the Southeast, 42.6 per cent of the Negro share- 
croppers live in houses of three rooms or less. 

In all states, farm homes lag far behind town and city homes in 
sanitary equipment and conveniences. The first 1940 Census reports 
indicate that, in spite of Rural Electrification Administration, FSA, 
and other government programs, there are still very serious short- 
comings in the equipment and conveniences of the average farm 
home. Even with the advances made in rural electrification in North 
Dakota, for example, 64,920 of 76,864 farm homes reported no electric 
lights, and 73,319, or nearly all, lacked indoor toilets, and 71,015 had 
no running water. 

A survey recently made by an agency of the Department of Agri- 
culture covered approximately 50 families in each of nine counties 
located in Georgia, Kentucky, Virginia, Missouri, New Mexico, Wash- 
ington, and Minnesota. Preliminary reports show that in these rural 
slum communities, where the usual source of water was a spring or 
well, only 6 per cent reported a well or spring properly covered. Only 
2 per cent had kitchen sinks and less than i per cent had pumps in 
the kitchen. Four of the counties reported that from one-fourth 
to more than one-half the families had no toilets at all, either in- 
doors or outdoors. Some houses had no glass in the window open- 
ings, and in six of the counties up to 90 per cent had no screens 

The 1940 Census tabulations indicate that the majority of American 
farm homes are in a poor state of repair. In North Dakota, the com- 
plete tabulations show that 32,816 of 70,950 occupied farm homes 
reported a need for major repairs, in contrast with only 4,723 of 34,069 
urban homes. In Mississippi, the figures for farm homes were 119,825 


in bad repair of 318,676, as compared with 27,168 of 120,360 urban 

The amounts which farm people of different incomes spend for 
house repairs, based on the Consumer Purchases Study of 1935-36, 
show that those with a net income ranging from $250 to $500 (includ- 
ing both cash and living obtained on the farm) spent an average of 
only $4 a year for repairs. Those with incomes from f 1,000 to $1,250 
spent an average of $8, while only those in the upper bracket, from 
$2,000 to $2,500 averaged as much as $28 a year for home repairs. 
Granting that farmers can make many repairs themselves without 
spending money for hired labor, these amounts were obviously too 
little to keep up the property. The poorest houses, of course, received 
the least attention. There is also a need for new and repaired barns, 
cribs, silos, sheds, and other service buildings. 

Using the minimum requirements for a farm dwelling outlined by 
the Department of Agriculture, and including the needs of migrants, 
at least from two to three million new farm homes are urgently 
needed, according to the Post Defense Committee. These require- 
ments, and this estimate, are based on rock-bottom considerations of 
health and decency. 

Many reasons for the poor condition of American farm buildings 
could be set down by anyone who has studied economic trends in the 
United States, and the uses which the American people have made 
of their natural resources. It could be shown, for example, that where 
the soil has been neglected the houses have also depreciated; or that 
where crop surpluses have piled up, the condition of the farm homes 
has generally declined. There is an obvious relation between rural 
poverty and poor housing. The migratory labor situation is also closely 
related to the rural housing problem. Finally, rural unemployment 
is most serious in the regions where the need is greatest for improved 
rural housing. 

The need for rural housing will be even more acute after the war, 
because building priority restrictions will prevent the erection of 
many new structures during the emergency. In addition, men who 
are now serving in the armed forces and in war industries will return 
to the land when the struggle is over, and there will be a need for new 
and enlarged buildings when they return. 

Decent farm housing would reduce the restless shifting from place 
to place, which is characteristic of modern American agriculture and 
which clearly contributes to soil erosion. It would lessen the hardships 
of migratory farm workers. It would be of enormous help to land- 
lords and managers as well as tenants and laborers. Improved rural 


housing would relieve the pressure which creates suburban slums 
around cities. It would help restore the American ideal of opportunity, 
security, and independence for those who wish to live on the land. 
Just how the needed improvement in rural housing can be achieved 
has not been determined, but such improvement is of great importance 
to the welfare of the country. 

The Federal Home Loan Bank Board 1941 


Chairman, Federal Home Loan Bank Board 

THE activities of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and the 
agencies under its supervision during 1941 were necessarily affected 
by general conditions in the real estate market and the home financing 
industry. New residential construction in non-farm areas during the 
entire year was estimated by the Department of Labor at 685,000 new 
units an increase of approximately 14 per cent over 1940 and twice 
the volume of similar construction in 1937. During the second half 
of the year, residential construction declined as shortages of critical 
building materials became more and more acute, and all evidence 
pointed toward a continued decline in 1942. 

Lending activity for the full year was stimulated by increased con- 
struction and the general improvement in economic conditions. As 
evidence of the increased lending volume, mortgage recordings of 
$20,000 and less for all types of institutions and individuals aggre- 
gated $4,732,000,000 an increase of 17 per cent over 1940. In the 
savings and loan industry, which in recent years has supplied approxi- 
mately one-third of total home-mortgage credit, new construction loans 
declined during the second half of the year in line with the course 
followed by residential building activity. For the year as a whole, 
refinancing, reconditioning, and "other" loans of savings and loan 
associations also lost somewhat in relative importance. The $155,000,- 
ooo increase in the volume of home-purchase loans was almost solely 
responsible for the gain in total lending volume over 1940. Significantly 
the shift from construction to home-purchase loans became more 
pronounced as the year advanced. 

The problem of "surplus" funds, which during the past few years 
caused some home-financing institutions to seek new devices to curtail 
the flow of money which could not be invested profitably, well-nigh 
disappeared. Contrary to many expectations, the rise in national 
income and wages did not result in an extraordinary increase in sav- 
ings. The gain in savings deposits held by insured commercial banks 
during the first six months of 1941 was substantially less than during 
the same period of 1940, and deposits in mutual savings banks actually 

1 Under the terms of Executive Order Number 9070, dated February 24, 1942, the 
Federal Home Loan Bank Board is known as the Federal Home Loan Bank Admin- 
istration. The Chairman of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board was designated to 
serve as the Federal Home Loan Bank Commissioner. 



declined for the first time in several years. Private repurchasable cap- 
ital in insured savings and loan associations rose from $2,202,135,000 
in 1940 to an estimated $2,597,373,000 at the end of 1941. However, 
this dollar increase was no greater than that which had occurred dur- 
ing 1940, and the rate of growth was therefore slower. The sluggish 
flow of money into financial institutions was probably due in large 
part to heavier purchases of consumers goods occasioned by fear of 
anticipated shortages and higher prices, greater emphasis on short- 
term savings in anticipation of higher income taxes, and higher living 
costs. The return on savings showed no signs of increase and in several 
sections of the country there was a continuation of the downward 
trend in dividend rates paid by savings and loan associations. 

The downward trend of foreclosures noted in 1940 continued; total 
foreclosure proceedings initiated were 23 per cent below the level of 
1940 and 14 per cent below the level of 1926. A favorable real estate 
market enabled many financial institutions to dispose of owned prop- 
erties, and it has been estimated that the net reduction in real estate 
overhang during 1941 probably exceeded the 1940 record decline of 


The task of providing adequate housing for defense workers was, 
of course, a problem of common concern to all housing agencies dur- 
ing 1941. The Board and the presidents of the 12 Federal Home Loan 
Banks, acting through the Office of the Governor of the Federal Home 
Loan Bank System, continually advised the Division of Defense Hous- 
ing Coordination and other agencies of expected needs, the amount 
of housing private enterprise could be expected to provide on an eco- 
nomically sound basis, and the amount and type of housing that 
should be constructed with public funds. A special defense housing 
field force was created to gather information and to encourage and 
assist home financing institutions to make sound loans for defense 
housing construction and purchase. To facilitate increased lending, the 
Board advised federal savings and loan associations of its willingness 
to approve applications for sale of mortgages to provide additional 
funds for reinvestment in areas of concentrated defense activity. In 
its capacity as Board of Trustees of the Federal Savings and Loan 
Insurance Corporation, the Board also amended the rules and regu- 
lations of the Insurance Corporation to permit unlimited sale of mort- 
gages made in the financing of permanent-use housing in defense 
localities. The Board also made moderate investments of Home 
Owners' Loan Corporation funds in savings and loan associations in 


defense areas which needed additional loanable capital and approved 
applications of associations already in receipt of investments for waiver 
of retirements currently coming due. 

In cooperation with the Defense Housing Coordinator, the Board 
inaugurated an extensive program to maximize the use of existing 
dwellings and to provide additional housing units with minimum use 
of critical building materials. Savings and loan associations were 
encouraged to cooperate with local Homes Registration Offices in 
making existing vacant dwellings and room accommodations available 
for occupancy by defense workers. With $100,000 allotted from the 
President's Emergency Funds, the Home Owners' Loan Corporation 
offered the services of its technicians to home owners contemplating 
the conversion and rehabilitation of existing dwelling units into 
habitable, multiple-family structures. Conversion not only provides 
additional dwelling units, but, in many cases, eliminates the need for 
additional construction which might deflate the real estate market in 
years to come. The conversion program did not get under way until 
October, but during the remaining months of 1941, HOLC technicians 
processed 1,460 applications for technical assistance. The number of 
applications is steadily increasing; in January alone, 344 requests for 
services were received. 

Although 73,000 defense housing units were constructed in 1941 
with public funds, a 207 per cent increase over similar construction 
during 1940, private enterprise continued to supply the bulk of new 
residential construction in defense areas. Preliminary estimates made 
by the Division of Defense Housing Coordination indicate that private 
enterprise financed construction of approximately 400,000 dwelling 
units in such areas. Member savings and loan associations of the Fed- 
eral Home Loan Bank System advanced almost $700,000,000 in loans 
for new construction and home purchase in defense areas. 


The Federal Home Loan Bank Board was created in 1932 to estab- 
lish and supervise the administration of the 12 regional Federal Home 
Loan Banks which provide a credit reservoir for savings and loan 
associations, homestead associations, cooperative banks, insurance conv 
panics, and savings banks. These Banks extend credit to home- 
financing institutions when demand for funds exceeds the local supply. 
The usefulness of the Federal Home Loan Bank System must be 
measured not only by its ability to extend needed credit, but also by 
the stabilizing and progressive influence it exerts upon the entire 
home financing industry. 


At the end of the calendar year 1941, there were 3,783 federal and 
state-chartered savings and loan associations, 15 mutual savings banks, 
and 26 insurance companies with membership in the Bank System. 
Although the total number of members was 40 less than in 1940, the 
combined assets of all member institutions at the end of 1941 were 
$5,470,560,000 an increase of almost 8 per cent over 1940. This is 
further evidence of the trend toward fewer but stronger home- 
financing institutions. 

The Banks also showed substantial gains. Aggregate resources of 
the Banks at the close of 1941 were $308,306,000, an increase of $8,583,- 
ooo over 1940. While net income for the 12 Banks during 1940 had 
declined by $600,000 from the previous year, net income for 1941 was 
higher by almost $360,000. This rise was due to an increase in gross 
operating income of $127,000, an increase in nonoperating income of 
almost $74,000, a decline in operating charges of $249,000, and a rise 
in nonoperating charges of $90,000. Of the 1941 total net income of 
$3,779,000, the amount of $1,384,000 was allocated to reserves, $391,000 
to undivided profits, and $2,004,000 was disbursed in dividends. 

Dividend payments for the year were $166,091 in excess of payments 
for the previous year. Since October, 1932, the Banks have paid divi- 
dends totaling $17,409,490 of which $13,481,182 was paid on stock 
subscribed by the government and $3,928,308 on stock owned by mem- 
ber institutions. Bank capital also increased during 1941, and, con- 
tinuing the previous trend, the proportion of stock held by members 
to stock owned by the government increased considerably. Government- 
owned stock remained constant at $124,741,000, but member-owned 
stock increased by more than $4,000,000 to an all-time high of $48,815,- 
225, or 28.1 per cent of the total paid-in capital stock. 

Bank advances during 1941 reached a new peak of $157,600,000. 
Advances outstanding declined until April and then steadily increased, 
reaching the unprecedented total of $219,446,050 at the close of the 
year $17,954,086 above the figure for 1940. The Federal Home Loan 
Bank of Chicago reported the largest amount of advances outstanding, 
followed by the Winston-Salem and New York Banks. Cumulative 
advances during the period from 1932 to the end of 1941 totaled $873,- 
735,000 and total repayments have amounted to $654,289,000. Con- 
tinuation of a demand for short-term advances was evident during the 
year. The ratio of short-term to total advances outstanding was 48 per 
cent at the close of 1941 as compared with 36 per cent a year ago. 
Continuing a previous trend, the proportion of unsecured advances 
to advances outstanding rose from 29 to 34 per cent. Although prior 
years witnessed a downward revision of interest rates on Bank 


advances, the past year showed no appreciable change. The range of 
interest rates was the same as in 1940, from 1% to 3 per cent on short- 
term and from 2% to 3 per cent on long-term advances. 


When Congress passed the Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933 
authorizing the Federal Home Loan Bank Board to charter federal 
savings and loan associations, it contemplated that these institutions 
would provide sound thrift and home financing facilities in com- 
munities previously lacking adequate savings and home-mortgage 
lending resources. The Act required federals to operate on a uniform 
basis and under regulations designed to assure efficient and modern 
business operations. It was the intent of Congress that these associa- 
tions would constitute a group of home financing institutions operat- 
ing under the best standards and practices which had been developed 
by the savings and loan industry. Although federals have been in 
existence but a short time, they have already set standards for the 
entire industry and their influence has been responsible in no small 
degree for recent widespread improvements in the operating practices 
of thrift and home-financing institutions. 

The progress of federal associations during the past few years has 
exceeded original expectations. On December 31, 1941, there were 
1,462 federals with assets aggregating $2,174,000,000 and investors num- 
bering 1,898,000. After the consideration of mergers and consolidations, 
the number of institutions with federal charters rose from 1,441 at 
the beginning of 1941 to 1,462 at the end of December. Total assets 
of all federals increased from $1,873,000,000 on December 31, 1940, to 
$2,174,000,000 at the close of 1941. The relatively small gain in number 
accompanied by a rapid increase in assets resulted in a corresponding 
growth in the average size of federal associations. At the close of 1941, 
the average federal had assets of approximately $1,500,000, or almost 
$200,000 higher than the previous year. The estimated volume of new 
loans made by federals increased from $400,337,000 in 1939 to $509,- 
713,000 in 1940, and to $584,220,000 during 1941. On December 31, 
1941, total mortgages held by federals amounted to $1,824,868,000. 

The steady inflow of private capital during the past two years has 
made it possible for federals to reduce government capital investment 
at a faster rate than was originally contemplated. During 1941, invest- 
ments held by the United States Treasury and the HOLC in federal 
associations declined from $181,430,900 to $160,060,050. On the funds 
invested in federals during the year, the government received divi- 
dends amounting to $5,111,392. 



The Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation was created 
by Congress in 1934 to protect the small investor and revive the flow 
of money into savings and loan associations by restoring public con- 
fidence in thrift and home-financing institutions. These immediate 
objectives have now been met in large measure, and continued prog- 
ress of the insurance function is vitally important as an integral part 
of the general program of strengthening the nation's home-financing 
industry to meet expected post-war economic readjustments. 

The extension of insurance protection and the growth of insured 
associations during 1941 are, therefore, particularly significant. During 
the past year, the number of insured associations rose from 2,276 to 
2,343 an d tne number of private investors, whose accounts are insured 
up to $5,000, increased by 337,500 to a total of 3,110,000. Total assets 
of all insured associations during the past year grew by $430,000,000 
to an all-time peak of $3,362,000,000. Such assets now comprise approx- 
imately 70 per cent of the combined assets of all savings and loan 
associations in the Federal Home Loan Bank System. During 1941, 
insured associations made mortgage loans totaling $882,938,000, of 
which more than $500,000,000 was invested in new construction and 
home-purchase loans in defense areas. 

The balance sheet of the Corporation during 1941 continued to show 
improvement. Gross assets at the end of 1941 totaled $133,069,394 as 
compared with $128,014,723 in December, 1940. Gross income in 1941 
was $6,920,301, while operating expenses were only $301,846, approxi- 
mately 4.4 per cent of the gross income. Greater income and low 
operating costs enabled the Corporation to allocate $6,605,790 to 
reserves and surplus for future losses. Since its establishment, the 
Corporation's administrative and nonadministrative expenses have 
been less than earnings on invested reserves, enabling the Corporation 
to transfer all premiums, admission fees, and earnings on capital to 
reserves. As of December 31, 1941, a total of $31,310,327 had been 
allocated to reserves and surplus, which is invested in government 
obligations and securities wholly guaranteed by the government. 

Losses incurred during the past year were the ordinary losses which 
must be expected to arise out of insurance operations. During 1941, 
the Corporation acted to prevent default in nine insured associations 
with total assets of $30,350,000 and 23,300 investors. Cash disburse- 
ments by the Corporation in these cases aggregated $1,946,225. Four 
insured associations with assets of $8,111,000 were also placed in liqui- 
dation. In the seven and one-half years of operation, the Insurance 
Corporation has rehabilitated a total of 19 associations. Up to the end 


of 1941, 6,403 insured shareholders in seven insured associations placed 
in default and liquidation had been issued new share accounts in other 
insured institutions in the amount of $4,352,529. In some cases, where 
management has encountered difficulties not necessitating liquidation 
or financial assistance, the Corporation has advised steps which could 
be taken to strengthen an association's financial condition. Whenever 
an insured association has been liquidated, the Corporation has made 
available to the investors the optional methods of settlement as 
required in the National Housing Act which created the Insurance 
Corporation. The great majority of insured investors in liquidated 
associations have accepted insured accounts in other insured associa- 
tions, in preference to a settlement of 10 per cent in cash immediately 
and 90 per cent in negotiable non-interest-bearing debentures of the 

Although losses have been incurred, the loss ratio of the Insurance 
Corporation at the present time is relatively low. This has resulted 
largely from the initial adoption of an evaluated risk selection policy. 
Insurance of accounts has not been granted indiscriminately to all 
savings and loan associations. Instead, approval is granted to those 
associations which careful tests and available information show to be 
in sound financial condition and with prospects of further community 
service. For this reason the major causes of difficulty have been prob- 
lems of management and local economic conditions. To assist man- 
agement to cope with future financial problems, the Insurance 
Corporation has encouraged the sale of owned real estate, advocated 
lower dividends and higher reserve allocations, and stressed the need 
for more intensive study of community business and economic trends. 


Congress created the HOLC in 1933 to aid distressed home owners. 
During its three-year lending period, the Corporation granted loans 
to more than a million borrowers faced with the immediate loss of 
their homes. The average borrower was two years delinquent in prin- 
cipal and interest payments on the former obligation and was between 
two and three years behind in his taxes. Loans were not made unless 
the applicants could prove that mortgagees were no longer willing or 
able to continue the original loan and that reasonable efforts had been 
made without avail to refinance the loans through private home- 
financing channels. 

Notwithstanding the emergency character of the Corporation's 
lending program, repayments on these loans have been surprisingly 
favorable. During its lending period, the Corporation granted loans 


aggregating approximately $3,093,000,000, and subsequent advances 
and other additions have increased this figure to $3,468,853,773. By 
the end of 1941, $1,403,680,109, or 40.4 per cent of this amount had 
been liquidated. As of December 31, more than 125,000 original loans 
had been paid in full, approximately 40,000 in 1941 alone; about 93 per 
cent of all remaining loans were current or less than three months 
in arrears. 

The Corporation has extended every servicing consideration possible 
to those of its borrowers who found themselves in difficulty. As a 
result, thousands once in trouble were able to solve their financial 
problems and retain their homes. Nonetheless, it was inevitable, of 
course, that the Corporation should have found it necessary to fore- 
close certain of the loans originally granted. By the end of 1941, 
185,833 properties had been taken over. During 1941, only 10,506 such 
properties were acquired as compared with 18,442 properties taken 
over in 1940, and 50,919 in the peak year of 1938. Under the authority 
of the Mead-Barry Act of 1939, the Corporation, in 245,392 cases, has 
extended the amortization schedule from 15 years to periods ranging 
up to 25 years. Although such extensions included the most serious 
problem cases, only 9,317 of these loans have been foreclosed. 

The increased demand for housing during 1941 enabled the Cor- 
poration to dispose of a large number of the properties it had acquired 
through foreclosure. Sales numbered 24,123, leaving 38,957 properties 
on hand at the close of the year. In many areas rising real estate prices 
have tended to reduce losses on sale of foreclosed properties and there 
is ample evidence to indicate that the Corporation is securing as favor- 
able recapture on the sale of its properties as are other owners of 
foreclosed properties. 

To strengthen the nation's home-financing institutions and provide 
additional capital for mortgage lending purposes, Congress appro- 
priated $50,000,000 to the United States Treasury for investment in 
the shares of federal savings and loan associations. Later legislation 
authorized the HOLC to invest up to $300,000,000 in the snares of 
member, insured, and federal associations as well as in securities of 
the Federal Home Loan Banks. During the past two years the funds 
thus invested have assisted savings and loan associations in vital 
defense areas in the financing of needed defense housing. At the end 
of 1941 government investments of this type still outstanding totaled 


Recently, new federal agencies have been established and existing 
agencies reorganized to further the national defense program. The 


outbreak of hostilities intensified the need for additional changes. The 
first major reorganization since December 7 was the consolidation of 
the 1 6 different governmental agencies concerned with housing under 
the National Housing Agency, which is charged with the immediate 
responsibility of stimulating the construction of defense housing. One 
of the three component units of this new agency is the group consist- 
ing of the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, the Federal 
Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation, and the United States Housing Corporation (set up 
during World War I). 

That changes in administrative organization will occur is inevitable; 
wars create new problems which demand new solutions. In many 
cases existing institutions and existing policies adequately meet these 
new conditions, but in other cases fundamental changes are necessary. 
Very often new methods and policies require new sacrifices and dis- 
comforts. These, too, are inevitable. But whatever these changes are, 
and whatever hardships they may bring, they are well worth the price 
we must pay for final victory. 

Division of Defense Housing Coordination Activities 

in 1941 1 


Coordinator of Defense Housing 

THE ACCELERATED tempo of the defense program had so increased the 
size and complexity of the housing problem by January, 1941, that 
it became imperative to define more clearly the coordinating function. 
Accordingly, the Division of Defense Housing Coordination was estab- 
lished by executive order on January n, 1941, to replace the Office of 
the Coordinator of Defense Housing in the National Defense Advis- 
ory Commission and enlarge its activities to accommodate the broad 
scope of the housing problem. 

During 1941 DDHC was responsible for anticipating the amount 
and type of housing needed in defense areas, and planning the best 
way of satisfying the needs in the light of local construction resources. 
The rate of providing housing had to keep pace with the rate of ex- 
pansion of the defense program. More than 200 defense areas in 42 
states were covered by defense housing programs during the year. 
Approximately 100,000 family units were programmed for public con- 
struction, or more than twice as many as in 1940. In addition, more 
than 9,000 dormitory units and a like number of trailers and trailer- 
size portable units were provided. With the active encouragement of 
DDHC field representatives and, toward the end of the year, by 
means of priority assistance made available through DDHC in coop- 
eration with the Office of Production Management, private construc- 
tion of residences in defense areas at a price level suitable for defense 
workers amounted to about 240,000 units, or more than two-fifths of 
the total private construction in the United States during the year. 

Legislative measures providing for publicly financed construction 
and stimulating low-cost private construction in defense areas were 
an important part of the year's achievements. Also of significance was 
the establishment of priority procedures when shortages developed 
in critical materials. And, finally, the efforts of the Homes Registra- 
tion Offices sponsored by DDHC made possible the use of the exist- 
ing housing supply for the placement of more than 40,000 families 
and about 30,000 single workers. 

1 The Division of Defense Housing Coordination was abolished by executive order of 
the President on February 24, 1942, and its functions were transferred to the newly 
created National Housing Agency. The position of Coordinator of Defense Housing, 
held by Charles H. Palmer since July, 1940, was also abolished by the executive order. 




In order to evaluate the activities of DDHC, some understanding 
of the mandate and regulations under which it operated is necessary. 
As an emergency defense agency in the Office for Emergency Man- 
agement of the Executive Office of the President, DDHC became 
responsible to the President for the integration of defense housing 
activities carried on by public agencies directly or by virtue of their 
relations to private builders. 2 The executive order included in the 
scope and activities of the coordinating function, the responsibility 
for anticipating housing needs and for formulating and expediting 
programs to satisfy them. The accompanying regulations provided 
that the Coordinator review and make recommendation on all defense 
housing programs requiring Presidential action; the same was true of 
housing standards. All federal housing agencies were directed to sub- 
mit to the Coordinator their plans and programs and the information 
necessary for evaluating these plans. In effect, the order defined the 
functions of housing coordination with clear vision of the scope of 
the defense housing problem; the regulations represented the limita- 
tions imposed by the existing division of labor. 

Throughout 1941 the activities of DDHC were subject on the one 
hand to the limitations implicit in the executive order and regulations, 
and on the other hand to the demands evoked by the critical course 
of events. The problem of providing sufficient housing for the one- 
half million or more defense workers was not susceptible of solution 
by random efforts on the part of private or public agencies whose 
segmental spheres of activity could not take into account the impera- 
tive need for the most efficient division of labor and a concerted 
mobilization of effort. The organization of DDHC which developed 
during the year represented the adaptation of means to ends. The 
task of DDHC was, roughly, three-fold: (a) planning and implemen- 
tation of the national defense housing program as a whole; (b) 
programming of new housing for individual defense localities; and 
(c) providing for the utilization of existing housing resources. 


With the changing and urgent nature of defense housing needs, 
the nationwide planning function of DDHC became in 1941 pri- 
marily a process of recurrent estimating of the amount and perma- 
nence of defense needs in the country as a whole, and of setting up 
a program for meeting those needs. 

2 See Defense Housing Digest, NAHO, pp. H2-H4. 

Cf MY 


To make certain that the needs would be met, it was necessary to 
advance legislation providing for the use of private and public con- 
struction resources, and to prepare procedures and standards for the 
development and operation of defense housing projects. Upon the 
recommendation of DDHC, legislation was enacted providing funds 
amounting to 320 million dollars for temporary shelter, providing 
liberalized Federal Housing Administration insurance for 300 million 
dollars worth of mortgages on private defense construction, and in- 
creasing the appropriation for public defense housing under the 
Lanham Act to 300 million dollars. The following calendar presents 
a summary of this program. 


Public Construction 
Temporary Housing 

March 1 Public Law No. 9 $5,000,000 appropriated for tempo- 

rary shelter. 

May 24 Public Law No. 73 An additional $15,000,000 appropri- 


December 17 Public Law No. 353 An additional $300,000,000 appro- 
priated, making a total of $320,- 
Permanent Housing 

April 29 Public Law No. 42 Lanham Act increased by additional 

$150,000,000, bringing total to $300,- 
000,000. 3 

Private Construction 

March 28 Public Law No. 24 Title VI Amendment to National 

Housing Act provided FHA insur- 
ance for builders' mortgages on 
homes to be sold or rented to de- 
fense workers; $10,000,000 trans- 
ferred from RFC to Defense Housing 
Insurance Fund to cover mortgages 
totaling $100,000,000. 

September 2 Public Law No. 248 FHA Title VI insurance authoriza- 
tion increased by $200,000,000, bring- 
ing total mortgage coverage to 

Another phase of the nationwide planning activities of DDHC was 
concerned with the establishment of procedures for providing assist- 

* A previous sum of $150 million had been authorized in October, 1940, half of 
which was appropriated at that time and the remainder on April i, 1941. In addition 
to the $300 million total authorized and appropriated by the end of 1941, a like sum 
was appropriated late in December, 1941, but not authorized until January, 1942. 
Including the latter amount, a total of $600 million had been authorized and appro- 
priated under the Lanham Act by the end of January, 1942. 

1 V o 1 J 


ance in the matter o priorities on building materials, which were 
invoked toward the latter part of the year. Between June and Sep- 
tember, 1941, when the first defense housing priority areas were 
approved by the Office of Production Management, procedures were 
worked out by DDHC, OPM, 4 and FHA, whereby priority ratings 
for critical materials were made available to builders in defense local- 
ities. The task of DDHC, in this connection, was that of (a) deter- 
mining localities, for approval by OPM, where defense housing needs 
were critical, (b) of setting up tentative quotas for the number of 
privately constructed houses needing priorities, and (c) of reviewing 
priority applications transmitted by FHA and making recommenda- 
tion for action by OPM. Priority applications were submitted by 
builders to FHA which reviewed them with respect to their suit- 
ability for defense occupancy, the proposed sales price or rents, their 
location, and their use of materials. FHA then submitted the applica- 
tions to DDHC which reviewed the recommendations of FHA and 
the builders' capacity to construct the houses covered by the applica- 
tion. Action on the applications was then recommended to OPM. 
The status of activities in this connection is presented below in the 
section that has been devoted to private defense housing con- 

Another planning activity of DDHC is concerned with the problem 
of setting up and maintaining housing standards in defense housing 
projects. In January, 1941, A Summary of Standards for Defense 
Housing was published. The book contained minimum criteria for 
the construction, operation, and management of public projects. 
Recommendations for critical and substitute construction materials 
and a simplified plumbing code for defense municipalities were also 
developed during the year. 5 In addition, a survey of the productive 
capacity of house prefabricates was made and issued to other housing 


Equally important, but distinct from the over-all planning activities 
of DDHC, were the operations concerned with needs in specific 
defense localities. Of the two phases of these operations, namely, pro- 
gramming new construction for defense workers and making use of 
existing housing through registration and conversion, the first phase 
required relatively greater coordinating effort. Existing federal housing 
agencies were primarily concerned with new construction; develop- 

4 Now the War Production Board. 

5 Published respectively in January and February, 1942. 


ments in making use of existing housing took place, consequently, 
at the initiative of DDHC and at the instigation of local organi- 

The programming of new housing involved the coordinated effort 
of field investigators and research analysts. The Coordinator care- 
fully analyzed (a) the existing local housing supply, (b) the antici- 
pated need due to expected in-migration of defense workers or enlisted 
men with families, (c) the temporary or permanent character of the 
need, and (d) the capacity of local builders to satisfy the anticipated 
need. If the existing supply of vacant rooms and dwellings was too 
small in relation to the expected amount of in-migration, new con- 
struction had to be planned to meet the expected demand. If the 
industrial expansion was of a temporary nature and the amount of 
housing needed was greater than could normally be absorbed by the 
local real estate market, demountable 6 housing was indicated. Where 
there was evidence of a permanent need, private construction was 
encouraged to meet the need in so far as possible. If local builders 
were unable or unwilling (because of the speculative aspects or 
because much of the housing was needed by workers with relatively 
small rent-paying or purchasing ability) to venture into the construc- 
tion of permanent dwellings, housing had to be provided from public 
funds. In any specific defense locality, the amount and type of housing 
programmed depended on a careful weighing of all factors in the 
local situation and the resulting program called for both private and 
public, and for permanent and demountable construction in the 
proportions that seemed to be justified by the analysis that was 


Publicly financed defense housing undertaken in 1941 amounted 
to approximately 73,000 units and comprised three-fourths of the 
year's public housing for the country as a whole. By the end of 1941, 
more than 130,000 family units, in regular family-type housing, and 
more than 7,000 units in trailers had been programmed in the 208 
defense localities for which programs were written. Over 80 per cent 
of the programmed family units had been placed under construction 
contract and approximately one-half of them were available for 

6 The term "demountable" refers to that type of construction which permits the 
moving of the structure from one location to another with relative ease and with the 
loss of land improvements only. Some type of panel or sectional construction is therefore 



(Cumulative from date funds became available to December 27, 1941) 


No. of No. of units placed No. of units 

units pro- under construction available for 

grammed contract occupancy 

107,612 63,684 

4,884 2,434 

9,090 6,894 

Family Dwelling Units 130,354 

Trailers 8 7,545 

Units for Single Persons 1 1,051 

a Includes a small number of trailer-size portable houses. 

In addition to family units, dormitory units were programmed for 
more than 11,000 workers. By the end of the year, over 60 per cent 
of these rooms were available for occupancy and 22 per cent more 
were under construction contract. 

Programming public housing involved considerations not only of 
permanence and type of construction, but also of the future disposi- 
tion of the property and the agency best equipped for the construction 
responsibilities. For example, where there appeared to be a perma- 
nent demand for housing in a locality which could pay for new 
housing, but where private enterprise did not build in sufficient vol- 
ume to meet the need, the Defense Homes Corporation was desig- 
nated as the construction agency. Because of its experience in the field, 
the Farm Security Administration was given major responsibility for 
trailers and portable housing. The following table indicates the funds 
allocated to the various public housing agencies by the end of 1941 
and the amount of housing programmed for each agency. 


(Cumulative from date funds became available to December 27, 1941) 

Units Programmed 




. . 1 370 

Trailers and 





$ 5 480 000 


1 400 

79 136 000 

Defense Homes Corporation 


14 920 000 



142 304 000 

Local Housing Authorities 

. . 1 200 

4 800 000 




261 276 000 

Public Bldg. Adm 



142 308 000 

Mutual Ownership Housing 

. . 6 550 

26 200 000 

Division of Defense Housing. . . 

.. 23,192 

92 768 000 

Farm Security Adm 




10 740 000 



2 760 000 

TOTAL 130,354 7,545 11,051 $521,416,000 

"Includes projects constructed under the provisions of Public No. 671, 76th Congress, 
and projects constructed under the Lanham Act (Public No. 849, 76th Congress). 


The estimated total cost of all units programmed for construction 
by public agencies amounted to 521 million dollars, or approximately 
two-thirds of the total of 757 million dollars available for public 
defense housing by December 27, 1941. 


Until the establishment of priority procedures, DDHC's early rela- 
tion to private construction was indirect. Activities in this connection 
consisted primarily in working with builders and mortgage money- 
lenders in an effort to secure their cooperation in providing in critical 
areas the desired amount of private housing suitable for defense 
workers. After the housing priority system was established in Sep- 
tember, the designation of priority areas and their quotas and the 
processing of priority certificates became an important part of the 
work of the Division. At the year's end, FHA had received applica- 
tion for priority assistance on projects covering 170,900 dwelling units. 
Of this number 164,600 had been processed and forwarded to DDHC 
for further action. As of December 31, the Coordinator's office had 
recommended 114,900 units to OPM for approval. This latter agency 
in turn had actually issued preference rating orders covering 114,600 
units as may be seen in Table III. 


Number of Homes 

Total Received by FHA 170,900 

FHA Action 

Not approved 11 17,300 

Approved 147,300 

Total processed by FHA 

and forwarded to DDHC 164,600 

DDHC Action 

Not approved a 34,800 b 

Approved 1 14,900 

Total processed by DDHC 

and forwarded to OPM 149,700 

Total approved by OPM 114,600 

a Includes both disapprovals and withdrawals. 

b Includes units in applications disapproved by FHA as well as units in application 
approved by FHA not disapproved by WPB. 


The efforts of DDHC, in cooperation with local agencies, toward 
setting up Homes Registration Offices where all available vacant 


rooms and dwellings would be listed, resulted, by the end of the year, 
in the establishment of such offices in 167 defense localities. (By 
March 20, 1942, there were 290 Registration Offices.) The offices are 
operated under local auspices, under procedures set up by the Homes 
Registration Division of DDHC. In April, 1941, the President ap- 
proved a WPA project of $1,688,848 to assist the local Homes Regis- 
tration Offices, most of which have relied on volunteer assistance for 
canvassing and inspecting units. The following table shows the 
progress in this phase of the program since the earliest date of 



No. of Applicants 

Placed in Dwelling No. of Applicants No. of HRO's 
Units Placed in Kooms Reporting 

March and April 280 215 10 

May 1,405 1,424 30 

June 2,029 1,828 41 

July 2,894 2,295 65 

August 4,402 3,598 96 

September 5,991 3,215 117 

October 7,053 5,126 142 

November 8,166 5,984 164 

December 9,032 6,218 167 

TOTAL 41,252 29,903 

More recent data indicate that the Homes Registration Offices are 
currently effecting placements at an approximate annual rate of 
150,000 families and 110,000 single persons. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that thus far the services of these offices have not been restricted 
to defense workers. 

In addition to placement work, HRO's have also been instrumental 
in bringing into the housing supply rooms and units not normally 
available. By extensive canvassing and encouragement of local prop- 
erty-owners, conversions and the renting of extra rooms has also been 


During 1941 the Office of the Coordinator of Defense Housing 
expanded from a unit of the National Defense Advisory Commission, 
with a staff of less than 80 persons, to a defense agency staffed by 
almost 300 persons, 75 of them in field offices. As a visible sign of the 
rate of growth of defense housing activities these facts are an under- 
statement. Several times as much housing was programmed in 1941 
as in 1940; the coordinating activities became highly diversified, cover- 


ing private construction, programming, and the utilization of existing 
housing, in addition to public defense housing. 

Some of the problems and issues arising in the course of the per- 
formance of duties and responsibilities imposed by the executive order 
and regulations have in part, it is believed, found their solution in 
the recent reorganization of federal housing agencies. Effective coor- 
dination of activities requires coordinated functions. The issue of the 
roles of private and public construction in the defense housing pro- 
gram may be minimized if the often conflicting interests and policies 
of the various subagencies of the new National Housing Agency 
become unified under a single policy. 

Other problems, such as the difficult one of predicting exact needs 
and dates of need, can perhaps be helped toward solution by more 
reliable and current information on local employment and housing 
conditions. But even with better information, the variables in the 
problem are so many and their relationships so complex that absolutely 
accurate programming remains a very difficult goal to achieve. An 
unexpected contract creates an unpredicted demand; or, on the other 
hand, shortages of materials necessary for an expected plant expansion 
delay the peak employment for a few months so that defense housing 
provided to meet the expected need remains unoccupied for a like 
period. Defense housing programming thus necessarily depends upon 
the nature and accuracy of the planning for new production facilities 
and upon the execution of those plans. 

The final evaluation of defense housing activities cannot be made 
at this time. All that can be determined now is whether or not defense 
needs are being reasonably well satisfied. The effect of the program 
on the total housing situation will be seen best, of course, in retro- 

Defense Housing Under the Lanham Act 

Housing Activities of the Federal Works Agency 

Administrator, Federal Works Agency 

THE Administrator of the Federal Works Agency was responsible 
I for defense housing construction and management under the Lan- 
ham Act (Public Act 849, 76th Cong., 3d sess.) from its signature 
on October 14, 1940, until February 24, 1942. On the latter date, the 
President, by Executive Order 9070, consolidated all government 
housing activities in the new National Housing Agency. 

Up to December 31, 1941, FWA, and other government agencies 
and local authorities whose facilities the Administrator was authorized 
to use by common consent, completed under the Lanham Act 41,005 
dwelling units constituting all or part of 188 separate projects. Con- 
tracts had been let for 300 projects comprising 79,795 dwelling units, 
and projects that had been assigned to constructing agencies totaled 
381 comprising 101,182 dwelling units. 

The original Lanham Act of 1940 authorized funds for housing 
three groups of persons and their families: (a) enlisted men of the 
Army and Navy; (b) civilian employees of the War and Navy De- 
partments assigned to duty at military or naval reservations, posts or 
bases; and (c) workers engaged in industries connected with and 
essential to national defense. The Act confined projects to areas in 
which the President finds that an acute housing shortage exists or 
impends, that this shortage would impede defense activities, and that 
private capital would not provide additional housing by the time it 
will be needed. 

The Act in its original form authorized $140,000,000 to carry out its 
purposes. An amendment increased this authorization by $150,000,000. 
A second amendment added Title II to the Act which provided for 
a $150,000,000 program for necessary defense public works in com- 
munities that were being overcrowded by war workers. On January 
21, 1942, the total housing authorization of the Lanham Act available 
to FWA was increased to $590,000,000. All these funds were in addi- 
tion to the amount transferred from the War Department which was 
referred to in the 1941 Housing 


The Lanham Act provided that, in carrying out its provisions, 



"the Administrator is authorized to utilize and act through the 
Federal Works Agency and other Federal agencies and any local 
public agency, with the consent of such agency, and any funds appro- 
priated pursuant to this Act shall be available for transfer to any such 
agency in reimbursement therefor." Agencies called upon, besides 
the constituent agencies of FWA, include the Army (one project), 
the Navy Department, which for obvious reasons chose to handle 
construction on Naval reservations, the Farm Security Administration 
of the Department of Agriculture for the construction of 1,423 defense 
homes in rural areas, the Alley Dwelling Authority of the District of 
Columbia for 550 defense homes within the District, and the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority for 690 units in its area. 

By the end of December, 1941, 94 per cent of all Lanham Act 
housing had been assigned to units within FWA. The Public Build- 
ings Administration was assigned to build 35,237 units and the United 
States Housing Authority 29,232 in localities where established public 
housing authorities were equipped to handle emergency housing. 
Special assignments of 7,550 units were made within the Office of the 
Administrator for the construction of defense housing projects to be 
operated under a mutual ownership plan. 

More than 7,500 homes have been constructed by the Mutual Own- 
ership Defense Housing Division of the Office of the Administrator. 
The original plan provided for the establishment of a mutual owner- 
ship corporation to take over title to the units members of the cor- 
poration to be defense workers and become occupants of the homes. 
Monthly payments were to be equivalent to an average low-cost rental 
and to include charges for amortization, interest, insurance, taxes, 
maintenance and repair, vacancy and depreciation reserve, and other 
minor items. 

The mutual ownership plan predicated the complete liquidation 
of the government's investment less any extraordinary charges occa- 
sioned by abnormal construction costs. The government was to retain 
management control until amortization payments were sufficiently 
large to provide adequate protection of the government's investment. 

The limitation of occupancy to defense (war) workers was to apply 
only during the period of the declared national emergency. Within 
this period both membership interest and occupancy might be trans- 
ferred subject to the limitation that the transferee must be a defense 
(war) worker. Its proponents say that at all times a common interest 
was created between the occupant of the dwelling unit and the cor- 
poration serving as his landlord, which included many of the ad- 
vantages of home ownership combined with those of renting. Thus, 


it is argued, instead of facing the risk of home ownership alone, the 
individual family joined forces with all other families in the com- 
munity in minimizing and spreading their ownership risks. 

Before the end of 1941 the Federal Works Administrator ceased to 
assign projects for construction to the Mutual Ownership Defense 
Housing Division. Although completion of projects already under 
construction was authorized, the questions of managerial policy and 
continuance of the plan whereby residents could build up an equity 
in the owning corporation were left open for further consideration. 
Emphasis was placed on speedy construction rather than on mana- 
gerial policy and ultimate disposition. In February, 1942, all govern- 
ment housing activities were combined in the new National Housing 
Agency, on which rests the decision as to the course to be followed. 

A Division of Defense Housing, under the direct supervision of 
the Administrator, was organized, first to arrange for the management 
of completed projects and later to deal with the specialized problems 
of prefabricated demountable housing and also to supervise the con- 
struction of certain large concentrations. To this agency 23,242 units 
were assigned. 


A significant phase of the FWA program has been large-scale use 
of prefabricated demountable units. FWA did not originate prefabri- 
cated housing; it had been used to a limited extent during World 
War I. Later, TVA made considerable use of such housing for 
workers employed in the construction of its dams. But never before 
in this country had prefabricated dwelling units been used on so 
great a scale as by FWA during 1941 and the first two months of 

The widespread use of demountable units springs from the fact 
that some defense housing needs are considered to be temporary. 
After the war, many believed, permanent houses in certain localities 
would be vacant and so would tend to depress property values in their 
locality. But demountable houses, when no longer needed in their 
original location, can be taken apart, transported to communities 
where additional housing is needed, and there re-erected. Thus many 
of the wastes and hazards inherent in permanent houses for tempo- 
rary use are avoided. In an effort to avoid the creation of "ghost 
towns" at the sites of powder factories and other defense plants that 
are likely to suspend operations after the war, as well as to meet 
increasing demands for speed, FWA arranged to buy virtually the 
entire output of the prefabricated housing industry. 


As the national defense program gathered headway, the need for 
speed in the provision of housing for defense workers increased. 
After Pearl Harbor, the importance of speed became immeasurably 
greater. Hence, FWA made every effort to shorten the period between 
the determination that need for Lanham Act housing existed and the 
meeting of that need. 

Sites for projects were acquired by condemnation proceedings filed 
by the Department of Justice at the request of the Administrator, 
after he had determined the fair value of the needed lands on the 
basis of appraisals obtained from two recognized local independent 
appraisers. This procedure made it possible to obtain title and pos- 
session with a minimum of delay and to dispose promptly of title 
defects. Efforts were made to obtain options in amounts not exceeding 
the lower appraisal. The amount deposited in court was equal to the 
accepted offer or to the lower appraisal. In all cases, evidence of title, 
in the form of either abstracts or certificates, was obtained and sub- 
mitted to the Department of Justice. Upon the establishment of clear 
title, the former owner was paid for his land, on order of the court, 
if his offer had been accepted or if the amount deposited was accept- 
able to him. In cases in which FWA had not been able to obtain an 
acceptable offer from the former owner, the Department of Justice 
sometimes recommended compromise settlements. In all other cases, 
the matter was tried before the appropriate federal court. 

Meanwhile, plans and specifications had to be completed, and 
terms and conditions arranged with construction contractors by 
bidding or negotiation. Countless separate operations were involved 
in this pre-construction activity. These were synchronized and co- 
ordinated. By scheduling each operation, the elapsed time required 
for pre-construction work was shortened as the program advanced. 
A 59-working-day pre-construction schedule was applied as a standard 
of performance and was met with growing frequency. 


Four months after the Act was signed, 141 projects had been 
assigned for construction. Sites were available for 58 of these, plans 
and specifications were completed for 49, construction had begun on 
46, and one project already had homes available for occupancy. On 
December 31, 1941, 381 projects had been assigned. Of these, 318 had 
sites, 321 had completed plans, construction had begun on 296, and 
1 88 had 41,006 dwelling units completed and ready for occupancy. 

By the end of the summer of 1941 virtually all appropriated funds 
had been allotted. Additional projects were being assigned for pre- 


construction work in anticipation of further Congressional authoriza- 
tion, which had been recommended by the President in his message 
of June 26, 1941. As of December 31, 1941, appropriated funds pro- 
vided for 82,454 dwellings. Of these, 96 per cent were invested in 
projects on which construction had begun. One hundred and twenty- 
two projects with 24,959 dwellings were entirely completed, while 
another 79 projects with 24,907 dwelling units were more than 90 
per cent complete. 

The value of construction work in place rose steadily from the 
first week of November, 1940. The lo-million-dollar mark was passed 
during the week of March 21, 1941, and five months later, in August, 
the cumulative total was $100,000,000. At the end of December the 
total was $242,800,000 and was increasing at the rate of between 
$6,000,000 and $7,000,000 a week. 


Builders of defense homes, with two exceptions, have been private 
contractors. Contractors with headquarters in the same state as the 
housing site were awarded 61 per cent of the contracts. Small con- 
tractors frequently pooled their resources in order to compete with 
large concerns for some of the larger jobs. 

In the early stages of the program, the cost-plus-a-fixed-fee form 
of contract was widely used to speed up the start of construction. 
This form of contract is not to be confused with the much-abused 
cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost form, which the Lanham Act expressly 
prohibits. The fixed-fee contract permits work to begin as soon as 
the government and the contractor can agree on the amount of the 
fee. Of 315 contracts let for dwelling units up to December 31, 1941, 
133, or about 42 per cent, were of the fixed-fee type. The ratio was 
about the same on a dollar-volume basis. Of $255,858,000 in contracts 
for dwelling units, $106,647,000, or 42 per cent, was in fixed-fee con- 

As the program advanced and technical problems of planning and 
design were solved, it became apparent that less and less time would 
be lost by following the usual procedure for obtaining satisfactory 
contracts and use of the fixed-fee form declined sharply. During the 
first six months of operations, 130 contracts were let, and 98 of them, 
or 75 per cent, were of the fixed-fee type. During the subsequent 
eight months only 35 of 185 contracts, less than 20 per cent, were 
of the fixed-fee type. 

The law fixes 6 per cent of the estimated cost of the contract, 
exclusive of the fee, as the maximum permissible fixed fee. The actual 


average fixed fee for dwelling-unit contracts was 4.2 per cent of the 
estimated cost. Fees varied inversely with the dollar value of the 
contracts, ranging from an average of 5.9 per cent for those valued 
at less than $100,000 to an average of 3.1 per cent for those in excess 
of $2,000,000. 

When the lump-sum form of contract was used, the construction 
agency advertised for sealed bids. The contract was awarded to the 
lowest responsible bidder. This system depended for its success upon 
competition among bidders. An average of 5.5 bidders competed for 
each contract. At only two openings were there single bidders and, 
at the other extreme, there were as many as 14 bidders at a single 

The Lanham Act limits the cost of dwelling units in two ways, 
by placing a ceiling over the average cost of all units, and a ceiling 
over the cost of any individual unit. The average shelter-cost per 
dwelling unit, that is, the cost exclusive of land, utilities, community 
facilities, and administrative expenses, may not exceed $3,500 ($3,000 
prior to April 29, 1941) in continental United States or $4,000 else- 
where. No individual family dwelling unit may cost more than 
$3,950 in continental United States or $4,750 outside continental 
United States. 


Final cost figures are available for only a few projects. However, 
since 300 projects, comprising 79,795 family dwelling units, had been 
placed under construction contract by the end of December, 1941, 
reliable estimates are available for more than 90 per cent of the 
units to be built under the first and second authorizations. 

These 300 projects are estimated to cost $319,767,000. For the 290 
projects within continental United States, comprising 76,809 units, 
the estimated average unit cost for shelter (including equipment and 
all expenditures for plans and specifications and for field supervision) 
was $3,029, or $471 below the $3,500 limit. This difference allows 
something of a cushion for adjustments and additions that may be 

These results were achieved without violation of either the letter 
or the spirit of the wage and hour provision of the Lanham Act, 
Section 12, which read: 

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the wages of every laborer 
and mechanic employed on any construction, repair or demolition work 
authorized by this Act shall be computed on a basic day rate of eight hours 
per day and work in excess of eight hours per day shall be permitted upon 
compensation for all hours worked in excess of eight hours per day at not 


less than one and one-half times the basic rate of pay. Not less than the 
prevailing wages shall be paid in the construction of defense housing 
authorized herein. 

Data available indicate not only that no construction project has 
exceeded the maximum of $3,950 per unit, but also that only 27 have 
exceeded an average of $3,500. The average for a single project repre- 
sents costs of one-, two-, and three-bedroom units. Even so, averages 
were kept sufficiently below the maximum to indicate full compliance 
with the law. Only detailed cost accounting will finally reveal the 
exact relationship between actual costs and the statutory maximum. 

The upward revision of the cost limitation in the first amendment 
to the Lanham Act was based upon a recognition of rising prices and 
a desire to promote a greater use of clay products. It took effect April 
29, 1941. Before that date, 77 per cent of the units contracted for were 
designed for wood construction and only 20 per cent for masonry 
or wood and masonry. The remaining 3 per cent were for metal, 
asbestos shingle, or "fabcrete" material. Since then, 50 per cent have 
been wood and 50 per cent masonry or wood and masonry. 

Besides the cost ceilings already mentioned, Title I of the Lanham 
Act prescribed that the aggregate cost of community facilities shall 
not exceed 3 per cent of the total cost of all projects. As of December 
31, 1941, allotments for community facilities totaled $5,395,654, or 1.69 
per cent of the total estimated cost. Title II of the Act authorizes funds 
for defense community facilities. Such facilities beneficial to defense 
housing projects are, of course, eligible for these funds. In the interest 
of keeping down costs, the Lanham Act prohibited the installation 
of movable equipment, except in those instances in which the Admin- 
istrator should find it necessary in the public interest. In some in- 
stances, it has been found in the public interest to provide such essen- 
tials as cookstoves and refrigerators. Mass purchasing was used to 
advantage in obtaining much of this equipment. 


By December 31, 104,000 men, women, and children were living 
in Lanham- Act houses in 188 projects that had been opened for 
occupancy. They had gone to crowded defense areas from all parts 
of the nation. They were the families of men in aircraft factories, 
arsenals, at flying fields and naval bases, in powder plants and ship- 
yards. By providing decent quarters for these war workers and their 
families, it is certain that the government has strengthened the morale 
of its people, increased production, and minimized discontent and 
costly labor turnover. 


Three-quarters of the dwelling units available at the end of Decem- 
ber 30,718 of 41,005 were already occupied. The occupancy ratio 
had been rising steadily since early June, when it was less than 50 
per cent. The lag between completion and occupancy is accentuated 
in a fast-moving program in which projects are rushed to completion, 
frequently ahead of their scheduled opening dates. Some tenants had 
to obtain releases from previous landlords, others had to accumulate 
furnishings, still others had to move their families from far-off places. 

Tenants of the projects pay rents which are, in the words of the 
Lanham Act, "within the financial reach of persons engaged in 
national defense." On projects for industrial workers, shelter rents 
have averaged around $30 per month. For Army and Navy enlisted 
men receiving an allowance for quarters, and civilian employees at 
Army and Navy establishments, the scale ranged from $21 to $26. 
Enlisted men not receiving such allowances paid from $11 to $15. 

In arranging for the management of completed projects, FWA 
recognized the local character of all housing. In general, where local 
housing authorities with management experience were available, they 
were asked to act as agents of the Federal Works Administrator. 
Similar arrangements were made with the Tennessee Valley Authority 
and with the Farm Security Administration. Where there were no 
local housing authorities, management organizations were set up 

Because Lanham-Act houses are government property, they are 
exempt from local taxation. However, it was recognized that tax 
revenues are the source of funds for providing public services and 
facilities which all residents of the community enjoy, and the Act 
provides that the "Administrator may enter into any agreements to 
pay sums in lieu of taxes to any State or political subdivision thereof, 
with respect to any real property acquired and held by him under 
this Act, including improvements thereon. The amount so paid upon 
any such property shall not exceed the taxes that would be paid if 
the property were not tax-exempt." Generally such agreements have 
provided payments of between 14 and 15 per cent of the shelter rentals 
collected where the local government has agreed to furnish the usual 
municipal services and facilities, including fire, police, and health 
protection; street lighting; schools; fire hydrant service; sewer service; 
garbage, trash, and ash removal; and street maintenance. Where less 
than the usual services are provided, the agreement generally provides 
for payment of a proportionately smaller sum. 

Navy Housing 1 

Official Statement of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
Navy Department 

To MEET the demands of the expansion of the Navy in the national 
emergency, it became necessary in the early stages of the program 
to consider the provision of housing facilities. Surveys of the initial 
requirements were started in April, 1940. On June 26, 1940, a Low- 
Cost Defense Housing Section was created in the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks. A month later, after a limited staff of engineers and architects 
had been assembled, the actual preparation of plans and specifications, 
and standards was started. 

The first housing funds became available to the Navy on August 
12, 1940, and the first contract for housing was awarded October 2, 
1940. By the close of the year 1940 the Navy had been granted a total 
of $56,822,500 for the construction of defense housing. By January 
i, 1941, 95 per cent of all naval housing for which funds were available 
was under contract and construction started. During the first half of 
1941 another $4,774,000 was made available. By the end of June, 1941, 
approximately 75 per cent of the projects were physically complete, 
and by August 31, 1941, 95 per cent of all projects under construction 
had occupants. In the latter half of the calendar year 1941, the Navy 
received $5,118,336 from the Federal Works Agency, under which 
six additional contracts were awarded and work started for low-cost 
defense houses. 

The total of all funds made available to the Navy for defense 
housing at the close of the calendar year 1941 amounted to $66,959,836. 
A total of 18,895 family units, and cantonment accommodations for 
2,000 men were completed or under construction. Of these, 1,400 
family units were constructed under Public No. 671 (76th Congress), 
15,183 under Public No. 781, and 2,312 under Public No. 849, as 
amended. Approximately 15,600 family units, or 82 per cent of all fam- 
ily units constructed by the Navy, were available for occupancy and/or 
occupied by January i, 1942. About 59 separate projects were under- 
taken at 51 different locations, ranging from Alaska to the Canal 
Zone, from Puerto Rico to the Territory of Hawaii, and throughout 
the continental United States. 

1 By terms of the Presidential Executive Order of February 24, 1942, all defense 
housing activity of the Navy Department for persons with families (except housing 
located on naval reservations, posts, or bases), under Title IV of the Naval Appropriation 
Act for the fiscal year of 1941, was transferred to the Federal Public Housing Authority. 



Approximately 75 per cent of the naval housing program is being 
accomplished with funds made available under the Second Supple- 
mental National Defense Appropriation Act, and allocated direct 
to the Navy by the President (Public No. 781). These projects were 
constructed within an average cost of $3,500 per unit, including all 
costs of land, roads, walks, utilities, and the dwelling units complete 
with the necessary heating, plumbing, electrical, and kitchen equip- 

Plans and specifications for all of the emergency defense housing 
projects (with one or two exceptions) were prepared by the Bureau 
of Yards and Docks. It was possible to undertake immediate con- 
struction work through the utilization of standard plans and the 
standardization of construction materials, and the economies result- 
ing from this policy permitted an additional 550 housing units to be 
built with savings made on other contracts. The housing program 
followed the same general principles being successfully followed in 
the construction of the larger projects of the Navy expansion program 
that of decentralization of responsibility and of placing the respon- 
sibility for the successful culmination of construction on the Officer- 
in-Charge at the actual site of construction. 

Of major importance in the naval housing program was the devel- 
opment of basic plans that could be adapted to a wide variation of 
climatic conditions and still meet the needs of Navy personnel. Speed 
and economy also demanded that the plans should permit the use of 
suitable materials available in the various locations in which con- 
struction was undertaken. 

The preparation of these plans was expedited by frequent contacts 
with and authority granted to the OfHcer-in-Charge of Construction in 
the field to make adaptations in design and in material. This ability to 
make quick changes and to use various types of materials has speeded 
up construction considerably. Wood frame, prefabricated wood types, 
cold form steel (prefabricated and partially prefabricated), and 
masonry construction may all be used with various types of exterior 

In planning the site layout, the Bureau has endeavored to follow 
the best practices to obtain a utilitarian and compact plan for each of 
the projects. This object has been made possible through data and 
studies submitted by the OfHcer-in-Charge of Construction at the site, 
followed by final studies at the Bureau to fit the type of units to be 
constructed to any particular area. 

The Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Navy Department devel- 
oped standard floor plans for single-family, two-family and multiple- 


family units. By minor changes in partition arrangements the two- 
family units can give combinations of one bedroom, two bedrooms, or 
three bedrooms, which meet the requirements of most families. The 
single and duplex type dwellings give each family a little plot of 
ground. They may build their own garage and develop a more normal 
mode of life than is possible by use of the more compact apartment 
type building. The houses are standardized as to floor plan, equip- 
ment, and accessories. In general, contracts required construction of 
the projects complete with all roads, walks, and accessories, including 
cooking ranges, refrigerators, kitchen cabinets, hot water heaters, and 
forced draft hot air heating units with duct distribution systems. 


The management of houses coming under Navy jurisdiction is 
generally under the supervision and cognizance of the Commandant 
of the district or station in which they are located. He establishes an 
organization to supervise the management and operation. The Bureau 
of Yards and Docks, Navy Department, Washington, D. C., is pri- 
marily responsible for planning and coordinating all defense housing 
activities of the Navy Department. 

Effective September i, 1941, all low-cost housing developments 
under the Navy were placed on a uniform rental policy, whereby a 
fixed shelter rental rate was established for the different sizes of units. 
All utilities were an extra cost. In order to simplify and expedite 
the work in the Department and at the various projects, the reports 
in connection with the management and operation of the projects 
were revised in December, 1940, to permit complete decentralization 
of management and operating records. Fiscal and policy control is 
now maintained on the basis of two simple monthly reports and a 
quarterly statement of budgetary and actual expenses. 

In conclusion it may be said that the Navy has now essentially 
completed its procedure and organization for the construction and 
administration of defense housing and is prepared to proceed with 
a minimum of expense and effort. 

The Why and How in Housing Priorities 


Chief, Housing Priorities Branch 
War Production Board 

IT is hardly necessary to elaborate upon the importance of housing in 
the present national emergency or to emphasize the need o provid- 
ing it quickly. Before a wheel can turn in a plant manufacturing war 
equipment, there must be housing for both man and machine. If the 
all-out war effort is to succeed, if maximum production is to be ob- 
tained from each worker in the war industries, if labor turnover is 
to be reduced to a minimum, if not entirely eliminated, decent living 
accommodations must be provided for the workers and their families. 
Suitable housing is indispensable to the preservation of their health 
and the creation of esprit de corps. 

Since the primary objective of the War Production Board is the 
uninterrupted and ever-increasing output of tanks and ships and 
planes and all other forms of war material, it is understandable that 
housing should have become one of the important concerns of this 
federal war agency. 

The Housing Priorities Branch was organized under the Office 
of Production Management, now the War Production Board. Prior to 
September 22, 1941, when the Defense Housing Order became effec- 
tive, eight housing projects comprising 2,183 family units had received 
priority assistance as construction projects. These eight projects ac- 
counted for 1,601 units in the Washington Defense Area; the remain- 
ing units were in Tampa, Florida, Baltimore, Maryland, and Omaha, 
Nebraska. A large number of projects had received partial and infor- 
mal assistance through letters certifying their defense character issued 
by the Defense Housing Coordinator. These letters had no official 
sanction or legal standing and became less and less effective in secur- 
ing scarce materials as priority controls were tightened. They finally 
became totally ineffective. 

On September 22, when the Defense Housing Order was put into 
operation, something like seven hundred and fifty million dollars of 
housing, both defense and non-defense, had either been stalled or was 
in process of stalling, because the builders could not get metallic 
products essential to construction everything from nails to materials 
for electric wiring. The housing projects were like flood waters 
backed up by a log jam. When the log jam was removed by the 



Housing Order, the stalled projects surged forward for preference 

The ratings issued during the first two weeks after the Defense 
Housing Order became effective covered projects which averaged 82 
units per project. Since that initial rush, the number of units per order 
issued has dropped consistently. The average now is approximately 
8 units per order. 


The Defense Housing Coordinator was charged by President Roose- 
velt with the responsibility of formulating a coordinated program of 
defense housing, financed both privately and publicly. The Coordi- 
nator was to designate the places where defense housing was or 
would be needed, and how many units were or would be required 
in each designated area. The alteration and rehabilitation of existing 
residential structures that would result in additional living accom- 
modations as well as new structures were included under the term 
"defense housing." It was felt that through this type of construction 
living accommodations in the defense areas might be most quickly 
and economically provided. 


During the latter part of June, 1941, the Defense Housing Coordina- 
tor presented a program for defense housing to the Office of Produc- 
tion Management. This program provided for the construction of 
525,000 single family units before July i, 1942. Of this number, the 
Coordinator recommended that 125,000 units be publicly financed and 
400,000 units be produced by private enterprise. The Housing Order 
issued by the Director of Priorities authorized 100,000 publicly-financed 
units and 200,000 privately-financed units. No date for the termination 
of this curtailed program was set; the understanding was that, if the 
program did not miscarry and more housing were needed after the 
300,000 units had been absorbed, more housing would be authorized. 


In view of the growing scarcity of certain materials indispensable 
to the construction of housing and to defense production, it became 
necessary for the Director of Priorities to make the extension of 
priority assistance depend upon compliance by the builder or the 
owner with requirements insuring that the housing would be occu- 
pied by defense workers for whom it was built. 


The following requirements were made the basis for favorable 
action : 

1. That the housing under construction or to be constructed be in 
a defense area so designated by the Defense Housing Coordinator; 

2. That housing for sale be sold for $6,000 or less, and that the 
monthly shelter rentals do not exceed $50; 

3. That every reasonable opportunity be given the defense work- 
ers to buy or rent the houses; and 

4. That priority assistance under the order be extended for the 
purchase of only those materials included in the Defense Housing 
Critical List, and in the quantities that the list permits. 

The inclusion of standards establishing minimum room size, win- 
dow areas, etc., was considered, but this action was postponed until 
experience might contribute further knowledge of this highly technical 
subject. It was felt that normal competition would serve as an effective 
stimulus for the builder to produce the best housing procurable at 
the price. 

The understanding from the beginning has been that in each de- 
fense housing area a survey would be made to determine the general 
income level of the defense workers in that area, and that the selling 
price and monthly shelter rent ceilings would be adjusted downward 
on a five-to-one ratio, so that the housing offered would be within 
the economic reach of the war workers. 

The maximum selling price of $6,000 and a maximum monthly 
shelter rent of $50 were fixed so that they would be within the reach 
of the majority of war workers; if the workers could not afford to 
live in the houses provided, the purpose of the program would be 

In making this decision cognizance was taken of the following 
official figures pertaining to the incomes of such workers: 

20 per cent have a family income of less than $1,500 a year, 

25 per cent have a family income of $1,500 to $1,750 a year, 

25 per cent have a family income of $1,750 to $2,000 a year, 

30 per cent have a family income of more than $2,000 a year. 

When the program was launched, there was some apprehension 
that it would produce no housing for sale or rent at less than the 
maxima established. As a matter of fact, the averages for the entire 
country thus far are considerably below the ceilings. As an illustration : 
of the 69,470 privately-financed dwelling units on which priority 
assistance was received, and which were completed by December 31, 
1941, a total of 53,324 were built to be sold at an average sales price 


of $4,654. The remaining 16,146 units were to be rented at an average 
monthly rental of $42.78. 


To facilitate the procurement of materials needed to carry out the 
housing program, two preference rating orders are used: P-i9-d, the 
order issued to the builder of a project financed wholly or in part with 
public funds; and P-55, the order issued to the builder for privately- 
financed projects. 

While the routine may be somewhat different, the public agency 
responsible for the construction of a defense housing project must 
comply with the provisions of the Defense Housing Critical List. To 
qualify for a priority rating, the public agency must satisfy the Hous- 
ing Priorities Branch of the War Production Board as to the follow- 
ing provisions: 

1. That the project will be located in a Defense Housing Critical 

2. That it will be suitable for workers in war production activities 
within the area, and shall include the customary equipment and ap- 
purtenances necessary to occupancy, and facilities necessary to com- 
munity life not otherwise available; 

3. That it will be available at rentals that war workers can pay for 
the duration of the emergency; and 

4. That the materials requested in the application are absolutely 
necessary and will be employed solely in the construction of the proj- 
ect, that no practical substitute or alternate source of supply is available. 

In the matter of conforming to regulations, there is no discrimina- 
tion between publicly- and privately-financed building projects. Both 
types receive the same ratings. 

The procedure followed to secure a preference rating for a privately- 
financed project is outlined below. 

1. An application (Form PD-I05) is made by the builder to the 
nearest office of the Federal Housing Administration. The applicant 
must qualify as to his financial and other ability to complete the 
project for which he asks priority assistance. The project must qualify 
as to (a) location; (b) sales price or rental; and (c) use of materials. 

2. If all conditions are met satisfactorily, the FHA office submits 
its findings to the local representative of the Coordinator of Defense 
Housing. As in the case of the publicly-financed housing, the Coor- 
dinator must be fully satisfied that the proposed project will contribute 
to satisfying the housing needs of the war industries in a given locality. 

3. After it is passed by the Coordinator's office, the application is 


submitted to the nearest field office of the War Production Board for 
checking and issuance of the certificate. 

In the case of privately-financed defense housing, the Washington 
office must of necessity retain control as the final judge in cases of 
appeal. But it would have been impossible to make rapid headway in 
solving the defense housing problem were all applications cleared 
through that office. A bottleneck would have been created which 
would have retarded construction. 

During the first world war it was possible to supply about two-thirds 
of all housing requirements in war areas by making the fullest use of 
existing housing facilities. That source, at present also, is not being 
overlooked. The P-55 Order is used for the remodeling and rehabili- 
tating of existing structures to produce additional living quarters. 

The preference rating orders issued are extendable to suppliers, to 
secure the delivery of purchased materials included in the Defense 
Housing Critical List. At first the extension privilege was left in the 
hands of the builders. The results were not entirely satisfactory. 
Ratings were extended at times for noncritical materials and im- 
properly extended for critical materials the use of which is not per- 
mitted, and, in some instances, for quantities in excess of the amount 
needed to complete the work. This, of course, could not be permitted 
to continue. The builder and his subcontractors are now required to 
have their extensions authenticated by the FHA office with which the 
original application was filed. 

Up to February, 1942, the Housing Order did not produce rental 
housing in quantities necessary to meet the in-migrant worker de- 
mand. It is expected that remodeling and rehabilitation will produce 
rental accommodations in substantial quantities. 

In this brief article it has not seemed appropriate to give extensive 
statistical data. A few items, however, might illustrate both the results 
achieved and the task that lies ahead. 


Publicly-financed home building witnessed a considerable spurt 
during 1941. By January i, 1942, we had completed and available for 
occupancy 64,442 of 108,196 dwelling units under construction and 
133,465 programmed. On that date, the construction of 99,754 dwell- 
ing units, divided as follows, required priority assistance: 

Under the Lanham Act 47,301 units 

Defense Homes Corporation 1,219 units 

United States Housing Authority (slum clearance) 29,850 units 

All other agencies: Farm Security Administration; Defense 
Homes Corporation; Federal Works Agency; and Puerto Rico. . .21,384 units 


By February i, the picture had changed to 71,960 dwelling units 
completed o a total of 107,736 units under construction and a pro- 
grammed total of 183,396 units. 

Until permanent homes were completed the government found it 
necessary to provide trailers and portable houses for temporary shelter, 
and during the same period 2,434 trailers and portable houses were 
completed, out of 6,084 under construction and 8,745 urnts pro- 
grammed. There were also completed 6,894 dwelling units for single 
persons in dormitories, of 9,090 units that had been started and 11,051 

In dollars and cents, the government-financed program amounted to 
about $792,789,000 for war housing as of January i, 1942. The value 
of work in place (completed and under construction) amounted to 
about $336,000,000, considerably below 50 per cent. 

Under Title VI of FHA it had been hoped to produce during the 
year 1941 a total of war housing amounting to $300,000,000. The value 
of work actually completed amounted to about $72,269,000. 

Thus, instead of war housing (government-financed, plus that under 
FHA, Title VI, and excluding USHA construction) valued at about 
$1,092,789,000, which we had hoped would be completed by the end of 
1941, we actually received about $408,269,000 worth. 


From October i, 1940, to September 30, 1941, approximately 585,000 
single family dwelling units were started. During the last quarter of 
1941, it is estimated that about 120,000 privately-financed units were 
started, of which about 70,000 units received priority ratings. Of these 
totals, about 425,000 dwelling units were in defense areas and about 
159,000 in non-defense areas. 

Of the 425,000 dwelling units started in the defense areas, about 
241,000, or 55 per cent, were priced at $6,000 or less. Thus, 184,000 
might be classed as defense housing ineligible for priority assistance 
on account of price alone. 

While 343,000 dwelling units, or 59 per cent of the total, privately- 
financed during the year 1941, may be considered as non-defense, 
judged by priority standards (159,000 located in non-defense areas and 
184,000 priced above $6,000 situated in the defense areas), the propor- 
tion decreased substantially by the end of the year, when 75 per cent 
of all units could be classed as defense units. 

FHA helped to provide a total of 221,000 dwelling units under 
Title I, Class III, Title II, and Title VI. Of those, more than 170,000 
units, or 76 per cent, were built in defense areas. 



A survey of the results under P-55 Priority Orders was recently 
completed. It embraced projects calling for the construction of 121,302 
dwelling units and covered the period from September, 1941, to 
January 31, 1942. The results as of January 31, 1942, were as fol- 

Stage of Construction Dwelling Units Per Cent 

Completed construction 22,538 18.6 

Construction begun 42,095 34.7 

Construction not started 56,669 46.7 

Construction not to be undertaken at all... 6,192 5.1 

As one of the primary objects in granting priority orders is to assist 
in making available rental dwelling units for war workers, the follow- 
ing facts revealed by the survey are significant: 

1. The total number of units rented was 4,882, or 21.7 per cent. 

2. The number of units sold was 12,605, or 55.9 per cent. 

3. The number of units vacant was 4,523, or 20.1 per cent. In this 
instance it is impossible to say how many would be sold or rented. 

4. The number of units built for owner's use was 528, or only 2.3 
per cent of the total granted. 

These figures inspire certain conclusions: first, the home building 
industry has not responded fully to the nation's emergency needs to 
provide rental housing for war workers, that it is still building pri- 
marily for sale; second, the construction industry is not mobilized to 
do a war job, as the exigencies of the moment require. 

Both these deficiencies will have to be corrected speedily. Not only 
must the industry meet the program that a nation at war imposes 
upon it, but it will have to do better than the program calls for. It 
will have to become more social-minded; it will have to place its accu- 
mulated experience, its ingenuity both with regard to speed and con- 
servation of critical materials, and its indomitable will at the service of 
the nation in this critical hour by producing the factories and the war 
housing so sorely needed. 


The war has placed a great responsibility upon the private financing 
institutions. Home financing executives have an obligation to the peo- 
ple of America in times of peace, but in times of war their responsibil- 
ity is even greater. They must take chances; they must ascertain and 
anticipate the needs of the day and do their utmost to meet them. 

The Housing Priorities Branch has not been content with mere 
issuance of priorities. From many sources word had reached us that 


bankers and home financing institutions were delaying granting of 
loans or withholding loans granted until the builders had bought and 
secured delivery of construction materials. The contention of some of 
those skeptical financiers was that the mere holding of a priority 
rating did not insure securing of building materials. 

From the very inception our office has tried to be of service to home 
builders by helping to find the needed materials for distressed projects. 
In my letter of February 13, 1942, circulated throughout the country 
by the Federal Housing Administrator and the leading associations of 
home financing institutions, I made it abundantly clear that we are 
fully alive to our duties and responsibilities. I said: 

"Our aim is not only to assist legitimate defense housing projects by 
granting priorities to them but also to do everything possible to insure 
a steady flow of the necessary materials to complete the jobs. . . ." 

At this writing it is still too early to predict the results of our cam- 
paign. From the replies thus far received, however, it would seem safe 
to assume that an improvement may be looked for from those quarters. 

The year 1942 is a crucial one. The speed with which homes are 
made available for war workers will in a great measure determine the 
rate at which the much-needed tanks, ships, planes, and other war 
material will begin to flow from our factories to the battlefields. Dur- 
ing 1942 the construction industry in general and the building industry 
in particular is to be tested as never before; it is hoped that it will 
come through the severe test with colors flying, that it will make a 
notable contribution toward winning the war against our implacable 

Rent Control Activities of the 
Federal Government 1941 


Director, Rent Division, Office of Price Administrator 

NEXT TO food, shelter is the most important item in the American 
family budget. Furthermore, it is a comparatively inflexible item. 
Thus, what happens to rents becomes an important part of worker- 
morale in every defense area of the country. If a man feels that he is 
being charged a profiteering rent, he hates his landlord; he hates the 
town in which he lives; and, if the opportunity arises, he is ready to 
move on to some place he thinks is better. A high labor turnover in 
defense industry leads to dangerous inefficiency. Badly needed work- 
ers hesitate to go into certain areas of the country today because of the 
generally reported high cost of living and particularly the high rents 
in those areas. Yet industries are calling for workers. A thousand 
families from all over the country come to town. They too must have 
some place to live. Old houses are refurbished and put on the rental 
market. Big houses are converted into a number of small dwelling 
units. But there are still two or three renters begging for every vacant 

This is the condition, varying in intensity and extent, found in 
hundreds of defense areas throughout the country. As might be ex- 
pected, rents in these areas have skyrocketed. An unusual monopoly 
condition in an essential of life and one which cannot be quickly 
and easily supplied was created in large part by the federal govern- 
ment when it chose these areas for rapidly expanding defense activi- 
ties. Many landlords in all these areas took advantage of this artificial 
boom and have increased rents to the highest point the traffic will bear. 


The Consumer Division of the Council of National Defense, soon 
after its organization, realized that these conditions would inevitably 
result. A committee worked out a suggested bill for state legislation 
to control rents. The press and radio were used to warn against critical 
rent situations and to appeal to the fairness and patriotism of land- 
lords. Plans for and work on defense housing went forward imme- 
diately after the passage of the first Lanham-Act appropriations for 
defense housing. However, not a single state legislature passed a rent 
control bill. Defense housing proceeded, but not in sufficient quantity 



and not fast enough to keep up with new demands. Rents continued 
to increase. 

The Office of Price Administration was established by executive 
order of the President on April n, 1941. In June the problem of rent 
stabilization, which was specifically mentioned in the order, was dele- 
gated to the Rent Section in the Price Division. This Section at once be- 
gan planning for the establishment of voluntary Fair Rent Committees. 

From the beginning, the plan was confined to setting up programs 
in defense areas. It was recognized that in those areas in or near 
which munitions plants, army camps, aircraft factories and shipbuild- 
ing enterprises were located, rapid and often enormous increases in 
population would take place. This was likewise true, of course, of 
important areas of varied industrial activity to which huge defense 
contracts were awarded for machines, tools, trucks, and tanks. The 
Rent Section, therefore, turned its attention to keeping tab on these 
areas. By keeping abreast of plans for the assignment of defense con- 
tracts and the establishment of camps, the Rent Section was able to 
anticipate probable rent difficulties. 

The Section was divided into two units, Research and Analysis, and 
Field Operations. The former maintained constant touch with all 
available sources of information concerning the actual or anticipated 
plans for extension of defense activities, the migration of workers, and 
vacancy and rental data by areas. When it appeared that rent increases 
had occurred or were likely to occur in a given community, the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics or the Work Projects Administration were requested 
by the Rent Section to make a rental change survey of the area 

Upon the basis of these data, frequently supplemented by requests 
from the mayor or reliable organized bodies of the community, the 
Field Operations Unit developed the field program of the Section. A 
staff of 15 representatives was sent into the field to counsel with 
municipal officials and local defense councils in the formation of Fair 
Rent Committees and to suggest the basic principles which should 
guide Committees in the efficient fulfillment of their objectives. In 
addition, the field representatives aided the local Committees in the 
arrangement of organizational details and advised with members of 
the Committee as often as was feasible. 


Past experience with rent control and adjustment under both volun- 
tary and statutory systems had evolved a great variety of principles 
for the determination of fair rents. After a thorough examination of all 


techniques used and consultation with competent authorities, it was 
concluded that the setting of a "fair rent date" as a basis for rent 
stabilization would be the most feasible method for handling the 
problem. This principle was recommended for use by the voluntary 
Fair Rent Committees established in cooperation with the Office of 
Price Administration. 

The Rent Section suggested that the fair rent date for a given com- 
munity should be, as the phrase implies, a date at which rental rates 
would be judged by the community as having been generally fair and 
equitable. In selecting this date it was suggested that consideration 
should be given to such factors as the influx of new defense workers, 
the shortage of rental housing accommodations, and the appearance of 
sharp increases in rents. However, it was pointed out that if a Com- 
mittee was to function efficiently, it would be inadvisable to establish 
this date any further back than April i, 1940, or any nearer than six 
months prior to the organization of the Committee. The April, 1940, 
limitation was set because, by this date, activities in certain defense 
areas had already begun to expand leading to housing shortages, and 
because pushing the fair rent date back beyond April i, 1940, would 
in many areas involve too severe a revision of existing rents to be 

In order that all Committees might be guided by the same basic 
principles, the following criteria were suggested: 

Increases in rent above the fair-rent-date level should be allowed 
only when one or more of the following five conditions are proved by 
the landlord. 

1. That the landlord has made significant changes in structure and 
facilities since the fair rent date. When this has occurred, the cost of 
these changes should be inquired into, and the Committee should 
allow an increase proportionate to the cost of the improvement liqui- 
dated over a reasonable length of time. 

2. That there has been a rise in the cost of maintenance and service 
provided on the fair rent date. Wage increases to service employees 
for example fall into this category. Actual increased costs should be 
prorated throughout the year among all tenants making use of the 
services involved. 

3. That there has been a rise in the cost of fuel and utilities. The 
actual increase should be prorated throughout the year among all 
tenants in the building using the same heating facilities. 

4. That there has been a rise in local taxes. Such increase should 
be prorated throughout the year among all tenants occupying the 
building on which the taxes are levied. 


5. That on the fair rent date the landlord was granting the tenant 
an extraordinary concession in rent for personal reasons. In this case 
the Committee will have to determine what a comparable dwelling in 
the same community rented for on the fair rent date and set that 
amount as the fair rent. The same type of appraisal will have to be 
undertaken: (a) for new construction; (b) for units which have 
recently come into the market as a result of conversion; (c) for units 
which were not rented on the fair rent date. 

, , ^- 


During the period between July, 1941, and January 30, 1942, the 
date when the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 was approved, 
21 o Fair Rent Committees were organized in communities in 34 
states. About 1,800 citizens served as members of local Fair Rent Com- 
mittees. Committees were composed of persons chosen by mayors or 
defense councils for their fairmindedness and representative place in 
the community. Both landlord and tenant interests were represented 
on Committees by labor leaders, social workers, ministers, business- 
men, lawyers, municipal welfare officials, and representatives of hous- 
ing, real estate board, and other property owner groups. Committees 
varied in size from three members in smaller communities to thirty 
or more in large cities. In the larger communities Committees met 
often in panels of three or more to hear complaints. Some Committees 
met weekly, others semimonthly or monthly, and still others met "on 
call" as the need arose. Thousands of complaints were received and 
mediated throughout the country. 

As had been fully anticipated, the effectiveness of the program de- 
pended upon the character of the Committees, the initiative of ag- 
grieved tenants in filing complaints, and upon the support given the 
Committees' decisions by landlords and the public. Although the Rent 
Section urged their local appointment as quasi-official bodies, Fair Rent 
Committees had no statutory authority, could not set a rent ceiling nor 
deal with offenders who violated it. They could not issue a subpoena 
and force anybody to testify. Many Committees, instead of using the 
fair rent date as a basis for arriving at decisions on complaints, con- 
sidered questions of property value, construction costs, testimony on 
the issue of "fair return" and "value of services," and most difficult 
and time consuming of all, the problem of what was the ideal profit 
margin in the particular case involved. 

As would be expected, these Committees met with varying success. 
Some of them have done excellent jobs within the limits of their 
power. Some have done a fair job. Some have been almost complete 


failures. Others have recently been organized and there has been no 
opportunity to appraise their work. In a number of defense-rental areas 
the program reached the area too late for voluntary action. Rents had 
already reached a generally exorbitant and profiteering level in those 
areas, which no voluntary Fair Rent Committee could hope to turn 

The knottiest problem the Committees encountered was the fear of 
evictions. In many cases Committees had to deal with actual notices 
to vacate or eviction proceedings against tenants who appealed to them. 
A wave of evictions of tenants who thus complained spread across the 
country. It was clear that where there were practically no vacancies 
available and landlords were able to get away with this kind of action, 
the entire effectiveness of the Committee was nullified. Some Com- 
mittees raised the question as to whether they were not doing more 
harm than good. A number of Committees courageously, and with 
some good results, dealt with such landlords. But, in spite of all efforts, 
many landlords continued to thumb their noses at the entire policy 
and plan of voluntary rent stabilization. 


For- these among other reasons, the Office of Price Administration 
went forward with recommendations for legislation which would give 
ample power to cope with those rental situations in which the Fair 
Rent Committees found themselves powerless, or in which they for 
any reason proved ineffective in stabilizing or reducing rents in de- 
fense areas. 

The Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 became law on January 
30, 1942. The statutory authority for the control of rents which is 
included in this Act has made necessary certain changes in the type of 
rent control program which had previously been carried on by the 
Office of Price Administration. 

Under this Act the Administrator is authorized to designate certain 
areas as defense-rental areas, and to recommend action toward the 
stabilization or reduction of rents within the area. If in his judgment 
rents have not been stabilized or reduced within 60 days in accordance 
with those recommendations, the Administrator may establish maxi- 
mum rents and set up the administrative structure necessary to make 
the maximum rentals effective. 

This new responsibility requires that a very clear distinction be 
made in the public mind between the type of voluntary control under- 
taken by Fair Rent Committees and the statutory control which is 
now available under the Price Control Act. 


This does not mean, however, that the Office of Price Administra- 
tion has lost interest in the operations of local voluntary Fair Rent 
Committees. Committees continue to act as agencies of their commu- 
nities to stabilize or reduce rents. In so far as these activities are effec- 
tive, to that degree will it be unnecessary to impose statutory rent 
controls. Some Fair Rent Committees may accomplish such effective 
rent stabilization in their localities that statutory action may not be 

Central Housing Committee Swan Song 


Ex-Secretary, Central Housing Committee 

THIS Committee, which was never established officially, has finally 
achieved recognition in a special clause abolishing it! The Execu- 
tive Order which created the long-awaited National Housing 
Agency has terminated the need for stop-gap service and the Com- 
mittee's assets and its good will have been transferred to the new 

As in previous years, the undertakings and accomplishments of the 
various committees and subcommittees are briefly summarized. Some 
of the accomplishments are notable; others warrant no headlines; but 
throughout the final reports of all groups runs a note of regret that 
the termination of the committee setup stops the main vehicle which 
brought together the technical men of many government agencies as 
technical men of common interests, rather than as agency representa- 
tives. Many narrow channels of contact have been widened; many an 
old-line government man has been stimulated by contacts recently 
brought from private practice; and many a New Deal houser has been 
helped over the hard places by an old campaigner. In the final review 
of activities, it has been surprising to find how many housing studies 
have been made for the housing groups by representatives of old-line 
non-housing agencies. 

The contacts established may continue informally in some cases, 
under new auspices in others. They will help to bridge some of the 
hard places of reorganization and decentralization, and the sharp divi- 
sions now established between: (i) NHA housing and other housing 
interests, such as farm housing and TVA housing; (2) housing and 
non-housing construction groups; (3) the New Deal and old-line 
agencies; and (4) between technical men in Washington and those 
relocated elsewhere. These regroupings and separations may justify 
the continuance of some medium of exchange like the experimental 
Technical Bulletin, whose publication has now ceased. 

It is hoped that some of the projects which various committees have 
started and carried on laboriously, in addition to their individual 
routine work, may be taken over and developed as agency staff assign- 
ments, while some might well rest in the province of NAHO. The 
reports of committee and subcommittee work follow: 

Accounting submits, with recommendations for adoption, a uniform 



classification of accounts, drafted to reconcile variations in accounting 
systems and to permit operating cost comparisons. 

Appraisal and Mortgage Analysis submits its program of university 
training and government apprenticeship designed to raise the stand- 
ards of appraisal service with recommendations for continuance. The 
program was initiated by the Federal Home Loan Bank, financed by 
Federal Housing, Farm Credit, and Farm Security, and is of special 
concern to national housing administrations. 

Economics and Statistics recommends that arrangements be made 
for the continuance of its Housing Index-Digest, or some equivalent 
medium of information, and recommends that economic and statistical 
research for the housing agencies be organized under administrative 

Land Use and Site Planning reports on common interests in rehabili- 
tation including a specific program, CHC-assisted, under way in 

Law and Legislation reports on its joint studies of uniform acts, par- 
ticularly on studies in progress for uniform tax collection and me- 
chanics' lien acts, and its annual survey of housing legislation. 

Public Relations reports certain definite accomplishments in the 
direction of related expositions of the government's diverse interests 
in the housing field, including exhibitions and publications, and recom- 
mends arrangements to continue exhibitions now in circulation. Its 
Subcommittee on Definitions has to offer a nearly-complete glossary 
of housing terms which compares, in the dictionary manner, variations 
in interpretation as expressed in legislation and agency usage. 

Research, Design, and Construction transmits, with comments, the 
reports of its 13 subcommittees which have much to contribute: Build- 
ing Codes offers its new Regulations for Emergency Construction. It 
recommends a continuing arrangement for keeping such codes up to 
date. The report will be published by the National Bureau of Stand- 
ards as a BMS Bulletin. Design Standards submits its Studies on 
Minimum Standards for dwellings, ceiling heights, window areas, 
exits, closet spaces. Fire Resistance offers the fruit of 70 meetings a 
monumental study of fire resistance classifications which bear on all 
governmental construction. Its job is done, except for supplementary 
surveys which might be supervised by an interdepartmental committee. 
The report will be published by the National Bureau of Standards as 
a BMS Bulletin. Heating and Ventilating reports on its work with the 
Bureau of Standards promoting codes and standards, simplifying heat- 
ing methods, establishing uniform bases for ratings and specifications, 
devising cheaper chimney construction, etc. Landscape has a check 


list for landscape construction and agreements on terminology for 
specifications, etc. It leaves unfinished a handbook for landscape archi- 
tects. Lighting, a relatively new committee, was starting to develop 
bases for house and office lighting standards, the latter a much needed 
job for conservation of personnel under pressure of war work. Main- 
tenance has in process a manual on the care of structures. Its major 
undertaking (never financed) was to examine a group of projects 
periodically from the standpoint of maintenance and to bring its find- 
ings to the attention of designers and builders so as to prevent recur- 
rence of error. The report will be published by the National Bureau 
of Standards as a BMS Bulletin. Plumbing has laid the ground work 
for a new code, recently issued as BMS Bulletin 66 by the National 
Bureau of Standards. It recommends periodic check-ups. Prejabrication 
submits the need of a centralized technical service in this field and an 
evaluation of wartime construction for the safeguarding of the post- 
war building industry. Specifications offers a new streamlined short- 
cut system halving word and paper wastage, with recommendations 
for general government adoption. The report will be published by the 
National Bureau of Standards as a BMS Bulletin. Structure has pro- 
duced a check list for the use of construction inspectors to^be published 
by the National Bureau of Standards as a BMS Bulletin, and will 
report on its plan to eliminate divergent structural practices in govern- 
ment agencies. Technical Research reports on its guidance of the 
$150,000 Bureau of Standards research fund sponsored by the three 
housing administrations, and on its technical reporting service. Rural 
Housing has an undertaking with an industrial group, the National 
Homes Foundation, involving a program on which 400,000 pieces of 
literature have been circulated. It is concerned especially with the rela- 
tionship of farm and village housing, now separated by the reorganiza- 
tion of federal agencies. 

In reporting this last testament and testimonial, the ex-secretary can- 
not forbear following the precedent set in a similar affair in which, 
during a lull, a mourner arose to say: "If no one else has anything 
more to say about the deceased, I would like to say a few words about 

In this instance, he would like to include a personal bequest. Once 
upon a time, he proposed himself as a designer of parts; but, as fate 
sometimes disposes, he found that his job at the time was to write 
specifications. His experiences in this pastime -were illuminating par- 
ticularly in the discovery that every sentence had to be, per se, in the 
nature of a legal contract. So, as lazy men do, he devised a short cut 
by the simple expedient of lumping all mandatory provisions in a 


single, hard-and-fast governing clause, followed by a mere outline, in 
lieu of sentences. 

The general idea was cleared with a committee of government attor- 
neys, who gave it a bill of health, subject to technical review. This 
review was extended over a two-year period by the Central Housing 
Subcommittee on Specifications, as noted in the foregoing summary. 

There are no complications, and the details of application may be 
arranged as preferred by the individual. The advantages of the system 
lie in its complete separation of construction techniques from legal 
quirks, the simplification of effort and the saving of time and paper 
(the reduction in number of pages runs from 50 to 75 per cent). 

The ex-secretary has presented this system to government agencies. 
In the interest of streamlining a tedious, time-consuming operation, he 
offers it, through NAHO, to housers in general. 

Activities of National Unofficial Housing Agencies 
and Committees for 1941 

A GREAT many more agencies are included in this section of the 1942 
Housing YearbooJ^ than in any previous year. An attempt has 
been made to secure firsthand information from all unofficial national 
housing agencies and from unofficial national agencies whose major 
field of interest is other than housing but who in 1941 and early 1942 
dealt directly with some aspects of housing for persons of low and 
moderate income. 

It is obvious that the activities reported vary widely. This variation 
indicates the extent to which housing is related to other activities deal- 
ing with the well-being of families. It emphasizes the extent to which 
the development and operation of homogeneous neighborhoods with 
good housing may help to create and preserve a productive commu- 
nity life and thus advance the efforts of organizations interested in 
particular aspects of improved family life. The information is presented 
in substantially the same form in which it was submitted by the vari- 
ous organizations. The reports have come from the national headquar- 
ters office of each agency; therefore, the complete extent of the housing 
efforts of organizations whose major work is done by regional, state, 
or local divisions will not be fully portrayed. 

During 1941 no new national unofficial housing agencies were estab- 
lished and none that functioned in 1940 was disbanded. 

The reports are presented in alphabetical order by name of organi- 

American Association of University Women 

The housing problem has been a subject of study in scattered 
branches of the American Association of University Women over a 
period of years but has become a major national emphasis in the 
social studies field only during the past year. 

Each of the principal subjects heretofore emphasized in the social 
studies program consumer problems, social welfare, migration, labor 
standards, and the general relationship of government and business 
has at some time and in many branches led to the study of housing; 
it was inevitable that interest in housing should be greatly enhanced 
when national defense focused attention here. A few local branches of 
the Association have assisted in securing public housing projects in 
their communities, have been active on Fair Rent Committees, with 



room registry and homes registration bureaus, and in forums and 
radio programs dealing with local housing needs. 

The January, 1942, issue of the social studies monthly series (Con- 
temporary America) is entitled "Housing in War and Peace" and is 
the first study outline issued by the Association in this field. 

An unusual contribution to materials on this subject is being made by 
the Kansas State Division which is preparing its own outline on hous- 
ing problems in Kansas communities for use in study groups in 1942. 

American Bar Association 

The Committee on the Law of Housing from the Point of View 
of the Investor was a special committee of the American Bar Asso- 
ciation's Municipal Law Section. Until late in 1941, when the Munic- 
ipal Law Section created a Committee on Housing under the 
chairmanship of Mr. Leon H. Keyserling, Deputy Administrator and 
General Counsel of the United States Housing Authority, the housing 
activities of the Municipal Law Section were more topical than gen- 
eral. Thus the early Committee on Legal Problems of Municipal 
Housing and City Planning was followed in the succeeding year by 
a Committee on Legal Problems of Urban Housing. 

When it became apparent that one of the most pressing issues 
was related to the legal aspects of financing the public housing 
program, the Committee on the Law of Housing from the Point 
of View of the Investor was established. This Committee was under 
the chairmanship of Morris Miller, of Dempsey and Koplovitz, 
Washington, D. C., and included Ernest Bohn, Director of the Cleve- 
land Metropolitan Housing Authority, Arnold Frye, of Hawkins, 
Delafield, and Longfellow, of New York City, Philip H. Hill, City 
Solicitor of Charleston, West Virginia, and Executive Director of 
the Housing Authority of the City of Charleston, and Milton Mallin 
of the United States Housing Authority's legal staff. 

In the fall of 1941, the Committee issued its report which was 
printed by the American Bar Association. This report included a 
summary of the federal government's activities in the housing field 
leading to the adoption of the United States Housing Act. After a 
brief discussion of the Act and of the place of the local authority as 
an instrumentality for undertaking and financing low-rent housing, 
the report contained a detailed analysis of the legality and security 
behind the local authority bonds. The annotations to the report include 
citations of all state enabling housing legislation as well as citations 
to all cases decided by the state courts affecting the validity of such 


American Federation of Labor, Housing Committee 

War housing was the primary concern of the American Federation 
of Labor's Housing Committee throughout 1941. Acute shortages 
of housing facilities for workers concentrated in war production 
areas, and an inadequate supply of new housing by private enterprise 
and the public housing agencies in these areas became extremely 
serious during the year. In many war production centers alleged 
shortages of labor needed by war industries were the direct result 
of housing shortages. The reluctance on the part of workers to bring 
their families to congested towns lacking housing and sanitary facili- 
ties, and to subject them to the risk of disease was rapidly becoming 
a threat to the labor supply needed for war output. 

The AF of L Housing Committee was a leading force in bringing 
all these phases of the defense housing problem to public notice. 
Its first intensive study of defense housing was made in September, 
1939. This study served as a basis for the public declaration of housing 
policy issued by the Executive Council of AF of L on May 20, 1940. 
This declaration foresaw the mass syphoning of wage earners into 
communities dominated by specialized production, and urged that 
emergency housing situations be remedied in advance. It emphasized 
the desirability of using the available machinery of local housing 
authorities. The declaration called for a program to meet the imme- 
diate need and one designed to provide defense housing convertible 
to the most economic post-war use. 

During 1941 the AF of L Housing Committee kept in close touch 
with its local labor housing committees and was able to bring 
together vital facts reflecting the housing needs and special problems 
of communities most affected by defense. In June, 1941, the Com- 
mittee made a nationwide survey of housing and health conditions 
in defense production centers. The results of this survey were pre- 
sented to the Tolan Committee on Defense Migration, in July, 1941. 

In a report prepared by the Housing Committee and submitted to 
the Executive Council of the AF of L in August, 1941, unification 
of defense housing agencies, designed to integrate and eliminate 
conflicting and overlapping jurisdictions, was strongly urged. This 
report, which was adopted by the Seattle Convention of the AF of L 
in October, stressed that the most essential and urgent need for shelter 
in defense areas should be promptly met through a unified program 
of public defense housing. 

The work of the Housing Committee was carried on through its 
local labor housing committees, of which more than 400 were active 
during the year. A number of studies and reports covering each 


community and the surrounding area were made available by the 
local housing committees, bringing together current and vital infor- 
mation on vacancies, the relation of the available housing to places 
of employment, the extent and cost of commutation, as well as the 
changes in rents. 

Rent control was given special attention by the Housing Committee 
and an advisory service with regard to rent regulation was furnished 
to local labor housing committees during the year. The Committee 
was able to furnish much valuable information to the Office of Pro- 
duction Management and to the War Production Board on the rela- 
tion of new plant allocation to local housing situations and other 
community problems relating to housing. 

A basic study of post-war housing was undertaken by the 
Committee designed to provide a basis for a long-range housing 


American Home Economics Association 

Home economists were increasingly active in the housing field dur- 
ing 1941 and the early months of 1942, as individuals, as teachers 
commissioned by state and local departments of home economics 
education, and as members of the American Home Economics Asso- 

Both in slum clearance and in defense housing projects, home 
economists have had an increasingly important role. New Jersey has 
been outstanding in securing the services of home economists for 
families living in housing projects. Local boards of education have 
hired home economics teacher-consultants to live in the Atlantic City, 
Elizabeth, and Perth Amboy projects, pay rent for their apartments, 
and operate a 12-month program, which includes teaching classes for 
all age groups. Most popular are the classes in food preparation, 
canning, nutrition, clothing, home furnishing, and child care. The 
state supervisor of home economics education acts as advisor to these 

The Tasker Homes project of Philadelphia is an example of home 
economics leadership in demonstrating attractive, low-cost furnishings. 
Here the work was done through a committee with representatives 
from the home economics departments of the public schools, Temple 
University, Drexel Institute, and the Moore Institute of Arts and 
Science. From the Salvation Army storehouses furniture such as 
incoming tenants would be likely to have was obtained. Home 
economists then supervised students of classes in upholstery, interior 
decoration, and woodworking as they reconditioned the furniture 


which was to serve as an exhibit for Tasker Homes tenants. Other 
students made curtains for these homes. 

In two Texas housing projects, San Antonio and Corpus Christi, 
home economists have conducted demonstration projects concerned 
with food preservation, mass emergency feeding, nutrition, wise 
buying, conservation of food and other consumer goods. The Texas 
State Vocational Training Office agreed to furnish 22 home economists 
and nursery school teachers for housing projects in the state. 

First aid, home nursing, and nutrition classes have been held by 
Denver home economists for families in the Lincoln Park housing 
project. The Indiana State Department of Home Economics Educa- 
tion has sponsored a demonstration project in the Lincoln Gardens 
(Evansville) project, in which home economists have given training 
for domestic service as well as for furnishing, interior decoration, 
and home management. 

The Pittsburgh public school classes 4 in home economics have 
shared in making furnishings for home demonstration projects in 
both slum clearance and defense housing projects. 

In Omaha, Nebraska, the supervisor of vocational homemaking 
has worked with tenants of housing projects through home visits, 
classes, and clinics. 

Other cities where home economists have actively shared in the 
educational work in housing projects include: Los Angeles and San 
Francisco, California; Hartford, Connecticut; Jacksonville, Florida; 
Atlanta, Georgia; Louisville, Kentucky; Buffalo, New York; Raleigh, 
North Carolina; Knoxville, Tennessee; and Norfolk, Virginia. 

Home economists in the Extension Service of the United States 
Department of Agriculture have continued to make an important 
contribution to improvement of rural housing. 

The Association works with agencies concerned with the design, 
financing, construction, management, and social aspects of housing. 
It shares with these allied agencies its experiences in working with 
families in different communities. If it discovers, for instance, that 
outlets for utilities in certain housing projects are so placed as to 
make efficiency in food preparation or laundering impossible it directs 
attention to this condition. It endeavors to implement and coordinate 
the work of home economists in all fields of home economics 
from child development and family relationships to family finance 
and home management. 

The 1941 Journal of Home Economics published abstracts of hous- 
ing material at regular intervals, and also contained articles on such 
subjects as consumer education in furnishings for a public housing 


project, helping the farm family solve its housing problems, Farm 
Security Administration housing projects, improving rural housing, 
and the work of a local public housing authority. The May, 1942, 
issue of the Journal carries three articles on housing. 

One of the five major divisions" of the American Home Economics 
Association is that on housing. Earl C. McCracken of Columbia 
University is its chairman, Mary L. Matthews, Purdue University, is 
its chairman-elect. Twenty-one state home economics associations 
and the Puerto Rico organization have housing chairmen. In the sum- 
mer of 1941 the housing division promoted the holding of rural 
housing conferences for in-service workers at the University of 
Arkansas and at Colorado State College, the latter attracting repre- 
sentatives from a dozen states. Tennessee and Georgia have had 
housing schools as regular features of the college home economics 

The housing division's 1941-42 program, as set up in June, 1941, 
provided for the continuation of work previously undertaken and 
added the following projects: 

1. Setting up standards for housing the aged. 

2. Making surveys of values derived by families from living in new 

3. Determining the needs of low-income families through a study 
of housing projects. 

4. Planning a service for urban families similar to the extension 
service for rural families. 

5. Setting up standards for use of investigators in studying local 
housing conditions so as to make possible regional summaries. 

6. Making a survey of the research under way in agricultural engi- 
neering which is of concern to home economists. 

7. Planning trips to see public housing projects at the June, 1942, 

American Institute of Architects, Committee on Urban Land Use 

For the Institute's year, ending at the annual convention in May, 
1941, the Committee on Urban Land Use consisted of Arthur C. 
Holden, New York, Charles Dana Loomis, Baltimore, Horace W. 
Peaslee, Washington, Walter H. Thomas, Philadelphia, E. J. Russell, 
St. Louis, and Frederick Bigger, Pittsburgh, chairman. The report 
of the Committee was accepted but not endorsed by the Board of 
Directors, being referred to the convention. In the December, 1941, 
issue of the Institute's periodical The Octagon the report was printed 
in full. The gist of it is a recommendation to architects to study and 


equip themselves to collaborate with others in local planning activity 
and in urban redevelopment programs. There was presented for the 
readers' study a long-term integrated study and planning and redevel- 
opment program which, in its broad outlines, is similar to the program 
suggested in the Federal Housing Administration's Handboo^ on 
Urban Redevelopment for Cities in the United States. 

For the current year the Committee on Urban Land Use is con- 
tinued, under the chairmanship of Walter R. MacCornack. 

American Institute of Planners, Committee on Urban Land Policies 

The report of the Committee on Urban Land Policies, 1 prepared 
in the closing weeks of 1941 for the January, 1942, meeting of the 
American Institute of Planners, was a symposium on the ques- 
tion, How Far Must the Federal Government Go in Post- War 
Urban Redevelopment? Three proposals were the bases of the dis- 
cussion : 

1. A suggestion, originally made by Mr. Frederic A. Delano in 
The American City for January, 1937, that a fiscal invasion be made 
by the federal government into the slums and blighted areas of 
American cities. Mr. Delano pointed out that federal action could 
be most effective by enlisting the cooperation of private enterprise 
and local governments, and cited the traditional method of govern- 
mental assistance termed grants-in-aid. He said further: 

The federal government might properly offer to pay a certain percentage 
of the cost of acquisition of land by municipalities, on condition that the 
municipality, in using such land, should take suitable precautions to insure 
the sound development of the neighborhood. The federal government 
should be careful not to subsidize the development of neighborhoods of 
jerry-built houses, or of surplus residential sections, or of poorly planned 
communities. It should offer financial assistance only when municipalities 
follow a proper and well-considered housing and land-use policy. 

2. A program of the National Association of Real Estate Boards, 

1 The work of this Committee dates back to 1934 when a Committee on Research in 
Urban Land Policies was appointed under the old American City Planning Institute. 
The continuing efforts of this committee are recorded in several significant publications: 
"Possible Modifications of Urban Land Policies in America," published in the Journal 
of Land and Public Utility Economics, May, 1935; "Absurd Land-Overcrowding Allowed 
by Many Zoning Ordinances," American City, June, 1936; a 1 2-page mimeographed 
report, "Increased Public Ownership of Urban and Suburban Land," upon which was 
based a statement of policy published in the Planner's Journal, July-August, 1937. 

In 1938, 1939, and 1940 some of the committee members collaborated in the studies 
of the National Resources Planning Board that were pertinent to the field of urban land 

From 1936 to 1941, inclusive, the members of the Committee were: Frederick L. 
Ackerman, Tracy B. Augur, Jacob Crane, Myron D. Downs, John Ihlder, Ladislas Segoe, 
and Harold S. Buttenheim, chairman. 


issued in May, 1941, supplemented by a memorandum of its Urban 
Land Institute dated December 17, 1941? It was proposed: 

(a) that there should be established in each urban community a land 
commission or a land planning commission, by appropriate state legislative 
action, to plan and to prescribe land uses in the entire metropolitan area 
of the city, such commission to have the power to purchase land and to 
exercise the power of eminent domain when it becomes necessary to re- 
assemble land in the blighted areas for the purpose of replanning and 
rebuilding; (b) that there should be created a federal urban land com- 
mission to be supplied with funds by Congress with which to make grants 
and long-term loans at low rates of interest to local land commissions, if 
and when a practicable city plan for the entire metropolitan area is being 
developed and if the rebuilding of the blighted districts can be assured 
through private enterprise; and (c) that having received the federal loan, 
the local land commission should assemble all the land of the specific 
blighted district under its ownership, and should proceed to clear it, and 
install or reconstruct the neighborhood streets, sewers, parks, school sites, 
and other public facilities. The city would take title to all areas and im- 
provements for public facilities so installed or reconstructed. The remainder 
of the land the building sites would be leased to approved private rede- 
velopment companies or individual builders for long period of years, pos- 
sibly under a lease purchase agreement, with land rentals set at 10 per cent 
of the gross receipts of the company, to be allocated first to interest and 
secondly to apply on the agreed purchase price. 

3. A proposal by Mr. Alvin H. Hansen, professor at Harvard 
University, and Mr. Guy Greer, an economist of the Federal Reserve 
System, to the effect that the federal government set up a central 
urban redevelopment agency; that the several states be induced to 
adopt revised and simplified condemnation laws; that each city or 
group of contiguous cities can produce at least a satisfactory over-all 
outline of a master plan for the entire metropolitan area, with assur- 
ances that it will be carried out; that, as the first step in replanning 
and rebuilding, the federal government be asked to advance funds 
over a period of years wherewith all the real property in the clearly 
defined slum and blighted areas shall be acquired by the municipal 
government or governments. The federal government would be re- 
paid, in so far as possible, by having the cities turn over to it for 
about 50 years approximately two-thirds of their subsequent proceeds 
from leasing whatever land is not used for public purposes. Moreover, 
the federal government would exact assurances that the use of the 
acquired land would be such as would never again result in blighted 
areas and slums. 

To secure expressions of opinion from members of the AIP Com- 

2 See also the report of NAREB, pages 104-07. 


mittee on Urban Land Policies for the report, here abstracted, the 
chairman sent to each member a copy of the National Association 
of Real Estate Boards and Hansen-Greer proposals, with request for 
comments, and asked specifically the following questions: 

1. If you believe that substantial federal aid to municipalities in 
the redevelopment of their slums and blighted areas would be in the 
public interest, do you favor perpetual public ownership of land 
acquired for that purpose? 

2. How far, if at all, ought the federal government go in deter- 
mining the site planning and uses of such land, density of population, 

The replies are quoted at length in the mimeographed report of 
the Committee. The space limits of this abstract allow for only a few 
significant excerpts: 

Frederic^ L. Ac\erman: Urban living in the U. S. A., if it is to be made 
tolerable through the years, is now a problem which must be approached 
from a wholly different point of view than that of appeasing the holders 
of fictional items of capitalization of the decayed and utterly obsolete. The 
days when that process seemed to work have gone with the wind. 

Jacob Crane: Once blighted areas have been reacquired under public 
ownership I think that they should be retained under public ownership 
and leased to public and private agencies with adequate control on land 
use, density, site planning, etc. 

Myron D. Downs: The continuation of the policy of having federal land 
purchases occur in the heart of the city can only lead to the eventual multi- 
plication of conflict of authority in the government and taxation of the 
cities. ... I believe that the most desirable solution of redeveloping our 
blighted areas is for the municipality to undertake, with its existing author- 
ity under the law, the reassembling of real estate, its replanning and rede- 
velopment. In Ohio, at least, there do not appear to be any legal obstacles 
to such operations by the city councils. 

John Ihlder: The NAREB report carefully limits operations to areas 
from which all profits have already been squeezed, leaving out those from 
which private exploiters may still squeeze something, no matter how badly 
those areas are planned, no matter how inevitable it may be that they are 
on their way to becoming slums. Not until they have lost all of their 
financial attraction are they to be available to the land commission which 
will then buy them with public money and having bought them, must sell 
or rent them to private companies at a rate based on the profits those 
companies may make. 

Ladislas Segoe: Considering the very vital public interest in the solution 
of the problem, I believe that reasonable public subsidy would be warranted, 
provided that this were to be applied primarily to the furtherance of such 
public interest including the bettering of the living conditions of the un- 
derprivileged segment of our urban population, improvement in conditions 


of health, safety, etc., in our cities. But I do not believe in continuing sub- 
sidies to the owners of tenements and other rental properties in the slums, 
real estate speculators, redevelopment corporations, and the like. One of the 
dangers, as I see it, of the proposal in the NAREB memorandum is that 
the major part of the public subsidy would go to these latter groups. 

The need for public subsidy in most any program of slum eradication 
and redevelopment is due to the differences between the cost of land in 
such areas and what such land can earn when redeveloped. The excessive 
cost of land in these areas is probably the only serious obstacle in the solu- 
tion of the problem. While it is true that in many cases valuations for tax 
purposes are still supporting these excessive prices not warranted by earn- 
ings, in many others such prices are fully justified by earnings, and assessed 
valuations would be still higher if, as suggested in the NAREB memo- 
randum, these were determined on "a more realistic basis giving primary 
emphasis to income." For, unfortunately, rental properties in the slums 
are in many places among the most profitable real estate investments. . . . 

As regards the specific questions posed to the members of the AIP Com- 
mittee on Urban Land Policies: 

(a) Yes, I am in favor of perpetual public ownership of land and long- 
term leases. I know all about the objections raised against such arrangement, 
among these that it would discourage private enterprise. The latter I always 
held to be but a convenient hypothesis. My most recent proof is the sale 
within a year of all of the 120 homes on individual lots in an experimental 
low-cost housing project with certain cooperative features. We have not 
lost a single would-be purchaser because we offered pp-year renewable 
leases instead of fee simple titles. 

(b) I am in favor of having the federal government lay down appropriate 
minimum standards of site planning, occupancy, etc., as well as limitations 
on return or profits all in accord with the general principle of conditioned 
grants-in-aid. However, within the limitations set by such standards and 
conditions, control over matters such as location, extent, design, construc- 
tion, management should be left to local legislative, planning, and housing 

In conclusion the AIP report, here abstracted, quoted two recom- 
mendations from a report of the American Institute of Architects' 
Committee on Urban Land Use, as published in The Octagon for 
December, 1941 : 3 

i. The federal government, through an appropriate agency possibly a 
consolidated type of agency may make a long-term, very low interest rate 
loan to the city, to cover the excess cost of site acquisition. Its loan contract 
might require assurances (a) that the city will retain title to the land, 

(b) that the city will control this and other enterprises, and its own finan- 
cial affairs in such fashion as to conserve the newly redeveloped area, with- 
out jeopardizing other areas which need similar treatment, and without 
demoralizing or hastening the depreciation of districts which now are good, 

(c) that the community will put in order its physical plan, its retrograde 
areas, its community services, and its financial affairs. 

3 See the report of the AIA Committee on Urban Land Use, pages 90-91. 


2. The federal government, in addition, may render financial assistance 
to redevelopment corporations, having in mind the safeguards to the public 
interest previously outlined in this report, particularly in item i above. 
This assistance may be in the form of insurance of money loaned by others 
to the redevelopment corporation, and insurance to that corporation which 
will cover the risks of operation during an initial period of reasonable 

American Public Health Association, 
Committee on the Hygiene of Housing 

The American Public Health Association's Committee on the 
Hygiene of Housing conducts research in fields of housing which 
relate to physical and mental health, formulates standards for housing 
practice in the light of this research, and advises with official agencies 
on the problems of housing administration concerned with public 
health. Its seventeen members represent a background of research, 
education, or administration in public health, housing, architecture, 
city planning, engineering, law, sociology, and home economics. 

The Committee's chief publication in 1941 was a volume of selected 
subcommittee reports and proceedings of its semiannual meetings, 
issued under the title Housing for Health. Other publications during 
the year included a popular bulletin on prevention of accidents in 
the home, prepared by the Subcommittee on Home Safety, and a 
report dealing with the water-supply and sewage-disposal require- 
ments of outlying residential developments, prepared by the Sub- 
committee on Home Sanitation. 

During 1941 the Committee cooperated with the Management 
Division of NAHO, in the preparation of a "Tenants' Homemaking 
Library," a collection of pamphlets distributed to members of the 
NAHO Management Division for educational use with tenants. 
The Committee also cooperated with the John B. Pierce Foundation 
in two special studies. One, conducted by the Subcommittee on Ther- 
mal Studies, was an investigation of comfort conditions in prefabri- 
cated houses built experimentally by the Foundation; the other was 
a six-month exploratory study of the functions and living habits of 
typical urban families. This study was undertaken in the hope of 
disclosing some of the factors hitherto ignored that are essential to 
consider in the rational design of low-cost dwellings, and with the 
purpose also of testing the efficiency of the research techniques de- 
veloped for use in a possible large-scale study in this field. 

The current activities of the Committee center around the work 
of two subcommittees: that on the Appraisal of Residential Areas, 
and that on Housing Legislation and Administration. The housing 


survey and inspection technique developed by the former subcom- 
mittee, designed for use in urban areas by local health departments 
and other cooperating agencies, has been used in test surveys in three 
Connecticut cities; the test findings are being published, with the basic 
field schedules, in Public Health Reports during March and April, 
1942. Further demonstrations of the technique are being planned for 
the coming year in cooperation with state and local health depart- 
ments, housing authorities, and planning bodies. The Subcommittee 
on Housing Legislation and Administration is giving intensive study 
to the general problem of state and local housing regulation, with a 
view to preparing a statement on the principles and policies necessary 
for adequate housing control. Through its consulting service to the 
Connecticut Department of Health, the Committee is cooperating in 
a critical analysis of state and local housing laws of Connecticut. 

In addition to the reports of the survey and legislative subcommit- 
tees, two completed studies of the Committee are being prepared for 
publication in 1942: a report of the Committee's three-year field 
investigation of heating, lighting, and noise conditions in occupied 
dwellings, to be issued through the United States Public Health 
Service; and a document of the Subcommittee on Standards of Occu- 
pancy, setting forth the principles essential in the planning of space 
for livability in dwelling units. 

Functioning as a modest clearing agency for housing information 
related to health, the Committee maintains a technical reference 
collection, and offers limited bibliographic service. 

American Society of Planning Officials, 
Committee on Urban Redevelopment 

The American Society of Planning Officials has a Committee on 
Urban Redevelopment consisting of Alfred Bettman, chairman, Fred- 
erick Bigger, Andre M. Faure, Frank H- Mally, and Ira S. Robbins. 
This Committee, which is concerned chiefly with the comprehensive 
planning aspects of the problem of urban redevelopment, presented 
its first report to the annual meeting of the Society held in Philadel- 
phia in May, 1941. That report is summarized as follows: 

The first step which any city should take is that of preparing a 
long-term program for making and carrying out a plan for the 
rehabilitation and redevelopment of blighted areas. The problem of 
the blighted area is worthy of very thorough research and planning. 
The removal or reduction of large urban blighted areas will require 
a long time, and action should only follow after thorough research 
and planning. The problem of the redevelopment of a blighted area 


is a city planning problem. Without that type of research, analysis, 
interpretation, and recommendation which we know as city planning 
or comprehensive planning or master planning, our rehabilitation 
and redevelopment will inevitably tend to be guesswork, unstable, 
and costly in material and social ways. There must be sufficient 
master, area, and neighborhood general planning to furnish the sup- 
porting bases for the more particularized planning of construction 
and rebuilding. 

Although blighted areas are predominantly occupied for habitation, 
and the usual redevelopment plan would continue this predomi- 
nance of use, industrial and some types of commercial uses share 
in the blight and should share in the redevelopment planning. In 
most cities the blighting of the predominantly habitation areas is 
very intimately related to the decline in the central business district. 

Neighborhood redevelopment legislation has been adopted by sev- 
eral states and is being considered by many more. This legislation 
is in an experimental stage and it would be well if further variations 
in the lines of neighborhood redevelopment legislation would be 
attempted. The legislative proposals tend to underemphasize the 
necessity for city planning as the basis for the more detailed plan- 
ning and construction of parts of the blighted area, such as neighbor- 
hoods and blocks. None of the legislative measures enacted or 
introduced in several states enables rehabilitation or redevelopment 
through public agencies directly. Complete enabling legislation would 
include both private and public powers of redevelopment. 

There are a large number of problems and issues involved in leg- 
islation on neighborhood redevelopment such as that of tax exemption, 
minimum extent of a unit chosen by a redevelopment corporation, 
direct control of rentals, limitation of private profits, and the im- 
portant problem of providing for the rehousing of those who lived 
in the redeveloped area. 

It is intended to follow up this report with an outline of a complete 
long-term program for urban rehabilitation and redevelopment from 
the beginning of the necessary city planning to the completion and 
operation of an actual piece of redevelopment. 

American Sociological Society 

Students of society have been traditionally concerned with problems 
of the family. Since housing constitutes an integral part of the pattern 
of family living, sociological studies of the family frequently deal 
with the physical aspects of the home in relation to other social and 
cultural factors. In the past, however, the interest of sociologists and 


social anthropologists was rather theoretical in character. The genetics 
of shelter in some primitive tribes was given greater attention than 
the housing needs of present-day American communities. The defini- 
tion of slums seemed to be of greater interest than their elimination. 

As a result of the Housing Act of 1937 and the housing program 
of the United States Housing Authority, now part of the National 
Housing Agency, a number of sociologists have become actively 
interested in housing education and housing research. Universities 
located in communities having housing projects have shown particular 
interest in the problems of slum clearance and the rehousing of low 
income families. 

At the 1940 meeting of the American Sociological Society in 
Chicago the first round table on housing was held. After a brief 
statement of the scope of the USHA program and its provision for 
slum clearance and the rehousing of about 193,000 families, the dis- 
cussion centered about the opportunities for significant social research 
in housing and securing the cooperation of universities. 

At the 1941 meeting of American Sociological Society in New York 
City, the second round table conference on housing took place and the 
following papers were presented: 

"The Value of Census Data for Housing Research," by Philip M. 
Hauser and E. P. Staudt, Bureau of the Census. 

"Housing and Urban Redevelopment," by Homer Hoyt, Director 
of Research, Chicago Plan Commission. 

"National Aspects of Housing and Planning," by David L. Wick- 
ens, research consultant. 

"The Role of Housing in the Post- War Reconstruction Program," 
by Benjamin H. Higgins, Federal Works Agency. 

The papers were discussed by Louis Wirth of the University of 
Chicago and Jay Warren Vinton of USHA. About 40 persons, repre- 
senting universities and housing agencies participated in the confer- 
ence, including Abraham Goldfeld of the Lavanburg Foundation, 
Stuart A. Queen of Washington University, Gladys Walker of the 
Pittsburgh Housing Authority, Walter W. Pettit of the New York 
School of Social Work, and others. Jerome Seidman of Brooklyn 
College reported briefly on a study of attitudes of the tenants of Red 
Hook Houses, a public project in Brooklyn. 

The 1942 president of the American Sociological Society, Dr. 
Dwight Sanderson, appointed the following Committee on the Social 
Aspects of Housing: J. B. Mailer, National Housing Agency, chair- 
man; P. G. Beck, Director of Region III, Farm Security Adminis- 
tration, Indianapolis, Indiana; Howard G. Brunsman, Bureau of 


the Census, Washington, D. C; Dr. F. Stuart Chapin, Department 
of Sociology, University o Minnesota; Dr. Dorothy Dickins, Mis- 
sissippi State College; and Gladys R. Walker, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 

The Committee is planning a social-economic study of a number 
of low-rent housing projects with special reference to the planning 
of housing for the post-war era. 

Camp Fire Girls of America 

The Camp Fire Girls' program was first formulated by a group of 
educators in 1910 and 1911 to meet the need for a program of con- 
structive leisure-time activities for girls. Since then, more than two 
million girls of three age-groups have enjoyed the experience of work 
and fun in a group of girls their own age. Younger girls, from eight 
to ten years old, form Blue Bird groups and follow a program of 
creative activity. The program of the Horizon Clubs, made up of 
senior high school and junior college girls is designed to aid per- 
sonality development and progress in citizenship. 

Since this program is designed for girls of varied social and eco- 
nomic status and for all races and creeds, it is ideally suited to girls 
in families of restricted incomes. Therefore, many girls living in 
housing projects today participate in the Camp Fire program under 
leaders who are both resident and nonresident in the projects. Special 
training in Camp Fire work is given these leaders by local Camp 
Fire executives. This leadership training and program supervision is 
a boon to the project management staff whose time and community 
activities budget is limited. 

Among the many Camp Fire cooperative efforts pertinent to the 
housing field is one which took place in a defense housing project 
in Vallejo, California, where the local Camp Fire Girls noticed the 
lack of landscaping in the project. Wishing to welcome the newcomers 
to Vallejo and to do a community service in beautifying the grounds, 
they gave a "seed and slip" party for the girls and women who were 
to live in the new homes. Flowers and shrubbery were planted and 
friendships were made. The result is that the housing project now 
has its own Camp Fire groups whose members feel themselves a 
part of the larger and new community in which they have come to 
live. In Elizabeth, New Jersey, Camp Fire activities stand out in the 
housing developments. Through the efforts of the local groups, the 
residents of Pioneer Homes and Mravlag Manor have been stimulated 
to take a more active part in such defense activities as the salvage 
program, nutrition, and aid to Britain. 


Two special projects which Camp Fire Girls are engaged in are 
of particular value to residents of housing developments. One is 
called "Fortifying the Family" and is a nutrition program whose 
purpose is to teach methods of cooking healthful, well-balanced 
meals at the lowest cost possible, wise marketing, and baby care 
all designed to interest girls in improving the standards of living of 
their own families and in helping their busy mothers, some of whom 
may be employed in defense industries. The other project, called 
"Skillful Living," emphasizes safety in the home. 

Camp Fire offers many interesting activities and provides a con- 
structive leisure-time program for older and younger girls, as many 
managers and residents of housing developments already know. It 
is the hope of Camp Fire Girls, Inc., that housing managers will 
look increasingly to local Camp Fire executives and the Camp Fire 
traveling field staff as a source for enriching their program of activities 
for girls of all ages. 

Congress of Industrial Organizations, Committee on Housing 

The impact of the war on the living conditions of industrial workers 
was felt with increasing intensity in the field of housing during the 
closing months of 1941 and the first months of 1942. The experiment 
which had been commenced at Camden, New Jersey, with the Audu- 
bon Mutual Homes Project, constructed under the auspices of the 
Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division of the Federal Works 
Agency, had stimulated keen interest among union members all over 
the country. Applications had been made and funds allocated for 
such projects in a number of communities. When a disposition began 
to be felt upon the part of federal authorities to restrict the number 
of such projects and to convert allocatipns to different purposes, CIO 
organizations undertook to clarify their position in regard to housing 
of this kind and to formulate more precisely their immediate and 
long-term proposals in regard to housing generally, with a view to 
the application of more effective pressure. 

Accordingly, the CIO Committee on Housing, of which R. J. 
Thomas, CIO Vice-President, and President of the United Automobile 
Workers is jchairman, announced early in January the following prin- 
ciples governing its position in regard to the Mutual Home Owner- 
ship Plan. 4 

i. The Audubon Agreement should be reduced to written contract form 
and signed by the government as soon as possible. 

4 See a description of the fundamental plan in "Defense Housing Under the Lanham 
Act," pages 56-63. 


2. There must be adequate safeguards in the Mutual Home Ownership 
Plan to make certain that the occupants of the projects will be able to re- 
main in the projects during the post-war depression, without need to bar- 
gain with a possibly reactionary post-war administration. This policy is in 
accordance with the language of the original Lanham Act, which provided 
that payments should be within the financial reach of the occupants. 

3. There should be provision in the contracts for a basic revaluation of 
the projects, and concomitant reduction of purchase price, after the war. 

4. There should be provision for the crediting of interest payments 
against capital value during the war, or 

5. There should be, in the alternative, a provision for the reduction of 
the value of the projects, with concomitant reduction of purchase price, 
when the average income of the occupants falls by a specified amount, such 
as 20 per cent. 

6. The first year's payments on principal and interest should be allowed 
to remain in the hands of the corporation as working capital. This was an 
element of the original proposal as advanced by the Mutual Home Owner- 
ship Division [later the Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division]. 

7. The planning, construction, and management of each project should 
be carried out in consultation with the chosen representatives of the pros- 
pective or actual occupants. 

8. Lengthening of the amortization period will not be sufficient to meet 
the requirements of successful operation and will serve only to impose an 
unwarranted interest burden. 

The CIO Committee formulated certain additional principles early 
in January which will constitute guiding lines of action for CIO 
organizations in the field of housing. These principles are as follows: 

I. Mutual Ownership: Mutual Home Ownership Division to be utilized 
and expanded. Program to be perfected on the basis of the separate recom- 
mendations stated above. 

II. United States Housing Authority: USHA and structure of local hous- 
ing authorities to be utilized. Permanent defense housing to be emphasized 
during war. Slum clearance and subsidized housing program to be ana- 
lyzed and clarified. Policies favoring vested interests to be opposed and 
eliminated. Policies preventing the housing of workers in income groups 
represented in CIO Unions to be opposed and eliminated. 

III. Prejabrication: Utilization of sound techniques of prefabrication to 
be supported and promoted. Archaic restrictions in building codes which 
have no relation to the health and safety of tenants to be eliminated. 

IV. Competitive Bidding: Competitive bidding methods of awarding 
contracts to be re-established in defense housing procedures. No discrim- 
ination among bidders because of union affiliations of their employees. 

V. Coordination: Activities of the various housing agencies to be co- 
ordinated through one office. Division of Defense Housing Coordination 
to be eliminated. Representation to be afforded organized labor in the 
declaration of housing needs and the designation of temporary as against 
permanent housing. 

VI. Cheap Credit: Exploration of possibilities of financing at 2 per cent 


and less through the RFC or private sources; question as to necessity of 

VII. Community Planning: Emphasis throughout on necessity of the 
construction of integrated communities as against haphazard construction 
of isolated individual shelter. Development of cooperative Union projects 
with social, educational, and consumer facilities. 

VIII. Industrial Planning: Integration of industrial planning techniques 
with the housing program. Long-range program of decentralization of both 
industrial plants and residential sections. 

At a December meeting of the National Executive Board of the CIO, 
the CIO went on record in support of USHA and the Mutual Own- 
ership Defense Housing Division of FWA. Legislation then pending 
in Congress proposed to channel all defense housing funds through 
the Public Buildings Administration, and placed serious restrictions 
on the use of such funds generally. Representatives of the CIO 
appeared before the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, 
urging the elimination of these restrictions and utilization of USHA 
and the Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division. The legisla- 
tion in question, as reported by the Senate Committee and as ulti- 
mately agreed on by conferees from both houses, conformed to the 
essential recommendations of organized labor in most respects. 

The CIO has also supported the reorganization of the housing 
activities of the federal government favoring the adoption, as promptly 
as possible, of a comprehensive plan integrating those activities under 
competent direction by persons with a progressive social outlook. It 
has urged a return to the policy -of building well-planned communi- 
ties with adequate community facilities. It has insisted upon the 
right of labor organizations representing the interests of labor as 
tenants and consumers to be consulted by federal agencies which are 
making decisions as to the existence of housing needs in given com- 
munities and as to the relative desirability of permanent or temporary 
shelter. It has supported for 1942 further legislation based on the gen- 
eral principles of the Lanham Act, but incorporating, by statements 
of policy and otherwise, the general principles of CIO policy as out- 
lined above. 

One of the important projects in which the CIO has been inter- 
ested has been that of Defense City, west of Detroit. The CIO has 
been assured of the construction of this vast community for workers 
engaged in the production of military aircraft. The United Automo- 
bile Workers, the CIO union most directly interested, has been 
insistent that this project be constructed and operated on the principles 
of the Mutual Home Ownership Plan. In another instance, involving 
the Sojourner Truth Project, in which Negro occupancy had been 


assured at the beginning, the CIO strongly supported the demands of 
Negroes in the Detroit area for the operation of this project on the 
basis of Negro tenancy. 

National Association of Community Managers 

The first full year of organization of the National Association of 
Community Managers ended in January, 1942. During this period the 
Association published two issues of its official newsletter, Rural Com- 
munity Notes, and circulated to its members other material useful 
in the organization and administration of rural communities. 

The formulation of plans for further activities was rendered ex- 
tremely difficult by the inability of the Board of Directors of the 
Association to hold a meeting. The Board of Directors lost one 
member by death, and two members by transfer to fields of activity 
other than rural community management. 

NAHO continued to act as the secretariat for NACM. 

At the time of writing it is not definitely known what effect the 
reorganization of federal housing agencies will have upon the mem- 
bership of the Association. When the Association was founded, the 
members had a common bond in their affiliation with the rural 
community program of the Farm Security Administration. Should 
some of the communities represented in the membership be trans- 
ferred to the jurisdiction of the Federal Public Housing Authority, 
new problems of organization will face NACM. 

National Association for Nursery Education 

The National Association for Nursery Education has been interested 
in housing projects which included a space for nursery schools and 
has continuously planned with local groups who were responsible 
for securing space. 

During the past year NANE has collected material regarding such 
units, offered advice on necessary equipment, and on minimum essen- 
tials for buildings which were meant to house young children. The 
Association has begun to collect an assortment of floor plans of such 
housing projects as included preschools. In connection with the New 
York Housing Authority an exhibit was prepared to show, in graphic 
form, the general lay-out of a preschool with typical playground 
space and essential equipment. 

An important bulletin was issued which contained material on 
the value of preschools in housing, the way in which these could be 
planned and staffed and other information about this work. This 
bulletin can be secured for ten cents by writing to the distribution 


center o the NANE, at West 514 East Hall, University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa. 

National Association of Real Estate Boards 

The millions living in the blighted areas of American cities are the 
"have nots" in housing. These deteriorated districts are spreading. 
They now make up approximately one-fourth of our urban areas. 
Obviously, how to provide adequate and wholesome housing, if it is 
to be provided for families numbering millions, is inseparable from 
the question of how to stop blight and rebuild under modern plans 
the great decayed regions of our cities. 

At the core of the rebuilding and rehousing problem is the difficulty 
of obtaining action simultaneously over urban areas large enough 
to achieve the wanted neighborhood character and make sure it will 
last. This conclusion is shared by all interested groups. To facilitate 
the rebuilding of blighted areas there must first be some fundamental 
replanning for cities, and there must be vested in some agency the 
power of eminent domain to assist in reassembling the land for the 

To open the way for this large-scale urban rebuilding, which un- 
questionably should be one of the principal industries of the post- 
war period, the National Association of Real Estate Boards, through 
its Committee on Housing and Blighted Areas, proposed in Septem- 
ber, 1941, a plan of action based on conferences that took place during 
about two and a half years. The plan, which in general parallels 
that proposed by the Urban Land Institute, after recent intensive 
study of typical individual cities, would, we believe, give the machin- 
ery for effective teamwork between private initiative and public agen- 
cies in the rejuvenation of American cities. 

NAREB proposes: 

1. The creation of local land commissions for metropolitan areas, 
authorized under state law to acquire, by use of the power of emi- 
nent domain if necessary, land in blighted areas for redevelopment 
by private enterprise. 

2. The establishment of a federal urban land commission as a 
part of the National Housing Agency, to be provided with the funds 
and powers to extend grants to local planning agencies for the pur- 
pose of preparing plans for the redevelopment of blighted areas in 
conformity with master plans for metropolitan districts, and to extend 
credits to local land commissions for the purpose of acquiring land 
in blighted areas for redevelopment by private enterprise. 

3. The redevelopment of land so acquired by private building 


companies and individual builders, under regulations by the local 
land commissions and the National Housing Agency. 

4. The local taxation of redeveloped areas based upon an assessed 
value directly related to income-producing power or utility of the 

5. The establishment of a national laboratory to conduct housing 
research for the development of new building materials, housing 
design, construction methods, housing standards, the marketing and 
financing of dwellings, and building regulations to reduce the cost 
of dwelling construction. This national laboratory should be a part 
or a subsidiary of the National Housing Agency. 

It is the judgment of the Committee that private effort alone cannot 
attack and cure slums and urban blight. And obviously govern- 
ment action alone, for the millions of families now living under 
substandard conditions, would be inconceivably costly. The plan here 
proposed is a workable partnership between private and public effort. 
It provides for large-scale rebuilding by private initiative and private 
capital which is given the needed aid in land-assembly and carried 
out under the proper public controls. It might well be that this needed 
rebuilding will mean a post-war industry involving ultimately 80 or 90 
billions of dollars in work and materials. 

Replanning is the first and indispensable requisite of the program. 
The very technological advances that have revolutionized industry 
and transportation are the forces that have made blight. The land 
patterns of our cities need radical readjustment to fit the conditions 
of modern living. For effective rebuilding we need, therefore, a 
replanning of land-use not within a narrow district alone but on a 
scale that would include the entire metropolitan area of a city. 

In most cities at present city planning commissions are only advisory 
bodies, and the power to determine land-use is scattered among many 
agencies, the city council, the park board, and others. We propose 
that there be established in each urban community, under state en- 
abling legislation, some agency with the function of mapping out 
land-uses in the entire metropolitan area and that this agency have 
the power to purchase land and to exercise the power of eminent 
domain when it becomes necessary to reassemble land in blighted 
areas for the purpose of replanning and rebuilding those areas. 

Such a land planning commission, whether it is formed by exten- 
sion of some existing agency or formed de novo, should be set up so 
as to be responsive to local public opinion. It should be segregated 
from the influence of politics. 

In wiping out the mistakes of the past in city building, it is expected 


that the local urban land commissions will need help from the fed- 
eral government much as farm problems have needed such help. 
NAREB suggests that this assistance take' the form of grants or 
loans at low rates of interest. 

It is also suggested that private redevelopment companies, operating 
under appropriate regulations, be given the task of rebuilding. They 
might lease the reassembled land for a long period of years, or on 
a lease-purchase agreement. We suggest that the redevelopment 
projects be given their own Federal Housing Administration mort- 
gage insurance. The companies will need adequate freedom of opera- 
tion, so that the improvements may fit the real needs and likes of 
the people of the city. Low-cost housing should be included in such 
locations and amounts as meets the situation, but the land-use should 
not be restricted to low-cost houses. The plans, of course, should con- 
form to the general city plan, and should meet good standards with 
respect to intensity of land-use and with respect to transportation. 

It is proposed that the work of the redevelopment companies be only 
an intermediate step. The companies should be free not only to 
rent but also to sell; gradually the homes and other properties should 
revert to the individual ownership which is a basis of sound com- 
munity life. 

It is not suggested that the properties created by the redevelopment 
companies be tax-exempt, but it is essential that some agreement be 
worked out to insure that the tax burden will not defeat the enter- 
prise. This can be done within the framework of our present state 
laws, which in most cases would permit assessment of the improve- 
ments primarily upon their use value or annual rental value. The 
local land commission should have a definite agreement with the 
assessing authorities as to the valuation process to be used in taxing 
private improvements in the redeveloped areas, so that the annual tax 
burden will be limited to some reasonable percentage of the gross 

Official policies of the National Association of Real Estate Boards 
on public construction and operation of housing, building codes, and 
rent control are expressed in the following resolutions adopted at the 
1941 annual meeting of the Association, November 7, 1941. 

Resolved, That the National Association of Real Estate Boards does 
condemn a further expansion of government ownership, operation and 
management of real property in competition with private enterprise as 
constituting a grave menace and a negative influence on the further prog- 
ress of society; and be it further 

Resolved, That the promotion and development of real property by a 
tax-endowed agency, such as the United States Housing Authority or any 


such agency of similar purpose, for the purpose of creating housing for one 
class of citizens at the expense of another class of citizens, establishes a 
breach in the proper functions of government and should be terminated; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That the National Association of Real Estate Boards shall act 
in every way within its power to maintain the institution of free property 
ownership and the equality of distribution of the burden of taxation; and 
be it further 

Resolved, That the National Association of Real Estate Boards, recog- 
nizing its responsibility to the community and desirous of contributing to 
the sound welfare of society, hereby instructs its officers and committees 
to undertake an active educational campaign to further the purposes of this 
resolution and pledges to use all of its influence in combating die tendency 
of state and federal governments to usurp the field of real estate operation. 

Building Codes. The Association urges that various government agencies 
use their influence to obtain, during the emergency, the alteration of local 
building codes in so far as these tend to establish artificially high cost levels 
in the building field, and seek to curb monopolistic practices of trade 
unions and material distributors. 

Rent Control. The Association believes that the attempt to control some 
prices without controlling wages and all other elements that enter into 
prices is obviously unfair and unsound and cannot succeed. The Association 
therefore holds that any attempt that might be made to control rents by 
law must also control all factors contributing to the cost of ownership and 
operation of property, especially wages and property taxes. Any attempt to 
freeze rentals in various communities will inevitably result in the slowing 
down of the home building process, thus creating a greater shortage and 
postponing relief of crowded conditions. 

The present policy of the federal government with respect to rents in 
some crowded communities which is based on the creation of quasi-public 
local fair rent committees which seek to arbitrate differences between land- 
lords and tenants is proving eminently successful, and will, in our judg- 
ment, be adequate to meet the problems that may arise in most instances. 

The Association pledges its continued support to the creation and oper- 
ation of fair rent committees wherever these may, in the judgment of OP A 
[Office of Price Administration], be in the interest of the defense program 
and in the public interest. 

National Committee of Housing Associations 

The National Committee of Housing Associations is a professional 
committee of executives of citizens' housing associations located in 
Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, and Washington, D. C. It was formed in 1940 after three 


years of discussion among representatives of these associations in 
order to provide a definite framework for interchange of experience 
between them. The Committee has as its main purpose the strength- 
ening of housing associations, mainly through its activities as a 
standard-making organization. It facilitates cooperation between hous- 
ing associations and aids in the development of promising associations 
and in the creation of new associations in neighboring communities. 
The Committee has defined a housing association or council as a 
"citizens' agency equipped to promote a well-rounded program de- 
signed to improve housing and neighborhood conditions in its com- 
munity." The following rounded program has been adopted as a 
standard for a citizens' housing association or council: 

1. This implies active interest in all housing within the community 
including that for the well-to-do and that for families of low income. 
For it is recognized that dwellings built for the well-to-do may pre- 
sent serious community problems and that they may, and often do, 
become habitations of low-income families. 

2. Effective expression of this interest requires action in the fields 
of both private housing and public housing. 

3. Effective action in these two fields requires that the association 
be implemented to determine and interpret needs and methods, and 
to reach valid conclusions and give advice on: (a) enactment of hous- 
ing legislation; (b) enforcement of laws and regulations that affect 
housing; (c) planning, construction, and financing of housing, both 
private and public; and (d) administration of public housing and its 

In order to qualify as a citizens' housing association or council an 
agency .should, therefore, present evidence that its program covers at 
least the factors above listed, plus: a responsible board of directors; 
an adequate budget; and a competent staff. 

Foremost among the problems considered by the Committee during 
the past year has been the question of leadership of the United States 
Housing Authority caused by the resignation of Mr. Nathan Straus. 
The Committee followed closely the reorganization of the housing 
agencies and the setting up by executive order of the National Hous- 
ing Agency. 

The Committee collaborated with the Division of Defense Housing 
Coordination and the National Association of Housing Officials in 
preparing a survey of the normal, wartime, and post-war activities 
of local citizens' housing associations so as to make this of the most 
use to all concerned. 

The Committee helped arrange the program and staffed the booth 


for the 1941 Conference of Social Work in Atlantic City. At the 
request of the Conference it assumed full responsibility for the housing 
session at the National Conference of Social Work to be held in New 
Orleans in May, 1942. 

The Committee's main project during the past year has been to 
develop an investigation of the relationship between public housing 
authorities and local case work and group work agencies with respect 
to community activities of housing projects. A statement covering 
questions related to rent practices, recreation, schools, and health 
agencies, as worked out between the Alley Dwelling Authority and 
local case work and group work agencies of the District of Columbia, 
has been prepared by Mr. John Ihlder. The Committee plans to send 
his report to local housing managers through the cooperation of the 
Management Division of NAHO, who will ask the local housing 
managers to prepare a statement showing in what ways the relation- 
ships they have worked out differ or are similar to the relationships 
developed by the Alley Dwelling Authority. 

Under this plan it is contemplated that the executive of the citizens' 
housing association or, in communities where such an association does 
not exist, the executive of the local council of social agencies will act 
as a coordinator to bring together the local housing manager, the case 
work executive, and the group work executive for a discussion of the 
points brought out in the report. The Committee believes that 
bringing these agencies together in this way will stimulate better 
understanding and use of each by the others. 

The Committee has, through correspondence, assisted various com- 
munities located in the United States and one in South America, by 
serving as a consultant on local housing problems. Several citizen 
housing associations associated with the Committee have also given 
generously of their time in helping new associations or councils in 
neighboring communities. 

National Committee on the Housing Emergency, Inc. 

The National Committee on the Housing Emergency was estab- 
lished in January, 1941, to stimulate and encourage the construction, 
by public and private effort, of an adequate supply of housing in 
defense centers so that the production of war material may not be 
delayed by a shortage of workers, and the efficiency and morale of 
these workers may not be impaired by the lack of adequate shelter 
at rents which they can afford to pay. NCHE is equally concerned 
about the integration of war housing with the pattern and life of the 
community so that, in so far as possible, emergency expenditures for 


housing may serve the post-war needs of the localities in which it is 

The Committee was incorporated in May, 1941. Its board of di- 
rectors includes persons representing a wide range of business, pro- 
fessional, and civic interests, and many sections of the country. State 
divisions under the direction of a state chairman are in process of 
organization. NCHE has enrolled more than eleven hundred persons 
who have signified their interest in the housing problems created by 
the emergency. Periodic bulletins and informational material has 
been sent to this group. 

The first major informational activity was a Housing Inventory 
Conference held in Washington in June, 1941. Public officials and 
private citizens participated in presenting an over-all picture of the 
housing emergency. The conference was attended by more than 600 
persons from 24 states and Puerto Rico. A series of recommendations 
for dealing with the problems created by defense activities was 
drafted for presentation to the conference. Amended in accordance 
with suggestions offered from the floor and submitted in writing, 
these recommendations were issued in pamphlet form under the title 
A Program for Action on Housing for Defense Workers and Families 
of Low Incomes. More than 3,500 copies have been distributed. 
Among the major recommendations was that calling for a reorgan- 
ization of the federal housing agencies. In July, NCHE addressed a 
letter to President Roosevelt calling upon him to effectuate such a 
reorganization so that the emergency program might be carried out 
more efficiently and expeditiously. 

To dramatize the close relationship between the production of war 
materials and the housing of the workers, NCHE is collaborating 
with the Museum of Modern Art in the presentation of an exhibit 
or wartime housing to be shown at the Museum early in 1942. It is 
hoped that this exhibit may also be shown in a number of defense 
centers throughout the country. 

The Committee has worked in close cooperation with the federal 
and local housing agencies, and has served as organizational adviser 
to the Division of Defense Housing Coordination. 

In August, 1941, at the request of the Coordinator of Defense Hous- 
ing, the chairman of NCHE undertook a study of the defense housing 
situation in the Hampton Roads area. In cooperation with the Vir- 
ginia State Planning Board and representatives of the various federal 
agencies engaged in defense housing, a coordinated program for the 
area was developed. 

From the outset, NCHE has stressed the importance of decentral- 


ized administration of the emergency housing program and the im- 
portance of local participation. Other field studies undertaken by 
board and staff members have resulted in closer coordination of effort 
between federal officials and local officials and citizens. 

At the request of the Federal Works Agency, NCHE analyzed the 
Mutual Ownership Plan, and made suggestions for certain modifica- 
tions in the plan which were subsequently adopted by FWA. Legisla- 
tion relating to defense housing has been closely followed. The 
Committee has appeared at House and Senate Committee hearings 
on proposed legislation and has endeavored to secure public support 
for adequate appropriations for defense housing under the Lanham 

National Consumers League 

The National Consumers League included among its 1940 resolu- 
tions the following: 

WHEREAS, The defense program has called attention to the long-standing 
shortage of adequate, low-cost housing for workers and their families, and 
has created an acute housing emergency in many communities; be it 

Resolved, That the National Consumers League urges an extension of 
the present low-cost public housing program with regard not only to the 
emergency needs, but also to the continuing need for decent shelter for the 
one-third of the nation now inadequately housed. 

Immediately thereafter, however, the NCL was without a general 
secretary, a condition which obtained throughout the year. The result 
has been that no activity has been undertaken in connection with this 
resolution. It is anticipated that the deferred 1941 annual meeting 
will produce another resolution on housing which will be followed 
with specific activities. 

National Council of Jewish Women 

The National Council of Jewish Women, with 60,000 members in 
200 cities in the United States, first endorsed a resolution for slum 
clearance and low-cost housing in 1911 when such a position was rare 
among women's organizations. In the period of 1920-30, the Council 
joined with other agencies to try to secure legislation for low-cost 
housing, but was unsuccessful. Meanwhile, in the local communities 
the Council members pressed for enforcement of the tenement laws. 
The Council endorsed the Wagner-Steagall Housing Bill in 1937 and 
secured the cooperation of its members throughout the country to 
help in its passage. When the United States Housing Authority was 
established, it offered its cooperation. 


When the defense program swung into action, the Council turned 
its attention to the housing problems o defense workers, and was 
one of the organizations which attended the Housing Inventory Con- 
ference, in Washington, D. C., June, 1941, which reviewed the housing 
needs of defense workers and housing standards. 

Education and action for low-cost housing in the Council is under 
the direction of the National Committee on Social Legislation. This 
Committee prepares materials for use in study groups throughout the 
country. With the assistance of USHA and other government housing 
agencies, the Council assembles material for the use of study group 
leaders. The Committee also publishes a monthly bulletin, entitled 
Legislation Highlights which frequently contains articles about the 
problems and progress of low-cost housing. 

Council members are aware of their responsibility for a public 
housing program in their own communities. In some cities, they are 
members of the local housing authority or are active in urging the 
establishment of such authorities. In some communities, where hous- 
ing projects have been erected, the Council members have worked 
with other civic groups to establish recreational programs, such as 
playgrounds for children. 

At the present time, Council members are cooperating in the estab- 
lishment of rent boards, which can hear complaints on unwarranted 
rent rises. 

The interest of the Council in public housing is part of a broad 
program of social welfare, which aims at raising the standard of living 
of the American people through the establishment of needed social 
services in the community, and through the passage of needed social 
legislation in the city, state, and federal governments. 

National Education -Recreation Council 

The National Education-Recreation Council is a conference body 
of national agencies, associated for the purpose of exchanging in- 
formation and studying common problems. One of the regular 
monthly meetings of NERC in 1941 was devoted to the relation of the 
member agencies of the NERC to the great housing programs now in 
operation or in process. Housing problems were presented at this 
meeting from the point of view of the United States Housing Author- 
ity, from the point of view of community organizations and from the 
point of view of a local housing project. 

The purpose of the meeting was to find out what has been learned 
in connection with education-recreation programs in the experience of 
housing since two of the earliest projects, Sunny side and Radburn, 


in the New York City vicinity, were developed by private corpora- 
tions. The meeting also hoped to discover what is being done by the 
national agencies in the education-recreation field as well as by hous- 
ing authorities in connection with education-recreation programs, and 
what further cooperation public and private agencies can give in meet- 
ing the problems that arise. Other questions which were discussed 
related to methods of ascertaining that the advice of recreation 
authorities is taken into consideration before blueprints are made, 
and the setting of standards of space, leadership, program and 

Since the Council is a discussion body, no formal action of any kind 
was taken as a result of this meeting. 

National Federation of Settlements, Housing Division 

The Housing Division of the National Federation of Settlements 
has taken action during the past year with a view to the following 
purposes : 

1. To secure an adequate defense housing appropriation while 
opposing the provision of the Lanham Act prohibiting the local 
housing authorities from taking over the housing projects after the 
emergency ceases. 

2. To obtain additional appropriations for low-rental housing. 

3. To advocate housing for the next higher income group with 
special recommendation for 100 per cent government loans to coopera- 
tives (following the Dutch example). 

4. To advocate that all housing including defense housing should 
be planned in cooperation with local planning authorities. 

The settlements of the country are active in every aspect of public 
housing, both in management and in close association with the tenants 
living in projects. They answer inquiries of neighbors in regard to 
housing and participate in recreational programs in the projects. 
Representatives of settlements have acted as counselors for field 
workers from universities engaged in the operation of nursery schools 
in the housing projects, and in holding housing institutes and dis- 
seminating information in regard to public housing. They have spent 
time in explaining reasons for rejection to applicants and have helped 
applicants fill out applications. Staff members have spent time in 
explaining housing policies to board members. The settlements have 
also established shops for making home furniture for use in projects 
and have opened house membership and camp facilities to project 

Many settlements have also interested school groups in the work 


of the housing authorities and have guided groups of mothers and 
children to see for themselves the advantages of the housing projects. 
They have emphasized the relationship of housing to city planning 
and, where projects are not available, they have encouraged good 
rebuilding of tenements in areas which should not be abandoned. 
The settlements have also been active in exposing violations of housing 

National Institute of Municipal Law Officers, Committee on Housing 

The Committee on Housing of the National Institute of Municipal 
Law Officers was created in 1938 with Philip H. Hill, city solicitor 
of Charleston, West Virginia, as chairman. Since that time the Com- 
mittee has served as a national clearinghouse for city attorneys on 
municipal legal problems in connection with housing. Each year the 
chairman of the Committee has presented a comprehensive report 
surveying the legal problems of housing and the experience of city 
attorneys in solving these problems to the annual meeting of the 
National Institute (see Municipalities and the Law in Action, 1938 A, 
pages 83-99; 1938 B, pages 93-101; 1939, pages 137-50; 1940, pages 
221-42; and 1941, pages 531-51). 

In 1941, the report of the Committee surveys the legal basis and 
extent of the planned program for low-rent housing and slum clear- 
ance. The report also discusses the progress of the program to date, 
permanent financing, legislation, and litigation. In a separate section 
the report collects and reports on the legal and practical phases of the 
defense housing program. Legislation and all court decisions are 
analyzed with respect to the problems they have created or solved 
for cities. 

The Committee in 1941 also considered the problems which have 
arisen in connection with the equivalent elimination programs re- 
quired by the United States Housing Act and which are just getting 
under way in most cities. Dallas, Los Angeles, and Nashville are 
among those cities that have revised their ordinances in order to carry 
out the equivalent elimination program with a more workable legal 
machinery to support city administrative officers. The State of Cali- 
fornia adopted a comprehensive statute on this subject in 1941, which 
could well serve as a model for legislation in other states. Louisiana 
and Mississippi also have comprehensive statutes on this subject. The 
Committee was advised that the cities of Philadelphia, Rochester, and 
Memphis, among others, are now considering revision of their 
ordinances on substandard buildings. In this connection the Commit- 
tee has decided to revise the model ordinances set forth by the Na- 


tional Institute in Report No. 37 "Demolition, Vacation, or Repair 
of Substandard Buildings in Connection with Housing Programs" 
(June, 1938), and Report No. 39 "Demolition, Vacation, or Repair 
of Substandard Buildings in Connection with Housing Programs 
Summary of Latest Cases Model Ordinance Annotated" (August, 

Undoubtedly there will be a tremendous program to eliminate 
substandard buildings and to comply with equivalent elimination con- 
tracts immediately after the war, for the United States Housing 
Authority has suspended the requirement of equivalent elimination 
in some instances, and may have to do so in all instances because 
of the shortage of building materials and shortage of housing. In 1941 
the Committee also began the study of the possible drafting of a 
comprehensive model state law to carry out the post-war recom- 
mendations made by Guy Greer and Alvin Hansen in their pamphlet 
Urban Real Estate Development and Housing. 

In connection with defense housing problems, the Committee con- 
sidered in 1941 the question of automobile trailers as necessary housing 
for defense workers, and the Committee, in an advisory capacity, 
assisted in the preparation of Report No. 75 of the National Institute 
entitled, Automobile Trailer and Tourist Camps Legal and Admin- 
istrative Problems of Municipal Regulation with an Annotated Model 
Ordinance, and concurred in the ideas expressed in the model ordi- 
nance set forth in that report. 

The problem of priority ratings for defense housing projects did 
not raise many legal complications for the Committee until certain 
materials used in defense housing, such as plumbing supplies, began 
to appear on the critical list. Immediately there was presented to the 
Committee the question of suspension of local building, plumbing, 
and electrical codes in so far as they required materials which were 
unavailable or for which workable substitutes could be obtained. 
The Committee studied the legal problems involved in such 
suspension and concurred in the report of the Committee on National 
Defense of the National Institute to the effect that temporary 
suspension of such codes would be possible so long as proper safe- 
guards for the public safety, health, and general welfare were set up 
in the provisions for such suspension and the use of substitute 

The Committee continually receives requests for model building 
codes to meet almost every problem confronting cities of every size 
throughout the nation. It seems that the problems of adapting building 
codes for large cities to the needs of small cities and the technical 


legal requirements of publication in many jurisdictions prevent the 
drafting of a model building code that can cover all situations. 

The failure of the Federal Works Agency to comply with the pro- 
visions of local ordinances was another problem which came before 
the Committee a number of times in 1941. In Louisville, Kentucky, 
and Baltimore, Maryland, the situations created by such failure were 
particularly bad. FWA went ahead with plans which practically 
ruined zoning and planning development in certain sections of these 
cities. The Committee was forced to agree that, under the reported 
court decisions, FWA could not be controlled in this matter, but 
recommended that as a matter of policy and public welfare the posi- 
tion of FWA was unsupportable. That the Committee was right in 
its conclusion is shown by the action of Congress in amending the 
Lanham Act in January, 1942 (see Public No. 409, 77th Congress), 
so as to require that federal defense projects conform in location and 
design to local planning and tradition in so far as possible. This same 
amendment also helped the Committee with the problem of unequal 
and inequitable federal agreements in lieu of taxes on housing 
projects; every annual meeting of the National Institute seemed to 
consider this matter of variance in the amounts agreed upon in dif- 
ferent cities. 

National Public Housing Conference 

The year 1941 marked the tenth anniversary of the organization 
of the National Public Housing Conference, an event which was 
celebrated in January with a two-day conference in New York City. 
Nearly all the states were represented at this conference, which was 
devoted to a discussion of better homes for American workers. 

In all activities of the year, as in previous years, the Conference 
concentrated on promoting a wider understanding of the importance 
of a well-planned program of public housing to meet the needs of 
low-income families unable to pay commercial rents. 

As a means of arousing interest in local housing problems, a series 
of institutes was sponsored in the spring. These institutes were suc- 
cessfully conducted in Philadelphia, Providence, and Detroit. Com- 
petent analyses of local problems and their solutions were presented 
by university professors, labor leaders, construction and management 
officials, and housing leaders. A feature of the program at each of the 
institutes was a tour of housing projects in the area. To keep alive 
and active the interest evinced at these institutes, regional committees 
were organized in the Eastern, New England, and Central states dur- 
ing the summer months. Citizens of every walk of life indicated their 


concern over the housing needs of their communities by joining these 

The Conference has always taken the position that legislation af- 
fecting housing should be carefully analyzed for the benefit of mem- 
bers of the organization and that the advantages or defects of such 
legislation should be publicized. When H.R. 6128, more popularly 
known as the new Lanham Act, passed the House of Representatives 
late in 1941 the Conference immediately called attention to its dan- 
gerous features and made its opposition known to President Roose- 
velt, and to senators and representatives. It also called a meeting in 
New York City, to which national organizations were invited to send 
delegates. This meeting went on record as opposed to certain features 
of the bill and authorized Mrs. Mary K. Simkhovitch, the Conference 
president, to ask for a public hearing on the bill before the Senate 
acted on it. Such a hearing was subsequently held in Washington 
before a subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Education and 
Labor, and Mrs. Simkhovitch testified before it. 

During the year, the Conference continued the publication of its 
bulletin, Public Housing Progress. For financial and other reasons, the 
size of the bulletin was reduced and it was issued in mimeograph 
form during the latter half of the year, but it continued to carry the 
highlights of current housing news. The executive committee, in 
planning the 1942 program, has decided to enlarge the bulletin and 
to issue it quarterly, devoting particular attention in each number 
to a specific aspect of housing. The committee believes the Conference 
can in this way make a valuable contribution to current housing 

The 1942 program will emphasize the necessity of rallying imme- 
diate support for a sound public housing program for industrial war 
workers. A special pamphlet, published in 1942, presented the Con- 
ference recommendations for an adequate public housing program for 
industrial war workers. The recommendations were submitted 
originally to President Roosevelt in reply to a message from him to 
the eleventh annual meeting in Washington on February 6, 1942. 
A conference on this subject was called in New York City in March; 
it brought together a representative group from labor, civic, and social 
welfare organizations to consider the problem with leaders in the 
housing movement. 

Following this meeting, the NPHC executive committee went on 
record to ask the AF of L and the CIO to work out jointly a housing 
program for workers in war industries. In taking this action, the 
Conference pointed out that the success of the war effort demanded 


that sufficient safe and sanitary housing be provided for war industry 
workers. Representatives of the two groups of organized labor told 
the Conference that the request met with their approval. 

National Recreation Association 

During 1941 the National Recreation Association continued to 
maintain a lively interest in developments in the public housing field, 
particularly as they relate to the provision of recreation facilities and 
service. Many letters of inquiry were received by the Association 
from individuals and agencies seeking information with reference 
to recreation in housing projects. Many requests were received for 
copies of the publication entitled Play Space in New Neighborhoods 
which suggests standards for outdoor recreation areas and facilities 
for housing developments. Three special ways in which the Asso- 
ciation served the housing movement, however, will be mentioned 

As a part of the service rendered by its district field workers 
throughout the country the Association has extended advice and 
guidance to local recreation and housing authorities in many cities. 
Its workers, as a part of their regular field assignment, have arranged 
for consultation between local recreation and housing authorities for 
the purpose of considering problems in which both have a concern. 
A special effort has been made to secure consideration for the pro- 
vision of adequate indoor and outdoor recreation facilities where new 
housing projects were being contemplated. An effort has also been 
made to work out cooperative relationships in the furnishing of 
competent leadership for such facilities. Two or three specific in- 
stances illustrate the nature of the service rendered by the Association. 

In Syracuse, New York, the local housing authority called upon 
the Association to make a study of the social and recreational needs 
of a specific neighborhood in which a housing development was being 
carried out. One of the major questions related to the adequacy of 
the recreation building proposed for the project and also of the space 
allotted for outdoor recreation. Following a study, recommendations 
were submitted by a member of the Association's field staff In Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, an analysis of the provision for outdoor recreation areas 
and for indoor recreation facilities for four local housing projects was 
made by a field worker in consultation with the local housing author- 
ity and the City Public Recreation Department. Consultation with 
the local housing authority and with white and colored leaders in 
Quincy, Illinois, with reference to the provision of recreation facilities 
in a local housing project for colored people was typical of service 


rendered in several cities by the director of the Association's Bureau 
of Colored Work. 

In New York City, where tentative plans for a large recreation 
building in connection with a housing project had been criticized by 
neighborhood agencies, the Association was called on for suggestions 
with reference to the building plan. In consultation with a member 
of the local housing authority staff and the project architect a number 
of changes were worked out which resulted in a highly satisfactory 

The Association provided throughout the year a number of op- 
portunities for a consideration by both professional and lay leaders 
of recreation problems as they relate to housing developments. At the 
National Research Congress a special section meeting was devoted to 
this subject and was participated in by professional workers in the 
housing and recreation field as well as by lay persons interested in 
housing problems. At each of the nine district conferences of public 
recreation executives sponsored by the Association in 1941 and held 
in cities throughout the United States, the program included a con- 
sideration of specific problems facing local housing and recreation 
administrators. At these small group conferences methods best suited 
to insure adequate provision for both indoor and outdoor recreation 
space in new housing projects were discussed. In several instances a 
representative of the United States Housing Authority was present 
to indicate the types of problems on which cooperation between local 
recreation and housing authorities was desirable and in turn to answer 
specific questions raised by local recreation executives. 

Periodically throughout the year, as heretofore, a representative of 
the Association has consulted with representatives of USHA concern- 
ing specific problems that have been brought to the Association's 
attention through its field staff. Such conferences have afforded a 
means for joint consideration of methods whereby more adequate 
provision of indoor and outdoor recreation space could be assured in 
housing projects and whereby the service rendered by such facilities 
could be most effective. Early in 1942 considerable time was given, 
on request, to a representative of the Public Buildings Administration 
to assist in working out a plan for acceptable standards for recreation 
areas and facilities for defense housing projects being constructed by 
that agency. 

National Women's Trade Union League of America 

The National Women's Trade Union League has placed on its 
legislative program for 1942 a provision in support of housing legisla- 


tion with emphasis on adequate defense housing. A statement was 
recently sent to Congressman Tolan expressing the concern of the 
League about the lack of decent housing facilities for defense 

The Twentieth Century Fund, Housing Committee 

Late in 1939 the Trustees of The Twentieth Century Fund author- 
ized a research project in housing. At that time, special emphasis was 
placed on the possibilities of increased activity in housing as a means 
of reducing unemployment. 

In accordance with their usual practice, the Trustees of the Fund 
appointed a committee of distinguished citizens representing various 
points of view and experience in housing to supervise the survey. The 
chairman of the Committee is Dr. Henry E. Hoagland, ,Prof essor of 
Business Finance, Ohio State University, and formerly member of the 
Federal Home Loan Bank Board. Miles L. Colean resigned his posi- 
tion as Assistant Administrator of the Federal Housing Administra- 
tion early in 1940 to become research director of the survey. As in all 
Fund surveys, the function of the reasearch staff is to find the facts, 
organize them, and present them to the Committee. On the basis 
of the factual data, the Committee makes recommendations for 

Soon after the research staff was assembled and began its work, 
the country faced a defense crisis. Both the Housing Committee and 
the Fund Trustees saw the need for a brief emergency survey of the 
role of housing in the armament program. Accordingly, the research 
staff temporarily turned aside from the more long-range study and 
devoted itself during the summer and early fall of 1940 to an intensive 
analysis of the housing needs created by the defense program. The 
nature of the problem was analyzed; possible methods of dealing 
with it were discussed; and definite recommendations were made by 
the Housing Committee. 

The findings were published in November, 1940, under the title 
Housing for Defense. This survey reviewed the experience of the last 
war in the light of defense needs, showing how the lack of housing 
hampered the production of essential war materials in 1917-18 and 
pointing out the lessons to be learned from the results of unsound, 
delayed, or inadequate housing policies. The housing needs that com- 
munities have to face when they undergo sudden and large expan- 
sion of industrial activity were set forth in detail. On the basis of the 
research findings the Committee offered a program for action in deal- 
ing with the defense housing problem as it appeared at that time. 


After the publication of this emergency survey, the research staff 
resumed work on the main project. It became necessary, however, to 
reexamine the original objectives in the light of the vastly increased 
industrial activity resulting from the rearmament program and later, 
the war effort. For the duration of the war, unemployment is obviously 
becoming less and less of a problem. 

Housing, taken as a means for increasing employment [writes the Di- 
rector of Research], for at least the near future, no longer has significance. 
The need for housing, however, is not diminished, but is rather increased; 
and the difficulties of providing housing have also increased. Afterwards 
the problem may be one of maintaining the housing industry in another 
period of readjustment, and perhaps of using it as a stabilizing force during 
that period. The emphasis of the study, then, would seem to be shifted 
from an expansion of employment to an improvement of efficiency and 
economy both in the construction and use of housing. . . . The study be- 
comes, if anything, more directly concerned with the housing problem in 
itself than formerly. 

In terms of content, it is planned that the survey be as comprehen- 
sive as possible without digressing into related fields such as land 
economics and urban planning. The material which is being collected 
and analyzed falls into two parts: 

1. The Production of Housing. In this section, housing will be 
looked upon as a commodity. The nature of the housing industry 
will be analyzed and fluctuations in building activity described. The 
relationships between the various factors and groups entering into 
the production processes will be discussed, and trends and changing 
patterns of production examined. 

2. The Marketing of Houses. Here will be found a description of 
the nature and mechanism of the housing market. Problems of finance 
and taxation will be scrutinized. The impact of law and governmental 
policy will be indicated. 

The publication of the findings of the housing survey and recom- 
mendations is scheduled for late 1942. 

United States Savings and Loan League, Committee on Housing 

The United States Savings and Loan League, the national business 
organization of savings, building and loan associations, has been 
serving the business since its incorporation in 1892. Inasmuch as its 
membership represents more than 80 per cent of the savings and loan 
assets of this country, it is the voice of the thrift and home-financing 

The League's Committee on Housing, headed by Fred T. Greene 
(President of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Indianapolis), is com- 


posed of forty outstanding leaders of the industry from all parts of the 
nation. During 1941, this Committee engaged in numerous studies 
and discussions of all phases of housing. Its recommendations formed 
the basis of the League's policies in connection with housing legisla- 
tion and planning, and also in connection with policy recommenda- 
tions to the 3,600 member institutions on these matters. 

The following is the portion of a resolution adopted by the League, 
assembled in its forty-ninth annual convention, at Coral Gables, 
Miami, Florida, in December, 1941, which deals specifically with 

The United States Savings and Loan League recommends: 

1. That the Home Owners' Loan Corporation should be promptly liqui- 
dated by the sale or transfer of its assets to savings and loan associations 
and other local financial institutions, all of which are willing to finish the 
job begun by the Corporation. The Home Owners' Loan Corporation has 
approximately $2,000,000,000 of mortgage loans outstanding, which, if sold, 
would reduce by this amount the liability of the United States Treasury. 
This step would not only reduce the obligation of the Government, but 
would substantially reduce government personnel and expenses. 

2. That the Federal Housing Administration should stop placing a gov- 
ernment guarantee behind mortgages on existing properties, for continuing 
which there is no justification as adequate mortgage money is now avail- 
able, and which program is, nevertheless, being promoted vigorously by 
the Federal Housing Administration today. The tapering off and eventual 
stoppage of the insurance of loans for new home building, except under 
Title I and Title VI of the National Housing Act, should be affected. The 
insurance premiums charged on insured mortgage loans should be sufficient 
to cover all expenses and an equivalent amount for reserves for losses, which 
procedure is consistent with sound insurance practice. 

Scrutiny of the cost of the Federal Housing Administration to the Ameri- 
can taxpayer during the first five years of its operation shows that the in- 
surance has been a cost to the Government of $58,000,000. In addition, 
Congress has appropriated $10,000,000 for Tide II Mutual Mortgage Insur- 
ance Fund and during last March appropriated another $10,000,000 for 
Title VI Defense Housing Insurance Fund. 

The Federal Housing Administration has already created a contingent 
liability of over $3,000,000,000 to the Government, in that it has contracted 
to take over all foreclosed real estate on which it has an insured mortgage 
and to reimburse the lender with government-guaranteed debentures. 
According to the report of the Federal Housing Administration up to June 
30, 1941, there have been issued or contracted to be issued by the Admin- 
istration approximately $20,000,000 of government-guaranteed debentures 
as of June 30, 1941 (Insured Mortgage Portfolio, Third Quarter, 1941, 
page 33). The experience of the Federal Housing Administration indicates 
that there will be very considerable loss to the Government in connection 
with this operation. There has been a rising real estate market since the crea- 
tion of the FHA in 1934. Notwithstanding this increase in the value of the 
real estate upon which FHA issued insured mortgages, the Administration 


records show an average loss of $620 per property foreclosed and resold by 
the Administration (Insured Mortgage Portfolio, Third Quarter, 1941, 
page 33). The average loan of FHA as of June 30, 1941, equaled $4,280. 
The 2,283 properties foreclosed and sold were sold on long terms at an 
approximate average of $3,660, or a loss of $620 per property, or 14.5% 
of the amount of the loan per property in an increasing real estate market 
(Insured Mortgage Portfolio, Third Quarter, 1941, page 29). Assuming 
that each of the loans foreclosed upon was made upon the basis of 90% 
of loan to appraised value (which assumption for the purposes of this state- 
ment is the most favorable to the FHA), then in the re-sale of the prop- 
erties acquired by foreclosure there has been a shrinkage in the re-sale value 
under the appraised value in a rising real estate market of 23%. 

It is true that the number of foreclosures in this operation has been very 
few but there has been no occasion for foreclosures on good, sound mort- 
gages during the period in which this agency has been operating. That 
foreclosures will increase very materially is indicated by changing eco- 
nomic conditions and by the report of FHA, which shows, as of June 30, 
1941, that it had an additional 1,979 insured mortgages reported as "seri- 
ously delinquent" (Insured Mortgage Portfolio, Third Quarter, 1941, page 
34). It is, therefore, impossible to estimate the actual losses which may be 
sustained by the Government through this increasing contingent liability 
in a period of real estate inflation when FHA will really be called upon to 
do its major job of taking over and disposing of foreclosed real estate. 

3. That federal subsidies for farm credit should be abolished which 
President Roosevelt has characterized in two veto messages as "a gift to 
individual borrowers from the Federal Treasury." The present 3%% sub- 
sidy interest rate to federal farm borrowers is costing the Government over 
$50,000,000 annually. 

4. That the Government should cease subsidizing the building and oper- 
ation of new housing projects to rent to American families. The past six 
years have seen the building of more than $1,000,000,000 worth of expen- 
sive housing units to be rented at subsidized rates. The solution of the 
housing problem of the low-income family does not lie in providing new 
housing. America cannot afford any more of it. The economy of discon- 
tinuing public housing subsidies is further justified by the fact that the 
program to date has not taken care of any of the people of lowest income 
who need public charity and for whom there might be some justice in 
providing public financial assistance. 

5. That the Federal Government cease the building of permanent, ex- 
pensive housing units for defense workers and their families. The construc- 
tion of public defense housing should be limited strictly to minimum cost, 
rapidly built, demountable units, providing only the necessities of com- 
fortable and livable shelter. There is no justificaton for the Government's 
building and paying for semi-luxurious housing units for civilians in a 
period when the country's armed forces are receiving $21 a month, and in 
many cases sleeping in tents. Therefore, the United States Savings and Loan 
League asks the Joint Committee on Non-Defense Expenditures to recom- 
mend an end to the appropriations for costly permanent housing for civil- 
ians in defense areas, which are only incidentally connected with die defense 
program, and to recommend that all public fluids used to prevent housing 


shortages among defense workers be limited to the production of temporary 

6. That the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks should pay an economic 
return on their capital stock, $124,700,000 of which is held by the Recon- 
struction Finance Corporation. The Corporation is entitled to receive a 
return on this investment commensurate with its other investments. 
Dividends can be paid on this stock at a higher rate than is prevalent 
today by: 

(a) Ceasing to make high and unnecessary allocations to the reserves of 
the regional banks beyond the already excessive statutory minimum. 

(b) Practicing rigid economy in the expenditures of the Federal Home 
Loan Bank Board which are assessed to the regional banks. 

(c) Requiring the non-banking activities of the Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board, and of the regional banks, such as supervision, promotion of 
federal charters and promotion of insurance of accounts, to be placed on a 
self-sustaining basis. Greater income to the Reconstruction Finance Corpo- 
ration on its Federal Home Loan Bank Stock will assist it in the financing 
of defense activities and needs. 

(d) Abolishing the Federal Home Building Service Plan, operated by 
the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. The program is impractical, has been 
used by only a handful of mortgage lending institutions, and has no place 
in the Federal Government's program for broad home ownership objectives. 
The Federal Home Building Service Plan had cost up until June 30, 1941, 

7. That the Government and its agencies should stop buying mortgages, 
except those resulting from new defense housing in defense areas. 

The Committee found that during 1941 new home construction 
loans aggregating $437,000,000 were made by member institutions. 
Representing about 70 per cent of appraised values, these loans made 
possible the acquisition of modern, new homes by 137,000 families 
with very moderate incomes, who may expect to own them free of 
debt by making monthly payments averaging $24.52 over periods 
averaging 15 years. These homes had a total value of $624,300,000, 
or an average value of $4,557. Loans averaged $3,100. 

The Committee also learned that members made loans aggregating 
$580,503,000 to finance the purchase of existing homes valued at $829,- 
290,000 by 207,332 families of moderate income at an average cost 
of $4,000. The loans made in these transactions averaged $2,800 and 
may be extinguished in 15 years on an average by the payment of 
$22.12 a month. In all, the activities of members brought home owner- 
ship to 344,332 American families, mostly in the $1,000 $1,800 annual 
income group. 

Loans for remodeling and reconditioning existing houses aggregated 
$61,328,000, and it may be conservatively estimated that this activity 
resulted in better living conditions for approximately 125,000 addi- 
tional families with modest incomes. 


The Committee recommended that member associations take all 
steps necessary to provide necessary housing for workers in war in- 
dustries, and in many communities savings and loan executives gave 
much time and effort to the problem. On the whole, the homes 
financed through savings and loan associations fell well below the 
$6,000 cost limitation set for defense housing by the Office of Produc- 
tion Management, then charged with responsibility for issuing defense 
housing priorities. 

The Committee recommended amendments to local building codes 
to conserve critical materials and lower building costs during the 
emergency. The Committee further recommended that savings and 
loan associations assume an active part in the post-war housing pro- 
gram, specifically favoring: 

1. Constructive modernization and active enforcement of housing 
codes and demolition ordinances. 

2. Broad city planning and zoning. 

3. Lowering the cost of residential construction. 

4. Rehabilitation of blighted urban areas along sound economic 

5. Thorough study of ways and means of providing safe, decent, 
and sanitary housing for families in the lowest income group. 

Young Men's Christian Associations, National Council 

Since 1887 Young Men's Christian Associations have maintained 
club residences for young men, and long before that time interested 
themselves in helping to secure wholesome residence facilities for 
young men swarming into the American city. In 1940, 642 local 
YMCA's provided such facilities, including 62,964 beds. It had for 
that year 85 per cent occupancy. 

Bed-night occupancy for the year totaled 19,480,000. Of this oc- 
cupancy, 80 per cent was on the basis of a minimum of two weeks 
residence, and much of it on a more or less permanent basis; 20 per 
cent was considered transient, that is, for less than a fortnight. Of 
the latter, 390 Associations reported 118,800 "free" lodgings or 3.7 per 
cent. These facilities were made available to young men in need, 
recalling much more extensive use of such facilities for this purpose 
during earlier depression years. 

Many of these buildings serve specialized constituencies, such as 
those for railroad men in 118 division points, terminals, etc., where 
1,850,000 lodgings were provided in 1940; others were in or near Army 
and Navy centers where 909,000 lodgings were provided in the same 
year; 57 served Negro constituencies where 688,000 lodgings were 


provided; and still others, like the William Sloane House, New York 
City, the YMCA Hotel, Chicago, and Seamen's House, New York 
City, were for merchant seamen, men in military service, or for gen- 
eral transition service to young men. 

Hundreds of YMCA's have undertaken special programs of citizen- 
ship and public affairs education, including community problems and 
housing improvement among other subjects. This specialized project 
in educating for civic responsibility has brought forth a special manual 
including a chapter on "Guiding Participation in Community Affairs" 
for the use of local YMCA groups. In one community, a co-Y-ed 
forum, including 30 young people, asked a member of a city council 
to discuss local housing problems, following which additional in- 
vestigations, presentations, and local organization resulted in increased 
vigilance of the board of health in enforcing housing ordinances, 
cooperation between colored and white representatives in determining 
what is needed, and aroused community concern which reached city 
officials and a probable public opinion leading to local campaign 
issues and decisions. 

In new industrial "impact" communities rising from the war emer- 
gency, the YMCA, on its own behalf as well as in cooperation with 
United Service Organizations, has been deeply concerned with housing 
problems among other factors influencing environment and character 
education of young people. 

Young Women's Christian Associations, National Board 

The Young Women's Christian Association has never considered 
family housing as a part of its task. The housing of women and girls 
away from home has, however, been one of its active concerns from 
the earliest years of its history. Many local YWCA's have expressed 
this concern by maintaining their own residences or by furnishing a 
rooms registry service. In 1940, nearly 300,000 women and girls were 
housed by YWCA's, an increase of 21.5 per cent over the previous 
year. Figures for 1941 are not yet available. In addition, local YWCA's 
handled more than 60,000 rooms registry applicants. 

For many years the YWCA has been interested in the government's 
program of low-cost housing and slum clearance, and in the main- 
taining of proper housing standards. As the defense program de- 
veloped in 1940 and 1941, the YWCA became concerned that, because 
of the necessary speed with which new housing projects must be 
developed, the standards worked out by the United States Housing 
Authority might be set aside. This concern was expressed in letters 
to both the President of the United States and to the Administrator 


of USHA. To the Office of Emergency Management was expressed 
also its concern over the lack of proper housing facilities for single 
women engaged in war production industries. 

As the year 1941 progressed and the housing shortage in defense 
communities became more acute, the Association in those com- 
munities found their resources taxed to the utmost. One city Associa- 
tion reported 98.4 per cent occupancy for the year. Another turned 
away one hundred applicants a week. With its years of experience 
in housing women and girls it was only natural that requests for 
help in providing housing facilities should be made to the YWCA., 
In most cases Associations have attempted to meet this problem 
through their rooms registry service or through homes registration 
bureaus rather than by increasing their own rooming facilities. In 
some cases there has been a shift between the proportion of transient 
and permanent rooms. A more common method of meeting the prob- 
lem has been to set an age and wage limit in their own residences 
so that more of the new, younger girls coming to the community 
might be accommodated. In some places Associations are considering 
the feasibility of cooperatively directed services in housing and feeding, 
but to date only one has reported the actual adoption of such plans. 

In the USO-YWCA centers there is provision for a small amount 
of emergency housing of women and girls but no large scale projects 
of this kind are provided. 

Directory of Housing Agencies 

THE DIRECTORY shows a small decrease in the number of housing 
agencies in the United States the total number listed falling from 
623 in 1941 to 560 in 1942. Probably this decrease is due largely to the 
failure of inactive agencies to return reports this year. Comparisons of 
all groups listed in the 1941 and 1942 Yearbooks are as follows: 

-1941-* r-1942-^ 
Official Administrative : 

National 5 5 

State and regional 23 52 

Municipal and metropolitan 521 444 

549 ' 501 
Unofficial : 

National 9 9 

State and regional 23 16 

Municipal and metropolitan 42 34 

_74 J9 

GRAND TOTAL 623 560 

Again it has been the policy of the editors to omit from the list 
agencies that have been officially dissolved, those that have advised the 
Association that local activity has been abandoned and that there is 
no prospect for any activity in the future, and those that failed to reply 
to the Association's request for information and about whom NAHO 
has insufficient accurate information to constitute a useful listing. Be- 
cause of this omission of the inactive and non-replying agencies, the 
total count of agencies included in the directory may be somewhat 
less than other published figures especially those for local official 

During 1941 New Hampshire enacted legislation permitting the 
establishment of local public housing agencies commonly known as 
housing authorities. There still remain nine states (Iowa, Kansas, 
Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah, and 
Wyoming) in which housing authorities are not authorized. 

The person designated as correspondent by each housing agency is 
marked with an asterisk (*). The address given is the address of this 
person. It will be noted that the housing agencies have observed no 
uniform practice in designating their correspondents. In some cases 
the correspondent is a member of the governing board of the agency 
and in others an employee. It will be noted also that there is no uni- 
formity in titles of the principal employees whose names are listed. 
In a few cases, especially in local unofficial agencies, the principal staff 



member or employee is also a member of the governing board o the 
agency. In Kentucky the mayor is an ex-officio member of each local 


The Association continues to define an official administrative hous- 
ing agency as one created under specific provisions of law, whose 
purpose is to regulate and/or finance, construct, and manage housing. 
Although under this definition there may be some difficulty in classify- 
ing federal agencies, it has proved to be quite workable in its applica- 
tion to state and local organizations. The name "housing authority" 
is customarily applied to the local agencies in the official group even 
though, by terms of the enabling legislation in Michigan and Ken- 
tucky, they are officially designated as "housing commissions." 

During 1941 the trend toward the combining of local agencies into 
one organization or centralized administrative action by separate local 
housing authorities continued. In the rural field there was greater use 
of a regional administrative agency by a number of county housing 
authorities and also greater use of regional or state authorities to 
administer a housing program in areas having no county housing 

Housing authorities in small municipalities, as in Arizona, pooled 
their resources and utilized the administrative staff of an established 
active housing authority in a larger city (Phoenix). 

For those local authorities that belong to a group for administrative 
purposes, only the name of the local authority is listed and a reference 
is given to the central agency to which they belong. 

In the state classification of official agencies, the organizations 
labeled "state boards" in Arkansas, California, Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, New Mexico, North Caro- 
lina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Virginia are regulatory 
or research bodies only. They do not have the power to finance, 
construct, or manage housing. Most of these agencies were established 
between six and eight years ago when it appeared that there would 
be need for state organizations to supervise limited dividend housing 
developments. Those of the group that survived in more than name 
have carried on such activities as research, surveys, education, and in 
some cases they exercise supervision of the activities of local housing 
authorities within the state. 

Only in New York does the official state administrative agency 
engage in finance of housing. 



Farm Security Administration 
*C. B. Baldwin, Administrator 
ADDRESS: Farm Security Administration, Washington, D. C. 

Federal Home Loan Bank Administration 
*John H. Fahey, Commissioner 
ADDRESS: Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, Washington, D. C. 

Federal Housing Administration 

*Abner Ferguson, Commissioner 

ADDRESS: Federal Housing Administration, Washington, D. C. 

Federal Public Housing Authority 

*Herbert Emmerich, Commissioner 

ADDRESS: Federal Public Housing Authority, Washington, D. C. 

National Housing Agency 
*John Blandford, Administrator 
ADDRESS: National Housing Agency, Washington, D. C. 


Alabama Associated Housing Authorities, Central 

MEMBERS: Executive Committee comprises Chairmen of the Authorities 
for the counties of: Autauga, Chilton, Dallas, Elmore, Hale, Lowndes, 
Marengo, Perry, and Wilcox. 


ADDRESS: Selma, Alabama 

Alabama Associated Housing Authorities, Southeastern 

MEMBERS: G. C. Thompson, Chairman; Executive Committee compris- 
ing Chairmen of the Authorities for the counties of: Barbour, Bullock, 
Chambers, Coffee, Dale, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lee, Macon, Mont- 
gomery, Pike, Russell, and Tallapoosa. 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 38, Tuskegee, Alabama 

Alabama Associated Housing Authorities, Western 

MEMBERS: Executive Committee comprises Chairmen of the Authorities 

for the counties of: Choctaw, Fayette, Lamar, Marion, Pickins, Sumter, 

Tuscaloosa, and Winston. 
ADDRESS: Carrollton, Alabama 

Arkansas Regional Housing Authority, East Central 

MEMBERS: J. J. Screeton, Chairman; Joe P. Melton, Vice-Chairman; R. L. 
Brooks, John F. Cole, Davis Fitzhugh, Joe S. Hall, C. A. Hughes, 
Moody M. Irvin, Bryan Lancaster, G. W. Merrifield, James H. Moore, 
Robert Stallings, H. H. Wilson, Harry Wood. (The Authority has 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


jurisdiction over the following counties: Cleburne, Con way, Faulkner, 
Lee, Lonoke, Monroe, Perry, Phillips, Pope, Prairie, Stone, Van Buren, 
White, and Woodruff.) 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Sanford Wilbourn 

ADDRESS: Lonoke, Arkansas 

Arkansas Regional Housing Authority, Northeast 

MEMBERS: J. P. Morrow, Chairman; Joe Clay Young, Vice-Chairman; 
Kelley Bradham, G. T. Cunningham, M. C. Curlee, Shelby Ferguson, 
Charles W. Light, J. P. Morrow, R. M. Perryman, R. S. Rainwater, 
R. E. Sallee, H. D. Severs, Eugene Shaneyfelt, Lynn Sharp, C. T. 
Stuart, J. F. Wheeler, Joe Clay Young. (The Authority has jurisdic- 
tion over the following counties: Baxter, Clay, Craighead, Crittenden, 
Cross, Fulton, Greene, Independence, Izard, Jackson, Lawrence, Mis- 
sissippi, Poinsett, Randolph, and Sharp.) 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Chester F. Williams 

ADDRESS: Batesville, Arkansas 

Arkansas Regional Housing Authority, Northwest 

MEMBERS: Dr. Wiley Lin Hurie, Chairman; Ernest Bunch, Vice-Chair- 
man; Lon W. Berry, John Ed. Chambers, L. E. Chiles, Eb Fergus, 
W. L. Fulmer, J. E. Gregson, B. W. Johnson, A. J. Keeling, Eugene 
Moore, H. O. Patton, H. L. Scott, N. K. Williams, Jr., Ross W, Willis. 
(The Authority has jurisdiction over the following counties: Benton, 
Boone, Carroll, Crawford, Franklin, Johnson, Logan, Madison, Marion, 
Newton, Scott, Searcy, Sebastian, Washington, and Yell.) 


ADDRESS: Ozark, Arkansas 

Arkansas Regional Housing Authority, Southeast 

MEMBERS: C. W. Daniel, Chairman; R. H. Peace, Vice-Chairman; H. C. 
Adams, E. T. Attwood, J. P. Bachelor, Claude B. Crumpler, W. O. 
Hazelbaker, F. M. Holt, A. R. Merritt, Ike Murray, Fay Nolley, Sam 
Steel, L. B. White, J. T. Wimberly, D. A. Youree. (The Authority 
has jurisdiction over the following counties: Arkansas, Ashley, Brad- 
ley, Calhoun, Chicot, Cleveland, Dallas, Desha, Drew, Grant, Jefferson, 
Lincoln, Ouachita, Saline, and Union.) 


ADDRESS: Monticello, Arkansas 

Arkansas Regional Housing Authority, Southwest 

MEMBERS: H. A. Daugherty, Chairman; R. L. Fish, Vice-Chairman; 
M. C. Barton, John Beavers, C. L. Briant, Jr., Tull Carroll, J. P. 
Duffie, Paul N. Eddleman, C. C. Harvey, Henderson Jackson, H. W. 
McMillan, M. E. Melton, C. L. Rodgers, C. F. Walters. (The Author- 
ity has jurisdiction over the following counties: Clark, Garland, 
Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Lafayette, Little River, Miller, Mont- 
gomery, Nevada, Pike, Polk, and Sevier.) 


ADDRESS: Arkadelphia, Arkansas 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


(California) Division of Immigration and Housing 
MEMBERS: J. Earl Cook, Dr. Omer Mills, Dr. Hubert Phillips, Leon H. 

Washington, Jr., The Reverend Edgar E. Wilson 
CHIEF: *Carey Me Williams 
ADDRESS: 505 State Building, Los Angeles, California 

Delaware State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: Samuel M. Dillon, President; Joseph S. Hamilton, Frederic 

W. Kurtz, William Smith, Roscoe Cook Tindall 
SECRETARY: *Lawrence V. Smith 
ADDRESS: 1309 Woodlawn Avenue, Wilmington, Delaware 

Florida Regional Housing Authority, Central 

MEMBERS: E. L. Brewton, Chairman; Lewis Ambler, Harrison E. Bar- 
ringer, H. D. Bassett, Mrs. M. R. Bovis, G. D. Bridges, Sr., Walter 
Buckingham, L. E. Futch, Walter S. Hardin, Leslie Hord, H. F. 
Isted, Paul L. Osteen, Charles L. Raulerson, J. E. Sims, Ernest C. 
Smith, John E. Taylor, Arthur Wells. (The Authority has jurisdiction 
over the following counties: Citrus, De Soto, Hardee, Highlands, 
Indian River, Lake, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Okeechobee, Orange, 
Osceola, Palm Beach, Polk, St. Lucie, Sarasota, and Sumter.) 


ADDRESS: Coker Building, Winter Haven, Florida 

Florida Regional Housing Authority, Northwest 

MEMBERS: H. B. Douglas, Chairman; Charles O. ReifT, Vice-Chairman; 
O. M. Anderson, W. B. Bishop, R. F. Butler, L. B. Clark, W. Turner 
Davis, J. M. Deas, H. B. Douglas, J. C. Gainer, O. S. Gatlin, F. L. 
Herrin, L. H. Hughes, Mrs. Basil E. Kenney, Roscoe Luke, M. A. 
Touart, Jr., W. H. Walker, W. H. Wilson, and O. A. Winburn. (The 
Authority has jurisdiction over the following counties: Bay, Calhoun, 
Dixie, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf, Hamilton, Holmes, Jackson, 
Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Liberty, Madison, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, 
Taylor, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington.) 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 391, Marianna, Florida 

(Georgia) State Housing Authority Board 
MEMBERS: Sandy Beaver, M. D. Collins, Henry T. Mclntosh, Eugene 

Talmadge, John B. Wilson 
EXECUTIVE OFFICER: *Basil Stockbridge 
ADDRESS: 407 State Highway Building, Adanta, Georgia 

Georgia Rural Housing Authorities, Central 

MEMBERS: J. T. Hollis, Chairman; O. H. Banks, Vice-Chairman; J. H. 
Anderson, L. C. Cunnard, J. C. Fallin, N. L. Gallaway, C. G. Hardi- 
gree, H. C. Hewell, C. O. Maddox, J. L. Rossee, J. H. Sibley, H. R. 
Slaton, A. G. Swint, T. H. Taylor, C. W. Walker, Hugh S. Worssam. 
(The Authority has jurisdiction over the following counties: Barrow, 
Butts, Clayton, Fayette, Greene, Henry, Jasper, Jones, Monroe, Morgan, 
Newton, Oconee, Putnam, Rockdale, Spalding, Upson, and Walton.) 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 309, Monticello, Georgia 

Georgia Rural Housing Authorities, Southeastern 

MEMBERS: Walter Harrison, Chairman; Executive Committee compris- 
ing Chairmen of the Authorities for the counties of: Appling, Ben Hill, 
Dodge, Jefferson, Jenkins, Johnson, Laurens, Montgomery, Tattnall, 
Toombs, Treutlen, and Wheeler. 


ADDRESS: Soperton, Georgia 

Georgia Rural Housing Authorities, Southwest 

MEMBERS: Executive Committee comprises Chairmen of the Authorities 
for the counties of: Baker, Brooks, Calhoun, Colquitt, Crisp, Decatur, 
Grady, Lowndes, Mitchell, Thomas, and Worth. 


ADDRESS: Thomas ville, Georgia 

Hawaii Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: James Gibb, Chairman;, Charles S. Crane, Secretary; Charles 

J. Pietsch (2 vacancies) 
ADDRESS: 239 Merchant Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 

Illinois State Housing Board 

MEMBERS: Oscar W. Rosenthal, Chairman; C. L. Rice, Vice-Chairman; 
John E. Egan, Albert J. Horan, Rupert L. Mills, Mrs. Guy A. Tawney 
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: * William E. Johnson 
ADDRESS: 228 North LaSalle Street, Chicago Illinois 

Kansas State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: Board established by state law, but since it is inoperative the 
personnel is not given. The Board does not wish to receive communi- 

Louisiana Department of Public Works, Housing Section 
CHIEF: *Caye A. Nelson 
ADDRESS: Department of Public Works, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Louisiana Regional Housing Authority No. I 

MEMBERS: W. Prescott Foster, Chairman; Leo J. Bulliard, P. A. Juneau, 
William Lourd, Fred T. Schlessinger. (The Authority has jurisdiction 
over the following parishes: Iberia, Lafayette, St. Martin, St. Mary, 
and Vermilion.) 


ADDRESS: Lafayette, Louisiana 

Louisiana Regional Housing Authority No. II 

MEMBERS: Warren H. Smith, Chairman; Roland L. Riviere, M. G. Thig- 

pen. (The Authority has jurisdiction over the following parishes: St. 

Tammany, Tangipahoa, and Washington.) 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * August W. Planche, Jr. 
ADDRESS: Covington, Louisiana 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Louisiana Regional Housing Authority No. Ill 

MEMBERS: Francis J. Whitehead, Chairman; C. H. Bergeron, Ovide B. 
Lacour, Frank Noel, Sprague Pugh, Michel Schexnayder. (The Au- 
thority has jurisdiction over the following parishes: Ascension, As- 
sumption, Iberville, Pointe Coupee, St. James, and West Baton Rouge.) 


ADDRESS: Plaquemine, Louisiana 

Louisiana Regional Housing Authorities (Inactive) 

The following Louisiana Regional Housing Authorities embracing 
the following parishes are inactive: 

Region IV Concordia, East Carroll, Franklin, Madison, Richland, 
Tensas, West Carroll 

Region V Avoyelles, Rapides, Vernon 

Region VI Bienville, Bossier, Claiborne, Webster 

Region VII De Soto, Natchitoches, Red River, Sabine 

Region VIII Jackson, Lincoln, Morehouse, Union 

Region IX Caldwell, Ouachita 

Region X Catahoula, Grant, La Salle, Winn 

Region XI East Feliciana, Livingston, St. Helena, West Feliciana 

Region XII Lafourche, Terrebonne 

Region XIII Beauregard, Calcasieu, Cameron, Jefferson Davis 

Region XIV Acadia, Evangeline, St. Landry 

Region XV Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. John 

the Baptist 

ADDRESS: Department of Public Works, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Massachusetts State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: Sidney T. Strickland, Chairman; Philip Nichols, Vice-Chair- 
man; Joseph F. Higgins, Edward G. Lennon, John I. Robinson 
DIRECTOR: *John B. Foley 
ADDRESS: 20 Somerset Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities, East Central 

MEMBERS: L. O. Todd, Chairman; D. W. Carr, R. M. Christian, S. C. 
Ellis, C. C. Knight, Hugh S. Mason, T. A. Stennis, W. E. Walter. Ex- 
ecutive Committee comprises Chairmen of the Authorities for the 
counties of: Clarke, Kemper, Lauderdale, Leake, Neshoba, Newton, 
Scott, and Smith. 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 260, Newton, Mississippi 

Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities, Northeast 

MEMBERS: A. L. Rogers, Chairman;, Seth Pounds, Vice-Chairman; M. L. 
Branch, Jack Dale, C. P. Fortner, Harris Gholson, Clarence Gray, 
G. F. Hill, R. W. Reed, W. P. Sudduth, J. A. Thornton, D. M. 
Turner, V. E. Ware, R. P. White. Executive Committee comprises 
Chairmen of the Authorities for the counties of: Alcorn, Calhoun, 
Lafayette, Lee, Marshall, Montgomery, Oktibbeha, Panola, Pontotoc, 
Prentiss, Tate, Tishomingo, Union, Webster, and Yalobusha. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 97, Tupelo, Mississippi 

Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities, Southeast 

MEMBERS: Thomas R. Ramsay, Chairman; J. W. Backstrom, Jr., Mrs. 
Ruby M. Black, J. E. Campbell, T. V. Flynt, Hugh P. Garraway, 
T. C. Hobby. Executive Committee comprises Chairmen of the Au- 
thorities for the counties of: Covington, Forrest, George, Greene, 
Jones, Lamar, and Perry. 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 28, Laurel, Mississippi 

Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities, Southwest 

MEMBERS: F. A. Anderson, W. E. Bradford, George M. Decell, Jr., J. F. 
Hollinger, Jr., R. L. Nolan, W. T. Reese, C. E. Westerfield, H. J. 
Wilson, F. S. Wolcott. Executive Committee comprises Chairmen of 
the Authorities for the counties of: Amite, Claibourne, Copiah, Frank- 
lin, Hinds, Jefferson, Lincoln, Madison, and Simpson. 
SECRETARY: *Miss Catherine Bass 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 191, Hazelhurst, Mississippi 

New Jersey State Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Christian H. Ziegler, Chairman; Arthur A. Quinn, Vice- 

Chairman; Dr. Eugene E. Agger, Mrs. Isora B. Somers, William T. 


SECRETARY: *Harry I. Luftman 
ADDRESS: 1060 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey 

(New Mexico) State Housing Authority Board 
MEMBERS: J. B. Jones, Chairman; Lyle Brush, Vice-Chairman; *W. C. 

Kruger, Secretary; Samuel Klein, Milton R. Smith 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 308, Santa Fe, New Mexico 

New York, Division of Housing, State of 

ADDRESS: 80 Centre Street, New York City 

North Carolina Regional Housing Authority, Eastern 

MEMBERS: D. C. McCotter, Chairman; C. P. Banks, A. B. Butler, R. J. 
Hester, B. J. Holleman, Garland P. King, I. E. Pittman, H. Paul 
Strickland, J. T. Wells, A. F. Wood. (The Authority has jurisdiction 
over the following counties: Bladen, Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Harnett, 
Johnston, Jones, Onslow, Pamlico, Pender, and Sampson.) 
ADDRESS: Clinton, North Carolina 

Ohio State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: Martin E. Blum, Chairman;, *O. W. L. Coffin, Secretary; 

C. R. Aldrich, Charles H. Jones, Lawrence H. Kyte, Frank L. Raschig, 

Charles L. Sherwood 
ADDRESS: 410 Wyandotte Building, Columbus, Ohio 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Pennsylvania State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: J. S. Burns 1 , George E. Evans, Arthur C. Kaufmann, Vance 


ADDRESS: 212 Temporary Building No. i, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Puerto Rico Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: F. L. Dorathy, Chairman; Enrique Calimano, Vice-Chairman; 

Jose Benitez Gautier, Dr. A. Fernos Isern, Mariano Acosta Velarde 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Cesar Cordero Davila 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 397, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 

South Carolina State Housing Board 

MEMBERS: Matthew A. Condon, Chairman; Jeff D. Hunt, Jr., Vice- 
Chairman; Charles Mabry, B. F. Rice, F. C. Robinson 
ADDRESS: Columbia, South Carolina 

South Carolina Regional Housing Authority No. 1 

MEMBERS: Charles F. Fleming, Chairman; G. Frank Vaughan, Vice- 
Chairman; George M. Ansel, R. H. Brazeal, R. A. Cole, J. W. Gaston, 
W. A. Gettys, Joe Griffith, F. E. Hope, C. W. Kinard, Ralph H. Mc- 
Donald, A. M. McWhirter, T. Collier Neel, K. M. Richardson, E. L. 
Smith, J. S. Strom, L. E. Stroud, P. M. Washington, J. S. Wilson. 
(The Authority has jurisdiction over the following counties: Abbe- 
ville, Anderson, Cherokee, Chester, Edgefield, Fairfield, Greenville, 
Greenwood, Lancaster, Laurens, McCormick, Newberry, Oconee, 
Pickens, Saluda, Spartanburg, Union, and York.) 


ADDRESS: Laurens, South Carolina 

South Carolina Regional Housing Authority No. 2 

MEMBERS: The Authority has jurisdiction over the following counties: 
Chesterfield, Clarendon, Dillon, Florence, Georgetown, Horry, Ker- 
shaw, Lee, Marion, Marlboro, Sumter, and Williamsburg. 


ADDRESS: Darlington, South Carolina 

South Carolina Regional Housing Authority No. 3 

MEMBERS: Marvin H. Dukes, Chairman; H. M. Kinsey, Vice-Chairman; 
Clarence J. Asbil, D. C. Bryan, William P. Donelan, J. Wady Eu- 
banks, D. S. Livingston, W. J. Miller, Norval N. Newell, B. C. 
Pendarvais, W. C. Wilbur, Marshall B. Williams, Tom Williams, 
J. Hey ward Young, N. B. Youngblood. (The Authority has jurisdic- 
tion over the following counties: Aiken, Allendale, Bamberg, Barn^ 
well, Beaufort, Berkeley, Calhoun, Charleston, Colleton, Dorchester, 
Hampton, Jasper, Lexington, Orangeburg, and Richland.) 


ADDRESS: Bamberg, South Carolina 

1 Not confirmed by the state senate as of March 5, 1942. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Virginia State Board of Housing 

MEMBERS: Dr. I. C. Riggin, Chairman; John Hopkins Hall, Dr. W. H. 


SECRETARY: *Hugh R. Pomeroy 
ADDRESS: 301 State Finance Building, Richmond, Virginia 



Anniston Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: J. Ralph Hamilton, Chairman; J. R. Morgan, Vice-Chairman; 

W. P. Acker, L. T. Smith, Howard Trammell 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Walter J. Merrill 
ADDRESS: Commercial National Bank Building, Anniston, Alabama 

Attalla, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *E. G. Pilcher, Chairman; Robert H. Forman, Vice-Chair- 
man; G. R. Isbell, E. G. Norton, George P. Walker, Jr. 
ADDRESS: Attalla, Alabama 

Autauga, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Barbour, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Birmingham District, Housing Authority of the < 

MEMBERS: Frank E. Spain, Chairman; George C. Leigh, Vice-Chairman; 

Hugh Denman, Joseph H. Loveman, Charles P. Marks 
ADDRESS: 600 North 24th Street, Birmingham, Alabama 

Bullock, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Chambers, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Chilton, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Choctaw, Housing Authority of the County of 
Coffee, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Dale, Housing Authority of the County of | 
Dallas, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Dothan, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: A. D. Ussery, Chairman; F. A. Flowers, Vice-Chairman; 
Horace Hall, B. P. Poyner, Jr., E. M. Wells 

t Member of Central Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

t Member of Southeastern Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

Member of Western Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



ADDRESS: 500 South Lena Street, Dothan, Alabama 

Elmore, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Fairfield Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Charles A. Buck, Chairman; R. R. Thomas, Vice-Chairman; 
C. J. Donald, J. C. McNamee, E. B. Pitts 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 575, Fairfield, Alabama 

Fayette, Housing Authority of the County of 

Fort Payne, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. W. Hill, Chairman; M. E. Malone, Vice-Chairman; 

E. L. Hansard, W. V. Jacoway, J. T. N. Keels 
ADDRESS: Fort Payne, Alabama 

Gadsden Housing Authority, Greater 

MEMBERS: W. D. McNair, Chairman; J. B. Hollingsworth, Secretary; 

John L. Ray, W. R. Scarbrough (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 430, Gadsden, Alabama 

Geneva, Housing Authority of the County of | 

Guntersville Housing Authority, The 

MEMBERS: M. L. Moss, Chairman; A. W. Adams, Vice-Chairman; J. T. 

Jordan, W. L. Segers, T. W. Throckmorton 
ADDRESS: Guntersville, Alabama 

Hale, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Henry, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 
Houston, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Jasper, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George H. Davis, Chairman; W. M. Gardner, Vice-Chair- 
man; M. L. Mathews, Laudie Sumner, Elton Webb 
ADDRESS: Jasper, Alabama 

Lamar, Housing Authority of the County of 
Lee, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Lowndes, Housing Authority of the County of f 

f Member of Central Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

J Member of Southeastern Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

Member of Western Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Macon, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Marengo, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Marion, Housing Authority of the County of 

Mobile Housing Board 

MEMBERS: Clyde W. Foreman, Chairman; James C. Van Antwerp, Vice- 
Chairman; L. M. Cooper, Dr. L. W. Hollis, Clarence L. Hutchisson 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 481, Mobile, Alabama 

Montgomery, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Howard E. Pill, Chairman; Paul B. Fuller, Vice-Chairman; 

Thomas H. Edwards, Frank L. Seeger, Charles A. Stakely 
ADDRESS: 528 Bell Street, Montgomery, Alabama 

Montgomery, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Perry, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Phenix City, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. L. Blake, Chairman;, E. K. Garrett, Vice-Chairman; Dr. 

O. L. Edwards, A. A. Roberts, I. C. Wheelis 
ADDRESS: Phenix City, Alabama 

Pickins, Housing Authority of the County of 
Pike, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Russell, Housing Authority of the County of :j: 

Selma Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: C. L. Cobb, Chairman; J. F. Miller, Jr., Vice-Chairman; E. B. 

Kayser, W. E. Morrison, Sr., J. R. Twilley 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 708, Selma, Alabama 

Sumter, Housing Authority of the County of 

Talladega, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *Turner J. Jones, Chairman 
ADDRESS: Talladega, Alabama 

Tallapoosa, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 

f Member of Central Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

J Member of Southeastern Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

Member of Western Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Tarrant Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: L. Leon Hearn, Chairman; R. J. Johns, Vice-Chairman; R. C. 

Barton, F. R. Daly (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 97, Tarrant, Alabama 

Tuscaloosa, Housing Authority of the County of 
Wilcox, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Winston, Housing Authority of the County of 


Buckeye, Housing Authority of the Town of 

MEMBERS: Ralph Watkins, Chairman; Joe Blazer, Vice-Chairman; D. F. 

Johnson, Jr., W. A. Latham, H. M. Watson 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Flagstaff, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. T. Tormey, Chairman; N. V. Watson, Vice-Chairman; 

Dr. E. A. Miller, V. M. Slipher, Leo Weaver 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Glendale, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Mrs. J. M. Pearson, Chairman; Dr. R. K. Trueblood, Vice- 

Chairman; J. S. Francis, Jr., Russell Jones, Dr. G. P. Van Marel 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Holbrook, Housing Authority of the Town of 

MEMBERS: J. R. McEvoy, Chairman; Berlyn Farris, M. D. Porter, The 

Reverend E. Roure, Arthur Whiting 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Mesa, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Rulon T. Sheperd, Chairman; Lewis Allison, Pete Guerrero, 

Ray Killian, Iser Tibsherany 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Phoenix, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: The Reverend Emmett McLoughlin, Chairman; Chris Totten, 
Vice-Chairman; R. A. Becker, C. W. Bond, Joseph E. Refsnes 

t Member of Central Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

Member of Western Alabama Associated Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3527, Phoenix, Arizona 

Tucson, Housing Authority of the City of 

EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: * Warren A. Grossetta 
ADDRESS: 1645 Speedway, Tucson, Arizona 


Blytheville, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: R. E. Blaylock, Chairman; G. G. Hubbard, A. R. Weten- 

kamp, Floyd A. White (i vacancy) 
SECRETARY: *J. M. Brooks 
ADDRESS: Blytheville, Arkansas 

Conway, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Frank Robins, Jr., Chairman; Ed Bauer, Vice-Chairman; 

W. H. Brummett, Maurice Moix, Mrs. S. G. Smith 
ADDRESS: Conway, Arkansas 

Fort Smith, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. R. Woods, Chairman; Allen Henderson, Vice-Chairman; 

C. C. Davis, Dr. Walter Eberle, R. J. Ross 

ADDRESS: 226 Merchants Bank Building, Fort Smith, Arkansas 

Little Rock, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: R. Redding Stevenson, Chairman; Van E. Manning, Vice- 
Chairman; Paul C. Robinson, Purcell Smith, Mrs. Gladys S. White 
ADDRESS: Wallace Building, Little Rock, Arkansas 

Malvern, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. W. Thompson, Chairman; R. E. Van Dusen, Vice-Chair- 
man; *K. K. Kight, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Malvern, Arkansas 

North Little Rock, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. J. Wilkins, Chairman; S. R. Garrett, Vice-Chairman; Troy 

D. Churchman, W. E. McClure, William B. Randolph 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Laurence J. Berger 

ADDRESS: Administration Building, Silver City Courts, North Little Rock, 


Alameda, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: James E. Hall, Chairman; A. Hubbard Moffitt, Jr., Vice- 
Chairman; J. A. Cassidy, E. D. Garber, T. A. Greig 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


SECRETARY: *Curtis Anderson 

ADDRESS: 1711 Second Street, Alameda, California 

Contra Costa, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: Gerould L. Gill, Chairman;, Melvern S. Hogan, Vice-Chair- 
man; Charles B. Weeks, George H. Weise, James C. Wood 
ADDRESS: 825 Main Street, Martinez, California 

Corona, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: A. L. Blakeley, Chairman; Joe Copley, Vice-Chairman; Dr. 
" James Farrage, Frank J. Morrell, Lawrence G. Thome 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Corona, California 

El Centre, Housing Authority of the City of 
MEMBERS: *Gordon R. Scriven, Chairman 
ADDRESS: City Hall, El Centro, California 

Fresno, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. Kenneth Potter, Chairman; John A. Christie, Vice-Chair- 
man; Walter M. High, Mrs. Jean Manson, Wm. M. Russell 
ADDRESS: 712 Mattei Building, Fresno, California 

Kern, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: C. E. Bush, Chairman; C. C. Karnes, Vice-Chairman; T. J. 

Foley, David L. Shifflet, D. S. Stricklen 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1478, Bakersfield, California 

Los Angeles, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Nicola Giulii, Chairman;. Ralph A. McMullen, Vice-Chairman; 

J. E. Fishburn, Jr., Maurice Saeta, Mrs. Jessie L. Terry 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Howard L. Holtzendorff 
ADDRESS: 1031 South Broadway, Los Angeles, California 

Los Angeles, The Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: Isidore B. Dockweiler, Chairman; William A. Simpson, 

Vice-Chairman; Robert Wayne Burns, Mrs. Margarete L. Clark, 

Joseph E. Schumacher 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Melville Dozier, Jr. 
ADDRESS: 1031 South Broadway, Los Angeles, California 

Monterey County, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: *Howard Veit, Chairman; William Hargis, William Pettit, 

Paul Pioda, Harold Prince 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 176, Pebble Beach, California 

Needles, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *Frank Gilman, Chairman 
ADDRESS: Needles, California 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Newman, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *John M. Brumm, Coordinator 
ADDRESS: 8532 Terrace Drive, El Cerrito, California 

Oakland, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: C. M. Walter, Chairman; Thomas M. Robinson, Jr., Vice-Chair- 
man; J. P. Brennan, Stanley A. Burgraff, Hugh S. Rutledge 
ADDRESS: 800 Willow Street, Oakland, California 

Richmond, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. J. Richards, Jr., Chairman; E. M. Downer, Jr., C. C. 

Kratzer, R. D. Lee, L. J. Thomas 
ADDRESS: 271 loth Street, Richmond, California 

Riverbank, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George H. MacDonald, Chairman; Eugene P. Bessac, Vice- 
Chairman;. Mrs. Jewel Roscoe, Secretary; Fred W. Scheela (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 358, Riverbank, California 

Sacramento, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: A. H. Becker, Chairman; Mrs. Edith W. Cohn, Vice-Chair- 

man; Albert A. Marty, Antone J. Marty, W. P. Wright 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Bardey W. Cavanaugh 
ADDRESS: Room 115, City Hall, Sacramento, California 

Sacramento, Housing Authority of the County of 

Same commissioners and staff as Sacramento City Authority 

San Bernardino, The Housing Authority of the County of 

ADDRESS: Needles, California 

San Francisco, Housing Authority of the City and County of 

MEMBERS: Marshall Dill, Chairman; E. N. Ayer, Miss Alice Griffith, 

Timothy A. Reardon, Carleton H. Wall 
ADDRESS: 525 Market Street, San Francisco, California 

San Mateo, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: *Perry A. Bygdnes, Chairman; Gaston Periat, Vice-Chairman; 

Ruth Bradley, Secretary; Ralph C. McArthur, The Reverend Charles E. 

ADDRESS: 1301 Burlingame Avenue, Burlingame, California 

Santa Barbara, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: W. F. Hobbs, Chairman; R. B. McClellan, Vice-Chairman; 

Theo. B. Lundberg, George A. Miller, Howard J. Moore 
ADDRESS: 114% North H Street, Lompoc, California 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Santa Cruz, Housing Authority of the County of 

SECRETARY: *Stephen WyckofF 

ADDRESS: 14 Cooper Street, Santa Cruz, California 

Santa Monica, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Ralph Kiewit, Chairman; Jack Neagle, Vice-Chairman; 

*William Thornbury, Secretary; Joseph G. Braun, John Daniell 
ADDRESS: 164 Marine Street, Ocean Park, California 

South San Francisco, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Joseph E. Riccomi, Chairman; G. Carl Weller, Vice-Chairman; 

E. N. Fourcans, Treasurer; Fred J. Lautze, Silvio Nieri 

ADDRESS: 103 Bank Building, South San Francisco, California 

Sunnyvale, Housing Authority of the City of 
MEMBERS: * James J. Gorman, Chairman 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Sunnyvale, California 

Upland, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Paul F. Schowalter, Chairman; Everett W. Henry, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Lilian F. Baxter, Alan C. Couch, W. C. Scheu 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Upland, California 


Denver, Housing Authority of the City and County of 

MEMBERS: James Q. Newton, Chairman; James A. Brownlow, Vice- 

Chairman; Miss Irma M. Greenawalt, Treasurer; Thomas A. Dines, 

Monsignor John R. Mulroy 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Wendell T. Hedgcock 
ADDRESS: 409 Municipal Building, Denver, Colorado 


Bridgeport, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: The Reverend Stephen J. Panik, Chairman; John E. Lyddy, 
Vice-Chairman; John J. O'Brien, Treasurer;, Harold Barker, Anthony 
D. Ciresi 


ADDRESS: 252 Hallett Street, Bridgeport, Connecticut 

Bristol, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *Fred Zurell, Chairman 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Bristol, Connecticut 

East Hartford, Housing Authority of the Town of 

MEMBERS: Arthur W. Bergren, Chairman 


ADDRESS: 1169 Main Street, East Hartford, Connecticut 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Hartford, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Berkeley Cox, Chairman; William A. Scott, Vice-Chairman; 

Bruce Caldwell, Treasurer; The Reverend William K. Hopes, M. Allyn 


ADDRESS: 525 Main Street, Hartford, Connecticut 

Middletown, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William M. Citron, Chairman; Leo B. Santangelo, Vice- 
Chairman; The Reverend John P. Byrne, R. Emmett Coughlin, Vin- 
cent J. Scamporino 


ADDRESS: 164 Court Street, Middletown, Connecticut 

New Britain, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Tigran S. Serguis, Chairman; Dr. William J. Watson, Vice- 
Chairman; Thomas J. Doyle, Michael T. Haugh, The Reverend Dr. 
John J. Pitrus 

ADDRESS: 16 Armistice Street, New Britain, Connecticut 

New Haven, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow, Chairman; George W. Crawford, 

Vice-Chairman; Miss Elizabeth G. Fox, William M. Hotchkiss, Joseph 

T. Rourke 

DIRECTOR: *B. M. Pettit 
ADDRESS: 109 Church Street, New Haven, Connecticut 

Norwalk, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Samuel Roodner, Chairman; A. J. Collins, Vice-Chairman; 

John H. Leonard, The Reverend Thomas Sullivan (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: 708 Washington Village, South Norwalk, Connecticut 

Stamford, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George Stewart, Chairman; Ernest M. Lofgren, Vice-Chair- 
man; Walter C. Allen, William H. Connelly, Eleanor Radley 
ADDRESS: 56 Putnam Lane, Stamford, Connecticut 


Wilmington Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Stanley B. Hearn, Chairman; Thomas B. Donaldson, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Wyly M. Billing, Matthew F. Judge, Frank J. Pappa, 
Shermer H. Stradley 


ADDRESS: 703 W. 32nd Street, Wilmington, Delaware 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



Alley Dwelling Authority for the District of Columbia, The 

MEMBERS: David Lynn, Chairman;, John Russell Young, Vice-Chairman; 

John Nolen, Jr. 

ADDRESS: Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington, D. C. 


Daytona Beach, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. L. Gresham, Chairman; Bryant S. Bond, Vice-Chairman; 

Jerome A. Burgman, J. Frank Isaac, J. V. Roberts 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Arthur F. Beyerle 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 830, Daytona Beach, Florida 

Fort Lauderdale, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Luther S. Remsberg, Chairman; Floyd L. Miller, Vice-Chair- 
man; R. E. Dye, William G. Hardy, George E. Haskins 
ADDRESS: 88 Doctor Kennedy Homes, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 

Jacksonville, The Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: James T. Daniels, Chairman; Stuart H. Richeson, Vice-Chair- 
man; Joseph M. Erskine, George W. Simons, Jr., Robert M. Smith 
ADDRESS: 3550 Brentwood Avenue, Jacksonville, Florida 

Key West, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: A. Maitland Adams, Chairman; J. J. Trevor, Vice-Chairman; 

J. B. Parramore, Melvin E. Russell, Ralph R. Russell 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 9, Key West, Florida 

Lakeland, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John R. Wright, Chairman; Paul A. Colton, Vice-Chairman; 

T. Bergman, P. D. Goodyear, H. M. Sanborn 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1628, Lakeland, Florida 

Miami, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George C. Stembler, Chairman; Hugh P. Emerson, Fred W. 

Fuzzard, Mark Max, Peter McCabe 
ADDRESS: 327 N. W. 62nd Street, Miami, Florida 

Orlando, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Melville E. Johnson, Chairman; C. William Hickey, Vice- 
Chairman; J. N. Huttig, Walter C. Lee, Frank W. Tower 
ADDRESS: 300 North Bumby Street, Orlando, Florida 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Pensacola, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Herman B. White, Chairman; Julius F. Wernicke, Vice- 
Chairman; Walter F. Biggs, Preston W. Husted, Marion D. Lambert 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1627, Pensacola, Florida 

St. Petersburg, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Walter G. Ramseur, Chairman; W. K. Cleghon, Vice-Chair- 

man; Morrison Pearce, H. R. Playford, A. M. Wing 
ADDRESS: 201 Chamber of Commerce Building, St. Petersburg, Florida 

Sarasota, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Benton W. Powell, Chairman; Ben J. Drymon, Vice-Chair- 
man; Karl A. Bickel, Walter C. Kennedy, Floyd L. Zeigler 
ADDRESS: Palmer National Bank Building, Sarasota, Florida 

Tampa, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS E. W. Spencer, Chairman; Frazier T. Blount, Vice-Chairman; 

M. Henry Gold, Edward W. Haden, Lawrence Hernandez 
ADDRESS: 202 East Broad Street, Tampa, Florida 

West Palm Beach, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: I. G. Atwell, Chairman; W. E. Poland, Jr., Vice-Chairman; 

R. R. Brown, Edward Lang, W. B. Leak 
ADDRESS: 3801 Georgia Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida 


Albany, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: I. B. Callaway, W. C. Holman, E. H. Kalmon, Ernest 

Wetherbee, Jr., W. M. Wilder 
ADDRESS: 724 Society Avenue, Albany, Georgia 

Appling, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Athens, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. B. Bras well, Chairman; W. T. Forbes, Vice-Chairman; 

Dr. J. Weyman Davis, Abit Nix, Lee O. Price 
ADDRESS: Chamber of Commerce Building, Athens, Georgia 

Atlanta, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: James D. Robinson, Jr., Chairman; Marion Smith, Vice- 
Chairman; Edgar Chambers, Sr., Frank G. Etheridge, O. M. Harper 

t Member of Southeastern Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * James H. Therrell 

ADDRESS: 531 Trust Company of Georgia Bldg., Atlanta, Georgia 

Augusta, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. P. Peabody, Chairman; Lee Blum, Vice-Chairman; Dr. 

Phillip Mulherin, E. C. Peters, The Reverend W. A. Reiser 
ADDRESS: 2100 Broad Street, Augusta, Georgia 

Baker, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Barrow, Housing Authority of the County of 
Ben Hill, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Brooks, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Brunswick, The Housing Authority, City of 

MEMBERS: J. M. Armstrong, Chairman; J. E. Abbott, J. B. Avera, A. J. 

Gordon, A. H. Perry 
ADDRESS: 1507 Reynolds Street, Brunswick, Georgia 

Butts, Housing Authority of the County of 
Calhbun, Housing Authority of the County of :j: 

Cedartown, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Hamilton Grant, Chairman; Lee Parker, Vice-Chairman; 

Roy N. Emmet, E. S. Randall, W. D. Trippe 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 804, Cedartown, Georgia 

Clayton, Housing Authority of the County of 
Colquitt, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Columbus, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Theo J. McGee, Chairman; E. J. Knight, Vice-Chairman; 

A. H. Chapman, M. A. Goldstein, W. A. Richards 
ADDRESS: noo 2yth Street, Columbus, Georgia 

Crisp, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Decatur, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: C. H. Blount, Chairman; W. S. Nelms, Vice-Chairman; 
Murphey Candler, Jr., Secretary; Mrs. J. A. McCrary, Treasurer; A. R. 

f Member of Southeastern Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

^Member of Southwest Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

Member of Central Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and regional 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



ADDRESS: 206 Watkins Building, Decatur, Georgia 

Decatur, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Dodge, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Fayette, Housing Authority of the County of 

Fulton, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: *W. V. Crowley, Chairman; William L. McCalley, Jr., Vice- 

Chairman; Ed. Chapman, Sr., H. L. Dickerson, Albert Gossett 
ADDRESS: c/o Fulton National Bank, Atlanta, Georgia 

Grady, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Greene, Housing Authority of the County of 
Henry, Housing Authority of the County of 
Jasper, Housing Authority of the County of 
Jefferson, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Jenkins, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Johnson, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Jones, Housing Authority of the County of 

La Grange, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. R. Newman, Chairman; W. F. Jarrell, G. H. Sargent, C. L. 

Traylor, W. H. Turner, Jr. 
ADDRESS: La Grange, Georgia 

Laurens, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Lowndes, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 

Macon, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. Clay Murphey, Chairman; W. T. Anderson, Vice-Chair- 
man; Ernest D. Black, J. K. Hogan, George Williams 
ADDRESS: noo Oglethorpe Street, Macon, Georgia 

Marietta Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: T. C. Branson, Jr., Chairman;, M. C. Pittard, Vice-Chairman; 
B. F. Boatner, Secretary; L. H. Atherton, Johnny Walker 

f Member of Southeastern Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

$ Member of Southwest Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

Member of Central Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and regional 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 366, Marietta, Georgia 

Milledgeville Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *L. S. Fowler, Chairman; Morgan Thompson, Vice-Chair- 
man; Joe T. Andrews, O. M. Conn, Grover May 
ADDRESS: Milledgeville, Georgia 

Mitchell, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Monroe, Housing Authority of the County of 
Montgomery, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Morgan, Housing Authority of the County of 
Newton, Housing Authority of the County of 
Oconee, Housing Authority of the County of 
Putnam, Housing Authority of the County of 
Rockdale, Housing Authority of the County of 

Rome, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Wilson M. Hardy, Chairman; S. A. Marshall, Vice-Chairman; 

Alfred Lee Barron, Wallace Grant, U. N. Howell 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 47, Rome, Georgia 

Savannah, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Fred Wessels, Chairman; Herbert L. Kay ton, Vice-Chairman; 

James H. Byington, William J. Kehoe, William Hugh Stephens 
ADDRESS: 220 Realty Building, Savannah, Georgia 

Spalding, Housing Authority of the County of 

Tattnall, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Thomas, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

Thomasville, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: W. E. Young, Chairman; Lee E. Kelly, Vice-Chairman; 

Henry M. Moore, A. C. Tuck, W. Lewis Wilson 
ADDRESS: Thomasville, Georgia 

Toombs, Housing Authority of the County of f 

f Member of Southeastern Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

t Member of Southwest Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

Member of Central Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and regional 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Treutlen, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Upson, Housing Authority of the County of 

Valdosta Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *H. C. Eberhardt, Chairman; W. L. Goodloe, Secretary; C. R. 

Griffin, J. C. Hunt, P. C. Pendleton 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 672, Valdosta, Georgia 

Walton, Housing Authority of the County of 

Waycross, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Frank B. McDonald, Jr., Chairman; George M. Bazemore, 
Vice-Chairman; J. D. Bledsoe, William H. Hopkins, J. C. McLendon 
ADDRESS: c/o Ware Tire Company, Waycross, Georgia 

Wheeler, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Worth, Housing Authority of the County of $ 


Buhl Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Fred Harting, Chairman; O. L. Smith, Vice-Chairman; 

*George L. Likeness, Secretary-Treasurer; Glen Buckendorf, Harry B. 

ADDRESS: Buhl, Idaho 

Burley Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *J. W. Brandt, Chairman 
ADDRESS: Burley, Idaho 

Kimberly Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: O. J. Bell wood, Chairman; Carl J. Emerson, Vice-Chairman; 

Clifford S. Fallis, Harry Hamilton, Deane S. Shipley 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box S, Kimberly, Idaho 

Nampa Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Forrest Sower, Chairman; Earl V. Hopkins, Vice-Chairman; 

Henry M. Boston, Maude Smith, C. D. Witherspoon 
ADDRESS: 819 yth Avenue South, Nampa, Idaho 

Pocatello, Housing Authority of the City of 
ADDRESS: Municipal Building, Pocatello, Idaho 

t Member of Southeastern Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

t Member of Southwest Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and 
regional section. 

Member of Central Georgia Rural Housing Authorities see official state and regional 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Twin Falls Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: H. H. Hedstrom, Chairman; J. A. Cederquist, Mrs. Mary 

Reber Knight, H. G. McCallister, U. N. Terry 
ADDRESS: Twin Falls, Idaho 


Alexander, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: *Dr. James S. Johnson, Chairman; H. L. Yates, Vice-Chair- 
man; John B. Greaney, G. W. Kirkbride, Dr. H. A. Moreland 
ADDRESS: 300-A Halliday Estate Building, Cairo, Illinois 

Champaign County, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Robert L. Gordon, Chairman; Maurice B. Skelton, Vice- 

Chairman; A. J. Flynn, Frank Smith, Oscar Steer 
ADDRESS: 914 South Lynn Street, Champaign, 111. 

Chicago Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Joseph W. McCarthy, Chairman; Robert R. Taylor, Vice- 

Chairman; Edgar L. Schnadig, Treasurer; Walter V. Schaefer, Patrick 

F. Sullivan 

EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: *Miss Elizabeth Wood 
ADDRESS: 208 So. LaSalle Street, Chicago, 111. 

Coles County, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Virgil Sampson, Chairman; P. N. Kelly, Vice-Chairman; The 

Reverend H. L. Hayes (2 vacancies) 
ADDRESS: 1121 Jefferson Street, Charleston, Illinois 

Danville, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Joseph S. Belton, Chairman; George F. Edmund, Vice-Chair- 
man; C. R. Klayer, Secretary-Treasurer; Clarence Campbell, Joseph 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Charles E. Leverenz, Sr. 

ADDRESS: 206 Adams Building, Danville, Illinois 

Decatur Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Alva R. Forbes, Chairman; W. S. Threlfall, Vice-Chairman; 

Terry A. Bodine, J. C. Hosteder, L. W. Hurtt 
ADDRESS: Administration Building, 401 Longview Place, Decatur, Illinois 

Galesburg Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Lyle C. Brown, Chairman;, John H. Cox, First Vice-Chair- 
man; George V. Tobin, Second Vice-Chairman; Harlan W. Little, 
Secretary; Ernest F. Cramer, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: P. O. Box 602, Galesburg, Illinois 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Gallatin County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Max H. Gait, Chairman; W. H. Brinkley, R. N. Harmon, 

H. F. Howell, Earl L. Rich 
ADDRESS: Shawneetown, Illinois 

Granite City Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Charles Habekost, Chairman; Roy Huff, Vice-Chairman; 

Fred W. Albers, Herman F. Droege, Ralph V. Johnson 
ADDRESS: Ridgedale Homes, Granite City, Illinois 

Henry County, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Arthur Cook, Chairman; P. D. Adler, First Vice-Chairman; 
Joseph Van Hyfte, Second Vice-Chairman; C. E. Humphrey, Secre- 
tary; J. B. McHugh, Treasurer 


ADDRESS: 125 Y 2 N. Tremont Street, Kewanee, Illinois 

La Salle County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Phillip J. Mueller, Chairman; Stanley Clark, Vice-Chairman; 

Nathan Fleming, Andrew O. Fox, Sam Myer 
ADDRESS: La Salle County Court House, Ottawa, Illinois 

Madison County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Joseph Grenzer, Chairman; Dute F. Braner, Vice-Chairman; 

Clarence H. Hale, Herman Von Meyer, Alvin T. Scully 
ADDRESS: 14 Bohm Building, Edwardsville, Illinois 

Moline Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: K. J. Nielsen, Chairman; Oscar Eckerman, Harry Good, 

Oscar Moody, William F. Peters 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Warren C. Skinner 
ADDRESS: 4ist & i2th Avenue, Moline, Illinois 

Montgomery County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: The Reverend James E. Reynolds, Chairman; Dom. A. Ber- 

tolino, James Davis, William Elledge, James Hilt 
ADDRESS: 216 South Main Street, Hillsboro, Illinois 

Morgan, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: George E. Deweese, Chairman;, Louis B. Turner, First Vice- 
Chairman; Harold E. Gibson, Second Vice-Chairman; William H. 
Self, Secretary; Frank B. Taylor, Treasurer 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *H. H. Vasconcellos 

ADDRESS: Morgan County Court House, Jacksonville, Illinois 

Peoria Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Emil Locher, Sr., Chairman; Michael B. Crowley, First Vice- 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Chairman; Jack Kinsella, Second Vice-Chairman;, Frank E. Mehrings, 

Secretary; C. D. Henry, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 220 Warner Homes Court, Peoria, Illinois 

Quincy Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: H. Edgar Wisherd, Chairman; Elmer Lampe, Vice-Chairman; 

Mrs. Ruth Schmeideskamp, Secretary; Roderick P. Miller, Otto 


EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Kenneth A. Elmore 
ADDRESS: Stern Building, Quincy, Illinois 

Rock Island, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George W. Arnett, Chairman; Frank Budelier, Vice-Chair- 
man; Harry H. Cleveland, Jr., Ben Jacobsen, Sr. 
ADDRESS: 1320 4th Street, Rock Island, Illinois 

Rock Island County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: William L. Young, Chairman; Dr. W. R. Streed, Vice-Chair- 
man; Roy E. Adleman, William F. Gerhardt, Carl L. Walker 
ADDRESS: 2215 yth Avenue, East Moline, Illinois 

St. Clair County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Emmett P. Griffin, Chairman; Paul A. Schlafly, Vice-Chair- 
man; Fern R. Rauch, Secretary; George J. Weilmuenster, Treasurer; 
The Reverend John De Schields 
ADDRESS: 32O-A Missouri Avenue, East St. Louis, Illinois 

Springfield Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: John E. Sankey, Chairman; James W. Dunigan, Vice-Chair- 
man; J. D. Myers, Secretary; Robert A. Byrd, Treasurer; J. Earl 

CORRESPONDENT: *Elmer A. Suckow (Housing Manager) 
ADDRESS: 1320 East Reynolds Street, Springfield, Illinois 

Tazewell County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: R. F. Whitfield, Chairman; Paul K. Lohmann, Vice-Chair- 
man; G. R. Hackler, Albert La Frenz, J. B. Lewis, Jr. 
CORRESPONDENT: *Louis P. Dunkelberg (Attorney) 
ADDRESS: Zerwekh Building, Pekin, Illinois 

Winnebago County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: T. W. Evans, Chairman; William G. Collins, First Vice- 

Chairman; Gunnard Anderson, Second Vice-Chairman; Guy E. 

Williams, Secretary; Al Hougan, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 404 Forest City National Bank Building, Rockford, Illinois 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



Delaware County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Hershel W. Life, Chairman; Merritt Heath, Vice-Chairman; 

Mrs. Mina E. Beckett, Robert R. LaFollette, Russell G. Siferd 
ADDRESS: Box 869, Muncie, Indiana 

Fort Wayne, Housing Authority of the City of 

. .MEMBERS: Albert H. Schaaf, Chairman; Hugh G. Keegan, Vice-Chair- 

man; Walter S. Goll, Marie Kane, F. Arthur Schack 
ADDRESS: 1824 Morris Street, Fort Wayne, Indiana 

Gary, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. L. Replogle, Chairman; Jack Lazerwitz, Vice-Chairman; 

McM. Coffing, L. A. O'Donnell, John B. Radigan 
ADDRESS: 3200 West nth Avenue, Gary, Indiana 

Hammond of Lake County, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William J. Harrigan, Chairman; Mrs. Lauretta Coleman, Vice- 
Chairman;, Numo T. Bagaloff, Albert P. Guise, Matthias E. Hafner 
ADDRESS: 7329 Columbia Circle West, Hammond, Indiana 

Kokomo, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Charles R. Love, Chairman; Willard Seagrave, Vice-Chairman; 

Lloyd Beatty, H. Alva Edwards, Fred Jones 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 605, Kokomo, Indiana 

Muncie, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Charles V. Bender, Chairman; Clarence H. Krull, Vice- 
Chairman; John C. Banta, Park Gillespie, Karl A. Oesterle 
ADDRESS: 402 East Second Street, Muncie, Indiana 

New Albany, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Mack H. Harp, Chairman; Russell G. Baker, Clifton C. 

Massey, Herbert W. Miller, Frank Voit 
ADDRESS: 517-521 Elsby Building, New Albany, Indiana 

South Bend, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William E. Voor, Chairman; Henry S. Lowenstine, Vice- 
Chairman; Louis M. Hammerschmidt, Secretary-Treasurer; Oren A. 
Fulkerson, Clarence E. Keller 
ACTING DIRECTOR: *Clare E. Pittman 
ADDRESS: 214 North Main Street, South Bend, Indiana 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Vigo, The Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: Clarence Curley, Chairman; Maurice Fox, Vice-Chairman; 

Clyde Blocksom, C. W. Henry, Carl Miller 
ADDRESS: 116 South Sixth Street, Terre Haute, Indiana 

Vincennes, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Norman F. Arterburn, Chairman; John E. Hartigan, Vice- 

Chairman; Marion D. Gould, Chester H. Huston, Ralph A. Seal 
ADDRESS: 401 Major Bowman Terrace, Vincennes, Indiana 


Corbin Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: Bert Rowland, Chairman; Ed Peace, Vice-Chairman; J. H. 

Meredith, O. B. Rowland (Mayor), Dr. F. S. Smith 
ADDRESS: 416 East Main Street, Corbin, Kentucky 

Covington Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: H. A. Knollmann, Chairman;, William F. Burke, Vice-Chair- 
man; William Beuttel, Jr. (Mayor), Linus Hand, Charles B. Palmer 
CORRESPONDENT: *F. J. Harvard (General Housing Manager) 
ADDRESS: 2940 Madison Avenue, Covington, Kentucky 

Frankfort Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: D. D. Smith, Chairman (Mayor); J. M. Perkins, Vice-Chair- 
man; Dr. C. T. Coleman, Dr. L. T. Minish, Fred J. Sutterlin 
ADDRESS: 901 Leestown Road, Frankfort, Kentucky 

Lexington Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: E. Reed Wilson, Chairman; H. E. Bullock, Vice-Chairman; 

W. T. Fowler, T. Ward Havely (Mayor), G. Frank Vaughan 
ADDRESS: 600 Blue Grass Park Drive, Lexington, Kentucky 

Louisville Municipal Housing Commission, City of 
MEMBERS: Harry W. Schacter, Vice-Chairman; J. Everett Harris, Mrs. 

William E. Kirwan, Wilson W. Wyatt (Mayor) (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: 419 West Jefferson Street, Louisville, Kentucky 

Madisonville Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: Walton H. Cox, Chairman; Charles H. Dunville, Vice-Chair- 
man; Robert H. Bowmer, Secretary-Treasurer; Dr. J. D. Sory (Mayor), 
J. Henry Vannoy 

ADDRESS: Madisonville, Kentucky 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Owensboro Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: Beckham A. Robertson, Chairman; B. P. McCormick, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer; W. R. Gillette, Gray Haynes, Fred Weir (Mayor) 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * James F. Hard wick 
ADDRESS: 218% West 3rd Street, Owensboro, Kentucky 

Paducah Municipal Housing Commission, City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. A. M. Parrish, Chairman; W. E. Buck, Vice-Chairman; 

S. J. Snook, Second Vice-Chairman; Pierce E. Lackey (Mayor), J. L. 

Munal, Jr. 

ADDRESS: Thomas Jefferson Place, Paducah, Kentucky 


Alexandria, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: M. W. Walker, Chairman; J. W. Beasley, James C. Bolton, 

W. F. Cotton, Samuel Haas 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Alexandria, Louisiana 

Baton Rouge, Housing Authority for the City of 

MEMBERS: Charles P. Manship, Chairman; J. Andrew Bahlinger, Jr., 
Vice-Chairman;, Albert M. Cad well, Lewis Gottlieb, J. W. Thompson 
TEMPORARY SECRETARY: *Miss Virginia S. LeBlanc 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Caddo Parish Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: L. E. Walker, Chairman; Bryan E. Bush, Vice-Chairman; 

H. C. Dillard, J. K. Smith, Jr., J. C. Webb 
ADDRESS: 410 Court House Building, Shreveport, Louisiana 

East Baton Rouge, Housing Authority of the Parish of 

MEMBERS: J. L. Mahoney, Chairman; L. P. Bahan, Vice-Chairman; 

Marshall Bond, Henry Forbes (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: Drawer Q, Istrouma Branch Post Office, Baton Rouge, 


Lafayette, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: R. H. Martin, Chairman; Paul J. Blanchet, Vice-Chairman; 

T. L. Evans, Daniel J. Olivier, E. E. Soulier 
ADDRESS: 3 Lafayette Building Association Building, Lafayette, Louisiana 

Lake Charles, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Robert L. James, Chairman; H. D. Ponton, John G. Quinn, 

Sam M. Richards, Olin Sheppard 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 934, Lake Charles, Louisiana 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Monroe, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: B. A. Trousdale, Jr., Chairman; Ira Cagle, Vice-Chairman; 

Dr. S. A. Collins, J. D. Petty, Samuel Rubin 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Joseph S. Guerriero 
ADDRESS: 415 Bernhardt Building, Monroe, Louisiana 

New Iberia Housing Authority, City of 

MEMBERS: Leon Roy, Chairman; Leon J. Landry, Paul J. Hebert; Leon J. 

Menville, Dr. J. W. Pharr 
ADDRESS: New Iberia, Louisiana 

New Orleans, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: James P. Brodtmann, Chairman; Marcel G. Montreuil, Vice- 
Chairman; B. C. Casanas, J. Gordon Lee, Olin Linn 
ADDRESS: 226 Carondelet Street, New Orleans, Louisiana 

Shreveport, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: U. S. Goodman, Chairman; Dr. W. S. Kerlin, Vice-Chairman; 

J. C. Atkins, L. W. Thornton, W. Scott Wilkinson 
ADDRESS: 310 First National Bank Building, Shreveport, Louisiana 


Annapolis, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William F. Stromeyer, Chairman; Morris D. Gilmore, James A. 

Haley, Dr. Carl P. Russell (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: 21 Bloomsbury Square, Annapolis, Maryland 

Baltimore City, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Cleveland R. Bealmear, Chairman; George M. Smith, Vice- 
Chairman; George C. Mantz, Sr., Treasurer; Samuel H. Hoffberger, 
George B. Murphy 

ADDRESS: 709-11 East Eager Street, Baltimore, Maryland 

Frederick, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. Clinton McSherry, Chairman; Lewis R. Dertzbaugh, 
Vice-Chairman; James H. Gambrill III, Charles McC. Mathias, G. 
Raymond Shipley 


ADDRESS: 4 East Church Street, Frederick, Maryland 


Boston Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: John A. Breen, Chairman; The Reverend Thomas R. Rey- 
nolds, Vice-Chairman;, John Carroll, Harold Field Kellogg (i vacancy) 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: 18 Oliver Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

Brockton Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Charles E. Corcoran, President; Preston Howard, Vice- 
President; Raymond F. Eldridge, Secretary; Joseph R. Noone, Treas- 
urer; Arthur J. Stubbert, Jr. 

ADDRESS: 86 Main Street, Brockton, Massachusetts 

Cambridge Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Michael J. Sullivan, Chairman; John H. Corcoran, Treas- 
urer; Leo V. Corrigan, Edward J. Donahue, Henry Wise 


ADDRESS: Administration Building, Windsor Street, Cambridge, Massa- 

Chicopee Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Rheo Gagne, Chairman; Dr. Karol M. Smolczynski, Vice- 
Chairman; Alfred J. Plante, Treasurer; Amico J. Barone, Paul W. 

ADDRESS: in Springfield Street, Chicopee, Massachusetts 

Fall River Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Orient Laplante, Chairman; John B. Cummings, Vice-Chair- 
man; Lincoln P. Holmes, Treasurer; Joseph Ainsworth, David Lash 
ADDRESS: 125 Barlow Street, Fall River, Massachusetts 

Holyoke Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: John F. Dowling, Chairman; Thomas K. O'Connor, Vice- 
Chairman; J. Wilbur Murray, Treasurer; James E. Barry, Lawrence J. 


ADDRESS: 9 Liberty Street, Holyoke, Massachusetts 

Lawrence Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: John J. Darcy, Chairman; Gaorge J. McCarthy, Vice-Chair- 
man; Weston F. Eastman, Thomas M. Howard, Timothy H. O'Neil 
ADDRESS: 56 Melvin Street, Lawrence, Massachusetts 

Lowell Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Homer W. Bourgeois, Chairman; John A. McGuire, Jr., 

Vice-Chairman; David F. Caddell, John H. Dwyer, Francis H. 


ADDRESS: 562 Market Street, Lowell, Massachusetts 

New Bedford Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Antonio England, Chairman; Mrs. Josephine T. Avila, Vice- 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Chairman;, Francis O. Quinn, Treasurer; David S. Lowney, Dr. 

Thomas E. Sheerin 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 749, New Bedford, Massachusetts 

Somerville Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *David F. Looney, Chairman and Executive Director; William 

Egan, Vice-Chairman; Mrs. Mary Carr, Secretary (2 vacancies) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 138, Somerville, Massachusetts 

Worcester Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Lester B. Edwards, Chairman; James J. Hurley, Vice-Chair- 
man; Samuel J. Donnelly, Maurice J. Wall 
ADDRESS: Room 25 A, City Hall, Worcester, Massachusetts 


Detroit Housing Commission 

MEMBERS: Ethan W. Thompson, President; Edward E. Thai, Vice- 
President; Mrs. Harriett D. Kelly, Henry U. Sabbe, The Reverend 
Horace A. White 

DIRECTOR-SECRETARY: *Charles F. Edgecomb 

ADDRESS: 409 Griswold Building, Detroit, Michigan 

Hamtramck Housing Commission 
MEMBERS: Dr. Alexander S. Zbudowski, President; Alexander W. 

Pancheshan, Vice-President; The Reverend Edward J. Kokowicz, 

Mrs. Mary A. Mudry, Joseph L. Wisniewski 
ADDRESS: 12025 Dequindre Avenue, Hamtramck, Michigan 



Alcorn, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Amite, Housing Authority of the County of || 

Biloxi, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: C. A. Delacruz, Chairman; M. H. Dees, Vice-Chairman; 

C. N. Ellzey, W. B. Goodman, Victor B. Pringle 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 86, Biloxi, Mississippi 

Calhou n, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Claibourne, Housing Authority of the County of || 

t Member of Northeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

|| Member of Southwest Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Clarke, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Clarksdale, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Max Friedman, Chairman; J. F. Brown, Vice-Chairman; 

A. L. Block, F. E. Cocke, C. Willis Connell 
ADDRESS: Clarksdale, Mississippi 

Copiah, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Covington, Housing Authority of the County of 
Forrest, Housing Authority of the County of 
Franklin, Housing Authority of the County of || 
George, Housing Authority of the County of 
Greene, Housing Authority of the County of 

Hattiesburg, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. Frank Brown, Chairman;, J. Pat Fowler, Vice-Chairman; 

Lester Clark, J. C. Fields, J. C. Taylor 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 832, Hattiesburg, Mississippi 

Hinds, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Jefferson, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Jones, Housing Authority of the County of 
Kemper, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Lafayette, Housing Authority of the County of | 
Lamar, Housing Authority of the County of 
Lauderdale, Housing Authority of the County of f 

Laurel, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Will Lindsey, Chairman; J. D. Evans, Vice-Chairman; W. S. 

Harper, C. D. Kelso, T. R. Ramsay 
ADDRESS: Box 396, Laurel, Mississippi 

Leake, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Lee, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 

t Member of East Central Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

{Member of Northeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

Member of Southeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

|| Member of Southwest Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Lincoln, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Madison, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Marshall, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

McComb Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *W. T. Denham, Chairman; W. L. Brock, T. Paul Haney, Jr., 

W. S. Johnson, E, G. Mixon 
ADDRESS: McComb, Mississippi 

Meridian, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Albert Weems, Chairman; Clarke Pearce, Vice-Chairman; 

Norman Cohen, A. W. Hulett, B. C. Wimberly 
ADDRESS: 2305 "D" Street, Meridian, Mississippi 

Montgomery, Housing Authority of the County of :j: 
Neshoba, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Newton, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Oktibbeha, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Panola, Housing Authority of the County of :j: 
Perry, Housing Authority of the County of 
Pontotoc, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Prentiss, Housing Authority of the County of $ 
Scott, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Simpson, Housing Authority of the County of || 
Smith, Housing Authority of the County of f 
Tate, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 
Tishomingo, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 

Tupelo Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *W. B. Fields, Chairman; F. N. Johnson, L. G. Milam, R. C. 

Smith, V. S. Whitesides 
ADDRESS: Tupelo, Mississippi 

Union, Housing Authority of the County of $ 

f Member of East Central Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

t Member of Northeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

Member of Southeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

|| Member of Southwest Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Webster, Housing Authority of the County of ^ 
Yalobusha, Housing Authority of the County of $ 


Kansas City, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: E. B. Murray, Chairman; Mrs. Robert L. Dominick, John C. 

Higdon, Per r in D. McElroy, Theron B. Watkins 
ADDRESS: 1433 Dierks Building, Kansas City, Missouri 

St. Louis Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: William C. Connett, Chairman;, Joseph J. Hauser,-Vice-Chair- 

man; A. H. Handlan, Treasurer; Carl G. Stifel, Frank L. Williams 
ADDRESS: Civil Courts Building, St. Louis, Missouri 


Anaconda, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. A. Barnard, Chairman; A. C. Torgerson, Vice-Chairman; 

E. A. Barnett, P. J. Hagan, J. B. Rankin 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *John J. Fitzpatrick 
ADDRESS: 10 Main Street, Anaconda, Montana 

Butte, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Fred I. Root, Chairman; Stanley D. Griffiths, Vice-Chairman; 

John J. Donovan, William Honey, John S. Wulf 
CORRESPONDENT: *Carl E. Warner (Manager) 
ADDRESS: Administration Building, Silver Bow Homes, Butte, Montana 

Great Falls Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Fred A. Fligman, Chairman; Fred J. Martin, Vice-Chairman; 

J. George Graham, L. E. Taylor, Frank E. Wilcocks 
ADDRESS: 1500 6th Avenue South, Great Falls, Montana 

Helena Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: M. E. Anderson, Chairman; A. G. Fitzpatrick, Vice-Chair- 
man; John Carlson, Jr., E. M. Johnson, Mrs. Sylvia C. Loble 
ADDRESS: 27 South Benton, Helena, Montana 


Omaha, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John J. Larkin, Chairman; Grant A. Benson, Vice-Chairman; 
Mace M. Brown, Treasurer; Miss Catharine Carrick, Samuel J. Howell 

Member of Northeast Mississippi Associated Housing Authorities see official state 
and regional section. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



ADDRESS: 200 Service Life Building, Omaha, Nebraska 


Manchester, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *Eugene O. Manseau, Chairman 

ADDRESS: 427 Elm Street, Manchester, New Hampshire 


Asbury Park, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Michael Weinstein, Chairman; James Sutherland, Vice-Chair- 
man- Laurence C. Maher, Treasurer; Dr. E. A. Robinson, Louis I. 


ADDRESS: Administration Building, Asbury Park Village, Asbury Park, 
New Jersey 

Atlantic City, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Walter J. Buzby, Chairman; Mrs. Isora B. Somers, Vice- 
Chairman; Frank D. Fiore, Treasurer; George R. Swinton, Thomas K. 
Wilson, Jr. 


ADDRESS: 2311 Fairmount Avenue, Atlantic City, New Jersey 

Beverly, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. J. B. Clement, Chairman; Harold G. Smith, Vice-Chair- 
man; Edward S. Becker, James J. Carr, Addison Kingston 
ADDRESS: 246 Warren Street, Beverly, New Jersey 

Burlington, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Olin M. Slack, Chairman;, John F. McHugh, Vice-Chairman; 

W. C. Jones, Carl L. Lang, Henry M. Lewis 
ADDRESS: 227 West Pearl Street, Burlington, New Jersey 

Camden, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Bartholomew A. Sheehan, Chairman; Howard E. Primas, 
Vice-Chairman; Wilbert F. Dobbins, Samuel D. Shields, Frank J. 


ADDRESS: Ninth Floor City Hall, Camden, New Jersey 

Elizabeth, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Otto G. Altenburg, Chairman; Miss Matilda C. Flynn, Vice- 
Chairman; J. William Farley, J. Henry George, George J. Reiss 
ADDRESS: 688 Maple Avenue, Elizabeth, New Jersey 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Englewood, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: James S. Gilbert, Chairman; Robert H. Cory, Vice-Chairman; 

*T. Floyd Lorentzen, Secretary-Treasurer; Charles Brucker, Sr., Frank 

ADDRESS: 155 Walnut Street, Englewood, New Jersey 

Harrison, Housing Authority of the Town of 

MEMBERS: *George W. Breitenbucher, Chairman;, Robert J. Owens, 
Vice-Chairman; Francis J. Foster, Secretary; Frederick C. Clifton, 
Jr. (i vacancy) 

ADDRESS: Harrison Gardens, Harrison, New Jersey 

Jersey City, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George J. Daly, Chairman; James F. Kennedy, Vice-Chairman; 

James F. Kelly, Michael H. McClain, James McConnell 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * William T. Thomas 
ADDRESS: 921 Bergen Avenue, Jersey City, New Jersey 

Long Branch, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John W. Flock, Chairman; Forrest Green, Vice-Chairman; 

Samuel M. Heimlich, Daniel J. Maher, Philip Shaheen 
ADDRESS: 138 Garfield Court, Long Branch, New Jersey 

Newark, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. Carl A. Baccaro, Chairman; The Reverend William P. 

Hayes, Vice-Chairman; George W. Campbell, Sargent Dumper, 

Charles Schubert 

ADDRESS: 57 Sussex Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 

North Bergen, Housing Authority of the Township of 

MEMBERS: John J. Roe, Chairman; Peter Musto, Vice-Chairman; Wilbur 

L. Ross, Herbert L. Sachs, Arthur C. Spencer 
ADDRESS: 5828 Meadowview Avenue, North Bergen, New Jersey 

Paterson, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Frank R. Jackson, Chairman; S. James Cristiano, Vice-Chair- 
man; George Baldanzi, George Brooks, Benton H. Dunbergh 
SECRETARY: *John E. Quinn 
ADDRESS: Room 16, City Hall, Paterson, New Jersey 

Perth Amboy, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John E. Sofield, Chairman; Frank Van Syckle, Vice-Chair- 
man; M. Joseph Duffy, Wesley T. Hansen, Isadore Jacobson 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Alexander O. Zambory 
ADDRESS: William Dunlap Homes, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 

Princeton, Housing Authority of the Borough of 

MEMBERS: David S. Lloyd, President; Isaac A. Vogel, Vice-President; 
Ralph E. Kimble, Secretary; Robert A. Benham, Edmund S. DeLong 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


CORRESPONDENT: *Foster D. Jemison (Agent) 
ADDRESS: 90 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey 

Trenton, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. Conner French, Chairman; Peter A. Pulone, Vice-Chairman; 

David L. Kelsey, Treasurer; Scott M. Fell, Fred L. Nitz 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Samuel Haverstick 
ADDRESS: 875 N. Willow Street, Trenton, New Jersey 


Clovis Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Grady Head, Chairman; Claude Gamble, Vice-Chairman; 

A. W. Anderson, Ray Harrison, J. F. Sellers 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * William N. Nelson 
ADDRESS: Hotel Clovis Building, Clovis, New Mexico 


Buffalo Municipal Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: J. Eugene McMahon, Chairman; Mrs. Edmund B. McKenna, 
Vice-Chairman; The Reverend Leo A. Geary, John J. McNamara (i 

SECRETARY: *Howard A. Kelly 

ADDRESS: 392 Perry St., Buffalo, New York 

Lackawanna Municipal Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Edward J. Donowick, Chairman; Charles E. Clark, Jr., Vice- 
Chairman; Stanley W. Doktor, Secretary-Treasurer; Roger Dough- 
erty, Olyn Wilson 

CORRESPONDENT: *Carl E. Bartholomy (Housing Manager) 
ADDRESS: 1258 McKinley Parkway, Lackawanna, New York 

New Rochelle Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: The Reverend Robert R. Hartley, Chairman; Mrs. William 
Wylie Troy, Vice-Chairman; Edward Davidson, Secretary-Treas- 
urer;, Vincent Cittadino, The Reverend Redmond S. Oden 


ADDRESS: 271 North Avenue, New Rochelle, New York 

New York City Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Mrs. Mary K. Simkhovitch, Vice-Chairman; Monsignor E. 

Roberts Moore, Hugh S. Robertson (2 vacancies) 
SECRETARY: *Frank M. Didisheim 
ADDRESS: 122 East 42nd Street, New York City 

Schenectady, Municipal Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: The Reverend Karl W. Schleede, Chairman; Frank Stein, 
Vice-Chairman; William H. Dunn, Second Vice-Chairman; R. J. 
Carmichael, Treasurer; The Reverend Father William F. Boldt 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



ADDRESS: 402 Millard Street, Schenectady, New York 

Syracuse Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: John A. Dittman, Chairman; The Reverend Calvin M. 

Thompson, Jr., Vice-Chairman;, Lewis P. Andreas, Frederick A. 

Kreuzer, Mrs. Harry C. Webb 
ADDRESS: 301 East Washington Street, Syracuse, New York 

Tuckahoe Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Joseph J. Creamer, Chairman; Dominick Luciano, Vice- 

Chairman; Charles S. Hart, Frank Mallen, Floyd Sanford, Jr. 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Alexander J. Brown 
ADDRESS: in Lake Avenue, Tuckahoe, New York 

Utica, The Municipal Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Glen H. Humphrey, Chairman; Irving L. Jones, Vice-Chair- 
man; Mose B. Flemma, Mrs. John D. Lennon, Thomas A. Patterson 
SECRETARY: *Harold E. Mullen 
ADDRESS: 1736 Armory Drive, Utica, New York 

Yonkers, The Municipal Housing Authority for the City of 

MEMBERS: Thomas J. Quinlan, Chairman; Abraham Rosenblum, Vice- 
Chairman; James W. Armstrong, Mrs. Howard F. Danihy, H. Lan- 
sing Quick 

SECRETARY: *Matthew F. Kelly 

ADDRESS: 47 Loehr Place, Yonkers, New York 


Asheville, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Verne Rhoades, Chairman; John G. Deshler, Vice-Chairman; 

Walter I. Abernethy, William P. Gearing, Arthur T. Rust 
ADDRESS: Room 204, City Hall, Asheville, North Carolina 

Charlotte, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Edwin L. Jones, Chairman; W. Frank Dowd, Jr., Vice-Chair- 
man; George W. Dowdy, James J. Harris, John Tillett 
ADDRESS: 831 Seigle Street, Charlotte, North Carolina 

Concord, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. A. Cannon, Chairman; Boyd Biggers, Vice-Chairman; 

E. B. Grady, Jr., C. A. Ridenhour, John H. Suther 
ADDRESS: Concord, North Carolina 

Fayetteville, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: T. T. Betts, Chairman; H. M. Pinkston, Vice-Chairman; J. W. 
Hensdale, J. T. Maloney, W. T. Rainey 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 129, Fayetteville, North Carolina 

Greensboro, Housing Authority of the City of 


ADDRESS: 624-25 Jefferson Standard Building, Greensboro, North Carolina 

High Point, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Capus M. Waynick, Chairman;, J. E. Millis, Vice-Chairman; 

D. A. Dowdy, Dr. C. S. Grayson, The Reverend O. L. Ruth 
ADDRESS: High Point, North Carolina 

Kinston, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: The Reverend Jack R. Rountree, Chairman; H. C. Wooten, 
Vice-Chairman; J. C. Hood, J. F. Parrott, Jr., Dr. K. P. Turrentine 
ADDRESS: Kinston, North Carolina 

New Bern, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: James M. West, Chairman; W. Floyd Gaskins, Vice-Chair- 
man; Richard Forrester, Harry Lipman, Bynum Smith 
ADDRESS: New Bern, North Carolina 

Raleigh, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: B. F. Brown, Chairman; Theodore S. Johnson, Vice-Chair- 
man; R. C. Kirchofer, Robert I. Lee, H. A. Mooneyham 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1007, Raleigh, North Carolina 

Wilmington, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. W. Houston Moore, Chairman;, R. Stewart, Vice-Chair- 
man; The Reverend Walter B. Freed, C. B. Kornegay, Harry M. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1491, Wilmington, North Carolina 

Winston-Salem, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John C. Whitaker, Chairman; Stratton Coyner, Vice-Chair- 
man; Jack Atkins, J. R. Fain, G. D. Sexton 
ADDRESS: 413 Reynolds Building, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 


Akron Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Paul E. Belcher, Chairman; A. W. Dickson, Vice-Chairman; 

J. R. Barr, A. J. Frecka, Ray W. Heslop 
ADDRESS: 31 North Summit Street, Akron, Ohio 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Cincinnati Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Stanley M. Rowe, Chairman; John B. Spilker, Vice-Chairman; 

Fred Hock, Mrs. Simon Kuhn, Joseph Sagmeister 
DIRECTOR: *George Garties 
ADDRESS: 1001 Neave Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Marc J. Grossman, Chairman;, John C. McHannan, Vice- 

Chairman; Max S. Hayes, John C. Kline, Charles W. White 
DIRECTOR: *Ernest J. Bohn 
ADDRESS: Housing Center, West Mall Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Charles St. John Chubb, Chairman; Charles L. Dolle, Jr., 

Vice-Chairman; Edward F. Ferguson, Charles F. Jenkins, Henry J. 


EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS: *Orlando A. Corzilius 
ADDRESS: Room 407, City Hall, Columbus, Ohio 

Dayton Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Andrew S. Iddings, Chairman; W. S. Robinson, Vice-Chair- 
man; Mrs. Kathryn E. Bailey, S. G. Carr, Harry C. Schommer 
DIRECTOR: *Charlton D. Putnam 
ADDRESS: 701-702 Harries Building, Dayton, Ohio 

Hamilton Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Edwin B. Pierce, Chairman; H. H. Beneke, Vice-Chairman; 

Frank Vidourek, Secretary; Arthur Frechtling, A. K. Lewis 
DIRECTOR: *Robert F. Bevis 
ADDRESS: Ross, Ohio 

Lorain Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: H. E. Bracken, Chairman; E. J. Burger, Vice-Chairman; R. E. 

Bryan, The Reverend H. Linville, Charles Sidney Smith 
DIRECTOR: *Willard T. Francis 
ADDRESS: 383 Broadway, Lorain, Ohio 

Portsmouth Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Elmer G. Brown, Chairman; The Reverend William F. Con- 
nolly, Vice-Chairman; Frank N. Bihlman, Dr. Noble E. Lett, Dr. 
S. D. Ruggles 

DIRECTOR: *Frank E. Sheehan 

ADDRESS: 1908 Wayne Avenue, Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: C. H. McFarland, Chairman; J. J. Dyer, Vice-Chairman; 

T. P. Caniff, Fred Fultz, H. E. McFadden 
CORRESPONDENT: *A. G. Whitehouse (Architect) 
ADDRESS: 207 Exchange Realty Building, Steubenville, Ohio 

Toledo Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: A. G. Spieker, Chairman; William P. Clarke, Vice-Chairman; 
Otto H. Hohly, Edward Kirschner, Robert F. Pulley 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


DIRECTOR: *Donald Robinson 

ADDRESS: 392 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 

Warren Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Jean Blair, Chairman; Dana M. Bailey, Jr., Vice-Chairman; 

C. J. Bland, G. C. Bolz, Thorn Pendleton 
DIRECTOR: *C. L. Feederle 
ADDRESS: 1970 Hazel wood Avenue, S. E., Warren, Ohio 

Youngstown Metropolitan Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Frank W. Mouery, Chairman; Ray G. Hagstrom, Vice- 

Chairman; Dahl B. Cooper, Laura M. Kistler, W. Edgar Leedy 
DIRECTOR: *P. L. Strait 
ADDRESS: 976 West Federal Street, Youngstown, Ohio 

Zanesville Metropolitan Housing. Authority 

MEMBERS: J. Lincoln Knapp, Chairman; William G. Watson, Vice- 

Chairman; George M. Leasure (2 vacancies) 
DIRECTOR: * James E. Goddard 
ADDRESS: Coopermill Manor, Zanesville, Ohio 


Clackamas, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: W. F. Haberlach, Chairman; Earl S. Burdick, Vice-Chairman; 

Paul Chambers, Thomas P. Long, Wallace R. Telford 
ADDRESS: 400 Masonic Building, Oregon City, Oregon 

Portland, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *C. M. Gartrell, Chairman; C. A. Moores, Vice-Chairman; 

Herbert J. Dahlke, Mrs. C. S. Jackson, D. E. Nickerson 
ADDRESS: 1008 Southwest Sixth Avenue, Portland, Oregon 


Allegheny County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Edward J. Leonard, Chairman; John J. Mullen, Vice-Chair- 
man; Mrs. Adeline W. Barnes, Secretary; A. H. Burchfield, Jr., 
Treasurer; Joseph T. Quakers 


ADDRESS: 1515 South Negley Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Allentown, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Criarles W. Ettinger, Chairman; Lee R. Kahler, Vice-Chair- 
man; Raymond J. Bader, Secretary; Harry K. Harley, Treasurer; 
Robert E. Ochs 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Anthony E. Bickel 

ADDRESS: Administration Building, Hanover Acres, Allentown, Penn- 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Beaver, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: A. C. Edgecombe, Chairman (Acting); Ralph C. Bennett, 

William R. Moore, Milo G. Prosser, Clifford Shorts 
ADDRESS: 199 Ninth Street, Monaca, Pennsylvania 

Bethlehem Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Robert Pfeifle, Chairman; W. R. Coyle, Weir Jepson, 

Merritt S. Kreidler, A. Litzenberger 
ADDRESS: 514 Bethlehem Trust Building, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 

Bucks County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Fred F. Martin, Chairman; Jesse G. Webster, Vice-Chair- 
man; Clarence E. Benner, Secretary; W. Richardson Blair, John S. 
Roberts, Jr. 
ADDRESS: 14-15 Hart Building, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 

Chester Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Edward D. McLaughlin, Chairman; Arthur R. Gearhart, 
Vice-Chairman; Dr. S. P. Gray, Treasurer;, Dr. Joseph F. Dunn, 
Charles S. Hoberger 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *George S. Mitchell, Jr. 

ADDRESS: Community Building, Lamokin Village, Chester, Pennsylvania 

Crawford County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Joseph M. Bloss, Chairman; John B. Chick, Russell J. Hopkins, 

Edward J. McDonald, Charles J. Ward 
ADDRESS: Titusville, Pennsylvania 

Delaware County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Edward D. McLaughlin, Chairman; William R. Argyle, 

J. E. Grant, Raymond S. Munson, Thomas Weidemann 
ADDRESS: 126 East i8th Street, Chester, Pennsylvania 

Erie, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Melvin A. Zurn, Chairman; William H. Kneib, Vice-Chair- 
man; H. Eugene Kelley, Treasurer; Michael J. Campbell, Neil A. 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Joseph Anton Schmid 

ADDRESS: 204 Hayes Building, Erie, Pennsylvania 

Fayette, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: John W. Rankin, Chairman; Thomas V. Donegan, Arthur 

Higginbotham, John Kikta, William Teggart, Jr. 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Howard J. Mulligan 
ADDRESS: Union Trust Building, Uniontown, Pennsylvania 

Greene County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: James T. Sutton, Chairman;, L. J. Billingsley, Vice-Chairman; 
Chauncey W. Parkinson, Secretary-Treasurer; Harry Cummings, 
P. H. Meighen 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


CORRESPONDENT: *Kenneth H. Gordon (Survey Supervisor) 
ADDRESS: 404 Peoples Bank Building, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania 

Harrisburg Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: T. E. Stephenson, Chairman; * Alton W. Lick, Vice-Chair- 
man; B. C. Stewart, Vice-Chairman; C. Sylvester Jackson, Treasurer 
(i vacancy) 

ADDRESS: Room 303, City Hall, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Johnstown Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Joseph Siciliano, Chairman; W. S. Gray, Vice-Chairman; 

Patrick H. Farrell, Evan B. Lloyd, Jesse E. Wynn 
ADDRESS: 406 U. S. Bank Building, Johnstown, Pennsylvania 

McKeesport, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. D. Mansfield, Chairman; W. J. Yester, Vice-Chairman; 

S. H. Hirshberg, Secretary-Treasurer; Arch McFarlane, Frank S. 


DIRECTOR: *J. Glenn Sinn 
ADDRESS: E. R. Crawford Village, McKeesport, Pennsylvania 

Mifflin County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *E. Dale Fisher, Chairman; Harold W. Houck, Donald C. 

Kerstetter, John T. Rodgers, Baker Young 
ADDRESS: Lewistown, Pennsylvania 

Montgomery County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: R. F. Smale, Chairman; Felix Perry, Vice-Chairman; Dr. 

Warren D. Phillips, Secretary; The Reverend Marshall W. Lee, 

Treasurer (i vacancy) 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * William Franklin Burk 
ADDRESS: 35 East Penn Street, Norristown, Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia Housing Authority, The 

MEMBERS: Roland R. Randall, Chairman; James L. McDevitt, Vice- 

Chairman;, Raymond Rosen, Second Vice-Chairman; J. Griffith 

Boardman, Secretary; Dr. W. Harry Barnes 
ADDRESS: 910 Administration Building, 2ist and Parkway, Philadelphia, 


Pittsburgh, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George E. Evans, Chairman; Leo Lehman, Vice-Chairman; 

George J. Walters, Secretary; Richard F. Jones, Treasurer; Clarence C. 


ADDRESS: Terrace Village Administration Building, Bentley Drive and 

Kirkpatrick Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Reading Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Marion G. Hensler, Chairman; The Reverend Darlington R. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Kulp, Vice-Chairman; Miss Edith N. Enck, Secretary-Treasurer; 

George M. Rhodes, William Wetherhold 
ADDRESS: 1301 Schuylkill Avenue, Reading, Pennsylvania 

Scranton Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *Felix P. Anuskiewicz, Chairman; Gordon Evans, Vice- 
Chairman; Joseph V. Phillips, Secretary; Edward Boland, Treasurer; 
John T. Durkan 

ADDRESS: 607 Lincoln Trust Building, Scranton, Pennsylvania 

Washington County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: R. W. Knox, Chairman; George Young, Vice-Chairman; 

M. J. Sweeney, Secretary;, Joseph F. Antoon, James J. Clelland 
ADDRESS: 19 East Wheeling Street, Washington, Pennsylvania 

Westmoreland County Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: W. S. MacDonald, Chairman; Michael Kuvinka, Vice-Chair- 
man; Samuel J. Russell, Treasurer; William J. Hanka, O. F. Panna- 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Joseph P. Sheridan 
ADDRESS: 409 Coulter Building, Greensburg, Pennsylvania 


Arecibo Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Jose Garcia Abreu, President; Mrs. Laura P. de Munoz, 

Treasurer; Francisco Morales, Virgilio Garcia Rigau, Vicente Gonzalez 


ADDRESS: Santa Maria Street, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 

Mayaguez, Municipal Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Fernando R. Colon, Chairman; Dr. Edelmiro J. Caban, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Nelson Perea, J. A. Zapata (i vacancy) 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Victor E. Domenech 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1109, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 

Ponce, Municipal Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Fernando H. Usera, Chairman;, Andres Bello, Vice-Chairman; 

L. Martiniano Garcia, Rafael Garcia de Quevedo, Esteban Rodriguez 


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: *Teodoro Moscoso, Jr. 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 149, Ponce, Puerto Rico 

Puerto Rico, Municipal Housing Authority of the Capital of 

MEMBERS: Manuel Font, Chairman; Manuel Martinez Casanova, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Antonio Arbona, Francisco Serrano (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3672, San Juan, Puerto Rico 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



Newport, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. S. H. Dawley, Chairman; J. Henry Cremin, Vice-Chairman; 

J. C. Earle McLennan, Hugh S. O'Connell, Arthur J. Sullivan 
SECRETARY: * William J. Donovan 
ADDRESS: Park-Holm Number One, Newport, Rhode Island 

Pawtucket, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: * William L. Connolly, Chairman; Frank Crook, Vice-Chair- 
man ; Joseph Charpentier, Edward J. Costello, Dr. Edmond C. 

ADDRESS: City Hall, Pawtucket, Rhode Island 

Providence, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: David J. Barry, Chairman; Joseph J. Bodell, Vice-Chairman; 

Cornelius J. Mulcahy, The Reverend Paul C. Perrotta, Robert F. 


ADDRESS: 4 Weybosset Street, Providence, Rhode Island 

Woonsocket Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Wilfred M. Gauvreau, Chairman; William H. Genereux, 
Vice-Chairman; Henri E. Gauthier, Jean N. Guerin, Roy T. Sherwood 
ADDRESS: 285 Main Street, Woonsocket, Rhode Island 


Aiken, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *H. E. Blake, Chairman; Herman Hahn, Leonard Holley, 

B. J. King, Jacob Wolf 
ADDRESS: Aiken, South Carolina 

Charleston Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Dr. Josiah E. Smith, Chairman; W. D. Schwartz, Jr., Vice- 
Chairman; James Coles, Howard M. Harley, Mrs. Minnie L. Lunz, 
Mrs. C. L. McGowan, H. A. Molony, Sr. 
ADDRESS: 20 Franklin Street, Charleston, South Carolina 

Columbia, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: W. Smede Hendley, Chairman; Samuel L. Latimer, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Edward C. Coker, Geddings H. Crawford, L. Cooper 

CORRESPONDENT: * William R. Geddings (Supervising Manager) 
ADDRESS: 1505 Garden Plaza, Columbia, South Carolina 

Darlington, The Housing Authority of the County of Darlington 
MEMBERS: C. T. Jordan, Chairman; H. L. Sisk, Vice-Chairman; J. Wesley 
Beasley, George B. Hendrickson, W. Archie Teal 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



ADDRESS: City Hall Building, Darlington, South Carolina 

Greenville, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. Curran B. Earle, Chairman; Richard W. Arrington, Vice- 
Chairman; V. M. Manning, E. E. Scott, W. N. Watson, Jr. 
ADDRESS: City Hall Building, Greenville, S. C. 

Spartanburg, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Wallace D. DuPre, Chairman; Dr. E. M. Gwaltney, Vice- 

Chairman; Jackson S. Burnett, Dr. A. A. Wilkinson, L. C. Wilson 
ADDRESS: Hub City Courts, Spartanburg, South Carolina 


Chattanooga Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: M. C. Poss, Chairman;, S. J. McCallie, Vice-Chairman; Thomas 

M. Devine, A. T. Johnson, Mrs. Sue Mills Loop 
ADDRESS: 2600 Fourth Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 

Clarksville Housing Authority, The 

MEMBER: J. B. Miller, Chairman 
ADDRESS: Clarksville, Tennessee 

Jackson Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: R. M. Wisdom, Chairman; J. R. Thompson, Jr., Vice-Chair- 
man; F. M. Frankland, R. J. Holt, W. H. Parham 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 895, Jackson, Tennessee 

Kingsport Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: George E. Stone, Chairman; C. C. Hamlett, Vice-Chairman; 

W. R. Gilmer, S. G. Milhorn, Walter F. Smith 
ADDRESS: 671 Dale Street, Kingsport, Tennessee 

Knoxville Housing Authority, Inc. 

MEMBERS: George E. Oldham, Chairman; A. Y. Russell, Vice-Chairman; 

G. L. Kelly, Secretary;, Frank Maloney, Treasurer; Ralph A. 


ADDRESS: 1701 Jourolmon Avenue, Knoxville, Tennessee 

Memphis Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Edward F. Barry, Chairman; Dr. H. P. Hurt, Vice-Chairman; 

Ike Gronauer, Secretary; Dr. L. M. Graves, Edward M. Knoff 
ADDRESS: 264 North Lauderdale Street, Memphis, Tennessee 

An asterisk (?) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Nashville Housing Authority, The 

MEMBERS: Tony Sudekum, Chairman; J. L. Byrne, Vice-Chairman; 

C. L. Ennis, Sam Levy, J. O. Tankard 
ADDRESS: 212 Warner Building, Nashville, Tennessee 

Paris Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: M. E. Warren, Chairman; Herbert Sullivan, Vice-Chairman; 

Chesley Alexander, Dr. George D. Boone, Richard Shoffner 
ADDRESS: 101 West Wood Street, Paris, Tennessee 

Union City Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *B. C. Cox, Chairman; C. P. Merryman, Vice-Chairman; 
J. Milton Andrews, Secretary; Howell Bransford, Charles W. Reynolds 
ADDRESS: Union City, Tennessee 


Austin Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: E. H. Perry, Sr., Chairman; A. J. Wirtz, Vice-Chairman; 

Hubert B. Jones, Second Vice-Chairman; Miss Louise Haynie, J. H. 

CORRESPONDENT: *D. B. Johnson (Assistant Director and Housing 

ADDRESS: 302 Chalmers Avenue, Austin, Texas 

Brownsville, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: The Very Reverend Esteban de Anta, Chairman; B. L. 

Kowalski, Vice-Chairman;, J. T. Pipkin, Treasurer; J. T. Canales, 

Rene D. Sauber 

ADDRESS: P. O. Box 327, Brownsville, Texas 

Brownwood, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: David H. Henley, Chairman; Rufus F. Stanley, Vice-Chair- 
man; Fred S. Abney, Douglas Coalson, Gene Mattox 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 143, Brownwood, Texas 

Bryan, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *S. B. Zisman, Chairman; A. S. Ware, Vice-Chairman; 

C. Edgar Jones, Don W. Rucker, James Whaley 
ADDRESS: Municipal Building, Bryan, Texas 

Corpus Christi, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Henry Coutret, Chairman; The Reverend R. O. Cawker, 

Vice-Chairman; Cecil E. Burney, G. O. Garrett, John T. Wright 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 2430, Corpus Christi, Texas 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Dallas, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. George Loving, Chairman; Huber Boedeker, Vice-Chair- 
man; W. R. Burns, Dr. H. Raphael Gold, B. H. Majors 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * James L. Stephenson 
ADDRESS: 2525 Lucas Drive, Dallas, Texas 

Del Rio, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: O. R. Weinert, Chairman;, John Rowland, Vice-Chairman; 

F. Cantu, Dr. S. W. Crossley, R. H. Word 
ADDRESS: Ross Building, Del Rio, Texas 

Denison, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. G. Webster, Chairman; W. L. Peterson, Vice-Chairman; 

W. L. Ashburn, Jr., P. W. Burtis, Jr., Fred Harvey 
CORRESPONDENT: *Dr. T. J. Long (Mayor) 
ADDRESS: Municipal Building, Denison, Texas 

Eagle Pass, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: R. B. Thomson, Chairman; J. P. Delaney, Vice-Chairman; 

M. Grossenbacher, McFarland Van Haile, J. D. Plumb 
ADDRESS: Eagle Pass, Texas 

El Paso, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Frank B. Fletcher, Chairman; Modesto A. Gomez, Vice- 
Chairman- Miss Catherine Gorbutt, Charles E. Graham, R. E. 


ADDRESS: 508 S. Virginia Street, El Paso, Texas 

Fort Worth, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. Charles H. McCollum, Jr., Chairman; B. C. Reich, Jr., 
Vice-Chairman; Mrs. Mabel G. Bennett, Grover C. Cole, R. J. Newton 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Robert Lealand Hunter 
ADDRESS: 500 West Balknap Street, Fort Worth, Texas 

Galveston, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Fred E. Fischer, Chairman; H. Renfert, Vice-Chairman; 

Robert I. Cohen, Jr., The Reverend E. H. Gibson, B. A. Gritta 
ADDRESS: Trust Building, Galveston, Texas 

Harlingen Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *L. R. Baker, Chairman; Dr. J. W. Kirby, Menton Murrey, 

Larry Powers, Mrs. W. L. Trammel 
ADDRESS: Harlingen, Texas 

Houston, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William H. Fabian, Chairman; J. P. Hamblen, Vice-Chair- 
man; A. S. McBride, Edward J. Mosher, J. K. Stirton 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: Republic Building, Houston, Texas 

Laredo, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Matias de Llano, Chairman;, Ed S. Russell, Vice-Chairman; 
Woodie Y. Bunn, Jr., The Reverend Dan A. Laning, Carlos Richter 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Francisco Cardenas 
ADDRESS: 2000 San Francisco Avenue, Laredo, Texas 

Lubbock, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. C. Fender, Chairman; J. Ray Dickey, Vice-Chairman; 

Dr. D. D. Cross, Samuel Rosenthal, Charles Whitacre 
ADDRESS: 204-5 Palace Theater Building, Lubbock, Texas 

Marshall, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. B. Hayes, Chairman; S. E. Wood, Jr., Vice-Chairman; 

*Martin Hirsch, Secretary; C. M. Beckett, George A. Walker 
ADDRESS: 209- A East Houston Street, Marshall, Texas 

Mineral Wells, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. E. Dennis, Chairman; Vernon Moore, Vice-Chairman 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Mineral Wells, Texas 

Mission, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George Boyle, Chairman; H. R. Melch, Vice-Chairman 
ADDRESS: City Hall, Mission, Texas 

Orange, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: C. C. Leedy, Chairman; Hal G. Carter, Vice-Chairman; B. F. 

Brown, Howard S. Peterson, Charles Steele 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *George Masterson 
ADDRESS: Orange, Texas 

Pelly Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Victor Lannou, Chairman; Zack Nelson, Vice-Chairman; 

E. E. Slagle, J. I. F. Tharpe, Kent A. Woods 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 181, Pelly, Texas 

San Antonio, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. W. Graff, Chairman; Louis W. Schlesinger, Vice-Chair- 
man; Robert D. Barclay, Artie B. Compton, Youngs C. Crook 
ADDRESS: 400 Labor Street, San Antonio, Texas 

Texarkana, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Dr. Frank L. King, Chairman; John D. Raffaelli, Vice- 
Chairman; Henry Brooks, Walter Hussman, Arthur E. Kackley, Sr. 
ADDRESS: 2011 W. i2th Street, Texarkana, Texas 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Texas City, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: Dan Turney, Chairman; Joe Francis, A. C. Hunter, E. A. 

Johnson, Dr. G. R. Manske 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1570, Texas City, Texas 

Waco, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. A. Flowers, Chairman;, William J. Boswell, Vice-Chairman; 

Dr. K. H. Aynesworth, R. E. Fellow, J. E. Porter 
ADDRESS: Administration Building, Kate Ross Homes, Waco, Texas 

Waxahachie, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: C. C. Randle, Chairman; *Lynn B. Griffith, Secretary; J. G. 

Cheatham, Arthur Curry, John McElroy 
ADDRESS: Waxahachie, Texas 


Alexandria, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: John Barton Phillips, Chairman; Edmund F. Ticer, Vice-Chair- 
man; V. Ward Boswell, Charles T. Nicholson, Glenn U. Richard 
ADDRESS: 600 North West Street, Alexandria, Virginia 

Bristol Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: C. P. Daniel, Chairman; W. H. Blakley, Vice-Chairman; 

H. H. Harkrader, C. A. Jones, R. H. McClure 
ADDRESS: Oakview and Mary Streets, Bristol, Virginia 

Danville, Housing Authority of the City of 
MEMBERS: Dr. E. Howe Miller, Chairman; William H. Dodson, Jr., 

Vice-Chairman; Brantley F. Barr, John H. Schoolfield, Jr., Jesse W. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 257, Danville, Virginia 

Hopewell, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Forrest Evans, Chairman; T. E. Barnett, Vice-Chairman; 

J. J. Cook, F. B. Heller, J. C. Marks 
ADDRESS: 550 Terminal Street, Hopewell, Virginia 

Martinsville Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: *H. L. Byrd, Chairman; B. L. Fisher, O. V. Huskey, P. R. 

Stone, A. W. Swinler 
ADDRESS: Martinsville, Virginia 

Newport News, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Thomas J. Hundley, Chairman; Sam A. Hickey, Vice- 
Chairman; David Dick, Mrs. J. E. Kritzer, LeRoy F. Ridley 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


ADDRESS: P. O. Box 77, Newport News, Virginia 

Norfolk, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: L. H. Windholz, Chairman; Charles L. Kaufman, Vice- 

Chairman;, J. E. Etheridge, C. W. Grandy, David Fender 
ADDRESS: 500 Dickson Building, Norfolk, Virginia 

Portsmouth, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: George T. McLean, Chairman; George O. Diggs, Vice-Chair- 
man; E. C. Allen, Norman R. Hamilton, M. L. McCarty 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Orin M. Bullock, Jr. 
ADDRESS: 1746 South Street, Portsmouth, Virginia 

Richmond, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: William Shands Meacham, Chairman; Mrs. W. E. Lee Purcell, 
Vice-Chairman; Dr. Henry McGuinn, Arthur P. Reynolds, W. Harry 


ADDRESS: 409 Atlantic Life Building, Richmond, Virginia 


Bremerton, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: R. A. McNeal, Chairman; J. C. Baer, Vice-Chairman; Lester 

Galyan, Mrs. Lulu D. Haddon, Harold T. Lebo 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 631, Bremerton, Washington 

Clallam County, Housing Authority of 

MEMBERS: R. E. Goss, Chairman; Hayes Evans, Vice-Chairman; A. A. 

Fletcher, James Kinney, Al Lamoureux 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 310, Port Angeles, Washington 

Cowlitz, Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: *Edward E. Henry, Chairman; Abe Moawad, Vice-Chairman; 

Eugene Crumb, Secretary; A. M. Shepard, R. E. Shinn 
ADDRESS: 114 Henry Building, Longview, Washington 

King, The Housing Authority of the County of 

MEMBERS: Clarence B. Lafromboise, Chairman; John L. Fournier, Vice- 
Chairman; Dr. Cecil V. Englund, John M. Fox, Mark M. Litchman 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Gerald V. Balthaser 
ADDRESS: 107 County-City Building, Seattle, Washington 

Marcus, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *J. T. Peterson, Chairman 
ADDRESS: Marcus, Washington 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Olympia, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: *Elbert M. Chandler, Chairman;, Russell Bordeaux, Vice- 
Chairman; Charles Bowen, Secretary; Boyd Andreus, Arno Glidden 
ADDRESS: 301 Security Building, Olympia, Washington 

Poulsbo, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Selmer H. T. Myreboe, Chairman; Victor I. Card, Vice- 
Chairman; *Nels C. Gregerson, Secretary-Executive Director; Edgar B. 
Rustad, Homer H. Whitford 

ADDRESS: Poulsbo, Washington 

Renton, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Hayden Williams, Chairman; Jack Lamch, Vice-Chairman; 

*Paul W. Houser, Jr., Executive Secretary;, E. K. Arnold, Tom 

Dobson, Jr. 
ADDRESS: 4 Wood Building, Renton, Washington 

Seattle, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: G. W. Coplen, Chairman; Kenneth J. Morford, Vice-Chair- 
man; Charles W. Doyle, Nat S. Rogers (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: 919 Spruce Street, Seattle, Washington 

Tacoma, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Fred Shoemaker, Chairman; M. S. Erdahl, Wallace Morris- 

sette, G. A. Reeves, J. A. Thompson 
ADDRESS: 419 Provident Building, Tacoma, Washington 

Vancouver, The Housing Authority of the City of 

ADDRESS: 613% Main Street, Vancouver, Washington 


Charleston, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Leroy Allebach, Chairman; George W. King, Vice-Chairman; 

Thomas Cairns, R. J. Carroll, Mrs. Rheta G. Edwards 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 344, Charleston, West Virginia 

Huntington Housing Authority, The 

MEMBERS: Abe Forsythe, Chairman; Harry Wright, Vice-Chairman; Dr. 

Edward E. Rose, Treasurer;, Roy Carson, Wilbur Perry 
CORRESPONDENT: *George E. Arrington (Housing Manager) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 2183, Huntington, West Virginia 

Martinsburg, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: H. P. Thorn, Chairman; W. H. Thomas, Vice-Chairman; 

B. H. Keyton, C. G. Lloyd, E. C. Trout 
ADDRESS: 7 Post Office Building, Martinsburg, West Virginia 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Mount Hope, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: J. E. Howard, Chairman; *P. M. Snyder, Jr., Vice-Chairman 

and Executive Director; J. E. Bing, Secretary-Treasurer; W. C. Carter, 

J. M. Clark, Jr. 
ADDRESS: Lock Drawer Number 31, Mount Hope, West Virginia 

Point Pleasant, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Ross N. Filson, Chairman; Cecil G. Bauerle, Robert H. Fergu- 
son, Harold E. Somerville (i vacancy) 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 344, Charleston, West Virginia 

Wheeling Housing Authority 

MEMBERS: Harry C. Miller, Chairman; J. A. Bloch, Vice-Chairman; 

John M. Cunningham, Andrew C. M. Hess, Archibald L. Klieves 
ADDRESS: Grand view Street, Wheeling, West Virginia 

Williamson, Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: E. F. Randolph, Chairman;. R. M. Rowland, Vice-Chairman; 

Wade H. Bronson, C. C. Scott, E. R. Ward 
ADDRESS: Williamson, West Virginia 


Superior, The Housing Authority of the City of 

MEMBERS: Martin M. Krieps, Chairman; Michael Howe, Vice-Chair- 
man; Felix Idziorek, Secretary; Olaf Johnson, William C. Wendland 
ADDRESS: 209 Board of Trade Building, Superior, Wisconsin 


The Association defines this type of agency as "agencies appointed 
by public officials or public bodies but having only investigational or 
advisory powers." 

Returns from NAHO's annual solicitation of information for the 
Directory indicated such a severe falling off among organizations 
properly classed as official advisory that it was deemed unwise to 
continue listing this class. It is well known that many state and 
local defense councils have housing committees or divisions that 
might properly be called official advisory housing agencies. The rate 
of increase and change among such groups is so great, however, and 
there are so many cases in which it is not clear that they are official 
agencies that no attempt has been made to include them in the 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Homes Registration Offices constitute another group o organiza- 
tions that might be called official advisory. These Offices operate under 
the supervision of the National Housing Agency. Information about 
them may be secured from that organization. 


The Association defines an official housing agency as "any private 
agency whose major interest and activity is the improvement of hous- 
ing for low- and moderate-income groups." The definition is intended 
to include two groups of organizations: first, housing agencies as such; 
second, committees or other subdivisions of non-housing agencies that 
deal specifically with housing. The number of organizations in the 
second group is legion and they vary widely in form, permanence, and 
type and degree of housing activity. For the purpose of selecting 
agencies from this group for inclusion in the Directory, NAHO has 
limited its choice to those that it believes employ at least one full-time 
staff member. 


American Federation of Labor, Housing Committee 
CHAIRMAN: Harry C. Bates 
SECRETARY: *Boris Shishkin 

ADDRESS: Room 106, 901 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

CIO Committee on Housing 

OFFICERS: R. J. Thomas, Chairman; Thomas Kennedy, Secretary 

SECRETARY: * Anthony Wayne Smith 

ADDRESS: 1106 Connecticut Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Committee on the Hygiene of Housing of the American Public Health 


OFFICERS: C.-E. A. Winslow, Chairman; Rollo H. Britten, Secretary 
ADDRESS: 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 

Committee on Housing and Blighted Areas of the National Associa- 
tion of Real Estate Boards 
OFFICERS: Arthur W. Binns, Chairman; John W. Galbreath, Vice-Chair- 


SECRETARY: *Charles T. Stewart 
ADDRESS: 1737 K Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

National Association of Community Managers 

OFFICERS: W. L. Me Arthur, President; James Muster, Vice-President; 
Miss Marion Neprud, Secretary-Treasurer 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


CORRESPONDENT: ^National Association of Housing Officials, 1313 East 
6oth Street, Chicago, Illinois 

National Committee of Housing Associations 

OFFICERS: *Sydney Maslen, Chairman; Mrs. Lillian Dunlop, Secretary 
ADDRESS: 105 East 22nd Street, New York City 

National Committee on the Housing Emergency, Inc. 

OFFICERS: Mrs. Samuel I. Rosenman, Chairman; Joseph D. Leland, First 

Vice-Chairman; Lisle Baker, Jr., Second Vice-Chairman;, Harold S. 

Buttenheim, Third Vice-Chairman; John E. Sloane, Secretary 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Miss Gladys A. La Fetra 
ADDRESS: 512 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

National Public Housing Conference 

OFFICERS: Mrs. Mary K. Simkhovitch, President; Catherine Bauer, Vice- 
President;, Jonathan Daniels, Vice-President; John Green, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Louis H. Pink, Chairman of Board; Miss Helen Alfred, 

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: * Alexander L. Crosby 

ADDRESS: 122 East 22nd Street, New York City 

The Twentieth Century Fund, Housing Committee of 

MEMBERS: Henry E. Hoagland, Chairman; Lillian M. Gilbreth, Frank P. 

Graham, Henry I. Harriman, Arthur C. Holden, John A. Lapp, 

William I. Myers, Coleman Woodbury 
CORRESPONDENT: *Miles L. Colean, Research Director 
ADDRESS: 522 Transportation Building, Washington, D. C. 


California Association of Housing Authorities 

OFFICERS: Ralph A. McMullen, President; Marshall Dill, First Vice- 
President; Dr. Kenneth Potter, Second Vice-President; Isidore B. 
Dockweiler, Third Vice-President;, Mrs. Esther Black, Fourth Vice- 
President; *Gerould L. Gill, Secretary 

ADDRESS: 825 Main Street, Martinez, California 

California Housing and Planning Association 

OFFICERS: Howard Moise, President; Catherine Bauer, Vice-President; 
The Right Reverend T. J. O'Dwyer, Vice-President; John F. Shelley, 
Vice-President; *Edward Howden, Secretary-Treasurer and Director 

ADDRESS: 948 Market Street, San Francisco, California 

Florida Association of Housing Authorities 

OFFICERS: James T. Daniels, President; Julius L. Graham, First Vice- 
President;, Melville E. Johnson, Second Vice-President; George C. 
Stembler, Third Vice-President; Morrison Pearce, Fourth Vice-Presi- 
dent; L. Dale Zent, Secretary-Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 3801 Georgia Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Georgia Association of Housing Officials 

OFFICERS: J. H. Therrell, President; Hal R. Powell, Vice-President; 

*M. I. Frost, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 47, Rome, Georgia 

Indiana Council of Housing Authorities 

OFFICERS: Kenneth A. Parmelee, President; Dennis F. Taylor, Vice- 
President; *P. V. Roche, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 7329 Columbia Circle West, Hammond, Indiana 

Maryland Association of Housing Authorities 

OFFICERS: Y. W. Dillehunt, President;, Paul H. Kea, Acting First Vice- 
President; James A. Haley, Second Vice-President; Lewis R. Dertz- 
baugh, Third Vice-President; Alfred T. Truitt, Fourth Vice-President; 
*Harry R. England, Secretary-Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 211 Prince George Street, Annapolis, Maryland 

Minnesota Better Housing Association 

OFFICERS: Dr. Donald J. Cowling, Chairman; *Robert T, Jones, Execu- 
tive Vice-Chairman; George W. Lawson, First Vice-Chairman; Mrs. 
Charles T. Burnley, Second Vice-Chairwoman;, Frank M. Rarig, Jr., 
Treasurer; Paul M. Segner, Secretary 

ADDRESS: School of Architecture, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 

Mississippi Association of Housing Officials 

OFFICERS: W. T. Denman, President; R. W. Reed, Vice-President; J. F. 
Borthwick, Vice-President; F. A. Anderson, Vice-President; *Owen 
Cooper, Secretary 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 1972, Jackson, Mississippi 

Montana Association of Housing Officials 

OFFICERS: Harry H. Olson, President; *Howard T. Buswell, Secretary 
ADDRESS: Samuel V. Stewart Homes, Helena, Montana 

Ohio Housing Authorities Conference 

OFFICERS: *Ernest J. Bohn, Chairman; Chairmen of Committees: Stanley 
M. Rowe, Construction; G. F. Hammond, Legal; P. L. Strait, Manage- 
ADDRESS: Housing Center, West Mall Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 

Pennsylvania Association of Housing Authorities 
OFFICERS: B. J. Hovde, President; Mrs. Adaline Barnes, Vice-President; 
Miss Dorothy Schoell, Secretary; C. Sylvester Jackson, Treasurer; 
*Clemons M. Roark, Executive Secretary 
ADDRESS: 199 Ninth Street, Monaca, Pennsylvania 

Puerto Rico Housing Authorities Association 

OFFICERS: Teodoro Moscoso, Jr., President;, Victor E. Domenech, Vice- 
President; *Gilberto M. Font, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: P. O. Box 3672, San Juan, Puerto Rico 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


Tennessee Association of Housing Authorities 

OFFICERS: E. F. Barry, President; Bert Cox, Vice-President; John L. 
Byrne, Second Vice-President; Frank Maloney, Third Vice-President; 
*Gera!d Gimre, Secretary 
ADDRESS: 212 Warner Building, Nashville, Tennessee 

Texas Housing Officials, Association of 

CORRESPONDENT: Robert Leland Hunter (President) 
ADDRESS: 500 West Belknap, Fort Worth, Texas 

Virginia Housing Authorities, Association of 
OFFICERS: *T. L. Cockrell, President; Laurence M. Cox, Vice-President; 

Orin M. Bullock, Jr., Secretary 
ADDRESS: 409 Atlantic Life Building, Richmond, Virginia 

Western States Housing Authorities Association 

OFFICERS: The Reverend Emmett McLoughlin, President; *Miss Alice 
Griffith, Secretary-Treasurer; Chairmen of Committees: Albert J. 
Evers, Priorities; Gerould L. Gill, Public Relations 
ADDRESS: 525 Market Street, San Francisco, California 




OFFICERS: Hubert Phillips, President; Mrs. R. James Dowling, Vice- 
President; William A. Bigby, Treasurer; *Jared A. Purcell, Secretary 
ADDRESS: 1035 Broadway, Fresno, California 


OFFICERS: The Right Reverend Monsignor Thomas J. O'Dwyer, 
President; Shelden D. Elliot, First Vice-President; Anne M. Mum- 
ford, Second Vice-President; *Frank Wilkinson, Executive Secretary; 
Eugene Weston, Jr., Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 333 West Second Street, Los Angeles, California 


OFFICERS: George A. Reimers, Chairman; *E. O. Morgan, Secretary- 
Treasurer; Elden Smith, Chairman of Survey Subcommittee 
ADDRESS: 431 West Fifth Street, Los Angeles, California 


OFFICERS: J. W. Butler, President; *Charles O. Busick, Jr., Vice- 
President; C. Olin Edwards, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 1120 Fifth Street, Sacramento, California 


OFFICERS: Charles Page, President; Morse Erskine, Vice-President; 

John H. Smith, Vice-President; John Rolls, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 447 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California 



An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


OFFICERS: Louis Feinmark, President; Allan A. Twichell, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Philip Nelbach, Vice-President; *Frances Feldman, Secretary; 
Lydia Wentworth, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 25 High Street, New Haven, Connecticut 

District of Columbia f 


OFFICERS: J. Bernard Wyckoff, President; Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
Honorary President;, Mrs. William Kittle, First Vice-President; 
James A. Cobb, Second Vice-President; *Mrs. Helen Duey Hoffman, 
Executive Director; Dr. L. F. Schmeckebier, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 902 Barr Building, Washington, D. C. 



OFFICERS: John R. Fugard, President; Joel D. Hunter, Vice-President; 

Mrs. Walker McLaury, Secretary; Oliver Turner, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 228 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 

DIRECTOR: *Marvin R. Katz 
ADDRESS: 520 Stratford Place, Chicago, Illinois 

OFFICERS: *Julia Turner, President; Neal Myers, First Vice-President; 

E. V. Moorman, Second Vice-President; Ruth Tenk, Secretary; 

V. G. Musselman, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 1128 Maine Street, Quincy, Illinois 



OFFICERS: John J. Cronin, Chairman; Z. Dekelboum, Vice-Chairman; 

*Oliver Switzer, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 410 Lafayette Building, South Bend, Indiana 



OFFICERS: John H. Scarf?, President; *Miss Frances H. Morton, 
Executive Secretary; Walter H. Kidd, Treasurer; H. Warren Buck- 
ler, Jr., Counsel 
ADDRESS: i St. Martins Road, Baltimore, Maryland 



OFFICERS: J. Leonard Johnson, Chairman;, Daniel L. Brown, Vice- 
Chairman; George L. Batchelder, Jr., Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 7 Water Street, Boston, Massachusetts 

t This unofficial agency is official advisory agency to the Alley Dwelling Authority for 
the District of Columbia as well. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 




OFFICERS: Dr. Robert W. Kelso, President;, Dr. Warren E. Bow, First 
Vice-President; Mrs. Willard Pope, Second Vice-President; The 
Reverend William H. Peck, Third Vice-President; *Alex. Linn 
Trout, Executive Secretary; Milton C. Selander, Secretary; Julius H. 
Moeller, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 1664 Penobscot Building, Detroit, Michigan 


CORRESPONDENT: *Robert T. Jones (Chairman) 

ADDRESS: School of Architecture, University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota 

New Jersey 


OFFICERS: *Herman C. Silverstein, President; Frank Kierce, First 
Vice-President; John Burgess, Second Vice-President; Helen Lyman 
Manning, Secretary; Mae Fenton Fonnelly, Corresponding Secretary; 
Walton Van Natta, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 591 Summit Avenue, Jersey City, New Jersey 

OFFICERS: Dr. William A. Ward, Chairman; *Miss Christine Hamilton, 

Secretary; Albert Neuscheler, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 237 Washington Street, Newark, New Jersey 

New York 

CHAIRMAN: William T. McCarthy 
SECRETARY: * Joseph H. Fink 
ADDRESS: 285 Schermerhorn Street, Brooklyn, New York 


OFFICERS: The Reverend John Howard Melish, Chairman; *Mrs. 

Margaret Swertz, Secretary; Howard L. Carey, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 157 Montague Street, Brooklyn, New York 


OFFICERS: * Joseph Rothman, President; Dr. John A. Singleton, First 
Vice-President; Nicholas M. Pitte, Second Vice-President; Frank 
Louci, Secretary; Dr. Bernard M. Lissey, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 160-16 Jamaica Avenue, Jamaica, New York 


OFFICERS: Harold S. Buttenheim, President; Miss Loula D. Lasker, 

First Vice-President; Peter Grimm, Second Vice-President; Henry M. 

Propper, Secretary; Delos Walker, Treasurer 
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: *Mrs. David B. Dunlop 
ADDRESS: 470 Fourth Avenue, New York City 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 



OFFICERS: *Mrs. Grace Aviles, President; Mrs. Justine Williams, Vice- 

President and Treasurer; Miss Rose-Marie Schmitt, Administrative 

ADDRESS: 30 East 2oth Street, New York City 

OFFICERS: Henry G. Hotchkiss, Chairman; *Sydney Maslen, Secretary 
ADDRESS: 105 East 22nd Street, New York City 


OFFICERS: Ganis Bolin, President; David ErTron, Director; *Mrs. 

Bessie L. Rosen, Executive Secretary 
ADDRESS: 211 Mansion Street, Poughkeepsie, New York 


OFFICERS: Rabbi Philip S. Bernstein, President;, Mrs. Alan Valentine, 

Vice-President; Mrs. Leonard W. Jones, Executive Vice-President; 

Grander Neville, Secretary; Arthur J. Callahan, Treasurer 
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: *Miss Dorothy W. Schroeder 
ADDRESS: Gannett House, Temple and Cortland Streets, Rochester, 

New York 


OFFICERS: Standish Meacham, President; Nathaniel R. Whitney, First 

Vice-President; Mrs. Simon Kuhn, Second Vice-President; Mrs. 

Richard S. Austin, Secretary; Thomas M. Keoghegan, Treasurer 
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: *Bleecker Marquette 
ADDRESS: 312 West Ninth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio 


OFFICERS: Bart J. Shine, Chairman; Dr. Richard S. Austin, Vice- 

Chairman; *Mrs. Carey P. McCord, Secretary-Treasurer 
ADDRESS: Fountain and Myrtle Avenues, Glendale, Ohio 


OFFICERS: Abram Garfield, President; Ley ton E. Carter, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Stanley M. Buckingham, Treasurer; Ernest J. Bonn, Director 
ADDRESS: Housing Center, West Mall Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 



OFFICERS: John P. O'Hara, President; Mrs. Sadie O. Dunbar, Vice- 
President; Rabbi Philip Kleinman, Secretary; *Jessie M. Short, 
Executive Secretary; O. V. Badley, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 2745 Northeast 26th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 



t Formerly City-Wide Tenants Council. 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


OFFICERS: Mitchell Shape, President; W. C. Rich, Vice-President; 

*Mary S. Frecon, Secretary; Paul H. Rhoades, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 235 Briggs Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

CORRESPONDENT: *Clemens M. Roark (President) 
ADDRESS: 199 Ninth Avenue, Monaca, Pennsylvania 

OFFICERS: *Kenneth Day, President; L. C. Herkness, Vice-President; 

H. Justice Williams, Secretary; Henry R. Pemberton, Treasurer 
ADDRESS: 613 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 


OFFICERS: Dr. J. A. MacCallum, President; Ellwood B. Chapman, 

Vice-President; A. Robert Bast, Treasurer; Leigh ton P. Stradley, 


ADDRESS: 1717 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 


OFFICERS: Edwin C. May, President; Sara M. Soffel, First Vice- 
President; Mrs. Willard E. Hotchkiss, Second Vice-President; 
*Wilson S. Borland, Secretary and Acting Executive Director; 
Joseph A. Beck, Treasurer 

ADDRESS: 519 Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

An asterisk (*) before a name indicates the corresponding agent, and the address is his. 


American Association of University 
Women, 85-86 

American Bar Association, 86 

American Federation of Labor. Housing 
Committee, 87-88 

American Home Economics Association, 

American Institute of Architects. Com- 
mittee on Urban Land Use, 90-91 

American Institute of Planners. Commit- 
tee on Urban Land Policies, 91-95 

American Public Health Association. Com- 
mittee on the Hygiene of Housing, 95- 

American Sociological Society, 98-99 

Building codes, 21, 115-116 

Camp Fire Girls of America, 99-100 
Central Housing Committee, 2, 6, 81-83 
City Planning, see Urban redevelopment 
Community facilities, costs, 62; migratory 

labor camps, 29-31 

Congress of Industrial Organizations. Com- 
mittee on Housing, 100-103 
Construction, FHA standards, 21-22; vol- 
ume, 12, 22-23, 38? 51-52, 59-60, 72- 

Construction costs, 16-17, 61-62; form 

of contract, 60-61; war housing, 52-53 
Critical List, see Priorities 

Defense Homes Corporation, 4, 6, 10 

Defense housing, see War housing 

Demolition, 114-115 

Demountable housing, 31, 58 

Division of Defense Housing. Federal 

Works Agency, 10 
Division of Defense Housing Coordination, 

5~7, 47-55 

Equivalent elimination, see Demolition 

Farm housing, see Rural housing 
Farm Security Administration, 27-37; non- 
farm activities transferred to NHA, 4, 

Farm tenancy, 33-34 
Federal Home Building Service Plan, 124 
Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, 

Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 4-6, 
38-46, 124 

Federal Housing Administration, 4-5, 20- 
26, 122-123 

Federal Loan Agency, 5, 7; executive or- 
der transferring to Department of Com- 
merce, 8-9 


Federal Public Housing Authority, 5, 7, 

Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Cor- 
poration, 4, 6, 43-44 

Federal Works Agency, 4-5, 7, 56-63 

Finance, local authorities, 17-18; research 
on legal aspects, 86; see also Home 
ownership, mortgages 

Health and housing, 95-96 

Home economics, 88-90 

Home Owners' Loan Corporation, 4, 6, 
40, 44-45, 122 

Home ownership, finance, 23-24, 38, 44- 
45, 124 

Homes registration, 47, 53-54 

Housing agencies, Administrative, defini- 
tion, 129; federal reorganization, 1-9; 
joint operation, n}-i5, 129; local, 14- 
15; municipal and metropolitan, direc- 
tory of, 137; national, directory of, 130; 
number of, 128; number of states with- 
out enabling legislation, 128; state and 
regional, directory of, 130 

Housing agencies, Official advisory, 182 

Housing agencies, Unofficial, 85-127; def- 
inition, 183; municipal and metropoli- 
tan, directory of, 1 86; national, directory 
of, 183; number of, 128; state and re- 
gional, directory of, 184 

Income, war workers, 69-70 

Interest rates, FHA war housing mort- 
gages, 21 ; on local authority loans, 17- 

Labor and housing, 87-88, 100-103 

Land acquisition, war housing, 59 

Lanham act amendments, 49 

Legislation, federal war housing, 49; state 
enabling, 13-14, 128, 129 

Low-rent housing, 12-15; enabling legis- 
lation, 13-14; need estimates, 12-13; 
projects, 12 

Management, war housing, 63, 66 

Migratory labor camps, 27-31 

Mobile housing, 28-29, 32-33 

Mortgages, 38; foreclosures, 45; insurance, 
20-26; large-scale housing, 24; property 
improvement, 25; small homes, 23; war 
housing, 24-25 

Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Di- 
vision, 10, 57-58, 100-103 

National Association for Nursery Educa- 
tion, 103-104 

National Association of Community Mana- 
gers, 103 



National Association of Real Estate Boards, 

National Committee of Housing Associa- 
tions, 107-109 

National Committee on the Housing Emer- 
gency, Inc., 109-111 

National Consumers League, in 

National Council of Jewish Women, m- 

National Education-Recreation Council, 

National Federation of Settlements. Hous- 
ing Division, 113114 

National Housing Agency, executive order 
establishing, 4-8 

National Institute of Municipal Law Of- 
ficers. Committee on Housing, 114-115 

National Public Housing Conference, 116- 

National Recreation Association, 118-119 

National Women's Trade Union League of 
America, 119-120 

Navy Department. Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, 64-66 

Nursery schools, 103-104 

Office of Price Administration. Rent Di- 
vision, 75-80 

Payments in lieu of taxes, see Service 

Prefabricated housing, see Demountable 

Priorities, building materials, 49-50, 53, 

67-74, "5 
Private housing, construction mortgages, 

38; for war workers, 40, 47, 53, 72 
Projects, FHA large-scale rental, 24; tenant 

activities, 18-19, 99-100 
Public Buildings Administration, 10, 57 

Real property surveys, 12 

Recreation and housing, 118-119 

Rent, graded rents, 16; US HA averages, 

15; war housing, 33, 63 
Rent control, 75-80; criteria for increases, 

77-78; fair rent committees, 78-79 
Reorganization of federal agencies, 1-9; 

NAHO board recommendations, 3; texts 

of executive orders, 4-9 

Repair and remodeling, FHA mortgage 
insurance, 25; HOLC conversion pro- 
gram, 40; rural housing, 36 

Research, by American Bar Association, 86; 
by American Public Health Association, 
95-96; by Central Housing Committee, 
81-83; by FHA, 26; by National Insti- 
tute of Municipal Law Officers, 114- 
115; by Twentieth Century Fund, 120- 


Residential construction, see Construction 
Rural housing, FSA activities, 27-37; m i" 
gratory labor camps, 27-31; need esti- 
mates, 34-37; sanitation, 35; temporary 
for displaced farmers, 31; temporary 
for war workers, 32-33; tenant pur- 
chase program, 33-34 

Savings and loan associations, 38-39, 41- 

Service charges, 63 

Tenants, 18-19 
Trailers, see Mobile housing 
Twentieth Century Fund. Housing Com- 
mittee, I 20-1 2 I 

United States Housing Authority, 4-5, 10- 


United States Savings and Loan League. 

Committee on Housing, 121-125 
Urban redevelopment, 90-97, 104-107 

War housing, by Navy, 64-66; by FSA, 
31-32; by private enterprise, 40, 53; 
by USHA, n; construction contract, 
60-6 1 ; Division of Defense Housing 
Coordination, 47-55; Federal Home 
Loan Bank Board activities, 39-40; 
Lanham act funds, n, 31-32, 56-63; 
legislation, 49; mortgage insurance, 20- 
21, 24-25; standards, 50; unofficial 
agency, 109-111; see also Homes regis- 
tration, Priorities 

War Production Board. Priorities Branch, 

Young Men's Christian Associations. Na- 
tional Council, 125-126 

Young Women's Christian Associations. 
National Board, 126-127 

A M n TV o 

OF -A 37 

Released from the 
Cranbrook Academy ot Art Library