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I AS A SETTING Of
A5 A SETTING OY
JWl RICE INSTITUTE
PUBLISHED AND COPYRIGHTED
JULIA CAMERON MONTGOMERY
The Rice Institute
Public Schools, Other Educational Facilities;
Music, Art League
Social Service Federation
Social Clubs, Amusements, Parks, Recreations
Lovely Homes and Suburbs
Big Buildings, Hotels and Apartments
Municipal Improvements Under Commission Form
Chamber of Commerce; Financial and Industrial
Seventeen Railroads Meet the Sea
From ((jpyrighted portrait by S. Salomon, San Antonio, Texas
GEN. SAM HOUSTON
THIS IU)()K is presented to its readers as a permanent
record of the progressive era upon which Houston is
Its inspiration came with attendance u])on the inaugural
and dedicatorial exercises opening the Rice Institute in Oc-
tober, igi2. Houston has many other beautiful and substantial
features, and in addition to depicting in detail the Institute,
an endeavor is made to describe by views and text other prin-
cipal features of Houston which are in keeping with the mag-
nificence and importance of this newest treasure.
The story of Houston as a commercial center, a wonderful
place for investment returns, has been told and repeated to
the ends of civilization. The purpose of this book is to tell
the story of Houston as a desirable dwelling place: a place
where a child may begin its education in kindergarten and
complete it in one of the world's greatest institutions of learn-
ing; where the best instruction in music and art is available,
the love of it daily inculcated in every school child of Houston,
and stimulated by yearly visitations of many of the world's
greatest interpreters ; where there is splendid organization of
social and moral uplift touching every phase of civic life;
where health consideration is vital, and public comfort, pleas-
ure and recreation receive definite provision.
The compilation of a book to contain every feature worthy
of representation would consume many months. In view of
this fact, and of the phenomenal rapidity of Houston's growth,
consecutive editions will be printed, and new features and de-
velopments added in succeeding editions.
The first edition is printed exclusively on a subscription
basis for progressive citizens who have recognized the need
of such a book.
WILLIAM MARSH RICE
Dr. Edgar Odell Lovett, President
THE late William Marsh Rice, a native of Massachusetts,
l)ut for many years a resident of Houston, was approached
ahiiut twenty years ago by several public-spirited citizens
of the community with the request that he bear the expense of
building a new puljlic high school for the City of Houston.
This direct gift to the city's welfare Mr. Rice was unwilling
to make, Ijut a few months later he took into his confidence a
half dozen friends, to whom he made known his desire to
found a much larger educational enterprise for the permanent
benefit of the citj' and state of his adoption. These gentle-
men were organized into a board of trust for the new founda-
tion, which was incorporated in 1891 under a broad charter
granting the trustees great freedom in the future organization
of a non-political and non-sectarian institution of liberal and
technical learning to be dedicated to the advancement of let-
ters, science and art. As a nucleus for an endowment fund.
Mr. Rice at this time made over an interest-bearing note of
two hundred thousand dollars to the original board of trus-
tees, consisting of himself, the late Messrs. F. A. Rice and
A. S. Richardson, and Messrs. James A. liaker, Jr., J. E. Mc-
Ashan, E. Raphael and C. Lombardi. Under the terms of the
charter this board is a self-]ierpctuating body of se\cn mem-
bers elected for life; the several vacancies which have oc-
curred since its organization have been filled by the election
of Messrs. ^\ illiam M. Rice, Jr., 1!. P.. Rice and E. O. Lovett.
It was the unalterable desire of the founder that the develop-
ment of the work which he had conceived should proceed no
Jas. A. Baker
J. E. McAshan
B. B. Rice
further during his lifetime. However, in the remaining days
(if his life he increased the endowment fund from time to time
by transferring to the trustees the titles to certain of his prop-
erties, and in the end made the new foimdation his residuary
legatee. Upon the termination of the long years of litigation
which followed Mr. Rice's death in 1900, the board of trust
found the Institute in possession ui an estate whose present
value is conservatively estimated at approximately ten million
dollars, divided by the provisions of the founder's will into
almost equal parts available for equipment and for endow-
ment, respectively. While proceeding to convert the non-pro-
ductive properties of the estate into income-bearing invest-
ments, tlie trustees called Dr. Edgar Odell Lovett. of I'rince-
ton University, to assist them in the realization of the found-
er's long-deferred plans, llefore taking up his residence in
Houston. President Lovett visited the leading educational and
scientific establishments of the world, returning in the summer
of 1909 from a year's journey of study that extended from
England to Japan. About this time negotiations were com-
pleted by which the Institute secured a site of three hundred
acres situated on tlie extension of Houston's main thorough-
fare, tliree miles from the center of the city — a tract of ground
unixersally regarded as the most appropriate within the vi-
cinit}' of the city.
In tlicir consideration of the problems confronting them, the
trustees \'ery early decided that the new institution should be
housed in architecture worthy of the founder's high aims; and
upon this idea they entered with no lower ambition than to
establish on the campus of the Institute a group of buildings
conspicuotis alike ftir their beauty and for their utility, which
should stand not only as a worthy monument to the founder's
philanthropy, but also as a distinct contribution to the arclii-
tecture of our country. With this end in view they determined
to commit to Messrs. Cram. Goodhue and Ferguson, of Boston
and New York, the task of designing a general architectural
plan to embody in the course of future years the realization of
the educational program which had been adopted for the
Institute. Such a general plan, exhibiting in itself the most
attractive elements of the architecture of Italy, France and
Spain, was accepted by the board in the spring of 1910. Im-
mediately thereafter plans and specifications for an adminis-
tration building were prepared, and in the following July the
contract for its construction was awarded; three months later
the erection of a mechanical laboratory and power house was
begun, and by the next autumn the construction of two wings
of the first residential hall for men was well under way.
\ Among the additional buildings for which tentative plans
have already been studied are special laboratories for instruc-
tion and investigation in physics, chemistry and biology, and
Cloister of Residential Hall
in the applications uf these sciences to the arts of industry and
commerce. In the preparation of these preliminary laboratory
])lans the Institute has enjoyed the co-operation of an adx'isory
committee consisting of Professor Ames, director of the phys-
ical laboratory of Johns Hopkins University ; Professor Conk-
lin, director of the liiological laboratory of Princeton Univer-
sity; Professor Richards, chairman of the department of
cliemistry, Harvard University, and Professor Stratton, di-
rector of the National Bureau of Standards.
Of the four main entrances to the campus, the principal one
lies at the corner of the grounds nearest the city. From this
entrance the approach to the Administration Paiilding is a
broad avenue several hundred yards long, to be bordered by
oaks and flanked l^y wide-spreading lawns, ending in a fore-
court, which will be bounded on the left by the School of Fine
Arts, on the right by the Residential College for Women. The
main avenue of approach coincides with the central axis of
the block plan, and from the principal gateway opens up
through the vaulted sally-port of the Administration Building
a vista of more than a mile within the limits of the campus.
After dividing at the fore-court the driveway circles the ends
of the Administration Building and continues fcjr half a mile
in two heavily planted drives parallel to this axis and sep-
arated by a distance of seven hundred feet. Within the ex-
tended rectangle thus formed the pleasing eflfect of widening
vistas has been realized. On passing through the sally-port
through the fore-court, the future visitor of the Institute will
enter upon an academic group consisting of five large build-
ings, which with their massive cloisters surround on three
sides a richly gardened court measuring three hundred b}' five
hundred feet, planted in graceful cypresses. Beyond this
group is another academic court of still greater dimensions
planted in groves of live oaks ; this great court in turn opens
into extensive Persian gardens bevond which the vista is
closed at the extreme west by a great pool and the amphi-
theater of a Greek playhouse. The principal secondary axis
of tlie general plan, starting from the boulevard and running
north perpendicularly to the main axis, crosses the lawns and
courts of the liberal arts and science groups into the Mechan-
ical Laboratory and Power House, the first buildings of the
engineering group. The fourth entrance on Main street leads
to the athletic playing fields and to the residential group for
men. While each unit of the latter group has its own inner
Court, the several buildings themselves together enclose a long
rectangular court bounded at the eastern end by a club house,
and on the west by the gymnasium, which opens upon the
athletic stadium in the rear. North of the men's residential
group and across the great court, lying between the botanical
gardens and the laboratories of jnire and applied science,
appears the splendid quadrangle of the Craduate School and
its professional departments.
Although designed to accommodate tlie executive and ad-
ministrative offices when the Institute shall have grown to
normal dimensions, the Administration Building will be used
(luring the first few years to meet some of the needs of instruc-
tion as well as those of administration. The building is of
fireproof construction Ihroughout; it is three stories high,
3 • • AHMOKPITOC rOYN AYTOC !
i . ik
~t~ V - r« .-\-v
Cornerstone of Administration
three hundred feet lung and fifty feet deep, with a basement
running its entire length. Throut^h a central tower of four
stories a \aulted sally-port thirty feet high, leading from the
main approach and foregarden to the academic court, gives
entrance to the halls of the building and opens the way to the
broad cloisters on the court side. On the first floor, besides
offices of registration, there are lecture rooms, class and con-
ference rooms. In the north wing of the second floor the tem-
porary plans make adecjuate arrangements for library and
reading rooms ; the second and third floors of the south wing
are given to a public hall, which, with its balcony, extends the
height of two stories. A little later on in the history of the
Institute this assembly hall will Ijccome the faculty chamber.
The remaining part of the third tloor provides additional space
for recitation and seminar rooms, and offices for members of
the teaching stalif. The meeting room of the Board of Trus-
tees and the office of the I'resident of the Institute will be
located in the tower.
In its architecture the Administration liuilding reveals the
influence of the earliest periods of the Mediterranean coun-
tries : vaulted Byzantine cloisters, exquisite Dalmatian brick-
work, together with Spanish and Italian elements in profusion ;
in all a richness of color permissiljle only in climates similar
to our own. The dominant warm gray tone is established by
the use of a local pink brick, a delicately tinted marble from
the Ozark Mountains, and Texas granite, though the color
scheme undergoes considerable x'ariation by the studied use
of tiles and foreign marbles. To meet the local climatic con-
ditions, the building has been pierced by loggias and many
windows, while its long shaded cloister opens to the prevailing-
winds. On the seventy-fifth anniversary of Texan Indepen-
dence the trustees laid the cornerstone; the inscription is a
Greek quotation in Bj'zantine lettering from the Praeparatio
Evangelica of Eusebius I'ami)liili, which in English transla-
tion reads: " 'Rather,' said I lemocritus, 'would I discover the
cause of one fact than l)ecome King of the Persians,' " a dec-
laration made at a time when to be king of the Persians was
to rule the world.
Residential Hall for Men
Of the students' residential i^mup fur men, the first Jniild-
ing, consisting of a dormitory and a comniLins, is placed south-
west of the Administration lUiilding, its front approach lead-
ing from the fourth campus entrance un the Main street boule-
vard. The residential wing is a long, three-story, fireproof
structure with a tower of live stories, a Inroad cloister on the
front, and a basement extending its entire length. It opens
to the south upon a garden, and on the north upon its own
court. In arrangement and equipment the building is modern
and in e\ery way attractive and convenient. Accommodations
for aljout two hundred students will ultimatel)^ be olifered in
single and double rooms and suites. Li^idgings have been pro-
vided for several preceptors and two large halls have been set
aside for the temporary use of literary and debating societies.
The floors of this wing are so planned as to insure for every
room perfect ventilation and absi_)lutely wholesome conditions.
There are lavatories, shower baths and sanitary connections
adequate to the needs of each floor. The power for both light
and heat is received from the central plant. An arcade rather
more than one hundred feet in length leads from the dormitory
wing across the inner court to the commons which constitutes
the northern boundary of the quadrangle. The commons
proper is equipped with every detail necessary for the perfect
service of all the men living in the residential group, and at
the same time is of sufficient size and capacity to serve other
members of the student body. In addition to the dining hall
and its equipment this section of the building contains club
and reading rooms. It is graced also by a handsome clock
tower, four stories high, surmounted by a belfry; the several
floors of the tower have been arranged in suites of rooms to be
reserved for the use of graduate students and instructors. As
has been intimated already, the utlier buildings under way
propose to reveal in brick and marljle some of the more subtle
suggestions of the southern architecture of Europe and the
East, and at the same time to realize the fundamental princi-
ples of their sources in a distinctive style of academic archi-
tecture for all the future buildings of the Institute. Consistent
with the architectural style thus evolved, a pleasing and har-
monious variation appears in the treatment of the first resi-
dential group, whose studied tower and cloisters in brick and
stucco are designed to produce an effect characteristically
Mechanical Laboratory and Campanile of Power House
Located at the northern end of the principal secondary axis
of the general architectural plan are groups of scientific and
technical laboratories. The first buildings of this section of
the campus, namely, the Mechanical Laboratory, Machine
Shop and Power House, have been erected north of the Ad-
ministration Building at the end of a long direct driveway
from the third Main street entrance. The Laboratory, a two-
story, fireproof building, two hundred feet long and forty feet
deep, with a cloister extending the full length of its court side,
is built of materials similar to those used in the construction
of the Administration Ijuilding. The space of its floors is
given to scientific laboratories, lecture halls, recitation rooms,
departmental libraries and offices for instructors in charge,
while its basement aiifords additional rooms for further appa-
ratus. Through the Machine Shop the Mechanical Labora-
tory connects with the Power House, where are installed
equipment for complete steam, refrigerating and electric gen-
erating and distributing systems. The lofty campanile of this
grou]), visible for miles in every direction, will probably be
fur many years the most conspicuous among the towers of the
Further improvements of the campus are being gradually
effected. An extensive concrete waterproof tunnel has been
constructed to transmit power from the central plant to all the
buildings on the grounds. With a diameter sufficient to admit
a man standing erect, the tunnel has ample space for all wiring
and piping in ])usitions easy of access, thus insuring perfect
care of the equipment and a resultant increase in efficiency.
Progress has also been made in the installation of complete
sanitary and drainage systems, which, with an unlimited sup-
ply of wholesome water, should give assurance of perfect phys-
ical conditions at the site of the Institute . The most important
driveways, including the main approach to the Administration
Building, the drives along the axis leading to the group of
scientific laboratories and to the students' residential group,
and the long roads enclosing the academic court, have been
built with deep gravel foundations and are surfaced with
crushed granite. The planting uf double rows of oaks, elms
and cyi)resses along tliese drives and the assembling of hedges,
shrubs and flowers u illiin the gardens and courts of the pres-
ent groups will subse<|uently impress even the casual visitor
both with the magnitude and with the beauty of the general
Trustees and Initial Teaching Staff
On tlie side of the intellectual and spiritual prosperity tlie
progress has been quite as striking. The actual work of in-
struction of the first academic 3'ear began on the 23rd day of
September, 1912, the anni\'ersary of the death of the founder.
In the presence of the trustees of the Institute, members of its
initial teaching staff, and representative citizens of the com-
munity, the first class of students was received in the faculty
chamber of the Administration Building with appropriately
impressive ceremonies on September the twenty-sixth. It had
been decided to limit the scholastic work for the first academic
year to a single class of freshmen of a standard of preparation
as high as the best public and private high schools are capable
However, for the present it is proposed to assign no upper
limit to the educational endeavor of the new institution, while
the lower limit is placed no lower than the standard entrance
requirements of the more conservative universities of the coun-
try. These entrance requirements may be met either directly
by examination or wholly or partially on certificate of gradua-
tion from an approved private preparatory or public high
school. It is also proposed that a group of selected graduate
students be afforded opportunities for study and research.
The initial teaching staff of the Institute is being organized
for university and college work in a faculty of science and a
faculty of letters. Under the former oi these faculties it is
hoped to establish a school of pure and applied science of the
highest grade. \\'ith a view to lil:)eralizing the technical
courses of the curriculum, there will be constituted as rapidly
as may be possible a faculty of letters, in which will be devel-
oped incidentally fine facilities for elementary and advanced
courses in the so-called humanities, thereby enabling the Insti-
tute to offer both the advantages of a lilieral general education
and those of special and professional training. The courses of
instruction and investigation are open to young men and to
young women. There are no charges for tuition and no fees;
rooms in the residential hall and board at the commons are
furnished at the actual cost of maintenance and provision.
Fin'ther, for a limited nuniljcr of meritorious students of prom-
ise imdergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships will
In seeking the best available instructors and investigators
t^} -:-.•-•■•• -,%Tr 1
wherever they may be found the trustees confidently liope to
assemble a group of unusually able scientists and scholars,
through whose producti\e work the Institute should speedily
take a place of considerable ini]5ortance amono- tiie established
institutions of the country. The programmes of study are being-
arranged with a \iew to offering a variety of courses leading,
after four years of undergraduate work, to bachelor's degrees
in arts, in science, in letters, and in the applications of pure
science to the arts of engineering, agriculture, industry and
commerce. Extensive general courses in the several domains
of scientific knowledge will be offered, but in the main the
programs will consist of subjects carefully co-ordinated and
calling for considerable concentration of study. For the ad-
vanced degrees every facility will be gi\'en properly qualified
graduate students to undertake lines of research under the
direction of the Institute's resident and visiting prcjfessors.
On Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the tenth, eleventh and
twelfth days of October, the formal opening of the Institute
was observed with appropriate ceremonies in an academic fes-
tival which was held under the most favorable conditions of
weather, most generous co-operation of the community and
comuKjn wealth, and the heartening encouragement of several
hundred scholars and scientists who came to Houston to as-
sist in the launching of the new uni\ersity. Chief among these
distinguished representati\es of life and learning were the
twelve foreign savants who had consented to participate in
the inaugural program by preparing series of lectures in the
liberal humanities (jf philosophy, history, letters and art and
the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry
and biology. A full account of the proceedings occupying the
four days devoted to this celebration is now being prepared
for publication in permanent form. In these volumes will be
published in full the inaugural lectures of Professors Altamira
of Madrid, Borel of Paris, Croce of Naples, DeVries of Am-
sterdam, Jones of Glasgow, Kikuchi of Tokio, Mackail of
London, Ostwald of Gross-Bothen, Poincare of Paris, Ramsay
of Lyondon, Stormer of Christiana, and V^olterra of Rome.
There will also appear the various invitations extended by the
Institute, the responses from American and foreign universi-
ties and scientific societies in the form of letters and cable-
grams and elaborately embossed parchments in English,
French, German, Russian, Italian, Latin and other tongues;
the addresses of Governor Colquitt, Chief Justice Brown of
Texas,. Bishop Gailor of Tennessee, the inaugural ode of Dr.
Henry van Dyke of Princeton, and the dedication sermon of
Dr. Charles F. Aked of San Francisco; together with the
sjieeches delivered by the presidents or otiier official repre-
sentatises of Amsterdam, Glasgow, Londcm, Oviedo, Paris,
Rome, Bailor, Chicago, Columbia, Leiiigh, Princeton, Texas,
Vanderbilt and \'irijinia Universities, and a variety of other
literary and artistic performances which are not easily classi-
fied in a rapid resume.
Of the several hundred handsome responses received from
other universities and learned societies the following may be
singled out as typical of those which are written in English :
The Polish University in Lwovv (Leniberg), Galicia, Austria, wishes
to convej' to the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas, on the day of its
inauguration, its greetings and heartiest wishes for a favorable devel-
opment. We have with pleasure received your communication with
the news of the founding of a new splendid temple dedicated to knowl-
edge and education on .American soil, where so many Poles are living.
Founded by the liberality of your noble countryman, William Marsh
Rice, erected and organized with foresight and care by your great
citizens and scholars, it will become a fruitful fount of educational
work through which you fill old Europe with amazement. Blessed is
that land which possesses such sons. Happy is the country in which,
thanks to the liberality of its citizens, palaces are erected for cultivat-
ing and extending human knowledge. United to you by the bonds of
common aspirations we send across the sea to the hands of your most
honourable president, Edgar Odell Lovett, the old Polish wish of
szczesc boze (good luck') for your work in furthering the greatest good
of mankind. Signed: Adolf Beck, rector.
Princeton University. — To the Rice Institute, Houston, Texas.
Gentlemen: On behalf of the authorities of Princeton University I
have the honor of acknowledging your hospitable invitation asking
that our academic body shall be represented on October lO, ii and 12
at the ceremonies formally inaugurating the Rice Institute of liberal
and technical learning. It therefore gives me great pleasure to notify
you that Princeton University has appointed William Francis Magie,
Henry professor of physics and dean of the faculty, and Henry van
Dyke, Murray professor of English literature, to attend in person as
our delegates, to present our congratulations to the Rice Institute on
the auspicious occasion of its formal dedication and to extend to your
president, our former colleague in Princeton University, the assurance
of our remembrance and good will. May this new-born institute of
liberal an 1 technical learning, ever keeping faith with the high intent
of its founder, equal the best desires of those who are guiding the
opening years of its career, enrich the intellectual life of the great
State of Texas and of our nation, and help to elevate mankind for
generations to come, even for as long as men shall care for the cause
of truth and knowledge. Signed: John Grier Hibben, President.
University of Sydney. — The Chancellor and Senate of the Univer-
sity of Sydney to the President and Trustees of the Rice Institute,
Houston, Te.xas: In the name of the senate of the University of
Sydney, I thank the president and trustees of the Rice Institute for
the invitation to send a representative to the inaugural ceremonies
that are to celebrate the beginning of its career. .'\t this great dis-
tance it is difficult to make the necessary arrangements for availing
ourselves of the honor, but we have appointed one of our number,
William H. Warren, LL. D. Wh. Sc, M. Inst. C.E., Challis professor of
engineering, now traveling in Europe and America, to act as our dele-
gate, if his arrangements permit. Should this be impossible, however,
and should we fail to be personally represented, we nevertheless in all
sincerity desire to transmit our cordial greetings and good wishes to
the new universit}-, and to express our hopes that the splendid
auspices under which it is established may be overshadowed by the
celebrity that it hereafter attains, and that its portion of promoting
the intellectual interests of mankind may be realized in the achieve-
ments of its future teachers and alumni. Nor can we refrain from
congratulating a kindred community which, though older than those
in the Southern seas, is, like them, a new growth in a new world, in
the enlightened liberality of its private citizens that has in so many
cases led to the munificent endowment of culture and research, and
that now once more receives so conspicuous an ilhistration. We trust
that in remote generations the Rice Institute may still be fulfilling its
beneficent mission in all prosperity and fair fame. Signed: Henry
Normand MacLaurin, Chancellor.
Yale University. — The president and fellows of Yale University
extend their congratulations to the trustees of the Rice Institute on
the auspicious arrangements that have been made for the inauguration
of its important work. They feel that the election of Edgar Odell
Lovett as president is a guarantee that the foundations of the Insti-
tute will be laid in the thorough and liberal way designed by the late
William Marsh Rice. Yale University welcomes the Rice Institute
into the brotherhood of American institutions of learning. Its officers
assure the president and trustees of their desire to be of service in
any way in their power, and bespeak from the State of Texas and
from the City of Houston every possible support in aiding the Insti-
tute to become a center of inspiration and of learning. May it carry
out the founder's ideal by "the advancement of letters, science and art"
that not only the Southwest, but the Nation, may be helped by its
activities. Signed: Arthur Twining Iladley, President.
Under the caption, "Vale Rice Institute," Dr. Walter F. McCaleb of
San Antonio, an alumnus of the University of Texas and a guest of
the Rice Institute during its opening celebration, penned the following
lines at the conclusion of the dedicatory exercises on Sunday, Oc-
The halls arc silent — silent as with hush
Of angels come to view a glorious birth — •
All silent as with awe, the pageant gone
Of the Immortals.
Corridor and nave
And alcove dim are dumb and tenantless — •
Only stars and the mysterious eyes
Of centuries look on the sacred place.
The halls are silent, save where cling the tones
Of Altamira's eloquence; are void
Save for Volterra's magic worlds; are bare
Save where the morning flowers are newly set
Drawn from th' enchanted garden of De Vries;
Are dark, save where the violet helium lights
Of Ramsay fall in fadeless radiance.
Hark! what sounds roll down the corridors?
What winds of even stir the echoes? Lo,
The spirit feet of thousands yet to come
.^re heralded by pipes of all the winds
That blow from earth's remotest ends.
It is as if the humming bees again were in
The trees, even as the laureate sang, but now
To mark the coming of the children, who
Shall conquer as they take the paths of day.
The halls are silent, but the dawn shall find
The traces of the great who went before.
And one who waits (serenely sure and sure
As fate) to lead them through the golden door.
p. W. HORN
Superintendent of Schools
Public Schools or
SttlpJJSTON . «
Ot/ier Educational Facilities
ON February 7, 1913. the City Schools of Houston liad
enrolled for the year 14,492 pupils.
On the corresponding date, 1912, they had enrolled
This was an increase of 1,625 pupils in one year. Some
growth, is it not? Perhaps, too, it throws some light on the
question as to why the schools cost more year after year.
For the year ending in June, 1913, the schools will enroll
fully 15,000 pupils. For the year 1902-3 they enrolled 7,864.
This shows an increase of almost 100 per cent in the ten years
In 1902-3 the schools employed 179 teachers. In 1912-13
they have employed 372 teachers. Thus they have a little more
than doubled the number of teachers employed in the past ten
In 1902-3 the schools cost the City and the State, together,
$127,647.32. For the year ending February 28, 1913, they cost
$330,715.16. \^^lile the schools have been practically doubled
in size, the expense of maintaining them has almost trebled.
This is on account of the largely increased salary schedule
and the more liberal equipment now being provided. The
maximum salary paid to grade teachers then was $630 as op-
posed to $810 now. The ma.ximum salary then paid to ward
principals was $1200, as opposed to $1600 now. These in-
creases are not even yet as large as they ought to be, but they
show that the trend of things has been in the right direction.
These things are not said by any manner in disparagement
of the schools as they were ten years ago. They were then
good schools for their time and their opportunity. But the
world has moved on in the past ten years. It is the desire of
this article merely to show that the schools have kept pace
with this movement.
New subjects have been introduced into the course of study
to prepare the boys and girls to meet new conditions in life.
Among these subjects are manual training for the bo^-s and
domestic science for the girls. These have been in the schools
of Houston for the past seven years.
There are twelve school buildings equipped for teaching
manual training. Here the boys are taught to use the saw
and plane and hammer, to understand the use of tools, and to
make things with their hands. There was a time once when
boys learned these things at home. However, with the changes
that have come into modern life, the average Ixiy would not
learn these things if he did not learn them at school. The
things that the 1k)3's make would be a credit to skilled work-
men. There are tables, and chairs, and desks, which would be
ornamental and useful in any home in the city.
All the boys in the elementary schools above the fourth
grade take this work. All in the first year of the high school
are required to take it, and above the first year in the high
school it is optional.
In addition to the cabinet-making there is wood turning,
pattern making, forging and machine shop work. Along with
these go mechanical drawing. It is the efifort of the school to
give the boys such skill in using their hands as will to the
greatest extent possible assist them in dealing with the prac-
tical affairs of life.
Nor have the girls been forgotten. The work in domestic
science and art has been established for them. All girls in the
fourth and fifth grades are taught sewing, and all in the sixth
and seventh grades are taught cooking. These subjects are
taught again in the high school. Here they are required of all
girls in the first year, though they are optional above the first
year of the high school. They have cooking, sewing, dress-
making and millinery.
The night schools, too, arc a development of recent 3'ears.
They are for those people who are so situated that they cannot
attend school in the day time, but who, nevertheless, are de-
sirous of improving their educational advantages.. There are
four of these schocjls for white pupils and three for colored.
In these scln)ols an effort is made to give in the most prac-
tical form possible the elementary branches of an English
education, and those other subjects which will be of the great-
est practical value to those attending. The attendance at night
schools is not limited to children of school age. In fact, no
child under twelve is admitted, because children below that
age ought to be in the day school. One never gets too old to
be received in the night school. Many of those attending are
in middle life, and a few are well advanced in years. The old-
est one on record is a negro woman 85 years old, who is attend-
ing one of the night schools in order that she may learn to
read the Bible. Many grown men and women attend who
have only recently come to America from foreign countries
and who wish to learn to speak and read and write the Eng-
The night schools also ha\e classes in stenography and
typewriting and book-keeping. The}- have classes in wood
I'i '' - i-^i'l Hi.
h 9 h_m
work and in iron work. There are classes which grown
women attend in order that they may learn to cook and to sew.
There is also a class in Spanish.
These things are mentioned to show that in the past ten
years there has been an earnest effort made to change the
course of study so that it will meet the demands of the prac-
tical age in which we live.
1 [owever, the cultural side has not been neglected. There
is in the grades a course in picture study, whereby the children
are made acquainted with the masterpieces of the world's art.
There is also a course in memory work, whereby the children
are led to commit to memory selections from the world's
masterpieces of literature. They ^re also taught the lives of
the great musicians, and are taught to know and to love the
world's masterpieces of music.
Nor has the physical side of education been neglected within
the past ten years. There is a gymnasium provided at the
High School, with an outdoor gymnasium at many of the ward
schools. There is a physical director, with a woman assistant
who gives special attention to the physical welfare of the girls
at the High School. At every school building the pupils are
organized intii athletic teams. The effort is not merely to de-
velop a small number at each school, but to reach as nearly as
possiljle all of the children at the various buildings. There is
folk dancing and organized games of many different kinds.
There is a medical instructor whose duty it is to examine the
children, to call attention to any physical defect which the
parents may not know about, and see that cases of contagious
diseases are excluded from the schools.
Those children who are below the normal powers of intellect
have nut been overlooked. There is a special room for excep-
tional pupils, where a trained teacher makes e.xtra effort to
develop the intelligence of a few to whom nature has been
sparing" in her gifts.
There are at present four kindergartens taught in connection
with our city schools, although in each instance the expense of
maintaining them is borne by private individuals. Many of
us hope that the time is not far distant when there will be free
kindergartens maintained at public expense in all the schools
in the city. This time has not yet come, but the drift of things
is undoubtedly in that direction.
I'erhaps the greatest of all the improvements made within
the past ten years has been in the organization of mothers'
clubs, and the Parent-Teachers' Association. These organiza-
tions ha\e worked loyally and harmoniously for the advance-
ment of the schools. In many instances they helped introduce
manual training and domestic science into their respective
buildings. During the j'ear iqit-ij, they raised $7,248.93 and
expended it for the i^ood of the scliools. 'I'hat made $45,319.60
which the mothers of the city had raised during tiie past six
years, and expended upon the children in the schools. While
the amount itself was distinctly worth while, the greatest good
done was in the interest which was aroused among the people
in the welfare of their own children. Too much praise cannot
be given to the mothers for their work, and too much emphasis
cannot be laid upon the importance of it.
While these changes have been taking place in the course of
study, and in the school administration, progress has also been
made in the material equipment of the schools. The first
buildings erected were of wood. Then came an era when the
buildings were of brick, but were not fireproof. At the present
writing there are seven fireproof brick or concrete school
buildings under course of construction, each one of which
embodies the most modern ideas as to heating, lighting and
ventilation, and each one of which is so planned as to be adapt-
ed to the widest possible use by the community as a whole.
The new Longfellow and Dow Schools are of the same gen-
eral construction, and are now under way. The Taylor is now
being planned. The North Side Junior High School and the
South End Junior High School are thoroughly up-to-date
l)uildings now under course of construction.
To pay for these buildings required the issuance of $500,000
in bonds for ward schools, and $500,000 for high schools. The
people voted these unhesitatingly and at the request of the
One of the most marked evidences of progress in recent
years is in the amount of ground deemed necessary for a school
site. A number of the earlier school buildings were erected on
sites of half a block. The result was that the children had
practically no playground, and that when it became necessary
to put additions to the school buildings, it was either impos-
sible to do this, or else it was necessary to pay large sums for
the extra ground. In recent years the city has been buying
acreage property for its schools. The sites for the new Junior
High Schools have eight and one-half and ten acres respec-
tively. At one elementary school there is a five-acre site. The
new Taylor School is to be built adjacent to the Sam Houston
Park, and have all the park as a playground. This shows some
progress from the days when half a lilock was considered
The two new Junior High Schools are to lie better buildings
and better equipped than any others in the South or South-
west. It is jilanned to take the children of the seventh grade
and to kce]! them through the lirst two years of the High
Scluiol. Tlic industrial work is to ])e emphasized so that if
children need to drop out at the end of the second high school
year they will at least have a fairly good ec|uipment for fight-
hvj; llic l)attlcs nf life. On the other hand, if it is at all possible
for them to continue, they are to be encouraged to finish the
Senior High School. After they do this, the great facilities of
the Rice Institute will be free to them.
The Rusk and Crockett Schools are now completed. The
Rusk takes the place of an old frame building that was burned
down over a year ago. The Crockett helps relieve the Haw-
thorne School, which has been badly over-crowded. Each
one of the new buildings has an auditorium, gymnasium, club
room, manual training and domestic science rooms, and is
adapted to social center work.
Rusk school is not only to be a wonderful elementary school ;
it is also to be the first social center in the city.
The architectural ideas are a synthesis of the best during
the supremacy of the Tudor style in England covering a
period beginning with the reign of Edward VI in 1408 and
running up to an age of enervation, 1603, when the Gothic and
Renaissance proved the fashion and caprice of the century.
To this earlier school has been added the newer idea of win-
dow space. The honeycombing of the walls with glass panes
gives to the structure an appearance of modernity.
The walls throughout the building are of a dove and mauve
tint ; a delightful substitute for the baneful effects of a glaring
white. The panels and woodwork are in dark oak stain and
in some of the rooms the woodwork is finished in mission
style. What recommends itself especially to the housewife
and the close inspector of corners is that every provision is
made for sanitation, ventilation, heating and lighting. Many
of these latter suggestions grew out of recommendations by
Professor A. Caswell Ellis of the University of Texas.
In the structure dark brick of a brownish hue, somewhat
flecked, is used, while outlines are sharply defined in concrete.
The approach from the rear of the building is far more at-
tractive than from the front, as the perspective is better, and
the general treatment more pleasing.
The first story is on a level with the ground and will be
used for the social work in the neighborhood, the lunch room,
the domestic science, the manual training, the dispensary and
the public library. The second floor, which is gained by two
broad stone stairways, will be devoted to class rooms, the
kindergarten and the auditorium. The third floor will be used
exclusively for class work.
In the arrangement of the first floor the social life of the
community is especially emphasized. It marks a step forward
which can not be measured by any time periods and in its
small way promises to be a great factor in economic and race
progress, it is here, and in the auditorium, that the people of
the neigliborhood will meet upon a general level and learn llie
wisdom of co-operation and intcr(lei)endence.
An advantage of this lower floor is that all of the rooms are
accessible from the street, while the auditorium is gained from
an outside stairway in the rear.
The stretch of rooms in the rear include a machine room
and a storage room for the manual training department; two
large rooms for the domestic science activities. Adjoining the
library is the boys' lunch room, next the kitchen, where noon
meals will be served by the Mothers' Club, and adjoining that
the girls' lunch room.
At the east end of the lower floor is the dispensary, which
will also be used as a child welfare station. This dispensary
will be under the direction of the Settlement Association and
will carry out the same program in the neighborhood which
characterized it while in the Settlement House.
On the second floor, upon the north side, are two spacious
rooms which will be used for the Rusk School kindergarten.
It, too, is an activity supported by the Settlement Association.
The most engrossing point of interest in the school life,
however, is the auditorium, which is nothing short of a tri-
umph. It is a splendid hall, possessed of a balcony and a stage
that is equipped with scenery and dressing rooms. Everything
that can contribute toward making it a people's theatre, and
not too large to destroy the touch of intimacy which should
characterize a people's theatre, has been done. It is here tliat
the real social work of the community is to be accomplished.
It is here that the neighborhood will gather in debates, in
socials, in theatricals and in musicales. It may be the center
of a local orchestra on one evening ; a congress of mothers'
clubs on another; a civic club on another.
There will be provision for dancing upon the hardwood floor
of the auditorium. There will also be provision for motion
picture shows on certain nights each week. These pictures
will grow out of the social organizations rather than the school
The temperature of the rooms is automatically registered.
Cool, fresh air is pumped into the rooms and the liad air is
drawn out through exhausts. Adjustable shades are at all of
A survey of the institution develops many points of interest.
Every class room has its cabinet of steel lockers. Each child
has his own compartment. Broad, double doors, which open
both ways, lead from the class rooms to the corridors. Sani-
tary fountains are stationed in the corridors.
The completion of Rusk school marks a new era in scientific
school building and equipment in Houston, and one to stim-
ulate civic pride.
^ ^■— n —
HOUSTON has fur a number of years been recognized as
the musical center of the Southwest. The commercial
and industrial L;ro\vth of the city, instead of prox'in;^' an
interference, has advanced the interest in musical activities,
thereby shovvins;- that culture will ever follow in the wake oi
commerce, which ]irei)ares a jiath for it.
The musical clubs and ori;'anizatit)ns now existinj^- in Hous-
ton are: The Women's Choral Club, Quartette Society,
Treble Clef Club, Girls' Musical Club, Houston Heif^Wits
Study Club, Saenj^erbund Societ}' (the oldest organization),
Mendelssohn Choir (oratorio).
The Choral, Quartette and Treble Clef Clubs are sins^ing
societies, giving three concerts annually, at which they pre-
sent, as soloists, the great artists of the world.
The Girls' Musical Club, a study cluli. gives a series of open
meetings and two artist recitals during the year, its aim being
to present the younger artists and the higher type of chamber
music to its patrons.
These clubs are supjKirted b_v associate memberships, none
of which exceed the sum of fi\'e dollars, for which from six to
nine tickets are given. It will thus be seen that season-suli-
scribers pa_v from forty-five to ninetv cents ]X'r ticket for
hearing the greatest available artists.
The ai^proximate sum of twenty thousand dollars was ex-
pended by coml)ined clubs and impressarios during the season
of 1911-1912. In addition to this, the municipal government
spent for free concerts and music furnished by the Municij)al
Band upon public occasions more than twenty-seven thousand
dollars for the season closing May ist, this year.
There are nearly a hundred churches in Houston, and in
the majority of them there are excellent choirs.
A good lyceum course has provided interesting attractions.
The Art League has not confined its splendid efforts to the
advancement of the appreciation of painting and sculpture,
but has also given one concert each year, enabling Houston-
ians to hear such artists as Pachmann and Ysaye. The an-
nouncements for next season's artists already include Pader-
ewski, Slezak, Misclia Elman, .Mina Cluck. Schumann-IIeink,
Ethel Parks, Clarence \\'hitehill. and the St. Louis Symphony
Orchestra. A partial list of artists, many of whom have ap-
peared numerous times, is gi\en below:
Nordica, Meli)a. Suzanne Adams, Tetrazzini, Gadski, Sem-
bricli, Jomelli, Frances Alda, Charlotte Maconda, Rider-
Kelsey, Florence Ilinkle, Elena Gerhardt, Schumann-Heink,
Janet Spencer, TTissem de Moss. Mme. Chilson-Ohrman, Marie
Rappold, Mariska-Aldrich, Alice Sovereign, Anita Rio, Ellen
Beach Yaw, Agnes Kimball, LilHa Snelling, Lucy Marsh,
Calve, Christine Miller, Ella Courts Beck, Louise McMahon,
■^^^^^■^1 ■■■r™'^»"— ^— ■»^'*^^-^
Mary Carson Kidd, Liza Lehmann, Zapelli, Herbert Wither-
spoon, Bispham, Gogorza, (llcnn Hall, Van Hoose, George
Hamlin, Evan Williams, Julian Walker, Claude Cunningham,
Cecil Fanning, John Barnes Wells, Harold Meek, Bonci, Reed
Miller, Frances Rogers, Gilibert. David Dunbar, Frederic
Martin, Campanari, Carl Schlegel, Leon Rice, Olga Samaroff,
Fannie Bloomfield-Zeissler, Pachmann, Paderewski, Hoff-
man, La Forge, Charles Gilbert Spross, Ossip Gabrilowitch,
Hans Richard, Alexander Russell, Myrtle Elvyn, Pepito Ari-
ola, Helena Levvyn (local), Lhevinne, Clarence Eddy, Cannon,
Arthur Fisher, Yves Nat, Ysaye, Kreisler, Zimbalist, Arthur
Hartmann, Maude Powell, Kubelik, Leonora Jackson, Jules
Falk, Boris Hambourg, Paulo Gruppe, Elsa Ruegger, Kneisel
Quartette, Flonzaley Quartette, Blitz Quintette (local), New
York Symphony Orchestra, Russian Symphony Orchestra,
Pittsburg Symphony Orchestra, St. Louis Symphony Or-
chestra, Thomas Orchestra, Victor Herbert Orchestra.
The Russian Symphony Orchestra gave ten consecutive
concerts in the Auditorium, the world's record for a symphony
orchestra engagement. The school children of the city were
the matinee guests of a great lover and patron (jf music for
one of these concerts.
Opera Companies. — Full Metropolitan Opera and Orchestra
production of "Parsifal," under Conreid's direction; Savage,
French, Aborn, Alice Neilson and Bessie Abbott companies,
Chicago Grand Opera Company's production of "The Secret
A course of lectures by William Whitney Surrette of Ox-
ford University is another of the musical privileges Houston
This is only a partial list of the artists that have been heard,
through the sincere and consistent eft'orts of clubs and im-
pressarios, but it gives a fair idea of what may be expected of
Houston in the future. It seems not improbable that it may
come to be the music center of the entire South.
"I think great thoughts strong winged with steel,
I coin vast iron acts.
And weld the impalpable dream of seers
Into utile lyric facts."
ALEXANDER JOHNSON, the grizzled veteran leader of
social workers in America, after a visit to the metropolis
of the Southwest, termed Houston a "socially minded
cit}'," and he was right. Few cities of her size have as many
altruistic citizens of influence ready to turn their attention,
their energy and their funds toward the social uplift, as Hous-
ton has. No worthy cause has gone without its earnest cham-
pion ; no urgent need without a generous response to meet
that need. Linked with the spirit of generous chivalry of the
Southland has been the sterner spirit of determination and ac-
tion of the land of frost, and agencies have developed — institu-
tions have grown until almost every conceivable need is being
met, in at least a modest way, and many of them are being
met in a way that would do credit to a much larger city. Nor
is this "spirit of brotherhood that maketh us all akin" alone
manifest among the leaders of the business and social world.
It permeates the mass of the populace and fosters a public
opinion that is at once powerful and insistent and responsive.
Standing at the head of the agencies in the city which are
giving a "social" service to the community is the Charities
Endorsement Committee of the Chamber of Commerce. Busi-
ness men who are members of the Chaml^er of Commerce are
urged to withhold support from any appeal not bearing the
approval of this committee, and a card is given a prominent
place in the office of many business men bearing this inscrip-
tion, "All Solicitors for Local Charitable Organizations are
required to present an endorsement card from the Chamber of
Commerce Endorsement Committee."
The Social Service Federation, known heretofore as the
United Charities, a relief organization with four departments,
is built on the most modern principles of charity work. The
old charity now obsolete, in spirit at least, although still far
too extensively practiced — was content to patch and palliate
distress. It knew of nothing else to do. The charity of today,
as shown by the work of this organization, while ministering
to the needs of mankind more tenderly and intelligently than
ever before, strives ever to discover and to remove the causes
of distress and to prevent their recurrence. The heart of the
work of this organization is its Department of Constructive
Relief, and around this department and very closely allied to
it are the other three: The Department of Health and Hy-
giene, the Employment Bureau, and the Children's Depart-
ment. It is centrally located, having its office in the Court
House, and receives any sort of appeal from any part of the
city. It maintains a force of six trained workers and handled
fuiid.s to tlic ainnitnt of $10,05845 during- itji2, tiii;cther with
a special fund of $19,499.42 raised f(}r the Fifth Ward tire
The Houston Settlement Association is another strong
agency and has its home in its own "Settlement House," in
the Second Ward. It employs five trained workers, including
a nurse, and is maintaining a free kindergarten, a dispensary, a
reading room, etc. Its chief activities lie in neighborhood
work, social center work and playground development.
The Houston Settlement Association has also started a sum-
mer baby camp for sick babies. A specially constructed house.
built entirely open and properly screened, is provided, and the
babies are always under the care of a trained nurse. The
babies return home as soon as their condition will permit.
The Young Men's Christian Association is one of the most
popular and one of the best supported agencies in the city. It
is housed in a magnificent fireproof building of its own, with
dormitory, gymnasium, baths, etc., and is handling in splendid
shape the work usually covered by that organization. Its in-
fluence on the life of the young men of the city is an unques-
tioned power for good.
The Young Women's Christian Association has been work-
ing under a serious handicap in that it has not as yet secured
its own building. It, however, is now conducting a campaign
by which it expects to secure the funds necessary to erect a
building similar to that now used by the Young Men's Chris-
tian Association. Notwithstanding this handicap, it has been
doing a great work for the young women of the city, espe-
cially the working girl. This association is maintaining a
boarding home, a down town ofHce with lunch room, rest room
and reading room, and a travelers' aid secretary at the Grand
Faith Home is a home for dependent children, which is at
present taking care of about eighty children. A new fireproof
building of three stories has just been completed. In this new
home more than a hundred children can be cared for, thus
giving many little ones a chance in life which they otherwise
would never have. The women having this work in hand are
rendering service in a field where there is every opportunity
for rich results.
The Co-operative Mome is a boarding home for working
girls in the Fifth Ward. The building, which is of fireproof
material, has a capacity of caring for about eighty girls. Re-
spectable working girls who have no other protection in the
city are given their board and lodging, and at the same time all
of the conveniences and protection that could be thrown
around them in a private home. This is provided at a very
The Star of Hope Mission is one of the most interesting
institutions in the city. Its problem is that of the "down and
out," and the man who is homeless and without funds can
find a place to sleep and can get a bite to eat at the Mission.
After his immediate needs are provided for he is assisted in
securing work. Hundreds of men take advantage of the help
offered by this organization.
The City Emergency Home attempts to do a similar work
for women and girls. Any woman or girl who finds herself in
the city alone and destitute is welcome at the Emergency
Bayland Orphan's Home is an institutinn that restricts its
work entirely to the field of orphans, and is supported by an
The Houston Anti-Tuberculosis League is attempting to
arouse interest in the movement to stamp out the Great White
Plague. It is maintaining a dispensary, and while its chief
work is that of education, yet it is also doing a limited amount
of relief work and employs a visiting nurse. It is providing
means for any indigent person who is suspicious of the state of
his health, to oljtain quickly, and without expense, reliable
in formation concerning his condition.
Emma R. Newsboys' Association is doing an interesting
work in the city among the newsboys. Club rooms are main-
tained under the supervision of a trained worker. The boys
have an interesting civic organization, having their own
mayor, commissioners, police, etc. Runaway boys from other
cities are taken care of and sent back home.
The Home for Delinquent Boys, which is an institution
maintained jointly by the city and the county under the direc-
tion of the Juvenile Court, is now placed at Seabrook, Texas,
with seventy boys in the school. The county has purchased
one hundred and thirty acres with one-quarter-mile frontage
on Clear Lake, and will soon erect modern buildings suitable
for a school of this type. A similar school for girls is being
Both city and county have begun extensive reforms in the
handling of prisoners. The county now maintains a police
matron at the county jail, while the city has a man whose sole
business it is to look after the humanitarian features of city
Among the other organizations in the city, each of which
is endeavoring to do its part in the social uplift of the com-
munity, are the Crittenton Home, Civic Club, many Catholic,
Protestant and Jewish charity organizations, Salvation Army,
The Woman's Protective Association, Shepherd Fund, Art
League, Parent-Teachers' Association, Juvenile Protective
Association, Consumers' League, Industrial Home and Day
Nursery, Kindergarten Association, Council of Jewish Wo-
men, and Harris County Humane Society.
Not less than fifty social agencies of this city were repre-
sented recently at the meeting of the Conference of Charities
and Corrections in the City Auditorium. Conservatively
speaking, this conference served to bring 2,000 men and
women together who are engaged directly or indirectly in
, social service.
And thus, Houston in her struggle for commercial and in-
dustrial supremacy in the great Southwest, has not forgotten
her obligation to those who are unfortunate and those for
whom the struggle for existence has been too strenuous.
Many a kind thought, many a generous deed is mingled
with the arduous activities of business and society, and never
a day passes but that many a home of the poor is touched by
the hand of the rich. Never a night but that some lonesome
child or heartsick mother breathes a blessing upon someone
who has put into execution a dream of helpfulness and kind-
"At night when all the world is still
And the crescent moon swings low,
With drowsy feet on the poppy hill
A little dream shall go,
Then out beyond the silvery waves
That kiss the slumber shore,
And in your sleep you'll smile because
My dream is at your door."
* • » *
II II II II
Il^l £ I
AMUSEMERTS - PARKS - RECREATIONS
■k-<iSg»-. . 1-,. 1
_ 1^^ ^
^p r'T' 1
lEAUTirUL ChUPCHES OF
Lovely Woni5 and Suburbs
W^m^.JM jfe &r
., ■ >
MAYOR BEN CAMPBELL
THE RICE HOTEL
and ITS BUILDER
JESSE H. JONES
AND APARTMENTS OF
P^»m ^>«> ■^■m ^««M
imt' trt ts tm
y tm tTB hm t^m
tm tm tm' imj
One hundred one
One hundred three
One hundred four
III III ^1
tr ;/ !.
One hundred five
One hundred six
'tTM: im rm rm im
BSm tKi Smmt J^B''
BB am' ^li WM-
One hundred seven
One hundred eight
^jjnicipalJmprovements Under Commission
I y lli^(iffll^
One hundred nine
THE commissiiin fcjrm ui city i^overiiinent is a business
cunceni conducted aloiii; modern business lines. Amontj-
its numerous acct)mplishnients since its inauguration
June. 1905, that go to mark its superiority over the old system
may be mentioned the wiping out of a Hoating indebtedness of
$400,000, with current revenues, the first year.
The building of an Auditorium, seating capacity 7500, at a
cost of $345,000.
The Completion of four modern scIuhjI houses at an aggre-
gate Cost of $315,000, not to mention the cost of the ground
and the going construction of two others at a cost of $90,000;
The purchase of seventy acres of ground for parks and
boulevards in different parts of the city.
An increase of the revenue through the water department
of o\er $200,000 in one year, and at the same time a reduction
of the consumjition through the meter svstem.
Placing the payment of all employes on a cash basis and
A reduction of the tax levy from $2.00 to $1.40 on the $100.00
Cutting the cost of water from thirty to fifteen cents the
1000 gallons, or fifty per cent.
A continuous supply of unadulterated artesian water; the
complete closing of gambling houses.
The abolishment of variety theatres ; the closing of saloons
on Sundays and at midnight every day in the week.
The opening of three new parks.
The adoption of the front-foot paving plan, one-third and
intersections paid for by the city.
The voting of $1,250,00 bonds for deepening the Ship Chan-
nel to twenty-five feet; the reduction of the duration of city
coimcil meetings to an average of less than ten minutes to the
The completion of a viaduct across Buffalo Bayou, length
1650 feet and width 70 feet, at a cost of $350,000.
The construction of a reinforced concrete bridge over White
( )ak Bayou at a cost of $60,000.
The removal of all telegraph and telephone poles and wires
from overground in the central or business portion of the city.
The purchase during 1911-12 of fifty acres of additional
pui)lic school grounds.
The inducement of millions of capital to enter into the con-
struction of modern metropolitan i)uildings and other im-
provements of a similar character.
The establishment of (.)ver a hundred new manufacturing
Doubling the strength and effectiveness Lif the fire depart-
ment, through the m<,)St improved fighting apparatus.
The establishment of a municipal publicity magazine that
One hundred ten
lias spread the tame ui iiuustcjii and assisted in the induce-
ment of thousands of capital to invest here and in the sur-
The introduction df the Sommers system of ef|ualizint,'' tax
The plan to acquire \\harfa,i;e facilities that commerce can
operate without beini;- burdened h}- a wharf tax.
The formation of a hit;h class ])olice force, equal in effective-
ness to that of many much larLjer cities.
The dispatch of a special commissioner to Euro])e to inves-
tigate the forms of government in the most successfullv man-
aged cities of Europe, and make report on the same.
The employment by the year of a high class band of thirty
pieces to give free concerts for the people at an a\'erage of five
a week, and the only city in the South doing it.
The purchase and control of the waterworks.
The commission form of city government brought down to
its final analysis, lives and is growing because it is conducted
on strictly business principles. It is on a footing with the
most successful business firms or corporations of today. If it
should in any instance fail to stand the comparison it is be-
cause of some defect in the management or the machinery,
either of which may be remedied by the people. Among the
hundreds of cities that have ado])ted it, hardly one is exactly
like another. This is attriliutable to the varying views of
those persons who framed the several charters and gr>verning
laws. All of the franiers, liowever, admit that the principle is
sound. The birth cif the commission form of government grew
out of one of the must appalling disasters of modern times.
One Inindred eleven
viz: that which ahiiost swept the good city of Galveston off
the face of the earth — the great storm of 1900. that drowned
over 7000 of her people. The State had to take charge of the
terrible situation as it stood the daj- after the storm, Septem-
ber 9t]i of that year. The city was first under martial law,
soon followed by the appointment l)y tlie State of a commis-
sion to take charge of it. The cuniniissioncrs were men who
had been successful in business. They luid no political debts
to jjay nor personal obligations to hinder them. The idea that
dominated them, was to rebuild their tmce beautiful city.
They mo\-ed in obedience to this patriotic inspiration. How-
ever, the law of local self go\ernmenl had to later take the
situation in hand, and the people elected their own commis-
sioners, but adhered to the business ideas that had at first con-
trolled. Its success was so manifest and so i^ratifying that
Houston took the cue. and during tlie hrst administration of
former Mayor H. !'>. Rice tlie change was made, the mayor
himself leading the campaign that preceded that election that
gave Houston the commission form of government. Mr. Rice
quickly saw the advantages of the new system. He was
backed by the business men of the city, and today Houston
has a form of go\ernment that is better seen in the marvelous
growth that it has taken tui, since that time, than can be told
in words. The millions of cajiital inxested; the thousands of
people added to the population ; the e.xpansion of the residen-
tial, as well as the lousiness district, are monuments that will
please the eyes of generations to come, as well as those of
Houston's form differs in some respects from that of Gal-
veston. Des Moines' differs from that of Houston and Gal-
veston, both. And other cities have their special features, but
the principle is the same in all. One of the main features in
each one appeared to be an earnest effort to eliminate politics,
with all of rottenness and corruption, from the management
of the city's affairs.
The waterworks, whicli were purchased by the city from a
private corporation at a cost of approximately a million dol-
lars, became a source of revenue to the government instead of
a costly burden to the citizens. The ciuality of water was
much improved. Before, it was measurably a menace to the
health of the consumer. After the change it became a source
of health. And there is now no better water in the whole
country. The supply is ample for hre fighting purposes, as
well as for domestic use.
All things Considered, it is due here to state that the com-
mission form of government, under the administration of
former Mayor Rice, has made of Houston an up-to-date and
prosperous city. It removed the city from the classification of a
large country town and placed it in that of a thriving, grow-
One hundred twelve
One hundred thirtten
ini; city. \'>y outsiders it has been termed the Chicago, the
Xew \'urk and the Atlanta uf the Southwest. Its future is so
l)right that it has given expression that it would, in the course
of a few years, become the greatest city in the Southwest and
Former Mayor Rice, in response to an invitation, delivered
an address before the Chicago Commercial Club on "The
Commission Form of Government of Cities." The clula se-
lected the subject.
After some introductory remarks, he indicated the course
of his address in the following statement :
"The essential difference between the form of municipal
government which has prevailed in Houston since the passage
of the charter of 1905 and the old form of municipal govern-
ment, which has generally prevailed throughout the United
States heretofore, are three: The substitution of a smaller
number of aldermen, elected from the city at large, in place
of a large number of aldermen elected from different wards or
subdivisions of the city, vesting of a co-ordinate power in the
Mayor as in the City Council to dismiss any officer of the city
government, except the Controller, at any time, without cause,
and the essential provisions safeguarding the granting of
"Instead of a body of twelve aldermen, elected from differ-
ent wards or subdivisions of the city, under the Houston sys-
tem four aldermen are elected from the body of the city by the
vote of all the citizens in the same way in which the Mayor is
elected. These four aldermen, together with the Mayor, con-
stitute the City Council or legislative department of the city
government. The executive power is vested in the Mayor,
but by an ordinance for the administration of the city's affairs,
a large portion of executive or administrative power is sub-
divided into different departments, and a committee is placed
over each department, and one of the four aldermen nominat-
ed by the Mayor is what is known as the active chairman.
The Mayor and all four aldermen are members of each com-
mittee. The active chairman of the committee practically has
control of the administration of the department, unless his
views upon the matter are overruled by the whole committee;
but by the organization of the committees the active chairman
does his work to a certain extent under the supervisory direc-
tion of the Mayor, who is in the last analysis the head of each
committee and the person in whom the executive power of a
municipal government ultimately rests."
The above brief excerpt simply conveys the idea of the
strong working base upon which all questions are or could be
One lumdrec] fourteen
THIS movement originated in Houston al)oiit a year ago
as a result of a survey that was made a few months pre-
vious of the various places of amusement. It was discov-
ered in this survey that the average attendance on Sunday
upon the places of amusement was about 20,000 out of a pop-
ulation of 105,000, or about one-fifth of the people. The
amusements were the usual type of vaudeville, motion pic-
tures and the average type of small theatre performances.
Few, if any, of these were really the type that would give any-
thing of virtue to the attendants.
Amusement is as necessary as food and drink, and the ques-
tion is, What kind shall it be? The amusement should furnish
a stimulus in proportion to the ratio of the dullness of the
employment. In other words, something was needed that
would not only be recreative and amusing, but would be in-
tellectual and helpful, as well. To this end an entertainment
has been provided on Sunday afternoons in the new City Audi-
torium consisting of high grade music, lectures, readings. The
highest grade entertainers and artists appear at these enter-
tainments, offering to the people something that is intellect-
ually, morally and physically uplifting, instead of leaving them
to the petty things of the show business. In short, this is an
educational movement for social uplift.
The start was made the first Sunday in May, 1912.
For the first five numbers of this entertainment it was esti-
mated by conservative people that the average attendance was
5,000, which proved two things — first, the people approved of
the class and kind of entertainment that was being offered,
and second, the social demand for such an entertainment.
Before it had l)een running thirty days, articles concerning it
had been written up as syndicate newspaper articles. Many
magazines and the great religious journals of the country have
written favorable editorials commenting upon it. Letters
galore, from all over the United States, and from some foreign
countries have poured in upon the Superintendent.
The thought, in the beginning of the movement, was that it
would be largely for the working peoi)le, but as it has prog-
ressed all classes, working men and professional men alike,
are to be found among its regular patrons; the old and the
young, the rich and poor are to be seen there every Sunday. It
has come to be generally understood in tlie city that "Every
Sunday there is something good at the Municipal Entertain-
ment." It has taken a high place in the estimation of the
people of the city, and the great good that it is doing, both in
a negative, as well as a positive way, is hard to estimate.
(Imc liiindrfil rifteen
Copyright by Sfhlueter^ ffoutlon, Tfxat
One initidred sixteett
The Ship Channel or
One hundred seventeen
SE\'ENTY-SIX years ago, when the Aliens and others
founded a settlement at the head waters of Buffalo Bayou
and named it Housttm in hont)r of Texas" illustrious gen-
eral, no little thought was given to the strategic ])osition of
the new town on the course of a navigable stream.
In those days travel was restricted to horse, wagon and
boat. Along the coast of the new Texas Republic commerce
practically was monopolized by boat, and in consequence the
coast country offered more inducements and attraction for
settlement than interior sections. Yet the open coast line
proved somewhat hazardous for safe harbors for the small
craft of coastwise shipping, and when Houston was founded
at the head course of a navigable stream, with a natural safe
harbor, it soon became the center of commerce of the section,
and later was made the capital city of the new-born republic.
The farsightedness of its founders has made the City of
Houston of today. \\'Iiile small boats thronged the placid
bayou years ago, carrying the products of a broad coast coun-
try, the Houston of today is preparing to bring the greatest
ships of ocean commerce over the waters of the same ]ilacid
stream to the protected land-locked harbor wliicli dcillars and
the efforts of man ha\-e made possilile.
Buffalo Bayou — renamed the Houston Ship Channel — is a
natural waterway — an arm of the sea. \\'hile its greatest
source of supply is from the sea — hence the term "bayou" — it
is also fed by two small courses converging at Houston. In
natural depth it varied from eight to fifteen feet, and since
the early '40s has been navigated by steamboats.
It is no e.xaggeration to say that the foresightedness of the
founders of Houston has made i)ossible the Greater Houston
of today. If it were not for the Ship Channel, Houston would
go back ten years in development. That ribbon of water
extending from Houston fifty miles to the Gulf of Mexico is
Houston's greatest commercial asset. It is the most potent
factor in Houston's commercial life, for it compels lower
One hundred eighteen
freight rates, which Houston would not enjoy were it not for
Today over $50,000,000 in commerce annually traverses the
Ship Channel by small boats and bart^es. That is the actual
commerce of the stream. In traffic between Houston and
other seaboard points it compels a lower railroad rate, which
annually saves millions of dollars to Houston industry and
shipping. To the cotton planters of Texas alone it affords a
saving of $6,000,000 annually, as for a distance of fifty miles
it cuts the cotton rate from twenty-one cents to six cents per
Even in this limited use the Houstim Ship Channel has
proved its usefulness and absolute necessity as a commercial
factor for Houston. What its full and unrestricted use will
mean may be gleaned from a study of Manchester, England,
a city which dug a ship canal to the sea and became a world
Houston is situated much like Manchester was. Manches-
ter had great industries, many railroads, and a river to tlie sea.
Tlic Mersey River was a sluggisJi stream, sometimes l)arelv
getting (i\-er tlie sand, and in other ])laces aliout three feet
deep. Energetic Manchester raised ten million or more dol-
lars and started digging a canal to the sea. The course fol-
lowed tlie Mersey, but in jilaces the canal was blasted and cut
through solid rock. Years of work and great ex])enditure
tinally brought the sea to Manchester and great ships followed.
Houston made a study of Manchester and determined as
did Manchester that as the town could not 1)e moved to the
sea. the sea must be moved to the town. Hut Tb)uston had a
l)etter foundation upon which to work. ( )I(1 Ilufi'alo i!a\MU
was much deeper than the Mersey and the bayou defined a
course straight to the Gulf of Mexico. Previous expenditures
of several thousand dollars had greatly improved the bayou,
but a task rivalling that of Manchester was determined upon
and put through.
A minimum depth of twenty-five feet and a straight course
C)iie luiiulrcd nineteen
was decided on and the matter put up to the government.
Two years of effort brought an appropriation from the Gov-
ernment of $1,250,000, contingent upon Houston raising a like
amount. \\'hen Houston asked for bonds to that amount
January 10, 191 1, they carried nearly unanimously. A few
months later the money was deposited to the credit of the
Secretary of War and the work was started.
Under this $2,500,000 appropriation dredges are now at
work dredging tlie channel to a minimum depth of twenty-five
feet. It is believed the work will be completed by June, 1914.
for opening simultaneously with the Panama Canal. The
task of dredging is much easier than that which faced Man-
chester, for the Houston project needs but to dredge mud and
silt from the bottom of a defined stream and cut off a few
bends. Where Manchester expended $10,000,000, Houston
need expend but $2,500,000 with the same results, and Houston
will become a world seaport, with a greater number of rail-
roads than any other city in the South.
When the channel is comjileted the greatest ships of ocean
commerce will come direct to the City (if Houston. Free
nuiiiicipal wliarves arc being arranged for liy the City of
iiouston, which will be forever maintained as free wharfage.
This is a provision in the contract with the P'ederal Govern-
The fact that the Houston Ship Channel work is the largest
inland waterway now under way by the Government, is ev-
idence of the interest of the Federal authorities in providing
at the outlet of seventeen lines of railroad a seaport which
will handle the vast commerce of the Central and Central-
Western States. The Texas coast provides nearest tidewater
to this great producing area, and the seventeen trunk lines of
railway entering Houston radiate from this great section. Tt
is only logical that ocean commerce should touch direct the
termini of these railroads, and the completion of the channel
will connect the last link in a great international route from
the Trans-Mississippi States direct to every port on the Globe.
What the Ship Channel is to Houston is not conjecture ; it
is not an exaggerated fact. The channel is Houston's greatest
commercial asset — the most potent factor in the development
of Greater Houston. It means the construction around this
natural land-locked harbor, safe from storms, of a coming
great world port and a great trade mart of the land. ^Vhat
deep water has done for Manchester it will do for Houston,
and the parallel is uniquely drawn by the Chamber of Com-
merce in its apt slogan for Houston : "The Manchester of
One hundred twenty
C/1AMDER OF Commerce of
flNANCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVEIj^^PMENT
One hundred twentv-one
W. C. MUNN
President Chamber of Commerce
Uiic hundred twenty-two
WITH one exception the Chamber of Commerce of Hous-
ton, probably, is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, or-
ganization of its kind in the South.
The exception noted is the Matagorda (Texas) Chamber of
Commerce, the original organization of which today is out of
existence. ISoth were chartered by the Congress of the Re-
public of Texas in 1840, and the Chamber ot Commerce of
Houston of today can trace its origin back to the day when
President Mirabeau B. Lamar attached his signature in ap-
proval of the articles of information of the Houston Cliamber
of Commerce January 28th, 1840.
Thus in 1913 the present Chamber of Commerce of Houston
is seventy-three years old. This does not mean that the active
operation of the organization continued over that period in
the same manner the work is being carried forward today.
There was a period of relapse, which continued for a few
3'ears, but about sixteen years ago the organization was re-
vived and later chartered as the Houston Businness League.
A little over two years ago, or a year following the succes-
sion of Adolph Boldt, as secretary, the charter was amended
and the name changed to that of the Chamber of Commerce
of Houston, Texas, returning to the same title given the in-
itial organization nearly four score years ago.
Yet tile purposes of that early organization and the ime
(jbtaining today are practicalh^ the same. The charter of the
first organization as granted by the Texas Congress "author-
ized the need of the Cliamber of Commerce as tending to
diminish litigation and to establish uniform and equitable
charges and considering that the establishment of a chamber
of commerce may thus tend to the general advantage of the
citizens of this Republic as well as tlie furtherance of the
This creed is unchanged today, a larger organization divid-
ing the work and forcing the energy as one man did those
several years ago. The growth of the organization has kept
pace with the expansion of the city it serves and promotes, and
the perfection of organization attained by the present Cham-
ber of Commerce is declared by persons who know to be un-
excelled in the South. In fact, some say the Houston Cham-
ber of Commerce is better organized and is attaining greater
and more beneficial results than any other Southern city is
securing from its similar organizations.
Ten persons now direct the several departments of the
greater Chamber of Commerce. The work of building a city
is systematized and is conducted on the same plan as the pro-
motion of a business enterprise. In all respects the sale of a
commodity and the sale of a city is the same. Similar organ-
izations must be maintained, and tlie larger the enterprise to
One hundred tweiuv-threc
be promoted the larger and more efficient must be the organ-
The enlargement of the Chamber of Commerce soon fol-
lowed the succession of Adolph Boldt as the active head of
the organization as secretary a little over three years ago.
Resourceful and energetic himself, he energized and put new
life into the then struggling League. The membership when he
took charge was about 385, and two persons actively adminis-
tered the affairs of the Chamber. He increased the scope of
the organization and added to the efficiency of the Chamber
by placing the different departments in charge of experts well
qualified for that particular department.
The Houston Traffic Bureau was taken over from the Cotton
Exchange and operated as a ]xirt of the Chamber; a compre-
hensive Tiureau of Publicity in cliarge of a newspaper man
was installed, while an ex])ert in agriculture and a man well
informed on immigration jjroblems were secured to handle
the Agricultural and Immigration Bureaus which Secretary
Boldt established. I^ater Convention and Industrial Bureaus
were installed and the entire work of the Chamber system-
atized. Thus in a little over two years' time the actual work-
ing force of the Chamber of Commerce was raised from two
persons to ten persons actively engaged, while in the mean-
time the membership was increased from 385 to 1,500
The practical operation of this great Chamber of Commerce
machine is like clockwork. Traffic problems are handled by
the Traffic Bureau, the City of Houston is forever kept in the
eye of the world by the Bureau of Publicity, the welfare of the
farming interests of the Houston District are under the watch-
ful eye of the Agricultural Department twelve months in the
year, while the Immigration Department concerns itself with
the attraction of desirable immigrants to the Houston District.
The Convention Bureau is eternally campaigning for conven-
tions, while the Industrial Bureau concerns itself with the
One hundred twenty-four
aUractiun tu Houston of every phase of industry. The whcile
is under the supervision of the president, Mr. W. C. Munn, and
Detail work, aside from the various bureaus, is done through
committees, there being twenty-six committees on the calen-
dar. The larger problems are handled by the Board of Di-
rectors, which in cfifect is the governing body of the Chamber
The Chamber of Commerce is indeed the "powerhouse of
the city." It c)riginates movements for the good of the city
and puts them through. When any public issue is before the
people for decision, an issue which is for the public good, it
is the Chamber of Commerce that devotes its entire time to
the campaign to put the issue successfully through. Of the
front-foot paving plan, school bond issues, clean-up campaigns,
the Ship Channel and viaduct bond issues — all started by the
Chamber of Commerce — each went through with large favor-
able majorities and without doubt due to the comprehensive
effort and wide publicity given the movements by the Cham-
ber of Commerce.
Of necessity any city that aspires to any pretensions must
have a Chamber of Commerce or some central working or-
ganization which has at heart the general welfare of the city.
The Houston Chamber of Commerce is non-political and seeks
rather the benefit of the city as a whole than any individual or
class. Vet any public spirited movement before the city, if
investigated, probably will find the Chamber of Commerce as
its sponsor or influential adherent. It is the one central or-
ganization or power which is vital to the success of a public
issue or movement, and in Houston the Chamber of Com-
merce occupies that sphere.
The annual meeting of the Chamber of Commerce is held in
May of each year, when ofticers and directors for the ensuing
year are elected.
One liuiidred iwetity-tive
HOUSTON — A city of 125,000 population, including sub-
urbs ; the financial center of the Southwest ; annual bank clear-
ings of $1,898,054,746; aggregate wholesale trade, $130,575,-
000; bank deposits, $45,000,000.
INDUSTRIAL CENTER— The workshop of Texas. More
factories, more wage earners and largest payroll in the South-
west. Lowest rate on raw material. Distrilnition by rail and
water. Large consuming territory. Manufactured products,
LUMBER MARKET— Center of the great pine and hard-
wood forests of Texas. Shipments for export via the Houston
ship channel. Annual sales are $40,000,000.
CC)TTON — The largest inland port cotton market in the
world. Handles two and a lialf million Ijales annually. Stor-
age capacity, 500,000 bales. Largest compresses and oil mills
in the South. Splendid opportunities for cotton mills and
SEVENTEEN RAILROADS— The greatest railroad center
in the South ; concentrating and distributing point for the
entire Southwest. Greater number of points reached by one-
line haul. Quicker distriljution over a larger area. Largest
repair shops in the South.
DEEP WATER PORT— Houston's Ship Channel brings
the trans-Mississippi country 500 miles nearer to the sea than
the Atlantic and Pacific ports. Lower freight rates from East
and seaboard. Two and a half million dollars have been pro-
vided for its improvement.
RICE CENTER — Largest primary rice market. Seven
modern rice mills. Value of annual product over $6,000,000.
OIL CENTER— Headquarters for Texas petroleum. An-
nual Texas production, 13,000,000 barrels. Pipe lines to
Texas and Oklahoma fields.
The best organized and most active Chamber of Commerce
in the South. com]>osed of the principal business interests of
the city, linked into a compact organization working for the
interests of a Greater Houston.
A traffic over its Ship Channel which totaled $50,000,000 for
One hundred twenty-six
Financial and Industrial
llie last twelve months, an inerease ui $1,500,000 over the
traffic for the preceding year.
Five cotton compresses. Houston compresses more cotton
during- the season than any other city in Texas — the largest
inland port cotton market in the world.
The general offices of the four railroad companies of the
Frisco, East and West lines, the Sunset-Central lines, the
Trinity & Brazos Valley Railroad Company, and the fiouston
ISelt & Terminal Railway Company, International and Great
Northern Railway Company.
•Aggregate assessments on the city tax rolls of $100,000,000.
The Harris County tax rolls register a total assessment of
Forty skyscrapers of six stories and over, ranging up to
eighteen stories. Houston challenges comparison with any
city in the world of equal size to show as many tall buildings.
Apartment houses completed during the year at a cost of
A half-million-dollar Federal building, which houses the
postoffice and the Federal Courts.
The largest trust company or financial institution in the
State is the Bankers' Trust Company, capitalized at $2,000,-
000, with surplus of approximately $1,000,000. In size it is
surpassed by but three banks and trust companies in the
South. It is active in the development of the Houston section,
it being estimated it has brought in over $5,000,000 foreign
capital during the past three years.
Over 400 inccjrporated companies, whose aggregate capital
stock is in excess of $150,000,000.
Eight infirmaries and sanitariums and a new railroad hos-
pital operated by the Southern Pacific.
Alunicipal water works, which includes forty-five artesian
wells with a daily capacity of 33,000,000 gallons, which is sup-
plied to consumers at a rate of 15 cents per thousand gallons.
The produce market of the rich Gulf Coast Country of
Texas, Houston being in the center of the richest section of
The only elevator and esculator factory in the South.
A lire department comprising twelve stations, with prop-
erty valued at $300,000. Fifty-five horses and no men com-
pose the fire-fighting force.
A manufacturing and industrial activity which totals $20,-
000,000 in capital, 11,000 in number of employes, $10,000,000
in pay roll and $66,000,000 output.
An annual fall fete (the No-Tsu-Oh Carnival) wiiich at-
tracts thousands of visitors from Texas and Louisiana.
A mean annual temperature of 68 degrees, giving healthful
climate, with an annual death rate of but 13.5 per thousand.
One luindred twenty-seven
Financial and Industrial
Commission form cjf municipal t^overnment, which governs
the city on a business basis without regard to politics and in
the same manner a great private corporation is conducted.
Tlie largest produce market in Texas, whose business last
year totaled $5,200,000.
The Rice Institute, a university with an endowment of $10,-
000,000, opened in fall of 191 2.
Forty-nine lumber companies, making Houston tlie lumljer
Center of the Southwest. Its annual lumljer Inisiiiess aggre-
gates more than $40,000,000.
A patriotic population imljued with the spirit of progression
which epitomizes the resistless energy that is making Hous-
ton the greatest city of the South.
Twenty-three oil companies with an aggregate capital stock
of $85,000,000. The largest producing petroleum district in
Te.xas, the Humble held, is seventeen miles from Houston.
The financial balance of power in the Southwest and clear-
ing weekly more net than any city in the South, with the ex-
ception of New Orleans.
Direct connection with the Brownsville Railroad with the
trade territory of Me.xico, and already is connected by steamer
witli Mexican ports.
A wholesale trade that totaled $125,000,000 last year.
Si.x National banks, with total deposits of $45,000,000.
A free library with 35,000 books.
Expended over $100,000 last year in extensions and im-
provements of the water works system.
The general shops of the Texas (S: New Orleans, the Galves-
ton, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the Houston & Texas Central,
the Houston East & West Texas, and the Houston Belt &
Terminal Railway Companies.
.\n electric railway company which operates over sixty-one
miles of track, and employs 465 persons.
Twenty-four puldic school buildings which, with their
grounds and equipment, represent an investment of $1,043,314.
The scholastic population is 20,685, '^ost of buildings and
equipment, $1,043,314; salaries of teachers, $190,302. In Har-
ris County there are 26,525 school children.
A retail trade whose volume last year was $51,000,000.
Headquarters for the Texas Company (a $50,000,000 corpo-
ration) which operates in Texas and Oklahoma petroleum
A half-million-dollar County Court House, built of granite
and iron and brick.
Five express coni])anies employing 200 men and having an
annual payroll of $200,000.
Six cotton seed oil mills with an aggregate cajjital of $2,500,-
000, employing 1,500 men, and an annual output uf $5,740,000.
One hundred twenty-eight
Nearly 2,000 commercial Imuses with a ccimlMned capital uf
Two of the three car wheel factories in Texas, and these two
are among the largest in America.
An area of sixteen square miles, with many suburban dis-
Three general shops of railways whose activities, here last
year employed 2,700 men, paying them $1,607,200 in wages,
and representing an output of $2,405,000.
Two slips on the turning Ixisin of the Ship Channel which
are just being completed at a cost of $150,000. With the sheds
and warehouses they will provide free wharfage facilities in
the new harbor.
A Ship Channel to the Gulf which is being dredged to a
minimum depth of twenty-five feet under a $2,500,000 ap-
The third great orange belt of the United States within the
Houston district. This industry is just beginning, but is
already making shipments East.
The postal receipts at the Houston office for 1910, 191 1 and
1912 were as follows:
191 1 486,.092.49
The receipts for January and February, 1913, were $95,-
812.30, while the receipts for the corresponding months of
1912 were $83,107.57, thus showing a $12,704.73 increase in
favor of 1913 over 1912.
Five rice mills with a total daily capacity of 7,600 bags.
One hundred passenger trains operated in and out of its
railway terminals in a day.
Invested in lumber mills and furniture t'actories, $1,039,500,
with an output last year of $2,409,()9().
Foundries and machine shops with a total output last year
One lunulred twenty-nine
The first cinisideration in moving; to a new town to live is,
what kind of drinking water is available? In addition to the
municipal artesian water supply, Houston has one of the finest
water distillini;- plants in the United States, making the purest
possible water for drinking purposes, manufactured by the
same process that the Government uses in the arniv and na\y
stills. Aqua Pura is extensi\ely used in Houston and is
shipped all over the state.
Railroad investments of $12,685,100, employing 5,000 men,
with an annual pay roll of $3,906,220. IMie railway terminals
alone represent an investment of $4,000,000.
Manual training and domestic science departments in its
The largest storm sewer in the South, with a diameter at
its mouth of thirteen feet, which provides water drainage for
the Third and Fourth \\'ards. It cost $225,000. An additional
$225,000 was expended during the year in extending the san-
itary sewerage system.
Its own dredge boat, "The Tom Ball," operating on the
Houston Ship Channel, the first of the fleet of dredges that the
city will have in the service on its waterway.
OiU' luinilreil tliirty
One hundred thirty-one
g to te ~ ti.
U U II ii li nil I,
I ■ ■■ ■■ii
One luiiulrc'd thirty-two
One hundred thirty-three
Copyright by Litterit^ Houston, Ttxas
One hundred thirty-four
One hundred thirty-five
One hundred thirty-six
One hundred thirty-seven
One hundred thirty-eight
One hundred thirty-nine
One hundred forty
One hundred forty-one
One liuiidred fortv-two
One liuiidrcd forty-tliree
View of Main Street in 1891, the year Wm. Marsh Rice endowed the Rice Institute.
The above etching is reproduced from a wood cut used in a book on Houston
printed that year by George W. Englehardt of St. Louis. The book is
rare from a comparative, pictorial and statistical standpoint.
This Index is made to read from left to right, covering pages of views of portraits
where same appear side by side.
25 Title Page, Fannin School.
26 Front View High School.
27 High School on Caroline Street Side; Barnett School; Boys' Outdoor Gymnasium,
29 High School Domestic Science Class; High School Exhibit Manual Training;
School Children at Lecture of Edmund Vance Cook, City Auditorium.
30 Xight Classes in Business Course, Architecture, and for Foreigners.
31 Night Classes for Colored People. Third picture shows woman eighty-five and her
grandson on front seat, she attending school to learn to read the Bible.
3i Austin School; Hawthorne School; Woodland Heights School.
36 New Rusk School, Front, Auditorium and Rear Views.
38 Allen School; St. Agnes Academy; Carnegie Library.
40 Women's Choral Club; Blitz Quintette; Treble Clef Club.
42 Two Gymnasium Classes, and First Aid to the Wounded Class, Y. M. C. A.
43 Title Page, Interior View of General Office of Social Service Federation.
45 Y. M. C. A. Bldg.; Houston Y. M. C. A. Boys on Relay Hike from Galveston to
Houston carrying message to Governor in City Park on San Jacinto Day.
47 Lunch Room, Reading and Rest Room, Y. W. C. A.
48 Interior of Modern Amlnilance, of which Houston has several.
49 Norsworthy's Hospital; Southern Pacific Hospital; Baptist Sanitarium.
50 I-'aith Home; Interior Faith Home Oiiening Day; Wesley House (Girls' Co-opera-
51 Saint .\nthony's Home for the Aged; St. Joseph's Infirmary; Settlement House
and Kindergarten (to the left).
52 Two Views of Canoe Club Members on ISrays Hayou, Cluli House in first picture;
Oleander Club (Galveston-Houston) on Dickinson Bayon.
53 Title Page, Country Club House.
54 Views of Beautiful Golf Links and Grounds of Houston Country Club.
55 Old Golf Club; Thalian Club.
56 Houston Launch Club (on hill): more than three hundred boats listed.
57 Interior Houston Club (business men); New Majestic Theatre.
58 Views in Vicks Park, recently purchased by City for site of Permanent Exposition.
59 Three Views of Elizabeth Baldwin Park; Old Highland Park.
60 Forest Hill Park, looking across stream to Country Club Golf Links; Brays Bayou
running through Forest Hill Park; Two Views City Park.
61 Beautiful Park on Ship Channel at San Jacinto Battlegroimd; An Invitation to
Drive or Motor; the "Augusta," a sea-going yacht built in Houston and owned
by C. G. Pillot.
62 First Presb\teriaii Church; Christ Episcopal Church; First Methodist Church.
63 Title Page, Church of the Annunciation and School.
64 Christian Science Church; St. Paul's Methodist Church; Tuam Avenue Baptist
65 First Baptist Church; Congregation Beth Israel: Cumberland Presbyterian, Cen-
tral Christian, Second Presbyterian Churches.
66 Main Street Looking South at the Beginning of Residential Section: four views
of Home of F. A. Hervy, Jr.; Residence of A. L. Nelras; an Attractive Home
in Woodland Heights.
67 Home of E. B. Parker.
68 Homes of Major J. F. Dickson, Dr. W. R. Eckhardt and E. Raphael.
6g Home of J. W. Link in Montrose.
70 Homes of Andrew Dow, C. G. Pillot, Jas. A. Baker. R. C. Duff, Jesse H. Jones,
S. F. Carter, J. O. Ross, Cortlandt Place.
71 Homes of W. T. Carter, Mrs. M. T. Jones, Abe M. Levy, Harris Masterson, Dr.
O. L. Norsworthy, J. C. Hooper, J. W. Hertford, Lynch Davidson.
72 Beautiful Forest Hill; Homes of W. A. Cooke and M. C. Lane, first picture; last
picture, Gus Radetzki and Lindsay Dunn.
73 Bungalow Headquarters Forestdale Nurseries and H. T. D. Wilson's Fine Chicken
Ranch showing in center picture Six Thousand-egg Incubator House.
74 Westmoreland Farms, adjoining Rice Institute Property, and connected with
Houston by hourly street car service.
75 Four Views Bungalow Addition; Entrance to Woodland Heights and Home of
Wm. A. Wilson; Boulevard in Houston Heights: Three Views of Southland
Terrace, Showing Splendid Natural Possibilities for Suburban Development.
77 Major J. F. Dickson, Judge Harris Masterson, O. L. Cochran, Capt. Wm. Chris-
tian, J. S. Rice, John T. Scott.
78 Jas. Adair, Andrew Dow, David Rice, Jeff T. Miller, Harry S. Fox, H. R. Eldridge,
H. T. D. Wilson, Daniel Garrett, Wm. B. King, E. A. Peden, Henry H. Dick-
son, David Daly.
79 E. B. Parker, H. M. Garwood, Abe M. Levy. Lynch Davidson. John Stewart, R.
C. Duff, Fred A. Jones, Ennis Cargill, George Torrey, Joe H. Eagle, W. H.
Gill, John Charles Harris.
80 J. S. Cullinan, K. E. Brooks. E. F. Simms, W. B. Sharp*. Xiels Esperson, H. T.
81 W. B. Chew, Chas. Dillingham, Jos. Meyer, W. L. Macatee, Henry S. Fox*, Col.
(). T. Holt*.
82 Dr. Peter Gray Sears, C. L. Kerr, Arthur Cargill, Sterling Meyer, E. M. Parrish,
J. B. Adoue, Richard Maury, Chester Bryan, John W. Maxcy, Jules Sette-
gast, J. Q. Tabor, \Vm. A. Smith.
83 T. J. Anderson, H. Martin, D. J. Price, C. H. Dunbar, John W. Graham, A. Y.
Austin, E. A. Hudson, Frank Jones, James Cravens, Ed Kiam, John Foley,
84 Jonathan Lane, John H. Kirby, Jake Wolters, Jas. L. Story.
85 John H. Thompson, Thomas Stone, B. F. Bonner, Lee C. Ayers, Wm. A. Vinson,
L. A. Adamson, John A. Hulen, Chas. Kirk, Bentley Nelson. Jas. T. Sadler,
J. W. Neal. Jeff T. Gibbons.
86 Judge Chas. E. Ashe, Jas. D. Dawson, A. L. Nelms, N. E. Meador, Guy Bryan,
Chas. P. Shearn, Bryan Heard, B. B. Gilmer, C. W. Hahl, W. T. Carter, C. G.
Pillot, H. F. McGregor.
87 O. S. Carlton, Wm. Abbey. W. S. Farrish, Howard Hughes. Lee Blaffer. D. R.
Beatty. E. J. Hussion. L. W. Macatee, Henry Lee Borden, Dr. Sam R. Hay,
Dr. Wm. States Jacobs, Dr. Henry Barnstein.
88 W. G. Van Vleck, George Gibbons, F. A. Heitmann, M. M. Graves, W. V. Lau-
raine, H. C. Schuhmacher. Dr. J. L. Gross, James Radford, Lynn Talley, J. E.
Duff, J. M. Cary, Leon Sontield.
99 Carter building, showing Wireless Station; Scanlan Building; Union National
100 Te.xas Company Building; Cotton Hotel; Paul Building.
loi South Texas-Commercial National Bank; First National Bank.
102 Waddell Furniture Co.; Commercial Bank Building: Houston Cotton Exchange.
103 Binz Building; Hudson Furniture Co.; Bering-Cortes Hardware Co.; Stewart
Building; Tel-Electric Co.; Beatty Building.
104 Bristol Hotel; Interior Views Macatee Hotel.
105 Brazos Hotel; Two Views Brazos Court; Milby Hotel.
106 Southern Pacific Building; Stowers Furniture Co.; Bender Hotel.
107 Savoy Apartments; Rossonian Apartments; Beaconsfield Apartments.
109 Opening of the New Viaduct at the foot of Main Street, connecting the City with
the North Side.
Ill City Auditorium, seating more than seven thousand people. The '"Zeeland," owned
by Former Mayor Rice and on which he has entertained hundreds of dis-
tinguished guests of the City of Houston.
113 City Water Works Pumping Station; Mouth of Austin Street Storm Sewer; City
115 Dr. W. S. Lockhart, who originated the Municipal Entertainment Idea and has
successfully superintended the movement in Houston.
116 Scenes on the Ship Channel: Last Picture, famous San Jacinto Battleground, where
Texas won her independence in 1836.
117 Mariner's Map Showing Houston in upper left hand corner and the course of the
Houston Ship Channel.
118 Ship Channel near Harrisburg.
119 Ship Channel at Lynchburg.
121 Title Page, Members of Chamber of Commerce starting on a "Houston Boosters"
134 Interior and Exterior Views of the Magnificent New LTnion Station of the Hous-
ton Belt & Terminal Company.
13s Title Page, Where the Ship Channel Enters the Sea; Wharfage at Oil Station
and Cotton Compress on the Ship Channel.
136 Houston Belt and Terminal Facilities; I. and G. N. Freight Station and Cotton
Sheds; I. & G. N. Wharf on Ship Channel.
137 Two Southern Pacific Stations; Foreign Ship in the Turning Basin.
138 Reading down the page — J. M. Lewis, Editor "Tampering With Trifles" column
and "Alkali Eye" in Houston Post; Harry Van Demark, Editor Texas Mag-
azine; Hamp Cook, Editor Progressive Houston; Holland S. Reavis, Editor
Fuel Oil Journal; F. E. Dionne, Editor Gulf Coast Lumberman; W. W.
Dexter, Editor Texas Bankers' Journal; Richard Montgomery, Editor The
124 Adolph Boldt, Secretary Chamber of Commerce.
125 G. E. Roussel, Assistant Secretary; Jerome Farbar, Director of Publicity; J. W.
Wilkinson, Traffic Manager.
126 Interior Houston National Exchange Bank.
129 Interior Lumbermans Bank.
130 Aqua Pura Water Manufacturing Plant; Federal Building.
131 City Market; Harris County Court House.
132 Public Service Corporation.s — Three Southwestern Telephone Buildings — Preston,
Hadley and Taylor Exchanges; Home Telephone Co. Building; Houston Gas
Company, which has just increased its capacity at an expenditure of a half
133 Galveston-Houston Interurban, showing the Draw-bridge on the Great Causeway.
The car in the last picture was traveling at the rate of fifty miles an hour when
the picture was snapped.
140 Houston Post Building.
141 Post StafT — G. J. Palmer, Vice President and General Manager; A. E. Clarkson,
Secretary and Business Manager; R. M. Johnston, President and Editor;
Harry Warner, Managing Editor; George Baily, Editorial Staff.
142 Houston Clironicle Building.
143 Chronicle StafT — C. B. Gillespie, Business Manager; G. E. Kepple, City Editor;
Marcellus Foster, President and General Manager: Robert Cornell, Advertis-
ing Manager; J. E. McComb, Manager Foreign Advertising.
THE END OF THIS BOOK WHICH IS ENTIRELY A
HOUSTON PRODUCT. DESIGNED, COMPILED AND
ARRANGED by JULIA CAMERON MONTGOMERY.
DRAWINGS by SAM KAISER. ENGRAVINGS by THE
STAR ENGRAVING COMPANY. PRINTED AT THE
SOUTHWESTERN PRESS, IN THE MONTH OF MAY
THE YEAR NINETEEN HUNDRED AND THIRTEEN
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