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The Rice Institute 

Public Schools, Other Educational Facilities; 

Music, Art League 
Social Service Federation 

Social Clubs, Amusements, Parks, Recreations 
Beautiful Churches 
Lovely Homes and Suburbs 
Representative Men 
Big Buildings, Hotels and Apartments 
Municipal Improvements Under Commission Form 

of Government 
Ship Channel 
Chamber of Commerce; Financial and Industrial 

Seventeen Railroads Meet the Sea 
The Press 

From ((jpyrighted portrait by S. Salomon, San Antonio, Texas 



THIS IU)()K is presented to its readers as a permanent 
record of the progressive era upon which Houston is 
Its inspiration came with attendance u])on the inaugural 
and dedicatorial exercises opening the Rice Institute in Oc- 
tober, igi2. Houston has many other beautiful and substantial 
features, and in addition to depicting in detail the Institute, 
an endeavor is made to describe by views and text other prin- 
cipal features of Houston which are in keeping with the mag- 
nificence and importance of this newest treasure. 

The story of Houston as a commercial center, a wonderful 
place for investment returns, has been told and repeated to 
the ends of civilization. The purpose of this book is to tell 
the story of Houston as a desirable dwelling place: a place 
where a child may begin its education in kindergarten and 
complete it in one of the world's greatest institutions of learn- 
ing; where the best instruction in music and art is available, 
the love of it daily inculcated in every school child of Houston, 
and stimulated by yearly visitations of many of the world's 
greatest interpreters ; where there is splendid organization of 
social and moral uplift touching every phase of civic life; 
where health consideration is vital, and public comfort, pleas- 
ure and recreation receive definite provision. 

The compilation of a book to contain every feature worthy 
of representation would consume many months. In view of 
this fact, and of the phenomenal rapidity of Houston's growth, 
consecutive editions will be printed, and new features and de- 
velopments added in succeeding editions. 

The first edition is printed exclusively on a subscription 
basis for progressive citizens who have recognized the need 
of such a book. 

The Publisher. 











History of 
Rice Institute 

Dr. Edgar Odell Lovett, President 

THE late William Marsh Rice, a native of Massachusetts, 
l)ut for many years a resident of Houston, was approached 
ahiiut twenty years ago by several public-spirited citizens 
of the community with the request that he bear the expense of 
building a new puljlic high school for the City of Houston. 
This direct gift to the city's welfare Mr. Rice was unwilling 
to make, Ijut a few months later he took into his confidence a 
half dozen friends, to whom he made known his desire to 
found a much larger educational enterprise for the permanent 
benefit of the citj' and state of his adoption. These gentle- 
men were organized into a board of trust for the new founda- 
tion, which was incorporated in 1891 under a broad charter 
granting the trustees great freedom in the future organization 
of a non-political and non-sectarian institution of liberal and 
technical learning to be dedicated to the advancement of let- 
ters, science and art. As a nucleus for an endowment fund. 
Mr. Rice at this time made over an interest-bearing note of 
two hundred thousand dollars to the original board of trus- 
tees, consisting of himself, the late Messrs. F. A. Rice and 
A. S. Richardson, and Messrs. James A. liaker, Jr., J. E. Mc- 
Ashan, E. Raphael and C. Lombardi. Under the terms of the 
charter this board is a self-]ierpctuating body of se\cn mem- 
bers elected for life; the several vacancies which have oc- 
curred since its organization have been filled by the election 
of Messrs. ^\ illiam M. Rice, Jr., 1!. P.. Rice and E. O. Lovett. 
It was the unalterable desire of the founder that the develop- 
ment of the work which he had conceived should proceed no 


The Trustees 


Jas. A. Baker 

E, Raphael 

J. E. McAshan 

C. Lombardi 

Wm. Rice 

B. B. Rice 


History of 
Rice Institute 

— Continued 

further during his lifetime. However, in the remaining days 
(if his life he increased the endowment fund from time to time 
by transferring to the trustees the titles to certain of his prop- 
erties, and in the end made the new foimdation his residuary 
legatee. Upon the termination of the long years of litigation 
which followed Mr. Rice's death in 1900, the board of trust 
found the Institute in possession ui an estate whose present 
value is conservatively estimated at approximately ten million 
dollars, divided by the provisions of the founder's will into 
almost equal parts available for equipment and for endow- 
ment, respectively. While proceeding to convert the non-pro- 
ductive properties of the estate into income-bearing invest- 
ments, tlie trustees called Dr. Edgar Odell Lovett. of I'rince- 
ton University, to assist them in the realization of the found- 
er's long-deferred plans, llefore taking up his residence in 
Houston. President Lovett visited the leading educational and 
scientific establishments of the world, returning in the summer 
of 1909 from a year's journey of study that extended from 
England to Japan. About this time negotiations were com- 
pleted by which the Institute secured a site of three hundred 
acres situated on tlie extension of Houston's main thorough- 
fare, tliree miles from the center of the city — a tract of ground 
unixersally regarded as the most appropriate within the vi- 
cinit}' of the city. 

In tlicir consideration of the problems confronting them, the 
trustees \'ery early decided that the new institution should be 
housed in architecture worthy of the founder's high aims; and 
upon this idea they entered with no lower ambition than to 
establish on the campus of the Institute a group of buildings 
conspicuotis alike ftir their beauty and for their utility, which 
should stand not only as a worthy monument to the founder's 
philanthropy, but also as a distinct contribution to the arclii- 
tecture of our country. With this end in view they determined 
to commit to Messrs. Cram. Goodhue and Ferguson, of Boston 
and New York, the task of designing a general architectural 
plan to embody in the course of future years the realization of 
the educational program which had been adopted for the 
Institute. Such a general plan, exhibiting in itself the most 
attractive elements of the architecture of Italy, France and 
Spain, was accepted by the board in the spring of 1910. Im- 
mediately thereafter plans and specifications for an adminis- 
tration building were prepared, and in the following July the 
contract for its construction was awarded; three months later 
the erection of a mechanical laboratory and power house was 
begun, and by the next autumn the construction of two wings 
of the first residential hall for men was well under way. 
\ Among the additional buildings for which tentative plans 
have already been studied are special laboratories for instruc- 
tion and investigation in physics, chemistry and biology, and 


from Main 

Sallyport and 
Tower of 
tion Building 

Gateway at 




History of 
Rice Institute 

— Continued 

Cloister of Residential Hall 

in the applications uf these sciences to the arts of industry and 
commerce. In the preparation of these preliminary laboratory 
])lans the Institute has enjoyed the co-operation of an adx'isory 
committee consisting of Professor Ames, director of the phys- 
ical laboratory of Johns Hopkins University ; Professor Conk- 
lin, director of the liiological laboratory of Princeton Univer- 
sity; Professor Richards, chairman of the department of 
cliemistry, Harvard University, and Professor Stratton, di- 
rector of the National Bureau of Standards. 

Of the four main entrances to the campus, the principal one 
lies at the corner of the grounds nearest the city. From this 
entrance the approach to the Administration Paiilding is a 
broad avenue several hundred yards long, to be bordered by 
oaks and flanked l^y wide-spreading lawns, ending in a fore- 
court, which will be bounded on the left by the School of Fine 
Arts, on the right by the Residential College for Women. The 
main avenue of approach coincides with the central axis of 
the block plan, and from the principal gateway opens up 
through the vaulted sally-port of the Administration Building 
a vista of more than a mile within the limits of the campus. 
After dividing at the fore-court the driveway circles the ends 
of the Administration Building and continues fcjr half a mile 
in two heavily planted drives parallel to this axis and sep- 
arated by a distance of seven hundred feet. Within the ex- 
tended rectangle thus formed the pleasing eflfect of widening 
vistas has been realized. On passing through the sally-port 
through the fore-court, the future visitor of the Institute will 
enter upon an academic group consisting of five large build- 
ings, which with their massive cloisters surround on three 
sides a richly gardened court measuring three hundred b}' five 
hundred feet, planted in graceful cypresses. Beyond this 
group is another academic court of still greater dimensions 
planted in groves of live oaks ; this great court in turn opens 
into extensive Persian gardens bevond which the vista is 
closed at the extreme west by a great pool and the amphi- 
theater of a Greek playhouse. The principal secondary axis 


Cloister of 

of tlie general plan, starting from the boulevard and running 
north perpendicularly to the main axis, crosses the lawns and 
courts of the liberal arts and science groups into the Mechan- 
ical Laboratory and Power House, the first buildings of the 
engineering group. The fourth entrance on Main street leads 
to the athletic playing fields and to the residential group for 
men. While each unit of the latter group has its own inner 
Court, the several buildings themselves together enclose a long 
rectangular court bounded at the eastern end by a club house, 
and on the west by the gymnasium, which opens upon the 
athletic stadium in the rear. North of the men's residential 
group and across the great court, lying between the botanical 
gardens and the laboratories of jnire and applied science, 
appears the splendid quadrangle of the Craduate School and 
its professional departments. 

Although designed to accommodate tlie executive and ad- 
ministrative offices when the Institute shall have grown to 
normal dimensions, the Administration Building will be used 
(luring the first few years to meet some of the needs of instruc- 
tion as well as those of administration. The building is of 
fireproof construction Ihroughout; it is three stories high, 


" ''H 



i . ik 

.ep<:ij\ Q/i 

~t~ V - r« .-\-v 


History of 
Rice Institute 

— Continued 

Cornerstone of Administration 

three hundred feet lung and fifty feet deep, with a basement 
running its entire length. Throut^h a central tower of four 
stories a \aulted sally-port thirty feet high, leading from the 
main approach and foregarden to the academic court, gives 
entrance to the halls of the building and opens the way to the 
broad cloisters on the court side. On the first floor, besides 
offices of registration, there are lecture rooms, class and con- 
ference rooms. In the north wing of the second floor the tem- 
porary plans make adecjuate arrangements for library and 
reading rooms ; the second and third floors of the south wing 
are given to a public hall, which, with its balcony, extends the 
height of two stories. A little later on in the history of the 
Institute this assembly hall will Ijccome the faculty chamber. 
The remaining part of the third tloor provides additional space 
for recitation and seminar rooms, and offices for members of 
the teaching stalif. The meeting room of the Board of Trus- 
tees and the office of the I'resident of the Institute will be 
located in the tower. 

In its architecture the Administration liuilding reveals the 
influence of the earliest periods of the Mediterranean coun- 
tries : vaulted Byzantine cloisters, exquisite Dalmatian brick- 
work, together with Spanish and Italian elements in profusion ; 
in all a richness of color permissiljle only in climates similar 
to our own. The dominant warm gray tone is established by 
the use of a local pink brick, a delicately tinted marble from 
the Ozark Mountains, and Texas granite, though the color 
scheme undergoes considerable x'ariation by the studied use 
of tiles and foreign marbles. To meet the local climatic con- 
ditions, the building has been pierced by loggias and many 
windows, while its long shaded cloister opens to the prevailing- 
winds. On the seventy-fifth anniversary of Texan Indepen- 
dence the trustees laid the cornerstone; the inscription is a 
Greek quotation in Bj'zantine lettering from the Praeparatio 
Evangelica of Eusebius I'ami)liili, which in English transla- 
tion reads: " 'Rather,' said I lemocritus, 'would I discover the 
cause of one fact than l)ecome King of the Persians,' " a dec- 
laration made at a time when to be king of the Persians was 
to rule the world. 











Residential Hall for Men 



— CuiiiinucJ 

Of the students' residential i^mup fur men, the first Jniild- 
ing, consisting of a dormitory and a comniLins, is placed south- 
west of the Administration lUiilding, its front approach lead- 
ing from the fourth campus entrance un the Main street boule- 
vard. The residential wing is a long, three-story, fireproof 
structure with a tower of live stories, a Inroad cloister on the 
front, and a basement extending its entire length. It opens 
to the south upon a garden, and on the north upon its own 
court. In arrangement and equipment the building is modern 
and in e\ery way attractive and convenient. Accommodations 
for aljout two hundred students will ultimatel)^ be olifered in 
single and double rooms and suites. Li^idgings have been pro- 
vided for several preceptors and two large halls have been set 
aside for the temporary use of literary and debating societies. 
The floors of this wing are so planned as to insure for every 
room perfect ventilation and absi_)lutely wholesome conditions. 
There are lavatories, shower baths and sanitary connections 
adequate to the needs of each floor. The power for both light 
and heat is received from the central plant. An arcade rather 
more than one hundred feet in length leads from the dormitory 
wing across the inner court to the commons which constitutes 
the northern boundary of the quadrangle. The commons 
proper is equipped with every detail necessary for the perfect 
service of all the men living in the residential group, and at 
the same time is of sufficient size and capacity to serve other 
members of the student body. In addition to the dining hall 
and its equipment this section of the building contains club 
and reading rooms. It is graced also by a handsome clock 
tower, four stories high, surmounted by a belfry; the several 
floors of the tower have been arranged in suites of rooms to be 
reserved for the use of graduate students and instructors. As 
has been intimated already, the utlier buildings under way 
propose to reveal in brick and marljle some of the more subtle 
suggestions of the southern architecture of Europe and the 
East, and at the same time to realize the fundamental princi- 
ples of their sources in a distinctive style of academic archi- 
tecture for all the future buildings of the Institute. Consistent 
with the architectural style thus evolved, a pleasing and har- 
monious variation appears in the treatment of the first resi- 
dential group, whose studied tower and cloisters in brick and 
stucco are designed to produce an effect characteristically 


Mechanical Laboratory and Campanile of Power House 

Located at the northern end of the principal secondary axis 
of the general architectural plan are groups of scientific and 
technical laboratories. The first buildings of this section of 
the campus, namely, the Mechanical Laboratory, Machine 
Shop and Power House, have been erected north of the Ad- 
ministration Building at the end of a long direct driveway 
from the third Main street entrance. The Laboratory, a two- 
story, fireproof building, two hundred feet long and forty feet 
deep, with a cloister extending the full length of its court side, 
is built of materials similar to those used in the construction 
of the Administration Ijuilding. The space of its floors is 
given to scientific laboratories, lecture halls, recitation rooms, 
departmental libraries and offices for instructors in charge, 
while its basement aiifords additional rooms for further appa- 
ratus. Through the Machine Shop the Mechanical Labora- 
tory connects with the Power House, where are installed 
equipment for complete steam, refrigerating and electric gen- 
erating and distributing systems. The lofty campanile of this 
grou]), visible for miles in every direction, will probably be 
fur many years the most conspicuous among the towers of the 

Further improvements of the campus are being gradually 
effected. An extensive concrete waterproof tunnel has been 
constructed to transmit power from the central plant to all the 
buildings on the grounds. With a diameter sufficient to admit 
a man standing erect, the tunnel has ample space for all wiring 
and piping in ])usitions easy of access, thus insuring perfect 
care of the equipment and a resultant increase in efficiency. 
Progress has also been made in the installation of complete 
sanitary and drainage systems, which, with an unlimited sup- 
ply of wholesome water, should give assurance of perfect phys- 
ical conditions at the site of the Institute . The most important 
driveways, including the main approach to the Administration 
Building, the drives along the axis leading to the group of 
scientific laboratories and to the students' residential group, 
and the long roads enclosing the academic court, have been 
built with deep gravel foundations and are surfaced with 
crushed granite. The planting uf double rows of oaks, elms 
and cyi)resses along tliese drives and the assembling of hedges, 
shrubs and flowers u illiin the gardens and courts of the pres- 
ent groups will subse<|uently impress even the casual visitor 
both with the magnitude and with the beauty of the general 
architectural plan. 




— Continued 

Trustees and Initial Teaching Staff 

On tlie side of the intellectual and spiritual prosperity tlie 
progress has been quite as striking. The actual work of in- 
struction of the first academic 3'ear began on the 23rd day of 
September, 1912, the anni\'ersary of the death of the founder. 
In the presence of the trustees of the Institute, members of its 
initial teaching staff, and representative citizens of the com- 
munity, the first class of students was received in the faculty 
chamber of the Administration Building with appropriately 
impressive ceremonies on September the twenty-sixth. It had 
been decided to limit the scholastic work for the first academic 
year to a single class of freshmen of a standard of preparation 
as high as the best public and private high schools are capable 
of producing. 

However, for the present it is proposed to assign no upper 
limit to the educational endeavor of the new institution, while 
the lower limit is placed no lower than the standard entrance 
requirements of the more conservative universities of the coun- 
try. These entrance requirements may be met either directly 
by examination or wholly or partially on certificate of gradua- 
tion from an approved private preparatory or public high 
school. It is also proposed that a group of selected graduate 
students be afforded opportunities for study and research. 

The initial teaching staff of the Institute is being organized 
for university and college work in a faculty of science and a 
faculty of letters. Under the former oi these faculties it is 
hoped to establish a school of pure and applied science of the 
highest grade. \\'ith a view to lil:)eralizing the technical 
courses of the curriculum, there will be constituted as rapidly 
as may be possible a faculty of letters, in which will be devel- 
oped incidentally fine facilities for elementary and advanced 
courses in the so-called humanities, thereby enabling the Insti- 
tute to offer both the advantages of a lilieral general education 
and those of special and professional training. The courses of 
instruction and investigation are open to young men and to 
young women. There are no charges for tuition and no fees; 
rooms in the residential hall and board at the commons are 
furnished at the actual cost of maintenance and provision. 
Fin'ther, for a limited nuniljcr of meritorious students of prom- 
ise imdergraduate scholarships and graduate fellowships will 
be available. 

In seeking the best available instructors and investigators 


t^} -:-.•-•■•• -,%Tr 1 

Day of 


History of 
Rice Institute 

— Conlinued 

wherever they may be found the trustees confidently liope to 
assemble a group of unusually able scientists and scholars, 
through whose producti\e work the Institute should speedily 
take a place of considerable ini]5ortance amono- tiie established 
institutions of the country. The programmes of study are being- 
arranged with a \iew to offering a variety of courses leading, 
after four years of undergraduate work, to bachelor's degrees 
in arts, in science, in letters, and in the applications of pure 
science to the arts of engineering, agriculture, industry and 
commerce. Extensive general courses in the several domains 
of scientific knowledge will be offered, but in the main the 
programs will consist of subjects carefully co-ordinated and 
calling for considerable concentration of study. For the ad- 
vanced degrees every facility will be gi\'en properly qualified 
graduate students to undertake lines of research under the 
direction of the Institute's resident and visiting prcjfessors. 

On Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the tenth, eleventh and 
twelfth days of October, the formal opening of the Institute 
was observed with appropriate ceremonies in an academic fes- 
tival which was held under the most favorable conditions of 
weather, most generous co-operation of the community and 
comuKjn wealth, and the heartening encouragement of several 
hundred scholars and scientists who came to Houston to as- 
sist in the launching of the new uni\ersity. Chief among these 
distinguished representati\es of life and learning were the 
twelve foreign savants who had consented to participate in 
the inaugural program by preparing series of lectures in the 
liberal humanities (jf philosophy, history, letters and art and 
the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry 
and biology. A full account of the proceedings occupying the 
four days devoted to this celebration is now being prepared 
for publication in permanent form. In these volumes will be 
published in full the inaugural lectures of Professors Altamira 
of Madrid, Borel of Paris, Croce of Naples, DeVries of Am- 
sterdam, Jones of Glasgow, Kikuchi of Tokio, Mackail of 
London, Ostwald of Gross-Bothen, Poincare of Paris, Ramsay 
of Lyondon, Stormer of Christiana, and V^olterra of Rome. 
There will also appear the various invitations extended by the 
Institute, the responses from American and foreign universi- 
ties and scientific societies in the form of letters and cable- 
grams and elaborately embossed parchments in English, 
French, German, Russian, Italian, Latin and other tongues; 
the addresses of Governor Colquitt, Chief Justice Brown of 
Texas,. Bishop Gailor of Tennessee, the inaugural ode of Dr. 
Henry van Dyke of Princeton, and the dedication sermon of 
Dr. Charles F. Aked of San Francisco; together with the 
sjieeches delivered by the presidents or otiier official repre- 
sentatises of Amsterdam, Glasgow, Londcm, Oviedo, Paris, 
Rome, Bailor, Chicago, Columbia, Leiiigh, Princeton, Texas, 




Ramsay, London 
Poincare. Paris 
Jones, Glasgow 
Kikuchi. Tokio 

Croce, Naples 
Altamira, Madrid 
Mackail, London 
Voherra, Rome 

Borel, Paris 



History of 
Rice Institute 

— Continued 

Vanderbilt and \'irijinia Universities, and a variety of other 
literary and artistic performances which are not easily classi- 
fied in a rapid resume. 

Of the several hundred handsome responses received from 
other universities and learned societies the following may be 
singled out as typical of those which are written in English : 

The Polish University in Lwovv (Leniberg), Galicia, Austria, wishes 
to convej' to the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas, on the day of its 
inauguration, its greetings and heartiest wishes for a favorable devel- 
opment. We have with pleasure received your communication with 
the news of the founding of a new splendid temple dedicated to knowl- 
edge and education on .American soil, where so many Poles are living. 
Founded by the liberality of your noble countryman, William Marsh 
Rice, erected and organized with foresight and care by your great 
citizens and scholars, it will become a fruitful fount of educational 
work through which you fill old Europe with amazement. Blessed is 
that land which possesses such sons. Happy is the country in which, 
thanks to the liberality of its citizens, palaces are erected for cultivat- 
ing and extending human knowledge. United to you by the bonds of 
common aspirations we send across the sea to the hands of your most 
honourable president, Edgar Odell Lovett, the old Polish wish of 
szczesc boze (good luck') for your work in furthering the greatest good 
of mankind. Signed: Adolf Beck, rector. 

Princeton University. — To the Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. 
Gentlemen: On behalf of the authorities of Princeton University I 
have the honor of acknowledging your hospitable invitation asking 
that our academic body shall be represented on October lO, ii and 12 
at the ceremonies formally inaugurating the Rice Institute of liberal 
and technical learning. It therefore gives me great pleasure to notify 
you that Princeton University has appointed William Francis Magie, 
Henry professor of physics and dean of the faculty, and Henry van 
Dyke, Murray professor of English literature, to attend in person as 
our delegates, to present our congratulations to the Rice Institute on 
the auspicious occasion of its formal dedication and to extend to your 
president, our former colleague in Princeton University, the assurance 
of our remembrance and good will. May this new-born institute of 
liberal an 1 technical learning, ever keeping faith with the high intent 
of its founder, equal the best desires of those who are guiding the 
opening years of its career, enrich the intellectual life of the great 
State of Texas and of our nation, and help to elevate mankind for 
generations to come, even for as long as men shall care for the cause 
of truth and knowledge. Signed: John Grier Hibben, President. 

University of Sydney. — The Chancellor and Senate of the Univer- 
sity of Sydney to the President and Trustees of the Rice Institute, 
Houston, Te.xas: In the name of the senate of the University of 
Sydney, I thank the president and trustees of the Rice Institute for 
the invitation to send a representative to the inaugural ceremonies 
that are to celebrate the beginning of its career. .'\t this great dis- 
tance it is difficult to make the necessary arrangements for availing 
ourselves of the honor, but we have appointed one of our number, 
William H. Warren, LL. D. Wh. Sc, M. Inst. C.E., Challis professor of 
engineering, now traveling in Europe and America, to act as our dele- 
gate, if his arrangements permit. Should this be impossible, however, 
and should we fail to be personally represented, we nevertheless in all 
sincerity desire to transmit our cordial greetings and good wishes to 
the new universit}-, and to express our hopes that the splendid 
auspices under which it is established may be overshadowed by the 
celebrity that it hereafter attains, and that its portion of promoting 
the intellectual interests of mankind may be realized in the achieve- 
ments of its future teachers and alumni. Nor can we refrain from 
congratulating a kindred community which, though older than those 
in the Southern seas, is, like them, a new growth in a new world, in 
the enlightened liberality of its private citizens that has in so many 


History of 
Rice Institute 

cases led to the munificent endowment of culture and research, and 
that now once more receives so conspicuous an ilhistration. We trust 
that in remote generations the Rice Institute may still be fulfilling its 
beneficent mission in all prosperity and fair fame. Signed: Henry 
Normand MacLaurin, Chancellor. 

Yale University. — The president and fellows of Yale University 
extend their congratulations to the trustees of the Rice Institute on 
the auspicious arrangements that have been made for the inauguration 
of its important work. They feel that the election of Edgar Odell 
Lovett as president is a guarantee that the foundations of the Insti- 
tute will be laid in the thorough and liberal way designed by the late 
William Marsh Rice. Yale University welcomes the Rice Institute 
into the brotherhood of American institutions of learning. Its officers 
assure the president and trustees of their desire to be of service in 
any way in their power, and bespeak from the State of Texas and 
from the City of Houston every possible support in aiding the Insti- 
tute to become a center of inspiration and of learning. May it carry 
out the founder's ideal by "the advancement of letters, science and art" 
that not only the Southwest, but the Nation, may be helped by its 
activities. Signed: Arthur Twining Iladley, President. 

Under the caption, "Vale Rice Institute," Dr. Walter F. McCaleb of 
San Antonio, an alumnus of the University of Texas and a guest of 
the Rice Institute during its opening celebration, penned the following 
lines at the conclusion of the dedicatory exercises on Sunday, Oc- 
tober 13: 

The halls arc silent — silent as with hush 
Of angels come to view a glorious birth — • 
All silent as with awe, the pageant gone 
Of the Immortals. 

Corridor and nave 
And alcove dim are dumb and tenantless — • 
Only stars and the mysterious eyes 
Of centuries look on the sacred place. 

The halls are silent, save where cling the tones 
Of Altamira's eloquence; are void 
Save for Volterra's magic worlds; are bare 
Save where the morning flowers are newly set 
Drawn from th' enchanted garden of De Vries; 
Are dark, save where the violet helium lights 
Of Ramsay fall in fadeless radiance. 

Hark! what sounds roll down the corridors? 
What winds of even stir the echoes? Lo, 
The spirit feet of thousands yet to come 
.^re heralded by pipes of all the winds 
That blow from earth's remotest ends. 
It is as if the humming bees again were in 
The trees, even as the laureate sang, but now 
To mark the coming of the children, who 
Shall conquer as they take the paths of day. 

The halls are silent, but the dawn shall find 
The traces of the great who went before. 
And one who waits (serenely sure and sure 
As fate) to lead them through the golden door. 


p. W. HORN 
Superintendent of Schools 


Public Schools or 
SttlpJJSTON . « 


Ot/ier Educational Facilities 

'J'wontv-fi\ c 

History of 
Public Schools 

ON February 7, 1913. the City Schools of Houston liad 
enrolled for the year 14,492 pupils. 

On the corresponding date, 1912, they had enrolled 
12,867 pupils. 

This was an increase of 1,625 pupils in one year. Some 
growth, is it not? Perhaps, too, it throws some light on the 
question as to why the schools cost more year after year. 

For the year ending in June, 1913, the schools will enroll 
fully 15,000 pupils. For the year 1902-3 they enrolled 7,864. 
This shows an increase of almost 100 per cent in the ten years 
just past. 

In 1902-3 the schools employed 179 teachers. In 1912-13 
they have employed 372 teachers. Thus they have a little more 
than doubled the number of teachers employed in the past ten 

In 1902-3 the schools cost the City and the State, together, 
$127,647.32. For the year ending February 28, 1913, they cost 
$330,715.16. \^^lile the schools have been practically doubled 
in size, the expense of maintaining them has almost trebled. 
This is on account of the largely increased salary schedule 
and the more liberal equipment now being provided. The 
maximum salary paid to grade teachers then was $630 as op- 
posed to $810 now. The ma.ximum salary then paid to ward 
principals was $1200, as opposed to $1600 now. These in- 
creases are not even yet as large as they ought to be, but they 
show that the trend of things has been in the right direction. 

These things are not said by any manner in disparagement 
of the schools as they were ten years ago. They were then 
good schools for their time and their opportunity. But the 
world has moved on in the past ten years. It is the desire of 
this article merely to show that the schools have kept pace 
with this movement. 

New subjects have been introduced into the course of study 
to prepare the boys and girls to meet new conditions in life. 
Among these subjects are manual training for the bo^-s and 
domestic science for the girls. These have been in the schools 
of Houston for the past seven years. 

There are twelve school buildings equipped for teaching 
manual training. Here the boys are taught to use the saw 



History of 
Public Schools 

— Continued 

and plane and hammer, to understand the use of tools, and to 
make things with their hands. There was a time once when 
boys learned these things at home. However, with the changes 
that have come into modern life, the average Ixiy would not 
learn these things if he did not learn them at school. The 
things that the 1k)3's make would be a credit to skilled work- 
men. There are tables, and chairs, and desks, which would be 
ornamental and useful in any home in the city. 

All the boys in the elementary schools above the fourth 
grade take this work. All in the first year of the high school 
are required to take it, and above the first year in the high 
school it is optional. 

In addition to the cabinet-making there is wood turning, 
pattern making, forging and machine shop work. Along with 
these go mechanical drawing. It is the efifort of the school to 
give the boys such skill in using their hands as will to the 
greatest extent possible assist them in dealing with the prac- 
tical affairs of life. 

Nor have the girls been forgotten. The work in domestic 
science and art has been established for them. All girls in the 
fourth and fifth grades are taught sewing, and all in the sixth 
and seventh grades are taught cooking. These subjects are 
taught again in the high school. Here they are required of all 
girls in the first year, though they are optional above the first 
year of the high school. They have cooking, sewing, dress- 
making and millinery. 

The night schools, too, arc a development of recent 3'ears. 
They are for those people who are so situated that they cannot 
attend school in the day time, but who, nevertheless, are de- 
sirous of improving their educational advantages.. There are 
four of these schocjls for white pupils and three for colored. 

In these scln)ols an effort is made to give in the most prac- 
tical form possible the elementary branches of an English 
education, and those other subjects which will be of the great- 
est practical value to those attending. The attendance at night 
schools is not limited to children of school age. In fact, no 
child under twelve is admitted, because children below that 
age ought to be in the day school. One never gets too old to 
be received in the night school. Many of those attending are 
in middle life, and a few are well advanced in years. The old- 
est one on record is a negro woman 85 years old, who is attend- 
ing one of the night schools in order that she may learn to 
read the Bible. Many grown men and women attend who 
have only recently come to America from foreign countries 
and who wish to learn to speak and read and write the Eng- 
lish language. 

The night schools also ha\e classes in stenography and 
typewriting and book-keeping. The}- have classes in wood 



I'i '' - i-^i'l Hi. 












h 9 h_m 




HH^^- ■;_^^^ft^H 




History of 
Public Schools 

— Continued 

work and in iron work. There are classes which grown 
women attend in order that they may learn to cook and to sew. 
There is also a class in Spanish. 

These things are mentioned to show that in the past ten 
years there has been an earnest effort made to change the 
course of study so that it will meet the demands of the prac- 
tical age in which we live. 

1 [owever, the cultural side has not been neglected. There 
is in the grades a course in picture study, whereby the children 
are made acquainted with the masterpieces of the world's art. 
There is also a course in memory work, whereby the children 
are led to commit to memory selections from the world's 
masterpieces of literature. They ^re also taught the lives of 
the great musicians, and are taught to know and to love the 
world's masterpieces of music. 

Nor has the physical side of education been neglected within 
the past ten years. There is a gymnasium provided at the 
High School, with an outdoor gymnasium at many of the ward 
schools. There is a physical director, with a woman assistant 
who gives special attention to the physical welfare of the girls 
at the High School. At every school building the pupils are 
organized intii athletic teams. The effort is not merely to de- 
velop a small number at each school, but to reach as nearly as 
possiljle all of the children at the various buildings. There is 
folk dancing and organized games of many different kinds. 

There is a medical instructor whose duty it is to examine the 
children, to call attention to any physical defect which the 
parents may not know about, and see that cases of contagious 
diseases are excluded from the schools. 

Those children who are below the normal powers of intellect 
have nut been overlooked. There is a special room for excep- 
tional pupils, where a trained teacher makes e.xtra effort to 
develop the intelligence of a few to whom nature has been 
sparing" in her gifts. 

There are at present four kindergartens taught in connection 
with our city schools, although in each instance the expense of 
maintaining them is borne by private individuals. Many of 
us hope that the time is not far distant when there will be free 
kindergartens maintained at public expense in all the schools 
in the city. This time has not yet come, but the drift of things 
is undoubtedly in that direction. 

I'erhaps the greatest of all the improvements made within 
the past ten years has been in the organization of mothers' 
clubs, and the Parent-Teachers' Association. These organiza- 
tions ha\e worked loyally and harmoniously for the advance- 
ment of the schools. In many instances they helped introduce 
manual training and domestic science into their respective 
buildings. During the j'ear iqit-ij, they raised $7,248.93 and 



History of 
Public Schools 

— Continued 

expended it for the i^ood of the scliools. 'I'hat made $45,319.60 
which the mothers of the city had raised during tiie past six 
years, and expended upon the children in the schools. While 
the amount itself was distinctly worth while, the greatest good 
done was in the interest which was aroused among the people 
in the welfare of their own children. Too much praise cannot 
be given to the mothers for their work, and too much emphasis 
cannot be laid upon the importance of it. 

While these changes have been taking place in the course of 
study, and in the school administration, progress has also been 
made in the material equipment of the schools. The first 
buildings erected were of wood. Then came an era when the 
buildings were of brick, but were not fireproof. At the present 
writing there are seven fireproof brick or concrete school 
buildings under course of construction, each one of which 
embodies the most modern ideas as to heating, lighting and 
ventilation, and each one of which is so planned as to be adapt- 
ed to the widest possible use by the community as a whole. 

The new Longfellow and Dow Schools are of the same gen- 
eral construction, and are now under way. The Taylor is now 
being planned. The North Side Junior High School and the 
South End Junior High School are thoroughly up-to-date 
l)uildings now under course of construction. 

To pay for these buildings required the issuance of $500,000 
in bonds for ward schools, and $500,000 for high schools. The 
people voted these unhesitatingly and at the request of the 
school authorities. 

One of the most marked evidences of progress in recent 
years is in the amount of ground deemed necessary for a school 
site. A number of the earlier school buildings were erected on 
sites of half a block. The result was that the children had 
practically no playground, and that when it became necessary 
to put additions to the school buildings, it was either impos- 
sible to do this, or else it was necessary to pay large sums for 
the extra ground. In recent years the city has been buying 
acreage property for its schools. The sites for the new Junior 
High Schools have eight and one-half and ten acres respec- 
tively. At one elementary school there is a five-acre site. The 
new Taylor School is to be built adjacent to the Sam Houston 
Park, and have all the park as a playground. This shows some 
progress from the days when half a lilock was considered 

The two new Junior High Schools are to lie better buildings 
and better equipped than any others in the South or South- 
west. It is jilanned to take the children of the seventh grade 
and to kce]! them through the lirst two years of the High 
Scluiol. Tlic industrial work is to ])e emphasized so that if 
children need to drop out at the end of the second high school 
year they will at least have a fairly good ec|uipment for fight- 


History of 
Public Schools 

hvj; llic l)attlcs nf life. On the other hand, if it is at all possible 
for them to continue, they are to be encouraged to finish the 
Senior High School. After they do this, the great facilities of 
the Rice Institute will be free to them. 

The Rusk and Crockett Schools are now completed. The 
Rusk takes the place of an old frame building that was burned 
down over a year ago. The Crockett helps relieve the Haw- 
thorne School, which has been badly over-crowded. Each 
one of the new buildings has an auditorium, gymnasium, club 
room, manual training and domestic science rooms, and is 
adapted to social center work. 

Rusk school is not only to be a wonderful elementary school ; 
it is also to be the first social center in the city. 

The architectural ideas are a synthesis of the best during 
the supremacy of the Tudor style in England covering a 
period beginning with the reign of Edward VI in 1408 and 
running up to an age of enervation, 1603, when the Gothic and 
Renaissance proved the fashion and caprice of the century. 
To this earlier school has been added the newer idea of win- 
dow space. The honeycombing of the walls with glass panes 
gives to the structure an appearance of modernity. 

The walls throughout the building are of a dove and mauve 
tint ; a delightful substitute for the baneful effects of a glaring 
white. The panels and woodwork are in dark oak stain and 
in some of the rooms the woodwork is finished in mission 
style. What recommends itself especially to the housewife 
and the close inspector of corners is that every provision is 
made for sanitation, ventilation, heating and lighting. Many 
of these latter suggestions grew out of recommendations by 
Professor A. Caswell Ellis of the University of Texas. 

In the structure dark brick of a brownish hue, somewhat 
flecked, is used, while outlines are sharply defined in concrete. 
The approach from the rear of the building is far more at- 
tractive than from the front, as the perspective is better, and 
the general treatment more pleasing. 

The first story is on a level with the ground and will be 
used for the social work in the neighborhood, the lunch room, 
the domestic science, the manual training, the dispensary and 
the public library. The second floor, which is gained by two 
broad stone stairways, will be devoted to class rooms, the 
kindergarten and the auditorium. The third floor will be used 
exclusively for class work. 

In the arrangement of the first floor the social life of the 
community is especially emphasized. It marks a step forward 
which can not be measured by any time periods and in its 
small way promises to be a great factor in economic and race 
progress, it is here, and in the auditorium, that the people of 
the neigliborhood will meet upon a general level and learn llie 
wisdom of co-operation and intcr(lei)endence. 



History of 
Public Schools 

— Continued 

An advantage of this lower floor is that all of the rooms are 
accessible from the street, while the auditorium is gained from 
an outside stairway in the rear. 

The stretch of rooms in the rear include a machine room 
and a storage room for the manual training department; two 
large rooms for the domestic science activities. Adjoining the 
library is the boys' lunch room, next the kitchen, where noon 
meals will be served by the Mothers' Club, and adjoining that 
the girls' lunch room. 

At the east end of the lower floor is the dispensary, which 
will also be used as a child welfare station. This dispensary 
will be under the direction of the Settlement Association and 
will carry out the same program in the neighborhood which 
characterized it while in the Settlement House. 

On the second floor, upon the north side, are two spacious 
rooms which will be used for the Rusk School kindergarten. 
It, too, is an activity supported by the Settlement Association. 

The most engrossing point of interest in the school life, 
however, is the auditorium, which is nothing short of a tri- 
umph. It is a splendid hall, possessed of a balcony and a stage 
that is equipped with scenery and dressing rooms. Everything 
that can contribute toward making it a people's theatre, and 
not too large to destroy the touch of intimacy which should 
characterize a people's theatre, has been done. It is here tliat 
the real social work of the community is to be accomplished. 
It is here that the neighborhood will gather in debates, in 
socials, in theatricals and in musicales. It may be the center 
of a local orchestra on one evening ; a congress of mothers' 
clubs on another; a civic club on another. 

There will be provision for dancing upon the hardwood floor 
of the auditorium. There will also be provision for motion 
picture shows on certain nights each week. These pictures 
will grow out of the social organizations rather than the school 

The temperature of the rooms is automatically registered. 
Cool, fresh air is pumped into the rooms and the liad air is 
drawn out through exhausts. Adjustable shades are at all of 
the windows. 

A survey of the institution develops many points of interest. 
Every class room has its cabinet of steel lockers. Each child 
has his own compartment. Broad, double doors, which open 
both ways, lead from the class rooms to the corridors. Sani- 
tary fountains are stationed in the corridors. 

The completion of Rusk school marks a new era in scientific 
school building and equipment in Houston, and one to stim- 
ulate civic pride. 


',-•,- jyO-] 

^ ^■— n — 




Art League 

HOUSTON has fur a number of years been recognized as 
the musical center of the Southwest. The commercial 
and industrial L;ro\vth of the city, instead of prox'in;^' an 
interference, has advanced the interest in musical activities, 
thereby shovvins;- that culture will ever follow in the wake oi 
commerce, which ]irei)ares a jiath for it. 

The musical clubs and ori;'anizatit)ns now existinj^- in Hous- 
ton are: The Women's Choral Club, Quartette Society, 
Treble Clef Club, Girls' Musical Club, Houston Heif^Wits 
Study Club, Saenj^erbund Societ}' (the oldest organization), 
Mendelssohn Choir (oratorio). 

The Choral, Quartette and Treble Clef Clubs are sins^ing 
societies, giving three concerts annually, at which they pre- 
sent, as soloists, the great artists of the world. 

The Girls' Musical Club, a study cluli. gives a series of open 
meetings and two artist recitals during the year, its aim being 
to present the younger artists and the higher type of chamber 
music to its patrons. 

These clubs are supjKirted b_v associate memberships, none 
of which exceed the sum of fi\'e dollars, for which from six to 
nine tickets are given. It will thus be seen that season-suli- 
scribers pa_v from forty-five to ninetv cents ]X'r ticket for 
hearing the greatest available artists. 

The ai^proximate sum of twenty thousand dollars was ex- 
pended by coml)ined clubs and impressarios during the season 
of 1911-1912. In addition to this, the municipal government 
spent for free concerts and music furnished by the Municij)al 
Band upon public occasions more than twenty-seven thousand 
dollars for the season closing May ist, this year. 

There are nearly a hundred churches in Houston, and in 
the majority of them there are excellent choirs. 

A good lyceum course has provided interesting attractions. 

The Art League has not confined its splendid efforts to the 
advancement of the appreciation of painting and sculpture, 
but has also given one concert each year, enabling Houston- 
ians to hear such artists as Pachmann and Ysaye. The an- 
nouncements for next season's artists already include Pader- 
ewski, Slezak, Misclia Elman, .Mina Cluck. Schumann-IIeink, 
Ethel Parks, Clarence \\'hitehill. and the St. Louis Symphony 
Orchestra. A partial list of artists, many of whom have ap- 
peared numerous times, is gi\en below: 

Nordica, Meli)a. Suzanne Adams, Tetrazzini, Gadski, Sem- 
bricli, Jomelli, Frances Alda, Charlotte Maconda, Rider- 
Kelsey, Florence Ilinkle, Elena Gerhardt, Schumann-Heink, 
Janet Spencer, TTissem de Moss. Mme. Chilson-Ohrman, Marie 
Rappold, Mariska-Aldrich, Alice Sovereign, Anita Rio, Ellen 
Beach Yaw, Agnes Kimball, LilHa Snelling, Lucy Marsh, 
Calve, Christine Miller, Ella Courts Beck, Louise McMahon, 


■^^^^^■^1 ■■■r™'^»"— ^— ■»^'*^^-^ 



Art League 

— Continued 

Mary Carson Kidd, Liza Lehmann, Zapelli, Herbert Wither- 
spoon, Bispham, Gogorza, (llcnn Hall, Van Hoose, George 
Hamlin, Evan Williams, Julian Walker, Claude Cunningham, 
Cecil Fanning, John Barnes Wells, Harold Meek, Bonci, Reed 
Miller, Frances Rogers, Gilibert. David Dunbar, Frederic 
Martin, Campanari, Carl Schlegel, Leon Rice, Olga Samaroff, 
Fannie Bloomfield-Zeissler, Pachmann, Paderewski, Hoff- 
man, La Forge, Charles Gilbert Spross, Ossip Gabrilowitch, 
Hans Richard, Alexander Russell, Myrtle Elvyn, Pepito Ari- 
ola, Helena Levvyn (local), Lhevinne, Clarence Eddy, Cannon, 
Arthur Fisher, Yves Nat, Ysaye, Kreisler, Zimbalist, Arthur 
Hartmann, Maude Powell, Kubelik, Leonora Jackson, Jules 
Falk, Boris Hambourg, Paulo Gruppe, Elsa Ruegger, Kneisel 
Quartette, Flonzaley Quartette, Blitz Quintette (local), New 
York Symphony Orchestra, Russian Symphony Orchestra, 
Pittsburg Symphony Orchestra, St. Louis Symphony Or- 
chestra, Thomas Orchestra, Victor Herbert Orchestra. 

The Russian Symphony Orchestra gave ten consecutive 
concerts in the Auditorium, the world's record for a symphony 
orchestra engagement. The school children of the city were 
the matinee guests of a great lover and patron (jf music for 
one of these concerts. 

Opera Companies. — Full Metropolitan Opera and Orchestra 
production of "Parsifal," under Conreid's direction; Savage, 
French, Aborn, Alice Neilson and Bessie Abbott companies, 
Chicago Grand Opera Company's production of "The Secret 
of Suzanne." 

A course of lectures by William Whitney Surrette of Ox- 
ford University is another of the musical privileges Houston 
has enjoyed. 

This is only a partial list of the artists that have been heard, 
through the sincere and consistent eft'orts of clubs and im- 
pressarios, but it gives a fair idea of what may be expected of 
Houston in the future. It seems not improbable that it may 
come to be the music center of the entire South. 



cialServiceFederatior of 


Social Service 

"I think great thoughts strong winged with steel, 
I coin vast iron acts. 
And weld the impalpable dream of seers 
Into utile lyric facts." 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON, the grizzled veteran leader of 
social workers in America, after a visit to the metropolis 
of the Southwest, termed Houston a "socially minded 
cit}'," and he was right. Few cities of her size have as many 
altruistic citizens of influence ready to turn their attention, 
their energy and their funds toward the social uplift, as Hous- 
ton has. No worthy cause has gone without its earnest cham- 
pion ; no urgent need without a generous response to meet 
that need. Linked with the spirit of generous chivalry of the 
Southland has been the sterner spirit of determination and ac- 
tion of the land of frost, and agencies have developed — institu- 
tions have grown until almost every conceivable need is being 
met, in at least a modest way, and many of them are being 
met in a way that would do credit to a much larger city. Nor 
is this "spirit of brotherhood that maketh us all akin" alone 
manifest among the leaders of the business and social world. 
It permeates the mass of the populace and fosters a public 
opinion that is at once powerful and insistent and responsive. 

Standing at the head of the agencies in the city which are 
giving a "social" service to the community is the Charities 
Endorsement Committee of the Chamber of Commerce. Busi- 
ness men who are members of the Chaml^er of Commerce are 
urged to withhold support from any appeal not bearing the 
approval of this committee, and a card is given a prominent 
place in the office of many business men bearing this inscrip- 
tion, "All Solicitors for Local Charitable Organizations are 
required to present an endorsement card from the Chamber of 
Commerce Endorsement Committee." 

The Social Service Federation, known heretofore as the 
United Charities, a relief organization with four departments, 
is built on the most modern principles of charity work. The 
old charity now obsolete, in spirit at least, although still far 
too extensively practiced — was content to patch and palliate 
distress. It knew of nothing else to do. The charity of today, 
as shown by the work of this organization, while ministering 
to the needs of mankind more tenderly and intelligently than 
ever before, strives ever to discover and to remove the causes 
of distress and to prevent their recurrence. The heart of the 
work of this organization is its Department of Constructive 
Relief, and around this department and very closely allied to 
it are the other three: The Department of Health and Hy- 
giene, the Employment Bureau, and the Children's Depart- 
ment. It is centrally located, having its office in the Court 
House, and receives any sort of appeal from any part of the 
city. It maintains a force of six trained workers and handled 


fuiid.s to tlic ainnitnt of $10,05845 during- itji2, tiii;cther with 
a special fund of $19,499.42 raised f(}r the Fifth Ward tire 

The Houston Settlement Association is another strong 
agency and has its home in its own "Settlement House," in 
the Second Ward. It employs five trained workers, including 
a nurse, and is maintaining a free kindergarten, a dispensary, a 
reading room, etc. Its chief activities lie in neighborhood 
work, social center work and playground development. 

The Houston Settlement Association has also started a sum- 
mer baby camp for sick babies. A specially constructed house. 
built entirely open and properly screened, is provided, and the 
babies are always under the care of a trained nurse. The 
babies return home as soon as their condition will permit. 

The Young Men's Christian Association is one of the most 
popular and one of the best supported agencies in the city. It 
is housed in a magnificent fireproof building of its own, with 
dormitory, gymnasium, baths, etc., and is handling in splendid 
shape the work usually covered by that organization. Its in- 
fluence on the life of the young men of the city is an unques- 
tioned power for good. 


Social Service 

— Continued 

The Young Women's Christian Association has been work- 
ing under a serious handicap in that it has not as yet secured 
its own building. It, however, is now conducting a campaign 
by which it expects to secure the funds necessary to erect a 
building similar to that now used by the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. Notwithstanding this handicap, it has been 
doing a great work for the young women of the city, espe- 
cially the working girl. This association is maintaining a 
boarding home, a down town ofHce with lunch room, rest room 
and reading room, and a travelers' aid secretary at the Grand 
Central Station. 

Faith Home is a home for dependent children, which is at 
present taking care of about eighty children. A new fireproof 
building of three stories has just been completed. In this new 
home more than a hundred children can be cared for, thus 
giving many little ones a chance in life which they otherwise 
would never have. The women having this work in hand are 
rendering service in a field where there is every opportunity 
for rich results. 

The Co-operative Mome is a boarding home for working 
girls in the Fifth Ward. The building, which is of fireproof 
material, has a capacity of caring for about eighty girls. Re- 
spectable working girls who have no other protection in the 
city are given their board and lodging, and at the same time all 
of the conveniences and protection that could be thrown 
around them in a private home. This is provided at a very 
small cost. 

The Star of Hope Mission is one of the most interesting 
institutions in the city. Its problem is that of the "down and 
out," and the man who is homeless and without funds can 
find a place to sleep and can get a bite to eat at the Mission. 
After his immediate needs are provided for he is assisted in 
securing work. Hundreds of men take advantage of the help 
offered by this organization. 

The City Emergency Home attempts to do a similar work 
for women and girls. Any woman or girl who finds herself in 
the city alone and destitute is welcome at the Emergency 

Bayland Orphan's Home is an institutinn that restricts its 
work entirely to the field of orphans, and is supported by an 

The Houston Anti-Tuberculosis League is attempting to 
arouse interest in the movement to stamp out the Great White 
Plague. It is maintaining a dispensary, and while its chief 
work is that of education, yet it is also doing a limited amount 
of relief work and employs a visiting nurse. It is providing 
means for any indigent person who is suspicious of the state of 
his health, to oljtain quickly, and without expense, reliable 
in formation concerning his condition. 


Emma R. Newsboys' Association is doing an interesting 
work in the city among the newsboys. Club rooms are main- 
tained under the supervision of a trained worker. The boys 
have an interesting civic organization, having their own 
mayor, commissioners, police, etc. Runaway boys from other 
cities are taken care of and sent back home. 

The Home for Delinquent Boys, which is an institution 
maintained jointly by the city and the county under the direc- 
tion of the Juvenile Court, is now placed at Seabrook, Texas, 
with seventy boys in the school. The county has purchased 
one hundred and thirty acres with one-quarter-mile frontage 
on Clear Lake, and will soon erect modern buildings suitable 
for a school of this type. A similar school for girls is being 

Both city and county have begun extensive reforms in the 
handling of prisoners. The county now maintains a police 
matron at the county jail, while the city has a man whose sole 
business it is to look after the humanitarian features of city 
police work. 

Among the other organizations in the city, each of which 
is endeavoring to do its part in the social uplift of the com- 
munity, are the Crittenton Home, Civic Club, many Catholic, 
Protestant and Jewish charity organizations, Salvation Army, 
The Woman's Protective Association, Shepherd Fund, Art 


Social Service 

— Continued 

League, Parent-Teachers' Association, Juvenile Protective 
Association, Consumers' League, Industrial Home and Day 
Nursery, Kindergarten Association, Council of Jewish Wo- 
men, and Harris County Humane Society. 

Not less than fifty social agencies of this city were repre- 
sented recently at the meeting of the Conference of Charities 
and Corrections in the City Auditorium. Conservatively 
speaking, this conference served to bring 2,000 men and 
women together who are engaged directly or indirectly in 
, social service. 

And thus, Houston in her struggle for commercial and in- 
dustrial supremacy in the great Southwest, has not forgotten 
her obligation to those who are unfortunate and those for 
whom the struggle for existence has been too strenuous. 

Many a kind thought, many a generous deed is mingled 
with the arduous activities of business and society, and never 
a day passes but that many a home of the poor is touched by 
the hand of the rich. Never a night but that some lonesome 
child or heartsick mother breathes a blessing upon someone 
who has put into execution a dream of helpfulness and kind- 

"At night when all the world is still 

And the crescent moon swings low, 
With drowsy feet on the poppy hill 

A little dream shall go, 
Then out beyond the silvery waves 

That kiss the slumber shore, 
And in your sleep you'll smile because 

My dream is at your door." 



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^jjnicipalJmprovements Under Commission 

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One hundred nine 

Commission Form 
of Government 

THE commissiiin fcjrm ui city i^overiiinent is a business 
cunceni conducted aloiii; modern business lines. Amontj- 
its numerous acct)mplishnients since its inauguration 
June. 1905, that go to mark its superiority over the old system 
may be mentioned the wiping out of a Hoating indebtedness of 
$400,000, with current revenues, the first year. 

The building of an Auditorium, seating capacity 7500, at a 
cost of $345,000. 

The Completion of four modern scIuhjI houses at an aggre- 
gate Cost of $315,000, not to mention the cost of the ground 
and the going construction of two others at a cost of $90,000; 

The purchase of seventy acres of ground for parks and 
boulevards in different parts of the city. 

An increase of the revenue through the water department 
of o\er $200,000 in one year, and at the same time a reduction 
of the consumjition through the meter svstem. 

Placing the payment of all employes on a cash basis and 
without delay. 

A reduction of the tax levy from $2.00 to $1.40 on the $100.00 

Cutting the cost of water from thirty to fifteen cents the 
1000 gallons, or fifty per cent. 

A continuous supply of unadulterated artesian water; the 
complete closing of gambling houses. 

The abolishment of variety theatres ; the closing of saloons 
on Sundays and at midnight every day in the week. 

The opening of three new parks. 

The adoption of the front-foot paving plan, one-third and 
intersections paid for by the city. 

The voting of $1,250,00 bonds for deepening the Ship Chan- 
nel to twenty-five feet; the reduction of the duration of city 
coimcil meetings to an average of less than ten minutes to the 

The completion of a viaduct across Buffalo Bayou, length 
1650 feet and width 70 feet, at a cost of $350,000. 

The construction of a reinforced concrete bridge over White 
( )ak Bayou at a cost of $60,000. 

The removal of all telegraph and telephone poles and wires 
from overground in the central or business portion of the city. 

The purchase during 1911-12 of fifty acres of additional 
pui)lic school grounds. 

The inducement of millions of capital to enter into the con- 
struction of modern metropolitan i)uildings and other im- 
provements of a similar character. 

The establishment of (.)ver a hundred new manufacturing 

Doubling the strength and effectiveness Lif the fire depart- 
ment, through the m<,)St improved fighting apparatus. 

The establishment of a municipal publicity magazine that 

One hundred ten 

lias spread the tame ui iiuustcjii and assisted in the induce- 
ment of thousands of capital to invest here and in the sur- 
rounding;' country. 

The introduction df the Sommers system of ef|ualizint,'' tax 

The plan to acquire \\harfa,i;e facilities that commerce can 
operate without beini;- burdened h}- a wharf tax. 

The formation of a hit;h class ])olice force, equal in effective- 
ness to that of many much larLjer cities. 

The dispatch of a special commissioner to Euro])e to inves- 
tigate the forms of government in the most successfullv man- 
aged cities of Europe, and make report on the same. 

The employment by the year of a high class band of thirty 
pieces to give free concerts for the people at an a\'erage of five 
a week, and the only city in the South doing it. 

The purchase and control of the waterworks. 

The commission form of city government brought down to 
its final analysis, lives and is growing because it is conducted 
on strictly business principles. It is on a footing with the 
most successful business firms or corporations of today. If it 
should in any instance fail to stand the comparison it is be- 
cause of some defect in the management or the machinery, 
either of which may be remedied by the people. Among the 
hundreds of cities that have ado])ted it, hardly one is exactly 
like another. This is attriliutable to the varying views of 
those persons who framed the several charters and gr>verning 
laws. All of the franiers, liowever, admit that the principle is 
sound. The birth cif the commission form of government grew 
out of one of the must appalling disasters of modern times. 

One Inindred eleven 

Commission Form 
of Government 

— Continued 

viz: that which ahiiost swept the good city of Galveston off 
the face of the earth — the great storm of 1900. that drowned 
over 7000 of her people. The State had to take charge of the 
terrible situation as it stood the daj- after the storm, Septem- 
ber 9t]i of that year. The city was first under martial law, 
soon followed by the appointment l)y tlie State of a commis- 
sion to take charge of it. The cuniniissioncrs were men who 
had been successful in business. They luid no political debts 
to jjay nor personal obligations to hinder them. The idea that 
dominated them, was to rebuild their tmce beautiful city. 
They mo\-ed in obedience to this patriotic inspiration. How- 
ever, the law of local self go\ernmenl had to later take the 
situation in hand, and the people elected their own commis- 
sioners, but adhered to the business ideas that had at first con- 
trolled. Its success was so manifest and so i^ratifying that 
Houston took the cue. and during tlie hrst administration of 
former Mayor H. !'>. Rice tlie change was made, the mayor 
himself leading the campaign that preceded that election that 
gave Houston the commission form of government. Mr. Rice 
quickly saw the advantages of the new system. He was 
backed by the business men of the city, and today Houston 
has a form of go\ernment that is better seen in the marvelous 
growth that it has taken tui, since that time, than can be told 
in words. The millions of cajiital inxested; the thousands of 
people added to the population ; the e.xpansion of the residen- 
tial, as well as the lousiness district, are monuments that will 
please the eyes of generations to come, as well as those of 

Houston's form differs in some respects from that of Gal- 
veston. Des Moines' differs from that of Houston and Gal- 
veston, both. And other cities have their special features, but 
the principle is the same in all. One of the main features in 
each one appeared to be an earnest effort to eliminate politics, 
with all of rottenness and corruption, from the management 
of the city's affairs. 

The waterworks, whicli were purchased by the city from a 
private corporation at a cost of approximately a million dol- 
lars, became a source of revenue to the government instead of 
a costly burden to the citizens. The ciuality of water was 
much improved. Before, it was measurably a menace to the 
health of the consumer. After the change it became a source 
of health. And there is now no better water in the whole 
country. The supply is ample for hre fighting purposes, as 
well as for domestic use. 

All things Considered, it is due here to state that the com- 
mission form of government, under the administration of 
former Mayor Rice, has made of Houston an up-to-date and 
prosperous city. It removed the city from the classification of a 
large country town and placed it in that of a thriving, grow- 

One hundred twelve 

One hundred thirtten 

Commission Form 
of Government 

— Continued 

ini; city. \'>y outsiders it has been termed the Chicago, the 
Xew \'urk and the Atlanta uf the Southwest. Its future is so 
l)right that it has given expression that it would, in the course 
of a few years, become the greatest city in the Southwest and 

Former Mayor Rice, in response to an invitation, delivered 
an address before the Chicago Commercial Club on "The 
Commission Form of Government of Cities." The clula se- 
lected the subject. 

After some introductory remarks, he indicated the course 
of his address in the following statement : 

"The essential difference between the form of municipal 
government which has prevailed in Houston since the passage 
of the charter of 1905 and the old form of municipal govern- 
ment, which has generally prevailed throughout the United 
States heretofore, are three: The substitution of a smaller 
number of aldermen, elected from the city at large, in place 
of a large number of aldermen elected from different wards or 
subdivisions of the city, vesting of a co-ordinate power in the 
Mayor as in the City Council to dismiss any officer of the city 
government, except the Controller, at any time, without cause, 
and the essential provisions safeguarding the granting of 
municipal franchises. 

"Instead of a body of twelve aldermen, elected from differ- 
ent wards or subdivisions of the city, under the Houston sys- 
tem four aldermen are elected from the body of the city by the 
vote of all the citizens in the same way in which the Mayor is 
elected. These four aldermen, together with the Mayor, con- 
stitute the City Council or legislative department of the city 
government. The executive power is vested in the Mayor, 
but by an ordinance for the administration of the city's affairs, 
a large portion of executive or administrative power is sub- 
divided into different departments, and a committee is placed 
over each department, and one of the four aldermen nominat- 
ed by the Mayor is what is known as the active chairman. 
The Mayor and all four aldermen are members of each com- 
mittee. The active chairman of the committee practically has 
control of the administration of the department, unless his 
views upon the matter are overruled by the whole committee; 
but by the organization of the committees the active chairman 
does his work to a certain extent under the supervisory direc- 
tion of the Mayor, who is in the last analysis the head of each 
committee and the person in whom the executive power of a 
municipal government ultimately rests." 

The above brief excerpt simply conveys the idea of the 
strong working base upon which all questions are or could be 

One lumdrec] fourteen 




THIS movement originated in Houston al)oiit a year ago 
as a result of a survey that was made a few months pre- 
vious of the various places of amusement. It was discov- 
ered in this survey that the average attendance on Sunday 
upon the places of amusement was about 20,000 out of a pop- 
ulation of 105,000, or about one-fifth of the people. The 
amusements were the usual type of vaudeville, motion pic- 
tures and the average type of small theatre performances. 
Few, if any, of these were really the type that would give any- 
thing of virtue to the attendants. 

Amusement is as necessary as food and drink, and the ques- 
tion is, What kind shall it be? The amusement should furnish 
a stimulus in proportion to the ratio of the dullness of the 
employment. In other words, something was needed that 
would not only be recreative and amusing, but would be in- 
tellectual and helpful, as well. To this end an entertainment 
has been provided on Sunday afternoons in the new City Audi- 
torium consisting of high grade music, lectures, readings. The 
highest grade entertainers and artists appear at these enter- 
tainments, offering to the people something that is intellect- 
ually, morally and physically uplifting, instead of leaving them 
to the petty things of the show business. In short, this is an 
educational movement for social uplift. 

The start was made the first Sunday in May, 1912. 

For the first five numbers of this entertainment it was esti- 
mated by conservative people that the average attendance was 
5,000, which proved two things — first, the people approved of 
the class and kind of entertainment that was being offered, 
and second, the social demand for such an entertainment. 
Before it had l)een running thirty days, articles concerning it 
had been written up as syndicate newspaper articles. Many 
magazines and the great religious journals of the country have 
written favorable editorials commenting upon it. Letters 
galore, from all over the United States, and from some foreign 
countries have poured in upon the Superintendent. 

The thought, in the beginning of the movement, was that it 
would be largely for the working peoi)le, but as it has prog- 
ressed all classes, working men and professional men alike, 
are to be found among its regular patrons; the old and the 
young, the rich and poor are to be seen there every Sunday. It 
has come to be generally understood in tlie city that "Every 
Sunday there is something good at the Municipal Entertain- 
ment." It has taken a high place in the estimation of the 
people of the city, and the great good that it is doing, both in 
a negative, as well as a positive way, is hard to estimate. 

(Imc liiindrfil rifteen 

Copyright by Sfhlueter^ ffoutlon, Tfxat 

One initidred sixteett 


The Ship Channel or 




One hundred seventeen 

Houston Ship 

SE\'ENTY-SIX years ago, when the Aliens and others 
founded a settlement at the head waters of Buffalo Bayou 
and named it Housttm in hont)r of Texas" illustrious gen- 
eral, no little thought was given to the strategic ])osition of 
the new town on the course of a navigable stream. 

In those days travel was restricted to horse, wagon and 
boat. Along the coast of the new Texas Republic commerce 
practically was monopolized by boat, and in consequence the 
coast country offered more inducements and attraction for 
settlement than interior sections. Yet the open coast line 
proved somewhat hazardous for safe harbors for the small 
craft of coastwise shipping, and when Houston was founded 
at the head course of a navigable stream, with a natural safe 
harbor, it soon became the center of commerce of the section, 
and later was made the capital city of the new-born republic. 

The farsightedness of its founders has made the City of 
Houston of today. \\'Iiile small boats thronged the placid 
bayou years ago, carrying the products of a broad coast coun- 
try, the Houston of today is preparing to bring the greatest 
ships of ocean commerce over the waters of the same ]ilacid 
stream to the protected land-locked harbor wliicli dcillars and 
the efforts of man ha\-e made possilile. 

Buffalo Bayou — renamed the Houston Ship Channel — is a 
natural waterway — an arm of the sea. \\'hile its greatest 
source of supply is from the sea — hence the term "bayou" — it 
is also fed by two small courses converging at Houston. In 
natural depth it varied from eight to fifteen feet, and since 
the early '40s has been navigated by steamboats. 

It is no e.xaggeration to say that the foresightedness of the 
founders of Houston has made i)ossible the Greater Houston 
of today. If it were not for the Ship Channel, Houston would 
go back ten years in development. That ribbon of water 
extending from Houston fifty miles to the Gulf of Mexico is 
Houston's greatest commercial asset. It is the most potent 
factor in Houston's commercial life, for it compels lower 

One hundred eighteen 

Houston Ship 

freight rates, which Houston would not enjoy were it not for 
the channel. 

Today over $50,000,000 in commerce annually traverses the 
Ship Channel by small boats and bart^es. That is the actual 
commerce of the stream. In traffic between Houston and 
other seaboard points it compels a lower railroad rate, which 
annually saves millions of dollars to Houston industry and 
shipping. To the cotton planters of Texas alone it affords a 
saving of $6,000,000 annually, as for a distance of fifty miles 
it cuts the cotton rate from twenty-one cents to six cents per 
hundred pounds. 

Even in this limited use the Houstim Ship Channel has 
proved its usefulness and absolute necessity as a commercial 
factor for Houston. What its full and unrestricted use will 
mean may be gleaned from a study of Manchester, England, 
a city which dug a ship canal to the sea and became a world 

Houston is situated much like Manchester was. Manches- 
ter had great industries, many railroads, and a river to tlie sea. 
Tlic Mersey River was a sluggisJi stream, sometimes l)arelv 
getting (i\-er tlie sand, and in other ])laces aliout three feet 
deep. Energetic Manchester raised ten million or more dol- 
lars and started digging a canal to the sea. The course fol- 
lowed tlie Mersey, but in jilaces the canal was blasted and cut 
through solid rock. Years of work and great ex])enditure 
tinally brought the sea to Manchester and great ships followed. 

Houston made a study of Manchester and determined as 
did Manchester that as the town could not 1)e moved to the 
sea. the sea must be moved to the town. Hut Tb)uston had a 
l)etter foundation upon which to work. ( )I(1 Ilufi'alo i!a\MU 
was much deeper than the Mersey and the bayou defined a 
course straight to the Gulf of Mexico. Previous expenditures 
of several thousand dollars had greatly improved the bayou, 
but a task rivalling that of Manchester was determined upon 
and put through. 

A minimum depth of twenty-five feet and a straight course 

C)iie luiiulrcd nineteen 

Houston Ship 

— Continued 

was decided on and the matter put up to the government. 
Two years of effort brought an appropriation from the Gov- 
ernment of $1,250,000, contingent upon Houston raising a like 
amount. \\'hen Houston asked for bonds to that amount 
January 10, 191 1, they carried nearly unanimously. A few 
months later the money was deposited to the credit of the 
Secretary of War and the work was started. 

Under this $2,500,000 appropriation dredges are now at 
work dredging tlie channel to a minimum depth of twenty-five 
feet. It is believed the work will be completed by June, 1914. 
for opening simultaneously with the Panama Canal. The 
task of dredging is much easier than that which faced Man- 
chester, for the Houston project needs but to dredge mud and 
silt from the bottom of a defined stream and cut off a few 
bends. Where Manchester expended $10,000,000, Houston 
need expend but $2,500,000 with the same results, and Houston 
will become a world seaport, with a greater number of rail- 
roads than any other city in the South. 

When the channel is comjileted the greatest ships of ocean 
commerce will come direct to the City (if Houston. Free 
nuiiiicipal wliarves arc being arranged for liy the City of 
iiouston, which will be forever maintained as free wharfage. 
This is a provision in the contract with the P'ederal Govern- 

The fact that the Houston Ship Channel work is the largest 
inland waterway now under way by the Government, is ev- 
idence of the interest of the Federal authorities in providing 
at the outlet of seventeen lines of railroad a seaport which 
will handle the vast commerce of the Central and Central- 
Western States. The Texas coast provides nearest tidewater 
to this great producing area, and the seventeen trunk lines of 
railway entering Houston radiate from this great section. Tt 
is only logical that ocean commerce should touch direct the 
termini of these railroads, and the completion of the channel 
will connect the last link in a great international route from 
the Trans-Mississippi States direct to every port on the Globe. 

What the Ship Channel is to Houston is not conjecture ; it 
is not an exaggerated fact. The channel is Houston's greatest 
commercial asset — the most potent factor in the development 
of Greater Houston. It means the construction around this 
natural land-locked harbor, safe from storms, of a coming 
great world port and a great trade mart of the land. ^Vhat 
deep water has done for Manchester it will do for Houston, 
and the parallel is uniquely drawn by the Chamber of Com- 
merce in its apt slogan for Houston : "The Manchester of 

One hundred twenty 

C/1AMDER OF Commerce of 


One hundred twentv-one 

President Chamber of Commerce 

Uiic hundred twenty-two 

Chamber of 

WITH one exception the Chamber of Commerce of Hous- 
ton, probably, is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, or- 
ganization of its kind in the South. 

The exception noted is the Matagorda (Texas) Chamber of 
Commerce, the original organization of which today is out of 
existence. ISoth were chartered by the Congress of the Re- 
public of Texas in 1840, and the Chamber ot Commerce of 
Houston of today can trace its origin back to the day when 
President Mirabeau B. Lamar attached his signature in ap- 
proval of the articles of information of the Houston Cliamber 
of Commerce January 28th, 1840. 

Thus in 1913 the present Chamber of Commerce of Houston 
is seventy-three years old. This does not mean that the active 
operation of the organization continued over that period in 
the same manner the work is being carried forward today. 
There was a period of relapse, which continued for a few 
3'ears, but about sixteen years ago the organization was re- 
vived and later chartered as the Houston Businness League. 

A little over two years ago, or a year following the succes- 
sion of Adolph Boldt, as secretary, the charter was amended 
and the name changed to that of the Chamber of Commerce 
of Houston, Texas, returning to the same title given the in- 
itial organization nearly four score years ago. 

Yet tile purposes of that early organization and the ime 
(jbtaining today are practicalh^ the same. The charter of the 
first organization as granted by the Texas Congress "author- 
ized the need of the Cliamber of Commerce as tending to 
diminish litigation and to establish uniform and equitable 
charges and considering that the establishment of a chamber 
of commerce may thus tend to the general advantage of the 
citizens of this Republic as well as tlie furtherance of the 
commercial interests." 

This creed is unchanged today, a larger organization divid- 
ing the work and forcing the energy as one man did those 
several years ago. The growth of the organization has kept 
pace with the expansion of the city it serves and promotes, and 
the perfection of organization attained by the present Cham- 
ber of Commerce is declared by persons who know to be un- 
excelled in the South. In fact, some say the Houston Cham- 
ber of Commerce is better organized and is attaining greater 
and more beneficial results than any other Southern city is 
securing from its similar organizations. 

Ten persons now direct the several departments of the 
greater Chamber of Commerce. The work of building a city 
is systematized and is conducted on the same plan as the pro- 
motion of a business enterprise. In all respects the sale of a 
commodity and the sale of a city is the same. Similar organ- 
izations must be maintained, and tlie larger the enterprise to 

One hundred tweiuv-threc 

Chamber of 

— Continued 

be promoted the larger and more efficient must be the organ- 

The enlargement of the Chamber of Commerce soon fol- 
lowed the succession of Adolph Boldt as the active head of 
the organization as secretary a little over three years ago. 
Resourceful and energetic himself, he energized and put new 
life into the then struggling League. The membership when he 
took charge was about 385, and two persons actively adminis- 
tered the affairs of the Chamber. He increased the scope of 
the organization and added to the efficiency of the Chamber 
by placing the different departments in charge of experts well 
qualified for that particular department. 

The Houston Traffic Bureau was taken over from the Cotton 
Exchange and operated as a ]xirt of the Chamber; a compre- 
hensive Tiureau of Publicity in cliarge of a newspaper man 
was installed, while an ex])ert in agriculture and a man well 
informed on immigration jjroblems were secured to handle 
the Agricultural and Immigration Bureaus which Secretary 
Boldt established. I^ater Convention and Industrial Bureaus 
were installed and the entire work of the Chamber system- 
atized. Thus in a little over two years' time the actual work- 
ing force of the Chamber of Commerce was raised from two 
persons to ten persons actively engaged, while in the mean- 
time the membership was increased from 385 to 1,500 

The practical operation of this great Chamber of Commerce 
machine is like clockwork. Traffic problems are handled by 
the Traffic Bureau, the City of Houston is forever kept in the 
eye of the world by the Bureau of Publicity, the welfare of the 
farming interests of the Houston District are under the watch- 
ful eye of the Agricultural Department twelve months in the 
year, while the Immigration Department concerns itself with 
the attraction of desirable immigrants to the Houston District. 
The Convention Bureau is eternally campaigning for conven- 
tions, while the Industrial Bureau concerns itself with the 

One hundred twenty-four 

aUractiun tu Houston of every phase of industry. The whcile 
is under the supervision of the president, Mr. W. C. Munn, and 
the secretary. 

Detail work, aside from the various bureaus, is done through 
committees, there being twenty-six committees on the calen- 
dar. The larger problems are handled by the Board of Di- 
rectors, which in cfifect is the governing body of the Chamber 
of Commerce. 

The Chamber of Commerce is indeed the "powerhouse of 
the city." It c)riginates movements for the good of the city 
and puts them through. When any public issue is before the 
people for decision, an issue which is for the public good, it 
is the Chamber of Commerce that devotes its entire time to 
the campaign to put the issue successfully through. Of the 
front-foot paving plan, school bond issues, clean-up campaigns, 
the Ship Channel and viaduct bond issues — all started by the 
Chamber of Commerce — each went through with large favor- 
able majorities and without doubt due to the comprehensive 
effort and wide publicity given the movements by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

Of necessity any city that aspires to any pretensions must 
have a Chamber of Commerce or some central working or- 
ganization which has at heart the general welfare of the city. 
The Houston Chamber of Commerce is non-political and seeks 
rather the benefit of the city as a whole than any individual or 
class. Vet any public spirited movement before the city, if 
investigated, probably will find the Chamber of Commerce as 
its sponsor or influential adherent. It is the one central or- 
ganization or power which is vital to the success of a public 
issue or movement, and in Houston the Chamber of Com- 
merce occupies that sphere. 

The annual meeting of the Chamber of Commerce is held in 
May of each year, when ofticers and directors for the ensuing 
year are elected. 

One liuiidred iwetity-tive 



— Continued 

HOUSTON — A city of 125,000 population, including sub- 
urbs ; the financial center of the Southwest ; annual bank clear- 
ings of $1,898,054,746; aggregate wholesale trade, $130,575,- 
000; bank deposits, $45,000,000. 

INDUSTRIAL CENTER— The workshop of Texas. More 
factories, more wage earners and largest payroll in the South- 
west. Lowest rate on raw material. Distrilnition by rail and 
water. Large consuming territory. Manufactured products, 
$50,000,000 annually. 

LUMBER MARKET— Center of the great pine and hard- 
wood forests of Texas. Shipments for export via the Houston 
ship channel. Annual sales are $40,000,000. 

CC)TTON — The largest inland port cotton market in the 
world. Handles two and a lialf million Ijales annually. Stor- 
age capacity, 500,000 bales. Largest compresses and oil mills 
in the South. Splendid opportunities for cotton mills and 
allied industries. 

SEVENTEEN RAILROADS— The greatest railroad center 
in the South ; concentrating and distributing point for the 
entire Southwest. Greater number of points reached by one- 
line haul. Quicker distriljution over a larger area. Largest 
repair shops in the South. 

DEEP WATER PORT— Houston's Ship Channel brings 
the trans-Mississippi country 500 miles nearer to the sea than 
the Atlantic and Pacific ports. Lower freight rates from East 
and seaboard. Two and a half million dollars have been pro- 
vided for its improvement. 

RICE CENTER — Largest primary rice market. Seven 
modern rice mills. Value of annual product over $6,000,000. 

OIL CENTER— Headquarters for Texas petroleum. An- 
nual Texas production, 13,000,000 barrels. Pipe lines to 
Texas and Oklahoma fields. 

The best organized and most active Chamber of Commerce 
in the South. com]>osed of the principal business interests of 
the city, linked into a compact organization working for the 
interests of a Greater Houston. 

A traffic over its Ship Channel which totaled $50,000,000 for 

One hundred twenty-six 

Financial and Industrial 

llie last twelve months, an inerease ui $1,500,000 over the 
traffic for the preceding year. 

Five cotton compresses. Houston compresses more cotton 
during- the season than any other city in Texas — the largest 
inland port cotton market in the world. 

The general offices of the four railroad companies of the 
Frisco, East and West lines, the Sunset-Central lines, the 
Trinity & Brazos Valley Railroad Company, and the fiouston 
ISelt & Terminal Railway Company, International and Great 
Northern Railway Company. 

•Aggregate assessments on the city tax rolls of $100,000,000. 
The Harris County tax rolls register a total assessment of 

Forty skyscrapers of six stories and over, ranging up to 

eighteen stories. Houston challenges comparison with any 

city in the world of equal size to show as many tall buildings. 

Apartment houses completed during the year at a cost of 

over $1,500,000. 

A half-million-dollar Federal building, which houses the 
postoffice and the Federal Courts. 

The largest trust company or financial institution in the 
State is the Bankers' Trust Company, capitalized at $2,000,- 
000, with surplus of approximately $1,000,000. In size it is 
surpassed by but three banks and trust companies in the 
South. It is active in the development of the Houston section, 
it being estimated it has brought in over $5,000,000 foreign 
capital during the past three years. 

Over 400 inccjrporated companies, whose aggregate capital 
stock is in excess of $150,000,000. 

Eight infirmaries and sanitariums and a new railroad hos- 
pital operated by the Southern Pacific. 

Alunicipal water works, which includes forty-five artesian 
wells with a daily capacity of 33,000,000 gallons, which is sup- 
plied to consumers at a rate of 15 cents per thousand gallons. 
The produce market of the rich Gulf Coast Country of 
Texas, Houston being in the center of the richest section of 

The only elevator and esculator factory in the South. 
A lire department comprising twelve stations, with prop- 
erty valued at $300,000. Fifty-five horses and no men com- 
pose the fire-fighting force. 

A manufacturing and industrial activity which totals $20,- 
000,000 in capital, 11,000 in number of employes, $10,000,000 
in pay roll and $66,000,000 output. 

An annual fall fete (the No-Tsu-Oh Carnival) wiiich at- 
tracts thousands of visitors from Texas and Louisiana. 

A mean annual temperature of 68 degrees, giving healthful 
climate, with an annual death rate of but 13.5 per thousand. 

One luindred twenty-seven 

Financial and Industrial 

— Continued 

Commission form cjf municipal t^overnment, which governs 
the city on a business basis without regard to politics and in 
the same manner a great private corporation is conducted. 

Tlie largest produce market in Texas, whose business last 
year totaled $5,200,000. 

The Rice Institute, a university with an endowment of $10,- 
000,000, opened in fall of 191 2. 

Forty-nine lumber companies, making Houston tlie lumljer 
Center of the Southwest. Its annual lumljer Inisiiiess aggre- 
gates more than $40,000,000. 

A patriotic population imljued with the spirit of progression 
which epitomizes the resistless energy that is making Hous- 
ton the greatest city of the South. 

Twenty-three oil companies with an aggregate capital stock 
of $85,000,000. The largest producing petroleum district in 
Te.xas, the Humble held, is seventeen miles from Houston. 

The financial balance of power in the Southwest and clear- 
ing weekly more net than any city in the South, with the ex- 
ception of New Orleans. 

Direct connection with the Brownsville Railroad with the 
trade territory of Me.xico, and already is connected by steamer 
witli Mexican ports. 

A wholesale trade that totaled $125,000,000 last year. 

Si.x National banks, with total deposits of $45,000,000. 

A free library with 35,000 books. 

Expended over $100,000 last year in extensions and im- 
provements of the water works system. 

The general shops of the Texas (S: New Orleans, the Galves- 
ton, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the Houston & Texas Central, 
the Houston East & West Texas, and the Houston Belt & 
Terminal Railway Companies. 

.\n electric railway company which operates over sixty-one 
miles of track, and employs 465 persons. 

Twenty-four puldic school buildings which, with their 
grounds and equipment, represent an investment of $1,043,314. 
The scholastic population is 20,685, '^ost of buildings and 
equipment, $1,043,314; salaries of teachers, $190,302. In Har- 
ris County there are 26,525 school children. 

A retail trade whose volume last year was $51,000,000. 

Headquarters for the Texas Company (a $50,000,000 corpo- 
ration) which operates in Texas and Oklahoma petroleum 

A half-million-dollar County Court House, built of granite 
and iron and brick. 

Five express coni])anies employing 200 men and having an 
annual payroll of $200,000. 

Six cotton seed oil mills with an aggregate cajjital of $2,500,- 
000, employing 1,500 men, and an annual output uf $5,740,000. 

One hundred twenty-eight 

„„„ ■■■-.--^.„.,.V...„ouuua».mfl«««B««UU^^ 

Nearly 2,000 commercial Imuses with a ccimlMned capital uf 

Two of the three car wheel factories in Texas, and these two 
are among the largest in America. 

An area of sixteen square miles, with many suburban dis- 

Three general shops of railways whose activities, here last 
year employed 2,700 men, paying them $1,607,200 in wages, 
and representing an output of $2,405,000. 

Two slips on the turning Ixisin of the Ship Channel which 
are just being completed at a cost of $150,000. With the sheds 
and warehouses they will provide free wharfage facilities in 
the new harbor. 

A Ship Channel to the Gulf which is being dredged to a 
minimum depth of twenty-five feet under a $2,500,000 ap- 

The third great orange belt of the United States within the 
Houston district. This industry is just beginning, but is 
already making shipments East. 

The postal receipts at the Houston office for 1910, 191 1 and 
1912 were as follows: 

1910 $423,726.23 

191 1 486,.092.49 

1912 519,692.84 

The receipts for January and February, 1913, were $95,- 

812.30, while the receipts for the corresponding months of 
1912 were $83,107.57, thus showing a $12,704.73 increase in 
favor of 1913 over 1912. 

Five rice mills with a total daily capacity of 7,600 bags. 

One hundred passenger trains operated in and out of its 
railway terminals in a day. 

Invested in lumber mills and furniture t'actories, $1,039,500, 
with an output last year of $2,409,()9(). 

Foundries and machine shops with a total output last year 
of $4,699,254. 

One lunulred twenty-nine 



— Continued 

The first cinisideration in moving; to a new town to live is, 
what kind of drinking water is available? In addition to the 
municipal artesian water supply, Houston has one of the finest 
water distillini;- plants in the United States, making the purest 
possible water for drinking purposes, manufactured by the 
same process that the Government uses in the arniv and na\y 
stills. Aqua Pura is extensi\ely used in Houston and is 
shipped all over the state. 

Railroad investments of $12,685,100, employing 5,000 men, 
with an annual pay roll of $3,906,220. IMie railway terminals 
alone represent an investment of $4,000,000. 

Manual training and domestic science departments in its 
city schools. 

The largest storm sewer in the South, with a diameter at 
its mouth of thirteen feet, which provides water drainage for 
the Third and Fourth \\'ards. It cost $225,000. An additional 
$225,000 was expended during the year in extending the san- 
itary sewerage system. 

Its own dredge boat, "The Tom Ball," operating on the 
Houston Ship Channel, the first of the fleet of dredges that the 
city will have in the service on its waterway. 

OiU' luinilreil tliirty 

One hundred thirty-one 

g to te ~ ti. 

U U II ii li nil I, 
I ■ ■■ ■■ii 

One luiiulrc'd thirty-two 

One hundred thirty-three 

Copyright by Litterit^ Houston, Ttxas 

One hundred thirty-four 

™'""— ""•twilliiUlllH 

One hundred thirty-five 

One hundred thirty-six 

One hundred thirty-seven 

One hundred thirty-eight 



One hundred thirty-nine 

One hundred forty 

One hundred forty-one 

One liuiidred fortv-two 

One liuiidrcd forty-tliree 

View of Main Street in 1891, the year Wm. Marsh Rice endowed the Rice Institute. 

The above etching is reproduced from a wood cut used in a book on Houston 

printed that year by George W. Englehardt of St. Louis. The book is 

rare from a comparative, pictorial and statistical standpoint. 

This Index is made to read from left to right, covering pages of views of portraits 
where same appear side by side. 


25 Title Page, Fannin School. 

26 Front View High School. 

27 High School on Caroline Street Side; Barnett School; Boys' Outdoor Gymnasium, 

Fannin School. 

29 High School Domestic Science Class; High School Exhibit Manual Training; 

School Children at Lecture of Edmund Vance Cook, City Auditorium. 

30 Xight Classes in Business Course, Architecture, and for Foreigners. 

31 Night Classes for Colored People. Third picture shows woman eighty-five and her 

grandson on front seat, she attending school to learn to read the Bible. 

3i Austin School; Hawthorne School; Woodland Heights School. 

36 New Rusk School, Front, Auditorium and Rear Views. 

38 Allen School; St. Agnes Academy; Carnegie Library. 

40 Women's Choral Club; Blitz Quintette; Treble Clef Club. 

42 Two Gymnasium Classes, and First Aid to the Wounded Class, Y. M. C. A. 

43 Title Page, Interior View of General Office of Social Service Federation. 

45 Y. M. C. A. Bldg.; Houston Y. M. C. A. Boys on Relay Hike from Galveston to 
Houston carrying message to Governor in City Park on San Jacinto Day. 

47 Lunch Room, Reading and Rest Room, Y. W. C. A. 

48 Interior of Modern Amlnilance, of which Houston has several. 

49 Norsworthy's Hospital; Southern Pacific Hospital; Baptist Sanitarium. 

50 I-'aith Home; Interior Faith Home Oiiening Day; Wesley House (Girls' Co-opera- 

tive Home). 

51 Saint .\nthony's Home for the Aged; St. Joseph's Infirmary; Settlement House 

and Kindergarten (to the left). 

52 Two Views of Canoe Club Members on ISrays Hayou, Cluli House in first picture; 

Oleander Club (Galveston-Houston) on Dickinson Bayon. 


53 Title Page, Country Club House. 

54 Views of Beautiful Golf Links and Grounds of Houston Country Club. 

55 Old Golf Club; Thalian Club. 

56 Houston Launch Club (on hill): more than three hundred boats listed. 

57 Interior Houston Club (business men); New Majestic Theatre. 

58 Views in Vicks Park, recently purchased by City for site of Permanent Exposition. 

59 Three Views of Elizabeth Baldwin Park; Old Highland Park. 

60 Forest Hill Park, looking across stream to Country Club Golf Links; Brays Bayou 

running through Forest Hill Park; Two Views City Park. 

61 Beautiful Park on Ship Channel at San Jacinto Battlegroimd; An Invitation to 

Drive or Motor; the "Augusta," a sea-going yacht built in Houston and owned 
by C. G. Pillot. 

62 First Presb\teriaii Church; Christ Episcopal Church; First Methodist Church. 

63 Title Page, Church of the Annunciation and School. 

64 Christian Science Church; St. Paul's Methodist Church; Tuam Avenue Baptist 


65 First Baptist Church; Congregation Beth Israel: Cumberland Presbyterian, Cen- 

tral Christian, Second Presbyterian Churches. 

66 Main Street Looking South at the Beginning of Residential Section: four views 

of Home of F. A. Hervy, Jr.; Residence of A. L. Nelras; an Attractive Home 
in Woodland Heights. 

67 Home of E. B. Parker. 

68 Homes of Major J. F. Dickson, Dr. W. R. Eckhardt and E. Raphael. 
6g Home of J. W. Link in Montrose. 

70 Homes of Andrew Dow, C. G. Pillot, Jas. A. Baker. R. C. Duff, Jesse H. Jones, 

S. F. Carter, J. O. Ross, Cortlandt Place. 

71 Homes of W. T. Carter, Mrs. M. T. Jones, Abe M. Levy, Harris Masterson, Dr. 

O. L. Norsworthy, J. C. Hooper, J. W. Hertford, Lynch Davidson. 

72 Beautiful Forest Hill; Homes of W. A. Cooke and M. C. Lane, first picture; last 

picture, Gus Radetzki and Lindsay Dunn. 

73 Bungalow Headquarters Forestdale Nurseries and H. T. D. Wilson's Fine Chicken 

Ranch showing in center picture Six Thousand-egg Incubator House. 

74 Westmoreland Farms, adjoining Rice Institute Property, and connected with 

Houston by hourly street car service. 

75 Four Views Bungalow Addition; Entrance to Woodland Heights and Home of 

Wm. A. Wilson; Boulevard in Houston Heights: Three Views of Southland 
Terrace, Showing Splendid Natural Possibilities for Suburban Development. 

77 Major J. F. Dickson, Judge Harris Masterson, O. L. Cochran, Capt. Wm. Chris- 

tian, J. S. Rice, John T. Scott. 

78 Jas. Adair, Andrew Dow, David Rice, Jeff T. Miller, Harry S. Fox, H. R. Eldridge, 

H. T. D. Wilson, Daniel Garrett, Wm. B. King, E. A. Peden, Henry H. Dick- 
son, David Daly. 

79 E. B. Parker, H. M. Garwood, Abe M. Levy. Lynch Davidson. John Stewart, R. 

C. Duff, Fred A. Jones, Ennis Cargill, George Torrey, Joe H. Eagle, W. H. 
Gill, John Charles Harris. 

80 J. S. Cullinan, K. E. Brooks. E. F. Simms, W. B. Sharp*. Xiels Esperson, H. T. 


81 W. B. Chew, Chas. Dillingham, Jos. Meyer, W. L. Macatee, Henry S. Fox*, Col. 

(). T. Holt*. 



82 Dr. Peter Gray Sears, C. L. Kerr, Arthur Cargill, Sterling Meyer, E. M. Parrish, 

J. B. Adoue, Richard Maury, Chester Bryan, John W. Maxcy, Jules Sette- 
gast, J. Q. Tabor, \Vm. A. Smith. 

83 T. J. Anderson, H. Martin, D. J. Price, C. H. Dunbar, John W. Graham, A. Y. 

Austin, E. A. Hudson, Frank Jones, James Cravens, Ed Kiam, John Foley, 
Pat Foley. 

84 Jonathan Lane, John H. Kirby, Jake Wolters, Jas. L. Story. 

85 John H. Thompson, Thomas Stone, B. F. Bonner, Lee C. Ayers, Wm. A. Vinson, 

L. A. Adamson, John A. Hulen, Chas. Kirk, Bentley Nelson. Jas. T. Sadler, 

J. W. Neal. Jeff T. Gibbons. 

86 Judge Chas. E. Ashe, Jas. D. Dawson, A. L. Nelms, N. E. Meador, Guy Bryan, 

Chas. P. Shearn, Bryan Heard, B. B. Gilmer, C. W. Hahl, W. T. Carter, C. G. 

Pillot, H. F. McGregor. 

87 O. S. Carlton, Wm. Abbey. W. S. Farrish, Howard Hughes. Lee Blaffer. D. R. 

Beatty. E. J. Hussion. L. W. Macatee, Henry Lee Borden, Dr. Sam R. Hay, 
Dr. Wm. States Jacobs, Dr. Henry Barnstein. 

88 W. G. Van Vleck, George Gibbons, F. A. Heitmann, M. M. Graves, W. V. Lau- 

raine, H. C. Schuhmacher. Dr. J. L. Gross, James Radford, Lynn Talley, J. E. 
Duff, J. M. Cary, Leon Sontield. 

99 Carter building, showing Wireless Station; Scanlan Building; Union National 

100 Te.xas Company Building; Cotton Hotel; Paul Building. 

loi South Texas-Commercial National Bank; First National Bank. 

102 Waddell Furniture Co.; Commercial Bank Building: Houston Cotton Exchange. 

103 Binz Building; Hudson Furniture Co.; Bering-Cortes Hardware Co.; Stewart 

Building; Tel-Electric Co.; Beatty Building. 

104 Bristol Hotel; Interior Views Macatee Hotel. 

105 Brazos Hotel; Two Views Brazos Court; Milby Hotel. 

106 Southern Pacific Building; Stowers Furniture Co.; Bender Hotel. 

107 Savoy Apartments; Rossonian Apartments; Beaconsfield Apartments. 

109 Opening of the New Viaduct at the foot of Main Street, connecting the City with 
the North Side. 

Ill City Auditorium, seating more than seven thousand people. The '"Zeeland," owned 
by Former Mayor Rice and on which he has entertained hundreds of dis- 
tinguished guests of the City of Houston. 

113 City Water Works Pumping Station; Mouth of Austin Street Storm Sewer; City 
Filter Beds. 

115 Dr. W. S. Lockhart, who originated the Municipal Entertainment Idea and has 

successfully superintended the movement in Houston. 

116 Scenes on the Ship Channel: Last Picture, famous San Jacinto Battleground, where 

Texas won her independence in 1836. 

117 Mariner's Map Showing Houston in upper left hand corner and the course of the 

Houston Ship Channel. 

118 Ship Channel near Harrisburg. 

119 Ship Channel at Lynchburg. 

121 Title Page, Members of Chamber of Commerce starting on a "Houston Boosters" 

134 Interior and Exterior Views of the Magnificent New LTnion Station of the Hous- 
ton Belt & Terminal Company. 

13s Title Page, Where the Ship Channel Enters the Sea; Wharfage at Oil Station 
and Cotton Compress on the Ship Channel. 


136 Houston Belt and Terminal Facilities; I. and G. N. Freight Station and Cotton 

Sheds; I. & G. N. Wharf on Ship Channel. 

137 Two Southern Pacific Stations; Foreign Ship in the Turning Basin. 

138 Reading down the page — J. M. Lewis, Editor "Tampering With Trifles" column 

and "Alkali Eye" in Houston Post; Harry Van Demark, Editor Texas Mag- 
azine; Hamp Cook, Editor Progressive Houston; Holland S. Reavis, Editor 
Fuel Oil Journal; F. E. Dionne, Editor Gulf Coast Lumberman; W. W. 
Dexter, Editor Texas Bankers' Journal; Richard Montgomery, Editor The 

124 Adolph Boldt, Secretary Chamber of Commerce. 

125 G. E. Roussel, Assistant Secretary; Jerome Farbar, Director of Publicity; J. W. 

Wilkinson, Traffic Manager. 

126 Interior Houston National Exchange Bank. 

129 Interior Lumbermans Bank. 

130 Aqua Pura Water Manufacturing Plant; Federal Building. 

131 City Market; Harris County Court House. 

132 Public Service Corporation.s — Three Southwestern Telephone Buildings — Preston, 

Hadley and Taylor Exchanges; Home Telephone Co. Building; Houston Gas 
Company, which has just increased its capacity at an expenditure of a half 
million dollars. 

133 Galveston-Houston Interurban, showing the Draw-bridge on the Great Causeway. 

The car in the last picture was traveling at the rate of fifty miles an hour when 
the picture was snapped. 

140 Houston Post Building. 

141 Post StafT — G. J. Palmer, Vice President and General Manager; A. E. Clarkson, 

Secretary and Business Manager; R. M. Johnston, President and Editor; 
Harry Warner, Managing Editor; George Baily, Editorial Staff. 

142 Houston Clironicle Building. 

143 Chronicle StafT — C. B. Gillespie, Business Manager; G. E. Kepple, City Editor; 

Marcellus Foster, President and General Manager: Robert Cornell, Advertis- 
ing Manager; J. E. McComb, Manager Foreign Advertising. 


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