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THE great African traveller, the search for, and relief 
of whom this book describes, was born near Glasgow, 
March 19th, 1813. At the very early age of ten he was 
employed in a factory as a " piecer," by which he earned 
sufficient money to contribute his mite towards the sup- 
port of his family. A portion of his wages he was per- 
mitted to devote to the purchase of books, whereby he 
laid the foundation of a useful and sound knowledge. 
At sixteen he was pretty well acquainted with the 
writings of classic authors. Horace and Virgil were 
favourites, but his readings were not limited to this 
branch of education, they ranged over every field of 
literature save fiction. Books of travels were especially 
delightful to him ; scientific works, books on natural 
history, medicine, and theology served not only to 
lighten tedious hours at the spinning jenny, but to 
fit him for the career for which he was destined, and 
which he has since pursued with honour to himself and 
credit to the family from which he sprung. 

At nineteen years of age he was promoted to a cotton 



qphmer, in which capacity he obtained a higher wage, 
which enahled him to support himself while attending 
the Greek and Medical classes, as also Divinity lectures 
during the winter in Glasgow. After confining himself 
to the study of Medicine and Divinity, with a view to 
offer himself, by the advice of friends, as a Missionary 
Physician for service, under the auspices of the London 
Missionary Society, in China, at twenty-five years of 
age he was summoned to undergo the necessary exami- 
nation, out of which test he emerged as a Licentiate of 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons. 

He was then sent as a Probationer to the establishment 
of the Eev. Mr. Cecil, at Chipping Ongar, in the county 
of Essex. 

About the time he became qualified for the vocation foi 
which he had been preparing himself, the Chinese Opium 
War broke out, and it became inexpedient for him to pro- 
ceed to China. For such reason his services were diverted 
to South Africa, for which Mission-field he embarked, after 
a short course of theological training, in the year 1840. 

The Kev. David Livingstone, M.D., landed at the Cape 
of Good Hope, after a voyage of three months from Eng- 
land, in his twenty-eighth year. He proceeded into the 
interior, via Algoa Bay, and arrived, after a journey of 
700 miles, at the Mission Station of Kuruman, which had 
been established thirty years before by Messrs. Hamilton 
and Moffat. 

After a nearly five years' residence at Kuruman, he be- 
came united in marriage to the daughter of Kobert 
Moffat from whom, in course of time, were born Robert 


Moffat Livingstone, Thomas Stecle Livii gstone, Agnes 
Livingstone, and W. Os well Livingstone. 

During his preparatory labours at the Kuruman 
Mission, which extended from 1840 to 1845, that spirit 
to explore which has since distinguished him, developed 
itself. In the year 1845 he proceeded to Chonuane, and 
thence to Kolobeng, where he established a mission 
house, cultivated a vegetable garden, and a farm, besides 
ministering to the spiritual necessities of the Bechuana 
population which surrounded Kolobeng. 

This post was the most advanced in the missionary 
field, and David Livingstone was the vanguard of the 
soldiers of the Cross, who were marching northward 
into the African interior to attack the stronghold of 

It was at Livingstone's house that enterprising travellers, 
lured to this far region by the report of multitudes of 
large game, while on their way to the game countries 
beyond, halted to refit. Here they stored their supplies, 
to this house they returned to rest from their sport ; 
and of the humble missionary's house, and the kindly 
hospitality they received, Gordon Gumming, Mr. Oswell, 
Mr. Webb of Newstead Abbey, Major Frank Vardon all 
great hunters speak and write in terms of enthusiastic 

Years roll by, the Christian congregations flourish 
under his careful supervision and constant labour, and he 
begins to move onward towards the North. He has 
heard of a lake situated beyond the desert of Kalahari : 
no white man has ever seen il3 shores; and seeking 

b 2 


a site whereon to build a new mission and sow the seed 
of the Gospel, he determines to go and search for it. 

The very name of a lake of fresh waters and numerous 
streams had a charm for him, dwelling as he was within 
a thirsty and dry region. Water was precious at Kolo- 
beng. The Bechuana believed that if they had but 
plenty of water, the neighbourhood of Kolobeng could not 
be excelled for the salubrity of its climate and fertility 
of its soil. The Kalahari desert was crossed by Living- 
stone, Oswell, and Murray, and the Lake Ngami was 
discovered by the three friends on the 1st of August, 1849. 

From this discovery Livingstone returned to Kolobeng, 
where he arrived on the 10th of October, having been 
absent on his first expedition of exploration four months 
and ten days. 

Lake Ngami lies between south latitudes 20 and 21, 
and near the 20 longitude. It is from fifty to seventy 
miles in length, and is 2,825 feet above sea level. For 
this discovery Livingstone was awarded half of the usual 
premium placed at the disposal of the Loyal Geographical 
Society by the Queen. 

In April, 1850, the second journey of exploration was 
undertaken by Livingstone, this time taking with him 
his wife and three children, Robert, Thomas, and Agnes. 
Taught by experience, derived from his first expedition, of 
the obstacles to be met, he selected a feasible route 
presenting but few difficulties as far as the Zouga Biver. 
Crossing the river, the family proceeded up the northern 
bank, with the intention of going to Linyanti, where 
ttabituane, chief of the Makololo tribe, resided. But he 


was unable to proceed beyond the Zouga, and be was re- 
luctantly compelled to forego bis intention. Livingstone's 
uprightness of character, however, soon won the heart of 
the warrior Lechulathebe, who at once tendered his 
friendship, and assistance for the furtherance of his 
labours, in proselytising the heathen under him. He 
was not able to avail himself of the offer for any length 
of time, as the lives of his wife and children were 
threatened by the terrible fever of the country, and 
he was compelled to return in consequence to Kolobeng. 

Early in 1857 he began his third journey, accompanied 
by his wife, children, and Mr. Oswell the hunter. On 
the arrival of the party at Linyanti, the great chief 
Sebituane warmly received them, offered to replace the 
cattle slain by the tsetse fly, and in other ways mani- 
fested the interest he felt in them. 

During Dr. Livingstone's residence with the Makololo, 
Sebituane died. His nominee to the chieftainship was a 
daughter, but she disclaimed the supreme authority 
in favour of a younger brother called Sekeletu, then aged 
nineteen, who was at once recognised by the Makololo, a? 
their chief. 

The chapters of * Missionary Travels,' relating to his 
life and labours among the Makololo, are among the most 
interesting which Livingstone ever wrote. 

Alarmed by the weak health of Mrs. Livingstone 
and of his children, he returned once more to Kolobeng, 
and finally concluded to escort his family to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and see them embark for England. 

From the Cape of Good Hope he started on his journey 


alone back to Linyanti, whence with the brave band of 
Mahololo, that Sekeletu the chief supplied him, he 
proceeded to St. Paul de Loanda on the West Coast 
of Africa, where he arrived at the house of a Mr. Gabrielle, 
sick almost to death. But his strong constitution 
triumphed over the disease, and after a few months' stay 
at Loanda, he returned to the interior to Linyanti. 
From Linyanti he proceeded eastward, during which 
travels he discovered the great Victoria Falls of the 
Zambezi, and finally emerged on the East Coast of Africa 
near Kilimane in 1856. 

From 1840 to 1856 are sixteen years of hard labour, as 
a missionary and traveller. In what a brief sentence can 
we sum up so much earnest, hearty work, so many 
fatigues from marches, privations consequent upon in- 
salubrious climates ; fevers, the result of rain and 
marshes; dangers which at all times surround the 
explorer in Africa ! 

Livingstone left Kilimane on the 12th of August, 1856, 
and proceeded to Mauritius, where he was most hospitably 
received by Major-General C. M. Hay, who constrained 
him to remain with him until through the influence of a 
healthier climate, and abundant comfort, he could be freed 
from an enlarged spleen, which resulted from the frequent 
attacks of fever he had suffered on his journeys. 

Arriving in England after such a long sojourn in 
Southern Central Africa, on December 12th, 1856, he 
was received with open arms by every man in Great 
Britain who was interested in Africa, or was an admirei 
of physical endurance and matchless perseverance. 


He closed his admirable book ' Missionary Travels in 
South Africa,' wherein he records his numerous adven- 
tures, the instruction he derived from his patient observa- 
tions, with words which reveal his character more fully 
than anything the present author could write, as 
follows : 

I have not mentioned half the favours bestowed, but I may just add 
that no one has cause for more abundant gratitude to his fellow-men, 
and to his Maker, than I have ; and may God grant that the effect on 
my mind be such that I may be more humbly devoted to the service of 
the Author of all our mercies ! 

The London 'Times' of the llth of December, 1856, 
contained the following interesting report of Dr. Living- 
stone's arrival in Europe : 

The Rev. Dr. Livingstone arrived at Marseilles from Tunis on the 
6th inst., and was then in good health. His left arm is, however, 
broken, and partly useless, it having been broken by a lion. When he 
was taken on board her Majesty's ship Frolic, on the Mozambique coast, 
he had great difficulty in speaking a sentence of English, having disused it 
so long while travelling in Africa. He had with him a native from the 
interior of Africa. This man, when he got to the Mauritius, was so 
excited with the steamers and various wonders of civilisation, that lie 
went mad, and jumped into the sea and was drowned. I >r. Livingstone 
has been absent from England seventeen years. He crossed the great 
African continent almost in the centre, from west to east ; lias been 
where no civilised being has ever been before, and h;is made many 
notable discoveries of great value. He travelled in the twofold character 
of missionary and physician, having obtained a medical diploma. He 
is rather a short man, with a pleasing and serious countenance, which 
betokens the most determined resolution. He continued to wear the 
cap which he wore while performing his wonderful travels. On board 
the Candia, in which he voynged from Alexandria to Tunis, he was re- 
markable for his modesty and unassuming manners. He never spoke of 
his travels, except in answer to questions. Trie injury to his arm was 
sustained in the desert while travelling with a friendly tribe of Africans. 
A. herd of lions broke into their camp at night, and carried of! aome oi 


their The natives, iu their alarm, believed that a auighlx uring 
tribe had bewitched them. Livingstone taunted them with suffering 
their losses through cowardice, and they then turned out to face and 
hunt down the enemy. The Doctor shot a lion, which dropped wounded. 
It afterwards sprang on him and caught him by the arm, and, after 
wounding two natives who drew it off him, it fell down dead. The 
wounded arm was not set properly, and Dr. Livingstone suffered ex- 
cruciating agony in consequence. 

The following sketch of the traveller as he appeared 
then is so good that I transcribe it from the pages of the 
* Nonconformist ' journal : 

A foreign-looking person, plainly and rather carclcssy dressed, of 
middle height, bony frame, and Gaelic countenance, with skort-cropped 
hair and mustachios, and generally plain exterior, rises to address the 
meeting. He appears to be about forty years of age. His face is 
deeply furrowed and pretty well tanned. It indicates a man of quick 
and keen discernment, strong impulses, inflexible resolution, and 
habitual self-command. Unanimatcd, its most characteristic expres- 
sion is that of severity ; when excited, a varied expression of earnest 
and benevolent feeling, and remarkable enjoyment of the ludicrous in 
circumstances and character passes over it. The meeting rises to wel- 
come him with deafening cheers. When he speaks, you think him at 
first to be a Frenchman ; but as he tells you a Scotch anecdote in true 
Glasgowwegian dialect, you make up your mind that he must be, as 
his face indicates, a countryman from the north. His command of hid 
mother-tongue being imperfect, he apologises for his broken, hesitating 
speech, by informing you that he has not spoken your language for 
nearly sixteen years; and then he tells you, as best a modest yet 
earnest man can, concerning his travels. In doing this he leaves out 
all about his personal sufferings, just remarking that he intends to 
save those anecdotes for his " garrulous dotage.*' Much of what he says 
he has already, of course, written in his journals, and of some circum- 
tances he has before told at other places ; but he is one from whom you 
could hear the same thing more than three times. His narrative is not 
very connected, and his manner is awkward, excepting once, when he 
justifies his enthusiasm, and once when he graphically describes the 
Mosiatunya the great cataract of Central Africa. lie ends a speech 
of natural eloquence and wify simplicity by saying that he has bey;uo 


hit* work, MR! will carry it on. HvS broken thanks arc drowned by the 

ippiause of the audience. 

The * Daily News ' of a later date sums up a glowing 
eulogy on Livingstone's character as follows :- 

Dr. Livingstone is one of the few men whose words are realities. 
There is a quiet, curt energy about his statements which irresistibly 
impresses the hearer with a conviction that he has done what he says, 
and that he will do it again when occasion offers. There is a trans- 
parency in the simplicity of his diction which lets us see the workings 
of his mind, as if by some process of intuition. . . . There is true 
sublimity in Dr. Livingstone's allusion to the immediate resumption of 
the arduous task which he has been prosecuting for sixteen years, and 
is about to return to after an interval of only a few months. " He saw 
it to be his duty to go, and he was determined to do his duty, whatever 
others might say about the matter.". . . It was impossible to look 
round upon those assemblies without feeling a thrill of exultation at the 
thought that, literally, the whole earth is full of our labours that there 
is no region in which our industrial enterprise, our skill in arms, our 
benevolent eagerness to diffuse the blessings of civilisation and pure and 
true religion, have not been displayed. 

The * Leader ' also in a similar enthusiastic strain con- 
cludes thus : 

For seventeen years, smitten by more than thirty attacks of fever, 
endangered by seven attempts upon his life, continually exposed to 
fatigue, hunger, and the chance of perishing miserably in a wilderness 
shut out from the knowledge of civilised men, the missionary pursued 
his way, an apostle and a pioneer, without fear, without egotism, with- 
out desire of reward. Such a work, accomplished by such a man, de- 
serves all the eulogy that can be bestowed upon it, for nothing is more 
rare than brilliant and unsullied success. 

On December 15th, 1856, the Koyal Geographical So- 
ciety, then under the able and graceful presidentship 
of Sir Roderick Murchison, testified their regard and 
admiration for the perseverance with which he had accom- 

XVI 11 MEMOtfc OlT 

plished the extraordinary series of geographical explora- 
tions, with the presentation of the Patron's Gold Medal. 

On the 5th o. January, 1857, at an enthusiastic meet- 
ing at the Mansion House of London, a "Livingstone 
Testimonial Fund " was begun, and before the meeting 
had terminated, the sum of 450 was subscribed. This 
purse was subsequently increased, until it reached the 
sum of one thousand guineas. Scotsmen, proud of their 
countryman, formed another fund, and in Glasgow and 
Edinburgh another purse of one thousand guineas was 
raised. But to repeat all the encomiums lavished on the 
great traveller subsequent to his return, or to enumerate 
the many friendships he formed with the most loving and 
generous, the noblest and best of his countrymen, would 
be to extend this memoir beyond proper limits. 

After a rest of nearly two years in England, he under- 
took a governmental expedition in 1858, to explore the 
Zambezi, to extend his previous explorations into the 
interior, with the view of pioneering the advent of 
commerce into that part of Africa whence he had 
returned in 1856. He was at this period in his forty- 
sixth year. He was accompanied on this expedition 
by his brother Charles Livingstone (since H.B.M. Consul 
at Fernando Po, who died in the latter part of October, 
1873, while on his way to England, of yellow fever). 
Dr. John Kirk was the botanist of this expedition, Mr. 
Francis Skead, R.N., was the surveyor, and Mr. Kichard 
Thornton was the geologist. 

This expedition, the account of which is given in 
Livingstone's book, ' The Zambezi and its Tributaries,' 

Mfcatolii of LIVINGSTONE. xix 

iastol five years. In the fourth year of his second period 
of exploration, Mrs. Livingstone, who had followed her 
husband, died, and was buried on the bank of the Zambezi, 
at a place called Shupanga. 

Of this brave lady and faithful wife Charles Living- 
stone writes : 

Those who are not aware how this brave, good, English wife made 
a delightful home at Kolobeng, a thousand miles inland from the Cape, 
and as the daughter of Moflat, and a Christian lady exercised most 
beneficial influence over the rude tribes of the interior, may wonder 
that she should have braved the dangers and toils of this down-trodden 
land. She knew them all, and in the disinterested and dutiful attempt 
to renew her labours, was called to her rest instead. Fiat, Domine, 
voluntas tua. 

After journeying through Southern Africa in company 
with her illustrious husband over upwards of five thousand 
miles, the remains of this heroic lady lie in serene solitude 
by the waters of the Zambezi. Around the grave are 
palm forests and luxuriant tropical vegetation, with the 
colossal crown of Morambala towering amid clouds and 
blue ether, as it stands the guardian mount, over those 
melancholy shades. 

This East African or Zambezi Expedition was not so 
fruitful in discoveries as the journey Livingstone made 
while travelling alone. But there were many most 
important results obtained by it. A port was discovered 
which might easily be made available for commerce, when 
it would direct itself to the Zambezi region. The noble 
River Zambezi was proved to be navigable for light 
draught river steamers, as far as the Kebrabassa Kapids. 
The River Shire was explored and Lakes Shirwa 


Nyassa wer3 discovered. The Shire is capable of floating 
paddle-wheeled steamers, drawing three feet of water 
at all seasons, and Nyassa Lake, whence the Shire flows, 
is a capacious inland sea with many hundred miles of 

Livingstone's experiences on this journey are recorded 
in his book, published by John Murray, of Albemarle 
Street, London. It is replete with facts, gathered aftei 
patient investigation with African history and geography 
and much scientific instruction, and is an in val Liable guide, 
for that region bordering on the Mozambique. 

In 18G3, a despatch was received by Dr. Livingstone 
from the Home Government, recalling the Expedition, 
and accordingly the great explorer started down the 
Zambezi for home. 

Upon arriving at the mouth of the Zambezi, Living- 
stone sailed in the Lady Nyassa for Zanzibar; thence 
he left for Bombay on the 16th of April, 1864, navigating 
the vessel himself. This was no small feat, of crossing 
2,500 miles of ocean in a small steamer, for an African 
explorer ! The vessel was so small that no one noticed 
his arrival in the harbour, and it was not known that he 
had arrived until the next day, when he went to ask the 
harbour-master where his little steamer should lie in port. 

It remains for the author of this memoir, as the latest 
friend of Livingstone, to whom were told certain facts by 
the traveller himself, when subsequently we met in 
Central Africa, to disabuse the impression, which I know 
to exist with many men that Livingstone was rich. 

The money which the explorer made on the sale of his 



first book, ' Missionary Travels/ was sufficient to sustain 
him for life with a modest competence, had it been v. isely 
put out at good interest ; but the instincts and spirit of 
the explorer prevailed against more worldly wisdom. 
When he departed on his second period of exploration, 
under the auspices and in the pay of Government it is 
true that the Government equipped a steam launch which 
Livingstone called the Ma Robert a Makololo term for 
Mrs. Livingstone and subsequently despatched another 
steamer, called the Pioneer, to him. But the Ma Robert 
was so defective in her construction, that after a very 
brief period of negative usefulness, she sank in the Shire 
river, and the Pioneer drew too much water for active 
work. The waters of the Kovuma and the Shire were 
too shallow for such a vessel as the Pioneer, and accord- 
ingly Livingstone, who had the success of the expedition 
nearer to his heart than his own pecuniary interests, 
ordered the construction of the Lady Nyassa, which cost 
him, personally, the sum of 6,000. Before she was able 
to prove of much service to him, the expedition was 
recalled. The Lady Nyassa, on arriving at Bombay, was 
sold for what she would fetch, which was only 2,000. 
The entire proceeds of the sale of his steamer were 
deposited in a banker's hands for safe keeping, but within 
a short time afterwards the banker became a bankrupt ! 
Reflective readers may see much in the above to account 
for the peculiar spirit with which he was accrectited in 
England at that period. 

The sum Livingstone derived from tht, jale of 'The 
Zambezi and its Tributaries' the fruits of five years' 


labour, did not approach to one-half the sum of 6,000, 
expended in the purchase of the Lady Nyassa. 

On the 20th of July, 1864, he reached London, and 
again he was received with enthusiasm in his native 
country. Societies, deputations, and cities tendered the 
traveller the honours he deserved for his indomitable 
labours in the cause of geographical science. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Webb, of Newstead Abbey, prevailed 
upon him to accept their hospitalities. The Doctor had 
become acquainted with Mr. Webb in 1862, while the 
latter pursued with youthful ardour and a hunter's intincts 
the large game inhabiting South Central Africa. Both 
men from that period, mutually respecting each other's 
good qualities and virtues, became warm friends, and the 
friendship began in 1852 among the Bakwains of Africa, 
lasted until Livingstone's death in 1873. 

The Doctor always remembered his friends ; he never 
ceased to speak of those who befriended him when he 
returned to England from his long explorations, and 
among the manifold kindnesses and attentions he received 
none made a greater impression on his memory than 
those which he received from the master and mistress of 
Newstead Abbey. 

From the month of August, 1864, to April, 1865, 
Livingstone resided at Newstead. It was here he wrote 
the second record of his travels, since which time the 
room he occupied has gone under the name of " Living- 
stone's room." The outlook from it is that of a soft 
velvety lawn, where the young laughing grass ever wears 
its spring-time colouring, of a silvery lake, whose tiL 


wavelets sing eternal music to the whispering breeze; of 
expanses of pasture land, invested by most lovely 
groupings of trees and groves. Often he must have 
thought as he gazed upon the scene, wearied with the 
strange toil of literary composition, what a wide contrast 
existed between that happy and healthy English paradise 
and the primeval solitudes and fatal atmosphere of 
Central Africa. 

That room, which saw the good man's labours as he 
penned the sad litany of woes which the children of Africa 
suffer under, will have an attraction for many generations 
yet unborn. 

In his Preface to his second work, Dr. Livingstone 
hints at undertaking a third Expedition. He says : 

The Government have supported the proposal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, made by my friend Sir Roderick Murchison, and 
have united with that body to aid me in another attempt to open 
Africa to civilising influences, and a valued private friend has given a 
thousand pounds for the same object. 

I propose to go inland north of the territory which the Portuguese 
in Euro|>e claim, and endeavour to commence that system on the East 
which has been so eminently successful on the West Coast, a system 
cornbiniug the repressive efforts of H.M. cruisers with lawful trade and 
Christian missions, the moral and material results of which have been 
so gratifying. 

I hope to ascend the Rovuma or some other river north of Cape 
Delgado, and in addition to my other work shall strive, by passing along 
the northern end of Lake Nyassa, and round the southern end of Lake 
Tanganika, to ascertain the watershed of that part of Africa. In so 
doing, I have no wish to unsettle what, with so much toil and danger, 
was accomplished by Speke and Grant, but rather to confirm then 
illustrious discoveries. 

The above is what Livingstone has written, but with 
hifl own lips he supplied to me, among many other things 


the details of how it came about that when noarly fifty 
three years old, he should undertake a third Expedition 
to Central Africa, which was to eclipse everything he had 
accomplished before. 

" One morning,'' said Livingstone, " Sir Eoderick Mur- 
chison visited me while I was stopping a day or two in 
London and said to me, as well as I can remember, ' My 
lear Livingstone, your disclosures respecting the interior 
of Africa have created a profound excitement in the 
geographical world. We (the Society) are of opinion 
that we ought to send another Expedition into the heart 
of Africa to resolve the problem of the watershed between 
the Nyassa and the Tanganika Lakes ; for when that is 
settled, all questions about Central Africa will be de- 
finitely resolved. Whom could you recommend to take 
charge of it as a proper man ?' " 

Livingstone, after reflecting a short time, gave him the 

name of . Sir Roderick, when he heard of the name, 

was delighted ; he had also thought that should Living- 
stone himself refuse to go, no better man could be ob- 
tained. The President of the Royal Geographical Society 
departed to sound the gentleman whom his friend Living- 
stone had recommended so strongly. When questioned 
as to his willingness to undertake the command of this 
new Expedition, this gentleman at once politely refused 
upon the grounds that unless he could be guaranteed a 
sufficient rumuneration for his services, he could not 
think, at his time of life, to undertake anything of the 
sort unless it was remunerated. 

Regarding this gentleman's answer to Sir 


proposition from a practical point of view, all sane men 
will at once recognise the wisdom which guided him in 
his reply, as it is scarcely fair to expect a man of advanced 
years to undertake a mission of this nature without ample 
compensation for exchanging the conveniences of civilized 
life for the dangers and privations that constantly menace 
and surround an explorer in Central Africa. 

Sir Koderick then said that the society could not 
guarantee any pecuniary reward, but he could promise 
that on his return to England from his exploration he 
would find himself not neglected. The gentleman, how- 
ever, declined to proceed to Africa on the strength of a 
verbal promise of a reward. 

In sore distress of mind at this refusal, the enthusiastic 
geographer returned to Livingstone, and after imparting 
to the sympathising explorer the negative results of his 
mission, said to Livingstone : 

"Why cannot you go? Come, let me persuade you; 
I am sure you will not refuse an old friend." 

The result of Sir Roderick's appeal was, that Living- 
stone consented to go as soon as possible after the pub- 
lication of his book on the Zambezi. He had, however, 
thought that he could have enjoyed a long holiday before 
departing on another long journey. " Indeed," said he, 
"I had flattered myself that I had much prospective 
comfort in store for me in my old days. And pecuniary 
matters required looking after for the sake of my family ; 
but since you ask me in that way, I cannot refuse you." 

Sir Roderick Murchison replied, out of sincere friend- 
ship and admiration, 


" Never mind about pecuniary matters, my dear 
Livingstone. It shall be my task to look after that ; you 
may rest assured your interests shall not be forgotten."* 

These little incidents do more than anything else 
towards revealing the true character of the simple- 
hearted David Livingstone. They will show how ready 
he was to sacrifice for it has been a sacrifice indeed 
himself upon the altar of friendship, and before the 
?hrine of science. They will also show what induce- 
ments were held forth to make him commit himself at the 
age of fifty-three an age when most men begin to think 
they have done enough for fame, science, or friendship 
to this last lengthened period of exploration, which, alas ! 
kas ended so unhappily. 

Another instance of his self-abnegation I can relate. 

Mr. Hayward, the Queen's Counsel, was sent to him by 
the then Prime Minister, Earl Kussell, to ask what he 
would like the Government to do for him if he had any 
particular views as regarded himself. This referred, of 
course, as to what honour he coveted for himself ; so that 
the Government of England might bestow it on him, to 
show how his services were appreciated. But Living- 
stone, ever unmindful of himself, said, " If you stop the 
Portuguese slave trade, you will gratify me beyond 
measure." Mr. Hayward asked again if anything could 
be done for himself. "No, he could not think of any- 

* In his last letter to Sir Roderick Murchison, which I had the 
honour to convey to England, Livingstone reminded Sir Koderick of 
his promise, but Sir Roderick was dead, and all his estates and properly 
had been bequeathed to his nephew Sir Kenneth. 


thing ;" and it was not until Mr. Hayward had departed, 
that he began to reflect on the very pointed manner the 
lawyer had spoken to him, and to think he had lost the 
opportunity to provide for his children, and to give them 
a proper education. 

The money necessary for this Expedition was subscribed 

by Mr. J Y , who, for the sake of his friend of 

college days, generously furnished him with 1,000. The 
Government also gave 500, while the Eoyal Geographi- 
cal Society subscribed 500. Besides the generous sum 
which he placed at Doctor Livingstone's disposal, as he 

was about to set out on his Expedition, Mr. J Y 

promised that whenever he lacked funds, he, Mr. Y , 

would supply him to any amount, and almost commanded 
him not to refuse himself anything he wanted, but tc 
draw at once on him. Mr. Y - has amply fulfilled his 
promise ; and during the great traveller's absence has 
supplied the father to his family. For all his kindness 
to himself and children, Livingstone's last words about 
Mr. Y were " May God in his infinite goodness re- 
ward him !" Amen ! 

Dr. Livingstone left England to set out on his last Ex- 
pedition on the 14th of August, 1865, accompanied by his 
daughter Agnes as far as Paris. From Paris he went to 
Bombay, and there commenced his preparations. Thence 
he proceeded to Zanzibar, accompanied by two boys he had 
picked up in the Shire country Chumah and Wekotani 
as well as by a number of men from the Johanna Islands 
(one of the Comoro Isles), a Sepoy Havildar, a few 
eu listed Sepoys and some Wasawahili. 

o 2 


On the 28th of March, 1866, the great explorer and hia 
motley followers crossed over to the mainland, from the 
island of Zanzibar, and ac once started for the interior by 
way of the Eiver Kovuma. As he journeyed on, letters 
came from him occasionally, informing the delighted 
public of his progress, and of the extremely interesting 
incidents which one would naturally suppose would 
characterise his march to the interior. But in December 
of the same year the leader of the Johanna men who had 
accompanied the Doctor arrived at Zanzibar with a tale 
which saddened all who heard it that Dr. Livingstone, 
the great African traveller, had been murdered on the 
shores of Lake Nyassa, by a band of the Ma-zitus. The 
tale bore such an appearance of truth about it that very 
few people indeed had the slightest idea of doubting it. 

As it may be interesting to know what Musa's tale was, 
the following account from the ' Times of India ' will not 
be out of place, if published here : 

The hopes raised by the news of the rumoured safety of Dr. Living- 
stone have speedily been dispelled, and there can no longer be any 
doubt that he was killed by a savage of the Mafite tribe. The nar- 
rative of the Sepoy belonging to the Marine Battalion (21st Native 
Infantry) who formed one of the Doctor's escort, and who arrived 
from Zanzibar in the Gazelle on the 14th of May, turns out to be 
altogether inaccurate; and, substantially, the tale told by Musa is 
proved correct. 

The Nadir Shah, a vessel of war belonging to the Sultan of Zanzibar, 
at present used as a trader, reached Bombay on the 15tb ~>f May in 
cargo ; and from information we obtained on board we ar^ enabled to 
give a more detailed account of the circumstances in connection with 
the melancholy story of the Doctor's fate than has yet been published. 
The Nadir Shah left Zarzibar on the forenoon of the 28th of March, 
%0 tl at the news she brings is nearly a month later than that brought 


by the Gizdk, and three di.ys later than the last despatch received 
from Zanzibar by the Bombay Government. 

Dr. Livingstone took his departure from Zanzibar in March, 1866, 
and was conveyed by her Majesty's ship Penguin to Mikindany, near 
the mouth of the Eovuma River. The expedition consisted of Dr. Living- 
stone and thirty-five men, ten of whom were natives of Johanna, one 
of the Comoro Islands, thirteen Africans, and twelve Sepoys of the 
Bombay Marine Battalion. It was thought by Dr. Livingstone that 
these Africans would be of service to him on his journey into the 
interior. The Africans were formerly slaves, who had been liberated 
and educated in the Bombay Presidency. There was no other European 
in the party except the Doctor himself. The beasts taken were six 
camels, four buffaloes from Bombay, five asses, and two mules, and 
among the baggage there were forage, gunpowder, &c. The Penguin 
started from Zanzibar on the 19th of March, 1866, and the men in the 
Doctor's train and the beasts were taken from Zanzibar in a large dhow, 
which was towed by the Penguin. In three days the Penguin arrived off 
the Eovuma River, but, owing to the strong current, the dhow could not 
be got into the mouth of the stream. The expedition then made for 
Mikindany Bay, about thirty miles northward of Cape Delgoa, where 
Dr. Livingstone and his party were successfully landed on the 28th of 

The Johanna men, who had been engaged for the Doctor's service by 
Mr. Sundley, the English consul at Johanna, were considered preferable 
for the service to Zanzibar men. On the march into the interior the 
Sepoys seem to have suffered much, and Dr. Livingstone thought it 
necessary to leave them on the route to enable them to return to 
Zanzibar. In returning they had but little to eat, and ran great risk of 
starving. One by one all the Sepoys fell ill, and the sickness that 
attacked the havildar was fatal, as he died of dysentery. None of the 
twelve Sepoys who started with the Doctor reached Nyassa, and those 
who survived returned to Zanzibar in August or September. In 
October last the Johanna men made their appearance in Zanzibar, and 
presented themselves before Dr. Seward, the British Consul, when for 
the first time the intelligence was received of the disaster which had 
befallen Dr. Livingstone. From the accounts of these Johanna men it 
would seem that the expedition reached Lake Nyassa in safety and 
crossed th? Lake. They pushed on westward, and in the course of 
some time reached Goomani, a fishing village on a river. This would 
to have been on the second or third week cf August laut. The 


people of Goomani warned Dr. Livingstone that the Mifites, a wander- 
ing predatory tribe, were out on a plundering expedition, and that it 
would not be safe to continue the journey. But the dangers thus 
presented to view were not sufficient to deter a man who had braved so 
many before ; and, treating the warnings as but of slight moment, he 
crossed the river in canoes the next morning, with his baggage and 
train of followers, in safety. Previously to this time the whole of the 
baggage animals had perished on the journey from the want of water; 
and on reaching the further side of the river the baggage had to be 
carried by the Doctor's men. Being a fast walker, Dr. Livingstone 
kept some distance in advance of the baggage-encumbered men ; and 
Mnsa only, or Musa and a few others of the party, kept up with 
him. The march had continued some distance, when Dr. Livingstone 
saw three armed men ahead, and thereupon he called out to Musa, 
" The Mantes are out, after all," or some such words as those, and these 
seem to have been the last he uttered. The three Mafites were armed 
with bows and arrows and other weapons, and they immediately com- 
menced hostilities. Evidently the men must have closed on the Doctor, 
when, finding matters desperate, he drew his revolver and shot two of 
his assailants; but while thus disposing of the two, the third managed 
to get behind Dr. Livingstone, and with one blow from an axe clove in 
his head. The wound was mortal, but the assassin quickly met his 
own doom, for a bullet from Musa's musket passed through his body, 
and the murderer fell dead beside his victim. Musa states that the 
Doctor died instantly, and that, finding the Mafites were out, he ran 
back to the baggage party, and told them that their master had been 
killed. The baggage was hastily abandoned, and the Johanna men, 
Musa, and the rest of the party sought safety by a hasty flight, which, 
according to Musa's story, they continued until sunset, when they 
reached a secure hiding-place hi the jungle. They held a consultation, 
and it is alleged that Musa prevailed on them to go back to look after 
the body of their late master, and that on regaining the place where the 
murder had been perpetrated they found Dr. Livingstone's body lying 
there. The Doctor's watch had been carried away, together with his 
clothes, the only article that remained on the body being the trousers, 
Musa and the men who had accompanied him " scratched " a hole in 
the ground just deep enough to bury the body in, and there left, in a 
far remote and unknown spot, the remains of the self-denying .aid noble 
man who, all too soon for his country and for the cause of civilization, 
but not too soon for him to have earned an enduring fame, fturid his 


end at the hand of an ignoble savage. The corpses of the throe Mafites 
were lying on the spot where they had fallen ; but no attention was 
paid to them by Musa, who, on searching, could find no memento of 
his late master to bring with him to Zanzibar. In making their way 
to the coast great hardships were experienced by Musa and the other 
survivors of the party, who were in such a starving condition that they 
had to live upon the berries they could gather by the way, until they 
fell in with an Arab caravan, which entertained them kindly. They 
were thus enabled to reach Kilwa, in the territory of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar. They were here provided with clothes and necessaries, and 
sent on to Zanzibar, at which place they reported all the circumstances 
to Dr. Seward,. by whom they were closely examined. Dr. Kirk, of 
Zanzibar, also questioned them carefully, and found that their state- 
ment of the country through which they alleged they had passed, 
correctly answered to the leading features of the wilds through which 
Dr. Livingstone had intended to track his way. 

The Johanna men were taken to Johanna, and carefully interrogated 
by the Sultan, as well as by Mr. Sundley, and their answers tallied 
with Musa's narrative. The Johanna men asked Mr. Sundley to pay 
them the nine months' wages due to them for then* services with the 
expedition, and, as they were entitled to what they demanded, the 
money was paid to them. Some of the men who went away with the 
expedition, and who were not accounted for as having died, were still 

On the 26th of December Dr. Seward left Zanzibar in Her Majesty's 
ship Wasp, and proceeded to Kilwa, but he was unable to obtain 
any fresh information, or to gather additional details. 

Her Majesty's Consul at Zanzibar, Dr. G. E. be ward, 
a sincere friend of the traveller, who was thus reputed to 
be lost, communicated to the Foreign Office the in- 
formation which he received as follows : 

Zanzibar, December 10th, 1866. 

I send you the saddest news. Dr. Livingstone in his despatch 
from Ngomano, informed your Lordship that lie stood "on the threshold 
of the unexplored." Yet, as it that which should betide him had 
already thrown its shadow, he added : " I have but little to say of the 


My Lori, if the report of some fugitives from his party be true, this 
brave and good man has " crossed the threshold of the unexplored" he 
has confronted the future and will never return. He was slain, so it is 
alleged, during a sudden and unprovoked encounter with those very 
Zulus of whom he says, in his despatch, that they had laid waste the 
country round about him, and had " swept away the food from above 
and in the ground." With an escort reduced to twenty, by desertion, 
death, and dismissals, he had traversed, as I believe, that terra incognita 
between the confluence of the Loende and Rovuma Rivers, at Ngomano, 
and the eastern or north-eastern littoral of Lake Nyassa ; had crossed 
the lake at some point as yet unascertained; had reached a station 
named Kompoonda or Mapoonda, on its western (probably its north- 
western) shore, and was pushing west or north-west, into dangerous 
ground, when between Marenga and Mukliosowa a band of implacable 
savages stopped the way, a mixed horde of Zulus, or Mafite and Nyassa 
folk. The Nyassa folk were armed with bow and arrow, the Zulus 
with the traditional shield, broad-bladed spears, and axes. With 
Livingstone there were nine or ten muskets ; his Johanna men were 
resting with their loads far in the rear* 

The Mafite instantly came on to fight ; there was no parley, no 
avoidance of the combat ; they came on with a rush, with war cries and 
rattling on their shields their spears. As Livingstone and his party 
raised their pieces, their onset was for a moment checked, but only for 
a moment. Livingstone fired, and two Zulus were shot dead (his boys 
fired too, but their fire was harmless) ; he was in the act of reloading 
when three Mafite leaped upon him through the smoke. There was no 
resistance there could be none and one cruel axe-cut from behind 
him put him out of life. He fell, and when he fell, his terror-stricken 
escort fled, hunted by the Mafite. One, at least, of the fugitives 
escaped ; and he, the eye-witness, it is who tells the tale Ali Musa, 
chief of his escort of porters. 

The party had left the western shores of Nyassa about five days. 
They had started from Kompoonda, on the lake's borders (they left 
the Havildar of Sepoys there dying of dysentery ; Livingstone had 
dismissed the other Sepoys of the Bombay 21st, at Mataka), and 
iiad rested at Marenga, where Livingstone was caut'oned not to 
advance. The next station was Mahlivoora ; they were traversing 
a flat country, broken by small hills, and abundantly wooded. 

Indeed, the scene of the tragedy so soon to be consummated, would 
appear to have been an open forest glade. Livingstone, as usual, led 


the way, his nine or ten unpractised musketeers at his heels. All 
Musa had nearly come up with them, having left his own Johanna 
men resting with their loads far in the rear. Suddenly he heard 
Livingstone warn the boys that the Me-zitus were coming. The boys 
in turn beckoned Musa to press forward. Musa saw the crowd here 
and there between the trees. 

He had just gained the party and sunk down behind a tree to 
deliver his own fire, when his leader fell. Musa fled for his life along 
the path he had come. Meeting his Johanna men, who threw down 
their loads, and in a body really passed Musa, his escape, and that of 
his party verges on the marvellous. However, at sunset, they, in great 
fear, left their forest refuge, and got back to the place where they 
hoped to find their baggage. It was gone, and then, with increasing 
dread, they crept to where the slain traveller lay. 

Near him, in front, lay the grim Zulus who were killed under 
his sure aim ; here and there lay scattered some four dead fugitives of 
the expedition. That one blow had killed him outright, he had 
no other wound but this terrible gash ; it must have gone from their 
description through the neck and spine up to the throat in front, and 
it had nearly decapitated him. Death came mercifully in its instant 
suddenness, for David Livingstone was ever ready. 

They found him stripped of his upper clothing, the Ma-zitus had 
respected him when dead. They dug, with some stakes, a shallow 
grave, and hid from the starlight, the stricken temple of a grand spirit 
the body of an apostle, whose martyrdom should make sacred the 
shores of that sea which his labours made known to us, and which now, 
baptized with his life's blood, men should henceforth know as * Lake 

The Johanna men made the most of their way back to Kompoonda 
or Mapoonda, not venturing near any village or station. They lost 
themselves in the jungle, and were fourteen days on their way. At 
Kompoonda they witnessed the end of the Havildar of Sepoys, Bombay 
21st Native Infantry. He alone of all the Indians was faithful ; on the 
threshold of this Consulate at Zanzibar, he pledged himserf at the 
moment of starting never to forsake his leader nor did he ; to the last 
he struggled on, worn with dysentery, but broke down hopelessiy 
on the road to Marenga. A cay or two Icter and he would have shared 
his leader's fate. 

Insubordinate, lazy, impracticable, and useless, Livingstone had 
dismissed the other Sepoys at Mataka. Had they been faithful like 


their Havildar, I should not have had to inscribe a record of this sad 
happening. Their unfitness for African travel might have been 
predicated. At Kompconda the Johanna men were deprived of theii 
weapons by the Chief, who also kept the Ilavildar's. Here they joined 
an Arab slave-caravan, re-crossed the Nyassa, and made foi Kilwa, the 
great slave outlet on the Zanzibar coast. 

But here again, and where least expected, they encountered the 
Mafite. They had reached Keepareygree, eight days south-west of 
Kilwa, when the appearance of a band of these savages scattered the 
caravan. Abandoning ivory, slaves their all the Arab leaders 
thought but of saving their lives. The Johanna men again made their 
escape, and reached Kilwa, whence by the kindness of the Customs 
people they were at once sent on to Zanzibar. They arrived here on 
the 6th of December. 

It will be gratifying to the many and true friends of Dr. Livingstone 
to learn that when, on his sad end being known, the British flag was 
lowered at this Consulate, the French, the American, and Hanseatic 
flags were at once flown half-mast high, the Consuls paying a 
spontaneous tribute to his memory an example shortly followed by 
all the foreign vessels in the harbour. The Sultan's flag was also 

I must reserve other details for a subsequent letter ; but I may 
state that no papers, effects, or relics of Livingstone are likely to 
be recovered. 


At first this sad intelligence was believed throughout 
Europe and America, but the keen strong sense of Sir 
Koderick Murchison discovered flaws in the ingenious 
fabrication of Musa, and by his resolute denial, and 
utter disbelief, which he lost no time to make public 
through the * Times,' he made many converts to his 
view of Musa's story. Doubt grew fast in many 
minds, and doubt finally became conviction. But to 
establish conviction in the popular mind, Sir Roderick 
and the Society induced the Government to despatch a 
boat expedition to the Zambezi, whence an ascent to the 


Shire and Lake Nyassa, to near the spot where the 
traveller was reported to be killed, was easy. 

Volunteers were called for, and hundreds of resolute 
men offered their services at once to command the Ex- 
pedition, out of whom were selected Mr. Edward Daniel 
Young, a warrant officer in Her Majesty's Navy, and 
Lieutenant Henry Faulkner of the 17th Lancers. 

Mr. Young on taking command of the Search Expedi- 
tion, requested that a steel boat should be given him, so 
constructed as to be disconnected into portable sections, 
whereby the difficulty of passing the Murchison Falls of 
the Shire might be surmounted by postage overland. 
This first Expedition left England on the llth of June, 
1867, to prosecute the search for Livingstone. In the 
following letter, Mr. Young reports how he succeeded in 
his enterprise. 

To Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., &c. 

I have the honour to lay before you a brief outline of the pro- 
ceedings of the Expedition under my command, sent out to Africa by 
the Royal Geographical Society, for the purpose of ascertaining the 
truth or falsehood of the reported death of Dr. Livingstone. 1 am 
happy to inform you that our efforts have been crowned with success, 
and I have satisfactory evidence that Dr. Livingstone was not murdered 
by the Mazitu, nor by any other tribe, at the place named by the 
Johanna men, but had gone on in safety far beyond. I have also 
satisfactory evidence that the Johanna men deserted shortly alter 
leaving Marenga, returning by the same route as they had gone. 

But I must first begin the narrative from the time of our landing at 
the mouth of the Zambesi. Immediately on landing I succeeded in 
getting a negro crew to take the boats up as far as Shupanga, where I 
arrived on the 2nd of August-. I at once engaged a fresh crew to go on 
to Chibisa, and the next day started for Senna. Arrived there on the 
Oth; fouiul the Portuguese authorities very obliging; made what 


arrangements were thought necessary, and proceeded on the next day. 
I learned from the Portuguese that the Mazitu were in full force or the 
Shire, and were threatening Chibisa, so I arranged with the authorities 
at Seima to send on to me at Chibisa (should I require them) 100 men, 
fearing as the Mizitu were there, I should not be able to get the 
Makololo to accompany me. 

We arrived at Chibisa on the 17th, and found that the reports about 
the Mazitu having been there were quite true, and that they had been 
down in force to the left bank, robbing and burning the houses, 
murdering some of the people they caught, and taking others prisoners. 
The Makololo put off in canoes from the opposite bank and shut three 
Df them. Of course I was quite unprepared to meet the Mazitu in this 
part of the country. 

The Makololo, as well as the people who were of the old mission 
party, received us gladly. I requested the Makololo to attend the next 
morning, which they did, when I acquainted them with the object of 
my mission. They agreed to accompany me on certain conditions, 
which I agreed to. One was that I should leave some ammunition 
behind with those that remained, so that should the Mazitu attempt to 
cross the river below the Cataracts they would be well able to encounter 
them. After arrangements had been completed, we started on the 19th 
for the Cataracts ; arrived the same day, and at once began taking the 
boat to pieces. Hitherto all had gone on well, but no sooner had we 
got the boat to pieces, and everything was ready for the journey over- 
land, than fresh reports about the Mazitu reached the Makololo, which 
very much daunted them, and had also a tendency to lower our spirits, 
for without their help we could do nothing, as it was not only their 
help that we required, but also that of their people, they being tho 
chiefs of the country round about. After a good deal of persuasion the 
whole affair was settled to our satisfaction, and on the evening of the 
23rd the Makololo appeared in force with about 150 men. 

We started next morning with the boat, provisions, luggage, &c., 
making in all 180 loads. The men worked well, and we arrived with 
everything in good order at Pomfunda, above the Cataracts, in four and 
a half days. The heat during the journey was excessive, even for 
Africa. We at once commenced rebuilding the boat, and everything 
appeared to be going on well when fresh reports reached us about the 
Mazitu. We were visited by some of the Ajawa chiefs who had been 
driven out of their own country, and were obliged to cross the river to 
save themselves from being murdered. There was an encampment, 


close by the place where we were building the boat, of ibout 200 
Ajawas, the sole survivors of the once powerful people under the chief 

Every day fresh reports reached us, and the Makololo wanted to 
ueturn home, which of course I could not consent to. At this place we 
first heard from a native of a white man having passed through 
Maponda at the south end of Lake Nyassa. He stated that he had 
seen him, and gave a description of his dress, &c. 

Launched the boat on the 30th, and started up the river next 
morning. The Makololo not working well, and making every ex- 
cuse, not being well, &c., thinking perhaps we would turn back. 
They stated that the risk was too great, that there was little chance 
of our ever returning, but as they had gone so far they would go on 
and die with us ; of course all was agreed to. As we proceeded on we 
found vast numbers of Ajawas and Machinkas on the left bank, living 
in temporary huts, who had retreated before the overwhelming numbers 
of Mazitu. Beached the small lake Pamalombe on the evening of the 
6th of September. 

During our passage up the river heard several reports that a white 
man a twelvemonth before had stopped at Maponda for some time, 
having crossed from the opposite side, and that after resting there some 
time he had gone on in a westerly direction. I now felt almost con- 
vinced that it must have been Livingstone, but I almost feared to stop 
there, for I felt certain had the Makololo been satisfied that it was him 
they would have gone no further ; for my agreement with them was, 
that as soon as we had satisfactory evidence that the Doctor had gone 
on in safety, or that he had been killed in the way described by the 
Johanna men, 1 would return with them immediately. But now, as it 
appeared that he had passed over the south end of Nyassa instead of 
the north, I wanted to find out where he had first struck the lake. 
The Makololo stated that they were certain that if a white man had 
been killed, or had died within a month's journey of where we were, we 
should certainly have heard of it before we got thus far. 

The next morning crossed the Pamalombe, but could not find a 
passage in to Maporida, owing to the quantity of rushes and grass, and 
it blowing very hard at the time we made for the river. Here again wa 
met great numbers of natives, who appeared very hostile. They lired 
the banks with their guns, ana demanded that we should come into 
them. The Makololo appeared ?ery much afraid, so I laid the boat 
to, to await the approach of two armed canoes that had shoved off from 


the shore. I soon made matters right with them, and shortly after- 
wards entered Lake Nyassa, and slept the first night on the Rock 

Started the next morning with a fine breeze for the east side of the 
lake, steering as near as possible for the Arab crossirg-place, as laid 
down by Livingstone. We had not run more than two hours before a 
heavy gale began to blow, and for three hours we had to run along the 
coast to try and find shelter, but the rocks aiid breakers met us at 
every hand. This proved the finishing stroke to the Makololos' courage 
who all laid down at the bottom of the boat to die, and although the 
boat was constantly shipping heavy seas, they refused to bale out the 
water. The steel boat behaved well, but was far too deep for the 
stormy Lake Nyassa. At length after three hours' weary watching, we 
succeeded in finding a sheltered spot where we stopped to dry onr 
clothes. Only one native appeared at this place, who when he saw us 
first was much frightened ; but as soon as we stated we were English 
he willingly came towards us. He told us an Englishman had passed 
through his village a year ago, and that he had come from the 
Arab settlement, and had gone south to Maponda. Started again 
for the former place, but found the distance too great to reach 
before dark ; put into a small sandy bay, where we found some natives, 

I must here remark that at any place, on first visiting it, no one 
was allowed by me to get out of the boat, except myself, Mr. Faulkner 
and the interpreter. I soon got into conversation with these men, when 
they spoke of a white man who had been there, without being asked. 
They stated that he had first made that place coming from Makata, 
had stopped nine or ten days to rest, and then went north to the Arab 
settlement to try and get them to carry him and his party across the 
lake, but after waiting there some time he returned, making his way 
south for Makata. They described his dress, what luggage he had, 
imitated him taking sights, and sleeping under a mosquito curtain, and 
stated that he had a dog with him named Chetane. They said the 
head-man of the carriers was named Musa ; two of the bo} T s spoke the 
Ajawa and Mananja language, and were named Juma and Wako. 
They told us what barter goods he traded with ; on being shown 
an album with numbers of likenesses, they at once recognised the one 
of Livingstone. That there were nine of Musa's countrymen with 
him, who did not speak either the Ajawa or Mananja language. He 
did not buy slaves or ivory ; he had come to see the country. Beside* 


numerous othsr things that left no doubt on my mind that it was 

Next day we arrived at the Arab settlement, where we were re- 
ceived kindly, and found all that I heard before was quite correct. 
Livingstone waited at this place nine or ten days for the Arab boat 
which did not arrive, so he started south again, and they traced him 
as far as Maponda. I visited the house Livingstone lived in during his 
stay, and I purchased a few articles (all English make) that he had 
traded with, such as small round looking-glasses, a knife, razor, iron 
gpoons, &c. Of course most of the calicoes, &c., were already worn out, 
but the chief still possessed an Indian manufactured scarf that Living- 
otone had presented to him on leaving. I sent two of the most trust- 
worthy Makololo with my ever faithful interpreter (whom I brought 
from the Cape) on the road to Makata to see if that was the road he had 
come, while we again went south, making short marches inland, to try 
und find the route the Johanna men took in going back, as they had 
not visited this place or the last. We obtained other trifling articles in 
Ihe shape of barter goods, and while waiting for the return of the 
Makololo obtained from a chief further south an English Common 
Prayer Book, which he stated had been left behind by the Englishman 
.TI the house he had slept at. 

On the 13th the searching party returned, having gone two days' 
march on the road to Makata. Livingstone had come that way. They 
brought back some glasses, fish-hooks, &c., that he had traded with. 
They would have gone further, but were ill-treated by some of the 
natives and driven back : their reason for so doing, they said, was that 
the Englishman had brought fighting into the country, for the Mizitu 
had been killing their people ever since he left. 

Sept. 14 th. Started for the opposite side of the lake, made for 
Chinsamba's. Although we started with little or no wind, it again 
blew a gale before we reached the opposite shore. We found that 
Chinsamba had been killed some time since, and nothing remained 
of his village. Skeletons now met our eyes in great numbers, 
whenever we landed along this side. Saw several natives the first 
day, both Ajawas and Mananja ; and those who had not seen the white 
man further south had heard of him, but not in a single instance was 
he spoken of as being dead. I wished to learn, by coming over this 
side, in what direction he had gone after leaving Maponda. We had 
not crossed long when we saw a man who had helped to carry the 
Englishman's luggage for two days. He described him as netorts. a hia 


man had been living inland some distance, but had been driven out by 
the Ajawa. He pointed in a north-westerly direction, and stated it wan 
five days' journey off, which, of course, would be very much more from 

Our progress south was slow, owing to the heavy gales of wind. On 
our way we met several who had seen the Englishman, and more than 
one had helped to carry his luggage from village to village, and there 
was not in all their reports the slightest variation. They were not all 
from the same place, but they all maintained that he had gone on in a 
north-westerly direction towards the Loangwa. These natives were 
full of complaints about their neighbours, and would only have been too 
ready to inform against each other if Livingstone had come to an un- 
timely end at either of their hands, and they all maintained that the 
Mazitu had never been in that part of the country. 

Sept 19th. Reached Marenga. Seeing the boat approach the shore 
they lined the beach with their guns, <fec. ; but, as soon as we told 
them we were English, they laid their arms down and welcomed us. 
I at once asked to see Marenga, when I was conducted up to his house 
by one of his wives. Marenga rushed towards me, and, seizing me by 
the hand, shook it heartily, saying, " Where have you come from, and 
where is your brother that was here last year ?" and as soon as I told 
him I had come to follow him, he began and told me all he knew of 
him. He said he had come there from Maponda, had stopped there tv/o 
days j he was very kind to him, making him presents, &c., and he in 
return gave him what food he required. Livingstone gave him medi 
cine, which was done up in doses ; the papers he used formed part of a 
'Nautical Almanack' for the year 1866. He lent Livingstone four 
canoes to take himself and luggage across the marsh, while the Johanna 
men carried the remainder round. He had seen him before ; he said he 
saw him when he was up here with a boat a long time ago. He traced 
him a month's journey off, giving the names of the places in the same 
order as I had previously heard. He was quite willing to give me any 
guides to go to Maksuro, or where it once was ; but he stated, as I had 
previously heard, that Maksuro had been driven out and killed by the 
Ajawa, and his people almost annihilated ; as also Lad Cdomo, two 
days' journey beyond. Marenga stated that the Johanna men returned 
after being absent two days. They gave as their reason for returning 
that they had merely agreed with Livingstone to take his goods as fai 
only as they liked. The head man stated that he had been in that 
direction before with him, and had met the Mazitu, and that they were 


|L ing no further To prove their independence they passed themselves 
ofi* as Arabs. Marenga gave them food, and they slept there one night, 
and then set out for Maponda. 

Marenga is a Babisa, and rules over a populous district ; he made us 
a present of a bullock and as much native food for our crew as we re- 
quired, and he invited us to remain a long time. He has a great 
number of wives I and Mr. Faulkner being introduced to forty, who 
were all sitting round him. 

Having satisfied myself thus far, I asked him if he thought it possible 
that Livingstone could have died a month's journey off, and he not know 
it ? He at once said No, and had he died three months off he shouid 
have heard of it ; but as soon as I told him I had heard that the Mazuu 
had killed him not far distant, he laughed, and said he told me he was 
going the way to avoid them, and that the Mazitu had never been in 
that part of the country described by the Johanna men. 

Marenga then sent for a man who had gone five days' journey with 
him, and when he returned the Johanna men had gone back. I had 
previously heard the same account from the same man. 

The Makololo now got very impatient to return home, and nothing 
was talked of day or night but the Mizitu. They stated that they had 
fulfilled their engagement, but I very much wished to try and get to the 
north end of the lake. But they would not listen to it. No induce- 
ment I could offer would persuade them to go ; so there was no alter- 
native but to go round to Maponda, get what information I ceuld, and 

Marenga was full of complaints about his neighbours, and what he 
wished for more than anything else was medicine for his guns, so that 
if the Ajawas came to fight him his shot would kill some one every 
time they were fired. We, being satisfied that Livingstone had gone 
on in safety, started on the 20th for Maponda, calling at the several 
places along the coast to gain what information I could ; but all I ob- 
tained only went to confirm what I had previously heard. 

Arrived at Maponda on the 25th. The chief himself was not at 
home, having gone on a trading expedition, leaving his mother to act 
during his absence. Immediately on arrival I sent a messenger to 
acquaint her of arrival and my wish to see her. She soou came, with 
a train of followers, bringing ue presents of native food and beer. She 
stated that an Englishman had been there a year before, had stopped 
three weeks to rest his party, and then left for Marenga, stopped there 
& day or two, and then left to go to th Loangwa, calling at Maksura, 


C66ino, &c. One of the boys was left behind here, being unable to 
travel, having very bad feet and logs, but had now quite recovered and 
gone with Maponda. She stated that the Englishman had left a paper 
with him, but that he had taken it with him on the journey. She 
brought some books belonging to him, one of which had his name on 
(" Wakitane, from Dr. Wilson, Dec., 1804," &c.), which she allowed 
me to take. The Johanna men returned this way, stopped one day, 
and proceeded on. She swore, in the presence of us all, that Maponda 
did not take away their guns, neither did any of the party die there. 
She stated that the Englishman was great friends with her son, and 
that if any one had molested him (even Marenga, as strong as he was) 
he would have gone to war with him. The old lady laughed at the 
idea of Livingstone having been killed by the Maaitu. Mr. Faulkner 
questioned her regarding the Havildar. She gave a description of a 
man with straight black hair, with the top of his head shaved, &c. 
Mr. Faulkner states it answers the description of the Indian very well. 
Marenga also told us the same, and I felt convinced had he died there 
we should have heard it from some of the numbers I questioned on tho 

The Makololo now told me that if I intended going into the lake 
again, they were not going with me ; and, being entirely dependent on 
these men, there was no alternative but to return and to get their aid 
in carrying the boat back. So, having got all the news 1 could at 
Maponda, 1 decided on going to Makata ; but although I offered a large 
amount for a guide, no one would attempt to cross the river. They 
stated that Makata had taken to the mountains for fear of the Mazitu, 
and they were afraid of being cut off. 

Started for the Cataracts on the 27th. Found the same state of 
things along the river as on coming up. Arrived at the Cataracts on 
the 2nd of October, and commenced taking the boat to pieces. Mean- 
while we heard from Chibisa that the road was clear, and that the Mazitu 
had made Chore, not far from the lower Shire, their headquarters. 

Oct. 8th. Started for Chibisa with the boat, luggage, &c. ; where 
we arrived on the 12th. We found the boats safe, and the men left 
with them in very fair health. Again built the steel boat, and while 
there repaired the graves of the late missionaries who died there. 

22d Started from Chibisa. 

26th. Arrived at the Ruo, stopped and repaired the grave of the 
late Bishop Mackenzie. Arrived at the Kongone on the llth ol 
November, but on our v;ay down we visited Senna. 


H.M.S. Racoon arrived on the 2nd of December, 

Arrived at the Cape on the evening of the 17th. 

Embarked on board the mail-steamer on the 19th. 

Jn conclusion, I must again state that this is but a brief outline of 
mr proceedings. 1 should have liked to have done more by going to 
the north end of the lake, but was prevented by circumstances un- 
foreseen when I left England ; for, had the Mazitu not threatened 
Chibisa, I should have had little difficulty in getting the Makololo tc 
accompany me. Under the circumstances, 1 hope that what has been 
done will meet with your approval, as well as that of the I loyal Geo- 
graphical Society. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your very obedient servant, 


The report proves that though Mr. Edward Young did 
not see Dr. Livingstone, he procured ample and satis- 
factory evidence that Musa's story was a tissue of the 
grossest falsehoods, and for his gallant service the Society 
tendered him unanimously their thanks. 

In 1868, letters dated February 1867 from Bemba (Lake 
Bangweolo), were received from Dr. Livingstone by Sir 
Roderick Murchison, which, when read, elicited bursts 
of enthusiasm from Sir Samuel Baker, and the other 
geographical associates of the illustrious explorer. In 
these he stated he had been staying a long time with 
Mataka, a chief who rules over a division of the Ajawa tribe. 

The reasons for his long silence were that he was 
unable, after leaving the shores of the Nyassa, to despatch 
letters to England, until his arrival at Bemba in 10 
10' S. lat. 31 50' long., where he found a party of 
Zanzibar slave-traders (See ' How I found Livingstone,' 
Chap. IX., Life in Unyanyembe (continued), Saturday, 
August 12th, 1871), one of whom was with Speke. 

Qn the 8th July, 1868, Livingstone wrote imother 



letter from near Lake Bangweolo. The time between 
these two letters was occupied in convincing himself, by a 
series of journeys south-west of Lake Tanganika, that the 
Chambezi Kiver, emptying into Lake Bangweolo, was the 
same river which flowed into Lake Moero. 

On leaving the valley of the Loangwa, which he crossed 
west of Nyassa, on his way to the Babisa, and to Lunda, 
he climbed up to a plateau which had an altitude of from 
three thousand to six thousand feet above sea level, and 
which extended over an area of about three hundred and 
fifty miles square. This plateau was generally covered 
with dense or open forest, was undulating, sometimes 
cropping up into hills, had a rich soil, and was well 
watered by streams. East of the plateau were the up- 
lands of Usango, and the west was bounded by the Kono 
Mountains. As he advanced north, the streams hitherto 
emptying themselves mto the valley of the Loangwa, 
changed their course with a general trend towards the 
north-west, or towards the Chambezi, which he believed 
his convictions strengthened by much travel north-west 
and east to be the headwaters of the Nile. The river 
Chambezi henceforth became an object of great interest to 
him, inasmuch as it ran from a plateau to the eastward, 
west into Lake Bangweolo, thence to Lake Moero, under 
different names, and further north it was reported to run 
into Lake Ulenge, after a course of some five hundred or 
six hundred miles. 

The above is the pith of his geographical discoveries 
and report on the watershed of the country between 
Tanganika and Nyassa, up to July, 1868. 


On the 30th May, 1869, a letter was received by the 
British Consul at Zanzibar, from Dr. Livingstone, who 
was at Ujiji. 

This letter complains of the disreputable conduct of 
the driver of certain buffaloes which were sent to 
Livingstone, and also requests the Consul to be good 
enough to send to him at Ujiji thirty pieces of sheeting, 
forty pieces of blue cloth, and four hundred and twenty 
pounds* of red coral beads, besides a few pairs of shoes. 
He summarises the work remaining for him to accomplish 
west of the Tanganika, in the following words : 

As to the work to be done by me, it fr only to connect the sources 
which I have discovered from five hunched to seven hundred miles 
south of Speke and Baker's with their Kile. The volume of water 
which flows north from lat. 12 S. is so large, I suspect that I have 
been working at the sources of the Congo as well as those of the Nile 
1 have to go down the eastern line of drainage to Baker's turning-point. 
Tanganika, Nzige Chowambe (Baker's ?) are one water, and the head 
of it is three hundred miles south of this. The western and central 
lines of drainage converge into an un visited lake west or south-west of 
this. The outflow of this, whether to the Congo or the Nile, I have to as- 
certain. The people west of this, called Manyema, are cannibals, if Arabs 
speak truly. I may have to go there first, and down Tanganika, if I 
come out uneaten, and find my new squad from Zanzibar. I earnestly 
hope that you will do what you can to help me with the goods and 
men. 400, to be sent by Mr. Young, must surely have come to you 
through Fleming and Co. 

Sir Roderick, remarking upon this letter after it was 
read to the Geographical Society, said, "If Livingstone 
should he supplied with carriers and provisions, he will, I 
doubt not, follow these waters, and thus being led on 
perhaps to the Congo, we may be once more subjected to 
a long and anxious period of suspense." 


The letter of the 30th May, 1869, was the last received 
in Europe direct from Dr. Livingstone, until the autumn 
of 1872. 

In his address of Nov. 8th, 1869, Sir Eoderick Murchi- 
son, the ever staunch and enduring friend of Dr. Living- 
stone, says : 

In his wonderful labours Livingstone has not merely been the 
Christian Missionary and Geographical Explorer. He was also ac- 
credited as Her Majesty's Consul to all the native states in the interior. 
(See the * Gazette ' of March 24th, 1866, p. 1676.) Such being the 
public mission with which the great traveller was entrusted, let us now 
confidently believe that Her Majesty's Government will authorize, on 
his return, the grant cf a suitable pension to the man whose labours 
have shed HO much renown on Britain, and that our gracious Sovereign, 
who has, I know, taken the deepest interest in his career, will reward 
him with some appropriate token of her goodwill. 

Every now and then driblets of news came from 
Zanzibar, but they were merely vague echoes of Arab 
opinions and reports, all of which, however, described him 
to be somewhere west of Tanganika in a state of utter 
destitution. Few people remained in the belief that 
Livingstone was alive, despite the publication of his 
letters of 1867-68-69 ; nay, the firm belief among the 
largest number was that the illustrious man had passed 
the threshold of the unexplored, that bourn whence no 
traveller returns. 

To resolve all doubts and anxieties respecting the fate 
of Dr. Livingstone, Mr. James Gordon Bennett, junr. 
'son of the then James Gordon Bennett, sen., proprietor 
Df the ' New York Herald ' a daily newspaper published 
in the city of New York), commissioned the author of this 
memoir, then pursuing Ids avocations of Special War 



Correspondent in Spain, to equip an expedition for the 
search and relief of Dr. Livingstone. 

My instructions were not to regard expense, to draw 
whatever sums of money were necessary for the prosecu- 
tion of the search, and a sufficiency for his relief, until he 
could communicate with his friends. 

A condensed diary of my travels from the date of my 
instructions will serve to make this brief memoir 

Received my instructions at Paris. 

Arrive at Port Said to witness the opening of 

the Suez Canal. 

Arrive at Philre, and interview Mr. Higgiu- 
botham, of Sir Samuel White Baker's 
Arrive at Jerusalem. 
, , Constantinople. 
, , the Crimea. 
, , Bakou, on the Caspian Sea. 
, , Teheran, Persia. 
, , Ispahan , , 
, , Bushire , , 
, , Muscat, Arabia, 
, , Bombay, India. 
Leave , , , , 

Arrive at Mauritius, Indian Ocean. 
, , Mahe Seychelles. 
, , Zanzibar, East Coast of Africa. 
, , Bagamoyo Africa. 
First caravan departs for the interior. 
Second , , , , 


Fourth , , , , 

Fifth and last , , , , 

Search Expediticc arrives at Unyanyembe. 

, , fight with Mirambo, King 

of Uyoweh. 
return* to Unyanyenibe. 

16th October, 1869 
16th November , , 

16th December , 

16th January, 1870 
16th February 
16th March 
16th April 

6th May 

1st June 
16th June 
13th July 
12th ,, 
12th October 
19th November 
3 1st 

6th January, 1871 

6th February , , 
18th ,, ,, 

lltli Maich , , 
23rd June ,, 

4th August , , 




20th September, 1871 
4th November , , 




llth December , , 


31st January, 1872 
18th February , , 

14th March , , 
7th May 
1st August , , 

Search Expedition Departs for Ujiji. 

, , Hears of a white man bein^ 

at Ujiji. 


Ujiji, on Lake Tan- 

, , Livingstone and self set out 

to explore north end of 
Lake Tanganika, 

Livingstone and self return to Ujiji. 
Livingstone and self depart from Ujiji south 

to Urimba. 
Livingstone and self arrive at Mwani 

Livingstone and self arrive at Unyanyembe, 

having journeyed 750 miles together. 
Livingstone and self part. 
Search Expedition arrives at Zanzibar. 
Doctor Livingstone's despatches are delivered 
at the Foreign Office, for which Viscount 
Enfield gives a receipt in the name of Eai 1 

The letter wherein the explorer relates best his an- 
noyances, his hopes, his fears, his joys, and his sorrows, 
is addressed to his old friend Sir Eoderick Murchison, 
who, a few days before the author discovered Livingstone 
at Ujiji, died of an attack of paralysis. Extracts only 
may be published here. All those who desire to penetrate 
to the bottom the causes which lead to his long detention, 
which has finally culminated in his lamented death, may 
read these plainly written sentences to advantage. 

Unyanyembe, March 13, 1872. 


I have written you a long account of the worry, thwarting, and 
baffling 1 have endured in trying to work my way through the eannibal 


iVlanyuenia down the central line of drainage Webb's Lualaba ; but 
it is not worth sending now. I got one letter from you in February, 
1870, the first I received from you since one dated 13th March, 1866, 
but I could not doubt that you had written oftener. The loss of your 
letters has left me very much in the dark. I did not know that I had 
A penny of income till Mr. Stanley came, and brought a mail he seized 
for me here, after it had been fourteen months on the way, and in it I 
saw the Eoyal Geographical Society's Report stated that 3,500?. had 
been received for the East African Expedition, which I ventured to 
suppose means mine. [This is an error ; no such sum was ever given. 
Author."] I don't know where that money is, or if it really is for me ; 
I wish to give my children a little, but I have to ask the Messrs. Coutts 
to inquire of you about it. I have been trusting to part of the price of 
my little steamer at Bombay, and determined, pay or no pay, to finish 
my work if I live. The want of letters was bad ; the want of goods 
was worse, and the only supplies that 1 virtually received were part of 
a stock I paid for, and, with Dr. Seward, sent off from Zanzibar, in 
1866, to be placed in depot in Ujiji. They were plundered by the 
governor here, but I got a share ; and it was a part of this share that 1 
took the precaution to reserve at Ujiji in case of extreme need, and 
found on my return lately. But for this I should have been in beggary ; 

for a lot of goods sent off by , through a Banian slave-trader, called 

Ludha Damji, were all sold off at Ujiji by the drunken half-caste tailor, 
Shereef, to whom they were entrusted. He must have reported that 
he had delivered all, for fche statement was made in the House of Lords 
that all my wants had been supplied. He divined on the Koran, and 
found that I was dead, and then invested all in slaves and ivory for 
himself. There being no law except that of the gun or dagger, I had 
to wait in misery till Mr. Stanley came and proved himself truly the 
good Samaritan. 

Another lot of goods was entrusted to Ludha again, and he to slaves 

again with two free head-men who were thieves. Mr. wrote on 

the 19th October, 1870, that they were all ready to leave, all impedi- 
ments had been removed, and he remarked rather pleasantly " that 
they were not perfect, but had expressed willingness to go ;" and then 
they lay at Bagamoio three and a half months, and no one looked near 
them. Near the end of February they heard that the consul was 
coming, and started off two days before his arrival, not to look after 
them, but to look after the wild beasts along the Ujiji road, and 
show them to the captain of a man-of-war. Here they refused to go 


with Mr. Stanley to Ujiji, because of a war which did not prevent him 
from going, nor him and me from coming, though it is still going on. 
1 seized what remained of the goods after the slaves had feasted sixteen 
months. On the 18th ultimo one of the head-men died of small-pox ; 
the other non-perfect head-man, besides running riot on my goods, 
broke the lock and key of Mr. Stanley's store, and plundered his 
goods too. 

Traders get their goods safely by the same carriers we employ ; but 
all our slaves are deeply imbued with the idea that they are not to 
follow, but force me back. My expedition is looked on with disfavoui 
by all the Banians, who are really and truly the great slave-traders 0' 
the country. But for the goods, guns, ammunition, advanced by th< 
Banians, no Arab who travels could go inland to slave. It is by their 
money that the slave-trade is carried on. The wretched governor 
here the same who plundered Burton and Speke pretty freely is 
their trade-agent ; but simple people call him the " great Sheikh Syde 
ben Salem," &c. All my letters disappeared here. My sketches, maps 
astronomical observations, &c., sent before cholera began, were nevei 
heard of beyond this. When Shereef sold off all my stores, except a 
few pounds of worthless beads, a little coffee and sugar, the governor 
wrote to me that he had no hand in it. I never said he had. I suppose 
that the Banians did not sit down and instruct their slaves to rob and 
baffle me ; a mere hint would be sufficient, and then, when they reached 
me, they swore that the Consul told them not to go with me and he 
had paid them more than double freemen's pay. Had they been with 
me and mutinied, I should have blamed myself as partly the cause, 
from want of tact or something; but after they had been paid and fed 
for sixteen months, it was mortifying to find myself virtually without 
men. I have lost two full years of time, being burdened by one 
thousand eight hundred miles of extra tramp, and how much waste of 
money I cannot say, all through the matter of supplies and men being 
unwittingly committed to slave-dealing Banians and slaves. Mr. Webb 
sent nine packets and packages in the eleven months of his (Stanley's) 
trip. The sixteen months that elapsed from my last mail of November, 
1870, included those eleven months, but Mr. Webb's messengers were 
not allowed to lie feasting at Bagamoio, in sight of the consulate, for 
three and a half mouths, as mine were. Nor were the Banian low 

cunning and duplicity instilled into their minds. may probably 

be able to explain it all. 


Now I am all right. I have abundant supplies of all I need to finish 

my work. Some I seized from 's slaves, and Mi Stanley gave me 

more ; so I am thankful to say that I am now better off than when I 
got a share of what I sent off in 1866. I feel quite exhilarated by the 
prospect of starting back as soon as Mr. Stanley can send me fifty free 
men from the coast. Don't imagine, from my somewhat doleful tone, 
that I am trying to excite commiseration and pity. When Zanzibar 
failed me so miserably, I sat down at Ujiji only till I should become 
strong, and then work my way down to Mteza. I am now strong and 
well and thankful, and wish only to be let alone, to finish by the re- 
discovery of the ancient fountaias. In 's letter he talks hazily 

about Tanganyika and my going home from being tired, and the 
work being finished by another. You remember that I recommended 
him for the task, and he would not accept it from you without a 
good salary, and some thing to fall back on afterwards. I went un- 
salaried ; the sole hope I had was the statement in yours of March 13, 
1866 : " Do your work, and leave pecuniary matters to Young and me." 
I have been tired often, and began again. I have done it all on foot, 
except eight days' illness with pneumonia and the trip down Tanganyika. 
I could never bear the scorn the Portuguese endure in being carried 
when quite well. I am sorry to have to complain of any one ; but the 
loss of time, useless tramps, and waste of money, are truly no faults of 

mine. If you share in 's idea that I must have been all this time 

trying if Tanganyika communicated with Albert Nyanza, I regret the 
destruction of my sketch maps and astronomical observations ; but in 
a former case an imperfect sketch map was made the means of fleecing 
me, and in the lost maps 1 did my duty notwithstanding. 

Tanganyika is of no importance in connection with the Nile, except 
in a very remote degree. The interesting and great valley lies altogethei 
west of it. In that valley there are five great lakes and three large 
rivers Bangweolo, Moero, Kamolondo, Lake Lincoln and another, 
which the slaves forced me to leave as the Unknown Lake. The largo 
rivers Bartle Frere's, otheiwise Lufira ; Webb's Lualaba the central 
line of drainage; then Sir Paraffin Young's Lualaba,* with its name 
'further down Lomame all go into the central Webb's Lualaba ; Bartle 
Frere's through Lake Kamolondo ; Young's (I have been obliged to 
knight him to distinguish him from our friend the man-of-war's man) 
Lualaba through Lake Lincoln, and, as Lomame into Webb's, and four 
or five days beyond the confluence into the Unknown Lake, which, 

* Sir Paraffin Young is a facetious term applied bj Dr. Liviugstona to Mi 
Young of Kelley, the inventor of paraffine 


from the great westing I made, some 7 W. of Ujiji, must be part o* 
Petherick's branch. This is the interesting field. The correlation of 
the structure and economy of the watershed with these great lakes and 
lacustrine rivers is the theme of my prize. When you heard that the 
sources were further south than any one dreamed, in the exuberance of 

your kindly heart you were going to award something to B , F -, 

and A , for having dreamed about it. You had no idea that the 

watershed was seven hundred miles long and the fountains innumerable. 
I smiled, of course good naturedly, to think that you would need to 
divide the seven hundred miles among the three, and thereby show a 
great physiological discovery by your friends the division of labour in 
dreaming. I am much more savage now than you, and any one who 
competes after I have given my own explanation will be ordered out 
for instant execution without benefit of clergy. I doubt if there is an 
Upper Nile basin. I found it a gradual slope from the sources down, 
and J reached the altitude ascribed to Gondokoro. Mr. Stanley will 
tell you about what he saw of Tanganyika, I declined to examine it 
in 1869 because Ujijians wished to mulct me of the few goods I had, 
and there was no inducement to spend all in patching up Burton's 
failure rather than work out the great main line of drainage from the 

I earnestly hope that you will be so far recovered when this reaches 
you as to live in comfort, though not in the untiring activity of your 
earlier years. The news of our dear Lady Murchison's departure filled 
me with sincere sorrow. Had I known that she kindly remembered 
me in her prayers it would have been a source of great encouragement. 
I often thought that Admiral Washington and Admiral Beaufort looked 
down from their abodes of bliss, to which she has gone, with approba- 
tion. Sir Francis's words to the Arctic explorers, that they " were going 
on discovery and not on survey," have been a guide to me, and I am in 
hopes that, in addition to discovery, my disclosures may lead to the 
suppression of the East Coast Slave Trade by Banian British subjects. 
If the good Lord of all grants me this, I shall never grudge the toil, 
time, and trouble I have endured. I pray that His blessing may 
descend on you according to your need, and am, &c. 


P.S. Mr. Stanley will be at the Langham Place Hotel when this 
reaches you; attentions to him and James Gordon Bennett will gratify 
me. Agnes will keep my London box and my Journal, which i send 
home, sealed, by Mr. Stanley. D. L. 



The account of the Search and Belief Expedition, de- 
spatched by the proprietor of the l New York Herald,' is 
given in the following book, ' How I found Livingstone/ 

On arriving at Zanzibar from the successful search after 
the traveller, May 7, 1872, 1 despatched to Dr. Livingstone 
as per request a force of fifty-seven men, who were destined 
to convey his supplies from Unyanyembe westward until 
he should have resolved the problem to his satisfaction 
whether the Lualaba was the Nile Kiver or the Congo. 

The following are their names : 

32. Eesasi. 

33. Khamseen. 

34. Mabruki (Speke). 

35. Khamisi (Stanley}. 

36. Uredi Manwa Sera (Leader). 

37. Majvara (Boy}. 

38. Ferousi. 

39. Ramadan. 

40. Ferdhan. 

41. Mdamungu. 

42. Muriko. 

43. Pangawassi. 

44. Ilamadi Swadi. 

45. Khamisi. 

46. Mabruk (Stanley). 

47. Salina. 

48. Carras Ferrar (Nassick Boy). 

49. John Wainwright (Nassick 


50. Richard Rutton (Nauich 


51. Matthew Wellington (Nassick 


52. Benjamin Rutton (Nasxirk 


53. Jacob Wainwright (Nassitk 


54. Mvalim. 

55. ffamadi (Stanley). 

56. Mabruki (Unyartyembe), 

57. Itofab the Little, 

1. Chowpereh. 

2. Sarmean. 

3. Tabwu. 

4. Amanvu. 

5. Sunguru. 

6. Msa. 

7. Uassani. 

8. Belali. 

9. Khamisi. 

10. Rojab. 

11. Toufiki. 

12. Twakali. 

13. to7. 

14. Shumari. 
13 Hassani. 

16. Tow. 

17. Ohanda. 

18. Furjalla. 

19. Mabruki (Burton). 
*20. Ulimengo. 

21. ^awi. 

22. Maganod. 

23. Mukudum. 

24. ^wMe^. 

25. Baraka. 

26. Uamadi (guide). 

27. Makawa. 

28. Sunguru (Stanley). 

29. Jumah. 

30. /SAefean. 

31 Moeni Falumi. 


The people whose names are mentioned in the above 
list arrived at Unyanyembe about the middle of July, 
1872, having conducted themselves remarkably well, and 
having performed their contract faithfully during the 
journey from Zanzibar to Unyanyembe, The leader of 
the men, Uledi Manwa Sera, who liad accompanied 
Speke and Grant, and subsequently performed faithful 
service to the * Herald ' Expedition, was chosen by 
me for his good sense, and was highly recommended to 

But there remained at Unyanyembe with Livingstone, 
during my journey to Zanzibar after parting from him, 
his own faithful souls who had followed his fortunes from 
March, 1866 to 1873, and had accompanied him during 
journeys with extraordinary fidelity which measured in 
the aggregate over eight thousand miles. As everything 
now connected with poor Livingstone has a melancholy 
interest, the names of these faithful people should not be 
forgotten ; they are 

1. Susi (chief, and confidential servant). 

2. Chumah (second leader) from Nassick School. 

3. Hamoydah, released from slavery on the Zambezi. 

4. Edward Gardner, from Nassick School. 

5. Halimah, cook, and wife of Hamoydah. 

On the 2nd August, 1872 Livingstone properly equipped 
with an Expedition numbering about eighty souls, in- 
clusive of his own people and the fifty-seven despatched 
to him by myself, with stores sufficient to last him three 
years, left Unyanyembe for Lunda, in a south-south- 
westerly direction. A glance at tho map accompanying 
ijiis volume will indicate the route he would naturally 


follow as far as Mpokwa on the borders of Ufipa. Each 
camping-place is plainly marked out, and located. 
Beyond Mpokwa is new ground to European travellers, 
but Arab information has enabled us to trace his sub- 
sequent footsteps through Ufipa, Uemba, or Wemba, 
Liemba, Marungu, and thence to Lunda and Lake Bang- 
weolo. Which way he travelled beyond Lake Bangweolo 
is left to conjecture for the present. 

In January, 1872, a circular was issued by the Royal 
Geographical Society, inviting subscriptions from the 
British public, in order that they might make a deter- 
mined effort to FIND and BELIEVE LIVINGSTONE. This 
society, of which Livingstone was an associate, subscribed 
the sum of 500. The interest the public entertained in 
respect to Livingstone was signally manifested on this 
occasion by the munificent sums which were in a very 
short time subscribed. 

The sums received by the society, inclusive of its own 
grant of 500, amounted to 4,889 Is. 5d., to which was 
promised an additional sum of 296 3s. Od. The balance 
of a Government grant of 1,000 granted by Lord Claren- 
don in 1870, amounting to 557 7s. Wd. 9 was also 
transferred to the Belief Fund, and a half-year's interest 
on 2,500 Exchequer Bills, amounting to 30 10s. 10d., 
swelled the total to the magnificent amount of 5,770 3s. Id. 

On the strength of this fund collected by the Geogra- 
phical Society for the search and relief of their illustrious 
associate, an Expedition was equipped, and despatched at 
short notice on the 7th of February, 1872, under the coin 


mand of Lieut. Llewellyn Dawson, Lieut. William Henn, 
and W. Oswell Livingstone, son of the traveller. 

In tlie concluding chapters of ' How I found Living- 
stone,' I have related how this Expedition, arriving at 
Zanzibar after the purchase at considerable outlay of the 
goods necessary for the Expedition, withdrew from the 
mission they had undertaken to accomplish. 

Out of the Belief Fund was expended for outfit, passage 
money, instruments, maps, presents for native chiefs, 
advertising, stationary, stamps, &c., sundry small charges, 
pay of natives employed at Zanzibar, pay of natives and 
goods supplied for the Native Belief Expedition, despatched 
by the author on his return from Livingstone ; miscel- 
laneous expenses at Zanzibar, loss on sale of goods, on the 
disbanding of the Dawson Expedition ; passages to Eng- 
land of the leaders, the sum of 2,671 15s. lid., of which 
sum 2,359 6s. Qd. was made by the return of the Dawson 
Expedition a dead loss to the Society's fund for the 
relief of Dr. Livingstone. 

The balance then remaining in the hands of the Society 
amounted to 3,175 16s. 6d. How to employ this for 
the benefit of the traveller was an anxious question to the 
Boyal Geographical Society. Some proposed that the 
money should be placed in the bank to draw interest, for 
the benefit of Livingstone's family. Others, composing 
the majority, proposed that a second Expedition should be 
equipped for the finding and relief of Livingstone, which 
was accordingly done, though now it appears, considering 
the melancholy history of this Expedition, as if it mighl 
ijave been the wiser course to have adopted the first 


suggestion. However, there is no blame attached to the 
trustees of the fund, for it may be assumed that they 
thought themselves acting for the best. 

The second Belief Expedition, under the command of 
Lieut. Lovett Cameron, E.N., Lieut. Cecil Murphy, K.A., 
Dr. W. E. Dillon, E.N. to whom was shortly attached as 
a junior member and assistant Eobert Moffatt, nephew of 
Livingstone arrived at Zanzibar, under the auspices of 
Sir Bartle Frere, on the 9th of February, 1873. 

These young gentlemen were fully equipped with from 
two to four years' supplies ; and it was reported by the 
Society to be the best equipped expedition which ever 
left Zanzibar for the purpose of exploration. 

During the early part of April the advance caravan 
departed from Bagamoyo for the interior. News of its 
advance was received regularly, and everything promised 
well for a time ; but in May news was received of the 
death of young Moffatt near a place called Simbo. (See 
' How I found Livingstone/ chap, v.) 

The remaining members of the Expedition arrived in 
Unyanyembe about the middle of September, only to hear 
shortly after the sad, sad account of Livingstone's death 
from -the lips of the faithful Chumah, who, with a select 
party of men, had hurried forward to Unyanyembe in 
advance of the main portion of Livingstone's Expedition, 
that he might transmit the intelligence of the mournfu 1 
event by first caravan proceeding to Zanzibar. 

Close upon the footsteps of Chumah came the solemr 
funeral procession which had borne the body of the illus- 
trious traveller many hundreds of miles, through the 



many tribes that dwell between Bangweolo and Unyan- 

After but a short stay at Unyanyembe the Expedition 
continued their return march to Zanzibar under the 
charge of Dr. W. E. Dillon and Lieut. Cecil Murphy, 
while Lieut. Cameron is reported to have continued his 
march to Ujiji for the purpose of securing a box of papers 
deposited with Moeni-Kheri by Livingstone. 

Soon after the return march had begun towards the 
coast, Dr. Dillon, rendered delirious by his sufferings from 
fever, and afflicted with blindness, committed suicide. 

The following compose the most circumstantial details 
received up to the beginning of April, 1874 : 


The body of Dr. Livingstone, arrived per Malwa, left this morning 
for England, via the Canal. Dr. Livingstone died on the 4th of May, 
at Muilala, in the kingdom of Bisa, of dysentery, after five days' 
march through the marshy country. The body, which was escorted 
by Lieutenant Murphy to the coast, left Zanzibar on the 12th inst., hi 
charge of Arthur Laing, who proceeds via Brindisi with his papers and 
effects. The body will go to Southampton, attended by Jacob, Dr. 
Livingstone's servant. The body was disemboweled and embalmed 
by a native, and was put on a bush to dry. Twelve days afterwards 
it was placed in two coffins. 

The following is the copy of a telegram forwarded to the London 
Dffice of the ' New York Herald ' : 

" The Malwa arrived off Suez at eleven on Saturday night, having 
Mr. Arthur Laing and Jacob Wainwright aboard, with the body of 
Dr. Livingstone. He had been ill with chronic dysentery for several 
months past. Although well supplied with stores and medicines, he 
eeems to have had a presentiment that the attack would prove fatal. 
He rode a donkey, but was subsequently carried, and thus arrived at 
Muilala beyond Lake Bemba, in Bisa country, when he said, * Build 
me a hut to die in.' The hut was built by his followers, who firs* 
tvade him a bed. He suffered greatly, groaning day and night. On 


the third day he said, ' 1 am very cold ; put more grass over the hut. 
His followers did not speak or go near him. Kitumbo,* Chief of Bisa, 
sent flour and beans, and behaved well to the party. On the fourth 
day Livingstone became insensible, and died about midnight. Majwara, 
his servant, was present. His last entry in the diary was on April 27th 
He spoke much and sadly of his home and family. When first seized 
he told his followers he intended to exchange everything for ivory, to 
give to them, and to push on to Ujiji and Zanzibar, and try to reach 
England. On the day of his death his followers consulted what to do. 
They determined to preserve the remains. They were afraid to in- 
form the chief of Livingstone's death. The servants removed the 
body to another hut, around which they built a high fence, to insure 
privacy. They opened the body and removed the internals, which 
were placed in a tin box and buried inside the fence, under a largt. 
tree. Jacob Wainwright cut an inscription on the tree as follows : 
* Dr. Livingstone died on May 4th, 1873,' and superscribed the 
name of the head-man, Susi. The body was preserved in salt, and 
dried in the sun for twelve days. Kitumbo was then informed of the 
death, and beat drum and fired as a token of respect, and allowed the 
followers to remove the body, which was placed in a coffin formed of 
bark, then journeyed to Unyanyembe about six months, sending an 
advance party with information, addressed to Livingstone's son, which 
met Cameron. The latter sent back bales of cloth and powder. The 
body arrived at Unyanyembe ten days after advance party, and rested 
there a fortnight. Cameron, Murphy, and Dillon together there, 
latter very ill blind, and mind affected, suicided at Kasagera, buried 

" Here Livingstone's remains were put in another bark case, smaller, 
done up in a bale to deceive natives, who objected to the passage of the 
aorpse, which was thus carried to Zanzibar, Livingstone's clothing, 
papers, and instruments accompanying the body. When ill Living- 
stone prayed much. At Muilala he said ' I am going home.' Chumah 
remains at Zanzibar. 

" Mr. Webb, American Consul at Zanzibar, is on his way home, and 
has letters handed to him by Murphy from Livingstone, for Stanley, 
which he will deliver personally only. 

" Geographical news follows. After Stanley's departure the doctor 
'eft Unyanyembe, rounded the south end of Lake Tanganika, and 

* Kitumbo is another way of spelling the Chitimbwa of Dr. Livingstone. 



travelled south of Lake Bemba or Bangweolo, crossed it sou ,h to north k 
then along east side, returning north through Marungu to Muilala. All 
papers sealed and addressed to Secretary of State, are in charge of Arthur 
Laing, a British merchant, from Zanzibar." 

Majwara, who seems according to the above report to 
have attended Livingstone during his last hours, is a boy 
about sixteen years old, and a native of Uganda. I ob- 
cained him from an Arab caravan while he was afflicted 
with a sore disease. He accompanied me to Ujiji, when 
Livingstone's medical knowledge, with the aid of some of 
my medicines, soon cured him. 

When about to despatch the second Eelief Expedition 
to Unyanyembe, Majwara voluntarily offered to return to 
Livingstone, and he was accordingly sent to him in the 
capacity of personal attendant, gun and over-coat bearer. 
It appears that the boy Majwara has faithfully performed 
his duties to his master, and had become a favourite, for he 
was the only one permitted to hear the last sighs of the 
dying explorer. 

Livingstone's description of the place near which he 
breathed his last on the 4th of May, 1873, cannot be 
better given than in his own words in his letter to the 

At a spot some eighty miles S.W. of the south end of Tanganika 
stands the stockaded village of the chief Chitimbwa. A war had 
Commenced between a party of Arabs numbering six hundred guns 
and the chief of the district situated west of Chitimbwa while I was at 
the south end of the lake. The Arabs hearing that an Englishman 
was in the country, naturally inquired where he was ; and the natives, 
fearing that mischief was intended, denied positively that they had 
ever seen him. They then strongly advised me to take refuge on an 
inhabited island ; but net explaining their reasons, I am sorry to 
think tljat 1 suspected them of a design to make me a prisoner, which 


they could easily have done by removing the canoes the island being 
a mile from the land. They afterwards told me how nicely they had 
cheated the Arabs and saved me from harm. The end of the lake is in 
a deep cup-shaped cavity, with sides running sheer down at some 
parts 2,000 feet into the water. The rocks, of red clay schist, crop 
out among the sylvan vegetation, and here and there pretty cascades 
leap down the precipices, forming a landscape of surpassing beauty. 
Herds of elephants, buffaloes, and antelopes enliven the scene, and, 
with the stockaded villages embowered in palms along the shores of 
the peaceful water, realise the idea of Xenophon's Paradise. When 
about to leave the village of Mbette, or Pambette, down there, and 
climb up the steep path by which we had descended, the wife of the 
chief came forward and said to her husband and the crowd looking at 
us packing up our things, " Why do you allow this man to go away? 
He will certainly fall into the hands of the Mazitu (here called Batuba) 
and you know it and are silent." On inquiry it appeared certain that 
these marauders were then actually plundering the villages up above 
the precipices at the foot of which we sat. We waited six days, and 
the villagers kept watch on an ant-hill outside the stockade, all the 
time looking up for the enemy. When we did at last ascend we saw 
the well-known lines of march of the Mazitu straight as arrows 
through the country, without any regard to the native paths ; and in the 
details of tlieir plundering, for in this case there was no bloodshed, we 
found that the really benevolent lady had possessed accurate informa- 
tion. On going thence round the end of the lake, we came to the 
village of Karambo, at the confluence of a large river, and the head 
man refused us a passage across. " Because," said he, " the Arabs have 
been fighting with the people west of us; and two of their people have 
since been killed, though only in search of ivory. You wish to go 
round by the west of the lake, and the people may suppose that you 
tire Arabs ; and I dare not allow you to run the risk of being killed by 
mistake." On seeming to disbelieve, Karambo drew his finger across 
his throat, and said " If at any time you discover that I have spoken 
falsely, I give you leave to cut my throat." That same afternoon two 
Arab slaves came to the village in search of ivory, and confirmed every 
word Karambo bad spoken. Having previously been much plagued by 
fever, and without a particle of medicine, it may have been the irrita- 
bility produced by that disease that made me so absurdly pigheaded 
In doubting the intentions of my really kind benefactors three several 
times. The same cause may be in operation when modern traveller 


are unable to say a civil word about the natives ; cr if it must be 
admitted, for instance, that savages will seldom dece've you if placed 
on their honour, why must we turn up the whites of our eyes, and 
say it is an instance of the anomalous character of the Africans ? 
Being heaps of anomalies ourselves, it would be just as easy to say 
that it is interesting to find other people like us. The tone which we 
n^odern travellers affect is that of infinite superiority, and it is utterly 
nauseous to see at every step our great and noble elevation cropping 
out in low cunning. 

Unable to go north-west, we turned off to go due south one hundred 
and fifty miles or so ; then proceeded west till we were past the disturbed 
district, and again resumed our northing. But on going some sixty miles 
we heard that the Arab camp was twenty miles further south, and we 
went to hear the news. The reception was extremely kind, for this 
party consisted of gentlemen from Zanzibar, and of a very different 
stamp from the murderers we afterwards saw in Manyuema. They 
were afraid that the chief with whom they had been fighting might 
flee southwards, and that in going that way I might fall into his hands. 
Being now recovered, I could readily believe them, and they being 
eager ivory traders, as readily believed me when I asserted that a con- 
tinuance of hostilities meant shutting up the ivory market. No one 
would like to sell if he stood a chance of being shot. Peace, therefore, was 
to be made; but the process of " mixing blood," forming a matrimonial 
alliance with the chiefs daughter, &c., &c., required three and a half 
months, and during long intervals of that time I remained at Chitimbwa's. 
The stockade was situated by a rivulet, and had a dense grove of high, 
damp-loving trees round a spring on one side, and open country, pretty 
well cultivated, on the other. It was cold, and over 4,700 feet above 
the sea, with a good deal of forest land and ranges of hills in the dis- 
tance. The Arabs were on the west side of the stockade, and one of 
Chitimbwa's wives at once vacated her house on the east side for my 
convenience. Chitimbwa was an elderly man, with grey hair and beard, 
and of quiet, self-possessed manners. He had five wives, and my hut 
being one of the circle which their houses formed, I often sat reading 
or writing outside, and had a good opportunity of seeing the domestic life 
in this Central African harem, without appearing to be prying. The 
chief wife, the mother of Chitimbwa's son and heir, was somewhat aged, 
but was the matron in authority over the establishment. The reet were 
young, with fine shapes, pleasart countenances, and nothing of the 
West Coast African about their 


Three of them had each a child, making, with the eldest son, a 
family of four children to Chitimbwa. The matron seemed to 
reverence her husband, for when she saw him approaching she 
invariably went out of the way, and knelt down till he had passed. 
It was the time of year for planting and weeding the plantations, and 
the regular routine work of all the families in the town was nearly as 
follows : Between three and four o'clock in the morning, when the 
howling of the hyaenas and growling of the lions or leopards told that 
they had spent the night fasting, the first human sounds heard were 
those of the good wives knocking off the red coals from the ends of 
the sticks in the fire, and raising up a blaze to which young and old 
crowded for warmth from the cold, which at this time is the most intense 
of the twenty-four hours. Some Bang smoker lights his pipe, and 
makes the place ring with his nasty screaming, and stridulous coughing. 
Then the cocks begin to crow (about four A.M.), and the women call 
to each other to make ready to march. They go off to their gardens in 
companies, and keep up a brisk, loud conversation, with a view to 
frighten away any lion or buffalo that may not yet have retired, and foi 
this the human voice is believed to be efficacious. The gardens, or 
plantations, are usually a couple of miles from the village. This is 
often for the purpose of securing safety for the crops from their own 
goats or cattle, but more frequently for the sake of the black loamy 
soil near the banks of rivulets. This they prefer for maize and dura 
(7/o/CMS swylium\ while for a small species of millet, called mileza, 
they select a patch in the forest, which they manure by burning the 
branches of trees. The distances which the good wives willingly go tc 
get the best soil adapted for different plants make their arrival just 
about dawn. Fire has been brought from home, and a little pot is set 
on with beans or pulse something that requires long simmering ; and 
the whole family begins to work at what seems to give them real 
pleasure. The husband, who had marched in front of each little squad 
with a spear and little axe over his shoulder, at once begins to cut of? 
all the sprouts on the stumps left in cleaving the ground. All bushes 
also fall to his share, and all the branches of tall trees too hard to be 
cut down are piled round the root to be fired when dry. He must also 
cut branches to make a low fence round the plantation, for few wild 
beasts like to cross over anything having the appearance of human 
workmanship. The wart-hog having a great weakness for ground- 
nuts, otherwise called pig-nuts (Arachis hypogiea^, must be circumvented 
by a series of pitfalls, or a deep ditch, and earthern dyke all round tha 


nut-plot. If any other animal has made free with the food of thi 
family, papa carefully examines tho trail of the intruder makes a deep 
pitfall in it, covers it carefully over and every day it is a most 
interesting matter to see whether the thief has been taken for the pot. 
The mother works away vigorously with her hoe, often adding :aew 
patches of virgin land to that already under cultivation. The children 
help by removing the weeds and grass which she has uprooted into 
heaps to be dried and burned. They seem to know and watch every 
plant in the field. It is all their own ; no one is stinted as to the land 
he may cultivate ; the more they plant the more they have to eat and to 
spare. In some parts of Africa the labour falls almost exclusively on 
the women, and the males are represented as atrociously cruel to them. 
It was not so here, nor is it so in Central Africa generally indeed the 
women have often decidedly the upper hand. The clearances by law 
and custom were the work of the men ; the weeding was the work 01 
the whole family, and so was the reaping. The little girls were nursing 
baby under the shade of a watch-house perched on the tops of a 
number of stakes about twelve or fourteen feet high, and to this the 
family adjourns when the dura is in ear to scare away birds by day 
and antelopes by night. About eleven A.M. the stm becomes too hot 
for comfortable work, and all come under the shade of the lofty watch- 
tower, or a tree left for the purpose. Mamma serves out the pottage, 
now thoroughly cooked, by placing a portion into each pair of hands 
it is bad manners here to receive any gift with but one hand. They 
eat it with keen appetites, and with so much relish that for ever after- 
wards they think that to eat with the hand is far nicer than with a 
spoon. Mamma takes and nurses baby while she eats her own share. 
Baby seems a general favourite, and is not exhibited till he is quite a little 
ball of fat. Every one then takes off beads to ornament him. He is 
not born with a silver spoon in his mouth, and one may see poor 
mothers who have no milk mix a little flour and water in the palm 
of the hand, and the little sisters look on with intense interest to see 
the little stranger making a milk-bottle of the side of the mother's hand, 
the crease therein just allowing enough to pass down. They are wide- 
awake little creatures, and I thought that my own little ones imbibed 
a good deal of this quality from I don't know what. I never saw such 
unwearied energy as they displayed the livelong day, and that too in 
the hot season. The meal over, the wife, and perhaps daughter, goes 
a little way into the forest and collects a bundle of dry wood, and, with 
the baby slung on her buck, in a way that suggests fcho fattening 01 


the noses of niany Africiins, the wood, on her head &r*a the boy 
carrying the hoe, the party wends home. Each wife has her own 
granary, in which the produce of the garden is stowed. It is of the 
hcehive shape of the huts, only the walls are about twelve feet high, 
and it is built on a stage about eighteen inches from the ground. It is 
nbout five feet in diameter, and roofed with wood and grass. The doer 
is near the roof, and a ladder, made by notches being cut in a tree, 
is used to enable the owner to climb into it. The first thing the 
good wife does on coming home is to get the ladder, climb up, and 
bring down millet or dura grain sufficient for her family. She spreads 
it in the sun, and while this is drying or made crisp occurs the 
only idle time I have seen in the day's employment. Some rested, 
others dressed their husband's or neighbour's hair, others strung 
beads. 1 should have liked to have seen them take life more easily, 
for it is as pleasant to see the negro reclining under his palm as it is to 
look at the white lolling on his ottoman. But the great matter is, 
they enjoy their labour, and the children enjoy life as human beings 
ought, and have not the sap of life squeezed out of them by their own 
parents as is the case with nailers, glass-blowers, stockingers, fustian- 
cutters, brick-makers, &c., in England. At other periods of the year, 
when harvest is home, they enjoy more leisure and jollification with 
their native beer called"pombe," but in no case of free people, living 
in their own free land under their own free laws, are they like what 
slaves become. 

When the grain is dry it is pounded in a large wooden mortar to 
separate the scales from the seed. A dexterous toss of the hand drives 
all the chaff to one corner of the vessel. This is lifted out, and then 
the dust is tossed out by another peculiar up-and-down, half horizontal 
motion of the vessel, difficult to describe or do, which leaves the grain 
quite clean. It is then ground into fine meal by a horizontal motion 
of the upper millstone, to which the whole weight is applied, and at 
each stroke the flour is shoved off the further end of the nether mill- 
stone. The flour finished, late in the afternoon, at the time maidens go 
forth to draw water, the lady poises a huge earthen pot on her head, 
fills it full at the rivulet, and, though containing ten or twelve gallons, 
balances it on her head, and, without lifting up her hands, walks 
jauntily home. They have meat but seldom, and make relishes for the 
porridge into which the flour is cooked of the leaves of certain wild and 
cultivated plants ; or they roast some ground nuts, grind them fine, 
Mid make a curry. They seem to know that oily matter such *s ths 


ants contain is requisite to modify their otherwise farinaceous food, 
/ind some even grind a handful of castor-oil nuts with the grain for the 
same purpose. The husband having employed himself in the afternoon 
in making mats for sleeping on, in preparing skins for clothing, or in 
making new handles for hoes or cutting out wooden bowls, joins the 
family in the evening, and all partake abundantly of the chief meal of 
the day before going off to sleep. They have considerable skill in 
agriculture, and great shrewdness in selecting the soils proper for 
different kinds of produce. When Bishop Mackenzie witnessed their 
operations in the field, he said to me, " When I was in England and 
spoke in public meetings about our mission, I mentioned that among 
other things I meant to teach them agriculture, but now I see that the 
Africans know a great deal more about it than I do." One of his 
associates, earnestly desiring to benefit the people to whom he was 
going, took lessons in basket-making before he left England ; but the 
specimens of native workmanship he met with everywhere led him to 
conclude that he had better say nothing about his acquisition ; in fact, 
he could " not hold a candle to them." The foregoing is as fair an 
example of the every-day life of the majority of the people in Central 
Africa as I can give. 

The Peninsular and Oriental steamship Malwa arrived 
at Southampton on the 16th of April. As she hove to 
abreast of Netley Hospital she was boarded by Admiral 
Sir William Hall, William F. Webb, Esq., of Newstead 
Abbey, General Eigby, formerly Political Kesident at 
Zanzibar, Colonel J. A. Grant, companion of Speke, the Eev. 
Robert Moffatt, father-in-law of Dr. Livingstone, William 
Oswell Livingstone, the great traveller's second son, the 
Eev. Horace Waller, formerly of the Zambezi Mission, 
and now Vicar of Leytonstone, and Arthur Laing, Esq., of 
Zanzibar, Mr. Fenton, representative of the ' Times,' Mr. 
Walter Wood, of the ' Standard/ Mr. Mackenzie, of the 
* Telegraph/ and Mr. Senior, of the ' Daily News/ and 
other gentlemen connected with the reception of the 
remains of Livingstone at Southampton. 


Mr. Thomas Steele Livingstone, who was a passenger 
on board, was soon recognised, and the Eev. Mr. Price, 
after seeking for Jacob Wainwright, brought him to the 
above-mentioned gentlemen, by whom he was warmly 
applauded for the fidelity which had characterised his 
service with the great traveller. 

The information supplied by Jacob Wainwright, on 
being examined by me on board the Malwa, confirmed 
what was obtained from him by the 'Herald' corre- 
spondent at Suez. Beyond this he stated that Livingstone 
first had a relapse of dysentery at Kasera, in Ukonongo 
(see * How I found Livingstone/ p. 288), while he was 
but twenty days from Unyanyembe, and that all the 
streams they journeyed across from Unyanyembe flowed 
westerly and northerly, which proves conclusively now 
that the Tanganika has no outlet in any part of the 
north-western, northern, eastern, or southern coasts of 
the lake, and that the mystery will be found to be 
between the north end of the island of Muzimu and the 
southern end of Uguhha on the western shore, which no 
doubt will be discovered by Lieutenant Cameron, who 
must have reached Ujiji in the early part of January of 
this year. 

After the arrival of the Malwa in the dock, the coffin 
containing the mortal relics of the traveller was lifted from 
the mailroom of the ship and placed on board another 
steamer, to be conveyed to the Koyal Pier, to be received 
ceremoniously by the Mayor and the Corporation of 
Southampton, and the Committee of the Koyal Geogra- 
phical Society; and while this was being done all hats 


were reverently doffed. Every flag was at half-mast. 
Mostly all the citizens of Southampton wore the mark of 

About eleven o'clock the procession irom the Audit 
House, in the High Street, arrived at the Koyal Piei, 
where the hears 3, drawn by four horses, was in waiting. 
In a few moments the procession resumed its line of 
march to the South Western Station in the following 
order : 

The Worshipful the Mayor. 

The Sheriff. 

The Senior arid Junior Bailiffs. 

The Aldermen. 

The Councillors. 

The Magistrates of the Borough. 

The Pier and Harbour Commissioners. 

Sir F. Perkins, M.P. 


The Relatives of Dr. Livingstone. 

The President and Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society. 

The Clergy and Ministers of the Town. 

The President of the Medical Society of Southampton. 

Members of the Medical Society and of the Medical Profession 


The Consuls of different Nations. 
The Guardians of the Southampton Incorporation 

The Council of the Hartley Institution. 

The Members of the Southampton School Board. 

The Committee of each Literary and Philosophical Society in the 

The Representatives of other Public Bodies. 

The Mayor, Aldermen, and the other members of the 
Corporation wore their official robes and insignia, but 
with crape on their arms. The maces and regalia were 
also encased in black. 


The crowds were vast people from all sections of the 
County of Hants had gathered in the streets on this day, 
to pay the only tribute in their power to all that was 
left of the greatest of African explorers. The mani- 
festation of their sentiments was remarkably impressive. 

On the arrival of the hearse at the station, it was 
placed on a truck, and a special train conveyed it to 
London. At Waterloo Station a hearse and mourning 
coaches were in readiness to take the coffin and the 
Committee of Arrangements to the rooms of the Koyal 
Geographical Society, where the coffin was covered with 
a pall to await burial, and to be inspected by the public. 

The exhibition of the respect of the good people of 
Southampton towards the remains of Livingstone was 
only what might have been expected from a people 
so appreciative of usefulness and virtue as the English. 
The worthy mayor Edwin Jones, Esq., has faithfully 
demonstrated it by the large-minded hospitality with 
which he received the Committee of the Geographical 
Society and the friends of the traveller, and the per- 
fection of the arrangements for the reception of the 

Meanwhile an appeal has been made to the British 
public by Baroness Burdett-Coutts, Lord Kinnaird, Sir 
Bartle Frere, Hon. A. Kinnaird, W. F. Webb, Esq., 
Rev. Horace Waller, James Young, Esq., of Kelley, and 
W. C. Oswell, Esq., for means to support the family 
of the traveller, whiah no doubt will be liberally re* 
sponded to. 

la the following portion of a letter which Captain Webb 


brought the author from Zanzibar, which was given to 
him by Lieutenant Murphy, Dr. Livingstone expresses his 
thanks to me for the promptitude and care with which I 
despatched to him his supplies from Zanzibar. 

* Lake Bangweolo, South Central Africa. 

I wrote hurriedly to you when on the eve of starting from 
Duyanyembe, and the mind being occupied by all the little worries 
incidental to the starting of the caravan, I felt, and still feel, that I 
had not expressed half the gratitude that wells up in my heart for all 
the kmd services you have rendered to me. I am also devoutly thank- 
ful to the loving Father above for helping you through all your manifold 
Masika (rainy season) toils, and bringing you safely to Zanzibar, with 
your energies unimpaired, and with a desire to exert yourself to the 
utmost in securing all the men and goods needed for this my con- 
cluding trip. 

I am perpetually reminded that I owe a great deal to you for the 
drilling of the men you sent. With one exception, the party is 
working like a machine. I give my orders to Manwa Sera, and 
never need to repeat them. I parted with the Arab sent without any 
disagreement. He lost one of the new donkeys at Bagamoyo. He 
then put the two stragglers on the chain without fastening the free 
end, and they wisely walked off with the bridle, bits and all then 
suffered a lazy Mombasian to leave the cocoa somewhere, and got five 
dotis at Unyanyembe. Well, no one either before or after that could 
get any good out of him. 

Added to this, the Arab showed a disposition to get a second $500, 
supposing we should be one month over the year, though he could do 
nothing except through my native headmen. 1 therefore let him go, 
and made Manwa Sera, Chowpereh, and Susi, heads of departments at 
$20 if they gave satisfaction. This they have tried faithfully to do, 
and hitherto have been quite a contrast to Bombay, who seemed to 
think that you ought to please him. 

Majwara has behaved perfectly but is slow! slow ! ! and keeps your 
fine silver teapot, spoons, and knives as bright as if he were an 
English butler ; gels a cup of coffee at five A.M. or sooner, if I don't 

* This letter musinave been written some time after Christmas of 1872. 


qxlvise him to Ii3 down again; walks at the head of the caravan as 
drummer, this instrument being the African sign of peace as well as of 
war. He objected at first to the office, because the drum had not been 
bought by either you or me. Some reasons are profound this may be 
one of them. 

The fruits, fish, pork, biscuits, fowl have been selected far better 
than I could have done it. No golden syrup could be found, or you 
would have sent some. The tea was very nicely secured. 

Your wish for joy of the plum-pudding was fulfilled, though it 
would have been better had we been nearer to Chambezi, where we 
spent Christmas, to enjoy it. I keep most of your handsome presents 
of champagne for a special occasion. One rifle was injured at Baga- 
moyo; your revolver and splendid rifle were all I could desire for 
efficiency. The fifteen-shooter cartridges are not satisfactory, but 
everything else gives so much satisfaction that I could not grumble 
though I were bilious. I thank you very much and very sincerely for 
all your kind generosity. 

My reason for publishing the above is to show the 
reader how susceptible of gratitude was the heart oi 
Dr. Livingstone. It is a complete and certain proof that 
if proper care had been taken to send him supplies 
Livingstone would not only have been most grateful, 
but would undoubtedly have been living to-day in Eng- 
land to express his thanks in person for the assistance he 
received while in Africa. 

As the author of this memoir was one of the pall- 
bearers at the funeral of Dr. Livingstone, it is neces- 
sary that some writer unconnected with the ceremony 
should be left to describe what took place at Westminster 
Abbey, on Saturday, April 18th, 1874. 

Yesterday morning, Dr. Livingstone WP.S buried in Westminster 
Abbey amidst such testimonies of profound respect and mournful 
veneration as has seldom been shown lor the fate of any since the 
death of the lamented Prince: Consort. There was something touching 


in thj fate of poor Livingstone. His long absence the loss of his wif< 
in the hear 4 of the wilds of Africa the rumours of his death, which 
were only contradicted to be again revived, the search of the gallant 
Stanley for him, which at length set all anxiety and misgivings at rest, 
and then the last news of all the death of the great explorer. None 
believed in this, because none wished to do so, but kept on hoping 
against hope, till the terrible calamity of the fate which had overtaken 
the great man was found at last to be but too true. The fate of Mungo 
Park, of Clapperton, of Lander, in no way excited any interest in their 
discoveries, or more than a passing regret for their loss. Africa was 
then an unknown land ; and, to say the truth, people cared as little 
about it as they knew. Lately it has been opened up to us like a 
region of romance, by Baker, Speke, Grant, and last, and greatest 
of all, the marvellous man who was to rest in England's sanctuary of 
sanctuaries. That the greatest of the great of this land lie beneath its 
sandy soil we all know, but among the mighty dead whose plain 
gravestones chequer its pavement, or whose monuments adorn its walls, 
there are none more distinguished for courage and moderation, for 
singleness of purpose and the simplicity of his great philanthropy, than 
David Livingstone. How we have all followed him in his adventures 
from the time that the lion first seized him thirty years ago and left 
such fractures in the bones of his arm as led, even after the lapse of 
about a year after death, to the instant identification of the body by 
the great surgeon who attended him when last in England ! There 
seems to be a sort of lurking suspicion among some that the body after 
all may not be that of the famous geographer, and this no doubt may 
be accounted for by the fact that so many rumours have obtained 
credence as to his death. But if there is anything that was incon- 
testably proved it is that the poor, emaciated remains which were 
yesterday laid under the centre of the nave of our great Abbey, were 
those of the most famous explorer of any time, ancient or modem. Not 
only has Sir William Fergusson identified what he had done to the 
bones cf the left arm, but with the body the faithful servant, Jacob 
Wainwright, has brought all the diaries, the instruments, the journals, 
and even the poor clothes in which Livingstone breathed his last. If 
these are not proofs of identity, it would be hard to say what is rc?- 
^uired. They are but far too certain. 

The Abbey had the usual quiet, solemn, and stately aspect, that 
makes, as Coleridge says, a religion in stone. The choir had a line A 
black cloth down it, which was met by another from the door of tu 


western cloisters, where the body was to be received, and in the ccntrt 
of the nave was a black aperture, amid the black cloth, of the shape of 
a coffin, and just rimmed round with a broad band of white. Without 
such a precaution one might have inadvertently slipped into it in the 
early gloom of the morning, but as the day wore on during service the 
sun came out in a flood of light, which, pouring through the stained 
windows, tinted the columns and ancient monuments with all the hues 
f the rainbow The grave of Livingstone is in the very centre of the 
west part of th to nave. The spot is in the central line, exactly half- 
way between the western doors and the choir. On the north side is 
the grave of the Countess of Clanricarde, and on the other side that oi 
Thomas Campion, a noted watchmaker. Close by lie Major Rennell, 
and Telford and Stcphenson, the engineers. Like all the graves in 
Westminster Abbey, it is not a deep one, for there are no vaults under 
the Abbey, and the soil is so sandy that it is scarcely safe to go far down. 
As it was, both sides of the grave had to be shored to prevent the sand 
from slipping. These supports, however, were hidden by black cloth, 
which gave, as usual, a most forbidding aspect to the large aperture 
and one of most unusual depth. The central position of the grave 
made the whole ceremony far more conspicuous than was the 
case with the funerals of Lord Lytton or Lord Macaulay. That 
of Dickens was absolutely private. Before the procession started 
from th/) house of the Geographical Society in Saville Row, there 
was a funeral service conducted by the Rev. H. W. Hamilton, 
Minister of the Established Church of Scotland. The pall was 
adorned with wreaths of flowers, one of them, composed of white 
azaleas and delicate ferns, having been sent by her Majesty. The 
service consisted of the 39th Psalm, and three other short passages 
from the Bible Mark xiii. 33-37, I Thessalonians, iv. 13-18, and 
Rev. vii. 9-17 followed by an extempore prayer. The procession 
was then formed, and passed slowly through the streets to the Abbey, 
It was nearly twelve o'clock before those who were fortunate 
to have tickets began to take their seats. Without a single ex- 
ception, all were more or less in mourning that is to say, some in 
deep mourning, others only in ordinary black. The choir soon rilled 
and those beyond it made up a throng in the nave and the aisles. 
But all was as silent as the grave itself; not even the usual mild 
whisper of a waiting congregation went round. Earlier than all came 
& group of seven ladies, some very young, and all dressed in the 
deepest mourning They took their places in the seat* allotted to 


mourners in the southern side of the choir, just in front of the fare 
black velvet trestles on which the coffin was to be placed. Each lady 
had with her a large chaplet of myrtles and violets or camellias and 
cypresses, which were ranged in front of them, and, in spite of their 
beauty, were, with their associations, a melancholy-looking row. 
Towards twelve the Abbey began to fill, and there was a faint though 
audible noise of the crowd which was waiting without to watch the 
arrival of what was most truly a melancholy procession. Soon after 
twelve o'clock such of the public as had tickets were allowed into the 
building, and filled the aisles, while others who were more privileged 
occupied me Sacrarium. By-and-bye all spaces were filled, and even 
in the clerestory there were some lining the old monks' walk, and 
looking down with a curious aspect from rather a dizzy height on to 
the crowd below. At a quarter to one the bells of St. Margaret's 
began to toll. The bell of the Abbey, like that of St. Paul's, never 
tolls but for Royalty. The coffin was conveyed through Dean's Yard to 
the entrance of the western cloisters. Thence past the time-worn fret- 
work of carved mullions and pilasters, which were old and grey when 
Africa was only a name, and America an unknown sound. Through 
these cloisters it was reverently borne at a very slow pace.* 

The pall-bearers were Mr. Henry M. Stanle}', who was foremost on the 
right, the Rev. Horace Waller, Vicar of Leytonstone, Dr. John Kirk, 
Mr. Edward Daniel Young, who had been his companions on the 
Zambezi ; W. G. Oswell, Esq., Major-General Sir Thomas Steele, W. 
F. Webb, Esq. (of Newstead Abbey), who had been his companions in 
South Central Africa, in the region of Lake Ngami, and lastly Jacob 
Wainwright, the coloured boy from Nassick School, who had been sent 
by Mr. Stanley from Zanzibar to form part of the escort of the great 
explorer on his last journey from Unyanyembe to Lake Bangweolo. 

Among the mourners, were Thomas Steele Livingstone, William 
Oswell Livingstone, Agnes Livingstone, and Mary Anna Livingstona, 
the dead traveller's children; Janet and Anna Livingstone, his sisters; 
Mrs. Livingstone, widow of the Rev. Charles Livingstone ; Rev. Robert 
Moffatt, his father-in-law, Livingstone and Bruce Mofiatt, young rela- 
tives of the traveller ; Sir W. Fergusson, Rev. H. W. Hamilton, Dr. J. 
Loudon, Mr. James Hannan, the Duke of Sutherland, Right Hon. Sir 
Bartle Frere, K.C.B. (President Royal Geographical Society), Sir H. C. 
Rawlinson, K.C.B. (Vice-President Geographical Society), Mr. K. U. 
, Genial Rigby, Colonel J. A. Grant, C.B.. Mr. J. Murray, 
* From the " Sunday Dispatch," 


Mr. J. Yjung, jun. (of Kelley), Vice- Admiral Baron de la Ronciere le 
Notiry (President French Geographical Society), Dr. Hooker (President 
Royal Society), Mr. H. W. Bates (Assistant Secretary Royal Geo- 
graphical Society), Lord Houghton, the Provost of Hamilton, Mr. J. B. 
Braithwaite, Mr. C. 11. Markham, Mr. II. H. Major (Secretaries Royi.l 
Geographical Society), Rev. Dr. Stuart, Mr. T. Nicholson, Mr. Ralston, 
(friends of the family), the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, Mr. Duncan 
M'Laren, M.P., Mr. James Cowan, M.P., Mr. Josiah Livingstone, the 
Lord Provost of Glasgow, Dr. Watsou (Pres. Faculty Pliys. Glasgow), 
Baillie Walls (Chief Magistrate, Glasgow), Baillie Bain, Mr. Edwin 
Jones (the Mayor of Southampton), Sir Frederick Perkins, Mr. A. Laiug. 
Mr. Elliott (who brought the body from Southampton); Mr. George 
Saner, Mr. Edmund Yates, and Mr. J. H. MacGahan, Correspondent* 
of the 'New York Herald;' the Duke of Manchester, the Earl 01 
Ducie, Lord Cottesloe, Lord Kinnaird, the Bishops of Lincoln and 
Sierra Leone, the Lord Mayor and City Remembrancer and twenty 
members of the Corporation of London ; the Mayor of Nottingham, 
the Provost of Dumbarton, the Provost and Town Clerk of Ayr, 
Lady Frere, Lady Rawlinson, Lady Strangford, Hon. Mrs. Forester, 
Mrs. W. F. Webb, of Newstead Abbey, Mrs. and Miss Goodlake, Sir 
Rutherford Alcock, Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Sir C. Nicholson, Sir C. 
Russell, M.P., Sir W. Thompson, Sir Harry Verney, Major-General 
Sir F. Goldsmid, the Right Hon. Russell Gurney, M.P., the Hon. 
G. C. Brodrick, Hon. A. F. Kinnaird, Count Gosloff, Chevalier 
Cadorna (Italian Minister), Viscount Duprat (Portuguese Consul 
General), Mr. Moran (United States Charge* d' Affairs), Capt. Francis 
11. Webb and lady, from Zanzibar U.S. Consulate, Count Munster (the 
German Ambassador), General Scott, Admirals Codrington, Collinson 
Sir W. Hall, Sherard Osborn, and Ommanney ; the Rev. Wm. Monk, 
who presented Dr. Livingstone in 1867 to the Vice Chancellor in 
the Cambridge Senate House; Colonel Ouseley, Professor Brock, anu 
a deputation from the Anthropological Institute, and other deputation 
from the Royal Botanical Society of London, National Temperanca 
League, Social Science Association, African Section of the Soeietj 
of Arts, Reception Committee of Southampton Church Missionary 
Society, London Missionary Society, British and Foreign Anti-Slavery 
East African, and other societies. 

Most notable among the throng, as they carry the Coffin to tfo 
grave, are the African travellers who constitute such a natural guard a- 
honour for this dead man. Foremost among them in right of gallac* 


special service, and nearest to Livingstone's head, stands Stanley sun- 
tanned anew from Ashantee whose famous march of relief gives 
America the full right to celebrate at this moment, as we know she is 
doing, simultaneously with England, the obsequies of the explorer. 
But for Stanley, Livingstone would have died long back, without aid 
or news from us ; but near him are Grant, the discoverer, along with 
Speke, of the Nyanza ; Young, who was with Livingstone in old days, 
and who sailed the Nyassa Lakje and the Shire Kiver in quest of him ; 
Oswell, tanned and grizzled with hunting and exploring under an 
African sun ; and beside them Rigby, and Moffat, and Webb, the 
godfather of the Lualaba, and the faithful friend \\ ho buried Mrs. 
Livingstone in the sad day of the separation of husband and wife; 
Colonel Shelley, of Lake Ngami ; Waller, of the Zambesi ; Galton, 
Reade what a band of Africani ! Such a gathering of sunburnt 
visages and far-travelled men was never seen before; and, indeed, 
the list might be lengthened with the names of a hundred other famous 
travellers present, who listen with wistful looks round their great dead 
chieftain, while Tallis's hymn is being sung, after the lesson read by 
Canon Conway. It is a well-known hymn one which sings 01 
ultimate rest after wandering the only real rest for all toils and 
travels. These are the words : 

" God of Bethel, by whose hand 

Thy people still are fed, 
Who through this weary pilgrimage 

Hast all our fathers led ; 

" Our vows, our prayers, we now present 

Before thy throne of grace ; 
God of our Fathers ! be the God 

Of each succeeding race. 

" Through each perplexing path of life 

Our wandering footsteps guide ; 
Give us each day our daily bread, 

And every want provide. 

" spread thy covering wings around 

Till all our wanderings ceaso, 
And at our Father's loved abode 

Our souls arrive in peace ! " 

t 01 ITVINGSTON& kxvii 

After the conclusion of this hymn, in which the congregation joined 
with much effect, the coffin is borne down the choir into the centre of 
the nave, where towards its western end the grave has been prepared. 
Here also amoag the dead lying around are ancient far-travelled 
worthies companionable ashes for those which are now to be con- 
signed to the same unbroken and majestic rest. Sir John Chardin lies 
nigh at hand, who saw Suleiman II. crowned Monarch of Persia two 
hundred years gone by a much-wandering Knight, " qui sibi nomen 
fecit eundo ;" and Major James Rennell, who wrote on the geography 
of Herodotus and founded the African Society. The pall is withdrawn, 
and the polished oaken coffin is prepared for lowering into the dark 
cavity which opens so narrowly and so abruptly in the Abbey pave- 
ment, while the choir sing " Man that is born of a woman " to Croft's 
setting, and then the tender strains of Purcell's, " Thou knowest Lord.' 
This is the very last that will be seen of " this our dear brother," and 
now indeed strong men are fain to bend their heads, and sobs, not from 
women only, mingle with the alternate sighing and rejoicing of the 
solemn music. The dizzy edges of the clerestory, eighty feet overhead, 
are crowded with people looking down from that perilous eminence 
upon the throng round the grave, and shadows are seen at many of the 
Abbey windows, of others peering through for a glimpse of the " last 
scene of all." As the precious burden descends the inscription on the 
plate may be seen "David Livingstone, born at Blan tyre, Lanarkshire, 
Scotland, 19th March, 1813, died at Ilala, Central Africa, 4th May, 
1873." And then there falls the " dust to dust ;" and, looking at the 
solemn dusky faces of the two Africans, Wainwright and little Kalulu, 
Mr. Stanley's boy, who are standing among the nearest, the mind 
reverts to that widely-different scene a year ago, when Livingstone,, 
after much pain, which is not spared to the best and kindliest, gave up 
his gallant, loving, pious spirit to his Master and Maker, and when yonder 
negro lad read over him the very service which has now again been so 
grandly celebrated for him 

" With pomp and rolling music, like a King." 

The African a simple-looking, quiet, honest lad attracts many 
eyes as he stands by the grave ; he knows alone of all present the 
aspect of that other burial spot, and to him more than all this one 
must be impressive. But he takes his wonder, like his duty, stolidly 
his thoughts appear lost in his master's memory, Alas! thai 


inastui did not dream in the supreme closing hour of loneliness and 
agony that his body would find such honour and peaceful repose at 
home. Of that and of all other reward, hcwever, he never thought 
while he wrought patiently and constantly his appointed work for the 
sake of Africa tramping, discovering, noting, hunting out the slave- 
hunters, and leaving himself and the results of his self-sacrifice to 
Heaven. And Heaven, which has given him this sweet rest in English 
earth, will assuredly bring forth fruits of his labour of that we may 
remain well convinced ; meanwhile, the work of England for Afric? 
must henceforward begin in earnest where Livingstone left it off. 

The service draws to its end with the " Forasmuch " and the follow- 
ing prayers, read in a clear, sustained voice of the deepest solemnity 
and feeling by Dean Stanley ; and then once more the organ speaks the 
unspeakable as music only can sounding forth, " I heard a voice 
from heaven." But the very finest musical passage of all comes last in 
the beautiful anthem of Handel, " His body rests in peace, but his 
name liveth evermore." Tenderly and meditatively the first sad dreamy 
sentence is set, as though it were uttered by some spirit of melody looking 
downward into the quiet, silent haven of the grave, where all the 
storms and toils of mortal life are over. Radiantly and triumphantly 
comes afterwards the jubilant antiphon, as though the same gentle 
spirit had conceived it, mindful of the sacred words, "Come ye blessed 
children of my Father, receive the kingdom prepared for you from the 
beginning of the world." Last of all, there rains down upon the lid of 
Livingstone's coflBn a bright and fragrant shower of wreaths and fare- 
well-flowers from a hundred living hands ; and each of those present 
takes a long parting glance at the great traveller's resting-place, and at 
the oaken coffin buried in the spring blossoms, and palms, and garlands, 
wherein lies " as much as could die " of the good, great-hearted, loving, 
fearless, and faithful David Livingstone.* 

ILALA MAT, 1873.f 

The swarthy followers stood aloof, 

Unled unfathered ; 
He lay beneath that grassy roof, 

* From the Daily Telegraph. f From the ' Tun< 


13 e bade them, as they passed the ht-t, 

To give no warning 
Of their still faithful presence but 
" Good Morning." 

To him, may be, through broken s\ee\ 

And pains abated, 
These words were into senses deep 

Dear dead salutes of wife and child, 

Old kirkyard greetings ; 
Sunrises over hill-sides wild 

Welcoming sounds of fresh-blown seas, 

Of homeward travel, 
Tangles of thought's last memories 

: Neath England's fretted roof of fame 

With flowers adorning 
A n open grave comes up the same 
" Good Morning." 

Morning's o'er that weird continent 

Now slowly breaking 
Europe her sullen self-restraint 

Mornings of sympathy and trust 

For such as bore 

Their Master's spirit's sacred crust 
To Borland's shore. 





ON the sixteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine, I was in 
Madrid, fresh from the carnage at Valencia. At 10 A.M. 
Jacopo, at No. Calle de la Cruz, handed me a telegram : 
It read, " Come to Paris on important business." The 
telegram was from Mr. James Gordon Bennett, jun., the 
young manager of the * New York Herald.' 

Down came my pictures from the walls of my apart- 
ments on the second floor ; into my trunks went my 
books and souvenirs, my clothes were hastily collected, 
some half washed, some from the clothes-line half dry, 
and after a couple of hours of hasty hard work my 
portmanteaus were strapped up and labelled " Paris." 

At 3 P.M. I was on my way, and being obliged to stop 
at Bayonne a few hours, did not arrive at Paris until the 
following night. I went straight to the * Grand Hotel/ 
and knocked at the door of Mr. Bennett's room. 

" Come in," I heard a voice say. 

Entering, I found Mr. Bennett in bed. 

" Who are you ?" he asked. 



" My name is Stanley," I answered. 

" Ah, yes ! sit down ; I have important business on 
hand for you." 

After throwing over his shoulders his rohe-de-chambre 
Mr. Bennett asked, " Where do you think Living 
stone is?" 

" I really do not know, sir." 

u Do you think he is alive ?" 

" He may be, and he may not be," I answered. 

" Well, I think he is alive, and that he can be found, 
and I am going to send you to find him." 

" What !" said I, " do you really think I can find Dr 
Livingstone ? Do you mean me to go to Central Africa ?" 

" Yes ; I mean that you shall go, and find him wher- 
ever you may hear that he is, and to get what news you 
can of him, and perhaps "delivering himself thought- 
fully and deliberately " the old man may be in want : 
take enough with you to help him should he require it. 
Of course you will act according to your own plans, and 
do what you think best BUT FIND LIVINGSTONE !" 

Said I, wondering at the cool order of sending one to 
Central Africa to search for a man whom I, in common 
with almost all other men, believed to be dead, " Have you 
considered seriously the great expense you are likely 
to incur on account of this little journey ?" 

" What will it cost ?" he asked abruptly. 

"Burton and Speke's journey to Central Africa cost 
between 3,000 and 5,000, and I fear it cannot be done 
under 2,500." 

"Well, I will tell you what you will do. Draw a 
thousand pounds now; and when you have gone through 
that, draw another thousand, and when that is spent, 
draw another thousand, and when you have finished 


that, draw another thousand, and so on; but, FIND 

Surprised but not confused at the order for I knew 
that Mr. Bennett when once he had made up his mind 
was not easily drawn aside from his purpose I yet 
thought, seeing it was such a gigantic scheme, that he 
had not quite considered in his own mind the pros and cons 
of the case ; I said, " I have heard that should your father 
die you would sell the * Herald ' and retire from business." 

"Whoever told you that is wrong, for there is not 
money enough in New York city to buy the ' New York 
Herald.' My father has made it a great paper, but I 
mean to make it greater. I mean that it shall be a 
newspaper in the true sense of the word. I mean that it 
shall publish whatever news will be interest ng to the 
world at no matter what cost." 

"After that," said I, "I have nothing more to say. 
Do you mean me to go straight on to Africa to search 
for Dr. Livingstone ? " 

" No ! I wish you to go to the inauguration of the 
Suez Canal first, and then proceed up the Nile. I hear 
Baker is about starting for Upper Egypt. Find out 
what you can about his expedition, and as you go up 
describe as well as possible whatever is interesting for 
tourists ; and then write up a guide a practical one 
for Lower Egypt ; tell us about whatever is worth seeing 
and how to see it. 

" Then you might as well go to Jerusalem ; I hear 
Captain Warren is making some interesting discoveries 
there. Then visit Constantinople, and find out abou 4 > 
that trouble between the Khedive and the Sultan. 

" Then let me see you might as well visit the 
Crimea and those aid battle-grounds. Then go across 

B 2 


the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea; I hear there is a 
Kussian expedition bound for Khiva. From thence you 
may get through Persia to India ; you could write an 
interesting letter from Persepolis. 

" Bagdad will be close on your way to India ; suppose 
you go there, and write up something about the Eu- 
phrates Valley Eailway. Then, when you have come 
to India, you can go after Livingstone. Probably you 
will hear by that time that Livingstone is on his way to 
Zanzibar ; but if not, go into the interior and find him. 
If alive, get what news of his discoveries you can ; and if 
you find he is dead, bring all possible proofs of his being 
dead. That is all. Good-night, and God be with you." 

" Good-night, Sir," I said ; " what it is in the power 
of human nature to do I will do ; and on such an errand 
as I go upon, God will be with me." 

I lodged with young Edward King, who is making such 
a name in New England. He was just the man who 
would have delighted to tell the journal he was engaged 
upon what young Mr. Bennett was doing, and what errand 
I was bound upon. 

I should have liked to exchange opinions with him 
upon the probable results of my journey, but I dared not 
do so. Though oppressed with the great task before me, 
I had to appear as if only going to be present at the Suez 
Canal. Young King followed me to the express train 
bound for Marseilles, and at the station we parted : he 
to go and read the newspapers at Bowies' Keading-room 
I to Central Africa and who knows ? 

There is no need to recapitulate what I did before going 
to Central Africa. 

I went up the Nile and saw Mr. Higginbotham, chief 
eL#ineer in Baker's Expedition, at PhiLe, and was the 


means of preventing a duel between him and a mad young 
Frenchman, who wanted to fight Mr. Higginbotham with 
pistols, because that gentleman resented the idea of being 
taken for an Egyptian, through wearing a fez cap. I had 
a talk with Capt. Warren at Jerusalem, and descended one 
of the pits with a sergeant of engineers to see the marks 
of the Tyrian workmen on the foundation-stones of the 
Temple of Solomon. I visited the mosques of Stamboul 
with the Minister Kesident of the United States, and the 
American Consul-General. I travelled over the Crimean 
battle-grounds with Kinglake's glorious books for re- 
ference in my hand. I dined with the widow of General 
Liprandi at Odessa. I saw the Arabian traveller Palgrave 
at Trebizond, and Baron Nicolay, the Civil Governor of 
the Caucasus, at Tiflis. I lived with the Eussian Ambas- 
sador while at Teheran, and wherever I went through 
Persia I received the most hospitable welcome from the 
gentlemen of the Indo-European Telegraph Company ; 
and following the examples of many illustrious men, I 
wrote my name upon one of the Persepolitan monuments. 
In the month of August, 1870, 1 arrived in India. 

On the 12th of October I sailed on the barque * Polly ' 
from Bombay to Mauritius. As the ' Polly ' was a slow 
sailer, the passage lasted thirty-seven days. On board 
this barque was a William Lawrence Farquhar hailing 
from Leith, Scotland in the capacity of first-mate. He 
was an excellent navigator, and thinking he might be 
useful to me, I employed him ; his pay to begin from the 
date we should leave Zanzibar for Bagamoyo. As there 
was no opportunity of getting to Zanzibar direct, I took 
ship to Seychelles. Three or four days after arriving at 
Mahe, one of the Seychelles group, I was fortunate 
enough t) get a passage for myself, William Lawrence 


Farquhar, and an Arab boy from Jerusalem , who was to 
act as interpreter on board an American whaling vessel, 
bound for Zanzibar at which port we arrived on the 6th 
of January, 1871. 

I have skimmed over my travels thus far, because these 
do not concern the reader. They led over many lands, 
but this book is only a narrative of my search after 
Livingstone, the great African traveller. It is an Icarian 
flight of journalism, I confess ; some even have called it 
Quixotic ; but this is a word I can now refute, as will be 
seen before the reader arrives at the " Finis." 

I have used the word " soldiers " in this book. The 
armed escort a traveller engages to accompany him into 
East Africa is composed of free black men, natives of 
Zanzibar, or freed slaves from the interior, who call them- 
selves " askari," an Indian name which, translated, means 
" soldiers." They are armed and equipped like soldiers, 
though they engage themselves also as servants ; but it 
would be more pretentious in me to call them servants, 
than to use the word " soldiers ;" and as I have been more 
in the habit of calling them soldiers than " my watuma " 
servants this habit has proved too much to be over- 
come. I have therefore allowed the word " soldiers " to 
appear, accompanied, however, with this apology. 

But it must be remembered that I am writing a 
narrative of my own adventures and travels, and that 
until I meet Livingstone, I presume the greatest interest 
is attached to myself, my marches, my troubles, my 
thoughts, and my impressions. Yet though I may some- 
times write, " my expedition," or " my caravan," it by no 
means follows that I arrogate to myself this right. For 
it must be distinctly understood that it is the " ' New 
York Herald' Expedition," and that I am only charged 


with its command by Mr. James Gordon Bennett, the 
proprietor of the ' New York Herald,' as a salaried employe 
of that gentleman. 

One thing more; I have adopted the narrative form 
of relating the story of the search, on account of the 
greater interest it appears to possess over the diary form, 
and I think that in this manner I avoid the great fault of 
repetition for vhich some travellers have been severely 




ON the morning of the 6th January, 1871, we were 
sailing through the channel that separates the fruitful 
island of Zanzibar from Africa. The high lands of the 
continent loomed like a lengthening shadow in the grey 
of dawn. The island lay on our left, distant hut a mile, 
coming out of its shroud of foggy folds hit hy bit as the 
day advanced, until it finally rose clearly into view, as 
fair in appearance as the fairest of the gems of creation 
It appeared low, but not flat ; there were gentle elevations 
cropping hither and yon above the languid but graceful 
tops of the cocoa- trees that lined the margin of the island, 
and there were depressions visible at agreeable intervals, 
to indicate where a cool gloom might be found by those 
who sought relief from a hot sun. With the exception of 
the thin line of sand, over which the sap-green water 
rolled itself with a constant murmur and moan, the island 
seemed buried under one deep stratum of verdure. 

The noble bosom of the strait bore several dhows 
speeding in and out of the bay of Zanzibar with bellying 
sails. Towards the south, above the sea line of the 
horizon, there appeared the naked masts of several large 
ships, and to the east of these a dense mass of white, flat- 
topped houses. This was Zanzibar, the capital of the 


islanc.; wnich soon resolved itself inte a pretty large 
and compact city, with all the characteristics of Arab 
architecture. Above some of the largest houses lining 
the bay front of the city streamed the blood-red banner 
of the Sultan, Seyd Burghash, and the flags of the 
American, English, North German Confederation, and 
French Consulates. In the harbor were thirteen large 
ships, four Zanzibar men-of-war, one English man-of-war 
the ' Nymphe,' two American, one French, one Portuguese, 
two English, and two German merchantmen, besides 
numerous dhows hailing from Johanna and Mayotte of 
the Comoro Islands, dhows from Muscat and Cutch 
traders between India, the Persian Gulf, and Zanzibar. 

It was with the spirit of true hospitality and courtesy 
that Capt. Francis K. Webb, United States Consul, 
(formerly of the United States Navy), received me. Had 
this gentleman not rendered me such needful service, 
I must have condescended to take board and lodging at a 
house known as " Charley's," called after the proprietor, 
a Frenchman, who has won considerable local notoriety for 
harboring penniless itinerants, and manifesting a kindly 
spirit always, though hidden under such a rugged front ; 
or I should have been obliged to pitch my double-clothed 
American drill tent on the sandbeach of this tropical 
island, which was by no means a desirable thing. 

But Capt. Webb's opportune proposal to make his 
commodious and comfortable house my own; to enjoy 
myself, with the request that I would call for whatever I 
might require, obviated all unpleasant alternatives. 

One day's life at Zanzibar made me thoroughly conscious 
of my ignorance respecting African people and things in 
general. I imagined I had read Burton and Speke 
through, faii.y well, and that consequently I had pene- 


trated the meaning, the full importance aid grandeur, of 
the work I was about to be engaged upon. But rny 
estimates, for instance, based upon book information, were 
simply ridiculous, fanciful images of African attractions 
were soon dissipated, anticipated pleasures vanished, and 
all crude ideas began to resolve themselves into shape. 

I strolled through the city. My general impressions 
are of crooked, narrow lanes, white- washed houses, mortar- 
plastered streets, in the clean quarter ; of seeing alcoves 
on each side, with deep recesses, with a fore-ground oi 
red-turbaned Banyans, and a back-ground of flimsy cottons, 
prints, calicoes, domestics and what not ; or of floors 
crowded with ivory tusks ; or of dark corners with a pile 
of unginned and loose cotton ; or of stores of crockery, 
nails, cheap Brummagem ware, tools, &c., in what I call 
the Banyan quarter ; of streets smelling very strong 
in fact, exceedingly malodorous, with steaming yellow 
and black bodies, and woolly heads, sitting at the doors of 
miserable huts, chatting, laughing, bargaining, scolding, 
with a compound smell of hides, tar, filth, and vegetable 
refuse, in the negro quarter; of streets lined with tall, 
solid-looking houses, flat roofed, of great carved doors 
with large brass knockers, with baabs sitting cross-legged 
watching the dark entrance to their masters' houses ; of a 
shallow sea-inlet, with some dhows, canoes, boats, an odd 
steam-tub or two, leaning over on their sides in a sea of 
mud which the tide has just left behind it ; of a place 
called " M'nazi-Moya," "One Cocoa-tree," whither Eu- 
ropeans wend on evenings with most languid steps, to 
inhale the sweet air that glides over the sea, while the 
day is dying and the red sun is sinking westward ; of a 
few graves of dead sailors, who paid the forfeit of their 
lives -ipon arrival in this land ; of a tall house whe- ein 


lives Dr. Tozer, " Missionary Bishop of Cei Africa," 
and his school of little Africans ; and of ma:iy other 
things, which got together into such a tangle, that I had 
to go to sleep, lest I should never be ahle to separate the 
moving images, the Arab from the African ; the African 
from the Banyan ; the Banyan from the Hindi ; the Hindi 
from the European, &c. 

Zanzibar is the Bagdad, the Ispahan, the Stamboul, if 
you like, of East \frica. It is the great mart which 
invites the ivory tidders from the African interior. To 
this market come the gum- copal, the hides, the orchilla 
weed, the timber, and the black slaves from Africa. 
Bagdad had great silk bazaars, Zanzibar has her ivory 
bazaars; Bagdad once traded in jewels, Zanzibar trades in 
gum-copal ; Stamboul imported Circassian and Georgian 
slaves; Zanzibar imports black beauties from Uhiyow, 
Ugindo, Ugogo, Unyamwezi and Galla. 

The same mode of commerce obtains here as in all 
Mohammedan countries nay, the mode was in vogue 
long before Moses was born. The Arab never changes. 
He brought the custom of his forefathers with him when 
he came to live on this island. He is as much of an Arab 
here as at Muscat or Bagdad ; wherever he goes to live 
he carries with him his harem, his religion, his long robe, 
his shirt, his slippers, and his dagger. If he penetrates 
Africa, not all the ridicule of the negroes can make him 
change his modes of life. Yet the land has not become 
Oriental ; the Arab has not been able to change the 
atmosphere. -The land is semi-African in aspect ; the 
city is but semi-Arabian. 

To a new-comer into Africa, the Muscat Arabs of 
Zanzibar are studies. There is a certain empre-ssement 
about them which we must admire. They are mostly all 


travellers. There are but few of them who have not 
been in many dangerous positions, as they penetrated 
Central Africa in search of the precious ivory ; and their 
various experiences have given their features a certain 
unmistakable air of self-reliance, or of self-sufficiency ; 
there is a calm, resolute, defiant, independent air about 
them, which wins unconsciously one's respect. The 
stories that some of these men could tell, I have often 
thought, would fill many a book of thrilling adventures. 

For the half-castes I have great contempt. They are 
neither black nor white, neither good nor bad, neither to 
be admired nor hated. They are all things, at all times ; 
they are always fawning on the great Arabs, and always 
cruel to those unfortunates brought under their yoke. If 
I saw a miserable, half-starved negro, I was always sure 
to be told he belonged to a half-caste. Cringing and 
hypocritical, cowardly and debased, treacherous and mean, 
I have always found him. He seems to be for ever 
ready to fall down and worship a rich Arab, but is re- 
lentless to a poor black slave. When he swears most, 
you may be sure he lies most, and yet this is the breed 
which is multiplied most at Zanzibar. 

The Banyan is a born trader, the beau-ideal of a sharp 
money-making man. Money flows to his pockets as 
naturally as water down a steep. No pang of conscience 
will prevent him from cheating his fellow man. He 
excels a Jew, and his only rival in a market is a Parsee ; 
an Arab is a babe to him. It is worth money to see him 
labor with all his energy, soul arid body, to get ad- 
vantage by the smallest fraction of a coin over a native. 
Possibly the native has a tusk, and it may weigh a couple 
of frasilahs, but, though the scales indicate the weight, 
and the native declares solemnly that it must be more 


than two frasilahs, yet our Banyan will asseverate and 
vow that the native knows nothing whatever about it, 
and that the scales are wrong ; he musters up courage to 
lift it it is a mere song, not much more than a frasilah. 
" Come," he will say, " close, man, take the money arid 
go thy way. Art thou mad ?" If the native hesitates, he 
will scream in a fury ; he pushes him ahout, spurns the 
ivory with contemptuous indifference, never was such 
ado ahout nothing; but though he tells the astounded 
native to be up and going, he never intends the ivory 
shall leave his shop. 

The Banyans exercise, of all other classes, most in- 
fluence on the trade of Central Africa. With the exception 
of a very few rich Arabs, almost all other traders are 
subject to the pains and penalties which usury imposes 
A trader desirous to make a journey into the interior, 
whether for slaves or ivory, gum-copal, or orchilla weed, 
proposes to a Banyan to advance him $5,000, at 50, 60, 
or 70 per cent, interest. The Banyan is safe enough not 
to lose, whether the speculation the trader is engaged 
upon pays or not. An experienced trader seldom loses, 
or if he has been unfortunate, through no deed of his own, 
he does not lose credit ; with the help of the Banyan, he 
is easily set on his feet again. 

We will suppose, for the sake of illustrating how trade 
with the interior is managed, that the Arab conveys by 
his caravan $5,000's worth of goods into the interior. At 
Unyanyembe the goods are worth $10,000 ; at Ujiji, they 
are worth $15,000 : they have trebled in price. Five 
doti, or $7*50, will purchase a slave in the markets of 
Ujiji that will fetch in Zanzibar $30. Ordinary men- 
slaves may be purchased for $6 which would sell for $25 
on the coast. We w:'Jl say he purchases slaves to the full 


extent of his means after deducting $1,500 expenses of 
carriage to Ujiji and back viz. $3,500, the slaves 464 
in number, at $7*50 per head would realize $13,920 at 
Zanzibar ! Again, let us illustrate trade in ivory. A 
merchant takes $5,000 to Ujiji, and after deducting 
$1,500 for expenses to Ujiji, and back to Zanzibar, has 
still remaining $3,500 in cloth and beads, with which he 
purchases ivory. At Ujiji ivory is bought at $20 the 
frasilah, or 35 Ibs., by which he is enabled with $3,500 to 
collect 175 frasilahs, which, if good ivory, is worth about 
$60 per frasilah at Zanzibar. The merchant thus finds 
that he has realized $10,500 net profit! Arab traders 
have often done better than this, but they almost always 
have come back with an enormous margin of profit. 

The next people to the Banyans in power in Zanzibar 
are the Mohammedan Hindis. Keally it has been a 
debateable subject in my mind whether the Hindis are not 
as wickedly determined to cheat in trade as the Banyans. 
But, if I have conceded the palm to the latter, it has been 
done very reluctantly. This tribe of Indians can produce 
scores of unconscionable rascals where they can show but 
one honest merchant. One of the honestest among men, 
white or black, red or yellow, is a Mohammedan Hindi 
called Tarya Topan. Among the Europeans at Zanzibar, 
he has become a proverb for honesty, and strict business 
integrity. He is enormously wealthy, owns several ships 
and dhows, and is a prominent man in the councils of Seyd 
Burghash. Tarya has many children, two or three of 
whom are grown-up sons, whom he has reared up even as 
he is himself. But Tarya is bi.t a representative of an 
exceedingly small minority. 

The Arabs, the Banyans, and the Mohammedan Hindis, 
represent the higher and ^e middle classes. These 


classes own the estates, the ships, and tne trade. To 
these classes bow the half-caste and the negro. 

The next most important people who go to make up 
the mixed population of this island are the negroes. They 
consist of the aborigines, Wasawahili, Somalis, Comorines, 
Wanyamwezi, and a host of tribal representatives of Inner 

To a white stranger about penetrating Africa, it is a 
most interesting walk through the negro quarters of the 
Wanyamwezi and the Wasawahili. For here he begins 
to learn the necessity of admitting that negroes are men, 
like himself, though of a different colour ; that they have 
passions and prejudices, likes and dislikes, sympathies 
and antipathies, tastes and feelings, in common with all 
human nature. The sooner he perceives this fact, and 
adapts himself accordingly, the easier will be his journey 
among the several races of the interior. The more plastic 
his nature, the more prosperous will be his travels. 

Though I had lived some time among the negroes of 
our Southern States, my education was Northern, and 
I had met in the United States black men whom I was 
proud to call friends. I was thus prepared to admit any 
black man, possessing the attributes of true manhood or 
any good qualities, to my friendship, even to a brother- 
hood with myself ; and to respect him for such, as much 
as if he were of my own colour and race. Neither his 
colour, nor any peculiarities of physiognomy should debar 
him with me from any rights he could fairly claim as 
a man. " Have these men these black savages from 
pagan Africa," I asked myself, " the qualities which 
make man loveable among his fellows ? Can these men 
these barbarians appreciate kindness or feel rrsent- 
ment like myself?" was my mental question as I travelled 


through their quarters and observed their actions. Need 
I say, that I was much comforted in observing that they 
were as ready to be influenced by passions, by loves and 
hates, as I was myself; that the keenest observation 
failed to detect any great difference between their nature 
ind my own ? 

The negroes of the island probably number two-thirds 
of the entire population. They compose the working-class, 
whether enslaved or free. Those enslaved perform the 
work required on the plantations, the estates, and gardens 
of the landed proprietors, or perform the work of carriers, 
whether in the country or in the city. Outside the city 
they may be seen carrying huge loads on their heads, 
as happy as possible, not because they are kindly treated 
or that their work is light, but because it is their nature 
to be gay and light-hearted, because they have conceived 
neither joys nor hopes which may not be gratified at will, 
nor cherished any ambition beyond their reach, aud there- 
fore have not been baffled in their hopes nor known 

Within the city, negro carriers may be heard at all 
hours, in couples, engaged in the transportation of 
clove-bags, boxes of merchandise, &c., from store to " go- 
down " and from " go-down " to the beach, singing a 
kind of monotone chant for the encouragement of each 
other, and for the guiding of their pace as they shufflo 
through the streets with bare feet. You may recognise 
these men readily, before long, as old acquaintances, by 
the consistency with which they sing the tunes they have 
adopted. Several times during a day have I heard the 
samp couple pass beneath the windows of the Consulate, 
delivering themselves of the same invariable tune and 
words. Some might possibly deem the songs foolish and 


silly, but they had a certain attraction for me, and I 
considered that they were as useful as anything else for 
the purposes they were intended. 

The town of Zanzibar, situate on the south-western 
shore of the island, contains a population of nearly one 
hundred thousand inhabitants; that of the island alto- 
gether I would estimate at not more than two hundred 
thousand inhabitants, including all races. 

The greatest number of foreign vessels trading with 
this port are American, principally from New York and 
Salem. After the American come the German, then 
come the French and English. They arrive loaded with 
American sheeting, brandy, gunpowder, muskets, beads, 
English cottons, brass-wire, china-ware, and other notions, 
and depart with ivory, gum-copal, cloves, hides, cowries, 
sesamum, pepper, and cocoa-nut oil. 

The value of the exports from this port is estimated 
at $3,000,000, and the imports from all countries at 

The Europeans and Americans residing in the town 
of Zanzibar are either Government officials, independent 
merchants, or agents for a few great mercantile houses in 
Europe and America. 

The climate of Zanzibar is not the most agreeable in 
the world. I have heard Americans and Europeans 
condemn it most heartily. I have also seen nearly one- 
half of the white colony laid up in one day from sickness. 
A noxious malaria is exhaled from the shallow inlet of 
Malagash, and the undrained filth, the garbage, offal, dead 
mollusks, dead pariah dogs, dead cats, all species of 
carrion, remains of men and beasts miburied, assist to 
make Zanzibar a most unhealthy city ; and considering 
fcbat it it ought to be most healthy, nature having 



pointed out to man the means, and having assisted him so 
far, it is most wonderful that the ruling prince does not 
obey the dictates of reason. 

The bay of Zanzibar is in the form of a crescent, and 
on the south-western horn of it is built the city. On 
the east Zanzibar is bounded almost entirely by the 
Malagash Lagoon, an inlet of the sea. It penetrates to 
at least two hundred and fifty yards of the sea behind 
or south of Shangani Point. Were these two hundred 
and fifty yards cut through by a ten foot ditch, and the 
inlet deepened slightly, Zanzibar would become an island 
of itself, and what wonders would it not effect as to 
health and salubrity ! I have never heard this sugges- 
tion made, but it struck me that the foreign consuls 
resident at Zanzibar might suggest this work to the 
Sultan, and so get the credit of having made it as 
healthy a place to live in as any near the equator. But 
apropos of this, I remember what Capt. Webb, the 
American Consul, told me on my first arrival, when I 
expressed to him my wonder at the apathy and inertness 
of men born with the indomitable energy which charac- 
terises Europeans and Americans, of men imbued with the 
progressive and stirring instincts of the white people, who 
yet allow themselves to dwindle into pallid phantoms of 
their kind, into hypochondriacal invalids, into hopeless be- 
lievers in the deadliness of the climate, with hardly a trace 
of that daring and invincible spirit which rules the world. 

" Oh," said Capt. Webb, " it is all very well for you to 
talk about energy and all that kind of thing, but I assure 
you that a residence of four or five years on this island, 
among such people as are here, would make you feel 
that it was a hopeless task to resist the influence of the 
example by wHich the most energetic spirits are subdued, 


to which they must submit in time, sooner or later. 
We were all terribly energetic when we first came here, 
and struggled bravely to make things go on as we were 
accustomed to have them at home, but we have found that 
we were knocking our heads against granite walls to no 
purpose whatever. These fellows the Arabs, the Banyans, 
and the Hindis you can't make them go faster by ever 
so much scolding and praying, and in a very short time 
you see the folly of fighting against the unconquerable, 
Be patient, and don't fret, that is my advice, or you won't 
live long here." 

There were three or four intensely busy men, though, 
at Zanzibar, who were out at all hours of the day. 1 
know one, an American ; I fancy I hear the quick pit-pat 
of his feet on the pavement beneath the Consulate, hie 
cheery voice ringing the salutation, " Yambo ! " to every 
one he met ; and he had lived at Zanzibar twelve years. 

I know another, one of the sturdiest of Scotchmen, a 
most pleasant-mannered and unaffected man, sincere in 
whatever he did or said, who has lived at Zanzibar several 
years, subject to the infructuosities of the business he has 
been engaged in, as well as to the calor and ennui of the 
climate, who yet presents as formidable a front as ever to 
the apathetic native of Zanzibar. No man can charge 
Capt. H. C. Fraser, formerly of the Indian Navy, with 
being apathetic. 

I might with ease give evidence of the industry of 
others, but they are all my friends, and they are all good. 
The American, English, German, and French residents 
have ever treated me with a courtesy and kindness I am 
not disposed to forget. Taken as a body, it would be hard 
to find a more generous or hospitable colony of white men 
in any part of the world. 




I WAS totally ignorant of the interior, and it was difficult 
at first to know what I needed, in order to take an 
Expedition into Central Africa. Time was precious, 
also, and much of it could not be devoted to inquiry and 
investigation. In a case like this, it would have been a 
godsend, I thought, had either of the three gentlemen, 
Captains Burton, Speke, or Grant, given some informa- 
tion on these points ; had they devoted a chapter upon, 
" How to get ready an Expedition for Central Africa." 
The purpose of this chapter, then, is to relate how I set 
about it, that other travellers coming after me may have 
the benefit of my experience. 

These are some of the questions I asked myself, as I 
tossed on my bed at night : 

" How much money is required ? " 

" How many pagazis, or carriers ? " 

" How many soldiers ? " 

" How much cloth ? " 

" How many beads ? " 

" How much wire ? " 

" What kinds of cloth are required for the different 

Ever so many questions to myself brought me no 


nearer the exact point I wished to arrive at. I scribbled 
over scores of sheets of paper, made estimates, drew 
out lists of material, calculated the cost of keeping one 
hundred men for one year, at so many yards of different 
kinds of cloth, etc. I studied Burton, Speke, and Grant 
in vain. A good deal of geographical, ethnological, and 
other information appertaining to the study of Inner 
Africa was obtainable, but information respecting the 
organization of an expedition requisite before proceeding 
to Africa, was not in any book. The Europeans at 
Zanzibar knew as little as possible about this particular 
point. There was not one white man at Zanzibar who 
could tell how many dotis a day a force of one hundred 
men required to buy food for one day on the road. 
Neither, indeed, was it their business to know. But 
what should I do at all, at all ? This was a grand 

I decided it were best to hunt up an Arab merchant 
who had been engaged in the ivory trade, or who was 
fresh from the interior. 

Sheikh Hashid was a man of note and of wealth in 
Zanzibar. He had himself despatched several caravans 
into the interior, and was necessarily acquainted with 
several prominent traders who came to his house to 
gossip about their adventures and gains. He was also 
the proprietor of the large house Capt. Webb occupied; 
besides, he lived across the narrow street which separated 
his house from the Consulate. Of all men Sheikh Hashid 
was the man to be consulted, and he was accordingly 
invited to visit me at the Consulate. 

From the grey-bearded and venerable-looking Sheikh, 
I elicited more information about African currency, the 
mode of procedure, the quantity and quality of stuffs I 

22 fiOW I FOtTNt) 

required, than I had obtained from three months' study 
of books upon Central Africa ; and from other Arab 
merchants to whom the ancient Sheikh introduced me, I 
received most valuable suggestions and hints, which 
enabled me at last to organize an Expedition. 

The reader must bear in mind that a traveller requires 
only that which is sufficient for travel and exploration ; 
that a superfluity of goods or means will prove as fatal to 
him as poverty of supplies. It is on this question of 
quality and quantity that the traveller has first to 
exercise his judgment and discretion. 

My informants gave me to understand that for one 
hundred men, 10 doti, or 40 yards of cloth per diem, 
would suffice for food. The proper course to pursue, I 
found, was to purchase 2,000 doti of American sheeting, 
1,000 doti of Kaniki, and 650 doti of the coloured cloths, 
Biich as Barsati, a great favourite in Unyamwezi ; Sohari, 
taken in Ugogo ; Ismahili, Taujiri, Joho, Shash, Kehani, 
Jamdani or Kunguru-Cutch, blue and pink. These were 
deemed amply sufficient for the subsistence of one hundred 
men for twelve months. Two years at this rate would 
require 4,000 doti = 16,000 yards of American sheeting; 
2,000 doti = 8,000 yards of Kaniki; 1,300 doti = 5,200 
yards of mixed coloured cloths. This was definite and 
valuable information to me, and excepting the lack of 
some suggestions as to the quality of the sheeting, 
Kaniki, and coloured cloths, I had obtained all I desired 
upon this point. 

Second in importance to the amount of cloth required 
was the quantity and quality of the beads necessary 
Beads, I was told, took the place of cloth currency 
among some tribes of the interior. One tribe preferred 
white to black beads, brown to yellow, red to green, 


green to white, and so on. Thus, in Unyainwezi, red 
(sami-sami) beads would readily be taken, where all 
other kinds would be refused; black (bubu) beads, 
though currency in Ugogo, were positively worthless 
with all other tribes; the egg (sungomazzi) beads, 
though valuable in Ujiji and Uguhha, would be refused 
in all other countries; the white (Merikani) beads 
though good in Ufipa, and some parts of Usagara and 
Ugogo, would certainly be despised in Useguhha and 
Ukonongo. Such being the case, I was obliged to 
study closely, and calculate the probable stay of an 
expedition in the several countries, so as to be sure to 
provide a sufficiency of each kind, and guard against any 
great overplus. Burton and Speke, for instance, were 
obliged to throw away as worthless several hundred 
fundo of beads. 

For example, supposing the several nations of Europe 
had each its own currency, without the means of 
exchange, and supposing a man was about to travel 
through Europe on foot, before starting he would be apt 
to calculate how many days it would take him to travel 
through France ; how many through Prussia, Austria, 
and Eussia, then to reckon the expense he would be 
likely to incur per day. If the expense be set down at a 
napoleon per day, and his journey through France would 
occupy thirty days, the sum required for going and returning 
might be properly set down at sixty napoleons, in which 
case, napoleons not being current money in Prussia, 
Austria, or Kussia, it would be utterly useless for him to 
burden himself with the weight of a couple of thousand 
napoleons in gold. 

My anxiety on this point was most excruciating. 
Over and over I studied the hard iiarnes and measures, 


conned again and again the polysyllables, lopitg to be 
able to arrive some time at an intelligible definition of 
the terms. I revolved in my mind the words Mukunguru, 
Ghulabio, Sungomazzi, Kadunduguni, Mutttnda, Sami- 
sami, Bubu, Merikani, Hafde, Lunghio-Kega, and Lakhio, 
until I was fairly beside myself. Finally, however, I 
came to the conclusion that if I reckoned my requirements 
at fifty khete, or five fundo per day, for two years, and if 
I purchased only eleven varieties, I might consider my- 
self safe enough. The purchase was accordingly made, 
and twenty-two sacks of the best species were packed 
and brought to Capt. Webb's house, ready for trans- 
portation to Bagamoyo. 

After the beads came the wire question. I discovered, 
after considerable trouble, that Nos. 5 and 6 almost 
of the thickness of telegraph wire were considered the 
best numbers for trading purposes. While beads stand 
for copper coins in Africa, cloth measures for silver ; 
wire is reckoned as gold in the countries beyond the 
Tan-ga-ni-ka.* Ten frasilah, or 350 Ibs., of brass-wire, 
my Arab adviser thought, would be ample. 

Having purchased the cloth, the beads, and the wire, 
it was with uo little pride that I surveyed the comely 
bales and packages lying piled up, row above row, in 
Capt. Webb's capacious store-room. Yet my work was 
not ended, it was but beginning ; there were provisions, 
cooking-utensils, boats, rope, twine, tents, donkeys, 
saddles, bagging, canvas, tar, needles, tools, ammunition, 
guns, equipments, hatchets, medicines, bedding, presents 
for chiefs in short, a thousand things not yet purchased. 
The ordeal of chaffering and haggling with steel-hearted 

* It will be seen that I differ from Capt. Burton in the spelling of 
iliis word, as I deem the letter " y " superfluous. 


Banyans, Hindis, Arabs, and half-castes was most 
trying. For instance, I purchased twenty-two donkeys 
at Zanzibar. $40 and $50 were asked, which I had to 
reduce to $15 or $20 by an infinite amount of argument 
worthy, I think, of a nobler cause. As was my experience 
with the ass-dealers so was it with the petty merchants ; 
even a paper of pins was not purchased without a five 
per cent, reduction from the price demanded, involving, 
of course, a loss of much time and patience. 

After collecting the donkeys, I discovered there were 
no pack-saddles to be obtained in Zanzibar. Donkeys 
without pack-saddles were of no use whatever. I in- 
vented a saddle to be manufactured by myself and my 
white man Farquhar, wholly from canvas, rope, and cotton. 

Three or four frasilahs of cotton, and ten bolts of 
canvas were required for the saddles. A specimen saddle 
was made by myself in order to test its efficiency. A 
donkey was taken and saddled, and a load of 140 Ibs. 
was fastened to it, and though the animal a wild 
creature of Unyamwezi struggled and reared frantic- 
ally, not a particle gave way. After this experiment, 
Farquhar was set to work to manufacture twenty-one 
more after the same pattern. Woollen pads were also 
purchased to protect the animals from being galled. It 
ought to be mentioned here, perhaps, that the idea of 
such a saddle as I manufactured, was first derived from 
the Otago saddle, in use among the transport-trains of 
the English army in Abyssinia. 

A man named John William Shaw a native of London, 
England, lately third-mate of the American ship ' Nevada ' 
applied to me for work. Though his discharge from 
the * Nevada ' was rather suspicious, yet he possessed all 
the requirements of such a man as I needed, and was an 


experienced hand with the palm and needle, could cut 
canvas to fit anything, was a pretty good navigator, 
ready and willing, so far as his professions went. I saw 
no reason to refuse his services, and he was accordingly 
engaged at $300 per annum, to rank second to William 
L. Farquhar. Farquhar was a capital navigator and 
excellent mathematician ; was strong, energetic, and 

The next thing I was engaged upon was to enlist, 
arm, and equip, a faithful escort of twenty men for the 
road. Johari, the chief dragoman of the American 
Consulate, informed me that he knew where certain of 
Speke's "Faithfuls" were yet to be found. The idea 
had struck me before, that if I could obtain the services 
of a few men acquainted with the ways of white men, 
and who could induce other good men to join the expe- 
dition I was organizing, I might consider myself fortunate. 
More especially had I thought of Seedy Mbarak Mombay, 
commonly called "Bombay," who though his head was 
" woodeny," and his hands u clumsy," was considered to be 
the " faithfulest " of the " Faithfuls." 

With the aid of the dragoman Johari, I secured in a 
few hours the services of Uledi (Capt. Grant's former 
valet), Ulimengo, Baruti, Ambari, Mabruki (Muinyi 
Mabruki Bull-headed Mabruki, Capt. Burton's former 
unhappy valet) five of Speke's "Faithfuls." When I 
asked them if they were willing to join another white 
man's expedition to Ujiji, they replied very readily that 
they were willing to join any brother of Speke's." 
Dr. John Kirk, Her Majesty's Consul at Zanzibar, who 
was present, told them that though I was no brother 
of " Speke's," I spoke his language. This distinction 
mattered little *o them, and I heard them, with great 


delight, declare their readiness to go anywhere with me 
or do anything I wished. 

Mombay, as they called him, or Bombay, as we know 
him, had gone to Pemba, an island lying north of Zanzi- 
bar. Uledi was sure Mombay would jump with joy at 
the prospect of another expedition. Johari was therefore 
commissioned to write to him at Pernba, to inform him of 
the good fortune in store for him. 

On the fourth morning after the letter had been 
despatched, the famous Bombay made his appearance, 
followed in decent order and due rank by the " Faithfuls " 
of " Speke." I looked in vain for the " woodeny head " 
and " alligator teeth " with which his former master had 
endowed him. I saw a slender short man of fifty or 
thereabouts, with a grizzled head, an uncommonly high, 
narrow forehead, with a very large mouth, showing teeth 
very irregular, and wide apart. An ugly rent in the 
upper front row of Bombay's teeth was made with the 
clenched fist of Capt. Speke in Uganda when his master's 
patience was worn out, and prompt punishment became 
necessary. That Capt. Speke had spoiled him with 
kindness was evident, from the fact that Bombay had the 
audacity to stand up for a boxing-match with him. But 
these things I only found out, when, months afterwards, 
I was called upon to administer punishment to him 
myself. But, at his first appearance, I was favourably 
impressed with Bombay, though his face was rugged, his 
mouth large, his eyes small, and his nose flat. 

" Salaam aliekum," were the words he greeted me with. 

" Aliekum salaam," I replied, with all the gravity I 
could muster. I then informed him I required him as 
captain of my soldiers to Ujiji. His reply was that he 
was ready to do whatever I told him, go wherever I liked 


in short, be a pattern to servants, and a model to 
soldiers. He hoped I would give him a uniform, and 
a good gun, both of which were promised. 

Upon inquiring for the rest of the " Faithfuls " who 
accompanied Speke into Egypt, I was told that at Zanzi- 
bar there were but six. Ferrajji, Maktub, Sadik, Sun- 
guru, Manyu, Matajari, Mkata, and Almas, were dead; 
Uledi and Mtamani were in Unyanyembe ; Hassan had 
gone to Kilwa, and Ferahan was supposed to be in Ujiji. 

Out of the six " Faithfuls," each of whom still retained 
his medal for assisting in the " Discovery of the Sources 
of the Nile," one, poor Mabruki, had met with a sad 
misfortune, which I feared would incapacitate him from 
active usefulness. 

Mabruki the "Bull-headed," owned a shamba (or a 
house with a garden attached to it), of which he was very 
proud. Close to him lived a neighbour in similar circum- 
stances, who was a soldier of Seyd Majid, with whom 
Mabruki, who was of a quarrelsome disposition, had a 
feud, which culminated in the soldier inducing two or 
three of his comrades to assist him in punishing the 
malevolent Mabruki, and this was done in a manner 
that only the heart of an African could conceive. They 
tied the unfortunate fellow by his wrists to a branch of a 
tree, and after indulging their brutal appetite for revenge 
in torturing him, left him to hang in that position for 
two days, At the expiration of the second day, he was 
accidentally discovered in a most pitiable condition. His 
hands had swollen to an immense size, and the veins of 
one hand having been ruptured, he had lost its use. It is 
needless to say that, when the affair came to Seyd Majid's 
ears, the miscreants were severely punished. Dr. Kirk, 
who attended the poor fellow, succeeded in restoring one 


hand to something of a resemblance of its former shape, 
but the other hand is sadly marred, and its former useful- 
ness gone for ever. 

However, I engaged Mabruki, despite his deformed 
hands, his ugliness and vanity, because he was one of 
Speke's "Faithfuls." For if he but wagged his tongue 
in my service, kept his eyes open, and opened his mouth 
at the proper time, I assured myself I could make him 

Bombay, my captain of escort, succeeded in getting 
eighteen more free men to volunteer as " askari " 
(soldiers), men whom he knew would not desert, and 
for whom he declared himself responsible. They were 
an exceedingly fine-looking body of men, far more intelli- 
gent in appearance than I could ever have believed 
African barbarians could be. They hailed principally 
from Uhiyow, others from Unyamwezi, some came from 
Useguhha and Ugindo. 

Their wages were set down at $36 each man per 
annum, or $3 each per month. Each soldier was pro- 
vided with a flintlock musket, powder horn, bullet-pouch, 
knife, and hatchet, besides enough powder and ball for 
200 rounds. 

Bombay, in consideration of his rank, and previous 
faithful services to Burton, Speke and Grant, was en- 
gaged at $80 a year, half that sum in advance, a good 
muzzle-loading rifle, besides, a pistol, knife, and hatchet 
were given to him, while the other five "Faithfuls," 
Ambari, Mabruki, Ulimengo, Baruti, and Uledi, were 
engaged at $40 a year, with proper equipments as 

Having studied fairly well all the East African travel- 
lers' books regarding Eastern and Central Africa, my 


mind had conceived the difficulties which would present 
themselves during the prosecution of my search after 
Dr. Livingstone. 

To obviate all of these, as well as human wit could 
suggest, was my constant thought and aim. 

" Shall I permit myself, while looking from Ujiji over 
the waters of the Tanganika Lake to the other side, to he 
balked on the threshold of success by the insolence of a 
King Kannena or the caprice of a Hamed bin Sulayyam ?" 
was a question I asked myself. To guard against such a 
contingency I determined to carry my own boats. 
" Then," I thought, " if I hear of Livingstone being 
on the Tanganika, I can launch my boat and proceed 
after him. 

I procured one large boat, capable of carrying twenty 
persons, with stores and goods sufficient for a cruise, 
from the American Consul, for the sum of $80, and a 
smaller one from another American gentleman for $40. 
The latter would hold comfortably six men, with suitable 

I did not intend to carry the boats whole or bodily, 
but to strip them of their boards, and carry the timbers 
and thwarts only. As a substitute for the boards, I pro- 
posed to cover each boat with a double canvas skin well 
tarred. The work of stripping them and taking them to 
pieces fell to me. This little job occupied me five days. 
I also packed them up, for the pagazis. Each load was 
carefully weighed, and none exceeded 68 Ibs. in weight. 

John Shaw excelled himself in the workmanship dis- 
played on the canvas boats; when finished, they fitted 
their frames admirably. The canvas six bolts of Eng- 
lish hemp, No. 3 was procured from Ludha, Damji, who 
furnished if from the Sultan's storeroom. 


An insuperable obstacle to rapid transit in Africa is 
the want of carriers, and as speed was the main object oi 
the Expedition under my command, my duty was to 
lessen this difficulty as much as possible. My carriers 
could only be engaged after arriving at Bagamoyo, on 
the mainland. I had over twenty good donkeys ready, 
and I thought a cart adapted for the footpaths of Africa 
might prove an advantage. Accordingly I had a cart 
constructed, eighteen inches wide and five feet long, 
supplied with two fore-wheels of a light American 
wagon, more for the purpose of conveying the narrow 
ammunition-boxes. I estimated that if a donkey eould 
carry to Unyanyembe a load of four frasilahs, or 140 Ibs., 
he ought to be able to draw eight frasilahs on such a 
cart, which would be equal to the carrying capacity of 
four stout pagazis or carriers. Events will prove, how 
my theories were borne out by practice. 

When my purchases were completed, and I beheld 
them piled up, tier after tier, row upon row, here a mass 
of cooking-utensils, there bundles of rope, tents, saddles, 
a pile of portmanteaus and boxes, containing every 
imaginable thing, I confess I was rather abashed at my 
own temerity. Here were at least six tons of material ! 
" How will it ever be possible," I thought, " to move all 
this inert mass across the wilderness stretching between 
the sea, and the great lakes of Africa ? Bah, cast all doubts 
away, man, and have at them ! ' Sufficient for the day 
is the evil thereof,' without borrowing from the morrow." 

The traveller must needs make his way into the 
African interior after a fashion very different from that 
to which he has been accustomed in other countries. He 
requires to take with him just what a ship must have 
when about to sail on a long voyage. He must have bis 


slop chest, hia little store of canned dainties, and his 
medicines, besides which, he must have enough guns, 
powder, and ball to be able to make a series of good 
fights if necessary. He must have men to convey these 
miscellaneous articles ; and as a man's maximum load 
does not exceed 70 Ibs., to convey 11,000 Ibs. requires 
nearly 160 men. 

Europe and the Orient, even Arabia and Turkestan, 
have royal ways of travelling compared to Africa. Specie 
is received in all those countries, by which a traveller 
may carry his means about with him on his own person. 
Eastern and Central Africa, however, demand a necklace, 
instead of a cent; two yards of American sheeting, 
instead of half a dollar, or a florin, and a kitindi of thick 
brass-wire, in place of a gold piece. 

The African traveller can hire neither wagons nor 
camels, neither horses nor mules, to proceed with him into 
the interior. His means of conveyance are limited to black 
and naked men, who demand at least $15 a head for every 
70 Ibs. weight carried only as far as Unyanyembe. 

One thing amongst others my predecessors omitted to 
inform men bound for Africa, which is of importance, 
and that is, that no traveller should ever think of coming 
to Zanzibar with his money in any other shape than 
gold coin. Letters of credit, circular notes, and such 
civilized things I have found to be a century ahead of 
Zanzibar people. 

Twenty and twenty-five cents deducted out of every 
dollar I drew on paper is one of the unpleasant, if not 
unpleasantest things I have committed to lasting memory. 
For Zanzibar is a spot far removed from all avenues 
European commerce, and coin is at a high premiui 
& man may talk and entreat, but thoigh he may hai 


drafts, cheques, circular notes, letters of credit, a carte- 
blanche to get what he wants, out of every dollar must be 
deducted twenty, twenty-five and thirty cents, so I was 
told, and so was my experience. What a pity there is no 
branch-hank here ! 

I had intended to have gone into Africa incognito. 
But the fact that a white man, even an American, was 
about to enter Africa was soon known all over Zanzibar. 
This fact was repeated a thousand times in the streets, 
proclaimed in all shop alcoves, and at the custom-house. 
The native bazaar laid hold of it, and agitated it day and 
night until my departure. The foreigners, including the 
Europeans, wished to know the pros and cons of my 
coming in and going out. 

My answer to all questions, pertinent and imper- 
tinent, was, I am going to Africa. Though my card bore 
the words 


New York Herald. 

very few, I believe, ever coupled the words ' New York 
Herald ' with a search after " Doctor Livingstone." It 
was not my fault, was it ? 

Ah, me ! what hard work it is to start an expedition 
alone ! What with hurrying through the baking heat of 
the fierce relentless sun from shop to shop, strengthening 


myself with far-reaching and enduring patience for the 
haggling contest with the livid-faced Hindi, summoning 
courage and wit to brow-beat the villainous Goanese, and 
aiatch the foxy Banyan, talking volumes throughout the 
day, correcting estimates, making up accounts, super- 
intending the delivery of purchased articles, measuring 
and weighing them, to see that everything was of full 
measure and weight, overseeing the white men Farquhar 
and Shaw, who were busy on donkey saddles, sails, tents, 
and boats for the Expedition, I felt, when the day was 
over, as though limbs and brain well deserved their rest. 
Such labours were mine unremittingly for a month. 

Having bartered drafts on Mr. James Gordon Bennett 
to the amount of several thousand dollars for cloth, beads, 
wire, donkeys, and a thousand necessaries, having ad- 
vanced pay to the white men, and black escort of the 
Expedition, having fretted Capt. Webb and his family 
more than enough with the din of preparation, and filled 
his house with my goods, there was nothing further to do 
but to leave my formal adieus with the Europeans, and 
thank the Sultan and those gentlemen who had assisted 
me, before embarking for Bagamoyo. 

The day before my departure from Zanzibar the 
American Consul, having just habited himself in his black 
coat, and taking with him an extra black hat, in order to 
be in state apparel, proceeded with me to the Sultan's 
palace. The prince had been generous to me ; he had 
presented me with an Arab horse, had furnished me with 
letters of introduction to his agents, his chief men, and 
representatives in the interior, and in many other ways 
had shown himself well disposed towards me. 

The palace is a large, roomy, lofty, square house close 
to the fort, built of coral, and plastered thickly with lim 


mortar. In appearance it is half Arabic and half Italian. 
The shutters are Venetian blinds painted a vivid green, 
and presenting a striking contrast to the whitewashed 
walls. Before the great, lofty, wide door were ranged in 
two crescents several Baluch and Persian mercenaries, 
armed with curved swords and targes of rhinoceros hide. 
Their dress consisted of a muddy-white cotton shirt, 
reaching to the ancles, girdled with a leather belt thickly 
studded with silver bosses. 

As we came in sight a signal was passed to some person 
inside the entrance. When within twenty yards of the 
door, the Sultan, who was standing waiting, came down 
the steps, and, passing through the ranks, advanced 
toward us, with his right hand stretched out, and a 
genial smile of welcome on his face. On our side we 
raised our hats, and shook hands with him, after which, 
doing according as he bade us, we passed forward, and 
arrived on the highest step near the entrance door. He 
pointed forward ; we bowed and arrived at the foot of an 
unpainted and narrow staircase to turn once more to the 
Sultan. The Consul, I perceived, was ascending sideways, 
a mode of progression which I saw was intended for a 
compromise with decency and dignity. At the top of the 
stairs we waited, with our faces towards the up-coming 
Prince. Again we were waved magnanimously forward, for 
before us was the reception-hall and throne-room. I 
noticed, as I marched forward to the furthest end, that 
the room was high, and painted in the Arabic style, that 
the carpet was thick and of Persian fabric, that the 
furniture consisted of a dozen gilt chairs and a chandelier 

We were seated; Ludha Daniji, the Banyan collector 
of customs, a venerable looking old man, with a shrewd 
intelligent face, sat on the right of the Sultan ; next to 

D 2 


him was viie great Mohammedan merchant Tarya Topan, 
who had come to be present at the interview, not only 
because he was one of the councillors of His Highness, 
but because he also took a lively interest in this American 
Expedition. Opposite to Ludha sat Capt. Webb, and 
next to him I was seated, opposite Tarya Topan. The 
Sultan sat in a gilt chair between the Americans and 
the councillors. Johari the dragoman stood humbly 
before the Sultan, expectant and ready to interpret what 
we had to communicate to the Prince. 

The Sultan, so far as dress goes, might be taken for a 
Mingrelian gentleman, excepting, indeed, for the turban, 
whose ample folds in alternate colours of red, yellow, 
brown, and white, encircled his head. His long robe was 
Df dark cloth, cinctured round the waist with his rich 
sword-belt, from which was suspended a gold-hilted 
scimitar, encased in a scabbard also enriched with gold. 
His legs and feet were bare, and had a ponderous look 
about them, since he suffered from that strange curse 
of Zanzibar elephantiasis. His feet were slipped into a 
pair of watta (Arabic for slippers), with thick soles and 
a strong leathern band over the instep. His light com- 
plexion and his correct features, which are intelligent 
and regular, bespeak the Arab patrician. They indicate, 
however, nothing except his high descent and blood ; no 
traits of character are visible unless there is just a trace 
of amiability, and perfect contentment with himself and 
all around. 

Such is Prince, or Seyd Burghash, Sultan of Zanzibar 
and Pemba, and the East coast of Africa, from Somali 
Land to the Mozambique, as he appeared to me. 

Coffee was served in cups supported by golden finjana. 
also some cocoa-nut milk, and rich sweet sherbet. 


The conversation began with the question addressed to 
the Consul. 

k ' Are you well ?" 

Consul " Yes, thank you. How is His Highness r " 

Highness." Quite well ! " 

Highness to me. " Are you well ? " 

Ansiver. " Quite well, thanks ! " 

The Consul now introduces business; and (questions 
about my travels follow from His Highness 

" How do you like Persia ? " 

" Have you seen Kerbela, Bagdad, Masr, Stamboul ? " 

" Have the Turks many soldiers ? " 

" How many has Persia ? " 

" Is Persia fertile ? " 

" How do you like Zanzibar ? " 

Having answered each question to his Highness' satis- 
faction, he handed me letters of introduction to his officers 
at Bagamoyo and Kaole, and a general introductory letter 
to all Arab merchants whom I might meet on the road, 
and concluded his remarks to me, with the expressed 
hope, that on whatever mission I was bound, I should be 
perfectly successful. 

We bowed ourselves out of his presence in much tha 
same manner that we had bowed ourselves in, he ac- 
companying us to the great entrance door. 

Mr. Goodhue of Salem, an American merchant long 
resident in Zanzibar, presented me, as I gave him my 
adieu, with a blooded bay horse, imported from the 
Cape of Good Hope, and worth, at least at Zanzibar, 

Feb. 4. By the 4th of February, twenty-eight days 
from the date of my arrival at Zanzibar, the organization 
and equipment of the " ' New. York Herald ' Expedition " 


was complete ; tents and saddles had been manufactured, 
boats and sails were ready. The donkeys brayed, and the 
horses neighed impatiently for the road. 

Etiquette demanded that I should once more present 
my card to the European and American Consuls at 
Zanzibar, and the word " farewell " was said to everybody. 

On the fifth day, four dhows were anchored before the 
American Consulate. Into one were lifted the two horses, 
into two others the donkeys, into the fourth, the largest, 
the black escort, and bulky moneys of the Expedition. 

A little before noon we set sail. The American flag, a 
present to the Expedition by that kind-hearted lady, 
Mrs. Webb, was raised to the mast-head; the Consul, 
his lady, and exuberant little children, Mary and Charley, 
were on the housetop waving the starry banner, hats, and 
handkerchiefs, a token of farewell to me and mine. Happy 
people, and good ! may their course and ours be prosperous, 
nd may God's blessing rest on us all! 




THE isle of Zanzibar with its groves of cocoa-nut, mango, 
clove, and cinnamon, and its sentinel islets of Chumbi 
and French, with its whitewashed city and jack-fruit odor, 
with its harbor and ships that tread the deep, faded 
slowly from view, and looking westward, the African 
continent rose, a similar bank of green verdure to that 
which had just receded till it was a mere sinuous line 
above the horizon, looming in a northerly direction to the 
sublimity of a mountain chain. The distance across from 
Zanzibar to Bagamoyo may be about twenty-five miles, yet 


it look the dull and lazy dhows ten hours before 
dropped anchor on the top of the coral reef plainly visible 
a few feet below the surface of the water, within a hun- 
dred yards of the beach. 

The newly-enlisted soldiers, fond of noise and excite- 
ment, discharged repeated salvos by way of a salute to 
the mixed crowd of Arabs, Banyans, and Wasawahili, who 
stood on the beach to receive the Musungu (white man), 
which they did with a general stare and a chorus of 
" Yambo, bana r" (how are you, master ?) 

In our own land the meeting with a large crowd is rather a 
tedious operation, as our independent citizens insist on an 
interlacing of fingers, and a vigorous shaking thereof 
before their pride is satisfied, and the peaceful manifesta- 
tion endorsed; but on this beach, well lined with spec- 
tators, a response of " Yambo, bana !" sufficed, except 
with one who of all there was acknowledged the greatest, 
and who, claiming, like all great men, individual atten- 
tion, came forward to exchange another " Yambo !" on 
his own behalf, and to shake hands. This personage with 
a long trailing turban, was Jemadar Esau, commander of 
the Zanzibar force of soldiers, police, or Baluch gendarmes 
stationed at Bagamoyo. He had accompanied Speke and 
Grant a good distance into the interior, and they had re- 
warded him liberally. He took upon himself the responsi- 
bility of assisting in the debarkation of the Expedition, 
and unworthy as was his appearance, disgraceful as he 
was in his filth, I here commend him for his influence 
over the rabble to all future East African travellers. 

Foremost among those who welcomed us was a Father 
of the Society of St.-Esprit, who with other Jesuits, 
under Father Superior Horner, have established a mission- 
ary post of considerable influence and merit at Bagainoyo 

At BAGAMOtO. 41 

We were invite 1 to partake of the hospitality of the 
Mission, to take our meals there, and, should we desire it, 
to pitch our camp on their grounds. But however strong 
fche geniality of the welcome and sincere the heartiness of 
the invitation, I am one of those who prefer independence 
to dependence if it is possible. Besides, my sense of the 
obligation between host and guest had just had a fine 
edge put upon it by the delicate forbearance of my kind 
host at Zanzibar, who had betrayed no sign of impatience 
at the trouble I was only too conscious of having caused 
him. I therefore informed the hospitable Padre, that only 
for one night could I suffer myself to be enticed from 
my camp. 

I selected a house near the western outskirts of the 
town, where there is a large open square through which 
the road from Unyanyembe enters. Had I been at 
Bagamoyo a month, I could not have bettered my location. 
My tents were pitched fronting the tembe (house) I had 
chosen, enclosing a small square, where business could be 
transacted, bales looked over, examined, and marked, free 
from the intrusion of curious sightseers. After driving 
the twenty-seven animals of the Expedition into the 
enclosure in the rear of the house, storing the bales of 
goods, and placing a cordon of soldiers round, I proceeded 
to the Jesuit Mission, to a late dinner, being tired and 
ravenous, leaving the newly-formed camp in charge of the 
white men and Capt. Bombay. 

The Mission is distant from the town a good half mile, 
to the north of it ; it is quite a village of itself, numbering 
some fifteen or sixteen houses. There are more than ten 
padres engaged in the establishment, and as many sisters, 
and all find plenty of occupation in educing from native 
crania the fire of intelligence. Truth compels me to state 


that they are very successful, having over two hundred 
pupils, boys and girls, in the Mission, and, from the oldest 
to the youngest, they show the impress of the useful 
education they have received. 

The dinner furnished to the padres and their guest 
consisted of as many plats as a first-class hotel in Paris 
usually supplies, and cooked with nearly a,,* much skill, 
though the surroundings were by no means equal. I feel 
assured also that the padres, besides being tasteful in 
their potages and entrees, do not stultify their ideas fot 
lack of that element which Horace, Hafiz, and Byron have 
praised so much. The champagne think of champagne 
Cliquot in East Africa ! Lafitte, La Rose, Burgundy, and 
Bordeaux were of first-rate quality, and the meek and 
lowly eyes of the fathers were not a little brightened 
under the vinous influence. Ah ! those fathers understand 
life, and appreciate its duration. Their festive board 
drives the African jungle fever from their doors, while it 
soothes the gloom and isolation which strike one with 
awe, as one emerges from the lighted room and plunges 
into the depths of the darkness of an African night, en- 
livened only by the wearying monotone of the frogs and 
crickets, and the distant ululation of the hyaena. It 
requires somewhat above human effort, unaided by the 
ruby liquid that cheers, to be always suave and polite 
amid the dismalities of native life in Africa. 

After the evening meal, which replenished my failing 
strength, and for which I felt the iritensest gratitude, the 
most advanced of the pupils came forward, to the number 
of twenty, with brass instruments, thus forming a full 
band of music. It rather astonished me to hear instru- 
mental sounds issue forth in harmony from such woolly- 
headed youngsters ; to hear well-known French nmsiV ai 


this isolated port, to hear negro boys, that a few montha 
ago knew nothing beyond the traditions of their ignorant 
mothers, stand forth and chant Parisian songs about 
French valor and glory, with all the sang-froid of gamins 
from the purlieus of Saint-Antoine. 

I had a most refreshing night's rest, and at dawn I 
nought out my camp, with a will to enjoy the new life 
now commencing. On counting the animals, two donkeys 
were missing ; and on taking notes of my African moneys, 
one coil of No. 6 wire was not to be found. Everybody 
had evidently fallen on the ground to sleep, oblivious of 
the fact that on the coast there are many dishonest 
prowlers at night. Soldiers were despatched to search 
through the town and neighbourhood, and Jemadar Esau 
was apprised of our loss, and stimulated to discover the 
animals by the promise of a reward. Before night one 
of the missing donkeys was found outside the town 
nibbling at manioc-leaves, but the other animal and the 
coil of wire were never found. 

Among my visitors this first day at Bagamoyo was 
Ali bin Salim, a brother of the famous Sayd bin Salim, 
formerly Kas Kafilah to Burton and Speke, and subse- 
quently to Speke and Grant. His salaams were very 
profuse, and moreover, his brother was to be my agent 
in Unyamwezi, so that I did not hesitate to accept his 
offer of assistance. But, alas, for my white face and too 
trustful nature! this Ali bin Salim turned out to be a 
snake in the grass, a very sore thorn in my side. I was 
invited to his comfortable house to partake of coffee. I 
went there : the coffee was good though sugarless, his 
promises were many, but they proved valuele&s. Said 
he to me, "I am your friend; I wish to serve you; what 
an I do for you?" Eeplied I, "I am obliged to you I 

44 HOW 1 FOltNl) 

nee'! a good friend who, knowing the language and 
customs of the Wanyamwezi, can procure me the pagazis 
I need and send me off quickly. Your brother is ac- 
quainted with the Wasungu (white men), and knows that 
what they promise they make good. Get me a hundred 
and forty pagazis and I will pay you your price." With 
unctuous courtesy, the reptile I was now warmly nourish- 
ing, said, " I do not want anything from you, my friend, 
for such a slight service, rest content and quiet; you 
shall not stop here fifteen days. To-morrow morning I 
will come and overhaul your bales to see what is needed." 
I bade him good morning, elated with the happy thought 
that I was soon to tread the Unyanyembe road. 

The reader must be made acquainted with two good 
and sufficient reasons why I was to devote all my energy 
to lead the Expedition as quickly as possible from 

First, I wished to reach Ujiji before the news reached 
Livingstone that I was in search of him, for my impres- 
sion of him was that he was a man who would try to put 
as much distance as possible between us, rather than 
make an effort to shorten it, and I should have my long 
journey for nothing. 

Second, the Masika, or rainy season, would soon be on 
me, which, if it caught me at Bagamoyo, would prevent 
my departure until it was over, which meant a delay of 
forty days, and exaggerated as the rains were by all men 
with whom I came in contact, it rained every day for 
forty days without intermission. This I knew was a 
thing to dread ; for I had my memory stored with all 
kinds of rainy unpleasantnesses. For instance, there was 
the rain of Yirginia and its concomitant horrors wetness, 
mildew, agues, rhuematics, and such like; then there 


were the English rains, a miserable drizzle causing the 
blue devils ; then the rainy season of Abyssinia with the 
flood-gates of the firmament opened, and an uniyersal 
down-pour of rain, enough to submerge half a continent 
in a few hours ; lastly, there was the pelting monsoon of 
India, a steady shut-in-house kind of rain. To which of 
these rains should I compare this dreadful Masika of East 
Africa ? Did not Burton write much about black mud in 
Uzaramo ? Well, a country whose surface soil is called 
black mud in fine weather, what can it be called when 
forty days' rain beat on it, and feet of pagazis and donkeys 
make paste of it ? These were natural reflections, induced 
by the circumstances of the hour, and I found myselt 
much exercised in mind in consequence. 

AH bin Salim, true to his promise, visited my camp 
on the morrow, with a very important air, and after 
looking at the pile of cloth bales, informed me that I 
must have them covered with mat-bags. He said he 
would send a man to have them measured, but he enjoined 
me not to make any bargain for the bags, as he would 
make it all right. 

While awaiting with commendable patience the 140 
pagazis promised by AH bin Salim we were all employed 
upon everything that thought could suggest needful for 
crossing the sickly maritime region, so that we might 
make the transit before the terrible fever could unnerve 
us, and make us joyless. A short experience at Bagamoyo 
showed us what we lacked, what was superfluous, and 
what was necessary. We were visited one night by a 
squall, accompanied by furious rain. I had $1,500 worth 
of pagazi cloth in my tent. In the morning I looked, anJ 
lo ! the drilling had let in rain like a sieve, and evei y 
yard of cloth was wet. It occupied two days afterward? 


to dry the cloths, and fold them again. The drill- tent 
was condemned, arid a No 5 hemp-canvas tent at once 
prepared. After which I felt convinced that my cloth 
hales, and one year's ammunition, were safe, and that I 
could defy the Masika. 

In the hurry of departure from Zanzibar, and in my 
ignorance of how hales should he made, I had submitted 
to the better judgment and ripe experience of one Jetta, 
a commission merchant, to prepare my bales for carriage. 
Jetta did not weigh the bales as he made them up, 
but piled the Merikani, Kaniki, Barsati, Jamdani, Joho, 
Ismahili, in alternate layers, and roped the same into 
bales. One or two pagazis came to my camp and began 
to chaffer ; they wished to see the bales first, before they 
would make a final bargain. They tried to raise them up 
ugh ! ugh ! it was of no use, and withdrew. A fine 
Walter's spring balance was hung up, and a bale suspended 
to the hook; the finger indicated 105 Ibs. or 3 frasilah, 
which was just 35 Ibs. or one frasilah overweight. Upon 
putting all the bales to this test, I perceived that Jetta's 
guess-work, with all his experience, had caused con- 
siderable trouble to me. 

The soldiers were set to work to reopen and repack, 
which latter task is performed in the following manner : 
We cut a doti, or four yards of Merikani, ordinarily sold 
at Zanzibar for $2*75 the piece of thirty yards, and spread 
it out. We take a piece or bolt of good Merikani, and 
instead of the double fold given it by the Nashua and 
Salem mills, we fold it into three parts, by which the 
folds have a breadth of a foot ; this piece forms the first 
layer, and will weigh nine pounds ; the second layer 
consists of six piece c of Kaniki, a blue stuff similar to the 
blue blouse stuff of France, and the blue jeans of America, 


though much lighter ; the third layer i? formed of the 
second piece of Merikani, the fourth of six more pieces 
of Kaniki, the fifth of Merikani, the sixth of Kaniki as 
before, and the seventh and last of Merikani. We have 
thus four pieces of Merikani, which weigh 36 Ibs., and 18 
pieces of Kaniki weighing also 36 Ibs., making a total of 
72 Ibs., or a little more than two frasilahs ; the cloth is 
then folded singly over these layers, each corner tied to 
another. A bundle of coir-rope is then brought, and twc 
men, provided with a wooden mallet for beating and 
pressing the bale, proceed to tie it up with as much 
nicety as sailors serve down rigging. 

When complete, a bale is a solid mass three feet and a 
half long, a foot deep, and a foot wide. Of these bales 
I had to convey eighty-two to Unyanyembe, forty of 
which consisted solely of the Merikani and Kaniki. The 
other forty-two contained the Merikani aird colored 
cloths, which latter were to serve as honga or tribute 
cloths, and to engage another set of pagazis from Un- 
yanyembe to Ujiji, and from Ujiji to the regions beyond. 

The fifteenth day asked of me by Ali bin Salim for the 
procuring of the pagazis passed by, and there was not the 
ghost of a pagazi in my camp. I sent Mabruki the Bull- 
headed to Ali bin Salim, to convey my salaams and 
express a hope that he had kept his word. In half an 
hour's time Mabruki returned with the reply of the Arab, 
that in a few days he would be able to collect them all j 
but, added Mabruki, slyly, " Bana, I don't believe him. 
He said aloud to himself, in my hearing, ' Why should I get 
the Musungu pagazis ? Seyd Burghash did not send a 
letter to me, but to the Jemadar. Why should I trouble 
myself about him ? Let Seyd Burghash write me a letter 
to that purpose, and I will procure them within two days.'" 


To iay mind this was a time for action : Ali bin Salim 
should see that it was ill trifling with a whito man in 
earnest to start. I rode down to his house to ask him 
what he meant. 

His reply was, Mahruki had told a lie as black as his 
face. He had never said anything approaching to such a 
thing. He was willing to become my slave to become a 
pagazi himself. But here I stopped the voluble Ali, and 
informed him that I could not think of employing him in 
the capacity of a pagazi, neither could I find it in my heart 
to trouble Seyd Burghash to write a direct letter to him, or 
to require of a man who had deceived me once, as Ali bin 
Salim had, any service of any nature whatsoever. It would 
be better, therefore, if Ali bin Salim would stay away from 
my camp, and not enter it either in person or by proxy. 

I had lost fifteen days, for Jemadar Sadur, at Kaole, 
had never stirred from his fortified house in that village 
in my service, save to pay a visit, after the receipt of the 
Sultan's letter. Naranji, custom-house agent at Kaoie, 
solely under the thumb of the great Ludha Damji, had 
not responded to Ludha's worded request that he would 
procure pagazis, except with winks, nods, and promises, 
and it is but just stated how I fared at the hands of Ali 
bin Salim. In this extremity I remembered the promise 
made to me by the great merchant of Zanzibar Tarya 
Topan a Mohammedan Hindi that he would furnish 
me with a letter to a young man named Soor Hadji 
Palloo, who was said to be the best man in Bagamoyo to 
procure a supply of pagazis. 

I despatched my Arab interpreter by a dhow to ^anzi- 
bar, with a very earnest request to Capt. Webb that he 
would procure from Tarya Topan the introductory letter 
so long delayed, It was the last card in my hand, 


On the third day the Arab returned, bringing with him 
not only the letter to Soor Hadji Palloo, but an abundance 
of good things from the ever-hospitable house of Mr. 
Webb. In a very short time after the receipt of his 
letter, the eminent young man Soor Hadji Palloo came 
to visit me, and informed me he had been requested by 
Tarya Topan to hire for me one hundred and forty pagazis 
to Unyanyembe in the shortest time possible. This he 
said would be very expensive, for there were scores of 
Arabs and Wasawahili merchants on the look out for 
every caravan that came in from the interior, and they 
paid 20 doti, or 80 yards of cloth, to each pagazi. Not 
willing or able to pay more, many of these merchants had 
been waiting as long as six months before they could get 
their quota. " If you," continued he, " desire to depart 
quickly, you must pay from 25 to 40 doti, and I can send 
you off before one month is ended." In reply, I said, 
" Here are my cloths for pagazis to the amount of $1,750, 
or 3,500 doti, sufficient to give one hundred and forty 
men 25 doti each. The most I am willing to pay is 25 
doti : send one hundred and forty pagazis to Unyanyembe 
with my cloth and wire, and I will make your heart glad 
with the richest present you have ever received." With 
a refreshing naivete, the " young man " said he did not 
\vant any present, he would get me my quota of pagazis, and 
then I could tell the " Wasungu " what a good " young 
man" he was, and consequently the benefit he would 
receive would be an increase of business. He closed his 
reply with the astounding remark that he had ten pagazia 
at his house already, and if I would be good enough to 
have four bales of cloth, two bags of beads, and twenty 
coils of wire carried to his house, the pagazis could leave 
Bagamoyo the next day, under charge of three soldiera. 



" For," he remarked, " it is much better and cheaper t< 
?end many small caravans than one large one. Large 
.'-aravans invite attack, or are delayed by avaricious chiefs 
upon the most trivial pretexts, while small ones pass by 
without notice," 

The bales and beads were duly carried to Soor Hadji 
Palloo's house, and the day passed with me in mentally 
congratulating myself upon my good fortune, in compli- 
menting the young Hindi's talents for business, the 
greatness and influence of Tarya Topan, and -the good- 
ness of Mr. Webb in thus hastening my departure from 
Baganioyo. I mentally vowed a handsome present, and H 
great puff in my book, to Soor Hadji Palloo, and it was 
with a glad heart I prepared these soldiers for their march 
to Unyanyenibe. 

The task of preparing the first caravan for the Un- 
yanyembe road informed me upon several things that have 
escaped the notice of my predecessors in East Africa, a 
timely knowledge of which would have been of infinite 
service to me at Zanzibar, in the purchase and selection of 
sufficient and proper cloth. 

The setting out of the first caravan enlightened me 
also upon the subject of honga, or tribute. Tribute had 
to be packed by itself, all of choice cloth ; for the chiefs, 
besides being avaricious, are also very fastidious. They 
will not accept the flimsy colored cloth of the pagazi, but 
a royal and exceedingly high-priced dabwani, Ismahili, 
Eehani, or a Sohari, or dotis of crimson broad cloth. The 
tribute for the first caravan cost $25. Having more than 
one hundred and forty pagazis to despatch, this tribute 
money would amount finally to $330 in gold, with a pre- 
mium of 25c. on each dollar. Ponder on this, traveller J 
[ lay bare these facts for your special instruction. 


But before my first caravan was d astinccl to part company 
with me, Soor Hadji Palloo worthy young man and 
I, were to come to a definite understanding about money 
matters. The morning appointed for departure Soor 
Hadji Palloo came to my hut and presented his bill, 
with all the gravity of innocence, for supplying the 
pagazis with twenty -five doti each as their hire to 
Unyauyembe, begging immediate payment in money. 
Words fail to express the astonishment I naturally felt, 
that this sharp-looking young man should so soon have 
forgotten the verbal contract entered into between him 
and myself the morning previous, which was to the 
effect that out of the three thousand doti stored in my 
tent, and bought expressly for pagazi hire, each and 
every man hired for me as carriers from Bagamoyo to 
Unyanyembe, should be paid out of the store there in my 
tent. When I asked if he remembered the contract, he 
replied in the affirmative : his reasons for breaking it so 
soon were, that he wished to sell his cloths, not mine, and 
for his cloths he should want money, not an exchange. 
But I gave him to comprehend that as he was procuring 
pagazis for me, he was to pay my pagazis with my cloths ; 
that all the money I expected to pay him, should be just 
such a sum as I thought adequate for his trouble as my 
agent, and that only on those terms should he act for me 
in this or any other matter, and that the " Musungu " 
was not accustomed to eat his words. 

The preceding paragraph embodies many more words 
than are contained in it. It embodies a dialogue of an 
hour, an angry altercation of half-an-hour's duration, a 
vow taken on the part of Soor Hadji Palloo, that if I did 
not take his cloths he should not touch my business, 
many tears, entreaties woeful penitence, and much else 

B 2 


all Df which were responded to with, " Do as I want you 
to do, or do nothing." Finally carne relief, and a happy 
ending. Soor Hadji Palloo went away with a bright 
face, taking with him the three soldiers' posho (food), 
and honga (tribute) for the caravan. Well for me that it 
ended so, and that subsequent quarrels of a similar 
nature terminated so peaceably, otherwise I doubt 
whether my departure from Bagamoyo would have hap- 
pened so early as it did. While I am on this theme, and 
as it really engrossed every moment of my time at 
Bagamoyo, I may as well be more explicit regarding 
Soor Hadji Palloo and his connection with my business. 

Soor Hadji Palloo was a smart young man of business, 
energetic, quick at mental calculation, and seemed to be 
born for a successful salesman. His eyes were never idle ; 
they wandered over every part of my person, over the 
tent, the bed, the guns, the clothes, and having swung 
3lear round, began the silent circle over again. His 
Sngers were never at rest, they had a fidgety, nervous 
iction at their tips, constantly in the act of feeling some- 
thing ; while in the act of talking to me, he would lean 
over and feel the texture of the cloth of my trousers, my 
coat, or my shoes or socks : then he would feel his own 
light jamdani shirt or dab wain loin-cloth, until his eyes 
casually resting upon a novelty, his body would lean 
forward, and his arm was stretched out with the willing 
fingers. His jaws also were in perpetual motion, caused 
by vile habits he had acquired of chewing betel-nut and 
lime, and sometimes tobacco and lime. They gave out a 
sound similar to that of a young shoat, in the act of 
sucking. He wns a pious Mohammedan, and observed the 
external courtesies and ceremonies of the true believers. 
He would affably greet ine, take off his shoes, enter my 

t/ffrfr A* BAGAMO^O 

teut protesting he was not fit to sit in my presence, and 
after being seated, would begin his ever-crooked errand. 
Of honesty, literal and practical honesty, this youth knew 
nothing ; to the pure truth he was an utter stranger ; 
the falsehoods he had uttered during his short life 
seemed already to have quenched the bold gaze of inno- 
cence from his eyes, to have banished the color of truth- 
fulness from his features, to have transformed him yet 
a stripling of twenty into a most accomplished rascal, 
and consummate expert in dishonesty. 

During the six weeks I encamped at Bagamoyo, waiting 
for my quota of men, this lad of twenty gave me very 
much trouble. He was found out half a dozen times a 
day in dishonesty, yet was in no way abashed by it. He 
would send in his account of the cloths supplied to the 
pagazis, stating them to be 25 paid to each ; on sending 
a man to inquire I would find the greatest number to 
have been 20, and the smallest 12. Soor Hadji Palloo 
described the cloths to be of first-class quality, Ulyah 
cloths, worth in the market four times more than the 
ordinary quality given to the pagazis, yet a personal 
examination would prove them to be the flimsiest goods 
sold, such as American sheeting 2J feet broad, and worth 
$2'75 per 30 yards a piece at Zanzibar, or the most 
inferior Kaniki, which is generally sold at $9 per score. 
He would personally come to my camp and demand 40 Ibs. 
of Sami-Sami, Merikani, and Bubu beads for posho, or 
caravan rations; an inspection of their store before 
departure from their first camp from Bagamoyo would 
show a deficiency ranging from 5 to 30 Ibs. Moreover, he 
cheated in cash-money, such as demanding $4 for crossing 
the Kingani Ferry for every ten pagazis, when the fare 
was $2 for the same number; and an unconscionabla 


number of pice (copper coins equal in value to f of a 
cent) were required for posho. It was every day for 
four weeks that this system of roguery was carried out. 
Each day conceived a dozen new schemes ; every instant 
of his time he seemed to be devising how to plunder, 
until I was fairly at my wits' end how to thwart him. 
Exposure before a crowd of his fellows brought no blush 
of shame to his sallow cheeks ; he would listen with a 
mere shrug of the shoulders and that was all, which I 
might interpret any way it pleased me. A threat to 
reduce his present had no effect ; a bird in the hand was 
certainly worth two in the bush for him, so ten dollars' 
worth of goods stolen and in his actual possession was 
of more intrinsic value than the promise of $20 in a few 
days, though it was that of a white man. 

Readers will of course ask themselves why I did not, 
after the first discovery of these shameless proceedings, 
close my business with him, to which I make reply, that 
I could not do without him unless his equal were forth- 
coming, that I never felt so thoroughly dependent on 
any one man as I did upon him; without his or his 
duplicate's aid, I must have stayed at Bagamoyo at least 
six months, at the end of which time the Expedition 
would have become valueless, the rumour of it having 
been blown abroad to the four winds. It was immediate 
departure that was essential to my success departure 
from Bagamoyo after which it might be possible for me 
to control my own future in a great measure. 

These troubles were the greatest that I could at this 
time imagine. I have already stated that I had $1,750 
worth of pagazis' clothes, or 3,500 doti, stored in my 
tent, and above what my bales contained. Calculating 
one hundred and forty pagazis at 25 doti each, I supposed 


f had enough, yet, though I had been trying to teach tho 
young Hindi that the Musungu was not a fool, nor blind 
to his pilfering tricks, though the 3,500 doti were all spent; 
though I had only obtained one hundred and thirty 
pagazis at 25 doti each, which in the aggregate amounted: 
to 3,200 doti : Soor Hadji Palloo's bill was $1,400 cash 
extra. His plea was that he had furnished Ulyah clothes 
for Muhongo 240 doti, equal in value to 960 of my doti, 
that the money was spent in ferry pice, in presents to 
chiefs of caravans of tents, guns, red broad cloth, in 
presents to people on the Mrima (coast) to induce them 
to hunt up pagazis. Upon this exhibition of most ruthless 
cheating I waxed indignant, and declared to him that if 
he did not run over his bill and correct it, he should go 
without a pice. 

But before the bill could be put into proper shape, 
my words, threats, and promises falling heedlessly on a 
stony brain, a man, Kanjee by name, from the store of 
Tarya Topan, of Zanzibar, had. to come over, when the 
bill was finally reduced to $738. Without any dis- 
respect to Tarya Topan, I am unable to decide which is 
the most accomplished rascal, Kanjee, or young Soor 
Hadji Palloo; in the words of a white man who knows 
them both, " there is not the splitting of a straw between 
them." Kanjee is deep and sly, Soor Hadji Palloo is bold 
and incorrigible. But peace be to them both, may their 
shaven heads never be covered with the troublous crown 
I wore at Bagamoyo ! 

My dear friendly reader, do not think, if I speak oui 
my mind in this or in any other chapter upon matters 
eeemingly trivial and unimportant, that seeming such 
they should be left UE mentioned. Every tittle related 
is a fact, and to knew facts is to receive knowledge. 


How could I ever recite my experience to you if I did not 
enter upon these miserable details, which sorely distract 
the stranger upon his first arrival ? Had I been a 
Government official, I had but wagged my finger and my 
quota of pagazis had been furnished me within a week ; 
but as an individual arriving without the graces of official 
recognition, armed with no Government influence, I had 
to be patient, bide my time, and chew the cud of irrita- 
tion quietly, but the bread I ate was not all sour, as this 

The white men, Farquhar and Shaw, were kept 
steadily at work upon water-proof tents of hemp canvas, 
for I perceived, by the premonitory showers of rain that 
marked the approach of the Masika that an ordinary 
tent of light cloth would subject myself to damp and my 
goods to mildew, and while there was time to rectify 
all errors that had crept into my plans through ignorance 
or over haste, I thought it was not wise to permit things 
to rectify themselves. Now that I have returned un- 
injured in health, though I have suffered the attacks of 
twenty- three fevers within the short space of thirteen 
months, I must confess I owe my life, first, to the mercy 
of God ; secondly, to the enthusiasm for my work, which 
animated me from the beginning to the end ; thirdly, to 
having never ruined my constitution by indulgence in 
vice and intemperance; fourthly, to the energy of my 
nature ; fifthly, to a native hopefulness which never died ; 
and, sixthly, to having furnished myself with a capacious 
water and damp proof canvas house. And here, if my 
experience may be of value, I would suggest that travellers, 
instead of submitting their better judgment to the caprices 
of a tent-maker, who will endeavour to pass off a hand- 
acmely made fabric of his own, which is unsuited to all 


climes, to use his own judgment, and get the best and 
strongest that money will buy. In the end it will prove 
the cheapest, and perhaps be the means of saving his 

On one point I failed, and lest new and young travel- 
lers fall into the same error which marred much of my 
enjoyment, this paragraph is written. One must be 
extremely careful in his choice of weapons, whether for 
sport or defence. A traveller should have at least three 
different kinds of guns. One should be a fowling-piece, 
the second should be a double-barrelled rifle, No. 10 or 12, 
the third should be a magazine-rifle, for defence. For 
the fowling-piece I would suggest No. 12 bore, with 
barrels at least four feet in length. For the rifle for 
larger game, I would point 6ut, with due deference to old 
sportsmen, of course, that the best guns for African game 
are the English Lancaster and Keilly rifles; and for a 
fighting weapon, I maintain that the best yet invented ig 
the American Winchester repeating rifle, or the " sixteen- 
shooter " as it is called, supplied with the London Eley's 
ammunition. If I suggest as a fighting weapon the 
American Winchester, I do not mean that the traveller 
need take it for the purpose of offence, but as the best 
means of efficient defence, to save his own life against 
African banditti, when attacked, a thing likely to happen 
any time. 

I met a young man soon after returning from the 
interior, who declared his conviction that the " Express " 
rifle was the most perfect weapon ever invented to d'estroy 
African game. Very possibly the young man may be 
right, and that the " Express " rifle is all he declares it to 
be, but he had never practised with it against African 
game, and as I had never tried it, I could not combat his 


assertion : but I could relate my experiences mtla 
weapons, having all the penetrating powers of the 
" Express," and could inform him that though the bullets 
penetrated through the animals, they almost always 
failed to bring down the game at the first fire. On the 
other hand, I could inform him, that during the time I 
travelled with Dr. Livingstone the Doctor lent me his 
heavy Eeilly rifle with which I seldom failed to bring an 
animal or two home to the camp, and that I found the Fraser 
shell answer all purposes for which it was intended. The 
feats related by Capt. Speke and Sir Samuel Baker are no 
longer matter of wonderment to the young sportsman, 
when he has a Lancaster or a Eeilly in his hand. After 
a very few trials he can imitate them, if not excel their 
deeds, provided he has a steady hand. And it is to 
forward this end that this paragraph is written. African 
game require " bone-crushers ;" for any ordinary carbine 
possesses sufficient penetrative qualities, yet has not 
the disabling qualities which a gun must possess to be 
useful in the hands of an African explorer. 

I had not been long at Bagamoyo before I went over to 
Mussoudi's camp, to visit the " Livingstone caravan " 
which the British Consul had despatched on the first day 
of November, 1870, to the relief of Livingstone. The 
number of packages was thirty-five, which required as 
many men to convey them to Unyanyembe. The 
men chosen to escort this caravan were composed of 
Johannese and Wahiyow, seven in number. Out of the 
seven, four were slaves. They lived in clover here 
thoughtless of the errand they had been sent upon, and 
careless of the consequences. What these men were 
doing at Bagamoyo all this time I never could conceive, 
except indulging their own vicious propensities. Ji 


Would be nonsense to say there were no Jmgazis because 
I know, there were at least fifteen caravans which had 
started for the interior since the Kamadan (December 
15th, 1870). Yet Livingstone's caravan had arrived at 
this little town of Bagamoyo November 2nd, and here it 
had been lying until the 10th February, in all, 100 days, 
for lack of the limited number of thirty-five pagazis, a 
number that might be procured within two days through 
consular influence. 

Bagamoyo has a most enjoyable climate. It is far 
preferable in every sense to that of Zanzibar. We were 
able to sleep in the open air, and rose refreshed and 
healthy each morning, to enjoy our matutinal bath in the 
sea ; and by the time the sun had risen we were engaged 
in various preparations for our departure for the interior. 
Our days were enlivened by visits from the Arabs who 
were also bound for Unyanyembe ; by comical scenes in the 
camp ; sometimes by court-martials held on the refractory ; 
by a boxing-match between Farquhar and Shaw, necessi- 
tating my prudent interference when they waxed too 
wroth ; by a hunting excursion now and then to the 
Kingani plain and river ; by social conversation with the 
old Jemadar and his band of Baluches, who were never 
tired of warning me that the Masika was at hand, and of 
advising me that my best course was to hurry on before 
the season for travelling expired. 

Among the employes with the Expedition were two 
Hindi and two Goanese. They had conceived the idea 
that the African interior was an El Dorado, the ground 
of which was strewn over with ivory tusks, and they had 
clubbed together, while their imaginations were thus 
heated, to embark in a little enterprise of their own. 
Their names were Jako, Abdul Kader, "Bunder Salaam, 


and Aranselar ; Jako engaged in my service as cat-pen to* 
and general help ; Abdul Kader as a tailor, Bunder 
Salaam as cook, and Aranselar as chief butler. 

But Aranselar, with an intuitive eye, foresaw that 1 
was likely to prove a vigorous employer, and while there 
was yet time he devoted most of it to conceive how it 
were possible to withdraw from the engagement. He 
received permission upon asking for it to go to Zanzibar to 
visit his friends. Two days afterwards I was informed 
he had blown his right eye out, and received a medical 
confirmation of the fact, and note of the extent of the 
injury, from Dr. Christie, the physician to His Highness 
Seyd Burghash. His compatriots I imagined were about 
planning the same thing, but a peremptory command to 
abstain from such folly, issued after they had received 
their advance-pay, sufficed to check any sinister designs 
they may have formed. 

A groom was caught stealing from the bales, one night, 
and the chase after him into the country until he vanished 
out of sight into the jungle, was one of the most agreeable 
diversions which occurred to wear away the interval 
employed in preparing for the march. 

I had now despatched four caravans into the interior, 
and the fifth, which was to carry the boats and boxes, 
personal luggage, and a few cloth and bead loads, was 
ready to be led by myself. The following is the order 
of departure of the caravans. 

1871. Feb. 6. Expedition arrived at Bagamoyo. 

1871. Feb. 18. First caravan departs with twenty- 
four pagazis and three soldiers. 

1871. Feb. 21. Second caravan departs with twenty- 
eight pagazis, two chiefs, and two soldiers. 

1871. Feb. 25 Third caravan departs with twenty- 


two pagazis, ten donkeys, one white man, one cook, and 
three soldiers. 

1871. March 11. Fourth caravan departs with fifty- 
five pagazis, two chiefs, and three soldiers. 

1871. March 21. Fifth caravan departs with twenty- 
eight pagazis, twelve soldiers, two white men, one tailor, 
one cook, one interpreter, one gun-bearer, seventeen 
asses, two horses, and one dog. 

Total number, inclusive of all souls, comprised in 
caravans connected with the " ' New York Herald ' Expe- 
dition," 192. 




Leaving Bagamoyo for the inteiior. Constructing a Bridge. Our first 
troubles. Shooting Hippopotami. A first view of the Game Land. 
Anticipating trouble with the Wagogo. The dreadful poison-flies. 
Unlucky adventures while hunting. The cunning chief of 
Kingaru. Sudden death of my two horses. A terrible experience. 
The city of the " Lion Lord." 

ON the 21st of March, exactly seventy-three days after 
my arrival at Zanzibar, the fifth caravan, led by myself, 
left the town of Bagamoyo for our first journey westward, 
with " Forward ! " for its mot du guet. As the kirangozi 
unrolled the American flag, and put himself at the head 


of the caravan, and the pagazis, animals, soldiers, and 
idlers were lined for the march, we bade a long farewell 
to the doleefar niente of civilised life, to the blue ocean, 
and to its open road to home, to the hundreds of dusky 
spectators who were there to celebrate our departure with 
repeated salvoes of musketry. 

Our caravan is composed of twenty-eight pagazis, in- 
cluding the kirangozi, or guide; twelve soldiers under 
Gapt. Mbarak Bombay, in charge of seventeen donkeys 
and their loads ; Selim, my interpreter, in charge of the 
donkey and cart and its load ; one cook and sub, who is 
also to be tailor and ready hand for all, and leads the 
grey horse ; Shaw, once mate of a ship, now r transformed 
into rearguard and overseer for the caravan, who is 
mounted on a good riding-donkey, and wearing a canoe- 
like topee and sea-boots ; and lastly, on the splendid bay 
horse presented to me by Mr. Goodhue, myself, called 
"Bana Mkuba," the " big master/ by my people the 
vanguard, the reporter, the thinker, and leader of the 

Altogether the Expedition numbers on the day of depar- 
ture three white men, twenty-three soldiers, four supernu- 
meraries, four chiefs, and one hundred and fifty-three 
pagazis, twenty-seven donkeys, and one cart, conveying 
cloth, beads, and wire, boat-fixings, tents, cooking utensils 
and dishes, medicine, powder, small shot, musket-balls, 
and metallic cartridges ; instruments and small necessaries, 
such as soap, sugar, tea, coffee, Liebig's extract of meat, 
pemmican, candles, &c., which make a total of 153 loads. 
The weapons of defence which the Expedition possesses 
consist of one double-barrel breech-loading gun, smooth 
bore ; one American Winchester rifle, or " six teen - 
shooter;" one Henry rifle, or " sixteen-shooter ; " two" 


Starr's breech-loaders, one Jocelyn breech-loader, one 
olephant rifle, carrying balls eight to the pound ; two 
breech-loading revolvers, twenty-four muskets (flint locks) 
six single-barrelled pi?tols, one battle-axe, two swords, 
two daggers (Persian kuramers, purchased at Shiraz by 
myself), one boar-spear, two American axes 4 Ibs. each, 
twenty-four hatchets, and twenty-four butcher-knives. 

The Expedition has been fitted with care; whatever 
it needed was not stinted; everything was provided. 
Nothing was done too hurriedly, yet everything was 
purchased, manufactured, collected, and compounded with 
the utmost despatch consistent with efficiency and means. 
Should it fail of success in its errand of rapid transit 
to Ujiji and back, it must simply happen from an accident 
which could not be controlled. So much for the personnel 
of the Expedition and its purpose, until its point de mire 
be reached. 

We left Bagamoyo the attraction of all the curious, 
with much eclat, and defiled up a narrow lane shaded 
almost to twilight by the dense umbrage of two parallel 
hedges of mimosas. We were all in the highest spirits. 
The soldiers sang, the kirangozi lifted his voice into a 
loud bellowing note, and fluttered the American flag, 
which told all on-lookers, " Lo, a Musungu's caravan !" 
and my heart, I thought, palpitated much too quickly for 
the sober face of a leader. But I could not check it ; the 
enthusiasm of youth still clung to me despite my travels ; 
my pulses bounded with the full glow of staple health ; 
behind me were the troubles which had harassed me for 
over two months. With that dishonest son of a Hindi, 
Soor Hadji Palloo, I had said my last word ; of the blatant 
rabble, of Arabs, Banyans, and Baluches I had taken my 
last look with the Jesuits of the French Mission I had 


exchanged farewells, and before me beamed tiie sun of 
promise as he sped towards the Occident. Loveliness 
glowed around me. I saw fertile fields, riant vegetation, 
strange trees I heard the cry of cricket and pee-wit, and 
sibilant sound of many insects, all of which seemed to tell 
me, " At last you are started." What could I do but lift 
my face toward the pure-glowing sky, and cry, " God be 
thanked !" 

The first camp, Shamba Gonera, we arrived at in 1 hour 
30 minutes, equal to 3J miles. This first, or " little 
journey," was performed very well, " considering," as the 
Irishman says. The boy Selim upset the cart not more 
than three times. Zaidi, the soldier, only once let his 
donkey, which carried one bag of my clothes and a box of 
ammunition, lie in a puddle of black water. The clothes 
had to be re-washed ; the ammunition-box, thanks to my 
provision, was waterproof. Kamna perhaps knew the art 
of donkey-driving, but, overjoyful at the departure, had 
sung himself into oblivion of the difficulties with which 
an animal of the pure asinine breed has naturally to 
contend against, such as not knowing the right road, and 
inability to resist the temptation of straying into the 
depths of a manioc field ; and the donkey, ignorant of the 
custom in vogue amongst ass-drivers of flourishing sticks 
before an animal's nose, and misunderstanding the direc- 
tion in which he was required to go, ran off at full speed 
along an opposite road, until his pack got unbalanced, 
and he was fain to come to the earth. But these incidents 
were trivial, of no importance, and natural to the first 
" little journey " in East Africa. 

The soldiers' point of character leaked out just a little. 
Bombay turned out to be honest and trusty, but slightly 
disposed to be dilatory. Uledi did more talking than 



work ; while the runaway Ferajji and the useless-handed 
Mabruki Burton turned out to be true men and staunch, 
carrying loads the sight of which would have caused the 
strong-limbed hamals of Stamboul to sigh. 

The saddles were excellent, surpassing expectation. 
The strong hemp canvas bore its one hundred and fifty- 
pounds' burden with the strength of bull hide, and the 
loading and unloading of miscellaneous baggage was 
performed with systematic despatch. In brief, there was 
nothing to regret the success of the journey proved our 
departure to be anything but premature. 

The next three days were employed in putting the 
finishing touches to our preparations for the long land 
journey and our precautions against the Masika, which 
was now ominously near, and in settling accounts. 

Shamba Gonera means Gonera's Field. Gonera is a 
wealthy Indian widow, well disposed towards the Wasungu 
^whites). She exports much cloth, beads, and wire into 
the far interior, and imports in return much ivory. Her 
house is after the model of the town houses, with long 
sloping roof and projecting eaves, affording a cool shade, 
under which the pagazis love to loiter. On its southern 
and eastern side stretch the cultivated fields which supply 
Bagamoyo with the staple grain, matama, of East Africa ; 
on the left grow Indian corn, and muhogo, a yam-like 
root of whitish color, called by some manioc ; when dry, 
it is ground and compounded into cakes similar to army 
slapjacks. On the north, just behind the house, winds a 
black quagmire, a sinuous hollow, which in its deepest 
parts always contains water the muddy home of the 
brake-and-rush-loving " kiboko " or hippopotamus. Its 
banks, crowded with dwarf fan-palm, tall water-reeds, 
, and tiger-grass, afford shelter to numerous aquatic 


birds, pelicans, &c. After following a ccnrse north- 
easterly, it conflows with the Kingani, which, at the 
distance of four miles from Gonera's country-house, 
bends eastward into the sea. To the west, after a mile of 
cultivation, fall and recede in succession the sea-beaches 
of old in lengthy parallel waves, overgrown densely with 
forest grass and marsh reeds. On the spines of these 
land-swells flourish ebony, calabash, and mango. 

"Sofari sofari leo ! Pakia, pakia !" " A journey a 
journey to day ! Set out ! set out P rang the cheery 
voice of the kirangozi, echoed by that of my servant, 
Selim, on the morning of the fourth day, which was that 
fixed for our departure in earnest. As I hurried my men 
to their work, and lent a hand with energy to drop the 
tents, I mentally resolved that, if my caravans ahead 
should give me clear space, Unyanyembe should be our 
resting-place before three months expired. By 6 A.M. 
our early breakfast was despatched, and the donkeys and 
pagazis were defiling from Camp Gonera, Even at this 
early hour, and in this country place, there was quite a 
collection of curious natives, to whom we gave the parting 
" Kwaheri " with sincerity. My bay horse was found to 
be invaluable for the service of a quarter-master of a 
transport-train ; for to such was I compelled to compare 
myself. I could stay behind until the last donkey had 
quitted the camp, and, by a few minutes' gallop, I could 
put myself at the head, leaving Shaw to bring up the rear. 

The road was a mere footpath, and led over a soil, 
which, though sandy, was of surprising fertility, pro- 
ducing grain and vegetables a hundredfold, the sowing 
and planting of which was done in the most unskilful 
manner. In their fields, at heedless labor, were men and 
women in the scantiest costumes, compared to which 

F 2 


Adam and Eve, in their fig-tree apparel, must have been 
en grande tenue. We passed them with serious faces, 
while they laughed and giggled, and pointed their index 
fingers at this and that, which to them seemed so strange 
and hizarre. 

In about half an hour we had left the tall raatama 
and fields of water-melons, cucumbers, and manioc ; and, 
crossing a reedy slough, were in an open forest of ebony 
and calabash. In its depths are deer in plentiful numbers, 
and at night it is visited by the hippopotami of the 
Kingani for the sake of its grass. In another hour we 
had emerged from the woods, and were looking down upon 
the broad valley of the Kingani, and a scene presented 
itself so utterly different from what my foolish imagination 
had drawn, that I felt quite relieved by the pleasing dis- 
appointment. Here was a valley stretching four miles 
east and west, and about eight miles north and south, left 
with the richest soil to its own wild growth of grass 
which in civilization would have been a most valuable 
meadow for the rearing of cattle invested as it was by 
dense forests, darkening the horizon at all points of the 
compass, and folded in by tree-clad ridges. 

At the sound of our caravan the red antelope bounded 
away to our right and the left, and frogs hushed their 
croak. The sun shone hot, and while traversing the 
valley we experienced a little of its real African fervour. 
About half way across we came to a sluice of stagnant 
water which, directly in the road of the caravan, had 
settled down into an oozy pond. The pagazis crossed a 
hastily-constructed bridge, thrown up a long time ago by 
some vYashensi Samaritans. It was an extraordinary 
affair ; rugged tree limbs resting on very unsteady forked 
piles, and it had evidently tested the patience of manj a 


loaded Mnyamwezi, as it did those porters of our caravan. 
Our weaker animals were unloaded, the puddle between 
Bagamoyo and Gonera having taught us prudence. But 
this did not occasion much delay ; the men worked smartly 
under Shaw's supervision. 

The turbid Kingani, famous for its hippopotami, was 
reached in a short time, and we began to thread the 
jungle along its right bank until we were halted point- 
blank by a narrow sluice having an immeasurable depth 
of black mud. The difficulty presented by this was very 
grave, though its breadth was barely eight feet ; the 
donkeys, and least of all the horses, could not be made to 
traverse two poles like our biped carriers, neither could 
they be driven into the sluice, where they would quickly 
founder. The only available way of crossing it in safety 
was by means of a bridge, to endure in this conservative 
land for generations as the handiwork of the Wasungu. 
So we set to work, there being no help for it, with American 
axes the first of their kind the strokes of which ever 
rang in this part of the world to build a bridge. Be 
sure it was made quickly, for where the civilized white is 
found, a difficulty must vanish. The bridge was composed 
of six stout trees thrown across, over these were laid cross- 
wise fifteen pack saddles, covered again with a thick layer 
of grass. All the animals crossed it safely, and then for a 
third time that morning the process of wading was per- 
formed. The Kingani flowed northerly here, and our 
course lay down its right bank. A half mile in that 
direction through a jungle of giant reeds and extravagant 
climbers brought us to the ferry, where the animals had 
to be again unloaded verily, I wished when I saw its 
deep muddy waters that I possessed the power of Moses 
with his magic rod, or what would have answered my 


purpose as well, Aladdin's ring, for then I could have 
found myself and party on the opposite side without 
further trouhle ; but not having either of these gifts I 
issued orders for an immediate crossing, for it was ill 
wishing sublime things before this most mundane prospect. 

King were, the canoe paddler, espying us from his brake 
covert, on the opposite side, civilly responded to our 
halloos, and brought his huge hollowed tree skilfully over 
the whirling eddies of the river to where we stood waiting 
for him. While one party loaded the canoe with our 
goods, others got ready a long rope to fasten around the 
animals' necks, wherewith to haul them through the river 
to the other bank. After seeing the work properly com- 
menced, I sat down on a condemned canoe to amuse 
myself with the hippopotami by peppering their thick 
skulls with my No. 12 smooth-bore. The Winchester 
rifle (calibre 44), a present from the Hon. Edward Joy 
Morris our minister at Constantinople did no more 
than slightly tap them, causing about as much injury as a 
boy's sling; it was perfect in its accuracy of fire, for ten 
times in succession I struck the tops of their heads between 
the ears. One old fellow, with the look of a sage, was tapped 
close to the right ear by one of these bullets. Instead of 
submerging himself as others had done he coolly turned 
round his head as if to ask, " Why this waste of valuable 
cartridges on us ? " The response to the mute inquiry of 
his sageship was an ounce-and-a-quarter bullet from the 
smooth-bore, which made him bellow with pain, and in a 
few moments he rose up again, tumbling in his death agonies. 
As his groans were so piteous, I refrained from a useless 
eaci ifice of life, and left the amphibious horde in peace. 

Jl. little knowledge concerning these uncouth inmates 
of Jie African waters was gained even during the few 


minutes we were delayed at the ferry. When undisturbed 
by foreign sounds, they congregate in shallow water on 
the sand bars, with the fore half of their bodies exposed 
to the warm sunshine, and are in appearance, when thus 
somnolently reposing, very like a herd of enormous swine. 
When startled by the noise of an intruder, they plunge 
hastily into the depths, lashing the waters into a yellow- 
ish foam, and scatter themselves below the surface, when 
presently the heads of a few reappear, snorting the water 
from their nostrils, to take a fresh breath and a cautious 
scrutiny around them ; when thus, we see but their ears, 
forehead, eyes and nostrils, and as they hastily submerge 
again it requires a steady wrist and a quick hand to shoot 
them. I have heard several comparisons made of their 
appearance while floating in this manner: some Arabs 
told me before I had seen them that they looked like 
dead trees carried down the river ; others, who in some 
country had seen hogs, thought they resembled them, but 
to my mind they look more like horses when swimming 
their curved necks and pointed ears, their wide eyes and 
expanded nostrils, favor greatly this comparison. 

At night they seek the shore, and wander several miles 
over the country, luxuriating among its rank grasses. To 
within four miles of the town of Bagamoyo (the Kingani 
is eight miles distant) their wide tracks are seen. 
Frequently, if not disturbed by the startling human 
voice, they make a raid on the rich corn-stalks of the 
native cultivators, and a dozen of them will in a few 
minutes mako a frightful havoc in a large field of this 
plant. Consequently, we were not surprised, while de- 
layed at the ferry, to hear the owners of the corn venting 
loud halloos, like the rosy-cheeked farmer boys in England 
when scaring the crows away from the young wheat. 


The caravan in the meanwhile had crossed safely 
bales, baggage, donkeys, and men. I had thought to 
have camped on the bank, so as to amuse myself with 
shooting antelope, and also for the sake of procuring 
their meat, in order to save my goats, of which I had a 
number constituting my live stock of provisions; but, 
thanks to the awe and dread which my men entertained 
of the hippopotami, I was hurried on to the outpost of 
the Baluch garrison at Bagamoyo, a small village called 
Kikoka, distant four miles from the river. 

The western side of the river was a considerable im- 
provement upon the eastern. The plain, slowly heaving 
upwards, as smoothly as the beach of a watering-place, 
for the distance of a mile, until it culminated in a gentle 
and rounded ridge, presented none of those difficulties 
which troubled us on the other side. There were none 
of those cataclysms of mire and sloughs of black mud 
and over- tall grasses, none of that miasmatic jungle 
with its noxious emissions ; it was just such a scene as 
one may find before an English mansion a noble expanse 
of lawn and sward, with boscage sufficient to agreeably 
diversify it. After traversing the open plain, the road 
led through a grove of young ebony trees, where guinea- 
fowls and a hartebeest were seen ; it then wound, with 
all the characteristic eccentric curves of a goat-path, up 
and down a succession of land-waves crested by the dark 
green foliage of the mango, and the scantier and lighter- 
coloured leaves of the enormous calabash. The depres- 
sions were filled with jungle of moie or less density, 
while hero and there opened glades, shadowed even 
during noon by thin groves of towering trees. At our 
approach fled in terror flocks of green pigeons, jays, ibis, 
turtledoves, golden pheasants, quails and moorhens, with 

UfcWE&E, ETC., TO tJSfeatrHA. 73 

crows and hawks, while now and then a solitaiy pelican 
winged its way to the distance. 

Nor was this enlivening prospect without its pairs of 
antelope, and monkeys which hopped away like Australian 
kangaroos ; these latter were of good size, with round 
bullet heads, white breasts, and long tails tufted at the end. 

We arrived at Kikoka by 5 P.M., having loaded and 
unloaded our pack animals four times, crossing one deep 
puddle, a mud sluice, and a river, and performed a journey 
of eleven miles. 

The settlement of Kikoka is a collection of straw huts, 
not built after any architectural style, but after a 
bastard form, invented by indolent settlers from the 
Mrima and Zanzibar for the purpose of excluding as 
much sunshine as possible from the eaves and interior. 
A sluice and some wells provide them with water, which 
though sweet is not particularly wholesome or appetizing 5 
owing to the large quantities of decayed matter which is 
washed into it by the rams, and is then left to corrupt in 
it. A weak effort has been made to clear the neighbour- 
hood for providing a place for cultivation, but to the 
dire task of wood-chopping and jungle-clearing the 
settlers prefer occupying an open glade, which they clear 
of grass, so as to be able to hoe up two or three inches 
of soil, into which they cast their seed, confident of return. 

The next day was a halt at Kikoka ; the fourth caravan, 
consisting solely of Wanyamwezi, proving a sore obstacle 
to a rapid advance. Maganga, its chief, devised several 
methods of extorting more cloth and presents from me, 
he having cost already more than any three chiefs 
together ; but his efforts were of no avail further than 
obtaining promises of reward if he would hurry on tc 
Unyanyembe so fehat I might find my road clear. 


On tl_e 21 ;h, the Wanyamwezi having started, we broke 
camp soon after at 7 A.M. The country was of the same 
nature as that lying between the Eingani and Kikoka 
a park land, attractive and beautiful in every feature. 

I rode in advance to secure meat should a chance 
present itself, but not the shadow of vert or venison did 
I see. Ever in our front westerly rolled the land- 
waves, now rising, now subsiding, parallel one with the 
other, like a ploughed field many times magnified. Each 
ridge had its knot of jungle or its thin combing of 
heavily foliaged trees, until we arrived close to Kosako, 
our next halting place, when the monotonous wavure of 
the land underwent a change, breaking into independent 
hummocks clad with dense jungle. On one of these, 
veiled by an impenetrable jungle of thorny acacia, rested 
Rosako, girt round by its natural fortification, neigh- 
bouring another village to the north of it similarly 
protected. Between them sank a valley extremely 
fertile and bountiful in its productions, bisected by a 
small stream, which serves as a drain to the valley or 
low hills surrounding it. 

Kosako is the frontier village of Ukwere, while Kikoka 
is the north-western extremity of Uzaramo. We entered 
this village, and occupied its central portion with our 
tents and animals. A kitanda, or square light bedstead, 
without valance, fringe, or any superfluity whatever, but 
nevertheless quite as comfortable as with them, was 
brought to my tent for my use by the village chief. 
The animals were, immediately after being unloaded, 
driven out to feed, and the soldiers to a man set to work 
tc pile the baggage up, lest the rain, which during the 
Masika season always appears imminent, might cause 
irreparable damage. 


AmDng other experiments which I was about to try in 
Africa was that of a good watch-dog on any unmannerly 
people who would insist upon coming into my tent at 
untimely hours and endangering valuables. Especially 
did I wish to try the effect of its bark on the mighty 
Wagogo, who, I was told by certain Arabs, would lift the 
door of the tent and enter whether you wished them or 
not ; who would chuckle at the fear they inspired, and 
say to you, " Hi, hi, white man, I never saw the like of 
you before ; are there many more like you ? where do 
you come from?" Also would they take hold of your 
watch and ask you with a cheerful curiosity, " What 
is this for, white man?" to which you of course would 
reply that it was to tell you the hour and minute. But 
the Mgogo, proud of his prowess, and more unmannerly 
than a brute, would answer you with a snort of insult. 
I thought of a watch-dog, and procured a good one at 
Bombay not only as a faithful companion, but to threaten 
the heels of just such gentry. 

But soon after our arrival at Eosako it was found that 
the dog, whose name was " Omar," given him from his 
Turkish origin, was missing ; he had strayed away from 
the soldiers during a rain-squall and had got lost. I 
despatched Mabruki Burton back to Kikoka to search for 
him. On the following morning, just as we were about 
to leave Kosako, the faithful fellow returned with the 
lost dog, having found him at Kikoka. 

Previous to our departure on the morning after this, 
Maganga, chief of the fourth caravan, brought me the 
unhappy report that three of his pagazis were sick, and 
he would like to have some " dowa " medicine. Though 
not a doctor, or in any way connected with the profession, 
I had a well-supplied medicine chest without which no 


traveller in Africa could live for just such a contingency 
as was now present. On visiting Maganga's sick men, 
I found one suffering from inflammation of the lungs, 
another from the mukunguru (African intermittent) 
They all imagined themselves about to die, and called 
loudly for " Mama !" " Mama !" though they were all 
grown men. It was evident that the fourth caravan 
could not stir that day, so leaving word with Maganga 
to hurry after me as soon as possible, I issued orders for 
the march of my own. 

Excepting in the neighbourhood of the villages which 
we have passed there were no traces of cultivation. The 
country extending between the several stations is as 
much a wilderness as the desert of Sahara, though it 
possesses a far more pleasing aspect. Indeed, had the 
first man at the time of the Creation gazed at his world 
and perceived it of the beauty which belongs to this part 
of Africa, he would have had no cause of complaint. In 
the deep thickets, set like islets amid a sea of grassy 
verdure, he would have found shelter from the noonday 
heat, and a safe retirement for himself and spouse during 
the awesome darkness. In the morning he could have 
walked forth on the sloping sward, enjoyed its freshness, 
and performed his ablutions in one of the many small 
streams flowing at its foot. His garden of fruit-trees is 
all that is required ; the noble forests, deep and cool, are 
round about him, and in their shade walk as many 
animals as one can desire. For days and days let a man 
walk in any direction, north, south, east, and west, and 
he will behold the same scene. 

Earnestly as I wished to hurry on to Unyanyembe, 
still a heart-felt anxiety about the arrival of my goods 
carried by the fourth caravan, served as a drag upon me 


and before my caravan had marched nine miles my 
anxiety had risen to the highest pitch, and caused me to 
order a camp there and then. The place selected for it 
was near a long straggling sluice, having an abundance 
of water during the rainy season, draining as it does two 
extensive slopes. No sooner had we pitched our camp, 
built a boma of thorny acacia, and other tiee branches, 
by stacking them round our camp, and driven our animals 
to grass, than we were made aware of the formidable 
number and variety of the insect tribe, which for a time 
was another source of anxiety, until a diligent exami- 
nation of the several species dispelled it. 

As it was a most interesting hunt which I instituted 
for the several specimens of the insects, I here append 
the record of it for what it is worth. My object in 
obtaining these specimens was to determine whether the 
genus Glossina morsitans of the naturalist, or the tsetse 
(sometimes called setse) of Livingstone, Vardon, and Gum- 
ming, said to be deadly to horses, was amongst them. Up 
to this date I had been nearly two months in East Africa, 
and had as yet seen no tsetse ; and my horses, instead of 
becoming emaciated for such is one of the symptoms of 
a tsetse bite had considerably improved in condition. 
There were three different species of flies which sought 
shelter in my tent, which, unitedly, kept up a continual 
chorus of sounds one performed the basso profondo, 
another a tenor, and the third a weak contralto. The 
first emanated from a voracious and fierce fly, an inch long, 
having a ventral capacity for blood quite astonishing. 

This larger fly was the one chosen for the first 
inspection, which was of the intensest. I permitted one 
to alight on my flannel pyjamas, which I wore while en 
deshabille in camp. No sooner bad he alighted than hia 


posterior was raited, his head lowered, ind his weapons, 
consisting of four hair-like styles, unsheathed from the 
proboscis-like bag which concealed them, and immediatelj 
I felt pain like that caused by a dexterous lancet-cut or 
the probe of a fine needle. I permitted him to gorge 
himself, though my patience and naturalistic interest 
were sorely tried. I saw his abdominal parts distend 
with the plenitude of the repast until it had swollen to 
three times its former shrunken girth, when he flew away 
of his own accord laden with blood. On rolling up my 
flannel pyjamas to see the fountain whence the fly had 
drawn the fluid, I discovered it to be a little above the 
left knee, by a crimson bead resting over the incision. 
After wiping the blood the wound was similar to that 
caused by a deep thrust of a fine needle, but all pain had 
vanished with the departure of the fly. 

Having caught a specimen of this fly, I next proceeded 
to institute a comparison between it and the tsetse, as 
described by Dr. Livingstone on pp. 56-57, ' Missionary 
Travels and Eesearches in South Africa ' (Murray's edition 
of 1868). The points of disagreement are many, and 
such as to make it entirely improbable that this fly 
is the true tsetse, though my men unanimously stated 
that its bite was fatal to horses as well as to donkeys, 
descriptive abstract of the tsetse would read thus : " No 
much larger than a common house-fly, nearly of the sam 
brown colour as the honey-bee. After-part of the bod 
has yellow bars across it. It has a peculiar buzz, and i 
bite is death to the horse, ox, and dog. On man the bite 
has no effect, neither has it on wild animals. When 
allowed to feed on the hand, it inserts the middle prong 
of three portions into which the proboscis divides, it then 
draws the prong out a little way, and it assumes * crimson 


color as the mandibles come into brisk operation ; a 
slight itching irritation follows the bite." 

The fly which I had under inspection is called mabunga 
by the natives. It is much larger than the common house- 
fly, fully a third larger than the common honey-bee, and 
its color more distinctly marked ; its head is black, with 
a greenish gloss to it ; the after-part of the body is 
marked by a white line running lengthwise from its 
junction with the trunk, and on each side of this white 
line are two other lines, one of a crimson color, the other 
of a light brown. As for its buzz, there is no peculiarity 
in it, it might be mistaken for that of a honey-bee. 
When caught it made desperate efforts to get away, but 
never attempted to bite. This fly, along with a score of 
others, attacked my grey horse, and bit it so sorely in the 
legs that they appeared as if bathed in blood. Hence, I 
might have been a little vengeful if, with more than the 
zeal of an entomologist, I caused it to disclose whatever 
peculiarities its biting parts possessed. 

In order to bring this fly as life-like as possible before 
my readers, I may compare its head to a most tiny 
miniature of an elephant's, because it has a black pro- 
boscis and a pair of horny antennae, which in color and 
curve resemble tusks. The black proboscis, however, is 
simply a hollow sheath, which encloses, when not in the 
act of biting, four reddish and sharp lancets. Under the 
microscope these four lancets differ in thickness, two are 
very thick, the third is slender, but the fourth, of an opal 
color and almost transparent, is exceedingly fine. This last 
must be the sucker. When the fly is about to wound, the 
two horny antennae are made to embrace the part, the 
lancets are unsheathed, md on the instant the incision is 
porformed. This I consider to be the African " horse-fly.' 


The second fly, which sang the tenor note^ more nearly 
resembled in size and description the tsetse. It was 
exceedingly nimble, and it occupied three soldiers nearly 
nn hour to capture a specimen ; and, when it was finally 
caught, it stung most ravenously the hand, and never 
ceased its efforts to attack until it was pinned through. 
It had three or four white marks across the after-part of 
its body ; but the biting parts of this fly consisted of two 
black antennae and an opal colored style, which folded 
away under the neck. When about to bite, this style 
was shot out straight, and the antennae embraced it 
closely. After death the fly lost its distinctive white 
marks. Only one of this species did we see at this camp. 

The third fly, called " chufwa," pitched a weak alto- 
crescendo note, was a third larger than the house fly, 
and had long wings. If this insect sang the feeblesl 
note, it certainly did the most work, and inflicted the 
most injury. Horses and donkeys streamed with blood, 
and reared and kicked through the pain. So determined 
was it not to be driven before it obtained its fill, that 
it was easily despatched ; but this dreadful enemy to 
cattle constantly increased in numbers. The three species 
above named are, according to natives, fatal to cattle; 
and this may perhaps be the reason why such a vast 
expanse of first-class pasture is without domestic cattle of 
any kind, a few goats only being kept by the villagers. 
This fly I subsequently found to be the " tsetse." 

On \he second morning, instead of proceeding, I deemed 
it more prudent to await the fourth caravan. Burton 
experimented sufficiently for me on the promised word 
of the Banyans of Kaole and Zanzibar, and waited 
eleven months before he received the promised articles. 
A I did not expect to be much over that time on my 


errand altogether, it \rould be ruin, absolute and ir- 
remediable, should I be detained at Unyanyembe so long 
a time by my caravan. Pending its arrival, I sought the 
pleasures of the chase. I was but a tyro in hunting, I 
confess, though I had shot a little on the plains of 
America and Persia ; yet I considered myself a fair shot, 
and on game ground, and within a reasonable proximity 
to game, I doubted not but I could bring some to camp. 

After a march of a mile through the tall grass of the 
open, we gained the glades between the jungles. Un- 
successful here, after ever so much prying into fine 
hiding-places and lurking corners, I struck a trail well 
traversed by small antelope and hartebeest, which we 
followed. It led me into a jungle, and down a water- 
course bisecting it ; but, after following it for an hour, I 
lost it, and, in endeavouring to retrace it, lost my way. 
However, my pocket-compass stood me in good stead ; 
and by it I steered for the open plain, in the centre of 
which stood the camp. But it was terribly hard work 
this of plunging through an African jungle, ruinous to 
clothes, and trying to the cuticle. In order to travel 
quickly, I had donned a pair of flannel pyjamas, and my 
feet were encased in canvas shoes. As might be expected, 
before I had gone a few paces a branch of the acacia 
horrida only one of a hundred such annoyances caught 
the right leg of my pyjamas at the knee, and ripped it 
almost clean off; succeeding which a stumpy kolquall 
caught me by the shoulder, and another rip was the 
inevitable consequence. A few yards farther on, a 
prickly aloetic plant disfigured by a wide tear the other 
leg of my pyjamas, and almost immediately I tripped 
against a convolvulus strong as ratline, and was u ade to 
measure my length on a bed of thorns. It was on all 



fours, like a hound on a scent, that I was compelled to 
travel ; my solar topee getting the worse for wear every 
minute ; my skin getting more and more wounded ; my 
clothes at each step becoming more and more tattered. 
Besides these discomforts, there was a pungent, acrid 
plant, which, apart from its strong odorous emissions, 
struck me smartly on the face, leaving a burning effect 
similar to cayenne ; and the atmosphere, pent in by the 
density of the jungle, was hot and stifling, and the 
perspiration transuded through every pore, making my 
flannel tatters feel as if I had been through a shower. 
When I had finally regained the plain, and could breathe 
free, I mentally vowed that the penetralia of an African 
jungle should not be visited by me again, save under most 
urgent necessity. 

The second and third day passed without any news ol 
Maganga. Accordingly, Shaw and Bombay were sent to 
hurry him up by all means. On the fourth morning 
Shaw and Bombay returned, followed by the procrasti- 
nating Maganga and his laggard people. Questions only 
elicited an excuse that his men had been too sick, and he 
had feared to tax their strength before they were quite 
equal to stand the fatigue. Moreover he suggested that 
as they would be compelled to stay one day more at the 
camp, I might push on to Kingaru and camp there, until 
his arrival. Acting upon which suggestion I broke camp 
and started for Kingaru, distant five miles. 

On this march the land was more broken, and the 
caravan first encountered jungle, which gave consider- 
able trouble to our cart. Pisolitic limestone cropped out 
in boulders and sheets, and we began to imagine ourselves 
approaching healthy highlands, andas if to give confirmation 
to the thcught, to the north and north-west loomed tho 


purple cones of Udoe, and topmost of all Dilima Peak, 
about 1,500 feet in height above the sea level. But soon 
after sinking into a bowl-like valley, green with tall corn, 
the road slightly deviated from north-west to west, the 
country still rolling before us in wavy undulations. 

In one of the depressions between these lengthy land- 
swells stood the village of Kingaru, with surroundings 
significant in their aspect of ague and fever. Perhaps 
the clouds surcharged with rain, and the overhanging 
ridges and their dense forests dulled by the gloom, made 
the place more than usually disagreeable, but my first 
impressions of the sodden hollow, pent in by those dull 
woods, with the deep gully close by containing pools of 
stagnant water, were by no means agreeable. 

Before we could arrange our camp and set the tents 
up, down poured the furious harbinger of the Masika 
season in torrents sufficient to damp the ardor and new- 
born love for East Africa I had lately manifested. How- 
ever, despite rain, we worked on until our camp was 
finished and the property was safely stored from weather 
and thieves, and we could regard with resignation the 
raindrops beating the soil into mud of a very tenacious 
kind, and forming lakelets and rivers of our camp-ground. 

Towards night, the scene having reached its acme of 
unpleasantness, the rain ceased, and the natives poured 
into camp from the villages in the woods with their 
vendibles. Foremost among these, as if in duty bound, 
came the village sultan lord, chief, or head bearing 
three measures of matama and half a measure of rice, 
of which he begged, with paternal smiles, my acceptance. 
But under his smiling mask, bleared eyes, and wrinkled 
front was visible the soul of trickery, which was of the 
cunningest kind. Kesponding under the same mask 


adopted by this knavish elder, I said, "The chief of 
Kingaru has called me a rich sultan. If I am a rich 
sultan why comes not the chief with a rich present tc 
me, that he might get a rich return ? " Said he, with 
another leer of his wrinkled visage, " Kingaru is poor, 
there is no matama in the village." To which I replied 
that since there was no matama in the village I would 
pay him half a shukka, or a yard of cloth, which would be 
exactly equivalent to his present ; that if he preferred to 
call his small basketful a present, I should be content to 
call my yard of cloth a present. With which logic he 
was fain to be satisfied. 

April 1st. To-day the Expedition suffered a loss in the 
death of the grey Arab horse presented by Seyd Burg- 
hash, Sultan of Zanzibar. The night previous I had 
noticed that the horse was suffering. Bearing in mind 
what has been so frequently asserted, namely, that no 
horses could live in the interior of Africa because of the 
tsetse, I had him opened, and the stomach, which I 
believed to be diseased, examined. Besides much un- 
digested matama and grass there were found twenty-five 
short, thick, white worms, sticking like leeches into the 
coating of the stomach, while the intestines were almost 
alive with the numbers of long white worms. I was 
satisfied that neither man nor beast could long exist with 
such a mass of corrupting life within him. 

In order that the dead carcase might not taint the 
valley, I had it buried deep in the ground, about a score 
of yards from the encampment. From such a slight 
cause ensued a tremendous uproar from Kingaru chief 
of the village who, with his brother-chiefs of neigh- 
bouring villages, numbering in the aggregate two dozen 
wattled huts, bad taken counsel upon the best means of 

THROtJGfi tfKWEilfe, ETC., TO USfiGtKHA. 85 

mulcting tiie Musungu of a full doti or two of Meiikani, 
and finally had arrived at the conviction that the act of 
burying a dead horse in their soil without "By your 
leave, sir," was a grievous and fineable fault. Affecting 
great indignation at the unpardonable omission, he, 
Kingaru, concluded to send to the Musungu four 01 
his young men to say to him that " since you have 
buried your horse in my ground, it is well ; let him 
remain there ; but you must pay me two doti of Meri- 
kani." For reply the messengers were told to say to the 
chief that I would prefer talking the matter over with 
himself face to face, if he would condescend to visit me in 
my tent once again. As the village was but a stone's 
throw from our encampment, before many minutes had 
elapsed the wrinkled elder made his appearance at the 
door of my tent with about half the village behind him. 

The following dialogue which took place will serve to 
illustrate the tempers of the people with whom I was 
about to have a year's trading intercourse : 

White Man. " Are you the great chief of Kingaru ?" 

Kingaru." Huh-uh. Yes." 

W. M." The great, great chief?" 

Kingaru. 11 Huh-uh. Yes." 

W. M. " How many soldiers have you ?" 

Kingaru." Why ?" 

W. M. " How many fighting men have you ?" 

Kingaru. " None." 

W. M. " Oh ! I thought you might have a thousand 
men with you, by your going to fine a strong white man, 
who has plenty of guns and soldiery two doti for burning 
a dead horse." 

Kingaru (rather perplexed). " No ; I have no soldiers 
I have only a few young msn." 

86 HOW I 

W M. " Why do you come aiid make trouble, then ? w 

Kingaru. "It was not I; it was my brothers who 
<jaid to me, ' Come here, come here, Kingaru, see what 
the white man has done ! Has he not taken possession 
sf your soil, in that he has put his horse into your ground 
without your permission ? Come, go to him and see by 
what right.' Therefore have I come to ask you, who 
gave you permission to use my soil for a burying-ground ?" 

W. M. " I want no man's permission to do what is 
right. My horse died ; had I left him to fester and stink 
in your valley, sickness would visit your village, your 
water would become unwholesome, and caravans would 
not stop here for trade ; for they would say, ' This is an 
unlucky spot, let us go away.' But enough said : I under- 
stand you to say that you do not want him buried in 
your ground ; the error I have fallen into is easily put 
right. This minute my soldiers shall dig him out again, 
and cover up the soil as it was before ; and the horse 
shall be left where he died." (Then shouting to Bombay.) 
" Ho ! Bombay, take soldiers with jembes to dig my horse 
out of the ground, drag him to where he died, and make 
everything ready for a march to-morrow morning." 

Kingaru, his voice considerably higher, and his head 
moving to and fro with emotion, cries out, " Akuna, 
akuna, bana !" " No, no, master ! Let not the white 
man get angry. The horse is dead, and now lies buried ; 
let him remain so, since he is already there, and let us be 
friends again." 

The Sheikh of Kingaru being thus brought to his 
senses, we bid each other the friendly " Kwaheri," and I 
was left alone to ruminate over my loss. Barely half an 
hour had elapsed, it was 9 P.M., the camp was in a semi- 
doze, when I heard deep groans issuing fr-in one of the 


animals. Upon inquiry as to what animal was suffering, 
I was surprised to hear that it was my bay horse. With 
a bull's-eye lantern, I visited him, and perceived that the 
pain was located in the stomach, but whether it was from 
some poisonous plant he had eaten while out grazing, or 
from some equine disease, I did not know. He discharged 
copious quantities of loose matter, but there was nothing 
peculiar in its color. The pain was evidently very great, 
for his struggles were very violent. I was up all night, 
hoping that it was but a temporary effect of some strange 
and noxious plant; but at 6 o'clock the next morning, 
after a short period of great agony, he also died ; exactly 
fifteen hours after his companion. When the stomach 
was opened, it was found that death was caused by the 
internal rupture of a large cancer, which had affected the 
larger half of the coating of his stomach, and had extended 
an inch or two up the larynx. The contents of the 
stomach and intestines were deluged with the yellow 
viscous efflux from the cancer. 

I was thus deprived of both my horses, and that within 
the short space of fifteen hours. With my limited know- 
ledge of veterinary science, however, strengthened by the 
actual and positive proofs obtained by the dissection of 
the two stomachs, I can scarcely state that horses can 
live to reach Unyanyembe, or that they can travel with 
ease through this part of East Africa. But should I 
have occasion at some future day, I should not hesitate to 
take four horses with me, though I should certainly 
endeavour to ascertain previous to purchase whether they 
were perfectly sound and healthy, and to those travellers 
who cherish a good horse I would say, " Try one," and be 
not discouraged by my unfortunate experiences. 

The 3st, 2nd, and 3rd of April passed, and nothing had 


we heard or seen of the ever-lagging fourth caravan. 
In the moan while the list of casualties was being aug- 
mented. Besides the loss of this precious time, through 
the perverseness of the chief of the other caravan, 
and the loss of my two horses, a pagazi carrying 
boat-fixtures improved the opportunity, and deserted. 
Selim was struck down with a severe attack of ague and 
fever, and was soon after followed by the cook, then by 
the assistant cook and tailor, Abdul Kader. Finally, 
before the third day was over, Bombay had rheumatism, 
Uledi (Grant's old valet) had a swollen throat, Zaidi had 
the flux, Kingaru had the mukunguru ; Khamisi, a pagazi, 
suffered from a weakness of the loins ; Farjalla had a 
bilious fever ; and before night closed Makoviga was 
very ill. Out of a force of twenty-five men one had 
deserted, and ten were on the sick list, and the presenti- 
ment that the ill-looking neighbourhood of Kingaru would 
prove calamitous to me was verified. 

On the 4th April Maganga and his people appeared, 
after being heralded by musketry-shots and horn-blowing, 
the usual signs of an approaching caravan in this land. 
His sick men were considerably improved, but they re- 
quired one more day of rest at Kingaru. In the afternoon 
he came to lay siege to my generosity, by giving details oi 
Soor Hadji Palloo's heartless cheats upon him ; but I 
informed him, that since I had left Bagamoyo, I could no 
longer be generous ; we were now in a land where cloth 
was at a high premium ; that I had no more cloth than I 
should need to furnish food for myself and men ; that he 
and his caravan had cost me more money and trouble than 
any three caravans I had, as indeed was the case. With 
this counter-statement he was obliged to be content. 
But I again solved hia pecuniary doubts by promising 

UKWERE. ETC., tO ttSfeOtmttA. 89 

that, if he hurried his caravan on to Unyanyembe, he 
should have no cause of complaint. 

The 5th of April saw the fourth caravan vanish for 
once in our front, with a fair promise that, however fast 
we should follow, we should not see them the hither side 
of Sinbamwenni. 

The following morning, in order to rouse my people 
from the sickened torpitude they had lapsed into, I beat 
an exhilarating alarum on a tin pan with an iron ladle, 
intimating that a sofari was about to be undertaken. 
This had a very good effect, judging from the extra- 
ordinary alacrity with which it was responded to. Before 
the sun rose we started. Thf Kingaru villagers were 
out with the velocity of hawks for any rags or refuse left 
behind us. 

The long march to Imbiki, fifteen miles, proved that 
our protracted stay at Kingaru had completely demo- 
ralized my soldiers and pagazis. Only a few of them had 
strength enough to reach Imbiki before night. The 
others, attending the laden donkeys, put in an appearance 
next morning, in a lamentable state of mind and body. 
Khamisi the pagazi with the weak loins had deserted, 
taking with him two goats, the property tent, and the 
whole of Uledi's personal wealth, consisting of his visiting 
dish-dasheh a long shirt of the Arabic pattern, 10 Ibs. of 
beads, and a few fine cloths, which Uledi, in a generous 
fit, had intrusted to him, while he carried the pagazi 's 
load, 70 Ibs. of Bubu beads. This defalcation was not to 
be overlooked, nor should Khamisi be permitted to return 
without an effort to apprehend him. Accordingly Uledi 
and Ferajji were despatched in pursuit while we rested at 
Imbiki, in order to give the dilapidated soldiers and 
animals time to recruit. 


On the 8th we continued our journey, and arrived ai 
Msuwa. This march will be remembered by our caravan 
as the most fatiguing of all, though the distance was but 
ten miles. It was one continuous jungle, except three 
interjacent glades of narrow limits, which gave us three 
breathing pauses in the dire task of jungle travelling. 
The odour emitted from its fell plants was so rank, so 
pungently acrid, and the miasma from its decayed vegeta- 
tion so dense, that I expected every moment to see mysell 
and men drop down in paroxysms of acute fever. Happily 
this evil was not added to that of loading and unloading 
the frequently falling packs. Seven soldiers to attend 
seventeen laden donkeys were entirely too small a number 
while passing through a jungle ; for while the path is but 
a foot wide, with a wall of thorny plants and creepers 
bristling on each side, and projecting branches darting 
across it, with knots of spikey twigs stiff as spike-nails, 
ready to catch and hold anything above four feet in 
height, it is but reasonable to suppose that donkeys 
standing four feet high, with loads measuring across from 
bale to bale four feet, would come to grief. This grief 
was of frequent recurrence here, causing us to pause 
every few minutes for re-arrangements. So often had 
this task to be performed, that the men got perfectly 
discouraged, and had to be spoken to sharply before they 
get to, work. By the time I reached Msuwa there was 
nobody with me and the ten donkeys I drove but Mabruk 
the Little, who, though generally stolid, stood to his 
work like a man. Bombay and TJledi were far behind, 
with the most jaded donkeys. Shaw was in charge of 
the cart, and his experiences were most bitter, as he 
informed ine he had expended a whole vocabulary of 
stormy abuse known to sailors, and a new one which h* 


had invented ex tetnpore. He did not arrive until two 
o'clock next morning, and was completely worn out. 

Another halt was fixed at Msuwa, that we and our 
animals might recuperate. The chief of the village, a 
white man in everything but color, sent me and mine 
the fattest broad-tailed sheep of his flock, with five 
measures of matama grain. The mutton was excellent, 
unapproachable. For his timely and needful present 
I gave him two doti, and amused him with an exhibition 
of the wonderful mechanism of the Winchester rifle, and 
my breechloading revolvers. 

He and his people were intelligent enough to com- 
prehend the utility of these weapons at an emergency, 
and illustrated in expressive pantomime the powers they 
possessed against numbers of people armed only with 
spears and bows, by extending their arms with an 
imaginary gun and describing a clear circle. " Verily," 
said they, " the Wasungu are far wiser than the Washensi. 
What heads they have ! What wonderful things they 
make ! Look at their tents, their guns, their time-pieces, 
their clothes, and that little rolling thing (the cart) which 
carries more than five men, que !" 

On the 10th, recovered from the excessive strain of the 
last march, the caravan marched out of Msuwa, accom- 
panied by the hospitable villagers as far as their stake 
defence, receiving their unanimous " Kwaheris." Outside 
the village the march promised to be less arduous than 
between Imbiki and Msuwa. After crossing a beautiful 
little plain intersected by a dry gully or mtoni, the route 
led by a few cultivated fields, where the tillers greeted 
us with one grand unwinking stare, as if fascinated. 

Soon after we met )ne of those sights common in this part 
of the world, to wit a chain slave-gang, bcund east. The 

02 tfOW I FCtmb LlVlNGBfONE. 

slaves did not appear to be in any way down-hearted 
on the contrary, they seemed imbued with the philosophic 
jollity of the jolly servant of Martin Chuzzlewit. Were 
it not for their chains, it would have been difficult to 
discover master from slave ; the physiognomic traits were 
alike the mild benignity with which we were regarded 
was equally visible on all faces. The chains were pon- 
derous they might have held elephants captive; but as 
the slaves carried nothing but themselves, their weight 
could not have been insupportable. 

The jungle was scant on this march, and though in 
some places the packs met with accidents, they were not 
such as seriously to retard progress. By 10 A.M. we were 
in camp in the midst of an imposing view of green sward 
and forest domed by a cloudless sky. We had again 
pitched our camp in the wilderness, and, as is the custom 
of caravans, fired two shots to warn any Washensi having 
grain to sell, that we were willing to trade. 

Our next halting- place was Kisemo, distant but eleven 
miles from Msuwa, a village situated in a populous 
district, having in its vicinity no less than five other 
villages, each fortified by stakes and thorny abattis, with 
as much fierce independence as if their petty lords were 
so many Percys and Douglasses. Each topped a ridge, or a 
low hummock, with an assumption of defiance of the 
cock-on-its-own-dunghill type. Between these humble 
eminences and low ridges of land wind narrow vales 
which are favored with the cultivation of matama and 
Indian corn. Behind the village flows the Ungerengeri 
Kiver, an impetuous stream during the Masika season, 
capable of overflowing its steep banks, but in the dry 
season it subsides into its proper status, which is that of 
i, small stream of very clear sweet water. Its course 


from Kiseino is south-west, then easterly ; it is the 
feeder of the Kingani Kiver. 

The belles of Kisemo are noted for their vanity in 
brass wire, which is wound in spiral rings round their 
wrists and ankles, and the varieties of style which their 
hispid heads exhibit; while their poor lords, obliged to 
be contented with dingy torn clouts and split ears, show 
what wide sway Asmodeus holds over this terrestrial 
sphere for it must have been an unhappy time when the 
hard-besieged husbands finally gave way before their 
spouses. Besides these brassy ornaments on their ex- 
tremities, and the various hair-dressing styles, the 
women of Kisemo frequently wear lengthy necklaces, 
which run in rivers of colors down their bodies. 

A more comical picture is seldom presented than that 
of one of these highly-dressed females engaged in the 
homely and necessary task of grinding corn for herself 
and family. The grinding apparatus consists of two 
portions : one, a thick pole of hard wood about six feet 
long, answering for a pestle; the other, a capacious 
wooden mortar, three feet in height. 

While engaged in setting his tent, Shaw was obliged 
to move a small flat stone, to drive a peg into the ground. 
The village chief, who saw him do it, rushed up in a 
Breathless fashion, and replaced the stone instantly, then 
?tood on it in an impressive manner, indicative of the 
great importance attached to that stone and location. 
Bombay, seeing Shaw standing in silent wonder at the 
act, volunteered to ask the chief what was the matter. 
The Sheikh solemnly answered, with a finger pointing 
downward, " Uganga !" Whereupon I implored him to 
let me see what was under the stone. With a gracious- 
ness quite affecting he complied. My curiosity 


gratified with the sight of a small whittled stick, which 
pinned fast to the ground an insect, the cause of a 
miscarriage to a young female of the village. 

During the afternoon, Uledi and Ferajji, who had 
been despatched after the truant Khamisi, returned with 
him and all the missing articles. Khamisi, soon after 


leaving the road and plunging into the jungle, where he 
was mentally triumphing in his booty, was met by some 
of the plundering Washensi, who are always on the qui 
vivt for stragglers, and unceremoniously taken to their 
village in the woods, and bound to a tree preparatory to 
being killed. Khamisi said that he asked them why 
they tied him up, to which they answered, that they 


were about to kill him, because he was a Mgwana, whom 
they were accustomed to kill as soon as they were caught. 
But Uledi and Ferajji shortly after coming upon the 
scene, both well armed, put an end to the debates upon 
Khamisi's fate, by claiming him as an absconding pagazi 
from the Musungu's camp, as well as all the articles he 
possessed at the time of capture. The robbers did not 
dispute the claim for the pagazi, goats, tent, or any 
other valuable found with him, but intimated that they 
deserved a reward for apprehending him. The demand 
being considered just, a reward to the extent of two doti 
and a fundo, or ten necklaces of beads, was given. 

Khamisi, for his desertion and attempted robbery, 
could not be pardoned without first suffering punishment. 
He had asked at Bagamoyo, before enlisting in my 
service, an advance of $5 in money, and had received it ; 
and a load of Bubu beads, no heavier than a pagazi's 
load, had been given him to carry ; he had, therefore, no 
excuse for desertion. Lest I should overstep prudence, 
however, in punishing him, I convened a court of eight 
pagazis and four soldiers to sit in judgment, and asked 
them to give me -their decision as to what should be done. 
Their unanimous verdict was that he was guilty of a 
crime almost unknown among the Wanyamwezi pagazis, 
and as it was likely to give bad repute to the Wanyam- 
wezi carriers, they therefore sentenced him to be flogged 
with the " Great Master's " donkey whip, which was ac- 
cordingly carried out, to poor Khamisi's crying sorrow. 

On the 12th the caravan reached Mussoudi, on the 
Ungerengeri river. Happily for our patient donkeys 
this march was free from all the annoying troubles of the 
jungle. Happily for ourselves also, for we had no more 
(lie care of the packs and the anxiety about arriving at 


camp before night. The packs once put firmly on th* 
backs of our good donkeys, they marched into camp 
the road being excellent without a single displacement 
or cause for one impatient word, soon after leaving Kiserno. 
A beautiful prospect, glorious in its wild nature, fragrant 
with its numerous flowers and variety of sweetly-smelling 
shrubs, among which I recognised the wild sage, the 
indigo plant, &c., terminated only at the foot of Kira 
Peak and sister cones, which mark the boundaries between 
Udoe and Ukami, yet distant twenty miles. Those 
distant mountains formed a not unfit background to this 
magnificent picture of open plain, forest patches, and 
sloping lawns there was enough of picturesqueness 
and sublimity in the blue mountains to render it one 
complete whole. Suppose a Byron saw some of these 
scenes, he would be inclined to poetize in this manner : 

Morn dawns, and with it stern Udoe's hills, 
Dark Urruguru's rocks, and Kira's peak, 
Robed half in mist, bedewed with various rills, 
Arrayed in many a dun and purple streak. 

When drawing near the valley of Ungerengeri, granite 
knobs and protuberances of dazzling quartz showed their 
heads above the reddish soil. Descending the ridge 
where these rocks were prominent, we found ourselves in 
the sable loam deposit of the Ungerengeri, and in the 
midst of teeming fields of sugar-cane and mutama, Indian 
3orn, muhogo, and gardens of curry, egg, and cucumber 
plants. On the banks of the Ungerengeri flourished the 
banana, and overtopping it by seventy feet and more, 
shot up the stately mparamusi, the rival in beauty of the 
Persian chenar and Abyssinian plane. Its trunk is 
straight and comely enough for the mainmast of a first- 
class frigate, while its expanding crown of leafage ig 


distinguished from all others by its density and vivid 
greenness. There were a score of varieties of the larger 
kind of trees, whose far-extending branches embraced 
across the narrow but swift river. The depressions of the 
valley and the immediate neighbourhood of the river were 
choked with young forests of tiger-grass and stiff reeds. 

Mussoudi is situated on a higher elevation than the 
average level of the village, and consequently looks down 
upon its neighbours, which number a hundred and more. 
It is the western extremity of Ukwere. On the western 
bank of the Ungerengeri the territory of the Wakarni 
commences. We had to halt one day at Mussoudi because 
the poverty of the people prevented us from procuring the 
needful amount of grain. The cause of this scantiness in 
such a fertile and populous valley was, that the numerous 
caravans which had preceded us had drawn heavily for 
their stores for the upmarches. 

On the 14th we crossed the Ungerengeri, which here flows 
southerly to the southern extremity of the valley, where 
it bends easterly as far as Kisemo. After crossing the 
river here, fordable at all times and only twenty yards in 
breadth, we had another mile of the valley with its 
excessively moist soil and rank growth of grass. It then 
ascended into a higher elevation, and led through a forest 
of mparamuBi, tamarind, tamarisk, acacia, and the 
blooming mimosa. This ascent was continued for two 
hours, when we stood upon the spine of the largest ridge, 
where we could obtain free views of the wooded plain 
below and the distant ridges of Kisemo, which we had but 
lately left. A descent of a few hundred feet terminated 
in a deep but dry mtoni with a sandy bed, on the other 
side of which we had to regain the elevation we had lost, 
and a similar country opened into view until we found a 


newly -made boma with well-built huts of grass near a 
pool of water, which we at once occupied as a halting- 
place for the night. The cart gave us considerable 
trouble ; not even our strongest donkey, though it carried 
with ease on its back 196 Ibs., could draw the cart with a 
load of only 225 Ibs. weight. 

Early on the morning of the 15th we broke camp and 
started for Mikeseh. By 8.30 A.M. we were ascending the 
southern face of the Kira Peak. When we had gained 
the height of two hundred feet above the level of the 
surrounding country, we were gratified with a magni- 
ficent view of a land whose soil knows no Sabbath. 

After travelling the spine of a ridge abutting against 
the southern slope of Kira we again descended into the 
little valley of Kiwrima, the first settlement we meet in 
Udoe, where there is always an abundant supply of water. 
Two miles west of Kiwrima is Mikiseh. 

On the 16th we reached Ulagalla after a few hours' 
march. Ulagalla is the name of a district, or a portion 
of a district, lying between the mountains of Uruguru, 
which bound it southerly, and the mountains of Udoe, 
lying northerly and parallel with them, and but ten miles 
apart. The principal part of the basin thus formed is 
called Ulagalla. 

Muhalleh is the next settlement, and here we found 
ourselves in the territory of the Waseguhha. On this 
march we were hemmed in by mountains on our left 
by those of Uruguru, on our right by those of Udoe and 
Useguhha a most agreeable and welcome change to us 
after the long miles of monotonous level we had hitherto 
seen. When tired of looking into the depths of the forest 
that still ran on either side of the road, we had but to 
look up to the mountain's bape, to note its strange trees, 


its plants and vari-colored flowers, wo had but to raise 
our heads to vary this pleasant occupation by observing 
the lengthy and sinuous spine of the mountains, and 
mentally report upon their outline, their spurs, their pro- 
jections and ravines, their bulging rocks and deep clefts, 
and, above all, the dark green woods clothing them from 
summit to base. And when our attention was not re- 
quired for the mundane task of regarding the donkeys' 
packs, or the pace of the cautious-stepp.'ng pagazis, it was 
gratifying to watch the vapours play about the mountain 
summits to see them fold into fleecy crowns and 
fantastic clusters, dissolve, gather together into a pall 
that threatened rain, and sail away again before the 
orightening sun. 

At Muhalleh was the fourth caravan under Maganga 
with three more sick men, who turned with eager eyes 
to myself, " the dispenser of medicine," as I approached. 
Salvos of small arms greeted me, and a present of rice 
and ears of Indian corn for roasting were awaiting my 
acceptance ; but, as I told Maganga, I would have pre- 
ferred to hear that his party were eight or ten marches 
ahead. At this camp, also, we met Salim bin Kashid, 
bound eastward, with a hugh caravan carrying three 
hundred ivory tusks. This good Arab, besides welcom- 
ing the new comer with a present of rice, gave me news 
of Livingstone. He had met the old traveller at Ujiji, 
had lived in the next hut to him for two weeks, described 
him as looking old, with long grey moustaches and beard, 
just recovered from severe illness, looking very wan ; when 
fully recovered Livingstone intended to visit a country 
called Manyema by way of Marungu. 

The valley of the Ungerengeri witn Muhalleh exhibits 
wonderful fertility. Its crops of matama were of the 


tallest, and its Indian corn would rival the best crops 
ever seen in the Arkansas bottoms. The numerous 
mountain-fed streams rendered the great depth of loam 
very sloppy, in consequence of which several accidents 
occurred before we reached the camp, such as wetting 
cloth, mildewing tea, watering sugar, and rusting tools ; 
but prompt attention to these necessary things saved us 
from considerable loss. 

There was a slight difference noticed in the demeanour 
and bearing of the Waseguhha compared with the Wadoe, 
Wakami, and Wakwere heretofore seen. There was none 
of that civility we had been until now pleased to note : 
their express desire to barter was accompanied with 
insolent hints that we ought to take their produce at 
their own prices. If we remonstrated they became angry; 
retorting fiercely, impatient of opposition, they flew into 
a passion, and were glib in threats. This strange conduct, 
so opposite to that of the calm and gentle Wakwere, may 
be excellently illustrated by comparing the manner of the 
hot-headed Greek with that of the cool and collected 
German. Necessity compelled us to purchase eatables of 
them, and, to the credit of the country and its productions, 
be it said, their honey had the peculiar flavour of that of 
famed Hymettus. 

Following the latitudinal valley of the Ungerengeri, 
within two hours on the following morning we passed 
close under the wall of the capital of Useguhha Sim- 
bamwenni. The first view of the walled town at the 
western foot of the Uruguru mountains, with its fine 
valley abundantly beautiful, watered by two rivers, and 
several pellucid streams of water distilled by the dew and 
cloud-enriched heights around, was one that we did not 
anticipate to meet in Eastern Africa. In Mazanderan, 


Persia, such a scene would have answered our expecta- 
tions, but here it was totally unexpected. The town may 
contain a population ot 8,000, having about 1,000 houses ; 
being so densely crowded, perhaps 5,000 would more closely 
approximate. The houses in the town are eminently 
African, but of the best type of construction. The 
fortifications are on an Arabic Persic model combining 
Arab neatness with Persian plan. Through a ride of 
950 miles in Persia I never met a town outside of the 
great cities better fortified than Simbamwenni. In Persia 
the fortifications were of mud, even those of Kasvin, 
Teheran, Ispahan, and Shiraz ; those of Simbamwenni 
are of stone, pierced with two rows of loopholes for 
musketry. The area of the town is about half a square 
mile, its plan being quadrangular. Well-built towers of 
stone guard each corner; four gates, one facing each 
cardinal point, and set half way between the several 
towers, permit ingress and egress for its inhabitants. 
The gates are closed with solid square doors made of 
African teak, and carved with the infinitesimally fine 
and complicated devices of the Arabs, from which I 
suspect that the doors were made either at Zanzibar or 
on the coast, and conveyed to Simbamwenni plank by 
plank; yet as there is much communication between 
Bagamoyo and Simbamwenni, it is just possible that 
native artisans are the authors of this ornate workman- 
ship, as several doors chiselled and carved in the same 
manner, though not quite so elaborately, were visible in 
the largest houses. The palace of the Sultan is after the 
style of those on the coast, with long sloping roof, wide 
eaves, and veranda in front. 

The Sultana is the eldest daughter of the famous 
Kisabengo, a name infamous throughout the neighbouring 


countries of Udoe, Ukami. Ukwere, Kingaru, Ukwenni, 
and Kiranga- Wanna, for his kidnapping propensities. 
Risabengo was another Theodore on a small scale. Sprung 
from humble ancestry, he acquired distinction for his 
personal strength, his powers of harangue, and his amusing 
and versatile address, by which he gained great ascendency 
over fugitive slaves, and was chosen a leader among them. 
Fioeing from justice, which awaited him at the hands of 
the Zanzibar Sultan, he arrived in Ukami, which extended 
at that time from Ukwere to Usagara, and here he com- 
menced a career of conquest, the result of which was the 
cession by the Wakami of an immense tract of fertile 
country, in the valley of the Ungerengeri. On its most 
desirable site, with the river flowing close under the walls, 
he built his capital, and called it Simbamwenni, which 
means " The Lion," or the strongest, City. In old age 
the successful robber and kidnapper changed his name 
of Kisabengo, which had gained such a notoriety, to 
Simbamwenni, after his town; and when dying, after 
desiring that his eldest daughter should succeed him, 
he bestowed the name of the town upon her also, which 
name of Simbamwenni the Sultana now retains and is 
known by. 

While crossing a rapid stream, which, as I said befere 
flowed close to the walls, the inhabitants of Simbamwenni 
had a fine chance of gratifying their curiosity of seeing 
the " Great Musungu," whose several caravans had pre- 
ceded him, and who unpardonably, because unlicensed, 
had spread a report of his great wealth and power. I was 
thus the object of a universal it-are. At one time on the 
banks there were considerably over a thousand natives 
going through the several tenses and moods of the verb 
" to stare," or exhibiting every phase of the substantive, 


riz. the stare peremptory, insolent, sly, cunning, modest, 
and casual. The warriors of the Sultana, holding in one 
hand the spear, the bow, and sheaf or musket, embraced 
with the other their respective friends, like so many models 
of Nisus and Euryalus, Theseus and Pirithous, Damon and 
Pythias, or Achilles and Patroclus, to whom they con- 
fidentially related their divers opinions upon my dress and 
color. The words " Musungu kuba " had as much charm 
for these people as the music of the Pied Piper had for the 
rats of Hamelin, since they served to draw from within 
the walls across their stream so large a portion of the 
population ; and when I continued the journey to the 
Ungerengeri, distant four miles, I feared that the Hamelin 
catastrophe might have to be repeated before I could rid 
myself of them. But fortunately for my piece of mind, 
they finally proved vincible under the hot sun, and the 
distance we had to go to camp. 

As we were obliged to overhaul the luggage, and repair 
saddles, as well as to doctor a few of the animals, whose 
backs had by this time become very sore, I determined to 
halt here two days. Provisions were very plentiful also 
at Siinbamwenni, though comparatively dear. 

On the second day I was, for the first time, made aware 
that my acclimatization in the ague-breeding swamps of 
Arkansas was powerless against the mukunguru of East 
Africa. The premonitory symptoms of the African type 
were felt in my system at 10 A.M. First, general lassitude 
prevailed, with a disposition to drowsiness ; secondly, came 
the spinal ache which, commencing from the loins, as- 
cended the vertebrae, and extended around the ribs, until 
it reached the shoulders, where it settled into a weary 
pain; tir:\.liy, came a chilliness over the whole body, 
which was quickly followed by a heavy head, swimming 



eyes, aud throbbing temples, with vague vision, which 
distorted and transformed all objects of sight. Thia 
lasted until 10 P.M., and the mukunguru left me, much 
prostrated in strength. 

The remedy, applied for three mornings in succession 
after the attack, was such as my experience in Arkansas 
had taught me was the most powerful corrective, viz., a 
quantum of fifteen grains of quinine, taken in three doses 
of five grains each, every other hour from dawn to 
meridian the first dose to be taken immediately after 
the first effect of the purging medicine taken at bed- 
time the night previous. I may add that this treat- 
ment was perfectly successful in my case, and in all 
others which occurred in my camp. After the mukun- 
guru had declared itself, there was no fear, with such a 
treatment of it, of a second attack, until at least some 
days afterwards. 

On the third day the camp was visited by the ambas- 
sadors of Her Highness the Sultana of Simbamwenni, whc 
came as her representatives to receive the tribute which 
she regards herself as powerful enough to enforce. But 
they, as well as Madame Simbamwenni, were informed, 
that as we knew it was their custom to charge owners of 
caravans but one tribute, and as they remembered the 
Musungu (Farquhar) had paid already, it was not fair that 
I should have to pay again. The ambassadors replied 
with a " Ngema " (very well), and promised to carry my 
answer back to their mistress. Though it was by no 
means " very well " in fact, as it will be seen in a subse- 
quent chapter how the female Simbamwenni took ad- 
vantage of an adverse fortune which befell me to pay 
herself. With this I close the chapter of incidents 
experienced during our transit across the maritime region, 




A valley of despond, and hot-bed of malaria. Myriads of vermin. 
The Makata swamp. A sorrowful experience catching a deserter. 
A fur-embracing prospect. Illness of William Farquhar. Lake 
Ugombo. A land of promise. The great Kisesa. The plague of 

THE distance from Bagamoyo to Simbamwenni we found 
to be 119 miles, and was accomplished in fourteen marches. 
Bat these marches, owing to difficulties arising from the 
Masika season, and more especially to the lagging of the 
^ourth caravan under Maganga, extended to twenty-nina 


days, thus rendering our progress very slow indeed but 
a little more than tour miles a-day. I infer, from what I 
have seen of the travelling, that had I not been encum- 
bered by the sick Wanyamwezi porters, I could have ac- 
complished the distance in sixteen days. For it was not 
the donkeys that proved recreant to my confidence ; they, 
poor animals, carrying a weight of 150 Ibs. each, arrived 
at Simbamwenni in first-rate order ; but it was Maganga, 
composed of greed and laziness, and his weakly-bodied 
tribe, who were ever falling sick. In dry weather the 
number of marches might have been much reduced. Of 
the half-dozen of Arabs or so who preceded this Expedi- 
tion along this route, two accomplished the entire dis- 
tance in eight days. From the brief descriptions given 
of the country, as it day by clay expanded to our view, 
enough may be gleaned to give readers a fair idea of it. 
The elevation of Simbamwenni cannot be much over 1,000 
feet above the level, the rise of the land having been 
gradual. It being the rainy season, about which so many 
ominous statements were doled out to us by those ignorant 
of the character of the country, we naturally saw it under 
its worst aspect ; but, even in this adverse phase of it, 
with all its depth of black mud, its excessive dew, 
its dripping and chill grass, its density of rank jungle, 
and its fevers, I look back upon the scene with 
pleasure, for the wealth and prosperity it promises to 
gome civilized nation, which in some future time will 
come and take possession of it. A railroad from Baga- 
moyo to Simbamwenni might be constructed with as much 
ease and rapidity as, and at far less cost than the Union 
Pacific Kailway, whose rapid strides day by day towards 
completion the world heard of and admired. A residence 
in this part of Africa, after a thorough system 

TO traooo. 10? 

had been carried out, would not be attended with any 
more discomfort than generally follows upon the occu- 
pation of new land. The temperature at this season 
during the day never exceeded 85 Fahrenheit. The 
nights were pleasant too cold without a pair of blankets 
for covering ; and, as far as Simbamwenni, they were 
without that pest which is so dreadful on the Nebraska 
and Kansas prairies, the mosquito. The only annoy- 
ances I know of that would tell hard on the settler is 
the determined ferocity of the mabungu, or horse-fly, 
the chufwa, &c., already described, which, until the 
dense forests and jungles were cleared, would be 
certain to render the keeping of domestic cattle 

Contrary to expectation the Expedition was not able to 
start at the end of two days ; the third and the fourth 
days were passed miserably enough in the desponding 
valley of Ungerengeri. This river, small as it is in the 
dry seasons, becomes of considerable volume and power 
during the Masika, as we experienced to our sorrow. It 
serves as a drain to a score of peaks and two long ranges 
of mountains ; winding along their base, it is the recipient 
of the cascades seen flashing during the few intervals of 
sunlight, of all the nullahs and ravines which render the 
lengthy frontage of the mountain slopes so rugged and 
irregular, until it glides into the valley of Simbamwenni 
a formidable body of water, opposing a serious obstacle to 
caravans without means to build bridges ; added to which 
was an incessant downfall of rain such a rain as shuts 
people in-doors and renders them miserable and unami- 
able a real London rain an eternal drizzle accompanied 
with mist and fog. When the sun shone it appeared but 
a pale image of itself, and old pagazis, wise in their tradi- 


tions as old whaling captains, shook their heads ominously 
at the dull spectre, and declared it was douhtful if the 
rain would cease for three weeks yet. 

The site of the caravan camp on the hither side of the 
Ungerengeri was a hot-bed of malaria, unpleasant to wit- 
ness an abomination to memory. The filth of generations 
of pagazis hac gathered innumerable hosts of creeping 
things. Armies of black, white, and red ants infest the 
stricken soil ; centipedes, like worms, of every hue, clamber 
over shrubs and plants ; hanging to the undergrowth are 
the honey-combed nests of yellow-headed wasps with 
stings as harmful as scorpions ; enormous beetles, as large 
as full-grown mice, roll dunghills over the ground ; of all 
sorts, shapes, sizes, and hues are the myriad-fold vermin 
with which the ground teems ; in short, the richest ento- 
mological collection could not vie in variety and numbers 
with the species which the four walls of my tent enclosed 
from morning until night. 

On the fifth morning, or the 23rd April, the rain gave 
us a few hours' respite, during which we managed to wade 
through the Stygian quagmire reeking with noisomeness 
to the inundated river-bank. The soldiers commenced at 
5 A.M. to convey the baggage across from bank to bank 
over a bridge which was the most rustic of the rustic 
kind. Only an ignorant African would have been satisfied 
with its small utility as a means to cross a deep and rapid 
body of water. Even for light-footed Wanyamwezi pa- 
gazis it was anything but comfortable to traverse. Only 
a professional tight-rope performer could have carried a 
load across with ease. To travel over an African bridge 
requires, first, a long leap from land to the limb of a tree 
(which may or may not be covered by water), followed by 
ft long jump ashore. With 70 Ibs. weight on his back, 

TO uaoao. 109 

the carrier finds it difficult enough. Sometimes he is 
assisted by ropes extemporized from the long convolvuli 
which hang from almost every tree, hut not always, these 
being deemed superfluities by the Washensi. 

Fortunately the baggage was transferred without a 
single accident, and though the torrent was strong, the 
donkeys were dragged through the flood by vigorous efforts 
and much objurgation without a casualty. This perform- 
ance of crossing the Ungerengeri occupied fully five hours, 
though energy, abuse, and fury enough were expended for 
an army. 

Keloading and wringing our clothes dry, we set out 
from the horrible neighbourhood of the river, with its 
reek and filth, in a northerly direction, following a road 
which led up to easy and level ground. Two obtruding 
hills were thus avoided on our left, and after passing them 
we had shut out the view of the hateful valley. 

I always found myself more comfortable and light- 
hearted while travelling than when chafing and fretting 
in camp at delays which no effort could avoid, and con- 
sequently I fear that some things, while on a march, may 
be tinted somewhat stronger than their appearance or 
merit may properly warrant. But I thought that the 
view opening before us was much more agreeable than 
the valley of Simbamwenni with all its indescribable 
fertility. It was a series of glades opening one after 
another between forest clumps of young trees, hemmed in 
distantly by isolated peaks and scattered mountains. Now 
and again, as we crested low eminences we caught sight 
of the blue Usagara mountains, bounding the horizon 
westerly and northerly, and looked down upon a vast 
expanse of plain which lay between. 


At the foot of the lengthy slope, well-watered by bub- 
bling springs and mountain rills, we found a comfortable 
khambi with well-made huts, which the natives call Simbo. 
It lies just two hours or five miles north-west of the Un- 
geicngeri crossing. The ground is rocky, composed princi- 
pally of quartzose detritus swept down by the constant 
streams. In the neighbourhood of these grow bamboo, 
the thickest of which was about two and a half 
inches in diameter ; the " myombo," a very shapely 
tree, with a clean trunk like an ash, the "irnbite," 
with large, fleshy leaves like the " mtamba," sycamore, 
plum-tree, the "ugaza," ortamarisk, and the " mgungu," 
a tree containing several wide branches with small 
leaves clustered together in a clump, and the silk- cotton 

Though there are no villages or settlements in view of 
Simbo Khambi, there are several clustered within the 
mountain folds, inhabited by Waseguhha somewhat prone 
to dishonest acts and murder. 

The long broad plain visible from the eminences crossed 
between the Ungerengeri and Simbo was now before us, 
and became known to sorrowful memory subsequently, as 
the Makata Valley. The initial march was from Simbo, 
its terminus at Kehenneko, at the base of the Usagara 
mountains, six marches distant. The valley commences 
with broad undulations, covered with young forests of 
bamboo, which grow thickly along the streams, the dwarf 
fan-palm, the stately Palmyra, and the mgungu. These 
undulations soon become broken by gullies containing 
water, nourishing dense crops of cane reeds and broad- 
bladed grass, and, emerging from this district, wide 
eavannahi: covered with tall grass open into view, with 

TO rrooao. Ill 

an isolated tree here aiid there agreeably breaking the 
monotony of the scene. The Makata is a wilderness con- 
taining but one village of the Waseguhha throughout its 
broad expanse. Venison, consequently, abounds withiD 
the forest clumps, and the kudu, hartebeest, antelope, and 
zebra may be seen at early dawn emerging into the open 
savannahs to feed. At night, the cyn-hysena prowls 
about with its hideous clamour seeking for sleeping prey, 
man or beast. 

The slushy mire of the savannahs rendered marching 
a work of great difficulty ; its tenacious hold of the feet 
told terribly on men and animals. A ten-mile march 
required ten hours, we were therefore compelled to camp 
in the middle of this wilderness, and construct a new 
khambi, a measure which was afterwards adopted by half 
a dozen caravans. 

The cart did not arrive until nearly midnight, and 
with it, besides three or four broken-down pagazis, came 
Bombay with the dolorous tale, that having put his load 
consisting of the property tent, one large American 
axe, his two uniform coats, his shirts, beads and cloth, 
powder, pistol, and hatchet on the ground, to go and 
assist the cart out of a quagmire, he had returned to the 
place where he had left it and could not find it, that he 
believed that some thieving Washensi, who always lurk 
in the rear of caravans to pick up stragglers, had de- 
camped with it, Which dismal tale told me at black 
midnight was not received at all graciously, but rather 
with most wrathful words, all of which the penitent 
captain received as his proper due. Working myself into 
a fury, I enumerated his sins to him ; he had lost a goat 
at Muhalleh, he had permitted Khamisi to desert with 
Taluable property at Imbiki; he had frequently showo 


culpable negligence in not looking after the donkeys, 
permitting them to be tied up at night without seeing 
that they had water, and in the mornings, when about to 
march, he preferred to sleep until 7 o'clock, rather than 
wake up early and saddle the donkeys, that we might 
start at 6 o'clock; he had shown of late great love for the 
fire, cowering like a bloodless man before it, torpid and 
apathetic ; he had now lost the property- tent in tin 
middle of the Masika season, by which carelessness the 
cloth bales would rot and become valueless ; he had lost 
the axe which I should want at Ujiji to construct my 
boat ; and finally, he had lost a pistol and hatchet, and a 
flaskful of the best powder. Considering all these things, 
how utterly incompetent he was to be captain, I would 
degrade him from his office and appoint Mabruki Burton 
instead. Uledi, also, following the example of Bombay, 
instead of being second captain, should give no orders to 
any soldiers in future, but should himself obey those 
given by Mabruki the said Mabruki being worth a dozen 
Bombays, and two dozen Uledi s ; and so he was dismissed 
with orders to return at daylight to find the tent, axe, 
pistol, powder, and hatchet. 

The next morning the caravan, thoroughly fatigued 
with the last day's exertions, was obliged to halt. Bombay 
was despatched after the lost goods; Kingaru, Mabruki 
the Great, and Mabruki the Little were despatched to 
bring back three doti-worth of grain, on which we were 
to subsist in the wilderness. 

Three days passed away and we were still at camp, 
awaiting, with what patience we possessed, the return of 
the soldiers. In the meantime provisions ran very low, 
no game could be procured, the birds were so wild. 
Two days' shooting procured but two potfuls of birda, 

TO UOOGO. 113 

consisting of grouse, quail, and pigeons. Bombay returned 
unsuccessfully from his search after the missing property, 
and suffered deep disgrace. 

On the fourth day I despatched Shaw with two more 
soldiers, to see what had become of Kingaru and the two 
iVtabrukis. Towards night he returned completely pros- 
trated, with a violent attack of the mukunguru, or ague ; 
but bringing the missing soldiers, who were thus left to 
report for themselves. 

With most thankful hearts did we quit our camp, where 
so much anxiety of mind and fretfulness had been suffered, 
not heeding a furious rain, which, after drenching us all 
night, might have somewhat damped our ardor for the 
march under other circumstances. The road for the first 
mile led over reddish ground, and was drained by gentle 
slopes falling east and west ; but, leaving the cover of the 
friendly woods, on whose eastern margin we had been 
delayed so long, we emerged into one of the savannahs, 
whose soil during the rain is as soft as slush and tena- 
cious as thick mortar, where we were all threatened 
with the fate of the famous Arkansas traveller, who had 
sunk so low in one of the many quagmires in Arkansas 
county, that nothing but his tall " stove-pipe " hat was 
left visible. 

Shaw was sick, and the whole duty of driving the 
foundering caravan devolved upon myself. The Wan- 
yam wezi donkeys stuck in the mire as if they were 
rooted to it. As fast as one was flogged from his stub- 
born position, prone to the depths fell another, giving me 
a Sisyphean labour, which was maddening ^nder pelting 
rain, assisted by such men as Bombay and Uledi, who 
eould not for a whole skin's sake stomach the storm and 
mire. Two hours cf such u task enabled roe to drag my 



caravan over a savannah one mile ami a half broad ; and 
barely had I finished congratulating myself over my 
success before I was halted by a deep ditch, which, fillel 
with rain-water from the inundated savannahs, had be- 
come a considerable stream, breast-deep, flowing swiftly 
into the Makata. Donkeys had to be unloaded, leJ 
through a torrent, and loaded again on the other bank 
an operation which consumed a full hour. 

Presently, after straggling through a wood clump 
barring our progress was another stream, swollen int 
a river. The bridge being swept away, we were oblig 
to swim and float our baggage over, which delayed u 
two hours more. Leaving this second river-bank, w 
splashed, waded, occasionally half-swimming, and reeled 
through mire, water-dripping grass and matama stalks, 
along the left bank of the Makata proper, until farthe 
progress was effectually prevented for that day by a dee 
bend of the river, which we should be obliged to cross the 
next day. 

Though but six miles were traversed during that miser- 
able day, the march occupied ten hours. 

Half dead with fatigue, I yet could feel thankful that 
it was not accompanied by fever, which it seemed 
miracle to avoid ; for if ever a district was cursed with 
the ague, the Makata wilderness ranks foremost of those 
afflicted. Surely the sight of the dripping woods en- 
veloped in opaque mist, of the inundated country wi 
lengthy swathes of tiger-grass laid low by the turbi 
flood, of mounds of decaying trees and canes, of the 
swollen river and the weeping sky, was enough to en- 
gender the mukunguru ! The well-used khambi, and 
the heaps of filth surrounding it, were enough to create 
a cholera ! 

TO UQOOO. 115 

The Makata, a river whose breadth during the dry 
season is hut forty feet, in the Masika seasoi assumes 
the breadth, depth, and force of an important river. 
Should it happen to be an unusually rainy season, it 
inundates the great plain which stretches on either side, 
and converts it into a great lake. It is the main 
feeder of the Wami river, which empties into the sea 
between the ports of Saadani and Whinde. About ten 
miles north-east of the Makata crossing, the Great 
Makata, the Little Makata, a nameless creek, and the 
Kudewa river unite ; and the river thus formed becomes 
known as the Wami. Throughout Usagara the Wami is 
known as the Mukondokwa. Three of these streams take 
their rise from the crescent-like Usagara range, which 
bounds the Makata plain south and south-westerly ; 
while the Eudewa rises in the northern horn of the same 

So swift was the flow of the Makata, and so much did 
its unsteady bridge, half buried in the water, imperil the 
safety of the property, that its transfer from bank to 
bank occupied fully five hours. No sooner had we landed 
every article on the other side, undamaged by the water, 
than the rain poured down in torrents that drenched 
them all, as if they had been dragged through the river. 
To proceed through the swamp which an hour's rain had 
formed was utterly out of the question. We were accord- 
ingly compelled to camp in a place where every hour fur- 
nished its quota of annoyance. One of the Wangwana 
soldiers engaged at Bagamoyo, named Kingaru, improved 
an opportunity to desert with another Mgwana's kit. My 
two detectives, Uledi (Grant's valet), and Sarmean, were 
immediately despatched in pirsuit, both being armed 
with Aoerban breech-loaders, They went about their 


task with an adroitness and celerity which augured well 
for their success. In an hour they returned with the 
runaway, haying found him hidden in the house of a 
Mseguhha chief called Kigondo, who lived ahout a mile 
from the eastern hank of the river, and who had accom- 
panied Uledi and Sarmean to receive his reward, and 
render an account of the incident. 

Kigondo said, when he had been seated, " I saw this 
man carrying a bundle, and running hard, by which I 
knew that he was deserting you. We (rny wife and I) 
were sitting in our little watch-hut, watching our corn ; 
and, as the road runs close by, this man was obliged to 
come close to us. We called to him when he was near, 
saying, * Master, where are you going so fast ? Are you 
deserting the Musungu, for we know you belong to him, 
since you bought from us yesterday two doti worth of 
meat ?' * Yes,' said he, ' I am running away ; I want to 
get to Simbamwenni. If you will take me there, I will 
give you a doti.' We said to him then, ' Come into our 
house, and we will talk it over quietly. When he was in 
our house in an inner room, we locked him up, and went 
out again to the watch ; but leaving word with the 
women to look out for him. We knew that, if you 
wanted him, you would send askari (soldiers) after him. 
We had but lit our pipes when we saw two men armed 
with short guns, and having no loads, coming along the 
road, looking now and then on the ground, as if they 
were looking at footmarks. We knew them to be the 
men we were expecting ; so we hailed them, and said, 
' Masters, what are ye looking for ?' They said, ' We are 
looking for a man who has deserted our master. Here 
are his footsteps. If you have been long in your hut you 
must have seen him. Can you tell us where he is ? ; We 

*0 ttOOGO. 11? 

said, ' Yes; he is in our house. If you will come with us, 
we will give him up to you ; but your master must give 
us something for catching him.' " 

As Kigondo had promised to deliver Kingaru up, there 
remained nothing further to do for Uledi and Sarmean 
hut to take charge of their prisoner, and bring him and 
his captors to my camp on the western bank of the 
Makata. Kingaru received two dozen lashes, and was 
chained ; his captor a doti, besides five khete of red coral 
beads for his wife. 

That down-pour of rain which visited us the day we 
crossed the Makata proved the last of the Masika season. 
As the first rainfall which we had experienced occurred 
on the 23rd March, and the last on the 30th April, its 
duration was thirty-nine days. The seers of Bagamoyo 
had delivered their vaticinations concerning this same 
Masika with solemnity. " For forty days," said they. 
" rain would fall incessantly ;" whereas we had but ex- 
perienced eighteen days' rain. Nevertheless, we were 
glad that it was over, for we were tired of stopping day 
after day to dry the bales and grease the tools and iron- 
ware, and of seeing all things of cloth and leather rot 
visibly before our eyes. 

The 1st of May found us struggling through the mire 
and water of the Makata with a caravan bodily sick, from 
the exertion and fatigue of crossing so many rivers and 
wading through marshes. Shaw was still suffering from 
his first mukunguru; Zaidi, a soldier, was critically ill 
with the small-pox ; the kichuma-chuma, " little irons," 
had hold of Bombay across the chest, rendering him the 
most useless of the unserviceables ; Mabruk Saleem, a 
youth of lusty frame, following the example of Bombay, 
laid himself down on the marshy ground, professing hi 


total inability to breast the Makata swamp ; Abdul Kader, 
the Hindi tailor and adventurer the weakliest of mortal 
bodies was ever ailing for lack of "force," as he ex- 
pressed it in French, i.e. " strength," ever indisposed to 
work, shiftless, mock-sick, but ever hungry. " Oh ! God," 
was the cry of my tired soul, " were all the men of my 
Expedition like this man I should be compelled to return. 
Solomon was wise perhaps from inspiration, perhaps from 
observation ; I was becoming wise by experience, and I 
was compelled to observe that when mud and wet sapped 
the physical energy of the lazily-inclined, a dog-whip 
became their backs, restoring them to a sound some- 
times to an extravagant activity. 

For thirty miles from our camp was the Makata plain 
an extensive swamp. The water was on an average one 
foot in depth ; in some places we plunged into holes 
three, four, and even five feet deep. Plash, splash, 
plash, splash, were the only sounds we heard from the 
commencement of the march until we found the bomas 
occupying the only dry spots along the line of march. 
This kind of work continued for two days, until we came 
in sight of the Kudewa river, another powerful stream 
with banks brimful of rushing rain-water. Crossing a 
branch of the Eudewa, and emerging from the dank reedy 
grass crowding the western bank, the view consisted of 
an immense sheet of water topped by clumps of grass 
tufts and foliage of thinly scattered trees, bounded ten or 
twelve miles off by the eastern front of the Usagara 
mountain range. The acme of discomfort and vexation 
was realized on the five-mile march from the Kudewa 
branch. As myself and the Wangwana appeared with 
the loaded donkeys, the pagazis were observed huddled 
on a mound. When asked if the mound was the camp, 

to troooo 119 

they replied " N:," Why, then, do you stop here ?" 
" Ugh ! water plenty ! ! " One drew a line across his 
loins to indicate the depth of water before us, another 
drew a line across his chest, another across his throat, 
another held his hand over his head, by which he meant 
that we should have to swim. Swim five miles through a 
reedy marsh ! It was impossible ; it was also impossible 
that such varied accounts could all be correct. Without 
hesitation, therefore, I ordered the Wangwana to proceed 
with the animals. After three hours of splashing through 
four feet of water we reached dry land, and had traversed 
the swamp of Makata. But not without the swamp with 
its horrors having left a durable impression upon our 
minds; no one was disposed to forget its fatigues, nor 
the nausea of travel which it almost engendered. Subse- 
quently, we had to remember its passage still more 
vividly, and to regret that we had undertaken the journey 
during the Masika season, when the animals died from 
this date by twos and threes, almost every day, until but 
five sickly worn-out beasts remained ; when the Wang- 
wana, soldiers, and pagazis sickened of diseases innumer- 
able; when I myself was finally compelled to lie a-bed 
with an attack of acute dysentery which brought me to 
the verge of the grave. I suffered more, perhaps, than I 
might have done had I taken the proper medicine, but 
my over-confidence in that compound, called "Collis 
Brown's Chlorodyne," delayed the cure which ultimately 
resulted from a judicious use of Dover's powder. In no 
one single case of diarrhoea or acute dysentery had this 
"Chlorodyne," about which so much has been said and 
written, any efi'ect of lessening the attack whatever, 
though I used three bottles. To the dysentery con- 
tracted during the transit of the Makata swanru, ouly 


two fell victims, and those were a pagazi and my poot 
little dog " Omar," my companion from India. 

The only tree of any prominence in the Makata valley 
was the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), and this 
grew in some places in numhers sufficient to be called a 
grove ; the fruit was not ripe while we passed, otherwise 
we might have enjoyed it as a novelty. The other vege- 
tation consisted of the several species of thorn hush, and 
the graceful parachute-topped and ever-green mimosa. 

The 4th of May we were ascending a gentle slope 
towards the important village of Kehenneko, the first 
village near to which we encamped in Usagara. It lay 
at the foot of the mountain, and its plenitude and moun- 
tain air promised us comfort and health. It was a square, 
compact village, surrounded by a thick wall of mud, en- 
closing cone- topped huts, roofed with bamboo and holcus- 
stalks ; and contained a population of about a thousand 
souls. It has several wealthy and populous neighbours, 
whose inhabitants are independent enough in their 
manner, but not unpleasantly so. The streams are of 
the purest water, fresh, and pellucid as crystal, bubbling 
over round pebbles and clean gravel, with a music 
delightful to hear to the traveller in search of such a 
sweefly potable element. 

The bamboo grows to serviceable size in the neighbour- 
hood of Eehenneko, strong enough for tent and banghy 
poles; and in numbers sufficient to supply an army 
The mountain slopes are densely wooded with trees that 
might supply very good timber for building purposes. 

We rested four days at this pleasant spot, to recruit 
ourselves, and to allow the sick and feeble time to recover 
a little before testing their ability "n the ascent of the 
Usagara mountains. 

fO UCKXK). 12l 

8th of May saw us with our terribly jaded men 
and animals winding up the steep slopes of the first line 
of hills ; gaining the summit of which we obtained a view 
remarkably grand, which exhibited as in a master picture 
the broad valley of the Makata, with its swift streams 
like so many cords of silver, as the sunshine played on 
the unshadowed reaches of water, with its thousands of 
graceful palms adding not a little to the charm of the 
scene, with the great wall of the Uruguru and Uswa- 
panga mountains dimly blue, but sublime in their lofti- 
ness and immensity forming a fit background to such an 
extensive, far-embracing prospect. 

Turning our faces west, we found ourselves in a moun- 
tain world, fold rising above fold, peak behind peak, 
cone jostling cone ; away to the north, to the west, to the 
south, the mountain tops rolled like so many vitrified 
waves ; not one adust or arid spot was visible in all this 
scene. The diorama had no suddem changes or striking 
contrasts, for a universal forest of green trees clothed 
every peak, cone, and summit. 

To the men this first day's march through the moun- 
tain region of Usagara was an agreeable interlude after 
the successive journey over the flats and heavy undula- 
tions of the maritime region, but to the loaded and 
enfeebled animals it was most trying. We were minus 
two by the time we had arrived at our camp, but seven 
miles from Kehenneko, our first instalment of the debt 
we owed to Makata. Water, sweet and clear, was abun- 
dant in the deep hollows of the mountains, flowing some- 
times over beds of solid granite, sometimes over a rich 
red sandstone, whose soft substance was soon penetrated 
by the aqueous element, and whose particles were swept 
uway constantly to enrich the valley below ; and in other 


ravines it dashed, and roared miniature thunder, as it 
leaped over granite boulders and quartz rock, 

The 9th of May, after another such an up-and-down 
course, ascending hills and descending into the twilight 
depths of deepening valleys, we came suddenly upon the 
Mukondokwa, and its narrow pent-up valley crowded 
with rank reedy grass, cane, and thorny bushes; and 
rugged tamarisk which grappled for existence with 
monster convolvuli, winding their coils around their 
trunks with such tenacity and strength, that the tama- 
risk seemed grown but for their support. 

The valley was barely a quarter of a mile broad in 
some places at others it widened to about a mile. The 
hills on either side shot up into precipitous slopes, 
clothed with mimosa, acacia, and tamarisk, enclosing a 
river and valley whose curves and folds were as various 
as a serpent's. 

Shortly after debouching into the Mukondokwa valley, 
we struck the road traversed by Captains Burton and 
Speke in 1857, between Mbumi and Kadetamare (the 
latter place should be called Misonghi, Kadetamare being 
but the name of a chief). After following the left bank 
of the Mukondokwa, during which our route diverged to 
every point from south-east to west, north and north- 
east, for about an hour, we came to the ford. Beyond 
the ford, a short half-hour's march, we came to Kiora. 

At this filthy village of Kiora, which was well grounded 
with goat-dung, and peopled with a wonderful number of 
children for a hamlet that did not number twenty families, 
with a hot sun pouring on the limited open space, with a 
fury that exceeded 128 Fahrenheit ; which swarmed with 
flies and insects of known and unknown species ; I found, 
as I had been previously informed, the third caravan, 

TO uoooo. 123 

which had started out of Bagamoyo so well fitted and 
supplied. The leader, who was no other than the white 
man Farquhar, was sick-a-bed with swollen legs (Bright's 
disease), unable to move. 

As he heard my voice, Farquhar staggered out of his 
tent, so changed from my spruce mate who started from 
Bagamoyo, that I hardly knew him at first. His legs 
were ponderous, elephantine, since his leg-illness was of 
elephantiasis, or dropsy. His face was of a deathly 
pallor, for he had not been out of his tent for two weeks. 

A breezy hill, overlooking the village of Kiora, was 
chosen by me for my camping- ground, and as soon as the 
tents were pitched, the animals attended to, and a boma 
made of thorn bushes, Farquhar was carried up by four 
men into my tent. Upon being questioned as to the 
cause of his illness, he said he did not know what had 
caused it. He had no pain, he thought, anywhere. I 
asked, "Do you not sometimes feel pain on the right 
side ?" " Yes, I think I do; but I don't know."" Nor 
over the left nipple sometimes a quick throbbing, with a 
shortness of breath ?" " Yes, I think I have. I know I 
breathe quick sometimes." He said his only trouble was 
in the legs, which were swollen to an immense size. 
Though he had a sound appetite, he yet felt weak in the 

From the scant information of the disease and its pecu- 
liarities, as given by Farquhar himself, I could only make 
out, by studying a little medical book I had with me, that 
" a swelling of the legs, and sometimes of the body, might 
result from either heart, liver, or kidney disease." But I 
did not know to what to ascribe the disease, unless it was 
to elephantiasis a disease most common in Zanzibar; 
nor did I know how to treat it in a man who cculd not 


tell me whether he felt pain in his head or in his back, ito 
his feet or in his chest. 

It was therefore fortunate for ine that I overtook him 
at Kiora; though he was about to prove a sore incum- 
brance to me, for he was not able to walk, and the donkey- 
carriage, after the rough experience of the Makata valley, 
was failing. I could not possibly leave him at Kiora, 
death would soon overtake him there; but how long I 
could convey a man in such a state, through a country 
devoid of carriage, was a question to be resolved by 

On the llth of May, the third and fifth caravans, now 
united, followed up the right bank of the Mukondokwa, 
through fields of holcus, the great Mukondokwa ranges 
rising in higher altitude as we proceeded west, and en- 
folding us in the narrow river valley round about. We 
left Muniyi Usagara on our right, and soon after found 
hill-spurs athwart our road, which we were obliged to 
ascend and descend. 

A march of eight miles from the ford of Misonghi 
brought us to another ford of the Mukondokwa, where 
we bi'd a long adieu to Burton's road, which led up to 
the Goma pass and up the steep slopes of Kubeho. Our 
road left the right bank and followed the left over a 
country quite the reverse of the Mukondokwa Valley, 
enclosed between mountain ranges. Fertile soils and 
spontaneous vegetation, reeking with miasma and over- 
powering from their odour, we had exchanged for a 
drouthy wilderness of aloetic and cactaceous plants, 
where the kolquall and several thorn bushes grew 

Instead of the tree-clad heights, slopes and valleys, 
instead of cultivated fields, we saw now the confines oi 

TO UOOGO. 125 

an uninhabited wilderness. The hill-tops were bared of 
their bosky crowns, and revealed their rocky natures 
bleached white by rain and sun. Nguru Peak, the loftiest 
of the Usagara cones, stood right shoulderwards of us as 
we ascended the long slope of dun-grey soil which rose 
beyond the brown Mukondokwa on the left. 

At the distance of two miles from the last ford, we 
found a neat khambi, situated close to the river, where Ji 
first broke into a furious rapid. 

The next morning the caravan was preparing for the 
march, when I was informed that the " Bana Mdogo " 
little master Shaw, had not yet arrived with the cart, 
and the men in charge of it. Late the previous night I 
had despatched one donkey for Shaw, who had said he 
was too ill to walk, and another for the load that was on 
the cart ; and had retired satisfied that they would soon 
arrive. My conclusion, when I learned in the morning 
that the people had not yet come in, was that Shaw was 
not aware that for five days we should have to march 
through a wilderness totally uninhabited. I therefore 
despatched Chowpereh, a Mgwana soldier, with the follow- 
ing note to him : " You will, upon receipt of this order, 
pitch the cart into the nearest ravine, gully, or river, as well 
as all the extra pack saddles ; and come at once, for God's 
sake, for we must not starve here !" 

One, two, three, and four hours were passed by me in 
the utmost impatience, waiting, but in vain, for Shaw. 
Having a long march before us, I could wait no longer, 
but went to meet his party myself. About a quarter of a 
mile from the ford I met the van of the laggards stout, 
burly Chowpereh and, cartmakers, listen ! he carried 
the cart on his head wheels, shafts, body, axle, and all 
complete; he having found that carrying it was much 


easier than drawing it. The sight was such a damper to 
my regard for it as an experiment, that the cart was 
wheeled into the depth 4 of the tall reeds, and there left. 
The central figure wa Shaw himself, riding at a gait 
which seemed to leave it doubtful on my mind whether 
he or his animal felt most sleepy. Upon expostulating 
with him for keeping the caravan so long waiting when 
there was a march on hand, in a most peculiar voice 
which he always assumed when disposed to be ugly- 
tempered he said he had done the best he could ; but as 
I had seen the solemn pace at which he rode, I felt 
dubious about his best endeavours ; and of course there 
was a little scene, but the young European mtongi of an 
East African expedition must needs sup with the fellows 
he has chosen. 

We arrived at Madete at 4 P.M., minus two donkeys, 
which had stretched their weary limbs in death. We 
had crossed the Mukondokwa about 3 P.M., and after 
taking its bearings and course, I made sure that its rise 
took place near a group of mountains about forty miles 
north by west of Nguru Peak. Our road led W.N.W., 
and at this place finally diverged from the river. 

On the 14th, after a march of seven miles over hills 
whose sandstone and granite formation cropped visibly 
here and there above the surface, whose stony and dry 
aspect seemed reflected in every bush and plant, and 
having gained an altitude of about eight hundred feet 
above the flow of the Mukondokwa, we sighted the Lake 
of IJgombo a grey sheet of water lying directly at the 
foot of the hill, from whose summit we gazed at the 
scene. The view was neither beautiful nor pretty, but 
what I should call refreshing; it afforded a pleasant 
relief to the eyes fatigued from dwelling on the bleak 

TO uoooa 127 

country around. Besides, the immediate neighbourhood 
of the lake was too tame to call forth any enthusiasm ; 
there wore no grandly swelling mountains, no smiling 
landscapes nothing hut a dun-brown peak, about one 
thousand feet high above the surface of the lake at its 
western extremity, from which the lake derived its name, 
Ugombo; nothing but a low dun-brown irregular range, 
running parallel with its northern shore at the distance 
of a mile; nothing but a low plain stretching from its 
western shore far away towards the Mpwapwa Mountains 
and Marenga Mkali, then apparent to us from our coign 
of vantage, from which extensive scene of dun-brownness 
we were glad to rest our eyes on the quiet grey water 

Descending from the summit of the range, which 
bounded the lake east for about four hundred feet, we 
travelled along the northern shore. The time occupied 
in the journey from the eastern to the western extremity 
was exactly one hour and thirty minutes. 

As this side represents its greatest length, I conclude 
that the lake is three miles long by two miles greatest 
breadth. The immediate shores of the lake on all sides, 
for at least fifty feet from the water's edge, is one im- 
passable morass nourishing rank reeds and rushes, where 
the hippopotamus' ponderous form has crushed into watery 
trails the soft composition of the morass as he passes from 
the lake on his nocturnal excursions ; the lesser animals, 
such as the " mbogo " (buffalo), the " punda terra " (zebra), 
the " twiga " (giraffe), the boar, the kudu, the hyrax or 
3oney, and the antelope, come here also to quench their 
thirst by night. The surface of the lake swarms with an 
astonishing variety of water- fowl, such as black swan, 
duck, ibis sacra, cranes, pelicans ; and soaring above op 


the look-out for their prey are fish-eagles, and hawks, 
while the neighbourhood is resonant with the loud chirps 
of the guinea-fowls calling for their young, with the 
harsh cry of the toucan, the cooing of the pigeon, and 
the " tu-whit, tu-whoo " of the owl. From the long grass 
in its vicinity also issue the grating and loud cry of the 
florican, woodcock, and grouse. 

Being obliged to halt here two days, owing to the 
desertion of the Hindi cooper Jako with one of my best 
carbines, I improved the opportunity of exploring the 
northern and southern shores of the lake. At the rocky 
foot of a low, humpy hill on the northern side, about fifteen 
feet above the present surface of the water I detected in 
most distinct and definite lines the agency of waves. From 
its base could be traced clear to the edge of the dank morass 
tiny lines of comminuted shell as plainly marked as the 
email particles which lie in rows on a beech after a re- 
ceding tide. There is no doubt that the wave-marks on the 
sandstone might have been traced much higher by one 
skilled in geology ; it was only its elementary character 
that was visible to me. Nor do I entertain the least doubt, 
after a two days' exploration of the neighbourhood, espe- 
cially of the low plain at the western end, that this Lake 
of Ugombo is but the tail of what was once a large body 
of water equal in extent to the Tanganika; and, after 
ascending half way up Ugombo Peak, this opinion was 
confirmed when I saw the long-depressed line of plain 
at its base stretching towards the Mpwapwa Mountains 
thirty miles off, and thence round to Marenga Mkali, and 
covering all that extensive surface of forty miles in breadth, 
and an unknown length. A depth of twelve feet more, I 
thought, as I gazed upon it, would give the lake a length 
of thirty miles, and a breadth of ten. A depth of thirty 

TO UGOGO. 129 

feet would increase its length over a hundred miles, and 
give it a breadth of fifty, for such was the level nature oi 
the plain that stretched west of Ugombo, and north o, 
Marenga Mkali. Besides the water of the lake partook 
slightly of the bitter nature of the Matamombo creek, 
distant fifteen miles, and in a still lesser degree of that of 
Marenga Mkali, forty miles off. 

Towards the end of the first day of our halt the Hindi 
cooper Jako arrived in camp, alleging as an excuse, that 
feeling fatigued he had fallen asleep in some bushes a few 
feet from the roadside. Having been the cause of our de- 
tention in the hungry wilderness of Ugombo, I was not in 
a frame of mind to forgive him ; so, to prevent any future 
truant tricks on his part, I was under the necessity of 
including him with the chained gangs of runaways. 

Two more of our donkeys died, and to prevent any of 
the valuable baggage being left behind, I was obliged to 
send Farquhar off on my own riding-ass to the village 
of Mpwapwa, thirty miles off, under charge of Mabruki 

To save the Expedition from ruin, I was reluctantly 
compelled to come to the conclusion that it were better 
for me, for him, and all concerned, that he be left with 
some kind chief of a village, with a six months' supply of 
cloth and beads, until he got well, than that he make his 
own recovery impossible. 

The 16th of May saw us journeying over the plain 
which lies between Ugombo and Mpwapwa, skirting close, 
at intervals, a low range of trap-rock, out of which had 
become displaced by some violent agency several immense 
boulders. On its slopes grew the kolquall to a size which 
I had not seen in Abyssinia. In the plain grew baobab, 
and immense tamarind, and a variety of thorn. 


Within 5ve hours from Ugombo the mountain range 
deflected towards the north-east, while we continued on a 
north-westerly course, heading for the lofty mountain-line 
of the Mpwapwa. To our left towered to the blue clouds 
the gigantic Kubeho. The adoption of this new road to 
Unyanyembe by which we were travelling was now ex- 
plained we were enabled to avoid the passes and stiff 
steeps of Eubeho, and had nothing worse to encounter 
than a broad smooth plain, which sloped gently to 

After a march of fifteen miles we camped at a dry 
mtoni, called Matamombo, celebrated for its pools of 
bitter water of the colour of ochre. Monkeys and rhino- 
ceroses, besides kudus, steinboks, and antelopes, were 
numerous in the vicinity. At this camp my little dog 
" Omar " died of inflammation of the bowels, almost on 
the threshold of the country Ugogo where his faithful 
watchfulness would have been invaluable to me. 

The next day's march was also fifteen miles in length, 
through one interminable jungle of thorn-bushes. Within 
two miles of the camp, the road led up a small river bed, 
broad as an avenue, clear to the khambi of Mpwapwa 
which was situated close to a number of streams of the 
purest water. 

The following morning found us much fatigued after 
the long marches from Ugombo, and generally disposed 
to take advantage of the precious luxuries Mpwapwa 
offered to caravans fresh from the fly-plagued lands of 
the Waseguhha and Wadoe. Sheikh Thani clever but 
innocently-speaking old Arab was encamped under the 
grateful umbrage of a huge Mtamba sycamore, and had 
been regaling himself with fresh milk, luscious mutton, 
and rich bullock humps, ever since his arrival here, two 

10 UGOGO. 13 J 

lays before ; and, as he informed mo, it did not suit his 
news to quit such a happy abundance so soon for the 
saline nitrous water of Marenga Mkali, with its several 
terekezas, and manifold disagreeables. " No !" said he to 
me, emphatically, " better stop here two or three days, 
give your tired animals some rest; collect all the pagazis 
you can, fill your inside with fresh milk, sweet potatoes, 
beef, mutton, ghee, honey, beans, matama, mawcri, and 
nuts ; then, Inshallah ! we shall go together through 
Ugogo without stopping anywhere." As the advice tallied 
accurately with my own desires and keen appetite for the 
good things he named, he had not long to wait for my 
assent to his counsel. " Ugogo," continued he, " is rich 
with milk and honey rich in flour, beans, and almost 
every eatable thing ; and, Inshallah ! before another week 
is gone we shall be in Ugogo !" 

I had heard from passing caravans so many extremely 
favourable reports respecting Ugogo and its productions 
that it appeared to me a very Land of Promise, and I was 
most anxious to refresh my jaded stomach with some of 
the precious esculents raised in Ugogo ; but when I heard 
that Mpwapwa also furnished some of those delicate eat- 
ables, and good things, most of the morning hours were 
spent in inducing the slow-witted people to part with 
them; and when, finally, eggs, milk, honey, mutton, 
ghee, ground matama and beans had been collected in 
sufficient quantities to produce a respectable meal, my 
keenest attention and best culinary talents were occupied 
for a couple of hours in converting this crude supply into 
a breakfast which should be accepted by and befit a 
stomach at once fastidious and famished, such as mine 
was. The subsequent healthy digestion of it proved my 
endeavours to have been eminently successful. At the 


termination of this eventful day, the following remark 
was jotted down in my diary : " Thank God ! After 
fifty-seven days of living upon matama porridge and 
tough goat, I have enjoyed with unctuous satisfaction a 
real breakfast and dinner." 

It was in one of the many small villages which are 
situated upon the slopes of the Mpwapwa that a refuge 
and a home for Farquhar was found until he should he 
enabled by restored health to start to join us at Unya- 

Food was plentiful and of sufficient variety to suit the 
most fastidious cheap also, much cheaper than we had 
experienced for many a day. Leucole, the chief of the 
village, with whom arrangements for Farquhar's protection 
and comfort were made, was a little old man of mild eye 
and very pleasing face, and on being informed that it 
was intended to leave the Musungu entirely under his 
charge, suggested that some man should be left to wait on 
him, and interpret his wishes to his people. 

As Jako was the only one who could speak English, 
except Bombay and Selim, Jako was appointed, and 
the chief Leucole was satisfied. Six months' provisions 
of white beads, Merikani and Kaniki cloth, together 
with two doti of handsome cloth to serve as a present 
to Leucole after his recovery, were taken to Farquhar 
by Bombay, together with a Starr's carbine, 300 rounds 
of cartridge, a set of cooking pots, and 3 Ibs. of tea. 

Abdullah bin Nasib, who was found encamped here with 
five hundred pagazis, and a train of Arab and Wasawahili 
satellites, who revolved around his importance, treated 
me in somewhat the same manner that Harned bin Sulay- 
man treated Speke at Kasenge. Followed by his satel- 
lites, he came (a tall nervous-lcoking man, of fifty 01 

to uoooo. 133 

thereabouts) to se3 me in my camp, and asked me if 1 
wished to purchase donkeys. As all my animals were 
either sick or moribund, I replied very readily in the 
affirmative, upon which he graciously said he would sell 
me as many as I wanted, and for payment I could give 
him a draft on Zanzibar. I thought him a very con- 
siderate and kind person, fully justifying the encomiums 
lavished on him in Burton's * Lake Kegions of Central 
Africa,' and accordingly I treated him with the consider- 
ation due to so great and good a man. The morrow 
came, and with it went Abdullah bin Nasib, or " Kisesa," 
as he is called by the Wanyamwezi, with all his pagazis, 
his train of followers, and each and every one of his 
donkeys, towards Bagamoyo, without so much as giving 
* " Kwaheri," or good-bye. 

At this place there are generally to be found from ten 
to thirty pagazis awaiting up-caravans. I was fortunate 
enough to secure twelve good people, who, upon my 
arrival at Unyanyembe, without an exception, volun- 
tarily engaged themselves as carriers to Ujiji. With the 
formidable marches of Marenga Mkali in front, I felt 
thankful for this happy windfall, which resolved the 
difficulties I had been anticipating; for I had but ten 
donkeys left, and four of these were so enfeebled that 
they were worthless as baggage animals. 

Mpwapwa so called by the Arabs, who have managed 
to corrupt almost every native word is called " Mbamb- 
wa " by the Wasagara. It is a mountain range rising 
over 6,000 feet above the sea, bounding on the north the 
extensive plain which commences at Ugombo lake, and on 
the east that part of the plain which is called Marenga 
Mkali, which stretches away beyond the borders of 
Ohumbs Opposite Mpwapwa, at the distance of thirty 


miles or so, rises the Aiwk peak of Eubeho, with severa, 
other ambitious and tall brethren cresting long lines of 
rectilinear scarps, which ascend from the plain of 
Ugombo and Marenga Mkali as regularly as if they had 
been chiselled out by the hands of generations of masons 
and stonecutters. 

Upon looking at Mpwapwa's greenly-tinted slopes, dark 
with many a densely- foliaged tree ; its many rills flowing 
sweet and clear, nourishing besides thick patches of gum 
and thorn bush, giant sycamore and parachute-topped 
mimosa, and permitting my imagination to picture sweet 
views behind the tall cones above, I was tempted to brave 
the fatigue of an ascent to the summit. Nor was my love 
for the picturesque disappointed. One sweep of the eyes 
embraced hundreds of square miles of plain and mountain, 
from Ugombo Peak away to distant Ugogo, and from 
Bubeho and Ugogo to the dim and purple pasture lands 
of the wild, untamable Wahumba. The plain of Ugombo 
and its neighbour of Marenga Mkali, apparently level as 
a sea, was dotted here and there with " hillocks dropt in 
Nature's careless haste," which appeared like islands amid 
the dun and green expanse. Where the jungle was dense 
the color was green, alternating with dark brown; where 
the plain appeared denuded of bush and brake it had a 
whity-brown appearance, on which the passing clouds 
now and again cast their deep shadows. Altogether this 
side of the picture was not inviting; it exhibited too 
plainly the true wilderness in its sternest aspect ; but 
perhaps the knowledge that in the bo?om of the vast 
plain before me there was not one drop u/ water but was 
bitter as nitre, and undrinkuble as urine, prejudiced me 
against it. The hunter might consider it a paradise, for 
in its depths were all kinds of game to attract his keenest 

to motto. 13r 

instincts; but to tlie mere traveller it had a stern out- 
look. Nearer, however, to the base of the Mpwapwa the 
uspect of the plain altered. At first the jungle thinned, 
openings in the wood appeared, then wide and naked 
clearings, then extensive fields of the hardy holcus, 
Indian corn, and maweri or bajri, with here and there a 
square tembe or village. Still nearer ran thin lines of 
fresh young grass, great trees surrounded a patch of 
alluvial meadow. A broad river-bed, containing several 
rivulets of water, ran through the thirsty fields, convey- 
ing the vivifying element which in this part of Usagarn 
was so scarce and precious. Down to the river-bed sloped 
the Mpwapwa, roughened in some places by great boulden 
of basalt, or by rock masses, which had parted from a 
precipitous scarp, where clung the kolquall with a sure 
hold, drawing nourishment where every other green thing 
failed; clad in others by the hardy mimosa, which rose 
like a sloping bank of green verdure almost to the 
summit. And, happy sight to me so long a stranger to 
it, there were hundreds of cattle grazing, imparting a 
pleasing animation to the solitude of the deep folds of the 
mountain range. 

But the fairest view was obtained by looking north- 
ward towards the dense group of mountains which 
buttressed the front range, facing towards Kubeho. It 
was the home of the winds, which starting here and 
sweeping down the precipitous slopes and solitary peaks 
on the western side, and gathering strength as they 
rushed through the prairie-like Marenga Mkali, howled 
through Ugogo and Unyamwezi with the force of a storm. 
It was also the home of the dews, where sprang the clear 
pprings which cheered by their music the bosky dells 
below, and enriched the populous district of Mpwapwa 


One felt better, stronger, on this breezy height, drinking 
in the pure air and feasting the eyes on such a varied 
landscape as it presented, on spreading plateaus green as 
lawns, on smooth rounded tops, on mountain vales con- 
taining recesses which might charm a hermit's soul, on 
deep and awful ravines where reigned a twilight gloom, 
on fractured and riven precipices, on huge fantastically- 
worn boulders which overtopped them, on picturesque 
tracts which embraced all that was wild, and all that was 
poetical in Nature. 

Mpwapwa, though the traveller from the coast will feel 
grateful for the milk it furnished after being so long 
deprived of it, will be kept in mind as a most remarkable 
place for earwigs. In my tent they might be counted by 
thousands ; in my slung cot they were by hundreds ; on 
my clothes they were by fifties; on my neck and head 
they were by scores. The several plagues of locusts, 
fleas, and lice sink into utter insignificance compared 
with this fearful one of earwigs. It is true they did not 
bite, and they did not irritate the cuticle, but what their 
presence and numbers suggested was something so hor- 
rible that it drove one nearly insane to think of it. Who 
will come to East Africa without reading the experiences 
of Burton and Speke ? Who is lie that having read them 
will not remember with horror the dreadful account given 
by Speke of his encounters with these pests ? My intense 
nervous watchfulness alone, I believe, saved me from a 
like calamity. 

Second to the earwigs in importance and in numbers 
were the white ants, whose powers of destructiveness 
were simply awful. Mats, cloth, portmanteaus, clothes, 
in short, every article I possessed, seemed on the verge 
of destruction, and, as I witnes&ed their voracity, I felt 

tO tfCKXHJ. 137 

anxious lest iny tent should be devoured idiile I slept. 
This was the first khambi since leaving the coast where 
their presence became a matter of anxiety ; at all other 
camping places hitherto the red and black ants had 
usurped our attention, but at Mpwapwa the red species 
were not seen, while the black were also very scarce. 

After a three days' halt at Mpwapwa I decided or. a 
march to Marenga Mkali, which should be uninterrupted 
until we reached Mvumi in Ugogo, where I should be 
inducted into the art of paying tribute to the Wagogo 
chiefs. The fiist march to Kisokweh was purposely made 
short, being barely four miles, in order to enable Sheikh 
Thani, Sheikh Hamed, and five or six Wasawahili cara- 
vans to come up with me at Chunyo on the confines of 
Marenga Mkali. 




Mortality amongst the baggage animals. The contumacious Wagogo. 
Mobs of Maenads. Tribute paying. Necessity of prudence. 
Oration of the guide. The genuine " Ugogians." Vituperative 
power. A surprised chief. The famous Mizanza. Killing hyasnas. 
'The Greeks and Romans of Africa. A critical moment. The 
"elephant's back." The wilderness of Ukimbu. End of the first 
stage of the search. Arrival at Unyanyembe. 

THE 22nd of May saw Thani and Hamed's caravans united 
with my own at Chunyo, three and a half hours* march 
from Mpwapwa. The road from the latter place ran along 


the skirtf of the Mpwapwa range ; at three or four places 
it crossed outlying spurs that stood isolated from the 
main body of the range. The last of these hill spurs, 
joined by an elevated cross ridge to the Mpwapwa, shelters 
the tembe of Chunyo, situated on the western face, from 
the stormy gusts that come roaring down the steep slopes. 
The water of Chunyo is eminently bad, in fact it is its 
saline-nitrous nature which has given the name Marenga 
Mkali bitter water to the wilderness which separates 
Usagara from Ugogo. Though extremely offensive to the 
palate, Arabs and the natives drink it without fear, and 
without any bad results ; but they are careful to withhold 
their baggage animals from the pits. Being ignorant of 
its nature, and not exactly understanding what precise 
location was meant by Marenga Mkali, I permitted the 
donkeys to be taken to water, as usual after a march ; 
and the consequence was calamitous in the extreme. 
What the fearful swamp of Makata had spared, the waters 
of Marenga Mkali destroyed. In less than five days after 
our departure from Chunyo or Marenga Mkali, five out of 
the nine donkeys left to me at the time the five healthiest 
animals fell victims. 

We formed quite an imposing caravan as we emerged 
from inhospitable Chunyo, in number amounting to about 
four hundred souls. We were strong in guns, flags, 
horns, sounding drums and noise. To Sheikh Hamed, by 
permission of Sheikh Thani, and myself was allotted the 
task of guiding and leading this great caravan through 
dreaded Ugogo ; which was a most unhappy selection, as 
will be seen hereafter. 

Marenga Mkali, over thirty miles across, was at last- 
before us. This distance had to be traversed within 
thirty-six hours, BO that the fatigue of the ordinary march 


would be more than doubled by this. From Chunyc to 
Ugogo not one drop of water was to be found. As a large 
caravan, say over two hundred souls, seldom travels over 
one and three-quarter miles per hour, a march of thirty 
miles would require seventeen hours of endurance without 
water and but little rest. East Africa generally possess- 
ing unlimited quantities of water, caravans have not been 
compelled for lack of the element to have recourse to the 
mushok of India and the khirbeh of Egypt. Being able 
to cross the waterless districts by a couple of long 
marches, they content themselves for the time with a 
*mall gourdful, and with keeping their imaginations 
dwelling upon the copious quantities they will drink upon 
arrival at the watering-place. 

The march through this waterless district was most 
monotonous, and a dangerous fever attacked me, which 
seemed to eat into my very vitals. The wonders of Africa 
that bodied themselves forth in the shape of flocks of 
zebras, giraffes, elands, or antelopes, galloping over the 
jungleless plain, had no charm for me ; nor could they 
serve to draw my attention from the severe fit of sickness 
which possessed rae. Towards the end of the first march 
I was not able to sit upon the donkey's back ; nor would 
it do, when but a third of the way across the wilderness, 
to halt until the next day; soldiers were therefore 
detailed to carry me in a hammock, and, when the 
terekeza was performed in the afternoon, I lay in a 
lethargic state, unconscious of all things. With the 
night passed the fever, and, at 3 o'clock in the morning, 
when the march was resumed, I was booted and spurred, 
and the recognized mtongi of my caravan once more. At 
8 A.M. we had performed the thirty-two miles. The 
wilderness oi Marenga Mkuli hac) been passed and we had 


eutered Ugogo, which was at once a dreaded land to m^ 
caravan, and a Land of Promise to myself. 

The transition from the wilderness into this Promised 
Land was very gradual and easy. Very slowly the jungle 
thinned, the cleared land was a long time appearing, and 
when it had finally appeared, there were no signs of 
cultivation until we could clearly make out the herbage 
and vegetation on some hill slopes to our right running 
parallel with our route, then we saw timber on the hills, 
and broad acreage under cultivation and, lo ! as we 
ascended a wave of reddish earth covered with tall weeds 
and cane, but a few feet from us, and directly across our 
path, were the fields of matama and grain we had been 
looking for, andJJgogo had been entered an hour before. 

The view was not such as I expected. I had imagined 
a plateau several hundred feet higher than Marenga 
Mkali, and an expansive view which should reveal Ugogo 
and its characteristics at once. But instead, while 
travelling from the tall weeds which covered the clearing 
which had preceded the cultivated parts, we had entered 
into the depths of the taller matama stalks, and, excepting 
some distant hills near Mvumi, where the Great Sultan 
lived the first of the tribe to whom we should pay tribute 
the view was extremely limited. 

However, in the neighbourhood of the first village a 
glimpse at some of the peculiar features of Ugogo was 
obtained, and there was a vast plain now flat, now 
heaving upwards, here level as a table, there tilted up 
into rugged knolls bristling with scores of rough boulders 
of immense size, which lay piled one above another as if 
the children of a Titanic race had been playing at house- 
building. Indeed, these piles of rounded, angular, and 
riven rock formed miniature hills of themselves, and 


appeared as if each body had been ejected upwards by 
some violent agency beneath. There was one of these in 
particular, near Mvumi, which was so large, and being 
slightly obscured from view by the outspreading branches 
of a gigantic baobab, bore such a strong resemblance to a 
square tower of massive dimensions, that for a long time 
I cherished the idea that I had discovered something most 
interesting which had strangely escaped the notice of my 
predecessors in East Africa. A nearer view dispelled the 
illusion, and proved it to be a huge cube of rock, measur- 
ing about forty feet each way. The baobabs were also 
particularly conspicuous on this scene, no other kind of 
tree being visible in the cultivated parts. These had 
probably been left for two reasons : first, want of proper 
axes for felling trees of such enormous growth ; secondly, 
because during a famine the fruit of the baobab furnishes 
a flour which, in the absence of anything better, is said tc 
be eatable and nourishing. 

The first words I heard in Ugogo were from a Wagogo 
elder, of sturdy form, who in an indolent way tended the 
flocks, but showed a marked interest in the stranger clad 
in white flannels, with a Hawkes' patent cork solar topee 
on his head, a most unusual thing in Ugogo, who came 
walking past him, and there were "Yambo, Musungu, 
Yambo, bana, bana," delivered with a voice loud enough 
to make itself heard a full mile away. No sooner had the 
g^eting been delivered than the word " Musungu " seemed 
to electrify his entire village ; and the people of other 
villages, situated at intervals near the road, noting the 
excitement that reigned at the first also participated in 
the general frenzy which seemed suddenly to have 
possessed them. I consider my progress from the first 
village k> Mvumi to have been most triumphant ; for J 


was accompanied by a furious mob of men, women, and 
children, all almost as naked as Mother Eve when the 
world first dawned upon her in the garden of Eden, 
fighting, quarrelling, jostling, staggering against each 
other for the best view of the white man, the like of 
whom was now seen for the first time in this part of 
Ugogo. The cries of admiration, such as " Hi-le !" which 
broke often and in confused uproar upon my ear, were not 
gratefully accepted, inasmuch as I deemed many of them 
impertinent. A respectful silence and more reserved 
behaviour would have won my esteem ; but, ye powers, 
who cause etiquette to be observed in Usungu,* respectful 
silence, reserved behaviour, and esteem are terms unknown 
in savage Ugogo. Hitherto I had compared myself to a 
merchant of Bagdad travelling among the Kurds oi 
Kurdistan, selling his wares of Damascus silk, kefiyehs, 
&c. ; but now I was compelled to lower my standard, and 
thought myself not much better than a monkey in a 
zoological collection. One of my soldiers requested them 
to lessen their vociferous noise ; but the evil-minded race 
ordered him to shut up, as a thing unworthy to speak to 
the Wagogo ! When I imploringly turned to the Arabs 
for counsel in this strait, old Sheikh Thani, always worldly 
wise, said, " Heed them not ; they are dogs who bite 
besides barking." 

At 9 A.M. we were in our boma, near Mvumi village ; 
but here also crowds of Wagogo came to catch a glimpse 
of the Musungu, whose presence was soon made known 
throughout the district of Mvumi. But two hours later I was 
oblivious of their endeavours to see me; for, despite repeated 
doses of quinine, the mukunguru had sure hold of me. 

The next day was a march of eight miles, from East 
* White man's land. 


Mvnmi to West Mvumi, where lived the Sultan of the 
district. The quantity and variety of provisions which 
arrived at our boma did not belie the reports respecting 
the productions of Ugogo. Milk, sour and sweet, honey, 
beans, matama, maweri, Indian corn, ghee, pea-nuts, and 
a species of bean-nut very like a large pistachio or an 
almond, water-melons, pumpkins, mush-melons, and 
cucumbers were brought, and readily exchanged for 
Merikani, Kaniki, and for the white Merikani beads and 
Sami-Sami, or Sam-Sam. The trade and barter which 
progressed in the camp from morning till night reminded 
me of the customs existing among the Gallas and Abys- 
sinians. Eastward, caravans were obliged to despatch 
men with cloth, to purchase from the villagers. This 
was unnecessary in Ugogo, where the people voluntarily 
brought every vendible they possessed to the camp. The 
smallest breadth of white or blue cloth became saleable 
and useful in purchasing provisions even a loin-cloth 
worn threadbare. 

The day after our march was a halt. We had fixed 
this day for bearing the tribute to the Great Sultan of 
Mvumi. Prudent and cautious Sheikh Thani early began 
this important duty, the omission of which would have 
been a signal for war. Hamed and Thani sent two 
faithful slaves, well up to the eccentricities of the Wagogo 
sultans well spoken, having glib tongues and the real 
instinct for trade as carried on amongst Orientals. They 
bore six doti of cloths, viz., one doti of Dabwani Ulyah 
contributed by myself, also one doti of Barsati from me, 
two doti Merikani Satine from Sheikh Thani, and two 
doti of Kaniki from Sheikh Hamed, as a first instalment 
of "the tribute. The slaves were absent a full hour, but 
having wasted their powers of pleading, in vain, they 


returned with the demand for more, which Sheikh Thani 
communicated to me in this wise : 

" Auf ! this Sultan is a very had man a very had man 
indeed ; he says, the Musungu is a great man, I call him a 
sultan ; the Musungu is very rich, for he has several cara- 
vans already gone past ; the Musungu must pay forty doti, 
and the Arabs must pay twelve doti each, for they have 
rich caravans. It is of no use for you to tell me you are 
all one caravan, otherwise why so many flags and tents ? 
Go and bring me sixty doti, with less I will not he satisfied." 

I suggested to Sheikh Thani, upon hearing this exorbi- 
tant demand, that had I twenty Wasungu* armed with 
Winchester repeating rifles, the Sultan might be obliged 
to pay tribute to me ; but Thani prayed and begged me 
to be cautious lest angry words might irritate the Sultan 
and cause him to demand a double tribute, as he was 
quite capable of doing so ; " and if you preferred war," 
said he, " your pagazis would all desert, and leave you 
and your cloth to the small mercy of the Wagogo." But 
T hastened to allay his fears by telling Bombay, in his 
presence, that I had foreseen such demands on the part 
of the Wagogo, and that having set aside one hundred 
and twenty doti of honga cloths, I should not consider 
myself a sufferer if the Sultan demanded and I paid forty 
cloths to him ; that he must therefore open the honga 
bale, and permit Sheikh Thani to extract such cloths as 
the Sultan might like. 

Sheikh Thani, having put on the cap of consideration 
and joined heads with Hamed and the faithful serviles, 
thought if I paid twelve doti, out of which three should 
be of Ulyahf quality, that the Sultan might possibly con- 
descend to accept our tribute ; supposing he was per- 
* White meit, j Best, or superior. 


suaded by the oratorical words of the " Faithfuls," that 
the Musungu* had nothing with him hut the mashiwa 
(boat), which would be of no use to him, come what 
might, with which prudent suggestion the Musungu 
concurred, seeing its wisdom. 

The slaves departed, bearing this time from our boma 
thirty doti, with our best wishes for their success. In 
an hour they returned with empty hands, but yet unsuc- 
cessful. The Sultan demanded six doti of Merikani, and 
a fundo of bubu, from the Musungu ; and from the Arabs 
and other caravans, twelve doti more. For the third 
time the slaves departed for the Sultan's tembe, carrying 
with them six doti Merikani and a fundo of bubu from 
myself, and ten doti from the Arabs. Again they re- 
turned to us with the Sultan's words, " That, as the doti 
of the Musungu were short measure, and the cloths of 
the Arabs of miserable quality, the Musungu must send 
three doti full measure, and the Arabs five doti of 
Kaniki." My three doti were at once measured out with 
the longest fore-arm according to Kigogo measure and 
sent off by Bombay ; but the Arabs, almost in despair, 
declared they would be ruined if they gave way to such 
demands, and out of the five doti demanded sent only 
two, with a pleading to the Sultan that he would consider 
what was paid as just and fair Muhongo, and not ask any 
more. But the Sultan of Mvumi was by no means dis- 
posed to consider any such proposition, but declared he 
must have three doti, and these to be two of Ulyah cloth, 
and one Kitambi Barsati, which, as he was determined 
to obtain, were sent to him heavy with the deep male- 
dictions of Sheil:h Hamed and the despairng sighs of 
Sheikh Thani. 

White man. 


Altogsther the sultanship of a district in Ugogo must 
be very remunerative, besides being a delightful sinecure, 
so long as the Sultan has to deal with timid Arab mer- 
chants who fear to exhibit anything approaching to inde- 
pendence and self-reliance, lest they might be mulcted in 
cloth. In one day from one camp the sultan received 
forty-seven doti, consisting of Merikani, Kaniki, Barsati, 
and Dabwani, equal to $35'25, besides seven doti of 
superior cloths, consisting of Kehani, Sohari, and Daob- 
wani Ulyah, and one fundo of Bubu, equal to $14'00, 
making a total of $49*25 a most handsome revenue for 
a Mgogo chief. 

On the 27th May we gladly shook the dust of Mvumi 
from our feet, and continued on our route ever west- 
ward. Five of my donkeys had died the night before, 
from the effects of the water of Marenga Mkali. Before 
leaving the camp of Mvumi, I went to look at their 
carcases ; but found them to have heen clean picked by 
the hyaenas, and the bones taken possession of by an 
army of white-necked crows. 

As we passed the numerous villages, and perceived the 
entire face of the land to be one vast field of grain, and 
counted the people halted by scores on the roadside to 
feast their eyes with a greedy stare on the Musungu, I 
no longer wondered at the extortionate demands of the 
Wagogo. For it was manifest that they had but to 
stretch out their hands to possess whatever the wealth of 
a caravan consisted of ; and I began to think better of the 
people who, knowing well their strength, did not use it 
of people who were intellectual enough to comprehend 
that their interest lay in permitting the caravans to pass 
on without attempting any outrage. 

Petween Mvumi and the next Sultan's district, that of 


MatamLuru, I counted no less than twenty-five villages 
scattered over the clayey, colored plain. Despite the 
inhospitable nature of the plain, it was better cultivated 
than any part of any other country we had seen since 
leaving Bagamoyo. 

When we had at last arrived at our boma of Matam- 
buru, the same groups of curious people, the same eager 
looks, the same exclamations of surprise, the same peals 
of laughter at something they deemed ludicrous in the 
Musungu's dress or manner, awaited us, as at Mvumi. 
The Arabs being " Wakonongo " travellers, whom they 
saw every day, enjoyed a complete immunity from the 
vexations which we had to endure. 

The Sultan of Matamburu, a man of herculean form, 
and massive head well set on shoulders that might vie 
with those of Milo, proved to be a very reasonable person. 
Not quite so powerful as the Sultan of Mvumi, he yet 
owned a fair share of Ugogo and about forty villages, and 
could, if he chose, have oppressed the mercantile souls of 
my Arab companions, in the same way as he of Mvumi. 
Four doti of cloth were taken to him as a preliminary 
offering to his greatness, which he said he would accept, 
if the Arabs and Musungu would send him four more. 
As his demands were so reasonable, this little affair was 
soon terminated to everybody's satisfaction; and soon 
after, the kirangozi of Sheikh Hamed sounded the signal 
for the morrow's march. 

At the orders of the same Sheikh, the kirangozi stood 
up to speak before the assembled caravans. " Words, 
words, from the Bana," he shouted. " Give ear, kiran- 
gozis ! Listen, children of Unyamwezi ! The journey is 
for to- morrow ! The road is crooked and bad, bad ! The 
jungle is there, and many Wagogo lie hidden within it ! 


Wagogo spear the pagazis, and cut the throats of those 
who carry mutumba (bales) and ushanga (beads) ! The 
Wagogo have been to our camp, they have seen your 
bales ; to-night they seek the jungle : to-morrow watch 
well, Wanyamwezi ! Keep close together, lag not 
behind ! Kirangozis walk slow, that the weak, the sick, 
and the young may keep up with the strong ! Take two 
rests on the journey ! These are the words of the Bana 
(master). Do you hear them, Wanyamwezi ? (A loud 
shout in the affirmative from all.) Do you understand 
them well ? (another chorus) ; then Bas ;" having said 
which, the eloquent kirangozi retired into the dark night, 
and his straw hut. 

The march tc Bihawana, our next camp, was rugged 
and long, through a continuous jungle of gums and 
thorns, up steep hills and finally over a fervid plain, 
while the sun waxed hotter and hotter as it drew near 
the meridian, until it seemed to scorch all vitality from 
inanimate nature, while the view was one white blaze, 
unbearable to the pained sight, which sought relief from 
the glare in vain. Several sandy watercourses, on which 
were impressed many a trail of elephants, were also passed 
on this march. The slope of these stream-beds trended 
south-east and south. 

In the middle of this scorching plain stood the villages 
of Bihawana, almost undistinguishable, from the extreme 
lowness of the huts, which did not reach the height of 
the tall bleached grass which stood smoking in the 
untempered heat. 

Our camp was in a krge boma, about a quarter of a 
mile from the Sultan's tembe. Soon after arriving at the 
camp, I was visited by three Wagogo, who asked me if I 
had seen a Mgogo on the road with a woman and 


I was about to answer, very innocently. " Yes," when 
Mabruki cautious and watchful always for the interests 
of the master requept.pd me not to answer, as the 
Wagogo, as customary, would charge me with having done 
away with them, and would require their price from me 
Indignant at the imposition they were about to practise 
upon me, I was about to raise my whip to flog them out 
of the camp, when again Mabruki, with a roaring voice, 
bade me beware, for every blow would cost me three or 
four doti of cloth. As I did not care to gratify my anger 
at such an expense, I was compelled to swallow my 
wrath, and consequently the Wagogo escaped chastise- 

We halted for one day at this place, which was a great 
relief to me, as I was suffering severely from intermittent 
fever, which lasted in this case two weeks, and entirely 
prevented my posting my diary in full, as was my custom 
every evening after a march. 

The Sultan of Bihawana, though his subjects were evil- 
disposed, and ready-handed at theft and murder, contented 
himself with three doti as honga. From this chief I 
received news of my fourth caravan, which had distin- 
guished itself in a fight with some outlawed subjects of 
his ; my soldiers had killed two who had attempted, after 
waylaying a couple of my pagazis, to carry away a bale of 
cloth and a bag of beads ; coming up in time, the soldiers 
decisively frustrated the attempt. The Sultan thought 
that if all caravans were as well guarded as mine were, 
there would be less depredations committed on them 
while on the road ; with which I heartily agreed. 

The next sultan's tembe through whose territory we 
marched, this being on the 30th May, was at Kididimo, 
but four miles from Bihawna. The road led through g 


flat elongated plain, lying between two lengthy hilly 
ridges, thickly dotted with the giant forms of the baobab. 
Kididimo is exceedingly bleak in aspect. Even the faces 
of the Wagogo seemed to have contracted a bleak hue 
from the general bleakness around. The water of the 
pits obtained in the neighbourhood had an execrable 
flavor, and two donkeys sickened and died in less than an 
hour from its effects. Man suffered nausea and a general 
irritability of the system, and accordingly revenged 
himself by cursing the country and its imbecile ruler 
most heartily. The climax came, however, when Bombay 
reported, after an attempt to settle the Muhongo, that 
the chief's head had grown big since he heard that the 
Musungu had come, and that its " bigness " could not be 
reduced unless he could extract ten doti as tribute. 
Though the demand was large, I was not in a humour 
being feeble, and almost nerveless, from repeated attacks 
of the Mukunguru to dispute the sum : consequently it 
was paid without many words. But the Arabs continued 
the whole afternoon negotiating, and at the end had to 
pay eight doti each. 

Between Kididimo and Nyambwa, the district of the 
Sultan Pembera Pereh, was a broad and lengthy forest 
and jungle inhabited by the elephant, rhinoceros, zebra, 
deer, antelope, and giraffe. Starting at dawn of the 31st, 
we entered the jungle, whose dark lines and bosky banks 
were clearly visible from our bower at Kididimo ; and, 
travelling for two hours, halted for rest and breakfast, at 
pools of sweet water surrounded by tracts of vivid green 
verdure, which were a great resort for the wild animals 
of the jungle, whose tracks were numerous and recent. 
A narrow nullah, shaded deeply with foliage, afforded 
excellent retreats from the glaring sunshine. At meri- 


dian, our thirst quenched, our hunger satisfied, our gourds 
refilled, we set out from the shade into the heated blaze 
of hot noon. The path serpentined in and out of jungle 
and thin forsst, into open tracts of grass bleached white 
as stubble, into thickets of gums and thorns, which 
emitted an odour as rank as a stable ; through clumps of 
wide-spreading mimosa and colonies of baobab, through a 
country teeming with noble game, which, though we saw 
them frequently, were yet as safe from our rifles as if we 
had been on the Indian Ocean. A terekeza, such as we 
were now making, admits of no delay. Water we had 
left behind at noon : until noon of the next day not a drop 
was to be obtained ; and unless we marched fast and long 
on this day, raging thirst would demoralize everybody. 
So for six long weary hours we toiled bravely ; and at 
sunset we camped, and still a march of two hours, to be 
done before the sun was an hour high, intervened between 
us and our camp at Nyambwa. That night the men 
bivouacked under the trees, surrounded by many miles of 
dense forest, enjoying the cool night unprotected by kat 
or tent, while I groaned and tossed throughout the night 
in a paroxysm of fever. 

The morn came ; and, while it was yet young, the long 
caravan, or string of caravans, was under way. It was 
the same forest, admitting, on the narrow line which we 
threaded, but one man at a time. Its view was as limited. 
To our right and left the forest was dark and deep. 
Above was a riband of glassy sky flecked by the float- 
ing nimbus. We heard nothing save a few stray notes 
from a flying bird, or the din of the caravans as the 
men sang, or hummed, or conversed, or shouted, as 
the thought struck them that we were nearing water. 
One of my pagazis, wearied and sick, fell, and nevei 


rose again. The last of the caravan passed him before 
he died. 

At 7 A.M. we were encamped at Nyambwa, drinking the 
excellent water found here with the avidity of thirsty 
camels. Extensive fields of grain had heralded the neigh- 
bourhood of the villages, at the sight of which we were 
conscious that the caravan was quickening its pace, as 
approaching its halting-place. As the Wasungu drew 
within the populated area, crowds of Wagogo used their 
utmost haste to see them before they passed by. Young 
and old of both genders pressed about us in a multitude 
a very howling mob. This excessive demonstrativeness 
elicited from my sailor overseer the characteristic remark, 
" Well, I declare, these must be the genuine Ugogians, 
for they stare ! stare there is no end to their staring. 
I'm almost tempted to slap 'em in the face !" In fact, the 
conduct of the Wagogo of Nyambwa was an exaggeration 
of the general conduct of Wagogo. Hitherto, those we 
had met had contented themselves with staring and 
shouting ; but these outstepped all bounds, and my 
growing anger at their excessive insolence vented itseli 
in gripping the rowdiest of them by the neck, and before 
he could recover from his astonishment administering a 
sound thrashing with my dog-whip, which he little 
relished. This proceeding educed from the tribe of 
starers all their native power of vituperation and abuse, 
in expressing which they were peculiar. Approaching in 
manner to angry tom-cats, they jerked their words with 
something of a splitting hiss and a half bark. The 
ejaculation, as near as I can spell it phonetically, was 
" hahcht " uttered in a shrill crescendo tone. They 
paced backwards and forwards, asking themselves, "Are 
the Wagogo to be beaten like slaves by this Musungu ? 


A Mgogo is a Mgwana (a free man) ; he is not used to be 
beaten, hahcht." But whenever I made motion, flourish- 
ing my whip, towards them, these mighty braggarts found 
it convenient to move to respectable distances from the 
irritated Musungu. 

Perceiving that a little manliness and show of power 
was something which the Wagogo long needed, and that 
in this instance it relieved me from annoyance, I had 
recourse to my whip, whose long lash cracked like a 
pistol shot, whenever they overstepped moderation. So 
long as they continued to confine their obtrusiveness to 
staring, and communicating to each other their opinions 
respecting my complexion, and dress, and accoutrements, 
I philosophically resigned myself in silence for their 
amusement ; but when they pressed on me, barely allow- 
ing me to proceed, a few vigorous and rapid slashes 
right and left with my serviceable thong, soon cleared 
the track. 

Pembera Pereh is a queer old man, very small, and 
would be very insignificant were he not the greatest 
sultan in Ugogo ; and enjoying a sort of dimediate power 
over many other tribes. Though such an important chief, 
he is the meanest dressed of his subjects, is always 
filthy, ever greasy eternally foul about the mouth ; 
but these are mere eccentricities : as a wise judge, he is 
without parallel, always has a dodge ever ready for the 
abstraction of cloth from the spiritless Arab merchants, 
who trade with Unyanyembe every year ; and disposes 
with ease of a judicial case which would overtask ordinary 

Sheikh Humed, who was elected guider of the united 
caravans now travelling through Ugogo, tfas of such * 
fragile and small make, that he might be taken for an 


Imitation of his famous prototype "Dapper." Being of 
such dimensions, what he lacked for weight and size he 
made up by activity. No sooner had he arrived in camp 
than his trim dapper form was seen frisking about from 
side to side of the great homa, fidgeting, arranging, dis- 
turbing everything and everybody. He permitted no 
bales or packs to be intermingled, or to come into too 
close proximity to his own ; he had a favourite mode of 
stacking his goods, which he would see carried out ; he 
had a special eye for the best place for his tent, and no 
one else must trespass on that ground. One would 
imagine that walking ten or fifteen miles a day, he would 
leave such trivialities to his servants, but no, nothing 
could be right unless he had personally superintended it ; 
in which work he was tireless and knew no fatigue. 

Another not uncommon peculiarity pertained to Sheikh 
Hamed ; as he was not a rich man, he laboured hard to 
make the most of every shukka and doti expended, and 
each fresh expenditure seemed to gnaw his very vitals : 
he was ready to weep, as he himself expressed it, at the 
high prices of Ugogo, and the extortionate demands of its 
sultans. For this reason, being the leader of the caravans, 
so far as he was able we were very sure not to be delayed 
in Ugogo, where food was so dear. 

The day we arrived at Nyambwa will be remembered 
by Hamed as long as he lives, for the trouble and vexation 
which he suffered. His misfortunes arose from the fact 
that, being too busily engaged in fidgeting about the 
camp, he permitted his donkeys to stray into the matama 
fields of Pembera Pereh, the Sultan. For hours he and 
his servants sought for the stray donkeys, returning 
towards evening utterly unsuccessful, Hamed bewailing, 
as only an Oriental can do, when hard fate visits him 


with its inflictions, the loss of a hundred dollars' worth of 
Muscat donkeys. Sheikh Thani, older, more experienced, 
and wiser, suggested to him that he should notify the 
Sultan of his loss. Acting upon the sagacious advice, 
Hamed sent an emhassy of two slaves, and the informa- 
tion they brought hack was, that Pembera Pereh's 
servants had found the two donkeys eating the unripened 
matama, and that unless the Arab who owned them 
would pay nine doti of first-class cloths, he, Pembera 
Pereh, would surely keep them to remunerate him for 
the matama they had eaten. Hamed was in despair. 
Nine doti of first-class cloths, worth $25 in Unyanyembe, 
for half a shukka's worth of grain, was, as he thought, an 
absurd demand ; but then if he did not pay it, what 
would become of the hundred dollars' worth of donkeys ? 
He proceeded to the Sultan to show him the absurdity of 
the damage claim, and to endeavour to make him accept 
>ne shukka, which would be more than double the worth 
of what grain the donkeys had consumed. But the Sultan 
was sitting on pombe ; he was drunk, which I believe to 
be his normal state too drunk to attend to business, 
consequently his deputy, a renegade Mnyamwezi, gave 
ear to the business. With most of the Wagogo chiefs 
lives a Mnyamwezi, as their right-hand man, prime 
minister, counsellor, executioner, ready man at all things 
save the general good; a sort of harlequin Unyamwezi, 
who is such an intriguing, restless, unsatisfied person, 
that as soon as one hears that this kind of man forms one 
of and the chief of a Mgogo sultan's council, one feels 
very much tempted to do damage to his person. Most of 
the extortions practised upon the Arabs are suggested by 
these crafty renegades. Sheikh Hamed found that the 
Mnyainwezi was far more obdurate than the Sultan 


nothing under nine doti first-class cloths would redeem 
the donkeys. The business that day remained unsettled, 
and the night following was, as one may imagine, a very 
sleepless one to Hamed. As it turned out, however, the 
loss of the donkeys, the after heavy fine, and the sleepless 
night, proved to be blessings in disguise ; for, towards 
midnight, a robber Mgogo visited his camp, and while 
attempting to steal a bale of cloth, was detected in the 
act by the wide-awake and irritated Arab, and was made 
to vanish instantly with a bullet whistling in close 
proximity to his ear. 

From each of the principals of the caravans, the 
Mnyamwezi had received as tribute for his drunken 
master fifteen doti, and from the other six caravans six 
doti each, altogether fifty-one doti, yet on the next 
morning when we took the road he was not a whit 
disposed to deduct a single cloth from the fine imposed 
on Hamed, and the unfortunate Sheikh was therefore 
obliged to liquidate the claim, or leave his donkeys 

After travelling through the corn-fields of Pembera 
Pereh we emerged upon a broad flat plain, as level as the 
still surface of a pond, whence the salt of the Wagogo is 
obtained. From Kanyenyi on the southern road, to 
beyond the confines of Uhumba and Ubanarama, this 
saline field extends, containing many large ponds of salt 
bitter water whose low banks are covered with an effer- 
vescence partaking of the nature of nitrate. Subse- 
quently, two days afterwards, having ascended the 
elevated ridge which separates Ugogo from Uyanzi, I 
obtained a view of this immense saline plain, embracing 
over a hundred square miles. I may have been deceived, 
but I imagined I saw large expanses of greyish-blue water, 


which causes me to helieve that this salina is but a 
corner of a great salt lake. The Wahumba, who are 
numerous, from Nyambwa to the Uyanzi border, informed 
my soldiers that there was a " Maji Rub* " away to the 

Mizanza, our next camp after Nyambwa, is situated in 
a grove of palms, about thirteen miles from the latter 
place. Soon after arriving I had to bury myself under 
blankets, plagued with the same intermittent fever which 
first attacked me during the transit of Marenga Mkali. 
Feeling certain that one day's halt, which would enable 
me to take regular doses of the invaluable sulphate of 
quinine, would cure me, I requested Sheikh Thani to tell 
Hamed to halt on the morrow, as I should be utterly 
unable to continue thus long, under repeated attacks of a 
virulent disease which was fast reducing me into a mere 
frame of skin and bone. Hamed, in a hurry to arrive at 
Unyanyembe in order to dispose of his cloth before other 
caravans appeared in the market, replied at first that be 
would not, that he could not, stop for the Musungu. 
Upon Thani's reporting his answer to me, I requested 
him to inform Hamed that, as the Musungu did not wish 
to detain him, or any other caravan, it was his express 
wish that Hamed would march and leave him, as he was 
quite strong enough in guns to march through Ugogo 
alone. Whatever cause modified the Sheikh's resolution 
and his anxiety to depart, Hamed's horn signal for the 
march was not heard that night, and on the morrow he 
had not gone. 

Early in the morning I commenced on my quinine 
doses ; at 6 A.M. I took a second dose ; before noon I had 
taken four more altogether, fifty measured grains - the 
Affect of which was manifest in the copious perspiration 


which drenched flannels, linen, and blankets. After noon 
I arose, devoutly thankful that the disease which had 
clung to me for the last fourteen days had at last 
succumbed to quinine. 

On this day the lofty tent, and the American flag 
which ever flew from the centre pole, attracted the 
Sultan of Mizanza towards it, and was the cause of a 
visit with which he honored me. As he was notorious 
among the Arabs for having assisted Manwa Sera in his 
war against Sheikh Sny bin Amer, high eulogies upon 
whom have been written by Burton, and subsequently by 
Speke, and as he was the second most powerful chief in 
Ugogo, of course he was quite a curiosity to me. As the 
tent-door was uplifted that he might enter, the ancient 
gentleman was so struck with astonishment at the lofty 
apex, and internal arrangements, that the greasy Barsati 
cloth which formed his sole and only protection against 
the chills of night and the heat of noon, in a fit of 
abstraction was permitted to fall down to his feet, ex- 
posing to the Musungu's unhallowed gaze the sad and 
aged wreck of what must once have been a towering form. 
His son, a youth of about fifteen, attentive to the infirmi- 
ties of his father, hastened with filial duty to remind him 
of his condition, upon which, with an idiotic titter at the 
incident, he resumed his scanty apparel and sat down to 
wonder and gibber out his admiration at the tent and the 
strange things which formed the Musungu's personal 
baggage and furniture. After gazing in stupid wonder 
at the table, on which was placed some crockery and the 
few books I carried with me ; at the slung hammock, 
which he believed was suspended by some magical con- 
trivance ; at the portmanteaus which contained my stock 
pf clothes, he ejaculated, " Hi-ie ! the Musimgu iy a great 


Bultan, who has come from his country to see Ugogo." 
Ho then noticed me, and was again wonder-struck at my 
pale complexion and straight hair, and the question now 
propounded was, " How on earth was I white when the 
sun had burned his people's skins into blackness?" 
Whereupon be was shown my cork topee, which he tried 
on his woolly head, much to his own and to our amuse- 
ment. The guns were next shown to him ; the wonderful 
repeating rifle of the Winchester Company, which was 
fired thirteen times in rapid succession to demonstrate its 
remarkable murderous powers. If he was astonished 
before he was a thousand times more so now, and ex- 
pressed his belief that the Wagogo could not stand before 
the Musungu in battle, for wherever a Mgogo was seen 
such a gun would surely kill him. Then the other fire- 
arms were brought forth, each with its peculiar mechanism 
explained, until, in a burst of enthusiasm at my riches 
and power, he said he would send me a sheep or goat, 
and that he would be my brother. I thanked him for the 
honor, and promised to accept whatever he was pleased to 
send me. At the instigation of Sheikh Thani, who acted 
as interpreter, who said that Wagogo chiefs must not 
depart with empty hands, I cut off a shukka of Kaniki 
and presented it to him, which, after being examined and 
measured, was refused upon the ground that, the Musungu 
being a great sultan should not demean himself so much 
as to give him only a shukka. This, after the twelve 
doti received as muhongo from the caravans, I thought, 
was rather sore ; but as he was about to present me with 
a sheep or goat another shukka would not matter much. 

Shortly after he departed, and true to his promise, 
I received a large, fine fcheep, with a bo-oad tail, heavy 
with fat ; but with the words, " That being row hi? 


brother, I must send him three doti of good cloth." Ag 
kha price of a sheep is but a doti and a half, I refused the 
sheep and the fraternal honor, upon the ground that the 
gifts were all on one side; and that, as I had paid 
muhongo, and given him a doti of Kaniki as a present, I 
could not afford to part with any more cloth without an 
adequate return. 

During the afternoon one more of my donkeys died, 
and at night the hyaenas came in great numbers to feast 
upon the carcase. Ulimengo, the chasseur, and best shot 
of my Wangwana, stole out and succeeded in shooting 
two, which turned out to be some of the largest of their 
kind. One of them measured six feet from the tip of the 
nose to the extremity of the tail, and three feet around 
the girth. 

On the 4th June we struck camp, and after travelling 
westward for about three miles, passing several ponds of 
salt water, we headed north by west, skirting the range 
of low hills which separates Ugogo from Uyanzi. 

After a three hours' march, we halted for a short time 
at Little Mukondoku, to settle tribute with the brother 
of him who rules at Mukondoku Proper. Three doti 
satisfied the Sultan, whose district contains hut two 
villages, mostly occupied by pastoral Wahumba and 
renegade Wahehe. The Wahumba live in plastered 
(cow-dung) cone huts, shaped like the tartar tents of 

The Wahumba, so far as I have seen them, are a fine 
and well-formed race. The men are positively handsome, 
tall, with small heads, the posterior parts of which project 
considerably. One will look in vain for a thick lip or a 
flat nose amongst them ; on the contrary, the mouth is 
exceedingly well cut, delicately small ; the nose is that oi 


the Greeke, and so universal was the peculiar feature, 
that I at once named them the Greeks of Africa. Their 
lower limbs have not the heaviness of the Wagogo and 
other tribes, but are long and shapely, clean as those of 
an antelope. Their necks are long and slender, on which 
their small heads are poised most gracefully. Athletes 
from their youth, shepherd bred, and intermarrying 
among themselves, thus keeping the race pure, any of 
them would form a fit subject for the sculptor who would 
wish to immortalize in marble an Antinous, a Hylas, a 
Daphnis, or an Apollo. The women are as beautiful as 
the men are handsome. They have clear ebon skins, not 
coal-black, but of an inky hue. Their ornaments consist 
of spiral rings of brass pendent from the ears, brass ring 
collars about the necks, and a spiral cincture of brass wire 
about their loins for the purpose of retaining their call 
and goat skins, which are folded about their bodies, and, 
depending from the shoulder, shade one half of the bosom, 
and fall to the knees. 

The Wahehe may be styled the Komans of Africa. 

Resuming our march, after a halt of an hour, in foui 
hours more we arrived at Mukondoku Proper. This 
extremity of Ugogo is most populous. The villages which 
surround the central tembe, where the Sultan Swaruru 
lives, amount to thirty-six. The people who flocked from 
these to see the wonderful men whose faces were white, 
who wore the most wonderful things on their persons, 
and possessed the most wonderful weapons ; guns which 
" bum-bummed " as fast as you could count on your 
fingers, formed such a mob of howling savages, that I for 
an instant thought there was something besides mere 
curiosity which caused such commotion, and attracted 
such numbers to the roadside. Halting, I asked what 


was the matter, and what they wanted, and why they 
made such noise ? Ons burly rascal, taking my words for 
a declaration of hostilities, promptly drew his bow, but as 
prompt as he had fixed his wrow my faithful Winchester 
with thirteen shots in the magazine was ready and at the 
shoulder, and but waited to see the arrow fly to pour the 
leaden messengers of death into the crowd. But the 
crowd vanished as quickly as they had come, leaving 
the burly Thersites, and two or three irresolute fellows of 
his tribe, standing within pistol range of my levelled 
rifle. Such a sudden dispersion of the mob which, but 
a moment before, was overwhelming in numbers, caused 
me to lower my rifle, and to indulge in a hearty laugh 
at the disgraceful flight of the men-destroyers. The 
Arabs, who were as much alarmed at their boisterous 
obtrusiveness, now came up to patch a truce, in which 
they succeeded to everybody's satisfaction. A few words 
of explanation, and the mob came back in greater numbers 
than before ; and the Thersites who had been the cause of 
the momentary disturbance was obliged to retire abashed 
before the pressure of public opinion. A chief now came 
up, whom I afterwards learned was the second man to 
Swaruru, and lectured the people upon their treatment of 
the " White Stranger." 

" Know ye not, Wagogo," shouted he, " that this 
Musungu is a sultan (mtemi a most high title). He has 
not come to Ugogo like the Wakonongo (Arabs), to trade 
in ivory, but to see us, and give presents. Why do you 
molest him and his people ? Let them pass in peace. If 
you wish to see him, draw near, but do not mock him. 
The first of you who creates a disturbance, let him 
beware ; our great mtemi shall know how you treat his 
friends." This little bit of oratorical effort on the part 


of the chief was translated to me there and then by the 
old Sheikh Thani ; which having understood, I bade the 
Sheikh inform the chief that, after I had rested, I should 
like him to visit me in my tent. 

Having arrived at the khambi, which always surrounds 
some great baobab in Ugogo, at the distance of about half 
a mile from the tembe of the Sultan, the Wagogo pressed 
in such great numbers to the camp that Sheikh Thani 
resolved to make an effort to stop or mitigate the nuisance. 
Dressing himself in his best clothes, he went to appeal to 
the Sultan for protection against his people. The Sultan 
was very much inebriated, and was pleased to say, " What 
is it you want, you thief ? You have come to steal my 
ivory or my cloth. Go away, thief !" But the sensible 
chief, whose voice had just been heard reproaching the 
people for their treatment of the Wasungu, beckoned to 
Sheikh Thani to come out of the tembe, and then proceeded 
with him towards the khambi. 

The camp was in a great uproar ; the curious Wagogo 
monopolized almost every foot of ground ; there was no 
room to turn anywhere. The Wanyamwezi were quar- 
reling with the Wagogo, the Wasawahili servants were 
clamoring loud that the Wagogo pressed down their 
tents, and that the property of the masters was in 
danger ; while I, busy on my diary within my tent, cared 
not how great was the noise and confusion outside as long 
as it confined itself to the Wagogo, Wanyamwezi, and 

The presence of the chief in the camp was followed by 
such a deep silence that I was prevailed upon to go 
outside to see what had caused it. The chief's words 
were few, and to the point. He said, " To your tembes, 
Wagogo to your tembes ! Why do you come t Double 


the Wakonongo r What have you to do with them ? To 
your tembes : go ! Each Mgogo found in the khambi 
without meal, without cattle to sell, shall pay to the 
mtemi cloth or cows. Away with you !" Saying which, 
he snatched up a stick and drove the hundreds out of the 
khambi, who were as obedient to him as so many children. 
During the two days we halted at Mukondoku we saw no 
more of the mob, and there was peace. 

The muhongo of the Sultan Swaruru was settled with 
few words. The chief who acted for the Sultan as his 
prime minister having been " made glad " with a doti of 
Eehani Ulyah from me, accepted the usual tribute of six 
doti, only one of which was of first-class cloth. 

There remained but one more sultan to whom muhongo 
must be paid after Mukondoku, and this was the Sultan 
of Kiwyeh, whose reputation was so bad that owners of 
property who had control ov^er their pagazis seldom passed 
by Kiwyeh, preferring the hardships of long marches 
through the wilderness to the rudeness and exorbitant 
demands of the chief of Kiwyeh. But the pagazis, on 
whom no burden or responsibility fell save that of carry- 
ing their loads, who could use their legs and show clean 
heels in the case of a hostile outbreak, preferred the 
march to Kiwyeh to enduring thirst and the fatigue of a 
terekeza. Often the preference of the pagazis won the 
day, when their employers were timid, irresolute men, 
like Sheikh Hamed. 

The 7th of June was the day fixed for our departure 
from Mukondoku, so the day before, the Arabs came to 
my tent to counsel with me as to the route we should 
adopt. On calling together the kirangozis of the re- 
spective caravans and veteran Wanyamwezi pagazis, we 
learned there were three roads leading from Mukondokii 


to Uyanzi. The first was the southern road, and the one 
generally adopted, for the reasons already stated, and 
led by Kiwyeh. To this Hamed raised objections. " The 
Sultan was bad," he said; "he sometimes charged a 
caravan twenty doti ; our caravan would have to pay 
about sixty doti. The Kiwyeh road would not do at all. 
Besides," he added, " we have to make a terekeza to reach 
Kiwyeh, and then we will not reach it before the day 
after to-morrow." The second was the central road. We 
should arrive at Munieka on the morrow ; the day after 
would be a terekeza from Mabunguru Nullah to a camp 
near Unyambogi ; two hours the next day would bring 
us to Kiti, where there was plenty of water and food. As 
neither of the kirangozis or Arabs knew this road, and 
its description came from one of my ancient pagazis, 
Hamed said he did not like to trust the guidance of such 
a large caravan in the hands of an old Mnyamwezi, and 
would therefore prefer to hear about the third road, 
before rendering his decision. The third road was the 
northern. It led past numerous villages of the Wagogo 
for the first two hours ; then we should strike a jungle ; 
and a three hours' march would then bring us to Simbo, 
where there was water, but no village. Starting early 
next morning, we would travel six hours when we would 
arrive at a pool of water. Here taking a short rest, an 
afternoon march of five hours would bring us within 
three hours of another village. As this last road was 
known to many, Hamed said, "Sheikh Thani, tell the 
Sahib that I think this is the best road." Sheikh Thani 
was told, after he had informed me that, as I had marched 
with them through Ugogc, if they decided upon going by 
Simbo, my caravan would follow. 

Immediately after the discussion among the principals 


respecting the merits of the several routes, arose a dis- 
cussion among the pagazis which resulted in an obstinate 
clamor against the Simbo road, for its long terekeza and 
scant prospects of water, the dislike to the Simbo road 
communicated itself to all the caravans, and soon it wap 
magnified by reports of a wilderness reaching from Simbo 
to Kusuri, where there was neither food nor water to be 
obtained. Hamed's pagazis, and those of the Arab 
servants, rose in a body and declared they could not go 
on that march, and if Hamed insisted upon adopting it 
they would put their packs down and leave him to carry 
them himself. 

Hamed Kimiani, as he was styled by the Arabs, rushed 
up to Sheikh Thani, and declared that he must take the 
Kiwyeh road, otherwise his pagazis would all desert. 
Thani replied that all the roads were the same to him, 
that wherever Hamed chose to go, he would follow. They 
then came to my tent, and informed me of the determina- 
tion at which the Wanyamwezi had arrived. Calling my 
veteran Mnyamwezi, who had given me the favourable 
report once more to my tent, I bade him give a correct 
account of the Kiti road. It was so favourable that my 
reply to Hamed was, that I was the master of my caravan, 
that it was to go wherever I told the kirangozi, not where 
the pagazis chose ; that when I told them to halt they 
must halt, and when I commanded a march, a march 
should be made ; and that as I fed them well and did not 
overwork them, I should like to see the pagazi or soldier 
that disobeyed me. "You made up your mind just 
now that you would take the Simbo road, and we were 
agreed upon it, now your pagazis say they will take the 
Kiwyeh road, or desert. Go on the Kiwyeh road and 
pay twenty doti muhongo. I and my caravan to- morrow 


morning will take the Kiti road, and when you find me 
in Unyanyembe one day ahead of you, you will be sorry 
you did not take the same road." 

This resolution of mine had the effect of again changing 
the current of Hamed's thoughts, for he instantly said, 
"That is the best road after all, and as the Sahib is 
determined to go on it, and we have all travelled together 
through the bad lajid of the Wagogo, Inshallah ! let us 
all go the same way," and Thaui good old man not 
objecting, and Ilamed having decided, they both joyfully 
went out of the tent to communicate the news. 

On the 7th the caravans apparently unanimous that 
the Kiti road was to be taken were led as usual by 
Hamed's kirangozi. We had barely gone a mile before 
I perceived that we had left the Simbo road, had taken 
the direction of Kiti, and, by a cunning detour, were now 
fast approaching the defile of the mountain ridge before 
us, which admitted access to the higher plateau of Kiwyeh. 
Instantly halting my caravan, I summoned the veteran 
who had travelled by Kiti, and asked him whether we 
were not going towards Kiwyeh. He replied that we 
were. Calling my pagazis together, I bade Bombay tell 
them that the Musungu never changed his mind ; that as 
I had said my caravan should march by Kiti, to Kiti 
it must go whether the Arabs followed or not. I then 
ordered the veteran to take up his load and show the 
kirangozi the proper road to Kiti. The Wanyamwezi 
pagazis put down their bales, and then there was every 
indication of a mutiny. The Wangwana soldiers were 
next ordered to load their guns and to flank the caravan, 
and shoot the first pagazis who made an attempt to run 
away. Dismounting, I seized my whip, and, advancing 
towards the first pagazi who had put down his load, I 


motioned to him to take up his load and march. It was 
unnecessary to proceed further; without an exception, 
all marched away obediently after the kirangozi. I wag 
ahout bidding farewell to Thani and Hamed, when Thani 
said, "Stop a bit, Sahib; I have had enough of this 
child's play; I come with you," and his caravan was 
turned after mine. Hamed's caravan was by this time 
close to the defile, and he himself was a full mile behind 
it, weeping like a child at what he was pleased to call 
our desertion of him. Pitying his strait for he was 
almost beside himself as thoughts of Kiwyeh's sultan, his 
extortion and rudeness, swept across his mind I advised 
him to run after his caravan, and tell it, as all the rest 
had taken the other road, to think of the Sultan of 
Kiwyeh. Before reaching the Kiti defile I was aware 
that Hamed's caravan was following us. 

The ascent of the ridge was rugged and steep, thorns 
of the prickliest nature punished us severely, the acacia 
horrida was here more horrid than usual, the gums 
stretched out their branches, and entangled the loads, 
the mimosa with its umbrella-like top served to shade us 
from the sun, but impeded a rapid advance. Steep outcrops 
of syenite and granite, worn smooth by many feet, had to 
be climbed over, rugged terraces of earth and rock had 
to be ascended, and distant shots resounding through the 
forest added to the alarm and general discontent, and had 
I not been immediately behind my caravan, watchful 
of every manoeuvre, my Wanyamwezi had deserted to 
a man. 

Though the height we ascended was barely 800 feet 
above the salina we had just left, the ascent occupied two 


Having surmounted the plateau and the worst diffi- 
culties, we had a fair load comparatively, which ran 
through jungle, forest, and small open tracts, which in 
three hours more brought us to Munieka, a small village, 
surrounded by a clearing richly cultivated by a colony of 
subjects of Swaruru of Mukondoku. 

By the time we had arrived at camp everybody had 
recovered his good humor and content except Hamed. 
Thani's men happened to set his tent too close to Hamed's 
tree, around which his bales were stacked. Whether the 
little Sheikh imagined honest old Thani capable of stealing 
one is not known, but it is certain that he stormed and 
raved about the near neighbourhood of his best friend's 
tent, until Thani ordered its removal a hundred yards off. 
This proceeding even, it seems, did not satisfy Hamed, 
for it was quite midnight as Thani said when Hamed 
came, and kissing his hands and feet,, on his knees 
implored forgiveness, which of course Thani, being the 
soul of good-nature, and as large-hearted as any man, 
willingly gave. Hamed was not satisfied, however, until, 
with the aid of his slaves, he had transported his friend's 
tent to where it had at first been pitched. 

The water at Munieka was obtained from a deep depres- 
sion in a hump of syenite, and was as clear as crystal, 
and cold as ice-water a luxury we had not experienced 
since leaving Simbamwenni. 

We were now on the borders of Uyanzi, or, as it is 
better known, " Magunda Mkali " the Hot-ground, or 
Hot-field. We had passed the village populated by 
Wagogo, and were about to shake the dust of Ugogo 
from our feet. We had entered Ugogo full of hopes, 
believing it a most pleasant land- -a land flowing iritb 


milk and honey. We had been grievously disappointed ; 
it proved to be a land of gall and bitterness, full of 
trouble and vexation of spirit, where danger was im 
minent at every step where we were exposed to the 
caprice of inebriated sultans. Is it a wonder, then, that 
all felt happy at such a moment? With the prospect 
before us of what was believed by many to be a real 
wilderness, our ardor was not abated, but was rather 
strengthened. The wilderness in Africa proves to be, in 
many instances, more friendly than the populated country. 

The kirangozi blew his kudu horn much more merrily 
on this morning than he was accustomed to do while in 
Ugogo. We were about to enter Magunda Mkali. At 
9 A.M., three hours after leaving Munieka, and two hours 
since we had left the extreme limits of Ugogo, we were 
halted at Mabunguru Nullah. The Nullah runs south- 
westerly after leaving its source in the chain of hills 
dividing Ugogo from Magunda Mkali. During the 
rainy season it must be nearly impassable, owing to the 
excessive slope of its bed. Traces of the force of the 
torrent are seen in the syenite and basalt boulders which 
encumber the course. Their rugged angles are worn 
smooth, and deep basins are excavated where the bed is 
of the rock, which in the dry season serve as reservoirs. 
Though the water contained in them has a slimy and 
greenish appearance, and is well populated with frogs, it 
is by no means unpalatable. 

At noon we resumed our march, the Wanyamwezi 
cheering, shouting, and singing, the Wangwana soldiers, 
servants, and pagazis vieing with them in volume of 
voice and noise making the dim forest thrcmgh which 
we were now passing resonant with their voices. 


The 93enery was much more picturesque than any we 
had yet seen since leaving Bagamoyo. The ground rose 
into grander waves hills cropped out here and there 
great castles of syenite appeared, giving a strange and 
weird appearance to the forest. From a distance it would 
almost seem as if we were approaching a bit of England 
as it must have appeared during feudalism ; the rocks as- 
sumed such strange fantastic shapes. Now they were round 
boulders raised one above another, apparently susceptible 
to every breath of wind ; anon, they towered like blunt- 
pointed obelisks, taller than the tallest trees ; again they 
assumed the shape of mighty waves, vitrified ; here, they 
were a small heap of fractured and riven rock ; there, 
they rose to the grandeur of hills. 

By 5 P.M. we had travelled twenty miles, and the 
signal was sounded for a halt. At 1 A.M., the moon being 
up, Hamed's horn and voice were heard throughout the 
silent camp awaking his pagazis for the march. Evi- 
dently Sheikh Hamed was gone stark mad, otherwise why 
should he be so frantic for the march at such an early 
hour? The dew was falling heavily, and chilled one 
like frost; and an ominous murmur of deep discontent 
responded to the early call on all sides. Presuming, 
however, that he had obtained better information than 
we had, Sheikh Thani and I resolved to be governed as the 
events proved him to be right or wrong. 

As all were discontented, this night march was per- 
formed in deep silence. The thermometer was at 53, we 
being about 4,500 feet above the level of the sea. The 
pagazis, almost naked, walked quickly in order to keep 
warm, and by so doing many a sore foot was made by 
stumbling .against obtrusive roots and rocks, and treading 


on thorns. At 3 A.M. we arrived at the village of Unyam- 
bogi, where we threw ourselves down to rest and sleep 
until dawn should reveal what else was in store for the 
hard-dealt-with caravans. 

It was broad daylight when I awoke; the sun was 
flaring his hot beams in my face. Sheikh Thani came 
soon after to inform me that Hamed had gone to Kiti two 
hours since ; but he, when asked to accompany him, 
positively refused, exclaiming against it as folly, and 
utterly unnecessary, when my advice was asked by Thani. 
I voted the whole thing as sheer nonsense ; and, in turn, 
asked him what a terekeza was for? Was it not an 
afternoon march to enable caravans to reach water and 
food? Thani replied that it was. I then asked him if 
there was no water or food to be obtained in Unyambogi. 
Thani replied that he had not taken pains to inquire, but 
was told by the villagers that there was an abundance of 
matamia, hindi, maweri, sheep, goats, and chickens in 
their village at cheap prices, such as were not known in 

" Well, then," said I, " if Hamed wants to be a fool, 
and kill his pagazis, why should we ? I have as much 
cause for haste as Sheikh Hamed ; but Unyanyembe is far 
yet, and I am not going to endanger my property by 
playing the madman." 

As Thani had reported, we found an abundance of 
provisions at the village, and good sweet water from 
some pits close by. A sheep cost one shukka ; six 
chickens were also purchased at that price ; six measures 
of matama, maweri, or hindi, were procurable for the 
same sum ; in short, we were coming, at last, into the 
land of plenty. 


On the 10th June we arrived at Kiti after a journey of 
four hours and a half, where we found the irrepressible 
Hamed halted in sore trouble. He who would be a Caesar, 
proved to be an irresolute Antony. He had to sorrow 
over the death of a favourite slave girl, the loss of five 
dish- dashes (Arab shirts), silvered-sleeve and gold-em- 
broidered jackets, with which he had thought to enter 
Unyanyembe in state, as became a merchant of his 
standing, which had disappeared with three absconding 
servants, besides copper trays, rice, and pilau dishes, and 
two bales of cloth with runaway Wangwana pagazis. 
Selim, my Arab servant, asked him, " What are you 
doing here, Sheikh Hamed ? I thought you were well on 
the road to Unyanyembe." Said he, " Could I leave Thani, 
my friend, behind?" 

Kiti abounded in cattle and grain, and we were able to 
obtain food at easy rates. The Wakimbu, emigrants from 
Ukimbu, near Urori, are a quiet race, preferring the 
peaceful arts of agriculture to war ; of tending their 
flocks to conquest. At the least rumor of war they 
remove their property and family, and emigrate to the 
distant wilderness, where they begin to clear the land, 
and to hunt the elephant for his ivory. Yet we found 
them to be a fine race, and well armed, and seemingly 
capable, by their numbers and arms, to compete with any 
tribe. But here, as elsewhere, disunion makes them weak. 
They are mere small colonies, each colony ruled by its 
own chief; whereas, were they united, they might make 
a very respectable front before an enemy. 

Our next destination was Msalalo, distant fifteen miles 
from Kiti. Hamed, after vainly searching for his runa- 
ways and the valuable property he had lost, followed ns, 


and tried once more, when he saw us encamped at 
Msalalo, to pass us; but his pagazis failed him, the 
march having been so long. 

Welled Ngaraiso was reached on the 15th, after a three 
and a half hours' march. It is a flourishing little place, 
where provisions were almost twice as cheap as they were 
at Unyambogi. Two hours' march south is Jiweh la 
Mkoa, on the old road, towards which the road which we 
have been travelling since leaving Bagamoyo was now 
rapidly leading. 

Unyanyembe being near, the pagazis and soldiers 
having behaved excellently during the lengthy inarches 
wo had lately made, I purchased a bullock for three doti, 
and had it slaughtered for their special benefit. I also gave 
each a khete of red beads to indulge his appetite for what- 
ever little luxury the country afforded. Milk and honey 
were plentiful, and three frasilah of sweet potatoes were 
bought for a shukka, equal to about 40 cents of our money. 

The 13th June brought us to the last village oi 
Magunda Mkali, in the district of Jiweh la Singa, after a 
short march of eight miles and three-quarters. Kusuri 
so called by the Arabs is called Konsuli by the Wakimbu 
who inhabit it. This is, however, but one instance out of 
many where the Arabs have misnamed or corrupted the 
native names of villages and districts. 

Between Ngaraiso and Kusuri we passed the village of 
Kirurumo, now a thriving place, with many a thriving 
village near it. As we passed it, the people came out to 
greet the Musungu, whose advent had been so long 
neralded by his loud-mouthed caravans, and whose soldiers 
had helped them win the day in a battle against their 
fractious brothers of Jiweh la Mkoa. 


A little further on we came across a large khambi, oc * 
cupied by Sultan bin Mohammed, an Omani Arab of high 
descent, who, as soon as he was notified of my approach, 
came out to welcome me, and invite me to his khambi. 
As his harem lodged in his tent, of course I was not 
invited thither; but a carpet outside was ready for his 
visitor. After the usual questions had been asked about 
my health, the news of the road, the latest from Zanzibar 
and Oman, he asked me if I had much cloth with me. 
This was a question often asked by owners of down 
caravans, and the reason of it is that the Arabs, in their 
anxiety to make as much as possible of their cloth at the 
ivory ports on the Tanganika and elsewhere, are liable to 
forget that they should retain a portion for the down 
marches. As, indeed, I had but a bale left of the quantity 
of cloth retained for provisioning my party on the road, 
when outfitting my caravans on the coast, I could un- 
blushiugly reply in the negative. 

I halted a day at Kusuri to give my caravan a rest, 
after its long series of marches, before venturing on the 
two days' march through the uninhabited wilderness that 
separates the district of Jiweh la Singa Uyanzi from the 
district of Tura in Unyanyembe. Hamed preceded, 
promising to give Sayd bin Salim notice of my coming, 
and to request him to provide a tembe for me. 

On the 15th, having ascertained that Sheikh Thani 
would be detained several days at Kusuri, owing to the 
excessive number of his people who were laid up with 
that dreadful plague of East Africa, the small-pox, I bade 
him farewell, and my caravan struck out of Kusuri once 
more for the wilderness and the jungle. A little before 
noon we halted at the Khamii of Mgongo Tembo, or the 


Elephant's Back so called from a wave of rock whose 
back, stained into dark brownness by atmospheric in- 
fluences, is supposed by the natives to resemble the blue- 
brown back of this monster of the forest. My caravan 
had quite an argument with me here, as to whether we 
should make the terekeza on this day or on the next. 
The majority was of the opinion that the next day would 
be the best for a terekeza ; but T, being the " bana," con- 
sulting my own interests, insisted, not without a flourish 
or two of my whip, that the terekeza should be made on 
this day. 

Mgongo Tembo, when Burton and Speke passed by, 
was a promising settlement, cultivating many a fair acre 
of ground. But two years ago war broke out, for some 
bold act of its people upon caravans, and the Arabs came 
from Unyanyembe with their Wangwana servants, at- 
tacked them, burnt the villages, and laid waste the 
work of years. Since that time Mgongo Tembo has 
been but blackened wrecks of houses, and the fields a 
sprouting jungle. 

A cluster of date palm-trees, overtopping a dense grove 
close to the mtoni of Mgongo Tembo, revived my re- 
collections of Egypt. The banks of the stream, with 
their verdant foliage, presented a strange contrast to the 
brown and dry appearance of the jungle which lay on 
either side. 

At 1 P.M. we resumed our loads and walking stuffs, and 
in a short time were en route for the Ngwhalah Mtoni, 
distant eight and three-quarter miles from the kharubi. 
The sun was hot ; like a globe of living, seething flame, 
it flared its heat full on our heads ; then as it descended 
the west scorched the air before it was inhaled 


by the lungs which craved it. Gourds of water were 
emptied speedily to quench the fierce heat that burned 
the throat and lungs. One pagazi, stricken heavily with 
the small-pox, succumbed, and threw himself down on the 
roadside to die. We never saw him afterwards, for the 
progress of a caravan on a terekeza, is something like 
that of a ship in a hurricane. The caravan must proceed 
woe befall him who lags behind, for hunger and thirst 
will overtake him so must a ship drive before the fierce 
gale to escape foundering woe befall him who falls 
overboard ! 

An abundance of water, good, sweet, and cool, was 
found in the bed of the mtoni in deep stony reservoirs. 
Here also the traces of furious torrents were clearly 
visible as at Mabunguru. 

The Nghwhalah commences in Ubanarama to the north 
a country famous for its fine breed of donkeys and 
after running south, south-south-west, crosses the Unya- 
nyembe road, from which point it has more of a westerly 

On the 16th we arrived at Madedita, so called from 
a village which was, but is now no more. Madedita is 
twelve and a half miles from the Nghwhalah Mtoni. A 
pool of good water a few hundred yards from the roadside 
is the only supply caravans can obtain, nearer than Tura 
in Unyamwezi. The tsetse or chufwa-fly, as called by 
the Wasawahili, stung us dreadfully, which is a sign that 
large game visit the pool sometimes, but must not be 
mistaken for an indication that there is any in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the water. A single pool so 
often frequented by passing caravans, which must 01 
necessity halt here, could not be often visited by the 


animals of the forest, who are shy in this part of Africa 
of the haunts of man. 

At dawn the next day we were on the road striding at 
a quicker pace than on most days, since we were about to 
quit Magunda Mkali for the more populated and better 
land of TJnyamwezi. The forest held its own for a weari- 
somely long time, but at the end of two hours it thinned, 
then dwarfed into low jungle, and finally vanished al- 
together, and we had arrived on the soil of Unyamwezi, 
with a broad plain, swelling, subsiding, and receding in 
lengthy and grand undulations in our front to one in- 
definite horizontal line which purpled in the far distance. 
The view consisted of fields of grain ripening, which 
followed the contour of the plain, and which rustled 
merrily before the morning breeze that came laden with 
the chills of Usagara. 

At 8 A.M. we had arrived at the frontier village of 
Unyamwezi, Eastern Tura, which we invaded without any 
regard to the disposition of the few inhabitants who lived 
there. Here we found Nondo, a runaway of Speke's, one 
of those who had sided with Baraka against Bombay, who, 
desiring to engage himself with me, was engaging enough 
to furnish honey and sherbet to his former companions, 
and lastly to the pagazis. It was only a short breathing 
pause we made here, having another hour's march to reach 
Central Tura. 

The road from Eastern Tura led through vast fields of 
millet, Indian corn, holcus sorghum, maweri, or panicum, 
or bajri, as called by the Arabs ; gardens of sweet potatoes, 
large tracts of cucumbers, water-melons, mush-melons, 
and pea-nuts which grew in the deep furrows between the 
ridges of the holcus. 


Some broad-leafed plantain plants were also se^n in the 
neighbourhood of the villages, which as we advanced 
became very numerous. The villages of the Wakimbu 
are like those of the Wagogo, square, flat-roofed, enclosing 
an open area, which is sometimes divided into three or 
four parts by fences or matama stalks. 

At central Tura, where we encamped, we had evidence 
enough of the rascality of the Wakimbu of Tura. Hamed, 
who, despite his efforts to reach Unyanyembe in time to 
sell his cloths before other Arabs came with cloth supplies, 
was unable to compel his pagazis to the double march 
every day, was also encamped at Central Tura, together 
with the Arab servants who preferred Hamed's imbecile 
haste to Thani's cautious advance. Our first night in 
Unyamwezi was very exciting indeed. The Musungu's 
camp was visited by two crawling thieves, but they were 
soon made aware by the portentous click of a trigger that 
the white man's camp was well guarded. 

Hamed's camp was next visited ; but here also the 
restlessness of the owner frustrated their attempts, for 
he was pacing backwards and forwards through his camp, 
with a loaded gun in his hand ; and the thieves were 
obliged to relinquish the chance of stealing any of his 
bales. From Hamed's they proceeded to Hassan's camp 
(one of the Arab servants), where they were successful 
enough to reach and lay hold of a couple of bales ; but, 
unfortunately, they made a noise, which awoke the 
vigilant and quick-eared slave, who snatched his loaded 
musket, and in a moment had shot one of them through 
the heart. Such were our experiences of the Wakimbu 
of Tura. 

On the 18th the three caravans, Hamed's Hassan's, 


and my own, left Tura by a road which zig-zagged 
towards all points through the tall matama fields. In an 
hour's time we had passed Tura Perro, or Western Tura, 
and had entered the forest again, whence the Wakimbu 
of Tura obtain their honey, and where they excavate deep 
traps for the elephants with which the forest is said to 
abound, An hour's march from Western Tura brought 
us to a siwa, or pond. There were two, situated in the 
midst of a small open mbuga, or plain, which, even at this 
late season, was yet soft from the water which overflows 
it during the rainy season. After resting three hours, we 
started on the terekeza, or afternoon march. 

It was one and the same forest that we had entered 
soon after leaving Western Tura, that we travelled 
through until we reached the Kwala Mtoni, or, as Burton 
has misnamed it on his map, "Kwale." The water of 
this mtoni is contained in large ponds, or deep de- 
pressions in the wide and crooked gully of Kwala. In 
these ponds a species of mud-fish was found, off one of 
which I made a meal, by no means to be despised by 
one who had not tasted fish since leaving Bagamoyo. 
Probably, if I had my choice, being, when occasion de- 
mands it, rather fastidious in my tastes, I would not 
select the mud-fish. 

From Tura to the Kwala Mtoni is seventeen and a half 
miles, a distance which, however easy it may be traversed 
once a fortnight, assumes a prodigious length when one 
has to travel it almost every other day, at least, so my 
pagazis, soldiers, and followers found it, and their murmurs 
were very loud when I ordered the signal to be sounded 
on the march. Abdul Kader, the tailor who had attached 
himself to me, as a man ready-hnnded at all things, from 


mendiig a pair of pants, making a delicate entremets, ol 
shooting an elephant, but whom the interior proved to 
be the weakliest of the weakly, unfit for anything 
except eating and drinking almost succumbed on this 

Long ago the little stock of goods which Abdul had 
brought from Zanzibar folded in a pocket-handkerchief, 
and with which he was about to buy ivory and slaves, and 
make his fortune in the famed land of Unyamwezi, had 
disappeared with the great eminent hopes he had built 
on them, like those of Alnaschar the unfortunate owner of 
crockery in the Arabian tale. He came to me as we 
prepared for the march, with a most dolorous tale about 
his approaching death, which he felt in his bones, and 
weary back : his legs would barely hold him up ; in short, 
he had utterly collapsed would I take mercy on him, 
and let him depart? The cause of this extraordinary 
request, so unlike the spirit with which he had left 
Zanzibar, eager to possess the ivory and slaves of Un- 
yamwezi, was that on the last long march, two of my 
donkeys being dead, I had ordered that the two saddles 
which they had carried should be Abdul Kader's load to 
Unyanyembe. The weight of the saddles was 16 Ibs., as 
the spring balance-scale indicated, yet Abdul Kader be- 
came weary of life, as he counted the long marches that 
intervened between the mtoni and Unyanyembe. On the 
ground he fell prone, to kiss my feet, begging me in the 
name of God to permit him to depart. 

As I had had some experience of Hindoos, Malabarese, 
and coolies in Abyssinia, I knew exactly how to deal with 
a case like this. Unhesitatingly I granted the request as 
as asked t for as much tired as Abdul Kader said be 



was of life, I was with Abdul Kader's worthlessness. 
But the Hindi did not want to be left in the jungle, he 
said, but after arriving in Unyanyembe. " Oh," said I, 
" then you must reach Unyanyembe first ; in the mean- 
while you will carry those saddles there for the food 
which you must eat." 

As the march to Eubuga was eighteen and three- 
quarter miles, the pagazis walked fast and long without 

Kubuga, in the days of Burton, according to his book, 
was a prosperous district. Even when we passed, the 
evidences of wealth and prosperity which it possessed 
formerly, were plain enough in the wide extent of its 
grain fields, which stretched to the right and left of the 
Unyanyembe road for many a mile. But they were only 
evidences of what once were numerous villages, a well- 
cultivated and populous district, rich in herds of cattle 
and stores of grain. All the villages are burnt down, the 
people have been driven north three or four days from 
Eubuga, the cattle were taken by force, the grain fields 
were left standing, to be overgrown with jungle and rank 
weeds. We passed village after village that had been 
burnt, and were mere blackened heaps of charred timber 
and smoked clay ; field after field of grain ripe years ago 
was yet standing in the midst of a crop of gums and 
thorns, mimosa and kolquall. 

We arrived at the village, occupied by about sixty 
Wangwana, who have settled here to make a living by 
buying and selling ivory. Food is provided for them in 
the deserted fields of the people of Eubuga. We were 
very tired and heated from the long march, tut the 
pagazis had all arrived by 3 P.M. 


At the Wangwana village we met Amer bin Sultan, th& 
very type of an old Arab sheikh, such as we read of in 
books, with a snowy beard, and a clean reverend face, who 
was returning to Zanzibar after a ten years' residence in 
Unyanyembe. He presented me with a goat, and a goat- 
skin full of rice ; a most acceptable gift in a place where 
a goat costs five cloths. 

After a day's halt at Eubuga, during which I despatched 
soldiers to notify Sheikh Sayd bin Salim and Sheikh bin 
Nasib, the two chief dignitaries of Unyanyembe, of my 
coming, on the 21st of June we resumed the march foi 
Kigwa, distant five hours. The road ran through 
another forest similar to that which separated Tura from 
Bubuga, the country rapidly sloping as we proceeded 
westward. Kigwa we found to have been visited by 
the same vengeance which rendered Eubuga such a 

The next day, after a three and a half hours' rapid 
march, we crossed the mtoni which was no mtoni 
separating Kigwa from Unyanyembe district, and after a 
short halt to quench our thirst, in three and a half hours 
more arrived at Shiza. It was a most delightful march, 
though a long one, for its picturesqueness of scenery 
which every few minutes was revealed, and the proofs we 
everywhere saw of the peaceable and industrious disposi- 
tion of the people. A short half hour from Shiza we 
beheld the undulating plain wherein the Arabs have 
chosen to situate the central depot which commands such 
a wide and extensive field of trade. The lowing of cattle 
and the bleating of the goats and sheep were everywhere 
heard, giving the country a happy, pastoral aspect. 

The Sultan of Shiza desired mo to celebrate my arrival 


in thiyanyerabe, with a five-gallon jar of pombe, which he 
brought for that purpose. 

As the pombe was but stale ale in taste, and milk and 
water in color, after drinking a small glassful I passed it 
to the delighted soldiers and pagazis. At my request the 
Sultan brought a fine fat bullock, for which he accept 
four and a half doti of Merikani. The bullock was 
immediately slaughtered and served out to the caravan as 
a farewell feast. 

No one slept much that night, and long before the 
dawn the fires were lit, and great steaks were broiling, 
that their stomachs might rejoice before parting with the 
Musuugu, whose bounty they had so often tasted. Six 
rounds of powder were served to each soldier and pagazi 
who owned a gun, to fire away when we should be near 
the Arab houses. The meanest pagazi had his best cloth 
about his loins, and some were exceedingly brave in 
gorgeous Ulyah " Coombeesa Poonga " and crimson 
" Jawah," the glossy " Behani," and the neat " Dabwani." 
The soldiers were mustered in new tarbooshes, and the long 
white shirts of the Mrima and the Island. For this was 
the great and happy day which had been on our tongues 
ever since quitting the coast, for which we had made 
those noted marches latterly one hundred and seventy- 
eight and a half miles in sixteen days, including pauses 
something over eleven miles a lay ! 

The signal sounded and the caravan was joyfully off 
with banners flying, and trumpets and horns blaring. A 
short two and a half hours' march brought us within sight 
of Kwikuru, which is about two miles south of Tabora, the 
main Arab town ; on the outside of which we saw a long 
line of men in clean shirts, whereat we opened our 
charged batteries, and fired a volley of small arms such 


as Kwikuru seldom heard before. The pagazis closed up 
and adopted the swagger of veterans : the soldiers blazed 
away uninterruptedly, while I, seeing that the Arabs were 
advancing towards me, left the ranks, and held out my 
hand, which was immediately grasped by Sheikh Sayd bin 
Salim, and then by about two dozen people, and thus our 
ntree into TJnyanyembe was effected. 




I RECEIVED a, noiseless ovation as I walked side by side 
with the governor, Sayd bin Salim, towards his tembe in 
Kwikuru, or the capital. The Wanyamwezi pagazis were 
out by hundreds, the warriors of Mkasiwa, the sultan, 
hovered around their chief, the children were seen between 
the legs of their parents, even infants, a few months old, 
slung over their mothers' backs, all paid the tribute due 
to my color, with one grand concentrated stare. The 
only persons who talked with me were the Arabs, and 
aged Mkasiwa, ruler of Unyanyembe. 


Sayd bin Saliin's house was at the north-western corner 
of the inclosure, a stockaded boma of Kwikuru. We had 
tea made in a silver tea-pot, and a bountiful supply of 
" dampers " were smoking under a silver cover ; and to 
this repast I was invited. When a man has walked eight 
miles or so without any breakfast, and a hot tropical sun 
has been shining on him for three or four hours, he is apt 
to do justice to a meal, especially if his appetite is 
healthy. I think I astonished the governor by the 
dexterous way in which I managed to consume eleven 
cups of his aromatic concoction of an Assam herb, and 
the easy effortless style with which I demolished his high 
tower of " slap-jacks," that but a minute or so smoked 
hotly under their silver cover. 

For the meal, I thanked the Sheikh, as only an earnest 
and sincerely hungry man, now satisfied, could thank 
him. Even if I had not spoken, my gratified looks had 
well informed him, under what obligations I had been 
laid to him. 

Out came my pipe and tobacco-pouch. 

" My friendly Sheikh, wilt thou smoke ? " 

" No, thanks ! Arabs never smoke." 

" Oh, if you don't, perhaps you would not object to me 
smoking, in order to assist digestion ? " 

"Ngema good go on, master." Then began the 
questions, the gossipy, curious, serious, light questions : 

" How came the master ? " 

" By the Mpwapwa road." 

" It is good. Was the Makata bad ? 

" Very bad." 

" What news from Zanzibar ? " 

" Good ; Syed Toorkee has possession of Muscat, and 
Azim bin Ghis was slain in the streets." 


" Is this true, Wallahi ? " (by God.) 

" It is true." 

" Heh-heh-h ! This is news ! " stroking his beard. 

" Have you heard, master, of Suleiman bin Ali ? " 

" Yes, the Bombay governor sent him to Zanzibar, in a 
man-of-war, and Suleiman bin Ali now lies in the gurayza 

" Heh, that is very good." 

" Did you have to pay much tribute to the Wagogo ? " 

" Eight times ; Hamed Kimiani wished me to go by 
Kiwyeh, but I declined, and struck through the forest to 
Munieka. Hamed and Thani thought it better to follow 
me, than brave Kiwyeh by themselves." 

" Where is that Hajji Abdullah (Captain Burton) that 
came here, and Spiki ? " (Speke.) 

"Hajji Abdullah! What Hajji Abdullah? Ah! 
Sheikh Burton we call him. Oh, he is a great man 
now ; a balyuz (a consul) at El Scham " (Damascus.) 

" Heh-heh ; balyuz ! Heh, at El Schain ! Is not that 
near Betlem el Kuds ? " (Jerusalem.) 

" Yes, about four days. Spiki is dead. He shot him 
self by accident." 

" Ah, ah, Wallah (by God), but this is bad news. Spiki 
dead ? Mash- Allah ! Ough, he was a good man a good 
man ! Dead ! " 

"But where is this Kazeh, Sheikh Sayd?" 

" Kazeh ? Kazeh ? I never heard the name before." 

"But you were with Burton, and Speke, at Kazeh; 
you lived there several months, when you were all 
stopping in Unyanyernbe ; it must be close here some- 
where Where did Hajji Abdullah and Spiki live when 
they were in Unyanyembe ? Was it not in Musa Mzuri's 
house ? " 


" That was in Tabora." 

" Well, then, where is Kazeh ? I have never seen the 
man yet who could tell me where that place is, and yet 
the three white men have that word down, as the name of 
the place they lived at when you were with them. You 
must know where it is." 

"Wallahi, bana, I never heard the name; but stop, 
Kazeh, in Kinyamwezi, means 'kingdom.' Perhaps they 
gave that name to the place they stopped at. But then, 
I used to call the first house Sny bin Arner's house, and 
Speke lived at Musa Mzuri's house, but both houses, as 
well as all the rest, are in Tabora." 

" Thank you, sheikh. I should like to go and look 
after my people ; they must all bo wanting food." 

" I shall go with you to show you your house. The 
tembe is in Kwihara, only an hour's walk from Tabora." 

On leaving Kwikuru we crossed a low ridge, and soon 
saw Kwihara lying between two low ranges of hills, the 
northernmost of which was terminated westward by the 
round fortress-like hill of Zimbili. There was a cold 
glare of intense sunshine over the valley, probably the 
effect of an universal bleakness or an autumnal ripeness 
of the grass, unrelieved by any depth of color to vary the 
universal sameness. The hills were bleached, or seemed 
to be, under that dazzling sunshine, and clearest atmo- 
sphere. The corn had long been cut, and there lay the 
stubble, and fields, a browny-white expanse ; the houses 
were of mud, and their flat roofs were of mud, and the 
mud was of a browny- whiteness ; the huts were thatched, 
and the stockades around them of barked timber, and 
these were of a browny whiteness. The cold, fierce, 
sickly wind from the mountains of Usagara sent a deadly 
>bill to our very marrows, yet the intense sunshiny glarp 


never changed, a black cow or two, or a tall tree here and 
there, caught the eye for a moment, but they never made 
one forget that the first impression of Kwihara was as of 
a picture without color, or of food without taste ; and ii 
one looked up, there was a sky of a pale blue, spotless, and 
of an awful serenity. 

As I approached the tembe of Sayd bin Salim, Sheikh 
bin Nasib and other great Arabs joined us. Before the 
great door of the tembe the men had stacked the bales, 
and piled the boxes, and were using their tongues at a 
furious rate, relating to the chiefs and soldiers of the 
first, second, and fourth caravans the many events which 
had befallen them, and which seemed to them the only 
things worth relating. Outside of their own limited 
circles they evidently cared for nothing. Then the 
several chiefs of the other caravans had in turn to relate 
their experiences of the road ; and the noise of tongues 
was loud and furious. But as we approached, all this 
loud-sounding gabble ceased, and my caravan chiefs and 
guides rushed to me to hail me as " master," and to salute 
me as their friend. One fellow, faithful Baruti, threw 
himself at my feet, the others fired their guns and acted 
like madmen suddenly become frenzied, and a general cry 
of " welcome " was heard on all sides. 

" Walk in, master, this is your house, now ; here are 
your men's quarters ; here you will receive the great 
Arabs, here is the cook-house ; here is the store-house ; 
here is the prison for the refractory ; here are your white 
man's apartments ; and these are your own : see, here is 
the bedroom, here is the gun-room, bath-room, &c. ; " so 
Sheikh Sayd talked, as he showed me the several places. 

On tny honor, it was a most comfortable place, this, in 
Central Africa. One could almost wax poetic, but we wijj 


keep such ambitious ideas for a future day. Just now, 
however, we must have the goods stored, and the little 
army of carriers paid off and disbanded. 

Bombay was ordered to unlock the strong store-room, to 
pile the bales in regular tiers, the beads in rows one above 
another, and the wire in a separate place. The boats, 
canvas, &c., were to be placed high above reach of white 
ants, and the boxes of ammunition and powder kegs were 
to be stored in the gun-room, out of reach of danger. 
Then a bale of cloth was opened, and each carrier was 
rewarded according to his merits, that each of them might 
proceed home to his frieuds and neighbours, and tell them 
how much better the white man behaved than the Arabs. 

The reports of the leaders of the first, second, and 
fourth caravans were then received, their separate stores 
inspected, and the details and events of their marches 
heard. The first caravan had been engaged in a war at 
Kirurumo, and had come out of the fight successful, and 
had reached Unyanyembe without loss of anything. The 
second had shot a thief in the forest between Pembera 
Pereh and Kididimo ; the fourth had lost a bale in the 
jungle of Marenga Mkali, and the porter who carried it 
had received a " very sore head " from a knob stick 
wielded by one of the thieves, who prowl about the 
jungle near the frontier of Ugogo. I was delighted to 
find that their misfortunes were no more, and each leader 
was then and there rewarded with one handsome cloth, 
and five doti of Merikani. 

Just as I began to feel hungry again, came several 
slaves in succession, bearing trays full of good things 
from the Arabs ; first an enormous dish of rice, with a 
bowlful of curried chicken, another with a dozen huge 
cakes, another with a plateful of smoking hot 


crullers, another with papaws, another with pomegranates 
and lemons; after these came men driving five fat hump- 
backed oxen, eight sheep, and ten goats, and another man 
came with a dozen chickens, and a dozen fresh eggs. This 
was real, practical, noble courtesy, munificent hospitality, 
which quite took my gratitude by storm. 

My people, now reduced to twenty-five, were as 
delighted at the prodigal plenitude visible on my tables 
and in my yard, as I was myself. And as I saw their 
eyes light up at the unctuous anticipations presented to 
them hy their riotous fancies, I ordered a bullock to be 
slaughtered and distributed. 

The second day of the arrival of the Expedition in the 
country which I now looked upon as classic ground, since 
Capts. Burton, Speke, and Grant years ago had visited 
it, and described it, came the Arab magnates from Tabora 
to congratulate me. 

Tabora* is the principal Arab settlement in Central 
Africa. It contains over a thousand huts and tembes, and 
one may safely estimate the population, Arabs, Wangwana, 
and natives, at five thousand people. Between Tabora 
and the next settlement, Kwihara, rise two rugged hill 
ridges, separated from each other by a low saddle, over the 
top of which Tabora is always visible from Kwihara. 

They were a fine, handsome body of men, these Arabs. 
They mostly hailed from Oman : others were Wasawahili ; 
and each of my visitors had quite a retinue with him. At 
Tabora they live quite luxuriously. The plain on which 
the settlement is situated is exceedingly fertile, though 
naked of trees ; the rich pasturage it furnishes permits 
them to keep large herds of cattle and goats, from which 
they have an ample supply of milk, cream, butter, and 
* There is no such recognised place as Kazch. 



ghee. Kice is grown everywhere ; sweet potatoes, yams 
inuhogo, holcus sorghum, maize, or Indian corn, sesame, 
millet, field-peas, or vetches, called choroko, are cheap, 
and always procurable. Around their tembes the Arabs 
cultivate a little wheat for their own purposes, and have 
planted orange, lemon, papaw, and mangoes, which thrive 
here fairly well. Onions and garlic, chilies, cucumbers, 
tomatoes, and brinjalls, may be procured by the white 
visitor from the more important Arabs, who are undoubted 
epicureans in their way. Their slaves convey to them 
from the coast, once a year at least, their stores of tea, 
coffee, sugar, spices, jellies, curries, wine, brandy, biscuits, 
sardines, salmon, and such fine cloths and articles as they 
require for their own personal use. Almost every Arab 
of any eminence is able to show a wealth of Persian 
carpets, and most luxurious bedding, complete tea and 
coffee-services, and magnificently carved dishes of tinned 
copper and brass lavers. Several of them sport gold 
watches and chains, mostly all a watch and chain of some 
kind. And, as in Persia, Afghanistan, and Turkey, the 
harems form an essential feature of every Arab's house- 
hold ; the sensualism of the Mohammedans is as prominent 
here as in the Orient. 

The Arabs who now stood before the front door of my 
tembe were the donors of the good things received the 
day before. As in duty bound, of course, I greeted 
Sheikh Sayd first, then Sheikh bin Nasib, his Highness 
of Zanzibar's consul at Karagwa, then I greeted the 
noblest Trojan amongst the Arab population, noblest in 
bearing, noblest in courage and manly worth Sheikh 
Khamis bin Abdullah; then young Amram bin Mussoud, 
who is now making war on the king of Urori and hie 
fractious people; then handsome, courageous Soud, the 


son of Sayd bin Majid; then dandified Thaai bin 
Abdullah; then Mussoud bin Abdullah and his cousin 
Abdullah bin Mussoud, who own the houses where formerly 
lived Burton and Speke; then old Suliman Dowa, Sayd 
bin Sayf, and the old Hetman of Tabora Sheikh Sultan 
bin Ali. 

As the visit of these magnates, under whose loving 
protection white travellers must needs submit themselves, 
was only a formal one, such as Arab etiquette, ever of 
the stateliest and truest, impelled them to, it is un- 
necessary to relate the discourse on my health, and their 
wealth, my thanks, and their professions of loyalty, and 
attachment to me. After having expended our mutual 
stock of congratulations and nonsense, they departed, 
having stated their wish that I should visit them at 
Tabora and partake of a feast which they were about to 
prepare for me. 

Three days afterwards I sallied out of my tembe, 
escorted by eighteen bravely dressed men of my escort, 
to pay Tabora a visit. On surmounting the saddle over 
which the road from the valley of Kwihara leads to 
Tabora, the plain on which the Arab settlement is 
situated lay before us, one expanse of dun pasture land, 
stretching from the base of the hill on our left as far as the 
banks of the northern Gombe, which a few miles beyond 
Tabora heave into purple- coloured hills and blue cones. 

Within three-quarters of an hour we were seated on 
the mud veranda of the tembe of Sultan bin Ali, who, 
because of his age, his wealth, and position being a 
solonel in Seyd Burghash's unlovely army is looked 
upon by his countrymen, high and low, as referee and 
counsellor. His boma or enclosure contains quite a 
Tillage of hive-shaped huts and square tembes. From 


here, after being presented with a cup of Mocha coffee, 
and some sherbet, we directed our steps towards Khamis 
bin Abdullah's house, who had, in anticipation of my 
coming, prepared a feast to which he had invited his 
friends and neighbours. The group of stately Arabs in 
their long white dresses, and jaunty caps, also of a 
snowy white, who stood ready to welcome me to Tabora, 
produced quite an effect on my mind. I was in time for 
a council of war they were holding and I was requested 
to attend. 

Khamis bin Abdullah, a bold and brave man, ever 
ready to stand up for the privileges of the Arabs, and 
their rights to pass through any countries for legitimate 
trade, is the man who, in Speke's ' Journal of the 
Discovery of the Source of the Nile/ is reported to 
have shot Maula, an old chief who sided with Manwa 
Sera during the wars of 1860; and who subsequently, 
after chasing his relentless enemy for five years through 
Ugogo and Unyamwezi as far as Ukonongo, had the satis- 
faction of beheading him, was now urging the Arabs 
to assert their rights against a chief called Mirambo of 
Uyoweh, in a crisis which was advancing. 

This Mirambo of Uyoweh, it seems, had for the last 
few years been in a state of chronic discontent with the 
policies of the neighbouring chiefs. Formerly a pagazi 
for an Arab, he had now assumed regal power, with the 
usual knack of unconscionable rascals who care not by 
what means they step into power. When the chief of 
Uyoweh died, Mirambo, who was head of a gang of 
robbers infesting the forests of Wilyankuru, suddenly 
entered Uyoweh, and constituted himself lord paramount 
by force. Some feats of enterprise, which he performed 
to the enrichment of all those who recognised his 

M* LlftlS ANt> TfcOtJBLES IK tmANYfcMBE. 197 

authority, established him firmly in his position. This 
was but a beginning ; he carried war through Ugara to 
Ukonongo, through Usagozi to the borders of Uvinza, 
and after destroying the populations over three degrees 
of latitude, he conceived a grievance against Mkasiwa, 
and against the Arabs, because they would not sustain 
him in his ambitious projects against their ally and 
friend, with whom they were living in peace. 

The first outrage which this audacious man committed 
against the Arabs was the halting of an Ujiji-bound 
caravan, and the demand for five kegs of gunpowder, 
five guns, and five bales of cloth. This extraordinary 
demand, after expending more than a day in fierce 
controversy, was paid ; but the Arabs, if they were 
surprised at the exorbitant black-mail demanded of them, 
were more than ever surprised when they were told to 
return the way they came ; and that no Arab caravan 
should pass through his country to Ujiji except over his 
dead body. 

On the return of the unfortunate Arabs to Unya- 
nyembe, they reported the facts to Sheikh Sayd bin Salim, 
the governor of the Arab colony. This old man, being 
averse to war, of course tried every means to induce 
Mirambo as of old to be satisfied with presents ; but 
Mirambo this time was obdurate, and sternly determined 
on war unless the Arabs aided him in the warfare he 
was about to wage against old Mkasiwa, sultan of the 
Wanyamwezi of Unyanyembe. 

"This is the status of affairs," said Khamis bin Ab- 
dullah. " Mirambo says : that for years he has been 
engaged in war against the neighbouring Washensi and 
has come out of it victorious ; he says this is a greai 
year with him ; that he is going tc fight the Arabs, an'f 



the Wanyamwezi of Unyanyembe, and that he shall 
not stop until every Arab is driven from Unyanyembe, 
and he rules over this country in place of Mkasiwa. 
Children of Oman, shall it be so? Speak, Salim, son 
of Sayf, shall we go to meet this Mshensi (pagan) or 
shall we return to our island ?" 

A murmur of approbation followed the speech of 
Khamis bin Abdullah, the majority of those present 
being young men eager to punish the audacious Mirambo. 
Salim, the son of Sayf, an old patriarch, slow of speech, 
tried to appease the passions of the young men, scions 
of the aristocracy of Muscat and Muttrah, and Bedaweens 
of the Desert, but Khamis's bold words had made too 
deep an impression on their minds. 

Soud, the handsome Arab whom I have noticed already 
as the son of Sayd the son of Majid, spoke : " My father 
used to tell me that he remembered the days when the 
Arabs could go through the country from Bagamoyo to 
Ujiji, and from Kilwa to Lunda, and from Usenga to 
Uganda armed with canes. Those days are gone by. 
We have stood the insolence of the Wagogo long enough. 
Swaruru of Usui just takes from us whatever he wants ; 
and now, here is Mirambo, who says, after taking more 
than five bales of cloth as tribute from one man, that no 
Arab caravan shall go to Ujiji, but over his body. Are 
we prepared to give up the ivory of Ujiji, of Urundi, of 
Karagwah, of Uganda, because of this one man ? I say 
war war until we have got his beard under our feet 
war until the whole of Uyoweh and Wilyankuru is 
destroyed war until we can again travel through any 
part of the cointry with only our walking canes in our 
hands !" 

The universal assent that followed Soud's speech proved 


beyond a doubt that we were about to bave a war. 1 
thought of Livingstone. What if he were marching to 
Unyanyembe directly into the war country ? 

Having found from the Arabs that they intended to 
finish the war quickly at most within fifteen days, as 
Uyoweh was only four marches distant I volunteered 
to accompany them, take my loaded caravan with me as 
far as Mfuto, and there leave it in charge of a few guards, 
and with the rest march on with the Arab army. And 
my hope was, that it might be possible, after the defeat 
of Mirambo, and his forest banditti the Euga-Euga to 
take my Expedition direct to Ujiji by the road now 
closed. The Arabs were sanguine of victory, and I 
partook of their enthusiasm. 

The council of war broke up. A great dishful of rice 
and curry, in which almonds, citron, raisins, and currants 
were plentifully mixed, was brought in, and it was 
wonderful how soon we forgot our warlike fervor after 
our attention had been drawn to this royal dish. I, of 
course, not being a Mohammedan, had a dish of my own, 
of a similar composition, strengthened by platters con- 
taining roast chicken, and kabobs, crullers, cakes, sweet- 
bread, fruit, glasses of sherbet and lemonade, dishes of 
gum -drops and Muscat sweetmeats, dry raisins, prunes, 
and nuts. Certainly Khamis bin Abdullah proved to me 
that if he had a warlike soul in him, he could also attend 
to the cultivated tastes acquired under the shade of the 
mangoes on his father's estates in Zanzibar the island. 

After gorging ourselves on these uncommon dainties 
some of the chief Arabs escorted me to other tembes 
of Tabora. When we went to visit Mussoud bin Ab- 
dullah, he showed me the very ground where Burton 
and Speke's house stood now pulled down and replaced 


by his office Sny bin Amer's house was also torn down, 
and the fashionable tembe oi Unyanyembe, now in vogue, 
built over it, finely-carved rafters hugh carved doors, 
brass knockers, and lofty airy rooms a house built for 
defence and comfort. 

The finest house in Unyanyembe belongs to Amram 
bin Mussoud, who paid sixty frasilah of ivory over 
$3,000 for it. Very fair houses can be purchased for 
from twenty to thirty frasiluh of ivory. Amram's house 
is called the "Two Seas " " Baherein." It is one 
hundred feet in length, and twenty feet high, with walls 
four feet thick, neatly plastered over with mud mortar. 
The great door is a marvel of carving-work for Unya- 
nyembe artisans. Each rafter within is also carved with 
fine designs. Before the front of the house is a young 
plantation of pomegranate trees, which flourish here as 
if they were indigenous to the soil. A shadoof, such as 
may be seen on the Nile, serves to draw water to irrigate 
the gardens. 

Towards evening we walked back to our own finely 
situated tembe in Kwihara, well satisfied with what we 
had seen at Tabora. My men drove a couple of oxen, 
and carried three sacks of native rice a most superior 
kind the day's presents of hospitality from Khamis bin 

In Unyanyembe I found the Livingstone caravan, 
which started off in a fright from Bagamoyo upon the 
rumour that the English Consul was coming. As all 
the caravans were now halted at Unyanyembe because of 
the now approaching war, I suggested to Sayd bin Salim, 
that it were better that the men of the Livingstone caravan 
should live with mine in my ternbe, that I might watch 
rver the white man's goods. Sayd bin Salim agreed 


with me, and the men and goods were at once brought to 
my tembe. 

One day Asmani, who was now chief of Livingstone's 
caravan, the other having died of small-pox, two or three 
days before, brought out a tent to the veranda where I 
was sitting writing, and shewed me a packet of letters, 
which to my surprise was marked : 

" To Dr. Livingstone, 

" November 1st, 1870. 

" Kegistered letters." 

From November 1st, 1870, to February 10, 1871, just 
one hundred days, at Bagamoyo ! A miserable small 
caravan of thirty-three men halting one hundred days at 
Bagamoyo, only twenty-five miles by water from Zanzibar! 
Poor Livingstone ! Who knows but he may be suffering 
for want of these very supplies that were detained so 
long near the sea. The caravan arrived in Unyanyembe 
some time about the middle of May. About the latter 
part of May the first disturbances took place. Had this 
caravan arrived here in the middle of March, or even the 
middle of April, they might have travelled on to Ujiji 
without trouble. 

On the 7th of July, about 2 P.M., I was sitting on the 
burzani as usual ; I felt listless and languid, and a drowsi- 
ness came over me ; I did not fall asleep, but the power 
of my limbs seemed to fail me. Yet the brain was busy ; 
all my life seemed passing in review before me ; when 
these retrospective scenes became serious, I looked serious ; 
when they were sorrowful, I wept hysterically ; when 
they were joyous, I laughed loudly. Keminisceiices oi 


yet a young life's battles and hard struggles caine surging 
into the mind in quick succession : events of boyhood, of 
youth, and manhood; perils, travels, -scenes, joys, and 
sorrows; loves and hates; friendships and indifferences 
My mind followed the various and rapid transition of my 
life's passages ; it drew the lengthy, erratic, sinuous line? 
of travel my footsteps had passed over. If I had drawn 
them on the sandy floor, what enigmatical problems they 
had been to those around me, and what plain, readable, 
intelligent histories they had been to me ! 

The loveliest feature of all to me was the form of a 
noble, and true man, who called me son. Of my life in 
the great pine forests of Arkansas, and in Missouri, I 
retained the most vivid impressions. The dreaming days 
I passed under the sighing pines on the Ouachita's shores ; 
the new clearing, the block-house, our faithful black 
servant, the forest deer, and the exuberant life I led, were 
all well remembered. And I remembered how one day, 
after we had come to live near the Mississipi, I floated 
down, down, hundreds of miles, with a wild fraternity of 
knurly giants, the boatmen of the Mississipi, and how a 
lear old man welcomed me back, as if from the grave. I 
r'em ember ed also my travels on foot through sunny Spain, 
and France, with numberless adventures in Asia Minor, 
among Kurdish nomads. I remembered the battle-fields 
of America and the stormy scenes of rampant war. I re- 
membered gold mines, and broad prairies, Indian councils, 
and much experience in the new western lands. I re- 
membered the shock it gave me to hear after my return 
from a barbarous country of the calamity that had over- 
taken the fond man whom I called father, and the hot 
fitful life that followed it. Stop ! ****** 

Dear me ; is it the 21st of July? Yes, Shaw informed 


me that it was the 21st of July after I recovered from my 
terrible attack of fever ; the true date was the 14th of 
July, hut I was not aware that I had jumped a week, until 
I met Dr. Livingstone. We two together examined the 
' Nautical Almanack,' which I brought with me. We 
found that the Doctor was three weeks out of his reckon- 
ing, and to my great surprise I was also one week out, or 
one week ahead of the actual date. The mistake was 
made by my being informed that I had been two weeks 
sick, and as the day I recovered my senses was Friday, 
and Shaw and the people were morally sure that I was in 
bed two weeks, I dated it on my Diary the 21st of July. 
However, on the tenth day after the first of my illness, I 
was in excellent trim again, only, however, to see and 
attend to Shaw, who was in turn taken sick. By the 
22nd July Shaw was recovered, then Selim was prostrated, 
and groaned in his delirium for four days, but by the 28tk 
we were all recovered, and were beginning to brighten ur 
at the prospect of a diversion in the shape of a marct 
upon Mirambo's stronghold. 

The morning of the 29th I had fifty men loaded with 
bales, beads, and wire, for Ujiji. When they were 
mustered for the march outside the tembe, the only man 
absent was Bombay. While men were sent to search for 
him, others departed to get one more look, and one more 
embrace with their black Delilahs. Bombay was found 
some time about 2 P.M., his face faithfully depicting the 
contending passions under which he was labouring- 
sorrow at parting from the fleshpots of Unyanyembe 
regret at parting from his Dulcinea of Tabora to be 
bereft of all enjoyment now, nothing but marches hard, 
long marches to go to the war to be killed, perhaps. 
Oh ! Inspired by such feelings, no wonder Bombay was 

204 SOW I 

inclined to be pugnacious when I ordered him to his 
place, and I was in a shocking bad temper for having been 
kept waiting from 8 A.M. to 2 P.M. for him. There was 
simply a word and a savage look, and my cane was flying 
around Bombay's shoulders, as if he were to be annihilated. 
I fancy that the eager fury of my onslaught broke his 
stubbornness more than anything else ; for before I had 
struck him a dozen times he was crying for " pardon." 
At that word I ceased belaboring him, for this was the 
first time he had ever uttered that word. Bombay was 
conquered at last. 

" March ! " and the guide led off, followed in solemn 
order by forty-nine of his fellows, every man carrying a 
heavy load of African moneys, besides his gun, hatchet, 
and stock of ammunition, and his ugali-pot. We pre- 
sented quite an imposing sight while thus marching on in 
silence and order, with our flags flying, and the red 
blanket robes of the men streaming behind them as the 
furious north-easter blew right on our flank. 

The men seemed to feel they were worth seeing, for I 
noticed that several assumed a more martial tread as they 
felt their royal Joho cloth tugging at their necks, as it 
was swept streaming behind by the wind. Maganga, a 
tall Mnyamwezi, stalked along like a very Goliah about to 
give battle alone, to Mirambo and his thousand warriors. 
Frisky Khamisi paced on under his load, imitating a lion : 
and there was the rude jester the incorrigible Ulimengo 
with a stealthy pace like a cat. But their silence could 
not last long. Their vanity was so much gratified, the 
red cloaks danced so incessantly before their eyes, that it 
would have been a wonder if they could have maintained 
auch serious gravity or discontent one half hour longer. 

Ulimengo was the first ~vho broke it. He had oou- 


etituted himself the kirangozi or guide, and was the 
standard-hearer, hearing the American flag, which the men 
thought would certainly strike terror into the hearts of 
the enemy. Growing confident first, then valorous, then 
exultant, he suddenly faced the army he was leading, and 


"Hoy! Hoy! 
Chorus. Hoy ! Hoy ! 

Hoy ! Hoy ! 
Chorus. Hoy ! Hoy ! 

Hoy ! Hoy ! 
Chorus. Hoy ! Hoy ! 

Where are ye going ? 
Chorus. Going to war. 

Against whom ? 
Chorus. Against Mirambo. 

Who is your master ? 
Chorus. The White Man. 

Ough ! Ough ! 
Chorus. Ough ! Ough ! 

Hyah ! Hyah ! 
Chorus. Hyah . Hyah!" 

This was the ridiculous song they kept up all day 
without intermission. 

We camped the first day at Bomhoma's village, situated 
a mile to the south-west of the natural hill fortress of 
Zimhili. Bomhay was quite recovered from his thrashing, 
and had hanished the sullen thoughts that had aroused 
my ire, and the men having hehaved themselves so well, a 
five-gallon pot of pomhe was hrought to further nourish 
the valour, which they one and all thought they possessed. 

The second day we arrived at Masangi. I was visited 
soon afterwards by Soud, the son of Sayd bin Majid, who 
told me tke Arabs were waiting for me ; that they would 
aot march from Mfuto until I had arrived. 


Eastern Mfuto, after a six hours' march, was reached on 
the third day from Unyanyembe. Shaw gave in, laid 
down in the road, and declared he was dying. This news 
was brought to me about 4 P.M. by one of the last strag- 
glers. I was bound to despatch men to carry him to me, 
into my camp, though every man was well tired after the 
long march. A reward stimulated half-a-dozen to venture 
into the forest just at dusk to find Shaw, who was supposed 
to be at least three hours away from camp. 

About two o'clock in the morning my men returned, 
having carried Shaw on their backs the entire distance. I 
was roused up, and had him conveyed to my tent. I 
examined him, and I assured myself he was not suffering 
from fever of any kind ; and in reply to my inquiries as 
to how he felt, he said he could neither walk nor ride, 
that he felt such extreme weakness and lassitude that he 
was incapable of moving further. After administering a 
glass of port wine to him in a bowlful of sago gruel, we 
both fell asleep. 

We arrived early the following morning at Mfuto, the 
rendezvous of the Arab army. A halt was ordered the 
next day, in order to make ourselves strong by eating the 
boeves, which we freely slaughtered. 

The personnel of our army \va as follows : 

Sheikh Sayd bin Sftlim 25 half caste 

Khainis bin Abdullah 250 slaves 

Thani bin Abdullah 80 

,, Mussoud bin Abdullah .... 75 

Abdullah bin Mussoud .... 80 

Ali bin Sayd bin Nasib .... 250 , 

Nasir bin Mussoud 50 

Ilamed Kirniami 70 

Sheikh Hamdam 30 

Sayd bin Habib ... . . 50 


Sheikh Salim bin Sayf 100 slaves 

Sunguru . . 25 

Sarboko 25 

Soud bin Sayd bin Majid .... 50 

Mohammed bin Mussoud .... 30 

Sayd bin Earned 90 

The 'Herald' Expedition . . . . 50 soldiers 

Mkasiwa's Wanyamwezi .... 800 

Half-castes and Waugwana . . . 125 

Independent chiefs and their followers 300 

These made a total of 2,255, according to numbers given 
me by Thani bin Abdullah, and corroborated by a Baluch 
in the pay of Sheikh bin Nasib. Of these men 1,500 
were armed with guns flint-lock muskets, German 
and French double-barrels, some English Enfields, and 
American Springfields besides these muskets, they were 
mostly armed with spears and long knives for the pur- 
pose of decapitating, and inflicting vengeful gashes in 
the dead bodies. Powder and ball were plentiful : some 
men were served a hundred rounds each, my people 
received each man sixty rounds. 

As we filed out of the stronghold of Mfuto, with 
waving banners denoting the various commanders, with 
booming horns, and the roar of fifty bass drums, called 
gomas with blessings showered on us by the mollahs, 
and happiest predications from the soothsayers, astro- 
logers, and the diviners of the Koran who could have 
foretold that this grand force, before a week passed over 
its head, would be hurrying into that same strong- 
hold of Mfuto, with each man's heart in his mouth from 

The date of our leaving Mfuto for battle with Mirambo 
was the 3rd of August. All my goods were stored in 
Mfuto, ready for the march to Ujiji, should we h 


victorious over the African chiei, but at least for safety, 
whatever befel us. 

Long before we reached Umanda, I was in my hammock 
in the paroxysms of a fierce attack of intermittent fever, 
which did not leave me until lato that night. 

At Umanda, six hours from Mfuto, our warriors be- 
daubed themselves with the medicine which the wise men 
had manufactured for them a compound of rnatama flour 
mixed with the juices of a herb whose virtues were only 
known to the Waganga of the Wanyamwezi. 

At 6 A.M. on the 4th of August we were once more 
prepared for the road, but before we were marched out 
of the village, the " manneno," or speech, was delivered by 
the orator of the Wanyamwezi : 

" Words ! words ! words ! Listen, sons of Mkasiwa, 
children of Unyamwezi ! the journey is before you, the 
thieves of the forest are waiting; yes, they are thieves, 
they cut up your caravans, they steal your ivory, they 
murder your women. Behold, the Arabs are with you, 
El Wali of the Arab sultan, and the white man are with 
you. Go, the son of Mkasiwa is with you ; fight, kill, take 
slaves, take cloth, take cattle, kill, eat, and fill yourselves ! 

A loud, wild shout followed this bold harangue, the 
gates of the village were thrown open, and blue, red, and 
white-robed soldiers were bounding upward like so many 
gymnasts, firing their guns incessantly, in order to 
encourage themselves with noise, or to strike terror into 
the hearts of those who awaited us within the strong 
enclosure of Zimbizo, Sultan Kolongo's place. 

As Zirnbizo was distant only five hours from Umanda, 
at 11 A.M. we came in view of it. We halted on tb verge 
of the Cultivated area around it and its neighbour* 


within the shadow of the forest. Strict orders had been 
given by the several chiefs to their respective commands 
not to fire, until they were within shooting distance of 
the boma. 

Khamis bin Abdullah crept through the forest to the 
west of the village. The Wanyamwezi took their position 
before the main gateway, aided by the forces of Soud the 
son of Sayd on the right, and the son of Habib on the 
left, Abdullah, Mussoud, myself, and others made ready 
to attack the eastern gates, which arrangement effectually 
shut them in, with the exception of the northern side. 

Suddenly, a volley opened on us, as we emerged from 
the forest along the Unyanyembe road, in the direction 
they had been anticipating the sight of an enemy, and 
immediately the attacking forces began their firing in 
most splendid style. There were some ludicrous scenes 
of men pretending to fire, then jumping off to one side, 
then forward, then backward, with the agility of hopping 
frogs, but the battle was none the less in earnest. The 
breech-loaders of my men swallowed my metallic cartridges 
much faster than I liked to see ; but happily there was a 
lull in the firing, and we were rushing into the village 
from the west, the south, the north, through the gates 
and over the tall palings that surrounded the village, like 
so many Merry Andrews ; and the poor villagers were 
flying from the enclosure towards the mountains, through 
the northern gate, pursued by the fleetest runners of our 
force, and pelted in the back by bullets from breech-loaders 
and shot-guns. 

The village was strongly defended, and not more than 
twenty dead bodies were found in it, the strong thick 
wooden paling having afforded excellent protection against 
our bullets. 


From Zimbizo, after having left a sufficient force 
within, we sallied out, and in an hour had cleared the 
neighbourhood of the enemy, having captured two other 
villages, which we committed to the flames, after gutting 
them of all valuables. A few tusks of ivory, and about 
fifty slaves, besides an abundance of grain, composed the 
" loot," which fell to the lot of the Arabs. 

On the 5th, a detachment of Arabs and slaves, seven 
hundred strong, scoured the surrounding country, and 
carried fire and devastation up to the boma of Wilyankuru. 

On the 6th, Soud bin Sayd and about twenty other 
young Arabs led a force of five hundred men against 
Wilyankuru itself, where it was supposed Mirambo was 
living. Another party went out towards the low wooded 
hills, a short distance north of Zimbizo, near which place 
they surprised a youthful forest thief asleep, whose head 
they stretched backwards, and cut it off as though he 
were a goat or a sheep. Another party sallied out south- 
ward, and defeated a party of Mirambo's " bush-whackers,* 
news of which came to our ears at noon. 

In the morning I had gone to Sayd bin Salim's tembe, 
to represent to him how necessary it was to burn the 
long grass in the forest of Zimbizo, lest it might hide any 
of the enemy; but soon afterwards I had been struck 
down with another attack of intermittent fever, and was 
obliged to turn in and cover myself with blankets to 
produce perspiration ; but not, however, till I had ordered 
Shaw and Bombay not to permit any of my men to leave 
the camp. But I was told soon afterwards by Selim that 
more than one half had gone to the attack on Wilyankuru 
with Soud bin Sayd. 

About 6 P.M. the entire camp of Zimbizo was electrified 
with the news that all the Arabs who had accompanied 


Soud bin Sayd had been killed ; and that more than one- 
half of his party had been slain. Some of my own men 
returned, and from them I learned that Uledi, Grant's 
former valet, Mabruki Khatalabu (Killer of his father), 
Mabruki (the Little), Baruti of Useguhha, and Ferahan 
had been killed. I learned also that they had succeeded 
in capturing Wilyankuru in a very short time, that 
Mirambo and his son were there, that as they succeeded 
in effecting an entrance, Mirambo had collected his men, 
and after leaving the village, had formed an ambush in 
the grass, on each side of the road, between Wilyankuru 
and Zimbizo, and that as the attacking party were 
returning home laden with over a hundred tusks of ivory, 
and sixty bales of cloth, and two or three hundred slaves, 
Mirambo's men suddenly rose up on each side of them, 
and stabbed them with their spears. The brave Soud 
had fired his double-barrelled gun and shot two men, 
and was in the act of loading again when a spear was 
launched, which penetrated through and through him : 
all the other Arabs shared the same fate. This sudden 
attack from an enemy they believed to be conquered so 
demoralized the party that, dropping their spoil, each 
man took to his heels, and after making a wide detour 
through the woods, returned to Zimbizo to repeat the 
dolorous tale. 

The effect of this defeat is indescribable. It was 
impossible to sleep, from the shrieks of the women whose 
husbands had fallen. All night they howled their 
lamentations, and sometimes might be heard the groans 
of the wounded who had contrived to crawl through the 
grass unperceived by the enemy. Fugitives were con- 
tinually coming in throughout the night, but none of my 
men who were reported to be dead, were ever heard of again 


The 7th was a day of distrust, sorrow, and 
the Arabs accused one another for urging war without 
expending all peaceful mear_s first. There were stormy 
councils of war held, wherein were some who proposed 
to return at once to Unyanyembe, and keep within their 
own houses ; and Khamis bin Abdullah raved, like an 
insulted monarch, against the abject cowardice of his 
compatriots. These stormy meetings and propositions 
to retreat were soon known throughout the camp, and 
assisted more than anything else to demoralize com- 
pletely the combined forces of Wanyarnwezi and slaves. 
I sent Bombay to Sayd bin Salim to advise him not to 
think of retreat, as it would only be inviting Mirambo to 
carry the war to Unyanyembe. 

After despatching Bombay with this message, I fell 
asleep, but about 1.30 P.M. I was awakened by Selim 
saying, "Master, get up, they are all running away, 
and Khamis bin Abdullah is himself going." 

With the aid of Selim I dressed myself, and staggered 
towards the door. My first view was of Thani bin 
Abdullah being dragged away, who, when he caught 
sight of me, shouted out "Bana quick Mirambo is 
coming." He was then turning to run, and putting on 
his jacket, with his eyes almost starting out of their 
sockets with terror. Khamis bin Abdullah was also about 
departing, he being the last Arab to leave. Two of my 
men were following him ; these Selim was ordered to 
force back with a revolver. Shaw was saddling his 
donkey with my own saddle, preparatory to giving me 
the slip, and leaving me in the lurch to the tender mercies 
of Mirambo. There were only Bombay, Mabruki Speke, 
Chanda who was coolly eating his dinner, Mabruk Unya- 
nyembe, Mtamani, Juma, and Sarmean only seven out oi 


fifty. All the others had deserted> and were by this time far 
away, except Uledi (Manwa Sera) and Zaidi, whom Selim 
brought back at the point of a loaded revolver. Selim 
was then told to saddle my donkey, and Bombay to assist 
Shaw to saddle his own. In a few moments we were on 
the road, the men ever looking back for the coming enemy ; 
they belabored the donkeys to some purpose, for they went 
at a hard trot, which caused me intense pain. I would 
gladly have lain down to die, but life was sweet, and I 
bad not yet given up all hope of being able to preserve it 
to the full and final accomplishment of my mission. My 
mind was actively at work planning and contriving 
during the long lonely hours of night, which we employed 
to reach Mfuto, whither I found the Arabs had retreated. 
In the night Shaw tumbled off his donkey, and would not 
rise, though implored to do so. As I did not despair my- 
self, so I did not intend that Shaw should despair. He 
was lifted on his animal, and a man was placed on each 
aide of him to assist him ; thus we rode through the 
darkness. At midnight we reached Mfuto safely, and 
were at once admitted into the village, from which we 
had issued so valiantly, but to which we were now re- 
turned so ignominiously. 

I found all my men had arrived here before dark. 
Ulirnengo, the bold guide who had exulted in his weapons 
and in our numbers, and was so sanguine of victory, had 
performed the eleven hours' march in six hours ; sturdy 
Chowpereh, whom I regarded as the faithfullest of my 
people, had arrived only half an hour later than Uli- 
mengo; and frisky Khamisi, the dandy the orator 
the rampant demagogue yes he had come third ; and 
Speke's " Faithfuls " had proved as cowardly as any poor 
u nigger " of them all. Only Seliiu was faithful. 


I asked Selim, " Why did you not also run away, 
leave your master to die ? " 

" Oh, sir," said the Arab boy, naively, " I was afraid you 
would whip me." 




IT never occurred to the Arab magnates that I had 
cause of complaint against them, or that I had a right 
to feel aggrieved at their conduct, for the base desertion 
of an ally, who had, as a duty to friendship, taken 
up arms for their sake. Their " salaams " the next 
morning after the retreat, were given as if nothing 
had transpired to mar the good feeling that had existed 
between us. 

They were hardly seated, however, before I began to 
inform them that as the war was only between them and 


Mirambo, and that as I was afraid, if they were accustomed 
to run away after every little check, that the war might 
last a much longer time than I could afford to lose ; and 
that as they had deserted their wounded on the field, and 
left their sick friends to take care of themselves, they 
must not consider me in the light of an ally any more. 
"I am satisfied," said I, "having seen your mode of 
fighting, that the war will not he ended in so short a 
time as you think it will. It took you five years, I hear, 
to conquer and kill Manwa Sera, you will certainly not 
conquer Mirarnbo in less than a year.* I am a white man, 
accustomed to wars after a different style, I know some- 
thing about fighting, but I never saw people run away 
from an encampment like ours at Zimbizo for such slight 
cause as you had. By running away, you have invited 
Mirambo to follow you to Unyanyembe ; you may be sure 
he will come." 

The Arabs protested one after another that they had 
not intended to have left me, but the Wanyamwezi of 
Mkasiwa had shouted out that the " Musungu " was gone, 
and the cry had caused a panic among their people, which 
it was impossible to allay. 

Later that day the Arabs continued their retreat to 
Tabora, which is twenty-two miles distant from Mfuto. 
I determined to proceed more leisurely, and on the second 
day after the flight from Zimbizo, the Expedition, with all 
the stores and baggage, marched back to Masangi, and on 
the third day to Kwihara. 

The following extracts from my Diary will serve 
to show better than anything else, my feelings and 
thoughts about this time, after our disgraceful retreat : 

Ku'ihara. Friday, II Hi August, 1871. Arrived to-day 

* The same \var is still ragtag, April, 1874. 


from Zimbili, village of Boinboinas. I am quite dis- 
appointed and almost disheartened. But I have one 
consolation, I have done my duty by the Arabs, a duty 
I thought I owed to the kindness they received me with , 
now, however, the duty is discharged, and I am free to 
pursue iny own course. I feel happy, for some reasons, 
that the duty has been paid at such a slight sacrifice. Of 
course if I had lost my life in this enterprise, I should 
have been justly punished. But apart from my duty to 
the consideration with which the Arabs had received me, 
was the necessity of trying every method of reaching 
Livingstone. This road which the war with Mirambo 
has closed, is only a month's march from this place, and if 
the road could be opened with my aid, sooner than without 
it, why should I refuse my aid ? The attempt has beer; 
made for the second time to Ujiji both have failed. I 
am going to try another route ; to attempt to go by tho 
north would be folly. Mirambo's mother and people, and 
the Wasui, are between me and Ujiji, without including 
the Watuta, who are his allies, and robbers. The 
southern route, seems to be the most practicable one. 
Very few people know anything of the country south ; 
those whom I have questioned concerning it speak of 
" want of water " and robber Wazavira, as serious 
obstacles ; they also say that the settlements are few and 
far between. 

But before I can venture to try this new route, I have 
to employ a new set of men, as those whom I took to 
Mfuto consider their engagements at an end, and the fact 
of five of their number being killed rather damps their 
ardor for travelling. It is useless to hope that Wanyam- 
wezi can be engaged, because it is against their custom 
to go with caravans, as carriers, during war time. My 


position is most serious. I have a good excuse for re- 
turning to the coast, but my conscience will not permit 
me to do so, after so much money has been expended, and 
BO much confidence has been placed in me. In fact, I 
feel I must die sooner than return. 

Saturday, August 12th. My men, as I supposed they 
would, have gone ; they said that I engaged them to go 
to Ujiji by Mirambo's road. I have only thirteen left. 
With this small body of men, whither can I go ? I have 
over one hundred loads in the storeroom. Livingstone's 
caravan is also here ; his goods consist of seventeen bales 
of cloth, twelve boxes, and six bags of beads. His men 
are luxuriating upon the best the country affords. 

If Livingstone is at Ujiji, he is now locked up with 
small means of escape. I may consider myself also locked 
up at Unyamyembe, and I suppose cannot go to Ujiji 
until this war with Mirambo is settled. Livingstone 
cannot get his goods, for they are here with mine. He 
cannot return to Zanzibar, and the road to the Nile is 
blocked up. He might, if he has men and stores, possibly 
reach Baker by travelling northwards, through Urundi, 
thence through Euanda, Karagwah, Uganda, Unyoro, and 
Ubari to Gondokoro. Pagazis he cannot obtain, for the 
sources whence a supply might be obtained are closed. 
It is an erroneous supposition to think that Livingstone, 
any more than any other energetic man of his calibre, can 
travel through Africa without some sort of an escort, and 
a durable supply of marketable cloth and beads. 

I was told to-day by a man that when Livingstone was 
coming from Nyassa Lake towards the Tanganika (the 
very time that people thought him murdered) he was met 
by Sayd bin Omar's caravan, which was bound for Ulamba. 
He was travelling with Mohammed bin Gharib. Thia 


Arab, who was coming from lining:*, met Livingstone at 
Chi-cmnbi's, or Kwa-chi-kumbi's, country, and travelled 
with him afterwards, I hear, to Manyuema or Manyema. 
Manyuema is forty marches from the north of Nyassa. 
Livingstone was walking; he was dressed in American 
sheeting. He had lost all his cloth in Lake Liemba 
while crossing :t in a boat. He had three canoes with 
him ; in one he put his cloth, another he loaded with his 
boxes and some of Oiis men, into the third he went himself 
with two servants and two fishermen. The boat with his 
cloth was upset. On leaving Nyassa, Livingstone went to 
Ubisa, thence to Uemba, thence to Urungu. Livingstone 
wore a cap. He had a breech-loading double-barreled 
rifle with him, which fired fulminating balls. He was 
also armed with two revolvers. The Wahiyow with 
Livingstone told this man that their master had many 
men with him at first, but that several had deserted 

August 13th. A caravan came in to-day from the sea- 
coast. They reported that William L. Farquhar, whom I 
left sick at Mpwapwa, Usagara, and his cook, were dead. 
Farquhar, I was told, died a few days after I had entered 
Ugogo, his cook died a few weeks later. My first impulse 
was for revenge. I believed that Leukole had played me 
false, and had poisoned him, or that he had been mur- 
dered in some other manner; but a personal interview 
with the Msawahili who brought the news informing me 
that Farquhar had succumbed to his dreadful illness has 
done away with that suspicion. So far as I could under- 
stand him, Farquhar had in the morning declared himself 
well enough to proceed, but in attempting to rise, had 
fallen backward and died. I was also told that the 
Wasagara, possessing some superstitious notions respecting 

220 fiOW I FOtTND 

the dead had ordered Jako to take the body out fof 
burial, that Jako, not being able to carry it, had dragged 
the body to the jungle, and there left it naked without 
the slightest covering of earth, or anything else. 

" There is one of us gone, Shaw, my boy ! Who will be 
the next ? " I remarked that night to my companion. 

August \4dh. Wrote some letters to Zanzibar. Shaw 
was taken very ill last night. 

August 19ft. Saturday. My soldiers are employed 
stringing beads. Shaw is still a-bed. We hear that 
Mirarnbo is coming to Unyanyembe. A detachment of 
Arabs and their slaves have started this morning to 
possess themselves of the powder left there by the re- 
doubtable Sheikh Sayd bin Salim, the Commander-in-chief 
of the Arab settlements. 

August 21s. Monday. Shaw still sick. One hundred 
fundo of beads have been strung. The Arabs are pre- 
paring for another sally against Mirambo. The advance 
of Mirambo upon Unyanyembe was denied by Sayd bin 
Salim, this morning. 

August QZnd. We were stringing beads this morning, 
when, about 10 A.M., we heard a continued firing from the 
direction of Tabora. Kushing out from our work to the 
front door facing Tabora, we heard considerable volleying, 
and scattered firing, plainly ; and ascending to the top of 
my tembe, I saw with my glasses the smoke of the guns. 
Some of my men who were sent on to ascertain the cause 
came running back with the information that Mirambo 
had attacked Tabora with over two thousand men, and 
that a force of over one thousand Watuta, who had allied 
themselves with him for the sake of plunder, had come 
suddenly upon Tabora, attacking from opposite directions. 

Later in the day, or about noon, watching the lo^i 


jaddle over which we could see Tabora, we saw it crowded 
with fugitives from that settlement, who were rushing to 
our settlement at Kwihara for protection. From these 
people we heard the sad information that the noble 
Khamis bin Abdullah, his little protege, Khamis, Mo- 
hammed bin Abdullah, Ibrahim bin Eashid, and Sayf, the 
son of Ali, the son of Sheikh, the son of Nasib, had been 

When I inquired into the details of the attack, and the 
manner of the death of these Arabs, I was told that after 
the first firing which warned the inhabitants of Tabora 
that the enemy was upon them, Khamis bin Abdullah and 
some of the principal Arabs who happened to be with him 
had ascended to the roof of his tembe, and with his spy- 
glass he had looked towards the direction of the firing. 
To his great astonishment he saw the plain around Tabora 
filled with approaching savages, and about two miles off, 
near Kazima, a tent pitched, which he knew to belong to 
Mirambo, from its having been presented to that chief by 
the Arabc of Tabora when they were on good terms with 

Khamis bin Abdullah descended to his house saying, 
" Let us go to meet him. Arm yourselves, my friends, 
and come with me." His friends advised him strongly 
not to go out of his tembe ; for so long as each Arab kept 
to his ternbe they were more than a match for the Buga- 
Buga and the Watuta together. But Khamis broke out 
impatiently with, " Would you advise us to stop in 0111 
tembes, for fear of this Mshensi (pagan) ? Who goes with 
me ? " His little protege, Khamis, son of a dead friend, 
asked to be allowed to be his gun-bearer ; Mohammed bin 
Abdulluh, Ibrahim bin Bashid, and Sayf, the son of Ali, 
young Arabs of good families, who were proud to live 


with the noble Khamis, also offered to go with him 
After hastily arming eighty of his slaves, contrary tc 
the advice of his prudent friends, he sallied out, and was 
soon face to face with his cunning and determined enemy 
Mirambo. This chief, upon seeing the Arabs advance 
towards him, gave orders to retreat slowly. Khamis, 
deceived by this, rushed on with his friends after them. 
Suddenly Mirambo ordered his men to advance upon them 
in a body, and at the sight of the precipitate rush upon 
their party, Khamis's slaves incontinently took to their 
heels, never even deigning to cast a glance behind them, 
leaving their master to the fate which was now overtaking 
him. The savages surrounded the five Arabs, and though 
several of them fell before the Arabs' fire, continued to 
shoot at the little party, until Khamis bin Abdullah 
received a bullet in the leg, which brought him to his 
knees, and, for the first time, to the knowledge that his 
slaves had deserted him. Though wounded, the brave 
man continued shooting, but he soon afterwards received 
a bullet through the heait. Little Khamis, upon seeing 
his adopted father's fall, exclaimed : " My father Khamis 
is dead, I will die with him," and continued fighting until 
he received, shortly after, his death wound. In a few 
minutes there was not one Arab left alive. 

Late at night some more particulars arrived of this 
tragic scene. I was told by people who saw the bodies, 
that the body of Khamis bin Abdullah, who was a fine 
noble, brave, portly man, was found with the skin of 
his forehead, the beard and skin of the lower part of 
his face, the fore part of the nose, the fat over the 
stomach and abdomen, and, lastly, a bit from each heel, 
cut off, by the savage allies of Mirambo. And in the 
game condition were found the bodies of his adopted so*} 


and fallen friends. The flesh and skin thus taken from 
the bodies was taken, of course, by the waganga or 
medicine men, to make what they deem to be the most 
powerful potion of all to enable men to be strong against 
their enemies. This potion is mixed up with their ugali 
and rice, and is taken in this manner with the most 
perfect confidence in its efficacy, as an invulnerable pro- 
tection against bullets and missiles of all descriptions. 

It was a most sorry scene to witness from our excited 
settlement at Kwihara, almost the whole of Tabora in 
flames, and to see the hundreds of people crowding into 

Perceiving that my people were willing to stand by 
me, I made preparations for defence by boring loopholes 
for muskets into the stout clay walls of my tembe. They 
were made so quickly, and seemed so admirably adapted 
for the efficient defence of the tembe, that my men got 
quite brave, and Wangwana refugees with guns in their 
hands, driven out of Tabora, asked to be admitted into 
our tembe to assist in its defence. Livingstone's men 
were also collected, and invited to help defend their 
master's goods against Mirambo's supposed attack. By 
night I had one hundred and fifty armed men in my 
courtyard, stationed at every possible point where an 
attack might be expected. To-morrow Mirambo has 
threatened that he will come to Kwihara. I hope he 
will come, and if he comes within range of an American 
rifle, I shall see what virtue lies in American lead. 

August 23rd. We have passed a very anxious day in 
the valley of Kwihara. Our eyes were constantly directed 
towards unfortunate Tabora. It has been said that three 
tembes only have stood the brunt of the attack. Abid 
bin Suliman's house has been destroyed, and over two 


hundred tusks of ivory that belonged to him have become 
the property of the African Bonaparte. My ternbe is in 
as efficient a state of defence as its style and means oi 
defence will allow. Kifle-pits surround the house out- 
side, and all native huts that obstructed the view have 
been torn down, and all trees and shrubs which might 
serve as a shelter for any one of the enemy have been cut. 
Provisions and water enough for six days have been 
brought. I have ammunition enough to last two weeks. 
The walls are three feet thick, and there are apartments 
within apartments, so that a desperate body of men could 
fight until the last room had been taken. 

The Arabs, my neighbours, endeavour to seem brave, 
but it is evident they are about despairing ; I have heard 
it rumoured that the Arabs of Kwihara, if Tabora is 
taken, will start en masse for the coast, and give the 
country up to Mirambo. If such are their intentions, and 
they are really carried into effect, I shall be in a pretty 
mess. However, if they do leave me, Mirambo will not 
reap any benefit from my stores, nor from Livingstone's 
either, for I shall burn the whole house, arid everything 
in it. 

August 24//&. The American flag is still waving above 
my house, and the Arabs are still in Unyanyembe. 

About 10 A.M., a messenger came from Tabora, asking 
us if we were not going to assist them against Mirambo. 
I felt very much like going out to help them ; but after 
debating long upon the pros and cons of it, asking 
myself, Was it prudent ? Ought I to go ? What will 
become of the people if I were killed? Will they 
not desert me again? What was the fate of Khamis 
bin Abdullah ? I sent word that I would not go ; that 
they ought to feel perfectly at home in their tembes 


against such a force as Mirambo had, that I should be 
glad if they could induce him to come to Kwihara, in 
which case I would try and pick him off. 

They say that Mirambo, and his principal officer, 
carry umbrellas over their heads, that he himself has 
long hair like a Mnyamwezi pagazi, and a beard. If 
he comes, all the men carrying umbrellas will have 
bullets rained on them in the hope that one lucky bullet 
may hit him. According to popular ideas, I should make 
a silver bullet, but I have no silver with me. I might 
make a gold one. 

About noon I went over to see Sheikh bin Nasib, 
leaving about 100 men inside the house to guard it while 
I was absent. This old fellow is quite a philosopher in 
his way. I should call him a professor of minor 
philosophy. He is generally so sententious fond of 
aphorisms, and a very deliberate character. I was 
astonished to find him so despairing. His aphorisms 
have deserted him, his philosophy has not been able to 
stand against disaster. He listened to me, more like a 
moribund, than one possessing all the means of defence 
and offence. 

I loaded his two-pounder with ball, and grape, and 
small slugs of iron, and advised him not to fire it until 
Mirambo's people were at his gates 

About 4 P.M. I heard that Mirambo had deported 
himself to Kazima, a place north-west of Tabora a couple 
of miles. 

August 26/A. The Arabs sallied out this morning to 
attack Kazima, but refrained, because Mirambo asked for 
a day's grace, to eat the beef he had stolen from them, 
He has asked them impudently to come to-morrow morning, 
at which time he says he will give them plenty of fighting, 


Kwihara is once more restored to a peaceful aspect, And 
fugitives no longer throng its narrow limits in fear and 

August %lih. Mirambo retreated during the night; 
and when the Arabs went in force to attack his village 
of Kazima, they found it vacant. 

The Arabs hold councils of war now -a-days battle 
meetings, of which they seem to be very fond, but 
extremely slow to act upon. They were about to make 
friends with the northern Watuta, but Mirambo was 
ahead of them. They had talked of invading Mirambo's 
territory, the second time, but Mirambo invaded Unya- 
nyembe with fire and sword, bringing death to many 
a household, and he has slain the noblest of them all. 

The Arabs spend their hours in talking and arguing, 
while the Ujiji and Karagwah roads are more firmly 
closed than ever. Indeed many of the influential Arabs 
are talking of returning to Zanzibar ; saying, " Unya- 
nyembe is ruined." 

Meanwhile, with poor success, however, perceiving 
the impossibility of procuring Wanyamwezi pagazis, 
I am hiring the Wangwana renegades living in Unya- 
nyembe to proceed with me to Ujiji, at treble prices. 
Each man is offered 30 doti, ordinary hire of a carrier 
being only from 5 to 10 doti to Ujiji. I want fifty men. 
I intend to leave about sixty or seventy loads here under 
charge of a guard. I shall leave all personal baggage 
behind, except one small portmanteau. 

August 28M. No news to-day of Mirambo. Shaw is 
getting strong again. 

Sheikh bin Nasib called on rue to-day, but, except 
on minor philosophy, he had nothing to say. 

I have determined, after a study of the country, to 


lead a flying caravan to Ujiji, by a southern road through 
northern Ukonongo and Ukawendi. Sheikh bin Nasib has 
been informed to-night of this determination. 

August 29^A. Shaw got up to-day for a little work. 
Alas ! all my fine-spun plans of proceeding by boat over 
the Victoria N'Yanza, thence down the Nile, have been 
totally demolished, I fear, through this war with Mirambo 
this black Bonaparte. Two months have been wasted 
here already. The Arabs take such a long time to come to 
a conclusion. Advice is plentiful, and words are as nume- 
rous as the blades of grass in our valley ; all that is want- 
ing is decision. The Arabs' hope and stay is dead Khamis 
bin Abdullah is no more. Where are the other warriors 
of whom the Wangwana and Wanyamwezi bards sing r 
Where is mighty Kisesa great Abdullah bin Nasib ? 
Where is Sayd, the son of Majid ? Kisesa is in Zanzibar, 
and Sayd, the son of Majid, is in Ujiji, as yet ignorant 
that his son has fallen in the forest of Wilyankuru. 

Shaw is improving fast. I am unsuccessful as yet in 
procuring soldiers. I almost despair of ever being able 
to move from here. It is such a drowsy, sleepy, slow, 
dreaming country. Arabs, Wangwana, Wanyamwezi, are 
all alike all careless how time flies. Their to-morrow 
means sometimes within a month. To me it is simply 

August 3Qth. Shaw will not work. I cannot get him to 
stir himself. I have petted him and coaxed him ; I have 
even cooked little luxuries for him myself. And, while 
I am straining every nerve to get ready for Ujiji, Shaw 
is satisfied with looking on listlessly. What a change 
from the ready-handed bold man he was at Zanzibar ! 

I sat down by his side to-day with my palm and needle 
in order to encourage him, and to-day, for the first time, 


I told him of the real nature of my mission. I told him 
that I did not care about the geography of the country 
half as much as I cared about FINDING LIVINGSTONE ! I 
told him, for the first time, " Now, my dear Shaw, you 
think probably that I have been sent here to find the 
depth of the Tanganika. Not a bit of it, man ; I was 
told to find Livingstone. It is to find Livingstone I am 
here. It is to find Livingstone I am going. Don't you 
see, old fellow, the importance of the mission ; don't you 
see what reward you will get from Mr. Bennett, if you 
will help me ? I am sure, if ever you come to New York, 
you will never be in want of a fifty-dollar bill. So shake 
yourself ; jump about ; look lively. Say you will not 
die; that is half the battle. Snap your fingers at the 
fever. I will guarantee the fever won't kill you. I have 
medicine enough for a regiment here !" 

His eyes lit up a little, but the light that shone in 
them shortly faded, and died. I was quite disheartened. 
I made some strong punch, to put fire in his veins, that I 
might see life in him. I put sugar, and eggs, and seasoned 
it with lemon and spice. ** Drink, Shaw," said I, " and 
forget your infirmities. You are not sick, dear fellow ; 
it is only ennui you are feeling. Look at Selim there. 
Now, I will bet any amount, that he will not die ; that I 
will carry him home safe to his friends ! I will carry you 
home also, if you will let me !" 

September 1st. According to Thani bin Abdullah whom 
I visited to-day, at his tembe in Maroro, Mirambo lost 
two hundred men in the attack upon Tabora, while the 
Arabs' losses were, five Arabs, thirteen freemen and eight 
slaves, besides three tembes, and over one hundred small 
huts burned, two hundred and eighty ivory tusks, and 
sixty cows and bullocks captured. 


September 3rd. Received a packet of letters and news- 
papers from Capt. Webb, at Zanzibar. What a good 
thing it is that one's friends, even in far America, think 
of the absent one in Africa ! They tell me, that no one 
dreams of my being in Africa yet ! 

I applied to Sheikh bin Nasib to-day to permit 
Livingstone's caravan to go under my charge to Ujiji, but 
he would not listen to it. He says he feels certain I am 
going to my death. 

September 4:th. Shaw is quite well to-day, he says. 
Selim is down with the fever. My force is gradually 
increasing, though some of my old soldiers are falling off. 
Urngareza is blind ; Baruti has the small-pox very badly ; 
Sadala has the intermittent. 

September 5/7*. Baruti died this morning. He was 
one of my best soldiers ; and was one of those men who 
accompanied Speke to Egypt. Baruti is number seven of 
those who have died since leaving Zanzibar. 

To-day my ears have been poisoned with the reports of 
the Arabs, about the state of the country I am about 
to travel through. " The roads are bad ; they are all 
stopped; the Euga-Euga are out in the forests; the 
Wakonongo are coming from the south to help Mirambo ; 
the Washensi are at war, one tribe against another." My 
men are getting dispirited, they have imbibed the fears of 
the Arabs and the Wanyamwezi. Bombay begins to feel 
that I had better go back to the coast, and try again 
some other time. 

We buried Baruti under the shade of the banyan-tree, 
a few yards west of my tembe. The grave was made four 
and a half feet deep and three feet wide. At the bottom 
on one side a narrow trench was excavated, into which 
the body was rolled on his side, with his face turned 


towards Mecca. The body was dressed in a doti and a 
half of new American sheeting. After it was placed 
properly in its narrow bed, a sloping roof of sticks, 
covered over with matting and old canvas, was made, to 
prevent the earth from falling over the body. The grave 
was then filled, the soldiers laughing merrily. On the 
top of the grave was planted a small shrub, and into a 
small hole made with the hand, was poured water lest he 
might feel thirsty they said on his way to Paradise : 
water was then sprinkled all over the grave, and the 
gourd broken. This ceremony being ended, the men 
recited the Arabic Fat-hah, after which they left the 
grave of their dead comrade to think no more of him . 

September lih.-h.iL Arab named Mohammed presented 
me to-day with a little boy-slave, called " Ndugu M'hali " 
(my brother's wealth). As I did not like the name, I 
called the chiefs of my caravan together, and asked them 
to give him a better name. One suggested " Siinba " 
(a lion), another said he thought "Ngombe" (a cow) 
would suit the boy-child, another thought he ought to be 
called " Mirambo," which raised a loud laugh. Bombay 
thought " Bombay Mdogo " would suit my black-skinned 
infant very well. Ulimengo, however, after looking at 
his quick eyes, and noting his celerity of movement, 
pronounced the name Ka-lu-lu as the best for him, 
" because," said he, "just look at his eyes, so bright ! 
look at his form, so slim ! watch his movements, how 
quick ! Yes, Kalulu is his name." " Yes, bana," said 
the others, " let it be Kalulu." 

"Kalulu" is a Kisawahili term for the young of the 
blue-buck (perpusilla) antelope. 

" Well, then," said I, water being brought in a huge 
tin pan, Selim, who was willing to stand god father, hold- 


ing him over the water, " let his name henceforth be 
Kalulu, and let no man take it from him," and thus it 
was that the little black boy of Mohammed's came to be 
called Kalulu. 

The Expedition is increasing in numbers. 

We had quite an alarm before dark. Much firing was 
heard at Tabora, which led us to anticipate an attack on 
Kwihara. It turned out, however, to be a salute fired in 
honor of the arrival of Sultan Kitambi to pay a visit to 
Mkasiwa, Sultan of Unyanyembe. 

September 8th. To wards night Sheikh bin Nasib 
received a leiter from an Arab at Mfuto, reporting that 
an attack "was made on that place by Mirambo and his 
Watuta allies. It also warned him to bid the people of 
Kwihara hold themselves in readiness, because if Mirambo 
succeeded in storming Mfuto, he would march direct on 

September 9th. Mirambo was defeated with severe loss 
yesterday, in his attack upon Mfuto. He was successful 
in an assault he made upon a small Wanyamwezi village, 
but when he attempted to storm Mfuto, he was repulsed 
with severe loss, losing three of his principal men. Upon 
withdrawing his forces from the attack, the inhabitants 
sallied out, and followed him to the forest of Umanda, 
where he was again utterly routed, himself ingloriously 
flying from the field. 

The heads of his chief men slain in the attack were 
brought to Kwikuru, the boma of Mkasiwa. 

September l^tli. The Arab boy Selim is delirious from 
constant fever. Shaw is sick again. These two occupy 
most of my time. I am turned into a regular nurse, for 
I have no one to assist me in attending upon them, If I 
try to instruct Abdul Kader in the art of being useful, hii 


head is so befogged with the villainous fumes of Unyam- 
wezi tobacco, that he wanders bewildered about, breaking 
dishes, and upsetting cooked dainties, until I get so exas- 
perated that my peace of mind is broken completely for a 
full hour. If I ask Ferajji, my now formally constituted 
cook, to assist, his thick wooden head fails to receive an 
idea, and I am thus obliged to play the part of chefde cuisine. 

September Ybtli. The third month of my residence in 
Unyanyembe is almost finished, and I am still here, but I 
hope to be gone before the 23rd inst. 

All last night, until nine A.M. this morning, niy soldiers 
danced and sang to the manes of their dead comrades, 
whose bones now bleach in the forests of Wilyankuru. 
Two or three huge pots of pombe failed to satisfy the 
raging thirst which the vigorous exercise they were 
engaged in, created. So, early this morning, I was 
called upon to contribute a shukka for another potful of 
the potent liquor. 

To-day I was busy selecting the loads for each soldier 
and pagazi. In order to lighten their labor as much as 
possible, I reduced each load from 701bs. to 501bs.., by 
which I hope to be enabled to make some long marches. 
I have been able to engage ten pagazis during the last 
two or three days. 

I have two or three men still very sick, and it is almost 
useless to expect that they will be able to carry any- 
thing, but I am in hopes that other men may be engaged 
to take their places before the actual day of departure, 
which now seems to be drawing near rapidly. 

September 16th. We have almost finished our work 
on the fifth day from this God willing we shall march. 
I engaged two more pagazis beside? two guides, named 
Armani and MabrukL If vustness of the human foin 


could terrify any one, certainly Asmani's appearance is well 
calculated to produce that effect. Ho stands considerably 
over six feet without shoes, and has shoulders broad 
enough for two ordinary men. 

To-morrow I mean to give the people a farewell feast, 
to celebrate our departure from this forbidding and un- 
happy country. 

September lltli. The banquet is ended. I slaughtered 
two bullocks, and had a barbacue ; three sheep, two goats, 
and fifteen chickens, 1201bs. of rice, twenty large loaves 
of bread made of Indian corn-flour, one hundred eggs, 
lOlbs. of butter, and five gallons of sweet-milk, were the 
contents of which the banquet was formed. The men 
invited their friends and neighbours, and about one 
hundred women and children partook of it. 

After the banquet was ended, the pombe, or native 
beer, was brought in in five gallon pots, and the people 
commenced their dance, which continues even now as I 

September I9th. I had a slight attack of fever to-day, 
which has postponed our departure. Selim and Shaw 
are both recovered. 

About 8 P.M. Sheik bin Nasib came to me imploring 
me not to go away to-morrow, because I was so sick. 
Thani Sakhburi suggested to me that I might stay 
another month. In answer, I told them that white men 
are not accustomed to break their words. I had said I 
would go, and I intended to go. 

Sheikh bin Nasib gave up all hope of inducing me to 
remain another day, and he has gone away, with a promise 
to write to Seyd Burghash to tell him how obstinate I 
am, and that I am determined to be killed. This vas a 
parting shot. 


About 10 P.M. the fever had gone. All were asleep lu 
the tembe but myself, and an unutterable loneliness caine 
on me as 1 reflected on my position, and my intentions, 
and felt the utter lack of sympathy with me in all around. 
It requires more nerve than I possess, to dispel all the 
dark presentiments that come upon the mind. But pro- 
bably what I call presentiments are simply the impress 
on the mind of the warnings which these false-hearted 
Arabs have repeated so often. This melancholy and lone- 
liness I feel, may probably have their origin from the 
same cause. The single candle, which barely lights up 
the dark shade that fills the corners of my room, is but a 
poor incentive to cheerfulness. I feel as though I were 
imprisoned between stone walls. But why should I feel 
as if baited by these stupid, slow-witted Arabs and their 
warnings and croakings ? I fancy a suspicion haunts my 
mind, as I write, that there lies some motive behind all 
this. I wonder if these Arabs tell me all these things to 
keep me here, in the hope that I might be induced another 
time to assist them in their war with Mirambo ! If they 
think so, they are much mistaken, for I have taken a 
solemn, enduring oath, an oath to be kept while the least 
hope of life remains in me, not to be tempted to break 
the resolution I have formed, never to give up the search, 
until I find Livingstone alive, or find his dead body ; and 
never to return home without the strongest possible 
proofs that he is alive, or that he is dead. No living man, 
or living men, shall stop me, only death can prevent me. 
But death not even this ; I shall not die, I will not die, 
I cannot die ! And something tells me, I do not know 
what it is perhaps it is the ever-living hopefulness of 
my own nature, perhaps it is the natural presumption 
born out of an abundant and glowing vitality, or the 


outcome of an overweening confidence in oneself- any- 
how and everyhow, something tells me to-night I shall 
find him, and write it larger FIND HIM ! FIND HIM ! 
Even the words are inspiring. I feel more happy. Have 
I uttered a prayer ? I shall sleep calmly to-night. 

I have felt myself compelled to copy out of my Diary 
the above notes, as they explain, written as they are on 
the spot, the vicissitudes of my " Life at Unyanyembe." 
To me they appear to explain far better than any amount 
of descriptive writing, even of the most graphic, the 
nature of the life I led. There they are, unexaggerated, 
in their literality, precisely as I conceived them at the 
time they happened. They speak of fevers without 
number to myself and men, they relate our dangers, and 
little joys, our annoyances and our pleasures, as they 





Departure from Unyanyembe. The expedition reorganized. Bombay. 
Mr. Shaw returns sick to Unyanyembe. A noble forest. The 
fever described. Happiness of the camp. A park-land. Herds of 
game and noble sport. A mutiny. Punishment of the ringleaders. 
Elephants. Arrival at Mrera 

THE 20th of September had arrived. This was the day 
I had decided to cut loose from those who tormented me 
with their doubts, their fears, and beliefs, and commence 
the march to Ujiji by a southern route. I was very 
weak from the fever that had attacked me the day before, 
and it was a most injudicious act to commence a march 
under such circumstances. But I had boasted to Sheikh 
bin Nasib that a white man never breaks his word, and 
my reputation as a white man would have been ruined 
had I stayed behind, or postponed the march, in con- 
sequence of feebleness. 

I mustered the entire caravan outside the tembe, our 
flags and streamers were unfurled, the men had their 
loads resting on the walls, there was considerable shout- 
ing, and laughing, and negroidal fanfaronnade. The 
Arabs had collected from curiosity's sake to see us off- 
all except Sheikh bin Nasib, whom I had offended by my 



asinine opposition to his wishes. The old Sheikh took 
to his bed, but sent his son to bear me a last morsel of 
philosophic sentimentality, which I was to treasure up as 
the last words of the patriarchal Sheikh, the son of Nasib, 
the son of Ali, the son of Sayf. Poor Sheikh ! if thou 
hadst only known what was at the bottom of this stub- 
bornness this ass-like determination to proceed the 
wrong way what wouldst thou then have said, Sheikh ? 
But the Sheikh comforted himself with the thought that 
I might know what I was about better than he did, which 
is most likely, only neither he nor any other Arab will 
ever know exactly the motive that induced me to march 
at all westward when the road to the east was ever so 
much easier. 

My braves whom I had enlisted for a rapid march some- 
where, out of Unyanyembe, were named as follows : 

1. John William Shaw, London, 


2. Selim Heshmy, Arab. 

3. Seedy Mbamk Mombay, Zan- 


4. Mabruki Speke, ditto. 

5. Ulimengo, ditto. 

6. Ambari, ditto. 

7. Uledi, ditto. 

8. Asmani, ditto. 

9. Sarmean, ditto. 

10. Kamna, ditto. 

11. Zaidi, ditto. 

12. Khamisi, ditto. 

13. Chowpereh, Bagamoyo 

14. Kingaru, ditto. 

15. Belali, ditto. 

16. Ferous, Unyanyembe. 

17. Kujab, Bagamoyo. 

18. Mabruk Unyanyembe, Un- 


19. Mtamani, ditto. 

20. Chanda, Maroro. 

21. Sadala, Zanzibar. 

22. Kombo, ditto. 

23. Saburi the Great, Maror: 

24. Saburi the Little, ditto. 

25. Marora, ditto. 

26. Ferajji (the cook), Zanzibai. 

27. Mabruk Saleem, Zaii/ibar. 

28. Baraka, ditto. 
29 Ibrahim, Maroro. 

30. Mabruk Ferous, ditto. 

31. Baruti, Bagamoyo. 

32. Umgareza, Zanzibar. 

33. Hamadi (the guide), ditto. 

34. Asmani, ditto ditto. 

35. Mabruk, ditto ditto, 



36. Hamdallak (the guicb), 


37. Jumah, Zanzibar. 

38. Maganga, Mkwenkvve. 

39. Muccadum, Tabora. 

40. Dasturi, ditto. 

41. Tumayona, Ujiji. 

42. Mparamoto, Ujiji. 

43. Wakiri, ditto. 

44. Mufu, ditto. 

45. Mpepo, ditto. 
40. Kapingu, Ujiji. 

47. Mashishanga, ditta 

48. Muheruka, ditto. 

49. Missossi, ditto. 

50. Tufum Byah, ditto. 

51. Majwara (boy), Uganda. 

52. Belali (boy), Uemba. 

53. Kalulu (boy), Lunda. 

54. Abdul Kader (tailor), Malabar. 

These are the men and boys whom I had chosen to be my 
companions on the apparently useless mission of seeking 
for the lost traveller, David Livingstone. The goods with 
which I had burdened them, consisted of 1,000 doti, or 
4,000 yds. of cloth, six bags of beads, four loads of ammu- 
nition, one tent, one bed and clothes, one box of medicine, 
sextant and books, two loads of tea, coffee, and sugar, one 
load of flour and candles, one load of canned meats, 
sardines, and miscellaneous necessaries, and one load of 
cooking utensils. 

The men were all in their places except Bombay. 
Bombay had gone ; he could not be found. I despatched 
a man to hunt him up. He was found weeping in the 
arms of his Delilah. 

" Why did you go away, Bombay, when you knew I 
intended to go, and was waiting ? " 

" Oh, master, I was saying good-bye to my missis." 

" Oh, indeed ? " 

" Yes, master ; you no do it, when you go away ? " 

" Silence, sir." 

" Oh ! all right." 

" What is the matter with you, Bombay ? " 

" Oh, nuffin." 

As I saw he was in a humour to pick a quarrel with 


na before those Arabs who had congregated oitside of 
my tembe to witness iny departure, and as I was not in 
a humour to be balked by anything that might turn up, 
the consequence was, that I was obliged to thrash 
Bombay, an operation which soon cooled his hot choler, 
but brought down on my head a loud chorus of remon- 
strances from my pretended Arab friends " Now, master, 
don't, don't stop it, master : the poor man knows better 
than you what he and you may expect on the road you 
are now taking." 

If anything was better calculated to put me in a 
rage than Bombay's insolence before a crowd it was 
this gratuitous interference with what I considered my 
own especial business ; but I restrained myself, though 
I told them, in a loud voice, that I did not choose to 
be interfered with, unless they wished to quarrel with 

" No, no, bana," they all exclaimed ; " we do not wish 
to quarrel with you. In the name of God ! go on your 
way in peace." 

" Fare you well, then,"' said I, shaking hands with them. 

"Farewell, master, farewell. We wish you, we are 
sure, all success, and God be with you, and guide you ! " 

" March ! " 

A parting salute was fired ; the flags were raised up by 
the guides, each pagazi rushed for his load, and in a short 
time, with songs and shouts, the head of the Expedition 
Jiad filed round the western end of my tembe along the 
road to Ugunda. 

"Now, Mr. Shaw, I am waiting, sir. Mount your 
donkey, if you cannot walk." 

" Please, Mr. Stanley, I am afraid I cannot go." 

" Why ? " 



" I don't know, I am sure. I feel very weak." 

" So am I weak. It was but late last night, as yon 
know, that the fever left me. Don't back out before 
these Arabs; remember you are a white man. Here, 
Selim, Mabruki, Bombay, help Mr. Shaw on his donkey, 
and walk by him." 

" Oh, bana, bana," said the Arabs, " don't take him. 
Do you not see he is sick ? " 

" You keep away ; nothing will prevent me from taking 
him. He shall go." 

" Go on, Bombay." 

The last of my party had gone. The tembe, so lately 
a busy scene, had already assumed a naked, desolate ap- 
pearance. I turned towards the Arabs, lifted my hat, and 
said again, "Farewell," then faced about for the south, 
followed by my four young gun-bearers, Selim, Kalulu, 
Majwara, and Belali. 

After half an hour's march the scenery became more 
animated. Shaw began to be amused. Bombay had 
forgotten our quarrel, and assured me, if I could pass 
Mirambo's country, I should " catch the Tanganika ; " 
Mabruki Burton also believed we should. Selim was glad 
to leave Unyanyembe, where he had suffered so much from 
fever ; and there was a something in the bold aspect of 
the hills which cropped upward above fair valleys, that 
enlivened and encouraged me to proceed. 

In an hour and a half, we arrived at our camp in the 
Kinyamwezi village of Mkwenkwe, the birthplace of our 
famous chanter Maganga. 

My tent was pitched, the goods were stored in one 
of the tembes ; but one-half the men had returned to 
Kwihara, to take one more embrace of their wives and 

Towards night I was attacked once again with the 
intermittent fever. Before morning it had departed 
leaving me terribly prostrated with weakness. I had 
heard the men conversing with each other over their 
camp-fires upon the probahle prospects of the next day. 
Tt was a question with them whether I should continue 
the march. Mostly all were of opinion that, since the 
master was sick, there would be no march. A superlative 
obstinacy, however, impelled me on, merely to spite their 
supine souls ; but when I sallied out of my tent to call 
:hem to get ready, I found that at least twenty were 
missing ; and Livingstone's letter-carrier, " Kaif-Halek " 
or, How-do-ye-do ? had not arrived with Dr. Living- 
stone's letter-bag. 

Selecting twenty of the strongest and faithfulest men 
[ despatched them back to Unyanyembe in search of the 
missing men ; and Selim was sent to Sheikh bin Nasib to 
borrow, or buy, a long slave-chain. 

Towards night my twenty detectives returned with 
nine of the missing men. The Wajiji had deserted in a 
body, and they could not be found. Selim also returned 
with a strong chain, capable of imprisoning within the 
collars attached to it at least ten men. Kaif-Halek also 
appeared with the letter-bag which he was to convey to 
Livingstone under my escort. The men were then ad- 
dressed, and the slave-chain exhibited to them. I told 
them that I was the first white man who had taken a 
slave-chain with him on his travels ; but, as they were all 
so frightened of accompanying me, I was obliged to make 
use of it, as it was the only means of keeping them 
together. The good need never fear being chained by me 
only the deserters, the thieves, who received their hire 
and presents, guns and ammunition, and then ran away. 


I would not put any one this time in chains ; but whoever 
deserted after this day, I should halt, and not continue the 
march till I found him, after which he should march to 
Ujiji with the slave-chain round his neck. "Do you 
hear ?" " Yes," was the answer. " Do you understand ?" 
-" Yes." 

We broke up camp at 6 P.M., and took the road for 
Inesuka, at which place we arrived at 8 P.M. 

When we were about commencing the march the next 
morning, it was discovered that two more had deserted. 
Baraka and Bombay were at once despatched to Unya- 
nyembe to bring back the two missing men Asmani and 
Kingaru with orders not to return without them. This 
was the third time that the latter had deserted, as the 
reader may remember. While the pursuit was being 
effected we halted at the village of Inesuka, more for the 
sake of Shaw than any one else. 

In the evening the incorrigible deserters were brought 
back, and, as I had threatened, were well flogged and 
chained, to secure them against further temptation. Bom- 
bay and Baraka had a picturesque story to relate of the 
capture ; and, as I was in an exceedingly good humor, 
their services were rewarded with a fine cloth each. 

On the following morning another carrier had absconded, 
taking with him his hire of fifteen new cloths and a gun ; 
but to halt anywhere near Unyanyembe any longer was a 
danger that could be avoided only by travelling without 
stoppages towards the southern jungle-lands. It will be 
remembered I had in my train the redoubtable Abdul 
Kader, the tailor, he who had started from Bagamoyo with 
such bright anticipations of the wealth of ivory to be ob- 
tained in the great interior of Africa. On this morning, 
daunted by the reports of the dangers ahead, Abdul 


Kadcr craved to be discharged. lie vowed he was sick, 
and unable to proceed any further. As I was pretty well 
tired of him, I paid him off in cloth, and permitted him 
to go. 

About half way to Kasegera Mabruk Saleem was sud- 
denly taken sick. I treated him with a grain of calomel, 
and a couple of ounces of brandy. As he was unable to 
walk, I furnished him with a donkey. Another man 
named Zaidi was ill with a rheumatic fever ; and Shaw 
tumbled twice off the animal he was riding, and required 
an infinite amount of coaxing to mount again. Verily, 
my expedition was pursued by adverse fortunes, and it 
seemed as if the Fates had determined upon our return. 
It really appeared as if everything was going to wreck 
and ruin. If I were only fifteen days from Unyanyernbe, 
thought I, I should be saved ! 

Kasegera was a scene of rejoicing the afternoon and 
evening of our arrival. Absentees had just returned from 
the coast, and the youths were brave in their gaudy 
bedizenment, their new barsatis, their soharis, and long 
cloths of bright new kaniki, with which they had adorned 
themselves behind some bush before they had suddenly 
appeared dressed in all this finery. The women " Hi- 
hi'ed " like maenads, and the " Lu-lu-lu'ing " was loud, 
frequent, and fervent the whole of that afternoon. Sylph- 
like damsels looked up to the youthful heroes with inten- 
sest admiration on their features ; old women coddled and 
fondled them ; staff-using, stooping-backed patriarchs 
blessed them. This is fame in Unyamwezi ! All the 
fortunate youths had to use their tongues until the wee 
hours of next morning had arrived, relating all the 
wonders they had seen near the Great Sea, and in the 


"Unguja," the island of Zanzibar; of how they saw 
great white men's ships, and numbers of white men, of 
their perils and trials during their journey through the 
land of the fierce Wagogo, and divers other facts, with 
which the reader and I are by this time well acquainted. 

On the 24th we struck camp, and marched through a 
forest of imbiti wood in a S.S.W. direction, and in about 
three hours came to Kigandu. 

On arriving before this village, which is governed by 
a daughter of Mkasiwa, we were informed we could not 
enter unless we paid toll. As we would not pay toll, we 
were compelled to camp in a ruined, rat-infested boma, 
situated a mile to the left of Kigandu, being well scolded 
by the cowardly natives for deserting Mkasiwa in his hour 
of extremity. We were accused of running away from 
the war. 

Almost on the threshold of our camp Shaw, in en- 
deavouring to dismount, lost his stirrups, and fell prone 
on his face. The foolish fellow actually laid on the 
ground in the hot sun a full hour; and when I coldly 
asked him if he did not feel rather uncomfortable, he sat 
up, and wept like a child. 

" Do you wish to go back, Mr. Shaw ?" 

" If you please. I do not believe I can go any farther ; 
and if you would only be kind enough, I should like to 
return very much." 

" Well, Mr. Shaw, I have come to the conclusion that it 
is best you should return. My patience is worn out. I 
have endeavoured faithfully to lift you above these petty 
miseries which you nourish so devotedly. You are simply 
suffering from hypochondria. You imagine yourself sick, 
aud nothing, evidently, will persuade you that yon are 

TO MRffltA, TlKONONorO. 245 

not. Mark my words to return to Unyanyembe, is to 
DIE ! Should you happen to fall sick in Kwihara who 
knows how to administer medicine to you ? Supposing you 
are delirious, how can any of the soldiers know what you 
want, or what is beneficial and necessary for you ? Once 
again, I repeat, if you return, you DIE !" 

" Ah, dear me ; I wish I had never ventured to come ! 
I thought life in Africa was so different from this. I 
would rather go back if you will permit me." 

The next day was a halt, and arrangements were made 
for the transportation of Shaw back to Kwihara. A strong 
litter was made, and four stout pagazis were hired at 
Kigandu to carry him. Bread was baked, a canteen was 
tilled with cold tea, and a leg of a kid was roasted for his 
sustenance while on the road. 

The night before we parted we spent together. Shaw 
played some tunes on an accordion which I had purchased 
for him at Zanzibar ; but, though it was only a miserable 
ten-dollar affair, I thought the homely tunes evoked from 
the instrument that night were divine melodies. The last 
tune played before retiring was " Home, sweet Home." 

The morning of the 27th we were all up early. There 
was considerable vis in our movements. A long, long 
march lay before us that day ; but then I was to leave 
behind all the sick and ailing. Only those who were 
healthy, and could march fast and long, were to accompany 
me. Mabruk Saleem I left in charge of a native doctor, 
who was to medicate him for a gift of cloth which I gave 
him in advance. 

The horn sounded to get ready. Shaw was lifted in 
his litter on the shoulders of his carriers. My men formed 
two ranks; the flags were lifted ; and between these two 


living rows, and under those bright streamers, which 
were to float over the waters of the Tanganika before he 
should see them again, Shaw was borne away towards the 
north ; while we filed off to the south, with quicker and 
more elastic steps, as if we felt an incubus had been taken 
from us. 

We ascended a ridge bristling with syenite boulders 01 
massive size, appearing above a forest of dwarf trees. The 
view which we saw was similar to that we had often seen 
elsewhere. An illimitable forest stretching in grand 
waves far beyond the ken of vision ridges, forest-clad, 
rising gently one above another until they receded in the 
dim purple-blue distance with a warm haze floating 
above them, which, though clear enough in our neighbour- 
hood, became impenetrably blue in the far distance. 
Woods, woods, woods, leafy branches, foliage globes, or 
parachutes, green, brown, or sere in color, forests one 
above another, rising, falling, and receding a very leafy 
ocean. The horizon, at all points, presents the same view, 
there may be an indistinct outline of a hill far away, or 
here and there a tall tree higher than the rest conspicuous 
in its outlines against the translucent sky with this 
exception it is the same the same clear sky dropping 
into the depths of the forest, the same outlines, the same 
forest, the same horizon, day after day, week after week ; we 
hurry to the summit of a ridge, expectant of a change, but 
the wearied eyes, after wandering over the vast expanse, 
return to the immediate surroundings, satiated with the ever- 
sameness of such scenes. Carlyle, somewhere in his writings, 
says, that though the Vatican is great, it is but the chip ol 
an eggshell compared to the star-fretted dome where Arc- 
turus and Orion glance for erer ; and I say tbat, though the 


of Central Park, New York, is grand compared to 
the thin groves seen in other great cities, that though the 
Windsor and the New Forests may be very fine and noble 
in England, yet they are but fagots of sticks compared 
to these eternal forests of Unyamwezi. 

We marched three hours, and then halted for refresh- 
ments. I perceived that the people were very tired, not 
yet inured to a series of long marches, or rather, not in 
proper trim for earnest, hard work after our long rest in 
Kwihara. When we resumed our march again there 
were several manifestations of bad temper and weariness 
But a few good-natured remarks about their laziness put 
them on their mettle, and we reached Ugunda at 2 P.M. 
after another four hours' spurt. 

Ugunda is a very large village in the district of 
Ugunda, which adjoins the southern frontier of Unya- 
nyerube. The village probably numbers four hundred 
families, or two thousand souls. It is well protected by 
a tall and strong palisade of three-inch timber. Stages 
have been erected at intervals above the palisades with 
miniature embrasures in the timber, for the muskets of 
the sharpshooters, who take refuge within these box- 
like stages to pick out the chiefs of an attacking force. 
An inner ditch, with the sand or soil thrown up three 
or four feet high against the palings, serves as protection 
for the main body of the defenders, who kneel in the 
ditch, and are thus enabled to withstand a very large 
force. For a mile or two outside the village all obstruc- 
tions are cleared, and the besieged are thus warned by 
sharp-eyed watchers to be prepared for the defence 
before the enemy approaches within musket range. 
Mirainbo withdrew his force of robbers from before this 


Btrotgly-defended village after two or three ineffectual 
attempts to storm it, and the Wagunda have been con- 
gratulating themselves ever since, upon having driven 
away the boldest marauder that Unyamwezi has seen for 

The Wagunda have about three thousand acres under 
cultivation around their principal village, and this area 
suffices to produce sufficient grain not only for their own 
consumption, but also for the many caravans which pass 
by this way for Ufipa and Marungu. 

However brave the Wagunda may be within the strong 
enclosure with which they have surrounded their principal 
village, they are not exempt from the feeling of insecurity 
which fills the soul of a Mnyamwezi during war-time. 
At this place the caravans are accustomed to recruit 
their numbers from the s warms of pagazis who volunteer 
to accompany them to the distant ivory regions south ; 
but I could not induce a soul to follow me, so great was 
their fear of Mirambo and his Euga-Euga. They were 
also full of rumors of wars ahead. It was asserted that 
Mbogo was advancing towards Uguiida with a thousand 
Wakonongo, that the Wazavira had attacked a caravan 
four months previously, that Simba was scouring the 
country with a band of ferocious mercenaries, and much 
more of the same nature and to the same intent. 

On the 28th we arrived at a small snug village em- 
bosomed within the forest called Benta, three hours and 
a quarter from Ugunda. The road led through the 
cornfields of the Wagunda, and then entered the clearings 
around the villages of Kisari, within one of which we 
found the proprietor of a caravan who was drumming 
up carriers for Ufipa. He had been halted here two 


tnonths, and hi made strenuous exertions to induce iny 
men to join his caravan, a proceeding that did not tend 
to promote harmony between us. A few days afterwards 
I found, on my return, that he had given up the idea of 
proceeding south. Leaving Kisari, we marched through 
a thin jungle of hlack jack, over sun-cracked ground 
with here and there a dried-up pool, the bottom of which 
was well tramped by elephant and rhinoceros. Buffalo 
and zebra tracks were now frequent, and we were buoyed 
up with the hope that before long we should meet 

Benta was well supplied with Indian corn and a graiu 
which the natives called choroko, which I take to be 
vetches. I purchased a large supply of choroko for ray 
own personal use, as I found it to be a most healthy 
food. The corn was stored on the flat roofs of the terabes 
in huge boxes made out of the bark of the mtundu tree. 
The largest box I have ever seen in Africa was seen here. 
It might be taken for a Titan's hat-box ; it was seven 
feet in diameter, and ten feet in height. 

On the 29th, after travelling in a S.W. by S. direction, 
we reached Kikuru. The march lasted for five hours 
over sun-cracked plains, growing the black jack, and 
ebony, and dwarf shrubs, above which numerous ant-hills 
of light chalky-coloured earth appeared like sand dunes. 

The mukunguru, a Kisawahili term for fever, is fre- 
quent in this region of extensive forests and flat plains, 
owing to the imperfect drainage provided by nature for 
them. In the dry season there is nothing very offensive 
in the view of the country. The burnt grass gives rather 
a sombre aspect to the country, covered with the hard- 
baked tracks of animals which haunt these plains during 
the latter part of the rainy season. In the forest 


numbers of trees lie about in the last stages of decay, 
and working away with might and main on the pro- 
strate trunks may be seen numberless insects of various 
species. Impalpably, however, the poison of the dead 
and decaying vegetation is inhaled into the system with 
a result sometimes as fatal as that which is said to arise 
from the vicinity of the Upas-tree. 

The first evil results experienced from the presence 
of malaria are confined bowels and an oppressive languor, 
excessive drowsiness, and a constant disposition to yawn. 
The tongue assumes a yellowish, sickly hue, colored 
almost to blackness ; even the teeth become yellow, and 
are coated with an offensive matter. The eyes of the 
patient sparkle lustrously, and become suffused with 
water. These are sure symptoms of the incipient fever 
which shortly will rage through the system. 

Sometimes this fever is preceded by a violent shaking 
fit, during which period blankets may be heaped on the 
patient's form, with but little amelioration of the deadly 
chill he feels. It is then succeeded by an unusuall^ 
severe headache, with excessive pains about the loins 
and spinal column, which presently will spread over the 
shoulder-blades, and, running up the neck, find a final 
lodgment in the back and front of the head. Usually, 
however, the fever is not preceded by a chill, but after 
languor and torpitude have seized him, with excessive 
heat and throbbing temples, the loin and spinal column 
ache, and raging thirst soon possesses him. The brain 
becomes crowded with strange fancies, which sometimes 
assume most hideous shapes. Before the darkened vision 
of the suffering man, float in a seething atmosphere, 
figures of created and uncreated reptiles, which are 
metamorphosed every instant into stranger shapes anJ 


designs, growing every moment more confused, more 
complicated, more hideous and terrible. Unable to bear 
longer the distracting scene, he makes an effort and opens 
his eyes, and dissolves the delirious dream, only, however, 
to glide again unconsciously into another dream-land 
where another unreal inferno is dioramically revealed, 
and new agonies suffered. Oh ! the many many hours 
that I have groaned under the terrible incubi which the 
fits of real delirium evoke. Oh ! the racking anguish of 
body that a traveller in Africa must undergo ! Oh ! the 
spite, the fretfulness, the vexation which the horrible 
phantasmagoria of diabolisms induce ! The utmost pa- 
tience fails to appease, the most industrious attendance 
fails to gratify, the deepest humility displeases. During 
these terrible transitions, which induce fierce distraction, 
Job himself would become irritable, insanely furious, 
and choleric. A man in such a state regards himself 
as the focus of all miseries. When recovered, he feels 
chastened, becomes urbane and ludicrously amiable, he 
conjures up fictitious delights from all things which, but 
yesterday, possessed for him such awful portentous 
aspects. His men he regards with love and friendship ; 
whatever is trite he views with ecstasy. Nature appears 
charming ; in the dead woods and monotonous forest his 
mind becomes overwhelmed with delight. I speak for 
myself, as a careful analysation of the attack, in all it& 
severe, plaintive, and silly phases, appeared to me. I 
used to amuse myself with taking notes of the humorous 
and the terrible, the fantastic and exaggerated pictures 
that were presented to me even while suffering the 
paroxysms induced by fever. 

We arrived at a large pool, known as the Ziwani, 
alter a four hours' inarch in a S.S.W. direction the 1st 



of October. We discovered an old half-burnt khambi, 
sheltered by a magnificent inkuyu (sycamore), the giant 
of the forests of Unyamwezi, which after an hour we trans- 
formed into a splendid camp. 

If I recollect rightly, the stem of the tree measured 
thirty-eight feet in circumference. It is the finest tree 
of its kind I have seen in Africa. A regiment might 


with perfect ease have reposed under this enormous 
dome of foliage during a noon halt. The diameter of 
the shadow it cast on the ground was one hundred and 
twenty feet. The healthful vigor that I was enjoying 
about this time enabled me to regard my surroundings 
admiringly. A feeling of comfort and perfect content- 


ment took possession of me, such as I knew not while 
fretting at Unyanyembe, wearing my life away in 
inactivity. I talked with my people as to my friends 
and equals. We argued with each other about our 
prospects in quite a companionable, sociable vein. 

When daylight was dying, and the sun was sinking 
down rapidly over the western horizon, vividly paint- 
ing the sky with the colors of gold and silver, saffron, 
and opal, when its rays and gorgeous tints were reflected 
upon the tops of the everlasting forest, with the quiet 
and holy calm of heaven resting upon all around, and 
infusing even into the untutored minds of those about me 
the exquisite enjoyments of such a life as we were now 
leading in the depths of a great expanse of forest, the 
only and sole human occupants of it this was the time, 
after our day's work was ended, and the camp was in a 
state of perfect security, when we all would produce our 
pipes, and could best enjoy the labors which we had 
performed, and the contentment which follows a work 
well done. 

Outside nothing is heard beyond the cry of a stray 
florican, or guinea-fowl, which has lost her mate, or the 
hoarse croaking of the frogs in the pool hard by, or the 
song of the crickets which seems to lull the day to rest ; 
inside our camp are heard the gurgles of the gourd pipes 
as the men inhale the blue ether, which I also love. I 
am contented and happy, stretched on my carpet under 
the dome of living foliage, smoking my short meerschaum, 
indulging in thoughts despite the beauty of the still 
grey light of the sky, and of the air of serenity which 
prevails around of home and friends in distant America, 
and these thoughts soon change to my work yet in- 
complete * to the man who to me is yet a myth, who, fcr 


all I knew, may be dead, or may be near or far from me 
tramping through just such a forest, whose tops I see 
bound the view outside my camp. We are both on the 
same soil, perhaps in the same forest who knows? 
yet is he to me so far removed that he might as well be 
in his own little cottage of Ulva. Though I am even 
now ignorant of his very existence, yet I feel a certain 
complacency, a certain satisfaction which would be 
difficult to describe. Why is man so feeble, and weak, 
that he must tramp, tramp hundreds of miles to satisfy 
the doubts his impatient and uncurbed mind feels ? Why 
cannot my form accompany the bold flights of my mind 
and satisfy the craving 1 feel to resolve the vexed 
question that ever rises to my lips " Is he alive ?" 
soul of mine, be patient, thou hast a felicitous tran- 
quillity, which other men might envy thee! Sufficient 
for the hour is the consciousness thou hast that thy 
mission is a holy one ! Onward, and be hopeful ! 

Monday, the 2nd of October, found us traversing the 
forest and plain that extends from the Ziwani to Manyara, 
which occupied us six and a half hours. The sun was 
intensely hot; but the mtundu and miombo trees grew 
at intervals, just enough to admit free growth to each 
tree, while the blended foliage formed a grateful shade. 
The path was clear and easy, the tamped and firm red 
soil offered no obstructions. The only provocation we 
suffered was from the attacks of the tsetse, or panga 
(sword) fly, which swarmed here. We knew we were 
approaching an extensive habitat of game, and we were 
constantly on the alert for any specimens that might be 
nhabiting these forests. 

While we were striding onward, at the rate of nearly 
three miles an hour, the caravan I perceived sheered off 


from the road, resuming it about fifty yards ahead of 
something on the road, to which the attention of the 
men was directed. On coming up, I found the object to 
be the dead body of a man, who had fallen a victim to 
that fearful scourge of Africa, the small-pox. He was 
one of Oseto's gang of marauders, or guerillas, in the 
Bervice of Mkasiwa of Unyanyembe, who were hunting 
these forests for the guerillas of Mirambo. They had 
been returning from Ukonongo from a raid they had 
instituted against the Sultan of Mbogo, and they had 
left their comrade to perish in the road. He had appa- 
rently been only one day dead. 

Apropos of this, it was a frequent thing with us to 
discover a skeleton or a skull on the roadside. Almost 
every day we saw one, sometimes two, of these relics' of 
dead, and forgotten humanity. 

Shortly after this we emerged from the forest, and 
entered a mbuga, or plain, in which we saw a couple of 
giraffes, whose long necks were seen towering above a 
bush they had been nibbling at. This sight was greeted 
with a shout ; for we now knew we had entered the game 
country, and that near the Gombe creek, or river, where 
we intended to halt, we should see plenty of these animals. 

A walk of three hours over this hot plain brought us 
to the cultivated fields of Manyara. Arriving before 
the village-gate, we were forbidden to enter, as the 
country was throughout in a state of war, and it be- 
hoved them to be very careful of admitting any party, 
lest the villagers might be compromised. We were, 
however, directed to a kharnbi to the right of the 
village, near some pools of clear water, where we dis- 
covered some half dozen ruined huts, which looked very 
uncomfortable to tired people. 


After we had built our camp, the kirangozi was fur- 
Dished with some cloths to purchase food from the village 
for the transit of a wilderness in front of us, which was 
said to extend nine marches, or 135 miles. He was 
informed that the Mtemi had strictly prohibited his 
people from selling any grain whatever. 

This evidently was a case wherein the exercise of a 
little diplomacy could only he effective ; because it would 
detain us several days here, if we were compelled to send 
men back to Kikuru for provisions. Opening a bale of 
choice goods, I selected two royal cloths, and told Bombay 
to carry them to him, with the compliments and friend- 
ship of the white man. The Sultan sulkily refused them, 
and bade him return to the white man and tell him not 
to bother him. Entreaties were of no avail, he would 
not relent ; and the men, in exceedingly bad temper, and 
hungry, were obliged to go to bed suppeness. The 
words of Njara, a slave-trader, and parasite of the great 
Sheikh bin Nasib, recurred to me. " Ah, master, master, 
you will find the people will be too much for you, and 
that you will have to return. The Wa-manyara are bad, 
the Wakonongo are very bad, the Wazavira are the worst 
of all. You have come to this country at a bad time. It 
is war everywhere." And, indeed, judging from the tenor 
of the conversations around our camp-fires, it seemed but 
too evident. There was every prospect of a general 
decamp of all my people. However, I told them not tc 
be discouraged ; that I would get food for them in the 

The bale of choice cloths was opened again next 
morning, and four royal cloths were this time selected, 
and two dotis of Merikani, and Bombay was again de- 
spatched, burdened with compliments, and polite words, 


It was necessary to be very politic with a man who was 
so surly, and too powerful to make an enemy of. What 
if he made up his mind to imitate the redoubtable 
Mirambo, King of Uyoweh ! The effect of my munificent 
liberality was soon seen in the abundance of provender 
which came to my camp. Before an hour went by, there 
came boxes full of choroko, beans, rice, matama or dourra, 
and Indian corn, carried on the heads of a dozen villagers, 
and shortly after the Mtemi himself came, followed by 
about thirty musketeers and twenty spearmen, to visit 
the first white man ever seen on this road. Behind these 
warriors came a liberal gift, fully equal in value to that 
sent to him, of several large gourds of honey, fowls, goats, 
and enough vetches and beans to supply my men with 
four days' food. 

I met the chief at the gate of my caip, and bowing 
profoundly, invited him to my tent, which I had arranged 
as well as my circumstances would permit, for this recep- 
tion. My Persian carpet and bear skin were spread out, 
and a broad piece of bran-new crimson cloth covered my 
kitanda, or bedstead. 

The chief, a tall robust man, and his chieftains, were 
invited to seat themselves. They cast a look of such 
gratified surprise at myself, at my face, my clothes, and 
guns, as is almost " impossible to describe. They looked 
at me intently for a few seconds, and then at each other, 
which ended in an uncontrollable burst of laughter, and 
repeated snappings of the fingers. They spoke the 
Kinyamwezi language, and my interpreter Maganga was 
requested to inform the chief of the great delight I felt 
in seeing them. After a short period expended in inter- 
changing compliments, and a competitive excellence at 
laughing at one another, their chief desired me to *ho>? 



him my guns. The " sixteen-shooter," the Winchester 
rifle, elicited a thousand nattering observations from 
the excited man; and the tiny deadly revolvers, whose 
beauty and workmanship they thought were superhuman, 
evoked such gratified eloquence that I was fain to try 
something else. The double-barrelled guns fired with heavy 
charges of power, caused them to jump up in affected 
alarm, and then to subside into their seats convulsed 
with laughter. As the enthusiasm of my guests increased, 
they seized each other's index fingers, screwed them, and 
pulled at them until I feared they would end in their 
dislocation. After having explained to them the diffe- 
rence between white men and Arabs, I pulled out my 
medicine chest, which evoked another burst of rapturous 
sighs at the cunning neatness of the array of vials. He 
asked what they meant. 

" Dowa," I replied sententiously, a word which may be 
interpreted medicine. 

"Oh-h, oh-h," they murmured admiringly. I suc- 
ceeded, before long, in winning unqualified admiration, 
and my superiority, compared to the best of the Arabs 
they had seen, was but too evident. " Dowa, dowa," they 

" Here," said I, uncorking a vial of medicinal brandy, 
" is the Kisungu pombe " (white man's beer) ; " take a 
spoonful and try it," at the same time handing it. 

" Hacht, hacht, oh, hacht, ! what ! eh ! what strong 
beer the white men have ! Oh, how my throat burns !" 

" Ah, but it is good," said I, " a little of it makes men 
feel strong, and good ; but too much of it makes men bad, 
and they die." 

"Let me have some," said one of the chiefs; "and 
me," " and me," "and me," as soon as each had tasted. 


" I next produced a bottle of concentrated ammonia, 
which as I explained was for snake bites, and head-aches ; 
the Sultan immediately complained he had a head-ache, 
and must have a little. Telling him to close his eyes, I 
suddenly uncorked the bottle, and presented it to His 
Majesty's nose. The effect was magical, for he fell back 
as if shot, and such contortions as his features underwent 
are indescribable. His chiefs roared with laughter, and 
clapped their hands, pinched each other, snapped their 
fingers, and committed many other ludicrous things. I 
verily believe if such a scene were presented on any stage 
in the world the effect of it would be visible instan- 
taneously on the audience; that had they seen it as I 
saw it, they would have laughed themselves to hysteria 
and madness. Finally the Sultan recovered himself, 
great tears rolling down his cheeks, and his features 
quivering with laughter, then he slowly uttered the word 
" kali," hot, strong, quick, or ardent medicine. He 
required no more, but the other chiefs pushed forward to 
get one wee sniff, which they no sooner had, than all 
went into paroxysms of uncontrollable laughter. The 
entire morning was passed in this state visit, to the 
mutual satisfaction of all concerned. "Oh," said the 
Sultan at parting, " these white men know everything, 
the Arabs are dirt compared to them !" 

That night Hamdallah, one of the guides, deserted, 
carrying with him his hire (27 doti), and a gun. It was 
useless to follow him in the morning, as it would have 
detained me many more days than I could afford; but 
I mentally vowed that Mr. Hamdallah should work out 
those 27 doti of cloths before I reached the coast. 

Wednesday, October 4th, saw us travelling to the 
Gtombe River, which is 4 h. 15 m. march from Manyara. 


We had barely left the waving cornfields of my friend 
Ma-manyara before we came in sight of a herd of noble 
zebra ; two hours afterwards we had entered a grand and 
noble expanse of park land, whose glorious magnificence 
and vastness of prospect, with a far-stretching carpet 01 
verdure darkly flecked here and there by miniature clumps 
of jungle, with spreading trees growing here and there, 
was certainly one of the finest scenes to be seen in Africa. 
Added to which, as I surmounted one of the numerous 
small knolls, I saw herds after herds of buffalo and zebra, 
giraffe and antelope, which sent the blood coursing 
through my veins in the excitement of the moment, as 
when I first landed on African soil. We crept along the 
plain noiselessly to our camp on the banks of the sluggish 
waters of the Gombe. 

Here at last was the hunter's Paradise ! How petty 
aud insignificant appeared my hunts after small antelope 
and wild boar, what a foolish waste of energies those long 
walks through damp grasses and through thorny jungles ! 
Did I not well remember my first bitter experience in 
African jungles when in the maritime region ! But this 
where is the nobleman's park that can match this 
scene ? Here is a soft, velvety expanse of young grass, 
grateful shade under those spreading clumps ; herds oi 
large and varied game browsing within easy rifle range. 
Surely I must feel amply compensated now for the long 
southern detour I have made, when such a prospect as 
this opens to the view ! No thorny jungles and rank 
smelling swamps are here to daunt the hunter, and to 
sicken his aspirations after true sport ! No hunter could 
aspire after a nobler field to display his prowess. 

Having settled the position of the camp, which over- 
looked one of the pools found in the depression of ths 


Gcmbe creek, I took my double-barrelled smooth-bore, 
ynd sauntered off to the park-land. Emerging from 
behind a clump, three fine plump spring-bok were seen 
browsing on the young grass just within one hundred 
yards. I knelt down and fired ; one unfortunate ante- 
lope bounded upward instinctively, and fell dead. Its 
companions sprang high into the air, taking leaps about 
twelve feet in length, as if they were quadrupeds prac- 
tising gymnastics, and away they vanished, rising up 
like India-rubber balls, until a knoll hid them from view. 
My success was hailed with loud shouts by the soldiers, 
who came running out from the camp as soon as they 
heard the reverberation of the gun, and my gun-bearei 
had his knife at the beast's throat, uttering a fervent " Bis- 
millah !" as he almost severed the head from the body. 

Hunters were now directed to proceed east and north 
to procure meat, because in each caravan it generally 
happens that there are fundi, whose special trade it is 
to hunt for meat for the camp. Some of these are 
experts in stalking, but often find themselves in dan- 
gerous positions, owing to the near approach necessary, 
before they can fire ''heir most inaccurate weapons with 
any certainty. 

After luncheon, consisting of spring-bok steak, hot 
corn cake, and a cup of delicious Mocha coffee, I strolled 
towards the south-west, accompanied by Kalulu and 
Majwara, two boy gun-bearers. The tiny perpusilla 
started up like rabbits from me as I stole along through 
the underbrush ; the honey-bird hopped from tree to tree 
chirping its call, as if it thought I was seeking the little 
sweet treasure, the hiding-place of which it only knew; 
but no ! I neither desired perpusilla nor the honey. I 
was on the search for something gtdat this day. Keen- 

262 HOW i FOUND 

eyed fish-eagles and bustards poised on trees above the 
sinuous Gombe thought, and probably with good reason 
that I was after them ; judging by the ready flight with 
which both species disappeared as they sighted my ap- 
proach. Ah, no! nothing but hartebeest, zebra, giraffe, 
eland, and buffalo this day ! After following the Gombe's 
course for about a mile, delighting my eyes with long 
looks at the broad and lenghty reaches of water to which 
I was so long a stranger, I came upon a scene which 
delighted the innermost recesses of my soul; five, six, 
seven, eight, ten zebras switching their beautiful striped 
bodies, and biting one another, within about one hundred 
and fifty yards. The scene was so pretty, so romantic, 
never did I so thoroughly realize that I was in Centra] 
Africa. I felt momentarily proud that I owned such a 
vast domain, inhabited with such noble beasts. Here I 
possessed, within reach of a leaden ball, any one I chose 
of the beautiful animals, the pride of the African forests ! 
It was at my option to shoot any of them ! Mine they 
were without money or without price ; yet, knowing this, 
twice I dropped my rifle, loth to wound the royal beasts, 
but crack ! and a royal one was on his back battling the 
air with his legs. Ah, it was such a pity ! but, hasten, 
draw the keen sharp-edged knife across the beautiful 
stripes which fold around the throat ; and what an ugly 
gash ! it is done, and 1 have a superb animal at my feet, 
Hurrah ! I shall taste of Ukonongo zebra to-night. 

I thought a spring-bok and zebra enough for one day's 
sport, especially after a long march. The Gombe, a long 
stretch of deep water, winding in and out of green groves, 
calm, placid, with lotus leaves lightly resting on its 
surface, all pretty, picturesque, peaceful as a summer's 
dream, looked very inviting for a bath. I sought out the 


most shady spot under a wide-spreading mimosa, fron. 
which the ground sloped smooth as a lawn, to the still, 
clear water. I ventured to undress, and had already 
stepped in to my ancles in the water, and had brought 
my hands together for a glorious dive, when my attention 
was attracted hy an enormously long hody which shot into 
view, occupying the spot beneath the surface that I was 
about to explore by a " header." Great heavens, it was 
a crocodile ! I sprang backward instinctively, and this 
proved my salvation, for the monster turned away with 
the most disappointed look, and I was left to congratulate 
myself upon my narrow escape from his jaws, and to 
register a vow never to be tempted again by the 
treacherous calm of an African river. 

As soon as I had dressed I turned away from the now 
repulsive aspect of the stream. In strolling through the 
jungle, towards my camp, I detected the forms of two 
natives looking sharply about them, and, after bidding 
my young attendants to preserve perfect quiet, I crept on 
towards them, and, by the aid of a thick clump of under- 
bush, managed to arrive within a few feet of the natives 
undetected. Their mere presence in the immense forest, 
unexplained, was a cause of uneasiness in the then dis- 
turbed state of the country, and my intention was to 
show myself suddenly to them, and note its effect, which, 
if it betokened anything hostile to the Expedition, could 
without difficulty be settled at once, with the aid of my 
double-barrelled smooth-bore. 

As I arrived on one side of this bush, the two suspi- 
cious-looking natives arrived on the other side, and we 
were separated by only a few feet. I made a bound, and 
we were face to face. The natives cast a glance at the 
Budden figure of a white man, and seemed petrified for a 


moment, but then, recovering themselves, they shrieked 
out, " Bana, bana, you don't know us. We are Wakoncngo, 
who came to your camp to accompany you to Mrera, and 
we are looking for honey." 

"Oh, to be sure, you are the Wakonongo. Yes Yes. 
Ah, it is all right now, I thought you might be Kuga-Kuga." 

So the two parties, instead of being on hostile terms 
with each other, burst out laughing. The Wakonongo 
enjoyed it very much, and laughed heartily as they 
proceeded on their way to search for the wild honey. 
On a piece of bark they carried a little fire with which 
they smoked the bees out from their nest in the great 
mtundu- trees. 

The adventures of the day were over ; the azure of the 
sky had changed to a dead grey ; the moon was appearing 
just over the trees ; the water of the Grombe was like a 
silver belt; hoarse frogs bellowed their notes loudly by 
the margin of the creek ; the fish-eagles uttered their 
dirge-like cries as they were perched high on the tallest 
tree ; elands snorted their warning to the herds in the 
forest ; stealthy forms of the carnivora stole through the 
dark woods outside of our camp. Within the high in- 
closure of bush and thorn, which we had raised around 
our camp, all was jollity, laughter, and radiant, genial 
comfort. Around every camp-fire dark forms of men 
were seen squatted : one man gnawed at a luscious bone ; 
another sucked the rich marrow in a zebra's leg-bone; 
another turned the stick, garnished with huge kabobs, to 
the bright blaze ; another held a large rib over a flame ; 
there were others busy stirring industriously great black 
potfuls of ugali, and watching anxiously the meat simmer- 
ing, and the soup bubbling, while the fire-light flickered 
and danced bravely, and cast a bright glow over the 

tO MilfiRA, UKONONOO. 266 

naked forms of the men, and gave a crimson tinge to the 
tall tent that rose in the centre of the camp, like a temple 
bucred to some mysterious god; the fires cast their re- 
flections upon the massive arms of the trees, as they 
oranched over our camp, and, in the dark gloom of their 
foliage, the most fantastic shadows were visible. Alto 
gcther it was a wild, romantic, nnd impressive scene 
But little recked my men for shadows and moonlight, for 
crimson tints, and temple-like tents they were all busy 
relating their various experiences, arid gorging themselves 
with the rich meats our guns had obtained for us. One 
was telling how he had stalked a wild boar, and the 
furious onset the wounded animal made on him, causing 
him to drop his gun, and climb a tree, and the terrible 
grunt of the beast he well remembered, and the whole 
welkin rang with the peals of laughter which his mimic 
powers evoked. Another had shot a buffalo-calf, and 
another had bagged a hartebeest ; the Wakonongo related 
their laughable rencontre with me in the woods, and were 
lavish in their description of the stores of honey to be 
found in the woods; and all this time Selim and his 
youthful subs were trying their sharp teeth on the meat 
of a young pig which one of the hunters had shot, but 
which nobody else would eat, because of the Mohammedan 
aversion to pig, which they had acquired during their 
transformation from negro savagery to the useful docility 
of the Zanzibar freed-man. 

We halted the two following days, and made frequent 
raids on the herds of this fine country. The first day I 
was fairly successful again in the sport. I bagged a 
couple of antelopes, a kudu (A. strepsiceros) with fine 
twisting horns, and a pallah-buck (A. melampus), a reddish- 
brown animal, standing about three and a half feet, with 


bread posteriors. I might have succeeded in getting 
dozens of animals had I any of those accurate, heavy 
rifles manufactured by Lancaster, Keilly, or Blissett, whose 
every shot tells. But my weapons, save my light smooth- 
bore, were unfit for African game. My weapons were 
more for men. With the Winchester rifle, and the Starr's 
carbine, I was able to hit anything within two hundred 
yards, but the animals, though wounded, invariably 
managed to escape the knife, until I was disgusted with 
the pea-bullets. What is wanted for this country is a 
heavy bore No. 10 or 12 is the real bone crusher that 
will drop every animal shot, in its tracks, by which all 
fatigue and disappointment are avoided. Several times 
during these two days was I disappointed after most 
laborious stalking and creeping along the ground. Once 
I came suddenly upon an eland while I had a Winchester 
rifle in my hand the eland and myself mutually as- 
tonished at not more than twenty-five yards apart. I 
fired at its chest, and bullet, true to its aim, sped far 
into the internal parts, and the blood spouted from the 
wound: in a few minutes he was far away, and I was 
too much disappointed to follow him. All love of the 
chase seemed to be dying away before these several 
mishaps. What were two antelopes for one day's sport 
to the thousands that browsed over the plain ? 

The animals taken to camp during our three days' sport 
were two buffaloes, two wild boar, three hartebeest, one 
zebra, and one pallah; besides which, were shot eight 
guinea-fowls, three florican, two fish-eagles, one pelican, 
and one of the men caught a couple of large silurus fish. 
In the meantime the people had cut, sliced, and dried 
this bounteous store of meat for our transit through the 
long wilderness before us. 


Saturday tide 7th day of October, we broke up camp, 
to the great regret of the meat-loving, gormandizing 
Wangwana. They delegated Bombay early in the morning 
to speak to me, and entreat of me to stop one day longer. 
It was ever the case ; they had always an unconquerable 
aversion to work, when in presence of meat. Bombay 
was well scolded for bearing any such request to me after 
two days' rest, during which time they had been filled to 
repletion with meat. And Bombay was by no means in the 
best of humour ; flesh-pots full of meat were more to his 
taste than a constant tramping, and its consequent 
fatigues. I saw his face settle into sulky ugliness, and 
his great nether lip hanging down limp, which meant 
as if expressed in so many words, " Well, get them 
t ,) move yourself, you wicked hard man ! I shall no 
Aelp you." 

An ominous silence followed my order to the kirangozi 
to sound the horn, and the usual singing and chanting 
ffere not heard. The men turned sullenly to their bales, 
and Asmani, the gigantic guide, our fundi, was heard 
grumblingly to say he was sorry he had engaged to guide 
me to the Tanganika. However, they started, though 
reluctantly. I stayed behind with my gunbearers, to 
drive the stragglers on. In about half an hour I sighted 
the caravan at a dead stop, with the bales thrown on the 
ground, and the men standing in groups conversing 
angrily and excitedly. 

Taking my double-barrelled gun from Selim's shoulder, 
I selected a dozen charges of buck-shot, and slipping two 
of them into the barrels, and adjusting my revolvers in 
order for handy work, I walked on towards them. I 
noticed that the men seized their guns, as I advanced. 
When within thirty yards of the groups, I discovered tho 


heads of two men appear above an anthill on my left, 
with the barrels of their guns carelessly pointed toward 
the road. 

I halted, threw the barrel of my gun into the hollow 
of the left hand, and then, taking a deliberate aim at 
them, threatened to blow their heads off if they did not 
come forward to talk to me. These two men were, 
gigantic Asmani and his sworn companion Mabruki, the 
guides of Sheikh bin Nasib. As it was dangerous not to 
comply with such an order, they presently came, but, 
keeping my eye on Asmani, I saw him move his fingers 
to the trigger of his gun, and bring his gun to a " ready." 
Again I lifted my gun, and threatened him with instant 
death, if he did not drop his gun. 

Asmani came on in a sidelong way with a smirking 
smile on his face, but in his eyes shone the lurid light of 
murder, as plainly as ever it shone in a villain's eyes. 
Mabruki sneaked to my rear, deliberately putting powder 
in the pan of his musket, but sweeping the gun sharply 
round, I planted the muzzle of it at about two feet 
from his wicked-looking face, and ordered him to drop 
his gun instantly. He let it fall from his hand 
quickly, and giving him a vigorous poke in the breast 
with my gun, which sent him reeling away a few feet 
from me, I faced round to Asmani, and ordered him to 
put his gun down, accompanying it with a nervous move- 
ment of my gun, pressing gently on the trigger at the 
same time. Never was a man nearer his death than was 
Asmani during those few moments. I was reluctant to 
Bhed his blood, and I was willing to try all possible means 
to avoid doing so ; but if I did not succeed in cowing this 
niffian, authority was at an end. The truth was, they 
leared to proceed further on the road, and the only 
possible way of inducing them to move was by an over- 


powering force, and exercise of my power and will in this 
instance, even though he might pay the penalty of his 
disobedience with death. As I was beginning to feel that 
Asmani had passed his last moment on earth, as he was 
lifting his gun to his shoulder, a form came up from 
behind him, and swept his gun aside with an impatient, 
nervous movement, and I heard Mabruki Burton say in 
horror-struck accents : 

" Man, how dare you point your gun at the master ? " 
Mabruki then threw himself at my feet, and endeavoured 
to kiss them and entreated me not to punish him. " It 
was all over now," he said ; " there would be no more 
quarreling, they would all go as far as the Tanganika, 
without any more noise ; and Inshallah !" said he, " we 
shall find the old Musungu * at Ujiji." 

" Speak, men, freedmen, shall we not? shall we not 
go to the Tanganika without any more trouble ? tell the 
master with one voice." 

" Ay Wallah ! Ay Wallah ! Bana yango ! Hamuna 
manneno mgini !" which literally translated means, " Yes 
by God ! Yes by God ! ray master ! There are no other 
words," said each man loudly. 

"Ask the master's pardon, man, or go thy way," said 
Mabruki peremptorily, to Asmani : which Asmani did, to 
the gratification of us all. 

It remained for me only to extend a general pardon to 
all except to Bombay and Ambari, the instigators of the 
mutiny, which was now happily quelled. For Bombay 
could have by a word, as my captain, nipped all mani- 
festation of bad temper at the outset, had he been so 
disposed. But no, Bombay was more averse to marching 

* Livingstone. 


than the cowardliest of his fellows, not because he waa 
cowardly, but because he loved indolence. 

Again the word was given to march, and each man, 
with astonishing alacrity, seized his load, and filed of! 
quickly out of sight. 

While on this subject, I may as well give here a sketch 
of each of the principal men whose names must often 
appear in the following chapters. According to rank, 
they consist of Bombay, Mabruki Burton, Asmani the 
guide, Chowpereh, Ulimengo, Khamisi, Ambari, Jumah, 
Ferajji the cook, Maganga the Mnyamwezi, Selim the 
Arab boy, and youthful Kalulu a gunbearer. 

Bombay has received an excellent charater from Burton 
and Speke. "Incarnation of honesty" Burton grandly 
terms him. The truth is, Bombay was neither very 
honest nor very dishonest, i.e., he did not venture to 
steal much. He sometimes contrived cunningly, as he 
distributed the meat, to hide a very large share for his 
own use. This peccadillo of his did not disturb me 
much; he deserved as captain a larger share than the 
others. He required to be closely watched, and when 
aware that this was the case, he seldom ventured to 
appropriate more cloth than I would have freely given 
him, had he asked for it. As a personal servant, or valet, 
he would have been unexceptionable, but as a captain or 
jemadar over his fellows, he was out of his proper sphere. 
It was too much brain-work, and was too productive of 
anxiety to keep him in order. At times he was helplessly 
imbecile in his movements, forgot every order the moment 
it was given him, consistently broke or lost some valuable 
article, was fond of argument, and addicted to bluster. 
He thinks Hajji Abdullah one of the wickedest white men 
born, because he saw him pick up mon's skulls and put 


them in sacks, as if he was about to prepare a horrible 
medicine with them. He wanted to know whether his 
former master had written down all he himself did, and 
when told that Burton had not said anything, in his books 
upon the Lake Kegions, upon collecting skulls at Kilwa, 
thought I would be doing a good work if I published this 
important fact.* Bombay intends to make a pilgrimage 
to visit Spoke's grave some day. 

Mabruki, " Kas-bukra Mabruki," Bull-headed Mabruki, 
as Burton calls him, is a sadly abused man in my 
opinion. Mabruki, though stupid, is faithful. He is 
entirely out of his element as valet, he might as well be 
clerk. As a watchman he is invaluable, as a second 
captain or fundi, whose duty it is to bring up stragglers, 
he is superexcellent. He is ugly and vain, but he is no 

Asmani the guide is a large fellow, standing over six 
feet, with the neck and shoulders of a Hercules. Besides 
being guide, he is a fundi, sometimes called Fundi Asmani, 
or hunter. A very superstitious man, who takes great 
care of his gun, and talismanic plaited cord, which he has 
dipped in the blood of all the animals he has ever shot. 
He is afraid of lions, and will never venture out where 
lions are known to be. All other animals he regards as 
game, and is indefatigable in their pursuit. He is seldom 
Been without an apologetic or a treacherous smile on 
his face. He could draw a knife across a man's throat 
and still smile. 

Chowpereh is a sturdy short man of thirty or there- 

* I find upon returning to England, that Capt. Burton has informed 
the world of this " wicked and abominable deed," in his hook upon 
Zanzibar, and that the interesting collection may be see^i at %he Royal 
College of Surgeons, London. 



abouts ; very good-natured, and humorous. When Chow- 
pereh speaks in his dry Mark Twain style, the whole 
camp laughs. I never quarrel with Chowpereh, never 
did quarrel with him. A kind word given to Chowpereh 
is sure to be reciprocated with a good deed. He is the 
strongest, the healthiest, the amiablest, the faithfulest of 
all. He is the embodiment of a good follower. 

Khamisi is a neat, cleanly boy of twenty, or there- 
abouts, active, loud-voiced, a boaster, and the cowardliest 
of the cowardly. He will steal at every opportunity. 
He clings to his gun most affectionately; is always ex- 
cessively anxious if a screw gets loose, or if a flint will 
not strike fire, yet I doubt that he would be able to fire 
his gun at an enemy from excessive trembling. Khamisi 
would rather trust his safety to his feet, which are small, 
and well shaped. 

Ambari is a man of about forty. He is one of the 
"Faithfuls" of Speke, and one of my Faithfuls. He 
would not run away from me except when in the presence 
of an enemy, and imminent personal danger. He is 
clever in his way, but is not sufficiently clever to enact 
the part of captain could take charge of a small party, 
and give a very good account of them. Is lazy, and an 
admirer of good living abhors marching, unless he has 
nothing to carry but his gun. 

Jumah is the best abused man of the party, because he 
has old-womanish ways with him, yet in his old-womanish 
ways he is disposed to do the best he can for me, though 
he will not carry a pound in weight without groaning 
terribly at his hard fate. To me he is sentimental and 
pathetic ; to the unimportant members of the caravan he 
is stern and uncompromising. But the truth is, that 1 
could well dispense with Jumah's presence : he was one 


of the incorrigible inutiles, eating far more than he was 
worth ; besides being an excessively grumbling and que- 
rulous fool. 

Ulimengo, a strong stalwart fellow of thirty, was the 
maddest and most hare-brained of my party. Though an 
arrant coward, he was a consummate boaster. But though 
a devotee of pleasure and fun, he was not averse from 
work. With one hundred men such as he, I could travel 
through Africa provided there was no fighting to do. It 
will be remembered that he was the martial coryphaeus 
who led my little army to war against Mirambo, chanting 
the battle-song of the Wangwana ; and that I stated, that 
when the retreat was determined upon, he was the first 
of my party to reach the stronghold of Mfuto. He is a 
swift runner, and a fair hunter. I have been indebted to 
him on several occasions for a welcome addition to my 

Ferajji, a former dish-washer to Speke, was my cook. 
He was promoted to this office upon the defection of 
Bunder Salaam, and the extreme non-fitness of Abdul 
Kader. For cleaning dishes, the first corn-cob, green 
twig, a bunch of leaves or grass, answered Ferajji's 
purposes in the absence of a cloth. If I ordered a plate, 
and I pointed out a black, greasy, sooty thurnbmark to 
him, a rub of a finger Ferajji thought sufficient to remove 
all objections. If I hinted that a spoon was rather dirty, 
Ferajji fancied that with a little saliva, and a rub of his 
loin cloth, the most fastidious ought to be satisfied. 
Every pound of meat, and every three spoonfuls of musk 
or porridge I ate in Africa, contained at least ten grains 
of sand. Ferajji was considerably exercised at a threat I 
made to him that on arrival at Zanzibar, I would get the 
great English doctor there to open my stomach, and count 


every grain of sand found in it, for each grain of which 
Ferajji should he charged one dollar. The consciousness 
that my stomach must contain a large number, for which 
the forfeits would he heavy, made him feel very sad at 
times. Otherwise, Ferajji was a good cook, most in- 
dustrious, if not accomplished. He could produce a cup 
of tea, and three or four hot pancakes, within ten minutes 
after a halt was ordered, for which I was most grateful, 
as I was almost always hungry after a long march. 
Ferajji sided with Baraka against Bombay in Unyoro, 
and when Speke took Bombay's side of the question, 
Ferajji, out of love for Baraka, left Speke's service, and so 
forfeited his pay. 

Maganga was a Mnyamwezi, a native of Mkwenkwe, a 
strong, faithful servant, an excellent pagazi, with an irre- 
proachable temper. He it was who at all times, on the 
march, started the wildly exuberant song of the Wan- 
yamwezi porters, which, no matter how hot the sun, or 
how long the march, was sure to produce gaiety and 
animation among the people. At such times all hands 
sang, sang with voices that could be heard miles away, 
which made the great forests ring with the sounds, which 
startled every animal big or little, for miles around. On 
approaching a village the temper of whose people might 
be hostile to us, Maganga would commence his song, with 
the entire party joining in ffche chorus, by which mode we 
knew whether the natives were disposed to be friendly or 
hostile. If hostile, or timid, the gates would at once be 
closed, and dark faces would scowl at us from the interior; 
if friendly, they rushed outside of their gates to welcome 
us, or to exchange friendly remarks. 

An important member of the Expedition was Selim, the 
young Arab. Without some one who spoke good 


I could not have obtained the friendship of the chief 
Arabs in Unyanyembe ; neither could I have well com- 
municated with them, for though I understood Arabic, I 
could not speak it. 

I have already related how Kalulu came to be in my 
service, and how he came to bear his present name. I 
soon found how apt and quick he was to learn, in con- 
sequence of which, he was promoted to the rank of 
personal attendant. Even Selim could not vie with 
Kalulu in promptness and celerity, or in guessing my 
wants at the table. His little black eyes were constantly 
roving over the dishes, studying out the problem of what 
was further necessary, or had become unnecessary. 

We arrived at the Ziwani, in about 4 h. 30 m. from the 
time of our quitting the scene which had well-nigh 
witnessed a sanguinary conflict. The Ziwani, or pool, 
contained no water, not a drop, until the parched tongues 
of my people warned them that they must proceed and 
excavate for water. This excavation was performed (by 
means of strong hard sticks sharply pointed) in the dry 
hard-caked bottom. After digging to a depth of six feet 
their labours were rewarded with the sight of a few drops 
of muddy liquid percolating through the sides, which were 
eagerly swallowed to relieve their raging thirst. Some 
voluntarily started with buckets, gourds, and canteens 
south to a deserted clearing called the " Tongoni " in 
Ukamba, and in about three hours returned with a 
plentiful supply for immediate use, of good and clear water. 

In 1 h. 30 m. we arrived at this Tongoni, or deserted 
clearing of the Wakamba. Here were three or four 
villages burnt, and an extensive clearing desolate, the 
work of the Wa-Euga-Euga of Mirambo. Those of the 
inhabitants who were left, after the spoliation 


complete destruction of the flourishing settlement, 
emigrated westerly to Ugara. A large herd of buffalo 
QOW slake their thirst at the pool which supplied the 
villages of Ukamba with water. 

Great masses of iron haematite cropped up above 
the surfaces in these forests. Wild fruit began to be 
abundant ; the wood-apple and tamarind and a small 
plum-like fruit, furnished us with many an agreeable 

The honey-bird is very frequent in these forests of 
Ukonongo. Its cry is a loud, quick chirrup. The 
Wakonongo understand how to avail themselves of its 
guidance to the sweet treasure of honey which the wild 
bees have stored in the cleft of some great tree. Daily, 
the Wakonongo who had joined our caravan brought 
me immense cakes of honey-comb, containing delicious 
white and red honey. The red honey-comb generally 
contains large numbers of dead bees, but our exceedingly 
gluttonous people thought little of 'these. They not only 
ate the honey-bees, but they also ate a good deal 
of the wax. 

As soon as the honey-bird descries the traveller, he 
immediately utters a series of wild, excited cries, hops 
about from twig to twig, and from branch to branch, 
then hops to another tree, incessantly repeating his 
chirruping call. The native, understanding the nature 
of the little bird, unhesitatingly follows him; but per- 
haps his steps are too slow for the impatient caller, upon 
which he flies back, urging him louder, more impatient 
cries, to hasten, and then darts swiftly forward, as if h 
would show how quickly he could go to the honey-store, 
until at last the treasure is reached, the native has 
applied fire to the bees' nest, and secured the honey, 


wliile the little bird preens himself, and chirrups in 
triumphant notes, as if he were informing the biped 
that without his aid he never could have found the 

Buffalo gnats and tsetse were very troublesome on this 
march, owing to the numerous herds of game in the 

On the 9th of October we made a long march in a 
southerly direction, and formed our camp in the centre 
of a splendid grove of trees. The water was very scarce 
on the road. The Wamrima and Wanyamwezi are not 
long able to withstand thirst. When water is plentiful 
they slake their thirst at every stream and pool ; when it 
is scarce, as it is here and in the deserts of Marenga 
and Magunda Mkali, long afternoon-marches are made ; 
the men previously, however, filling their gourds, so as to 
enable them to reach the water early next morning. 
Selim was never able to endure thirst. It mattered not 
how much of the precious liquid he carried, he generally 
drank it all before reaching camp, and he consequently 
suffered during the night. Besides this, he endangered 
his life by quaffing from every muddy pool ; and on this 
day he began to complain that he discharged blood, which 
I took to be an incipient stage of dysentery. 

During these marches, ever since quitting Ugunda, 
a favourite topic at the camp-fires were the Wa-Kuga- 
Euga, and their atrocities, and a possible encounter that 
we might have with these bold rovers of the forest. I 
verily believe that a sudden onset of half a dozen of 
Mirambo's people would have set the whole caravan a- 

We reached Marefu the next day, after a short three 
hours' march. We there found an embassy sent by the 


Arabs of Uny any embe, to the Southern Watuta. 
ing presents of several bales, in charge of Hassan the 
Mseguhha. This valiant leader and diplomatist had halted 
here some ten days because of wars and rumours of wars 
in his front. It was said that Mbogo, Sultan of Mbogo 
in Ukonongo, was at war with the brother of Manwa 
Sera, and as Mbogo was a large district of Ukonongo 
only two days' march from Marefu, fear of being 
involved in it was deterring old Hassan from pro- 
ceeding He advised me also not to proceed, as it was 
impossible to be able to do so without being embroiled in 
the conflict. I informed him that I intended to proceed 
on my way, and take my chances, and graciously offered 
him my escort as far as the frontier of Ufipa, from which 
he could easily and safely continue on his way to the 
Watuta, but he declined it. 

We had now been travelling fourteen days in a south- 
westerly direction, having made a little more than one 
degree of latitude. I had intended to have gone a little 
further south, because it was such a good road, also since 
by going further south we should have labored under no 
fear of meeting Mirambo ; but the report of this war in 
our front, only two days off, compelled me, in the interest 
of the Expedition, to strike across towards the Tanganika, 
on a west-by-north course through the forest, travelling, 
when it was advantageous, along elephant tracks and local 
paths. This new plan was adopted after consulting with 
Asmani, the guide. We were now in Ukonongo, having 
entered this district when we crossed the Goinbe creek. 

The next day after arriving at Marefu we plunged 
westward, in view of the villagers, and the Arab ambas- 
sador, who kept repeating until the last moment that we 
should " certainly catch it." 


We inarched eight hours through a forest, where the 
forest peach, or the " mbembu," is abundant. The tree 
that bears this fruit is very like a pear-tree, aiid is very 
productive. I saw one tree, upon which I estimated 
there were at least six or seven bushels. I ate numbers 
of the peaches on this day. So long as this fruit can be 
produced, a traveller in these regions need not fear 

At the base of a graceful hilly cone we found a village 
called Utende, the inhabitants of which were in a state of 
great alarm, as we suddenly appeared on the ridge above 
them. Diplomacy urged me to send forward a present oi 
one doti to the Sultan, who, however, would not accept it, 
because he happened to be drunk with pombe, and was 
therefore disposed to be insolent. Upon being informed 
that he would refuse any present, unless he received four 
more cloths, I immediately ordered a strong boma to be 
constructed on the summits of a little hill, near enough 
to a plentiful supply of water, and quietly again packed 
up the present in the bale. I occupied a strategically 
chosen position, as I could have swept the face of the hill, 
and the entire space between its base and the village of 
Watende. Watchmen were kept on the look-out all 
night; but we were fortunately not troubled until the 
morning ; when a delegation of the principal men came 
to ask if I intended to depart without having made a 
present to the chief. I replied to them that I did not 
intend passing through any country without making 
friends with the chief ; and if their chief would accept a 
good cloth from me, I would freely give it to him. 
Though they demurred at the amount of the present at 
first, the difference between us was finally ended by my 


adding a fundo of red beads sami-sami for the chiefs 

From the hill and ridge of Utende sloped a forest 
for miles and miles westerly, which was terminated by 
a grand and smooth-topped ridge rising 500 or 600 feet 
above the plain. 

A four hours' march, on the 12th of October, brought 
us to a nullah similar to the Gombe, which, during the 
wet season, flows to the Gombe Kiver, and thence into 
the Malagarazi Kiver. 

A little before camping we saw a herd of nimba, or 
pallah ; I had the good fortune to shoot one, which was 
a welcome addition to our fast diminishing store of dried 
meats, prepared in our camp on the Gombe. By the 
quantity of bois de vaches, we judged buffaloes were 
plentiful here, as well as elephant and rhinoceros. The 
feathered species were well represented by ibis, fish- 
eagles, pelicans, storks, cranes, several snowy spoon-bills, 
and flamingoes. 

From the nullah, or mtoni, we proceeded to Mwaru, 
the principal village of the district of Mwaru, the chief 
of which is Ka-mirambo. Our march lay over desolated 
clearings once occupied by Ka-mirambo's people, but whc 
were driven away by Mkasiwa some ten years ago, during 
his warfare against Manwa Sera. Niongo, the brother of 
the latter, now waging war against Mbogo, had passed 
through Mwaru the day before we arrived, after being 
defeated by his enemy. 

The hilly ridge that bounded the westward horizon, 
visible from Utende, was surmounted on this day. The 
western slope trends south-west, and is drained by the 
River Mrera, which empties into the Malagarazi EiveT 


We perceived the influence of the Tanganika, even here, 
though we were yet twelve or fifteen marches from the 
lake. The jungles increased in density, and the grasses 
became enormously tall ; these points reminded us of the 
maritime districts of Ukwere and Ukami. 

We heard from a caravan at this place, just come from 
Ufipa, that a white man was reported to be in " Urua/' 
whom I supposed to mean Livingstone. 

Upon leaving Mwaru we entered the district of Mrera, 
a chief who once possessed great power and influence over 
this region. Wars, however, have limited his possessions 
to three or four villages snugly embosomed within a jungle, 
whose outer rim is so dense that it serves like a stone 
wall to repel invaders. There were nine bleached skulls 
stuck on the top of as many poles, before the principal 
gate of entrance, which told us of existing feuds between 
the Wakonongo and the Wazavira. This latter tribe 
dwelt in a country a few marches west of us; whose 
territory we should have to avoid, unless we sought 
another opportunity to distinguish ourselves in battle 
with the natives. The Wazavira, we were told by the 
Wakonongo of Mrera, were enemies to all Wangwana. 

In a narrow strip of marsh between Mwaru and Mrera, 
we saw a small herd of wild elephants. It was the first 
time I had ever seen these animals in their native wild- 
ness, and my first impressions of them I shall not readily 
forget. I am induced to think that the elephant deserves 
the title of " king of beasts." His huge form, the lordly 
way in which he stares at an intruder on his domain, and 
his whole appearance indicative of conscious might, 
afford good grounds for his claim to that title. This 
herd, as we passed it at the distance of a mile, stopped 
*o survey the caravan as it passed : and, after having 

282 HOW 1 FOUND 

satisfied their curiosity, the elephants trooped into the 
forest which bounded the marshy plain southward, as if 
caravans were every-day things to them, whilst they the 
free an* 3 unconquerable lords of the forest and the marsh 
had nothing in common with the cowardly bipeds, who 
aever found courage to face them in fair combat. The 
destruction which a herd makes in a forest is simply 
tremendous. When the trees are young whole swathes 
may be found uprooted and prostrate, which mark the 
track of the elephants as they " trampled their path 
through wood and brake." 

The boy Selim was so ill at this place that I was 
compelled to halt the caravan for him for two days. He 
seemed to be affected with a disease in the limbs, which 
caused him to' sprawl, and tremble most painfully, besides 
suffering from an attack of acute dysentery. But con- 
stant attendance and care soon brought him round again ; 
and on the third day he was able to endure the fatigue ol 

I was able to shoot several animals during our stay at 
Mrera. The forest outside of the cultivation teems with 
noble animals. Zebra, giraffe, elephant, and rhinoceros 
are most common ; ptarmigan and guinea-fowl were also 

The warriors of Mrera are almost all armed with 
muskets, of which they take great care. They were very 
importunate in their demands for flints, bullets, and 
powder, which I always made it a point to refuse, lest at 
any moment a fracas occurring they might use the 
ammunition thus supplied to my own disadvantage. The 
men of this village were an idle set, doing little but 
hunting, gaping, gossiping, and playing like great boys. 

During the interval of my stay at Mrera I employed 



ft large portion of my time in mending my shoes, and 
patching up the great rents in my clothes, which the 
thorn species, during the late marches, had almost de- 
stroyed. Westward, beyond Mrera, was a wilderness, the 
transit of which we were warned would occupy nine days ; 
hence arose the necessity to purchase a large supply of 
grain, which, ere attempting the great uninhabited void 
in our front, was to be ground and sifted. 





Happy auspices. Ant-hills. The water-shed of the Tan^anikaLion. 
The king of Kasera. The home of the lion and the leopard. 
A donkey frightens a leopard. Sublime scenes in Kawendi, 
Starvation imminent. Amenities of travel in Africa. Black- 
mailers. The stormy children of TDhha. News of a white man. 
Energetic marches Mionvu, chief of tribute-takers. An escape at 
midnight. Toiling through the jungles. The Lake Mountains. 
First view of the Tanganika. Arrival at Ujiji. The happy meeting 
with Livingstone. 

WE bade farewell to Mrera on the 17th of October, to 
continue our route north-westward. All the men and I 
were firm friends now ; all squabbling had long ceased. 
Bombay and I had forgotten our quarrel ; the kirangozi 


and myself were ready to embrace, so loving and affec- 
tionate were the terms upon which we stood towards one 
another. Confidence returned to all hearts for now, as 
Mabruk Unyanyembe said, " we could smell the fish oi 
the Tanganika." Unyanyembe, with all its disquietude, 
was far behind. We could snap our fingers at that terrible 
Mirambo and his unscrupulous followers, and by-and-by, 
perhaps, we may be able to laugh at the timid seer who 
always prophesied portentous events Sheikh, the son 
of Nasib. We laughed joyously, as we glided in Indian 
file through the young forest jungle beyond the clearing 
of Mrera, and boasted of our prowess. Oh ! we were 
truly brave that morning ! 

Emerging from the jungle, we entered a thin forest, 
where numerous ant-hills were seen like so many sand- 
dunes. I imagine that these ant-hills were formed during 
a remarkably wet season, when, possibly, the forest-clad 
plain was inundated. I have seen the ants at work by 
thousands, engaged in the work of erecting their hills in 
other districts suffering from inundation. What a wonder- 
ful system of cells these tiny insects construct ! A perfect 
labyrinth cell within cell, room within room, hall within 
hall an exhibition of engineering talents and high archi- 
tectural capacity a model city, cunningly contrived for 
safety and comfort ! 

Emerging after a short hour's march out of the forest, 
we welcome the sight of a murmuring translucent stream, 
swiftly flowing towards the north-west, which we regard 
with the pleasure which only men who have for a long 
time sickened themselves with that potable liquid of the 
foulest kind, found in salinas, mbugas, pools, and puddle- 
holes, can realize. Beyond this stream rises a rugged and 
steep ridge, from the summit of whicn our eyes are glad- 


deiied with scenes that are romantic, animated and pictu- 
resque. They form an unusual feast to eyes sated with 
looking into the depths of forests, at towering stems of 
trees, and at tufted crowns of foliage. We have now 
before us scores of cones, dotting the surface of a plain 
which extends across Southern Ukonongo to the terri- 
tory of the Wafipa, and which reaches as far as the Eikwa 
Plain. The immense prospect before which we are sud- 
denly ushered is most varied ; exclusive of conical hills and 
ambitious flat-topped and isolated mountains, we are in 
view of the watersheds of the Kungwa Eiver, which 
empties into the Tanganika south of where we stand, and 
of the Malagarazi Eiver, which the Tanganika receives, a 
degree or so north of this position. A single but lengthy 
latitudinal ridge serves as a dividing line to the watershed 
of the Eungwa and Malagarazi ; and a score of miles or so 
further west of this ridge rises another, which runs north 
and south. 

We camped on this day in the jungle, close to a narrow 
ravine with a marshy bottom, through the oozy, miry 
contents of which the waters from the watershed of the 
Eungwa slowly trickled southward towards the Eikwa 
Plain. This was only one of many ravines, however, some 
of which were several hundred yards broad, others were 
but a few yards in width, the bottoms of which were most 
dangerous quagmires, overgrown with dense tall reeds and 
papyrus. Over the surface of these great depths of mud 
weje seen hundreds of thin threads of slirny ochre-colored 
water, which swarmed with animalcule. By-and-by, a 
few miles south of the base of this ridge (which I call 
Kasera, from the country which it cuts in halves), these 
several ravines converge aud debouch into the broacl, 


marchy, oozy, spongy " river " of Usense, which trends in 
a south-easterly direction; after which, gathering the 
contents of the watercourses from the north and north- 
east into its own broader channel, it soon becomes a 
stream of some breadth and consequence, and meets n 
river flowing from the east, from the direction of Urori, 
with which it conflows in the Kikwa Plain, and empties 
about sixty rectilineal miles further west into the Tan- 
ganika Lake. The Kungwa Kiver, I am informed, is con- 
sidered as a boundary line between the country of Usowa 
on the north, and Ufipa on the south. 

We had barely completed the construction of our camp 
defences when some of the men were heard challenging a 
small party of natives which advanced towards our camp, 
headed by a man who, from his garb and head-dress, we 
knew was from Zanzibar. After interchanging the cus- 
tomary salutations, I was informed that this party was an 
embassy from Simba (" Lion "), who ruled over Kasera, in 
Southern Unyamwezi. Simba, I was told, was the son of 
Mkasiwa, King of Unyanyembe, and was carrying on war 
with the Wazavira, of whom I was warned to beware. He 
had heard such reports of my greatness that he was sorry 
I did not take his road to Ukawendi, that he might have 
had the opportunity of seeing me, and making friends 
with me ; but in the absence of a personal visit Simba 
had sent this embassy to overtake me, in the hope that I 
would present him with a token of my friendship in the 
shape of cloth. Though I was rather taken aback by the 
demand, still it was politic in me to make this powerful 
chief my friend, lest on my return from the search after 
Livingstone he and I might fall out. And since it was 
incumbent on me to make a present, for the sake of peace, 


it was necessary to exhibit my desire for peace by giving 
if I gave at all a royal present. The ambassador con- 
veyed from me to Simba, or the " Lion " of Kasera, two 
gorgeous cloths, and two other doti consisting of Merikani 
and Kaniki ; and, if I might believe the ambassador, I had 
made Simba a friend for ever. 

On the 18th of October, breaking camp at the usual 
hour, we continued our march north-westward by a road 
which zig-zagged along the base of the Kasera mountains, 
and which took us into all kinds of difficulties. We tra- 
versed at least a dozen marshy ravines, the depth of 
mire and water in which caused the utmost anxiety. I 
sunk up to my neck in deep holes in the Stygian ooze 
caused by elephants, and had to tramp through the oozy 
beds of the Kungwa sources with my clothes wet and 
black with mud and slime. Decency forbade that I 
should strip; and the hot sun would also blister my 
body. Moreover, these morasses were too frequent to 
lose time in undressing and dressing, and, as each man 
was weighted with his own proper load, it would have 
been cruel to compel the men to bear me across. Nothing 
remained, therefore, but to march on, all encumbered as I 
was with my clothing and accoutrements, into these 
several marshy watercourses, with all the philosophical 
stoicism that my nature could muster for such emer- 
gencies. But it was very uncomfortable, to say the least 
of it. 

We soon entered the territory of the dreaded Wazavira, 
but no enemy was in sight. Simba, in his wars, had 
made clean work of the northern part of Uzavira, and we 
encountered nothing worse than a view of the desolated 
country, which must have been once judging from the 


number of burnt huts and debris of ruined villages 
extremely populous. A young jungle was sprouting up 
vigorously in their fields, and was rapidly becoming the 
home of wild denizens of the forest. In one of the 
deserted and ruined villages, I found quarters for the 
Expedition, which were by no means uncomfortable. I 
shot three brace of guinea-fowl in the neighborhood of 
Misonghi, the deserted village we occupied, and Uli- 
mengo, one of my hunters, bagged an antelope, called 
the " mbawala," for whose meat some of the Wanyamwezi 
have a superstitious aversion. I take this species of 
antelope, which stands about three and a half feet high, 
of a reddish hide, head long, horns short, to be the 
"Nzoe" antelope discovered by Speke in Uganda, and 
whose Latin designation is, according to Dr. Sclater, 
" Tragelaphus Spekii." It has a short bushy tail, and 
long hair along the spine. 

A long march in a west-by-north direction, lasting 
six hours, through a forest where the sable antelope 
was seen, and which was otherwise prolific witii game, 
brought us to a stream which ran by the base of a lofty 
conical hill, on whose slopes flourished quite a forest of 
feathery bamboo. 

On the 20th, leaving our camp, which lay between the 
stream and the conical hill above mentioned, and sur- 
mounting a low ridge which sloped from the base of the 
hill-cone, we were greeted with another picturesque view, 
of cones and scarped mountains, which heaved upward in 
all directions. A march of nearly five hours through 
this picturesque country brought us to the Mpokwa 
Kiver, one of the tributaries of the Rungwa, and to a 
village lately desertei by the Wazavira. The huts were 


almost all intact, precisely as they were left by their 
former inhabitants. In the gardens were yet found 
vegetables, which, after living so long on meat, were 
most grateful to us. On the branches of trees still rested 
the Lares arid Penates of the Wazavira, in the shape of 
large and exceedingly well-made earthen pots. 


In the neighboring river one of my men succeeded, in 
a few minutes, in catching sixty fish of the silurus species 
by the hand alone. A number of birds hovered about 
the stream, such as the white-headed fish-eagle and the 
blsck kingfisher, enormous snowy spoonbills, ibis, martins, 


&G. This river issued i'rom a mountain clump eight miles 
or so north of the village of Mpokwa, and comes flowing 
down a narrow thread of water, sinuously winding amongst 
tall reeds and dense brakes on either side the home of 
hundreds of antelopes and buffaloes. South of Mpokwa, 
the valley broadens, and the mountains deflect eastward 
and westward, and beyond this point commences the 
plain known as the Kikwa, which, during the Masika is 
inundated, but which, in the dry season, presents the 
same bleached aspect that plains in Africa generally do 
when the grass has ripened. 

Travelling up along the right bank of the Mpokwa, 
on the 21st we came to the head of the stream, and 
the sources of the Mpokwa, issuing out of deep defiles 
enclosed by lofty ranges. The mbawala and the buffalo 
were plentiful. 

On the 22nd, after a march of four hours and a half, 
we came to the beautiful stream of Mtarnbu the water 
of which was sweet, and clear as crystal, and flowed 
northward. We saw for the first time the home of the 
lion and the leopard. Hear what Freiligrath saye of the 
place : 

Where the thorny brake and thicket 

Densely fill the interspace 
Of the trees, thruugh whose thick branches 

Never sunshine lights the place, 
There the lion dwells, a monarch, 

Mightiest among the brutes ; 
There his right to reign supreiaest 

Never one his claim disputes. 
There he layeth down to slumber, 
Having slain and ta'en his fill ; 
There he roamoth, there he croucheth, 
As it suits I is lordly will. 


We camped but a few yards from just such a place as 
the poet describes. The herd-keeper who attended the 
goats and donkeys, soon after our arrival in camp, drove 
the animals to water, and in order to obtain it they 
travelled through a tunnel in the brake, caused by 
elephants and rhinoceros. They had barely entered the 
dark cavernous passage, when a black-spotted leopard 
sprang, and fastened its fangs in the neck of one of the 
donkeys, causing it, from the pain, to bray hideously. 
Its companions set up such a frightful chorus, and so 
lashed their heels in the air at the feline marauder, that 
the leopard bounded away through the brake, as if in 
sheer dismay at the noisy cries which the attack had 
provoked. The donkey's neck exhibited some frightful 
wounds, but the animal was not dangerously hurt. 

Thinking that possibly I might meet with an adven- 
ture with a lion or a leopard in that dark belt of tall 
trees, under whose impenetrable shade grew the dense 
thicket that formed such admirable coverts for the car- 
nivorous species, I took a stroll along the awesome place 
with the gunbearer, Kalulu, carrying an extra gun, and 
a further supply of ammunition. We crept cautiously 
along, looking keenly into the deep dark dens, the 
entrances of which were revealed to us, as we journeyed, 
expectant every moment to behold the reputed monarch 
of the brake and thicket, bound forward to meet us, and 
I took a special delight in picturing, in my imagination, 
the splendor and majesty of the wrathful brute, as he 
might stand before me. I peered closely into every dark 
opening, hoping to see the deadly glitter of the great 
angry eyes, and the glowering menacing front of the 
lion as hi would regard mo. But, alas ! after an hour's 


search for adventure, I had encountered nothing, and I 
accordingly waxed courageous, and crept into one of these 
leafy, thorny caverns, and found myself shortly standing 
under a canopy of foliage that was held above my head 
fully a hundred feet by the shapely and towering stems 
of the royal mvule. Who can imagine the position ? A 
smooth lawn-like glade ; a dense and awful growth of 
impenetrable jungle around us ; those stately natural 
pillars a glorious phalanx of royal trees, bearing at such 
sublime heights vivid green masses of foliage, through 
which no single sun-ray penetrated, while at our feet 
babbled the primeval brook, over smooth pebbles, in soft 
tones befitting the sacred quiet of the scene ! Who could 
have desecrated this solemn, holy harmony of nature ? 
But just as I was thinking it impossible that any man 
could be tempted to disturb the serene solitude of the 
j lace, I saw a monkey perched high on a branch over my 
head, contemplating, with something of an awe-struck 
look, the strange intruders beneath. Well, I could not help 
it, I laughed laughed loud and long, until I was hushed 
by the chaos of cries and strange noises which seemed 
to respond to my laughing. A troop of monkeys, hidden 
in the leafy depths above, had been rudely awakened, and, 
startled by the noise I made, were hurrying away from 
the scene with a dreadful clamor of cries and shrieks. 

Emerging again into the broad sunlight, I strolled 
further in search of something to shoot. Presently, I 
saw, feeding quietly in the forest which bounded the 
valley of the Mtambu on the left, a huge, reddish-colored 
wild boar, armed with most horrid tusks. Leaving Kalulu 
crouched down behind a tree, and my solar helmet behind 
another close by -that I might inor-j safely stalk the 


animal I advanced towards him some forty yards, and 
after taking a deliberate aim, fired at his fore shoulder. 
As if nothing had hurt him whatever, the animal made a 
furious bound, and then stood with his bristles erected, 
and tufted tail, curved over the back a most formidable 
brute in appearance. While he was thus listening, and 
searching the neighbourhood with his keen, small eyes, I 
planted another shot in his chest, which ploughed its 
way through his body. Instead of falling, however, as 1 
expected he would, he charged furiously in the direction 
the bullet had come, and as he rushed past me, another 
ball was fired, which went right through him; but still 
he kept on, until, within six or seven yards from the 
trees behind which Kalulu was crouching down on one 
side, and the helmet was resting behind another, he 
suddenly halted, and then dropped. But as I was about 
to advance on him with my knife to cut his throat, he 
suddenly started up; his eyes had caught sight of the 
little boy Kalulu, and were then, almost immediately 
afterwards, attracted by the sight of the snowy helmet. 
These strange objects on either side of him proved too 
much for the boar, for, with a terrific grunt, he darted on 
one side into a thick brake, from which it was impossible 
to oust him, and as it was now getting late, and the camp 
was about three miles away, I was reluctantly obliged to 
return without the meat. 

On our way to camp we were accompanied by a large 
animal which persistently followed us on our left. It 
was too dark to see plainly, but a large form was visible, 
if not very clearly defined. It must have been a lion, 
unless it was the ghost of the dead boar. 

That night, aboat 11 P.M., we were startled by the roar 


of a lion, in close proximity to the camp. Soon it was 
joined by another, and another still, and the novelty oi 
the thing kept me awake. I peered through the gate of 
the camp, and endeavoured to sight a rifle my little 
Winchester, in the accuracy of which I had perfect con- 
fidence ; but, alas ! for the cartridges, they might have 
been as well filled with sawdust for all the benefit I 
derived from them. Disgusted with the miserable ammu- 
nition, I left the lions alone, and turned in, with their 
roaring as a lullaby. 

That terrestrial paradise for the hunter, the valley of 
the pellucid Mtambu, was deserted by us the next morn- 
ing for the settlement commonly known to the Waka- 
wendi as Imrera's, with as much unconcern aa though it 
were a howling desert. The village near which we 
encamped was called Itaga, in the district of Rusawa. 
As soon as we had crossed the Eiver Mtambu we had 
entered Ukawendi, commonly called " Kawendi " by the 
natives of the country. 

The district of Rusawa is thickly populated. The 
people are quiet and well-disposed to strangers, though 
few ever come to this region from afar. One or two 
Wasawahili traders visit it every year or so from Pum- 
buru and Usowa ; but very little ivory being obtained from 
the people, the long distance between the settlements 
serves to deter the regular trader from venturing hither. 

If caravans arrive here, the objective point to them is 
die district of Pumburu, situated south-westerly one 
day's good marching, or, say, thirty statute miles from 
Imrera ; or they make for Usowa, on the Tanganika, via 
Pumburu, Katuma, Uyonibeh, and Ugarawah. Usowa is 
quite an important district on the Tanganika, populous 


and flourishing. This was the road we had intended to 
adopt after leaving Imrera, but the reports received at 
the latter place forbade such a venture. For Mapunda, 
the Sultan of Usowa, though a great friend to Arab 
traders, was at war with the colony of the Wazavira, who 
we must remember were driven from Mpokwa and vicinity 
in Utanda, and who were said to have settled between 
Pumburu and Usowa. 

It remained Tor us, like wle, prudent men, having 
charge of a large and valuable Expedition on our hands, 
to decide what to do, and what route to adopt, now that 
we had approached much nearer to Ujiji than we were to 
Unyanyembe. I suggested that we should make direct 
for the Tanganika by compass, trusting to no road or 
guide, but to march direct west until we came to the 
Tanganika, and then follow the lake shore on foot until 
we came to Ujiji. For it ever haunted my mind, that, if 
Dr. Livingstone should hear of my coming, which he 
might possibly do if I travelled along any known road, he 
would leave, and that my search for him would conse- 
quently be a "stern chase." But my principal men 
thought it better that we should now boldly turn our 
faces north, and march for the Malagarazi, which was 
said to be a large river flowing from the east to the Tan- 
ganika. But none of my men knew the road to the Mala- 
garazi, neither could guides be hired from Sultan Imrera. 
We were, however, informed that the Malagarazi was but 
two days' march from Imrera. I thought it safe, in such 
a case, to provision my men with three days' rations. 

The village of Itaga is situated in a deep mountain 
hollow, finely overlooking a large extent of cultivation. 
The people grow sweet potatoes, manioc out of which 


tapioca is made beans, and the holcus. Not one chicken 
was to be purchased for love or money, and, besides grain, 
only a lean, scraggy specimen of a goat, a long time ago 
imported from Uvinza, was procurable. 

October the 25th will be remembered by me as a day of 
great troubles ; in fact, a series of troubles began from this 
date. We struck an easterly road in order to obtain a 
passage to the lofty plateau which bounded the valley of 
Imrera on the west and on the north. We camped, after 
a two and a half hours' march, at its foot. The defile pro- 
mised a feasible means of ascent to the summit of the pla- 
teau, which rose upward in a series of scarps a thousand 
feet above the valley of Iinrera. 

While ascending that lofty arc of mountains which 
bounded westerly and northerly the basin of Imrera, 
extensive prospects southward and eastward were re- 
vealed. The character of the scenery at Ukawendi is 
always animated and picturesque, but never sublime. 
The folds of this ridge contained several ruins of bomas, 
which seemed to have been erected during war time. 

The mbembu fruit was plentiful along this march, and 
every few minutes I could see from the rear one or two 01 
the men hastening to secure a treasure of it which they 
discovered on the ground. 

A little before reaching the camp I had a shot at a 
leopard, but failed to bring him down as he bounded 
away. At night the lions roared as at the Mtambu River. 

A lengthy march under the deep twilight shadows of a 
great forest, which protected us from the hot sunbeams, 
brought us, on the next day, to a camp newly constructed 
by a party of Arabs from Ujiji, who had advanced thus 
far on their road to Unyanyembe, but, alarmed at the 
reports of the war between Mirambo and the Arabs, had 


returned. Our route was along the right bank of thfc 
Rugufu, a broad sluggish stream, well choked with the 
matete reeds and the papyrus. The tracks and the bois de 
vaches of buffaloes were numerous, and there were several 
indications of rhinoceros being near. In a deep clump of 
timber near this liver we discovered a colony of bearded 
and leonine-looking monkeys. 

As we were about leaving our camp on the morning of 
the 28th a herd of buffalo walked deliberately into view. 
Silence was quickly restored, but not before the animals, 
to their great surprise, had discovered the danger which 
confronted them. We commenced stalking them, but we 
soon heard the thundering sound of their gallop, after 
which it becomes a useless task to follow them, with a 
long march in a wilderness before one. 

The road led on this day over immense sheets of sand- 
stone and iron ore. The water was abominable, and scarce, 
and famine began to stare us in the face. We travelled 
Tor six hours, and had yet seen no sign of cultivation any- 
where. According to my map we were yet two long 
marches from the Malagarazi if Captain Burton had 
correctly laid down the position of the river ; according 
to the natives' account, we should have arrived at the 
Malagarazi on this day. 

On the 29th we left our camp, and after a few minutes, 
we were in view of the sublimest, but niggedest scenes 
we had yet beheld in Africa. The country was cut up in 
all directions by deep, wild, and narrow ravines trending 
in all directions, but generally toward the north-west, 
while on either side rose enormous square masses of naked 
rock (sandstone), sometimes towering, and rounded, some- 
times pyramidal, sometimes in truncated cones, sometimes 
in circular ridges, with sharp, rugged, naked backs, with 


but little vegetation anywhere visible, except it obtained 
a precarious tenure in the fissured crown of some gigantic 
hill-top, whither some soil had fallen, or at the base of 
the reddish ochre scarps which everywhere lifted their 
fronts to our view. 

A long series of descents down rocky gullies, wherein 
we were environed by threatening masses of disintegrated 
rock, brought us to a dry, stony ravine, with mountain 
heights looming above us a thousand feet high. This 
ravine we followed, winding around in all directions, but 
which gradually widened, however, into a broad plain, 
mill a western trend. The road, leaving this, struck 
across a low ridge to the north ; and we were in view of 
deserted settlements where the villages were built on 
frowning castellated masses of rock. Near an upright 
mass of rock over seventy feet high, and about fifty yards 
in diameter, which dwarfed the gigantic sycamore close to 
it, we made our camp, after five hours and thirty minutes' 
continuous and rapid marching. 

The people were very hungry; they had eaten every 
scrap of meat, and every grain they possessed, twenty 
hours before, and there was no immediate prospect of 
food. I had but a pound and a half of flour left, and this 
would not have sufficed to begin to feed a force of over 
forty-five people ; but I had something like thirty pounds 
of tea, and twenty pounds of sugar left, and I at once, as 
soon as we arrived at camp, ordered every kettle to be 
filled and placed on the fire, and then made tea for all, 
giving each man a quart of a hot, grateful beverage, well 
sweetened. Parties stole out also into the depths of the 
jungle to search for wild fruit, and soon returned laden 
with baskets of the wood-peach and tamarind fruit, which 
though it did not satisfy, reli3ved them. That night 


before going to sleep, the Wangwana set up a loud prayei 
to " Allah " to give them food. 

We rose betimes in the morning, determined to travel 
on until food could be procured, or we dropped down from 
sheer fatigue and weakness. Bhinocoros' tracks abounded, 
aud buffalo seemed to be plentiful, but we never beheld a 
living thing. We crossed scores of short steeps, and de- 
scended as often into the depths of dry, stony gullies, and 
then finally entered a valley, bounded on one side by a 
triangular mountain with perpendicular sides, and on the 
other by a bold group, a triplet of hills. While marching 
down this valley which soon changed its dry, bleached 
aspect to a vivid green we saw a forest in the distance, 
and shortly found ourselves in corn-fields. Looking keenly 
around for a village, we descried it on the summit of the 
lofty triangular hill on our right. A loud exultant shout 
was raised at the discovery. The men threw down their 
packs, and began to clamour for food. Volunteers were 
asked to come forward to take cloth, and scale the heights 
to obtain it from the village, at any price. While three 
or four sallied off we rested on the ground, quite worn out. 

In about an hour the foraging party returned with the 
glorious tidings that food was plentiful ; that the village 
we saw^was called, " Welled Nzogera's " the son of 
Nzogera by which, of course, we knew that we were in 
Uvinza, Nzogera being the principal chief in Uvinza. We 
were further informed that Nzogera, the father, was at 
war with Lokanda-Mira, about some salt-pans in the 
valley of the Malagarazi, and that it would be difficult to 
go to Ujiji by the usual road, owing to this war ; but, for 
a consideration, the son of Nzogera was willing to supply 
uj? with guides, who would take us safely, by a northern 
road, to Ujiu. 


Everything auguring well for our prospects, we en- 
samped to enjoy the good cheer, for which our troubles 
and privations, during the transit of the Ukawendi forests 
and jungles, had well prepared us. 

I am now going to extract from my Diary of the march, 
as, without its aid, I deem it impossible to relate fully our 
various experiences, so as to show them properly as they 
occurred to us ; and as these extracts were written and 
recorded at the close of each day, they possess more in- 
terest, in my opinion, than a cold relation of facts, now 
toned down in memory. 

October 31st. Tuesday. Our road led E.N.E. for a con- 
siderable time after leaving the base of the triangular 
mountain whereon the son of Nzogera has established his 
stronghold, in order to avoid a deep and impassable por- 
tion of marsh, that stood between us and the direct route 
to the Malagarazi Eiver. The valley sloped rapidly to this 
marsh, which received in its broad bosom the drainage of 
three extensive ranges. Soon we turned our faces north- 
west, and prepared to cross the marsh ; and the guides 
informed us, as we halted on its eastern bank, of a terrible 
catastrophe which occurred a few yards above where we 
were preparing to cross. They told of an Arab and his 
caravan, consisting of thirty-five slaves, who had suddenly 
sunk out of sight, and who were never more heard of. 
This marsh, as it appeared to us, presented a breadth oi 
some hundreds of yards, on which grew a close network 
of grass, with much decayed matter mixed up with it. In 
the centre of this, and underneath it, ran a broad, deep, 
and rapid stream. As the guides proceeded across, the 
men stole after them with cautious footsteps. As they 
arrived near the centre we began to see this unstable 
grassy bridge, so curiously provided by nature for UE, 


move up and down in heavy languid undulations, like the 
swell of the sea after a storm. Where the two asses of 
the Expedition moved, the grassy waves rose a foot high ; 
but suddenly one unfortunate animal plunged his feet 
through, and as he was unable to rise, he soon made a 
deep hollow, which was rapidly filling with water. With 
the aid of ter men. however, we were enabled to lift him 
bodily up and land him on a firmer part, and guiding them 
both across rapidly, the entire caravan crossed without 

On arriving at the other side, we struck off to the 
north, and found ourselves in a delightful country, in 
every way suitable for agriculturists. Great rocks rose 
here and there, but in their fissures rose stately trees, 
under whose umbrage nestled the villages of the people. 
We found the various village elders greedy for cloth, but 
the presence of the younger son of Nzogera's men re- 
strained their propensity for extortion. Goats and sheep 
were remarkably cheap, and in good condition ; and, con- 
sequently, to celebrate our arrival near the Malagarazi, a 
flock of eight goats was slaughtered, and distributed to 
the men. 

November 1st. Striking north-west, after leaving our 
camp, and descending the slope of a mountain, we soon 
beheld the anxiously looked-for Malagarazi, a narrow but 
deep stream, flowing through a valley pent in by lofty 
mountains. Fish-eating birds lined the trees on its banks ; 
villages were thickly scattered about. Food was abundant 
and cheap. 

After travelling along the left bank of the river a few 
miles, we arrived at the settlements recognizing Kiala as 
their ruler. I had anticipated we should be able at once 
fco cross the river, but difficulties arose. We were told 


to camp, before any negotiations could be entered into. 
When we demurred, we were informed we might cross the 
river if we wished, but we should not be assisted by any 

Being compelled to halt for this day, the tent was 
pitched in the middle of one of the villages, and the bales 
were stored in one of the huts, with four soldiers to guard 
them. After despatching an embassy to Kiala, eldest son 
.if the great chief Nzogera, to request permission to cross 
the river as a peaceable caravan, Kiala sent word that the 
vvhite man should cross his river after the payment ot 
iifty-six cloths ! Fifty-six cloths signified a bale nearly ! 
i'ere was another opportunity for diplomacy . Bombay 
and Asmani were empowered to treat with Kiala about 
the honga, but it was not to exceed twenty-five doti. 
At 6 A.M., having spoken for seven hours, the two men 
returned, with the demand for thirteen doti for Nzogera, 
and ten doti for Kiala. Poor Bombay was hoarse, but 
Asmani still smiled ; and I relented, congratulating my- 
self that the preposterous demand, which was simply 
robbery, was no worse. 

Three hours later another demand was made. Kiala 
had been visited by a couple of chiefs from his father : 
and the chiefs being told that a white man was at the 
ferry, put in a claim for a couple of guns and a keg oi 
gunpowder. But here my patience was exhausted, and I 
declared that they should have to take them by force, for 
I would never consent to be robbed and despoiled after 
any such fashion. 

Until 11 P.M., Bombay and Asmani were negotiating 
about this extra demand, arguing, quarreling, threaten^ 
ing, until Bombay declared they would talk him mad if it 
lasted much longer. I told Bombay to take two clotha, 


one for each chief, and, if they did not consider it enough, 
then I should fight The present was taken, and the 
negotiations were terminated at midnight. 

November 2nd. Ihata Island, one and a half hour west 
of Kiala's. We arrived before the Island of Ihata, on the 
left bank of the Malagarazi, at 5 P.M. ; the morning having 
been wasted in puerile talk with the owner of the canoes 
at the ferry. The final demand for ferriage across was 
eight yards of cloth and four fundo* of sami-sami, 01 :ed 
beads ; which was at once paid. Four men, with ttieir 
loads, were permitted to cross in the small, unshapely, 
and cranky canoes. When the boatmen had discharged 
their canoes of their passengers and cargoes, they were 
ordered to halt on the other side, and, to my astonish- 
ment, another demand was made. The ferrymen had 
found that two fundo of these were of short measure, and 
two fundo more must be paid, otherwise the contract for 
ferrying us across would be considered null and void. So 
two fundo more were added, but not without demur and 
much " talk," which in these lands is necessary. 

Three times the canoes went backwards and forwards, 
when, lo ! another demand was made, with the usual 
clamour and fierce wordy dispute; this time for five 
khete t for the man who guided us to the ferry, a shukka 
of cloth for a babbler, who had attached himself to the 
old-womanish Jumah, who did nothing but babble and 
increase the clamor. These demands were also settled. 

About sunset we endeavoured to cross the donkeys. 
" Simba," a fine wild Kinyamwezi donkey, went in first, 
with a rope attached to his neck. He had arrived at the 
middle of the stream when we saw him begin to struggle 

* 4 fundo =40 necklaces; 1 fundo being 10 necklaces. 
t Necklaces. 


a crocodile had seized him by the throat. The poor 
animal's struggles were terrific. Chowpereh was dragging 
on the rope with all his might, but to no use, for the 
donkey sank, and we saw no more of him. The depth of 
the river at this place was about fifteen feet. We had 
seen the light-brown heads, the glittering eyes, and the 
ridgy backs, hovering about the vicinity, but we had 
never thought that the reptiles would advance so near 
such an exciting scene as the vicinity of the ferry pre- 
sented during the crossing. Saddened a little by this loss, 
we resumed our work, and by 7 P.M. we were all across, 
excepting Bombay and the only donkey now left, which 
was to be brought across in the morning, when the croco- 
diles should have deserted the river. 

November 3rd. What contention have we not been a 
witness to these last three days ! What anxiety have we 
not suffered ever since our arrival in Uvinza ! The 
Wavinza are worse than the Wagogo, and their greed is 
more insatiable. We got the donkey across with the aid 
of a mganga, or medicine man, who spat some chewed 
leaves of a tree which grows close to the stream over him. 
He informed me he could cross the river at any time, day 
or night, after rubbing his body with these chewed leaves, 
which he believed to be a most potent medicine. 

About 10 A.M. appeared from the direction of Ujiji a 
caravan of eighty Waguhha, a tribe which occupies a tract 
of country on the south-western side of the Lake Tanga- 
nika. We asked the news, and were told a white man had 
just arrived at Ujiji from Manyuema. This news startled 
us all. 

" A white man ?" we asked. 

" Yes, a white man," they replied. 

" How is he dressed ?" 


" Like the master," they answered, referring to me. 

' Is he young, or old ?" 

" He is old. He has white hair on his face, and ia 

" Where has he come from ?" 

"From a very far country away beyond Uguhha, called 

" Indeed ! and is he stopping at Ujiji now ?" 

" Yes, we saw him ahout eight days ago." 

" Do you think he will stop there until we see him ?" 

" tiigue " (don't know). 

" Was he ever at Ujiji before ?" 

" Yes, he went away a long time ago." 

Hurrah ! This is Livingstone ! He must be Living- 
stone ! He can be no other ; but still ; lie may be some 
one else some one from the West Coast or perhaps he 
is Baker ! No ; Baker has no white hair on his face. 
But we must now march quick, lest he hears we are 
coming, and runs away. 

I addressed my men, and asked them if they were 
willing to march to Ujiji without a single halt, and then 
promised them, if they acceded to my wishes, two doti 
each man. All answered in the affirmative, almost as 
much rejoiced as I was myself. But I was madly rejoiced ; 
intensely eager to resolve the burning question, " Is it 
Dr. David Livingstone ?" God grant me patience, but I 
do wish there was a railroad, or, at least, horses in this 

We set out at once from the banks of the Malagarazi, 
accompanied by two guides furnished us by Usenge, the 
old man of the ferry, who, now that we had crossed, 
showed himself more amiably disposed to us. We arrived 
at the village of Isinga, Sultan Katalambula, after a 


little over an hour's march across a saline plain, but 
which as we advanced into the interior became fertile and 

November 4th. Started early with great caution, main- 
taining deep silence. The guides were sent forward, one 
two hundred yards ahead of the other, that we might be 
warned in time. The first part of the march was through 
a thin jungle of dwarf trees, which got thinner and 
thinner until finally it vanished altogether, and we had 
entered Uhha a plain country. Villages were visible by 
the score among the tall bleached stalks of dourra and 
maize. Sometimes three, sometimes five, ten, or twenty 
beehive-shaped huts formed a village. The Wahha were 
evidently living in perfect security, for not one village 
amongst them all was surrounded with the customary 
defence of an African village. A narrow dry ditch formed 
the only boundary between Uhha and Uvinza. On enter- 
ing Uhha, all danger from Makumbi vanished. 

We halted at Kawanga, the chief of which lost no time 
in making us understand that he was the great Mutware 
of Kimenyi under the king, and that he was the tribute 
gatherer for his Kiha majesty. He declared that he was 
the only one in Kimenyi an eastern division of Uhha 
who could demand tribute; and that it would be very 
satisfactory to him, and a saving of trouble to ourselves, 
if we settled his claim of twelve doti of good cloths at once 
We did not think it the best way of proceeding, knowing 
as we did the character of the native African ; so we at once 
proceeded to diminish this demand ; but, after six hours' 
hot argument, the Mutware only reduced it by two. This 
claim was then settled, upon the understanding that wo 
should be allowed to travel through Uhha as far as the 
Rusugi Eiver without being further mulcted. 


November 5fh. Leaving Kawanga early in the me ,ning 
and continuing our march over the boundless plains, which 
were bleached white by the hot equatorial sun, we were 
marching westward full of pleasant anticipations that we 
were nearing the end of our troubles, joyfully congratu- 
lating ourselves that within five days we should see that 
which I had come so far from civilisation, and through so 
many difficulties, to see, and were about passing a cluster 
of villages, with all the confidence which men possess 
against whom no one had further claim or a word to say, 
when I noticed two men darting from a group of natives 
who were watching us, and running towards the head of 
the Expedition, with the object, evidently, of preventing 
further progress. 

The caravan stopped, and I walked forward to ascertain 
the cause from the two natives. I was greeted politely 
by the two Wahha with the usual " Yambos," and was 
then asked, 

" Why does the white man pass by the village of the 
King of Uhha without salutation and a gift ? Does not 
the white man know there lives a king in Uhha, to whom 
the Wangwana and Arabs pay something for right of 
passage ?" 

" Why, we paid last night to the chief of Kawanga, who 
informed us that he was the man deputed by the King of 
Uhha to collect the toll." 

" How much did you pay ?" 

" Ten doti of good cloth." 

" Are you sure ?" 

" Quite sure. If you ask him, he will tell you so." 

" Well," said one of the Wahha, a fine, handsome, in- 
telligent-looking youth, " it is our duty to the king to 
you here until we find out the truth of this. Will 


you walk to our village, and rest yourselves under the 
shade of our trees until we can send messengers to 
Kawanga ?'' 

" No ; the sun is but an hour high, and we have far to 
travel ; but, in order to show you we do not seek to pass 
through your country without doing that which is right, 
we will rest where we now stand, and we will send with 
your messengers two of our soldiers, who will show you 
the man to whom we paid the cloth." 

The messengers departed; but, in the meantime, the 
handsome youth, who turned out to be the nephew of the 
King, whispered some order to a lad, who immediately 
hastened away, with the speed of an antelope, to the 
cluster of villages which we had just passed. The result 
of this errand, as we saw in a short time, was the approach 
of a body of warriors, about fifty in number, headed by a 
tall, fine-looking man, who was dressed in a crimson robe 
called Joho, two ends of which were tied in a knot over 
the left shoulder ; a new piece of American sheeting was 
folded like a turban around his head, and a large curved 
piece of polished ivory was suspended to his neck. He 
and his people were all armed with spears, and bows and 
arrows, and their advance was marked with a deliberation 
that showed they felt confidence in any issue that might 

We were halted on the eastern side of the Pombwe 
stream, near the village of Lukomo, in Kimenyi, Uhha. 

The gorgeously-dressed chief was a remarkable man in 
appearance. His face was oval in form, high cheek-bones, 
eyes deeply sunk, a prominent and bold forehead, a fine 
nose, and a well-cut mouth ; he was tall in figure, and 
perfectly symmetrical. 

When near to us, he hailed me with the words, 


" Yambo, bana ? How do you do, master?" in quite a 
cordial tone. 

I replied cordially also, " Yambo, mutware ? How do 
you do, chief?" 

We, myself and men, interchanged " Yambos " with 
his warriors ; and there was nothing in our first intro- 
duction to indicate that the meeting was of a hostile 

The chief seated himself, his haunches resting on his 
heels, laying down his bow and arrows by his side ; his 
men did likewise. 

I seated myself on a bale, and each of my men sat down 
on their loads, forming quite a semicircle. The Wahha 
slightly outnumbered my party; but, while they were 
only armed with bows and arrows, spears, and knob-sticks, 
we were armed with rifles, muskets, revolvers, pistols, and 

All were seated, and deep silence was maintained by 
the assembly. The great plains around us were as still in 
this bright noon as if they were deserted of all living 
creatures. Then the chief spoke : 

" I am Mionvu, the great Mutware of Kimenyi, and am 
next to the King, who lives yonder," pointing to a large 
village near some naked hills about ten miles to the north. 
" I have come to talk with the white man. It has always 
been the custom of the Arabs and the Wangwana to make 
a present to the King when they pass through his country. 
Does not the white man mean to pay the King's dues ? 
Why does the white man halt in the road ? Why will he 
not enter the village of Lukoino, where there is food and 
shade where we can discuss this thing quietly ? Does 
the white man mean to fight ? I know well he is stronger 
han we are. His men have guns, and the Wahha have 


bnt bows and arrows, and spears ; but Uhha is large, and 
our villages are many. Let him look about him every- 
where all is Uhha, and our country extends much further 
than he can see or walk in a day. The King of Uhha is 
strong ; yet he wishes friendship only with the white man. 
Will the white man have war or peace ?" 

A deep murmur of assent followed this speech of M'ionvu 
from his people, and disapprobation, blended with a cer- 
tain uneasiness, from my men. When about replying, the 
words of General Sherman, which I heard him utter to 
the chiefs of the Arapahoes and Cheyennes at North 
Platte, in 1867, came to my mind; and something of 
their spirit I embodied in my reply to Mionvu, Mutware 
of Kimenyi. 

" Mionvu, the great Mutware, asks me if I have come 
for war. When did Mionvu ever hear of white men 
warring against black men ? Mionvu must understand 
that the white men are different from the black. White 
men do not leave their country to fight the black people, 
neither do they come here to buy ivory or slaves. They 
come to make friends with black people ; they come to 
search for rivers, and lakes, and mountains ; they come to 
discover what countries, what peoples, what rivers, what 
lakes, what forests, what plains, what mountains and hills 
are in your country ; to know the different animals that 
are in the land of the black people, that, when they go 
back, they may tell the white kings, and men, and chil- 
dren, what they have seen and heard in the land so far 
from them. The white people are different from the Arabs 
and Wangwana ; the white people know everything, and 
are very strong. When they fight, the Arabs and the 
Wangwana run away. We have great guns which thunder, 
and when they sluot the earth trembles; we have gum 


which carry bullets further than you cau see : even vviti. 
these little things " (pointing to iny revolvers) " I could 
kill ten men quicker than you could count. We are 
stronger than the Wahha. Mionvu has spoken the truth, 
yet we do not wish to fight. I could kill Mionvu now, yet I 
talk to him as to a friend. I wish to he a friend to Mionvu, 
and to all black people. Will Mionvu say what I can do 
for him ?" 

As these words were translated to him imperfectly, I 
suppose, but still, intelligibly the face of the Wahha 
showed how well they appreciated them. Once or twice 
I thought I detected something like fear, but my asser- 
tions that I desired peace and friendship with them soon 
obliterated all such feelings. 

Mionvu replied : 

" The white man tells me he is friendly. Why does 
he not come to our village ? Why does he stop on the 
road ? The sun is hot. Mionvu will not speak here any 
more. If the white man is a friend he will come to the 

" We must stop now. It is noon. You have broken 
our march. We will go and camp in your village," I 
said, at the same time rising and pointing to the men to 
take up their loads. 

We were compelled to camp; there was no help for 
it ; the messengers had not returned from Kawanga. 
Having arrived in his village, Mionvu had cast himself 
at full length under the scanty shade afforded by a few 
trees within the boma. About 2 P.M. the messengers 
returned, saying it was true the chief of Kawanga had 
taken ten cloths ; not, however for the King of Uhha, buf 
for himself ! 

Mionvu , who evidently was keen-witted, and knew per- 


fectly what he was about, now roused himself, and began 
to make miniature faggots of thin canes, ten in each 
faggot, and shortly he presented ten of these small 
bundles, which together contained one hundred, to me, 
saying each stick represented a cloth, and the amount of 
the "honga" required by the King of Uhha was ONE 
HUNDRED CLOTHS ! nearly two bales ! 

Recovering from our astonishment, which was almost 
indescribable, we offered TEN. 

" Ten ! to the King of Uhha ! Impossible. You do 
not stir from Lukomo until you pay us one hundred !" 
exclaimed Mionvu, in a significant manner. 

I returned no answer, but went to my hut, which 
Mionvu had cleared for my use, and Bombay, Asmani, 
Mabruki, and Chowpereh were invited to come to me for 
consultation. Upon my asking them if we could not 
fight our way through Uhha, they became terror-stricken, 
and Bombay, in imploring accents, asked me to think 
well what I was about to do, because it was useless to 
enter on a war with the Wahha. " Uhha is all a plain 
country; we cannot hide anywhere. Every village will 
rise all about us, and how can forty-five men fight thou- 
sands of people ? They would kill us all in a few minutes, 
and how would you ever reach Ujiji if you died ? Think 
of it, my dear master, and do not throw your life away for 
n few rags of cloth." 

Well, but, Bombay, this is robbery. Shall we submit 
to be robbed ? Shall we give this fellow everything he 
asks ? He might as well ask me for all the cloth, and all 
my guns, without letting him see that we can fight. I 
can kill Mionvu and his principal men myself, and you 
can slay all those howlers out there without much trouble. 
If Mionvu and his principal were dead we should not L* 


Iroubled much, and we could strike south to the 
garazi, and go west to Ujiji." 

" No, no, dear master, don't think of it for a moment. 
If we went near the Malagarazi we should come across 

" Well, then, we will go north." 

" Up that way Uhha extends far ; and beyond Uhha 
are the Watuta." 

" Well, then, say what we shall do. We must do some- 
thing ; but we must not be robbed." 

" Pay Mionvu what he asks, and let us go away from 
here. This is the last place we shall have to pay. And 
in four days we shall be in Ujiji." 

"Did Mionvu tell you that this is the last time we 
would have to pay ?" 

" He did, indeed." 

" What do you say, Asmani ? Shall we fight or pay ?" 

Asmani's face wore the usual smile, but he replied, 
"I am afraid we must pay. This is positively the last 

" And you, Chowpereh ?" 

" Pay, bana ; it is better to get along quietly in this 
country. If we were strong enough they would pay us. 
Ah, if we had only two hundred guns, how these Wahha 
would run !" 

" What do you say, Mabruki ?" 

" Ah, master, dear master ; it is very hard, and these 
people are great robbers. I would like to chop their 
heads off, all; so I would. But you had better pay. 
This is the last time ; and what are one hundred cloths 
to you ?" 

"Well, then, Bombay and Asmani, go to Mionvn, and 
offer him twenty. If he will not take twenty, give 


him thirty. If he refuses thirty, give him forty ; then 
go up to eighty, slowly. Make plenty of talk ; not 
one doti more. I swear to you I will shoot Mionvu if 
he demands more than eighty. Go, and remember to 
be wise." 

I will cut the matter short. At 9 P.M. sixty-four doti 
were handed over to Mionvu, for the King of Uhha ; six 
doti for himself, and five doti for his sub; altogether 
seventy-five doti a bale and a quarter ! No sooner had 
we paid than they began to fight amongst themselves 
over the booty, and I was in hopes that the factions would 
proceed to battle, that I might have good excuse for 
leaving them, and plunging south to the jungle that I 
believed existed there, by which means, under its friendly 
cover, we might strike west. But no, it was only a 
verbose war, which portended nothing more than a noisy 

November 6th. At dawn we were on the road, very 
silent and sad. Our stock of cloth was much diminished ; 
we had nine bales left, sufficient to have taken us to the 
Atlantic Ocean aided by the beads, which were yet un- 
touched if we practised economy. If I met many more 
like Mionvu I had not enough to take me to Ujiji, and, 
though we were said to be so near, Livingstone seemed to 
me to be just as far as ever. 

We crossed the Pombwe, and then struck across a 
slowly-undulating plain rising gradually to mountains 
on our right, and on our left sinking towards the valley 
of the Malagarazi, which river was about twenty miles 
away. Villages rose to our view everywhere. Food was 
cheap, milk was plentiful, and the butter good. 

After a four hours' march, we crossed the Kanengi 
Biver, and entered the boma of Kahirigi, inhabited b} 


several Watusi and Wakha. Here, we were told, lived 
the King of Ukha's brother. This announcement waa 
anything but welcome, and I began to suspect I had 
fallen into another hornets' nest. We had not rested two 
hours before two Wangwana entered my tent, who were 
staves of Thani bin Abdullah, our dandified friend of 
Unyanyembe. These men came, on the part of the 
king's brother, to claim the HONGA ! The king's brother 
demanded thirty doti ! Half a bale! Merciful Provi- 
dence ! What shall I do ? 

We had been told by Mionvu that the honga of Uhha 
was settled and now here is another demand from the 
King's brother ! It is the second time the lie has been 
told, and we have twice been deceived. We shall be 
deceived no more. 

These two men informed us there were five more chiefs, 
living but two hours from each other, who would exact 
tribute, or black-mail, like those we had seen. Knowing 
this much, I felt a certain calm. It was far better to 
know the worst at once. Five more chiefs with their 
demands would assuredly ruin us. In view of which, 
what is to be done? How am I to reach Livingstone, 
without being beggared ? 

Dismissing the men, I called Bombay, and told him 
to assist Asinani in settling the honga " as cheaply as 
possible." I then lit my pipe, put on the cap of con- 
sideration, and began to think. Within half an hour, I 
had made a plan, which was to be attempted to be put in 
execution that very night-. 

I summoned the two slaves of Thani bin Abdullah, 
after the honga had been settled to everybody's satis- 
faction though the profoundest casuistries and diplo- 
matic arguments failed to reduce it lower than twenty- 


six doti and began asking them about the possibility of 
evading the tribute-taking Wahha ahead. 

This rather astonished them at first, and they declared 
it to be impossible ; but, finally, after being pressed, they 
replied, that one of their number should guide us at 
midnight, or a little after, into the jungle which grew on 
the frontiers of Uhha and Uvinza. ]>y keeping a direct 
west course through this jungle until we came to Uka- 
ranga we might be enabled we were told to travel 
through Uhha without further trouble. If I were willing 
to pay the guide twelve doti, and if I were able to impose 
silence on my people while passing through the sleeping 
village, the guide was positive I could reach Ujiji without 
paying another doti. It is needless to add, that I 
accepted the proffered assistance at Such a price with 

But there was much to be done. Provisions were to be 
purchased, sufficient to last four days, for the tramp 
through the jungle, and men were at once sent with cloth 
to purchase grain at any price. Fortune favoured us, 
for before 8 P.M. we had enough for six days. 

November 7th. I did not go to sleep at all last night, 
but a little after midnight, as the moon was beginning to 
show itself, by gangs of four, the men stole quietly out of 
the village; and by 3 A.M. the entire Expedition was 
outside the boma, and not the slightest alarm had been 
made. .After a signal to the new guide, the Expedition 
began to move in a southern direction along the right 
bank of the Kanengi River. After an hour's march in 
this direction, we struck west, across the grassy plain, 
and maintained it, despite the obstacles we encountered, 
which were sore enough to naked men. The bright moon 
lighted our path : dark clouds now and then cast immense 


long shadows over the deserted and silent plains, and the 
moonbeans were almost obscured, and at such times our 
position seemed awful 

Till the inoou, 

Rising in clouded majesty, at length, 
Apparent queen, unveiled her peerless light, 
And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw. 

Bravely toiled the men, without murmur, though their legs 
were bleeding from the cruel grass. " Ambrosial morn " 
at last appeared, with all its beautiful and lovely features. 
Heaven was born anew to us, with comforting omens and 
cheery promise. The men, though fatigued at the 
unusual travel, sped forward with quicker pace as day- 
light broke, until, at 8 A.M., we sighted the swift Eusugi 
River, when a halt was ordered in a clump of jungle near it ? 
for breakfast and rest. Both banks of the river were alive 
with buffalo, eland, and antelope, but, though the sight 
was very tempting, we did not fire, because we dared not. 
The report of a gun would have alarmed the whole 
country. I preferred my coffee, and the contentment 
which my mind experienced at our success. 

An hour after we had rested, some natives, carrying 
salt from the Malagarazi, were seen coming up the right 
bank of the river. When abreast of our hiding-place, 
they detected us, and dropping their salt-bags, they took 
l.o their heels at once, shouting out as they ran, to alarm 
some villages that appeared about four miles north of us. 
The men were immediately ordered to take up their loads, 
and in a few minutes we had crossed the Rusugi, and 
were making direct for a bamboo jungle that appeared in 
our front. On, on, we kept steadily until, at 1 P.M., we 
sighted the little lake of Musunya, as wearied as possible 
with our nine hours march. 


Lake Musunya is one of the many circular basins found 
in this part of Uhha. There was quite a group of them. 
The more correct term of these lakes would be immense 
pools. In the Masika season, Lake Musunya must extend 
to three or four miles in length by two in breadth. It 
swarms with hippopotami, and its shores abound with 
noble game. 

We were very quiet, as may be imagined, in our 
bivouac; neither tent nor hut was raised, nor was fire 
kindled, so that, in case of pursuit, we could move off 
without delay. I kept my Winchester rifle (the gift of 
my friend Mr. Morris, and a rare gift it was for such a 
crisis) with its magazine full, and two hundred cartridges 
in a bag slung over my shoulders. Each soldier's gun 
was also ready and loaded, and we retired to sleep our 
fatigues off with a feeling of perfect security. 

November 8th. Long before dawn appeared, we were 
on the march, and, as daylight broke, we emerged from 
the bamboo jungle, and struck across the naked plain of 
Uhha, once more passing several large pools by the way 
-far-embracing prospects of undulating country, with 
here and there a characteristic clump of trees relieving 
the general nudity of the whole. Hour after hour we 
toiled on, across the rolling land waves, the sun shining 
with all its wonted African fervor, but with its heat 
slightly tempered by the welcome breezes, which came 
laden with the fragrance of young grass, and perfume of 
strange flowers of various hues, that flecked the otherwise 
pale-green sheet which extended so far around us. 

We arrived at the Kugufu River not the Ukawendi 
Rugufu, but the northern stream of that name, a tri- 
butary of the Malagarazi. It was a broad shallow stream, 
and sluggish, with an aloost imperceptible flow south- 


west. While we halted in the deep shade afforded by a 
dense clump of jungle, close to the right hank, resting 
awhile hefore continuing our journey. I distinctly heard 
a sound as of distant thunder in the west. Upon asking 
if it were thunder, I was told it was Kabogo. 

" Kabogo ? what is that ?" 

" It is a great mountain on the other side of the 
Tanganika, full of deep holes, into which the water rolls ; 
and when there is wind on the Tanganika, there is a 
sound like mvuha (thunder). Many boats have heen lost 
there, and it is a custom with Arabs and natives to 
throw cloth Merikani and Kaniki and especially white 
(Merikani) beads, to appease the mulungu (god) of the 
lake. Those who throw heads generally get past without 
trouble, hut those who do not throw beads into the lake 
get lost, and are drowned. Oh, it is a dreadful place !" 
This story was told me hy the ever-smiling guide Asmani, 
and was corroborated hy other former mariners of the 
lake whom I had with me. 

At the least, this place where we halted for dinner, on 
the hanks of the Eugufu Kiver, is eighteen and a half 
hours, or forty-six miles, from Ujiji ; and, as Kahogo is 
said to he near Uguhha, it must he over sixty miles from 
Ujiji ; therefore the sound of the thundering surf, which 
is said to roll into the caves of Kahogo, was heard by 
us at a distance of over one hundred miles away from 

Continuing our journey for three hours longer, through 
thin forests, over extensive heds of primitive rock, among 
fields of large houlders thickly strewn ahout, passing by 
namerous herds of buffalo, giraffe, and zebra, over a 
quaking quagmire which resembled peat, we arrived at 
the small stream of Sunuzzi, to a camping place only a 


mile removed from a large settlement of Wahha. But we 
were buried in the depths of a great forest no road was 
in the vicinity, no noise was made, deep silence was 
preserved ; nor were fires lit. We might therefore rest 
tranquilly secure, certain that we should not be disturbed. 
To-morrow morning the kirangozi has promised we shall 
be out of Uhha and if we travel on to Niamtaga, in 
Ukaranga, the same day, the next day would see us 
in Ujiji. 

Patience, my soul ! A few hours more, then the end of 
all this will be known ! I shall be face to face with that 
" white man with the white hairs on his face, whoever 
he is !" 

November 9th. Two hours before dawn we left our 
camp on the Sunuzzi Kiver, and struck through the forest 
in a north-by-west direction, having muzzled our goats 
previously, lest, by their bleating, they might betray us. 
This was a mistake which might have ended tragically, 
for just as the easte.rn sky began to assume a pale greyish 
tint, we emerged from the jungle on the high road. The 
guide thought we had passed Uhha, and set up a shout 
which was echoed by every member of the caravan, and 
marched onward with new vigor and increased energy, 
when plump we came to the outskirts of a village, the 
inhabitants of which were beginning to stir. Silence was 
called for at once, and the Expedition halted immediately. 
I walked forward to the front to advise with the guide. 
He did not know what to do. There was no time to con- 
sider, so I ordered the goats to be slaughtered and left on 
the road, and the guide to push on boldly through the 
village. The chickens also had their throats cut ; after 
which the Expedition resumed the march quickly and 
silently, led by the guide, who had orders to plunge ink 


the jungle south of the road. I stayed until the last man 
had disappeared ; then, after preparing my Winchester, 
brought up the rear, followed by my gunbearers with 
their stock of amurJtion. As we were about disappearing 
beyond the last hut, a man darted out of his hut, and 
uttered an exclamation of alarm, and loud voices were 
heard as if in dispute. But in a short time we were in 
the depths of the jungle, hurrying away from the road 
in a southern direction, and edging slightly westward. 
Once I thought we were pursued, and I halted behind a 
tree to check our foes if they persisted in following us ; 
but a few minutes proved to me that we were not pursued. 
After half-an-hour's march we again turned our faces 
westward. It was broad daylight now, and our eyes were 
delighted with most picturesque and sequestered little 
valleys, where wild fruit-trees grew, and rare flowers 
blossomed, and tiny brooks tumbled over polished pebbles 
where all was bright and beautiful until, finally, 
wading through one pretty pure streamlet, whose soft 
murmurs we took for a gentle welcome, we passed the 
boundary of wicked Uhha, and had entered Ukaranga ! 
an event that was hailed with extravagant shouts of joy. 

Presently we found the smooth road, and we trod gaily 
with elastic steps, with limbs quickened for the march 
which we all knew to be drawing near its end. What 
cared we now for the difficulties we had encountered for 
the rough and cruel forests, for the thorny thickets and 
hurtful grass, for the jangle of all savagedom, of which 
we had been the joyless audience ! To-morrow ! Ay, the 
great day draws nigh, and we may well laugh and sing 
while in this triumphant mood. We have been sorely 
tried ; we have been angry with each other when vexed 
by troubles, but we forget all these now, and there is no 


face but is radiant with the happiness we have all 

We made a short halt at noon, for rest and refreshment. 
I was shown the hills from which the Tanganika could be 
seen, which bounded the valley of the Liuche on the east. 
I could not contain myself at the sight of them. Even 
with this short halt I was restless and unsatisfied. We 
resumed the march again. I spurred my men forward 
with the promise that to-morrow should see their reward. 

We were in sight of the villages of the Wakaranga; 
the people caught sight of us, and manifested considerable 
excitement. I sent men ahead to reassure them, and they 
came forward to greet us. This was so new and welcome 
to us, so different from the turbulent Wavinza and the 
black-mailers of Uhha, that we were melted. But we had 
no time to loiter by the way to indulge our joy. I was 
impelled onward by my almost uncontrollable feelings. I 
wished to resolve my doubts and fears. Was HE still 
there ? Had HE heard of my coming ? Would HE fly ? 

How beautiful Ukaranga appears ! The green hills are 
crowned by clusters of straw-thatched cones. The hills 
rise and fall ; here denuded and cultivated, there in 
pasturage, here timbered, yonder swarming with huts. 
The country has somewhat the aspect of Maryland. 

We cross the Mkuti, a glorious little river ! We ascend 
the opposite bank, and stride through the forest like 
men who have done a deed of which they may be proud. 
We have already travelled nine hours, and the sun is 
sinking rapidly towards the west ; yet, apparently, we are 
not fatigued. 

We reach the outskirts of Niamtaga, and we hear 
drums beat. The people are flying into the woods ; they 
desert their villages, for they take us to be Euga-Euga 


the forest thieTes of Mirambo, who, after conquering the 
Arabs of Unyanyembe, are coming to fight the Arabs Oi 
Ujiji. Even the King flies from his village, and every 
man, woman, and child, terror-stricken, follows him. We 
enter into it and quietly take possession. Finally, the 
word is bruited about that we are Wangwana, from 

" Well, then, is Mirambo dead ? " they ask. 
"No," we answer. 

' Well, how did you come to Ukaranga ? ' 
" By way of Ukonongo, Ukawendi, and Uhha." 
"Oh hi-le!" Then they laugh heartily at their 
fright, and begin to make excuses. The King is intro- 
duced to me, and he says he had only gone to the woods 
in order to attack us again he meant to have come back 
and killed us all, if we had been Euga-Kuga. But then 
we know the poor King was terribly frightened, and 
would never have dared to return, had we been Euga- 
Euga not he. We are not, however, in a mood to 
quarrel with him about an idiomatic phrase peculiar to 
him, but rather take him by the hand and shake it well, 
and say we are so very glad to see him. And he shares 
in our pleasure, and immdiately three of the fattest sheep, 
pots of beer, flour, and honey are brought to us as a gift, 
and I make him happier still with two of the finest cloths 
I have in my bales ; and thus a friendly pact is entered 
into between us. 

While I write my Diary of this day's proceedings, I tell 
my servant to lay out my new flannel suit, to oil my boots, 
to chalk my helmet, aod fold a new puggaree around it, 
that I may make as presentable an appearance as possible 
before the white man with the grey beard, and before the 
Arabs of Ujiji; for the clothes I have worn through 

UKAWENfci, UVItfZA, AND tfHHA, fO tJJWl. 325 

'ungle and forest are in tatters. Good-night ; only let 
one day come again, and we shall see what we shall 

November 10th. Friday. The 236th day from Bagamoyo 
on the Sea, and the 51st day from Unyanyembe. 
General direction to Ujiji, west-by-south. Time of 
march, six hours. 

It is a happy, glorious morning. The air is fresh 
and cool. The sky lovingly smiles on the earth and her 
children. The deep woods are crowned in bright vernal 
leafage; the water of the Mkuti, rushing under the 
emerald shade afforded by the bearded banks, seems to 
challenge us for the race to Ujiji, with its continuous 

We are all outside the village cane fence, every man of 
us looking as spruce, as neat, and happy as when we 
embarked on the dhows at Zanzibar, which seems to us to 
have been ages ago we have witnessed and experienced 
so much. 

" Forward ! " 

" Ay Wallah, ay Wallah, bana yango ! " and the light- 
hearted braves stride away at a rate which must soon 
bring us within view of Ujiji. We ascend a hill over- 
grown with bamboo, descend into a ravine through which 
clashes an impetuous little torrent, ascend another short 
hill, then, along a smooth footpath running across the 
elope of a long ridge, we push on as only eager, light- 
hearted men can do. 

In two hours I am warned to prepare for a view of the 
Tanganika, for, from the top of a steep mountain the 
kirangozi says I can see it. I almost vent the feeling of 
my heart in cries. But wait, we must behold it first. 
And we press forward and up the hill breathlessly, leat 

326 HOW i FOUND 

the grand scene hasten away. We are at last jn the 
summit. Ah ! not yet can it be seen. A little further on 
just yonder, oh ! there it is a silvery gleam. I 
merely catch sight of it between the trees, and but here 
it is at last ! True THE TANGANIKA ! and there are the 
blue-black mountains of Ugoma and Ukaramba. An 
immense broad sheet, a burnished bed of silver lucid 
canopy of blue above lofty mountains are its valances, 
palm forests form its fringes ! The Tanganika ! Hurrah ! 
and the men respond to the exultant cry of the Anglo- 
Saxon with the lungs of Stentors, and the great forests 
and the hills seem to share in our triumph. 

" Was this the place where Burton and Speke stood, 
Bombay, when they saw the lake first ? " 

" I don't remember, master ; it was somewhere about 
here, I think." 

" Poor fellows ! The one was half-paralyzed, the other 
half-blind," said Sir Eoderick Murchison, when he de- 
scribed Burton andSpeke's arrival in view of the Tanganika. 

And I ? Well, I am so happy that, were I quite 
paralyzed and blinded, I think that at this supreme 
moment I could take up my bed and walk, and all blind- 
ness would cease at once. Fortunately, however, I am 
quite well ; I have not suffered a day's sickness since the 
day I left Unyanyembe. How much would Shaw bo 
willing to give to be in my place now ? Who is happiest 
he, revelling in the luxuries of Unyanyembe, or I, 
standing on the summit of this mountain, looking down 
with glad eyes and proud heart on the Tanganika ? 

We are descending the western slope of the mountain, 
with the valley of the Liuche before us. Something like 
an hour before noon we have gained the thick matete 
brake, which grows on both banks of the river ; we wade 


through the clear stream, arrive on the other side, emerge 
out of the brake, and the gardens of the Wajiji are 
around us a perfect marvel of vegetable wealth. Details 
escape my hasty and partial observation. I am almost 
overpowered with my own emotions. I notice the 
graceful palms, neat plots, green with vegetable plants, 
and small villages surrounded with frail fences of the 

We push on rapidly, lest the news of our coming might 
reach the people of Ujiji before we come in sight, and are 
ready for them. We halt at a little brook, then ascend 
the long slope of a naked ridge, the very last of the 
myriads we have crossed. This alone prevents us from 
seeing the lake in all its vastness. We arrive at the 
summit, travel across and arrive at its western rim, and 
pause, reader the port of Ujiji is below us, embowered 
in the palms, only five hundred yards from rs ! 

At this grand moment we do not think of the hundreds 
of miles we have marched, or of the hundreds of hills 
that we have ascended and descended, or of the many 
forests we have traversed, or of the jungles and thickets 
that annoyed us, or of the fervid salt plains that blistered 
our feet, or of the hot suns that scorched us, nor of the 
dangers and difficulties, now happily surmounted ! 

At last the sublime hour has arrived ; our dreams, our 
hopes, and anticipations are now about to be realised ! 
Our hearts and our feelings are with our eyes, as we peer 
into the palms and try to make out in which hut or 
house lives the " white man with the grey beard " we 
heard about when we were at the Malagarazi. 

" Unfurl the flags, and load your guns !" 

" We will, master, we will, master !" respond the men 


" One, two, three, fire !" 

A volley from nearly fifty guns roars like a salute froiii 
a battery of artillery : we shall note its effect presently 
on the peaceful-looking village below. 

" Now, kirangozi, hold the white man's flag up high, 
and let the Zanzibar flag bring up the rear. And you 
men keep close together, and keep firing until we halt in 
the market-place, or before the white man's house. You 
have said to meoften that you could smell the fi&li of the 
Tanganika I can smell the fish of the Tanganika now. 
There are fish, and beer, and a long rest waiting for you. 

Before we had gone a hundred yards our repeated 
volleys had the effect desired. We had awakened Ujiji 
to the knowledge that a caravan was coming, and the 
people were witnessed rushing up in hundreds to meet us. 
The mere sight of the flags informed every one imme- 
diately that we were a caravan, but the American flag 
borne aloft by gigantic Asmani, whose face was one vast 
smile on this day, rather staggered them at first. How- 
ever, many of the people who now approached us, re- 
membered the flag. They had seen it float above the 
American Consulate, and from the mast-head of many a 
ship in the harbor of Zanzibar, and they were soon heard 
welcoming the beautiful flag with cries of " Bindera 
Kisungu !" a white man's flag ! " Bindera Merikani !" 
the American flag ' 

Then we were surrounded by them : by Wajiji, Wan- 
yamwezi, Wangwana, Warundi, Waguhha, Wamanyuema, 
and Arabs, and were almost deafened with the shouts ol 
" Yambo, yarnbo, bana ! Yambo, bana ! Yambo, bana !" 
To all and each of my men the welcome was given. 

We were now about three hundred yards from th< 


Tillage of Ujiji, and the crowds are dense about me. 
Suddenly I hear a voice on my right say, 

" Good morning, sir !" 

Startled at hearing this greeting in the midst of such 
a crowd of black people, I turn sharply around in search 
of the man, and see him at my side, with the blackest of 
faces, but animated and joyous a man dressed in a long 
white shirt, with a turban of American sheeting around 
his woolly head, and I ask : 

" Who the mischief are you ?" 

" I am Susi, the servant of Dr. Livingstone," said be, 
smiling, and showing a gleaming row of teeth. 

" What ! Is Dr. Livingstone here ?" 

" Yes, sir." 

" In this village ?" 

" Yes, sir." 

" Are you sure ?" 

" Sure, sure, sir. Why, I leave him just now.'* 

" Good morning, sir," said another voice. 

" Hallo," said I, " is this another one ?" 

" Yes, sir." 

" Well, what is your name ?" 

" My name is Chumah, sir." 

" What ! are you Chumah, the friend of Wekotani ?" 

" Yes, sir." 

" And is the Doctor well ?" 

" Not very well, sir." 

" Where has he been so long ?" 

" In Manyuema." 

" Now, you Susi, run, and tell the Doctor I am 

"Yes, sir,' and off he darted like a madman. 

But by this time we were within two hundred yards 


of the village, and the multitude was getting denser, and 
almost preventing our march. Flags and streamers wero 
out; Arabs and Wangwana were pushing their way 
through the natives in order to greet us, for according to 
their account, we belonged to them. But the great wonder 
of all was, "How did you come from Unyanyembe?" 

Soon Susi came running back, and asked me my name ; 
he had told the Doctor I was coming, but the Doctor was 
too surprised to believe him, and when the Doctor asked 
him my name, Susi was rather staggered. 

But, during Susi's absence, the news had been conveyed 
to the Doctor that it was surely a white man that was 
coming, whose guns were firing, and whose flag could be 
seen ; and the great Arab magnates of Ujiji Mohammed 
bin Sali, Sayd bin Majid, Abid bin Suliman, Mohammed 
bin Gharib, and others had gathered together before the 
Doctor's house, and the Doctor had come out from his 
veranda to discuss the matter and await my arrival. 

In the meantime, the head of the Expedition had 
halted, and the kirangozi was out of the ranks, holding 
his flag aloft, and Selim said to me, " I see the Doctor, 
sir. Oh, what an old man ! He has got a white beard." 

And I what would I not have given for a bit of 

friendly wilderness, where, unseen, I might vent my joy 
in some mad freak, such as idiotically biting my hand, 
turning a somersault, or slashing at trees, in order to 
allay those exciting feelings that were well-nigh uncon- 
trollable. My heart beats fast, but I must not let my 
face betray my emotions, lest it shall detract from the 
dignity of a white man appearing under such extraordinary 

So I did that which I thought was most dignified. I 
pushed back the crowds, and, passing from the rear 


walked down a living avenue of people, until I came in 
front of the semicircle of Arabs, before which stood the 
" white man with the grey beard." 

As I advanced slowly towards him I noticed he was 
pale, that he looked wearied and wan, that he had grey 
whiskers and moustache, that he wore a bluish cloth cap 
with a faded gold band on a red ground round it, and that 
he had on a red-sleeved waistcoat, and a pair of grey 
tweed trousers. 

I would have run to him, only I was a coward in the 
presence of such a mob would have embraced him, but 
that I did not know how he would receive me ; so I did 
what moral cowardice and false pride suggested was the 
best thing walked deliberately to him, took off my hat, 
and said : 


" YES," said he, with a kind, cordial smile, lifting his 
cap slightly. 

I replaced my hat on my head, and he replaced his cap, 
and we both grasped hands. I then said aloud : 

" I thank God, Doctor, I have been permitted to see 

He answered, " I feel thankful that I am here to wel- 
come you." 

I turned to the Arabs, took off my hat to them in 
response to the saluting chorus of " Yambos " I received, 
and the Doctor introduced them to me by name. Then, 
oblivious of the crowds, oblivious of the men who shared 
with me my dangers, we Livingstone and I turned our 
faces towards his house. He pointed to the veranda, 
or rather, mud platform, under the broad overhanging 
eaves ; he pointed to his own particular seat, which I saw 
his age and experience in Africa had suggested, namely, 


a straw mat, with a goatskin over it, and another skin 
nailed against the wall to protect his back from contact 
with the cold mud. I protested against taking this seat, 
which so much more befitted him than I, but the Doctor 
would not yield : I must take it. 

We were seated the Doctor and I with our backs to 
the wall. The Arabs took seats on our left. More than 
a thousand natives were in our front, filling the whole 
square densely, indulging their curiosity, and discussing 
the fact of two white men meeting at Ujiji one just 
come from Manyuerna, in the west, the other from Unya- 
nyembe, in the east. 

Conversation began. What about? I declare I have 
forgotten. Oh ! we mutually asked questions of one 
another, such as : 

" How did you come here ?" and " Where have you 
been all this long time ? the world has believed you to 
be dead." Yes, that was the way it began : but what- 
ever the Doctor informed me, and that which I commu- 
nicated to him, I cannot correctly report, for I found my- 
self gazing at him, conning the wonderful figure and face 
of the man at whose side I now sat in Central Africa. 
Every hair of his head and beard, every wrinkle of his 
face, the wanness of his features, and the slightly wearied 
look he wore, were all imparting intelligence to me the 
knowledge I craved for so much ever since I heard the 
words, " Take what you want, but find Livingstone." 
What I saw was deeply interesting intelligence to me, and 
unvarnished truth. I was listening and reading at the 
same time .What did these dumb witnesses relate to me ? 

Oh, reader, had you been at my side on this day in 
Ujiji, how eloquently could be told the nature of this 
man's work ! Had YOU been thero but to seo and hoar ! 


His lips gave me the details; lips that never lie. I 
cannot repeat what he said ; I was too much engrossed to 
take my note-book out, and begin to stenograph his 
story. He had so much to say that he began at the 
end, seemingly oblivious of the fact that five or six years 
had to be accounted for. But his account was oozing 
out ; it was growing fast into grand proportions into a 
most marvellous history of deeds. 

The Arabs rose up, with a delicacy I approved, as if 
they intuitively knew that we ought to be left to ourselves. 

I sent Bombay with them to give them the news they 
also wanted so much to know about the affairs at Unya- 
nyembe. Sayd bin Majid was the father of the gallant 
young man whom I saw at Masangi, and who fought with 
me at Zimbizo, and who soon afterwards was killed by 
Mirambo's Kuga-Euga in the forest of Wilyankuru ; and, 
knowing that I had been there, he earnestly desired to 
hear the tale of the fight ; but they had all friends at 
Unyanyembe, and it was but natural that they should be 
anxious to hear of what concerned them. 

After giving orders to Bombay and Asmani for the 
provisioning of the men of the Expedition, I called 
" Kaif-Halek," or " Bow-do-ye-do," and introduced him 
to Dr. Livingstone as one of the soldiers in charge of 
certain goods left at Unyanyembe, whom I had compelled 
to accompany me to Ujiji, that he might deliver in person 
to his master the letter-bag with which he had been in- 
trusted. This was that famous letter-bag marked "Nov. 
1st, 1870," which was now delivered into the Doctor's 
hands 365 days after it left Zanzibar! How long, I 
wonder, had it remained at Unyanyembe had I not been 
despatched into Central Africa in search of the great 
traveller ? 


The Doctor kept the letter-bag on his knee, then, 
presently, opened it, looked at the letters contained there, 
and read one or two of his children's letters, his face in 
the meanwhile lighting up. 

He asked me to tell him the news. " No, Doctor," 
said I, " read your letters first, which I am sure you must 
be impatient to read." 

" Ah," said he, " I have waited years for letters, and I 
have been taught patience. I can surely afford to wait a 
few hours longer. No, tell me the general news : how is 
the world getting along ? 

" You probably know much already. Do you know that 
the Suez Canal is a fact is opened, and a regular trade 
carried on between Europe and India through it ? " 

" I did not hear about the opening of it. Well, that is 
grand news ! What else ? " 

Shortly I found myself enacting the part of an annual 
periodical to him. There was no need of exaggeration 
of any penny-a-line news, or of any sensationalism. The 
world had witnessed and experienced much the last few 
years. The Pacific Kailroad had been completed ; Grant 
had been elected President of the United States ; Egypt 
had been flooded with savans : the Cretan rebellion had 
terminated ; a Spanish revolution had driven Isabella from 
the throne of Spain, and a Regent had been appointed : 
General Prim was assassinated ; a Castelar had electrified 
Europe with his advanced ideas upon the liberty of 
worship; Prussia had humbled Denmark, and annexed 
Schleswig-Holstein, and her armies were now around 
Paris ; the " Mari of Destiny " was a prisoner at Wilhelm- 
shohe ; the Queen of Fashion and the Empress of the 
French was a fugitive ; and the child born in the purple 
had lost for ever the Imperial crown intended for his 


head the Napoleon dynasty was extinguished by the 
Prussians, Bismarck and Von Moltke ; and France, the 
proud empire, was humbled to the dust. 

What could a man have exaggerated of these facts? 
What a budget of news it was to one who had emerged 
from the depths of the primeval forests of Manyuema ! 
The reflection of the dazzling light of civilisation was 
cast on him while Livingstone was thus listening in 
wonder to one of the most exciting pages of history ever 
repeated. How the puny deeds of barbarism paled before 
these ! Who could tell under what new phases of uneasy 
life Europe was labouring even then, while we, two of her 
lonely children, r-ehearsed the tale of her late woes and 
glories? More worthily, perhaps, had the tongue of a 
lyric Demodocus recounted them ; but, in the absence 01 
the poet, the newspaper correspondent performed his part 
as well and truthfully as he could. 

Not long after the Arabs had departed, a dishful of hot 
hashed-meat cakes was sent to us by Sayd bin Majid, and 
a curried chicken was received from Mohammed bin Sali, 
and Moeni Kheri sent a dishful of stewed goat-meat and 
rice ; and thus presents of food came in succession, and as 
fast as they were brought we set to. I had a healthy, 
stubborn digestion the exercise I had taken had put it 
in prime order ; but Livingstone he had been complain- 
ing that he had no appetite, that his stomach refused 
everything but a cup of tea now and then he ate also 
ate like a vigorous, hungry man ; and, as he vied with me 
in demolishing the pancakes, he kept repeating, " You 
have brought me new life. You have brought me new 

" Oh, by George ! " I said, " I have forgotten something 
Hasten, Selim.. and bring that bottle ; you know which 


and bring me tLs silver goblets. I brought this bottle on 
purpose for this event, which I hoped would come to paes, 
though often it seemed useless to expect it." 

Selirn knew where the bottle was, and he soon returned 
with it a bottle of Sillery champagne; and, handing the 
Doctor a silver goblet brimful of the exhilarating wine, 
and pouring a small quantity into my own, I said, 

" Dr. Livingstone, to your very good health, sir." 

" And to yours !" he responded, smilingly. 

And the champagne I had treasured for this happy 
meeting was drunk with hearty good wishes to each 

But we kept on talking and talking, and prepared food 
was being brought to us all that afternoon ; and we kept 
on eating each time it was brought, until I had eaten 
even to repletion, and the Doctor was obliged to confess 
that he had eaten enough. Still, Halimah, the female 
cook of the Doctor's establishment, was in a state of the 
greatest excitement. She had been protruding her head 
out of the cookhouse to make sure that there were really 
two white men sitting down in the veranda, when there 
used to be only one, who would not, because he could not, 
eat anything ; and she had been considerably exercised in 
her mind about this fact. She was afraid the Doctor did 
not properly appreciate her culinary abilities ; but now 
Bhe was amazed at the extraordinary quantity of food 
eaten, and she was in a state of delightful excitement. 
We could hear her tongue rolling off a tremendous 
volume of clatter to the wondering crowds who halted 
before the kitchen to hear the current of news with which 
she edified them. Poor, faithful sodl ! While we listened 
to the noise of her furious gossip, the Doctor related her 
Caithi'ul services, and the terrible anxiety she evinced 


when the guns first announced the arrival of another 
white man in Ujiji ; how she had been flying about in a 
state cf the utmost excitement, from the kitchen into his 
presence, and out again into the square, asking all sorts 
of questions ; how she was in despair at the scantiness of 
the general larder and treasury of the strange household ; 
how she was anxious to make up for their poverty by a 
grand appearance to make up a sort of Barmecide feast 
to welcome the white man. " Why," said she, " is he not 
one of us ? Does he not bring plenty of cloth and beads ? 
Talk about the Arabs ! Who are they that they should 
be compared to white men ? Arabs, indeed ! " 

The Doctor and I conversed upon many things, especially 
upon his own immediate troubles, and his disappointments, 
upon his arrival in Ujiji, when told that all his goods had 
been sold, and he was reduced to poverty. He had but 
twenty cloths or so left of the stock he had deposited 
with the man called Sherif, the half-caste drunken tailor, 
who was sent by the Consul in charge of the goods. 
Besides which he had been suffering from an attack of 
dysentery, and his condition was most deplorable. He 
was but little improved on this day, though he had eaten 
well, and already began to feel stronger and better. 

This day, like all others, though big with happiness 
to me, at last was fading away. While sitting with our 
faces looking to the east, as Livingstone had been sitting 
for days preceding my arrival, we noted the dark shadows 
which crept up above the grove of palms beyond the 
village, and above the rampart of mountains which we 
had crossed that day, now looming through the fast 
approaching darkness ; and we listened, with our hearts 
full of gratitude to the Great Giver of Good and Dispenser 
ot all Happiness, to the sonorous thunder of the surf of 


the Tanganika, and to the chorus which the night insects 
sang. Hours passed, and we were still sitting there with 
our minds husy upon the day's remarkable events, when 
I remembered that the traveller had not yet read his 

"Doctor," I said, "you had better read your letters. 
I will not keep you up any longer." 

" Yes," he answered," it is getting late ; and I will go and 
read my friends' letters. Good-night, and God bless you." 

" Good-night, my dear Doctor ; and let me hope that 
your news will be such as you desire." 

I have now related, by means of my Diary, " How I 
found Livingstone," as recorded on the evening of that 
great day. I have been averse to reduce it by process of 
excision and suppression, into a mere cold narrative, 
because, by so doing, I would be unable to record what 
feelings swayed each member of the Expedition as well as 
myself, during the days preceding the discovery of the 
lost traveller, and more especially the day it was the good 
fortune of both Livingstone and myself to clasp each 
other's hands in the strong friendship which was born in 
that hour we thus strangely met. The aged traveller, 
though cruelly belied, contrary to all previous expecta- 
tion, received me as a friend ; and the cordial warmth 
with which he accepted my greeting ; the courtesy with 
which he tendered to me a shelter in his own house ; the 
simple candour of his conversation; graced by unusual 
modesty of manner, and meekness of spirit, wrought in me 
such a violent reaction in his favor, that when the parting 
" good-night " was uttered, I felt a momentary vague fear 
lest the fulness of joy which I experienced that evening 
would be diminished by some envious fate, before the 
roor row's sun should rise above Ujiji, 

( 339 ) 



" If there is love between us, inconceivably delicious, and profitable 
will our intercourse be; if not, your time is lost, and you will only 
annoy me. 1 shall seem to you stupid, and the reputation I have false. 
All my good is magnetic, and I educate not by lessons, but by going 
about my business." Emerson's Representative Men. 

I WOKE up early next morning with a sudden start. The 
room was strange ! It was a house, and not my tent ! 
Ah, yes! I recollected I had discovered Livingstone, 
and I was in his house. I listened, that the knowledge 
dawning on me might be confirmed by the sound of his 
voice. I heard nothing but the sullen roar of the 

I lay quietly in bed. Bed ! Yes, it was a primitive 
four-poster, with the leaves of the palm-tree spread upon 
it instead of down, and horsehair and my bearskin spread 
over this serving me in place of linen I began to put 


myself under a rigid mental cross-examination, and to an 
analyzation of my position. 

" What was I sent for ? " 

" To find Livingstone." 

" Have you found him ? " 

" Yes, of course ; am I not in his house ? Whose com- 
pass is that hanging on a peg there ? Whose clothes, 
whose boots, are those? Who reads those newspapers, 
those * Saturday Keviews ' and numbers of ' Punch ' lying 
on the floor ? " 

" Well, what are you going to do now ? " 

" I shall tell him this morning who sent me, and what 
brought me here. I will then ask him to write a letter to 
Mr. Bennett, and to give what news he can spare. I did not 
come here to rob him of his news. Sufficient for me is it 
that I have found him. It is a complete success so far. 
But it will be a greater one if he gives me letters for 
Mr. Bennett, and an acknowledgment that he has seen me." 

" Do you think he will do so ? " 

"Why not? I have come here to do him a service. 
He has no goods. I have. He has no men with him. I 
have. If I do a friendly part by him, will he not do a 
friendly part by me ? What says the poet ? 

Nor hope to find 

A friend, but who has found a friend in thee. 
All like the purchase ; few the price will pay : 
And this makes friends such wonders here below. 

[ have paid the purchase, by coming so far to do him a 
service. But I think, from what I have seen of him last 
night, that he is not such a niggard and misanthrope as 
I was led to believe. He exhibited considerable emotion, 


despite the monosyllabic greeting, when he shook my 
hand. If he were a man to feel annoyance at any 
person coming after him, he would not have received me 
as he did, nor would he ask me to live with him, hut he 
would have surlily refused to see me, and told me to mind 
my own business. Neither does he mind my nationality ; 
for * here,' said he, * Americans and Englishmen are the 
same people. We speak the same language and have the 
same ideas.' Just so, Doctor ; I agree with you. Here 
at least, Americans and Englishmen shall be brothers, 
and whatever I can do for you, you may command me 

I dressed myself quietly, intending to take a stroll 
along the Tanganika before the Doctor should rise ; opened 
the door, which creaked horribly on its hinges, and walked 
out to the veranda. 

" Halloa, Doctor ! you up already ? I hope you have 
slept well ? ' 

" Good-morning, Mr. Stanley ! I am glad to see you. 
I hope you rested well. I sat ap late reading my letters. 
You have brought me good and bad news. But sit down." 
He made a place for me by his side. " Yes, many of my 
friends are dead. My eldest son has met with a sad 
accident that is, my boy Tom ; my second son, Oswell, is 
at college studying medicine, and is doing well I am told. 
Agnes, my eldest daughter, has been enjoying herself in 
a yacht, with ' Sir Paraffine ' Young and his family. 
Sir Koderick, also, is well, and expresses a hope that he 
will soon see me. You have brought me quite a 

The man was not an apparition, then, and yesterday's 
scenes were not the result of a dream J and I gazed on him 


intently, for thus I was assured he had not run away, 
which was the great fear that constantly haunted nie as J 
was journeying to Ujiji. 

" Now, Doctor," said I, " you are, probably, wondering 
why I came here ?" 

"It is true," said he; "I have been wondering. I 
thought you, at first, an emissary of the French Govern- 
ment, in the place of Lieutenant Le Saint, who died a few 
miles above Gondokoro. I heard you had boats, plenty of 
men, and stores, and I really believed you were some 
French officer, until I saw the American flag ; and, to tell 
you the truth, I was rather glad it was so, because I could 
not have talked to him in French; and if he did not 
know English, we had been a pretty pair of white men in 
Ujiji ! I did not like to ask you yesterday, because I 
thought it was none of my business." 

" Well," said I, laughing, " for your sake I am glad that 
I am an American, and not a Frenchman, and that we 
can understand each other perfectly without an inter- 
preter. I see that the Arabs are wondering that you, an 
Englishman, and I, an American, understand each other. 
We must take care not to tell them that the English and 
Americans have fought, and that there are ' Alabama ' 
claims left unsettled, and that we have such people as 
Fenians in America, who hate you. But, seriously, 
Doctor now don't be frightened when I tell you that I 
have come after YOU !" 

" After me ?" 


" How ?" 

" Well. You have heard of the ' New York Herald ?' " 

11 Oh vrho has not heard of that newspaper ?" 


" Without his father's knowledge or consent, Mr. James 
Gordon Bennett, son of Mr. James Gordon Bennett, the 
proprietor of the ' Herald/ has commissioned me to find 
you to get whatever news of your discoveries you like to 
give and to assist you, if I can, with means." 

" Young Mr. Bennett told you to come after me, to find 
me out, and help me ! It is no wonder, then, you praised 
Mr. Bennett so much last night." 

" I know him I am proud to say to be just what I say 
he is. He is an ardent, generous, and true man." 

" Well, indeed ! I am very much obliged to him ; and 
it makes me feel proud to think that you Americans think so 
much of me. You have just come in the proper time ; for I 
was beginning to think that I should have to beg from the 
Arabs. Even they are in want of cloth, and there are 
but few beads in Ujiji. That fellow Sherif has ^bbed me 
of all. I wish I could embody my thanks to Mr. Bennett 
in suitable words ; but if I fail to do so, do not, I beg 
of you, believe me the less grateful." 

" And now, Doctor, having disposed of this little affair, 
Ferajji shall bring breakfast ; if you have no objection." 

" You have given me an appetite," he said. " Halimah 
is my cook, but she never can tell the difference between 
tea and coffee. 

Ferajji, the cook, was ready as usual with excellent 
tea, and a dish of smoking cakes ; " dampers," as the 
Doctor called them. I never did care much for this kind 
of a cake fried in a pan, but they were necessary to the 
Doctor, who had nearly lost all his teeth from the hard 
fare of Lunda. He had been compelled to subsist on 
green ears of Indian corn ; there was no meat in that 
district ; and the effort to gnaw at the corn ears had 
loosened all his teeth. I preferred the corn scones oi 


Virginia, which, to iny mind, were the nearest approach to 
palatable hread obtainable in Central Africa. 

The Doctor said he had thought me a most luxurious 
and rich man, when he saw my great bath-tub carried on 
the shoulders of one of my men ; but he thought me still 
more luxurious this morning, when my knives and forks, 
and plates, and cups, saucers, silver spoons, and silver tea- 
pot were brought forth shining and bright, spread on a 
rich Persian carpet, and observed that I was well attended 
to by my yellow and ebon Mercuries. 

This was the beginning of our life at Ujiji. I knew 
him not as a friend before my arrival. He was only an 
object to me a great item for a daily newspaper, as much 
as other subjects in which the voracious news-loving 
public delight in. I had gone over battlefields, witnessed 
revolutions, civil wars, rebellions, emeutes and massacres ; 
stood close to the condemned murderer to record his last 
struggles and last sighs ; but never had I been called to 
record anything that moved me so much as this man's 
woes and sufferings, his privations and disappointments, 
which now were poured into my ear. Verily did I begiu 
to perceive fhat " the Gods above do with just eyes survey 
the affairs of men." I began to recognize the hand of an 
overruling and kindly Providence. 

The following are singular facts worthy for reflection. 
I was commissioned for the duty of discovering Living- 
stone sometime in October, 1869. Mr. Bennett was ready 
with the money, and I was ready for the journey. But, 
observe, reader, that I did not proceed directly upon the 
search mission. I had many tasks to fulfil before pro- 
ceeding with it, and many thousand miles to travel over. 
Supposing that I had gone direct to Zanzibar from Paris, 
seven or eight months afterwards, perhaps, I should have 


found myself at Ujiji, but Livingstone would not have 
been found there then ; he was on the Lualaba ; and I 
should have had to follow him on his devious tracks 
through the primeval forests of Manyuema, and up along 
the crooked course of the Lualaba for hundreds of miles. 
The time taken by me in travelling up the Nile, back to 
Jerusalem, then to Constantinople, Southern Eussia, tha 
Caucasus, and Persia, was employed by Livingstone in 
fruitful discoveries west of the Tanganika. Again, 
consider that I arrived at Unyanyernbe in the latter part 
of June, and that owing to a war I was delayed three 
months at Unyanyembe, leading a fretful, peevish and 
impatient life. But while I was thus fretting myself, and 
being delayed by a series of accidents, Livingstone was 
being forced back to Ujiji in the same month. It took 
him from June to October to march to Ujiji. Now, in 
September, I broke loose from the thraldom which accident 
had imposed on me, and hurried southward to Ukonongo, 
then westward to Kawendi, then northward to Uvinza, 
then westward to Ujiji, only about three weeks after the 
Doctor's arrival, to find him resting under the veranda of 
his house with his face turned eastward, the direction 
from which I was coming. Had I gone direct from Paris 
on the search I might have lost him ; had I been enableo 
to have gone direct to Ujiji from Unyanyembe I might 
Lave lost him. 

The days came and went peacefully and happily, 
under the palms of Ujiji. My companion was improving 
in health and spirits. Life had been brought back to him ; 
his fading vitality was restored, his enthusiasm for his 
work was growing up again into a height that was com- 
pelling him to desire to be up and doing. But what could 
do do, with five men and fifteen or twenty cloths ? 


" Have you seen the northern head of the Tangauik*, 
Doctor ?" I asked one day. 

"No; I did try to go there, but the Wajiji were doing 
their best to fleece me, as they did both Burton and 
Speke, and I had not a great deal of cloth. If I had gone 
to the head of the Tanganika, I could not have gone to 
Manyuema. The central line of drainage was the most 
important, and that is the Lualaba. Before this line the 
question whether there is a connection between the Tan- 
ganika and the Albert N'Yanza sinks into insignificance. 
The great line of drainage is the river flowing from lati- 
tude 11 south, which I followed for over seven degrees 
northward. The Chambezi, the name given to its most 
southern extremity, drains a large tract of country south 
of the southernmost source of the Tanganika; it must, 
therefore, be the most important. I have not the least 
doubt, myself, but that this lake is the Upper Tanganika, 
and the Albert N'Yanza of Baker is the Lower Tanganika, 
which are connected by a river flowing from the upper to 
the lower. This is my belief, based upon reports of the 
Arabs, and a test I made of the flow with water-plants. 
But I really never gave it much thought." 

" Well, if I were you, Doctor, before leaving Ujiji, I 
should explore it, and resolve the doubts upon the subject ; 
lest, after you leave here, you should not return by this 
way. The Royal Geographical Society attach much im- 
portance to this supposed connection, and declare you are 
the only man who can settle it. If I can be of any service 
to you, you may command me. Though I did not come to 
Africa as an explorer, I have a good deal of curiosity upon 
the subject, and should be willing to accompany you. I 
have with me about twenty men who understand rowing 
we have plenty of guns, cloth, and beads ; and if we can 


get a canoe from the Arabs we can manage the thing 

" Oh, we can get a canoe from Sayd bin Majid. This 
man has been very kind to me, and if ever there was an 
Arab gentleman, he is one." 

" Then it is settled, is it, that we go ?" 

" I am ready, whenever you are." 

" I am at your command. Don't you hear my men 
call you the c Great Master,' and me the * Little 
Master ?' It would never do for the * Little Master ' 
to command." 

By this time Livingstone was becoming known to me. 
I defy any one to be in his society long without thoroughly 
fathoming him, for in him there is no guile, and what is 
apparent on the surface is the thing that is in him. I 
simply write down my own opinion of the man as I have 
seen him, not as he represents himself ; as I know him to 
be, not as I have heard of him. I lived with him from the 
10th November, 1871, to the 14th March, 1872 ; witnessed 
his conduct in the camp, and on the march, and my feel- 
ings for him are those of unqualified admiration. The 
"camp is the best place to discover a man's weaknesses, 
where, if he is flighty or wrong-headed, he is sure to 
develop his hobbies and weak side. I think it possible, 
however, that Livingston, with an unsuitable companion, 
might feel annoyance. 1 know I should do so very readily, 
if a man's character was of that oblique nature that it was 
an impossibility to travel in his company. I have seen 
men, in whose company I felt nothing but a thraldom, 
which it was a duty to my own self-respect to cast off as 
floon as possible ; a feeling of utter incompatibility, with 
whose nature mine could never assimilate. But Living- 
stone's was a character that I venerated, that called forth 


all my enthusiasm, that evoked nothing but smcorest 

Dr. Livingstone is about sixty years old, though after 
he was restored to health he appeared more like a man 
who had not passed his fiftieth year. His hair has a 
brownish colour yet, but is here and there streaked with 
grey lines over the temples ; his whiskers and moustache 
are very grey. He shaves his chin daily. His eyes, which 
are hazel, are remarkably bright ; he has a sight keen as a 
hawk's. His teeth alone indicate the weakness of age; 
the hard fare of Lunda has made havoc in their lines. His 
form, which soon assumed a stoutish appearance, is a little 
over the ordinary height with the slightest possible bow 
in the shoulders. When walking he has a firm but heavy 
tread, like that of an overworked or fatigued man. He is 
accustomed to wear a naval cap with a semicircular peak, 
by which he has been identified throughout Africa. His 
dress, when first I saw him, exhibited traces of patching 
and repairing, but was scrupulously clean. 

I was led to believe that Livingstone possessed a 
splenetic, misanthropic temper ; some have said that he 
is garrulous, that he is demented; that he has utterly 
changed from the David Livingstone whom people knew 
as the reverend missionary ; that he takes no notes or 
observations but such as those which no other person 
could read but himself; and it was reported, before I 
proceeded to Central Africa, that he was married to an 
African princess. 

I respectfully beg to differ with all and each of the 
above statements. I grant he is not an angel, but he 
approaches to that being as near as the nature of a living 
man will allow. I never saw any spleen or misanthropy 
in him as for being garrulous, Dr. Livingstone is 


fche reverse : he is reserved, if anything ; and to the man 
who says Dr. Livingstone is changed, all I can say is, 
that he never could have known him, for it is notorious 
that the Doctor has a fund of quiet humor, which he 
exhibits at all times whenever he is among friends. I 
must also heg leave to correct the gentleman who in- 
formed me that Livingstone takes no notes or obseiva- 
tions. The huge Letts's Diary which I carried home to 
his daughter is full of notes, and there are no less than a 
score of sheets within it filled with observations which he 
took during the last trip he made to Manyuema alone ; 
and in the middle of the book there is sheet after sheet, 
column after column, carefully written, of figures alone. 
A large letter which I received from him has been sent to 
Sir Thomas MacLear, and this contains nothing but 
observations. During the four months I was with him, I 
noticed him every evening making most careful notes ; and 
a large tin box that he has with him contains numbers of 
field note books, the contents of which I dare say will 
see the light some time. His maps also evince great care 
and industry. As to the report of his African marriage, 
it is unnecessary to say more than that it is untrue, and it 
is utterly beneath a gentleman to hint at such a thing in 
connection with the name of David Livingstone. 

There is a good-natured abandon about Livingstone 
which was not lost on me. Whenever he began to laugh, 
there was a contagion about it, that compelled me to 
imitate him. It was such a laugh as Herr Teufelsdrockh's 
a laugh of the whole man from head to heel. If he 
told a story, he related it in such a way as to convince 
one of its truthfulness ; his face was so lit up by the sly 
fun it contained, that I was sure the story was worth 
relating, and worth listening to. 


The wan features which had shocked me at first 
meeting, the heavy step which told of age and hard 
travel, the grey beard and howed shoulders, belied the 
man. Underneath that well-worn exterior lay an endless 
fund of high spirits and inexhaustible humor ; that 
rugged frame of his enclosed a young and most exuberant 
soul. Every day I heard innumerable jokes and pleasant 
anecdotes ; interesting hunting stories, in which his 
friends Oswell, Webb, Yardon, and Gorden Gumming 
were almost always the chief actors. I was not sure, at 
first, but this joviality, humor, and abundant animal 
spirits were the result of a joyous hysteria; but as I 
found they continued while I was with him, I am obliged 
to think them natural. 

Another thing which specially attracted my attention 
was his wonderfully retentive memory. If we remember 
the many years he has spent in Africa, deprived of books, 
we may well think it an uncommon memory that can 
recite whole poems from Byron, Burns, Tennyson, Long- 
fellow, Whittier, and Lowell. The reason of this may be 
found, perhaps, in the fact, that he has lived all his life 
almost, we may say, within himself. Zimmerman, a 
great student of human nature, says on this subject : 
" The unencumbered mind recalls all that it has read, all 
that pleased the eye, and delighted the ear ; and reflect- 
ing on every idea which either observation, or experience, 
or discourse has produced, gains new information by 
every reflection. The intellect contemplates all the 
former scenes of life ; views by anticipation those that 
are yet to come ; and blends all ideas of past and future 
in the actual enjoyment of the present moment." He 
has lived in a world which revolved inwardly, out of 
which he seldom awoke except to attend to the immediate 


practical necessities of himself and people ; then relapsed 
again into the same happy inner world, which he must 
have peopled with his own friends, relations, acquaintances, 
familiar readings, ideas, and associations; so that wher- 
ever he might be, or by whatsoever he was surrounded, 
his own world always possessed more attractions to his 
cultured mind than were yielded by external circum- 

The study of Dr. Livingstone would not be complete ii 
we did not take the religious side of his character into 
consideration. His religion is not of the theoretical kind, 
but it is a constant, earnest, sincere practice. It is 
neither demonstrative nor loud, but manifests itself in a 
quiet, practical way, and is always at work. It is not 
aggressive, which sometimes is troublesome, if not im- 
pertinent. In him, religion exhibits its loveliest features; 
it governs his conduct not only towards his servants, but 
towards the natives, the bigoted Mohammedans, and all 
who come in contact with him. Without it, Livingstone, 
with his ardent temperament, his enthusiasm, his high 
spirit and courage, must have become uncompanionable, 
and a hard master. Eeligion has tamed him, and made 
him a Christian gentleman : the crude and wilful have 
been refined and subdued; religion has made him the 
most companionable of men and indulgent of masters a 
man whose society is pleasurable. 

In Livingstone I have seen many amiable traits. His 
gentleness never forsakes him ; his hopefulness never 
deserts him. No harassing anxieties, distraction of 
mind, long separation from, home and kindred, can make 
him complain. He thinks "all will come out right at 
last ; " he has such faith in the goodness of Providence. 
The sport of adverse circumstances, the plaything of the 

ncrw i rouND LIVINGSTONE. 

miserable beings sent to him from Zanzibar he has been 
baffled and worried, even almost to the grave, yet he will 
not desert the charge imposed upon him by his friend, Sir 
Koderick Murchison. To the stern dictates of duty, 
alone, has he sacrificed his home and ease, the pleasures, 
refinements, and luxuries of civilized life. His is the 
Spartan heroism, the inflexibility of the Eoman, the 
enduring resolution of the Anglo-Saxon never to re- 
linquish his work, though his heart yearns for home; 
never to surrender his obligations until he can write 
FINIS to his work. 

But you may take any point in Dr. Livingstone's cha- 
racter, and analyse it carefully, and I would challenge 
any man to find a fault in it. He is sensitive, I know ; 
but so is any man of a high mind and generous nature. 
He is sensitive on the point of being doubted or being 
criticised. An extreme love of truth is one of his strongest 
characteristics, which proves him to be a man of strictest 
principles, and conscientious scruples; being such, he is 
naturally sensitive, and shrinks from any attacks on the 
integrity of his observations, and the accuracy of his 
reports. He is conscious of having laboured in the course 
of geography and science with zeal and industry, to have 
been painstaking, and as exact as circumstances would 
allow. Ordinary critics seldom take into consideration 
circumstances, but, utterly regardless of the labor ex- 
pended in obtaining the least amount of geographical 
information in a new land, environed by inconceivable 
dangers and difficulties, such as Central Africa presents, 
they seem to take delight in rending to tatters, and 
reducing to nil, the fruits of long years of labor, by 
sharply-pointed shafts of ridicule and sneers. 

Livingstone no doubt may be mistaken in some of his 


conclusions about certain points in the geography of 
Central Africa, but he is not so dogmatic and positive a 
man as to refuse conviction. He certainly demands, when 
arguments in contra are used in opposition to him, 
higher authority than abstract theory. His whole life is 
a testimony against its unreliability, and his entire labor 
of years were in vain if theory can be taken in evidence 
against persona] observation and patient investigation. 

The reluctance he manifests to entertain suppositions, 
possibilities regarding the nature, form, configuration of 
concrete immutable matter like the earth, arises from 
the fac-t, that a man who commits himself to theories 
about such an untheoretical subject as Central Africa ia 
deterred from bestirring himself to prove them by the 
test of exploration. His opinion of such a man is, that he 
unfits himself for his duty, that he is very likely to 
become a slave to theory a voluptuous fancy, which 
would master him. 

It is his firm belief that a man who rests his sole 
knowledge of the geography of Africa on theory, deserves 
to be discredited. It has been the fear of being discredited 
and criticised and so made to appear before the world as 
a man who spent so many valuable years in Africa for the 
sake of burdening the geographical mind with theory 
that has detained him so long in Africa, doing his 
utmost to test the value of the main theory which clung 
to him, and would cling to him until he proved or 
disproved it. 

This main theory is his belief that in the broad and 
mighty Lualaba he has discovered the head waters of 
the Nile. His grounds for believing this are of such 
nature and weight as to compel him to despise the 
warning that years are advarcing on him, and his formei 

2 A 


iron constitution is failing. He believes his speculations 
on tins point will be verified; he believes he is strong 
enough to pursue his explorations until he can return 
to his country, with the announcement that the Lualaba 
is none other than the Nile. 

On discovering that the insignificant stream called the 
Chambezi, which rises between 10" S. and 12 S., flowed 
westerly, and then northerly through several lakes, now 
under the names of the Chambezi, then as the Luapula, 
and then as the Lualaba, and that it still continued its 
flow towards the north for over 7, Livingstone became 
firmly of the opinion that the river whose current he 
followed was the Egyptian Nile. Failing at lat, 4 S. 
to pursue his explorations further without additional 
supplies, he determined to return to Ujiji to obtain them. 

And now, having obtained them, he intends to return 
to the point where he left off work. He means to 
follow that great river until it is firmly established what 
name shall eventually be given the noble water-way 
whose course he has followed through so many sick 
toilings and difficulties. To all entreaties to come 
home, to all the glowing temptations which home and 
innumerable friends offer, he returns the determined 
answer : 

" No ; not until my work is ended." 

I have often heard our servants discuss our respective 
merits. " Your master," say my servants to Livingstone's, 
" is a good man a very good man ; he does not beat you, 
for he has a kind heart ; but ours oh ! he is sharp hot 
as fire " " mkali sana, kana moto." From being hated 
and thwarted in every possible way by the Arabs and 
half-castes upon first arrival in Ujiji, he has, through 
his uniform kindness and mild, pleasant temper, won all 


hearts. I observed that universal respect was paid to 
him. Even the Mohammedans never passed his house 
without calling to pay their compliments, and to say, 
"The blessing of God rest on you." Each Sunday 
morning he gathers his little flock around him, and reads 
prayers and a chapter from the Bible, in a natural, 
unaffected, and sincere tone; and afterwards delivers a 
short address in the Kisawahili language, about the 
subject read to them, which is listened to with interest 
and attention. 

There is another point in Livingstone's character about 
which readers of his books, and students of his travels, 
would like to know, and that is his ability to withstand 
the dreadful climate of Central Africa, and the consistent 
energy with which he follows up his explorations. His 
consistent energy is native to him and to his race. He is 
a very fine example of the perseverance, doggedness, and 
tenacity which characterise the Anglo-Saxon spirit; but 
his ability to withstand the climate is due not only to the 
happy constitution with which he was born, but to the 
strictly temperate life he has ever led. A drunkard and a 
man of vicious habits could never have withstood the 
climate of Central Africa. 

The second day after my arrival in Ujiji I asked the 
Doctor if he did not feel a desire, sometimes, to visit his 
country, and take a little rest after his six years' explor- 
ations ; and the answer he gave me fully reveals the man. 
Said he : 

" I should like very much to go home and see my 
children once again, but I cannot bring my heart to 
abandon the task I have undertaken, when it is so nearly 
completed. It only requires six or seven months more tc 
trace the true source that I have discovered with 



Petherick's branch of the White Nile, or with the Albeit 
N'Yanza of Sir Samuel Baker, which is the lake called by 
the natives ' Chowainbe.' Why should I go home I efore 
my task is ended, to have to come back again to do what 
I can very well do now ? " 

" And why ? " I asked, " did you come so far back 
without finishing the task which you say you have got 
to do?" 

" Simply because I was forced. My men would not 
budge a step forward. They mutinied, and formed a 
secret resolution if I still insisted upon going on to 
raise a disturbance in the country, and after they had 
effected it to abandon me ; in which case I should have 
been killed. It was dangerous to go any further. I had 
explored six hundred miles of the watershed, had traced 
all the principal streams which discharge their waters 
into the central line of drainage, but when about starting 
to explore the last hundred miles the hearts of my people 
failed them, and they set about frustrating me in every 
possible way. Now, having returned seven hundred miles 
to get a new supply of stores, and another escort, I find 
myself destitute of even the means to live but for a few 
weeks, and sick in mind and body." 

Here I may pause to ask any brave man how he would 
have comported himself in such a crisis. Many would 
have been in exceeding hurry to get home to tell the news 
of the continued explorations and discoveries, and to 
relieve the anxiety of the sorrowing family and friends 
awaiting their return. Enough surely had been accom- 
plished towards the solution of the problem that had 
exercised the minds of his scientific associates of the 
Royal Geograpical Society. It was no negative ex- 
ploration, it was hard, earnest labor of years, sell abne- 


gation, enduring patience, and exalted fortitude, such as 
ordinary men fail to exhibit. 

Suppose Livingstone had hurried to the coast after he 
had discovered Lake Bangweolo, to tell the news to the 
geographical world ; then had returned to discover Moero, 
and run away again ; then went back once more only tc 
discover Kamolondo, and to race back again. This would 
not be in accordance with Livingstone's character. He 
must not only discover the Chambezi, Lake Bangweolo, 
Luapula Kiver, Lake Moero, Lualaba River, and Lake 
Kamolondo, but he must still tirelessly urge his steps 
forward to put the final completion to the grand lacustrine 
river system. Had he followed the example of ordinary 
explorers, he would have been running backwards and 
forwards to tell the news, instead of exploring; and he 
might have been able to write a volume upon the dis- 
covery of each lake, and earn much money thereby. They 
are no few months' explorations that form the contents of 
his books. His ' Missionary Travels ' embraces a period 
of sixteen years ; his book on -the Zambezi, five years ; 
and if the great traveller lives to come home, his third 
book, the grandest of all, must contain the records of 
eight or nine years. 

It is a principle with Livingstone to do well what he 
undertakes to do; and in the consciousness that he is 
doing it, despite the yearning for his home which is 
sometimes overpowering, he finds, to a certain extent, 
contentment, if not happiness. To men differently 
constituted, a long residence amongst the savages of 
Africa would be contemplated with horror, yet Living- 
stone's mind can find pleasure and food for philosophic 
studies. The wonders of primeval nature, the great 
forests ^nd sublime mountains, the perennial streams and 


sources of the great lakes, the marvels of the earth, th 
splendors of the tropic sky hy day and by night all 
terrestrial and celestial phenomena are manna to a man 
of such self-ahnegation and devoted philanthropic spirit. 
He can be charmed with the primitive simplicity of 
Etliiop's dusky children, with whom he has spent so many 
years of his life ; he has a sturdy faith in their capabi- 
lities; sees virtue in them where others see nothing but 
savagery ; and wherever he has gone among them, he has 
sought to elevate a people that were apparently forgotten 
of God and Christian man. 

One night I took out my note-book, and prepared to 
take down from his own lips what he had to say about his 
travels ; and unhesitatingly he related his experiences, of 
which the following is a summary : 

Dr. David Livingstone left the Island of Zanzibar in 
March, 1866. On the 7th of the following month he 
departed from Mikindany Bay for the interior, with an 
expedition consisting of twelve Sepoys from Bombay, 
nine men from Johanna, of the Comoro Islands, seven 
liberated slaves, and two Zambezi men, taking them as an 
experiment ; six camels, three buffaloes, two mules, and 
three donkeys. He had thus thirty men with him, 
twelve of whom, viz., the Sepoys, were to act as guards 
for the Expedition. They were mostly armed with the 
Enfield rifles presented to the Doctor by the Bombay 
Government. The baggage of the expedition consisted of 
ten bales of cloth and two bags of beads, which were to 
serve as the currency by which they would be enabled to 
purchase the necessaries of life in the countries the Doctor 
intended to visit. Besides the cumbrous moneys, they 
carried several boxes of instruments, such as cliro- 
uometers, air thermometers, sextant, and artificial horizon, 


DOXOS containing clothes, medicines, and personal neces- 
saries. The expedition travelled up the left bank of the 
Kovuma Kiver, a rout as full of difficulties as any that 
could be chosen. For miles Livingstone and his party 
had to cut their way with their axes through the dense 
and almost impenetrable jungles which lined the river's 
banks. The road was a mere footpath, leading in the 
most erratic fashion into and through the dense vegeta- 
tion, seeking the easiest outlet from it without any regard 
to the course it ran. The pagazis were able to proceed 
easily enough; but the camels, on account of their 
enormous height, could not advance a step without the 
axes of the party clearing the way. These tools of 
foresters were almost always required ; but the advance 
of the expedition was often retarded by the unwillingness 
of the Sepoys and Johanna men to work. 

Soon after the departure of the expedition from the 
coast, the murmurings and complaints of these men 
began, and upon every occasion and at every opportunity 
they evinced a decided hostility to an advance. In order 
to prevent the progress of the Doctor, and in hopes that 
it would compel him to return to the coast, these men so 
cruelly treated the animals that before long there was 
not one left alive. But as this scheme failed, they set 
about instigating the natives against the white men, 
whom they accused most wantonly of strange practices. 
As this plan was most likely to succeed, and as it was 
dangerous to have such men with him, the Doctor arrived 
at the conclusion that it was best to discharge them, and 
accordingly sent the Sepoys back to the coast ; but not 
without having first furnished them with the means of 
subsistence on their journey to the coast. These mm 
were such a disreputable set that the natives spoke of 


thorn as the Doctor's slaves. One of their worst sins was 
the custom of giving their guns arid ammunition to carry 
to the first woman or boy they met, whom they impressed 
for that purpose by such threats or promises as they were 
totally unable to perform, and unwarranted in making. 
An hour's marching was sufficient to fatigue them, after 
which they lay down on the road to bewail their hard 
fate, and concoct new schemes to frustrate their leader's 
purposes. Towards night they generally made their 
appearance at the camping-ground with the looks of half- 
dead men. Such men naturally made but a poor escort ; 
for, had the party been attacked by a wandering tribe of 
natives of any strength, the Doctor could have made no 
defence, and no other alternative would have been left to 
him but to surrender and be ruined. 

The Doctor and his little party arrived on the 18th 
July, 1866, at a village belonging to a chief of the 
Wahiyou, situate eight days' march south of the Eovuma, 
and overlooking the watershed of the Lake Nyassa. The 
territory lying between the Eovuma Eiver and thia 
Wahiyou village was an uninhabited wilderness, during 
the transit of which Livingstone and his expedition 
suffered considerably from hunger and desertion of men. 

Early in August, 1866, the Doctor came to the 
country of Mponda, a chief who dwelt near the Lake 
Nyassa. On the road thither, two of the liberated slaves 
deserted him. Here also, Wekotani, a protege of the 
Doctor, insisted upon his discharge, alleging as an excuse 
an excuse which the Doctor subsequently found to be 
untrue that- he had found his brother. He also stated 
that his family lived on the east side of the Nyassa Lake. 
He further stated that Mponda's favourite wife was hie 
sister. Perceiving that WekotaLi was unwilling to go 


with him further, the Doctor took him to Mponda, who 
now saw and heard of him for the first time, and, having 
furnished the ungrateful hoy with enough cloth and beads 
to koep him until his " big brother " should call for him, 
left him with the chief, after first assuring himself that 
he would receive honorable treatment from him. The 
Doctor also gave Wekotanti writing-paper as he could 
read and write, being accomplishments acquired at 
Bombay, where he had been put to school so that, should 
he at any time feel disposed, he might write to his 
English friends, or to himself. The Doctor further 
enjoined him not to join in any of the slave raids usually 
made by his countrymen, the men of Nyassa, on their 
neighbours. Upon finding that his application for a 
discharge was successful, Wekotani endeavoured to induce 
Chumah, another protege of the Doctor's, and a com- 
panion, or churn, of Wekotani, to leave the Doctor's 
service and proceed with him, promising, as a bribe, a 
wife and plenty of pombe from his "big brother." 
Chumah, upon referring the matter to the Doctor, was 
advised not to go, as he (the Doctor) strongly suspected 
that Wekotani Wanted only to make him his slave. 
Chumah wisely withdrew from his tempter. From 
Mponda's, the Doctor proceeded to the heel of the Nyassa, 
to the village of a Babisa chief, who required medicine for 
a skin disease. With his usual kindness, he stayed at 
this chiefs village to treat his malady. 

While here, a half-caste Arab arrived from the western 
shore of the lake, and reported that he had been plundered 
by a band of Mazitu, at a place which the Doctor and 
Musa, chief of the Johanna men, were very well aware 
was at least 150 miles north-north-west of where they 
wero then stopping. Musa, however, for his o^n reasons 


which will appear presently eagerly listened to the 
Arab's tale, and gave full credence to it. Having well 
digested its horrible details, he came to the Doctor tc 
give him the full benefit of what he had heard with such 
willing ears. The traveller patiently listened to the 
narrative, which lost nothing of its portentous significance 
through Musa's relation, and then asked Musa if he 
believed it. "Yes," answered Musa, readily; "he tell 
me true, true. I ask him good, and he tell me true, true." 
The Doctor, however, said he did not believe it, for 
the Mazitu would not have been satisfied with merely 
plundering a man, they would have murdered him ; but 
suggested, in order to allay the fears of his Moslem 
subordinate, that they should both proceed to the chief 
with whom they were staying, who, being a sensible man, 
would be able to advice them as to the probability or 
improbability of the tale being correct. Together, they 
proceeded to the Babisa chief, who, when he had heard 
the Arab's story, unhesitatingly denounced the Arab as a 
liar, and his story without the least foundation in fact ; 
giving as a reason that, if the Mazitu had been lately in 
that vicinity, he should have heard of it soon enough. 

But Musa broke out with " No, no, Doctor ; no, no, no ; 
I no want to go to Mazitu. I no want Mazitu to kill me. 
I want to see my father, my mother, my child, in Johanna. 
I want no Mazitu." These are Musa's words ipsissima 

To which the Doctor replied, " I don't want the Mazitu 
to kill me either ; but, as you are afraid of them. I promise 
fco go straight west until we get far past the boat of the 

Musa waff not satisfied, but kept moaning and sorrow- 
ing, saying, " If w* had two hundred guns with us I 


would go; but our small party of men they will attack 
by night, and kill all." 

The Doctor repeated his promise, " But I will not go 
near them ; I will go west." 

As soon as he turned his face westward, Musa and the 
Johanna men ran away in a body. 

The Doctor says, in commenting upon Musa's conduct, 
that he felt strongly tempted to shoot Musa and another 
ringleader, but was, nevertheless, glad that he did not 
soil his hands with their vile blood. A day or two after- 
wards, another of his men Simon Price by name came 
to the Doctor with the same tale about the Mazitu, but, 
compelled by the scant number of his people to repress 
all such tendencies to desertion and faint-heartedness, the 
Docter silenced him at once, and sternly forbade him to 
utter the name of the Mazitu any more. 

Had the natives not assisted him, he must have 
despaired of ever being able to penetrate the wild and 
unexplored interior which he was now about to tread. 
" Fortunately," as the Doctor says with unction, " I was 
in a country now, after leaving the shores of Nyassa, 
which the foot of the slave-trader has not trod ; it was a 
new and virgin land, and of course, as I have always 
found in such cases, the natives were really good and 
hospitable, and for very small portions of cloth my 
baggage was conveyed from village to village by them." 
In many other ways the traveller, in his extremity, was 
kindly treated by the yet unsophisticated and innocent 

On leaving this hospitable region in the early part of 
December, 1866, the Doctor entered a country where the 
Mazitu had exercised their customary marauding pro- 
pensities. The land was swept clean of provisions and 


cattle, and the people had emigrated to other countries, 
beyond the bounds of those ferocious plunderers. Again 
the Expedition was besieged by pinching hunger from 
which they suffered ; they had recourse to the wild fruits 
which some parts of the country furnished. At intervals 
the condition of the hard-pressed band was made worse 
by the heartless desertion of some of its members, who 
more than once departed with the Doctor's personal kit, 
changes of clothes, linen, &c. With more or less mis- 
fortunes constantly dogging his footsteps, he traversed in 
safety the countries of the Babisa, Bobemba, Barungu, 
Ba-ulungu, and Lunda. 

In the country of Lunda lives the famous Cazembe, 
who was first made known to Europeans by Dr. Lacerda, 
the Portuguese traveller. Cazembe is a most intelligent 
prince ; he is a tall, stalwart man, who wears a peculiar 
kind of dress, made of crimson print, in the form of a 
prodigious kilt. In this state dress, King Cazembe 
received Dr. Livingstone, surrounded by his chiefs and 
body-guards. A chief, who had been deputed by the 
King and elders to discover all about the white man, then 
stood up before the assembly, and in a loud voice gave 
the result of the inquiry he had instituted. He had 
heard that the white man had come to look for waters, for 
rivers, and seas ; though he could not understand what 
the white man could want with such things, he had no 
doubt that the object was good. Then Cazembe asked 
what the Doctor proposed doing, and where he thought of 
going. The Doctor replied that he had thought of proceed- 
ing south, as he had heard of lakes and rivers being in that 
direction. Cazembe asked, " What can you want to go 
there for ? The water is close here. There is plenty of 
large watei in this neighbourhood." Before breaking up 


the assembly, Cazembe gave orders to let the white man 
go where he would through his country undisturbed and 
unmolested. He was the first Englishman he had seen, 
he said, and he liked him. 

Shortly after his introduction to the King, the Queen 
entered the large house, surrounded by a body-guard of 
Amazons with spears. She was a fine, tall, handsome 
young woman, and evidently thought she was about to 
make an impression upon the rustic white man, for she 
had clothed herself after a most royal fashion, and was 
armed with a ponderous spear. But her appearance so 
different from what the Doctor had imagined caused him 
to laugh, which entirely spoiled the effect intended; for 
the laugh of the Doctor was so contagious, that she herself 
was the first to imitate it, and the Amazons, courtier-like, 
followed suit. Much disconcerted by this, the Queen ran 
back, followed by her obedient damsels a retreat most 
undignified and unqueenlike, compared with her majestic 
advent into the Doctor's presence. But Livingstone will 
have much to say about his reception at this court, and 
about this interesting King and Queen ; and who can so 
well relate the scenes he witnessed, and which belong 
exclusively to him, as he himself ? 

Soon after his arrival in the country of Lunda, or Londa, 
and before he had entered the district ruled over by 
Cazembe, he had crossed a river called the Chambezi, 
which was quite an important stream. The similarity of 
the name with that large and noble river south, which 
will be for ever connected with his name, misled Living- 
stone at that time, and he, accordingly, did not pay to it 
the attention it deserved, believing that the Chambezi was 
but the head- waters of the Zambezi, and consequently hud 
EO bearing or connection with the sources of the river ol" 


Egypt, of which he was in search. His fault was in 
relying too implicitly upon the correctness of Portuguese 
information. This error it cost him many months of 
tedious labour and travel to rectify. 

From the beginning of 1867 the time of his arrival at 
Cazembe's till the middle of March, 1869 the time of 
his arrival at Ujiji he was mostly engaged in correcting 
the errors and misrepresentations of the Portuguese 
travellers. The Portuguese, in speaking of the Eiver 
Charnbezi, invariably spoke of it as " our own Zambezi,"- 
ihat is, the Zambezi which flows through the Portuguese 
possessions of the Mozambique. " In going to Cazembe 
from Nyassa," said they, " you will cross our own 
Zambezi." Such positive and reiterated information 
given not only orally, but in their books and maps was 
naturally confusing. When the Doctor perceived that 
what he saw and what they described were at variance, 
out of a sincere wish to be correct, and lest he might have 
been mistaken himself, he started to retravel the ground 
he had travelled before. Over and over again he traversed 
the several countries watered by the several rivers of the 
complicated water system, like an uneasy spirit. Over 
and over again he asked the same questions from the 
different peoples he met, until he was obliged to desist, 
lest they might say, " The man is mad ; he has got water 
on the brain !" 

But his travels and tedious labours in Lunda and the 
adjacent countries have established beyond doubt first, 
that the Chambezi is a totally distinct river from the 
Zambezi of the Portuguese; and, secondly, that the 
Chambezi, starting from about latitude 11 south, is no 
other than the most southerly feeder of the great 
Nilo; thus giving that famous river a length of over 


2,000 miles of direct latitude; making it, second to 
the Mississippi, the longest river in the world. The real 
and true name of the Zambezi is Dombazi. When 
Lacerda and his Portuguese successors, coming to Ca- 
zembe, crossed the Chambezi, and heard its name, they 
very aaturally set it down as " our own Zambezi," and, 
without further inquiry, sketched it as running in that 

During his researches in that region, so pregnant in 
discoveries, Livingstone came to a lake lying north-east of 
Cazembe, which the natives call Liemba, from the country 
of that name which bordered it on the east and south. In 
tracing the lake north, he found it to be none other than 
the Tanganika, or the south-eastern extremity of it, 
which looks, on the Doctor's map, very much like an 
outline of Italy. The latitude of the southern end of this 
great body of water is about 8 42' south, which thus 
gives it a length, from north to south, of 360 geographical 
miles. From the southern extremity of the Tanganika he 
crossed Marungu, and came in sight of Lake Moero. 
Tracing this lake, which is about sixty miles in length, to 
its southern head, he found a river, called the Luapula, 
entering it from that direction. Following the Luapula 
south, he found it issue from the large lake of Bangweolo, 
which is nearly as large in superficial area as the Tan- 
ganika. In exploring for the waters which discharged 
themselves into the lake, he found that by far the most 
important of these feeders was the Chambezi ; so that he 
had thus traced the Chambezi from its source to Lake 
Bangweolo, and the issue from its northern head, undei 
the name of Luapula, and found it enter Lake Moero. 
Again he returned to Cazembe's, well satisfied that the 
river running north through three degrees of latitude could 


not be the river runnirg south under the name of Zambezi, 
though there might he a remarkable resemblance in their 

At Cazembe's he found an old white-bearded half-caste 
named Mohammed bin Sali, who was kept as a kind of 
prisoner at large by the King because of certain suspi- 
cious circumstances attending his advent and stay in the 
country. Through Livingstone's influence Mohammed 
bin Sali obtained his release. On the road to Ujiji he had 
bitter cause to regret having exerted himself in the half- 
caste's behalf. He turned out to be a most ungrateful 
wretch, who poisoned the minds of the Doctor's few 
followers, and ingratiated himself with them by selling 
the favours of his concubines to them, by which he reduced 
them to a kind of bondage under him. The Doctor was 
deserted by all but two, even faithful Susi and Chumah 
deserted him for the service of Mohammed bin Sali. But 
they soon repented, and returned to their allegiance. 
From the day he had the vile old man in his company 
manifold and bitter misfortunes followed the Doctor up to 
his arrival at Ujiji in March, 1869. 

From the date of his arrival until the end of June, 1869, 
he remained at Ujiji, whence he dated those letters which, 
though the outside world still doubted his being alive, 
satisfied the minds of the Koyal Geographical people, and 
his intimate friends, that he still existed, and that Musa'a 
tale was the false though ingenious fabrication of a 
cowardly deserter. It was during this time that the 
thought occurred to him of sailing around the Lake 
Tanganika, but the Arabs and natives were so bent upon 
fleecing him that, had he undertaken it, the remainder oj 
his goods would not have enabled him to explore the 
central line of drainage, the initial point of which he 


found far south of Cazernbe's in about latitude 11, in the 
river called Chambezi. 

In the days when tired Captain Burton was resting in 
Ujiji, after his march from the coast near Zanzibar, the 
land to which Livingstone, on his departure from Ujiji, 
bent his steps was unknown to the Arabs save by vague 
report. Messrs. Burton and Speke never heard of it, it 
seems. Speke, who was the geographer of Burton's 
Expedition, heard of a place called Urua, which he placed 
on his map, according to the general direction indicated 
by the Arabs ; but the most enterprising of the Arabs, in 
their search after ivory, only touched the frontiers of Kua, 
as the natives and Livingstone call it; for Kua is an 
immense country, with a length of six degrees of latitude, 
and as yet an undefined breadth from east to west. 

At the end of June, 1869, Livingstone quitted Ujiji 
and crossed over to Uguhha, on the western shore, for his 
last and greatest series of explorations; the result of 
which was the further discovery of a lake of considerable 
magnitude connected with Moero by the large river called 
the Lualaba, and which was a continuation of the chain of 
lakes he had previously discovered. 

From the port of Uguhha he set off, in company with a 
body of traders, in an almost direct westerly course, foi 
the country of Urua. Fifteen days' march brought them 
to Bambarre, the first important ivory depot in Many^ma, 
or, as the natives pronounce it, Manyuema. For nearly 
six months he was detained at Bambarre from ulcers in 
the feet, which discharged bloody ichor as soon as he set 
them on the ground. When recovered, he set off in n 
northerly direction, and after several days came to a 
broad lacustrine river, called the Lualaba, flowing north- 
ward and westward, and in some places soutlwari, in a 


most confusing way. The river was from one to three 
miles broad. By exceeding pertinacity he contrived to 
follow its erratic course, until he saw the Lualaba enter 
fche narrow, long lake of Kamolondo, in about latitude 
6 30'. Itetracing this to the south, he came to the point 
where he had seen the Luapula enter Lake Moero. 

One feels quite enthusiastic when listening to Living- 
stone's description of the beauties of Moero scenery. 
Pent in on all sides by high mountains, clothed to the 
edges with the rich vegetation of the tropics, the Moero 
discharges its superfluous waters through a deep rent in 
the bosom of the mountains. The impetuous and grand 
river roars through the chasm with the thunder of a 
cataract, but soon after leaving its confined and deep bed 
it expands into the calm and broad Lualaba, stretching 
over miles of ground. After making great bends west 
and south-west, and then curving northward, it enters 
Kamolondo. By the natives it is called the Lualaba, but 
the Doctor, in order to distinguish it from other rivers ol 
the same name, has given it the name of " Webb's Kiver," 
after Mr. Webb, the wealthy proprietor of Newstead 
Abbey, whom the Doctor distinguishes as one of his oldest 
and most consistent friends. Away to the south-west 
from Kamolondo is another large lake, which discharges 
its waters by the important Kiver Loeki, or Lomami, into 
the great Lualaba. To this lake, known as Chebungc 
by the natives, Dr. Livingstone has given the name of 
" Lincoln," to be hereafter distinguished on maps and in 
books as Lake Lincoln, in memory of Abraham Lincoln, 
our murdered President. This was done from the vivid 
impression produced on his mind by hearing a portion of 
his inauguration speech read from an English pulpit, 
related to the causes that induced him to issue hi? 


Emancipation Proclamation, by which menr.<rable deed 
4,000,000 of slaves were for ever freed. To the memory 
of the man whose labours on behalf of the negro race 
deserves the commendation of all good men, Livingstone 
has contributed a monument more durable than brass or 

Entering Webb's Eiver from the south-south-west, a 
little north of Kamolondo, is a large river called Lufira, 
but the streams that discharge themselves from the water- 
shed into the Lualaba are so numerous that the Doctor's 
map would not contain them, so he has left all out except 
the most important. Continuing his way north, tracing 
the Lualaba through its manifold and crooked curves as 
far as latitude 4 south, he came to where he heard of 
another lake to the north, into which it ran. But here 
you may come to a dead halt, and read what lies beyond 

this spot thus This was the furthermost point, 

whence he was compelled to return on the weary road to 
Ujiji, a distance of 700 miles. 

In this brief sketch of Dr. Livingstone's wonderful 
travels it is to be hoped the most superficial reader, as 
well as the student of geography, comprehends this 
grand system of lakes connected together by Webb's 
Eiver. To assist him, let him glance at the map 
accompanying this book. He will then have a fair 
idea of what Dr. Livingstone has been doing during 
these long years, and what additions he has made to the 
study of African geography. That this river, distin- 
guished under several titles, flowing from one lake into 
another in a noitherly direction, with all its great 
crooked bends and sinuosities, is the Nile the true Nile 
the Doctor has not the least doubt. For a long time 
he entertained great scepticism, because of its deep bonds 


and curves west, and south west even ; but having traced 
it from its head waters, the Chambezi, through 7 of 
latitude that is, from 11 S. to lat. 4 N. he has been 
compelled to come to the conclusion that it can be no 
other river than the Nile. He had thought it was the 
Congo ; but has discovered the sources of the Congo to 
be the Kassai and the Kwango, two rivers which rise on 
the western side of the Nile watershed, in about the 
latitude of Bangweolo ; and he was told of another river 
called the Lubilash, which rose from the north, and ran 
west. But the Lualaba, the Doctor thinks, cannot be the 
Congo, from its great size and t^uy, and from its steady 
and continued flow northward through a broad and ex- 
tensive valley, bounded by enormous mountains westerly 
and easterly. The altitude of the most northerly point 
to which the Doctor traced the wonderful river was a 
little in excess of 2,000 feet ; so that, though Baker makes 
out his lake to be 2,700 feet above the sea, yet the Bahr 
Ghazal, through which Petherick's branch of the White 
Nile issues into the Nile, is but 2,000 feet; in which 
case there is a possibility that the Lualaba may be none 
other than Petherick's branch. 

It is well known that trading stations for ivory have 
been established for about 500 miles up Petherick's 
branch. We must remember this fact when told that 
Gondokoro, in lat. 4 N., is 2,000 feet above the sea, and 
lat. 4 S., where the halt was made, is only a little over 
2,000 feet above the sea. That the two rivers said to be 
2,000 feet above the sea, separated from each other by 8 
of latitude, are one and the same river, may among some 
men be regarded as a startling statement. But we must 
restrain mere expressions of surprise, and take into con- 
sideration that this mighty and broad Lualaba is a lacus- 

WITH livnfostoNE. 873 

trine river broader than the Mississippi ; that at intervals 
the b>dy of water forms extensive lakes ; then, contracting 
into a broad river, it again forms a lake, and so on, to lat. 
4; and even beyond this point the Doctor hears of a large 
lake again north. 

We must wait also until the altitudes of the two rivers, 
the Lualaba, where the Doctor halted, and the southern 
point on the Bahr Ghazal, where Petherick has been, are 
known with perfect accuracy. 

Now, for the sake of argument, suppose we give this 
nameless lake a length of 6 of latitude, as it may be the 
one discovered by Piaggia, the Italian traveller, from 
which Petherick's branch of the White Nile issues out 
through reedy marshes, into the Bahr Ghazal, thence into 
the White Nile, south of Gondokoro. By this method we 
can suppose the rivers one ; for if the lake extends over 
so many degrees of latitude, the necessity of explaining 
the differences of altitude that must naturally exist 
between two points of a river 8 of latitude apart, would 
be obviated. 

Also, Livingstone's instruments for observation and 
taking altitudes may have been in error ; and this is 
very likely to have leen the case, subjected as they have 
been to rough handling during nearly six years of travel. 
Despite the apparent difficulty of the altitude, there is 
another strong reason for believing Webb's Kiver, or the 
Lualaba, to be the Nile. The watershed of this river, 600 
miles of which Livingstone has travelled, is drained from 
a valley which lies north and south between lofty eastern 
and western ranges. 

This valley, or line of drainage, while it does not 
receive the Kassai and the Kwango, receives rivers 
flowing from a great distance west, for instance, the 


important tributaries Lufira and Lomami, and larg* 
rivers from the east, such as the Lindi and Luamo ; and, 
while the most intelligent Portuguese travellers and traders 
state that the Kassai, the Kwango, and Lubilash are the 
head waters of the Congo Kiver, no one has yet started 
the supposition that the grand river flowing north, and 
known by the natives as the Lualaba, is the Congo. 

This river may be the Congo, or, perhaps, the Niger. 
If the Lualaba is only 2,000 feet above the sea, and 
the Albert N'Yanza 2,700 feet, the Lualaba cannot enter 
that lake. If the Bahr Ghazal does not extend by an 
arm for eight degrees above Gondokoro, then the Lualaba 
cannot be the Nile. But it would be premature to 
dogmatise on the subject. Livingstone will clear up the 
point himself ; and if he finds it to be the Congo, will be 
the first to admit his error. 

Livingstone admits the Nile sources have not been 
found, though he has traced the Lualaba through seven 
degress of latitude flowing north ; and, though he has 
not a particle of doubt of its being the Nile, not yet can 
the Nile question be said to be resolved and ended. For 
two reasons : 

1. He has heard of the existence of four fountains, 
two of which gave birth to a river flowing north, Webb's 
Eiver, or the Lualaba, and to a river flowing south, 
which is the Zambezi. He has repeatedly heard of these 
fountains from the natives. Several times he has been 
within 100 and 200 miles from them, but something 
always interposed to prevent his going to see them. 
According to those who have seen them, they rise on 
either side of a mound or level, which contains no stones. 
Some have called it un ant-hill. One of these fountains 
is said to be so large that a man, standing on one side, 


cannot be seen from the other. These fountains rnuet be 
discovered, and their position taken. The Doctor does 
not suppose them to be south of the feeders of Lake 
Bangweolo. In his letter to the ' Herald ' he says : 
" These four full-grown gushing fountains, rising so near 
each other, and giving origin to four large rivers, answer 
in a certain degree to the description given of the un- 
fathomable fountains of the Nile, by the secretary of 
Minerva, in the city of Sais, in Egypt, to the father of all 
travellers Herodotus." 

For the information of such readers as may not have the 
original at hand, I append the following from Gary's 
translation of Herodotus : 

With respect to the sources of the Nile, no man of all the 
Egyptians, Libyans, or Grecians, with whom I have conversed, ever 
protended to know anything, except the registrar of Minerva's treasury 
at Sais, in Egypt. He, indeed, seemed to be trifling with me when he 
said he knew perfectly well; yet his account was as follows: "That 
there are two mountains, rising into a sharp peak, situated between 
the city of Syene, in Thebais, and Elephantine. The names of these 
mountains are, the one Crophi, the other Mophi ; that the sources of 
the Nile, which are bottomless, flow from between these mountains 
and that half of the water flows over Egypt and to the north, the other 
half over Ethiopia and the south. That the fountains of the Nile are 
bottomless, he said, I'sammitichus, king of Egypt, proved by experi- 
ment : for, having caused a line to be twisted many thousand fathoms in 
length, he let it down, but could not find a bottom." Such, then, was the 
opinion the registrar gave, if, indeed, he spoke the real truth; proving, 
in my opinion, that there are strong whirlpools and an eddy here, so that 
the water beating against the rocks, a sounding-line, when let down, 
cannot reach the bottom. 1 was unable to learn anything more from 
any one else. But thus much I learnt by carrying my researches as 
far as possible, having gone and made my own observations as far aa 
Elephantine, and beyond that obtaining information from hearsay. 
As one ascends the river, above the city of Elephantine, the country is 
steep ; here, therefore, it is necessary to attach a rope on both sides of 


a l>oat, as one docs with can ox in a plough, and so proceed ; but if tlrt 
rope should happeii to break, the boat is carried away by the force eft 
the stream This kind of country lasts lor a four-days' passage, and 
the Nile here wads as much *s the Mfeander. There are twelve 
schoeni, which it is necessary to sail through in this manner ; and after 
that you will come to a level plain, where the Nile flows round an 
island; its name is Tachompso. Ethiopians inhabit the country 
immediately above Elephantine, and one half of the island ; the other 
half is inhabited by Egyptians. Near to this island lies a vast lake, 
on the borders of which Ethiopian nomades dwell. After sailing 
through this lake you will come to the channel of the Nile, which flows 
into it : then you will have to land and travel forty days by the side of 
the river, foi sharp rocks rise in the Nile, and there arc many sunken 
ones, through which it is not possible to navigate a boat. Having 
passed this country in the forty days, you must go on board another 
boat, and sail for twelve days ; and then you will arrive at a large city, 
called Meroe; this city is said to be the capital of all Ethiopia. The 
inhabitants worship no other gods than Jupiter and Bacchus ; but these 
they honour with great magnificence. They have also an oracle of 
Jupiter ; and they make war whenever that god bids them by an oracular 
warning, and against whatever country he bids them. Sailing from 
this city, you will arrive at the country of the Automoli, in a s]aoe of 
time equal to that which you took in coming from Elephantine to the 
capital of the Ethiopians. These Automoli are called by the name of 
Asmak, which, in the language of Greece, signifies ''those that stand 
at the left hand of the king." These, to the number of two hundred 
and forty thousand of the Egyptian war-tribe, revolted to the Ethio- 
pians on the following occasion. In the reign of King Psammitichua 
garrisons were stationed at Elephantine against the Ethiopians, and 
another at the Pelusian Daphnre against the Arabians and Syrians, 
and another at Marea against Libya ; and even in my time garrisons 
of the Persians are stationed in the same places as they were in the 
time of Psammitichus, for they maintain guards at Elephantine anr. 
DaphnaB. Now, these Egyptians, after they had been on duty three 
years, were not relieved; therefore, having consulted together and 
come to an unanimous resolution, they all revolted from Psammitichus, 
and went to Ethiopia. Paammiticlms, hearing of this, pursued them ; 
and when he overtook them he entreated them by many argument*, 
and adjured them not to forsake the gods of their talkers, and theii 


ciiillren an:! wives But one of tliem is retried to have uncovered 
and to have said, "that wheresoever these were 
there they should find both children arid wives." These men, when 
*hey arrived in Ethiopia, offered their services to the king of the 
Ethiopians, who made them the following recompense. There were 
certain Ethiopians disaffected towards him ; these he hade them expel, 
and take possession of their land. By the settlement of these men 
among t?he Ethiopians, the Ethiopians became more civilized, and 
learned the manners of the Egyptians. 

Now, for a voyage and land journey of four months, the Nile is 
known, in addition to the part of the stream that is in Egypt; for, 
a|)on computation, so many months are known to be spent by a person 
who travels from Elephantine to the Automoli. This river flows from 
the west and the setting of the sun ; but beyond this no one is able 
to speak with certainty, lor the rest of the country is desert by reason 
of the excessive heat. But I have heard the following account from 
certain Cyrena^ans, who say that they went to the oracle of Ammo^ 
and had a conversation with Etearchus, King of the Ammonians, and 
that, among other subjects, they happened to discourse about the Nile 
that nobody knew its sources; whereu]>on Etearchus said that 
certain Nasamonians once came to him this nation is Lybian, arid 
Inhabits the Syrtis, and the country for no great distance eastward of 
the Syrtis and that when these Nasamonians arrived, and were asked 
if they could give any further information touching the deserts of 
Libya, they answered, that there were some daring youths amongst 
them, sons of powerful men ; and that they, having reached man's 
estate, formed many other extravagant plans, and, moreover, chose five 
of their number by lot to explore the deserts of Libya, to see if they 
could make any further discovery than those who had penetrated the 
farthest. (For, as respects the parts of Libya along the Northern 
Sea, beginning from Egypt to the promontory of Solois, where is the 
extremity of Libya, Libyans and various nations of Libyans reach 
all along it, except those parts which are occupied by Grecians and 
Phoenicians ; but as respects the patts above the tea, and th<- nnt.iom 
ifhich reach down to the sea, in the upper parts Libya is infested by 
wild beasts ; and all beyond tKit is sana, dreadfully snort oi water, 
and utterly desolate.) They further related, " that when the 3 T oung 
men deputed by their companions set out, well furnished with water 
iud provis'ooe, they pas***! first tnrough the inhabited country ; and 


having traversed this, they came to the region infested by wild 
beasts; and after this they crossed the desert, making their way 
towards the west ; and when they had traversed much sandy ground, 
during a journey of many days, they at length saw some trees 
growing in a plain ; and that they approached and began to gather 
the fruit that grew on the trees ; and while they were gathering, some 
diminutive men, less than men of middle stature, came up, and having 
seized them carried them away ; and that the Nasamonians did not at 
all understand their language, nor those who carried them off tho 
language of the Nasamonians. However, they conducted them through 
vast morasses, and when they had passed these, they came to a city 
iu which all the inhabitants were of the same size as their conductors, 
and black in colour : and by the city flowed a great river, running from 
the west to the east, and that crocodiles were seen in it." Thus far I 
have set forth the account of Etearchus the Ammonian ; to which may 
be added, as the Cyrenseans assured me, " that he said the Nasamonians 
all returned safe to their own country, and that the men whom they 
came to were all necromancers." Etearchus also conjectured that this 
river, which flows by their city, is the Nile; and reason so evinces: 
for the Nile flows from Libya, and intersects it in the middle ; and 
(as I conjecture, inferring things unknown from things known) it 
3e'ts out from a point corresponding with the Ister. For the Ister, 
beginning from the Celts, and the city of Pyrene, divides Europe in its 
course ; but the Celts are beyond the pillars of Hercules, and border 
on the territories of the Cynesians, who lie in the extremity of Europe 
to the westward ; and the Ister terminates by flowing through all 
Europe into the Euxine Sea, where a Milesian colony is settled in 
l.stria. Now the Ister, as it flows through a well-peopled country, is 
generally known; but no one is able to speak about the sources of 
the Nile, because Libya, through which it flows, is uninhabited and 
desolate. Respecting this stream, therefore, as far as I was able to 
reach by inquiry, I have already spoken. It however discharges 
itself into Egypt ; and Egypt lies, as near as may be, opposite to the 
mountains of Cilicia ; from whence to Sinope, on the Kuxino Si-a, is a 
five days' journey in a straight line to an active man; and Sinope is 
opposite to the Ister, where it discharges itself into the st a. So I 
think that the Nile, traversing the whole o r Libya, may be properly 
compared with the Ister. Such, then, is th' account that I am aNe tc 
give respecting the Nile. 


2. Webl/a Eiver must be traced to its connection with 
some portion of the old Nile. 

When these two things have been accomplished, then, 
and not till then, can the mystery of the Nile be ex- 
plained. The two countries through which the marvel- 
lous lacustrine river, the Lualaba, flows, with its manifold 
lakes and broad expanse of water, are Eua (the Uruwwa 
of Speke) and Manyuema. For the first time Europe is 
made aware that between the Tanganika and the known 
sources of the Congo there exist teeming millions of tht 
negro race, who never saw, or heard of the white people 
who make such a noisy and busy stir outside of Africa. 
Upon the minds of those who had the good fortune to see 
the first specimen of these remarkable white races in Dr. 
Livingstone, he seems to have made a favourable impres- 
sion, though, through misunderstanding his object, and 
coupling him with the Arabs, who make horrible work 
there, his life was sought after more than once. These two 
extensive countries, Kua and Manyuema, are populated by 
true heathens, governed, not as the sovereignties of 
Karagwah, Urundi, and Uganda, by despotic kings, but 
each village by its own sultan or lord. Thirty milei 
outside of their own immediate settlements, the most 
intelligent of these small chiefs seem to know nothing. 
Thirty miles from the Lualaba, there were but few people 
who had ever heard of the great river. Such ignorance 
among the natives of their own country naturally in- 
creased the labours of Livingstone. Compared with these, 
all tribes and nations in Africa with whom Livingstone 
came in contact may be deemed civilized, yet, in the arta 
of home manufacture, these wild people of Manyuema 
were far superior to any he had seen. Where other 
triben and nations contented themselves -rith hides and 


skins of animals thrown negligently over their shoulders, 
the people of Manyuema manufactured a cloth from fine 
grass, which may favorably compare with the finest grass 
cloth of India. They also know the art of dying their 
in various colours black, yellow, and purple. The 
Wangwana, or freed-men of Zanzibar, struck with the 
beauty of the fabric, eagerly exchange their cotton cloths 
for fine grass cloth ; and on almost every black man from 
Manyuema I have seen this native cloth converted into 
elegantly made damirs (Arabic) short jackets. These 
countries are also very rich in ivory. The fever for going 
to Manyuema to exchange tawdry beads for its precious 
tusks is of the same kind as that which impelled men to go 
to the gulches and placers of California, Colorado, Montana, 
and Idaho ; after nuggets to Australia, and diamonds to 
Cape Colony. Manyuema is at present the El Dorado of 
the Arab and the Wamrima tribes. It is only about four 
years since that the first Arab returned from Manyuema, 
with such wealth of ivory, and reports about the fabulous 
quantities found there, that ever since the old beaten 
tracks of Karagwah, Uganda, Ufipa, and Marungu have 
been comparatively deserted. The people of Manyuema, 
ignorant of the value of the precious article, reared their 
huts upon ivory stanchions. Ivory pillars were common 
sights in Manyuema, and, hearing of these, one can no 
longer wonder at the ivory palace of Solomon. For 
generations they have used ivory tusks as door-posts and 
supports to the eaves, until they had become perfectly 
rotten and worthless. But the advent of the Arabs socn 
taught them the value of the article. It has now risen 
considerably in price, though still fabulously cheap. At 
Zanzibar the value of ivory per frasilah of 35 Ibs. weight 
iu from $50 to $60, according to its quality. In Ucya- 


nyembe it is about $1*10 per pound, but in Manyuema it 
may be purchased for from half a cent to 1^ cent's worth 
of copper per pound of ivory. The Arabs, however, have 
the knack of spoiling markets by their rapacity and 
cruelty. With muskets, a small party of Arabs is in- 
vincible against such people as those of Manyuema, who, 
until lately, never heard the sound of a gun. The 
discharge of a musket inspires mortal terror in them, and 
it is almost impossible to induce them to face the muzzle 
of a gun. They believe that the Arabs have stolen the 
lightning, and that against such people the bow and 
arrow can have little effect. They are by no means 
devoid of courage, and they have often declared that, were 
it not for the guns, not one Arab would leave the country 
alive; this tends to prove that they would willingly engage 
in fight with the strangers who had made themselves sc 
detestable, were it not that the startling explosion ol 
gunpowder inspires them with terror. 

Into what country soever the Arabs enter, they con- 
trive to render their name and race abominated. But the 
mainspring of it all is not the Arab's nature, color, 01 
name, but simply the slave-trade. So long as the slave- 
trade is permitted to be kept up at Zanzibar, so long will 
these otherwise enterprising people, the Arabs, kindle 
against them the hatred of the natives throughout Africa. 

On the main line of travel from Zanzibar into the 
interior of Africa these acts of cruelty are unknown, for 
the very good reason that the natives having been armed 
with guns, and taught how to use those weapons, are by 
no means loth to do so whenever an opportunity presents 
itself. When, too late, they have perceived tneir folly in 
celling guns to the natives, tho Arabs now begin to vow 
yengeanee on the person who will in future sell * gun tc 


a native. But they are all guilty of the same mistake, 
and it is strange they did not perceive that it was folly 
when they were doing so. 

In former days the Arab, when protected hy his slave 
escort, armed with guns, could travel through Useguhha, 
Urori, Ukonongo, Ufipa, Karagwah, Unyoro, and Uganda, 
with only a stick in his hand ; now, however, it is impos- 
sible for him or any one else to do so. Every step he 
takes, armed or unarmed, is fraught with danger. The 
Waseguhha, near the coast, detain him, and demand the 
tribute, or give him the option of war ; entering Ugogo, 
he is subjected every day to the same oppressive demand, 
or to the fearful alternative. The Wanyamwezi also 
show their readiness to take the same advantage ; the road 
to Karagwah is besieged with difficulties ; the terrible 
Mirambo stands in the way, defeats their combined forces 
with ease, and makes raids even to the doors of their 
houses in Unyanyembe ; and should they succeed in 
passing Mirambo, a chief Swaruru stands before them 
who demands tribute by the bale, and against whom it is 
useless to contend. 

These remarks have reference to the slave-trade inau- 
gurated in Manyuema by the Arabs. Harassed on the 
road between Zanzibar and Unyanyembe by minatory 
natives, who with bloody hands are ready to avenge the 
slightest affront, the Arabs have refrained from kidnap- 
ping between the Tanganika and the sea; but inManyuema, 
where the natives are timid, irresolute, and divided into 
small weak tribes, they recover their audacity, and ex- 
ercise thoir kidnapping propensities unchecked. 

The accounts which the Doctor brings from that ne\f 
region are most deplorable. He was an unwilling spec- 
tator of a horrible deed- ft massacre committed on tbe 


inhabitants of a populous district who had assenJbled in 
the market-place on the banks of the Lualaba, as they 
had been accustomed to do for ages. It seems that the 
Wamanyuema are very fond of marketing, believing it to 
be the summum bonum of human enjoyment. They find 
endless pleasure in chaffering with might and main for 
the least mite of their currency the last bead; and 
when they gain the point to which their peculiar talents 
are devoted, they feel intensely happy. The women are 
excessively fond of this marketing, and, as they are very 
beautiful, the market place must possess considerable 
attractions for the male sex. It was on such a day amidst 
such a scene, that Tagamoyo, a half-caste Arab, with his 
armed slave escort, commenced an indiscriminate massacre 
by firing volley after volley into the dense mass of human 
beings. It is supposed that there were about 2,000 
present, and at the first sound of the firing these poor 
people all made a rush for their canoes. In the fearful 
hurry to avoid being shot, the canoes were paddled away 
by the first fortunate few who got possession of them ; those 
that were not so fortunate sprang into the deep waters of 
the Lualaba, and though many of them became an easy 
prey to the voracious crocodiles which swarmed to the 
scene, the majority received their deaths from the bullets 
of the merciless Tagamoyo and his villanous band. The 
Doctor believes, as do the Arabs themselves, that about 
400 people, mostly women and children, lost their lives, 
while many more were made slaves. This outrage is 
only one of many such he has unwillingly witnessed, and 
ne is utterly unable to describe the feelings of loath- 
<ng he feels for the inhuman perpetrators. 

Slaves from Manyueina command a higher price than 
those of any other country, because of their fine forma 


and general docility. The women, the Doctor said 
repeatedly, are remarkably pretty creatuies, and have 
nothing, except the hair, in common with the negroes of 
the West Coast. They are of very light color, have fine 
noses, well-cut and not over-full lips, while the prog- 
nathous jaw is uncommon. These women are eagerly 
sought after as wives by the half-castes of the East Coast, 
and even the pure Omani Arabs do not disdain to take 
them in marriage. 

To the north of Manyuema, Livingstone came to the 
light-complexioned race, of the color of Portuguese, or our 
own Louisiana quadroons, who are very fine people, and 
singularly remarkable for commercial " 'cuteness " and 
sagacity. The women are expert divers for oysters, which 
are found in great abundance in the Lualaba. 

Kua, at a place called Katanga, is rich in copper. The 
copper-mines of this place have been worked for ages. In 
the bed of a stream, gold has been found, washed down in 
pencil-shaped pieces or in particles as large as split peas. 
Two Arabs have gone thither to prospect for this metal ; 
but, as they are ignorant of the art of gulch-mining, it is 
scarcely possible that they will succeed. From these highly- 
important and interesting discoveries, Dr. Livingstone 
was turned back, when almost on the threshold of success, 
by the positive refusal of his men to accompany him 
further. They were afraid to go on unless accompanied 
by a large force of men ; and, as these were not procurable 
in Manyuema, the Doctor reluctantly turned his face 
towards Ujiji. 

It was a long and weary road back. The journey had 
now no interest for him. He had travelled the road 
before when going westward, full of high hopes and 
aspirations, impatient to re*ch the goal which promised 


him rest from his labors now, returning unsuccessful, 
baffled, and thwarted, when almost in sight of the end, 
and having to travel the same path back on foot, with 
disappointed expectations and defeated hopes preying 
on his mind, no wonder that the old brave spirit almost 
succumbed, and the strong constitution almost went to 

Livingstone arrived at Ujiji, October 16th, almost at 
death's door. On the way he had been trying to cheer 
himself up, since he had found it impossible to contend 
against the obstinacy of his men, with, "It won't take 
long ; five or six months more ; it matters not since it 
cannot be helped. I have got my goods in Ujiji, and 
can hire other people, and make a new start again." 
These are the words and hopes by which he tried to 
delude himself into the idea that all would be right yet ; 
but imagine the shock he must have suffered, when he 
found that the man to whom was entrusted his goods 
for safe keeping had sold every bale for ivory. 

The evening of the day Livingstone had returned to 
Ujiji, Susi and Chuma, two of his most faithful men, 
were seen crying bitterly. The Doctor asked of them 
what ailed them, and was then informed, for the first 
time, of the evil tidings that awaited him. 

Said they, " All our things are sold, sir ; Sherif has 
sold everything for ivory." 

Later in the evening, Sherif came to see him, and 
shamelessly offered his hand, but Livingstone repulsed 
him, saying he could not shake hands with a thief. As 
an excuse, Sherif said he had divined on the Koran, 
and that this had told him the Hakim (Arabic for Doctor) 
was dead. 

Livingstone was now destitute; he -ad just enough 


to keep him and his men alive for about a month, when 
he would be forced to beg from the Arabs. 

The Doctor further stated, that when Speke gives 
the altitude of the Tanganika at only 1,800 feet above 
the sea, Speke must have fallen into that error by a 
frequent writing of the Anno Domini, a mere slip of 
the pen; for the altitude, as he makes it out, is 2,800 
feet by boiling point, and a little over 3,000 feet by 

The Doctor's complaints were many because slaves 
were sent to him, in charge of goods, after he had so 
often implored the people at Zanzibar to send him 
freemen. A very little effort on the part of those en- 
trusted with the despatch of supplies to him might have 
enabled them to procure good and faithful freemen ; but 
if they contented themselves, upon the receipt of a 
letter from Dr. Livingstone, with sending to Ludha 
Damji for men, it is no longer a matter of wonder that 
dishonest and incapable slaves were sent forward. It is 
no new fact that the Doctor has discovered when he 
states that a negro freeman is a hundred times more 
capable and trustworthy than a slave. Centuries ago 
Eumaeus, the herdsman, said to Ulysses : 

Jove fixed it certain, that whatever day 
Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away. 

We passed several happy days at Ujiji, and it was 
time we were now preparing for our cruise on the 
Tanganika. Livingstone was improving every day under 
the different diet which my cook furnished him. I 
could give him no such suppers as that which Jupiter 
and Mercury received at the cottage of Baucis and 
Philemon- We had no berries of chaste Minerva, 


pickled cherries, endive, radishes, dried figs, dates, 
fragrant apples, and grapes; but we had cheese, and 
butter which I made myself, new-laid eggs, chickens, 
roast mutton, fish from the lake, rich curds and cream, 
wine from the Guinea-palm, egg-plants, cucumbers, 
sweet potatoes, pea-nuts, and beans, white honey from 
Ukaranga, luscious sing we a plum-like fruit from the 
forests of Ujiji, and corn scones and dampers, in place of 
wheaten bread. 

During the noontide heats we sat under our veranda 
discussing our various projects, and in the early morning 
and evening we sought the shores of the lake prome- 
nading up and down the beach to breathe the cool breezes 
which ruffled the surface of the water, and rolled the 
unquiet surf far up on the smooth and whitened shore. 

It was the dry season, and we had most lovely weather ; 
the temperature never was over 80 in the shade. 

The market-place overlooking the broad silver water 
afforded us amusement and instruction. Eepresentatives 
of most of the tribes dwelling near the lake were daily 
found there. There were the agricultural and pastoral 
Wajiji, with their flocks and herds ; there were the 
fishermen from Ukaranga and Kaole, from beyond 
Bangwe, and even from Urundi, with their whitebait, 
which they called dogara, the silurus, the perch, and 
other fish ; there were the palm-oil merchants, principally 
from Ujiji and Urundi, with great five-gallon pots full 
of reddish oil, of the consistency of butter; there were 
the salt merchants from the salt-plains of Uvinza and 
Uhha; there were the ivory merchants from Uvira and 
Usowa; there were the canoe-makers from Ugoma and 
Urundi ; there were the cheap-Jack pedlers from Zan- 
zibar, selling flimsy prints, and brokers exchanging blue 


mutunda beads for sami-sami, and sungomazzi, and sofi 
The sofi beads are like pieces of thick clay-pipe stem 
about half an inch long, and are in great demand here. 
Here were found Waguhha, Wamanyuema, Wagoma, 
Wavira, Wasige, Warundi, Wajiji, Waha, Wavinza, 
Wasowa, Wangwana, Wakawendi, Arabs, and Wasa- 
wahili, engaged in noisy chaffer and barter. Bare- 
headed, and almost barebodied, the youths made love to 
the dark-skinned and woolly-headed Phyllises, who knew 
not how to blush at the ardent gaze of love, as their 
white sisters ; old matrons gossiped, as the old women do 
everywhere ; the children played, and laughed, and 
struggled, as children of our own lands; and the old 
men, leaning on their spears or bows, were just as 
garrulous in the Place do Ujiji as aged elders in othrr 




"I distinctly deny that 'any misleading by my instructions from 
the Royal Geographical Society as to the position of the White Nile' 
made me unconscious of the vast importance of ascertaining the direc- 
tion of the Rusizi River. The fact is, we did our best to reach it, and 
we failed/' Burton's Zanzibar. 

"The universal testimony of the natives to the Rusixi River being an 
influent is the most conclusive argument that it does run out of the 
fake." Speke. 

'* 1 therefore claim for Lake Tanganika the honour of being the 
SOUTHERNMOST RESERVOIR OF THE NILE, until some more positive 
evidence, by actual observation, shall otherwise determine it." 
Findlay, R.G.S. 

HAD Livingstone and myself, after making up our minds 


to visit the northern head oi the Lake Tanganika, been 
compelled by the absurd demands or fears of a crew of 
Wajiji to return to Unyanyembe without having resolved 
the problem of the Rusizi River, we had surely deserved 
to be greeted by everybody at home with a universal 
giggling and cackling. But Capt. Burton's failure to 
settle it, by engaging Wajiji, and that ridiculous savage 
chief Kannena, had warned us of the negative assistance 
we could expect from such people for the solution of a 
geographical problem. We had enough good sailors with 
us, who were entirely under our commands. Could we 
but procure the loan of a canoe, we thought all might 
be well. 

Upon application to Sayd bin Majid, he at once 
generously permitted us to use his canoe for any service 
for which we might require it. After engaging two 
Wajiji guides at two doti each, we prepared to sail from 
the port of Ujiji, in about a week or so after my entrance 
into Ujiji. 

I have already stated how it was that the Doctor and 
I undertook the exploration of the northern half of the 
Tanganika and the Eiver Eusizi, about which so much 
had been said and written. 

Before embarking on this enterprise, Dr. Livingstone 
had not definitely made up his mind which course 
he should take, as his position was truly deplorable. 
His servants consisted of Susi, Chumah, Hamoydah, 
Gardner, and Halimah, the female cook and wife of 
Hamoydah ; to these was added Kaif-Halek, the man 
whom I compelled to follow me from Unyanyembe to 
deliver the Livingstone letters to his master. 

Whither could Dr. Livingstone march with these few 
men, and the few table-cloths and beads that remained 


to him from the store squandered by the imbecile Sherif ? 
This was a puzzling question. Had Dr. Livingstone 
been in good health, his usual hardihood and indomitable 
spirit had answered it in a summary way. He might 
have borrowed some cloth from Sayd bin Majid at an 
exorbitant price, sufficient to bring him to Unyanyembe 
and the sea-coast. But how long would he have been 
compelled to sit down at Ujiji, waiting and waiting for 
the goods that were said to be at Unyanyembe, a prey t3 
high expectations, hoping day after day that the war 
would end hoping week after week to hear that hia 
goods were coming ? Who knows how long his weak 
health had borne up against the several disappointments 
to which he would be subjected ? 

Though it was with all due deference to Dr. Living- 
stone's vast experience as a traveller, I made bold to 
suggest the following courses to him, either of which he 
could adopt : 

1st. To go home, and take the rest he so well deserves 
and, as he appeared then, to be so much in need of. 

2nd. To proceed to Unyanyembe, receive his goods, 
and enlist pagazis sufficient to enable him to travel 
anywhere, either to Manyuema or Eua, and settle the 
Nile problem, which he said he was in a fair way of 

3rd. To proceed to Unyanyembe, receive his caravan, 
enlist men, and try to join Sir Samuel Baker, either 
by going to Muanza, and sailing through Ukerewe or 
Victoria N'Yanza in my boats which I should put up 
to Mtesa's palace at Uganda, thus passing by Mirambo 
.ind Swaruru of Usui, who would rob him if he took the 
nsual caravan road to Uganda ; thence from Mtesa to 
Karnrasi, King of Unyoro, where he would of course hear 


of the great white man who was said to be with a large 
force of men at Gondokoro. 

4th. To proceed to Unyanyembe, receive his caravan ; 
enlist men, and return to Ujiji, and back to Manyuema by 
way of Uguhha. 

5th. To proceed by way of the Busizi through Kuanda, 
and so on to Itara, Unyoro, and Baker. 

For either course, whichever he thought most ex- 
pedient, I and my men would assist him as escort and 
carriers, to the best of our ability. If he should elect 
to go home, I informed him I should be proud to escort 
him, and consider myself subject to his commands- 
travelling only when he desired, and camping only when 
he gave the word. 

6th. The last course which I suggested to him, was 
to permit me to escort him to Unyanyembe, where he 
could receive his own goods, and where I could deliver 
up to him a large supply of first-class cloth and beads, 
guns and ammunition, cooking utensils, clothing, boats, 
tents, &c., and where be could rest in a comfortable 
house, while I would hurry down to the coast, organise a 
new expedition composed of fifty or sixty faithful men, 
well armed, by whom I could send an additional supply 
of needful luxuries in the shape of creature comforts. 

After long consideration, he resolved to adopt the 
last course, as it appeared to him to be the most feasible 
one, and the best, though he did not hesitate to comment 
upon the unaccountable apathy of his agent at Zanzibar, 
which had caused him so much trouble and vexation, and 
weary marching of hundreds of miles. 

Our ship though nothing more than a cranky canoe 
hollowed out of a noble mvule tree of Ugoma was an 
African Argo, bound on a nobler enterprise than it* 


famous Grecian prototype. We were bound upon no 
mercenary errand, after no Golden Fleece, but perhapg 
to discover a highway for commerce which should bring 
the ships of the Nile up to Ujiji, Usowa, and far Marungu 
We did not know what we might discover on our voyage 
to the northern head of the Tanganika; we supposed 
that we should find the Rusizi to be an effluent of the 
Tanganika, flowing down to the Albert or the Victoria 
N'Yanza. We were told by natives and Arabs that the 
Rusizi ran out of the lake. 

Sayd bin Majid had stated that his canoe would carry 
twenty-five men, and 3,500 Ibs. of ivory. Acting upon 
this information, we embarked twenty-five men, several 
of whom had stored away bags of salt for the purposes ol 
trade with the natives; but upon pushing off from the 
shore near Ujiji, we discovered the boat was too heavily 
laden, and was down to the gunwale. Returning in-shore, 
we disembarked six men, and unloaded the bags of salt, 
which left us with sixteen rowers, Selim, Ferajji the cook, 
and the two Wajiji guides. 

Having thus properly trimmed our boat we again 
pushed off, and steered her head for Bangwe Island, 
which was distant four or five miles from the Bunder of 
Ujiji. While passing this island the guides informed us 
that the Arabs and Wajiji took shelter on it during an 
incursion of the Watuta which took place some years 
ago when they came and invaded Ujiji, and massacred 
several of the inhabitants. Those who took refuge on 
the island were the only persons who escaped the fire and 
sword with which the Watuta had visited Ujiji. 

After passing the island and following the various 
bends and indentations of the shore, we came in sight of 
the magnificent bay of Kigoma, which strikes one at once 


as being an excellent harbor from the variable winds 
which blow over the Tanganika. About 10 A.M. we drew 
in towards the village of Kigoma, as the east wind was 
then rising, and threatened to drive us to sea. With 
those travelling parties who are not in much hurry 
Kigoma is always the first port for canoes bound north 
from Ujiji. The next morning at dawn we struck tent, 
stowed baggage, cooked, and drank coffee, and set off 
northward again. 

The lake was quite calm ; its waters, of a dark-green 
color, reflected the serene blue sky above. The hippo- 
potami came up to breathe in alarmingly close proximity 
to our canoe, and then plunged their heads again, as if 
they were playing hide-and-seek with us. Arriving 
opposite the high wooded hills of Bemba, and being a 
mile from shore, we thought it a good opportunity to 
sound the depth of the water, whose color seemed to 
indicate great depth. We found thirty-five fathoms at 
this place. 

Our canoeing of this day was made close in-shore, with 
a range of hills, beautifully wooded and clothed with 
green grass, sloping abruptly, almost precipitously, into 
the depths of the fresh-water sea, towering immediately 
above us, and as we rounded the several capes or points, 
roused high expectations of some new wonder, or some 
exquisite picture being revealed as the deep folds disclosed 
themselves to us. Nor were we disappointed. The wooded 
hills, with a wealth of boscage of beautiful trees, many of 
which were in bloom, and crowned with floral glory, ex- 
haling an indescribably sweet fragrance, lifting thei! 
heads in varied contour one pyramidal, another a trun- 
cated cone; one table-topped, another ridgy, like the 
steep roof of a church ; one a glorious heave with aii even 

CftfR CfcmSfc OtT TUE TANGAN1KA. 395 

outline, another jagged and snvage-- interested us con- 
siderably ; and the pretty pictures, exquisitely pretty, at 
the head of the several bays, evoked many an exclamation 
of admiration. It was the most natural thing in the 
world that I should feel deepest admiration for these 
successive pictures of quiet scenic beauty, but the Doctor 
had quite as much to say about them as I had myself, 
though, as one might imagine, satiated with pictures of 
this kind far more beautiful far more wonderful -he 
should long ago have expended all his powers of admiring 
scenes in nature. 

From Bagamoyo to Ujiji I had seen nothing to compare 
to them none of these fishing settlements under the 
shade of a grove of palms and plantains, banians and 
mimosa, with cassava gardens to the right and left of 
palmy forests, and patches of luxuriant grain looking 
down upon a quiet bay, whose calm waters at the early 
morn reflected the beauties of the hills which sheltered 
them from the rough and boisterous tempests that so 
often blew without. 

The fishermen evidently think themselves comfortably 
situated. The lake affords them all the fish they require, 
more than enough to eat, and the industrious a great deal 
to sell. The steep slopes of the hills, cultivated by the 
housewives, contribute plenty of grain, such as donrrn 
and Indian corn, besides cassava, ground-nuts or pea- 
nuts, and sweet potatoes. The palm trees afford oil, and 
the plantains an abundance of delicious fruit. The ravines 
and deep gullies supply them with the tall shapely trees 
from which they cut out their canoes. Nature has supplied 
them bountifully with all that a man's heart or stomach 
can desire. It is while looking at what seems both 
eirierrmlly and internally complete and perfect happinese 


that the thought occurs how must these people sigh, 
when drhcn across the dreary wilderness that intervenes 
between the lake country and the sea-coast, for such 
homes as these! those unfortunates who, bought by the 
Arahs for a couple of doti, are taken away to Zanzibar to 
pick cloves, or do hamal work ! 

As we drew near Niasanga, our second camp, the com- 
parison between the noble array of picturesque hills and 
receding coves, with their pastoral and agricultural 
scenes, and the shores of old Pontus, was very great. 
A few minutes before we hauled our canoe ashore, two 
little incidents occurred. I shot an enormous dog-faced 
monkey, which measured from nose to end of tail 4 feet 
9 inches; the face was 8J inches long, its body weighed 
about 100 Ibs. It had no mane or tuft at end of tail, but 
the body was covered with long wiry hair. Numbers of 
these specimens were seen, as well as of the active cat- 
headed and long-tailed smaller ones. The other was the 
sight of a large lizard, about 2 ft. 6 in. long, which 
waddled into cover before we had well noticed it. The 
Doctor thought it to be the Monitor terrestris. 

We encamped under a banian tree ; our surroundings 
were the now light-grey waters of the Tanganika, an 
arnphitheatral range of hills, and the village of Niasanga, 
situated at the mouth of the rivulet Niasanga, with its 
grove of palms, thicket of plantains, and plots of grain 
and cassava fields. Near our tent were about half-a- 
dozen canoes, large and small, belonging to the villagers. 
Our tent door fronted the glorious expanse of fresh water, 
inviting the breeze, and the views of distant Ugoma and 
Ukaramba, and the Island of Muzimu, whose ridges 
Appeared of a deep-blue color. At our feet were the clean 
and well washed pebbles, borne upward into tiny lines 


and heaps by the restless surf. A search amongst these 
would reveal to us the material of the mountain heaps 
which rose behind and on our right and left ; there was 
schist, conglomerate sandstone, a hard white clay, an 
ochreish clay containing much iron, polished quartz, &c, 
Looking out of our tent, we could see a line on each side 
of us of thick tall reeds, which form something like a 
hedge between the beach and the cultivated area around 
Niasanga. Among birds seen here, the most noted were 
the merry wagtails, which are regarded as good omens 
and messengers of peace by the natives, and any harm 
done unto them is quickly resented, and is fineable. 
Except to the mischievously inclined, they offer no induce- 
ment to commit violence. On landing, they flew to meet 
us, balancing themselves in the air in front, within easy 
reach of our hands. The other birds were crows, turtle- 
doves, fish-hawks, kingfishers, ibis nigra and ibis religiosa, 
flocks of whydah birds, geese, darters, paddy birds, kites, 
and eagles. 

At this place the Doctor suffered from dysentery it 
is his only weak point, he says; and, as I afterwards 
found, it is a frequent complaint with him. Whatever 
disturbed his mind, or any irregularity in eating, was sure 
to end in an attack of dysentery, which had lately become 
of a chronic character. 

The third day of our journey on the Tanganika brought 
us to Zassi Kiver and village, after a four hours' pull. 
Along the line of road the mountains rose 2,000 and 2,500 
feet above the waters of the lake. I imagined the scenery 
getting more picturesque and animated at every step, 
and thought it by far lovelier than anything seen near 
Lake George or on the Hudson. The cosy nooks at the 
Load of the many small bays constitute most admirable 


pictures, filled in as they are with the ever-beautiful 
feathery palms and broad green plantain fronds. These 
nooks have all been taken possession of by fishermen, 
arid their conically beehive-shaped huts always peep from 
under the frondage. The shores are thus extremely 
populous ; every terrace, small plateau, and bit of level 
ground is occupied. 

Zftssi is easily known by a group of conical hills which 
rise near by, and are called Kirassa. Opposite to these, 
at the distance of about a mile from shore, we sounded, 
and obtained 35 fathoms, as on the previous day. Getting 
out a mile further, I let go the whole length of my line, 
115 fathoms, and obtained no bottom. In drawing it up 
again the line parted, and I lost the lead, with three- 
fourths of the line. The Doctor stated, apropos of this, 
that he had sounded opposite the lofty Kabogo, south of 
Ujiji, and obtained the great depth of 300 fathoms. He 
also lost his lead and 100 fathoms of his line, but he had 
nearly 900 fathoms left, and this was in the canoes. We 
hope to use this long sounding line in going across from 
the eastern to the western shore. 

On the fourth day we arrived at Nyabigma, a sandy 
island in Urundi. We had passed the boundary line 
between Ujiji and Urundi half-an-hour before arriving at 
Nyabigma. The Mshala Eiver is considered by both 
nations to be the proper divisional line; though there 
are parties of Warundi who have emigrated beyond 
the frontier into Ujiji; for instance, the Mutware and 
villagers of populous Kaguiiga, distant an hour north 
from Zassi. There are also several small parties of 
Wajiji, who have taken advantage of the fine lands in 
the deltas of the Kasokwe, Namusinga, and Luaba 
Kiverf, the two first of which enter the Tanganika 


in this bay, near the head of which Nyabigma is 

From Nyabigma, a pretty good view of the deep curve 
in the great mountain range which stretches from Cape 
Kazinga and terminates at Cape Kasofu, may be obtained 
a distance of twenty or twenty-five miles. It is a most 
imposing scene, this great humpy, ridgy, and irregular 
line of mountains. Deep ravines and chasms afford out- 
lets to the numerous streams and rivers which take their 
rise in the background; the pale fleecy ether almost 
always shrouds its summit. From its base extends a 
broad alluvial plain, rich beyond description, teeming 
with palms and plantains, and umbrageous trees. Villages 
are seen in clusters everywhere. Into this alluvial plain 
run the Luaba, or Euaba Kiver, on the north side oi 
Cape Kitunda, and the Kasokwe, Namusinga, and Mshala 
Rivers, on the south side of the cape. All the deltas ol 
rivers emptying into the Tanganika are hedged in on all 
sides with a thick growth of matete, a gigantic species of 
grass, and papyrus. Iu some deltas, as that of Luaba 
and Kasokwe, morasses have been formed, in which the 
matete and papyrus jungle is impenetrable. In the depths 
of them are quiet and deep pools, frequented by various 
aquatic birds, such as geese, ducks, snipes, widgeons, 
kingfishers and ibis, cranes and storks, and pelicans. 
To reach their haunts is, however, a work of great diffi- 
culty to the sportsman in quest of game ; a work often 
attended with great danger, from the treacherous nature 
of these morasses, as well as from the dreadful attacks of 
fever which, in these regions, invariably follow wet feet 
and wet clothes. 

At Nyabigma we prepared, by distributing ten rounds 
of anumiuitioL to each of our men, for a tupsle with the 


Warundi of two stages ahead, should they invite it by a 
too forward exhibition of their prejudice to strangers. 

At dawn of the fifth day we quitted the haven of 
Nyabignia Island, and in less than an hour had arrived 
off Cape Kitunda. This cape is a low platform of con- 
glomerate sandstone, extending for about eight miles 
from the base of the great mountain curve which gives 
birth to the Luaba and its sister streams. Crossing the 
deep bay, at the head of which is the delta of the Luaba, 
we came to Cape Kasofu. Villages are numerous in this 
vicinity. From hence we obtained a view of a series of 
points or capes, Kigongo, Katunga, and Buguluka, all of 
which we passed before coming to a halt at the pretty 
position of Mukungu. 

At Mukungu, where we stopped on the fifth day, we 
were asked for honga, or tribute. The cloth and beads 
upon which we subsisted during our lake voyage were 
mine, but the Doctor, being the elder of the two, more 
experienced, and the " big man " of the party, had the 
charge of satisfying all such demands. Many and many 
a time had I gone through the tedious and soul-wearying 
task of settling the honga, and I was quite curious to see 
how the great traveller would perform the work. 

The Mateko (a man inferior to a Mutware) of Mukungu 
asked for two and a half doti. This was the extent ot 
the demand, which he made known to us a little after 
dark. The Doctor asked if nothing had been brought to 
us. He was answered, " No, it was too late to get any- 
thing now ; but, if we paid the honga, the Mateko would 
be ready to give us something when we came back.' 
Livingstone, upon hearing this, smiled, and the Matekc 
being then and there in front of him, he said to him 
* Well, if you can't get us anything now, and intend tc 


give something when we return, we had better keep the 
honga until then." The Mateko was rather taken ahack 
at this, and demurred to any such proposition. Seeing 
that he was dissatisfied, we urged him to hring one sheep 
one little sheep for our stomachs were nearly empty, 
having been waiting more than half a day for it. The 
appeal was successful, for the old man hastened, and 
brought us a lamb and a three-gallon pot of sweet but 
strong zogga, or palm toddy, and in return the Doctor 
gave him two and a half doti of cloth. The lamb was 
killed, and, our digestions being good, its flesh agreed 
with us ; but, alas, for the effects of zogga, or palm toddy ! 
Susi, the invaluable adjunct of Dr. Livingstone, and 
Bombay, the headman of my caravan, were the two 
charged with watching the canoe; but, having imbibed 
too freely of this intoxicating toddy, they slept heavily, 
and in the morning the Doctor and I had to regret the 
loss of several valuable and indispensable things ; among 
which may be mentioned the Doctor's 900-fathom sounding- 
line, 500 rounds of pin, rim, and central-fire cartridges for 
my arms, and ninety musket bullets, also belonging to 
me. Besides these, which were indispensable in hostile 
Warundi, a large bag of flour and the Doctor's entire 
stock of white sugar were stolen. This was the third 
time that my reliance in Bombay's trustworthiness resulted 
in a great loss to me, and for the ninety-ninth time I had 
to regret bitterly having placed such entire confidence in 
Speke's loud commendation of him. It was only the 
natural cowardice of ignorant thieves that prevented the 
savages from taking the boat and its entire contents, 
together with Bombay and Susi as slaves. I can well 
imagine the joyful surprise which must have been called 
forth at the sight and exquisite tae*e of the Doctor's 

2 p 


sugar, and the wonder with which they must have regarded 
the strange ammunition of the Wasungu. It is to be 
sincerely hoped that they did not hurt themselves with 
the explosive bullets and rim cartridges through any 
ignorance of the nature of the deadly contents ; in which 
ease the box and its contents would prove a very Pandora's 

Much grieved at our loss, we set off on the sixth day 
at the usual hour on our watery journey. \\ f e coasted 
close to the several low headlands formed by the rivers 
Kigwena, Kikuma, and Kisunwe ; and when any bay 
promised to be interesting, steered the canoe according 
to its indentations. While travelling on the water 
each day brought forth similar scenes on our right 
rose the mountains of Urundi, now and then disclosing 
the ravines through which the several rivers and streams 
issued into the great lake; at their base were the 
alluvial plains, where flourished the oil-palm and grate- 
ful plantain, while scores of villages were grouped under 
their shade. Now and then we passed long narrow 
strips of pebbly or sandy beach, whereon markets were 
improvised for selling fish, and the staple products of 
the respective communities. Then we passed broad 
swampy morasses, formed by the numerous streams 
which the mountains discharged, where the matcte and 
papyrus flourished. Now the mountains approached to 
the water, their sides descending abruptly to the 
water's edge ; then they receded into deep folds, at the 
base of which was sure to be seen an alluvial plain 
from one to eight miles broad. Almost constantly 
we observed canoes being punted vigorously close to 
the surf, in fearless defiance of a catastrophe, such as 
& capsize and gobbling-up by voracious crocodiles. 


Sometimes we sighted a canoe a short distance ahead 
of us; whereupon our men, with song and chorus, 
would exert themselves to the utmost to overtake it. 
Upon observing our efforts, the natives would bend 
themselves to their tasks, and paddling standing and 
stark naked, give us ample opportunities for studying 
at our leisure comparative anatomy. Or we saw a group 
of fishermen lazily reclining in pur is ructuralilms on the 
beach, regarding with curious eye the canoes as they 
passed their neighbourhood ; then we passed a flotilla 
of canoes, their owners sitting quietly in their huts, 
busily plying the rod and hook, or casting their nets, or 
a couple of men arranging their long drag nets close in 
shore for a haul ; or children sporting fearlessly in the 
water, with their mothers looking on approvingly from 
under the shade of a tree, from which I infer that there 
are not many crocodiles in the lake, except in the 
neighbourhood of the large rivers. 

After passing the low headland of Kisunwe, formed 
by the Kisunwe Kiver, we came in view of Murembwe 
Cape, distant about four or five miles : the intervening 
ground being low land, a sandy and pebbly beach. 
Close to the beach are scores of villages, while the 
crowded shore indicates the populousness of the place 
beyond. About half way between Cape Kisunwe and 
Murembwe, is a cluster of villages called Bikari, which 
has a mutware who is in the habit of taking honga. As 
we were rendered unable to cope for any length of 
time with any mischievously inclined community, all 
villages having a bad reputation with the Wajiji were 
avoided by us. But even the Wajiji guides were some- 
times mistaken, and Jed us more than once into dangerous 
places. The guides evidently had no objections to halt 


at Bikari, as it was the second cainp from Muiuuga; 
because with them a halt in the cool shade of plaintaind 
was infinitely preferable to sitting like carved pieces of 
wood in a cranky canoe. But before they stated their 
objections and preferences, the Bikari people called to us 
in a loud voice to come ashore, threatening us with the 
vengeance of the great Wami if we did not halt. As the 
voices were anything but siren-like, we obstinately 
refused to acpede to the request. Finding threats of no 
avail, they had recourse to stones, and, accordingly, 
flung them at us in a most hearty manner. As one came 
within a foot of my arm, I suggested that a bullet be 
sent in return in close proximity to their feet; but 
Livingstone, though he said nothing, yet showed plainly 
enough that he did not quite approve of this. As these 
demonstrations of hostility were anything but welcome, 
and as we saw signs of it almost every time we came 
opposite a village, we kept on our way until we came to 
Murembwe Point, which, being a delta of a river of the 
same name, was well protected by a breadth of thorny 
jungle, spiky cane, and a thick growth of reed and 
papyrus, from which the boldest Mrundi might well 
shrink, especially if he called to mind that beyond this 
inhospitable swamp were the guns of the strangers his 
like had so rudely challenged. We drew our canoe 
ashore here, and, on a limited area of clean sand, Ferajji, 
our rough-and-ready cook, lit his fire, and manufactured 
for us a supply of most delicious Mocha coffee. Despite 
the dangers which still beset us, we were quite happy, 
and seasoned our meal with a little moral philosophy, 
which lifted us unconsciously into infinitely superior 
beings to the pagans by whom we were surrounded upon 
whom we now looked down, under the influence of Mocha 


coffee and moral philosophy, with calm contempt, not 
unmixed with a certain amount of compassion. The 
Doctor related some experiences he had had among 
people of similar disposition, but did not fail to ascribe 
them, with the wisdom of a man of ripe experiences, to 
the unwise conduct of the Arabs and half-castes ; in this 
opinion I unreservedly concur. 

From Murembwe Point, having finished our coffee 
and ended our discourse on ethics, we proceeded on our 
voyage, steering for Cape Sentakeyi, which, though it 
was eight or ten miles away, we hoped to make before 
dark. The Wangwana pulled with right good will, but 
ten hours went by, and night was drawing near, and we 
were still far from Sentakeyi. As it was a fine moon- 
light night, and we were fully alive to the dangerous 
position in which we might find ourselves, they consented 
to pull an hour or two more. About 1 P.M., we pulled 
in shore for a deserted spot a clean shelf of sand, 
about thirty feet long by ten deep, from which a clay 
bank rose about ten or twelve feet above, while on each 
side there were masses of disintegrated rock. Here 
we thought, that by preserving some degree of silence, 
we might escape observation, and consequent annoyance, 
for a few hours, when, being rested, we might continue 
our journey. Our kettle was boiling for tea, and the 
men had built a little fire for themselves, and had filled 
their black earthen pot with water for porridge, when 
our look-outs perceived dark forms creeping towards our 
bivouac. Being hailed, they at once came forward, and 
saluted us with the native " Wake." Our guides ex- 
plained that we were Wangwana, and intended to camp 
until morning, when, if they had anything to sell, we 
should be glad to trade with them. They said they were 


rejoiced to hear this, and after they had exchanged a fev? 
werds more during which time we observed that they 
were taking mental notes of the camp they went away. 
Upon leaving, they promised to return in the morning 
with food, and make friends with us. While drinking 
our tea, the look-outs warned us of the approach of a 
second party, which went through the same process of 
saluting and observing as the first had done. These also 
went away, over-exuberant, as I thought, and were 
shortly succeeded by a third party, who came and went 
as the others had. From all this we inferred that the 
news was spreading rapidly through the villages about, 
and we had noticed two canoes passing backwards and 
forwards with rather more haste than we deemed usual 
or necessary. We had good cause to be suspicious ; it is 
not customary for people (at least, between Ujiji and 
Zanzibar) to be about visiting and saluting after dark, 
under any pretence; it is not permitted to persons to 
prowl about camp after dark without being shot at ; and 
this going backward and forward, this ostentatious 
exuberance of joy at the arrival of a small party of 
Wangwana, which in many parts of Urundi would be 
regarded as a very common event, was altogether very 
suspicious. While the Doctor and I were arriving at the 
conclusion that these movements were preliminary to or 
significant of hostility, a fourth body, very boisterous 
and loud, came and visited us. Our supper had been by 
this time despatched, and we thought it high time to act. 
The fourth party having gone with extravagant manifest- 
ations of delight, the men were hurried into the canoe, 
and, when all were seated, and the look-outs embarked, 
we quietly pushed off, but not a moment too soon. As 
the canoe was gliding from the darkened light that 


mrrounded us, I called the Doctor's attention to several 
dark forms ; some of whom were crouching behind the 
rocks on our right, and others scrambling over them to 
obtain good or better positions ; at the same time 
people were approaching from the left of our position, in 
the same suspicious way ; and directly a voice hailed us 
from the top of the clay bank overhanging the sandy 
shelf where we had lately been resting. " Neatly done,' 
cried the Doctor, as we were shooting through the water, 
leaving the discomfited would-be robbers behind us. 
Here, again, my hand was stayed from planting a couple 
of good shots, as a warning to them in future from molest- 
ing strangers, by the mere presence of the Doctor, who, 
as I thought, if it were actually necessary, would not 
hesitate to give the word. 

After pulling six hours more, during which we had 
rounded Cape Sentakeyi, we stopped at the small fishing 
village of Mugeyo, where we were permitted to sleep 
unmolested. At dawn we continued our journey, and 
about 8 A.M. arrived at the village of the friendly Mut- 
ware of Magala. We had pulled for eighteen hours at a 
stretch, which, at the rate of two miles and a half per 
hour, would make forty-five miles. Taking bearings 
from our camp at Cape Magala, one of the most promi- 
nent points in travelling north from Ujiji, we found that 
the large island of Muzimu, which had been in sight ever 
since rounding Cape Bang we, near Ujiji Bunder, bore 
about south-south west, and that the western shore had 
considerably approached to the eastern; the breadth of 
the lake being at this point about eight or ten miles. 
We had a good view of the western highlands, which 
seemed to be of an average height, about 3,000 feet above 
the lake. Luhanga Peak, rising a little to the north of 

408 HOW 1 FOUND 

west from Magala, might be about 500 feet higher, 
and Sumburizi, a little north ef Luhanga, where lived 
Mruta, Sultan of Uvira, the country opposite to this 
part of Urundi, about 300 feet higher than the neigh- 
bouring heights. Northward from Magala Cape the lake 
streamed away between two chains of mountains ; both 
meeting in a point about thirty miles north of us. 

The Warundi of Magala were very civil, and profound 
etarers. They flocked around the tent door, and mo?\ 
pertinaciously gazed on us, as if we were subjects of most 
intense interest, but liable to sudden and eternal depar- 
ture. The Mutware came to see us late in the afternoon, 
dressed with great pomp. He turned out to be a boy 
whom I had noticed in the crowd of gazers for his good 
looks and fine teeth, which he showed, being addicted to 
laughing continually. There was no mistaking him, 
though he was now decorated with many ivory ornaments? 
with necklaces, and with heavy brass bracelets and iron 
wire anklets. Our admiration of him was reciprocated ; 
and, in return for our two doti of cloth and a fundo 
of samsam, he gave a fine fat and broad-tailed sheep, 
and a pot of milk. In our conditeon both were extremely 

At Magala we heard *>f a war raging between 
Mukamba, for whose country we were bound, and 
Warumashanya, a Sultan of an adjoining district; and 
we were advised that, unless we intended to assist one of 
these chiefs against the other, it would be better for us to 
return. But, as we had started to solve the problem of the 
Eusizi River, such considerations had no weight with us. 

On the eighth morning from leaving Ujiji we bade 
farewell to the hospitable people of Magala, and set off 
for Mukarnba's country, which was in view. Soon after 


passing the boundary between Urundi proper, and what 
is known as Usige, a storm from the south-west arose ; 
and the fearful yawing of our canoe into the wave trough 
warned us from proceeding further; so we turned her 
head for Kisuka village, about four miles north, where 
Mugere, in Usige, begins. 

At Kisuka a Mgwana living with Mukamba came to see 
us, and gave us details of the war between Mukamba and 
Warumashanya, from which it seemed that these two 
chiefs were continually at loggerheads. It is a tame way 
of fighting, after all. One chief makes a raid into the 
other's country, and succeeds in making off with a herd 
of cattle, killing one or two men who have been surprised. 
Weeks, or perhaps months elapse before the other re- 
taliates, and effects a capture in a similar way, and then a 
balance is struck in which neither is the gainer. Seldom 
do they attack each other with courage and hearty good- 
will, the constitution of the African being decidedly 
against any such energetic warfare. 

This Mgwana, further, upon being questioned, gave 
us information far more interesting, viz., about the Kusizi. 
He told us positively, with the air of a man who knew all 
about it, and as if anybody who doubted him might well 
be set down as an egregious ass, that the Kusizi Kiver 
flowed out of the lake, away to Suna's (Mtesa's) country. 
" Where else could it flow to ?" he asked. The Doctor 
was inclined to believe it, or, perhaps he was more inclined 
to let it rest as stated until our own eyes should confirm 
it. I was more inclined to doubt, as I told the Doctor ; 
first, it was too good to be true ; second, the fellow was 
too enthusiastic upon a subject that could not possibly 
interest him. His " Barikallahs " and " Inshallahs " were 
far too fervid ; his answers too much in accordance with 


oar wishes. The Doctor laid great stress on the report 
of a Mgwana he met far south, who stated that the grand- 
father or father of Ruinanika, present King of Karagwah, 
had thought of excavating the bed of the Kitangule River, 
in order that his canoes might go to Ujiji to open a trade. 
From this, I imagine, coinciding as it did with his often- 
expressed and present firm belief that the waters of the 
Tanganika had an outlet somewhere, the Doctor was 
partial to the report of the Mgwana ; but as we proceed 
we shall see how all this will end. 

On the ninth morning from Ujiji, about two hours after 
sunrise, we passed the broad delta of the Mugere, a river 
which gives its name also to the district on the eastern 
shore ruled over by Mukamba. We had come directly 
opposite the most southern of its three mouths, when we 
found quite a difference in the colour of the water. An 
almost straight line, drawn east and west from the mouth 
would serve well to mark off the difference that existed 
between the waters. On the south side was pure water 
of a light green, on the north side it was muddy, and the 
current could be distinctly seen flowing north. Soon after 
passing the first mouth we came to a second, and then a 
third mouth, each only a few yards broad, but each discharg- 
ing sufficient water to permit our following the line of the 
currents several rods north beyond the respective mouths. 

Beyond the third mouth of the Mugere a bend disclosed 
itself, with groups of villages beyond on its bank. These 
were Mukamba's, and in one of them lived Mukamba, the 
chief. The natives had yet never seen a white man, and, 
of course, as <=oon as we landed we were surrounded by a 
large concourse, all armed with long spears the only 
weapon visible amongst them save a club-stick, and here 
there a hatchet. 


We were shown into a hut, which the Doctor and I 
shared "between us. What followed on that day I have 
but a dim recollectiop having been struck down by fever 
the first since leaving Unyanyenihe. I dimly recollect 
trying to make out what age Mukamha might be, and 
noting that he was good-looking withal, and kindly-dis- 
posed towards us. And during the intervals of agony 
and unconsciousness, I saw, or fancied I saw, Livingstone s 
form moving towards me, and felt, or fancied I felt, 
Livingstone's hand tenderly feeling my hot head and 
limbs. I had suffered several fevers between Bagamoyo 
and Unyanyembe, without anything or anybody to relieve 
me of the tedious racking headache and pain, or to illumine 
the dark and gloomy prospect which must necessarily 
surround the bedside of the sick and solitary traveller. 
But though this fever, having enjoyed immunity from it 
for three months, was more severe than usual, I did not 
much regret its occurrence, since I became the recipient 
of the very tender and fatherly kindness of the good man 
whose companion I now found myself. 

The next morning, having recovered slightly from the 
fever, when Mukamba came with a present of an ox, a 
sheep, and a goat, I was able to attend to the answers 
which he gave to the questions about the Rusizi River 
and the head of the lake. The ever cheerful and enthusi- 
astic Mgwana was there also, and he was not a whit 
abashed, when, through him, the chief told us that the 
Liusizi, joined by the Ruanda, or Luanda, at a distance of 
two days' journey by water, or one day by land from the 
head of the lake, flowed INTO the lake. 

Thus our hopes, excited somewhat by the positive and 
repeated assurances that the river flowed out away towards 
Ka rag wah, collapsed as speedily as they were raised. 


We paid Mukamba the honga, consisting of &ine doti 
and nine fundo of samsam, lunghio, muzurio n'zige. The 
printed handkerchiefs, which I had in abundance at 
Unyanyembe, would have gone well here. After receiving 
his present, the chief introduced his son, a tall youth of 
eighteen or thereabouts, to the Doctor, as a would-be son 
of the Doctor ; but, with a good-natured laugh, the Doctor 
scouted all such relationship with him, as it was instituted 
only for the purpose of drawing more cloth out of him. 
Mukamba took it in good part, and did not insist on 
getting more. 

Our second evening at Mukamba's, Susi, the Doctor's 
servant, got gloriously drunk, through the chiefs liberal 
and profuse gifts of pombe Just at dawn next morning 
I was awakened by hearing several sharp, crack-like 
sounds. I listened, and I found the noise was in our hut. 
It was caused by the Doctor, who, towards midnight, had 
felt some one come and lie down by his side on the same 
bed, and, thinking it was me, he had kindly made room, 
and laid down on the edge of the bed. But in the morning, 
feeling rather cold, he had been thoroughly awakened, 
and, on rising on his elbow to see who his bed-fellow was, 
he discovered, to his great astonishment, that it was no 
other than his black servant, Susi, who taking possession 
of his blankets, and folding them about himself most 
selfishly, was occupying almost the whole bed, The 
Doctor, with that gentleness characteristic of him, instead 
of taking a rod, had contented himself with slapping Susi 
on the back, saying, " Get up, Susi, will you ? You are 
in my bed. How dare you, sir, get drunk in this way, 
after I have told you so often not to. Get up. Yoii 
won't ? Take that, and thai, and that." Still Susi slept 
and grunted ; so the slapping continued, until even Susi's 



thick hide began to feel it, and he was thoroughly awakened 
to the sense of his want of devotion and sympathy for his 
master in the usurping of even his master's bed. Susi 
looked very much crestfallen after this expose of his 
infirmity before the ' little master," as I was called. 


The next day at dusk Mukamba having come to bid 
us good-bye, and requested that as soon as we reached his 
brother Kuhinga, whose country was at the head of the 
lake, we would send our canoe back for him, and that in 
the meanwhile we should leave two of our men with him, 
with their guns, to help defend him in case Warumashanya 
attack him as soon as we were gone we embarked 


and pulled across. In nine hours we had arrived at the 
head of the lake in Mugihewa, the country of Ruhinga, 
Mukamba's elder brother. In looking back to where we 
had come from we perceived that we had made a diagonal 
cut across from south-east to north-west, instead of having 
made a direct east and west course ; or, in other words, 
from Mugere which was at least ten miles from the 
northernmost point of the eastern shore we had come to 
Mugihewa, situated at the northernmost point of the western 
shore. Had we continued along the eastern shore, and so 
round the northern side of the lake, we should have passed 
by Mukanigi, the country of Warumashanya, and Usumbura 
of Sirnveh, his ally and friend. But by making a diagonal 
course, as just described, we had arrived at the extreme 
head of the lake without any difficulty. 

The country in which we now found ourselves, Mugi- 
hewa, is situated in the delta of the Rusizi Kiver. It is 
an extremely flat country, the highest part of which is 
not ten feet above the lake, with numerous depressions in 
it overgrown with the rankest of matete-grass and the 
tallest of papyrus, and pond-like hollows, filled with 
stagnant water, which emit malaria wholesale. Large 
herds of cattle are reared on it ; for where the ground is 
not covered with marshy plants it produces rich, sweet 
grass. The sheep and goats, especially the former, are 
always in good condition ; and though they are not to be 
compared with English or American sheep, they are the 
finest I have seen in Africa. Numerous villages are seen 
on this land because the intervening spaces are not 
occupied with the rank and luxuriant jungle common in 
other parts of Africa. Were it not for the Euphorbia 
kolquall of Abyssinia which some omef has caused to bo 
planted as a defence round the villages one might see 


from one end of Mngiheva to the other. The waters 
along the head of the lake, from the western to the eastern 
shores, swarm with crocodiles. From the hanks, I counted 
ten heads of crocodiles, and the Eusizi, we were told, waa 
full of them. 

Ruhinga, who came to see us soon after we had taken 
up our quarters in his village, was a most amiahle man, 
who always contrived to see something that excited his 
risihility ; though older by five or six years perhaps he 
said he was a hundred years old than Mukamba, he was 
not half no dignified, nor regarded with so much admira- 
tion by his people as his younger brother. Buhinga had a 
better knowledge, however, of the country than Mukamba, 
and an admirable memory, and was able to impart his 
knowledge of the country intelligently. After he had 
done the honours as chief to us presented us with an ox 
and a sheep, milk and honey we were not backward in 
endeavouring to elicit as much information as possible 
out of him. 

The summary of the information derived from Euhinga 
may be stated as follows : 

The country bordering the head of the lake from 
Urundi proper, on the eastern shore, to Uvira on the 
western, is divided into the following districts : 1st. 
Mugere, governed by Mukamba, through which issued 
into the lake the small rivers of Mugere and Mpanda. 
2nd. Mukanigi, governed by Warumashanya, which 
occupied the whole of the north-eastern head of the lake, 
through which issued into the lake the small rivers of 
Karindwa and Mugera wa Kanigi. 3rd. On the eastern 
half of the district, at the head of the lake, was Usumbura, 
governed by Simveh, ally and friend of Warumashanya 
extending to the eastern bank of the Rusizi. 4th, Com- 


mencing from the western bank of the Rusizi, to the 
extreme north-western head of the lake, was Mugihewa 
Ruhinga's country. 5th. From Uvira on the west, 
running north past Mugihewa, and overlapping it on the 
north side as far as the hills of Chamati, was Kuwenga, 
also a country governed by Mukamha. Beyond Ruwenga, 
from bhe hills of Chamati to the Kuanda Eiver, was the 
country of Chamati. West of Ruwenga, comprising all 
the mountains for two days' journey in that direction, 
was Uashi. These are the smaller sub-divisions of what 
is commonly known as Kuwenga and Usige. Kuwenga 
comprises the countries of Kuwenga and Mugihewa ; 
Usige, the countries of Usumbura, Mukanigi, and Mugere. 
But all these countries are only part and parcel of Urundi, 
which comprises all that country bordering the lake from 
Mshala Kiver, on the eastern shore, to Uvira, on the 
western, extending over ten days' journey direct north 
from the head of the lake, and one month in a north- 
eastern direction to Murukuko, the capital of Mwezi, 
Sultan of all Urundi. Direct north of Urundi is Ruanda ; 
also a very large country. 

The Kusizi Kiver according to Kuhinga rose near a 
lake called Kivo, which he said is as long as from Mugi- 
hawa to Mugere, and as broad as from Mugihawa to 
Warumashanya's country, or, say eighteen miles in length 
by about eight in breadth. The lake is surrounded by 
mountains on the western and northern sides : on the 
south-western side of one of these mountains issues the 
Rusizi at first a small rapid stream ; but as it proceeds 
towards the lake it receives the rivers Kagunissi, Kaburan, 
Mohira, Nyamagana, Nyakagunda, Ruviro, Rofubu, Ka- 
vimvira, Myove, Kuhuha, Mukindu, Sange, Rulirizi, 
Kiriba, and, lastly, the Kuanda Kiver, which seems to be 


the largest of them all. Kivo Lake is so called from the 
country in which it is situated. On one side is Mutumbi 
(probably the Utumbi of Speke and Baker), on the west 
is Euanda ; on the east is Urundi. The name of the chief 
of Kivo is Kwansibura. 

After so many minute details about the Eiver Eusizi, 
it only remained for us to see it. On the second morning 
of our arrival at Mugihewa we mustered ten strong 
paddlers, and set out to explore the head of the lake and 
the mouth of the Eusizi. We found that the northern 
head of the lake was indented with seven broad bays, 
each from one and a half to three miles broad ; that long 
broad spits of sand, overgrown with matete, separated 
each bay from the other. Tbc first, starting from west 
to east, at the broadest part, to the extreme southern 
point of Mugihewa, was about three miles broad, and 
served as a line of demarcation between Mukamba's 
district of Euwenga and Mugihewa of Euhinga ; it was 
also two miles deep. The second bay was a mile from 
the southern extremity of Mugihewa to Euhinga's village 
at the head of the bay, and it was a mile across to another 
spit of sand which was terminated by a small island. 
The third bay stretched for nearly a mile to a long spit, 
at the end of which was another island, one and a quarter 
mile in length, and was the western side of the fourth 
bay, at the head of which was the delta of the Eusizi. 
This fourth bay, at its base, was about three miles in 
depth, and penetrated half a mile further inland than any 
other. Soundings indicated six feet deep, and the same 
depth was kept to within a few hundred yards of the 
principal mouth of the Eusizi. The current was very 
sluggish ; not more than a mile an hour. Though we 
constantly kept our binocular searching for the river, we 

2 E 


could not see the main channel until within 200 yards of 
it, and then only by watching by what outlet the fishing 
canoes came out. The bay at this point had narrowed 
from two miles to about 200 yards in breadth. Inviting 
a canoe to show us the way, a small flotilla of canoes 
preceded us, from the sheer curiosity of their owners. 
We followed, and in a few minutes were ascending the 
stream, which was very rapid, though but about ten 
yards wide, and very shallow; not more than two feet 
deep. We ascended about half a mile, the current being 
very strong, from six to eight miles an hour, and quite 
far enough to observe the nature of the stream at its 
embouchure. We could see that it widened and spread 
out in a myriad of channels, rushing by isolated clumps 
of sedge and matete grass ; and that it had the appear- 
ance of a swamp. We had ascended the central, or main 
channel. The western channel was about eight yards 
broad. We observed, after we had returned to the bay, 
that the easternmost channel was about six yards broad, 
and about ten feet deep, but very sluggish. We had 
thus examined each of its three mouths, and settled all 
doubts as to the Eusizi being an effluent or influent. It 
was not necessary to ascend higher, there being nothing 
about the river itself to repay exploration of it. 

The question, " Was the Eusizi an effluent or an in- 
fluent ?" was answered for ever. There was now no doubt 
any more on that point. In size it was not to be com- 
pared with the Malagarazi Eiver, neither is it, or can it 
be, navigable for anything but the smallest canoes. The 
only thing remarkable about it is that it abounds in 
crocodiles, but not one hippopotamus was seen; which 
may be taken as another evidence of its shallowness. The 
bays to the east of the Eusizi are of the same conform*- 


tion as those on the west. Carefully judging from tLt 
width of the several bays from point to point, and of the 
several spits which separate them, the breadth of the lake 
may be said to be about twelve or fourteen miles. Had 
we contented ourselves with simply looking at the con- 
formation, and the meeting of the eastern and western 
ranges, we should have said that the lake ended in a 
point, as Captain Speke has sketched it on his map. But 
its exploration dissolved that idea. Chamati Hill is the 
extreme northern termination of the western range, and 
seems, upon a superficial examination, to abut against the 
Ramata mountains of the eastern range, which are oppo- 
site Chamati ; but a valley about a mile in breadth sepa- 
rates the two ranges, and through this valley the Eusizi 
flows towards the lake.* Though Chamati terminates 
the western range, the eastern range continues for miles 
beyond, north-westerly. After its issue from this broad 
gorge, the Eusizi runs seemingly in a broad and mighty 
stream, through a wide alluvial plain, its own formation, 
in a hundred channels, until, approaching the lake, it 
flows into it by three channels only, as above described. 

I should not omit to state here, that though the 
Doctor and I have had to contend against the strong 
current of the Eusizi Eiver, as it flowed swift and strong 
INTO the Tanganika, the Doctor still adheres to the 
conviction that, whatever part the Eusizi plays, there 
must be an outlet to the Tanganika somewhere, from the 
fact that all fresh-water lakes have outlets. The Doctor 

* After the patient investigation of the North end of the Lake, and 
satisfying ourselves by personal observation that the Rusizi ran into 
the Lak3, the native rumor which Sir Samuel Baker brought home 
that the Tangaiiika and the Albert N'Yanzi bive a water connection 
atill finds many believers! 


is able to state his opinions and reasons far better than 
I can find for him ; and, lest I misconstrue the subject, 
I shall leave it until he has an opportunity to explain 
them himself ; which his great knowledge of Africa will 
enable him to do with advantage. 

One thing is evident to me, and I believe to the Doctor, 
that Sir Samuel Baker will have to curtail the Albert 
N'Yanza by one, if not two degrees of latitude. That 
well-known traveller has drawn his lake far into the 
territory of the Warundi, while Kuanda has been placed 
on the eastern side ; whereas a large portion of it, if not 
all, should be placed north of what he has designated on 
his map as Usige. The information of such an intelligent 
man as Euhinga is not to be despised ; for, if Lake Albert 
came within a hundred miles of the Tanganika, he would 
surely have heard of its existence, even if he had not seen 
it himself. Originally he came from Mutumbi, and he 
has travelled from that country into Mugihcwa, the 
district he now governs. He has seen Mwezi, the great 
King of Urundi, and describes him as a man about forty 
years old, and as a very good man. 

Our work was now done ; there was nothing more to 
detain us at Mugihewa. Kuhinga had been exceedingly 
kind, and given us one ox after another to butcher and 
eat. Mukamba had done the same. Their women had 
supplied us with an abundance of milk and butter, and 
we had now bounteous supplies of both. 

The Doctor had taken a series of observations for 
latitude and longitude ; and Mugihewa was made out to 
be in 3 19' S. latitude. 

On the 7th December, early in the morning, we left 
Mugihewa, and rowing past the southern extremity of the 
Katangara Islands, we approached the highlands of Uashi, 


near the boundary line between Mukamba's country and 
Uvira. The boundary line is supposed to be a wide 
ravine, in the depths of which is a grove of tall, beautiful, 
and straight-stemmed trees, out of which the natives 
make their canoes. 

Passing Kanyamabengu Kiver, which issues into the 
lake close to the market-gronr_d of Kirabula, the extreme 
point of Burton and Spekel explorations of the Tan- 
ganika, we steered south ak>:jg the western shore of the 
lake for half an hour longer to Kavimba, where we halted 
to cook breakfast. 

The village where lived Mruta, the King of Uvira, was 
in sight of our encampment, and as we observed parties 
of men ascending and descending the mountains much 
more often than we thought augured good to ourselves, 
we determined to continue on our course south. Besides, 
there was a party of disconsolate-looking Wajiji here, who 
had been plundered only a few days before our arrival, for 
attempting, as the Wavira believed, to evade the honga 
payment. Such facts as these, and our knowledge of 
the general state of insecurity in the country, resulting 
from the many wars in which the districts of the 
Tanganika were engaged, determined us not to halt at 

We embarked quickly in our boat before the Wavira 
had collected themselves, and headed south against a 
strong gale, which came driving down on us from the 
south-west. After a hard pull of about two hours in the 
teeth of the storm, which was rapidly rising, we pointed 
the head of the boat into a little *|uiet cove, almost 
hidden in tall reeds, and disembarked for the night. 

Cognizant of the dangers which surrounded us, knowing 
that savage and implacable man was the worst enemy we 


had to fear, we employed our utmost energies in the 
construction of a stout fence of thorn bushes, and then 
sat down to supper after our work was done, and turned 
in to sleep ; but not before we had posted watchmen to 
guard our canoe, lest the daring thieves of Uvira might 
abstract it, in which case we should have been in a pretty 
plight, and in most unenviable distress. 

At daybreak, leaving Kukumba Point after our humble 
breakfast of coffee, cheese, and dourra cakes was de- 
spatched, we steered south once more. Our fires had 
attracted the notice of the sharp-eyed and suspicious 
fishermen of Kukumba; but our precautions and the 
vigilant watch we had set before retiring, had proved an 
effectual safeguard against the Kivira thieves. 

The western shores of the lake as we proceeded were 
loftier, and more bold than the wooded heights of Urundi 
and bearded knolls of Ujiji. A back ridge the vanguard 
of the mountains which rise beyond disclosed itself 
between the serrated tops of the front line of mountains, 
which rose to a height of from 2,500 to 3,000 feet above 
the lake. Within the folds of the front line of mountains 
rise isolated hills of considerable magnitude, precipitous 
and abrupt, but scenically very picturesque. The greater 
part of these hills have the rounded and smooth top, or 
are tabularly summited. The ridge enfolding these hills 
shoots out, at intervals, promontorial projections of 
gradual sloping outlines, which on the map I have 
designated capes, or points. When rounding these 
points, up went our compasses for the taking of bearings, 
and observing the directions of all prominent objects of 
interest. Often these capes are formed by the alluvial 
plains, through which we may be sure a river will be 
found flowing. These pretty alluvial plains, enfolded OD 


the south, the west, and the north hy a grand mountain 
arc, present most luxurious and enchanting scenery. The 
\regetation seems to be of spontaneous growth. Groups 
of the Elaeis Guineansis palm embowering some dun-brown 
village ; an array of majestic, superb growth of mvule 
trees ; a broad extent covered with vivid green sorghum 
stalks ; parachute-like tops of mimosa ; a line of white 
sand, on which native canoes are drawn far above the 
reach of the plangent, uneasy surf; fishermen idly re- 
clining in the shade of a tree; these are the scenes 
which reveal themselves to us as we voyage in our 
canoe on the Tanganika. When wearied with the ro- 
mance of wild tropic scenes such as these, we have but to 
lift our eyes to the great mountain tops looming darkly 
and grandly on our right ; to watch the light pencilling 
of the cirrus, brushing their summits, as it is drifted 
toward the north by the rising wind: to watch the 
changing forms which the clouds assume, from the fleecy 
horizontal bars of the cirrus, to the denser, gloomier 
cumulus, prognosticator of storm and rain, which soon 
settles into a portentous group Alps above Alps, one 
above another and we know the storm which was brew- 
ing is at hand, and that it is time to seek shelter. 

Passing Muikamba, we saw several groves of the tall 
mvule tree. As far as Bemba the Wabembe occupy the 
mountain summits, while the Wavira cultivate the alluvial 
plains along the base and lower slopes of the mountain. 
At Bemba we halted to take in pieces of pipe-clay, in 
accordance with the superstition of the Wajiji, who 
thought us certain of safe passage and good fortune if we 
complied with the ancient custom. 

Passing Ngovi, we canie to a deep bend, which curved 
oif to Cape Kabogi at the distance of ten miles. About 


two-thirds of the way we arrived at a group of islets, 
three in number, all very steep and rocky ; the largest 
about 300 feet in length at the base, and about 200 feet 
in breadth. Here we made preparations to halt for the 
night. The inhabitants of the island were a gorgeously- 
feathered old cock, which was kept as a propitiatory 
offering to the spirit of the island, a sickly yellow-looking 
thrush, a hammer-headed stork, and two fish-hawks, who, 
finding we had taken possession of what had been re- 
ligiously reserved for them, took flight to the most 
western island, where from their perches they continued 
to eye us most solemnly. 

As these islands were with difficulty pronounced by us 
as Kavunvweh, the Doctor, seeing that they were the 
only objects we were likely to discover, named them the 
" ' New York Herald ' Islets ;" and, in confirmation of the 
new designation given them, shook hands with me upon 
it. Careful dead-reckoning settled them to be in lat. 3 
41' S. 

The summit of the largest island was well adapted to 
take bearings, and we improved the opportunity, as most 
extensive views of the broad and lengthy lake and sur- 
rounding lines of imposing mountains were attainable. 
The Eamata Hills were clearly visible, and bore N.N.E. 
from it ; Katanga Cape, S.E. by S. ; Sentakeyi, E.S.E. ; 
Magala, E. by N. ; south-western point of Muzimu bore 
S., northern point of Muzimu island, S.S.E. 

At dawn on the 9th December we prepared to resume 
our voyage. Once or twice in the night we had been 
visited by fishermen, but our anxious watchfulness pre- 
vented any marauding. It seemed to me, however, that 
the people of the opposite shore, who were our visitors, 
were eagerly watching an opportunity to pounce upon 


our canoe, or take us bodily for a prey ; and our men were 
considerably affected by these thoughts, if we may judge 
from the hearty good-will with which they rowed away 
from our late encampment. 

Arriving at Cape Kabogi, we came to the territory of 
the Wasansi. We knew we were abreast of a different 
tribe by the greeting " Moholo," which a group of fisher- 
men gave us ; as that of the Wavira was " Wake," like 
that of Urundi, Usige, and Uhha. 

We soon sighted Cape Luvumba a sloping projection 
of a mountain ridge which shot far into the lake. As a 
storm was brewing, we steered for a snug little cove that 
appeared before a village ; and, drawing our canoe from 
the water, began to set the tent, and make other prepara- 
tions for passing the night. 

As the natives appeared quiet and civil enough, we saw 
no reason to suspect that they entertained any hostility 
to Arabs and Wangwana. Accordingly wo had our 
breakfast cooked, and as usual laid down for an afternoon 
uap. I soon fell asleep, and was dreaming away in my 
tent, in happy oblivion of the strife and contention that 
had risen since I had gone to sleep, when I heard a voice 
hailing me with, " Master, master ! get up, quick. Here 
is a fight going to begin !" I sprang up, and snatching 
my revolver belt from the gun-stand, walked outside. 
Surely, there appeared to be considerable animus between 
the several factions ; between a noisy, vindictive-looking 
set of natives of the one part, and our people of the other 
part. Seven or eight of our people had taken refuge 
behind the canoe, and had their loaded guns half 
pointing at the passionate mob, which was momentarily 
increasing in numbers, but I could not see the Doctor 


" Where is the Doctor ?" I asked. 

" He has gone over that hill, sir, with his compact,' 
said Selim. 

" Anybody with him ?" 

" Susi and Chumah." 

" You, Bombay, send two men off to warn the Doctor, 
and tell him to hurry up here." 

But just at this period the Doctor and his two men 
appeared on the brow of the hill, looking down in a most 
complacent manner upon the serio-comic scene that the 
little basin wherein we were encamped presented. For, 
indeed, despite the serious aspect of it, there was rnucL 
that was comical blended with it in a naked young man 
who perfectly drunk, barely able to stand on his feet 
was beating the ground with his only loin-cloth, scream- 
ing and storming away like a madman ; declaring by 
this, and by that, in his own choice language, that no 
Mgwana or Arab should halt one moment on the sacred 
soil of Usansi. His father, the Sultan, was as inebriated 
as himself, though not quite so violent in his behaviour. 

In the meantime the Doctor arrived upon the scene, 
and Selim had slipped my Winchester rifle, with the mag- 
azine full of cartridges, into my hand. The Doctor 
calmly asked what was the matter, and was answered by 
the Wajiji guides that the people wished us to leave, as 
they were on hostile terms with the Arabs, because the 
eldest son of the Sultan of Muzimu, the large island 
nearly opposite, had been beaten to death by a Baluch, 
named Khamis, at Ujiji, because the young fellow had 
dared look into his harem, and ever since peace had been 
broken between the Wasansi and Arabs. 

After consulting with the guides, the Doctor and I 
came to the conclusion that it were better that we should 


endeavour to pacify the Sultan by a present, rather than 
take offence at a drunken boy's extravagant freak. In his 
insane fury he had attempted to slash at one of my men 
with a billhook he carried. This had been taken as a 
declaration of hostilities, and the soldiers were ready 
enough to engage in war ; but there was no necessity to 
commence fighting with a drunken mob, who could have 
been cleared off the ground with our revolvers alone had 
we desired it. 

The Doctor, baring his arm, said to them that he was 
not a Mgwana, or an Arab ; but a white man ; that Arabs 
and Waiigwana had no such color as we had. We were 
white men, different people altogether from those whom 
they were accustomed to see : that no black men had ever 
suffered injury from white men. This seemed to produce 
great effect, for after a little gentle persuasion the 
drunken youth, and his no lesr> inebriate sire, were 
induced to sit down to talk quietly. In their conver- 
sation with us, they frequently referred to Mombo, the 
son of Kisesa, Sultan of Muzimu, who was brutally 
murdered. " Yes, brutally murdered !" they exclaimed 
several times, in their own tongue; illustrating, by a 
faithful pantomime, how the unfortunate youth had died. 

Livingstone continued talking with them in a mild, 
paternal way, and their loud protestations against Arab 
cruelty were about to subside, when the old Sultan 
suddenly rose up and began to pace about in an excited 
manner, and in one of his perambulations deliberately 
slashed his leg with the sharp blade of his spear, and 
then exclaimed that the Wangwana had wounded him ! 

At this cry one half of the mob hastily took to flight, 
but one old woman, who carried a strong staff with a 
carved lizard's body on its top, commenced to abuse the 


chief with all the power of her voluble tongue, charging 
him with a desire to have them all killed, and other 
women joined in with her in advising him to be quiet, 
and accept the present we were willing to give. 

But it is evident that there was little needed to cause 
all men present in that little hollow to begin a most 
sanguinary strife. The gentle, patient bearing of the 
Doctor had more effect than anything else in making all 
forbear bloodshed, while there was left the least chance of 
an amicable settlement, and in the end it prevailed. The 
Sultan and his son were both sent on their way rejoicing. 

While the Doctor conversed with them, and endeavoured 
to calm their fierce passions, I had the tent struck, and 
the canoes launched, and the baggage stowed, and when 
the negotiations had concluded amicably, I begged the 
Doctor to jump into the boat, as this apparent peace was 
simply a lull before a storm ; besides, said I, there are 
two or three cowardly creatures in the boat, who, in case 
of another disturbance, would not scruple to leave both of 
us here. 

From Cape Luvumba, about 4.30 P.M. we commenced 
pulling across ; at 8 P.M. we were abreast of Cape Panza, 
the northern extremity of the island of Muzimu ; at 6 A.M. 
we were southward of Bikari, and pulling for Mukungu, 
in Urundi, at which place we arrived at 10 A.M., having 
been seventeen hours and a half in crossing the lake, 
which, computing at two miles an hour, may be said to 
be thirty-five miles direct breadth, and a little more than 
forty-three miles from Cape Luvumba. 

On the llth of December, after seven hours' pulling, 
we arrived at picturesque Zassi again; on the 12th, at 
the pretty cove of Niasanga; and at 11 A.M. we iiud 
rounded past Bangwe, and Ujiji was before us. 


We entered the port very quietly, without the usual 
firing of guns, as we were short of powder and ball. As 
we landed, our soldiers and the Arah magnates came to 
the water's edge to greet us. 

Mabruki had a rich budget to relate to us, of what had 
occurred during our absence. This faithful man, left 
behind in charge of Livingstone's house, had done most 
excellently. Kalulu had scalded himself, and had a 
frightful raw sore on his chest in consequence. Mabruki 
had locked up Marora in chains for wounding one of the 
asses. Bilali, the stuttering coward, a bully of women, 
had caused a tumult in the market-place, and had been 
sharply belaboured with the stick by Mabruki. And, 
above all most welcome, was a letter I received from the 
American Consul at Zanzibar, dated June llth, containing 
telegrams from Paris as late as April 22 rid of the same 
year ! Poor Livingstone exclaimed, " And I have none. 
What a pleasant thing it is to have a real and good 
friend !" 

Our voyage on the Tanganika had lasted twenty -eight 
days, during which time we had traversed over 300 miles 
of water. 




WE felt quite at home when we sat down on our hlack 
bear-skin, gay Persian carpet and clean new mats, to rest 
with our backs to the wall, sipping our tea with the air 
of comfortable men, and chat over the incidents of the 
" picnic," as Livingstone persisted in calling our journey 
to the Kusizi. It seemed as if old times, which we loved 
to recall, had come back again, though our house was 
humble enough in its aspect, and our servants were only 
naked barbarians ; but it was near this house that I had 
met him Livingstone after that eventful march from 


(Jnyanyembe ; it was on this same veranda that I listened 
fco that wonderful story of his about those far, enchanting 
regions west of the Lake Tanganika ; it was in this same 
spot that I first became acquainted with him ; and ever 
siuco my admiration has been growing for him, and I feel 
elated when he informs me that he must go to Unya- 
nyembe under my escort, and at my expense. The old mud 
walls and the bare rafters, and the ancient thatched roof, 
and this queer-looking old veranda, will have an historical 
interest for me while I live, and so, while I can, I have 
taken pains and immortalized the humble old building by 
a sketch. 

I have just said that my admiration for Livingstone 
has been growing. This is true. The man that I waa 
about to interview so calmly and complacently, as I would 
interview any prominent man with the view of specially 
delineating his nature, or detailing his opinions, has 
conquered me. I had intended to interview him, report 
in detail what he said, picture his life and his figure, 
then bow him my " au revoir" and march back. That 
he was specially disagreeable and brusque in his manner, 
which would make me quarrel with him immediately, was 
firmly fixed in my mind. 

But Livingstone true, noble Christian, generous- 
hearted, frank man acted like a hero, invited me to 
his house, said he was glad to see me, and got well on 
purpose to prove the truth of his statement, " You have 
brought new life unto me ;" and when I fell sick with 
the remittent fever, hovering between life and death, he 
attended me like a father, and we have now been together 
for more than a month. 

Can you wonder, then, that I like this man, whose iaco 
is the reflex of his nature, whoso heart is essentially all 


goodness, whose aims are so high, that I break out 
impetuously sometimes : " But your family, Doctor, they 
would like to see you, oh ! so much. Let me tempt you 
to come home with me. I promise to carry you every 
foot of the way to the coast. You shall have the finest 
donkey to ride that is in Unyanyemhe. Your wants- 
you have but to hint them, and they shall be satisfied 
Let the sources of the Nile go do you come home and 
rest; then, after a year's rest, and restored health, you 
can return and finish what you have to do." 

But ever the answer was, " No, I should like to see my 
family very much indeed. My children's letters affect 
me intensely ; but I must not go home ; I must finish my 
task. It is only the want of supplies that has detained 
me. I should have finished the discovery of the Nile by 
this, by tracing it to its connection with either Baker's 
Lake, or Petherick's branch of the Nile. If I had only 
gone one month further, I could have said, ' the work is 

Some of these men who had turned the Doctor back 
from his interesting discoveries were yet in Ujiji, and 
had the Government Enfield rifles in their hands, which 
they intended to retain until their wages had been paid 
to them ; but as they had received $60 advance each at 
Zanzibar from the English Consul, with the understanding 
entered into by contract that they should follow their 
master wherever he required them to go ; and as they 
had not only not gone where they were required to 
proceed with him, but had baffled and thwarted him, it 
was preposterous that a few men should triumph over 
the Doctor, by keeping the arms given to him by the 
Bombay Government. I had listened to the Arab sheikhs, 
friends of the Doctor, advising them in inild tones to give 


them up ; I had witnessed the mutineer's stubbornness ; 
and it was then, on the burzani of Sayd bin Majid's house, 
that I took advantage to open my mind on the subject, 
not only for the benefit of the stubborn slaves, but also 
for the benefit of the Arabs ; and to tell them that it was 
well that I had found Livingstone alive, for if they had 
but injured a hair of his head, I should have gone back 
to the coast, to return with a party which would enable 
me to avenge him. I had been waiting to see Living- 
stone's guns returned to him every day, hoping that I 
should not have to use force ; but when a month or more 
had elapsed, and still the arms had not been returned, I 
applied for permission to take them, which was granted. 
Susi, the gallant servant of Dr. Livingstone, was imme- 
diately despatched with about a dozen armed men to 
recover them, and in a few minutes we had possession of 
them without further trouble. 

The Doctor had resolved to accompany me to Unya- 
nyembe, in order to meet his stores, which had been 
forwarded from Zanzibar, November 1st, 1870. As I had 
charge of the escort, it was my duty to study well the 
several routes to Unyanyembe from Ujiji. I was suffi- 
ciently aware of the difficulties and the responsibilities 
attached to me while escorting such a man. Besides, my 
own personal feelings were involved in the case. If 
Livingstone came to any harm through any indiscretion 
of mine while he was with me, it would immediately be 
said, " Ah ! had he not accompanied Stanley, he would 
have been alive now." 

I took out my chart the one I had made myself in 
which I had perfect faith, and I sketched out a route which 
would enable us to reach Unyanyembe without paying 
a single cloth ub tribute, and without encountering any 

2 V 


worse thing than a jungle, by which we could avoid all 
the Wavinza and the plundering Wahha. This peaceable, 
eecura route led by water, south, along the coast of 
Ukaranga and Ukawendi, to Cape Tongwe. Arriving at 
Cape Tongwe, I should be opposite the village of Itaga,- 
Sultan Imrera, in the district of Kusawa of Ukawendi ; 
after which we should strike my old road, which I had 
traversed from Unyanyembe, when bound for Ujiji. I 
explained it to the Doctor, and he instantly recognised its 
feasibility and security ; and if I struck Imrera, as I 
proposed to do, it would demonstrate whether my chart 
was correct or not. 

We arrived at Ujiji from our tour of discovery, north 
of the Tanganika, December 13th; and from this date 
the Doctor commenced writing his letters to his nume- 
rous friends, and to copy into his mammoth Letts's 
Diary, from his field books, the valuable information 
he had acquired during his years of travel south and 
west of the Tanganika. I sketched him while sitting 
in his shirt-sleeves in the veranda, with his Letts's Diary 
on his knee ; and the likeness on the frontispiece is an 
admirable portrait of him, because the artist who has 
assisted me, has with an intuitive eye, seen the defects 
in my own sketch ; and by this I am enabled to restore 
him to the reader's view exactly as I saw him as he 
pondered on what he had witnessed during his long 

Soon after my arrival at Ujiji, he had rushed to his 
paper, and indited a letter to James Gordon Bennett, Esq., 
wherein he recorded his thanks ; and after he had finished 
it, I asked him to add the word " Junior " to it, as it was 
young Mr. Bennett to whom he was indebted. I thought 
the letter admirable, and requested the Doctor not to acU 


another word to it. The feelings of his heart had found 
expression in the grateful words he had written ; and if I 
judged Mr. Bennett rightly, I knew he would be satisfied 
with it. For it was not the geographical news he cared 
so much about, as the grand fact of Livingstone's being 
alive or dead. 

In this latter part of December he was writing letters 
to his children, to Sir Koderick Murchison, and to Lord 
Granville. He had intended to have written to the Earl 
of Clarendon, but it was my sad task to inform him of 
the death of that distinguished nobleman. 

In the meantime I was preparing the Expedition for 
its return march to Unyanyembe, apportioning the bales 
and luggage, the Doctor's large tin boxes, and my own 
among my own men ; for I had resolved upon permitting 
the Doctor's men to march as passengers, because they 
had so nobly performed their duty to their master. 

Sayd bin Majid had left, December 12, for Mirambo's 
country, to give the black Bonaparte battle for the 
murder of his son Soud in the forests of Wilyankuru ; 
arid he had taken with him 300 stout fellows, armed 
with guns, from Ujiji. The stout-hearted old chief was 
burning with rage and resentment, and a fine warlike 
figure he made with his 7-foot gun. Before we had 
departed for the Kusizi, I had wished him ben voyage, 
and expressed a hope that he would rid the Central 
African world of the tyrant Mirambo. 

On the 20th of December the rainy season was ushered 
in with heavy rain, thunder, lightning, and hail ; the 
thermometer falling to 66 Fahrenheit. The evening of 
this day I was attacked with urticaria, or " nettle rash," 
for the third time since arriving in Africa, and I suffered 
3 woeful sickness; and it was the forerunner of an attack 


of remittent fever, which lasted four days. This is the 
malignant type, which has proved fatal to so many 
African travellers on the Zambezi, the White Nile, the 
Congo, and the Niger. The head throbs, the pulses bound, 
the heart struggles painfully, while the sufferer's thoughts 
are in a strange world, such only as a sick man's fancy can 
create. This was the fourth attack of fever since the 
day I met Livingstone. The excitement of the march, 
and the high hope which my mind constantly nourished, 
had kept my body almost invincible against an attack of 
fever while advancing towards Ujiji ; but two weeks after 
the great event had transpired my energies were relaxed, 
my mind was perfectly tranquil, and I became a victim. 

Christmas came, and the Doctor and I had resolved 
upon the blessed and time-honored day being kept as 
we keep it in Anglo-Saxon lands, with a feast such as 
Ujiji could furnish us. The fever had quite gone from 
me the night before, and on Christmas morning, though 
exceedingly weak, I was up and dressed, and lecturing 
Ferajji, the cook, upon the importance of this day to 
white men, and endeavouring to instil into the mind 
of the sleek and pampered animal some cunning secrets 
of the culinary art. Fat broad-tailed sheep, goats, zogga 
and pombe, eggs, fresh milk, plantains, singwe, fine corn- 
flour, fish, onions, sweet potatoes, &c., &c., were pro- 
cured in the Ujiji market, and from good old Moeni 
Kheri. But, alas ! for my weakness. Ferajji spoiled the 
roast, and our custard was burned the dinner was a 
failure. That the fat-brained rascal escaped a thrashing 
was due only to my inability to lift my hands for punish- 
ment ; but my looks were dreadful and alarming, and 
capable of annihilating any one except Ferajji. The 
stupid, hard-headed cook only chuckled, and I bejieve he 


had the subsequent gratification of eating the pies, 
custards, and roast that his carelessness had spoiled for 
European palates. 

Sayd bin Majid, previous to his departure, had left 
orders that we should be permitted to use his canoe for 
our homeward trip, and Moeni Kheri kindly lent his 
huge vessel for the same purpose. The Expedition, now 
augmented by the Doctor and his five servants, and their 
luggage, necessitated the employment of another canoe. 
We had our flocks of milch-goats and provision of fat 
sheep for the jungle of Ukawendi, the transit of which 
I was about to attempt. Good Halimah, Livingstone's 
cook, had made ready a sackful of fine flour, such 
as she only could prepare in her fond devotion for 
her master. Hamoydah, her husband, also had freely 
given his assistance and attention to this important 
article of food. I purchased a donkey for the Doctor, 
the only one available in Ujiji, lest the Doctor might 
happen to suffer on the long march from his ancient 
enemy. In short, we were luxuriously furnished with 
food, sheep, goats, cheese, cloth, donkeys, and canoes, 
sufficient to convey us a long distance ; we needed nothing 

The 27th of December has arrived ; it is the day of 
our departure from Ujiji. I was probably about to give 
an eternal farewell to the port whose name will for 
ever be sacred in my memory. The canoes great 
lumbering hollow trees are laden with good things ; 
the rowers are in their places ; the flag of England 
is hoisted at the stern of the Doctor's canoe ; the flag 
of America waves and rustles joyously above mine ; and 
I cannot look at them without feeling a certain pride that 
the two Anglo-Saxon nations are represented this day 

438 fiCW I 3TOUNi> LIVINGriTOKtt. 

on this great inland sea, in the face of wild nature and 

We are escorted to our boats by the great Arab 
merchants, by the admiring children of Unyamwezi, by 
the freemen of Zanzibar, by wondering Waguhha and 
Wajiji, by fierce Warundi, who are on this day quiet, even 
sorrowful, that the white men are going " Whither ?" 
they all ask. 

At 8 A.M. we start, freely distributing our farewells as 
the Arabs and quidnuncs wave their hands. On the 
part of one or two of them there was an attempt to say 
something sentimental and affecting, especially by the 
convicted sinner Mohammed bin Sali; but though out- 
wardly I manifested no disapprobation of his words, or of 
the emphatic way in which he shook my hand, I was not 
sorry to see the last of him, after his treachery to Living- 
stone in 1869. I was earnestly requested to convey to 
Unyanyembe " Mengi salaams " to everybody, but had I 
done so, as he evidently desired me to do, I would not 
have been surprised at being regarded by all as hopelessly 

We pushed off from the clayey bank at the foot of 
the market-place, while the land party, unencumbered 
with luggage, under the leadership of gigantic Asmani 
and Bombay, commenced their journey southward along 
the shores of the lake. We had arranged to meet them 
at the mouth of every river to transport them across from 
bank to bank. 

The Doctor being in Sayd bin Majid's boat, which 
was a third or so shorter than the one under my com- 
mand, took the lead, with the British flag, held aloft by 
a bamboo, streaming behind like a crimson meteor. My 
boat manned by Wajiji sailors, whom we had engaged 


to take the canoes back from Tongwe Cape to Ujiji 
Bunder came astern, and had a much taller flagstaff, 
on which was hoisted the ever-beautiful Stars and Stripea. 
Its extreme height drew from the Doctor whose 
patriotism and loyalty had been excited the remark 
that he would cut down the tallest palmyra for his 
flagstaff, as it was not fitting that the British flag 
should be so much lower than that of the United 1 

Our soldiers were not a whit behind us in light-hearted- 
ness at the thought of going to Unyanyembe. They 
struck up the exhilarating song of the Zanzibar boatmen, 
with the ecstatic chorus 

Kinan de re re Kitunga, 

rowing away like madmen, until they were compelled to 
rest from sheer exhaustion, while the perspiration exuded 
from the pores of their bodies in streams. When re- 
freshed, they bent back to their oars, raising the song of 
the Mrima 

mama, re de mi Ky, 

which soon impelled them to an extravagant effort again, 
It was by this series of ferocious spurts, racing, shouting, 
singing, perspiring, laughing, groaning, and puffing, that 
our people vented their joyous feelings, as the thought 
filled their minds that we were homeward bound, and that 
by the route I had adopted between us and Unyanyembe 
there was not the least danger. 

We have given the Waha, the slip ! ha, ha ! 
The Wavinza will trouble us no more ! ho I ho ! 
Mionvu can get no more cloth from us ! hy, hy ! 
And Kiala will see us no more never more ! he, he 1 


they shouted with wild bursts of laughter, seconded 
by tremendous and rapid strokes with their oars, 
which caused the stiff old canoes to quiver from stem to 

Our party ashore seemed to partake of our excitement, 
and joined in the wild refrain of the mad African song. 
We watched them urging their steps forward to keep 
pace with us, as we rounded the capes and points, and 
rowed across the bays whose margins were sedge, and 
rush, and reed; the tiny and agile Kalulu, little Bilali, 
and Majwara were seen racing the herds of goats, sheep, 
and donkeys which belonged to the caravan, and the 
animals even seemed to share the general joy. 

Nature, also proud, wild nature with the lofty azure 
dome upheaved into infinity with her breadth and depth 
of vivid greenness and enormous vastness on our left 
with her immense sheet of bright, glancing water with 
her awful and intense serenity she partook of and added 
to our joy. 

About 10 A.M. we arrived at Kirindo's, an old chief, 
noted for his singular kindness to Dr. Livingstone, while 
he bore animosity to the Arabs. To the Arabs this was 
unaccountable to the Doctor it was plain : he had but 
spoken kind and sincere words, while all the Arabs spoke 
to him as if he were not even a man, least of all a chief. 

Kirindo's place is at the mouth of the Liuche, which 
is very wide; the river oozes out through a forest of 
3schinomen8e (pith tree). This was a rendezvous agreed 
upon between shore and lake parties, that the canoes 
might all cross to the other side, distant a mile and a 
half. The mouth of the Liuche forms the Bay of 
Ukaranga, so named because on the other side, whither 
we were about to cross our party, was situated the village 


cf Ukaranga, a few hundred yards from the lake. All 
the baggage was taken out of the largest canoe, and 
stowed snugly in the smaller one, and a few select 
oarsmen having taken seats, pushed off with the Doctor 
on board, who was to superintend pitching the encamp- 
ment at Ukaranga ; while I remained behind to bind the 
fractious and ill-natured donkeys, and stow them away in 
the bottom of the large canoe, that no danger of upsetting 
might be incurred, and a consequent gobbling-up by 
hungry crocodiles, which were all about us waiting their 
opportunity. The flock of goats were then embarked, 
and as many of our people as could be got in. About 
thirty still remained behind with myself, for whom my 
canoe was to return. 

We all arrived safe at Ukaranga, though we got dan- 
gerously near a herd of hippopotami. The crossing of 
the wide mouth (the Liuche being then in flood) was 
effected in about four hours. 

The next day, in the same order as on our departure 
from Ujiji, we pursued our way south, the lake party 
keeping as closely as possible to the shore, yet, when 
feasible, wind and weather permitting, we struck off boldly 
across the numerous small bays which indent the shores 
of the Tanganika. The shores were beautifully green, 
the effect of the late rains ; the waters of the lake were 
a faithful reflex of the blue firmament above. The 
hippopotami were plentiful. Those noticed on this day 
were colored with reddish rings round the base of their 
ears and on the neck. One monster, coming up rather 
late, was surprised by the canoe making full for him, and 
in great fright took a tremendous dive which showed 
the whole length of his body. Half way between the 
mouth of the Malagarazi and that of the Liuche we 

442 fitow i FoimD LIVINQSTOHK. 

saw a camp 011 shore that of Mohammed bin G-harib, a 
Msawahili, who figured often in Livingstone's verbal 
narrative to me of his adventures and travels as one of 
the kindest and best of the Moslems in Central Africa. 
He appeared to me a kindly disposed man, with a face 
seldom seen, having the stamp of an unusual character- 
istic on it that of sincerity. 

The vegetation of the shores as we proceeded was truly 
tropical, each curve revealed new beauties. With the 
soft chalky stone, of which most of the cliffs and bluffs 
are made, seen as we neared the mouth of the Malagarazi, 
the surf has played strange freaks. 

We arrived at the mouth of the Malagarazi about 
2 P.M., having rowed eighteen miles from Ukaranga. 
The shore party arrived, very much fatigued, about 
5 P.M. 

The next day was employed in crossing the caravan 
across the broad mouth of the Malagarazi to our camp, 
a couple of miles north of the river. This is a river 
which a civilised community would find of immense 
advantage for shortening the distance between the 
Tanganika and the coast. Nearly one hundred miles 
might be performed by this river, which is deep enough 
at all seasons to allow navigation as far as Kiala, in 
Uvinza, whence a straight road might be easily made to 
Unyanyembe. Missionaries also might reap the same 
benefit from it for conversion- tours to Uvinza, Uhha, and 
Ugala. Pursuing our way on the 30th, and rounding 
the picturesque capes of Kagongo, Mviga and Kivoe, we 
came, after about three hours' rowing, in sight of villages 
at the mouth of the swift and turbid Eugufu. Here we 
had again to transport the caravan ever the crocodile-in- 
fested inoith of the river. 


On the morning of the 31st we sent a canoe with 
men to search for food in the two or three villages that 
were visible on the other side. Four doti purchased just 
sufficient for four days for our caravan of forty-eight 
persons. We then got under weigh, having informed the 
kirangozi that Urimba was our destination, and bidding 
him keep as closely as possible to the lake shore, where it 
was practicable, but if not, to make the best he could of 
it. From the debouchement of the Kugufu, the head- 
waters of which we had crossed on our random route to 
Ujiji, to Urimba, a distance of six days by water, there 
are no villages, and consequently no food. The shore 
party, however, before leaving Ujiji, had eight days' 
rations, and on this morning four days', distributed to 
each person, and therefore was in no danger of starvation 
should the mountain headlands, now unfolding, abrupt 
and steep, one after another, prevent them from com- 
municating with us. It must be understood that such a 
journey as this had never been attempted before by any 
Arab or Msawahili, and every step taken was in sheer 
ignorance of where the road would lead the men ashore. 
Bounding Kivoe's steep promontory, whose bearded 
ridge and rugged slope, wooded down to the water's edge, 
whose exquisite coves and quiet recesses, might well have 
evoked a poetical effusion to one so inclined, we dared the 
chopping waves of Kivoe's bay, and stood direct for the 
next cape, Mizohazy, behind which, owing to wind and 
wave, we were compelled to halt for the night. 

After Mizohazy is the bold cape of Kabogo not the 
terrible Kabogo around whose name mystery has been 
woven by the superstitious natives not the Kabogo 
whose sullen thunder and awful ronr were heard when 
crossing the llugufu on our flight from the Wahha but 


a point in Ukaranga, on whose hard and uninviting rocks 
many a canoe has been wrecked. We passed close to its 
forbidding walls, thankful for the calm of the Tanganika. 
Near Kabogo are some very fine mvule trees, well adapted 
for canoe building, and there are no loud-mouthed natives 
about to haggle for the privilege of cutting them. 

Along the water's edge, and about three feet above it, 
was observed very clearly on the smooth face of the 
rocky slopes of Kabogo the high- water mark of the lake. 
This went to show that the Tanganika, during the rainy 
season, rises about three feet above its dry season level, 
and that, during the latter season, evaporation reduces it 
to its normal level. The number of rivers which we 
passed on this journey enabled me to observe whether, as 
I was told, there was any current setting north. It was 
apparent to me that, while the south-west, south, or 
south-east winds blew, the brown flood of the rivers swept 
north ; but it happened that, while passing, once or twice, 
the mouths of rivers, after a puff from the north-west and 
north, that the muddied waters were seen southward oi 
the mouths, from which I conclude that there is no 
current in the Tanganika except such as is caused by the 
fickle wind. 

Finding a snug nook of a bay at a place called Sigunga, 
we put in for lunch. An island at the mouth of the bay 
suggested to our minds that this was a beautiful spot for 
a mission station ; the grandly sloping hills in the back- 
ground, with an undulating shelf of land well- wooded 
between them and the bay, added to the attractions oi 
such a spot. The island, capable of containing quite a 
large village, and perfectly defensible, might, for prudence 1 
sake, contain the mission and its congregation ; the land- 
locked bay would protect their fishery and trade vessels ; 


the fertile ground between the hills and the bay would 
more than sustain a hundred times the number of the 
population of the island. Wood for building their canoes 
and houses is close at hand ; the neighbouring country 
would afford game in abundance ; and the docile and civil 
people of Ukaranga but wait religious shepherds. 

From beautiful Sigunga, after a brief nalt, w set off, 
and, after three hours, arrived at the mouth of the Kivei 
Uwelasia. Hippopotami and crocodiles being numerous 
we amused ourselves by shooting at them, having also & 
hope of attracting the attention of our shore party, the 
sound of whose guns we had not heard since leaving the 

On the 3rd of January we left Uwelasia, and, passing 
by Cape Herembe, were in the bay of Tongwe. This 
bay is about twenty-five miles broad, and stretches from 
Cape Heremba to Cape Tongwe. Finding themselves 
so near their destination, Urimba being but six miles 
from Herembe Point, the men of both boats bent them- 
selves to their oars, and, with shouts, songs, and laughter, 
encouraged each other to do their utmost. The flags of 
the two great Anglo-Saxon nations rippled and played in 
the soft breeze, sometimes drawing near caressingly to- 
gether, again bending away, like two lovers coy to unite. 
The tight little boat of the Doctor would keep ahead, and 
the crimson and crossed flag of England would wave 
before me, and it seemed to say to the beautiful laggard 
astern, " Come on, come on ; England leads the way." 
But was it not England's place to be in the front here ? 
She won the right to it by discovering the Tanganika ; 
America came but second. 

Urimba, though a large district of Kawendi, has a 
village of the same name peopled by refugees frora 


Yombeh, who found the delta of the Loajeii, though 
the unhealthiest of spots equal to that of the Itusizi 
far preferable to the neighbourhood of Sultan Pumburu, 
of Southern Kawendi. A good chase by the victors 
fieems to have given a shock to their systems, for they 
are very timid and distrustful of strangers, and would 
by no means permit us to enter their village, of which, 
to say the truth, I was very glad, after a glance at the 
reeking corruption on which they were encamped. In 
the immediate neighbourhood nay, for a couple of miles 
on either side I should suppose that to a white man it 
were death to sleep a single night. Leading the way 
south of the village, I found a fit camping-place at the 
extreme south-east corner of Tongwe Bay, about a mile 
and a half due west of the lofty peak of Kivanga, or 
Kakungu. By an observation taken by the Doctor, we 
found ourselves to be in latitude 5 54' south. 

None of the natives had heard of our shore party, and, 
as the delta of the Loajeri and Mogambazi extended for 
about fifteen miles, and withal was the most impassable 
of places, being perfectly flat, overgrown with the tallest 
of matete, eschinomenae, and thorny bush, and flooded 
with water, it was useless to fatigue our men searching 
for the shore party in such an inhospitable country. No 
provisions were procurable, for the villages were in a state 
of semi-starvation, the inhabitants living from hand to 
mouth on what reluctant Fortune threw into their nets. 

The second day of our arrival at Uriniba I struck off 
into the interior with my gun-bearer, Kalulu, carrying 
the Doctor's splendid double-barreled rifle (a Keilly, 
No. 12), on the search for venison. After walking about 
a mile I came to a herd of zebras. By creeping on all- 
t'ours I managed to come within one hundred yarls ol 


them ; but I was in a bad spot low prickly shrubs ; and 
tsetse flies alighting on the rifle-sight, biting my nose, 
and dashing into my eyes, completely disconcerted me; 
and, to add to my discontent, my efforts to disengage 
myself from the thorns, alarmed the zebras, which all stood 
facing the suspicious object in the bush. I fired at the 
breast of one, but, as might be expected, missed. The 
zebras galloped away to about three hundred yards off, 
and I dashed into the open, and, hastily cocking the left- 
hand trigger, aimed at a proud fellow trotting royally 
before his fellows, and by good chance sent a bullet 
through his heart. A fortunate shot also brought down 
a huge goose, which had a sharp horny spur on the fore 
part of each wing- This supply of meat materially con- 
tributed towards the provisioning of the party for the 
transit of the unknown land that lay between us and 
Mrera, in Rusawa, Kawendi. 

It was not until the third day of our arrival at our 
camp at Urimba that our shore party arrived. They had 
perceived our immense flag hoisted on a twenty-feet 
long bamboo above the tallest tree near our camp as they 
surmounted the sharp lofty ridge behind Nerembe, fifteen 
miles off, and had at first taken it for a huge bird ; but 
there were sharp eyes in the crowd, and, guided by it, 
they came to camp, greeted as only lost and found men 
are greeted. 

I suffered from another attack of fever at this camp, 
brought on by the neighbourhood of the vile delta, the 
look of which sickened the very heart in me. 

On the 7th of January we struck camp, and turned our 
faces eastward, and for me, home ! Yet regretfully ! 
There had been enough happiness and pleasure, and 
jpleasantest of social companionship found on the shorea 


of the lake for me. I had seen enough lovely scenes 
which, siren-like, invited one to quiet rest ; gentle scenes, 
where there was neither jar nor tumult, neither strife nor 
defeat, neither hope nor disappointment, but rest a 
drowsy, indolent, yet pleasant rest. And only a few 
drawbacks to these. There was fever ; there were no 
books, no newspapers, no wife of my own race and blood, 
no theatres, no hotels, no restaurants, no East River 
oysters, no mince-pies, neither buckwheat cakes, nor any- 
thing much that was good for a cultivated palate to love. 
So, in turning to say farewell to the then placid lake and 
the great blue mountains, that grew bluer as they receded 
on either hand, I had the courage to utter that awful 
word tearlessly, and without one sigh. 

Our road led up through the valley of the Loajeri, after 
leaving its delta, a valley growing ever narrower, until it 
narrowed into a ravine choked by the now roaring, bel- 
lowing river, whose resistless rush seemed to affect the 
very air we breathed. It was getting oppressive, this 
narrowing ravine, and opportunely the road breasted a 
knoll, then a terrace, then a hill, and lastly a mountain, 
where we halted to encamp. As we prepared to select a 
3amping-place, the Doctor silently pointed forward, and 
suddenly a dead silence reigned everywhere. The quinine 
which I had taken in the morning seemed to affect me in 
every crevice of my brain ; but a bitter evil remained, 
and, though I trembled under the heavy weight of the 
Reilly rifle, I crept forward to where the Doctor was 
pointing. I found myself looking down a steep ravine, on 
the other bank of which a fine buffalo cow was scrambling 
upward. She had just reached the summit, and was 
turning round to survey her enemy, when I succeeded in 
planting a shot just behind the shoulder-blade, and close 


to the spine, evoking from her a deep bellow of pain. 
" She is shot ! she is shot !" exclaimed the Doctor ; " that 
is a sure sign you have hit her." And the men even 
raised a shout at the prospect of meat. A second, planted 
in her spine, brought her to her knees, and a third ended 
her. We thus had another supply of provisions, which, 
cut up and dried over a fire, as the Wangwana are accus- 
tomed to do, would carry them far over the unpeopled 
wilderness before us. For the Doctor and myself, we had 
the tongue, the hump, and a few choice pieces salted 
down, and in a few days had prime corned beef. It is not 
inapt to state that the rifle had more commendations be- 
stowed on it than the hunter by the Wangwana. 

The next day we continued the march eastward, under 
the guidance of our kirangozi ; but it was evident, by the 
road he led us, that he knew nothing of the country, 
though, through his volubility, he had led us to believe 
that he knew all about Ngondo, Yombeh, and Pumburu's 
districts. When recalled from the head of the caravan, 
we were about to descend into the rapid Loajeri, and 
beyond it were three ranges of impassable mountains, 
which we were to cross in a north-easterly direction, 
quite out of our road. After consulting with the Doctor, 
I put myself at the head of the caravan, and following the 
spine of the ridge, struck off due east, regardless of how 
the road ran. At intervals a travelled road crossed our 
path, and, after following it a while, we came to the for* 1 
of the Loajeri. The Loajeri rises south and south-east of 
Kakungu Peak. We made the best we could of the road 
after crossing the river, until we reached the main path 
that runs from Karah to Ngondo and Pumburu, in 
Southern Kawendi. 

On the 9th, soon after leaving camp, we left the tra- 

X u 


veiled path, and made for a gap in the arc of hills before 
us, as Pumburu was at war with the people of Manya 
Msenge, a district of northern Kawendi. The country 
teemed with game, the buffaloes and zebras were plentiful. 
Among the conspicuous trees were the hyphene and 
borassus palm trees, and a tree bearing a fruit about the 
size of a 600-pounder cannon-ball, called by some natives 
" mabyah,"* according to the Doctor, the seeds of which 
are roasted and eaten. They are not to be recommended 
as food to Europeans. 

On the 10th, putting myself at the head of my men, 
with my compass in hand, I led the way east for three 
hours. A beautiful park-land was revealed to us ; but the 
grass was very tall, and the rainy season, which had com- 
menced in earnest, made my work excessively disagreeable. 
Through this tall grass, which was as high as my throat, 
I had to force my way, compass in hand, to lead the 
Expedition, as there was not the least sign of a road, and 
we were now in an untravelled country. We made our 
camp on a beautiful little stream flowing north ; one of 
the feeders of the Eugufu Eiver. 

The llth still saw me plunging through the grass, 
which showered drops of rain on me every time I made a 
step forward. In two hours we crossed a small stream, 
with slippery syenitic rocks in its bed, showing the action 
of furious torrents. Mushrooms were in abundance, and 
very large. In crossing, an old pagazi of Unyamwezi, 
weather-beaten, uttered, in a deplorable tone, " My kibuyu 
is dead ;" by which he meant that he had slipped, and in 
falling had broken his gourd, which in Kisawahili is 
" kibuyu." 

* In the Kisawahili tongue, "mabyah," "mbyah," byah," mean 
lad, unpleasant. 


On the eastern bank we halted for lunch, and, after an 
hour and a half's march, arrived at another stream, which 
I took to be the Mtambu, at first from the similarity oi 
the land, though my map informed me that it was im- 
possible. The scenery around was very similar, and to 
the north we had cited a similar tabular hill to the 
"Magdala" Mount I had discovered north of Imrera, 
while going to the Malagarazi. Though we had only 
travelled three and a half hours the Doctor was very tired 
as the country was exceedingly rough. 

The next day, crossing several ranges, with glorious 
scenes of surpassing beauty everywhere around us, we 
came in view of a mighty and swift torrent, whose bed 
was sunk deep between enormous lofty walls of sandstone 
rock, where it roared and brawled with the noise of a little 

Having seen our camp prepared on a picturesque knoll, 
I thought I would endeavour to procure some meat, which 
this interesting region seemed to promise. I sallied out 
with my little Winchester along the banks of the river 
eastward. I travelled for an hour or two, the prospect 
getting more picturesque and lovely, and then went up 
a ravine which looked very promising. Unsuccessful, I 
fetrode up the bank, and my astonishment may be con- 
ceived when I found myself directly in front of an elephant, 
who had his large broad ears held out like studding sails 
the colossal monster, the incarnation of might of the 
African world. Methought when I saw his trunk stretched 
forward, like a warning finger, that I heard a voice say, 
" Siste, Venator !" But whether it did not proceed from 
my imagination or No ; I believe it proceeded from 
Kalulu, who must have shouted, " Tembo, tembo ! bana 
yango !" " Lo ! an elephant ! an elephant, my master !" 


tfor the young rascal had fled as soon as he had witnessed 
the awful colossus in such close vicinage. Eecovering 
from my astonishment, I thought it prudent to retire also 
especially with a pea-shooter loaded with treacherous 
sawdust cartridges in my hand. As I looked "behind, I 
saw him waving his trunk, which I understood to mean, 
" Good-hye, young fellow ; it is lucky for you you went in 
time, for I was going to pound you to a jelly." 

As I was congratulating myself, a wasp darted fiercely 
at me and planted its sting in my neck, and for that 
afternoon my anticipated pleasures were dispelled. Ar- 
riving at camp I found the men grumbling ; their pro- 
visions were ended, and there was no prospect for three 
days, at least, of procuring any. With the improvidence 
usual with the gluttons, they had eaten their rations of 
grain, all their store of zehra and dried huffalo meat, and 
were now crying out that they were famished. 

The tracks of animals were numerous, hut it heing the 
rainy season the game was scattered everywhere ; whereas, 
had we travelled during the dry season through these 
forests our larders might have been supplied fresh each day. 

Some time about 6 P.M., as the Doctor and I were taking 
our tea outside the tent, a herd of elephants, twelve in 
number, passed about 800 yards off. Our fundi, Asmani 
and Mabruki Kisesa, were immediately despatched in 
pursuit. I would have gone myself with the heavy Keilly 
rifle, only I was too much fatigued. We soon heard 
their guns firing, and hoped they were successful, as a 
plentiful supply of meat might then have been procured, 
while we ourselves would have secured one of the elephant's 
feet for a nice delicate roast; but within an hour they 
returned unsuccessful having only drawn blood, some of 
they exhibited to us on a leaf. 


It requires a very good rifle to kill an African elephant. 
A. No. 8 bore with a Frazer's shell, planted in the temple, 
I believe, would drop an elephant each shot. Faulkner 
makes some extraordinary statements, about walking up 
in front of an elephant and planting a bullet in his fore- 
head, killing him instantly. The tale, however, is so 
incredible that I would prefer not to believe it ; especially 
when he states that the imprint of the muzzle of his rifle 
was on the elephant's trunk. African travellers es- 
pecially those with a taste for the chase are too fond of 
relating that which borders on the incredible for ordinary 
men to believe them. Such stories must be taken with a 
large grain of salt, for the sake of the amusement they 
afford to readers at home. In future, whenever I hear a 
man state how he broke the back of an antelope at 600 
yards, I shall incline to believe a cipher had been added 
by a slip of the pen, or attribute it to a typographical 
error, for this is almost an impossible feat in an African 
forest. It may be done once, but it could never be done 
twice running. An antelope makes a very small target at 
600 yards distance ; but, then, all these stories belong by 
right divine to the chasseur who travels to Africa for the 
sake only of sport. 

On the 13th we continued our march across several 
ridges ; and the series of ascents and descents revealed to 
us valleys and mountains never before explored streams ; 
rushing northward, swollen by the rains, and grand 
primeval forests, in whose twilight shade no white man 
ever walked before. 

On the 14th the same scenes were witnessed an un- 
broken series of longitudinal ridges, parallel one with 
another and with Lake Tanganika. Eastward the faces 
of these ridges present abrupt scarps and terraces, rising 


from deep valleys, while the western declivities have 
gradual slopes. These are the peculiar features of 
Ukawendi, the eastern watershed of the Tanganika. 

In one of these valleys on this day we came across a 
colony of reddish-bearded monkeys, whose howls, or 
bellowing, rang amongst the cliffs as they discovered the 
caravan. I was not able to approach them, for they 
scrambled up trees and barked their defiance at me, then 
bounded to the ground as I still persisted in advancing ; 
and they would have soon drawn me in pursuit if I had 
not suddenly remembered that my absence was halting 
the Expedition. 

About noon we sighted our Magdala the grand 
towering mount whose upright frowning mass had 
attracted our eyes, as it lifted itself from above the plain 
in all its grandeur, when we were hurrying along the 
great ridge of Rusawa towards the " Crocodile " River. 
We recognised tho old, mystic beauty of the tree-clad 
plain around it. Then it was bleached, and a filmy haze 
covered it lovingly ; now it was vivid greenness. Every 
vegetable, plant, herb and tree, had sprung into quick life 
the effect of the rains. Rivers that ran not in those 
hot summer days now fumed and rushed impetuously 
between thick belts of mighty timber, brawling hoarsely 
in the glades. We crossed many of these streams, all of 
which are feeders of the Rugufu. 

Beautiful, bewitching Ukawendi ! By what shall I 
gauge the loveliness of the wild, free, luxuriant, spon- 
taneous nature within its boundaries ? By anything in 
Europe ? No. By anything in Asia ? Where ? India, 
perhaps. Yes; or say Mingrelia and Imeritia. For 
there we have foaming rivers; we have picturesque 
nillocks ; we have bold hills, ambiiious mountains, and 


broad forests, with lofty solemn rows of trees, with clean 
straight stems, through which you can see far, lengthy 
vistas, as you see here. Only in Ukawendi you can almost 
lehold the growth of vegetation ; the earth is so generous, 
nature so kind and loving, that without entertaining any 
aspiration for a residence, or a wish to breathe the baleful 
atmosphere longer than is absolutely necessary, one feels 
insensibly drawn towards it, as the thought creeps into 
his mind, that though all is foul beneath the captivating, 
glamorous beauty of the land, the foulness might be re- 
moved by civilized people, and the whole region made as 
healthy as it is productive. Even while staggering under 
the pressure of the awful sickness, with mind getting 
more and more embittered, brain sometimes reeling with 
the shock of the constantly recurring fevers though I 
knew how the malaria, rising out of that very fairness, 
was slowly undermining my constitution, and insidiously 
sapping the powers of mind and body I regarded the 
alluring face of the land with a fatuous love, and felt a 
certain sadness steal over me as each day I was with- 
drawing myself from it, and felt disposed to quarrel with 
the fate that seemed to eject me out of Ukawendi. 

On the ninth day of our march from the shores of the 
Tanganika we again perceived our "Magdala Mount," 
rising like a dark cloud to the north-east, by which I knew 
that we were approaching Imrera, and that our Icarian 
attempt to cross the uninhabited jungle of Ukawendi would 
soon be crowned with success. Against the collective 
counsel of the guides, and hypothetical suggestions of 
the tired and hungry souls of our Expedition, I persisted 
in being guided only by the compass and my chart. The 
guides strenuously strove to induce me to alter my course 
Mid strike in a south-west direction, which, had I listened 


to them, would have undoubtedly taken me to South 
western Ukonongo, or North-eastern Ufipa. The veteran 
and experienced soldiers asked mournfully if I were 
determined to kill them with famine, as the road 1 
should have taken was north-east ; but I preferred 
putting my trust in the compass. No sun shone upon us 
as we threaded our way through the primeval forest, by 
clumps of jungle, across streams, up steep ridges, and 
down into deep valleys. A thick haze covered the forests ; 
rain often pelted us ; the firmament was an unfathomable 
depth of grey vapour. The Doctor had perfect confidence 
in me, and I held on my way. 

As soon as we arrived at our camp the men scattered 
themselves through the forest to search for food. A 
grove of singwe trees was found close by. Mushrooms 
grew in abundance, and these sufficed to appease the 
gnawing hunger from which the people suffered. Had 
it not been such rainy weather I should have been 
enabled to procure game for the camp ; but the fatigue 
which I suffered, and the fever which enervated me, 
utterly prevented me from moving out of the camp 
after we once came to a halt. The fear of lions, which 
were numerous in our vicinity, whose terrible roaring 
was heard by day and by night, daunted the hunters sc 
much, that though I offered five doti of cloth for every 
animal brought to camp, none dared penetrate the gloomy 
glades, or awesome belts of timber, outside the friendly 
defence of the camp. 

The morning of the tenth day I assured the people 
that we were close to food; cheered the most amiable 
of them with promise of abundant provender, and 
hashed the most truculent knaves with a warning not 
o tempt my patience too much, lest we came to angry 


blows ; and then struck away east by north through the 
forest, with the almost exhausted Expedition dragging 
itself weakly and painfully behind me. It was a most 
desperate position certainly, and I pitied the poor people 
far more than they pitied themselves; and though I 
fumed and stormed in their presence when they were 
disposed to lie down and give up, never was a man 
further from doing them injury. I was too proud of 
them ; but under the circumstances it was dangerous 
nay, suicidal to appear doubtful or dubious of the road. 
The mere fact that I still held on my way according to 
the Doctor's little pearly monitor (the compass) had a 
grand moral effect on them, and though they de- 
murred in plaintive terms and with pinched faces, they 
followed my footsteps with a trustfulness which quite 
affected me. 

For long miles we trudged over smooth sloping 
sward, with a vision of forest and park-land beauty on 
our right and left, and in front of us such as is rarely 
seen. At a pace that soon left the main body of the 
Expedition far behind, I strode on with a few gallant 
fellows, who, despite their heavy loads, kept pace with 
me. After a couple of hours we were ascending the 
3asy slope of a ridge, which promised to decide in a few 
minutes the truth or the inaccuracy of my chart. Presently 
we arrived at the eastern edge of the ridge, and 
about five miles away, and 1,000 feet below the high 
plateau on which we stood, we distinguished the valley 
of Imrera ! 

By noon we were in our old camp. The natives 
gathered round, bringing supplies of food, and to con- 
gratulate us upon having gone to Ujiji and returned. 
Bui it was long before the lust member of the Expedi- 


tion arrived. The Doctor's feet were very sore, 
bleeding from the weary march. His shoes were in a 
very worn-out state, and he had so cut and slashed them 
with a knife to ease his blistered feet, that any man of 
our force would have refused them as a gift, no matter 
how ambitious he might be to encase his feet a la 

Asmani, the guide, was very much taken aback when 
he discovered that the tiny compass knew the way better 
than he did, and he declared it as his solemn opinion thai 
it could not lie. He suffered much in reputation from 
having contested the palm with the " little thing," and 
ever afterwards his boasted knowledge of the country was 
considerably doubted. 

After halting a day to recruit ourselves, we continued 
our journey on the 18th January, 1872, towards Unya- 
nyembe. A few miles beyond Imrera, Asmani lost the 
road again, and I was obliged to show it to him, by 
which I gained additional honor and credit as a leader 
and guide. My shoes were very bad, and it was difficult 
to decide whose were the worst in condition, the Doctor's 
or mine. A great change had come upon the face 
of the land since I had passed northward en route to 
Ujiji. The wild grapes now hung in clusters along the 
road ; the corn ears were advanced enough to pluck and 
roast for food ; the various plants shed their flowers ; and 
the deep woods and grasses of the country were greener 
than ever. 

On the 19th we arrived at Mpokwa's deserted village. 
The Doctor's feet were very much chafed and sore 
by the marching. He had walked on foot all the way 
from Urimba, though he owned a donkey ; while I, 
considerably to my shame be it said, had ridden occasion- 


ally to husband my strength, that I might be enabled to 
hunt after arrival at camp. 

Two huts were cleared for our use, but, just as we 
had made ourselves comfortable, our sharp-eyed fellows 
had discovered several herds of game in the plain west 
of Mpokwa. Hastily devouring a morsel of corn-bread 
with coffee, I hastened away, with Bilali for a gun- 
bearer, taking with me the famous Eeilly rifle of the 
Doctor and a supply of Eraser's shells. After plunging 
through a deep stream, and getting wet again, and 
pushing my way through a dense brake, I arrived at a 
thin belt of forest, through which I was obliged to crawl, 
and, in half an hour, I had arrived within one hundred 
and forty yards of a group of zebras, which were play- 
fully biting each other under the shade of a large tree. 
Suddenly rising up, I attracted their attention ; but the 
true old rifle was at my shoulder, and " crack crack " 
went both barrels, and two fine zebras, a male and 
female, fell dead under the tree where they had stood. 
In a few seconds their throats were cut, and after giving 
the signal of my success, I was soon surrounded by a 
dozen of my men, who gave utterance to their delight 
by fulsome compliments to the merits of the rifle, though 
very few to me. When I returned to camp with the 
meat I received the congratulations of the Doctor, which 
I valued far higher, as he knew from long experience what 
shooting was. 

When the eatable portions of the two zebras were 
hung to the scale, we found, according to the Doctor's 
own figures, that we had 719 Ibs. of good meat, which, 
divided among forty-four men, gave a little over 16 lb&. 
to each person. Bombay, especially, was very happy, 
a he had dreamed a dream wherein I figured promi- 

460 HOW i FOT7ND 

nently as shooting animals down right and left ; and, 
when he had seen me depart with that wonderful Eeilly 
rifle, he had not entertained a doubt of my success, 
and, accordingly, had commanded the men to be ready to 
go after me, as soon as they should hear the reports of 
the gun. 

The following is quoted from my Diary : 

January 20th, 1872. To-day was a halt. On going 
out for a hunt I saw a herd of eleven giraffes. After 
crossing Mpokwa stream I succeeded in getting within 
one hundred and fifty yards of one of them, and fired 
at it ; but, though it was wounded, I did not succeed in 
dropping it, though I desired the skin of one of them i 
very much. 

In the afternoon I went out to the east of the village, 
and came to a herd of six giraffes. I wounded one of 
them, but it got off, despite my efforts. 

What remarkable creatures they are! How beautiful 
their large limpid eyes ! I could have declared on oath 
that both shots had been a success, but they sheered off 
with the stately movements of a clipper about to tack. 
When they ran they had an ungainly, dislocated 
motion, somewhat like the contortions of an Indian nautch 
or a Theban danseuse a dreamy, undulating movement, 
which even the tail, with its long fringe of black hair, 
seemed to partake of. 

The Doctor, who knew how to console an ardent but 
disappointed young hunter, attributed my non-success 
to shooting with leaden balls, which were too soft to 
penetrate the thick hide of the giraffes, and advised me 
to melt my zinc canteens with which to harden the 
lead. It was not the first time that I had cause to 
think the Doctor an admirable travelling companion; 


none knew so well how to console one for bad luck 
none knew so well how to elevate one in his own mind. 
If I killed a zebra, did not his friend Oswell the South 
African hunter and himself long ago come to the 
conclusion that zebra meat was the finest in Africa? 
If I shot a buffalo cow, she was sure to be the best of 
her kind, and her horns were worth while carrying 
home as specimens ; and was she not fat ? If I returned 
without anything, the game was very wild, or the 
people had made a noise, and the game had been 
frightened ; and who could stalk animals already alarmed ? 
Indeed, he was a most considerate companion, and, knowing 
him to be literally truthful, I was proud of his praise 
when successful, and when I failed I was easily consoled. 

Ibrahim, the old pagazi whose feelings had been so 
lacerated in Ukawendi, when his ancient kibuyu broke, 
before leaving Ujiji invested his cloth in a slave from 
Manyuema, who bore the name of "Ulimengo," which 
signifies the "World." As we approached Mpokwa, 
Ulimengo absconded with all his master's property, con- 
sisting of a few cloths and a bag of salt, which he had 
thought of taking to Unyanyembe for trade. Ibrahim was 
inconsolable, and he kept lamenting his loss daily in such 
lugubrious tones that the people, instead of sympathizing, 
laughed at him. I asked him why he purchased such a 
slave, and, while he was with him, why he did not feed 
him ? Keplied he, tartly, " Was he not my slave ? Was 
not the cloth with which I bought him mine ? If the 
cloth was my own, could I not purchase what I liked? 
Why do you talk so ?" 

Ibrahim's heart was made glad this evening by the 
return of Ulimengo with the salt and the cloth, and the 
one-eyed old man danced with his great joy, and came ID 


all haste to impart to me the glad news. "Lo, the 
'World 'has come hack. Sure. My salt and my cloth 
are with him also. Sure." To which I replied, that he 
had better feed him in future, as slaves required food as 
well as their masters. 

From 10 P.M. to midnight the Doctor was employed in 
taking observations from the star Canopus, the result of 
which was that he ascertained Mpokwa, district of Utanda, 
Ukonongo, to be in S. latitude 6 18' 40". On comparing 
it with its position as laid down in my map by dead 
reckoning, I found we differed by three miles ; I having 
laid it down at 6 15' south latitude. 

The day following was a halt. The Doctor's feet were 
so inflamed and sore that he could not bear his shoes on. 
My heels were also raw, and I viciously cut large circles 
out of my shoes to enable me to move about. 

Having converted my zinc canteens into bullets, and 
provided myself with a butcher and gun-bearer, I set out 
for the lovely park-land and plain west of Mpokwa stream, 
with the laudable resolution to obtain something ; and 
seeing nothing in the plain, I crossed over a ridge, and 
came to a broad basin covered with tall grass, with clumps 
here and there of hyphene palm, with a stray mimosa or 
so scattered about. Nibbling off the branches of the 
latter, I saw a group of giraffes, and then began stalking 
them through the grass, taking advantage of the tall 
grass-grown ant-hills that I might approach the wary 
beasts before their great eyes could discover me. I 
contrived to come within 175 yards, by means of one of 
these curious hummocks ; but beyond it no man could 
crawl without being observed the grass was so thin and 
short. I took a long breath, wiped my perspiring brow, 
and sat down for a while \ my black assistants also, like 


myself, were almost breathless with the ezertion, and the 
high expectations roused by the near presence of the 
royal beasts. I toyed lovingly with the heavy Eeilly, 
saw to rny cartridges, and then stood up and turned, with 
my rifle ready ; took one good, long, steady aim ; then 
lowered it again to arrange the sights, lifted it up once 
more dropped it. A. giraffe half turned his body ; for 
the last time I lifted it, took one quick sight at the region 
of the heart, and fired. He staggered, reeled, then made 
a short gallop; but the blood was spouting from the 
wound in a thick stream, and before he had gone 200 
yards he came to a dead halt, with his ears drawn back, 
and allowed me to come within twenty yards of him, when, 
receiving a zinc bullet through the head, he fell dead. 

" Allah ho, akhbar!" cried Khamisi, my butcher, 
fervently. " This is meat, master ! " 

I was rather saddened than otherwise at seeing the 
noble animal stretched before me. If I could have given 
him his life back I think I should have done so. I 
thought it a great pity that such splendid animals, so well 
adapted for the service of man in Africa, could not be 
converted to some other use than that of food. Horses, 
mules, and donkeys died in these sickly regions ; but 
what a blessing for Africa would it be if we could tame 
the giraffes and zebras for the use of explorers and 
traders ! Mounted on a zebra, a man would be enabled 
to reach Ujiji in one month from Bagamoyo ; whereas it 
took me over seven months to travel that distance ! 

The dead giraffe measured 16 feet 9 inches from his 
right fore-hoof to the top of his head, and was one of the 
largest size, though some have been found to measure over 
17 feet. He was spotted all o*-or with large black, nearly 
rcuud, patches. 


I left Khauiisi in charge of the dead beast, while I 
returned to camp to send off men to cut it up, and convey 
the meat to our village. But Khamisi climbed a tree for 
fear of the lions, and the vultures settled on it, so that 
when the men arrived on the spot, the eyes, the tongue, 
and a great part of the posteriors were eaten up. What 
remained weighed as follows, when brought in and hung 
to the scales : 

1 hind leg ... 

. 134 Ibs. 

1 ... 

. 136 

1 fore leg ... 

. 160 

1 ... 

. 160 


. 158 ,, 

Neck .... 


Rump .... 

87 , 

Breast . . . 

. 46 

Liver .... 

. 20 

Lungs .... 




Total weight of eatable portions . . 993 Ibs. 
Skin and head, 181 Ibs. 

The three days following I suffered from a severe attack 
of fever, and was unable to stir from bed. I applied my 
usual remedies for it, which consisted of colocynth and 
quinine; but experience has shown me that an excessive 
use of the same cathartic weakens its effect, and that it 
would be well for travellers to take with them different 
medicines to cause proper action in the liver, such as 
colocynth, calomel, resin of jalap, Epsom salts ; and that 
no quinine should be taken until such medicines shall 
have prepared the system for its reception. 

TLo Doctor' s prescription for fever consists of 3 grains 


of resin of jalap, and 2 grains of calomel, with tincture of 
cardamoms put in just enough to prevent irritation of the 
stomach made into the form of a pill which is to he 
taken as soon as one hegins to feel the excessive languor 
and weariness which is the sure forerunner of the African 
type of fever. An hour or two later a cup of coffee, 
unsugared and without milk, ought to he takci, <;o cause 
a quicker action. The Doctor also thinks that quinine 
should he taken with the pill ; hut my experience 
though it weighs nothing against what he has endured 
has proved to me that quinine is useless until after the 
medicine has taken effect. My stomach could never hear 
quinine unless suhsequent to the cathartic. A well- 
known missionary at Constantinople recommends travellers 
to take 3 grains of tartar-emetic for the ejection of the 
bilious matter in the stomach; but the reverend doctor 
possibly forgets that much more of the system is dis- 
organized than the stomach ; and though in one or two 
cases of a slight attack, this remedy may have proved 
successful, it is altogether too violent for an enfeebled 
man in Africa. I have treated myself faithfully after 
this method three or four times ; but I could not 
conscientiously recommend it. For cases of urticaria, 
I could recommend taking 3 grains of tartar-emetic; 
but then a stomach-pump would answer the purpose 
as well. 

On the 27th we set out for Misonghi. About half-way 
I saw the head of the Expedition on the run, and the 
motive seemed to be communicated quickly, man after 
man, to those behind, until my donkey commenced to 
kick, and lash behind with his heels. In a second, I was 
made aware of the cause of this excitement, by a cloud of 
wild bees buzzing about my head, three or four of which 


settled on my face, and stung me frightfully. We raced 
madly for about half a mile, behaving in as wild a manner 
as the poor bestung animals. 

As this was an unusually long march, I doubted if the 
Doctor could march it, because his feet were so sore, so I 
determined to send four men back with the kitanda ; but 
the stout old hero refused to be carried, and walked all 
the way to camp after a march of eighteen miles. He 
had been stung dreadfully in the head and in the face; 
the bees had settled in handfuls in his hair ; but, after 
partaking of a cup of warm tea and some food, he was as 
cheerful as if he had never travelled a mile. 

At Mrera, Central Ukonongo, we halted a day to 
grind grain, and to prepare the provision we should need 
during the transit of the wilderness between Mrera and 

On the 31st of January, at Mwaru, Sultan Ka-mirambo, 
we met a caravan under the leadership of a slave of Sayd 
bin Habib, who came to visit us in our camp, which was 
hidden in a thick clump of jungle. After he was seated, 
and had taken his coffee, I asked, 

" What is thy news, my friend, that thou hast brought 
from Unyanyembe ?" 

" My news is good, master." 

" How goes the war ?" 

" Ah, Mirambo is where ? He eats the hides even. He 
is famished. Sayd bin Habib, my master, hath possession 
of Kirira. The Arabs are thundering at the gates of 
Wilyankuru. Sayd bin Majid, who came from Ujiji to 
Usagozi in twenty days, hath taken and slain ' Moto ' 
(Fire), the King. Simba of Kasera hath taken up arms 
for the defence of his father, Mkasiwa of Unyanyembe. 
The chief of Ugunda hath sent five hundred men to ik& 


field. Ough Mirambo is where ? In a month he will be 
dead of hunger." 

" Great and good news truly, my friend." 

" Yes in the name of God." 

" And whither art thou bound with thy caravan ?" 

" Sayd, the son of Majid, who came from Ujiji, hath 
told us of the road that the white man took, that he had 
arrived at Ujiji safely, and that he was on his way back 
to Unyanyembe. So we have thought that if the white 
man could go there, we could also. Lo, the Arabs come 
by the hundred by the white man's road, to get the ivory 
from Ujiji. 

" I am that white man." 

" You ?" 

" \es." 

" Why it was reported that you were dead that you 
fought with the Wazavira." 

" Ah, my friend, these are the words of Njara, the son 
of Khamis. See " (pointing to Livingstone), " this is the 
white man, my father,* whom I saw at Ujiji. He is 
going with me to Unyanyembe to get his cloth, after 
which he will return to the great waters." 

"Wonderful! thou sayest truly." 

"What has thou to tell me of the white man at 
Unyanyembe ?'' 

" Which white man ?" 

" The white man I left in the house of Sayd, the son of 
Salim my house at Kwihara." 

"He is dead." 


" True." 

* It is a courteous custom irj Africa to address elderly people a& 
"Baba," (Father), 


" You do not mean to say the white man is dead ?" 

" True he is dead.'* 

" How long ago ?" 

" Many months now." 

" What did he die of?" 

" Homa (fever)." 

" Any more of my people dead ?" 

" I know not." 

" Enough." I looked sympathetically at the Doctor, 
and he replied, 

"I told you so. When you described him to me as 
a drunken man, I knew he could not live. Men who have 
been hahitual drunkards cannot live in this country, any 
more than men who have become slaves to other vices. 
I attribute the deaths that occurred in my expedition on 
the Zambezi to much the same cause." 

" Ah, Doctor, there are two of us gone. I shall be the 
third, if this fever lasts much longer." 

' Oh no, not at all. If you would have died from fever, 
you would have died at Ujiji when you had that severe 
attack of remittent. Don't think of it. Your fever now is 
only the result of exposure to wet. I never travel during 
the wet season. This time I have travelled because I was 
anxious, and I did not wish to detain you at Ujiji." 

" Well, there is nothing like a good friend at one's back 
in this country to encourage him, and keep his spirits up. 
Poor Shaw ! I am sorry very sorry for him. How many 
times have I not endeavoured to cheer him up ! But 
there was no life in him. And among the last words I 
said to him, before parting, were, ' Kemember, if you 
return to Unyanyembe, you DEE ! ' ' 

We also obtained news from the chief of Sayd bin 
Habib's caravan that several packets of letters and news- 


papers, and boxes, had arrived for me from Zanzibar by 
my messengers and Arabs ; that Selim, the son of Sheikh 
Hashid of Zanzibar, was amongst the latest arrivals in 
Unyanyembe. The Doctor also reminded me with the 
utmost good-nature that, according to his accounts, he 
had a stock of jellies and crackers, soups, fish, and potted 
ham, besides cheese, awaiting him in Unyanyembe, and 
that he would be delighted to share his good things ; 
whereupon I was greatly cheered, and, during the 
repeated attacks of fever I suffered about this time, my 
imagination loved to dwell upon the luxuries at Unya- 
nyembe. I pictured myself devouring the hams and 
crackers and jellies like a madman. I lived on my raving 
fancies. My poor vexed brain rioted on such homely 
things as wheaten bread and butter, hams, bacon, caviare, 
and I would have thought no price too high to pay for 
them. Though so far away and out of the pale of 
Europe and America, it was a pleasure to me, during the 
athumia or despondency into which I was plunged by 
ever recurring fevers, to dwell upon them. I wondered 
that people who had access to such luxuries should ever 
get sick, and become tired of life. I thought that if a 
wheaten loaf with a nice pat of fresh butter were 
presented to me, I would be able, though dying, to spring 
up and dance a wild fandango. 

Though we lacked the good things of this life above 
named, we possessed salted giraffe and pickled zebra 
tongues; we had ugali made by Halimah herself; we had 
sweet potatoes, tea, coffee, dampers, or slap-jacks; but I 
was tired of them. My enfeebled stomach, harrowed and 
irritated with medicinal compounds, with ipecac, colo- 
cynth, tartar-emetic, quinine, and such things, protested 
against the coarse food. " Oh, for a wheaten loaf ! " my 


soul cried in agony. " Five hundred dollars for one loaf 
of bread !" 

The Doctor, somehow or another, despite the incessant 
rain, the dew, fog, and drizzle, the marching, and sore 
feet, ate like a hero, and I manfully, sternly, resolved to 
imitate the persevering attention he paid to the welfare 
of his gastric powers ; but I miserably failed. 

Dr. Livingstone possesses all the attainments of a 
traveller. His knowledge is great about everything 
concerning Africa the rocks, the trees, the fruits, and 
their virtues, are known to him. He is also full of phi- 
losophic reflections upon ethnological matter. With 
camp-craft, with its cunning devices, he is au fait. His 
bed is luxurious as a spring mattress. Each night he has 
it made under his own supervision. First, he has two 
straight poles cut, three or four inches in diameter ; which 
are laid parallel one with another, at the distance of two 
feet ; across these poles are laid short sticks, saplings, 
three feet long, and over them is laid a thick pile of 
grass ; then conies a piece of waterproof canvas and 
blankets- -and thus a bed has been improvised fit for a 

It was at Livingstone's instigation I purchased milch 
goats, by which, since leaving Ujiji, we have had a supply 
of fresh milk for our tea and coffee three times a day. 
Apropos of this, we are great drinkers of these welcome 
stimulants ; we seldom halt drinking until we have each 
had six or seven cups. We have also been able to provide 
ourselves with music, which, though harsh, is better than 
none. I mean the musical screech of parrots from 

Half-way between Mwaru Kamirambo's village and 
the deserted Tongoni of Ukainba, I carved the Doctor's 


initials and my own on a large tree, with the date Feb- 
ruary 2nd. I have been twice guilty of this in Africa : 
once when we were famishing in Southern Uvinza I 
inscribed the data, my initials, and the word " Starving" 
in large letters on the trunk of a sycamore. 

In passing through the forest of Ukamba, we saw the 
bleached skull of an unfortunate victim to the privations 
of travel. Eeferring to it, the Doctor remarked that he 
could never pass through an African forest, with its 
solemn stillness and serenity, without wishing to be 
buried quietly under the dead leaves, where he would be 
sure to rest undisturbed. In England there was no 
elbow-room, the graves were often desecrated; and ever 
since he had buried his wife in the woods of Shupanga he 
had sighed for just such a spot, where his weary bones 
would receive the eternal rest they coveted. 

The same evening, when the tent door was down, and 
the interior was made cheerful by the light of a paraffin 
candle, the Doctor related to me some incidents respecting 
the career and the death of his eldest son, Eobert. 
Eeaders of Livingstone's first book, ' South Africa/ without 
which no boy should be, will probably recollect the 
dying Sebituane's regard for the little boy "Kobert." 
Mrs. Livingstone and family were taken to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and thence sent to England, where Robert 
was put in the charge of a tutor ; but wearied of in- 
activity, when ' he was about eighteen, he left Scotland 
and came to Natal, whence he endeavoured to reach his 
father. Unsuccessful in his attempt, he took ship and 
sailed for New York, and enlisted in the Northern Army, 
in a New Hampshire regiment of Volunteers, discarding 
his own name of Eobert Moffatt Livingstone, and taking 
that of Eupert Vincent, that his tutor, whc seems to have 


been ignorant of his duties to the youth, might not find 
him. From one of the battles before Richmond, he was 
sonveyed to a North Carolina hospital, where he died 
from his wounds. 

On the 7th of February we arrived at the Gombe, and 
jamped near one of its largest lakes. This lake is 
probably several miles in length, and swarms with 
hippopotami and crocodiles. 

From this camp I despatched Ferajji, the cook, and 
Chowpereh to Unyanyembe, to bring the letters and 
medicines that were sent to me from Zanzibar, and meet 
us at Ugunda, while the next day we moved to our old 
quarters on the Gombe, where we were first introduced 
to the real hunter's paradise in Central Africa. The 
rain had scattered the greater number of the herds, but 
there was plenty of game in the vicinity. Soon after 
breakfast 1 took Khamisi and Kalulu with me for a hunt. 
After a long walk we arrived near a thin jungle, where 
I discovered the tracks of several animals boar, antelope, 
elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and an unusual 
number of imprints of the lion's paw. Suddenly I heard 
Khamisi say, " Master, master ! here is a 'simba ! ' (lion) ; " 
and he came up to me trembling with excitement and 
fear for the young fellow was an arrant coward to 
point out the head of a beast, which could be seen just 
above the tall grass, looking steadily towards us. It 
immediately afterwards bounded from side to side, but 
the grass was so high that it was impossible to tell 
exactly what it was. Taking advantage of a tree in my 
front, I crept quietly onwards, intending to rest the heavy 
rifle against it, as I was so weak from the effects of several 
fevers that I felt myself utterly incapable of supporting 
my rifle for a steady aim, But my surprise was great 


I cautiously laid it against the tree, and then 
directed its muzzle to the spot where I had seen him 
stand. Looking further away to where the grass was 
thin and scant I saw the animal bound along at a great 
rate, and that it was a lion : the noble monarch of the 
forest was in full flight ! From that moment I ceased to 
regard him as the " mightiest among the brutes ; " or his 
roar as anything more fearful in broad daylight than a 
sucking dove's. 

The next day was also a halt, and unable to contain my 
longing for the chase, where there used to be such a 
concourse of game of all kinds, soon after morning coffee, 
and after despatching a couple of men with presents to 
my friend Ma-manyara, of ammonia-bottle memory, I 
sauntered out once more for the park. Not five hundred 
yards from the camp, myself and men were suddenly 
halted by hearing in our immediate vicinity, probably 
within fifty yards or so, a chorus of roars, issuing from a 
triplet of lions. Instinctively my fingers raised the two 
hammers, as I expected a general onset on me ; for though 
one lion might fly, it was hardly credible that three 
should. While looking keenly about I detected, within 
easy rifle-shot, a fine hartebeest, trembling and cowering 
behind a tree, as if it expected the fangs of the lion in its 
neck. Though it had its back turned to me, I thought a 
bullet might plough its way to a vital part, and without a 
moment's hesitation I aimed and fired. The animal gave 
a tremendous jump, as if it intended to take a flying leap 
through the tree ; but recovering itself it dashed through 
the underbrush in a different direction from that in which 
I supposed the lions to be, and I never saw it again, 
though I knew I had struck it from the bloody trail it 
left; neith^ did I s&3 nor hear anything more of the lions. 


I searched far and wide over the park-land for prey of 
some kind, but was compelled to return unsuccessful to 

Disgusted with my failure, we started a little after noon 
for Manyara, at which place we were hospitably greeted 
by my friend, who had sent men to tell me that his white 
brother must not halt in the woods but must come to his 
village. We received a present of honey and food from 
the chief, which was most welcome to us in our condition. 
Here was an instance of that friendly disposition among 
Central African chiefs when they have not been spoiled by 
the Arabs, which Dr. Livingstone found among the Babisa 
and Ba-ulungu, and in Manyuema. I received the same 
friendly recognition from all the chiefs, from Imrera, in 
Ukawendi, to Unyanyembe, as I did from Ma-manyara. 

On the 14th we arrived at Ugunda, and soon after we 
had established ourselves comfortably in a hut which the 
chief lent us for our use, in came Ferajji and Chowpereh, 
bringing with them Sarmean and Uledi Manwa Sera, who, 
it will be recollected, were the two soldiers sent to Zanzi- 
bar with letters and who should Sarmean have in charge 
but the deserter Hamdallah, who decamped at Manyara, 
as we were going to Ujiji. This fellow, it seems, had 
halted at Kigandu, and had informed the chief and the 
doctor of the village that he had been sent by the white 
man to take back the cloth left there for the cure of 
Mabruk Saleem ; and the simple chief had commanded it 
to be given up to him upon his mere word, in consequence 
of which the sick man had died. 

"Upon Sarmean's arrival in Unyanyembe from Zanzibar, 
about fifty days after the Expedition had departed for 
Ujiji, the news he received was that the white man 
(Shaw) was dead ; and that a man called Hamdallah, who 


Lad engaged himself as one of my guides, but who had 
shortly after returned, was at Unyanyembe. He had 
left him unmolested until the appearance of Ferajji 
arid his companion, when they at once, in a body, made 
a descent on his hut and secured him. With the zeal 
which always distinguished him in my service, Sarmean 
had procured a forked pole, between the prongs of 
which the neck of the absconder was placed ; and a cross 
stick, firmly lashed, effectually prevented him from 
relieving himself of the incumbrance attached to him so 

There were no less than seven packets of letters and 
newspapers from Zanzibar, which had been collecting 
during my absence from Unyanyembe. These had been 
intrusted at various times to the chiefs of caravans, who 
had faithfully delivered them at my tembe, according to 
their promise to the Consul. There was one packet for 
me, which contained two or three letters for Dr. Living- 
stone, to whom, of course, they were at once transferred, 
with my congratulations. In the same packet there was 
also a letter to me from the British Consul at Zanzibar 
requesting me to take charge of Livingstone's goods and 
do the best I could to forward them on to him, dated 25th 
September, 1871, five days after I left Unyanyembe on my 
apparently hopeless task. 

" Well, Doctor," said I to Livingstone, " the English 
Consul requests me to do all I can to push forward youj 
goods to you. I am sorry that I did not get the authority 
sooner, for I should have attempted it ; tut in the absence 
of these instructions I have done the best I could by 
pushing you towards the goods. The mountain has not 
been able to advance towards Mohammed, but Mohammei 
has been compelled to advance towards the mountain." 


But Dr. Livingstone was too deeply engrossed in hia 
own letters from Lome, which were just a year old. 

I received good and bad news from New York, but the 
good news was subsequent, and wiped out ail feelings that 
might have been evoked had I received the bad only. But 
the newspapers, nearly a hundred of them, New York, 
Boston, and London journals, were full of most wonderful 
news. The Paris Commune was in arms against the 
National Assembly ; the Tuileries, the Louvre, and the 
ancient city Lutetia Parisiorum had been set in flames by 
the blackguards of Saint-Antoine ! French troops massa- 
cring and murdering men, women, and children ; rampant 
diabolism, and incarnate revenge were at work in the 
most beautiful city in the world ! Fair women converted 
into demons, and dragged by ruffianly soldiery through 
the streets to universal execration and pitiless death ; 
children of tender age pinned to the earth and bayoneted; 
men innocent or not, shot, cut, stabbed, slashed, destroyed 
a whole city given up to the summa injuria of an 
infuriate, reckless, and brutal army! Oh France! Oh 
Frenchmen ! Such things are unknown even in the heart 
of barbarous Central Africa. We spurned the newspapers 
with our feet ; and for relief to sickened hearts gazed on 
the comic side of our world, as illustrated in the innocent 
pages of ' Punch.' Poor ' Punch !' good-hearted, kindly- 
natured ' Punch F a traveller's benison on thee ! Thy 
jokes were as physic ; thy innocent satire was provocative 
of hysteric mirth. 

Our doors were crowded with curious natives, who 
looked with indescribable wonder at the enormous sheets. 
I heard them repeat the words, " Khabari Kisungu "- 
white man's news often, and heard them discussing the 
nature of such a quantity of news, and expressing theii 


belief that the " Wasungu " were " mbyah sana," and very 
"mkali;" by which they meant to say that the white 
men were very wicked, and very smart and clever 
though the term wicked is often employed to express high 

On the fourth day from Ugunda, or the 18th of 
February, and the fifty- third day from Ujiji, we made 
our appearance with flags flying and guns firing in the 
valley of Kwihara, and when the Doctor and myself 
passed through the portals of my old quarters I formally 
welcomed him to Unyanyembe and to my house. 

Since the day I had left the Arabs, sick and weary 
almost with my life, but, nevertheless, imbued with the 
high hope that my mission would succeed, 131 day& 
nad elapsed with what vicissitudes of fortune the readei 
well knows during which time I had journeyed over 1,20C 

The myth after which I travelled through the wilder- 
ness proved to be a fact ; and never was the fact more 
apparent than when the Living Man walked with me arm 
in arm to my old -oom, and I said to him, "Doctor, we 
ere at last HOME !" 




UNYANYEMBE was now to me a terrestrial Paradise. 
Livingstone was no less happy ; he was in comfortable 
quarters, which were a palace compared to his hut in 
Ujiji. Our store-rooms were full of the good things 
of this life, besides cloth, beads, wire, and the thousand 
and one impedimenta and paraphernalia of travel with 
which I had loaded over one hundred and fifty men at 
Bagamoyo. I had seventy-four loads of miscellaneous 
things, the most valuable of which were now to be turned 


ovei k> Livingstone, for his march back to the sources of 
the Nile. 

It was a great day with us when, with hammer and 
chisel, I broke open the Doctor's boxes, that we might 
feast our famished stomachs on the luxuries which were 
to redeem us from the effect of the cacotrophic dourra 
and maize food we had been subjected to in the 
wilderness. I conscientiously believed that a diet on 
potted ham, crackers, and jellies would make me as in- 
vincible as Talus, and that I only required a stout flail 
to be able to drive the mighty Wagogo into the regions 
of annihiliation, should they dare even to wink in a 
manner I disapproved. 

The first box opened contained three tins of biscuits, 
six tins of potted hams tiny things, not much larger 
than thimbles, which, when opened, proved to be nothing 
more than a table- spoonful of minced meat plentifully 
seasoned with pepper: the Doctor's stores fell five 
hundred degrees below zero in my estimation. Next 
were brought out five pots of jam, one of which was 
opened this was also a delusion. The stone jar a 
weighed a pound, and in each was found a little over a 
tea-spoonful of jam. Yerily, we began to think our 
hopes and expectations had been raised to too high a 
pitch. Three bottles of curry were next produced but 
who cares for curry? Another box was opened, and 
out tumbled a fat dumpy Dutch cheese, hard as a brick, 
but sound and good ; though it is bad for the liver in 
Unyamwezi. Then another cheese was seen, but this 
was all eaten up it was hollow and a fraud. The 
third box contained nothing but two sugar loaves ; the 
fourth, candles ; the fifth, bottles of salt, Harvey, 
Worcester, and Reading sauces, essence of anchovies, 


pepper, and mustard. Bless me ! what food were these 
for the revivifying of a moribund such as I was ! The 
sixth box contained four shirts, two pairs of stout shoes, 
some stockings and shoe-strings, which delighted the 
Doctor so much when he tried them on that he exclaimed, 
" Richard is himself again !" " That man," said I, " who- 
ever he is, is a friend, indeed." " Yes, that is my friend 

The five other boxes contained potted meat and soups ; 
but the twelfth, containing one dozen bottles of medicinal 
brandy, was gone ; and a strict cross-examination of 
Asmani, the head man of Livingstone's caravan, elicited 
the fact, that not only was one case of brandy missing, 
but also two bales of cloth and four bags of the most 
valuable beads in Africa sami-sami which are as gold 
with the natives. 

I was grievously disappointed after the stores had 
been examined ; everything proved to be deceptions in 
my jaundiced eyes. Out of the tins of biscuits when 
opened, there was only one sound box; the whole of 
which would not make one full meal. The soups who 
cared for meat soups in Africa ? Are there no bullocks, 
and sheep, and goats in the land, from which far better 
soup can be made than any that was ever potted? 
Peas, or any other kind of vegetable soup, would have 
been a luxury ; but chicken and game soups ! what 
nonsense ! 

I then overhauled my own stores. I found some 
fine old brandy and one bottle of champagne still left ; 
though it was evident, in looking at the cloth bales, 
that dishonesty had been at work; and some person 
happened to suggest Asmani the head man sent by 
Dr. Kirk in charge of Livingstone's goods as th$ 


guilty party. Upon his treasures being examined, I 
found eight or ten colored cloths, with the mark of 
my own agent at Zanzibar on them. As he was unable 
to give a clear account of how they came in his box, they 
were at once confiscated, and distributed among the 
most deserving of the Doctor's people. Some of the 
watchmen also accused him of having entered into my 
store-room, and of having abstracted two or three gorah 
of domestics from my bales, and of having, some days 
afterwards, snatched the keys from the hands of one of 
my men, and broken them, lest other people might enter, 
and find evidences of his guilt. As Asmani was proved 
to be another of the " moral idiots," Livingstone dis- 
charged him on the spot. Had we not arrived so soon at 
Unyanyembe, it is probable that the entire stock sent 
from Zanzibar had in time disappeared. 

Unyanyembe being rich in fruits, grain, and cattle, 
we determined to have our Christmas dinner over 
again in style, and, being fortunately in pretty good 
health, I was enabled to superintend its preparation. 
Never was such prodigality seen in a tembe of Unyam- 
wezi as was seen in ours, nor were ever such delicacies 

There were but few Arabs in Unyanyembe when we 
arrived, as they were investing the stronghold of 
Mirambo. About a week after our return, " the little 
mannikin," Sheikh Sayd bin Salim El Wali who was 
the commander-in-chief of their forces, came to Kwihara 
from the front. But the little Sheikh was in no great 
hurry to greet the man he had wronged so much. As 
soon as we heard of his arrival we took the opportunity 
to send men immediately after the goods which were 
forwarded to the Wali's care soon aftej Livingstone's 

2 i 


departure fo: Mikindany Buy. The first time we sent 
men for them the governor declared himself too sick to 
attend to such matters, but the second day they were 
surrendered, with a request that the Doctor would not be 
very angry at their condition, as the white ants had 
destroyed everything. 

The stores this man had detained at Unyanyembe 
were in a most sorry state. The expenses were prepaid 
for their carriage to Ujiji, but the goods had been 
purposely detained at this place by Sayd bin Salirn 
since 1867 that he might satisfy his appetite for liquor, 
and probably fall heir to two valuable guns that were 
known to be with them. The white ants had not only 
eaten up bodily the box in which the guns were packed, 
but they had also eaten the gunstocks. The barrels 
were corroded, and the locks were quite destroyed. 
The brandy bottles, most singular to relate, had also 
fallen a prey to the voracious and irresistible destroyers 
the white ants and, by some unaccountable means, they 
had imbibed the potent Hennessy, and replaced the corks 
with corn-cobs. The medicines had also vanished, and 
the zinc pots in which they had been snugly packed up 
were destroyed by corrosion. Two bottles of brandy and 
one small zinc case of medicines only were saved out ol 
the otherwise utter wreck. 

I also begged the Doctor to send to Sheikh Sayd, and 
ask him if he had received the two letters despatched 
by him upon his first arrival at Ujiji for Dr. Kirk and 
Lord Clarendon ; and if he had forwarded them to the 
coast, as he was desired to do. The reply to the 
messengers was in the affirmative; and, subsequently, 
I obtained tin same answer in the presence of the 


On the 22nd of February, the pouring rain, which had 
dogged us the entire distance from Ujiji, ceased, and we 
had now beautiful weather ; and while I prepared for 
the homeward march, the Doctor was busy writing his 
letters, and entering his notes into his journal, which I 
was to take to his family. When not thus employed, we 
paid visits to the Arabs at Tabora, by whom we were both 
received with that bounteous hospitality for which they 
are celebrated. 

Among the goods turned over by me to Dr. Livingstone, 
while assorting such cloths as I wished to retain for my 
homeward trip, were 



First-class American sheeting . 

. 285 



Kaniki (blue stuff) . 

. 16 



Medium (blue stuff) . 

. 60 



Dabwani cloth 

. 41 



Barsati cloths .... 

. 28 



Printed handkerchiefs 

. 70 


Medium Rehani cloth , . 




Ismahili .... 

. 20 






4 pieces fine Kunguru (rod check) 

. 22 



4 gorah Rehani . 




Total number of cloths . 697 = 2788 


Cloth, 2788 yards. 

Assorted beads, 16 sacks, weight = 992 lha. 

Brass wire, Nos. 5 and G, 10 fraslilah = 360 UK, 

1 canvas tent, waterproof. 

1 air-bed. 

1 boat (canvas). 

1 bag of tools, carpenter* 

1 rip saw. 

2 barrels of +*i. 


12 sheets of ship's copper = 60 Ibs. 

1 Jocelyn breech-loader (metallic cartridge). 
1 Starr's 

1 Henry (16-shooter) 

1 revolver. 

200 rounds revolver ammunition. 
2000 Jocelyn and Starr's ammunition. 
1500 Henry rifle ammunition. 

Cooking utensils, medicine chest, books, sextant, canvas 
bags, &c. } &c., &c. 

The above made a total of about forty loads. Many 
things in the list would have brought fancy prices in 
Unyanyembe, especially the carbines and ammunition, the 
saw, carpenter's tools, the beads, and wire. Out of the 
thirty-three loads which were stored for him in my tembe 
the stock sent to Livingstone, Nov. 1, 1870 but few of 
them would be available for his return trip to Kua and 
Manyuema. The 696 doti of cloth which were left to him 
formed the only marketable articles of value he possessed ; 
and in Manyuema, where the natives manufactured their 
own cloth, such an article would be considered a drug ; 
while my beads and wire, with economy, would suffice to 
keep him and his men over two years in those regions. 
His own cloth, and what I gave him, made in the aggre- 
gate 1,393 doti, which, at 2 doti per day for food, were 
sufficient to keep him and sixty men 696 days. He had 
thus four years' supplies. The only articles he lacked to 
make a new and completely fitted-up expedition were the 
following, a list of which he and I drew up : 

A few tins of American wheat-flour. 
soda, crackers. 
preserved fruits, 


A few tins of salmon 

10 Ibs. Hyson tea. 

Some sewing thread and needles. 

1 dozen official envelopes. 

'Nautical Almanac' for 1872 and 1873 

1 blank journal. 

1 chronometer, stopped. 

1 chain for refractory people. 

With the articles j ^st named he would have a total of 
seventy loads, but without carriers they were an incum- 
brance to him ; for, with only the nine men which he now 
had, he could go nowhere with such a splendid assortment 
of goods. I was therefore commissioned to enlist, as 
soon as I reached Zanzibar, fifty freemen, arm them 
with a gun and hatchet each man, besides accoutrements, 
and to purchase two thousand bullets, one thousand flints, 
and ten kegs of gunpowder. The men were to act as 
carriers, to follow wherever Livingstone might desire to 
go. For, without men, he was simply tantalized with the 
aspirations roused in him by the knowledge that he had 
abundance of means, which were irrealizable without 
carriers. All the wealth of London and New York piled 
before him were totally unavailable to him without the 
means of locomotion. No Mnyamwezi engages himself as 
carrier during war-time. You who have read the diary of 
my ' Life in Unyanyembe ' know what stubborn Conser- 
vatives the Wanyamwezi are. A duty lay yet before me 
which I owed to my illustrious companion, and that was 
to hurry to the coast as if on a matter of life and death 
act for him in the matter of enlisting men as if he were 
there himself to work for him with the same zeal as I 
would for myself not to halt or rest until his desires 
should be gratified And this I vowed to do ; but it wan 


a death-blow to my project of going down the Nile, and 
getting news of Sir S. Baker. 

The Doctor's task of writing his letters was ended. He 
delivered into my hand twenty letters for Great Britain, 
six for Bombay, two for New York, and one for Zanzibar. 
The two letters for New York were for James Gordon 
Bennett, junior, as he alone, not his father, was respon- 
sible for the Expedition sent under my command. I beg 
the reader's pardon for republishing one of these letters 
here, as its spirit and style indicate the man, the mere 
knowledge of whose life or death was worth a costly 
Expedition : 


November, 1871. 

MY DEAR SIR, It is in general somewhat difficult to write to one 
we have never seen it feels so much like addressing an abstract idea 
but the presence of your representative, Mr. H. M. Stanley, in this 
distant region takes away the strangeness I should otherwise have 
felt, and in writing to thank you for the extreme kindness that 
prompted you to send him, I feel quite at home. 

If I explain the forlorn condition in which he found me you will 
easily perceive that I have good reason to use very strong expressions 
of gratitude. I came to Ujiji off a tramp of between four hundred 
and five hundred miles, beneath a blazing vertical sun, having been 
baffled, worried, defeated and forced to return, when almost in sight 
of the end of the geographical part of my mission, by a number ol 
half-caste Moslem slaves sent to me from Zanzibar, instead of men. 
The sore heart made still sorer by the woeful sights I had seen of 
man's inhumanity to man racked and told on the bodily frame, and 
depressed it beyond measure. I thought that I was dying on my feet. 
It is nor too much to say that almost every step of the weary sultry 
way was in pain, and I reached Ujiji a mere ruckle of bones. 

There I found that some five hundred pounds' sterling worth ol 
goods which I had ordered from Zanzibar had unaccountably icor 
entrusted to a drunken half-caste Moslem tailor, who, after squander 


Ing them for sixteen months on the way to Ujiji, finished up by 
selling off all that remained for slaves and ivory for himself. He 
had " divined " on the Koran and found that I was dead. He had 
also written to the Governor of Unyanyembe that he had sent slaves 
after me to Manyuema, who returned and reported my decease, and 
begged permission to sell off the few goods that his drunken appetite 
had spared. 

He, however, knew perfectly well, from men who had seen me, that 
I was alive, and waiting for the goods and men ; but as for morality, 
he is evidently an idiot, and there being no law here except that of 
the dagger or musket, I had to sit down in great weakness, destitute of 
everything save a few barter cloths and beads, which I had taken the 
precaution to leave here in case of extreme need. 

The near prospect of beggary among Ujijians made me miserable. 

I could not despair,