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Full text of "How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation"

NATIONAL REGISTER 
BULLETIN 

Technical information on comprehensive ^planning, survey of cultural resources, and registration in 
1 the National Register of Historic Places. 



U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 
Interagency Resources Division 



How to Apply the National Register 
Criteria for Evaluation 







ait JB iii 







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Mission: As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of 
the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally-owned public lands 
and natural and cultural resources. This includes fostering wise use of our 
land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the 
environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, 
and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The 
Department also promotes the goals of the Take Pride in America campaign 
by encouraging stewardship and citizen responsibility for the public 
lands and promoting citizen participation in their care. The Department also 
has a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and 
for people who live in Island Territories under U.S. Administration. 



Cover 

(Top Left) Criterion B - Frederick Douglass Home, Washington, D.C. From 1877-1899, this was the home of Frederick Douglass, the former 
slave who rose to become a prominent author, abolitionist, editor, orator, and diplomat. (Photo by Walter Smalling, Jr.). 

(Top Right) Criterion D - Francis Canyon Ruin, Blanco vicinity, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. A fortified village site composed of 40 
masonry -walled rooms arranged in a cluster of four house blocks. Constructed ca. 1 716-1 742 for protection against raiding Utes and Com- 
manches, the site has information potential related to Navajo, Pueblo, and Spanish cultures. (Photo by Jon Samuelson). 

(Bottom Left) Criterion C - Bridge in Cherrytree Township, Vcnago County, Pennsylvania. Built in 1882, this Pratt through truss type of 

idge is significant for engineering as a well perserved example of a type of bridge frequently used in northwestern Pennsylvania in the late 19th 
century. (Photo by Pennsylvania Department of Transportation). 

< Bottom Right) Criterion A - Main Street/Market Square Historic District, Houston, Harris County, Texas. Until well into the 20th cen- 
■ ry this district marked the bounds of public and business life in Houston. Constructed between the 1870s and 1920s, the district includes 
municipal and county buildings, and served as the city's wholesale, retail, and financial center. (Photo by Paul Hester). 



PREFACE 



Preserving historic properties as im- 
portant reflections of our American 
heritage became a national policy 
through passage of the Antiquities 
Act of 1906, the Historic Sites Act of 
1935, and the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1966, as 
amended. The Historic Sites Act 
authorized the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior to identify and recognize proper- 
ties of national significance (National 
Historic Landmarks) in United States 
history and archeology. The Nation- 
al Historic Preservation Act of 1966 
authorized the Secretary to expand 
this recognition to properties of local 
and State significance in American 
history, architecture, archeology, en- 
gineering, and culture, and worthy of 
preservation. The National Register 
of Historic Places is the official list of 
these recognized properties, and is 
maintained and expanded by the Na- 
tional Park Service on behalf of the 
Secretary of the Interior. 1 

The National Register of Historic 
Places documents the appearance 
and importance of districts, sites, 
buildings, structures, and objects sig- 



nificant in our prehistory and his- 
tory. These properties represent the 
major patterns of our shared local, 
State, and national experience. To 
guide the selection of properties in- 
cluded in the National Register, the 
National Park Service has developed 
the National Register Criteria for 
Evaluation. These criteria are stand- 
ards by which every property that is 
nominated to the National Register is 
judged. In addition, the National 
Park Service has developed criteria 
for the recognition of nationally sig- 
nificant properties, which are desig- 
nated National Historic Landmarks 
and prehistoric and historic units of 
the National Park System. Both these 
sets of criteria were developed to be 
consistent with the Secretary of the In- 
terior's Standards and Guidelines for Ar- 
cheology and Historic Preservation, 
which are uniform, national stand- 
ards for preservation activities. 2 

This publication explains how the 
National Park Service applies these 
criteria in evaluating the wide range 
of properties that may be significant 
in local, State, and national history. 



It should be used by anyone who 
must decide if a particular property 
qualifies for the National Register of 
Historic Places. 

Listing properties in the National 
Register is an important step in a 
nationwide preservation process. 
The responsibility for the identifica- 
tion, initial evaluation, nomination, 
and treatment of historic resources 
lies with private individuals, State 
historic preservation offices, Federal 
preservation offices, local govern- 
ments, and Indian tribes. The final 
evaluation and listing of properties 
in the National Register is the respon- 
sibility of the Keeper of the National 
Register. 

This bulletin was prepared by staff 
of the National Register Branch, Inter- 
agency Resources Division, National 
Park Service, with the assistance of 
the History Division. It was original- 
ly issued in draft form in 1982. The 
draft was revised into final form by 
Patrick W. Andrus, Historian, Nation- 
al Park Service, and edited by 
Rebecca H. Shrimpton, Consulting 
Historian. 



'Properties listed in the National Register receive limited Federal protection and certain benefits. For more information concerning the effects of 
listing, and how the National Register may be used by the general public and Certified Local Governments, as well as by local, State, and Federal agen- 
cies, and for copies of National Register Bulletins, write the National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, P. O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 
20013-7127, or any of the historic preservation offices in the States and territories. 

'■The Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation are found in the Federal Register, Vol. 48, No. 190 
(Thursday, September 29, 1983). A copy can be obtained by writing the National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division (address above). 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Preface i 

I. Introduction 1 

II. National Register Criteria for Evaluation 2 

III. How to Use this Bulletin to Evaluate a Property 3 

IV. How to Define Categories of Historic Properties 4 

Building 4 

Structure 4 

Object 5 

Site 5 

District 5 

Concentration, Linkage, & Continuity of Features 5 

Significance 5 

Types of Features 5 

Geographical Boundaries 6 

Discontiguous Districts 6 

V. How to Evaluate a Property Within its Historic Context 7 

Understanding Historic Contexts 7 

How to Evaluate a Property Within Its Historic Context 7 

Properties Significant Within More Than One Historic Context 9 

Comparing Related Properties 9 

Local, State, and National Historic Contexts 9 

VI. How to Identify the Type of Significance of a Property 11 

Introduction 11 

Criterion A: Event 12 

Understanding Criterion A 12 

Applying Criterion A , 12 

Types of Events 12 

Association of the Property with the Events 12 

Significance of the Association 12 

Traditional Cultural Values 13 

Criterion B: Person 14 

Understanding Criterion B 14 

Applying Criterion B 15 

Significance of the Individual 15 

Association with the Property 15 

Comparison to Related Properties 15 

Association with Groups 15 

Association with Living Persons 16 

Association with Architects/Artisans 16 

Native American Sites 16 

Criterion C: Design/Construction 17 

Understanding Criterion C 17 

Applying Criterion C 18 

Distinctive Characteristics of Type, Period, and Method of Construction 18 

Historic Adaptation of the Original Property 19 

Works of a Master 20 

Properties Possessing High Artistic Values 20 

Criterion D: Information Potential 21 

Understanding Criterion D 21 

Applying Criterion D 21 

Archeological Sites 21 

Buildings, Structures, and Objects 21 

Association with Human Activity 22 



Establishing a Historic Context 22 

Developing Research Questions 22 

Establishing the Presence of Adequate Data 23 

Integrity 23 

Partly Excavated or Disturbed Properties 23 

Completely Excavated Sites 24 

VII. How to Apply the Criteria Considerations 25 

Introduction 25 

Criteria Consideration A: Religious Properties 26 

Understanding Criteria Consideration A 26 

Applying Criteria Consideration A 26 

Eligibility for Historic Events 26 

Eligibility for Historic Persons 27 

Eligibility for Architectural or Artistic Distinction 28 

Eligibility for Information Potential 28 

Ability to Reflect Historic Associations 28 

Criteria Consideration B: Moved Properties 29 

Understanding Criteria Consideration B 29 

Applying Criteria Consideration B 29 

Eligibility for Architectural Value 29 

Eligibility for Historic Associations 30 

Setting and Environment 30 

Association Dependent on the Site 30 

Properties Designed to Be Moved 31 

Artificially Created Groupings 31 

Portions of Properties 31 

Criteria Consideration C: Birthplaces and Graves 32 

Understanding Criteria Consideration C 32 

Applying Criteria Consideration C 32 

Persons of Outstanding Importance 32 

Last Surviving Property Associated with a Person 32 

Eligibility for Other Associations 33 

Criteria Consideration D: Cemeteries 34 

Understanding Criteria Consideration D 34 

Applying Criteria Consideration D 34 

Persons of Transcendent Importance 34 

Eligibility on the Basis of Age 35 

Eligibility for Design 35 

Eligibility for Association with Events 35 

Eligibility for Information Potential 35 

Integrity 36 

National Cemeteries 36 

Criteria Consideration E: Reconstructed Properties 37 

Understanding Criteria Consideration E 37 

Applying Criteria Consideration E 37 

Accuracy of the Reconstruction 37 

Suitable Environment 37 

Restoration Master Plans 38 

Last Surviving Property of a Type 38 

Reconstructions Older than Fifty Years 38 

Criteria Consideration F: Commemorative Properties 39 

Understanding Criteria Consideration F 39 

Applying Criteria Consideration F 39 

Eligibility for Design 39 

Eligibility for Age, Tradition, or Symbolic Value 40 

Ineligibility as the Last Representative of an Event or Person 40 

Criteria Consideration G: Properties that Have Achieved Significance 

Within the Past Fifty Years 41 

Understanding Criteria Consideration G 41 

Applying Criteria Consideration G 42 

Eligibility for Exceptional Importance 42 



Historical Perspective 42 

National Park Service Rustic Architecture 42 

Veterans Administration Hospitals 42 

Comparison with Related Properties 42 

World War II Properties 42 

Eligibility for Information Potential 43 

Historic Districts 43 

Properties Over Fifty Years in Age, Under Fifty Years in Significance 43 

Requirement to Meet the Criteria, Regardless of Age 43 

VIII. How to Evaluate the Integrity of a Property 44 

Introduction 44 

Understanding the Aspects of Integrity 44 

Location 44 

Design 44 

Setting 45 

Materials 45 

Workmanship 45 

Feeling 45 

Association 45 

Assessing Integrity in Properties 45 

Defining the Essential Physical Features 46 

Visibility of the Physical Features 46 

Comparing Similar Properties 47 

Determining the Relevant Aspects of Integrity 48 

IX. Summary of the National Historic Landmarks Criteria for Evaluation 50 

X. Glossary 53 

XL List of National Register Bulletins 54 



I. INTRODUCTION 



The National Register is the 
nation's inventory of historic places 
and the national repository of 
documentation on the variety of his- 
toric property types, significance, 
abundance, condition, ownership, 
needs, and other information. It is 
the beginning of a national census of 
historic properties. The National 
Register Criteria for Evaluation 
define the scope of the National 
Register of Historic Places; they iden- 
tify the range of resources and kinds 
of significance that will qualify 
properties for listing in the National 
Register. The Criteria are written 
broadly to recognize the wide variety 
of historic properties associated with 
our prehistory and history. 

Decisions concerning the sig- 
nificance, historic integrity, documen- 
tation, and treatment of properties 
can be made reliably only when the 
resource is evaluated within its his- 
toric context. The historic context ser- 
ves as the framework within which 
the National Register Criteria are ap- 
plied to specific properties or proper- 
ty types. (See Part V for a brief 
discussion of historic contexts. 



Detailed guidance for developing 
and applying historic contexts is con- 
tained in National Register Bulletin 16: 
Guidelines for Completing National 
Register of Historic Places Registration 
Forms.) 

The guidelines provided here are 
intended to help you understand the 
National Park Service's use of the 
Criteria for Evaluation and how they 
apply to properties under considera- 
tion for listing in the National 
Register. Examples are provided 
throughout, illustrating specific cir- 
cumstances in which properties are 
and are not eligible for the National 
Register. This bulletin should be 
used by anyone who is: 

• Preparing to nominate a property 
to the National Register, 

• Seeking a determination of a 
property's eligibility, 

• Evaluating the comparable sig- 
nificance of a property to those 
listed in the National Register, or 

• Expecting to nominate a property 
as a National Historic Landmark 



in addition to nominating it to the 
National Register. 

This bulletin also contains a sum- 
mary of the National Historic 
Landmarks Criteria for Evaluation 
(see Part IX). National Historic 
Landmarks are those districts, sites, 
buildings, structures, and objects 
designated by the Secretary of the In- 
terior as possessing national sig- 
nificance in American history, 
architecture, archeology, engineer- 
ing, and culture. Although National 
Register documentation includes a 
recommendation about whether a 
property is significant at the local, 
State, or national level, the only offi- 
cial designation of national sig- 
nificance is as a result of National 
Historic Landmark designation by 
the Secretary of the Interior, National 
Monument designation by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, or estab- 
lishment as a unit of the National 
Park System by Congress. These 
properties are automatically listed in 
the National Register. 



II. THE NATIONAL 
REGISTER CRITERIA FOR 
EVALUATION 



CRITERIA FOR 
EVALUATION 3 



The quality of significance in 
American history, architecture, ar- 
cheology, engineering, and culture is 
present in districts, sites, buildings, 
structures, and objects that possess in- 
tegrity of location, design, setting, 
materials, workmanship, feeling, and 
association, and: 

• That are associated with events 
that have made a significant con- 
tribution to the broad patterns of 
our history; or 

• That are associated with the lives 
of persons significant in our past; 
or 

• That embody the distinctive char- 
acteristics of a type, period, or 
method of construction, or that 
represent the work of a master, or 
that possess high artistic values, 
or that represent a significant and 
distinguishable entity whose com- 
ponents may lack individual dis- 
tinction; or 

• That have yielded, or may be like- 
ly to yield, information important 
in prehistory or history. 



CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATIONS 

Ordinarily cemeteries, birthplaces, 
or graves of historical figures, proper- 
ties owned by religious institutions 
or used for religious purposes, struc- 
tures that have been moved from 
their original locations, reconstructed 
historic buildings, properties primari- 
ly commemorative in nature, and 
properties that have achieved sig- 
nificance within the past 50 years 
shall not be considered eligible for 
the National Register. However, 
such properties will qualify if they are 
integral parts of districts that do meet 
the criteria or if they fall within the 
following categories: 

• A religious property deriving 
primary significance from ar- 
chitectural or artistic distinction 
or historical importance; or 

• A building or structure removed 
from its original location but 
which is significant primarily for 
architectural value, or which is 
the surviving structure most im- 
portantly associated with a his- 
toric person or event; or 



• A birthplace or grave of a histori- 
cal figure of outstanding impor- 
tance if there is no appropriate 
site or building directly as- 
sociated with his productive life; 
or 

• A cemetery which derives its 
primary significance from graves 
of persons of transcendent impor- 
tance, from age, from distinctive 
design features, or from associa- 
tion with historic events; or 

• A reconstructed building when 
accurately executed in a suitable 
environment and presented in a 
dignified manner as part of a res- 
toration master plan, and when 
no other building or structure 
with the same association has sur- 
vived; or 

• A property primarily com- 
memorative in intent if design, 
age, tradition, or symbolic value 
has invested it with its own excep- 
tional significance; or 

• A property achieving significance 
within the past 50 years if it is of 
exceptional importance. 



The Criteria for Evaluation are found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 60, and are reprinted herein full. 



III. HOW TO USE THIS 
BULLETIN TO EVALUATE 
A PROPERTY 



For a property to qualify for the 
National Register it must meet one of 
the National Register Criteria for 
Evaluation by: 

• Being associated with an impor- 
tant historic context and 

• Retaining historic integrity of 
those features necessary to con- 
vey its significance. 

Information about the property 
based on physical examination and 
documentary research is necessary to 
evaluate a property's eligibility for 
the National Register. Evaluation of 
a property is most efficiently made 
when following this sequence: 

1. Categorize the property (Part 
IV). A property must be clas- 
sified as a district, site, building, 
structure, or object for inclusion 
in the National Register. 



Determine which prehistoric 
or historic context(s) the 
property represents (Part V). A 
property must possess sig- 
nificance in American history, 
architecture, archeology, en- 
gineering, or culture when 
evaluated within the historic 
context of a relevant geographic 
area. 

Determine whether the proper- 
ty is significant under the Na- 
tional Register Criteria (Part 
VI). This is done by identifying 
the links to important events or 
persons, design or construction 
features, or information poten- 
tial that make the property im- 
portant. 

Determine if the property rep- 
resents a type usually excluded 
from the National Register 



(Part VII). If so, determine if it 
meets any of the Criteria Con- 
siderations. 

5. Determine whether the proper- 
ty retains integrity (Part VIII). 
Evaluate the aspects of location, 
design, setting, workmanship, 
materials, feeling, and associa- 
tion that the property must 
retain to convey its historic sig- 
nificance. 

If, after completing these steps, the 
property appears to qualify for the 
National Register, the next step is to 
prepare a written nomination. (Refer 
to National Register Bulletin 16: 
Guidelines for Completing the National 
Register of Historic Places Registration 
Forms.) 



IV. HOW TO DEFINE 
CATEGORIES OF HISTORIC 
PROPERTIES 



The National Register of Historic 
Places includes significant properties, 
classified as buildings, sites, districts, 
structures, or objects. It is not used 
to list intangible values, except in so 
far as they are associated with or 
reflected by historic properties. The 
National Register does not list cul- 
tural events, or skilled or talented in- 
dividuals, as is done in some 
countries. Rather, the National 
Register is oriented to recognizing 
physically concrete properties that 
are relatively fixed in location. 

For purposes of National Register 
nominations, small groups of proper- 
ties are listed under a single category, 
using the primary resource. For ex- 
ample, a city hall and fountain 
would be categorized by the city hall 
(building), a farmhouse with two out- 
buildings would be categorized by 
the farmhouse (building), and a city 
park with a gazebo would be 
categorized by the park (site). 
Properties with large acreage or a 
number of resources are usually con- 
sidered districts. Common sense and 
reason should dictate the selection of 
categories. 

BUILDING 

A building, such as a house, barn, 
church, hotel, or similar construc- 
tion, is created principally to shelter 
any form of human activity. "Build- 
ing" may also be used to refer to a 
historically and functionally related 
unit, such as a courthouse and jail 
or a house and barn. 

Buildings eligible for the National 
Register must include all of their 
basic structural elements. Parts of 
buildings, such as interiors, facades, 
or wings, are not eligible inde- 
pendent of the rest of the existing 
building. The whole building must 



be considered, and its significant fea- 
tures must be identified. 

If a building has lost its basic struc- 
tural elements, it is usually con- 
sidered a "ruin" and is categorized as 
a site. 



included when considering the 
property for eligibility. 

If a structure has lost its historic 
configuration or pattern of organiza- 
tion through deterioration or demoli- 
tion, it is usually considered a "ruin" 



Examples of buildings include: 


dllU IS LdlCgUI 1Z, 


administration building 


Examples ofstr 


carriage house 


aircraft 


church 


apiary 


city or town hall 


automobile 


courthouse 


bandstand 


detached kitchen, barn, or privy 


boats and ships 


dormitory 


bridge 


fort 


cairn 


garage 


canal 


hotel 


carousel 


house 


corncrib 


library 


dam 


mill building 


earthwork 


office building 


fence 


post office 


gazebo 


school 


grain elevator 


shed 


highway 


social hall 


irrigation system 


stable 


kiln 


store 


lighthouse 


theater 


railroad grade 


train station 


silo 




trolley car 


STRUCTURE 


tunnel 




windmill 



The term "structure" is used to dis- 
tinguish from buildings those func- 
tional constructions made usually 
for purposes other than creating 
human shelter. 

Structures nominated to the Nation- 
al Register must include all of the ex- 
tant basic structural elements. Parts 
of structures can not be considered 
eligible if the whole structure 
remains. For example, a truss bridge 
is composed of the metal or wooden 
truss, the abutments, and supporting 
piers, all of which, if extant, must be 



OBJECT 

The term "object" is used to distin- 
guish from buildings and structures 
those constructions that are primari- 
ly artistic in nature or are relatively 
small in scale and simply con- 
structed. Although it may be, by na- 
ture or design, movable, an object is 
associated with a specific setting or 
environment. 

Small objects not designed for a 
specific location are normally not 
eligible. Such works include 
transportable sculpture, furniture, 
and other decorative arts that, unlike 
a fixed outdoor sculpture, do not pos- 
sess association with a specific place. 

Objects should be in a setting ap- 
propriate to their significant historic 
use, roles, or character. Objects relo- 
cated to a museum are inappropriate 
for listing in the National Register. 

Examples of objects include: 

boundary marker 

fountain 

milepost 

monument 

sculpture 

statuary 

SITE 

A site is the location of a sig- 
nificant event, a prehistoric or his- 
toric occupation or activity, or a 
building or structure, whether stand- 
ing, ruined, or vanished, where the 
location itself possesses historic, cul- 
tural, or archeological value regard- 
less of the value of any existing 
structure. 

A site can possess associative sig- 
nificance or information potential or 
both, and can be significant under 
any or all of the four criteria. A site 
need not be marked by physical 
remains if it is the location of a prehis- 
toric or historic event or pattern of 
events and if no buildings, structures, 
or objects marked it at the time of the 
events. However, when the location 
of a prehistoric or historic event can- 
not be conclusively determined be- 
cause no other cultural materials 
were present or survive, documenta- 
tion must be carefully evaluated to 
determine whether the traditionally 
recognized or identified site is ac- 
curate. 

A site may be a natural landmark 
strongly associated with significant 
prehistoric or historic events or pat- 
terns of events, if the significance of 



the natural feature is well docu- 
mented through scholarly research. 
Generally, though, the National 
Register excludes from the definition 
of "site" natural waterways or bodies 
of water that served as determinants 
in the location of communities or 
were significant in the locality's sub- 
sequent economic development. 
While they may have been "avenues 
of exploration," the features most ap- 
propriate to document this sig- 
nificance are the properties built in 
association with the waterways. 

Examples of sites include: 

battlefield 

campsite 

cemeteries significant for information 
potential or historic association 

ceremonial site 

designed landscape 

habitation site 

natural feature (such as a rock forma- 
tion) having cultural significance 

petroglyph 

rock carving 

rock shelter 

ruins of a building or structure 

shipwreck 

trail 

village site 

DISTRICT 

A district possesses a significant 
concentration, linkage, or continuity 
of sites, buildings, structures, or ob- 
jects united historically or aestheti- 
cally by plan or physical 
development. 

CONCENTRATION, LINKAGE, & 
CONTINUITY OF FEATURES 

A district derives its importance 
from being a unified entity, even 
though it is often composed of a 
wide variety of resources. The iden- 
tity of a district results from the inter- 
relationship of its resources, which 
can convey a visual sense of the over- 
all historic environment or be an ar- 
rangement of historically or 
functionally related properties. For 
example, a district can reflect one 
principal activity, such as a mill or a 
ranch, or it can encompass several in- 
terrelated activities, such as an area 
that includes industrial, residential, 
or commercial buildings, sites, struc- 
tures, or objects. A district can also 
be a grouping of archeological sites 
related primarily by their common 
components; these types of districts 



often will not visually represent a 
specific historic environment. 

SIGNIFICANCE 

A district must be significant, as 
well as being an identifiable entity. It 
must be important for historical, ar- 
chitectural, archeological, engineer- 
ing, or cultural values. Therefore, 
districts that are significant will 
usually meet the last portion of 
Criterion C plus Criterion A, 
Criterion B, other portions of 
Criterion C, or Criterion D. 

TYPES OF FEATURES 

A district can comprise both fea- 
tures that lack individual distinction 
and individually distinctive features 
that serve as focal points. It may 
even be considered eligible if all of 
the components lack individual dis- 
tinction, provided that the grouping 
achieves significance as a whole 
within its historic context. In either 
case, the majority of the components 
that add to the district's historic char- 
acter, even if they are individually 
undistinguished, must possess in- 
tegrity, as must the district as a 
whole. 

A district can contain buildings, 
structures, sites, objects, or open 
spaces that do not contribute to the 
significance of the district. The num- 
ber of noncontributing properties a 
district can contain yet still convey its 
sense of time and place and historical 
development depends on how these 
properties affect the district's in- 
tegrity. In archeological districts, the 
primary factor to be considered is the 
effect of any disturbances on the in- 
formation potential of the district as a 
whole. 



GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES 

A district must be a definable 
geographic area that can be distin- 
guished from surrounding properties 
by changes such as density, scale, 
type, age, style of sites, buildings, 
structures, and objects or by docu- 
mented differences in patterns of his- 
toric development or associations. It 
is seldom defined, however, by the 
limits of current parcels of owner- 
ship, management, or planning boun- 
daries. The boundaries must be 
based upon a shared relationship 
among the properties constituting 
the district. 



DISCONTIGUOUS DISTRICTS 

A district is usually a single 
geographic area of contiguous his- 
toric properties; however, a district 
can also be composed of two or more 
definable significant areas separated 
by nonsignificant areas. A discon- 
tiguous district is most appropriate 
where: 

• Elements are spatially discrete; 

• Space between the elements is 
not related to the significance of 
the district; and 

• Visual continuity is not a factor in 
the significance. 

In addition, a canal can be treated 
as a discontiguous district when the 
system consists of man-made sec- 
tions of canal interspersed with sec- 
tions of river navigation. For 
scattered archeological properties, a 
discontiguous district is appropriate 
when the deposits are related to each 
other through cultural affiliation, 
period of use, or site type. 



It is not appropriate to use the dis- 
contiguous district format to include 
an isolated resource or small group 
of resources which were once con- 
nected to the district, but have since 
been separated either through 
demolition or new construction. For 
example, do not use the discon- 
tigious district format to nominate in- 
dividual buildings of a downtown 
commerical district that have become 
isolated through demolition. 

Examples of districts include: 

business districts 

canal systems 

groups of habitation sites 

college campuses 

estates and farms with large 

acreage/ numerous properties 
industrial complexes 
irrigation systems 
residential areas 
rural villages 
transportation networks 
rural historic districts 




Ordeman-Shaw Historic District, Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama. Historic 
districts derive their identity from the interrelationship of their resources. Part of the defining 
characteristics of this 19th century residential district in Montgomery, Alabama, is found in the 
rhythmic pattern of the rows of decorative porches. (Photo by Frank L. Thiemonge, III). 



V. HOW TO EVALUATE A 
PROPERTY WITHIN ITS 
HISTORIC CONTEXT 



UNDERSTANDING 

HISTORIC 

CONTEXTS 

To qualify for the National 
Register, a property must be sig- 
nificant; that is, it must represent a 
significant part of the history, ar- 
chitecture, archeology, engineering, 
or culture of an area, and it must 
have the characteristics that make it a 
good representative of properties as- 
sociated with that aspect of the past. 
This section explains how to evaluate 
a property within its historic context. 4 

The significance of a historic 
property can be judged and ex- 
plained only when it is evaluated 
within its historic context. Historic 
contexts are those patterns, themes, 
or trends in history by which a 
specific occurrence, property, or site 
is understood and its meaning (and 
ultimately its significance) within 
prehistory or history is made clear. 
Historians, architectural historians, 
folklorists, archeologists, and 
anthropologists use different words 
to describe this phenomena such as 
trend, pattern, theme, or cultural af- 
filiation, but ultimately the concept is 
the same. 

The concept of historic context is 
not a new one; it has been fundamen- 
tal to the study of history since the 
18th century and, arguably, earlier 
than that. Its core premise is that 
resources, properties, or happenings 
in history do not occur in a vacuum 
but rather are part of larger trends or 
patterns. 



In order to decide whether a 
property is significant within its his- 
toric context, the following five 
things must be determined: 

• The facet of prehistory or history 
of the local area, State, or the na- 
tion that the property represents; 

• Whether that facet of prehistory 
or history is significant; 

• Whether it is a type of property 
that has relevance and impor- 
tance in illustrating the historic 
context; 

• How the property illustrates that 
history; and finally 

• Whether the property possesses 
the physical features necessary to 
convey the aspect of prehistory or 
history with which it is associated. 

These five steps are discussed in 
detail below. If the property being 
evaluated does represent an impor- 
tant aspect of the area's history or 
prehistory and possesses the requisite 
quality of integrity, then it qualifies 
for the National Register. 



HOW TO EVALUATE 
A PROPERTY 
WITHIN ITS 
HISTORIC CONTEXT 



Identify what the property repre- 
sents: the theme(s), geographical 
limits, and chronological period, 
that provide a perspective from 
which to evaluate the property's sig- 
nificance. 

Historic contexts are historical pat- 
terns that can be identified through 
consideration of the history of the 
property and the history of the sur- 
rounding area. Historic contexts 
may have already been defined in 
your area by the State historic preser- 
vation office, Federal agencies, or 
local governments. In accordance 
with the National Register Criteria, 
the historic context may relate to one 
of the following: 

• An event, a series of events or ac- 
tivities, or patterns of an area's 
development (Criterion A); 

• Association with the life of an im- 
portant person (Criterion B); 

• A building form, architectural 
style, engineering technique, or 
artistic values, based on a stage of 
physical development, or the use 
of a material or method of con- 
struction that shaped the historic 
identity of an area (Criterion C); 
or 

• A research topic (Criterion D). 



For a complete discussion of historic contexts, see National Register Bulletin 16: Guidelines for Completing National Register of Historic Places Registra- 
tion Forms. 



Determine how the theme of the 
context is significant in the history 
of the local area, the State, or the na- 
tion. 

A theme is a means of organizing 
properties into coherent patterns 
based on elements such as environ- 
ment, social /ethnic groups, transpor- 
tation networks, technology, or 
political developments that have in- 
fluenced the development of an area 
during one or more periods of prehis- 
tory or history. A theme is con- 
sidered significant if it can be 
demonstrated, through scholarly re- 
search, to be important in American 
history. Many significant themes can 
be found in the following list of 
Areas of Significance used by the Na- 
tional Register. 

Areas of Significance 

Agriculture 
Architecture 
Archeology: 

Prehistoric 

Historic- Aboriginal 

Historic-Non-Aboriginal 
Art 

Commerce 
Communications 

Community Planning and Development 
Conservation 
Economics 
Education 
Engineering 

Entertainment /Recreation 
Ethnic Heritage: 

Asian 

Black 

European 

Hispanic 

Native American 

Pacific Islander 

Other 
Exploration/Settlement 
Health/Medicine 
Industry 
Invention 

Landscape Architecture 
Law 

Literature 
Maritime History 
Military 
Performing Arts 
Philosophy 
Politics/Government 
Religion 
Science 
Social History 
Transportation 
Other 



Determine what the property type 
is and whether it is important in il- 
lustrating the historic context. 

A context may be represented by a 
variety of important property types. 
For example, the context of "Civil 
War Military Activity in Northern 
Virginia" might be represented by 
such properties as: a group of mid- 
19th century fortification structures; 
an open field where a battle oc- 
curred; a knoll from which a general 
directed troop movements; a sunken 
transport ship; the residences or 
public buildings that served as com- 
pany headquarters; a railroad bridge 
that served as a focal point for a bat- 
tle; and earthworks exhibiting par- 
ticular construction techniques. 

Because a historic context for a com- 
munity can be based on a distinct 
period of development, it might in- 
clude numerous property types. For 
example, the context "Era of In- 
dustrialization in Grand Bay, 
Michigan, 1875 - 1900" could be rep- 
resented by important property types 
as diverse as sawmills, paper mill 
sites, salt refining plants, flour mills, 
grain elevators, furniture factories, 
workers housing, commercial build- 
ings, social halls, schools, churches, 
and transportation facilities. 

A historic context can also be based 
on a single important type of proper- 
ty. The context "Development of 
County Government in Georgia, 
1777 - 1861" might be represented 
solely by courthouses. Similarly, 
"Bridge Construction in Pittsburgh, 
1870 - 1920" would probably only 
have one property type. 



Determine how the property repre- 
sents the context through specific 
historic associations, architectural or 
engineering values, or information 
potential (the Criteria for Evalua- 
tion). 

For example, the context of county 
government expansion is represented 
under Criterion A by historic dis- 
tricts or buildings that reflect popula- 
tion growth, development patterns, 
the role of government in that 
society, and political events in the his- 
tory of the State, as well as the im- 
pact of county government on the 
physical development of county 
seats. Under Criterion C, the context 
is represented by properties such as 
districts or buildings whose architec- 
tural treatments reflect their 
governmental functions, both practi- 
cally and symbolically. (See Part VI: 
How to Identify the Type of Significance 
of a Property.) 

Determine what physical features 
the property must possess in order 
for it to reflect the significance of 
the historic context. 

These physical features can be 
determined after identifying the fol- 
lowing: 

• Which types of properties are as- 
sociated with the historic context, 

• The ways in which properties can 
represent the theme, and 

• The applicable aspects of in- 
tegrity. 

Properties that have the defined 
characteristics are eligible for listing. 
(See Part VIII: How to Evaluate the In- 
tegrity of a Property.) 



PROPERTIES SIGNIFICANT 
WITHIN MORE THAN ONE 
HISTORIC CONTEXT 

A specific property can be sig- 
nificant within one or more historic 
contexts, and, if possible, all of these 
should be identified. For example, a 
public building constructed in the 
1830s that is related to the historic 
context of Civil War campaigns in 
the area might also be related to the 
theme of political developments in 
the community during the 1880s. A 
property is only required, however, 
to be documented as significant in 
one context. 

COMPARING RELATED 
PROPERTIES 

Properties listed in the National 
Register must possess significance 
when evaluated in the perspective of 
their historic context. Once the his- 
toric context is established and the 
property type is determined, it is not 
necessary to evaluate the property in 
question against other properties if: 

• It is the sole example of a proper- 
ty type that is important in il- 
lustrating the historic context or 

• It clearly possesses the defined 
characteristics required to be 
strongly representative of the con- 
text. 

If these two conditions do not 
apply, then the property will have to 
be evaluated against other examples 
of the property type to determine its 
eligibility. The geographic level 
(local, State, or national) at which this 
evaluation is made is the same as the 
level of the historic context. (See Part 
V: How to Evaluate a Property Within 
Its Historic Context.) 



LOCAL, STATE, 
AND NATIONAL 
HISTORIC 
CONTEXTS 

Historic contexts are found at a 
variety of geographical levels or 
scales. The geographic scale selected 
may relate to a pattern of historical 
development, a political division, or 
a cultural area. Regardless of the 
scale, the historic context establishes 
the framework from which decisions 
about the significance of related 
properties can be made. 

LOCAL HISTORIC 
CONTEXTS 

A local historic context represents 
an aspect of the history of a town, 
city, county, cultural area, or region, 
or any portions thereof. It is defined 
by the importance of the property, 
not necessarily the physical location 
of the property. For instance, if a 
property is of a type found 
throughout a State, or its boundaries 
extend over two States, but its impor- 
tance relates only to a particular 
county, the property would be con- 
sidered of local significance. 

The level of context of archeologi- 
cal sites significant for their informa- 
tion potential depends on the scope 
of the applicable research design. 
For example, a Late Mississippian vil- 
lage site may yield information in a 
research design concerning one settle- 
ment system on a regional scale, 
while in another research design it 
may reveal information of local im- 
portance concerning a single group's 
stone tool manufacturing techniques 
or house forms. It is a question of 
how the available information poten- 
tial is likely to be used. 

STATE HISTORIC 
CONTEXTS 

Properties are evaluated in a State 
context when they represent an 
aspect of the history of the State as a 
whole (or American Samoa, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, the Common- 
wealth of the Northern Mariana 
Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, or the 
Virgin Islands). These properties do 



not necessarily have to belong to 
property types found throughout the 
entire State: they can be located in 
only a portion of the State's present 
political boundary. It is the 
property's historic context that must 
be important statewide. For ex- 
ample, the "cotton belt" extends 
through only a portion of Georgia, 
yet its historical development in the 
antebellum period affected the entire 
State. These State historic contexts 
may have associated properties that 
are statewide or locally significant 
representations. A cotton gin in a 
small town might be a locally sig- 
nificant representation of this con- 
text, while one of the largest cotton 
producing plantations might be of 
State significance. 

A property whose historic associa- 
tions or information potential ap- 
pears to extend beyond a single local 
area might be significant at the State 
level. A property can be significant 
to more than one community or local 
area, however, without having 
achieved State significance. 

A property that overlaps several 
State boundaries can possibly be sig- 
nificant to the State or local history of 
each of the States. Such a property is 
not necessarily of national sig- 
nificance, however, nor is it necessari- 
ly significant to all of the States in 
which it is located. 

Prehistoric sites are not often con- 
sidered to have "State" significance, 
per se, largely because States are rela- 
tively recent political entities and 
usually do not correspond closely to 
Native American political territories 
or cultural areas. Numerous sites, 
however, may be of significance to a 
large region that might geographical- 
ly encompass parts of one, or usually 
several, States. Prehistoric resources 
that might be of State significance in- 
clude regional sites that provide a 
diagnostic assemblage of artifacts for 
a particular cultural group or time 
period or that provide chronological 
control (specific dates or relative 
order in time) for a series of cultural 
groups. 



NATIONAL HISTORIC 
CONTEXTS 

Properties are evaluated in a nation- 
al context when they represent an 
aspect of the history of the United 
States and its territories as a whole. 
These national historic contexts may 
have associated properties that are lo- 
cally or statewide significant repre- 
sentations, as well as those of 
national significance. 

Properties designated as nationally 
significant and listed in the National 
Register are the prehistoric and his- 
toric units of the National Park Sys- 
tem and those properties that have 
been designated National Historic 
Landmarks. The National Historic 
Landmark criteria are the standards 
for nationally significant properties; 
they are found in the Code of Federal 
Regulations, Title 36, Part 65 and are 



summarized in this bulletin in Part 
IX: Summary of National Historic 
Landmarks Criteria for Evaluation. 

A property with national sig- 
nificance helps us understand the his- 
tory of the nation by illustrating the 
nationwide impact of events or per- 
sons associated with the property, its 
architectural type or style, or informa- 
tion potential. It must be of excep- 
tional value in representing or 
illustrating an important theme in 
the history of the nation. 

Nationally significant properties do 
not necessarily have to belong to a 
property type found throughout the 
entire country: they can be located in 
only a portion of the present political 
boundaries. It is their historic con- 
text that must be important nation- 
wide. For example, the American 
Civil War was fought in only a por- 
tion of the United States, yet its im- 



pact was nationwide. The site of a 
small military skirmish might be a lo- 
cally significant representation of this 
national context, while the capture of 
the State's largest city might be a 
statewide significant representation 
of the national context. 

When evaluating properties at the 
national level for designation as a Na- 
tional Historic Landmark, please 
refer to the National Historic 
Landmarks outline, History and 
Prehistory in the National Park System 
and the National Historic Landmarks 
Program 1987. (For more information 
about the National Historic 
Landmarks Program, please write to 
the Department of the Interior, Na- 
tional Park Service, History Division, 
P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 
20013-7127.) 



VI. HOW TO IDENTIFY THE 
TYPE OF SIGNIFICANCE OF 
A PROPERTY 



INTRODUCTION 

When evaluated within its historic 
context, a property must be shown to 
be significant for one or more of the 
four Criteria for Evaluation - A, B, C, or 
D (listed earlier in Part II). The 
Criteria describe how properties are 
significant for their association with 
important events or persons, for their 
importance in design or construction, 
or for their information potential. 

The basis for judging a property's 
significance and, ultimately, its 
eligibility under the Criteria is historic 
context. The use of historic context al- 
lows a property to be properly 
evaluated in a nearly infinite number 
of capacities. For instance, Criterion 
C: Design /Construction can accom- 
modate properties representing con- 
struction types that are unusual or 
widely practiced, that are innovative 
or traditional, that are "high style" or 
vernacular, that are the work of a 
famous architect or an unknown 
master craftsman. The key to determin- 
ing whether the characteristics or associa- 
tions of a particular property are 
significant is to consider the property 
within its historic context. 

After identifying the relevant his- 
toric context(s) with which the 



property is associated, the four 
Criteria are applied to the property. 
Within the scope of the historic con- 
text, the National Register Criteria 
define the kind of significance that 
the properties represent. 

For example, within the context of 
"19th Century Gunpowder Produc- 
tion in the Brandywine Valley," 
Criterion A would apply to those 
properties associated with important 
events in the founding and develop- 
ment of the industry. Criterion B 
would apply to those properties as- 
sociated with persons who are sig- 
nificant in the founding of the 
industry or associated with impor- 
tant inventions related to gunpowder 
manufacturing. Criterion C would 
apply to those buildings, structures, 
or objects whose architectural form 
or style reflect important design 
qualities integral to the industry. 
And Criterion D would apply to 
properties that can convey informa- 
tion important in our understanding 
of this industrial process. If a 
property qualifies under more than 
one of the Criteria, its significance 
under each should be considered, if 
possible, in order to identify all 
aspects of its historical value. 



NATIONAL REGISTER 
CRITERIA FOR 
EVALUATION* 

The National Register Criteria 
recognize different types of values 
embodied in districts, sites, build- 
ings, structures, and objects. These 
values fall into the following 
categories: 

Associative value (Criteria A and 
B): Properties significant for their as- 
sociation or linkage to events 
(Criterion A) or persons (Criterion B) 
important in the past. 

Design or Construction value 
(Criterion C): Properties significant 
as representatives of the manmade 
expression of culture or technology. 

Information value (Criterion D): 
Properties significant for their ability 
to yield important information about 
prehistory or history. 

*For a complete listing of the Criteria for 
Evaluation, refer to Part II of this bulletin. 



11 



CRITERION A: EVENT 

Properties can be eligible for the National Register if they are associated with events that have made a significant 
contribution to the broad patterns of our history. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERION A: 
EVENT 



To be considered for listing under 
Criterion A, a property must be as- 
sociated with one or more events im- 
portant in the defined historic 
context. Criterion A recognizes 
properties associated with single 
events, such as the founding of a 
town, or with a pattern of events, 
repeated activities, or historic trends, 
such as the gradual rise of a port 
city's prominence in trade and com- 
merce. The event or trends, how- 
ever, must clearly be important 
within the associated context: settle- 
ment, in the case of the town, or 
development of a maritime economy, 
in the case of the port city. 
Moreover, the property must have an 
important association with the event 
or historic trends, and it must retain 
historic integrity. (See Part V: How to 
Evaluate a Property Within its Historic 
Context.) 

Several steps are involved in deter- 
mining whether a property is sig- 
nificant for its associative values: 

• Determine the nature and origin 
of the property, 

• Identify the historic context with 
which it is associated, and 

• Evaluate the property's history to 
determine whether it is as- 
sociated with the historic context 
in any important way. 



Examples of Properties Associated 
with Events 

Properties associated with specific events: 

• The site of a battle. 

• The building in which an important 
invention was developed. 

• A factory district where a significant 
strike occurred. 

• An archeological site at which a 
major new aspect of prehistory was 
discovered, such as the first evidence 
of man and extinct Pleistocene 
animals being contemporaneous. 

• A site where an important facet of 
European exploration occurred. 

Properties associated with a pattern of 
events: 

• A trail associated with western 
migration. 

• A railroad station that served as the 
focus of a community's transporta- 
tion system and commerce. 

• A mill district reflecting the impor- 
tance of textile manufacturing 
during a given period. 

• A building used by an important 
local social organization. 

• A site where prehistoric Native 
Americans annually gathered for 
seasonally available resources and for 
social interaction. 

• A downtown district representing a 
town's growth as the commercial 
focus of the surrounding agricultural 
area. 



APPLYING 
CRITERION A: 
EVENT 

TYPES OF EVENTS 

A property can be associated with 
either (or both) of two types of 
events: 

• A specific event marking an im- 
portant moment in American 
prehistory or history and 

• A pattern of events or a historic 
trend that made a significant con- 
tribution to the development of a 
community, a State, or the nation. 

Refer to the left for a list of specific 
examples. 

ASSOCIATION OF THE 
PROPERTY WITH THE 
EVENTS 

The property you are evaluating 
must be documented, through ac- 
cepted means of historical or ar- 
cheological research (including oral 
history), to have existed at the time 
of the event or pattern of events and 
to have been associated with those 
events. A property is not eligible if 
its associations are speculative. For 
archeological sites, well reasoned in- 
ferences drawn from data recovered 
at the site can be used to establish the 
association between the site and the 
events. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 
ASSOCIATION 

Mere association with historic 
events or trends is not enough, in 
and of itself, to qualify under 
Criterion A: the property's specific 
association must be considered im- 
portant as well. For example, a build- 
ing historically in commercial use 
must be shown to have been sig- 
nificant in commercial history. 



19 



TRADITIONAL CULTURAL 
VALUES 

Traditional cultural significance is 
derived from the role a property 
plays in a community's historically 
rooted beliefs, customs, and prac- 
tices. Properties may have sig- 
nificance under Criterion A if they 
are associated with events, or series 
of events, significant to the cultural 
traditions of a community. 5 




■ 



Eligible 

• A hilltop associated in oral his- 
torical accounts with founding 
of an Indian tribe or society is 
eligible. 

• A rural community can be 
eligible whose organization, 
buildings, or patterns of land 
use reflect the cultural tradi- 
tions valued by its long-term 
residents. 

• An urban neighborhood can 
be eligible as the traditional 
home of a particular cultural 
group and as a reflection of its 
beliefs and practices. 

Not Eligible 

• A site viewed as sacred by a 
recently established Utopian or 
religious community does not 
have traditional cultural value 
and is not eligible. 




Criterion A - The Old Brulay Plantation, Brownsville vicinity, Cameron County, Texas. 
Historically significant for its association with the development of agriculture in southeast 
Texas, this complex of 10 brick buildings was constructed by George N. Brulay, a French im- 
migrant who introduced commercial sugar production and irrigation to the Rio Grande Valley. 
(Photo by Texas Historical Commission). 



'For more information, refer to National Register Bulletin 38: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. 



CRITERION B: PERSON 

Properties may be eligible for the National Register if they are associated with the lives of persons significant in 
our past. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERION B: 
PERSON 6 



Criterion B applies to properties as- 
sociated with individuals whose 
specific contributions to history can 
be identified and documented. Per- 
sons "significant in our past" refers 
to individuals whose activities are 
demonstrably important within a 
local, State, or national historic con- 
text. The criterion is generally 
restricted to those properties that il- 
lustrate (rather than commemorate) a 
person's important achievements. 
(The policy regarding commemora- 
tive properties, birthplaces, and 
graves is explained further in Part 
VII: How to Apply the Criteria Con- 
siderations.) 

Several steps are involved in deter- 
mining whether a property is sig- 
nificant for its associative values 
under Criterion B. First, determine 
the importance of the individual. 
Second, ascertain the length and na- 
ture of his/her association with the 
property under study and identify 
the other properties associated with 
the individual. Third, consider the 
property under Criterion B, as out- 
lined below. 

Examples of Properties Associated 
with Persons 

Properties associated with a significant 
person: 

• The home of an important merchant 
or labor leader. 

• The studio of a significant artist. 

• The business headquarters of an im- 
portant industrialist. 




Criterion B - The William Whitney House, Hinsdale, DuPage County, Illinois. This build- 
ing is locally significant for its historical association with William Whitney, the founder of the 
town of Hinsdale, Illinois. Whitney, a citizen of New York State, moved to Illinois, established 
the town, and while living here between 1870 and 1879 was a prominent local businessman and 
politician. (Photo by Frederick C. Cue). 



For further information on properties eligible under Criterion B, refer to National Register Bulletin 32. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting 
Properties Associated with Significant Persons. 



l i 



APPLYING 
CRITERION B: 
PERSON 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 
INDIVIDUAL 

The persons associated with the 
property must be individually sig- 
nificant within a historic context. A 
property is not eligible if its only jus- 
tification for significance is that it 
was owned or used by a person who 
is a member of an identifiable profes- 
sion, class, or social or ethnic group. 
It must be shown that the person 
gained importance within his or her 
profession or group. 



Eligible 

• The residence of a doctor, a 
mayor, or a merchant is 
eligible under Criterion B if the 
person was significant in the 
field of medicine, politics, or 
commerce, respectively. 

Not Eligible 

• A property is not eligible 
under Criterion B if it is as- 
sociated with an individual 
about whom no scholarly 
judgement can be made be- 
cause either research has not 
revealed specific information 
about the person's activities 
and their impact, or there is in- 
sufficient perspective to deter- 
mine whether those activites or 
contributions were historically 
important. 



ASSOCIATION WITH THE 
PROPERTY 

Properties eligible under Criterion 
B are usually those associated with a 
person's productive life, reflecting the 
time period when he or she achieved 
significance. In some instances this 
may be the person's home; in other 
cases, a person's business, office, 
laboratory, or studio may best repre- 
sent his or her contribution. Proper- 
ties that pre- or post-date an 
individual's significant accomplish- 
ments are usually not eligible. (See 
Comparison to Related Properties, 
below, for exceptions to this rule.) 

The individual's association with 
the property must be documented by 
accepted methods of historical or ar- 
cheological research, including writ- 
ten or oral history. Speculative 
associations are not acceptable. For 
archeological sites, well reasoned in- 
ferences drawn from data recovered 
at the site are acceptable. 

COMPARISON TO 
RELATED PROPERTIES 

Each property associated with an 
important individual should be com- 
pared to other associated properties 
to identify those that best represent 
the person's historic contributions. 
The best representatives usually are 
properties associated with the 
person's adult or productive life. 
Properties associated with an 
individual's formative or later years 
may also qualify if it can be 
demonstrated that the person's ac- 
tivities during this period were his- 
torically significant or if no properties 
from the person's productive years 
survive. Length of association is an 
important factor when assessing 
several properties with similar as- 
sociations. 

A community or State may contain 
several properties eligible for associa- 
tions with the same important per- 
son, if each represents a different 
aspect of the person's productive life. 
A property can also be eligible if it 
has brief but consequential associa- 
tions with an important individual. 
(Such associations are often related to 
specific events that occurred at the 
property and, therefore, it may also 
be eligible under Criterion A.) 



ASSOCIATION WITH 
GROUPS 

For properties associated with 
several community leaders or with a 
prominent family, it is necessary to 
identify specific individuals and to 
explain their significant accomplish- 
ments. 



Eligible 

• A residential district in which 
a large number of prominent 
or influential merchants, 
professionals, civic leaders, 
politicians, etc., lived will be 
eligible under Criterion B if the 
significance of one or more 
specific individual residents is 
explicitly justified. 

• A building that served as the 
seat of an important family is 
eligible under Criterion B if the 
significant accomplishments of 
one or more individual family 
members is explicitly justified. 

Not Eligible 

• A residential district in which 
a large number of influential 
persons lived is not eligible 
under Criterion B if the ac- 
complishments of a specific in- 
dividual(s) cannot be 
documented. If the sig- 
nificance of the district rests in 
the cumulative importance of 
prominent residents, however, 
then the district might still be 
eligible under Criterion A. 
Eligibility, in this case, would 
be based on the broad pattern 
of community development, 
through which the neighbor- 
hood evolved into the primary 
residential area for this class of 
citizens. 

• A building that served as the 
seat of an important family 
will not be eligible under 
Criterion B if the significant ac- 
complishments of individual 
family members cannot be 
documented. In cases where a 
succession of family members 
has lived in a house and collec- 
tively has had a demonstrably 
significant impact on the com- 
munity, as a family, the house 
is more likely to be significant 
under Criterion A for associa- 
tion with a pattern of events. 



is 



ASSOCIATION WITH 
LIVING PERSONS 

Properties associated with living 
persons are usually not eligible for in- 
clusion in the National Register. Suf- 
ficient time must have elapsed to 
assess both the person's field of en- 
deavor and his/her contribution to 
that field. Generally, the person's ac- 
tive participation in the endeavor 
must be finished for this historic 
perspective to emerge. (See Criteria 
Considerations C and G in Part VII: 
How to Apply the Criteria Considera- 
tions.) 



ASSOCIATION WITH 
ARCHITECTS/ARTISANS 

Architects, artisans, artists, and en- 
gineers are often represented by their 
works, which are eligible under 
Criterion C. Their homes and 
studios, however, can be eligible for 
consideration under Criterion B, be- 
cause these usually are the properties 
with which they are most personally 
associated. 



NATIVE AMERICAN SITES 

The known major villages of in- 
dividual Native Americans who 
were important during the contact 
period or later can qualify under 
Criterion B. As with all Criterion B 
properties, the individual associated 
with the property must have made 
some specific important contribution 
to history. Examples include sites sig- 
nificantly associated with Chief 
Joseph and Geronimo. 7 



n 

For more information, refer to National Register Bulletin 38: Guidelines for Fxxtluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. 



\„ 



CRITERION C: 
DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION 

Properties may be eligible for the National Register if they embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, 
or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that repre- 
sent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction. 




■■■ 



Richland Plantation, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. Properties can qualify under 
Criterion C as examples of high style architecture. Built in the 1830s, Richland is a fine ex- 
ample of a Federal style residence with a Greek Revival style portico. (Photo by Dave Gleason). 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERION C: 
DESIGN/ 
CONSTRUCTION 

This criterion applies to properties 
significant for their physical design 
or construction, including such ele- 
ments as architecture, landscape ar- 
chitecture, engineering, and artwork. 
To be eligible under Criterion C, a 
property must meet at least one of the 
following requirements: 

• Embody distinctive charac- 
teristics of a type, period, or 
method of construction. 

• Represent the work of a master. 

• Possess high artistic value. 

• Represent a significant and distin- 
guishable entity whose com- 
ponents may lack individual 
distinction. 



The first requirement, that proper- 
ties "embody the distinctive charac- 
teristics of a type, period, or method 
of construction," refers to the way in 
which a property was conceived, 
designed, or fabricated by a people 
or culture in past periods of history. 
"The work of a master" refers to the 
technical or aesthetic achievements of 
an architect or craftsman. "High ar- 
tistic values" concerns the expression 
of aesthetic ideals or preferences and 
applies to aesthetic achievement. 

Resources "that represent a sig- 
nificant and distinguishable entity 
whose components may lack in- 
dividual distinction" are called "dis- 
tricts." In the Criteria for Evaluation 
(as published in the Code of Federal 
Regulations and reprinted here in Part 
II), districts are defined within the 
context of Criterion C. Districts, how- 
ever, can be considered for eligibility 
under all the Criteria, individually or 
in any combination, as is ap- 
propriate. For this reason, the full 
discussion of districts is contained in 



Part IV: How to Define Categories of 
Historic Properties. Throughout the 
bulletin, however, districts are men- 
tioned within the context of a specific 
subject, such as an individual 
Criterion. 




Grant Family House, Saco vicinity, York 
County, Maine. Properties possessing high 
artistic value meet Critrion C through the ex- 
pression of aesthetic ideals or preferences. 
The Grant Family House, a modest Federal 
sytle residence, is significant for its remarka- 
bly well-preserved stenciled wall decorative 
treatment in the entry hall and parlor. 
Painted by an unknown artist ca. 1825, this 
is a fine example of 19th century New 
England regional artistic expression. (Photo 
by Kirk F. Mohney). 



Examples of Properties Associated 
with Design/Construction 

Properties associated with design and 
construction: 

• A house or commercial building 
representing a significant style of 
architecture. 

• A designed park or garden as- 
sociated with a particular 
landscape design philosophy. 

• A movie theater embodying high 
artistic value in its decorative fea- 
tures. 

• A bridge or dam representing 
technological advances. 

APPLYING 
CRITERION C: 
DESIGN/ 
CONSTRUCTION 

DISTINCTIVE 
CHARACTERISTICS OF 
TYPES, PERIODS, AND 
METHODS OF 
CONSTRUCTION 

This is the portion of Criterion C 
under which most properties are 
eligible, for it encompasses all ar- 
chitectural styles and construction 
practices. To be eligible under this 
portion of the Criterion, a property 
must clearly illustrate, through "dis- 
tinctive characteristics," the follow- 
ing: 

• The pattern of features common 
to a particular class of resources, 

• The individuality or variation of 
features that occurs within the 
class, 

• The evolution of that class, or 

• The transition between classes of 
resources. 



Distinctive Characteristics: "Dis- 
tinctive characteristics" are the physi- 
cal features or traits that commonly 
recur in individual types, periods, or 
methods of construction. To be 
eligible, a property must clearly con- 
tain enough of those characteristics 
to be considered a true representative 
of a particular type, period, or 
method of construction. 

Characteristics can be expressed in 
terms such as form, proportion, struc- 
ture, plan, style, or materials. They 
can be general, referring to ideas of 
design and construction such as basic 
plan or form, or they can be specific, 
referring to precise ways of combin- 
ing particular kinds of materials. 



Eligible 

• A building eligible under the 
theme of Gothic Revival ar- 
chitecture must have the distinc- 
tive characteristics that make 
up the vertical and picturesque 
qualities of the style, such as 
pointed gables, steep roof pitch, 
board and batten siding, and or- 
namental bargeboard and 
veranda trim. 

• A late Mississippian village that 
illustrates the important con- 
cepts in prehistoric community 
design and planning will 
qualify. 

• A designed historic landscape 
will qualify if it reflects a 
historic trend or school of 
theory and practice, such as the 
City Beautiful Movement, 
evidencing distinguished 
design, layout, and the work of 
skilled craftsmanship. 

Not Eligible 

• A commercial building with 
some Art Deco detailing is not 
eligible under Criterion C if the 
detailing was added merely as 
an afterthought, rather than 
fully integrated with overall 
lines and massing typical of the 
Art Deco style or the transition 
between that and another style. 

• A designed landscape that has 
had major changes to its his- 
toric design, vegetation, 
original boundry, topog- 
raphy/grading, architectural 
features, and circulation system 
will not qualify. 



Type, Period, And Method of 
Construction: "Type, period, or 
method of construction" refers to the 
way certain properties are related to 
one another by cultural tradition or 
function, by dates of construction or 
style, or by choice or availability of 
materials and technology. 

A structure is eligible as a specimen 
of its type or period of construction if 
it is an important example (within its 
context) of building practices of a par- 
ticular time in history. For properties 
that represent the variation, evolu- 
tion, or transition of construction 
types, it must be demonstrated that 
the variation, etc., was an important 
phase of the architectural develop- 
ment of the area or community in 
that it had an impact as evidenced by 
later buildings. A property is not 
eligible, however, simply because it 
has been identified as the only such 
property ever fabricated; it must be 
demonstrated to be significant as 
well. 



Eligible 

• A building that has some char- 
acteristics of the Romanesque 
Revival style and some charac- 
teristics of the Commercial 
style can qualify if it illustrates 
the transition of architectural 
design and the transition itself 
is considered an important ar- 
chitectural development. 

• A Hopewellian mound, if it is 
an important example of 
mound building construction 
techniques, would qualify as a 
method or type of construction. 

• A building which illustrates 
the early or the developing 
technology of particular struc- 
tural systems, such as skeletal 
steel framing, is eligible as an 
example of a particular 
method of construction. 




HISTORIC ADAPTATION 
OF THE ORIGINAL 
PROPERTY 

A property can be significant not 
only for the way it was originally con- 
structed or crafted, but also for the 
way it was adapted at a later period, 
or for the way it illustrates changing 
tastes, attitudes, and uses over a 
period of time. 

A district is eligible under this 
guideline if it illustrates the evolution 
of historic character of a place over a 
particular span of time. 



Swan Falls Dam and Power Plant, Murphy vicinity, Ada County, Idaho. Significant works 
of engineering can qualify under Criterion C. Built between 1900-1907 the Swan Falls Dam 
and Power Plant across the Snake River is one the early hydroelectric plants in the State of 
Idaho. (Photo by H.L. Hough). 




Looney House, Ashville vicinity, St. Clair County, Alabama. Examples of vernacular styles of 
architecture can qualify under Criterion C. Built ca. 1818, the Looney House is significant as 
possibly the State's oldest extant two-story dogtrot type of dwelling. The defining open center 
passage of the dogtrot was a regional building response to the southern climate. (Photo by 
Carolyn Scott). 



Eligible 

• A Native American irrigation 
system modified for use by 
Europeans could be eligible if 
it illustrates the technology of 
either or both periods of con- 
struction. 

• An early 19th century 
farmhouse modified in the 
1880s with Queen Anne style 
ornamentation could be sig- 
nificant for the modification it- 
self, if it represented a local 
variation or significant trend in 
building construction or 
remodelling, was the work of a 
local master (see Works of a 
Master below), or reflected the 
tastes of an important person 
associated with the property at 
the time of its alteration. 

• A district encompassing the 
commercial development of a 
town between 1820 and 1910, 
characterized by buildings of 
various styles and eras, can be 
eligible. 



WORKS OF A MASTER 

A master is a figure of generally 
recognized greatness in a field, a 
known craftsman of consummate 
skill, or an anonymous craftsman 
whose work is distinguishable from 
others by its characteristic style and 
quality. The property must express a 
particular phase in the development 
of the master's career, an aspect of 
his or her work, or a particular idea 
or theme in his or her craft. 

A property is not eligible as the 
work of a master, however, simply 
because it was designed by a 
prominent architect. For example, 
not every building designed by 
Frank Lloyd Wright is eligible under 
this portion of Criterion C, although 
it might meet other portions of the 
Criterion, for instance as a repre- 
sentative of the Prairie style. 

The work of an unidentified 
craftsman is eligible if it rises above 
the level of workmanship of the 
other properties encompassed by the 
historic context. 



PROPERTIES POSSESSING 
HIGH ARTISTIC VALUES 

High artistic values may be ex- 
pressed in many ways, including 
areas as diverse as community 
design or planning, engineering, and 
sculpture. A property is eligible for 
its high artistic values if it so fully ar- 
ticulates a particular concept of 
design that it expresses an aesthetic 
ideal. A property is not eligible, how- 
ever, if it does not express aesthetic 
ideals or design concepts more fully 
than other properties of its type. 



Eligible 

• A sculpture in a town square 
that epitomizes the design prin- 
ciples of the Art Deco style is 
eligible. 

• A building that is a classic ex- 
pression of the design theories 
of the Craftsman Style, such as 
carefully detailed handwork, is 
eligible. 

• A landscaped park that syn- 
thesizes early 20th century 
principles of landscape ar- 
chitecture and expresses an aes- 
thetic ideal of environment can 
be eligible. 

• Properties that are important 
representatives of the aesthetic 
values of a cultural group, 
such as petroglyphs and 
ground drawings by Native 
Americans, are eligible. 

Not Eligible 

• A sculpture in a town square 
that is a typical example of 
sculpture design during its 
period would not qualify for 
high artistic value, although it 
might be eligible if it were sig- 
nificant for other reasons. 

• A building that is a modest ex- 
ample (within its historic con- 
text) of the Craftsman Style of 
architecture, or a landscaped 
park that is characteristic of 
turn-of-the-century landscape 
design would not qualify for 
high artistic value. 



A Significant and Distinguishable 
Entity Whose Components May 
Lack Individual Distinction. This 
portion of Criterion C refers to dis- 
tricts. For detailed information on 
districts turn to pages 5-6. 



CRITERION D: INFORMATION 
POTENTIAL 

Properties may be eligible for the National Register if they have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information im- 
portant in prehistory or history. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERION D: 
INFORMATION 
POTENTIAL 

Certain important research ques- 
tions about human history can only 
be answered by the actual physical 
material of cultural resources. 
Criterion D encompasses the proper- 
ties that have the potential to answer, 
in whole or in part, those types of re- 
search questions. The most common 
type of property nominated under 
this Criterion is the archeological site 
(or a district comprised of archeologi- 
cal sites). Buildings, objects, and 
structures (or districts comprised of 
these property types), however, can 
also be eligible for their information 
potential. 

Criterion D has two requirements, 
which must both be met for a proper- 
ty to qualify: 

• The property must have, or have 
had, information to contribute to 
our understanding of human his- 
tory or prehistory, and 

• The information must be con- 
sidered important. 

Under the first of these require- 
ments, a property is eligible if it has 
. been used as a source of data and 
contains more, as yet unretrieved 
^ data. A property is also eligible if it 
has not yet yielded information but, 
through testing or research, is deter- 
mined a likely source of data. 

Under the second requirement, the 
information must be carefully 
evaluated within an appropriate con- 
text to determine its importance. In- 
formation is considered "important" 
when it is shown to have a sig- 
nificant bearing on a research design 
that addresses such areas as: 1 ) cur- 
rent data gaps or alternative theories 
that challenge existing ones or 



2) priority areas identified under a 
State or Federal agency management 
plan. 

APPLYING 
CRITERION D: 
INFORMATION 
POTENTIAL 

ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES 

Criterion D most commonly ap- 
plies to properties that contain or are 
likely to contain information bearing 
on an important archeological re- 
search question. The property must 
have characteristics suggesting the 
likelihood that it possesses configura- 
tions of artifacts, soil strata, structural 
remains, or other natural or cultural 
features that make it possible to do 
the following: 

• Test a hypothesis or hypotheses 
about events, groups, or proces- 
ses in the past that bear on impor- 
tant research questions in the 
social or natural sciences or the 
humanities; or 

• Corroborate or amplify currently 
available information suggesting 
that a hypothesis is either true or 
false; or 

• Reconstruct the sequence of ar- 
cheological cultures for the pur- 
pose of identifying and 
explaining continuities and dis- 
continuities in the archeological 
record for a particular area. 



BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES, 
AND OBJECTS 

While most often applied to ar- 
cheological districts and sites, 
Criterion D can also apply to build- 
ings, structures, and objects that con- 
tain important information. In order 
for these types of properties to be 
eligible under Criterion D, they them- 
selves must be, or must have been, 
the principal source of the important 
information. 



Eligible 

• A building exhibiting a local 
variation on a standard design 
or construction technique can 
be eligible if study could yield 
important information, such as 
how local availability of 
materials or construction exper- 
tise affected the evolution of 
local building development. 

Not Eligible 

• The ruins of a hacienda that 
once contained murals that 
have since been destroyed. 
Historical documentation, 
however, indicates that the 
murals were significant for 
their highly unusual design. 
The ruins can not be eligible 
under Criterion D for the im- 
portance of the destroyed 
murals if the information is 
contained only in the documen- 
tation. 






21 




Criterion D - Champe-Fremont 1 Archeological Site, Omaha vicinity, Douglas County, 
Nebraska. This archeological site, dating from ca. 1 100-1450, consists of pit houses and storage 
pits which have the potential to yield important information concerning the subsistence pat- 
terns, religious and morturay practices, and social organization of the prehistoric residents of 
eastern Nebraska. (Photo by Nebraska State Historical Society). 



ASSOCIATION WITH 
HUMAN ACTIVITY 

A property must be associated with 
human activity and be critical for un- 
derstanding a site's historic environ- 
ment in order to be eligible under 
Criterion D. A property can be 
linked to human activity through 
events, processes, institutions, 
design, construction, settlement, 
migration, ideals, beliefs, lifeways, 
and other facets of the development 
or maintenance of cultural systems. 

The natural environment as- 
sociated with the properties was 
often very different from that of the 
present and strongly influenced cul- 
tural development. Aspects of the en- 
vironment that are pertinent to 
human activities should be con- 
sidered when evaluating properties 
under Criterion D. 

Natural features and paleontologi- 
cal (floral and faunal) sites are not 
usually eligible under Criterion D in 
and of themselves. They can be 
eligible, however, if they are either 
directly related to human activity or 
critical to understanding a site's his- 
toric environment. In a few cases, a 
natural feature or site unmarked by 
cultural materials, that is primarily 
eligible under Criterion A, may also 
be eligible under Criterion D, if study 
of the feature, or its location, setting, 
etc. (usually in the context of data 
gained from other sources), will yield 
important information about the 
event or period with which it is as- 
sociated. 



ESTABLISHING A 
HISTORIC CONTEXT 

The information that a property 
yields, or will yield, must be 
evaluated within an appropriate his- 
toric context. This will entail consult- 
ing the body of information already 
collected from similar properties or 
other pertinent sources, including 
modern and historic written records. 
The researcher must be able to an- 
ticipate if and how the potential infor- 
mation will affect the definition of 
the context. The information likely 
to be obtained from a particular 
property must confirm, refute, or sup- 
plement in an important way exist- 
ing information. 

A property is not eligible if it can- 
not be related to a particular time 
period or cultural group and, as a 
result, lacks any historic context 
within which to evaluate the impor- 
tance of the information to be gained. 

DEVELOPING RESEARCH 
QUESTIONS 

Having established the importance 
of the information that may be 
recovered, it is necessary to be ex- 
plicit in demonstrating the connec- 
tion between the important 
information and a specific property 
One approach is to determine if 
specific important research questions 
can be answered by the data con- 
tained in the property. Research 
questions can be related to property- 
specific issues, to broader questions 



about a large geographic area, or to 
theoretical issues independent of any 
particular geographic location. 
These questions may be derived from 
the academic community or from 
preservation programs at the local, 
regional, State, or national level. Re- 
search questions are usually 
developed as part of a "research 
design," which specifies not only the 
questions to be asked, but also the 
types of data needed to supply the 
answers, and often the techniques 
needed to recover the data. 



Eligible 

• When a site consisting of a vil- 
lage occupation with midden 
deposits, hearths, ceramics, 
and stratified evidence of 
several occupations is being 
evaluated, three possible re- 
search topics could be: 1) the 
question of whether the site oc- 
cupants were indigenous to 
the area prior to the time of oc- 
cupation or recent arrivals, 

2) the investigation of the 
settlement-subsistence pattern 
of the occupants, 3) the ques- 
tion of whether the region was 
a center for the domestication 
of plants. Specific questions 
could include: A) Do the 
depoits show a sequential 
development or sudden intro- 
duction of Ceramic Type X? 

B) Do the dates of the occupa- 
tions fit our expectations based 
on the current model for the 
reoccupation behavior of slash- 
and-burn agriculturalists? 

C) Can any genetic changes in 
the food plant remains be 
dected? 

Not Eligible 

• A property is not eligible if so 
little can be understood about 
it that it is not possible to deter- 
mine if specific important re- 
search questions can be 
answered by data contained in 
the property. 



ESTABLISHING THE 
PRESENCE OF ADEQUATE 
DATA 

To support the assertion that a 
property has the data necessary to 
provide the important information, 
the property should be investigated 
with techniques sufficient to establish 
the presence of relevant data 
categories. What constitutes ap- 
propriate investigation techniques 
would depend upon specific cir- 
cumstances including the property's 
location, condition, and the research 
questions being addressed, and could 
range from surface survey (or 
photographic survey for buildings) 
to the application of remote sensing 
techniques or intensive subsurface 
testing. Justification of the research 
potential of a property may be based 
on analogy to another better known 
property if sufficient similarities exist 
to establish the appropriateness of 
the analogy. 



Eligible 

• Data requirements depend on 
the specific research topics and 
questions to be addressed. To 
continue the example in 
"Developing Research Ques- 
tions" above, we might want to 
ascertain the following with ref- 
erence to questions A,B,andC: 
A) The site contains Ceramic 
Type X in one or more occupa- 
tion levels and we expect to be 
able to document the local 
evaluation of the type or its in- 
trusive nature. B) The hearths 
contain datable carbon deposits 
and are associated with more 
than one occupation. C) The 
midden deposits show good 
floral /faunal preservation, and 
we know enough about the 
physical evolution of food 
plants to interpret signs that 
suggest domestication. 

Not Eligible 

• Generally, if the applicable re- 
search design requires clearly 
stratified deposits, then subsur- 
face investigation techniques 
must be applied. A site com- 
posed only of surface materials 
can not be eligible for its poten- 
tial to yield information that 
could only be found in 
stratified deposits. 



INTEGRITY 

The assessment of integrity for 
properties considered for informa- 
tion potential depends on the data re- 
quirements of, the applicable research 
design. A property possessing infor- 
mation potential does not need to 
recall visually an event, person, 
process, or construction technique. It 
is important that the significant data 
contained in the property remain suf- 
ficiently intact to yield the expected 
important information, if the ap- 
propriate study techniques are 
employed. 



Eligible 

• An irrigation system sig- 
nificant for the information it 
will yield on early engineering 
practices can still be eligible 
even though it is now filled in 
and no longer retains the ap- 
pearance of an open canal. 

Not Eligible 

• A plowed archeological site 
contains several superimposed 
components that have been 
mixed to the extent that ar- 
tifact assemblages cannot be 
reconstructed. The site cannot 
be eligible if the data require- 
ments of the research design 
call for the study of artifacts 
specific to one component. 



PARTLY EXCAVATED OR 
DISTURBED PROPERTIES 

The current existence of ap- 
propriate physical remains must be 
ascertained in considering a 
property's ability to yield important 
information. Properties that have 
been partly excavated or otherwise 
disturbed and that are being con- 
sidered for their potential to yield ad- 
ditional important information must 
be shown to retain that potential in 
their remaining portions. 



Eligible 

• A site that has been partially 
excavated but still retains sub- 
stantial intact deposits (or a 
site in which the remaining 
deposits are small but contain 
critical information on a topic 
that is not well known) is 
eligible. 

Not Eligible 

• A totally collected surface site 
or a completely excavated 
buried site is not eligible since 
the physical remains capable 
of yielding important informa- 
tion no longer exist at the site. 
(See Completely Excavated Sites, 
below, for exception.) 
Likewise, a site that has been 
looted or otherwise disturbed 
to the extent that the remain- 
ing cultural materials have lost 
their important depositional 
context (horizontal or vertical 
location of deposits) is not 
eligible. 

• A reconstructed mound or 
other reconstructed site will 
generally not be considered 
eligible, because original cul- 
tural materials or context or 
both have been lost. 



COMPLETELY EXCAVATED 
SITES 

Properties that have yielded impor- 
tant information in the past and that 
no longer retain additional research 
potential (such as completely ex- 
cavated archeological sites) must be 
assessed essentially as historic sites 
under Criterion A. Such sites must 
be significant for associative values 
related to: 1) the importance of the 
data gained or 2) the impact of the 
property's role in the history of the 
development of anthropology /ar- 
cheology or other relevant dis- 
ciplines. Like other historic 
properties, the site must retain the 
ability to convey its association as the 
former repository of important infor- 
mation, the location of historic 
events, or the representative of im- 
portant trends. 



Eligible 

• A property that has been ex- 
cavated is eligible if the data 
recovered was of such impor- 
tance that it influenced the 
direction of research in the dis- 
cipline, as in a site that clearly 
established the antiquity of the 
human occupation of the New 
World. (See Criterion A in Part 
VI: How to Identify the Type of 
Significance of a Property and 
Criteria Consideration G in 
Part VII: How to Apply the 
Criteria Consideration.) 

Not Eligible 

• A totally excavated site that at 
one time yielded important in- 
formation but that no longer 
can convey either its his- 
toric/prehistoric utilization or 
significant modern investiga- 
tion is not eligible. 



VII. HOW TO APPLY 
THE CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATIONS 



INTRODUCTION 

Certain kinds of properties are not 
usually considered for listing.in the 
National Register: religious proper- 
ties, moved properties, birthplaces 
and graves, cemeteries, reconstructed 
properties, commemorative proper- 
ties, and properties achieving sig- 
nificance within the past fifty years. 
These properties can be eligible for 
listing, however, if they meet special 
requirements, called Criteria Con- 
siderations, in addition to meeting 
the regular requirements (that is, 
being eligible under one or more of 
the four Criteria and possessing in- 
tegrity). Part VII provides guidelines 
for determining which properties 
must meet these special requirements 
and for applying each Criteria Con- 
sideration. 

The Criteria Considerations need to 
be applied only to individual proper- 
ties. Components of eligible districts 
do not have to meet the special re- 
quirements unless they make up the 
majority of the district or are the 
focal point of the district. These are 
the general steps to follow when ap- 
plying the Criteria Considerations to 
your property: 

• Before looking at the Criteria Con- 
siderations, make sure your 
property meets one or more of 
the four Criteria for Evaluation 
and possesses integrity. 

• If it does, check the Criteria Con- 
siderations (to the right) to see if 



the property is of a type that is 
usually excluded from the Nation- 
al Register. The sections that fol- 
low also list specific examples of 
properties of each type. If your 
property clearly does not fit one of 
these types, then it does not need 
to meet any special requirements. 

• If your property does fit one of 
these types, then it must meet the 
special requirements stipulated 
for that type in the Criteria Con- 
siderations. 

CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION* 

Ordinarily cemeteries, birthplaces, 
or graves of historical figures, proper- 
ties owned by religious institutions 
or used for religious purposes, struc- 
tures that have been moved from 
their original locations, reconstructed 
historic buildings, properties primari- 
ly commemorative in nature, and 
properties that have achieved sig- 
nificance within the past fifty years 
shall not be considered eligible for 
the National Register. However, 
such properties will qualify if they 
are integral parts of districts that do 
meet the criteria or if they fall within 
the following categories: 

• a religious property deriving 
primary significance from ar- 
chitectural or artistic distinction 
or historical importance; or 

• a building or structure removed 
from its original location but 
which is significant primarily for 



architectural value or which is the 
surviving structure most impor- 
tantly associated with a historic 
person or event; or 

• a birthplace or grave of a histori- 
cal figure of outstanding impor- 
tance if there is no appropriate 
site or building directly as- 
sociated with his productive life; 
or 

• a cemetery which derives its 
primary significance from graves 
of persons of transcedent impor- 
tance, from age, from distinctive 
design features, from association 
with historic events; or 

• a reconstructed building when ac- 
curately executed in a suitable en- 
vironment and presented in a 
dignified manner as part of a res- 
toration master plan, and when 
no other building or structure 
with the same association has sur- 
vived; or 

• a property primarily commemora- 
tive in intent if design, age, tradi- 
tion, or symbolic value has 
invested it with its own exception- 
al significance; or 

• a property achieving significance 
within the past 50 years if it is of 
exceptional importance. 

"The Criteria Considerations are taken from 
the Criteria for Evaluation, found in the Code of 
Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 60. The 
Criteria are reprinted in this bulletin on page 2. 



9=i 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION A: 
RELIGIOUS PROPERTIES 

A religious property is eligible if it derives its primary significance from architectural or artistic distinction or his- 
torical importance. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
A: RELIGIOUS 
PROPERTIES 

A religious property requires jus- 
tification on architectural, artistic, or 
historic grounds to avoid any ap- 
pearance of judgment by govern- 
ment about the validity of any 
religion or belief. Historic sig- 
nificance for a religious property can- 
not be established on the merits of a 
religious doctrine, but rather, for ar- 
chitectural or artistic values or for im- 
portant historic or cultural forces that 
the property represents. A religious 
property's significance under 
Criterion A, B, C, or D must be 
judged in purely secular terms. A 
religious group may, in some cases, 
be considered a cultural group 
whose activities are significant in 
areas broader than religious history. 

Criteria Consideration for 
Religious Properties applies: 

• If the resource was constructed 
by a religious institution. 

• If the resource is presently owned 
by a religious institution or is 
used for religious purposes. 

• If the resource was owned by a 
religious institution or used for 
religious purposes during its 
Period of Significance. 

• If Religion is selected as an Area 
of Significance. 



Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration A: 
Religious Properties 

• A historic church where an impor- 
tant non-religious event occurred, 
such as a speech by Patrick Henry. 

• A historic synagogue that is sig- 
nificant for architecture. 

• A private residence is the site of a 
meeting important to religious his- 
tory. 

• A commercial block that is currently 
owned as an investment property by 
a religious institution. 

• A historic dbtrict in which religion 
was either a predominant or sig- 
nificant function during the period of 
significance. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria Con- 
sideration A: Religious Properties 

• A residential or commercial district 
that currently contains a small num- 
ber of churches that are not a 
predominant feature of the district. 

• A town meeting hall that serves as 
the center of community activity and 
houses a wide variety of public and 
private meetings, including religious 
services. The resource is significant 
for architecture and politics, and the 
religious function is incidental. 

• A town hall, significant for politics 
from 1875 to 1925, that housed 
religious services during the 1950s. 
Since the religious function occurred 
after the Period of Significance, the 
Criteria Consideration does not 
apply. 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
A: RELIGIOUS 
PROPERTIES 

ELIGIBILITY FOR 
HISTORIC EVENTS 

A religious property can be eligible 
under Criterion A for any of three 
reasons: 

• It is significant under a theme in 
the history of religion having 
secular scholarly recognition; or 

• It is significant under another his- 
torical theme, such as explora- 
tion, settlement, social 
philanthropy, or education; or 

• It is significantly associated with 
traditional cultural values 
(defined on page 13). 



RELIGIOUS HISTORY 

A religious property can be eligible 
if it is directly associated with either 
a specific event or a broad pattern in 
the history of religion. 



Eligible 

• The site of a convention at 
which a significant denomina- 
tional split occurred meets the 
requirements of Criteria Con- 
sideration A. Also eligible is a 
property that illustrates the 
broad impact of a religious in- 
stitution on the history of a 
local area. 

Not Eligible 

• A religious property cannot be 
eligible simply because it was 
the place of religious services 
for a community, or was the 
oldest structure used by a 
religious group in a local area. 



OTHER HISTORICAL 
THEMES 

A religious property can be eligible 
if it is directly associated with either 
a specific event or a broad pattern 
that is significant in another historic 
context. A religious property would 
also qualify if it were significant for 
its associations that illustrate the im- 
portance of a particular religious 
group in the social, cultural, 
economic, or political history of the 
area. Eligibility depends on the im- 
portance of the event or broad pat- 
tern and the role of the specific 
property. 



Eligible 

• A religious property can 
qualify for its important role as 
a temporary hospital during 
the Revolutionary War, or if its 
school was significant in the 
history of education in the 
community. 

Not Eligible 

• A religious property is not sig- 
nificant in the history of educa- 
tion in a community simply 
because it had occasionally 
served as a school. 



TRADITIONAL CULTURAL 
VALUES 

When evaluating properties as- 
sociated with traditional cultures, it 
is important to recognize that often 
these cultures do not make clear dis- 
tinctions between what is secular and 
what is sacred. Criteria Considera- 
tion A is not intended to exclude 
traditional cultural resources merely 
because they have religious uses or 
are considered sacred. A property or 
natural feature important to a tradi- 
tional culture's religion and mytho- 
logy is eligible if its importance has 
been ethnohistorically documented 
and if the site can be clearly defined. 
It is critical, however, that the ac- 
tivities be documented and that the 
associations not be so diffuse that the 
physical resource cannot be adequate- 
ly defined. 



Eligible 

• A specific location or natural 
feature that an Indian tribe 
believes to be its place of 
origin and that is adequately 
documented qualifies under 
Criteria Consideration A. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 
HISTORIC PERSONS 

A religious property can be eligible 
for association with a person impor- 
tant in religious history, if that sig- 
nificance has scholarly, secular 
recognition or is important in other 
historic contexts. Individuals who 
would likely be considered sig- 
nificant are those who formed or sig- 
nificantly influenced an important 
religious institution or movement, or 
who were important in the social, 
economic, or political history of the 
area. Properties associated with in- 
dividuals important only within the 
context of a single congregation and 
lacking importance in any other his- 
toric context would not be eligible 
under Criterion B. 



Eligible 

• A religious property strongly 
associated with a religious 
leader, such as George 
Whitefield or Joseph Smith, is 
eligible. 



For more information on applying Criteria Consideration A to traditional cultural properties, refer to National Register Bulletin 38: Guidelines for 
Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. 



27 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 
ARCHITECTURAL OR 
ARTISTIC DISTINCTION 

A religious property significant for 
its architectural design or construc- 
tion should be evaluated as are other 
properties under Criterion C; that is, 
it should be evaluated within an es- 
tablished architectural context and, if 
necessary, compared to other proper- 
ties of its type, period, or method of 
construction. (See "Comparing Re- 
lated Properties" in Part V: How to 
Evaluate a Property Within Its Historic 
Context.) 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 

INFORMATION 

POTENTIAL 

A religious property, whether a dis- 
trict, site, building, structure, or ob- 
ject, is eligible if it can yield 
important information about the 
religious practices of a cultural group 
or other historic themes. This kind of 
property should be evaluated as are 
other properties under Criterion D, 
in relation to similar properties, other 
information sources, and existing 
data gaps. 



Eligible 

• A historic camp meeting dis- 
trict that meets the require- 
ments of Criterion C for its 
significance as a type of con- 
struction is eligible. 



Eligible 



A 19th century camp meeting 
site that could provide informa- 
tion about the length and inten- 
sity of site use during revivials 
of the Second Great Awaken- 
ing is eligible. 

Rock cairns or medicine 
wheels that had a historic 
religious mythological func- 
tion and can provide informa- 
tion about specific cultural 
beliefs are eligible. 



«^kS" 




ABILITY TO REFLECT 
HISTORIC ASSOCIATIONS 

As with all eligible properties, 
religious properties must physically 
represent the period of time for 
which they are significant. For in- 
stance, a recent building that houses 
an older congregation cannot qualify 
based on the historic activities of the 
group because the current building 
does not convey the earlier history. 
Likewise, an older building that 
housed the historic activities of the 
congregation is eligible if it still physi- 
cally represents the period of the 
congregation's significance. How- 
ever, if an older building has been 
remodeled to the extent that its ap- 
pearance dates from the time of the 
remodeling, it can only be eligible if 
the Period of Significance cor- 
responds with the period of the al- 
terations. 



Criteria Consideration A - Religious Properties. A religious property can qualify as an ex- 
ception to the Criteria if it is architecturally significant. The Church of the Nativity in 
Rosedale, Iberville Parish, Louisiana, qualified as a rare example in the State of a 19th century 
small frame Gothic Revival style chapel. (Photo by Robert Obier). 



Eligible 

• A church built in the 18th cen- 
tury and altered beyond recog- 
niton in the 19th century is 
eligible only if the additions 
are important in themselves as 
an example of 19th century ar- 
chitecture or as a reflection of 
an important period of the 
congregation's growth. 

Not Eligible 

• A synagogue built in the 1920s 
cannot be eligible for the im- 
portant activities of its con- 
gregation in the 18th and 19th 
centuries. It can only be 
eligible for significance ob- 
tained after its construction 
date. 

• A rural 19th century frame 
church recently sheathed in 
brick is not eligible because it 
has lost its characteristic ap- 
pearance and therefore can no 
longer convey its 19th century 
significance, either for architec- 
tural value or historic 
association. 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION B: 
MOVED PROPERTIES 

A property removed from its original or historically significant location can be eligible if it is significant primarily 
for architectural value or it is the surviving property most importantly associated with a historic person or event. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION B: 
MOVED 
PROPERTIES 

The National Register criteria limit 
the consideration of moved proper- 
ties because significance is embodied 
in locations and settings as well as in 
the properties themselves. Moving a 
property destroys the relationships 
between the property and its sur- 
roundings and destroys associations 
with historic events and persons. A 
move may also cause the loss of his- 
toric features such as landscaping, 
foundations, and chimneys, as well 
as loss of the potential for associated 
archeological deposits. Properties 
that were moved before their Period 
of Significance do not need to meet 
the special requirements of Criteria 
Consideration B. 

One of the basic purposes of the 
National Register is to encourage the 
preservation of historic properties as 
living parts of their communities. In 
keeping with this purpose, it is not 
usual to list artificial groupings of 
buildings that have been created for 
purposes of interpretation, protec- 
tion, or maintenance. Moving build- 
ings to such a grouping destroys the 
integrity of location and setting, and 
can create a false sense of historic 
development. 



Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration B: 
Moved Properties 

• A resource moved from one location 
on its original site to another loca- 
tion on the property, during or after 
its Period of Significance. 

• A district in which a significant 
number of resources have been 
moved from their original location. 

• A district which has one moved build- 
ing that makes an especially sig- 
nificant contribution to the district. 

• A portable resource, such as a ship or 
railroad car, that is relocated to a 
place incompatible with its original 
function. 

• A portable resource, such as a ship or 
railroad car, whose importance is 
critically linked to its historic loca- 
tion or route and that is moved. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria Con- 
sideration B: Moved Properties 

• A property that is moved prior to its 
Period of Significance. 

• A district in which only a small per- 
centage of typical buildings in a dis- 
trict are moved. 

• A moved building that is part of a 
complex but is of less significance 
than the remaining (unmoved) 
buildings. 

• A portable resource, such as a ship or 
railroad car, that is eligible under 
Criterion Cand is moved within its 
natural setting (water, rails,etc). 

• A property that is raised or lowered 
on its foundations. 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION B: 
MOVED 
PROPERTIES 

ELIGIBILITY FOR 
ARCHITECTURAL VALUE 

A moved property significant 
under Criterion C must retain 
enough historic features to convey its 
architectural values and retain in- 
tegrity of design, materials, 
workmanship, feeling, and associa- 
tion. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 
HISTORIC ASSOCIATIONS 

A moved property significant 
under Criteria A or B must be 
demonstrated to be the surviving 
property most importantly as- 
sociated with a particular historic 
event or an important aspect of a his- 
toric person's life. The phrase "most 
importantly associated" means that it 
must be the single surviving proper- 
ty that is most closely associated with 
the event or with the part of the 
person's life for which he or she is 
significant. 



Eligible 

• A moved building occupied by 
a business woman during the 
majority of her productive 
career would be eligible if the 
other extant properties are a 
house she briefly inhabited 
prior to her Period of Sig- 
nificance and a commercial 
building she owned after her 
retirement. 

Not Eligible 

• A moved building associated 
with the beginning of rail 
transportation in a community 
is not eligible if the original 
railroad station and 
warehouse remained intact on 
their original sites. 



SETTING AND 
ENVIRONMENT 

In addition to the requirements 
above, moved properties must still 
have an orientation, setting, and 
general environment that are com- 
parable to those of the historic loca- 
tion and that are compatible with the 
property's significance. 



ASSOCIATION 
DEPENDENT ON THE SITE 

For a property whose design values 
or historical associations are directly 
dependent on its location, any move 
will cause the property to lose its in- 
tegrity and prevent it from convey- 
ing its significance. 



Eligible 

• A property significant as an ex- 
ample of mid-19th century 
rural house type can be 
eligible after a move, provided 
that it is placed on a lot that is 
sufficient in size and character 
to recall the basic qualities of 
the historic environment and 
setting, and provided that the 
building is sited appropriately 
in relation to natural and man- 
made surroundings. 

Not Eligible 

• A rural house that is moved 
into an urban area and a 
bridge that is no longer 
situated over a waterway are 
not eligible. 



Eligible 

• A farm structure significant 
only as an example of a 
method of construction 
peculiar to the local area is still 
eligible if it is moved within 
that local area and the new set- 
ting is similar to that of the 
original location. 

Not Eligible 

• A 19th century rural residence 
that was designed around par- 
ticular topographic features 
reflecting that time period's 
ideals of environment is not 
eligible if moved. 



PROPERTIES DESIGNED 
TO BE MOVED 

A property designed to move or a 
property frequently moved during its 
historic use must be located in a his- 
torically appropriate setting in order 
to qualify, retaining its integrity of 
setting, design, feeling, and associa- 
tion. Such properties include 
automobiles, railroad cars and en- 
gines, and ships. 



ARTIFICIALLY CREATED 
GROUPINGS 

An artificially created grouping of 
buildings, structures, or objects is not 
eligible unless it has achieved sig- 
nificance since the time of its as- 
semblage. It cannot be considered as 
a reflection of the time period when 
the individual buildings were con- 
structed. 



PORTIONS OF PROPERTIES 

A moved portion of a building, 
structure, or object is not eligible be- 
cause, as a fragment of a larger 
resource, it has lost integrity of 
design, setting, materials, workman- 
ship, and location. 



Eligible 

• A ship docked in a harbor, a 
locomotive on tracks or in a 
railyard, and a bridge relo- 
cated from one body of water 
to another are eligible. 

Not Eligible 

• A ship on land in a park, a 
bridge placed in a pasture, or a 
locomotive displayed in an in- 
door museum are not eligible. 



Eligible 

• A grouping of moved historic 
buildings whose creation 
marked the beginning of a 
major concern with past life- 
styles can qualify as an early 
attempt at historic preserva- 
tion and as an illustration of 
that generation's values. 

Not Eligible 

• A rural district composed of a 
farmhouse on its original site 
and a grouping of historic 
barns recently moved onto the 
property is not eligible. 



11 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION C: 
BIRTHPLACES OR GRAVES 

A birthplace or grave of a historical figure is eligible if the person is of outstanding importance and if there is no 
other appropriate site or building directly associated with his or her productive life. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
C: BIRTHPLACES 
AND GRAVES 

Birthplaces and graves often attain 
importance as reflections of the 
origins of important persons or as 
lasting memorials to them. The lives 
of persons significant in our past nor- 
mally are recognized by the National 
Register through listing of properties 
illustrative of or associated with that 
person's productive life's work. 
Birthplaces and graves, as properties 
that represent the beginning and the 
end of the life of distinguished in- 
dividuals, may be temporally and 
geographically far removed from the 
person's significant activities, and 
therefore are not usually considered 
eligible. 

Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration C: 
Birthplaces and Graves 

• The birthplace of a significant person 
who lived elsewhere during his or her 
Period of Significance. 

• A grave that is nominated for its as- 
sociation with the significant person 
buried in it. 

• A grave that is nominated for infor- 
mation potential. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria 
Consideration C: Birthplaces and 
Graves 

• A house that was inhabited by a sig- 
nificant person for his or her entire 
lifetime. 

• A grave located on the grounds of the 
house where a significant person 
spent his or her productive years. 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
C: BIRTHPLACES 
AND GRAVES 

PERSONS OF 

OUTSTANDING 

IMPORTANCE 

The phrase "a historical figure of 
outstanding importance" means that 
in order for a birthplace or grave to 
qualify, it cannot be simply the 
birthplace or grave of a person sig- 
nificant in our past (Criterion B). It 
must be the birthplace or grave of an 
individual who was of outstanding 
importance in the history of the local 
area, State, or nation. The birthplace 
or grave of an individual who was 
one of several people active in some 
aspect of the history of a community, 
a state, or the Nation would not be 
eligible. 



LAST SURVIVING 
PROPERTY ASSOCIATED 
WITH A PERSON 

When an geographical area strong- 
ly associated with a person of out- 
standing importance has lost all 
other properties directly associated 
with his or her formative years or 
productive life, a birthplace or grave 
may be eligible. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR OTHER 
ASSOCIATIONS 

A birthplace or grave can also be 
eligible if it is significant for reasons 
other than association with the 
productive life of the person in ques- 
tion. It can be eligible for sig- 
nificance under Criterion A for 
association with important events, 
under Criterion B for association 
with the productive lives of other im- 
portant persons, or under Criterion C 
for architectural significance. A 
birthplace or grave can also be 
eligible in rare cases if, after the pas- 
sage of time, it is significant for its 
commemorative value. (See Criteria 
Consideration F for a discussion of 
commemorative properties.) A 
birthplace or grave can also be 
eligible under Criterion D if it con- 
tains important information on re- 
search, e.g., demography, pathology, 
mortuary practices, socioeconomic 
status differentiation. 




Criteria Consideration C - Birthplaces. A birthplace of a historical figure is eligible if the 
person is of outstanding importance and there is no other appropriate site or building associated 
with his or her productive life. The Walter Reed Birthplace, Gloucester vicinity, Gloucester 
County, Virginia is the most appropriate remaining building associated with the life of the man 
who, in 1900, discovered the cause and mode of transmission of the great scourge of the tropics, 
yellow fever. (Photo by Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission). 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION D: 
CEMETERIES 

A cemetery is eligible if it derives its primary significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, from 
age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
D: CEMETERIES 



A cemetery is a collection of graves 
that is marked by stones or other ar- 
tifacts or that is unmarked but recog- 
nizable by features such as fencing or 
depressions, or through maps, or by 
means of testing. Cemeteries serve 
as a primary means of an 
individual's recognition of family his- 
tory and as expressions of collective 
religious and /or ethnic identity. Be- 
cause cemeteries may embody values 
beyond personal or family-specific 
emotions, the National Register 
criteria allow for listing of cemeteries 
under certain conditions. 



Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration D: 
Cemeteries 

• A cemetery that is nominated in- 
dividually for Criterion A, B, or C. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria 
Consideration D: Cemeteries 

• A cemetery that is nominated along 
with its associated church, but the 
church is the main resource 
nominated. 

• A cemetery that is nominated under 
Criterion Dfor information potential. 

• A cemetery that is nominated as part 
of a district but is not the focal point 
of the district. 




APPLYING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
D: CEMETERIES 

PERSONS OF 

TRANSCENDENT 

IMPORTANCE 

A cemetery containing the graves 
of persons of transcendent impor- 
tance may be eligible. To be of 
transcendent importance the persons 
must have been of great eminence in 
their fields of endeavor or had a 
great impact upon the history of their 
community. State, or nation. (A 
single grave that is the burial place of 
an important person and is located in 
a larger cemetery that does not 
qualify under this Criteria Considera- 
tion should be treated under Criteria 
Consideration C: Birthplaces and 
Graves.) 



Criteria Consideration D - Cemeteries. The Hancock Cemetery, Quincy, Norfolk County, 
Massachusetts meets the exception to the Criteria because it derives its primary significance 
from its great age (the earliest burials date from 1640) and from the distinctive design features 
found in its rich collection of late 17th century and early 18th century funerary art. (Photo by 
N. Hobart Holly). 



Eligible 

• A historic cemetery containing 
the graves of a number of per- 
sons who were exceptionally 
significant in determining the 
course of a State's political or 
economic history during a par- 
ticular period is eligible. 

Not Eligible 

• A cemetery containing graves 
of State legislators is not 
eligible if they simply per- 
formed the daily business of 
State government and did not 
have an outstanding impact 
upon the nature and direction 
of the State's history. 



ELIGIBILITY ON THE 
BASIS OF AGE 

Cemeteries can be eligible if they 
have achieved historic significance 
for their relative great age in a par- 
ticular geographic or cultural context. 



Eligible 

• A cemetery dating from a 
community's original 1830s set- 
tlement can attain significance 
from its association with that 
very early period. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR DESIGN 

Cemeteries can qualify on the basis 
of distinctive design values. These 
values refer to the same design 
values addressed in Criterion C and 
can include aesthetic or technological 
achievement in the fields of city plan- 
ning, architecture, landscape architec- 
ture, engineering, mortuary art, and 
sculpture. As for all other nominated 
properties, a cemetery must clearly 
express its design values and be able 
to convey its historic appearance. 



Eligible 

• A Victorian cemetery is eligible 
if it clearly expresses the aes- 
thetic principles related to 
funerary design for that 
period, through such features 
as the overall plan, landscap- 
ing, statuary, sculpture, fenc- 
ing, buildings, and grave 
markers. 

Not Eligible 

• A cemetery cannot be eligible 
for design values if it no longer 
conveys its historic appearance 
because of the introduction of 
new grave markers. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 
ASSOCIATION WITH 
EVENTS 

Cemeteries may be associated with 
historic events including specific im- 
portant events or general events that 
illustrate broad patterns. 



Eligible 

• A cemetery associated with an 
important Civil War battle is 
eligible. 

• A cemetery associated with the 
settlement of an area by an eth- 
nic or cultural group is eligible 
if the movement of the group 
into the area had an important 
impact, if other properties as- 
sociated with that group are 
rare, and if few documentary 
sources have survived to pro- 
vide information about the 
group's history. 

Not Eligible 

• A cemetery associated with a 
battle in the Civil War does not 
qualify if the battle was not im- 
portant in the history of the 
war. 

• A cemetery associated with an 
area's settlement by an ethnic 
or cultural group is not eligible 
if the impact of the group on 
the area cannot be established, 
if other extant historic proper- 
ties better convey association 
with the group, or if the infor- 
mation that the cemetery can 
impart is available in documen- 
tary sources. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR 

INFORMATION 

POTENTIAL 

Cemeteries, both historic and 
prehistoric, can be eligible if they 
have the potential to yield important 
information. The information must 
be important within a specific con- 
text and the potential to yield infor- 
mation must be demonstrated. 

A cemetery can qualify if it has 
potential to yield important informa- 
tion provided that the information it 
contains is not available in extant 
documentary evidence. 



Eligible 

• A cemetery associated with the 
settlement of a particular cul- 
tural group will qualify if it 
has the potential to yield im- 
portant information about sub- 
jects such as demography, 
variations in morturay prac- 
tices, or the study of the cause 
of death correlated with nutri- 
tion or other variables. 



INTEGRITY 

Assessing the integrity of a historic 
cemetery entails evaluating principal 
design features such as plan, grave 
markers, and any related elements 
(such as fencing). Only that portion 
of a historic cemetery that retains its 
historic integrity can be eligible. If 
the overall integrity has been lost be- 
cause of the number and size of 
recent grave markers, some features 
such as buildings, structures, or ob- 
jects that retain integrity may be con- 
sidered as individual properties if 
they are of such historic or artistic im- 
portance that they individually meet 
one or more of the requirements 
listed above. 



NATIONAL CEMETERIES 

National Cemeteries administered 
by the Veterans Administration are 
eligible because they have been desig- 
nated by Congress as primary 
memorials to the military history of 
the United States. Those areas within 
a designated national cemetery that 
have been used or prepared for the 
reception of the remains of veterans 
and their dependents, as well as any 
landscaped areas that immediately 
surround the graves may qualify. Be- 
cause these cemeteries draw their sig- 
nificance from the presence of the 
remains of military personnel who 
have served the country throughout 
its history, the age of the cemetery is 



not a factor in judging eligibility, al- 
though integrity must be present. 

A national cemetery or a portion of 
a national cemetery that has only 
been set aside for use in the future is 
not eligible. 



xe. 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION E: 
RECONSTRUCTED PROPERTIES 

A reconstructed property is eligible when it is accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dig- 
nified manner as part of a restoration master plan and when no other building or structure with the same associa- 
tions has survived. All three of these requirements must be met. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION E: 
RECONSTRUCTED 
PROPERTIES 

"Reconstruction" is defined as the 
reproduction of the exact form and 
detail of a vanished building, struc- 
ture, object, or a part thereof, as it 
appeared at a specific period of time. 
Reconstructed buildings fall into two 
categories: buildings wholly con- 
structed of new materials and build- 
ings reassembled from some historic 
and some new materials. Both cate- 
gories of properties present problems 
in meeting the integrity requirements 
of the National Register criteria. 

Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration E: 
Reconstructed Properties 

• A property in which most or all of 
the fabric is not original. 

• A district in which an important 
resource or a significant number of 
resources are reconstructions. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria 
Consideration E: Reconstructed 
Properties 

• A property that is remodeled or 
renovated and still has the majority 
of its original fabric. 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION E: 
RECONSTRUCTED 
PROPERTIES 

ACCURACY OF THE 
RECONSTRUCTION 

The phrase "accurately executed" 
means that the reconstruction must 
be based upon sound archeological, 
architectural, and historic data con- 
cerning the historic construction and 
appearance of the resource. That 
documentation should include both 
analysis of any above or below 
ground material and research in writ- 
ten and other records. 



SUITABLE ENVIRONMENT 

The phrase "suitable environment" 
refers to: 1) the physical context 
provided by the historic district and 
2) any interpretive scheme, if the his- 
toric district is used for interpretive 
purposes. This means that the 
reconstructed property must be lo- 
cated at the same site as the original. 
It must also be situated in its original 
grouping of buildings, structures, 
and objects (as many as are extant), 
and that grouping must retain in- 
tegrity. In addition, the reconstruc- 
tion must not be misrepresented as 
an authentic historic property. 



Eligible 

• A reconstructed plantation 
manager's office building is 
considered eligible because it 
is located at its historic site, 
grouped with the remaining 
historic plantation buildings 
and structures, and the planta- 
tion as a whole retains in- 
tegrity. Interpretation of the 
plantation district includes an 
explanation that the manger's 
office is not the original bui- 
dling, but a reconstruction. 

Not Eligible 

• The same reconstructed planta- 
tion manager's office building 
would not qualify if it were 
rebuilt at a location different 
from that of the original build- 
ing or if the district as a whole 
no longer reflected the period 
for which it is significant or if a 
misleading interpretive 
scheme were used for the 
district or for the reconstruc- 
tion itself. 



17 



RESTORATION MASTER 
PLANS 

Being presented "as part of a res- 
toration master plan" means that: 1) 
a reconstructed property is an essen- 
tial component in a historic district 
and 2) the reconstruction is part of an 
overall restoration plan for an entire 
district. "Restoration" is defined as 
accurately recovering the form and 
details of a property and its setting as 
it appeared at a particular period by 
removing later work or by replacing 
missing earlier work (as opposed to 
completely rebuilding the property). 
The master plan for the entire proper- 
ty must emphasize restoration, not 
reconstruction. In other words, the 
master plan for the entire resource 
would not be acceptable under this 
consideration if it called for 
reconstruction of a majority of the 
resource. 



LAST SURVIVING 
PROPERTY OF A TYPE 

This consideration also stipulates 
that a reconstruction can qualify if, in 
addition to the other requirements, 
no other building, object, or structure 
with the same association has sur- 
vived. A reconstruction that is part 
of a restoration master plan is ap- 
propriate only if: 1) the property is 
the only one in the district with 
which a particular important activity 
or event has been historically as- 
sociated or 2) no other property with 
the same associative values has sur- 
vived. 



RECONSTRUCTIONS 
OLDER THAN FIFTY YEARS 

After the passage of fifty years, a 
reconstruction may on its own attain 
significance for what it reveals about 
the period in which it was built, 
rather than the historic period it was 
intended to depict. On that basis, a 
reconstruction can possibly qualify 
under any of the Criteria. 



Eligible 

• A reconstructed plantation 
manager's office is eligible if 
the office were an important 
component of the plantation 
and if the reconstruction is one 
element in an overall plan for 
restoring the plantation and if 
no other building or structure 
with the same associations has 
survived. 

• The reconstruction of the plan- 
tation manager's office build- 
ing can be eligible only if the 
majority of buildings, struc- 
tures, and objects that com- 
prised the plantation are 
extant and are being restored. 
For guidance regarding res- 
toration see the Secretary of the 
Interior's Standards for Historic 
Preservation Projects. 



ik 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION F: 
COMMEMORATIVE PROPERTIES 

A property primarily commemorative in intent can be eligible if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has in- 
vested it with its own historical significance. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION F: 
COMMEMORATIVE 
PROPERTIES 

Commemorative properties are 
designed or constructed after the oc- 
currence of an important historic 
event or after the life of an important 
person. They are not directly as- 
sociated with the event or with the 
person's productive life, but serve as 
evidence of a later generation's as- 
sessment of the past. Their sig- 
nificance comes from their value as 
cultural expressions at the date of 
their creation. Therefore, a com- 
memorative property generally must 
be over fifty years old and must pos- 
sess significance based on its own 
value, not on the value of the event 
or person being memorialized. 



Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration F: 
Commemorative Properties 

• A property whose sole or primary 
function is commemorative or in 
which the commemorative function is 
of primary significance. 

Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria 
Consideration F: Commemorative 
Properties 

• A resource that has a 
non-commemorative primary func- 
tion or significance. 

• A single marker that is a component 
of a district (whether contributing or 
non-contributing). 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 

CONSIDERATION F: 
COMMEMORATIVE 
PROPERTIES 

ELIGIBILITY FOR DESIGN 

A commemorative property 
derives its design from the aesthetic 
values of the period of its creation. A 
commemorative property, therefore, 
may be significant for the architec- 
tural, artistic, or other design 
qualities of its own period in prehis- 
tory or history. 



Eligible 

• A commemorative statue 
situated in a park or square is 
eligible if it expresses the aes- 
thetics or craftsmanship of the 
period when it was made, 
meeting Criterion C. 

• A late 19th century statue 
erected on a courthouse square 
to commemorate Civil War 
veterans would qualify if it 
reflects that era's shared per- 
ception of the noble character 
and valor of the veterans and 
their cause. This was common- 
ly conveyed by portraying 
idealized soldiers or allegorical 
figures of battle, victory, or 
sacrifice. 



ELIGIBILITY FOR AGE, 
TRADITION, OR 
SYMBOLIC VALUE 

A commemorative property cannot 
qualify for association with the event 
or person it memorializes. A com- 
memorative property may, however, 
acquire significance after the time of 
its creation through age, tradition, or 
symbolic value. This significance must 
be documented by accepted methods 
of historical research, including writ- 
ten or oral history, and must meet 
one or more of the Criteria. 



Eligible 



A commemorative marker 
erected by a cultural group 
that believed the place was the 
site of its origins is eligible if, 
for subsequent generations of 
the group, the marker itself be- 
came the focus of traditional 
association with the group's 
historic identity. 

A building erected as a monu- 
ment to an important historical 
figure will qualify if through 
the passage of time the proper- 
ty itself has come to symbolize 
the value placed upon the in- 
dividual and is widely recog- 
nized as a reminder of 
enduring principles or con- 
tributions valued by the 
generation that erected the 
monument. 

A commemorative marker 
erected early in the settlement 
or development of an area will 
qualify if it is demonstrated 
that, because of its relative 
great age, the property has 
long been a part of the historic 
identity of the area. 



Not Eligible 

• A commemorative marker 
erected in the past by a cul- 
tural group at the site of an 
event in its history would not 
be eligible if the marker were 
significant only for association 
with the event, and had not be- 
come significant itself through 
tradition. 

• A building erected as a monu- 
ment to an important historical 
figure would not be eligible if 
its only value lay in its associa- 
tion with the individual, and 
has not come to symbolize 
values, ideas, or contributions 
valued by the generation that 
erected the monument. 

• A commemorative marker 
erected to memorialize an 
event in the community's his- 
tory would not qualify simply 
for its associaton with the 
event it memorialized. 



INELIGIBILITY AS THE 
LAST REPRESENTATIVE 
OF AN EVENT OR PERSON 

The loss of properties directly as- 
sociated with a significant event or 
person does not strengthen the case 
for consideration of a commemora- 
tive property. Unlike birthplaces and 
graves, a commemorative property 
usually has no direct historic associa- 
tion. The commemorative property 
can qualify for historic association 
only if it is clearly significant in its 
own right, as stipulated above. 



CRITERIA CONSIDERATION G: 
PROPERTIES THAT HAVE 
ACHIEVED SIGNIFICANCE 
WITHIN THE LAST FIFTY YEARS 

A property achieving significance within the last fifty years is eligible if it is of exceptional importance. 



UNDERSTANDING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
G: PROPERTIES 
THAT HAVE 
ACHIEVED 
SIGNIFICANCE 
WITHIN THE LAST 
FIFTY YEARS 



The National Register Criteria for 
Evaluation exclude properties that 
achieved significance within the last 
fifty years unless they are of excep- 
tional importance. Fifty years is a 
general estimate of the time needed 
to develop historical perspective and 
to evaluate significance. This con- 
sideration guards against the listing 
of properties of passing contem- 
porary interest and ensures that the 
National Register is a list of truly his- 
toric places. 



Examples of Properties that MUST 
Meet Criteria Consideration G: 
Properties that Have Achieved 
Significance Within the Last Fifty 
Years 

• A property that is less than fifty 
years old. 

• A property that continues to achieve 
significance into a period less than 
fifty years before the nomination. 

• A property that has non-contiguous 
Periods of Significance, one of which 
is less than fifty years before nomina- 
tion. 

• A property that is more than fifty 
years old and had no significance 
until a period less than fifty years 
before the nomination. 

• A historic district in which the 
majority of properties or the most im- 
portant Period of Significance is less 
than fifty years old. 



Examples of Properties that DO 
NOT Need to Meet Criteria 
Consideration G: Properties that 
Have Achieved Significance Within 
the Last Fifty Years 

• A resource whose construction began 
over fifty years ago, but the comple- 
tion overlaps the fifty year period by 
a few years or less. 

• A resource that is significant for its 
plan or design, which is over fifty 
years old, but the actual completion 
of the project overlaps the fifty year 
period by a few years. 

• A historic district in which a few 
properties are newer than fifty years 
old, but the majority of properties 
and the most important Period of Sig- 
nificance are greater than fifty years 
old. 



For more information on Criteria Consideration G, refer to National Register Bulletin 22: Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties that Have 
Achieved Significance Within the Last Fifty Years. 



41 



APPLYING 
CRITERIA 
CONSIDERATION 
G: PROPERTIES 
THAT HAVE 
ACHIEVED 
SIGNIFICANCE 
WITHIN THE LAST 
FIFTY YEARS 

ELIGIBILITY FOR 

EXCEPTIONAL 

IMPORTANCE 

The phrase "exceptional impor- 
tance" may be applied to the extraor- 
dinary importance of an event or to 
an entire category of resources so 
fragile that survivors of any age are 
unusual. Properties listed that had 
attained significance in less than fifty 
years include: the launch pad at Cape 
Canaveral from which men first 
traveled to the moon, the home of na- 
tionally prominent playwright 
Eugene O'Neill, and the Chrysler 
Building (New York) significant as 
the epitome of the "Style Moderne" 
architecture. 

Properties less than fifty years old 
that qualify as exceptional because 
the entire category of resources is 
fragile include a recent example of a 
traditional sailing canoe in the Trust 
Territory of the Pacific Islands, where 
because of rapid deterioration of 
materials, no working Micronesian 
canoes exist that are more than twen- 
ty years old. Properties that by their 
nature can last more than fifty years 
cannot be considered exceptionally 
important because of the fragility of 
the class of resources. 



The phrase "exceptional impor- 
tance" does not require that the 
property be of national significance. 
It is a measure of a property's impor- 
tance within the appropriate historic 
context, whether the scale of that con- 
text is local, State, or national. 



Eligible 

• The General Laundry Building 
in New Orleans, one of the few 
remaing Art Deco Style build- 
ings in that city, was listed in 
the National Register when it 
was forty years old because of 
its exceptional importance as 
an example of that architec- 
tural style. 



HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

A property that has achieved sig- 
nificance within the last fifty years 
can be evaluated only when suffi- 
cient historical perspective exists to 
determine that the property is excep- 
tionally important. The necessary 
perspective can be provided by 
scholarly research and evaluation, 
and must consider both the historic 
context and the specific property's 
role in that context. 

In many communities, properties 
such as apartment buildings built in 
the 1940s cannot be evaluated be- 
cause there is no scholarly research 
available to provide an overview of 
the nature, role, and impact of that 
building type within the context of 
historical and architectural develop- 
ments of the 1940s. 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
RUSTIC ARCHITECTURE 

Properties such as structures built 
in a rustic style by the National Park 
Service during the 1930s and 1940s 
can now be evaluated because a 
broad study, National Park Service 
Rustic Architecture (1977), provides 
the context for evaluating properties 
of this type and style. Specific ex- 
amples were listed in the National 
Register prior to reaching fifty years 
of age when documentation concern- 
ing the individual properties estab- 
lished their significance within the 
historical and architectural context of 
the type and style. 



VETERANS 

ADMINISTRATION 

HOSPITALS 

Hospitals less than fifty years old 
that were constructed by the 
Veterans Bureau and Veterans Ad- 
ministration can be evaluated be- 
cause the collection of forty-eight 
facilities built between 1920 and 1946 
has been analyzed in a study 
prepared by the agency. The study 
provided a historic and architectural 
context for development of veteran's 
care within which hospitals could be 
evaluated. The exceptional impor- 
tance of specific individual facilities 
constructed within the past fifty 
years could therefore be determined 
based on their role and their present 
integrity. 

COMPARISON WITH 
RELATED PROPERTIES 

In justifying exceptional impor- 
tance, it is necessary to identify other 
properties within the geographical 
area that reflect the same significance 
or historic associations and to deter- 
mine which properties best represent 
the historic context in question. 
Several properties in the area could 
become eligible with the passage of 
time, but few will qualify now as ex- 
ceptionally important. 

WORLD WAR II 
PROPERTIES 

Properties associated with World 
War II must be identified and 
evaluated to determine which ones 
in an area could be judged exception- 
ally important. A mainland military 
base may have played a major role in 
troop training or in coastal defense, 
and the presence of the facility could 
have had an enormous impact on the 
local economy during the war years. 
War time activity in that community 
would probably also be reflected in 
other properties, such as a factory 
that produced war supplies. The 
military base itself, however, is that 
most likely property to be of excep- 
tional importance, because it is the 
best illustration of the war effort in 
that community. With the passage of 
time, other properties in the com- 
munity associated with the war effort 
might be determined eligible. 



farincio ... - 

be obtainable through inter- 
views with living persons but 
could be gained by ex- 
aminaton of homesites. 

• Subsistance data and material 
cultural remains from World 
War II Japanese internment 
camps or German POW camps. 

Not Eligible 

• A recent archeological site 
such as remains of a Navajo 
sheep coral used in the 1950s 
would not be considered excep- 
tionally significant for its infor- 
mation potential on animal 
husbandry if better informa- 
tion on the same topic is avail- 
able through ethnographic 
studies of living informants. 



ORIC DISTRICTS 

erties which have achieved sig- 
iCe within the past fifty years 
eligible for the National 
er if they are an integral part of 
ict which qualifies for National 
ter listing. This is demonstrated 
cumenting that the property 
from within the district's 
ed Period of Significance and 
t is associated with one or more 
e district's defined Areas of Sig- 
ance. 

operties less than fifty years old 
' be an integral part of a district 
>n there is sufficient perspective 
onsider the properties as historic, 
s is accomplished by demonstrat- 
that: 1) the district's Period of 
.nificance is justified as a discrete 
riod with a defined beginning and 
d, 2) the character of the district's 
storic resources is clearly defined 
.d assessed, 3) specific resources in 
e district are demonstrated to date 
om that discrete era, and 4) the 
lajority of district properties are 
over fifty years old. In these instan- 
ces, it is not necessary to prove excep- 
tional importance of either the 
district itself or the less-than-fifty- 
year-old properties. Exceptional im- 
portance still must be demonstrated 
for districts where the majority of 
properties or the major Period of Sig- 
nificance is less than fifty years old, 
and for less-than-fifty-year-old 
properties which are nominated in- 
dividually. 



PROPERTIES OVER FIFTY 
YEARS IN AGE, UNDER 
FIFTY YEARS IN 
SIGNIFICANCE 

Properties that are over fifty years 
old, but whose significant associa- 
tions or qualities are less than fifty 
years old, must be treated under the 
fifty year consideration. 



Eligible 



A building constructed early in 
the twentieth century (and 
having no architectural impor- 
tance), but that was associated 
with an important person 
during the 1940s and 1950s, 
must be evaluated under 
Criteria Consideration G be- 
cause the Period of Sig- 
nificance is within the past 
fifty years. Such a property 
would qualify if the person 
was of exceptional importance. 



REQUIREMENT TO MEET 
THE CRITERIA, 
REGARDLESS OF AGE 

Properties that are less than fifty 
years old and are not exceptionally 
important will not automatically 
qualify for the National Register once 
they are fifty years old. In order to 
be listed in the National Register, all 
properties, regardless of age, must be 
demonstrated to meet the Criteria for 
Evaluation. 



43 



VIII. HOW TO EVALUATE 
THE INTEGRITY OF 
A PROPERTY 



INTRODUCTION 

Integrity is the ability of a proper- 
ty to convey its significance. To be 

listed in the National Register of His- 
toric Places, a property must not only 
be shown to be significant under the 
National Register criteria, but it also 
must have integrity. The evaluation 
of integrity is sometimes a subjective 
judgment, but it must always be 
grounded in an understanding of a 
property's physical features and how 
they relate to its significance. 

Historic properties either retain in- 
tegrity (that is, convey their sig- 
nificance) or they do not. Within the 
concept of integrity, the National 
Register criteria recognizes seven 
aspects or qualities that, in various 
combinations, define integrity. 

To retain historic integrity a proper- 
ty will always possess several, and 
usually most, of the aspects. The 
retention of specific aspects of in- 
tegrity is paramount for a property to 
convey its significance. Determining 
which of these aspects are most impor- 
tant to a particular property requires 
knowing why, where, and when the 
property is significant. The follow- 
ing sections define the seven aspects 
and explain how they combine to 
produce integrity. 



SEVEN ASPECTS OF 
INTEGRITY 

• Location 

• Design 

• Setting 

• Materials 

• Workmanship 

• Feeling 

• Association 

UNDERSTANDING 
THE ASPECTS OF 
INTEGRITY 

LOCATION 

Location is the place where the his- 
toric property was constructed or 
the place where the historic event oc- 
curred. The relationship between the 
property and its location is often im- 
portant to understanding why the 
property was created or why some- 
thing happened. The actual location 
of a historic property, complemented 
by its setting, is particularly impor- 
tant in recapturing the sense of his- 
toric events and persons. Except in 
rare cases, the relationship between a 
property and its historic associations 
is destroyed if the property is moved. 
(See Criteria Consideration B in Part 
VII: How to Apply the Criteria Con- 
siderations, for the conditions under 
which a moved property can be 
eligible.) 



DESIGN 

Design is the combination of ele- 
ments that create the form, plan, 
space, structure, and style of a 
property. It results from conscious 
decisions made during the original 
conception and planning of a proper- 
ty (or its significant alteration) and 
applies to activities as diverse as com- 
munity planning, engineering, ar- 
chitecture, and landscape 
architecture. Design includes such 
elements as organization of space, 
proportion, scale, technology, or- 
namentation, and materials. 

A property's design reflects historic 
functions and technologies as well as 
aesthetics. It includes such considera- 
tions as the structural system; mass- 
ing; arrangement of spaces; pattern 
of fenestration; textures and colors of 
surface materials; type, amount, and 
style of ornamental detailing; and ar- 
rangement and type of plantings in a 
designed landscape. 

Design can also apply to districts, 
whether they are important primari- 
ly for historic association, architec- 
tural value, information potential, or 
a combination thereof. For districts 
significant primarily for historic as- 
sociation or architectural value, 
design concerns more than just the in- 
dividual buildings or structures lo- 
cated within the boundaries. It also 
applies to the way in which build- 
ings, sites, or structures are related: 
for example, spatial relationships be- 
tween major features; visual rhythms 
in a streetscape or landscape plant- 
ings; the layout and materials of 
walkways and roads; and the 
relationship of other features, such as 
statues, water fountains, and ar- 
ch col ogica I sites. 



44 



SETTING 

Setting is the physical environ- 
ment of a historic property. 

Whereas location refers to the 
specific place where a property was 
built or an event occurred, setting 
refers to the character of the place in 
which the property played its histori- 
cal role. It involves how, not just 
where, the property is situated and 
its relationship to surrounding fea- 
tures and open space. 

Setting often reflects the basic 
physical conditions under which a 
property was built and the functions 
it was intended to serve. In addition, 
the way in which a property is posi- 
tioned in its environment can reflect 
the designer's concept of nature and 
aesthetic preferences. 

The physical features that con- 
stitute the setting of a historic proper- 
ty can be either natural or manmade, 
including such elements as: 

• Topographic features (a gorge or 
the crest of a hill); 

• Vegetation; 

• Simple manmade features (paths 
or fences); and 

• Relationships between buildings 
and other features or open space. 

These features and their relation- 
ships should be examined not only 
within the exact boundaries of the 
property, but also between the 
property and its surroundings. This is 
particularly important for districts. 

MATERIALS 

Materials are the physical ele- 
ments that were combined or 
deposited during a particular period 
of time and in a particular pattern or 
configuration to form a historic 
property. The choice and combina- 
tion of materials reveals the preferen- 
ces of those who created the property 
and indicate the availability of par- 
ticular types of materials and tech- 
nologies. Indigenous materials are 
often the focus of regional building 
traditions and thereby help define an 
area's sense of time and place. 

A property must retain the key ex- 
terior materials dating from the 
period of its historic significance. If 
the property has been rehabilitated, 
the historic materials and significant 
features must have been preserved. 
The property must also be an actual 
historic resource, not a recreation; a 



recent structure fabricated to look his- 
toric is not eligible. Likewise, a 
property whose historic features and 
materials have been lost and then 
reconstructed is usually not eligible. 
(See Criteria Consideration E in Part 
VII: How to Apply the Criteria Con- 
siderations for the conditions under 
which a reconstructed property can 
be eligible.) 

WORKMANSHIP 

Workmanship is the physical 
evidence of the crafts of a particular 
culture or people during any given 
period in history or prehistory. It is 

the evidence of artisans' labor and 
skill in constructing or altering a 
building, structure, object, or site. 
Workmanship can apply to the 
property as a whole or to its in- 
dividual components. It can be ex- 
pressed in vernacular methods of 
construction and plain finishes or in 
highly sophisticated configurations 
and ornamental detailing. It can be 
based on common traditions or in- 
novative period techniques. 

Workmanship is important because 
it can furnish evidence of the technol- 
ogy of a craft, illustrate the aesthetic 
principles of a historic or prehistoric 
period, and reveal individual, local, 
regional, or national applications of 
both technological practices and aes- 
thetic principles. Examples of 
workmanship in historic buildings in- 
clude tooling, carving, painting, 
graining, turning, and joinery. Ex- 
amples of workmanship in prehis- 
toric contexts include Paleo-Indian 
clovis projectile points, Archaic 
period beveled adzes, Hopewellian 
birdstone pipes, copper earspools 
and worked bone pendants, and Iro- 
quoian effigy pipes. 

FEELING 

Feeling is a property's expression 
of the aesthetic or historic sense of a 
particular period of time. It results 
from the presence of physical fea- 
tures that, taken together, convey the 
property's historic character. For ex- 
ample, a rural historic district retain- 
ing original design, materials, 
workmanship, and setting will relate 
the feeling of agricultural life in the 
19th century. A grouping of prehis- 
toric petroglyphs, unmarred by graf- 
fiti and intrusions and located on its 
original isolated bluff, can evoke a 
sense of tribal spiritual life. 



ASSOCIATION 

Association is the direct link be- 
tween an important historic event or 
person and a historic property. A 
property retains association if it is the 
place where the event or activity oc- 
curred and is sufficiently intact to 
convey that relationship to an ob- 
server. Like feeling, association re- 
quires the presence of physical 
features that convey a property's his- 
toric character. For example, a 
Revolutionary War battlefield whose 
natural and manmade elements have 
remained intact since the 18th cen- 
tury will retain its quality of associa- 
tion with the battle. 

Because feeling and association 
depend on individual perceptions, 
their retention alone is never suffi- 
cient to support eligibility of a 
property for the National Register. 

ASSESSING INTEGRITY IN 
PROPERTIES 

Integrity is based on significance: 
why, where, and when a property is 
important. Only after significance is 
fully established can you proceed to 
the issue of integrity. 

The steps in assessing integrity are: 

• Define the essential physical fea- 
tures that must be present for a 
property to represent its sig- 
nificance. 

• Determine whether the essential 
physical features are visible 
enough to convey their sig- 
nificance. 

• Determine whether the property 
needs to be compared with 
similar properties. And, 

• Determine, based on the sig- 
nificance and essential physical 
features, which aspects of in- 
tegrity are particularly vital to the 
property being nominated and if 
they are present. 

Ultimately, the question of integrity 
is answered by whether or not the 
property retains the identity for 
which it is significant. 



AR 



DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL 
PHYSICAL FEATURES 

All properties change over time. It 
is not necessary for a property to 
retain all its historic physical features 
or characteristics. The property must 
retain, however, the essential physi- 
cal features that enable it to convey 
its historic identity. The essential 
physical features are those features 
that define both why a property is sig- 
nificant (Applicable Criteria and 
Areas of Significance) and when it 
was significant (Periods of Sig- 
nificance). They are the features 
without which a property can no 
longer be identified as, for instance, a 
late 19th century dairy barn or an 
early 20th century commercial dis- 
trict. 

CRITERIA A AND B 

A property that is significant for its 
historic association is eligible if it 
retains the essential physical features 
that made up its character or ap- 
pearance during the period of its as- 
sociation with the important event, 
historical pattern, or person(s). If the 
property is a site (such as a treaty 
site) where there are no material cul- 
tural remains, the setting must be in- 
tact. 

Archeological sites eligible under 
Criteria A and B must be in overall 
good condition with excellent preser- 
vation of features, artifacts, and spa- 
tial relationships to the extent that 
these remains are able to convey im- 
portant associations with events or 
persons. 

CRITERION C 

A property important for illustrat- 
ing a particular architectural style or 
construction technique must retain 
most of the physical features that con- 
stitute that style or technique. A 
property that has lost some historic 
materials or details can be eligible if 
it retains the majority of the features 
that illustrate its style in terms of the 
massing, spatial relationships, 
proportion, pattern of windows and 
doors, texture of materials, and or- 
namentation. The property is not 
eligible, however, if it retains some 
basic features conveying massing but 
has lost the majority of the features 
that once characterized its style. 

Archeological sites eligible under 
Criterion C must be in overall good 



condition with excellent preservation 
of features, artifacts, and spatial 
relationships to the extent that these 
remains are able to illustrate a site 
type, time period, method of con- 
struction, or work of a master. 

CRITERION D 

For properties eligible under 
Criterion D, including archeological 
sites and standing structures studied 
for their information potential, less at- 
tention is given to their overall condi- 
tion, than if they were being 
considered under Criteria A, B, or C. 
Archeological sites, in particular, do 
not exist today exactly as they were 
formed. There are always cultural 
and natural processes that alter the 
deposited materials and their spatial 
relationships. 

For properties eligible under 
Criterion D, integrity is based upon 
the property's potential to yield 
specific data that addresses impor- 
tant research questions, such as those 
identified in the historic context 
documentation in the Statewide Com- 
prehensive Preservation Plan or in 
the research design for projects meet- 
ing the Secretary of the Interior's Stand- 
ards for Archeological Documentation. 

INTERIORS 

Some historic buildings are virtual- 
ly defined by their exteriors, and 
their contribution to the built en- 
vironment can be appreciated even if 
their interiors are not accessible. Ex- 
amples of this would include early 
examples of steel-framed skyscraper 
construction. The great advance in 
American technology and engineer- 
ing made by these buildings can be 
read from the outside. The change in 
American popular taste during the 
19th century, from the symmetry and 
simplicity of architectural styles 
based on classical precedents, to the 
expressions of High Victorian styles, 
with their combination of textures, 
colors, and asymmetrical forms, is 
readily apparent from the exteriors of 
these buildings. 

Other buildings "are" interiors. The 
Cleveland Arcade, that soaring 19th 
century glass-covered shopping area, 
can only be appreciated from the in- 
side. Other buildings in this category 
would be the great covered train 
sheds of the 19th century. 

In some cases the loss of an interior 
will disqualify properties from listing 



in the National Register — a historic 
concert hall noted for the beauty of 
its auditorium and its fine acoustic 
qualities would be the type of proper- 
ty that if it were to lose its interior, it 
would lose its value as a historic 
resource. In other cases, the overar- 
ching significance of a property's ex- 
terior can overcome the adverse 
effect of the loss of an interior. 

In borderline cases particular atten- 
tion is paid to the significance of the 
property and the remaining historic 
features. 

HISTORIC DISTRICTS 

For a district to retain integrity as a 
whole, the majority of the com- 
ponents that make up the district's 
historic character must possess in- 
tegrity even if they are individually 
undistinguished. In addition, the 
relationships among the district's 
components must be substantially 
unchanged since the period of sig- 
nificance. 

When evaluating the impact of in- 
trusions upon the district's integrity, 
take into consideration the relative 
number, size, scale, design, and loca- 
tion of the components that do not 
contribute to the significance. A dis- 
trict is not eligible if it contains so 
many alterations or new intrusions 
that it no longer conveys the sense of 
a historic environment. 

A component of a district cannot 
contribute to the significance if: 

• it has been substantially altered 
since the period of the district's 
significance or 

• it does not share the historic as- 
sociations of the district. 

VISIBILITY OF PHYSICAL 
FEATURES 

Properties eligible under Criteria A, 
B, and C must not only retain their es- 
sential physical features, but the fea- 
tures must be visible enough to 
convey their significance. This 
means that even if a property is 
physically intact, its integrity is ques- 
tionable if its significant features are 
concealed under modern construc- 
tion. Archeological properties are 
often the exception to this; by nature 
they usually do not require visible 
features to convey their significance. 



NON-HISTORIC 
EXTERIORS 

If the historic exterior building 
material is covered by non-historic 
material (such as modern siding), the 
property can still be eligible //the sig- 
nificant form, features, and detailing 
are not obscured. If a property's ex- 
terior is covered by a non-historic 
false-front or curtain wall, the proper- 
ty will not qualify under Criteria A, 
B, or C, because it does not retain the 
visual quality necessary to convey 
historic or architectural significance. 
Such a property also cannot be con- 
sidered a contributing element in a 
historic district, because it does not 
add to the district's sense of time and 
place. If the false front, curtain wall, 
or non-historic siding is removed and 
the original building materials are in- 
tact, then the property's integrity can 
be re-evaluated. 

PROPERTY CONTAINED 
WITHIN ANOTHER 
PROPERTY 

Some properties contain an earlier 
structure that formed the nucleus for 
later construction. The exterior 
property, if not eligible in its own 
right, can qualify on the basis of the 
interior property only if the interior 
property can yield significant infor- 
mation about a specific construction 
technique or material, such as 
rammed earth or tabby. The interior 
property cannot be used as the basis 
for eligibility if it has been so altered 
that it no longer contains the features 
that could provide important infor- 
mation, or if the presence of impor- 
tant information cannot be 
demonstrated. 



SUNKEN VESSELS 

A sunken vessel can be eligible 
under Criterion C as embodying the 
distinctive characteristics of a 
method of construction if it is struc- 
turally intact. A deteriorated sunken 
vessel, no longer structurally intact, 
can be eligible under Criterion D if 
the remains of either the vessel or its 
contents are capable of yielding sig- 
nificant information. For further in- 
formation, refer to National Register 
Bulletin 20: Nominating Historic Ves- 
sels and Shipwrecks to the National 
Register of Historic Places. 

NATURAL FEATURES 

A natural feature that is associated 
with a historic event or trend, such as 
a rock formation that served as a trail 
marker during westward expansion, 
must retain its historic appearance, 
unobscured by modern construction 
or landfill. Otherwise it is not 
eligible, even though it remains in- 
tact. 

COMPARING SIMILAR 
PROPERTIES 

For some properties, comparison 
with similar properties should be con- 
sidered during the evaluation of in- 
tegrity. Such comparison may be 
important in deciding what physical 
features are essential to properties of 
that type. In instances where it has 
not been determined what physical 
features a property must possess in 
order for it to reflect the significance 
of a historic context, comparison 
with similar properties should be un- 
dertaken during the evaluation of in- 
tegrity. This situation arises when 
scholarly work has not been done on 
a particular property type or when 
surviving examples of a property 
type are extremely rare. (See Com- 
paring Related Properties in Part V: 
How to Evaluate a Property within its 
Historic Context.) 



RARE EXAMPLES OF A 
PROPERTY TYPE 

Comparative information is par- 
ticularly important to consider when 
evaluating the integrity of a property 
that is a rare surviving example of its 
type. The property must have the es- 
sential physical features that enable it 
to convey its historic character or in- 
formation. The rarity and poor condi- 
tion, however, of other extant 
examples of the type may justify ac- 
cepting a greater degree of alteration 
or fewer features, provided that 
enough of the property survives for it 
to be a significant resource. 



Eligible 

• A one-room schoolhouse that 
has had all original exterior 
siding replaced and a replace- 
ment roof that does not exactly 
replicate the original roof 
profile can be eligible if the 
other extant rare examples 
have received an even greater 
degree of alteration, such as 
the subdivision of the original 
one- room plan. 

Not Eligible 

• A mill site contains informa- 
tion on how site patterning 
reflects historic functional re- 
quirements, but parts of the 
site have been destroyed. The 
site is not eligible for its infor- 
mation potential if a com- 
parison of other mill sites 
reveals more intact properties 
with complete information. 



47 



DETERMINING THE 
RELEVANT ASPECTS OF 
INTEGRITY 

Each type of property depends on 
certain aspects of integrity, more 
than others, to express its historic sig- 
nificance. Determining which of the 
aspects is most important to a par- 
ticular property requires an under- 
standing of the property's 
significance and its essential physical 
features. 

CRITERIA A AND B 

A property important for associa- 
tion with an event, historical pattern, 
or person ideally might retain some 
features of all seven aspects of in 
tegrity: location, design, setting, 
materials, workmanship, feeling, and 
association. Integrity of design and 
workmanship, however, might not 
be as important to the significance, 
and would not be relevant if the 
property were a site. A basic in- 
tegrity test for a property associated 
with an important event or person is 
whether a historical contemporary 
would recognize the property as it ex- 
ists today. 

For archeological sites that are 
eligible under Criteria A and B, the 
seven aspects of integrity can be ap- 
plied in much the same way as they 
are to buildings, structures, or ob- 
jects. It is important to note, how- 
ever, that the site must have 
demonstrated its ability to convey its 
significance, as opposed to sites 
eligible under Criterion D where 
only the potential to yield information 
is required. 



Eligible 

A mid-1 9th century water- 
powered mill associated with an 
area's industrial development is 
eligible if: 

• it is still on its original site 
(Location), and 

• the important features of its 
setting are intact (Setting), and 

• it retains most of its historic 
materials (Materials), and 

• it has the basic features expres- 
sive of its design and function, 
such as configuration, propor- 
tions, and window pattern 
(Design). 



Not Eligible 

A mid-19th century water- 
powered mill important for its as- 
sociation with an area's industrial 
development is not eligible if: 

• it has been moved (Location, 
Setting, Feeling, and Associa- 
tion), or 

• substantial amounts of new 
materials have been incor- 
porated (Materials, Workman- 
ship, and Feeling), or 

• it no longer retains basic 
design features that convey its 
historic appearance or function 
(Design, Workmanship, and 
Feeling). 



CRITERION C 

A property significant under 
Criterion C must retain those physi- 
cal features that characterize the 
type, period, or method of construc- 
tion that the property represents. 
Retention of design, workmanship, 
and materials will usually be more 
important than location, setting, feel- 
ing, and association. Location and 
setting will be important, however, 
for those properties whose design is 
a reflection of their immediate en- 
vironment (such as designed 
landscapes and bridges). 

For archeological sites that are 
eligible under Criterion C, the seven 
aspects of integrity can be applied in 
much the same way as they are to 
buildings, structures, or objects. It is 
important to note, however, that the 
site must have demonstrated its ability 
to convey its significance, as opposed 
to sites eligible under Criterion D 
where only the potential to yield infor- 
mation is required. 



Eligible 

A 19th century wooden covered 
bridge, important for illustrating a 
construction type, is eligible if: 

• the essential features of its 
design are intact, such as abut- 
ments, piers, roof configura- 
tion, and trusses (Design, 
Workmanship, and Feeling), 
and 

• most of the historic materials 
are present (Materials, 
Workmanship, and Feeling), 
and 

• evidence of the craft of 
wooden bridge technology 
remains, such as the form and 
assembly technique of the trus- 
ses (Workmanship). 

• Since the design of a bridge re- 
lates directly to its function as 
a transportation crossing, it is 
also important that the bridge 
still be situated over a water- 
way (Setting, Location, Feel- 
ing, and Association). 

Not Eligible 

For a 19th century wooden 
covered bridge, important for its 
construction type, replacement of 
some materials of the flooring, 
siding, and roofing would not nec- 
cessarily damage its integrity. In- 
tegrity would be lost, however, if: 

• the abutment, piers, or trusses 
were substantially altered 
(Design, Workmanship, and 
Feeling), or 

• considerable amounts of new 
materials were incorporated 
(Materials, Workmanship, 
and Feeling). 

• Because environment is a 
strong factor in the design of 
this property type, the bridge 
would also be ineligible if it no 
longer stood in a place that 
conveyed its function as a 
crossing (Setting, Location, 
Feeling, and Association). 



CRITERION D 

For properties eligible under 
Criterion D, setting and feeling may 
not have direct bearing on the 
property's ability to yield important 
information. Evaluation of integrity 
probably will focus primarily on the 
location, design, materials, and per- 
haps workmanship. 



Eligible 

A multicomponent prehistoric site 
important for yielding data on 
changing subsistence patterns can 
be eligible if: 

• floral or faunal remains are 
found in clear association with 
cultural material (Materials 
and Association) and 

• the site exhibits stratigraphic 
separation of cultural com- 
ponents (Location). 

Not Eligible: 

A multicomponent prehistoric site 
important for yielding data on 
changing subsistence patterns 
would not be eligible if: 

• floral and faunal remains were 
so badly decomposed as to 
make identification impossible 
(Materials), or 

• floral or faunal remains were 
disturbed in such a manner as 
to make their association with 
cultural remains ambiguous 
(Association), or 

• the site has lost its 
stratigraphic context due to 
subsequent land alteration 
(Location). 



Eligible 

A lithic scatter site important for 
yielding data on lithic technology 
during the Late Archaic period can 
be eligible if: 

• The site contains lithic 
debitage, finished stone tools, 
hammerstones, or antler 
flakers (Material and Design) 
and 

• The site contains datable 
material (Association) 

Not Eligible 

A lithic scatter site important for 
yielding data on lithic technology 
during the Late Archaic period 
would not be eligible if: 

• The site contains natural 
deposits of lithic materials that 
are impossible to distinguish 
from culturally modified lithic 
material (Design) or 

• The site does not contain any 
temporal diagnostic evidence 
that could link the site to the 
Late Archaic period (Associa- 
tion). 



49 



IX. SUMMARY OF THE 
NATIONAL HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS CRITERIA 
FOR EVALUATION 



A property being nominated to the 
National Register may also merit con- 
sideration for potential designation 
as a National Historic Landmark. 
Such consideration is dependent 
upon the stringent application of the 
following distinct set of criteria 
(found in the Code of Federal Regula- 
tions, Title 36, Part 65). 

NATIONAL 
HISTORIC 
LANDMARKS 
CRITERIA 

The quality of national significance 
is ascribed to districts, sites, build- 
ings, structures, and objects that pos- 
sess exceptional value or quality in 
illustrating or interpreting the 
heritage of the United States in his- 
tory, architecture, archeology, en- 
gineering, and culture and that 
possess a high degree of integrity of 
location, design, setting, materials, 
workmanship, feeling, and associa- 
tion, and: 

• That are associated with events 
that have made a significant con- 
tribution to, and are identified 
with, or that outstandingly repre- 
sent, the broad national patterns 
of United States history and from 
which an understanding and ap- 
preciation of those patterns may 
be gained; or 

• That are associated importantly 
with the lives of persons national- 
ly significant in the history of the 
United States; or 



• That represent some great idea or 
ideal of the American people; or 

• That embody the distinguishing 
characteristics of an architectural 
type specimen exceptionally valu- 
able for a study of a period, style 
or method of construction, or that 
represent a significant, distinctive 
and exceptional entity whose 
components may lack individual 
distinction; or 

• That are composed of integral 
parts of the environment not suffi- 
ciently significant by reason of 
historical association or artistic 
merit to warrant individual recog- 
nition but collectively compose 
an entity of exceptional historical 
or artistic significance, or out- 
standingly commemorate or il- 
lustrate a way of life or culture; or 

• That have yielded or may be like- 
ly to yield information of major 
scientific importance by revealing 
new cultures, or by shedding 
light upon periods of occupation 
over large areas of the United 
States. Such sites are those which 
have yielded, or which may 
reasonably be expected to yield, 
data affecting theories, concepts, 
and ideas to a major degree. 



NATIONAL 
HISTORIC 
LANDMARK 
EXCLUSIONS 

Ordinarily, cemeteries, birthplaces, 
graves of historical figures, proper- 
ties owned by religious institutions 
or used for religious purposes, struc- 
tures that have been moved from 
their original locations, reconstructed 
historic buildings and properties that 
have achieved significance within the 
past fifty years are not eligible for 
designation. If such properties fall 
within the following categories they 
may, nevertheless, be found to 
qualify: 

• A religious property deriving its 
primary national significance 
from architectural or artistic dis- 
tinction or historical importance; 
or 

• A building or structure removed 
from its original location but 
which is nationally significant 
primarily for its architectural 
merit, or for association with per- 
sons or events of transcendent im- 
portance in the nation's history 
and the association consequen- 
tial; or 

• A site of a building or structure 
no longer standing but the person 
or event associated with it is of 
transcendent importance in the 
nations's history and the associa- 
tion consequential; or 



?n 



• A birthplace, grave or burial if it 
is of a historical figure of transcen- 
dent national significance and no 
other appropriate site, building, 
or structure directly associated 
with the productive life of that 
person exists; or 

• A cemetery that derives its 
primary national significance 
from graves of persons of 
transcendent importance, or from 
an exceptionally distinctive 
design or an exceptionally sig- 
nificant event; or 

• A reconstructed building or en- 
semble of buildings of extraordi- 
nary national significance when 
accurately executed in a suitable 
environment and presented in a 
dignified manner as part of a res- 
toration master plan, and when 
no other buildings or structures 
with the same association have 
survived; or 

• A property primarily com- 
memorative in intent if design, 
age, tradition, or symbolic value 
has invested it with its own na- 
tional historical significance; or 

• A property achieving national sig- 
nificance within the past 50 years 
if it is of extraordinary national 
importance. 

COMPARING THE 

NATIONAL 

HISTORIC 

LANDMARKS 

CRITERIA AND THE 

NATIONAL 

REGISTER CRITERIA 

In general, the instructions for 
preparing a National Register 
nomination and the guidelines stated 
in this bulletin for applying the Na- 
tional Register Criteria also apply to 
Landmark nominations and the use 
of the Landmark criteria. While 
there are specific distinctions dis- 
cussed below, Parts IV and V of this 
bulletin apply equally to National 
Register listings and Landmark 
nominations. That is, the categories 
of historic properties are defined the 
same way; historic contexts are iden- 
tified similarly; and comparative 



evaluation is carried out on the same 
principles enumerated in Part V. 

There are some differences between 
National Register and National His- 
toric Landmarks Criteria. The follow- 
ing is an explanation of how each 
Landmark Criterion compares with 
its National Register Criteria counter- 
part: 

CRITERION 1 

This Criterion relates to National 
Register Criterion A. Both cover 
properties associated with events. 
The Landmark Criterion, however, 
requires that the events associated 
with the property be outstandingly 
represented by that property and 
that the property be related to the 
broad national patterns of U.S. his- 
tory. Thus, the quality of the proper- 
ty to convey and interpret its 
meaning must be of a higher order 
and must relate to national themes 
rather than the narrower context of 
State or local themes. 

CRITERION 2 

This Criterion relates to National 
Register Criterion B. Both cover 
properties associated with significant 
people. The Landmark Criterion dif- 
fers in that it specifies that the as- 
sociation of a person to the property 
in question be an important one and 
that the person associated with the 
property be of national significance. 

CRITERION 3 

This Criterion has no counterpart 
among the National Register Criteria. 
It is rarely, if ever, used alone. While 
not a landmark at present, the Liber- 
ty Bell is an object that might be con- 
sidered under this Criterion. The 
application of this Criterion obvious- 
ly requires the most careful scrutiny 
and would apply only in rare instan- 
ces involving ideas and ideals of the 
highest order. 

CRITERION 4 

This Criterion relates to National 
Register Criterion C. Its intent is to 
qualify exceptionally important 
works of architecture or collective ele- 
ments of architecture extraordinarily 
significant as an ensemble, such as a 
historic district. Note that the lan- 
guage is more restrictive than that of 
the National Register Criterion in re- 
quiring that a candidate in architec- 



ture be "a specimen exceptionally 
valuable for the study of a period, 
style, or method of construction" 
rather than simply embodying dis- 
tinctive characteristics of a type, 
period, or method of construction. 
With regard to historic districts, the 
Landmarks Criterion requires an en- 
tity that is distinctive and exception- 
al. Unlike National Register 
Criterion C, this Criterion will not 
qualify the works of a master, per se, 
but only such works which are excep- 
tional or extraordinary. Artistic 
value is considered only in the con- 
text of history's judgement in order 
to avoid current conflicts of taste. 

CRITERION 5 

This Criterion does not have a strict 
counterpart among the National 
Register Criteria. It may seem redun- 
dant of the latter part of Landmark 
Criterion 4. It is meant to cover col- 
lective entities such as Greenfield Vil- 
lage and historic districts like New 
Bedford, Massachusetts, which 
qualify for their collective association 
with a nationally significant event, 
movement, or broad pattern of na- 
tional development. 

CRITERION 6 

The National Register counterpart 
of this is Criterion D. Criterion 6 was 
developed specifically to recognize 
archeological sites. All such sites 
must address this Criterion. The fol- 
lowing arc the qualifications that dis- 
tinguish this Criterion from its 
National Register counterpart: the in- 
formation yielded or likely to be 
yielded must be of major scientific im- 
portance by revealing new cultures, 
or by shedding light upon periods of 
occupation over large areas of the 
United States. Such sites should be 
expected to yield data affecting 
theories, concepts, and ideas to a major 
degree. 

The data recovered or expected to 
be recovered must make a major con- 
tribution to the existing corpus of in- 
formation. Potentially recoverable 
data must be likely to revolutionize 
or substantially modify a major 
theme in history or prehistory, 
resolve a substantial historical or 
anthropological debate, or close a 
serious gap in a major theme of U. S. 
history or prehistory. 



51 



EXCLUSIONS AND 
EXCEPTIONS TO 
THE EXCLUSIONS 

This section of the National His- 
toric Landmarks Criteria has its 
counterpart in the National 
Register's "Criteria Considerations." 
The most abundant difference be- 
tween them is the addition of the 
qualifiers "national," "exceptional," 
or "extraordinary" before the word 
significance. Other than this, the fol- 
lowing arc the most notable distinc- 
tions: 

EXCLUSION 2 

Buildings moved from their 
original location, qualify only if one 
of two conditions are met: 1) the 
building is nationally significant for 
architecture, or 2) the persons or 



events with which they are as- 
sociated are of transcendent national 
significance and the association is 
consequential. 

Transcendent significance means 
an order of importance higher than 
that which would ordinarily qualify 
a person or event to be nationally sig- 
nificant. A consequential association 
is a relationship to a building that 
had an evident impact on events, 
rather than a connection that was in- 
cidental and passing. 

EXCLUSION 3 

This pertains to the site of a struc- 
ture no longer standing. There is no 
counterpart to this exclusion in the 
National Register Criteria. In order 
for such a property to qualify for 
Landmark designation it must meet 
the second condition cited for Ex- 
clusion 2. 



EXCLUSION 4 

This exclusion relates to Criteria 
Consideration C of the National 
Register Criteria. The only difference 
is that a burial place qualifies for 
Landmark designation only if, in ad- 
dition to other factors, the person 
buried is of transcendent national im- 
portance. 

When evaluating properties at the 
national level for designation as a Na- 
tional Historic Landmark, please 
refer to the National Historic 
Landmarks outline, History and 
Prehistory in the National Park System 
and the National Historic Landmarks 
Program, 1987. (For more informa- 
tion about the National Historic 
Landmarks Program, please write to 
Department of the Interior, National 
Park Service, History Division, P.O. 
Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013- 
7127.) 



52 



X. GLOSSARY 



Associative Qualities - An aspect of 
a property's history that links it 
with historic events, activities, or 
persons. 

Code of Federal Regulations - Com- 
monly referred to as "CFR." The 
part containing the National 
Register Criteria is usually 
referred to as 36 CFR 60, and is 
available from the National Park 
Service. 

CLG - Certified Local Government. 

Culture - A group of people linked 
together by shared values, 
beliefs, and historical associa- 
tions, together with the group's 
social institutions and physical 
objects necessary to the operation 
of the institution. 



Cultural Resource 

Resource 



See Historic 



Evaluation - Process by which the 
significance and integrity of a 
historic property are judged and 
eligibility for National Register 
listing is determined. 



Historic Context - an organizing 
structure for interpreting history 
that groups information about 
historic properties that share a 
common theme, common 
geographical area, and a com- 
mon time period. The develop- 
ment of historic contexts is a 
foundation for decisions about 
the planning, identification, 
evaluation, registration, and treat- 
ment of historic properties, based 
upon comparative historic sig- 
nificance. 

Historic Integrity - The unimpaired 
ability of a property to convey its 
historical significance. 

Historic Property - See Historic 
Resource. 

Historic Resource - Building, site, dis- 
trict, object, or structure 
evaluated as historically sig- 
nificant. 

Identification - Process through 
which information is gathered 
about historic properties. 



Listing - The formal entry of a 

property in the National Register 
of Historic Places. See also, 
Registration. 

Nomination - Official proposition for 
listing a property in the National 
Register of Historic Places. 

Property Type - A grouping of 
properties defined by common 
physical and associative at- 
tributes. 

Registration - Process by which a his- 
toric property is documented 
and nominated or determined 
eligible for listing in the National 
Register. 

Research Design - A statement of 
proposed identification, 
documentation, investigation, or 
other treatment of a historic 
property that identifies the 
project's goals, methods and tech- 
niques, expected results, and the 
relationship of the expected 
results to other proposed ac- 
tivities or treatments. 



XI. LIST OF NATIONAL 
REGISTER BULLETINS 



Bulletin 2 Nomination of Deteriorated Buildings to the National Register. 

Bulletin 6 Nomination of Properties Significant for Association with Living Persons. 

Bulletin 12 Definition of National Register Boundaries for Archeological Properties. 

Bulletin 13 How to Apply National Register Criteria to Post Offices. 

Bulletin 15 How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. 

Bulletin 16 Guidelines for Completing National Register of Historic Places Forms. 

Bulletin 18 How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. 

Bulletin 20 Nominating Historic Vessels and Shipwrecks to the National Register of Historic Places. 

Bulletin 21 How to Establish Boundaries for National Register Properties. 

Bulletin 22 Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties that Have Achieved Significance within the Last 
Fifty Years. 

Bulletin 24 Guidelines for Local Surveys: A Basis for Preservation Planning. 

Bulletin 29 Guidelines for Restricting Information about Historic and Prehistoric Resources. 

Bulletin 30 How to Identify, Evaluate, and Register Rural Historic Landscapes. 

Bulletin 32 Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Properties Associated with Significant Persons. 

Bulletin 34 Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Historic Aids to Navigation. 

Bulletin 36 Historic Archeological Sites: Guidelines for Evaluation. (In preparation.) 

Bulletin 38 Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. 

The above publications may be obtained by writing to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 
U.S. Department of the Interior, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20013-7127. 



•US Government Printing Office: 1991 — 289-082 



54 



FOR DUE DATE INFORMATION 
CHECK "MY ACCOUNT" IN GIL 

(https://gil.uga.edu) 



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