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" The first conscious thought about wild flowers was to find out their names 
— the first conscious pleasure — and then I began to see so many that I had not 
previously noticed. Once you wish to identify them, there is nothing escapes, 
down to the little white chickweed of the path and the moss of the wall." 

— Richard Jefferies 


Seventy-one Thousand 




Copyright, 1893, 1895, 1900, by 






How to Use the Book 
List of Plates . 
Introdiiciory Chapter 
Explanation of Terms 
Notable Plant Fainilies 
Flower Descriptions: 

I. White 

II. Green 
III Yellow 
IK Pink 

V. Red 
yi. Blue and Purple 
yil. Miscellaneous 

Index to Latin Names 



to English Names 
of Technical Terms 









" One of these days some one will give us a hand-book of our wild flow- 
ers, by the aid of which we shall all be able to name those we gather in our 
walks without the trouble of analyzing them. In this book we shall have a 
list of all our flowers arranged according to color, as white flowers, blue 
flowers, yellow flowers, pink flowers^ etc., with place of growth and time of 


John Burroughs 


In offering the public an edition of '' How to Know the Wild 
Flowers," containing colored reproductions from the charming 
and faithful sketches in water color of Miss Elsie Louise Shaw, 
we feel sure that we are adding materially to the book's actual 
value as well as to its attractiveness. 

As color plates replace, in this edition, certain of the black 
and white illustrations, these, with a few others have been 
omitted and Miss Satterlee has added a number of new draw- 
ings. Some of these black and white plates are of flowers not 
before figured in the book, while others present in fresh forms 
subjects already illustrated in it. 

Quite a large number of flowers not found in previous edi- 
tions are now described, and advantage has been taken of the 
opportunity which the entire resetting of the book afforded for a 
careful revision of the text. This amplification has seemed ad- 
visable in view of the fact that, during the five years which have 
elapsed since the publication of a thoroughly revised edition, 
the peculiar charm or importance of certain plants has so forced 
itself upon the author's consciousness, or else been brought to 
her notice so emphatically by others, as to persuade her that 
their inclusion would not transgress the restrictions originally 
laid down in the chapter " How to Use the Book," restrictions 
which still seem indispensable if the volume is to be kept small 
enough to be a convenient companion in the woods and fields, 
and simple enough to appeal to the unbotanical flower lover. 

It is hoped that these additions will meet with the approval 
of the public, which has already attested so generously its eager- 
ness to know the wild flowers. 

Albany April 25, 1900. 

• • 



The pleasure of a walk in the woods and fields is enhanced 
hundredfold by some little knowledge of the flowers which we 
meet at every turn. Their names alone serve as a clew to their 
entire histories, giving us that sense of companionship with our 
surroundings which is so necessary to the full enjoyment of out- 
door life. But if we have never studied botany it has been no 
easy matter to learn these names, for we find that the very people 
who have always lived among the flowers are often ignorant of 
even their common titles, and frequently increase our eventual 
confusion by naming them incorrectly. While it is more than 
probable that any attempt to attain our end by means of some 
^' Key," which positively bristles with technical terms and out- 
landish titles, has only led us to replace the volume in despair, 
sighing, with Emerson, that these scholars 

" Love not the flower they pluck, and know it not, 
And all their botany is Latin names ! " 

So we have ventured to hope that such a book as this will 
not be altogether unwelcome, and that our readers will find that 
even a bowing acquaintance with the flowers repays one gen- 
erously for the effort expended in its achievement. Such an 
acquaintance serves to transmute the tedium of a railway jour- 
ney into the excitement of a tour of discovery. It causes the 
monotony of a drive through an ordinarily uninteresting country 
to be forgotten in the diversion of noting the wayside flowers, 
and counting a hundred different species where formerly less 
than a dozen would have been detected. It invests each boggy 
meadow and bit of rocky woodland with almost irresistible charm. 



Surely Sir John Lubbock is right in maintaining that '* those 
who love nature can never be dull," provided that love be ex- 
pressed by an intelligent interest rather than by a purely senti- 
mental rapture. 

The '' Flower Descriptions" should be consulted in order to 
learn the actual dimensions of the different plants, as it has not 
always been possible to preserve their relative sizes in the illustra- 
tions. The aim in the drawings has been to help the reader to 
identify the flowers described in the text, and to this end they 
are presented as simply as possible, with no attempt at artistic 
arrangement or grouping. 

We desire to express our thanks to Miss Harriet Procter, of 
Cincinnati, for her assistance and encouragement. Acknowledg- 
ment of their kind help is also due to Mrs. Seth Doane, of 
Orleans, Mass., and to Mr. Eugene P. Bicknell, of Riverdale, 
N. Y. To Dr. N. L. Britton, of Columbia College, we are in- 
debted for permission to work in the College Herbarium. 

New York, March 15, 1893. 


Many difficulties have been encountered in the arrangement 
of this guide to the flowers. To be really useful such a guide 
must be of moderate size, easily carried in the woods and fields ; 
yet there are so many flowers, and there is so much to say about 
them, that we have been obliged to control our selection and 
descriptions by certain regulations which we hope will commend 
themselves to the intelligence of our readers and secure their 
indulgence should any special favorite be conspicuous by its 

These regulations may be formulated briefly as follows : 

1. Flowers so common as to be generally recognized are 
omitted, unless some peculiarity or fact in their history entitles 
them to special mention. 

2. Flowers so inconspicuous as generally to escape notice are 
usually omitted. 

3. Rare flowers and escapes from gardens are usually omitted. 

4. Those flowers are chosen for illustration which seem en- 
titled to prominence on account of their beauty, interest, or fre- 
quent occurrence. 

5. Flowers which have less claim upon the general public 
than those chosen for illustration and full description, yet which 
are sufficiently common or conspicuous to arouse occasional curi- 
osity, are necessarily dismissed with as brief a description as 
seems compatible with their identification. 

In parts of New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania and in the vicinity of Washington, I have been enabled to 
describe many of our wild flowers from personal observation ; 
and 1 have endeavored to increase the usefulness of the book by 



including as well those comparatively few flowers not found 
within the range mentioned, but commonly encountered at some 
point this side of Chicago. 

The grouping according to color was suggested by a passage 
in one of Mr. Burroughs's *' Talks about Flowers." It seemed, 
on careful consideration, to offer an easier identification than 
any other arrangement. One is constantly asked the name of 
some '' little blue flower," or some ''large pink flower," noted 
by the wayside. While both the size and color of a flower fix 
themselves in the mind of the casual observer, the color is the 
more definitely appreciated characteristic of the two and serves 
far better as a clew to its identification. 

When the flowers are brought in from the woods and fields 
they should be sorted according to color and then traced to their 
proper places in the various sections. As far as possible the 
flowers have been arranged according to the seasons' sequence, 
the spring flowers being placed in the first part of each section, 
the summer flowers next, and the autumn flowers last. 

It has sometimes been difficult to determine the proper posi- 
tion of a flower — blues, purples, and pinks shading so gradually 
one into another as to cause diff"erence of opinion as to the color 
of a blossom among the most accurate. So if the object of our 
search is not found in the first section consulted, we must turn 
to that other one which seems most likely to include it. 

It has seemed best to place in the White section those flowers 
which are so faintly tinted with other colors as to give a white 
effect in the mass, or when seen at a distance. Some flowers are 
so green as to seem almost entitled to a section of their own, but 
if closely examined the green is found to be so diluted with white 
as to render them describable by the term greejiish-white. A 
white flower veined with pink will also be described in the White 
section, unless its general eff'ect should be so pink as to entitle it 
to a position in the pink section. Such a flower again as the 
Painted Cup is placed in the Red section because its floral leaves 
are so red that probably none but the botanist would appreciat 



that the actual flowers were yellow. Flowers which fail to sug- 
gest any definite color are relegated to the Miscellaneous section. 

With the description of each flower is given — 

1. Its common English name — if one exists. This may be 
looked upon as its " nickname," a title attached to it by chance, 
often endeared to us by long association, the name by which it 
may be known in one part of the country but not necessarily in 
another, and about which, consequently, a certain amount of 
disagreement and confusion often arises. 

2. Its scientific name. This compensates for its frequent 
lack of euphony by its other advantages. It is usually composed 
of two Latin — or Latinized — words, and is the same in all parts 
of the world (which fact explains the necessity of its Latin form). 
Whatever confusion may exist as to a flower's English name, its 
scientific one is an accomplished fact — except in those rare cases 
where an undescribed species is encountered — and rarely admits 
of dispute. The first word of this title indicates the getius of the 
plant. It is a substantive, answering to the last or family name 
of a person, and shows the relationship of all the plants which 
bear it. The second word indicates the species. It is usually 
an adjective, which betrays some characteristic of the plant, or 
it may indicate the part of the country in which it is found, or 
the person in whose honor it was named. 

3. The English title of the larger Family to which the plant 
belongs. All flowers grouped under this title have in common 
certain important features which in many cases are too obscure 
to be easily recognized ; while in others they are quite obvious. 
One who wishes to identify the flowers with some degree of 
ease should learn to recognize at sight such Families as present 
conspicuously characteristic features. 

For fuller definitions, explanations, and descriptions than 
are here given, Gray's text-books and ''Manual" should be 
consulted. After some few flowers have been compared with 
the partially technical description which prefaces each popular 
one, little difficulty should be experienced in the use of a botan- 



ical key. Many of the measurements and technical descriptions 
have been based upon Gray's ** Manual." It has been thought 
best to omit any mention of species and varieties not included 
in the latest edition of that work. 

An ordinary magnifying-glass (such as can be bought for 
seventy-five cents), a sharp penknife, and one or two dissecting- 
needles will be found useful in the examination of the smaller 
flowers. The use of a note-book, with jottings as to the date, 
color, surroundings, etc., of any newly identified flower, is rec- 
ommended. This habit impresses on the memory easily forgotten 
but important details. Such a book is also valuable for further 
reference, both for our own satisfaction when some point which 
our experience had already determined has been forgotten, and 
for the settlement of the many questions which are sure to arise 
among flower-lovers as to the localities in which certain flowers 
are found, the dates at which they may be expected to appear 
and disappear, and various other points which even the scientific 
books sometimes fail to decide. 

Some of the flowers described are found along every country 
highway, and it is interesting to note that these wayside plants 
may usually be classed among the foreign population. They 
have been brought to us from Europe in ballast and in loads of 
grain, and invariably follow in the wake of civilization. Many 
of our most beautiful native flowers have been crowded out of 
the hospitable roadside by these aggressive, irresistible, and mis- 
chievous invaders ; for Mr. Burroughs points out that nearly 
all of our troublesome weeds are emigrants from Europe. We 
must go to the more remote woods and fields if we wish really 
to know our native plants. Swamps especially offer an eagerly 
sought asylum to our shy and lovely wild flowers. 



Colored Plates are marked with *. 
































Rue Anemone, 
Wood Anemone, 
Star-flower, . 

*Pyxie, .... 
Crinkle-root, . 
May-apple, . . 
Early Saxifrage, 
Mitre-wort, . . 
*Larger White Trilliu 


False Solomon's Seal, 
Maple-leaved Viburnum 
Arrow-wood, . . . 
Round-leaved Dogwood 
Red-osier Dogwood, 
*Hawthorn, . . . 
White Baneberry, 
Bunch-berry, . . 
*buckbean, . . . 
Water Arum, . . 
Mountain Laurel, 
American Rhododendro 
White Swamp Honey 


Squaw Huckleberry, 
^Labrador Tea, . 
Shin-leaf, . . . 


New Jersey Tea, 
Thimble-weed, . 


Sanguinaria Canadensis , 
Anemonella thalictroides, 
Anemone nemorosa, . 
Trientalis Atnericana, . 
Maianthem iim Canadcnse, 
Pyxidanthera barbiilata, 
Den tafia diphylla, . 
Podophyllicm peltatiun, 
Saxifraga Virgitiiensis, 
Mitella diphylla, . . 
Trillium grand ijlor urn, 
Aralia racetnosa, 
Sniilacina racemosa, 
Viburnum acerifolitini, 
Viburnum dentatiim, . 
Cornus circinata, 
Cornus stolonifera, . 
Cratoegas cocci nea, 
Acicea alba, .... 
Comics Canadensis, 
Menyanthes trifoliata, . 
Calla palustris, . 
Kalmia latifolia, 
Rhododendron Maximum, 

Rhododendron viscosum, 
Vaccinitun stamineum, 
Ledum laiifolium, . 
Pyrola elliptica, . 
Chimaphila umbellata, 
Ga ultheria procum bens, 
Ceanothus Americanus, 
Anemone Virginiana, . 













n ATE 



Black Cohosh, . . . 

Cimiciftiga racemosa, . . 

• 71 


'Partridge Vine, . . 

Alitchella repens, 

• 72 


Button Bush, .... 

Cephalanth us occidentalis, 

• 75 



Phytolacca decandra. 

• 79 


Meadow-sweet, . . . 

Spiraa salicifolia, . 

. 81 


*Three-toothed Cinque- 


Po ten till a tridentata, . 

. 82 


Rattlesnake Plantain, 

Goodyera pubescens, 

• 85 


Sweet Pepperbush, . . 

Clethra alnifolia^ 

• 87 


Wild Balsam-apple, 

Echinocystis lobata, 

. 89 


Traveller's Joy, . . . 

Clematis Virginiaiia, . 

• 95 



Che lone glabra 

• 97 


*White Heath Aster, . 

Aster ericoides 

. q8 


*Pointed.leaved Aster, 

Aster actitninatiis, . . . 

• 98 



Eupatoriian perfolia turn , . 

. lOI 


White Snakeroot, . . 

Eiipatoriian ageratoides, . 



Ladies' Tresses, . . . 

Spiranthes cernua, . 

. 107 


Grass of Parnassus, 

Parnassia Caroliniana, 



Carrion-flower, . . . 

Sniilax herbacea, 



Poison Ivy, 

Phtis Toxicodendron, . 



Ragged Fringed Orchis, 

Habenaria lac era, 



Marsh Marigold, . . 

Call ha pains tris^ 



Spice Bush 

Lindera Benzoin, . 



*Yellow Adder's 


Erythronium Americanum, 



*WooD Betony, . . . 

Pedicularis Canadensis, 



Solomon's Seal, . . . 

Polygonatiivi biflormn, 




Oakesia sessilifolia 

Uvularia perfoliata, 


T "^ T 

• • • • 




Krigia Virginica 



• • • • 

Clintonia borealis 



Golden Ragwort, . . 

Senecio aureus, 



Indian Cucumber root. 

Medeola Virginiann, 



*Yellow Lady's Slipper, 

Cypripedium pubescens, 



Rattlesnake-weed, . . 

Hieracium venosum. 



♦Rough Hawkweed, 

Hieracium scabrmii, . . 



Common Cinquefoil, 

Potentilla Canadensis, . 



Yellow Avens, . . . 

Geum strictum, 



Bush-honeysuckle, . . 

Diervilla trijida, . . . . 



Four-leaved Loose- 


Lysimachia quadrifolia, . 



Yellow Loosestrife. . 

Lysiniachia stricta, . . . . 


































CI I. 

*Meadow Lily, . . . 

♦Horned Bladderwor r 

Common St. John's- 

Common Mullein, 

Moth Mullein, . . 

Agrimony, .... 

Pale Jewel-weed, 

Evening Primrose, . 

Elecampane, .... 

*Wild Sunflower, . 

Stick-tight, .... 

Larger Bur Marigold, 

Silver-rod, .... 

Smooth False Fox- 

♦Witch Hazel, . . . 

Trailing Arbutus, 

Twin-flower, . . . 

^Spring Beauty, . . 

*Showy Orchis, . . 

Wild Pink, .... 
Pink Lady's Slipper, 
Pale Corydalis, . . 
Pink Azalea, . . . 
*Fringed Polygala, . 
Fringed Polygala, . 
Milkwort, .... 
Milkwort, .... 
Sheep Laurel, . . . 
♦Showy Lady's Slipper, 
♦Adder's Mouth, . . 
American Cranberry, 

Steironetna ciliatutUy 
Liliiim Canadense, . 
Utriadaria cornuta, 

Hypericum perforatum, 
Verbascum Thapsus, 
Verbascum Blattaria, . 
Agrimonia Eupatoria, . 
hfipatiens pallida, . 
QLnothera biennis, . 
Inula Helenium, 
Ilelia n th us giga nteus, . 
Bidens frondosa, 
Bidens ch rysanthevioides, 
Solldago bicolor, . 

Gerard ia quercifolia, 
Hajnamelis Virginiana, 
Epigcea repens, . 
Lin7ia:a borealis, 
Claytonia Vitginica, 
Orchis spectabilis. 
Rhododendron Rhodora, 
Silene Pennsylvanica, . 

Spreading Dogbane, . 

PURPLE-F lowering 

Raspberry, . . . 

*Philadelphia Flea- 

Herb Robert, . . 


Cypripedium acaule. Frontispiece 

Corydalis glauca 207 

Rhododendron nudijionnu, . 209 
Polygala paiicifolia, . . .210 
Polygala paucifol in, . . .211 
Polygala poly gama, . . .211 
Polygala sanguinea, . . .211 
Kalmia angustifolia, . . .213 
Cypripedium spec ia bile, . .214 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, . .217 
Vaccinium macrocnrpon, . .217 
CalopogOH pulchellus, . . .218 
Apocyniun androsccmifolium , 219 










Rubiis odoratus, 

Erigcron Philadclpliicits, . 
Geranium Robertianum, . 






Mountain Fringe, 

Adlumia cirrhosa, . . . . 



Epilobiutn angusiifolinni, . 


Steeple Bush, . . . 

Spircea tonientosa, . . . . 


*PlNK Knotvveed, . . 

Polygon iivi Pennsylva n icwn , 


Purple Loosestrife, . 

Lythriun Salic aria, 


Meadow-beauty, . . 

Rhexia Virginica, . . . . 


*Large Sea Pink, . . 

Sabbatia chloroides, . . . . 


Rose Mallow, . . . 

Hibiscus Alosckeictos, . 


*MusK Mallow, . . 

Malva moschata^ . . . . 


Marsh St. John's- 


E lodes campanulata, 


Tick Trefoil, . . . 

Desmodiwn Canadense, . . 


Bouncing Bet, . . . 

Saponaria officinalis, . . . 


Purple Gerardia, . . 

Gerardia purpurea, . . . . 


Joe-Pye-weed, . . . 

Eupatorium purpureum, . . 


*Wild Columbine, 

Aquilegia Canadensis, 


Wake Robin, . . . 

Trillium erecium, . . . . 


♦Painted Cup, . . . 

Castilleia coceinea, . . . . 


*Pitcher Plant, . . 

Sarracenia purpurea, . 


Wood Lily, .... 

Lilium Philadelphicum, . . 


Turk's Cap Lily, , . 

Liliuin superbum, . 


Butterfly-weed, . . 

Asclepias tuberosa, . . . 


Trumpet Honeysuckle, 

Lonicera sempervirens, 


♦Cardinal Flower, . 

Lobelia carditialis, . . . 


Liverwort, .... 

Hepatic a triloba, . . . . 


*Bird-foot Violet, . 

Viola pedata, 


*DoG Violet, . . . 

V^iola canina ; var. Muhlen 



Houstonia ccerulea, . . . 


Wild Geranium, . . 

Geranium maculatum, 


Skull-cap, .... 

Scutellaria galericulata, 


*CoMMON Speedwell, 

Veronica officinalis. 


Wild Lupine, . . . 

Licpinus perennis, . . . 


*Purple Fringed 



Habenaria Jimbriata, . . 


Self-heal, .... 

Brunella vulgaris, . 


*Arethusa, .... 

Arethusa bulbosa, . . . 


Blue Vetch, .... 

Vicia Cracca, .... 


♦Peppermint, . . . 

Mentha Piperita, . . . 



Echium vulgare. 


*Pickerel-weed, . . 

Pontedaria cardata, 




CampanuLt rotundifolia, . 






















CXLII. Nightshade, 
CXLIII. Sea Lavender, 
CXLIV. Hog Peanut, . 
CXLV. Chicory, . . . 
CXLVI. New England Aster 
CXLVII. *Blue-wood Aster, 
CXLVIII. *New York Aster, 
CXLIX. Iron-weed, . . . 
CL. *Blazing Star, 
CLI. *Closed Gentian, 
CLII. *Fringed Gentian, 
CLIII. Skunk Cabbage, . 
CLIV. Wild Ginger, . . 
CLV. Jack-in-the-Pulpit, 
CLVI. *Lily-leaved Lipari 
CLVII. Beechdrops, 
CLVIII. Wild Bean, 


Solannm Dulcamara, . . . 


Statice Caroliniana, 


Amphicarpaa monoica, . . 


Cichoriwn Ititybiis, . 


^, • 

Aster Nov<E AnglicF, 


Aster cordif alius, . . . 


. Aster Novi Belgii, . . . 


Vernonia Noveboracensis, . 


Liatris scariosa, .... 


Gentiana Andrewsii, . . 

. 318 

Gentiana crinita, . . 

• 320 

Symplocarpus fcetidus, . 

• 323 

Asarum Canadense, 

• 325 

Ariscema triphylhim, . . 

• 327 

s, . 

Lipari s liliifolia, 

• 328 

. Epiphegus Virginiana, 

. 329 

Apios tuberosa, .... 



" Most young people find botany a dull study. So it is, as taught from 
the text-books in the schools ; but study it yourself in the fields and woods, 
and you will find it a source of perennial delight." 

John Burroughs. 



Until a comparatively recent period the interest in plants 
centred largely in the medicinal properties, and sometimes in 
the supernatural powers, which were attributed to them. 

" — O who can tell 
The hidden power of herbes and might of magick spell ? — " 

sang Spenser in the '' Faerie Queene; " and to this day the names 
of many of our wayside plants bear witness, not alone to the 
healing properties which their owners were supposed to possess, 
but also to the firm hold which the so-called " doctrine of sig- 
natures " had upon the superstitious mind of the public. In an 
early work on *' The Art of Simpling," by one William Coles, 
we read as follows : " Yet the mercy of God which is over all 
his works, maketh-Grasse to grow upon the Mountains and Herbes 
for the use of men, and hath not only stamped upon them a dis- 
tinct forme, but also given them particular signatures, whereby a 
man may read, even in legible characters, the use of them." 
Our hepatica or liver-leaf, owes both its generic and English 
titles to its leaves, which suggested the form of the organ after 
which the plant is named, and caused it to be considered ''a 
sovereign remedy against the heat and inflammation of the 
liver. ' ' * 

Although his once-renowned system of classification has 
since been discarded on account of its artificial character, it is 
probably to Linnaeus that the honor is due of having raised the 



study of plants to a rank which had never before been accorded 
it. The Swedish naturalist contrived to inspire his disciples 
with an enthusiasm, and to invest the flowers with a charm and 
personality which awakened a wide-spread interest in the sub- 
ject. It is only since his day that the unscientific nature-lover, 
wandering through those woods and fields where 

' ' — wide around, the marriage of the plants 
Is sweetly solemnized — " 

has marvelled to find the same laws in vogue in the floral as in 
the animal world. 

To Darwin we owe our knowledge of the significance of 
color, form, and fragrance in flowers. These subjects have been 
widely discussed during the last twenty-five years, because of 
their close connection with the theory of natural selection ; they 
have also been more or less enlarged upon in modern text-books. 
Nevertheless, it seems wiser to repeat what is perhaps already 
known to the reader, and to allude to some of the interesting 
theories connected with these topics, rather than to incur the risk 
of obscurity by omitting all explanation of facts and deductions 
to which it is frequently necessary to refer. 

It is agreed that the object of a flower's life is the making of 
seed, i.e.^ the continuance of its kind. Consequently its most 
essential parts are its reproductive organs, the stamens, and the 
pistil or pistils. 

The stamens (p. xxxi) are the fertilizing organs. These pro- 
duce the powdery, quickening material called pollen, in little 
sacs which are borne at the tips of their slender stalks. 

The pistil (p. xxxii) is the seed-bearing organ. The pollen- 
grains which are deposited on its roughened summit throw out 
minute tubes which penetrate the style, reaching the little ovules 
in the ovary below, and quickening them into life. 

These two kinds of organs can easily be distinguished in any 
large, simple, complete flower (p. xxx). The pollen of the sta- 
mens, and the ovules which line the base of the pistil, can also 
be detected with the aid of an ordinary magnifying-glass. 



Now, we have been shown that nature apparently prefers that 
the pistil of a flower should not receive its pollen from the stamens 
in the same flower-cup with itself. Experience teaches that 
sometimes when this happens no seeds result. At other times 
the seeds appear, but they are less healthy and vigorous than 
those which are the outcome of cross-fertilization — the term 
used by botanists to describe the quickening of the ovules in one 
blossom by the pollen from another. 

But perhaps we hardly realize the importance of abundant 
health and vigor in a plant's offspring. 

Let us suppose that our eyes are so keen as to enable us to 
note the different seeds which, during one summer, seek to secure 
a foothold in some few square inches of the sheltered roadside. 
The neighboring herb-roberts and jewel-weeds discharge — cata- 
pult fashion — several small invaders into the very heart of the 
little territory. A battalion of silky-tufted seeds from the 
cracked pods of the milkweed float downward and take lazy 
possession of the soil, while the heavy rains wash into their im- 
mediate vicinity those of the violet from the overhanging bank. 
The hooked fruit of the stick-tight is finally brushed from the 
hair of some exasperated animal by the jagged branches of the 
neighboring thicket and is deposited on the disputed ground, 
while a bird passing just overhead drops earthward the seed of 
the partridge berry. The ammunition of the witch-hazel, too, 
is shot into the midst of this growing colony ; to say nothing of 
a myriad more little squatters that are wafted or washed or 
dropped or flung upon this one bit of earth, which is thus trans- 
formed into a bloodless battle-ground, and which is incapable of 
yielding nourishment to one-half or one-tenth or even one hun- 
dredth of these tiny strugglers for life ! 

So, to avoid diminishing the vigor of their progeny by self- 
fertilization (the reverse of cross-fertilization), various species 
take various precautions. In one species the pistil is so placed 
that the pollen of the neighboring stamens cannot reach it. In 
others one of these two organs ripens before the other, with 
the result that the contact of the pollen with the stigma of the 



pistil would be ineffectual. Often the stamens and pistils are 
in different flowers, sometimes on different plants. But these 
pistils must, if possible, receive the necessary pollen in someway 
and fulfil their destiny by setting seed. And we have been 
shown that frequently it is brought to them by insects, occa- 
sionally by birds, and that sometimes it is blown to them by the 

Ingenious devices are resorted to in order to secure these 
desirable results. Many flowers make themselves useful to the 
insect world by secreting somewhere within their dainty cups 
little glands of honey, or, more properly speaking, nectar, for 
honey is the result of the bees' work. This nectar is highly 
prized by the insects, and is in many cases the only object 
which attracts them to the flowers, although sometimes the pollen, 
which Darwin believes to have been the only inducement offered 
formerly, is sought as well. 

But of course this nectar fails to induce visits unless the bee's 
attention is first attracted to the blossom, and it is tempted to 
explore the premises ; and we now observe the interesting fact 
that those flowers which depend upon insect-agency for their 
pollen, usually advertise their whereabouts by wearing bright 
colors or by exhaling fragrance. It will also be noticed that 
a flower sufficiently conspicuous to arrest attention by its ap- 
pearance alone is rarely fragrant. 

When, attracted by either of these significant characteristics — 
color or fragrance — the bee alights upon the blossom, it is some- 
times guided to the very spot where the nectar lies hidden by 
markings of some vivid color. Thrusting its head into the heart 
.of the flower for the purpose of extracting the secret treasure, 
it unconsciously strikes the stamens with sufficient force to cause 
them to powder its body with pollen. Soon it flies away to 
another plant of the sajfie kind, where, in repeating the process 
just described, it unwittingly brushes some of the pollen from 
the first l^lossom upon the pistil of the second, where it helps to 
make new seeds. Thus these busy bees which hum so restlessly 
through the long summer days are working better than they 



know and are accomplishing more important feats than the mere 
honey-making which we usually associate with their ceaseless 

Those flowers which are dependent upon night-flying in- 
sects for their pollen contrive to make themselves noticeable 
by wearing white or pale yellow — red, blue, and pink being with 
difficulty detected in the darkness. They, too, frequently in- 
dicate their presence by exhaling perfume, which in many 
cases increases in intensity as the night falls and a clew to 
their whereabouts becomes momentarily more necessary. This 
fact partially accounts for the large proportion of fragrant 
white flowers. Darwin found that the proportion of sweet- 
scented white flowers to sweet-scented red ones was 14.6 per 
cent, of white to 8.2 of red. 

We notice also that some of these night-fertilized flowers 
close during the day, thus insuring themselves against the visits 
of insects which might rob them of their nectar or pollen, and 
yet be unfitted by the shape of their bodies to accomplish their 
fertilization. On the other hand, many blossoms which are 
dependent upon the sun-loving bees close at night, securing the 
same advantage. 

Then there are flowers which close in the shade, others at 
the approach of a storm, thus protecting their pollen and nectar 
from the dissolving rain ; others at the same time every day. 
Linnaeus invented a famous *' flower-clock," which indicated 
the hours of the day by the closing of different flowers. This 
habit of closing has been called the '' sleep of flowers." 

There is one far from pleasing class of flowers which entices 
insect-visitors — not by attractive colors and alluring fragrance — 
but ** by deceiving flies through their resemblance to putrid meat 
— imitating the lurid appearance as well as the noisome smell 
of carrion."* Our common carrion-flower (Plate XLVIII), 
which covers the thickets so profusely in early summer that 
Thoreau complained that every bush and copse near the river 
emitted an odor which led one to imagine that all the dead dogs 

• Grant Allen. 



in the neighborhood had drifted to its shore, is probably an 
example of this class, without lurid color, but certainly with a 
sufficiently noisome smell ! Yet this foul odor seems to answer 
the plant's purpose as well as their delicious aroma does that of 
more refined blossoms, if the numberless small flies which it 
manages to attract are fitted to successfully transmit its pollen. 

Certain flowers are obviously adapted to the visits of in- 
sects by their irregular forms. The fringed or otherwise con- 
spicuous lip and long nectar-bearing spur of many orchids point 
to their probable dependence upon insect agency for perpetua- 
tion ; while the papilionaceous blossoms of the Pulse family also 
betray interesting adaptations for cross-fertilization by the same 
means. Indeed it is believed that irregularity of form is rarely 
conspicuous in a blossom that is not visited by insects. 

The position of a nodding flower, like the harebell, protects 
its pollen and nectar from the rain and dew; while the hairs in 
the throat of many blossoms answer the same purpose and ex- 
clude useless insects as well. 

Another class of flowers which calls for special mention is that 
which is dependent upon the wind for its pollen. It is interest- 
ing to observe that this group expends little efl'ort in useless 
adornment. ''The wind bloweth where it listeth " and takes 
no note of form or color. So here we find those 

"Wan flowers without a name," 

which, unheeded, line the way-side. The common plantain of 
the country dooryard, from whose long tremulous stamens the 
light, dry pollen is easily blown, is a familiar example of this 
usually ignored class. Darwin first observed, that ''when a 
flower is fertilized by the wind it never has a gayly colored co- 
rolla." Fragrance and nectar as well are usually denied these 
sombre blossoms. Such is the occasional economy of that at 
times most reckless of all spendthrifts — nature ! 

Some plants — certain violets and the jewel-weeds among 
others — bear small inconspicuous blossoms which depend upon 
no outside agency for fertilization. These never open, thus 



effectually guarding their pollen from the possibility of being 
blown away by the wind, dissolved by the rain, or stolen by 
insects. They are called cleistogainous flowers. 

Nature's clever devices for securing a wide dispersion of 
seeds have been already hinted at. One is tempted to dwell at 
length upon the ingenious mechanism of the elastically bursting 
capsules of one species, and the deft adjustment of the silky sails 
which waft the seeds of others ; on the barbed fruits which have 
pressed the most unwilling into their prickly service, and the 
bright berries which so temptingly invite the hungry winter 
birds to peck at them till their precious contents are released, 
or to devour them, digesting only the pulpy covering and allow- 
ing the seeds to escape uninjured into the earth at some conven- 
iently remote spot. 

Then one would like to pause long enough to note the slow 
movements of the climbing plants and the uncanny ways of the 
insect-devourers. At our very feet lie wonders for whose eluci- 
dation a lifetime would be far too short. Yet if we study for 
ourselves the mysteries of the flowers, and, when daunted, seek 
their interpretation in those devoted students who have made 
this task part of their life-work, we may hope finally to attain at 
least a partial insight into those charmed lives which find 

" — tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 



The comprehension of the flower descriptions and of the 
opening chapters will be facilitated by the reading of the fol- 
lowing explanation of terms. For words or expressions other 
than those which are included in this section, the Index of 
Technical Terms at the end of the book should be consulted. 

The Root of a plant is the part which grows downward into 
the ground and absorbs nourishment from the soil. True roots 
bear nothing besides root-branches or rootlets. 

** The Stem is the axis of the plant, the part which bears all 
the other organs." (Gray.) 

A Hootstock is a creeping stem which grows beneath the 
surface of the earth. (See Blood-root and Solomon's Seal. Pis. 
I. and LV.) 

A Tuber is a thickened end of a rootstock, bearing buds, 
— " eyes," — on its sides. The common Potato is a familiar ex- 
ample of a tul)er, being a portion of the stem of the potato plant. 

A Corm is a short, thick, fleshy underground stem which 
sends off roots from its lower face. (See Jack-in-the-Pulpit, 
PI. CLV.) 

A Bulb is an underground stem, the main body of which 
cotisists of thickened scales, which are in reality leaves or leaf 
bases, as in the onion. 

A Simple Stem is one which does not branch. 

A Stemless plant is one which bears no obvious stem, but 
only leaves and flower-stalks, as in the Common Blue Violet and 
Liver-leaf (PI. CXXVL). 

A Scape is the leafless flower-stalk of a stemless plant. (See 
Liver-leaf, PI. CXXVL) . 



An Entire Leaf is one the edge of which is not cut or lobed 
in any way. (See Rhododendron, PI. XXII. , and Closed Gen- 
tian, PI. CLI.) 

A Simple Leaf is one which is not divided into leaflets ; its 
edges may be either lobed or entire. (See Rhododendron, PI. 
XXII. \ also Fig. I.) 

F'g. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

A Compound Leaf is one which is divided into leaflets, as 
in Wild Rose, Pink Clover, and Travellers' Joy (PI. XL. ; also 
Fig. 2). 

A Much-divided Leaf is one which is several times divided 
into leaflets (Fig. 3). 

The Axil of a leaf is the upper angle formed by a leaf or 
leaf-stalk and the stem. 

Flowers which grow from the axils of the leaves are said to 
be Axillary. 

When leaves or flowers are arranged in a circle around the 
stem they are said to be Whorled, or to form a Whorl. (See Ind- 
ian Cucumber-root, PI. LX; Four-leaved Loosestrife, PI. LXVII.) 

A cluster in which the flowers are arranged — each on its own 
stalk — along the sides of a common stem or stalk is called a 
Raceme. (See Cardinal-flower, PI. CXXV. ; Shin-leaf, PI. 

A Corymb is the same as a raceme, except that it is flat 
and broad, a raceme becoming a Corymb if the stalks of its 



lower flowers are lengthened while those of the upper remain 

A cluster in which the flower-stalks all spring from apparently 
the same point, as in the Milkweeds, somewhat suggesting the 
spreading ribs of an umbrella, is called an Umbel (PI. CXXIII.). 

A cluster which is formed of a number of small umbels, all of 
the stalks of which start from apparently the same point, is called 
a Compound Umbel. 

A close, circular flower-cluster, like that of Pink Clover or 
Dandehon is called a Head. (Sunflower, PI. LXXIX.) 

A flower-cluster along the lengthened axis of which the 
flowers are sessile or closely set is called a Spike. (Mullein, PI. 

A Spadix is a fleshy spike or head, with small and often im- 
perfect flowers, as in the Jack-in-the-Pulpit, and Skunk Cabbage 
(Pis. CLV. and CLIII. ; also Fig. 4). 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

A Spathe is the peculiar leaf-like bract which usually en- 
velops a spadix. (See Jack-in-the-Pulpit and Skunk Cabbage, 
Pl§, CLV. and CLIII. ; also Fig. 5.) 

A Bract is a leaf belonging to or subtending a flower-cluster 
or a flower. It differs from the ordinary leaves usually in shape 
or size, sometimes in texture and color. The flower of an orchid 
is always subtended by a bract. (See Adder's Mouth, PI. 

Involucre is the name given to the circle or spiral collection 
of bracts around a flower-cluster. (See Wild Sunflower, PI. 



LXXIX., where the involucre surrounds what is probably con- 
sidered a single flower, but what is actually a cluster of ray- and 
disk-flowers ; also bunch-berry, PI. XVIII. ; where the involucre 
consists of the four showy white leaves which are usually supposed 
to be petals, while the greenish centre is actually a cluster of in- 
conspicuous flowers.) 

A leaf or flower which is set so close in the stem as to show 
no sign of a separate leaf or flower -stalk, is said to be Sessile. 

A Complete Flower (Fig. 6) is '' that part of a plant which 
subserves the purpose of producing seed, consisting of stamens 
and pistils, which are the essential organs, and the calyx and 
corolla, which are the protecting organs." (Gray.) 

The green outer flower-cup, or outer set of green leaves, 
which we notice at the base of many flowers, is the Calyx (Fig. 
6 Ca). At times this part is brightly colored and may be the 
most conspicuous feature of the flower. 

When the calyx is divided into separate leaves, these leaves 
are called Sepals. 

The inner flower-cup or the inner set of leaves is the Corolla 
(Fig. 6, C). 

When the corolla is divided into separate leaves, these leaves 
are called Petals. 

We can look upon calyx and corolla as the natural tapestry 
which protects the delicate organs of the flower, and serves as 
well, in many cases, to attract the attention of passing insects. 
In some flowers only one of these two parts is present ; in such a 
case the single cup or set of floral leaves is generally considered to 
be the calyx. 

The floral leaves may be spoken of collectively as the Peri- 
anth. This word is used especially in describing members of 
families where there might be difficulty in deciding as to whether 
the single set of floral leaves present should be considered calyx 
or corolla (see Lilies, Pis. LXX. and CXXI.) ; or where the 
petals and sepals can only be distinguished with difficulty, as 
with the Orchids. 

The Stamens (Fig. 7) are the fertilizing organs of the flower. 



A stamen usually consists of two parts, its Filament (F), or stalk, 
and its Anther (A), the little sac at the tip of the filament which 
produces the dust-like, fertilizing substance called Pollen (p). 

The Pistil (Fig. 8) is the seed-bearing organ of the flower. 
When complete it consists of Ovary (O), Style (Sty), and 
Stigma (Stg). 

The Ovary is the hollow portion at the base of the pistil. It 
contains the ovules or rudimentary seeds which are quickened 
into life by the pollen. 

The Style is the slender tapering stalk above the ovary. 

The Stigma is usually the tip of the style. The pollen-grains 
which are deposited upon its moist roughened surface throw out 

Fig 7. 

Fig 8. 

minute tubes which penetrate to the little ovules of the ovary 
and cause them to ripen into seeds. 

A flower which has neither stamens nor pistils is described 
as Neutral. 

A flower with only one kind of these organs is termed Uni- 

A Male or Staminate flower is one with stamens but without 

A Female or Pistillate flower is one with pistils but without 

The Fruit of a plant is the ripened seed-vessel or seed-vessels, 
including the parts which are intimately connected with it or 



Although the great majority of plant families can only be 
distinguished by a combination of characteristics which are too 
obscure to obtain any general recognition, there are some few 
instances where these family traits are sufficiently conspicuous to 
be of great assistance in the ready identification of flowers. 

If, for instance, we recognize at sight a papilionaceous blos- 
som and know that such an one only occurs in the Pulse family, 
we save the time and energy which might otherwise have been 
expended on the comparison of a newly found blossom of this 
character with the descriptions of flowers of a different lineage. 
Consequently it has seemed wise briefly to describe the marked 
features of such important families as generally admit of easy 

Composite Family. — It is fortunate for the amateur botanist 
that the plant family which usually secures the quickest recog- 
nition should also be the largest in the world. The members of 
the Composite family attract attention in every quarter of the 
globe, and make themselves evident from early spring till late 
autumn, but more especially with us during the latter season. 

The most notable characteristic of the Composites is the 
crowding of a number of small flowers into a close cluster or 
head, which head is surrounded by an involucre, and has the 
effect of a single blossom. Although this grouping of small 
flowers in a head is not peculiar to this tribe, the same thing 
being found in the clovers, the milkworts, and in various other 
plants — still a little experience will enable one to distinguish a 
Composite without any analysis of the separate blossoms which 
form the head. 



These heads vary greatly in size and appearance. At times 
they are large and solitary, as in the dandelion. Again they are 
small and clustered, as in the yarrow. 

In some genera they are composed of flowers which are all 
similar in form and color, as in the dandelion, where all the 
corollas are strap-shaped and yellow ; or, as in the common 
thistle, where they are all tubular-shaped and pinkish-purple. 

In others they are made up of both kinds of flowers, as in 
the daisy, where only the yellow central or disk-flowers are 
tubular-shaped, while the white outer or ray-flowers are strap- 
shaped. The flower-heads of the well-known asters and golden 
rods are composed of both ray and disk-flowers also; but while 
the ray-flowers of the aster, like those of the daisy, wear a dif- 
ferent color from the yellow disk-flowers, both kinds are yellow 
in the golden rod. 

If the dandelion or the chicory (PL CXLV. ) is studied as an 
example of a head which is composed entirely of strap-shaped 
blossoms; the common thistle or the stick-tight (PI. LXXX.) 
as an example of one which is made up of tubular-shaped blos- 
soms ; and the daisy or the sun-flower (PL LXXIX.) as an example 
of one which combines ray and disk-flowers — as the strap-shaped 
and tubular blossoms are called when both are present — there 
need be little difficulty in the after recognition of a member of 
this family. The identification of a particular species or even 
genus will be a less simple matter ; the former being a task which 
has been known to tax the patience of even advanced botanists. 

Mr. Grant Allen believes that the Composites largely owe 
their universal sway to their *' co-operative system." He says ; 
*^ If we look close into the Daisy we see that its centre com- 
prise^ a whole mass of little yellow bells, each of which consists 
of corolla, stamens, and pistil. The insect which alights on the 
head can take his fill in a leisurely way, without moving from 
his standing-place ; and meanwhile he is proving a good ally of 
the plant by fertilizing one after another of its numerous ovaries. 
Each tiny bell by itself would prove too inconspicuous to attract 
much attention from the passing bee ; but union is strength for 



the Daisy as for the State, and the little composites have found 
their co-operative system answer so well, that late as was their 
appearance upon the earth they are generally considered at the 
present day to be the most numerous family both in species and 
individuals of all flowering plants." While those of us who 
know the country lanes at that season when 

*' — ranks of seeds their witness bear," 

feel that much of their omnipresence is due to their unsur- 
passed facilities for globe-trotting. Our roadsides every autumn 
are lined with tall golden-rods, whose brown velvety clusters 
are compossed of masses of tiny seeds whose downy sails are set 
for their aerial voyage ; with asters, whose myriad flower-heads 
are transformed into little puff-balls which are awaiting disso- 
lution by the November winds, and with others of the tribe 
whose hooked seeds win a less ethereal but equally effective 

Parsley Family. — The most familiar representative of the 
Parsley family is the wild carrot (p. 90), which so profusely decks 
the highways throughout the summer with its white, lace-like 
clusters ; while the meadow parsnip is perhaps the best known of 
its yellow members (p. 133). 

This family can usually be recognized by the arrangement 
of its minute flowers in umbels, which umbels are again so 
clustered as to form a compound umbel whose radiating stalks 
suggest the ribs of an umbrella, and give this Order its Latin 
name of UmbellifercB. 

A close examination of the tiny flowers which compose these 
umbrella-like clusters discovers that each one has five white 
or yellow petals, five stamens, and a two-styled pistil. Some- 
times the calyx shows five minute teeth. The leaves are usually 
divided into leaflets or segments which are often much toothed 
or incised. 

The Parsleys are largely distinguished from one another by 
differences in their fruit, which can only be detected with the 
aid of a microscope. It is hoped, however, that the more com- 



mon and noticeable species will be recognized by means of 
descriptions which give their general appearance, season of 
blooming, and favorite haunts. 

Pulse Family. — The Pulse family includes many of our com- 
mon wood and field flowers. The majority of its members are 
easily distinguished by those irregular, butterfly-shaped blos- 
soms which are described as papiliofiaceous. The sweet pea is 
a familiar example of such a flower, and a study of its curious 
structure renders easy the after-identification of a papilionaceous 
blossom, even if it be as small as one of the many which make 
up the head of the common pink clover. 

The calyx of such a flower is of five more or less — and some- 
times unequally — united sepals. The corolla consists of five 
irregular petals, the upper one of which is generally wrapped 
about the others in bud, while it spreads or turns backward in 
flower. This petal is called the standard. The two side petals 
are called wings. The two lower ones are usually somewhat 
united and form a sort of pouch which encloses the stamens and 
style ; this is called the keel, from a fancied likeness to the 
prow of an ancient vessel. There are usually ten stamens and 
one pistil. 

These flowers are peculiarly adapted to cross-fertilization 
through insect agency, although one might imagine the con- 
trary to be the case from the relative positions of stamens and 
pistil. In the pea-blossom, for example, the hairy portion of 
the style receives the pollen from the early maturing stamens. 
The weight of a visiting bee projects the stigma and the pollen- 
laden style against the insect's body. But it must be observed 
that in this action the stig7na first brushes against the bee, while 
\ki^ pollen-laden style touches him later, with the result that the 
bee soon flies to another flower on whose fresh stigma the de- 
tached pollen is left, while a new cargo of this valuable material 
is unconsciously secured, and the same process is indefinitely re- 

Mint Family. — A member of the Mint family usually exhales 
an aromatic fragrance which aids us to place it correctly. If to 



this characteristic is added a square stem, opposite leaves, a two- 
lipped corolla, four stamens in pairs — two being longer than the 
others — or two stamens only, and a pistil whose style (two- 
lobed at the apex) rises from a deeply four-lobed ovary which 
splits apart in fruit into four little seed-like nutlets, we may feel 
sure that one of the many Mints is before us. 

Sometimes we think we have encountered one of the family 
because we find the opposite leaves, two-lipped corolla, four 
stamens, and an ovary that splits into four nutlets in fruit ; but 
unless the ovary was also deeply four-lobed in the flower, the 
plant is probably a Vervain, a tribe which greatly resembles the 
Mints. The Figworts, too, might be confused with the Mints 
did we not always keep in mind the four-lobed ovary. 

In this family we find the common catnip and pennyroyal, 
the pretty ground ivy, and the handsome Oswego tea (p. 264). 

Mustard Family. — The Mustard family is one which is 
abundantly represented in waste places everywhere by the little 
shepherd's purse or pickpocket, and along the roadsides by the 
yellow mustard, and wild radish. (See Crinkle-root, PI. V.) 

Its members may be recognized by their alternate leaves, 
their biting, harmless juice, and by their white, yellow, or pur- 
plish flowers, the structure of which at once betrays the family to 
which they belong. 

The calyx of these flowers is divided into four sepals. The 
four petals are placed opposite each other in pairs, their spread- 
ing blades forming a cross which gives the Order its Latin name 
Cruciferce. There are usually six stamens, two of which are in- 
serted lower down than the others. The single pistil becomes 
in fruit a pod. Many of the Mustards are difficult of identifica- 
tion without a careful examination of their pods and seeds. 

Orchis Family. — To the minds of many the term orchid only 
suggests a tropical air-plant, which is rendered conspicuous either 
by its beauty or by its unusual and noticeable structure. 

This impression is, perhaps, partly due to the rude print i-n 
some old text-book which endeared itself to our childish minds 
by those startling and extravagant illustrations which are re- 



sponsible for so many shattered illusions in later life ; and partly 
to the various exhibitions of flowers in which only the exotic 
members of this family are displayed. 

Consequently, when the dull clusters of the ragged fringed 
orchids, or the muddy racemes of the coral-root, or even the 
slender, graceful spires of the ladies' tresses are brought from 
the woods or roadside and exhibited as one of so celebrated a 
tribe, they are usually viewed with scornful incredulity, or, if 
the authority of the exhibitor be sufficient to conquer disbelief, 
with unqualified disappointment. The marvellous mechanism 
which is exhibited by the humblest member of the Orchis family, 
and which suffices to secure the patient scrutiny and wondering 
admiration of the scientist, conveys to the uninitated as little of 
interest or beauty as would a page of Homer in the original to 
one without scholarly attainments. 

The uprooting of a popular theory must be the work of years, 
especially when it is impossible to offer as a substitute one 
which is equally capable of being tersely defined and readily ap- 
prehended ; for many seem to hold it a righteous principle to 
cherish even a delusion till it be replaced by a belief which af- 
fords an equal amount of satisfaction. It is simpler to describe 
an orchid as a tropical air-plant which apes the appearance of 
an insect and never roots in the ground than it is to master by 
patient study and observation the various characteristics which 
so combine in such a plant as to make it finally recognizable and 
describable. Unfortunately, too, the enumeration of these un- 
sensational details does not appeal to the popular mind, and so 
fails to win by its accuracy the place already occupied by the in- 
correct but pleasing conception of an orchid. 

For the benefit of those who wish to be able correctly to place 
these curious and interesting flowers, as brief a description as 
seems compatible with their recognition is appended. 

Leaves. — Alternate, parallel-nerved. 

Flowers. — Irregular in form, solitary or clustered, each one 
subtended by a bract. 

Perianth. — Of six divisions in two sets. The three outer 



divisions are sepals, but they are usually petal-like in appearance. 
The three inner are petals. By a twist of the ovary what would 
otherwise be the upper petal is made the lower. This division is 
termed the lip ; it is frequently brightly colored or grotesquely 
shaped, being at times deeply fringed or furrowed ; it has often 
a spur-like appendage which secretes nectar ; it is an important 
feature of the flower and is apparently designed to attract insects 
for the purpose of securing their aid in the cross-fertilization 
which is usually necessary for the perpetuation of the different 
species of this family, all of which give evidence of great modi- 
fication by means of insect-selection. 

In the heart of the flower is the column ; this is usually com- 
posed of the stamen (of two in the Cypripediums'), which is con- 
fluent with the style or thick, fleshy stigma. The two cells of 
the anther are placed on either side of and somewhat above the 
stigma ; these cells hold the two pollen masses. 

Darwin tells us that the flower of an orchid originally con- 
sisted of fifteen different parts, three petals, three sepals, six 
stamens, and three pistils. He shows traces of all these parts in 
the modern orchid. 



" A fresh footpath, a fresh flower, afresh delight " 

Richard Jefferies 


[White or occasionally White Flowers not described in White 


Liverwort. Hepatica triloba. April and May. 

(Blue and Purple Section, p. 270.) 

Trailing Arbutus. Epigcea repens. April and May. 

(Pink Section, p. 195.) 

White Adder's Tongue. Erythronium albiduin. April and May. 

« (Yellow Section, p. 126.) 

Bluets. Houstonia ccerulea. May and June. 

(Blue and Purple Section, p. 274.) 

Beard-Tongue. Pentstemon pubescens and Pentstemoii digitalis. June. 

(Blue and Purple Section, p. 290.) 

Wild Morning Glory. Convolvulus Americanus. Summer. 

(Pink Section, p. 223.) 

Moth Mullein. Verbascuni Blattaria. Later Summer. 

(^'ellow Section, p. 170.) 

Bouncing Bet. Saponaria officinalis. Later Summer. 

(Pink Section, p. 248.) 

Note. — Occasional white varieties of other flowers maybe found. 

Jn this section also are placed flowers so pale as to give a white effect. 





Sanguinaria Canadensis. Poppy Family. 

Rootstock. — Thick ; charged with a crimson juice. Scape. — Naked ; one- 
flowered. Leaves. — Rounded ; deeply lobed. Flower. — White ; terminal. 
Calyx. — Of two sepals falling early. Corolla. — Of eight to twelve snow- 
white petals. Stamens. — About twenty-four. Pistil. — One; short. 

In early April the curled-up leaf of the blood-root, wrapped in 
its papery bracts, pushes its firm tip through the earth and brown 
leaves, bearing within its carefully shielded burden, the young 
erect flower-bud. When the perils of the way are passed and a 
safe height is reached, this pale, deeply lobed leaf resigns its 
precious charge and gradually unfolds itself; meanwhile the bud 
slowly swells into a blossom. 

Surely no flower of the year can vie with this in spotless 
beauty. Its very transitoriness enhances its charm. The snowy 
petals fall from about their golden centre before one has had 
tim.e to grow satiated with their perfection. Unless the rocky 
hillsides and wood-borders are jealously watched it may escape 
us altogether. One or two warm sunny days will hasten it to 
maturity, and a few more hours of wind and storm shatter its 

Care should be taken in picking the flower — if it must be 
picked — as the red liquid which oozes blood-like from the 
wounded stem makes a lasting stain. This crimson juice was 
prized by the Indians as a decoration for their faces and toma- 


BLOOD- ROOT. —Sansrjiiiiaruj (\inadcnsis. 




Amelanchier oblongifolia. Rose Family. 

A tall shrub or small tree found in low ground. Leaves. — Oblong ; 
acutely pointed; finely toothed; mostly rounded at base. Flowers. — 
White; growing in racemes. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Of five rather 
long petals. Stamens. — Numerous; short. Pistils. — With five styles. 
Fruit. — Round ; red ; sweet and edible ; ripening in June. 

Down in the boggy meadow, in early March, we can ahiiost 
fancy that from beneath the solemn purple cowls of the skunk- 
cabbage brotherhood comes the joyful chorus — 

" For lo, the winter is past ! " 

but we chilly mortals still find the wind so frosty and the woods 
so unpromising that we return shivering to the fireside, and re- 
fuse to take up the glad strain till the feathery clusters of the 
shad-bush droop from the pasture thicket. Then only are we 
ready to admit that 

" The flowers appear upon the earth, 
The time of the singing of birds is come." 

Even then, search the woods as we may, we shall hardly find 
thus early in April another shrub in blossom, unless it be the 
spice-bush, whose tiny honey-yellow flowers escape all but the 
careful observer. The shad-bush has been thus named because 
of its flowering at the season when shad "run ; " June-berry, 
because the shrub's crimson fruit surprises us by gleaming from 
the copses at the very beginning of summer; service-berry, be- 
cause of the use made by the Indians of this fruit, which they 
gathered in great quantities, and, after much crushing and 
pounding, made into a sort of cake. 



Anemone neinorosa. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Slender. Leaves. — Divided into delicate leaflets. Flower. — 
Solitary ; white, pink, or purplish. Calyx. — Of from four to seven petal- 
like sepals. Corolla* — None. Stamens and Pistils. — Numerous. 

" — Within the woods. 
Whose young and half transparent leaves scarce cast 
A shade, gay circles of anemones 
Danced on their stalks ; " 

writes Bryant, bringing vividly before us the feathery fohage of 
the spring woods, and the tremulous beauty of the slender- 
stemmed anemones. Whittier, too, tells how these 

" — wind-flowers sway 
Against the throbbing heart of May." 

And in the writings of the ancients as well we could find many 
allusions to the same flower, were we justified in believing that 
the blossom christened the "wind-shaken," by some poet 
flower-lover of early Greece, was identical with our modern 

Pliny tells us that the anemone of the classics was so entitled 
because it opened at the wind's bidding. The Greek tradition 
claims that it sprang from the passionate tears shed by Venus 
over the body of the slain Adonis. At one time it was believed 
that the wind which had passed over a field of anemones was 
poisoned, and that disease followed in its wake. Perhaps be- 
cause of this superstition the flower was adopted as the emblem of 
illness by the Persians. Surely our delicate blossom is far re- 
moved from any suggestion of disease or unwholesomeness. seem- 
ing instead to hold the very essence of spring and purity in its 
cjuivering cup. 


WOOD M^EMOUE— Anemone nemorosa. RUE tKHEUOH^.—AnemoneUa thalictroides. 




Ancmonclla thalictroidcs. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. — Divided into rounded leaf- 
lets. Floivers. — White or pinkish ; clustered. Calyx. — Of five to ten petal- 
like sepals. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Four to fif- 

The rue anemone seems to linger especially about the spread- 
ing roots of old trees. It blo.ssoms with the wood anemone, 
from which it differs in bearing its flowers in clusters. 

] \^r' 


Trientalis Americana. Primrose Family. 

Stem. — Smooth ; erect. Leaves. — Thin ; pointed ; whorled at the summit 
of the stem. L lowers. — White; delicate; star-shaped. Calyx. — (Generally 
seven-parted. Corolla. — Generally seven-jiarted ; flat; spreading. Stamens. 
— Pour or five. Pistil. — One. 

Finding this delicate flower in the May woods, one is at once 
reminded of the anemone. The whole eff'ect of plant, leaf, and 
snow-white blossom is starry and pointed. The frosted tapering 
petals distinguish it from the rounded blossoms of the wild straw- 
berry, near which it often grows. 

Maianthemjim Canadense. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Three to si.x inches high ; with two or three leaves. Leaves. — 
Lance-shaped to oval ; heart-shaped at base. Flo7oers. — White or straw- 
color; growing in a raceme. Perianth. — Four-parted. Staviens. — Four. 
Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed stigma. J'ruit. — A red berry. 

It seems unfair that this familiar and pretty little plant should 
be without any homely English name.-'^ Its botanical title signi- 
fies ** -Canada Mayflower," but while undoubtedly it grows in 
Canada and flowers in May, the name is not a happy one, for it 
abounds as far south as North Carolina, and is not the first blos- 
som to be entitled " Mayflower." 

In late summer the red berries are often found in close prox- 
imity to the fruit of the shin-leaf and pipsissewa. 

* In parts of the country it is called "Wild Lily of the Valley." 



^ — Trientalis Americana^ 



^1 .•«. 

^lainnthemuni Canadense. 




Copt is trifolia. Crowfoot Family. 

Scape. — Slender ; three to five inches high. Leaves. — Evergreen ; shin- 
ing; divided into three leaflets. Flowers. — White; solitary. Calyx. — Of 
five to seven petal-like sepals which fall early. Corolla. — (3f five to seven 
club-shaped petals. Stamens. — Fifteen to twenty-five. Pistils. — Three to 
seven. Root. — Of long, bright yellow fibres. 

This decorative little plant abundantly cari)ets the northern 
bogs and extends southward over the mountains. Its delicate 
flowers appear in May, but its shining, evergreen leaves are 
noticeable throughout the year. The bright yellow thread-like 
roots give it its common name. 


Antennaria plantaginifolia. Composite Family. 

Stems. — Downy or woolly, three to eighteen inches high. Leaves. — 
Silky, woolly when young ; those from the root, oval, three-nerved ; those on 
the flowering stems, small, lance-shaped. Flowet'- heads. — Crowded; clus- 
tered ; small ; yellowish-white ; composed entirely of tubular flowers. 

In early spring the hillsides are whitened with this, the earli- 
est of the everlastings. 


wlA- V, Pyrus arbtitifolia. Rose Family. 

A shrub from one to three feet high. Leaves. — Oblong or somewhat 
lance-shaped ; finely toothed ; downy beneath. Flojvers. — White or pink- 
ish ; father small ; clustered. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Of five petals. 
Stamens — Numerous. Pistil. — One, with two to five styles. Frtiit. — 
Small, pear-shaped or globular, dark red or blackish. 

Among the earliest shrubs of the year to flower is the choke- 
berry. Its white or pink blossoms, despite their smaller size, 
indicate a close kinship to those of the apj)le-tree. They are 
found during the spring months in swamps and thickets, and 




PYXIE. l\-\i,l,tiitltr.i\i /uir/>uliifii. 


also on the mountain sides all along the Atlantic coast, as well as 
farther- inland. The red or blackish fruit suggests superficially a 


[PI. IV 
Pyxidanthe7'a harbitlata. Order Diapensiacetr. 

Stems. — Prostrate and creeping; branching. Leaves. — Narrowly lance- 
shaped ; awl-pointed. Floivers. — White or pink; small; numerous. Calyx. 
— Of five sepals. Corolla. — Five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, 
with a three-lobed stigma. 

In early spring we may look for the dainty white flowers of 
this delicate moss-like plant in the sandy pine-woods of New 
Jersey and southward. At Lakewood they appear even before 
those of the trailing arbutus which grows in the same localities. 
The generic name is from two Greek words which signify a 
small box and a?ither, and refers to the anthers, which open as if 
by a lid. 


^ [PI. V 

Dentaria diphylla. Mustard Family. 

Rootstock. — Five to ten inches long; wrinkled ; crisp; of a pleasant, pun- 
gent taste. Stem. — Leafless below : bearing two leaves above. Leaves. — 
Divided into three toothed leaflets. Flotvers. — White; in a terminal cluster. 
Calyx. — Of four early-falling sepals. Corolla. — Of four petals. Stamens. — 
Six; two shorter than the others. Pistil. — One. Pod. — Flat and lance- 

The crinkle-root has been valued, not so much on account 
of its pretty flowers which may be fotmd in the rich May woods, 
/but for its crisp, edible root, which has lent savor to many a 
simple luncheon in the cool shadows of the forest. 


Dentaria laciniata. Mustard Family. 

Rootstock. — Tuberous ; sometimes more or less bead-like. Stem-leaves. — 
Deeply parted ; the divisions gash-toothed. Flowers.— \i\\\\.^ or pink; in 
a terminal cluster ; otherwise as in above, but usually appearing somewhat 
earlier in the "spring. 



Cardattiine rhomhoidea. Mustard Family. 

Rootstock.—'^\^x\AQx\ bearing small tubers. .SVc-w.— From a tuberous 
base; upright; slender. Root-leaves. — \<o^xx\(S. and often heart-shaped. 
Stem-leaves. — The lower rounded, the upper almost lance-shaped. Floivers. 
—White ; large ; clustered. Calyx. — Of four early-falling sepals. Corolla. — 
Of four petals. Stamens. — Six; two shorter than the others. Pistil. — 
One. Pod. — Flat; lance-shaped; pointed with a slender style tipped with 
a conspicuous stigma ; smaller than that of the crinkle-root. 

The spring-cres.s grows abundantly in the wet meadows and 
about the borders of springs. Its large white flowers appear as 
early as April, lasting until June. 


Dralia verna. Mustard Family. 

Scapes. — One to three inches high. Leaves. — All from the root ; oblong 
or lance-shaped. Fknoers. — White ; with two-cleft petals ; clustered. 
Calyx. — Oi four early-falling sepals. Corolla. — Of four petals. Staf?ieus. 
— Six; two shorter than the others. Pistil. — One. Pod. — Flat; varying 
from oval to oblong-lance-shaped. 

This little plant may be found flowering along the roadsides 
and in sandy places during April and May. It has come to us 
from Europe. 


Nasturtium officinale. Mustard Family. 

Leaves. — Divided into roundish segments. Flowers. — White, clustered. 
Calyx. — Of four early-falling sepals. Corolla. — Of four petals, twice the 
length of the sepals. Stamens. — Six ; two shorter than the others. Pistil. 
— One. Pod. — Linear. 

Although the water-cress is not a native of North America it has 
made itself so entirely at home in many of our streams that we 
hardly look upon it as a stranger. Whoever, after a long ramble 
through the woods on a summer morning, lias plucked its fresh, 
pungent leaves from some sparkling stream and added them to his 
frugal sandwich, looks upon the little plant with a sense of famil- 
iar gratitude, which we rarely feel toward an alien. 




CRINKLE-ROOT.— Z>^«/rt/7W diphylla. 


The name nasturtium, signifying twisted nose. Is said to be 
given to this genus on account of the effect supposedly produced 
on the nose by eating the acrid leaves. 


Capsella Bursa-pastoris. Mustard Family. 

Stern. — Low; branching. Root-leaves. — Clustered; incised or toothed 
Stem-leaves. — Arrow-shaped; set close to the stem. Flowers. — White, 
clustered. Calyx. — Of four early-falling sepals. Corolla. — Of four petals. 
.Stamens. — Six; two shorter than the others. Pistil. — One. Pod. — Tri- 
angular, heart-shaped. 

This is one of the commonest of our wayside weeds, working 
its way everywhere with such persistency and appropriating 
other people's property so shamelessly, that it has won for itself 
the nickname of pickpocket. Its popular title arose from the 
shape of its little seed-pods. 


Arabis hii'suta. Mustard Family. 

Erect; one to two feet high. Stem-leaves. — Oblong or lance-shaped; 
sometimes toothed ; partly clasping by a somewhat heart-shaped base. 
Flowers. — Small; greenish white ; clustered. Calyx. — Ot four early-falling 
sepals. Corolla. — Of four petals. Stamens. — Six; two shorter than the 
others. Pistil. — One. Frtiit. — A long, narrow, flattened pod. 

During May and June in rocky places, especially northward, 
we find this flower in abundance. 


Cardamine hirsuta. Mustard Family. 

"^■/-fw.— Three inches to two feet high ; springing from a spreading clus- 
ter of root-leaves. Leaves. — Pinnate. ^ Llo7vers. — Small; white ; clustered. 
Calyx.— 0{ four early-falling sepals. Corolla.— 0{ four petals. Stamens. 
—Six, two shorter than the others. Pistil.— Ont. Pod.—Une^r. Very 
narrow ; erect or ascending. 

The small bitter cress is a plant found in flower from May to 
July. Its spreading cluster of pinnately divided root-leaves is 
specially noticeable near the rocky banks of streams. 



MAY -APPLE .—Podophyllum peltatum. 




[PI. VI 
Podophyllum peltatum. Barberry P'amily. 

Flozvering-stem . — Two-leaved ; one-flowered. Flowerless-stems. — Ter- 
minated by one large, rounded, much-lobed leaf. Leaves (of flowering- 
stems). — One-sided; five to nine-lobed, the lobes oblong; the leaf-stalks 
fastened to their lower side near the inner edge. Flower. — White; large; 
nodding from the fork made by the two leaves. Calyx. — Of six early-falling 
sepals. Corolla. — Of six to nine rounded petals. Stajuens. — Twice as many 
as the petals. Pistil. — One, with a large, thick stigma set close to the 
ovary. Fruit. — A large, fleshy, egg-shaped berry ; sweet and edible. 

'' The umbrellas are out ! " cry the children, when the great 
green leaves of the May-apple first unfold themselves in spring. 
These curious-looking leaves at once betray the hiding-place of 
the pretty, but, at times, unpleasantly odoriferous flower which 
nods beneath them. They lie thickly along the woods and 
meadows in many parts of the country, arresting one's attention 
by the railways. The fruit, which ripens in July, has been given 
the name of** wild lemon," in some places on account of its 
shape. It was valued by the Indians for medicinal purposes, 
and its mawkish flavor still seems to find favor with the children, 
notwithstanding its frequently unpleasant after-affects. The 
leaves and roots are poisonous if taken internally, and are said 
to have been used as a pot herb, with fatal results. They yield 
an extract which has been utilized in medicine. 


Erigenia bulbosa. 

Stem. — Three to nine inches high ; from a deep round tuber. Leaves. — 
One or two ; divided into linear-oblong leaf- segments. Flo7uers. — White ; 
sm'all ; few ; in a leafy-bracted compound umbel. 

The pretty little harbinger-of-spring should be easily identified 
by those who are fortunate enough to find it, for it is one of the 
smallest members of the Parsley family. It is only common in 
certain localities, being found in abundance in the neighbor- 
hood of Washington, where its flowers appear as early as March. 


EARLY SAXIFRAGE.— 5^^^rrt^^ Virgmicnsis, 




Dicentra Cucuilaria. Fumitory Family. 

Scape. — Slender. Leaves. — Thrice-compound. FloTuers. — White and 
yellow; growing in a raceme. Calyx. — Of two small, scale-like sepals. 
Corolla. — Closed and flattened; of four somewhat cohering white petals 
tipped with yellow ; the two outer — large, with spreading tips and deep 
spurs ; the two inner— small, with spoon-shaped tips uniting over the anthers 
and stigma. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One. 

There is something singularly fragile and spring-like in the 
appearance of this plant as its heart-shaped blossoms nod from 
the rocky ledges where they thrive best. One would suppose 
that the firmly closed petals guarded against any intrusion on 
the part of insect visitors and indicated the flower's capacity for 
self-fertilization ; but it is found that when insects are excluded 
by means of gauze no seeds are set, which goes to prove that 
the pollen from another flower is a necessary factor in the con- 
tinuance of this species. The generic name, Biceutra, is from 
the Greek and signifies two-spurred. The flower, when seen, 
explains its two English titles. It is accessible to every New 
Yorker, for in early April it whitens many of the shaded ledges 
in the upper part of the Central Park. 


Dicentra Canadensis. Fumitory Family. 

The squirrel corn closely resembles the Dutchman's breeches. 
Its greenish or pinkish flowers are heart-shaped, with short, 
rounded spurs. They have the fragrance of hyacinths, and are 
found blossoming in early spring in the rich woods of the North. 


Saxifraga Virginiensis. Saxifrage Family. 

Scape. — Four to nine inches high. Leaves — Clustered at the root ; some- 
what wedge-shaped ; narrowed into a broad leaf-stalk. Fleecers. — White ; 
small ; clustered. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Co)'olla. — Of five petals. Stamens. 
— Ten. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

In April we notice that the seams in the rocky cliffs and hill- 
sides begin to whiten with the blossoms of the early saxifrage. 



fioy^er enlarged.. 

ljy\TRE-V^ ORT .—Miie!la diphylltk.. 


Steinbrech — stonebreak — the Germans appropriately entitle this 
little plant, which bursts into bloom from the minute clefts in 
the rocks and which has been supposed to cause their disintegra- 
tion by its growth. The generic and common names are from 
saxujH — a rock, diVid /range re — to break. 


Tiarella cordifolia. Saxifrage Family. 

Stem. — Five to twelve inches high ; leafless, or rarely with one or two 
leaves. Leaves. — From the rootstock or runners ; heart-shaped ; sharply 
lobed. Flcnvers. — White; in a full raceme. Calyx. — Bell-shaped; five- 
parted. Cprolla. — Of five petals on claws. Stamens. — Ten ; long and slen- 
der. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

Over the hills and in the rocky woods of April and May the 
graceful white racemes of the foam-flower arrest our attention. 
This is a near relative of the Mitella or true mitre-wort. Its 
generic name is a diminutive from the Greek for turban, and is 
said to refer to the shape of the pistil. 


[PI. Vill 
Mitella diphylla. Saxifrage Family. 

6'/(?;;/.--Six to twelve inches high ; hairy ; bearing two opposite leaves. 
Leaves. — Heart-sjhaped ; lobed and toothed ; those of the stem opposite and 
nearly sessile, /^/(ttcwj. — White ; small; in a slender raceme. Calyx. — 
Short ; five-cleft. Corolla. — Of five slender petals which are deeply incised 
Stamens. — Ten; short. PistiL — One, with two styles. 

The mitre-wort resembles the foam-flower in foliage, but 
bears its delicate, crystal-like flowers in a more slender raceme. 
It also is found in the rich woods, blossoming somewhat later. 


TriUiiim ^randijlontiii. Lily Family. 

.9/^,;/. — Stout ; from a tuber-like root stock. L^ea7>es. — Ovate ; three in a 
whorl, a short distance below the flower. Flo7vcr. — Single ; terminal ; large; 
white, turning pink or marked with green. Calyx. — Of three green, spread- 
ing sepals. Corolla. — Of three long pointed petals. Stamens, — Six. Pis- 



LARGER WHITE TRILLIUM .— 7'r/V//«;« grandijiortoit. 


til. — One, with three spreading stigmas. Fruit. — A large ovate, somewhat 
angled, dark purple berry. 

This singularly beautiful flower is found during April and 
May. Its great white stars gleam from shaded wood borders or 
from the banks of swift-flowing streams. 

The nodding trillium, T. cer?imifn, bears its smaller white 
or pinkish blossom in a manner which suggests the may apple, 
on a stalk so curved as sometimes quite to conceal the flower be- 
neath the leaves. This is a fragrant and attractive blossom, 
which may be found in the early year in moist shaded places. 

The painted trillium, T. erythrocarpum, is also less large and 
showy than the great white trillium, but it is quite as pleasing. 
Its white petals are painted at their base with red stripes. This 
species is very plentiful in the Adirondack and Catskill Moun- 


Jeffersonia diphylla. Barberry Family. 

A low plant. Leaves. — From the root ; long- stalked ; parted into two 
rounded leaflets. Scape. — One flowered. Flower. — White ; one inch broad. 
Sepals. — Four, falling early. Petals. — Eight ; flat, oblong. Stamens. — 
Eight. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed stigma. 

The twin-leaf is often found growing with the blood-root in 
the woods of April or May. It abounds somewhat west and 


Pruntis Virgmiana . Rose Family. 

A shrub two to ten feet high. Leaves. — Oval or oblong; abruptly 
pointed ; sharply toothed. Flcnvers. — White, in erect or spreading racemes 
terminating leafy branches. Calyx. — Five cleft. Corolla. — Of five spread- 
ing petals. Stamens. — Fifteen to twenty. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Round, 
red or almost black, in drooping clusters. 

In April or May, along the country lane where the oriole 
flashes in and out among the blossoms, and the blue-bird " with 
the earth tinge on his breast and the sky tinge on his back," 



is resting on the fence rail, singing his sinii)le song of joy in 
the perfect season, the long white flower-clusters of the choke- 
cherry arrest our attention. In August, or sometimes late in 
July, these same lanes are decorated by drooping clusters of the 
dark red acid fruit, well known to the country children, who 
perhaps gave the shrub its peculiar name. 


Aralia nicdicaulis. Ginseng Family. 

Stem. — Bearing a single large, long-stalked, much-divided leaf, and a 
shorter naked scape which bears the rounded flower-clusters. Flcnuers. — 
Greenish-white; in umbels. Calyx. — With short or obsolete teeth. Corolla. 
— Of five petals. Stamens. — Five. Fruit. — Black or dark-purple; berry- 

In the June woods the much-divided leaf and rounded flower- 
clusters of the wild sarsaparilla are frequently noticed, as well as 
the dark berries of the later year. The long aromatic roots of 
this plant are sold as a substitute for the genuine sarsaparilla. 
The rice-paper plant of China is a member of this genus. 


Aralia trifolia. Ginseng Family. 

Stem. — Four to eight inches high. Leaves. — Three in a whorl ; divided 
into from three to five leaflets. Flo-tvers. — White ; in an umbel. Fruit. — 
Yellowish; berry-like. Root. — A globular tuber. 

The tiny white flowers of the dwarf ginseng are so closely 
clustered as to make "■ one feathery ball of bloom," to quote Mr. 
Hamilton Gibson. This little plant resembles its larger relative 
the true ginseng. It blossoms in our rich open woods early in 
spring, and hides its small round tuber so deep in the earth that 
it requires no little care to uproot it without breaking the slender 
stem. This tuber is edible and pungent tasting, giving the 
plant its name of ground-nut. 



A flower cluster. 

SPIKENARD.— y4ra//a racemosa. 



Aralia quinqiiefolia. Ginseng Family. 

Root. — Large and spindle-shaped ; often forked. Stem. — About one foot 
high. Leaves. — Three in a whorl ; divided into leaflets. Flowers. — Green- 
ish-white ; in a simple umbel. Fruit. — Bright red ; berry-like. 

This plant is well known by name, but is yearly becoming 
more scarce. The aromatic root is so greatly valued in China for 
its supposed power of combating fatigue and old age that it can 
only be gathered by order of the emperor. The forked specimens 
are believed to be the most powerful, and their fancied likeness 
to the human form has obtained for the plant the Chinese title 
oi Ji?i-chen (from which ginseng is a corruption), and the Indian 
one of Garan-foguen, both which, strangely enough, are said 
to signify, like a man. The Canadian Jesuits first began to ship 
the roots of the American species to China, where they sold at 
about five dollars a pound. At present they are said to com- 
mand about one-fifth of that price in the home market. 


Aralia racemosa. Ginseng Family. 

Root. — Large and aromatic. Stem. — Often tall and widely branched, 
leafy. Leaves. — Large ; divided into somewhat heart-shaped, toothed, and 
pointed leaflets. Flozvers. — Greenish- white ; small ; in clusters in early 
summer. Fruit. — Dark purple, red, or black ; berry-like. 

The spikenard is conspicuous chiefly in autumn, when its 
partially ripened clusters of glass-like fruit are sure to excite, by 
their rich beauty, the curiosity of the passer-by. 


Aralia hispida. Ginseng Family. 

Stem. — One to two feet high ; bristly, leafy, terminating in a stalk bear- 
ing several umbels of small white flowers. Leaves. — Divided into ovate or 
oval leaflets. Flozvers. — White, small, in roundish clusters. 

In June or July, in open, somewhat rocky or sandy places, 
the bristly sarsaparilla is conspicuous by reason of its pretty 



rounded flower clusters. Later in the year its umbels of dark 
blue or purple fruit are even more noticeable than were the 


Viola Canadensis. Violet Family. 

Stem. — Leafy ; upright ; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Heart-shaped ; 
pointed; toothed. Flowers. — White, veined with purple, violet beneath, 
otherwise greatly resembling the common blue violet. 

We associate the violet with the early year, but I have found 
the delicate fragrant flowers of this species blossoming high up 
on the Catskill Mountains late into September ; and have known 
them to continue to appear in a New York city-garden into No- 
vember. They are among the loveliest of the family, having a 
certain sprightly self-assertion which is peculiarly charming, per- 
haps because so unexpected. 

The tiny sweet white violet, V. bla?ida, with brown or pur- 
ple veins, which is found in nearly all low, wet, woody places in 
spring, is perhaps the only uniformly fragrant member of the 
family, and its scent, though sweet, is faint and elusive. 

The lance-leaved violet, V. la?iceolafa, is another white 
species which is easily distinguished by its smooth lance-shaped 
leaves, quite unlike those of the common violet. It is found in 
damp soil, especially eastward. 


Chiogenes serpyllifolia. Heath Family. 

Stem. — Slender; trailing and creeping. Leaves. — Evergreen: small; 
ovate; pointed. Flowers. — Small; white; solitary from the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx. — P'our-parted ; with four large bractlets beneath. Corolla. 
— Deeply four-parted. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A pure 
white berry. 

One must look in May for the flower of tliis ])lant ; but it is 
late in the summer when the beautiful little creeper especially 
challenges our admiration. Studded with snow-white berries, it 
nearly covers some decaying log which has fallen into a lonely 



Adirondack stream. Or else it thickly carpets the peat-bog 
where we are hunting cranberries, or brightens the moist mossy 
woods which earlier in the year were redolent with the breath 
of the twin-flower. Its aromatic flavor suggests the wintergreen 
and sweet ')irch. 


Smilacina racemosa. Lily family. 

SfevK — Usually curving ; one to three feet long. Leaves. — Oblong; 
veiny. Flowers. — Greenish-white; small ; in a terminal raceme. Perianth. 
' -Six-parted. Statnens. — Six. Pistil. — One. Print. — A pale red berry 
•.peckled with purple. 

A singular lack of imagination is betrayed in the common 
name of this plant. Despite a general resemblance to the true 
Solomon's seal, and the close proximity in which the two are 
constantly found, S. racemosa has enough originality to deserve 
an individual title. The position of the much smaller flowers is 
markedly different. Instead of drooj)ing beneath the stem they 
terminate it, having frequently a pleasant fragrance, while the 
berries of late summer are pale red, flecked with purple. It puz- 
zles one to understand why these two plants should so constantly 
be found growing side by side — so close at times that they al- 
most appear to spring from one point. The generic name is 
from smilax, on account of a supposed resemblance between the 
leaves of this plant and those which belong to that genus. 


Viburnum prunifoliurn. Honeysuckle Family. 

A tall shrub or small tree. Leaves. — Oval; finely and sharply toothed. 
Flmver's. — White ; small ; in flat-topped clusters. Calyx — Five-toothed. 
Corolla. — Wheel-shaped ; five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One. 
Fruit. — Berry-like; oval; black, or with bluish bloom. 

In May one of the most beautiful and noticeable of our 
white-flowered shrubs or trees is the black haw. Its flat, circular 
flower-clusters are usually very perfect and spotless. They are 
massed abundantly along the country lanes. 



FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL.-6"w//aa«a racemosa. 




Viburniini lantanoides. Honeysuckle Family. 

Leaves. — Rounded ; pointed ; closely toothed ; heart-shaped at the base ; 
the veins beneath as well as the stalks and small branches being covered 
with a rusty scurf. Flcnvers. — White; small; in flat-topped clusters; ap- 
pearing in April and May. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — As in above. Fruit. — 
Coral-red ; berry-like. 

The marginal flowers of the flat-topped ckisters of the hob- 
ble-bush, hke those of the hydrangea, are much larger than the 
inner ones, and usually are without either stamens or pistils ; their 
only part in the economy of the shrub being to form an attractive 
setting for the cluster, and thus to allure the insect visitors that 
are usually so necessary to the future well-being of the species. 
The shrub is a common one in our northern woods and moun- 
tains, its coral-red, berry-like fruit and brilliant leaves making it 
especially attractive in the later year. Its straggling growth, 
and the reclining branches which often take root in the ground, 
have suggested the popular names of hobble-bush and wayfaring- 


Viburnum acerifolium. Honeysuckle Family. 

A shrub from three to six feet high. Leaves. — Somewhat three-lobed, 
resembling those of the maple ; downy underneath. Flo7uers. — White ; 
small ; in flat-topped clusters. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — Spread- 
ing ; five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Berry-like; 
crimson turning purple. 

Our flowering shrubs contribute even more to the beauty of 
the Tune woods and fields than the smaller ])lants. The vibur- 
nums and dogwoods especially are conspicuous at this season, 
abundantly lining the roadsides with their snowy clusters. 
When the blossoms of the maple-leaved viburnum or dockmackie 
have passed away we need not be surprised if w^e are informed 
that this shrub is a young maple. There is certainly a resem- 
blance between its leaves and those of the ma])le, as the specific 





MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM.— r/<5«r««;« aceri/olitim. 


Flower enlarged. 


name indicates. To be sure, the first red, then purple berries, 
can scarcely be accounted for, but such a trifling incongruity 
would fail to daunt the would-be wiseacre of field and forest. 
With Napoleonic audacity he will give you the name of almost 
any shrub or flower about which you may inquire. Seizing 
upon some feature he has observed in another plant, he will im- 
mediately christen the one in question with the same title — 
somewhat modified, perhaps — and in all probability his author- 
ity will remain unquestioned. There is a marvellous amount of 
inaccuracy afloat in regard to the names of even the commonest 
plants, owing to this wide-spread habit of guessing at the truth 
and stating a conjecture as a fact. 


Vibitrnum cassinoides. Honeysuckle Family. 

A shrub five to twelve feet high. Leaves. — Ovate or oval, thick, smooth. 
Flowers. — White, much as in above. Fruit. — First pink, then turning 
dark blue or blackish with a bloom. 

The withe-rod blossoms in early summer. The first pink, 
then dark blue fruit, is noticeable and very decorative in August 
in wet or sandy places. 


Viburnum dentatujn. Honeysuckle Family. 

A shrub from five to fifteen feet high. Leaves. — Broadly egg-shaped; 
sharply toothed ; strongly veined. Flozvers. — White ; small ; in flat-topped 
clusters. Calyx, etc. — As in above. Fruit. — Dark blue. 

This is a not uncommon shrub in wet places. Its white 
flower-clusters are noticeable in June along the wooded roadsides. 
There are many other species of viburnums which are common 
in certain localities. If an analysis of the flower shows it to be- 
long to this genus, Gray's "■ Manual" should be consulted for 
further identification. 





Flower enlarged. 
ARROW-WOOD.— F/(5«r;/«w/ dentatum, 




Cornus circmaia. Dogwood Family. 

A shrub six to ten feet high. Leaves. — Rounded; abruptly pointed. 
Flowers. — Small; white; in flat, spreading clusters. Calyx. — Minutely 
four-toothed. Corolla. — Of four white, oblong, spreading petals. Stamens. 
— Four. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Light blue ; berry-like. 

The different members of the Dogwood family are important 
factors in the lovely pageant which delights our eyes along the 
country lanes every spring. Oddly enough, only the smallest 
and largest representative of the tribe (the little bunch-berry, 
and the flowering-dogwood, which is sometimes a tree of goodly 
dimensions), have in common the showy involucre which is 
usually taken for the blossom itself; but which instead only sur- 
rounds the close cluster of inconspicuous greenish flowers. 

The other members of the genus are all comprised in the 
shrubby dogwoods ; many of these are very similar in appear- 
ance, bearing their white flowers in flat, spreading clusters, and 
differing chiefly in their leaves and fruit. 

The branches of the round-leaved dogwood are greenish and 
warty-dotted. Its fruit is light blue, and berry-like. 

The bark of this genus has been considered a powerful tonic, 
and an extract entitled " cornine," is said to possess the proper- 
ties of quinine less strongly marked. The Chinese peel its twigs, 
and use them for whitening their teeth. It is said that the 
Creoles also owe the dazzling beauty of their teeth to this same 


Cornus alterttifolia. Dogwood Family. 

A shrub or tree eight to twenty- five feet high. Branches. — Greenish 
streaked with white. Leaves. — Alternate ; clustered at the ends of the 
branches; oval; long-pointed. Floxvers. — White; small; in broad, open 
clusters. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — As in above. Fruit. — Deep blue on red- 
dish stalks. 

In copses on the hillsides we find this shrub flowering in May 
or June. Its deep blue, red-stalked fruit is noticeable in late 



ROUND-LEAVED DOG^NOOD.—Conius circinaUt. 




Comics paniculata. Dogwood Family. 

A shrub four to eight feet high. Branches. — Gray ; smooth. Leaves. — 
Narrowly ovate ; taper-pointed ; whitish but not downy beneath. Flowers. 
— White ; small ; in loose clusters. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — As in other dog- 
woods. Fruit. — White. 

Along the banks of streams and in the thickets which mark 
the hmits of the meadow we find this shrub in flower in June or 
early July. 


Corniis stolonifera. Dogwood Family. 

A shrub from three to six feet high. B^-anches (especially the young 
shoots). — Bright purplish-red. Leaves. — Ovate; rounded at base; short- 
pointed; roughish ; whitish beneath. Flowers. — White; small; in fiat 
clusters. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — As in other dogwoods. Fruit. — White or 

This is a common shrub in wet places, especially northward, 
flowering in June or early July; being easily identified through- 
out the year by its bright reddish branches, and after midsum- 
mer by its conspicuous lead-colored berries. 


Arctostaphylos Uva-nrsi. Heath Family. 

A trailing shrub. Leaves. — Thick and evergreen; smooth; somewhat 
wedge-shaped. Flowers. — Whitish; clustered. Calyx. — Small. Corolla. 
— Urn-shaped; five-toothed. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — 
Red ; berry-like. 

This plant blossoms in May or June, and is found on rocky 
hillsides or in sandy .soil. Its name refers to the relish with which 
bears -are supposed to devour its fruit. 


Cratoegtis coccinea. Rose Family. 

A shrub or small tree, with spreading branches, and stout thorns or 
spines. Leaves. — On slender leaf-stalks; thin; rounded; toothed, some- 
times lobed. Flowers. — White or sometimes reddish ; rather large; clus^ 



Wh^^^--^/.:'^-^-- 'h 


'i(i/y-' '•^, i//'//'i»' 




Flower enlarged. 

RED-OSIER DOG'^OOD.—Cornus stolonifera. 


tered ; with a somewhat disagreeable odor. Calyx. — Urn-shaped ; five- 
cleft. Corolla. — Of five broad, rounded petals. Stamens. — Five to ten or 
many. Pistil. — One with one to five styles. Fruit. — Coral-red. 

The flowers of the white-thorn appear in spring, at the same 
time with those of many of the dogwoods. Its scarlet fruit 
gleams from the thicket in September. 


Crat(2giis Crus-galli. Rose Family. 

A shrub or low tree. Thorns. — Smooth; slender; often four inches 
long. Leaves. — Thick; dark green; shining above; somewhat wedge- 
shaped ; toothed above the middle ; tapering into a very short leaf-stalk. 
Flowers. — White; fragrant; in clusters on short side branches. Calyx, 
Corolla, etc. — As in above. Fruit. — Globular ; red, in late summer or 

The cockspur thorn flowers in June. Its red fruit, somewhat 
suggesting a crab-apple, is conspicuous throughout the autunm 
and winter. 

There are several other species of thorn, and if a flower be 
found which proves, on analysis, to belong to this genus, a 
reference to Gray's '' Manual " will lead to its farther identifi- 


Primus fjiaridina. Rose Family. 

A low straggling shrub. Leaves. — Ovate or oval, finely toothed. 
Flowers. — White , showy ; clustered, appearing before the leaves. Calyx. 
— Five-lobed. Corolla. — Of five obovate petals. Siajuens. — Numerous. 
Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Roundish, purple, with a bloom. 

During the months of April and May the flowers of the beach 
plum are conspicuous on the sand-hills of our coast. The fruit 
ripens in the fall. 



HAV^THORN. —Cra/a^s-us coccinea. 


WHITE BANEBERRY.— ^ctea alba. 




Nemopanthes fasciciilaris. Holly Family. 

A much-branched shrub ; with ash-gray bark. Leaves. — Alternate; ob- 
long; smooth; on slender leaf-stalks. Flowers. — White; some perfect; 
others unisexual ; solitary or clustered in the axils of the leaves on long, 
slender flower-stalks. Calyx. — Minute or obsolete. Corolla. — Of four or 
five spreading petals. Stamens. — Four or five. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — 
Coral-red ; berry-like. 

The flowers of this shrub appear in the damp woods of May. 
Its light red berries on their slender stalks are noticed in late 
summer when its near relation, the black alder or winterberry, 
is also conspicuous. Its generic name signifies flower with a 
thread-like stalk. 


Ilex verticillata. Holly Family. 

A shrub, common in low grounds. Leaves. — Oval or lance-shaped ; 
pointed at apex and base ; toothed. Floivers. — White ; some perfect, 
others unisexual ; clustered on very short flower-stalks in the axil of the 
leaves; appearing in May or June. Calyx. — Minute. Corolla. — Of four 
to six petals. Stametis. — Four to six. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Coral-red; 

The year may draw nearly to its close without our attention 
being arrested by this shrub. But in September it is well-nigh 
impossible to stroll through the country lanes without pausing to 
admire the bright red berries clustered so thickly among the leaves 
of the black alder. The American holly, /. opaca, is closely re- 
lated to this shrub, whose generic name is the ancient Latin title 
for the holly-oak. 


fPl. XVII 
Actcea alba. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — About two feet high. Leaves. — Twice or thrice-compound ; leaf- 
lets incised and sharply toothed. Flowers. — Small.; white; in a thick, ob- 
long, terminal raceme. Calyx. — Of four to five tiny sepals which fall as the 
flower expands. Corolla. — Of four to ten small flat petals with slender 
claws. Stamens. — Numerous, with slender white filaments. Pistil — One, 


PLATE xvn; 

BUNCH-BERRY —Cornus Canadensis. 



with a depressed, two-lobed stigma. Fruit. — An oval white berry, with a 
dark spot, on a thick red stalk, growing in a cluster, which is sometimes a 
very conspicuous feature of the woods of midsummer. 

The feathery clusters of the white baneberry may be gathered 
when we go to the woods for the columbine, the wild ginger, 
the Jack-in-the-pulpit, and Solomon's seal. These flowers are 
very nearly contemporaneous and seek the same cool shaded 
nooks, all often being found within a few feet of one another. 

The red baneberry, A. rubra, is a somewhat more northern 
plant and usually blossoms a week or two earlier. Its cherry-red 
(occasionally white) berries on their slender stalks are easily dis- 
tinguished from the white ones o{ A. alda,\w\\\ch. look strikingly 
like the china eyes that small children occasionally manage to 
gouge from their dolls' heads. 


Sambuctis racemosa. Honeysuckle Family. 

Stems. — Woody ; two to twelve feet high. Leaves. — Divided into leaflets. 
Flowers. — White ; resembling those of the common elder, but borne in py- 
ramidal instead of in flat-topped clusters. Fruit. — Bright red ; berry-like. 

The white pyramids of this elder are found in the rocky 
woods of May. As early as June one is startled by the vivid 
clusters of brilliant fruit with which it gleams from its shadowy 


Corniis Canadejisis. Dogwood Family. 

Stem. — Five to seven inches high. Leaves. — Ovate; pointed; the upper 
crowded into an apparent whorl of four to six. Flcnvers. — Greenish ; small ; 
in a cluster which is surrounded by a large and showy four-leaved, petal-like 
white or pinkish involucre. Co /j/jc. — Minutely four-toothed. Corolla. — Of 
four spreading petals. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — Bright 
red ; berry-like. 

When one's eye first falls upon the pretty flowers of the 
bunch-berry in the June woods, the impression is received that 
each low stem bears upon its summit a single large white blos- 



BUCKBEAN,— A/^«jvr;//'//ry frifoUata. 


som. A more searching look discovers that what appeared Hke 
rounded petals are really the showy white leaves of the involucre 
which surround the small, closely clustered, greenish flowers. 

The bright red berries which appear in late summer make 
brilliant patches in the woods and swamps. Occasionally the 
plant is found flowering also at this season, its white stars show- 
ing to peculiar advantage among the httle clusters of coral-like 
fruit. It is closely allied to the well-known flowering-dogwood, 
which is so ornamental a tree in early spring. 

In the Scotch Highlands it is called the ''plant of gluttony," 
on account of its supposed power of increasing the appetite. It 
is said to form part of the winter food of the Esijuimaux. 



MenyantJies trifoliata. Gentian Family. 

Scape. — About one foot high. Leaves. — Long stemmed; divided into 
three oblong leaflets. Flowers. — White or reddish ; clustered along the 
scape. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Five-cleft; short funnel-form; 
white; bearded on the upper surface. Statnens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with 
a two-lobed stigma. 

If luck favors us, in May or early June, we are tempted deep 
into the long grass of some treacherous swamp by the beautiful 
white flowers of the buckbean. These grow about one foot 
above the ground, the white beards which fringe their upper sur- 
faces giving them a peculiarly delicate and feathery appearance. 


[PI. XX 

Calla palitstris. Arum Family. 

Leaves. — Long - stemmed ; heart-shaped. Apparent Floiver. — Large; 
white. Actual Flowers. — Small; greenish; packed about the oblong spadix . 

Although only eight or ten inches high, this plant is pecul- 
iarly striking as it rises from the rich soil of the swamp, or from 
the shallow borders of the stream. The broad smooth leaves at 
once remind one of its relationship to the so-called '' calla-lily " 



of the greenhouses, a native of the Cape of Good Hope ; and 
the likeness is still more apparent in tlie white, petal-like (al- 
though flat and open) spathe which tops the scape; so that even 
one knowing nothing of botanical families would naturally chris- 
ten the plant ''wild calla." The first sight of these white 
spathes gleaming across a wet meadow in June, and the closer 
inspection of the upright, vigorous little plants, make an event 
in the summer. None of our aquatics is more curious and inter- 
esting, more sturdy, yet dainty and pure, than the wild calla. 


Sanrurus cennius. Pepper Family. 

Stem. — Jointed; often tall. Leaves. — Alternate; heart-shaped. Flowers. 
— White ; without calyx or corolla ; crowded into a slender, wand-like ter- 
minal spike which nods at the end. Stamens. — Usually six or seven. Pis- 
tils. — Three or four, united at their base. 

The nodding, fragrant spikes of the lizard's tail abound in 
certain swamps from June till August. While the plant is not 
a common one, it is found occasionally in great profusion, and 
IS sure to arrest attention by its odd appearance. 


MenispermuDi Canadense. Moonseed Family. 

Stem. — Woody; climbing. Leaves. — Three to seven-angled or lobed ; 
their stalks fastened near the edge of the lower surface. Flowers. — White 
or yellowish ; in small loose clusters ; unisexual. Calyx. — Of four to eight 
sepals. Corolla. — Of six to eight short petals. Stamens and Pistils. — Oc- 
curring on different plants. Fruit. — Berry-like; black, with a bloom. 

Clambering over the thickets which line the streams, we no- 
tice in September the lobed or angled leaves and black berries of 
the moonseed, the small white or yellowish flowers of which 
were, perhaps, overlooked in June. 


Plate xx 

WATER ARUM .—Calla Pahistris. 




Rubiis Chamcemorus. Rose Family. 

Stem. — Low, simple. Leaves. — Two or three ; roundish kidney-shaped; 
usually somewhat five-lobed, finely toothed, wrinkled. Floiver. — Solitary ; 
white. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Of five white obovate petals. 
Fruit. — A berry of a few reddish or amber-colored grains ; edible. 

This quaint pretty little plant I have found springing from 
beds of golden brown sphagnum, on one of the Cranberry Isl- 
ands, off Mount Desert. Gray assigns it to the "highest peaks 
of White Mountains, coast of eastern Maine, and north and west 
to the Arctic regions." It is one of the plants which is found in 
Alaska, as well as along our own coast. 


Rubiis villosHS. Rose Family. 

A shrub one to six feet high, armed with stout prickles. Leaves. — Di- 
vided into three to five leaflets. Flowers. — With five-parted calyx; five 
petals; numerous stamens and pistils. Fruit. — Black. 

Though the common blackberry seems almost too well known 
to need description, yet occasionally its flowers arouse some 
doubt and curiosity in the mind of the wanderer along those 
country lanes, where its blossoming branches form so beautiful 
and luxuriant a border. 


Rtibiis hispidus. Rose Family. 

Stems. — Slender; creeping; beset with small, weak prickles. L^eaves. — 
Divided into three, or rarely five, leaflets. Flowo's. — With five-parted 
calyx; five white petals; numerous stamens and pistils. Fi-iiit. — Nearly 
black when ripe, of few grains. 

Over the mosses in the swamp the running swamp blackberry 
trails its reddish stems with their thick, smooth, shining leaves, 
and in e'.rly summer their white flowers. A few weeks later we 



find the first, red, then blackish berries. It is a charming plant, 
and one is tempted to carry home, for decorative purposes, a few 
of its long lithe strands. 


Rubits Canadensis. Rose Family. 

A trailing shrub, armed with scattered prickles or nearly naked ; branches 
erect or ascending. Leaves. — Divided into three ovate or oval leaflets. 
Flowers. — With five-parted calyx ; five white petals ; numerous stamens and 
pistils. Fniit. — Black, edible, delicious. 

The dewberry is found in dry ground, trailing along the 
roadside, or in dry, perhaps rocky fields. It ripens earlier than 
the common blackberry. 


Kalmia latifolia. Heath Family. 

An evergreen shrub. Leaves. — Oblong; pointed; shining; of a leath- 
ery texture. Flowers. — White or pink; in terminal clusters. Calyx. — 
Five-parted. Corolla. — Marked with red ; wheel-shaped; five-lobed ; with 
ten depressions. Statnens. — Ten ; each anther lodged in one of the depres- 
sions of the corolla. I^istil. — One. 

The shining green leaves which surround the white or rose- 
colored flowers of the mountain laurel are familiar to all who 
have skirted the west shore of the Hudson River, wandered 
across the hills that lie in its vicinity, or clambered across the 
mountains of Pennsylvania, where the shrub sometimes grows to 
a height of thirty feet. Not that these localities limit its range ; 
for it abounds more or less from Canada to Florida, and far in- 
land, especially along the mountains, whose sides are often 
clothed with an apparent mantle of pink snow during the month 
of June, and whose waste places are, in very truth, made to blos- 
som like the rose at this season. 

The shrub is highly prized and carefully cultivated in Eng- 
land. Barewood Gardens, the beautiful home of the editor of 



the London Times, is celebrated for its fine specimens of moun- 
tain laurel and American rhododendron. The English papers 
advertise the approach of the flowering season, the estate is 
thrown open to the public, and the people for miles around flock 
to see the radiant strangers from across the water. The shrub is 
not known there as the laurel, but by its generic title, Kalmia. 
The head gardener of the place received with some incredulity 
my statement that in parts of America the waste hill-sides were 
brilliant with its beauty every June. 

The ingenious contrivance of these flowers to secure cross- 
fertilization is most interesting. The long filaments of the sta- 
mens are arched by the fact that each anther is caught in a little 
pouch of the corolla ; the disturbance caused by the sudden alight- 
ing of an insect on the blossom, or the quick brush of a bee's wing, 
dislodges the anthers from their niches, and the stamens spring 
upward with such violence that the pollen is jerked from its hid- 
ing-place in the pore of the anther-cell on to the body of the in- 
sect-visitor, who straightway carries it off to another flower upon 
whose protruding stigma it is sure to be inadvertently deposited. 
In order to see the working of this for one's self, it is only nec- 
essary to pick a fresh blossom and either brush the corolla quickly 
with one's finger, or touch the stamens suddenly with a pin, 
when the anthers will be dislodged and the pollen will be 
seen to fly. 

This is not the laurel of the ancients — the symbol of victory 
and fame — notwithstanding some resemblance in the form of the 
leaves. The classic shrub is supposed to be identical with the 
Laurus nobilis, which was carried to our country by the early 
colonists, but which did not thrive in its new environment. 

The leaves of our species are supposed to possess poisonous 
qualities, and are said to have been used by the Indians for sui- 
cidal purposes. There is also a popular belief that the flesh of a 
partridge which has fed upon its fruit becomes poisonous. The 
clammy exudation about the flower-stalks and blossoms may 
serve the purpose of excluding from the flower such small insects 
as would otherwise crawl up to it, dislodge the stamens, scatter 



MOUNTAIN LMREL.—Kalmta latijolia. 



the pollen, and yet be unable to carry it to its proper destina- 
tion on the pistil of another flower. 

The Kalmia was named by Linnaeus after Peter Kalm, one of 
his pupils who travelled in this country, who was, perhaps, the 
first to make known the shrub to his great master. 

The popular name spoon wood grew from its use by the Ind- 
ians for making eating-utensils. The wood is of fine grain and 
takes a good polish. 

The title calico-bush probably arose from the marking of the 
corolla, which, to an imaginative mind, might suggest the cheap 
cotton -prints sold in the shops. 


Rhododendron maxhnitm. Heath Family. 

A shrub from six to thirty-five feet high. Leaves. — ^Thick and leathery ; 
oblong; entire. Flozvers. — White or pink; clustered. Calyx. — Minute; 
five-toothed. Corolla. — Somewhat bell-shaped ; five-parted ; greenish in 
the throat ; with red, yellow, or green spots. Stamens. — Usually ten. 
Fis til. —OnQ. 

This beautiful native shrub is one of the glories of our coun- 
try when in the perfection of its loveliness. The woods which 
nearly cover many of the mountains of our Eastern States hide 
from all but the bold explorer a radiant display during the early 
part of July. Then the lovely waxy flower-clusters of the Amer- 
ican rhododendron are in their fulness of beauty. As in the 
laurel, the clammy flower-stalks seem fitted to protect the blos- 
som from the depredations of small and useless insects, while the 
markings on the corolla attract the attention of the desirable bee. 

In those parts of the country where it flourishes most luxuri- 
antly, veritable rhododendron jungles, termed ** hells" by the 
mountaineers, are formed. The branches reach out and interlace 
in such a fashion as to be almost impassable. 

The nectar secreted by the blossoms is popularly supposed to 
be poisonous. AVe read in Xenophon that during the retreat of 
the Ten Thousand the soldiers found a ([uantity of honey, of 
which they freely partook, with results that proved almost hiatal. 



AMERICAN RHODODEUDRON. —KAododendyon Mojiimum. 



This honey is said to have been made from a rhododendron 
which is still common in Asia Minor, and which is believed to 
possess intoxicating and poisonous properties. 

Comparatively little attention had been paid to this superb 
flower until the Centennial Celebration at Philadelphia, when 
some fine exhibits attracted the admiration of thousands. The 
shrub has been carefully cultivated in England, having been 
brought to great perfection on some of the English estates. It is 
yearly winning more notice in this country. 

The generic name is from the Greek for rose-tree. 


Oxalis Acetosella. Geranium Family. 

Scape. — One-flowered; two to five inches high. Leaves. — Divided mto 
three clover-like leaflets. Flozver. — White, veined with red ; solitary. Calyx. 
— Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One 
with five styles. 

Surely nowhere can be found a daintier carpeting than that 
made by the clover-like foliage of the wood sorrel, when studded 
with its rose-veined blossoms, in the northern woods of June. 
At the very name comes a vision of mossy nooks where the sun- 
light only comes on sufferance, piercing its difficult path through 
the tent-like foliage of the forest, resting only long enough to be- 
come a golden memory. 

The early Italian painters availed themselves of its chaste 
beauty. Mr. Ruskin says : '* Era Angelico's use of the Oxalis 
Acetosella is as faithful in representation as touching in feeling. 
The triple leaf of the plant and white flower stained purple prob- 
ably gave it strange typical interest among the Christian 

Throughout Europe it bears the odd name of '' Hallelujah " 
on account of its flowering between Easter and Whitsuntide, the 
season when the Psalms sung in the churches resound with that 
word. There has been an unfounded theory that this title sprang 
from St. Patrick's endeavor to prove to his rude audience the 



WHITE SWAMP HONEYSUCKLE.— J^/iodotiendrofi viscosum. 



possibility of a Trinity in Unity from the three-divided leaves. 
By many this ternate leaf has been considered the shamrock of 
the ancient Irish. 

The English title, '' cuckoo-bread," refers to the appearance 
of the blossoms at the season when the cfy of the cuckoo is first 

Our name sorrel is from the Greek for sour and has reference 
to the acrid juice of the plant. The delicate leaflets " sleep " at 
night. That is, they droop and close one against another. 


Osmorrhiza longistylis. Parsley Family. 

One to three feet high. Root. — Thick; aromatic; edible. Leaves. — 
Twice or thrice-compound. Flowers. — White ; small ; growing in a some- 
what flat-topped cluster. 

This is one of the earliest-flowering of the white Parsleys. 
Its roots are prized by country children for their pleasant flavor. 
Great care should be taken not to confound this plant with the 
water-hemlock, which is very poisonous, and which it greatly 
resembles, although flowering earlier in the year. The generic 
name is from two Greek words which signify scent and root. 


Rhododendron viscosum. Heath Pamily. 

A shrub from three to ten feet high. Leaves. — Oblong. Florvers.—^ 
White ; clustered ; appearing after the leaves. Calyx-lobes. — Minute. Co- 
rolla. — White; five-lobed ; the clammy tube much longer than the lobes. 
Stamens. — Usually five ; protruding. Pistil. — One ; protruding. 

The fragrant white flowers of this beautiful shrub appear in 
early summer along the swamps which skirt the coast, and occa- 
sionally farther inland. The close family resemblance to the 
pink azalea (PL XCII.) will be at once detected. On the 
branches of both species will be found those abnormal fleshy 
growths, called variously ** swamp apples " and " May apples," 


which are so rehshed by the children. Formerly these growths 
were attributed to the sting of an insect, as in the " oak apple ; " 
now they are generally believed to be modified buds. 


Magnolia glatica. Magnolia Family. 

A shrub from four to twenty feet high. Leaves. — Oval to broadly lance- 
shaped ; from three to six inches long. Flowers. — White; two inches 
long ; growing singly at the ends of the branches. Calyx. — Of three sepals. 
Corolla. — Globular ; with from six to nine broad petals. Stamens. — Numer- 
ous ; with short filaments and long anthers. Pistils. — Many ; packed so as 
to make a sort of cone in fruit. Fricit. — Cone-like ; red ; fleshy when ripe ; 
the pistils opening at maturity and releasing the scarlet seeds which hang by 
delicate threads. 

The beautiful fragrant blossoms of the sweet bay may be 
found from June till August, in swamps along the coast from 
Cape Ann southward. This is one of the shrubs whose beauty 
bids fair to be its own undoing. The large flowers are sure to 
attract the attention of those ruthless destroyers who seem bent 
upon the final extermination of our most pleasing and character- 
istic plants. , 


Gaylnssacia resinosa. Heath Family. 

One to three feet high. Stems. — Shrubby ; branching. Leaves. — Oval 
or oblong; sprinkled more or less with waxy resinous atoms. Flotoers. — 
White, reddish, or purplish ; bell-shaped ; growing in short, one-sided clus- 
ters. Calyx. — With five short teeth. Corolla. — Bell-shaped, with a five- 
cleft border. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A black, bloomlesa, 
edible berry. 

The flowers of the common huckleberry appear in May or 
June ; the berries in late summer. The shrub abounds in rocky 
woods and swamps. 

* There is a great similarity between many of the Heaths. For more accu- 
rate identification than can be here given, Gray's Manual should be consulted. 




Gaylussacia frondosa. Heath Family. 

A loosely branched shrub ; from three to six feet high. Leaves. — Ob- 
long ; blunt; pale beneath. Floiuers. — Much as in above, but borne in 
loose, slender clusters. Fruit. — A large blue berry with a whitish bloom ; 
sweet and edible. 

The dangleberry is found along the coast of New England 
and in the mountains farther south. It flowers in May or June. 


Vaccinium corymbosum. Heath Family. 

A tall shrub (from five to ten feet high). Flowers. — White or reddish ; 
very similar to those in above {Gaylussacia), but borne in jZ/t^r/ clusters ; ap- 
pearing in spring or early summer. Fruit. — A sweet edible berry ; blue or 
black, with a bloom ; in late summer. 

The common blueberry is found in swamps and low thickets. 


Vaccinium. Heath Family. 

Six inches to three feet high. Flowers. — White or reddish- white ; ap- 
pearing in spring or early summer. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — As in other mem- 
bers of this genus. Fruit. — A large blue berry ; sweet. 

The low blueberries usually ripen in July or August. They 
are found on dry hills from New Jersey northward, being espe- 
cially abundant in New England. 


Vacciniiun stamineum. — Heath Family. 

Two or three feet high. Stems. — Diffusely branched. Flowers. — 
Greenish-white or purplish ; suggesting somewhat those of the blueberry and 
huckleberry, but noticeable especially for their protruding stamens. Fruit. 
— A globular or pear-shaped, few-seeded berry. 

This large greenish or yellowish berry is hardly edible. The 
l)retty, fragrant flowers appear in June, and are easily recognized 
by their protruding stamens. The leaves are pale green above 
and whitish underneath. 



SQUAW HUC^^LEBERRY. -Faccmmm stamineuvu 




Vaccinium uliginostim. Heath Family. 

Low ; spreading ; tufted ; from four inches to two feet high. Leaves. — 
Oblong; pale; not toothed. Flcnvers. — White or reddish; solitary, or two 
or three together, set close to the stem. Corolla. — Usually four-toothed; 
short; urn-shaped. Fruit. — A sweet berry ; black with a bloom. 

The bog bilberry is found blossoming in early summer on 
the high mountain-tops of New England and New York, also 
farther west and northward. 


Andromeda polifolia. Heath Family. 

An evergreen shrub from six to eighteen inches high. Leaves. — Thick; 
long and narrow ; smooth ; with rolled edges ; dark green above, white 
beneath. Flowers. —White or pinkish ; crowded in drooping clusters at the 
ends of the branches. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Five-toothed, 
urn-shaped. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — one. 

This pretty evergreen is found in boggy places from Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey northward, flowering in June. It was 
named Andromeda by Linnaeus because he found it '' always 
fixed on some little turfy hillock in the midst of the swamps, as 
Androriieda herself was chained to a rock in the sea." Before 
expansion the flowers are usually bright red. 


Andromeda Mariana. Heath Family. 

Two to four feet high. Leaves. — Thin ; oblong. Flowers. — White or 
reddish. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — Much as in above. 

The nodding flowers of the stagger-bush appear in early sum- 
mer. They are clustered on leafless shoots or branches, and are 
usually in low, dry places, from Rhode Island southward. The 
English name refers to the supposition that the foliage is poison 
ous to sheep. 



^ t»^^ 

LABRADOR ^^k.— Ledum latifolinm. 


Leiicothoe racemosa. Heath Family. 

Four to ten feet high. Leaves. — Narrowly oblong ; acute. Flowers. — 
White and fragrant. Calyx, Corolla, etc. — Much as in above. 

In moist thickets, usually near the coast, we find in May and 
June the long, dense, usually erect, one-sided flower-clusters of 
the Leucothoe. 


Cassandra calycnlata. Heath Family. 

A much-branched shrub from two to four feet high. Leaves. — Oblong; 
nearly evergreen ; leathery and shining above ; rusty beneath. Flo^oers. — 
White ; in the axils of the small upper leaves, forming one-sided, leafy clus- 
ters which are less dense than those of the Leiicothoe. 

In April or May the leather-leaf is found flowering in wet 

Cas slope kypnoides. Heath Family. 

One to four inches high. Stems. — Tufted ; procumbent. Leaves. — 
Needle-shaped ; evergreen. Flowers — White or rose-colored ; solitary ; 
nodding from erect, slender stalks. Calyx. — Of four or five sepals. Co- 
rolla. — Deeply four or five cleft. Stamens. — Eight or ten. Pistil. — One. 

This pretty moss-like little plant is found on the mountain 
summits of New York and New England. Its delicate nodding 
flowers usually appear in June. 


Ledtwi latifolium. Heath Family. 

An erect shrub from one to three feet high. Leaves. — Thickly clothed 
beneath with a rusty wool ; edges rolled ; narrowly oblong. Flowers. — White, 
small; in clusters at the ends of the branches. Calyx. — Very small ; five- 
toothed. Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Five or ten. Pistil. — One. 

The dense wooUiness which clothes the lower side of the 
leaves of Labrador tea easily identifies it. It is found upon the 
mountains, and in boggy places, from Pennsylvania north and 




Moneses grandijiora. Heath Family. 

Scape. — Two to four inches high. Leaves. — Rounded; thin; veiny; 
toothed; from the roots. Flower. — White or rose-colored; solitary; half 
an inch broad. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Of five rounded widely 
spreading petals. Staviens. — Ten. Pistil. — One; protruding; with a large 
five-rayed stigma. 

This lovely little plant is found in flower in the deep pine 
woods of June or July. It has all the grace and delicacy of its 
kinsman, the shin-leaf and pipsissewa, but, if possible, is even 
more daintily captivating. The generic name is from two 
Greek words signifying single and delight, in reference to the 
"beauty w^hich is a joy" of the solitary flower, and betraying 
the always pleasing fact that the scientist who christened it was 
fully alive to its peculiar charm. 


Pyrola ellipttca. Fleath Family. 

Scape. — Upright ; scaly ; terminating in a many-flowered raceme. Leaves 
-^From the root ; thin and dull; somewhat oval Floiuers. — White; nod- 
ding. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Of five rounded, concave petals. 
Statnejis. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with a long curved style. 

In the distance these pretty flowers suggest the lilies-of- 
the-valley. They are found in the woods of June and July, 
often in close company with the pipsissewa. The ugly common 
name of shin -leaf arose from an early custom of applying the 
leaves of this genus to bruises or sores ; the English peasantry 
being in the habit of calling any kind of ])laster a " shin-plaster " 
without regard to the part of the body to which it might be 
applied. The old herbalist, Salmon, says that the name Pyrola 
was given to the genus by the Romans on account of the fancied 
resemblance of its leaves and flowers to those of a pear-tree. 
The English also call the plant " wintergreen," which name we 
usually reserve for Gaultheria pj'ociimbens. 

P. I'otundi folia is a species with thick, shining, rounded leaves. 
It is the tallest of the genus, its scape standing, at times, one foot 



SHIN-LEAF— />w/rt ellipuca. 



above the ground. This species exhibits several varieties with 
rose-colored flowers. 

The smallest member of the group, P. secunda, is only from 
three to six inches high. Its numerous small, greenish flowers 
are turned to one side, and are scarcely nodding. They are 
clustered in spike-like fashion along the scape. 

P. 7?iinor can be distinguished from all other Pyrolas by the 
short style which does not protrude from the globular blossom. 
This is a retiring little plant which is only found in our northern 
woods and mountains. 

Many of these flowers are fragrant. 


Chimaphila tinihellata. Heath Family. 

^tem. — Four to ten inches high; leafy. Leaves. — Somewhat whorled or 
scattered ; evergreen ; lance-shaped ; with sharply toothed edges. Florvers. 
— White or pinkish : fragrant ; in a loose terminal cluster. Calyx. — Five- 
lobed. Corolla. — With five rounded, widely spreading petals. Stamens. — 
Ten, with violet anthers Pistil.— One ; with a short top-shaped style and 
disk-like stigma. 

When strolling through the woods in summer one is apt to 
chance upon great patches of these deliciously fragrant and pretty 
flowers. The little plant, with its shining evergreen foliage, 
flourishes abundantly among decaying leaves in sandy soil, and 
puts forth its dainty blossoms late in June. It is one of the lat- 
est of the fragile wood-flowers which are so charming in the ear- 
lier year, and which have already begun to surrender in favor of 
their hardier, more self-assertive brethren of the fields and road- 
sides. The common name, pipsissewa, is evidently of Indian 
origin, and perhaps refers to the strengthening properties which 
the red men ascribed to it. 


Chimaphila maculata. Heath Family. 

The spotted pipsissewa blossoms a little later than its twin> 
sister. Its slightly toothed leaves are conspicuously marked 
with white. 



P\?S\SSE\N ^.-Chimaph^la umbellata. 




Chrysanthemum Leucanthemian. Composite Family. 

The common white daisy stars the June meadows with those 
gold-centred blossoms which delight the eyes of the beauty- 
lover while they make sore the heart of the farmer, for the 
" white-weed," as he calls it, is hurtful to pasture land and dif- 
ficult to eradicate. 

The true daisy is the Bellis peretiiiis of England, — tlie 

•• Wee, modest crimson-tippit flower" 

of Burns. This was first called '' day's eye," because it closed 
at night and opened at dawn, — 

"That well by reason men it call may, 
The Daisie, or else the eye of the day," 

sang Chaucer nearly five hundred years ago. In England our 
flower is called "ox-eye" and ''moon daisy;" in Scotland, 
'* dog-daisy." 

The plant is not native to this country, but was brought 
from the Old World by the early colonists. 


Erigeron anniius. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Stout ; from three to five feet high; branched ; hairy. Leaves. — 
Coarsely and sharply toothed ; the lowest ovate, the upper narrower. 
Flower-heads. — Small; clustered; composed of both ray and disk-flowers, 
the former white, purplish, or pinkish, the latter yellow. 

During the summer months the fields and waysides are whi- 
tened with these very common flowers which look somewhat like 
small white daisies or asters. 

Another common species is E, strigostis, a smaller plant, 
with smaller flower-heads also, but with the white ray-flowers 
longer. The generic name is from two Greek words signifying 



i ^,^ ^ 




sj'n'ng and an oIJ man^ in allusion to the hoariness of certain 
species which flower in the spring. The fleabanes were so named 
from the belief that when burned they were objectionable to in- 
sects. They were formerly hung in country cottages for the 
purpose of excluding such unpleasant intruders. 


Gaulthcria pr^ . Heaih Family. 

Sirm. — ^ six inches high ; slender; leafy at ihe summit. Leaves. 
— Oval; shining; evergreen. Flowers. — White, growing from the axils of 
the leaves. Calyx. — Five-lobed. Corolla. — Um-shaped ; with five small 
teeth. Stanuns. — Ten, Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A globular red berry. 

He who seeks the cool shade of the evergreens on a hot July 
dav is likelv to discover the noddinsr wax-like flowers of this 
little plant. They are delicate and pretty, with a background 
of shining leaves. These leaves when young have a pleasant 
aromatic flavor similar to that of the sweet birch ; they are 
sometimes used as a substitute for tea. The bright red berries 
are also edible and savory, and are much appreciated by the 
hungry birds and deer during the winter. If not thus consumed 
they remain upon the plant until the following spring, wnen they 
either drop or rot upon the stem, thus allowing the seeds to 


Monotropa unijiora. Heath Family. 

A low fleshy herb from three to eight inches high ; without green foli 
«ge; of a wax-like appearance; with colorless bracts in the place of leaves 
FloTiirr. — White or pinkish; single: terminal; nodding. Calyx. — Of two 
to four bract-like scales. Corolla. — Of four or five wedge-shaped petals. 
Stamens. — Eight or ten: with yellow anthers. Pistil. — One, w*ith a disk- 
like, four or five-rayed stigma. 

"In shining groups, each stem a pearly ray, 

Weird flecks of light within the shadowed wood, 
They dwell aloof, a spotless sisterhood. 
tso Angelus, except the wild bird's lay, 



Awakes these forest nuns ; yet, night and day, 

Their heads are bent, as if in prayerful mood. 
A touch will mar their snow, and tempests rude 
Defile ; but in the mist fresh blossoms stray 

From spirit-gardens, just beyond our ken. 

Each year we seek their virgin haunts, to look 
Upon new loveliness, and watch again 

Their shy devotions near the singing brook ; 

Then, mingling in the dizzy stir of men. 

Forget the vows made in that cloistered nook." * 

The effect of a cluster of these nodding, wax-like flowers in 
the deep woods of summer is singularly fairy-like. They spring 
from a ball of matted rootlets, and are parasitic, drawing their 
nourishment from decaying vegetable matter. In fruit the plant 
erects itself and loses its striking resemblance to a pipe. Its 
clammy touch, and its disposition to decompose and turn black 
when handled, has earned it the name of corpse-plant. It was 
used by the Indians as an eye-lotion, and is still believed by 
some to possess healing properties. 


Anthemis Cotula. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Branching. Leaves. — Finely dissected. Flmuer-heads. — Com- 
posed of white ray and yellow disk-flowers, resembling the common white 

In midsummer the pretty daisy-like blossoms of this strong- 
scented plant are massed along the roadsides. So nearly a 
counterpart of the common daisy do they appear that they are 
constantly mistaken for that flower. The smaller heads, with 
the yellow disk-flowers crowded upon a receptable which is much 
more conical than that of the daisy, and the finely dissected, 
feathery leaves, serve to identify the Mayweed. The country- 
folk brew ** cliamomile tea" from these leaves, and through 
their agency raise painfully effective blisters in an emergency. 

* Mary Thacher Higginson. 



Ceanothus Americaniis. Buckthorn Family. 

J^oot. — Dark red. Stefn. — Shrubby ; one to three feet high. Flowers. — 
White; small; clustered. Calyx. — White; petal-like; five-lobed ; in- 
curved. Corolla. — With five long-clawed hooded petals. Stamens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One, with three stigmas. 

This shrubby plant is very common in dry woods. In July 
its white feathery flower-clusters brighten many a shady nook in 
an otherwise flowerless neighborhood. During the Revolution 
its leaves were used as a substitute for tea. 


Comandra umbellata. Sandalwood Family. 

Stem. — Eight to ten inches high ; branching; leafy. Leaves. — Alter- 
nate; oblong; pale. Flozuers. — Greenish-white; small; clustered. Calyx. 
— Bell or urn-shaped; five-cleft. Corolla. — None. Stamens'. — Five; in- 
serted on the edge of a disk which lines the calyx, to the middle of which 
the anthers are connected by a tuft of thread-like hairs. Pistil. — One; 
slender. Fruit. — Nut-like ; crowned by the lobes of the calyx. 

In May or June we often find masses of these little flowers 
in the dry, open woods. The root of the bastard toadflax forms 
parasitic attachments to the roots of trees. 


Melilotus alba. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Two to four feet high. Leaves. — Divided into three-toothed 
leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; white; growing in spike-like racemes. 

Like its yellow sister, M. officinalis, this plant is found blos- 
soming along the roadsides throughout the summer. The flowers 
are said to serve as flavoring in Gruyere cheese, snuff, and smok- 
ing-tobacco, and to act like camphor when packed with furs to 
preserve them from moths, besides imparting a pleasant fra- 



NEW JERSEY JEk.—Ceanothus Antericanus. 




Hydrophyllum Virginiann. Waterleaf Family. 

One to two feet high. Leaves. — Divided into five to seven oblong, 
pointed, toothed divisions. Flaivers. — White or purplish; in one-sided ra- 
ceme-like clusters which are usually coiled from the apex when young. 
Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Five-cleft ; bell-shaped. Stamens. — Five ; 
protruding. Pistil. — One. 

This plant is found flowering in summer in the rich woods. 


Circcea LiUetiana. Evening Primrose Family. 

Ste77i. — One or two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; thin; ovate; slight- 
ly toothed. Flowers. — Dull white ; small ; growing in a raceme. Calyx. — 
Two-lobed. Corolla. — Of two petals. Stamens.— Two. Pistil. — One. 
Fruit. — Small ; bur-like ; bristly with hooked hairs. 

This insignificant and ordinarily uninteresting plant arrests 
attention by the frequency with which it is found flowering in 
the summer woods and along shady roadsides. 

C. Alpina is a smaller, less common species, which is found 
along the mountains and in deep woods. Both species are bur- 
dened with the singularly inappropriate name of enchanter's 
nightshade. There is nothing in their appearance to suggest an 
enchanter or any of the nightshades. It seems, however, that 
the name of a plant called after the enchantress Circe, and de- 
scribed by Dioscorides nearly two thousand years ago, was acci- 
dentally transferred to this unpretentious genus. 


Arenaria Groenlandica. Pink Family. 

Stems. — Densly tufted, two to four inches high. Leaves. — Linear, scat- 
tered above, matted below. Flowers. — White. Calyx. — Of five sepals. 
Corolla. — Of five entire or slightly notched petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil 
— One, with three styles. 

This little plant is usually associated with some rocky moun- 
tain summit from whose crevices the slender tufted stems and 



pretty white flowers spring in dainty contrast to their rugged 
surroundings. But occasionally the mountain sandwort is found 
in the lowlands close to the river bank, or on the rocks that rise 
from the sea. 


Arenaria lateriflora. Pink Family. 

Four to six inches high. Leaves. — Thin ; oval or oblong. Flowers. — 
White, their parts sometimes in fours. 

The broad-leaved sandwort abounds in moist places along the 
seashore in parts of the country. Its little white flowers gleam- 
ing through the grasses are almost too small to be noticed by 
the unobservant pedestrian. 


Cerastium arvense. Pink Family. 

Four to eight inches high. SteiJis. — Slender. Leaves. — Linear or nar 
rowly lance-shaped. Flowers. — White ; large ; in terminal clusters. Calyx- 
— Usually of five sepals. Corolla. — Usually of five two-lobed petals which 
are more than twice the length of the calyx. Stamens. — Twice as many, or 
fewer than the petals. Pistil. — One, with as many styles as there are 

This is one of the most noticeable of the chickweeds. Its 
starry flowers are found in dry or rocky places, blossoming from 
May till July. 

The common chickweed, which besets damp places every- 
where, is Stellaria media ; this is much used as food for song- 

The long-leaved stitch wort, S. longifolia, is a species which 
is common in grassy places, especially northward. It has linear 
leaves, unlike those of 6". media, which are ovate or oblong. 




Ancmotie Virginiana. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Two or three feet high. Leaves. — Twice or thrice cleft, the 
divisions again toothed or cleft. Flowers. — Greenish or sometimes white ; 
borne on long, upright flower-stalks. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — 
None. Stajn ens and Pistils. — Indefinite in number. 

These greenish flowers, which may be found in the woods and 
meadows throughout the summer, are chiefly striking by reason 
of their long, erect flower-stalks. The oblong, thimble-like fruit- 
head, which is very noticeable in the later year, gives to the 
plant its common name. 


Ane7none cylindrica. Crowfoot Family, 

Stem. — Slender; about two feet high ; silky-haired. Flowers. — Greenish 
white; much as in above. Fricit-head. — Cylindrical, about one inch long. 

The long-fruited anemone flowers in the dry woods of May. 

Anemone Pennsylvanica. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Hairy. Flozvers. — White; rather large; otherwise much as in 
above. Fruit- head. — Spherical . 

This plant really is another of the thimble-weeds, and when 
in flower it is by far the prettiest and most noticeable of the 
group. Its white blossoms mass themselves along the waysides 
in early summer. 


Galium Aparine. Madder Family. 

Stem. — Weak and reclining; bristly. Leaves. — Lance-shaped; about 
eight in a whorl. Flowers. — White ; small ; growing from the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx-teeth. Obsolete. Corolla. — Usually four-parted; wheel- 
shaped. Stamens. — Usually four. Pistil. — One with two styles. Fruit. — 
Globular; bristly, with hooked prickles ; separating when ripe into two parts. 

This plant may be found in wooded or shady places through- 
out the continent. Its flowers, which appear in summer, are 



THIMBLE-WEED. — A nemone Virg i?n'ana, 


rather inconspicuous, one's attention being chiefly attracted by 
its many whorls of slender leaves. 


Galium trifidum. Madder Family. 

Stems. — Weak; five to twenty inches high ; rough. Leaves. — In whorls 
of four to six. Floxvers. — White ; small ; one to seven in a cluster. Calyx- 
teeth. — Obsolete. Corolla. — Three or four-parted. Stamens. — Three or 
four. Pistil. — One, with two styles. Fruit. — Globular; smooth; sepa- 
rating when ripe into two parts. 

Very common in wet places is the small bedstraw. From its 
relative, cleavers or goose-grass, it may be distinguished by its 
smooth fruit, and by the number of leaves in a whorl. 


Galium asprellum. Madder Family. 

Stem. — Much branched ; rough with crooked prickles ; leaning on bushes ; 
three to four feet high. Leaves. — In whorls of four to six; with almost 
prickly margins ; sharply-pointed at tip ; oval. Floivers. — As in small bed- 

This larger bedstraw is common and noticeable in New Eng- 
land, as well as farther south and west. All three species of Ga- 
lium are conspicuous chiefly on account of their pretty foliage. 


Cimicifuga racejnosa. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Three to eight feet high. Leaves. — Divided, the leaflets toothed 
or incised. Floioers. — White ; growing in elongated wand-like racemes. 
Calyx. — Of four or five white petal-like sepals; falling early. Corolla. — 
Of from one to eight white petals or transformed stamens. Sta?7iens. — 
Numerous, with slender white filaments. Pistils. — One to three. 

The tall white wands of the black cohosh shoot up in the 
shadowy woods of midsummer like so many ghosts. A curious- 
looking plant it is, bearing aloft the feathery flowers which have 
such an unpleasant odor that even the insects are supposed to 




BLACK COHOSH.— Cimici/uga raccmosa. 


avoid them. Fortunately they are sufficiently conspicuous to be 
admired at a distance, many a newly cleared hill-side and wood- 
border being lightened by their slender, torch-like racemes which 
flash upon us as we travel through the country. The plant was 
one of the many which the Indians believed to be efficacious for 
snake-bites. The generic name is from cimex — a bug, and fug-are 
— to drive away. 


Veronica Virginica. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Straight and tall ; from two to six feet high. Leaves. — Whorled ; 
lance-shaped ; finely toothed. Flcnvcrs. — White ; small ; growing in slender 
clustered spikes. Calyx. — Irregularly four or five-toothed. Corolla. — Four 
or five-lobed. Stamens. — Two; protruding. Pistil. — One. 

The tall straight stems of the culver's root lift their slender 
spikes in midsummer to a height that seems strangely at variance 
with the habit of this genus. The small flowers, however, at 
once betray their kinship with the speedwells. Although it is, 
perhaps, a little late to look for the white wands of the black 
cohosh, the two plants might easily be confused in the distance, 
as they have much the same aspect and seek alike the cool re- 
cesses of the woods. This same species grows in Japan and was 
introduced into English gardens nearly two hundred years ago. 
It is one of the many Indian remedies which were adopted by 
our forefathers. 


Mitchella repens. Madder Family. 

Stems. — Smooth and trailing. Leaves. — Rounded; evergreen; veined 
with white. Flowers. — White or pinkish; fragrant; in pairs. Calyx. — 
Four-toothed. Corolla. — Funnel-form, with four spreading lobes ; bearded 
within. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One, its ovary united Math that of its 
sister flower ; its four stigmas linear. 

At all times of the year this little evergreen plant fulfils its 
mission of adorning that small portion of the earth to which it 



PARTRIDGE ymE~.\///,/jf//ir rcpois. 


finds itself rooted. But only the early summer finds the partridge 
vine exhaling its delicious fragrance from the delicate sister 
blossoms which are its glory. Among the waxy flowers will be 
found as many of the bright red berries of the previous year as 
have been left unmolested by the hungry winter birds. This 
plant is found not only in the moist woods of North America, 
but also in the forests of Mexico and Japan. It is a near relative 
of the dainty bluets or Quaker ladies, and has the same pecul- 
iarity of dimorphous flowers (p. 274). 


Sambiiats Canadensis. Honeysuckle Family. 

Stems. — Scarcely woody ; five to ten feet high. Leaves. — Divided into 
toothed leaflets. Flowers. — White; small; in flat-topped clusters. Calyx. 
— Lobes minute or none. Coj'olla. — With five spreading lobes. Stamens. — 
Five. Pistil. — One, with three stigmas. Fruit. — Dark-purple. 

The common elder borders the lanes and streams with its 
spreading flower-clusters in early summer, and in the later year 
is noticeable for the dark berries from which " elderberry wine " 
is brewed by the country people. The fine white wood is easily 
cut and is used for skewers and pegs. A decoction of the leaves 
serves the gardener a good purpose in protecting delicate plants 
from caterpillars. Evelyn wrote of it : '* If the medicinal prop- 
erties of the leaves, berries, bark, etc., were thoroughly known, 
I cannot tell what our countrymen could ail for which he might 
not fetch from every hedge, whether from sickness or wound." 

The white pith can easily be removed from the stems, hence 
the old English name of bore- wood. 

The name elder is probably derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
aeld — a fire — and is thought to refer to the former use of the 
hollow branches in blowing up a fire. 




EupJiorbia corollata. Spurge Family. 

Stem. — Two or three feet high. Leaves. — Ovate ; lance-shaped or linear, 
Floivers. — Clustered within the usually five-lobed, cup-shaped involucre, 
which was formerly considered the flower itself ; the male flowers numerous 
and lining its base, consisting each of a single stamen ; the female flower 
solitary in the middle of the involucre, consisting of a three-lobed ovary 
with three styles, each style being two-cleft. Pod. — On a slender stalk ; 

In this plant the showy white appendages of the clustered 
cup-shaped involucres are usually taken for the petals of the 
flower ; only the botanist suspecting that the minute organs with- 
in these invohicres really form a cluster of separate flowers of 
different sexes. While the most northerly range in the Eastern 
States of this spurge is usually considered to be New York, we 
are told that it has been recently naturalized in Massachusetts. 
It blossoms from July till October. 


Poterium Canadense. Rose Family. 

One to six feet high. Leaves. — Divided into numerous ovate or oblong 
leaflets. Flozvers. — White; small. Calyx. — White; corolla-like, four- 
lobed. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Four, long-exserted, club-shaped, white. 
Pistil. — One. 

A conspicuous midsummer arrival in many of our wet mead- 
ows, more especially perhaps in those near the sea, is the great 
burnet. This is a tall showy plant, with foliage suggestive of 
the Rose family to which it belongs, and long-stalked spikes of 
feathery white flowers, the lower ones opening first, leaving the 
upper part of the spike in bud. These flowers owe their feath- 
ery appearance to the long white stamens, of which each blossom 
seems chiefly to consist, the four petal-like lobes of the calyx fall- 
ing early, and the pistil being inconspicuous. 




BUTTON-BUSH —Cephalanthus occidentalis. 





Cephalanthus occidentalis. Madder Family. 

A shrub three to eight feet high. Leaves. — Opposite or whorled in 
threes; somewhat oblong and pointed. Floivers. — Small; white; closely 
crowded in round button-like heads. Calyx. — Four-toothed. Coi-olla. — 
Four-toothed. Sta?nens. — Four. Pistil. — One, with a thread-like protrud- 
ing style and blunt stigma. 

This pretty shrub borders the streams and swamps throughout 
the country. Its button-like flower-dusters appear in midsum- 
mer. It belongs to the family of which the delicate bluet and 
fragrant partridge vine are also members. Its flowers have a jas- 
mine-like fragrance. 


Safnolus Valeratidi. Primrose Family. 

Stem. — Six to twelve inches high ; leafy. Leaves. — Somewhat oval oi 
wedge-shaped. Flowers. — White; small; growing in clusters. Calyx.—, 
Five-cleft. Corolla. — Somewhat bell-shaped ; five-cleft. True Stamens.—^ 
Five. False Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One; globe-shaped. 

This plant is found throughout the country, in wet places, 
flowering at any time from June till September. 

Dalibarda repens. Rose Family. 

Scape. — Low. Leaves. — Heart-shaped ; wavy-toothed. Flowers. — 
White ; one or two borne on each scape. Calyx. — Deeply five or six-parted, 
three of the divisions larger and toothed. Corolla. — Of five petals. Srn- 
mens. — Many. Pistils. — Five to ten. 

The foliage of this pretty little plant suggests the violet ; 
while its white blos.som betrays its kinship with the wild straw- 
berry. It may be found from June till September in woody 
places, being one of those flowers which we seek deliberately, 
whose charm is never decreased by its being thrust upon us in^ 



opportunely. Who can tell how much the attractiveness of the 
wild carrot, the dandelion, or butter-and-eggs would be en- 
hanced were they so discreet as to withdraw from the common 
haunts of men into the shady exclusiveness which causes us to 
prize many far less beautiful flowers ? 


Drosera rotundtfolta. Sundew Family. 

Scape. — A few inches high. Leaves. — Rounded, abruptly narrowed into 
spreading, hairy leaf-stalks ; beset with reddish, gland-bearing bristles. 
Flozuers. — White ; growing in a one-sided raceme, which so nods at its apex 
that the fresh-blown blossom is always uppermost. Calyx. — Of five sepals. 
Corolla. — Of five petals. Pistil. — One, with three or five styles, which are 
sometimes so deeply two-parted as to be taken for twice as many. 

•' What's this I hear 

About the new carnivora? 

Can little plants 

Eat bugs and ants 

And gnats and flies ? 

A sort of retrograding : 

Surely the fare 

Of flowers is air. 

Or sunshine sweet ; 

They shouldn't eat, 

Or do aught so degrading! '* 

But by degrees we are learning to reconcile ourselves to the 
fact that the more we study the plants the less we are able to at- 
tribute to them altogether unfamiliar and ethereal habits. We 
find that the laws which control their being are strangely sug- 
gestive of those which regulate ours, and after the disappearance 
of the shock which attends the shattered illusion, their charm is 
only increased by the new sense of kinship. 

The round-leaved sundew is found blossoming in many of 
our marshes in midsummer. When the sun shines upon its 
leaves they look as though covered with sparkling dewdrops, 
hence its common name. These drops are a glutinous exuda- 



tion, by means of which insects visiting the plant are first capt- 
ured ; the reddish bristles then close tightly about them, and it 
is supposed that their juices are absorbed by the plant. At all 
events the rash visitor rarely escapes. In many localities it is 
easy to secure any number of these little plants and to try for 
one's self the rather grewsome experiment of feeding them with 
small insects. Should the tender-hearted recoil from such reck- 
less slaughter, they might confine their offerings on the altar of 
science to mosquitoes, small spiders, and other deservedly un- 
popular creatures. 

D. Americatia is a very similar species, with longer, narrower 

The thread-leaved sundew, D. filiformis, has fine, thread-like 

leaves and pink flowers, and is found in wet sand along the 


" A little marsh-plant, yellow green, 
And pricked at lip with tender red. 
Tread close, and either way you tread 
Some faint black water jets between 
Lest you should bruise the curious head. 

You call it sundew : how it grows. 
If with its color it have breath, 
If life taste sweet to it, if death 
Pain its soft petal, no man knows : 
Man has no sight or sense that saith." 

— Swinburne. 


Phytolacca decandra. Pokeweed P^amily. 

Stems. — At length from six to ten feet high ; purple-pink or bright red ; 
stout. Leaves. — Large; alternate; veiny. Flo-cers. — White or pinkish; 
the green ovaries conspicuous ; growing in racemes. Calyx. — Of five 
rounded or petal-like sepals, pinkish without. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — 
Ten. Pistil. — One, with ten styles. Fruit. — A dark purplish berry. 

There is a vigor about this native plant which is very pleas- 
ing. In July it is possible that we barely notice the white flow- 




PO\(.£^EE^. -Phytolacca Uccandru. 



ers and large leaves; but when in September the tall purple 
stems rear themselves above their neighbors in the roadside 
thicket, the leaves look as though stained with wine, and the 
long clusters of rich dark berries hang heavily from the branches, 
we cannot but admire its independent beauty. The berries serve 
as food for the birds. A tincture of them at one time acquired 
some reputation as a remedy for rheumatism. In Pennsylvania 
they have been used with whiskey to make a so-called " port- 
wine." From their dark juice arose the name of ''red-ink 
plant," which is common in some places. The large roots are 
poisonous, but the acrid young shoots are rendered harmless by 
boiling, and are eaten like asparagus, being quite as good, 1 have 
been told by country people. 

Despite the difference in the spelling of the names, it has 
been suggested that the plant was called after President Polk. 
This is most improbable, as it was common throughout the 
country long before his birth, and its twigs are said to have been 
plucked and worn by his followers during his campaign for the 


Melanthitini Vij'giniciim. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Three to five feet high ; rather slender ; leafy. Leaves. — Linear. 
Flowers. — Greenish yellow turning brown ; in a rather dense panicle. Per- 
ianth. — Of six somewhat heart-shaped, petal-like sepals raised on slender 
claws, each one bearing two dark glands at base. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. 
■ — One, with three styles. 

This plant derives its name from the way in which the small 
flowers are bunched or crowded together on top of the tall stems. 
Usually the lower flowers are staminate ; the upper pistillate. 

It grows in wet meadows from Rhode Island to Florida, and 
blossoms from June to August. 



MEADOW-SWEET.— ^^/m-a salicifolia^ 



Zygademis elegans. Lily P^amily. 

Stem. — Smooth; slender; one to three feet high, from bulb. Leaves. — 
Linear, flat, keeled. Floiuers. — Greenish-white, panicled. Perianth. — Of 
six, thin, petal-like sepals, each one marked with a large obcordate gland 
at base. Stainens. — Six. Pistil. —One, with three styles or stigmas. 

Throughout midsummer, in New York and parts of New Eng- 
land, in wet and, in my experience, rocky places, these pretty 
lily-like flowers are in their prime. They rejoice especially in 
the neighborhood of mountain streams. I have found their 
tufted clusters, wet with the spray of falling water, springing 
from such moist precipitous rocks as harbor the harebell and the 
bulbous bladder fern. Indeed, in my mind, they are associated 
altogether with such remote enchanted spots, where the swift 
rush of the stream and the notes of the shy wood birds alone 
break the stillness. 



SpircEa salici folia. Rose Family. 

Stejn. — Nearly smooth; two or three feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; 
very broadly lance-shaped; toothed. Flowers. — Small; white or flesh-col- 
or; in pyramidal clusters. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Of five rounded 
petals. Stajuens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Five to eight. 

The feathery spires of the meadow-sweet soar upward from 
the river banks and low meadows from July onward. Unlike 
its pink sister, the steeple-bush, its leaves and stems are fairly 
smooth. The lack of fragrance in the flowers is disappointing, 
because of the hopes raised by the plant's common name. This 
is said by Dr. Prior to be a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon 7tiead- 
wort, which signifies honey -wine herb, alluding to a fact which is 
mentioned in Hill's " Herbal," that ''the flowers mixed with 
mead give it the flavor of the Greek wines." 

Although the significance of many of the plant-names seems 
clear enough at first sight, such an example as this serves to 
show how really obscure it often is. 



THREE-TOOTHED CINQUEFOIL— /V/'^//i'/7A? iridciiiaia. 



Geum album. Rose Family. 

Stem. — Slender ; about two feet high. Root-leaves. — Divided into from 
three to five leaflets, or entire. Stem-leaves. — Three-lobed or divided, or 
only toothed. Flo7vers. — White. Calyx. — Deeply five-cleft, usually with 
five small bractlets alternating with its lobes. Corolla. — Of five petals. 
Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Numerous, with hooked styles which be- 
come elongated in fruit. 

The white avens is one of the less noticeable plants which 
border the summer woods, blossoming from May till August, 
Later the hooked seeds which grow in round bur-like heads 
secure wide dispersion by attaching themselves to animals or 
clothing. Other species of avens have more conspicuous golden- 
yellow flowers. 


Potentilla tridentata. Rose Family. 

Stems. — Low; one to ten inches high; rather woody at base; tufted. 
Leaves. — Divided into three oblong leaflets, which are thick, and coarsely 
three-toothed at their apex. Flotvers. — White ; clustered. Calyx. — Five- 
cleft. Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Many. Pistils. — Many in a 

The strawberry-like blossoms of this pretty little plant ap- 
pear in summer. They are found on the mountain-tops of the 
Alleghanies, and also along the New England coast, and the 
shores of the Great Lakes. 


Goodyera pubescens. Orchis Family. 

Scape. — Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. — From the root in a sort of 
flat rosette ; conspicuously veined with white ; thickish ; evergreen. Floiv- 
ers. — Small ; greenish-white ; crowded in a close spike. 

The flowers of the rattlesnake-plantain appear in late sum- 
mer and are less conspicuous than the prettily tufted, white- 
veined leaves which may be found in the rich woods throughout 



the year. The plant has been reputed an infallible cure for 
hydrophobia and snake-bites. It is said that the Indians had 
such faith in its remedial virtues that they would allow a snake 
to drive its fangs into them for a small sum, if they had these 
leaves on hand to apply to the wound. 


Habenaria blephariglottis. Orchis Family. 

About one foot high. Leaves. — Oblong or lance-shaped ; the upper 
passing into pointed bracts. Flaojeis. — Pure white ; with a slender spur 
and fringed lip ; growing in an oblong spike. 

This seems to me the most exquisite of our native orchids. 
The fringed lips give the snowy, delicate flowers a feathery ap- 
pearance as they gleam from the shadowy woods of midsummer, 
or from the peat-bogs where they thrive best ; or perhaps they 
spire upward from among the dark green rushes which border 
some lonely mountain lake. Like the yellow fringed orchis, 
which they greatly resemble in general structure, they may 
be sought for in vain many seasons and then will be discov- 
ered, one midsummer day, lavishing their spotless loveliness 
upon some unsuspected marsh which has chanced to escape our 


Habcnai'ia dilatata. Orchis Family. 

Stem. — Slender; leafy. Leaves. — Long and narrow. Flo'tvers. — Small: 
white ; with an incurved spur ; growing in a slender spike. 

The mention of the northern w^hite orchis recalls to my mind 
one midsummer morning in a New England swamp, where 
tangles of sheep laurel barred the way, branches of dogwood 
and azalea snapped into my eyes, while patches of fragrant ad- 
ders' mouths and fragile Calopogons just escaped being trodden 
underfoot, and exacted, by way of compensation, a breathless 
but delighted homage at their lovely shrines. Among tali- 




RATTLESNAKE PLANT A\N.—Gcoi/y era pubescens. 



growing ferns, springing from elastic beds of moss, here I first 
found the slender, fragrant wands of this pretty orchid. 


Habenaria orbicidata. Orchis Family. 

Scape. — Stout, bracted, one to two feet high. Basal leaves. — Two, verj 
large, orbicular, spreading flat on the ground, shining above, silvery be- 
neath. Flowers. — Greenish-white, spreading in a loose raceme, with linear 
and slightly wedge-shaped lips and curved, slender spurs about an inch 
and a half long. 

The peculiar charm of this orchid lies in its great flat rounded 
shining leaves, which spread themselves over the ground in an 
opulent fashion that seems to accord with the spirit of the deep 
pine woods where they are most at home. The tall scape with 
its many greenish-white flowers reaches maturity in July or 


Clethra alnifolia. Heath Family. 

A shrub from three to ten feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; ovate; sharply 
toothed. Flcnvers. — White; growing in clustered finger-like racemes. 
Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five oblong petals. Stainens. — Ten; 
protruding. Pistil. — One ; three-cleft at apex. 

Nearly all our flowering shrubs are past their glory by mid- 
summer, when the fragrant blossoms of the sweet pepperbush be- 
gin to exhale their perfume from the cool thickets which line 
the lanes along the New England coast. There is a certain luxu- 
riance in the vegetation of this part of the country in August 
which is generally lacking farther inland, where the fairer flow- 
ers have passed away, and the country begins to show the effects 
of the long days of heat and drought. The moisture of the air, 
and the peculiar character of the soil near the sea, are responsi- 
ble for the freshness and beauty of many of the late flowers which 
we find in such a locality. 

Clethra is the ancient Greek name for the alder, which this 
plant somewhat resembles in foliage. 



SWEET PEPPERBUSH,-C/<r^/^m alnifolia. 



Echinocystis lobata. Gourd Family. 

Stetn. — Climbing; nearly smooth ; with three-forked tendrils. Leaves. 
— Deeply and sharply five-lobed. Flcnuers. — Numerous ; small ; greenish- 
white ; unisexual ; the staminate ones growing in long racemes, the pistillate 
ones in small clusters or solitary. Fruit. — Fleshy; oval; green; about 
two inches long ; clothed with weak prickles. 

This is an ornamental climber which is found bearing its 
flowers and fruit at the same time. It grows in rich soil along 
rivers in parts of New England, Pennsylvania, and westward ; 
and is often cultivated in gardens, making an effective arbor- 
vine. The generic name is from two Greek words which sig- 
nify hedgehog and bladder, in reference to the prickly fruit. 


Aletris farinosa. Bloodwort Family. 

Leaves. — Thin; lance-shaped; in a spreading cluster from the root. 
Scape. — Slender; two to three feet high. Flowers. — White; small, grow- 
ing in a wand-like, spiked raceme. Perianth. — Six-cleft at the summit ; 
oblong-tubular. Stamens. — Six, orange-colored. Pistil. — One, with style 
three-cleft at apex. 

In low wet meadows and in grassy woods the tall white 
wands of the colic root shoot above its companion plants. At 
the first glance one might confuse its long clusters with the 
twisted spikes of ladies' tresses, but a closer examination reveals 
no real likeness between the blossoms of the two plants. Then, 
too, the flat rosette of lance-shaped leaves from which springs 
the white wand of flowers is a distinguishing feature of the colic 

Its blossoms are wrinkled and rough outside, with a look of 
being dusted with white meal, whence springs its generic title, 
the Greek word for "a female slave who grinds corn." They 
have a faint raspberry-like fragrance. This is really a striking 
and interesting plant. 



Single flower. 

WILD B ALSf^M- APPLE. —£c/iiTtocjfsiis lobata, 



Achillea Millefolium. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Simple at first, often branching near the summit. Leaves. — 
Divided into finely toothed segments. Flo7ver-hcads. — White, occasionally 
pink ; clustered ; small ; made up of both ray and disk-flowers. 

This is one of our most frequent roadside weeds, blossoming 
throughout the summer and late into the autumn. Tradition 
claims that it was used by Achilles to cure the wounds of his 
soldiers, and the genus is named after that mighty hero. It 
still forms one of the ingredients of an ointment valued by the 
Scotch Highlanders. The early English botanists called the 
plant "nose-bleed," ''because the leaves being put into the 
nose caused it to bleed ;." and Gerarde writes that '' Most men 
say that the leaves chewed, and especially greene, are a remedie 
for the toothache." These same pungent leaves also won it the 
name of " old man's pepper," while in Sweden its title signi- 
fies yf<r^/ //^/, and refers to its employment in the manufacture 
of beer. Linnaeus considered the beer thus brewed to be more 
intoxicating than that in which hops were utilized. The old 
women of the Orkney Islands hold "milfoil tea" in high re- 
pute, believing it to be gifted with the power of dispelling mel- 
ancholy. In Switzerland a good vinegar is said to be made 
from the Alpine species. The plant is cultivated in the gardens 
of Madeira, where so many beautiful and, in our eyes, rare, flow- 
ers grow in wild profusion. 


Daucus Carota. Parsley Family. 

Stems. — Tall and slender. Leaves. — Finely dissected. Flowers. — 
White ; in a compound umbel, forming a circular flat-topped cluster. 

When the delicate flowers of the wild carrot are still unsoiled 
by the dust from the highway, and fresh from the early summer 
rains, they are very beautiful, adding much to the appearance of 
the roadsides and fields along which they grow so abundantly as 



to Strike despair into the heart of the farmer, for this is, per- 
haps, the •' peskiest " of all the weeds with which he has to con- 
tend. As time goes on the blossoms begin to have a careworn 
look and lose something of the cobwebby aspect which won 
them the title of Queen Anne's lace. In late summer the 
flower-stalks erect themselves, forming a concave cluster which 
has the appearance of a bird's nest. I have read that a species 
of bee makes use of this ready-made home, but have never seen 
any indications of such an occupancy. 

This is believed to be the stock from which the garden car- 
rot was raised. The vegetable was well known to the ancients, 
and we learn from Pliny that the finest specimens were brought 
to Rome from Candia. When it was first introduced into 
Great Britain is not known, although the supposition is that it 
was brought over by the Dutch during the reign of Elizabeth. 
In the writings of Parkinson we read that the ladies wore carrot- 
leaves in their hair in place of feathers. One can picture the 
dejected appearance of a ball-room belle at the close of an enter- 


Cicuta maculata. Parsley Family. 

Stem. — Smooth ; stout ; from two to six feet high ; streaked with purple. 
Leaves. — Twice or thrice-compound ; leaflets coarsely toothed. Flo2vers. 
— White ; in compound umbels, the little umbels composed of numerous 

This plant is often confused with the wild carrot, the sweet 
Cicely, and other white-flowered members of the Parsley family ; 
but usually it can be identified by its purple-streaked stem. The 
umbels of the water hemlock are also more loosely clustered than 
those of the carrot, and their stalks are much more unequal. It 
is commonly found in marshy ground, blossoming in midsummer. 
Its popular names refer to its poisonous properties, its root being 
said to contain the most dangerous vegetable poison native to 
our country, and to have been frequently confounded with that 
of the edible sweet Cicely with fatal results. 




' Heracleum lanatum. Parsley Family. 

Stem. — Stout, often two inches thick at base, four to eight feet high, 
ridged, hollow, green. Leaves. — The lower large, compound in three di- 
visions, leaflets lobed and sharply notched ; on short leaf-stems which are 
much inflated and clasp the stalk; rank-smelling. Floiuers. — In spreading, 
flat-topped clusters, white, with heart-shaped, notched petals ; outer flow- 
ers larger than inner ones, and with irregular petals. 

In swampy places this great vigorous looking plant, which 
blossoms in early summer, is often a conspicuous, and despite 
its coarseness, not altogether an unpleasing feature. 


Angelica atropurpurea. Parsley Family. 

Stem. — Stout, four to six feet high, smooth, dark purple. Leaves. — 
The lower very large, with inflated leaf-stems ; compound in two or three 
divisions, these divided into lance-shaped or ovate sharply-toothed leaflets. 
Flo"vers. — White or greenish, in large spreading more or less flat-topped 

In early summer, especially along the banks of streams and 
rivers, the great purple-stemmed angelica may be found spreading 
its flat-topped clusters of small greenish flowers. This plant may 
be distinguished from the cow parsnip by its purple stem, and 
by its numerous pinnately-arranged leaflets. 


Sanicula Marylandica. Parsley Family. 

Stem. — One to four feet high. Leaves. — Three to seven-parted ; the 
divisions sharply cut. Floxvers.— Greenish-white or yellowish, small ; 
borne in small button-like heads in a two to four-rayed umbel which tops 
the stem ; some perfect, others staminate only. Fruit. — Round and 

This plant, which is uninteresting in appearance and hardly 
suggestive of the Parsley family, blossoms in our wet woods dur- 
ing the summer. 




Stum cicutce folium. Parsley Family. 

Two to six feet high. Stem. — Stout. Leaves. — Divided into from three 
to eight pairs of sharply toothed leaflets. Flowers. — White, in compound 

This plant grows in water or wet places throughout North 
America. I have found it in great abundance both in swamps 
along the coast, and bordering mountain streams far inland. 
Its Parsley-like flower-clusters at once indicate the family of 
which it is a member. 


Discopleura cafillacea. Parsley Family. 

One or two feet high, occasionally much taller. Stems. — Branching. 
Leaves. — Dissected into fine, thread-like divisions. Flowers. — White ; very 
small ; growing in compound umbels with thread-like bracts. 

This plant blossoms all summer in wet meadows, both inland 
and along the coast ; but it is especially common in the salt- 
marshes near New York City. It probably owes its English 
name to the fancied resemblance between the bracted flower- 
clusters and a bishop's cap. Its effect is feathery and delicate. 


Lycopus sinuatus. Mint P'amily. 

Stem. — Erect ; one to three feet high ; acutely four-angled Leaves. — 
Opposite; oblong or lance-shaped; pointed; irregularly toothed or deeply 
parted, or some of the upper merely wavy-margined. Flotvers. — Small ; 
mostly white; in close whorls in the axils of the leaves. Calyx-teeth. — 
Usually five; with short, sharp points. Corolla. — Bell -shaped ; nearly 
equally four-lobed. Stafuens. — Four (the upper pair slender and conspicu- 
ous but sterile). Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style. Ovary. — Deeply 
four-lobed ; splitting when ripe into four little nutlets. 

This plant abounds in wet places, flowering throughout the 




Lycopus Virginicus. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Six inches to two feet high; obtusely four-angled. Flower s.- 
Much as in above. Calyx-teeth. — Usually only four ; barely pointed. 

The bugle-weed is found in wet places across the continent. 


Verbena tirticcefolia. Verbena Family. 

Three to five feet high. Leaves. — Oval ; coarsely toothed. Florvers. — 
Small ; white ; in slender spikes. 

It almost excites one's incredulity to be told that this unin- 
teresting-looking plant, which grows rankly along the highways, 
is an importation from the tropics, yet for this statement the 
botany is responsible. 


Clematis Virgitiiana. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Climbing; somewhat woody. Leaves. — Opposite ; three-divided. 
Flowers. — Whitish ; in clusters ; unisexual. Calyx. — Of four petal-like se- 
pals. Corolla. — None. Stamens and Pistils. — Indefinite in number; oc- 
curring on different plants. 

In July and August this beautiful plant, covered with its 
white blossoms and clambering over the shrubs which border the 
country lanes, makes indeed a fitting bower for any maid or 
traveller who may chance to be seeking shelter. Later in the 
year the seeds with their silvery plumes give a feathery effect, 
which is very striking. 

This graceful climber works its way by means of its bending 
or clasping leaf-stalks. Darwin has made interesting experi- 
ments regarding the movements of the young shoots of the 
Clematis. He discovered that, " one revolved, describing a 
broad oval, in five hours, thirty minutes; and another in six 
hours, twelve minutes ; they follow the course of the sun." 



7/ V« 


TRAVELLER'S JOY. —C/emafis Virginiana. 




Physalis Virginiana. Nightshade Family. 

A strong-scented, low, much-branched and spreading herb. Leaves. 

Somewhat oblong or heart-shaped ; wavy-toothed. Flowers. — Greenish or 
yellowish-white; solitary on nodding flower-stalks. Calyx. — Five-cleft; 
enlarging and much inflated in fruit, loosely enclosing the berry. Corolla. 
— Between wheel-shaped and funnel-form. Stamens. — Five; erect; with 
yellow anthers. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A green or yellow edible berry 
which is loosely enveloped in the much-inflated calyx. 

We find the ground cherry in light sandy soil, and are more 
apt to notice the loosely enveloped berry of the late year than 
the rather inconspicuous flowers which appear in summer. 


Chelone glabra. Figwort Family. 

One to seven feet high. Stem. — Smooth; upright; branching. Leaves. 
— Opposite ; lance-shaped ; toothed. Flowers . — White or pinkish ; grow- 
ing in a spike or close cluster. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Two- 
lipped ; the upper lip broad and arched, notched at the apex ; lower lip 
three-lobed at the apex, woolly bearded in the throat. Stamens. — Four per- 
fect ones, with woolly filaments and very woolly, heart-shaped anthers, and 
one small sterile one. Pistil. — One. 

It seems to have been my fate to find the flowers which the 
botany relegates to '' dry, sandy soil " flourishing luxuriantly in 
marshes ; and to encounter the flowers which by right belong 
to *^ wet woods ' ' flaunting themselves in sunny meadows. This 
cannot be attributed to the natural depravity of inanimate ob- 
jects, for what is more full of life than the flowers ? — and no one 
would believe in their depravity except perhaps the amateur- 
botanist who is endeavoring to master the different species of 
golden-rods and asters. Therefore it is plea.sant to record that 
I do not remember ever having met a turtle-head, which is 
assigned by the botany to "wet places," which had not gotten 
as close to a stream or a marsh or a moist ditch as it well could 
without actually wetting its feet. The flowers of this plant are 
more odd and striking than pretty. Their appearance is such 



TURTLE-HEAD.-CA^/^«^ glabra. 


that their common name seems fairly appropriate. I have heard 
unbotanical people call them " white closed gentians." 


Cusctita Gronovii. Convolvulus Family. 

Stems. — Yellow or reddish; thread-like; twining; leafless. Flowers. 
— White ; in close clusters. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — With five 
spreading lobes. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

Late in the summer perhaps we are tempted deep into some 
thicket by the jasmine-scented heads of the button-bush or the 
fragrant spikes of the Clethra, and note for the first time the tan- 
gled golden threads and close white flower-clusters of the dodder. 
If we try to trace to their source these twisted stems, which the 
Creoles know as '' angels' hair," we discover that they are 
fastened to the bark of the shrub or plant about which they are 
twining by means of small suckers ; but nowhere can we find 
any connection with the earth, all their nourishment being ex- 
tracted from the plant to which they are adhering. Originally 
this curious herb sprang from the ground which succored it un- 
til it succeeded in attaching itself to some plant ; having accom- 
plished this it severed all connection with mother-earth by the 
withering away or snapping off of the stem below. 

The flax-dodder, C. Epilinufn, is a very injurious plant in 
European flax-fields. It has been sparingly introduced into this 
country with flax-seed. 


Datura Stramoniuju. Nightshade Family 

Stem.— Smooth and branching. Leaves. — Ovate ; wavy toothed or 
angled. Flo-vers. — White; large and showy ; on short flower-stalks from 
the forks of the branching stem. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — Fun- 
nel-form ; the border five-toothed. Stamens. — Five. Pistils. — One. Fruit. 
— Green ; globular ; prickly. 

The showy white flowers of the thorn-apple are found in 
waste places during the summer and autumn, a heap of rubbish 



WHITE HEATH ASTER— ^s/cr ericoides. 


POINTED LEAVED ASTER— ./>•/,/■ ii,iniiiii,tfiis. 


forming their usual unattractive background. The plant is a 
rank, ill-scented one, which was introduced into our country 
from Asia. It was so associated with civilization as to be called 
the "■ white man's plant " by the Indians. 

Its purple-flowered relative, D. Tatu/a, is an emigrant from 
the tropics. This genus possesses narcotic-poisonous properties. 


Aster. Composite Family. 

FIcKver- heads. — Composed of white or sometimes purplish ray-flowers 
with a centre ot yellow disk-flowers. 

While we have far fewer species of white than of blue or 
purple asters, some of these few are so abundant in individuals 
as to hold their own fairly well against their bright-hued rivals. 

The smooth, slender, somewhat zigzag stem of the white 
wood aster, A. corymbosus, is green or purple, with reddish 
streaks. Its leaves are thin, the lower ones large, heart-shaped, 
and somewhat coarsely toothed, the uppermost small, oval, and 
tapering. The white flower-heads are borne in loose leafy clus- 
ters. The plant is found blossoming during the month of August 
in open woods and along the shaded roadsides. 

Bordering the dry fields at this same season and later, we 
notice the spreading wand-like branches, thickly covered on their 
upper sides with tiny flower-heads, as with snow-flakes, of the 
white heath aster, A. ericoides. This plant is easily distinguished 
by its small rigid linear leaves. The lower leaves, however, are 
much larger and somewhat wedge-shaped. 

The pointed-leaved aster, A. acumi?iafus, is easily identified 
by means of the oblong-pointed leaves, which are crowded so 
close to the top of the stem as to give often the eff"ect of being 
whorled just below the white, or sometime purplish, flower-clus- 
ters. This is peculiarly a wood-loving plant. 

A. umbellatus is the tall white aster of the swamps and moist 
thickets. It sometimes reaches a height of seven feet, and can 



be identified by its long tapering leaves and large, flat flower- 

A beautiful and abundant seaside species is A. multiflorus. 
Its small flower-heads are closely crowded on the low, bushy, 
spreading branches ; its leaves are narrow, rigid, crowded, and 
somewhat hoary. The whole effect of the plant is heath-like ; it 
also somewhat suggests an evergreen. 


Polygonum hydropiperoides. Buckwheat Family. 

Stevi. — One to three feet high; smooth; branching. Leaves. — Alter- 
nate; narrowly lance-shaped or oblong. Flowers. — White or flesh-color; 
small; growing in erect, slender spikes. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — 
None. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One, usually with three styles. 

These rather inconspicuous but very common flowers are 
found in moist places and shallow water. 

The common knot weed, P. aviculai'e, which grows in such 
abundance in country door-yards and waste places, has slender, 
often prostrate, stems, and small greenish flowers, which are clus- 
tered in the axils of the leaves or spiked at the termination of 
the stems. This is perhaps the *' hindering knotgrass " to which 
Shakespeare refers in the '■'■ Midsummer Night's Dream," so 
terming it, not on account of its knotted trailing stems, but be- 
cause of the belief that it would hinder the growth of a child. 
In Beaumont and Fletcher's " Coxcomb " the same superstition 
is indicated : 

' ' We want a boy 
Kept under for a year with milk and knotgrass." 

It is said that many birds are nourished by the seeds of this 



/,,,„•' 111/' l"«^//,, 

BO N E SE T. —Eupaiorium per/oUnlum. 



Polygomun scandens. Buckwheat Family. 

Stem. — Smooth ; twining, and climbing over bushes ; eight to twelve feet 
high. Leaves. — Heart or arrow shaped; pointed; alternate. Flowers. — 
Greenish or pinkish ; in racemes. Calyx. — Five-parted ; with colored mar- 
gins. Corolla. — None. Stametis. — Usually eight. Pistil. — One, with 
three styles. Seed-vessel. — Green ; three-angled ; winged ; conspicuous in 

In early summer this plant, which clambers so perseveringly 
over the moist thickets which line our country lanes, is compara- 
tively inconspicuous. The racemes of small greenish flowers are 
not likely to attract one's attention, and it is late summer or 
autumn before the thick clusters of greenish fruit, composed of 
the winged seed-vessels, arrest one's notice. At this time the 
vine is very beautiful and striking, and one wonders that it could 
have escaped detection in the earlier year. 


Eupatoriiun perfoliatum . Composite Family, 


Stein. — Stout and hairy; two to four feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; 
widely spreading; lance-shaped; united at the base around the stem. 
Flozver- heads. — Dull white; small; composed entirely of tubular blossoms 
borne in large clusters. 

To one whose childhood was passed in the country some 
fifty years ago the name or sight of this plant is fraught with 
unpleasant memories. The attic or wood-shed was hung with 
bunches of the dried herb, which served as so many grewsome 
warnings against wet feet, or any over-exposure which might 
result in cold or malaria. A certain Nemesis, in the shape of a 
nauseous draught which was poured down the throat under the 
name of '' boneset tea," attended such a catastrophe. The Ind- 
ians first discovered its virtues, and named the plant ague-weed. 
Possibly this is one of the few herbs whose efficacy has not been 
overrated. Dr. Millspaugh says: "It is prominently adapted 

1 02 


WHITE SN^KEROOT.—£u/>atorzum ageraioides. 



to cure a disease peculiar to the South, known as break -bone 
fever (Dengue), and it is without doubt from this property that 
the name boneset was derived." 


Polygo>iiti)i sagittatiim. Buckwheat Family. 

Stem. — Four-angled; erect, or somewhat climbing by its prickles. 
Leaves. — Arrow-shaped; short-stemmed. Flowers. — White or pale pink; 
small; clustered. Calyx. — Usually five-parted; white or pale pink. Co- 
rolla. — None. Stavicns. — Usually eight. Fisttl. — One, with three styles. 
Fruit. — Sharply three-angled. 

This rather noticeable plant is common in low grounds, 
bearing the name of '' scratch-grass " in some places. 


Polygonum arifolium. Buckwheat Family. 

This plant is distinguished from P. sagittatimi by its taper- 
pointed, long-stemmed leaves. 


iPl. XLV 
Eupatoruun ageratoides. Composite Family. 

About three feet high. Stetn. — Smooth and branching. Z^az/^j.— Op- 
posite ; long-stalked; broadly ovate ; coarsely and sharply toothed. Floiuer- 
heads. — White; clustered; composed of tubular blossoms. 

This species is less common but more beautiful and effective 
than the boneset. It is found blossoming in the rich northern 
woods of late summer. 




Silene stellata. Pink Family. 

Stem. — Swollen at the joints ; about three feet high. Leaves. — Whorled 
in fours; oval; taper-pointed. Flowers. — White; in a large pyramidal 
cluster. Calyx. — Inflated; five-toothed. Corolla. — Of five deeply fringed 
petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with three styles. 

In late July many of our wooded banks are decorated with 
the tall stems, whorled leaves, and prettily fringed flowers of the 
starry campion. 


Silene Citcubahcs. Pink Family. 

About one foot high. Leaves. — Opposite ; narrowly oval. Flowers. — 
White ; clustered. Calyx. — Globular ; much inflated ; conspicuously 
veined. Corolla. — Of five two-cleft petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, 
with three styles. 

This is an emigrant from Europe, which was first natu- 
ralized near Boston, and has now become wild in different parts 
of the country, quite overrunning some of the farm-lands which 
border the Hudson River, and whitening the roadsides of Berk- 


Thalictrum polygamum. Crowfoot Family. 

Four to eight feet high. L.eaves. — Divided into many firm, rounded leaf- 
lets. Flowers. — White ; in large clusters ; some perfect, others unisexual. 
Calyx. — Of four or five small petal-like sepals which usually fall off very 
early. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Four to fifteen. 

When a stream trails its shiggish length through the fields of 
midsummer, its way is oftentimes marked by the tall meadow rue, 
the feathery, graceful flower-clusters of which erect themselves 
serenely above the myriad blossoms which are making radiant 
the wet meadows at this season. For, here, too, we may search 
for the purple flag and fringed orchis, the yellow meadow lily, 
the pink swamp milkweed, each charming in its way, but none 



with the cool chaste beauty of the meadow rue. The staminate 
flowers of this plant are especially delicate and feathery. 



Spiranthes cernna. Orchis Family. 

Stem. — Leafy below, leafy- bracted above; six to twenty inches high. 
Leaves. — Linear-lance-shaped; the lowest elongated. Flcnvers. — White; 
fragrant ; the lips wavy or crisped ; growing in slender spikes. 

- This pretty little orchid is found in great abundance in Sep- 
tember and October. The botany relegates it to '' wet places," 
but I have seen dry upland pastures as well as low -lying swamps 
profusely flecked with its slender, fragrant spikes. The braided 
appearance of these spikes would easily account for the popular 
name of ladies' tresses ; but we learn that the plant's English 
name was formerly " ladies' traces,'^ from a fancied resemblance 
between its twisted clusters and the lacings which played so im- 
portant a part in the feminine toilet. I am told that in parts of 
New England the country people have christened the plant 
" wild hyacinth," 

The flowers of ^. gracilis are very small, and grow in a much 
more slender, one-sided spike than those of S. cernua. They 
are found in the dry woods and along the sandy hill-sides from 
July onward. 


Chamceliritim CaroUniamim. Lily Family. 

One to four feet high, the staminate plant taller. Leaves. — The lower 
wedge-shaped, obtuse, tapering into a petiole ; the upper, linear, pointed. 
Flowers. — White. The pistillate and staminate growing on different plants, 
in a long wand-like, spiked raceme. Perianth. — Of six white segments; 
staminate flowers with six stamens, pistillate flowers with one pistil having 
three short styles. 

From May to July the oft-times nodding staminate clusters, 
and the stiff erect pistillate spikes of the devil's bit may be found 
in many of our wet meadows, from Massachusetts to Florida. 

1 06 


LADIES' TRESSES.— S/>/ra»i/ies cemua. 



Nyi7ipha:a odorata. Water-lily Family. 

Leaves. — Rounded ; somewhat heart-shaped ; floating on the surface of 
the water. Flowers. — Large; white or sometimes pink ; fragrant. Calyx. — 
Of four sepals which are green without. Corolla. — Of many petals. Sta- 
viens. — Indefinite in number. Pistil. — With a many-celled ovary whose 
summit is tipped with a globular projection around which are the radiating 

This exquisite flower calls for little description. Many of us 
are so fortunate as to hold in our memories golden mornings de- 
voted to its quest. We can hardly take the shortest railway 
journey in summer without passing some shadowy pool whose 
greatest adornment is this spotless and queenly blossom. The 
breath of the lily-pond is brought even into the heart of our cit- 
ies, where dark-eyed little Italians peddle clusters of the long- 
stemmed fragrant flowers about the streets. 

In the water-lily may be seen an example of so-called plant- 
metcmwrphosis . The petals appear to pass gradually into sta- 
mens, it being difficult to decide where the petals end and the 
stamens begin. But whether stamens are transformed petals, or 
petals transformed stamens, seems to be a mooted question. In 
Gray we read, '' Petals numerous, in many rows, the innermost 
gradually passing into stamens; " while Mr. Grant Allen writes: 
*' Petals are in all probability enlarged and flattened stamens, 
which have been set apart for the work of attracting insects," 
and goes on to say, *' Flowers can and do exist without petals, 
. but no flower can possibly exist without stamens, which 
are one of the two essential reproductive organs in the plant." 
From this he argues that it is more rational to consider a petal a 
transformed stamen than vice versa. To go further into the sub- 
ject here would be imjDossible, but a careful study of the water- 
lily is likely to excite one's curiosity in the matter. 




Sagittaria variabilis . Water-plantain Family. 

Scape. — A few inches to several feet high. Leaves. — Arrow-shaped. 
Flowers. — White ; unisexual ; in whorls of three on the leafless scape. Calyx. 
— Of three sepals. Corolla. — Of three white, rounded petals. Stamens and 
Pistils. — Indefinite in number; occurring in different flowers; the lower 
whorls of flowers usually being pistillate, the upper staminate. 

Among our water-flowers none are more delicately lovely than 
those of the arrow-head. Fortunately the ugly and inconspic- 
uous female flowers grow on the lower whorls, while the male 
ones, with their snowy petals and golden centres, are arranged 
about the upper part of the scape, where the eye first falls. It is 
a pleasure to chance upon a slow stream whose margins are bor- 
dered with these fragile blossoms and bright, arrow-shaped 


Alisma Plantago. Water-plantain Family. 

Scape. — One to three feet high ; bearing the flowers in whorled, panicled 
branches. Leaves. — From the root ; oblong, lance-shaped or linear, mostly 
rounded or heart-shaped at base. Flowers. — White or pale pink; small; 
in large, loose clusters which branch from the scape. Calyx. — Of three se- 
pals. Corolla. — Of three petals. Stamens. — Usually six. Pistils. — Many, 
on a flattened receptacle. 

The water-plantain is nearly related to the arrow-head, and 
is often found blossoming with it in marshy places or shallow 


Baccharis halimifolia. Composite Family. 

A shrub from six to twelve feet high. Leaves. — Somewhat ovate and 
wedge-shaped ; coarsely toothed, or the upper entire. I-lowcr-heads. — 
Whitish or yellowish ; composed of unisexual tubular flowers ; the stamens 
and pistils occurring on different plants. 

Some October day, as we pick our way through the salt 
marshes which lie back of the beach, we may spy in the distance 



a thicket which looks as though composed of such white-flowered 
shrubs as belong to June. Hastening to the spot we discover 
that the silky-tufted seeds of the female groundsel-tree are re- 
sponsible for our surprise. The shrub is much more noticeable 
and effective at this season than when — a few weeks previous — 
it was covered with its small white or yellowish flower-heads. 


Paniassia Caroliniana. Saxifrage Family. 

Stem. — Scape-like ; nine inches to two feet high ; with usually one small 
rounded leaf clasping it below ; bearing at its summit a single flower. 
Leaves. — Thickish ; rounded; often heart-shaped ; from the root. Flmuer. 
-White or cream-color; veiny. Calyx. — Of five slightly united sepals. 
Corolla. — Of five veiny petals. Trite Stamens. — Five ; alternate with the 
petals, and with clusters of sterile gland-tipped filaments. Pistil. — One, 
with four stigmas. 

Gerarde indignantly declares that this plant has been de- 
scribed by blind men, not '' such as are blinde in their eyes, but 
in their understandings, for if this plant be a kind of grasse then 
may the Butter-burre or Colte's-foote be reckoned for grasses — as 
also all other plants whatsoever." But if it covered Parnassus 
with its delicate veiny blossoms as abundantly as it does some 
moist New England meadows each autumn, the ancients may 
have reasoned that a plant almost as common as grass must some- 
how partake of its nature. The slender-stemmed creamy flowers 
are never seen to better advantage than when disputing with the 
fringed gentian the possession of some luxurious swamp. 


Anaphilis margaritacea. Composite Family. 

Stem. — V.rtcX. ; one or two feet high. Leaves. — Broadly linear to lance- 
shaped. Flower- heads. — Composed entirely of tubular flowers with very 
numerous white involucral scales. 

This species is common throughout our northern woods and 
pastures, blossoming in August. Thoreau writes of it in Sep- 



GRASS OF PARUASSUS.-Parnassm Caro/iniana. 



tember : " The pearly everlasting is an interesting white at pres- 
ent. Though the stems and leaves are still green, it is dry and 
unwithering, like an artificial flower ; its white, flexuous stem and 
branches, too, like wire wound with cotton. Neither is there 
any scent to betray it. Its amaranthine quality is instead of 
high color. Its very brown centre now affects me as a fresh and 
original color. It monopolizes small circles in the midst of 
sweet fern, perchance, on a dry hill-side." 


Gnaphaliiim polycephalum. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Erect ; one to three feet high ; woolly. Leaves. — Lance-shaped. 
Flower-heads. — Yellowish- white ; clustered at the summit of the branches, 
composed of many tubular flowers. 

This is the '' fragrant life-everlasting," as Thoreau calls it, 
of late summer. It abounds in rocky pastures and throughout 
the somewhat open woods. 





Veratrum viride. Lily Family. 

Root. — Poisonous; coarse and fibrous. Stem. — Stout; two to seven feet 
high; very leafy to the top. Leaves. — Broadly oval ; pointed; clasping. 
Flowers. — Dull greenish ; clustered. Perianth. — Of six spreading sepals. 
Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One, with three styles. 

When we go to the swampy woods in March or April we 
notice an array of green, soHd-looking spears which have just ap- 
peared above the ground. If we handle one of these we are im- 
pressed with its firmness and rigidity. When the increasing 
warmth and sunshine have tempted the veiny, many-plaited 
leaves of the false hellebore to unfold themselves it is difficult to 
realize that they composed that sturdy tool which so effectively 
tunnelled its way upward to the earth's surface. The tall stems 
and large bright leaves of this plant are very noticeable in the 
early year, forming conspicuous masses of foliage while the trees 
and shrubs are still almost leafless. The dingy flowers which 
appear in June rarely attract attention, unless by their lack o/ 


Smilax herbacea. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Climbing, three to fifteen feet high. Leaves. — Ovate, or rounded 
heart-shaped, or abruptly cut off at base. Llo'cvers. — Greenish or yellowish ; 
small; clustered; unisexual. Perianth. — Six-parted. Stamens. — Six. 
Pistil. — One, with three spreading stigmas. (Stamens and pistils occurring 
on different plants.) Fruit. — A bluish-black berry. 

One whiff of the foul breath of the carrion flower suffices for 
its identification. Thoreau likens its odor to that of '* a dead 



rat in the wall." It seems unfortunate that this strikingly hand- 
some plant, which clambers so ornamentally over the luxuriant 
thickets which border our lanes and streams, should be so handi- 
capped each June. Happily with the disappearance of the blos- 
soms, it takes its place as one of the most attractive of our climbers. 

The common green-brier, S. rotundifolia, is a near relation 
which is easily distinguished by its prickly stem. 

The dark berries and deeply tinted leaves of this genus add 
greatly to the glorious autumnal display along our roadsides and 
in the woods and meadows. 


Rhus venenata. Cashew Family. 

A shrub from six to eighteen feet high. Leaves. — Divided into seven 
to thirteen oblong leaflets. Flowers. — Greenish or yellowish-white ; in loose 
axillary clusters ; some perfect, others unisexual. Fruit. — Whitish or dun- 
colored ; small, globular. 

The poison sumach infests swampy places and flowers in 
June. In early summer it can be distinguished from the harm- 
less members of the family by the slender flower-clusters which 
grow trom the axils of the leaves, those of the innocent swnachs 
being borne in pyramidal , tertninal clusters . In the later year the 
fruits of the respective shrubs are, of course, similarly situated, 
but, to accentuate the distinction, they differ in color ; that of 
the poison sumach being whitish or dun-colored, while that of 
the other is crifnson. 


Rhus iyphina. Cashew Family. 

A shrub or tree from ten to thirty feet high. Leaves. — Divided into 
eleven to thirty-one someM'hat lance-shaped, toothed leaflets. Flowers. — 
Greenish or yellowish-white ; in upright terminal clusters ; some perfect, 
others unisexual ; appearing in June. Fruit. — Crimson; small; globular; 

This is the common sumach which illuminates our hill-sides 
every autumn with masses of flame-like color. Many of us would 



CARRION-FLOWER.— 5w«7a^ Jurbacea. 

Single staminate flower. 


like to decorate our homes with its brilliant sprays, but are de- 
terred from handling them by the fear of being poisoned, not 
knowing that one glance at the crimson fruit-plumes should re- 
assure us, as the poisonous sumachs are white-fruited. These 
tossing pyramidal fruit-clusters at first appear to explain the 
common title of staghorn sumach. It is not till the foliage has 
disappeared, and the forked branches are displayed in all their 
nakedness, that we feel that these must be the feature in which 
the common name originated. 


Rhus Toxicodendron. Cashew Family. 

A shrub which usually climbs by means of rootlets over rocks, walls, and 
trees ; sometimes low and erect. Leaves. — Divided into three somewhat 
four-sided pointed leaflets. Flowers. — Greenish or yellowish- white ; small; 
some perfect, others unisexual ; in loose clusters in the axils of the leaves 
in |une. Fruit. — Small; globular; somewhat berry-like; dun-colored; 

This much-dreaded plant is often confused with the beautiful 
Virginia creeper, occasionally to the ruthless destruction of the 
latter. Generally the two can be distinguished by the three- 
divided leaves of the poison ivy, the leaves of the Virginia 
creeper usually being five-divided. In the late year the whitish 
fruit of the ivy easily identifies it, the berries of the creeper being 
blackish. The poison ivy is reputed to be especially harmful 
during the night, or at any time in early summer when the sun 
is not shining upon it. 


Ampehpsis quinquefolia. Vine Family. 

A woody vine, climbing by means of disk-bearing tendrils, and also by 
rootlets. Leaves. — Usually divided into five leaflets. Floiuers. — Greenish; 
small; clustered; appearing in July. Fruit. — A small blackish berry in 

Surely in autumn, if not always, this is the most beautiful of 
our native climbers. At that season its blood-like sprays are out- 




POISON I'^y —K/ius Toxicodeyidron. 


lined against the dark evergreens about which they delight to 
twine, showing that marvellous discrimination in background 
which so constantly excites our admiration in nature. The Vir- 
ginia creeper is extensively cultivated in Europe. Even in 
Venice, that sea-city where one so little anticipates any re- 
minders of home woods and meadows, many a dim canal mir- 
rors in October some crumbling wall or graceful trellis aglow 
with its vivid beauty. 


Habenaria virescens, 


Habenaria lacera. Orchis Family. 

Leaves. — Oblong or lance-shaped. Flowers. — Greenish or yellowish- 
white ; growing in a spike. 

These two orchids are found in wet, boggy places during the 
earlier summer, the green antedating the ragged fringed orchis 
by a week or more. The lip of the ragged fringed is three- 
parted, the divisions being deeply fringed, giving what is called 
in Sweet's ''British Flower-Garden" an '' elegantly jagged ap- 
pearance." The lip of the green orchis is furnished with a tooth 
on each side and a strong protuberance in the middle. So far 
as superficial beauty and conspicuousness are concerned these 
flowers do scant justice to the brilhant family to which they be- 
long, and equally excite the scornful exclamation, "You call 
that an orchid ! ' ' when brought home for analysis or preserva- 



Flower, side view. 

Flower, front view. 

RAGGED FRINGED ORQH\S.—Habenaria lacera. 




Asclepias -jcrticillata. Milkweed Family. 

Stem. — Slender; very leafy to the summit. Leaves. — Very narrow ; from 
three to six in a whorl. Flowers. — Greenish-white ; in small clusters at the 
summit and along the sides of the stem. Fruit. — Two erect pods, one often 

This species is one commonly found on dry uplands, espe- 
cially southward, with flowers resembling in structure those of 
the other milkweeds. 


CaulophylliDu thalictroides. Barberry Family. 

Siettis. — One to two and a half feet high. Leaf. — Large; divided into 
many-lobed leaflets ; often a smaller one at the base of the flower-cluster. 
Flo7vers. — Yellowish-green or purplish ; clustered at the summit of the 
stem ; appearing while the leaf is still small. Calyx. — Of six sepals ; with 
three or four small bractlets at base. Corolla. — Of six thick, somewhat 
kidney-shaped or hooded petals, with short claws. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. 
— One. Fruit. — Bluish; berry-like. 

In the deep rich woods of early spring, especially somewhat 
westward, may be found the smooth, purplish stem, divided 
leaves, and clustered green or purplish flowers of the blue cohosh. 
The generic name is from two Greek words signifying stem and 
leaf., ''the stems seeming to form a stalk for the great leaf." 


Thalictrum dioicum. Crowfoot Family. 

One to two feet high. Leaves. — Divided into many smooth, lobed, pale 
drooping leaflets. Floivers. — Purplish and greenish ; unisexual. Calyx. — 
Of four or five petal-like sepals. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Indefinite 
in number ; with linear yellowish anthers drooping on hair-like filaments 
(stamens and pistils occurring on different plants). Pistils. — Four to four- 

The graceful drooping foliage of this plant is perhaps more 
noticeable than the small flowers which appear in the rocky 
woods in April or May. 



SWAMP SAXIFRAGE. . . >-< -^^//o. 


Saxifraga Pennsylvanica. Saxifrage Family. 

One to two feet high. Leaves, — Four to eight inches long ; obscurely 
toothed; narrowed at base into a broad short stem. Flozuers. — Small; 
greenish or reddish ; in a large cluster. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — 
Of five petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

In boggy meadows and along water-courses this plant is con- 
spicuous in spring. Oftentimes its leaf-stalks as well as its flowers 
are noticeably tinged with red. 


Celastriis scandens. StafT-tree Family. 

Stem. — Woody; twining. Leaves. — Alternate; oblong; finely toothed ; 
pointed. Flozvers. — Small ; greenish or cream-color ; in raceme-like clusters ; 
appearing in June. Pod. — Orange-colored; globular and berry-like ; curl- 
ing back in three divisions when ripe so as to display the scarlet covering of 
the seeds within. 

The small flowers of the bitter-sweet, which appear in June, 
rarely attract attention. But in October no lover of color can 
fail to admire the deep orange pods which at last curl back so as 
advantageously to display the brilliant scarlet covering of the 
seeds. Perhaps we have no fruit which illuminates more vividly 
the roadside thicket of late autumn ; or touches with greater 
warmth those tumbled, overgrown walls which are so picturesque 
a feature in parts of the country, and do in a small way for our 
quiet landscapes what vine-covered ruins accomplish for the 
scenery of the Old World. 




[Yellow or occasionally Yellow Flowers not described in Yellow 


Fragrant Woodbine. Lonicera grata. May. (Red Section, p. 269.) 


Caltha pahistris. Crowfoot Family. 

Stem. — Hollow; furrowed. Leaves. — Rounded; somewhat kidney- 
shaped. Flowers. — Golden-yellow. Calyx. — Of five to nine petal-like 
sepals. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Five to ten ; 
almost without styles. 

*' Hark, hark ! the lark at heaven's gate sings, 

And Phoebus 'gins arise. 
His steeds to water at those springs 

On chalic'd flowers that lies ; 
And winking Mary-buds begin 

To ope their golden eyes ; 
With everything that pretty is — 

My lady sweet, arise ! 

Arise, arise." — Cymbeline. 

We claim — and not without authority — that these '^ winking 
Mary-buds" are identical with the gay marsh marigolds which 
border our springs and gladden our wet meadows every April. 
There are those who assert that the poet had in mind the garden 
marigold — Calendula — but surely no cultivated flower could har- 
monize with the spirit of the song as do these gleaming swamp 
blossoms. We will yield to the garden if necessary — 

" The marigold that goes to bed with the sun 
And with him rises weeping — " 



MARSH MARIGOLD.— Ca/Ma palustris. 


of the '^ Winter's Tale," but insist on retaining for that larger, 
lovelier garden in which we all feel a certain sense of possession 
even if we are not taxed on real estate in any part of the coun- 
try — the "golden eyes " of the Mary-bud ; and we feel strength- 
ened in our position by the statement in Mr. Robinson's " Wild 
Garden" that the marsh marigold is so abundant along certain 
English rivers as to cause the ground to look as though paved 
with gold at those seasons when they overflow their banks. 

These flowers are peddled about our streets every spring 
under the name of cowslips — a title to which they have no 
claim, and which is the result of that reckless fashion of christen- 
ing unrecognized flowers which is so prevalent, and which is re- 
sponsible for so much confusion about their English names. 

The plant is a favorite " pot-herb " with country people, £ar 
superior, I am told, to spinach ; the young flower-buds also are 
considered palatable. 

The derivation of marigold is somewhat obscure. In the 
" Grete Herball" of the sixteenth century the flower is spoken 
of as Mary Gowks, and by the early English poets as gold sim- 
ply. As the first part of the word might be derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon mere — a marsh, it seems possible that the entire 
name may signify marsh-gold, which would be an appropriate 
and poetic title for this shining flower of the marshes. 


Lindera Benzoin. Laurel Family. 

An aromatic shrub from six to fifteen feet high. Leaves. — Oblong ; 
pale underneath. Flowers. — Appearing before the leaves in March or April; 
honey-yellow; borne in clusters which are composed of smaller clusters, 
surrounded by an involucre of four early falling scales. Fruit, — Red; 
berry-like ; somewhat pear-shaped. 

These are among the very earliest blossoms to be found in 
the moist woods of spring. During the Revolution the pow- 
dered berries were used as a substitute for allspice ; while at the 
time of the Rebellion the leaves served as a substitute for tea. 



SPICE-BUSH.— Z,/«^^m Benzoin. 



Erythronium Americanum. Lily Family. 

Scape. — Six to nine inches high; one-flowered. Leaves. — Two; ob- 
long-lance-shaped; pale green mottled with purple and white. Flowers. — 
Rather large ; pale yellow marked with purple ; nodding. Perianth. — Of 
six recurved or spreading sepals. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One. 

The white blossoms of the shad-bush gleam from the thicket, 
and the sheltered hill-side is already starred with the blood-root 
and anemone when we go to seek the yellow adder's tongue. 
We direct our steps toward one of those hollows in the wood 
which is watered by such a clear gurgling brook as must appeal 
to every country-loving heart ; and there where the pale April 
sunlight filters through the leafless branches, nod myriads of 
these hlies, each one guarded by a pair of mottled, erect, senti- 
nel-like leaves. 

The two English names of this plant are unsatisfactory and 
inappropriate. If the marking of its leaves resembles the skin 
of an adder why name it after its tongue ? And there is equal- 
ly little reason for calling a lily a violet. Mr. Burroughs has 
suggested two pretty and significant names. ''Fawn lily," he 
thinks, would be appropriate, because a fawn is also mottled, 
and because the two leaves stand up with the alert, startled look 
of a fawn's ears. The spfeckled foliage and perhaps its flowering 
season are indicated in the title "trout-lily," which has a 
spring-like flavor not without charm. It is said that the early 
settlers of Pennsylvania named the flower " yellow snowdrop," 
in memory of their own " harbinger of spring." 

The white adder's tongue, E. a/didu??i, is a species which is 
usually found somewhat westward. 



YELLOW ADDER'S 10HG\JE.~Eryfhrouium Americanitm. 



Tussilago Farfara. Composite Family. 

Scape. — Slender, scaly, three to eighteen inches high, bearing a solitary 
large flower-head. Leaves. — Appearing later than the flowers, heart- 
shaped below, " angulately-lobed, " woolly beneath. Flozver-kead. — Bright 
yellow, composed of both ray and disk-flowers, appearing in early spring 
before the leaves. 

The coltsfoot is an immigrant from Europe which is now 
thoroughly wild in this country. For some years before I had 
succeeded in seeing the plant in flower I had noticed colonies of 
its lobed, heart-shaped leaves growing in moist ditches and 
along the banks or in the beds of streams. But my efforts to 
discover the name or blossom of the plant which sent up these 
conspicuous leaves were unsuccessful till one early May when, on 
the banks of a stream in Berkshire, I chanced upon a bright 
yellow flower-head, looking something like a dandelion with its 
heart plucked out, topping a leafless, scaly-bracted scape. I iden- 
tified this as the coltsfoot, connecting it with the puzzling leaves 
only by means of the botanical descriptions. 

This is a common plant in England, yielding what is sup- 
posed to be a remedy for coughs. 


Stylophorum diphyllum. Poppy Family. 

Stem. — Low ; two-leaved. Stem-leaves. — Opposite ; deeply incised. 
Root-leaves. — Incised or divided. Flowers. — Deep-yellow; large; one or 
more at the summit of the stem. Calyx. — Of two hairy sepals. Corolla. — 
Of four petals. Sta7/iens. — Many. Pistil. — One ; with a two or four- 
lobed stigma. 

In April or May, somewhat south and westward, the woods 
are brightened, and occasionally the hill-sides are painted yel- 
low, by this handsome flower. In both flower and foliage the 
plant suggests the celandine. 



! 'r" ' 



Pedicularis Canadensis. Figwort Family. 

Stems. — Clustered ; five to twelve inches high. Leaves. — The lower 
ones deeply incised ; the upper less so. Flowers. — Yellow and red ; grow- 
ing in a short dense spike. Calyx. — Of one piece split in front. Corolla. — 
Two-lipped ; the narrow upper lip arched, the lower three-lobed. Stamens. 
— Four. Pistil. — One. 

The bright flowers of the wood betony are found in our May 
woods, often in the company of the columbine and yellow vio- 
let. Near Philadelphia they are said to be among the very ear- 
liest of the flowers, coming soon after the trailing arbutus. In 
the later year the plant attracts attention by its uncouth spikes 
of brown seed-pods. 

Few wayside weeds have been accredited with greater virtue 
than the ancient betony, which a celebrated Roman physician 
claimed could cure forty-seven different disorders. The Roman 
proverb, '' Sell your coat and buy betony," seems to imply that 
the plant did not flourish so abundantly along the Appian Way 
as it does by our American roadsides. Unfortunately we are 
reluctantly forced to beheve once more that our native flower is 
not identical with the classic one, but that it has received its 
common name through some superficial resemblance to the origi- 
nal betony or Betonica. 


Polygonatum biJloru77i. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Slender ; curving ; one to three feet long. Leaves. — Alternate ; 
oval ; set close to the stem. Flowers. — Yellowish ; bell-shaped; nodding 
from the axils of the leaves. Perianth. — Six-lobed at the summit. Stamens. 
— Six. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A dark blue berry. 

The graceful leafy stems of the Solomon's seal are among the 
most decorative features of our spring woods. The small blos- 
soms which appear in May grow either singly or in clusters on a 
flower-stalk which is so fastened into the axil of each leaf that 



WOOD BETOUy. —Pedicularis Canadensis. 





SOLOMON'S SEkL—Polygonatujn biflorunt. 



they droop beneath, forming a curve of singular grace which is 
sustained in later summer by the dark blue berries. 

The larger species, P. gigantewn, grows to a height of from 
two to seven feet, blossoming in the meadows and along the 
streams in June. 

The common name was suggested by the rootstocks, which 
are marked with large round scars left by the death and separa- 
tion of the base of the stout stalks of the previous years. These 
scars somewhat resemble the impression of a seal upon wax. 

The generic name is from two Greek words signifying 7nany 
and knee, alluding to the numerous joints of the rootstock. 


Corydalis atirea. Fumitory Family. 

Smooth, six to fourteen inches high, branching. Leaves. — Finely dis- 
sected. Flo7ve?-s. — Bright yellow, about one-half inch long. Calyx. — Of 
two small sepals. Corolla. — Flattened, closed, with spur one-half or more 
as long as body of corolla, outer petals keeled. Fruit. — A many-seeded 

The golden corydalis is found flowering in the rocky woods 
from March till May. 



Ranunculus septentrionalis. Crowfoot Family. 

Stems. — Sometimes upright ; again trailing along the ground and form- 
ing runners. Leaves. — Three-divided ; the divisions often unequally cleft. 
Fhnvers. — Bright yellow; somewhat resembling buttercups. Calyx. — Of 
five sepals. Co)-olla. — Of five petals. Starnens. — Indefinite in number. 
Pistils. — Numerous, in a head. 

Although it may be found in blossom until August, it is es- 
pecially in spring that the wet woods and meadows are bright 
with the flowers of the early crowfoot. Until we look closely at 
the plant we are apt to confound it with its kinsmen the butter- 
cups, but a look at its longish petals alone will show us our error. 





'. ^^ 


Oakesia sessilifoUa. 

Uvularia ferfoliatcu 




Another and even earlier species of the crowfoot is R.fascicu- 
laris. This is especially plentiful along the hillsides. Its roots 
are a cluster of thick fleshy fibres. 

', * 



' - Oakesia sessilifolia. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Acutely angled ; rather low. Leaves. — Set close to or clasping 
the stem ; pale; lance-oblong. Flo7ver. — Yellowish or straw-color. Peri- 
anth. — Narrowly bell-shaped ; divided into six distinct sepals. Stamens 
— Six. Pistil, — One, with a deeply three-cleft style. 

In spring this little plant is very abundant in the woods. 
It bears one or two small lily-like blossoms which droop modest- 
ly beneath the curving stems. 

With the same common name and near of kin is Uvularia 
perfoliata, with leaves which seem pierced by the stem, but 
otherwise of a strikingly similar aspect. 


Dirca palustris. Mezereum Family. 

A shrub two to six feet high. Leaves. — Oval or obovate. Flowers. — 
Light yellow, appearing before the leaves, small. Calyx. — Corolla-like, 
yellow, funnel-shaped, with wavy or obscurely four-toothed border. Corolla. 
— None. Stainens. — Eight, long and slender, protruding. Pistil. — One, 
with a long, thread-like style. Fruit. — Oval, reddish, about one-half inch 

In April, while making our careful way through some wet 
thicket, we notice a leafless shrub with bunches of insignificant 
yellow blossoms and a bark so tough that we find it almost 
impossible to break off a branch. This is the '' leather-wood " 
used for thongs by the Indians. It is known also as ''moose- 
wood." The leaves appear later and finally the reddish oval 




Zizia aurea. Parsley Family. 

One to three feet high. Leaves. — Twice or thrice-compound ; leaflets 
oblong to lance-shaped; toothed. Flowcis. — Yellow; small; in com- 
pound umbels. 

This is one of the earHest members of the Parsley family 
to appear. Its golden flower-clusters brighten the damp mead- 
ows and the borders of streams in May or June, and closely 
resemble the meadow parsnip, Thaspiiim aiiremn, of which 
this species was formerly considered a variety, of the later 

The tall, stout, common wild parsnip, Pastinaca sativa, is 
another yellow representative of this family in which white 
flowers prevail, the three plants here mentioned being the only 
yellow species commonly encountered. The common parsnip 
may be identified by its grooved stem and simply compound 
leaves. Its roots have been utilized for food at least since the 
reign of Tiberius, for Pliny tells us that that Emperor brought 
them to Rome from the banks of the Rhine, where they were 
successfully cultivated. 


Viola pubescens. Violet Family. 

Stems. — Leafy above ; erect. Leaves. — Broadly heart-shaped ; toothed. 
Flozvers. — Yellow, veined with purple ; otherwise much like those of the 
common blue violet. 

** When beechen buds begin to swell, 

And woods the blue-bird's warble know, 
The yellow violet's modest bell 

Peeps from the last year's leaves below," 

sings Bryant, in his charming, but not strictly accurate poem, 
for the chances are that the * ' beechen buds ' ' have almost burst 
into foliage, and that the '' blue-bird's warble" has been heard 



for some time when these pretty flowers begin to dot the 

The hnes which run : 

" Yet slight thy form, and low thy seat, 
And earthward bent thy gentle eye, 
Unapt the passing view to meet, 

When loftier flowers are flaunting nigh," 

would seem to apply more correctly to the round -leaved K ro- 
hmdifolia,^ than to the downy violet, for although its large, flat 
shining leaves are somewhat conspicuous, its flowers are borne 
singly on a low scape, which would be less apt to attract notice 
than the tall, leafy flowering stems of the other. 


Orontium aquaticum. Arum Family. 

Scape. — Slender; elongated. Leaves. — Long-stalked ; oblong ; floating. 
Flowers. — Small ; yellow ; crowded over the narrow spike or spadix. 

When we go to the bogs in May to hunt for the purple flower 
of the pitcher-plant we are likely to chance upon the well-named 
golden club. This curious-looking club-shaped object, which is 
found along the borders of ponds, indicates its relationship to 
the Jack-in-the-Pulpit, and still more to the calla-lily, but 
unlike them its tiny flowers are shielded by no protecting 

Kalm tells us in his "Travels," ''that the Indians called 
the plant Taw-Kee, and used its dried seeds as food." 

* I find the round-leaved violet blossoming so early in the year as to make it 
seem probable that this species is the subject of Bryant's poem. 



CYNTH \f<.—K'ri^ia Virgrinica. 



Lonicera ciliata. Honeysuckle Family. 

A bushy shrub three to five feet high, with straggling branches. Leaves. 
— Opposite, entire, oblong-ovate, often heart-shaped, thin, with thread-like 
leaf stems. Floivers. — Yellow, growing in pairs from the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx. — Slightly five-toothed, the teeth not persistent. Corolla. — 
Funnel-formed, almost spurred at base, with five lobes. Stamens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One, Fruit. — A red berry, growing close to, but distinct from the 
berry of sister flower. 

In the moist, rocky woods of early May we find the yellow 
twin blossoms of the fly honeysuckle. 


Krigia Virginica. Composite Family. 


Stems. — Usually becoming branched and leafy. (In K. amplexicaulis, a 
very similar species, there are from one to three stem-leaves only.) Root- 
leaves. — Usually somewhat lyre-shaped, or toothed. Stem-leaves. — Earlier 
ones roundish, not toothed ; later ones narrower, and often deeply toothed 
or cleft. Floiver-heads. — Deep orange-yellow ; dandelion-like ; composed 
entirely of strap-shaped flowers. 

In some parts of the country the blossoms of the cynthia are 
among the earliest to appear, while in other localities they are 
especially abundant and conspicuous in June. 

The smooth, pale-green stems of K. a?nplexicaulis bear but 
few leaves. 

The cynthias are often confused with the hawkweeds. 


Chelidoniuni majus. Poppy Family. 

Stem. — Brittle ; with saff'ron-colored, acrid juice. Leaves. — Compound 
or divided ; toothed or cut. Flowers. — Yellow ; clustered. Calyx. — Of 
two sepals falling early. Corolla. — Of four petals. Stamens. — Sixteen to 
twenty-four. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed stigma. Pod. — Slender; linear. 

The name of celandine must always suggest the poet who 
never seemed to weary of writing in its honor : 

" I'ansies, lilies, kingcups, daisies, 
Let them live upon their praises ; 



Long as there's a sun that sets, 
Primroses will have their glory; 
Long as there are violets, 
They will have a place in story ; 
There's a flower that shall be mine, 
'Tis the little celandine." 

And when certain yellow flowers which frequent the village road- 
side are pointed out to us as those of the celandine, we feel a 
sense of disappointment that the favorite theme of Wordsworth 
should arouse within us so little enthusiasm. So perhaps we are 
rather relieved than otherwise to realize that the botanical name 
of this plant signifies greater celandine ; for we remember that 
the poet never failed to specify the S7nall celandine as the object 
of his praise. The small celandine is Ranunculus Jicaria, one 
of the Crowfoot family, and is only found in this country as an 
escape from gardens. 

Gray tells us that the generic name, Chelidonium, from the 
ancient Greek for swallow, was given '^because its flowers ap- 
pear with the swallows;" but if we turn to Gerarde we read 
that the title was not bestowed *' because it first springeth at the 
coming in of the swallows, or dieth when they go away, for as 
we have saide, it may be founde all the yeare, but because some 
holde opinion, that with this herbe the dams restore sight to their 
young ones, when their eies be put out." 

Clintonia borealis. Lily Family. 

Scape. — Five to eight inches high; sheathed at its base by the stalks of 
two to four large, oblong, conspicuous leaves. Flo7vers. — Greenish-yellow; 
rarely solitary. Perianth. — Of six sepals. Statncns. — Six; protruding. 
Pistil. — One; i)rotruding. Frzdt. — A blue berry. 

When rambling through the cool, moist woods our attention 
is often attracted by patches of great dark, shining leaves ; and 
if it be late in the year we long to know the flower of which this 
rich foliage is the setting. To satisfy our curiosity we must 
return the following May or June, when we shall probably find 


Plate lviii 

Clintonia borealis. 


that a slender scape rises from its midst bearing at its summit 
several yellowish, bell-shaped flowers. 

C umbellata is a more southern species, with smaller white 
flowers, which are speckled with green or purplish dots. 


Senecio aureus. Composite Family, 

Stem. — One to three feet high. Root-leaves. — Rounded ; the larger 
ones mostly heart-shaped ; toothed, and long-stalked. Stem-leaves. — The 
lower lyre-shaped ; the upper lance- shaped ; incised; set close to the stem 
Flower -he ads. — Yellow ; clustered ; composed of both ray and disk-flowers. 

A child would perhaps liken the flower of the golden ragwort 
to a yellow daisy. Stain yellow the white rays of the daisy, di- 
minish the size of the whole head somewhat, and you have a 
pretty good likeness of the ragwort. There need be little diffi- 
culty in the identification of this plant — although there are sev- 
eral marked varieties — for its flowers are abundant in the early 
year, at which season but few members of the Composite family 
are abroad. 

The generic name is from senex — an old man — alluding to 
the silky down of the seeds, which is supposed to suggest the 
silvery hairs of age. 

Closely allied to the golden ragwort is the common ground- 
sel, S. vulgaris, which is given as food to caged birds. The 
flower-heads of this species are without rays. 



Cypripedium pubescens. Orchis Family. 

.9/^;„. —About two feet high; downy; leafy to the top; one to three- 
flowered. Z^rtz/d-J.— Alternate; broadly oval; many-nerved and plaited. 
Flfliver.—\.2LXg^ ; the pale yellow lip an inflated pouch ; the two lateral 
petals long and narrow ; wavy-twisted ; brownish. 

The yellow lady's slipper usually blossoms in May or June, 
a few days later than its pink sister, C. acaule. Regarding its 



GOLDEN RAGWORT.— 5^«^(r;<? aureus. 


favorite haunts, Mr. Baldwin* says: ''Its preference is for 
maples, beeches, and particularly butternuts, and for sloping or 
hilly ground, and I always look with glad suspicion at a knoll 
covered with ferns, cohoshes, and trilliums, expecting to see a 
clump of this plant among them. Its sentinel-like habit of 
choosing ' sightly places ' leads it to venture well up on moun- 
tain sides." 

The long, wavy, brownish petals give the flower an alert, 
startled look when surprised in its lonely hiding-places. 

C. pannflonwi, the small yellow lady's slipper, differs from 
C. piibescefis in the superior richness of its color as well as in its 
size. It has also the charm of fragrance. 


Melilotiis officinalis. Pulse Family. 

Two to four feet high. Stem. — Upright. Leaves. — Divided into three 
toothed leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; yellow; growing in spike-like 

This plant is found blossoming along the roadsides in sum- 
mer. It was formerly called in England " king's-clover," be- 
cause as Parkinson writes, '' the yellowe flowers doe crown the 
top of the stalks." The leaves become fragrant in drying. 


Medeola Virginiana. Lily Family. 

Root. — Tuberous ; shaped somewhat like a cucumber, with a suggestion 
of its flavor. Stem. — Slender ; from one to three feet high ; at first clothed 
with wool. ^. eaves.— \xv two whorls on the flowering plants; the lower of 
five to nine oblong, pointed leaves set close to the stem ; the upper usually 
of three or four much smaller ones. Flowers. — Greenish-yellow; small; 
clustered; recurved; set close to the upper leaves. Perianth. — Of three 
sepals and three petals, oblong and alike. Stamens. — Six ; reddish-brown. 
Pistil. — With three stigmas ; long ; recurved, and reddish-brown. Fruit. 
— A purple berry. 

One is more apt to pause in September to note the brilliant 
foliage and purple berries of this little plant than to gather the 

* Orchids of New England. 



INDIAN CUCUMBER-ROOT.— iW^^^^/a Virginiana. 



drooping inconspicuous blossoms for his bunch of wood-flowers 
in June. The generic name is after the sorceress Medea, on ac- 
count of its supposed medicinal virtues, of which, however, there 
seems to be no record. 

The tuberous rootstock has the flavor, and something the 
shape, of the cucumber, and was probably used as food by the 
Indians. It would not be an uninteresting study to discover 
which of our common wild plants are able to afford pleasant and 
nutritious food; m such a pursuit many of the otherwise unat- 
tractive popular names would prove suggestive. 



Bar bar ea vulgaris. Mustard Family. 

Stem. — Smooth. Leaves. — The lower lyre-shaped; the upper ovate, 
toothed or deeply incised at their base. Flowers. — Yellow ; growing in 
racemes. Pod. — Linear; erect or slightly spreading. 

As early as May we find the bright flowers of the winter- 
cress along the roadside. This is probably the first of the yel- 
low mustards to appear. 


Brassica nigra. Mustard Family. 

Often several feet high. Stem. — Branching. Leaves. — The lower with 
a large termmal lobe and a few small lateral ones. Florvcrs. — Yellow ; 
rather small ; growing in a raceme. Pods. — Smooth; erect; appressed ; 
about half an inch long. 

Many are familiar with the appearance of this plant who are 
ignorant of its name. The pale yellow flowers spring from the 
waste places along the roadside and border the dry fields through- 
out the summer. The tall spreading branches recall the Biblical 
description: '* It groweth up, and becometh greater than all 
herbs, and shooteth out great branches ; so that the fowls of the 
air may lodge under the shadow of it." 



YELLOW LADY'S SLIPPER.-0'/^//^'///'w ti'l'esccvs. 


RATTLESNAKE-WEED.— ///i';v/(/«w venosum. 


This plant is extensively cultivated in Europe, its ground 
seeds forming the well-known condiment. The ancients used it 
for medicinal purposes. It has come across the water to us, and 
is a troublesome weed in many parts of the country. 


Raphanus Raphanistrmn. Mustard Family. 

One to three feet high. Leaves. — Rough ; lyre-shaped. Flowers. — Yel- 
low ; veiny ; turning white or purplish ; larger than those of the black mus- 
tard, otherwise resembling them. Pod. — Often necklace-form by constric- 
tion between the seeds. 

This plant is a troublesome weed in many of our fields. It is 
the stock from which the garden radish has been raised. 


Nasturtium palustre. Mustard Family. 

Erect, branching, one to three feet high. Leaves. — Pinnately parted 
into oblong, toothed lobes. Flowers. — Yellow, small, growing in racemes. 
Pod. — Linear or oblong, spreading or curved. 

The yellow water-cress is common in wet places or in shallow 
water almost throughout North America. Its insignificant yellow 
flowers are found from May till September. 


Hieracium venosum. Composite Family. 

Stem or Scape. — One to two feet high ; naked or with a single leaf ; 
slender ; forking above. Leaves. — From the root ; oblong ; often making 
a sort of flat rosette ; usually conspicuously veined with purple. Flower- 
heads. — Yellow ; composed entirely of strap-shaped flowers. 

The loosely clustered yellow flower-heads of the rattlesnake- 
weed somewhat resemble small dandelions. They abound in the 
pine-woods and dry, waste places of early summer. The purple- 
veined leaves, whose curious markings give to the plant its com- 
mon name, grow close to the ground and are supposed to be 



efficacious in rattlesnake bites. Here again crops out the old 
'* doctrine of signatures," for undoubtedly this virtue has been 
attributed to the species solely on account of the fancied re- 
semblance between its leaves and the markings of the rattle- 

Another yellow species which is found in the dry open woods 
is the rough hawkweed, H. scabrum. This plant may be distin- 
guished from the rattlesnake-weed not only by its un veined 
leaves, but by its leafy, rough, rather stout stem. Its thick 
flower-stalks, and the involucre which surrounds each flower- 
head, are densely clothed with dark hairs (PI. LXIII). 

The panicled hawkweed, H. paniculatum, found also in dry 
woods, is usually smooth throughout. Its leafy stem is branched 
above, with slender, often drooping flower-stalks 


Taraxacum officinale. Composite Family. 

If Emerson's definition of a weed, as a plant whose virtues 
have not yet been discovered, be correct, we can hardly place 
the dandelion in that category, for its young sprouts have been 
valued as a pot-herb, its fresh leaves enjoyed as a salad, and its 
dried roots used as a substitute for coffee in various countries and 
ages. It is said that the Apache Indians so greatly relish it as 
food, that they scour the country for many days in order to pro- 
cure enough to appease their appetites, and that the quantity 
consumed by one individual exceeds belief. The feathery- 
tufted seeds which form the downy balls beloved as "clocks" 
by country children, are delicately and beautifully adapted to 
dissemination by the wind, which ingenious arrangement partly 
accounts for the plant's wide range. The common name is a 
corruption of the French dent de lion. There is a difference of 
opinion as to which part of the plant is supposed to resemble a 
lion's tooth. Some fancy the jagged leaves gave rise to the 
name, while others claim that it refers to the yellow flowers, 



which they liken to the golden teeth of the heraldic lion. In 
nearly every European country the plant bears a name of similar 


Poteiitilla Norvegica. Rose Family. 

Stout, rough, six inches to two and one-half feet high, with many leafy 
bracts. Leaves. — Divided into three obovate leaflets. Flowers. — Yellow, 
in rather close, leafy clusters. Calyx. — Deeply five-cleft, with bracts 
between each tooth, thus appearing ten-cleft. — Lobes larger than the 
petals of corolla. Corolla. — Small, of live petals. Stamens and pistils. — 

This rather weedy-looking plant is often common in dry soil, 
flowering throughout the summer. 


Potentilla Canadensis. Rose Family. 

Stetn. — Slender; prostrate, or sometimes erect. Z^az/^j.— Divided really 
into three leaflets, but apparently into five by the parting of the lateral leaf- 
lets. Flowers. — Yellow; growing singly from the axils of the leaves. 
Calyx. — Deeply five-cleft, with bracts between each tooth, thus appearing 
ten-cleft. Corolla. — Of five rounded petals. Stamens. — Many. Pistils. 
— Many, in a head. 

From spring to nearly midsummer the roads are bordered 
and the fields carpeted with the bright flowers of the common 
cinquefoil. The passer-by unconsciously betrays his recognition 
of some of the prominent features of the Rose family by often 
assuming that the plant is a yellow-flowered wild strawberry. 
Both of the English names refer to the pretty foliage, cinquefoil 
being derived from the French cinque feuilles. The generic 
name, Potentilla, has reference to the powerful medicinal prop- 
erties formerly attributed to the genus. 



ROUGH y^k\NKSNEED.—Hieracii(m scabrum. 


COMMON aNQUEFOiL.—PoientiV/a Canadensis. 




Poicntilla anserina. Rose Family. 

" Herbaceous, tufted, spreading by slender runners one to three feet 
long." Leaves. — Pinnately divided into seven to twenty-five oblong, sharply 
toothed leaflets which are silvery and silky below. Flowers. — Bright yel- 
low, on slender, erect, solitary flower- stalks. Calyx. — Five-cleft, with 
bracts between each tooth, thus appearing ten-cleft. Corolla. — Of five 
broadly oval or obovate petals. Stamens and pistils. — Numerous, 

These bright, pretty flowers, occasionally mistaken for butter- 
cups by the unobservant passer-by, are found throughout the 
summer in wet marshes and along river banks from New Jersey 
northward. For these golden-flowered plants the name '' golden- 
weed " would seem more appropriate than ''silver-weed." It is 
only when we turn over the leaves and note the downy under- 
sides of the leaflets that we can reconcile ourselves to the estab- 
lished title 


Potentilla fruticosa. Rose Family. 

Stem. — Erect; shrubby; one to four feet high. Leaves. — Divided into 
five to seven narrow leaflets. Flowers. — Yellow; resembling those of the 
common cinquefoil, but larger. 

Of all thecinquefoils perhaps this one most truly merits the 
title five finger. Certainly its slender leaflets are much more 
finger-like than those of the common cinquefoil. It is not a 
common plant in most localities, but is very abundant among 
the Berkshire Hills, where it takes entire possession of otherwise 
barren fields and roadsides; its peculiarly bluish-green foliage 
and bright yellow flowers (looking like buttercups growing on a 
shrub) arresting one's attention throughout the entire summer 
and occasionally late into the autumn. 



YELLOW AVENS— G^«w stricium. 



Potentilla argentea. Rose Family. 

Stems. — Ascending ; branched at the summit ; white ; woolly. Leaves. 
— Divided into five wedge-oblong, deeply incised leaflets, which are green 
above, white with silvery wool, beneath. Flowers. — Much as in above. 

The silvery cinquefoil has rather large yellow flowers, which 
are found in dry fields throughout the summer as far south as 
New Jersey. 


[PI. LXV- 
Geum strictum. Rose Family. 

Somewhat hairy ; three to five feet high. Stem-leaves. — Divided into 
from three to five leaflets. Flowers.— Go\dei\ yellow. Calyx. — Five-cleft ; 
usually with a small bract between the divisions. Corolla. — Of five broad 
petals. Stamens and Pistils. — Numerous; the latter enlarging finally into 
a round, burr-like head. 

The bright flowers of the yellow avens are found in the 
moist meadows during the summer, finally giving way to the 
troublesome burrs which so often thrust upon us their unwelcome 


Diervilla trifida. Honeysuckle Family. 

An upright shrub from one to four feet high. Leaves. — Opposite ; ob- 
long; taper-pointed. Flowers. — Yellow, sometimes much tinged with red ; 
clustered usually in threes in the axils of the upper leaves and at the sum- 
mit of the stem. Calyx. — With slender awl-shaped lobes. Corolla. — Fun- 
nel-form ; five-lobed ; the lower lobe larger than the others and of a deeper 
yellow, with a small nectar-bearing gland at its base. Stajnens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One. 

This pretty little shrub is found along our rocky hills and 
mountains. The blossoms appear in early summer, and form a 
good example of nectar-bearing flowers. The lower lobe of the 
corolla is crested and more deeply colored than the others, thus 



BUSH-HONEYSUCKLE.-Z7/Vrz';7/« trijtda. 



advising the bee of secreted treasure. The hairy filaments of 
the stamens are so placed as to protect the nectar from injury by 
rain. When the blossom has been despoiled and at the same 
time fertilized, for the nectar-seeking bee has probably deposited 
some pollen upon its pistil, the color of the corolla changes from 
a pale to a deep yellow, thus giving warning to the insect-world 
that further attentions would be useless to both parties. 


Hudsonia iomeniosa. Rock-rose Family. 

" Bushy, heath-like little shrubs, seldom a foot high." (Gray.) Leaves. 
^Small ; oval or narrowly oblong ; pressed close to the stem. Flowers. — 
Bright yellow ; small ; numerous ; crowded along the upper part of the 
branches. Calyx. — Of five sepals, the two outer much smaller. Corolla. — 
Of five petals. Stamens. — Nine to thirty. Pistil. — One, with a long and 
slender style. 

In early summer many of the sand-hills along the New Eng- 
land coast are bright with the yellow flowers of this hoary little 
shrub. It is also found as far south as Maryland and near the 
Great Lakes. Each blossom endures for a single day only. The 
plant's popular name is due to its economical habit of utilizing 
«andy unproductive soil where little else will flourish. 


Helianthemum Canadense. Rock-rose Family. 

About one foot high. Leaves. — Set close to the stem; simple; lance- 
oblong. Flowers. — Of two kinds : the earlier, more noticeable ones, yellow, 
solitary, about one inch across ; the latter ones small and clustered, usually 
without petals. Calyx. — (Of the petal-bearing flowers) of five sepals. Co- 
rolla. — Of five early falhng petals which are crumpled in the bud. Statnens. 
—Numerous. Pistil. — One, with a three-lobed stigma. 

These fragile, bright-yellow flowers are found in gravelly 
places in early summer. Under the influence of the sunshine 
they open once ; by the next day their petals have fallen, and 
their brief beauty is a thing of the past. On June 17th Thoreau 



FOUR-LEAVED LOOSESTRIFE- Lysmmr/im <juadrifoUa. 



finds this *' broad, cup-like flower, one of the most delicate yel- 
low flowers, with large spring-yellow petals, and its stamens laid 
one way." 

In the Vale of Sharon a nearly allied rose-colored species 
abounds. This is believed by some of the botanists who have 
travelled in that region to be the rose of Sharon which Solomon 
has celebrated. 

The name of frost-weed has been given to our plant because 
of the crystals of ice which shoot from the cracked bark at the 
base of the stem in late autumn. 


Lysiviachia qiiadrifolia . Primrose Family. 

Stevi. — Slender; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Narrowly oblong; 
whorled in fours, fives, or sixes. Flon'crs. — Yellow, spotted or streaked 
with red ; on slender, hair-like flower-stalks from the axils of the leaves. 
Calyx. — Five or six-parted. Corolla. — Very deeply five or six-parted. Sta- 
mens. — Four or five. Pistil. — One. 

This slender pretty plant grows along the roadsides and at- 
tracts one's notice in June by its regular whorls of leaves and 
flowers. Linngeus says that this genus is named after Lysim- 
achus, King of Sicily. Loosestrife is the English for Lysim- 
achus; but whether the ancient superstition that the placing of 
these flowers upon the yokes of oxen rendered the beasts gentle 
and submissive arose from the peace-suggestive title or from 
other causes, I cannot discover. 


Lysimachia stricta. Primrose Family. 

Stem. — One to two feet high ; leafy. Leaves. — Opposite ; lance-shaped. 
Floivers. — Small; yellow; growing in long clusters. Calyx, Corolla, 
etc., very much as in L. qiiadrifolia. 

The bright clusters of the yellow loosestrife shoot upward 
from the marshes, and gild the brook's border from June till 



YELLOW LOOSESTRIFE.-Z^«V«a.A/a stricta. 




]\Ielampyrum Americaniim. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Low; erect; branching. Leaves. — Opposite; lance-shaped. 
Flowers. — Small ; greenish-yellow ; solitary in the axils of the upper leaves. 
Calyx. — Bell-shaped; four-cleft. Corolla. — Two-lipped; upper lip arched ; 
lower three-lobed and spreading at the apex. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — 

In the open woods, from June until September, we encounter 
the pale-yellow flowers of this rather insignificant little plant. 
The cow wheat was formerly cultivated by the Dutch as food for 
cattle. The Spanish name, Trigo de Vaca, would seem to indi- 
cate a similar custom in Spain. The generic name, Melampyrtwi, 
is from the Greek, and signifies black wheat, in reference to the 
appearance of the seeds of some species when mixed with grain. 
The flower would not be likely to attract one's attention were 
it not exceedingly common in some parts of the country, 
flourishing especially in our more eastern woodlands. 


Ranunculus a?nbigens. Crowfoot Family. 

Stems. — One to two feet high. Leaves. — Oblong or lance-shaped; 
mostly toothed ; contracted into a half-clasping leaf-stalk. Flower. — Bright 
yellow; solitary or clustered. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five to 
seven oblong petals. Starnens. — Indefinite in number, occasionally few. 
I^istils. — Numerous in a head. 

Many weeks after the marsh marigolds have passed away, just 
such marshy places as they aff'ected are brightly flecked with 
gold. Wondering, perhaps, if they can be flowering for the 
second time in the season, we wade recklessly into the bog to 
rescue, not the marsh marigold, but its near relation, the spear- 
wort, which is still more closely related to the buttercup, as a 
little comparison of the two flowers will show. This plant is 
especially common at the North. 



Sleironema ciliatum. 


fPl. LXIX 
Steironema ciliattwi. Primrose Family. 

Stem. — Erect ; two to four feet high. Leaves. — Opposite ; narrowly 
oval ; on fringed leaf-stalks. Flowers. — Yellow ; on slender stalks from the 
axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Deeply five-parted. Corolla. — Deeply five- 
lobed ; wheel-shaped ; yellow, with a reddish centre. Stamens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One. 

This plant is nearly akin to the yellow loosestrifes, but un- 
fortunately it has no English name. It abounds in low grounds 
and thickets, putting forth its bright wheel-shaped blossoms early 
in July. 


Nuphar advena. Water-lily Family. 

Leaves. — Floating or erect; roundish to oblong ; with a deep cleft at 
their base. Flowers. — Yellow; sometimes purplish; large; somewhat 
globular. Calyx. — Of five or six sepals or more ; yellow or green without. 
Corolla. — Of numerous small, thick, fleshy petals which are shorter than the 
stamens and resemble them. Stamens. — Very numerous. Pistil. — One, 
with a disk-like, many-rayed stigma. 

Bordering the slow streams and stagnant ponds from May 
till August may be seen the yellow pond-lilies. These flowers 
lack the delicate beauty and fragrance of the white water-lilies ; 
having, indeed, either from their odor, or appearance, or the 
form of their fruit, won for themselves in England the unpoetic 
title of *' brandy- bottle." Owing to their love of mud they 
have also been called ' ' frog-lilies. ' ' The Indians used their 
roots for food. 


Opuntia Rajinesqiiii. Cactus Family. 

Flowers. — Yellow; large; two and a half to three and a half inches 
across. Calyx. — Of numerous sepals. Corolla. — Of ten or twelve petals. 
Stamens. — Numerous. Pistil. — One, with numerous stigmas. Fruit. — 
Shaped liked a small pear ; often with prickles over its surface. 

This curious looking plant is one of the only two representa- 
tives of the Cactus family in the Northeastern States. It has 



deep green, fleshy, prickly, rounded joints and large yellow 
flowers, which are often conspicuous in summer in dry, sandy 
places along the coast. 

O, vulgaris, the only other species found in Northeastern 
America, has somewhat smaller flowers, but otherwise so closely 
resembles O. Rafinesqtiii as to make it difficult to distinguish be- 
tween the two. 


Berberis vulgaris. Barberry Family. 

A shrub. Leaves. — Oblong ; toothed ; in clusters from the axil of a 
thorn. Flower. — Yellow; in drooping racemes. Calyx. — Of six sepals, 
with from two to six bractlets without. Corolla. — Of six petals. Stamens. 
— Six. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — An oblong scarlet berry. 

This European shrub has now become thoroughly wild and 
very plentiful in parts of New England. The drooping yellow 
flowers of May and June are less noticeable than the oblong 
clustered berries of September, which light up so many over- 
grown lanes, and often decorate our lawns and gardens as well. 

The ancients extracted a yellow hair-dye from the barberry ; 
and to-day it is used to impart a yellow color to wool. Both its 
common and botanical names are of Arabic origin. 


Hypoxis erecta. Amaryllis Family. 

Scapes. — Slender; few-flowered. Leaves. — Linear; grass-like; hairy. 
Flowers. — Yellow. Perianth. — Six-parted; spreading; the divisions hairy 
and greenish outside, yellow within. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One. 

When our eyes fall upon what looks like a bit of evening sky 
set with golden stars, but which proves to be only a piece of 
shaded turf gleaming with these pretty flowers, we recall Long- 
fellow's musical lines : 

*' Spake full well in language quaint and olden, 
One who dwelleth on the castled Rhine, 
When he called the flowers so blue and golden, 
Stars, which in earth's firmament do shine." 



The plant grows abundantly in open woods and meadows 
flowering in early summer. 


Baptisia tinctoria. Pulse Family. 

Two or three feet high. Stems. — Smooth and slender. Leaves. — Di- 
vided into three rounded leaflets ; somewhat pale with a whitish bloom ; 
turning black in drying. Flozuers. — Papilionaceous ; yellow ; clustered in 
many short, loose racemes. 

This rather bushy-looking, bright-flowered plant is constant- 
ly encountered in midsummer in our rambles throughout the 
somewhat dry and sandy parts of the country. It is said that it 
is found in nearly every State in the Union, and that it has been 
used as a homceopathic remedy for typhoid fever. Its young 
shoots are eaten at times in place of asparagus. Both the botan- 
ical and common names refer to its having yielded an economi- 
cal but unsuccessful substitute for indigo. 


Trifolium agrarium. Pulse Family. 

Six to twelve inches high. Leaves. — Divided into three oblong leaflets. 
Flowers. — Papilionaceous ; yellow ; small ; in close heads. 

Although this little plant is found in such abundance along 
our New England roadsides and in many other parts of the 
country as well, comparatively few people seem to recognize it 
as a member of the clover group, despite a marked likeness in 
the leaves and blossoms to others of the same family. 

The name clover probably originated in the Latin clava 
(clubs), in reference to the fancied resemblance between the 
three-pronged club of Hercules and the clover leaf. The clubs 
of our playing-cards and the trefle (trefoil) of the French are 
probably an imitation of the same leaf. 

The nonesuch, Medicago lupulina, with downy, procumbent 
stems, and flowers which grow in short spikes, is nearly allied to 



MEADOW L\LY.—/J/iu>// Canadense. 


the hop clover. In its reputed superiority as fodder its English 
name is said to have originated. Dr. Prior says that for many 
years this plant has been recognized in Ireland as the true sham- 


CEnothera fruticosa. Evening Primrose Family. 

Stem. — Erect; one to three feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; oblong to 
narrowly lance-shaped. Flowers. — Bright yellow ; rather large ; usually 
somewhat loosely clustered. Calyx. — With a long tube and four reflexed 
lobes. Corolla. — With four petals. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One with 
a four-lobed stigma. 

This is a day-blooming species of the evening primrose. Its 
pretty delicate flowers abound along the roadsides and in the 
meadows of early summer. 

CE. puniila is another day-bloomer belonging to this same 
genus. Its flowers are much smaller than the sundrops. 



Lilium Canadense. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Two to five feet high. Leaves. — Whorled ; lance-shaped. Florv- 
ers. — Yellow, spotted with reddish-brown ; bell-shaped ; two to three inches 
long. Peria7ith. — Of six recurved sepals, with a nectar-bearing furrow at 
their base. Stamens. — Six, with anthers loaded with brown pollen. Pistil. 
— One, with a three-lobed stigma. 

What does the summer bring which is more enchanting than 
a sequestered wood-bordered meadow hung with a thousand of 
these delicate, nodding bells which look as though ready to 
tinkle at the least disturbance and sound an alarm among the 
flowers ? 

These too are true ** lilies of the field," less gorgeous, less 
imposing than the Turks' caps, but with an unsurpassed grace 
and charm of their own. " Fairy-caps " these pointed blossoms 
are sometimes called; "witch-caps" would be more appro- 
priate still. Indeed they would make dainty headgear for any 
of the dim inhabitants of Wonder-land. 



The growth of this plant is very striking when seen at its 
best. The erect stem is surrounded with regular whorls of leaves, 
from the upper one of which [curves a circle of long-stemmed, 
nodding flowers. They suggest an exquisite design for church 


Utricularia vulgaris. Bladderwort Family, 

Stems. — Immersed ; one to three feet long. Leaves. — Many-parted : 
hair-like ; bearing numerous bladders. Scape. — Six to twelve inches long. 
Floxvers. — Yellow; five to twelve on each scape. Calyx. — Two-lipped. 
Corolla. — Two-lipped ; spurred at the base. Stamens. — Two. Pistil. — 

This curious water-plant may or may not have roots ; in 
either case it is not fastened to the ground, but is floated by 
means of the many bladders which are borne on its finely 
dissected leaves. It is found commonly in ponds and slow 
streams, flowering throughout the summer. Thoreau calls it 
**a dirty conditioned flower, like a sluttish woman with a gaudy 
yellow bonnet." 

The horned bladderwort, U. cornuta, roots in the peat-bogs 
and sandy swamps. Its large yellow helmet-shaped flowers are 
very fragrant, less than half a dozen being borne on each scape. 
There are a number of other species of yellow bladderwort, with 
smaller flowers, which are recognized easily as belonging to this 


Xyris Jiexuosa. Mayaca Family. 

Scape. — Slender, ten to sixteen inches high, often from a bulbous base. 
Leaves. — Narrowly Imear. sheathing the base ot scape, commonly twisted 
with age, as is the scape. Flowers. — Yellow, small, growing in a head, usually 
about two opening at the same time. Calyx. — Of three sepals, one of which 
soon withers. Corolla. — Of three clawed petals. Stamens. — Three fertile, 
with anthers, and three sterile, without anthers. Pistil. — One, with three 
cleft style. 

In wet, boggy places, growing often in close companionship 
with the sundew and bladderwort, we notice during the summer 
the round heads of the yellow -eyed grass. 






j-\ ' I 



HORNED BLADDERW0RT.-;7/vr/^/,//7,/ <oniuta. 



Linaria vulgaris. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Smooth; erect; one to three feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; 
linear or nearly so. Flowers. — Of two shades of yellow ; growing in termi- 
nal racemes. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Pale yellow tipped with 
orange; long-spurred; two-lipped; closed in the throat. Stamens. — Four. 
Pistil. — One. 

The bright blossoms of butter-and-eggs grow in full, close 
clusters which enliven the waste places along the roadside so 
commonly that little attention is paid to these beautiful and 
conspicuous flowers. They would be considered a ''pest" if 
they did not display great discrimination in their choice of 
locality, generally selecting otherwise useless pieces of ground. 
The common name of butter-and-eggs is unusually appropriate, for 
the two shades of yellow match perfectly their namesakes. Like 
nearly all our common weeds, this plant has been utilized in 
various ways by the country people. It yielded what was con- 
sidered at one time a valuable skin lotion, while its juice mingled 
with milk constitutes a fly-poison. Its generic name, Linaria, 
and its English title, toadflax, arose from a fancied resemblance 
between its leaves and those of the flax. 


Genista tinctoria. Pulse Family. 

A shrubby plant from one to two feet high. Leaves. — Lance-shaped. 
Flowers. — Papilionaceous; yellow; growing in spiked racemes. 

This is another foreigner which has established itself in East- 
ern New York and Massachusetts, where it covers the barren 
hill-sides with its yellow flowers in early summer. It is a com- 
mon English plant, formerly valued for the yellow dye which it 
yielded. It is an undesirable intruder in pasture-lands, as it , 
gives a bitter taste to the milk of cows which feed upon it. 




Crotalaria sagittalis. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Hairy; three to six inches high. Leaves. — Undivided; oval or 
lance-shaped. Flowers. — Papilionaceous ; yellow ; but few in a cluster. 
Pod. — Inflated; many-seeded; blackish. 

The yellow flowers of the rattlebox are found in the sandy 
meadows and along the roadsides during the summer. Both the 
generic and English names refer to the rattling of the loose seeds 
within the inflated pod. 


Khinanthiis Crista-galli. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Slender, upright, usually branching, six to eighteen inches high. 
Leaves. — Opposite, lanceolate, set close to the stem, coarsely toothed. 
Floral-leaves. — Broader, with bristle-tipped teeth. Flowers. — Yellow, 
"crowded in a one-sided, leafy-bracted spike." Calyx. — Four-toothed, flat- 
tened, much inflated in fruit. Corolla. — Two-lipped, usually with a purple 
spot on one or both lips, upper lip arched, lower lip three-lobed. Stamens. 
— Four, under the upper lip. Pistil. — One. 

This plant is found along the New England coast and in \hj*. 
mountains of New Hampshire. 


Hypericum perforatum. St. John's-wort Family. 

Stem. — Much branched. Leaves. — Small; opposite; somewhat oblong ; 
with pellucid dots. Flo7uers. — Yellow ; numerous ; in leafy clusters. Calyx. 
— Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five bright yellow petals, somewhat spotted 
with black. Stamens. — Indefinite in number. Pistil. — One, with three 
spreading styles. 

'' Too well known as a pernicious weed which it is difficult to 
extirpate," is the scornful notice which the botany gives to this 
plant, whose bright yellow flowers are noticeable in waste fields 
and along roadsides nearly all summer. Its rank, rapid growth 
proves very exhausting to the soil, and every New England 



COMMON ST. ^OWW"i.^QKT .—Hypericum perforatum, 



farmer wishes it had remained where it rightfully belongs — on 
the other side of the water. 

Perhaps more superstitions have clustered about the St. John's- 
wort than about any other plant on record. It was formerly 
gathered on St. John's eve, and was hung at the doors and win- 
dows as a safeguard against thunder and evil spirits. A belief 
prevailed that on this night the soul had power to leave the body 
and visit the spot where it would finally be summoned from its 
earthly habitation, hence the all-night vigils which were observed 
at that time. 

"The wonderful herb whose leaf will decide 
If the coming year shall make me a bride," 

is the St. John's-wort, and the maiden's fate is favorably forecast 
by the healthy growth and successful blossoming of the plant 
which she has accepted as typical of her future. 

In early times poets and physicians alike extolled its proper- 
ties. An ointment was made of its blossoms, and one of its early 
names was '' balmof-the-warrior's-wound." It was considered 
so efficacious a remedy for melancholia that it was termed " fuga 
daemonum." Very possibly this name gave rise to the general 
idea that it was powerful in dispelling evil spirits. 

The pale St. John's-wort, H. ellipticum, has thin, spreading, 
oval leaves which are set close to the stem, and pale yellow flowers, 
about half an inch broad. 

The spotted St. John's-wort, H. maculaftwt, may be identi- 
fied by its slender blossoms and copiously black-dotted, oblong 

The Canadian St. John's-wort, H. Catiadense^ has linear, 
three-nerved leaves and small flowers with from five to twelve 
stamens only. It grows abundantly in wet, sandy places. 

The dwarf St. John's-wort, H. mutilum, has even smaller 
blossoms, with from five to twelve stamens also, and narrowly 
oblong or ovate leaves, which are five-nerved and partly clasping. 
This is abundant in low grounds everywhere. 



COMMON MULLEm. — Feriasa^M T/ur/sus. 



Hypericttvi midicaiile. St. John's-wort Family. 

Erect ; bushy ; four to twenty inches high, with wiry, thread-like branches. 
Leaves. — Opposite; minute ; awl-shaped, pressed toward the stem. Flowers. 
— Yellow, very small, open in sunlight. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. 
— Of five petals. Statncns. — Five to twelve. Pistil. — One, with three sepa- 
rate styles. Fruit. — A red or purplish pod. 

This little plant is common in sandy soil from Maine to 
Florida, and westward as well. Often it grows abundantly 
along the roadside. 


Ascyrum Crux-Andrea:. St. John's-wort Family. 

Stems. — Low; branched. Leaves. — Opposite; narrowly oblong; black- 
dotted. Flotvers. — Light yellow. Calyx. — Of four sepals; the two outer 
broad and leaflike ; the inner much smaller. Co7-olla. — Of four narrowly 
oblong petals. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistil. — One, with two short 

From July till September these flowers may be found in the 
pine-barrens of New Jersey and farther south and westward, and 
on the island of Nantucket as well. 


Verbasctim Thapsus. Figwort Family. 


Stems. — Tall and stout ; from three to five feet high. Leaves. — Oblong ; 
woolly. Floivers. — In a long dense spike. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. 
— Yellow ; with five slightly unequal rounded lobes. Stamens. — Ten, the 
three upper with white wool on their filaments. Pistil. — One, 

The common mullein is a native of the island of Thapsos, 
from which it takes its specific name. It was probably brought 
to this country from Europe by the early colonists, notwithstand- 
ing the title of " American velvet plant," which it is rumored 
to bear in England. The Romans called it " candelaria," from 
their custom of dipping the long, dried stalk in suet and using it 



MOTH M\JLLE\U.— Ferl>asrum Blattaria. 



as a funeral torch, and the Greeks utilized the leaves for lamp- 
wicks. In more modern times they have served as a remedy for 
the pulmonary complaints of men and beasts alike, '' mullein 
tea" being greatly esteemed by country people. Its especial 
efficacy with cattle has earned the plant its name of " bullocks' 

A low rosette of woolly leaves is all that can be seen of the 
mullein during its first year, the yellow blossoms on their long 
spikes opening sluggishly about the middle of the second summer. 
It abounds throughout our dry, rolling meadows, and its tall 
spires are a familiar feature in the summer landscape. 


Verbasctim Blattaria. Figwort Family. 


Stem, — Tall and slender. Leaves. — Oblong; toothed; the lower some- 
times lyre-shaped, the upper partly clasping. Flowers. — Yellow or white ; 
tinged with red or purple ; in a terminal raceme. Calyx. — Deeply five- 
parted. Corolla. — Butterfly shape; of five rounded, somewhat unequal 
lobes. Stamens. — Five, with filaments bearded with violet wool and anthers 
loaded with orange-colored pollen. Pistil. — One. 

Along the highway from July till October one encounters a 
slender weed on whose erect stem it would seem as though a 
number of canary-yellow or purplish-white moths had alighted 
for a moment's rest. These are the fragile, pretty flowers of the 
moth mullein, and they are worthy of a closer examination. 
The reddened or purplish centre of the corolla suggests the 
probability of hidden nectar, while the pretty tufts of violet 
wool borne by the stamens are well fitted to protect it from 
the rain. A little experience of the canny ways of these 
innocent-looking flowers leads one to ask the wherefore of every 
new feature. 




Cassia Chatncecrista. Pulse Family. 

Stems. — Spreading ; eight inches to a foot long. Leaves. — Divided into 
/rom ten to fifteen pairs of narrow delicate leaflets, which close at night 
and are somewhat sensitive to the touch. Flowers. — Yellow; rather large 
and showy; on slender stalks beneath the spreading leaves; not papiliona- 
ceous. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five rounded, spreading, 
somewhat unequal petals, two or three of which are usually spotted at the 
base with red or purple. Stamens. — Ten; unequal; dissimilar. Pistil. — 
One, with a slender style. Pod. — Flat. 

The partridge-pea is closely related to the wild senna, and a 
pretty, delicate plant it is, with graceful foliage, and flowers in 
late summer which surprise us with their size, abounding in 
gravelly, sandy places where little else will flourish, brightening 
the railway embankments and the road's edge. It is at home all 
over the country south of Massachusetts and east of the Rocky 
Mountains, but it grows with a greater vigor and luxuriance in 
the South than elsewhere. The leaves can hardly be called sen- 
sitive to the touch, yet when a branch is snapped from the par- 
ent stem, or is much handled, the delicate leaflets will droop and 
fold, displaying their curious mechanism. 


Cassia Marilandica. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Three or four feet high. Leaves. — Divided into from six to nine 
pairs of narrowly oblong leaflets. Flowers, — Yellow ; in short clusters from 
the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five slightly 
unequal, spreading petals ; usually somewhat spotted with reddish brown. 
Stamens. — Five to ten; unequal; some of them often imperfect. Pistil. — 
One. Pod. — Long and narrow, slightly curved, flat. 

This tall, striking plant, with clusters of yellow flowers which 
appear in midsummer, grows abundantly along many of the New 
England roadsides, and also far south and west, thriving best in 
sandy soil. Although a member of the Pulse family its blossoms 
are not papilionaceous. 




Rudbeckia hirta. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Stout and hairy; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Rough and 
hairy ; the upper long, narrow, set close to the stem ; the lower broader, 
with leaf-stalks. Flower-heads. — Composed of both ray and disk-flowers; 
the former yellow, the latter brown and arranged on a cone-like receptacle. 

By the middle of July our dry meadows are merry with 
black-eyed Susans, which are laughing from every corner and 
keeping up a gay midsummer carnival in company with the yel- 
low lilies and brilliant milk-weeds. They seem to revel in the 
long days of blazing sunlight, and are veritable salamanders 
among the flowers. Although now so common in our eastern 
fields they were first brought to us with clover-seed from the 
west, and are not altogether acceptable guests, as they bid fair 
to add another anxiety to the already harassed life of the New 
England farmer. 

Rudbeckia laciniata. Composite Family. 

Two to seven feet high. Stevi. — Smooth ; branching. Leaves. — The 
lower divided into lobed leaflets ; the upper irregularly three to five-parted. 
Flcnoer- heads. — Yellow ; rather large ; composed of both ray and disk-flow- 
ers ; the former drooping and yellow ; the latter dull greenish and arranged 
on a columnar receptacle. 

This graceful, showy flower is even more decorative than the 
black-eyed Susan. Its drooping yellow rays are from one to 
two inches long. It may be found throughout the summer in 
the low thickets which border the swamps and meadows. 


Agrimonia Eupatoria. Rose Family. 

One to two feet high. Leaves. — Divided into several coarsely toothed 
leaflets. Flaivers. — Small; yellow; in slender spiked racemes. Calyx. — 
Five-cleft; beset with hooked teeth. Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — 
Five to fifteen. Pistils. — One to four. 

The slender yellow racemes of the agrimony skirt the woods 
throughout the later summer. In former times the plant was 



AGRI MON Y.— /I^r?wfl«w Eufatoria, 


held in high esteem by town physician and country herbahst 
aHke. Emerson longed to know 

" Only the herbs and simples of the wood, 

Rue, cinquefoil, gill, vervain, and agrimony." 

Up to a recent date the plant has been dried and preserved by 
country people, and might be seen exposed for sale in the shops 
of French villages. It has also been utilized in a dressing for 
shoe-leather. When about to flower it yields a pale yellow dye. 

Chaucer calls it egremoitie. The name is supposed to be de- 
rived from the Greek title for an eye-disease, for which the juice 
of a plant similarly entitled was considered efficacious. The 
crushed flower yields a lemon-like odor. 

The small-flowered agrimony, A. parviflora, is found in the 
woods of New York and New Jersey, also west and southward. 
Its leaves are divided into from eleven to nineteen deeply cut 
leaflets, with smaller lance-shaped ones intermixed. Its petals 
are smaller than in the common agrimony, which otherwise it 


Oxalis stricta. Geranium Family. 

Stem. — Erect. Leaves. — Divided into three delicate clover-like leaflets, 
/'/(^w.frj-.— Golden-yellow. r<7/>'jr.— Of five sepals. Corolla.— Oi five pet- 
als. Stamens.— ^^x\. Pistil.— One, with five styles. 

All summer the small flowers of the yellow wood sorrel show 
brightly against their background of delicate leaves. The plant 
varies greatly in its height and manner of growth, flourishing 
abundantly along the roadsides. The small leaflets are open to 
the genial influence of sun and air during the hours of daylight, 
but at night they protect themselves from chill by folding one 
against another. 



PALE JEWEL.WEED.-/w/uAWw pallida. 





Geranium Family. 

Impatiens pallida. Pale Jewel- weed. 

Flaivers. — Pale yellow, somewhat spotted with reddish brown; common 

Impatiens fiilva. Spotted Jewel-weed. 

7^/c77y^rJ•. — Orange-yellow, spotted with reddish brown; common south- 

Two to six feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; coarsely toothed; oval. 
Flowers. — Nodding; loosely clustered, or growing from the axils of the 
leaves. Calyx ^n^ Corolla. — Colored alike, and diflficult to distinguish ; of 
six pieces, the largest one extended backward into a deep sac ending in a 
little spur, the two innermost unequally two-lobed. Stamens. — Five; very 
short; united over the pistil. Pistil. — One. 

These beautiful plants are found along shaded streams and 
marshes, and are profusely hung with brilliant jewel-like flowers 
during the summer months. In the later year they bear those 
closed inconspicuous blossoms which fertilize in the bud and are 
called cleistogamous flowers. The jewel- weed has begun to ap- 
pear along the English rivers, and it is said that the ordinary 
showy blossoms are comparatively rare, while the cleistogamous 
ones abound. Does not this look almost like a determination on 
the part of the plant to secure a firm foothold in its new envi- 
ronment before expending its energy on flowers which, though 
radiant and attractive, are quite dependent on insect visitors for 
fertilization and perpetuation? 

The name touch-me-not refers to the seed-pods, which burst 
open with such violence when touched, as to project their seeds 
to a comparatively great distance. This ingenious mechanism 
secures the dispersion of the seeds without the aid of the wind or 
animals. In parts of New York the plant is called ''silver-leaf," 
from its silvery appearance when touched with rain or dew, or 
when held beneath the water. 




Collinsonia Canadensis. Mint Family. 

One to three feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; large; ovate; toothed; 
pointed. Flowers. — Yellowish; lemon-scented ; clustered loosely. Calyx. 
— Two-lipped; the upper lip three-toothed; the lower two-cleft. Corolla. — 
Elongated ; somewhat two-lipped ; the four upper lobes nearly equal, the 
lower large and long, toothed or fringed. Stamens. — Two (sometimes four, 
the upper pair shorter), protruding, diverging. Pistil. — One, with a two- 
lobed style. 

In the damp rich woods of midsummer these strong-scented 
herbs, with their loose terminal clusters of lemon-colored, lemon- 
scented flowers, are abundant. The plant was introduced into 
England by the amateur botanist and flower-lover, Collinson, 
after whom the species is named. The Indians formerly em- 
ployed it as an application to wounds. 


Hahenaria ciliaris. Orchis Family. 

Stem. — Leafy; one to two feet high. Leaves. — The lower oblong to 
lance-shaped; the upper passing into pointed bracts. Flowers. — Deep 
orange jolor, with a slender spur and deeply fringed lip ; growing in an ob- 
long spike. 

Years may pass without our meeting this the most brilliant of 
our orchids. Suddenly one August day we chance upon just 
such a boggy meadow as we have searched in vain a hundred 
times, and behold myriads of its deep orange, dome-like spires 
erecting themselves in radiant beauty over whole acres of land. 
The separate flowers, with their long spurs and deeply fringed 
lips, will repay a close examination. They are well calculated, 
massed in such brilliant clusters, to arrest the attention of what- 
ever insects may specially affect them. Although I have 
watched many of these plants I have never seen an insect visit 
one, and am inclined to think that they are fertihzed by night- 



Mr. Baldwin declares : *' If I ever write a romance of Indian 
life, my dusky heroine, Birch Tree or Trembling P'awn, shall 
meet her lover with a wreath of this orchis on her head," 


(Enothera biennis. Evening Primrose Family. 

Stout; erect; one to five feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; lance-shaped 
to oblong. Flowers. — Pale yellow; in a leafy spike; opening at night. 
Calyx. — With a long tube ; four-lobed. Corolla. — Of four somewhat heart- 
shaped petals. Stamens. — Eight, with long anthers. Pistil. — One, with a 
stigma divided into four linear lobes. 

Along the roadsides in midsummer we notice a tall, rank- 
growing plant, which seems chiefly to bear buds and faded blos- 
soms. And unless we are already familiar with the owl-like 
tendencies of the evening primrose, we are surprised, some dim 
twilight, to find this same plant resplendent with a mass of frag- 
ile yellow flowers, which are exhaling their faint delicious fra- 
grance on the evening air. 

One brief summer night exhausts the vitality of these delicate 
blossoms. The faded petals of the following day might serve as 
a text for a homily against all-night dissipation, did we not know 
that by its strange habit the evening primrose guards against the 
depredations of those myriad insects abroad during the day, 
which are unfitted to transmit its pollen to the pistil of another 

We are impressed by the utilitarianism in vogue in this floral 
world, as we note that the pale yellow of these blossoms gleams 
so vividly through the darkness as to advertise effectively their 
whereabouts, while their fragrance serves as a mute invitation 
to the pink night-moth, which is their visitor and benefactor. 
That they change their habits in the late year and remain open 
during the day is due perhaps to the diminished power of the 



EVENING PRMROSE. —CEKotAcra biennis. 



Inula Heleniiim. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Stout; three to five feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; large; 
woolly beneath ; the upper partly clasping. Flower-heads. — Yellow ; large ; 
composed of both ray and disk-flowers. 

When we see these great yellow disks peeping over the pasture 
walls or flanking the country lanes, we feel that midsummer is at 
its height. Flowers are often subservient courtiers, and make 
acknowledgment of whatever debt they owe by that subtlest of 
flatteries — imitation. Did not the blossoms of the dawning year 
frequently wear the livery of the snow which had thrown its pro- 
tecting mantle over their first efforts ? And these new-comers — 
whose gross, rotund countenances so clearly betray the results of 
high living — do not they pay their respects to their great bene- 
factor after the same fashion ? — with the result that a myriad 
miniature suns shine upward from meadow and roadside. 

The stout, mucilaginous root of this plant is valued by farm- 
ers as a horse-medicine, especially in epidemics of epizootic, one 
of its common names in England being horse-heal. 

In ancient times the elecampane was considered an important 
stimulant to the human brain and stomach, and it was men- 
tioned as such over two thousand years ago in the writings of 
Hippocrates, the "■ Father of Medicine." 

The common name is supposed to be a corruption of ala 
Campania, and refers to the frequent occurrence of the plant in 
that ancient province of Southern Italy. 


Chrysopsis Mariana. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Silky with long weak hairs when young. Leaves. — Alternate ; 
oblong. Flower-heads. — Golden yellow ; rather large; composed of both 
ray and disk-flowers. 

In dry places along the roadsides of Southern New York and 
farther south, one can hardly fail to notice in late summer and 
autumn the bright clusters of the golden aster. 



ELECAMPANE — /«a/a Ilelenium. 



C. falcata is a species which may be found in dry sandy soil 
as far north as Massachusetts, with very woolly stems, crowded 
linear leaves, and small, clustered flower-heads. 


Ilelianthus giganteus. Composite Family. 

Stejn. — Rough or hairy; from three to ten feet high ; branched above. 
Leaves. — Lance-shaped ; pointed; rough to the touch, set close to the stem. 
Flower-heads. — Yellow ; composed of both ray and disk-flowers. 

In late summer many of our lanes are hedged by this beauti- 
ful plant, which, like other members of its family, lifts its yellow 
flowers sunward in pale imitation of the great lifegiver itself. 

We have twenty-two different species of sunflower. 

H. divaricatus is of a lower growth, with opposite, widely 
spreading leaves and larger flower-heads. 

H. annuus is the garden species familiar to all ; this is said 
to be a native of Peru. Mr. Ellwanger writes regarding it : 
*' In the mythology of the ancient Peruvians it occupied an im- 
portant place, and was employed as a mystic decoration in an- 
cient Mexican sculpture. Like the lotus of the East, it is equally 
a sacred and an artistic emblem, figuring in the symbolism of 
Mexico and Peru, where the Spaniards found it rearing its aspir- 
ing stalk in the fields, and serving in the temple as a sign and a 
decoration, the sun-god's officiating handmaidens wearing upon 
their breasts representations of the sacred flower in beaten gold." 

Gerarde describes it as follows: "The Indian Sun, or the 
golden floure of Peru, is a plant of such stature and talnesse that 
in one Sommer, being sowne of aseede in April, it hath risen 
up to the height of fourteen foot in my garden, where one floure 
was in weight three pound and two ounces, and crosse over- 
thwart the floure by measure sixteen inches broad." 

The generic name is from helios — the sun, and anthos — a 



WILD SUNFLOWER.— /^^//Vt«M«j gtgauteus. 


STICK-T IGHT —Bidens /rottdosa. 

Barbed fruit. 



Helenium aiitumnale. Composite Family. 

One to six feet high. Stem. — Angled; erect; branching. Leaves. — 
Alternate; lance-shaped. Flcnuer- heads. — Yellow; composed of both ray 
and disk-flowers, the rays three to five-cleft. 

The general effect of this plant is similar to that of the wild 
sunflowers, but one is able to identify it easily on a close exam- 
ination, by means of the stem, which is angled, and by the ray- 
flowers, which are pistillate and from three to five cleft. 

During September it is abundant in Connecticut, and farther 
south and westward, its bright flower-heads bordering the rivers, 
gilding the meadows, and illuminating many of those dim wood- 
land pools which flash upon us so constantly and enticingly as 
we travel through the country by rail. 


Leontodon atitiminalis. Composite Family. 

Scape. — Five to fifteen inches high ; branching. Leaves. — From the 
root; toothed or deeply incised. Flcnver-heads. — Yellow; composed en- 
tirely of strap-shaped flowers ; smaller than those of the common dandelion 

From June till November we find the fall dandelion along 
the New England roadsides, as well as farther south. While the 
yellow flower-heads somewhat suggest small dandelions the gen- 
eral habit of the plant recalls some of the hawkweeds. 


Bidens frondosa. Composite Family, [PI- LXXX 

Two to six feet high. Stem. — Branching. Leaves. — Opposite; three to 
five-divided. Flmver-heads. — Consisting of brownish-yellow tubular flowers ; 
with a leaf-like involucre beneath. 

If one were only describing the attractive wild flowers, the 
§tick-tight would certainly be omitted, as its appearance is nq^ 



LARGER BUR MARIGOLD.— B/cfens chrysanthemoides. 



prepossessing, and the small barbed seed-vessels so cleverly fulfil 
their destiny in making one's clothes a means of conveyance to 
** fresh woods and pastures new " as to cause all wayfarers hearti- 
ly to detest them. ''How surely the desmodium growing on 
some cliff-side, or the bidens on the edge of a pool, prophesy the 
coming of the traveller, brute or human, that will transport their 
seeds on his coat," writes Thoreau. But the plant is so con- 
stantly encountered in late summer, and yet so generally un- 
known, that it can hardly be overlooked. 

The larger bur-marigold, j9. chrysanthemoides (Plate LXXXL), 
does its best to retrieve the family reputation for ugliness, and 
surrounds its dingy disk-flowers with a circle of showy golden 
rays which are strictly decorative, having neither pistils nor 
stamens, and leaving all the work of the household to the less 
attractive but more useful disk-flowers. Their effect is pleasing, 
and late into the autumn the moist ditches look as if sown with 
gold through their agency. The plant varies in height from six 
inches to two feet. Its leaves are opposite, lance-shaped, and 
regularly toothed. 

B. cernua, the small bur-marigold, is found often without 
ray-flowers ; when these are present they are shorter than the 
leaflike involucre which surrounds the flower-head. Its leaves 
are irregularly toothed, and lance-shaped. Its height varies, 
being anywhere from five inches to three feet. 


Lactuca Canadensis. Composite Family. 

Stems. — Noticeably tall, from four to nine feet high ; leafy; smooth or 
nearly so. Leaves. — Usually six inches to a foot long; pale beneath; the 
upper lance-shaped and not toothed ; the others usually wavy, lobed, or cut. 
Floiver- heads. — Pale yellow ; small; composed of strap-shaped flowers ; nu- 
merous in usually long and narrow clusters. 

The wild lettuce is common in the wet and somewhat open 
thickets of late summer. It is perhaps rendered more conspicu- 
ous by its unusual height and lobed leaves than by its insignifi- 



cant flowers. For my own part I rarely notice this plant during 
Its period of blossoming, although my eye is constantly arrested 
by its feathery seed-clusters during the fruiting season. 


Cnicus horridnlus. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Stout ; one to three feet high. Leaves. — Partly clasping ; deeply 
cut ; the toothed and cut lobes spiny with yellowish prickles. Flower- 
heads. — Pale yellow or purple ; composed entirely of tubular flowers ; sur- 
rounded by leaf-like, prickly bracts. 

In sandy fields near the coast the yellow thistle blossoms dur- 
ing the later summer. 


Solidago. Composite Family. 
Flower-heads. — Golden-yellow; composed of both ray and disk-flowers. 

About eighty species of golden-rod are native to the United 
States ; of these forty-two species can be found in our North- 
eastern States. Many of them are difficult of identification, 
and it would be useless to describe any but a few of the more 
conspicuous forms. 

A common and noticeable species which flowers early in 
August is S. Cafiadensis, with a tall, stout, rough stem from 
three to six feet high, lance-shaped leaves, which are usually 
sharply toothed and pointed, and small flower-heads clustered 
along the branches which spread from the upper part of the stem. 

Another early flowering species is S. rugosa. This is a lower 
plant than S. Canadensis, with broader leaves. 

Still another is the dusty golden-rod, S. nemoralis, which has 
a hoary aspect and very bright yellow flowers which are com- 
mon in dry fields. 

S.juncea is also an early bloomer. Its lower leaves are lanceo- 
late or oval, with sharp, spreading teeth and long, winged leaf- 



Stems. The upper ones are narrow and set close to the stem. Its 
flower-heads grow on the upper side of recurved branches, form- 
ing usually a full, spreading cluster. 

S. lanceolata has lance-shaped or linear leaves, and flowers 
which grow in flat-topped clusters, unlike other members of the 
family; the information that this is a golden-rod often creates 
surprise, as for some strange reason it seems to be confused with 
the tansy. 

The sweet golden-rod, S. odorata, is recognized by its nar- 
row, shining, dotted leaves, which when crushed yield a pleas- 
ant, permeating fragrance. 

The seaside golden-rod, -S. sempervirens, is a showy, beautiful 
plant of vigorous habit. Its large, orange-yellow flower-heads, 
and thick, bright green leaves make brilliant the salt-marshes, 
sand-hills, and rocky shores of the Atlantic coast every August. 

S. ccBsia, or the blue-stemmed, is a wood-species and among 
the latest of the year, putting forth its bright clusters for nearly 
the whole length of its stem long after many of its brethren look 
like brown wraiths of their former selves. 

5. latifolia, usually has a simple, zigzag stem from one to three 
feet high, close to which, in the axils of the leaves, the flower 
heads are bunched in short clusters. Toward the top of the stem 
these clusters may be prolonged into a narrow wand. Its leaves 
are thin, broadly ovate, sharply toothed and pointed at both 
ends. This plant loves somewhat moist, shaded localities. 

Theslender, wand-like silver-rod, 6". ^/V^A?r (Plate LXXXII.), 
whose partly whitish flower-heads are a departure from the family 
habit, also survives the early cold and holds its own in the dry 


The only species native to Great Britain is S. Virga-aurea. 

The generic name is from two Greek words which signify to 
make whole, and refer to the healing properties which have been 
attributed to the genus. 



















Disk and ray-flowers, 

$ILVER-ROD — 5^//^aj^^ iicolor. 



Gerardia quori/olia. Figwort Family. 

Stetfi. — Smooth; three to six feet high; usually branching. Leaves. — 
The lower usually deeply incised ; the upper narrowly oblong, incised, or 
entire. Flowers. — Yellow ; large ; in a raceme or spike. Calyx. — Five- 
cleft. Corolla. — Two inches long; somewhat tubular; swelling above; 
with five more or less unequal, spreading lobes ; woolly within. Stamens. 
— Four; in pairs ; woolly. Pistil. — One. 

These large, pale yellow flowers are very beautiful and strik- 
ing when seen in the dry woods of late summer. They are all 
the more appreciated because there are few flowers abroad at this 
season save the Composites, which are decorative and radiant 
enough, but usually somewhat lacking in the delicate charm we 
look for in a flower. 

For me the plant is associated especially with two localities. 
One is a mountain-road whose borders, from early June, are 
brilliant with a show of lovely blossoms, but which, just before 
the appearance of the false foxglove, is threatened with a dismal 
break in the floral procession. Only the sharpest eyes are 
solaced by multitudes of round yellow buds, that burst suddenly 
into peculiarly fresh and pleasing flowers. 

The other favored spot is a wooded island on the coast, sur- 
rounded by a salt marsh. In August, when the marsh itself is 
still brilliant with sea-pinks and milkwort, and beginning to wear 
its glowing mantle of asters and golden -rods, this island can 
scarcely boast a blossom save that of the false foxglove. But the 
plant succeeds in redeeming the lonely spot from any suspicion 
of dreariness by its lavish display of cheery flowers. 

The downy false foxglove, G. flava, is usually a somewhat 
lower plant, with a close down, a less-branched stem, more en- 
tire leaves, and smaller, similar flowers. 

The members of this genus, which is named after Gerarde, 
the author of the famous ** Herball," are supposed to be more or 
less parasitic in their habits, drawing their nourishment from the 
roots of other plants. 



SMOOTH FALSE FOXGLOVE.— G^ran//<i querci/olia. 




Tanacetiim viilgare. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Two to four feet high. Leaves. — Divided into toothed leaflets. 
Flower-heads. — Yellow; composed of tiny flowers which are nearly, if not 
all, tubular in shape ; borne in flat-topped clusters. 

AVith the name of tansy we seem to catch a whiff of its 
strong-scented breath and a glimpse of some New England 
homestead beyond whose borders it has strayed to deck the 
roadside with its deep yellow, flat topped flower- clusters. The 
plant has been used in medicine since the Middle Ages, and in 
more recent times it has been gathered by the country people 
for '* tansy wine " and '' tansy tea." In the Roman Church it 
typifies the bitter herbs which were to be eaten at the Paschal 
season ; and cakes made of eggs and its leaves are called '' tan- 
sies," and eaten during Lent. It is also frequently utilized in 
more secular concoctions. 

The common name is supposed to be a corruption of the 
Greek word for immortality. 


Hamamelis Virginiana. Witch-hazel Family. 

A tall shrub. Leaves. — Oval ; wavy-toothed ; mostly falling before the 
flowers appear. Flo7vers. — Honey-yellow; clustered; autumnal. Calyx. — 
P'our-parted. Corolla. — Of four long, narrow petals. Stamens. — Eight. 
Pistil. — Two. Fruit. — A capsule which bursts elastically, discharging its 
large seeds with vigor. 

It seems as though the flowers of the witch-hazel were fairly 
entitled to the "booby-prize" of the vegetable world. Surely 
no other blossoms make their first appearance so invariably late 
upon the scene of action. The fringed gentian often begins to 
open its "meek and quiet eye" quite early in September. 
Certain species of golden-rod and aster continue to flower till 
late in the year, but they began putting forth their bright clus- 
ters before the summer was fairly over ; while the elusively fra- 
grant, pale yellow blossoms of the witch-hazel need hardly be ex- 



WITCH y^kZ^L.—Hamantclis Virs^intaua. 


pected till well on in September, when its leaves have fluttered 
earthward and its fruit has ripened. Does the pleasure which we 
experience at the spring-like apparition of this leafless yellow- 
flowered shrub in the autumn woods arise from the same de- 
praved taste which is gratified by strawberries at Christmas, I 
wonder? Or is it that in the midst of death we have a fore- 
taste of life ; a prophecy of the great yearly resurrection which 
even now we may anticipate ? 

Thoreau's tastes in such directions were certainly not de- 
praved, and he writes: ''The witch-hazel loves a hill-side with 
or without woods or shrubs. It is always pleasant to come upon 
it unexpectedly as you are threading the woods in such places. 
Methinks I attribute to it some elfish quality apart from its fame. 
I love to behold its gray speckled stems." Under another date 
he writes: *' Heard in the night a snapping sound, and the fall 
of some small body on the floor from time to time. In the 
morning I found it was produced by the witch-hazel nuts on my 
desk springing open and casting their seeds quite across my 
chamber, hard and stony as these nuts were." 

The Indians long ago discovered the value of the bark of the 
witch-hazel for medicinal purposes, and it is now utilized in many 
well-known extracts. The forked branches formerly served as 
divining-rods in the search for water and precious ores. This 
belief in its mysterious power very possibly arose from its sug- 
gestive title, which Dr. Prior says should be spelled layck-hazel, 
as it was called after the wych-elm, whose leaves it resembles, 
and which was so named because the chests termed in old times 
* ' wyches ' ' were made of its wood — 

" His hall rofe was full of bacon flytches, 
The chambre charged was with wyches 
Full of egges, butter, and chese." * 

* Hazlitt's Early Popular Poetry, 




[Pink or occasionally Pink Flowers not described in Pink Section.] 

Wood Anemone. Ajiemone nemorosa. April and May. 

(White Section, p. 4.) 

Rue Anemone. Atiemonella thalictroides. April and May. 

(White Section, p. 6.^ 

Pyxie. Pyxidanthera barbulata. March and April. 

(White Section, p. 9.) 

Squirrel Corn. Dicentra Canadensis. April and May. 

(White Section, p. 16.) 

Trillium. April and May. (White Section, p. 18.) 

Mountain Laurel. Kalniia latifolia. June. (White Section, p. 43.) 

American Rhododendron. Rhododendron niaxwiu7n. June. 

(W^hite Section, p. 46.) 

Arethusa. Arethusa bullosa. June. (Blue and Purple Section, p. 290.) 

Purple-fringed Orchises. Habenaria fimbriata and psycodes. 

June, July, and August. (Blue and Pnrple Section, p. 288.) 

Daisy Fleabane. Erigeron ajimnis. Summer. (W'hite Section, p. 60.) 

Sundew. Drosera filiformis. Summer. (White Section, p. 78.) 

Turtle-head. Chelone glabra. Summer. (White Section, p. 96.) 





Epigcva repens. Heath Family. 

Stem. — With rusty hairs ; prostrate or trailing. Leaves. — Rounded ; 
heart-shaped at base; evergreen. Flowers. — Pink; clustered; fragrant. 
Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Five-lobed ; salver-shaped ; with a slen- 
der tube which is hairy within. Sta?nens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with a five- 
lobed stigma. 

" Pink, small and punctual, 
Aromatic, low," 

describes, but does scant justice to the trailing arbutus, whose 
waxy blossoms and deUcious breath are among the earliest 
prophecies of perfume-laden summer. We look for these flowers 
in April — not beneath the snow, where tradition rashly locates 
them, but under the dead brown leaves of last year ; and 
especially among the pines and in light sandy soil. Appearing 
as they do when we are eager for some tangible assurance that 

" the Spring comes slowly up this way," 

they win from many of us the gladdest recognition of the 

In New England they are called Mayflowers, being peddled 
about the streets of Boston every spring, under the suggestive 
and loudly emphasized title of " Ply-y-mouth Ma-ayflowers ! " 
Whether they owe this name to the ship which is responsible 
for so much, or to their season of blooming, in certain localities, 
might remain an open question had we not the authority of 
Whittier for attributing it to both causes. In a note prefacing 
''The Mayflowers," the poet says: "The trailing arbutus or 
Mayflower grows abundantly in the vicinity of Plymouth, and 
was the first flower to greet the Pilgrims after their fearful 
winter." In the poem itself he wonders what the old ship had 

"Within her ice-rimmed bay 
In common with the wild-wood flowers, 
The first sweet smiles of May ? " 



and continues — 

" Yet ' God be praised ! ' the Pilgrim said, 
Who saw the blossoms peer 
Above the brown leaves, dry and dead, 
* Behold our Mayflower here ! ' 

"God wills it, here our rest shall be, 
Our years of wandering o'er, 
For us the Mayflower of the sea 
Shall spread her sails no more. 

•' O sacred flowers of faith and hope, 
As sweetly now as then, 
Ye bloom on many a birchen slope, 
In many a pine-dark glen. 

■ • • • • " • 

•• So live the fathers in their sons, 
Their sturdy faith be ours. 
And ours the love that overruns 
Its rocky strength with flowers." 

If the poet's fancy was founded on fact, and if our lovely and 
widespread Mayflower was indeed the first blossom noted and 
christened by our forefathers, it seems as though the problem of 
a national flower must be solved by one so lovely and historic as 
to silence all dispute. And when we read the following prophet- 
ic stanzas which close the poem, showing that during another 
dark period in our nation's history these brave little blossoms, 
struggling through the withered leaves, brought a message of 
hope and courage to the heroic heart of the Quaker poet, our 
feeling that they are peculiarly identified with our country's 
perilous moments is intensified. 

" The Pilgrims wild and wintry day 
Its shadow round us draws ; 
The Mayflower of his stormy bay 
Our Freedom's struggling cause. 

*' But warmer suns erelong shall bring 
To life the frozen sod ; 
And, through dead leaves of hope, shall spring 
Afresh the flowers of God ! " 



TRAILING ARBUTUS.— i?//^.?^! repent. 

TWIN-FLOWER.— Z/««^a borealis. 




Linncta borealis. Honeysuckle Family. 

Stem. — Slender; creeping and trailing. Leaves. — Rounded; evergreen. 
Flmvers. — Growing in pairs; delicate pink ; fragrant; nodding on thread- 
like, upright flower-stalks. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla — Narrowly 
bell-shaped; five-lobed ; hairy within. Stamens. — Four; two shorter than 
the others. Pistil. — One. 

Whoever has seen 

" beneath dim aisles, in odorous beds, 

The slight Linnaea hang its twin-born heads," 

will not soon forget the exquisite carpeting made by its nodding 
pink flowers, or the delicious perfume which actually filled the 
air and drew one's attention to the spot from which it was ex- 
haled, tempting one to exclaim, with Richard Jefferies, " Sweet- 
est of all things is wild-flower air!" That this little plant 
should have been selected as " the monument of the man of 
flowers" by the great Linnaeus himself bears testimony to his 
possession of that appreciation of the beautiful which is supposed 
to be lacking in men of long scientific training. I believe that 
there is extant at least one contemporary portrait of Linnaeus in 
which he wears the tiny flowers in his buttonhole. The rosy 
twin-blossoms are borne on thread-like, forking flower-stalks, and 
appear in June in the deep, cool, mossy woods of the North.* 


Claytonia Virginica. Purslane Family, 

Stem. — From a small tuber; often somewhat reclining. Leaves. — Two; 
opposite ; long and narrow ; Flowers. — White, with pink veins, or pink 
with deeper-colored veins ; growing in a loose cluster. Calyx. — Of two 
sepals. Co7-olla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with 
style three-cleft at apex. 

* They are also lound occasionally until the fall. Late one September 1 
received & cluster which had just been gathered on the shores of Saranac Lake 
in the Adirondacks. 



SPRING BEAUTY. — C/rtj/oz/m Virginica. 


" So bashful when I spied her So breathless till I passed her, 

So pretty, so ashamed ! So helpless when I turned 

So hidden in her leaflets And bore her struggling, blushing. 

Lest anybody find : Her simple haunts beyond ! 

For whom I robbed the dingle, 
For whom betrayed the dell. 
Many will doubtless ask me, 
But I shall never tell ! " 

Yet we are all free to guess — and what flower — at least in the 
early year, before it has gained that touch of confidence which 
it acquires later — is so bashful, so pretty, so flushed with rosy 
shame, so eager to defend its modesty by closing its blushing 
petals when carried off by the despoiler — as the spring beauty ? 
To be sure, she is not " hidden in her leaflets," although often 
seeking concealment beneath the leaves of other plants — but 
why not assume that Miss Dickinson has availed herself of some- 
thing of the license so freely granted to poets — especially, it 
seems to me — to poets of nature ? Perhaps of this class few are 
more accurate than she, and although we wonder at the sudden 
blindness which leads her to claim that 

" Nature rarer uses yellow 
Than another hue — " 

when it seems as though it needed but little knowledge of flow- 
ers to recognize that yellow, probably, occurs more frequently 
among them than any other color, and also at the representation 
of this same nature as 

*' Spending scarlet like a woman — " 

when in reality she is so chary of this splendid hue, still we can- 
not but appreciate that this poet was in close and peculiar sym- 
pathy with flowers, and was wont to paint them with more than 
customary fidelity. 

We look for the spring beauty in April and May, and often 
find it in the same moist places — on a brook's edge or skirting 
the wet woods — as the yellow adder's tongue. It is sometimes 



mistaken for an anemone, but its rose-veined corolla ana linear 
leaves easily identify it. Parts of the carriage-drive in the Cen- 
tral Park are bordered with great patches of the dainty blossoms. 
One is always glad to discover these children of the country 
within our city limits, where they can be known and loved by 
those other children who are so unfortunate as to be denied the 
knowledge of them in their usual haunts. If the day chances to 
be cloudy these flowers close and are only induced to open again 
by an abundance of sunlight. This habit of closing in the shade 
is common to many flowers, and should be remembered by those 
who bring home their treasures from the woods and fields, only 
to discard the majority as hopelessly wilted. If any such ex- 
hausted blossoms are placed in the sunlight, with their stems in 
fresh water, they will probably regain their vigor. Should this 
treatment fail, an application of very hot — almost boiling — water 
should be tried. This heroic measure often meets with success. 


Orchis spectabilis. Orchis Family. 

Stem. — Four-angled; with leaf-hke bracts; rising from fleshy, fibrous 
roots. Leaves. — Two; oblong; shining; three to six inches long. Flow- 
ers. — In a loose spike ; purple-pink, the lower lip white. 

This flower not only charms us with its beauty when its 
clusters begin to dot the rich May woods, but interests us as 
being usually the first member of the Orchis family to appear 
upon the scene; although it is claimed in certain localities that 
the beautiful Calypso always, and the Indian moccasin occasion- 
ally, precedes it. 

A certain fascination attends the very name of orchid. Bot- 
anist and unscientific flower-lover alike pause with unwonted in- 
terest when the discovery of one is announced. With the former 
there is always the possibility of finding some rare species, while 
the excitement of the latter is apt to be whetted with the hope 
of beholding a marvellous imitation of bee or butterfly fluttering 



SHOWY ORCHIS. — (>/r///.f spcctahilis. 


from a mossy branch with roots that draw their nourishment 
from the air ! While this little plant is sure to fail of satisfying 
the hopes of either, it is far prettier if less rare than many of its 
brethren, and its interesting mechanism will repay our patient 
study. It is said closely to resemble the "long purples," O. 
ffiascula, which grew near the scene of Ophelia's tragic death. 


Streptopus roseus. Lily Family. 

Stems. — Rather stout and zigzag ; forking and diverging. Leaves. — 
Taper-pointed; slightly clasping. Flowers. — Dull purplish-pink ; hanging 
on thread-like flower stalks from the axils of the leaves. Perianth. — Some- 
what bell-shaped ; of six distinct sepals. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One, 
with a three-cleft stigma. Fruit. — Red ; roundish ; late summer. 

This plant presents a graceful group of forking branches and 
pointed leaves. No blossom is seen from above, but on pickin;? 
a branch one finds beneath each of its outspread leaves one or 
two slender, bent stalks from which hang the pink, bell-hke 
flowers. In general aspect the plant somewhat resembles its re- 
lation, the Solomon's seal, with which it is found blossoming in 
the woods of May or June. The English title is a translation of 
the generic name, Streptopus. 

In August one finds the curved leafy stems hung with bright 
red berries. 

S. amplexifolius usually is a somewhat larger plant than the 
above. Its strongly clasping leaves are very smooth, their under 
sides covered with a whitish bloom. Its small flowers (with en- 
tire, not three-cleft stigmas) are greenish white, drooping on a 
long, abruptly bent flower-stalk. In August, when its forking 
branches, hung with bright red berries, are reflected in the clear 
water of some mountain stream, the plant is singularly striking 
and decorative. 



Rhododetidron Rhodora. Heath Family 

A shrub from one to two feet high. Leaves. — Oblong ; pale. Flowers. 
— Purplish pink. Calyx. — Small. Co7vlla. — Two-lipped; almost without 
any tube. Stamens. — Ten, not protruding. Pistil. — One, not protruding. 

" In May, when sea- winds pierced our solitudes, 
I found the fresh Rhodora in the woods, 
Spreading its leafless blooms in a damp nook, 
To please the desert and the sluggish brook. 
The purple petals, fallen in the pool, 
Made the black water with their beauty gay ; 
Here might the red-bird come his plumes to cool, 
And court the flower that cheapens his array. 
Rhodora! If the sages ask thee why 
This charm is wasted on the earth and sky. 
Tell them, dear, that if eyes were made for seeing. 
Then Beauty is its own excuse for being ; 
Why thou wert there, O rival of the rose ! 
I never thought to ask, I never knew ; 
But in my simple ignorance, suppose 
The self-same Power that brought me there, brought you. ' ■ 



Silene Petuisylvanica. Pink Family. 

Stems. — Four to eight inches high. Leaves. — Those from the root nar- 
rowly wedge-shaped; those on the stem lance-shaped, opposite. Flowers. — 
Bright pink ; clustered. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — Of five petals. 
Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with three styles. 

When a vivid cluster of wild pinks gleams from some rocky 
opening in the May woods, it is dif^cult to restrain one's eager- 
ness, for there is something peculiarly enticing in these fresh, 
vigorous-looking flowers. They are quite unlike most of their 
fragile contemporaries, for already they seem imbued with the 

* Emerson. 

+ Although from their English names the Wild Pink and the Moss Pink 
would seem to be allied, a reference to their generic and family titles shows 
them to belong to quite different groups of plants. 




Rltododoidron Rltodora. 





WILD V\HY^.—SiUne Pe?insylvamca. 



glowing warmth of summer, and to have no memory of that 
snowy past which appears to leave its imprint on so many blos- 
soms of the early year. 

In waste places, from June until September or later, we find 
the small clustered pink flowers, which open transiently in the 
sunshine, of the sleepy catchfly, S. antirrhina. 


Phlox siibiilata. Polemonium Family. 

Stems. — Creeping; tufted. Leaves. — Evergreen; awl-shaped; crowded; 
small. Flowers. — Bright purple-pink ; with a darker, or sometimes with a 
white centre. Calyx. — With five awl-shaped teeth. Corolla. — P'ive-lobed. 
Stamens. — Five; unequally inserted in the tube of the corolla. Pistil. — 
One ; with a three-lobed style. 

Every spring this little evergreen plant clothes the dry hill- 
sides with a glowing mantle of purple-pink. Southern New 
York is probably its most northerly range in our Eastern States. 

Great masses of moss-pinks may be seen covering the rocks 
in Central Park early in May. 


Cypripediiim acaule. Orchis Family. ^ ' 

Scape. — Eight to twelve inches high; two-leaved at base ; downy; one- 
flowered. Leaves. — Two; large; many-nerved and plaited ; sheathing at 
the base. Flowers. — Solitary; the pink, veiny lip, an inflated pouch ; se- 
pals and petals greenish and spreading. 

' Graceful and tall the slender, drooping stem, 
With two broad leaves below. 
Shapely the flower so lightly poised between, 
And warm her rosy glow," 

writes Elaine Goodale of the moccasin-flower. This is a blos- 
som whose charm never wanes. It seems to be touched with the 
spirit of the deep woods, and there is a certain fitness in its Ind- 
ian name, for it looks as though it came direct from the home of 
* See note, p. 202. t For Plate XC, see frontispiece. 



the red man. All who have found it in its secluded haunts will 
sympathize with Mr. Higginson's feeling that each specimen is a 
rarity, even though he should find a hundred to an acre. Gray 
assigns it to " dry or moist woods," while Mr. Baldwin writes : 
'* The finest specimens I ever saw sprang out of cushions of crisp 
reindeer moss high up among the rocks of an exposed hill-side, 
and again I have found it growing vigorously in almost open 
swamps, but nearly colorless from excessive moisture." The 
same writer quotes a lady who is familiar with it in the Adiron- 
dacks. She says : ''It seems to have a great fondness for decay- 
ing wood, and I often see a whole row perched like birds along 
a crumbling log;" while I recall a mountain lake where the 
steep cliffs rise from the water's edge; here and there, on a tiny 
shelf strewn with pine-needles, can be seen a pair of large veiny 
leaves, above which, in early June, the pink balloon-like blos- 
som floats from its slender scape. 


[PI. xci 

Corydalis glauca. Fumitory Family. 

Stem. — Six inches to two feet high. Leaves. — Pale; divided into deli- 
cate leaflets. Flozvers. — Pink and yellow ; in loose clusters. Calyx. — Of 
two small, scale-like sepals. Corolla. — Pink, tipped with yellow; closed 
and flattened, of four petals, with a short spur at the base of the upper petal. 
Stamens. — Six ; maturing before the pistil, thus avoiding self-fertilization. 
Pistil. — One. 

From rocky clefts in the early summer woods springs the 
pale corydalis, its graceful fohage dim with a whitish bloom, and 
its delicate, rosy, yellow-tipped flowers betraying, by their odd, 
flat corollas, their kinship with the Dutchman's breeches and 
squirrel corn of the early year, as well as with the bleeding hearts 
of the garden. Thoreau assigns them to the middle of May, and 
says they are ''rarely met with," which statement does not coin- 
cide with the experience of those who find the rocky woodlands 
each summer abundantly decorated with their fragile clusters. 

The generic name, Corydalis, is the ancient Greek title for 



the crested lark, and is said to refer to the crested seeds of this 
genus. The specific title, glatica^ refers to the pallor of leaves 
and stem. 


Calypso borealis. Orchis Family. 

Leaf. — Single ; thin ; ovate or slightly heart-shaped ; from a solid bulb. 
Flower. — Variegated pink and yellow ; lip sac-shaped and inflated; woolly, 
hairy inside. 

Gray calls this '' a little bog-herb, ... a very local and 
beautiful plant." I have seen the Calypso but once,* and that 
once in the city, where it was brought to me by one who had 
been so fortunate as to know it in all the beauty of its home 
environment. But we need never regret that some of the love- 
liest flowers are still to be discovered for the first time. The an- 
ticipation of such discoveries only lends a keener zest to the ap- 
proach of spring, the season that brings so much of delight and 
actual excitement to the flower-lover. 

Mr. Baldwin, it seems to me, is the prophet of the Calypso. 
He celebrates her beauty in eloquent pages. He says it is 
abundant in Oregon and the Northwest, but so rare in New Eng- 
land that we can be well acquainted with its flora and yet never 
have seen it. Yet he tells us that Professor Scribner came on a 
place in Maine, " not a foot square, containing over fifty plants 
in bloom." 

And here is Mr. Baldwin's own description of the flower's 
home : 

'' Even when her sanctuary is discovered Calypso does not 
always reveal herself. The ground and the fallen tree-trunks are 
thickly padded with moss and embroidered with trailing vines of 
snowberry and Linnaea; painted trilliums dot with their white 
stars the shadows lying under the tangled fragrant branches, the 
silence of the forest, disturbed only by the chirr of a squirrel or 

* Since writing the above I have found the Calypso growing abundantly 
en the beautiful slopes of the Canadian Rockies. 



PALE CORYDALIS.-Cory^a/M glauca. 



me sudden jubilance of the oven-bird, envelops you and seems the 
proper accompaniment of such an expedition. You follow, per- 
haps, a winding path made by the wild animals among the un- 
derbrush, moving slowly, and you easily overlook the dainty 
blossom, nestling in some soft, damp nook, and poised lightly 
on its stem as if ready to flutter away between your covetous 



Rhododendron midiflomin. Heath Family. 

A shrub from two to six feet high. Leaves. — Narrowly oblong ; downy 
underneath ; usually appearing somewhat later than the flowers. Flowers. — 
Pink ; clustered. Calyx. — Minute. Corolla. — Funnel-shaped ; with five 
long recurved lobes. Stainens. — Five or ten ; long, protruding noticeably. 
Pistil. — One ; long ; protruding. 

Our May swamps and moist woods are made rosy by masses 
of the pink azalea, which is often known as the wild honeysuckle, 
although not even a member of the Honeysuckle family. It is 
in the height of its beauty before the blooming of the laurel, 
and heralds the still lovelier pageant which is even then in rapid 
course of preparation. 

In the last century the name of Mayflower was given to the 
shrub by the Swedes in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. Peter 
Kalm, the pupil of Linnaeus, after whom our laurel, Kalmia, 
is named, writes the following description of the shrub in his 
'' Travels," which were published in English in 1771, and which 
explains the origin of one of its titles: '* Some of the Swedes 
and Dutch call them Pinxter-bloom (Whitsunday-flower), as 
they really are in bloom about Whitsuntide ; and at a distance 
they have some similarity to the Honeysuckle or ' Lonicera.' 

. . Its flowers were now open and added a new ornament 
to the woods. . . . They sit in a circle round the stem's 
extremity and have either a dark red or a lively red color ; but 
by standing for some time the sun bleaches them, and at last they 



PINK hlk\JLk — Rhododendron nudiflorum. 


get to a whitish hue. . . . They have some smell, but 1 
cannot say it is very pleasant. However, the beauty of the 
flowers entitles them to a place in every flower-garden." While 
our pink azalea could hardly be called "dark red" under any 
circumstances, it varies greatly in the color of its flowers. 
The azalea is the national flower of Flanders. 


Poly gala paiicifolia. Milkwort Family. 

Flowering-stems. — Three or four inches high, from long, prostrate or 
underground shoots which also bear cleistogamous flowers. Leaves. — The 
lower, small and scale-like, scattered ; the upper, ovate, and crowded at the 
summit. Flowers. — Purple-pink, rarely white; rather large. Keel of Co- 
rolla. — Conspicuously fringed and crested. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One. 

*' I must not forget to mention that delicate and lovely flower 
of May, the fringed polygala. You gather it when you go for 
the fragrant showy orchis — that is, if you are lucky enough to 
find it. It is rather a shy flower, and is not found in every 
wood. One day we went up and down through the woods look- 
ing for it — woods of mingled oak, chestnut, pine, and hemlock 
— and were about giving it up when suddenly we came upon 
a gay company of them beside an old wood-road. It was as if a 
flock of small rose-purple butterflies had alighted there on the 
ground before us. The whole plant has a singularly fresh and 
tender aspect. Its foliage is of a slightly purple tinge and of 
very delicate texture. Not the least interesting feature about the 
plant is the concealed fertile flower which it bears on a subter- 
ranean stem, keeping, as it were, one flower for beauty and one 
for use." 

It seems unnecessary to tempt ''odorous comparisons" by 
endeavoring to supplement the above description of Mr. Bur- 



FRINGED POLYGALA.— /Wj^(//<? faucifolia. 


Polygcda polyga7na^ 

Polygala paucifoUa, 

Polygala sanguinea. 




Polygala polygama. Milkwort Family. 

Stems. — Very leafy; six to nine inches high ; with cleistogamous flowers 
on underground runners. Leaves. — Lance-shaped or oblong. Flowers. — 
Purple-pink ; loosely clustered in a terminal raceme. Keel of Corolla. — 
Crested. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One. 

Like its more attractive sister, the fringed polygala, this little 
plant hides its most useful, albeit unattractive, blossoms in the 
ground, where they can fulfil their destiny of perpetuating the 
species without danger of molestation by thievish insects or any 
of the distractions incidental to a more worldly career. Ex 
actly what purpose the little above-ground flowers, which appeat 
so plentifully in sandy soil in July, are intended to serve, it i& 
difficult to understand. 


Kabnia angiistifolia. Heath F'amily. 

A shrub from one to three feet high. Leaves. — Narrowly oblong ; light 
green. Flowers. — Deep pink; in lateral clusters. Calyx. — Five-parted. 
Corolla. — Five-lobed ; between wheel and bell-shaped ; with stamens caught 
in its depressions as in the mountain laurel. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — 

This low shrub grows abundantly with the mountain laurel^ 
bearing smaller deep pink flowers at the same season, and nar- 
rower, paler leaves. It is said to be the most poisonous of the 
genus, and to be especially deadly to sheep, while deer are sup- 
posed to feed upon its leaves with impunity. 

The flower is one of Thoreau's favorites. In his journal, 
June 13, 1852, he writes: *' Lambkill is out. I remember with 
what delight I used to discover this flower in dewy mornings. 
All things in this world must be seen with the morning dew 
on them, must be seen with youthful, early opened, hopeful 

And two years later, oddly enough on the same day of the 








SHEEP LAUREL.— /ifrt/wwa atigusti/olia. 


month, he finds them equally admirable at the approach of 
<< dewy eve." ** How beautiful the solid cylinders of the lamb- 
kill now just before sunset ; small ten-sided rosy-crimson basins, 
about two inches above the recurved, drooping, dry capsules of 
last year, and sometimes those of the year before, two inches 
lower. ' ' 


Kalmia glaiica. Heath Family, 

A rather straggling shrub about one foot high. Leaves. — Evergreen; 
opposite ; oblong ; with 7-evoliite margins and a white bloom beneath. 
Flcnoers. — Pink, one inch broad, in terminal, few-flowered clusters. Calyx. 
Five-parted. Cojvlla. — Five-lobed. Stainens. — Ten. Pistil. — One. 

The pale laurel is easily identified by its leaves, which are 
noticeable for their revolute margins and for the white bloom on 
their under sides. The pretty pink flowers which are due in 
May or June may be found occasionally much later in cool north- 
ern localities. The shrub is most at home in peat bogs and in 
the mountains from Newfoundland to Pennsylvania. 


Cypripedium spectabile. Orchis Family. 

Stems. — Downy; two feet high. Leaves. — Large; ovate; pointed; 
plaited. Flowers. — Large; the three sepals and two lateral petals, white; 
the lip white, pink in front, much inflated. 

My eager hunts for this, the most beautiful of our orchids, 
have never been crowned with success.* But once I saw a fresh 
cluster of these lovely flowers in a friend's house, and regaled 
myself with their rich, stately beauty and delicious fragrance. 
Strangely enough I find no mention of this latter quality either 
in Gray or in Mr. Baldwin's work on orchids. 

Mr. Baldwin describes the lip of this flower as ''crimped, 
shell-shaped, varying firom a rich pink-purple blotched with 

* Smce writing the above I have tracked it to its home. 



SHOWY LADY'S SUPPER. — Cy/>n/>g(/iu>// spectabiie. 


white to pure white." He says that in southern Connecticut it 
may be found by the 20th of June, but that the White Moun- 
tains rarely afford it before July. It is due in the Berkshires, 
Mass., late in June. 

It grows in peat-bogs, and its height and foliage strongly sug- 
gest the false hellebore. 

This flower is one of a species whose life is threatened owing 
to the oft-lamented ruthlessness of the " flower-picker." 

Near Lenox, Mass., there is one locality where the showy 
lady's slipper can be found. Fortunately, one would suppose, 
this spot is known only to a few; but as one of the few who pos- 
sess the secret is a country boy who uproots these plants and sells 
them by the dozen in Lenox and Pittsfield, the time is not distant 
when the flower will no longer be found in the shadowy silences 
of her native haunts, but only, robbed of half her charm, 
languishing in stiff rows along the garden-path. 



Vaccinium macrocarpon. Heath Family. 

Stems. — Slender; trailing; one to four feet long. Leaves. — Oblong; 
obtuse; whitened beneath. Flcnvers. — Pale pink; nodding. Calyx. — With 
short teeth. Corolla. — Four-parted. Stamens. — Eight or ten ; protruding. 
Fruit. — A large, acid, red berry. 

In the peat-bogs of our Northeastern States we may look in 
June for the pink nodding flowers, and in late summer for the 
large red berries of this well-known and useful plant. 

The small cranberry, V. oxycoccus, bears a much smaller 
fruit. Its ovate, acute leaves have strongly revolute margins 
and are whitish beneath. The acid berries are edible when 

The mountain cranberry, V. Vitis-Idcea, is found along the 
coast and mountains of New England, inland to Lake Superior 
and far northward. Its smooth, shining, obovate leaves also 
have revolute margins. Below they are dotted with black, 



bristly points. The blossoms grow in short terminal clusters. 
These berries also are smaller than those of the common cran- 


Pogonia ophioglossoides. Orchis Family. 

Stem. — Six to nine inches high; from a fibrous root. Leaves. — An 
oval or lance-oblong one near the middle of the stem, and a smaller or bract- 
like one near the terminal flower, occasionally one or two others, with a 
flower in their axils. Flower. — Pale pink, sometimes white ; sweet-scented; 
one inch long ; lip bearded and fringed. 

Mr. Baldwin maintains that there is no wild flower of as pure 
a pink as this unless it be the Sabbatia. Its color has also been 
described as a ''peach-blossom red." As already mentioned, 
the plant is found blossoming in bogs during the early summer 
in company with the Calopogons and sundews. Its violet-like 
fragrance greatly enhances its charm. 

The botanists have great difficulty at times in describing the 
colors of certain flowers, and when the blossoms look to one eye 
pink, to another purple, they compromise and give the color as 
''pink-purple." It has been no easy matter to settle satisfac- 
torily the positions in this book of many of the flowers, more es- 
pecially as the individuals vary constantly in depth of color, and 
even in actual color. 

July 7, 1852, Thoreau devotes a page in his journal to some 
of these doubtful-colored flowers, whose heathenish titles excite 
his ire. " Pogonias are still abundant in the meadows, but are- 
thusas I have not lately seen. . . . The very handsome 
' pink-purple ' ^ flowers of the Calopogon pulchellus enrich the 
grass all around the edge of Hubbard's blueberry swamp, and are 
now in their prime. The Arethusa bulbosa, ' crystalline purple,' 
Pogonia ophioglossoides^ snake-mouthed (tongued) arethusa, ' pale 
purple, ' and the Calopogon pulchellus, grass pink, ' pink-purple, ' 

* As the Calopogon and Pogonia seem to me far more pink than purple, 
they are placed in the Pink Section. The Arethusa and the purple-fringed 
orchis will be found in the Purple Section. 




ADDER'S MOUTH —Po^oHi'a ophioglossoides. 
AMERICAN CRANBERRY —p-aa/«/«;« macrocarpon. 


make one family in my mind (next to the purple orchis, or With 
it), being flowers par excellefice^ all flowers, naked flowers, and 
difficult, at least the calopogon, to preserve. But they are 
flowers, excepting the first, at least, without a name. Pogonia ! 
Calopogon ! They would blush still deeper if they knew the 
names man has given them. . . . The pogonia has a strong 
snaky odor. The first may perhaps retain its name, arethusa, 
from the places in which it grows, and the other two deserve the 
names of nymphs, perhaps of the class called Naiades. 
To be sure, in a perfect flower there will be proportion between 
the flowers and leaves, but these are fair and delicate, nymph- 

Calopogon piilchelhis. Orchis Family. 

Scape. — Rising about one foot from a small solid bulb. Leaf. — Linear; 
grass-like. Flaivers. — Two to six on each scape; purple-pink; about one 
inch broad ; the lip as if hinged at its insertion, bearded toward the summit 
with white, yellow, and purple hairs. The peculiarity of this orchid is that 
the ovary is not twisted, and consequently the lip is on the upper instead of 
the lower side of the flower. 

In the bogs of early summer, side by side with the glistening 
sundew, and the delicate adder's mouth, one finds these lovely 

I remember well the first time I ever saw the Calopogon at 
home (for previously specimens had been sent to me). It was 
one morning late in June, while taking a walk with a friend and 
her little girl. We had just crossed a wet meadow, bright with 
the fronds of the Osmimda, the rank foliage of the false hellebore, 
and the canary-yellow of the day-blooming evening primrose. 
As we reached the comparatively firm ground which skirted the 
woods, our eyes fell upon a patch of feathery grasses and radiant 

Knowing only too well the childish instinct immediately to 
rush upon such a mass of floral loveliness, my first thought was 
tQ shield with outstretched arms the delicate beauties, hesitating 






Calopogon pulchellus. 


SPREADING DOGBAfiB,.—A^ocj/num androscEmifolium. 



to pick even a single blossom until we had feasted our eyes, for 
a time at least, upon their unruffled grace. 

After all, how much better than to bear away a burden of 
blossoms, which nearly always seem to leave half their beauty 
behind them, is it to retain a memory of some enchanted spot 
unrifled of its charm. 

Then, too, the prevalent lack of sense of self-restraint in the 
picking and uprooting of flowers and ferns is resulting in the ex- 
termination of many valuable species. This is especially true in 
the case of the orchids. It is devoutly to be wished that every 
true lover of our woods and fields would set his face sternly 
against the ruthless habit, regardless of the pleas that may be 
offered in excuse. 

This picking and uprooting tendency does not begin to 
threaten as seriously the future of our really common flowers 
(some of which, by the way, are so unprincipled themselves as 
almost to deserve extermination) as it does that of our rarer and 
more beautiful species. Many of these will disappear from the 
country, it is to be feared, if some counter-influence is not ex- 
erted, and if it is not remembered that in the case of annuals and 
biennials as much injury may be done to a species by the picking 
of the seed-yielding flower as by the uprooting of the plant itself. 


[PI. xcix 
Apocymim androscumifoliiun. Dogbane Family. 

Stems. — Erect ; branching ; two or three feet high. Leaves. — Opposite ; 
oval. Fl(nvers. — Rose-color, veined with deep pink; loosely clustered. 
Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Small; bell-shaped; five-cleft. Stamens. 
— Five, slightly adherent to the pistil. Pistil. — Two ovaries surmounted by 
a large, two-lobed stigma. Fruit. — Two long and slender pods. 

The flowers of the dogbane, though small and inconspicuous, 
are very beautiful if closely examined. The deep pink veining 
of the corolla suggests nectar, and the insect-visitor is not mis- 
led, for at its base are five nectar-bearing glands. The two long, 
slender seed-pods which result from a single blossom seem inap- 







propriately large, often appearing while the plant is still in 
flower. Rafinesque states that from the stems may be obtained 
a thread similar to hemp which can be woven into cloth, from 
the pods, cotton, and from the blossoms, sugar. Its generic and 
one of its English titles arose from the belief, which formerly 
prevailed, that it was poisonous to dogs. The plant is con- 
stantly found growing in roadside thickets, with bright, pretty 
foliage, and blossoms that appear in early summer. 


Riibiis odoratits. Rose Family. 

[PI. C 

Stem. — Shrubby, three to five feet high; branching; branches bristly 
and glandular. Leaves. — Three to five-lobed, the middle lobe prolonged. 
Flowers. — Purplish-pink; large and showy; two inches broad. Calyx. — 
Five-parted. Corolla. — Of five rounded petals. Stamens and Pistils. — 
Numerous. Fruit. — Reddish, resembling the garden raspberry. 

This flower betrays its relationship to the wild rose, and 
might easily be mistaken for it, although a glance at the undi- 
vided leaves would at once correct such an error. The plant is 
a decorative one when covered with its showy blossoms, con- 
stantly arresting our attention along the wooded roadsides in 
June and July. 


Calamintha ClinoJ>odhim. Mint Family. 

Hairy; erect; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; oval; scarce- 
ly toothed. Flower. — Small ; pink or purplish ; in close globular clusters 
with noticeably long, hairy bracts. Calyx. — Two-lipped; upper lip three, 
the lower two-cleft. Corolla. — Two-lipped ; upper lip erect, sometimes 
notched; the lower spreading; three-parted. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — 
One, with two-lobed style. Ovary. — Deeply four-lobed. 

Bordering the woods and fields in midsummer we notice the 
rounded, silky-bracted flower-clusters of the basil. 



PHILADELPHIA VLEkEkHE.—ErifrcroiiP/iJladelfi/iicus. 



Dianthus Armeria. Pink Family. 

One to two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; long and narrow; hairy. 
Flowers. — Pink, with white dots; clustered. Calyx. — Five-toothed, cylin- 
drical; with awl-shaped bracts beneath. Corolla. — Of five small petals. 
Stafneiis. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

In July and August we find these little flowers in our Eastern 
fields. The generic name, which signifies Jove's ow?i flozver^ 
hardly applies to these inconspicuous blossoms. Perhaps it was 
originally bestowed upon D. caryophylius, a large and fragrant 
English member of the genus, which was the origin of our gar- 
den carnation. 


[PI. ci 

Erigeron Philadelphicus. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Hairy, leafy. Leaves. — Oblong, the upper rather smooth, clasp- 
ing by a heart-shaped base, almost entire ; the lowest wedge-shaped, toothed. 
Flower-heads. — Small, clustered, with numerous very narrow, pinkish ray- 
flowers and a centre of yellow disk flowers. 

This often attractive member of the fleabane group is com- 
monly found in moist ground from June to August. 


Convolvulus Americamis. Convolvulus Family. 

Stem. — Twining or trailing. Leaves. — Somewhat arrow-shaped. Flow- 
ers. — Pink. Calyx. — Of five sepals enclosed in two broad leafy bracts. 
Corolla.— Y'\\^-\o\i^^\ bell-shaped. Stamens.— Y\s&. Pistil.— One, with 
two stigmas. 

Many an unsightly heap of rubbish left by the roadside is 
hidden by the delicate pink bells of the hedge bindweed, which 
again will clamber over the thickets that line the streams and 
about the tumbled stone-wall that marks the limit of the pasture. 



The pretty flowers at once suggest the morning-glory, to which 
they are closely allied. 

The common European bindweed, C. arvensis, has white or 
pinkish flowers, without bracts beneath the calyx, and a low pro- 
cumbent or twining stem. It has taken possession of many of 
our old fields, where it spreads extensively and proves trouble- 
some to farmers. 


Cuphea viscosissima. Loosestrife Family. 

Stem. — Sticky; hairy; branching. Leaves. — Usually opposite ; roundec 
lance-shaped. Flowers. — Deep purplish pink ; solitary or in racemes. 
Caivx. — Tubular, slightly spurred at the base on the upper side, six- 
toothed at the apex, usually with a slight projection between each tooth. 
Corolla. — Small; of six unequal petals. Stamens. — Eleven or twelve, of 
unequal sizes, in two sets. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed stigma. 

In the dry fields and along the roadsides of late summer this 
plant is found in blossom. Its rather wrinkled purplish-pink 
petals and unequal stamens suggest the flowers of the spiked 
loosestrife, L. Salicaria. to which it is closely related. 


Galeopsis Tetrahit. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Bristly-hairy; swollen below the joints; branching. Leaves. — 
Opposite ; pinkish ; oval ; coarsely toothed. Flowers. — Small ; pink or 
variegated ; in whorls in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Five-toothed ; 
the teeth spiny-tipped. Corolla. — Two-lipped; the lower lip three-cleft; 
spreading ; sometimes yellowish with a purple spot. Stamens. — Four. 
Pistil. — One, with two-lobed style. Ovary. — Deeply four-lobed. 

Somewhat late in summer the hemp nettle overruns waste 
places near civilization, this plant being one of our emigrants 
from Europe. 



HERB ROBERT .—Ceraniu/u Robertianum. 



tPT. Cll 

Geranium Robertianum. Geranium Family. 

Stetn. — Forking; slightly hairy. Leaves. — Three-divided, the divisions 
again dissected. Flowers. — Purple-pink; small. Calyx. — Of five sepals. 
Corolla. — Of five petals. Stai)iens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with five styles 
which split apart in fruit. 

From June until October many of our shaded woods and 
glens are abundantly decorated by the bright blossoms of the 
herb Robert. The reddish stalks of the plant have won it the 
name of '' red -shanks " in the Scotch Highlands. Its strong 
scent is caused by a resinous secretion which exists in several of 
the geraniums. In some species this resin is so abundant that 
the stems will burn like torches, yielding a powerful and pleasant 
perfume. The common name is said to have been given the 
plant on account of its supposed virtue in a disease which was 
known as " Robert's plague," after Robert, Duke of Normandy. 
In some of the early writers it is alluded to as the " holy herb of 

In fruit the styles of this plant split apart with an elasticity 
which serves to project the seeds to a distance, it is said, of 
twenty-five feet. 


[PI. xciv 

Polygala sangtiinea. Milkwort Family. _, 

Stem. — Six inches to a foot high; sparingly branched above; leafy to the 
top. Leaves. — Oblong-linear. Flowers. — Growing in round or oblong 
heads which are somewhat clover-like in appearance ; bright pink or almost 
red, occasionally paler. Calyx. — Of five sepals, three of which are small 
and often greenish, while the two inner ones are much larger and colored 
like the petals. Corolla. — Of three petals connected with each other, the 
lower one keel-shaped. Stamens. — Six or eight. Pistil. — One. (Flowers 
too difficult to be analyzed by the non-botanist.) 

This pretty little plant abounds in moist and also sandy 
places, growing on mountain heights as well as in the salt mead- 
ows which skirt the sea. In late summer its bright flower-heads 



MOUNTAIN FR\NGE.— A d!um:a cirrlwsa. 


gleam vividly through the grasses, and from their form and color 
might almost be mistaken for pink clover. Occasionally they 
are comparatively pale and inconspicuous. 


Polygala cruciata. Milkwort Family. 

Stems.- — Three to ten inches high ; almost winged at the angles, with 
spreading, opposite leaves and branches. Leaves. — Linear ; nearly all 
whorled in fours. Flowers. — Greenish or purplish-pink ; growing in short, 
thick spikes which terminate the branches. 

There is something very moss-like in the appearance of this 
little plant which blossoms in late summer. It is found near 
moist places and salt marshes along the coast, being very com- 
mon in parts of New England. 


[PI. cm 

Adlumia cirrhosa. Fumitory Family. 

Leaves. — Thrice-pinnate, with cut-lobed leaflets. Flowers, — Pinkish, 
drooping in full clusters. Calyx. — Of two small sepals. Corolla. — Flat- 
tened, closed. Stamens. — In two sets of three each. Pistil. — One. 

The root-leaves of this plant remind one of the meadow-rue, 
or remotely of maiden-hair fern. From among these root-leaves 
rises the vine which climbs by means of slender leaf-stalks over 
the bushes and tall golden rod or aster stalks. The foliage is ex- 
tremely delicate, and the clustered pinkish flowers recall the blos- 
soms of their kinsfolk the pale corydalis and the Dutchman's 
breeches. This dainty little plant festooning the undergrowth 
is always a delight when found growing in the woods, and it is 
so charming that one is not surprised to learn from Gray that it 
is *' often cultivated." 




Aschpias Cornuti. Milkweed Family. 

Stem. — Tall; stout; downy; with a milky juice. Leases. — Generally 
opposite or whorled ; the upper sometimes scattered ; large ; oblong ; pale ; 
minutely downy underneath. Floivers. — Dull purplish-pink ; clustered at the 
summit and along the sides of the stem. (These flowers are too difficult to 
be successfully analyzed by the non-botanist.) Calyx. — Five-parted; the 
divisions small and reflexed. Corolla. — Deeply five-parted ; the divisions 
reflexed ; above them a crown of five hooded nectaries, each containing an 
incurved horn. Stamens. — Five ; inserted on the base of the corolla ; united 
with each other and enclosing the pistils. Pistils. — Properly two; enclosed 
by the stamens, surmounted by a large five-angled disk. Fruit. — Two 
pods, one of which is large and full of silky-tufted seeds, the other often 

This is probably the commonest representative of this strik- 
ing and beautiful native family. The tall, stout stems, large, 
pale leaves, dull pink clustered flowers which appear in July, 
and later the puffy pods filled with the silky-tufted seeds beloved 
of imaginative children, are familiar to nearly everyone who 
spends a portion of the year in the country. The young sprouts 
are said to make an excellent pot-herb ; the silky hairs of the 
seed-pods have been used for the stuffing of pillows and mat- 
tresses, and can be mixed with flax or wool and woven to ad- 
vantage ; while paper has been manufactured from the stout stalks. 

The four-leaved milkweed, A. qiiadrifolia, is the most deli- 
cate member of the family, with fragrant rose-tinged flowers 
which appear on the dry wooded hill-sides quite early in June, 
and slender stems which are usually leafless below, and with one 
or two whorls and one or two pairs of oval, taper-pointed leaves 

The swamp milkweed, A. incarnata, grows commonly in 
moist places. Its very leafy stems are two or three feet high, with 
narrowly oblong, pointed leaves. Its intense purple-pink flowers 
gleam from the wet meadows nearly all summer. They are 
smaller than those of the purple milkweed, A. purpuras c ens, 
which abounds in dry ground, and which may be classed among 
the deep pink or purple flowers according to the eye of the be- 




Biida rubra. Pink Family. 

"Two to six inches, often forming dense little mats." Leaves. — Lineaf, 
flat, scarcely fleshy. Flowers. — Bright pink ; small. Calyx. — Of five sepals. 
Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Two to ten. Pistil. — One, with three 

This little plant is found growing in sandy places along the 
roadside. Its tiny, bright-hued blossoms are very dainty. 

The salt-marsh sand-spiirrey, B. 7narina, is a much fleshier 
plant with paler flowers. It is found in salt marshes along the 


Epilobiiim angustifoliiim. Evening Primrose Family. 

Stem. — Four to seven feet high. Leaves. — Scattered; lance-shaped; 
willow-like. Flotvers. — Purplish-pink; large; in a long raceme the upper 
part of which is often nodding. Calyx. — Four-cleft. Corolla. — Of four 
petals. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One, with a four-lobed stigma. Fruit. 
— A pod with silky-tufted seeds. 

In midsummer this striking plant begins to mass its deep- 
hued blossoms along the roadsides and low meadows. It is sup- 
posed to flourish with especial abundance in land that has newly 
been burned over; hence, its common name of fireweed. Its 
willow-like foliage has given it its other English title. The 
likeness between the blossoms of this plant and those of the 
evening primrose betray their kinship. When the stamens of 
the fireweed first mature and discharge their pollen the still im- 
mature style is curved backward and downward with its stigmas 
closed. Later it straightens and lengthens to its full dimensions, 
so spreading its four stigmas as to be in position to receive the 
pollen of another flower from the visiting bee. 



FIREWEED —Epilobium angusti/olium. 



Epilobium coloratiim. Evening Primrose Family. 

One to three feet high. Leaves. — Rather large; lance-shaped; sharply 
toothed. Flowers. — V^iS.^ pink; small ; more or less nodding, resembling ii^ 
structure those of the hairy willow-herb. Pistil. — One, with a club-shaped 

The small willow-herb is abundant in wet places in summer. 


Epilobium hirsutum. — Evening Primrose Family. 

Three to five feet high. Stem. — Densely hairy; stout; branching. 
Leaves. — Mostly opposite ; lance-oblong; finely toothed. Flozvers. — Pink, 
in the axils of the upper leaves, or in a leafy, short raceme. Calyx. — Four 
or five-parted. Corolla. — Of four petals. Stamens. — Eight. Pistil. — One, 
with a four-parted stigma. 

The hairy willow-herb is found in waste places, blossoming 
in midsummer. It is an emigrant from Europe. 


Spircea tomentosa. Rose Family. 

Stems. — Very woolly. Leaves. — Alternate; oval; toothed. Flowers. — 
Small; pink; in pyramidal clusters. CVr/j' jr. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Of 
five rounded petals. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Five to eight. 

The pink spires of this shrub justify its rather unpoetic name 
of steeple-bush. It is closely allied to the meadow-sweet, blos- 
soming with it in low ground during the summer. It differs 
from that plant in the color of its flowers and in the wooUiness 
of its stems and the lower surface of its leaves. 



' 3'.-4 

^1 .i.^" 




ST E £ P LE- BU SH.—Spircea totnentosa. 




Polygonum Pennsylvaniciim. Buckwheat Family. 

One to four feet high. Stem. — Branching. Leaves. — Alternate ; lance- 
shaped. Flowers. — Bright pink; growing in thick, short, erect spikes. 
Calyx. — Mostly five-parted ; the divisions petal -like, pink. Corolla. — None. 
Stamens. — Usually eight. Pistil. — One, with a two-cleft style. 

In late summer this plant can hardly escape notice. Its 
erect pink spikes direct attention to some neglected corner in 
the garden or brighten the field and roadside. The rosy divis- 
ions of the calyx persist till after the fruit has formed, pressing 
closely against the dark seed-vessel within. 


Polygonutn amphibium. Buckwheat Family. 

Growing in water or in mud. Leaves. — Usually floating; thick; smooth 
and shining above ; mostly long-stemmed ; somewhat oblong or lance-shaped. 
Flowers. — Small ; bright pink, thickly clustered in a close spike. Calyx. — 
Five-parted; petal-like; pink. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Five. Pis- 
til. — One, with a two-cleft style. 

This plant, as its name indicates, is found both on land and 
in the water, but usually it may be considered an aquatic. Its 
rose-colored flower-clusters tremble in the current of the stream 
and flush the borders of many a pond. 


Lythrum Salicaria. Loosestrife Family. 

Stcvi. — Tall and slender ; four-angled. Zmt/^j.— Lance-shaped, with a 
heart-shaped base ; sometimes whorled in threes. Flo^uers.—\y^^^ purple- 
pink ; crowded and whorled in an interrupted spike. Calyx. — Five to seven- 
toothed ; with little processes between the teeth. Corolla.— -Oi five or six 
somewhat wrinkled petals. Stamens.— \5%M2\\y twelve; in two sets, six 
longer and six shorter. Pistil.— One, varying in size in the different blos- 
soms, being of three different lengths. 

One who has seen an inland marsh in August aglow with 
this beautiful plant is almost ready to forgive the Old Country 



PINK KHOTV^EED.—Po/ysroi/um Peiinsylvanicunt. 

PLATE evil 



some of the many pests she has shipped to our shores in view of 
this radiant acquisition. The botany locates it anywhere be- 
tween Nova Scotia and Delaware. It may be seen in the per- 
fection of its beauty along the marshy shores of the Hudson and 
in the swamps of the Wallkill Valley. 

When we learn that these flowers are called "long purples" 
by the English country people, the scene of Ophelia's tragic 
death rises before us : 

" There is a willow grows aslant a brook, 
That shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream, 
There with fantastic garlands did she come, 
Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples 
That liberal shepherds give a grosser name, 
But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call them." 

Dr. Prior, however, says that it is supposed that Shakespeare in- 
tended to designate the purple flowering orchis, O. ??iascula, which 
is said closely to resemble the showy orchis of our spring woods. 
The flowers of the purple loosestrife are especially interesting 
to botanists on account of their trwio7'phism, which word signifies 
occurring in three forms, and refers to the stamens and pistils, 
which vary in size in the different blossoms, being of three dif- 
ferent lengths, the pollen from any given set of stamens being 
especially fitted to fertilize a pistil of corresponding length. 


Rhexia Virginica. Melastoma Family. 

Stem. — Square ; with wing-like angles. Leaves. — Opposite ; narrowly 
oval. Flmvers. — Purplish-pink; clustered. Calyx-tiibe. — Urn-shaped; four- 
cleft at the apex. Corolla. — Of four large, rounded petals. Stamens. — 
Eight, with long, curved anthers. Pistil. — One. 

It is always a pleasant surprise to happen upon a bright patch 
of these delicate deep-hued flowers along the marshes or in the 
sandy fields of midsummer. Their fragile beauty is of that order 
which causes it to seem natural that they should belong to a 
genus which is the sole northern representative of a tropical fam- 



MEADOW -BE AUTY —Rhexia Virginica, 



ily. In parts of New England they grow in profusion, while in 
Arkansas the plant is said to be a great favorite with the deer, 
hence one of its common names. The flower has been likened 
to a scarlet evening primrose, and there is certainly a suggestion 
of the evening primrose in the four-rounded, slightly heart-shaped 
petals. The protruding stamens, with their long yellow anthers, 
are conspicuous. 

Of the plant in the late year Thoreau writes : *^ The scarlet 
leaves and stems of the rhexia, sometime out of flower, make al- 
most as bright a patch in the meadows now as the flowers did. 
Its seed-vessels are perfect little cream-pitchers of graceful form." 


Phryma Leptostachya. Vervain Family. 

Two to three feet high ; with slender, branching stems. Leaves. — Op- 
posite ; oval ; coarsely toothed ; the lower long-stemmed. Flowers. — Pinkish; 
small, in long, slender terminal spikes. Calyx. — Two-lipped; the upper lip 
of three sharp teeth ; the lower shorter, twice toothed. Corolla. — Two-lipped; 
upper lip small, notched; the lower much larger ; three-lobed. Stamens. — 
Four ; in two pairs of unequal length ; within corolla. Pistil. — One ; with 
a slender style and two-lobed stigma. 

Very noticeable in summer in somewhat open woods are the 
slender, branching clusters made up of the small pink flowers of 
the lopseed. 

Later the hooked, slender teeth of the ribbed calyx close 
about the one-seeded fruit. The branching fruit-clusters then 
make this plant almost as conspicuous as during its flowering 


Sabhatia stellaris. Gentian Family. 

Stem. — Slender; loosely branched. Leaves. — Opposite; oblong to lance- 
shaped ; the upper narrowly linear. Floivers. — Large ; deep pure pink to 
almost white. Calyx. — Usually five-parted ; the lobes long and slender. 
Corolla. — Usually five-parted ; conspicuously marked with red and yellow 
in the centre. Stamens. — Usually five. Pistil. — One, with two-cleft style. 

The advancing year has few fairer sights to show us than a 
salt meadow flushed with these radiant blossoms. They are so 



LARGE SEA P\HK—Sa/>/'a/uj c lit oroides. 


abundant, so deep-hued, so delicate ! One feels tempted to lie 
down among the pale grasses and rosy stars in the sunshine of 
the August morning and drink his fill of their beauty. How 
often nature tries to the utmost our capacity of appreciation and 
leaves us still insatiate ! At such times it is almost a relief to 
turn from the mere contemplation of beauty to the study of its 
structure ; it rests our overstrained faculties. 

The vivid coloring and conspicuous marking of these flowers 
indicate that they aim to attract certain members of the insect 
world. As in the fireweed the pistil of the freshly opened blos- 
som is curved sideways, with its lobes so closed and twisted as 
to be inaccessible on their stigmatic surfaces to the pollen which 
the already mature stamens are discharging. When the effete 
anthers give evidence that they are hors de combat by their with- 
ered appearance, the style erects itself and spreads its stigmas. 

S, angularis is a species which may be found in rich soil in- 
land. Its somewhat heart-shaped, clasping, five-nerved leaves 
and angled stem serve to identify it. 

S. chloroides is a larger and peculiarly beautiful species which 
borders brackish ponds along the coast. Its corolla is about two 
inches broad and eight to twelve-parted. (PI. CIX.) 

Many of our readers will be interested in the following 
information, copied from ^'Garden and Forest," as to the 
tradition in Plymouth concerning the scientific name of this 
genus : 

'' No more beautiful flower grows in New England than the 
Sadbatia, and at Plymouth, where it is especially profuse and lux- 
uriant on the borders of the ponds so characteristic of that part of 
eastern Massachusetts, it is held in peculiar affection and, one may 
almost say, reverence. It is locally called ' the rose of Plymouth,' 
and during its brief season of bloom is sold in quantities in the 
streets of the town and used in the adornment of houses and 
churches. Its name comes from that of an early botanist, Libera- 
tus Sabbatia ; but this well-established truth is totally disregarded 
by local tradition. Almost every one in Plymouth firmly believes 
that the title is due to the fact that the Pilgrims of 1620 first saw 



the flower on a Sabbath day, and, entranced by its masses of 
pinkish lilac-color, named it for the holy day. Indeed, this 
belief is so deeply ingrained in the Plymouth mind that, we are 
told, strong objections are made if any other flowers are irrever- 
ently mingled with it in church decoration. Yet the legend was 
invented not more than twenty-five years ago by a man whose 
identity is still well remembered ; and thus it is of even more re- 
cent origin than the one, still more universally credited, which 
says that the Pilgrim Fathers landed upon Plymouth Rock." 


Lespedeza procumbens. Pulse Family. 

Stems. — Slender; trailing, and prostrate. Leaves. — Divided into three 
clover-like leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; purplish-pink ; veiny. Pod. 
— Small ; rounded ; flat ; one-seeded. 

The flowers of this plant often have the appearance of spring- 
ing directly from the earth amid a mass of clover leaves. They 
are common in dry soil in the late summer and autumn, as are 
the other members of the same genus. 

L. reticulata is an erect, very leafy species with similar 
blossoms, which are chiefly clustered near the upper part of the 
stem. The bush clovers betray at once their kinship with the 
tick-trefoils, but usually are found in more sandy, open places. 

Z. polystachya has upright wand-like stems from two to four 
feet high. Its yellowish flowers, usually with a pink or purple 
spot on the standard, grow in oblong spikes on elongated stalks. 
Those of Z. capitata are also yellowish with a purple spot, and 
are clustered in globular heads. 



ROSE MMLO"^— ///discus AIoscAeutos, 



[PI. cx 
Hibiscus Moscheiitos. Mallow Family. 

Stem. — Stout and tall; four to eight feet high. Leaves. — The lower 
three-lobed ; the upper oblong, whitish and downy beneath. Flowers. — 
Large and showy ; pink. Calyx. — Five-cleft, with a row of narrow bractlets 
beneath. Corolla. — Of five large petals. Stamens. — Many; on a tube 
which encloses the lower part of the style. Pistils. — Five ; united into one, 
with five stigmas which are like pin-heads. 

When the beautiful rose mallow slowly unfolds her pink ban- 
ner-like petals and admits the eager bee to her stores of golden 
pollen, then we feel that the summer is far advanced. As truly 
as the wood anemone and the blood-root seem filled with the 
essence of spring and the promise of the opening year, so does 
this stately flower glow with the maturity and fulfilment of late 
summer. Here is none of the timorousness of the early blossoms 
which peep shyly out, as if ready to beat a hasty retreat should 
a late frost overtake them, but rather a calm assurance that the 
time is ripe, and that the salt marshes and brackish ponds are 
only awaiting their rosy lining. 

The marsh mallow, whose roots yield the mucilaginous sub- 
stance utilized in the well-known confection, is Althcea offici- 
nalis , an emigrant from Europe. It is a much less common 
plant than the Hibiscus, its pale pink flowers being found in some 
of the salt marshes of New England and New York. 

The common mallow, Malva rotundifolia, which overruns 
the country dooryards and village waysides, is a little plant with 
rounded, heart-shaped leaves and small purplish flowers. It is 
used by the country people for various medicinal purposes and is 
cultivated and commonly boiled with meat in Egypt. Job pict- 
ures himself as being despised by those who had been themselves 
so destitute as to '' cut up mallows by the bushes ... for 
their meat." * 

* Job XXX. 4. 



MUSK MALLOW— M<7/va moschata. 


MAR5H ST. JOHN'S-WORT.— £■/<?</« campanulata, 




Malva Dioschata. Mallow Family. 

Erect, branching, one to two feet high. Stem-leaves. — Five-parted, the 
divisions cleft into linear lobes. Flowers. — Pink or white, clustered at the 
summit of the stem. Calyx. — Five-cleft, with three bracts at the base. 
Corolla. — Of five obcordate petals. Sta7)iens. — Numerous, united in a 
column. Pistils. — Several, their ovaries united in a ring. 

The musk mallow is an attractive foreign adventurer which 
has wandered from the garden to the roadside. Its faintly musk- 
like odor is responsible for its name. 



Elodes campanulata. St. John's-wort Family. 

Stem. — One to two feet high ; often pinkish ; later bright red. Leaves. — 
Opposite ; set close to the stem or clasping by a broad base. Floivers. — 
Pinkish or flesh-color ; small ; closely clustered at the summit of the stem 
and in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Of five sepals ; often pinkish. Corol- 
la. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Nine, in three sets ; the sets separated by 
orange-colored glands. Pistil. — One, with three styles. 

If one has been so unlucky, from the usual point of view, or 
so fortunate, looking at the matter with the eyes of the flower- 
lover, as to find himself in a rich marsh early in August, his eye 
is likely to fall upon the small, pretty pinkish flowers and pale 
clasping leaves of the marsh St. John's-wort. A closer inspec- 
tion will discover that the foliage is dotted with the pellucid 
glands, and that the stamens are clustered in groups after the 
family fashion. Should the same marsh be visited a few weeks 
later, dashes of vivid color will guide one to the spot where the 
little pink flowers were found. In their place glow the conspic- 
uous ovaries and bright leaves which make the plant very notice- 
able in late August. 

Elodes is a corruption from a Greek word which signifies 
growing in marshes. 




T\CK-TREf 0\L.—Des>ftoefiuffi Canadense. 



Desmodium nudijlorum. Pulse Family. 

Scape. — About two feet long. Leaves. — Divided into three broad leaf- 
lets; crowded at the summit of the flowerless stems. Flowers. — Papiliona- 
ceous ; purplish-pink ; small ; growing in an elongated raceme on a mostly 
leafless scape. 

This is a smaller, less noticeable plant than D. Canadense. 
It flourishes abundantly in dry woods, where it often takes pos- 
session in late summer to the exclusion of nearly all other flowers. 


Desmodium Canadense. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Hairy ; three to six feet high. Leaves. — Divided into three 
somewhat oblong leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; dull purplish-pink; 
growing in densely flowered racemes. Pod. — Flat; deeply lobed on the 
lower margin ; from one to three inches long ; roughened with minute 
hooked hairs by means of which it adheres to animals and clothing. 

Great masses of color are made by these flowers in the bogs 
and rich woods of midsummer. They are effective when seen 
in the distance, but rather disappointing on closer examination, 
and will hardly bear gathering or transportation. They are by 
far the largest and most showy of the genus. 

The flowers of D. acuminatum grow in an elongated raceme 
from a stem about whose summit the leaves, divided into very 
large leaflets, are crowded ; otherwise it resembles D. 7iudiflormn. 

D. Dillenii grows to a height of from two to five feet, with 
erect leafy stems and medium-sized flowers. It is found com- 
monly in open woods. 

Many of us who do not know these plants by name have 
uttered various imprecations against their roughened pods. 
Thoreau writes: ''Though you were running for your life, they 
would have time to catch and cling to your clothes. . . . 
These almost invisible nets, as it were, are spread for us, and 
whole coveys of desmodium and bidens seeds steal transporta- 



BOUNCING BET.—Saponaria qffkinalis. 


tion out of us. I have found myself often covered, as it were, 
with an imbricated coat of the brown desmodium seeds or a 
bristUng chevaux-de-frise of beggar-ticks, and had to spend a 
quarter of an hour or more picking them off in some convenient 
spot; and so they get just what they wanted — deposited in an- 
other place." 


[PI. cxiv 

Saponaria officinalis. Pink Family. 

Stem. — Rather stout ; swollen at the joints. Leaves. — Oval ; opposite. 
Flozvers. — Pink or white ; clustered. Calyx. — Of five united sepals. Co- 
rolla. — Of five pinkish, long-clawed petals (frequently the flowers are 
double). Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with two styles. 

A cheery pretty plant is this with large, rose-tinged flowers 
which are especially effective when double. 

Bouncing Bet is of a sociable turn and is seldom found far 
from civilization, delighting in the proximity of farm-houses and 
their belongings, in the shape of children, chickens, and cattle. 
She comes to us from England, and her '^ feminine comeliness 
and bounce " suggest to Mr. Burroughs a Yorkshire housemaid. 
The generic name is from sapo — soap — and refers to the lather 
which the juice forms with water, and which is said to have been 
used as a substitute for soap. 


Gerardia purpurea. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — One to four feet high; widely branching. Leaves. — Linear; 
sharply pointed. Flowers. — Bright purplish-pink ; rather large. Calyx. — 
Five-toothed. Corolla. — One inch long; somewhat tubular; swelling 
above ; with five more or less unequal, spreading lobes ; often downy and 
spotted within. Stamens. — Four; in pairs; hairy. Pistil. — One. 

In late summer and early autumn these pretty, noticeable 
flowers brighten the low-lying ground along the coast and in the 
neighborhood of the Great Lakes. The sandy fields of New 




PURPLE GERARD\/\.— Gerar(fia purpurea. 



England and Long Island are oftentimes a vivid mass of color 
owing to their delicate blossoms. The plant varies somewhat 
in the size of its flowers and in the manner of its growth. 

The little seaside gerardia, G. mariti7na, is from four inches to 
a foot high. Its smaller blossoms are also found in salt marshes. 

The slender gerardia, G. tenuifolia, is common in mountain- 
ous regions. The leaves of this species are exceedingly narrow. 
Like the false foxglove (PI. LXXXIII.) and other members of this 
genus, these plants are supposed to be parasitic in their habits. 


Pluchea camphorata. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Two to five feet high. Leaves. — Pale; thickish ; oblong or 
lance-shaped; toothed. Flower-heads. — Pink; small; in flat-topped clus- 
ters ; composed entirely of tubular flowers. 

In the salt marshes where we find the starry sea pinks and 
the feathery sea lavender, we notice a pallid-looking plant whose 
pink flower-buds are long in opening. It is late summer or 
autumn before the salt marsh fleabane is fairly in blossom. 
There is a strong fragrance to the plant which hardly suggests 
camphor, despite its specific title. 


Physostegia Virginiatia. Mint Family. 

Stems. — Square; upright; wand-like. Leaves. — Opposite; sessile; nar- 
row; usually toothed. Flowers. — Showy; rose-pink; purple- veined ; crowd- 
ed in terminal leafless spikes. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — One inch 
long; funnel-form, with an inflated throat; two-lipped. Upper lip erect; 
lower lip small, spreading, three-parted, its middle lobe the largest, broad 
and notched. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One, with two-lobed style. Ovary. 
— Deeply four-lobed. 

By the roadside, and in wet meadows, during the late sum- 
mer or even early in the fall, we find the pink clusters of the 
false dragon -head. 

These blossoms are likely to arouse the suspicion that the 






plant is related to the turtle-head, but the square stem and four- 
lobed ovary soon persuade us of its kinship with the members of 
the Mint Family. 


Polygonella articulata. (Formerly Polygonum articulatum.) Buckwheat 


Erect; branching; four to twelve inches high. Leaves. — Linear; incon- 
spicuous. Flotuers. — Rose-color; nodding; in very slender racemes. 
Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — None. Sta?nens. — Eight. Pistil. — One, 
with three styles. 

Under date of September 26th, Thoreau writes: ''The 
Polygonum articulatu7?i, giving a rosy tinge to Jenny's desert, is 
very interesting now, with its slender dense racemes of rose- 
tinted flowers, apparently without leaves, rising cleanly out of 
the sand. It looks warm and brave, a foot or more high, and 
mingled with deciduous blue curls. It is much divided, with 
many spreading, slender-racemed branches, with inconspicuous 
linear leaves, reminding me, both by its form and its colors, of a 
peach-orchard in blossom, especially when the sunlight falls on 
it ; minute rose-tinted flowers that brave the frosts, and advance 
the summer into fall, warming with their color sandy hill-sides 
and deserts, like the glow of evening reflected on the sand, ap- 
parently all flower and no leaf. Rising apparently with clean 
bare stems from the sand, it spreads out into this graceful head 
of slender, rosy racemes, wisp-like. This little desert of less 
than an acre blushes with it. 


Eupatorium purpiireum. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Stout and tall ; two to twelve feet high ; often dotted. Leaves. 
— In whorls of three to six ; oblong or oval ; pointed ; rough ; veiny ; 
toothed. Flower-heads. — Purplish-pink ; small ; composed entirely of tubu- 
lar blossoms, with long protruding styles ; growing in large clusters at or 
near the summit of the stem. 

The summer is nearly over when the tall, conspicuous Joe- 
Pye-weeds begin to tinge with '' crushed raspberry " the low- 



lands through which we pass. In parts of the country it is near- 
ly as common as the golden-rods and asters which appear at 
about the same season. With the deep purple of the iron-weed 
it gives variety to the intense hues which herald the coming of 

'' Joe Pye" is said to have been the name of an Indian who 
cured typhus fever in New England by means of this plant. The 
tiny trumpet-shaped blossoms which make up the flower-heads 
may have suggested the other common name. 


Mikania scandens. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Twining and climbing; nearly smooth. Leaves. — Opposite; 
somewhat triangular-heart-shaped ; pointed ; toothed at the base. Flower- 
heads. — Pink or whitish ; composed of four tubular flowers ; clustered ; 
resembling boneset. 

In late summer one often finds the thickets which line the 
slow streams nearly covered with the flowers of the climbing 
hemp-weed. At first sight the likeness to the boneset is so 
marked that the two plants are often confused, but a second 
glance discovers the climbing stems and triangular leaves which 
clearly distinguish this genus. 




[Red or occasionally Red Flowers not found in Red Section.] 

Wood Betony. Pediculans Canadensis. April or May. 

(Yellow Section, p. 128.) 

H"uckleberries, etc. . May and June. (White Section, pp. 51-54) 

Herb Robert. Geraninm Robei'tiamcm. Summer. (Pink Section, p. 226.) 


Aquilegia Canadensis. Crowfoot Family. 

Twelve to eighteen inches high. Stems. — Branching. Leaves. — Much- 
divided ; the leaflets lobed. Flowers. — Large; bright red ; yellow within; 
nodding. Calyx. — Of five red petal-like sepals. Corolla, — Of five petals 
in the form of large hollow spurs, which are red without and yellow within. 
Stamens. — Numerous. Pistils. — Five, with slender styles. 

** A woodland walk, 

A quest of river-grapes, a mocking thrush, 
A wild-rose or rock-loving columbine, 
Salve my worst wounds," 

declares Emerson ; and while perhaps few among us are able to 
make so light-hearted and sweeping a claim for ourselves, yet 
many will admit the soothing power of which the woods and 
fields know the secret, and will own that the ordinary annoy- 
ances of life may be held more or less in abeyance by one who 
lives in close sympathy with nature. 

About the columbine there is a daring loveliness which stamps 



WILD COLUMBINE— ^7;/>/^^7,/ Camuieusis. 


it on the memories of even those who are not ordinarily minute 
observers. It contrives to secure a foothold in the most precipi- 
tous and uncertain of nooks, its jewel-like flowers gleaming from 
their lofty perches with a graceful insouciance which awakens our 
sportsmanlike instincts and fires us with the ambition to equal it 
in daring and make its loveliness our own. Perhaps it is as well 
if our greediness be foiled and we get a tumble for our pains, for 
no flower loses more with its surroundings than the columbine. 
Indeed, these destructive tendencies, which, are strong within 
most of us, generally defeat themselves by decreasing our pleas- 
ure in a blossom the moment we have ruthlessly and without 
purpose snatched it from its environment. If we honestly wish 
to study its structure, or to bring into our homes for preserva- 
tion a bit of the woods' loveliness, its interest and beauty are 
sure to repay us. But how many pluck every striking flower 
they see only to toss it carelessly aside when they reach their 
destination, if they have not already dropped it by the way. 
Surely if in such small matters sense and self-control were incul- 
cated in children, more would ^row up to the poet's standard of 
worthiness : 

" Hast thou named all the birds without a gun ? 
Loved the wood-rose and left it on its stalk ? 
At rich men's tables eaten bread and pulse ? 
Unarmed, faced danger with a heart of trust ? 
And loved so well a high behavior, 
In man or maid, that thou from speech refrained, 
Nobility more nobly to repay ? 
O, be my friend, and teach me to be thine ! " * 

The name of columbine is derived from coloinba — a dove, 
but its significance is disputed. Some believe that it was asso- 
ciated with the bird-like claws of the blossom ; while Dr. Prior 
maintains that it refers to the ''resemblance of its nectaries to 
the heads of pigeons in a ring around a dish, a favorite device 
of ancient artists." 

* Emerson. 


The meaning of the generic title is also doubtful. Gray de- 
rives it from aquilegus — water-drawing, but gives no further ex- 
planation, while other writers claim that it is from aqtiila, an 
eagle, seeing a likeness to the talons of an eagle in the curved 


Trillium erectum. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Stout; from a tuber-like rootstock. Leaves. — Broadly ovate; 
three in a whorl a short distance below the flower. Flower. — Single ; termi- 
nal ; usually purplish red, occasionally whitish, pinkish, or greenish ; on an 
erect or somewhat inclined flower-stalk. Calyx. — Of three green spreading 
sepals. Corolla. — Of three large lance-shaped petals. Stamens. — Six. 
Pistil. — One, with three large spreading stigmas. Fruit. — A large, ovate, 
six-angled reddish berry. 

This wake robin is one of the few self-assertive flowers of the 
early year. Its contemporaries act as if somewhat uncertain as 
to whether the spring had really come to stay, but no such lack 
of confidence possesses our brilliant young friend, who almost 
flaunts her lurid petals in our faces, as if to force upon us the 
welcome news that the time of birds and flowers is at hand. 
Pretty and suggestive as is the common name, it is hardly appro- 
priate, as the robins have been on the alert for many days before 
our flower unfurls its crimson signal. Its odor is most un- 
pleasant. Its reddish fruit is noticeable in the woods of late 

The sessile trillium, T. sessile, has no separate flower-stalk, 
its red or greenish blossom being set close to the stem leaves. It»o 
petals are narrower, and its leaves are often blotched or spotted. 
Its berry is globular, six-angled, and red or purplish. 

The wake robins are native to North America, only one 
species being found just beyond the boundaries in the Russian 





WAKE RQ^m.— Trillium erectum. 




Castilleia coccinea. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Hairy; six inches to a foot high. Root-leaves. — Clustered; ob- 
long. Stem-leaves. — Incised ; those among the flowers three to five-cleft, 
bright scarlet toward the summit ; showy. Flowers. — Pale yellow ; spiked. 
Calyx. — Tubular; flattened. Coivlla. — Two-lipped; its upper lip long and 
narrow; its lower short and three-lobed. Stamens. — Four; unequal. 
Pistil. — One. 

" Scarlet tufts 

Are glowing in the green like flakes of fire ; 
The wanderers of the prairie know them well, 
And call that brilliant flower the painted cup."* 

But we need not go to the prairie in order to see this plant, 
for it is equally abundant in certain low sandy New England 
meadows as well as in the near vicinity of New York City. Un- 
der date of June 3d, Thoreau graphically describes its appearance 
near Concord, Mass. : "The painted cup is in its prime. It 
reddens the meadow, painted-cup meadow. It is a splendid 
show of brilliant scarlet, the color of the cardinal flower, and 
surpassing it in mass and profusion. . . . I do not like the 
name. It does not remind me of a cup, rather of a flame when 
it first appears. It might be called flame-flower, or scarlet tip. 
Here is a large meadow full of it, and yet very few in the town 
have ever seen it. It is startling to see a leaf thus brilliantly 
painted, as if its tip were dipped into some scarlet tincture, sur- 
passing most flowers in intensity of color." 


Sarracenia purpurea. Pitcher Plant P'amily. 

Scape. — Naked ; one- flowered ; about one foot high. Leaves. — Pitcher- 
shaped ; broadly winged ; hooded. Flozuer. — Red, pink, or greenish ; large ; 
nodding. Calyx. — Of five colored sepals, with three bractlets at the base. 
Corolla. — Of five fiddle-shaped petals which are arched over the greenish- 
yellow style. Stamens. — Numerous. Pistil. — One, with a short style 
which expands at the summit into a petal-like umbrella-shaped body, with 
five small hooked stigmas. 

* Bryant. 



PAINTED CUP C as til Lei a coccinea. 


The first finding of even the leaves of the pitcher plant is 
not to be forgotten. For the leaves not only attract attention 
by their occasional rich markings, and by their odd pitcher-like 
shape, but they arouse curiosity by the trap which they set for 
unwary insects. They are partly lined with a sugary exudation, 
below which, for a space, they are highly polished, while still lower 
grow stiff, down-pointing bristles. Insects attracted by the sweet 
secretion soon find themselves prisoners, as they can seldom fight 
their way upward through the opposing bristles, or escape by a 
flight so perpendicular as would be necessary from the form of the 
cavity. It is rarely that one finds a plant whose leaves are not 
partially filled with water and drowned insects, and these latter 
are believed to contribute to its nourishment. In an entry in 
his journal one September, Thoreau writes of a certain swamp : 

" Though the moss is comparatively dry, I cannot walk with- 
out upsetting the numerous pitchers, which are now full of water, 
and so wetting my feet ; " and continues : "I once accidentally 
sat down on such a bed of pitcher plants, and found an uncom- 
monly wet seat where I expected a dry one. These leaves are 
of various colors, from plain green to a rich striped yellow or 
deep red. Old Josselyn called this 'hollow-leaved lavender.' 
I think we have no other plant so singular and remarkable." 
And November 15th he finds "■ the water frozen solid in the 
leaves of the pitcher plant. ' ' But singular and interesting though 
these leaves are, the greatest charm of the plant, it seems to me, 
lies in its beautiful and unusual flower. This flower we find, if 
we have the luck, during the early part of June. Although I be- 
lieve its most frequent color is red (Thoreau likens it to " a great 
dull red rose," but Gray accuses it of being ''deep purple"), 
I have usually found it either pink or green — fresh delicate 
shades of both colors — and with a fragrance suggesting sandal- 

And though (unlike some fortunate friends) I have never found 
these blossoms rearing themselves by the hundred in an open 
swamp, baring their beauty to the sunlight, it will be long before 
I forget the throb of delight which followed my first sight of the 



plant in a shaded bog, where its delicately tinted flowers nodded 
almost undetected under bending ferns and masses of false helle- 


Lilium Philadelphicum. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Two to three feet high. Leaves. — Whorled or scattered ; nar- 
rowly lance-shaped. Flozver. — Erect; orange-red or scarlet, spotted with 
purple. Perianth. — Of six erect narrowly clawed sepals, with nectar-bearing 
furrows at their base. Stamens. — Six. Pistil. — One, with three-lobed 

Here and there in the shadowy woods is a vivid dash of color 
made by some wild red lily which has caught a stray sunbeam in 
its glowing cup. The purple spots on its sepals guide the greedy 
bee to the nectar at their base ; we too can take the hint and 
reap a sweet reward if we will, after which we are more in sym- 
pathy with those eager, humming bees. 

This erect, deep-hued flower is so different from its nodding 
sister of the meadows, that we wonder that the two should be so 
often confused. When seen away from its surroundings it has 
less charms perhaps than either the yellow or the Turk's-cap lily ; 
but when it rears itself in the cool depths of its woodland home 
we feel the uniqueness of its beauty. 


Lilium stiperbtcm. Lily Family. 

Stem. — Three to seven feet high. Leaves. — Lance-shaped ; the lower 
whorled. Flowers. — Orange or scarlet, with purple spots within; three 
inches long ; from three to forty growing in pyramidal clusters. Perianth. 
— Of six strongly recurved sepals. Stamens. — Six, with long anthers. 
Pistil. — One, with a three-lobed stigma. 

" Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; 
They toil not, neither do they spin ; 

And yet I say unto you, that even Solomon in all his glory 
Was not arrayed like one of these." 

How they come back to us, the beautiful hackneyed lines, 
and flash into our memories with new significance of meaning 



PITCHER PL^UT—Sarracc>l^a purpurea. 


WOOD ULY.—Lz'UuM Philadelphicutn. 


when we chance suddenly upon a meadow bordered with these 
the most gorgeous of our wild flowers. 

We might doubt whether our native lilies at all resembled 
those alluded to in the scriptural passage, if we did not know 
that a nearly allied species grew abundantly in Palestine ; for we 
have reason to believe that lily was a title freely applied by many 
Oriental poets to any beautiful flower. 

Perhaps this plant never attains far inland the same luxuri- 
ance of growth which is common to it in some of the New Eng- 
land lowlands near the coast. Its radiant, nodding blossoms 
are seen in great profusion as we travel by rail from New York 
to Boston. 


Asclepias tuberosa. Milkweed Family. 

Stem. — Rough and hairy; one to two feet high; erect; very leafy, 
branching at the summit ; without milky juice. Leaves. — Linear to narrow- 
ly lance-shaped. Flozvers. — Bright orange-red; in flat-topped, terminal 
clusters, otherwise closely resembling those of the common milkweed. Fruit. 
— Two hoary erect pods, one of them often stunted. 

Few if any of our native plants add more to the beauty of the 
midsummer landscape than the milkweeds, and of this family no 
member is more satisfying to the color-craving eye than fhe 
gorgeous butterfly-weed, whose vivid flower clusters flame from 
the dry sandy meadows with such luxuriance of growth as to 
seem almost tropical. Even in the tropics one hardly sees any- 
thing more brilliant than the great masses of color made by 
these flowers along some of our New England railways in July, 
while farther south they are said to grow even more profuse- 
ly. Its gay coloring has given the plant its name of butterfly- 
weed,* while that of pleurisy-root arose from the belief that 
the thick, deep root was a remedy for pleurisy. The Indians 
used it as food and prepared a crude sugar from the flowers ; the 
young seed-pods they boiled and ate with buffalo-meat. The 

* It is believed by some that the name springs from the fact that butterflies 
visit the plant. 



TURK'S CAP UV/ — Lilt urn superbum. 


plant is worthy of cultivation and is easily transplanted, as the 
fleshy roots when broken in pieces form new plants. Oddly 
enough, at the Centennial Exhibition much attention was at- 
tracted by a bed of these beautiful plants which were brought 
from Holland. Truly, flowers, like prophets, are not without 
honor save in their own country. 


Monarda didyma. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Square ; erect ; about two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite ; ovate, 
pointed; aromatic; those near the flowers tinged with red. Flowers. — 
Bright red; clustered in a close round head. Calyx. — Reddish; five- 
toothed. Corolla. — Elongated ; tubular ; two-lipped. Stamens. — Two ; 
elongated; protruding. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style; protruding. 

We have so few red flowers that when one flashes suddenly 
upon us it gives us a pleasant thrill of wonder and surprise. 
The red flowers know so well how to enhance their beauty by 
seeking an appropriate setting. They select the rich green back- 
grounds only found in moist, shady places, and are peculiarly 
charming when associated with a lonely marsh or a mountain- 
brook. The bee balm especially haunts these cool nooks, and 
its rounded flower-clusters touch with warmth the shadows of 
the damp woods of midsummer. The Indians named the flower 
O-gee-chee — flaming flower, and are said to have made a tea- 
like decoction from the blossoms. 


Cynoglossum officinale. Borage Family. 

Stem. — Clothed with soft hairs. Leaves. — Alternate ; hairy ; the upper 
ones lance-shaped ; clasping somewhat by a rounded or heart-shaped base. 
Flowers. — Purplish-red; growing in a curved raceme-like cluster which 
straightens as the blossoms expand. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — 
P'unnel-form ; five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A 
large nutlet roughened with barbed or hooked prickles. 

This coarse plant, whose disagreeable odor strongly suggests 
mice, is not only a troublesome weed in pasture-land but a 



BUTTERFLY-WEED.— ^^c:/^//ai tuberosa, 


special annoyance to wool-growers, as its prickly fruit adheres 
tvith pertinacity to the fleece of sheep. Its common name is a 
translation of its generic title and refers to the shape and texture 
of the leaves. The dull red flowers appear in summer. 


Anagallis arvensis. Primrose Family. 

Stems. — Low ; spreading. Leaves. — Opposite ; ovate ; set close to the 
stem; usually with dark spots. Flowers. — Bright red, occasionally blue or 
white; growing singly from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Five-parted. 
Corolla. — Five-parted; wheel-shaped. Stamens. — Five, with bearded fila- 
ments. Pistil. — One. 

This flower is found in clefts of rocks or in sandy fields, and 
is noted for its sensitiveness to the weather. It folds its petals at 
the approach of rain and fails to open at all on a wet or cloudy 
day. Even in fine weather it closes in the early afternoon and 
''sleeps" till the next morning. Its ripened seeds are of value 
as food for many song-birds. It was thought at one time to be 
serviceable in liver complaints, which reputed virtue may have 
given rise to the old couplet : 

" No ear hath heard, no tongue can tell 
The virtues of the pimpernell." 


Hieraciiun atirantiacum. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Hairy; erect. Leaves. — Hairy; oblong; close to the ground. 
Flower-heads. — Orange-red; composed entirely of strap-shaped flowers, 

In parts of New York and of New England the midsummer 
meadows are ablaze with the brilliant orange-red flowers of this 
striking European weed. It is among the most recent emigrants 
to this country and bids fair to become an annoyance to the 
farmer, hence its not altogether inappropriate title of devil's 
paintbrush. In England it was called "Grimm the Collier," 




TRUMPET HOHEYSUCKLE.—Lomcera semper^iirens. 



on account of its black hairs and after a comedy of the same title 
which was popular during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Both 
its common and generic names refer to an ancient superstition 
to the effect that birds of prey used the juices of this genus to 
strengthen their eyesight. 


Lobelia cardinalis. Lobelia Family. 

Stem. — From two to four feet high. Leaves. — Alternate; narrowly ob- 
long ; slightly toothed. Flowers. — Bright red ; growing in a raceme. 
Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Somewhat two-lipped ; the upper lip of two 
rather erect lobes, the lower spreading and three-cleft. Stamens. — Five, 
united into a tube. Pistil. — One, with a fringed stigma. 

We have no flower which can vie with this in vivid coloring. 
In late summer its brilliant red gleams from the marshes or is re- 
flected from the shadowy water's edge with unequalled intensity — 

'* As if some wounded eagle's breast 
Slow throbbing o'er the plain, 
Had left its airy path impressed 
In drops of scarlet rain." * 

The early French Canadians were so struck with its beauty that 
they sent the plant to France as a specimen of what the wilds of 
the New World could yield. Perhaps at that time it received 
its English name which likens it to the gorgeously attired dig- 
nitaries of the Roman Church. 


[PI. cxxiv 

Lonicera sempervirens. Honeysuckle Family. 

A twining shrub. Leaves. — Entire; opposite; oblong; the upper pairs 
united around the stem. Flowers. — Deep red without, yellowish within; 
in close clusters from the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx. — With very 
short teeth. Corolla. — Trumpet-shaped; five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A red or orange berry. 

Many of us are so familiar with these flowers in our gardens 
that we have, perhaps, considered them ''escapes" when we 

* Holmes. 


CARDINAL FLOWER— Ao/W/V? Cardinalis. 


found them brightening the pasture thicket where really they are 
most at home, appearing at any time from May till October. 

The fragrant woodbine, L. grata, is also frequently culti- 
vated. Its natural home is the rocky woodlands, where its 
sweet-scented whitish or yellowish flowers appear in May. Its 
stamens and style protrude conspicuously beyond the corolla- 
tube, which is an inch in length. 




[Blue or Purple or occasionally Blue or Purple flowers not found 

in Blue and Purple Section.] 

Wood Anemone. Anemone nemorosa. April and May. 

(White Section, p. 4.) 

Rue Anemone. Anemonella thalictroides. April and May. 

(White Section, p. 6.) 

Fringed Polygala. Polygala paiuifolia. May. (Pink Section, p. 210.) 

Showy Orchis. Orchis spectabilis. May. (Pink Section, p. 200.) 

. Calopogon piilchellus. June and July. (Pink Section, p. 218.) 

Adder's Mouth. Pogonia ophioglossoides. June and July. 

(Pink Section, p. 216.) 

Daisy Fleabane. Erigeron annuns. Summer. (White Section, p. 60.) 

Purple-flowering Raspberry. Rnbjis odoratus. Early summer. 

(Pink Section, p. 222.) 

Purple Milkweed. Asclepias pnrpurascens. Early summer. 

(Pink Section, p. 229.) 

Purple Loosestrife. Lythnim Salicaria. Late summer. 

(Pink Section, p. 234.) 

Thorn-apple. Datura Tatula. Late summer. (White Section, p. 98.) 


Ilepaiica triloba. Crowfoot Family. 

Scape. — Fuzzy; one-flowered. Leaves. — Rounded; three-lobed ; from 
the root. Flowers. — Blue, white, or pinkish. Calyx. — Of si.x to twelve 
petal-like sepals ; easily taken for a corolla, because directly underneath are 
three little leaves which resemble a calyx. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — 
Usually numerous. Pistils. — Several. 

"The liver-leaf puts forth her sister blooms 
Of faintest blue " 

soon after the late snows have melted. Indeed these fragile- 
looking, enamel-like flowers are sometimes found actually be- 



LIVERWORT.— //^/rt^Vrt triloba. 



neath the snow, and form one of the many instances which we 
encounter among flowers, as among their human contemporaries, 
where the frail and deUcate-looking withstand storm and stress 
far better than their more robust-appearing brethren. We wel- 
come these tiny newcomers with especial joy, not alone for their 
delicate beauty, but because they are usually the first of all the 
flowers upon the scene of action, if we rule out the never-tardy 
skunk-cabbage. The rusty leaves of last summer are obliged to 
suffice for the plant's foliage until some little time after the blos- 
soms have appeared, when the young fresh leaves begin to uncurl 
themselves. Someone has suggested that the fuzzy little buds 
look as though they were still wearing their furs as a protection 
against the wintry weather which so often stretches late into our 
spring. The flowers vary in color from a lovely blue to pink or 
white. They are found chiefly in the woods, but occasionally 
on the sunny hill-sides as well. 

The generic name, Hepatica^ is from the Greek for liver, and 
was probably given to the plant on account of the shape of its 
leaf. Dr. Prior says that ^' in consequence of this fancied like- 
ness it was used as a remedy for liver-complaints, the common 
people having long labored under the belief that Nature indicated 
in some such fashion the uses to which her creations might be 


Viola pahnata ; var. cticiillata. Violet Family. 

Scape. — Slender; one-flowered. Leaves. — Heart-shaped, all from the 
root. F!(nve7's. — Varying from a pale blue to deep purple, borne singly on 
a scape. Calyx. — Of five sepals extended into ears at the base. Corolla. — 
Of five somewhat unequal petals, the lower one spurred at the base. Sta- 
mens. — Short and broad, somewhat united around the pistil. Pistil. — One, 
with a club-shaped style and bent stigma. 

Perhaps this is the best-beloved as well as the best-known of 

the early wild flowers. Whose heart has not been gladdened at 

one time or another by a glimpse of some fresh green nook in 

early May where 

" purple violets lurk, 

With all the lovely children of the shade ? " 



BIRD-FOOT VIOLET— r/o/rt- pcdata. 


It seems as if no other flower were so suggestive of the dawning 
year, so associated with the days when hfe was full of promise. 
Although I believe that more than a hundred si:)ecies of violets 
have been recorded, only about thirty are found in our country ; 
of these perhaps twenty are native to the Northeastern States. 
Unfortunately we have no strongly sweet-scented species, none 

** sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes 

Or Cytherea's breath, — " 

as Shakespeare found the English blossom. Prophets and war- 
riors as well as poets have favored the violet ; Mahomet preferred 
it to all other flowers, and it was chosen by the Bonapartes as 
their emblem. 

Perhaps its frequent mention by ancient writers is explained 
by the discovery that the name was once applied somewhat indis- 
criminately to sweet-scented blossoms. J-u^.^ -i, i f • ^ 

The bird-foot violet, V.pedata (Plate CXXVII), unlike other 
members of the family, has leaves which are divided into linear 
lobes. Its flower is peculiarly lovely, being large and velvety. 
The variety, V. bicolor, is especially striking and pansy-like, its 
two upper petals being of a deeper hue than the others. It is 
found in the neighborhood of Washington in abundance, and 
on the shaly soil of New Jersey. 

An interesting feature of many of these plants is their cleis- 
togamous flowers. These are small and inconspicuous blossoms, 
which never open (thus guarding their pollen against all depreda- 
tions), but which are self-fertilized, ripening their seeds in the 
dark. They are usually found near or beneath the ground, and 
are often taken for immature buds. 



Viola canina ; var. Mtihlenbergii. Violet Family. 

Three to eight inches high. Stems. — Leafy. Leaves. — Heart-shaped; 
wavy-toothed. Flozvers. — Pale violet. 

This is the commonest blue species of the leafy-stemmed vio- 
lets. It is found in wet, shady places from May till July. 






Hoiistonia carulea. Madder Family. 

Stet7i. — Erect ; three to five inches high. Leaves. — Very small ; oppo- 
site. Flowers. — .Small ; delicate blue, lilac, or nearly white, with a yellow- 
ish eye. Calyx. — P'our-lobed. Corolla. — Salver-shaped ; four-lobed ; co- 
rolla-tube long and slender. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One, with two 

No one who has been in New England during the month 
of May can forget the loveliness of the bluets. The road- 
sides, meadows, and even the lawns are thickly carpeted with 
the dainty enamel-like blossoms, which are always pretty, but 
which seems to flourish with especial vigor and in great profusion 
in this lovely region. Less plentiful, perhaps, but still common 
is the little plant in grassy places far south and west, blossoming 
in early spring. 

The flowers are among those which botanists term *' dimor- 
phous." This word signifies occurring in two forms, and refers 
to the stamens and pistils, which vary in size, some flowers hav- 
ing a tall pistil and short stamens, others tall stamens and a short 
pistil. Darwin has proved, not only that one of these flowers 
can seldom fully fertilize itself, but that usually the blossoms 
with tall pistils must be fertilized with pollen from the tall sta- 
mens, and that the short pistils are only acted upon by the short 
stamens. With a good magnifier and a needle these two forms 
can easily be studied. This is one of the many interesting safe- 
guards against close fertilization. 


Nepeta Glechoma. Mint Family. 

Stems. — Creeping and trailing. Leaves. — Small and kidney-shaped. 
Floivers. — Bluish-purple ; loosely clustered in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. 
— Five-toothed. Corolla. — Two-lipped ; the upper lip erect and two-cleft, 
the lower spreading and three-cleft. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One, two- 
lobed at the apex. 

As the pleasant aroma of its leaves suggests, this little plant 
is closely allied to the catnip. Its common title of Gill-over-the- 





DOG VIOLET— /'/('/<? caiiiiia: r>ir. Mitlilnihrri('n. 


BLUETS. — Houstonia cctrulea. 



ground appeals to one who is sufficiently without interest in 
pasture-land (for it is obnoxious to cattle) to appreciate the 
pleasant fashion in which this little immigrant from Europe has 
made itself at home here, brightening the earth with such a gen- 
erous profusion of blossoms every May. But it is somewhat of a 
disappointment to learn that this name is derived from the French 
guiller, and refers to its former use in the fermentation of beer. 
Oddly enough the name of alehoof, which the plant has borne in 
England and which naturally has been supposed to refer to this 
same custom, is said by a competent authority (Professor Earle, 
of Oxford) to have no connection with it, but to signify another 
sort of hofe, hofe being the early English name for the violet, 
which resembles these flowers in color. 

The plant was highly prized formerly as a domestic medicine. 
Gerarde claims that ''boiled in mutton-broth it helpeth weake 
and akeing backs. 



Delphinium. Crowfoot Family. 

Six inches to five feet high. Leaves. — Divided or cut. Flowers. — Blue 
or purplish ; growing in terminal racemes. Calyx. — Of five irregular petal- 
like sepals ; the upper one prolonged into a spur. Co7'olla. — Of four irregu- 
lar petals ; the upper pair continued backward in long spurs which are en- 
closed in the spur of the calyx, the lower pair with short claws. Stamens. 
— Indefinite in number. Pistils. — One to five, forming pods in fruit. 

In April and May the bright blue clusters of the dwarf lark- 
spur, £>. tricorne, are noticeable in parts of the country. Un- 
fortunately they are not found east of Western Pennsylvania. 

The tall, wand-like purplish racemes of the tall larkspur, D. 
exaltatmn, are found in July in the rich soil of Pennsylvania, 
and much farther south and west as well. 


Erigeron bellidif alius. Composite Family. 

Ste7n. — Simple; hairy; producing oiTsets from the base. Root-leaves. — 
Somewhat rounded or wedge-shaped. Stem-leaves. — Somewhat oblong; 
lance-shaped ; partly clasping. Flower-heads. — Rather large ; on slender 




WILD GERANIUM. — (7fra«/«/« viaculaiutn. 


flower-Stalks ; composed of both strap-shaped and tubular flowers ; the 
former (ray-flowers) bluish-purple, the latter (disk-flowers) yellow. 

This is one of the earhest members of the Composite family 
to make its appearance, that great tribe being usually associated 
with the late summer months. The flower might easily be taken 
for a purple aster which had mistaken the season, or for a blue 
daisy, as one of its common names suggests. 


Geramum inaatlattini. Geranium ramily. 

Ste7n. — Erect ; hairy. Leaves. — About five-parted, the divisions lobed 
and cut. Flowers. — Pale pink-purple ; rather large. Calyx. — Of five se- 
pals. Corolla. — Of five petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — With five styles, 
which split apart at maturity so elastically as to discharge the seeds to some 

In spring and early summer the open woods and shaded 
roadsides are abundantly brightened with these graceful flowers. 
They are of peculiar interest because of their close kinship with 
the species, G. pratense, which first attracted the attention of 
the German scholar, Sprengel, to the close relations existing 
between flowers and insects. The beak-like appearance of its 
fruit gives the plant both its popular and scientific names, for 
geratiium is from the Greek for crane. The specific title, 
jnactilatiifn, refers to the somewhat blotched appearance of the 
older leaves. 


Phlox divaricata. Polemonium Family. 

Nine to eighteen inches high. Stems. — Spreading or ascending. Leaves. 
— Opposite; oblong or lance-oblong. Flowers. — Pale lilac-purple; in a 
loose, spreading cluster. Calyx. — With five slender teeth. Corolla. — With 
a five-parted border; salver-shaped; with a long tube. Staviens. — Five; 
unequally inserted in the tube of the corolla. Pistil. — One, with a three- 
lobed style. 

We may search for these graceful, delicately tinted flowers in 
the rocky woods of April and May. 



Nearly allied to them is the wild Sweet William, P. maculata, 
the pink-purple blossoms of which are found along the streams 
and in the rich woods of somewhat southern localities. 

The beautiful moss pink, P. subulata (p, 204), is also a mem- 
ber of this genus. 


CoUinsia verna. Figwort Family. 

Six to twenty inches high. Stems. — Branching ; slender. Leaves. — Op- 
posite ; the lower oval, the upper ovate-lance-shaped ; clasping by the heart- 
shaped base. Flowers. — Blue and white, long-stalked; appearing whorled 
in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx. — Deeply five-cleft. Corolla. — 
Deeply two-lipped ; the upper lip two-cleft, the lower three-cleft. Stamens. 
— Four. Pistil. — One. 

Unfortunately these dainty flowers are not found farther east 
than Western New York.' From there they spread south and 
westward, abounding so plentifully in the vicinity of Cincinnati 
that the moist meadows are blue with their blossoms in spring or 
early summer. ^..ClT. -.• 


Mertensia Virginica. Borage Family. 

One to two feet high. Stem. — Smooth; pale, erect. Leaves. — Oblong; 
veiny. Flowers. — Blue, pinkish in bud ; in raceme-like clusters which are 
rolled up from the end and straighten as the flowers expand. Calyx. — Five- 
cleft. Corolla. — Trumpet-shaped; one inch long ; spreading. Stavicns. — 
Five. Fistil.— One. 

These very lovely blossoms are found in moist places during 
April and May in parts of New York as well as south and west- 
ward. The English naturalist, Mr. Alfred Wallace, seeing them, 
for the first time, in the vicinity of Cincinnati, writes in the 
Fortnightly Review: '' In a damp river bottom the exquisite 
blue Mertensia Virgiiiica was found. It is called here the 'Vir- 
ginian cowslip,' its drooping porcelain -blue bells being somewhat 
of the size and form of those of the true cowslip. 




Mertensia maritima. Borage Family. 

Smooth, fleshy, spreading. Leaves. — Ovate or wedge-shaped, with a 
bloom. Flaivers. — Blue ; occasionally white ; pink in bud ; clustered. 
Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Bell-shaped; five-lobed. Sta7nens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One, with a deeply four-parted ovary. 

On the sandy beaches along the coast from Massachusetts 
northward, or perhaps on the pebbly rocks, the sea-lungwort 
spreads its mats of pale, bluish-green leaves. These leaves blend 
harmoniously with their background of gray sand, or of rounded, 
wave-washed, bluish stones, forming oftentimes great beds of 
foliage so symmetrical in their star-like or horseshoe-shaped out- 
lines as to suggest the gardener's art rather than the wayward 
whims of an undomesticated plant. The pink flower-buds are 
noticeable late in June. They open into small, somewhat bell- 
shaped blue or occasionally white blossoms. As the flowers open 
one by one, the result is an attractive combination of delicate 
pinks and blues, a combination which recalls the kinship of these 
blossoms with the blue-weed and the forget-me-not. 



Sisyrinchiwn angustifoliiwi. Iris Family. 

Four to twelve inches high. Leaves. — Narrow and grass-like. Flowers. 
— Blue or purple, with a yellow centre. Perianth. — Six-parted ; the divisions 
bristle-pointed. Staviens. — Three, united. Pistil. — One, with three thread- 
like stigmas. 

" For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat. 
But it withereth the grass. 
And the flower thereof falleth. 
And the grace of the fashion of it perisheth." 

So reads the passage in the Epistle of St. James, which seems 
so graphically to describe the brief life of this little flower that 
we might almost believe the Apostle had had it in mind, were it 
to be found in the East. 



The blue-eyed grass belongs to the same family as the showy 
fleur-de-lis, and blossoms during the summer, being especially 
plentiful in moist meadows. It is sometimes called '' eye- 
bright," which name belongs by rights to Euphrasia officinalis. 


Euphrasia officinalis. Figwort Family. 

Low; branching. Leaves. — Ovate or oval; mottled. Flozuers. — Lav- 
ender or nearly white ; veined ; lower lip patched with deep orange-yellow ; 
small; spiked. Calyx. — Four-cleft. Corolla. — Two-lipped; upper lip 
erect; two-lobed ; lower lip spreading; three-cleft. Stamens. — Four, under 
upper lip. Pistil. — One. 

In places along the coast of Maine this cheery little plant, 
which is said to owe its generic name to its reported healing 
properties, but which might well be called *' cheerfulness" on 
account of its unfailing sturdy brightness, carpets thickly the 
grassy roadsides. *" / ? ** ^ 


Aphyllon iinijlorum. Broom-rape Family. 

Scape. — Slender; fleshy; three to five inches high; one - flowered. 
Leaves. — None. Flower. — Pale purple; solitary; one inch long ; witha del- 
icate fragrance. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Somewhat two-lipped ; with 
two yellow bearded folds in the throat. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One. 

In April and May the odd pretty flower of the parasitic one- 
flowered cancer-root is found in the damp woodlands. 


Oxalis violacca. Geranium Family. 

Scape. — Five to nine inches high; several-flowered. Leaves. — Divided 
into three clover-like leaflets. Floivers. — Violet-colored; clustered on the 
scape. Calyx. — Of five sepals. Corolla. — Of five petals. Sta^nens. — Ten. 
Pistil. — One, with five styles. 

This little plant is found in somewhat open or rocky woods, 
its lovely, delicate flower-clusters appearing in May or June. 



This species is more common southward, while the pink- veined 
wood sorrel abounds in the cool woods of the North. 


/r/s versicolor. Iris Family, 

Stem. — Stout; angled on one side; leafy; one to three feet high. 
Leaves. — Flat and sword-shaped, with their inner surfaces coherent for 
about half of their length. Flaioers. — Large and showy; violet-blue, varie- 
gated with green, yellow, or white ; purple-veined. Perianth. — Six-cleft; 
the three outer divisions recurved, the three inner smaller and erect. Sta- 
mens. — Three, covered by the three overarching, petal-like divisions of the 
style. Pistil. — One, with its style cleft into three petal-like divisions, each 
of which bears its stigma on its inner surface. 

" Born in the purple, born to joy and pleasance, 
Thou dost not toil nor spin. 
But makest glad and radiant with thy presence 
The meadow and the lin." * 

In both form and color this is one of the most regal of our 
wild flowers, and it is easy to understand why the fleur-de-lis 
was chosen as the emblem of a royal house, although the especial 
flower which Louis VIL of France selected as his badge was 
probably white. 

It will surprise most of us to learn that the common name 
which we have borrowed from the French does not signify 
*' flower-of-the-lily," as it would if literally translated, but 
*' flower of Louis," Us being a corruption of the name of the 
king who first adopted it as his badge. 

For the botanist the blue flag })ossesses special interest. It is 
a conspicuous example of a flower which has guarded itself 
against self-fertilization, and which is beautifully calculated to 
secure the opposite result. The position of the stamens is such 
that their pollen could not easily reach the stigmas of the same 
flower, for these are borne on the inner surface of the petal-like, 
overarching styles. There is no prospect here of any seed being 
set unless the pollen of another flower is secured. Now what are 

* Longfellow. 



SKULL-CAP.— Sca/^/Z^r/W galericulata, 


the chances in favor of this ? They are many : In the I'irst 
place the blossom is unusually large and showy, from its size and 
shape alone almost certain to arrest the attention of the passing 
bee; next, the color is not only conspicuous, but it is also one 
which has been found to be especially attractive to bees, blue 
and purple flowers being particularly sought by these insects. 
When the bee reaches the flower he alights on the only con- 
venient landing-place, one of the recurved sepals ; following the 
deep purple veins which experience has taught him lead to the 
hidden nectar, he thrusts his head below the anther, brushing 
off its pollen, which he carries to another flower. 

The rootstocks of the Florentine species of iris yield the 
familiar ''orris-root." 

The family name is from the Greek for rainbow, on account 
of the rich and varied hues of its different members. 

The plant abounds in wet meadows, the blossoms appear- 
ing in June. 


[PI. cxxxi 

Scutellaria. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Square; usually one to two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; ob- 
long; lance-shaped or linear. Flaivers. — Blue. Calyx. — Two-lipped; the 
upper lip with a small, helmet-like appendage, which at once identifies this 
genus. Corolla. — Two-lipped ; the upper lip arched, the lateral lobes mostly 
connected with the upper lip, the lower lip spreading and notched at the 
apex. Stamens. — Four, in pairs. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style. 

Tlie prettiest and most striking of this genus is the larger 
skull-cap, S. integrifolia, whose bright blue flowers are about one 
inch long, growing in terminal racemes. In June and July 
they may be found among the long grass of the roadsides and 
meadows. They are easily identified by the curious little ap- 
pendage on the upper part of the calyx, which gives to this 
genus its common name. 

Perhaps the best-known member of the group is the mad-dog 
skull-cap, S. lateriflo7'a, which delights in wet places, bearing 
small, inconspicuous flow^ers in one-sided racemes. This plant 



COMMON SPEED\NELL—rero;i!i-<i officinalis. 


is quite smooth, while that of S. integrifolia is rather downy. 
It was formerly believed to be a sure cure for hydrophobia. 

S. galericulata is usually found somewhat northward. Its 
flowers are much larger than those of S. lateriflo7-a^ but smaller 
than those of S. integrifolia. They grow singly from the axils 
of the upper leaves. 


Veronica Americana. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Smooth ; reclining at base, then erect ; eight to fifteen inches 
high. Leaves. — Mostly opposite ; oblong ; toothed. Flowers. — Blue ; clus- 
tered in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Four-parted. Corolla. — Wheel- 
shaped ; four-parted. Stamens. — Two. Pistil. — One. 

Perhaps the prettiest of the blue Veronicas is the American 
brooklime. Its clustered flowers make bright patches in moist 
ground which might, at a little distance, be mistaken for beds 
of forget-me-nots. It blossoms from June till August, and is 
almost as common in wet ditches and meadows as its sister, the 
common speedwell, is in dry and open places. Some of the 
members of this genus were once believed to possess great me- 
dicinal virtues, and won for themselves in Europe the laudatory 
names of Honor and Praise. 



Veronica officinalis. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Prostrate; rooting. Leaves. — Short-stemmed; downy ; toothed. 
Floivers. — Pale blue ; small ; in thick clusters which grow from an axil of 
the leaves. Calyx. — Usually four-parted. Corolla. — Usually four-parted. 
Stamens. — Two. Pistil. — One. 

'* The little speedwell's darling blue" is noticeable during 
June and July, when clusters of these tiny flowers brighten the 
roadside banks. 




Veronica serpyllifolia. Figwort Family. 

Stejn. — Much branched at the creeping base ; almost smooth. Leaves. 
— Obscurely toothed ; almost smooth. Floivers. — Whitish or pale blue 
with deeper stripes ; in loose terminal clusters, otherwise as in above. 

The thyme-leaved speedwell i.s beginning to make itself con- 
spicuous on our lawns, as well as in the fields and along the 


Ltipinus perennis. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Erect ; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Divided into seven to 
eleven leaflets. Flowers. — Blue; papilionaceous; showy; in a long ra- 
ceme. Pod. — Broad; hairy. 

In June the long bright clusters of the wild lupine are 
very noticeable in many of our sandy fields. Its pea-like 
blossoms serve easily to identify it. Under date of June 8th, 
Thoreau writes : '' The lupine is now in its glory. . . .It 
paints a whole hill-side with its blue, making such a field (if not 
meadow) as Proserpine might have wandered in. Its leaf was 
made to be covered with dew-drops. I am quite excited by 
this prospect of blue flowers in clumps, with narrow intervals, 
such a profusion of the heavenly, the Elysian color, as if these 
were the Elysian fields. . . . That is the value of the lu- 
pine. The earth is blued with it." 


^y Myosotis laxa. Borage family. 

Stems. — Slender. Leaves. — Alternate, lance-oblong. Flowers. — Blue; 
small, growing in a raceme. Calyx. — Five-lobed. Corolla. — Salver-shaped, 
five-toothed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One. 

Along the banks of the stream, and in low, wet places, 
throughout the summer, we may look for these exquisite little 
flowers. Our plant is smaller and less luxuriant than the Euro- 
pean species. 


Plate cxxxiii 

WILD LUPlNE.-Lu/inus perennis. 



Orchis Family. 

Habenaria Jimbriata. 

Leaves. — Oval or oblong ; the upper, few, passing into lance-shaped 
bracts. Floivers. — Purple; rather large; with a fan- shaped, three-parted 
lip, its divisions fringed ; with a long curving spur ; growing in a spike. 

Habenaria psycodes. 

Leaves. — Oblong or lance-shaped ; the upper passing into linear bracts. 
Flowers. — Purple; fragrant; resembling those of LJ. Jimb7'iata, but much 
smaller, with a less fringed lip ; growing in a spike. 

We should search the wet meadows in early June if we wish 
surely to be in time for the larger of the purple fringed orchises, 
for H. fimbriata somewhat antedates H. psycodes, which is the 
commoner species of the two and appears in July. Under date 
of June 9th, Thoreau writes: '' Find the great fringed-orchis out 
apparently two or three days, two are almost fully out, two or 
three only budded ; a large spike of peculiarly delicate, pale-pur- 
ple flowers growing in the luxuriant and shady swamp, amid hel- 
lebores, ferns, golden senecio, etc. . . . The village belle 
never sees this more delicate belle of the swamp. ... A 
beauty reared in the shade of a convent, who has never strayed 
beyond the convent-bell. Only the skunk or owl, or other in- 
habitant of the swamp, beholds it. 

> I 



Brunella vulgaris. Mint Family. 

Stems. — Low. Leaves. — Opposite ; oblong. Flcnoers. — Bluish-purple; 
in a spike or head. Calyx. — Two-lipped ; upper lip with three short teeth, 
the lower two-cleft. Corolla. — Two-lipped; the upper lip arched, entire, 
the lower spreading, three-cleft. Sta7nens. — Four. Pistil. — One, two- 
lobed at the apex. 

Throughout the length and breadth of the country, from 
June until September, the short, close spikes of the self-heal can 



PURPLE FRINGED ORCy\\S—Hal>euaria fimbriata. 



SELF-HEAL.— ^r««^//tf vulgaris. 



be found along the roadsides. The botanical name, Brujiella, 
is a corruption from Prunella^ which is taken from the German 
for quinsy, for which this plant was considered a certain cure. 
It was also used in England as an application to the wounds re- 
ceived by rustic laborers, as its common names, carpenter's herb, 
hook-heal, and sicklewort, imply. That the French had a simi- 
lar practice is proved by an old proverb of theirs to the effect 
that '' No one wants a surgeon who keeps Prunelle.'^ 


Penistemon ptibescens. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — One to two feet high ; clammy above. Leaves. — Opposite; ob- 
long to lance-shaped. Flowers. — Dull purple or partly whitish ; showy; in 
a slender open cluster. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — Tubular; slightly 
dilated ; the throat nearly closed by a bearded palate ; two-lipped ; the upper 
lip two-lobed, the lower three-cleft. Stamens. — Four ; one densely bearded 
sterile filament besides. Pistil. — One. 

These pretty flowers, giving in the distance a somewhat hya- 
cinth-like effect, are found in summer in dry or rocky places. 
They are especially plentiful somewhat southward. 

The white beard-tongue of more western localities is P. Digi- 
talis. This is a very effective plant, which sometimes reaches a 
height of five feet, having large inflated white flowers 


Arethusa hulbosa. Orchis Family. 

Scape. — Sheathed ; from a globular bulb ; usually one-flowered. Leaf. — 
" Solitary ; linear ; nerved ; hidden in the sheaths of the scape ; protruding 
after flowering." (Gray.) Flozver. — Rose-purple ; large ; with a bearded 

In some localities this beautiful flower is very plentiful. 
Every June will find certain New England marshes tinged with 
its rose-purple blossoms, while in other near and promising bogs 
it may be sought vainly for years. At least it may be hoped for 





KRETHK^Sk—Arei/iusii bulboui. 


in wet places as far south as North Carolina, its most favorite 
haunt being perhaps a cranberry -swamp. Concerning it, Mr. 
Burroughs writes : ^' Arethusa was one of the nymphs who at- 
tended Diana, and was by that goddess turned into a fountain, 
that she might escape the god of the river Alpheus, who became 
desperately in love with her on seeing her at her bath. Our 
Arethusa is one of the prettiest of the orchids, and has been pur- 
sued through many a marsh and quaking-bog by her lovers. She 
is a bright pink-purple flower, an inch or more long, with the 
odor of sweet violets. The sepals and petals rise up and arch 
over the column, which we may call the heart of the flower, as 
ifshielding it. In Plymouth County, Mass., where the Arethusa 
seems common, I have heard it called Indian pink." 


Verbena hastata. Vervain Family. 

Four to six feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; somewhat lance-shaped ; the 
lower often lobed and sometimes halberd-shaped at base. Floivers. — Pur- 
ple ; small; in slender erect spikes. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — 
Tubular, somewhat unequally five-cleft. Stamens. — Four; in pairs. Pistil. 
— One. 

Along the roadsides in midsummer we notice these slender 
purple spikes, the appearance of which would be vastly improved 
if the tiny blossoms would only consent to open simultaneously. 

In earlier times the vervain was beset with classic associa- 
tions. It was claimed as the plant which Virgil and other poets 
mention as being used for altar-decorations and for the garlands 
of sacrificial beasts. It was believed to be the herba sacra oi 
the ancients, until it was understood that the generic title Ver- 
be7ia was a word which was applied to branches of any de- 
scription which were used in religious rites. It certainly seems, 
however, to have been applied to some special plant in the time 
of Pliny, for he writes that no plant was more honored among 
the Romans than the sacred Verbena. In more modern times 
as well the vervain has been regarded as an " herb of grace," 



and has been gathered with various ceremonies and with the in- 
vocation of a blessing, which began as follows : 

" Hallowed be thou, Vervain, 
As thou growest on the ground, 
For in the Mount of Calvary 
There thou wast first found." 

It was then supposed to be endued with especial virtue, and 
was worn on the person to avert disaster. 

The time-honored title of simpler' s joy arose from the re- 
muneration which this popular plant brought to the " simplers " 
— as the gatherers of medicinal herbs were entitled. 


Mimuliis ringens. Figwort Family. 

Stem. — Square; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; oblong or 
lance-shaped. Flowers. — Pale violet-purple, rarely white; growing singly 
from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Five-angled; five-toothed; the upper 
tooth largest. Corolla. — Tubular; two-lipped; the upper lip erect or 
spreading, two-lobed, the lower spreading and three-lobed ; the throat 
closed. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed stigma. 

From July onward the monkey-flowers tinge the wet fields 
and border the streams and ponds; not growing in the water 
like the pickerel-weed, but seeking a hummock in the swamp, or 
a safe foothold on the brook's edge, where they can absorb the 
moisture requisite to their vigorous growth. 

The name is a diminutive of mimus — a buffoon, and refers to 
the somewhat grinning blossom. The plant is a common one 
throughout the eastern part of the country. 


Brasenia peltata. Water Lily Family. 

Leaves. — Floating; shield-shaped ; long-stemmed. Flowers. — Dull pur- 
ple ; small ; growing from the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Of three or 
four sepals. Corolla. — Of three or four linear petals. Stamens. — Twelve 
to eighteen. Pistils. — Four to eighteen, forming little club-shaped pods. 

This plant is found growing in many of our ponds and slow 
streams. Its inconspicuous flowers appear in summer. Perhaps 



its most noticeable characteristic is the gelatinous matter which 
coats its long stems, its leaf and flower stalks, and the lower sur- 
face of its floating leaves. 


Lychnis Githago. Pink Family. 

About two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; long and narrow; pale 
green; with silky hairs. Floivers. — Rose-purple; large; long-stalked. 
Calyx-lobes. — Five; long and slender, exceeding the petals. Corolla. — Of 
five broad petals. Stamens. — Ten. Pistil. — One, with five styles. 

In many countries some of the most beautiful and noticeable 
flowers are commonly found in grain-fields. England's scarlet 
poppies flood her farm-lands with glorious color in early summer ; 
while the bluets lighten the corn-fields of France. Our grain- 
fields seem to have no native flower peculiar to them ; but often 
we find a trespasser of foreign descent hiding among the wheat 
or straying to the roadsides in early summer, whose deep-tinted 
blossoms secure an instant welcome from the flower-lover if not 
from the farmer. '' What hurte it doeth among the corne ! the 
spoyle unto bread, as well in colour, taste, and unwholesomeness, 
is better known than desired," wrote Gerarde. The large dark 
seeds fill the ground wheat with black specks, and might be in- 
jurious if existing in any great quantity. Its former generic 
name was Agrosfemma, signifying crown of the fields. Its pres- 
ent one of Lychnis, signifies a light or lamp. 


Lathyrns maritijmis. Pulse Family. 

About one foot high, or more. Stein. — Stout. Leaves. — Divided into 
from three to five pairs of thick oblong leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; 
large ; purple ; clustered. 

The deep-hued flowers of this stout plant are commonly found 
along the sand-hills of the seashore, and also on the shores of 
the Great Lakes, blooming in early summer. Both flowers and 
leaves are at once recognized as belonging to the Pulse family. 




Lathy nis palustris. Pulse Family. 

Stems. — Slender; one to three feet long. Leaves. — Divided into two to 
four pairs of narrowly oblong to linear leaflets. Flowers. — Purple ; papi- 
lionaceous ; clustered. 

The marsh vetchhng is found in wet places from New York 
northward and westward. 

Strophostyles angiilosa. Pulse Family. 

Stems. — Branched ; one to six feet long; prostrate, or climbing. Leaves. 
— Divided into three leaflets, which are more or less prominently lobed 
toward the base, the terminal two-lobed; or some or all without lobes. 
Flowers. — Purplish or greenish; on long flower-stalks. Pods. — Linear; 
straight, or nearly so. 

This somewhat inconspicuous plant is found back of the 
sand-hills along the coast, often in the neighborhood of the 
beach pea, and climbing over river-banks, thickets, and fences 
as well. It can usually be identified by its oddly lobed leaflets. 


Vicia Cracca. Pulse Family. 

Leaves. — Divided into twenty to twenty-four leaflets, with slender tips. 
Flojvers. — Papilionaceous; blue, turning purple; growing in close, many- 
flowered, one-sided spikes. 

This is an emigrant from Europe which is found along road- 
sides and in some of our eastern fields and thickets as far south 
as New Jersey. It usually climbs more or less by means of the 
tendril at the tip of its divided leaves, and sometimes forms 
bright patches of vivid blue over the meadows. 

Another member of this genus is V. saliva, the common 




BLUE VETCH.- F/«« Cracca. 



vetch or tare, with purplish or pinkish flowers, growing singly 
or in pairs from the axils of the leaves, which leaves are divided 
into fewer leaflets than those of the blue vetch. This species also 
takes possession of cultivated fields, as well as of waste places along 
the roadside. 


Mentha Canadensis. Mint Family. 

Leaves. — Opposite; aromatic; oval to lance-shaped ; toothed; tapering 
to both ends. Flozvers. — Small ; purplish or whitish ; in globular clusters 
in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — Five-toothed. Corolla. — Four-cleft; 
the upper lobe broadest and sometimes notched. Stamens. — Four. Pistil. 
— One, with a two-lobed style. Ovary. — Deeply four-lobed. 

In wet places, throughout the Northern States, we find our 
native wild mint. 


Mentha viridis. Mint Family, 

Leaves. — Opposite; aromatic; unequally toothed; narrowly oblong; 
sessile, or nearly so. Flowers. — Small ; purple or whitish ; in narrow, leaf- 
less, densely crowded spikes ; otherwise as in above. 

In wet places, in all cultivated districts, we find the spear- 
mint, this plant being an escape from gardens. 


Mentha Piperita. Mint Family. 

Leaves. — Opposite; aromatic; with leaf-stems; sharply toothed; pun- 
gent-tasting. Flowers. — Small; purple or whitish; in loose, narrow, in- 
terrupted leafless spikes ; otherwise as in above. 

The peppermint is another European emigrant, and an 
escape from gardens, which has made itself thoroughly at home 
along our brooks. 



PEPPERMIN J— Mentha piperita. 


BLUEWEED.— £<:A/«;« vulgar*, 



[PI. cxxxix 

Echium vidgare. Borage P'amily. 

Stem. — Rough; bristly; erect; about two feet high. Leaves. — Alter- 
nate ; lance-shaped ; set close to the stem. Flowers. — Bright blue ; spiked 
on one side of the branches, which are at first rolled up from the end, 
straightening as the blossoms expand. Calyx. — Five-parted. Corolla. — 
Of five somewhat unequal, spreading lobes. Stamens. — Five; protruding; 
red. Pistil. — One. 

When the blueweed first came to us from across the sea it 
secured a foothold in Virginia. Since then it has gradually 
worked its way northward, lining the Hudson's shores, over- 
running many of the dry fields in its vicinity, and making itself 
at home in parts of New England. We should be obliged to 
rank it among the ''pestiferous" weeds were it not that, as a 
rule, it only seeks to monopolize land which is not good for very 
much else. The pinkish buds and bright blue blossoms, with 
their red protruding stamens, make a valuable addition, from the 
aesthetic point of view, to the bunch of midsummer field-flowers 
in which hitherto the various shades of red and yellow have pre- 


Speciclaria perfoliata. Campanula Family. 

Steyn. — Somewhat hairy ; three to twenty inches high. Leaves. — 
Toothed; rounded ; clasping by the heart-shaped base. Flowers. — Blue. 
Calyx. — Three, four, or five-lobed. Corolla. — Wheel-shaped; five-lobed. 
Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with three stigmas. 

We borrow from Mr. Burrough's " Bunch of Herbs " a de- 
scription of this little plant, which blossoms from May till Au- 
gust. *'A pretty and curious little weed, sometimes found 
growing in the edge of the garden, is the clasping specularia, a 
relative of the harebell and of the European Venus's looking- Its leaves are shell-shaped, and clasp the stalk so as to 
form little shallow cups. In the bottom of each cup three buds 



PICKEREL-WEED /V<///^^Av7</ cordnta. 


Ht\REBELL—Ca»!/>(imi/(J rolundifolia. 


appear that never expand into flowers, but when the top of the 
stalk is reached, one and sometimes two buds open a large, deh- 
cate purple-bkie corolla. All the first-born of this plant are still- 
born as it were; only the latest, which spring from its summit, 
attain to perfect bloom." 


Pontedaria cordata. Pickerel-weed Family. 

Stem. — Stout; usually one-leaved. Leaves. — Arrow or heart-shaped. 
Flowers. — Blue; fading quickly ; with an unpleasant odor; growing in a 
dense spike. Perianth. — Two-lipped ; the upper lip three-lobed and marked 
with a double greenish-yellow spot, the lower of three spreading divisions 
Stamens. — Six ; three long and protruding, the three others, which are often 
imperfect, very short and inserted lower down. Pistil. — One. 

The pickerel-weed grows in such shallow water as the pick- 
erel seek, or else in moist, wet places along the shores of streams 
and rivers. We can look for the blue, closely spiked flowers 
from late July until some time in September. They are often 
found near the delicate arrow-head. 


Campanula rotundifolia. Campanula Family. 

Stem. — Slender; branching; from five to twelve inches high. Root- 
leaves. — Heart-shaped or ovate; early withering. Stem-leaves. — Numer- 
ous; long and narrow, Flozvers. — Bright blue; nodding from hair-like 
stalks. Calyx. — Five-cleft; the lobes awl-shaped. Co)-olla. — Bell-shaped; 
five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with three stigmas. 

This slender, pretty plant, hung with its tremulous flowers, 
springs from the rocky cliffs which buttress the river as well as 
from those which crown the mountain. I have seen the west 
shore of the Hudson bright with its delicate bloom in June, and 
the summits of the Catskills tinged with its azure in Sejitember. 
The drooping posture of these flowers ])rotects their pollen from 
rain or dew. They have come to us from Europe, and are iden- 
tical, I believe, with the celebrated Scotch bluebells. 




Campanula rapiinculoides. Campanula Family. 

Stem. — Erect; slender; usually rather tall. Stem-leaves. — Narrowly 
oval ; pointed ; alternate ; the lower ones long-stemmed and heart-shaped. 
Flowers. — Blue or purple ; bell-shaped; nodding. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Co- 
rolla. — About one inch long; bell-shaped; five-lobed. Stamens. — Five. 
Pistil. — One, with three stigmas, which unfold rather late in the flower's 

This European bellflower has become very common in parts 
of the country ; especially in New England it brightens the 
fields and roadsides in the neighborhood of the villages and farm- 
houses from whose gardens originally it made its escape. 


Solanitm Dulcamara. Nightshade Family- 

Stem. — Usually somewhat climbing or twining. Leaves. — Heart-shaped ; 
the upper halberd- shaped or with ear-like lobes or leaflets at the base. Flow- 
ers. — Purple; in small clusters. Calyx. — Five-parted. Co7'olla. — Five- 
parted; wheel-shaped. Stamens. — Five; yellow; protruding. Pistil. — 
One. Fruit. — A red berry. 

The purple flowers, which at once betray their kinship with 
the potato plant, and, in late summer, the bright red berries of 
the nightshade, cluster about the fences and clamber over the 
moist banks which line the highway. This plant, which was im- 
ported from Europe, usually indicates the presence of civilization. 
It is not poisonous to the touch, as is often supposed, and it is 
doubtful if the berries have the baneful power attributed to them. 
Thoreau writes regarding them: "The Solanum Dulcamara 
berries are another kind which grow, in drooping clusters. I do 
not know any clusters more graceful and beautiful than these 
drooping cymes of scented or translucent, cherry-colored ellip- 
tical berries. . . . They hang more gracefully over the 
river's brim than any pendant in a lady's ear. Yet they are 
considered poisonous ; not to look at surely. . . . But why 
should they not be poisonous? Would it not be bad taste to 
eat these berries which are ready to feed another sense ? 

y i 






NIGHTSHADE. — Solanuir Dulcamara. 



Leomiriis cardiaca. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Tall and upright. Leaves. — Opposite ; the lower rounded and 
lobed ; the floral wedge-shaped at base and three-cleft. Floivers. — Pale 
purple; in close whorls in the axils of the leaves. Calyx. — "With five 
nearly equal teeth, which are awl-shaped, and when old rather spiny-pointed 
and spreading." (Gray.) Corolla. — Two-lipped; the upper lip somewhat 
arched and bearded, the lower three-lobed and spreading. Stamens. — Four ; 
in pairs. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style. 

The tall, erect stems, opposite leaves, and regular whorls of 
closely clustered, pale purple flowers help us easily to identify the 
motherwort, if identification be needed, for it seems as though 
such old-fashioned, time-honored plants as catnip, tansy, and 
motherwort, which cling so persistently to the skirts of the old 
homestead in whose domestic economy they once played so im- 
portant a part, should be familiar to us all. 


Lobelia injlata. Lobelia Family. 

One to two feet high. Stem. — Branching from the root. Leaves. — 
Ovate or oblong ; somewhat toothed. Floivers. — Blue or purple ; growing 
in a long raceme. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — With a straight tube split 
down what is apparently the upper side ; somewhat two-lipped ; the upper 
lip of two rather erect lobes, the lower spreading and three-cleft. Stamens. 
— Five; united into a tube. Pistil. — One. Pod. — Much inflated. 

During the summer we note in the dry, open fields the blue 
racemes of the Indian tobacco, and in the later year the inflated 
pods which give it its specific name. The plant is said to be 
poisonous if taken internally, and yields a " quack-medicine " of 
some notoriety. The Indianssmoked its dried leaves, which im- 
part to the tongue a peculiar tobacco-like sensation. 




Lobelia Family. 

There are several other blue lobelias which attract our atten- 
tion from time to time, their flowers in general structure resem- 
bling those of the Indian tobacco. 

The blossoms of L. puberula are bright blue, and half an 
inch in length. They are found in moist sandy places to the 
south and west. 

Z. spicata is a very common species. Its slender leafy stem 
is from one to four feet high. Its small flowers resemble those 
of Indian tobacco ; its pod, however, is not inflated, as is that of 
the latter plant. 


Lobelia Dortmanna. Lobelia Family. 

Six to eighteen inches high, growing in shallow water. Leaves. — 
Tufted at the root; linear; growing beneath the water. Flowers. — Blue, 
in a loose terminal cluster. Calyx. — Five-cleft. Corolla. — Somewhat two- 
lipped. Stamens. — Five, united in a style. Pistil. — One. 

The water lobelia is found in the shallow water of ponds. 
Its pretty, pale-blue flower clusters are noticeable from July to 


Lledeoma pulegioides. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Square; low ; erect ; branching. Z^df^'^j'.— Opposite ; aromatic ; 
small, /y^twrj.— Purplish ; small; whorled in the axils of the leaves. Ca- 
hx. — Two-lipped; upper lip three-toothed, the lower two-cleft. Corolla. — 
'fwo-lipped ; upper erect, notched at apex, the lower spreading and three- 
cleft. Fertile stamens.— Two. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style. 

This well-known, strong-scented little plant is found through- 
out the greater part of the country, blossoming in midsummer. 
Its taste and odor nearly resemble those of the true pennyroyal, 
Mentha pulegium, of Europe. 




Stat ice Caroliniana. Lead wort Family. 

Stems. — Leafless; branching. Leaves. — From the root ; somewhat ob- 
long ; thick. Flaicers. — Lavender color or pale purple ; tiny ; scattered or 
loosely spiked along one side of the branches. Calyx. — Dry; funnel-form. 
Corolla. — Small ; with five petals. Stamens. — Five. Pistil. — One, with 
five, rarely three, styles. 

In August many of the salt marshes are blue with the tiny 
flowers of the sea lavender. The spray-like appearance of the 
little plant would seem to account for its name of rosemary, 
which is derived from the Latin for sea-spray, but Dr. Prior 
states that this name was given it on account of "its usually 
growing on the sea-coast, and its odor." 

Blossoming with the lavender we often find the great rose 
mallows and the dainty sea pinks. The marsh St. John's-wort 
as well is frequently a neighbor, and, a little later in the season, 
the salt marsh fleabane. 


Cakile Americana. Mustard Family. 

Leaves. — Smooth; fleshy; obovate ; wavy-toothed. Floxvers. — Purplish; 
small ; clustered. Calyx. ^Oi four early falling sepals. Corolla. — Of four 
petals growing opposite in pairs. Stamens. — Six ; two inserted lower down 
and shorter than the others. Pistil. — One. Fruit. — A short, two-jointed pod. 

In sand along the sea-shore this smooth, fleshy, branching 
plant, with its purplish flowers, is a common feature. 


Monarda fistnlosa. Mint Family. 

Two to five feet high. Leaves. — Opposite; fragrant; toothed. Flow- 
ers. — Purple or purplish-dotted; growing in a solitary, terminal head, as in 
Oswego tea, p. 264. Calyx. — Tubular; elongated; five-toothed. Corolla. 
—Elongated; two-lipped. Stamefis.—Tvfo; elongated. Pistil.— One, 
with style two-lobed at apex. 

Although the wild bergamot is occasionally found in our 
eastern woods, it is far more abundant westward, where it is 



SEA L^yEHDER.—Stahce Carohmana. 


found in rocky places in summer. This is a near relative of 
the Oswego tea, which it closely resembles in its manner of 


Commelina Virginica. Spiderwort Family. 

Stem. — Slender ; branching. Leaves. — Lance-shaped to linear ; the floral 
ones heart-shaped and claspinj^, folding so as to enclose the flowers. Flow- 
ers.— V>\\x^. Calyx. — Of three unequal somewhat colored sepals; the two 
lateral ones partly united. Corolla. — Of three petals ; two large, rounded, 
pale blue ; one small, whitish, and inconspicuous. Stamens. — Six ; unequal 
in size; three small and sterile, with yellow cross-shaped anthers ; three fer- 
tile, one of which is bent inward. Pistil. — One. 

The odd day-flower is so named because its delicate blossoms 
expand only for a single morning. At the first glance there seem 
to be but two petals which are large, rounded, and of a delicate 
shade of blue. A closer examination, however, discovers still 
another, so inconspicuous in form and color as to escape the 
notice of the casual observer. This inequality recalls the quaint 
tradition as to the origin of the plant's generic name. There 
were three brothers Commelin, natives of Holland. Two of 
them were botanists of repute, while the tastes of the third had 
a less marked botanical tendency. The genus was dedicated to 
the trio : the two large bright petals commemorating the brother 
botanists, while the small and unpretentious one perpetuates the 
memory of him who was so unwise as to take little or no inter- 
est in so noble a science. These flowers appear throughout the 
summer in cool woods and on moist banks. 


Malva sylvestris. Mallow Family. 

Stem. — Two to three feet high; erect; branched. Leaves. — Five to 
seven-lobed. Floivers. — Purple or pink ; rather large. Calyx. — Of five se- 
pals, with three bracts below. Corolla.— Oi five somewhat heart-shaped 
petals. Stamens. — United in a column. Pistils. — Several. 

The high mallow is an emigrant from Europe, which we en- 
counter frequently along our roadsides in summer. 



HOG P^kViiiT.—Ampkicarpcea monoica. 




Amphicarp(za vionoica. Pulse Family. 

Stem. — Climbing and twining over plants and shrubs. Leaves. — Divided 
into three somewhat four-sided leaflets. Flowers. — Papilionaceous; pale 
lilac or purplish ; in nodding racemes. Pod. — One inch long. 

Along the shadowy lanes which wind through the woods the 
climbing members of the Pulse family are very abundant. Dur- 
ing the late summer and autumn the lonely wayside is skirted by 

" Vines, with clust'ring bunches growing ; 
Plants, with goodly burden bowing." 

And in and out among this luxuriant growth twist the slender 
stems of the ill-named hog pea-nut, its delicate lilac blossoms 
nodding from the coarse stalks of the golden-rods and iron- 
weeds, or blending with the purple asters. 

This plant bears flowers of two kinds : the upper ones are 
perfect, but apparently useless, as they seldom ripen fruit ; while 
the lower or subterranean ones are without petals or attractiveness 
of appearance, but yield eventually at least one large ripe seed. 


Cichorium Intybus. Composite Family. 

Stems. — Branching. Leaves. — The lower oblong or lance-shaped, partly 
clasping, sometimes sharply incised ; the floral ones minute. Flower-heads. 
— Blue ; set close to the stem ; composed entirely of strap-shaped flowers ; 
opening at different times. 

" Oh, not in Ladies' gardens, 
My peasant posy ! 
Smile thy dear blue eyes, 
Nor only — nearer to the skies — 
In upland pastures, dim and sweet,— 
But by the dusty road 
Where tired feet 
Toil to and fro ; 



CHICORY.— Cic/torium Intybus. 

Blue anD PurPl£ 

Where flaunting Sin 

May see thy heavenly hue, 

Or weary Sorrow look from thee 

Toward a more tender blue." * 

This roadside weed blossoms in late summer. It is exten- 
sively cultivated in France, where the leaves are blanched and 
used in a salad which is called " Bar be des Capucins." The 
roots are roasted and mixed with coffee, both there and in Eng- 

Horace mentions its leaves as part of his frugal fare, and 
Pliny remarks upon the importance of the plant to the Egyptians, 
who formerly used it in great quantities, and of whose diet it is 
still a staple article. 


Geuni rivale. Rose Family. 

Stems. — About two feet high; several-flowered. Root-leaves. — Deeply 
parted. Stem-leaves. — Few ; three-parted (into three leaflets) or three-lobed. 
Flowers. — Large ; purplish. Calyx. — Brown-purple ; deeply five-cleft. 
Corolla. — Of five petals, these contracted into claws. Stajuens. — Many. 
Pistils. — Numerous. 

During the summer, in wet meadows, we notice the nodding 
flowers of the water avens. 


Linaria Canadensis. Figwort Family. 

Stems. — Slender; six to thirty inches high. Leaves. — Linear. Flowers. 
— Pale blue or purple ; small; in a long terminal raceme. Calyx. — Five- 
parted. Corolla. — Two-lipped, with a slender spur; closed in the throat. 
Stamens. — Four. Pistil. — One. 

The slender spikes of the blue linaria flank the sandy road- 
sides nearly all summer, and even in November we find a few 

* Margaret Deland. 


delicate blossoms still left upon the elongated stems. These 
flowers have a certain spirituality which is lacking in their hand- 
some, self-assertive relation, butter-and-eggs. 


Lobelia syphilitica. Lobelia Family. 

Stem. — Leafy; somewhat hairy; one to three feet high. Leaves. — Al- 
ternate; ovate to lance-shaped; thin; irregularly toothed. Flowers. — 
Rather large; light blue; spiked. Calyx. — Five-cleft; with a short tube. 
Corolla. — Somewhat two-lipped ; the upper lip of two rather erect lobes, the 
lower spreading and three-cleft. Pistil. — One, with a fringed stigma. 

The great lobelia is a striking plant which grows in low 
ground, flowering from midsummer into the fall. In some places 
it is called " High-Belia," a pun which is supposed to reflect 
upon the less tall and conspicuous species, such as the Indian 
tobacco, L. inflata, which are found flowering at the same season. 

If one of its blossoms is examined, the pistil is seen to be en- 
closed by the united stamens in such a fashion as to secure self- 
fertilization, one would suppose. But it is hardly probable that 
a flower so noticeable as this, and wearing a color as popular as 
blue, should have adorned itself so lavishly to no purpose. Con- 
sequently we are led to inquire more closely into its domestic 
arrangements. Our curiosity is rewarded by the discovery that 
the lobes of the stigma are so tightly pressed together that they 
can at first receive no pollen upon their sensitive surfaces. We 
also find that the anthers open only by a pore at their tips, and 
when irritated by the jar of a visiting bee, discharge their pollen 
upon its body through these outlets. This being accomplished 
the fringed stigma pushes forward, brushing aside whatever 
pollen may have fallen within the tube. Finally, when it pro- 
jects beyond the anthers, it opens, and is ready to receive its 
pollen from the next insect- visitor. 

The genus is named after an early Flemish herbalist, de 





Aster. Composite Family. 

Flozver-heads. — Composed of blue or purple ray-flowers, with a centre of 
yellow disk-flowers. 

As about one hundred and twenty different species of aster 
are native to the United States, and as fifty-four of these are 
found in Northeastern America, all but a dozen being purple or 
blue {i.e., with purple or blue ray-flowers), and as even botan- 
ists find that it requires patient application to distinguish these 
many species, only a brief description of the more conspicuous 
and common ones is here attempted. 

The broad-leaved aster, A. 7?iacrophyllus, is best known, per- 
haps, by the great colonies of large, rounded, somewhat heart- 
shaped, long-stemmed leaves with which it carpets the woods 
long before the flowers appear. Finally it sends up a stout, rigid 
stalk two to three feet high, bearing smaller oblong leaves and 
clusters of lavender or violet-colored flower-heads. 

Along the dry roadsides in early August we may look for the 
bright blue-purple flowers of A. patens. This is a low-growing 
species, with rough, narrowly oblong, clasping leaves, and widely 
spreading branches, whose slender branchlets are usually termi- 
nated by a solitary flower-head. 

Probably no member of the group is more striking than the 
New England aster, A. Novce AnglicB (Plate CXLVL), whose 
stout hairy stem (sometimes eight feet high), numerous lance- 
shaped leaves, and large violet-purple or sometimes pinkish 
flower-heads, are conspicuous in the swamps of late summer. 

A. puniceus is another tall swamp species, with long showy 
pale lavender ray-flowers. 

One of the most commonly encountered asters is A. cordifo^ 
lius (Plate CXLVII.), which is far from being the only heart- 
leaved species, despite its title. Its many small, pale blue or 
almost white flower-heads mass themselves abundantly along the 
wood-borders and shaded roadsides. 



Disk and ray-flower. 

, NEW ENGLAND ASTER. -Aster Novce Anglice. 



The New York aster, A. Novi Belgii (Plate CXLVIIL), is a 
slender-stemmed, branching plant, usually from one to three feet 
high, with lance-shaped leaves and violet-flower heads. It is 
found in swampy places near the coast from August to Octo- 
ber. Gray calls it *' the commonest late-flowered aster of the 
Atlantic border, and variable." 

Perhaps the loveliest of all the tribe is the seaside purple 
aster, A. spectabilis, a low plant with narrowly oblong leaves 
and large bright heads, the violet-purple ray-flowers of which are 
nearly an inch long. This grows in sandy soil near the coast 
and may be found putting forth its royal, daisy-like blossoms 
into November. 

Great Britain can claim but one native aster, A. Tripolium^ 
or sea-starwort, as it is called. Many American species are culti- 
vated in English gardens under the general title of Michaelmas 
daisies. The starwort of Italy is A. amellus. The Swiss species 
is A. Alpimwi. 

This beautiful genus, like that of the golden-rod, is one of 
the peculiar glories of our country. Every autumn these two 
kinds of flowers clothe our roadsides and meadows with so regal 
a mantle of purple and gold that we cannot but wonder if the 
flowers of any other region combine in such a radiant display. 


l^ernonia Noveboracensis. Composite Family. 

Stem, — Leafy; usually tall. Leaves. — Alternate; somewhat lance-oblong. 
Flower-heads. — An intense red-purple ; loosely clustered ; composed entirely 
of tubular flowers. 

Along the roadsides and low meadows near the coast the 
iron-weed adds its deep purple hues to the color-pageant of late 
August. By the uninitiated the plant is often mistaken for an 
aster, but a moment's inspection will discover that the minute 
flowers which compose each flower-head are all tubular in shape, 
and that the ray or strap-shaped blossoms which an aster must 


BLUE WOOD ASTER-.-lsfrr co>;iifoli„s. 


Aster Novi Belfcii. 


IRON -WELD.— Vemonia Noveboracensis. 


have are wanting. These flower-heads are surrounded by an 
involucre composed of small scales which are tipped with a tiny 
point and are usually of a purplish color also. 


Tradescantia Virginica. Spiderwort Family. 

Stems. — Mucilaginous ; leafy ; mostly upright. Leaves. — Linear ; keeled. 
Flowers. — Blue ; clustered ; with floral leaves as in the day-flower. Calyx. — 
Of three sepals. Corolla. — Of three petals. Stamens. — Six; with bearded 
filaments. Pistil. — One. 

The flowers of the spiderwort, like those of the day-flower, to 
which they are nearly allied, are very perishable, lasting only a 
few hours. They are found throughout the summer, somewhat 
south and westward. The genus is named in honor of Trades- 
cant, gardener to Charles I. of England. 


Liatris scariosa. Composite Family. 

Stem. — Simple; stout ; hoary ; two to five feet high. Leaves. — Alternate, 
narrowly lance-shaped. Flower-heads. — Racemed along the upper part of 
the stem ; composed entirely of tubular flowers of a beautiful shade of rose- 

These showy and beautiful flowers lend still another tint to 
the many-hued salt marshes and glowing inland meadows of the 
falling year. Gray assigns them to dry localities from New 
England to Minnesota and southward, while my own experience 
of them is limited to the New England coast, where their stout 
leafy stems and bright-hued blossoms are noticeable among the 
golden-rods and asters of September. The hasty observer some- 
times confuses the plant with the iron-weed, but the two flowers 
are very different in color and in their manner of growth. 



BLAZING STAR— Lj(i/r/s srariosa. 



Thymus Serpyllum. Mint Family. 

Stems. — Prostrate. Leaves. — Small; ovate; strongly -veined ; not 
toothed. Flowers. — Small ; purplish ; crowded at the ends of the branches. 
Calyx. — Two-lipped. Corolla. — Slightly two-lipped. Statnens. — Two. 
Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed style. 

This classic little plant is an emigrant from Europe, which 
is not as yet extensively naturalized with us. The only 

" bank where the wild thyme blows " 

for me is somewhat too exposed a spot to be chosen as sleeping- 
place by any fairy-queen. Neither is it 

" Over-canopied with luscious woodbine, 
With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine." 

Instead it borders the beautiful but open highway leading from 
Lenox into Stockbridge, fiUing the air with its pungent fragrance. 


Trichostema dichotomum. Mint Family. 

Stem. — Rather low; branching; clammy. Leaves. — Opposite; narrowly 
oblong or lance-shaped ; glutinous ; with a balsamic odor. Floivers. — Purple, 
occasionally pinkish ; not usually clustered. Calyx. — Five-cleft; two-lipped. 
Corolla. — Five-lobed ; the three lower lobes more or less united. Stamens. — 
Four ; very long and curved ; protruding. Pistil. — One, with a two-lobed 

In the sandy fields of late summer this little plant attracts 
notice by its many purple flowers. Its corolla soon falls and 
exposes to view the four little nutlets of the ovary lying within 
the enlarged calyx like tiny eggs in their nest. Its aromatic 
odor is very perceptible, and the little glands with which it is 
covered may be seen with the aid of a magnifier. The generic 
name, Trichoste?na, signifies hairy stamens, and alludes to the 
curved hair-like filaments. 




Gentiana qiiinqiiefiora. Gentian Family, 

Stem. — Slender ; usually branching ; one to two feet high. Leaves. — Op- 
posite ; ovate; lance-shaped; partly clasping. Flowers. — Pale blue or pur- 
plish ; smaller than those of the closed gentian ; in clusters of five or more 
at the summit of stems and branches. Calyx. — Four or five-cleft ; small. 
Corolla. — Funnel-form; four or five-lobed ; its lobes bristle-pointed. Sta- 
mens. — Four or five. Pistil. — One, with two stigmas. 

In some localities the five-fiowered gentian is very abundant. 
Gray assigns the plant to " moist hills " and '' along the moun- 
tains to Florida;" and I never remember to have encountered 
it save in more or less mountainous regions. In September it 
tinges with delicate color the slopes of the Shawangunk moun- 
tains and borders the woods and roadsides of the Berkshire hills. 


Cunila Mariana, Mint Family. 

About one foot high. Stem. — Much branched, reddish. Leaves. — Op- 
posite ; aromatic ; dotted ; smooth ; ovate, rounded or heart-shaped at base. 
Flowers. — Small, purple, lilac or white; clustered. Calyx. — Five-toothed. 
Corolla. — Small ; two-lipped ; the upper lip erect, usually notched, the lower 
three-cleft. Stamens. — Two; erect; protruding. Pistil. — One, with a 
two-lobed style. 

In late August or early September the delicate flowers of the 
dittany brighten the dry, sterile banks which flank so many of 
our roadsides. At a season when few plants are flowering save 
the omnipresent members of the great Composite family these 
dainty though unpretentious blossoms are especially attractive. 
The plant has a pleasant fragrance. 


Gentiana Andrewsii. Gentian Family. 

Stem. — One to two feet high; upright; smooth. Leaves. — Opposite; 
narrowly oval or lance-shaped. Flowers. — Blue to purple ; clustered at the 
summit of the stem and often in the a.xils of the leaves. Calyx. — Four or 



CLOSED GENTIAN— (7r;/^/</;/</ andravsii. 


five cleft. Corolla. — Closed at the mouth; large; oblong. Stamens. — 
Four or five. Pistil. — One, with two stigmas. 

Few flowers adapt themselves better to the season than the 
closed gentian. We look for it in September when the early 
waning days and frost-suggestive nights prove so discouraging to 
the greater part of the floral world. Then in somewhat moist, 
shaded places along the roadside we find this vigorous, autumnal- 
looking plant, with stout stems, leaves that bronze as the days 
advance, and deep-tinted flowers firmly closed as though to pro- 
tect the delicate reproductive organs within from the sharp 
touches of the late year. 

To me the closed gentian usually shows a deep blue or even 
purple countenance, although, like the fringed gentian and so 
many other flowers, its color is lighter in the shade than in the 
sunlight. But Thoreau claims for it a '* transcendent blue," '* a 
splendid blue, light in the shade, turning to purple with age." 
''Bluer than the bluest sky, they lurk in the moist and shady 
recesses of the banks," he writes. Mr. Burroughs also finds it 
''intensely blue." 


Gentiana crinita. Gentian Family, 

Stem. — One to two feet high. Leaves. — Opposite, lance-shaped or nar- 
rowly oval. Flowers. — Blue; large. Calyx. — Four-cleft; the lobes un- 
equal. Corolla. — Funnel-form, with four fringed, spreading lobes. Sta- 
tne7is. — Four. Pistil. — One, with two stigmas. 

In late September, when we have almost ceased to hope for 
new flowers, we are in luck if we chance upon this 


" — blossom bright with autumn dew," 

" — sweet and quiet eye 

Looks through its fringes to the sky, 
Blue — blue — as if that sky let fall, 
A flower from its cerulean wall ; " 


Blue and purple 

for the fringed gentian is fickle in its habits, and the fact that we 
have located it one season does not mean that we shall find it in 
the same place the following year ; being an annua! with seeds 
that are easily washed away, it is apt to change its haunts from 
time to time. So our search for this plant is always attended 
with the charm of uncertainty. Once having ferreted out its 
new abiding-place, however, we can satiate ourselves with its 
loveliness, which it usually lavishes unstintingly upon the moist 
meadows which it has elected to honor. 

Thoreau describes its color as " such a dark blue ! surpassing 
that of the male bluebird's back! " My experience has been 
that the flowers which grow in the shade are of a clear pure 
azure, ''Heaven's own blue," as Bryant claims; while those 
which are found in open, sunny meadows may be justly said to 
vie with the back of the male bluebird. If the season has been a 
mild one we shall perhaps find a few blossoms lingering into 
November, but the plant is probably blighted by a severe frost, 
although Miss Emily Dickinson's little poem voices another 
opinion : 

" But just before the snows 

There came a purple creature 
That ravished all the hill : 

And Summer hid her forehead, 

And mockery was still. 
The frosts were her condition : 

The Tyrian would not come 
Until the North evoked it, 

' Creator ! shall I bloom ! ' " 




FRINGED GENTIAN -r;^////Vz«^ crinita. 




Syniplocarpiis fcetidus. Arum Family. 

Leaves. — Large; becoming one or two feet long; heart-shaped, appear- 
ing later than the purple-mottled spathe and hidden flowers. Flowers. — 
Small and inconspicuous ; packed on the fleshy spike which is hidden within 
the spathe. 

If we are bold enough to venture into certain swampy places 
in the leafless woods and brown cheerless meadows of March, we 
notice that the sharply pointed spathes of the skunk cabbage have 
already pierced the surface of the earth. Until I chanced upon a 
passage in Thoreau's Journal under date of October 31st, I had 
supposed that these '* hermits of the bog " were only encouraged 
to make their appearance by the advent of those first balmy, 
spring-suggestive days which occasionally occur as early as 
February. But it seems that many of these young buds had 
pushed their way upward before the winter set in, for Thoreau 
counsels those who are afflicted with the melancholy of autumn 
to go to the swamps, *' and see the brave spears of skunk-cabbage 
buds already advanced toward a new year." ''Mortal and hu- 
man creatures must take a little respite in this fall of the year," 
he writes. ''Their spirits do flag a little. There is a little 
questioning of destiny, and thinking to go like cowards to where 
the weary shall be at rest. But not so with the skunk cabbage. 
Its withered leaves fall and are transfixed by a rising bud. 
Winter and death are ignored. The circle of life is complete. 



Are these false prophets ? Is it a he or a vain boast underneath 
the skunk-cabbage bud pushing it upward and Hfting the dead 
leaves with it? " 

The purplish shell-like leaf, which curls about the tiny flowers 
which are thus hidden from view, is a rather grewsome-looking 
object, suggestive of a great snail when it lifts itself fairly above 
its muddy bed. When one sees it grouped with brother-cab- 
bages it is easy to understand why a nearly allied species, which 
abounds along the Italian Riviera, should be entitled '' Cap- 
pucini " by the neighboring peasants, for the bowed, hooded 
appearance of these plants might easily suggest the cowled 

It seems unfortunate that our earliest spring flower (for such 
it undoubtedly is) should possess so unpleasant an odor as to win 
for itself the unpoetic title of skunk cabbage. There is also 
some incongruity in the heading of the great floral procession of 
the year by the minute hidden blossoms of this plant. That they 
are enabled to survive the raw March winds which are rampant 
when they first appear is probably due to the protection afforded 
them by the leathery leaf or spathe. When the true leaves un- 
fold they mark the wet woods and meadows with bright patches 
of rich foliage, which with that of the hellebore, flash constantly 
into sight as we travel through the country in April. 

It is interesting to remember that the skunk cabbage is nearly 
akin to the spotless calla lily, the purple-mottled spathe of the 
one answering to the snowy petal-like leaf of the other. Meehan 
tells us that the name bear-weed was given to the plant by the 
early Swedish settlers in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. It 
seems that the bears greatly relished this early green, which 
Meehan remarks " must have been a hot morsel, as the juice 
is acrid, and is said to possess some narcotic power, while 
that of the root, when chewed, causes the eyesight to grow 



SKUNK CkB^kG^E.—SympIocarpus/cetidus. 




Asarum Canadense. Birthwort Family. 

Leaves. — One or two on each plant ; kidney or heart-shaped ; fuzzy ; 
long-stalked. Flowers. — Dull purplish-brown ; solitary ; close to the ground 
on a short flower-stalk from the fork of the leaves. Calyx. — Three-cleft ; 
bell-shaped. Corolla. — None. Stamens. — Twelve. Pistil. — One, with a 
thick style and six thick, radiating stigmas. 

Certain flowers might be grouped under the head of '' vege- 
table cranks." Here would be classed the evening primrose, 
which only opens at night, the closed gentian, which never 
opens at all, and the wild ginger, whose odd, unlovely flower 
seeks protection beneath its long-stemmed fuzzy leaves, and hides 
its head upon the ground as if unwilling to challenge comparison 
with its more brilliant brethren. Unless already familiar with 
this plant there is nothing to tell one when it has reached its 
flowering season ; and many a wanderer through the rocky 
woods in early May quite overlooks its shy, shamefaced blos- 

The ginger-like flavor of the rootstock is responsible for its 
common name. It grows wild in many parts of Europe and is 
cultivated in England, where at one time it was considered a 
remedy for headache and deafness. 


Ariscema triphyllum. Arum Family. 

Scape. — Terminated by a hood-like leaf or spathe. Leaves. — Generally 
two; each divided into three leaflets. Floivers. — Small and inconspicuous ; 
packed about the lower part of the fleshy spike or spadix which is shielded 
by the spathe. Fruit. — A bright scarlet berry which is packed upon the 
spadix with many others. 

These quaint little preachers, ensconced in their delicate pul- 
pits, are well known to all who love the woods in early spring 
Sometimes these "■ pulpits " are of a light green, veined with a 
deeper tint ; again they are stained with purple. This difTer- 



WILD GINGER.— ^5ar«w Canademt. 



ence in color has been thought to indicate the sex of the flowers 
within — the males are said to be shielded by the green, the 
females by the purple, hoods. In the nearly allied cuckoo-pints 
of England, matters appear to be reversed : these plants are 
called ''Lords and Ladies" by the children, the purple-tinged 
ones being the "Lords," the light green ones the "Ladies." 
The generic name, AristEma, signifies bloody anwi, and refers to 
the dark purple stains of the spathe. An old legend claims that 
these were received at the Crucifixion : 

' Beneath the cross it grew ; 
And in the vase-Hke hollow of the leaf, 
Catching from that dread shower of agony 
A few mysterious drops, transmitted thus 
Unto the groves and hills their healing stains, 
A heritage, for storm or vernal shower 
Never to blow away." 

The Indians were in the habit of boiling the bright scarlet 
berries which are so conspicuous in our autumn woods and de- 
vouring them with great relish ; they also discovered that the 
bulb-like base, or cor?n, as it is called, lost its acridity on cook- 
ing, and made nutritious food, winning for the plant its name 
of Indian turnip. One of its more local titles is memory-root, 
which it owes to a favorite school-boy trick of tempting others 
to bite into the blistering corm with results likely to create a 
memorable impression. 

The English cuckoo -pint yielded a starch which was greatly 
valued in the time of Elizabethan ruffs, although it proved too 
blistering to the hands of the washerwomen to remain long in 
use. Owing to the profusion with which the plant grows in 
Ireland efforts have been made to utilize it as food in periods of 
scarcity. By grating the corm into water, and then pouring off 
the liquid and drying the sediment, it is said that a tasteless, but 
nutritious, powder can be procured. 





JACK-IN-THEPULPIT,-//rwa.,;m triphyllum. 



Heuchera Americana. Saxifrage Family. 

Stems. — Two to three feet high ; glandular ; more or less hairy. Leaves, 
— Heart-shaped ; with short, rounded lobes ; wavy-toothed, mostly from the 
root. Fhnuers. — Greenish or purplish ; in long narrow clusters. Calyx. — 
Bell-shaped; broad; five-cleft. Corolla. — Of five small petals. Stamens. — 
Five. Pistil. — One, with two slender styles. 

In May the slender clusters of the alum-root are found in the 
rocky woods. 


Liparis liliifolia. Orchis Family. 

Scape. — Low; from a solid bulb. Leaves. — Two; ovate; smooth. Flo7v- 
ers. — Purplish or greenish ; with thread-like reflexed petals and a large brown- 
purplish lip an inch and a half long; growing in a raceme. 

In the moist, rich woods of June we may look for these flow- 
ers. The generic name is derived from two Greek words which 
signify/^/ or shifiing, in reference to ''the smooth or unctuous 
leaves." (Gray.) 


Epiphegus Virginiana. Broom-rape Family. 

Stems. — Slender ; fleshy ; branching ; with small scales ; purplish, yel- 
lowish, or brownish. Leaves. — None. Flowers. — Purplish, yellowish, or 
brownish ; spiked or racemed ; small ; of two kinds, the upper sterile, the 
lower fertile. 

These curious-looking plants abound in the shade of beech- 
trees, drawing nourishment from their roots. The upper open 
flowers are sterile ; the lower ones, which never expand, accom- 
plish the continuance of their kind. 



LILY LEAVED LI PARIS— /.//am liliifolia. 


BEECHDROPS. — /i>/>/u'^«i Virginiana. 



Monotropa Ilypopitys. Heath Family. 

A low fleshy herb without green foliage ; tawny, reddish, or whitish. 
Floivers. — Resembling in structure those of the Indian pipe, but clustered in 
a raceme. 

The pine sap is a parasitic plant which is closely allied to 
the Indian pipe. Its clustered flowers are usually fragrant. The 
plant is commonly of a somewhat tawny hue, but occasionally one 
finds a bright-red specimen. It flourishes in oak or pine woods 
from June till August. 


Apios iuberosa. Pulse Family. 

Stem.— Twining and climbing over bushes. Leaves. — Divided into three 
to seven narrowly oval leaflets. Floive7's. — Papilionaceous; purplish or 
chocolate-color, somewhat violet-scented ; closely clustered in racemes. 

In late summer the dark, rich flowers of the wild bean are 
found in short, thick clusters among the luxuriant undergrowth 
and thickets of low ground. The plant is a climber, bearing 
edible pear-shaped tubers on underground shoots, which give it 
its generic name signifying a pear. 


Prenanthes serpentaria. Composite Family. 

Height. — About two feet. Leaves. — Roughish ; the lower lobed, the 
upper oblong lance-shaped. Flmver- heads. — Nodding; composed of green- 
ish or cream-colored strap-shaped flowers surrounded by a greenish or pur- 
ple involucre. 

These plants are peculiarly decorative in late summer on ac- 
count of their graceful, drooping, bell-shaped flower-heads. The 
flowers themselves almost escape notice, and their color is rather 



WILD BEAU.—Apios tuberosa. 



difficult to determine, the purplish or greenish involucre being 
the plant's conspicuous feature. 

The generic name is from the Greek, and signifies drooping 



Prenanthes alba. 

Height. — Two to four feet. Leaves. — The lower cleft or toothed; the 
uppermost oblong and undivided. Ficnuer- heads. — Nodding; composed of 
white or greenish strap-shaped flowers surrounded by a purplish involucre. 

This plant is almost similar to the above. 


Corallorhiza ititdtiflora. Orchis Family. 

Rootstock. — Much branched ; coral-like ; toothed. Stem. — Nine to eigh- 
teen inches high, without green foliage. Flowers. — Rather small; dull 
brownish-purple or yellowish, sometimes mottled with red ; growing in a 

In the dry summer woods one frequently encounters the dull 
racemes of this rather inconspicuous little plant. It is often 
found in the immediate neighborhood of the Indian pipe and 
pine sap. Being, like them, without green foliage, it might be 
taken for an allied species by the casual observer. This is one 
of those orchids which are popularly considered unworthy to 
bear the name, giving rise to so much incredulity or disappoint- 
ment in the unbotanical. 



Achillea Millefolium, 90 
Actaea alba, 36 
Actaea rubra, 38 
Adlumia cirrhosa, 228 
Agrimonia Eupatoria, 172 
Agrimonia parviflora, 174 
Aletris farinosa, 88 
Alisma Plantago, 109 
Althaea officinalis, 242 
Amelanchier oblongifolia, 3 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 116 
Amphicarpaea monoica, 308 
Anagallis arvensis, 266 
Anaphilis margaritacea, no 
Andromeda Mariana, 54 
Andromeda polifolia, 54 
Anemone cylindrica, 68 
Anemone nemorosa, 4 
Anemone Pennsylvanica, 68 
Anemone Virginiana, 68 
Anemonella thalictroides, 6 
Angelica atropurpurea, 92 
Antennaria plantaginifolia, 8 
Anthemis Cotula, 63 
Aphyllon uniflorum, 281 
Apios tuberosa, 330 
Apocynum androsaemifolium, 220 
Aquilegia Canadensis, 254 
Arabis hirsuta, 12 
Aralia hispida, 22 
Aralia nudicaulis, 20 
Aralia quinquefolia, 22 
Aralia racemosa, 22 
Aralia trifolia, 20 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, 32 
Arenaria Grcenlandica, 66 

Arenaria lateriflora, 67 
Arethusa bulbosa, 216, 290 
Arissema triphyllum, 324 
Asarum Canadense, 324 
Asclepias Cornuti, 229 
Asclepias incarnata, 229 
Asclepias purpurascens, 229 
Asclepias quadrifolia, 229 
Asclepias tuberosa, 262 
Asclepias verticillata, 120 
Ascyrum Crux-Andreas, 168 
Aster acuminatus, 99 
Aster Alpinum, 314 
Aster amellus, 314 
Aster cordifolius, 312 
Aster corymbosus, 99 
Aster ericoides, 99 
Aster macrophyllus, 312 
Aster multiflorus, 100 
Aster Novae-Angliae, 312 
Aster Novi Belgii, 314 
Aster patens, 312 
Aster puniceus, 312 
Aster spectabilis, 314 
Aster Tripolium, 314 
Aster umbellatus, 99 

Baccharis halimifolia, 109 
Baptisia tinctoria, 160 
Barbarea vulgaris, 142 
Berberis vulgaris, 159 
Bidens cernua, 186 
Bidens chrysanthemoides, 186 
Bidens frondosa, 184 
Brasenia peltata, 292 
Brassica nigra, 142 



Brunella vulgaris, 288 
Buda marina, 230 
Buda rubra, 230 

Cakile Americana, 304 
Calamintha Clinopodium, 222 
Calla palustris, 39 
Calopogon pulchellus, 218 
Caltha palustris, 122 
Calypso borealis, 206 
Campanula rapunculoides, 300 
Campanula rotundifolia, 299 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 12 
Cardamine hirsuta, 12 
Cardamine rhomboidea, 10 
Cassandra calyculata, 55 
Cassia Chamaecrista, 171 
Cassia Marilandica, 171 
Cassiope hypnoides, 55 
Castilleia coccinea, 258 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 120 
Ceanothus Americanus, 64 
Celastrus scandens, 121 
Cephalanthus occidentalis, 76 
Cerastium arvense, 67 
Chamselirium Carolinianum, 106 
Chelidonium majus, 135 
Chelone glabra, 96 
Chimaphila maculata, 58 
Chimaphila umbellata, 58 
Chiogenes serpyllifolia, 23 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, 60 
Chrysopsis falcata, 182 
Chrysopsis Mariana, 180 
Cichorium Intybus, 308 
Cicuta maculata, 91 
Cimicifuga racemosa, 70 
Circaea Alpina, 66 
Circaea Lutetiana, 66 
Claytonia Virginica, 198 
Clematis Virginiana, 94 
Clethra alnifolia, 86 
Clintonia borealis, 136 
Clintonia umbellata, 138 
Cnicus horridulus, 187 
Collinsia verna, 279 
Collinsonia Canadensis, 177 
Comandra umbellata, 64 

Commelina Virginica, 306 
Convolvulus Americanus, 223 
Convolvulus arvensis, 224 
Coptis trifolia, 8 
Corallorhiza multiflora, 332 
Cornus alternifolia, 30 
Cornus Canadensis, 38 
Cornus circinata, 30 
Cornus paniculata, 32 
Cornus stolonifera, 32 
Corydalis aurea, 130 
Corydalis glauca, 205 
Crataegus coccinea, 32 
Crataegus Crus-galli, 34 
Crotalaria sagittalis, 164 
Cunila Mariana, 318 
Cuphea viscosissima, 224 
Cuscuta Epilinum, 98 
Cuscuta Gronovii, 98 
Cynoglossum officinale, 264 
Cypripedium acaule, 204 
Cypripedium parviflorum, 140 
Cypripedium pubescens, 138 
Cypripedium spectabile, 214 

Dalibarda repens, 76 
Datura Stramonium, 98 
Datura Tatula, 99 
Daucus Carota, 90 
Delphinium exaltatum, 276 
Delphinium tricorne, 276 
Dentaria diphylla, 9 
Dentaria laciniata, 9 
Desmodium acuminatum, 246 
Desmodium Canadense, 246 
Desmodium Dillenii, 246 
Desmodium nudiflorum, 246 
Dianthus Armeria, 223 
Dianthus caryophyllus, 223 
Dicentra Canadensis, 16 
Dicentra Cucullaria, 16 
Diervilla trifida, 150 
Dirca palustris, 132 
Discopleura capillacea, 93 
Draba verna, 10 
Drosera Americana, 78 
Drosera filiformis, 78 
Drosera rotundifolia, 77 



ECHiNOCYSTis lobata, 88 
Echium vulgare, 298 
Elodes campanulata, 244 
Epigaea repens, 195 
Epilobium angustifolium, 230 
Epilobium coloratum, 232 
Epilobium hirsutum, 232 
Epiphegus Virginiana, 328 
Erigenia bulbosa, 14 
Erigeron annuus, 60 
Erigeron bellidifolius, 276 
Erigeron Philadelphicus, 223 
Erigeron strigosus, 60 
Erythronium albidum, 126 
Erythronium Americanum, 126 
Eupatorium ageratoides, 104 
Eupatorium perfoliatum, 102 
Eupatorium purpureum, 252 
Euphorbia corollata, 74 
Euphrasia officinahs, 281 

Galbopsis Tetrahit, 224 
Gahum Aparine, 68 
Gahum asprellum, 70 
Gahum trifidum, 70 
Gaultheria procumbens, 62 
Gaylussacia frondosa, 52 
Gaylussacia resinosa, 51 
Genista tinctoria, 163 
Gentiana Andrewsii, 318 
Gentiana crinita, 319 
Gentiana quinqueflora, 318 
Geranium maculatum. 278 
Geranium pratense, 278 
Geranium Robertianum, 226 
Gerardia flava, 190 
Gerardia maritima, 250 
Gerardia purpurea, 248 
Gerardia quercifoha, 190 
Gerardia tenuifoha, 250 
Geum album, 83 
Geum rivale, 310 
Geum striatum, 150 
Gnaphilium polycephalum, 112 
Goodyera pubescens, 83 

Habenaria blephariglottis, 84 
Habenaria ciliaris, 177 

Habenaria dilatata, 84 
Habenaria fimbriata, 288 
Habenaria lacera, 118 
Habenaria orbiculata, 86 
Habenaria psycodes, 288 
Habenaria virescens, 118 
Hamamelis Virginiana, 192 
Hedeoma pulegioides, 303 
Helenium autumnale, 184 
Helianthemum Canadense, 152 
Helianthus annuus, 182 
Helianthus divaricatus, 182 
Helianthus giganteus, 182 
Hepatica triloba, 270 
Heracleum lanatum, 92 
Heuchera Americana, 328 
Hibiscus Moscheutos, 242 
Hieracium aurantiacum, 266 
Hieracium paniculatum, 145 
Hieracium scabrum, 145 
Hieracium venosum, 144 
Houstonia caerulea, 274 
Hudsonia tomentosa, 152 
Hydrophyllum Virginicum, 66 
Hypericum Canadense, 166 
Hypericum ellipticum, 166 
Hypericum maculatum, 166 
Hypericum mutilum, 166 
Hypericum nudicaule, 168 
Hypericum perforatum, 164 
Hypoxis erecta, 159 

Ilex opaca, 36 
Ilex verticillata, 36 
Impatiens fulva, 176 
Impatiens pallida, 176 
Inula Helenium, 180 
Iris versicolor, 282 

Jeffersonia diphylla, 19 

Kalmia angustifolia, 212 
Kalmia glauca, 214 
Kalmia latifolia, 43 
Krigia amplexicaulis, 135 
Krigia Virginica, 135 

Lactuca Canadensis, 186 
Lathyrus maritimus, 293 



Lathyrus palustris, 294 
Ledum latifolium, 55 
Leontodon autumnalis, 184 
Leonurus cardiaca, 302 
Lespedeza capitata, 240 
Lespedeza polystachya, 240 
Lespedeza procumbens, 240 
Lespedeza reticulata, 240 
Leucothoe racemosa, 55 
Liatris scariosa, 316 
Lilium Canadense, 161 
Lilium Philadelphicum, 260 
Lilium superbum, 260 
Linaria Canadensis, 310 
Linaria vulgaris, 163 
Lindera'Benzoin, 124 
Linnaea borealis. 198 
Liparis liliifolia, 328 
Lobelia cardinalis, 268 
Lobelia Dortmanna, 303 
Lobelia inflata, 302 
Lobelia puberula, 303 
Lobelia spicata, 303 
Lobelia syphilitica, 311 
Lonicera ciliata, 135 
Lonicera grata, 269 
Lonicera sempervirens, 268 
Lupinus perennis, 286 
Lychnis Githago, 293 
Lycopus sinuatus, 93 
Lycopus Virginicus, 94 
Lysimachia quadrifolia, 154 
Lysimachia stricta, 154 
Lythrum Salicaria, 234 

Magnolia glauca, 51 
Maianthemum Canadense, 6 
Malva Moschata, 244 
Malva rotundifolia, 242 
Malva sylvestris, 306 
Medeola Virginiana, 140 
Medicago lupulina, 160 
Melampyrum Americanum, 156 
Melanthium Virgmicum, 80 
Melilotus alba, 64 
Melilotus officinalis, 140 
Menispermum Canadense, 40 
Mentha Canadensis, 296 

Mentha Piperita, 296 
Mentha viridis, 296 
Menyanthes trifoliata, 39 
Mertensia Virginica, 279 
Mertensia Maritima, 280 
Mikania scandens, 253 
Mimulus ringens, 292 
Mitchella repens, 72 
Mitella diphylla, 18 
Monarda didyma, 264 
Monarda fistulosa, 304 
Moneses grandiflora, ^6 
Monotropa Hypopitys, 330 
Monotropa uniflora, 62 
Myosotis laxa, 286 

Nasturtium officinale, 10 
Nasturtium palustre, 144 
Nemopanthes fascicularis, 36 
Nepeta Glechoma, 274 
Nuphar advena, 158 
Nymphaea odorata, 108 

Oakesia sessilifolia, 132 
CEnothera biennis, 178 
CEnothera fruticosa, 161 
CEnothera pumila, i6i 
Opuntia Rafinesquii, 158 
Opuntia vulgaris, 159 
Orchis spectabilis, 200 
Orontium aquaticum, 134 
Osmorrhiza longistylis, 50 
Oxalis Acetosella, 48 
Oxalis stricta, 174 
Oxalis violacea, 281 

Parnassia Caroliniana, no 
Pastinaca sativa, 133 
Pedicularis Canadensis, 128 
Pentstemon digitalis, 290 
Pentstemon pubescens, 290 
Phlox divaricata, 278 
Phlox maculata, 279 
Phlox subulata, 204 
Phryma Leptostachya, 238 
Physalis Virginiana, 96 
Physostegia Virginiana, 250 
Phytolacca decandra, 78 
Pluchea camphorata, 250 



Podophyllum peltatum, 14 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, 216 
Polygala cruciata, 228 
Polygala paucifolia, 210 
Poly""Tla polygama, 212 
a sanguinea, 226 
latum biflorum, 128 
F . ^ .latum giganteum, 130 
Poly^ nella articulata, 252 
Polygonum amphibium, 234 
Polygonum arifolium, 104 
Polygonum hydropiperoides, 100 
Polygonum Pennsylvanicum, 234 
Polygonum sagittatum, 104 
Polygonum scandens, 102 
Pontedaria cordata, 299 
Potentilla anserina, 146 
Potentilla argentea, 150 
Potentilla Canadensis, 148 
Potentilla fruticosa, 148 
Potentilla Norvegica, 146 
Potentilla tridentata, 83 
Poterium Canadense, 74 
Prenanthes alba, 332 
Prenanthes serpentaria, 330 
Prunus maritima, 34 
Prunus Virginiana, 19 
Pyrola elliptica, 56 
Pyrola minor, 58 
Pyrola rotundifolia, 56 
Pyrola secunda, 58 
Pyrus arbutifolia, 8 
Pyxidanthera barbulata, 9 

Ranunculus ambigens, 156 
Ranunculus fascicularis, 132 
Ranunculus septentrionalis, 130 
Raphanus Raphanistrum, 144 
Rhexia Virginica, 236 
Rhinanthus, Crista-galli, 164 
Rhododendron maximum. 46 
Rhododendron nudiflorum, 208 
Rhododendron Rhodora, 202 
Rhododendron viscosum, 50 
Rhus Toxicodendron, 116 
Rhus typhina, 114 
Rhus venenata, 114 
Rubus Canadensis, 43 

Rubus Chamasmorus, 42 
Rubus hispidus, 42 
Rubus odoratus, 222 
Rubus villosus, 42 
Rudbeckia hirta, 172 
Rudbeckia laciniata, 172 

Sabbatia angularis, 239 
Sabbatia chloroides, 239 
Sabbatia stellaris, 238 
Sagittaria variabilis, 109 
Sambucus Canadensis, 'j-j, 
Sambucus racemosa, 38 
Samolus Valerandi, 76 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, 2 
Sanicula Marylandica, 92 
Saponaria officinalis, 248 
Sarracenia purpurea, 258 
Saururus cernuus, 40 
Saxifraga Pennsylvanica, 121 
Saxifraga Virginiensis, 16 
Scutellaria galericulata, 285 
Scutellaria integrifolia, 284 
Scutellaria lateriflora, 284 
Senecio aureus, 138 
Senecio vulgaris, 138 
Silene antirrhina, 204 
Silene Cucubalus, 105 
Silene Pennsylvanica, 202 
Silene stellata, 105 
Sisyrinchium angustifolium, 280 
Sium cicutaefolium, 93 
Smilacina racemosa, 24 
Smilax herbacea, 113 
Smilax rotundifolia, 114 
Solanum Dulcamara, 300 
Solidago bicolor, 188 
Solidago caesia, i88 
Solidago Canadensis, 187 
Solidago juncea, 187 
Solidago lanceolata, 188 
Solidago latifolia. 188 
Solidago nemoralis, 187 
Solidago odorata, 188 
Solidago rugosa, 187 
Solidago sempervirens, 188 
Solidago virga-aurea, 188 
Specularia perfoliata, 298 



Spiraea salicifolia, 82 
Spiraea tomentosa, 232 
Spiranthes cernua, 106 
Spiranthes gracilis, 106 
Statice Caroliniana, 304 
Steironema ciliatum, 158 
Stellaria longifolia, 67 
Stellaria media, 67 
Streptopus amplexifolius, 201 
Streptopus roseus, 201 
Strophostyles angulosa, 294 
Stylophorum diphyllum, 127 
Symplocarpus foeditus, 312 

Tanacetum vulgare, 192 
Taraxacum officinale, 145 
Thalictrum dioicum, 120 
Thalictrum polyganum, 105 
Thaspium aureum, 133 
Thymus serpyllum, 317 
Tiarella cordifolia, 18 
Tradescantia Virginica, 316 
Trichostema dichotomum, 317 
Trientalis Americana, 6 
Trifolium agrarium, 160 
Trillium cernuum, 19 
Trillium erectum, 256 
Trillium erythrocarpum, 19 
Trillium grandiflorum, 18 
Trillium sessile, 256 
Tussilago Farfara, 127 

Utricularia cornuta, 162 
Utricularia vulgaris, 162 
Uvularia perfoliata, 132 

Vaccinium, 52 
Vaccinium corymbosum, 52 

Vaccinium macrocarpon, 215 
Vaccinium oxycoccus, 215 
Vaccinium stamineum, 52 
Vaccinium uliginosum, 54 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idoea, 215 
Veratrum viride, 113 
Verbascum Blattaria, 170 
Verbascum Thapsus, 168 
Verbena hastata, 291 
Verbena urticaefolia, 94 
Vernonia Noveboracensis, 314 
Veronica Americana, 285 
Veronica officinalis, 285 
Veronica serpyllifolia, 286 
Veronica Virginica, 72 
Viburnum acerifolium, 26 
Viburnum cassinoides, 28 
Viburnum dentatum, 28 
Viburnum lantanoides, 26 
Viburnum prunifolium, 24 
Vicia Cracca, 294 
Vicia sativa, 294 
Viola bicolor, 273 
Viola blanda, 23 
Viola Canadensis, 23 
Viola canina, var. Muhlenbergii, 273 
Viola lanceolata, 23 
Viola palmata, var. cucuUata, 272 
Viola pedata, 273 
Viola pedata, var. bicolor, 273 
Viola pubescens, 133 
Viola rotundifolia, 134 

Xyris flexuosa, 162 

Zizia aurea, 133 
Zygadenus elegans, 82 



Adder's Mouth, 216 
Adder's Tongue, White, 126 
Adder's Tongue, Yellow, 126 
Agrimony, 172 
Ague-weed, 102 
Alder, Black, 36 
Alder, White, 86 
Alum-root, 328 
Andromeda, Marsh, 54 
Anemone, Long-fruited, 68 
Anemone, Rue, 6 
Anemone, Wood, 4 
Angelica, Purple-stemmed, 92 
Arbutus, Trailing, 195 
Arethusa, 290, 216 
Arrow-head, 109 
Arrow-wood, 28 
Aster, Blue wood, 312 
Aster, Broad-leaved, 312 
Aster, Golden, 180 
Aster, New England, 312 
Aster, New York, 314 
Aster, Pointed-leaved, 99 
Aster, Purple, 312, 314 
Aster, Seaside purple, 314 
Aster, White, 90, 100 
Aster, White heath, 99 
Aster, White wood, 99 
Avens, Purple, 310 
Avens, Water, 310 
Avens, White, 83 
Avens, Yellow, 150 
Azalea, Clammy, 50 
Azalea, Pink, 208 

BAKED-apple berry, 42 
Balsam-apple, Wild, 88 

Baneberry, Red, 38 

Baneberry, White, 36 

Barberry, 159 

Basil, 222 

Bay, Sweet, 51 

Beach Pea, 293 

Beach Plum, 34 

Bean, Wild, 330 

Bearberry, 32 

Beard-tongue, 290 

Bedstraw, 68 

Bedstraw, Rough, 70 

Bedstraw, Small, 70 

Bee Balm, 264 

Beechdrops, 328 

Beechdrops, False, 330 

Beggar-ticks, 184 

Bellflower, European, 300 

Bellwort, 132 

Benjamin-bush, 124 

Bergamot, Wild, 304 

Betony, Wood, 128 

Bilberry, Bog, 54 

Bindweed, Hedge, 223 

Bird's Nest, 90 

Birthroot, 256 

Bishop's Cap, 18 

Bishop-weed, Mock, 93 

Bitter-sweet, 121 

Blackberry, Common, 42 

Blackberry, High, 42 

Blackberry, Running-swamp, 42 

Blackberry, Low, 43 

Black-eyed Susan, 172 

Bladder Campion, 105 

Bladderwort, 162 

Blazing Star, 106, 316 



Blood-root, 2 

Bluebells, 279 

Blueberry, Common, 52 

Blueberries, Low, 52 

Blue Curls, 317 

Blue-eyed Grass, 280 

Blue-eyed Mary, 279 

Bluets, 274 

Blue weed, 298 

Boneset, 102 

Bouncing Bet, 248 

Brooklime, American, 285 

Brook-weed, 76 

Buckbean, 39 

Buckwheat, Climbing False, 102 

Bugbane, 70 

Bugle-weed, 94 

Bugloss-Viper's, 298 

Bunch-berry, 38 

Bunch Flower, 80 

Bur Marigold, 184, 186 

Burnet, Great, 74 

Bush-honeysuckle, 150 

Butter-and-eggs, 163 

Butterfly-weed, 262 

Button-bush, 76 

CALico-bush, 43 

Calla, Wild, 39 

Calypso, 206 

Campion, Bladder, 105 

Campion, Starry, 105 

Cancer-root, 328 

Cancer-root, One-flowered, 281 

Cardinal -flower, 268 

Carrion-flower, 113 

Carrot, Wild, 90 

Cat-brier, 113 

Celandine, 135 

Celandine Poppy, 127 

Chamomile, 63 

(-heckerberry, 62 

Chickweed, 67 

Chicory, 308 

Choke-berry, 8 

Choke-cherry, 19 

Cicely, Sweet, 50 

Cinquefoil, Common, 146 

Cinquefoil, Rough, 146 
Cinquefoil, Shrubby, 148 
Cinquefoil, Silvery, 150 
Cinquefoil, Three-toothed, 83 
Cleavers, 68 
Cloud-berry, 42 
Clover, Bush, 240 
Clover, Hop, 160 
Clover, White Sweet, 64 
Clover, Yellow, 160 
Clover, Yellow Sweet, 140 
Cockspur Thorn, 34 
Cohosh, Black, 70 
Cohosh, Blue, 120 
CoHc-root, 88 
Columbine, Wild, 254 
Coltsfoot, 127 
Cone-flower, 172 
Coral-root, 332 
Corn Cockle, 293 
Cornel, Dwarf, 38 
Corpse-plant, 62 
Corydalis, Golden, 130 
Corydalis, Pale, 205 
Cowbane, Spotted, 91 
Cowslip, 124 
Cowslip, Virginian, 279 
Cow Wheat, 156 
Cranberry, 215 
Cranesbill, Wild, 278 
Cress, Rock, 12 
Cress, Small bitter, 12 
Cress, Spring, 10 
Cress, Water, 10 
Cress, Winter, 142 
Cress, Yellow water, 143 
Crinkle-root, 9 
Crow-foot, Early, 130 
Culver's Root, 72 
Cuphea, Clammy, 224 
Cynthia, 135 

Daisy, Blue Spring, 276 
Daisy Fleabane, 60 
Daisy, Ox-eyed, 60 
Daisy, White, 60 
Dandelion, 145 
Dandelion, Dwarf, 135 



Dandelion, Fall, 184 
Dangleberry, 52 
Day-flower, 306 
Deer-grass, 236 
Devil's Bit, 106 
Devil's Paintbrush, 266 
Dewberry, 43 
Dittany, 318 
Dockmackie, 26 
Dodder, 98 

Dogbane, Spreading, 220 
Dogwood, Alternate-leaved, 30 
Dogwood, Panicled, 32 
Dogwood, Red-osier, 32 
Dogwood, Round-leaved, 30 
Dragon-head, False, 250 
Dutchman's Breeches, 16 
Dyer's Green-weed, 163 

Elder, Common, 73 
Elder, Red-berried, 38 
Elecampane, 180 
Enchanter's Nightshade, 66 
Evening Primrose, 178 
Everlasting, Early, 8 
Everlasting, Fragrant Life, 112 
Everlasting, Pearly, no 
Everlasting, Plantain leaved, 8 
Eyebright, 281 

FEVER-bush, 124 
Fireweed, 230 
Five Finger, 148 
Flag, Larger Blue, 282 
Fleabane, Daisy, 60 
Fleabane, Philadelphia, 223 
Fleabane, Salt Marsh, 250 
Fleur-de-lis, 282 
Flowering-moss, 9 
Foam-flower, 18 
Forget-me-not, 286 
Foxglove, Downy False, 190 
Foxglove, Smooth False, 190 
Frost-weed, 152 
Fumitory, Climbing, 228 

GALL-of-the-earth, 330 
Garget, 78 

Gentian, Closed, 318 
Gentian, Five-flowered, 318 
Gentian, Fringed, 319 
Geranium, Wild, 278 
Gerardia, Purple, 248 
Gerardia, Seaside, 250 
Gerardia, Slender, 250 
Ghost-flower, 62 
Gill-over-the-ground, 274 
Ginger, Wild, 324 
Ginseng, 22 
Ginseng, Dwarf, 20 
Golden Club, 134 
Golden-rod, 187, 188 
Gold Thread, 8 
Goose-grass, 68 
Grass of Parnassus, no 
Great Burnet, 74 
Green-brier, 114 
Ground Cherry, 96 
Ground Ivy, 274 
Ground Laurel, 195 
Ground-nut, 20, 330 
Groundsel, Common, 138 
Groundsel Tree, 109 

Harbinger of Spring, 14 
Hardhack, 232 
Harebell, 299 
Haw, Black, 24 
Hawkweed, 144 
Hawkweed, panicled, 145 
Hawkweed, European, 266 
Hawkweed, rough, 145 
Hawthorn, 32 
Heal-all, 288 
Hedge Bindweed, 223 
Hellebore, False, 113 
Hemlock, Water, 91 
Hemp Nettle, 224 
Hempweed, Climbing, 253 
Herb of St. Barbara, 142 
Herb Robert, 226 
Hobble-bush, 26 
Hog Peanut, 308 
Holly, American, 36 
Holly, Mountain, 36 
Honeysuckle, Bush, 150 



Honeysuckle, Fly, 135 
Honeysuckle, Trumpet, 268 
Honeysuckle, White Swamp, 50 
Honeysuckle, Wi-ld, 208 
Hop Clover, 160 
Horehound, Water, 93 
Horse Balm, 177 
Hound's Tongue, 264 
Huckleberry, Common Black, 51 
Huckleberry, Squaw, 52 
Huntsman's Cup, 258 
Hyacinth, Wild, io6 

Indian Cucumber-root, 140 
Indian Fig, 158 
Indian Pipe, 62 
Indian Poke, 113 
Indian Tobacco, 302 
Indian Turnip, 324 
Indigo, Wild, 160 
Innocence, 279 
Iron-weed, 314 
Ivy, American, 116 
Ivy, Ground, 274 
Ivy, Poison, 116 

jACK-in-the-pulpit, 324 
Jamestown-weed, 98 
Jewel-weed, 176 
Joe-Pye-weed, 252 
June-berry, 3 

Knotweed, Amphibious, 234 
Knotweed, Pink, 234 
Knotweed, Sand, 252 

Labrador Tea, 55 
Ladies' Tresses, 106 
Lady's Slipper, Pink, 204 
Lady's Slipper, Showy, 214 
Lady's Slipper, Yellow, 138 
Lambkill, 212 
Larkspur, 276 
Laurel, Great, 46 
Laurel, Ground, 195 
Laurel Magnolia, 51 
Laurel, Mountain, 43 
Laurel, Pale, 214 

Laurel, Sheep, 212 

Leather-leaf, 55 

Leather-wood, 132 

Lettuce, Wild, 186 

Lily, Meadow, 161 

Lily, Turk's Cap, 260 

Lily, White Water, 108 

Lily, Wild, 260 

Lily, Wild Red, 260 

Lily, Wild Yellow, 161 

Lily, Wood, 260 

Lily, Yellow Pond, 158 

Linaria Blue, 310 

Lion's Foot, 330 

Liparis, Lily-leaved, 328 

Liver-leaf, 270 

Liverwort, 270 

Lizard's Tail, 40 

Lobelia, Blue, 303 

Lobelia, Great, 311 

Lobelia, Water, 303 

Loosestrife, Four-leaved, 154 

Loosestrife, Purple, 234 

Loosestrife, Yellow, 154 

Lopseed, 238 

Lousewort, 128 

Love Vine, 98 

Lungwort, 279 

Lupine, Wild, 286 

Magnolia, Laurel, 51 
Mallow, Common, 242 
Mallow, High, 306 
Mallow, Marsh, 242 
Mallow, Musk, 244 
Mallow, Rose, 242 
Mallow, Swamp, 242 
Mandrake, 14 
Marsh Marigold, 122 
Marsh Vetchling, 294 
May-apple, 14 
Mayflower, 195 
Mayweed, 63 
Meadow-beauty, 236 
Meadow Lily, 161 
Meadow Rue, Early. 120 
Meadow Rue, Tall, 105 
Meadow-sweet, 82 



Melilot, White, 64 
Melilot, Yellow, 140 
Milfoil, 90 

Milkweed, Common, 229 
Milkweed, Four-leaved, 229 
Milkweed, Green-flowered, 120 
Milkweed, Orange-red, 262 
Milkweed, Purple, 229 
Milkweed, Swamp, 229 
Milkwort, 226 
Mint, Wild, 296 
Mitrewort, 18 
Mitrewort, False, 18 
Moccasin-flower, 204 
Monkey-flower, 292 
Moonseed, 40 
Moose Wood, 132 
Morning Glory, Wild. 223 
Motherwort, 302 
Mountain Fringe, 228 
Mountain Holly, 36 
Mountain Laurel, 43 
Mountain Sandwort, 66 
Mountain Starwort, 66 
Mountain Tea, 62 
Mullein, Common, 168 
Mullein, Moth, 170 
Musk Mallow, 244 
Mustard, Black, 142 

Nettle, Hemp, 224 
New Jersey Tea, 64 
Nightshade, 300 
Nonesuch, 160 

Orange Grass, 168 

Orchis, Green, 118 

Orchis, Large round-leaved, 86 

Orchis, Northern White, 84 

Orchis, Orange, 177 

Orchis, Purple Fringed, 288 

Orchis, Ragged Fringed, 118 

Orchis, Showy, 200 

Orchis, White Fringed, 84 

Orchis, Yellow Fringed, 177 

Oswego Tea, 264 

I'AINTKD Cup, 258 

Parsnip, Common Wild, 133 

Parsnip, Cow, 92 
Parsnip, Early Meadow, 133 
Parsnip, Meadow, 133 
Parsnip, Water, 93 
Partridge-pea, 171 
Partridge Vine, 72 
Pennyroyal, American, 303 
Pennyroyal, Bastard, 317 
Pepperbush, Sweet, 86 
Pepper and Salt, 14 
Peppermint, 296 
Pepper-root, 9 
Phlox, Wild, 278 
Pickerel-weed, 299 
Pigeon-berry, 78 
Pimpernel, 266 
Pimpernel, Water, 76 
Pine Sap, 330 
Pine-weed, 168 
Pink, Deptford, 223 
Pink, Ground, 204 
Pink, Moss, 204 
Pink, Sea, 238 
Pink, Swamp, 208 
Pink, Wild, 202 
Pinxter-flower, 208 
Pipsissewa, 58 
Pipsissewa, Spotted, 58 
Pitcher Plant, 258 
Plantain, Water, 109 
Plantain, Rattlesnake, 83 
Plaintain, Robin's, 276 
Pleurisy-root, 262 
Poison Ivy, 116 
Poison Sumach, 114 
Pokeweed, 78 
Polygala, Fringed, 210 
Polygala, Moss, 228 
Pond-lily, Yellow, 158 
Poor-man 's-weather-glass, 266 
Poverty-grass, 152 
Prickly Pear, 158 
Prince's Pine, 58 
Pyrola, One-flowered, 56 
Pyxie, 9 

Quaker Ladies, 274 
Queen Anne's Lace, 90 



Radish, Wild, 144 
Ragwort, Golden, 138 
Raspberry, Purple-flowering, 222 
Rattlebox, 164 
Rattlesnake-plantain, 83 
Rattlesnake-root, 332 
Rattlesnake-weed, 144 
Red-root, 64 
Rheumatism-root, 19 
Rhododendron, American, 46 
Rhodora, 202 
Rich-weed, 177 
Robin's Plantain, 276 
Rocket, Yellow, 142 
Rock-rose, 152 
Rosemary, Marsh, 304 
Rue Anemone, 6 
Rue, Early Meadow, 120 
Rue, Tall Meadow, 105 

St. Andrew's Cross, 168 
St. John's-wort, Canadian, 166 
St. John's-wort, Common, 164 
St. John's-wort, Dwarf, 166 
St. John's-wort, Marsh, 244 
St. John's-wort, Pale, 166 
St. John's-wort, Spotted, 166 
Sand Spurrey, 230 
Sandwort, Broad-leaved, 67 
Sandwort, Mountain, 66 
Sanicle, 92 

Sarsaparilla, Bristly, 22 
Sarsaparilla, Wild, 20 
Saxifrage, Early, 16 
Saxifrage, Swamp, 121 
Scabious, Sweet, 60 
Sea Lavender, 304 
Sea Lungwort, 280 
Sea Rocket, 304 
Self-heal, 288 
Senna, Wild, 171 
Service-berry, 3 
Shad-bush, 3 
Sheep Laurel, 312 
Shepherd's Purse, 12 
Shin-leaf, 56 
Side-saddle Flower, 258 
Silver-rod, 188 

Silver-weed, 146 
Simpler's Joy, 291 
Skull-cap, 284 
Skull-cap, Larger, 284 
Skull-cap, Mad Dog, 284 
Skunk Cabbage, 321 
Snakeroot, Black, 70, 92 
Snakeroot, White, 104 
Sneezeweed, 184 
Snowberry, Creeping, 23 
Soapwort, 248 
Solomon's Seal, 128 
Solomon's Seal, False, 24 
Sorrel, Violet Wood, 281 
Sorrel, Wood, 48 
Sorrel, Yellow Wood, 174 
Spatter Dock, 158 
Spearmint, 296 
Spearwort, 156 
Speedwell, Common, 285 
Speedwell, Thyme-leaved, 286 
Spice-bush, 124 
Spiderwort, 316 
Spikenard, 22 
Spoonwood, 43 
Spring Beauty, 198 
Spurge, 74 
Squaw-weed, 138 
Squirrel Corn, 16 
Stagger Bush, 54 i 

Staghorn Sumach, 114 
Star-flower, 6 
Star-grass, 88 
Star-grass, Yellow, 159 
Starwort, Mountain, 66 
Steeple-bush, 232 
Stick-tight, 184 
Stitchwort, 67 
Stone-root, 177 
Succory, 308 
Sumach, Poison, 114 
Sumach, Staghorn, 114 
Sundew, 77 
Sundrops, 161 
Sunflower, Swamp, 184 
Sunflower, Wild, 182 
Swamp Cabbage, 321 
Sweet Cicely, 50 



Sweet Pepperbush, 86 
Sweet William, Wild, 279 

Tansy, 192 

Tear-thumb, Arrow-leaved, 104 
Tear-thumb, Halberd-leaved, 104 
Thimble-weed, 68 
Thistle, Yellow, 187 
Thorn-apple, 98 
Thoroughwort, 102 
Thyme, Creeping, 317 
Tick-trefoil, 246 
Toadflax, Bastard, 64 
Toadflax, Blue, 310 
Toadflax, Yellow, 163 
Toothwort, 9 
Touch-me-not, 176 
Trailing Arbutus, 195 
Traveller's Joy, 94 
Trillium, Larger White, 18 
Trillium, Nodding, 19 
Trillium, Painted, 19 
Trillium, sessile, 256 
Trumpet-weed, 252 
Turtle-head, 96 
Twin-flower, 198 
Twin-leaf, 19 
Twisted Stalk, 201 

Venus's Looking-glass, 298 
Vervain, Blue, 291 
Vervain, White, 94 
Vetch, Blue, 294 
Vetch, Common Blue, 294 
Viburnum, Maple-leaved, 26 
Violet, Bird-foot, 273 
Violet, Canada, 23 
Violet, Common Blue, 272 
Violet, Dog, 273 
Violet, Dog's Tooth, 126 
Violet, Downy Yellow, 133 
Violet, Lance-leaved, 23 
Violet, Round-leaved, 134 

Violet, Sweet White, 23 
Viper's Bugloss, 298 
Virginia Creeper, 116 
Virgin's Bower, 94 

Wake Robin, 256 
Water Arum, 39 
Water Cress, 10 
Water Hemlock, 91 
Water Horehound, 93 
Waterleaf, 66 
Water-lily, White, 108 
Water-parsnip, 93 
Water-pepper, Mild, 100 
Water Pimpernel, 76 
Water-plantain, 109 
Water Shield, 292 
Wax-weed, 224 
Wax-work, 121 

Wayfaring-tree, American, 26 
Whin, New England, 163 
Whip-poor-will's-shoe, 138 
White-hearts, 16 
White-thorn, 32 
White-weed, 60 
Whitlow-grass, 10 
Willow-herb, Great, 230 
Willow-herb, Hairy, 232 
Willow-herb, Small, 232 
Wind-flower, 6 
Winterberry, 36 
Wintergreen, 62 
Witch-hazel, 192 
Withe-rod, 28 
Woad-waxen, 163 
Woodbine, 269 
Wood Sorrel, 48 
Wood Sorrel, Violet, 281 
Wood Sorrel, Yellow, 174 

Yarrow, 90 
Yellow-eyed Grass, 162 
Yellow Rattle, 164 



Anther, xxxii 
Axil, xxix 
Axillary, xxix 

Bract, xxx 

Bulb, xxviii 

Calyx, xxi 
Cleistogamous, xxvi 
Complete flower, xxxi 
Compound leaf, xxix 
Corm, xxviii 
Corolla, xxxi 
Corymb, xxix 
Cross-fertilization, xxiii 

Dimorphous, 274 
Disk-flowers, xxxiv 
Doctrine of signatures, xxi 

Entire leaf, xxix 

Female flower, xxxii 
Filament, xxxi 
Fruit, xxxii 

Head, xxx 

Involucre, xxx 

Male flower, xxxii 
Much-divided leaf, xxix 

Neutral flower, xxxii 

Ovary, xxxii 

Papilionaceous, xxxvi 
Perianth, xxxi 
Petal, xxxi 
Pistil, xxxii 
Pistillate flower, xxxii 
Pollen, xxxii 

Raceme, xxix 
Ray -flowers, xxxiv 
Root, xxviii 
Rootstock, xxviii 

Scape, xxviii 
Self-fertilization, xxiii 
Sepal, xxxi 
Sessile, xxxi 
Simple leaf, xxix 
Simple stem, xxviii 
Spadix, xxx 
Spathe, xxx 
Spike, xxx 
Stamen, xxxi 
Staminate flower, xxxii 
Stem, xxviii 
Stemless, xxviii 
Stigma, xxxii 
Strap-shaped, xxxiv 
Style, xxxii 

Trimorphism, 254 
Tuber, xxviii 
Tubular-shaped, xxxiv 

Unisexual, xxxii 

Whorl, xxix 


Books on Flowers, Animals 

and Birds 



With 32 colored plates 


Talks about the Flowers in the order of 
their appearance in the Woods and Fields 


Author of "How to Know the Wild Flowers," "How to Know the 

Ferns," etc. 

With 32 full-page illustrations from drawings in colors by 
Elsie Louise Shaw. i2mo, $1.75 net; postage 
14. cents. 





'* The Leafy Month of 





Early Glimpses 


A Long Island Meadow 


Spring in the City 




A Spring Holiday 

. X. 

Early August 


May Notes 




Golden Rod and Aster 

" The charm of this book is as pervading and enduring as 
is the charm of nature." — N. Y. Times. 

Mrs. Parsons' s book is designed as a companion volume, 
uniform in size, to her extremely popular books, " How to 
Know the Wild Flowers" and "How to Know the Ferns." 
Miss Shaw's colored plates add greatly to the beauty and 
serviceableness of the volume, the plan of which will appeal 
to all nature-lovers. All of the colored plates are different 
from those in the ''Wild Flowers." Several of these 
chapters were published a number of years ago in a small 
volume, under the same title and without illustrations. 

By Mrs. William Starr Dana 




With 48 Colored Plates and New Black and ^Vhite 
Drawings, Enlarged, Rewritten and Entirely Reset 

A Guide to the Names, Haunts, and Habits of our Native 
Wild Flowers. With 48 full-page colored plates by 
Elsie Louise Shaw, and no full-page illustrations 
by Marion Satterlee. Sixtieth Thousand. 
Crown 8vo, $2.00 net. 

This new edition has been enlarged, revised, and entirely 
reset, the illustrations have been remade, and it has in addition 
48 full-page colored plates from drawings by Miss Elsie Louise 
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— Nature Notes, London. 

By Frances Theodora Parsons (Mrs. Dana) 


A Guide to the Names, Haunts, and Habits of our Native 
Ferns. By Frances Theodora Parsons (Mrs. 
Dana). With 144 full-page illustrations, and 6 full- 
page illustrations from photographs. Crown 8vo, 
$1.50 net. 

" Since the publication, six j'ears ago, of ' How to Know the Wild 
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nature-lovers of all ages and conditions to familiarize themselves with 
the inhabitants of our woods and fields, and so many assurances of the 
joy which such a familiarity affords, that I have prepared this companion 
volume on ' How to Know the Ferns.' It has been my experience that the 
world of delight which opens before us when we are admitted into some sort 
of intimacy with our companions other than human, is enlarged with each 
new society into which we win our way." — From the Author's Preface. 

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exceedingly fine, completing a book that must prove a lasting delight to all 
nature-lovers."— j^ipj/'ijw Evening Transcript. 


From ''How to Know the Wild Flowers." Printed on 
Special Paper suitable for Coloring by Hand. The 
set, in a portfolio, $1.00 net. 

By Ernest Thompson Seton 


Author of ''Wild Animals I Have Known," etc. Illus- 
*^^rated with more than 200 drawings by the author. 
Eightieth Thousand. ^1.75 net ; postage 75 cents. 


Krag, the Kootenay Ram. 

A Street Troubadour, Being the Adventures of a Cock Sparrow. 

Johnny Bear. 

The Mother Teal and the Overland Route. 

Chink, the Development of a Pup. 

The Kangaroo Rat. 

Tito, the Story of a Coyote that Learned How. 

Why the Chickadee Goes Crazy Once a Year. 


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effected by the latest and best photo-print process. 

— Philadelphia Evening Telegraph. 

By Ernest Thompson Seton 


Being the Personal Histories of Lobo the Wolf, Silverspot 
the Crow, Raggyhig the Rabbit, Bingo my Dog, the 
Springfield Fox, The Pacing Mustang, Wully the Yaller 
Dog, and Redruff the Partridge. With 200 illustra- 
tions from drawings by the author. One Hundred 
and Fifth Thousand. Square i2mo, ^2.00. 


** It should be put with Kipling and Hans Christian Andersen as a classic." 

— The Athenceutn. 

"Mr. Thompson is now drawing the best mammals of any American artist. 
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" Nothing apart from ' The Jungle Book ' has ever approached these tales 
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—New York World. 


*' The originality and freshness of these stories is irresistible. ... In 
everything he does, Mr. Thompson has a way peculiarly his own. . . . 
Even if naked and unadorned, the facts he tells us would be very interesting ; 
but when we have the facts and the factors fairly dancing before us, clothed in 
all the quaint quips and droll persiflage of an accomplished humorist and born 
story-teller, they are— as I have said— irresistible." — Mr. William T, Horna- 
day, Director N. Y. Zoological Park, in Recreation. 

By Ernest Thompson Seton 



Written and illustrated with 60 drawings. Square i2mo, 



" One of the most thoroughly attractive of the autumn books. . . . The 
story is almost too perfect a whole to lend itself readily to quotation. . . • 
A story to be read and re-read, finding fresh beauty at each reading, and a 
book well worth the owning. . . . It is impossible to write too highly of the 
illustrations. Pictures which really illustrate are all too rare, and the combi- 
nation of author-artist is usually a fascinating one." — New York Times. 

" It is difficult to determine which gives one the most pleasure in a book 
by Mr. Ernest Seton-Thompson — the author-artist's narrative or the artist- 
author's pictures. The two together certainly, as in the case of ' The Trail of 
the Sandhill Stag,' unite to produce a singularly harmonious result. Mr. 
Seton-Thompson can read the heart of the hunted animal as well as count the 
pulse-beats of the huntsman himself, and in this tale is condensed the whole 
tragic story of the chase. This double point of view is unique with this 
writer."—" Droch " in Life. 

" Bliss Carman, speaking of * The Trail of the Sandhill Stag,' says : ' I had 
fancied that no one could touch ' The Jungle Book ' for a generation at least, 
but Mr. Thompson has done it. We must give him place among the young 
masters at once.' And we agree with Mr. Carman."— 7'<4^ Bookman. 

" Nothing more beautiful in a dainty way has been brought out in Canada." 

— Toronto World. 

" It gives us again glimpses of the life of animals that are astonishing for 
their delicacy of perception, and charming by the deftness of their literary 
form."— .A'lett; York Mail and Express. 

"A breezy little narrative of outdoor life. . . . The author has cele- 
brated the steadfast hunt and its interesting end with art and emotion" 

—New York Tribune. 

" Is a truly poetic bit of impressionistic ■pxos^."— Chicago Tribune.