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Full text of "How to make a violin. And Violin notes by Ole Bull"

HOW TO MAKE 

A VIOLIN 

by 
JOHN BROADHOUSE 

and 
VIOLIN NOTES by OLE BULL 



Revised Edition 



LONDON 

WILLIAM REEVES Bookseller Ltd. 

la Norbury Crescent, S.W.I 6 







Printed in Great Britain by 
Lowe and Brydone (Printers) Limited, London, N.W.io 



Foreword, 

THE demand for this little work on the 
construction of the violin has con- 
tinued steadily for years and for a short 
time has been out of print. This present 
edition has been considerably improved and 
has had the advantage of being revised by 
one of our well-known violin makers. 
With a view of further improving this edi- 
tion the outline illustrations of the models 
of Stradivarius, Guarnerius and Amati have 
been re-drawn and that of a Maggini added 
to the list. 



Contents 



Introduction 




rAOK 

1 


Chapter 1. 
The Parts of the Violin 


7 


Chapter II. 
On the Selection of Wood 


9 


Chapter III. 
The Tools Required 


13 


The Models 


Chapter IV. 


22 


The Mould 


Chapter V, 


28 


The Side-pieces 


Chapter VI. 
and Side-linings 


35 


The Back ... 


Chapter VII. 


41 


The Belly 


Chapter VIII. 


46 


Chapter IX. 
The Thickness of the Back and Belly 


52 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

Chapter X. 
The Bass Bar 66 

Chapter XI. 
The Purfling 61 

Chapter XII. 
The Neck 67 

Chapter XIII. 
The Fingerboard V6 

Chapter XIV. 
The Nut cand the Tail Piece Nut 77 

Chapter XV. 
Varnishing and Polishing 79 

Chapter XVI. 
Varnishes and Colouring Matter 82 

Chapter XVII. 
The Varnish 91 

Chapter XVIII. 
A. Mathematical Method of Constructing the 

Outline 102 

Chapter XIX. 
The Remaining Accessories of the Violin (in- 
cluding Violin Notes by Ole Bull) ... 113 



List of Illustrations. 



''Le Mercure " Strad 



Frontispiece 



ria. 
1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



19. 
20. 
21. 



Saw J3 

Plane, side view 14 

Plane, bottom view ... ... 14 

Plane showing loose pieces detached ... 14 

Plane ready for use ... 15 

Side view of small rounded plane 16 

Bottom view of small rounded plane ... 16 

Knife 17 

Scraper ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Steel compasses ... ... ... ... 17 

Steel trace 18 

Bending iron ... ... ... 18 

Hand-vice ... ... 19 

Wooden hand screw ... ... ... ... 19 

Clip of wood 20 

Sound-post setter ... ... ... ... 20 

Sound-post setter used by Spohr ... ... 20 

Large folding plate of outlines of an 
Amati, Stradivarius, Guarnerius and 

Maggini At end of volume 

Outline of a violin 23 

Model for the curve of the back and belly 24 

Model for the curve at its greatest width 24 



Vlll LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FIO. PAOK 

22. The curve over the / holes 24 

23. Model for the curve at the widebt part of 
the neck end ... ... ... ... ... 24 

24. Model for drawing and placing the / holes 25 

25. The mould 28 

26. The counter mould 29 

27. The upper mould with pieces in position 31 

28. Mould with the blocks 32 

29. Maple piece 41 

30. The two maple pieces in position 41 

31. Another view in one piece ... 42 

32. The back-plate 44 

33. Purfling tool 62 

34. Cutters 62 

35. Purfling tool 63 

36. Chisel-sharpened awl 66 

37. The neck 68 

38. A view of the foot of the neck ... ... 72 

39. Outline with measures marked ... ... 104 

40. Arc 108 

41. Outline showing the position of the bar ... 109 

42. Outline showing varying thickness ... 110 

43. Bridge of a viol with seven strings, the 
body of which is not cut out except at the 
two sides ... ... ... ... ... 126 

44. Bridge of a viol with five strings cut 
through in every part ... 127 

45. Bridge of a small pattern violin of the 
ancient school of Anthony Amati 126 

46. Bridge of a Nicholas Araati ... 128 

47. Bridge of a Stradivarius ... 128 



Introduction. 



So much has been written upon the 
violin, its history, its development, its 
beauties as a musical instrument, its 
musical literature, etc., that a collection of 
all the works to which it ha^ given rise 
would form almost a library of themselves. 
Its history has been ably treated in a Ger- 
man work called "Die Violine, Ihre Ges- 
chichte und Ihr Bau." The oiily work, how- 
ever, as yet given to English readers, I 
believe, which treats fully and concisely of 
the numerous details involved in making a 
violin, is the very fine but expensive work 
of E. Heron-Allen — a work complete in 
itself, but perhaps too costly for some who 
would like to try their hand at fabricating 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

a fiddle. Hints are given in many books, 
and in some of them a general outline of 
the process is furnished; the best I have 
seen is contained in " The Violin," by P. 
Davidson. By far the greater part of that 
interesting work is devoted to theoretical 
and historical matters, which, however, at- 
tractive in themselves, are not strictly con- 
nected with the making of the instrument 
My object in writing this book is to afford 
the amateur detailed information respect- 
ing the various processes to be gone through 
in the workshop, from the time when the 
wood in the rough lies on the bench to the 
moment when the finished article is ready 
to be fitted with strings for playing. I do 
not think I have allowed any detail to es- 
cape me, if I have I shall be grateful to any 
reader who will communicate with me, so 
that the defect or defects may be remedied 
in a later edition. I do not for a moment 
suppose that my work is perfect, but I have 
tried to make it as full and complete as 
possible, and to explain in detail every 
operation necessary to construct a violin, 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

It is presumed that the amateur is suffi- 
ciently enthusiastic to make the attempt, 
and that he means not merely to make a 
common box of wood which will sound 
when played upon, but to produce instru- 
ments which will live after him, and to put 
his best work into every violin he finishes. 
Violins are turned out by the thousand 
every year, but cheap as they are, most of 
them are dear at the price paid for them 
because they are made without artistic in- 
telligence, without enthusiasm, without love 
for the beautiful, and without that minute 
attention to each particular instrument 
which alone can secure a perfect work. So 
many backs, so many bellies, so many necks, 
so many finger-boards, so many bass-bars, so 
many sound-posts, are shaped to a given 
pattern, fitted together, varnished, and sent 
into the market as so many violins; but 
this is not the way to produce one good in- 
strument. The amateur who reads this 
book doubtless knows all that can be learnt 
about the old masters whose names are 
household words in the violin world, and if 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

SO, he knows that they did not work on this 
plan, but bestowed loving care on every 
single instrument, regarding the one work 
in hand as quite enough to tax all their 
energies and absorb all their artistic know- 
ledge and experience for the time being. 
This is the spirit in which to work, the 
spirit which will regard every detail as 
equally momentous, and bestow as much 
time and trouble on the inside v/ork which 
will never be seen, as on the outside work 
which will be seen. I would call the 
reader's attention to the remark of the 
eminent sculptor to the effect that "Trifles 
make perfection," but I would at the same 
time caution him against misunderstanding 
the quotation. In the making of a violin 
there are no "trifles," everything seen or 
unseen, great or small, beautiful or not 
beautiful, is of the first importance. The 
mason who carved elaborate details on 
figures, in a cathedral, placed so high that 
the beauty of his work could not be seen 
and admired, made his work perfect because 
the gods would see it ; does the amateur who 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

is about to begin to make a violin know 
what such enthusiasm means ? Is he pre- 
pajed to produce a perfect work, not merely 
to make a profit by it, not to win admiration 
for it, not to gam celebrity by it, but because 
the doing of genuine work, for the reason 
that it is genuine work, is the highest and 
purest pleasure known to the enthusiast? 
This is enthusiasm. The work will not of 
necessity be bad if profit or fame result 
from it, but it will certainly be bad if this 
particular kind of enthusiasm do not inspire 
every step taken in the process of doing it. 

Few stories have been told oftener than 
that which tells how Sir Joshua Reynolds 
informed an inquirer that he mixed his 
colours with brains. That is the one single 
commodity with which I cannot undertake 
to supply the amateur violin-maker. No 
amount of instruction will enable a fool to 
make a fiddle. 

No number of difficulties will prevent a 
man "with a head screwed on the right 
way about" from working through failure 
to success. These instructions are only 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

meant for people of the latter sort. For 
them the directions here given will be ample. 
Theories have been abundantly dealt with 
by other writers : this work is meant to be 
practical. 



HOW TO MAKE A VIOLIN. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE PARTS OF THE VIOLIN. 

TAKEN to pieces, a violin would be 
found to consist of the following 
parts : 

♦Back . . . , 

Belly .... 

(4 Corners and i top and 

bottom blocks) 
tSides 

Side Linings 



2 Pieces 
2 



Bar . 
JPurflings 



6 

12 

I 

36 



* The back is sometimes made in one piece. It is 
then called " a whole back." The same remark also 
applies to the belly. 

t Bottom side is sometimes one piece only. 

I The purflings are the narrow black ornamental 
double lines running round the outer edge of the 
back and belly. They are sometimes omitted. 



8 



How to Make a Violin. 



( 



Neck . 


I I 


^iec 


Finger Board . 




II 


Nut . 




II 


Bridge 




II 


Tail Piece . 




II 


Button for ditto 




II 


String for ditto . 




II 


Tail Piece Nut . 




II 


Sound Post 




11 


Strings 


4 


II 


Pegs . . . . 


4 

82 


II 



Four kinds of wood are used ; maple, 
pine, ebony and rosewood. 

Maple is used for the back, the neck, the 
side pieces and the bridge. 

Pine is used for the belly, the bar, the 
blocks, the side linings and the sound post. 

Ebony is used for the fingerboard, the 
nut, the tail piece, the tail piece nut and the 
button. >v 

Rosewood for the pegs . ) 



CHAPTER 11. 

ON THE SELECTION OF WOOD. 

THE maple and pine are the sounding 
woods of the violin, and the tone of 
the instrument depends chiefly upon 
the quality of wood chosen. It is a pity to 
waste good work on bad wood, and the fol- 
lowing points must be carefully observed 
in selecting both the maple and pine : 
Q The tree should have been cut in Decem- 
ber or January. At that time the sap has 
ceased to flow, and wood cut down then is 
always richer in sonorous qualities than that 
cut at any other time^ 

It must have been seasoned for six or 
seven years before use, more, if possible, but 
never less. Artificial means have been em- 
ployed to hasten the effects of seasoning, 
and make the wood tough, elastic and reson- 
ant, but seasoning is the only genuine, be- 



10 How to Make a Violin. 

cause natural mode of attaining this end, 
and I advise the amateur to avoid baked 
wood, or wood dosed with chemicals, as he 
would the plague. The longer the wood has 
been seasoned by being kept in a dry and 
airy place and protected from extremes of 
heat and cold, the better will it be for violin 
making. 

y he wood must be perfectly free from 
knots, quite sound, not worm eaten, and 
without flaw of any kind. The grain must 
be perfectly straight and run lengthwise. 
The maple must not be too hard or too soft, 
in the first case the tone will not come freely 
at the touch of the bow, in the second, it 
will be dull, muffled and entirely without 
brilliancy.^ This, like many other matters 
in connection with our subject, is a question 
of judgment and experience. Vuillaume, of 
Paris, travelled in Italy and Switzerland for 
the express purpose of procuring pine wood, 
and bought chairs, tables and other articles 
of furniture whenever he found the kind of 
wood he wanted. As it is not possible for 
every would-be maker to follow his example 



On the Selection of Wood. il 

I recommend the amateur to buy the wood 
he requires from a violin-maJcer of repute. 
These are to be found in London, Paris, 
and even at Mirecourt, the French town 
where so many common violins are made by 
machinery to order. For good material a 
high price will be asked, and very valuable 
pieces of back and belly wood are wortli 
almost their weight in gold. A maker in 
London once showed me two pieces of 
maple sawed into shape for a back, which 
he said he would not sell, even in the rough, 
for twenty pounds apiece. 

Tt is not of course necessary or desirable 
that the amateur should make his earliest 
experiments on costly wood, on the other 
hand, I recommend him to make his first 
fiddle of cheap material, so as to familiarise 
himself with the tools ^nd the way to use 
them. When this experience has been ac- 
quired, it will be soon enough to try to turn 
valuable wood into an artistic and really 
excellent violin. 

( The wood must be cut from the south side 
01 the tree. The old Italian makers took 



12 How to Make a Violin. 

great care to select wood of this kind, 
because they found it more sonorous and 
brilliant in tone. The maple should be free 
from red or brown patches, that which is of 
an uniformly whitish tint is the best. 

The pine should be white and of perfectly 
straight grain throughout the length of the 
instrument.^ The very finest grain is not so 
good as that which has an open space be- 
tween the hbres. The least knot, fault, flaw 
or curve in the grain will render the piece 
useless. No other wood but pine is ever 
used for the belly, though the back has 
occasionally been made of other woods than 
maple. Figured wood is advisable if its 
sonority is not interfered with, as the beauti- 
ful and the useful may readily be combined. 
Some of the backs of Stradivarius combine 
beauty of appearance and excellence of tone 
in the highest perfection. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE TOOLS REQUIRED. 

SOME of the tools used in violin making 
are commonly used by cabinet- 
makers and carpenters, and others 
are peculiarly fitted for their special pur- 
poses. They may be bought at a good tool 
shop. 

The work-bench or table, need not be 
larger than 4 ft. by 2 ft. A wooden vice 
should be attached to one end. The surface 
should be quite smooth and kept scrupulously 
clean. The following tools are required : 




FIC.J 

Three saws one of the usual kind for 
sawing the larger pieces (24 inches of blade 
will be plenty), a hand saw for the more 



14 



How to Make a Violin. 



delicate work, and a bow saw for outline 
work. 

Three chisels, ^ inch, § inch, and i inch 
broad respectively. 

Eight gouges, ranging from \ inch to 
I inch broad, will be necessary. 




riQ.% 



A flat-bottomed plane 8 inches long. The 
illustrations show the kind of plane re- 
quired. Fig. 2 is the side view of the body ; 




Fi(^^ 



The Tools Required. 15 

Fig. 3 is the bottom view, aa being the slit 
for the blade; Fig. 4 shows the loose pieces 
detached, which, when fixed, keeps the blade 
in its place; and Fig. 5 shows the plane 




FIO.S 

ready for use. The blade must be kept very 
sharp, or it will tear the wood instead of 
taking off a thin clean shaving. 

If the maker buys his wood in the tree, 
and decides to season it himself, he must cut 
his maple for the necks into pieces 12 inches 
long, 2\ inches deep, and if inches broad, 
the grain running on the broadest side. Stack 
the pieces so that the air gets freely to them. 
The pieces of maple and pine for the back 
and belly must be 16 inches long, 6 inches 
broad, but conical in shape, the broader edge 
being i^ inches and the narrower \ inch. 
Authorities are divided as to whether the 
heart wood or the outer edge should be joined 



i6 



How to Make a Violin. 



in the middle of the instrument. Mauzin, a 
French author, says : *' II faut avoir soin . . . 
de mettre la partie du coeur de Teirbre c*est-a- 
dire les veines les plus rapproch^s, dans le 
centre de la table." Mr. Davidson, in the 
work referred to in the introduction, says 
the "two thickest edges" should be "the 
bark side of the tree," and yet he says later 
on, after giving directions for planing and 
joining the thicker edges to make the back 
and belly : " It will thus be seen that the 
centre of this joined plate contains the in- 
terior or heart wood" If, as he says, the 
two thickest edges are the bark side^ it is 
impossible that the centre of the joined plate 
can contain the interior or heartwood* 




//^ 6 




• Aa » matter of fact the bark side is in the centre 
or jointed part of the iD6trument, this applies to 



both back and belly. 



The Tools Reauired. 



i; 



Three small planes, with rounded bottoms. 
Figs. 6 and 7 show what these tools are like. 

The smallest should be of the size shown; 
the second half as large again; the largest 
twice the size of the smallest. 

Three or four knives of the shape shown 
in Fig. 8, with blades ranging from i inch 
to 3 inches in length. 

Two or three scrapers, like those used by 
cabinet-makers, but with rounded edges. 
The necessity for this difference will be seen 
later, when the use of the scraper is ex- 
plained. One scraper will be required with 
the edge shaped as Fig. 9. 



r/^a 



i8 



How to Make a Violin. 



A pair of steel compasses for measuring 
the thickness of the back and belly, shaped 
as in Fig. lo. These must, of course, be 
large enough to allow the back and belly 
pieces to be measured with equal facility 
from any point of the edge. 



® 




^ 



A steel trace, with one leg shorter than 
the other, Fig. ii. 

A bending iron, for giving shape to the 



The Tools Required. 



19 



side pieces and side linings, Fig. 12. The 
body (B) is of an oval shape (C), Fig. 12, 
and 6 inches long, the length of the oval 
being 2 inches and the width i inch. The 
handle (A) should of course be long enough 
to prevent burning the hand when the body 
(B) is heated. 
A hand-vice, Fig. 13; the opening from A 





to B should be about 3^ inches, and the 
breadth, C to D, about i inch. 

Sixteen or eighteen hand-screws, made of 
wood, of the shape shown in Fig. 14, and 



20 



How to Make a Violin. 



measuring 3 inches from A to B. C should 
be I inch thick. In using these hand-screws, 
a piece of cloth must be put on the violin to 
prevent marks of any kind. 

A clip of wood shaped like a clothes-peg, 
Fig. 1 5, I inch wide at A, 2 inches from point 



r-iA 





to point at B, its length is 9 inches and its 
thickness | mch, and is used for glueing in 
the bass bar, five of these being required. 
It should be made of hard wood. 

Another clip of a similar kind, but only 
2 inches long. The inner surfaces of these 



The Tools Required. 21 

two little tools must be as smooth as pos- 
sible, so as not to " chafe '* the violin. 

A sound-post setter, which is made of 
steel and shaped as in Fig. 16, where A 
shows the surface, and B the bend of the 
tool. It should be 8 or 10 inches long. 

Another form of sound-post setter was 
used by Spohr. Its shape is given in Fig. 
17. The bend B enables the setter to be 
applied to the head or foot of the post at 
will. 

The best tools should be procured whicii 
it is possible to buy ; the art of violin making 
is not an easy one, and its difficulties are 
indefinitely multiplied by bad tools. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE MODELS. 

BY " a model " is meant a flat piece of 
wood, Fig. 19, about | inch thick, 
which affords a means of drawing 
the shape which any part of the violin is to 
take. Great care will be required in shaping 
these models, as upon them the accuracy of 
the finished work depend?. 

While the amateur will naturally wish to 
copy the outline of an instrument by one of 
the great masters, it is not to be supposed 
that he will possess a back or belly by Amati, 
Stradivarius or Guarnerius. I therefore give 
the outline of a violin by each of these 
masters : see large folding plate. 

A model of either may be made as fol- 
lows : draw the outline on tracing paper, or, 
better still, cut out the model chosen from 



The Models. 23 

the woodcut, and paste it on a thin piece of 
mahogany, having first made the straight 
edge representing the centre joint quite 
smooth and even with the plane. Then cut 




ri^.if 



out the mahogany the required shape, with 
scrupulous care, filing out the corners and 
inlet with a fine file. The shape thus ob- 
tained will answer very well if it is carefully 
done, and can be kept for future violins. 
The name of the maker of the ori|jinal in- 
strument taken as the model should be 
written on the mahogany in ink for identifi- 



24 



How to Make a Violin. 



cation. If it is preferred, the full model can 
be made in the same Nvay by cutting out 
another piece of paper, the shape of that 
taken from the wood-cut, the following will 

then be the form of the model : 



Fig. 20. 

Fig. 20 shows the model for the curve of 
the back and belly taken lengthwise. 



C 



Fig 21. ^ 
Fig. 21 shows the model for the curve of 



the instrument at its greatest width, and 
Fig. 22 the curve over the / holes. 



^ '^-23. 

Fig. 23 shows the model for the curve at 
the widest part at the neck end 



The Models. 25 

Fig. 24 shows the model for drawing and 
placing the / holes. It will be observed that 
the position and shape of the / holes varies 
in different instruments, and a model must 
bf* made to suit each style adopted. 




/g.2^. 



The four models shown in Figs. 18, 19, 20 
and 21 can only be properly made by ad- 
justing them to the back of another instru- 
ment. If the amateur cannot obtain access to 
a good violin for this purpose, he should pur- 
chase a copy of a Stradivarius, which can be 
bought tolerably cheap. If it seems strange 
that I should recommend a trashy copy as h 
model for the arching of a good violin, it 
must be remembered that the Mirecourt 
copies — those, at any rate, of the better kind, 
are made accurately to a scale taken from 



26 How to Make a Violin. 

the instruments of the best period of Stradi- 
varius, and are correctly made so far as shape 
is concerned. If the amateur prefers to 
make these models of arching by his eye 
alone, he must bear in mind that Stradi- 
varius, following the example of the Amati 
family, began with a high arching, especially 
between the / holes, but as he gained ex- 
perience he found that the lowering of the 
arch contributed to fullness and brilliance of 
tone, and the violins of his best period have 
the lowest arching of all. The chapter on 
the mathematical method of finding the out- 
line gives a mode of determining the shape 
of the arch lengthwise; this being once ob- 
tained and the model made, the transverse 
arching will of course be determined by 
that, as the arches at the upper and lower 
widths and also at the / holes must neces- 
sarily fall from the given height of the 
lengthwise arch to the level near the edges. 
The scroll must also be formed from a 
good pattern. A good neck and scroll can 
be bought at all instrument dealers and kept 
as a model. Directions for carving the 



The Models. 27 

scroll will be found later on. Various 
methods have been devised for making a 
model of a scroll without a pattern, but those 
methods are very cumbersome in operation 
and uncertain in result, and I recommend 
the amateur to buy a scroll from Hart, Hill, 
Chanot, or some other London maker of 
repute. He can work from this pattern, 
always knowing that his model is as good 
an one as can be obtained. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE MOULD. 

THE mould, which, properly speaking, 
is a " tool *' as much as those men- 
tioned in the chapter on tools, is a 
piece of wood cut in such a shape as to allow 




the blocks, side-pieces and side-linings to be 
fixed in their proper places, so as to form the 
true foundations on which the violin is to be 
built up. This mould is represented in Fig. 
25. At A A are the inlets for the two top 



The Mould. 29 

and bottom blocks, and the four pieces 
marked B are for the corner blocks which 
fill up on each side of the two circular inlets, 
for the solid Jaasis on which the back and 
belly are afterwards glued. 




The mould is begun by making a model 
exactly the shape and size of that for the 
back and belly, Fig. 19. Lay on the bench 
the piece intended for the mould and put 
upon it the model already made, Fig. 19; 
mark the outline with the point of the tracer, 
and with the saw and knife clean away the 
wood, and then with the file dress the edges 
until they correspond exactly with the pat- 
tern (the four corners may be left sharp). 
This piece will then be of the shape of Fig. 
26, and is called the counter mould. 



30 How to Make a Violin. 

Now take a piece of hard wood (walnut is 
the best for the purpose) \ inch in thickness 
and a little larger than the model in Fig. 19. 
This piece is meant for the mould itself. . . . 
Lay it on the table, and the centre mould 
upon it, and trace on it the outline of the 
latter with the tracer. Then, with a rule, 
trace the inlets A A and four inlets at 
B B B B, as in Fig. 25. The dark line 
shows the shape of the mould; the dotted 
lines at'B represent the corner blocks. Re- 
move the superfluous wood with the saw and 
knife, finishing off with the scraper and file. 

It is absolutely necessary that the sides of 
the mould, in all their extent, should be 
perfectly square with the surface. Any 
deviation from this rule will throw the side- 
pieces out of the upright when they come to 
•be fixed, the edges of the mould being the 
only means of enabling the side-pieces to be 
glued to the corner blocks in an upright 
position. 

Next pierce the eight holes shown in Fig. 
25. The top and bottom holes are to be 



TJie Mould. 31 

respectively i\ inches (or 15 lignes French 
measure) from the inner edge of the inlets 
A A, the four marked C i inch from the in- 
lets B B B B; and the two in the centre i 
inch from the inner edge of the C curves. 

Eight other pieces must now be added to 
the mould. 




ri^ 27, 



This figure shows the upper mould sur- 
rounded by the eight pieces in question. 
They must also be of walnut, and of the 
precise depth of the side-pieces, viz., \\ 
inches, and must be dressed with the scraper 
and file till they fit perfectly close to the 
sides of the mould. 

The next figure shows the mould, with the 
blocks (A A) (B B B B) fitted in their places. 



^ 



32 How to Make a Violin. 

These blocks must be of pine, of perfectly 
even grain and a trifle over i^ inches high to 
allow for trimming. The blocks should fit 
perfectly in their inlets, and their grain and 
that of the corner blocks also must run 
across the instrument This gives solidity 
to the body. 




The blocks being prepared, put a mere 
spot of glue on the edge of the mould in 
each of the six inlets, and fix the pieces of 
pine so that they all stand exactly at the 
same height. They should project beyond the 
surface of the mould underneath, but only 
■j^ of an inch. 

When the glue is dry, trim off with the 
knife and file the projecting -^ of an inch, 



The Mould. 33 

and file the blocks perfectly level with the 
underside of the mould, this being the side 
on which the back will be glued. The 
ruler must be used to ascertain that the 
surface corresponds perfectly with that of 
the mould. 

Lay the upper mould on the mould so 
that the outlines of the two are quite square 
with each other, and trace out the shape of 
the former on the blocks. Then cut away 
the extra wood with a suitable gouge and 
trim with the knife and file till the blocks 
are the exact shape of the upper mould. The 
mould and blocks will then be of the shape 
of Fig. 26 (page 29). Work slowly and 
measure constantly with the square to see 
that the outer edges of the blocks are per- 
fectly square with the surface of the mould. 

It is now time to speak of glue, which 
must be of the best quality and made with 
the utmost care. This is the more important 
because no other material is used for hold- 
ing the parts of the violin together. The 
best glue is that known as Cologne glue. 
It is pale in colour and sold in pieces 6 or 

4 



34 How to Make a Violin. 

8 inches long and 2 wide; it is very brittle 
and whitish at the broken edge. Common 
glue is of no use at all. Break a quantity 
in small pieces and put it in cold water for 
four hours, which will soften and swell it 
up. Then take a small glue pot of the or- 
dinary kind, but with the inner vessel 
enamelled. Add water slowly; when the 
glue is all dissolved it should be of the con- 
sistency of very thick oil. Take care that it 
never boils. The glue should always be 
used very hot, but never boiling. While 
making, stir it gently with a stick of pine 
wood, and in using it apply it to the wood 
with a large camel hair pencil. In summer, 
glue will dry in four hours; in winter it 
needs twelve, and, in the latter case, the 
edges of the wood should be carefully 
warmed before the glue is put on. When 
two pieces are glued together, scrape away 
with a chisel any drops which escape, while 
they are hot^ or with a pencil dipped in warm 
water. It cannot be too often repeated that 
only the very best glue obtainable is of any 
use for violin making. 



CHAPTER VI. 
THE SIDE-PIECES AND SIDE-LININGS. 

SAW out a piece of maple 30 inches long, 
4 inches wide, and ^^j inch thick. The 
grain should run lengthwise. Lay it 
on the bench at one end and clamp it down 
with the hand-vice. Plane the surface all 
over (going away from the vice), then un- 
clamp it, turn it round, clamp the clean end 
down, and plane the rest. This time a flat 
bit of wood must be put between the hand- 
vice and maple to prevent the planed surface 
from being marked. Plane the other side in 
the same way, till the piece is reduced to a 
thickness of ^ inch. 

On account of its peculiar grain maple is 
very difficult stuff to plane, and ,the plane 

iron must be dressed so as to project very 

35 



36 How to Make a Violin. 

slightly, or it will tear the wood and not 
smooth it. The most wavy and ornamental 
pieces are at the same time the most difficult 
to plane, and best suited for the side pieces. 

The piece is still too thick, but it must be 
carefully scraped till all inequalities left by 
planing are removed and the strip is 
smoothed to a nice polish on the surface 
which will be outside the violin. 

Now take the tracer and mark your piece 
into three strips of equal width. Divide 
them carefully with a knife. Take the 
plane bottom upwards, between your knees, 
and, holding each strip in your hands, move 
the edges along the plane iron till each is 
exactly i^ inches wide. 

To divide them into proper lengths, 
measure with a strip of paper round the 
upper curve of the mould from the point 
where the neck is to join the block to the 
corner of the block. Allow for trimming 
and join at this comer. In the same way 
measure the inlet, allowing for trimming 
and joining at both ends. Then measure 
from the lower comer to the centre of the 



The Side-pieces and Side-linings. yj^^ 

lower block. Cut two strips to each length. 
Cut the pieces long enough. The next opera- 
tion is to bend the strips, which is done with 
the bending iron. Heat it in a stove, but not 
hot enough to char the wood. Fix the 
handle in the bench-vice, and, taking one of 
the strips, dip it in cold water and bend it to 
the required shape very gradually. If you 
are too hasty you will certainly break the 
strip. Keep the strip damp by frequent 
dipping. A little practice soon renders this 
operation easy, but care must be taken to 
curve square with the width, in other words, 
when bent, the side-piece should touch the 
bench at every point of its edge. 

The side-pieces can now be fixed. At the 
four corners and at the point where the sides 
meet at the lower block the joint must be 
trimmed and filed till it is perfect. The 
eight pieces of walnut before mentioned, of 
the depth of \\ inches, will now be wanted. 
Fig. 27 (p. 31) shows them in their places, 
and their use is to hold the sides to the 
blocks to which they are to be fixed by 
means of glue. Rub the edges of the 



38 How to Make a Violin. 

mould well with soap, taking great care 
that the soap does not touch the blocks. 
Glue the two blocks in the C inlet, put the 
side-piece in its exact place, fix upon it the 
walnut block, take a hand-vice, and, putting 
the beak in the hole nearest the C inlet, fix 
the screw on the outside of the walnut block 
and tighten screw until the side-piece 
presses firmly against the soaped mould and 
the glued blocks. So for the other C 
inlet. 

Glue the upper block and the corner block, 
lay on the side-piece, add the walnut blocks, 
clamp up with hand-vices as before, using 
the holes nearest to the glued block. The 
side-pieces will, of course, be level with the 
mould on the under side, and project 
on the upper surface. At the upper block 
leave a space of \ inch, at the lower 
block the joint must be perfect. To do 
this properly, run the corner end first, 
glue the block and clamp, and do the same 
with the other side-piece, leaving the two 
ends free. Then bring them together at the 
lower blpck and make your joint perfect 



The Side-pieces and Side-linings. 39 

before gluing the block ; glue the block and 
clamp up. It is now clear why the eight 
holes were made in the mould. 

When dry and firm, remove the vices and 
trim the blocks to the level of the side- 
pieces. It is hardly necessary to say that 
this must be done slowly and with exceed- 
ing care, lest the side-pieces should be dis- 
turbed. 

It is usual to have the sides slightly nar- 
rower at the neck end. This narrowing 
must now be done. With the knife and file 
take off the neck block and side not more 
than tV of an inch\ the height of the sides 
must then be graduated all round, starting 
with \\ inches at the lower end and finishing 
iV inch less at the upper end. This opera- 
tion requires great care. 

The side-linings may now be made and 
put in. They are of pine, ^ inch broad, 
1*1 inch thick at the thicker and -^ inch 
at the thinner edge. They are bent 
by the same means as the sides, glued 
in with the thicker edge level with the 
edge of the sides and held in their places 



40 How to Make a Violin. 

with wooden chips. When these are dry, 
take a fine knife and separate the blocks 
from the mould, round off the blocks with 
a gouge, and the outline of your violin is 
complete. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE BACK. 



THE back and belly are made in the 
same way, save that the latter is 
left thinner than the former, of 
which hereafter. In form and arch they are 
precisely the same. 

Take two pieces of maple shaped thus, 
and of the size previously indicated, Fig. 29. 



Fig, 29. 

Plane the surface and the thicker edges, 
and lay the two pieces together on the table 
thus, Fig. 30. 



These two when glued together will form 
the back of the violin, the ridge being the 



41 



42 How to Make a Violin. 

position of the arch. If you decide to have 
your back in one piece, its size must be that 
of the other two laid together, and its shape 
thus, Fig. 31. 

If you use two pieces, plane the thicker 
edges until they join perfectly. Glue them 
together. When the glue is dry, your back 
is ready for work. 

Lay the two pieces (now practically one) 
on the bench, and having planed both sides 
perfectly, take the model (Fig. 19), place it 
on the flat side, taking -particular care that 
the joint corresponds with the centre of the 
model. With the tracer point draw the out- 
line of the model. Rigid accuracy is in- 
dispensable. 

Saw round the outline with the bow saw, 
not going too near the line, as the knife and 
flle have to follow to give the exact outline 
of the model. See that the edges are at all 
points square with the flat side. 

Open the tracer \ inch, take the back be- 
tween your knees, and work a line all round 



The Back. 43 

the edge at that distance from the flat side. 
This is the thickness the edge is to be. 

Put the back on the bench, fix it with 
hand-screws, and with a large gouge give to 
it a rough resemblance of the shape which it 
must ultimately take. Do not hurry over 
this work. It is hardly necessary to remind 
the careful workman that when all the 
gouging, knifing, scraping and filing have 
been done, a certain thickness of wood must 
be left, and that one cut too deep at the out- 
set will necessitate a fresh start. Begin by 
working along the ridge, so as to give to 
the joint a rough resemblance to the model 
of the arching lengthwise. Take short and 
shallow strokes with the gouge, cutting off 
only very small chips at a time, and be sure 
and leave enough wood for the operations 
which are to follow. When this is done 
there will, of course, be a cavity, like a minia- 
ture railway cutting, getting deeper as you 
get further away from the centre. 

Now 'begin again from the centre, and 
work out in the rough the arching down to 
the middle of the C inlets. 



44 



How to Make a Violin. 



Next clear away from the point where the 
two archings meet, four sloping Imes diagon- 
ally, to the middle of the upper and lower 
curves. The back-plate will now resemble 
the following figure. Fig. 32. 




Next clear away all the spare wood from 
the centre to the edges, and then with the 
smallest round-bottomed plane, make the 
whole surface tolerably smooth, until the 
two models fit with accuracy. The place 
where the shorter model should fit must be 



The Back. 45 

found by taking the model of the / holes 
and marking through it the two notches on 
their inner edges. The highest arch must 
be across these notches. 

Now take the same plane and clear out 
the groove or slight depression round the 
edge, so that the arching of the instrument 
falls away all round to the bottom of this 
little valley, from the level of which there 
will be a slight rise to the level of the outer 
edges. 

Having thus got the outside of the back 
to the proper shape, as far as the small plane 
will do it, finish it off with the scrapers and 
fine glass-paper. 

You must now turn the plate the other 
side up. Before doing this, however, put a 
piece of cloth or green baize on the bench, to 
prevent the outer surface of the back from 
being scratched. Under this cloth pieces of 
wood must be fixed all round, of such a 
height as to support the outer edges, and at 
the same time allow the middle of the back 
to rest upon the bench. The reason of this 
is obvious; if this precaution were not taken 



46 How to Make a Violin. 

the back would not remain still while the 
outer side was being hollowed out. In 
hollowing out the inner surface, care must 
be taken to leave level places where the 
blocks will have to be attached, and to leave 
more wood all over than will be the case 
when the back is finished. The compasses 
referred to m Chapter III, Fig. 10, will 
enable you to obtain the requisite thick- 
nesses, which are of such vital importance 
that I have treated the matter fully in a 
separate chapter. 

Now turn to Chapter IX, and reduce the 
back to its proper thickness all over as 
there directed. Having carried through this 
operation with great care, the outer edge 
of the back should correspond exactly in 
outline with the side-pieces, which are 
already fixed on the mould, and the back 
should project over the side-pieces A inch 
all round. Now take a good, fine, biting 
file, and bevel very slightly round the whole 
inside of the edge, using a round file where 
the short curves render it necessary, and a 
flat one everywhere else; finish off with 



The Back. 47 

medium sand-paper. If the fit is accurate, 
the back is ready to be glued on, which is 
done as follows : lay the back upon the 
side-pieces, in the exact place it is to occupy. 
Mark with a pencil on the edge of the back 
the joint where the side-pieces meet at the 
broad end of the instrument and also make 
marks at the four corners where the side- 
pieces are joined at the extremities of the 
C inlets. These markings are to enable you 
to lay the back in an instant, and without 
hesitation, in the place where you want it 
to be. The glue has to be used as hot as 
possible without boiling, and unless you 
can lay down the back in its exact place 
the moment the glue is put on it will lose 
its heat and its tenacity while you are 
shuffling the back about to find its place. 
Have everything ready, therefore, for a 
rapid and precise operation, so as to be in 
readiness the moment the glue is laid on. 
When you are ready, take the camel-hair 
brush, and lay the hot glue upon the side- 
pieces, put the back in its place, and secure 
it with the wooden hand-screws, putting two 



48 How to Make a Violin. 

on the upper block, two on the lower, one 
at each corner, and as many more as you 
can place round the edges. Each screw 
should have a piece of cloth placed upon 
its surface, to keep it from bruising the wood. 
The glue which has been forced out by the 
pressure must be at once removed with a 
camel-hair brush dipped in the hot water of 
the glue-pot. Let it stand till it is per- 
fectly dry. 

The belly is fixed in the same way when 
it is completed by the fixing of the bass bar 
as shown later on. When both back and 
belly are glued on, any variation in the pro- 
jection of either beyond the side-pieces must 
be adjusted with the knife and file, so that 
the projection is perfectly symmetrical all 
round. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE BELLY. 

IF the operator has succeeded in making 
a good back, either whole or joined, 
he will meet with no great difficulty 
in making the belly; the cutting out 
of the / holes being the only differ- 
ence, and, moreover, the little projection 
at the smaller end of the back is not re- 
quired for the belly. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that pine is much more 
fragile than maple, and will therefore 
require proportionately increased care in 
working ; it must be worked with very sharp 
tools, and, as it is liable to split along the 
grain, the tool must be used both ways in 
getting out a curve, lest the wood split. 
" Measure twice before you cut once," cut 
lightly and delicately, and be content to 
take off a very small piece at each stroke 

49 



jo }low to Make a Violin. 

lest one unlucky gash should at the same 
time spoil your labour and your temper. 

Take care that the joint follows exactly 
the grain of the wood, which should be 
perfectly straight from end to end, and that 
you get a faultless joint before glueing the 
pieces together. It is of great importance 
that the heart-wood — in other words, the 
part which grows nearest the centre of the 
tree, and consequently is of closer grain, 
should be on the side furthest from the joint. 

In regulating the thickness of the differ- 
ent parts of the belly, follow the directions 
given in Chapter IX. 

THE / HOLES. 

Before these are cut out the belly should 
in every other respect be finished. Place 
the model of the / holes upon the belly, 
having, of course, first laid the latter upon 
the bench, taking care that the position of 
the model is accurately adjusted. Then 
with a pencil sharpened to a very fine point, 
carefully trace out the interior of the / 
holes in the model. 



Of the Belly. 51 

First of all, pierce the round holes above 
and below somewhat less than the tracing. 
Then introduce a very sharp penknife blade 
and cut away, little by little, all the wood 
within the tracing. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE THICKNESS. OF THE BACK AND BELLY. 

WHEN the belly has been finished 
all but reducing it to its proper 
thickness, draw a line across 
the centre from the two in notches of 
the / holes, and draw by measurements. 
a similar mark on the back. The middle 
of this line will in each case be the 
starting-point of the operation for reducing 
the wood to its proper thickness. This 
operation requires the most scrupulous care, 
as upon its successful performance the 
vibrations of the instrument, and conse- 
quently its quality of tone, will entirely 
depend. 

The lines above mentioned must be drawn 
upon the inside of the belly and back. Now 
open the compasses exactly J inch, and, 
putting one leg of the compasses on 

6S 



The Thickness of Back and Belly. 53 

the centre of the line, mark off that distance 
on either side from the centre point. These 
two points will therefore be \\ inches, or 
double the distance between the compass 
points apart. Now with the ruler draw 
through these two points lines parallel with 
the joint 3 inches towards the top and 2 
inches towards the bottom. Join these lines 
at their extremities, and you thus have a 
rectangular space 5 inches long and \\ 
inches wide. All the wood of the belly in 
this space must be \ inch thick. 

This thickness must be diminished gradu- 
ally from i^ inch (or \\ lignes French 
measure) at the edges of the rectangular 
space down to nearly ^ inch at the points 
where the belly joins the blocks,* and the 
same thickness must be left all round the 
under surface of the belly where the groove 
or valley runs just within the outer edges of 
its upper surface. Take care that this dim- 
inution is gradualy and not by jumps and 
steps. 

• Some makers advise \\ lignes all over, but a 
little thicker by the soundpoet. 



54 How to Make a Violin. 

The thickness of the back is obtained in 
precisely the same way, but the hack must 
be throughout a trijie over A inch thicker 
than the belly. In other words, the rec- 
tangular space on the back will be -h inch 
thicker than that on the belly, the groove 
round the edge *h inch thicker, and the 
gradual diminution from the one to the 
other A inch thicker at the corresponding 
points. 

To ensure these thicknesses being cor- 
rectly obtained, make a small wedge of some 
hard wood \ inch thick at the broader edge, 
Tti inch at the centre, and -^ inch at the thin 
edge. This will serve to adjust the com- 
passes, the buttons of which must be put at 
the thickness required, and fixed at that 
position by the screw. Work with the small 
plane and scraper. 

Note the following : the strokes of the 
plane will take away your pencil lines, and 
fresh ones must be drawn at each measure- 
ment. Do not trust your eye, but work 
rigidly to the exact rectangular shown by 
the pencil marks. 



The Thickness of Back and Belly. 55 

The plane and scrapers must not reduce 
your wood to the given thickness; these must 
be finished and brought down to their proper 
gauge with glass-paper. The glass-paper is 
the last " tool " to be used on the wood, and 
when the rectangular is thus finished, the 
compass buttons should move quite easily 
over it, but touch it at all points. 

Make a second hard wood wedge for the 
back, of course 21 inch thicker in all parts 
than that for the belly. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE BASS BAR. 

THE making and fixing of this impor- 
tant member will finish the interior 
work of the violin. It is made of 
pine, fixed parallel to the joint and between 
it and the left / hole. Its purpose is to 
give depth and power to the third and 
fourth strings. 

The bar should be lo^ inches to io| inches 
long, i inch thick, J inch deep at its centre, 
and tapering off to the thinnest strip at 
the ends. The edge glued to the belly is, 
of course, curved to fit precisely, the other 
edge is straight. The centre of the bar falls 
on the line joining the inner notches of the 
/ holes. The grain of the bar must corres- 
pond with that of the belly. 

The measurements here given are for 
the thickness of belly and back above in- 



The Bass Bar. 57 

timated; but the proportions of the bar 
differ in different violins. 

Take care that the bar is at right angles 
to the surface of the belly and that the 
curved edge fits the belly with the greatest 
possible exactitude. Glue that edge and 
fix the bar parallel to the joint, so that the 
outer edge of the bar is -^ inch from the 
inner edge of the upper circle of the / 
hole on the bass side. Clip it with the 
clips shown in the chapter on tools (Fig. 
15), and let it dry, first removing the super- 
fluous glue with a wet camel-hair brush as 
before. 

Some writers contend that the bass bar 
would be of greater service if glued dia- 
gonally to the grain. The amateur who 
wishes to do so can easily test this for him- 
self. The following opinion of an American 
maker (Mr. W. H. Colton) is not without in- 
terest. Mr. Colton was a friend of Ole Bull, 
and the "note" is from the life of the latter, 
published at Boston in 1883: 

"The oblique position of the bar has not 
been generally adopted. The bar is ordin- 



58 How to Make a Violin. 

arily placed with its outer side on a line 
parallel to the centre line or glue joint of the 
top, and at a distance from it about equal to 
one-half the width of the bridge, measured 
from the outer extremities of the feet. A 
slight spring is given to the ends of the bar, 
so that when glued to the top it produces an 
upward pressure at the centre, under the foot 
of the bridge. This pressure should equal 
the downward thrust of the bridge, the force 
of which will depend upon the angle of the 
strings over its top. Practice soon discovers 
a certain medium of spring which agrees 
fairly with a certain height of bridge. 

An entirely successful result is not always 
insured, but a positive failure is avoided. 
But in the case of the oblique bar, no such 
common factor can be found to fit all cases, 
even averagely well. Each instrument pre- 
sents its own particular problem. The 
spring at each end must be accurately de- 
termined by mechanical means, which will 
take into account both the resistance of the 
top, due to its comparative strength of fibre 
and the resistance due to the form of 



The Bass Bar. 59 

modelling. The same degree of obliquity 
and position relative to the foot of the 
bridge which it supports, will not answer 
equally well in all cases. But when the 
required conditions are fulfilled, the oblique 
bar does beyond doubt very greatly in- 
crease the depth and volume of tone, 
particularly of the lower strings. Mr. Bull 
spent many years in attempting to formu- 
late the rules which govern this most per- 
plexing part of the organism of the violin. 
His observations and experiments demon- 
strated to him the correctness of the oblique 
position; and though, as was his wont, he 
frankly owned to more failures than one, 
his instances of success illustrated by his Da 
Salo and many other instruments, bore most 
convincing witness to the truth of his 
theory." 

Ole Bull's own opinion on the matter is 
thus expressed in his " Violin Notes " : 

"The principal object of the bar is to 
resist the pressure of the strings upon the 
top. All old violins require to be rebarred, 
owing to the height of the present musical 



6o How to Make a Violin. 

pitch over that of one hundred years ago. 
The old short bars are no longer adapted to 
the greater strain, and more powerful ones 
are needed. From long-continued strain, the 
pulling of the two extremes towards the 
centre, and the downward pressure of the 
bridge at that point, the tops of many old 
violins have bulged up at the ends and sunk 
down at the centre. The adjustment of a 
new bar will tend to remedy this. As the 
bar was originally placed by Caspar Da 
Salo, so it should be placed now, that is, not 
in the direction of the fibres of the top, but 
obliquely, the end under the fingerboard 
being nearest the centre. In this position it 
appears to give ample support to the bridge 
and to allow a fuller and richer tone. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE PURFLING. 

THE purfling is the ornamental black 
lines running round the outer edge 
of the back and belly — made of two 
lines of black with a strip of white wood 
between. 

The wood for the purfling can be bought 
ready made at any violin maker's, and it is 
better to buy it than try to make it, as good 
machinery is needed to do the work well. 

The grooves for the insertion of the 
purfling are made with a purfling tool. The 
distance of the purfling from the edge is a 
matter of taste. When decided, open the 
tracer to the required width and fix it with 
the screw; put the violin on your knees, 
and trace the first line, running one limb 
along the outer edge (which is still square, 

61 



62 



How to Make a Violin. 



the rounding off comes later). Then trace 
the second line in like manner. The purfling 
tool is then adjusted to the required dis- 
tance. The following description of an 
excellent purfling tool, directions for use are 
from Mr. Davidson's book on " The Violin." 
" By this instrument, it will be perceived 
we can vary the distances from the edges, 
to imitate any model chosen. The two 
cutters are thin pieces of steel, sharpened at 
an angle, with a shoulder left of the neces- 
sary thickness, so that the groove cut may 
fit the indenting strips. The two cutters are 
kept in position by the screw a. Fig. 34a 





represents one of the cutters, seen edge- 
ways; Fig. 34^ shows the form of blade 



The Purfiing. 



63 



and point. There is a small screw for ad- 
justing the shoulder piece to any required 
distance the purfiing may be intended to be 
placed, Fig. 33t5'. This tool may be made 
from iron — with the exception of the cutters, 
of course — and fixed in an ordinary tool- 
handle. Another purfiing tool, but much 
simplified, is shown in Fig. 35. The body of 




this tool may be formed from a piece of 
beech, having two cutters the same as the 
preceding, fixed by a binding-screw. This 
simple tool answers admirably, and may be 
easily made by any amateur, or can be pur- 
chased for about three shillings and six- 
pence. The angular parts of the blades 
must be made thin, and the edges kept very 
keen. Either of those two tools is to be held 



64 How to Make a Violin. 

quite steady, and a double cut of the propef 
depth run round the margin of the back and 
breast, the interior wood is afterwards to be 
cleanly cut out with a chisel-sharpened awl.* 
The indenting groove must be cut gradually 
and carefully, never allowing the tool to 
tear the wood, or slip from the proper place. 
At the parts of the back and belly opposite 
to the extremities of the neck, where the in- 
denting tool does not reach, two pencil lines 
may be drawn through the spaces, and the 
groove cut to such lines with a thin pointed 
knife, and the wood cut out as previously.*' 
When the purfling tool has been run twice 
along the intended groove, take a sharp 
knife and cut away enough wood from the 
groove to allow the awl to enter. The next 
figure shows the shape to which the awl 
should be bent and the way the point should 
be ground. A shows the side view, and B 
the front view of the point. When you have 



* By a " chisel-sharpened awl " is meant a cob- 
bler's awl, narrow enough to run easily in the width 
of the groove made by the purfling tool but ground 
to a fiat and sharp edge. 



The Purfiing. 65 

^1 



cleared away with a knife a starting-point 
for the awl, begin with the point of the awl 
and turn up the strip of wood intended to be 
brought away just as a ploughshare cuts 
underneath the soil and turns it up so as to 
leave a furrow. This must, of course, be done 
slowly and with great care, seeing that the 
groove required is extremely shallow and 
the wood from which it has to be cut has 
already been made very thin. 

Glue the strip of purfling to be inserted, 
or both strips if two are desired, and gently 
squeeze both together into their grooves, care 
being taken that the small ridge of wood 
between the grooves is not broken. Make 
neat joints at the four corners, and remove 



66 How to Make a VioliH. 

any superfluous glue with the camel-hair 
brush. When the glue is dry, take away the 
projecting surface of the purfling with a very 
sharp knife, and finish off with the scraper 
and glass-paper. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE NECK. 

TAKE a piece of maple lo inches long, 
2 J inches wide and i§ inches thick, 
and plane it smooth on all four 
faces. The maple for the neck is usually 
selected from wood well marked and 
figured, so as to be as ornamental as possi- 
ble. The purfling of the body, and the 
scroll of the neck are the only parts of the 
instrument which are simply ornamental 
without being useful, but there is no reason 
why the useful parts should not be as orna- 
mental as possible. 

Take the finished neck which you have 
bought as a model, and draw the outline of 
the model on the piece of maple. Then with 
the T square, draw a line all round the wood 
5j inches from the end where it is to be 
fastened to the body. This line will be 

67 



68 



How to Make a Violin. 



at the point G, Fig. 37, which is the place 
where the peg-box begins. 




Take the compasses, open the points f 
inch which is half the width of the narrow 
side; mark a point at each end and draw on 
each of the narrow sides a pencil line the 
whole length of the piece. Open the com- 
passes \\ inch, place one point at the angle 
where the long line meets the transverse 
Ime at G, and mark on that transverse line 
on both sides of the line which cuts it, a 
point W inch from the long line, between 
which points there will, of course, be iJ inch. 



The Neck. 69 

This W inch shows the width of the neck at 
the beginning of the part held by the hand, 
and also the width of the nut (the small 
piece of ebony __Qyer which the strings pass 
out of the peg-box). 

Open the compasses f inch, and put 
one leg on the angle made by the long 
line and the cross line on the narrow side 
opposite to that on which you have been 
working, and mark as before upon the cross 
line two points on either side of the long 
line, the distance between which will be i\ 
inch. This i^ inch is to be the thickness of 
the neck at the point where it joins the 
belly. 

Now fasten the neck to the bench with the 
hand-vice, the broad side upwards, so that 
the scroll end projects over the edge of the 
table, and cut away with the bow-saw ail 
the superfluous wood. Begin at point G 
(Fig. 37) and proceed along the line F E up 
into the corner; then start from C and work 
past D round the curve to the corner point; 
start again from C, work round the top past 
B down to A. This gives a rough outline. 



70 How to Make a Violin. 

from G round to A, which must now, by 
means of chisel, knife and file, be brought 
to proper shape. 

Then take your measurements from the 
model ; cut away the wood from the point A 
to the part where the neck joins the body, 
and give to that part, and to the neck proper, 
which is to be held by the hand, its proper 
shape, finishing it off to the greatest nicety 
with scrapers, files and glass-paper. 

Now fasten the neck down to the bench as 
before, and carve out with gouges, knives, 
etc., the curves of the scroll, beginning at the 
central " button " which, in Fig. 37, is crossed 
by the line B C and the dotted line aa^ bbt 
the point where these lines meet being the 
centre of the button. Begin with the 
smallest gouge, and take a larger tool as 
the spiral requires it. Finish it with great 
care with the knife, scrapers and glass 
paper. Before beginning to carve one side, 
you will, of course, draw on both sides the 
lines B C and aa, bb. If this precaution is 
not taken, you will find it difficult to make 
the centres of the buttons correspond. Be 



. The Neck. 71 

careful, in widening down from B to A, to 
maintain the gradual increase of thickness 
which you will find in your model, taking 
constant measurements as you proceed. 
Having finished off the sides, work out the 
two grooves round the edge A B C D. • The 
heck is now finished, except hollowing out 
the peg-box, and preparing the foot to join 
the body. This foot will be glued on to the 
block, and level with it at the top, while the 
bottom will be glued to the projecting semi- 
circle on the back of the violin, and must, 
therefore, be filed until its shape exactly 
corresponds with it From this point ths 
foot will gradually increase in size until it 
attains the width already marked out. Draw 
down the foot of the neck a line in continua- 
tion of that already drawn, which divides it 
into two parts. The foot of the neck, or in 
other words, the surface which is glued to 
the block, will determine the height which 
the finger-board is to be above the body of 
the violin, and before you glue the neck 
finally in its place you must finish your 
finger-board according to the directions 



72 



How to Make a Violin. 



given later, and, holding it with one hand in 
the place in which it is intended to be, adjust 
the foot of the neck so as to give to the 
finger-board its proper height when glued 
on. Fig. 38 gives a view of the foot of the 

A 




neck (A B C D) the part above the line A B 
being the part which projects above the level 
of the block. 

The mortising of the peg-box and the 
placing and drilling of the peg-holes ought 
to present no difficulty. The conical shape 
of the peg-holes is obtained by means of a 
small tapered gouge. 

In gluing on the neck, regard must be had 
to two points : The central line of the sur- 
face to be attached to the finger-board must 
make a straight line with the belly-joint, and 
that surface as well as the end or foot must 



The Neck, 73 

be so adjusted that while the proper height 
is given to the finger-board the centre of the 
scroll-buttons is intersected by an imaginary 
line drawn in continuation of the level at 
which the back is glued to the sides. 

The time has now come to fix the neck. 
When the side pieces were put on, more wood 
was left at this place than was required, this 
must now be cut away, so as to allow the 
neck to fit in exactly. An inlet \ inch deep, 
must now be cut in the block — \ inch deep, 
that is to say, from the outer surface of the 
side-pieces, enough wood having, of course, 
been left at the end of the neck to allow for 
this inlet. 

Before gluing the neck every precaution 
must have been taken to ensure its correct 
shape and position, and the neck should fit 
into the inlet so accurately as to require some 
little force to get it to its place. You will 
now want a piece of cork \ inch thick and 2 
inches long by i mch broad* Glue thoroughly 

* Felt is preferable as it is not so liable to leave 
an impression on the wood. 



74 How to Make a Violin. 

the inside of the inlet, put the foot of the 
neck in its place, but the piece of cork on the 
back so as to cover the button, and, placing 
this cork on the beak of the hand-vice, screw 
down the screw on to the end of the neck. 
In half an hour unscrew it and see if the 
finger-board is at the right height. If so, 
the glue can be left to dry; if not, it must be 
readjusted, and the operation gone through 
until it is. In damp weather the end of the 
neck should be warmed before it is put in, 
and the glue will have a more binding effect 
if a good number of holes are made with a 
knife in the end of the neck, and in the small 
surface which fits upon the button. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE FINGERBOARD. 

THE finger-board is so simple and so 
easily made that the best way will 
be to purchase one as a model. The 
amateur who has followed me thus far will 
have no difficulty in making one exactly like 
it from a piece of eb^py . It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that its width at the narrow end 
must be adjusted to that of the neck, and 
that it must fit the neck accurately at the 
sides, and should join it so closely that they 
both appear as one piece. Be careful in glu- 
ing it on, not to mark the neck or the finger- 
board with the hand screws. The height of 
the finger-board varies according to the 
model of the instrument; its mean height at 

75 



76 How to Make a Violin. 

the middle of its upper curve should be ^ 
inch from the belly joint, but this will all 
depend upon the height of the bridge and 
the depth of touch required for the strings. 



I 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE NUT AND THE TAIL PIECE NUT. 

THE ny ^t is the _sgaalL^iece of wood 
over which the strings peiss ou t o f 
the peg-box, and the ta il piece nut 
is the piece which^esists th^ action of the 
string by which the tail piece is held to the 
button. Take a piece of e bony of the size 
for the nut, as to which the eye will be a 
sufficient guide. Its length will be deter- 
mined by the width of the neck, with which 
it should exactly correspond. Its curve must 
correspond exactly with that of the finger- 
board, and its upper surface be ^ inch 
higher. Its front, against which the finger- 
board IS glued, will be perpendicular to the 
neck, and the upper surface in which the 
slits for the strings are cut must slope gradu- 
ally down towards the peg-box, so as to 

71 



78 How to Make a Violin. 

present a rounded surface on which the 
strings may rest. 

The string-guard is usually a small piece 
of ebony about i inch long and \ inch square, 
which is glued into an inlet made in the 
block at the lower end. Its outer surface 
must be level with the side pieces, into which 
it must fit accurately. An edge should be 
left upon it to stand yg- inch above the belly, 
and it should be trimmed to the surface of 
the latter. The edge over which the strings 
pass must be rounded so that they are not 
cut. The four slits in the nut should not be 
cut, but filed out with a rat-tail file. 

The making of the button presents no 
difficulty. It is a sort of drawer-handle on 
a small scale, made of ebony, with a project- 
ing limb about i inch long, and | inch in 
diameter, which fits accurately into a hole of 
that size bored through the sidepieces and 
into the block, and we are now ready to 
begin to varnish. 



CHAPTER XV. 

VARNISHING AND POLISHING. 

HOWEVER carefully the work has 
been done, it is almost certain 
that on looking it over closely 
you will hnd some slight roughness or 
unevenness, some place where glue has 
trickled out, some part of the edges not 
nicely rounded, or some other fault over- 
looked. These faults must now be searched 
for and remedied by fi.le, glass-paper or 
other suitable means. When all is perfect, 
polish with very fine glass-paper the whole 
surface. 

Now take a clean sponge, dip it in cold 
water, squeeze it nearly dry, and gently 
damp (not wet) the instrument all over. 
Then polish as before until the surface has 
the appearance of having been covered with 
a very thin coat of poor varnish. 

79 



8o How to Make a Violin. 

The making of the varnishes, both spirit 
and oil, is treated in the next chapter. 

The best tool to lay on the varnish is a 
flat camel-hair or sable brush, about an 
inch wide, and which has never been used. 
The -varnish being ready, take a small 
quantity in a glazed earthenware vessel. 
Have as little varnish as possible at a time 
in the brush, and take only two strokes, one 
up and the other down, over each part of 
the wood. Take care and " lay it off " 
evenly, as a painter would say — that is, work 
so that the marks of the brush are invisible, 
and as if the varnish had all been put on 
with one simple stroke. Try your hand first 
on two pieces of maple and pine, both 
treated and prepared for varnishing just like 
the violin, and do not touch the instrument 
with varnish until you have put two coats of 
oil varnish on each piece as an experiment. 
When you have succeeded in getting a 
brilliant surface, from which brush-marks 
are totally absent, you can venture on your 
violin. After each coat of spirit varnish, 
polish with a linen cloth, the older the 



Varnishing and Polishing. 8 1 

material, and the softer its texture, the better 
will it be for your purpose You cannot 
obtain a really brilliant lustre with spirit 
varnish unless you polish with linen cloth 
after each coat. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

VARNISHES AND COLOURING MATTER. 

HAVING completed the violin, the 
next step is to varnish it, and 
there are two modes of carrying 
out this process. The one is genuine, 
the other is a sham; and if the amateur 
has succeeded in making an instrument 
worth varnishing at all, I strongly advise 
him to varnish it that it may pass for 
what it is, a new instrument, and not pretend 
to be what it is not, an old one. New in- 
struments are made to look old by colouring 
the wood before the real varnish is applied, 
and leaving those parts uncoloured which in 
an old violin shows the effects of wear and 
tear. This fraud is on every ground to be 
deprecated, for nothing will be gained by it, 
while the genuine workman, who cares more 
for turning out a good violin than he does 

83 



Varnishes and Colouring Matter. 83 

for making money by dishonest means, will 
feel that by such a fraud he loses what 
money can never buy, self-respect. The 
proper way to varnish the violin is to varnish 
it all over without any previous colouring. 
This may be done either with plain or 
coloured varnish. Both are equally genuine ; 
the fraud consists, as I have said, in making 
the violin look as though coloured varnish 
had been originally used, but worn away by 
long use. I shall now proceed to give precise 
directions for making the two kinds of var- 
nish used for the violin, viz., oil varnish and 
spirit varnish, as well as the mode of colour- 
ing the varnish in various tints when colour- 
ing is desired. 

The best, though most troublesome, is 

OIL VARNISH. 

This is vastly better than spirit varnish, as 
it is more beautiful, more durable and more 
elastic; moreover, it needs no polishing. 
Two coats, properly applied, will generally 
be found sufficient, whereas spirit varnish 
requires six or seven applications. 



84 How to Make a Violin. 

The ingredients of good oil varnish are 
three : amber, spirits of turpentine and lin- 
seed oil. The latter, however, is such a bad 
drier, that it must be used in the form known 
as "boiled oil." The operator could, of 
course, perform the operation of " boiling " it 
himself, but as it is very dangerous unless 
carried out with great care, and as boiled 
oil can be purchased ready for use without 
any trouble or risk, I think it better not to 
give any recipes for rendering linseed oil a 
better drier. 

I strongly recommend that varnish that is 
sold, in any quantity, ready for use, by 
Messrs. Winsor and Newton, artists' colour- 
men, London, who prepare boiled oil 
of the very finest quality for artists, so 
that the violin maker may rely upon obtain- 
ing the best procurable. Cheap common 
boiled oil is nearly black, and is worse 
than useless for the purpose under con- 
sideration. 

The following is the way to prepare oil 
varnish. The materials required are ; 



Varnishes and Colouring Matter. 85 

Amber 4 ounces. 

Boiled oil 2 ounces. 

Oil of turpentine . . .4 ounces. 

Break up the amber into pieces the size of 
peas, and having prepared a charcoal fire, 
put the amber mto a glazed iron vessel 
never before used, and with it a spoonful of 
the turpentine, and put the pot on the fire 
and the cover on it. A quarter of an hour's 
warming will suffice to melt the amber, but 
ii must now and then be stirred with a strip 
of pine wood. When the amber is melted 
down, take the pot from the fire, stir it till 
cool, and add the oil very slowly, stirring all 
the time so as to thoroughly mix the in- 
gredients, and then add the turpentine, to 
which you have previously given the colour 
desired. 

The colouring matters must simply be 
powdered and put in the turpentine to dis- 
solve, some time before it is wanted for 
making the varnish. The colouring matters 
are here given : 

Yellow. — Aloes, gamboge, turmerics or 
saffron; these will give various tints of 



86 How to Make a Violin. 

yellow, from light golden to deep, as may be 
desired. The effect of golden varnish is very 
brilliant. 

Red. — Dragon's blood or Saunder's wood. 
By mixing with yellow any tint of light red 
can be obtained. 

Brown. — Madder or logwood. 

It must be remembered that each coat adds 
a slight depth of colour to the previous one. 
These colouring matters are suitable for 
colouring either oil or spirit varnish. It is 
sometimes the practice to make a quantity of 
any colour in as small a portion of turpen- 
tine as will dissolve it, and keep it for dilu- 
tion to the requisite tint when required. 

The following are recipes for oil var- 
nishes of different kinds : 



Amber, coarsely powdered 


. 2 oz. 


Venice turpentine . 


. 2 fl. drs 


Prepared linseed-oil 


. li fl. oz 


Oil of turpentine . 


. 2 fl. oz. 


Amber, fused 


. 2 oz 


Oil of turpentine . 


. 5 „ 


Drying linseed-oil 


. 6 „ 


Amber, fused 


• 4 „ 



Varnishes and Colouring Matter. 87 

Lac ...... 1 oz. 

Drying linseed-oil . . • 4 ,, 

Oil of turpentine . . . . 8 ,, 

Dissolve the lac separately, then add the 
amber and thoroughly dissolve by heat. 

Clear and pale African copal . 1 lb. y 

rty ( Pale drying oil '. . . .1 qt. P> 

^^^ Rectified oil of turpentine . . 3 pt. 

Boil the copal and drying-oil until stringy, 
then thin with the turpentine, and strain 
immediately into the store jar. This varnish 
is hard and durable, and dries hard in from 
twelve to twenty-four hours. 

Clear pale rosin . . .3^ lbs. 

Oil of turpentine . . .1 gal. 

Dissolve. This is the varnish generally 
used on the cheap violins. 

Colourless Copal Varnish. — To prepare this 
varnish the copal must be picked, each piece 
then broken, upon which a drop or two of 
rosemary oil is to be poured; the pieces 
which become soft upon the application of 
the oil are those only to be used. Those 
pieces having been selected are to be ground 



88 How to Make a Violin. 

to a fine powder, and then sifted. Place the 
powder in a glass vessel and add to it a 
corresponding volume of the rosemary oil; 
stir for a few minutes, when you will have a 
thick liquid. Leave the liquid to rest for 
two or three hours, then add a few drops of 
pure alcohol, and mix slowly, after whicb 
reduce with alcohol until the required con- 
sistence is obtained. This is a clear and 
beautiful varnish. 

The following are recipes for spirit- 
varnishes of different kinds : 



Elemi 


. \ oz. 


or 


1 part. 


Mafitic in tears . 


. \ » 


>> 


2 „ 


Seed-lac 


. 1 » 


)) 


2 „ 


Sandarac 


. 2 „ 


>> 


4 „ 


Venice turpentine 


. 1 „ 


M 


2 „ 


Powdered glass . 


. 1 n 


>) 


4 » 


Alcohol 


. 16 „ 


)) 


32 „ 


Mastic 






1 dr. 


Sandarac 


. 


. 


1 ,/ 


Lac 


. 


. 


6i„ 


Alcohol . 


, 


« 


5 fl. oz. 



Varnishes and Colouring Matter. 89 



Gum sandarac 

Seed-lac 

Mastic 

Benzoin in tears 

Powdered glass 

Venice turpentine 

Alcohol 

Seed-lac 

Sandarac 

Elemi . 

Venice turpentine 

Powdered glass . 

Alcohol 



. 4 oz. 

. 2 „ 

. 1 » 

. 1 „ 

. 4 „ 

. 2 „ 

. 32 „ 

. 5 ,j 

. 2 „ 

. li„ 

. 2 „ 

. 5 „ 

. 24 „ 



Coarsely powdered 

glass of each . 
Camphor 
Alcohol (64 0. P.) 



copal and 



4 bz. 
1 pt. 



Heat the mixture (with frequent stirring) in 
a water bath, so that the bubbles may be 
counted as they rise, until solution is com- 
plete, then decant the clear portion. 



Mastic . . . . 


. ilb.. 


Turpentine varnish 


. 2\ fl. oz 


Alcohol . . . , 


. 1 pt. 



90 How to Make a Violin. 

This is the spirit-varnish so often seen 
upon the clear German violins. 

Colourless Spirit Varnish. — Dissolve 2\ oz. 
picked orange lac in a pint of rectified 
alcohol, and boil well for a few minutes 
with 5 oz. of well burnt and recently heated 
animal charcoal. A small quantity of the 
solution should now be filtered, and if not 
colourless add more charcoal. When colour- 
less press the liquor through a piece of silk, 
and filter through fine filtering paper. This 
varnish must be used in a room where the 
temperature is about 60 degrees Fahr. It 
does not chill or bloom, and dries in a few 
minutes. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE VARNISH. 

THE MS. "Violin Notes" left by Ole 
Bull, contain the following inter- 
esting observations : 

" In a search after an elucidation of this 
so-called lost art, three facts immediately 
present themselves : first, this varnish was 
employed by the very earliest of the Italian 
makers as well as the later; second, its use 
was common only in Italy ; third, it ceased to 
be applied to violins after A.D. 1750-60. 

" In texture this varnish is extremely supple ; 
it will yield to pressure, but breaks or scales 
off under a sudden blow. It is entirely trans- 
parent, and of all shades of brown, red and 
yellow. The vehicle in which the gums and 
colours arc dissolved is an oil. Applied to a 
violin, it compacts the tone together, without 

91 



92 How to Make a Violin. 

rendering it shrill or harsh, and gives addi- 
tional beauty to the wood. That its in- 
gredients were indigenous to the Italian soil 
is out of the question. It is well known that 
much of the maple used by the violin-makers 
of that day came from Turkey. Imported 
to Venice, it was employed in the construc- 
tion of oars, etc. The extremely curly 
pieces, owing to their liability to fracture 
under rough usage, were consequently re- 
jected, to be appropriated by the violin- 
makers. Venice and Genoa held great com- 
mand over the entire Eastern trade, and un- 
doubtedly through these ports came the 
various gums and colouring substances of 
which this varnish was made. 

"Turning to other countries of Europe* — 
Germany, France and England — and exam- 
ining the productions of their most cele- 
brated violin-makers contemporaneous with 
the Cremonese school, scarcely a trace of the 
Italian varnish is to be met with. In Ger- 
man instruments the varnish is distinguished 
by extreme hardness, a glassy lustre, and 
an absence of all delicate shades of 



The Varnish. 93 

colour. The vehicle or menstruum, more- 
over, is alcohol. In France, the colouring 
was sometimes good, but in general too pro- 
nounced. The- varnish of the old English 
makers lacked transparency. In both these 
countries the vehicle was oil, but the varnish 
in quantity and texture differed essentially 
from the Italian. 

" Three questions occur : first, was this 
manufacture a secret? second, how was this 
secret lost? third, are there any clues for 
perusal and examination? Answers to these 
questions should clear up the mystery of 
this so-called lost art. 

"To begin, then, with the first question, 
was the manufacture of this varnish a secret? 
There is no reasonable doubt that it was, 
but only in a certain way. For a period of 
about two hundred years, from the time of 
Caspar da Salo to that of the Bergonzi, the 
varnish was common to every Italian violin- 
maker. Cremona had no monopoly, for the 
knowledge and use of it extended to Padua, 
Venice, Rome and Naples. It is impossible, 
therefore, during this long time to say that 



94 How to Make a Violin. 

the selection of ingredients or the method 
of preparation employed in the manufacture 
of this substance, so well known and widely 
used, were in any sense a secret. But a little 
later quite a change is observable. From a 
hundred Italian instruments of this later 
date, only a notable few can be selected 
as possessing the true varnish; and that 
this marked characteristic in the case of these 
few is not the result of mere chance is ap- 
parent from the fact that the artists who 
made them have consistently applied it to 
all their productions. From about 1745 to 
about 1760, then, the manufacture of this 
varnish may be properly called a secret, as 
being confined to a chosen few. 

" A bitter rivalry had always existed 
between the Neapolitan, Venetian and Cre- 
monese schools. Alessandro Gagliano, pro- 
bably a pupil of Stradivarius, had estab- 
lished himself at Naples. Dominico Mon- 
tagnana and Sanctus Seraphino were the 
masters of the art in Venice. The Cre- 
monese makers seem to have relied on 
their sonorous, well-selected wood, their 



The Varnish. 95 

established principles of construction, and 
their ancient reputation; the Venetians, on 
the beauty of their wood, and careful finish; 
and the Neapolitans on their exceedingly 
low price. 

" As a knowledge of the varnish became at 
last confined to a few, instances are not 
wanting of the persecution of such by their 
less fortunate fellow-workmen. It is quite 
evident, that, apart from any considerations 
of beauty, the importance of the varnish as 
an acoustic element was well recognised. 

" The second question now presents itself : 
how was the secret lost ? A careful and re- 
peated examination, extending to a vast 
number of objects, reveals the fact that the 
varnish of the Italian violin-maker of the 
time of Stradivarius and before him was 
common to the painter, the varnisher, and 
the gilder as well. Let an ancient piece of 
Italian furniture, a chair, a cabinet, the case 
of a spinet or harpsichord, be examined, 
and provided it has escaped modern retouch- 
ing, the varnish might be by Stradivarius 
himself. Generally it is colourless, then the 



96 How to Make a Violin. 

quality and texture are the indications, but 
occasionally it is of brilliant hues, and then 
it proclaims itself to the eye at once. Let 
specimens of a later date, say, 1760, be ex- 
amined, there is no such varnish. This is 
smooth, fairly lustrous, hard and durable. 
The chair of 1725 presents a surface broken 
and worn away, that of 1760, one compara- 
tively smooth, and fairly able to endure 
further vicissitudes of time. 

"Between the years 1740 and 1760, great 
changes in the manufacture of varnish were 
introduced. The old soft gums and their 
menstrua, capable in themselves of dis- 
solving them, were discarded in favour of 
newer and more complicated processes pro- 
ducing a result more durable and unchange- 
able under exposure and rough wear. 

" The old fashion of ornamenting all ar- 
ticles of furniture, whether of ornament or 
utility, with carvings, had given place to a 
more sober style. Broad, unrelieved surfaces, 
depending on the intrinsic beauty of their 
material, were found a relief to the eye tired 
with unravelling the mazes of complex 



The Varnish. 97 

carving or painted arabesque. The old, 
soft, badly wearing varnish no longer 
sufficed for protection and covering of sucli 
surfaces; hence the new processes, and, for 
such utilitarian purposes, superior results. 
The hard copal gums, hitherto undissolv- 
able, or only partially so, were found to 
yield entirely upon proper heating and 
fusion. In 1750 a patent, covering a period 
of twenty-fi.ve years, was granted by the 
King of France to one Simon Martin, a fan 
painter, for the process of making varnish 
from amber, by driving off the succinic acid 
by means of heat, and the subsequent com- 
bination of the residue with oil. From that 
day to the present, various improvements in 
this art hav^e gone on uninterruptedly. The 
field of discovery, the gates to which were 
opened by such pioneers as Simon Martin, 
being once entered, the problem of dura- 
bility, hardness and unchangeableness was 
soon solved. But with the laying aside of 
the old recipes, the Italian varnish became a 
lost art. The knowledge of its composition, 
naturally confined to the general manufac- 

8 



g8 How to Make a Violin. 

tures, was forgotten. There is no doubt that 
some of the Cremonese and other makers 
knew how to prepare it, but, as has been 
shown, its use was not confined to them. 
The new ingredients, the copals, amber, etc., 
would naturally supersede the old as ar- 
ticles of import, and so by degrees those 
who possessed the secret, for a secret it was, 
certainly regarded by its latest possessors, 
would find increasing difficulty in obtaining 
the old constituents. Moreover, the days of 
violin-making in Italy were over. England, 
France and Germany were eager competi- 
tors, the stolid build of the first, the gaudy 
colour of the second, the baked wood of the 
Mittenwalder, or artist of the Black Forest, 
and the general cheapness of all, held the 
market. And so it has happened that the 
art of the old varnish is not lost, but buried 
in the dust under the wheel of progress. 
For two hundred years it was in the hands 
of a nation; and though now a desire for 
this forgotten knowledge is confined to only 
a few, it would be absurd to say that per- 
sistent inquiry must fail to unravel a skein 
of so many ends. 



The Varnish. gg 

" The third question now presents itself : 
are there any writings or clues for perusal 
and examination? There are many. An 
ingenious Frenchman, who long ago wrote a 
treatise on varnish, has given the following 
list of authors who have treated upon this 
subject : 

"Alexis, Piedmontese (real name of 
author, Hieronymus Ruscellai), ' Secrets des 
Arts,' Milan, 1550. 

" Tiavoranti : * Miroir Universel des Arts 
et des Sciences,* Bologna, 1564. 

" And a : ' Recueil Abr6ge des Secrets Mer- 
veilleux; — , 1663. 

"Zahn, Jean, 'Oculus Artificialis, etc.; 
Nuremberg, 1685. 

"Morley, C, 'Collections'; London, 1692. 

" Coronelli, Vincent, ' Epitome Cosmo- 
graphique'; Venice, 1693. 

" Pomet, * Histoire Generale des Drogues ' ; 
Paris, 1694 (reprinted 1736). 

" Buouanni, Phillipe, 'Traite des Vernis'; 
Rome, 17 1 3 

"Here is a succession of treatises, the 
earliest written about the time of Caspar da 



100 How to Make a Violin. 

Salo, and the latest during that of Stradi- 
varius. Here are hundreds of genuine re- 
cipes. Is any one of them the right one? 
Patience and perseverance are necessary, 
much fitting of old names to their nomen- 
clatures and many tiresome comparisons, but 
these once made, the desired result may be 
obtained, and the new varnish may possess 
the old coveted lustrous softness and sup- 
pleness. And the colours? the brown, the 
red, and the yellow ? — hidden under quaint 
and obsolete names, they are all indicated 
by one and another of these authors, and 
all are soluble in the one vehicle, forming 
a coloured oil varnish, clear and transparent, 
which, however long kept, will let fall no 
sediment. 

" There is still another branch of this sub- 
ject which has never, or very rarely, been 
specified, and this is the ground-toning. In 
all Italian instruments the wood appears to 
be permeated with a colour varying in in- 
tensity from pale yellow to almost orange. 
This colour is quite distinct from that of the 
varnish ; for, however faded by exposure and 



The Varnish. lOi 

other causes the latter may be, the ground- 
tone almost always retains its colour. The 
violins with red varnish afford the finest ex- 
amples of this ground-toning. On such its 
tawny yellow is the most intense, and offers 
a splendid foil to the superimposed colour, 
toning and giving life to it. How it was 
composed or applied, whether as a wash or 
stain, or as a distinct varnish, none of the 
authors give any information. But from their 
miscellaneous lists of the drugs, dye-stuffs 
and colouring matter common to the Italian 
markets, it is quite possible that a selection 
could be made, which would fulfil all the 
required conditions of colour and stability. 

" But though supplied with the ground- 
tone, another element is needed before the 
exact reflex of the Italian varnish can be 
reproduced, and that is the natural colour 
of the old wood. 

"The problem of the old varnish is solv- 
able by anyone who deems the reward worth 
the trial of patience and perseverance, two 
elements most effective in the task of inter- 
lining the broken sentences of tradition." 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

A MATHEMATICAL METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING 
THE OUTLINE. 

IN constructing an outline according to 
the directions now to be given, it is 
necessary to observe great accuracy in 
the working, to ensure a satisfactory 
result. 

First draw a perpendicular line 14 inches 
long, and divide it accurately into 72 equal 
parts. Then draw at right angles to line, 



the following 


' 






A line through 








point No. 


8 


A— A 


See Illustration. 


>» 


14 


B— B 


>) 


tf 


16 


C— C 


}) 


i9 


20 


D— D 


»> 


»> 


2U 


E— E 
loa 


» 



Constructing the Outline, 103 



A line through 
point No. 



11 
yy 
>> 
>> 
)» 
)> 
>» 
>> 
>» 
>i 
»> 
it 
It 



22 


F— F 


See Illustration. 


23 


G— G 


»» 


27 


H— H 


>» 


28 


I— I 


»> 


31 


K— K 


» 


33 


L— L 


f) 


34 


M— M 


>> 


37 


N— N 


}> 


39 


0—0 


}> 


40 


P— P 


» 


44i 


Q-Q 


>} 


48 


R-R 


it 


55 


S— S 


» 


56 


T— T 


» 


65 


V— V 


» 



Open the compasses to the width of 9 
parts, put one of the feet at point b^ and 
draw the two little curves aa. 

Open the compasses to the width of 24 
parts, place one foot on point 24, and draw 
the arc aba. 

Open the compasses to the width of 2 
parts, and mark off this distance upon each 
side of the perpendicular, as at cc. 

Put one foot of the compasses at r, open 



Constructing the Outline. 105 

to fl, and describe the curve at aa. Do the 
hke on the other side. 

Open the compasses to the width of one 
part, and mark to right and left of No. 14, 
on the line BB, two points ee\ make each 
point the centre of a circle, as in the last 
paragraph, with radius ^A, and draw the 
arcs A D on either side. 

On the Ime L L measure to a point 22J 
parts from the perpendicular; put one foot 
of the compass at each of these points h and 
describe from the centre h with a radius of 
1 1 parts, the arcs cutting the lines LL 
and PP. 

In the same way find on line KK 2 points 
23! parts from the perpendicular, and from 
centres kk open the compasses to the point 
whe^e the arcs last drawn, join the line LL, 
and continue the arc from the line LL until 
it meets the line HH. 

Open the compasses to the width of 11 
parts, place one foot upon point 72, and draw 
the two small lines vVy then place one foot 
on point 35, and the other on point 72, and 
draw the curve between these two lines, vv. 



io6 How to Make a Violin. 

Open the compasses to the width of 6 
parts, and placing one foot on point 55, 
mark on the line SS the two points xx. 

Take each point ;r as a centre from x to v 
as a radius, and continue the curve from v 
to the line VV. 

Open the compasses to the width of 4 
parts, place one foot on point 56, mark the 
2 points to ZB. 

Take each s as a centre, open the com- 
passes to the point where the arcs last drawn 
joins the line VV, and continue the curve 
from the line VV to the line RR. 

Mark off on line GG two points 00, each 
distant from the perpendicular 24^ parts : 
open the compasses from point to point / 
on either side, and draw the curve from 
point / to the line FF. 

On line II mark on each side of the per- 
pendicular at the distance of 14! parts from 
the perpendicular 2 points mm; open the 
compasses from m to where the curve joins 
the line HH, and trace on each side the 
curve from the last mentioned point to the 
point n. 



Constructing the Outline. 107 

On line EE, find 2 points 22 parts from 
the perpendicular on each side qq\ open the 
compasses from point q to point p on line 
EE, and draw the small curve from ^ to r 
on each side. 

Open the compasses from point 20, 16^ 
parts, and draw the two corners ss. 

On line QQ open the compasses 24 parts 
from the perpendicular, and mark on each 
side the point bb\ from point bb^ open the 
compasses to the poin^ where the line RR 
is joined by the curve from V to R, and 
continue the curve from cc to dd. 

On the line NN open the compasses 16-J- 
parts from the perpendicular, and mark on 
each side the point /; open the compasses 
from point / to the point where the line PP 
is joined by the curve from the point i and 
draw the small curve. 

Open the compasses to the width of I9f 
parts from point $0, and trace on each side 
the comer dd. 

We will now proceed to show how the 
arch of the violin is made in the direction 
of the perpendicular. 



io8 How to Make a Violin. 

Take a strip of hard wood, -2 inches widd, 
a little longer than the perpendicular, and 
thick enough not to bend too easily, and 
find its centre, across which draw a line. 
Open the large compasses 216 parts, that 
is, three times the length of the perpen- 
dicular, and, having fixed the strip upon the 
table, draw upon the table a perpendicular 
line in continuation of the line drawn across 
the centre of the strip, place one end of the 
compasses on the perpendicular line upon the 
strip not too near to the upper edge, and the 
other point upon the perpendicular drawn 
upon the table, and draw upon the strip the 



arc shown in Fig. 40. When cut away this 
arc will give the proper arch of the violin. 
The length of the / holes is 15 parts; the 
incision on the inner side of each should 
be exactly opposite point 40; the head 
commences opposite point 32^, and the foot 
ends opposite point 47^. The diameter of 
the hole at the head is i^ part, that at the 
foot I J parts; the inner edge of the upper 
holes should be 9 parts asunder, and the 



Constructing the Outline. 



109 



inner edges of the lower holes 23 parts, as 
under (see Fig. 41).* For all measurements 




required in this method a rule 72 parts long 
and accurately divided into 72 parts will be 
found of great service. 

THE THICKNESS OF THE BACK. 
Point 42 is the starting point for obtaining 
the proper thickness of the back. With the 

* Fig. 41. The position of the bar shown in the 
above illustration is that found in old Dutch and 
other early made instruments. The position of the 
bar in modern instruments will be found under par- 
agraph headed " The Bar." 



no 



How to Make a Violtn. 



compasses describe from centre 42 a circle 
having a radius of 4J parts; all the wood 
contained in this circle should be precisely 
I part thick. Then open the compasses 12 
parts and draw another circle from the same 
centre, the wood in which will gradually fall 
off from I part thick at the edge of the inner 
circle to f of a part at the edge of the outer 
circle. From this line to the side pieces, the 
thickness will gradually fall away in all 
directions to ^ part (see Fig. 42). 

-A 




fio .^2 



Construcling the Outline. ill 

THE THICKNESS OF THE BELLY. 

Point 40 is the point of departure. Open 
the compasses 4 parts and draw a circle with 
point 40 as its centre. The wood in this 
circle must be f part thick; open the com- 
passes 9 parts, and draw another circle. 
Then, as with the back, gradually thin off 
from the inner circle till the wood at the 
outer circle is \ part thick, and from thence 
thin off again to the sides, where it should 
be a good \ part in thickness. 

THE BAR. 

The bar should be $6 parts long, i part 
thick, 2 parts high in the middle, diminishing 
gradually to f part at the ends. Its position 
should be parallel to the joint, slightly in- 
clining inwards at the top end, or about — 
inch in its whole length, and precisely upon 
the edge of the inner circle. The length of 
the bar can be readily gauged by measuring 
off \\\ inch (or 17 lignes French measure) 
from the top and from the bottom of the 
belly, the ends of the bass bar should come 
to these points. The bar should never be 



112 How to Make a Violin. 

further away from the centre than 8^ lignes 
at the top and 9^ lignes at the bottom. The 
sHght slope at the present time given to the 
bar should be in this proportion also. 

THE SOUND-POST. 

The sound-post should be \ inch in dia- 
meter, and placed behind the foot of the 
bridge. Other particulars respecting this 
important part have been given in previous 
chapters. 

THE BRIDGE. 

The bridge should have 8 parts between 
outer edge of the feet; its height should be 
6| parts. 

THE NECK. 

The neck should be 27 parts long from 
the extremity of the peg-box to the sides of 
the violin. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE REMAINING ACCESSORIES OF THE VIOLIN. 

THESE are the tail-piece, bridge, pegs 
and strings, which can all be bought 
of any instrument dealer. 
I might give the amateur minute directions 
for making the first three named, but as I 
only propose writinp: on the making of the 
violiriy I have expressly omitted matters 
which merely pertain to the fitting-up of the 
instrument preparatory to playing. When 
Luigi Tarisio came to Paris with a number 
of priceless Italian violins in his possession, 
he brought nothing but the violins — a mere 
assortment of wooden boxes, as turned out 
by the master hands of their makers. Those 
parts which gave a finished appearance to the 
instrument were wanting. An old "Strad" 
may in its time have had fifty tail-pieces 
or a score of finger-boards; and however 

113 



114 How to Make a Violin. 

essential they may be, the parts above- 
named are only "fittings." 

The tail-piece is fastened to the button by 
a piece of violoncello D string, the knot of 
which should be firmly tied. Different 
modes of fastening are adopted. Some tail- 
pieces have two holes pierced through them 
and in this case the ends of the cord 
should be put through and tied so that the 
knot comes in the groove of the button. 
Others have the holes pierced in the end of 
the tail-piece, and a hollow scooped on the 
under side to allow the knot to stand within 
the level of the wood so as not to touch the 
belly. The amateur will select the pattern 
he likes best. 

The strings are an important factor in the 
production of the tone. They should always 
be gauged before they are put on. A string 
gauge can be bought for sixpence, and when 
the thickness and quality of strings best 
suited to a violin are ascertained, no varia- 
tion should be permitted. The following 
passage from Mr. Davidson's work will be 
useful to the amateur: 



The Remaining Accessories. 115 

" A good violin string ought to be perfectly 
cylindrical from one extremity to the other, 
having a regular thickness throughout, and 
possess the necessary elasticity. A packet 
of strings upon being compressed, or bent 
together, ought not to change colour, or the 
united parts to break, but to quickly return 
to their original shape. They ought also to 
be transparent throughout their entire length, 
like a thread of glass, and possess no wavy 
or curled markings. The best second and 
third strings are of a transparent white ; the 
first not being so white, but perfectly 
transparent. If the first strings are very 
white, we may safely assume that they have 
been made from the intestines of animals 
which have been prematurely used by the 
manufacturer. The strings should be now 
and again oiled, preserved in oil-paper or 
bladder, and laid aside in covered tin boxes, 
in a dry place. For oiling the strings a 
small piece of woollen or other cloth may be 
used, upon which a few drops of olive or 
almond-oil are poured. If olive-oil is used, 
it should be purified by a mixture of lime 



Ii6 How to Make a Violin. 

and lead, until it is perfectly limpid. The 
first string should require a tension of 15 lb. 
to bring it to opera pitch; the second 17 lb.; 
the third and fourth about the same as the 
first." 

We must carefully observe that the tone 
of any violin is very perceptibly affected by 
the size of the strings, as if not in due pro- 
portion the one to the other, no uniformity 
of tone or power will be obtained. The 
peculiarities of the strings which prove in- 
dividually suitable to the different classes 
of violins must also be judiciously studied, 
as the instruments vary so much in this 
respect that a string which is perfection to 
one is destruction to another, but generally 
speaking, all the ancient instruments require 
to be lightly strung, in order to effectively 
evoke their purity of tone and freedom of 
vibration. If the strings are too thin or 
light, the tone of such will be weak and 
feeble, whilst on the contrary, if too thick or 
heavy, the sounds will be hard and coarse, 
and an unnecessary strain and pressure will 
be exerted on the bridge. 



The Remaining Accessories. 117 

Many of the common-class violins require 
the strings to be <7Z'^r-tight ere they can be 
brought to pitch, causing endless ruptures, 
but a well-made violin never requires this 
<?^'^r-st^aining or tightening in order to bring 
it to pitch. The fingering also varies on 
some violins, even although they may be of 
precisely similar lengths of fingerboard. 

From the preceding cursory remarks the 
reader will easily discern that the strings 
form an important item in the correct ad- 
justment of the instrument. 

The pegs must be accurately adjusted, and 
when properly fitted the holes should fall 
so as to allow the strings to run from the 
hole to the nut without crossing each other. 
A mixture of finely powdered chalk and 
rosin will be found the best means of making 
the pegs move freely and stay where they 
are left without pressure. 

The bridge is ably treated by Ole Bull 
in his "Violin Notes," and the following 
passage will afford the necessary informa- 
tion on this point, and also with respect to 
the sound-post and bow : 



Ii8 How to Make a Violin. 

THE BRIDGE. 

" The position of the bridge should be such 
as to affect the whole violin equally, and 
not to favour one tone more than another. 

"The centre of the bridge should be dir- 
ectly over the centre line of the top. Whether 
it should stand slightly backwards or for- 
wards of, or directly on a line drawn across 
the top from the inner notches of the / holes, 
will depend upon the character of the instru- 
ment, and can only be determined experi- 
mentally. It should incline towards the tail- 
piece in order to better withstand the 
forward pull of the strings in tuning. 

** The construction of the bridge has great 
mfluence upon the tone. Thinness of the 
centre of the bridge tends to make prominent 
any nasal quality or shrillness latent in the 
instrument. A proper solidity conveys sweet- 
ness and compactness, but too great thick- 
ness muffles the tone. 

" High-built violins mostly require low 
bridges, and such should be particularly 
thick at the edges where the strings rest. 



The Remaining Accessories. 119 

"The bridge should be perfectly flat on 
the side toward the tail-piece. It may be 
slightly convex on the other side. 

"The material of which the bridg e is 
made should be invariably maple. That 
which is known as the silver-grey maple is 
preferable to the brown or yellow, as having 
a more close and elastic grain. 

"The incisions in the sides of the bridge 
should extend each one third of the distance 
tov/ard the centre. The French model of 
Aubert, of Mirecourt, though open to some 
objections in special cases, is one of the best. 
These bridges are made of excellent wood, 
and are thick and strong. 

"The top of the bridge should.be thick. 
Properly constructed, a bridge may be made 
quite heavy, and so made it will always con- 
vey a rounder and fuller volume of tone. 
The distance measured along the top be- 
tween the G and E strings, should be i-^^ 
inch. The G string should be \ inch above 
the hnger board at its larger extremity; the 
E string, ^ inch. The average height 
of the feet of the bridge should be 



120 How to Make a Violin. 

about -j^ inch. The thickness at the base, 
a scant ^ inch; at the top a full -^ inch. 
The feet should be -^ inch long. 

THE SOUND-POST . 

"In general the sound-post should stand 
from i to J inch to the rear of the right 
foot of the bridge. Its outer edge should be 
in line with the outer edge of the foot. From 
this position its upper or lower end, or both, 
may be moved with advantage to secure cer- 
tain qualities of tone. It should in all cases 
fit the curves of the top and back abso- 
lutely. Moving the lower end toward the 
centre favours the lower strings. If the 
lower strings are weak and the upper at all 
sharp or hard in tone, then a very loose post 
should be used. If the reverse is the case, 
a long and tightly fitting sound-post is 
required. Moving the upper end outward 
will help all the strings, if the tone before 
was hard and shrill; but if the upper strings 
happen to be dull and heavy, then the post 
should stand a little inside the line of the 
foot of the bridge, and a little further back. 



The Remaining Accessories. 121 

The sound-post should be made o f fine - 
gr ained soft spr uce. The grain should cross 
that of the top, as this will prevent the mar- 
ring of the inner surface of the top in 
putting the post in and adjusting it. 

THE BOW. 

" I use a bow longer by two inches than the 
ordinary standard, a powerful, heavy bow is 
required for four-string passages and many 
tours de force. The bow, while elastic, should 
be extremely stiff, so that if dropped upon 
the strings the rebounds are very rapid. It 
should have weight to give force to these 
rebounds, as in many passages the weight of 
the hand cannot be applied to assist the 
bow; as in the tremolo, arpeggio and stac- 
cato volante. In this last example the bow is 
thrown upon the strings and runs its length 
in a series of little rebounds, neither the 
hngers nor wrist having anything to do with 
the result. In order to graduate, as it were, 
the different colours of sound, we favour 
certain overtones by causing the hair to act 



122 How to Make a Violin. 

at greater or less distances from the bridge. 
The nearer we approach the bridge the more 
the upper overtones, and the nearer the neck 
the more the lower overtones will be fav- 
oured. In the first instance, the resulting 
tone resembles that of the trumpet; and in 
the second, that of the horn and clarinet. 
With a heavy bow, in forte passages, only 
slight assistance is needed from the hand. 
The wrist is not cramped or stiffened in pro- 
ducing the pressure. In piano passages, the 
little finger should partially sustain the 
weight, and the stick should be inclined 
toward the neck, so that only part of the 
hairs act upon the strings. 

" The great stiffness and elasticity of the 
heavy bow gives a freer, cleairer tone than 
can be produced by one of a lighter and 
more sluggish nature. 

" The length of the bow is 2 ft. 6 inches, 
the length of the hair, 2 ft. 4 inches. The 
number of hairs is about 160. Half the hairs 
are put in one way, the other half the other. 
It is known that the hairs, as seen when mag- 
nified have little saw-like teeth running in 



The Remaining Accessories. 123 

one direction. By thus dividing the hairs, 
they present the same friction on either the 
up or down stroke. The best hair is from 
Normandy. It should be round and even, 
and not flat in places." 

The importance of a suitable bridge is 
paramount, and to further aid the amateur 
in its selection I append the following quo- 
tation from Mr. Davidson : 

"The bridge plays a far more important 
part than is generally attributed to it. Its 
incisions and form have a great influence 
upon the quality of the instrument. It 
merits, therefore, all our attention. If we 
take a piece of wood, cut like a bridge, and 
glue it upon a violin, the instrument nearly 
loses its sound. It gets a little better if we 
form feet to the bridge; if we make lateral 
incisions in it, the sound improves, which 
improvement increases gradually until the 
bridge assumes the ordinary form. It is an 
astonishing thing that by trial we gradually 
arrive at the form of bridge usually adopted, 
and which appears to be better than any 
other. A multitude of trials have been made 



124 How to Make a Violin. 

before this important piece arrived at per- 
fection. Everything heis led to this result, 
that we cannot depart from the established 
form without detracting greatly from the 
quality of the instrument. Bridges have 
been made of deal with their fibres perpen- 
dicular and parallel to the belly, but the 
sound was found to be altered. The size 
and shape of the openings have been altered, 
but the beauty of the instrument has always 
been impaired. Let us examine the move- 
ment of the molecules of the bridge. If we 
take a plain bridge with two feet and a 
single string, the movement is tangential, 
parallel to the face of the bridge. If we 
make two incisions in it, the nature of the 
movement changes, and the sand is seen to 
move in several directions at once, while the 
bridge itself experiences movements of oscil- 
lation, and its molecules appear to execute 
vibrations in a direction normal to the belly. 
The effect appears to be to confirm the 
normal movements of the tables. The bar 
to which these oscillations are imparted, pro- 
duces in the belly a similar movement over 



The Remaining Accessories. 12$ 

its entire surface, and prevents it from 
dividing into ventral segments by trans- 
versal nodal lines. All the parts of the 
instrument enter at once into vibration. Let 
us see how we can modify the effects of the 
bridge, by interfering a little with its oscil- 
lations. By placing a mute on the bridge 
the sound is almost null, and the bridge 
seems no longer to vibrate. It even appears 
to arrest the vibrations of the other parts of 
the instrument. The mute arrests its oscil- 
lations, and no longer produces the vibration 
of the belly. If we clamp the right foot of 
the bridge, the sound is weakened, but not 
to so great an extent as with a mute. On 
the other hand, if we repeat the experiment 
with the left foot, which ought to communi- 
cate its movement to the bar^ the sound is 
incomparably weaker. It is evident that the 
left foot of the bridge produces the shocks 
which occasion the movement of the bar and 
of the belly." 




Fig. 43. bbioge of a viol with seven stbings, the body 
of which is not cut out except at the two bides. 




ff 



Fig. 45. bridge of a SMALL-rAXTERN VIOLIN OF THE ANCIENT 
SCHOOL OF ANTHONY AMATI 




Fig. 44. bridge of a viol with five strings cut through 

in evert tart. 




Fig. 46. bridge op a Nicholas amati. 




Fig. 47. bridge of a stradivarius. 



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etc. Demy 8vo, cloth. 30/-. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSIC 



HISTORY OF RUSSIAN MUSIC. By M. Montagu-Nathan. 
The Rise and Progress of the Russian School of Composers. 
With a Survey of their Lives and a Description of their Works. 
Frontispiece. 2nd Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 

FDSTORY OF THE HARP. From the Earliest Period. By John 
Thomas (Pencerdd Gwalid). 8vo, paper covers, 6/-. 

HISTORY OF THE TRUMPET OF BACH AND HANDEL. By 

Werner Menke. Translated by Gerald Abraham. 5 Plates 
and a Supplement of Music. Crown 8vo, cloth, 18/-. 
This history of the trumpet from its earliest use as an artistic 
instrument, gives special reference to its employment by Bach and 
Handel. The correct modern performance of the old parts is 
discussed, and a description of a new instrument invented by the 
author for this purpose is included. 

HOW TO LISTEN TO GOOD MUSIC and Encourage the Taste 
in Instrumental and Vocal Music. With many useful Notes for 
Listener and Executant. By K. Broadley Greene. Complete, 
cloth, 8/6, or in two books, paper, 2/6 each. 

INTRODUCTORY SKETCH OF IRISH MUSICAL HISTORY. 

By W. H. Grattan Flood. A compact Record of the Pro- 
gress of Music in Ireland during 1,000 Years. Portraits. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/6. 

MAKERS OF THE HARPSICHORD AND CLAVICHORD 
1440-1840. By Donald Boalch, M.A. 32 Plates, 208 pp ., 
4to, cloth, 84/-. 

MUSIC IN THE HIRSCH LIBRARY (Part 53 of the Catalogue of 
Printed Music in the British Museum), by A. Hyatt King 
and C. Humphries, 1951. Published for the Trustees of the 
British Museum. This catalogue, prepared by the Museum 
staff, lists also a considerable number of works which were 
either not included in the original four volume catalogue by 
P. Hirsch, or were acquired later. 4to, cloth, 42/-. 

MUSIC OF THE MOST ANCIENT NATIONS, Particularly of 
the Assyrians, Egyptians and Hebrews; with special reference 
to Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt. By Carl Engfl, 
1864 (reprinted 1929). About 100 illustrations and many 
music examples. Demy 8vo, cloth, 42/-. 

MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT, or Remarks on the Spirit of the 
Principal Musical Forms. An /Esthetical Investigation, in 
which an Attempt is made to show the Action in Music of 
certain Laws of Human Expression; to point out what are the 
Spiritual Aims of the Chief Forms of Composition, and the 
Broad Principles upon which they should be Constructed. 
By Joseph Goddard. 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSIC 



NATIONAL MUSIC OF THE WORLD. By H. F. Chorley. 
Edited by H. G. Hewlett. Many Music Examples. Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 15/-. 

OLD ENGLISH PSALMODY. By W. T. Brooke. First Series: 
From the Accession of Edward VI to the Restoration of 
Charles II, 1547-1660. Second Series: Psalmists from 1660- 
1800. Third Series: unpublished. Crown Svo, paper covers, 
3/6 each series. 

OPERA STORIES OF TO-DAY AND YESTERDAY, Retold 
Act by Act (including Wagner's "The Ring" Operas). By 
Edmondstoune Duncan. Crown Svo, cloth, 6/6. 

PAN PIPES, THE SPIRIT OF MUSIC in Nature, Art and 
Legends, from East to West. Sixteen Articles for General 
Reading, with Drawings of Eastern Musical Instruments. 
By G. P. Green. Crown Svo, cloth, 7/6. 

THE PLACE OF SCIENCE IN MUSIC. By H. Saint-George. 
For Advanced Students of Harmony. With music examples. 
Svo, 2/6. 

POLISH MUSIC AND CHOPIN, ITS LAUREATE. A His- 
torical Account from 995 to the Present Time, including 
Chopin and his Works. By E. Rayson. Four Portraits. 
Square Svo, boards, 6/-? paper covers, 3/6. 

RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY MUSIC. By Dr. 

H. G. Farmer. With Illustrations of Early Instruments and 
Music Examples, and Short Biographical Notices of all the 
Staff Bandmasters. Crown Svo, cloth, 1 5/-. 

RISE AND DEVELOPMENT OF OPERA. Embracing a Com- 
parative View of the Art in Italy, Germany, France and 
England. By Joseph Goddard. Showing the Cause of the 
Falling Back of the English School in the Modern Period, and 
the Compensation which that Involved. Numerous Music 
Examples, Portraits and Facsimiles. Crown Svo, cloth, 16/-. 

SOME ASPECTS OF CHINESE MUSIC AND SOME 
THOUGHTS AND IMPRESSIONS ON ART PRINCIPLES 
IN MUSIC. By G. P. Green. Post Svo, cloth, 6/-, paper 
covers, 3/6. 

SOME ASPECTS OF GIPSY MUSIC. By D. C. Parker. Post 
Svo, cloth, 6/-, paper covers, 3/6. 

SOME FAMOUS SYMPHONIES, How to Understand Them. 
With their Story and Simple Analysis. Numerous Portraits. 
By J. F. Porte. Dealing with Symphonies of Beethoven, 
Berlioz, Borodin, Brahms, Chausson, Dvorak, Elgar, Cesar 
Franck, Haydn, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Schubert, Stanford 
and Tchaikovsky. Complete in cloth, 8/-, or in 2 separate 
parts, paper, 2/6 each. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSIC 



THE SOURCES OF KEYBOARD MUSIC IN ENGLAND. By 

Charles Van den Borren, translated by J. E. Matthew. 
378 pages, 237 music examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 

A standard European work of musical scholarship and one which 
is of vital interest to all students of keyboard music of the 16th and 
early 17th centuries. 

The collection of keyboard music which naturally provides the 
basis for this study is the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, and detailed 
treatment, copiously illustrated with music examples, is given to 
the various figures — melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic — in this 
music and to the forms and styles cultivated by composers for the 
Virginal. Originally published in England in 1915, this book 
remains the only thorough study of its type, illuminating a most 
iinportant branch of English and European music. 



STORY OF INDIAN MUSIC AND FFS INSTRUMENTS. A 

Study of the Present and a Record of the Past. Together with 
Sir William Jones' celebrated Treatise on the Musical Modes 
of the Hindus. With 19 Plates, chiefly of Instruments, 7 Music 
Illustrations and a Map. By Ethel Rosenthal, A.R.C.M., 
F.R.G.S. Crown Svo, cloth, 30/-. 



THE STORY OF MINSTRELSY. By Edmondstoune Duncan. 
The whole body of Secular Music that has stood the test of 
time and which can be called national. Early Gleemen, the 
Minstrels (church and social), Troubadours, the Tudor period, 
the great Elizabethan ists, etc. Pp. xvi, 337, 25/-. 



THE STORY OF MUSICAL FORM. By C. Lucas. The General 
Principles of the Art of Con^position and how they have been 
arrived at; explaining the development of the scale, of tonic 
and dominant, cadences, phrases and motives, counterpoint, 
canon and fugue, harmony, style, song form, variations, 
sonata form. Pp. xvi, 226, 25/-. 



STRINGED INSTRUMENTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. Their 
Evolution and Development. By Hortense Panum. English 
edition, revised and edited by Jeffrey Pulver. A detailed 
and comprehensive history, with illustrations, of the evolution 
of the mediaeval stringed musical instruments from their 
first appearance in the records of the earliest civilisations, 
through their gradual development in the Greek, Roman 
and Christian eras down to more recent times. 400 illustrations. 
Svo, cloth, pp. ix, 511, 63/-. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSIC 



TREATISE ON BYZANTINE MUSIC. By S. G. Hatherley. 

208 Music Examples. 162 pages, 4to, cloth, 25/-. 
There are upwards of 50 unabbreviated musical pieces, ancient 
and modern, from Greek, Russian, Turkish and Egyptian sources, 
given and fully analysed. 

TRIBAL MUSIC AND DANCING IN THE SOUTHERN 
SUDAN, at Social and Ceremonial Gatherings. A descriptive 
account of the music, rhythm, etc., from personal observation. 
By Dr. A. N. Tucker. 5 illustrations, 61 music examples 
illustrating the dances, songs and rhythm. 57 pages, demy 8vo, 
cloth, 10/6. 

THE TROUBADOUR AS MUSICIAN, Past and Present. By 
C. A. Harris. Cloth, 5/-; paper, 2/6. 

THE WORLD'S EARLIEST MUSIC. Traced to its Begimiings 
in Ancient Lands. By collected Evidences of Relics, Records, 
History and Musical Instruments, from Greece, Etruria, 
Egypt, China, through Assyria and Babylonia to the Primitive 
Home, the Land of Akkad and Sumer. By Hermann Smith. 
With sixty-five Illustrations, nearly 400 pages. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, 21/-. 



OUT-OF-PRINT BOOKS. 

Positive Microfiches can be supplied of the following books where 
the printed editions are out of print They must be used in 
conjunction with a reader (usually found in large libraries). 



HISTORY OF THE VIOLONCELLO, Viola da Gamba, etc., 
with Biographies of all the Most Eminent Players, 1915. 
By E. VAN der Straeten, 50/-. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS AND 
THEIR WORKS 



BRITISH MUSICAL BIOGRAPHY. A Dictionary of Musical 
Artists, Authors and Composers born in Britain and its 
Colonies. By J. D. Brown and S. S. Stratton. 8vo, cloth, 
21/-. 

Despite its age, this book is still of importance because it contains 
particulars of many musicians not listed elsewhere. 

FROM MENDELSSOHN TO WAGNER. Being the Memoirs of 
J. W. Davison, forty years Music Critic of The Times, compiled 
by his son, Henry Davison, from Memoranda and Docu- 
ments. With 52 portraits of Musicians and Important Letters 
(previously unpublished) of Mendelssohn, Berlioz, Gounod, 
Jullien, Macfarren, Stcmdale Bennett, etc. Index, 539 pages, 
8vo, cloth, 42/-. 

MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. Essays and Criticisms, by Robert 
Schumann. Translated, Edited and Annotated by F. R. 
RiTTER. Two volumes, crown 8vo, cloth, 35/- each. 

Schumann's literary gifts and interests almost equalled his 
musical ones. From boyhood he was drawn to literary expression, 
and his writings on music belong to the best among the romantic 
literature of the 1 9th century. The same fire, poetry, directness of 
expression, the same inventiveness we love in his compositions, 
also animates his prose. 

MUSICAL MEMORIES. By William Spark, Mus.Doc. (late 
Organist of the Town Hall, Leeds). Third Edition. With 
sixteen Portraits. Thick crown 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

REEVES' DICTIONARY OF MUSICIANS. Biographical 
Accounts of about 2,500 Noteworthy Musicians of the Past 
and Present. Edited by Edmundstoune Duncan and Others. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 7/6, paper covers, 4/-. 

SKETCHES OF ENGLISH GLEE COMPOSERS. Historical, 
Biographical and Critical. From about 1735-1866. By D. 
Baptie. Post 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

SOME MUSICAL RECOLLECTIONS OF FIFTY YEARS. 

By Richard Hoffman. With Memoir by Mrs. Hoffman. 
Illustrated with many Portraits. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

An interesting book of reminiscences by a prominent Anglo- 
American pianist and composer (1831-1909). He studied under 
Pleyel, Moscheles, Rubinstein and Liszt, and became a concert 
pianist in New York, and also toured with Jenny Lind. Hoffman 
composed and published many pianoforte pieces of the brilliant 
kind in vogue at the time. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS 



STUDIES IN RUSSIAN MUSIC. Critical Essays on the most 
important of Rimsky-Korsakov's operas, Borodin's "Prince 
Igor," Dargomizhsky's "Stone Guest," etc.; with chapters on 
Glinka, Mussorgsky, Balakirev and Tschaikovsky. By Gerald 
Abraham. 92 music examples. 350 pages, demy 8vo, cloth, 
25/-. 

ON RUSSIAN MUSIC. Critical and Historical Studies of Glinka's 
Operas, Balakirev's Works, etc. With chapters dealing with 
Compositions by Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky, 
Mussorgsky, Glazunov, and various other Aspects of Russian 
Music. By Gerald Abraham. With Frontispiece and 88 Music 
Examples. Demy 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 

The above two books complement one another, and together 
form a valuable survey of Russian music of the period 1836 to 1910. 
The operas of Rimsky-Korsakov are studied fully, also Borodin's 
"Prince Igor", Glinka's operas and Balakirev's music. Gerald 
Abraham is Professor of Music at Liverpool University, and is the 
chief English authority on Russian music. 

THE SYMPHONY WRITERS SINCE BEETHOVEN. Critical 
Essays on Schubert, Schumann, Gotz, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, 
Bruckner, Berlioz, Liszt, Strauss, Mahler, Mendelssohn, 
Saint-Saens, etc. By Felix Weingartner. Translated by A. 
Bles. Twelve Portraits. Second Impression. With Chapter 
added by D. C. Parker on Weingartner's Symphony No. 5. 
CrowTi 8vo, cloth, 16/-. 

WITH THE GREAT COMPOSERS. A Series of Pen Pictures, 
exhibiting in the form of Interviews the Personal Character- 
istics as Artists of the World's great Tone Poets. By Gerald 
Cumberland. Portraits. Cr. 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

Deals with Chopin, Haydn, Mendelssohn, Paganini, Beethoven, 
Handel, Rossini, Schubert, Liszt, Berlioz, Mozart, Wagner 
Tchaikovsky, Cherubini, Wolf, Borodin, Schumann, Sullivan. 



HOW TO PLAY BACH'S 48 PRELUDES AND FUGUES. A 

Guide Book for the use of Piano Students as an aid to the 
Unravelling and Interpretation of these Masterpieces, ensuring 
a more Intelligent Keyboard Rendering. By C. W. Wilkinson. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

OUTLINE ANALYSIS OF BACH'S FORTY-EIGHT FUGUES. 

By Brook Sampson. 3/-. 

BALFE, HIS LIFE AND WORK. By Wm. Alexander Barrett. 
Over 300 pages. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 



10 BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS 



BEETHOVEN. By Richard Wagner. With a Supplement from 
the Philosophical Works of Arthur Schof>enhauer. Translated 
by Edward Dannreuthfr. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, 16/-. 

BEETHOVEN AND HIS PIANO WORKS (Sonatas, Concertos, 
Variations, etc.). Descriptive and Analytic Aid to their Under- 
standing and Rendering. By Herbert Westerby. With list 
of Principal Editions and Bibliography. 3 illustrations, 45 
music examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

BEETHOVEN'S PIANOFORTE SONATAS Explained for the 
Lovers of the Musical Art. By Ernst von Elterlein. Trans- 
lated by E. Hill, with Preface by Ernst Pauer. Revised 
Edition (the Seventh issue). With Portrait, and View of 
Beethoven's House. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/-. 

NOTES ON THE INTERPRETATION OF 24 FAMOUS PIANO 
SONATAS BY BEETHOVEN. By J. Alfred Johnstone. 
Portrait, crown Svo, cloth, 12/6. 

BEETHOVEN'S PIANO SONATAS. A Descriptive Com- 
mentary on the Sonatas in the light of Schnabel's Interpreta- 
tions; giving an aesthetic Appreciation of each Sonata, with an 
Outline of the Development of the Sonata Form in Beethoven's 
hands. With a Biographical Sketch of Schnabel and an 
account of his activity as an executant, composer and teacher. 
By Rudolf Kastner. Translated by Gerald Abraham. 
55 pages, post Svo, paper, 3/6. 

A CRITICAL STUDY OF BEETHOVEN'S NINE SYMPHON- 
IES, with a Few Words on His Trios and Sonatas, a Criticism 
of "Fidelio" and an Introductory Essay on Music. By Hector 
Beruoz. Translated from the French by Edwin Evans. 
Portrait. Crown Svo, cloth, 21/-. 

BEETHOVEN'S NINE SYMPHONIES Fully Described and 
Analysed. A complete Account of Thematic Material and 
auxiliary Motives, an Analytical Chart of each Movement, full 
Technical Descriptions of Developments, Particulars of Formal 
and Rhythmic Features, Epitomical Tables, etc. Illustrated by 
637 Musical Examples. By Edwin Evans. Cloth, Vol. I (Nos. 
I to 5), 21/-. Vol. II (Nos. 6 to 9), out of print. 

BEETHOVEN'S SYMPHONIES in their Ideal Significance, 
Explained by Ernst von Elterlein. Translated by Francis 
Weber. With an Account of the Facts Relating to Beethoven's 
Tenth Symphony. By L. Nohl. Second Edition. Crown 
Svo, cloth, 10/-. 

BEETHOVEN'S SYMPHONIES Critically Discussed by Alex- 
ander Teetgen. With Preface by John Broadhouse. Second 
Edition. Post Svo, cloth, 6/6. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS M 



The Critical Writings of Hector Berlioz 

A CRITICAL STUDY OF BEETHOVEN'S NINE SYM- 
PHONIES, with a few Words on his Trios and Sonatas, and a 
Criticism of Fidelio. Portrait. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-, 

GLUCK AND HIS OPERAS, with an Account of their Relation 
to Musical Art. Portrait. Crown 8vo, cloth, 18/-. 

MOZART, WEBER AND WAGNER, with various other Essays 
on Musical Subjects. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 

The above three books form a full and readable translation by 
Edwin Evans of the justly celebrated critical writings of Hector 
Berlioz issued under the title of "A Travers Chant." 



BORODIN THE COMPOSER ANT) HIS MUSIC. A Descriptive 
and Critical Analysis of his Works and a Study of his Value 
as an Art Force. With many references to the Russian Kouchka 
Circle of Five — Balakirev, Moussorgsky, Cesar Cui, Rimsky- 
Korsakov, and Borodin. By Gerald Abraham. With music 
examples and 5 Portraits. Crown 8vo, cloth, 21/-. 

LIFE OF JOHANNES BRAHMS. By Florence May. Second 
Edition, Revised. Two Volumes, demy 8vo, cloth, 42/-. 

This work still remains the most comprehensive single work on 
the composer published. It is based on material gathered at first 
hand during the course of several visits to the Continent, and its 
value as a personal document is enhanced by the author's own 
recollections and impressions of Brahms, which were the result of 
personal contact with and actual study under the great master. 

HISTORICAL, DESCRIPTFVE AND ANALYTICAL ACCOLTST 
OF THE ENTIRE WORKS OF BRAHMS. By Edwin 
Evans. The Works are treated in the order of their Opus 
Numbers, and every Composition is dealt with in detail. 
Complete in 4 volumes with altogether 1,500 pages and over 
1,000 Music Examples and Tables, as follows: 

CHAMBER AND ORCHESTRAL WORKS OF BRAHMS. 

First Series to Op. 67. By Edwin Evans. 35/-. 

CHAMBER AND ORCHESTRAL WORKS OF BRAHMS. 

Second Series, Op. 68 to the End. By Edwin Evans. 35/-. 

PIANO AND ORGAN WORKS OF BRAHMS. By Edwin 

Evans. 35/-. 

VOCAL WORKS OF BRAHMS. By Edwin Evans. 42/-. 



12 BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS 



LIFE OF CHERUBESX By F. J. Crowest. (Great Musicians 
Series.) Crown 8vo, cloth, 6/-. 

CHERUBENJI. Memorials illustrative of his life. By E. Bellasis. 
Crown 8vo 

CHOPIN'S GREATER WORKS (Preludes, Ballads, Nocturnes, 
Polonaises, Mazurkas). How they should be Understood. By J. 
Kleczynski. Including Chopin's Notes for a "Method of 
Methods." Translated by N. Janotha. Second Edition. 
With music examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 8/6. 

HOW TO PLAY CHOPIN. The Works of Chopin, their Proper 
Interpretation. By J. Kleczynski. Translated by A. Whit- 
TiNGHAM. Sixth Edition. Music Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
cloth, 7/6. 

Contains the cream of Chopin's instructions to his own pupils. 
To admirers of Chopin and players of his music we should say this 
book is indispensable. 

CHOPIN AS REVEALED BY EXTRACTS FROM HIS DIARY. 

By Count Tarnowski. Translated from the Polish by N. 
Janotha. With eight Portraits. Crown 8vo, paper covers, 5/-. 
In the above notes Chopin alludes to many of his compositions as 
well as relating the conditions under which they were written. 

FREDERIC CHOPIN, Critical and Appreciative Essay. By J. W. 
Davison. 8vo, 3/6. 

CHOPIN THE COMPOSER AND HIS MUSIC. An Analytic 
Critique of Famous Traditions and Interpretations, as exhibited 
in the Playing of Great Pianists, Past and Present. By John F. 
Porte. With portrait. 193 pages, crown 8vo, cloth, 10/6. 

HANDBOOK TO CHOPIN'S WORKS. A Detailed Account of 
all the Compositions of Chopin. Short Analyses for Piano 
Student and Critical Quotations from Writings of Well- 
known Musical Authors. Chronological List of Works, etc. 
By G. C. A. Jonson. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 18/-. 
"Here in one compact volume is all that is necessary to know 

about Chopin and his works except by the leisured enthusiast." 

HANDEL'S MESSIAH. The Oratorio and its History. A Hand- 
book of Hints and Aids to its Public Performance, with useful 
Notes on each Movement, as well as Numerous References 
and much Original Information. By J. Allanson Benson, 
Boards, 6/6 ; paper, 4/-. 

LISZT, COMPOSER, AND HIS PIANO WORKS. Descriptive 
Guide and Critical Analysis, written in a popular and concise 
style. By Herbert Westerby, Mus.Bac, Lon., etc. 5 illustra- 
tions, 24 music examples. 336 pp., crown 8vo, cloth, 18/-. 



BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS 13 



ANALYSIS OF MENDELSSOHN'S ORGAN WORKS. A 

Study of their Structural Features. By Joseph W. G. Hatha- 
way, Mus.B. Oxon. 127 Music Examples. Portrait and 
Facsimiles. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12/6. 

HOW TO INTERPRET MENDELSSOHN'S "SONGS WFTH- 
OUT WORDS" (the celebrated "Lieder ohne Worte"). 
A Readable and Useful Guide for All. Gives the Piano 
Students helpful Insight into the first Principles of Form in 
Music. By Charles W. Wilkinson. With portrait and 
facsimile of MS. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6/-; paper, 3/6. 

MOZART: a Commemorative Address read before the Positivist 
Society. By V. Lushington. 8vo, 2/-. 
Mozart and Religion. 

MOZART AND THE SONATA FORM; A Companion Book 
lo any Edition of Mozart's Piano Sonatas, including an 
Analysis of the Form of each Movement, with Notes upon 
Treatment and Tonality, by J. Raymond Tobin, Mus.B. 
Crown Svo, cloth, 15/-, 

THE SOiNATA: Its Form and Meaning, as Exemplified in the 
Piano Sonatas by Mozart. A Descriptive Analysis, with 
Musical Examples. By F. Helena Marks. Svo, cloth, 16/-. 

QUESTIONS ON MOZART'S SONATAS. By F. Helena 

Marks. Aid and Companion to the Study of the Author's 
work, "The Sonata: Its Form and Meaning as Exemplified 
in the Piano Sonatas by Mozart." Paper covers, 2/6. 

PURCELL. By William H. Cummings, Mus.Doc. (Great 
Musicians Series). 

RACHMANINOFF. An Exhilarating Biographical Study of this 
Genius of the Keyboard. By Watson Lyle. Preface by Leff 
Pouishnoff. Two Portraits and List of Works. Crown Svo, 
cloth, 18/-. 

FRANZ SCHUBERT, Man and Composer. A Vivid Story of 
a Charming Personality. By C. Whtfaker- Wilson. With 
Original Translations into English of eight Well-known 
Schubert Songs, together with the Music for the Voice. 
Portraits and Illustrations of Schubert and his Friends. 
Crown Svo, cloth, 1 5/-. 

HENRY SMART'S ORGAN COMPOSITIONS ANALYSED. 

By J. Broadhouse. Crown Svo, cloth, 5/-. 

WAGNER'S TEACHINGS BY ANALOGY. His Views on 
Absolute Music and of the Relations of Articulate and Tonal 
Speech, with Special Reference to "Opera and Drama." By 
Edwin Evans. Crown Svo, cloth, 6/-; paper, 3/6. 



14 BOOKS ABOUT MUSICIANS 



WAGNER'S Ring des Nibelungen. The Story of Wagner's "Ring" 
for English Readers. By N. Kilburn, Mus.Bac, Cantab. 
Crown 8vo, paper, 2/-. 

OPERA AND DRAMA. By Richard Wagner. Translated 

into English . Opera and the Essence of Music, The Stage- 
Play and Dramatical Poetic Art in the Abstract, Poetry and 
Music in the Drama of the Future. 45/-. 

HOW TO UNDERSTAND WAGNER'S "RING OF THE 
NIBELUNG.*' Being the Story and a Descriptive Analysis 
of the "Rheingold," the "Valkyr," "Siegfried" and the "Dusk 
of the Gods." With Musical Examples of the Leading Motives 
of Each Drama. By Gustave Kobbe. Together with a Sketch 
of Wagner's Life. By N. Kilburn, Mus.Bac. Cantab. Seventh 
Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 1 2/6. 

Description and analysis go hand in hand with the narration of 
the story. Musical examples are given as aids to the identifica- 
tion of the leading motives and an index makes it easy for any 
reader to turn up any particular motive instantly. 



ORCHESTRAL 



THE CONDUCTOR, THE THEORY OF HIS ART. By Hector 
Beruoz. Translated by J. Broadhouse. With 41 Diagrams 
and Examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 8/6; paper covers, 5/- 

HANDBOOK ON THE TECHNIQUE OF CONDUCTING. 

By Sir Adrian Boult. Seventh Edition, revised. 5/-. 

INSTRUMENTS AND ART OF THE ORCHESTRA. An In- 
troductory Study. With Table showing Range of each Instru- 
ment. By P. W. DE Courcy-Smale, Mus.Bac. 8vo, boards, 6/-. 

METHOD OF INSTRUMENTATION. How to Write for the 
Orchestra and Arrange an Orchestral or Band Score. Illus- 
trated with Music Examples and various large folding Charts 
and Index. By Edwin Evans. Demy 8vo, cloth, two volumes. 
Vol. I. How to Write for Strings, Arrangement of Scoring and 
Preparation of Parts. With Charts. 10/-. 
Vol. II. How to Write for Wood, Brass and Drums, and 
Arrange a Band Score. With large folding Charts. 10/-. 

NOTES ON CONDUCTORS AND CONDUCTING. By T. R. 

Croger, F.R.G.S.y F.Z.S., also the Organising and Con- 
ducting of Amateur Orchestras, with three full-page Illustra- 
tions of the various "Beats" and Plan of the Orchestra. 
Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, boards, 6/-. 

ON CONDUCTING. By Richard Wagner. Translated by 
Edward Dannreuther. A Treatise on Style in the Execution 
of Classical Music. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12/-. 

ORCHESTRAL AND BAND INSTRUMENTS. A Short Account 
of the Instruments used in the Orchestra, and in Brass and 
Military Bands. By G. F. Broadhead, Mus.B. Dunelnt, 
L.Mus.T.C.L. With 24 Illustrative Music Examples. Post 
8vo, cloth, 5/-. 

ORCHESTRAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, Ancient and Modern 
Being an Account of the Origin and Evolution of Wind 
Instruments from the Earliest Times. By U. Daubeny, 11 
plates illustrating 61 Instruments or Parts. 8vo, cloth, 25/-. 

PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR THE CONDUCTOR and Useful 
Notes for the Orchestra. By F. W. de Massi-Hardman. With 
Music Examples and Diagrams. 3/-. 



ORGAN 



ART OF ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT IN THE CHURCH 
SERVICES. What to Do and what to Avoid: being a Guide 
to the Organist in the effective rendering of the Music. By 
Walter L. Twinning, F.R.C.O. Boards, 3/6. 

THE EARLY ENGLISH ORGAN BUILDERS and their Works, 
from the Fifteenth Century to the Period of the Great Rebellion 
By Dr. E. F. Rimbault. Post 8vo, boards, 12/-. 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ORGAN IN HISTORY. By Dudley 

Buck. Crown 8vo, boards, 4/-; paper covers, 2/-. 

INTERNATIONAL REPERTOIRE GUIDE (Historical, Educa- 
tional and Descriptive) to Foreign, British and American 
Works. By Herbert Westerby. 4to, cloth, 21/-. 

Describes the best Organ Music of foreign countries as well as of 
Britain and America. 

A larjge and beautifully presented quarto work, fully illustrated by 
thirty-six plates on fine art paper, comprising seven English and 
sixteen foreign organs, thirty-one portraits, and illustrations of the 
houses of Bach and Handel, 

LECTURE ON THE PEDAL ORGAN. Its History, Design and 
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MODERN ORGAN BUILDING. By Walter & Thomas Lewis 
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MODERN ORGAN TUNLNG, The How and Why, Clearly 
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By Hermann Smith. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10/6. 

NEW ORGAN PRINCIPLES AND THEIR INTERPRETATION. 

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THE ORGAN AS VIEWED FROM WTFHIN. A Practical 
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ORGAN 17 



THE ORGAN FIFTY YEARS HENCE. A Study of its Develop- 
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ORGAN OF THE ANQENTS FROM EASTERN SOURCES 

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THE ORGAN, WRITINGS AND OTHER UTTERANCES ON 
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TTie parts advertised above are all that have been published, as 
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REFORM IN ORGAN BUILDING. By Thomas Casson. Demy 

8vo, 2/6. 

SOME CONTINENTAL ORGANS and their Makers. With 
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TECHNICS OF ORGAN TEACHING. A Handbook which 
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PIANO 



THE APPROACH TO LTSZT. A Goone of ModoBi 

Te-c-- ;'ir ^o' - ^ - - The form of Gmded Sofies ffom 

-; \'. -:-}.:: ■ :--: V. . :.-;; B>' Herbert 

AtSTExsi. ^.'-. .... . -... . F.R^C.O.^ c - "^ - ■ .\ 5 t). 

^-' — -i:': ^;_ — ^ - "".:■-::- ^^ P"-_^ ■; ." all Keys. 

Arpci;^.-^ vVo:k m the Blxk arc W-.-.e Key Pj - 

A-'i-.-ec Nec-'ential Studies :". '..he B^^^'k K.e^s, ■^Mh 
. j^fpts Iror'. - 

THE ART OF TL'NTNG THE PLANOFORTE- A Nev. Corr.rr^- 

--., -'•^i.ss S^'-- Nc- Ej '...'-. Revised. Crovrn 



THE .ARTIST AT THE PLAVO. F-ivs .- :he An of Viu-vcaJ 



THE BYRD ORGAN BOOK. '':- T\~ - n.- ^ ^ " 

MSS.. ^— '■ : -^: r .. 

^; Glnn. ~ - 
dei tatrn "ts tht \rt of plxnoforte p1_\\tsg. on 

-z. Ti~:; B> C. .A. EhREN- 

THE DEPPE FTN-GEH EXERCISFv -----•-, .- 
\r.:y.:: T: ..- - - •• -;. _. ,_. 

1 iUSlg, 



EXTEL.MPORJSTNG AT THE PIANO Nl^ADE E.AS\'. A Manual 

•'or Be: ' '■' - - -. Hmis and Aids for 

:he ••?; . .. • .. -s.....^.^ ^ ..poser. B> Rrv. E. H. 
Si E LING, FJLC.O. 8vo, 2h' 



PIANO 19 



HOW TO ACCOMPANY AT THE PIANO. By Edwin Evans. 
(Plain Accompaniment, Figurated Accompaniment and 
Practical Harmony for Accompanists.) 172 Music Examples. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 7/6. 

HOW TO PLAY no FAVOURITE PIANO SOLOS. Being the 
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HOW TO STUDY THE PIANOFORTE WORKS OF IHE 
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The following issued singly, paper covers: 

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INDIVIDUALITY IN PIANO TOUCH. By Algernon H. 
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INTRODUCTION TO RUSSIAN PIANO MUSIC. By Herbert 
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NATURAL TECHNICS IN PIANO MASTERY. A Complete 
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PIANOFORTE TEACHER'S GUIDE. By L. Plaidy. Translated 
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REEVES* VAMPING TUTOR. Art of Extemporaneous Ac- 
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THE STUDENT'S GUTOE TO THE ART OF TEACHING THE 
PIANOFORTE. By Cyril R. H. Horrocks, L.R.A.M., 
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A SYSTEM OF STUDY OF SCALES AND CHORDS. Being 
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edition. 8vo, 3/-. 



20 PIANO 



TECHNICAL STUDY IN THE ART OF PIANOFORTE PLAY- 
ING (Deppe's Principles). By C. A, Ehrenfechter. With 
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CohTTENTs: Position — Arm — Wrist — Fingers; Touch (Tone Pro- 
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TOUCH, PHRASING AND INTERPRETATION. By J. Alfred 
Johnstone. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7/6. 



TECHNICAL AND THEORETICAL 



THE ART OF MODULATING. A Series of Papers on Modulating 
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THE ART OF MODULATION. A Handbook showing at a 
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COMPEND OF MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE. By Percy Baker, 
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ELEMENTARY MUSIC. A Book for Beginners. By Dr. West- 
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ESSENTIALS IN MUSIC STUDY FOR EXAMINATIONS. 

A Helpful Guide both for the General Student and Candidates 
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EXAMINATION CANDIDATE'S GUIDE to Scale and Arpeggio 
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EXAMINATION TEST QUESTIONS. Containing spaces for 
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EXERCISES IN FIGURED BASS ANT) MELODY HARMON- 
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EXAMPLES OF FOUR-PART WRITING FROM FIGURED 
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Mus.Doc. 4to, 5/6. 
These exercises are printed in open score so as to be of use in 
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EXEROSES ON GENERAL ELEMENTARY MUSIC. A Book 
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22 TECHNICAL AND THEORETICAL 



GUroE FOR THE YOUNG COMPOSER. Hints on the Art 
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HANDBOOK OF MUSICAL FORM. For Instrumental Players 
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THE HARMONISING OF MELODIES. A Textbook for Students 
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HARMONY, EASILY ANT) PROGRESSFV^LY ARRANGED. 

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HOW TO COMPOSE WITHIN THE LYRIC FORM. By 

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HOW TO HARMONIZE MELODIES. With Hints on Writing 
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HOW TO MEMORISE MUSIC. By C. F. Kenyon. With 
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HOW TO PLAY FROM SCORE. Treatise on Accompaniment 
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This popular and useful book might have been entitled "The Art 
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THE MODAL ACCOMPANIMENT OF PLAIN CHANT. A 

Practical Treatise. By Edwin Evans, Senior, F.R.C.O. 
Part I, Theoretical; Part II, Practical School of Plain Chant 
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MODERN CHORDS EXPLAINED. (The Tonal Scale in Harm- 
ony.) By Arthur G. Potter. Music Examples from Debussy, 
Strauss and Bantock. Svo, cloth, 4/-; paper covers, 2/-. 



TECHNICAL AND THEORETICAL 23 



MUSICAL ACOUSTICS. (Student's Helmholtz), or the 
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MUSICAL ANALYSIS. A Handbook for Students. By H. C. 
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MUSICAL EXPRESSIONS, PHRASES AND SENTENCES, 

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MUSICAL PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY. By Dr. Dudley 
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PRIMARY COURSE IN IHE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC, With 

Hints on Answering Questions (Written Work) for All Exam- 
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RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC, Set forth in Graded Questions 

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SCHUMANN'S RULES AND MAXIMS FOR YOUNG MUSI- 
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STEPS IN HARMONY. With Copious Explanatory Examples 
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THE STUDENT'S BOOK OF CHORDS. With an Explanation of 
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Crown Svo, 1/6. 



24 TECHNICAL AND THEORETICAL 



STUDIES IN HISTORICAL FACTS AND MUSICAL FORM. 

Being a Guide and Note Book, for a more Systematic Pre- 
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STUDIES IN MODULATION for Practical and Theoretical 
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102 TEST QUESTIONS ON THE CENTRAL RUDIMENTS OF 
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THEORY OF MUSIC FOR YOUTVG MUSICIANS. With 
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TRANSPOSITION AT SIGHT. For Students of the Organ and 

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Musical Exercises. Crown 8vo, 2/-. 

The practice of transposing upon the lines here laid down 

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VIOLIN AND 
STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 



ADVICE TO VIOLIN STUDENTS. Containing Information of 
the Utmost Value to every Violinist. By Wallace Ritchie. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, 7/6; paper, 5/-. 

ART OF HOLDING THE VIOLLN AND BOW AS EXEM- 
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tions. 8vo, cloth, 6/-. 

ART OF VIOLONCELLO PLAYING. Tutor in Three Books. 
By E. VAN DER Straeten. Text in English and French. 4to. 
Book I, 3/6; Book 11, 4/-; Book III, unpublished, 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF FIDDLERS. Including 
Performers on the Violoncello and Double Bass. By A. 
Mason Clarke. 9 Portraits. Post 8vo, cloth, 25/-. 

BOW INSTRUMENTS, their Form and Construction. Practical 
and Detailed Investigation and Experiments regarding Vibra- 
tion, Sound Results, and Construction. By J. W. Giltay. 
Numerous Diagrams. Svo, cloth, 16'-. 

CHATS WITH VIOLINISTS. By Wallace Ritchie. Crown Svo, 
cloth, 10/6. 

GERMAN VIOLIN MAKERS. By Fridolin Hamma. A Critical 
Dictionary of German Violin Makers with a Series of Plates 
Illustrating Characteristic and Fine Examples of their Work. 
Translated by Walter Stewart. 64 pages of text and 80 plates 
in half-tone, 12 x 10 inches, cloth, 105/-. 

This book is written by one of the most prominent experts in 
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violin connoisseurship. 

About 80 fine German instruments are represented in the plates 
of this book, the majority by two views, whilst many are extra- 
illustrated by separate scroll pictures. Good, representative 
examples of the German masters were selected for the purpose of 
providing the most informative illustrations, and a short descriptive 
general treatment accompanies each maker's name in the text. 
The arrangement of the text is on an alphabetical plan. 

Fridolin Hamma's book is one of the most important contribu- 
tions of our time to violin literature, a work which no connoisseur 
or maker should miss. 



26 VIOLIN AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 



THE HISTORY OF THE VIOLIN and other Instruments Played 
on with the Bow from the Remotest Times to the Present. 
Also an Account of the Principal Makers. Coloured Frontis- 
piece and numerous Illustrations and Figures. By W. Sandys, 
F.S.A., and S. A. Forster. Demy 8vo, cloth, 35/-. 

This well-known book, first published in 1864, is especially 
valuable in connection with the instrument makers of the English 
school, and is the chief literary source of information concerning 
our old native craftsmen. It is good to bear in mind that as Simon 
Forster was a skilled and experienced instrument worker, the 
technical notes to be discovered in the pages of this book in which 
he collaborated are worthy of attention. 

HOW TO MAKE A VIOLIN. By J. Broadhouse. Revised 
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Crown Svo, cloth, 10/6. 

Contents: Introduction — The Parts of the Violin — On the 
Selection of Wood — The Tools required — The Models — The 
Mould — The Side-pieces and Side Linings — The Back — Of the 
Belly — The Thickness of the Back and Belly — The Bass Bar — The 
Purfling — The Neck — The Finger-board — The Nut and String 
Guard — Varnishing and Polishing — Varnishes and Colouring 
Matter — The Varnish — A Mathematical Method of Constructing 
the Outline — The Remaining Accessories of the Violin. 

HOW TO PLAY THE FIDDLE. For Beginners on the Violin. 
By H. W. and G. Gresswell. Eighth Edition. Crown Svo, 
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HOW TO REPAIR VIOLINS and other Musical Instruments. 
By Alfred F. Common. With Diagrams. Crown Svo, cloth, 
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AN IMPORTANT LESSON TO PERFORMERS ON THE 
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INFORMATION FOR PLAYERS, Owners, Dealers and Makers 
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MASTERPIECES OF THE ITALIAN VIOLIN MAKERS. By 

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George. Cloth, 6/- ; paper, 3/6. 



VIOLIN AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 27 



NOTABLE VIOLIN SOLOS: How to Play Them. Three Series 
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NOTICE OF ANTHONY STRADIVARI. With a Theoretical 
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PLAYING AT SIGHT FOR VIOLINISTS and Others in an 
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70 PREPARATORY VIOLIN EXERCISES for Beginners in the 
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TONAL SCALES AND ARPEGGIOS FOR VIOLIN. Intro- 
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28 VIOLIN AND STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 



TREATISE ON THE STRUCTURE AND PRESERVATION OF 
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VIOLIN AND CELLO BUILDING AND REPAIRING. By 

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THE VIOLIN HUNTER. The Life Story of Luigi Tarisio, the 

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VIOLIN TECHNICS, or How to Become a Violinist. Exact 
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VIOLINIST'S ENCYCLOPAEDIC DICTIONARY. Containing 
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WELL-KNOWN VIOLONCELLO SOLOS. How to Play Them. 
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VOCAL 



THE AMATEUR VOCALIST. A Guide to Singing. With Useful 
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THE ART OF VOCAL EXPRESSION. A Popular Handbook 
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A Reprint of this Celebrated Book, first published in 1743. 
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SIMPLICITY AND NATURALNESS IN VOICE PRODUC- 
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Crown 8vo, cloth, 2/6. 

SPEECH DISTINCT AND PLEASING, or Why not Learn to 
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SUCCESS IN AMATEUR OPERA. Instructions on Auditions, 
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TEXTBOOK OF VOCAL TRAINING AND PREPARATION 
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Requirements. Music Illustrations and Descriptive Diagrams. 
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THE THROAT IN ITS RELATION TO SINGING. By Whit- 
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TREATISE ON THE TRAINING OF BOYS' VOICES. With 
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TWELVE LESSONS ON BREATHING AND BREATH 
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TWENTY LESSONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
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THE VOICE AND SINGING. Practically Explained, Condensed 
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and Amateurs, by an Experienced Singer and Teacher (C. W. 
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VOCAL SCIENCE AND ART. Hints on Production of Musical 
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VOCAL SUCCESS, or Thinking and Feeling in Speech and Song, 
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VOICE PRODUCTION FOR ELOCUTION * AND SINGING. 

By Rev. E. H. Melling. Music Examples. 31 pages, f'cap 8vo, 
cloth, 4/- ; paper covers, 2/-. 



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