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Full text of "How to speak Japanese correctly : Seisoku Nihon-go-gaku"

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HOW TO SPEAK 

JAPANESE 

CORRECTLY. 

(SEISOKU NIHON-GO-&AKU.) 

BY 

K. AKADA & J. SATOMI. 

REVISED BY 

M. N. WYCKOFF, D. Sc. 



rirXH EDITION (REVISED). 



R. Z. OKAZAKIYA & CO., LTD. 

TOKYO JAPAN 
1913 



PREFACE. 



The little volume is intended for the use of 
English speaking foreigners — travellers and 
residents — in Japan who may find it to be con- 
venient to have some knowledge of the Japan- 
ese language, and, at the same time, for a help 
to Japanese students of the English language in 
suggesting to them how to express the Japanese 
idea in the proper English form, or how the 
fundamentally different constructions and the 
various uses of particles in Japanese can be ex- 
plained in equivalent English expressions. 

The words, particles, and phrases contained 
in the book are really useful ones, which we 
have specially chosen to enable foreigners to 
make correct use of them. To attempt a 
thorough and systematic treatment on so ir- 
regular and complicated a language as Japanese, 
requires great originality, and would be an ex- 
hausting and wearisome task not only for the 
writers, but also for the readers. For the pre- 
sent, all that is needed is to explain briefly the 
grammatical relations and proper uses of particle <5 
and words of the current Japanese language wilh 
practical examples. 

And also we hope that the Jap.-Eng. and 
Eng.-Jap. translation of some useful phrases 
and clauses, and the small vocabulary of useful 
words will serve the readers. 



2004965 



We must express our thanks to the authors of 
the following boohs for their valuable works, to 
which we are much indel)ted in preparing the 
present handbook. 

References are made througliout the book 
to:— 

Dr. \Y. Imbrik: — Handbook of English- 
Japanese Etymology. 

Kf.llv .\.\d Walsh's Handbook of the Japan- 
ese Language. 

Prof. Naibu Kanda : — 

Higlier English Gram- 



Intermediate English 
Grammar. 

Slack, Capt. Chas: — Manual of Language. 

I )R. Hi'.rHURN : — English - Japanese and 

Japanese-English Dic- 
tionary. 

Dkincklev, Cai't. F. : — 

An unabridged Japanese- 
English Dictionary. 

KAITA AKADA, 

AND 

lUNKICHI SATOML 



Tokyo, July, 1903. 



CONTENTS. 



r«»> 

The Japanese Alphabet* 0¥ the 
Simplest Syllables. 

PACK. 

I. The Fifty Sounds of the Japanese Al- 

phabet I. 

II. The Japanese Alphabet of Impure 

Sounds. 2. 

III. From the Simple Sounds, Pure or Im- 

pure, are derived the Mixed Sounds, 2. 

I- Cardinal Numbers 3- 

II. Ordinal » 5- 

(a) For chronological years 5. 

(b) „ ages. ... 6. 

(c) „ the months of a year 7. 

(d) „ days of a month. ... ., 7, 

;e) „ o'clock, minutes and seconds. ... 8, 

ni. Cardinal Numbers 9- 

(a) For years 9. 

(b) „ months. .., ... ... 10. 

(c) „ days , 10. 

(d) „ the duration of time. ... ... 11. 

(e) K persons 12, 

ff) „ other animate beings 12. 

(g) M plants, sticks, cigars^ pencils, 

bottles, etc. il 



CONTENTS. 



(h) For books 14. 

(i) „ anything worn on the feet. ... 14. 

(j) „ houses 14. 

(k) „ carriages, jinrikisha, bicycles, 

wagons, etc 15* 

(1) „ letters, certificates and other 

Avritings 15. 

(m) „ ships, boats, and other forms 

of vessels 15. 

(n) „ paper, clothing, paper money, 

mattresses, doors, etc 16. 

(o) „ cups of tea, water or wine> ...• 16. 

(p) „ sets, suits or parties 1 6. 

(q) „ pairs, dozens, boxes 17. 

(r) „ chairs 18, 

(s) „ cannons. For guns 1 8. 

(t) „ times 18. 

(u) „ fractional numbers 19. 

(w) „ percent ao. 

PART I. 

The Uses of Particles or 

Postpositions. 

CHAPTER I.— The Postpositions de- 
noting THE CASES OF NoUNS AND 

Pronouns ai. 

g I. The Nominative Postposition " IVa." 22. 

§ II. The Nominative Postposition " Ca," 23, 

2 III. The Possessive Postposition " A^c; " -5. 

§ IV. The Objective Postposition " fVo." 25. 

2 V. The Objective Postposition " iV/." ... 26. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II.— The Pronoun 28. 

2 I. Personal Pronoun 29. 

Declension of the Personal Pronouns. 29. 
{ II. Adjective Pronouns : — 

« Kore ;" " Are ;" and « Sore.*" ... 31. 

» Koko-;' '' Sokof and '^ Astiko" or 

«^j^/^<7." ... 2>Z' 

I III. Interrogative Pronouns : — 

" Bare" ox *' Donata:* 35. 

"DarekaP t,^. 

« Dare mo ;" « Dare demo ;" « Z?«r^ 
ni mo." 36. 

" Doko'' ox ^^ Dochira." 37. 

^^ NanV ... 38. 

*'' Nani ka^^ 39. 

^^ Nani mo-y^ ** Nannimo-y^ *^ Natt- 
demo." , 39. 

»Dorey 39. 

*'Dore kar 40. 

" Dore mo ;" « Dore demo ;" « Dore 
ni mo." ... ... 40. 

» Dochtra:* 41. 

** Doe/lira ka." 41. 

" Dochira mo ;" " Dochira demo ;" 

*'' Dochira ni" 42. 

The Number of Interrogative Pronouns. ... 43. 

CHAPTER III.— Interrogative Ad- 
verbs , ... 43. 

«Z?5.'» ,. 

«'//j«." 



«. - 43- 

45 

« Itsu kaP d5. 



CONTENTS. 



*^ Itsu vio'y'^ ^^ Itsu demoP 45. 

'* Naze:' 46 

** Nanto*' or ^' DdfJto." ,«, ... ... 46. 

CHAPTER IV.— Verbs AND Auxiliaries. 47. 
^ I. The Conjugation of <' Z>(fj«." 47. 

I ir. Conjugation of " J:^j«." 50. 

The Negative Form of " Desu " and 
" Masu :"— 

*' MasenP , .. ^ .,0 .0. 55 

^*De [no) ai'i maseuP 55 

§111. ** Ari masti^' ixwdi ^^ Ori masu." ... 55 

"Mac/a masen." 58 

I IV. The Uses of Principal Auxiliaries: — 

^^ Ka 7)10 shire mas en." 59 

"/fudasal" 60. 

**JVasai." „ 63. 

** De^i masu." > 67 

" Com/1 " and " Afi." 68 

*^ /\ure " or '^ /uidasai." 70. 

** Moral" or '' //ira'a/ei." 71 

** A^t'" " Yari" or " Tsuka^vashi" ... 72, 

** Sashi age." 73 

** A^ari inasen " or " Ike mascn." ... 74 

** Gozni 7uasu." 75 

The Use of « I/ai " and " Jij>e." ... 75 

CHAPTER -v.— r(jsi POSITIONS And Con- 
junctives c 78. 

"Mo.".., .c. ... cc. 78- 

-« 71?.".., ... ... =.0 .., 80 

" 7fl"and '' Ba." 8l 



CONTENTS. Vll 



The Conjugation of a Verb in connecLio» 
with "/c^" and " 3« ;"— 

''tor 83, 

'*bar 84. 

**Naiaba:\. ... 85. 

** Kerebar ... .„ ... 87. 

'' Keredomo'* or ''ga." 88. 

« Gar 89. 

"Kar 90. 

**Narir 90. 

« Kz."... ... ... ... 91. 

,.,...^^ Da nor 92. 

....... Tan" and '' Darir ...93. 

*'Nor 94. 

** Nir 98. 

" Yer 102. 

" Ay*''^" or ..,...« Km." 104, 

^^ Ma(Ur .108. 

The Uses of « Z?<f." no, 

** Te'' ox " Alashiter 113. 

*' De-mo,'' " Te-7nor 115. 

*^ Mdr 120. 

" Amarir 122. 

" No nir .124. 

" No ni" and " N't war I27<, 

" Nagarar 12& 

^*S/itr , 132. 

*^ Mo sukoshir 00 ...133. 

" Mo sukoshi der ... 133, 

i* Mottor 134. 

« Ta ra'' or « Da rar ...134. 

" Kiri " or « Girir ,..136. 



CONTENTS. 



** Shika masen.^* ... 

"Jiki " and « Sugti^* 
« Tsuide » and " Gake." 
" Kurai " or " Gtirai^* 
" Tori'''' or " Dori" ... 



« ^«... 

"Bakari:' ... . 

«A?^." ... . 

" ya nar ... . 

" y^ «f." ... . 

" Yd:' 

«^.» 

« ir5." 

« FS." 

^'Dorer ... . 
"Z?^ w<?." ... , 
"Z>5 skite mor . 
" Do ka suru to. 

*<iiodo:' ... . 

« Tokoro." ... . 
«« Tokoro ga:' 
" J^a/&^." ... 
*^ Mono.'' ... 



137. 

138. 

139- 

140. 

142. 

♦ 144. 

dake " or " ba hodo:'i\l. 

146. 



...150. 
...151. 
...152. 
...154. 
...155. 
...156. 
...157. 
...158. 
...159. 
...159. 
...160. 
...161. 
...162. 
...166. 
...167. 
...168. 
...169. 



PART 11. 

Grammatical Principles and Prac- 
tical Uses of Some Principal 
Parts of Speech. 

I.— The List of Pronouns. 

I. Personal Pronouns 17 1. 



CONTENTS. 



II. Titles of Honour and Re- 
spect 172. 

III. Pronouns denoting Things, 
Places, and Directions ...173. 

IV. Interrogative Pronouns 175. 

II. — Adjectives. 

§1. Classification of Adjectives. ...175. 

I II. Inflexion of Adjectives 178. 

§ III. Adjectival Noun 180. 

I IV. Comparison of Degree 182. 

III. — Adverbs 184. 

IV.— Conjunctions 185. 

v.— Verbs. 

^ I. Conjugation of Verbs 187. 

^ II. The Use of Auxiliaries and 
Postpositions with each Form of 
a Verb 191. 

I III. Verbal Noun 192. 

VI.— Auxiliaries. 

I. The Abbreviation of " masn." 194, 

? I. Verbs in the First Conjuga- 
tion I94« 

^ II. Verbs in the Secend Con- 
jugation 206. 

I III. Verbs in the third Con- 
jugation 218. 

§ IV. The Fourth Conjugation 236. 

I V. The Fifth Conjugation 238. 

II. The Abbreviation of " De art masu^^ 

or " fl!i?J7<." 240. 

III. Voice Z42. 



CONTENTS. 



PART IIIo 

Chapter I.—Japanese and Eng- 
lish Conversation. 

^ I. Socho. (Early Morniug.) .,. .., 0..250. 

I II. Homon. (A Visit.) ... .,, 253. 

§ III. Shokai. (To introduce ?, Friend.) ...256. 

§ I V. Michi wo Tadzuneru Toki. (Asking 

the Way.) 260. 

§ V- Iseki to Shorei, (Comfort and En- 
couragement.) ...262. 

g VI. Kisha Ryoko. (Travelling by Rail- 
way.) ... ,. ...267. 

g \'ir. Yadoya ni te. (In a Hotel.) ..„ ...270. 

Chapter II.— A List of Some Idiom- 
atic Expressions. 

(Japanese— English.) .-., ...275. 

Chapter III.- A List of Some Useful 
Phrases and Clauses. 

(English— Japanese.) 303. 



APPENDIX. 

English and Japanese Yocabalary. 



THE JAPANESE ALPHABET OR 
THE SIMPLEST SYLLABLES. 



I. The Fifty Sounds of the 
Japanese Alphabet. 



Vowel 


A 


Tjl ^^JU 


V 


E :r|0 ^ 


Ka line 


Ka 


■h 


Ki ^ 


'Ku 


V 


Ke /ir Ko nj 


Sa „ 


Sa 
Ta 


iJ- 


Shi -y 


Su 


y. 


Se t 


So y 


Ta „ 


^ 


Chi f- 


Tsu 


'> 


Te 5^ 


To ix 


Na „ 


Na 


:^ 


Ni - 


Nu 


y. 


Ne % 


No ^ 
Ho ^ 


Ha , 


Ha 


?^ 


Hi t 


Fu 

Mu 


7 


He -. 


Ma „ 


Ma 


•^ 


Mi c 


-^ 


Me p< 


Mo =E 


Ya „ 


Ya 


-y 


I A 


Yu 


a. 


Ye a: 


Yo 3 


Ra „ 


Ra 


7 


Ri \) 


Ru 


;^ 


Re V 


Ro n 


Wa „ 

1 


Wa 


V 


Wi # 


U 


t' 


We z 


Wo ^ 


N 


i/ 











These are the simplest syllables of pure 
sounds, which are, at the same time, the al- 
phabet of the Japanese language. Besides there 
are 25 of impure sounds derived fruni the 
abo> c. 



II. The Japanese Alphabet op 
Impure Sound. 



Ga line 
Za „ 


Ga if 


Gi ^ 


Gu r 


Ge y 


Go .. 


Za if 
Da ^* 
Ba ;.N* 


Ji ^y 


zu >r 


Ze ^» 


Zo y 


Da „ 


Bj r 


Dzu J/ 


De 5^ 


Do Ki 


Ba „ 


Bi fc- 


Ru -/|Be ^ 


Bo ;jf 


Pa „ 


Pa >^°Pi b°Pu /|Pe ^ 


Po *• 



III. From the simple sounds, pure or 

IMPURE, ARE DERIVED THE MIXED SOUNDS, AS 





n 
o 

C/3 


* 

o 


m 

o 


m 

1- 




ID 


m m 
11 f3 

O O 




1 


H 
A- 

(U 




1 


K 


H 

PQ 




H 

G 


H 


H 


1 « 
III 


H 


rt 


11 

C/3 




n 
Jft- 

O 


rt 

3 


rt 


; 

3 
5 


rt 
11 

1^ 


rt 

a 


rt 
III 




* 

S 


C/3 


* 

s 


3 




AJ 

S 






^ 

£ 


III 


5=* 


rt 


rt 

cJ5 






rt 


*-- 

6 


n 


vi rt 


C4 


1 

rt 


rt 
CO 




ft 








rt 


rt 
>> 


rt 
(A 



I 3 ; 

THE PRONUNCIATION OF 
NUMBERS. 



I. Cardinal Numbers. 



ReU 
Ichl 

Ni. 

San. 

Shi. 

Go. 

Roku. 

Shichi. 

Hachi, 

Ku, 

Ju ichu 
Ju ni. 
Ju san. 
Ni ju. 
San ju. 
Go ju go. 
Shichi ju hachi. 
Hyaku. 
Ni hyaku. 
San byakn. 
Shi hyaku. 
Go hyaku. 
Ro^y aku. 



^ ) 

- ) 

::: ) 

) 

) 



:^ ) 

) 



( A 
( ii 
( + 
(+- 

( iH ) 
( -i-) 
( H+) 

("bi-A) 
( ■& ) 
(r^ ) 
(HW ) 
( P3W ) 
( SW ) 



9. 
lo 
II 

12. 

13- 

20. 

30- 

55- 
78. 

lOO. 
200 
300. 
400, 
500. 
60Q 



( 4 ) 



Shichi byaku. 


(-b^) 




700. 


Happyaku. 




( A-ff ) 





Soo. 


Ku hyaku. 




( ;^W ) 


.., .. 


900. 


Sen or Is set 




( -T ) 


... „ 


1,000. 


Ni sen. 




{^^) 


... o. 


2,000. 


San zen. 




(HT^) 


.. 


3,000 


Shi sen. 




( n^ ) 


... .. 


4,000. 


Go sen. 




( -iET ) 





5;O0O. 


Roku sen. 




( ;^^) 





6,000. 


Shichi sea. 




( -b-T ) 





7,000. 


Uasseti. 




( A^) 





S,ooo. 


Ku sen. 




{%=^') 





9,000. 


Ichi man. 




( -Zr ) 





10,000 


Ni man. 




( r.-ij) 





20,000. 


San man. 




(H^) 





30,000. 


Ju man. 




(+^) 


... •• 


100,000. 


1 lyaku msn. 




( W^) 





. 1,000.000. 


Sen man. 




( ^;^) 





. 10,000,000. 


Ichi oku. 




( -ft ) 





.100,000,000. 


Those which 


are written in 


italics, are 


irregularly pronounced in order to 


make them 


Kound bettei 










In ordinary conversation, 


the r 


umbers from 


one to ten are pronounced as i6\\o\ 


vs:— 


Hitotsu. 


(Hi 


.) I. 


Muttsu. 


(Muu.) 6 


Futatsu. 


(Fuu.) 2. 


Nanatsu. 


'Nana } 7. 


Miltsu. 


(Mi 


M 3- 


Yattsu. 


(Yaa.) 8 


Yoltsu. 


(Yoo.) 4. 


Kokonots 


u. (Kono ) 9. 


Itsulsu. 


(Itsu.) 5. 


To 


. 


10. 



And numbers above ten must be pronounced 



( s 



Corrgct. 




Incorreci. 




Ju ichi. 




Ju hitofsu. 


IT, 


Ju go. 




Ju itsutsu. 


J 5. 


San ju san. 


San ju mittsu. 


zz- 


Roku ju 


hachi. 


Roku ju yattsu. 


6S. 



II. Ordinal Numbers:— 

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding j 
" Dai " before, or " Ban " or " Me " " after 

cardinal numbers. , 

i 
Dai ichi, ichi ban, dai ichi ban, ich ban me. 1st. ' 



n ni, ni „ , 


» ni „ ,ni „ 


,y 


. 2nd. 


» san, san „ , 


„ san „ , san „ 


t# ■ 


3rd. 


y, shi, yo „ , 


„ yo „ ,yo „ 


,j 


4th. 


» go, go „ , 


„ go „ , go „ 


„ 


5th. 


„ roku, roku ,, , 


„ roku „ , roku,, 


,> 


6th. 


„shichi, shichi,, , 


„ shichi,, , shichi , 


J ,j 


7th, 


„hachi, hachi,, , 


„ hachi „ , hachi „ „ 


8th. 



„ ku, ku „ , „ ku „ , ku „ „ . 9 th. 

», ju, ju „, „ju , jfi „„.ioth. 

„ju ichijju ichi,, , „ju ichi „ \\\ ichi „ „ .nth. 

„niju, ni ju „ , „ ni ju „ , ni ju „ „ .20tli. 

(rt) For chronological years : — 

Simply the word " Nen " is added after caf 
inal numbers, in pronouncing calender years^ 



( 6 ) 



[chi uen I. 



Ni „ 
San „ 
Yo ^ 
Go ,i 
Roku „ 
Shichi, 
Ilachi,, 
Ku „ 



Ju ichi nen. ... 


... II. 


Jil ni „ . .. 


... 12. 


Niju „ . ... 


20. 


Sanju „ . ... 


... 30. 


Shiju „ . ... 


... 40. 


Hyaku „ . ... 


... 100. 


Ni hyaku nen. 


... 200. 


San byaku „ . 


... 300. 


Issen nen 


...I,OCX). 


San zen nen. ., 


...3000. 



Meiji san ju roku nen:=The 36th of Meiji. 
Sen ku hyaku san nen no natsu —The summer 
of the year 1903. 



(/f>) Forj^es: — 

Simply ** Sai'^ is added after cardinal num- 
bers in pronouncing the age of a person. 



Issai I- 

Ni sai 2. 

San „ 3. 

Shi „ 4 

Go , 5. 

Roku sai 6. 

Shichi „ 7. 

IlassaL 8. 

Ku sai. 9. 

Jissai 10, 



Ju issai. II. 

Ju ni sai 12, 

Ni jissai 20. 

^San „ 30. 

Shi „ 40. 

Go „ 50. 

Roku jissai 60, 

Shichi „ 70. 

Hachi „ 8... 

Hyaku sai .100. 



Hitotsu, futatsu, mittsu, etc, may be used ! 
instead, without " sai." i 



t 1 ) 



{ t ) For the months of a year : — 

Ichi gatsu or vSho gatsu. ... January. 



Ni „ 
San „ 
Shi „ 
Go „ 
Roku „ 
Shichi ,, 
Hachi „ 
Ku „ 

Ju » 

Jii ichi „ 
Ju ni „ 



... February. 
... March. 
.4. April. 
... May. 
... June. 
... July. 
... August. 
... September. 
... October. 
... November. 
... December. 



(d) For days of a month .•— 



Ichi nichi (ichin^chi) or tsuitachi. 


... 1st day. 


Futsu ka. 





... 


... 2nd „ . 


Mikka. ... 





... 


... 3rd „ 


Yokka. ... 





... 


... 4th „ 


Itsuka. ... 





... 


... 5th „ . 


Muika. . . . 


... ... ... ••< 


... 


... 6th „ . 


Nanoka — 





... 


... 7th „ 


Yoka. .0. 





.c. 


... 8th „ . 


Kokonoka. 


... 


... 


... 9th „ . 


T5ka. ... 


... 


••* 


...loih „ 


Ju ichi nichi 


(J^ichin^chi.)... 


..« 


...nth „ . 


Juni nichi. 


(Junin^chi.) ... 


..* 


...i2th „ . 



(JJ 

Ju san nichi. (Ju san'clii.) 1 3th day. 

Ju yokka 14th „ . 

Ju go nichi. (Ju gon^chi.) 15th „ . 

Ju roku nichi. (Ju rokun^'chi.) i6th „. 

Ju shichi nichi. (Ju shichin^'chi.) ...17th „. 
Ju hachi nichi. (Ju hachin^chi.) ...i8th „. 

Ju ku nichi. (Ju kun^chi.) I9lh „ . 

Ni ju nichi (ni jun^chi) or hatsuka. ...20th „ . 
Ni ju ichi nichi. (Ni ju ichiu^chi.) ...21st „. 

Nijuni nichi. (Ni ju nin^chi.) 22nd ,. 

Ni ju san nichi. (Ni ju san^chi.) 23rd „ . 

Niju yokka 24th „ . 

The last day of a month, whether it be 30th, 
31st or 28th, is called " misoka" and the last of 
a year, viz., the 31st of December, is called " o- 
ffiisoka^ And the xst day of January is called 
« Ganjitiu:' 

The pronounciation of the cardinal number of 
days is just same as the above, excepting only 
^* tsjiiiachi" ^^ ganiitsu^^ " mis oka ^' and " 5^ 
misoka.** 

( ^ ) For 0* clock, minutes and seconds .*— 



Ichi ji I o'clock. 

Niji 2 „ . 

Sanji 3 ^ . 

yoy 4 » . 

Goji 5 „ . 

Rokuji. ... 6 „ . 



Shichi ji.... 7 o'clock. 
Hachi ji.,.. 8 „ . 

Kuji 9 „ . 

Juji 10 „ . 

Juichi ji...ii „ . 
Juniji. ...12 „ . 



( 9 ) 



Ippun I minute. 

Ki fun 2 „ 

Sampun. ... 3 „ 

Shi fun. ... 4 ,f 

Go fun. ... 5 „ 



Roppun. ... 6 minutes 
Shichi fun. 7 « 
Ilachi fun. 8 ,> 
Ku fun. ... 9 „ 
Jippun. ..,io „ 



Ichi byo. 

Nibyo 2 

San byo. ... 3 

Shi byo. ... 4. 

Go byo 5 



I second. 



Roku byo... 6 seconds j 
Shichi byo. 7 „ 

Hachi byo. 8 „ . , 

Kubyo. .„ 9 „ . i 

Juby'o 10 „ , ; 



IIL Cardinal Nuirbers :— 

( « ) For yean : — 



Ichi nen 


or Ikka nen. .,. 


... I. 


Ni „ 


„ Ni ka 


»• ••• 


... 2. 


San „ 


„ San^<^ 


,,. ... 


.-. 3- 


Yo ,. 


„ Shi ka 


>}• ••• 


... 4. 


Go „ 


M Go „ 


J,. ... 


... 5- 


Roku „ 


„ Rokka 


,,. .. 


... 6. 


Shichi „ 


„Shichika 


„• ... 


... 7. 


Hachi „ 


„ Hakka 


»• .. 


... 8. 


Ku „ 


„ Ku ka 


})• •• 


... 9. 


Jfl „ 


„ Jikka 


)) '• 


...10. 


Ju ichi „ 


„ Ju ikka 


»• •« 


....II. 


Ju ni „ 


„ Ju ni ka 


,,. .. 


....12. 


Niju „ 


„ Ni jikka 


>» •• 


....20, 



etc., etc 



( lO ) 



(d) For 


months : — 




I-Iito 


tsuki 


or Ikka getsu. ... 1. 


Futa 


n 


„ Ni ka „ 


2. 


Mi 


» 


or San ka getsu (or 
San ^(3 getsu). ... 3. 


Yo 


n 


„ Shi „ 


„ . ... 4. 


Itsu 


n 


,, Go „ 


„ . ... 5- 


Mu 


n 


„ Rokka 


„ . ... 6. 


Nana 


♦> 


„ Shichi ka 


„ . ... 7. 


Ya 


>» 


„ Hakka 


„ . ... 8. 


Kokono „ 


„ Ku ka 


„ . ... 9- 


To 


n 


„ Jikka 


„ . ...10. 






Ju ikka 


„ . ...II. 






Ju ni ka 


„ ....12. 






Ni jikka 


^ . ...20. 






etc., 


etc 



( < ) For days : — 

Ichi nichi or Ichin'chi i. 

Fptsuka or Nin^chi 2, 

Mikka „ San^chi 3. 

Yokka 4- 

Itsuka or Gon^chi 5. 

Muika „ Rokun^'chi 6. 

Nanoka „ Shichin''chi 7« 

Yoka or Hachin-'chi 8. 

Kokonoka or Kun^chi 9- 

Toka 10. 

Ju ichin'chi (Ju ichi nichi) il. 

fu nin^chi (Ju ni nichi) 12. 

Ju san^chi ( Ju san nich i ) 13. 



^ {^2 

Ju yokka e.. 14. 

Ju gon^chi (Ju go nichi) 15. 

Ju rokun^chi (Ju roku nichi). ...16. 
JQ shichin^chi (Ju shichi nichi). 1 7. 
Ju hachin''chi (Ju hachi nichi). 18. 

Ju kun-'chi (Ju ku nichi) 19. 

Ni jun^chi (Ni ju nichi) or Hatsu 

ka 20. 

San jun^chi (San ju nichi) 30. 

Shi jun^chi (Shi ju nichi) 40. 

Hyakun'^chi (Hyaku nichi) 100. 

Ni hyakun''chi(Nihyaku nichi)20O. 

etc., etc. 

(</) The duration of time is expressed by, 
adding " Kwan " after the cardinal numbers 
for years, months, days, hours, minutes, 
seconds. 

For examples : — 

Go nen kwan or Go ka nen kwan -^5 years. 

Itsu tsuki „ „ Go „ getsu „ =5 jnonths. 

Ku jikwan=9 hours. 

San jippun kw^an=:30 minute.', 

Ni ju byo kwan— 20 seconds. 

San nen (or San ga nen) to ku ka getsu 

kwan - 3 years and 9 months. 
Ni ka getsu (or Futa tsuki) to y^kka 

kwan::=2 months and 4 days. 
Ichi nichi to san ji kwan -.- 1 day and 3 

hours. 



( " ) 



( ^ ) For persons :— 



Ichi nin (Hitori). ... I. 

Ni nin (Futari) 2. 

San nin .* 3. 

J'o nin (Yottari). ... 4. 

Go nin 5* 

Roku nin 6. 

Shichi nin 7, 

Hachi nin 8 

Ku nin 9. 

Jii nin 10. 

]u ichi nin ii. 

Ni ju nin 20. 

etc.. 



Hy aku nin 1 00. 

Ni hyaku nin.... 200. 

San byaku nin... 300. 

Shi hyaku nin... 400. 

Roppy aku nin . . . 600. 
Shichi hyaku nin, 700. 

Happyaku nin... 800. 

Sen nin. 1,000. 

Ni sen nin. ...... 2,000. 

San zen nin 3,000. 

Shi sen nin 4,000. 

Ichi man nin. ...10,000. 

etc. 



(/ ) JFbr other animate beings .* — 



Ippiki I. 

Nihiki 2. 

San biki 3. 

Shihiki 4. 

Go hiki 5. 

Roku hiki(Roppiki). 6. 

Shichi hiki 7. 

Hachi hiki 8. 

Ku hiki 9. 

Jippiki 10, 

Ju ippiki II. 

ja ni hild 12. 



Ni jippiki. ..,.,» 20. 

Go jippiki 50. 

Shichi jippiki.... 70. 

Hyappiki too. 

San byappiki. ... 300. 
Go hyappiki. ... 50P. 

Sen biki. I,oco. 

Ni sen bild 2,000. 

San zen biki. ... 3,000. 

Go sen biki 5,000. 

Ichi man biki....io,ooo, 
San man biki... 30,000. 



* Z5 " may be used for animals, and " 7ca " 
or " l>a " m\y be used for birds.) 

Animals. Birdf. 

Ilto Ichi wa I. 

Ni to Ni wa 2. 

Santo San ba 3. 

Shi to Shi wa 4. 

Hatto Hachi wa 8. 

Jitt6 Jippa 10. 

San jitto San jippa 30. 

Hyaku to Hyappa 100. 

Sen to Sen ba 1,000. 

Tchi man to.... Ichi man ba... 1 0,000. 



(^^) For plants, slicks, cigars, pencils^ bollUi, 
flc :— 



Ippon I. 

Ni hon 2. 

San bon 3. 

Slai hon 4. 

Go hon 5. 

Roppon 6. 

Shichi hon 7. 

Ilachi hon.M 8. 

Ku hon 9. 

Jippon 10 

Hyappon ico. 

Mi hyappon 200. 



San byappon... 


300. 


Shi hyappon... 


400. 


Roppyappon... 


600. 


Shichi hyappon 


. 700. 


Happy appoB.,, 


800. 


Ku hyappon... 


900. 


Sen bon 


1,000. 


Ni sen bon 


2,000. 


San zen bon.... 


3,000. 


Go sen bon. ... 


5,000. 


Ichi man bon... 


1 0,000. 


Ju man boa. ... 


100,00a 



{ H ) 



(A) For books : — 

Issalsu I. Hyaku salsu.... lOo. 

Ni satsu 2. Ni hyaku satsii. 200. 

San satsu 3. San byaku satsu. 300. 

Shi satsu 4. Sen satsu 1,000. 

Hassatsc 8, Ni sen satsu.... 2,000. 

Jissatsu 10. San zen satsu... 3,000. 

San jissatsu 30. Tchi man satsu. 10,000. 

Go jissatsu 50. j Ju man satsu... 100,000. 

( z ) For any thing worn on the feet : — 



Issoku I. 

Ni soku 2. 

San zoku 3. 

Shi soku 4. 

Go soku 5. 

Roku soku 6. 

Shichi soku 7. 

Hassoku 8. 

Ku soku 9, 

Jissoku 10. 

(y ) For houses : — 

Ikken (ikko) I, 

Ni ken (ko) 2. 

San gen (ko) 3. 

Shi ken (ko) 4. 

Go ken (ko) 5. 

Rokken (rokko) 6. 

Shichi ken (ko) 7- 



Hyaku soku... 100. 

Ni hyaku soku 200. 

San byaku soku. 300. 
Shi hy/iiu soku. 400. 
RoppyaJru soku. 600. 
Happyaku soktJ. 800. 
Sen (Issen) zoku. 1,000. 
San zen zoku. ... 3,000. 
Ichi man soku...io,ooa 
Shi man soku.... 40,000. 



Hachi ken (ko).... 8. 

Ku ken (ko) 9. 

Jikken (jikko). ... 10. 
Hyakken (hyakko).ioo. 
Ni hyakken (ko). 20a 
San hyakken (ko). 30O. 
vShi hyakken (ko). 400. 



Roppyakken (ko). 600. 1 San zcn gen (ko), 3,coo 
Happyakken (ko). 800. Icliimangen(ko)io,ooq 
Sen(Issen)gen(ko)i,ooo. Shi man gen(ko)40,ooQ 

( /^ ) For carnages, jinrikisha, bicycle s, wagons. 



Ichi dai (ryo) or Iccho I. 



Ni „ 


y> 


» 


Ni cho 


.. 2. 


San „ 


n 


» 


San „ 


... 3- 


Yo „ 


»> 


» 


Shi „ 


... 4. 


Go „ 


» 


»» 


Go „ 


... 5- 


Roku „ 


» 


M 


Roku,, 


... 6. 


Shichi „ 


>» 


W 


Shichi cho... 


... 7. 


llachi „ 


i» 


»» 


Hatcho 


... 8. 


Ku .. 






Ku cho 


.. Q. 


ja „ 




l> 


Titcho 


...10. 



( / ) For letters, certificates and other -writ- 
ings : — 

Ittsu i.j Plachi tsu (Hattsu). 8, 

Ni tsu 2J Ku tsu 9 

San tus 3.'jittsu 10. 



Shi tsu. 4. 

Go tsu 5, 

Roku tsu 6. 

Shichi tsu 7. 



Ju ittsu II 

Hyaku tsu 100 

Sen tsu 1,000, 

Ichi man tsu. ...10,000, 



( w ) For ships, boats, and other forms if 
vessels : — 



C 15 ) 



Is s5. . 

Ni so. . 
San zo. 
Shi so. 



I. 

2. 

3- 

4- 

Go so 5- 

Roku so 6. 

Shichi so 7. 



Ku s5 

Jiss5 

Ju isso 

Gojiss5 

Hyaku so 

Is.sen zo (s5). . 
Ni sen zo (so). 



9- 
10. 
II. 

50. 

1 00. 
1,000. 
2,000. 



Hass5 8. Iclii man zo (.so). iO,ooo' 



(") 



For papetf. dothing^ paper money. 



mitt- 



Ichi mai i. 

Ni mai ,,.. 2. 

San mai 3. 

Shi m?ii 4. 

Go mai -. 5, 



Roku mai 6. 

Shichi mai 7. 

Hachi mai 8. 

Ku mai 9. 

Ju mai 10. 



( ^ ) For cups of tea, water or wine :- 



Ippai I. 

Ni hai 2. 

San hai 3. 

Shi hai 4. 

Go hai , 5. 

Roppai 6. 

Shiclii hai 7. 

Hachi liai 8. 

Ku hai. > 9. 



Jippai 10, 

Ni jippai 20, 

Go jippai. .., 50 

Hyappai 100 

San hyappai 3:0 

Shi hyappai 400, 

Sen bai 1,000. 

Go sen bai ^f'C^ 



{p) For sets, suits or parties .*— 



( 17 ) 



Fct cooker 


1'., For ihmgi 


For clothing 








merdy- 


Ichi nin n 


lae. Kito kumi oi soroi. Itchaku. i 


Ni „ 


„ Futj 


' .. ., 


^ Ni chakc :». 


San „ 


, Mi 


>5 :? 


, San „ . 3- 


^0 „ , 


, Vo 


)• » 


„ Shi „ . 4 


Go „ , 


, Itsu 


„ „ 


„ Go „ . «; 


Roku,, , 


, Mu 


>> ». 


Roku,, . ^. 


Shichi „ , 


, Nana „ „ 


„ Shichi,, . 7. 


Hachi „ 


, Ya 


i> »> 


„ Hatchaku. 8. 


Ku „ 


, Kokono „ J, 


„ Ku chaku. 9. 


JU M 


, To 


>» j» 


„ Jitchaku. 10. 


ju iclrl „ 


. ]^ ichi „ ,, 


„ Ju- itchaku. n. 


Ju ui „ 


, Ju n 


' .s n 


„ Ju ni chaku. i:>. 


Kq) F^ 


7r pail's. 


For dozens. For boxes. 


Ittsui. 




Ichi dasu 


Hito hako... 1. 


Ni tsui. 




Ni „ c 


Futa „ . ... 2. 


San ,, . 




Snn „ . 


Mi „ . ... 3. 


Shi ,,. 




Shi „ . 


Yo „ . ... 4. 


Go „. 




Go „ . 


Itsu « . .e. 5. 


Roku., . 




Roku „ . 


Mu „ . ... 6. 


Shichi „, 




Shichi,, . 


Nana „ . ... 7. 


Ilachi „(f 


lattsui). 


Hachi „ . 


Ya „ . ... 8. 


Ku „ . 




Ku „ . 


Kokono,, , ... 9. 



( i8 ) 



JLltsui. 
Ju ittsui. 



Ju dasu. 

Ju ichi dasu. 



To hako. .....,lo. 

Jii ichi hako...ii. i 



( r ) For chairs.' — 

Ikkyaku I. 

Ni kyaku 2. 

San kyaku 3. 

Shi kyaku 4. 

Rokkyaktt .,.., 6. 



Shichi kyaku 7. 

Hakkyaku 8. 

Ku kyaku 9. 

Jikkyaku 10. 

Ju ikkyaku IL 



( s ) For cannons. For guns .-■ 



Jchi men ,, .. 


Itcho 


.... I. 


Ni „ 


Nicho 


.... 2. 


San .. a 


San 


■2. 


Shi „ 


Shi , 


4. 


Go „ 


Go „ 


.... 5. 



Ju men Jitcho lO. 

Ju ichi men Ju itch5 II. 



( / ) For times .•— 

Ichi do, Ikkwai... 

Ni „ (or kwai). 
San „(„ „ ). 
Yo „ or shikwai. 



Hitotabi i. 

Fiita „ 2. 

Mi 3. 

Yo 4. 



( 19 ) 

Go do (or kwai).. Go tabi (Itsu tabi).... 5. 

Roku „ ( „ „ ). Roku tabi (Mu tabi). 6. 

Shichi „ („ „ ). Shichi „ (Nant „ ). 7. 

Hachi„(„„ > Hacbi„(Ya „ > 8. 

Ku „(„ „ ). Kr „(Kokono„). 9. 

Ju „ , jikkwai. Jittabi (To „ ).io. 

Juicbi„,juikkwai. Ju ichi tabi II. 

( » ) For fratdonal numbers : — 

Ni bun no ichi. ... Hsjibun 1/2. 

San „ „ „ . ... Mitsu wari hito bun. ... 1/3. 

Shi „ „ „ . ... Yotsu f, „ „ . ... 1/4. 

Go „ „ , Itsu „ „ „ . ... 1/5. 

Roku,, „ „ . ... Muttsu „ „ „ . ... 1/6, 

Shichi,, „ „ . ... Nanatsu wari hito bun. 1/7. 

Hachi „ „ „ . Yatsu „ „ „ . i/& 

Ku „ „ „ . Kokono » „ „ . 1/9. 

Ju » „ „ i/io. 

San bun me (bu dori) S/lO- 

Shi „ „ ( „ „ ) 4/10. 

Han „ „ ( „ „ ) 5/10. 

Roku,, „ („ „ ) ,. 6/10. 

Shichi,,,, („ „ ) 7/10. 

Hachi „ „ ( „ „ ) 8/ro. 

• Ku „„ („ „ ) 9/iQ, 



( 20 ) 



(v) For vmUiples : — 

Ni bai , -l, 

San bai .,. 3. 

Shi „ (Yo bai) 4. 

Go „ 5. 

Roku „ c. o .. 6, 

Shichi ,, 7. 

Hachi „ 8. 

Ku „ (J. 

J^ » ' lOi 

( «; ) For Percent : — • 

Ichi wari ifO^ 

Ni „ 20^ 

San „ • 3C^ 

Shi „ 40^ 

Go „ 50^ 

Roku,, 60^ 

Ichi bu or isshi ^% 

Ni „ „ ni shi ^% 

San „ „ san „ 3?o 

Shi „ „ shi „ .-••. ^% 

Go „ „ go „ - S?^ 

Ichi wari icbi bu "/^ 

Ni „ ni „ 22;^$ 

etc., etc. 



PART I. 

THE USES OF PARTICLES OR 
POSTPOSITIONS. 



Chapter 1.— The Postpositions denot- 
ing the cases of Nouns and 
Pronouns. 



It is a characteristic of the Japanese languag-^ 
that the case of nouns and pronouns in a sen- 
tence is denoted by the particles which follow 
them. 

The use of postpositions denoting the case of 
a noun or a pronoun and which foreigners very 
generally omit in speaking Japanese, requires 
special attention. 

Postpositions denoting the case of a 
Noun or a Pronoun. 



Noxm. 



f I. Tnu wa kemono desu.= 

The dog is an anim<ii. 
\axiiga hashiri masu.= 
A dog runs. 



Poss< 



Obj. 



( 22 ) 



r Anata no hou wa kirei d.esu.= 

( Your book is pretty. 



r E. Kodomo ga hon wo yomi masu.= 

1' A child reads a iX)ok. 

2. Arata ?«' hon ilo agf masho.rz 
111 give yea a book. 



.<4 Noun or a Pronoun is in : — 

(i) The Nominative Case when followed by 
the postposition " \ya " <^r " gS,-" 

(2) The Possessive Case when followea by 
postposition " nO-" 

(3) The Objective Case when followed by the 
postposition " \70 " or " ni," the 'former 
denoting the direct object and the latter 
the indirect. 

As the use of postpositions is the hardest and 
the most important part of the Japanese lan- 
guage, we shall, begin with their use with no'j.i.s 
or pronouns, and explain their use with the 
other parts of speech one after another. 



\ I. This Nominative Postposition 
"Wa." 

The postposition " wa " is used in order to 
denote that the preceediiig noun or pronoun is 
in the noniinat've case. And a sentence, as a 
rule, begins with a noun or a pronoun. 



C 23 ) 



(2) (3) (1) (4> 

Ky^e wa naui desu ka. What is this ? 
(Kore — this, nanii^what, desu— is, ka:=?). 

This fundamental difterence of the construc- 
tion of a sentence makes it harder for foreigners 
lo express the idea in Japanese. 

More examples : — 
Kore wa nan ( — nani) desu (ka). What is this ? 



Sore "wa hon desu. 

Are wa nan desu (ka). 

Are wa iye desu. 

Ano hito wa dare desu (ka). 

Ano hito zva Taro desu. 

Hana 7va kirei desu ka. 

Hana wa kirei desu. 

Anata wa byoki desu ka. 
liye, watakushi wa byoki 

dewa arimasen. 



That is a book. 
What is that ? 
That is a house. 
Who is he ? 
He is Taro. 

Is the flower 

beautiful ? 
The flower is 

beautiful. 

Are you ill ? 

No, I am not 
ill 



5 IT. The Nominative Postposition 
" Ga." 

In its grammatical relation, " ga " is used in 
just the same way as " wa>" but the ideas ex- 
pressed by each differ somewhat. 



{_MJ 

When " g-a " is used, the subject of the ~.zx\ 
tence is comparative!}' or specially emphatic "ind 
" Wa " is vised in a sentence, the predicate of 
which is comparatively or specially emphat'\c. 
Dare ga yuki masu (ka). Who will go ? 

Watakushi ga yuki masu. I shall go. 

(others need not go.) 
Anata wa yuki masu ka. Will you go ? 

Watakushi wa yuki masen. I'll noi go. (others 
may or may not go.) 
Dore ga kirei desu ka. Which is beauiiiul? 

Kore ga kirei desu. This is beauti'mi. 

Kore wa kirei desu ka. Is this beaiitijzii i 

Sore wa kirei desu. Ihat is beauHfiiL 

An interrogative pronoun, when it becomes 
the subject of a sentence, must be followed oy 
" ffa>" while, in a sentence which contains m 
interrogative pronoun as a nominative com{::-^e- 
ment or in other cases, the subject of the sen- 
tence is to be denoted by " wa-" 
(i) "Nani ^^^"iz^what, "Dare ^a"=who, 
" Dochira ga ":^ which, " Dore ^w ^ _5 
which. 
(2) Anata wa (not :— ^v?) Who aie yj'^i? 
dare desu (ka). 
Kore iva (not -.—ga) Whose hav. is 
dare no boshi desu luis r 
(ka). 

" dare no " -;-. whose. 



5 211. The Possessive Postposition j 

-No/' 

" "No " is used to denote that the prcceeding \ 

noun or pronoun is in the possessive case, as : — i 
" Dare /w boshi "-- " whose hat ;" " Watakushi 

thj hen "—'•my book;'' " Hiro no karada"= ! 

«* A man's body ;" &c j 

Kore wa dare uo hon desu Whose book is this? j 

(ka). I 

/Sore wa) Watakushi fio That is mine, ' 
desu. 

Watakushi no na wa James My name is James, 

desu. ! 

'^no hito «<? iye wa doko Where is his house? 

desu (ka). ' 

»Yiliiam wa isha no musu- William is a doctor's 

ko desu. son. i 

iT'Jeo hon wa watakushi w^ This book belongs i 

toaodachi no desu. to a friend of ' 



I IV. The Objective Postposition 

""Wo " is used to denote that the preceeding 
noun or pronovm is //le direct object of the pre- 
dicate verb, for example : — ■ 



CJ^J 

Anata wa kono hon wo Have you ever read 

yomi mashita ka . this book ? 

Tadaima uwagi wo kite 1 am putting on my 

ori masu. coat now, 

Eigo wo o- hanashi desu Do you speak Eng- 

ka. lish ? 

Keko ga nani wo tori Wliat did the cat 

mashita (ka). catch ? 

Nedzumi wo tori mashita. She caught a rat. 

Anata wa nani wo shite What are you doing ? 

ori masu (ka). 
Walakushi wa shimbun I am reading a news- 

wo yonde ori masu. paper. 



I V. The Objective Postposition 

"Ni" is usfd to denote that the preceeding 
aoun or pronoun is the iudircct ohjett of the 
predicate verb ; for example : — 

Konotokeiwo aixala ni I'll present you this 
age masho. watch. 

Kono shashin wo Smith Please send this 
san ni agete kudasai. picture to Mr. 

Smith. 



( ^7 } 



Dare ga kono hon ivo 
snata ni kure mashivi 

Oji ga \r«-hlkushi ni kono 
hoo vvo kure masbila. 



\Vho gave \ ou tViis 

book ? 
Ivly uncle gave me 

this book. 



In asking a question also, the sentence begins 
with a nominative noun or pronoun, but never 
with vs^bs nor with interrogative pronouns in 
the etl^er cases than ihe nomin.tive, unless a 
nominative noun or pronrun is understood. 



James T/'/z nani wo shite 

ori mdsu (ka). 
Kore wa dare no hon 

desu (ka). 
(Anata wa) Kyo no shim- 

buu wo yomi mashita 

ka. 
Hana tt/a kirei desu ka. 



Wliat i James do- 

ing? 
Whose b-)ok is 

this ? 
Have you read to- 
day's news-paper? 

lb the flower 

beautiful ? 
"Who are you ? 
Who said so ? 



Anata iva dare desu (ka). 
Dare ga so ii mashita 
(ka> 

In ordinary conversation, " ka " for the in- 
terrogative sign is generally omitted in a sen- 
tence containing an interrogative adverb or pro- 



^__ (J8J 

noixii which is to be specially accented ; whue, 
in a sentence without any interrogative adverb 
or pronoun, it must always be used. 

(See examples given hitherto.) 



Chapter II.— The Pronoun. 



Pronouns are rot so much used iu Japanese as 
in the westerit languages. 

Kono ho?a wo yomi Ylr.vQ yott (or Did you) 
mashita ka. read this book ? 

Ilai, yomi mash'ta. Yes, /have (or /did). 

Komban wa atataka // is warm ';o-mght. 
desu. 

' Yamada san nif si Have you met Mr. Ya- 
mashita ka."...''Iiye, mada? "...<' No, 1 
mada ai masen." ... have not yet met 
"Sore de wa, koko him."..." Well, then, 
ni"f yobi masho ka." shall / call him. 

here ?" 

Gender is not irr.portant in Japanese grammar, 
and the case of pronouns as well as that of 
nouns is expressed by postpositions. 

There are three classes of pronouns : — I. Per- 
sonal, II. Adjective, and III. Interrogative. 



t »ec tUe postposition for " ni.'^ 



(J9J : 

I I. Personal Pronouns I 

The pronoun in the third person is not, strict ; 
ly speaking, a pronoun, but the compound word | 
** A/io /it'/o" (=that person) takes its place, j 

Declension of the Personal PROKOU?ii, ; 

1ST person. 

Nom. I. — Waiakushi ga or wa. 

Poss. My. — „ no. \ 

Obj. Me. — „ wo o: tti. 

Plu. 
We. — Watakmhi domo (or tachi) ga or -wo. 
Our.— „ „ ( „ „ ) no. 

Us. — „ >(»>»; tvo or m, 

2ND PERSON. 

Sing. 

Nom. XoVi.—Anata ga or wa. 

Poss. Your. — „ no. 

Obj. You — „ wo or ni. 

Pht. 
You. — Anata gata (or iach\)ga or iV* 
Your.— „ ,,(„„) no. 
You. — „ 1, ( „ „ ) 1V0 or ;/j. 



( 30 ) 

^RU PERSON. 

Nom. She or Hq.—Aho hito ga or wa, 
Poss. Her or His — „ „ no. 
Obj- Her or Him.— „ ., wo or nL 

Plu. 

They. — A)io Into tachi ga or wa. 
Their. — „ „ ,, no. 
Them. — „ „ „ wo or nu 

The same idea as that denoted by the jiosseS' 
sive pronouns in English is expressed by adding 
anollier postposition to that denoting the posses- 
sive case of a personal pronomv, 

Sing. 

I St per.— M ine— Walakushi J ^"^ °^ '^"'*' 



cshi P 

no 1 

(^ 7V0 or m. 



2nd per. — Yours. — Anata no 
3rd per. — Her or His. — Ano 



{ga or u>a 
7V0 or ;;■' 



^'^^^ "' I wo or nu 



Plu. 

( 'urs. — Wa'akushi domo or 

tachi no 



{ga or 700, 
wo or ni. 



( 3' ) 

Youxs.'^A/i^/a gaia or tachi no 



_ m or wa. 
His or Wtxs.-Ano hito tachi no- 

wo or ni. 



{ga or wa. 
wo Ui u\\ 



Kono hon wa watakuihl This book is mine. ... 

«<? desu. ... Anata no It is not yours. 

de wa arimasen. 

Auo hito no wa anata no His (or hers) is finer 

yori* rippa desu. tbar. yours. 

Anala-gata no wa waia- Yours is tne same tsi 

kushi-dovio no tof o- oars, 

naji desu. 

The Personal pronoun is dways of neuter 
gender in Japanese graramsi, -^d the English 
]x-r onal pronoun of the 3rd person and neuter 
gea.ier, is substiiuied for by an adjective pro- 



I if. Adjective Pkonouns. 

The principal adjective pronouns are " KoreJ^ 
" Are," " Sore," '' Mi^ma,'' " Ryoho^ « Doc^Mi," 
etc., each of which is conjugated with postposi- 
tions to express its case. 

" Kore ; " " Are ; " and " Sore. " 

( I ) " Kore " denotes a thing or things on the 
* yori—than. f see the postpusition for " to,'* 



c 32 ) ^ 

speaker's own side; " sOre " the same on the 
side of the persons spoken to; and ''are" ole- 
notes what is far from both the speaker and the 
person spoken to. (These pronouns come frora 
and partake of the nature of the adjectives, 
" KonOy^ " AnOy^ and " SonoP) 

Examples :— 

Kore wa watakushi no This is my book, 
hon desu. 

Sore wa anata no boshi Is that your hat ? 
desu ka. 

Are wa entotsu no That is the smoke from 
kertmri desu. the chimnies. 

Kore wo anata ni age I'll give this to you. 
masho. (--holding 
something in his 
hand). 

Besides, " sore " is always used to mention 
anything which the person, with whom one is in 
conversation, has spoken of. P'or instances: — 

A. Watakushi wa Yoko- A. I have a house 
hama ni* iye wo molte at Yokohama, 
ori masu. 



* see the postposition for " «/." 



< 33 ; 

EJ. Sore (not : — Are) wo B. Will you not 
C san ni* uri masen ka. sell it to Mr. 
C? 

A. Watakushi wa kono- A. I have become 
goro taihen jobu ni* very healthy late- 
nari mashita. ly. 

B. • Sore wa kekk5 desu. B. Tliat is very 

good. 



«Koko," "Soko," and "Asuko'' 
or "Asoko." 

" KokO " ( = this place) and " soko " (=that 
place) are properly to be regarded as pronouns 
rather than as adverbs, which being followed by 
a postposition, •*«/," "</^," &c are used as 
adverbial phrases. 

*' Asuko " or " Asoko " is used to denote a 
more or less distant place. 

C Koko ni watakushi no Here is my 

tokei ga ari masu. watch, 

Soko ni A san ga ori There is Mr. 

masu. A yonder. 

Koko de tabe masho. Let us eat 

here. 



Adv. 
pkr. 



see the postposition for " niP 



( 34 ; 



Pron. 



Koko ga anata no Is this your 
iye desu ka. home here ? 

(Compare •.— Kore ga anata no 
iye desu ka.) 

Sokowa itami masen I feel no pain 

g2^,* koko gaWaxcii there, but 

masu. here. 

Koko wo omochi ca- Take hold of 

sai. this part. 

Koko mo\ soko mo-\ I liave pass- 

ichido tori mashi- ed along 

ta. this part 

and that too. 



2 III. Interrogative Pronouns. 



The Interrogative Pronouns are " dare >" 

"doko;" " nani;" " dore;" and "dochira" 

The case of these is expressed by postposi- 
tions. 

The word " doko " ( — wjiat place) is to be 
regarded not as an interrogative adverb, but as 
an interrogative /5w«(7««, and may be adverbial- 
ly used in a clause with a postposition follow- 
ing. See pp. 37. 



ga::=but. f see the postposition for ^^ mo.'' 



( 35 ) ^ 

**Dare'* or "Donata." 

"Dare" or«doaata" is an interrogative 
personal pronoun. "Doiiata" is a more polite 
form. 



Non. Poss. 


Obj. 


Dare^^. Dare no. 


Dare v:o or nl 


Donata ga. Donata no 


Donata wo or ni. 


Dare {donaid) ga so ii 


Who said so ? 


mashita (ka). 




Dare {donata) ga yuki 


Who will go ? 


masu (ka). 




Sono hanashi wo dare 


By whom were you 


{donata) ni* kiki ma- 


told of that matter? 


shita (ka). 




Sore wo dare {donata) ni 


To whom are you 


okuri masu no desn 


going to send 


ka. 


that ? 


Kono kutsu wa dare {do- 


Whose are these 


nata) no desu (ka). ( -= 


shoes ? 


Kore wa dare' donata) 




no kutsu desu (ka).) 




Are wa dare {clonata) de- 


Who is he? 


su (ka). 





nl~-by. 



( 36 ) j 

"Dare ka." 

Dare ka heya ni ori masu Is there anybody in i 

ka. tlie room. 

Dare ka ori masu. There is some one | 

there. ■ 

Dare ka ox\x ( = ori ma- It seems as if some j 

su) yo* desu. o"^ '^ ^" there, or 

Some one seems to i 
be there. i 

Dare ka ni o-kiklf nasai. Ask somebody else | 
about that. i 

Dare ka wo yonde ki Well, I'll send for \ 
masho. somebody. j 

Dare ka to issho ni yuki I'll find some one to I 
masho. go with me. I 

Koko ni dare ka no boshi Here is some one's ' 

ga ari masu. hat. 

Dare ka ga mite ori Somebody was look- 

mashita. ing on. 

'Dare mo^*;" " Dare demo**;" 
"Dare nl mo." 

Dare ka ori masu ka. Is there anybody there ? 

* see the postposition for "jv*?.** 

f " o-kilsi " is the polite form of *' kiki." 

** see the postposition for "/;/<?" and" demo.** 



(J70 J 

liye, dare mo ori masen. No, there is nobody 

Dare mo are wo mi Has nobody seen 

masen deshita ka. that? 

Hai, dare mo mi masen No, no one has seen 

deshita. it. 

Dare demo, oya wo aishi Everybody loves his 

masa parents. 

Dare demo so ii masu. Everybody says so. 

Dare demo yoroshii desu. Any o-ie will da. 

Dare ni mo ai masen de- I have met nobody 

shita. 

Dare ni mo hana-shite wa Don't tetl that tc 

ike masen. anybody. 

" Donata " is used in the place of <•' dare " 

when one speaks to or of a superior, or gen- 
erally among ladies. 



"Doko" or "Dochira." 

"Dochira" is used in a polite expression, 
instead of " doko- " 

Anata no o-kuni wa doko Where is your native 

(^£7^>5zm) desu (ka). place? 

D&ko ga ichiban samui What part is the 

desu (ka). coldest ? 



■ (38) 

Dflio {dochird) kara o-ide Where are you coiric 

deiu (ka). from ? 

Doko {dochird) ye o-ide Where are you go- 

desu (ka). ing ? 

A san wa doko [dochird) Of what country [pt^ 

no hito desu (ka). proivince) is Mr. 
A? 

Doko [dochird) m mo mie- It can be seen no- 

masen. where. 

Doko [dochird) ka ni* aru It ought to be some- 

hazu desu. where. 

Doko [dochird) ni demo It is found every 

arl masu. where. 



"Nam." 

"Nani'' is an interrogative pronoun, equival- 
ent to " what'^ 

Nani wo mite ori masu What are you loot 

(ka). ing at? 

Sono nalca ni nani ga ari What is in it ? 
"Tiasu k;?,., 

* see the postposition for " niT 



C 39 ) 

^,.. ._ ._..■ -. .^^^ 

"Nani ka." 

Nani ka shiroi mono ga There was something 

soko ni ari mash it a. vvhite. 

Kono hako no naka ni Is there anything ia 

nani ka ari masu ka. this box ? 



** Nani mo ; " " Nannimo ; " 
" Nandemo. " 

vYatakushi wa nani mo I know nothing of it. 

shiri masen. 

Nannimo ari masen. There is nothing. 

A. san wa nandemo shitte Mr. A knows every- 

ori masu. thing. 

Nandemo yoroshii desu. Anything will do. 

Nannimo yaku ni tachi It is good for no- 

masen. thing (or It is of 
no use). 



**Dore," 

" Dore " is equivalent to Ihe interrogativ« 
pronoun " whichi^ but it's use is limited to 
quest. ous reLiling to one among more than two 
things. 



( 40 ) 

Dore ga o-suki desu ka. Which do you Iik« 
best? 

(Compare : — Dochira ga Which do you like 

o-suki d&su (ka), better ?) 

Koko ui sake to, tabako Here are wine, tobac 

to, cha to, koffii to, co, tea, coffee, and 

kashi to ga ari masu ; cake ; which of them 

do7'e wo age masho do you prefer ? 
(ka). 

"Dore ka." 

Vore ka kai masho. I'll buy (either) one ot 

them. 
Dorc ka katte kudasai. Please buy some (one) 

of them. 



" Dore mo ; " " Dore dsmo ; " 
" Dore ni mo. " 

Dore ga watakushi ni Which of these will 

niai masu (ka). suit me best ? 

Dore mo niai masen. None of them suits 

you. 
Pore demo niai masu. Either of them will 

suit you. 



( JlJ 

Dorf demo suki-na'^<^ You may have whicb 
wo o-tori nasai ever you like. 

Tsukue no hikidashi wo Search all the drawers 

minna o-sagashi na- of the desk, 
sai. 

liye, dore nimo ari ma- No, I can't find it in 

sen. any of the drawers. 

— : o: 

" Dochira. " 

" Dochira " nieans " which of the two." 

Kore to are to, dochira Which is finer, this or 

ga rippa desu (ka). that? 

Kisha to jitensha to, Which would run 

dochira ga hayai de- faster, the train or a 

sho (ka). bicycle ? 

Dochira ga hayai ka, I can't tell which 
wakari mssen. would run faster. 

Dochira wo yomi masho Which (of Ihese two) 
(ka). shall I read ? 

(Compare : — Dore wo yomi masho (ka).= Which 
(of several books) shall I read ?) 



"Dochira ka." 

Dochira ka age masho. I'll send you one or 
the other of thtm. 



( 42 ) ! 

1 

Dcchh-a ka motle kite ku- Bring me one or tlie 
dasai. other. ; 

i 
" Dochira mo ;" " Dochira demo." i 

Dochh-a tfio suki desu. I like both. ] 

Dochira mo suki masen. I like neither (this j 

or that). j 

i 
Doc/u'ra demo yoToshn dc- Either will do. ■ 

■>. 

\ 

] 

(Compare to : —Dore demo yoroshii desu. ::- Any ■ 
one will do.) \ 



" Z>^^//?V(7 " may be used instead of *■* doko^^ 
(see pp. 37) in more polite expression. 



" Dochira ni/' \ 

" Dochira ni " means " what direction." | 

Dochira tii niiye masu In what direction is it \ 

(ka). seen? '! 

VcwowSi dochira 7ii Oiizi- What direction is it ! 

te ori masu (ka). from here to Ueno ? j 



Ano liito no iye wa do- In what direciion does 
chira ni muite ori his house face ? 
masu (ka). 

Kawa vva dockira ni In what direction is 
nagare te ori masu the river running ? 
(ka). 

- — : o I — -— 

The Number of Interrogativb 
Pronouns. 

Sing. 
Dare. Nani. Doko. Dore or Dockira. 

Fin. 
Dare-dare. Kani-nani. Doko-doko, 



Chapter III Interrogative 

Adverbs. 



The principal Interrogative Adverbs are 

" do ;" " itsu v' " naze ;" " nanto-" 
"Do." 

" Do " means " how ;" " what" 

Anata wa do {^--nanto) What do you think 
omoi masu (ka). of it ? 

(Not : — Anata wa nani wo 
omoi masu (kaj.) 



( 44 ) 

A san wa do {--nan to) ii What did Mr. A sa? 

mashita (ka). about it? 

Do nasai mashita (ka). What is the matter 

with you ? 
Do shi masho (ka). What shall I do ? 

(How shall I manage 
it?) 
Do shite koshirae mashita How did you make 

(ka). it? 

Do demo yoroshii desu. It does not matter 

how it is. 
Do demo (=nan demo) It has no effect. 

ari masen. 
Do naru ( — nari masu) ka I can't tell what will 
wakari masen. follow. 

Do yu hito.=What sort of a man; Do yu 
koto.=:What matter. 



"ItSU." 

*' Itsu " is equivalent to " when.** 

I/su koko ni ki mashita When did you come 
(ka). here ? 

Itsu kara Nihon ni oide How long have you 
dcsu (ka). been in Japan ? 



C 45 } ^ 

Kono Isugi no kwai wa When will the next 
iisu desn Q »). meeting be held ? 

**Itsu ka." 

I(su ka o-me ni kakari I have seen (saw) 

mashita. you once before. 

lisu ka mata ai masho. I thinkwe shall meet 

again some other 
day. 
A san wa itsti ka kaette Mr. A has gone 
shimai mashita. home without tell- 

ing any one. 

"Itsu mo;" "Itsu demo." 

B san wa ifsti mo frokku- Mr. B always wean 
koto wo kite ori masu. a frock-coat. 

lisu mo no tokoro ni cite Put it in the usual 
kudaSai. place, please. 

Jlsu me no yo ni hayaku Come early, as usual. 
oide nasai. 

Jtsu demo oide nasad. Come whenever you 

choose. 

Itiu dtmo deki masu. It can be done (oi 

madejatany time 



^ (J6^) 

A san wa itsu demo nani Mr. A is doing some- 
ka shite ori masu. thing all the time, 

"Naze." 

" Naze " nieans " why "; " for what reason." 
Naze ki masen deshita Why did you not 

(ka). come ? 

Naze desu ka wakari I can't tell what is 

masen. the reason. 

Naze ame ga furi masu Why does it rain ? 

(ka). (=Ame ga furi 

masu no wa naze desu (ka)) 
Naze demo yoi de wa ari Does it make any 

masen ka. difference what is 

the reason why ? 

"Nanto" or "Domo." 

Nanfo yoi tenki de wa ari V/hat beautiful 

masen ka. weather, isn't it ? 

Domo kirei na hana desu What a beautiful 

ne. flower it is ! 

Kono inu wa nanto 6kii How big this dog 

desu no. (=Kore wa is ! (=What a 

nanto okina inu desu big dog this is !J 



( 4M__ ; 

Chapter lY — Yerbs and 
Auxiliaries. 



I I- The Conjugat on of 
" Desu" 

" Desu " ^s an incomplete intransitive verb 
equivalent to the verb " to be " in English. It 
is the shortened form of " de arl masu," whose 
conjugation is as follows : — 

Pres desu. cr de ari 7uasu. 

Past deshiia. „ „ „ ifiashita. 

Put desho. ,. ,, „ in as ho. 

Past supl...desJiiladeshd. „ ,. „ mashiia desho, 
or or 

deshitaro. mashitaro. 

Neither number nor gender makes any dif- 
ference in its conjugation. 

I. The Present Tense denotes (a) present 
facts and (b) general trulh. 

Kore wa watakushi no hon This is my book. 

desii. 

Ano hito no haha wti byoki His (Her) motliei 

desu. is ill. 

Hito wa shinu mono desu. Man is mortal. 

Toki wa kane desu. '1 ime is money. 



c 45 > 



Kane wa tblkara deiu- Money is power, 
11. The Past Tense ^tnoi^s past fads. 



Ningen wa hajime saru 

deshita ka. 
B san wa honya no ban- 

15 deshita. 
A san wa hasan suru mae 

wa taihen kane mochi 

deshita. 



Was a man a monkey 
in his origin ? 

Mr. B was a clerk in 
a book-store. 

Mr. A was a very rich 
man before he be- 
came bankrupt. 



III. The Future Tense denotes probability^ 
assumption or belief of a present fact y or doubt of 
general t7'uth. 



Kore wa gakko desho. 



this is 



I ye ga ugoki masu. Ta^ 
bun jishin deshd. 



I think 
school. 

The house is moving ; 
there is probably an 
earthquake. 

Besides, the Future Tense of '* deSTl " may be 
used on the one hand after a verb as an auxili- 
ary, ^^x\o\!\x\^ probability of an action present, 
past or future ; and on the other hand it may be 
used simply as an interrogative expletive. 

(0 r 



Pres. 
proba- 
bility. 



A san wa ima tega- 
mi wo kaite ori' 
mam {^ = oru) de- 
sJkd. 

B san wa kyo uchi 
i\\ ori niasu{ orti) 
des/id. 



Mr. A is writing 
a letter now, I 
think. 



Mr. B is per 
haps at home 
to-day. 



C 49 ) 



j>roba- 
bility. 



Ano hito wa shojiki He will work 
ni hataraki viasu honestly, I 
{=:haiarakti)deshd. think. 

Hakurankwai wa The exposition 

raigetsu skiniai will be closed 

masu (^—-shhnatt) next montii 

desho, perhaps. 

(Compare to : — Hakurankwai wa rai- 
getsu shiinai masu. ^The exposition 
will be closed next month.) 

(2) As an interrogative expletive. 

Sakura no hana wa kirei Cherry blossoms are 

deshb. beautiful. Are they 
not? 

Are wa anata no tebu- They are your gloves. 

kuro desho. Aren't they ? 

Anata wa kino kita (= You came here yester 

ki mashita) desJio. day, did you not ? 

B san wa (or ga) ashita Mr. B will come to- 

kuru (— ki masu) dSr- morrow, will he 

sho. not ? 

Mo deki agatta (--agari It is completed ai- 

mashita) desho. ready. Isn't it ? 

IV. The Past Suppositional Form denote! 
mppositioti or uncertainty of a past fact. 



( 50 ) 

Kore wa gakko deshita Perhaps this was a 

ro {(iesho), school, 

lye ga ugoki mashita, ji- The house shoolcj 

shin deshita ro {disho), there was an earth- 
quake, may be. 

Ano hito wa byoki de- He has been ill, I 

shita ro [desho). think. 

Kore wa nan deshita What do you think 

ro{desh'o)^2i). this was ? 

" Desu " being the shortened form of '< de art 
masu^'' its negative form is " de (%vd) ari maseny* 
whose conjugation is the same as that of tJit 
negative form of ^^masu^' (see pp. 5$.) 



\ n. Conjug^ation of " Blasu" 

" Masu " is an auxiliary verb, used only in 
conversation, by the conjugation of which the 
lenses of a verbs and negative expressions are 
flenoted. 

Pf'ts Masu. 

i'<i^t' Mashita, 

^''^^ Masho. 

''"■^^ '^P^' Mashita deshb or Mashitar\ 



( 51 ) 



I. The Present Teise " masu " denotes (a) 
tresent fads or actions ; i^S) future events or ac- 
ilons fore- known or predestined ; (c) general 
irudu 

I Inu ga hashlri 7nasu. A dog riias. 

I Me-ushi ga midzu The cow dric ks 

(a) -| wo nomi mam. water. 

i Ima kaji ga ari ma- The?e is fire 

I su. now. 



(b) 



<P) 



I si all 



I Watakuslii v.^a rai- i sraii go 
nen yoko wo sJd broad n''::( 
masu (not : — mas ho), year. 

Tsugi no doy5bi ni There will be a 
ongakkwai ga ari concert next 
masu (not : — masho). Saturday. 



Hana wa ckiri masu. Flowers will 
fall. 

Yoku hataraku hito One who works 
I wa kane-mochi ni hard, will be- 

Inari masu. come a ricli- 

man, 

II. The Past Tense « mas/iita." 
Inu ga /las/iiri mashifa. A dog ran. 
Koko ni bon ga ari ma- There was a bool 

ihita. liere. 



C 52 ) 



Kesa goji ni oki mashita. I got up at 5 oxlcK-k 
this morning. 

Chichi ^va kesa Yokoha- Father went to Yoko- 
ma y& yuki inashita. hama, this morning. 

Special use of " ga (or v/a) ari mashita ": — 
" Koko ni hon ga ari mashita " means often 
" 1 find the book here.^* 

III. The Future Tense, " mas lid " denotes :— 

(A) Probability of actions and facts both 
present and future, when used with the ^rd 
person. 

Ototfsan wa tadaima Is your fathei 
o-uclii desu ka. at home now ? 

Hai, Orimasho. \t%, I think he 

(Compare to :—" ori is. 
mas It y) 

Ototo wa ima tegami My younger 

wo kaite orimasho. brother is 

(=orudesho). writing a 

letter now, 1 

(/link. 



Pr.'s. 

froba- • 
biliCy. 



Future 
proba- 
bility. 



Tar5 wa ashita ki TarO wili come 
fnas'id ( kuru de- to-morrow, 



sho). 



probably. 



Isshukwan no uchi It will be made 
ni deki masho. within a week 

(Compare to : — ^^dcki probably. 



(B) M^is^, intention or supposition of ability-, 
nlien used with the ist person. 

Kono hon wo kai masho. I (or we) will buy 

(his book. 
Zehi kane-mochi ni nari I will be a rich man 

masho. any way. 

Watakushi wa, kono n&. I will go ^ j Hok- 

tsu, Hokkwaido ye*yu' kwaido next sum- 

/'/ masho. mer. 

Watakushi ni mo ^'ome I think I can read 

(not }'Of/ii) masho. it. 

Watakushi domo nimo Do you think M-e can 

deki masho ka. make it (or do it)? 

(C) The Future Tense, « masho " is never 
used with the second person except in the im- 
perative expression, meaning '< /et us " in Eng- 
lish. 

Tanaka san, Sampo wo Let us take a walk> 
shi masho. Mr. Tanaka . 

Mina san, Ilajime ma- Gentlemen, Let us 
sho. begin. 

Yame mash^ Let us give it up j or 

let us stop. 

IV. The Past Suppositional, " mashita de- 
sho " or ''mashitaro " denotes : — 

* see the conjugation of verbs. 



__J2^ > 

(A) Pasf. supposition : — 

Moshi kane ga attara (ari If I had had money 

mashita naraba) ^ai then, I should have 

mashtfa desho. bought it. 

Isha ga hayaku konakat- If the doctor had 

tarzi (ki masen deshita not come so soon, 

naraba), A san wa shini Mr. A would have 

mashita desho. died. 

Senjitsu B san wa auo I think Mr. B saw 

hito ni ai mashita de- him the other day. 
sho. 

(B) The same in an interrogative expres- 
sion, 

Ano hito wa iye wo uri He has sold his hoiise, 

mashitaro. hasn't he ? 

Anata wa sakunen no You were at Ilakone 

natsu Hakone y^yuJd last summer. Were 

mashitaro. you not ? 

B san wa mo Amerika Mr. B has gone home 

ni kaeri t/uuhitQrd. to America alreiidy. 
Hasn'i he ? 



The Negative Form of " dosu ** 
and " masu." 



( 55 ) 

♦* Masen." 

Prrs , masen. 

Past „ „ deshita. 

Fut. „ desho, or masumaik 

Past supl..., „ deshita de slid iro): 

" De (wa) ari masen." 

Pres de {wd) ari masen. 

Fut. „ „ „ ,, desho. 

Past „ „ „ „ deshita. 

Past siipl..., „ „ ,, „ „ disho (ro). 



'i in. "Ari irasu " and " Ori masu." | 

When the words are used as verbs, " ari JSfia- I 

SU " or " aru " denotes the position of things \ 

inanimate, while " ori masU " or " orU " de- j 

notes that of men and anifnals. ; 

f i 

[ Ki no eda ni tori ga There is a bird on j 

ori mmu,. the bough of the 

tree. I 

Sakana wa midzu oo Fishes live in j 

naka ni ori masu. water. j 

Watakushi no ane My elder siste? is I 

wa Osaka ni ori in Osaka. i 

masu. 



.1 

•5! 



•I 



(56 ) 

Tsukue no ue ni hon There is a book 

ga ari masu. on the desk. 

Sanfuranshisuko wa San Francisco is 

Karihorunia ni art in California. 

masu. (not, ori masu.) 

Kippu wa kakushi ni The ticket is in 

ari masu. the pocket. 



When they are used as auxiliaries : 

(0 "Ari masu" or «aru"is the form 
denoting the Passive Voice of a verb. 

Ishi ga oite ari masu. A stone is placed on 

it. 

Ano hito wa kite ori ma- He is come. 

su. 

Sore wa kono hon ni That is written in 

kaite ari masji. this book. 

Tokei wa ototo ni kashi- The watch is lent (o 

\^.arimasuy my younger bro- 
ther. 

Ano hito ni oshiete ari He has been taught 

masu, by me already. 

Anala no ki masu (kuru) He was I old by me of 

kolo wa ano hito ni your coining. 

hanashite ari masu. 



(^57 J 

(2) '< Ori masu " or " oru " is used to de- 
ni>te the Progressive ForjUy or the Present Perfect 
Tense of a verb. 



Pro- 
gres- 
sive 
form. 



John wa teg ami wo John is writing 

kaite ori masu. a letter. 

lye ga moete ori A liouse is 

fnasu. burning. 

Ano hito ga kita When lie came, 

(ki mashita) toki I was reading 

ni watakushi wa a book, 
hon wo yonde ori 

mashita. 



Pies, 
ter/ect. 



Gonen-kwan kono I have taught 

gakko ni oshiete in this school 

ori masu. for 5 years. 

Ano hito wa Ame- He has visited 

rika ni nido itte America 

ori tnasu. twice 

tjonuaturukusaiko- (Jh! I have 

to wa to ni kiite heard such 

on masu. old news al- 
ready. 



( 58 ) 
The conjugation of " ari masu " <^>i(i '' oii 

maSU " i^ jitsl the sanii as that of the auxiliary 
"masu" (see pp. 50J. 

/ Present. ..Ari masn. (Present passive voice.) 
j Past „ mashita. (Past „ ,, .) 

j Future „ maslio. (Suppositional or future 

V^ tense.) 

Present... Ori masu. (Progressive or present 
perfect.) 

Past „ mashita. (Past progressive or 

past perfect.) 

Future.... „ mashd. (The suppositional 01 
simple future tense of 
the progressive and 
present perfect.) 

" Mada . . <, masen." 

" Mada masen " '^eans '< not yet,'* and 

" mada " 's generally put before the predicate 
verb, but may be put before the subject or ob- 
ject. 
Ill wa mac/a kie maseu. The tire has not gone 

^ out yet. 

Mada hi wa kic viasen. Tlie tire lias not gone 
out yet. 



Watakushi wa vtada asa- I have not had break- 

meshi wo tabe masen. fast yet. 

vVatakuslii wa asa-meshi I have not had break- 

wo vinda tabe masen. fast yet, 

(==:MadA watakushi 

wa etc. J 

•shimbun wo viida yomi I have not read the 

masen. {—Mada shim- news-paper yet. 

bun wo etc.) 

Sonna koto wa viada kiki I have not heard 

masen. [— Mada sor\xi2i such a thing yet. 

koto wa etc.) 

I IV. The Uses of Principal 
Auxiliaries. 



Ka mo shire masen.' 



"Ka mo shire masen " is an auxiliary 

phrase denoting unceri.amty, used im the poten- 
tial mood : — 

Ano hito wa mo tsuki He rnay have arrived 

mashita (tsuita) ka mo already. 

shire .'nr.sti:. 

Watakushi wa ano hiLo 1 may hoV« seen hiru 

iii ai rnashita (attaj ka oefoie. 

fiio shire masen. 



( 60 ) 

Konya ame ga furi masu It may rain to-night 
(furu) ka mo shire ma- 
sen. 

Moshi so ii mashitara, If I should say so, he 
ano hito wa okori ma- might get angry, 
shita (okotta) ka mo 
shire masen. 

Moshi watakushi no chu- You might have suc- 
koku ni shitagai ma- ceeded, if you had 
shitara, anata wa sei- followed my ad- 
k5 shita (shi mashita) vice. 
ka mo shire masen. 

"Kudasai." 

(0 "Kudasai" is a verb meaning " ^ve 
me " or '■'■give us " when it comes after a noun 
as : — 

Anata no shasliin wo ichi Give me your picture 

mai kudasai. please. 

A san ga kono hon wo hi- Mr. A gave me this 

dasai mashiti. book. 

Dozo, mo* hitotsu kuda- Please give me one 

sui. more. 

(II) *' Kudasai " is an auxiliary osed in the 
impoative mood denoting a reijUest, when it 
comes after a verb. 



see for the postposition " mo^ 



Watakushi no yu koto Please listen to what 

y,'o kiite kudasai, I say (or Please com- 
ply with iny re- 
quest.) 

Mo sukoshi sat5 wo irete Please put in a little 

kudasai more sugar. 

Kono hon wo ni-san ni- Will you lend me this 

cai kashite kudasai. book fora few days? 

Ocha wo ippai tnoltekite Bring a cup of tea, 

kudasai. please. 

Sono kasa wo A san n. Will you kindly take 

Jodokete kudasai ma- th'.t umbrella to 

sen ka. Mr. A ? 

Watakushi ni Nihongo Will you kindly 

wo oshietc kudasai ma- teach me Japa 

sen ka. nese ? 

"Kudasai masen ka," which literally 

means " do you not give " or " ivill you not give ^^ 
is used to express simply a polite request. 

(Ill) The negative form of '-^kudasai'" is 

'kudasai masu na" or ''kudasaru na-" 

Anna mono wa mo Please give ir.e 

kudasai main na ; such a thing no 

Pt-7b. ^ tailien meiwaku wo more ; I ain 

shite ori masu. much troubled 

with it. 



Aiixi- 
liary. ' 



( 62 ) 

I Kono koto wa dare Please do not teli 

nimo hanasliite this matter to 

kudasai masu rta. anybody. 

-Varuku omotte hi- Do not thiul 



(i/asai masu na. 



adly please. 



i^Io kite kudasai Please come no 

Diasu na, more. 

vVasurete kudasai Do not forge! 

masu na. please. 



(IV) " KudasaL" is an auxiliary as well as ! 
a verb, and may be used in the indicative mood ; 
in a polite expression, followed by each con- 
jugation of •< 7nasu.^* ": 



As a verb. 

A san wa toki-dokl tega- Mr. A writes nie 

mi wo kudasai masu. sometimes. 

B san wa sukoshimo te- Mr. B does not write 

gami wo kudasai ma- to me at all. 

sen. 

A san wa nanimo kudasai Mr. A has givenme 

masen deshita. nothing. 

As an auxiliary, 
A. san wa tabi-tabi c-iazu- Mr. A calls on me 
ne kudasai masi . very oftep. 



C C53 ) 

B san wa. J unts \tf ktida- Mr. B does not ex- 

iai masen. cuse me. 

k san ga okutte kudasai Mr. A has sent it 

mashita. away for me. 

A. san wa oktitte kudasai Mr. A has not sent 

masen deshiia. it away for me. 

(Compare to: — A san kara ..=I\Ir. A has 

not sent it to me.) 



"Nasai." 

(T) " Nasai " niay be used as an auxiliary 
denoting command ox advice, and is use! only in 
the Imperative Mood. 

Watakushi no uchi ni o- Come to my home. 
ide nasai. 

Sonna koto wa o-yoshi Give up such a 

nasai. thing. 

O-yasumi nasai. Go to bed ; take rest. 

Shidzuka ni nasai. Be quiet. 

Vuka wo o-haki nasai. Sweep the floor. 

It is a more ix)lite expression, when " o " O' 
" go " is added before the verb or the noim and 
"fflashi " after <' nasai.''^ For example ;— 

O'ihidzuka ni nasai {ma- Be quiet. 
ski) 



_ rj4j 

Go'benkyd wo nasai [jna- Study on ; or i5e 

s'li). diligent. 

0-hairi nasai [ftiashi). Come in, please. 

0-daiji ni nasai [inashV). Take care oi yourself 

(II) The negative form of " uasai^' is " na,- 

sai masuna " or " nasaru na," and used as 

fo'lovvs : — 



Co-shimpai Jinsai vici^u na. 
Shimpai nasaru na, 
C-wasure nasai masu na. 
Wasure nasaru na. 
A-nna tokoro ni wa mo o-ide 



Never mind. 



Do not forget. 



nasai masu na- \ Do not go to i 

\ such a place \ 

Anna tokoro ni wa mo o-ide | any moi-e. '.i 

nasani na. J 'i 

A.mari* o-asubi nasai masu na. ^ *^® ^o' P^*y \ 

I too much. , 

Amari asulii nasaru na. C ^o "°^ ^^ \ 

) too idle. * 

)loi\\]!i?i^\\i vio nasai masu na. j ■^^_ „_^ t _ * 

VTofukashi wo nasaru na. J 



I Do not be up 
I late at nigh^ 



^^ Nasaru na " is used to inferiors, wliile •' 
sai masu na " to superiors. 



* Amari-- too much. 



(III) Both the positive and negative forms 
of the above may be used, after a verb in the in- 
dicative mood in a polite expression, fcllowed 
Sy each conjugation of '* ^nasuP 

For examples : — 



0-ide nasai masu. He is ^she is or 

they are J here; 

He (she or 

they) will go ; 

He (she or 

they) will 

come. 

0-ide nasai ntasen. He is (she is or 

they are) not 

here ; He (she 

or they) will 

not go ; He 

(she or they) 

will not come* 

Anata wa niku wo Do you eat 

o-agari ■ asai ■ a it meat ? 

ka. 

tlai, itadaki mastu Yes, I clOi 
(Not : — O agari na- 
sai tnasu.) 



( ^^ ) 



PasL 



Fu- 



ture. 



't-ast. 



Mo o-hajime nasai 
mashita ka. 

A san ga kesa o-ide 
nnsai viasJiita^ 

B san \va o-ide nasai 
viasen deshila. 

0-to-sama ga o-yoro- 
kobi nasal 7iiaOid. 
{ A san ga o-okori na- 
sai mas ho. 

B san wa komban o- 
kaeri nasai f?iastt 
viai [^^masen de- 

Ta])un A san wa 
kono hen wo o-yo- 
ini nasai vimhita 

j desAo {-- T?iashite 

I r-o). 

\ B sau v/a mada sono 
koto wo o-kiki na- 
sai tnasen des/iita 
des/io [— deshi/a ro). 



Have you begin 
already ? 

Mr. A canrn 
t.'1'.i morning. 

Mr. B did no» 
come. 

Your father will 

be glad.... 
Mr. A will b€ 

angry. 
Mr. B will not 

be lack to 

nig It. 



Pcrlnps Mr. ^ 
has read tbis 
book already 



Mr. B has no< 
heard of thai 
matter yet, J 
suppose. 



C 67 ) 



"Deki masu." 

" Deki masu, " which originally means « U 
be out ;" " to be done " or " to be made " as a verb, 
may be used as a potential auxiliary meaning 
- io be ableT' 

(I) Examples in the original meaning as a 
verb : — 

Kono iye wa itsu deki When was this house 

tnashita (ka). built? 

Ano lion wa itsu, doko When and where was 
di&* deki mashita (\^'A). that book publish- 
ed? 
Ano kwashi wa chichi to That cake is made of 
kona to de* deki viashi- milk and flour. 
ta. 
Wo jikini deki masu. It will soon be out 

(or finished). 
Nas i ga </(?/§/ ;?zaj« (ka). What art you going 
to make ? or What 
is your (his) special 
ability ? 

(II) Examples in the special use as an au- 
xilia-ry :— 

Anata wa mo gonen-kwan Can you stay in 



* see the postposition for " de" 



Nihon ni or.i masu (oru) japan 5 yf'ars 

koto ga deki masu lea, more ? 

Ori tai no desu ga,t ori I should like to stay, 

masu koto ga deki tna- but I can not. 

sen. 

Mae ni Tokyo ni ki ma- I could not spe?j^ 

sliita toki wa, Niliongo Japanese when i 

wo hanasu koto ga deki was in Tokyo last- 

masen deshita. 

Senjitsu wa B san ni ai I was not able to see 

masu (au) koto ga deki Mr. B the other 

masen deshiia. day. 

Anata wa Nihongo de te- Can you write a 

garni wo kaki masu letter in Japa- 

(kaku) koto ga deki nese ? 

masu ka. 

Deki juasen to mo.* Of course, I can 
not. 

"Goran" and "Mi." 

Both "goran " 3nd "mi" are verbs mean- 
ing exactly the same thing ; the former being a 
polite expression for the lallery and consequently 
used to or of superiors, never being used in the 
first person. They are : — 



\ Ga ..but. * to mo ^ of course. 



1^112 

(I) Equivalent to " ifo see " or " fo look.^* 

Kesa sore wo mi t)iashila. I saw it this mora- 

ing. 
Ato de 7ni rnas/w. I shall see it after- 

'^/ard. 
Ai.ata mo goran ni nari Did you see it also ? 
mashita (ka). (= nasai 
mashita ka.) 
Tabun B san wa kono e I think Mr. B has 
wo mada tni masuniai. not seen this pic- 

ture yet. 

(II) Equivalent to " to try,^^ when it follows 
the past participle of other verbs. 

¥<Q)\-\o\v()Xi\;o yon^de goran Try to read this 

na'.ai, yohodo omo- book; it is very 

shiroi desu. interesting. 

B san, yatie goran na- Just try, Mr. B; it 

sai'j amari cnutsu- is not very dif- 

kashiku wa ari masen. iicui;. 

Hai, tomo-kakumo, yatU WeUj 1 shall Ir}, 

vii viasho. however it may 

B san ni tanonde fni via- J. shall make a re- 
tno. quest to Mr. B. 



"Kure" or "Kudasai.*' 

*' Kudasai " is the respec/ful form of " ku- 
re/' and its use in the imperative mood has 
been already explained. 

But they may oe used in the indicative moodf 
being followed by *' masu." 

(T) Meaning " to give me (or ?^j)," when used i. 
as a verb. j 

Kore wa A san ga hire Mr. A gave me this. ■ 

[kudasai) mas hit a. \ 

Kure masu ka, ktire ma- I don't know whethet 

sen ka wakari masen. he will give it to 

me (or us) or not. \ 

(IT) Meaning ^'fot me (or us);" '■^ kindly i* 
when used as an auxiliary. j 

A san ga iite kure [kuda- Mr. ^ will go for me j 

sai) mas ho (or us). 

Kono lion wa B san ga This book is that 

kashite kure {kudasai) which Mr. B has 

mashita no desu. kindly lent me. 

C san ga tasukele kure It is very easy, as 

{kudasai) masu kara,* Mr. C kindly helps 

taihen raku desu. me. 

l) san ga title kure (ku- Mf. D sold that ibr 

dasai) via shit a. mc. 

* see the postposition for " kara'^ 



*' Moral" or "Itadaki." 

" Itadaki " is a poiiu form of « moral.'' 

And they mean : — 

(I) " To receive'^* "to get me to do" in the 
present and past tenses. 

(a) Kore wa A san ni This was presented by 

tnorai {—itadaki) Mr. A. 
tnashita. 

(=rKore wa A san 
ga kure mashitd.) 

WvXsw moral {-.ita- How many have you 
daki) mashita (ka). re'ceived? 

Maitsuki gekkyu wo I receive s salary 
itadaki {:r:morai) every montli. 
masu. 

(b) Watakushi ga yuke As I was not able io 

tnasen kara, A san go, I got Mr. A to 
\\\ itte t/iorai { — ita- go. 
daki) mashita. 

Kono tsukiie wa B Thi«> desk is the one 

saa ni katte morai (that) which I got 

{z=zitadakt) mashita Mr. B to buy. 
nodesn. 



( 72 ) 



Nibongo no tegami I always get Mr. B to 

wa watakushi ni wa read Japanese iet- 

yome Jii?sen k?.r?i, tors for me, S4 I 

itsumo B san ni yon- can't read. 
de tuorai [--iiadaki) 
masu. 

(II) " To ask or request otJurs to give or to do 
something" in tlie future tense. 

A san ni mo hitotsu wc- I shall ask Mr. A to 

rai i^ = itadaki) mas/id. give me one more. 

Kanjo wa myonichi o- I request you to settle 

laku de itadaki i^~-mj ■ the account when 

rat) masho. I come to your 
house to-morrow. 

Ano hito ni katte inorai I will (or let us) ask 



{^ = itadaki) masho. 

By request. 

Yonde moral mashita. 
I got him to read it. 

Kaite moral mashita. 
I got him to write it. 



him to buy it (for 

me or us). 

Voluntarily. 

Yonde kure niashxtr.^ 
He read it for me. 

Kalle kute masJifia.. 
He wrote it for me. 



"Age/' "Yari" or " Tsukawashi." 

These words mean the same thing, and 



" age " is polite form, " Tsukawashi " '^ sel ! 
dom used lately. They mean : — 

(I) " To give i^ when used as a verb. 

Kore wo anata ni age ma- I shall give you ihis. 

iho. j 

Gejo ni kyiikin wo yon Have you given the ! 

mas/ii^it'ksi (not, Age salary to the maid j 

mashiia ka)„ already? '\ 

Sore wo A san ni agefi Please send that to \ 

kudasau Mr. A. j 

(II) « To do something for or to others,^* when 
used as an auxiliary. I 

Kono kasa wo A san ni I shall lend this um j 

kashite age masho. brella to Mr. A. i 

Nochihodo okutle age ma- I shall send it to you i 

shd. after a while. ; 

Ano hito wo B san ni I will introduce him ! 

shyokai shite yari ma- to Mr. B. j 

sKo. 
Katte age masko. I shall buy it foi 

you. I 

" Sashi age " is the mon respectful form of 
"ao'e?" and " age " is used almost always in 

the second person. ^ 



C 74 ) ^ 

The general rule for distinction of tKe three 
diflerent expressions of the sakiie action : — 

Shite kure masu others do for one. 

„ morai „ one gets others to do. 

M age or yari „....one does for others. 



-:o 



"Nari masen" or "Ike masen." 

" N&ri mlsen " or " ike masen " are h<.- 

Kiliaries, denoting' negative obligation, equiva?,- 
cnt *o " mus^ ;/^A" 

Dare ni mo shirasele vva You must let nobody 
z'^e 77iasen ( =: nari ma- know it. 
sen). 

Uso wo tsuite wa ike One (or you) must 
f7iasen (^ — nari })iase)i). not tell a lie. 

Mite wa ike {zsznari) ma- You must not see it, 

SCtl. 

Shojiki ni hataraki ma- You must work 

sen de wa ike [-itari) honestly. 

f/msen. 

Mochiron, mi nakereba Of course, you mKSt 

(^mi naku te wa) ike see it. 

{=nari) masen. 



( 75 ) 

Watakushi wa toir.odachi I must go to Voko- 

to Yokohama made hama with a friend 

yuka nakereba nari of mine. 
{ike) masen. 

" Gozai masu." 

'Gozaimasu" is fhe poUie form of **an • 
masu " or " /c ^eJ^ j 

NJ.hongo wa yohodo mu- The Japanese Ian- ; 

ts'ikashu gozai masu guage is very dif- 

((=mutsu k^shii desu). ficult. 

Anata no go-shobai wa Of what trade arc ' 

nan (=^nani) dA gozai you? '; 

nuiiu (=rdesu) ka. !; 

Watakushi wa kiito sho I am a silk mer- i 

de^^^z z?z^5?^(— desu). chant. i 

ii 
Sayo de gozai masu ka. Are you ? '! 

(=S5 desu ka.) \ 

Kyo wa taihen samu go- It is very cold t^ j 

^e: masu (=:samui de- day. \ 

su> : 

The use of "Hai" and "liye,** 

Although « hai " and " iiye " exactly mean 
"^« " and «' //ty ' in IdjIsd, ytt the principle 



( 76 ) 

on which they are used is quite different from 
that on which ^^yes " and " jio " are used, 
*' Hai " indicates agreement to the question 
asked, without concern whether the answer if 
made in the negative form, or the positive one> 
while by " liye " the opposite idea to the que^ 
tion asked is expressed, without concern whether 
the answer may be given in negative or positive 
form. 

Anata walgirisu-jin desu Are you an Enghsh- 

ka. man ? 

IJai, Igirisu-jin desu. Yes, I'm an English 

man. 
lije, Igirisu-jin de wa ari No, I'm not an Eng 

mason. lishman. 

Anata wa gakko ni mairi Don't you go tc 

masen ka. school ? 

//(?/. Mairi masen. JVo. I do not. 

Jiye. Mairi masu. yes. 1 go. 

Ajiata wa gaikoku-jin de Are you not a for 

wa ari inasen ka. eigner ? 

I/ai. Gaikoku-jin de wi^ I'.o. I'm not • ibr- 

ari masen. eigner. 

liye. Gaikoku-jin desu. Yes. I'm a foreiga- 

er. 
K^aze wa fuite ori masen The wind is cot 

ne. blowing. Is it ? 



C 77 ) 

Hai, fuite ori masen. No. It is not. 

liye, fuite ori masu. Yes. It is blowing. 

Kore wa ichi yen desu Does this cost one 

ka. 3'en ? 

Hai. Iclii yen desu. Yes. It costs one yen. 

liye. Ichi yen de wa No. Not one yen 

ari masen, ni yen de- but two yen. 

su. 

The exceptional use of " liye.^^ 

It may be used in order especially to empha- 
size negative expressions, without relation to the 
form of the questions asked, in just the same 
way as the English " no." 

Oide ni nari masen ka. Won't you go ? 

liye, konnicb.i wa mairi No, I'll not go to- 

masumai. day. 

Anata wa are wo mima- You saw that, didn't 

shita (-go-ran nasal you? 

mashita) desho. 

liye, mi masen desliita. No. I didn't. 

A san wa yoko v.'o nasai Hasn't Mr. A been 

mashita (^massutta) abroad? 

koto ga gozai masen 

deshita desho ka. 

liye, mada ichido mo ari No, he has ncTer 

masen. been yet 



Ame ga futte \va ori mS' Isn't raining now ? 

sen ka. 

lij'f, chittomo futte W4 No, not at ail; but 

ori masen; hoshi ga stars instead of 

fiiri so desu. rain ! 

Watakushi ga itte (yuki May 1 not go there ? 

mashite) wa ike niasu- 

mai ka. 

/(v^, it'ye, anata ga itte wa No, no, you can't 

komari masu ; anata go away: I wani 

wa koko ni ite, o-tetsu- you to be here and 

dai nasutte kudasai. help me. 



Chapter ¥.~Postpcsitions and 
Conjunctives. 

"Mo." 

" Mo " i^ ^'sed in the sense of " both <s«^,*» 

" (7gYim" or ^^ neither noVy^ after nouns, 

pronouns or jihrases which an connected by it. 

( a ) In the sense of «' both «>:</:" — 

Ilito mo s-jru nio dobu- Both a man and a mon- 
tsu desu. key are animals. 



(j;9 J 

Watakush' Wci-. tokusho J am very fond of both 

mo danwa rm dai-suVi -eading and talking. 

desu, 

Oba san wa anata mo Aunt invited both you 

watakushi mo maneki and me. 

mashita. 

Ano hito wa eigo wo He can both read and 

yomu koto mo kaku write in English. 

koto mo deki masu. 

( b ) In the sense of " neither nor'P — 

Niku mo sakana mo ki- I am fond of neithei 

rai desu. meat nor fish. 

Ano hito wa yomu koto He can neither read 

mo kaku koto mo deki nor write. 

masen. 

Watakushi wa ano hito I neither fear nor 

wo osore mo anadori despise him. 

mo shi masen. 

( c ) In the sense if " again :''— 

Ashita mo ame ga fmi It will rain again 

masho. to-morrow. 

A san ga kyo rro ki m*- Mn A came again to- 

shita. day. 

Ano hito tachi wa tsugi Tiiey will attend 

no kwai ni mo shusseki again at the next 

«hi masho. nieelioc^. 



( go ) 

' To/' 

(T) "To" is used in the sense of <' and** on 

" lo^ethcr with^^ betv/een nouns or pronouns :— . 

1'e to ashi to atama to I feel pain in my 

ga ilami masu. hands, feet, and 
head. 

Watakushi \7a Doitsuy;o I have studied German 

to Nihongo to wo na- and J;ipanese» 
rai mashita. 

Anata to oji to oba to Let us four, you and 

watakushi to yonin uncle and aunt and 

de mairi masho. I, go all together. 

W atakushi to sampo wo Won't you take a walk 

shi masen ka. with me ? 

(II) "To" is used to introduce qiiotatiom 

tiiher direct or indirect : - 

A san wa kyo xi niasu Mr. A said that he 

^^ ii mashita. would come to-day. 

A san wa " kilto ashita Mr- A said, " I'll go 

yuki masu " to ii ma- to-morrow any 

shita. way." 

f^hon no sakura no It is said tliat the 

hanai wa taihen kirei flowers of the Japa- 

desu to mrjslii masu. nese cherry are very 
beautiful. 



Watakushi no sensei wa My teacher is named 

A fo moshi masu. A. 
(" Moshi masu " is the />o/ife form of " ii niasuP^ 

Senso ga hajimari ma- I am told that the 

shita to kiki mashita. war has begun. 

Watakushi wa anata wo I thought you were 

isha da (=desu) to a physician. 

omoi mashita. 

Special uses : — 

To compare with : — 

Anata no boshi to wata- Compare your hat 

kushi no to kurabete with mine. 

goran nasai. 

Or:— 

Kohii to cha to dochir? Which do you pref© 

ga yoroshii desu ka. coffee or tea ? 

For:-^ 

B san to A sau to machi- I mistook Mr. A foi 

gaye mashita. Mr. B. 

Into or phis : — 

Nanatsu to yattsu de ju Seven plus eight 

go ni nari masu. makes fifteen. 

— «-« o : 

"To" and "Ba.** 

Both ..." .0" and ..."ba" are used as cot 



__i^l 

loquial subordinate conjunctives equivalent to 
"?/" sind connect a dependent clause with a 
principal one (or clause). And the verb follow- 
ed by " /(? " must be conjugated so as to end in 
the "«" sound unless it takes " masti" while i 
that followed by ' 3t7 " must end in the "#" ? 
sound or must take " ?naui-re,^^ \ 

\ 
Ame ga furi 7nasu to (= If it rains, I'll not go 

iMxe-ha or fur« td)^ wa- | 

t 
takushi wa mairi ma- I 



Sono kusuri wo nomi If you take tha< I 

mane to {j=^'wox\\e-l'a or medicine, you i^il] .• 

t 

xiovciu to), sugu naori soon recover. t 

masu. I 

Kane ga ari niasu to ( - If I had money, I 1 

ZTe-t>a or zrii-to) kai should buy it, |i 

masj. 'ij 

1 

Tho Conjugation of a verb in con- j 

nection v/ith "to" and " ba." i 

A £an ni Wk^-ba (or ki- If you ask Mr. A, he 
V.u-to)t jiki wakari will tell you (or 
naasu. explain it for you). 



oi- 



( S3 ) 



c 




c 




(3 


c 






o 




5 








U2 




tn 








•« 












CJ 




a 




a. 




p. 




&■ 


r^N 


t:* 


A 


ni: 


a 


'O 


2 -Ti 




6 


;^ 


o 


i-, 


o »- 


ro 


s 


en 


cfi 


fO 


^ fO 


fe 


R 


O 


^ 

s. 


o 


Ro 


-d 


^_, 


-d 


J_, 


-o 


4-. 'd 


fl 


•Jl 


c 


tn 


c 


t/1 fl 


« 




cs 


rH 


N 


-1 C^ 



1 i 
^ . 

13 a. 



( 84 ) 



, 




^ 




c5 


d 






w 




o 


o 








I/) 


•ji 


s 














OJ 




<u 


<u 


Ph 




d. 




PU 


^ 


d 'U 


fi 


t3 


fl 


■■a 


C tS 


It 






o 


t, 


O V- 


1 


O 


^1 

S3 


CO 


tn CO 

to 


IT '^ 


j_, 


TD 




-a 


+j tj 


"K c 


tn 


c 


Vi 


c 


1/2 ff 


i2 M 


•^ 


N 


■^ 


N 


M f,J 



-! 



5; .V 



fT TO 



'3 S •- ^ 



-5 



C 55 9 
^.^, , 

" To " and " ba " are used with a verb in llie j 

present tense exclusively. , 

'"Ba" or .o/'e-ta" aie the shcrfened forms j 

of " naraha " which, of couise, may ,^e used in i 

stead of them, as : — ] 

Yuke-^^r:L.yuki masu naraba or yuVu naraha. 

Yome-^az=yomi masu naraba or yomu naraha. \ 

"Naraba." i 

"Naraba" is a subordinate conjunction 

which is used with verbs in the subjunctive | 

mood. And, as shown in the preceeding sec- ! 

tion, it is generally used in a shortened form :-•• \ 

*' masu-reba^^ instead of «* nuisu naraha " for the j 

present tense, and " mashita-ra {ha) in sttad of " 

«' mashita naraba " for the past tense. j 

1 

Examples : — j 

Freseni tense. ] 

Sugu o-okuri nasai viastt If you send it at oncc^ \ 
reba mani ai masho. it will be m dn« 

time. j 

Hitom.'i mi (m^'.^tt) reba. If I cast a §Unce on j 

sugu wakari masu. it, I car ^d out ' 
what it is. 
Ame ga furi '.nasureb^* If it r&ios, I shall not 
agari masen. come to see you. 



_ ( 8Q ) 

Fasi tense. 

Chichi ga kiki maihiia-ra If lather heard of 
{bd) sazo yoTokobi ma- that, he would be 
sho. very glad. 

A. sail ni ai mashila-ra (l>a) If I meet Mr. A, I 
so moshi masho, shall tell h'.ni so. 

B san ga ki ma%hita-i'a If Mr. B come here, 
{pa), shirasete kudasai. please let me 

know. 

In a subjunctive dependent clause, which is 
connected by " naraba^ with a principal clause, 
" desu " may be omitted, and '< naraba " co7nes 
immediately after a comJ>lement. 

Examples: — 

Amerika-jin naraba [desu If he were an Ameir- 

narabd), Eigo wo ha- ican, he could 

naseru hazu desu. speak English. 

Anala ga go-shochi ;?rt;;vi- It you consent to 

ba {desu naraba) wata- that, I iiave no 

kushi wa izon w« an objection, 
masen. 

Sliiro nara'<n{desu tiara- If it were a white one, 

^7) ichi yen go jissen it would cost one 

desu. yen and tifty sen. 



( 87 ) 



'^Kereba/' 

After an adjective compliment and with a verb 
in the negative form, •'ktrel)9'" ^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
stead of " naraba.^* 



Adjective comp. 

Aka kereba=-\{ it be 

red. 

Kashiko kereba—\i... 
* 
...be wise. 

Mazushi kereba—\i 

be poor. 
Utsukushi keteba = If . . . 

...be beautiful. 



Noun comp. \ 

Aka tiaraba-\i it be a j 

red one. j 

Rik5 naraha~\i be 

a wise man. 

Bimbo naniba~li i 

I 

be a poor man. I 

YJ\xt\v.araba--=.\i be i 

a beautiful one. 



Such a form as " akai namba^'' " kashikoi 
naraba, " " maztishii tiarnba " is grammatically 
correct, but does not sound well, aud " kcreba" 



Negativi vero. \ Po^iiive verh, 

\'\ikn-na-kereba (:^:Yu-[ Yuk^-^a (=Yuki masit 

ki masen naraba) -- If | naraba) — If go. 

do not go. I 



C S8 ) 



M\'na',kereda (=Mi f/ia- 

Sin t2araba)—\i 

do not see. 

^\\\xa-na-kereba (=:Shi. 
ri masen naraba) — \i 
......do not know. 



\Y\-feba (=;Mi mam 
narabd)—\i see. 

^\\\re-ba ( = Shiri masu 

naraba) — If 

know. 



Either " kereha^'' « naraba^^ or " to " may be 
used with the negative form of the auxiHary 
** masii^^ or " masen." 



"Keredomo" or "ga." 



" KeredomO " or "ga" is a conjunctive 
equivalent to '■'■butf ''zvhi/e." 

Ano hito wa yuki ma- He went, but I remain- 

suvta gii (^=:.keredo- td. 

mo], watakushi wa 

todomari mashita. 
Tanomare mashita ^a I was reouested, but 1 

[=keredomo), koto- refused. 

wari mashita. 
Kore wa chusai dcsu This is small, but very 

ga ^ -knrdumo), tai- heavy. 

hen omul desu. 



B san wa erai gakusha Mr. B is a great scho- 

desu ga {—keredomd), lar, but his character 

jinbutsu wa yoku ari is not noble, 
masen. 

Watakushi wa kesa A I called on Mr. A this 

san no iye ni yuki ma- morning, but he 

shita^a [-.keredomo), was not at home, 
rusu deshita. 

Ano hito wa Shina-go I am studying Japan- 

wo benkyo shite ori ese, while he is 

Tc\a5VLga{= keredomo), studying Chinese. 

watakushi wa Nihon- 

go wo nianande ori 

raasu. 

•: o : 

"Ga." 

"Ga" is used as « conJundi've,mUo^nc\r\9^A 
statement to another which is in some relation 
with it. 
Asuko ni dare ka ori There is some one; 

masu gcu, uare desu who is he ? 

(ka). 
A.no hito wa kodomo He has eight childreuj 

wo hachi-nin motte v;ho are all boys. 

ori masu ga; mina 

otoko no ko desu. 



( 90 ) 



Kono mise ni omoshi- There are many in- 

roi hon ga takusan ari teresling books in 

masu ^a, issatsu kai this store; won't 

masen ka. you buy some (one")? 

VTokohama ni iye wo ik- I have a house at 

ken motte ori masu Yokohama, which 

ga, uro (uri masho) to I am intending to 

omotte ori masu. sell. 

(" Ga " Ji^ay be used in ♦he sense of " though " 
or " in spite of.'" See pp. 88.) 

"Ka." 

" Ka " is a conjunctive, equivalent to " either 

.,..,.or," " whether <?r." 

Kore ka are {/ca) wo kai I'll buy either this or 

masho. that. 

Nikko ka Hakone ka Let us go either to 

ye yuki masho. Nikk5 or Hakone. 

Vuki masu ka yuki ma- I don'L know whether 

sen lii wakari masen. 1 shall (he will) go 
or not. 

" Nari." 

" Nari " ^^y ^^ used instead of <' ia " in the 
same meaning. 



( 91 ) 



Chichi nari watakushi Please tell either mv 

naririx hanashite ku- father or me. 
dasai. 

V'uku nari yameru nari I shall decide w he- 
ban made ni kimete ther I'll go or not, 
oki masho. before evening. 



i'a. 



"Ya" is a conjunctive, connecting nouns, 
pronouns, or noun clauses or phrases, and which 
means ^^ those ^y " or *^ such as," or 



Watalushi wa sake ya I have no pleasrure in 
tabako wa nomi nia- such a thing as 
sen. sake or tobacco. 

(Compare to : — Watakushi wa sake ;;w tabako 
mo nomi masen.-I neitlier smoke nor drink.) 

James ;j'a John wa mada Are James, John (and 
ki musen ks. others) net here 

yet? 

James to John to wa James and John are 
koko ni ori masu era, here, but neither 
Frank ya William wa Frank nor William 
rii.ida or' masen. are here ycr. 



Sakura no hana wa ume The cherry blossoms 
ya kiku yori yohodo are much more 
hadeyaka desu. showy than the 

plum and the 
chrysanthemum. 
Hon wo yomu koto ya Such work as read- 
tegami wo kaku koto ing books or writ- 
wa raku desu ga rodo ing letters is ratherl 
wa tamari masen. easy, but physica- 

labour is intoler- 
able. 



»' Da no." 

" J)a no " may be used instead of **}ia.** 

Watakushi wa A san (/a- I am going to Nikkd 

no (-j'«), B san c/ano with Messrs. A, B, 

(=j'rt'), C san (/a)7o (= C, etc 
jya) to Nikko ye mairi 

niasu. 

Koko ni akai no dano Here are p^^n of 

(==;yz), kuroi no cfa/io various ^A)k>urs ; 

(=)'n), kiiroi no dano \t\\ hl-AO^^. y«>io\Y, 

{ — fa) iro-iro no kami etc. 

ga an masu. 



( 93 ) 



.**Tari^' and "Dari." 



*' Tari " is a conjunctive which connects 
verbs only, " Dari " being used for it when tlie 
preceding verb ends in n sound. 

Shonin wa vXtari (=uri Merchants earn money 

mashi^ar/), \<zS.tari by buying and sell- 

(=kai maslii/arz), ing. 
shite (=shi mashite) 
kane wo moke masu. 

Kisha ni noitari (=no- We (or I) have been 

ri mashi/an), fune ni on a journey for ten 

noiforl shite, toka days, sometimes by 

kwan tabi wo shi ma- train and at others 

shita. by steamer. 

Tegami wo "kaxiari I have spent half a 

(=kaki mashi/(.r/) day in writmg 

shimbun wo yoxidari letters, readmg 

(=yomi mashi/^n) news-papers, etc. 
SjHite nan nic&i tsui- 
'^(yjai mashita. 

'ih^Augzxi lEashite ton- He (or she or they) is 

Jafi, han^fari shite leaping and jump- 

ori masu. ing with joy. 



^ ( 94 ) 

Hyaxusno wo shi^ari You must be busy, 
(^=snimasni/^n'j, sh5- with trading on 
bai wo sh'i far i 
isogasnii desho. 



o- 


the one 


hand 


and 




farming 


on 


the 




other. 






— : o :— 


— 






"No." 









The other uses of " nO-" 

(I) "iVu" is used between two noum^ to 
denote the following relations : — 

( a ) That, speaking of inanimate things, ont 
is a part of tJie other of belongs to the other. 

Tsukue no ashi=the legs of a table ; 
kono iye no yane=the roof of this house j 
kuni no horitsu=the law of a country ; 
s^kura no hana=the cherry flower. 

{\fj That one is tJie attribute of the other. 

Kuni no hirosa:=the size of a country ; 
ashi no nagasa=the length of the legs ; 
hana no iro=the colour of the flower ; 
iaaka nc^ keshiki=the scener>^ of ^ht coun- 
try. 

( c ) That one is the material of enJiich the 
%ther is made. 



( 9S ) 

Kin no yubiwa=a gold ring; ishi fio ti^s^' 
=a stone bridge ; renga no iye=a br'-e',- 
building. 

(d) T/ia^ one is in apposition with the other. 
Shijin no Milton=Mi]ton, the poet ; gejo no 

Hana=sHana, the maid ; itoko no Jack= 
Jack, my cousin. 

( e ) That, if proceeded by a geographical 
na'iie^ one is located in the other place, or is a 
thin^ descended from or produced there. 

Igirisu no London=London of England; 
Nihon no Inijisan=Mount Fuji of Japan ^ 
New York no koen:=the park in Nev^ 
York; Nagasaki no hitoj::ra Nagasaki 
man; Itarii no kinu — silk produced in 
Italy; Amerika no jitensha-a bicyrk 
made in America. 

(I I) " No " is used between a numerical err 
quantitative adjective ^nd a noun, to demU-' 
ifua-Uity or number. 

Go nin no otoko to futari no onnar-five 

men and two women ; sukoshi no midzu 

—a little water; takusan no fion = raany 

COOKS', t6 no ringo— ten apples; san laku 

no katana to san zun 7io fade - a sv.-oid of 

3 fei-t and a pen of 3 inches. 



(III) " A^<?" is used as a pronoun, preteeded 
by a pronoun, an adjective, or a verb. 

Doclura ga anata no de- Which is yours? 

su (ka). 

Kuro no ga watakushi The black one is 

no desu. mine. 

Kono tegami wa ano This letter is that 

hito ga kaki mashita which (the one 

no desu. that) he wrote. 

Watakushi no wa anata Mine is cheaper than 

no yori yasui desu. yours. 

(IV) " No " is used to denote Intention or 
Attempt after a verb in the present tense, al- 
viscysfoUowed by <* desu" 

W^atakushiwa imasampo I am going to take a 

ni yuki masu no desu. walk. 

Watakushi wa Nihon-go I am going to study 

wo narau no desu. Japanese. 

Nihon de shobai wo shi I am going to trade 

masu no desu. in Japan. 

Ano hito wa shorai seiji- He intends to become 

ka ni nari masu no a statesman in the 

dem, future. 

" No " is never used with qualifying adjeo 
lives, but " na " is used when needed. 



C 97 ? 

Kirei-«a hana (not, kirei no hana) - beauti- 
ful flower; OVi-na otoko to cliiisa-;;^ 
onna (not, oki no otoko to chiisa tio onna) 
■—A hig man and a short woman. 

The words connected by " no " are treated as 
a phrase. 

Examples : — 

Eikoku no seijika no Gladstone, the states- 

Gladstone ga shi ni man of England, 

mashita. died. 

Tsukue no ashi no The legs of the table 

nagasa wa san jaku are 3 feet long. 

ari masu. 

Kono iye no kabe no iro The colour of the wall 

wa shiroi desu. of this house is 
white. 

Ekaki no William ga William, the painter. 

taiso rippa-«rt (not has painted a verv 

no) e wo kaki mashi- fine picture. 

ta. 

Watakusbi wa bara no I like the fragrance of 

kaori mo sufnire no both the rose and 

kaori mo konomi the violet. 

masu. 



L2U ^....^.-^ 

The exceptional use of " No-" 

" No " ^'^^y ^^6 used as a notninatwt postposi- 

"lion after the subject of a clause, as : — 

Watakushi no {go) yomi The book which I 

mashita hon. read. 

Ano hito no {go) hana- What he told me (or 

shita (hanashi mashi- What he said). 

ta) koto. 

B san no {go) sumatte Where Mr. B lives. 

oru tokoro, 

Watakushi ;/<? (ga^ kiita The story wliich I 

(kiki mashita) hana- heard. 

shi. 

Watakushi jto (g^a) mita When I saw. 

(mi mashita) toki. 

Anata no (ga) kuru (ki We were waiting foi 

masu) no wo matte your coming. 

ori mashita. 

Kesa neko no {ga) totta The rat which the cat 

(tori mashita) nedzuini caueht this muin- 

wa okii no deshita. ing was a big one. 



"Ni." 

The other uses of " Ni." 



(I) " JVi'* is used to denote position or place. 

Dobutsu-en ni shishi ga There is a lion in the 

ori niasu. zoological garden. 

Hon wa tana ni ari ma- The books are on the 

su. shelf. 

(Watakushi no) Ani wa My elder brother is 

Osaka ni ori masu. in Osaka. 

Gamaguchi wa doko ni Where is the purse r 

ari masu (ka). 

Otottsan wa uchi ni ori Is your father at 

masu ka. home ? 

Isu no sliita ni neko ga There is a cat under 

ori masu. the chair. 

Tsukue no ue ni shimbun There is a news- 

ga ari masu. paper on the desk, 

Kawa no muko ni iye ga There is a house (or 

ari masu. are houses) beyond 
the riveto 

(Used instead of Oir in addition to th* preposi- 
tions « ;•«," « on;' " <5/," "/i?n" " ior) 

(II) " iW" is used to denote time, 

Sanji tii niairi masho. I (or we) shall go at 

3 o'clock. 
Vsugi no nichiyobi no go- The concert will be 



i loo ) 

go nl ongakkwai ga ari held on next Sun- 
masu. day afternoon. 

Kono natsu-yasumi ni What were you do- 
nan i wo nasai mashita ing during the 
(ka). last summer 

vacation? 
Kono byoin wa Meiji go This hospital was 
nen ni tachi mashita. established in the 

5th year of Meiji. 
Ju ni ku wa dame desho. It w^ould be no good 
in nine cases out 
of ten. 
Ichinen vi sando shiken We have examina- 
ga ari masu. tions three 

*imes a year. 

(Ill) " Ni " is used te denole purpose. 

Kono kami wa nani ni What is this papei 

mochii masu (ka). used for ? 

Tegami wo kaki masu It is used for writ- 

(kaku) no ni mochii ing letters on. 

masu. 

Anata wa nam wo mi ni What have yow 

ki masliita (ka). come to see here i 

Anata no uchi wo mi ni I have come to see 

ki mashit? your house. 



Nihon-go wo manabi masu What book is the 

(manabu) no m ichi ban best for studyin<^; 

yoi hon wa nan desu Japanese ? 

(ka). 

Asobi }?i yuki masu (yuku) It is late now to go 

ni wa osoi desho. out to play. Isn't 
it? 

(IV) Examples for special uses and practical 
hints : — 

(a) " iVi'" is used in connection with words 
expressing changes. 

Kodomo ga otona ni nari, A boy becomes a 

otona ga rojin ni nari man, and a man 

masu (naru). becomes an old 
man. 

James ga John ni kawari James took John's 

mashita. place. 

Tedzumashi wa midzu wo A juggler changes 

sake ni, garasu no kop- water to wiiie, 

pu wo kin no sara ni and a glass cup to 

kae masu, a gold plate. 

( b ) It is used sometimes for ^'fromJ- " bv " 

or " 7t/;V//," 

Kono tebukuro wa anata This gloves ,vere 
no ani san ni moral presented by your 
mashita. elder brother. 



( '02 ) 

A san ni Nihongo wo na- I am studyirtg Japa- 
ratte ori masu. nese with Mr. A. 

Sonna koto wo dare ni Whom have you 
kiki mashita (ka). heard such things 

from? 

( c ) It is used to denote direction, but in a 
sense different from that denoted by ^^ye." 

Higashi ni (not ye) yama A mountain stands 
ga ari, nishi rii kawa ga to the east and a 
nagarete ori masu. river runs to the 

west. 

Amerika ni yuki mashite, I intend to go to 
nogyo wo shi mash5 to America to en- 
omoi masu. gage in agricul- 

ture. 

Ano hito wa Doitsu ni He has gone to 
yuki mashita. Germany. 



"Ye." 

" Ye " is a postposition, denoting the direc- 
!;ion of an action, equivalent to « to,''* " into,''* or 
**/or*' in English. 

Dochira^'^ oide desu ka. Where are you go- 
ing to ? 



C '03 ) 

(Compare to :— Dochiia yii oide desu ka. = Where 
are you (Hying) ?) 

Wata'kushi no ucbi j^e Come to my house (oi 

oide nasaL home). 

(Compare to : — Watai.ushi no uchi ni oide nasai. 
= Come and stay with us; or Stay at my 
house.) 

Yokohama _j/<? mairi ma- I am going to Yoko- 
su. hama. 

A san wa Amerika j(f, B Mr. A left for America 
san wa Doitsu yg and Mr. B for Ger- 
tachi mashita. many. 

Ani wa myonichi inak^ My elder brother is 

yg mairi masu. going to the country 

to-morrow. 

(Compare to :— Natsu ni naruto maitoshi inaka 
m mairi masu,=I spend the summer in the 
country every year,) 

Nihon^^ kuru tochu de On the way to Japan, 

bofu ni ai mashita. we met a hurricane. 

Koen^rf itte asobi ma- Let us go to the park 

sho. and play. 

(Compare to :— Koen ni itte asonde ori masu.= 
They are (or he is) playing in the park; or 
They (he) went to the park and are (is) play- 
ing there.) 



('04) 

The distinction of the use of " i'<?" from that 
of ** ni " (the former denoting direction while 
the \?Ci\.^x position) has become very obscure and 
now-a-days both are often mixed up in practical 
conversation. 



"Kara" or "Yori." 



"Kara" or "yorL"is used both 

as a postposition, equivalent to '■'^fronty'' " since" 
and as a conjunctive adverb, " becausej^ *< on 
account of^'' etc. 

(I) With a noun or a pronoun denoting 
■place. 

Anata wa doko kara ki Where have you come 

mashita (ka). from ? 

Yokohama kam ki ma- I have come (or I am^ 

shit a. 
Amerika kara Nihon ni 

ki mashite (=:ki(e), 

Nihon kara Shina ye 

yuki raasu. 
Kono ana kara kaze ga Wind comes through 

ki masu. this hole. 

Koko kara Fuji ga mie Mount T'uji can be 

masu. seen from here. 



from Yokohama. 
1 have come from 
America and am 
going to China. 



{ I05 ; 



Saru mo ki Aara oclii A monkey may fall 

masu. from a tree. 

Ushiro iara ki masu Who is he, who comes 

hito wa dare desu behind me? 
(ka). 

^suko iara ima futari Two persons came out 

no hito ga dete yuki of that place and 

mashlta. went away. 

(II) IVz^n fioitns or pronouns denoting a per- 
ion. 

VVatakushi wa A san /-rt:- I have heard of that 

ra { — ni) kiki maslii- from Mr. A. 
ta. 

Kono tebukuro wa B san These gloves were 8 
kara (—ni) moral present from Mr- 
mash it a. B. 

Anata kara C san ni shi- Will you please notify 

rasete kudasai. Mr C of that? 

Ano hito wa kodomo no He has been deligent 

toki karn kimbe^ de- from his child- 

shita. hood. 

Wstakushi wa ilsutsu I have bved in Tokyo 

^:^go-sai) kara Toky5 since the 5th year 

ni ori masu. of my age (or my 
fifth year> 



( 105 ) 

(III) lVi//i a noun or pronoun denoting 
time. 

Itsu kara anata wa Ni- How long (or From 

hon i*^ oide desu (ka). what time) have 

you been in Japan ? 

Go-nen mae (zen) kara For 5 years (or From 

(or Go-nen kwan). 5 years ago). 

Hakurankwai wa shi ga- The Exhibition will 

tsu no ichi nichi kara commence on the 

hajimari masu. 1st of April. 

Anata ni ai mashite (= Ten years have pass- 

atte) kara junen ni ed since we met 

nari masu. with you last. 

Kore kara sake wo yame I'll stop drinking 

masu. from now. 

Watakushi wa mainichi I begin (or start) my 

hachiji kara shigoto work at 8 o'clock 

wo hajime masu. every morning. 

(IV) With a noun or a pronoun denoting 
things. (Used in the same way and same sense 
with <* </<?." See pp. no.) 

" Kara>" when it comes after a verb, is used 
as a conjunctive which connects an adverbial 
clause denoting cause, or that denoting a period 
of time, with the principal sentence. In the 
former case, the preceedmg verb always ends in 
«*«," taking the conjugatiou of *'»»^j«,** while, 



(J07J 

in the latter case, it always ends in " /^ " (oi 

Ame ga. furt masu (/u- As it rains, you had 

ru) kara, kasa wo o- better take the um 

mochi nasai. brella. 

Byoki ni nari mashite Since I fell ill, I have 

{^ — natte) kara, Ni- given up the study 

hon-go no benkyo wo of Japanese, 
yame mashita. 

Kotoba ga wakari wa- As I can not under- 

sen kara makoto ni stand the language, 

fujiyu desu. I suffer much incon- 
venience. 

Tabi-tabi Nihon ni ki As I have visited 

mashita kara, Nihon Japan several times 

no fuzoku shukwan before, I feel quite 

ni tsujite ori masu. at home with the 

Japanese customs 

and manners. 

Hajimete Nihon ni ki Since I first visited 

maihite (^- kite) kara, Japan, this is my 

kondo de go-tabi-rae 5 th visit. 
desu. 

iVme ga furi mashite Since the last ram, it 

(^—futte) kara taiso has become very 

atataka ni nari ma- warm, 
shita. 



( 108) 



" Made." 

" Made " is used to denote the tinal point of 
a liniifed diilance of place, of a limited duration 
vf iime^ or of a limited amount of works and 

i flings, ' 

\l) Sendatte wa doko How far did you go 
viade oide deshi- the other day ? 
ta (ka). 

Nikko made mairi I (or we) went to 



Nikko. 
It takes me half an 
hour by foot from 
here to Shimbashi, 



mash it a. 
Koko kara Shimba- 

slii made aruki 

mashite(=:aruite) 

sanjippun kakari 

masu- 
Tokyo kara Yoko- It is twenty miles 

hama 7?iade niju from Tokyo to 



Yokoliama. 
fhis line extends to 
Yokosuka. 



mau-u an masu. 
Kono senro wa "Vo- 

kosuka viade itte 

on masu. 
Yukeru (- yuku ko- Let us go as far as we 

to ga deki masu) can. 

tokoro made yuki 

masho. 



r »09 ) 

(2) Itsu made Nihon ni How long will you ; 

oide desu (ka). stay in Japan ? 

Rai-nen no go gatsu I am intending to stay 

made on masu (= till next May. '•. 

pru) tsumori desu. ] 

Go-ji made anata I was (or we were) 

wo matte ori ma- waiting for you \ 

shita. until 5 o'clock. ■ 

Ima made ichido mo I (or we) have nevei | 

mi masen deshita. seen that (or them) : 

before, ■ 

Ima made ni sando I have seen that (or ; 

shika^ mi mashita them) only three I 

(^mita) koto wa times until now (up j 

ari masen. to this time). I 

(3) Doko made yomi How far have you i 

mashita (ka). read ? i 

Hajime kara shimai I (or we) have read \ 

made yon-\\n\Q.?^^\. from the begin- I 

^^' ning to the end. j 

Kono basha ni wa This carriage can not i 

roku nin made wa hold so many as 6 

nore masen. persons. ■ 

Kubu made deki Nine tenths of it has : 

mashita. been already done. \ 

* see the postposition for '' shika masen:* \ 



( "o) 

The uses of "De." 

(T) " De " is used to denote that the noun, 
pronoun or adjective followed by it is a. subjec- 
tive complement. 

Kore wa watakushi no This is my hat. 
bSshi de ari masu (— 
desu). 

Ichi ban takai no wa ano The tallest is he. 
hito de ari masu (— 
desu). 

In ordinary conversation, the shortened form 
'* deni " is used instead, as it sounds smoother. 
(See pp. 47.) 

(II) " De," when it comes after a noun or 
pronoun denoting place, shows that an action 
takes place there and consequently must be fol- 
lowed by a verb denoting actions. 

Anata wa doko de uraa- Where were you 

re mashita (ka). born ? 

Vol<ohama de umare I was born iu Yoko- 

mashita. hama. 

Sakujitsu watakushi wa I met Mr. A at. the 
suteishon de A san ni station yesterday, 
ai mashita. 



(j^2 

Daidokoro d^ neko ga The cat caught a rat 
nediumi wo tori ma- in the kitchen, 
shita. 

(Compare to : — Daidokoro ni kamado ga ari 
masu. -There is a kettle in the kitchen.) 

Koen de kineuhi wo mi I saw the monument 
mashita. in the park. 

(Compare to : — Koen m kinenhi g-\ tatte ori 
masu. ;= There stands a monument in the 
park.) 

" De " ^s distinguished from " ni>" ^s the 
former denotes the /Vz:i? of an action and the 
latter the position of an existence. 

(III) " De " is used to show the causes of an 
action or f ale of persons or things. 

Kono lye wa jishin de This house was des. 

koware mashita. troyed by an earth- 
quake. 

Anata wa go-j5bu de You are very fortunate 

kekko desu. in being healthy. 

Ginza wa ennichi de ni- The Ginza is Crowded 

giyaka desu. for the night fair. 

(IV) " De " is used to introduce instruments 
used. 

Kogatana de empitsu We sharpen a pencij 
wo kezuri masu, with a knife. 



Nihon-go de hanashi Let us talk in Japa 

masho. nese. 

Me de mi, raimi de kiki, We see with the eye, 

ashi ^(? ayumi masu. hear with the ear, 

and walk with the 
feet. 
Kisha de yuki masu ka, Are you going to take 

fune de yuki masu l<a. a train, or a steam- 
er? 
Kono te[;ami wa empi- Tliis letter is written 

tsu de kaite ari masu. with pencil. 

Ano tegami wa yubin ^'^f Was that letter sent 

yari mashita ka, tsu- by the post, or by 

kai de yari mashita a messenger ? 

ka. 

(V) " De " is used to introduce the mate rial 
used. 

Pan wa kona de tsukuri Bread is made oi 

masu. flour. 

Kona wa komugi de tsu- Flour is made oi 

knri masu. wheat. 

Kono tatemono wa ishi This building is can- 
to, tetsu to, ki to de structed (consists] 
dekite ori masu. of stone, iron, and 
wood. 



Go to san to Je hachi ni Five and thr«e make 
nari masu. eight. 

(VI) « De " Js used to denote /Aai things of 
I certain number or amcunt are limited to that 
number or amount. 
Watakushi wakore hito- This one will do for 

tsu de jubun desu. me (or I am satis- 

fied with this one 
only). 
Kono ringo wa hitotsu These apples cost 5 

de go sen desu. sen each. 

Watakushi wa go yen de I bought a pair of 

kutsu wo issoku kai shoes for 5 yen. 

mash it a. 
Mo* yo-uea de shiju ni I shall be forty years 

nari masu. old, after 4 years 

more. 
Kono shigoto wa isshu- This work will be 

kwan de owari masu. finished in a week. 



"Te" or "Mashite." 

(T) " Te " is used as a conjunctive, equlval- 
ent to " and^^ always preceeded by or connected 
to a verb irregularly conjugated. 

* see the postposition for " w5." 



C "4 ) 



-"-i-^.-^^* 



Kino Yokohama ni yuki Yesterday I went to 

mashitc {—iife), boshi Yokohama and 

wo kai mashita. bought a hat. 

Kox\o\\on^\o kai 7/10 s hi- I will buy this book 

/<? (— z^^//^) tomodachi and send it to my 

ni okuri masho. friend. 

Kino wa A san ga ki Mr. A came yesterday 

inashite {^—kite), kcsa and Mr. B came 

wa B san gaki mashi- this morning. 
ta. 

Kaze ga fuki mashl/e The wind blows and 

(=/«zV<f) hanagachiri the flowers are 

masu. scattered. 

Watakushi ga yomi ma'- I will read it and tell 

shite {-yotide) anata it to you (or I'll 

ni kikase masu. read it for you). 

Kono tsulsumi wa A san This package was 

ga istUsumi mashite wrapped by Mr. A 

{^■-fsu(swide), wataku- and tied (bound) 

shi gashil)ari mashita. by me. 

(11) "Te" or "mashite" is used, in the 
same form with the above, meaning "^/^r" in 
English. 

Shigoto wo shi mashite After we (or I) finish 



( "5 ) 



(z^shi^e) banmeshi wo 
tabe niasu. 

VVatakushi wa kane wo 
moke fnashiie (niokete) 
kuni ni kaeri masu. 

Ano hito wa gakko wo 
sotsugyo shi mashite 
{shi(e), sugu yoko wo 
shi mashita. 

lye ni ka^ri mashite (= 
kaette) ki ga tsuki ma- 
shita. 



the work, we (or ! 

I) shall take sup- ■ 

per. ; 

I shall make money I 

before I go home. l 

He went abroad soon i 

after he graduated \ 

from school. j 

j 

After I returned 
home, I noticed 

that. ■ 



"De-mo," "Te-mo." 



These particles are used either as conjunctives 

or as simple postpositions; " de-mO " comes 

afUr notins, verbs ending in " n" and adjectives 

except those ending in <' «," while "te- 

mo " comes after verbs not ending in " «," and 
adjectives ending in " uj* 



^ (J^_ 

masen) koto ga ed man can not 

takusan ari masu. understand. 

Icjii mon de-mo yz.- I can not give you (or 

re (=-=yari masu him, them) even a 

Icoto wa deki) ma- penny. 

sen. 

Inu de-7?w on wo Even a dog is grate- 

shitte ori masu. ful. 

( b ) " No choke " or *' no dljferetice .•" — 

Gyu-niku de-Jtio bu- I eat either benf oi 

ta-niku de-juo tabe pork, 
masu. 

Baka de-jno riko dc- Whether foolish oi 

vio, hito wa hito wise, a man is a 

desu. man. 

Kane-mochi de-mo Whether rich or poor, 

binbo-nin de-mo one must die at 

ichido wa shini last, 
masu. 
( c ) Expresses the feeling of secondary satis' 
faction : — 

l^ampu gahoshii de- 1 want a lamp, nut a 

8U ga, rosoku de- candle will do. (ii 

mo yoicshii desu. Uiere is no lamp> 

(llokani surn koto T.ct us read, (as there 



C "7 } 

ga arimasenkara), is nothing else to 

Hon de-mo yomi do). 

masho. 

Machido desu kara Let us take tea, as he 

cha de-mo norni (or they) seems 

masho. long in coming. 

Are naraba nao yo- That one would do ' 

roshii desu ga, ko- better, but this will 

re de-mo yoroshii do well enough, 
desu. 

(II) "De-mo'* or "te-mOj" with verbs, 
means " eii/ier ;'" " though /" <• even" 

Ano hito wa yonde-mc^ He makes no mis- 

kaiiV-w^, hanashi.V- takes in either 

mo, sukoshimo machi- reading, writing ot 

gae masen. speaking. 

Ame ga h\Ue-/fio, kaze I shall not cease from 

ga imie-??io, watakushi work though it is 

wa yasumi masen. windy or ramy. 

Kusuri wo nonde-nio na- Though I took the 

ori masen. medicine, I have 
not recovered. 

Uchi ni kaet/^-wo yo (or May I go home ? 
yoroshu) gozai Liiasu 
ka. 



Hai, ^2itUe-mo yoroshu Yes, you may. 

(or yo) gozai masu, 

By5ki ni nzXii-mo, ano Though he got ill, yet 

hito wa kusuri wo he takes no medi- 

nomi masen. cine. 

Anata wa \iie-?no ikan- You may go or not. 

de-mo yoi no desu. (do as you choose). 

(Ill) "De-mo" or "te-mo," with adjec- 
tives, means '■'■though;'''' '■'however;''^ *^ whe- 
ther ;^^ *' whatever^ 

Kono isu wa takaku te- I bought this* chair as 

mo (or takaku to-md) it is strong though 

j5bu deiiu kara kai dear. 

mashila. 

Ano hana wa ima wa Although that flower 

kireifl'if-w^ (kirei de is fine now, it will 

ari mashi/^-wc?) jiki soon be ugly. 

kitanaku nari masu. 

Hosoi no dc-mo futoi no Give me a rope, ei- 

de-vio yoroshii desu ther thick or thin. 

kara himo wo kuda- 

sai. 

Oroka de-7no shojiki na- If he is honest, 

raba yatoi masu. though dull, I'll 
employ him. 



( "9) 

Kono kogatana wa chii- This knife is very 

saku te-mo (or to-mo) sharp, though it is 

yoku kire masu. small. 

Sono himo ga donna iii However long it may 

nagaku te-mo (or to- be, that rope can 

vio) soko ni wa todoki not reach the hot- 

masen. torn. 

So de-mo ari masen. It is not so either. 

Yoku te-vio waruku te- Whether it may be 

mo, yaranakereba ike good or bad, I must 

masen. do that any way. 

(IV) "Le-mo" or "te-mO>" with inter- 
rogative pronouns, or adjectives, means " any ;" 

^* every" ^^ whatever f ^^ whosoever \^^ ^^ which' 
ever;" "whenever;" etc. 

Dare de-mo so ii masu. Everybody says so. 

Dare de-mo suki na hito I'll give it to any one 

ni age masho. who likes it. 

Ano hito wa nan de-mo He knows every (any) 

shitte ori masu. thing. 

Kono uchi dore demo Take whichever you 

otori nasai. like among these. 

Itsu de-mo go-tsugo no Whenever you find it 

yoi loki ni kite knda- convenient, please 

iaS. come again. 



( 120 ) 

Dochira ^(f //;<? yasui h5 T shall buy whichevei 

wo kai masho. is cheaper. 

Nan de-mo anata no I shall do whatever 

meidzuru koto ni wa you command me. 

shitagai masu. 

Dare de-mo benky5 wo Any one who studies 

sureba (=shi masu hard will be a 

naraba) itsuka gaku- scholar some day or 

sha ni nare (=rnari other. 

masu koto ga deki) 

masu. 



« Mo." 

" Mo " has three different meanings according 
to the cases in which it is used. 

(I) " Mo " means " ahoutp when it modifies 
a verb in the present tense. 

Mo kisha ga de masu Buy your tickets, as 

kara, kippu wo o kai the train is about to 

nasai. start. 

Ano hito wa mi^ kaette lie ought to be back 

kuru(— ki masu) ha- about now. 

zu desu. 

Mo hi ga kure masu ka> Let us hurry back 



( ^21 ) 

ra, hayaku kaeri ma- home, as it is about 

sho, growing dark. 

Kono inu wa mo shini This dog is about 

rr.asu. dying. 

(II) " Mo " means '* already^ when it modi- 
fies a verb in the past tense. 

i^i^kishaga de mashita. The train has already 

started. 
Anata wa mo kyo no Have you read the to- 
shimban wo yomi day's news-paper 
mashita ka. already? 

Hai, mo yomi mashita. ' Yes, I have read it al- 
ready. 

Ano hito wa nio uclii ni He has gone home 
kaeri mashita. already. 

(III) " Mo " rneans " more" when it modi- 
fies a numerical adjectives. 

Lid futsuka de deki aga- It will be completed 
ri masu. after two days. 

Kore wo owari masu ni It will require 3 hours 
wa 7710 san-ji-kwan ka- more to finish this. 
Icari masu. 

Kami wo mo ichimai Please give me a 
kudasai. piece more of paper. 



C «2 ) 



Doka mo ichinichi mat- 
te kudasai. 

Mo iri masen. 

Mo yuki masen. 

Mo yami masho. 

Mo o-matase moshi ma- 
sen. 

Koko ni kuju go yen ari 
masu kava, nui go yen 
de chodo hyaku yen 
dcsu. 



Please wait a day 

more. 
It is needed no more. 
I will go no more. 
It will last no longer. 
I'll not keep you 

waiting any longer. 
Here are 95 yen ; so 5 

yen more will make 

just a hundred. 



" Amari.** 

" Amari " is an adverb equivalent to " too!^ 
" very.^'' 

|I) Kore de wa amari This is too big. 

okii desu. 
Ano boshi wa amari That hat is too small. 

chiisai desu. 
Kono kwashi wa a* I don't like this cake ; 

mari amai kara, it is too sweet. 

watakushi wa ko- 

nomi masen. 
Sutobu ni amari ta- Don't (or You must 



("3 } 

kusan sekitan wo not) put too much 
ire te wa ilce ma- coal in the stove, 
sen yo. 

An adverbial particle <' sugi " may be used, in* 
Ucad of " amari^^ after adjectives or verbs. 

Kore wa naga sugi This is too long. 

masu ^'==Kore wa 

amari nagai desu). 
Omo sugi ( -- amari It is too heavy to car- 

omoku) te, mote ry (or to keep in 

masen. hand). 

Ano hito wa hata- He works too hard. 

raki sugi masu. (= 

Ano hito wa anta- 

rehataraki masu). 
Anata wa kodomo You are too kind to 

wo kaaigari stigi the children. 

masu (=Amari 

kaaigari masu). 

(Both " atnari" and " sugi^^ may be used to- 
gether in the same meaning ; one before and the 
other after adjectives or verbs-) 

(II) Kore wa amari ki- I bought this as it ia 
rei desu kara, kai very beautiful. 
mashita. 



Aniari yuki taku mo I am not so much in- 

ari masen. clined to go. 

Aniari home ta koto It is not such a praise- 

de wa ari masen. worthy thing. 

Amari yoi tenki de- A very fine day it is; 

su kara, sampo ni let us take a walk. 

yuki masho. 

A san ni wa kono go- I have seldom seen 

ro amari ai ma- Mr. A lately. 

sen. 

" No ni." 

(I) " No ni " is a colloquial conjunctive, 

equivalent to " altlwugh^^ " since " or " aj." 

A san wa san-ji ni kuru Although Mr. A said 

(--.ki masu) to ii ma- he would come at 3 

sliita no ni, mada ki o'clock, he has not 

masen. come yet. 

Ano hito wa kaiie mo- AUhough he is a rich 

chi da ( -desu) no ?ii man, he dislikes to 

kane wo dasu ( -da- spend money, 
shi masu) koto wo 



ki 



irai masu. 



(Compare to : — Kane ga aXiemo (-an mashi/^ 
mo)y tsukai masen. ^Though he has money, 
yet lie does not spend it.) 



Yuke (myuki nasai) to Why don't you go 
yu (—'n msLSv) no nt (away), since I told 
naze yuki masen (=: ^u to go ? 
yukanai) ka. 

Konna ni ozei oru no Although there are so 
ni, ano hito wa dare many people aasem- 
mo oranai (— ori ma- bled, he said nobody 
sen) to ii mashita. was there. 

Ano hito wa katta (= Although he bought 
kai mashita) no ni, it, he said he did 
kawanai (=-kai ma- not. 
sen) to ii mashita. 

(Compare to : — Ano hito wa "ksXtemo (=kai ma- 
Shi/^ 7Jio) kai masen lo ii (moshi) masu o: 
masho.j^He would tay he did not buy it, 
though he did in fact.'. 

Katta /?<? W2 kawan (= I really bouiiht it; I 
kawa nai) to wa ivva can not say I did 
re (— ii masu koto not. 
wa deki) masen. 



(11) " Uo ni" (or « no ni wa ;" •' ni wa") ^ 

may be used to introduce one^s opinion^ idea, or ' 
iiatement, meaning " acco?ding /o." 

Temmon-gakusha no A According to Mr. A, \ 

sau ga ii masu no ni. an astronomer, there I 



rai-nen wa nisshoiai will be a Solar ec- 
ga ari masu to. lipse next year. 

Shimbun ni kaite ari According to the news, 
masu no fit, senso wa papers, the wax is 
mo sunda ( = simii already ended. 
mashita) so desu. 

(Compare to : -Senso ga mo sunda to shimbun 
ni kaile ari masu.- It is written in the news 
paper that the war is already ended.) 

VVatakushi no omoi m,i- According to my judg' 
su no ni, kono shina ment, this article 
wa Amerika de Ivitlo will find a good 
yoku ure masu. market in America. 

Watakushi no shitte According to my know- 
oru no ni. ledge. 

Watakushi ga kiki ma- According to what I 
shita no ni. have heard (or In 

so far as I am in- 
structed). 

Oboete oru no nl. According to one's 

memory. 

Mil a ( — mi nmshita) no According to one's ob 
111, scrvat ion (or Among 

the things what on^ 
has seen). 



Li!Ii 

*No ni" and *'Ni va" 

Both " ni wa " and " no ni " "^^y be usea 
simply as postpositions, equivalent to "/ori" 
" fo'/* or " tH crder to " They mean : — 

(I) " For^' when they come after a noun or 
pronoun. 
Kono kutsutabi wa dare For whom have you 

no ni kai mashila ka. bought these stock' 
ings? 
Ani no ni. For my elder brother. 

Kono kutsushita (=ku- These stockings are 

tsutabi) wa watakushi too small for me. 

ni wa chiisai desu. 

(II) *« To " or " in order to,'' when they come 

after a verb. 

Gakusha ni naru ( =nari In order to become a 
masu) no ni wa, ben- scholar, one must 
kyo wo shi nakereba study hard. 
(=shi masen naraba) 
ike masen. 

Nihon-go wo oboeru (o- How can I best learn 
boe masu) ni wa d5^ Japanese ? (or What 
shi mashitara ichiban is the best way to 
yoi deshd ka. study Japanese ?). 

* see the postposition for " doP 



Kono hon wa gaikoku- TLis book is most 

jin ga Nihon go wo r^, convenient for for- 

narai raasu no ni ielii- eigners m studying 

ban benri desu. Japanese. 

Watakushi donio wa We passed along this 

sendatte uchi ni kae- road on the way 

ri masu no niy kono back home the 

michi wo tori mashi- other day. 
ta. 

lye wo kau (=:kai masu) I need some money to 

no ni, sukoshi kane buy a house, 
ga iri masu. 

lye wo kau ni wa kane J( requires money to 

ga iri masu. buy a house. 



"Nagara." 

(T) "N'ac»"ara" is used as an adverb, mean* 

ing " while f " at the ti7ne.^^ 

Aruki nagara lianashi I>et us talk whilt 

masho. walking. 

Ano ko wa naki nagara Tlie boy rims away 

hashitte ynki masu. crying. 

Walakushi wa itsumo I am accustomed to 

asa-meshi wo tabe «<3:- read news-papers 



( '29) 



gara shimbun wo yo- while I am taking 
mi masu. breakfast. 

Anata \va hon wo yomi You were dozing, 



nagara memun 
slii mashita ne. 



while you were 
reading ; were: you 
not? 



(II) " Nagara " naay be used as a conjunc- 
tive, equivalent to " no ni " or " allhmtgh " (oi 
" in spite of^^ which can be used only with a 
noun or a noun equivalent in English gram- 
mer). 

And it follows exclusively the verbs "ar/," 

" ^r/," " ^-^/," " zV' when they are used to 

ienote action or state of an animate being in the 
•jcond or third person. 

A san wa kane-mochi Mr. A does not pity 

^t art nagara {^ = desu the poor, although 

n» ni), himmin ni he is rich (or in 

megumi masen. spite of his being 

rich). 
Hito wo yonde oki na- He is so impolite as 
^ara rusu ni suru to to be away when I 
i;^ shikkci desu. called on him (or in 

spite of his having 
invited me). 
Me ga samete ori [=.i) He does not get up 
nagara [ — oru no ni) yet, although he if 
mada oki masen. awake. 



^ ^ijoj 

B san wa sakujitsu koko Mr. B says he was not 
Til kUe ori nagara [~ here yesterday, al- 
ori mashita 7io ni), ki though he was. 
masen deshita to ii 
mashita. 

Incorrect. Carreer. 

Yi SiZQ. ga. {viiie. cr{ naga- Kaze ga fuite oru no 
ra ni 

(Because it is not an action of an animate 

being.) 

Watakushi ga tanonde VVatakushi ga tanonde 

oki nagara oki mashita no ni..., 

(Because it is of the 1st person.) 

Exceptional use in an adverbial phrase : — 

" Habakari nagara /" " shitsiirei nagara /" 
"fulsutsuka nagara /" " soinatsu naga- 
ra /' " keisho nagara /" elG. 

(HI) " Nagara " m^y be used in the plar- 
of " keredomo " which is more popularly i\sed, 
and it is more faultless to use "keredomo^* than 
to use " nagara " in this sense, except Id 
familiar phrases as follows : — 



( 131 ) 

Omoi nagara, go-busata Although I intended 
wo itashi mashita. to visit (or write) 

you, I have not been 
able to do so. 
Oyobazu nagam, o-te- I shall be glad to help 
tsudai wo itashi ma- you, witliin the 
sho. limit of my poor 

ability. 
Habakari nagara go- Though I may be im- 
cnukoku moshi ma- polite, I advise you, 
su. sir. 

Oki no doku nagara. Though I am very 

sorry. 
Go-mendo nagara, (=- Though it may cause 
Go-yakkivai, or O- you trouble. 
jajp^a nagara). 

Special tises : — 

Umare nagara no me- A olind man from 

kura. birth. 

Umaic nagara ni shitte To know any thing 

on masu. without being tau- 
ght. 

Oonin nagara \j=-t077io) All the five are Eng- 

Igirisu-jin desu. lish men. 



c 132 ) 



"Shi/' 

" Shi " is a conjunctive particle or postposi- 
tion, equivalent to ^' and,^^ for which ** tari^ 
may be used. 

A san ga ki inasu shi Mr. A came; and Mr. 
{^■—ki tart), B san ga B came too ; and 
ki masu shi ( — /C'/ ta- several friends came 
ri), kawaru-gawaru to see me one after 
yujin ga ki mashita. another (or one by 

one). 

Nihon-go wo benkyo I am very busy in 

shi masu shi { — shita studying Japanese 

77), Eigo wo oshie and teaching Eng- 

t?iasu shi (^zs oshie ta lish. 
ri), zuibun isogashii 
desu. 

Ban-meshi mo sumi We (or I) have fini&hed 

mashita {==:SUNca) supper and read the 

shi (not : — tari). news-papers already, 

shimbun mo yomi now we have notliing 

mashila {^yondm) to do before going to 

shi (not : — tari), bed. 
mo neru ( .:-- ne masu) 
bakari desu. 



( ^33 1 



Tegami mo kaii ma- 
shita {^zzkaita) shi, 
nikki mo tsuke ma- 
thita ' {^—tsuketd) 
skif ky5 no shigoto 
wa mazu, kore de 
sumi mashita. 



The letters are written 
the record in the 
diary is made ; well, 
to-day's work is lully 
done now. 



"Mo sukoshi." 

Mo sukoshi matte ku- Wait a little longer 



dasai. 
Mo sukoshi hoshii de- 

su. 
Mo uikoshi okii desu. 
Mo sukoshi tatte ( = 

nochi ni) oide nasai. 
Mo sukoshi tatte (-: 

nochi ni) maeri ma- 

ib5. 



please. 
I want a little more. 

It is a little larger. 
Come a little latei 

please. 
I'll (or We'll or Let usj 

go (or come) a little 

later. 



**Mo sukoshi de.** 

Mi^ sukoshi de owari It is nearly finished (ol 
masu. We are almost thro 

ugb). 



( Jf34 ) 

I\Id sukoshi de teisliajo The station is close 

dcsii. by. 

I\Id su/ios/ii de iclii-ji de- It is almost i o'clock. 

su. 

Nihon ni ki mashite ka- It's almost a year 

ra vio sukoshi de iclii since I came to 

nen desu. Japan. 



"Motto." 



Motto takusan. 
Motto sukoshi. 
Motto benkyo shi nake 

reba ike masen. 
A ni kami wo motto o 

yari (nasai). 
Koko ni wa motto ki ga T thought there were 

aru to omoi mashita. more trees here. 



Much more. 

Much less. 

Vou ought to be more 

industrious. 
Give A some more 

paper. 



Tara" or "Dara." 



..c..." Ta ra " is a conjunctive particle, equi- 
t^alcnt to "?/,»' "jf///^;;," ''after*' and after 

verbs of past tense ending in '*n>" "da 

ra " '-f ^^^(^ instead. 



C »35 1 



Ame ga furi mzshxlara 
(—{uUara or fiiri 
mashita narabaj, wa- 
takushi wa yuki ma- 
sen. 

A san ga koko ni ki 
mzshifara (^=ki/ara 
or ki mashita nara- 
ba), watakushi wo 
yonde kudasai. 

Watakushi ga Nihon- 
go de hanashi mashi- 
fara [=hana.sh\ tara) 
B san wa machigae 
mashita. 

Nemuri mashi^ara {= 
ncmuttara), nani mo 
shiri masen. 

Sore ga sundara (=su- 
mi mashi/rtfra), sara- 
po wo shi masho, 

Kyo no shimbun wo 
yovKrara (=yonde 
kara), watakushi ni 
kashite kudasai. 



11' it rains, I shall not 
go- 



When Mr. A comes 
here, please call me 
(send for me). 



Mr. B mistook the 
meaning, when I said 
it in Japanese. 



After he is asleep, on? 
knows nothing. 

After you finish that, 
let us take a walk. 

Please let me see to 
day's news-paper, 
after you have read 
it. 



(\36) 

(Compare to . — Kyo no shimbun wo yondura 
(=yomi mashi/flr«), ano koto wo shitte oru 
hazu desu ga.=Tf he has read to-day's news- 
paper, he ought to know that matter (or 
event).) 

Me ga same/rtm (=sa- Rise at once, when you 
me mzs\\\/ara), sugu awake from sleep, 
o-oki nasai. 

The special use : — 

When it comes after the verb " omou " Cor 
** omoi f>iastt^'=:^\.o think) "tara"nieans 

A san ga kuru (=ki I thought Mr. A would 

masu) to oxxioUara come, but he did 

(=omoi mashi/^ra not. 

or ta. ga) ki masen 

deshita. 
Asuko ni aru (=ni I thought it was there, 

masu) to omoiia fa but it is not 

(=omotta ga) ari 

masen. 



<*Kiri" or "Giri." 

"Kiri" or " ffiri " is an adverbial postposi- 
tion, expressing the same idea with, and used In 



( '37) 

the place of " dake" 2i expresses end, limit, or 
termination^ (:• 

Kami wa kore giri (= Is this all the paper 

kiri or dake^ desu there is ? 

ka. 

Kono koto wa wataku- None else knows this 

shi giri {==kiti or matter except me. 

no hokd) dare mo 

shiri masen. 

Mo mikka.^zV/ (z=kiri The exhibition will be 

or dake) de hakuran- closed after three 

kwai wa owari ma- days. 

sn. 



" Shika masen. 



"Shika masen 

or " nothing viore^'' and 
used separately. 

Sekitan wa kore giri 
(=dake) shika ari 
masen. 

(Compare to :— Sekitan 
desu.=This is all the 

Shihei wa ichi yen to 
go yen to, ju yen to, 



' mean " nothing else " 
are not allowed to be 



There is no coal besides 

this (or We have no 

more coal). 

wa kore j^/ri or dahe 
coal we have.) 

There is no other pa- 
per-money besides I 



hyaku yen to shika yen, 5 yen, 10 yen, 
ari masen. and 100 yen bills. 

(Compare to : — Shihei wa i yen to, 5 yen to, 10 
yen to, 100 yen to girl (=idake) desu.=The 
paper-money is limited to i yen, 5 yen, 10 
yen and 100 yen bills.) 

Ano liito wa futatsu He's taken two himself 
totte wataknshi ni and hasn't given me 
wa hitotsu shika ku- but (or has given me 
re masen. only) one. 

Watakushi wa ju yen I've nothing with me 
satsu shika motte ori except a ten yen 
masen. note. 



"Jiki" and "Sugu." 

" Jikl " and '« sugU " are the different pro- 

nuncialions of the tame character of Chinese 
origin, wliich means "///////('</ <jV/)' ;" '■^instant' 
Hj;" " quickly ;" *' at once ;" <' soon ;" '< directly y^ 
B"t ''s^g^" is tised in a stronger stnst than 
f jiki " ^'^ customary expressions. 
Examples:— 

Jiki o-kaeri ni nari ma- Will you be back 

su ka. soon ? 

Hai, sugn kaeri masu. Yes, I shan return at 
once. 



( U9 ) 



Sugu o-ato kara maeri 

masu. 
Sugu oide nasai. 
Su^u maeri masu. 
Jiki deki masu kara, o- 

machi kudasai. 
Ano hanashi wo kiku to 

suzu itte mi mashita. 



Watakushi no iye wa B 
san no uchi no sugu 
tonari desu. 



I shall go immediate- 
ly after you. 

Come immediately. 

I'll come at once. 

Please wait a moment; 
it will be soon out. 

I went and saw (that) 
instantly when I 
heard of that mat- 
ter. 

My home is in the 
immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Mr. B's. 



"Tsuide" and "Gake." 

" Tsuide " means « as," " when " .• — 

Machi ye yuku tsuide Please call a jinrikisha 

ni, jinriki-sha wo as you go to market. 

yonde kudasai- 

Yokohama ye ^'uki f/;n- As 1 went to Yokoha- 

shita tsuide ni Yoko- ma, 1 went to Yoko- 

suka ye yuki mashita. suka. 

Sore wo kaku tsuide As you write that, 



( MO ) 



r.i kore mo kaite ku- please write thi? 

clasai. also. 

" Gake " 2.Iso means " as " or " fin the 
way :" — 

Watakushi wdikae'ri ga- As I came back, I 

ke ni sono chawan bought that teacup, 
wo kai mashita. 

Kaerizakc ni kono te- Please mail this on the 



garni wo dashite ku- 
dasai. 
Asakusa y^yiiki gake vl\ 
Ueno ni yori maslio. 



way home. 



Let us 1^0 to Ueno, as 
we go to Asa- 
kusa. 
Yokohama ye j/7/Z'/,^^rt/^^ I ^as told of the 
ni sono hanashi wo matter as we were 
kiki mashita. going to Yokohama. 



"Kurai" or "Gurai." 

" Kurai " <^r " ffUrai " is an adverbial par- 
ticle or postposition, equivalent to *^ as mttch 
asf " s0/ar as ;" « about 'i' « nearly^* 

It means: — 

(I) '^ As much as 'y* " so far as, ^^ when it is 
prececded by a noun, pronoun or verb. 



^ 141 } 

Senso ^urai {=zkiirai) There is nothing so 

zankoku na mono wa inhuman as war. 

ari masen. 

Ano kurai (==gumi) There is none so good 

yoi hito wa ari ma- as he 

sen. 

A san no stiru (=shi I can do as well as 

rmsn) gurai (= hirai) Mr. A (does), or ] 

no koto wa wataku- can do what Mr. A 

shi ni mo deki masu. can. 

Kore ^urai (^=gurai) There is so much, or 

ari masu. I have so many. 

In a sentence of negative expression " hodo "* 
may be used in the place of '^ ktirai^^ or '^ gtirai^ 

Senso hcdj (—gurai) There is nothing so 

zankoku na mono wa inhuman as war. 

ari masen. 

B san hodo (~guraP) Very few are as strong 

tsuyoi hito wa metta as Mr. B is. 

ni ari masen. 

Kore Aodo {—gurai) Though I bought so 

kattemo (nkai ma- many, yet they are 

shite mo) jubun de not enough. 

ari masen. 

* see the postposition for " hodo*' 



(^^42j 

(II) '■^ About 'y^ '■^ marly ^^ when used after an 
quantitive adjective. 

Kono gakko ni wa nan How many students 

nin gurai ( -kurai) are there in this 

seito ga ori masu school ? 

(ka). 

Sen xi\ngtirai[j=. kurai) There are about a 

ori masu. thousand. 

Kono kurai no.iye wo It requires about ten 

tateru (=:tale masu) thousand yen to 

ni wa ichi man yen build a house of this 

gurai {^— kurai) \'ak2L- sort. 

ri masu. 

Anata wa nan nen ku- How long will you be 

rai {=gurai) N;hon in Japan ? 

ni oru tsumcri desu 

(ka). 

Go nen kzirai (—gztrai) I intend to be here 

oru tsimori desu. about 5 years, 
(" //odo " may be used in the place of " ku- 
rai" or "grrji" also in this sense.) 



"Tori" or "Dori." 

" Tori " or " dori " i^ ^^ adverbial postposi- 
tion, meaning " in the way or tnamur off 
^like-:' "as." 



C 143 ) 

Heisotsu ga meirei dori If the soldiers do not 

(^z=iio tori) m okona- act Just as they are 

wanakereba ( o\ 3- commanded, the 

nawanai to) tai ga company will bed is- 

midare masu. turbed. 

Vakusoku dori (^-710 One will lose his cre- 

ton) ni shi masen (=r dit (or confidence), 

shi nai) to shinyo wo if he does not act as 

ushinai masu. he promised. 

Kojio fori n'l deki masu Can it be done in this 

ka. way? 

Chumon ddri (^zno /ori) It is made juit as I 

ni deki mashila. ordered. 

Nihor.-jin wa marude The Japanese look jusi 

Shina-jin no tori de- like the Chinese, 
su. 

Anata ga kiki mashi/a Tell them here jusi as 

(yntd) tori, koko de you heard th^m. 
o-hanashi nasai. 

Maye ni xt\oshita (ii ma- It is just as I told you 

shi/rt) tori desu. before. 

Kono tori maruWu shite Please make it round 

kudasai. just like this. 

j" y'^n" or <' d^^i^' sometimes used ss a noun, 
means (a) '■'■■P^.ssag-.'f *' street ',^^ '• rond\" 
'* avenue ;" (b) or " a suit " (as of clothes).) 



"Dake." 

"Dake" is an adverbial postposition denoting 
a limit, or meaning ^^ exclusively^^ " merely'y^ 
" 710 more " or " 7io less ;" " nothing else ;" " onlyi^ 
" as much " or '* as many as ;" ^^ as far as^ 

^^'atakushi wa Eigo da- I can speak only Eng- 

ke wa hanase masu. lish. 

Anata ni dake mise ma- I'll let you see and 

sho. nobody else, 

Watakushi no shitte ori Mr. B is the only man 
masu no wa B san with whom I am 
iiake desu. acquainted. 

Nagusami dahe ni yatte I do that merely foi 

ori masu. amusement. 

Sore dake no koto desu. That is all ; there is 

nothing else. 
Kore dake de takusau This much will do (be 
desu. enough;; I am sa. 

tisfied with this 
alone, 
Aikoku-shin wa Nihon- Patriotism is not a 
jin dake motte oru no spirit that is had 
dc wa ari masen. by the Japaneaf. 

ai\ooe. 



^ ( '45 ) ^ 

Sanjippun dake matte Please wait for only 

kudasai. 30 minutes. 

Mo sanjippeiji dake yo- If 1 read only 30 
mi masu to, owari pages more, this 
masu. book will be finish- 

ed. 
Jissen dake kwashi wo Please buy ten sen 
katte kudasai. worth of cake for 

me. 
Kore dake kai mashita. I bought this much. 
Dekiru dake shirabete Though I have in- 
mi mashita ga, wakari vestigated as far as 
masen. possible, yet I can 

not discover it. 
Aruke masu dake aruki Let us walk as far as 

masho. we can. 

Mokaru dake mokeru I* is wise to make as 
no ga riko desu. much money as can 

be earned. 



-: o 



" ba dake" or "ha hodo." 

When used in this way, it means " the more... 
...the more." 

Sligake <5a( — migaki ma- The more it is polish- 



^ (J4^ 

su TiaTSil>a) migaku (= ed, the brighter it 
migaki masu) da^e becomes. 
(^—hodo)y hikari masu. 

Ki wo tsukete mi re-^^t The more carefully I 
miru hodo {— dake) look at it, the more 
rippa desu. splendid I find it. 

Haya kere^a hayai /wdo The sooner, the more 
{-.zdake), benri desu. convenient. 

Benkyo wo sure^a suru The further one stu- 
hodo {=:dake),\iaX\.?iis\\ dies, the more en* 
wo shi (or itashi) masu. 1 ghtened (or im- 
proved) he be- 
comes. 

Undo wo sure^fl suru da- The more exercise 
ke [=ihodo), kinniku one takes, the 
ga tsuyoku nari masu. stronger his mus- 
cles become. 

Ano hito wa toref^a, toru The more money he 
dake {=.kodo), tsukatte earns, the more he 
shimai masu. spends. 

" Bakari." 

" Bakari " "»ay be used : — 

( I) In the same sense with " kurai " or 
«« hodo,'^ after quantUive adjectives. 



( 147 ) ^ 

Isshii-kwan bakari (== I shall be away about 

ktirai or hodd) rusu ni a week. 

ski masu. 

Koko kara Shimbashi It is about a mile 

made ichi mairu baka- from here to Shim- 

ri (^=kurai or /lodo) bashi. 

ari masu. 

Anata wa ima kane wo Have you any money 

motte ori masu ka. ... now? Yes, I 

...Ilai, sukoshi bakari have a little. 

(=^urai) motte ori 

masu. 

Go yen bakari {=^kura{ Have you as much as 

fl^r hodo) ari masu ka. (some) 5 yen ? 

(II) In the same sense with " dake.^^ 

Kore bakari [-—dake) wa This only can not be 

hito ni yare masen. given to others. 

Jibun no tame ^rt/^<7n(= A man should not 

dake), h ikatte wa ike think only of him- 

masen. self, (or of his own 
advantage). 

Takusan wa iri masen, I don't need much; 

sukoshi bakari [=da- please give me only 

^c") kudasai. a little. 



Ano hito wa sugalai <5<7- He is studying ma- 

kari {=zidake^ benkyS tliematics only, 
wo shite ori masu. 

Watakushi bakari (= Shall I go alone? 
dake) yuku no desu 
ka. 

B san wa ichi nichi hon Mr. B is doing noth- 

wo yonde bakari ori ing but reading 

masu. books all day. 

A san wa Nihon-go wo Mr. A can not only 

hanasu bakartde nakit speak Japanese, but 

(=i=ari masen), Eigo he can also speak 

mo, Doitsu-go mo, English, German 

Furansu-go mo jozu- and French as well. 
ni hanashi masu. 

(Ill) After verbs present or past, meaning 

" about to ;" '^Just noiv ;'' ^^ just going to." 

Ima shimai mashita ba- I have just finished. 

kari (^^tokoro'^) desu. 

Ima hajime masu baka- I am just going to 

ri {■=tokora) desu. begin. 

Ima deta (=de mashi- He went out a moment 

iz) bakari {=:tokoro) ago, or I have just 

desu. come out. , 



* see the postpositiorn for " tokoro. 



rM9 7 



M5 shiraau (::zzshimai 
masu) bakari (==.io- 
kord) desu kara, su- 
koshi o-machi nasai. 



Wait a moment please; 
I am just going to 
finish it (or As it 
is just about done, 
please wait a mo- 
ment). 



(IV) Meaning " only because ^^ or " on accoum 
of- 



Kuruma-ya ga osokatta 
(=:osoku ari mashi- 
ta) bakari de, kisha 
ni nori okure mashi- 
ta. 

Anobito wa go-gaku ga 
dekiru bakari de, tai- 
hen shusse wo itashi 
mashita. 

Konna ni Id ga koko 
ni atta (=ari ma- 
shita) bakari de, wa- 
takushi no iye wa 
yake masen deshita. 



I missed the train, only 
because the jinriki 
man ran too slowly. 



He was promoted only 
on account of his 
linguistic talent. 

My house was free 
from fire, only be- 
cause tliese trees 
were here (=r M it 
had not been for 
these trees, my house 
would have taken 
fiu-e). 



Keshiki wo mi tai da- I have come to Japan, 
^an de Nihon ni ki only for the purpose 
mashita. (or for the desire) of 

seeing the scenery. 



** Sae '* is an adverbial postposition being 
used after a noun, a pronoun, or a verb, and 
means: — 

(I) « Even .•"— 

Kodomo de sae dekiru Can't you do it when 

even a little child 



no ni anata wa deki 

masen ka. 
Kono hon wa wataku- 

shi ni sae yome ma- 
sen kara, A san ni 

wa mochiron wakari 

masen. 
Kikin no toki wa ki no It is said that people 

kawa sae taberu so* eat even the bark of 



could do it ? 
This book which even 
I could not read, can 
not be understood 
by Mr. A of course. 



4esu. 

Anna hito wa miru sae 
iya desu. 



trees in time of 
famine. 
I don't like such a man 
even to see. 



* see the postposition for 



C »5t ) 

(II) « 0«/v .•^— I 

Ai sae sureba ki ga su- If I only see him (or | 

mi masu. her), my mind will i 

be easy, ! 

Kokorozashi sae are ba If there is a will, any- ; 

nani goto demo deki thing can be done. ■ 

masu. \ 

Hi to wa kasegi sae su- A man would never be 

re ba bimbS ni naru in poverty, if he i 

koto wa ari masen. were only industri- I 

ous. j 

Shitte ori sae sure ba If I could only under- ] 

oshiye te age masu stand it, I should Le | 

ga. glad to teach you I 

that, (or If I kne\» j 

that I should tell | 

you). ; 



«Yo na." 

"Yona" is a compound postposition, used 
adjecfivelyy meaning ^^ similar f ^*like'" ** *V« 
sembling ;" " such o^y." 

ILono yd na kitanai kutsu.=:Such dirty shoes 
as these ; Bara no hana no yd na nioi.=A smell 
similar to that of rose ; Seiyo-jin no yo na hita 
= A man looking like a foreigjaer. 



Roba wa uma «» yo na An ass is a beast re- 

dobutsu desu. sembling a horse. 

B san 710 yd na hito wa Such a man as Mr. B 

makoto-ni mezurashii can be rarely seen, 
desu. 

Watakushi M'a ^ono yd I like that sort of a 

na hito ga dai-suki man very much, 
desu. 

Netsubyo no yd na by 5- You must take care, 

ki ga chikagoro haya- as a disease similar 

ri masu kara, ki wo to the typhoid-fever 

tsuke nakereba ike is prevailing recent- 

masen. ly. 



"Yo ni." 

" Yo ni " is a compound postposition, used 

adverbially, meaning : — i 

(I) '^Asf "m like tfiannerf or ** in the \ 
same way.'* 

A san mo ototsan no yd Mr. A, like his father, ■ 

ni kari ga suki desu. is fond of hunting \ 
too. 

Moio no yd 7ti sh'iie \\\i- Please mend it, as it ■ 

dasai. was before. ! 



J^jsn 

B san no yd ni benkyo Any one will become 

wo suxeba, dare de excellent in it, if he 

mo jozu ni nari masu. study as hard as Mr. 

B does. 

Yoij)/5 wi'hakaratte ku- Please manage the 

dasai. matter (or make it) 

as you think proper. 

Omou yd vi wa yuki Things don't go as one 

masen mono desu. thinks they will. 

Kuchi de yu yd ni wa Things can not be 
dekiru mon^ de wa done, as they are 
ari masen. spoken of (=r: talk- 

ing is always beyond 
doing). 
Uma no yd ni hashiruiz=to run as a horse 
does; Yuki «cj'5 «ishiroi=:as white as snow; 
Daiamondo W£7jj'5 «ihikaru=to sparkle like a 
diamond ; Sato no yd ni amainzras sweet as 
sugar. 

(II) « In order to /" **for the purpose of." 

Watakushi wa ringo wo I ordered the boy tc 

motte kuru yd ni boi bring apples, 
ni iitsuke mashita. 

Waraware nai (=:ma- Mind your daily Ps 

sen) yd ni, fudan no and Qs, so that you 



CJ54J " 

gyoj5 ni ki wo o-tsu- may not be laughed 

ke nasai. at. 

Nam take tabako \va I am trying to smoke 

suwa naijjo ni shite as little as possible. 

ori masu. 

Kippu wo otosanaijf'ci Be careful not to lose 

ni nasai (mashi). your ticket. 

Wasureta toki ni miru Write them down so 

yd ni kaite o-oki na- that you may look 

sai. at them when you 
forget them. 

Sugu okuru yd ni kozu- I told the servant that 

kai ni iitsuke mashi- it should be sent out 

ta. at once. 

Anata ga naoru yd ni I am praying every day 

mai-nichi inotte ori that you will re- 

masu. cover. 

Eikoku-jin ni wakaru It is written in Eng- 

yo ni Eigo de kaite lish, so that the 

ari masu. English-man can 
understand it. 



"Yo desu." 

" Yd desu " is a compound verb expressing 



( 155 ) 



masu) hito wa suko- 
shi yotte oru j5 destt. 



the same idea with " raskii desu^^ which means 
** likely ;" " seetnittg." 

Hi ga kieta/5 desuVi^.- It seems that the fire 
ra, chotto mite kuda- has all gone out ; 
sai. please look at it (or 

The fire seems to 
have gone out, etc). 
Muk5 kara kuru (=izki The man who is com- 
ing yonder, seems to 
be a little intoxicat- 
ed. 
Kono tokei wa kurutte This watch seems to 

huyo desn. be out of order. 

Ano hito wa kagen ga He seems to be un- 
warui yd desu. well, or He looks 

unwell. 
Tsnm^x'i yo\ yd desu nt. It seems to be good 

after all. 
A. san wa taihen yowai Mr. A looks very weak, 
yd desu ga, wariai ni but he is compara- 
tsuyoi desu. lively strong. 



" Yo "'* is a noun, equivalent to " way 
thod'i' « mode ;" '< tnanner:* 



^ ( 156) 

Hashi no mochi yd wo Please teach me, how 

oshiete kudasai, to use " hashi." 

Nihon-bun no kaki yd I wish to learn how to 

wo nanii tai desii. write in Japanese. 

Kono hako no ake yd I don't know how to 

ga wakari masen. open this box. 

Go-gaku wa oshiye yd Method is most im- 

ga ichiban daiji desu. portant in teaching 
languages. 

Onaji joji de mo mochii Different meaningsmay 

yd de imi ga chigai be expressed by the 

masu. same postposition 

according to its use. 



"So." 

** So " ^s used both as a suffix of a verb and as j 

an adverb. 1 

j 

(I) " 6"^" as a suffix is used either adverbially '\ 

ox adjcctively, 2iU.d mc^ns ^^ likely f ^^ probable f \ 

** appearing to be.^* J 

Ano kodomo tachi wa The children were 

ureshi sd ni asonde playing joyfully. ■. 

ori masu. ^ 

Ame ga furi sd desu. It looks like rnin. ; 



( 157 ) 

Ano nemu so na kao Look at his sleepy 

wo goran nasai. countenance. 

Kore wa kire so na nai- This knife seems to be 

fu desu ga, yoku kire (or looks) sharp, but 

masen. it does not cut well. 

B san wa mo ki so na It is already time for 

mono^ desu. Mr. B to come. 

(II) "65" as an adverb is the shortened 
form of " sono yo ni" which means "in that 
way;" " so.'^ 

Walakushi wa so wa I do not think so. 

omoi masen. 
So umaku wa yuki ma- Vou can't do that so 

sen* nicely. 

So shite wa ike masen. Don't do that (or You 
can't make it in 
that way). 
So shite mini to, ano Ihus we see that he 
hito wa sh5jiki na must be an honest 
hito ni chigai masen. man. 

"Ko." 

** Ko " is an adverb which is the shortened 
torm of " ^oKO yd, and means " m t/iis 7vay ;" 
»« thtis." 



* see the postposition for " mono. 



( '58) 



Kb nasai mashi. Do it in this way. 

Watakushi wa ko ojnoi I think thus (or is 

masu. this way). 

Ko sureba deti masu. It can be made in this 

way. 

Watakushi wa sakana wo I eat fish in this way 

ko shite tabe masu. 

So ko sum uchi ni hi ga It will become dark, 



kure masu. 



while we are doing 
that and this. 



" Yu." 

" Yu " is originally a verb meaning " to tellj^ 
but it is used as a suffix as well : — " So yu-^^ " ko 
17?;" ** do yuy 

Ko yu hito wo go-zonji Do you know a man 

desu ka. ef this name ? 

& yu hito wa shiri (or I don't know any 

zonji) masen. person of that 

name. 
A san ga ko yu lianashi Mr. A told me such 

wo slii mashita. a story as this. 

Doyu wake desu ka se- I'lease explain me the 

tsumei shite kudasai. reason why (or 

what is the reason). 



( 159 ) 



Kd yu omoshiroi hon ga Here is such an in- | 

ari masu. teresting book. j 

Are v^z. do yu hito desu What sort of a man ^ 
(ka> is he ? 

Are wa kd yu hito desu. He is a man of this I 

sort. ; 

{^Sdyu=sonna ot sono-yd-na', kd yu=.konna ox j 

kono-yd-na\ do yu^ donna or dono-yo-na.^ j 



"Dore." J 

\ 

" Dore " is used in conversation as an ex- \ 
pletive, equivalent to " well't^ " then ;" or \ 
" w^w." I 

Dore, hitotsu yatte mi Well, T shall make a I 
masho. trial, then. ; 

Dore, kaeri mash5. Well, I must go \ 

i 

home. I 

Dore^ hitotsu itte mi Well, then I shall j 

masho. go and see now. i 



•* Do mo." 

"Do mo" means '' indeed 'i' '^ likely f or 
' probaiilityr 



( i6o) 



Do mo o-sewa sama de- 

shita. 
Do mo o-ki-no-doku sa- 

tna desu ne (or na). 
Do 7110 ano hi to ni wa 

komari masu. 

Do vio kirei-na hana de- 
su koto ! 

Do mo Nihon-jin wa ri- 
ko dcGin 

Do mo Nihon-go wa yo- 
hodo mutsukashii de 
su. 

Do mo watakushi ni wa 
wakari masen. 



Much obliged to you, 
indeed. 

I am very sorry, in- 
deed. 

I am much troubled 
about (or with) 
him. 

What a beautiful 
flower it is ! 

The Japanese people 
are clever (in so 
far as I know). 

The Japanese lan- 
guage is very diffi- 
cult (in so far as I 
have experienced). 
I can hardly under- 
stand it. 



"Do shite mo." 
" Do shite mo " or " do shi mashite mo " 

means " by any means^^ " in any way,' or " any 
hoivV 

Do shite mo watakushi I can, by no means, 
ni wa wakari masen. make it out. 



Do shite mo sbimai ni wa An honest man gains 
sh5jiki-na hito ga ka- the final success 
chi masu. anyhow. 

Do shite mo ano hito no His sickness is not 

byoki wa naori masen. cured by any 

means. 

(Compare to ',-^Dd mc ano byoki wa naori ma- 
sen. = His sickness is not likely to be cured.) 

Do shite mo hiru mae I have to be at Yoko- 

made ni Yokohama ye hama before noon 

yukanakereba nari ma- any way. 
sen. 

Do shite mo yoroshii de- You may do any waf 

su. you like. 



"Do ka suru to.** 

" Do ka suru to " or " do ka shi masia 

to " is an adverbial phrase whicli properly 
means " in some way or other ^^ or " unexpected' 
/j'," but is used generally in the sense of " oc- 
casionallyy 

Do ka svru to sakura no It may occr.r that 
hana ga aki saki ma- cherry blossoms 
su. come out in au- 

tumn. 



( i62) 



Do ka sum to watakushi 
wa yubi no saki ^^a 
itami masu. 

Do ka suru to insatsu no 
machigai ga ari masu. 

Do ka sum io hi ga 
attatte ite ame ga fu- 
ru koto ga ari masu. 

Do ka sum to deki ma- 
su no desu ga, do mo 
sono hoh5 ga wakari 
masen. 



I feel pain at the ends 
of my fingers oc- 
casionally. 

There are misprints 
sometimes. 

It may happen to 
rain while the sun 
shines. 

It ought to be made 
in some way or 
other, but we don't 
know how to make 
it. 



'^Hodo." 

" HodO " is an adverbial postposition which 
denotes : — 

(I) An approximale sum or quantity, equi- 
valent to " kurai^^ or ^^ bakari^ 

Mo ju-go mairu hodo (— We have walked about 

kurai or bakari) aru- 15 miles already. 

ki mashita. 

Nani (or dore) hodo aru- J shall not oe tired 

ki mashite mo kutabi- however far I walk. 

re masen. 



».— ».~~-w — — ^pi.. — .I.I ■ .— ■■■ » . ^^^x^... «.~ —■ ■— .— ^ ^ 

A san wa san-shu kwan Mr. A was away foi 
hodo {j~kuraiox baka- about 3 weeks. j 

ri) rusu deshila. i 

Asuko ni ima nan (== How many persons 
iku) nin hodo {=zkiirai are there now ? ' 

or bakari) ori masu j 

ka. i 

Hyaku-goju xAnhodo (= There are some 150. 
kurai or bakari) ori 
masu. i 

Niku wa nani (- dore or How much meat do 
ika) hodo o-iriyo desu you want, sir ? 
(ka). i 

So desu, go kin hodo (= Well, say 5 poundSj ' 
kurat or bakari) kuda- will do. 
sai. j 

( When proceeded by an interrogative term, it \ 
Tieans ** hozv much ;" ''how manyf " h07vfar") j 



(11) The degree of quality and quantity^ com- 
pared with some others, 

"Hodo " is used for " so as.^ 

( a ) Ano hito hodo (=s There is none sobeau- 
kurai) kirei-na tiful -js he (or she). 
hito wa nai. 



( 154) 



Kyoiku hodo ( — 
htrai) taisetsu-na 
mono wa ari ma- 
sen. 

A san hodo (^=ku- 
rai) ongaku no 
suki-na hito wa 
ari masen. 

b ) Ume wa sakura 
hodo {Jinz=:.rai) 
kirei de wa ari 
masen. 

Osaka wa Tokyo 
hodo {^— kurai) 
hiroku wa ari 
masen. 

Omotta (rtr-omoi 
mashita) hodo ni- 
giyaka de wa ari 
masen. 

O-iriyo na /iodo[z=. 
da/ce) o-niociiA 
nasai. 

Walakiishi wa a no 



Nothing is so import- 
ant as education. 



No one likes music so 
much as Mr. A 
does. 

The plum is not so 
beautiful as the 
cherry. 

Osaka is not so large 
as 'I'okyo. 



It is not CO bustling 
there, as was .sup- 
loosed. 

Take as much as you 
please. 

I have not so much as 



( i65 ) 

hito ni yaru hodo (or enough) to give 

{==dake) wa mo- him any. 
chi masen. 

Tsukare masu hodo I have not walked so 

vva aruki masen. far as to be tired. 

"Hodo" is used for ^* so i/iai,^' introduc- 
ing another clause. 

Odoroku hodo rippa de- It is wonderfully 
su. splendid. 

Shinu ka to omou hodo I have suffered so 
kurufchJmi mashi*a. much with pain that 

I thought I should 
die. 

Me ga aite ore masen It is so bright thai no 
hodo akarui desu. one can keep his 

eyes open. 

Dochira (=dotchi) ga Each is so like the 
dochira (=dotchi) other that one can 

(desu) ka wakaranai not make out which 
(=\vakari masen) ho-. is wliich. 
do, ryoho yoku nite 
oii masu. 

" ba hodo" is "sed just in equival 

tn\ \.o '^ ihe more , ike mojv. ,..,,'' in Eng 

lisli. 



^^ ( ^66 ) 

Hayakereia hayai ^odo The quicker the bet- 

yoi. ter. 

Okereda 6i /lodo yoro- The more the better. 

shii. 
Ano hito wa toshi v/o llie older he grows, 

tore^a, toru Aodo jobu- the more healthy 

ni nari masu. he becomes. 

Kikeda kiku /lodo fushi- The further it is told, 

gi-na hanashi desu. the more queer the 

story becomes. 
(See on ^Uioke'^ pp. 144.) 

Special uses : — 

Nochi hodoz^y and by ; saki hodo=3L while 
ago (as of time). Naru hodo=i\ see; yo hodo — 
a good deal. 

Minna de wa ari masen Not all, but a good 

ga yo hodo deki agari deal has been com- 

mashita. pleted. 

Naru hodo. I see. 



**Tokoro/' 



" Tokoro " means :— 
(I) Place. 



( i67 ) . 

Koko wa nan to yu to- What is this place 

koro desu (ka). called ? ' 

Koko ga ichiban omo- This is the most in- ^ 

shiroi tokoro desu. teresting part. I 

Nihon de ichiban yu- Where is the most 

mei-na/d?/&d7r(7wa doko noted place in 

desu (ka). Japan ? I 

(TI) ^^ BayaV^ (=r:occasion or case). 

0-isogashii tokoro wo o- Excuse me for inter- 
jama wo itashi mashi- rupting you when i 
ta. you are so busy. i 

Chodo yoi tokoro ni o- You have come just in 

ide deshita. good time. 

Ima kippu wo kau ioko- I am just going to buy ' 

ro desu. the ticket (now). 1 

Ima shuppatsu suru to- I am just about to I 

koro desu. start (now). • 

A san wa ima kita toko- Mr. A has just arrived. 

ro desu. I 

Ima kippu wo katta to- I have just bought the I 

koro desu. ticket (now). | 

"Tokoro ga." 

"Tokoroga" rneans "yetf " ^aw^s/^r;" j 
" though:* 



5jfj 

Tukoro ga, jissai so de Yet, it is not so it 

wa ari masen. fact. 

Yoku mita (i=mi mashi- After looking careful- 

ta) tokoro ga chigatte ly, I have found it 

ori mashita. is a mistake. 

Vonda (=:yobi mashita) Though you call him, 

tokoro ga, ki masu- he will not corns 

mai. here. 

** Wake.** 

(I) " Wake " ii^eans '' tneanivg''' or " r^a- 

^Vatakushi ni wa suko- I can't understand 

shi mo wake ga waka- what is meant by 

ri masen. it, for what is the 

bstatter) at all. 

Naru hodo so yu wake I see. That is the 

desu ka. reason why ? 

S5 yu wake nara, shika- If it be so, it can't be 
ta ga ari masen. helped (or If you 

are right in saying 
that). 
Ano hitd 'M'a wake ga He is a man without 
wakaranai hilo desu. the power of rea 

soning. 



( i69 ) 

(II) When foUoived by *^^ wa nai {^Waari mO' 
seiiY or " no nai^'' it becomes adjective jnhrase 
meaning " easy^* " trifling^ 

Wake no nai koto desu. It is not hard worit. 

Ichi nichi ni nijii mairu It is no hard labour to 

aruku no wa r</izk^ -wa walk 20 miles a 

ari masen. day. 

Wake n akii (adv.) deki It can be done easily. 

masu (=jiki deki ma- 

su). 



"Mono." i 

(I) " Mono " means " a fhing" or « things,* \ 
Udmarilf . \ 
Tetsu wa taiso yuy5-na Iron is a very useful 

viotio desu. thing. \ 

Denwa wa choho-na (= The telephone is a i 
benri-na) mono desu. convenient thing. 

(II) " Mono " is used, as a mere expletive, 
to make an expression more emphatic, and to { 

sound better. | 

I 

Hakurankwai n'l yuki I hope I shall be able j 
tai mono desu. to go to see the ex- 

position. 



( I70) 

Tsuki-hi no talsu no wa The passing of time is 

hayai mono desu. rapid. 

Ano bito ni ai tai mono I desire to see him, or 

da(=:desu}. I hope that I may 
meet him. 

Sore wa komatta (=: It makes me great 

komari mashita) mo- trouble. 

no desu. 

Hito no waru-kuchi wo One should not speak 

yu mono de wa ari ill of others. 

masen. 



PART II. 

GRAMMATICAL PRINCIPLES AND 

PRACTICAL USES OF SOME 

PRINCIPAL PARTS OP 

SPEECH. 



L— The List of Pronouns. 



I. Personal Pronouns. 







ist Person. 




Singular. 


Plural. 


•*3 

8 


' Watakush 


i. Watakushi tachi or ra or domo. 




Watashi. 


Watashi „ „ „ „ „ . 


Temae. 


Temae „ »»»»»». 




Jibun. 
Boku, 


Jibun „ „ „ . 

(seldom used.) 

Boku „ „ „ . 


^ 




(especially used among students.) 



Com. gend. 



2nd Person. \ 

Singular. Plural. ■ 

Anata. Anata gata or iachi or ra. i 

Omae. Omae „ „ „ „ >» • ' 
(used to inferiors.) i 

\ 



( '72) 

Mas. gend. Kimi. Kimi gata or tachi or ra. 

^especially used among students.) 

3rd Person. 
Singular. Plural. 



Ano hito. Ano Into (achi. 
Ano kata. Ano kata 

Ano o-kata. Ano 



kata „ ox gala. '\ res- 

\ pectful 
o-kata,, ,, „ .j forms. 



Aitsu. Aitsu „ „ ra. (an expres- 

sion of contempt, used of inferiors.) 



In forming the pluraly it should always be re- 
membered that ^^ gaia " is a respectful form and 
consequently is used to superiors in the 2nd per- 
son or of superiors in the 3rd person, while 
* ra " is used to or of inferiors y or among stH' 
dents. 



II. Titles of IIonouk and 
Kespect. 
Ileika. H. I. M. 
Denka. H. I. II. 

Kakka. Your Honour or Your Excellency. 
Tono-.iun I. Used of Feudal Lords or Nobles. 
Go-zeii. „ to „ ,) ), » 

Dauua. „ cliieCy to or of the master of a 

family. 



r ^73 7 

Sensei. Used chiefly to or of instructors oi 

physicians. 

Fujin. Used of the wife of a person in high 

rank. 

Oku-sania. Used to or of a married lady. 

Okamisan. „ „ „ „ the wife of a merchant 

or of a person in an iuferior social 

position. 



Botchan. 


Used to or of a boy. 


0-jo-san. 


„ ,» » » „ girl- 


Ottotsan. 


» » „ „ „ father. 


Okka-san. 


» „ ,> „ V mother. 


Oji-san. 


„ „ „ „ „ uncle and an elderly 




man. 


Oba-san. 


» „ ,y „ » aunt „ „ M 




woman. 



Besides, in addressing one's relatives such as 
grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister, uncle, 
aunt, cousin, etc., noun is used, with " san " 
mnexed. [" ^az/z^ " may be used- instead of 
".»««" in z. polite expression; '^ dono" which 
means same thing, is seldom used in an ordinary 
conversation.] 



ill. Pronouns denoting things, places, 

AND DlEFCnONS. 

These pronouns may be classified according to 



( 174 ) 

the distance from the speaker or the person 

-.poken to. 



< < < 



S 6 

Si 



< < 



^ 



<2 S^, 



C^ 






o 


fi 


rt 




2 


c4 


c 






v> 


a 




1 


o 


c 




o 


o 


o 




.n 


in 


CAI 




6 








-o 








rt 








C 








O 








o 


6 


^ 




^ 


a 


"2 




1- 


c 


rt 


cl 


o 


(4 


rt 


rt 


c 










X 


rt 


rt 


o 


o 


C 


C 


^ 


o 


o 


O 


3 


^ 


'-/' 


^ 



t5 •'5 



R ^ 



( 175 ) 

IV. Interrogative Pronouns. 

jDare generally used in con- 
versation. 



Of penons. 



Tare generally used in writ- 
ing. 

Donata. ...the polite form ol 
" Bare." 



Doitsu. ...a form expressing <oa 
tempt. 

OJ things. Nani. 



Of places. 



Doko. 

Dochira...the respectiul form ol 
« Doko." 

I'.lzuko 1 seldom used in conver- 
V sation, but generally 
Idzure J in writing. 



Qf j Dochira. 

directions. \ D^tchi. 



II.— AdjectiYes. 



\ I. Cl.\ssification of Adjectives. 

The Qualifying Adjectives form the Adjectives 
proper, and are divided into two classes, (ij 



( "76 ) 

simple and (2) compound ; each of which is sub- 
divided into two groups according to the ending, 
viz. adjectives eud'ng in " i " or " ki/* and those 
tndiiig in " na" 



Ending 
in "?' " or -^ 



Ending 

in 
« na." 



Ending 
in *< i " 
or « ki." 



Eliding 
in 



Simple. 
Omo-i (-/^/)— heavy. 
Karu-? (-/&/)= light. 

, Taka-? (./^O^^i^^- 
I Hiku-i (■/^/)-=lo\v. 

C Kirei-«a — beautiful. 

Shidzuka-«a = quiet. 

I Shinsetsu-«d! — kind. 

I Odayaka-«a-— calm. 

Compound. 

Mendo-kusa-/ (-/^/) =: troublesome. 

Tsumara-na-z (-/^/)= worthless. 
I Niku-rashi-z {-ki') -hateful. 
I Baka-rashi-/(-i/)=Useless; absurd, 

Kanashi-so-«a=sad looking. 
Iji-waru-«rt — ill natured. 
Ki-mijika-«^=impatienL 
Kawai-so-;/rt pitiable. 



* •« ki-^ is used chiefly in writing. 



( '77 ) 

The adjectives ending in " i " or " M " sound 
are, as it were, gentiine ones, and those ending 
in " na " sound are primarily derived from ab- 
liract notms. 



Abstract nouns, 
Rippa = splendor. 
Shinsetsu = kindness. 
Kenko— health. 
Saiwai = happiness. 



Adjectives. 

Rippa-«rt!— splendid. 
Shinsetsu- «a — - kind. 
Kenko-«<z -healthy. 
Saiwai-«a=i happy. 



Besides, there are many that are derived from 
other parts of speech. 

(1) Adjectives derived from nouns. — These 
are used as such by adding " no " to nouns. 

( a ) Adjectives derived from proper nouns. 

Amerika no hata--The American flag. 

Igirisu no fujin ^ An English lady. 

Osaka no shonin — An Osaka merchant. 

Nihon no heisotsu=A Japanese soldier. 
( b ) Adjectives derived from material 
nouns. 

Kin no yubiwa=A gold ring. 

Tetsu no hashi —An iron bridge. 

Zoge no e=An ivory handle. 
( c ) Adjectives derived from common nouns 

Fuyu no ban =A winter evening. 

Inaka no yadoya - A country inn. 



(^7^2 

(II) Ve^-bal Adjeclives derived from verbs, — ■ 
These are used as such without any change or 
requiring any conjunctive words to be added. 

( a ) In the pre^ejit tense, 

Kanashimu yamcme=A weeping widow. 
Hashiru inu~A running dog. 
Kuru liito=The man who is coming. 
Ame no furu hi=:A rainy day. 

( b ) In \\it past tense, 

Kesa kita hito=:The man who came this 
morning. 

Ushinatta takara=The lost property. 

Yabureta kamikire=Torn pieces of paper 

Kowareta tokei=A broken watch. 



\ II. Inflexion of AnjECTivES. 

(I) When used in a predicate as a commie- 
tnent. 

( a ) Adjectives ending in the *' na " sound, 
are used without « «<2." 

Shinsetsu'na hito -A kind man. 
Ano \\\\.o vi2^ sh inset iu desu ~-Yi^ is kind, 
Shidzuka- na \o\^^xQ ga suki desu=Ilikea 
quiet place. 



Koko wa taihen shidzuka desu -\\. ^ very 
quiet here, 
(b) Adjectives ending in the "z" or "iz" 
sound are used without any chatige in their 
form. 

Kore wa atsit-i hon desu — lliis is a thick 
book. 

Kono hon wa atsu-i desu— This book is 
thick. 

Samu-i tenki wa kirai desu=I don't like 
cold weather. 

Kyo wa taihen samu-i desu=It is very cold 
to-day. 

(II) When a sentence with a predicate ad- 
jective, has another predicate oris connected with 
another itidependerit sentence- 

( a ) Tlie predicate adjective ending in the 
" e" or ^^ kV sound, takes " ku " instead of 
"z"or "iz." 

Fuyu wa ^ta.tak3.-hu, natsu wa sudzushi-i?^, 
besso ni wa goku tekito desu. — That is 
well suited for a villa, as it is warm in 
winter and cool in summer. 

Karasu wa kuro-i«, sagi wa shiro-i« gozai 
masu. = A crow is black and an egret is 
white. / ( 

Kono tsulsumi wa omo-hu te (ari mashite) 
mote masen.=This baggage being very 
heavy, I can't hold it up. 



^ __ii!l^ i 

( b ) T^e predicate adjective ending in the ; 
♦« «i7/' takes " de " instead of " «a." ■ 

Kimono wa kirei dif kokoro wa kitano go- i 
zai masu. — His dress is finC; but his heart \ 
is ugly. i 

A san wa tomodachi ni wa shinsetsu de^ j 
teki ni wa zankoku na hito desu.=Mr. A 
is a man, kind to his friends and cruel to 
his enemies. 

Kono ki wa hana mo kirei de, mi mo umai 
desu.=The flower of this plant is beauti- 
ful and its fruit is nice too. 

// sounds better to use " gozal masu^^ than to 
use " desiCy^ with predicate adjectives ending in j 
" ;,'' substituting " u " for " ?'." (" on " and " aw" j 
sounding " o ;" " z«," *' eu " and " mt " sounding | 
"U-") i 

Onioi desu. Omo gozai masu, 

Takai „ . Takb „ „ . 

Hikui „ . HikU „ „ . 

Samushii desti. Samtiskii gozai masu. 



§ III. Adjectival Noun. 

The Adjectival noun is formed by inflecting 
an adjective. 



C 151 :> 

Adjective. Noun, 

TsMyo-sa. 



( 

?=strong.... ■{ 

i 



Tsuyo 2= 

Tsuyo-wt 

Taka-r"=higli Taka-sa. 

^ , . . f Omoshiro-j^. 

Omoshiro-z= 



interesting.... Iq^^^^j^ 



iTO-mi. 



!Ama-sa - the degree oi 
sweetness, 
Ama-^;z?=5weetness. 

_ Uma-Jrt:. 
Uma-/. 

Uina-7//z. 



Al<;a=red colour, or the 
name of a colour. 



. , . J A.ka.-sa={he degree of be- 

^^"' 1 ing red, 

j Aka-wz=redness, or tlie 
(_ quality of being red. 

f Shiro. 
Shiro-?la=white. ... -| Shiro-Jd;. 
l_ Shiro-//?/. 

Niku- 'ssshateful 



r Niku-^«. 



|_ Niku-^^. 

{Tanoshi-j<». 
Tanoshi-^^?. 
Shidzuka //rt=quiet. Shidzuka-^o. 



(J82J ^^ 

When " sa " ^s added to adjective root, it 
becomes an abstract noun, and when " mi " or 
*' ge " is added, it becomes a common noun. 



^ IV. Comparison of Degree. 

The degrees of quantity or quality can not be 
expressed by a modification of adjectives, but by 
adding to an adjective different adverbs express- 
ing different degrees of comparison. 

(i) Adverbs expressing the Comparative 
Degree: — mo; motto; isso; rnada. 

(2) Adverbs expressing the Superlative 
Degree : — ichilan ; 7)w{tomo. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Kirei-na motto kirei-na ichiban kirei-na. 

(beautiful) (more beautiful) (most beautiful). 

Naga-i motto nagai ichiban nagai, 

(long) (longer) (longest). 

Uki-i motto oki-i ichiban 6ki-i. 

(large) (larger) (largest). 

More examples : — 
Sekai de ichiban era 1 Who is the grcates-* 

hito wa dare dcsho. man of the world ? 

Mo sukoshi kudasai. Give me a little more, 

please. 



( m) 

A/o futatsu motte kite Please bring me two j 

kudasai* more. 

JI/0//0 yasui no wo mi- Please show me a 

sete kudasai. cheaper one. 

Mada ari masu ka. Have you any more ? 

Alada takusan gozai Yes, we have much 

masu. more. 

Sore wa isso kekko That's better. 

desu. 

Sore yori kono ho ga This is rather finer 

mada kirei desu. than that. 

When, in comparing one thing with another, 
the conjunction '■'■yori {mo) " is used, M^ adverbs 
expressing degrees need not to U put in. 

For examples : — 

Al san wa B san yori Mr. A is taller than 

{mo) {inoUd) takai Mr. B. 

desu. 

VVatakushi no kogatana My knife is sharper 

wa anata no yori (mo) than yours. 

(motto) yoku kire 

masu. 

Kono inu no ho ga ano I'his dog runs faster 

inu yori[mo){7notto) than that one, 
hayaku hashiri masu. 



( iH) 



IIL—Adverbs. 



Most adverbs are derived from adjectives, by 
changing " z " to " ku>" ^i^d " ««" to " jH" 



Adjectives. Adverbs. 

Taka-z yama. Takaiw tobu. 
(a high mountain.) (to fly high.) 

Aka-z kami. Aka-i« num. 

(red paper.) (to paint red.) 

Tsuyo-2 hito. Tsuyo-/iv^ utsu. 

(a strong man.) (to strike hard.) 



o < 



8 



Shidzuka-«rt tokoro. Shidzuka-wi" ayumu. 
(a quiet place.) (to walk .quietly.) 

Shinsetsu-;za hito. Shinsetsu-wz toriatsukau. 
(a kind man.) (to treat kindly.) 

YJn€\-na hana Kirei-«/ soroeru. 

(a beautiful flower.) (to arrange beautifully.) 
Verbs. Adverbs. 

Tsutsushimu. Tsutsushin^V yomu. 

(to be respectlul or (to read with respect.) 
thoughtful.) 

Yorokobu. Yorokona'*? kaku. 

(to be glad or delight- (to write with delight.) 
ed.) 

* see for the auxiliaries. 



C 1^5 1 



Ayamatsu. 
(tc- mistake.) 

Isogu. 
(to hurry,) 

Tsudzuku. 
(to continue.) 



Ayamat/(? kowasu. 
(to break by mistake.) 

Isoia(<? tsukuru. 
(to make in hurry.) 

Tsudzui/^ deru. 

(to appear continuously.) 



■♦«•>♦ 



lY.—Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions connects words, phrases, or 
clauses, and are classified into three groups 
according to their nature. 

(i) Ihose denoting addition or discrimina- 
tion. 



Mata., Most generally used in con- 
versation. 
Oyobi Used in writings chiefly. 

Katsu Used to connect clauses 

only. 
Soshite Used to connect clauses 

or phrases. 
Narabini . . , Means " both and'" " as 

well as." 



( 18^) 





Anmva. 








Mata or matawa. 






^- 


Hata or hata mata.,.. 


, Used chiefly 
writings. 


in 




Moshikuwa. ....•«.... 


.. Used chiefly 
writings. 


in 




w 




^ 

N < 


Nao. 
> Sono-ue. 







<<; I Otnake-ni (collo.). 

(2) Those denoting contradiction, equivalent 
to " btit ;" " ho^vever.''^ 

Mottovio ; keredomo \ shikaredomo ; shikasM'; 

shikashinagara; shikartmi; saredo\ tokoro 

ga'y tadashi. 
« Shikaredomo " and " s are do " are used 

chiefly in writing, 

(3) Those denoting the relation of came and 
effect. 

^ Sore yue [iii) or Yzie ni, 
T/ierefore=. -l Karu ga yue ni.* 

(^ Sore desti [da) kara. 



Then 
or 

If it be so-= 



Shikaraba.* 
Sonnara. 
Sore de Tta. 
De wa. 



• These words are used in writing principally. 



( iS7 ) 



Thus=z 

Kokoni oite^ 



Sore de, 
De. 

1 

\Kakutey' 
C Shitagaae* 
Accorditig^y^i -l Volte. 

(^ Da kara. 

In ordinary conversation, however, the conjunt- 
tive postpositions are generally tcsed instead cf the 
getiuine conjunctions. 

'< Ame ga furi masu ga, yuki masho " in- 
stead of " Ame ga furi masu, shikashi 
yuki masho." 

" Ame ga furi^ mashita kara, yuki masea 
deshita " instead of " Ame ga furi ma. 
shita, sore yue wz yuki masen deshita." 



Y.-Yerbs. 

\ I. Conjugations of Verbs. 

The conjugations of verbs are regulated accord- 
ing to the order of the 50 sounds of the alpha- 
bet. (See pp. I.) 

Each verb consists of a root and an ending, 
and is conjugated by changing the ending, or the 
vowel of the last syllable. And there are six 
forms which each verb takes by conjugation. 

* These words are used in writing principally 



(I8S) 





f 

,- 1^ ►^ "^ 

^ 3 § S 'g 

rt c3 g O .- 

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( iS9) 





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Benkyo suru 
Sampo „ 
Kenkyu „ 



( I90 ) 






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(191 ) ^ 

In ordinary conversation, a predicate verb in 
an independent sentence takes the Second Form 
or the Continuing Form, follo\Yed by an auxi- 
liary " mostly And the mood, tense, voice and 
negative form are expressed by the conjugation 
of the auxiliary. 



\ ir. The Use of AoSiliarjes and Post- 
positions WITH EACH FORM OF A VeRB. 
Practical examples : — 

" nai," " n " {negative) to the First Fortn. 

" masu," " nasai," " nagara," "gake," "sS," 
u y5^" u ni " to the Second Form. 

" kamoshire masen (=nai), " to," ** naraba,'> 
« ga," " ka," *•' nari," « no," « ni," " no ni," « ni 
wa," « yori," " kara," " shi," " giri," « shika," 
"tsuide," "kurai," "tori," " dake," "take," 
" bakari," « sae," " yo," "so," " hodo," "mo- 
no," " tokoro," " wake," " to mo " to the 7hird 
Form. 

" to," " do," « ba " to the Fotirth Form, 
The Fifth Form means Imperative. 
The Sixth Form means Future. 
" kudasai," " kure," " morai," " itadaki," 
« tsukawashi," " age," " yari," " sashi age," 
" ike masen," " tari," " dari," " kara," " yori,'» 
« de mo," " te mo," " dara," " tara " to the 
Conjunctive. (See for the conjunctive in Auxi- 
liaries.) 



( m ) 



I II .« • II 



O Q 



5 ■§ § -^ -5 .S 



tn 4-1 



g ■° 



— o 



^ ^ 



ji93) 

More examples :— 

%sumi ga osoi desa. Progress is slow. 

Taihen omosh-irni ha- There is a very inter- 

naski ga ari masu. esting story. 

Kurushitni no ato ni There is a proverb, 

wa tanoshinii ga aru wliich says, " plea- 

to yu kotowaza ga sure comes after 

ari masu. pain," 

In the Japanese language, the relative pronoun 
is seldom used. 

Yomu ka yoma-nai ka I don't know, whether 

wakari masen. he will read or not. 

Vomeru hito ga inai. There is no one who 
can read it. 

Ei-go wo oshiera gak- A school where Ec^- 

ko. lish is taught. 

Osore-nai to yu no wa It is true that he say. 

honto desu. he is not afraid. 



-m- 



YI.— Auxiliaries. 

The oral Japanese language is much different 
from the written, and, as previously explained, 
the auxiliary " masti " is always used with « 
predicate verb in the oral language. 



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{M2 ) 

g TIL VoiCK. 

(I) T/je Passive Voice is formed by changing 
che suffix of a verb, (i) "«" into '' areru^^ or 
'■are fuasu^'' (2) ''sum" into " sa[=seni) re- 
nt" or "■ sa[—sera)re masu." (3) " Kiiiu'*'' va 
the fifth conjugation will be changed into 
** korareru " or '■'■ ko rare masu." 
Active. 

to sell VLXu. 

-, read yoxxiti. 

„ teach oshierM. 

„ examine... kokoromir« 

„ kick ker«. 

„ do :... stiru. 

„ attack k5geki j//r/»» 

„ come. ktiru. 

Passive. 

to be sold urareru. 

„ „ read yomareru. 

„ „ taught onhxerareru. 

„ „ examined ... kokoromirrt-rifn/. 

„ „ kicked \ie,xareru. 

„ „ done %a{-.-.sera)reru. 

„ „ attacked. ... kogeki sa(-. sera)reru. 

„ „ came korareru. 

The verbs m the " ha " line which end in 
•* u " souod, takes " zvareni " or " ware masu " 



C 24.1 ) 

instead of " a^rrzf" or >' art riasti" in passive 
form. As : — 

to save suku-M. 

„ think ..,, omo«, 

„ say yu-w. 

.» „ iu. 

„ hate khziu. 

Passive. 

to be saved ^viknivareiiA. 

„ „ thought oxno7varerz4. 

„ „ said yaivareru, 

» „ „ ,..,..,. \7vareru. 

„ „ hated kixaTvareru. 

More examples : — 

Acfive. Passive. 

Kaze ga kono iye wo Kono iye wa kaze ni 

fuki-laxvoshi mashi- ftiki-iawosare mashi- 

ta. ta, 

(Tlie wind blew thii (This house was blown 

house down.) ^-own by the wind.) 

Minna ga anata wo u<a- Anata wa minna ni ^vc^ 

rau desho. rawareitt desho. 

(They will laugh at (You will be laughed at 

you.) by them.) 



C 244 ) 

Dare ga anata no inu Anata no inu wa dare 

wo koroshi mashita ni korosare Jiiashita, 

(ka). (ka). 

(Who killed your (By whom was your 

dog ?) dog killed ?) 

Dare ga A san wo su- A s^a 1 wa dare xixsuku- 

kui mashita (ka). wcn-a mashita (ka). 

(Who saved Mr. A?) (By whom was Mr. A 
saved ?) 

(II) The very same form may be used in a 
polite expression in the active voice of both tran- 
sitive and intransitive verbs. 

A san ga sakujitsu ko- Mr. A called on me 
rare {~ki) mashita. yesterday. 

Ano hito wa sakunen He died last year. 
shinare {==shim) 
mashita. 

Anata no ototsan wa When will your father 
\is\i kaerare {—kaeri) come back ^ 
masu (ka). 

A san wa kono iye wo I heard that Mr. A has 
go-Kn yen de l:aiva- bought this liouse 

reta (^ kaita) so de- for 5,000 yen. 



( 245 ) 

Passive voice. Polite form in the ^ 

active voice. \ 

h. san wa sensei ni ho- Sensei ga A san wo 
merare mashita. homr^tare { — home) 

mashita. i 

(Mr. A waj pis^ssd by (The teacher praised ] 

the teacher.) Mr. A.) i 

Sliinsetsu-na hi to wa Hakushaku wa taiso ' 

aisemre masu. kiku wo aiserare 

[ — aishi) masu. ■ 

(A kind man -.5 loved by (The count loves ch- 
his neighbours.) rysanthemums very ! 

much.) j 

(I L\) The potential mood may be formed by i 
(i) the very same form and (2) changing the last i 
sound "«" of the verbs, which belong to the 
1st conjugat'on into " eru " or '' e w«j»'." ' 

Examples : — 

to buy kaK. J 

.> strike uts^;. J 

„ drink — ..,...t„...„e...,.,« ncm«. 

„ walk , arukw. ! 

„ speak hanasM. 

*• iise mochi/r«. 

„ go down , oriru. 

„ rficeive. ukeru. 

„ l^uiild tat^m. 



^4M 

to develop,,, ,,.. hatlatsu -^rw. 

„ come kuru. 

{ \z.ivar<irun 

can buy > 

'^ \ia.eru. 

{\\\.arerv. 
vXeru. 

( nomarerf4. 

„ drink ^ 

I nom^;«. 

{arvikarrta. 
aruk<fr«. 
fhanasareru. 
hanasi?r«. 

„ use mochinar^ru. 

„ go down OTiTnrc'nf. 

„ receive ukerareru. 

„ build taterareru. 

„ develop hattatsu j«(----j^r'2)^-^rM 

„ come korareru. 

More examples : — 

W'alakushi ni wa oboe- I can't rememl>er- 

rate masen. 
Anata ni wa kake ( ~ You could write it. 

kakart) masho. 



C247 ) ^ ; 

" j 

Watakushi wa kyo wa I can't go to-day. ■ 

yukare {^yuke) ma- ] 

sen. 1 

Sore wa hanasare (~ I can't tell that 

hanase) masen. ' 

(IV) In the Japanese language, there is a 
special form of the verb which is used to express | 
the same idea as the verb " (0 let " or " to make'^ j 
in English. | 

(i) T}i€ formation of the active voice of a verb 
in this form is made as follows: — 

a. Changing the suffix, u sound into <' aseru^'' ■ 

or " ase mani,^'' but the verbs in the " //a" j 

line which end in ii sound, take " wase- ' 

ru " or " wase rjiasti " instead of " aseru " \ 

or " ase masu.^' I 

i 
k. Changing " iru " into <* isaseru " or " isase 1 

masu^ : 

e. Changing " eru " into '< esaseru " or " esase ; 

masu." j 
</. Changing " sttru " into " saseru " or " sase 

masu." i 

e. Changing the verb " kiiru " into *< ko 1 

saseru " or " ko sase masuP 1 

(2) The formalio7t of the passive voice of a \ 

verb in this form is made by changing '* >;<," the | 

last syllable of the active voice of this form, into 1 

*' rareru " or " rare masu^ As : — ; 



( 24S) 







-^ 




^ 


























n 




3 


























&/} 






























O 




(U 


























<u 




^ 






















^ 




•-a 




_o 
























rt 




















.^-\ 














O 




.^ 








/-s 




1 






t? 




o 
o 


Si 


.^ 


O 


1 




r§ 


1' 

c 


i 


o 




i 






S) 


i 


i 


5; 

<3 


i 


1 


i 


S 


'V 






g 


8 




V 




%J 


rt 


k 


rt 




ri 


1 


a 


1 


rt 








g 


^ 


s 


s 


1 


a 


1 


S 


a 


s 


<u 




^ 


0) 


s 


D 


rt 


OJ 


■_ 


<u 


Q 


<u 


'lO 


(U 


'Vj 


(U 




<3 

a 


J2 


2 


o 


o 


o 


o 


<-> 


o 


,i2 
O 


5 

5 


o 




[>> 


^^ — 


^ 


^"^ 


rl3 


^■^ 


^ 


' 


rt 


^"^ 


,^ 


w 


^ 





•3^2 ^ OS 






(1) «-» G 



<3 4-. 



O 
rt O rt O 'O 

Pe W ^ W r^ 



r^ vS 



§ -^ 






2 « 



6 S: 5 ^ 



e.2 



c3 5- 'T^ (U y '-' 
OrtOaO'3ortO>,OaO 

dt-^ C.^ w^ Ots ^,i<l H^-^t il' 



( 249 ) 



More examples ; — 
A san ni yaraseru tsu- J. was intending to let 



mori de sbitara, kaet- 
le watakushi ga yara- 
serare mashita. 
Watakushi wa B san 
kara yoi koto wo ki- 
kaserare masliita. 



Mr. A do that, but, j 
on the contrary, I 
was made to do. : 

am told of good j 
news by Mr. B. \ 



(3) The passive form of this sort may be also 
used for a respedfu^ expression in the active voice, 
of both transitive and intransitive verbs. 

Passive. Polite fonn. 

Watakushi wa kesa Miya-sama wa kesa 

Uyeno ni yukaserare \]-^qwovi\ ynkascrare 

mashita. (==ytiki) mashifa. 

(I was sent to Uyeno (The Prmce went to 

this morning.) Uyeno this morn- 
ing.) 



PART III. 

CHAPTEB I.-JAPANESE AND 
ENGLISH CONVERSATION. 



2 I- So3hO' (Early Morning.) 

A. Ohayo gozai masu. A. Good morning, Mi. 

B. 

B. Ya, o-hayo gozai B. Good morning, Mr. 

masu. Kesa wa A. It seems to De 

daibu o-attaka no pretty warm this 

yo desu ne. morning. 

A. Hai, 5ki ni samusa A. Yes, the cold has 

ga yurunde ki ma- moderated a great 

shita. Mo, jiki deal lately. The 

sakura ga saki ma- cherry blossoms 

sho. will be out very 

soon. 

B. Sukoshi kumotte ki B. It is getting cloudy 

mash it a. now. 

A. Ima-shi-gata made A. It was quite clear a 
hare te ori mashi- little while ago. 

taga. 



( 251 ) 



B. So desu, itsumo ko- 
no-goro wa lenki 
ga kawari yasu go- 
zai masu. 

.A- Mata ame desu ka 
na. 

B. Doka furasetaku 
nai mon desu ga. 

A. Toki-ni, anata asa- 

go-han wa mo o- 
sumi desu ka. 

B. Hai, itadaki ma- 

shita. Wataku- 
shi wa taigai shi- 
chi-ji zengo ni 
asa-han (— asa- 
meshi) wo tabe 
masu. Anata wa 
mada desu ka. 
A.. Hai, sakuban sho- 
sho yo-fukashi wo 
shita tame ni, ke- 
sa wa asane wo 
itashi ma.shite 
mada meshi-mae 
desu. 



B. Yes, the weather is 

very changeable 

at this season of { 

the year. I 

A» It will rain again, ; 
i 

I fear. i 

B. But I hope, it will • 

not. i 

A. By the way, have ' 

you had breakfast : 
already ? 

B. Oh yes, I have. I '■ 

generally breakfast 
at 7, or thereabout. 
Have you not 
breakfasted yet ? ! 



A. No, 1 slepc late 
this morning, be- 
cause 1 went to bed 
very late last night, 
and I have not 
breakfasted yet. 



( 252 ) 



B. Fudan wa nanji go- 
ro o-oki ni nari 
masu (ka). 

A. So de&u ne, amari 

haya oki no hi> 
de wa ari masen 
ga, mazu roku-ji 
kara shichi-ji no 
aida desu. 

B. Soredewa, wataku- 

shi no ho ga su- 
koshi haya-oki 
desu, watakushi 
wa itsumo roku-ji 
mae ni kitto oki 
masu. 

A. Yabun wa nanji 

goro o-yasumi na- 
sai masu (ka). 

B. Futsu ju-ji desu. 

A. Yo-fukashi wa do- 
ku desu ne. Ke- 
8a wa atama ga 
bonyari shite ori 
masu. 



B. What time do you 
get up as a rule ? 

A. Well, I am not an 

early riser, but " I 
usually get Up be- 
tween 6 and 7 °'' 
clock. 

B. Then, I am a little 

earlier than you 
are, for I get up 
regularly before 6 
every morning. 



A. What time do you 

go to bed, then ? 

B. Well, at lo o'clock 

as a rule. 
A. To be up late at 
night is bad for 
the health. I feel 
dull this morning. 



r^53j ^ i 

B. So desho, go-han B. That's too bad. i 

wo agatte yukku- Then take break- 

ri o-yasumi nasal fast, and rest for j 

mashi. a while. 

K. Arigato gozai ma- A. Thank you. ■ 
su. 

B. Nochi hodo mata B. I shall come again j 

ukagai masu. later. I 

i 

A. S& desu ka. Do- A. Well. I am very \ 

mo hanahadashi- sorry (to let you i 

tsurei wo itashi go so soon). Please i 

mashita. Sore de come again. | 

wa mata oide ku- ; 

dasai. '■ 

B. Say5nara. B. Goodbye! j 
A. Dewa, o-machi A. Then, I sViall be ] 

moshite ori masu. glad to have you | 

Sayonara. call on me again. • 

Good morning, Mr. : 

B. 



i IT. Homon. (A Visit-) 

Kyaku, Danna wa o- Visitor. Ts the mastei 
uchi desu ka. at home ? 



(J50 ^ 

fochu. Hai, o-takuie Wait<'r. Yes, he is, sir. 

gozai masu. Do- Who are you, plea- 

nata de irasshai se ? 

masu ka. 
K, Watakushi wa ... V. I am Please 

... desuga. Chot- tell him I want to 

to o-me ni kakari- see him for a mo- 

tai to yutte kuda- ment. 

sai. 

J. Kashikomari mashi- W. Certainly. Please 

ta. Shosho o-ma- wail a moment. 

chi kudasai. 



/. Koyu o-kata ga oide 
ni nari m^shi tf , 
chotto o-me ni ks^.- 
kari-tai to osshai 
masu, 

Shiijin. Kyaku-ma ni 
go-annai mose, or 
Otoshi mose. 

J. Dozo kochira m o- 
hairi kudasai. Ta 
da ima jiki o-me 
ni kakari masu- 



W. A gentleman of 
this nane has 
come and wants to 
see you, sir. 

blaster. Lead him to 
the parlor ; of 
Show him into the 
drawing room. 

W. Please step in this 
room, sir. The 
master will see you 
at once. 



( 255 ) ; 

— ^ — . . I 

5*. Ma. kore wa o-me- M. 1 am very glad to | 

dzurashii. Yoku see you. You are ■ 

irasshai mashita. quite a Strang- , 

Hisashi-ku o-me er ! I have not 

ni kakari masen seen you for a ; 

deshita ne. long while. : 

A". Go-kigen yo. Cho- V. How do you do, sir ? ] 

i 

do go-zaitaku no I am delighted to 

tokoro de ii am- find you at home. ; 

bai deshita. | 

S Ilsu T5kyo ni oide M. When did you come \ 

deshita. up to Tokyo ? ; 

A'. Zenshu no doyobi V. I came to Tokyo the 1 

ni mairi mashita. last Saturday. j 

S. Kondo wa itsu ma- M. How long will you i 

de go-taizai desu stay this time ? { 

ka. I 

Ti' So desu ne, ikka- K Well, I intend to \ 

getsu hodo oru stay about a 

tsumori desu. month. 

51 0-yado wa dochira M. Where are you stay- 

desu ka. ing now ? 

/^. Tadaima wa K an- ^'l I am now staying at 

da ni ori raasu Kanda, but I am 

ga, myon'chi Shi- going to remove to 



^^256J 

ba no ho ye kosu Shiba, to-morrow. 

. tsumori desu. 

* * ♦ » 

liT. Mo, o-itoma ni ita- V. Well, I think, J 

shi inasho. must go. 

S. Ma, yoi desho, yuk- 3/. Don't be in hurry, 

kuri shite iras- Mr. V. 

shai. 

A". Arigato gozai ma- F. Thank you. But 

su ga, hoka ni I've another en 

yoji mo gozai ma- gagement 

su kara Good-bye. 

Sayonara. 

5". Saydnara, mata o- Af. Good-bye, come a 

ide kudasai. gain please. 

2 III. Shokai- (To introduce 
a Friend) 

A. T san wo go- A. I wish to introduce 

sliokai itashi ma- to you Mr. T. Mr. 

sho. T san wa T just returned 

sakujitsu Ame- from America 

rika kara o-kaeri vesteraay, 
ni natta tokor# 
desu. 



( ^57 ) 



B, Kore wa hajimete 
o-me ni kakari 
mashita. 

A. Kono kata wa wa- 

takushi no sliinyu 
no B san desu. 

T. Yoi tokoro de o-me 
flikakari mashi:a. 
Anata no o-uwasa 
wa kanete Ame- 
rika ni ori masu 
jibun ni ukagai 
mashita, 

8 Hisashi-ku achira 
ni oide deshita 
ka. 

T. So desu ne, kare- 
kore go-nen mo 
ori mashita. 

B. Watakushi mo iro 

go-nen hodo ko- 
chira ni ori masu. 

\. Sono nochi ichido- 
mo o-kairi ni nari 
masen deshita ka. 



B. I am glad to meet 
you, Mr. T. 

A. He is Mr. B, an 
intimate friend of 
mine. 

T. Very glad to meet 
you. I have often 
heard of you when 
I was in America. 



B. Ho'V long were you 
there ? 

T. 1 have been ihere 
about 5 years, you 
iinow. 

B. I was here aboui 
5 years too. 

T. Haven't you ever re- 
turned to your home 
since y*?u left it ? 



( 25') 



B. Hai, ichicio-mo ma- 
da kaeri masen. 
Rainen wa zehi 
chotto kaeri-tai to 
omotte ori masu. 



B. No nevpr. But I 
hope I shall be 
able to go home 
next year. 



T. Do desii, A san 
mo o-itoma ni ita- 
shi masho ka. 

A. So desu ne. Chodo 

sanji desu. 

B. Ma iidesho. Yuk- 

kuri o-hanashi mo 
deki masen de 
hanahada zannen 
desu. Idzure kin- 
jitsu ukagai masu. 

A. T san mo taku 
ni tobun ori 
masu kara, dozo 
go-tsugn no yoi 
toki ni oide kuda- 



T. I think, we must go, 
Mr. A. 

A. Yes, i think so. It 

is just 3 o'clock 
now. 

B. Must you go so 

soon ? I am sorry 
we have not lime 
enough to talk 
more. Well, I 
hope to call on 
you before long. 
A. Mr T lives with 
us for the present. 
So please come lo 
see us when you 
find it convenient. 



C 259 ) 



B. Arigato ^ozai ma- 
s«. DewM tsugi 
no doyo-bi no go- 
go wa o-uchi de- 
sa ka. 

A. Hai, go-ji made wa 

uchi ni ori masu 
ga,go-ji kara yoso 
ye yuku yakusoku 
ga ari masu. 

B. A !■ So desu ka. 

Soredewa ni-ji ni 
ukagai masu. 
A. Shochi itashi ma- 
shita. Sayonara. 



B. Thank you. Thei 
will you be a 
home next Satui 
day afternoon ? 

A. Yes, we shall be at 

home before 5 ; but 
we have an engage- 
Kient to go out at 5 
o'clock. 

B. Oh yes. Well, then 

I shall come at 2. 

A. All right! Good- 
bye. 



T. Tokini, A san, itsu T. By the way, Mr. A, 



ka C san ni mo 
go-shokai kuda- 
sai masen ka. 
A. O-yasui go-y5 de- 
su. Myoban taku 
ni oide ni naru 
hadzu desTi kara, 
sono toki go-sliD- 
kai itashi masho. 



would you kindly 
introduce me to 
Mr. C some day ? 
A, With pleasure ! 1 
shall introduce you 
to him to-morrow 
evening, when he 
will come to see 
me. 



( 26o ) 

? IV. Michi wo Tadzunern Toki- 

(Asking the Way-) 

A.0 Chotto ukagai ma- A. Excuse me, but 
su ; Shimbashi ye which way shall (I) 
de masu niwa do go to get to Shim- 
itiairi masu no bashi? ^7?- Wliich is 
desu ka. ^r Shim- the way to Shim- 
bashi ye wa do bashi ? 
mairi masu no 
desu ka. 

B. Kono michi wo B. Go straight on by 

massugu ni oide this way. or Go 

nasai. straight aliead. 

Tottsuki no kado Take the first turning 

wo hidari ye o- to the left, 
magari nasai. 

Niban-me (or futa- Take the second 

tsu-me) no kado turning to the right. 
wo migi ye o- ma- 
gari nasai. 

A.. Uyeno ye wa kore A. Does this road lead 

wo mairi mashite to Uyeno? 
yoroshu gozai 
masu ka. 



C 2^1 ) 



B. liye ! kore wo itte 
wa ike masen. 
Kore wo iku t« 
Asakusa ye de 
masu. 
(Kore wa Asakusa 
ye yuku michi 
desu.) 

A. Koko kara Asa- 

kusa made done 
kurai ari masu 
(ka). 

B. Kare-kore hammi- 

chi mo gozai ma- 
sho. 

A ye mairi ma- 
su no ni, dore ga 
ichiban chika- 
miclii desu (ka). 

B. Kore ga ichiban 
chika-michi desu 

Ao Nicho-me Sanban- 
chi wa dono-lien 
desu (kaj. 



B. No, sir, this does not 
lead there, but it 
will take yoa to 
Asakusa. 

(This is the way to 
Asakusa, you 

know. ) 
A. How far is it from 
here to Asakusa? 



B. It is about half a 
mile from here. 

A. Which is the short- 
est way to ? 



B. This is the shortest 

way. 
A. Where is No. 3 of 

Nich5-me? 



( 262 ) 

B. Sore wa kono ura- B. It is in the street be- 
dori dcsu. hind (this build- 

ing). 

A to yu na A. Please tell me, if 

no hito wa ori there is a person 

masen ka. called in 

this neighbour- 
hood. 
B. Ni-san-cho saki no B. Two or three cho 
muko-gawa ni o- ahead, ou the other 

ide desu. side of the street, 

you will find him. 
A. Arigato gozai ma- A. Thank you, I am 
su; makoto ni much obliged to 

o-jama wo itashi you. 

mashita. 



? V. Iseki to Shorei- (Comfort 
and Encouragement) 

A.. Kono-tabi wa ma- A. I am very sorry to 

koto ni o-ki-no- hear of the mis- 

doku-na koto de fortune you have 

gozai mashita. lately sustained. 

B. Waza-waza omi- B. Thank you very 

mai kudasutte mucli for com. 



C 263 ) 



makoto ni arigato 
gozai masu. O- 
moigake-rial koto 
de ikanimo zan- 
nen ni omoi ma- 
su. 

A. Sayo de gozai ma- 

sho tomo. 0-sas- 
shi moshi masu. 

B. I ma- no tokoro de- 

wa, do shitara yoi 
ka hotondo kan- 
-gae ga tsuki ma- 



ing to condole with 
me. 1 1 came quite 
unexpectedly, you 
know; nothing 
could cause m« 
more sorrow. 

A. Indeed I I deeply 

sympathize with 
you. 

B. Now I am almost at 

my wit's end, hoM 
to make good mj 
loss. 



A. Sliikashi amari shi- 

tsuLo nasulte wa 
ike masen yo. 
Mada o-wakai no 
desu mono (= ka- 
ra), zento nakana- 
ka yubo de wa 
ari masen ka. 

B. VNatakushi mo ko- 

ko de mo hito- 
fumpatsushi naku 
tewa naran (=ike 



A. But you mast n4 

be too much dis- 
couraged, Mr. B. 
A? you are young 
yet, your future \i 
very hopeful still. 
Don't you think 

50? 

B. Yes, I must be more 

courageous in this 
case, I think. But 
when I come to 



[ 264 ) 



masen) to omotte 
ori masu ga, nani- 
bun hidoi me ni 
ai mashita koto 
wo omoi masu to, 
shizen genki mo 
kujikete shimai 
masu. 

A. Tya, so mikitta 

mono demo ari 
masumai. Ganrai 
konkwai no ship- 
pai wa tsumari un 
ga warukatta no 
desu, mattaku 
anata no ayama- 
chi de wa ari ma- 
sen mono. 

B. Sore ni shite mo, 

unmei ga amari 
zankoku de shita. 
A.. Sore wa soka mo 
shire masen ga, 
ma gaman shite, 
sore nl uchikatsu 
no desu. " Kan- 



think over the mat 
ter which went so 
deadly wrong, 1 
can not help be- 
coming quite dis- 
couraged. 



A. Oh, do not look on 
the matter so badly. 
Your failure this 
time is owing to 
misfortune after 
all. There is no 
fault on your part 
at all. 



B. May be, but provid- 
ence was too severe 
upon me, indeed. 

A. Well, it may have 
been so. j3ut lust 
bear and overcome 
it. As it is well 
said, " Through dif- 



^265 ) 



nan nanji wo ta- 
ma ni su " to ii 
masu kara nande 
mo kannan ni 
ayeba au hodo 
yCiki wo dasu no 
desu. 
B. Sore wa mo go- 
mottomo desu ga, 
nakanaka mutsu- 
kashii koto desu. 
Shikashi madzu 
tonikaku fumpa- 
tsu shite, hitotsu 
kaifuku wo yari 
masho. 

A. Zenryoku wo soso- 

ide o-yari nasal. 

B. Sukunaku tomo fu- 

chui de atta koto 
dake wa jibun ni- 
mo makoto-ni 
hadzukashi-ku o- 
motte ori masu. 
A. liye, sore wa, shu- 



ficulty one conies 
out a Jewel," you 
see. So, the more 

difficulties, the ! 

more courageous i 

one must be. | 

I 

i 

B. Certainly, we must | 

be so, though it may j 

be a most dlffi- ! 

cult thing. But any ; 

way I shall stir up j 

myself and try to ] 

restore my fortune i 

again. ! 
i 

A. I hope you will do i 

so with your full 
energy. 

B. At lea^jt I am asham- 

ed of myself for 
having been toe 
careless about the 

matter. | 

I 

A No. no. It is little i 



(266) 



dan ni \va ayaraa- 
chi mo axi masho 
ga, betsu-ni hin- 
kaku wo otosu 
yo-na kolo wa ari 
niasen kara chit- 
tomo hadzuru ko- 
to wa ari masen. 
D. Sliikashi jlssai kei- 
■ solsu ga shippai 
no moto deshita 
yo ; mo korikori 
shi mashita. 

A. lya, sore ga Kaette 
)oi kyokun deshi- 
ta: 5. Jjoka :go- 
Seiko no hodo wo 
negai niasu. 

tl. lya, iroiro goshin- 
selsu-ni go-cliui 
ya go-shorei wo 
koniuri mashile 
domo arigato go- 
zai mastiita. 



blame to you, for 
allhough changed 
in your means, yet 
you have not lost 
in your character. 



B. But, as a matter of 
fact, rashness was 
the real cause of 
my failure, and I 
have tasted the full 
bitterness oJ it. 

A. Why, then, you 

have learned a 
good lesson. I shall 
be very glad and 
waiting to see your 
success. 

B. I thank you very 

much for your kind 
advice and en 
couragement. 



( ^67 ) 

I VI. Kisha Ryoko- (Travellings 
by Railway) 

A. Auata wa Tokyo A. Are you going to 

ye oide desu ka, Tokyo ? 

D. Watakushi wa Yo- D. I am going to Yoko- 

kohama ye mairi hama. 

masu. 

A. Tsugi no kisha wa A. When does the next 

itsu de masu ka. train leave for 

C. Ju-ji ni de masu. C. At ten o'clock. 

A. Jtto (nito, sant5) A. I want a first (se- 

no kippu wo ichi- cond, third) ticket. 

mai kudasai. 

A. Kodomo no kippu A. I want two half- 

wo ni-mai kuda- tickets for my 

sai. children. 

C. 0-ikutsu desu ka. C. How old are they ? 

A. Hilori wa yattsu de, A. One is eight and 

mo hitori wa t5 the other is ten. 

desu. 

A. Yokohama made A. Wiiat is the fare to 

ikura desu (ka). Yokohama ? 

C. Go-yen rokivjissen C Five yen and sixty 

desu. sea. 



(268) 

A. Tsugi no teisha-jo A. What is the name of 
wa doko desu ka, the next station? 

D. Watakushi wa zonji D. I don't know, 
masen. 

A. Nimotsu no kippu A. Where can I get a ■ 

wa doko de wata- ticket for my lug- 

shi masu (ka). gage ? \ 

D. Asuko no nimotsU' D. At the luggage 

toriatsukai-jo de. booking office 
there. 

A. Kono nimotsu wo A, Please check these 

Yokohama made things to Yoko- 

adzukatte kudasai. hama. 

E Dure ga anata no E. Which is your lug- 

nimotsu desu ka. gage ? 

A. Kore de gozai masu. A. These are mine. 

A. Mo jiki de-masu ka. A. Will the train start 
soon ? 

D. Sugu de masu; su- D. In a few minutes j 
dzu wo narashite the bell is rung- 

ori masu. ing. 

A. Kore wa kyuko res- A. Is this an express 
sha desu ka. train ? 

D. liye, kyiiko de wa D. No, it is not an 
ari masen. express train. 



(269) 



A. Kono kislia wa» A. 

made chokko desu 
ka. 

D. liye, chokk5 de wa D, 

ari masen ; • de 

ichido nori kae ga 
ari masu. 

A. Mado wo shime te- A. 
mo yo gozai masu 
ka. 
Mado wo shime ma- 

sh5 ka, 
Kono seki wa fusa- 

gatte ori masu. 
0-ki-no-doku desu 
ga, kono kaban wo 
dokete kudasai ma- 
sen ka. 
Kore wa Kanagawa 
desu kara, tsugi wa 
Yokohama desu ne. 



D. Dewa nio, jiki ni D, 
Isuki masu. 



Does this train go j 
through to ? i 

No, it does not go 
through; you ' 

must change cars I 
once at . \ 

May I shut the ] 
window ? I 

! 

Shall I shut the 
window ? i 

This seat is en- 
gaged. ^ 
Excuse me, but , 
would you kindly j 
remove this trunk j 
from the seat ? i 
"This is the Kana- ] 
gawa station, and 

the next is the 

i 
y^okohama sta \ 

tlon. 

Then we are near- '■ 

ly at the end of 

our jo-.irney. ■ 






Ssi tswki mashita, -We are at our des- 

tination now. 
A. Deguchi w?. doko A. Which is the way 

desu ka. out ? 

D. Degucln wa asuko D. That is the way 
desu. out. 



^ VII. Yadoya nl te- (In a Hotel-) 

G. He3'a ga aite ori ma- ^ 

su ka. V ^'- Have you a vacant 

Aita heya ga ari | room? 

masu ka. ) 

S. Nikai ni gozai masu. S. On the second 

floor. 

G. .Shidzuka-na heya G. I want a quiet j 

ga hoshii no desu. room, ' 

Kono heya wa am- This room is too j 

mari semai. small. ; 

Motto okii heya wa Haven't you a | 

nai no ka, larger room ? i 

S, Kono heya cie wa S. How will this i 

ikaf;^ de gozai masu room do? ■ 

fO. This will do. 
Ihis room is all i 
right. 



r 271 } 



Furo wa aite ori ma- 
su ka. 

Yado wa ichinichi 
ikura desu ka. 

Sukoshi hanashi-tai 
koto ga am kara 
ban 1 6 wo yonde 
kudasai. 

Ei-go wo go-zonji de- 
su ka. 
M. Hon no sukoshi ba- 
kari 

Dozo yukkuri o-hana- 
shi kudasai ; amari 
hayai to kikitore ma- 
sen. 

G. Watakushi no yu ko- 
to ga wakari masu 
. ka. 

C. Sukkari wakari masu. 

G. Annai-sha wo hitori 
yatotte morae masu- 
mai ka. 

M. Sh5chi itashi mashita. 



Can 1 lia\'e a 
warm bath now ? 

What is the char- 
ge per day ? 

Please send the 
manager ; I wish 
to speak to him. 

Do you speal< 
Enghsh ? 

M. Only a little, sir- 
Please speak 
slowly ; if you 
speak too fast, 1 
can't catch the 
words. 

G. Do you under- 
stand me ? 

C. Perfectly] 

G. Can you recom- 
mend me a 
guide ? 

M. Certainly. 



C 272 ) 



G. jii-yen satsu wo ichi- 
mai kudzushite ita- 
dakare ( — morae) 
masu ka. 

M. Oyasui go-)'o desu, 
Shibaiaku go-loryu 
desu ka. 
G. Muko isshukwan, 

Yagu wa yoku hoshi- 
te ari masu ka. 

Ketto wo mo ichi- 
mai hoshii mono 
da. 

Benjo wa doko desu, 

Kutsu wo migakase- 

te kudasai. 
Wataslii no nimotsu 

wa tsuki mashita ka. 
Tsuitara nikai ni age- 

te oite kudasai. 

Match i wo molte ki- 
te kudasai. 



G. Can you change 
me a ten.yen- 
bill? 

M. With pleasure. 
Are you going to 
stay here long? 

G. A week from 

to-day. 
Are the beds well 

aired ? 
I should like tc 

have another 

blanket. 
Where is the W. 

C? 

Have my shoes 
cleaned, please. 

Has • my lug- 
gage arrived ? 

Please send it 
upstairs, when 
it comes. 

Bring me som< 
matches 



c 273 •) 



Asu no asa wa roku- 
ji ni okushite kuda- 
sai. 

"Buraslii'* to kushi 
wo kashite kudasai. 

Kondate ^^o chotto 
misete kudasai. 

Nani ga deki masu 
(ka). 

Soppu wo sugu motte 
kite kudasai. 

[Kono yado-ya wa 
donna guwai desu 
(ka). 

Shigoku yoroshii de- 
su. 

Hijo ni shidzuka 
(kwansei) de, kirei 
(sei ketsu) desu.] 
G. Cha wo irete morat- 
te kudasai. 

Kohiwo ippai motte 
kite o-kure. 

Kono kohi wa amma- 
ri atsui. 



Please wake me 
at 6 o'clock to- 
morrow morn- 
ing. 

Lend me a brush 
and comb. 

Let me see the 
bill of fare. 

What have you 
ready ? 

Bring me some 
soup at once. 

How do you like 
this hotel ? 

I like it very 

much. 
It is very quiet 

and clean. 

G. Order some tea 

for me. 
Bring me a cup of 

coffee. 
This coffee is too 

hot. 



C 274 :> 

Chichi no tsumetai no I should like 

ga hoshii. some cold milk. 

Ko aisukute vva te mo I can't touch so 

tsukerare masen. hot a cup as this. 

Cha wo mo ippai. Another cup of 

tea. 

Shimbun ga ari masu Have you a news- 

ka. paper ? 

M. Taimusu mo Meiru M. We have either 

mo gozai masu. the " Times " o 
the "Mail." 

G. Hamaki wo ippon G. Won't you smoke 

ikaga desu. a cigar ? 

M. Arigato gozai masu M. No, thank you. 1 

ga, watakushi wa do not smoke, 
sui masen. 

\j. Kanjo ga dekite i G. Is my bill ready ? 
masu ka. 

Kanjo wa minna-de How much have 1 

ikura ni nari masu to pay in all ? 
ka. 

Kono kakitsuke wa I can't read thij 

yome nai kara, ana- bill, so please 

la yakushite knka- translate it to 

sai. me. . , 



c 275 :) 



Kuruma de iki ma- 

sho. 
Annai ni harai wo 

shite kudasai. 
Domo, okini o-sewa 

ui nari mashita. 



I will take a jin- 
rikisha. 

Please pay the 
guide for nie. 
I thank you for 
your kind help 
Sayo nara. and attention. 

Good-bye. 
M. Go-kigen y6; mata M. Fare you well, sir, 
dozo oide kudasai and please come 

mashi. again. 

G. Kuruma-ya, narutake G. Jinrikislia-man, I 
isoide moraitai. want you to run 

as quickly as pos- 
sible. 



CHAPTER II.-A LIST OF SOME 
IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS. 

(Japanese — English.) 



Abu-nai koto wo svuru. To run a ristk. 

Aisatsu wo suru. To salute. 

Aisomi masen. I feel uneasy in re^rd 
to you ; I beg your 
pardon for 



( 276 ) 



Also wo suru, 
Aiso no nai hito. 
Ake-hanashi muyo. 

Aiso ga tsukiru. 

Arigato gozai masu. 
Ashikarazu omotte ku- 
dasai. 



Ate ni naranai. 
Bachi ga atara. 

Baka-ni, 

Buru-Luru furueru. 

Cha wo o-ire. 

Cha wo ippai kudasau 

Chibi-chibi. 



Chodo yoi. 



To treat courteously. ; 

An uncivil person. ; 
Don't leave the door 

open. I 

To become disaftect- i 

.d. I 

Thank you. | 

Please do not mis- | 

understand me ; J 

please do not think j 

ill of me. I 

It is not to be depend- ' 

ed on. ;. 

To be smitten of \ 

God. t 

Foolishly; exceeding- ■ 

ly. \ 

lo tremble with fear i 

or cold. f^ 

Make some tea. ' 

Please give me a cup 

of tea. I 

V 

Little by little; a ] 

little at a time. ,i 

Just right. I 



^ 277 } 



Chokkuri dekiru. 
Deki shidai motte koi. 

Deki ga warui. 
Demo gakusha. 

Darashi-ga-nai. 
Dar5 banashi. 

Deiri no mono. 



Dekinai sodan 



Do sliitara yokaro. 
Do demo yoi. 
Dochira mo dochira. 



Will do in a moment. 
Bring it as soon as it 

is done. 
It is badly made. 

A scholar of common 
ability ; charlatan. 

Disorder; careless. 

Supposition ; surmise ; 
conjecture. 

One who has an en- 
tree to a superior's 
residence for getting 
custom. 

As : — Deiri no saka- 
naya ; deiri no mono 
wo yaru (=to send 
one who ) 

Disagreeable proposal ; 
a suggestion which 
can by no means be 
consented to. 

What had I better do ? 

Anyhow will do. 

Both are bad. 



(278) 



Doka shite -yavi-tai mc- I wish I could help 

no da. him, 

Domo shiyo ga nai. There is no help for 

it. 
Dose deki-nai. Of course. I can't do it. 

Do ilashi mashite. Please, don't mention 

it 
Eshaku suru. To salute ; to make a 

formal apology. 
Fusho-busho ni yuku. To go in a slow and 

reluctant manner. 
Futsugo. Inconvenience; in- 

justice. 
Futsugo senban na ya- An unjust fellow. 

tsu. 
Futtsuri omoi-kiru. To dismiss entirely 

from one's thought. 
Genkin kakene nashi. Ready money and but 

one price. - 
Go-annai no tori. As you are aware ( = 

Go-shochi no tori, 

or go-zonji no tori). 

Go busata wo itashi I have been very re- 

mashita. miss in calling on 

you. 
Gochiso sama. Thanks for, your kind 



( 279 ; 



entertainment. (Said 
to the host on leav- 
ing, after a feast or 
entertainment.) 

Go-chumon dori. According to your 

orders ; exactly 

what you want. 

Go-doyo ni. In the same way as 

you; on my side 
also. 

Go-enryo naku. Without diffidence ; 

without reserve ; 
without standing on 
ceremony. 

Go-kigen yo. Are you well ? ; how 

do you do ? (used in 
greeting); fare you 
well; keep your 
health (used in de- 
parture). 

Go-kuro-sarna. (In sp- Thanks for your trou- 

eaking to persons of ble (used in thank- 

aa inferior class, ing a person for 

<' sama '' is dropped) the trouble he has 

taken. As ; — Art- 

gato gozai ninshita, 

domo gokiiro savia. 



( 28o ) 



Gomen nasai. 



kudasai, ) 



Go-menil5-na koto. 
Go-mendo-sama. 

Go-shochi no tori. 



Go-ran ni ireru. 



Go-ran nasai. 



I beg your pardon*, 

please excuse me. 
(These words are 
also called out by a 
visitor to a Japanese 
house, at the en- 
trance, where there 
is no calling bell, 
See : — '* 0-tanomi 
moshi masu.") 

A troublesome affair. 

Thank you for your 
trouble. 

As you are aware; as 
you know. (— Go- 
annai no tori or 
gozonji no tori.) 

To show (it to) you, 
I will show (it to) 
you. 

Please look (at it) ; 
lust as I (he or 
they) told you. 
(Sometimes used to 
show that what one 



\ 281 ; 



said beforehand was 
true or has become 
real, or used in scold- 
ing one who has 
committed a fault in 
undertaking some- 
thing against ano- 
ther's advice. As : — 
Sorg goran nasai, 
iivanai kotcJia 77ai.) 

Gotta kaesu. To be exceedingly 

confused. 

Go-teinei sama. Thanks for your 

courtesy and polite- 
ness. 

Go-yak kai sama. "j Thanks for your as- 

„ „ ni nari mashita. j sistance or atten- 
tion. (See " 0-sewa 
sama. ") 
Go-yukkuri ] Easily; leisurely; 

., „ nasai mashi. | slowly ; don't make 



, „ to o-hanashi 
nasai mashi. 



haste- Don't hur- 
ry away, but make 
yourself at home 
(Used to a visitor.) 



( 282 ) 



Go-zonji no tori. 



Haba-kiki (='fiaba ga 
kiku). 



Hajimaranai. 



1 f atena ! 
Ilabakari na^ara. 

liabakari saraa. 
1 lal.'akari ni yuku. 
llara ga tatsu. 
liaia no okii hito. 



I 



As you are aware ; as I 
you know (=Go- 
shochi no tori or go- 
annai no tori). 

One who has some in- 
fluence in a circle. 
( to be influen- 
tial.) 

Won't do ; can't be 

I 
managed ; is not ] 

I 
able to. (Literally '\ 

means " do not be- jl 

!| 

gin," but, in prac- ij 

tice, sometimes used I 

«uS ; — Ei-go 120 deki- i 

nai tsuben wo yatot- j ' 

temo haji juaranai.) 

What a strange mat- 
ter : Queer it is ! 

Excuse me; beg par- 
don for. 

Much obliged to you. 

To go to the privy. 

To be angry. 

A magnanimous man 






( 283 ) 



Hara-daclii magire ni 

utsu. 
Hara no kuroi hito. 
Hashiru 



Hisashihuri de ai ( — o- 
me ni kakari) msshi- 
ta. 

Hisashiku ai masen de- 
shit a. 

Hi ma wo yaru. 

Hima wo dasu. 

Hito wo cha ni sum. 
Hivakasu. 



Hodo no yoi hito, 

Ilyoshi nuke. 
Hyoshi ga yoi. ■ 
Hyotto shitara so de- 

sho. 
li kagen na koto wo (yu 

or suru). 



To _beat a person m 

anger. 
A malicious man. 
Running ; movement ; 

the first fruit cr 

fish. 
It is a long time since 

I met you. 

I have not seen you 
for a long time 

To grant a dismissal. 

To dismiss from ser- 
vice. 

To deride. 

To cool ; to divert, or 
amuse one's self by 
looking at. 

A man of good man- 
ner. 

Out of hme. 

To be fortunate, lucky. 

Perhaps It niay be so. 

To speak of to do 
something wilhou* 



( 2S4 ; 



responsibility; with- 
out any reliable 
reason or source. 

li kagen ni o-shi nasai. Don't go too far in 
doing something. 
As:— For "Don't 
work too hard ; " 
« don't speak too 
much ;" " don't stay 
too long;" etc. 
1 want you do that 
honestly and ear- 
nestly ; accomplish 
it with responsibili- 
ty- 
1 Indeed I Really! ( = 
J nam hodo.) 
A disagreeable fellow; 
heart-sickening fel- 
low. 
Ikenai koto wo itashi I have done a stupid 
mashita, thing. ( -Warui ko- 

to wo itashi mashi- 
ta.) 



li kagen ni yarare cha ' 

komaru. 
li kagen :oa koto wo 

sare cha komaru. 

Ika ni mo ! 
Ika-sama ! 
Ikesukanai yatsu. 



ii 



(285 



Ilcura mo gozai masen. There is (or are) not 

much (many) more. 

Ippuku ni itashi ma- ^ Let us rest a while ; 

sho. y let . vs take a 

Ippuku yari masho. J smoke. 
Ippuku o-agari nasai. "1 Please take a smoke ; 

„ o-agan'' nasai. * please rest a while 



Trasshai. 

Irasshai masu. 

[rasshai (achira yc). 
Issetsu or issai. 



Welcome sir; come 
here. 

He is at home ; he will 

come. 
Go there. 



Positively ; certainly ; 
absolutely. 

Isshin furan (— issho To be entirely taken 
kemmei) ni benkyo up with one's busi- 
ness. 

I will accept it. 

To take leave. 



wo suru, 
Itadaki masu. 
Itoma goi wo yu 
lyaki ga sasu. 



lya nara oyoshi. 



To have become 

averse to. 
Give (it) up, if you 

don't like (it). 



( 285 ) 

Jidanda wo funde oko- To stamp the feet in 

ru. rage. 

Jigane ga deru. To reveal one's true 

character. 

Jiji musai hito. A filthy man. 

Juni bun ni you. To be dead drunk. 
Kao wo tsutuiu. 



J 



To dishonour. 
Kao ni doro wo nuru. 

Kao wo tateru. To put honour upon. 

Kage-hinata no nai A faithful man. 

hito. 
Kake-gae no nai ko. The child whose loss 

cannot be replaced, 

Kamai masen. It doesn't matter; 1 

don't care. 

Kashikomari mashita. Certainly; with plea. 

sure. 
Kita wo motsu. To assist, or back an 

other ; to side with 

another. 
Kaca wo naraberu. To equal or match 

another. 
Kata wo tsukeru. To settle a quarrel; to 

arrange a matter. 



2S7 ) 



Kekko (de gozai masu.) 



Katakuchi. 

Katami ga hiroi. 
Katami ga semal. 
Kata4oki mo wa&Ure- 

nai. 
Kata-hara ilai. 
Katte ga warui. 
Katte-na hito da, 
Katte ni shiro. 



Ki ga ki de nai. 
„ „ fusagu. 
.. „ kiku. 



„ „ nai. 



kika-nai. 



j„ „ susuma-naj. 



tsuku. 



It is very good; it 
will do nicciy; il 

is O. K.; fine!; 

splendid ! 
One side of an argu- 
ment. 
To be boastful. 
To be sheepish. 
Did not forget even 

for a little while. 
To be laughable. 
Inconvenient. 
A selfish man. 
Do whatever you 

please. 
To be very anxious. 
To be gloomy. 
To be quick-witted or 

smart. 
To be dull-witted. 
No desire 5 no wish 

tor; indifferent. 
Not to be willing lo 
. do anything. 
To call to min'-' : "to 

notice, <?r perceiv.. 



(288) 



Ki ga tsuka-nai. 
Kimae ga i'l. 

Kimari ga warui. 

Kimi ga ii. 
„ „ warui. 

Ki ni iru. 

» „ ira-nw. 

„ „ kakaru. 

,, „ kakeru. 

„ „ sawaru. 
„ „ tomeru. 

Ki no mijikai hito. 



Not aware, or consci- 
ous of. 
To be lofty; to be 
pleased in entertain- 
ing others. 
To be confused or dis- 
composed ; feeling 
backward. 
It serves you right. 
Feeling alarm or 

dread. 
To be liked ; to accord 

with one's mind. 
Does not suit one's 

taste. 
To be concerned 
about ; causing 

anxiety. 
To feel anxious about; 

to lay to heart. 
To offend. 
To keep in one's 

mind ; to mind. 
An impatient, or ir- 
ritable person. 



289 ) 



Ki no nagai hito. 



Ki no doku-ni omou. 



Ki wo momu. 
„ „ mawasu. 



„ „ tsukeru. 

Kon''cliiwa or konnichi- 

wa. 
Komatta mono (koto) 

da. 
Kore de mo takusan. 

Kore wa kore wa yoku 
oide nasai mashita. 

Kori kori shita. 

Kiryo ga yoi onna. 
Kiryo ga am liito. 
Komi de ikura. 
Ko otsu ga nai. 



A persevering per 
son ; a delibeiaie v 
slow person 

To feel sorry for ano- 
ther. 

To be anxious about. 

To be suspicious; to 
presume or infer be- 
forehand. 

To pay attention ; to 
take care. 

Good-day (used in 
salutation). 

How annoying ; it is 
a nuisance. 

This is quite suffi- 
cient ; this is plenty. 

I am very much plea- 
sed to have vo)i call 
on me. 

To have had quite 
enough of it. 

A beautiful woman. 

A man of talent. 

How much for the lot? 

All alike. 



( 290 ) 



Ko otsu wo tsukeru. 


To say which is better. 


Kowa-iro wo tsukau. 


To imitate the voice 




of another. 


Kumen ga yoi. 


To be rich. 


Kumen ga deki-nai. 


Cannot raise the mo. 




ney. 


Kuse ni naru. 


To be in the habit of. 


Ma ga warui. 


Unfortunate. 


Ma ni ukeru. 


To take to be true. 


Mada agareru desho. 


You can help yourself. 




can't you ? 


Maemotte hanashite 


To leave word before- 


oku. 


hand. 


Mae-gari. 


Drawing money before 




it is fully due. 


Maido go-yakkai sa- ^ 


I am much obliged to 


ma de gozai masu. j 


you for your con- 


Maido o-yakamashu 


stant assistance ; ex- 


gozai masu. -/ 


cuse me, please, for 




troubling you so 




often. 


Mappira gomea kuda- 


I humbly beg your 


sai. 


pardon. 


Maru de I wakari 


Cannot undei stand at 


Marukkiri i masen. 


all 



( 291 ) 



Masa ka so de wa nai. 
Mawari-awase ga yoi. 
Menmoku wo ushinau. 
Menmoku wo hodoko5U. 
Menmoku gozai masen. 

Mendo ^vo kakeru. 
Mendo na koto. 
Metta-ni nai. 
Mo itadake masen. 
Moshiwake ga gozai ma- 
sen. 

M5 takusan. 



Wo yoroshii. 

Mo tamara-nai. 

Moshi-bun ga nai« 

Mottai wo tsvikern, 
.Viottomo desa 

Mnda-na koto^ 



I cannot think so. 

Fortunate. 

To be humiliated. 

To become famous. 

I feci ashamed. (=.0- 

hazukashii shidai.) 
To give trouble. 
A troublesome affair. 
Not often ; seldom. 
I can't take any more. 
I am unable to offer 

any excuse. (=Ai 

sumi masen.) 
This is enough ; I 

don't want any 

more. 
That will do. It has 

become all right. 
I can't stand it any 

longer. 
Find not the least 

fault. 
To put on airs. 
You are certainly 

right. 
A useless affair. 



( 292 ) 



Muda-bone wo oru. 
Myori ga warui hi to. 

Myori wo shira-naihito. 
Nai-koto wa ari masen. 



Nai-mono nedari. 

Nai-mono wa nai. 
Naka naka taihen desu. 



„ ,, deki-nai. 
Nanl:)o nan demo amma- 
ri hidoi. 

Nan demo gozare. 

Nanibun yoroshi-ku o- 
tanomi moshi rnasu. 

Nantomo omowa-nai. 
Nare ai de hlto wo da- 
masu. 



To labour in vain. 
■ Ungrateful man. 

There is some. (I 

don't mean, there is 

nothing.) Certainly, 

there is. 
Wanting something 

which there is not. 
Have everything. 
It is very difficult ; it 

requires the greatest 

effort. 
To be very beautiful. 
Can hardly succeed. 
No matter what you 
may say, that [or 

this) is too much. 
To have no choice ; 

(I) will do anything. 
I beseech you to help 

me any way you 

think fit. 
I think notliing of it. 
To conspire togethei 

to defraud ^ perswi. 



n 



c 293 } 



Naruliodo ! (=Tka ni I see, I see ! 1 under- ' 

!:! 

ino.) stand very well. ,',' 

II 
O-agari nasai, «r o-aijan Please come in ; 1;. 

' [li 
nasai. please help yourself 1 ■] 

(to food or drink). 1 j 

0-ainiku sanu. Unfortunately ; I am | 

sorry we (I) have || 
none ; I am sorry he 1 
is not here. 

^J-daiji ni nasai mashi Keep your health; 
take care of your- 
self. (Said to a sick 
person on taking 
one's leave after a 
▼islt. Sometimes 
this expression is 
used to the lamily. 
or to any one \vlio 
is taking care, of a 
patient, in the sense 
ot " I hope you will 
take the best care 
of him."; 

O-hima no seisu. \Mien you have lei- 

sure. 



C 294 ? 

0-hisashi buril It is a long time sinct 

we met last. (See:— 
" Shibaraku ! ") 

0-konomi shidai- Whatever you like, ot 

you choose. 

0-ide nasai. Come here; wel- 

come ; go there. 

0-itoma itashi masho, I must be saying 
(?r mo o-itoma ni ita- goodbye; I must, 
shi masho. take my leave now. 

O-kini o-jama wo itashi Excuse me for inter- 
mashita, or o-jama- ruptingyou; excuse 
sama de gozai mashita. me for having 
troubled you; ex- 
cuse me for being 
in your way. 

0-kage sama de Owing to your kind 

ness, or to your 
kind labour, i Often 
•Jisea m an expres 
sion of thanks sim 
ply to another's 
greeting, as : — " Go- 

jobu (iesu kaJ" 

•* Ilai o-kage sama 



( 295 ) 



0-kamai kud^sai masu 
na, or o-kamai nasai 
masu na. 

O-kamai mosbi maseft 
deshita, or nan^nimo 
o-kamai moshi ma- 
sen deshita. 



0-kawari wa gozai ma- 
sen ka. 



0-kino-doku-sama- 



Okkd ni omou. 
0-machi do sama, or o- 



de tassha de ori ma- 
su.'''' ^=^^ Are y on {Is 
he) well?'.., ''Quite 
7vell, thank you.") 
Don't trouble yourself 
about me. 

Excuse me for not 

having been atten- 
tive to you. (Said 
by a host to a per- 
son who is taking 
his leave at the end 
of a visit.) 
Is everything all right 
with you? (Literally 
means : — " Is there 
no change with 
you ?") 

I am sorry for you ; I 
can't do that you 
want ; I have noth- 
ing that you want. 

To think difficult. 

Excuse me ior having 



( 290 ) 



matase moshi mashi- kept you waiting, or 
la. so long. 

0-me-ni-kalcaru. To have the honour of 

meeting you (him). 

0-me-ni-kakeru. To have the honour of 

showing (it to) you 
(him). 

0-saki ni shitsu rei. Please excuse me for 

going {or doing 
anything) first. 

(Dozo) o-saki ni. Please go {or do any 

thing) first. 

0-sewa sama. Thanks for yov\r assis 

tance. (:=Go-yak 
kai sama.) 

0-shii koto-ni. {Adv.) I deplore that. (=Zan- 
ncn nagara.) 

0-shii koto wo itashi What a pity ! ; verj 

mashita 1 sorry, indeed !; have 

done a deplorable 

act. 

O shizii'ka ni iras.»)iai Go slowly; take care 

maslii, of yourself on your 

way, <7r journey. 



( 207 ) 



0-s5s6 sama, or o-s6so 
deshita. 



0-somatsu sama, or o- 
somatsu de gozai ma- 
Sfiita. 

0-tazune ni azukari ari- 
ga'o gozai masu. 

0-taeai sama. 



O taku desu ka. 
0-tanomi moshi masu. 



O tori kudasaL 

0-yakamashu goxas ma- 
shita. 

0-yasumi nasal. 



Excuse me for my 
humble entertain- 
ment. [=zO-kaf?iai 
moshi mas en des la- 
ta) 

(The same meaning as 
the above ) 

Thank you for youi 
kind inquiry. 

It is mutual ; it is re- 
ciprocal ; both you 
and I alike. 

Is (he) at home? 

I beg to ask. (A visitor 
to a Japanese calls 
out these words al 
the door. See :— 
" Gomen nasai.") 

Please come in ; please 
step in. 

1 have troubled you 

greatly ; I have been 

wearisome to you. 

Good night. (Said or 

retiring at night <n 



( 298 ) 



O-yasui go.yo desu. 

Roku-de-nashi. 
Roku-roku karnawa-nai. 
Roku-roku to shite oru. 
Saba wo yomu. 

Seken-tei ga warui. 
Sewa ni natla aisatsu ni 
yuku. 



Sewa wo yaku. 

Shibaraku ! or shibara- 
ku deshita ne. 

Shikata ga gozai masen 
or shiyd ga gozai 
masen. 

Shita wo makii, 
Sliita kara deru. 
SlK>zai ga nai 



on taking one's 
leave at night late. 

With pleasure; it i» 
very easy affair. 

A bad man. 
To treat him not well 
To live a useless life. 
To cheat by telling 
off a wrong number. 

People will laugh at. 

To pay a visit with a 
present in acknow- 
ledgment for a fa- 
vour. 

To aid or assist. 

It is a long time since 
I met you. (See : — 
" 0-hisashi buri.") 

Tt can't be helped (jh: 
" Yondokoro ^ozai 

To fear. 

To humble one's self. 

Nothing to do 



( 299 ) 



So bakari demo gozai 
masen. 

So ka mo shire-nai. 
So umaku wa yuka-nai. 

Sode- no-shit a. 
Sokora desu. 
Son na mon desu. 
Sore mita koto ka. 



Sore nari ni sbite oke. 
Suma nai koto wo ita- 

shi mashita. 
Sum! masen ga. 



There are some ex- 
ceptions ; not all are 
so. 

It may be so. 

You can't do it so 
nicely, 

A bribe. 

- That is just about it. 

You see, it has come 
out just as I apprised 
3^)u ; you are re- 
warded for what 
you have done; it 
serves you right. 
(See:— "Kimi ga 
ii ;" " sore goran na- 
sai.") 

Let it be as it is. 

Keg pardon, I did 
wrong. 

ISegging your pardon ; 
although it may be 
rude for me (=i/a- 
bakari sama). 



( 300 ) 



Taka ga shirete oru. 


It is not so 


Tegami ga tsuki shidai 


As soon as the letter 


kite kudasai. 


is received, please 




come. 


Te ga todoku. 


To do (anything) care- 




fully ; thoroughly. 


Te ni ase wo nigiru. 


To be anxious. 


Te ni amaru. 


\ To be too much for 


Te ni oye-nai. 


1 one's ability; un- 




able to manage ; too 




hard to manage. 


(Sono) te wa kuwa nai. 


That device won't do. 


Te ga aku. 


To have one's hand 




unoccupied. 


„ „ fusagaru. 


To be engaged ; to be 




busily, occupied; to 




be at work. 


Te wo hiku. 


To stop doing. 


„ „ wakeru. 


To divide with com- 




panions. 


„ „ kariru. 


To borrow a hand. 


„ M l^asu. 


To lend a hand; to 




help. 


„ „ nuku. 


To 39. ve labour ; to do 




carelessly. 



( 30I ) 



Toho mo nai. ") 

Tonde mo nai. J 

Toho ni kareru. 
Tomokaku yuki mas ho. 

Toncla koto wo itashi 

mashita. 
Tonda koto de gozai 

mashita. 
Tonde mo nai koto wo 

yu. 
Toko wo toru. 

Tsui wasure mashita. 

Ue wo shita ye to gotta 

kaesu. 
Uki-mi wo yatsusu. 



Utsuri ga warui. 
Uttoshii tenki desu 
Uwa m)-sora de kiku. 



It is exorbitant, out- 
rageous. 

I can't find the means. 

I will go, whatever it 
may be. 

(I) have made a seri- 
ous fault. 

It has been a shocking 
affair. 

To say an absurd 
thing. 

To make or prepare 
the bed. 

There ! I have forgot- 
ten. 

To be confused and all 
topsy-turvy. 

Abandon one's self to ; 
to devote one's self 
to anything. 

Unbecoming ; unsuit- 
able. 

It is gloomy wea- 
ther. 

To hear in an abstract 
manner. 



( 302 ) 



Wake Baku dekiru. 

Yakkai ni naru. 

Yakkai ni natte kita. 
Yakamashii koto wo yu. 



Yoi ambai ni 

Yoku irasshai mashita. 
Yo gozai masu tomo. 



Yon dokoro gozai ma- 
sen. 

(Dozo) yoroshiku, or 
dozo yoroshu. 

Zosa nai, or z5sa gozai 
masen. 



Zonbun ni yfl, 
Zongai kirei. 



It will be done easily. 
To receive aid. 

It becomes trouble- 
some. 

To speak sometliing 
obstinately or logic- 
ally; to be pedan- 
tic ; lo be captious. 

Fortunately ; luckily. 
You are very welcome. 
Of course it will do; 

of course yoj (he) 

may. 

It can't be helped (= 
Shikata ga gozai ma- 
sen). 

Please give my com- 
pliments. 

Tliat's easy enough ; 
there is no trov.ble 
about that ! 

To speak without re- 
servation. 

Finer than supposed. 



( 303 ) 



Zonji yorazu kekko na Thanks for your nice i 

shina wo ari gato go- present, which is an > 

i 



unlooked-for^ift for 



^^ ♦ t > « « 

CHAPTER III.~A LIST OF SOME 

USEFUL PHRASES AND 

CLAUSES. 

(English— Japanese.) 



All right. Yoroshu gozai masu ; 

yoshi yoshi ; shochi 

shi mashita. 
Are my shoes cleaced ? Watakushi no kutsu 

wa migaite ari masu 

ka. 

Are you going to do Anata wa wo 

? shiyo to shite ori 

masu ka. 
Are you going to — — ? Anata wa ye yu- 

ku no desu ka. 
Are you ready ? Yoi wa deki mashita 

ka. 



C304) 



Are you quite well ? 

Are you going to stay 
here long ? 
About a week. 
Are you in a hurry ? 
At what time do we 
arrive ? 
At 2 p. m. 
Is there anything to 
eat? 

Nothing at all. 

Bring me a cup of tea. 

By no means. 
By what route do you 
travel? 

Via San Fransisco. 

Can you lell me wh ere 
the Museum is? 

It is at the Uyeno 
Park. 



Go-johu desu ka ; o- 

tassha desu ka. 
Kochira ni shibaraku 

go-taizai desu ka. 
Isshii-kwan hodo. 
0-isoL;i desu ka, 
Itsu tsuku desho ka. 

Gogo no ni-ji ni, 
Nani ka tabcru mono 
ga ari masu ka, 
Nanni mo gozai 
masen. 
Cha wo ippai motte 
kite kudasai. 

To te mo masen, 

Dono koro de oide 
desu ka. 

San Franshisuko 
keiyu de. 
Ilakubutsu-Kwan wa 
doko ni aru no desu 
ka. 

Uyeno Koyen ni 
ari masu. 



^ 30$ ) 

Can you recommend me Annaislia wo hi tori go- 
a guide? shusen negae masho 

ka. 
Can you change me one Ichi-yen kiizushite ita- 
yen ? do.ke masho ka. 

CertainJv. Kashi komari ma- 

shita ; shochi 
itashi mashita. 
Come here. Kochira ye oide nasai. 

Come in the nek of Chodo ma ni atta; 
time. chodo yoi toki ni 

kita. 
Do you know? Go-zonji desu ka. 

Yes, I know. Hai, shitte ori 

masu. 
Do you understand me ? Watakushi no yu koto 
ga wakari masu ka. 
Perfectly. Sukkari wakari 

masu. 

Do you sell ? wo uri masu ka. 

Do you speak English? Ei-go wo o-hanashi de- 
su ka. 
Only a little. Honno sukoshi 

bakari. 

Do you like r wa o-suki desu 

ka. 



( 3o6) 



I like it very 
much. 
Do not speak so fast. 



Does this road lead to 

No, this does not 
go there. 

Down stairs. 
Don't do that. 



Don't smoke. 

Do you want any 
more ? 

Everything is ready. 



Find it out 



I'aihen suki de 
gozai masu. 
Sonna ni haya-ku ha- 
nasa-nai de kuda- 
sai. 

Kono michi wa ye 

yuki masu no desu 
ka. 
liye, kore wa asu- 
ko ye wa mairi 
masen. 
Shita. 

Sore wa o-yoshi nasal ; 
sonna koto wa o- 
yame nasai. 
Tabako wo sutte wa 

ike masen. 
Ma da iri masu ka; 
motto age masho 
ka. 
Sukkari y6i ga deki 
mashita; nokorazu 
shitaku ga deki 
mashita. 
0-tazune nasai; saga- 
s'^ite goran nasaL 



c 307 } 



Forgive me please. 



Forget me not. 

From whom did you 
hear that ? 

Give me some lemo- 
nade. 

Give me what you 
don't want. 

Give me a little more. 

Help yourself please. 



Have you a vacant 

room? 
Have you ever been in 

Yes, I have been 
there twice 



Dozo yurushi te kuda- 
sai ; dozo gomen 
kudasai ; kannin 
shite kudasai. 

O-wasure nasutte kuda- 
saru na. 

Donata kara o-kiki de- 
shil a (polite); dare 
kara kiki mashita. 

Ramune wo kudasai. 

Go-fuyo-no shina wo 

itadaki masho. 
Mo chitto kudasai. 
D5zo meshiagatte ku- 
dasai (polite) ; dozo 
o-agari nasai. 
Aita heya ga ari masu 
ka. 

ni oide ni natta 

koto ga gozai masu 
ka. 
Hai, mac ni nido 
hodo itta koto 
ga gozai masu. 



C 30SJ) 

Have I any thing to Kanjo wa ikura desu. 

pay? 

Have you a time- Jikanhyo wo o-raochi 

table ? desu ka. 

1 haven't it with Taclaima ainiku 

me now. mochi awasc 
niasen. 

Have you any more ? Mada aii masu ka. 

Have you any ex- Kono t5ri no ga 

actly like this ? ari masu ka. 



How are you ? "| Go-kigen yo ; ikaga 

How do you do ? J desu ka ; o-kawari 

wa ari masen ka. 

How far shall we go ? Doko made mairi ma- 

sho. 
How do you like J a- Nihon wa ikaga desu 
pan ? ka ; d5 desu Nihon 

wa o-suki desu ka. 
I am mucli plea- Mini mono kiku 

sed with things mono hijo n 

in Japan. yukai desu. 

How did you come ? Nan de oide deshita. 
By the express Kyuko ressha de. 

train. 



( .^9 ) 

How long will yon Dono kurai go-taizai 
stay ? desu. 

About a month. Ikkagetsu bakari. 

How long have 1 to Dono kurai mataseru 
wait ? (matsu) no daro. 

Two hours more. Mo ni-ji-kwan. 

rlow much do you Ikura desu; ikahodo 
charge ? desu ; nedan wa iku- 

ra desu. 
How mucl» ^'H the lot ? Komete ikura desu 

ka. 
How many si 'onps for Kono tegami ni wa 
this letter ? ikura kitte wo hat- 

tara iide sho. 

How do you spell (pro- Kono ji wa do kaku 
nounce) this word. (nan to yomu) no 

desu ka. 
How old are you? 0-ikutsu desu (ka). 

How shall I do it? D5 shite shiyo (k;i). 

I am engaged and I Yoji ga atte, agare 

cannot go. (mairare) masen. 

I am kept in by the Furi-kome rareru. 
rain. 

I am writing a letter Ima, tegami wo kait*" 

ttow. ori masu. 



( 3IO ) 

I am much obliged to Makoto-ni o-kinodoku 
you. sama ; makoto ni 

go-kuro sama. 
I am thirsty (hungry; Node ga kawaki masu 
sleepy ; cold ; warm). . (hara or onaka ga 
heri mashita ; ne- 

muku nari mashita ; 

samu gozai masu ; 

attaka de.su). 
I am pleased (displeas- Yukai (fuyukai) desu. 

ed). 
I am tired. Tsukare mashita. 

I am unwell. Kokoromochi ga wa- 

ruku nari mashita. 
I beg your pardon. Gomen kudasai ; o- I 

yurushi kudasai. 
I can't understand y(»u. Anata no yu koto wa j 

wakari masen. \ 

I don't think so* Watakushi wa so omoi j 

masen. ; 

I don't care. Watakushi wa kamai 



I don't like it. Kirai desu ; Uonomi j 

masen. i 

t have receive/t*i your 0-tegami wo uketori ' 

letter. mashita. I 



I have not heard that, Mada kiki masen ; uke- 
taqiawari masen ; 
ukagai masen. 

I mean ,... tsumori desu. 

I don't mean....... tsumori de- 

wa ari masen. 
I have just come here. Tadaima mairi mashi- 

ta tokoro desu. 
I have just come from Mada Amerika kara 
America. kita bakari desu. 

I have lost . wo nakushi ma- 

shita. 
I have no appetite. Chittomo shyokuyoku 

ga gozai masen ; nan 
nimo tabe ta-ku ari 
masen. 
I should like to stay Anata no tokoro ni 
with you. (=Anata to issho 

ni) ori tai no desu 
ga- 
I leave this evening. Komban tachi masu. 

I shall leave this hotel Myonichi kono yado 

to-morrow. wo tachi masu. 

I want something to Nanika tabe tai. 
eat 



( 312 ) 



I want to wash my 
hands, 

I want a guide who can 
speak English. 

I will throw this in. 

I wish you a pleasant 

journey. 
I wish to register a 

letter to . 

In a word. 

On the other hand. 
In this way (that way). 
It is enough. 
It is not necessary. 

It is of no use. 



It is impossible. 



I'e wo arai tai mon^da. 

Ei-go no dekiru annai 
wo hitori hoshii 
monMa. 

Kore wo o-make ni 
age masho. 

Go-yukkuri itte iras- 

shai mashi. 
ye kakitome yu- 

bin wo dash i tai 

desu. 
Hitokuchi ni iyeba J 

iikaere ba ; iwaba. 
Kataippo dewa. 
Koyu (ayu) fu ni. 
Takusan desu. 
Iranai ; shitsuy5 ga 

nai ; nakute mo ii. 
Yakuni tata-nai (ta- 

tan''); mani awa- 

nai ; dame desu. 
Totemo deki masen ; 

dame de gozai ma- 

su. 



[JJJ2 

It is very warm (cold) Kyo wa taihen attaka 
to-day. de (samu) gozai 

masu. 
Is there anything to Nanika yomu mono 

read ? wa ari masen ka. 

Is there any English Dare ka Igirisu-jin ga 
man ? ori masu ka. 

No one is here. Dare mo ori ma- 

sen. 
Is it easy (difficulty ? Yasashu or yasu (mu- 

tsukashu) gozai ma- 
su ka ; raku de gozai 
masu ka (hone ga 
ore masu ka). 
Is this place (scat) eu- Kono basho (seki) wa 
gaged ? fusagatte ori masu 

ka. 
No, it is not en- liye, aite ori ma- 

gaged, su. 

Is it far from here ? Empo desu ka. 

Not very far. liye, amari empc 

dewa (toku wa) 

gozai masen. 

It looks like rain. Ame ga furiso desu. 

It never entered my Chittomo so to wa 

head. omoi masen desh ta. 



( 314) 



It may not rain, but I 
will take 
la with me. 

It may be so. 

1 1 seems to be very late. 

Just try. 
Just come. 
» ,y in. 
Keep this place for me. 

Keep quiet. 

Keep still. 

Let us go for a walk. 

Let us make haste. 
Let me see. 
Let me see . 

Look at this picture. 

Lend me your news- 
paper please. 



Ame wa furu mai (s= 
furi masu niai) ga, 
kasa wo motte yuki 
mashd. 

So kamo shire masen. 

Duibu osoi yo desu 
ne. 

Ma yatte goran nasai. 

Ma oide nasai. 

Ma o-hairi nasai. 

Kono basho wo ban 
wo shite ite kudasai. 

Shizukani. 

Jittoshite. 

Sampo ni mairi ma- 
sho. 

Isogi masho. 

Hatena ; haha. 

wo misete kuda- 
sai ; (chotto) haiken. 

Kono e wo goran na- 
sai. 

Anata no shimbun wo 
haishaku (=kashi- 
te kudasai). 



C3I5 ) 



Man ought to obey the 
law. 

May I go out ? 

May I ask you to ,,,..,? 

May we come in ? 

Make that in haste 

Never mind. 
Nothing more* 
Not at alL 



Not so much (many). 
Non smoking room. 



Hito wa horitsu ni 
shitagau beki mono 
desu. 

Dete mo yoroshu go- 
zai masa ka. 

..,,.. te kudasaru koto 
ga deki masho ka. 

Haitte mo yo gozai 

masu ka. 
Isoide koshiraete ku- 

dasai; isoide o-ko- 

shirae nasai. 
Go-shimpai nasai ma- 
sa na. 
Korekkiri ; mo chitto- 

mo ari masen. 
D5 itashi mashite (in 

reply to " much ob. 

liged ") ; sukoshimo 

gozai masen. 

Soana ni takusan wa 
(dewa) gozai masen 
Kin-en-shitsu. 



( 3i6 ) 

Please tell me. Dozo hanashite (o- 

hanashi) kudasai. 

Please translate this ! Dozo kore wo yaku- 
shite kudasai. 

Put this letter in the Kono tegami wo yu- 
post. bin ni dashi (ire) te 

kudasai. 

Put this luggage in my Kono nimolsu wo wa- 
room. takuslii no hey a ni 

irete kudasai. 

Quite well, thank you. Arigato gozai masu ; 
shigoku (=itatte) 
jobu {or tassha) de 
gozai masu. 

Quarter of an hour. Jugo fun kwan. 

Read this to me (plea- (Dozo) kore wo yonde 

se). kudasai. 

Return ticket. Ofuku gippu. 

Remember me to Mr, san ni yoroshiku. 

Say it again. Mo ichido (=ippen) 

yutte goran nasai. 
Send my regards to ni yoroshiku. 



(317) 

Send the waiter to me. Eanto wo yonde kuda- 

sai. j 

1 

Shall we go for a walk? Sampo ni yuki masho ; 

ka. ; 

Show me the way, Michi wo oshiete ku- j 

dasai. ;' 

Snut the window. Mado wo o-shime | 

nasai. 
„ „ „ piea-se. Mado wo shimete ku- : 

dasai. 
Sit down. 0-suwari nasai ; o-su- 

wan^ nasai ; o-kake j 

nasai (on a chair, 07 i 

bench). 
Speak slowly, if you D5zo, shizuka ni hana- \ 
please. shite kudasai ; doka \ 

yukkuri yutte kuda- 

sai. 
Stop a moment. Chotto o-machi nasai. 

Thank you, very much. Makoto ni ari gato 
(gozai masu), 

Hiank you for your Go-chis6-saraa. 

kind entertamment. 
There is no help for it. Domo shiyo (=-shika- 
ta) ga nai. 



rais ) 



This is the way to . Kore wa ye yuku 

michi desu. 

fell me where you live. Dochira ni o-sumai 
desu ka shirasete 
kudasai. 

Tell us all about i»., Sono hanashi wo suk- 

kari kikasete kuda- 
sai. 

That's all. Sore dake desu. 

That's good. ."-^ore wa kekko desu. 

The medicine has ope- Kusuri ga kiki mashi- 
rated. ta 

Wake me at . ji ni okoshite ku- 

dasai. 

Wait here a while. Shibaraku kokode 

matte kudasai. 

Way in. Iriguchi. 

Way out Deguchi. 

With pleasure. Yorokonde : o-yasu-i 

go-yo desu. 

What a beautiful sight I Ma ii keshiki desu 
koto. 

Wlial do you say? Nam wo osshai masu 

ka (pohtc) ; nanto 
ii masu ka 



( 319 



What is the matter? 



What do you think of ? 

What offer do you 
make? 

Where is the liotel (sta- 
tion)? 

Where are you going 
to? 

What time is it now ? 
What shall I do for 

you? 
What are you going to 

do? 
When will you leavc 

for ? 

Where does this road go 

to? 
Which do you prefer ? 



Which is better ? 



D5 shita no desu do 
nasai mashita 

(polite). 
LKi omoi masu (ka). 
Ikura o-dashi nasai 

masu (ka). 
^''adoya (suteshon) wa 

doko desu ka. 
Dochira ye oicte desu 
ka (polite) ; doko 
• ye yuki masu ka. 
Ima nanji desu ? 
Nani ka go-yo desu 

ka. 
Nani wo nasai masu ; 
nani wo shi masu. 

ye wa itsu o-ta- 

chi desu. 
Kore wa doko ye yu- 

ku michi desu ka. 
Dochira wo o-nozomi 
de gozai masu ; do- 
chira wo tori masu 
ka. 
Dochira ga y5 gozai 
masu ka. 



( 320 ) ^^ 

Why is it so ? Sore wa mata doyu 

wake desu ; naz^ 
desu ka. 
You ought to do this. Anata wa kore wo 

suru hazu desu. 
Vou ought to have done Kino kore wo sureba 

this yesterd.iy. yokatta ni. 

You have rendered me Iro-iro o-sewa sama 
many kindnesses. ni nari niashita. 



APPENDIX. 



—^ > »<»« 



ENGLISH AND JAPANESE 
VOCABULARY. 



^l) T/ie First Conjugation. 




(2) „ SeC07ld 


» • 




(3) „ Third 

(4) „ Fourth 






(5) . Fifth 
(h) A Verb in the 


' //.? " line. 




A. 




Abandon, /. 2/. Suteru 
(3), yameru (3). 
Saru (i). 

Abbreviate, /.z'. Chi- 
jimeru (3), shoryaku 
suru (4). 

Abbreviation, n. 
Shoryaku. 

Abdomen, n. Hara. 


Above all, nakan- 

zuku, besshite, sono 

ne. 
Abrupt, a. Kewashi- 

i. 
Absent, a. Rusu no, 

fu-zai-no, i-na-i. 

Absolute, a, Zettai- 
uo. 


Ability, n. Saino. 


Absorb, i.v. 


Suu. h. 


Able, a. Dekiru. Te- 
kito-na. 


0- 

Abstract, n 


Chush5. 


Abnormal, a. Futo- 
a. Katawa-no. 


Abundance, n. Ta- 

kusan, taiso. 


About, adv. Hotondo. 
firep. Tsuite. 


Abuse, /. V. Ranyo 
suru (4). Nouoshiru 


K: €iM«i.,prep. Ue ni. 


(I). 





( 2 ) 



Accent, n. Choshi. 

Accept, /. V. Uketoru 
(i), morau (h. i). 
Shoclii suru (4). 

Accident, fi. Ilenji. 

With oil t — , buji. 
Accompany, t.v. "J'o- 

monau (h. i), issho- 

ni yuku (ij, dodo 

suru (4). 

Accoinplisli, t.v. Shi- 
togeru (3), joju suru 
(4)- 

According- to. ...ni 
shitagatte, yotte. 

Accordingly. Sore- 
yue-ni, sore da kara, 

Acconnt, n. Keisan, 
kwanjo. On ac- 

count of, yue-ni, 
wakede. Written — , 
kwanjo-gaki, kaki- 
dashi. To settle an 
— , kwanjo wo suru 
(4)- 

Accninnlate, /. v. 
Tsumu (l), kasaneru 
{X). i. V. Kasanaru 
(i), tsumoru (i). 

Accurate, a. Scimi- 
tsuna. Memmitsu- 
na. 

AcciiiKt«»ia, /. V. Nara- 
su(i). 

AcKnowled^^'e, /. v. 

Shoclii suru (4). 

/t.C4)|iiaintance, ;/. 

Cliijin, sliiribito. 



Acquire, t.v. Eru (3), 

mokeru (3). 
Act, t. V. Hataraku 

(i). Okonau(h. i), 

suru (4). 
Action, 71. Gyoi, oko- 

nai. 
Active, a. Kappatsu- 

na. — verb\ ta-do- 

shi. 
Activity, n. Katsu- 

ryoku. 
Actor, 11. Haiyu, ya- 

kusha. 
Actual, a. Jissai-no, 

honto-no. 
Acute, a. Surudo-i. 
Adapt, /. V. Tekio su- 

su (4), kanau (h. 1). 
Add, t. V. Kuwaeru 

(3), yoseru (3). 
Addition, n. Yose- 

zan. 
Address, 71. Ateiia. 

t. V. Hanasu (i), i- 

ikakeru (3). 

Adjective, 7t. Keiyo- 
shi. 

Admire, /. v. Kwan- 
shin suru (4J5 home- 
rii (3). 

Admonisli, A v. Isa- 
mcru (3^. Setsr.yu 
suru ^4^. Kankoku 
suru (4). 



( 3 ) 



Adoi>t, /. V. Saiyo su- 
ru (4). tliki-ukeru 
(3). Y'jshi ni suru 
(4). 

Adorn, i. v. Kazaru 

(0- 

Advance, /. v. Snsu- 
mu (i). t, V. Susu- 
meru (3), Ilagema- 
su (l). — the price, 
neage wo suru (4). 
— in price, ne ga 
agaru (l). 

Advance, ;/. Susumi, 
sliimpo, agari. To 
go in — , mae ni yu-- 
ku (i). Lend ill — , 
mae-gashi wo suru. 
(4). Borrowing in 
— , mae-gari wo su- 
ru (4). 

Advantage, n. Rieki, 
moke. 

Adventure, ;/. Bo- 
ken. 

Adventurer, 71. Bo- 

ken-sha. 
Adverb, n. Fukushi. 
Advertise, /. v. Shi- 

raseru (3), kokoku 

suru (4j. 

Advertisement, n. 

Kokoku, 
Advice, n. Jogon, \- 
ken, chukoku. 

Aestbeties, «, Bi-ga- 
ku. 

Affair, n. Jiken, Shi- 
goto, jimu. 



I Afiirm, Sadameru (3), 

I kakutei suru (4), ki- 
I meru (3) 
Aftes*, adv. Nochi ni, 

ato de. To folloiv 

— , shitagau (h. i). 

Ou(h. I). Run _, 

oikakeru (3). 
After-all, adv. Tsui- 

ni, tsumari, shima- 

i-ni. 

After-noon, n. Gogo. 
Afterward, adv. So- 
no nochi. 

Ag'ain, adv. Futatabi, 
inata. — and — , 
tabi-tabi. Over 

and — , saisan. 

Ag-ainst, prep. Tai- 
shite. 

Age, n. Toshi, sal. 
Tok', jidai. 

Ag-e, i. V. Toshi wo 
toru (i), toshi ga 
yoru (i). 

Agent, n. Dairi-nin. 
Banto. 

Ago, adv. Izen, mae. 
Long — , mukashi, 
hisashi-i ata. 

Agony, n. Kutsu, ku- 
rushimi. 

Agree, i. v. Vakusoku 
suru (4). Uke-au 
\\. i). Itchi suru 
'4). Doi suru (4). 

Agreeable, a. Yu- 

kwai-na. 



( 4 ) 



/kg^reesnent, n- Itchi, 

godo. 
Agriculture, n. No- 

gyo- 

Aid, V. t. Tasv.keru 
(3), tetsudan (h. i). 

Aim, /. V. Nerau (h. 

i), megakeiu (3). 
Air, n Kuki. Nari, 

furi. 
Air-gun, n. Kuki-ju. 
Airy, a. Kaze-toshi 

no yo-i, suzushi-i. 
Alarm, «. Odoroki. 
Album, n. Shashin- 

jo. 
Alcoliol, n. Arukoru. 
Algebra, n. Daisu. 
Alike, adv. Hitoshi- 

ku, onaji-ku. 

Alive, a Ikite oru, 
kappatsu-na. 

All, a. Subete-no, mi- 
na-no. — nud sor/w, 
kore mo are mo. 

— al once, ichido ni. 
At — , totemo. At 

— events, do shite 
mo. By — iihtiiis, 
zchitomo, tomo- 
kakumo. — tJtf 
ivor!d, sekht-ju. — 
the year, nen-ju. — 
oney onaji koto. — 
the betiery nao yoro- 
ahv-i. T^his is — , 
kore giri. — 0/ 
y4H, rnma san. Once 
for — , ichido giri. 



Allegory, n. H^yu, 

tatoe. 

Alliance, ^. Domei, 
Allow, t. V. Yurusu 
(i). Shochi suru 
(4). Sazukeru (3). 

— }fie to 7vritf, ka- 
kasete kudasai. 

Allowance, n. Yuru- 
s!ii. Kozukai. Wa- 

ribiki. 

Almighty, «. Zenno. 

Almost, adv. Hot on- 
do, taitei, taigai. 

Alone, a. Sabishi-i, 
hitori-no. adv. Hi- 
tori-de. To let — , 
kamawa-na-i. 

Along, adv. Tsiiite. 

— of, yue-ni, wake 
de, desu kara, — 
with, isshS ni. — 
side, soba. Pass- 
along, toru (l)« 

Aloud, adv. Ogoe 
de. 

Already, adv. Suda- 
ni, mo, mohaya. 

Also, adv. Mata, mo, 
yahari. 

Alternate, a. Tagai- 
tagai. — days, iclii- 
nichi oki, kaknjilsu. 

— years, ichiiien- 
oki, kakunen. 

AltSiougli, adj. Ta- 
toe, keredo)iio, te- 
mo, tonio. 



( 5 ) 



Alto^eilier, adv. Is- 

sho ni, Matt?ku. 
Always, adv. Tsune 

ni, itsu-demo, shiju. 
Am. Desu, ari masu, 

ori masu. 
Ambig:uons, a. Ai- 

mai-na- fumeiryo- 

na. 

Ambition, n. Taim5, 
nozomi. 

America, n. Ameri- 
ka, beikoku. 

American, «. Ame- 
rika-jin, beikoku-jin. 
a. Amerika-no, bei- 
koku-no. 

Amiable, a. Otona- 
shi-i, airashi-i. 

Among*, prfp. Naka 
ni, uchi ni. 

Amount, n. S5kei, 
g5kei. i. v. and /. v. 
Noboru (i). 

Amuse, /. v. Tano- 
shimaseru (3), nagu- 
sameru (3). 

Amusement, n. Na- 

gusarui, tanoshimi. 

Analogry, «. Ruiji. 
Hiron. 

Analysis, n. Biinseki. 
Anatomy, ;/. Kaibo. 
Ancestor, n. Senzo 
Ancbor, n. Ikari. i. v. 
Teihaku sum (4), 



Ancient, a. Mukasbi- 

no, kodai-no, furu-i. 
And, conj. Soshite, 

oyobi, to. 
Anecdote, ;/. Itsuji. 
Angel, n, Tenshi. 
Angry, a. Okoru (l), 

hara wo lateru (3), 

rippuku suru (4). 
Animal, n. Dobutsu, 

— kingdom, dobutsu- 

kai. 
Animate, a. Ikite oru 

(i). — being, sei. 

butsu. 

Annex, t. v. Tasu (i), 

kuwaeru (3). 

Anniversary, n. Tan- 
jo. Nenkai. 

Announce, t. v. Shi- 
raseru (3), fukoku 

suru (4). ment^ 

tsuchi. Fukoku. 

Annual, a. Reinen- 
no, mainen-no. — 
salary, nemp5. — 
report, nemp5. 

Annuity, n. Nenkin. 
Another, a. Iloka- 
no, tanin-no. 

Answer, n. Kotae, 
henji. /, v. Kotaeru 
(3). To — tJie pur- 
pose, ma ni au (h. i). 

Antiquary, n. Koko- 
ka, kobutsu-ka. 



( 6 ) 



shinron. 

Anxiety, n. Sliimpai, 
kenen. 

A.ny, a. Aru, izure- 
no. — how, dode- 
mo. — longer, ko- 
no ue, nao. — one, 
dare demo. — time, 
itsu demo. — thing, 
nan demo. — where, 
doko demo. JVot 

— more, kore giri. 

— tvise, dosliite- 
mo. 

Apart, adv. Betsu 
ni, hanarete. 

Ai»artinent, ;/. lleya, 

zashiki. 

Ape, «. Saru. 

Apostle, /;. Shi to, 

senkyo-shi. 

Apparent, a Akiia 
ka-na. 

Appeal, i. v. Jokoku 
sum (4), uttaeru (3). 

Appear, /. v. Arawa- 
reru (3), mieru (3). 
Deru. — to he, ari- 
se. — not to be, na- 
sa so. 

Appenrniice, 77. Jo- 

kyo. Yol)0, taido. 

j%ppeudix, «. Furo- 
ku. 

Applaud, t. V. ITomc- 
ru (3), hakushu suru 
(4), kassai sum (4). 



Apple, n. Ringo. 
Application, ;;. Oy5. 

Seikyu, taaomi. Sai- 

yo. 
Apply, t. V. Oyo suru 

(4), atehameru (3). 

Seikyu suru (4), ta- 

nomu (i). 

Appoint, t. V. Sada- 
meru (3), kimeru (3). 
litsukeru (3). i. v. 
Kimaru (l), sada- 
maru(i). 

Appraise, /. v. Ne- 

wo tsukeru (3), hyo- 
ka suru (4). 

Appreliend, t. v. Sa- 
to ru(i), rikai suru 
(4). 

Approach, t. v. Chi- 
kayoru (i), chika- 
zuku (l). 

Apricot, n. Anzu. 

April, ;/. Shi-gatsu. 

Aquarinin, ;/. Sui- 
zoku-kvvan. 

Aqncdnct, n. Suido. 

Arbitrary, a. Sen- 
dan-no, wagamama- 
no. 

Arcliitecture, th 

Kenchiku-jutsu, ken- 
chiku-gaku. 

Ardent, a. Hageshi-i, 
nesshin-na. 

Argrument, «. Giron, 
benron. 



( 7 ) 



Arise, i. v. Okoru (l), 
arawareru (3), deru 

(3). 
Ariilamef ic, n. San- 

jiusu, su-gaku. 
Arm, n. Ude. — of 

il.e sea, iri-umi. i. v. 

Biii^o suru (4). 
Arni-cliatr, n. Hiji- 

kake-isu. 
Ainilet, n. Ude-wa. 
Armpit, n. ^Yaki no 

s h i t a . Smell of — , 

waki-ga. 

As'iHS, //. Heiki, buki. 

Arsny, n. Guntai. 

Arouu<l , prep. M awa- 
rite. adv. Ivlawari 
ni, meguri ni. To 
i^o — , mawaiu (l). 
To look — , miu.a- 
wasu (i). Ride — , 
nori-mawasu (i). 

Arrang-e, /. v. Todo- 
noeru (3), soroeru 
{X)- Hairelsu suru 
(4). 

Arrang'eineiit, n. 
liairetsu, seiton. 

4. V rive, i. v. Tsuku 
(i), tochaku suiu 
(4). 

Arsejsa!, n. i!.oheisho, 
biikiko. 

4«-?, ;/. Gijulsu, gigei, 
ji'isu. Fine—,\)\. 
jutsu. 



Article, n. Kajo. 

Kwabutsu, shina- 

mono. 

Article, n. Kwanshi. 

Artificer, n. Saiku- 
nin. 

Artificial, a. Jin-ko- 
no, jinzo-no, — 
fioiver, zokwa. — 
teeth, ireba. — nose, 
tsuke-bana. — eye, 
ire-me. — hair, ire- 
ge, kamoji. 

Artisan, n. Gishi. 

Artist, n. Bijutsu-ka, 
gigei-ka. 

As, ccvj. ... no yo ni. 
... tori ni. ... toki 
ni. ... to shite. ... 
no yue ni, desu kara. 
... dake. ... hodo. 
— far — , ...made. 
— for or — to, ... ni 
tsuite. — folloias, 
tsugi no y5 desu. 

— if, adakamo, cho- 
do. — through, ... 
suru yo ni. — it 
were, adakarno. — 
soon — , ... to sugu. 

— well — , narabi 
ni. As ... as, no yo 
ni, sonna ni. 

Ashes, n. Ilai. 

Asir, n. Ajia. 

Aside, adv. Waki ni. 
Set — , suteru (3). 
Katazukeru (3). 



( 8 ) 



dslt, /. V. Tii7Aineru 
(3), kiku(l). Moto- 
meru (3), negau (h. 

^S8>ect, n. Yobo. ari- 

sama. 
Ass, ;;. Roba, usagi- 

uma. 

A.ssassinate, /. v. 

Ansatsu sum (4). 

Assc!Hl>le, t. V. Atsu- 
mcru (3). i. V. Atsu- 
maru (l). 

Assembly, n. Shu- 
kwai, kwai, atsu- 
mari. 

Assiiiiilation, n. 

Doka. 

Assist, t. V. Tasukeru 

(3). 
Assistance, n. Joryo- 
ku, tasuke. 

Associate, /. v Maji- 
waru (l), shitashi- 
mu (i). a> Shin- 
mil su-n a. 

Association, 11. 

Kwaisha, kumiai, 
Rengo, domei. 

Assurance. Ilosho, 
tauipo. Kakusliin. 
Iloken. 

Assure, /. v. Ilosho 
sum (4), ukcau (h. 

0- 

Astonish, /. v. Odo- 
rokasu (i). — in^^, 
ocioroku-l>cki. 
meiif, odoroki. 



Astronomy, n. Tern- 
mon-gaku. 

At, prep. Ni, de. — 
a/ 1, sukoshi mo, 
malta-ku. — best, 
moto, Mottomo yo- 
kutemo. — Jirsf, 
saisho ni. — hand, 
soba ni, cliikaku ni. 
— large, kuwashi- 
ku, hiro-ku. — lasi^ 
tsui ni. — /easiy 
sukunakutomo, se- 
mete. — lafeit, oso- 
ku tomo. — Ufigihy 
tsui ni. — one, 
tadachi ni, issei ni, 
sugu ni. — present, 
ima. — the same 
time, doji ni. — 
times, oriori, toki- 
doki, 

Atlantic Ocean, ti. 
laiseiyo. 

Atlas, n. Chizu. 

Atone, i. v. and /. v. 

Tsugunau (h. i). — 
ment, tsugunai. 

Attack, t. V. Semem 
(3), kogcki sum (4). 
11. Kogeki. 

Attempt, /. V. Kuwa- 
datem (3), hakaiu 
(l). — to d'K shite- 
mnu. 

Attend, /. v. Tsuki- 
sou (h. i). Tsuto- 
mcm (3), tsukaem 
(3). — on the sick, 
kwanbyo sum (4). /. 
V. Nen wo irem (3). 



( 9 ) 



Attendant, n. Jiisha, 
zuikosha. Shusseki- 
sha. 

Attention, n. Chui. 

Attract, /. V. Iliku 

(0- 

Attraction, ;/, Tnryo- 

ku. 

Auction, n. Kobai, 
seri-uri. 

Andicncc, n. Cho- 
shu. 

Ang-nst, n. Haclii- 

gaisu. 

Aunt, n. Oba. 

Autbor, n. Chosha, 

Autliority, n, Ken-i, 
kensei. 

Autobiog'rapliy, it, 

Jiden. 

Autumn, n. Aki. 
Auxiliary, a. Hojo- 

no. — verb, jtxiS- 

shi. 

Avalanche, n. Na- 

daie. 

Avarice, ;/. Donran, 
rinshoku. 

Averag-e, a. Heikin- 
no. n. Heikiu. 

Avoid, t V. Sakeru 
(3), yokeru (3). 

Awake, t. v. Samasu 
(l), okosu (l). i. V. 
Sameru (3), okiru 
(2) 



Away, adv. Achira- 
ni. Run — , nigeru 
(3). Throw — -, sute- 
ru (3). 

Ax, V, Ono. 

Axiom, n. Kori 

Shimb5. 

Axis, n. Jiku. 



Baby, n. Akago, 

akanbo. 

Back, n. Senaka. U- 
shiro. /. V. Noru 
(i). To — up, tasu- 
keru (3). To go — , 
kaeru (3), modoru 
(l). To send — , 
kaesu (l), modosu 
'l). i. V. Shirizoku 
;i), hiku (i). To 
keep — , hikaeru (3). 
To look — , kaeri- 
miru (2). 

Back door, «, Ura- 
guclii. 

Back gnte, U' Ura- 
mon. 

Backward, adv. U- 
shiro-ni, ato-ni. 

Back-yard, «. Qra- 

niwa, oku-niwa 
Bad, a. Waru i. 



( lo ) 



Ens', "• Fukuro. t. V. 
J'ulairo ni ireru (3). 
P\ikurasu (i). L v. 
Fukurcru (3). 

Bag'g-ag'e, 11. Nimo- 
tsu, kori. 

Bn^ie, t. V. Vaku (i). 

BaSaiioe, n. Hakari. 
1 icikin. Zankin. i.v. 
Hakaru (i). Heikin 
sum (4), Kanjo su- 
ru (4). — of power, 
kenryoku-heikin. 

Call, ;;. Tama, mari. 
Buto-kwai. 

Bnloosi, n. Fusen, 

kciki-kyu. 
KaisiiS>i>o, ;;. Take. 

— -ivare, take-zaiku. 

Bi^iiiima, n. Easlio. 

BaHsd, ;/. Obi, hi mo. 

Kami. 

Bciiiir^Bi, t. V. Tsuiho 
sum (4), ou (h. i). 

Bitssli, ;,'. Ginks, Do 

Ic, tHulsumi, 
iJaoiBi-l^ill,;;. Giuko- 
tcyala. Ginko-.shi- 

Bai!k-bool<, «. Azu- 
l<c-clio, 

BajfBtor, ;/. Ginko- 
kabuiiushi. Ginko- 
l;n. 

Ba3sSia>u|>tcy, ;/. Ha- 
san. 

Bajtksfock, n. Gin- 
kc-kab:i. 



Banner, ;/. Hata. 
ISaiiqnet. Enkwai. 

kyo-o. 
Baptism, n. Senrei. 
Baptize, /. v. Senrei- 

wo okonau (h. i). 
Barbarian, n. Ya- 

ban jin. 
Barber, ;;. Toko-ya, 

riha:su-shi. 
Bare, a. Hadaka-no. 

Shitsuboku-na. 
Barefoot, a. Hada- 

slii no. adv. Hada- 

shi-ni, hadashi-de. 
BaB's^aisi, ;;. Yakujo. 

7'o strike a — , te 

wo utsu (i). — 

7iioney, tetsuke-kin. 
Barley, ;/. Omugi. 
Barm, ;;. Koji. 
Barocnetcr. Seiukei. 
Baron, n. Dan-shaku. 
Base, ;/. Dodai, kiso, 

nioto. a. lyashi-i, 

geliin-no. 
Base-ball, ;/. Yakyu. 
Basket, 11. Kago. 
Bat, //. Komoh. Bo. 
ISatli, ;/. Furo, yu. 

Mokuyoku. Yudo- 

no, furoba 

Bathe, t. v. Yu 11 i 

haim (l). 



( " ) 



Bnttle. Senso, tatakai. j 
7o Icse a — , make- { 
ru (3). /. V. and ». v. 
Tatakau (h. i). 

Bay, a. Kuri-iro-no. 
/?. Wan. 

Bazaar^ n. Kanko- 
ba. 

Be, ?'. V. Aru (i), oru 
(i), iru (2). To 

came to — , araseru 
(3). To let —, sute- 
te-oku (1 ). — it as 
it may, do nari to- 
mo. — still, shizu- 
ka ni nasai. 

Beak, «. Kuchiljashi. 

Bcnii, n. Soramame. 
Mame, — curd, 

tofu. 

Bear, n. Kuma. Ho- 
kuto. /. V. Ninau 
(h. i), motsu (i), 
hakobu (i). Kora- 
eru (3). To — a.^ 
fart, tetsudau (h. i). 1 

— down, appuku su- ■ 
ru (4), hishigu (i). j 
— frxiit, mi wo mu- I 
subu (i). — ojT. \ 
osaeru (3), — en , 
the shoulders, kalsu- t 
gu (l). — on the 
back, obuu (li. ij. 

— t4p, sasaeni (3). 
Beard, 71. Hige. 
Beast. Kemono. 



Keat, i. 71. Utsu (i), ] 

tataku (i). Katsu ! 

(i). To — back, O- \ 

i-nokeru (3). — \ 

dvzvn, kudaku (i], i 

laosu (l). — dozun ' 
the price, negiru (2). 

— into, uchi-komu \ 

(i). Osliie-komu ' 

(I). — CO di-a.'h, \ 

iichi-korosu {t). i v. \ 

Doki ga suru (4). j 
Uchi-ageru (3). 

Beautiful, a. Birei- ; 

na, kirei-na, utsu- . 
kushi-i, uruwashi-i. 

Beawty, ;/. Bi, utsu- 
kushi-sa. Bi-jin. 

Because, conj. Naze { 

naia. Kara, yue-ni, ! 
...no tame-ni. 

Bed, n. Nedoko. 

Be<l-ro©m, n. Shin- 1 

•sh'tsu, nema. , 

Eedsfea*?, n. Nedai, j 

toko. i 

Bee, n. Mitsu-baclii. ; 

Beef, n. Gyu-niku. 

Beer, 11.. Ei.'tu. — 1 

Lall, biya-horu. \ 

ilct'oee, /fep. Mae=!n. I 

£uki-ni. ■ i 

B-eforeSiaiitl, ada. \ 

Maemotte, aiakaji- \ 

nie "" ; 

Eoji', /. V. Negau (h. ' 

0- ; 

lic-g-et, t. V. Umu (lY 



( 12 ) 



Tiessav, n. Kojiki. | 

Beg-in, /, v. Hajiinaru I 
(i), okoru (i). — 
ner, shogakusha 
Shinzan. — nfn^, 
hajime, kigen, kon- 
gen. 

Heliiiitl, ^re/>. Ushiro- 
ni, ato-ni, okurete. 
aa'v. Ato-ni, nokot- 
te. 

Bcliold, /. V. Miru 
(2). z. V. Mieru (3). 

Belief, n. Sliinyo. 
Shinko, shin-jin. 

Believe, t. v. and i. v. 

Shinko sum (4). 
Shinyo suru (4). 

Believer, //. Shinja. 

Bell, n. Kane. 

Beloiig', /. V. Zoku 
suru (4). Kakawaru 
(i) This ~s to 
me, kore \va wata- 
ku.shi no desu. 



Below, ptep. 
ni, hiku-ku. 

Bcneli, ;/ 

kake. 



Shita- 
Koshi- 
Vueki- 



Benefii'inl, it, 

no, yuyona. 

Beiievoleiiee, n. Jihi, 
onkci, jiai. 

Kesicle, pr^fi. Hoka- 
ni, l.)elsu-ni, waki-ni. 
adv. Katsu, mala, ko 
no hoka, betsu-ni, 
sara-ni. 



Bestow, /. V. Ataeru 

(3). 
Better, a. ...Yori yo- 

i, motto yoi. Change 
for the — , aratame- 

ru (3), kairyo suru 

(4). 
Between, /rif/. Aida- 

ni, naka-ni. To 

place — , hasamu ( i ). 

Beyond, prep. Hoka- 
ni. Muko-ni. — 
all others^ nakan- 
zuku, koto-ni. — 
expectation, zongai, 
omoi no hoka. — 
oue''s ability, chikara 
ni amaru (i), adv. 
Achira-ni hedatatte. 

Bible, n. Seisho. 

Bid, t. V. Nyusatsu wo 
suru (4). Tsugeru 
(3), noberu (3). Mi- 
tsukeru (3). Maneku 
(i). To —farewell^ 
wakare wo tsugeru 
(3> — up, seri- 
ageru (3). n. Nyu- 
satsu. 

Big-, ;/. Oki-i. 

Bill, n. Sojo. Yaku- 
soku-tegata. Kaki- 
dashi. Kakitsuke. 

— of exchange, ka- 
wase-tegata, — of 
fare, kondate. 

of divorce, rienjo. — 
of lading, okurijo. 

— oj saUy ni-tega- 
ta. 



( ^3 ) 



Billiard, n. Tama- 
tsuki. — • /ad/e, 

tamatsuki-dai. 

Bill-book, n. Kinyu- 
cho. 

Etind, /. V. Musubu 
(I). Tabaneru (3}, 
shibarii (i). — a 
book, seihon suru ^4^ 
hon wo tojiru (2]. 
/. V. Yakusoku wo 
suru (4). 

Biog-raphy, n. Den- 

ki, genko-roku. 
Bii'd, n. Tori. 

Bird's-eye-vie-w, n. 

Zenkei. 

Birtli, n. Shussan. — 

day, tanjo-bi. — 

^lace, kokyo. 
Biscnlt, 71. Bisketto. 
Bit, «. Kire. Kiri. 

Horse's — , kutsu- 

wa. 
Bite, t. V. Kamu (i). 

Bitter, a. Niga-i. Ko- 
koro-gurushi-i, ka 
nashi-j. 

Blaeii, a Kuro-i, Ku- 
ra-i Fukitsu-no, n. 
Koku-shoku. Anko- 
ku. Mofuku. 

Black-board, u. Ko- 

kuban. 

Blacking-, tt. Kutsu- 
zumi. 

Blame, /. v. Shikaru 
(i), hinan suru (4). 



Blank, f?. Shiro-i. 

Junsu i - n o. — paper y 
shira-kami. '^^cart- 
ridge, kuho. 

Blanket, w. Ketto. 

Blaze, n. Hono. i. v. 
Moeru (3). Arawa- 
reru (3). i. v. Ara- 
wasu (ij. 

Bless, /. V. Megurau 
(I). Iwau (h. i). 

Blessed, a. Saiwai-na, 

shiawase-na. 
Blessing, n. Megumi, 

shikufuku. 

Blind, a. Mekura-no. 
Oroka-na. — of 
one eye, mekkachi, 
katame. Window 
— , sudare. 

Blood, n. Chi, ketsu- 
eki. Kett5. — 
vessels, kekkwan. 

Blossom, n. Hana. 

i. V. Saku (i). 

Blotting-paper, u. 

Suitori-gami. 

Blow, i. a. Fuku (i). 

— off, fuki-taosu {iy 

— ctit, fuki-kesu (i). 
Fuki-dasu (i). — 
up, fuki-tobasu (i). 
Shikaru (i). — 
away, fuki-harasu 
'i). Fuki-chirasu 

[). — dow)i, fuki- 
otosu (i). — iuio, 
fuki-komu (i). — 
throuoJi, fuki-tosu(r). 



( H ) 



Bine. 71. Ao, ai. 

Olnsli, i. V. Hajiru 
(2), sekimen sum 
(4). 

Board, it. Ita. Geshu- 
ku. On — , senchu- 
ni. /. V. Geshiku 
suru (4). — a ship, 
fune ni noru (i). 

Boarding-hoiise. Ki- 

shiku-sha. 

Boast, i. V. Jiman suru 
(4), hokoru (i). 

Boat, n. Ko-bune, 
boto. 

Body, n. Karada, ni- 
kutai. Honbu. Hi- 
to. Mono. Kumiai. 
Tai. Sotai, zentai- 

Body-guard, ti. Go- 

ei-hei. 
Boil, i. V. Nita- 
tsu (i). Nieru (3). 
/. V. Nitateru (3). 
Niru (2). — over, 
ni-koboreru (3). — 
point, fulto-tcn. 

Bold, a. Daitan-na, 

yukwan-na. 
Buiiiba»«tic, a. Og'ti^. 

sa-na, k5dai-na. 
Bono, n. Hone. 
Bu.^an<;t, n. lioslii. 
Bot>k. Hon, sliomo- 

Isu. Chobo. 
ESoj>K-bi»s<lery, n. 

icilion-ya. 



Boolt-case, n. Hon- 

dana, hon-bako. 

Book-keeping', n. 

Boki. 
Book-seller, 71. Hon- 

ya, slio-teiv 
Book-stand, n. Hon- 

tate. 
Boot, n. Naga-gutsu. 
Boot- jack, n. Kutsu- 

nugi-ita. 
Boots, n. Kutsu-miga- 

ki. 

Border, n. Sakai. He- 
ri, fuchi. i. v. Kagi- 
ru (2). 

Both, a. and pron. 
Ryoho, futatsu to 
mo. — hand, ry5te. 

— feet, ryo-ashi. 
conj. Katsu, mata. 

— and, narabini. 

Bottle, n. Bin, tok- 

kuri. 
Bottom, n. Soke. 

Bound, «. Sakai. Sei- 

gen, kagiri. /. v. 

Sakai wo tateru (3). 

Seigen suru (4). 
Bow, /. V. Mageru (3). 

Sageru (3). i.v. Saga- 

ru(i). Kagamu (i). 
Bow, «. Yumi. Jigi. 
Box, n. Hako. — 0/ 

a theatre, sajiki. /. v. 

Ulsu (i). 



( 15 ) 



Boy, n. Otoko no ko, 
danshi. Kodomo. 
Kyuji, boi. 

Bracket, ;/. Kvakko. 

Brain, 7i. No, nozui. 

Branch, /;. Eda. — 
office, shiten. — 

road, wakare-michi. 
t V. Wakeru (3). 

Brass, 11. Shinchu. 

Brave, a. Yumo-na, 

isamashi-i. 

Bread, n. Pan. 
BreatltlB, n. Haba, 
hirosa. 

Break, t. v. Yabuiu 
(i), kowasu (i) i. v. 
Yabureru (3), oreru 
(3), kudakeru (3). 
bakeru (3). The Jay 
— > yo g^ akeru (^]. 
— off', kyu ni yame- 
ru (3). — otti, kyii 
ni okora (i). — up, 
tokeru (3), kudakeru 
(3). «. Sakeme, ki- 
reme. — 0/ day, 
yo-ake. 

Breakfast, n. Asa- 
meshi. 

Breast, //. Muiie. Clii- 
chi. 

Breath, n. Kokyu, 
iki. 

Breath, i. v Iki wo 

sum (4). /. V. Ko- 
kyu sum (i). Yasu 
mu (i> 



Breeches, u ^Toal'; 

hiki, zuiion. 
Breed, / v. Uuiu { i 1. 

/. V. Umarc-ro I'j). 

— ?;<;<,'■, kyoiku- Oko- 
nai, gy<'jo. 

Breeze, ;/. Bifu. 
Brethren, it. Kyodai, 

d(jL;0. 

Brevity, u. Kwaatan. 

Bribe, n. Wa'ro, mai- 
nai. 

Brick, ;/. ivengwa 

Brlck-layer, n. Ren- 
gwa-slii. 

Bi'ide, N- Hana-yo.ne, 

Brfideg-room. Haiia- 

ninko. 
Bridge, n. Hashi. 

Stjiie — , isiii-basiii 

— c/ b.ats, funa- ba- 
sil i. Sii^pciiswn — , 
tsuri-l)ashi. t.v. Ma- 
sh i wo kakeni (3). 

Bridle, //. Tazuiiri. 

Brlg-lst, /. I', iva-^a- 
yaki;(i) .t^/z/. Ka-j,a- 
yaite. — ness, hil-;a- 
ri. a. Akaru i, ha- 
reta. Riko-na. 

Brilliant, a Kacja- 
yaite oru (l) Akl- 
laka-na. 

Bring-, t. V. Motte ku- 
^'' (5)- ■•- n'toiiL, 
i'"ju sura (4), okosij 
(1). — back, mochi^ 
kaesu (3), yobi-kae- 



( 16 ) 



su (i). — Hozii?i, 
niolte-oriru (2). — 
for.'h, umu (i), de- 
le iru (2). Arawasu 
(1). — on, okosu 
(l), liajimeru (3). — 
out, mochi-dasu (l), j 
arawasu (1). — over, 1 
watasu (i). Kaesa- 1 
seru (3). — up, so- 
dateru (3), mochi- 
ageru (3). — to 
ntind^ omoi-dasu 

Brittle, a. Moro-i, 
Broad, a. Hiro-i. 0- 

ki-i. Akiraka-na. 
Brolser, n. Nakagai. 
lirouKe, //. Karakane, 
lirook, //. Ogavva. 
Bs'otSier, n. Kyodai. 
— in-laxv, gi-kyo- 
dai. Elder — , ani. 
Younger ^^ otoio. 

Bro-n-n, a. Tobi-iro- 
no. ;/. 'I obi iro. 

Brusb, n. Hake. 

Brnte, n. Kinjii. 

B'lbMe, 71. Awa. 

Bockct, n, Teoke, 

ljak'.-lsu. 

I5iioK^\hcHt, «. Snba. 
Biul, V. Me. 7. V. Me 

ga deru (3). /. v. 
"isugiki suru (4). 

Buddtia, n. lluloke, 
butsa. 



Bnddliisni, n. I'lik 
kyo. 

Build, t. V. Tateru 
(3), tsukuru^(i), ken- 
chiku suru (4), fu- 
shin siiru (4)- — /«§-, 
Kenchiku. 'i'aie- 

moao. 

Bulk, 11. Kasa, okisa. 

Bull, ;/. 0-ushi. 

Bundle, n. Taba. /. v. 
Tabaneru (3), isuisu- 
mu (l). 

Buoy, ;/. Uki. t. v. 
Uka.su (l). /. V. Uku 

(0- 

Bureau, n. ^^akusho. 
Burial, n. Tomurai, 

maiso. — p.au, Ijo- 

chi. 
Burn, /. V. Yaku (i). 

Kogasu (i). /. V. 

Yakeru (3). Kogeru 

(3)- 
Burst, i. V. Yabureru 
(3). — forth, has- 
suru (4). — in(o 
tears, naki-dasu (l). 
— out laughing, fuki- 
dasu (i). 

Bury, /. V. Homuru 

(I). Umeru (3). 

Bush, n. Yabu. i. v, 
Shigeru (3). 

Business, n, Jniu. 

Shoku-gyo. Yoji. 
— man, jimn-kwan 
Jilbugj ka. 



( 17 ) 



Busy, a. Sewashi-i, 

ibogashi-i. 
But. conf. Keredcmo, 

shikashi, shikashi- 

nagara, ... ga. — 

more, masliite. prep. 

... no hoka. adv. 

Tada, bakari. 
Butter, n. Bata. 
Butterfly, n. Cho- 

cho. 

Button, n. Botan. 
Buy, A V. Kau (h. l). 
— er, kai-te. 

By> pf^P' De, motte. 
Tame-ni, yotte. 

Soba-ni, waki-ni. — 
and — , jiki-ni. — 
e/ie bye, tsuide-ni. 
Fu( it — itself, be- 
tsu-ni oku. — far 
the best, haruka-ni 
yoi, yohodo yoi. 
Near — , sugu soba. 

By-corner, n, Kawa- 
ya, benjo. 

By-|»aS!i, n. Ko-mi 
chi. Shido. 

By-streel, n. Ura- 

duri. 



(Cabbage, n. Kyabe- 
tsu, habotan. 

r.ubiiret, /;. Heya. 
Naikwaku. Tansu. 



Cabinet-makep, »/, 

Sashimono-shi. 

Cabl-a, n T.suna 

Marine — , kaitei 
denshin. 

Cag'e, n. Tori-kago. 

Calie, n. Kwashi. 

Calculate,/, v. Ka^j 
eru (3), keisan .surt 
(4), kanjo suru (4). 

Calendar, n. Koyo 
mi. 

Calf, n. Ko-ushi. — 
of the leg, 11. Fukura- 
hagi. 

Calico, n. Sarasa. 

CaU, /. V. Yol)u (ij, 
maneku (i). — 
after, yobi-kakeni 
(3). — back, yobi- 
kaesu (1), — for, 
motomeru (3). — 
forth, yolDi-dasu (1). 
— in, yobi-komu 
(l), uketoru (l). — 
near, yobi-yoseru 
(3). — tipoH, yoru 
(i). Mimau (h. i). 
i.v. Yobu (i). Ho- 
mon suru (4), tazu- 
neru (3). — ing, 
sliokumu. Homon. 
Shokwan. 

Calsn, a. Shiziika-na, 
odayalia-na. n. Euji. 
/. V. Shizumeru (3). 

C«r;'upt»or, n. Shono, 
ryuno. 



( i8 



Can, i. V. Dekiru (2). 
Can, n. Kan. 
CaMal, n. Hori-wari. 

Unga. 

Canary, «. Kanariya. 

Candidate, n. Koho- 
sha, shigwan-sha. 

Candle, n. Rosoku. 

— stick, shoku-dai. 

Caneqnin, n. Kana- 
kin. 

Cannon, n. Tailio. 

Cap, K. Boshu 

Capacity, n. Hirosa. 
Noryoku. Saino, 

giryo. Doryo. 

Cape, n. Misaki. 
Capital, ?;. Shilion. 
Tofu. a. Omo-na. 

— crivie, juzai. 

Capitalist, n. Shi- 
hon-ka. 

Captain, n. Sencho. 
Tai-i. 

Cai>tive, n. Iloryo. 

toriko. 
Car, n. Kuruma, ki. I 

sha. ; 

Card, 17. P'uda. Name \ 
— , tefuda, ir.cishi. j 
Playing — , karuta. 1 

Care, «. Chui, Shini- 
pai. To take — , 
chiii sum (4), ki wo 
tsukeru (3). DonU 
— , kamai mascn. 



— fill, kinsnin-na, 
chui-buka-i. — /^?«', 
fu-cliui-na. 

Cargo, n. Tsuniiui. 

— boat, hashike- 
/^une. 

Carpenter, n. Daiku. 

Carpet, ;/. Mosen, \\x- 
tan. 

Carriage, n. Basha. 

Carry, /. v. Hakobn 
(i). — 071 the buck, 
obuu (h. i). — 0}t, 
tsunageru (3), osa- 
meru (3). — back, 
mochi-kaeru (3). — 
out, mochi-deru (i). 

— throtigh, motte- 
toru (l). 

Cartage, n. Unchin. 
Cart-way, ;/. Shado. 
Case, n. Hako. Jijo, 

baai. Kaku [Gram.) 
Casli, n. Genkin, sho- 

kin. Kwahei. 

Cast, t. V. Nageru (i). 

— cside, suteru. — 
by, hinseki suru (4). 

■ - doivn^ nage-sute- 
ru (3). Sageru (3), 
To be — down, ki ga 
iasagu (l). — forth^ 
hanasu (l). — up, 
kwanjo suru (4). 
Ageru (3); haku 
(i). i. V. Kangaeru 
(3)- 
Caustic, n. Shiro. 



( 19 ) 



Cat, ;/. Keko. 

Catalog-uc, n. Moku- 
ruku. 

Catfli, /. V. Tsuka- 
inaeru (3). — cold, 
kaze wo hiku (i). 
— firey hi ga tsuku 
(i). — on, kakaru 
(i). /. V. Utsuru 

Catbolicity, n. Ten- 

shu-kyo. 

Cattle, 77. Kachiku. 

Ushi. 

Cause, n. Gen-in, 

Cease, i. v. Yasumu 
(l). Owaru (ij. 
Yamu (l). Taeru 
(3)- — '^^^^ yama- 
nu-i, owarana-i. 

Ceciar, n. Sugi. 

Ceil, n. Tenjo. 

Celebration, ;/. Sam- 
bi. iwai. Matsuri. 

Cement, n. Semen, 
Ceiisnre, 11. Kenseki, 
hinan. Dangai. 

Center, n. Chushin. 
Century, n. Seiki, 

CeressEony. n. Gi- 

shiki. 

Certain, a. Tashika- 
na, iitei-no. Aru. 

Certifieate, n. vSho- 
pho. /. V. Shosho 
wo sazukeru (3). 



Chain, n. Kusari. 

t. V. Tsunagu. 
Cbair, tt. Isu. 

Cliaar-bearer, n. Ka- 

go-kaki. 

ChairiRan, n. Gich5, 
kwai-cho. 

Chalk, n. Haku-boku. 
Gofun, 

Challeug-e, t. v. Ido- 
mu (i), yobi-dasu 

Chamber, n. Heya. 
Chain ]>ag lie, ^ 

Shampan. 
Champion, n. Sen- 
shu. Yushi. 

Chance, n. Fuji no 
kolo, guzen no koto. 
Unmei. By — , gu- 
zen ni, futo. 

<^;iang-e, /. v. Kaeru 

(3), aratameru (3). 

i. V. K a warn (l). ;/. 

Henkwa. Kawari. 
Chapel, ft. Reihai'do. 
Chapter, n. Sho. 
Character, 7t. Moji, 

ji. Seishitsu, tachi. 

I71 — , tekito. Oiti 

of — , fu-tekito. 
Characteristic, n. 

Tokushitsu, toku- 

ch5, tokusei. 

Charcoal; n. Su« 

mi. 



( 20 ) 



Cliarg-c, t. V. Tsumu 
(i), noseru (3). K5- 
geki suru (4). Ko- 
kuso suru (4). — a 
gwi, tama avo kome- 
ru (3). n. liaku. 
Sekinin. Meirei. 

Kokuso. Kogeki. 

Cliai'lty, n. Jilii. 
t'lias'iBi, n. Majinui. 

Yoshoku. t. V. Ma- 

yowasu (l). 

Chastitj', n. Teis5, 
sesso. 

Chatter, i. v. Shahe- 
ru (3). 71. (Isliaberi. 
Claeap, a. Yasu-i. 

Ciseck, 71. Teishi, 
kinshi, samatage. 
t. V. Tomeru (3^; 
samatageru (3). i. v. 
'lomaiu (i). 

Check, 71. Ho, iiop. 
peta. 

CJicese, 71. Chiisu. 

Chemistry, «. Kwa- 
gaku. 

Cherry, «. Sakura. 
Chew, t. V. Kamu (i). 
ChieEten, 7?. li m, hi- 

yoko. 

Chie!', a. Omona, 
shuyd-no. 77. Cho- 
kwaa. Sliuiyo. — 
£7id, sliui. 

ChiltB, «. Kodomo, 
sliuni. 



Childish, a. K * \v.\\^--- 
rashi-i, kodomo/ ■. 
kodouioppo- i. 

Claiiraasey, 11. Keir,u- 
dashi, entotsu. 

CMn, «. Ago. Sbi!:i 
ago. 

China, n. Shin a 

Chinese, 71. Shina-jin. 
shina-go. 

€hoeoiate, ii. Cho- 
koleto. 

Choice, 71. Sentaku. 
Cholera, «. Korera. 
Choose, t. V. Erabu 
(I), yo^ru(i). 

Christ, 71. Kurisuto. 



Christian, n 


Yaso 


kyo shii ja. 




Christianity, 


jt. Ya. 


so-kyo. 




Christinas, ;/. 


Kup. 


sumasu. 




Churchj 71. 


Kyo. 


kwai. 




Cng-ar, «. Hamaki- 


tabako. 




Cipher, 71. Rei 


> zero. 


Circle, 71. En, 


maru. 


<;ircular, a 


Maiu-i. 


71 Kwai jo. 




Circsilate, i. v. 


Megc-. 


ru (i), junkwan suru 


(4). 'I'suyo 


5uru 



(4)- 



i 



Circulation, n. Jun- 

kvvan. Kvyaiten. 

Tsuyo. — of money, 

yuzu. 
Circuznlerence. n- 

Shui, mawari. 

Circmnstauce, ;.'. ji- 
j6. Jotai. Guzen 
no koto. 

Citizen, n. Shi-mm, 
k5-min. 

Civil, a. Fu-no Tami- 
no. Seiji- jo-no. — 
government, kokusei. 
— law, mimpo. — 
officer, bunkwaii. — 
-ivar, nairan. 

Civilization, ti. Bun- 
mei, kaikwa. 

Claim, /. V. Motome- 
lu (3), yckyu sura 
(4). n. Yokyu, mo- 
tome. 

CI a*: 5, n Kami. Kai- 

kyii. 

Classic, n. Koten. 
Clus-^ifseaiiosa, n. 

Bunrui. 

Classmate, n. Dos5. 
Clause, n. Ku. 

Cl:^-.v, n. Tsume. t. v. 
Ka^ku (l), mushiru 

Clean, a. Kirei-na, 
kiyo-i. adv. Mina, 
nokorazu. t. v. Kirei 
ni suru (4). 



Clevis, ;/. r;oknshi 
Shoki. Tedai, ban- 
to 

ClCTer, a. Kasliiko-i, 
riko-na. 

Climate, n„ Kiko, fu- 
el o. 

Cloefe, n. Tokei. Ka- 
ke-dokei. 

Close, t. V. Shinieru 
(3), tateru (3). Owa- 
ru (i). Fusagii (1). 
i. V. Fusagaru (1). 
Owaru (l). Shimaiu 
(i). — To'uh, itclii 
suru (4). a. Fus.i- 
gatta. Chika-i. Shim- 
mi tsu-na. lyashi-i. 
n- Owari, shimai. 
Sue. 

Closely, adv. vShita- 
shi-ku, chika-ku. 
Naisho-de, hisoka- 
ni. 

ClotSi, n. Kire. Coilon 
— , momen. WoolUn 
— , rasiia. 

ClotSses, n. Kimono, 
ifuku. Old — , furu- 
g' 

ClotMl; n. Kemuri, ke- 
mu. Kumo. 

Clo«dy, a. Kumotta. 
— 7Vtather, donten. 

Clu?>, n. Kurabu. — 
ber, kurabu-in. 

K\vai-in. 

Coacb, n. Basha. 



( « ) 



Coaeiiman, n. Gyo- 

sha. 
Colte, n. K5ku, 

€oal. 11 Sekitan. 

Coal-g-as, n. Sekitan- 
gasu. 

Coal-<ar, ?/. Koruta. 

Coarse, a. Ara-i, bu- 

kotsu-na. Somatsu- 

na. lyashi-i. 

Coast, ;/. Kaigan, umi- 
be. 

Cojit, n. Uwagi. 

Coc'It, n. Ondori. Ka- 

zami. Nomiguchi. 

Ryuzu. — of a gun, 

hajiki-gane. 
Cocoa, ;/. Yaslii no 

ki. — nut, yaslii. 

Cocoon, n. Mayu. 

Coul, ti. Tar a. — livtr 
oil, kanyu. 

tf'ode, n. Hoten. 

Coffee, 71. Kohii. 

Coflin, n. Kwan, hi- 

tsugi. 

roin, ;/. Kwaliei. Cop- 
per — , dokwa. 

Silver — , ginkwa. 
Gold — , kinkwa. 

Coiiici4le, i. V. P'ugo 
sum (4). 

Col«l, rt, Samu-i, Isu 
meta-i. Reitan-na, 
mujo-no. 11. Kanki, 
samusa. 



Collar, n. Kara, eri 

Collect, t. V. Atsume- 
ru (3). i. V. Alsuma- 
ru (I). 

Collection, 

kin. 



Shu- 
Shu- 



Colleetor, 

kin-ja. 

Colles'e, n. Senimon- 
gakko. 

Colloquial laiig-«:a° 

ge, ;/. Zoku-go. 

Colonel, n. Taisa. 

Colos', ;;. Iro. Saisbi- 
ki. E no gu. 

Column, n. Hashira. 

Gyo. 
Comb, n. Kusbi. 

Combination, ;/. Ke- 

tsngo. Kwago. 

CombiHie, t. v. Ma/-c- 
r" (3). 

Come, i. v. Kuril (5), 
mairu (l). — back, 
kaeru (j). — down, 
oriru (2). — up, no- 
boru(l), agaru(l). 

— /;/, bairu (2). — 
near, cbikayoru (1). 

— iogethir, atsnma- 
ru (1). Issho ni kuni 
(5) — up, oiisuku 
[i). — at, Ifxloku 
(l). - after, okure- 
ru (3), a(o kara kiiru 
(5). -^/, deru(3). 

— cut^ dasu (l). — 
short, fusoku siiru 
(4). —upon, au (h.l). 



C 23 } 



Conieft, n. Hoki-bo- 

Coniforc, «. Nagu- 
3ame. t. v. Nagu- 
sameiu (3). 

Comma, n. Komma. 

Command, n. Mei- 
rei, gorei, iitsuke. 
c. V. Me ire i surn (4), 
gorei suru (4), iitsu- 
keru (3). 

CoKsmnsiilss^eMt, n. 

Meirei, imasliime, 
Ten —, iikkai 

€oms3^enee, /. v. Ha- 

jimaru (l). t. v. Ha- 
jimeru (3). 

ComiKcntary, n. 

Chukai, chushaku. 

Commerce, n. Sho- 
bai. Boeki. 

Coifaimisi^ion, n. Ko- 

sen, tes'aryo. Itaku. 

C'oanmit, t. v. Maka- 
seru (3), itaku sum 
(4). — sin, tsumi 
wo okasu (l). — 
ice, iin. 

ComsnoiSi^y, ;;. Sho- 
hin. Zakkwa. 

Common, a. Initsu- 
no, Ippan-no. Jin- 
jo-no. — people, 
heimin. In — , mo- 
yai-ni. 

Coinmonscn>se, ;'• 

Joshiki. 



Communicate, /• v^ 

Shiraseru (3), tsfi- 
shin suru (4). 
Commmiication, n. 

Tayori. Tsushin. 
Kotsii. 
Company. «. Naka- 
ma. Kai?ha. 

Compare, t. v. Kura- 
beru (3), hikaku su- 
ru (4). 

CoGnjiarison, n. IIi« 

kaku. 

CompeS, /. V. Shiiru 
(2). Semaru (i). 

Compensate, i. v. 

Tsugunau (h. l). 
Compensation, n. 

Tsugunai, mukui. 

Sashihiki-kwanj5. 
Complete, a. Kwan- 

zen-na, jiibun-no. 

/. V. Kwansei suru 

(4), joju suru (4). n. 

Kwanzen, jubun. 
Complex, a. Fukuza- 

tsu-no. 
Complexion, n. Ka- 

wo-iro. 
Complement, n. Ai- 

salsu, seji. To {n- 

sent — , yoroshu ne- 

gai masu. 

C©mpose„ t. V. Kumi- 
tateru (3), soshiki 
suru (4). 



Compositiofl^ n. 

Sakubun. 
Cosnpoiiisd, f. V. Ma- 

zeru (3). a. Fuku- 
zatsu-no. 
CompreliencI, t. v. 

Fukumu(l), tsutsu- 
mu (i). Satocu (i). 
i. V. \Yakaru (i). 

Coiie<?iit5*ate, t. v. 

Shuchu sum (4). 

Concept, n. Gainen. 

Concern, /. v. Kaka- 
waru (i). Sliimpai 
sum (4), anjiru (2). 
— ing, ni tsuite. 

Concert, t. v. S5dan 
suru (4). Shinshaku 
suru (4). 

Conclude, /. v. Sui- 
dan suru (4), sada- 
meru (3). Owaru 
(i). i. V. Owaru 
(i). Kettei suru 
(4). 

Conclusion, n. Ke- 
tsuron. Owari. 

Concortlance, n. Sa- 

kuin. Itchi, wago, 
doi. 

Con<3enin, /. v. Bas- 
suru (4). 

Condei&so, /. v. Kata- 
mevu (3), tsumcru 
(3). Condensed milk, 
rennyu. 



Condition, n, Ari. 
sama, joky5, yosu, 
jijo. Kyogu. Jo- 
ken. Chii. Yaku- 
soku. — al, joken 
tsuki-no. Katei- 

no. 

Condole, t. V. Tomu- 
lau (h. I). Kuya- 
tra wo yu. n. Cho- 
ji- 

Conduct, n. Gyoi, fu- 
rumai, hinko. /. v. 
Michibiku (i), annai 
suru (4). Sashizu 
suru (4). i. 2J. Oko- 
nau (h. i). 

Confess, /. v. Hakujo 
suru (4), zange suru 
(4). 

Confidence, n. Shin- 
nin, shin-yo. 

Confsne, n. Sakai. 
/. V. Kagiru (2), sei- 
gen suru (4), — 
tmut, ft. Kinko. 

Confucian, a. Koshi- 
no. — is»/, ju-kyo. 

Confuse, /. V. Maze- 
ru (3). Mayowasu 
(0- 

Confusion, ;/. Kon- 

ZiU'M. 

ConiSi'ratuiatSon, n 

Iwai, yorokobi. 

Cong's c;4-ate, /. v. 

Atsumeru (3), yose- 
ru (3). i. V. Atsu- 
maru'(i), yoru (i). 



r 25 7 



Congress, n Kokkai, 

gikai. 
Coiijug'ation, n. Ka- 

tsuyo, henkwa. 
Conjnnction, n. 

Reng5. Selsuzoku- 

shi [Gmi/i.). 
Coiiiaect, /. T. Mu£U- 

bu (i), tsunagu (l). 
Coniscetion, n. 

Kwankei, rearaku. 
Connive, /". v. Mino- 

gasu (i), mokkyo 

si,ru (4). 
Coaijiier, /. v. Katsu 

Cosjqneror, «. Sen- 
sho-ja. 

€oi»seience, n. Ryo- 

siiiPi, lionsain. 

Consciousiiiess, ji. 

Ishiki. Self—, ji- 
kaku. 
Consent, n. Godo, 
doi. Yuiushi, sho- 
daku, shochi. 

Consequence, n. 

Kekka. 

Consequently, adv. 
Yue-ni, desu kara, 
ni yotte. 

Conservatisni, n. 

Hoshu-shugi. 

L"©?!Ri«5€r, i.v. and i.v. 
Kangaem (3), juku- 
ryo suru (4). 



Coii§i<lerAble, a. Yo- 

hodo-no, zuibun-no 
hij5-na. 
Consideration, ;?. 

Kangae, jukuryo. 
vShinshaku. Sonkei. 
In — of, ni yotte, 
no laineni. 0/ — , 
laisc!.=;i, 

Conss^^nature, n. 

Rensho, rcn-in. 

Consist, i. V. Narita- 
tsu(i). 

Consolation, n, Na- 

gusame. 

Console, f. v. Nagu- 
sanieru (3). 

Constant, ;/. Fuhen, 
a. Itsumo no. ittei- 
no, fuhen no. Ya- 
ma-nai, tae-nai. 

Coni^titiite, f. v. So- 

shiki suru (4), kumi- 
tateru (3}. 

Constitution, ii. 

Kenipo. Setsmitsu. 
Ta'kaku. Kozo. 

Construct, L v. Tate- 

ru (3), t:;ukuru (l). 
Construction, n. 

Kozo. Setsuritsu, 

Seitei. 
Consnl, w. Ryoji 
Consulate, «. Ryoji- 

kwan. 

Consultation, n, 

Sodan, kyogi, dam« 
pan, kaigi. 



Uolii. Haikekka- 

ku. 
Contniii, t. V. Tamo- 

tsu (i). Fukumu 

(I) Jreru(3). 
Contesmporary, a. 

Dojidai-no. 

Contempt, n. Ana- 
dori, keibetsu. 

Conteanptible, a. 

lyashimu-be-ki, iya- 
shi-i, gesen-no. Ili- 
retsu-na. 
Contcn<l, /. V. Ara- 

sou (h. l). 

Contention, n. Kyo- 

s5. 

Contents, n. Mokn- 
voku, inokuji. 

Coiitaneiit, v. Tai- 
shii, tairiku. a. Ji- 
sei-no, kokki-no. — 
/j', sessei shite, jisei^ 
shite. 

Continue, i. v. Tsu- 
zuku (i), eizoku su- 
ru (4). /. V. Tsuzu- 
keru (3), kcizoku 
sum (4). 

Coi»tcBmous, a. Tae- 
nia no nai, tsuzuitc 
oru (i). adv. Tae- 
ma na-ku, sliijil, l5u- 
zuitc. 

Contiract, t. v. Ilera- 

su (l), tsumeru (3), 
ryaka s'.iru (4). Ya- 
kus )l. u sui-ii (4). i. V. 



Hem (i). Yakuso- 
ku suru (4), ukeau 
(h. I). 

Contradict, i.v. Han- 

tai suru (4), 

Contrary, n. Hanlai, 
mujun. On the — , 
kaette. Hantai-ni. 

Contrast, n. Tai hi. 

/. V. Kuraberu (3). 
Contribute, t. v. Ta- 

sukeru (3). Kifu 
sum (4), gien sum 
(4), i. V. Warimae 
wo dasu (i). 
»:ontrol, V. Kwan* 
katsu, shihai. Yo- 
kusei. i. v. Kwan- 
katsu suru (4), shi- 
hai suru (4). Osa- 
eru (3). 

Convenience, n. 

Benri, ko-tsug5. At 
your — , tsuide ni, 
go-tsugo ni yotte. 

Conventional, a. 

Vakusoku shita. 

Shiik\van-no, kwan- 
rci-no. 

CoiBversatlon, n. 

Kaiwa. 

•t'oxs-verse, a. Sakasa 
no, ahekobe-no. — 
iy, Kaette. Sakasa- 

ni. 



Conversion, 

kwan. 



fT«n. 



( 27 ) 



Convert, /. v. Kaeru 
(3). Kaishu saseru 
(3). i. V. Kaishu su- 
ru (4). 12. Kaishu- 
sha. 

ConvKClion, 11. Kwa- 
ku-sliin. 

Cook, /. V. Ryori suru 
{4). n. Ryori-nin. 
Kokku. 

t'ooltevy, n. Ryori- 
lio, kappo-jutsu. 

Ck>ol- a. Tsumeta-i. 
liiyayaka-na, su7A1- 
shi-i. Hakujo-no. 
Ocirusuita. / V. Ili- 
yasii (l). 'Samasii 1 
(l). Suzushi-ku sum 
(4). /. 7'. liieru(3;. 
Samcru (3). Suzu- 
shi-ku-naru ( 1 ). Sn- 
zurau ( I ). — head- 
ed, reitan-na, ochi- 
tsuila. 

Co-«>;::oia4e, /'. v. 

Kyoryoku S'-.ru (4). 

Co-O|;ora4.ioj», 11, 

KyO: yoku, kyodS. 

C^j'Ordioate, a. Do- 

to-no. 

Co-partner, n. Kuipi- 
ai-in, sha-in. 

Copper, n. Do, aka- 
gane. — plate^ do- ] 
ban. 

Copy, n. Ulsnshi. | 
Shita';aki. /. v. and 
i. V. Uisusu (1). j 



Co3»y-!l>ook, n. Te- 

hon. shuJ!-jo. 
Copy-riglit, n. Han- 

ken 
Coral, ;;. Sango, 
Core!, n. Nawa, himo. 
Cork, ;/. Sen. Korop- 

pu. 
Corkscrew, n. Ko- 

roppu-nuki. 
Corn, ;/. Kokurui. 

Tsubu. 
CovJEOtS, a. Shiozuke- 

no. — beef, kon- 

biifu. 
Corner, w. Kado. Su- 

mi. 

Cornerwise, adv. 

Naname-ni, sujikai- 
ni. 

Coronation, n. So- 

kui. 

Corps, n. Shigai. 
Correct, t. v. Naosu 

(i), kaisei suru (4). 

a. Tadashi-i. 
Correspond, i. v. Ka- 

nau (h, i). Ojiru 

(i), fug5 suru (4). 

Tsushin suru (4). 
Corrnpt, /. v. Kusa- 

raseru (3). /. v. Ku 

saru (i). 
Corruption, ti. Fu- 

hai, kusari. 



mo- 



€otton, «o Wata. — 

flannel^ nien-furan 

neru. — yarn 

men-ito, — 

watakuri. 
<Cou|?lfi, w. Seki. /. v. 

Seki wo sum (4) or 

seku(i). i.v. Seki 

ga deru (3). 
Council. 71. Kwaigi. 
CoMiscilor, ;/. Giin. 

Counselor, n. Dai- 

jin. 
Cloimteiiance, n. Y5- 

bo. A V. Homeru 
(3). Give — to,y\}i- 
rusu (l). To keep 
the — , majime de 
oru (i). To lose 
— , raemboku wo 
ushinau (h. i). 

Countimg'-IiOHse, n. 

Kaikci, ch5ba. 

€oMiiiry, n.' Kuni. 

Inaka. 
('ouiage, n. Yuki. 

Conrajrveous, a. Isa- 
mashi-i. 

€oui*se, n. Miclii-jun. 
Siisumi. Gyojf). 

Junjo. Of — , mo- 
chiroii- Jn — , jun- 
juii-ni. /. V. Oil (!i. 
l), karu (l). /. V. \ 
Ilasliiru (l). 

Court, 11. Cholei, 

CourtcotiiH, a. Tei- 
nei-na, tcicho iia. 



28 ) 

Cousin, n. Itoko, 

Cover, n. Futa. /. v. 
Kabuseru (3). 

Cow, 11. Me-ushi. 

Coward, n. liikyo, 
okubyo, 

Crarfe, n. Hil)iic?)ie, 
hibi. Wareme. t. v. 
Waru (ij. i. V. Wa- 
reru (3), hibi ga iru 
(2). 

Cradle, ;/. Yuri-doko, 

Crane, n. Tsu'^ru. 

Crepe, n. Chirimen. 

Cream, n. Kuriimu. 

Create, /. v. Sozo su- 
ru (4). Tsukuru (i) 

Creation, n. Sozo. 

Sozo-butsu. 

Creator, ;;. Zobutsu- 

! shu. 



fl-ffeature, ;/. Tsuku- 
rareta mono. 

Credit, n. Shiny5. 
Karikata. Sell on 
— , kake-uri. 

Creditor, ;/. Kashi- 

nnslii, saishu. 

Creed, /•/. Shinko-ka- 
<t'a'evj>, /. ii. Hau (h 

0- 

''rescent, n. Shij^- 
gcisu, rnika-zuki. 

CrAcket. Koro^i 

Kurikk'-^Uo. 



{ 29 ) 



Crime, n. Tsumi. 
Criiaiiiial, n. Zai- 

nin, hanzai-slia. a. 

Yuzai-no. — /aza, 

kciho. 
€i'iasasoi!, «. Kurenai. 

Criisis, n. Kikyu son- 
bo no toki- Kiwa- 
cloi toki. 

Critical, a. Hihyo no. 
— eye, biliyo-gan. 

Crocodile, ti. Wani. 

Crop, ;?. Shukwaku, 
tori-ire. t. v. Kar-y 
(i). u V. Minoru (l), 
dekiru (2). 

Cross, n, Juj'ka. Ju- 
nionji. a. Yoko-no, 
naname-no. Iji no 
waru-i. Fu-shiawa- 
se-no, fuko-no. f. v. 
Butchigai ni suru 
(4), kosa suru (4}. 
Samatageru (3). — 
out, kesu (i). i» o„ 
Wataru (i), koeru 
(3). 

Cross-road, n. Tsnji. 
^j'ot^u-kado. Yoko- 
michi, yoko-dori. 

Crow, n, Karasu. /. v, 

Toki. wo tsukuru 

(I). 
Crcwd, t, v» Atsnuia- 

ru (l), muragaru (f). 

n. Gunshu. Hito- 

gomi, komi-ai. 



Crown, n. Okwan, 
kamniuri. Oi. /. z; 
Sokui suru (4), kurai 
ni tsuku (1) [~no- 
boru (i)]. Kszaru 

(0- 

Crueifixioia, ;;. Hari- 
tsuke. 

Cruelty, ti. Zankoku. 
Hakujo. Jaken. 

Crtiiser, ji. Junyo- 
kwan. 

Criisls, /. V. Osiii-tsu- 
busu (i). Kudaku 
(i). Tsubusu (i). 
7. V. Kudakeru (3), 
tsubureiu (3). 

Cry, 7. V. Naku (l). 
Sakebu (i). To — 
to, inoru (l), konsei 
suru (4). /. V. Yobu 
(l). Jo — down, 
nonosbiru (l). — 
(?///, wameku (l), sa- 
kebu (i). — up, ho- 
meru (3), kassai su- 
ru (4). Preparing to 
— , beso wo ka^ku 
(i). n. Naki-goe, 
sakebi-goe. 

Crystal, ;/. Sulsho. 
Crystalizatlou, n. 

Kessbo. 

Cultivate, /. v. Taga- 
yasu ( I ), saibai suru 
(4). Kyokwa suru. 

Cultivation, n. Ko- 

saku, saibai. Kyo- 
kwa, shuyo. 



( 30 ) 



diiinlng-, a* Zura-i, 

kokatsu-na. 

Clip, n. Koppu. 

Cure, n. Ryoji. t. v, 
Naosu (i), ryoji suru 
(4). ?. v.'Naoru (i). 

Curiosiity, n. Kiko- 

shin. 

€nrioso, «. Kotto-ka. 
Kozu-ka. 

Curious, a. Kitai-na, 
mezurashi-i. 

Curl, n, Chijire-ge. 
/. V. Maku (i), chiji- 
meru (3), chijirasu 
(l). i. V. Chijireru 
(3). chijimaru (l). 

Cit]r»«nicy, it. Tsuka. 
Ryiitsu. Paper — , 
shi-hei. To give — , 
hay am (l), ryuko 
suru (4). 

CurreJit, a. Nagareru 
(3). Rufu suru (4). 
Ryuko-no. — ex- 
pense, zappi, nyuhi. 
tu Ryiitsu. Ryuko. 
Kyuryu. — mas^e, 
Isurei. — report, 
uwasa, fiilmn. — 
price, soba, jika. 

(I'mrtfjiKsi, ;;. Maku, 
noicn. 

Ciirvo, ;/. Kyokiisen- 
/. V. Magoru (3). 
7. V. Magaru (1), so- 
ru(l). 

«'j6N!»f«i>, n, Zabuton. 



Cnmtoni, «o Fuzoku, 
shukwan. 

Customer, n< Tokui, 
kyaku. 

Ciistoin-liouse n, 

Zeikwan. 

Cut, t. V. Kiru (i), so- 
gu (i). Horu (i). 
7o — away, kiri- 
saru (l). — do-wn, 
kiri-taosu (i). He- 
rasu (i). — off, ta- 
tsu (i), kiri-saru (i). 
— out, nokeru (3* 
tatsu (l). Tsukuru 
(l). Kiri-dasu (i). 
Samatageru (3). — 
open, kiri-akeru (3), 
kiri-hiraku (l). — 
7ip, kudaku ( I ), saku 
(1). Herasu (l). — 
into, kiri-komu (1). 
?. V, Waru (i). K. 
Kiri-kizu. Mizo. 

Kui. Draw — , kuji 
wo hiku (i). SJiort 
— , chikamichi. 

Cylinder, n, I'sutsu. 



D. 



I>aily, a. Hibi-no, 

mai-nichi-no, nichi- 
nichi-ifO. 

l>aiBtag'e, ;;. iTason, 

koware, itnmi. /. v^ 

Itameru (3), kowa- 
su(3). 



c 31 1 



Bamas'Si, it. Donsu. 

Ayd. ^- 

Damp, a. Shimetta, 

nureta. t. v. Nurasu 

(1), shimerasu (3). 

i. V, Nureru (3). 

Dance, i. v. Odoru 
(ij. n. Cdori, buto. 

Dandy, «• Share-mo- 
no, hade-sha. 

Dang-er, n. Kiken, 
kennon. 

Dangerous, a. Abu- 
na-i, kennon- na. 

Dare, /. z'. Aete...suru 

(*'■ ,- • u 

S>ark, a. Kura-i, ku- 
ray ami-no. Aimai- 
■ao. n. Kurayami. 
Aimai. 

Darken, t. v. Kura- 
ku suru (4), kuro-ku 
sum (4). Aimai-ni 
suru (4). 

eiasti, t. V. Nageru 
(3). Kudaku (l), ya- 
buru (l), i. V. Tsuki- 
ataru (i). — a^^ainsi, 
nege-tSLikeru (3). n. 
Shototsu. Samatage. 

iUate, ;/. Jijitsu, hizu- 
ke, gappi. t. V. Hi- 
zuke wo shirusu (l) 
or kaku (i). i. v. 
Hajimaru (i). 

Oaiigliter, n. Musu- 

Dau^-titer-in-law, n. 

Vuine^ yojo. 



Dawn, n. Yoake, aka- 
tsuki. i. V. Yo ga 
akeru (3). 

Day, n. Hi. Another 
— , Tajitsu. — afUr 
to-morroiv, asatte, 
myogo-nichi. — by 
— , from — to — J 
mainichi, nichi-ni- 
chi, hibi. Second — 
after to-viorrow, shi- 
asatte, myogo-go^ 
nichi. — before 

yesterday, ototoi, is- 
saku-jitsu. — tivie, 
hiruma. AH — , 

whole — , shu-jitsu. 
Every oihir — , ka- 
ku-jitsu, ickinclii- 
oki. — and night, 
chuya, hiru-yoru. 
Set — , nichi-gen, 



higii 
hi. 



One 



aru 



Dead, a. Shinda. — 

man-, shi-nin. — 

tree., kare-ki. — 

drttnk, dei-sui. — 

lettery bossho. — 
language, ko-go. 

Deaf, a. Tsumbo-no. 

— ness, n. Tsumbo. 
Deal, n. Ryo. Do. At 

great — , takusan, 
yohodo. t. V. Wake- 
ru (3). {. V. Waka- 
reru (3). Shori suru 
(4). — by, ashirau 
(h. i), taigu suru (4). 

— in, shobai suru 
(4). — tuith, tori- 



( 32 ) 



atsukau (h. i). — 

w/cr ^, Shobai, tori= 

hiki. TaigUo 
B>ear, a. Shit ash i-i, 

airashi-i. Taka-i. 

Tatto-i. n. Ai sum 

hito. 
Death, n. Shi. Fuko. 
Debt, n. Shakkin, fu- 

sai, kari. 

©ebtor, n. Kashi-nu- 
shi, saimu-sha. 

I>«eay, /. v. Otoroeru 
(3), suibi suru (4). 
n. Suibi. 

Deceive, /. v. Azamu- 
ku (i), manchaku 
sum (4), damasu (i). 

December, n. Jiini- 

gatsii. 

Deception, n. Itsu- 
wari, sagi, mancha- 
ku. 

Decide, /. v. Kinieru 
(3), sadameru (3), 
kettei suru (4). /. v. 
Kimaru(lj, sadama- 
ru(i). 

Decision, n. Kettei, 
ketsudan. 

Declaration, «. Sen- 
koku, fukokn. 

Declare, /. v. Hiro 
snru (4), shiraseru 

(3)- 
Dec&ension, ;/. Kata- 

muki. Ilcnkwa, 

Decorate, /. v. Kaza- 
ruCi> 



I>cco ration, t> Ka- 

zari. Kunsho. 

Decrease, /. v, JtJ.abu- 
ku (i). i. V. IliUeni 
(3), heru (3), gcu- 
sho suru (4). 

Dedication, //. IIon5. 

Deduce, /, v. Suiryo 
suru (4). 

Ded action, n. En- 

eki-ho. 

Deed, n. Shiwaza. 
Tegara. 

Deep, a. ]'uka-i. 
Omo-i. Hiku-i. lya- 
shi-i, Ko~i. 

Deer, n. Shika. 

Defeat, t. v. Yaburti 

(0- 

Del'ect, n. Kizu. Kct- 
ten. Tansho. 

Defence, n. Bogyo. 
Ben go. 

Defend, t. v. Fuscgu 
(i), bogyo suru (4). 
JiJcngo suru (4). 

DeSiBue, /. u. Kimeru 
(3), sadameru (3). 
Kagiru (l). 'loki- 
akasu (l), kaishaku 
suru (4). Teigi wo 
ataeru (3), 

DefiEiite, a. Kimatta, 
illei-no. 

Deflnflta«>!iii, ,,. Tei ;i. 

Degrree, n. Do. u a 
i. Kaikyu. JJy •— , 



( 33 ) 



dan-dan, oi-oi, shi- 
dai ni. 
Belay, /. v. Nobasu 
(i), ennin sum (4). 
i. V. Plimadoru (1), 
nobiru (2). 

ReilSieratioaa, n. Ju- 
kuryo. Kaigi. 

Belieate, a. Kokoro- 
yo-i. Teinei-na. U- 
ma-i. Kyasha-na. 

Rellg-lit, n. Yoroko- 
bi. t. V. Yorokob.isu 
(l^. i.v. Yorokobu 

(0- 

deliver, /. v. Sukuu 
(h. i), tasnkeru (3). 
Ataeru(3), yard(l). 
Tsutaeru (3). 

Dellves'RUce, ;/. Yu- 
rushi. Tasuke, su- 
kui. Yuzuri-wata- 
shi. 

CeEuaiid, t. v. Moto- 
meru (3), y5kyu 
suru (4). ;/. Yokvu. 
Jiyo. 

B>e!i!ioiistrat20:i, n. 
Shoniei. 

Demote, t. V. Sliinie- 
su fi), arawasu ()). 

Oeniist, n, Ha-isha, 
shikwa-L 

i>esitize, t. v. Ireba 
wo suru (4). 

Desiy, L v. Inamu (ij. 
Hantai suru (4). 



SVepart, /. v. Waka- 
reru (3). Shuppatsu 
suru (4), tatsu ( i ). 

departure, ;/. I'abi- 
dachi, shuttatsu. 

Bepeiid, i. v. Yoru 

(i), tayoru (i), irai 
suru (4). Kakaru (i). 
Tanomu (i). Kwan- 
kei suru (4). 

Bepentrleut, n. Irai 

suru hito. Yakkwai, 
shokkaku. 

S>eposit, /. V. Oku 

(i). Tsumu (i). Azu- 
keru (3). 11. Chin- 
den-butsu. Azuke- 
kin, yokin. 

I>e|i>i*essioii, «. Yu- 
utsu, >'ukeiki. 

BeptSi, n. Tukasa. 
Oku-yuki. 

Derivation, ti. Yu- 

rai, de-dokoro. 

Berive, t v. Hiki- 
dasu (l). Yurai suru 
(l), dete-kuru (5). 

Uescesid, i. v. Kuda- 
ru (l). Tsutawaru 
(i). /. V. Orosu (i), 
otosu (l). Tsulaeru 
(3)- 

descendant, n. Shi- 
son. 

I>escribe, t. v. Shiru- 

su (l), kaku (i). 

Description, n. Ki' 

sai, kijutsu. 



C 34 ) 



l>€sert., /. V. Suteru 
(3), Dasso sura (4). 
71. Sabaku, suna- 
wava. 

Design, /. V. Sekkei 
suru (4), kufu suru 
(4). Keigaku suru 
(4j, kuwadateru (3). 
n. Sekkei, isho. 
Zukeij niokei. Mo- 
yo. 

I>essrabic, a. Hoshi' 
i. 

i>e§ive, A v. Negau 
(h. l), iiiotomerii 
(3), nozomu (i), yo- 
kyu suru (4). n. 
Ganbo, yokyu, sei- 
kyu. Nozomi, ncgai. 

Desirous, a. Iloshi- 
garu (I). 

Desperate, a. Muya- 
jni-na, muteppo no. 
— disease, fuchi no 
yamai. 

Despise, i. v. Tyashi- 
mu (i), anadoru (1). 

Despite, n. Urami. 
pyep. Kakawarazu, 

{ft mo. 

Destiny, n. Unmci, 
tcmmei. 

Destroy, /. v. Kuzu- 
su (1), liakai suru 

(4)- 
D*!tail, i. V. Kuwashi- 
ku toku (i). n. Isai. 
Tn — , isai ni, kuwa- 
shi-ku, komaka-ni, 
tsubusa-ni. 



Determinate, a. Ka- 

giri aru (i), sada- 
matta. 
DeteriJiinatioii, n. 

Kettei. 

Detersnine, /. v. Sa 

dameni (3), kimeru 
(3), keltei suru (4). 
Kagiru(2). Hanke- 
tsu suru (4). i. V. 
Sadamaru (i), kima- 
ru (I). 

Develop, /. v. Hat- 

tatsu saseru (3). 
Arawasu (l). i. v. 
Hat tatsu suru (4). 
Arawareru (3). Sei- 
cho suru (4). 

Development, n. 

liattatsu, batten. 
Devote, /. v. Kie suru 
(4). Sadameru (3), 
iSasagcru (3). 

Devotion, n. Shinjin. 
Aichaku. 

Dew, «. Tsuyu. 

Dewy, a. Tsuyuppo 

i, 
Dia^i^rnni, n. Zu, ezu. 
Dialog-ue, n. Mondo, 

taiwa. 
Diameter, »«. Chok- 

kei. 
Dfiaiinon<i^ ;/, Kongo- 

seki. 

Diaplioretic, n, Hak- 

kwan-zai. 
Diary, n. Nikki. 



( 35 ) 



liiciaie, t. v. Ilikki 
suru (4). Meirei su- 
ru (4), iitsukeru (3). 

Dictation, iu Kaki- 
tori, lukki. 

Dictionary, ;/. Ji-bi- 
ki, ji sho. 

Didactics, n, Kyoju- 
ho. 

Die, /. V. Shinu (i), 
nakunaru (i), kaku- 
reru (3). Shikyo su- 
ru (4). ' 

Diet, n. Shokumotsu, 
tabe-mono. Shoku- 
ji. /. V. Yaru (i), 
ataeru (3). ?'. v. Ta 
beiu (l), kuu (h. l). 

Differ, i. V. Chigau 
(h. I), 

Difference, v. Chi- 
gai, sabetsu. 

DiflTerent, a. Chigat- 
ta, betsu-no, boka- 
no. — place, yoso, 
hoka. 

Difficult, a. Muzuka- 
shi-i, konnan-na, 
mendo-na, yakkwar.:- 
na. 

Difficulty, n Kon- 
nan, naugi, mendo. 

DifTuso, t. V. Chirasu 
(i). Hiromeru (3) 
i. V. Chiru (2). Hi- 
romaru (i). 

Dig, /. V. Horu (i). 

Dig^est, /. V, Sbokwa | 



suru (4), konasu (l). : 
i. V, Konareru (3). 

Digestible, a. Slio- 
kwa shi yasu-i. Ko- ] 
nare yasu-i. 1 

Dignity, «. Ifu, igi, 
Koi, kokwan. 

Dillg-eiice, n. Ben- 

kyo. ' 

Dimension, n. Hiro- | 

sa, menseki. Sum- j 
po. i 

Diminisli, i. v. I lera- j 
su (i), hiku {i) i. V. \ 
Heru (3). i 

DIssner, 11. Hiru-me- j 
shi. Kyo-5. I 

Diploma, n. Sotsu- 

gyo-shosbo. \ 

Diplossiacy, n. Gai- • 

ko. 1 

Dl2>IomatEst, ii. Gai- ; 

ko-ka, gaiko-kwan. 

Direct, a. Massugu- 
na. Tadashi-i. Ciio 
kusetsu-no. /. v. i 

Miikeru (3). Micbi- ■ 
biku (l). Sashizu su 
ru (4). Iitsukeru (3). 
meirei suru (4). '[ 

Direction, it, Hoke , 

Meirei, sasbizu. Mi- j 
cbibiki, kyodo. j 

Director, n. Kyodo 1 

sua. \ 

Dirt, n. Gomi, obu- 
tsu. /. V. Yogosu ' 
(l), kegasu(l). 



C 36 ) 



I>35'ty, a. Kitana-i, 
Vogorcta. 

Rasa^a-ee. /. v. Cb.i- 
gau (h. l). 

Oasag-s'eessienS;, n. 
Fu-wa. 

I>isas>yea3', i. v. Na- 
kunaru (i), miena- 
ku nam (l). 

]I>lsaj>j>oir.itaiiaestt; «. 
Shitsubo. 

IMsassent, it. Fu-doi. 

DiscJaarg-c cai'i^o, 

ni-age wo sum 
(4)- — a gun, teppo 
wo utsu (l). — from 
service, hima wo da- 
su (l). — frovi office, 
menshoku (^irien- 
kwan) sum (4). — 
an office, tsulonieru 
(3 )• — from prison, 
homen suru (4), — 
a debt, shakkin wo 
harau (h. i). — 
one's duly, giinu wo 
hatasu (i), sekinin 
wo tsukiisu (1). 

Diseii>le, ;/. Deshi. 

A»lsciii>linc, n. Kiin- 

rcn. Kunkwai. /. v. 

Kunrcn surn (4). 
Discolor, /. r. Irn ga 

kawaiu (i). lleii- 

shoku suru (4). 

Discos n ft »n*}., ;/. I'^i- 
ansliin, shimjjai. 

Fu-jiyu. 



Discontent, ;/. Vw- 

hei, fu-man. 

fi>tseo«aat, n. V>'ai-i 
biki. • 

Discoiirag'e, t. v. I\.i 
■(--- chJkara] wo (Uo- 
su Ci ). Ki ga fi;sagu 

(0- 

Diseosirtcsy, n. Fu- 
kei, burei. 

DtscovOTcr, n- Ilak- 
ken-ja. 

Discovery, n. Ilak- 
ken. 

Discredit, n. Fu- 
shinyo. Shulnni. 

t. V. Utagau (h. i). 
Shinyo wo usliinau 
(h. I). 

DiscHSsioBi, ?/. Giron, 
toron. 

Disease, ;;. By'ki, 
yamai. Heigai, hei- 
fu. 

Disemploy, n. Kai- 
ko suru (4). Yatoi 
wo toku (i). 

.Disj;"»"4eefmil, a. lla- 
zukashi-i. lyashi-i 

Dish, ;/. Sa";. 

Dis^iojic^*, j», Fu- 
shojiki-iia .'.ti-shia- 
jitsu-na. 

DisZiosior, ;/. Fu-mei- 
yo Maji, chijoku. 
t. V. HazLikashiine- 
ru (3), iyasliimcru 
(3)- 



( zi ) 



Kuhei-na, mutonja- 
ku-na. 

Dislilie, ;/. Kirai, ni- 

kumi. /. V. K;<au(li. 
Ij, nikumu (ij. 

Disloyal, a. Fu-chil- 
no. 

Dissttiss, f. V. Him a 
wo yaru (i). 

Disobey, t. v. Shita- 
gawa-nai, sakarau 
(h. i), motoru (i). 

Display, /. V. Arawa- 
su (i), miseru (3), 
shimesu (i). 11. 

Chinretsu. 

Bsspleasare, n. Fu- 

kwai, fu-man. 

Dis5>Iosion, n. Hare- 
tsu, bakuretsu. 

Disproportion, n. 

Fu-heikin. Fu-tsuri- 
ai. 
Dissatisfaction, n. 

Fu-man, fu-soku. 

Dissimilar, n. Fu- do- 
ne, chigau (h. l). i 

Distance, n. Kyori, I 
hedatari. From — , 
toku kara. t. v. Ile- 
dateru (3). i. v. Ile- 
dataru (i). 

Distant, a. To-i. 

Distinct, a. Tokuhc- 

tsu-no. Akirakaoiia. 
Distiactflo??, n. Ku- 

betsu, shabetsu. 



Dlsting-»L<^li, t. V. 

Kubctsu suru (4), 
miwakeru (3). 

Distribution, ;/, 

Bumpai. Kubun. 

Haichi. 

District, n. Sliu. Ken. 
Gun. Chiho. 

Disttarb, t. v. Midasu 
(l). Samatag^ru (3). 

Disturbance, n. Sa- 

niatage, bogai. — ■ 
er, 11. Bogai-sha. 

Dls?inion, n. Bunri. 
Atsureki. 

Ditto, ji. Dodan, do- 
zen, adv. Onaji-ku. 

Divide, t. V. Wakeru 
(3). waru (i), /. V, 
Wakareru (3). 

Dividend, 11. Haito- 
kin. Jitsu. 

Divine, a. Kami-no, 
shinsei-no. t. v. U- 
raaau (h. l). — ly, 
kami no yo- ni, shin- 
sei-ni. 

DivliBlty, n. Jotei, ka- 
mi. Shin-gaku. 

Division, ;;. Bumpai. 
Ichi hu, ichi bul un. 
V.'arizati. Kul^un. 

.Divorce, n. Rien Ri- 
en-jo. 

Disziness, n. Meuiai, 

Bo, /. V. Ski masu, su.m 

ru (4), nasu (i), ita- 

su(ij. T>MmL^=^ 



( 38 } 



yoroshi-j. Make it 
— , ma rii awaseru 
(3). — not, siiru na. 
Shi masen. To — 
away, nozoku (l). 
7h — one' s besf, chi- 
kara wo tsukusu (i). 

— over, kuri-kaesu 
(i), shi-naosu (i). 
To — up, tsutsuniu 
(I). Shi-agem (3), 
slii-togeru (3). — 
xviih, tsukau (h. l), 
mochiiru (2). — noi 
viind it, go -s !i i m pai 
nasaru-na, o-kamai 
nasaiu na. 

Docls, n. Dokku. 

l^octor, 11. Isha, Ha- 
kushi. 

DoftrlBie, ;/. Kyokun, 

setsu. 
fi>04'Siiii«rit, ;/. Sho- 

sho. Kaki-tsuke. 

l>osr, 11. Inn. 
S>oK'iB£ti, ;/. Dokudan. 
l>«iisj^s, ;;. Waza, o- 

konai. 
S>«11, n. Ningyo. 
I')><>I1hi% 11. Doru. 
BI>(Piiij>iii, ;/. RytJcbi, 

ryubun. 

S><oii9c.stie, a. Ic-no^ 
Xokuuai-no. IIou- 
£oku-no. Jikoku-n.). 
• ~ affairs, kaji. ■•- 
anininh, kacliiku. 

— inaiiufncturc, ko- 
ku-san. Tesei. 



Moor, n. Mou, to. — 

keeper, momban. — < 
plate, na-fuda. 
Bojible, a. Bai-no, ni- 
ju-no. — tou'^ue, ni 
mai no shita. — 
edged, ryoba. — 
faced, ryomen-no, 

Botibt, n. Utagai, gi- 
nen. i. v. Utagau (li. 

I)- 
I>onbtfKl, a. Utaga- 

washi-i, obotsuka- 

na-i. 
I>ovc, //. Hato. 
I>oi»i», a. Shita-no, 

shimo-no. — the 

river, kawa-shimo. 

Wowiiftai, ;/. Gakai. 
Tsniraku. Uaraku. 

I>o»«n, //. Dasu. 
Drainage, n. Mizu- 
hakc. 

I>i'aiEia, n. Gikyokii, 
kyogen, Kyaku-hon. 

Draper, ;/. Gofuku- 

Draiits-tit. Shita-ga- 
ki, sokO. Xawase- 
tcgata. Kaze-to.shi. 
Kibsiii. Shogi. 

B>i'aw, A ■y. lliku(i). 
Sa.sou (h. f^, izanau 
(h. l). Nuku (l). 
Dasu (»). Nubabu 
(i). Kaku (i). Utsu- 
su (i). Tsukunt (i), 
— 7vatrr, nizu wo 



C 39 ) 



kumu (i), — tack, 
tori-kaesu (l). Shiri- 
zokeru (3). — in, 
hiki-ireru (3), hiki- 
komu (1). Sasou (h. 
I). — down, hiki- 
orosu (i). — off, 
shirizokeru (3). — 
on, suru (4). — out, 
hiki-dasu (i). Nuku 
(i). Nobasu(i). — 
up, hiki-ageru (3). 
Sonaeru (3). Nara- 
beru (3), hairetsu 
suru (4). Tsukuru 
(i). Kaku(i). — 
together, subomeru 
(3). — tight, shime- 
kukuru (l). — nigh, 
chikazukeru (3), chi- 
kayoru (l). 
Draner, n. Hikida- 
shi. Kakite. Kawa- 
se-tegata, Furidashi- 
nin. 

Drawing:, n. Ezu. 
Drawing-room. 

Kyakuma, zashiki. 
Dread, a. Kowa-i, o- 
soroshi-i, i. v. Oso- 
reru (3), kowagaru 

Dream, «. Yume. i.v. 
Yume vpo miru (2). 

Dress, n Kimouo. 

Dressins'-room, n. 

Keslio-beya. 

Drink, /. v. Nomu 

(i). To — off ox up, 
kyu-ni nomu (i), 



ichido-ni nomu (l). 
To — the health, or 
to — ihi health of, 
iwatte nomu (i), 
shiku-hai wo ageru 
(3). n. Nomi-mono, 
inryo. 

Drinking-iionse, n. 

Sakaya. 

Drive, t. v. Ou (h. i). 
Kari wo suru (4). 
Saseru (3). i. v. Tsu- 
ku(i). Utsu(i). — 
azvay, oi-harau (h. 
I). — out, oi-dasu 
(i). — in, oi-komu 
(ij. Uchi-komu (i). 

— back, oi-kaesu (i). 

— douni, oi-kudasu 
(l). — a horse, uma 
wo gyo suru (4J. 

Driver, //. Gyo-sha. 

Drivel, n. Yodare. 

i. V. Nagasu (ij. 
Drop, n. Shizuku. Te''- 

ki. t. V. Tarasu (i). 

i. V. Tareru (3). 

Drown, /. v. Oborasu 
(i\ i. V. Oboreru 
(3), dekishi suru (4). 

Drum, 71. Taiko. 

Drnukard^ n. Sake- 
nomi, yopparai. 

Dry, a. Kawaita. i. v. 

Hosu (i), kawakasu 

(0- 
Dry-goods, n. Gofa 

ku, futomono. 



e 4^ ) 



Duck, n. Tarne — , 
ahiru. Wild — , ka- 
mo. — ling, ko-ga- 
mo. 

Dne, a. Tozen-no, ata- 
rimae-no. Tekito- 
no. n. Shakkin. 
Zei-kin. Rei-kin. 
Tozen-no yokyu. — 
time, chodo yoi to- 
ki. More than is — , 
kwabun. — north, 
makita. 

BnW, a. Nibu-i. Kire- 
na-i. Uttoshi-i. Ku- 
motta. Kura-.i. Fu- 
keikina. -— day, 
don-tea Kumori. 
— of heari)i_^. mimi 
ga to-i. t. V. Nibu-ku 
naru (l). 

Dtiiub, a. Oshi-no. 
Mugon-no. 

I>uiig'coii, n. Roya, 
ro. 

Durable, a. Jobu-na, 
niochi no yo-i, naga- 
ku motsu(i). 

I>itii'atioii( n, Aida. 
Tsuzuki. 

louring', pt'<'p. Aida. 
Uchi. Naka. Ju. 

I>ust, n. Chiri, hoko- 
ri, gomi. t. v. Ha- 
rau (h. i). 

Dusty, a. Gomippo-i. 
Cliiri no yo-na. 

I>u(iful, a. Jujun-na, 
otonasVd-i. 



Duty, n. Gimu. Zel. 
Export — , yusluUsu- 
zei. Impcrt — , yu 
nyu zei. On — , 1:5- 
ban. Off — , hi-ban. 
— free, a. Muzei-no. 

Dwarf, «. Issumbo- 

shi. 

Dwell, i. V. Sumau 
(h. l), sumu (ij, jti- 
kyo sum (4), iru (2). 

— er, sumau hi to. — 
inq, sumai, juslio. 
Dwelling house, 
uchi, ie, taku. 

\i^e, t. V. Someru (3). 

— house, koya, so- 
memono-ya. 

Dyuauaste, n, Baku- 
retsu-yaku. Daina- 
maito. 

Dyuaisty, 71. Dai, 
cho. 



E. 



JCacli, a. Orio-ono-no, 
mti-mei-no, mai; 
kaku. — other, tagai- 
ni. 

Eager, a. Nesshin-na, 
liageshi-i. 

I-'ngle, n. Washi. 
Ear, n. Mimi. — ef 

corn. Ho. 
Earl, //. IlalsU-sliaku. 



( 41 ) 



Early, a. Ilaj-a-i. — 
rising, hayaoki. — 
tiiorning, s6-ch5. 

Earite§<^, n. Konki, 
majime. Nessliin. 

Earlli, It. Chilcyu, se- 
kwai. Tochi. 

EarSlseiriiware.. n. 

Setomono, yakimo- 
no. 
Eaa'lfeqaialie, n. Ji- 

shin. 
Ease, ;/. Anraku, an- 

itsu, anshin, raku. 

i. v. Raku ni suru 

(4), nagusameru (3). 
East, n. Higashi. 

Easy, a. Rakuna. 
Yasashi-i, yasu-i, 
wake-na-i, zosa-nai. 
Shizuka-na. 

Eat, i. V. Taberu (3), 

kuu (h. i). 
Ebb, i. V. Hiku (i), 

hiru (2). 

Ebony, n. Kokulan. 
Eccentric, a. Chu- 

sliin wo hazureta. 

Henjin-nc. 

Eclio, n. Hankyo. 

EeSipse, «. ->• of sttn, 
nisshoku. — 0/ 

7710011, gesshoku. 

Economics, n. \\q\- 
zai-gaku, rizai-gaku. 

Economist, 71. Kei- 
zai-gaku-sha, rizai- 
ka, Sekken-ka. 



Economy, n. Kasel 
Keizai, rizai. Ken- 
yaku, sekken. Poli- 
tical — , keizai- gaku, 
rizai-gaku. 

Edge, 71. Ha. Haji, 

fuchi. Teeth on — , 

ha ga uku (i). /. v. 

Ha or fuchi wo tsu- 

keru (3). 
Edition, 7t. Shuppan. 

First — , sho-han. 

Second — , sai-han. 

Third — , sam-pan. 
Editor, 71. Henshii- 

ja, shuppan-nin. 
Educate, /. v. Kyo- 

iku suru (4). 

Edncation, 71. Kyo- 
iku. 

Educator, «. Kyo- 

Jku-ka. Kyoshi. 

Eel, 7t. Unagi. 

Effect, 77. Kekkwa, 
Kon5. /. V. Joju su- 
ru (4), togeiu (3), 
haiasu (i), dekirm 
(2). Of 710 — , ya- 
ku ni tata nal. 

Effective, a. Kiki gs 
yo-i. 

Etficacy, ;/. K5no, 
EfLort n. Jinryoku, 
hone-ori. To make 
au — , sei wo dasu 

(0- 

Eg-§-, /2. Tamago. 



( 42 ) 



Eg'oisni, n. Jiai, liko- 
slui<,n. 

atlitliei*, a. or prep. 
Dochira demo, ryo- 
ho tomo, tlocliiin 

mo. 

I 

ElHfcoratc, • '••, Ku- i 

sliin shite tsuknru 

(i), nen wo irete | 

tsukuru (i), i 

Elasticity, ;/. Dau- 
ryokii. 

i:iii»:>w, ;/. irji. 

B'JjIor, a. Nenclio-no, 

?':?opt, f. V. Seiikyo su- 
111 (4), erabii (i). a. 
lliahareta. n. Ili- 
.stnk)'o-ja. 

I'Joi-lioH, ;/, Senkyo. 

KJettor, ;/. Seiikyo- 
I'.in. 

Eyioctric, a. Denki-no. 

— 'i::^h', denki-to, 

Llc.'ts'ifiily, n. Dcn- 
ki. 

I'lJogMisce, n. K^rabi, 
hade, rippu. 

t:!t'Hie3»t, //. Genso. 

— a^, Slioho-no, ha- 
jiine no. Clcnso-no. 

JiJopStKiit, n Zo. 

121c vat«, /. V. Agcru 
(3), taka-ku sum (4}. 

lllcvutor, 71. Shoko- 
]<i, crcbetorn. 

IClocutioii, ;/. Vuben- 
julsu. 



Eloqneiice, ;/. No- 
ben. 

Else, a. Hoka-no, be- 
tsu-no. — where, 
hoka-ni, doko-ka-ni. 

Embrace, t. v. Daku 

(l). — • an oppor- 
tuiiity, kikai ni noiu 

£lanbroi«l<^i*, n. Nui- 
hakih — er, nuiha- 
ku-ya, nuihaku-shi. 

Esnig'iraiit, ;;. Iju- 
nin. 

Eiiiig'rate, /. v. Iju 

suru (4). 

Eniig'i'atioii, ti. Iju. 
Einineiit, a. Nadaka- 

i, yumei-na. Nukin- 

deta. 

Es?!5|>ei*or, «. Tenshi, 
tenno, kotei. 

EutphasJKc, /. V. Go- 

sei wo tsuyoku suru 
(4). Tsuyomeru (3). 

EiiTB|>Iiatic, a, Gosei 
iio tsuyo-i. 

EMiH»i!j'o, «. Teikoku. 

EBii}>l<»y, /. y, \!ochi- 

iiu (2), tsukau(h. i), 

yatou (h. i). 

Employe, n. Yatoi- 
nin. 

Einployei', «. Yatoi- 

nushi. 
Euiin'css, /7. T'3^0. 



( 43 ) 



Empty, a. Kara-no. 
Mueki-no. Yaku ni 
lata na-i. — hand- 
ed, Slide, kara-te. 
f: V. Kara ni suru 
(4). i. V. Kara ni na- 
ru. 

Enamel, n. lioro- 
shitsvt. 

Enchant, /. v. Mayo- 
vvasu (1). /. V. Mitoi 
reru (3| Mayou (h, 

0- i 

Enclose, /. v. Kako- i 

iiui (l). Tojikomeru 
(3). Funyu suru (4), 
fujiru (2j. 

Encourage, /. v. Ha- 

gemasu (i), kobu su- 
ru (4). 

Eac.yclof)jedij%, n. 

Hyakkwa-zensho. 
FjMl, n. Owarjj shi- 
mai. Hate, haji, . 
Mokuteki /. v. Shi- j 
mau (h. l], yameru | 
(3). i, V. Owaru ( i ). I 
Dekiru (2). /// .he j 
— , shimai ni. 

Endeavor,, i. v. Tsu- 
tomeru (3). Yatte 
miru (2). Hone wo 
oru (i). //. Kenrei. 
Tameslii. 

Endure, i. v. Gaman 
suru (4), shinoDU (l), 
koraeru (3), shimbo 
suru (4). 

Enemy, n. Teki. 



fea^rg-ctic, a. Tsuyo- 
i. Chikaru no aru 

Energy, n. Chika- . 
Konki. Genki, ki 
ryoku, 

Ettg-ag-e, »'. V. Ksvan 
kei saseru(4). Tano 
mu ( I ). /. V. Yaku- 
soku suru (4). Kwan- 
kei suru (4). — vien!, 
yakujo, kei yaku. 

yakusoku. Yoji. 

Eij,^-ii»e, n. Kikai. 

Eng-ineer, n. Ki- 
kvvan slii. Doboku- 
slii. — ins^, ko-gaku. 
Do!;oku-gaku. 

England, ;/. Eikoku, 
igirisu. 

Englisli, a. Eikoku- 
no. 11, Eikoku or 
igirisu-jia. Ei-go. 

Fngrave, /. v. Horu 
( I ), chokoku suru 
(4). 

Enjoy, /. V. Tanoshi- 
mu (l), ureshigaru 
(i). — nient, nagu- 
sami. 

Enlig-lifen, /. v. Te- 

rasu (i), akaru-ku 
suru (4), akiraka-ni 
suru (4). 

Enori.gli, a. Jubua-na. 
Not — , tarina-i, fu 
soku. 



( 44 ) 



Enrage, /. v. Hara 
wo tataseru (3), oko- 
raseru (3). To be en- 
raged, hara ga tatsu 
(i), okoru (i). 

Eiater, /. r. Hairu (l). 
t. V. Ireru (3). — er, 
ka-nyu-sha, domei- 
sha. 

Entertain, /. v. Go- 

chiso wo suru (4), 
kyowo wo suru (4J. 
— menf, kyowo, go- 
chiso. 

Entlinslasni, «. Nes- 

shin. 

Entrance, n. Iri-gu- 
chi, kado-guchi. 

Entreat, ^. v. Ashirau 

(h. Ij, taigu suru 

(4). 
En-»elci>, /. V. Tsutsu- 

mu (l), fiijiru (2). ;;. 

'1 sutsumi-gami. Fu- 

to, jobukuro. 

EiBvy, t. V. Nctamu 
(i), sonemu (1). U- 
rayamu (i). ;/. Ne- 
tami, sonemi. Ura- 
yami. 

Ei^aulet, ;/. EboreUo. 
I/l)ic, a. Joj:«shi. 
lDg»iKC03>al eli(irc2i, 

;/, Kvantoku-kyo- 
kwaL 

Fipjfiitle, ;/. 'icganii. 

lupitaplij ;/, lli-iiioi, 

boiii, I 



Epoeli, n. Ji^kL Ki- 

gen. 

Equal, a, Hito:5hi-i, 

onaji-no. Kohei-no. 

Doto-no, byo-to- 

no. 
Eqnator, n. Sekido. 

Eqnilibrinin, n. 

Heikin, tsuri-ai. 

Era, n. Kigen. Jidai. 

Erect, /. V. Tateru (3), 

okosu (i). 
Err, ?. V. Mayou (h. 

l). Macbigau (h. i), 

ayamaru (i). 
Error, n. Machigae, 

ayamachi, kwashi- 

tsu, Gchido. 

Erucdation, «. Oku- 

bi, geppu. 

Escape, t. v. Nigeru 
(3). Vokeru(3). 

Especial, a. 'lokube- 
tsu-no, kakubetsu- 
no, kakudan-no. 

Essay, n. Bunsho, 
ronbun. 

Essence, n. Hon 5 hi- 
tsu, shinzuj, Koyu. 

Essential, a, Taise* 
tsu-na, kwanyo^na. 
— ly, adv, Jilsu-ni. 
Ilonrai. 

ICNtablish, /. v. Setsu. 
rit-su biiru (4), tateru 
(3). 



C 45 7 



Estate, n. Kasan. 
Chii, mibim. Real 
— , fu-dosan. /Vr- 
sonal — , dosan. 

Esteeiii, /. V. Tatlobu 

Estimate, t. V. hJaKa- 
ru (i), tsumoru (ij. 
n. Mitsuraori. 

Etc. Nado, to. 

Eternal, a. Eikyu-no, 
eien-no, kagiri no 
na-i. 

Eteriaity, n. Eien. 
Mu-shi-mu-shu. 

EtSsles, 71. Rinri-gaku. 

Etiquette, ;/. Reigi, 
reishiki. 

;;. Ji- 
gaku. 
Eurojje, n. Voroppa. 

EvasTgelical, a. Fu- 

kuin-no. — ohiance, 
bankoku fukuin- 
kwai. 

Evangelist, n. Den- 

do-shi. 

Evapeyate, i. v. J5- 

hatsu suru (4). /. v. 
Johatsu saseru (3). 
Even, a. Taira-no. — 
■'lumber, gn-su, cho. 
•'. V. Taira ni suru 
(4), byoto ni suru 
(4). Make ~ , soro- 
eru, narasu. — //, 
tatoe ... temo. — 
no7v, ima demo 
ai/v. Demo. Sae. 



Sura. Onaji-ni. Ts- 
sho-ni. 

Evening-, n. Yugata, 
kuregata. Ban. Ban- 
nen. 

Event, n. Deki-goto, 
jiken. A^ all — , do 
shite mo. 

Ever, adv. Maeni, • 
katsute. Tsune-ni, ' 
itsu demo. — and 
anon, toki-doki, \ 

Forever, eikyu-ni, 
eien-ni. I 

Evergreen, a. Toki- ' 
wa-no. n. Tokiwa- 

gi. ] 

Everlasting, a. Ka- j 

girino na-i, mukyu- : 
no. ; 

Every, a. Ono-ono- ; 
no, mei-mei-no, mai. j 

— day, mai-nichi, , 
nichi-nichi. — ni^ht, I 
mai ban. — body, 1 
dare demo, Ban-min. j 

— thing, banji, ban- 1 
butsu. ^ ti7ne, tabi | 
goto in, mai-do. — | 
other day, kwaku- j 
jitsu, iclu-n'chi-oki. ; 

— xvhere, doko ni- : 
mo, doko demo. Ho- j 
bo, shoho. ! 

Evidence, n. Shoko. ■ 

Sho-nin. ' 

Evil, ;?. Gai, wazawai. 
Aku. a Waru-i, fu- 
ko-na, fu-saiwai-no. 



r 40 •) 



— speaki)is:;, aV.ko. 

— spifil. akU'i. 
Evolution, ;/. Sliin- 

kwa. 
Exact, a, Seimitsu-na. 
Kichomen-na. — /v, 
cliodo. Seimitsu-ni. 
Kichomcn-iii. Ivit- 
cliiri. 

Exagg-erate, t. 7). 

Oki-ku yu (h. I), 
gyosan ni yu (h. i). 

Exam ill at ion, ;/. 

Shiken. Shirabe, 

cho-a. 

E-vasnsne, t. v- Shi- 
ken siiiu (4). Shira- 
beru (3), chosa sum 
(4). — ones self, 
kaeriniiiu (2). — a 
fa/un', shinsatsu su- 
vu (4). 

Example, ;/. Rei. 
'J eh on. For — , ta'o- 
eba. 

Exceed, /. V. Sugosu 
(l), kosu (i). i. V. 
Sugiru (2), koeru 

Ex4'e(^Iiiig', a. Hijo- 
na. — /)', hijo-ni, 

sliigoku. 

Exeelle»:t'e, //. Yiilo. 

Sciiyo. 

Except, A V. Nokcrii 

(3), nozoku (iV — 
/c. Kolowaru (ij 
Exception, ;.-. \\t\- 
gai, toiinuke. 



Exeliaii^'e, /. v. K?e- 
ru (3), lori-kaem 
(3), ryogae fcuiu (4). 
A', Ryogae. Tori- 
kae. 'Bi/l of — , ka- 
vvase tegata. 
broken; ryogae-ya. 

Excitation, u- Sho- 
re!, kobti. 

Excite, /. V. Shorei 
suru (4), kobu suru 
(4). Ilagemasu (i). 
Okoiaseiu (3). 

Exclamation, ;/. Sa- 

kebi. Kanlan-ji. 

'lansoku. 

Excui*sion, n. Man- 
yii. Ensokii. 

Excuse, /. v. Yurusu 
(i). Ayamaiu (i), 
wabiru (2) — tm, 
go-men nasai. n li- 
wake, benkai. 

Execute, /. v. Joju su- 
ra (4), shi-logeru 
(3). 'i'orj-atsukau (h. 
1 ) Korosu, shokei 
suiu (4). /. 71. Shoku 
wo Isukusu (i). 

Execiitoi*, n. Sliikkcj- 
sha. 

Execution, «. Dcki- 
agari. Shikko. Tori- 
atsukai. — ground, 
kci-jo. 

Exercise, ft. Undo, 
taiso. Keiko. En- 
shu. 



( 47 



F^iausi, /. 7'. Naku- 

nasu (i). 
ExJiibit, /. V. Miieru 
(3), shimesu (i), da- \ 
su (l). Naraberii (3), i 
chinretsu sum (4). 
n. Chinretsu-hin. — 
er. shuppinn'n. 

E:!S£lisbitlo£i, ;/. Ilaku- 
rankwai, cbinvetsu- 
kvvai, teurankwai. 

Exist, 7. V. Aru (l), 
sonzai suiu (4). Oiu 
(i), s;:^izon sura (4). 
Naritatsu (l), seiri- 
tsu suru (4). Cause 
to — , ara-seru (3). 
All things thai — , 
arayuru mono. 

ExisSeiice, n. Sonzai. 
F.xJt, n. De-guchi. 

E-xpaiiil, t. V. Hiroge- 
ru (3), kakucho suru 
^j.). ?. V. Hirogam 
(l), bociio suru (4) 

E3w-i>aiision, u. Kaku- 
clio, bocho. 

l*ix5»e4lition. ;/. En- 

sei. 

r.xpeikse, n. Nyuhi, 
zaj)[)i. 

I'xpeiisive.. a. 'I'aka- 

Fxperieiice, n. Kei- 

ken. Jukuren. 

£>>:perience«i, a. Ju- 

kufen-na, tassha-na, 
-.^aretf oru (l). 



EsijSain, /. v. Setsu- 
mei suru (4], toki- 
akasu (i). 

Ex|$la»atio:«, //. Se- 

tsumei, tokiakashi. 

Explode, C V. Hare 

t^u suru (4^, baku- 
retsu sura {4). /. v. 
Harelsu saseiu (3), 
bakuret:iu saseru (3). 
Oi-da5u(i). 

Explosioie, n. Baku- 
re tsu, haretsu. 
Exportation, ;;. Yu- 

sbutsu. 
Expoi«£tioii, n. Haku- 

rankwai. Setsumei, 
kaishaku. 

Express, /. v. Noberu 
(3), yu (h. I). Okuru 
(l). — image, iki- 
utsusbi. — train, 
kyuko ressha. n. 
Tsuun. 

Expres«>ion, ii. Tai- 
do. Kaotsuki. 

Extend, /. 71. Nobasu 
(I), biiogeru (3). — 
t'it t:i;ii, hinobe wo 
suru (4), onki wo 
suru (4). 

Extension, ■'. Kwa- 
kucho, birogari. 

Gaien. — 0/ time, 
Iiinobe. 

Extensa!, a. Soto-nn, 
gnibu- no, hyonien- 
no, uwabe no. — • 
a.'d i}ilernal, nai 
gai. 



( 48 ) 



Exf-erritorlalflty, n, 
Chigai-hoken, 

Extinct, a. Ivieta, 
taeta, nakunatta. 

Exting-itish, f. v. 
Kesu (i), nakunasu 
(i), taya.su (3> 

Extra, o. Yo no, lio- 
ka-no, bel u no. — 
expeines, rinji 5hi- 
sliuisa. 

Extract^ >. V. Nuki- 
dasu (i), bassisi suru 
(4). 11. Bassui. 

Extrava.g'ance, n. 
Fu-hinko. Ogori, 
zeitaku. Sanzai. 

Extreme, ;/.. Kj'^oku- 
tan. Saigo. 

Eye, ;/. Me. Ana. One 
— , mekkachi, kata- 
me. — disease, gam- 
byo. To keep an — 
on, me wo tsukeru 
(3)- 

E.yet>all, n. llilomi. 

Eyebrow, ;/• Mayu, 

mamie. 
Eyegrass, n. Megane. 
EycSasli, ;/. Matsuge. 
Ej'eliil. r5. MaUita. 



F. 



FnS>Ie, n. Tsiikuri- 
In^jiashi, tatocbana- 



Face, n. Kao. Kao- 
dachi. Memmoku. 
i. V. Mukau (h. i). 
Itsuwaru (l). t. v. 
Sakarau (h. 1). Mu- 
keru (3). To — , 
mukau (h. l). — to 
— , mukai-ai. Lose 
— , memmoku wo 
ushinau (h. i). 6?- 
raight — , majime-na. 
Before the — , moku- 
zcn, ganzen, me no 
mae, manoatari. In 
the — of, muko mi- 
zu ni. 

Fact, n. Jijitsu. Koto. 
Jissai. In — , jitsu- 
ni, honlo-ni, mako 
tc-ni. 

Faci^ltj'-, n. Noryoku. 

Falirenlieit, a. Ses 
shi-no. 

Fail, i. V. Yari'Soko- 
nau (h. i). Nakunaru 
(i), tatru(3). IVith- 
out — , todoIc6ri-na- 
ku, .5ashitsukae-na. 
ku. Macliigae-na- 
ku. 

Failure, ti. Ayama- 
chi, ochido, sliissa- 
ku. Hasan, shindai- 
kagiri. — 0/ promise, 
iyaku. — of crops , 
fusalvu. 

Faint, a. Yowa-i. 
Ilakkiri shi nn-i. 
i. V. Suijaku surf 
(4), yowani ( i ). 



( 49 

Fair, a. Kirei-na, 
utsukushi-i, uruwa- 
shi-i. — ■ weather, 
seiten, hare, ko-ten- 
ki. — vjind. jum-pu. 
n. Bijin. ; 

Fairly, adv. Akiraka- 
ni. Otonashi-ku, 

Shojiki-ni. Sunao-ni, 
Akarasauia-ni, ko- 
zen. Saiwai-ni. 

Faith, «. Shmko. 

Faittifnl, a. Cliujitsii- 
na, shojiki-na. — - 
'servant, chu-boku. 

Falcon, n. Taka. 



Fall, i. V. Ochiru (2). | 
Taoreru (3). Sagaru '• 
(i). Korobu (i). 
Shinu (l). Otoroeru 
{3). 71» — away,yz- 
seru (3). -':^omuku 
(I). Shinu (l), naku- 
naru (i). Katamuku 
(i). Shibomu (l), 
shioreru (3). Daraku 
suru (4). To — back, 
yokeru (3). Hanare- 
ra (3}. MoUuteki wo 
ushinau (h. l). Y;t- 
kusoku ni tagau (h. I 
l). To — behind, ! 
okureru (3), oso-ku 
nam (l). To — 

down, taoreru (3). 
P'usaru (i). To — 
from, somuku ( i ), 
hanareru (3). To — 
in, itchi suru (4). 
Shochi suru (4). To 



— » V tviih, au (h l) 
Midasu(i), hakken 
suru (4). Chikazuku 
(1) To ~ offF^ ^hv:\ 
zoku (i). Wakareru 
(3). Siileru (3). Tc 

— on, cchiru (2). 
Semeru (3). To — 
over, taoreru (3) — 
short, fusoku suru 
(4), tari-na-ku naru 
(l). — in love, ai 
suru (4), shitau (h. 
l). — in price, gera- 
ku suru (4), sagaru 
(1). t. V. Sageru(3), 
orosu (l). ?t. Geraku. 
Daraku. Metsubo, 
Shibo. Otoroe, suibi. 
Saka. Taki. Nagare. 
Aki. Rise and — , 
age-sage. Seisui. 

False, a. Uso-no, itsu= 
wari-no, nise-no, 

Machigae-no. adv. 
Damashite. Machi- 
gaete. 

Fanio n. Meisei. 
Faiisiliar, a. Ikke-no. 

Nareia. Shitashi-i. 

Shinmitsu-no. Fu- 

dan-no. «. Shinyu. 

Chiki. 

Fas8»ily, n. Kazoku. 
Fanaiiie, n. Kikin. 
Fas^ioas, r.. Yumei- 
na, nadaka-i. 

Fan, ;;. Ogi. Mi. Fui 
go. /. V. Aogu(lJ. 

Fancy, n. KusO. 



( 50 ) 



Fur, a. T6-i, hariika- 
ua, emp6-no. By — , 
taihen, hanahada. 

— from, chigatte. 
Thus — , koko ma- 
de. 

Farewell, n. 1 1 on i a- 

goi. interj. Sayo na- 
ra, gokigen yoro- 
shu. To bid — , ito- 
ma-goi wo suru (4). 

— dinner, sobelsu 
no en. — present, 
sembetsu. 

Farni, n. Hatake. 
/. V. Tagayasu (1). 

Farnier, n. Hyaku- 
sho, nofu. 

Fasliloii, ;/. Katachi, 
fil, nari, Ryuko, ha- 
yari. /. v.. Maneru 
(3). Ryuko wo ou 
(h. 1). 

Fast, a. Haya-i, sumi- 
yaka-na. Katai. 

Fasten, /. v. Musubu 
(i), shibaru (1). 

Fat, a. Futotta, koeta. 

«. Abura, shibo. t,v. 

Futorasu (i). i. v. 

iMUoru (l), kopru 

(3). 
Fiiial, a. Inoclii ni 

kakawaru (j), sbinvi- 

liudono. 

6''aie, n. Ibnmci, tcm- 
iiiei. 

ifc'miier, n. Cbichi, 
uiutsnn. — in law. 



shilto. — lap.d, ko- 
kyo. 

Fathom, n. Hire. 
i. V. Hakaru (i\ 

Fatigue, n. Tsukare, 
kutabire, hiro. .A v. 
Tsukarasu (i). i.v. 
Tsukareru (3), kuta- 
bireru (3), hiro suru 
(4)- 

Fault, ti. Kwashitsu, 
ayamari. Kizu, ket- 
ten. /. V. Togameru 

(3). 

Favor, ;/. On. Choai. 
Okuri-mono. Sewa. 
To beg a — , tanomu 
( I ). To receive a — , ' 
sewa ni nam (i). To 
do a — , sewa wo su- 
ru (4). To find a — , 
kaaigarareru (3), 
hiiki ni naru (ij. 
To regard with — , 
ki ni iru (2). In — 
of, ...no tame ni. 
/. V. Megumu (i), 
tasukeru (3), sewa 
wo yaku (i). Ai su- 
ru (4). 

fi's^vorable, a. Tsugo 
1.10 yo-i, benri-na. 

:<'avor«te, a, Suki-na. 
n. Ki-ni-iri. Suki- 
na mono. 

Fear, n. Osore, ojike. 
/. V. Osoreru (3), ko- 
wagaru (i). 

F«arliil, a. Osoroshi- 
i, kowa-i. 



( 51 



Feast, n. Enkwai, 
kyowo. Go-chiso. 
/. V. Eiikwai or shu- 
en wo hiraku. Kyo- 
wo or go-chiso wo 
suru (4). i. V. Kwai- 
shoku wo suru {4). 

Featlier, n. Hane. 
Kazari. — hrush^ 
hane-boki. 

Feather-bed, n. Ha- 

ne-buton. 
February, n. Ni*ga- 

tsu. 
Feeble, a. Yowa-i. 
Feed, /. v- Yashinau 

(h. I). Kau (h. I). 

Ti. Sbokuryd, e. 

Feel, /. V. Kwanjiru 
(2). — after, saguru 
(i). — with the 
hand, naderu (3), 
sawaru (i). L v. O- 
rnou (h. l). 

Feeling', 11. Kwanjo. 
Kibun, kokoro-mo- 
chi. 

Fellow, n. Nakama, 
doryo, Isure. Hito. 
— citizen, dokoku- 
jin. — lodger, do- 
shuku. — student, 
dos5. — traveler, 
michi-zure. — crea- 
ture, dorui. — h'/p- 
er, kyoryoku-sha — 
soldier, senyu. — 
ship, nakama. Kwai- 
in. 



Feminine, a. Onna- 

no, onna-rashi-i. — 

gender, jo-sei. 
Fence, n. Kakine. hei. 

Board — , ita-bei. 

/. V. Kakomu (i). 
Ferry, n. Watashi. 

Wata5hi-ba. /. v. 

Watasu (i). — boaty 

watashi-bune. — 

7nan, watashi-mori, 

sends. 
Fertile, a. Hojc-na, 

koeta. 

Festival, a. Matsuri- 
no, iwai-no. — day, 
shiku-jitsu, sai-jitsu. 

Feudal, a. — system, 
hoken seido. — 
chief, daimyo. 

Fever, n. Netsu, ne- 

tsu-byS. 
Few, a. Sukuna-i, wa- 

zuka-na, sukoshi-no. 

— days, su-jitsu. — 

persons, su-nin. 
Field, n. No, nohara. 

Hatake. Rice — , ta. 

Wheat — , mugi- 

batake. Battle — , 

senjo. 
Fas', ;/. Ichijiku. 
Figlat, /. V. Tatakau 

(h. i), senso suru 

(4), kenkwa siiru ''4). 

n. Tatakai, senso, 

kenkwa. 



( 52 ) 



Fig'wre, n. Katachi, 


ken. — p'ncty ro. 


l-ata. Moyo. Shozo. 


— plug, shokwa-seri. 


E. Hinagaia. Suji. 


— shovel, juno. — 


Filial, 5. Koko na. 


work, hanabi. 


Fill, .-■. V. Mitasu (i), 
ippai-ni suru (4). 
L V. Ippai-ni naru 


Firm, a. Jobu-na. //. 


Shosha. Kumi-ai. 
/, V. Sadameru (3), 


(i). — vp, tasu (i). 


katameru (3). 


//. Jubun. 


First, a. Dai ichi-no. 



Fissai, a. Slnmai-no, 
saigo-no. 

FiaiaiBcO; n. Sainyu. 

Fiaid, t. V. Miidasu 
(i), ini-tsukeru (3). 

Fine, a. Komaka-i. 
Hoso-i. Kirei-na, 
utsukusl)i-i. Rippa- 
na. Yo-i, ;/. Bakkin, 
karyo. A v. Bakkin 
wo toru (l). In — , 
shimai ni. 

Fiiig-er, ;<•. Yubi. 

FfliaisBa, A v. Sliimau 
(h. i). Joju suru (4). 
Dcki-agaru (s). ;/. 
Deki-agari. 

Fire, n. Hi. Kwsji. 
t,v. Yaku (l). To - 
a gutj, teppo wo u- 
tsu (1). — a sal Hie, 
siui<u-ho wo hanasu 
(i) or utsu (i). — 
bell, hansho, — dog, 
gotoku. — fly, hota- 
ru. — hook, tobigii- 
clii. — look out, hi- 
iio-iui. — man, 

kvvafu. Shbbo-fu. 
— office, kwasai-ho- 



saisho-no, hajime- 
no. Jot 6. At — , 
hajlme-ni, saisho. 

Fisli, //. Sakana. i.v. 
Sakana wo toru (i), 
sunadoru (i). 

Fislierinain, ;;. Ryo- 

slii. 

Fisli-Itook, 11. Tsuri. 
bari. 

FisliMig', ',1. Gyogyo. 

— boat, tsuri-bune, 
ryosen. — line, tsu- 
ri-ito. — rod, tsuri- 
zao. 

Fisli-iiiomg'er, u. 

Sakana-ya, 

Fit, a. Tekito-na, so- 
to-na, cliodo yo-i. 
t. V. Aleliameru (3). 

— well^ yo-ku au (h. 
l). ;/. Teklto. 

Fix, ^ v. Kimeru (3). 
Jobu-ni suru (4). 
7. V, Kimaru (i). 
Katamaru (i). 

I'lag', ;/. Hata. /. y.u 
I lata wo dasu (i), 
kakagcru (3]. /. t, 
Yurumu (i), sutarii 



( 53 ) 



(i). — s'.tijf, liata- 

zao. 
Flame, «. Hon5, kwa- 

yen. 
Flannel, «. Fu'-an- 

nenu 
Flat, a. Tairu-na, hi- 

ratta i. Fu-keki-no. 

71. Hirachi, heimeii, 

heichi. t. v. Taira ni 

siiru (4). L V. Taira 

ui naru (l). 

Flatter, t. v. Kobiru 
(2), kigen wo toru 
(l), hetsurau (h. l). 
«. Obekka, ayu. 

Flavor, n. Nioi, koki. 
Flea, n. Nomi. — 

bite^ nomikkui. 
Fleet, «« Kwaatf i. 
Flesh, «. Niku. 
Float, ?". V. Uku (i), 

ukabu (i). /. V. Uka- 

seru (3). 

Flocls, n. Mure. 7. v. 
Atsumaru (i). 

Flood, n. Kozui, o- 
mizu. i. V, Afureru 

(0- 

Floor, n. Yuka. — 
cloth, shiki mono. 

Floss-sillc, «. Mawa- 

ta. 

Flour, n. Ko, kona. 

Flow, i. V, Nagareru 
(3). n. Nagare. 



Flower, n. Plana. i,v. 
Saku (l). /. V. ilana 
de kazaru (i). 

Flute, n, Fue. /. z\ 
Fuku(i). 

F?y> /. V. Tobu (i). 
— at, lobi-tsuku (l). 
■ — abont, tobi mawa 
ru (I). To let -, 
nageiu (3). /. v. Yo- 
keru (3), nigeru (3). 
Tobasu(i). /?. Hai. 
Kabari. — /lap, hai- 
hataki. — powder, 
haitori-gusuri. 

Foam, 1/. Awa, abu- 
ku. i. V, Awadatsu 
(i). t.v. Av.a wo 
tateru (3). 

Focns, n. Shoten. 

Fog-, n. K\iV. Moya. 

Fold, n, nida. Orime, 
Bai. /. V. Tatamu 
(i). /. V. Kasanaru 

Follow^ /. V. Shitagau 
(h. l). Issho ni yuku 
(i). Tsuzukeru (3). 
As folloivs, tsugi no 
v5 desu. Shimo no 
yo desu. 

Fontl, a. Suki-na. 

Food, n. Shoku-motsUj 
tabe-mono. 

I o»l, ;/. Baka, alio. 
t. V. Baka ni suru 
(4), guro suru (4), 
To play the — , do- 
keru (3). i. v. Tawa- 
mureru (3). 



( 54 ) 



Foolisli, a. I3aka-na, I 
oroka-na, <Jud.on-na. i 
Baka rashi-i. j 

Foot, 17. Aslii. Sliaku. j 

— of a mountain, I 
yama no suso. By — 
or on • — , aruite. oV/ 
c?t — , haiiraem (3). 
A^ear the — , aslii 
molo. /, V. Aruku 
(I), t.v. Keru (3). 
Fumu (i). — hall, 
kemari. — bath, sen- 
soku. — hold, ashi- 
gakari. Furnidai. — 
mark, ashi-alo. — 
fad, oi-hagi. — path, 
jin-d5. — race, kyo- 
so. — rule, kane- 
zashi. — stooly aslii- 
dai, ashi-oki. 

For, /r.'/. Kawari-ni. 
Tame-ni, yue-ni, 
yotte, tsuite. Ni . 
As — , ni tsuite wa, 
ni wa. — as vmch 
as, ni yotte, no yae- 
ni. — ail, keredo- 
nio. But — , de na- 
kereba. — my life, 
inochi ni kaete. — 
others, hito no tanic- 
ni. As — fiu, wata- 
knshi ni tot to wa. 

— this reason, kono 
wakede. — to, ...su- 
rii tame. 7o act — , 
kawaru (ij. conj. 
Naze naraba. Dcsu 
kara, no wake de, 
no de, no yue-ni, ni 



yotte. — as mtich^ 
wake de, yue-ni, — 
why, yotte. 
Forbid, t. v, Tomeru 

(3)- 
Force, n. Chikara, 
seiryoku. Boko. /. v. 
Shiiru (2). Put into 
— , okonawaseru (3). 

— apart, oshi-hana- 
su (i). — back, oshi- 
kaesu (l). — into, 
oshi-korau (l). — 
ofen, oshi-akeru (3). 

— out, oshi-dasu (i). 

— through, oshi- 
losu (l). 

Forcibly, adv. Muri- 
ni, shiite. 

Forefather, n, Sen- 
zo, sosen., 

Foa-eting-er, n. Hito- 
.saslii-yubi. 

Fore-foot, //. Mae- 
aslii. 

Forefront, ?/. Zem- 
mcn, mae. 

I'ores'oing', a, ?.lae- 
no. 

Foreliead, «. Hitae. 

Foreig-ii, a. Gwaiko- 
ku-no. — er, gwai- 
koku-jin. — minist- 
er, kdski. — office^ 
gwainiu-sho. 

Forenoon, n. Cozen, 
hiru mae. 



( 55 ) 



Seuyaku shita. 
l^orermmer, n. Faki- j 

liure Zencho. Yoho. 
Foresjglit, n. Senken, 

yochi. 
Forest, n, riayashi, 

mori. 

Foreiell, /. v. Yogen 

suru (4). 

Fore-tooth, n. Mae- 
ba. 

Forever, adv, Eikyu- 
ui, itsumademo na- 
ga-ku. 

Fo2*g-et, /. V. Wasure- 
ru (3), shilsunen 
suru (4). 

Forgetful, a. Wasure 
yasu-i, wasureppo-i. 

Fork, 11. Niku-sashi. 
Mat a. Wakare. 

Form, ;;. Kalachi. 
Keij5. Sugata, nari. 
Mokei, hinagata. 
Naga-isu. — of gc 
vernmejit, seitai. t.v. 
T.sukuru (i), koshi- 
raem (3). Mozo suru 
(4), kaladoru (i). 

Formal, a. Seish'ki- 
no. Kiritsu-ladashi- 
i. Keishiki-no. 

roriiiality, tt. Gishi- 
k', Kyorei. JVif/ioul 
— , enryo-nakii. 

r<>r:tiatioii, v. Seizo, 
kozo. 



Former, a. Mae-no, 

sen- no, 

Formidail>le, a. Oso- 

roshi-i, odoroku be- 

ki. 
Formula, w. Kisoku. 

Koshiki. Shoho- 

gaki. 
Fort, J7. Toride. Dai- 

ba, hodai. 

Forth, adv. Mae-ni, 
saki-ni. 

Fortunate, a. Saiwai- 
na, kofuku-no. 

Fortune, n. Ummei, 
tin. Zaisan. Takara. 
Tellfcrlunes, uranau 
(h. I). 

Fortune-teller, n. 

Uranai-ja. 

Forward, a. Mae-no. 
Nesshin-na. Busa- 
ho-na, buenryo-na. 
Haya-i. adv. Mae- 
ni. Susunde- t. v. 
Okuru (l), todo- 
keru (3). Susumeru 
(3). 

Fossil, n. Kwaseki. 
— v)ood, umoregi. 

Found, /. V. Hajime- 

ru (3), tatefu (3). 
Fo'inder, n. Sdritsu- 

slia, setsuritsu-sha. 

Imono-shi. Ikake- 

ya. 
Foundation, ;/. Ki. 

so, dc^lai 



( 56 ) 



FonniUling', n. Sute- 
go. — hospital, ko- 
ji-in. 

FouiitaiiB, 71. Izumi. 
Fun-ui, Sui-gen. 

Minamoto 

FowJ, ;/. Tori. Water 

— , mizu-tori. 
Fox, n. Kitsune. 

Fraetioai, n. Bunsu. 
Plashit?.. 

Fractions, a. Okori- 
yasu-i, kenkwazuki- 
no. Sekkachi-no. 

Frag^inent, n. Kire. 
Hahen, koware. 

Dampen. 

Frag-raiice, n. Yoi 

nioi. 

Frag-rant, a. Yoi 

nioi-no, kobashi-i. 

Frame, ;;. IIone-[>u- 
nii, kokkaku. Waku. 
Katachi, keijo. Rin- 
kaku. /. V. Kufu 
suru (4), kumi-tate- 
ru (3). 

Frame-work, n. Ta- 
na. 

France, ;/. Furansu. 

Frank, a. Uchitoke- 

ta. Rairakuna. 

Kwaikatsu-na. Aki- 

raka-na. 

Fraternity, n. \\\:\\, 
kyodai no jo. ) 



Free, a. Jiyu-na. Ji- 
chi-no. Set — , liana- 
su. t. V. Hanasu (i). 
Jiyii ni sum (4). Yu- 
rusu (i). 

Freeiloin, n. Jiyu, 
Zuii. 

Free-trade, n. Jiyu- 
hoeki. 

Free-will, n. Jiyu- 

ishi. 

Freeze, ?'. v. K5ru ( i ). 

Kogoeru (3). — to 

death, kogoe-sliinu 

(0- 
Freezing-point, n. 

Hyoten. 

French, n. Furansu- 
jin. Furansu-go, 

Frequent, adv. Tabi- 
tabi, shiba-shiba, 
toki-doki. 

Fresh, a. Haya-i. 
Naina-no. Ataraslii- 
i, shinsen na. vSuzu- 
shi-i. -. vess, shin- 
sen. Soken, jobu. 
Kappatsu. Suzushi- 
sa. 

Friction, n. Masatsu. 

Fri«lay, n. Kinyo-bi. 

Friend, n. Hoyu, to- 
modaclii. — liness, 
yujr>, yugi. — ship, 
ft. \ug\. Yoshimi. 

Fright, n. Osore, 
kyofu. — en, odoro- 
kasu (l), odoka.su 



( 57 ) 



(l). — /?^/, odoroku- 
be-ki, osoroshi-i, 

kovva-i. 

Fro, adv. Kara, yori. 
To and — , achira- 
kochira-ni. 

Frog, w. Kairu, kavva- 
zu. 

From, prep. Kara, 
yori. De. 

Front, 11. Mae. ztva.- 
men. Omote. Kawo- 
iro, kawo-daclii. 

Mae-gami. /. v. Mu- 
kau (h. i). Mae ni 
tatsu (i). Tekitau 
(h. l), teiko suru 
(4)- 

FroHt-iloor,. w. O- 
mote-mon. 

Frost, 71. Shi mo. — 
bite, shimoyake. 

Fruit, n. Mi, kuda- 
mono. 

Fruitfnl, a. Yutaka- 
na. — year; houen. 

Fry, n. Age-mono, 
'Jempura. Furai. 

/. V. Ageru (3). 

Frying-pan, n. Age- 
nabe. 

Fuel, 11. Maki, takigi. 

Fulfill, /. V. Mitasu 
(i). Joju suru (4). 
Riko suru (4). Tsu- 
kusu (i). 

Full, n. Jubun, ippai. 
/. V. Mitasu, ippai ni 



suru (4). — bloom^ 
hana-zakari. — 

aged, sonen-no. — 
dress, sei-fuku, rei- 
fuku. — ness, jubun, 
ippai. — y, jubun- 
! ni, mattaku. 
' Fund, n. Shihon, mo- 
I tode. Motokin, gen- 
kin. Funds, k5zai- 
shosho. 

Funtlanaental, a. 

Kompon-no. Daiji- 
na, kwanyo-na. 

Fund-holder. n. 

Shihon-ka, kinshu. 
Kabu-nushi. 

Funeral, ;/. Soshiki, 
tomurai, s5s6. 

Fur, n. Ke. Ke-gawa. 
— coat, kegoromo. 

Fnrnitare, n. Dogu, 
kazai. Old — shop, 
furu-dogu-ya. 

Future, n. Mirai, sho- 
rai. Nochi, saki. — 
world, gose, raise. 



G. 



Gain, n. Rieki, moke, 
shotoku. Shori. t. v. 
Mokeru (3). Eru (3). 
Katsu (i). 

Oallery, n. Roka. 
Sajiki. Chinretsu-jo. 



( 58 ) 



Game, n. Yugi. Sbo- 
bu-goto. — la7i', 
juryo-kisoku. 

Gr.rrteii, n. Niva. — 
<-r, entei, ueki-ya. 

Cnarrison, n. Ei-hei. 

tJas, n. Gasu. — fix- 
hire, gas u- to. j 

Ontc, ;/. Mon, kado. 

€j«{iteway; n. Kado- 

guchi. 

Gather, t. v. Atsu- 
meru (3), yoseru (3). 
/. V. Atsumaru (i), \ 
yoru (i). — wj,'', 
alsumari, gunshu. ' 

Gay, a. Ilade-na, ha- I 
uayaka-na. Kirei- ' 
na. 

<aj«ze, i. V. Mitsumeiu 
{'\\ chiimoku suru 
(4)- 

Guzclte, 12. Shimbun- 
slii. Zasshi. 

Gstzetlcer, n. Ki-sha. 
Oiimei.-jisho, 

Gelatin, n. Nikawa 

(seisei). 
Gem, 11. Me. Iloscki, 

h5gy()ku. /. V. Ka- 

zaiu (i). 
Gender, n. Shurui. 

Sei. 
General, a. Ippan-no, 

fut.su-no, Isiliei-no. 

— vatnf, sosho. - - 

assemh'v, so-kwai. 



/// — , taigai, taitei. 
okata. n. Taisho. 
Shokwan. Chokwan. 
— in chief, shogun. 

Generalissimo, n. 

Dai-gensui. Sotoku. 
Generality, n. Tsu- 
sei. Sotai. 

Generaliatation, n. 

Gaikatsu. Togo. 

Generate, t. v. Uiriu 
(i). /. V. Umareru 
(3), dekiru (2). 

Generation, n, Shi- 
son. Ketto. Jidai, 
yo. Uaiare. 

Generons, a. Kwan- 
dai-no, ki ga oki-i, 
tairyo-no. 

Genesis, n. Soseiki. 
Hajime. 

Genius. 11. Terisai. 
Gentle, a. Otonashi-i, 
onjun-na. 

Gentleman, n. Shin- 
.shi. 

Gen tlet« Oman, n. 

Ki-fujin. 

Genuine, a. Tadashi- 
i, honto-no, makoto- 
iiO. Dochakuno. — 
ness, seijitsu, niako- 
to. Jun.sui. 

Genus, n. Rui. 

tieoft-raplier, n. Chi- 
ri-gakusha. 

Geography, n. Chiri. 



C 59 ) 



Oeolog'.v, ;/. Chishi- 
tsu-gaku. 

Geometry, n. Kika- 
gaku. 

Germ, ;/. Me, mebae. 
Kizashi. 

German, a. Doitsu- 
no. «. Doitsu-jin. 

Doitsu-go. 

Gesture, ;?- Te-mane, 
mi-buri. 

Get, t. V. P:ru (3). To- 
rn (i) i. V. Eru (3). 
Hairu (3). -- ill; 
ireru (3). — off, nu- 
gu(i). Uru(i). Ha- 
nasu (i). Shobun 
suru (4). — on, kiru 
(2). liaku (l). — 
out, dasu (l). Nuki- 
dasu (i). Hanasu 
(i). — over, katsu 
(l). Koeru (3), sugi- 
ru (2). Samatageru 
(3). — together, atsu- 
meru (3). — place, 
yokeru (3). — at, 
todoku ( I ). - asleep, 
neru (i), nemuru(i). 

— azvay or — from, 
hanareru (3). Tatsu 
(l), ryoko suru (4). 

— back, kaeru (3), 
'— before, mae ni de- 
ru (3). — behind, 
okureru (3). — be- 
t7veen, hedateru (3). 
Naka ni hairu (2). 

— clear, sakeru (3). 
Hatasu (i). Nasu 



(l). — down, oriiu 
(2). kudaru (l). — 
drunk, you (h. i). — 
forward, susumu ( 1 ). 

— in or into, hairu 
(2). — jiear, chika- 
yoiu (l). — off, ni- 
geru (3). Yokeru (3). 

— oti, susumu (l) — 
cut, deru (3). Nige- 
ru (3). — rid of, 
nogareru (3). — 
through, yari-tosu 
(i), tsuranuku (i). 

— together, atsuma- 
ru (i). — u/>, okiru 
(2). Agaru (i), nobo- 
ru (i). — rich, kane- 
mochi ni naru (l). 

— bv heart, oboeru 

(3) ' 

Gliast, n. Yurei, bake- 
mono. Noly — , sei- 
rei. 

Giant, n. Sei-taka. 
0-otoko. 

Gift, ;;. Okuri-mono. 
Mi age. 

Gild, /. --'. MeUki suru 
(4). 

Ging-er, ;?. Shoga. 

Girl, 72. Musume. 

Gcve, /. V. Ataeru (3), 
yaru (l). Vokosu 
(l). — a7t>ay, yuzuru 
(i). — back, ka^esu 
(i). — forth, oyakc 
ni suru (4). — heed, 
tsutsushimu (l). — 
in, shochi suru (4). 



( 6o ) 



— otit, oyake ni su- 
ru (4). Shiraseru (3). 

— over, suteru (3). 

— place, shirizoku 
(i), doku (i). — up, 
suteru (3) — on or 
upon, niiru (2), nozo- 
mu (i). Tsuki-susu- 
mu (l) — over, ya- 
meru (3). — one''s 
se/f up, makaseru 
(3), yudaneru (3). — 
it (rial, yatf.e-miru 
(2). 

Glail, /. V. Yorokobu 
(i), ureshigaru (i). 
a. Ureshi-i. Omo- 
shiro-i. Tanoshi-i. 

Glance, i. v. Choito 
or cliira to miru (2). 

Glass, n. Garasu, bii- 
doro. Kagaaii. 

Glitter, i. v. Kaga- 
yaku (i), hikaru (i). 

Globe, u. Sekai, chi- 
kyu. laina. 

GlooBiiy, a. Kura-i. 

Utloshi-i, iiiki-na. 
Ki no omo-i. 

Glorify, /, v. Homcru 

(3), sambi suru (4). 

Glorious, a. Meiyo 
aru (1). Appare-na. 

Glory, ;/. Meiyo, ho- 
nicvrc. I'Jve/iii\^ — 
of thi" 'iky, yu-yake. 
Aj.Tniiig — of (he 
sky, asa-yake. 



Glossary, n. Jibiki, 
jisho. 

Glove, n. Te-bukuro. 
/. V. Hameru (3). 

Glycerine, «. Risu- 
rin. 

Go, i. V. Yuku (i), iku 
(l), mairu (l). — 
abroad, yoko suru 
(4). Deru (3), - 
against, sakarau (h 
I). — aside, shirizo. 
ku (l), yokeju (3). 
Machigaeru (3). — 
across, koeru (3), 
wataru (i). — as- 
tray, mayou (h, i). 

— away, saru (i), 
yuku (l). — back, 
kaeru (3). — by, to- 
ru (i). — down, ori- 
ru (2), ocliiru {2\. 
Kudaiu(i). Machi- 
gaeru (3). — hard 
with, abunai-me ni 
au Hi, i). — in, hai- 
ru (2V — off, hana- 
reiu (3), hanasu (il 

— on, susumu (i). 

— out, deru (3), ha- 
nareru (3). — ovei; 
yomu (l), uarau (h. 
\). Kangaeru (3). 
Somuku (i). Sugiru 
(2), koeru (3), wata- 
ru (i) — through, 
tori-nukcru (3) Tsu- 
ranuku (l). logeru 
(3), — up, noboru 
(i), agaru (i). — 



( 61 ) 



U'ttk, tornonaa (h. 
l), isslio ni yuku (l), 
dod5 sum (4). 

Goal, n. Mokuteki, 

meate, mato. 
Goat, «. Vagi. 
God, w. Kaaii. Jocei. 

Tentei. 
God-fatliei\ .V. Kyo- 

fu. 
Gold, fi. Kin, ogon. 

— dint, shak.n. 

Golden, a. Kin-no. 

Gold-fish,?/. Kingyo. 

Good, a. Yo-i, i-i, yo- 
roslii-i. 1?. Zen. — 
for I. olhing fellow^ 
narazu-mono, — for 
nothing, yaku ni ta- 
tana-i. — xvhile, ya- 
ya. Hisashi-ku. As 

— as, onaji-ku, lii to- 
sh i-ku. 

Good-bye, intsrj. Sa- 
yonara, shikkei. 

Good-day, iiiferj. 

Konn.chi wa. 
Good-morning, in- 

terj. Ohayo gozai 
masa, ohayo. 
Good-nig-lit, iuterj. 
Oyasumi nasai, oya- 
sumi. 

Goods, n. Nimot.su. 
Good-tempered, a. 

junryo-na, otonashi- 
i, oiikd na. Yasashi- 



Goose, n. Ga-ch5. 
■ WiU — , gan. 

Gospel, n. lukum. 
Fukuin-sho. 

Goversi, /. v. Csamc- 
ru (3), sbihai sum 
(4). 

Governor, ;/. Tochi- 
sha, shihai-sha. 

Government, n. Sci- 
fu. 

Grace, n. Mcgunv,, 
jihi, nasake. — fu', 
yul)i-na, iki-na. 

Gracious, a. Jihi-bu- 

ka-i, megumi-ixika i. 
Grade, n. Kaikyii, to- 

kyu. Kurai. Junjo, 

dan. Kobai. i. v. 

Taira ni sum (4). 

Tokyii wo tsukeru 

(3)- 
Gradually, adv. 

Dan-dan, shidai-ni, 

oi-ci, 

Gradwal^j t. v. Do 

wo wakeru (3). /, v. 
Sotsugyo oura (4J0 
Gradiiator, n. Sotsu- 
gyo-sei. 

Gra«a»«as', ;/, iJurapo. 

Grand, a. Oki-i, Rip- 
pa-na. — child, mago. 
— daughter, mago- 
muiume. — /at/ur, 
sofu, ojii-san;, — 
in 0! her, so bo. sba- 
san. 



( 62 ) 



CSraiiite, n. 


Mikage- 


ishi. 




Grant, /. V. 


Yarusu 


(i), shochi 


sum (4). 


Ataeru (3). 


Sazuke- 


™(3). 




«raj>o, iu Budo. 


Grajjery, n 


. Budo- 


dan a. 





Grasp, /. V. Nigim 
(2), tsukamu (l). 
Wakaru (l). 

Grass, n. Kusa. 
GraiiOoaticn, n. 

Manzoku, yorokobi. 

Grn.y, a. Haiiro-no. ' 

— Jiair, sliiraga. 

Great, a. Oki-i. A — 
zvay, to-michi, enro. 
By the — , solai. — 
dealy takusan, yolio- 
do- — in extent, 
hiro-i. — in mtm- 
ber, takusan, taiso. 

— distance, empo, 

— consequence, tai- 
setsu, daiji. — ivJdle, 
liisashi-ku, naga-ku. 

— in degree, fuka-i. 
'I'suyo-i. Ohio i. 
Uageshi-i. — crime, 
dai-zai. — grand 
cliild, hi-mago. — 
grandfather, liii-ji- 
jii. — grand mother, 
hii-baba. — many, 
takusan. — !>en', 
koku-ji. — and 
stnall, daislio. 



Greek, n. Girisha- 
— church, girisha- 
kyo. 

Green, a. Midori-no. 

Greeis-groeer, n. 

Yao-ya. 

Greet, / v. Aisatsu 
wo suru (4). 

Grieve, t. v. Kanashi- 
mu (i), nageku (i). 

Grievous, a. Kana- 
shi-i. 

Grind, /. v. Hiku (i). 
Migaku (l), — stone, 
toishi. 

Grocers, n. Zakkwa- 
sho. 

Ground, n. Tsucbi, 
jiinen. Kiso, dodai. 
Crotinds, ori. — 
rent, ji-dai. t. v. Ta- 
teru (3). — //6'o;-, 
ncda. — less, mu- 
kon-iio, ne no na-i. 

Grow, i. V. Ilaeru (3). 
Seicho suru (4), no- 
birii (2), 6ki-ku na- 
ru (1). Nam (i). — 
?//, sodatsu(i). — 
iver, shigem (3). 

GrowtSi, n. Seicbo. 

Guarantee, n. Ho- 

sbo-nin. t. v. IIo- 
sbo suru (4), hiki- 
ukeru (3). 
Gua2M8, t. V. Fusegu 
(i), mamom (i), bo- 
gyo siJi-u (4). « 
Bampei, ban-nin. 



( 63 ) 



Quest, n. Kyaku. 

Guide, n. Annai. Te* 
bikj. Annai-sha. i*. v, 
Annai or tebiki wo 
suru (4), michibiku 
(l). — di-'o/:, annai- 
sho. 

iinslty, n. Tsumi. 

Ciulf, n. Wan. 

Giini, n. Gomu. Vaiii. 
Ha-guki. 

Gnniarabso, n. Ara- 
bia-gomu. 

Gnu, n. Teppo. 

Gnnboat, n. Ho- 

kwan. 

Gnsiootton, ti. Men- 

kwayaku, 

Gusifire, n. Don, go- 
la o. 

Gunpowder, n. Kwa- 
yaku, ensh5. 



H. 



Habit, n. Shukwan. 
Fuzoku. Kuse. 

Habitual, a. Itsumu- 
no, fudan-no. 

£labituate, /. v. Na- 

rasu (i). Sumau (li. 

l). i. V. Is'areru (3). 
EJail, n. Arare. 
Fa air, n. Ke, kam'. 

— brush, keharai. 



— peucif, mo-hitsu. 

— ////, kanzashi. — 

f, •:(.■</:■ r, kami- 

arai ko. 

Malfs n. llar.bun, ni 
kal:a. — dri''J, na- 
ma-bi. — price, lian- 
ka. — splurc, li..n- 
kyu, han-en. — ivay. 
han-michi. Tocliu- 



Mall, ;/. 


Do, 


<\van. 


Halve, 


A V. 


Futatsu 


ni suru 


(4) 


or wake- 


'■u (3)> 
(4)- 
Mam, n. 


nib 


un suru 


Rakan. fla- 


niu. 






IfaiiiiHe 


r, n 


. Kana 


VA clii. 







Ilamiiiock, n. Tsuri- 
doko. 

ilai:<l, ;;. Te. ILVri 

i\awa /. T. Wafasu 
(I). lN].ch;b.ku (l). 
A: I the — , dochiia 
iji sb.iUmo. Atjirt 
— , sugii, tadacbi-ni. 
At — , chika-ku, s.:- 
gu. Enifty — , kara- 
te. On — , dekia;, 
ariawase. — iit — , 
is:rho ni, sorotte. Cj] 
— , sugu. Deho.lai, 
delarame^ On :hi 
one — , ipi o de\va= 
On the other — , 
taho de wa. — cvet 
— , dan dan. Te wo 
kasane:_: (.5). Leiid ., 
— , te wo ka-su (1J5 



( 64 ) 



tetsudau (h. i). — 
to viotUh, soiio-hi- 
gurashi. — doiu)i, 
tsutaeru (3). — ba';- 
/ee/, te-kago. — book, 
te-cho. — cloth, te- 
nugui. — craft, shu- 
ko, te-zaiku. — /?</, 
hito-nigicri. — ofgan, 
shu-fukin. — railf 
tesuri, rankwan. — 
'turiihig, jiki-hLtsu, 
niku-hitsu. 



Iff a IB d li e r oh icf > 

Haukechi. 



le, 



Ilaitille, n. 

totte. 

Iliiiiflsoitie, a. Utsu- 
kushi-i, kirei-na. 

ffaiig-, /. V. Kakeru 
(3), tsurusu (i). — 
do-iiiii, sageni (3), 
sagaru (i). Tarasu 
(l), tareiu (3). — 
up, kakeru (3). — a 
door, 10 wo hameru 
(3> 

IIapg>fMi, i. V. Okoru 
(i). Nam (i). 

l7a|>2>^iicMS, n. Ko- 
fuku, saiwai, shia- 
v.ase. 

iEnrboi*, n. Minato. 
Tcihaku-jo. 

llHr«l, a. Kata-i. Mu- 
iiiil.ashi-i. Kibii^lii-i. 
Tsuyo-i.. 

liatiMlsIiijit, //. Naiigi, 
kannan, shinku. 



Hare, iu No usagi. 

IS^.ts'olip, «. Mitsu 
kuchi. 

Harm, n. Gai, songai. 
i. V. Gai sum (4), 
sokonau (h. i), ila- 
mcru (3). — ful, 
dokiina, gai no aru 

Harmonious, a. 

Chowa shita. 

Harmony, n. Cho- 
wa. 

Harp, n. Tate-gott 

Harvest, n. Shukwa- 
ku, /. V. Kari-toru 
(i), kari-ireru (3). 

Has4e, n. Isogi, t. v. 

Isogasu (l), unagasa 

(i). i. V. Isogu (I), 

seku (i). 
Hat, «. B5shi. — 

brush, boshi-bake. 

Hate, t. V. Nikumu 
(i), kirau(h. l). 

Hateful, a. Niku-i, 
nikurashi-i. 

Hatred, n. Nikumi. 
Ikon, urami. 

Have, /. V. Motsu (i), 
motte oru (i). — a 
fever, netsu ga deru 
(3). — after, moto- 
mcrii (3). — at, de- 
an (b. i). Arasou(h. 
i), tatakau (h. i). — • 
in, fukumu (i). — 
an, kim (2). — /•; 



( 65 



... shi nakereba nara 
nai. 
fffawli, «. Taka. 

He, pron. Ano hi to, 
kare. Are. 

Head, ;/. Atama, tsu- 
muri. Kashira. Mo- 
to. — of wheals ho, 
^— of a river, mi na- 
me to. — of a dis- 
course, shui, rondai. 
t. V. Kashira to na- 
ru (l). Michibiku 

(0- 

Headache, n. Zulsu. 

Heal, /. V. Naosu (i). 
i. V. Naoru (i). 

Healing-, n. Ryoji, 

chiryo. 
Ilealtli, n. Kenko, 

jobu, tassha, mame. 
In — , jobu-ni, tas- 
sha-ni, mame ni, 
kenko ni. Preserv- 
ing — , yojo wo suru 
(4). Restored to — , 
hompuku shita, 

naotta, zenkai shita. 
Careless of — , fu- 
yojo. To drink to 
one^s — , kenko wo 
shikusu (i) or iwau 
(h. I). 

Hear, /. v. Kiku (l). 

Shitagau (h. i). — 

er, bocho-sha. 
Hearsay, n Fubun, 

uwasa, fusetsu, hyo- 

ban. 



Heart, n. Kokoro 

Shinzo. Set the — 
at rest, akiiameru 
(3), omoikiru (2). 
Witk the ivhole — , 
isshin-ni, shin kara. 
At — , nesshin-ni, 
kokoro kara. By — , 
majimede. Cboete. 

Heat, 11. Netsu, atsu- 
sa. Nesshin. /. v. 
Atatameru (3), atsu- 
ku suru (4). Hage- 
masu (i). i. v. Atsu- 
ku naru (l). 

Heaven, n. Ten, sora. 
Ten-goku. Jotei. 

Tendo. — gifted, 
tenbu-no. 

Heavy, a. Omo-i. 
Oki-i. Oso-i, nibu-i. 
Hageshi-i, tsuyo-i. 
Kala-i. — rain, 5- 
ame. — sea, 6-nami. 
— load, omo-ni. — 
cloud, kuro-kumo. 

Hedge, n. Kakine, 

Heel, n. Kakato. 

Heigrlit, n. Takasa. 
Kyokuten. — en, 
taka-ku suru, ageru. 
Masu. 

Heir, n. Atotsugi. 

Hell, n. Jigoku. 

Help, i. V. Tasukeru 
(3). Sewa wo suru 
(4). i. V. Kasei suru 
^4}. — on, susumeru 
(3). n. Tasuke, hojo. 



( 66 ) 



Shusen. Sewa. Oka- 
ge- 
ia;eBnisi>liere, n. 

Han-kyQ. 

Iffeii, 71. Men-dori. 

Hence, adv. Koko 
kara. Kono wakede. 
A year — , ichinen 
tatte. 

Here, adv. Koko, ko- 
chira. — and fhere^ 
achi-koclii. — about, 
kokora-nl Kono 
hen-ni. — aftery 
kono nochi, irai, 
igo. — at or by, ko- 
re de. — m, kono 
uchi de. — of, kore 
ni tsuite. — on, 
koko de. — out, ko- 
ko kara. — to, koko 
made. — tofore, 
izen. — upon, koko 
de. — with, kore de. 
Kore to issho ni. 

Heretlity, «. Iden. 

Heritag-e, n. Isan. 

Hero, ;/. Eiyfl, goke- 
tsu. Shujinko. — 
ine, jo-jofu, yufu. — 
ism, yuki, goki. 

Hesitate, i. v. Chu- 
cllo suru (4), yuyo 
suru (4). 

Hide, /. V. Kakusu 
(i). i. V. Kakureru 

by 

Hiffli, a. Taka-i. — 
land, taka-dai. — 



minded, g5man ■ na. 

— tide, michi-shio. 

— 7vay, daido. — 
zvayman, oihagi, 
sanzoku. — wind, 
6-kaze. 

Hill, n. Oka, ko-yama. 

Hinder, a. Ushiro- 
no, ato-no. 

Hinder, /. v. Samata- 
geru (3), saegiru (2). 
Jama wo suru (4). 
Teik5 suru (4), — 
an<e, samatage, ja- 
ma, sawari. 

History, n. Rekishi. 
Hive, n. Hachi no su^ 
Hold, /. V. Motsu (i). 
Okonau (h. l), suru 
(4). To — back, to- 
domeru (3), osaeru 
(3), tomeru (3). — 
by, tasukeru (3). 
Sansei suru (4). — • 
forth, sashi-dasu (i), 
teisliutsu suru (4). 

— 'in, osaeru (3). — 
(/f, tozakaru (l). — 
out, hirogeru (3), 
nohasu (i). Koraeru 
(3V — uj), sasaeru 
(3), iji suru (4). i. v. 
Talsu (i). Tsuzuku 
(i). Kuttsuku (i). 

— on, tsuzuku (i). 

— a consultation, 
sodan suru (4). — 
er, mochi-nushi, 
shoyu-sha. 

Hole, n. Ana. 



C 67 ) 



Holiday, it. Saijitsu. 
Yasumi, kyujitsu. 

Hollow, a. Kara-no. 
Pliku-i. n. Ana. Ku- 
bomi. t V. Horu. 

Holy, a. Shinsei-na, 
kiyo-i. 

Home, n. lye, sumai. 
Katei. At — , zaita- 
ku suru (4), iru (2). 
No I at — , rusu, fu= 
zai, ori masen. — 
affairs, kaji. — de- 
parttnent, naimu- 
sho. — made, tezu- 
kuri-no. — manu- 
facture, naikoku-sei. 
Jikoku-sei. — sick, 
shikyo-by5. 

Hone, n. Toishi. /. v. 
Togu (i), migaku 

(0- 

Honesty, n. Shojiki, 
seichoku. Seijilsu. 

Kosiey, n. Hachi- 
mitsu. — bee, mitsu- 
bachi. — comb, n. 
Hachi no su. — 
moon, n. Mitsu-tsuki. 

Honcnr, «. Meiyo, 
homare. t. v. Sonkei 
suru (4), uyaniau (h. 
l), tattobu (i). 

Honorable, a. Tat- 

lo-i. Meiyo aru (i), 

nadaka-i. 
Hook, n. Kagi, hok- 

ku. /, V. Kakeru (3). 

i. V. Magaru (i_). 

Foi — , jizai-kagi. 



Hoop, n. Taga. Wa. 
t. V. Kakeru (3). 

Hope, n. Nozomi,- ki- 
bo. /. V. or /. V. No- 
zomu (i), kibo suru 
(4). 

Horizon, n. Chihei, 
suihei. Gwankai. 

Horn, n. Tsuno. 

Horse, n. Uma. — 
power, bariki. Wild 
— , ara-uma. — boy, 
n. Betto. — doctor, 
ba-i. — man, uma- 
nori. — race, kei-ba. 

— s/ioe, kanagutsu. 

Hospitable, a. Tori- 
atsukai no yo-i. 

Hospiial, n. Byoin. 

Hostility, n. Teki-i. 

Hot, a. Atsu-i. Atata- 
ka-na. — house, mu- 
ro. — spring, onsen, 

— water, yu. 

Hotel, n. Iloteru, ya- 
doya, hatagoya. 

Hound, n. Kari-inu, 
ryoken. 

Hoar, 71. Jikwan. Ji- 
koku. — plate, eto. 

Honse, ft. Sumai, u- 
chi, iye. — for sale, 
uri-iye, uri-ya. — to 
let, kashi-iye, kashi- 
ya. — by — , kado- 
nami. — hold, kaji. 

— holder^ koshn, 
kacho. — rent, ya- 



( 68 ) 



chin. — moving, 
hikkoshi, lentaku. 
— Si'ewani, sahai- 
nin. — lax, kaoku- 
zei. 

HoiT, eidv. Do, D5- 

shite. Donna-ni. 

Nan to. 

However, adv. Kere- 
domo, ga. No ni. 
Tomokaku. couj, 

Tatoe ... sum mo. 

llo^'soever, adv. 

Ddshite mo, donna- 
koto wo shite mo. 

Unman, a. Ningen- 
no, hilo no, jinrui- 
no. — nature, jinsei. 

Humanity, n. Nasa- 
ke, jiai, ninjo- 

HnuiiUEkind, n, 

Jinrui. 

Humanly, adv. Hi- 
to-rashi-ku. Shin- 
setsu-ni. 

Humble, a. lyashi-i. 
Kcuson-na. 

Ifictnility, n. Ken- 
son. 

Humor, n. Scishi- 
tsu, kishitsu. Kisho- 
ku, kokoro-mochi. 
Kokkei. Oui of — , 
fu-kigen. t. V. Kigen 
wo toru (i). — is/, 
kokkci-ka. 

HnmorouA, a. Oka* 
shL-i, kokkei-na. 



Hnng'cr, /;. Ue. Kii- 

fuku. i. V. Ueru (3), 

kalsueiu (3), hara 

ga hem (3). 
Hunt, /. V. Kari \\o 

sum (4^, ou (It. l). 

Sagasu (i). «. Kari, 

ryb. 
Hurricane, n^ BofUj 

arashi. Taifu, 5« 

kaze. 
Hurry, t. 7;, Isogasu 

(l), saisoku suru (4). 

/. V. Isogu (1). scku 

(0. 

Hurt, t, V, Itameru 
(3), sokonau (h. i). 
Kov/asu (l). Kizu 
wo tsukeru (3). i. v. 
Itamu (l), kizu ga 
tsuku (i). ;;. Kcga, 
Kizu. Itami. 

Hurtful, a. Yilgai- 

no, doku-na. 

Husband, », Otto. 

— and wife, fufu. 
Hygiene^ w. Eisei. 

gaku. 

Hymn, w'. Sambika. 

Hypnotic, a. Saimin- 
no. Nemuri-gusuri. 

Hypoerite, n. Gizen 
sha, gi-kunslii. 

Hypothesis, n, Ka* 

tei, kasetsu. 

Hysteria, n, IIi»u- 
terii. 



( 69 ) 



i, fron. Watalcushi, 
boku. 

5ee, v. Kori. 

leecreaisi, n. Aisul-^u- 

riimu. 

Idea, n. Kwaunen. 
Ryoken. 

Ideal, ;;. Ris5. a. Ri- 
so-teki-no. 

identical, a. D5yo- 
na, onaji. 

Scleniify, t. v. Onaji- 
ni surr. (4). . i. v. O- 
naji-ni naru (l). 

Idiona, n. Hogen, na- 
niari. 

Idiot, n. Baka. 

Idle, a. Taida-na,-na- 
makeru (i). Busho- 
na. Mueki-na. • — 
lime, hima. — talk, 
jodan, muda-lxina- 
shi. 

Idol, «. Cuzo. 

Idolater, n. GuzQ-rei- 
hai-sha. 

Idler, V. Namake- 
uiono. Busho-niono. 

ti\co>ij. Moshi .., ba, 
ba, to, ra. 

snoranee, ;?. Mu- 

gaku, rnu-clu. 

il, a. Waru-i. Byoki- 
no, kagen ga wani-i. 



kai 



iiess, byuki, fu- 



niujvsanate, A v. Te- 

rasu (l). Akaru-ku 
sura (4). Kazaru (i). 

Illiigiion, n. Genei. 

JMayoi. 

Illustrftite, t. V. Se- 

tsumei sum (4). To- 
kiakasu (i). Etcki 
wo suru (4). 

Illnstration, ;/. Se- 

tsumei, lokiakashi. 
Etoki. Sashie. 

Image, n. Zo, sbGzo. 
Katacbi. 

Imag'iiiation, n. So- 

z6. 

Imagine, t v. Sozo 
suru (4). 

Imitate, /. v. Mjneru 
(3), niseru (3). 

Imitation, n. Mane, 
nise, magai. 

Immaterial, a Mu- 

kei-no, katacbi no 
na-i. 

Immeasurable, a. 

Mu-genno, hakara- 
re-na-i. 

Immediate, a. Ch.o- 
kusetsu-no. Tacbi- 
macbi-no. 

Immense, a. Kodai- 

no, hakarare-na-i. 
Imnterse, t. v. Hita- 

su (i), tsukeru (3}, 



c 70 -) 



lEiDinofflerale, a- 

Kwado-no. Hogai- 
no. Muri-no, 

Iiiiiiiodost, ft. Kwa- 
do-no. Tetsumempi- 
no, haji wo shira- 
na-i. 

Einanorality, ;/. Fu- 
tokugi, Fu-hinko. 

liiiniortality, n. Fu- 

shi. Fu-metsu. 

lBM|>art!ality, n. Ko- 

hei, kosei. 

fiis) patient, a. Tanki- 

no, okorippo-i, sek- 
kachi-no. 

Impel, /. V. Osu (l). 
Saseru (3). 

Ini|>enBtent, a. Goj5- 
na, katakuna-na. 

Iisii»eratB\'e, a. Yon- 
dokoro-na-i. Meirei- 
no. 

Ifinperfeet, a. Fii- 
kwanzen-na. 

IguperHal, a. Teiko- 
ku-no. Tenno-no. — 
ambassador, choku- 
shi. 

Impiety, n. Fu-shin- 
j;n. 

Imply, /. V. Fukumn 

(0- 
Impolittc, a. I3u-rei- 

na, shitsu-rei-na. 
lEiiport, /. V. Yunyu 

sum (4). «. Yunyu- 

hin. 



Important, a. Taise- 

tsu-na, daiji-na, yo- 

yo-na, juyo-na. 
Importer, n, Yunyu- 

sha. 
Impossible, a. Deki- 

na-i. 
Impression, n. In- 

sho. In. Kata. In- 

satsu. 

Imprint, n. Okuzuke. 

Imprison, t. v. R5 

ni ireru (3), kinko 
sum (4). loji-kome- 
m (3). — fnent, kin- 
ko, kwankin. 

Improper, a. Fu to- 
ne, fu-s66-na, fii- 
tekito-na, niawa-na- 
i. 

Improve, A v. Kwai- 
ryo sum (4), arata- 
meru (3), kaisei sum 
^4). i. V. Aratamaiu 
(i), yo-ku nam(i], 

— ment, kwairyo. 
Kwaisei. 

Impudent, a. Haren- 
chi-no, tetsumempi- 
no, haji wo shira- 
na-i. 

Impulse, u. Shodo. 
Sendo, odate. 

Impure, a. Mazatta. 
Yogoreta. Ki(ana-i. 

— sound, daku-on. 

\\\, prep. Ni, uchi-ni, 
naka-de, de, tc. — 
blank t kimeide. — 



( 71 ) 



consequence of, ... no 
wake de, no yue ni, 
no de. — fact, jitsu 
ni. — for it, abunai 
ichi ni. — front, 
mae ni, shomen ni. 

— haste, isoide. — 
obedience, shitagatte. 

— order or — regu- 
lar order, junjo de. 

— order to, tanxe ni. 

— place of, kawari 
ni. — respect of, tsu- 
ite, kwanshite — 
short, tsumari. — 
that, nazenara ... de- 
su kara. — the 
course of, hete. — 
the name of, no na 
(=meigi) de, kawat- 
te. — vain, muda- 
ni, mueki-ni. — 
fear, osorete, kowa- 
gatte. — my opinion, 
watakushi no omou 
ni wa. Just — time, 
chodo ma ni ai ma- 
su. Not — time, ma 
ni awa-nai. 

fuability, n. Mu-no, 
mu-ryoku. 

Inactive, a. Busho- 
na, fu-kappatsu-na. 

Inapplicable, a. Fu- 

tekito-na, fu-niai-na. 
Okonae-na-i. 

In as miicli, adv. Yue 

*ni, kara, ni yotte, 
wakede. 
Inattention, n. Fu- 

chui, sokotsu. 



Incandescence, n. 

Hakunetsu. 
Incapable, a. Mu-no- 
no, mu-ryoku-no, 
deki-na-i. 

Incarnation, «. Ke- 

shin. 

Incense, /. v. K5 wo 

taku (i). n. Ka. — 
pot, k5ro. To burn 
— , shoko sum (4). 
— stick, senk5. 

Incb, n. Inchi. 

Incident, a. Fui-no, 
guzen-no. n. Igai- 
no koto. 

Inclinatic::!, n. Ka- 

tamuki, keiko, kei- 
sha, shamen. 

Incline, i. v. Kata- 
muku (i), katayoru 

Inclose, /. v. Kako- 
mu (i). Fu wo suru 
(4). 

Incog'nito, a. Toku- 
mei-no. adv. Toku- 
mei de, kakurete. 

Income, n, Shiinyu, 
shotoku. — tax, 
shotoku-zei. 

Incompared, a. Ta- 

gui no na-i, tobikiri- 
no. 

Incomplete, n. Fu- 

jubun-na. 

Inconstant, a, Ka> 

wari-yasu-i. 



( 72 ) 



Inconvenience, n. 

Fu-ben. Fu-tsugo. 
Fu-jiyu. 

Incorrect, a. Ayama- 
ri-no, machigatta. 

Increase, i. v. Fueru 
(3). (5ki-kunaru(l). 
/. V. Fuyasu (i), ma- 
su (i). Oki-ku suru 
(4). 

Incredible, a. Shin- 
jirare-na-i. 

Incisrable, a, Nai>«hi- 
niku-i. 

Indcbt, t. V. Owaseru 
(i). — ed, kari no 
aru (i). Shakkin no 
am (I). 

Indeed, adv. Makoto- 
ni, jitsu-ni, lashika- 
ni, honto-ni. Naru- 
hodo, matla-ku. 

Indefinite, a. Kima- 
ra-na-i, sadamara- 
na-i. Kagiri no na-i, 
mugen-no. 

Independence, ;/. 

Dokuritsu. 

Index, tu Sakuin, mi- 
dashi. — fi>tger,h\- 

tosashi-yubi. 

India, «. indo. 

Indian, u. Indo-jin. 

. a. Indo-no. — corn, 
tomorokoshi. — 
ocean, indo-yo. 

Indicate, /. v. Shime- 
su (i), shiraserii (3). 



Indifferent, a, Ka« 

mawa-na-i, muton. 
jaku-no. 

ludig^o, «. Ai. 

Indirect, a. Kwanse- 
tsu-no. Fu-sei-no, 
tadashi-ku na-i. 

Indispensable, a, 

Nakutewa naranu, 
hitsuyo-na. Yamu 
wo e na-i, sliikata ga 
na-i. 

Indisting:uisliable, 

a, Kubetsu-shiniku- 
i. 

Individual, a. Hito- 
tsu-no, koko-no, 

hitori-no. 

Individuality, tt, 

Tokusei, tokushitsu. 
Individually, adv. 

Betsu-betsu-ni, hito- 
ride, hitori-bitori. 

Indorsement, 71. 

Ura-gaki. 

Indorser, n. Ura-ga- 
ki-nin. 

Induction, ;/. Yudo, 
yuin. Kino-ho. 

Indulgre, /. V. Fukeru 
(3), oboreru (3). 
L V. Kimaina-ni su- 
ru (4). — a chiiJ, 
amayakasu (l). 

Industrial, a. Ko- 

gyo-no, jigyo-no. 



( 73 ) 



Tndastrious, a. Een- 
kyo-na. Sei wo dasu 

Inevitable, a. Sake- 
n.ku-i, yoke-niku-i. 

Inexact, a, Fu-seimi- 
t;ii-no. 

Inexi)ressi)i*le, a^ 

li-niku-i, iitsiikusare- 

na-i. 
Infamous, a Hazu* 

be-ki. lyashi-i. Fu- 

rachi-na. 
Infancy, n, Yo-nen. 

Tei-nen-miman. 

Infantry, «. Hohei. 

Infect, t. V. Utsusu 
(i). i. V. Utsuru (i), 
densen suru (4), ka- 
bureru (3), 

Infection, n. Densen. 

Infections disease, 

«. Densen-byo. 

Inference, n. Suiron, 
suiri. 

Inferior, a, Ototta, 
kato-no, -waru-i. 

Inferiors, n. Meshi- 
ta. Nenshd. 

Infinite, a. Mu-gen- 
no. Kagiri no na-i. 

Influme, /. v. Moya- 
su (i), taku (l). 
Kinsho wo okosu 

n). i, V. Atsu-ku 
naru (l). Okoru (i). 

Itiflanmiation, n. 

Kinsho. 



Inflection, w. Kwa 

Isuyo, Henkwa. 
Influence, n. Seiryo- 
ku, ikioi. Eikyo, 
kwankwa. 

Influenza, n. Infuru 
enza, ryukosei- 

kwaiil^S. 

Inform, t. v. Shisase- 
ru (3), tsuchi sum 
(4), hokoku suru (4), 
Todokeru (3). 

Information, w. Tsu- 
chi, shirase, h5koku. 
Kokoroe. 

Informer, n. Tsuchi- 

sha, hokoku-sha. 
Inhabitation, ;/. Su- 

mai. Jinko. 
Inlierent, a. Koyu- 
no, umare-tsuki-no. 
— quality , mochi • 
mae. 

Inherit, /. v. Tsugu 
(l), sozoku suru (4), 

InlieritAnce, n. Ka- 

toku. Kasan. 
Inheritor, «. S5zo- 
ku-nin, ato-tsugi. 

Injnstice, n, Fu-gi, 
fu-sei. 

Ink, n. Inki. — 

stand, inki-sutando, 
sumi-tsubo. 

Inland, ;;. Naichi, 
koku-nai. 



( 74 ) 



inlay, (, v. Hameru 
(3), zogan \vo suru 
(4). Chiribaraeru 
(3). — ing, zogan. 

Inlet, n. Iri-kuchi. 
Iri-e, iri-umi. 

Inner, a, Uchi-no, 
naibu-no. 

Innocence, n. Mu- 

zai, mushitsu. Mu- 
jaki. 

Inorg'anlc, a, Muki- 
no. 

Inquire, i. v. Tazu- 
neru (3), kiku (l), 
shitsumon suru (4). 
Kenkyu suru (4), 
sensaku suru (4). 

Insect, V. Konchu, 
mushi. 

Inseparable, a, Wa- 

kerare-na-i. 

In!^i(3e, prep, and adv. 
UcVii-ni, naka-ni. n. 
Naibu, naimen. 

lusig-Iit, n. Chiken, 
tosatsu. Mikomi. 

Insii^it, i. V. li-haru 

(i), shucho suru (^4). 

Inspire, /- v. Iki wo 

suru (4), kokyu suru 
(4). 
Instance, ;/. Reislio, 
rei. J iki. For — , 
tatoeba. /. v. Rei 
wo hiku (i) or age- 
ru (3)- 



Instant, a. Kyuna, 

sashiatari-no. Nes- 
shin-na. n. Toki, ji 
bun. Tokoro. Kon. 
getsu, hongetsu. 
Instantly, adv. Sugu, 
tadachi-ni, tachima- 
chi, niwaka-ni. 

Instead, adv. Kawa- 
ri-ni. 

Instinct, . ;/. Honno. 
Honsei, tensei, uma- 
retsuki. 

Instinctively, adv, 
Tennen-ni, shizen- 
ni, umaretsuite. 

Institntc, /. v. Tate- 
ru (3), koshiraeru 
(3), setsuritsu suru 
(4). 

Institution, n. Sei- 
tei^ setsuritsu. Sei- 
do. Kyoiku. Gakko. 
Kwaisha. 

Institntor, n. Setsu- 
ritsu-sha, seitei-sha. 

Instruct, /. V. Oshi- 
eru (3), kyokun suru 
(4). 

Instruction, n. Kyo- 
kun, oshie, kunkai. 

Instructor, //. Kyo- 

shi, sensei. 
IiiNtruinent, ;;. Do- 

gu, kikai. Gakki. 
Shosho, keiyaku- 
sho. 



C 75 ) 



Insafficient, ^.Fu-ju- 
bun-no, fu-soku-no, 
tari-na-i. 

Insurance, n. Iloken. 
Hokenryo. — com- 
pany, hoken-kaisha. 
Fire — , kasai-ho- 
ken. Life — , seimei- 
hoken. 

Insure?, /. V. Hoken 
wo tsukeru (3). 

Insnrev, n. Hokeu- 
slia. 



Insurrection 


I, n. 


Ikki. 




Intellect, n. 


Cniryo- 


ku. 




Intelligence 


, n. Chi- 


6. 

Intellig^ible, 


a. Wa. 


kari-yasu-i. 




Intend, /. v. 


Kuwa- 


dateru (3), 


kokoro- 


zasu (i). 




Intense, a. 1 


lageshi- 


i, kibishi-i, 


hido-i. 


tsuyo-i." 




Intensity, n. 


Tsuyor 


sa. 




Intention, « 


Koko- 


rozashi, tsumori. 


Intentional, 


a. Koi- 


no. — ly, 


koi-ni. 


wazato. 




Intercourse, 


It. Ko- 


tsu. Kosai, 


tsukUai. 


Eiiterest, n. 


Rieki. 


Rishi, ri. 


risoku. 



Kyomi. Daily — , 
hi-bu. Yearly — , 
nen-ri. Compound 
— , fuku-ri, ju-ri. 
Ftiblic — , ko-eki. 
— ing, omoshiro-i. 

Interior, n. Naibu, 
uchi-gawa, naka. 

Naichi. 

Internal, a. Naka^ 
no, naibu-no, uchi- 
no. Naikoku-no. 

Koyu-no. — medi- 
cine, naiyo-yaku, 
nomi-gusuri. 

International, a. 
Kokusai-no, banko- 
ku-no, — laiv, ko- 
kusai-koho. — ex- 
hibition, bankoku- 
hakurankwai. 

Interpretation, n. 

Tsuyaku, tsuben. 

Interpret, /. v. Tsu- 
yaku or tsuben suru 
(4). Setsumei or kai- 
shaku suru (4). — r, 
tsuyaku, tsuben. 

Interrupt, t. v. Sa- 
matageru (3), jama 
wo suru (4). 

Interruption, n. Ja- 
ma, samatage. Sa- 
shitsukae. Sashide- 
guchi. 

Intestine, n. Hara- 
wata, ch5. 

Intimate, a. Shita- 
siii-i, shinmitsu-nat 



C 76 ) 



kokoro-yasu-i. — 
friend, shin-yu. 
Into, prep. Ni, uchi- 
ni, naka-ni. 

Isitoxicate, t. v. Yo- 

wasu ( I ). i. V. You 
(h. i), meitei sum 

(4)- 
Iiitraiisitive ^erby 
ji-d5shi. 

Intrinsic, a. Makoto- 
no, — value, shin- 
kwa. 

Introdwce, f. v. Mi- 

cliibiku (l), tebiki 
wo suru (4). Shokai 
suiu (4). 

Intn'oilsicer, n. Sho- 
kai-nin. 

Introduction, n. Jo. 

Lctier of — , shokal- 
jo, tensho. 

Invalidity, ;/. Byo- 
shiii. Muda. Mu- 
kiryoku. 

Invent, t. V. Ilatsu- 
mei suru (4). 

Invention, n. llatsu- 
mei. 

Inventor, n. Ilatsu- 
uiei-slia. 

liiverwe, a. dyaku- 
no, sakasa-uo. — 
proportion, tcmpirei. 

Investig:ation, ;;. 

Kciikyu, giiiuni. 

Invlft-orate, /. v. Jo- 
bu-ni suru (4), Isuyo- 



ku suru (4). Hage. 
masu (l), shorei suru 
(4). 
Invisible, a. Mie-na« 
i. 

Invitation, n. Sh5- 
tai, annai. 

Invite, t. V. Maneku 
(l), yobu (l), shotai 
smu (4). Sasou (h. 
i), izanau (h. l). 

Invoice, n. Okuri-jo. 

Involuntary, a. O- 

mowa-na-i. 

Iron, 71. Tetsu. 

S??ioothing — , kote, 
hinoshi. 

Ironclad, n. Kotetsu- 

kvvan. 

Iron foundry, n. 

Chuletsu-jo, seitetsu- 

Ironical, a. Han go- 
no. 

IroisDnoia^-er, n> Ka- 

namono-ysj. 

Irony, a. Tetsu-no. 
Kata-i. n. Ilango. 

Fushi. 

IrrataoniiJ, 2. Fu- 

gori-no, fu-ho-no. 
Mu-fiuibctsu-no. 
Brreiarnlar, a. I'u-ki« 

soku-no, chitsujo no 
na-i. Sorowa-ua-L 
Ranzatsu-no. 

Is, i. V. Aru, gozai ma- 
su. Desu. 



( 77 ) 



Island, n. Shi ma. 
\%H\\e, n. Hakko. 

Kekkyoku, owari. 

Okuri'-dashi. t v. 

Hakko suru (4). 

Okuri-dasu (l), dasu 

(i). i. V. Deru (-3). 

Dekiiu {2 J. <^iwaru 

(0- 
lt,/;-c 
rtaliau, «. Ttanl-jin. 

Itarii-go. 
Italic, w. Itarikku. 
Itself, pro7i. Jibun, 

nuzukara. 
Ivory, n. Zoge. 
Ivy, 11. Ki-tsuta. 



Jam, n. Jamu. 
Jannary, fi. Sbo- 
gatsu, ichi-gatsu, 

Japan, n. Nihon. 

Japanese, n. Nilion- 
jin. Nihon- go 

Jaw, n. Ago. 

Jealous, a. Netamu 

(1), sonemu (i). 
Jealonsy, n. Net ami, 

sonemi, shitto, yaki- 

mochi. 
Jelly, n. Jerii. Ame. 
Jesus, n. Yaso, 



Jewel, n. Tama, ho 
gyoku. — er, ho 

gyoku-sho. — rj , 
ho-gyoku-saikn. 

Join, f. V. Tsunageru 

(3), musubi-tsukeru 
3). i. V. Tsunagaru 
l), inusubi-tsuku(l). 

Joint, n. Tsugi-me. 
Fushi. Kwansetsu. 

Joint-stoek, «. Go- 
sh i. — company, go- 
shi-gaisha. 

Journal, n. Nikki. 
Shhr.bun. Zasshi. 
— jsi, shimbua or 
zasshi-kisha. 

Journey, n. Ryoko, 
tabi. 

Joy, n. Yorokobi. i.v, 
Yorokobu (l), ure- 
shigaru (i). i. v. 
Yorokobasu (i). — 
fit/, ureshi-i, yoro- 
kobashi-i. — fuliy, 
yorokonde. 

Jutlge, n. Saiban- 
kwan, hanji. Shim- 
pau-kwan. i. v. and 
A V. Saiban suru (4). 
Handan suru (4). 

Judg'ment, n. Saiban. 
Handaa. Hanketsu. 

Jug-Sfler, n. Tezuma- 

shi, lezumA-tsukai. 

Juice, n. Shiru, tsu- 

yu. 
July, n. Shichi-gatsu 



C 75 ) 



Jump, i. V. Tobu (i), 
haneru (3). — dowti, 
tobi-oriru (2). — 
upon, tobi-agaru (l). 
— into, tobi-komu 
(i). — across, tobi- j 
kosu (i). 

June, ft. Roku-gatsu. 

Jurisprudence, «. 

Ho-gaku, 

Just, adv. Chodo, 
adakamo. a. Tada- 
shi-i. Kohei-na. 

Shojiki-na. Tekito- 
na, — as it is, ari no 
mama. — noru, ta- 
daima, ...bakari. 

Justice, n. Seigi. 

Giri. 
Justify, t. V. Benmei 

suru (4). Homen su- 

ru (4). Tadashi-i to 

suru (4). 



K. 



Keen, a. vSurudo-i. 
Hageshi-i. 

Keep, t. V. Tamotsu 
(i). Mamoru (i). 
Takuwaeru (3). Sa- 
sacru (3). Tsuzukeru 
(3). 'lasiikeru (3). 
- - back, osaeru (3), 
hikaeru (3). Sama- 
tagcru (3). — doxvn, 
osae-tsukeru (3). 



Tomeru (3). — 

a ive, ikashite-oku 
(i). — ill, kakusu 
( I ). — in mind, ko- 
korogakeru (3). — 
silence, damaru (i). 
-7- under, assei suru 
(4), osae-tsukeru (3). 

— up, fusegu (i), 
mamoru (l) i. v. 
'I'suzuku (i) Su- 
mau (h. i). — from, 
tomeru (3), sei suru 
(4). — on, susumu 
(i). —to, kata-ku 
mamoru (l). — <?/', 
ban-nin. 

Key, n. Kagi. K'ai- 
shiki. — note, fu. 

— stone, kaname- 
ishi. 

Kick, t. V. Keru {\). 

— up, ke-ageru ^3). 

— over, ke-taosu (i). 

— dotvn, ke-otosu 
(i). — into, ke-ko- 
mu (i). 

Kill, t.v. Korosu (i). 

Kind, n. Shurui, tagu- 
i. Tachi. Gar a. — 
of person, jim-pin, 
hito-gara. a. Shin- 
setsu-na. Nasake no 
aru (i). 

Kindness, w. Shinse- 

tsu. 
Kindred, n. Shinrui, 

enja, shinseki. Chi- 

suji. Dozoku, 

KinsT, n. 0. 



C 79 ) 



Kiiig'doiii, n. 0-ko- 
ku. Anijual — , ju- 
rui. 

Kiss, n. Seppun. f. v. 

Seppun wo suru (4). 
Kitcben, n. Daidoko- 

ro, katte, suiji-ba. 

— maid, osaadon. 

Meshitaki. 

Kite, n. Tako. Ton- 
bi. 

Kitten, n. Ko-neko. 

Knee, n. Hiza. 

Kneel, i. v. Hizama- 
zuku (i), hiza wo 
tsuku (i). 

Knife, n. Naifu, ko- 
gatana. 

Knock, /. V. Tataku 

(0- 

Know, /. V. Shim (2), 
Satoru (i). i. v. 
Wakaru (ij, ryokai 

suru (4). 

Knowleclg-e, n. Chi- 
shiki. Gakushiki. 
Gakumon. 



JLabor, n. Rodo, shi- 
goto, houeori, hata- 
raki. /. v. Rodo su 
ru (4), shigolo wo 
suru (4), hoi c wo 



oru (i), hatarako 

liaboratory, n. Jik- : 
ken-shitsu. Ko-jo. i 

liaborer, n. Rode- ' 

sha. j 

L.ace, n. Resu. /. v. \ 
Kagaru (i). j 

liacquer, n. Urushi. 1 
/. V. Nuru (i), — i 
waj-e, n. Nuri-mono, I 
shikki. ; 

I^adder, «. Hash! go. 
liadingr, «• Tsumi-ni. 1 
liady, n. Fujin. J 

liake, n. Mizuumi, j 
kosui. i 

I<anib, n, Ko-hitsuji. 

I^ame, a. Bikko-no, \ 
chinba-no. j 

I^amp, n. Rampu. — | 
black, yu-en. — 
chimney, hoya. 

I<an<l, 71. Riku, riku- 
chi. Jimen, tochi. 
i. V. Joriku suru (4), i 
agaru (i). i 

I^anding-, n. Jdriku. ; 

Riku-age. — placfy \ 
hatoba, joriku-ba. ■ 

liandlord, 11. Ji-nu- 

shi. le-nushi. ,; 

liand-rent^ n. Saku- 

chi-ryo, ji-dai. 

r^andseape, n. Keshi- 
ki, fukei. ch5bo, ' 
miharashi. 1 



( 80 ) 



liand-tax-, n. Chiso. 

I>ang:tiage, «. Koto- 
ba, go. 

Ijaitierii, n. Chochin. 
Gaito, toro. 

Iiai>, n. Hida. Fuchi. 
Suso. 

Large, a. Oki-i. Hiro- 

i. Futo-i. A' — , ji- 

yu-ni. 

Larli, 71. Hibaru 

Ija«t, a. Owari-no, 

saigo-no, shimai-no, 

— night, saku-ban, 
saku-ya, yube. — 
vionthy sen-getsu. 

— year, kyo-nen, 
saku-nen. i. v. Tsu- 
zuku (i). — age, 
unso-zei. Tsumi-ni. 

Lns&ingr, n. Mochi, 
mochi-kotae. 

Late, a. Oso-i. Owari- 
no. Chikagoro-no, 
kinrai-no. Moto-no. 

— y-.ars, kin-nen. 

— sleepitig, asane. 

— in company, clii- 
san, chi-koku. Of 
— , konogoro, chika- 
goro. — ly, chika- 
goro, kinrai, kono- 
aida. 

Latent, a- Kakiircta, 
naisho-no. 

liaton, n. Raten-jin. 
Katen-go. 

Latitude, n. I<do. 
liirosa, haba. 



Latter, a. Owari-no, 
nochi-no, ato-no. 
Chikagoro-no, kin- 
rai-no. 

Laudable, n. Homu- 
be-ki, kwanshin-na. 

Laiigb, i. V. and /. v. 
Warau (h. i). — at, 
azakeru (3). «. Wa- 
rai. 

Lang^hatole, a. Oka- 

shi-i, waro-be-ki. 

Lamidry,' n. Senta- 
ku-ya. 

Laurel, n. Katsura. 

Law, n. Horitsu. Ki- 
soku, kitei. Natural 
— , shizen-ho. J\/o- 
ral — , dotoku-ho. 
Martial — , gunri- 
tsu, gunki. Civil — , 
mim-p6. Criviiiial 
— , kei-ho. 

Laug-ivcr, «. Rippo^ 
sha. 

Lawle.«(s, a. Mu-ho« 

no, fu-j6ri-no. 
Lawn, n. Shibafu, 

shil a-liara. 

Law-otlicer, n. Shi- 
ho-kwan. 

Lawyer, n. Horitsu- 
ka. 

Lax, a. Yuru-i, liiro-i. 

Yawaraka-na. 
Lay, /. V. OI<u (i). 

Yoko-ni sui-u (4). 

NostTu (3). -u. 



( 8i ) 



aIon§, utsumuku (i). 

— aside, nobasu (i). 
Suteru (3). Yamcru 
(3). Katazukeru {3). 

— befo7-e. sonaeru 
(3), ArawabU (l). — 
by, takuwaeru (3). 
Suteru (3). Katazu- 
keru (3). — doxnK, 
makaseru (3). Wata- 
su (1). Suteru (3). 
Oku (I). Neru (3). 
Yasumu (i). — hold 
of, or on, tsukair.u 
(i). Tsukamaeru(3). 

— in, takuwaeru 
(3). Kai-ireru (3), 
shiireru (3). — loiv, 
homuru (i). — on, 
kuwaeru (3). — 
open, ake-hanasu 
(iV — out, tsuiyasu 
(i). Kuwadateru (3). 
Tsutomeru (3). — 
over, kabuseru (3), 
kakeru (3). Noseiu 
(3). Nuru(i). —to, 
sei wo dasu (i). To- 
nieru (3). — together, 
atsumete-oku (i). — 
to heart, ki ni suru 
(4). — under, fuku- 
ju saseru (3). — tip, 
takuwaeru (3). Hai- 
ru (i). — upon, shi- 
iru (2). Nozomu (i). 
Kakeru (3). i. v. 
Umu (i). Kuwada- 
teru (3). — out, ku- 
wadateru (3). — 
Tvait, machibuse wo 
suru (4). — waste, 



arasu (i). — bare^ 
hadaka-ni suru (4). 
— an egg, tamagvj 
wo umu (i). — tin- 
der an obligation^ on 
wo kiseru (3). 

liaasy, n. Busho-no. 
Taida-na. 

I^ead, t. V. Michibiku 
(i), tsureru (3). An- 
nai wo suru (4). 

liCad, ;/. Annai. Na- 
mari- 

lieader, n. Annai-sha, 
Kashira. 

lieaf, n. Ha. Tobira. 
I^eak, «. Sake-me, 
kire-me. i. v. Moru 

(0- 

Lean, i. v. Motareru 

(3), yori-kakaru (l). 

Katamuku (i). t. v. 

Yori-kakeru (3). 
leap, i. V. Tobu (i). 

Odoru (i). t. V. To- 

basu (l). 
lieap-yenr, «■, Uru- 

doshi. 
I^carn, t. v. Manabu 

(l), narau (h. l), 

keiko suru (4). 
licariied, a. Haku- 

gaku-no. — man^ 

gaku-sha. 
Learning*, n. Gakn- 

mon, gakushiki. 



( 82 ) 



iiameshi-gawa. — 
dressiff kawa-sh5. 

Leave, t. v. Shirizoku 
(i). Wakareru (3). 
Nokosu Ti). Nokeru 
(3> —W^ yameruj 
(3), tomeru(3). — 
out, habuku (i), ya- 
meru (3). — ovn; 
amasu {\\ — off 
wine, kinshu suru 
(4). i. V. Yamu (1). 
It. Wakare, itoma- 
goi. Menkyo. yuru- 
shi. 

Leavingr. «• Wasure- 
mono, ishitsu-butsu. 

Oct lire, n. Kogi. — 
er, koshi. 

liCft, a. Hidari-no. — 

handed, hidari-kiki- 

no. 
liOgr, ti. Sune. 
lieg^al, a. Okite-dori- 

no, kisoku-dori-no. 

Tadashi-i. 

I^og-islation, n. Rip- 

po. 
lieisiire, «. Hima. 

liCnion, n. Remon. 

— oi/, tohi-yCi. 

lieiiil, /. V. Kasu (i). 

— a hand, tetsudau 
(h. I). 

liOndcr, n. Ivashi- 
luishi, sai-sliu. 

I^ciig:(li, n. Nagasa. 
Tate. Take. 



lieng'tlien, /. v. I\o- 
basu (i), naga-ku 
£uru (4). 

lioper, n. Rai-by5- 
yami, nanniboc 

Iiei>rosy, n. Rai-byo, 

cenkei-byo. 
Iv^-ss a. Wazuka-na. 

Motto sukuna-i, ... 

yori sukuna-i. 

licssen, /. V. Herasu 
Ti), sukuna-ku suru 
(4). Chiisa-ku suru 
(4). i. V. Heru (3), 
chiisa-ku naru (i). 
Sukuna-ku naru (i). 

I<essoii, n. GaUkwa, 
kwamoku. Oshie, 
kyokun. 

liOS*, conj. Mosliiya, 
osorakuwa, hyotto, 
... osoreru kara, ... 
shi nai tame ni. 

Let, i. V. Yurusu(i). 
Kasu (i). ... saseru 
(3). — aloiie, sutete- 
oku (i), . utchatte- 
oku (i), — dotvn, 
orosu (i), shizumeru 
(3). _ /;/, yuriisu 
(1). Hairaseru (3). 

— looie, yurusu (1). 

— ojf, iru (2). Yuru- 
su r I ). — out, liana- 
su (I), yurumeru (3). 

— on, kakotsukeru 
(3). — out, nigesa- 
seru (3). Nobasu ( I ). 
Kasu (i). — slide, 
niinaifu wo suru 



C 83 ) 



(4), kwankwa suru 
(4V — me have, ku- 
dasai, chddai. — me 
see, misete kudasai. 
— ' us go, yuki ma- 
sh5. 

Letter, n, Tegami. 
Ji, moji. 

liCtter-box, ;/. Vubin- 
ukebako. 

liCtter-carrier, n. 

Yubin-haitatsu. 

liCtter-clasp, n Ka- 

mi-hasami. 

lietter-papev^ n. 

Maki-gami. 

liCvel, n. IleimeDj 
suihei. Sliojun. 

Mizu-mori. a. Taira- 
na, sulhei-no. /. v. 
Taira-ni suru (4), 
narasu (l). Onaji-ni 
suru (4). — ground, 
hei-chi, hira-chi. — 
a gun, tepp5 wo 
nerau (h. i). 

liCier, n. Teko. 

Lex icon, n. Jibiki, 
jiten, jisho. 

liiar, n. Uso-tsuiia. 

Liberal, a. Kwandai- 
na, tairyo-na.- Oma- 
ka-na- 

Liberty, ;/, Jiyu. 

Librarian, it. Tosho- 
gakari. 

Library, n. Tosho 
kwan. 



License, «. Menkyo, 
yurushi. Menjo. /. v 
Yurusu (i), menkyo 
suru (4). — fee, 
menkyo-ryo, kwan- 
satsu-ryo. 

Licentious, a. Hoto- 

no. 
Lid, n. Futa. Eye —r 

ma-buta. 

Lie, n. Use, itsuwari, 
kyogon. i. v. Uso 
wo tsuku (i), itsu- 
waru (i), azamuku 
'l). Neru (3). Aru 
l). — by, yasumu 
l), kyusoku suru 
[4). — docvn, neru 
3), yoko-ni naru 
(i). — in, san wo 
suru (4). — in one, 
irai suru (4), tanomu 
(l). — on hand, 
motte-oru (i). — 
over, nobasu (l), 
enki suru (4). — to, 
tomerareru (3). — 
•under, ukeru (3). 
Life, n. Seimei, ino- 
chi. Seikwatsu. 

Shogai. In — , zon- 
mei, 

Life-boat, //. Tasuke- 
bune, kyujo-sen. 

Life-preserver, n. 

Uki-bukuro. 

Lift, t. V. Ageru (3), 
mochageru (3). 

Lig-lit, «. Hikari. 
Akari, tomoshi-bi. 



( 84 ) 



a. Akaru-i, hikaru 
(i). Karu-i. Yasashi- 
?. Ki-gaiu-no. t. v. 
Akari wo tsukeru 
(3), tomosu (i). Te- 
rasu (i). Bring to 
— , aravvasu (l). i. v. 
Akaru-ku naru (l 
llikari ga deru (3 

Lig'htliotisc, n. To- 

dai. 

liiglfitiilieg', n. fnabi- 
kari, inazuma. 

liike, n. Niyori, ruiji. 
a. Onaji-no, nita, 
riiij'-no. ... yo-na, 
... lashi, ... so-na. 
/. V. Konomu (i), 
suku (1). ... tai. 

Likely, a, Ariso-na, 
honto-raslii-i. adv. 
Tabun, okata, osora- 
kuwa. 

liiliowBse, conj. Mat a, 
yappari, onaji-yo-ni, 
onajiku. 

liily, ;;. Yuri. 

liiiiil), n. Eda, Shishi, 
ie-ashi. 

lilniit, ;/. Scigen, sa- 
kai, kuiki. /. v. K a- 
giru (2), sakai \vc 
tateru (3). 

liiitiUntioii, 11, Sci- 
gen. 

Liini<e«l, a. Kagiri no 
aru (l), senia-i. 

ffjiiic, n. Siij' 

Ito, nawa. 



I, sen. I 
Michi. ! 



Gyo, Retsu. i. v. 

Suji wo hiku (i). 

Ichi-vetsu ni suru 

(4). Ura wo tsukeru 

(3)- 
liineii, 11. Rinneru. 
liining-, n. Ura. 
liion, n. Shishi. 
liip, n. Kuchibiru. 

Hcri, fuchi. — %vis- 

doiiiy ben-sai. 
liiqiiid, n. Ryijdo- 

butsu, eki-tai. 
Liiqtior, n. Eki tai. 

Inryo, nomi-mono. 
LiisteBi, /. V. Kiku (i). 

l^steral, a. Ji-no. — 
translation, choku- 
yaku. — meaniitgy 

j'gi- 
Liiterature, n. Bun- 
gaku. Bunsl]5. 

liitliog-rapli, n. Seki- 
ban, t. V. Seki-ban 
wo su^'ru (i). — er, 
sekiban-slii, 

I^sttle, tu Chisa-i. 
Waka i. Sukima-i. 
Wazukia-na. Hoso-i. 
Sema-i. Mijika-i. 
Jinjo-na. Shosho- 
no, sukoshi-no. — 
I'v — , sukoshi-zutsu, 
chibicliibi. 

ifiSve, /. V. Seikwatsu 
suru (4). Oru (l), iiu 
(2), siimau (h. i). 
— together^ dokyo 
sum (4). 



( 85 ) 



lii-ving:^ «, Seizon. 
Seikei. Sh< kiigyo 
a. ]k t>oru(i). Kap- 
patsu-na. 

JLioad, n. Tsumi-ni. 

/. V. Tsumu (i), no 
seru (3). 

I.oan, «. Kashi. Kari. 

Kdri-mono. Shak- 

kin. 
I i>cal, a. Tochi-no, 

chiho-no. Kyokubu- 

no. 
liOcate, /. V. Oku (i), 

sueru (3), Tokoro 

wo kimeru (3) or 

sadameru (3). 

toclt, t7, Jo, jo-mae. 
/. V. Jo wo orosu(i), 
shimeru. (3) — 

imilh, jomae-ya. 

£.o<?liet, n. Kohaze, 
botan. 

lioconiotion, n. Un- 

ten. 
I^ocoinotive, a. Un- 

ten suru (4). n. Ki- 
kwan-sha. 

liOdger, n. Kiryu- 

nin, toryu-nin. 
liOdg-ing-, n. Yado, 

liOgic, n. Ronri, xon 

n-gaku. 

liOiii, n. Koshi. 

liOue, a. Hitori-no. 

Samishi-i. Koritsu- 

no. 
liougr, a. Naga i. Hi- 



sashi-i. Iliro-i. — 
ago, to ni, zutto niae 
ni. — life, cho-mei. 

— night, cho-ya. — 
time, hisashi-i. — 
ti7ite since, hisaslii^ 
buri. — delayed, 
machido. In the — 
run, tsui-ni, tsumari, 
shimai-rJ, hikkyo. 
Before — , kinjltsu. 
No longer, mo...nai 
(=inasen). i. v. No 
zoinu (i). 

liOok, i. V. Mieru (3). 
/. V. Miru (2), naga- 
meru (3). Kensa 
suru (4). ' Tazuneru 
(.3)- — about, mi- 
mawasu (i). — 
after, chu-i suru (4), 
ki wo tsukeru (3). 
Mi-okuru (i). — 
back, kaerimiru (2), 
mikaeru (3), — 

down on, or upon, 
anadoru (i), — 
down, mi-orosu (l). 

— across, mi-watasu 
(l). — f or, moiomt- 
ru (3), sagasu (l). 
Matsp (1). — into, 
chosa sura (4), sen- 
saku suru (4J. — on, 
tattobu (i), sonkei 
suru (4). Kangaeru 
(3). Eokwan suru 
(4). — a-ivay, yoso ni 
miru (2). — out, mi- 
haru (l). — to, chu-i 
suru (4). Malsu (1). 

— over, mi-olosu (i), 



( ^^ ) 



mi-sugosu (i). — 
tox'jard, mukau (h. 
I). Ukeru (3). — 
np, aomuku (l), mi- 

ageru (3)- - <^^'i 
for, mi-tateru (3). 

liOoks, n. ISIiba. Kao- 
tsuki, yobo. Sugata. 

Loose, a. Yuru i. Zu- 
ro-no. Yarippana- 
slii-no. Toketa, ha- 
zureta. t. "v. Toku 
(i). Yurumeru (3). 
Hazusu (i). Akeru 
(3). i. V. Yurumu 
(1). Tokeru (3). 
Hazureru (3). Taru- 
niu (i). 

IiOi-<I, n, Kimi. 

liose, f. V. Ushinau 
(li. i). Muda-tsukai 
wo suru (4). — the 
WO)', mayou (h. i). 

I^oss, n. Son, sonshi- 
tsu. Heri. liason, 
koware. Songai. 

liOSt, a. Nakunatta, 
ushinatta. Mayotta. 
Kowareta. 

I-ot, «. Un, ummei. 

Kuji. Wakemae. 

/. z\ Wakeru (3), 

bumpai suru (4). 
I.oliory, ?;. Kuji- 

biki. Fuku-biki, 
I^otiis, n. Hasu. 
I<oii4l, a. d-goe-no. 
I.ove, ft. Ai, aijo. 

Koi, renai. /, v. Ai 



suru (4), kawaigaru 
(i). Konomu (i), 
suku (i). Shitau (h. 

I<ove.v, 17. Koi-bitc. 

IiO«v, a. Hiku-^. lya- 
shi-i. Yasu-i. 

lioyal, a. Chugi-na, 

shinjitsu-na. — w/, 

kinno-ka. Chushin 
K<iakeMariii, a. Nun* 

i. Atataka-na. 
liuneli, n. Aida-gui^ 

kwanshoku, o-yatsu. 

Bento, — dox, ben- 

to-bako. 



liiBxiir.v, ?!■ 

zeitaku. 



Ogori, 
Liyric, a. Jojo-no. 



M. 



Macliine, ;/. FJkai. 
Mnd, cr. Kichigai-na 

— do^, kyo-ke)i; 

yamainu. i v. Oko- 

ru (i), ikaru (i). 
Ma<l»iii, n. Fujin. 

Oku-sama. Oba- 

san. 

lUacl-liousc, n. F"uten- 

byoin, kichigai-byo- 
in, tenkyo-in. 

Mad-iiiaii, //. Kichi- 

gai. Fulen-sha. 



C S7 ) 



91ag-azine, n. Zasshi. 
Mag-ic, n. Maho, 
Mag'iciaii, n. Mah5- 

Isukai, 
M£»<srie-lauterii, n. 

Gento. 

Mag'uet, n. Jishaku. 

Mag'iiificient, a. Ko- 

dai-na. rippa-na, 
kekko-aa. 

Mas'uify, A V. Oki-ku 
sum (4), masu (i). 
Ogesa-ni suru (4), ' 

Mai4l-serraiit, 11. 

Gejo, kahi, jochu. 

mail, n. Tegami, yu- 
bin-motsu, — skip, 
yubin-sen. — tram, 
yubin-ressha 'h 

jllaiii, a. Omo-na, shu- 
yo-na. For the — , 
or in tJie — , taitei, 
taigai. 

Maintain, t. v. Ta- 

motsu (i), motsu (i). 
lii suru (4), tsuzuke- 
^u (3). 
Bfiaintenance, «. Iji, 
hozon. 

Majestic, a. Kodai- 
na, s6rei-na. Keda- 
ka-i, songen-na, 

ogosoka-na. 

Majesty, n. Iko, son- 
gen. His — , heika. 

Majority, n. Tasu. 
Kwahan, taihan. j 



Make, /. v. Tsukuru 
(i), seizo suru (4), 
koshiraeru (3), so- 
shiki suru (4). Suru 
(4), nasu (i). ...sase- 
ru (3). — free ivii'\ 
narenareshi-ku suru 
(4). — of, satoru 
(i), wakaru (i). Joju 
suru (4). — t/mch of, 
taiset5U-ni suru (4), 
daiji-ni suru (4). — 
oul, shiru (2). Mitsu- 
keru (3), midasu (i). 
Wakaru (i). Shomei 
suru (4). Kyokyu 
suru (4). Joju suru 
(4). — over, utsusu 
(I). Watasu (i). Su- 
leru (3). — stran^By 
fu-shinsetsu-ni suru 
(4), Samatageru (3). 
— tip, atsumeru (3). 
Koshiraeru (3). So- 
shiki suru (4). Sada- 
meru (3). — way, 
susumu (l), michi 
wo hiraku (l). i. v. 
Mukau (h. i), susu- 
mu (i^ Tasukeru 
(3). -^ asif, ... no 
furi wo suru (4). Ki- 
doru (i). "'- a ttp,_ 
shitashi-kit suru (4). 
— for, susumu (l). 
yrku (l). — outy 
togeru (3), joju suru 
(4). -^ tip for, tsu. 
gunau (li. i). — up 
with, nakanaori wc 
suru (4). — up to, 
chikayoru (*). — 



( 88 ) 



withy doi sum (4), 
sansei sum (4). — 
known, sliiraseru 
(3). — a bed, toko 
wo tom (i) or sbiku 

RlTitlaria, n. Marariya. 

Malevolence, w. 

Akui. Urarai, ikon. 
Mail, 71. Hito, ningen. 
Otoko. Otona. Like 
a — ^toko-rashi-i. 
— of war, gunkwan. 
To a — , meimei-ni. 

Maiiag-e, t. v. Atsu- 
kau (li. i), tori-atsu- 
kau (h. i). Tori- 
hakarau (h. l). 

Manag'eiuent, n. 

Atsukai, tori-atsu- 
kai. Tori-hakarai. 

Maiiag'er, iu Shihai- 
nin, kwanri-sha. 

Kwanji. 

Manifest, /. v. Ara- 
wasu (i), akiraka-ni 
sum (4), shimesu (3), 
oyake-ni suru (4). a. 
Akiraka-na, ichijiru- 
shi-i. 

Manifold, a. Jroiro- 
no, samazama-no. 
Takusan-no. 

Mankind, n. Jinmi. 

Manner, 11. YCsu, ari- 
sama. Nari, fu. Fu- 
y,oku. 'laido. lloho. 
Shurui. 



Manual, n. Teclio. 
l\o-hon. a. Te-noj 
te-sei-no. — labour, 
te-w9^a, shuko. — 
exercise, soieo.. 

Manufactory, n, 

Seizo-sho. 

Manufacture, n. Sei- 
ze, seisaku. t. v. Sei- 
ze suru (4), tsukum 
(i), koshiraem (3). 
— er, seizo-sha, sei- 
saku-sha. 

Manuscript, n. Ka- 

ki-mono. 

Many, a. Oku-no, ta- 
kusan-no. A great 
— , takusan-no, obi- 
tadashi-i. — a, ...no 
takusan. TJie — , 
tasu-no. Hoio — , 
ikura, ikutsu, nani- 
hodo, dore dake. 
Good — , vo-hodo, 
zuibun. — tt time. 
tabi-talM, shiba-shi- 
ba. 

Map^ fi. Chizu, ezu. 
/. V. Ezu wo hiku 

(0- 

Maple, n. Momiji. 

Marble, 71. Dairi- 
seki. Tama. 

Marcli, 7t. San-gatsu. 
Shingun, kogun. /. v. 
Sbingun suru (4). 
susumu (i). 

Marjjrin, 11. FucV»i, ha- 
ski. /. V. I'uchi wo 



tsukeru (3), Kaki- 
ireru (2). 

Marine, a. Umi-no. 
Kokwai-no. Kwai- 
gun-no. Kwaisan- 
vo. — cable, Kwai- 
tei-denshin. — 

plant, kwai-s5. — 
frodiict, kwaisan- 
butsu. 

Alark, ;/. Shirushi. 
Mokuteki, mato. 

Chui. /. V. Shinisu 
(i), shirushi wo isu- 
keru (3). Chui suru 
(4). Arawasu(l). — 
out, shirusu (i). Era- 
mu (i). Kesu (i). 
i. V. Me wo tsukeiu 
(3). 

Marlfcet, n. Ichi-ba, 
ichi. — prict;, soba, 
ji-ka. 

Marquis, n. Ko- 

shaku. 

Marriage, n. Kek- 
kon, kon-in, konrei. 

Blarry, /. v. Kekkon 
suru (4). 

Martsli, ;/. Nurna, sa- 
wa, shike-chi. 

MavsSial, n. Shikibu- ' 
kwan. Gensu', so- 
toku. /. V. Seiri suru 
(4), todonoeru (3). 

Martyr, «. Junkyo- 
sha. 

Msiriyrdoira, n. Jun- 
uan, cbushi. 



Mascalin<e, a^ Otoko- 
no. — gender, dan- 
sei. Osu. 

Mason, n. Ishi-ya. 

Ma^t,, tt, Hobashira. 

Master, n. Shujin. 
Danna, aruji. Cho, 
kashira. t, v. Tsuka- 
sadoru (l), — f'iece, 
kessaku. 

Mat, n. Tatami. Mu- 
shiro, goza. /. v. 
Shiku (i). Amu (i). 

Match, ;/. Match i. 
Aite. Kyogi, shobu. 
llaigu. t, V. Tekitau 
(h. i), taiko suru (4). 
7. V. Rengo suru (4). 
Mukau (h. l). 

Material, a, Biisshi- 
tsu-no, yukei-no. 
Shintai-no, karada- 
no. «. Busshitsu. 
Zairyo. 
Matiteniatics, n. Sil- 
gaku. 

Matter, n. Mono, 
busshitsu, buttai. 
Jimu. Zairyo, Koto. 
Shikej. — -of fact, 
jijitsu. No — , ...ka- 
mawana-i. A^o — oj 
zvhat, nanigoto ni 
yorazu, nan de mo. 
Upon the — , or tipon 
tiie whole — , gai shi- 
te. Tsumari. /. v^. 
Kwankei suru (4). 
Ki wo tsukeru (3). 
/. V. Daiji ni suru 



( 90 ) 



(4). Umu (I). W/mi 
is the — ■, do shi ma- 
shita. 

Maxim, n. Kakngen. 

May, fj, Go-gatsu. 

May, V, ... dekiru (2). 
Yoroshi-i. Desho. 
— be sOy so desho. 

Meartow, «* Makiba, 
bokujo. 

Sfeal, fi. Shokuji, me- 
sh i, go-han. Kona, 
kc). — time, meshi- 
doki. 

Mean, a. lyaslii-i. 
Kechi-na. Chuto- 
no, aida-no, manna- 
ka-no. /. V, Omou 
(h. l). Kangaeru 
(3). Kokorozasu (i). 

Mt'aiiing-, n, Imi. 

Shui. 

Means, n. Shudan, 
hobo. Rieki, moke, 
Siiindai, shinsho. 
By — of, de, wo 
motte, ni yotte. By 
all — , zehi tomo. 
Kitlo, kanarazu. 

Tomo-kakumo. By 
any — , doshitemo. 
By no — , kcssliite 
... masen. 

Mcan^'iime, adv. So- 
no uchi ni. 

Measure, n. Moiio- 
sashi. Ilakari. Ma- 
su. /. V. HakaTru (i). 
Sokuryo suiru (4J. 



Beyond — , kwaku- 
gai-ni, hogai-ni. /// 
a great — , taigai, 
taihan. In some — , 
iku-bun ka. 

Measurement, n-> 

.'■'umpo. 

MccSianics, ;/. Kikai 
gaku. Ju-gaku. 

Metlal, n. Shohai 
medaru. 

Me«li£eval, a. Chusei- 
no. 

Mediate, a, Kwanse- 

tsu-no. 

Medical, a^ — art, 
i-jutsu. — fee, ya- 
ku-rei, kusuri-dai. 
— book, i-sho. — 
school, i-gakko. 

Medicine, n. Kusuri. 

Medium, w. Aida, 
chukwon. Chuo, 

mannaka. — quality^ 
chu-dori. 

Meet, /. V. Au (h. i). 
Meeting, «, Shukai, 
atsumari. 

Melanclioly, a. Yu- 

utsu-na, fusagu (i). 

Molody, n. Choshi, 
neiro. 

Melon, n. Makuwa- 
uri. Water — , sui- 
kwa. 

Melt, f. V. Tokasu (i). 
i. V. Tokeru (3). 



( 91 



Member, n. Kai-in. 

Memorial, n. Kiaen. 

Katami. Kirokit. 

Memorize, /. v. Obo- 
eru (3), kioku suru 
(4> 

Memory, n. Kioku, 
oboe. 

Manag'<c-rie, 71. Dobu- 
tsu-en. 

Meiul, t. V. I^Jaosu (i), 
shuzeri suru (4), tsu- 
kurou (h. I). — ing; 
naoshi, shuzen, tsu- 
kuroi. 

MentaT, a. Kokoro- 
no. 

Mercantile, a. 

Shonin-no, shogyo- 
no. — company, 
shosha. — /loiist, 
sho-kwan. 

Mercbandise, n. 

Shohin, 

Mercliaait;, n. Sha 

nin, akindo. 

Mercury, n. Sm-gin. 
Suisei. 

Mere, a. Junsui-no. 
Tada-no, — ly, ta 
da, bakari, dake. 

Merit, n. Tegara^ 
Kudoku, Ilobi. 

Mesmerism, n. Sai- 
roin-}utsu. 

Messeng^er, n. Slii- 
sha, tsukai. 



Metal, 11. Kinzoku. 
Kan a- mono. 

Metaphysics, it. Jun- 
sei-tetsugaku. 

Meteor, n. Ryusei. 
Kisho. 

Meteorolog-y, n. KU 

sho-gaku. 

Metre, n. Metoru. 

Sletliod, ;/. Holio. 

Metropolis, n. Miya- 
ko, shufu. 

Microscope, «. Ma 

shi-megane. Kenbi- 
kyo. 

Mi<kUe, ji. Mannaka, 
chuo. — age, chu- 
nen. — fi'Jger, na- 
ka-yubi. — man, 
chusai-nin. Nakodo, 
baishaku-nin. 

Midni^bt, n. Yona- 

ka. 

Midsummer, n. Sho- 
chii. 

Midway, n. Chuto, 
hanto. 

Midwife, «. Samba. 

Midtviuter, «. Kwan- 
chu. 

Mis'^it, n. Chikara, 

ikioi. 

Migbty, a. Tsuyo-i. 
Oki-i. All— God, 
zenchi zeuno no ka- 
mi. 



( 92 ) 



HSiidew, 71. Kabi. /. v. 
Kabi ga haeiu (3). 

I»Sile, /;. MairiL 

Military, a. Ikusa- 
nc, gun-no, gunji- 
no. — officer, bu- 
kwan. — prepara- 
tion^ bubi. — lajo, 
gim-ritsu. — school, 
hei-gakko. 

Milk, n. Chichi, gyvi- 
nyii. /. 7A Chichi wo 
shiboru (l). 

Milky-way, «. Ama 

no gawa, ginka. 

Mill, n. Usu, 

Miii4l, n. Kokoro. 
Seishin. PtU in — , 
kokorozukeru (3). 

Sline, Kozan. Jirai- 
kwa. t. V. Hoiu (i). 
Miner, 71. Kofu. 

Mineral, 11. Kobutsu. 
Kinseki. 

Mineralog'y, ti. Ko- 

butsu-gaku, kinseki - 
gaku. 

MiiiBii^, n. Saiko. 

Miuititer, it. Daijin. 
Puku'ihi. loreign 
— , koshi. Prime — , 
sori-daijin. — 7'esi- 
deiity bcnri-koshi. 
• — p'rivpote)i(iary, 
zenken-koshi. i. v. 
Shilaoau (h. i), tsu 
kaeru (3). t. v. 'ifcu- 
tomeru (3). 



Mint, 11. Zoliei-kyo- 
ku. llakka. 

Minute, a. Chisai, 
komakai. n. Fun. 

Miracle, 7i. Fushigi, 
kiseki. 

Mirror, «. Kagarai. 

Misnpprelicnd, A v. 

(jokai suru (4). 

Mfisceliancons, a 

Iro-iro-no, mazatta. 
— writiiigs, zui-lii- 
tsu, mampitsu. — 
Imsiness, zatsu-mu. 
Miseanployinent, n. 
Coyo. 

Miserable, a. P'ulio- 
na, nangi-na. 

Misery, ;/. Fu-ko, fu- 

saiwai, fu-shiawase. 
Konnan. Wazawai. 

Misliear, ?'. v. Kiki- 
chigaeru (3). 

Mi<«;inlorit», t. v. Go- 

lio suru (4), machi- 

gacte Rh i laser u (3). 

Misiinterprei, /. ^^ 

Gnyaku suru (4). 

MiiKi|i>rint, «. Go- 

shoku. 

Miss, n. 0-jO san, jo. 
Musume. Ayaniari, 
kwashitsn. /. v, 

Ayamaru (iV machi- 
gacru (3). i.v. \U^ 
zurcru(3}. Kit ku ^a- 
ru(0. 



( 93 ) 



MiRjiay, /. V. Kwagon 
sum (4), ii-sugiru 
(2). 

■MLiasion- it. Tsukai. 
Den dr. Tenshoku. 

Missionary, n. Sen- 
ky6-5hi, dendo-sha. 
— society^ dendo- 
kwaisha. 

JSIast, n. Kiri. Kiri- 
ame, nuka-ame. 

]?Issfake, ?'. v. and 

/. V. Macliigaeru (3), 
ayamaru (l). n. Ma- 
chigae, ayamari, 

kwashitsu. 

glister, n. Saraa, san, 
kimi, kun, dono. 

Mistress, n. Fujin, 
oku-sania, o-kami- 
san, go-shinzo, san. 

Mix, /. V. Mazeru (3). 
?'. V. Mazaru (i). 

Mixture, «. Maze- 
mono. 

Motle'l, n. Hinagata, 
mokei, hyohon. Mo- 
derii. 

4Io«lcrate, a. Tekido- 
na, hodo no yo-i. 
ChiUgiirai-no, chu- 
76- no. /. V. Tc:kido- 
ni suru (4), chodo 
vo-[cu sum (4). Ya- 
vA-araka-ni siisu (4), 
■*aunrajieiU (3). 

WorteriB, ei KiiKlai- 
no, kinsei-no, chik'*- 



Ima«'->o. 



goro-no. 
toji-no. 
Modify, /. -u^ Kaeru 

(3)- 
Moist, a. Shimetta, 

nureta. — eu, nura- 

su (f), shimerasu(i). 
Moisture, ;/. Shikke, 

shinier i-ke. 

Molecule, n. Bunslii. 

Moment, ;;. Shun- 
kA^?.n, kata-toki. 

Voso, seibun. — ly, 
sugu, jiki. In a — , 
chotto. Sugu, tachi- 
machi. Last — , sai- 
go, owari no toki. 

Monastery, n. Tera. 

Monday, n. Getsu- 
yobi. 

Money, v. Kane, ze- 
ni. Ready — , gen- 
kin. — bag, saifu, 
kane-ire. 

Monliey, n. Saru. 

Monopoly, n. Sem- 
bai, sembai-tokkyo. 
Kabu. 



Monotony 

cho. 


, n. 


Tan. 


Monster, 


*y. 


Bake. 


mono. 






Monstrous, a. 

na. Osoroshi- 


Kitai- 
i. 


Montli, n. 


Getsu. 


Montiily, 

tsu-no, 


a. Maige- 
tsuki-zuki- 



( 94 ) 



sa.'a/y, gek- 
«. Ki- 



r,0. 
kyii, 

.>SOEiuincnt 

neu-Iii. 

.TIooii, Jt. Tsuki. jFu// 
— , man-gelsu. jVew 
— , shin-gelsu, niika- 
zuki. 

Sforal, a. Dotoku-no. 

Moralist, ;/. Dotoku- 
l<a, yutoku-sha. 

Morality, ;/. Dogi, 

lokiigi. 

More. adv. Motto, na- 
o, mad a. — and — , 
masu-masu, iyo-iyo. 

— or less, tasho. No 
■—, iiio nai. Once — ., 
mo ichido, A little 
— , mo sukoshi. 

Moreover, adv. .Sono 
ue, nao. 

Morning:, n. Asa. — 
star, ake no myojo, ] 
This — , kesa, kon- 
cbo. 

Morning'-g-lory, n. 
Asa-gao. — of the 
sky, asa-yake. 

Mortal, a. Shinu-be- 
ki. — ivoiind, jiislio. 

— disease, shi-hy5. 

Mortar, ;/. Shikkui. 

MoMiiaiiio, It. Ka. — 

/.r/, ka-ya. 

MoHs, //. Koke. 

Most, a. Mottomo or 
icliiban. At ike •--, 



tsumari. 7'Ju — 

farty taitei, arakata, 
bkala. 
Mother. ;/. Haha-oya, 
haha. Okka-san. — 
in I am, keibo, ma- 
ma-haha, yobo. Shu- 
tome. — imigue, 
Longoku no kotoba. 

Motion, n. Undo, do. 

ryoku. Dogi, hatsu- 

gi. ;/. Undo-sha. 

llatsiigi-sha. 
Motive, V. Doki. 
MottOi n. Kwakugen. 
Mountain, n. Yam a. 
Mourning-, ;;. Kana- 

sliimi. — cloth, mo- 

fuku. 

Mousseline, n. Mosu- 
rin, mei\nsu, to-chi- 
rimcn. 

Month, n. Kuchi. — 
j'xil, kuchi-ippai. 

Move, /. V. Ugokasu 
(I). Dokeru (31. 
Dogi -wo dasu (i). 
i. V. Ugoku (i). U- 
tsuru (ij. liikkosu 
(i), ten-kyo sum (4). 
;/. Und5. Hikkoshi. 

I^Iuch, a. Takusan-na, 
tanto-no, f>-i. }^'ow 
— , iicuia, nani-hodo, 
dofio kiirai. — more, 
"niashite, r\)o — , •'>. 
sugirii. Sfl — , tcore 
dake, kon*. Kurai, 



( 95 ) 



3f u4l. w. Doro. 
Itfwldy, a. Doro-da- 
rake-na. Nigotta. 
Yogoreta. 
Maltiply, /. V. Kake- 

ru(3). Fuyasu(i). 

Murder, //. Hitogoro- 

shi. /. V. Koro.su(i). 

Mnrmnr, /. v. Guzu- 

guzu yu (h. I), fuhei 

wo narasu (i). 

MusewMi, ;/. Haku- 

butsu-kwan. 
Music, n. Ongaku. 
Imtntmenl of — , 
gakki. Batid of — , 
gaku-fai. 
MusiciaD. n, Ongaku- 

ka. 
Mwsls, n, Jak5. 
Mnst, i. V. or aux. ... 
kereba ikenai or na- 
ri masen. - — no/, 
... shitewa ike ma- 
seu, nai or nari ma- 
sen. 
Mntnal, c. 0-tagai- 
no, kvolsu-no. 



N, 



Nail, n. Tsume. Ku- 
gi. V. Kiigi wo utsu 

NaKed, a. Hadaka- 



no, ratai-no. Ari-nO' 
mama-no. Akiraka- 
na. 
K'ame, ft. Na, nainae. 
Meigi. /. t>» Na wc 
tsukeru (3), meime; 
sure (4). 
]!fa3>kin, //. Nappu- 

k.n. Fukin. 
^farrow, a. Sema-i. 
— viinded, ganko- 
no, kyoryo-no. 
Xation, n, Koku- 

min. 
National, a. Kuni-no, 
kokka-no. Kok^u- 
min-no. — customs, 
koku-fu. — lozv, 
koku-ho. — podtic- 
Hon, koku-san. — 
flag, kokki. — batik, 
kokuritsu-ginko. 

Bfatiowality, n. Ko- 

ku-sui. Aikoku-shin. 

Xative, a. Umaretsu- 
ki-no, seirai-no. — 
cotwfry, hongoku. 
;/. Dojin. 

jratnral, a. Shizen- 
no, tennen-no. — 
sciencf, shizen-kwa. 
gaku. 

DTature, n. Shizen, 
te.nnen, uchu. Ten- 
sei, umaretsuki. Sei- 
sin tsu. 

Xaval, a. Fune-no. — 
battle, kaisen. — 
depa-^-tment, kaiguft- 
sh5. 



C 96 ) 



BTavigatlon, n. Ko- 

kai. Kokai-jutsu. 

Navigator, n. K5kai- 
sha. 

STavy, n. Kaigun. 
Kwantai. 

Near, a. Chika-i, so- 
ba-no. Shitashi-i. 
— way, chika-mi- 
clii. — ly, chika-ku, 
soba-ni. Taitei, ho- 
tondo. Shltashi-ku. 

Necessary, a. Ilitsu- 
yo-no. Yogi-na-i, 
yondokorona-i. 

Necessity, «. Hitsu- 
zen. Ketsubo. Hi- 
tsuyo-hin. 

Neclt, n. Kubi. 

Neckcloth, n, Eri- 

maki. 

Neck-tie, n. Eri-ka- 
zari, nekkutai. 

Need, n. Ilitsuyo, iri- 
y5. Ketsubd. llitsu- 
yo-hin. /. v. Iru (2). 
i. V. Fusoku sum (4). 
A'ot — ec/, fuyo. 

Needle, ;.'.. Hari. 

Negation, 1;. Kyoze. 
tsu. 

Negative, a. Kyoze- 
tsu suru (4). Shokyo- 
ku-lcki-no. 

(Veg'Iect, /. z: Okola- 
ru ii\, yudan wo -;'- 



Negotiate, {. v. Sb- 

dan suru (4). 

Negro, ;/. Kuronibo. 
Nejglabor, n. Tonari, 
kinjo, kimpen. 

Neitlier, /r<?«. Dochi- 
ra (=dotchi) mo ... 
nai. conj, ... mo ... 
mo ... nai. 

Nephew, n. Oi. 

Nerve, 71. Shinkei. 
Nervous, a. Shinkei- 

shitsu-no, kvvanji- 

yasu-i. 

Nest, n. Su. 

Net, n. Ami. a. Sho. 
mi-no. 

Never, adv. Kesshite 
... nai. 

New, a. Atarashi-i. 

— edition, shinipan. 

— comer, shinny u- 
sha, shinzan. — 
fashioned, shinshiki- 

no. — year, shin- 
nen. — year>day, 
gan-jitsu. — years- 
eve, 6-misoka, joy a. 

— years-gift, toslii- 
dama. 

News, n. Tayori, ha- 
nashi. — paj>er^ 
shimbua-shj, 

Ne.vt, a. Tsugi-no. — - 
Jav, akiiru^hi, YoVu 

JitSU. rll07lth, pi-iV 

ru-tsuki, yoku-5et«;u 



( 97 ) 



— year, akurutoshi, 

yoku-nen. 
arickel, ;/. Nikkem. 
Niece, n. Mei. 

Nig'lit, «. Y'^ru, yo. 
Whole — , yo-jii, yo- 
doshi. I'c-nighty 

kom-ban. L(xsl — , 
saku-ban, yube. To- 
morrow — , myo- 
ban, asu no ban. — 
zvork, yagyo. — 
dress, nema-ki. — 
f(i!l, hi no kure, ku- 
re-gata. 

STig-litvcatcb, ;/. Shu- 
kucbokii. 

Nihilist, n, Kyoma- 

to. 
No, adv. liye. 
Nobility, «. 
Noble, a, 

Rippa-na. 



Kizoku. 
Tatto-i. 
Kizuku- 



no. Kosho-na- 



Noise, 

biki. 



«. Oto, on, hi- 
Koe. 



Noisy, a. Yakaraashi- 
i, sozoshl-i. 

Nominal, a. Na-ba- 
kari-no, na norai no, 
yumei-mujitsu-no. j 

Nominative case, n. i 
Shu-kaku. 

None, n. Nani mo na- 

i. 
Nonsense, «. Mu-igi. 
Noon, n. Hiru, shogo. 



Nitchu. 



Norsn u. Kiritsu. Ki- 

han. 
Normal, a. Kisoku 

dori-no, kihan-no. 
Nortb, n. Kica. 

Nose, n. Hana. To 

How the — , hana 
wo kamu (i). — 
bleed, hanaji. 

Not, adv. ... masen, 
nai. 

Note, n. Chu, chusba- 
ku, chukai. Fugo, 
shirushi. Kaki-tsu- 
ke. Tegata. Gaku- 
fu. Hikki. /. V. 
Chukai suiu (4). 
Shirushi wo tsukeru 
(3). Kakitomeru (3). 
Chui suru (4J, ki wo 
tsukeru (3). — book, 
te-cho. a. Nadaka-i, 
yumei-na. Place of 
— , meisho. 

Notbingr, n. Mu-ichi- 
butsu. For — , niu- 
da-ni. — but this, 
kore giri. Make — 
of, kamawazu. 

Notice, n. Tsuchi, 
sliirase. Kokoku. 
Chui. Give — , shi- 
raseru (3). /. v. Mi- 
tsukeru (3). Chui 
suru (4), ;.: t"o tsu- 
keru (3). 

Notwithstancimsr, 

conj. Keredomo, .., 
ni kamawazu-ni. 
Noun, n. Mei-shi. 



{ 98 ) 



KoKrish, /. V. Yashi- 
nau (h. l), sodateru 
(3). i. V. Sodatsu(l). 

yo-butsK. 

Kovel, n. Shosetsu. 

Bfovenaber, n. Juichi- 
gatsu. 

Xow, adv. Ima, tada- 
ima, mokka. — a7id 
— , sai-san, ikutabi- 
mo. — and then, 
toki-doki. 

Nwrntoer, w. Su, kazu. 
Go, ban. Great — , 
takusan. Small — , 
sukoshi, sho-su. Odd 
— , kisu. Even — , 
gu-su. t. V. Kazocru 
(3). Bango wo tsu- 
keru (3). — less, 
mu-su-no, kazoerare- 
na-i. 

Nun, «. Ama. 

Nunnery, «. Ama- 

dera. 
Nurse, n. Uba. Mori. 
Kwango-fu, kwan- 
byo-nin. /. v. Mori 
wo sum (4V Sodate- 
ru (3). Kwango su- 
ru (4), kwa'lu3 suru 
(4). — maid, ko- 
inorio 

N?it, n. Kurumi. 



Oar, n. Kai. 
Oato,;2. Karasu-mugi. 
Obedience, «. Jujun. 
Obey, L v. Shitagau 

(h. i), yu kolo wo 

kiku (I). 
Object, n. Mono, but- 

tai. Mokuteki. 
Objection, n. Han- 

tai, iron. 

Objective case, n. 
Mokuteki-kaku. 

Oblig-ation, 11. Hon- 

bun, gimu. 

Obligee, t. V. Shiiru 
(2), muri-ni suru 
(4). Megumu (i). 

Obliged, adv. Yon- 
dokoro-na-ku, yamu 
wo ezu, zehi-na-ku. 

Obliging, a. Shinse- 
tsu-na, teinei-na. 

Oblique, a. Naname- 

no, sujikai-no. ?'. v. 

Katamuku (i), yuga- 

mu (i). 
Obscure, a. Kura i, 

Ainiai-na 

Observution, «. Chii- 

moku. Kwausalsu. 

Observatory, «. 

Temmon-dai. Kwan- 
•suku-jo. 



( 99 ) 



ObserTC, L v. Chui 
suru (4), V\ wo tsu- 
keru (3). Mamoru 1 
(l). Kwansatsu suru 
(4). Kwansoku suru 
(4)- 

Obstinate, a. Ganko- 
na, kataiji-ua, Gojo- 
no. 

Obvious, a. Akiraka- 
na. 

Occasion, n. Fui no 
koto. Kikai, bayai. 
Kojitsu, riyu, wake. 

Occasional, a. Rinji- 
no. Toki-doki-no. 

Occus>y, /. V. Senyu 
suru (4), shi^meru 
(3). Tsutomeru (3). 

Ocean, n. Taiyo. 
O'clock, n. Toki, ji. 
October, n. Ju-gatsu. 

Odd, a. O' ashi-i. Ki- 
tai-na. Chiuba-no. 

Of, prep. No. Yori, ka- 
ra. De. — course, 
mochiron, ... tomo, 
dose. — late, chika- 
goro, kinrai. — old, 
mukashi. — itself, 
hitoride, hitoride- 
ni. 

Off, adv. Hanarete, to- 
ku-ni. Be — with 
yoti, kite wa ikena-i. 
— hand, rinji-ni. 
Detarame. 



Offer, /. V. Sasageru 
(3). "geru(3), sona- 
eru (3). Yaru (l), 
ageru (3). Dasu (i). 

Oirering-, n. Kumo- 
tsu. 

Office, n. Yaku, sho- 
kumu. Yakusho. 

Kaisha. Jimu-sho. 

Officer, w. Yaku-nin. 

Often, adv. Shiba- 
shiba, tabi-tabi. 

Oil, n. Abura. — cake^ 
abura-kasu. — paints 
ing, abura-e. 

Oily, a. Aburakko-i. 

Old, a. R6-nen-no, 
toshi wo totta, toshi 
ga yotta. Furu-i. 
Mukashi-no. — 

ma}7, ro-jin. — 

house, furu-iye. — 
clothes, furu-gi. — 
furniture, furu-dogu. 
— friend, kyu-yu. 

— ctistom, kyu-rei. 

— fashioned, kofu- 
na, furu-kusa-i. — 
-world, kyu-sekai. 

Omelet, n. Oinuretsu> 
tamago-yaki. 

Omission, n. Nuke. 

— of a liord, raku- 
ji. — of a page, ra- 
ku-cho. 

Oiait, A V. Nuku (l), 
ryaku suru (4), oto 
su(i). 



( loo ) 



Oninnibns,». Noriai- 

basha. 

On.tpref>. Ni, oite. De. 

— account of, ... ta- 
meni, yolte, no de. 

— purpose, waza-to, 
koi-ni. — the one 
hand, ippo de «'a. — 
the other han^i, laho 
de wa. — the con- 
trary, kaette. — the 
•way, tochu de, gake- 
ni. — condition, na- 
raba, ni yotte wa. 

— the 7vay home, 
kaeri-michi-de. 

Once, adv. Iclii-do. 
Katsute, aru-hi, aru- 
toki. At — , sugu, 
jjki. — and for all, 
ichido giri. — tno)-e, 
mo ichido (=ippen), 
ima ichido (=ip- 
pen). Only —, tatta 
ichido- (=ippen). 

One, n. Ichi, hitotsu. 
All — , onaji koto, 

— day, aru-hi. At 
— , itclii-shite. 
Every — , dare de- 
mo. — and all, no- 
korazu. — by — , 
hitotsu-zutsu. — 
after the other, jun- 
jun. — another, ta- 
gai-ni. Tomo-ni; 
issho-ni. — zvav or 
mnother, doka-koka. 

— corner- katasu- 
mi. 

One-sided, a. Kula- 



kawa-no. Hempa- 
na, fu-kohei-na. 

Onion, n. Negi. 

Only, a. HitOtsu-rio, 
hitori. adv. Hitori 
de, tada. Bakari. 
Nomi. 

Open, t, V. Hiraku 
(i), akeru (3), hiro- 
geru (3). i. V. Aku 
(1), hirogaru (l). 

Openly, adv. iCozen, 
5yake-ni. 

Opera-^lass, «. S5- 

gan-kyo. 

Opinion, n. Setsu, 

kangae, iken. 
Opiiini, ;/. Ahen. 

Opporlunlty, n. Ki- 

kai. Bengi. 

Oppose, /. V. Hantai 
suru (4), sakarau (h. 
l), teiko suru (4). 

Opposite, n. liantai- 
no. Mukai-ai-no, 

muko-no. 

Oppress, /. V. Assei 
suru (4), oslii-tsuke- 
ru (3). 

Optician, n. Mega- 
ne-shi. 

Optimism, n. Raku- 
ten-shugi. 

Or, conj. Arniwa, ma- 
tawa, mo, ya, ri, na- 
ri. Sunawachi. Sode 
nakereba. 



( »^' ) 



Oral, a Kuchi-no, 
hanashi-no. — /;/- 
structioH, ku-ju. 

Orange, n. Mikwan. 
Bitter — , daida'. 

Oratloa, n- Enzetsu. 

Orator, n. Benshi. 

Order, n. Junjo. Chi- 
tsujo. Kisoku, kiri- 
tsu. Meirei, iitsuke, 
sashizu. Chumon, 
atsurae. In — to, 
tame-ni, yo-ni. — 
book^ chumon-clio. 
Out of — ^ midarete. 
/. V. Todonoeru {X) 



junjo wo taleru (3). 
Ji-tsukeru (3), meirei 
suiU (4), sashizu wo 
Sttru (4) Chumon 
suru (4),. atsuraeru 
(3)- — h'y seiton 
shita, kiritsu no aru 
(i), chitsujo tadashi- 

OrdiHary, a. Tsurei- 
no, futsu-no. Jinjo- 
no. Heibon uo. \ lei- 
zei-no, ludan-no, 
itsumo-no. 

Orgran, n. Kikwan, 

dogu. Orugan. 
OrgranissQ, «. Yuki- 

tai. 
Organization, n. 

Soshiki, kozo. 

Org'auize, t. v. Ko- 

shiraeru (3), soshiki 
suru (4), kumitateru 
(3)- 



Oriental, a. Higashi- 

no, toyo no. 1 

Orig'in, n. Kigen, ha- ■ 

jimari, okori. \ 

Origiual, a. Moto-no, ! 

haj'mari-no. — copy, , 
gempon. ; 

Origini^tor, n, Hok- j 
ki-nin, hotto-uin, , 

Ornament, n. Kaza- ■ 
ri, soshoku. /. v. 
Kazaru (i). 

Orphan, ;/.. Minash' ; 
go. : 

Orthodoxy, //. Sei 

kyo. 

Other, a. Hoka-no, ' 
betsu-no. — side, ta- 
ho. Each — , otagai. 

Every — day, ichi- | 

nichi-oki, kwaku- 1 

jitsu. — day, senji- ; 

tsu, sendatte, kono- : 

aid.a^ — where, ho- \ 

kade. — while ^ itsu- ■ 

ka. — wistf be tsu- j 

ni. Sode nakereba. \ 

Ong'Ut, aitx. Be-ki, 
hazu, atarimac. 

Onnee, n. Onsu. i 

Out, adv. Soto-ni. 

Hanarete. — of, ■ 

kara, yori. — of tm ■ 

case, hogai-ni, hij5- ' 

ni. - — oj djub:, uia- ' 

gai na-ku. — 0/ ; 

fashion, sutarete. — \ 

oJ hope, gakkari shi- ; 
te, shitsubo shite. 



r I02 ) 



— of print, ure-ki- 
rete. — of time, 
toki narazu. — of 
the ivay, michi ni 
hazurete. — of sight, 
miena-ku natta. - — 
of bnath, iki ga ki- 
reru. — of employ- 
turn/, hima de iru, 
yo ga na-i. — of my 
potver, deki na-i. 

The fire is — , hi ga 
kleta. Hear me — , 
sliimai made kike. 

Outline, ;/. Gairyaku, 
kogai. 

Outside, 71. Soto. 

Oval, ;/. Daen-kei, ta- 
mago-nari. 

Over, prep. Ue-ni. 
Sugite, koshite. To 
cross — , yokogiru 
(2), koeru (3). 72? 
have — , nokoru (i). 

— a}id — , kasane- 
gasane, ikutabimo, 
kurikacshite. — 
aj^ain, futalabi, — 
and above, sono ho- 
ka, omake-ni. Hijo- 
11 i. A/l — , sunda, 
sliimalta. Something 
— , yuyo, amari. — 
and under, ueshita. 
The rain is — , ame 
ga yanda. 

OviTcoat, ;/. (nil to. 
Ouo, /. V. Ou (h. I), 
kariru (2), ukcru 



Owl, n. Fukuro. 

Own, a. Jibun-no. 

Owner, n. Mochi-nu- 
shi, shoyu-sha. — 
ship, shoyu-ken. 

Ox, 71. 0-ushi. 
Oyster, ;/, Kaki. 



P. 

Pacific, a. Heiwa-na, 
odayaka-na. — 

ocean, taihei-yo. 

Pacli, t. V. Tsutsumu 
(i). Tabaneru (3). 

Pacltag-c, n. Tsutsu- 

mi. Taba. 

Paclict, n. Ko-zutsu- 
mi. Yu-sen. 

PncKing, n. Ni-zuku- 
ri. Tsumi-mono. 

Page, n. Pcji. Kyuji, 

jiiboku 

Pagrotla, 71. To. 

Pain, 71. Kiitsu, itami. 
Kanashimi. KurU' 
shimi. t. V. Kuru- 
sliimeru (3). Wilh 
7/inch — , sekkaku. 
— ful, ita-i. Kuru- 
shi-i. K.anashi-i. 

Paint, n. E-no-gii. 
Penki. f. v. Nuru 
(1), saishiki suru(4). 
Kaku (I). 



( I03) 



Fainter, n. Ga-ko, 

e-kaki. 
Pa i II 11 11 §^, n. Saishi- 

ki. E. 

Pair, /;. Tsui. 

Palate, n. Kyuden, 

go-sho. 

Pale, a. Ao-shiro-i, 
ao-zameta.* t. v. Ao- 
shiro-ku sum (4). 
i.v. Ao-sliiro-ku na- 
ru(i). 

Palette, n. Paretto, 

e-no-gu-ita. 
Palm, 71. Te no ura. 

Pamplilet; n, Ko- 

hon. 

Pail, n. Sara. 

Pantaloon, n. Mo- 

mohiki, zubon-shita. 
Paper, n. Kami^. — 

hanger, kyoji-ya. — 
stoi-e, kami-ya. — 
weight, keisan. — 
money, shihei. 

Paradise, 7i. Goku- 
raku, rakuyen. 

Parallel, a. Heiko- 

no. Sorotta. 

Pareli, /. v. Kogasu 
(i), iru (2). u V. Ko- 
geru (3). 

Pardon, A v- Yurusu 
(i). — vie, gomea 
nasa-i, yuiushite ku- 
dasai. n. Yurushi, 
shamen. 



Parent, rt. Oya. Ryo- 
shin, fubo. 

Parentliesis, tu 

Kakko. 

Park, «, Koyen. 

Parliament, n. Gi- 

kai, kokkai. 

Part, n. Bubun, burui. 
Wakemae, bumpai. 
Shokubun, lionbun. 
For 7ny — , wataku- 
shi ni wa. For tJie 
most — , okata, tai- 
tei, taigai. Take — 
in, kakawaru (i). — 
of speech, hinshi. 
t. V. Wakeru (3), 
waru (i), bumpai su- 
ru (4). i. V. Wakare- 
ru (3). Hanareru 
(3)- 

Partial, a. Ilempa- 
nO; ekohiiki-no, fu- 
koliei-no. 

Particle, n. Bunshi. 

Particular, a. Toku- 
betsu-no, kakubetsu- 
no. Hitotsu-no. 

Parting, a. Wakare- 
no, itomagoi-no. 

Partly, adv. Icliibu- 
\va, ikubun-ka, suko- 
shi-wa, yaya. 

Partner, ti. Sha-in, 
kumiai-in, Kwankei- 
sha. Aite. — shij>, 
kumiai, nakama, 
Haito. 



( 104 ) 



Parturition, u. San, 
shussan. Easy — , 
an-zan. Diff.culi — , 
nan-zan. 

Party, ;/. Tolia, na- 
kama. Ho, kata. 



, /. V. and L v. 
Sugiru (2), torn (i), 
yuku (i). Kayou (h. 
I). Kosu (i). Koeru 
(3). Tsuyo suru (4). 
Happu sum (4). — 
away, kieru (3), na- 
ku naru(i). To — 
by, soba wo toru (i). 
Yiirusu (i). Mi-sugo- 
su (i). — into, hen- 
kwa suru (4), kawa- 
ru (i). — off, dama- 
su (l), azamuku (i). 
IJakaru (i). — on, 
or upon, okoru (i). 
Kimeru (3). To let 
— , torjiseru (3), tosu 
(i). Ome ni miru 
(2). — on, susumu 
( I ). — over, koe 
(3), wataru (i). — 
out, deru (3J. — 1 
hairu (2). — wide 
kuguru (i), mogu 
( i ). — through, t 
ri-nukeru (3). 
Michi. Ryoko-k 
tsuko-ken. Kei 
jdtai. 

PaissH|irc, 7t. Mic 

Tsuko. Chill 

Keiicki, 

r:(.H.H-l>ook, // 

cho. 



Pass-clieek, n. Nyu- 

j6-ken. 

Passing*, adv. Hijo- 
ni, shigoku, itatte. 

Passion, n. Jo, iji''. 

Passionate, a. Tan- 
ki-no, kimijika-no, 
sekkachi-no, kan- 
shaku-mochi-no. 

Passive, a. Ukemi- 
no. Otonashi-i. — 
verl), hi-doshi, ju- 
doslii. 

Past, a. Kwako-no, 
sugita. n. Kwako, 
mukashi. 

Pastor, n. Bokushi. 
Bokuchiku-sha. 

Paicnt, «. Sembai- 
tokkyo. — office, 
sembai - tokkyo-kyo- 
ku. — right, sembai- 
ken. 

Pathway, n. Ko- 

michi, roji. 

Prt< u'nce, n. Nintai, 
gatnan, shimbo, kan- 
nin. 

Patient, u.. Gaman- 
zuyo-i. H. Byonin, 
kwajija 

Putiouily, adv. Nin- 
tai, gainan, shimbo, 
or kannln shite, 
koraete. 

Patriot, n. Aikoku- 
sha, chu^sliin. — is/n, 
aikoku-shin, giki. 



C 105 ) 



Pause, n. Teishi, 

chuslii. /, V. Yameru 
(3), chushi suru (4). 
i. V. Yasumu (l), to- 
raaru (i). 
Pa\e, t. V. bhiku (i). 

— merit, shiki- ishi. 
Pawn, n. Shichi, lei- 

to. /. V. Shichi ni 
oku (i), teito ni suru 
(4). 
Pay, /. V. Harau (h. 
l). To — back, or 

— for, kaesu (i). 
Muicuiru (2). — 
aut, yurumeru (3) 

— aite niton, ki wo 
tsukeru (3). Moiit/i- 
ly — , gekkyu. — 
day, harai-bi, kwan- 
jo-bi. — ee, uketon- 
nin. — er, shiharai- 
nin. — masict; 
kwaikei-kwan. — 
f/unt, shiharai. 

Pea, w. Endo-maroe. 

Peace, n. Heiwa. 
Odayaka. Alake — , 
waboku suru (4'». 

PeaelB, «. Monio. 

Peanut, n. IVaiikin- 
mame, rakka-sho. 

Pear, ;/. Nashi. 

Pearl, n. Shinju. 

Peasant, ;;. Ilyaku- 

sho. 

Peb;>Ie, «, Jari, ko- 

isjii. 



Peenliar, a. Toku- 
betsu-no. Mochi- 
mae no, koyu-no. 

Peep, /. V. Nozoku 

Pen, n. Pen. — hold- 
er, pen-jiku. 

Pencil, n. Empitsu. 

Penetrate, /. v. Tsu- 
ranu-ku (i), tsuki- 
tosu (i). Shimiru 

(4 

Peninsula, n. Han- 
to. 

Penntansltip, n. 

iSlio-ho. 
Pension, n. Onkyu- 
kin, yoro-kin. 

Pentecost, «. Pente- 

cosute. 
Peony, «. Sliakuya- 

ku. Tree — , bf/tan. 
People, n, Jimmin, 

Kokumin. Hito. 
Pepper, n. Koslio. 
Peppermint, «, 

Hakka. 

Per, prej). Kctoni. 
mai. 

Perceive, t. v. Mito- 
naeru (3), satoru (1). 

Percentage, u. W'a- 

rial. 

Perfect, a. Kwanzen- 
na, jubun-na. /. v. 
Kwanzen ni sum 
(4). Joju suru (4). 



( io6 ) 



Perfection, n. Kwan- 
zcn, mu-ketsu. Jo- 
ju. 

Pca'forsif, t. V. Suru 
(4). Togeru (3), j5ju 
suru (4). Riko suru 
(4)- 

Perftime, 71. Kaori, 
nioi. /. V. . Niou (h. 
i), kaoru (i). t. v. 
Niowaseru (3). 

Perhaps, adv. Ta- 
bun, okata, aruiwa. 

Period, jt. Toki. Pi- 
rioddo. 

Permission, n. Yu- 

rushi, sli5clii, sho- 
daku. Withoiit — , 
kotowari-nashi-ni. 

Perpendicular, n. 

Suisen. a. Suisen- 
no, massugu-uo. 

Persecute, /. v. Ku- 

rushimeru (3). Gya- 
kutai suru (4). 

Person, n. Hito. In 
— , jibun-de. — - cige^ 
fusai. Jinbutsu. 

I*crsonality, ;;. Jin- 
butsu, jimpin. 

PcrsoiiaHy, adv. Ji- 
bun-de. Kojin to 
shite. 

Perspiration, <:fi. 

Ase. Ilakkwan. 

Perspire, i. v. llak- 
kwan siuu (4), asc 
ga deru (3}. 



Pessimist, n. Eiisei- 

ka. 
Pest, n. Pesuto, koku- 

shi-byo. 
Pestilence, n. Ryu- 

ko-byo. 
Petition, n. Negai, 

seigan. 

Phenomenon, n, 

Gensh5, koto. 

Philan til ropy, n. 

Ilakuai, jizen. 

Plsilosoplier, n. Te- 

tsu-gaku-sha. 

PSiilosoplay, n. Te- 

tsu-gaku. 

Phosphor, n. Rin. 

PhotograpSa, n. Slia- 
shin. — ^r, shashin- 
shi. — J', shashin- 
julsu. 

Photolithography, 

n. Shashin-sekiban. 

PSsrasc, n. Ku. 
Pliysical, a. Karada- 

no, shintai-no. Bus- 

sliitsu-no. 
Physics, «. Butsuri- 

gaku. 
Physiology, n. Sei- 

ri-gaku. 
Piano, w. Piyano. 

Piclc, /. V. Tsumamu 
(I). IIojiru(2). Hi- 
rou (h. 1). Toru (1). 
— o(f^ tsurni-toru 
(i), "mogu (i). Mu- 



c 107 ) 



shim (2), — on! 
yoru (i), eiabu(i) 

— tip, hirou (h. 1) 

PiflipocIi«»t. 11. Su 

ri. 
Picture, «. E, kwai 
ga. Shozo. /. V. Ka 
icu (i). Hiku (i). - 
frame, gaku-biichi 

— gallery, kwaiga 
tenrankwai. 

Piece, n. Kire, buhun. 
Kake. /. v. Hagu 
(I). Tsugu (I). 

By — , hitotsu-zu- 
tsu, liitotsu-bitotsu. 
Break to — , kudaku 
(i). Ko ni suru 
(4). 

Piety, n. Shinjin. 

Pig-, n. But a. 

Pi§'eoii, 11. Hato. 

Pillow, n. Makura. 

Pin, n. Tome-bari, 
pin. 

Pine, 11. Matsu. — 

apple, pain-appuru. 
Pink, n. Sekichiku. 

t*ioneer, ;/, Kohei, 

Senjusha. 
Pious, a. Sliinjin no. 
Pipe, n. Fue. Tsu'isu, 
kuda. Kiseru. 

Pirate, n. Kaizoku, 
Pistol, «. Pisut.oru. 
Pitiful,^. Kaaiso-na, 
aware-na, fubin-na. 



Shinsetsu-na, naiia- 
ke-buka-i. 

Pity, n. Awaremi, 
jihi, nasake. /. v. 
Awaremu (i), itawa- 
ru(i). 

Place, n. Baslio, to- 
koro. Tochi, chiho. 
Ichi, shokugyd. /. v, 
Oku (i), sueru (3). 
Kimeru (3). Osame- 
ru (3). Chokin suru 

■ (4), azukeru (3). 
Kasu (i). In — , te- 
kito-ni, chodo yo- 
ku. In the — of, ka- 
wari ni. In the first 
— , ichiban ni, sai- 
sho ni. Take — , de- 
te kuru (5). Kawaru 
(i). Masaru (i). 
Give — , yuzuru 

(0- 

Plain, n. Nohara, 
heichi. a. Taira-na, 
hirata-i. Akiraka- 
na. Sliitsuboku-no. 

Plan, «. Sekkei, kei« 
gaku. Zu, ezu. 

Plane, ;;, Heimen 
Kanna. 9. Taira-na, 
liiratta-i, Heimen- 
no. t. V, Taira-ni 
suru (4). Kezuru 

Plant, n. Shokubu- 
tsu, somoku. Ueki. 
A V. Ueru (3). Ma- 
ku (1). Saibai suru 
(4). 



( io8) 



I*Iate, w. Nobe-ita. 
Sara. Han. /. v. Ki- 
seru (3). 

Platforni, ». Dai, 
kodan. Purattofo- 
mu. 

Platinum, n. Hak- 
kin. 

Play, L V. Asobu (i), 
fuzakeru (3). Suiu 
(4). — upon or o(T, 
guro sum (4), baka- 
rii sum (4). Azamu- 
ku ( I ), daraasu ( i ). 
— euty Isukareru 
(3). n, Asobi, yugi, 
tawamure. Bakuchi. 
Shibai. Sogaku. — 
bill^ banzuke. — 
ground, undo-ba. 

Pleasant, a. Taao- 
shi-i, ureshi-i, yu- 
kwai-na, omoshiro- 
i. 

Please, /. v. Yoroko- 
bu (i). Ki ni iru 
(2). t, V. Yorokolja- 
sem (3). 'lanoshima- 
seru (3). Konor.iU 
(1), siiku (1). /f rou 
— , dozo, or doka... 
kudasai. As yoit — , 
go-zui ni or go-kat- 
le ni ... kudnsai or 
nasai, adv. Doka or 
dozo ... kudasai. 

Pleasure, ;/. Yoroko- 
bi, tanoshimi, yu- 
kwai. At — , kalte- 
ni, kimama-ni, zui- 
i-ni. 



Plenty, n. Taku.san, 
jubun. 

Plum, H. Ume, 

Plun<ler, /. v. Ulsau 

(h. i), torn (i), nu- 
sumu (i). 

Plural, 11. Fukusu. 

Pocltet, u. Kakushi, 
fukuro. Kwai- 

chu. 

Poet, ;/. Slii-jin. 

Poetry^ w. ShU 

Point, 11. Saki. Ten. 
Yo-ten. Toki, Toko- 
ro. — of view, 
kwansatsu-ten, mi- 
kata. /. V. Togara- 
sem (3). Sasu (i;„ 
iMukem (3). — out, 
oshieru (3'). Sasbi- 
shimesu (1). 

Poison, «, Dokii, yu • 

gai-butsa. 
Pole, ti. Bo, sao. 

North — , hok-kyo- 

ku. Soiilh --, nan- 

kyoku. 

Police, n. Seiji. — 
tfiaii, junsa. 

Policy, 11. Sciryaku, 

sakuryakii. Shoken. 

Kozai-sbosho. 
Polish, n. Tsiiya. 

/. V. Migaku (l), to- 

g" co- 
Polite, a. 'l"einei-na. 

teicho-na. 



( I09 



PolitiCAl, a. Seiji-no, 

seiryaku-no. Kokka- 

no. 
Politician, n. Seiji- 

ka. Seiryaku-ka. 
Politics, n. Seiji-ga- 

ku. 

PoikI, n. Ike. 

Poor, a. Bimbo-na, 
mazushi-i. Kawaiso- 
na, aware-na, m. 
Himmin. 

Pope, n. Hoo. 

Popular, a. Tsuzoku- 
no. Ryuko-no, haya- 
ri-no. Heimin-no. 

Population, n. Jin- 
ko. 

Pork, n. Buta no ni- 

ku. 

Port, ;/. Minato. Ka- 
do, iriguchi. 

Portrait, n. Zo, sho- 
zo. 

Positf^u, K. Ichi. 

PositiTe, a. Kimatta, 

ittei-no. Sekkyoku- 

telsi-no. 

Possess, A e/. Motsf 
{i). — ion, shoyu. 
Mochi-mono. — ivf^ 
ji-kwaku, busshu- 
kwaku. — Of, slioyu- 
sha, mochi-nushi. I 

PossiMlity, ti. Deki- 
ru koto, kano. j 



Possible, a. Dekiru 

(2). 

Post, «. Hashira. 
Yubin. /. V. Oku (i). 

— card, hagaki. — 
mark, keshi-in. — 
master, yubinkyoku- 
cho. — office, yubin- 
kyoku. 

Postage, n. Yuzei. 

— stamp, kitte. 

Postpone, /. V. Noba- 
su (i), enki suru (4). 
— • meat, enki, hino- 
be, ennin. 

Postscript, n. Tsui- 
ka. 

Pot, n. I'subo. Ho7Vc:r 

— , ueki-bachi. 
Potato, n. I mo. 

White — , jagatara- 
imo. Siveei — , sa- 
tsuma-imo. 

Potential mood, n. 

Kano -ho. 

Pound, n, Tondo. 

Pour, i. V. Sosogu (l). 
/. V. Tsiigu (i). 

Poverty, n. Bimbo. 

.^©wtier, n. Ko, ko- 
aa. Giin — , kwaya- 
kii, ensho. — ifiaga- 
zine, kwayaku-ko. 
/. V. Kudaku (i), 
kona ni suru (4). ?. 
V. Kona ni nam (i), 
kudakeru (3). Furi- 
kakeru (3}. 



( «io ) 



Power, n. Chikara, 
seiryoku. Ikioi. 

Practice, /». Jikko. 
Oyo. Renshu, 

Kwanrei. t. v. Oko- 
nau (h. i). Jikko 
sum (4). Renshu 
suru (4j. Sum (4). 

Praise, n. Home, 
shosan, sambi. /. v. 
Homem (3), shosan 
or sambi suru (4). 

Pffaise^tvortliy, a. 

liomu-be-ki, shosan 
or sambi-su-be-ki, 
appare-na. 

Pray, t.v. Inoru (l), 
kito wo sum (4). 
Negau (h. i). — er, 
inori, kito. 

Precedent, n. Sen- 
rei. 

PreceB>t, n. Imashi- 
me. 

Predicate, /. v. Ki- 

mem (3). Dangen 
suru (4). n. Setsu- 
mei-go. 

l»rcface, «. Chogen. 

Prefer, /. v, Erabu 
(i), yoru (i). K.ono- 
mu (i), suku (i). 

Preferable, a. Yo-i. ' 

iirabu-be-ki. ; 

Preference, n. Sen- 
laku. Kobulsii. 

B'refiv, /. V. INIae ni 
-seem (3j. 



Premature, a. So- 

juku-no. Mi-juku- 
no. Ilaya-sugiru (2). 
— death, waka-jini, 
tammei. 

Premise, n, Zentei. 
Preparation, v. Jun- 
bi, shitaku, yoi. 

Prepare, /. v. Jumbi, 
shitaku, yoi, or 
yojin suru (4). 

Preposition, n, Zen- 
chi-shi. 

Presbyter, n. Cho- 
re. 

Present, n. Ima, to- 
ji. Genzai. Moku- 
zen. Okuri-mono, 
miage, shimmotsu. 
/. V, Okuru (i), age- 
ru (3). 

Preservation, iu 

Hozon. 

Preserve, t. v. Hozon 
suru (4). Takuwaeru 
(3), totte-oku (i). 
I'sukeru (3). 

President, n. Dai- 
toryo. Kwaicho, gi- 
cho. Kocho. 

Press, /. V, Osu (i). 
Osae-tsukera (3). 
Shimepx (3). n. Shi- 
me-gi. Insatsu. 

Kyuyo. — into, o- 
shi-komu (i). — 
agamsty osaeru (3). 
— upf oshi-ageru 
(3). 



( "I ) 



Presiding, a. Kyu-no, 

sashisematta. Tai- 

setsu-iio. 
Pressssre, n. Atsu- 

ryoku. Konnan. 

Kikyu. 

Pretend, /". v. Kako- 

tsukeru (3)- 
Pretension, n. Ko- 

jitsu, iigusa, nige- 
kotoba. 
Pretty, f7. Kanari«no, 
naka-naka-no. Ki- 
rei-na, utsukushi-i. 

Prevail, ?'. v. Hayaru 
(l), ryuko sum (4). 
Katsu (l). Masaru 

Prevent, f. v. Sama- 
tageru (3), bogai su- 
ru (4). 

Previons, a. Mae-no, 
saki-no, izen-no, — 
contract^ sen-yaku. 

Price, n. Atae, ne, 
nedan, dai. 

Pride, n. Goman, ji- 
man, ohei, ofu. 

Priest, n. Bozu, s6- 
ryo. 

Primary, a. Moto- 
no, hajime-no. 

Prime, a. Moto-no, 
ichiban-no. — cost, 
moto-ne, genka. 

Prince, n. Shinno, 

oji. 



Priiicipal, a. Omo- 
na. Jilyo-na, taiselsu- 
na. 11. Kashira, clio. 
Genkin, moto-kin. 

Principle, n. Genri. 

Sliugi. 
Print, n. la. Kigo, 
shirushi. Han, insa- 
tsu-butsu. — er, in- 
satsu-slia. — v^g, 
insatsu, insatsu-ju- 
tsu. t. V. Insatsu su- 
ru (4), shuppan suru 
(4). Osu (I). 

Prison, n. Ro, roya. 

— er, zai-nin. Tori- 
ko- 

Private, a. Kojin-no, 
vvatakushi-no. Hi- 
mitsu-no, naisho-no. 

— business, shi-yo. 
Prize, 71. Shohin, ho- 

bi. 

Probability, n. Ari- 

ube-ki koto. 

Probable, a. Ari-s5- 
na, makoto-rashi-i. 

Probably, adv. Oka- 

ta, tabun, osoraku- 

wa. 
Problem, n, Mod- 

dai. 
Proceed, /, v. Susu- 

mu (I). Deru(3). 

Tetsuzuks wo suru 

(4). — ing, shobuR; 

shochi Telsuzu- 

ki. 



C "3 ) 



Procession, n. Gyo J 
retsu, retsu. i 

Produce, f. v. Dasu I 

(i). Tsukuru (i). i 
koshiraeru (3). /, v. j 
Dekiru (2). j 

Production, 12. Sam 

butsu, Seisaku-butsu. 
Kekkwa. 
Profession, n. Slio 
kugyo, Sengen, ko- 
gen. 

Professor, n. Kyoju. 

Profit, n. Moke, rie- 
ki. AW — , jun-eki. 

Profitable, a. Toku- 
r.a, tokuyo-na, rieki 
no aru (i). 

Pros'rani, ti. Moku- 
roku. 

Prog-ress, «. Shimpo, 
hattatsu. i. v. Shim- 
po or hattatsu suru 

Prohibit, /. v. Tome- 

lu (3). Kinshi suru 
(4)- 
Prohibition, n. Kin- 

sli:. 

Prominent, a. Hii- 

clela, ichijirushi-i. 
(Jmo-na. 

ProniiHe, «. Yakuso- 
ku, kciyaku. /. v. 
Vakusoku or keiya- 
ku suru (4). 

I^roinise-breaeh, n 

Ha- yaku, i-yaku. 



Promote, A v. Susu- 
meru (3), agcru (3) 
Batteki suru (4). 
i. V. Shusse suru (4), 
agaru (i). 

Promotion, «. Shus 
se, shoshin 

Prononn, ;/. Dai- 

meishi. 

Pronounce, /. v. Yu 

(h. i), hanasu (l) 
llatsuon suru (4). 

Prononnciation, n. 

iriatsuon, iiyo 

Proof, ;/. Shoko. sho- 
mei. Kosei. — 
ihert, kosei-zuri. 

Propagate, /. v. Tsu- 
taeru (3), hiromeru 
(3)- 

Proper, ;/. Koyu-no, 
mochimae-no. Teki- 
to-na, s6t6-no. Ta- 
dashi-i. — ty, zai- 
san, shindai. 

Prophet, n. Yogen- 

ja. 

Proportion, n. Wa- 

ri-ai, Hirei. 

Proi>osal, n. Kengen, 
teishitsu, hatsugi. 

Propose, /. V. Ken- 
gen, hatswgi, or tei- 
shuisu suru (4). No- 
bcuu [\\ ii-dasu (i). 

l»ropriety, n. Go 

kwaku. 

Prose, n. Sanbuii. 



( "3) 



Prosper, i. v. Saka- 
eru (3), hanjo suru 
(4)- 

Prosperous, a. Sa- 

kan-na, hanjo-no. 

Protection, «. Ho- 

go, bogyo. 

Protestant, u. Shia- 
kyo. 

Pvontl, a. Gomanna, 

koman-na, hokoiu 
(i), takaburu (l). 

Prove, /. V. Shoko- 
dateru (3), shomei 
suru (4), Tainesu 
co- 
Proverb, «, Koto- 

waza. 
ProvWenee, n. Vov; 
jumbi. Yohi. Ten, 
kami. Temniei, shin- 
i. 

Province, n. Chiho 

Prudence, n. Kin- 
shin, saishin, tsutsu- 
shimi. 

Psalm, n. Sanbi-ka. 

Psycliology, n. 

Shinri-gaku. 

Pnblic, a. Oyake-no, 
kozen-uo. — husi- 
ness, koyo. — se?-- 
vice, komu. — 

opinion, yoron, ko- 
ron. — debt, kozai. 

Ifublication, 71. 

Shuppan, hakko, 
hatsuda. 



Publish, /. V. Oyake- 
ni suru (4), kofu su- 
ru (4). Shuppan, 
hakko, or hatsuda 
suru (4), — er, 

shuppan-nin. 

Pull, t. V. Hiku (i). 
Nuku (i). — apar<\ 
hiki-hanasu (i). — 
back, hiki-modosu 
(l). — dow7i, hiki- 
orosu (i). Kowasu 
(l). — around, hiki- 
mawasu (i). — 
along, hiki-tsukeru 
(3). — in, hiki-ireru 
'3). — off', hiki-nuku 
;i). KVgu(0- — 
oui, hiki-dasu (i). 
— over, hiki-taosu 
(i). — together, 

itchi suru (4). — 
up, hiki-ageru (3). 

Pulse, n. Myaku. 
Pump, n. Pompu. 
Punctual, a. Kic'ic- 

raen-na, seikwaku- 
na. 

Punctuate, f, v. Ku 

to wo kiru (l). 

P(|nc4>iJiation, //. Ku- 

to. 

Punisb, c. V. Bassuru 

(4). 
Pure, a. Junsui no. 

Seiketsu-na, kirei- 

r>a. Keppaku-na. — > 

gvld, jun-kin. 

Purg-lngr, «. GerL 



C "4 ) 



i'lirify, /. v. Kiyome- 
ru (3). Kirei-ni suru 
(4). 

l»urity, iu Keppaku. 
Seiketsu, 

Purple, a. Murasaki- 

no. 

\ 

Purpose, n. Moku- 

teki. Kokofozashi. 

To no — , muda-ni. 

t. V. Kuwadateru 

(3), kokorozasu (i). 

Purposely, adv. Wa- 
zato, waza-waza. 

Purse, w. Saifu, kane- 
ire. 

Pursue, /. V. Ou (h. 

i), okkakeru (3). 

Pusli, t. V. Osu (i). 
Tsuku(i). — against, 
oshi-tsukeru (3). 

— down, tsuki-otosu 
(i). — in, oshi-ko- 
mu (i), — back, 
oshi-kaesu (i). — 
aside, oshi-nokeru 
(3). --^«, isogu(i). 

— up, oshi-ageru 
(3). — out, oshi- 
dasu (i). 

Put, t. V. Oku (i). 
Sueru (3). Noscru 
(3). — about, muke- 
ru (3). — aside, sob a 
ni oku (l). Yameru 
(3). — away, yame- 
ru'(3). Noiceru (3). 

— back, tsuki-kaesu 
(l). Samatageru (3). 



— by, soba ni okv 
(l). Shirizokeru (3) 
nokeru (3). Taku 
waeru (3). — dozen, 
oku (i). Shizumeru 
(3). Herasu(i). — 
forth, dasu (i). No- 
basu (i). Happyo 
suru (4). — in, ireru 
(3). Hairu (2). — 
off, yameru (3). -^ 
on or upon, kiru^(2), 
Haku (i). Kiseru 
(3). — out, shirizo- 
keru (3). Kesu ( I ). 
Kasu (i). Me ga de- 
TU (3). — to, soeru 
(3). Kuwaeru (3). — 
together, atsumeru 
(3), awaseru (3). — 
up, yurusu (i). To- 
naeru (3). Tateru 
(3). Tomeru (3). 
Tomaru (i). — on 
fire, taku ( i ). — on 
a hat, kaburu ( I ). 



Qciality, «. Seishitsu, 
tachi, sh5ban. Hin, 
jimpino 

i^uantity, n. BuAryo. 
Kasa. 

<luarrei, n. Kenka. 
t. V. Kenka suru (4), 
arasou (h. i). 



("5) 



Q,ueen, n. Jo-5. Ko- 

Question, n. Shitsu- 
mon, gimon. Ron- 
ten. /. V. Tazuneru 
(3), tou (h. I). Ara- 
sou (h. i). 

QaielE, a. Haya i, su- 
miyaka-na, kyu-no. 

Quicken, /. v. Haya- 
meru (3), haya-ku 
suru (4), isogasu (i). 
i. V. Haya-ku naru 

(0- 

Quiet, a. Shizuka-na, 
odayaka-na. i. v. 
Shizumeni (3). 

Quill, n. Hane. Ha- 
ne-pen. 

Quotation, n. Inyo, 
bassui. 

Quote, n. Inyo suru 
(4). 



R. 



Rabbit, tt. Usagt, 

Race, n. Jinshu. Kyo- 
so. Horse — , keiba. 
Boat — , kyoso, bo- 
to-rasu. Human — , 
jinrui. 

Rag, n. Boro. 

Rail, n. Rem. Tesu- 
ti. 



Rsiilroaci, n. Tetsu- 

do. 
Rain, n. A-'me. — 

drops, ama-dare. To 

— , a^me ga furu (i). 
Itainbow, n Niji. 
Rainy, a. A-'nie no 0- 

i. — season, nyubai, 

tsuyu. 

Raise, t v. Ageru (3). 
Tateru (3). Hage- 
masu (i). — from 
sleep, okosu (i). 

Rank, «. Retsu. Kai- 
kyu. Kurai. 

Ransom, ti. Shokin, 
Rapid, a. Haya-i, 
kyu-na, sumiyaka- 
ua. n. Kyuryu. 

Ri^.re, a. Mezurashi-i, 
mare-ua, sukuua-i. 

Rat, n. Nezumi. 

Rate, «. Wariai. Ho- 
do, kurai, dake. Ne- 
dan. At any — , ze- 
hi tomo. Dochira ni 
shitemo, tomo-kaku- 
mo. 

Rather, adv. Mushi- 
ro, isso. Ikubun ka, 
yaya. Kanari. 

Raw, a. Nama-no. 
Atarashi-i. 

Razor, «. Kami-sori. 

— strop, togi-kawa. 
Reacb, i. v. Tassuru 

(4), itaru (0. Todo- 



(Ii6) 



ku (i). /, V. Todo- 
keru (3). Tsukeru 
(3). 
React, /. V, Kando 

suru (4). 

Reaction, u. Hando. 

Bead, t. v. Yomu (i). 

— through, yomi- 
tosu (i). 

Reader, n. Yomi-te. 

Tokuhon, 

Reading-, n. Yomi- 
kata. 

Ready, a. Y5i or shi- 
taku no am (i). Ha- 
ya-i, sumiyaka-na. 
Yasashi-i. Chika-i. 
To make — , shitaku 
or yoi wo suru (4). 

— money, genkin. 

— way, chika-michi. 

— made, deki-ai, 
ariawase. 

Real, a. Makoto-no, 
honto-110, shinjitsu- 
no. 

Reap, /. z/, Karu (i). 

Reason, n. Dori. R?.- 

sei. Riyu, wake. 

Reasonable, a. Dori 

ni kanau (h, f^, rei- 
to-no. 

Reasoning-, n. Giron. 

Uebelliun, n. ^'fu- 
lion. 

Receipt, n. Ukctori. 
On — 0/^ uketori 
»bidai. 



Receive, /. v. Uketoru 

(0- 

Receiver, n, Uketori- 

Recent^ a. Atarashi-i. 
Chikagoro-no. — 
/////(?, kinrai, chika- 
goro. — fy, kono- 
goro, senjitsu. Ara- 
ta-ni. 

Recitation^ n. Amki, 
ansho. 

Recognition, n. Nin- 
shiki. Mi-oboe. 

Recognize, A v. M;.- 
oboeru (3), ninshiki 
suru (4). 

Recollect, /. v. Omoi- 

dasu (i). 

Recommend, /. v. 

Susumcru (3), suisen 
suru (4). 

Recommendation, 

n. SuiscD. Letter of 
— , suisviii-jo. 
Record, /. v. Shirusu 
(I), kaku(i). n. Ki- 
roku. 

Recover, i. v. Kaifu- 
ku suru (4). 

Red, a. Aka-i. 

Redden, A v. Aka-ku 

suru (4). 

Reduce, /. v, Ilabuku 
(i), herasu (i). — 
tAe price, makeru 
(3). 



C«i7) 



Redaction, n. Gen- 

sho. — in price, ne- 
biki, make. 

Reference, n. Itaku. 
Sanko. Sodan. — 
oook, sanko-sho. 

Refine, /. v. Seisei su- 
ru (4). Kirel-ni suru 
(4)- 

kleflect, /. V. Ilansha 
suru (4). Hansei su- 
ru (4), kangaeru (3). 

Reflection, n. Han- 
sha. K ingae, han* 
sei. 

Reform, /. v. Kwai- 

kaku suvu (4), kwai- 
ryo suru (4). Ara- 
tameru (3). 

Reformation, n. 

Kwaikaku. kwairyo, 
shusei. 

Refuse, t. V. Kobamu 
(i), kotowaru (i), 
shazetsu suru (4), 
jitai suru (4). 

Reg'ard, t. v. Chui 
suru (4). Ki wo tsu- 
keru (3). Tattobu 
(i), uyamau (h. i). 
kakawaru (l). n. 
Chui. Kangae. Son- 
kei. Kwankei. With 
— to, ni tsuite. — 
fill, chui-buka-i, 
kinshin-no. 

Registet, n. Toroku. 
Kinyu. t. v. Toroku 
suru (4). 



Reg'ret, «. Kokwai. 
t. V, Kuyamu (i). 
kokwai suru (4). 

Reg'ular, a. Kisoku- 
tadashi-i, seisoku- 
no. 

Regrnlate, /. v. Todo- 
noeru (3), seiri suru 
(4). Chitsujo wo ta- 
teru (3). 

Reg-ulation, n. Kiri- 
tsu, kisoku. Seiri. 

Reign, «. Mi-yo. t. v. 
Shihai suru (4), osa- 
nieru (3). 

Rein, n. Tazuna, 
Reject, /. V. Suterii 
(i), haiseki sui'u (4). 

Rejection, n. Haise- 
ki, kyozetsu. 

Rejoice, i. v. Yoroko- 
bu (i), tanosliimu 
(i). t. V. Yorokoba- 
seru (3). 

Relation, n. Kwan- 
kei. Shinrui, 

Reliable, a. Tanomo- 
shi-i, are ni mtru 

Reliance, n. Irai. 

Tayori. 

Relig-aon, n. Shu- 
kyo. 

Rely, i. V. Tayoru (1), 
irai suru (4). 

Remain, i. v. Nokoru 
(i). 'J oryu suru (4), 



( "8 ) 



taizai suru (4). — 
dery nokori, amari. 
— der of money, 
zan-kin. 
Remedy, n- Ryoji. 
Kaifuku. A v. Naosu 
i). Ryoji wo suru 
^4). i. V. Naoru (i). 

Remorse, n. Kuyami. 

Zannen. Kanashi- 

mi. 
Removal, n. Iten, 

tentaku, hikkoshi. 

Recnove, /. v. Utsusu 
(i). Hikkosu (i), 
iten or tentaku suru 
(4). 

Renaissance, n, Bun- 
gaku-fukko. 

Renew, t. v. Shi-nao- 

su (1). i. V. Arata- 
iTiaru (i). Atarashi- 
ku naru (i). 

Rent, n. Sonryo. Sa- 
ke me. House — , ya- 
chin. Ground — , 
jidai, shakuchi-rj'o. 
t. V. Kasu (i). 

Repair, /. v. Naosu 
( 1 ), shufuku suru (4), 
shuzen sum (4). Tsu- 
gunau (h. i). i. v. 
Yuku (i), inairu(2). 
n. Shuzen, shufukvi^ 
naoshi. Baisho. 

Repay, t. v. Ilarai- 
modosu (i), kacsu 
(i). — vunt, harai- 
modoshi, henkin. 



Repeat, t, v, Kuri- 
kaesu (l). 

Repent, i. v. Kokai 
suru (4), kuyamu (i). 
Zange suru (4). Kui- 
aratameru (3). — 
ance, kokai. Kui-ara- 
tame. Zange. 

Representative, n. 

Daihyo-ja, dairi-slia. 
S5dai. — govern' 
pienf, daigi-seitai. 

Reprint, n. Saihan. 
Republic, n. Kyowa 
seiji. 

Reserve, t. v. Hozon 
suru (4). Nokosu(i). 
Takuwaeru (3). n. 
Hozon, takuwae. 

Residence, n. Sumai 
jukyo. 

Resig^n, t. v. Yuzuru 
Jishoku suru 
4j. Akirameru (3) 

Resist, i. V. Sakarau 
(h. i), teiko suru (4). 
— ante, teiko. 

Resolution, 7t. Kes< 

shin, ketsudan. Ke- 
tsugi. 
Resolve, /. v. Toki; 
(i). Bunkai suru (4). 
Tokasu (i). Kaisha- 
ku suru (4). Kimeru 
(3), kesshin suru 

(4). 
Ress»cct, /. V. Sonkei 
suru (4), uyamau (h. 
l), tattoinu (i). i. v 



{ "9 ) 



Kwankei suru (4), 
kakawaru (l). n. 
Sonkei. Kwankei. 
In — qf, ni tsuite, 
ni kwanshite. In 
some — , yaya, iku- 
bun ka. 

Responsibility, n. 
Sekinin. 

Responsible, a. Se- 
kinin no aril (i). 

Rest, n. Yasumi. i. v. 
Tomaru (i), Yasu- 
mu (i). Neru (i). 
Anshin suru (4). 
Nokoru (iV t. V. 
Shizumeru (3). Oku 

(0- 

Restanrant, n. Ry5- 
ri-ya, inshoku-ten. 

Restoration, n. Kai- 
fuku. Fukko, ishin. 

Restore, /. v, Kaifnku 
suru (4). — to 
health, naoru (i), 
zenkai suru'(4). 

Result, ;;. Kekkwa. 
i. V. Dekiru (2), 
okoru (i), deru (3). 
•— in, owaru (i). 
Hatasu (i). 

Retail, «. Ko-uri. 

/. V, Ko-uri wo suru 

(4). 
Retire, /. v, Doku 

(i), shirizoku (i). 

Inkyo suru (4), t. v. 

Nokeru (3), shirizo- 

keru (3). 



Return, u v. Kaeru 
(3), modoru (i). t.v, 
Kaesu (i), modosu 
(i). — an answer, 
kotaeru (3). On re- 
turning, kaeri-gake 
ni. n. Kaeri, modo- 
ri. Henkyaku, sho- 
kwan. 

Revelation, «. Mo- 

kushi, tenkei, 

Reveng^e, t. v. Fuku- 
shu suru (4), kataki 
wo utsu (i). n. Ada, 
Fukushu. 

Reverence, ;/. Son- 
kei, uyamai. t, v. 
Tattobu (i), sonkei 
suru (4). 

Revise, «. Koetsu. 

Teisei. t. v, Koetsu 
suru (4). Teisei suru 
(4). 
Revival, ;;. Fukkwa- 
tsu, fukko. 

Revised, /. v. Iki- 
kaeru (3), sosei or 
fukkwatsu suru (4). 
/. V. Saiko suru (4). 

Revolution, ;/. Kwa- 

kumei. 

Reward, «. Hobi. 
Hoshu. 

Rhetoric, n. Shuji- 
gaku. 

Rtieuuiatlsm, m 

Ryomachisu. 
Rbytlini, n. RitSU. 



( 120 ) 



Rice, «, Clean — , 
haku-mai. UnhuH- 
<^^' — > gen -ma i. — 
sfore, kome-ya. Boil' 
ed — , meshi, go- 
han. 

Rich, a, Kane-mochi- 
no. — man^ kane- 
mochi. 

Ride. /. v. Noru (i). 

Rig-ht, a. Tadashi-i, 
massLigu-no, seito- 
no. Migi-no, n» 
Seigi. Makoto. Ken- 
ni. Migi. — and lefty 
sa-yu. — and ivrong, 
ze-hi, sei-ja. By — , 
tadashi-ku, seito-ni, 
tozen. /. V. 1 adasu 
(i). Massugu-ni su- 
ni (4}. Seiri sum 
(4). 

Ring*, n. Hibiki, Wa. 
Yubi-wa. /. v. Nara- 
su (i). /. %,, Naru 
(I), hibiku (i). 

Ripe, a. Jukushita. 

Rise, i. V. Okiru (2). 
Agaru (l), noboru 
(i). Fueru(3). De- 
kiru (2). Deru (3). 
V, Agari, nobori. 
Kiritsu. 

RiViil, n. Aite, kyo- 
so-ja. /. (u Kisoii (h. 
i), arasou (h. i). 

Road, n. Micbi, do- 
ro, oral. 

Robbeif, it, Dorobo, 

lozokii. 



Rock, «. IwR. — 

candy, kori-zato. 

Roclty, a. Iwa no 6- 

i. 

Roll, /. V. Mawasu 
(i), korogasu (i). 
Maku {i\. i. v, Ma- 
waru (ij, korogaru 
(i). «. Maki-mono. 
Mokuroku. Meibo. 

Roman, a. Roma-jin. 
— letter^ toma-ji. — 
tathoHcy roma-kyo. 

Romance, n. Mono* 
gatari. 

Roof, n. Yane. 

Room, n. Heya. Flan 
of — , ma-dori. 

Make — , akeru 
(3). 

Root, n. Ne. 

Ro|>e, n, Nawa, tsu* 
na. 

Rose, n. Bara. 

Rong-h, a. Ara-i. So- 
matsu-na. 

Round, c. Maru-i. «, 
Mawari. prep. Ma 
watte, megutte. t. v, 
Maru-ku suru (4) 
inariimcru (3). Go 
— , mawaru (i), me^ 
guru (i). Turn — ^1 
mawasu (2). All — , 
hobo. — about, r?ia. 
wari-to-i, uen-na. 

Row, n. Ketsu, nara- 
bi. /. ;'. Kogu (l). 



(121 ) 



— bark, kogi-modo- 
SU ( ! ). — neoTy ko- 
gi-yoseru (3), 

Roj'Ul, a. O-no. — 
ist, kinno-ka. 

Rub, A V. Kosuru (i), 
suru (i). Sasuru (i), 
naderu (3). Togu 
(i). Migaku (i). i. 'v. 
Kosureru (3), sureru 
(3)- 

Ruin, n. Suibi, reira- 
ku. Metsubo. t. v. 
Horobosu (l). Ko- 
wasu (i), tsubusu 
(l\ i. V. Suibi, rei- 
raku, or metsubo su- 
Tii (4), horobiru (2), 
otoroeru (3). 

Rnle, n. Kisoku, kiri- 
tsu. /. V. Shihai su- 
tH (4)> osameru (3). 

Ruler, n. Shihai-ja. 

Jogi- 
Run, {. V. Hashiru 

(i), kakeru (3). Na- 
gareru (3). — af, ko- 
geki suru (4), tsuk- 
kalcaru (i). — aivay, 
nigeru (3), tobo suru 
(4). — doiOHf hashi- 
ri-orirn (2), Sosliiru 
(l). — in, or inio, 
hairti (2). Kake-ko- 
mu (i). — mi, ka- 
ke-dasu (i). Nagare- 
deru (3). Owaru (i). 

— on, tsuzaku (ij. 
Susumu (i). — over, 
afnreru (3). Shira- 



beru (3). 04-kosu 
(l). Fumi-nijiru (2). 
t. », Hashir*ssru(3). 

— out, tsuki-dasu 
(I). Hirogeru (3). 

— through, tsuki- 
tosu (l). n. Shinko. 
Ryuko, hajrsu-i. The 
common — , bonnin. 

Rttissia, fi, Rrtshiya. 



Sabbath, tt. *^nsoku- 
jitsu. 

Sae, ;/. Fukuro. 

Saeraincsi^t «. ^an- 

san. Seirei. 

Sacred, ct, Shinsei- 
na. 

Sacrifice, n. Gisei, 
kumotsu. /. V. H5n6 
suru (4), ageru (3). 
Gisei ni kyo sxiru 
(4). 

Sad, a. Kanashi-i. 

Saddle, «. Kura. 

?feife, a. Aazen-na, 

dai-jobu-na, buji-no 

Sail, n. Ho. /. V. 

Shuppan suru (4) 
— boat, ho-kake- 
bune. 



Saint, n. Seijin. 
Sake, v. Enko, riytl 



C "23 ) 



Raireki. For the — 
<7/, yotte. t-eae ni, 
kara. 
Salary, «. Kyukin, 
hokyu, kyuryOs 

Snlt, «. Shio. 
Salatation, n. Aisa* 

tsu, reigi. 
Salute, /. V, Aisatsu 

stiru (4). 0-jigi wo 

«iru (4). 
BiAlv&iioM, n. Sukui, 

tasuke. — army, 

kyusei-gun. 
Saiu«^^ a, Onaji-no, 

d5<45U-no, doyo-no. 

— as before, moto 
d<5r;, moto no tori. 

— eoiintry, do-ko- 

Saeactlon, n. Seisai. 
Sancli, n. Suna. 
Satan, n. Akuma. 
Satin, n. Shusu. 
White — , nume. 

^;alijre, n. Fushi. 
Sati««faction; w. Man- 

goku. 
(Satisfy, /. V. MaMO- 

kusaseru (3). /. v, 
Manzoku sum (4). 

Saturday, n. Doyo- 
bi. 

Sance, n. Shoyu, so- 

su. 
Savagre, n. Yaban- 



jin. a. Yaban-mo. 
Zankoku-na. 

Save, t. V. Tasukeru 
(3). — money, tame- 
ru (3), chochiku su- 
ru (4). prep. No 
hoka wa. Shi-na- 
kereba. 

Saving-bank, n. 

Chochiku-ginko. 

Saviour, n. Kyusei- 

shu. 
Saw, n. Nokogiri. 

f. V. Hiku (i). 

Say, /. V. lu (h. l), yu 
(h. i), mosu (l), ha- 
nasu (i), kataru (i), 
noberu (3). It is said 
that, ... to iu (h. i) 
or mosu (i), ... to 
sa. 

Scatter, /. v. Maki- 
chirasu (l). 

Scene, n. Butai. Do- 
gudate. 

Scenery, n. Keshiki, 
fukei. 

Scholar, n. Gaku- 
sha. Gaku-sei. 

School, «. Gakko. 
Public — , kwanri- 
tsu-gakko. Private 
— , shiritsu-gakko. 
Norm al — , sh i h a n - 
gakko. — day, ga- 
kurei. — hour, ju- 
gyo-jikwan. — 

master, koclio 

Science, «. Kw/ ,iku. 



CI23) 



l^cientific, a. Kwa- 

gaku-teki-no. 
Scissors, n. Hasami. 
Flower — , hana- 
basami. 

fScrew, n. Neji. — 
driver^ neji-mawa- 
shi. — naily neji- 
kugi. 

Scripture, n, Seisho, 
keiten. 

Scnlptor, n. Choko- 
ku-shi. 

Sculpture, n. Cho- 

koku. t. V. Horu 

(l), chokoku sum 

(4). 
Sea, «. Umi. 
Seal, «. In, ingyo, 

han. /. V. Osu (i). 
Scaling- was, //. Fu- 

ro. 
Search, t. v. Sagasu 

(i), tazuneru (3). n. 

Sosaku. Chosa. 

Sea-sick, n. Funa- 
yoi. 

Season, n. Toki, jise- 
tsu, kiko. T}i£ four 
— , shiki. L V. Xa- 
wakasu (l). Kagea 
wo suru (4). 

Seasonable, a. Tiugo 
no yo-i. 

Seat, «. Seki, basho, 
tokoro. /. V. Oku 
(i). /. V. Suwaru (i). 
Xakeru (3). Yasu- 
mu (i). 



Second, n. Byo. <>• 

Dai ni-no. — tinie^ 
nido, futatabi. — 
son, ji-nan. — ivife^ 
gosai. — Jumdf fu- 
ru. Borrow at — , 
mata-gari wo suru 
(4). Ltftt at — , ma- 
ta-gashi wo suru 

Secret, **. Himitsu, 

naisho. 
Secretary, n. SUoki. 

Hishokwan. 

Sect, «. Shuha. Ryii- 

g'- 
Secnlar, a. Zoku-no. 

— affairs, zoku-ji. 
Secure, a. Bunan-no, 

anzen-no, daijobu- 

no. /. V. lJke«u (h. 

I). Jobu ni suru (4). 

See, t. V. M&W (2). 
Wakaru (i). Tazu- 
neru (3). Tai-awa- 
seru (3;. 

Seed, n. Taae, /. v, 
Maku (l). 

Seem, i. v. Mieru (3). 
Omovvareru (3)4 

Seize, /. v. 'finAamu 
(i.), nigisru (2)* Tsu- 
kamaeru (3). 

Seldom, adv. Mare- 

ni, tama-ta?«a, tama- 

ni, metta-ni. 
Select, t. V. Erabli(i), 

yoru ( I ). Senkyo 

suru (4). 



( «4) 



Seldctlon, n. Senta- 

Self, n. Jibun. — ■ con- 
fide nee, j i-^h i n. — con- 
icioumess, ji-kwaku. 

— contradiction, ji- 
ka-mujun. — de- 
fence, ji-ei, — deni- 
al, kokki. — evident, 
ii-mei. — existence, 
ji-Bon. — help, ji-jo. 

— importance, ji- 
tii5. — love, ji-ai. 

— restraint, Ji-sei. 

Sclfisb, a, Wagama- 
ma-no, temaegatte- 
no. 

Sell,/. V. Uru (i). — 

er, urite, uri-nushi. 

Send,/.;/. Okuru(i), 
yaru (i), todokeru 

(3). 
Sense, n. Kwankwa- 

ku. 
flensitiTe, a. Surudo- 

i, kwanji-yasu-i. 

Sensual, a. Niku- 
yoku-no. 

Sentence, n. Bunsho. 
Senkoku 

Sentiment, t%> JSso. 

Separate, /. v, \Va- 
keruAV hanasu (i). 
i. V. Wakareru (3), 
hanareru (3). — ly, 
wakarete, hanarcte, 
betsu-ni. 

I^>teniber, n. Ku- 

gatsu. 



Series, n. Shidai, tsu- 

zuki. Jtosho. 
Sermon, tu SekkyOj 

sepp5. 

Seri eiit, n. Hebi. 

Servant, n. Mesfeitsu- 
kai, yatoi-pin. 

Serv6, /. z/. Tsutome- 
ru (3). Kyuji wo su- 
ru (4). i. V. Tsnka- 
eru (3), h6k5 siirii 
(4). Yaku ni tatsu. 

— up, koshiraeru 
(3). Sonaerur3). — 
cut, wakeru (3). Tsn- 

Service, «. Shokumu, 
tsutome. HokS. Of 
no — , yaku ni tata- 
na-i. 

Serviceable, a, Yaku 
ni tatsu (i). Takn- 
yo-na. 

Set, /. V. Oku(i), sue- 
ru (3). Kimeru (3), 
sadameru (3). Tsu- 
keru (3). i. v. Kure- 
ru (3). Deru (3). — 
sail, shuppan sum 
(4). — a sail, ho wo 
ageru (3). — against, 
kuraberu (3). Te- 
kitau (h. 1). — 
aside, katazukeru 
(3). Suteru (3). Sa- 
shi-oku (i). — by, 
waki ni oku (\). 
Nebumi wo suru (4). 

— down, orosu (i) 
Kimeru [^). Noberu 



( "S) 



(3). — forthy shime- 
su (i). Arawasu (i 
Shuttatsu sum (4 
labi ni deru (3). Ya- 
rn (l). — ffee,y\xxvi- 
su f I V — 0^, wake- 
lU (3). Kazaru (i). 
Homeru (3). Tsugu- 
nau (h. I). Shuttatsu 
sum (4). — • wi, or 
upon, oshiem (3). 
Kyosa sum (4), so- 
sonokasu (i). Kime- 
ru (3), kettei sum 
(4). — oil fire, hi 
•wo tsukeru (3). — 
cut, kagim (2). Ka- 
zam (i). Misem ^3). 

— to, tsukem (3), 
soem (3). Makaseru 
(3> — «>. taieru (3). 
Okosu (i). Shimesu 
(i). Kumu (1). Ha- 
jimem (3). — in 
order, narabem (3). 

— eyes en, me wo 
kakem (3). — at 
ease, akiraiTiera (3 

— right, naosu (i 

Settle, /. V. Sadameru 
(3), Icimem (3). 
Shokumin sum {4). 
Shizumem (3). U- 
mem (3V i. v. Ki- 
mam (i), sadamaru 
(i). Ochitsuku (i). 
Shizumam (i). Shi- 
aumu (i), odomu 
(l). — an account, 
kanjo wo faarau (h. 
l). — menf, setsuri- 
tsu. Shokumin. , 



Shokumin-chi. Kes- 
san. Ori, chiaden- 
butsu. Sumai, jusho. 
I'oreign — , kyoryu- 
chi. 

Several, a. Iro-iro-Cio, 

Mei-mei-no, betsu- 
betsu-no. Tokube- 
tsu-no. 

Severe, a. Hageshi-i, 
kibishio. 

Sew, t. V. Nuu (li. i> 
Shitatem (3). — 
ing, saiho. 

Sex, n. Sei. 

ShadOYV, n. Kage. 

Shake, /. v. Furu-' (i), 
furuu (h. i). Yusum 
(x). i. V. Fumem 
1^3), yusureru (3). — 
hand^ akushu wu su- 
nt (4). 

Shallofv, a. Asa-i. 
Serapaku-na. ;;. Asa- 
se. 

Shame, n. Haji, chi- 
joku, hazukashime. 
/. V. Hazukashimem 
(3). i. V. Hazukashi- 
gam {i\ h?iiru 

Shape, ju Kr^Vhi, 
sugata, i. ^' Kata- 
dom (l\ Koshir^e. 
ru (3). 

Share. «. V\ »«»'-' ae^ 
bun. t, V. * -*'^era 
(3), bumpai suru 
(4> 



( 126) 



Sharp, a. Survido-i, 
yo-ku icireru (3). 
Riko-na, — en, togu 
(l), surudo-ku suru 
(4), togaraseru (3). 

Slaave, f. v. Soru (i). 

Sale, fit'on. A.no-hito 
(onna). 

Slieep, n. Hitsuji. 

Sheet, n. Mai. Shiki- 
lu. 

Shelf, «. Tana. 

Shell, n. Kara. 
Jis/i, kai. 

Shelter, n. Hinan- 
jo. 

Shepherd, n. Hi- 

tsuji-kai. 

Shine, /. v. Teru (i), 
!<:agayaku (1), hika- 
ru (i). /7. Tsuya, 
hikari. 

Ship, n. Fune. — 
tnaster, sencho. 

Merchant — , sho- 
sen. — meni, funa- 
zumi. — wreck, nan- 
sen, Jtiasen. 

Shirt, n. Shalsu. 

Shoe, 71. Kutsu. — 
^xAck, kutsu-migaki. 
— maker, kutsu-ya. 

Ohoot, /. V. Iru (2). 
Utsu ''i). ;/. Has- 
sm-i, sh-wgeki. Me, 
mrr)ae. 

Shop, 71. Mise. 



-Shore, ». Kishi/'^ ha- 
ma. Sea^ — , kai- 
gan. f"^ 

Short, a. Mijika-i, — 
road, cliika-niicri i . 
Ai — 7iof{ce, jiki, 
ma mo na-ku. Slop 
— , sugu yameru (3). 
In — , iwa ba, ryaku- 
gen sureba. To be 
— of, fusoku suru 
(4), sukuna-ku naru 
(i). Fall, or cotite 
— , ayamatsu (i), 
ayamaru (i). Naku- 
nasu (i). — en, cM- 
jimeru (3), mijikt;. 
ku suru (4). -- - 
hand, sokki. — 
si^hled, chikame-no, 
kingan-no. 

Shoulder, n. Ka''la. 
/. V. Ninau (h. l). 

Show, /. V. Miseru (3). 
Oshieru (3). n. Mi- 
ba, mikake. Mise- 
mono. 

Shower, ti. YudadM, 

Shrink, i. v. Qiijimu 
(i), chijimaru i\) 
Shiwa ga yoru (i) 
t. V. Chijimeru (3). 

Shut, t. V. Shinie^ru 
(3), tate^ru (3). I -v. 
Shimaru (i). — ni, 
toji-ko:iieru (3), ka- 
komu (i). — off, 
nokeru (3). Tomeru 
(3)- — out, shime- 
dasu (i). — up, shi- 



C 127 ) 



meru (3). R5 ni ire- 
ru (3). 
81ck, a. Byoki-no. 
Kagen or ambai ga 
waru-i. -=- ness, byo- 
ki, yamai. 

Side, n. Waki, soba. 
Kawa. Every — , 
hobo. Botk-^i ryo- 
ho. One — , katap- 
po, kata-kata, kata- 
kawa. By the — , 
chika-ku. — by — , 
narande. — tvalk^ 
jindo. 

ISigrlit, n. Shiryoku. 

Miru koto. i. v. 

Mini (2). Nerau (h. 

0- 
Sig:n, n. Shirushi, ki- 

go- 
Sig^nal, n. Shingo, ai- 

zu. 

Sig^natnre. Han. Ki- 
mei. Choin. 

Silence, n. Mugon. 
Silk, n. Kinu. Raw 
— , ki-ito. 

SiilTer, n. Gin, 
Similar, a. Onaji-no. 
Simple, a. Tanjun-no. 

Shisso-no. Shitsu- 

boku-no. Hitoe-no. 

Shojiki-no. 
Sin, n. Tsumi, toga. 
Since, adv. Kara, yo- 

ri. Irai, sono-go. 

Yue-ni. 



Sincere, a. MajLme- 

no. Jittei-no. 
Sing-, t. V, and u v, 

Utau (h. iV Sarzuru 

(0- 

Slng-er, n, Utau-hito. 
Geisha. 

Singrle, a. Hitotsu-no, 

tan'^itsu-no. 
Singular, n. Taasu. 

a. Kitai-na. Kaku- 

betsu-no. 

Sink, t V. Shizumeru 
(3). /. V. Shizumu 

(0- 

Sir, tt. Sama, san^ ki- 
mi, kun. 

Sister, ;?. Shi'mai. 
onna-no Vy5dai. 

Elder — , ane. 

Younger — , im5to. 

Sit, i, V. Suwaru (i). 
Kakeru (3). — up, 
okite-oru (i]. 

Situation, n^ Ichi, 

tokoro. 

Size, n. Ckisa. iCasa. 

Skeleton, u, Gaiko- 

tsu. 

Skeptic, a. Utagai- 

no. 

Sketch, n. Xogai, 
gairyaku. Ryaku-?u, 
/. z/. Kaku (i;. 

Skill, a. Jukuren-na, 

jozu-na, unia-j. 
Skin, n. Kawa* 



(12S) 



Kfey, M, Sora, te^n, 

miaie, n. Seki-ban. 

Slave, n. Dorei, 

^^iMlg-e, n. Sori. 

Sl^l», i. V. Neru (3), 
Tieamru (i). 

Sleepy, a. Nemu-i, 
nemuta-i. 

Slide, i. V. Subeju (3). 

lilipper, M. Uwa-gu- 
tsu. 

Slow, a. Oso-i. 

iiJtnall, a. Chisa-i. Su- 

kii-na-i. — pox, ho- 

so, 

swiell, /. V. Kagu (i). 
/. V. Niou (h. i). 

ntnile, /. V. Warau (h, 
i), niko-niko sum 
(4). 

Smith, «. Ka]i-ya. 

Hmoke, «, Kemu, ke- 
muri. t. V. Ibusu (i), 
kep-iura.su (iV Tab^- 
ko wo suu (h. \) or 
nomu (1). i. v. Ke- 
muru (i), iburu (l) 

•nniootli, a. Namera- 
ka-na, subekko-i. 
r. V. Narasu (i). 
Subekko-ku suru 
v4)- 

»ii»ii, n. Katatsumu- 
n. 

Anow, n. Yuki. /. v. 
^ifKi ga furu (i). 



Se, adv. So, sayo, sa- 
hodo. Sore desu ka- 
ra. ^«a^ — on, na- 
do. — and — , nani- 
nanL — as to, yo- 
ni. — far, sore dake 
wa, sore made wa. 

— forth, nado. — 
vincfi, sore hodo, 
kore hoda — yuuch 
the better, sore nara- 
ba nao yoroshi-i. — 
tJiat, sore desu kara, 
sore yue-ni. Sore 
hodo-ni. 

Soap, M. Shabon, sek- 
keu. 

Social, tjr, Shakwai-no. 
Kosai-no, shako-no. 

— ism, shakwai- 
shugi. — position, 
mibun. — meetings 
shimboku-kwai. 

Society, n. Shakwai. 
Kosai. 

Soeiologry, «„ Sha^ 

kwai-gaku. 

Soda, V, Soda. 
Safa, n. Naga-isu. 

Soft, a. Yawaraka-i, 
yavvaraka-na. 

Soften, /. V, Vawara- 
ka ku suru (4). 

Soil, ;/. Chimi. To- 
chi. Koyashi. 

Solar, a. Taiy5-no. 

— system, taiyo-kei, 

— time, taiyo-reki 



( 129 ) 



Soldier, n. Heishi, 

heisotsu. 
Solemn, a. Genkaku- 

na, onio-omoshi-i. 

Solid, a. Kata-i, jobu- 
na. Kokeitai-no. n. 
Kokeitai, kotai. 

Solitary, a. Sabishi- 

Some, a, Aru. Ikura- 
ka-no. — how, toni- 
kaku, dono michi. 
— body, aru-hito. — 
thing, nani ka. Aru 
koto, Tasho. Suko- 
shi. — titfie, itsu-ka. 
Toki-doki. Katsute, 
mae-ni. Shorai. — 
what, yaya, ikubun 
ka. Tasho. Taitei, 
taigai. — while^ 
zanji, shibaraku. — 
whither, dokka ye, 
doko ye. 

Son, n. Musuko, ko. 
Shison. Oldest — , 
cho-nan, soryo. 

Second — , ji-nan. 
Third — , san-nan. 
Youngest — , basshi, 
suekko. — in law, 
muko. 

Song:, n. Ula. Sambi- 
ka. Shoka. 

Soon, adv, Sugu, jiki. 
Ai — oj, so — as, 
... suru to sugu, shi- 
dai. As — as 

possible, dekiru dake 
haya/'ku. 



Sorrow, n. Kanashi- 

mi, ?'. V. Kanashi- 
mu (rl. 

Sorry, a. Kanashi-i, 
kuyashi-i. Ki no 

doku-na, zannen- 
na. 

Soul, n. Reikon, ta- 
mashi-i. 

Sonnd, a. j5bu-no, 
kenzen-no. Tadashi- 
i. — sleep, jukusui. 
n, Hibiki, oto, ne, 
on. /. V. Narasu (i). 
i. V, Naru (i). 

Soap, n. Soppu. 

Sonr, a, Su-i, suppa-i. 
Shibu-i. 

Sonrce, n. Minarno- 
to, moto, kongen. 

Soatli, n. Minami. 
Sovereig-n, ;/. Shu- 
ken-ja. 

Sow, /. V. Ma-'ku ( I ). 

Space, n. Kukwan. 

Aida, sukima. 
Spade, n. Suki. 
Spark, n. Hibana. 
Sparrow, «. Suzu- 

me. 

Speak, /. V. and i. v. 

Hanasu (i), yu (h. 
I), shabera (3). — 
/r, hanasu-hito. 
Special, a. Tokube- 
tsu-no, kakudan-no 



( 130 ) 



Omo-na. In — , bes- 

siiite. 
N3>ecialty» n. Toku- 

sei, tokushitsu. 
Specimen, n. Mihon. 
Spell, n. Tsuzuri. 
^peiid, /. V. Tsuiyasu 

(i), tsukau (h. I). 

i. V. Na-ku naru (i). 
Spirit, K. Seishin, ko- 

koro. Kisho. Yurei. 

Holy — , seirei. /. v, 

Hagemasu (i). 

Spirits, n. Shochfl. 
Splendid, a. Kekko- 
na, rippa-na. 

Spong'e, n. Kaimen. 

Spontaneous, a. 

Shizen-no. Nin-i- 
no. 

Spoon, n. Saji. 

Sport, n. Yugi. Ta- 

wamure, j5dan. i. v. 

Tawamureru (3), fu- 

zakeru (3). 

Spot, n. Ten. Shimi. 

Sprea«l, t. v. Hiroge- 
ru (3). i. V. Hiroga- 
ru(i). 

Spring-, ;;. Ilaru. Izu- 
mi. Ilajiki, bane. 
Zemmai, Iloi — , 
on -sen. {. v. Tobu 
(I). Ilaneru (3). 
Dckiru (2). r. V. 
Hajiku (i). Dasu 
(l> Mageru (3}. 



Square, n. Shikaku, 

Ileiho. 

Slag-, «. 0-jika. 

Stage, 71. Butai. 

Stair, iu 1 1 ash i go. 
Dan. 

Stamp, n. Han, in. 
Kitte. /. V. Han wo 
osu (i). Fumu (i). 

Stantped-paper, n. 

Keishi. 

Stand, i. v. Tatsu (i), 
Tachi-domaru (i). 
Aru (i). — against, 
hantai suru (4). — 
by, chikayoru (i). 
Bokwan suru (4). — 
for, tasukeru (3). 
Dairi sum (4). — 
off, tozakeru (3). — 
io, kesshin suru (4). 
Sasaeru (3). — togc- 
ther, fugo suru (4). 

— tinder, ukeru [T))' 

— ?//, tatsu (1). 

Standard, 11, Hyo- 
jun. Gunki. 

Star, n. Hoshi. 

Starcli, n. Nori. 

Starve, i* v, U^cru 
(3> 

Slate, n. Jotai, ari- 
sama. Kokka, kuni. 
f, V. Kimeru (3), sa- 
dameru (3). Noberu 
(3), hanasu (i). 

Statesman, n. SeijU 
ka. 



( '31 ) 



station, «. Suteshon, 
teisha-ba. Iclii. 

Stationer, n. Baimpo- 
gu-ya. — y'y bump5- 

Statistics, n. T5kei. 

gaku. Tokei-hyo, 
iStatae, n. Sh5zo. 
Stature, «w fake. 

Stay, /. V. Tomaru (i). 
Toryu suru (4). Oru 
(i). Matsu (i). /. V. 
Tomeru (3). 

Steal, /. V. Nusumu 

(0- 

steam, ;/. Joki. Mo 
ya. — boai, joki-sen. 

— engine, j5ki-ki- 
kwan. 

Steel, fi. Hagane, ko- 

t-tsu. 

Steep, «. Gake. Sa- 
ka. 

Stem, n. Kuki. Mi- 
ki. 

Step, n. Ayumi, ho. 

— by — , dan-dan. 
Step-brother, «. 

Tanegawari or ha- 
ra-gawari-no kyo- 
dai. 

Step^Eiild, n. Mama- 
ko, . 

Step-dangflite^, n. 

Mama-ko. 

Step-fatber, «. Kei- 
fu. 



Step-mother, «. Kei- 

bo, mama-haha. 

Stepping-'Stone, n. 

Fumi-ishi. 
Step-sister, n. Tane- 
gawari or hara-ga- 
wari-no shi''mai. 

Stereotype, it. Kin- 

zoku-ban. En-ban. 

Steward, ii. ShltsLi''ii. 
Karei. 

Sticic, It. Tsue. Bo. 

Still, a. Shizuka-na. 
adv. Mada. Nao, 
nao-sara. Yaharic 
Ima-made. Keredo- 
mo. 

Stimulate, /. v. Ha- 

gemasu (i). Shigeki 
suru (4). 

Sting-, L V. Sasu (i). 

Stir, f. V. Odateru (3), 
kyosa suru (4), sen- 
do suru (4). — reTf 
sendo-sha, kyosa- 
sha. 

Stoek, n. Jiku. Do. 
Shihon. Kabu. Cho- 
chiku. t. T'. Takuwa- 
eru (3). — account, 
sashihiki-kwanjo. — 
holder, kabu-nushi. 

Stocking, «. Kutsu- 
shita. 

Stomach, ^ I. •» 
ic, ken-i-zai. 

Stone, n. IshL 



(I3M 



stop, /. V. Tomeru 
(3). t. V. Tomaru 
(i). w. Teishi. 

Store, w. Mise. Kura. 
L V. Takuwaeru (3), 
chozo suru (4). 

Storm, n. Arashi. 

St-ory, n. Hanashi. 

Stove, n. Sfitobu, dan- 
ro. 

Straigrlit, a. Massugu- 
no. adv. Sugu. — 
en, massugu-ni suru 
(4)- 

Strange, a. Gwaiko- 
k.ii-no, takoku-no. 
Kitai-na, mezurashi- 
i. — r, gwaikoku- 
jin. Shiranai-hito. 

Straw, n. Wara. — 
berry, ichigo. 

Stream, n. Nagare, 
kawa. i. v. Nagare- 
ru (3). 

Streiig'tli, w. Chika- 
ra. Tsuyosa. — en, 
t. V. Tsuyo-ku suru 
(4). /. V. Tsuyo-ku 
naru (i). 

Strike, A v. Utsii (i), 
tataku (i), butsu (i). 
i.v. Utsu(i). Mu- 
kau (h. i), — ottif 
kuwadateru (3). — 
///>, narasu (l). llaji- 
mcru (3). — in ivith, 
kanau (h l). ;/, Da- 
gcki. Domei hiko. 



String-, n. Ito. 
Strong', a. Tsuyo-i 

J6bu-ua. Soken-na, 

tassha-na. 

Structure, n. Soshi- 
ki, kozo. 

Struggle, i. v. Ara 
sou (h. i). Hone wo 
cru (l), n. Funrei. 
Kyoso. 

Stu<lent, n. Gakusei, 

shosei. 
Studious, a. Kinben- 

no, benkyo-no. 

Study, n. Gakumon. 

Kenkyu. — room, 

shosai. 
Stnir, n. Genryo. Ka- 

Stumble, i. v. Tsuma- 

zuku (i). n. Tsuma- 

zuki. 
Stupid, a. Noro-i, ni- 

bu-i. 
Style, n. Buntai. Fu. 

Shiki. 

Stylisli, a. Iki-na, fu- 
ryu-na, shareta. 

Subdue, /. V. Seifuku 
suru (4), shitagaeru 

Subject, n. Koto. 
Fukuju-sha. Shui, 
shudai. Slm-kaku. 

Sublime, a. Kedaka- 

i, sogon-na. 

Subscribe, /. v. Ki- 

mei suru (4). 



K ^33 ) 



Subscription, n. Ki- 

mei. Choin. Kifu, 
gien. 
Substance, n. Hon- 
shitsu. Bjjttai. Zai- 
ryo. Shins, mono. 

Substitute, /. v. Ka- 

eru (3), kokwan suru 
(4)- 
Succeed, i. *, Tsuzu- 
ku (i), Togeru (3), 
joju suru (4). /. V. 
Tsuzukeru (3). 

Success, n. Seiko, jo- 
ju. 

Succession, n. Kei» 

zoku. 

Successor, n. Sozoku- 
nin, atotsugi. 

Suck, t. V. Suu (h. l). 

Sudden, a. Fui-no, 

niwaka-no, igai-no, 

kyu-no. 

Suffer, /. V. Ukeru 
(3). Koraeru (3), 
shiuobu(i). 0^u(h. 
l), ninau (h. l). t. v. 
Kurushimu (i), na- 
yamu (i). 

Sufferance, n. Kan- 
nan. Gaman. Yuru- 
slii. 

Snffix, /. V. Soeru (3), 
tsukeru (3). u. Se- 
tsubi-ji. 

Sugar, ;/. Sato. 

SusTgrest, /. V. Fu sum 



(4). An ni shimesu ] 

(I). Oshieru (3). I 

Suicide, «. Jisatsu. I 

Suit, u V. Teki suru i 
(4), au (h. I). 

Suitable, n. Tekigi, 
solo, tekito. 

Snlptiur, n. Id. 

Sunt, n. Gokei, sokei, 
tsugo. 

Summary, n. Gai- 

ryaku. 

Summit, n. Chojo. 

Susnmon, /. v. Sho- 
shu suru (4), yobi- 
alsumeru (3). 

Sun, n. Taiyo. 

Sunday, n. Nichiyo- 
bi. 

Sunrise, n. Nisshu- 
tsu, hi-no-de. 

Sunset, n. Nichi-bo- 
tsu, lii-no-iri. 

Sunshine, n. Nikko. 

Superior, a. Sugure- 
ta, masaru (l). 

Supernatural. a. 

Fushigi-no. 

Superscription, «, 

Uwa-gaki. 

Superstition, n. 

Meishin. 

Supper, n. Yil-me- 
shi, ban-meshi- 

Supplement, »• 

Tsuika, hoi. Furoka. 



SH|>i*ly, /. V. Kyokyu 
suru (4). 

SH5>I>oi't, /. V. Sasa- 
eru (3), i]i suru (4). 



(J342 

i 



Suppose, 



V. Sozo 



suru (4). Omou (h. 
1). Desho. 

S>uppositi09», n* So- 
zo. 

Supreme, a. Saijo- 
no, mujo-no. 

Sure, a. Tashika-na. 

Surface, n. Hyomen, 

uwabe. 

Surg-eon, «. Geka-i. 

Surprif^e, /. v. Odo- 
rokasu (l). By — , 
fui-ni, omoi-gake- 
na-ku. 

Surrender, /. v. Ku- 

dasu (i). i. V. Kuda- 
ru (i), kosan suru 
(4). 
Surround, /. v. Ka- 

komu (i). 

Survive, ?. v, Iki- 

nokoru (l). 

Suspend, L v. Kake- 
ru (3), yameru (3). 
Chiishi suru (4). 

Swallow, ti. Tsuba- 
me. A V. Nomi-ko- 
mu (i). 

Suun, «. Ilakucho. 

Swear, t. v. Chikau 
(h. i> 

*i'«oat, n. Ase. i. v. 



Ase ga deru (3), 
hakkwan suru (4). 

Sweep, t. V. Fuku (i), 
Haku (i). 

Sweet, a. Ama-i. U- 

ma-i. 
Swell, i. V. Fukureni 

(3). Oki-ku nam 

(0- 

Swift, a. Haya-i, su 
miyaka-na. 

Swim, i. V. Oyogn 

Swimming*, n. Oyo- 

gi, yuei. Memai. 

Swing:, f' V. Furu (l), 
furuu (h. i). n. 
Shindo. Buranko. 

Sword, n. Ken, kata- 
na. 

Syntbol, «. Fugo. 

Symmetry, «. Cho- 
wa. 

Sympatby, n, Dojo. 

Synonym, n. Doigi 
no ji. 

System, w, Soshiki. 

Systematic, a. Ki- 

mari no yo-i, chitsu- 
jo no tadashi-i. 



Tabernacle, ;;. Rei- 

hai-d5. 



( 135 ) 



Table, n. Teburu, tsu- 

kue. 
Tail, «. O. 
Tailor, n. Saiho-shi, 

shitate-ya. 

Take, A v. TorU (l). 
Tsukamaeru (3). — 
along, tazusaeru (3). 

— a turn, kaeru (3). 

— away, tori-saru 
(I), nokeru(3). — 
back, tori-kaesu (l). 

— care, ki wo tsuke 
yo. — care of, 
kwantoku sum ^4). 

— down, orosu (i), 
tori-kuzusu (i). — 
in, ukeru (3). Ireru 
(3). — #, toru(i). 
Nugu (i). Nozoku 
(I). Maneru (3). — 
pari in, nakama ni 
hairu (l). — place, 
okoru (l). — uj), 
hirou (h. I ). Ageru 
(3). — time, hima- 
doru (iV — fff'ct, 
kiku (i). Shirushi 
ga aru (i). — to 
heart, ki ni kakeru 
(3). — leave, itoma- 
goi wo suru (4). — 
aim, nerau (ii. l). — 
for, machigaeru ^3). 

— to, konomu (i), 
suku (i). — colli, 
kaze wo hiku. 

Talent, n, f5ain6. Ki- i 
ry5. 

Tall, a. Sei or take no 
taka-i. | 



Taine, a. Nareta, oto- 
nashi-i. t. v. Narasu 

(0- 

Taste, ;/. Aji, ajiwai. 
Shiko. /. V. Ajiwau 
(h. I). 

Tax, n. Zei. 

Tea, n. Cha. — eaddy^ 
cha-tsubo. — cup, 
cha-wan. — hotise, 
cha-ya. — pot, do- 
bin. Kiusu. — spoon, 
cba-saji. — store, 
haja-ya. — tray, 
cha-bon. 

Teacb, /. v, Oshieru 
(3). — er, kyoshi, 
sensei. 

Teacliiitg-, n. Kyoju. 

Tear, t. v, Sa^ku (i). 

— off, hittakuru (i). 

— up, hiki-nuku (i). 
n. Namida. 

Technics, n. Gigei, 

geijutsu. Senmon- 

go- 

Tedions, a. Nagata- 

rashi-i, hitsukko-i. 

Urusa-i. Taikutsu- 

na. 

Telegram, n. Den- 
shin, dempo. 

Teleg-rapli, n. Den- 

shin-ki. — office, 
denshin-kyoku. — 
line, densen. 

Telescope, «. Boen- 
kyo. 



{ 136) 



Tell, t. V, Hanasu (i). 
Temperament, n. 

Seishilsu, slio. 

Temperance, n. Ses- 
sei. 

Temperature, ;/. 

Yoki, ondo. 

Temple, ft. Do. Mi- 

ya, yashiro. 

Temporal, a. Gense- 
110. Zanji-no, ichiji- 
no. Zokuji-no. 

Temptation, n. Ma- 

yowashi, izanai, ko- 
koromi. 

Tendency, n. Kata- 

muki. 

Ten<ler, a. Yasashi-i. 
Yawaraka-na. Yo- 
wa-i. 

Tenuis, n. Tenisu. 
Tent, n. Tento. 
Term, n. Kigen, ni- 

chigen. Joyaku. Ko- 

toba. 

Testament, n* Yui- 
gon. Old — , kyu- 
yaku-zensho. New 
— , shinyaku-zen- 
sho. 

Testimony, n. Sho- 

ko. Slioinei. 
Text, n. Ilommon. 

— book, kyokwa- 

sho. 

'V\\t%.\\ytonj. Yori. 



Thank, /. v. Rei wo 

yu (h. I), kwansha 
SLiru (4). 

That, pron. Sore. Are. 
Kore. 

Theatre, «. Shibai. 

Then, adv. Sono toki, 
sono nochi. conj. 
Sore nara, shikara- 

l)a. 

Theory, n. Rirou. 
There, adv, Soko, 

sotchi. Achira, at- 

chi. 

Thermometer, n, 

Kwandan-kei. Ken- 
on- ki. 

Thieh^ a. Atsu-i. Ko- 
i. 

Thief, iu Dorobo, 

nusubito. 

Thieves, t, v, Nusu- 
mu(i). 

Thig^h, ;/. Memo. 

Thin, a. Usu»i. 

Things, n. Mono, shi- 
na. Koto. All — , 
ban-butsu. Any — , 
nandemo. 

Think, /. v. Kangae- 
ru (3). Otnou (h. i). 
Desho. — itig, shi* 
an. 

Thirst, «. Kawaki. 

i. V. Kawaku (1). 
This, ^r<?;/. Kore. 



( 137 ) 



ThArn, n. Toge, hari. 
Tborougli, a, Matta- 

ki, jubun-na. — 
farg, tsuro, tori-mi- 

chi. 

rhongli, ionj. Tatoe 
... temo, demo, to- 
mo. 

Thon^lit, n. Kangae^ 
shiso, shiryo. — ful, 
kangae no fuka-i. 

— /esf, kangae no 
na-i, karuhazumi-no, 
keisotsu-na. 

Thread, ;;. Ito. t. v. 
Tosii (i). 

Throat, n. Node. 

Throne, «. Kurai. 
Gyokuza. 

Throag-h, prep. To- 
shite. De, yotte. 

Throw, f. V, Nageru 
(3), horu (I). — 
agamst, nage-tsukeru 
(3). — aivay, utcha- 
ru (i), suteru (3). — 
back, nage-kaesu (i). 
Kirau (h. I). — by, 
waki ni oku (i). Ya- 
meru (3). — doivn, 
taosu (i). Otosu (i). 

— info, nage-komu 
(l), nage-ireru (3). 
Sasu ( I ). — 0^, na- 
geru (3). Nugu (i). 

— on, nage-ageru 
(3). Noseru (3). -■■ 
0u(, nage-dasu (i). 
Nokeru (3). Haftitsu 



(l). — oTJer, mi-ka- 
giru (2). — «/, na- 
ge-ageru (3). Suteru 
(3). Haku (i), mo- 
dosu (i). 

Thumb, u. Oya-yu- 

bi. 

Thunder, «. Kami- 
nari, rai. Raimei. 
/. V. Naru (i). — 
rod, hirai-shin. 

Thursday, n, Moku- 
yo-bi. 

Thus, adv. Kayo ni. 

Ticket, n. Kippu. 

Tide, n, Shio, ushio. 

Nigh — , michi-shio. 

Low — , hi-shio. 

JSbd — , hiki-shio. 

flood—, age-shio. 
Tie, /. V. Musubu (i), 

shibaru (i), karage- 

ru (3). 
Tiger, n. Tora. 
Timber, n. Zaimoku, 

Time, n. Toki. Jidai» 
Tabi, hen, do. Bai. 
Any — , itsu demo. 
IVkat — , itsu. To be 
in — , ma ni au (h. 
l). Not in — , ma ni 
awa-na-i. Lose — , 
oso-ku naru (i). For 
a long — , hisashibu- 
ride. Short' — , shiba- 
raku, chotto. Manya 
— , tabi-tabi. At — s, 
toki-doki, ori-ori. 
For a — , zanji, kata- 



C 138) 



toki. In due — , sono 
toki ni natte. — 
bill, jikwan-hyo. 

Timid, a. Okubyo-na, 
hikyo-na. 

Tin, n. Suzu. Buriki. 

Tiptoe, n. Tsuma- 

saki. 

Title, ;/. Shogc^ Son- 
sho. Hyodai. — 
page, mikaeshi. 

To, prep. Ni. Ye. Ma- 
de. ... yo ni. As — , 
Isuite. In order — , 
tame-ni. 

Tobacco, n. Tabako. 

To-day, n. Kyo, kon- 
nichi. 

Toe, «. Yubi (ashi- 
no). 

Tosrether, adv. Issho 
ni, tomo ni. 

Tomato, «. Aka-na- 
su. 

Tomb, n. Haka. 

To-morrow, n. Ashi- 
ta, asu, myo-nichi. 

Tongue, n. Shita. 

To-nig'ht. n. Konya, 
konban. 

Too, adv. Ainari, sugi. 
Mata. 

Tool, n. Dogu. 

Tooth, iu Ha. — 
pick, ko-yoji, kuro- 
moji. — brush, yoji. 
— powder, hamigaki. 



Top, n. Ch6j5, itada. 

ki. Koma. 
Topic, n. Dai, daimo- 

ku, rondai. 
Torpedo, n. Suirai. 
Total, a. Mina-no, 

sukkari-no. — sutn, 

sokei. 
Toucli, ?*. V. Sawaru 

(l). n. Te-zawari. 

— stone^ shikin- 

seki. 
Toward, prep. ... no 

ho ni. 
Towel, n. Tenugui. 
Tower, n. To. 
Town, n. Machi. 
Toy, n, Omocha. 
Trade, >'. Shogyo, 

shobai. Boeki. — 

mark, shohyo. 
Tradition, n. li-tsu* 

tae, densetsu. 
Tragedy, n. Higeki. 
Transform, /. v. 

Henkei suru (4), 

kaeru (3). 
Transition, n. Ka- 

wari, utsuri-kawari. 

Transitive verb, «. 
Ta-duslii. 

Translate, t. v. Hon- 

yaku suru (4). 
Translation, n. 

Ilonyaku. Yiku- 
bun. 



(139 ) 



Transparent, a. 

Tomei-no, suki-t5ru 

(0- 
Trap, n. Wana, oto- 

shi-ana. 
I'ravel, i. v^ Tabi wo 

suru (4), ryokd suru 

(4). ;/. Ryoko, tabi. 

— ery ryo-jin, tabi- 

bito. 

Treasure, n. Takara, 
zaiho. 

Treasury, n, Kokko. 
Kane-gura. — de- 
partment, okura-sho. 

Treat, /. v. Tori-atsu- 
kau (h. 1). Motena- 
su, ashirau (h. i). 
Giron suru (4). — 
vie7ity taigu. Tori- 
atsukai. 

Treaty, n. Joyaku. 
Tree, n, Ki. 

Trial, 11. Gimmi. 

Shimmon. 

Trinity, n. Sarami- 
ittai. 

Trinmpli, n, diisen. 
Shori. 

Troop, n, Guntai, 
Trouble, n. Shimpai, 
kuro. Mendo. Mei- 
waku. t. V. Kurushi- 
meru (3), komarase- 
Tu (3). — some, uru- 
sa-i, mendo-na. 

Itfeiwaku-na. Shim- 
pai-na, kuro-na. 



True, a. Makoto^no, 
honto-no. 

Trump, n. Torampu. 

Trumpet, n. Rappa. 

Trust, ft. Shinyo, 
shinnin. Kake-uri. 
i. V. Shiny5 or shin- 
nin sum (4). Kake 
de uru (i). 

Truth, «. Shinri. 

Try, t. V. Tamesu (i) 
kokoromiru (2), yai- 
te-miru (2), miru 
(2). Gimmi suru (4), 
tadasu (i). 

Tube, n. Kuda. 

Tuesday, «. Kwayo- 
bi. 

Tune, «. Choshi. 

Tunnel, n. Tonneru. 

TurStey, n, Shichi- 

men-cho. 

Turn, /. V. Mawasu 
(1). Mukeru (3). 
Urakaesu (i). Kaesu 
(i). {. V. Mawaru 
(I), meguru (i). 
Muku (i). Kawaru 
(l). — about, somu- 
keru (3). — mvay, 
yameru (3), — back. 
kaesu (l). — down, 
ori-kaesu (l). — in, 
ori-komu (1). — off, 
nokeru (3). Yameru 
(3). Magaru(i). — 
on or upon, kaesu 



( HO) 



(I). Kotaeru (3). 
Tsiiku (l). — otit, 
oi-dasu (i). Oshi- 
dasu (1). Nogareru 
(3). Tsuki-deru (3). 
n. Mawari, kaiten. 
Kawari. Junban. 

Bengi. By — , jun- 
ban ni, kawari-ga- 
wari. In — > dan- 
dan. To a — , chan- 
to. To take — j, ko- 
tai suru (4). 
Turning, n. Magari. 
Su''mi, ka''do. 

Twilig-ht, n. Shino- 
nome. Tasogare. 

Usu-akari. 

Twin> n. Futa-go. 

T.Vl>e, n. Shurui. Mo- 

kei. Katsu-ji. Tai- 

pu. 



u. 



Usly> ^- Miniku-i. Ki- 
lana-i. Mittomona- 
i. 

Ulf ininte, a. Shimai- 
no, owari-no. 

Ililiinio, ;/. Scn-getsu. 

tJinbrclla, n. Ko- 

mori-gasa. 

Umpire, n. Shimpau- 
kwan. 

Unable, a. Deki-na-i, 
fu-tekito-na. 



UiMler, prep. Shit a ni. 
odv. Sliita-no. -— 
ground, chi-ka. 

Understand, t. v, 

Rikai suru (4), sato- 
ru (1). i. V. Wakaru 
(l). — ing, rikai, 
ryokai. GCsei. 

Unhappy, a. I'u-ko 
no, fu-sliiawase-no. 

Uniform, a. Onaji 
no, soroi-no. ;;. Sei- 
fuku. 

Union, n. Jtclii, ren- 

go- 
Unit, n. Tan-i. 

Unitarian, n. Yuni- 

terian. 

Unite, t. V. Awaseru 
(3). /. V. Rengo suru 
(4). 

Unity, H, Tan-itsu, 
yui-itsu. Itchi. 

Universal, a. Ippan- 
no. 

Universe, ;/. Uchu. 

University, n. Dai- 
gakko. 

Unjust, a, Fu-sei-na. 

Unkind, a. Fu shin- 
setsu-na, hakujo-no. 

Unless, conj. ... de 
nakereba. 

Unnatural, a. Fu- 

shizen-no. 

Unnecessary, a. Mu- 

eki-no, fu-yo-no. 



C HI ) 



Unpleasant, a. Fu- 

5''ukwai-no. 

Until, /r--/. Made. 

Unnsnal, a. Hijo- 

no. 

Up, adv. and /rep. Ue 
ui. — i!o, made. 

U{>on, pff-p. Ue ni. 
Oite. 

Urine, n. Shoben. 

Use, t. V. Mochiiru 
(2), tsukau (h. l). 
Narasu(i). t. v. Na- 
reru (3). n. Shiyo. 
Hitsuyo. Shukwan. 
— /"«/, hitsuyo-na, 
yu-yo-na. — /ess, 
mu-yo-na, mueki- 
no. 

Usnal, a. Tsurei-no, 
fudan-no. 

Utility, n. Yu-eki, 
jitsuri. 

Utilize, A v. Riyo su- 
ra (4). 



Vacant, a. Munashi-i, 
Hima-no. 

Vacation, n. Yasu- 

mi. 

i^accination, «. Shu- 
to, ue-boso. 



Vagueness, n. Ai 

mai, bonyari. 

Vail, n. Kao-kake. 
Vain, a. Mud 0. no, 
dame-no. 

Valuation, n. [lyo- 
ka, ne-buini. 

Value, 71. Neuchi, ne. 

VanJsb, i. v. Kieru 

(3), shometsu suru 

(4). 
Vanity, n, Kyoei. 
Vapor, n. Joki, j5- 

liakki. 

Varietyy n. Fu-do, 
zappaku. 

Various, a. < Iro-iro 
no, shujuno. Kawa- 
ri-yasu-i. 

Vegetable, n. Yasai 
Shokubutsu. 

Velvet, n. Birodo. 

Ventilation, v. Tsu- 

ki, ryutsu. 

Venture, ». Boken. 

Mercantile — , ya''- 
ma. /• V. Kiken wo 
okasu (i). Yatte- 
miru (2), 

Verb, 11. D'jshi. 
Very, a, I Ion to- no, 

makoto-no, shin-no. 
adv. Hanahada, tai- 
hen, taiso. 

Vibration, «. Sliio. 
do. 



( '42 ) 



-^pjtftoity It. Gisei, ike- 

tolC. 

\ietor, n. Sensho- 

ja. 
Victory, n. Shon. 

View, n. Arisama, 

keisei. Shisatsu. 

Ikeii. Keshiki, fu- 

kei, chobo. 
Village,;/. Mura. 
Vine, n. Budo-no-ki. 

Budo-zuru. 
Vinegar, n. Su. 
Violate, /. V. Yaburu 

(0- 
Violence, ;/. RambS. 

B5ryoku. 
Violet, //. Sumire. 
Violin, n. Baiorin. 
Virgin, n. Otome. 
Virtue, ;/. Toku. By 

— of, ... de, wake- 

de, ... ni yotte, ... 

no o-kagede. 

Viscount, tt, Shi- 

shaku. 
Visible, a. Mieru (3), 

akiraka-na. 

Vision, n. Shiryoku. 

Visit, n. Miinai. Ho- 
mon. t. V. Miniau 
(h. i). Ilomon sum 
(4), tazuneru (3). 

Visitor, ;/. Iloinon- 
sha, kyaku. 

Vitality, n. Kwatsu- 
ryoku. 



Vivid, a. Kwaikatsu- 

na, kappatsu-ua. 
Vocabulary,//. Jibi- 

ki. 
Voice, n. Koe. 
Volcano, n. Kwazan, 

funkwazan. 
Volition, n- Shui, 

shitsui. 

Volume, «. Maki, 

kwan. Satsu. 
Voluminous, a. Tai- 

bu-no. 
Voluntary, a. Nin-i- 

no, katte-no. 

Volunteer, n. Giyu- 

hei. 
Vomit, A V, Ilakii 

(i), modosii (l). 

Vomitory, a. Mune 

no waru-i. 
Vote, n. Tahyo, sei\- 

kyo. /. V. Tokyo or 

senkyo sum (4), era- 

mu (I). 
Vow, «. Chikai, gan. 

/. V. Chikau (li 

i). Gan wo kakeru 

(3). 
Vowel, n. Bo-in. 
Voyage, n. Kokwai. 

/. V. Kokwai suru 

(4). — f, k5kwai- 

sba. 
Vulgar, a. lyaslii-i. 

Zoku-na. 



( 143 ) 



w. 



Waist, n. Koshi. 
Wait, /. V. Ma^tsu(i). 

— upon, tsutonieru 
(3). Kyuji wo suru 
(4). — er, kyuji. 

Waitings niai<i, n. 

Koshimoto. 

Waitisig^ room, n, 

Machiai-shitsu. 

Wake, /. V. Sameru 
(3). Okiru (2). /. V. 
Okosu (i), samasu 

Walk, ?*. V. Aruku (i). 
n. Hoko, sampo. 

Wall, n. Kabe. 

Wander, i. v. Sama- 

you (h. i), bura-bu- 

ra aruku (i). 

Want, n. Ketsubo. 
Y5y5. i. V. Iru (2). 

War, n. Senso. 

Warm, a. Atataka-i. 
/. V. Atatameru (3), 
atataka-ku suru (4). 
i. V. Atatamaru (l), 
atataka-ku naru (i). 

— hi arte d, sliiuse- 
tsu-na. 

Wasli, /. V. Arau (h. 
l), sentaku suru (4). 
n. Sentaku. 

Waste, a. Areta, lu- 



mo-no. /. V. I fcvuy? 
su (i). Arasu ( I ). 
/. V. Na-ku naru ^i\ 
heru (i). 
Watol?, /. V Mamoru 
(l), ban wo suru (4). 
n. Bannin. Kaichu- 
dokei. 

Water, ;/. Mizu. /. v. 
Mizu wo kakeru (3) 
or sosogu (i). — 
f'Oiver, sui-ryoku. — 
dosfi, benjo, setsu- 
in, habakari. — /all, 
taki, bakufii. — 
tvhecl, mizu-guruma, 
sui-sha. 

Wave, ;/. Nami. 

Wax, n. Ro. 

Way, 11. Michi, d5ro, 
oral, Machi. Hoho, 
shikata. By the — , 
tsuide. A)iy — , do 
demo. To be in the 
— , jama-ni naru (1). 
Los the — , mayou 
(h. I). This — , ko- 
no yo, ko. Half — , 
nakaba. In a — , ya- 
ya, ikubun ka. In 
the — , tochu de. In 
the — of, tsugd yo. 
ku. OtU of the — 
hazurete. Give — , 
vuzuru (i). Shirizo- 
ku (1). Make —, 
yokeru (3)^. , waki ni 
yoru (i). V 

Weak, a. Yowa-L 
Wealth, u. TomU 



C 144) 



IVeapon, n. Biiki. 
Wear, t. v. Kim (2). 
Hdku' (i). Heru (3), 
tsuiyasu (i). 
Weary, a. Tsukaieta, 
kulabireta. i. v. Tsu- 
kareru (3), kutabire- 
ru (3). 
Weather, n. Tenki. 
Weave, t. v, O^ru (l). 

Amu (l). 
Web, «. Kumo-no- 

su. 
Wedg^e, n. Kusabi. 
Wednesday, n. Sui- 

yo-bi. 
Wee 'I, w. Zass5. 
Week, n. Shukwan. 
Weep, /. V. Naku (l). 
Weight, fi. Omosa, 

mekata. Fundo. 
Welcome, «. Kangei. 
/. V. Kangei suru 
(4). 
Welfare, n. Annei- 
Well, n. Izumi. Tdo, 
a. Vo-i, i-i. Kenko- 
na, jobu-na. 
West, ;/. Nishi. 
Wet. a. Shimetta, im- 
reta. /. v. Nurasu 
(i), shimerasu (i). 
I. V. Nurcru (3), shi- 
meru (3). u. Shime- 
ri. 
Wlialo, n. Kujira. 



Wharf, n. Hatoba. 
What, adv. Nani. 
WTheat, n. Ko-mugi. 
Wheel, n. Wa. Kuru- 

When, aih. Itsu, nan- 
doki, ... to, toki ni. 
Whence, adv. Doko 

kara. Nan de. 
Whenfjver, adv. Itsu 

demo. 
Where, adv. Doko, 
dochira. Any — , 
doko demo. Every 
— , doko ni mo. A'b 
— , doko ni mo nai. 
Whether, proti. Do- 
chira, izure. conj. 
Ka. Matawa. 
Which, pron. Dochi- 
ra, dore. 
While, n. Toki, ori. 
Koro. adv. Aida ni, 
nagara. No ni. 
Whip, n. Muchi. f. v. 
Miichi-utsu (l). Ta- 
taku (i). 
Whirlpool, n. Uzu. 
Whirlwind, n. Tsu- 

muj' . 
WhiMk, n. H5ki. 
Whisper, n. Sasaya- 
ki. t.v. Sasayaku(i). 
White, a. Shiro-i. 
Whiten, / V. Shiro- 
ku suru (4), sarasM 



( 145 ) 



(i). i. V. Sliiro-'ku 
iiaru (I). — shirt, 
shiro-shatsu. — sali, 
shoku-en, shio. 

Wliitlier, adv. Doko 

or dochira ye. 
Who, fron. Dare, do- 

nata. 
Whole, a. Mina-no, 

subete-no. 
Wholesale, 7i. Oro- 

shi-uri. 
W^holly, adv. Matta- 

ku, subete. 
Why, adv. Naze, 

nande, doshite. 
Wide, a. Hiro-i, 
Widow, n. Yamome. 
Wife, n. Tsi/ma, sai. 
Wig, n. Katsura. 
Wild, a. Ara-i. Yasei- 

no, no-no. — boar. 

inoshishi, yama-ku- 

jira. 
Will, n. Fshi, ki, ko- 

koro. Nozomi. Yui- 

gon. t. V. Konomu 

(I), suku (i). Yuigon 

sum (4). aiix. Ma- 

sho, desho. — ingly, 

yorokonde. 
Willful, a. Kimama- 

no, wagamama-no. 
Willow, n. Yanagi. 
Wiiid, n. Kaze. Fu. 

Fair — , jumpu. 

Contrary — , gyaku- 

fu. t. V. Maku (i), 

kuru (i). 



Window, «. ]Mado. 

Wine, n. Sake. — 
glass, sakazuki. 

Wing, ;/. Hane. 

Wink, i. V. Me-bata- 

ki wo suru (4). 
Winter, 71. Fuyu. 
Wipe, t. V. Fuku (i). 
Wire, n. Hari-gane. 
W^isdoni, ;/. Chie. — 

tooth, chi-shi. 

Wise, a. Kashiko-i, 
riko-na. 

Wish, /. V. Negau (h. 
I), nozomu (i). n. 
Negai, nozomi. 

Wit, n. Tonchi, sai. 
To — , sunawachi. 

With, prep. De, Ni, 

tomo-ni, issho-ni. 

Within, /r^/. Uchi or 
naka-ui. 

Without,/r^/. Na-ku, 

nashi-ni. adv. Soto- 

ni, hoka-ni. 
Wolf, 11. Okami. 
Woman, n. Onna, 

fujin. — ly, onna- 

rashi-i. 

Wonder, n. Fushigi, 
kitai. Odoroki. /. v, 
Odoroku (i). Aya- 
shimu (i). — ful, 
ayashi-i, fushigi-na, 
kimyo-na, odoroku- 
be-ki. 



( 146) 



tVoort, n. Mori, haya- 
slii. Ki. — ctiij mo- 
ku-han. 

4Vool, 71. Ke, yumo. 

— clotli, rasha. 

Word, n. Kotoba. In 
a — , ryakugen sure- 
La, mijika-ku ieba. 

Wovk, ;;. Shigoto. 
Saiku. Ilataraki, 

waza. i. v. llatara- 
ku (l). Shigoto wo 
suru (4). Saiku wo 
suru (4). /. V. Sum 
(4). _ at, suru (4). 

— on, hataraku (i), 
kwanjiru (2). — 
into, hameru (3). 
Izanau (li. i). — off, 
nokeru (3). — otii, 
hone wo oru (i). 
Nakunasu (i). — 
up, okasu (1). Hage- 
masu (i). 

Work-lioime, ;/. Ko- 

ba, kojo. 

Work-man, 71. Sho- 
kunin, sliokko. 

World, 71. Sekai. 

Worm, ;/. Mushi. 
Ea7-lh — , mimizu. 

Worsliii>, 71. Reihai. 
A 7'. Ogainu (i). 

Worth, ;/. Ne, ne- 

uchi, kachi. 
Wound, 71. Kizu, ke- 
ga. /. V. Kizu-tsuke- 
ru (3). 



Wreck, ;;. Hason, 

Nansen. t. v. Yabu- 
ru (I). 

VJ'rSnkle, 71. Shiwa. 
Hid a. 

W'rite; /. V. Kaku (i), 
shirusu (1). Utsusu 
(i). — /«, kaki-ire- 
ru (3). — down, 
kaki-noseru (3). — 
over again, kaki- 
naosu (i). 0/nif to 
— , kaki-otosu (l). 
— to, legami wo ka- 
ku (I). 

W'riter, 71. Shoki. 
Kisha. 

Wrong:, a. Waru-i, 
fu-sei-no. n. Fusei, 
aku. 



Taclit., n. Yotto, yu- 
sen. 

Yard, «. Niwa, Ya- 
do. 

Yawn, 77. Akubi, i. v. 
Akubi ga deru (3). 

Year, ;;.. Toshi, nen, 
sai. A^<?7c; — , shin- 
nen. This- — , kon- 
ncn, kotoshi. Last 
— , kyo-nen, saku- 
nen. — before last, 
ototoshi, issaku-nen. 
Next — , rai-nen, 



( 147) 



myo-nen. — after 
next, sarai-nen, 

myogo-nen. Alter- 
nate — s, kaku-nen, 
ichi-nen-oki. WJiole 
— , nen-ju. — book, 
nem-po. — ly, nen- 
nen, maitoshi. 

Yellow, a. Ki-iro-no. 

Tes, adv. Hai, sayo, 
hei. 

Testerday, n. Sakii- 
jitsu, kino. 

Yet, adv. Mada, nao. 
Not — , mada... ma- 
sen. As — , ima de- 
mo, conj. Keredo- 
mo, shikashi. 

You, pron. Anata, 
nanji, kimi. 

Yonng-, a. Waka-i. 

Youth, n. Ncnsho, 
shonen. 



Zealous, a. Nesshiu^ 
na. 

Zinc, n. Totan. 

Zlg'zag-, a. Giza-giza- 
no. 

Zone, ;/. Tai. Frigid 
— , kwan-tai. Tem- 
perate — , on-tai. 
Torrid — , nettai. 

Zoolog-y, ;/. Dobutsu- 

gaku. 
Z.ymurg-y, n. Jozo- 

gaku. 

Zythepsary, n. Jozo- 
sho. 



I'HE End. 
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