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Full text of "How to spend a month in Ireland, and what it will cost"

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How to spend a month 
in Ireland, and what it will cost 

Cusack Patrick Roney,,.;], 



ADYXBTISBICBNTS. 




Are WABBAITTED not to contain a single particle of 
MEBCUBT or any other MINERAL SUBSTANCE, bnt 
to consist entirely of Medicinal Matters, PUBELT 
VEGETABLE. 

For nearly 40 years they have pro^ their value in thooBands of instances in Diseases in 
the HsAD, Chest, Bowbls, and Kidnsts; and in all Skim Complaints are one of the BEST 
MEDICINES KNOWN. 

Sold in Boxes, price 71^., Is. Ij^., and 2s. 9d. each, by G. Whblptoit & Sow, 8, Crane 
Court, Fleet Street, London ; and by all Chemists and Medicine Vendors at Home and 
Abroad. Sent free, on receipt of 8, lif or 83 stamps, in.the United Kingdom. 



^ 




JOSEPH GILLOTT'S 

CELEBRATED 



BY ALL DEALERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, 



Every Packet 

bears the 
fac-simUe 
Signature, 




'^. 




T 



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ADVERTISEMSNTS. 



TOURISTS AND TRAVELLERS, 

VISITORS TO THE SEA-SIDE, 

And others, exposed to the Scorching; Bays of the Sun, and heated particles of 

Dust, wifl find 

ROWLANDS' KALYDOR 

A most refreshing preparation for the Complexion, dispelling the cloud of languor 
and relaxation, allaying all heat and irritability, and immediately affording the 
pleasing sensation attending restored elasticity and healthful state of the Skin. 

Freckles, Tan, Spots, Pimples, Flushes, and Discoloration, fly before its applica- 
tion, and giye place to a healthy clearness, with the glow of beauty and of bloom. 
In cases of sunburn, or stings of insects, its Tirtues haye long been acknowledged. 
Price 4s. 0d. and 8s. 6d. per bottle. 

The heat of Summer also frequently communicates a dryness to the hair and a ten- 
dency to fall off, wmch may be obviated by the use of 

ROWLANDS' MACASSAR OIL, 

A delightfully fragrant and transparent preparation, and as an invigorator and 
beautitier of the hair beyond all precedent. . 

Price 88. 6d. j 7s. j lOs. 6d. (equal to foiuf small) ; and 2l8. per bottle. 

WHITE AND SOUND TEETH 

Are indispensable to PERSONAL ATTRACTION, and to health and loogevity by 
the proper mastication of food. 

ROWLANDS' ODONTO, 

OR, PEARL DENTIFRICE, 
A White Powder compounded of the choicest and most fragrant exotics. It be- 
stows on the Teeth a 

PEARL-LIKE W^HITENESS, 
frees them from Tartar, and imparts to the Gums a healthy firmness, and to the 
breath a pleasing fragrance, Inrice 2s. 9d. per box. 

SOLD BY CHEMISTS AND PERFUMERS. 

ASK FOR ''ROWLANDS'" ARTICLES, AND AVOID ALL 

OTHER ARTICLES UNDER THE SAME NAMES. 

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ADVERTISEMENTS. 

NOTICE OF REMOVAL. 

Established A.D. 1839. 

^«*»^ 

X. C. COKX)in@ & Cs., 

WATERPROOFERS, 

Beg respectfully to notify to the Nobility and Gentry that, owing 
to a vast increase of business, and with a view to promote the 
convenience of their numerous customers, they have removed 

FROM the original Manufactory, 

231, STRAND, TEMPLE BAR, W.C., 

TO the Large and Commodious Premises, 

No. 19, PICCADILLY, 

Corner of Air Street, W., 

Where they hope to receive a continuance of that extensive 
patronage which their specialities in "Waterproof Goods have 
hitherto secured. 

J. C. C. & Co. take this opportunity of stating that they 
have no connection with any other firm. Their special manufac- 
tures can only be had at the above address, and they trust 
they may be judged by those goods only which bear their trade 
mark. 



J. C. CORDING & Co., 

(Proprietor, GEORGE WILSON,) 

REMOVED FROM 

231, STRAND, 

TO 

No. 19, PICCADILLY, 
Corner of Air Street, W. 

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1874* Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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HOW TO SPEND 

A MONTH IN IRELAND. 



BY 

SIR CUSACK P. RONEY. 



NEW EDITION, REVISEI 

MRS. J. H. RID 

AUTHOR OF "GEORGE GEITH," "TOO MUCl 



WITH CORRECT TABLES OF THROUGH FARES BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS 
OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND, AND INFORMATION AS TO THE ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR ISSUING TOURIST TICKETS FOR THE SEASON. 



EMBELLISHED WITH EIGHTY ILLUSTRATIONS AND A MAP 
WITH ALL EXISTING RAILWAYS DISTINCTLY MARKED. 

SovAnmt 
CHATTO AND WINDUS, PUBLISHERS. 

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INTRODtrCTION! 



This little book has been compiled for the purpose of showing how a 
month may be spent in Ireland. 

By the recent establishment of what undoubtedly is the most complete 
mail and passenger communication .in the world, the capitals of England 
and of Ireland have been brought within llj hours of each other ; and 
the yarious other routes which link together the western ports of Great 
Britain with all the leading harbours on the east side of Ireland 
afford facilities of communications so extensive and varied, that there is 
scarcely a town, north or west of the Thames, that is not connected, by 
through booking arrangements, with all the leading places in Ireland. 
The fares for this accommodation are very moderate, and the tourist 
will find that the economy of the terms upon which the portals of the 
sister country are opened to him extends to many items of his expendi- 
ture during his stay" there. Railway fares, are, as a rule, less than they 
are in England. Car and cab oonyeyances in towns are also lower. 
Two persons can post on cars through almost every part of Ireland 
at the rate of eightpence a mile, including the driver ; and the cost for 
three or four persons does not exceed a shilling and twopence a mile. If 
the visitor be a bachelor, he will see that his hotel bills are some 15 
per cent lower than for similar accomqiodation in England; and if 
' paterfamWas be travelling with his wife and daughters, he can, should 
e-'he desire it^ be freed, at a great many of the Irish hotels, from the addi- 
tional cost which private (sitting rooms and their concomitant charges 
involve. The establishment of ladies' coffee rooms and of table d^hotes 
at the large hotels is now becoming general, and the system will extend, 
because it is found to be profitable to landlords, as it certainly is bene- 
ficial, in point of economy, to families who avail themselves of it 

And now, gentle reader, let one who is both an earnest Irishman, and 
from long residence and social domestic ties, an equally earnest English- 
m{^, i|dvv9e you strongly to visit the Green Isle, and spend a little 
month there. Yes, the sister country— for no matter what stupidity or 
malevolence may suggest to the contrary, Ireland ?# sister to heir massive 



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IT INTRODUOTIOX. 

brother, England. Go there, and in addition to finding scenery as in- 
teresting, as grand, and as picturesque as you can meet with in any 
other part of the world, you will see a country that idos badly governed, 
but that now rapidly evinces the happy results which flow from just 
laws, equal for idl and administered with good feeling and impartiality. 
You will also come in contact with a peasantry who, you will learn, 
were degraded, but who, at the present day, are industrious, well clad, 
and well fed, and able to bring to their labour strength and intelligence. 
In the society of your own rank you will meet a combination of the 
manners of a well educated Englishmian with the less restrained fami-^ 
liarity of Continental habits. From all classes you will experience 
courtesy, kindness, and a heartiness which must quickly convince you 
that you are among fellow-subjects — ^that you are in a father-land, 
which as much belongs to you as it does to those who dwell within it. 
EecoUect, further, that the passport barrier will not be raised against 
you at your entrance, and no frowning official is there to ask, in a 
language you probably do not understand, your name, your age, and 
your religion ; bi;t that you will be as free to come, as free to go— when 
you like, and as you like— as you are in your own free country. 

The money you spend in Ireland will do much good — ^more perhaps 
than you can imagine. Let me illustrate this by one example. Tou 
will, if you be of the male sex, probably buy for your fair sisters or 
cousins, as mementoes of your visit to Ireland, some of the lace, or of 
the crotchet, or of the other ornamental work that will meet you on 
every side : or, if you be of the gentler portion "of creation, you wHl buy 
these articles for yourself. The sums thus expended, in the difference 
between English wealth and Irish moderateness, may appear to you 
small ; yet, small though they be, they will confer great blessings, for 
these articles are the sources of honest and virtuous livelihoods for 
thousands of the young girls of Ireland. 

In my native land there are, no doubt, many things which lack the 
perfection and the completeness of your own high standard ; but if you 
look upon all you see there in the genuine spirit of English fair play, and 
of English justice, you will not only acknowledge, on your return, that 
you have had an agreeable and refreshing tour, but like every one of 
your countrymen who visits Ireland in the same spirit, you will have 
convinced yourself that the country and the people are worthy of your 
warmest sympathieSf 

C. P. B, 
May, J8e6, 



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CONTENTS. 



DUBLIN EXHIBITION OF ABTB, 2TC. 

B0X7TES TO IBELAND ... ... ... ... ... I 

DX7BLIN AND ITS ENVIB0N8 ... ... .,. ... 5 

COUNTT OP WICKLOW ... ,.. ... ... ... 12 

KILLABNSY AND THE. SOUTH ... ... ... ... 39 

COBS AND THE LEE ... .,. ... ... ... 48 

YOUGHAL AND THE BLACXWATBB ... ... ... ... 61 

WATEBFOBD AND THE VALLEY OF THE SITIE ... ... 71 

COBK TO KILLABNEY ... ... ... ... .. 80 

LAKES OF KILLABNEY ... ... ... ... ... 93 

KILLABNEY TO VALENTIA ... ... ... ... 108 

LIMEBICK AND THE SHANNON ... ... 108 

LIMEBICK TO FOYNES ... ... ... ... ... 110 

DOWN THE SHANNON TO KILBUSH ... ... ... HI 

UP THE SHANNON TO LOUQH BEE ... ... ... 112 

GALWAY AND THE WEST ... ... ... ... ... 117 

GALWAY TO CONNEMABA ... ... ... ... ... 124 

BELFAST AND THE NOBTH ... ... ... ... 140 

BELFAST TO THE GUNT^S CAUSEWAY ... ... ... 161 

COAST BOUTE FBOM THE CAUSEWAY TO BELFAST ... ... 167 

COLEBAINE TO LOUGH BENE ... ... ... ... 160 

ENNISKILLEN TO BELFAST ... ... ... ... 169 

ENNISKILLEN TO SLIQO ... ... ... ... ... 170 

TOUBIST TICKETS ... ... ... ... ... 176 

TABLES OP qEtoBOUG? FABES ... .., ... 179 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Pftge 
Dublin CMUa .... 5 
Long Hole, Ireland's Eje . 10 

HillofHowth . .11 

TownofBraj .... 13 
Powencourt Waterfall . . 16 

C^len of the Downs ... 19 
Hamlet of Delgany . . .20 
Entrance to the Deril's Glen . 23 
Meeting of the Waters . . .25 
Glendalough . . .27 

Laraffh 28 

St Kevin's Church ... 81 
Bound Tower and Cross . . 32 
The Scalp ..... 34 

Enniskenr 36 

George Winder, the Glendalough 

Guide . . . ^ . 37 
The Priory, Templemore * . 41 
RockofCashel . . ' . 43 
Blarney Castle . . ' .46 
Cork Harbour . . .47 

Com Exchange, Cork ... 49 
Shandon Steeple . . .52 

Blarney Castle, from Peep-hole on 

Bridge 54 

Dundanion Castle, Cork . 56 

BUck Bock 57 

Queen's College, Cork . . . 59 
St. Canice, Killamey ... 72 
Jerpoint Abbey . , » 74 

Dunbrody Abbey . . .75 

Irish Tourist and Car ... 76 

Clomnel 77 

Cahir Castle . . . . 78 

Chetwynd Viaduct . . 81 

Entrance to the Town of Bantry . S&. 

Inohigeela 87 

Pass of Eeimaneigh . ^ . 89 
Glengariff . . . '. ; 91 
Upper Lake, KiUamey . . .94 
The Peep, Killamey . . . 96 
Lower Lake, Killamey . . • . 98 
Toomies Mountains . .99 
Clcghreen 100 



Psgs 

Great Yew Tree, Muckross Abbey 101 
Muckross Cloister .102 

The Reek 104 

Zing John's Castle and Thomond 

Bridge 109 

Landing Place at Hare Island . 115 
Salmon Le^ at Leixlip . . 117 
Maynooth College . .118 

Leixlip Castle .... 118 
GalwayArch .... 121 
Galway Fisherwoman . . 122 

Ancient Door Porch, Galway . 123 
Lough Corrib .... 124 
Patrick O'Flaherty . . .125 
Village of Oughterard . . 126 
TwdvePins . , . . 127 
Boundstone . . . .129 
Clifden Castle .... 130 
TheEiUeries .... 131 
Ben vyle Castle, Connemara. . 132 

Leenane 133 

On the Boad to Maum . . 134 
Lough Mask and Castle . 136 

Cong Abbey .... 137 
Clare Castle and Abbey . . 138 
Entrance to B^ast Lough . . 140 
Skerry Ldand .... 141 
Dangan Castle .... 143 
Old Kitchen, Dangan Castle .144 
Door Porch, Dangan Castle • . 144 
Wellington's Be&oom, Dangan 

Castle .145 

Eells Abbey, Kilkenny . 146 

Newry 149 

BdsstrcTor Bridge ... 149 
Queen's Square, Belfut . 150 

Giant's Causeway 152 

HighUnders' Bonnet, Giant's 

Causeway .... 154 
Sea Gull Island, Gtiant's Cause- 
way '. ' . ... • 155 
Lady's Cbahr, Giant* s Causeway • 156 

Port Coon 156 

Dunluce Castle .... 158 



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SlI(€ySACK|(]^NEY. 



THE advantages Ireland offers to the tourist, independent of 
those which are shared hy other portions of the United King- 
dom, such as the ahsence of the annoying custom-house and 
passport regulations of the continent (although these are greatly 
diminished of late years), are, the comparative inexpensiveness of 
travelling, and the facilities which the admirable railway system of the 
country, combined with well organized road conveyances in all parts, 
afford for seeing all the principal objects of interest in a compara- 
tively short period. Travelling in Ireland is somewhat less expensive 
than in either England or Scotland, while the scenic attractions are fully 



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2 CHESTEB AND ^OLTH£A]> BOUTE 

equal to the most picturesque portions of either, uniting the wild 
grandeur of the north with the softer beauty of the south. Through 
booking and other arrangements facilitate trips to Ireland from all the 
more important towns in England. . 

It will be better to suppose that the intending tourist is a resident 
in London, and that he makes his start from that capital. Direet 
"through'' communication afforded by the following different mmtes, 
viz. — 1st, the great postal and passenger route from Euston stfttion, via 
Chester and H(^yhead, to Dublin; 2nd, from Paddingtoa station, via 
Slirewsbury and Chester, and thence by Chester and Kalyhead route to 
Dublin; 3rd, from Paddington station via Bristol to Cork; 4th, from 
Paddington station to Milford, thence to WaterfSord, with through book- 
ing arrangements to Cork and Limerick ; 5t)i9 from Euston station to 
Fleetwood, thence to Belfast and all the principal towns in the north of 
Ireland; 6th, from Euston station to Liverpool, thence by steamer to 
Dundalk, with through booking arrangements to Enniskillen; 7th, from 
Paddington station to Liverpool via Shrewsbury and Chester, or from 
Euston station via Stafford and Crewe, to Liverpool, and thence by direct 
steamer to Belfast; and, Sthythe same as the last to Liverpool, and thence 
by direct steamer to Londonderry. It is to be understood that the routes 
commencing at Euston station follow the London and North-Western 
system of railways, and those from Paddington the Great Western system. 
Through booking arrangements have abo been established between some 
of the stations of the Midland Railway Company and Belfast, by means 
of steamers which sail between that port and Morecambe ; and likewise 
between stations on the Great Northern and the Manchester, Shef&eld, 
and Lincolnshire Railways and Belfast. 

We shall commence with that which is undoubtedly the most import- 
ant of the foregoing routes, namely, that via Chester and Holyhead, 
as by it all the correspondence between the two countries is con- 
veyed, and it has »been specially organized with a view, not only 
to postal requirements, but also to insure for passengers the utmost 
comfort and despatch that the present state of railway experience can 
afford. The present service commenced October Isfc, 1860, under a con- 
tract entered into by the Postmaster-General with the London and 
North-Westem Railway Company and the City of Dublin Steam Packet 
Company. By the stipulations of this contract, the distanceT(330 miles, 
of which 66 are by sea), between London and Kingstown (the packet 
port for Dublin, with which it is connected by a railway 6 J miles long), 
must be accomplished in eleven hours, mean time. The trains leave 
Euston station at 7.15 a.m. (except on Sundays), and 8.25 p.m., stop- 
ping only at Rugby, 83 miles -from London ; Stafford^ 133 miles; and 



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6BEAT ITEBTESSf BOUTE. 3 

Chester (where ten minutes are allowed for refreshment), 177 miles. 
Thence to Holyhead station, 86 miles, making the total distance 263 
miles, which is performed in six hours and forty minutes. The time 
for conveying the passengers and mails from the station to the pier, and 
transferring them to the steamer, is about half an hour, which leaves 3} 
hours for the transit to Kingstown — equal to a speed of nearly nineteen 
miles per hour. The steamers which perform this service are the finest 
mail packets afloat. They are named after the four provinces of Ireland 
— ^Leinster, Ulster, Gonnaught, and Munster. The first-named vessel 
was built by Messrs. Samuda Brothers, London ; the others by Messrs. 
J. Laird and Sons, Birkenhead. The engines of the Leinsier and Con- 
naught were made by Messrs. Ravenhill, Salkeld, and Co., London; 
those for the other vessels by Messrs. James Watt and Co., of Soho, 
near Birmingham. The engines are nominally 700 horse power 
each. 

The day mail steamer is due at Kingstown at 5.50 p.m., Dublin time; 
and here it may be noted that there is a difference of 25 minutes between 
London time and Dublin time, so that 5.50 p.m., Dublin time, is 6.15 
p.m., London time. Ireland has adopted the English plan of making 
metropolitan time that of the whole country, and Dublin time is the 
standard there, as London time is in England. The steamer in 
connection with the train leaving Euston station at 8.25 p.m. is 
due at Kingstown at 7.5 a.m., Dublin time. The Dublin and Kings- 
town Railway extends to the pier, so that the steamer and the train 
are not more than thirty feet apart, and this portion of the pier 
is entirely under cover. Special trains await the arrival of each 
steamer, and perform the journey to the capital in little more than 
ten minutes. 

Travelling by the morning mail train from London, the tourist has 
an opportunity of seeing the quaint architecture of Chester, and the 
natural beauties of North Wales, which are lost when the journey is 
performed by'night. The mountain scenery of the principality divides 
admiration with those triumphs of engineering skill, the bridges con- 
structed by Telford and Stephenson across the Menai Straits, the 
latter of which was the most remarkable structure of its kind until 
eclipsed by the world-famous Victoria Bridge, which spans the St. 
Lawrence at Montreal. Arrived at Kingstown, attention is 
drawn to the fine harbour, pronounced by the Tidal Harbour Com- 
missioners <*one of the most splendid artificial ports in the United 
Kingdom,*' embracing an area of 250 acres. Should he be disposed to 
remain a day or two amid the beautiful scenery surrounding the Bay of 
Doblin^ there is good hotel accommodation at Kingstown ; but most 



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4 GREAT WESTERN ROUTE. 

yisitors prefer going on to Dublin at once, and that course is recom« 
mended to all whose time is limited. 

Before conducting the tourist to Dublin, it will be necessary briefly 
to notice the second through route to that city from London, namely, from 
Paddington station to Chester, by the Great Western system of I'ldlways, 
via Oxford, Birmingham, Shrewsbury, and Chester, which opens up a 
very interesting and picturesque country. 



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€ITT OF DUBLIN. 



UBLIN the capital of Ireland, occupies 
botli sides of the Liffey, extending from 
Ringsend, at the mouth of the river, to 
Kilmainham, 3^ miles, and from Phibs- 
borough to Portobello, its northern and 
southern extremities, 2\ miles. In 1610 
it was confined to the southern side of the 
Liffey, and did not exceed a mile in cir- 
cumference.. In 1861 the populanon of 
Dublin was 254,850; in 1861 it had de- 
clined to 264,808 ; and in 1871 it was only 
245,722 ; thus showing, during the latter 
<!ecennia], a decrease of more than 9000 
inhabitants. There are 84 places of worship, 
of which number 40 are in connection with 
the Established Church, 23 belong to the 
various dissenting sects (sevenPresbyterian, 
four Independent, seven Wesleyan Metho- 
dist, three Primitive Methodist, one Mora- 
vian, one Welsh, one Quaker), 20 belong 
Catholic Church, and the total is completed 
nagogue. There are 26 collegiate, literary, 
institutions, and 100 hospitals and chari- 
»ns supported by donations and subscriptions, 
ivides it into two great divisions, but its 
nations are strikingly opposite to those of 
outh-eastem quarter being that which con- 
^st streets and squares, the principal public 

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6 PUBLIC BT7ILt>INGS IN DUBLIN. 

institutions, banks, theatres, &c., while the north-western, contidns the 
courts of law, markets, hospitals, foundries, breweries, and distilleries. 
In the south-west quarter are situated the two cathedrals, all the older 
churches, and the poplin manufactories. The north-east is the com- 
mercial quarter, comprising the docks, shipping stores, and the customs 
and excise departments of the Goremment, with the establishments of 
the principal traders and professional men, and some of the modem 
churches. 

Omnibuses run throughout the day from. the Gfeneral Post Office, in 
Sackville-street, southward, to Roundtown and Dundrum, and north- 
ward to DoUymount, at moderate fares. Hackney carriage fares are 
charged, between 9.0 am. and 10.0 p.m., at a uniform rate of 6d. for 
two persons, and Is, for three or four persons, for any distance within 
the municipal boundary. Between 10 p.m. and 9.0 a.m. the fare for 
one or two persons is 1*. The fare beyond, or partly within and partly 
beyond the boundary, returning with the employer, is 4d. per mile, or 
6d, if returning without the employer. If engaged by time, the fare is 
1*. 6d. for the first hour, and 6d, for every half hour commenced after 
the first. Drivers are entitled to charge 3d. for every quarter of an 
hour's detention beyond 30 minutes. The principal hotels are the Shel- 
bourne, Stephen's-green ; the Imperial, ihe Gresham, the Bilton, 
and the Prince of V^ales, Sackville-street ; Morrison's, the Hibernian, 
and Mackin's, Dawson-street ; the European, Bolton-street; the 
Arcade and Jury's, OoUege-green; and the Wicklow and Fole/s, 
Wicklow-street. 

The General Post Office is within ten minutes' WfJkof the most central 
of the first-class hotels, and is one of the principal ornaments of Sack- 
ville-street, having a handsome portico supported by Ionic columns and 
surmounted by eihblematical figures. The mails for England are de- 
spatched at 6.20 a.in. and 6.45 p.m. Close to the Post Office is the Nelson 
column, of cut granite, 121 feet high, exclusive of the statue which 
surmounts it. From the top of this monument, for access to which 6d, 
is charged, a fine view is obtained over the city and surrounding country, 
extending on clear days to the Moume mountains north, and those of 
Wicklow south. Turning southward, if prepared for a walk, the visitor 
soon reaches Carlisle Bridge, the lowermost of the eight bridges under 
which the Liffey flows in nearly a straight line from west to east. Having 
crossed the bridge, a peep may be taken at Conciliation Hall, famous in 
the history of the repeal agitation, now converted into a corn-store; 



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WJLLK THROUGH DUBLIN. 7 

and then, going down Westmoreland-street, Trinity College is reached. 
The buildings of the University consist of three spacious quadrangles, 
comprising refectory, library, observatory, museum, printing-oflSce, and 
buildings devoted to the students, who number about 1400. Among 
the valuable records in the manuscript room are a copy of the Brehon 
laws, the Book of Kells, and the MSS. of Wickliffe ; and in the museum^ 
to which strangers are admitted on presenting their cards, are the harp 
of Brian Boru, three perfect skeletons of the extinct Irish elk, and a fine 
collection of Irish birds and fishes. Beyond the College Park, in Kiidare- 
street, are the premises of the R jyal Society. Close t j the College is the 
Bank of Ireland, formerly the Parliament House, the House of Lords 
remaining in it?* original condition, and being shown on application. 
Leaving College-green, passing the statue of vVilliam III., the visitor 
may proceed along Darae-street to the Exchange, the hall of which is 
adorned with statues, among which are those of G rattan, by Chan trey, 
and O'Connell, by Ilogan In Castle-street are the gates of th • vice- 
regal palace of the Lord-Lieutenant, the chief attractions of which are 
the chapel, a beautiful Gothic structure, in which very fine music may be 
heard every Sunday forenoon, and the ball-room, the ceiling of which is 
ornamented with pictures. The other state apartments are decorated in 
the style of the last century, and present nothing remarkable. A short 
walk conducts the visitor to Christ's Church, otherwise the Cathc^dral of the 
Holy Trinity, a comparatively modern cruciform building, raise i on the 
site of another erected in 1088. It contains a monument reputed to be that 
of Earl Strongbow, but which some authorities maintain to be that of the 
Earl of Desmond, who was Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1467. Full 
choral service is performed in this Cathedral every Sunday at 11 a.m. 
At a short distance southward is the other Cathedral, dedicated to St. 
Patrick, and dating firom 1190, though the spire was added in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. It is worthy a visit, on account of the 
monuments it contains. In the chancel is a tablet to the memory of the 
Duke of Schomberg, and in the choir, where hang the banners of the 
knights of St. Patrick, are the tombs of Swift and Hester Johnston (the 
Stella of his poetry), and Boyle, Earl of Cork. The handsome clock of this 
cathedral was constructed by Benson, London. The streets around the 
cathedral being among the worst in the city, the visitor had better at 
once retrace his steps to Richmond Bridge, near the northern foot of 
which stands **■ the Four Courts,^' a noble structure crowned with a ma- 
jestic dome, with a frontage of 450 feet to the river. The front of the 
central building has a fine portico of six Corinthian columns, supporting 
a handsome pediment, surmounted by a figure of Moses, with those of 
Justice and Mercy on either hand. Each wing has a magnificent arched 



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^ THE UBEBTIISS OF DUBLIN. 

gateway, ornamented with emblematical designs. Proceeding along the 
noble line of quays, which extend, on the north, from the gates of Phoenix 
Park to the North Wall lighthouse, three miles, and, on the south, from 
King's Bridge to the end of the South Wall, six miles, the visitor reaches 
the Custom House, a large quadrangular building, with its principal front 
facing the river. In the centre is a portico of Doric columns, surmounted 
by a pediment adorned with allegorical figures, and a dome, crowned by a 
colossal statue of Hope, rises above the building. Returning towards 
Sackville-street, the visitor passes the Mechanics' Institution, the read- 
ing-room of which is open to strangers on payment of one penny, and 
the Royal Hibernian Academy, a plain Doric structure, devoted to 
painting and sculpture, an exhibition of which is open from May to 
the end of July. 

This walk, though under three miles, comprehends all the principal 
public buildings and objects of attraction in the city, except the Park, 
which may be reached by way of the north quays. It greatly ex- 
ceeds in extent any of the London parks, among which the Regent's 
conveys the best idea of it, the ground being undulating and well-wooded. 
On the left of the main avenue is a tall obelisk of Wicklow granite in 
honour of Wellington ; and near the vice-regal lodge are the Zoological 
Gardens, the price of admission to which is only sixpence, and on Sun- 
days one penny. The grounds are exceedingly well laid out, and the 
collection of animals is good, though not so extensive as that in the Re- 
gent's Park. The Botanic Gardens at Glasnevin, two miles from Dub- 
lin, are also worth a visit, admission being free, except on Tuesday 
and Thursday, when sixpence is charged. Close by is the cemetery- 
containing the tombs of O'Connell and Curran, both of granite, the 
former a copy of the celebrated monument of Scipio Barbatiens, the 
latter a round tower, 160 feet in height, surmounted by a cross eight 
feet high. 

Dublin is not famous for any special branch of trade or manufactures, 
though formerly there was a considerable amount of capital and industry 
employed in the production of silk, woollen, and hosiery manufactures. 
The poplin manufacture, which of late years has shown symptoms of 
revival, was introduced by French Protestants at the close of the seven- 
teenth century, but after the Union it fell into a state of gradual decline. 
"At the time of the Union," we are told, "and for some years after- 
wards, the Liberties presented a scene like the business part of Man- 
chester. Fully 40,000 lived by the employment given there." The 
Liberties, in the south-west quarter, are the oldest portion of the city. 



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HOWTH AND IRELAND'S BYE. d 

a&d, if the visitor is inclined to explore them, a few'minutes's walk from 
St. Patrick's Cathedral will take him into their heart. At a little dis- 
tance, in Coombe-street, is the Weavers' Hall, now let to several poor 
tenants, shorn of its splendid , [tapestries, and falling into decay. 
Pursuing his way along Coombe-street, and turning to the right, the 
visitor enters Thomas-street, where, in the house No. 161, Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald was captured, receiving, in the struggle that ensued, a mortal 
wound. In this street also Lord Kilwarden was dragged from his car- 
riage by a mob, infuriated by the execution of Robert Emmett (whose 
memory has been preserved in more than one of Moore's TjedutifUl 
lyrics), and rescued with difficulty, after his nephew had been brutally 
murdered. Turning into BridgC'Street, the house in which the 
committee of the United Irishmen assembled, and in which Emmett, 
M'Nevin, M'Cormick, Jackson, and Dillon were arrested, will be 
pointed out ; and if the tourist crosses Whitworth ^Bridge, a few 
minutes' walk will take him to St. MichaePs Church, one of the oldest 
in Dublin, in whose vaults rest the bodies of Jackson, Dr. Lucas, 
Oliver Bond, and the brothers Sheares — ^names prominent in the history 
of 1798. 

Before leaving Dublin, the tourist ought, if time permit, to visit 
Howth, which should be seen for the sake of the baronial and ecclesias- 
tical antiquities in its neighbourhood. It lies off the main line of travel 
northward ; is distant from Dublin eight miles, and may be reached by a 
branch of the Dublin and Drogheda Railway. A fine view of the Bay 
is obtained after crossing the Royal Canal, and on the left is seen 
Marino, the beautiful seat of the Earl of Charlemont. On the same 
side of the line lies the field of Clontarf, where the celebrated Brian 
Bom fell, in a battle with the Danes, and where, more than eight 
centuries later, O'Connell terminated his repeal agitation by a monster 
demonstration. Should the site, and the neighbouring castle, seat of 
the Vemons, have an attraction for the tourist, he may go by omnibus 
from Sackville-street to Clontarf for Sd., and then by train from Raheny 
station to Howth. Just beyond the pretty village of Baldoyle, the 
junction is reached, and the train in a few minutes runs into the station 
at Howth. The first object of interest is the castle, seat of the St. 
Lawrences, a fine Norman structure, dating from the twelfth,' but almost 
entirely rebuilt in the sixteenth, century. Near it are the ruins of 
St. Mary's Church, and the Abbey, close to the sea, said to have been 
founded by Sitric the Dane, in 1038. From the high road leading from 
the church to the village, the tourist may obtain beautiful views of the 
adjacent coast ; also of Ireland's Eye, scene of the Kirwan tragedy, 



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10 



LONG HOLE, IRELAND^S EYE. 

access to which can readily be had by boats. It is about a mile in cir- 
cumference, principally compdsed of quartz, and rises pyramidically to 
a considerable elevation. It contains the ruins of a small ancient 
building, said to hare been erected in 570, by St. Nessan. The lower 
lands afford good pasturage, and seals and sea-birds frequent the rocks. 
The famous Hill of Howth is a prominent object from all points of view, 
and commands an extensive prospect. At the base of the steep rocks which 
overhang the beautiful grounds of the castle is a remarkable cromlech, 
and several other Druidical remains may be observed on different parts 
of the hill. 



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COUITT m WICKLOV. 




t AVING seen all tlie " lions " of Dublin, the tourist should arrange 
to visit the county of Wicklow, for which purpose he must take 
a ticket by the Dublin and Wicklow Kailway for Bray station, 
twelve miles distant from Dublin. He can hare no difficulty in 
selecting a time convenient to himself, as trains leare Harcourt Road sta- 
tion nearly every hour, occupying about three quarters of an hour on the 
journey. The line crosses the little river I )odder, which affords pleasant 
glimpses of river scenery both up and down ; but after passing Dundrum 
a deep cutting is entered, which shuts out the prospect until Stillorglin 
is reached. The next station is Carrickmines, a little village, with a 
ruined castle, at the head of Glen Druid, a name significant of the 
numerous relics of paganism scattered about the vicinity. On the brow 
of Shankhill mountain is pointed out a ruin called Puck's Castle, wherein 
James II. is said to have rested after the battle of the Boyne. Further 
on, the Bray river is crossed, and the train runs into the commodious 
station of Bray. 

Bray should be the tourist's head^quarters for at least a day or two, and ' 
hfe will be the more inclined to make it so from the fact that Breslin's 
Hotel and the International are not only picturesquely situated on the 
beach, commanding excellent views of Wicklow scenery, extending to 
the Killiney Hills, which separate the valley of the Liffey fi^m that of 
Bray, but idso because there is not, in any partpf Ireland, an hotel more 
deserving of confidence. Mr. Breslin has, in the course of a few years, 
risen from small beginnings to the proprietorship of as large hotel 
establishments as any in Ireland, and it is but bare justice to say of 
him, that he fully merits all the success and prosperity he has so rapidly 
attained. 



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14 BRAT AND THE DARGLB, 

We cannot more appropriately introduce, than at the present moment, 
the name of an Irishman of whom his country may well he proud than in 
connection with this locality. Although the works of William Daroan 
may he seen in almost every part of Ireland, it is at Bray that he has of 
late years concentrated his energies, now removed almost entirely from 
the active pursuits in which he was engaged for nearly thirty years. 
Under his guiding eye, and hy the judicious investment of his ahundant 
capitfd, a small and comparatively ohscure vilUage has heen rapidly con- 
verted into a charming marine outskirt of Duhlin. Mr.Dargan's operations 
at Bray commenced in 1856, and it now ahounds with well-huilt villas and 
terraces, and possesses a population which increases as rapidly as that 
which flowed into Kingstown shortly after the completion of Mr. Dargan^s 
first great work in Ireland — ^the Duhlin and Kingstown Railway. Mr. 
Dargan, now upwards of sixty, is in the enjoyment of vigorous health, and 
we are sure that all who know him, whether personally or only by fame, 
unite in the earnest hope that he may, with his clear head and warm 
heart, for many years to come, continue to advance the material develop- 
ment, as well as the intellectual and social improvement, of his country.* 

Bray, though it owes its present importance to the influx of tourists, 
attracted by the beautiful scenery of the DevH^s Glen, the Dargle, and 
the Glen of the Downs, is a place of considerable antiquity. In its 
vicinity are the ruins of the Castle of the Biddesfords, to whom the 
place was granted by £arl Strongbow in 1173. Bray Head, a remark- 
able promc^tory, rising to an elevation of 807 feet, and easy of ascent, 
commands extensive views over the charming country around, the chief 
attractions of which are reached by cars, always in readiness. The 
first day should be devoted to visiting the Dargle, Powerscourt, and 
the Bray Lakes. A drive of two miles along the main road brings 
the tourist to the mansions and grounds of the Hon. Justice Crampton 
and the recently created Lord Herbert, the latter being owner 
of much of the property in the neighbourhood of Bray. The Dargle, 
which is reached soon afterwards,, is a beautiful glen, so called ifrom the 
stream which gushes between the precipitous hills, clothed from base to 
summit with thick woods, which form its sides. Sir J. Forbes compares 
this romantic spot to the valley of the Wye, and a companion to the 
Wyndcliff of that locality is found here in the Lover's Leap, a lofty rock, 
covered with creepers and mosses, the summit of which projects across 
the glen, ^d overshadows the torrent below. A winding path leads to 
the summit, whence a view over the entire extent of the dell is obtained. 
Lower down the torrent plunges down a deep chasm, but the fall is con- 
cealed by the dense masses of foliage whiph overhang it on either side. 
* ihiM hope WM not destined to he fulfilled. 



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POWEBSOOUBT AND ITS CASCADE, 16 

A Tiew of it may be obtamed, however, from a small patch of greensward 
at the bottom of the glen, close beside a broad pool, in which the stream 
is dammed by a ledge of rocks. The late Mr. Stirling Coyne thus de- 
scribes this view: — "Looking up the stream, the waters are seen tum- 
bling through a rocky channel fi'om the dark woods, which, rising to a 
vast height on either side, exclude every other object. Perched on the 
shoulder of a precipitous cliff, the thatched roof and rustic pillars of a 
charming little cottage, called the Moss House, peep through the foliage 
of the trees that grow above and beneath it, and form a singularly pleasing 
object in the landscape." Mr. Barrow, whose recollections of the pic- 
turesque in other lands had prepared him to look critically on home 
scenery, expresses himself more pleased with the Dargle than with any 
thing else he saw in Wicklow ; and Mr. Inglis is lavish in his praise of 
the happy union of rock, wood, and water, the picturesque combina- 
tions presented to the eye, and the pleasant murmur of the almost 
hidden stream. 

Emerging from the glen, the tourist rejoins his car, and soon reaches 
the beautiful demesne of Powerscourt, seat of the noble Wingfield family, 
to whqm it was granted by James I., on being taken from the Kavanaghs. 
To view the grounds the order of Lord Powerscourt^s agent, who lives at 
Enniskerry, is necessary. The gardens are very extensive, and near the 
house,an imposing edifice in the Grecian style, is the finest and largest ash 
tree in the country. From the south or garden front of the mansion a 
fine prospect is obtained over the deer park and its woods, the glen of 
the Dargle, and the beaufiful quartz mountains called the Sugar Loaves. 
But the great attraction of Powerscourt is the Cascade, about two and 
a half miles from the mansion, and more than 100 feet in height. In 
dry weather the tourist sees only a silvery thread gliding down the face 
of the perpendicular rock, but when rains have flooded the stream the 
water rushes down tumultuously, half veiled in a cloud of spray. Mr. 
Barrow, who saw it under the former aspect, acknowledges that "though 
the water is deficient, the accompaniments of rock and wood give to it 
a character of more grandeur than it could otherwise have aiiy preten- 
sions to i" and these accessories have been the admiration of all travel- 
lers. The whole demesne abounds in beautiful scenery — dark woods, 
brawling stream^, precipitous mountains, and secluded glens. 

On the opposite bank of the stream is Charleville, the handsome man- 
sion of Lord Monck. This demesne, which participates in the attrac- 
tive features displayed by Powerscourt, extends over 1,200 acres, and 
abounds in noble forest trees. Close to it is Bushy, the picturesque 
residence of Mr. Justice Keogh. The Douce mountain and the Sugar 
JiOares are prominent olgects from all points of view, and seem, as 



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HOLLTBROOK XKD KILBUDDEBT. 17 

Mr. Leitdi Eitclrie obserres, to haunt the trayeller whererer he turns. 
The Douce is considerably higher than the Great Sugar Loaf, and is 
recognizaUe at a considerable distance by a cairn on its summit. The 
ascent is very steep, but the Tiew ^om the top, commanding a large 
portion of the counties Of Wicklow and Dublin, is well worth the trouble. 
Regaining the road, the tourist passes by the picturesque little parish 
church, and approaches the richly wooded grounds of Tinnehinch de- 
mesne, seat of the Grattan family, haying been presented to the patriot 
and orator of that name by the Lrish Parliament. Some fine views of 
mountain scenery are obtamed in the drive along the Enniskerry road, 
particularly at the cross roads near the constabulary barracks at Glen- 
cree, where the hills known as Prince William^s Seat are seen towards 
the north, and the Douce and Warhill mountains on the south. Some 
distance further on, the Bray lakes, occupy two deep dells in the midst 
of the wild and desolate scenery of the Kippure mountains. The 
situation of the lower lake is peculiarly picturesque. Close at hand 
is the charming cottage of the late Sir P. Crampton, erected for him by 
a former Duke of Northumberland, during his viceroyalty. The tourist, 
having inspected this part of the county, now turns again towards 
Bray, and gradually approaches HoUybrook, the demesne and man- 
sion of Sir G. F. J. Hodson, both the grounds and interior of which 
contain attractions sufficient to induce visitors to avail themselves of the 
generous kindness of the proprietor, who has opened them to the public. 
The i^proach to the Elizabethan mansion is through plantations afford- 
ing vistas of the magnificent mountain scenery on one side, and of the 
sea on th^ other, and remarkable for its magnificent groups of cypresses 
and evergreen oaks. The mansion itself is an object of interest to all 
lovers of song from the fact of its having been the residence of ''Robin 
Adair,'' whose Irish harp and drinking cup are shown m the old oak hall. 
The noble library is a fine specimen of mediaeval decoration, an adnurable 
contrast to which is afforded by the funuture and adornments of the 
drawing-room, which are in the most elaborate style of Louis Quatorze. 
Within thirty minutes' drive of Hollybrook is Bray Head, the extensive 
and beautiful prospect from the l<^ty summit of which cannot fail to induce 
the tourist to pause awhile before descending to Breslin's Hotel. Look- 
ing inland, he b^olds ShankhiU, the Sugar Loaves, and the Douce. Be- 
neath, in quiet beauty, reposes Bray. Along the coast to the northward, 
he has a view of Howth, and in fine clear weather his prospect extends 
as far as the Moume Mountains.* To the southward, Wicklow Head 
juts into the glittering sea ; and far away peering out of the horizon, 
may be discerned the Welsh mountains. The bays of Courtown, Wick- 
low, and Killiney, form beautiful features in the prospect. 



• Co. Down. 

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18 



GLEN OF tH£ DOWKS. 



The second day's excursion should be to the Glen of the Downs, about 
five mUes from Bray. The first object of interest on this route is Kil- 
rudderry, the princely seat of the Efcrl of Meath, standing in a forest of 
eyergreens about a mile southward. This fine old Elizabethan mansion 
was originally a rural retreat of the monks of Sf. Victor, whose monas- 
tery was near DubUn, but in 1646 the property of the order, which had 
been surrendered to the Crown a few years previously, was granted by 
Henry VIIL to Sir W. Brabazon, in whose femily it has remained to the 
present day. The interior of the mansion affords a rich treat to the 
lovers of art. From the outer hall, fitted up with ancient armour, steps 
lead to the grand hall, the windows of which contain a genealogical 
history of the Brabazon family, finely painted by Hailes. The grand 
staircase is of carved oak, with elaborately painted windows. The prin- 
cipal apartments are rich with pictures and sculpture, including among 
the former several fine family portraits by Lely and Kneller, and a por- 
trait by Rembrandt of his wife, formerly in the gallery of Cardinal Fesch, 
and among the statues one of Ganymede by Thorwaldsen. The extensive 
gardens, laid out in geometrical forms, with clipped yew hedges, have 
been preserved exactly as they were left three centuries ago by the 
monks ; and near the bowling-green are some of the finest and oldest 
evergreen oaks in Ireland. At a short distance from the house are the 
remains of a sylvan theatre, cut out of the side of a hill, and supposed to 
be of considerable antiquity. Sir W. Scott mentions it in a note to St. 
Honan^s Wdl, There is a carriage road through the grounds to the 
summit of the Little Sugar Loaf, whose sides are rich in sununer 
with the gold and purple blossoms of the furze and heath. An 
extensive view is obtained from the summit over the beautiful 
vale of Bray, bounded on the south by Bray Head, and ou the 
north by Killiney Hill, Howth Head, with its lighthouse, and Lambay 
Island. 

Continuing his drive, through a richly wooded country, the tourist next 
comes in sight of the Down Mountain, 1,232 feet above the sea, and 
enters the wildly beautiful Glen of the Downs, which is a little over 
a mile in length. A fine view of the Great Sugar Loaf is obtamed. 
from an opening in the road, which pursues a meandering course through 
the glen, by the side of a gushing rivulet, half hidden amidst rocks. and 
shrubs, and overshadowed by wooded precipices which rise on either 
hand between 600 and 600 feet. Bellevue, the property of Mr. P. La- 
touche, includes one side of the glen, the other side being part of the 
Powerscourt demesne. The principal entrance is from the low road 
leadmg from the Glen of the Downs to Delgany, a pretty hamlet within 
a mile and a half of the se% where was once a cell belonging to St. 



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OLEN OF DUNBAN. 21 

Mogoroc, who flourished about 492. The Hydropathic Establishment 
of Doctor Johnson is a conspicuous building overlooking the beautiful 
Vale of Delgany — one of the most healthful localities in Ireland. 
The seat of Mr. Latouche stands on the eastern slope of the hills se- 
parating the Glen of the Downs from the sea, whence the eye looks 
over a fine marine prospect, embracing all the coast of Wicklow, and 
extending eastward, on clear days, to the opposite coast of Wales. 

The tourist may either return by road to Bray, or by train from Del- 
gany station. K he adopt the latter course, his attention will be arrested 
soon after leaving the station, by the deep cuttings, tunnels, and ledges of 
rock along which the line is carried, in a manner without a parallel in 
this country. Many of the scenes in this portion of the journey are not 
much inferior in grandeur to those of the famous Simplon road over the 
Alps. K time permit, the tourist may proceed by train to Kilcool station, 
around which are many objects of interest and demesnes replete with 
sylvan beauty. In visiting these he may be guided by the suggestions 
that will be offered at either of the comfortable inns in the village. We 
may mention, however, as specially deserving attention, the demesnes of 
Mount Kennedy, Glendarragh, and Altadore, and the Glen of Dunran. 
The first-named, though not to be compared with Powerscourt, 
possesses a varied and beautiful surface, many of the elevations 
commanding charming views of the sea on one side, and of the 
mountains on the other. Passing the mansion, near which are some of 
the finest arbutus trees in Ireland, the visitor quits the demesne by the 
back gate, and emerges on the hilly road leading from the village of 
Newtown Mount Kennedy to Glendarragh and Altadore. The entrances 
to these demesnes are close together, about a mile along the road, which, 
from its elevation, commands a fine prospect over the hills, wooded val- 
leys, and distant sea. The Glen of Dunran lies in the opposite direction 
on the road from Newtown Mount Kennedy to Ashford. It stretches 
along the base of Carrignamuck, and forms part of the demesne of 
Dunran, seat of the Rev. Dr. Fletcher. It is about two miles in length, 
and runs nearly parallel with the high road. It will not bear comparison 
with the Dargle or the Glen of Downs, but, as Mr. N. P. Willis ob- 
serves, ^^though it assimilates with the general character of the mag- 
nificent scenery of the district, it possesses individual attractions to amply 
compensate the labour of ascending the eminence from whence it maybe 
advantageously viewed." The spot indicated is a lofty rock, reached by 
a winding path through the wood, and commanding a view extending as 
far as Wicklow. A conical rock, clothed with old pines, forms the eastern 
boundary of the glen, where the stratified rocks have, by some great ^on? 
Tulsion of nature, tilted up into the piosti striking and grotesque forms. 



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Should the tourist wish to visit the Glen of Bunrau without stopping at 
Kilcool, he may do so by prolonging his diive from Newrath Bridge to 
the Devil's Glen, presently to be described. 

The railway journey should terminate at Newrath Bridge, whence 
Hunter*s Hotel, one of the most comfortable provincial establishments in 
the country, is reiiched by a drive or walk of 2^ miles. It is pleasantly 
situated on the road from Bray to Wicklow, on the left bank of the 
Vartrey, the best trout stream in the county, and the river from which 
Dublin is probably to be supplied with water, a bill for that purpose 
being now before the legislature. In the immediate neighbourhood 
is Rosanna, a beautifully Avooded demesne belonging to the nephew 
of the lady from whom it derives its chief interest, Mrs. Tighe, 
authoress of Psyche, the poem referred to in Moore's lyric, com- 
mt'iicing, " T®^ ^^^ *^® witching strain again." The drive thence to 
Wicklow town is only two miles, and the view from the noble promon- 
tory of Wicklow Head will alone repay a visit ; besides which, the place 
is extremely rich in objects of archseological interest. On a rock over- 
hanging the sea are the ruins of Black Castle, built by William Fitz- 
gerald, 1375, on the site of a fortress erected by Maurice Fitzgerald, and 
which had been burned by the Irish in 1308. There are also to be seen 
the ruins of a Franciscan abbey, founded in the reign of Henry IH. by 
the chief of the O'Byrnes. 

The first excursion by car should be to the Devil's Glen, the entrance to 
which is nearly opposite to the church at Nun's Cross, a village a little 
beyond Ashford, the latter place being one mile from Nc»Tath Bridge. 
Public vehicles are not allowed to enter the glenj on account of its nar- 
rowness, and the car must therefore be sent round to any point of egresd 
the tourist may select, in which matter he should be guided before setting 
out by Mr. Hunter. Invalids may, however, obtain permission to drive 
through, by previously sending their card to Mr. Tottenham, the proprie- 
tor. The glen is about a mile and a half in length, and wider than the 
Dargle, which in some respects it resembles. The path follows the course 
of the Vartrey, which foams and roars in its narrow and rocky bed, and 
' at the upper end of the glen forms a beautiful cascade which, when the 
stream is swollen by rain, should not be left unvisited. Beyond that point, 
however, there is nothing to see, the glen opening out into a dreary moor 
of considerable extent. Fine prospects are obtained from various points in 
the glen, particularly from the View Rock, accessible by a flight of steps, 
and from the cottage erected by Mr. Tottenham for the accommodation 
of tourists. The way from the head of the glen to the place where cars 
wait for tourists lies across some fields, and will be pointed out for a few 
halfpence by any of the children who are usually at hand, and who, Dr« 



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Bodenburg obsenres, " with their naked feet, and their round brown legs 
in the short ragged skirts, look like Murillo's angels, and ha¥e as much 
humour in their plump faces. The girls,^' he adds, ^^ standmg in the 
doorways, or nodding to us from the meadows, are not handsome, but 
appear very impassioned, and are remarkably piquant. They have black 
eyes, and know the use of them. They are coquettish, like French 
women; but their coquetry is more natural, and much more innocent." 
Should the tourist not have stopped at Kilcool, he may advantageously 
continue his drive to the Glen of Dunran, passing the demesne of Bally, 
curry, and leaving behind the hamlet and ruined church of Killesky. 
From the junction of the Killesky and Ashford roads to Newrath Bridge 
is 4} miles. 

Stepping into the car again, after viewing the beauties of the glen, 
and leaving Ashford behind him, the tourist passes through much of the 
interesting tract of country called the Garden of Wicklow. From 
Cronroe, a beautiful view is obtained over the vale of Glenealy, including 
the richly wooded demesnes of Rosanna, Clonmannon, and Inchanappa, 
with the sea in the distance. Further ou, from the hill on which Holly- 
wood House stands, another fine prospect meets the eye, embracing the 
thickly wooded sides of CarrickmacriUy and Balkillivane mountains, and 
the intervening valley, with the spire of Glenealy church rising from the 
embosoming woods of Glencarrig. Passing, on the left, the road leading 
to Wicklow through Deputy's Pass, a picturesque gap in the hills, the 
tourist reaches Rathdrum, a town of less importance now than for- 
merly, when it was the seat of an extensive flannel manufacture. It 
is situated on an eminence, on the highest point of which a handsome 
Gothic church has lately been erected. From this elevation the eye 
commands a fine view over the lovely vale of Avon and its enclosing 
hills. Another beautiful view is obtained from Corbalis Castle, at which 
point the car descends the hill, and, crossing the Avon, where charming 
prospects meet the eye, both up and down the valley, reaches Castle 
Howard. At a short distance from this place, on the left, is the world- 
renowned Meeting of the Waters, the spot whereon Moore is said to 
have sat while composing his immortal lyric being marked by a slab and 
a group of evergreens. Another Meeting of the Waters at the lower 
end of the valley, has caused much discussion as to which was 
that referred to in the lyric, but Moore says himself, in a letter pub- 
lished by Lord J. Russell, *' The fact is, I wrote the song at neither 
place, though I believe the scene under Castle Howard was the one that 
suggested it to me." 

A little beyond the further Meeting of the Waters the lofty clock 
tower and Elizabethan chimneys of Shelton Abbey, seat of the Earl of 



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26 THE WICKLOW COPPER MINES. 

Wicklow, are seen above the woods, and, on the other side of the stream, 
Glenart Castle, the beautifully situated residence of the Earl of Carys- 
fort. Tourists are permitted to walk through the grounds of the Abbey, 
and also to inspect its quaint interior, one of the chief attractions of which 
is a remarkably handsome carved chimney-piece. There is not much to 
attract the'tourist further southward, but he may, if desirous of prolong- 
Ing his drive, and reaching Wooden Bridge by a different route, go on to 
Arklow, distant one mile and a half, Where there is a good inn, affording 
the accommodation of cars and horses. The only object of interest, how- 
ever, is the castle, once a stronghold of the Ormonds, but now in ruins, 
to which condition it was reduced by Cromwell in 1649. While in the 
neighbourhood, a visit may be made to the gold mine in the side of 
Croghan Kinshela, no longer worked, but oiice supposed to be a source 
of inexhaustible Wealth. Further west is the small town of Tinehely, 
destroyed in 1798, but j^fterwards rebuilt, in part from the remains of 
Coolrass Castle, a seat of the Earl of Strafford, and called by the pea- 
santry of the locality Black Tom's Buildings. On the attainder of 
Strafford the property was forfeited to the Crown, and was subsequently 
granted to the ancestors of Earl Fitzwilliam, the present proprietor, whose 
seat, Coolattin Park, is 4 miles f^om Tinehely. On this estate is the 
far-famed wood of Shillelagh, from which the oak cudgel so renowned 
in Milesian song and story derives its name. This wood was formerly 
far more extensive than at present, the greater part having been cleared 
in 1634 by Strafford, when some of the oak was used to roof St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, as (according to some writers) previously Westminster 
Hall. 

The hotel at Wooden Bridge, owned by the proprietor of the New- 
path Bridge Hotel, ^ould be the resting-place for the night, and. the 
starting-point for next day's journey. The windows command some of 
the finest views in the locality, both up the glen through which the river 
Aiighrim flows, and down the beautiful vale of Avoca, and a charming 
prospect is obtained from the View Rock, in the grounds behind the 
hotel. Prince Puckler Muskau writes in glowing terms of this locality. 
"Just before sunset," he says, "I reached the exquisitely beautiful Avon- 
dale. In this Paradise every possible charm is united. A wood, which 
appears of measureless extent ; two noble rivers ; rocks in every variety 
of picturesque form; the greenest of meadows; the most varied and 
luxuriant shrubberies and thickets. In short, scenery changing at every 
step, yet never diminishing in beauty." Two miles beyond the hotel, 
ihe thriving viHage of Newbridge is passed, where the tourist may, if 
interested in mining pursuits and speculations, turn aside to visit the 
Ballymurtagh Cc^per Mines. The ore is a sulphuret, and yerjr rich. 



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^LSKIiALURE AND THE ESS FALL. 29 

Crossing the Ayon at Castle Howard, the yisitor retraces his way 
through the valley of the Avon to Rathdrum, and driving along the 
banks of the Avonmore, and through the woods of Copse House, a seat 
of Earl Fitzwilliam, enters the beautiful Vale of Clara. Knockregon, 
1,559 feet high, is seen on the left, and the hills of Trooperstown and 
Moneystown, respectively 1,407 and 1,272 feet in altitude, on the right ; 
shortly after passing which the village of Laragh is reached. 

Another route is by Olenmalure, a beautiful valley through which the 
Avonbeg winds for several miles. At the entrance from Bathdrum the 
hills, wooded firom base to summit, slope gently away, but as the traveller 
advances the glen narrows, and the rude and barren rocks that rise 
abruptly on either hand give an air of savage grandeur to the scene, - 
altogether different to the sylvan beauty of the Dargle, or the softer 
features of the Glen of the Downs. The head of the glen, where the 
waters of a small stream, tumbling down the precipitous face of a rocky 
mountain, form the Ess Fall, is especially striking, and is thought by 
some to merit the praise of one of the numerous describers of Irish 
scenery, who asserts that it is by feur the finest of the Wicklqw glens, 
and with the exception of the Killery,in Connemara, not to be equalled 
in the kingdom. LugnaquiUa, the highest mountain in the county, 3,039 
feet above the sea, affords from its sununit a prospect that amply repays 
the toil of the ascent. Guides may be obtained, if required, at the soli- 
tary inn of Drumgoff, three miles above the entrance of the glen. The 
course of a mountain torrent is followed for some distance, until a pool 
called Eelly^s Lough is reached, when the tourist has to climb a preci- 
pice, forming the only really difficult portion of the ascent. The ridge 
above being gained, the sombre head of LugnaquiUa appears, and the 
approacii lies over a verdant slope. .On the top of the mountain there 
is a great extent of table-land. The highest point is marked by a large 
stone, called Piercers Table, resting upon smaller stones, after the manner 
of a cromlech. ** Rx)m that elevation," says Mr. Wright, " in clear 
weather, parts of five counties are clearly seen. Mr. Weaver states, that 
the Galtee mountains in Tipperary have sometimes been perceived ; but 
such extensive prospects can only be enjoyed by those who have frequent 
opportunities of ascending, and the good fortune to meet with a cloud- 
less atmosphere. Towards the north, Eippure and the Great Sugar 
Loaf raise their towering summits to the clouds, beyond a lengthened 
chain of waste and barren mountains. To the west and south is an ex- 
tent of cultivated country, and to the east are seen mountain and vale, 
wooded glens, and rapidly rolling rivers, bounded in the distance by St. 
Greorge^s Channel." In descending, the tourist should make for the Ess 
Fall, and thence down the glen to the little inn at Drum^ff (where he 

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30 THE SEVEN O^tTBOHES OF OLENDALOUOfi. 

may rely upon being very comfortably lodged), passing on bis way 
through a singular ravine, one side of which is a perpendicular wall 
<^ granite, arranged in a manner resembling the basaltic cMs of the 
Giant's Causeway. 

A mile and a half from Drumgoff Inn, by a road carried over the ridge 
which separates Glenmalure from the adjacent valley, are the ruins of 
Glendalough, commonly called the Seven Churches, there being remains 
of that number of ecclesiastical edifices, with numerous other antiquities 
scattered through the valley. Here, in the seventh century, a city rose 
round a monastery founded by St. Kevin, but in 1398 it was burnt by 
the English invaders, and never rebuilt. There are no remains of 
dwellings, but a quadrangular paved space is pointed out as the site of 
the market-place. The churches are all of very small dimensions, 
though one of them is dignified with the name of the Cathedral. The 
site of this edifice is indicated by crumbling remains of the walls and 
some half-buried tombs. The Lady Chapel is in better preservation, the 
masonry being of immense thickness, and bound together by the clinging 
ivy. The ruins of Trinity Church are not far from Laragh, and near 
them is the stump of one of those singular round towers, the origin and 
purpose of which have been such a puzzle to antiquaries. Another, 
nearly perfect, and one of the finest structures of the kind in Ireland, 
stands in the centre of the ruins. It is built of granite, 110 feet high, 
but originally more lofty, the top having been carried away by a storm in 
1804. The most perfect of the existing ruins is the Oratory, commonly 
called St. Kevin's Kitchen, the little belfry having been mistaken by the 
peasantry for a chimney. The broken cross in this building was removed 
from the demesne of Derrybawn, residence of Mrs. Bookey, twenty 
minutes' walk from the ruins, a spot which the tourist, if interested in 
archseological researches, should not omit to visit, as there moss-grown 
shafts and capitals are profusely scattered. But the most interesting 
of the ruins is the Abbey, in the crypt of which St. Kevin is said to have 
been buried in 618. Only the western wall remains, with a tree growing 
out of the crumbling masonry above the entrance, and the semi-circular 
arches of the window so covered with moss that the stone is invisible. 
Within, trees have grown out of the opening in which the cross once 
stood, and stones carved with symbolic devices and defaced names of 
the OTooles, the old kings of Wicklow,, are half buried in rubbish. 
In the cemetery is a cross, hewn out of one block of granite, eleven 
feet high, and a number of smaller ones are scattered about among 
the broken tombs of bishops and abbots. Behind the ruins are two 
small lakes, lying solemnly tranquil and sombre in the shadows of 
the dark forms of the sterile hills that enxircle the lonelv-O^alley. In 

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ROUND TOWEE AND CROSS, 

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BOCNDWOOD Aia> THE WICKL0V7 LAKES. 33 

the face of the precipice that rises ahove the upper lake is the caritj, 
called St. Eeyin's Bed, with which is connected the legend of .the saint 
and the fair Kathleen, immortalized by Moore. The approach is by a 
narrow ledge scarped out of the face of the cliff, to the foot of which 
adventurous visitors are conveyed in a boat. Formerly the lakes were 
much frequented by anglers, trout and char being abundant, and fishing 
free ; but since the commencement of mining operations, and the dis- 
charge into them of water impregnated with mineral, the fish have 
disappeared. Trout still abound, however, in Lough Nahanagan, near 
the lead mines of Lugganure, three or four miles distant ; and in several 
mountain streams which the guides will indicate. 

The village of Annamoe adjoins Glendalough Park ; and the ruins of 
the residence of the O'Tooles, built about the twelfth century, and Castle 
Kevin demesne, lie left of the village, close to the road to Rathdrum by 
Moneystown Hill. Of the castle, apparently a place of strength, few traces 
are now discoverable. Should the tourist have leisure to spend a day or two 
in this interesting neighbourhood, the best accommodation will be found 
at Jordan's Hotel, in the immediate vicinity of the ruins of Glendalough, 
of which and the wild scenery around, it commands some of the fineM 
views. The proprietor has considerably enlarged and improved his estab 
lishment during the last twelve months, and it may now be regarded a^ 
second to none in the county. In all that concerns the hiring of cars, 
horses, boats, or guides, the tourist is advised, while at Glendalough, to 
consult Mr. Jordan, whose arrangements in these respects are as satis- 
factory as his charges are moderate. 

Having seen every object of interest about Glendalough, the tourist 
pursues his way to the secluded hamlet of Roundwood, which lies within 
three miles of Lough Dan, the^largest and most picturesque of the Wick- 
low lakes, and within six of the smaller, but not less beautiful Lough Tay. 
Fishing on Lough Dan \& free, and. boats are to be had at very moderate 
charges. It lies off the road, but Tay may be reached through the beau- 
tiful demesne of Luggala, admission to which is accorded by the pro- 
prietor, Mr. Latouche, whose permission must be obtained for angling in 
the lake. The area of the lake is about 120 acres. On the side of the 
mountain which partially surrounds it is one of those remarkable relics 
of Druidism called rocking-stones ; one enormous mass of granite being 
so poised on another as easily to be moved by a single person. From 
Luggala Lodge, the road is continued along the base of the Douce 
mountains, which jise on the left to a height of 2,384 feet, and over the 
Great Sugar Loaf, whose elevation is 1,661 feet, to Bray. Another way 
is through the pretty village of Enniskerry, a route whith enables the 
tourist to visit the remarkable pass called the Scalp, a deep defilq. formed 



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THE SCALP AND FOULA-PHOUOA. 35 

by a eonvulsion of jiature, in the V>som of a mountain, composed of 
granite. The sides are aoilivitous, but not 90 perpendicular aa to prove 
inaccessible; and the whole surface of the ascent on both sides is covered 
with prodigious disjointed masses of stone, shouldering each other in 
tumultuous confusion, and threatening to overwhelm the passenger at 
each adventurous footstep. Formerly the road ran at the bottom of the 
chasm, but it is now carried along a ledge, amongst the masses of rock, 
by which change the height of the precipitous sides is much diminished 
in appearance. From the Scalp the road descends gradually to Ennis- 
kerry, passing the magnificently wooded demesne of Old Conhaught, 
firom which there is only a short distance to Bray. 

If time will permit, the tourist should not leave Wicklow without 
seeing the famous waterfall of Poula-phouca, or Puck's-hole, which is 
reached by car either from Bray, or &om Dublin by the road to Bles- 
sington. The Liffey rises a mile south of the upper lake of Bray, and 
rushing through the Glen of Kippure, arrives at this W}S),^ where the 
glen narrows and becomes precipitous. The waters gUo^ Iq stillness to 
the verge of the fall, whence, by a series of cataracts, they plunge into 
the pool below. The fathomless depth ascribed by the country people to 
this pool, and the demon tradition connected with it, l^ve perpetuated 
its name. A bridge crosses the chasm, sixty-five feet from rock to rock, 
whilst, far below, the torrent is seen plunging, enveloped in clouds of 
mist. When the river has been swollen by rains, the view is little less 
than sublime. Mr. Ritchie says that Poula-phouca will afford pleasure 
to the lover of the picturesque even after he has traversed the rest of 
the country. "I h^d no opportunity," he says, "of seeing the cascade 
in its moody hour ; but I can easily conceive that after much rain the 
centre fall at least must possess a good deal of the grandeur which arises 
from volume and impetuosity. The action of the waters has worn the 
deep bed of the rock into which they plunge into a form almost circular; 
and this again, reacting upon the stream, increases its rotary motion 
till it becomes a formidable eddy or whirlpool. It is precisely over 
this part, the most striking scene of the whole, that the road is car- 
ried. A bridge Bpans the gulf from rock to rock, in a manner at once 
beautiful and daring, and the traveller looks down from it into the middle 
of the whirlpool" This fine scene forms part of Tulfarris demesne, whose 
proprietor, Mr. Hornidge, in the liberal spirit of his Wicklow neighbours, 
permits free access. There is a neat inn for visitors, the vicinage being 
crowded during summer with pic-nic parties. Four miles on the Dublin 
side is Blessington, % pre^y little town^ surrounded by lordly demesnes. 
Nearer the waterfall, qq. w^ q^^ ^^ i|^ ^ua^J^orough, the admired 



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GEOBGE WINDEB, THE QLENDALOUOH GUIDE, 

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88 BUSSBOBOtOH, SEAT OF LOBD UILLTOWN. 

seat of the Earl of Milltown, containing many rare old pictures, and 
liberally opened to irisitors. 

It is manifestly impossible, within the limits of thb little volume, to 
describe, however briefly, all the beauties of a county abounding in 
picturesque scenery of every* variety. All that can be attempted 
is to in^cate the more prominCi^ attractions, and mark the line of 
travel which will enable the tourist l6 visit them in the shortest period of 
time. The traveller who can devote a longer period than four days to 
this tour will find ample information in the numerous handbooks to be 
procured of the Dublin booksellers, or may obtain it from Mr. Breslin 
at Bray, Mr. Hunter at Newrath Bridge and Wooden Bridge, or Mr. 
Jordan at Glendalough. Persons whose time limits them to an inspec- 
tion of points of interest within a short distance of Bray will always find 
cars at that station, the drivers of which will take them to the mort 
attractive scenery. 



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39 



XIUARHET Aim TIE SOUTH. 




^EXT to Wicklow, the part of Ireland most attractive to the 
tourist, both for its natural beauty of scenery, and its associa- 
tion with some of Moore's most charming lyrics, is the fairy- 
like region of Killamey. The Great Southern and Western 
BaUway, by which it is reached, passes through Kildare, Queen's County, 
King's County^ Tipperary, Limerick, and Cork, in a nearly direct line, 
the distance between the termini being 165 miles. The Dublin station is 
near King^s Bridge, on the south side of the Liffey, adjacent to the 
entrance of the Phoenix Park, and at the extreme west of the city, of 
which it is a noble architectural ornament. 

The first object that arrests the trayeller's attention after leaving 
the terminus, is the military hospital of Kilmalnham, the Chelsea of 
Ireland, established in 1675, on the site of a priory of Knights Templar, 
founded in 1174 by Earl Strongbow. On the opposite side are Bally- 
fermot Castle and Church, a mile beyond which is Clondalkin, where a 
round tower, 34 feet high, one of the most perfect in Ireland, may 
be seen on the left. Within a mile of Hazel-hatch, the next station, is 
Celbridge Abbey, formerly the residence of Swift's Vanessa. Four miles 
distant, on the rights is Carton, seat of the Duke of Leinster, and formerly 
of the Talbots. Seven miles further, between Hazel-hatch and Straffan, 
Lyons Castle, seat of Lord Cloncurry, is seen on the left, occupying 
the site of an ancient stronghold of the O'Tooles. On the opposite 
side of the line is Killadoon, seat of the Earl of Leitrim ; and below 
Straffan, on the south, is the hill of Oughterard, on the summit of which 
are the remains of a round tower, and other antiquities. Four miles 
below Straffan is the Roman Catholic College of Clongowes Wood, which 
is the surrounded by luxuriant plantations. At Sherlockstown the line 
crosses the Grand Canal by a timber bridge, and at Sallins' station the 
cfrnal is crossed by another. On the left of the first bridge is Palmers- 
town House, the principal seat of the Earls of Mayo. Just outside the 
park gate is a small village called Johnstown ; in the sequestered little 
ohurohyard of this place the late Earl Mayo, Viceroy of India, was 
buried on 26th April, 1872. Half a mile beyond Sallins the line enters 

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40 DUBLIN TO CORK. 

a deep cutting, on emerging from which it crosses the Liffey by a timber 
bridge, 270 feet long. Five miles further on, the Hill of Allen is seen on 
the right, rising 300 feet above the bog of the same name. Here is the 
scene of one of Ossian's poems, and the reported residence of Fin 
M'Ck>ul. On the opposite side of the line are the ruins of Old Connell 
Abbey, founded in 1202. 

Beyond Newbridge station, 25 mHes from Dublin, the line passes oyer 
the famous Curragh of Kildare, an elevated and eztensiye plain where 
horse-races take place twice a year, and now the scene of a military en- 
campment. Several tumuli are scattered over the plain, which was once 
a vast forest. Here, in 1406, a body of Irish, led by the Prior of Connell, 
were defeated by the English ; the Irish Volunteers assembled here in 
1783 ; and here also the United Irishmen encamped in 1804. Kildare, 
the next station, is famous for its ecclesiastical antiquities, comprising 
the ruins of the Cathedral, the Chapel of St. Brigid, in which was pre- 
served the inextinguishable fire mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis, and 
alluded to in one of Moore's melodies, and a round tower, 110 feet high. 
The town is partially concealed from the tourist by a ridge, on the sum- 
mit of. which rise the round tower and ruined Cathedral. Near this 
station the line branches off to Waterford, 82 miles distant, through 
Carlow and Eolkenny. At Monastereven, the next town on the line, ft 
good view is obtamed of the demesne of Moore Abbey, seat of the Mar- 
quis-of Drogheda, occupying the site of a Franciscan Abbey, on the banks 
of the Barrow. Half a mile beyond the station the line crosses the 
Barrow by an iron viaduct, 600 feet long. From Portarlington, the 
next station, a branch line of 15] miles leads to Tullamore, through a 
flat, boggy country, which affords little to interest the traveller. Eight 
miles from Portarlington the line passes the village of Glashill, the 
church, parsonage, and old castle of which are seen on the summit of ft 
hill. TuUamore is situated nearly in the centre of the immense tract of 
peat-moss known as the Bog of Allen. It is a well-built and thriving 
assize town, and, owing to its central position, a place of considerable 
trade, sending large quantities of com and provisions to Dublin by the 
Grand Canal. Adjoining the town is Charleville Forest, seat of the 
Earl of Charleville, whose extensive and well-wooded grounds are open 
to the public. The little river Clodiagh runs through them, supplying a 
fine artificial sheet of water; and the towers and battlements of .the 
castle (of modem architecture) have an imposing i^pearance from the 
various points of view. On the banks of the canal, close to the town, 
are the ruins of Shragh Castle ; and three miles from Tullamore is the 
ruined castle of Ballycowan. Twenty-three miles further on this branch 
is Athlone. 



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42 BOSCBSA AND PARSONSTOWN BRAKCd. 

Soon after passing Portarlington, Emo Park^ seat of the Earl of Port- 
arlington, and one of the finest deer-parks in Ireland, appears on the 
south. In the distance, on the same side, is the Rock of Dunamase, 
crowned with the ruins of Earl Strongbow's castle, demolished bj Crom- 
well. From thence to Ballybrophy the country intersected bj the line 
is flat and uninteresting, the rivers Nore and Kildellig flowing slowly 
through a dark bog, backed by the distant ridge of Slierebloom. 

The Roscrea and Parsonstown Junction branch commences 67i miles 
from Dublin ; its length to Parsonstown is 22 miles. Roscrea is 
situated in a beautiful plain, between the Slievebloom and Deyil's Bit 
Mountains, and is the property of the Earl of Portarlington. Should 
its antiquities tempt a visit, the drive thither will be found as interest- 
ing as the place itself, the road running through a very fertile country, 
and past many of those relics of the past with which the south of Ire- 
land is everywhere dotted. In the vicinity of Borris-in-Ossory are the 
ruins of the castle erected by the Fitzpatricks for the defence of the 
place, which was formerly one of great importance, as the principal pass 
into Munster. Near at hand are the ruined castles of Derrin and Mon* 
drehid, and two miles northward are the remains of the Abbey of Bally- 
duff. Near Roscrea, on the right, is the keep of the castle of Ballagh- 
more, another stronghold of the Fitzpatricks, partially restored some years 
ago, and now occupied by a farmer. Roscrea is of great antiquity, dating 
from the foundation of an abbey by St. Gronan in the seventh centuiy. 
The only portion remaining is a curious gable, in which is an archway, 
surmounted by a mutilated figure of the founder. On each side of the 
arch are several niches, ornamented with chevrons. In the cemetery is 
a round tower, 80 feet high, and in good preservation. Around the base 
are two tiers of stone steps, and about fifteen feet firom the ground \a a 
round-arched doorway, fifteen feet above which is a pointed window. 
Near the tower is part of an ancient cross, with a rudely sculptured 
representation of the Crucifixion. Ope of the towers of the castle 
bidlt by King John is still standing, and the keep of the castle erected 
by the Butlers in the reign of Henry VIII^ is now incorporated with the 
barracks. 

On the main line the aspect of the country improves. Several old 
castles are passed, each of which has attached to it some wild legend, 
or some thrilling story of the wars of the Pale. At Templemore the 
traveller sees, on the right, the seat of Sir J. Carden, called the Priory, 
beautifully situated on an eminence, in the centre of an extensive and 
well wooded park. The town owes its origin to the Knights Templar, 
and one of the entrances to the Priory is a picturesque remnant of one 
of their preceptories. 



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LIMERICK JUNCTION STATION. 43 

The Devil^s Bit mountains now become visible on the right. They 
derive their name from a legend that the devil, benighted on their summits 
and famishing, bit a morsel out of the ridge, but dropped it in disgust on 
finding that it was too liard for mastication. The Bit is the famous Rock 
of Oashel. In its vicinity is Bamane, seat of the late Mr. Garden, whose 
name will be familiar to most readers. The next station, 87 miles firom 
Dublin, is Thurles, where there are remains of a monastery founded 
by the Butlers in 1300 ; and about two miles farther, on the left, 
the ruins of Holy Cross Abbey, one of the finest remains of Gothic 
architecture in Ireland, founded in 1182 by Donald O'Brien, and famous 
in that age for a supposed fragment of the cross of Calvary, presented 
by Pope Pascal to Donagh O^Brien, grandson of Brian Boru. At 
Goold's Cross, the next station, the Rock of Cashel, distant eight miles, 
is seen, crowned with a ruined castle and a famous group of ecclesiastical 



ROCK OF CASHEL. 

antiquities, comprising remains of a cathedral, a monastery, a small 
church, and a round tower. Here, in ancient times, was the [residence 
of the kings of Munster, the royal O'Briens, whence Cashel is called the 
City of the Kings, as Kildare, from its religious associations, is styled 
the City of the Saints. Three miles beyond the station the line passes 
through Dundrum demesne, seat of Lord Hawarden, one of the largest 
private parks in Ireland, comprising 2,400 acres, and famous for its deer. 
At the Limerick Junction station, 107 miles from Dublin, the line is 
intersected by the railway which connects Limerick and Waterford, dis- 
tant respectively 22 and 55 miles from the junction. The Galtee moun- 
tains are here visible in the distance^ on the left of the line. On the 
right is Ballykisteen House, the Irish seat of the Earl of Derby. The 



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44 KtLGOLMAN CASTLE, BSSIDENOE OF SPENSEB. 

surrounding country is one of the most fertile and best cultivated dis- 
tricts in Ireland, and his lordship's estates will bear comparison with 
any. A few miles further on Knocklong is seen on the left, and Slieve- 
namuck is yisible in front. Knocks we^jnay here observe, signifies a hUl, 
and slieve a range of mountains. On the right is Emly, now an unim- 
portant place, but formerly, under the name of Imlagh, one of the 
principal towns in Ireland. Two miles north of Knocklong is the village 
of Hospital, so called from a preceptory of Templars, founded in 1266 ; 
and four miles further on is Lough Gur, around whose shores are scat- 
tered a number of Druidical remains, while on an island in the lake are 
the ruins of a castle, once a stronghold of the Geraldines. On the opposite 
side of the line is the beautiful Qlen of Aherlow, formed by the Galtee 
mountains and Slievenamuck. The next station is Kilmallock, where 
the tourist, if antiquities interest him, could agreeably occupy 
several hours in surveying the relics of pagan and mediaeval times 
here scattered about. There is an abbey, the choir of which is still 
used for divine service ; a Dominican friary, with elaborately sculptured 
cloisters ; remains of an old church, and a round tower. Five miles from 
the line, on the left, is the little town of Eilfinane, containing the ruins 
of an ancient castle, and a rath, or fortified place of the early inhabitants, 
consisting of a high mound, encircled by a series of ramparts, each of 
less elevation than the one behind it. Further on, the hill of Ardpatrick, 
crowned with the stump of a round tower, in the last stage of decay, is 
seen on the left. Charleville, the property of the Earl of Cork, is the 
next station, between which and Buttevant the winding river Awbeg is 
crossed by the line in three places. Between these stations the tourist 
will observe a striking change in the character of the country. The 
rich loamy soil and luxuriant vegetation of the Golden Vale are left 
behind, and the line enters the hilly regions stretching southward to the 
Atlantic. 

Rounding the Ballyhoura mountains, and catching an extensive view 
of their southern slopes, the traveller approaches Buttevant, which, like 
Kilmallock, presents numerous evidences of former grandeur in the 
midst of present meanness and decay. The most striking of these are 
the remains of the abbey founded by David de Barry, lord chief justice 
of Ireland in the reign of Edward L, which, judging from what remains, 
must have been one of the noblest ecclesiastical edifices in the country. 
To the left, six miles distant, is the ruined castle of Kilcolman, formerly 
the property and residence of Spenser, but plundered and burnt by the 
insurgents in 1698. After the Restoration, the poet's grandson was put 
in possession of the property, but forfeited it by his adhesion to James 11. 
It was afterwards restored to the family, but has long since passed from 



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MALLOW AND KILLABNEY JUNOTIO^V. 45 

them, and is held, in part, by Mr. Justice Blackbnm, by whom the ruins 
ot Spenser's Castlfe are carefully preserved. Eight miles from Buttevant, 
on the left, is Castletownroche, where there is another ruined castle, on 
a rock overhanging the Awbeg. A mile beyond is the castle of Carrigna- 
cenny, and at Bridgetown, about the same distance, the remains of an 
abbey, founded in 1314 by the chief of the Roches. 

The Killamey Junction Railway turns off to the right at Mallow, four 
miles beyond which the ruined castle of Dromaneen is seen. On the 
left is ilazabo Hill, a wooded eminence, crowned with another ruin. 
Near Kanturk is the unfinished castle commenced by the chief of the 
Macarthys, in the reign of Elizabeth, by whose council the works were 
ordered lo be stayed, on the ground that it might be dangerous to the 
state. The next station is Millstreet, romantically situated at the head 
of the glen formed by the Boghra and Caherbarna mountains. Near 
the town, distant a mile from the station, is Drishane Castle, built in 
1436 by Dermot Macarthy, and forfeited in 1641 by his descendant, 
Donagh ; now the seat of Mr. H. Wallis. Here we catch the first 
glimpse of the beautiful scenery of Killamey, Tore being distinctly 
visible, with the Reeks in the distance. The line skirts the valley of the 
Flesk, and to the left of Skinnagh station stands Flesk Castle, the seat 
of Mr. D. C. Coltsman. Tickets are collected at this station, and the 
train glides along the base of the hills, crossing several small streams, 
and enters the station at Killamey. Here we must leave the tourist 
who selects this route, while we return to Mallow to conduct to Cork 
those who may prefer the more interesting journey from that city to the 
far-famed Kerry lakes, via Glengariff and Kenmare. 

At Mallow the line quits the limestone formation, which occupies the 
greater portion of the centre of Ireland, and enters the schist, which con- 
tinues to Cork. Three miles beyond the station, the train passes the village 
of Ballinamona, near which are the ruins of Moume Abbey, and on the 
heights above the Blackwater the remains of Barrett Castle. The river 
is passed by a splendid viaduct, and from this point to Cork, travellers 
interested in railway engineering will be amply employed in observing 
the numerous deep cuttings and high embankments, and the long tunnel 
by which Cork is entered. Glimpses are caught at intervals of a wild 
country, while at Blarney station the famous castle of that name, em- 
bowered in the groves, *< which look so charming,'^ is seen on the right. 



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48 CORK AKD THE LEE. 



CORK AND THE LEE. 



> OEE, the third city of Ireland, and sometimes called the capital 
of the south, is situated on the banks of the river Lee, which 
widens below the city into a fine bay, the southern extremity 
of which is called the Gove of Cork. It is divided by the 
Lee into two unequal parts, the larger of which is on the south. 
Its greatest length is two miles, and its breadth one mile, but its 
outline is irregular. Its area is about 520 acres, and the popula- 
tion in 1871 was 78,382. There are no special manufactures, but 
many tanneries, foundries, breweries, and distilleries, and a large 
export trade is carried on in com, provisions, lire stock, and other 
agricultural produce. Cork is the entrep6t for the butter, trade of 
the south-western districts. The harbour, of which more presently in 
connection with Queenstown, is well adapted for the purposes of an ex- 
tensive commerce ; and, as the river divides at the custom-house into 
two branches, between which a large portion of the city is built, there is 
a wide extent of water frontage for quays and warehouses. There are a 
chamber of commerce, a com exchange, several banks, and well attended 
cattle and provision markets. The principal channel of the Lee is the 
more northern one, crossed by Patrick^^ and North Gate Bridges, as far 
as the latter of which it flows due west. Northward of this branch are 
the terminus of the railway from Dublin, the steam-packet ofiSce, bar- 
racks, cattle market, Magdalen and lunatic asylums, fever and foundling 
hospitals, most of the Roman Catholic churches and religious houses, 
and all the principal distilleries, and other industrial establishments. 
The most regularly built portion of the city lies between the two 
branches of the Lee, and comprises the custom-house, post-office, cham- 
ber of commerce, banks, public libraries, chief places of worship for 
Protestants, and principal hotels. The south channel is crossed by An- 
glesea. Parliament, South Gate, and Clarke's Bridges, and beyond it are 
the termini of the Passage andBandon Railways, com exchange, episcopal 
palace, college, cathedral, constabulary barracks, county gaol, and several 
churches and hospitals. 

Cork owes its origin to a monastery founded in the beginning of the 
seventh century by St. Finnbar, on the site of a pagan temple. The 
Danes, who seized the city in the ninth century, surrounded it with 
walls, which protected them in their frequent quarrels with the neigh- 
bouring chiefs, the Macarthys and O'Mahonys. In 1493, Perkin Warbeck, 
being protected by the powerful Earl of Eoldare, was received in Cork 
with regal honours, for which evidence of disaffection the mayor was 
hanged and the city deprived of its charter, which was not restored until 



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1609. In 1649 the dty was taken by surprise by Cromwell, when many 
of the inhabitants were massacred, and the church bells converted into 
cannon. Cork was then, and long afterwards, rery meanly built, as may 
be inferred from the distinguishing title of Broad-lane being given to a 
passage not twelve feet wide ; whilst^ BrideweU-lane, in which the old 
corn-market stood, was only four feet wide, and the fish-market, post 
office, theatre, and assembly-rooms, were in similar localities so late as 
the middle of the last century. Great improvements have been made 
during recent years, however, and many of the streets and buildings vie 
with those of the capital. 

Judge Haliburton (Sam Slick) says, there are three things to be 
recommended to the notice of the visitor to Ireland. " If you are an 
admirer of beautiful scenery, go to the Cove of Cork ; if you want a 
good hotel, go to the Imperial ; if you want good tobacco, go to the 
smoking-room there. I may add also, you may find more than good 
pipes and cigars, for you will meet with a vast deal of amusement, as 
some droll fellows do congregate there." This hotel, kept by Mr. Cotton, 
is in Pembroke-street, with an entrance also from the South Mall, through 
the Commercial Buildings, the splendid news-room of which is open to 
visitors to the hotel. The author can vouch, from the experience of many 
years, that for convenience and comfort, there is not a better hotel in the 
empire. There are also the Victoria, in Patrick-street, similarly con- 
nected with the Chamber of Commerce ; the Italian, in WarrenVplace ; 
and the Albert, in King-street; with several minor hotels and numerous 
private lodging-houses. 

Passing along Penrose-quay, on leaving the station, the tourist will 
first cross Patrick's-bridge, and then enter Patrick-street, beyond which 
is GeorgeVstreet. These two streets run through the centre of this 
almost insular portion of the city. In the South Mall' are the Com- 
mercial Buildings, akeady mentioned; the County Club House, in 
the Italian style ; the Cork Library, and the branch establishments of 
the Bank of Ireland, and the National and Provincial Banks. At 
the east end of the Mall the south channel is seen, just where it is 
crossed by Anglesea-bridge, built of iron, and leading to the Com Mar- 
ket and the Atheneeum. In the distance is the Custom House, beyond 
which the Lee stretches far away, glittering in the sunlight, and thronged 
with shipping. At the western end' of the Mall stands an equestrian 
statue of George IL Advancing to the edge of the river, and looking 
westward, the visitor sees, peeping from amidst the dense foliage by 
which it ia surrounded, the spire of St. Finnbar's Cathedral, a structure 
of plain exterior, rebuilt in 1735, and now about to be replaced by a 
liew Cathedral. To the north, at right angles to the Mall, is the Grand 



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dHANDOK STEEPLE AND THE ** BELLS." 61 

Parade, the widest street in the city, but irregularly built, a defect 
equally observable in ihost of the streets of Cork, and which deprives 
them of much of the effect that would otherwise be produced by the 
fine public buildings. More than half-way up the Parade, on the left, 
is Great GeorgeVstreet, a handsome line of buildings, designed by Sir 
T. Deane, a native architect, monuments of whose professional abilities are 
found in aU parts of the city. At the western end is the Court House, 
erected by Messrs. Paine, the architects of Mitchelstown Castle, which 
is greatly admired for its graceful external proportions. The Western- 
road forms a continuation of this street for some distance, and com- 
mands views, across the south branch of the Lee, of the Convent of 
Mercy, crowning a wooded hiU, and Queen's College, occupying the 
elevated site of the old monastic institute of Gil Abbey. Both these 
buildings were designed by Sir T. Deane. Turning to the right, a few 
minutes' walk brings the visitor to the Mardyke, an avenue of stately 
elms, extending in a straight line fully a mile, and once the usual prome- 
nade of the citizens, a distinction now transferred to the Victoria Park, 
an area of 140 acres, reclaimed from the tide by the embankment made 
for the railway to Passage. 

Re-entering the city by the Mardyke, and crossing North Gate Bridge, 
the tourist finds himself in the vicinity of one of the famous " lions" of 
Cork, namely, Shandon Steeple, the bells of which have gained such 
celebrity through the famous lyric of Father Prout. Crofton Croker, a 
fellow-citizen and brother humourist of the bard, thus speaks of it — 
** The steeple of St. Anne, or Upper Shandon, in which hang the cele- 
brated bells, is 140 feet high, and, being built upon an eminence, is 
remarkable in every point of view of the city ; but especially from what 
Moore has termed ' its noble sea avenue,^ the Lee. This church was 
commenced in 1722, its steeple constructed of hewn stone from the 
Franciscan Abbey, where James II. heard mass, and from the ruins of 
Lord Barry's Castle, which had been the oflBcial residence of the lords 
president of Munster, and whence this quarter of the city takes its name, 
— Shandon (Sean dun) signifying, in Irish, the old fort or castle. But 
as the demolished abbey had been of limestone, and the castle of red- 
stone, the taste of the architect of Shandon Steeple led him to combine 
the discordant materials by constructing three sides of white, and the 
remaining side of red stone.*' In connection with this want of harmony, 
the tourist will have observed in his walk that the County Gaol, not far 
from Queen's College, is built of limestone drawn from the quarries in 
the vicinity, and the City Prison, on the opposite side, of red sand- 
stone, from the quarries on the north. This geological peculiarity of the 
district extends from the source of the Lee, at Gougane Barra, limestone 



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8HAND0N STEEFLE. 



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BLAIINET, ITS 8T0NB, aBOTEB, AND 0A8TLE. 53 

being found on one sme^and red sandstone on the other, even where the 
stream is so narrow that it may be jumped across. The principal other 
ecclesiastical edifices are the Roman Catholic churches of St. Patrick 
and St. Mary, both in the Grecian style, the interior of the latter being 
very handsome ; and that of the Holy Trinity, a Gothic structure, inte- 
resting from its having been founded by the Rev. Theobald Mathew, the 
apostle of temperance, and from containing the O^Connell memorial 
window of stained glass. The cemetery is about a mile from the city, 
and is well laid out, and planted with trees and shrubs. It was formerly 
a botanic garden, having been converted to its present purpose in 18^6. 
The tourist's first excursion beyond the city boundaries should 
be made to Blarney, which may be reached either through Blackpool, 
the northern suburb, and along the road to Kanturk, or along Sandy 
Well's-road and Blarney-lane. The former route is the shortest, 
but the latter affords charming views over the environs of Cork, 
embracing the " Silver Lee," winding through scenes of yaried love- 
liness, the wooded heights of Glenmire, and richly-planted grounds 
of Blackrock. The tourist may reach Blarney by one road, and return 
by th6 other; or reject both, and make the trip by railway. The dis- 
tance from Cork is five miles, and the charge for a car 3s, 6d. The 
celebrated castle, long the residence of the younger branch of the 
Macarthy family, by whom it was erected in the middle of the fifteenth 
century, stands about a mile from the village. The remains consist of 
the massive doi\jon, about 120 feet in height, and a lower and less sub- 
stantial portion. Twenty feet below the summit, at the northern angle, 
is a stone bearing the inscription — Cormach MacCarthy fortis mi Jieri 
fecit, A,D, 1446. This is the far-famed Blarney Stone, though for the 
accommodation of visitors, as it is somewhat inaccessible, the guides 
sometimes point out as the ''raalBtone" another nearer the summit, 
bearing the date 1703. " When or how," says Mrs. Hall, " the stone 
obtained its singular reputation, it is difficult to determine. The exact 
position among the ruins of the castle is also matter of doubt, and the 
peasant guides' humour the visitor, in respect to it, according to his or 
her capacity for climbing. He who has been dipped in the Shannon is 
presumed to have obtained in abundance the gift of that < civil courage' 
which makes an Irishman at ease and unconstrained in all places, and 
under all circumstances ; and he who has kissed the Blarney Stone is 
assumed to be endowed with a fluent, persuasive, and it must be 
added, insincere tongue, the term < blarney^ being generally used to 
characterize words that are meant neither to be * honest or true."' 
Blarney is the property of Sir G. Colthurst, M.P., son-in-law of the 
late "bir. Jeffries, a gentleman who laboured unceasingly to introduce 

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PI^ARNET CASTLE, FROM PEEP-HO|.E ON BRIDGE^^J^ 



DOWN THE LSE TO ^UEENSTOWN. 55 

the most improved systems of agriculture, and is so «iilogistically men- 
tioned by Mr. Caird^in his valuable work on the agricultiffeof Ireland. 
Near the river Goman, within the demesne, is a cromlech, in fine pfreaenra- 
tion, and a number of pillar-stones inscribed with the ancient Ogham 
characters. The grounds surrounding the castle, to which the lyrics of 
Father Prout and Dr. Milliken have given a world-wide celebrity, as the 
« Groves of Blarney,'' have long been divested of the grottoes and rustic 
bridges which formerly adorned them, but are still very beautiful. About 
two miles to the west of the castle is St. Anne's Hill, the celebrated 
hydropathic establishment of Dr. Barter, where, in 1844, the first of the 
Turkish Baths, now springing up in all the principal towns of the United 
^ngdom, was erected under the personal superintendence of the well- 
known Mr. David Urquhart, who made himself acquainted with all the 
details of its construction and application while secretary to the British 
embassy at Constantinople. 

The next trip should be down the Lee to Queenstown. The distance 
is twelve miles, which may be performed by the Queenstown branch of 
the Cork and Youghal Railway, recently sold to the Great Southern and 
Western Railway Company ; by steamboat, calling at Blackrock, Passage, 
and Monkstown ; or by railway to Passage, and thence by steamer to 
Queenstown. The whole distance is performed by railway in about half 
an hour, and by the other routes in about an hour. As both railways 
run parallel with and near to the river, a description of the scenery 
passed in descending the Lee by steamboat will apply in a great measure 
to the other routes. A beautiful panorama breaks upon the view soon 
after starting by river, the slopes of the northern bank being crowned 
with terraces and villas, while on the right are the Park and the wooded 
pleasure-grounds of the various demesnes on the Blackrock road. Be- 
tween the demesnes of Tivoli and Feltrim, the channel takes a sweep 
to the south, and we pass Dundanion Castle, through the grounds 
of which the railway to Passage runs in a deep cutting, over which 
is thrown a light bridge, leading to the mansion, which stands in the 
midst of venerable trees. The modem castle takes the name fVom that 
of the ruins of an old one still existing in the grounds. It is situated on 
the right bank of the river, opposite the neat village of Blackrock, near 
which is the convent of the Ursulines, one of the most celebrated insti- 
tutions of its kind in Ireland, if not in Europe, but more remarkable for 
its extent than for architectural beauty. The steamer next passes 
Blackrock Castle, built in the castellated Gothic style, on a projecting 
mass of rock, completely commanding this part of the river, as vessels 
are obliged to pass close under its walls in order to keep within the 



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58 EXCURSION TO AOHADA AND CLOpfE. 

channel. The present building was erected about thirty years ago, on 
the foundations of the old castle, built in the reign of James U. 

As the steamer rounds on its course, we see Castle Mahon, formerly 
the residence of Lady Ohatterton, who has contributed so much to the 
literature of the day ; and after steering a little north again, towards the 
demesne of Inchera, owned by Mr. C. S. Oliver, the broad expanse of 
Lough Mahon opens on the view. Running up at our right is the 
Douglas Channel, and the house and demesne opposite the little island 
at its mouth is Lakelands, seat of Mr. Crawford, of the eminent brewing 
firm of Beamish and Crawford. Our course no\f turns again to the 
south. Opening on the left is Smith Barry's Bay, the trees we see in 
the distance shutting out from view Foaty, the princely residence of Mr. 
H. Smith Barry ; while on its eastern side is the wooded hill of Marino, 
seat of Mr. T. French, the venerable but active admiral of the Queens* 
town Yacht Club. 

We are now opposite Passage, a place of almost as great lyrical fame 
as Blarney, Crofton Croker giving no less than three lyrics to the charms 
of the " fair maid of Passage," in his Sovga of Ireland, On the oppo- 
site side is the bleak hill of Carrigaloe, beneath which, and in close 
proximity to the river, is seen the Queenstown branch of the Cork 
and Youghal Railway ; and lower down on the right, the Monks- 
town baths and the hydropatliic establishment of Dr. Curtin. A little 
further on are the Giant's Stairs, a name given to some natural steps 
in the cliflf, originally seven in number, but reduced a few years ago 
to five in making a new road. Monkstown, with its pretty church 
and ruined castle, built in 1636, are next passed ; and then, as the river 
widens, and the steamer rounds White Point, we observe the island of 
Hawlbowline, and the masses of building erected on it as storehouses 
for the navy. Opposite Hawlbowline is Rocky Island, containing the 
powder magazine, occupying six chambers hewn in the rock, in which 
10,000 barrels of gunpowder are usually stored. Looking south, we see 
Spike Island, the natural breakwater of the harbour ; and to the east- 
ward, about four miles distant, is Rostellan Castle, the princely seat of 
the O'Briens. 

Queenstown, as the principal naval station in Ireland, is a thriving 
bustling town, but affords little to interest the tourist, beyond the ship- 
ping in the harbour, and the heights behind the town. It is situated on 
the south side of the Great Island, which here divides the estuary ; and 
as the land rises abruptly from the sea, the streets rise in tiers, one 
above another, presenting a fine appearance from the harbour and oppo> 
site shores. The hills beyond afford magnificent views over the harbour, 
with Forts Camden and Carlisle, on either hand, the islands in front, 



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queen's college, cobk. 

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60 ANTIQUITIES OF CLOTNE. 

the numerous vessels in motion, in the distance, the ocean and the green 
hills and wooded slopes on the right and left. 

The voyage is sometimes continued to Aghada, on the eastern side 
of the harbour, and boats may at all times be hir^d for Is, 6d, from 
Queenstown to BosteUan Castle. If the boat is not detained more than 
half an hour only half-fare is charged for the return trip ; but the tourist 
may agreeably occupy a portion of the day by a walk or drive from Bos- 
teUan to the ancient town of Cloyne, the intervening distance being only 
four miles. Visitors have free access to the BosteUan demesne, which 
is extensive and weU planted. In the castle, which occupies the site of an 
ancient stronghold of the Fitzgeralds, is an antique sword, said to have 
belonged to the famous Brian Boru, from whom the O'Briens claim de- 
scent. On the decease of the late Marquis of Thomond in 1855, aU the 
titles of this famUy became extinct, except the barony of Inchiquin, 
which descended to Sir Lucius O'Brien, now Lord Inchiquin. The road 
to Cloyne passes the hamlet of Soleen and the demesne of Castle Mary, 
seat of Mr. Longfield, in the vicinity of which are two cromlechs, one 
much larger than the other. <' It is supposed," says Mr. Coyne, <* that 
the lesser might have been used for the purposes of common sacrifice, 
whUe the greater altar was reserved for occasions of extraordinary 
solemnity." Cloyne is a nule beyond this locaUty, in the vaUey of Imo- 
kiUy, and is interesting from its ecclesiastical remains and. numerous 
limestone caverns, the most remarkable of the latter being. situated in 
a part of the episcopal demesne, caUed the Bock Meadow. The Cathe- 
dral was founded in the seventh century by St. Colman, a disciple of St. 
Finnbar; but in its present condition, displays the works of several ages. 
The north transept, which was rebuilt by Bishop Agar in 1776, in a 
style not at aU in harmony with the design of the ancient portions, con- 
tains an altar tomb, with a mutilated figure of a maUed knight, said to 
represent one of the Fitzgeralds. In the churchyard is a smaU bmlding 
called the Fire House, within which St. Colman is said to have been 
interred; and about a hundred yards from the Cathedral is a round tower, 
originaUy 92 feet high, and now rising to 102 feet, the ancient conical 
top having some years ago been shattered by Ughtning, when the pre- 
sent embattlement was substituted. 



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01 



YOITGHAL Al^D THE BLACKWATER. 

THE opening of the railway from Cork to Youghal, a distance of 
28 miles, affords great facilities for visiting the beautiful scenery 
of the Blackwater, as the tourist leaving Cork by the first train, 
can spend an hour or two in Youghal, proceed by steamer to 
Cappoquin, to which point the Blackwater is navigable, and return by 
the steamer on its downward trip to Youghal in time to reach Cork by 
the afternoon train. There is a good hotel in Youghal, the Devonshire 
Arms; also another, called the Commercial. 

Fine views of the right bank of the Lee are obtaked from the line 
during the first few miles of the journey, and divide the tourist's atten- 
tion with the numerous villas and plantations of Glenmire. The valley 
through which the line runs is one of the richest agricultural districts in 
the county, and generally weU cultivated. A little to the south of the 
village of Carrigtuohill is Barry's Court, a castle built by Philip Barry 
in the thirteenth century, and now, in its restored state, occupied by 
Mr. Coppinger. We next reach the little town of Middleton, in the 
endowed school of which Curran received the rudiments of his education. 
Ballinacurra, the port of Middleton, is a mile below the town, which is 
situated at the head of one of the creeks branching off the north-eastern 
end of Cork harbour. There are commodious quays and warehouses, 
and the trade in com and provisions is far from inconsiderable. The 
town and much of the fertile land in the neighbourhood belongs to 
the representatives of the last Viscount Middleton, which title is now 
extinct. Castlemartyr, the only other place on the line calling for notice, 
is a neat little town, almost surrounded by the demesne of the same 
name, seat of the Earl of Shannon, proprietor of the town. The man- 
sion is a plain, unpretending structure, but the grounds are beautifully 
planted, the lucombe oaks bemg the finest in Ireland, and the camellias 
and magnolias the finest out of doors in the United E[ingdom. Within 
the demesne are the ruins of the old castle of Imokilly,so often besieged 
and sacked during the five centuries between the Anglo-Norman invasion 
and the Revolution. 

Youghal is picturesquely situated on a hill overhanging the estuary 
of the Blackwater, which opens widely to the sea between bluff head- 
lands. Blended in one prospect^ from some points of the locality, are 
the sea and rocky coast of the harbour's mouth, on either side, and 
cultivated fields and wooded spots on the bank of the estuary within. 
Stretching away far inland is the wide river, crossed at some distance 
by a long wooden bridge. The town itself possesses several features of 
interest. It vras occupied by the army of Cromwell in 1649, and a house 



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62 OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN TOUQHAL. 

then used by the Protector remuned standing until 1835. It was a place 
of residence of Raleigh, who was its chief magistrate in the years 1588 
and 1589, and who about that time entertained Spenser, before both em- 
barked from the port for England, to superintend the publication of the 
Faerie Q^eene, In the town and surrounding district are several ancient 
religioiis foundations, of which one, the Collegiate Church of St. Mary, 
is in perfect preservation, while others are in ruins. These constitute a 
group scattered around the estuary, forming memorials of the landing of 
Christian missionaries there, anterior to the preaching of St. Patrick, 
and of their subsequent labours. St. Mary's Collegiate Church was 
founded in the thirteenth century by Richard Bennett, and Ellis 
Barry his wife. It stands in a churchyard of no small beauty, being 
thickly overgrown with trees, and situated upon a precipitous slope, 
and crested at the top with a portion of the ancient waUs of the 
town, on which are five cannon that once belonged to the old fort of 
Toughal. A charming prospect of the estuary and harbour, the oppo- 
site shores of Waterford, with distant mountain ranges, is afforded from 
this elevation. The church is in the form of a Latin cross, chiefly in the 
early pointed style of architecture, and although not very large, is a 
beautiful edifice. Its choir, aisles, nave, with its pointed arches and 
original roof timbers still remaining, decorated doorways, and other 
architectural points, will strike every beholder. Its monuments are also 
remarkable. There are curious sepulchral relics, including coffin-lids, 
some of which bear Norman-French inscriptions, more or less perfect. 
One of these bears the name of Roger Deivil, a companion of Strong- 
bow. At one side of the churchyard is the site of ** Our Lady's CoUege 
of Youghal," founded in 1464 by Thomas, eighth Earl of Desmond, Lord 
Deputy of Ireland. Hardly a vestige of the buildmg is now visible, the 
site being occupied by a fine house built in 1782. On the other side 
is the Warden^s House, celebrated as the residence of Raleigh, and a 
structure of the fifteenth century, in the old English style of architec- 
ture. A luxuriant growth of myrtles, bays, and arbutus trees decorates 
the gardens, in which the first potato planted in Ireland is stated to have 
been grown. There is a group of four aged yew trees in the garden, 
that local tradition has associated with the name of Raleigh. Here 
also was used, it is said, for the first time, in Ireland at least, the 
<< fragrant weed," which has since grown into such universal request. 
The church and college were desecrated and spoiled by the rebellious 
Earl of Desmond in 1579. The former edifice, which has been restored 
by the indefatigable exertions of the Rev. W. P. Drew, the rector, is weU 
worthy of a visit. The " College," purchased from the Duke of Devon- 
shire in 1860> is now the residence of the agent of the proprietor of the 



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estate. Li the reign <^SLnibeth, the site of the town, and a large tract 
of land beyond, extendmg as £ur aa Liamore, was owned bj Sir Walter 
Raleigh, who disponed of them in 1602 to Mir. Boyle, afterwards created 
Earl of Cork. In 1748, Lady Charlotte Boyle, daiq;hter of the fourth 
earl, married William Cavendish, fourth Duke of DeYonshire; and on 
the earl's death, a few years afterwards, all his estates became rested 
in the dukedom. Since 1860 considerable improvement has been effected 
in the aspect of Toughal. Dilapidated buildings have disappeared, and 
various arrangements are in progress for infusing commercial activity 
into the town, and for making it an attractive watering-place. In re- 
spect of both objects, the place possesses great natural resources. It is 
the centre of a district as fertile and productive as any in Ireland, but 
which, until the opening of the railway, was without the modem facilities 
of communication with a^acent markets ; and the sandy beach cannot 
be surpassed, as a spot for sea-bathing, by any other watering-place in 
the United Kingdom. 

Before proceeding up the Blackwater, the tourist, if fond of inspect- 
ing antiquities, should make an excursion to Ardmore, about five miles 
north-east of Youghal, in the county of Waterford. For this purpose, the 
river should be crossed at Ferry Point, where a vehicle may be obtained 
on the opposite side, if desired, to convey the visitor to the little town of 
Ardmore. Here St. Declan, a missionary of a noble family, founded, 
about the year 416, a seminary, from which the light of Christianity is 
said to have been diffused over the surrounding district, and thence 
through all parts of Ireland. The buildmgs still remaining, but in an 
imperfect state, are St. Declan's oratory, in the south-east angle of which 
his grave is pointed out ; the ancient cathedral, the chancel of which was 
used as the parish church until the erection of the present edifice. The 
west gable of the church presents a series of sculptured niches, of elabo* 
rate design and execution. A round tower, 90 feet high, is in the 
churchyard. St. Declan's Well is still held in great veneration by the 
peasantry of the neighbourhood, who, on " patron day," the 24th of July, 
creep beneath a huge boulder, called St. Declan's Stone, one end of 
which rests upon another, in the hope of being benefited in their health 
or their spiritual condition. For further information respecting either 
Ardmore or Youghal, the reader is referred to the very interesting book 
of the Rev. S. Hayman, B.A., published in 1860 by Mr. J. Lindsay, of 
Youghal, who has presented the public with a specimen of Irish typo- 
graphy and illustration that may challenge competition with any similar 
publication, the productions of the leading London publishers not excepted. 

Three centuries ago, Spenser, who, from his residence at Kilcolman 
Castle, and his intimacy with Raleigh, was well acquainted with all this 



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Oft ASCENT OF THE BLAOKWATlBR. 

part of Ireland, thus wrote — << And sure it is yet a most beautiful and 
sweet country as any under heaven, being stored throughout with many 
rivers, replenished with all sorts offish most abundantly; sprinkled with 
many very sweet islands and goodly lakes like little inland seas, that will 
carry even ships upon their waters; adorned with goodly woods, even fit 
for building of houses and ships, so commodiously, as that if some princes 
of the world had them, they would soon hope to become lords of all the 
seas, and ere long of all the world/' But the river that above all capti- 
vated Spenser was the Blackwater ; nor is this to be wondered at, as it 
has since then been described by more than one writer of celebrity as 
combining beauties unsurpassed either on the Rhine, the Rhone, or the 
Danube. It must be remembered, however, that the portion of the river 
navigable for steamers does not exceed sixteen miles, and that, even if 
nature did not interpose obstacles to further navigation, it is checked 
by a handsome stone bridge at Cappoquin, where the river makes a re- 
markable bend from it easterly course, and flows due south. 

Leaving the pier at Toughal, the steamer, at about a mile and a half 
from the town, passes under the stupendous timber bridge which connects 
the county of Waterford with that of Cork. This is the largest struc- 
ture of the kind in Ireland, being 1,787 feet long, and is supported upon 
57 sets of piers, each consisting of five pillars of timber; connected with 
the bridge is a causeway, 1,600 feet long, making the total length 3,287 
feet, or nearly three-fifths of a mile. Immediately beyond this structure, 
on the right, the river Toorigh flows into the Blackwater; and, on the 
opposite side, on the summit of a precipitous hill, are the ruins of Rhin- 
crew Abbey, once a preceptory of Templars, said to have been founded 
toward the end of the twelfth century, by Raymond le Gros, one of the 
companions of Strongbow. A very extensive view over the surrounding 
country is obtained from the hill on which these ruins stand. We next 
come upon the ruins of Temple Michael Castle, erected in the fourteenth 
century, and reduced to its present condition by the cannonade to which 
it was subjected by Cromwell. The first modem mansion passed in as- 
cending the river is Ballinatray, seat of the Hon. C. Smyth, picturesquely 
situated close to the water's edge. The chief picture of general interest 
in a small but choice collection possessed by Mr. Smyth is the full-length 
portrait of Raleigh, by Zucchero. Within the demesne are the remains 
of the Abbey of Molano, said to have been founded by St. Molanfide in 
the sixth century, and to contain the grave of Raymond le Gros, to whose 
memory there is an urn and inscription beneath an arched window. 
The ruins are in good preservation, and in the cloisters is a modern 
statue of the founder, placed there by Mrs. Smyth in 1820. Next to 
Ballinatray is Cherrymount, beautifully situated, with charming views of 



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the adjacent mountain scenery on the one side of the house, and the long 
vista of the Blackwater, towards Youghal, on the other. This property 
was purchased a few years " ago hy that distinguished officer, the laifce Sir 
J. Thackwell. Loughtane, seat of Mr. S. Allin, is situated on an end- 
nence overlooking the river, at the point where it suddenly expands into 
a lake-like hasin, called the Broad of Clashmore. Olashmore House, the 
property (acquired by marriage) of the Earl of Huntingdon, is near the 
village of the same name, and at some little distance from the river. 
Higher up, the ruins of the old castle of Strancally are seen, surmount- 
ing a cliff rising almost perpendicularly from the water. This was one 
of the strongholds of the Desmonds, and tradition still preserves the 
recollection of many ruthless deeds of ita former owners. There was a 
cavern beneath, used as a prison, with a hole like a portcullis, down 
which victims were thrown into the river. When the castle was blown 
up by order of the English Government the cave was laid open. The 
new castle of Strancally, erected a few years ago, and now the property 
of Mr. G. H. Lloyd, is situated most picturesquely on the left in close 
proximity to the junction of the Bride with the Blackwater. The views 
at this part of the river are very beautiful, the charming sylvan scenery 
being varied with rocks rising precipitously from the water's edge, whilst 
the mountalkis in the background add solemnity and grandeur to the 
Bcene. On the opposite side of the river, about three miles higher up, 
is the demesne of Dromana, seat of Lord Stuart de Decies, whose man- 
sion stands on a lofty cliff overhanging the river, behind which are the 
remains of a fine old castle formerly one of the many residences of the 
once powerful Desmonds. Here the cherry is said to have been first 
grown in Ireland, having been introduced by Raleigh from the 
Canaries. 

Some small islands are now passed, and the steamer reaches Cappo- 
quin, the head of the navigation, and pleasantly situated on the north 
bank of the river. It is a place of considerable antiquity, and its castle 
was an important strategical position in the early history of the country. 
Here is as beautiful a portion as any of the valley of the Blackwater, 
the banks being richly wooded, and the southern acclivities of the 
KnockmealedoWh mountains reaching almost to the river. Above the 
village is Cappoquin House, seat of Sir B. Keane, delightfully situated 
and commandhig fine views of the river. In the neighbourhood is Mount 
Melleray, a Trappist monastery, to whose brotherhood Sir B. Keane 
granted a large tract of barren mountain, which they reclaimed by their 
labour, and now grow good crops, leaving a surplus for educating, feed- 
ing, and clothing the poor of the neighbourhood. Visitors are politely 
received by one of the fraternity, who is absolved from the rule, which 



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iiiOMUIUj ATtU X19 lUOlUni* 



otherwise commands unbroken silence, when performing the rites of 
hospitality to strangers. The building, belonging to the order of the 
celebrated Mount St. Bernard, is eztemallj a plain one, and all the 
stones of which it is constructed are said to have been picked off the 
estate by the monks ; but the chapel is splendid, the choir being richly 
carved and painted, and the altar lighted by a magnificent window of 
stained glass. 

From Cappoquin to Lismore is a distance of four miles, through beau- 
tiful scenery. The trip can be made either by boat, or by post car along 
the left bank of the rirer. The return to Cork may be effected vid 
Lismore, Fermoy, and Mallow. From Lismore to Fermoy is twelve miles, 
and from the latter town to the Mallow Junction (seyenteen miles) Utert 
is a branch railway. The principal inn at Lismore is the Devefldiire 
Arms, where post cars and horses may be obtained ; at Fermoy good 
accommodation will be found at the Queen's Arms. 

Lismore is one of the most ancient towns in Ireknd, having been, 
from the seventh century, the seat of one of the fcmr universities which 
at that remote era attracted to Ireland the BOble youth of all Western 
Europe. Li 830, however, Lismore was attacked, for the third time, by 
Scandinavian marauders, who burned the collegiate buildings, and car- 
ried off every moveable article of value. Henry II. remained two days 
at Lismore in his progress through the south of Ireland, and was so im- 
pressed with its importance as a military position that he determined to 
erect a fortress, a design which was carried out by John in 1185. Four 
years afterwards, however, the castle was surprised and destroyed by 
the Irish, who slew the whdle of the garrison. Being rebuilt, it became 
the residence of the bishops of the diocese until 1589, when it was 
granted to Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1602 it passed, with the Toughal 
estates, into the possession of Mr. Boyle, afterwards Earl of Cork, and 
became the seat of that family until the death of the fourth earl in 1753, 
when it passed into the possession of the Cavendish family in the manner 
already related. 

The castle is situated on the summit of a cliff, overlooking the Black- 
water, which is here crossed by a handsome bridge, erected by the late 
Duke of Defvonshire. Mr. 0*Flanagan thus describes the aspect of the 
castle from this point : — " Immediately above the light and graceful 
bridge appears the thick foliage of huge trees, flinging theur boughs over 
the river, while richly covered rocks rise to a fearful height, crowned by 
the feudal towers of this ducal pile. The portions next us half disclose 
their antique casements ; the ivied turrets and shelving roofs are con- 
cealed by the nodding trees. Further off, the square-built towers are 
boldly defined against the dark woods, and high over all the venerable 



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ASfQLVXQ IK THE BLAOKWATER. 67 

and lofty trees raise their shady branches, and form a verdant canopy." 
The Dnke of Devonshire is non-resident, but he occasionally visits the 
castle, and is much esteemed as a kind considerate landlord. The agent, 
Mr. Curry, by whom his grace is well represented, resides in the castle, 
which the housekeeper shows to visitors sending in their cards. There 
are some choice paintings, and two fine pieces of tapestry. In one of 
the chambers the philosopher Boyle was bom, and in the tapestried room 
James II. was entertained in 1690, when, on approaching the window, he 
was so terrified by its height above the river that he accused his host of 
a design to hurl him into the abyss below. ^^ I know nothing," says the 
author just quoted, '< superior to the prospect from the projecting win- 
dow of the tapestried chamber. It looks on the river, flowing several 
hundred feet beneath, gliding on its onward course, and watering a rich 
and verdant vaUey. The hills do not contract the fair meadow inches 
which display the hue of the emerald in their green banks. Clumps of 
trees afford shelter and shade to flocks and herds. High mountains peep 
from the lateral glens, through which the tributary streamlets from the 
hills pour into the Blackwater.^' Inglis is equally enthusiastic in praise 
of the view from the bridge. " Nothing," he says, " can exceed in rich- 
ness and bsauty this view, when at evening the deep woods, and the grey 
castle, and the still river are left in shade, while the sun, streaming up 
the valley, gilds the soft slopes and knolls that lie opposite; the bridge, 
the castle, grey and massive, with its ruined and ivy-grown towers, and 
the beautiful tapering spire of the church, all combine to form a scene we 
gaze on wiih pleasure and turn away from with regret." Near the castle 
is the Cathedral, approached from the town through a fine avenue of 
trees. The Norman arch forming the entrance, the stained windows of 
the choir, and the elaborate oak carvings of the bishop's throne and the 
prebends' stalls render it well worthy a visit. 

The Blackwater abounds in salmon, trout, pike, and perch. The part 
of the river best adapted for angling is from Lismore to Mallow. The 
tributary rivers Bride and Funcheon afford good trout fishing,* and ex- 
eellent sport may be had in the vicinity of Fermoy. The best fishing is 
at Carysville, seat of Mr. Cary, two nailes from Fermoy. This part pf 
the river is strictly preserved, but gentlemen asking permission are sel- 
dom refused. The regulations under which angling is permitted may 
be learned at the fishing-tackle shops in Lismore and Fermoy, or of the 
men who are always ready, for a small consideration, to guide the angler 
to the most favourite haunts. 

About a mUe west of Lismore, on the north bank of the river, is 
the splendid demesne of Ballysaggartmore, seat of Mr. Usher ; and 
acyoinmg this are Mr. Drew's beautiful grounds of Flower Hill. 



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^ FERUOT AND THS UPPER BLAOKWATEH. 

The hills beyond Cappoquin now become indistinct, atid the Ktiockmeiu 
ledown mountains look a dark confused mass. On the opposite side are 
tbe handsome house and tastefuUj-planted demesne of Fort William, seat 
of Mr. Gumbleton, near which is the ruined castle of Ballygarron. On 
the same side are Glencaim Abbey, property of Mr. Richurd Bushe, and 
Glenbeg, residence of Mr. Foley, with a walk along the margm of the 
river, shaded by noble beeches. Here the water becomes shtdlow, and 
the navigation impeded by rapids ; but deep water is found agahi above 
the hamlet of Ballyduff. A little higher up we pass the ruins of Macol* 
lop Castle, memorable in the feuds of the Oeraldines and Butlers. It 
was much dilapidated by Cromwell's cannon, but the winding staircase 
of the circular keep is still in tolerable preservation, and worth ascend- 
ing for the view from the top. About this point the river again becomes 
shallow and very rapid. On the right is Kilmurry, seat of Mr. Grant, 
showing rich lawns, dotted with clumps of noble trees ; and on the lefb 
the woods of Waterpark and the demesnes of Kilbarry rud Carysville, 
the fornier being the seat of Mr. Wigmore. A little higher up, on a 
rock between the mouths of the Funcheon and the Ariglen, which flow 
into the Blackwater from the north, is the ruined castle of Ballyderoon, 
near which is Mount Rivers, the elegant and picturesque seat of Mr. 
Hendley, and Moore Park, the finely planted demesne of the Earl of 
Mountoashel. Beyond the former demesne is Rockview, residence of 
Mr. Mackler, and, on a rock near the river, the ruined castle of Lisclash, 
adjoining which is a Danish rath. On the south bank is Carrigabuck, 
formerly a stronghold of the Condons, as was Lisclash also. 

Fermoy is a pleasantly situated and flourishing town, situated principally 
on the southern bank of the Blackwater,which is here crossed by a substan- 
tial stone bridge. There are extensive barracks, a court-house, two branch 
banks, a well attended market, and all the usual buildings of a thriving 
town. The country around is fertile and well cultivated, and the surface 
diversified with hill and dale. From the hills on the north side of the 
river views are obtained of the valley <^ the Blackwater, which is here 
bounded, above the town, by the Nagles mountains, the highest point of 
which, called Knockinskeagh, attidns an elevation of 1,388 feet ; and^ 
below the town, on the north by the hills which rise between the Black- 
water and the Ariglen, and on the south by the high table-land which 
stretches southward to the valley oi the Bride. Five miles from the 
town, on the north bank of the river, is Convamore, seat of the Earl of 
histowel, in whose park is the ruined castle of Ballyhooley, once a fortress 
of the Roches The fine demesne of Castle Hyde occupies both banks of the 
river, a mile above the town, its park and plantations stretchmg south- 
ward to the base of the Nagles mountains. There is a romantic glen a 



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MITCHEL8T0WN CASTLE AND DEMESNE. 69 

little beyond Fermoy, and within the demesne are the ruins of Creg^ 
Castle. The village of GlanwortL is five miles from Fermoy, through a 
fertile and very beautiful country, the yalley of the Funoheon. The road 
passes close to a Druidioal altar, locally termed the Hag's fied, in con- 
nection with which many curious legends exist. On a rocky eminence, 
overlooking the river, are the extensive and interesting ruins of Glan- 
worth Castle, the ancient seat of the Eoches ; and in their vicinity the 
remains of an abbey, founded by that family in 1227 for Dominican 
Mars. These ruins are seen to great advantage in approaching the 
village. Under the walls of the castle is a well, which the peasantry 
regard with great veneration. " Holy wells" are very numerous through- 
out Munster, and are regarded by Dr. O'Conor, who wrote a learned 
essay on the subject some years ago, as a vestige of the paganism of 
the country, with which the round towers are, in all probability, likewise 
connected. 

Fermoy is well situated for an excursion to Mitchelstown, famous for 
its &ie modem castle, and the stalactite caverns in its vicinity. The 
distance between the two towns is eight miles, the road crossing the 
yalley of the Funcheon, and passing over the Elilworth bills. The village 
of Kilworth, which is passed on the right, is part of the Moore Park 
estate, one of the most beautiful in Ireland. The picturesque ruins of 
Cloghlea Castlt are in the park, and above the Fimcheon are the remains 
of the stronghold of Ballylindon. Further on, the ruins of Caherdriney 
Castle, perched on the ridge of the Eilworth hills, form a conspicuous 
object in the landscape. 

Mitchelstown is situated in the centre of a rich and diversified country, 
bounded on all sides by lofty mountain ranges. It was formerly, with 
much of the surrounding district, the property of the Earl of Kingston, 
but is now passing into other hands through the agency of the Encum- 
bered Estates Court. The principal inn of the town is the Kingston 
Arms. The castle, considered the finest modem castellated residence in 
Ireland, was built in 1823, and commands extensive views of the moun- 
tain scenery around, and of those rich possessions which were once 
attached to it. The towers and battlements of this massive pile are 
visible from all parts of the surrounding country, rising above the ex- 
tensive plantations which environ it The Funcheon fiows through the 
park, admission to which may be obtained by application at the gate ; 
and the interior of the castle will be shown to visitors giving their card. 

The celebrated oaves of Mitchelstown are seven miles from the town, 
after which they are named from their having, until 1851, formed part 
of the same large estate. The road follows the long valley formed by 
the Galtee moontaixu on the north, and the- Kilworth and Snockmeale- 



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70 8TALA0TITE OAVES OF MITOHBLSTOWW. 

down ranges on the south, and affords numerous views of the deep ravines 
which diversify their sides. The Galt«es are easy of access, and their 
summits command magnificent views of the mountain ranges, valleys, 
and defiles around, particularly of the heautiful glen of Aherlow, ten miles 
in length, which runs parallel to the road from Mitchelstown to Cahir. 
Galteemore, the highest summit, rises to an elevation of 8,008 feet. 

Soon after leaving Mitchelstown, the tourist passes through the 
village of Kilbeheny, with its neat little church, a mile beyond which, 
on the left, in one of the glens that pierce the acclivities of the 
Galtees, is the Mountain Lodge, surrounded by fine plantations, and 
formerly the property of the Earl of Kingston, but now in the posses- 
sion of the Irish Land Company. Two small round hills, of compact 
grey limestone, indicate the sites of the old and new caves, the former 
(now seldom visited) known for many years before the other and more 
interesting one was discovered in 1833. Within a mile of the entrance 
to the latter, which is midway up the more easterly of the two hills, 
stands a public-house, where visitors are provided with guides and 
over-all dresses for the exploration. After traversing a low passage 
for some distance, and descending a precipice by a ladder, the first 
chamber is reached, from which several passages lead to fifteen other 
chambers, of various dimensions, the principal of which are distinguished 
by the guides as the House of Lords, the House of Commons, the 
Kingston Gallery, O'Leary's Cave, O'Callaghan's Cave, the Altar Cave, 
and Kingsborough Hall. The stalactites depending from the roof are 
exceedingly beautiful, and unite in some places vnth the stalagmites 
risiug from the floor, forming magnificent columns of spar. Two hours 
are necessary for even a cursory examination of the wonders and beau- 
ties of the cave, and the tiqie may be doubled with advantage, as there 
is nothing to compare with them in the United Kingdom. To enumerate 
them in detail is beyond our purpose and limits ; but Mr. OTlanagan 
has described the general effect produced by them so well that we can- 
not forbear quotation. 

<^ Let the reader,^' he says, '< fancy himself in the midst of a cavern 
larger than any building hitherto constructed by art ; his guides have 
stationed themselves at the various points where effects can be best 
produced — one upon the point of a huge stalagmite ; another in some 
deep recess ; others at the several points of ingress and egress ; another 
behind some half-transparent curtain ; others where the light may fall 
upon masses of glittering crystals ; let them all suddenly unveil their 
lights ; the effect can be likened only to that which the gorgeous fictions 
of the East attribute to the power of the necromancer." After viewing 
the cave, the tourist may proceed either to Knooklong station^ or 
return to Fermoy, and reach Mallow from thence by railway, ^^t^ 



TOWN AND CASTLE OP MALLOW. 71 

The Fermoy and Mallow- line follows the left bank of the Blackwater, 
which the tourist is enabled, by this route, to trace to within a dozen 
miles of Banteer Bridge, where it is formed by the confluence of the 
streams which flow eastward from the Kerry mountains. The Nagles 
mountains reach almost to Mallow, and bound the lovely valley on the 
south ; while on the north the eye roams over a rich and fertile country, 
bounded in the distance by the Ballyhoura range. The ruins of the 
castle of Carrigacuna are passed eight miles below Mallow, and the seats 
of the Cork gentry are numerous on both sides of the river. The ruins 
of the old castle of Mallow, built by the Desmonds to defend the passage 
of the river, are in the grounds of Sir D. J. Norris, proprietor of the 
town. His mansion is a handsome Elizabethan structure, and the de- 
mesne contains many flue old trees, particularly elms and poplars, one of 
the latter, near the bridge, being the finest in the three kingdoms. The 
town of Mallow is beautifully situated on the left bank of the river, and 
much frequented for its mineral water, the properties of which are 
similar to those of the Clifton Spa. There is a good spa-house and a 
library and reading-room. The town has a neat and thrivbg appear- 
ance, and the com and butter markets are well supplied. The old 
streets have a quaint mediseval aspect, which reminds the visitor of 
Chester ; but the modem portions of the town are well and regularly 
built. Good accommodation will be found at the Queen's Arms. 

WATERFORD AND THE VALLEY OF THE SUIR. 

Tourists desirous of visiting the ancient city of Waterford, have the 
choice of two routes from Dublin, namely, by the South-Eastern Rail- 
way from Kildare, through Carlow and Kilkenny, or by the Limerick 
and Waterford Railway, from the Limerick Junction, through Tipperary 
and Clonmel. Both routes may be travelled over in the journey between 
Dublin and Cork, the tourist reaching Waterford from Kildare, and re- 
gaining the Great Southern and Western line at the Limerick Junction. 
From Kildare to Carlow the country is flat and uninteresting, and, as 
far as Athy, moorish ; but about Carlow it is fertile and well-cidtivated. 
On an eminence near the town are the remains of the castle, built by 
the Lord-Deputy Lacy in 1176, and seized by Lord James Fitzgerald, 
brother of the Earl of Kildare, in 1494, but retaken after a siege of 
ten days by Sir Edward Poynings. In 1634 it was seized by Lord 
Thomas Fitzgerald, when he threw off his allegiance to Henry VUI.; 
and in 1642 was bombarded by Sir Hardress Waller, commanding a 
division of Ireton's army. Three miles beyond Bagenalstown, whence 
coaches start on the arriyal of the forenoon tram for Wexford and New 



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BBaiNALD'8 TOWBB AND DUXBBODT ABBBT. 78 

Boss, the line crosses the Barrow, to which river it runs parallel from 
Athy ; and, after passing Gowran station, we reach Kilkenny, the view 
of which from the line is rather imposing, comprising Ormond Castle, 
the princely seat of the Butlers, the tower and spire of the churches of 
St. John and St. Marj, the Roman Catholic chapel at the hottom of the 
embankment, and the venerable Cathedral of St. Caniee in the distance. 
Near Ballyhall Rtation is the beautiful ruin of Jerpoint Abbey, founded 
byDonagh M'Gilla-Patrick, Prince of Ossinry; beyond which there is 
nothing of interest until Waterford is reached. 

Waterford, the fifth town in Ireland in point of peculation, and also 
in commercial importance, is situated on th^ estuary of the Suir, 
which is here crossed by a wooden bridge, 832 feet in length. The city 
was founded by th& Danes towards the end of the nint^ century, and 
many sanguinary conflicts took place in its neighbourhood between the 
Northmen and the Irish. All that remains of its ancient f<»1ifications 
is a circular ^uilding, called Reginald's Tower, after the Dane by whom it 
tras erected in 1003. In 1171 Waterford was taken by Strorigbow, and 
most of the inhabitants massacred, the victor receiving the hand of Eva, ' 
daughter of the King of Leinster, immediately afterwards, in fulfilment 
of the compact by which the earl waa induced to invade Ireland. An 
extensive and increasing provision trade is carried on here. Tourists 
arriving from Bristol or Milford will find good accommodation at Dob- 
byn's or Cumming^s hotel, situated near the river, in the best part of the 
town. Five miles down the estuary, pear the embouchure of the Barrow, 
and accessible by the steamers plying between Waterford and Ross, are 
the magnificent ruins of Dunbrody Abbey, founded for Cistercian monks 
in 1182, by Henry de Montmorency, a relative of Strongbow. Situated 
close to the water, and being among the most perfect and beautiful re- 
mains in Ireland, they should not be left unvisited. 

The railway from Waterford to the Limerick Junction runs, for the 
first half of the journey, through the valley of the Suir, the banks of 
which are finely wooded, and dotted with many a moss-grown ruin. At 
the prettily situated town of Carrick-on-Suir the old castle of the Or- 
monds, built in 1309, will be seen, with the ivy-covered antique bridge 
above the weir ; and near the town the ancient church of Donoughmore, 
romantically situated on one of the slopes of Slievenamon. The Suir 
is navigable for lighters of fifty tons a$ far as Clonmel, where the line 
crosses the river. 

Clonmel is a thriving and interesting town, beautifully situated under 
the Commeragh mountains. It is a place of great antiquity, and ruined 
castles abound in its vicinity. Clonmel was battered by Cromwell^s artil- 
lery in 1650, and in 1848 was the principal scene of the insurrection. 

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Vd VALLET or THE SUIB. 

Much of its prosperity is due to Mr. Bianooni, who settled in Dublin as 
a pioture-dealer, and in 1815, haying saved money and removed to Clon- 
mel, conceived the idea of running a oar that, at less expense than the 
stage ooaoh, might serve the humbler classes. He ran his first car from 



IRISH TOURIST AND CAR. 

Clonmel to Cahir, which he subsequently extended to Tipperary and 
Limerick ; and shortly afterwards started others to Gashel and Thurles, 
and to Carrick and Waterford. His spirited enterprise succeeded, and 
has rewarded him with a large fortune, while conferring immense benefit 
on the community, and gaining him the respect of all classes, as shown 
by his repeated election as mayor of Clonmel. In «1857, Mr. Bianooni 
informed the British Association, that notwithstanding the extension of 
railways, he had 67 conveyances, worked by 900 horses, and running to 
all the principal towns in the south and west of Ireland. Gahir, the next 
station, is a clean and thriving town, with well-attended markets, and an 
extensive trade in com, which affords emplo3nnent to several mills. It 
is a place of considerable ^antiquity, a castle having been built here in 
1142, and some remains still existing of an abbey founded in the reign 
of John. The castle, memorable for its siege by the Earl of Essex, when 
it was a stronghold of the Butlers, and by Lord Inchiquin in 1641, is in 
admirable preservation. It occupies a rock, overlooking the Suir, and is 



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GALTEE AND SLIEVENAMUCK. 79 

a highly mteresting and picturesque olyect^ Three miles beyond Cahir, 
the church and castle ruina of Sisockgraffan are seen ; and two miles 
west of Bansha station tlie Hne crosses the little river Aherlow, and the 
totirist catches » vivr of the beautiful glen of that name, with its grand 
mountam Immdaries of Galtee and Slievenamuck. The railway sweeps 
aloa^the base of the latter range, tlirough a singularly fertile and 
^tersified country, to Tipperary, whence the distance to the Junction is 
only three miles. 



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tOEK TO KILLABNET. 



I HERE are tliree routes by which the matchless sceneiy ef 
Killamey may be reached from Cork: — Ist, by Railway, 
through Mallow as already described ; 2nd, by the Ck>rk 
and Bandou and West Cork Railways to Dunmanway, and 
thence to Bantry, Glengariff, and Kenmare ; and 3rd, by road 
through Crookstown and Inchigeela, to Bantry, from which pomt 
this route is the same as the second. The Mallow route is the 
shortest, but possesses fewest features of interest ; whilst the other 
routes introduce the tourist to the finest scenery in the county of Cork, 
the last embracing the lakes of Inchigeela, the wild solitude of Gougane 
Barra, and the magnificent pass of Keimaneigh, and both including the 
sublime scenery of Bantry Bay and the lovely valley of Glengariff. 
We proceed to describe both these routes, commencing with the road 
through Enniskean and Dunmanway. 

The Cork terminus of the Cork and Bandon Railway is at Albert- 
quay, just below Anglesea-bridge, and contiguous to the Com Exchange. 
Soon after leaving the terminus, the train passes over the Chetwynd 
Viaduct, raised on arches 100 feet high, and 120 feet wide, spanning the 
valley through wWch winds the Currabcg-road. At the Waterfall station 
a magnificent view of the city and suburbs of Cork is obtained, and the 
distant mountains of Dunmanway, Kerry, and Kilworth are seen to great 
advantage. About a mile farther on we reach the puns of Moume 
Abbey, adjoining which are to be seen the remains of a Danish fort ; here 
the highest point of the railway is reached, and we descend to the 
junction station of the Cork and Klnsale Railway. 

This branch, ten miles in length, passes through a very undulating 
country. It continues along the high ground until within about a mile of 
Kinsale, and then rapidly descends to the station, which is situated close 
to the new marine hotel. Kinsale is built at the mouth of the Bandon 
Hver^ from which it has rather an imposing appearance, the streets rising. 



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82 OBJECTS OF INTEREST ABOUT KiNSAIiB. 

one above another, on the slope of Compass HiU, which forms the left 
bank of the estuary. It is a place of great antiquity, and makes an im* 
portant figure in the military history of the seventeenth century In 1601 
the town and defences were held by the Spaniards, who had landed in 
considerable force to aid the insurgents, and were not expelled until the 
royal army had lost 6,000 men in the siege or by sickness. During the 
Protectorate of Cromwell, and at the time of the Revolution, Einsale 
was the scene of several important engagements ; and during the last 
war with France the harbour was the rendezvous of the outward bound 
fleets. Of the old waUs of the town scarcely a vestige remains. The 
church, said to have been erected in the fourteenth century, in connec- 
tion with a convent founded by St. Multosia, is a spacious cruciform 
building of venerable appearance. There are two Roman Catholic 
chapels (one attached to a Carmelite friary), two Methodist meeting- 
houses, and several schools and small endowed institutions for the aged 
and infirm. There are two hotels, the Royal George and the Army and 
Navy. On the east side of the harbour, which is about two miles long 
by half a mile wide, is the village of Cove, the resort of those who visit 
Kinsale during the bathing season ; and a mile further is Charles Fort, 
where there are barracks for 360 men. On the opposite promontory 
^are the ruins of the old fortress of Castlenapark, and of Ringrove 
Castle, seat of the De Couroys. The remarkable promontory called the 
Old Head of Einsale, eight miles south of the town, projects into the 
sea about three miles, and rises at the extremity, on which is a light* 
house, 243 feet above the sea. The light is visible, in clear weather, 
at a distance of 20 nautical miles. Near the lighthouse is the ruined 
castle of Dunoeamey, built by Jofin De Courcy, Earl of Ulster, to whom 
Henry II. granted the surrounding territory, with the title of Baron of 
Einsale ; and a little to the north are the remains of another and more 
modem fortress of the same family. The trade of Kinsale, which is 
not large, consists in the export of agricultural produce, and the import 
of coal, iron, and timber. A considerable number of hands are employed 
in the deep sea fishery, a large development of which may be expected 
now the railway is opened, as much as fifty tons of '^ wet fish " having 
been occasionally conveyed in one night to Cork. 

Reverting to our direct route towards Bandon, we wind along the 
deep valley of the Owenbeg, and through the long cutting at Rook- 
fort, where a vein of silver ore was discovered during the progress of 
the works. We next approach the valley of the Brinny, at the point 
where the river imites with the Bandon, close to the picturesque ruins 
of Dundaniel Castle. Diverging from this beautiful valley, which is 
full of scenic attractions, the train enters the Bandon valley through 



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TALLBT OF THE BANDOK. 83 

A tunnel, «nd crosses the river of that name by a handsome timber 
and iron viaduot. We are now at Innoshannon station, within two 
miles of Bandon, and lovers of the picturesque will not regret quitting 
the train for a stroll along the banks of the river to the pretty little 
town, and through the wild wooded glen which forms part of the exten- 
sive property of the Duke of Devonshire. The ruined castles of Dun- 
dani^ and Oarrigonassig are close at hand, and numerous villas and 
gardens add to the beauty of the scene. Much of this may be enjoyed 
in the train, however, as the railway runs parallel with the river^ and the 
hills on each side are high and steep^ and densely wooded to their 
summits. 

Bandon is a flourishing little town on the river of the same name^ 
which is here spanned by a good bridge. It possesses several large 
breweries and distilleries, and all the usual business establishments 
of a corporate town. There are two Protestant churches, one of much 
architectural beauty, and a magnificent Roman Catholic church, recently 
erected, besides several places of worship for Dissenters. There are 
two public libraries and reading-rooms, and an exceUent hotel, the 
Devonshire Arms. The numerous markets and fairs are well attended, 
and add considerably to the importance of the town. The environs are 
singularly beautiful, the west side of the town deriring no small portion 
of its attractions from the demesne of Castle Beruard, seat of the Earl of 
Bandon. The mansion is situated in the midst of a beautiful valley 
surrounded by gentle hilb, wooded to their summits with a luxuriant 
growth of oaks, sycamores, elms, and chesnuts. The grounds^ including 
the gardens and conservatories, are open to the public, except on Sun- 
days. The Bandon river has long been celebrated for its salmon and 
trout fishing, and the angler may find plenty of sport along its banks for 
several miles. 

The Cork and Bandon line ends at Bandon, where the West Cork 
Railway commences. It passes Coolfadda House, seat of Mr. Swans* 
ton, the Duke of Devonshire's agent in the district; Mr. W. Ber- 
nard's beautiful demesne. Mount Bernard, and the adjacent grounds 
of Mr. Oalway ; and the little hamlet of Moragh, just beyond which we 
come in sight of Captain Bernard's seat, Palace Anne, a quaint-looking 
mansion of red brick, to which the pointed gables, smoothly shaven lawn, 
and closely clipped hedges give the appearance of an old French chateau^ 
The spire of Dysart church is next seen, on the right, and then we pass 
Enniskean, pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Bandon river. 
Near the church, which, however, is three miles from the village, on the 
mountain road Ic^ing to Macroom, stands the round tower of Kineth, 75 
fMt highi remarkable for having tlie lower port hexagonal A mile^to 



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S4 BAKDON TO BANTKT. 

the west we reach Ballineen, near which is an ancient bridge oomposed 
of several small arches, leading to the chnrdi and rectory of Ballymoney. 
The scenery along the banks of the river, from this point westward, is 
singularly beautiful. We pass Connorville and Fort Bobert, seats of the 
0'C(mnor family, and Carrig^ore, the noble residence of Lord Norbury, 
and, soon afterwards, obtain a view of baronial-looking Kilkaskin, seat 
of Mr. Daunt Proceeding up the valley of the Bandon, which gradually 
becomes more hilly, we pass the ruined castle of Ballinaoarriga, once a 
stronghold of the O'Hurleys, and reduced to its present condition by 
Cromwell. There are some curious sculptures and inscriptions in the 
interior. Dunmanway is a neat and thriving village, surrounded by rocky 
hills, diversified by the narrow glens through which the mountain rills 
flow into the Bandon. Mount Gunnery, which rises to an elevation of 
757 feet, immediately behind the town, is backed by the range of hills 
which unite with the Sheehy mountains in tiie west, and divide the valley 
of the Bandon from that of the Lee. The west Ck>rk Railway will 
eventually extend to Drimoleague, seven miles nearer to Bantry. Cars 
and coaches, in connection with the Company, run from Dunmanway 
station to Bantry. The road passes over bleak hills and moors until it 
approaches the beautiful bay in which the French fleet anchored in 1796, 
where, after passing a de^ gorge, the tourist comes suddenly upon a 
scene so strikingly in ccmtraet with the dreary tract he has just passed 
over that it seems the efleot of enchantment. The bay is spread out 
before him, with the prettily situated town at his feet, and, facing it, 
WMddy Island, crowned with its imposing fort, which commands the 
whole bay. Looking across, he sees Hungry Hill, the Sugar Loaf, and 
the Caha mountains, and in the distance the blue peaks of Mangerton 
and the Beeks. 

The road into the town runs immediately under the beautiful demesne 
of Seaoourt, seat of the Earl of Bantry. The coach stops at Lannin's 
Hotel; the other hotels are GK>dson's and Murphy 'a ^ext morning the 
tourist should rise in time to ascend Enocknaveigh, whieh rises 933 feet 
on the south side of the town, and the view from which has been so finely 
.described l^ the £ev. Caesar Otway. He says : — 

« I challenge the British empire to show such scenery^ Nodiing I have 
seen in Wales, or England^ or Ireland is at all comparable to it As I looked 
across on a fine clear day, to the east, in the far blue distance rose Mangerton, 
in dark and lofty massiveness ; to the left of it, M'Gillicuddy's Keeks, the 
points piercing the * cumolo-stratus' of the douds, and leaving you to gues^ 
At their mysterious altitudes ; nea^rer still, to the north-west^ HungryMoon- 
taio, rising like an embattled wall before you; and down the mural 
descent, as reliered from its black ground, fell the cataract of AdrigoU, 



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86 OftOOKSTOWHr TO BANTftt. 

in a perpendicular silver column of 800 feet! Nearer still, facing the 
north, the Sugar Loaf^ almost as white in its silicious quartzose forma- 
tion as if it were crystallized sugar ; directly under my feet was the 
inner harhour of Bantry, protected and divided from the outer hay by 
the green island of Whiddy ; and up and down on that placid water 
were studded isles and islets, one crested with an ancient castle, another 
crowned with a modern battery ; and to finish the setting of this rich 
jewel, the woods, hills, and mansion c^ Lord Bantry, and his green lawn, 
sweeping down in easy undulations to the water's edge." 

Within the'demesne are the ruins of the Franciscan friary founded in 
1466 by an O'SuUivan, together with its extensive cemetery. lAnother 
fine view of the bay is obtained from an elevation in the rear of Gur- 
teenroe, about> mile "from the town ; and near this spot are the pic- 
turesque cove and cascade of Dunemark, where the little river Mealagh 
falls over a ledge of rocks into the bay. Two miles and a half along the 
shore, where the Owvane flows into the bay, are the ruins of Raneedisart 
Castle, once a stronghold of the O'Sullivans ; and a little up the glen 
watered by this stream are the rumed castle of Garriganass, another 
fortalice of the same sept, and the ancient church of Kilmacomogue. 

We must proceed to describe the more interesting, though longer, route 
through Crookstown. The railway is now open from Cork to Macroom, 
and coaches run during the touring season. The route affords views of 
the Lee for some distance, passing through the beautiful scenery between 
Carrigrohan Castle ruins and the mouth of the Bride. The castle was 
originally a stronghold of the Macarthys, and consists of two dilapidated 
piles of different periods, frowning over the* precipitous limestone cliffs 
which extend for some distance along the right bank of the river. 
Leaving this picturesque spot behind, we reach the village of Ballin- 
coUig, where there are extensive powder-mills and artillery barracks. 
About a mile to the west are the ruins of Barrett's Castle, erected in the 
reign of Edward, and consisting of a square keep, enclosed by a wall. 
A mile above Ballincollig the Lee is joined by the Bride, which affords 
good salmon and trout fishing, and is open to anglers. Near the con- 
fluence of the rivers is the ruined church of Inniscarra, which adds much 
to the picturesque character of the scenery. Five miles from Ballincollig 
is the road leading to the ruined friary and castle of Kilcrea, situated 
a little to the left. The friary, founded in 146d, is in good preservation^ 
except the south wall of the nave and the west wall of the transept, 
which have fallen into ruin. Two miles further on the beautiful de- 
mesne of Rye Court, the seat of Mr. Rye, is on the left, and about 
a mile beyond the rums of Castlemore, formerly the chief stronghold 
of the M'Swineys. Two or three other fortalices of this sept lie 



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LAKJBS OF XNCUIOEELA. 87 

on the left, near the neat village of Crookstown. At Crookstown bridge 
a most charming view is obtained. Belmont Castle is on the tourist's 
left, thickly overgrown with ivy, and built upon a commanding emi- 
nence, gracefully planted, while Rye Court and Castlemore Castle are 
seen in the valley; on the north side of the bridge ; and under its 
steep arches rolls the silvery Bride. About a mile further we approach 
another valley, luxuriantly clothed on both sides with laurels, lilacs, and 
firs ; the fine house and grounds of Mr. Warren occupying the norths 
and the extensive demesne of Castle Baldwin the south side of the vale. 
Having surmounted a gentle hill, and crossed over a little bridge, the 
magnificent mansion of Warren's Court, seat of Sir A. Warren, is seen ; 
while on the opposite side of the road, a mile beyond, stands Delacour 
Villa, the charming residence of Mr. Beamish, situated on a command- 
ipg elevation, and surrounded by extensive plantations. 

After passing the extensive property of Mr. Beamish, the country 
assumes a wilder aspect, and we ascend a hill, from which the eye sur- 
veys an area of fifty miles, embracing every variety of scenery. The 
Sheehy mountains and the hills enclosing the holy lake of Gougane Barra 
are before us, rising in imposing grandeur, and behind them the moun- 
tains of Kerry, Mangerton, and Tore, and Cormeuagh, with giant Car- 



INCHIGEELA. 



rantual and the lofty cone of Mushera towering above all. As we pass 
through the moory vale below, the ruined church and castle of Cona- 
dromna are seen on the sumnut of a hill on the right ; and a little further 



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88 mCHIGBBLA. 

on we pass the castle of Drumcarragh, where lived the anfortunate 
Arthur O'Leary, a victim of the religious feuds of the last century, and 
whose unconsecrated grave is in the immediate vicinity. We next reach 
Boyle's Bridge, a most picturesque spot, the bridge being overgrown with 
ivy, and the Lee winding through the valley, while adjoining is the un- 
dulating and thickly wooded demesne of Boyle *s Grove. Passing an old 
castle on the right^ we cross Toon Bridge, and ascend a heath-covered 
hill, the summit of which commands a nearer view of the Kerry moun- 
tains, which form prominent objects in the landscape from every emi- 
nence. Passing Castle Masters, formerly the seat of the family from 
which it derives its name, but now the property of Mr. Pyne, we descend 
the hill, and enter the little village of Inchigeela, where we again obtain 
a view of the Lee. A short distance beyond the village the river expands 
into a broad sheet of water, and three lakes, dotted with little islands, 
present a panorama of the most charming scenery, three miles in 
extent. The road winds round the northern shore of the lakes, and, still 
following the course of the Lee, enters a secluded valley, encompassed 
vdth mountains. 

At the hamlet of Ballingeary we cross a bridge, from which we see 
a wild mossy glen, down which a mountain stream flows, and glides 
noiselessly through the valley into the Lee. About a mile up the 
glen a rude ancient church is seen, standing upon an eminence. The 
road now becomes narrower, and, passing along the base of a steep 
mountain, brings us by a short curve within viewr of Gougane Barra. In 
the bottom of a hollow formed by a circle of rugged hills lies the Holy 
Lake, reflecting in its tranquil depths the giant sentinels around. Nearly 
midway in the lake, and approached by a narrow causeway, is a small 
island, beautifully wooded with ash trees, which shade the ruins of a 
small building, called the hermitage of St. Finnbar, and a holy well, at 
one time a place of pilgrimage for the peasantry of the surrounding dis- 
trict, who believed in the efficacy of the water to cure all diseases, both 
of man and beast. There are several springs on the island, gushing out 
in tiny streams, and trickling into the lake, forming the source of the 
Lee. The steep hills around are covered with heath and masses of black 
rock, and their precipitous sides give forth numerous echoes. From 
the summit of the mountain which frowns above the lake, accessible with 
difficulty, a magnificent view is obtained over Bantry Bay and its sur- 
rounding scenery. 

We next reach the famous Pass of Keimaneigh, so well described by 
Mr. Wiudele, in his valuable work on the south of Ireland, that we tran- 
scribe it in preference to any attempt of our own : — ** Nothing in moun- 
tain scenery of glen, or deU, or defile can well equal this gloomy pass. 



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PASS OF KEIMAlfEIOH. 89 

The separation of the mountain ground at either side is only just sufficient 
to afford r6bm for a road of moderate breadth, with a rugged channel at 



PASS OF KEIMAMEIGU. 

one side for the water, which, in the winter season, rushes down from the 
high grounds, and meeting here, hastens onward to pay the first tribute 
offered to the Lee. At its entrance from Gougane the pass is seen with 
best effect ; there its high close cliffs are steepest, and the toppling crags 
assume their most picturesque forms and resemblances of fantastic piles 
and ancient ruins. These receive variety and beauty from the various 
mosses which encrust them, and the dwarf shrubs and underwood, ivy, 
and creeping plants, which lend their mellow hues to soften and give 



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do aLENOABIFF AND OROMWELL's BBIDOE. 

effect to the whole. The arbutus, a plant almost indig^DOUs to KiUamey 
and Glengariff, into the first of which places it has been plausibly con- 
jectured it had been brought from the continent by the monks who settled 
in the islands of its lakes, is not uncommon among the rocks of Eeima- 
neigh. We behold with wonder this, and the ash, and other hardy plants 
and shrubs growing at immense heights overhead ; tufting crags, inac- 
cessible to the human foot, where we are astonished to think how they 
got there. The London Pride grows here and on the surrounding 
mountains, as weU as amongst the ruins of Gougane Barra, in astonish- 
ing profusion, A number of lesser defiles, formed by many a headlong 
torrent or shelving cascade, shoot inwards from the pass in deep and 
gloomy hollows as the road winds along ; and these, forming at the en- 
trance high headlands, thickly covered with a most luxuriant clothing of 
long flowering heather, have at a distance the appearance of rich over- 
hanging woods. As we proceed we find the channel of the stream, which 
winds along with the road, blocked up in various places with vast frag- 
ments of rocks, rent in some violent convulsion or tempest from the clifib 
around, or hurled downward in wild sport by the presiding genius of the 
scene." 

Arrived at the end of this remarkable pass, a beautiful view of Bantry 
Bay opens before us as we round the head of that noble harbour, and 
we enter the charming valley of Glengariff, so admired by travellers. 
There are two hotels, the Royal and the Bantry Arms ; and two days may be 
spent here most agreeably, should time permit. In the immediate neigh- 
bourhood is Cromwell^s Bridge, a picturesque ruin, formerly on the high 
road to Berehaven, ^nd said to have been built by the Protector, whom 
the narrow but rapid stream it spans delayed on his passage through the 
glen to chastise the O'SuUivans. This bridge is seen by the tourist in 
proceeding from the little bay up the Glengariff river by boat, by which 
excursion the romantic scenery of the valley and its amphitheatre of sur- 
rounding hills is seen to the best advantage. Garnish and Brandy Islands 
are passed, and, after a delightful row, a landing may be made on the 
grounds of Glengariff Castle, seat of Mr. White, concerning the beauties 
of which the Rev. G. Otway has written so enthusiastically. 

^ Show me," he says, ''the spot in the British empire where there is such 
an accompaniment of rock, precipices, and shelving banks, all clothed with 
appropriate vegetation ; where the native ash and oak are so mingled with 
the foreign ilex and myrtle ; where the climate is so mild that plants whose 
habitat belong^ to more southern climes vegetate in all their native rich- 
ness. Underneath lies the bay, studded with islands, on one of which is a 
most picturesque martello tower. Other islands, not too many to diminish 
the beauty of the fine azure expanse, were dropped here and there, just 



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92 «LENaARIPF TOjKILLAItNEY. 

where wanting ; some covered with copse, others scattered over with 
holly and arhutus. Across the hay, the shore rising rocky and precipi- 
tous ; and on still westward, one of the finest mountain ranges in the 
world." Another very fine view is obtained from a wooded steep on the 
road to Berehaven, north of CromwelFs Bridge. Here the spectator has 
Mr. White's fine mansion on his right, rising above the woods by which 
it is surrounded, and overlooking the bay ; on his left the glen, with its 
rocks, precipices, and cascades ; and before him the lofty mountain range 
which separates the bays of Bantry and Kenmare. From this point the 
best view is obtained of Hungry Hill, the lower parts of its rugged and 
precipitous sides clothed with heath, the upper a mass of bare rock, and 
the Adrigole tumbling headlong into the valley below from a height of 
800 feet. 

From Glengariff to Kenmare is sixteen miles, along a mountain road 
remarkable alike for rugged grandeur and pleasing variety. Lord John 
Manners called it ** the grandest road, barring the Alpine passes/' that he 
had seen. A great portion of its length is cut through the rock, which 
in some places rises on either hand, gay with the yellow and purple 
blossoms of the furze and heath ; while in others it is pierced by tunnels, 
one of which is 600 feet long. At this point we pass from Cork into 
Kerry, and, emerging from the tunnel, see looming before us the rugged 
and lofty peaks of M'Gillicuddy's Reeks. The noble estuary of the Ken- 
mare is before us, and we enter the town of that name over a suspension 
bridge 470 feet in length. Kenmare is a neat little town, the property 
of the Marquis of Lansdowne, who has a seat in the vicinity. There 
is a good and comfortable hotel — ^the Lansdowne Arms. The estuary 
abounds with salmon, and the catching them for the hotels here and at 
the lakes forms the principal industry and trade of the place. The horses 
changed, we start again through scenery of the most varied and romantic 
character. On the left is the mountain range running towards Valentia, 
before us the sombre ravine called the Gap of Dunloe, and on the right 
the Upper Lake of Killamey, hemmed in by mountains. From the point 
of greatest elevation on this road, near the Mulgrave poUce-barrack, we 
obtain a full view of the fairy region of Killamey, embracing the three 
lakes, the Gap of Dunloe, the wooded sides of the Sheehy Mountains, the 
more lofty heights of Mangerton and Tore, and, further to the left, the 
crested ridge of MGillicuddy's Reeks. Turning to the right, we cross 
Gallway's Bridge, pass through a tunnel, and leaving Glena Mountain on 
the left, drive along the base of Tore Mountain to one of the numerous 
and excellent hotels around the shores of the lakes, or in their immediate 
vicinity. They are named the Muckross, the Lake, and the Victoria, 
and, at the railway station, the Railway Hotel, the property of the com- 
pany, a very noble and admirably managed establishment. 

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93 



LAKES OF KILLARNEY. 

One advantage of arriYiDg at Killamey by the Kenmare route is, that 
it enables the tourist to comprehend the position of the lakes, relatively 
to each other, and to the several mountains and glens around them, and 
thug to arrange the programme of excursions according to the time at 
his disposal. Three days are necessary to see the lakes and their sur- 
rounding scenic beauties, but five or six should be devoted to them, if 
the tourist proposes to ascend Mangerton, or to visit Glenacappul and 
Lough Guitane. If only a single day can be spared, the best plan is to 
hire a pony, and ride through the Gap of Dunloe, having a boat in 
readiness at Lord Brandon's Cottage, on the Upper Lake, to convey you 
from thence to the Middle and Lower Lakes. If the tourist has two 
days to spend at Killamey, the Lower Lake, with the ruins of Aghadoe, 
should be left for the second day, the first excursion being extended from 
the Middle Lake to Muckross Abbey. If a third day can be spared, the 
foregoing excursions may be advantageously shortened, and a day may 
be given to the Middle Lake and Muckross. The ascent of Mangerton, 
Tore, or Carrantual, and the excursion to Glenacappul and Lough Gui- 
tane, require another day each. 

Setting out from Killamey for a trip to the Gap of Dunloe, we pass 
the beautiful Roman Catholic Cathedral, designed by Pugin, and proceed 
westward by car or pony, having the ruins of Aghadoe on our right, and 
catching an occasional glimpse of the Lower Lake on our left. About 
six miles from Killamey we pass the ruined church of Killalee, and, 
after crossing the little river Leane, see on our left Dunloe Castle, once 
a seat of the O'Sullivans, and now the residence of Mr. D. Mahony. In 
a field near the entrance of the Gap is a cave, of great interest to the 
archseologist, the roof being formed of large stones inscribed with the 
Ogham characters, supposed to be the written language of the Druids. 
Near at hand is a solitarj posada, whereat refreshments are dispensed 
by a grand-daughter of Killamey's far-famed belle, << Kate Kearney.'* 
The Gap is a narrow ravine between M'Gillicuddy's Reeks and the 
Toomies and Purple mountains. '* On either hand," wrote Stirling 
Coyne, « the craggy cliffs, composed of huge masses of projecting rock, 



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THE UPPER AND MIDDLE LAKES. 95 

suspend fearfully over the narrow pathway, and at every step threaten 
with destruction the adventurous explorer of this desolate scene. In the 
interstices of these immense fragments a few shrubs shoot out in fan- 
tastic shapes, which, with the dark ivy and luxuriant heather, contribute 
to the picturesque effect of the landscape. A small but rapid stream, called 
the Loe, traverses the whole length of the glen, expanding at different 
points into five small lakes. The road follows the course of the stream, 
and in two places crosses it by means of bridges. Onp of these stands 
at the head of a beautiful rapid, where the water rushes in whitening 
foam over the rocky bed of the torrent. The part of the glen which 
attracts most admiration is that where the valley becomes so contracted 
as scarcely to leave room between the precipitous sides for the scanty 
pathway." "So cars can proceed beyond this point, which is called the 
Pike, so that the tourist, if he has chosen that conveyance, must walk to 
Lord Brandon's Cottage, a distance of four miles. 

Emerging from the Gap, we come in sight of the Bladk Valley, so 
called from the shadows cast across it by the lofty Reeks, and the colour 
imparted to the lakes which dot it by the peat. Leitch Ritchie calls this 
valley "one of the finest bits of the picturesque around Killamey." 
Leaving it to the right, we proceed towards Lord Brandon's Cottage, 
which is the best point, of embarkation for viewing the lakes, the fall of 
stream being from the Upper to the Middle and Lower Lakes ; and as 
there is a considerable current in passing through the Old Weir Bridge, 
which causes some difficulty and delay in getting the boat through 
against the current, the tourist is saved inconvenience, and is not re- 
quired to leave the boat, except in the event of heavy floods. The Upper 
Lake, though the smallest of the three, is considered by Liglis, Weld, 
and many others as the most beautiful, being nearer to the mountains, 
and more studded with islands, than the other lakes. Having coasted 
round the lake, we proceed to the Long Range, a circuitous channel con- 
necting the Upper and Middle Lakes, and presenting some very beau- 
tiful scenery. The entrance is guarded by a singular promontory, called 
Colman's Eye ; but the point of most interest connected with it is the 
almost perpendicular cliff called the Eagle's Nest, remarkable for its 
extraordinary echoes. About a mile further is Old Weir Bridge, an an- 
tiquated structure of two arches, through which boats are carried by the 
current with great swiftness, without an effort of the rowers. A little 
distance below the bridge is a sequestered spot of great beauty, called 
the Meeting of the Waters, much admired by Scott when he visited Kil- 
lamey in 1826. The Middle Lake, sometimes called Tore Lake, is 
divided from the Lower Lake by the islands of Dinish and Brickeen, 
and connected with it1>y three narrow channels. Its shores are beauti- 



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THE LOWER LAKE. 97 

fully wooded, Brickeen Island and Camillan wood, part pf the Muckross 
demesne, being on the north, the wood of Cloghreen on the east, the 
wooded base of Tore Mountain on the south, and Dinish Island on the 
west, with the Sheehj Mountain rising above it. 

The Lower Lake is five miles in length, and three in greatest breadth, 
and contains thirty islands, the largest of which is Ross Island, containing 
168 acres. If entered from the Middle Lake, the Bay of Glena is the 
first point to be visited ; but if from the eastern side the larger islands 
are the first attraction. Ross Island forms part of the beautiful de^ 
mesne of the Earl of Kenmare, from which it is separated only by a 
narrow stream, crossed by a bridge. Only a small portion now remains 
of the old castle, erected in the fourteenth century by one of the 
01>onoghues, whose successors resided here for nearly three centuries 
afterwards. Many wUd legends are related of this family, the most 
remarkable attributing to one of its chiefs a septennial return to earth, 
when he drives his milk-white steeds over the lake at sunrise, his castle 
being restored by enchantment as he reaches it, but only until the sun 
appears above the woods. Ross Castle was the last stronghold in Mun- 
ster that surrendered to Cromwell, being given up to General Ludlow 
by Lord Muskerry in 1652. It affords some fine views, particularly to 
the south, over the beautiful woods of Muckross demesne, Brickeen 
Island, and the Bay of Glena, with Tore Mountain for the background. 

Innisfallen Island lies a short distance from Ross Island, about mid- 
Way in the lake, and has been deservedly eulogized by all travellers. 
** Viewed from the water," says Stirling Coyne, « Innisfallen appears to 
be covered with an impervious wood ; but, after penetrating the leafy 
screen which fringes the shore, I found the interior of the island spread 
out into beautiful glades and lawns, embellished by thickets of flowering 
shrubs and clumps of magnificent trees, amongst which the arbutus, with 
its dark shining leaves, stood conspicuously distinct. From these de- 
lightful openings the lofty peaks of the distant Glena and Toomies, with 
the misty summits of the Purple Mountams, are distinctly seen ; while 
between the dark stems of the trees glimpses are caught of the sparkling 
waters below, and the more distant sunny shores.*' Here are the ruins 
of an abbey, founded about the year 600, and nearer the shore are some 
remains of an oratory. From Innisfallen the tourist should proceed 
towards the wooded base of Toomies, distant a mile and a haif, and, 
landing at a rude quay, ascend a rugged mountain path, along the bank 
of a rivulet, which glides downward through a wood. This path leads 
to (ySuUivan's Cascade, consisting of three distinct and successive fallsj 
each receding a few feet behind the other. When viewed from a rock 
in the centre of the stream, being all seen in the same line, they appear 

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VILLAGE OF CLOGHREEN. 99 



TOOMIES MOUNTAINS. 

as one. Beneath a projecting rock, oyerhanging the lowest hasin, is a 
recess, with a seat rudely cut in the rock, called O'Sullivan's Grotto. 
Returning to our hoat, and passing several islands, we proceed to the 
Bay of Glena, a most truly glorious scene. On the hanks Lady Ken- 
mare has huilt a sweet little cottage omee ; and, not far distant, is one 
where strangers have an opportunity of testing the excellence of the 
Killamey salmon, the flavour of which is stud to he improved by being 
roasted with skewers of arbutus, or broiled over^ an arbutus wood fire. 
About 2J miles from KiUarney, and near the village of Cloghreen, are 
the ruins of Muckross Abbey, founded in 1440. They stand in the 
demesne of the same name, which is open to visitors. There are re- 
mains of both the church and the monastery, which are kept in excel- 
lent preservation by Colonel Herbert, the proprietor of the demesne, 
and one of the members for Kerry, and well known as one of the very 
best landlords in Ireland. Several of the kings of Munster are said 
to be buried here, and in the centre of the choir is the vault of the 
Macarthys, marked by a rudely sculptured monument. In the centre of 
the cloister^ v^hich is the most perfect portion remaining, is a yew tree 
of great age and size, the trunk being ten feet in girth. The Muckross 
demesne embraces the peninsula which separates the Lower and Middle 



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CLOGHREEN. 



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GKEXT yew TKliE, MUCKKObS ABBLY. 



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MUCK&OSS CL0I6IBB. 



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TORC CASCADE. 103 

Lakes, and the southern shores of the latter, including Tore Mountaui. 
About a mile from the entrance to the demesne, a little above Tore Cot- 
tage^ is Tore Cascade, situated between the mountain of that name and 
Mangerton. The waters of two streams, which issue from the sides of 
the latter mountain, and unite a little above the fall, tumble over a 
broken ledge of rock from a height of siity feet, and flow rapidly 
towards the lake. The steep sides of the chasm are clothed with firs, 
which add greatly to its picturesque aspect. The old mountain road be- 
tween Killamey and Kenmare passes the cascade, and is the nearest 
route to Derricunnihy fall, which can be reached, however, by the new 
road nearer to the lakes. Three miles from Tore Cottage we reach the 
Cromaglen, through a rocky glen, on the north side of which, separating 
the mountain from Tore, the Crinnagh rivulet descends from the steep 
western side of Mangerton. About a third of a mile from the new road 
is Esknamucky fall, the best way to which is by the Tower Lodge, near 
the little bridge over the Crinnagh. Crossing this bridge, and passing 
through the tunnel, we reach the path leading to Derrycunnihy cascade, 
quite different from Tore in its character, position, and accessories. 
Several mountain streams unite a little above Gallway's Bridge, and 
rush tumultuously over a broken ledge of rock of sufficient height to 
give the fall an imposing aspect. 

The route to the ruins of Aghadoe has already been noticed. They 
consist of the remains of a round tower, a small and much dilapidated 
cathedral, and a ruined castle, the latter standing within a square en- 
closure, fortified by a fosse and ramparts of earth. The cathedral con- 
tains two chapels, St Finian^s, the more ancient one, being in the 
Romanesque style, and that of the Holy Trinity in the pointed style of 
the twelfth century. From the eminence on which these ruins stand a 
good view is obtained over the Lower Lake. The ivy-covered ruins on 
lloss and Linisfallen, surrounded by dark masses of foliage, are below 
you, while the more distant islands look like projecting points of the 
laud. On the left are the wooded banks and verdant hills of the Ken- 
mare demesne, contrasted with the rugged heather-covered steeps of 
Toomies and Glena on the right. In the distance. Tore and Mangerton 
rise, huge and stately, behind the peninsula of Muckross. 

The Purple Mountain, which derives its name partly from the purplish 
red hue of the primary rocks of which it is composed, and partly from 
the blossoms of the heath witb which the upper portion is covered, affords 
charming views over the whole district of the lakes, and may be ascended 
either from the Gap of Dunloe, or from the vicinity of Lord Brandon's 
Cottage. Mr. Stirling Coyne, who ascended from the Gap, is enthusi- 
astic in his description of the view, one great charm of which is the 



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104 ASCENT OF CARRANTUAL. 

suddenness with which it bursts on the sight, and the pleasing transition 
from the wild and gloomy scenery of the valley to the sparkling waters, 
.green islands, and wooded shores of the lakes. 



THE SEEK. 

Carrantual, one of the range called the Reeks, is the highest moun- 
tain in Ireland, rising to an elevation of 3,414 feet. The distance from 
Killamey to the summit is fifteen miles. The ascent is steep, and in 
some places difficult. The whole of one day will be required for the 
expedition, and the start should be made early in the morning. Guides, 
without whom the ascent should not be attempted, may be obtained at 
Dunloe for 3s. 6d. a day each. There are several routes, that which 
Mr. VVindele advises being from the north side of the Reeks, about 
five miles west from Dunloe ; but the one generally selected and re- 
commended by Mr. Fraser is from the entrance to the Gap. As 
the ascent must be made on foot, much fatigue may be avoided by having 
a boat or car in readiness for the return, in order to do which it will be 
necessary, before starting, to determine upon the return route. This 
may be either by the Black Valley, and thence to the head of the Upper 
Lake ; or by Dunloe and the Aghadoe road. The former route is a mile 
or two nearer, but the descent is much more steep and difficult. The 
moimtain path from Dunloe leads, over a low ridge of hills, to the banks 
of the Gaddagh, a mountain torrent flowing into the Leane ; and after 
crossing this stream, and a valley of mingled moss and rock, we enter 
the Hag's Glen; one side of which is formed by a lofty green mountain, 
the other by the lower Reeks. Looking up and down the glen, several 
small lakes are seen, one called the Devil's Lough, another the Hag's 
Lough, &c., the latter having a small island in the centre. At this point 



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MAKOBBTON jiSfD OLSVAOAPFUL. 105 

the difficulties of the ascent commence. For a quarter of a mile we toil 
upward, over rocks, stones, moss, and shingle, and arrive at a narrow 
ledge, along which lies the way to the highest peak. The summit gained, 
the prospect repays the toil. Mr. Windele says : — ^** It is magnificent 
heyond conception — a sea of terrene billows, each with its own blue lake, 
amongst which Lough Garra is distinguished as the broadest and fairest. 
At every turn they are seen in the sunlight, or shadowed by overhanging 
precipices. Of the Killamey lakes a small portion only of the Lower 
Lake is visible, owing to the interposition of Toomies Mountain. The 
summit presents a smooth area, nearly thirty feet in diameter, and com- 
mands an uninterrupted view of immense extent, stretching beyond 
*the Shannon on the north, to the seaward of Cape Clear on the south, 
and' embracing the bays of Tralee, Castlemaine, Dingle, Kenmare, and 
3antry." 

The ascent of Mangerton is much less difficult, and may be performed 
on ponies. The distance from Killamey to the summit is between seven 
and eight miles. Drumrourk Hill, an elevated tract of table-land over* 
looking the Muckross demesne, is passed in the ascent, and affords such 
charming views over the Lower Lake that it should be visited, irrespec- 
tive of the ascent of Mangerton. At an elevation of 2,206 feet we reach • 
the Devil's Punch Bowl, a sequestered lake, surrounded on three sides 
by high cliffs. It is said never to freeze, and to contain no fish, although 
abundance of trout are found in the stream that flows from it, and which, 
in the lower part of its course, forms Tore cascade. Another mile brings 
us to the summit, which commands a view nearly as extensive as from the 
top of Carrantual. Glennacappul should not be visited without a guide, 
as the mountains often become enveloped in mist, rendering it dangerous 
for a stranger to traverse them alone. It is a wild rocky pass between 
Mangerton and Stompa, a mile to the eastward of the Devil's Punch 
Bowl, and is reached most conveniently by descending the moun- 
tain to a point ^bout a mile below the lake, and turning off to the right, 
to the northern entrance of the glen. It is about two miles long, and 
contains three small lakes, the largest being near the mouth, and the 
others higher up, towards the top of Mangerton. " There is something," 
says Mr. Fraser, " very impressive in the scenery of this lonely ravine ; 
its situation, high up among the^ mountains, the depth of its precipitous 
sides, the profound repose of its lake, and the stillness that reigns all 
around, tend to awaken a train of feelings in unison with the scene." 
Lough Guitane lies to the eastward, at the northern base of Stompa. 
It is seldom visited, being more famous for its abundance of trout than 
for its scenic beauties. 

There are several varieties of the genus homo peculiar to Killamey, 



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106 KILLARNEY TO VALBNTIA. 

and whose acquaintance the tourist will not be lon^ in making. Guides 
and donkej-drivers abound, as at every place of tourist resort in Ireland, 
but the pipers, the "mountain dew" girls, and the vendors of arbutus 
wood and bog-oak ornaments are indigenous tribes. " Mountain dew" 
is goats' milk qualified with whisky, and will be urged upon the tourist 
in all his rambles by dark-eyed, black-haired, barefooted girls, in red 
petticoats, with han^erchiefs tied over their heads. Their importuni- 
ties create an impression unfavourable to them, but they are uniformly 
well-conducted, and Dr. Rodenburg has expressed the literal truth, in 
saying that the peasant girls of Killamey are the most chaste and pure 
beings under the sun. The chapters which this amusing foreigner has 
devoted to Killamey abound in graphic sketches of the peasantry ; and 
Sir Patrick, the bugler, whose mock patent of knighthood was given him 
by Crofton Croker ; Jack Lowney, another of the horn-blowing frater- 
nity; Fiddler Mick, Sally of Dunloe, and the dark-eyed Bridget, the 
Myrtle of Killamey, will season after season be sought after by him- 
dreds of tourists to whom their names have thus been made familiar. 



KILLARNEY TO VALENTIA. 

Though the interest which, a few years ago, attached to the island and 
harbour of Yalentia in connection with the attempt to establish tele- 
graphic communication with America has been diminished by the failure 
of the cable, the scenery of the locality will repay a visit, as will also 
that of the drive thither.* The distance from Killamey is 45 miles, 
travelled from Killamey to Cahirciveen by Bianconi's car, leaving the 
former place at 7^ a.m., and reaching the latter at 1 p.m., and thence to 
Valentia by hack car. The most interesting portion of the drive is from 
Killorglin, on the right bank of the Leane, and thirteen miles beyond 
Killamey, to the end of the Drimg cliffs. Anglers may find good sport 
in the Leane and Lough Carragh, the latter embosomed in the Glen- 
carragh mountains, a little to the left of the road. ' Eight miles beyond 
Killorglin we reach Rossbay, the favourite resort of the Kerry gentry of 
the inland districts during the bathing season, and much admired for its 
salubrity and wild mountain scenery. Beyond Rossbay the road runs 
for several miles along the edge of the cliffs formmg the base of Drung 
Mountain, which rises precipitously to an elevation of 2,104 feet. An 
extensive view over Dingle Bay, bounded only by the mountains on the 
opposite side, is commanded all the way. As the road runs inland, how- 

♦ Since the above was written all difBculties connected with the cable have 
been luccesifally combatted. 



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LOUGH CUEBANB AND DEBBYNAKE. 107 

ever, the prospect becomes dreary and monotonous, mitil we pass 
Cahirciveen, the birthplace of the late Daniel O'Connell, and famous 
also for the fine quality of its butter. Thence to Reenard Point, where 
is the ferry for Valentia Island, is 2J miles, and the channel is nearly 
half a mile across. 

The Knight of Kerry (Mr. Fitzgerald), the principal proprietor 
of the island, has built an excellent hotel close to the pier, which 
oommands a fine view of the mountain scenery which the visitor has 
travelled through. Opposite the hotel is Ballycarbery Castle, where the 
Atlantic Telegraph Company had their temporary station, and close by 
is the depot of the Valentia Slate Company, whose quarries on the west 
side of the sland will repay a visit. Ms^nificent views are obtained 
from all parts of the island of the Kerry mountains, which surround it 
on three sides, while the fourth commands an extensive prospect over 
Dingle Bay. Thirteen miles south-west from Cahirciveen is Bolus Head, 
which rises to the height of 940 feet, and commands a wide and varied 
view over the mountains and the sea. Nine miles beyond this bold pro- 
montory are the remarkable rocks called the Skelligs, the resort of an. 
immense number of gannets. On the Great Skellig, an enormous slate 
rock, rising precipitously from the waves which whiten its base with 
foam to the height of 611 feet, there was formerly a monastery, some 
remains of which still exist, but the exposure of the situation caused it 
to be deserted for the mainland. There are now two lighthouses, the 
highest nearly 400 feet above the sea. . 

The tourist may vary his route by returning to Killamey by Water- 
ville, near Lough Currane, which is worth visiting for its wild scenery, 
and (if he be a disciple of old Izaak Walton) for the abundance and size 
of its salmon and trout. There are several small islands on the lake, 
on the largest of which are some curious ecclesiastical antiquities. Four 
miles beyond Waterville we reach a considerable elevation, whence 
the road descends to Derrynane, seat of the O'Connell family. Its 
situation, on the margin of a sheltered creek, running in from Ballin- 
skeUig Bay, and surrounded by the mountains, is romantic; but the 
house is a singular piece of architectural patchwork, built at various 
times, and without much regard to symmetry or uniformity of style. 
Passing through the village of Cal^erdaniel, and over a wild track of 
bleak moorland, we reach the little fishing village of Sneem, whence 
the road continues along the right bank of the noble estuary of the 
Kenmare to its head. 



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iXHEBies: AHB THE SHANNON. 



^HERE is little to interest the tourist on the railway route from 
the junction station of the Great Southern and Western and 
Limerick and Waterford lines, to the " City of the Violated 
Treaty." Near Pallas station, second on the line, is Glenstal 
Castle, seat of the late Sir M. Barrington, memorials of the munificence 
of whose family will be found in Limerick at every turn. Near Boher 
station, the last but one before reaching the city, is Mount Shannon, 
seat of the Earl of Clare, son of the famous Lord Chancellor Clare, 
and brother of the nobleman whose name Byron said he never heard 
without a beating of the heart. Arrived at the Limerick terminus, 
a car or omnibus conveys us to Cruise's, Moore's, or the Clare Hotel, 
and we set out to view the city, in which there is much to interest. 

Limerick is, in point of population and mercantile importance, the 
fourth city in Ireland, being to the west what Cork and Belfast are to 
the south and north. It stands on the Shannon, eighty miles from the 
Atlantic, and had, in 1871, a population of 39,828. The manufactures 
are limited to lace, gloves, and fish-hooks, but for the former it is so 
famous, that Limerick lace has been exported to Belgium, sent back as 
Mechlin, and sold for four times the price it could have been purchased 
at where it was originally made. The places of worship comprise, be- 
sides the Cathedral, the Protestant churches of St. John's, St. Munchin's, 
St. George's, and the Episcopal Chapel attached to the Blind Asylum ; 
eight Roman Catholic churches and chapels ; various dissenting congre- 
gations; several free schools ; six bridges ; a chamber of commerce, cus- 
tom-house, banks, and numerous fine buildings. It is the head- quarters 
of the mDitary in the south-west ; and there are two infantry barracks, 
one for cavalry, and another for artillery. Of late Limerick has been 
considerably improved, chiefly by the exertions of the late Sir Matthew 
Barrington and of Lord Monteagle, in whose honour a handsome 
column, surmounted by a statue, has been erectec(. 



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LDfEBICK CASTLE AND CATHEDBAL. 109 

The Danes settled her in the ninth century, and continued its masters 
until their final overthrow at Clontarf, by the Irish under Brian Boru, in 
1014. After their expulsion, the place became the seat of the kings of 
Thombnd, to the period of the Anglo-Norman invasion. The castle was 
built by John, as a defence against the Irish, and is one of the most in- 
teresting features of the old city. Seven massive towers, connected by 
walls of prodigious thickness, still exist, and bear traces of the sieges 
sustained by the city in 1657, 1690, and 1691. The Cathedral dates from 
1180, but was enlarged by Donagh O'Brien, who died in 1207. The 
venerable tower is famous for its peal of eight bells, to which a remark- 
able story attaches. The bells are said to have been cast by an Italian, 
and placed in the campanile of a convent in his own country. He lost 
several sons in the war between Francis I. and Charles V. — three at Pavia. 
The sound of his own bells was the music of memory to his lonely heart. 
The bells were removed, and the Italian was desolate. Staff in hand, 
he left his native land in search of their music. One evening, in 1559, 
an old man was seated in a boat on the Shannon, when the bells of the 
Cathedral pealed out the hour of evening prayer. Rapture was their 
sound to his soul; and, midst the contending influences of joy and sad- 
ness, the aged wanderer folded his arms over his weary heart, and expired. 



KING John's castle and thomond bridge. 

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110 UMEBICK TO FOTNC. 

The older portions of the city occupy an island formed by a loop of 
the Shannon, called the Saknon Weir River. Here are sitoated the 
cathedral and the castle, both near Thomond Bridge, an elegant modem 
structure, occupying the place of an ancient bridge erected in the thir- 
teenth century. Lower down the river is Wellesley Bridge, with an 
opening for the admission of shipping, built in 1827. The quays afford 
fine views up and down the river. On the right are seen the miU of 
Carragour, built in 1672, the ivy-mantled towers of King John's Castle, 
Thomond Bridge, and, in the cUstance, the mountains of dare; on the 
left the Pool, where the larger vessels ride at anchor, and the distant 
towers of Oarrigagunnel Castle. Vessels of 600 tons can float alongside 
the quay ; those of larger tonnage unload a few miles belbw the city. 
During the works by the Shannon Commissioners, here and elsewfiere in 
the river, a number of human skeletons, fossil remains of the Irish elk, 
cinemry urns, spear-heads of bronze and stone, bronze swords, armlets 
and fibulse of gold, &c., were discovered, and forwarded to the Museum 
of the Royal Irish Academy. 



LIMERICK TO FOYNES. 

Limerick is in course of becoming the centre of a system of railways 
diverging thence to the principal places of interest around. The first 
line to be noticed is that to Foynes, through the ancient town of Adare, 
where there are remains of a castle and three abbeys. The castle was 
built by the Earls of Desmond to command the bridge across the Maige, 
a tributary of the Shannon, and dates its ruin from the rebellion of 
1641. On the opposite side of the river is Adare Abbey, seat of the Earl 
of Dunraven, within whose demesne the finest of the ecclesiastical ruins, 
the Augustine Abbey, founded by the first Earl of Kildare, in 1315, is 
situated. The beautiful Gothic cloisters are nearly entire, and the whole 
is in good preservation, although roofless. The Franciscan Abbey, founded 
by the seventh Earl of Kildare, is used as the parish church ; and the 
abbey of the Holy Trinity, which owes its origin to the first earl, was 
converted by the late Earl of Dunraven into a Roman Catholic Chapel. 
Foynes is beautifully situated on the Shannon, the bold shores of which 
afford charming views of the estuary, and of the opposite coast of Clare. 



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Ill 



DOWN THE SHANNON TO KHiRUSH. 

Steamers leave Foynes every day for Tarbert and Kilrush, the pas- 
sage occupying about thf ee hours each way. Mr. Fraser observes of this 
trip, that though there are many charming scenes along the southern 
bank of the river near Limerick, on either shore at Foynes, and about 
Tarbert, the landscape, generally speaking, is tame and monotonous. 
Leitch Ritchie is of a diflferent opinion. "The scenery," he says, "is 
as agreeable as sloping hills and verdant dales, with a noble stream run- 
ning between, can make it. The river widens till it resembles a great 
lake, and, after several fine ruins have been passed on either side, it sud- 
denly opens into a little sea, like Lough Derg, dotted with green islands, 
and bordered with woods and hills. After crossing this expanse, the 
banks approach again, with Mount Shannon on the right, and the resi- 
dence of the Knight of Glyn on the left." Tarbert is a small town at 
the head of the bay of that name, in which is a little island, on which a 
battery has been placed. Clanderlaw Bay being opposite, on the Clare 
side of the Shannon, gives the river the appearance of great breadth at 
this point, and in crossing over to Kilrush the seaward view is illimitable. 
Scattery Island, made famous by one of Moore^s melodies, " Oh ! haste 
and leave this holy isle ! " is passed just before we reach Kilrush. It is 
a small green islet, crowned with a venerable round tower, one of the 
finest in Ireland, being 120 feet high, and some crumbling remains of 
ecclesiastical buildings, among which the oratory of St. Senan is pointed 
out. Further west, and within the bay formed by the promontory of 
Loop Head, on the summit of a rocky cliflf overlooking the village, are 
the ruins of Carrigaholt Castle, of most picturesque appearance. Three 
miles south-west, again, are the ruins of Kilballyowen Monastery; and 
three miles further on those of Cloghantauovan Castle, near which are the 
caves and puffing-holes, through which the water is forced in columns a 
considerable height. The view from the steamer towards the mouth of 
the river is magnificent. 

Kilrush is a thriving little port and bathing-place, 22 miles from the 
mouth of the Shannon, and within nine of the beautiful scenery of Moore 
Bay. The country between Kilrush and Kilkee is uninteresting, but the 
vicinity of the latter town will amply repay a visit. The town commands 
fine views of the bay, and the extent of the smooth sandy beach causes 
it to be much frequented in the bathing season. In the vicinity of the 
town is a Danish rath, and two miles down the bay, towards Loop Head, 
ii a stalactite cave, best visited by hiring an oared boat, as an extensive 



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112 LDCEBIOIC TO CASTLE OONNELL. 

marine panorama is thus viewed in going and returning, and the boat 
can be rowed into the cavem for some distance. . The entrance is under 
a lofty arch, which gradually diminishes in height as the visitor proceeds, 
the passage terminating at 300 feet from the mouth in almost total dark- 
ness. The depending stalactites and the conical stalagmites which rise to 
meet them are tinted with the metallic substances held in solution by the 
dripping water, and, where the light falls on them, make the cavern 
glitter like some fabled abode of the gnomes. 



UP THE SHANNON TO LOUGH REE. 

The Limerick and Castle Connell Railway afTords the readiest and 
quickest means of reaching Galway from Limerick, or vice versd, besides 
the opportunity Of viewing the rapids of the Shannon and the ruins of 
Killaloe, to which place the railway has been extended. The line 
runs through a country extremely fertile and pleasingly undulatmg, 
but without any claims to picturesqueness. Castle Connell is a little 
village, deriving its name from an old castle of the royal O'Briens, 
erected at a very early period. The ruins stand on a conical rock 
overhanging the river, and are approached by a broad gravel path, 
leadmg up from the village. They consist of the lower part of a tower, 
and some broken walls, overgrown with ivy. These are all the remains 
of the castle in which the descendants of the renowned Brian Boru once 
lived, and in which his grandson was murdered by the Prince of Thomond. 
Nothing remains of the halls in which the Earl of Ulster once held his 
court, nothing of the keep in which the Irish partizans of James 11. held 
out against the Prince of Hesse, by -whose orders it was destroyed with 
gunpowder, large masses of masonry scattered about attesting the force 
of the explosion. The Shannon is here, for more than a quarter of a 
mile, almost a cataract, presenting a scene unparalleled in the United 
Kingdom. Inglis, than whom there can be no more competent judge of 
scenery, thus states in what its uniqueness consists — " It is only in the 
streams and rivulets of England that rapids are found : the larger rivers 
generally glide smoothly on without impediment from rocks : the Thames, 
Trent, Mersey, and Severn, when they lose the character of streams and 
become rivers, hold a noiseless coarse ; but the Shannon, larger than all 
the four, here pours that immense body of water, which above the rapids 
is forty feet deep and 300 yards wide, through and over huge stones 
and rdcks, which extend nearly half a mile ; and offers not only an nn- 



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RAPIDS OP THE SHANNOX. 113 

usual scene, but a, spectacle approacMng much nearer to the sublime 
than any moderate-sized stream can offer in its highest cascade. None 
of the Welsh waterfalls, nor even the Geisbach in Switzerland, can com- 
pare for a moment in grandeur and effect with the rapids of the Shan* 
non." Willis compares the scene to the rapids of the St. Lawrence, and 
the most recent literary tourist in Ireland, Dr. Rodenburg, was much 
impressed by its wild grandeur. 

At a short distance from Castle Connell the Shannon is crossed by 
O'Brien's Bridge, originally a very ancient structure, of which little now 
remains, it having been partially destroyed by the Earl of Ormond in 
1556, and undergone frequent repairs since. Crossing the bridge, we 
enter the county of Clare, and a short walk or drive brings us to Kil- 
laloe, the terminus of the Upper Shannon Navigation. The chief 
attractions of this place are the Cathedral, half Norman, half Gothic, 
assigned to the twelfth century ; and the ruined abbey of St. Molua, of 
much greater antiquity. The population are employed chiefly in the 
salmon fishery and the slate quarries. There are two hotels, the Boyal 
and the Albert. A curious old bridge, of nineteen arches, crosses the 
•Shannon, and forms a conspicuous feature in the prospect down the river 
from the steam-boat pier at which we embark for Athlone. Lough Derg, 
23 miles long, and varying in breadth from two to six miles, is entered 
soon after starting. Several islands dot its surface, and green hills bound 
the prospect on either hand. A mound is pointed out as the site of Kin- 
kora, the palace of Brian Boru, referred to in one of Moore's deathless 
lyrics; and a little further on, to the right, the ruined castle of Derry 
peeps over the trees on a little island. Inis Celtra, " the holy island," is 
next passed, and is a point of much attractiveness, as containing St. 
Patrick's Purgatory, the traditions respecting which may be found in 
Kohl and Rodenburg, as also a round tower, the remains of several 
churches, the most perfect attributed to Brian Boru, and an ancient 
cemetery, containing many tombs with Gaelic inscriptions. Brumineer, 
where there is a ruined caatle, formerly a stronghold of the O'Briens, 
is the first place at which the steamer stops, and here the lake has in one 
direction a width of thirteen miles. Williamstown the next station, 
is mnch frequented by anglers, pike and perch being abundant and of 
great size. Above this point the lake grows narrower,|and the numerous 
creeks which indent its shores give variety to the landscape. The ruined 
castle of Terryglass is seen on the right, and at the outlet of the lake 
are the ruins of the castle of Portumna, destroyed by fire in 1826. It 
was a seat of the Marquis of Clanricarde, whose fine demesne extends for 
two miles along the river, opposite the plantations of Lord Avonmore. 
At Portumna, the next station, are the ruins of a Dominican monas« 

E- 



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lU 8ETEN CHUBOHES OF OLONMAONOISE. 

tery, the walls of which are nearly entire. Here the Shannon is a placid 
river, flowing through a fertile country to Athlone, above which it again 
expands into a lake, forming Lough Ree. At Banagher we pass a swivel 
bridge, which a few years ago replaced an old stone one, probably one 
of the oldest in the country. Near the town is the ruined castle of 
Garry, the fortress of the M^Coghlans, the last of whom died about sixty 
years ago. We now pass the Grand Canal, and at Shannon Bridge see, 
on the right, the celebrated ruins of Olonmacnoise, the most recent de- 
scription of which is that given by Dr. Rodenburg, as follows : — '< Close 
to the shore stands Clonmacnoise, one of the most remarkable ruins in 
this island of the saints. The banks rise here slightly, and on the grass- 
clad mound stand two round towers, ruins of churches, and a cemetery. 
On the first hillock are the sunken walls of an old ecclesiastical building; 
on another hiU is the great round tower. The roof has disappeared, and 
a broad belt of ivy winds like a garland round its centre. Down in the 
bottom, rather further inland, is the second round tower, still perfect, 
and behind it Jd^Dermott's Church, with its splendid round arched portal, 
fresh as if carved but yesterday. From the mound of the great round 
tower to the second the ground is covered with upright gravestones, 
among which stands a ruin, St. Kieran's Church, where the saint himself 
]J3 said to be buried. The wonder of Clonmacnoise is St. Kieran's Stone, 
a cross of rare beauty, covered with sacred images. A wall surrounds 
the holy spot, which is t^ this day the scene of many pilgrimages and 
processions." 

Our voyage comes to an end soon after passing these ruins. A broad 
weir, over which the Shannon falls like a cascade, stops ^rther naviga- 
tion, and here we land and walk into Athlone. The position of the town, 
with reference both to the Shannon and the borders of Connaught, has 
always made it a place of much importance in a military point of view ; 
and the castle, erected in the reign of John, is, in consequence, main- 
tained in i^rfect repair, and was strengthened a few years ago with ad- 
ditional fortifications, while there is barrack accommodation adjoining for 
1,000 men and arms for 15,000. Portions of the ancient walls remain ; 
but the north gate, a square tower of Elizabeth's time, was pulled down 
a few years ago. Several relics are still preserved, one being the door • 
way of the house in which Ginkell resided in 1689. The bridge which 
spanned the Shannon at the place of the ancient ford, rendered famous 
by the desperate encounter upon it between the armies of St. Ruth and 
Ginkell, in 1691, was pulled dovm a few years ago, and replaced by the 
present graceful structui*e. The ate of the Cistercian monastery, founded 
in 1216, is now occupied by the church of St. Peter. The few public 
buildings are of no importance, and there are no manufactures. There 



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▲THLONE AND LOUOH BEE. 115 

are two hotels, the Royal and Rourke's. A good view of the town is 
obtained from the embankment along which the railway approaches the 
mag^ficent bridge which carries it across the Shannon, and a much 
more extensive one from the fortified heights on the west. The scenery 
around the town is flat and tame, except towards the east, where tho 
country is undulating, and varied by round-headed hills. Northward, 
Lough Ree extends seventeen miles, dotted with small islands ; west* 
ward, bleak tracts of peat alternate with low pasture lands ; and south* 
ward stretches a vast plain of marsh and bog, through which the Shannon 
pours its mighty flood. Should time permit, a boat may be hired to visit 
Lough Ree, or the ferry on the Leinster shore may be reached by a walk 



LANDING PLACE AT HARE ISLAND. 

or drive of a few miles. In ascending the Shannon from Athlone, the 
lake is entered a mile and a half above the town, and, after a row of 



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116 HARE ISLAITD. 

three miles more, we reach the sylvan solitude of Hare Island, belonging 
to Lord Castlemaine, who has a delightful summer residence there. The 
row may be prolonged at pleasure, but, if a visit to Church Island, on 
which are some interesting ecclesiastical antiquities, and to the ruined 
castles of Randown and Roscommon, be included in it, it will be neces- 
sary to devote a whole day to it, in which case provisions should be 
taken in the boat. 



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MLWAT ANB THE WEST. 



jHOULD the tourist start from Dublin for the wildly grand 
scenery of Connemara and the West, he will take the train of 
the Midland Great Western Railway, which leaves Dublin four 
times every day. The village of Glasnevin is passed, on the 
right, soon after leaving the Broadstone terminus, and the Wellington 
obelisk in Phoenix Park is seen, in the distance, on the left. At Clonsilla 
station the observatory of the Dublin University is seen on the left, 
crowning a wooded eminence, and, on the opposite side, the ruins of 
Castleknock, erected by Hugh Tyrrell, in the reign of Henry II., and 
taken by Edward Bruce in 1316, and by Colonel Monk in 1642. 
Between Lucan and Leixlip stations the line crosses the valley of the 
Rye by an embankment 100 feet in height, from which elevation we 
discern on the right the mouldering ruins of Confey Castle. Passing 
some delightful scenery, we next reach Leixlip, the ivy-mantled towers of 
whose castle, erected by Adam Fitz-Hereford, one of the Anglo-Norman 
conquerors, rise majestically above the surrounding trees and river. 
Immediately adjoining Leixlip is the Salmon Leap, where the Liffey, 
falling over a ledge of rocks, forms a beautiful cascade, up which the 



SALMON LEAP ON THE LIFFEY, AT LElXLir. 

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118 LKIXLIP TO fern's LOCKi 

fish, at certain seasons, are seen to spring. At Maynooth, the ilelt 
station we see the buildings of the Royal College of Sti Patrick, and 



MAYNOOTH COLLEGE. 

the remains of the castle, erected in 1426 by the sixth Earl of Eildare. 
Between Leizlip and Fern's Lock, the country is well wooded, studded 



LEIXLIP CASTLE. 

with seats, and apparently closed in by the range of the Dublin moun- 
tains, affording views varied and beautiful. From near Fern's Lock, 
however, the line passes through the dreary Bog of Allen, once a forest, 
inhabited by the giant elks, whose bones are often found by the turf- 
cq^rs. Trees are met with at various depths, and many lie along the 
line, where they cannot fail to attract attention. Between Fem^s Lock 
and Enfield we pass, on the left, the ruined church of Cloncurry, near 
which is a large tumulus. Two miles beyond Enfield the line crosses the 
Blackwater, and we see, in the distance, the ruined walls of Castle Car- 
bury, a fortress of the Berminghams, from whom it paased to the Cowleys, 



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DUBLIN TO GALWAT. 119 

ancestors of Wellington ; and the Hill of Carbury, famous for many a 
fierce encounter between the Anglo-Normans and the Irish, and crowned 
with remains of pagan antiquity. 

From this point there is little to attract until we reach Mullingar, 
an assize town of considerable importance, with a large trade in butter, 
wool, and frieze, and famous for its annual horse-fair. The Royal Canal, 
which from Dublin to Mullingar runs parallel with the railway, here 
turns oflf to Longford, and is lost to sight. There is a branch railway 
from Mullingar to Sligo. Near to Longford, about seventeen miles 
from Mullingar, are the neat village and demesne of Edgeworthstown, 
rendered memorable by the works of the late Miss Edgeworth and her 
father. The demesne now includes Fir Mount, formerly the residence 
of the Abbe Edgeworth, who was confessor to Louis XVI., and attended 
him to the scaflfold. Longford is a well-built and thriving town, but 
presents no feature of interest to tourists. The extension of this branch 
to Sligo has opened to the traveller the beautiful scenery of Lough 
Gill, of which hereafter in connection with Enniskillen, which is at 
present the nearest place to Sligo which can be reached by railway 
from the north of Ireland. Reverting to the direct line to Galway, 
from Mullingar station a fine view is obtained of Lough Ennel, fre- 
quently called Belvidere Lake, from the beautiful residence of the late 
Earl of Lanesborough. About seven miles from Mullingar the line 
passes through Glamerstown, a wild hilly district, wherein is a small 
circle of stones, about which many human bones and sepulchral urns 
have been discovered. 

We next arrive at Streamstown, a decayed village, between which 
and Moate the line passes through a cutting in the limestone rock, 
and then, by an embankment, crosses Lake Ballinderry, wherein 
. quantities of bones of extihct animals, with various antiquities, chiefly 
swords and spears, and rudely-fashioned canoes cut out of a single tree, 
have been discovered. At Athlone, already described, the line crosses 
the Shannon by a magnificent bridge, and near Ballinasloe the Suck is 
spanned by another. Ballinasloe is a town of considerable size, contain- 
ing some handsome buildings, and remarkable for its great cattle fair, 
attended from all parts of Europe. Six miles further on we see the beautiful 
ruins of the Franciscan monastery at Kilconnel, founded about 1460, still 
in excellent preservation. The mountains of Gonnemara become visible on 
the right between Woodlawn and Athenry, the latter place once of import- 
ance, but now only remarkable for its antiquities. Athefiry has been the 
scene of many desperate encounters. In 1249, and again in 1316, the Irish 
were defeated here, with great slaughter, by the English, whom the second 
victory made masters of the entire province of Connaught. In 1696 



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120 GALWAT AND ITS flISTOET. 

the town was plundered and burned by Hugh O'Donnell, a disaster 
which reduced it to its present insignificance. The castle, built in 
the thirteenth century by the Berminghams, is well preserved ; and the 
Dominican abbey is one of the finest ecclesiastical ruins in the whole 
country. The old town also retains a great portion of its wall, and one 
of its ancient castellated gateways. The former, which is of considerable 
height and thickness, is defended at intervals by round towers of great 
strength. We next pass, on the left, the ruined castle of Derrydonnell; 
and at Oranmore station obtain a fine view of Galway and the islands 
of Arran. Crossing the splendid swivel bridge at Lough Athalia, said to 
be the largest in the world, the tourist finds himself before the terminus 
at Galway, to which a fine hotel is attached. The other hotels are Kil- 
roy^s and Black's, both affording good accommodation. 

Galway, the capital of the West, is situated on the bay of that 
name, at the point where the great western lakes pour into it 
their surplus waters. The population in 1871 was 13,184. The 
public buildings, of which our limits allow no detailed description, 
are, the collegiate church of St. Nicholas, founded in J1320, two 
Roman Catholic chapels, three monasteries, and five nunneries ; Pres- 
byterian and Wesleyan Chapels; Erasmus Smith's College, chartered 
in 1699; Queen's College, a handsome Gothic structure; custom- 
house, chamber of commerce, the Royal Institution, a mechanics' 
institute, two barracks, with banks, hospitals, and all^ the usual 
buildings of a county and borough town. There are several flour, oat- 
meal, and malt mills, an extensive paper mill, a bleaching factory, three 
foundries, a tan-yard, three breweries, two distilleries, and several mills 
for sawing and polishing marble. There is a small export trade in 
corn, provisions, wool, and marble, and extensive salmon and herring 
fisheries. Galway obtained considerable notoriety, a few years ago, 
as the Irish port of arrival and departure for the steamers of the 
Atlantic Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, known as the "Lever'* 
Company. 

Little is known of Galway prior to the Anglo-Norman conquest, when 
the castle, erected in 1124, was taken by Richard de Burgh. In 1270 
the fortifications were strengthened and extended by the conquerors, and 
it appears from the Pipe Roll that the place had become the port of a 
considerable foreign trade even then. Its commerce, which went on in- 
creasing until the middle of the seventeenth century, was chiefly with 
Spain, and traces of the intercourse with that country meet the eye of 
the tourist at every turn. Inglis says — " I was not prepared to find so 
much to remind me of that land of romance. I found the wide entries 
and broad stmrs of Cadiz and Malaga ; the arched gateways, with the 



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lynch's castle. 121 

outer and inner railing, and court within, needing only the flower vases 
to emulate Seville. I found the sculptured gateways and grotesque 
architecture which carried the imagination to the Moorish cities of 
Granada and Valencia.^' The finest example remaining of the Spanish 
Irish structures in the town, is the large square house in Shop-street, 
called Lynch's Castle, the front of which is decorated with curious old 
carvings. Many of the old houses have lately been removed, and among 
them one in Lower Abbeygate-street, said to have been given by Crom- 
well to a relative of the unknown personage who decapitated Charles I. 
Near the church of St. Nicholas, in Lombard-street, stood the house of 



GALWAT ARCH. 



the celebrated warden of Galway, who carried the extreme sentence ot 
the law into execution upon his own son^ the circumstances of which 



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122 ^ISH£Bli&^ or HE% CLADDAGH. 

tragedy are variously related, and have been embodied in numerous 
fictions and diTamas. Several portions of the old walls still remain, and 
a strong bastion stands in Francis-street, leading from William^s Oate 
to the court-house. 

Both in features and costume, the inhabitants of Galway have a 
foreign aspect in keeping with the architecture. There is no doubt 
that many Spanish merchants lived in Galway, and intermarried with 
the natives, and Dr. Rodenburg believes that the descendents of these 
southern connections are to be found among the dark-eyed foreign faces 
observable in the fish-market. " Black eyes and golden hair," he says, 
" are by no means a rarity in the fish-market. If you wish for contra- 
dictions, come to Galway; if you want riddles, and legends, and primeval 
stories, and songs, and customs, to be found nowhere else, come to the 
bay ! Most of the faces have something decidedly southern — oval shape, 
dark eyes, and black hair ; southern garments, gay and striking, but 
torn and ragged. The women and girls wear red petticoats which de- 
scend to their ankles ; the feet are naked. The hair is worn dose round 
the head and hangs down the back ; over-this they throw a cloak — ^the 
remnant of the Spanish mantilla — ^blue cloaks, black cloaks, often crim- 
son cloaks, picturesquely folded over the head, and fastened under the 
chin." 



GALWAY FISHERWOMAN- 



Galway should not 'be left without i visit to the Claddagh, a quarter 
near the harbour, inhabited chiefly by fishermen, who have many pecu- 
liar customs, and are in all respects a curious race, seldom intermarrying 
with the other inhabitants, and having a chief whom they call the King 



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ANClfiKT DOOR PORCH, GALWAY. 

y Google 



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124 OALWAT TO CONNEMARA. 

of the Claddagh, who decides all disputes among themselves. This 
quarter is reached from the railway station hy West Bridge, huilt in 
1442, on the way to which Lynch's Castle is passed. From the Clad- 
dagh the visitor should proceed westward, to ohtain a fine view across 
and down the hay, extending to the hills of Clare and to the islands of 
Airan, celebrated by Moore in the song, ^< Oh 1 Arranmore, loved Arran- 
more !" Tourists desirous of visiting these islands vnll oft^n find a boat 
from one of them at Galway, and may obtain a passage for a small sum. 
Roundstone is a nearer point, however, and boats are readily obtained 
there for 10^., going one day and returning the next. On Arranmore, 
the largest, are remains of two of the circular forts of the early inha- 
bitants, ruins of several small ecclesiastical buildings, and the shf^ of a 
sculptured cross. 



GALWAY TO CONNEMAEA. 

BiANCONi's Stage-car leaves Galway every morning for Clifden, from 
which place there is a car three times a week to Westport. Another car 
leaves Galway every day for Westport, passing through Ballinabec, thus 
enabling a three days' tour to be done at very moderate cost, Galway 
being reached in time for the afternoon train for Dublin. If six days 
can be spared,, the tour can be performed more leisurely, admitting of 
excursions to several places of interest off the main route, and enabling 
the tourist to carry away with him a more distinct impression of the 



LOUGH CORBIB. 



many beauties and wonders of nature upon which he could otherwise 
bestow only a passing glance. By this plan, the first stage should end 



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THE BALLINAHINOH ESTATE. 125 

at the Half-way House, near the head of Lough Shindila, and the second 
at Clifden ; the thii*d and fourth hemg devoted to excursions to Round- 
stone and Leenane, the tourist spending the fifth at Westport, and reach- 
ing Galway on the sixth in time to reach Dublin the same night. 

Glimpses, of Lough Corrib are caught at intervals as we drive west- 
ward, through a well cultivated country, sprinkled with the seats of the 
Galway gentry. At Moycullen we enter upon an extensive estate, 
formerly the property of the late Mr. Martin, of Ballinahinch, purchased 
a few years ago in the Encumbered Estates Court by the Law Life 
Assurance Company, and since resold to other parties. It extends forty 
miles along the road towards Clifden, and has of late years been much 
improved, the abundant limestone of the district affording great facilities 
for the reclamation of the bogs. Beyond Moycullen the country becomes 
hilly on the left, while on the right it continues flat, affording frequent 
views of Lough Corrib. The 'promontory of Ross, jutting into the 
lake, opens on the view about two miles beyond Moycullen, and three 
^ miles further we pass the natural arch of limestone, which crosses the 
rivulet that flows under the walls of Aghnanure Castle, the ancient seat 



PATRICK O'FLAHERTY. 

of the O'Flahertys, whose modern residence, Lemonfield, is seen just 
before reaching Oughterard. 

Oughterard is prettily situated on the banks of the Feogh, in which 
pearls of considerable size are frequently found, and which forms a cas- 
cade in a dell a little above the village. At the extremity of the village 
is a pretty little cottage, known as Martin's gate-house, l^e scenery 
beoomes more romantic as ire proceed, the Maumturk mountainB and th« 



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126 MAUM AIH) THE TWELVE PINS. 



VILLAGE OP OUGHTERAKD. 

Twelve Pins rising on the right, while on the left the view is diversified 
by several sheets of water, the principal of which are Lough Boffin and 
Lough Ardden. We are now very near the Half-way House, and may 
either go on, or leave the car at the lonely cabin called Butler's Lodge, 
for a detour to Maum, distant 4^ miles. The village is situated at the 
junction" of two mountain streams, the Failmore and the Bealanabrack ; 
over which is a pretty little bridge, constructed by Nimmo, whose house 
here has been converted into an excellent hotel. The prospect well 
repays the up-hill walk. Stretching before us, as weJook down the road 
to Cong, is Lough Corrib, on our right the Maumturk mountains peer 
cloudward, on the left are the rugged sides of the Joyce range, while 
behind us tower the dusky summits of the Twelve Pins. Returning to 
the main road we pass Lough Shindilla, studded with wooded islands, 
and soon reach the Half-way House. 

Five miles further west the tourist reaches the beautiful Lough Gar- 
romin, on the south side of which a pretty house was erected by the late 
Dean Mahon, called the Recess, now converted into the Recess Hotel. 
A fine view of the Joyce mountains is here obtained through the deep 
gorge on the right, which opens into the valley of Lough Inagh, formed 
by the mountains Lisoughter and Derryclare, the latter, one of the Bens, 
rising to an elevation of 2,220 feet. Lough Derryclare being close to 
the road at the foot of the mountain of that name, and Lough Ballina- 
hinch only a short distance further on, the Recess is a favourite station 
for anglers, these lakes, with Lough Inagh, being among the best fish- 
eries in Connemara, and all open to rods, the only charge being for boats 
and boatmen, which here, as in nearly all the Irish fishery grounds, are 
indispensable. The charge for boats is four shillings a day. Most of 



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128 CLIFDEN AND EOUNDSTONE. 

r 

them are sofficientlj large to enable two men to fish from them, if thej 
widerstand throwing from a boat, so that a companion makes a consider- 
able difference in the cost of a day's sport. Continuing our route to 
Clifden, along the base of the Twelve Bens, we skirt Lough Ballina- 
hinch, and see on our left the family mansion of the former proprietor 
of the district, a plain building, embosomed in trees. We are now ap- 
proaching Clifden, and the scenery increases in beauty as we proceed. 

" There are few things in the world," says Mss Martineau, " more 
delightful than a drive at sunset, in a bright evening, among the moun- 
tains and lakes of Connemara. It has the best qualities of the sea and 
land breeze at once. Then there are the grand bare mountains, the 
Bennobeola, or Twelve Pins, with caprices of sunlight paying about 
their solemn heads, and shining into their dark purple depths, and below 
are waters untraceable and incalculable. We are here at the ends of 
the earth to all appearance ; for the land is as a fringe, with the water 
running in everywhere between its streaks. There are salt waters and 
fresh ; bays, lakes, river, dashing torrents, mirror-like pools, a salmon- 
leap here, an inlet for shell-fish there, and, receding behind, Ballinahincli 
Lough, with its little island, just big enough to hold the old castle, now 
a ruin, where tradition says that * Dick Martin' used to imprison people 
who had been guilty of cruelty to animals. Close at hand are broken 
banks, gaudy with heath and bog flowers in vast variety ; and beyond 
spreads the bronzed moorland, with foreign-looking goats, black and 
white, browzing in a group ; and sea-gulls dipping, as if they took it for 
the sea. Along the road are^ brown-faced girls and boys, all healthy- 
looking, and many handsome ; and women finishing their reaping and 
binding for the day — ^their madder-red petticoats and blue cloaks throw- 
ing a wonderful charm of colour into the scene." 

Clifden is beautifully situated, at the head of Ardbear Bay, and facing 
the Atlantic, of which a full view may be obtained from any of the hiUs 
in the neighbourhood. It is quite a modem town, owing its rise to the 
late Mr. D'Arcy, who was ruined by the speculation. There is a con- 
siderable export trade in com, a well attended market, court-house, 
schools, and two hotels — Carr's and {lart's. Near the town is a romantic 
waterfall, formed by a stream which rises among the Twelve Pins ; and 
there are charming walks, in every direction, in the vicinity. At the 
entrance of the harbour are several small islands, on two of which, Omey 
and Ard Oilen, accessible only in fine weather, are some ancient habita- 
tions of the bee-hive construction, in good preservation. Li visiting 
Roundstone, Bianconi's car may be used to Ballinahinch, whence the 
distance to Roundstone is only four miles, for which a car can be ob- 
tained, if desired, at the Fishery Hotel. Near the hotel are the ruins of 



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LOUGH KTLEMORE AND THE KILLBRT. 129 

Toombeola Abbey, one of the few ecclesiastical remains in this district. 
Roundstone is pleasantly situated on the western side of the harbour of 



ROUNDSTONE, FROM KELLY S HOTEL. 

that name, on the slope of a hill called Urrisbeg, the summit of which 
commands magnificent views over the Twelve Pins to the north, the 
Maumturk range to the north-east, the bay of Galway, the Arran Isles, 
and hills of Clare to the south, and Slyne Head to the west. Off the 
harbour are several small islands, on one of which are remains of a 
chapel, and a " holy well," both dedicated to St. M'Dara, who is said to 
have resided there. The exciting sport of seal-shooting can be pursued 
in this locality, those amphibious creatures being nmnerous in Betragh- 
boy Bay. Roundstone, which has a good hotel, is also a convenient port 
for a visit to the islands of Arran. The return to Glifden may be varied 
by a drive of twelve miles along the coast, which, about seven miles from 
Boundstone, brings the tourist within two miles of Bunowen Castle, for- 
merly the seat of the O'Neils. 

Another excursion from Clifden is to Leenane and the Killery> but, as 
the route is travelled over by the car from Clifden to Westport, it may 
be more convenient for the tourist to use that conveyance as far as Lee- 
nane, and to visit the Killery, Lough Kylemore, and Delphi from that 
locality. Inglis, speaking of this romantic district, says that the scenery 
between Clifden and the Killery is the finest in Ireland. Clifden Castle^ 

£ 

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130 LOUGH KYLEMOBE. 

fonnerly seat of the D'Arcys, no^ the property of Mr. Eyre, comes in 
view as we reach the entrance of the harbour, and rour.d a promontory 



CLIFDEN CASTLE. 

about two miles from the town. It is a modem castellated building, with 
a fine lawn sloping down to the bay, and backed by plantations, with the 
mountains rising above them. From this point to Kylemore the country 
is bleak and uninviting, though much improved in productiveness of late 
years by the enterprise of Mr. ElUs at Letterfrack, and of Mr. Eastwood 
at Adragoole. Glimpses of the Atlantic are obtained from the more 
elevated parts of the road, from which Clegganr Point is a conspicuous 
object in the landscape. Passing Streamstown and Letterfhicken, we 
cross the Dawross, the stream that discharges the surplus waters of 
Loughs Kylemore and PoUacappul into BallynakiU harbour, and reach 
Adragoole, an oasis in the dreary wilderness of heath and rock. The 
little lake of PoUacappul is passed soon afterwards, and, a mile further, 
we drive round the northern side of Lough Kylemore. There is a good 
hotel at the head of the lake, where, or at the inn at Leenane, 
on the south side of the Killery, tourists who can spare a day for 
leisurely survey of this romantic district should take up their quarters. 
Lough Kylemore is considered the most beautiful of the Connemara 
lakes, as, though it is only three miles long by half a mile broad, the pre- 
cipitous sides of the mountains which enclose it are partially wooded, 
and derive thence a charm which the other lakes do not possess. The 
towering peaks of the Twelve Bens rise one behind another on the south 
side of the valley, and Garraun separates it on the other side from Glen 
Fee. Garraun forms part of the estate purchased by Archdeacon 



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tOUGH COBBIB Ain> nmiflGHolL. 133 

Wilberforce from Mr. Blake, the road to whose ancestral seat, 
Renvyle Castle, turns off from the route we have travelled over at 
Letterfrack. 

The Killery is an arm of the sea, running inland fully ten miles, and 
wanting only a border of firs and birches to complete its resemblance to 
a Norwegian fiord. Ponies may be hired for an excursion along its 
shores, but if a boat be desired the tourist must proceed to the inn at 
Leenane. Mr. Willis was much pleased with the Killery. " Nothing,'' 
he says, *'can be finer than the mountain scenery all around. When you 
are in the middle of the bay you seemed locked in on every side, and 
were it not for the smell, colour, and vegetation peculiar to the sea, you 
would imagine you were on a mountain lake. But there is scarcely any 
lake that has not a flat, tame end, generally that where the superabun- 
dant waters flow off, and form a river ; but here nothing is tame ; on 
every side the magnificent mountains seem to vie with each other which 
shall catch and keep your attention most. Northward the Fenamore 
mountains, the Partree range to the east, Maumturk to the south ; a 
little more to the south-west, the Twelve Pins ; then a little more to the 
west, Renvyle mountain, and to the north of that again, the monarch of 
the whole amphitheatre, cloud-capped Mewlrea." Tourists are recom- 
mended to cross over to the mouth of the little river Bondarragh, and 
proceed up it to Delphi Lodge, a shooting-box of the Hon. Mr. Plunket, 
romantictdly situated at the foot of Lough Doo, and surrounded by pre- 
cipitous mountains. 



LEENANE. 

At Leenane a road diverges from the main line of travel, and leads to 
Tuam, by Maum and Cong, and to Galway by the cross road from the 
inn at Maum. From Leenane to Maum the road skirts the Bealanabrack 
river, which flows into Lough Corrib, and is a drive of considerable inte- 
rest. Beyond Maum the road to Tuam overlooks Lough Corrib, running 
along the southern base of the Joyce mountains, and at one point ap- 



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ON THE EOAD TO MAUM. ^ . 

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LEENANE TO WESTPORT. 135 

proaching close to the lake, commanding an iminterrupted view of its 
island-fltudded expanse, with the hills around Oughter&rd in the dis- 
tance. Another route from Maum to Cong is by boat, starting from the 
bridge, and descending the Bealanabrack to Lough Corrib, a long arm 
of which stretches westward to meet the mountain stream. We enter 
the lake a mile below Maum, and after proceeding a few miles along a 
water-gorge, in the midst of towering mountains, we reach a wide ex- 
panse, dotted with islands. On one of these, Inisghoil, are the remains 
of an abbey and an oratory, in the former of which are tombs of Darerca, 
only sister of St. Patrick, and of Archbishop 0*Nioc, who died on the 
island in 1128. 

The drive from Leenane to Westport is considered by some tourists 
to be even more interesting than that from Clifden to Leenane. The 
road winds round the head of the Killery, enters the county of Mayo at 
a point a little to the east of Delphi Lodge, and then follows the valley 
of the Erive, which, in the opinion of the Rev. C. Otway, presents " a 
succession of as fine mountain views as are in Ireland." Roaring cas- 
cades, foaming rapids, bold hills, dark ravines, and precipitous rocks, 
succeed each other in endless variety of combinations for several miles. 
;t high, rising abruptly from the southern shore 
onspicuous object in the landscape after leaving 
9 to be so until we reach Westport. 
il-built town, with a mountain stream running 
rows of trees. There is a considerable corn 
\ evidenced by the extent and number of 
(Uses, several breweries and distilleries, two 
he Royal Mail), banks, court-house, &c. It 
ts as a watering-place, the sea-bathing 
being exceUent, and the numerous islands and bold coast of Clew 
Bay inviting many excursions. Magnificent views over the bay are 
obtained from the upper part of the town, and also from the beautiful 
demesne of the Marquis of Sligo, to which visitors are allowed free ac- 
cess, the entrance being at the end of the principal street. Clew Bay 
is about twenty miles long by eight or ten wide, and sprinkled all over 
its eastern and northern sides with small islands, mostly bare rocks, some 
covered with heath, and a few beautifully wooded. Clare Island, four 
miles long, is situated at the entrance of the bay, and is famous as the 
residence of the celebrated chieftainess, Grace O'Malley, of whose strong- 
hold only a dilapidated tower now remains. 

Between Westport and the Triangle the country presents little to in- 
terest the tourist in search of the picturesque. Its general features are 
a succession of hills, and numerous streamlets rippling across the road. 



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186 LOUOH MASK. 

and meandering through the valleys. The Triangle is the name given to 
a spot wh€re roads branch off, on the left to Castlebar, and on the right 
to the wild country between the Killery and Lough Mask. Grossing the 
little river which connects Loughs Nagaltia and Nacorralea, we reach 
Clonee, and get our first view of Lough Mask, which, like Corrib, is 
dotted with numerous islands. It is connected with Lough Cloon by a 
small river, which we cross on our way, and a little further on reach Kil- 
keeran. Here the scenery becomes more interesting, views of Lough 
JlIaBk being caught from time to time as we drive along the peninsula 
between it and Lough Carra, and cross the stream which unites the 
waters of the two lakes. Ballinrobe is a small and unimportant town, 
situated on the Robe, two miles above the point where it flows into 
Lough Mask. This lake is ten miles in length by four in breadth, and 



LOUGH MASK AND CASTLE. 

contains upwards of twenty islands, on one of which, not far from Bal- 
linrobe, are the ruins of a castle of the regal O'Connors, destroyed by 
Sir Bichard Bingham in 1586. The largest island in the lake is Lus- 
maan, on which are the remains of a fort, ascribed to a king of Con- 
naught who was killed at Sligo in 537, in a battle with the people of 
Ulster. There are also some remains of a small abbey, once of much 
architectural beauty. Opposite this island, on the south-eastern shore 
of the lake, are the ruins of a fortress erected by the Burkes. The 
western shore of the lake is bounded by high hills, Fammanure rising to 
an elevation of 2,218 feet ; but the eastern shore is flat and cultivated. 



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OONG ABBEY. 187 

Passing, on the lefl/the rained mansion of the Lords Kilinaine, near 
the Tillage of Neale, we next reach Cong, famous for its abhey, which was 



CONG ABBEY. 

originallj founded in the seventh century, though the portions remaining 
are not of earlier date than the twelfth or thirteenth. Here Roderick 
O'Connor, the last of the Irish kings, retired after his discomfiture, and 
lived fifteen years in seclusion, dying in 1198. According to tradition, 
he was buried here ; but the Four Masters state that he was interred at 
Clonmacnoise. The architecture is principally of the decorated Norman 
style. The gateway is the finest portion of the remains. There are also 
two ancient sculptured stone crosses. The celebrated '* cross of Cong," 
preserved for centuries in this abbey, is now in the museum of the Royal 



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138 LOCafl CORRIB. 

Irish Academy, Dublin. It is of silver, 2} feet high, richly chased and 
gilt, and studded with gems. It was made in the eariy part of the 
twelfth century, and bears inscriptions in Latin and Gaelic. The greatest 
natural curiosity in the neighbourhood of Cong is the remarkable cavity 
called the Pigeon Hole, about a mile from the village. It is one of 
several openings into the subterranean channel by which the surplus 
waters of Lough Mask flow into Lough Corrib, and may be explored 
without much difficulty, with the assistance of a light. Visitors descend 
first A gentle slope, and then a flight of steps in the rock, hearing the 
sullen roar of the water below, and at the bottom the torchlight shows 
them a subterranean canal, across which a weir for catching eels has 
been constructed. 

Roundmg the north-east comer of Lough Corrib, we cross the Owen- 
duff, near the ruined Abbey of Ross, and enter the county of Galway. 
Two miles further on we reach Headford, a clean little place, belonging 
to Mr. St. George, whose flne demesne and Elizabethan mansion are in 
the vicinity. Lough Corrib is within four miles, its eastern shores pre- 
senting an agreeable mixture of rocky banks, thick copses, and sloping 
greensward. The first object of interest beyond Headford is Cregg 
Castle, seat of Mr. F. Blake, birthplace of Dean Kirwan, and his brother, 
Richard Kirwan, the geologist and chemist. Three miles to the east- 
ward is the hill of Knockdoe, where a battle was fought in 1504 ; and 
four miles distant, in the opposite direction, are the abbey ruins of An- 
naghdown, on the banks of Lough Corrib. About three miles further 
on the river Clare, are the venerable ruins of the Franciscan Abbey 



CLAKB CASTLE AND ABBEY. 



of Clare-Galway, founded in 1290 by John Cogan, a descendant of Miles 
Cogan, one of the companions in arms of Earl Strongbow. A portion 



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CLARE-GILWAT CASTLE AND ABBEY. 139 

of this ancient pHe was restored a few years ago, and is now used as a 
chapel by some friars of the order to which it originally belonged. Near 
the abbey are the picturesque ruins of a castle, built at the close of the 
fifteenth century by the Burkes or De Burghs. All that remains is a 
massive square tower, covered with ivy, on the right of the bridge. The 
river falls into Lough Oorrib about four miles lower down. Continuing 
our journey, we pass Menlough Castle, seat of Sir T. Blake, roman- 
tically situated on the left bank of the river by which the waters of the 
great lakes are discharged into the bay of Galway ; and jre-enter the 
City of the Tiifoes in time to reach Dublin the same night. 



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140 



BELFAST MB THE ROBTI. 



. EFEERING to the Dublin portion ot this volume for a brief 
description of that part of the Dublin and Drogheda Rail- 
way between the capital and the Howth Junction, we must 
now ask the tourist to accompany us on a tour northward. 
Two miles beyond the Junction we reach Portmamock station, and 
see, on the left, the ancient church of St. Doolagh, one of the oldest 
ecclesiastical edifices in Ireland, though the date of its erection is 
uncertain. A little further on, the line passes through a deep cutting, 
and at Malahide station crosses the creek which runs up to Swords 
on an embankment and a wooden viaduct of eleven arches, each fifty 
feet wide. The village of Malahide is on our right, with Lambay 
Island to the north, and the noble castle and demesne of Lord Talbot 
de Malahide on our left, with the ancient village of Swords, rich in 



ENTRANCE TO BELFAST LOUGH. 



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THE 8EERRIE8.. 141 

archeological attractions, within view. The next station is Doi^abate,. 
where may be seen the ruins of an ancient church. Again we obtain a 
good view of Lambay, which is the only island on the eastern coast set 
down in the ancient map of Ptolemy. It contains an old castle, built 
entirely of stone, without any timber, and was purchased from the Usher 
family, who had the original grant, by an ancestor of Lord Talbot de 
Malahide, the present proprietor. The line now crosses another creek 
by a high embankment, with a timber viaduct of 335 feet in the centre, 
and passing, on the right, the village of Rogerstown, we reach Rush and 
Lusk, situated respectively right and left of their joint station. At 
Bush is a decayed square church, having three of its angles studded with 
circular towers of slender proportions ; whilst at the fourth angle, yet 
perfectly distinct and isolated from the comparatively modem building, 
stands a round tower in fine preservation. Leaving Rush station, we 
perceive to the right Kenure Park, seat of Su* R. Palmer, formerly the 
residence of the great Duke of Ormond. Passing through the deep cut- 
ting of Baldangan Hill, we leave to the left the ruined castle and church 
of Baldangan, the former once a preceptory of Knights Templars, and, 
after a gallant resistance, under Thomas Fitzwilliam, burnt by Cromwell 
in 1641. The rail soon after crosses the high-road by a handsome via- 
duct, and brings us to Skerries, where we see on our right the islands of 



SKERRY ISLAND. 



the same name, on one of which are the ruins of a church , dating from 
the era of St. Patrick. Here is one of the finest views on the line. 



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142 DUBLIN TO DBOOHEDA. 

the woods around Hampton Hall, seat of Mr. G. A. Hamilton, being 
on the left, and the Skerries and Clogher Head on the right, with the 
blue peaks of the Moume hiUs in the distance. We next reach Balbrig- 
gan, a flourishing little sea-port and watering-place, but better known 
in England as the seat of manufacture of the familiar Balbriggan hosiery. 
The railway is carried over the inner harbour by a fine stone riaduct, of 
eleven arches, and after passing through a long and deep cutting, crosses 
the river Devlin by a viaduct of timber. 

The line next brings us in view of Gormanstown Castle, seat of the 
Viscount of that name, in whose family the property has been since 
1657, when it was granted to Sir B. Preston, distinguished for devotion 
to the Stuarts. Proceeding through Ben Head, and crossing the Mosney, 
the railway reaches the Nanny, a fine trout stream, traversed by an em- 
bankment and timber viaduct. From this point the view upwards through 
the Nanny valley is very fine. On the south is Ballygarth Castle, de- 
mesne of Colonel Pepper, on an incident in whose family history Lover 
founded his White Horse of the Peppers. Near the station are Mr. 
Taylor's beautiful pleasure-gi^ounds of Corballis, open to visitors. To 
the left is the village of Julianstown, the scene of a defeat of the royal 
forces by the parliamentary army in 1641. Opposite is Betaghstown, a 
small watering-place, from which point the sea view is striking and 
beautiful. At the entrance of the Boyne stands the Maiden Tower, and 
a smaller tower, called the Lady's Finger. These were landmarks, the 
Boyne at the entrance being very intricate. The rail now enters a deep 
cutting, emerging from which we look down from an embankment upon 
the va^ey of the Boyne and renowned town of Drogheda. 

Drogheda is a port and manufacturing town on the Boyne, with a 
population, in 1871, of 14,389. It has a good harbour, and steam com- 
munication with Liverpool, nearly opposite, at 133 miles distance. The 
linen nmnufacture formerly flourished here, but has given place to flax- 
spuming, which now employs upwards of 1,000 persons. There are abo 
numerous com mills, salt works, tanneries, soap works, breweries, dis- 
tilleries, and iron and brass foundries. The public buildings, the prin- 
cipal of which are the linen-hall, custom-house, and com market, possess 
little interest ; but to the antiquary Drogheda is a focus of much attrac- 
tion, not only from its contiguity to the magnificent ecclesiastical remains 
at Monasterboice and Mellifont, and the interesting relics of a much 
earlier period at Tara and Newgrange, but also for the many vestiges of 
the olden time which meet the eye in the tovm itself. Our limits forbid 
us to more than enumerate the steeple of the Augustinian priory, said 
to have been founded by St. Patrick; the ruins of St. Mary's church, 
originally a Carmelite convent, founded in the reign of Edward I. ; St 



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DBOGHEDA TO NAVAN AND KELL8. 148 

Mar/s Hospital, also dating from the thirteenth century ; the beautiful 
tower of the Dominican abbey, founded in 1224 by Lucas de Netterville, 
Archbishop of Armagh ; the priory of St. Lawrence ; the church of the 
Grey Friars ; and St. Lawrence's Gate and the West Gate, the only re- 
maining portions of the old walls. 

Those who can spare the time should make a detour as far as Eells, 
27 miles, by the branch railway, which runs through the valley of the 
Boyne, one of the finest agricultural districts in Ireland. Near Beau- 
pare station is Slane Castle, seat of the Marquis of Conyngham, on the 
left of the river, the banks of which are clothed for some distance with 
the plantations of the demesne. The little town of Slane a^'oins the 
demesne, and a little beyond it the ruins of the abbey are seen above the 
woods. In the vicinity are the ruins of the hermitage of St. Eric, and 



DANGAN CASTLE. 

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OLD KITCHEN, DANGAN CASTLE. 



DOOR PORCH, DAKGAN CASTLE. 

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DANOAN CA8TL£. l45 

a tumulus raised above a subterranean chamber, entered by a low and 
narrow passage. A little further on is Hayes House, seat of the Earl 
of Mayo. Navan, sixteen miles from Drogheda, is a place of consider- 
able antiquity, but of unprepossessing appearance, though with flax, 
woollen, and paper mills, and a good trade in agricultural produce. In 
the burial-ground are the remains of many ancient tombs, with figures 
in relief. The site of the abbey is now occupied by a cavalry barrack. 
The antiquities in the neighbourhood comprise the ruined church and 
castle of Athlumney, and the round tower of Donaghmore, the ancient 
bridge and church of 01ady,'and the ruined castles of Liscarton and 
Scurloughstown. Dangan Castle, the birth-place or early home of 
Wellington and Wellesley, is only about four miles from Trim, and is 



WELLINGTON S BED-ROOM, DANGAN CASTLE, 

a place of considerable interest to the Tourist. From Navan to 
Kells the line follows the right bank of the Blackwater, through 
a country of increasing beauty and fertility. About three miles from 
Navan we pass, on the right, the ruins of Liscarton Castle, and, 
on the left, Ardbra9can House, diocesan seat of the Bishop of Meath, 
one of the finest episcopal residences and demesnes in Ireland. 
Kells is a place of high antiquity, a monastery having been founded 
here by St. Columba in 660; and re-built by Hugh de Lacy in 1156, 
having been plundered and burned by Dermot M'Murrough the pre- 

F 

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w 
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BUIN8 OF MONASTEBBOIOl AND UBLUfOVti HI 

ceding year. In the centre of the town is an ancient stone cross, 
elaborately sculptured ; and in the churchyard is another, with a round 
tower and a small stone-roofed cell, called the house of St. Columba. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of the town is the seat of the Marquis of 
Headford, the principal proprietor, the mansion plain, but the demesne 
finely planted, and watered by the Blackwater. 

Drogheda should not be left without a visit to the ruins of Monaster- 
boice and Mellifont, both within five miles of the town. The former, 
situated in a small burial-ground, surrounded by fields, comprise the 
remains of two chapels, a handsome round tower, and two elaborately 
sculptured stone crosses. The larger and more ancient cross has a Gaelic 
inscription on it, in which can be deciphered the name of Muredach, who, 
according to Seward, was king of Ireland, and died in 534. The date of 
the chapels is uncertain ; one does not seem older than the twelfth cen- 
tury, but the other is more ancient. Mellifont Abbey, founded in 1142, 
is about three miles from Monasterboice,and between four and five from 
Drogheda. The most ancient portion of the existing remains is the 
circular-headed arches enclosing the site of the baptistry ; but the most 
perfect and beautiful is St. Bernard's chapel, which is a fine example of 
the transition style which prevailed before the Norman arch finally gave 
place to the pointed Gothic. 

Resuming our journey northward, the first object of interest is the 
viaduct which carries the railway across the Boyne, connecting the Dub* 
Jin and Drogheda line with the Belfast Junction Railway. It is con- 
structed of limestone and iron lattice-work, 95 feet high, and consists of 
fifteen arches of 01 feet span. Eight miles north of Drogheda is Dun* 
leer, a place of little importance, belonging principally to Mr. R. M. 
Bellew, descended from one of the first Anglo-Norman settlers in Ireland. 
Next comes Castle Bellingham, contiguous to which is the magnificent 
demesne of Mr. A. £ Bellingham, the groups of yew trees on which are 
scarcely to be equalled in Ireland, save perhaps at Hollybrook and Kil- 
ruddery, in Wicklow, as already described. We next approach Dundalk, 
famous for the sieges it has sustained from Edward Bruce, who was 
crowned King of Ireland here in 1316, from the Irish under the O'Neills, 
and from Lord Inchiquin in 1649. The situation is low and marshy, the 
town being bounded north by the estuary of the Castletown river, and 
flanked on the west by the demesne of the Earl of Roden, lord of the 
manor. Steamers ply between Dundalk and Liverpool, 153 miles, four 
times a week. There is a considerable export trade, two breweries, a dis- 
tillery, a pin manufactory, and a flax-spinning factory. 

Yisitors to Lough Erne leave the Dublin and Belfast Junction line at 
Dundalk, and proceed to EnniskiUen, distant 64 miles, by the Dundalk 



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148 t>UNOAtK TO EKlOSEltL^. 

and Enniskillen Railway. A great change in the superficial character 
of the country becomes visible as we turn westward, the first curve of the 
railway revesding the small fields, the humble homesteads, and irregular 
cultivation which succeed to the thriving farms and well cultivated enclo- 
sures of the eastern campaign as we approach the county of Monaghan. 
Close to Inishkeen station are the abbey ruins, round tower, and stone 
cross of Inishkeen, romantically situated on the banks of the Fane. 
I^Vom thence to two miles beyond the Culloville station the line follows 
the left bank of the Pane, a stream which, issuing from Lough Muckno, 
meanders through the romantic valley traversed by the railway, and falls 
into Dundalk Bay. Views of the rugged hills which, on the north, blend 
with Slievegullion, are caught at intervals as the tram glides past the 
lateral glens ; but as we approach Castleblayney there are some deep 
cuttings which intercept the view. Castleblayney is a regularly built and 
thriving town, formerly the property of the late Mr, Hope. The adjoining 
demesne is one of the most interesting in this part of the country. It is 
charmingly planted, the beeches and walnuts being especially remarkable for 
their size. It embraces the whole of Lough Muckno, the fine expanse of 
which, dotted with green islands, and the plantations that clothe the sur* 
rounding hills, add much to the beauty of the scenery. On one of the islands 
in.the lake are the ruins of an ancient castle. From thence the line skirts 
the base of a succession of round hills to the little town of Ballybay^ 
pleasantly situated in a valley, and still doing a little business in the 
linen trade, though not to the same extent as formerly. Four mUes 
beyond this place the line crosses the road leading from Cootehill to 
Monaghan, and at six miles further the neat village of Newbliss is 
reached. Three miles beyond this station the line crosses the Finn, and 
thence runs through a beautiful tract of country to the ancient town of 
Clones, from which point to EnniskiUen the route will be described in 
connection with tourist tickets for Lough Erne from Belfast. 

Newry is three miles from the station so called on the main line, but 
tourists desirous of visiting the charming marine scenery of Carlingford 
Bay may reach it by the branch line diverging from the right at Goragh 
Wood station, between which and Newry the ravine of Craigmore is 
crossed by a viaduct 2,000 feet long, consisting of eighteen arches of 
fifty feet span, varying in height from fifty to 110 feet. Newry is beau- 
tifully situated on the river of that name, navigable to the town by 
vessels of fifteen feet draught, and to Warrenpoint, six miles below, 
by vessels of 1,000 tons. Steamers ply between Newry and Liverpool, 
a distance of 153 miles. It is the second port of the north for the ex- 
port of com and provisions, and has a considerable trade with England, 
the Baltic, and America. There are several grist mills, and a few foun- 



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WARRENFOINT AND ROSSTREVOR. 149 



NEWRY. 

dries and salt works, but the manufactures are not of much importance. 
The hills which nearly enclose the town afford extensive views over the 
valley anid down the bay to Carlingford, the best point being the hills 
above the Gap of Bamish, on the road to Turkhill. The railway runs 
along the banks of the river, passing Narrow Water House, the hand- 
some Elizabethan mansion of Mr. R. Hall, and the ruins of a fort erected 
in 1663 by the Duke of Ormond. Warrenpoint is a completely new town, 
and one of the best and most frequented bathing-places in the north. It 
commands beautiful views across and down the bay, the pretty little 
church at Omeath being a conspicuous feature of the prospect in the 
former direction. Between Warrenpoint and Rosstrevor, three miles. 



ROSSTREVOR BRIDGE, 

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150 BUiLDmas akd manufactures of Belfast. 

the bay has the appearance of a spacious lake, surrounded by woods 
and hills. Bosstrevor is a most attractive spot, surrounded by green 
slopes and rich plantations, studded with villas, and bounded by the 
thickly wooded hills of Slieveb^. On the beach is an obelisk, erected to 
the memory of General Ross, a native of the place, who fell in the battle 
of Baltimore in 1814. 

Returning to the main line at Goragh Wood, we proceed onward to 
Portadown through the valleys of the Newry and the Bann, the only ob- 
ject of interest being Tanderagee Castle, seat of the Duke of Manches- 
ter, who has extensive possessions in these parts. The country traversed 
by the line is low, presenting a scene of the richest verdure in summer, 
but in winter often converted by floods into a shallow lake. From Porta- 
down to Belfast the railway runs through the valley of the Lagan, with 
which river a ship canal is connected, extending from Shan Port, on 
Lough Neagh, to the head of the lough of Belfast, 23 miles. 

Belfast, the second city of the kingdom in point of extent and popu- 
lation, and the first in regard to manufactures and trade, is situated at 
the head of the fine bay which, under the name of Belfast Lough, pene- 
trates the land for fourteen miles. Compared with the other principal 



(^UEEir'S SQUARt;, ^EL^AST, 

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BELFAST TO THE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY. I6l 

towns of Ireland, Belfast is a modern town, having been little more than 
a military station until 1620, when it was granted by James I. to Sir 
Arthur Chichester, ancestor of the present proprietor, the Marquis of 
Donegal. Steamers leave daily for Liverpool, Fleetwood, Barrow, Stran- 
raer and Glasgow ; three times a week for Ardrossan ; once a 
week for Whitehaven; and twice a week for Bristol. The port 
is only 130 miles from Glasgow, and 156 from Liverpool, with both 
of which there is a good trade in agricultural produce, though the most 
valuable exports are linen goods, the manufacture of which is very ex- 
tensively carried on in the town and neighbourhood. The population in 
1861 was 121,602, but in 1871 it had incireased to 174,394. It 
combines, in its mills and factories, and its docks and wharves, 
some of the features both of Manchester and Liverpool ; but possesses 
an advantage over both in its greater cleanliness and salubrity. The 
Atreets are well laid out and built, most of them running at right angles 
to each other, and embellished with numerous edifices devoted to educa- 
tional purposes, among which are the museum, school of design, high 
school, and Queen's College. There are also a handsome music hall, and 
an interesting botanic garden. The principal hotels are the Imperial, 
the Linen Hall, and the Victoria. 



BELFAST TO THE GIANT'S CAUSEWAY. 

SaouLD only one day be at the disposal of the tourist for the comple- 
tion of his northern tour, it will be best to take a return ticket for Port- 
rush, where vehicles for the Giant's Causeway meet the train, returning 
in time for the evening train for Belfast. By leaving Belfast at 6 a.m., 
between three and four hours may be spent at the Causeway, and Belfast 
reached at 7.0 p.m. If two days can be spared, the coast scenery from 
the Causeway to Ballycastle may be surveyed the second day, and the 
car taken from the latter place to Carrickfergus. Holders of tourist 
tickets, however, proceed, after viewing the Causeway, to Londonderry 
and Enniskillen, for a voyage up Lough Erne, returning to Belfast by 
Monaghan and Armagh. This route we reserve until we have de- 
scribed the scenery in the neighbourhood of the Causeway and the 
coast road thence to Belfast. The railway runs, for nearly seven miles, 
by the side of Belfast Lough ; but at the Carrickfergus Junction we 
turn to the left, and soon leave the Lough far behind us. At Antrim 
we approach Lough Neagh, the largest lake in the British Islands, 



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DUNLUCE CASTLE AND CATES, 155 

and only surpassed in Europe by those of Ladoga and Onega* in 
Russia, and that of Geneva in Switzerland, being twenty miles long 
and fifteen broad. In the vicinity of Antrim is the fine old qastle of 
Viscount Massareene, and a very perfect round tower, 95 feet high. A 
little beyond Antrim we pass the deer-park of Shane's Castle, seat of the 
royal O'Neills, which was destroyed by fire in 1816, and remains in the 
same condition to which it was then reduced. From this point there is 
little to attract the tourist till we reach Portrush, the termination of our 
railway journey. 

Portrush is situated under a bold headland, ofiT which are a group of 
rocky islands called the Skerries. It is a good bathing-place, and since 
the opening of the railway, a place of increasing commercial activity, as 
the port for Coleraine, which is becoming, through the same instrumen- 
tality, a formidable rival to Londonderry. Along the coast, between 
Portrush and Dunluce, are no fewer than 27 small caves, scarped in the 
limedtone rock by the ceaseless action of the waves. Two miles beyond 
Portrush we reach Dunluce Castle, which, says Lord John Manners, <* is, 
without exception, the grandest, romanticest, awfulest sea-king's castle 
in broad Europe. It stands on a great ledge of a cliff, separated from, 
rather than joined to the mainland by the narrowest of naturtd bridges, and 
overhangs the sea — ^that dark, chilling, northern sea— so perpendicularly 
that how the towers and wall on the sea-side were built I cannot divine ; 
what numbers of masons and builders must have fallen into that gloomy 
sea befbrQ the last loophole was pierced I The landward scenery, spite 
of good roads and modem improvements, is dreary enough now ; what 
it must have been when those grim halls were first inhabited by Ulster 
chieftains who can guess ? There is no castle on the Rhine, or the Loire, 
or the Seine, or anywhere else that I know of, that can be compared 
with Dunluce for desolate awe-inspiring grandeur." The date of its 
erection is uncertain, the story which assigns it to De Courcy, Earl of 
Ulster, resting upon slender foundation. It has been the scene of many 
strange occurrences, and the traditions connected with its gloomy walls 
and towers would fill a volume. Beneath the castle is a long narrow 
cave, which may be entered by a small aperture on the south, but had 
best be explored at low water. Three miles further brings us to Bush- 
mills, a little old town on the river Bush, from which and an old water-mill, 
now in ruins, it derives its name. It is a favourite resort for anglers, 
sahnon being abundant in the river ; and there are two hotels, Doherty's 
and Reid's, at one of which, or at M'Naull's, at the Causeway, the two 
days* tourist in the north should pass the night. 

Two miles beyond Bushmills we reach one of the most remarkable 
natural objects in the whole country— the Giant's, Causeway. Basaltic 



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154 THE giant's causeway. 

rocks occur all along the Antrim coast, but the most interesting are met 
with in a walk of tour miles, from Portcoon Gave to Dunseyeriok Castle. 
We shall not attempt a scientific description, nor endeayour to unrayel 
the secret of their formation, for the theories of the learned are little 
more satisfactory than the wild legends of the locality. Kohl has well 
said that, *^ with all the explanations that can be offered, so much is left 
imexplained that they answer yery little purpose. We see the most cer. 
tain and obrious effects produced by the operations of actiye and powerful 
forces which entirely escape our scrutiny. We walk oyer the heads of some 
40,000 columns (for this number has been counted by some curious and 
leisurely person) all beautifully cut and polished, formed of such neat 
pieces, so exactly fitted to each other, and so cleverly supported, that we 
might fancy we had before us the work of ingenious human artificers ; 
and yet what we behold is the result of the immutable laws of nature, 
acting without any apparent object, and by a process which must remain 
for eyer a mystery to our understanding." Half a mile west of the 
Causeway is Portcoon Caye, a natural cavern into which the sea rushes 
with fearful force, and with a noise like thunder, and in which there is a 
fine echo. Near this is Dunkerry Cave, which can be entered only by 
water. Passing the little bay of Portnabaw, we next see the hillocks 
called the Stookans, from their resemblance to stacked corn sheayes, 
from which point the Causeway is first seen in all its beauty — ^its tower- 



HlGQLA2q>EQjS 30NNET QXANX's CAUSEWAY. 

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8EA-GULL ISLAND AND THE FLEA8EIN. 155 

ing rocks and ludf-submerged columnar headlands rising abruptly from the 
sea. A little further on we come to the Giant's Well, a small hollow in 
the basalt rock, generally Med with clear water. 

We are now close to the Causeway. It is a low rocky mole, composed 
of columnar basalt, separating Port Ganniary from Port Nofier-— the 
word ^^port" being used here to designate those little bays formed by 
the sinuosities of the coast. It is 700 feet in length, but varies very 
much in breadth and elevation at different places. It has been so often 
described, and all description must necessarily convey so imperfect a 
conception of its extraordinary appearance, that we shall pass on. The 
Giant's Gateway and the Giant's Organ are seen as we leave the Cause- 
way behind us, both composed of basaltic columns ; and then we reach 
Port Noffer and the Giant's Amphitheatre, so greatly admired by Kohl. 
The phenomenon called the Chimney Tops consists of three pillars, 
the tflJlest 45 feet high, said to have been battered by one of the ships of 
the Spanish Armada, whose crew in the night-time mistook them for the 
chimneys of Dunluce Castle. The ship, according to tradition, was lost 
in the small bay on the other side, called from the circumstance, Port- 
na-Spania. Beyond, to the east, is Sea-gull Island, a broad and high 



SEA-GULL ISLAND, GIANT S CAUSEWAY. 

rock, generally almost covered by the birds which have given it a name. 
We next reach the remarkable promontory called the Pleaskin, scarcely 
le^s iffondroiis or Jess^ beautiful than the Causeway itself^ Continuing 



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156 QIANT^S CAUSEWAY. 



LADY 8 CHAIR, GIANT S CAUSEWAY, 

our drive or sail eastward, we pass Horseshoe Harbour, and see in suc- 
cession the Lion's Head, the Twins, the Giant's Pulpit, Bengore Head, 



PORT COON, 

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DUKSfiYEBICK CASTLS. 157 

the Giant^s Granny, and the Four Sisters, rocks deriving their names 
from some peculiarity in their formation. Rounding Port Fad, we ob- 
serve a solitary rock called the Priest, and, entering Port Moon, have 
our attention directed to a peculiar mass of columns called the Stack. 
Further on we pass a singular rock called the Hen and Chickens, and 
then we approach Dunseverick Castle, the ancient seat of the O'Kanes, 
perched on the top of a bare insulated rock — a dreary ruin in the midst 
of solitude. Five or six miles to seaward is the basaltic island of Rathlin, 
crowned with the ruins of the castle in which Robert Bruce resided when 
forced to fly from Scotland in 1306. From thence to the Mull of Can- 
tire, in Scotland, is only fourteen miles. 



COAST ROUTE FROM THE CAUSEWAY TO BELFAST. 

From the Causeway to Ballycastle is 13) miles, the road passing near 
the singular chasm, sixty feet vidde, which separates the rocky islet of 
Carrickarede from the main-land. Across this chasm, at a height of 
nearly 100 feet above the sea, a rude bridge is thrown, formed of two 
stout cables, four feet apart, across which a series of planks are lashed, 
forming a footway. A pair of hand-ropes completes the bridge, which 
the fishermen and peasantry cross fearlessly day and night, in all weathers, 
often with heavy burdens. In the cliff near the island is a cave, formed 
entirely of polygonal columns of basalt. We next pass Kenbane Head, 
a jutting limestone promontory, crowned by the remains of a small castle. 
Three miles further bring us to Ballycastle, where, near the church, are 
the rums of a fortress, erected by M<DonneU of Dimluce in 1609. Three 
miles more to the eastward the celebrated promontory of Fairhead rises 
perpendicularly to an altitude of 636 feet above the sea, commanding 
an extensive view, the coast of Scotland being distinctly visible, Rathlin 
only four miles distant, and the wild scenery of Murlough Bay stretching 
down to Tor Head. We next approach Cushendun, where we pause to 
admire the magnificent viaduct which spans the valley of Glendun at a 
height of eighty feet in the centre. Beneath winds the Awe Dun, or 
Brown River, so called from the yellow turbid appearance it presents 
■ when swollen by rains, though its general aspect is clear and placid. At 
the pretty village of CushendaU^ which tradition names as the binbhplace 
of Ossian, the Gaelic Homer, the remains of an ancient extensive forti- 
fication may be traced. Leaving Glenariffe to the le^ire now enter 
upon the sublime motmtAin and sea scenery of Red Bay, where at the 



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LALLAQH BItA£S. l59 

entrance ot one of the glens which dip deeply into the recesses of the 
hills, and form outlets for the springs which pour down the mountains, 
we find the ruins of an old church. In the chancel is a tombstone, whose 
fast-decaying inscription reyeab the grave of the great chieftain, Shane 
O'NeUl. 

We next approach Garron Point, whence a fine view is obtained of the 
coast of Scotland, the bold outline of the Mull of Cantire being clearly 
defined, and the mountains far inland more dimly discerned in the dis- 
tance. Skirting the rich plantations which clothe Ben Nachore,we pass 
through the village of Cairnlough, catching a view up the glen which 
intersects the romantic deer-park of the Earl of Antrim, and reach 
Glenarm, beautifully situated between two wooded hills, which surround 
it on every side save that on which it is open to the sea. From thence 
to Lame the road runs close to the sea, and glimpses are still caught ot 
the coast of Scotland, especially from the lofty ridge called Agnew's Hill. 
The amphitheatrical cliffs called the Lallagh Braes offer an interesting 
study for the geologist, while the antiquary and the lover of old legends 
may find ample gratification in the inspection of the ruined castle of the 
Prince of Breffny. Lame is a small, pleasantly situated town, with 
manufactories of cotton goods and canvas. Near it is a bold headland 
fronting the bay, where stand the interesting ruins of Olderfleet Castle, 
also a Druidical altar and rocking stone, with various other interesting 
remains. The road to Carrickfergus mns along Lough Lame, which 
has all the appearance of a lake, having only a very narrow entrance 
from the sea. Passing the village of Glynn, where are the ruins of an 
ancient church, and through Ballycarry, we reach Kilroot, a parish once 
held by Swift, the church of which has long been a ruin. It is only a 
short dirive thence to Carrickfergus,* where we take the train to Belfast. 
While waiting for the train, the tourist may survey the old ivy-covered 
castle, built by the Earl of Ulster in the latter part of the twelfth century, 
and most picturesquely situated close to the sea ; and the ancient church, 
containing some interesting monuments of the Chichester family. 

* There it now a Bailway from Lame to Carrickferg^as. 



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160 



COLERAINE TO LOUGH ERNE. 

We most now return to Coleraine, to guide the holders of tourist 
tickets to the hanks of the romantic and picturesque Lough Erne, and 
thence to Belfast. Coleraine is finely situated on the Q^inn, which dis- 
charges the surplus waters of Lough Neagh into the Atlantic four miles 
helow the town. Though it lays claim to very remote antiquity, there is 
nothing in the town interesting to the tourist ; hut the river abounds in 
salmon and trout, about 40 tons of the former being exported annually, 
still the latter is considered by connoisseurs to be amongst the finest 
flayoured in Ireland. The best fishing, however, is between Kilrea, 
situated thirty miles above Coleraine, and Toom, the outlet of Lough 
Neagh. A mile above the town the river falls over a ledge of rocks, 
thirteen feet high, called the Salmon Leap, to which point the tide ex- 
tends. The scenery between the town and the Leap is very beautiful. 

The railway from Coleraine to Londonderry describes a curve towards 
the mouth of the Bann, and skirts the southern shores of Lough Foyle. 
In the sands which have accumulated in the estuary, and which impede 
its navigation, the tourist will discern the cause which has rendered 
necessary the construction of a harbour at Portrush, which, in conjunc- 
tion with the railway, promises to make Coleraine a formidable rival to 
Londonderry. Between Downhill and Bellarena stations, the former six 
miles from Coleraine, the line runs along the base of the high sandstone 
cliffs of Magilligan, which attain their greatest altitude a little beyond 
the Magilligan junction, where a branch line diverges northward to 
Magilligan Point. The distance from the station to the Point is 4| 
miles, across the sandy plain between the cliffs and Lough Foyle ; and a 
ferry of one mile takes travellers desirous of visiting Inishowen Head to 
Green Castle, a ruined fortress of the O'Doghertys, on the opposite side 
of the lough. Thence the road runs along the rocky coast, passing the 
lighthouse at Dunagree. From Inishowen Head an extensive view is 
obtained of the north-eastern coast, extending as far as Bengore Head. 
This trip is not included, however, in the route by tourist tickets. 

" A singular combination of picturesque beauty and grandeur," says 
Mr. Fraser, " presents itself at Magilligan. Here the cliffs, everywhere 
striking, increase in altitude, and the pastoral banks which they cap are 
here much more varied by verdant knolls, sylvan dells, and terraced 
platforms. High on one of the latter, with several cottages, stands 
the church of Magilligan, one of the most singularly and romantically 
situated of all our sacred edifices. Overhung by the towering clif^ and 
looking across the sandy plain, succeeded by an arm qf the sea, and 



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CITY OF LOKDOITDXBBY. Idl 

ternunated by the lofty mountains of Inishowen, few situations are better 
calculated to excite emotions allied to devotional feelings — ^the feelings 
in unison with all around." The cliff scenery ends at Bellarena, whence 
to Londonderry the line passes over verdant pastures, comprising thou- 
sands of acres, reclaimed from the sea. At Culmore station the Foyle 
narrows abruptly to a quarter of a mile in breadth, and resembles a 
tidal river, along the bank of which the line runs for the remaining 
five miles of the journey. 

Londonderry, next to Belfast the most important town in the north 
of Ireland, is finely situated on a hiU, whose steep acclivities give an 
irregularity of outline to its streets which greatly enhances the pic- 
turesque appearance it presents from the right bank of the river. 
Though its present prosperity is of modem origin, it is a place of con- 
siderable antiquity ; an abbey for canons of the Augustinian order having 
been founded here by St. Columba in 546. In 1218 a religious house 
for Cistercian nuns was founded by Turlough Leinigh; and in 1274 a 
Dominican Friary was built. It was first made a military station in 1566, 
but two years later the town and fort were destroyed by the accidental 
explosion of the magazine, which caused the place to be abandoned. It 
was re-occupied in 1600, when the neighbouring fort of Culmore was 
erected : and in 1604 a charter for the establishment and regulation of 
the town was granted by James I. to Sir Henry Dowcra. In 1608 it was 
reduced to ashes, and the garrison put to the sword by Sir Caher 
O'Doherty. In 1613 the Irish Society was formed, and a new charter 
granted, which was several times confiscated and restored in the suc- 
ceeding reifies, the present charter dating from the restoration of the 
Stuarts. The most memorable event in the history of the city was the 
siege it sustained in 1689,* the stii-ring incidents of which are so well 
known as to render their relation a work of supererogation. The old 
walls remain, and are converted into a promenade; but the gates 
have been rebuilt since the sie«ie, and the present Bishop's Gate, on the 
site of that from which the garrison made their first sortie, is a triuniplial 
arch erected in 1789 as a centenary memorial. The New Gate and the 
Ship Quay Gate were rebuilt at the beginning of the present century. 
On the central bastion of the western wall is the handsome pillar erected 
in 1828 in memory of Walker and the brave defenders of the city, and at 
its base are four of tlfe guns used by them. Within the walls, the city 
has undergone little change since its streets were laid out anew by the 
Irish Society; but it now extends greatly beyond the walls, and in 1871 
had a population of 25,242. The principal streets radiate from a square 
called the Diamond, nearly in the centre of the city, from which they 

* Fur tbo best description ot this vide Macaulay's History k f England. 

U 



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l62 tONDONDERIlY TO STEABAIJE. 

run at right angles towards the ancient gates. The coi^oration hall 
occupies the centre of the square, and in Ship Quay-street are the exeise 
office, hranch estahlishments of the National and Provincial Banks, public 
library and news-room, and meeting-houses of the Reformed J^resby- 
terians and Primitive Methodists. The episcopal palace, deanery, and 
court-house are in Bishop-street. The palace occupies the site of the 
ancient Augustinian Abbey. In the rear of the court-house is the old 
cathedral and parish church of St. Columba, a massive and imposing^ 
structure, occupying the summit of the hill on which the town is built, 
and affording from its tower an extensive prospect over the rich valley 
of the Foyle. Besides the ecclesiastical edifices mentioned, there is a 
handsome Roman Catholic Cathedral of recent erection, two Romaa 
Catholic Chapels, the Free Church, three Presbyterian meeting-houses, 
and chapels for Wesleyans and Independents. Endowed and other edu- 
cational establishments are numerous, the principal being Gwynne's 
Hospital, which has a small botanic garden attached to it, and the 
recently erected Presbyterian College. There are two good hotels, the 
Imperial and the Commercial. The long narrow bridge which crosses 
the Foyle is on the same plan as those at Waterford and Wexford, and 
the work of the same architect, an American, named Cox; but consider- 
ably exceeds the others in length.* 

* The district around Londonderry is owned by the Livery Companies of the 
Citj of London, who, in 1613, purchased of James 1. for somcthinff like £60,000, 
upwards of 300,000 acres of the "waste lands of the rebels, and " planted " the es- 
tates with Scotch and English people. Since that period these ** Irish Estates " 
have been managed by the Honourable Irish Society of London for the City Com- 
panies. Several attempts, it appears, have been made to deprive the citizens of 
their rights, and much angry feeling shown in the matter, especially by circulating 
erroneous reports. The latest "raid" was in March, 1869, when Mr. Maguire, 
M.P. for Cork, unadvisedly introduced a motion in the House of Commons, 
having for its object a bold scheme of " Reform,'* which, it is needless to remark, 
was as boldly opposed by the Londoners. One of these citizens, well Tersed in 
the subject, a Mr. T. C. Noble published some very instructive, amusing, and 
almost exhaustive letters in the " Standard," " Herald," and " Londonderry Sen- 
tinel," and these, being reprinted, found much favour with the Irish people, es- 
pecially with the residents upon the Estates, many of the Companies' tenants 
testifying their approval in various ways. After the publication of these letters, 
and a warm Parliamentary Debate, Mr. Maguire was advised to withdraw the 
motion. In conclusion we cannot do better than quote Mr. Noble's opmion on 
the subject: — "London's tenantry are a respected body of men, whose comforts 
the Companies most anxiously study, but it must be acknowledged they cannot 
please every one, human nature is nof qiiite so obliging ; still, the * Ulster Lads ' 
and ' Derry Boys ' may rest assured that liowever grievous they may consider their 
individual cases, those persons most interested in Uie pirosperity of the district will 
be the first to reform, when it can be done with benefit to all.' 

Mr. Noble has long been connected with the London Press, and contributed 
many papers of great interest to the citizens. His most recent work, "Memorials 
of Temple Bar," dedicated by special permission to Alderman Sir J. C. Lawrence, 
Bart., contains much amusing and instructive reading relating to the history and 
antiquity of the world-renowned City Gate, and the equally celebrated City street 



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EitBABANfe TO OMAOA. 163 

Four miles north-west of Londonderry, on the shores of Lough Swilly, 
above which it rises 802 feet, is the hiU of Grianan, on the summit of 
which are remains of an ancient Irish fort, formerly consisting of a series 
of concentric ramparts, extensive vestiges of which may still be traced. 
The site of this memorial of the early inhabitants affords an interesting 
view over Lough Swilly and the surrounding country. The scenery in 
the neighbourhood of Londonderry is varied and agreeable, though not 
picturesque. The Vale of Faughan has the best local claims to the latter 
character, though the hills which form it are bleak and moorish. It is 
watered by a river of the same name, which rises at the base of Sawel 
Mountain, and falls into Lough Foyle, opposite Culmore Fort ; and 
several smaller streams flow through the romantic glens which branch 
off from the vale. 

From Londonderry nearly to Strabane the railway follows the left 
bank of the Foyle, which is for some distance a broad tidal stream, 
flowing through a wide alluvial valley. The country is too low to be 
picturesque, but the circumstance of the line running along the margin 
of the river renders the scenery on either hand visible from the train 
all the way. The villages of Carrigans and St. Johnstown are passed 
on the right. About midway between Strabane and Lifford the line 
crosses the Foyle, and passes from the county of Donegal into that of 
Tyrone. Both towns are seen ft-om the bridge, which likewise commands 
good views, northward, of the fertile vale the tourist has traversed, and, 
westward, of the narrower valley of the Finn. Lifford formerly the 
chief place of the O'Donnells, was subsequently, with 500 acres of 
land adjacent, granted by James I. to Sir R. Hansard. It is now in the 
possession of Lord Erne. Though it is the assize town of Donegal, it 
is a place of no importance at the present day, having been thrown into 
the shade by the greater progress of the manu&cturing town of Stra- 
bane, which now enjoys all the advantages arising f^om the assize and 
sessions of the a^oining county. Strabane is situated a mile below the 
point at which the Foyle is formed by the junction of the rivers Moume 
and Finn, and is connected by a canal, four miles in lengtii, with the 
deeper waters of the river, which is navigable to the mouth of the caiuil 
by vessels of considerable burthen. The railway has added to the im- 
portance of the place, and gives additional facilities to its export trade 
in provisions. 
fVom Strabane to Omagh the railway follows the course of the river 

—Fleet Street— one of the cradles of the Art of Printing. It is a pleasure to find 
a citizen so entertaining and instructive taking up the cause of " Quid Ireland," 
and meetiog with such satisfactory responses in and out of Parliament. 



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164 ENNISKILLSN AND THE BRN£. 

Strule through a narrow and well defined valley, the banks of the stream 
being high, and seeming but the foreground of the neighbouring hills. 
The Struie is generally considered the most beautiful river in Ulster, 
and the force and volume of its waters render it as useful as it is orna- 
mental to the district it flows through, turning several mill wheels, and 
propelling the machinery of the large flax-spinning factory at Sion 
Mills. Victoria Bridge is crossed a little beyond these mills, and the 
river iJerg, which discharges the surplus waters of the celebrated lake 
of that name, as well as of several of the Donegal streams, into the 
Strule, is crossed shortly afterwards. Three miles further bring us to 
Newtown Stewart, pleasantly situated on the left bank of the river, a 
little below its confluence with the OwenkiUew. It was formerly, under 
the name of Lislas, an important military station, and derived its present 
name from Sir William Stewart, to whom it was granted by Charles I. 
The town was burned by order of James II., and not rebuilt till 1722 ; 
and in Main-street the remains of the house in which the monarch slept 
on his way to Londonderry are shown. On the summit of a hill near 
the town is a ruin called Harry Ivery*s Castle, and the names of Bessy 
Bell and Mary Gray, given to two other hills in the vicinity, are further 
suggestive of local legends ; though it is difficult to account for the 
appropriation in Tyrone of the name of the " twa bonnie lassies," whose 
melancholy fate, with that of their lovers, is preserved in a Scotch 
ballad. About two miles from the town, in a valley at the base of 
Bessy Bell, is Baron's Court, seat of the Marquis of Abercom, whose 
demesne is one of the finest in this part of the country. 

A mile above Newtown Stewart is the village and castle of Moyle. 
The line passes between the two romantically named hills just mentioned, 
a^d crosses the stream called Fairy Water, just before its confluence 
with the Strule, which here bends to the eastward, and flows through 
what was formerly the forest of Mountjoy. Omagh, the county town of 
Tyrone, is next reached ; and a good view of it is obtained from the 
railway, as it occupies the side of an eminence. The streets are steep 
and inconvenient, and the public buildings present no features of inte- 
rest The country around is of very diversified character, hill and dide 
alternating, the latter containing many strips of bog and marsh. Skirt- 
ing the hill on which Omagh is situated, the line runs in a south-westerly 
direction to Enniskillen, giving off a short branch to Fintona, and enter- 
ing the county of Fermanagh between Trillick and Ballinamallard. 

Enniskillen, the chief town of Fermanagh, is situated on an island in 
the river Erne, which here connects the two lakes of that name. The 
area of the island is 62 acres, and the town, including the suburbs, is 
about a mile in length. Besides the usual buildings of a county town, 



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LOUGH ERNE AND ITS ISLANDS. 165 

it contains two small forts, one at each end of the town, and the royal 
school of Portora, founded by Charles I., and one of the best endowed in 
the country. In the town hall the banners are preserved that the Ennis- 
killeners bore at the battle of the Boyne, much shorn of their glory by 
the clipping propensities of relic-hunters. The linen hall has never been 
used for the purpose for which it was erected, and the only manufacture 
of the town, beside^ a small quantity of excellent cutlery, is that of straw 
plait, which employs a considerable number of young females. A large 
amount of business is transacted at the weekly markets and periodical 
fairs, but communication with the sea is prevented by the falls at Bally- 
shannon, which interrupt the navigation between Donegal Bay and Lower 
Lough Erne. Timber and coal are brought in barges from Belleek, a 
small town at the foot of the lower lake. Much has now been done to 
enhance the prosperity of the town by the opening of the railways which 
connect it with Londonderry and Dundalk, and the completion of the line 
to Belfast and Galway will add materially to its business. A good view of 
the town and Mand is obtained from the hill above the railway terminus, 
which is crowned with a handsome column commemorative of the 
gallant exploits of Sir Cowry Cole. The surrounding country is charm- 
ingly diversified and generally well cultivated. Seven miles southward, 
on the slope of Cuilcagh, the highest point of the Slieveanieran moun- 
tains, and near the road leading to Swanlinbar, is Florence Court, seat 
of the Earl of Enniskillen, who owns the principal part of the town 
whence he derives his title, the whole having been granted in 1612 
to his ancestor, William Cole, by James I. It was in one of the 
romantic glens of this beautiful demesne that, about seventy years 
ago, the upright variety of the yew, now well known as the Irish yew, 
and found in every arboretum and pleasure ground, was first observed. 
The situation of Enniskillen, midway between the upper and lower 
lakes, renders it the best station for those who desire to explore their 
islands and banks, which they may do either by steamer, oared boat, 
hired car, or by the stage car between Enniskillen and Ballyshannon. 
There are three hotels in the town — ^the Imperial, the White Hart, and 
Macbride's. Trout fishing in the Erne is excellent, the fish being 
among the largest of the species to be found in Ireland. The best sport 
is to be had in the neighbourhood of Ballyshannon. The Erne issues 
from Lough Gowna, on the confines of the counties of Longford and 
Cavan, and flows northward, passing through Lough Oughter, to Bel- 
turbet, four miles below which it expands again, forming Upper Lough 
Erne. It is of no great breadth, however, before reaching Crom Ckstle, 
seat of the Earl of Erne,* and throughout its length, which from thence 

* His lordship is descended from a branch of the Scotch family of Creighton, 
in which, until it ceased in 1690, was the title of Viscount Frendraught. The first 



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166 SHORES OF THE l^AHB, 

to Belleiflle^ seat of the Rev. J. G. Porter, is about ten miles, its breadth 
Is rery variable, and its course siuuoiis and interrupted by small islands, 
of which there are about ninety. From Belleisle to a little below £nnis» 
lullen, a distance of ten miles, it ag^ain assumes the character of a river, 
still meandering» and divided at several 'places by islands. The river 
scenery, especially where it flows between Fairwood Park and the grounds 
of Belleville and Castle Cole, is much finer than that of the Upper Lake, 
which is somewhat tame. The Lower Lake stretches westerly from a 
little below Enniskillen to Roscor House, a distance of twenty miles, 
and varies in breadth from two to five miles. It contains 109 islands, 
most of them very small, but many containing from 10 to 150 acres, and 
Boa Island, near the northern outlet, containing 1,300 acres. At Roscor 
the waters contract into a river again, and thus flow on to Belleek, where 
they are precipitated over a ledge of limestone, forming a fall of 14 feet. 
Between Belleek and Ballyshannon, a distance of nine miles, the river 
fjslls 140 feet, forming a series of rapids ; and at the latter place there is 
a fall of 20 feet at one plunge, which the salmon, incredible as it appears, 
oontrive to surmount in their progress towards ihe lakes. 

Though Lough Erne has only been recently brought within the plan 
of the tourist ticket, its scenery has long been a theme of admira- 
tion wiUi every traveller who has visited it. "Whether," says Mr. 
Fraser, " we traverse its outlines, or sail along its quiet waters, which 
are broken into pleasing forms by the wooded and pastoral islands scat- 
t^ed throughout its broad expanse, we are charmed with the views ;— • 
the receding, still coves, and smooth shallow bays, which its outlines 
present, the sloping lawns, wooded promontories, sequestered knolls, 
cultivated leas, and the beautiful seats which lie along its banks, entitle 
us, if not to rank it, with Mr. Inglis, as < the most beautiful lake in the 
three kingdoms,' at least to assign it a high place in the lake scenery of 
Ireland." Mr. Inglis, we may add, terms the Lower Lake the Winder- 
mere of Ireland. Mrs. Hall is equally enthusiastic in praise of the drive 

of this branch mentioned by Sir Bernard Burke is John Creighton, of Crom Castle, 
whose eldest son was member for the county of Fermanagh, in 1692^ and commanded 
ft regiment of foot at the battle of Anghrim. It was the soil of this Crelghton who, 
in 1689, so gallantly defended Crom Castle against a body of the army of James 
II. " Having repulsed the assailants," says Sir Bernard Burke, "young Creighton 
made a sally, at the instant that a corps ot Enniskilleners was approaching to the 
relief of the castle, which movement placed the besiegers between two tires, and 
caused dreadful slaughter. The enemy, attempting to accomplish his retreat across 
an arm of Lough Lme, near Crom Castle, that spot became the scen3 of such 
carnage that it has ever since borne the name of the Bloody Pass. This gentle- 
man represented Enniskillen in Parliament, and attaining the rank of major-general 
in the army, was appointed governor of the royal hospital of Kilmainham. His 
son was created Baron Erne in 1768, and in 17*81 the second baron was advanced 
to the dignity of Viscount Erne, and in 1789 to that of Earl of Erne. 



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RUINS OK DBVEinsn ISLAND. 167 

along the southern shore of the lake from Belleek to EnnlskUlen. " The 
• lal^e," she says, "is to the left, and on the right, almost into the town, 
the 4rive is under the shadow of lofty hills, richly cultivated) and occa.- 
sionally as richly planted. Between the road and the water extends a 
renuMrkably fertile valley, thick with trees and underwood ; and beyond 
it stretches the long and narrow lough with its multitude of islands. 
These islands are said to equal in number the days of the year ; they 
are very numerous, and of all sizes, from the small * dot ' to the plain of 
many aeres. All of them are green, and most of them productive ; some 
covered with *fat herbage,* on wliich are feeding flocks of sheep ; others 
are miniature forests ; some appear so large as to Iqok like profitable 
estates; others so small that a giant's hand might cover them. Along 
the whole of the route the opposite shore is kept in view — for the lake 
has in no part a greater breadth than nine miles, and is so wid^ only in 
one vicinity — ^the neighbourhood of Tully Castle, on the southern bank. 
From this ancient castle, which stands upon a promontory that juts out 
into the lake, the prospect is extensive and inconceivably beautiful. . . « 
Travel where they will in this smgularly beautiful neighbourhood, lovers 
of the picturesque will have rare treats at every step. It is impossible to 
exaggerate in describing the surpassing loveliness of the whole locality. 
How many thousands there are who, if just ideas could be conveyed to 
them of its attractions, would make their annual trip hither, instead of 
* up the hackneyed and soddened Rhine,' — infinitely less rich in natural 
graces, far inferior in the studies of character it yields, and much less 
abundant in all enjoyments that can recompense the traveller ! Nothing 
in Great Britain — ^perhaps nothing in Europe — can su^'pass in beauty the 
view along the whole of the road that leads to EnniskiUen." 

Two miles below Eniskillen is Devenish Island, the first and most in-* 
teresting of the Erne Archipelago. It contains between seventy and 
eighty acres of rich pasture ; but its chief attractions for the tourist 
consist in its ecclesiastical ruins and round tower. The former are 
attributed to St. Molaisse, whe died in 563. The abbey was repeatedly 
plundered by the Danes, and appears to have been re-founded in II30. 
It must have fallen into decay early in the seventeenth century, however, 
for, in a letter written by Sir John Davis, he says : — 

" We came the second night after to the south side of Lough Erne, 
and pitched our tents over against the island of Devenish, a place being 
prepared for the holding of our sessions for Fermanagh in the ruins of an 
abbey there." 

This abbey, locally called the Upper Church, is built of a grey limestone 
found in the neighbourhood, and susceptible of a high polish. A small 
pointed doorwaj^ in the basement stor^ of the tower leads to a spiral stair- 



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168 BOA ISLAND. 

ease, by which the battlements are reached. The masonry is remarkable, 
the angles of the architraves being fluted and highly finished. At the height • 
of five feet from the floor, and adjoining the entrance to the belfry, is a 
mural tablet, with a Latin inscription in ancient characters. There is a 
second doorway in the south wall, with an ornamental architrave, above 
which, in a canopied niche, have been the arms of some benefactor of the 
abbey. The lower church, dedicated to St. Molaisse, is of more ancient 
date and much more dilapidated, only a portion of the walls remaining. 
The eastern window is in three compartments, with lanciform heads, luid 
in the southern wall are two circular headed windows, which lighted the 
baptistry. Near this church is a small ancient building, with a stone 
roof, having some resemblance to St. Kevin's Kitchen at Glendalough, 
and said t9 have been the cell of St. Molaisse. The round tower occupies 
an elevated position on the northern side of the island. It is 82 feet 
high, and presents some remarkable variations from the common form of 
these structures. Twelve feet above the doorway is' a window with a 
pointed head, formed by two flags leaning against each other; and a 
little higher, but not in a right line, is a square window. In the upper 
story are the usual four windows, and above each a keystone, ornamented 
with a grotesque human head. A projecting sculptured cornice is carried 
round the top, and supports the conical cap, or roof. 

Leaving Devenish Island, and proceeding down the lake, the tourist 
has on his left the fine demesne of the Marquis of Ely, which embraces 
several of the wooded islands passed on the voyage. Ely Lodge, his 
lordship^s, seat, is situated on one of the larger islands, which is con- 
nected with the southern shore of the lake by a causeway and bridge. 
Here the banks of the lake are high and acclivitous, and richly wooded 
for several miles, the great abundance of holly adding much to their 
beauty. Just where the lofty hills mentioned by Mrs. Hall begin to 
rise, and at the point where the lake is widest, we see the ruins of 
Tully Castle, one of the fortified residences erected by the first Scotch 
settlers in the north — a square keep, turreted at the angles, and sur- 
rounded by an outer wall, enclosing a courtyard. It was built by Sir 
John Hume, who received a grant of land here, which passed by mar- 
riage into the possession of the Loftus family in 1731. In 1641 the 
castle was pillaged and burnt by the insurgents, who, led by a brother of 
Lord Maguire, massacred a great number of the English and Scotch 
settlers who had taken refuge there. A little beyond Tully Castle is the 
rocky dell of Polaphuca, formed by the wild and picturesque acclivities 
of Shean North, which rises from the precipitous banks of the lake to an 
altitude of 1,135 feet. We are now opposite Boa Island, and, after 
passing a few more green islands near the southern shore, the lake con- 
tracts, and its banks sink until they scarcely rise above the surface* 



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ENVISKILLEX TO CLONES. 1^9 



ENNISKILLEN TO BELFAST. 

Immediately after leaving Enniskillen, oa our return by raUway to 
Belfast, we pass Castle Coole, seat of the Earl of Belmore, one of the 
handsomest Grecian edifices in the country, and surrounded by fine 
plantations. Passing on our left the village of Lisbellaw, we reach the 
little town of Lisnaskea, which has been much improved of late years by 
its noble proprietor, the Earl of Erne, and now contains a market-house 
and two hotielB,the Commercial and the Erne Arms; which, with the dis- 
pensary and schools, have been erected by his lordship. From thence to 
Newtown Butler the line runs along the base of Tully Hill, passing near 
Lough Moor and the little village of Donagh. Newtown Butler, the 
property of the Earl of Lanesborough, is a small town on the summit of 
a hill, and visible from a considerable distance. Crom Castle, seat of 
the Earl of Erne, is about 2^ miles south-west of the town, on a narrow 
wooded promontory at the head of the Upper Lough Erne. In the de- 
mesne are the ruins of the old castle of Crom, and one of the most remark- 
able old yews in the kingdom, being twenty feet high and covering with 
its dusky branches an area of sixty feet diameter. From Newtown Butler 
the line runs eastward to Clones, an ancient and thriving town, occupy- 
ing the summit of a hill in the midst of an undulating and well-cultivated 
district. An abbey was founded here in the sixth century, some remains 
of which exist on the south side of the town. Near them is a round 
tower, more rudely constructed than most of these singular structures, 
and destitute of its cap, which has long since disappeared. Clones was 
occupied by the Anglo-Normans soon after the invasion of Strongbow, 
and in 1207 the town and abbey were burned by Hugh de Lacy. On the 
summit of a hill near the town is an ancient fort, consisting of a triple 
series of ramparts and ditches, rising one above the other, from which a 
good view is obtained of the diversified and fertile country around. 

Six miles from Clones the village of Smithborough is passed, where 
there is a small spade manufactory. Monaghan is a place of considerable 
importance, as, besides being the chief town of the county of that name, 
there are four well-attended weekly markets for the sale of agricultural 
produce. The Ulster Canal runs close to the town, and railway commu- 
nication with Belfast has likewise served to enhance its prosperity. 
In the vicinity are the Roman Catholic College, a fine building, con- 
spicuously situated on an eminence ; and the Diocesan School^ founded 



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170 CLONES TO BELFAST. 

by Elizabeth, but chiefly supported by the clergy of the dioceses of 
Raphoe, Kilmore, and Clogher. Here the tourist takes the train again, 
and proceeds to Belfast, passing Armagh, Portadown, Lurgan, and 
Lisbum. Armagh, chief town of the county of that name, is a well-built 
and thriving place, well provided with public buildings, of which, 
besides those for county and municipal business, it has a large linen 
hall, a commodious market-house, a free grammar school, a public library, 
four branch banks, and several hospitals and other ehf^ritaUe institu- 
tions. It is a place of great antiquity, having been founded, aooording 
to the native chroniclers, by St. Patrick in 445. The Cathedral, whiqh 
occupies a commanding site, is a large and venerable buil£ng, erected iu 
the twelfth century, but several times burnt during the incursions and 
sieges of which Armagh was the soene from an early period down to 
the dose of the seventeenth century. A laarge Roman Catholic Cathedral 
has recently been erected on one of the adjacent hills, and forms a 
striking feature in the view of the city. Near the old Cathedral is the 
public Hbrary, founded by Primate RoMnson in 1771 ; and near the 
handsome modem church of St. Mark, on tiie east side of the city, is 
the observatory, which owes its origin to the munificence of the same 
prelate, and the free grammu* school, one of the richest educational 
endowments in Ireland. The archiepiscopal palace and demesne, the 
latter well laid out and open to the public, adjoin the town, the country 
around which, though not picturesque, is of an agreeable and diversified 
character. The next place of importance on the line is Pcnrtadown, from 
which point to Belfast the route has already been described, in connec- 
tion with the tour from Dublin to the Giant's Causeway. 



ENNISKILLEN TO SLIGO. 

Sliqo is now connected by railway with Dublin and the south of 
Ireland by means of the Midland Great Western Railway. 

Enniskillen is at present the nearest place by which Sligo can be 
reached by railway from the north of Ireland, and a car runs daily 
between these towns. The road runs, for the first nine miles^ along the 
southern base of Belmore mountain, and at Belcoo Bridge crosses the 
stream that connects the upper and lower Loughs Macnean, two exten- 
sive sheets of water only half a mile apart, and surrounded by wild 
hills and unfrequented moors. Skirting the southern shores of the 
lower lake, we enter the county of Leitrim, and, as we approach 
Manorhamilton, observe that the country has assumed a more diversified 



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TOWN AND ABBEY OP SLIOO. 171 

and cultivated agpeot. Manorhamilton is a small town, beautifully 
situated in a valley watered by the Owenmore, and surrounded by lofty 
hills, presenting an endless variation of craggy acclivities, winding glens, 
narrow ravines, and fertile valleys. Scenery of this description con. 
tinues through the whole remainder of the journey, " Nowhere," says 
Mr. Eraser, " do we remember such romantically beautiful, and, at the 
same time, such picturesque combinations of mountains, hills, valleys, 
dells, and glens, as are exhibited from Lough Doon to Sligo, a distance 
of seven miles, and all round the head of Lough Gill." 

Sligo is a busy, thriving town, second to Galway in the west of Lreland, 
with a considerable trade, both export and import, which is increasing, 
and for which additional facilities have been provided within the last 
few years, in the shape of convenient market-houses, large warehouses, 
and improved quays. There are a large distillery and several breweries, 
and some business is also done in the linen trade: The river Garrogue, 
through which the surplus waters of Lough Gill are discharged into the 
bay, runs through the town, and drives the wheels of several flour and 
oatmeal mills. There are all the usual public buildings of a county 
.town, and a good hotel, the Hibemia, besides several comfortable inns. 
The ruins of the abbey, founded in 1322 by Maurice Fitzgerald, are in 
that portion of the town which belonged to the late Lord Palmerston, and 
are parefully preserved. The most interesting portion of the remains are 
the beautiful window of carved stone, above the altar, and the monument 
of one of the royal O'Connors, with inscriptions still legible, and figure's 
in good preservation. It is the romantic environs of the town, however, 
which constitute its chief attraction to tourists, and foremost among 
their beauties is Hazlewood, seat of Mr. Wynne, about two miles from 
Sligo, on the road to Manorhamilton. It embraces the largest and finest 
portion of Lough Gill, and its fine combinations of scenery are best seen 
by hiring a boat at Sligo, and ascending the river to the upper end of the 
lake. The demesne is beautifully planted, and Mr. Inglis and Mr. 
Willis are lavish in their praises of its magnificent ashes, oaks, elms, and 
limes, and the abundance of evergreens, among which the laurels are 
equal to those of Woodstock and Curraghmore, and the arbutuses little 
inferior to those of Killarney. 

Lough Gill is about five miles long, and varies in breadth from a mile 
to a mile and a half. It contains a great number of islands, the prin- 
cipal of which are Church Island, (so called from some interesting 
ecclesiastical ruins,) containing twenty-five acres, and Cottage Island, 
eight acres. The rest are mere rocky islets, but all prettily wooded, and 
large enough to give a charming diversity to the surface of the water. 
Mr. Inglis says that Lough Gill will bear comparison with any lake in 



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172 HAZLEWOOD AND LOUGH GILL. 

Ireland. ** Its scenery," he observes, "is not stupendous^^carcely even 
bold ; but it is ^ beautiful exceedingly.' Its boundaries are not moun- 
tains, but hills of sufficient elevation to form a picturesque and striking 
outline. The hill sides, which in some places rise abruptly from the 
water, and in others slope more gently, are covered to a considerable 
elevation with wood ; and the lake is adorned with twenty-three islands, 
almost every one of them finely wooded. Here, too, as well as on Hazle- 
wood demesne, I found that the arbutus is not confined to KiUamey.* 
The extent of Lough Gill is highly favourable to its beauty. The eye 
embraces at once its whole length and breadth — the whole circumfer- 
ence of its shores — all their varieties and contrasts at once — all its 
islands. One charm is not lost in the contemplation of another, as in a 
greater lake ; the whole is seen at once and enjoyed.'* Hazlewood de- 
mesne extends for three miles along the west and north sides of the 
lake, which are less elevated than the opposite sides, where the rugged 
gneiss acclivities of Slievedaeane and Slish rise abruptly to an elevation 
of 780 feet. Cleveragh, demesne of Mr. Martin, adjoins Hazlewood, 
and comprises Cairns Hill, from the summit of which a fine view is ob- 
tained over the lake, the hills around, the valley of the Garrogue, the* 
town of Sligo, and the far-stretching Atlantic. Another charming view 
of th3 lake and its shores is obtained from a rock rising out of the wood 
on the north side,^ about a mile east of the Ballintogher entrance to the 
demesne of Hazlewood; and others of different characters from the 
drives along the wooded acclivities of Slish and the slopes of Cairns 
Hill. 

A walk or drive along the road from Sligo to the village of Dro- 
mahaire, which passes over the latter eminence, along the southern 
shore of the lake for two miles, and through the romantic glen between 
Slievedaeane and Slish, will introduce the tourist to some of the most 
beautiful scenery in the county of Sligo. 

The most remarkable feature of the scenery west of the town of Sligo 
is Knocknarea, which rises to an elevation of 1,078 feet, and presents a 
singularly bold escarpment to the bay. To the geologist it is interesting 
as an isolated hill of limestone in the midst of rugged and sterile gneiss 
mountains ; whilst to the lovers of natural panoramas it offers an exten- 
sive view over land and sea, extending in the latter durection from 
Broadhaven to the lofty cliffs of Slieveleague, and embracing the distant 
peaks of Croagh Patrick and Nephin. On the smooth level summit of 

'*' Mr. Eraser states that Mr. Inglis and others are mistaken in supposing the 
arbutus and Irish yew to be indigenous at Hazlewood, the fact being that they 
were planted by the late Mr. Wynne, 



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G0A8T OF SUOO. . 173 

the hill is a large tomulos; and at its southern base a singular chasmt 
three quarters of a mile along, thirty feet wide, and forty feet deep from 
the wooded brink of its natural walls of limestone, which are adorned 
with a great variety of ferns and trailing plants, many of them peculiar 
to the locality. In the bay of Sligo, five miles from the town, is Coney 
Island, about a mile and a quarter long by half a mile broad, and near 
it is Oyster Island, on w:hich are a beac<Mi and two lighthouses. About 
two ndles seaward is t^e Black Rock, on which is another lighthouse. 
Four miles from Sligo, on the road to Ballyshannon, is the hamlet of 
Drumdiff, near which are two ancient crosses and the remains of a round 
tower. This road runs for fire miles round the base of Benbulben, a 
mountain of similar appearance and formation to Knocknarea, but 644 
feet higher. Three miles beyond Drumcliff is Lissadill, the fine demesne 
of Sir Robert Gore Booth, the former seat of whose ancestors, Ardtermon 
Castle, stands in ruins near the hamlet of Raghly, frowning over the 
desolation produced on that part of the coast by the encroachments of 
the drifting sands of the ocean. Hundreds of once fertile acres have 
been covered, and it is only of late years that any endeavours have been 
made to check the progress of the devastation. The ruins of an ancient 
church, with the taller of the rude tombs, and the remains of many 
humble habitations, are discernible above the accumulating sand in 
which they are imbedded. Near Raghly, which is four miles from 
LissadiU, are several subterranean channels through which the sea rushes, 
at flood tides, foaming and roaring, into a deep cavity, at some distance 
from the shore. The village of Johnsport adjoins LissadiU, and near it 
is the ruined castle of Dunfort. To the north of LissadiU, on the left of 
the traveUer from SUgo to BaUyshannon, is Streedagh Point, four mUes 
to the seaward of which is the Uttle island of Inismurray, containing some 
ecclesiastical ruins of great antiquity. Another interesting drive is to 
Glen Car, formed by the King's Mountain, one of the Umestone range 
of which Benbulben forms part, and GuUogeaboy Mountain, rising re- 
spectively 1,965 and 1,430 feet above the sea. A great portion of this 
beautiful glen belongs to Mr. Wynne, who has much enhanced its natural 
picturesqueness by judicious planting. It is about eight mUes in length, 
and at about five miles from SUgo the tourist reaches the soUtary lake of 
Glen Car, about a mUe and a half in length. Turning southward again, 
an interesting excursion may be made to the Uttle town of CoUooney, 
the road to which skirts Cleveragh demesne, and passes through BaUy- 
sadare, where there are ruins of a smaU abbey founded by St. Fechin in 
the seventh century, and picturesquely situated on the left bank of the 
Owenmore, at the spot where it falls over a series of shelving rocks, 
forming one of the finest rapids in the kingdom. Between this place and 



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174 iEJCCURSiONfl to GIXH OAB AKl> COLLOONtSY. 

Colloonej the French were unsuccessfully attacked by Lord Otorty with a 
small body of yeomanry and militia, when they landed at Killala in 1798. 
Two miles beyond Ballysadare we reach OoUooney ; just below which 
the Owenmore is precipitated over a high ledge of rock, and forms a 
beautiful cascade, which has been made use of to drive the machinery of 
two of Ae largest flour mills in the county. 

The task proposed in the foregoing pages is now completed, and the 
tourist has been rapidly conveyed over a consid^^ble portion of the 
most attractive scenery of Ireland It is only necessary to add that 
il the perusal of this little volume should lead to increased inter*commu- 
nication between the two countries, the author will consider iliat he has 
been amply repaid for his labour. 



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175 



TOURIST TICKETS. 



Bbbidbs the ordinary accommodation of the Bailwa^ Companies, which exists 
throughout the year, Tourists are offered additional facilities for travelling during 
the summer months. In the first place, we would hring under the notice of our 
readers the attractive programmes annually laid down hy Messrs. Cook and Son, 
whose skill in selecting me chief points of interest for visitors has gained them 
such a wide reputation. But full particulars of their various tours are contained 
in the fortnightly puhlications issued hy them during the season. 

Tourist Tickets are also granted hy the different Bailway Companies. They are 
avaUable for one calendar month, and enable the holder to travel to certain places 
of interest, and to stop on his route as long as may be convenient to himself, the 
only condition, as regards his return to the station in England at which he took 
his ticket (with the exception about to be stated), being that it shall not be later 
than the period for which the ticket is issued. If he exceed his time the unfinished 

?)rtion of his return journey must be paid for as if he did not possess a Tourist 
icket The period of Tourist Tickets can be extended beyond the month on 
payment of 10 per cent, on the price of the ticket for the first fortnight or portion 
of a fortnight additional, and 5 per cent, for each subsequent week; but the time 
will not be extended beyond Slst December in any year. Applications for extension 
of time are to be made at any of the stations from which the return half of the 
ticket is available, in all cases not later than the day on which the term of the 
ticket expires. 

Tourist Tickets are available by the ordinary trains of the Companies, accord- 
ing to the class for which they are taken ; but not by the Irish express mails, 
with the exception, on the London and North-Western Railway, of those issued 
for Killamey. The tickets are only available for the stations named upon them, 
and do not entitle the holders to break their journey at any other places than 
those apnointed by the Railway Companies ; nor can they be used more than 
once in tne same direction. The holders must also, in all cases, start upon the 
outward journey on the same day and by the same train for which the tickets are 
taken. They are not transferable, and tbe^ must be presented, for the purpose of 
being stamped, at the booking-ofiice at which the return journey is commenced. 
The ordinary weight of luggage is allowed to the holders. Children above three 
and under twelve years of age are only charged half fares. 

The holders of these tickets possess various advantages when travelling through 
Ireland. They are known to be only visitors to me countrv, and as such all 
classes of person are anxious to afford them information, and it is not too much 
to say of the humbler classes (for the remark can be confirmed by thousands of 
tourists) that imposition is scarcely ever practised by them towards" strangers, 
though of course, if a tourist wish to be generous, an Irishman has not the 
slightest objection to receive and to be grateful for his bounty. 

The Tourist Tickets issued bv the London and North- Western Railway 
Company, via Holyhead, enable the holders to proceed to Chester, and thence to 
Bangor for the inspection of the Britannia Bridge from Bangor to Holyhead, 



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176 TOURIST Pickets. 

the station for the magnificent mail steamers to Kingstown, thence to Dablin , 
from Dublin to Cork, sitnate on the pictnresqae river Lee, and within ten 
miles of the celebrated harbour, dockyard, naval and American packet station 
of Queenstown. From Cork, back to Mallow, and thence by the Kulamey branch 
of the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, to the far-fomed Lakes 
of Killamey. The tourist can remain at any of the places indicated as long as 
convenient to himself, provided he returns to the station in England at which he 
took his ticket, not later than one month from the date of hisde^rture there£rom.t 

Holders of tickets for Portrush (Giant's Causeway) can break their journey at 
'Rugbj, Birmingham, Fleetwood, and Belfast ; or Bugb^, Birmingham, Liverpool 
and Belfast, according to the route selected. Cars await the arrival of all trains 
at Portrush, to convey passengers to the GKant's Causeway at moderate rates. 
Tourists for the Giant^s Causewav who may desire to 'see the Ix^d and romantic 
scenery of the coast by Ballycastie^ Cuahenden, Gienarm, Lame, ftc., may leave 
the Northern Counties Railway at Carriokfergiu Junction and proceed to Lanie ; 
or they may rejoin at Lume on tbe retuzn journey on payment of the fare between 
Carri^ Junction and Lame. 

Holders of Tourist Tickets for the Dublin and Belfast Circular Tour may travel 
vid Fleetwood and Belfiist to Dublin, and back firom Dublin (North Wall) via 
Holyhead or vice vend ; but at the time of booking they must elect in which direc- 
tion to make the circular tour. Passengers must travel between D ublin (North Wall) 
and Holyhead by the London and North- Western Company's Tidal Steamboats^ 
and between Belfast and Dublin by the Ulster, Dublinj and Belfast Junction, 
and Dubtin and Drogfaeda Eailways. 

The tickets issued for the North of Lreland Circular Tour enable holders to pro- 
ceed vi& Fleetwood to Belfast ; thence to Portrush, Londonderry, Enniskinen, 
Droffheda, and Dublin, retummg by the London and North- Western Company's 
I TidiQ Boats from North Wall to Holyhead ; or they can travel by these boats 
to Dublin on the outward journey, returning vid Belfiist and Fleetwood. The 
journey «an be broken at Portrush for the Gianf s Causeway ; from there tourists 
proceed to the maiden city of Londonderr^r, afterwards to Enniskillen, Immediatelv 
adjacent to the picturesque and romantic Lake Eme, which Mrs. S. C. HaU 
describes as not to be surpassed in Great Britain; by the steuner np Lake Eme 
and back ; from Enniskillen to Dundalk, Drogheda and Dublin. Passengers may 
stay also at Holyhead, Bangor, Conway, Abergele and Bhyl. The cost of the 
conveyance of passengers and luggage between the steamers and the railway 
stations at Belfast, and between t£e railway stations at Londondwry, is not in- 
cluded in the price of the Tourist Tickets. 

Passengers for the Western Highlands (Connemara Tour) travel vid Holyhead 
and Slingstown or North Wall, Dublin (according as they have taken tickets hy 
the Irish mail or by the tidal service)/and from Dublin by the Midland Great 
Western Railway either to Ghdway, or Westpcnrt, or Sligo ; and they can return by 
either route except the one taken on the outward journey, finding their own con- 
veyance between Sligo, and Ghdway, and Westport. The journey may be broken 
at Dublin, Mullingar, and Athlone. The tourist, on arrival at Gralway, can take 
the public car to Cliiden (49 miles), or he can take the steamer up to Lough' Conib 
(18 miles) to Cone, and next day take a car to Half-way House, and intercept tiie 
public car to Clifden ; thence by public car (40 miles) to Westport ; from Westp<Mrt 
per railway (cost included in through ticket) to Foxford; from Foxford by coach, 
which meets the train to Ballina (11 miles), or take a private car from Foxford 
and «) vid pontoon by Loughs Cullin, and Com, and Crosmolina, to Ballina, by 
which route the scenery is finest ; from Ballina per public car to Sligo (37 miles) ; 
from Sligo to Dublin per rail Private cars, carrying four passengers^ are obtain- 
able in all principal towns, from dd. to lOd. per mile. 



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TOURIST TICKETS. 177 

The Tourist Tickets issued vid Waterford, to Limerick enable the holders to 
proceed by the Great Western Railway to New Milford, the packet station for 
Watert'urd, and thence to Limerick. Here can be obtained Return Tickets 
to KilUrney, by the Great Soiithem and Western Railway of Ireland, available for 
one month, at moderate rates. Tourists can also reach Killarney from Limerick by 
way of Adare, Foynes, and Car on to Tarbert and Listowel, where they will find 
good accomodation at the Listowel Arms, an excellent Hotel, under the patronage 
of the Earl of Listowel ; thence by car to Traleo ; or Tourists can proceed from 
Foynes by Steamer to Kilrush, and by car thence to Kilkee, a beautiful watering 

?lace, abounding in some of the boldest headlands and coast scenery in Lreland. 
'he journey from London may be broken, either ^oing or returning, at Gloucester, 
Chepstow, Llanelly, Narberth Road, New Milfoid, Waterford, Clonmel, Cahir (tor 
Lismore and Blackwater) and Tipperary. 

Our limited space will not allow the insertion of the prices of Tickets fbr all the 
Tours enumerated above, but we subjoin those charged^for the trip to the Lakes of 
Killarney, &c. The Tourist is advised to obtain fiUl particulars as to the other 
routes from the Railway authorities. 

Tourists can have Irish Supplemental Tickets to certain places issued to them 
at cheap fares. These can be obtained at the offices of the Dublin and Drogheda 
Company, 4i3^ien8 Street, Dublin ; at the offices of the Midland Great Western 
Company, Broadstone, Dublin ; at each terminus of the Cork and Bandon Rail- 
way ; at the offices of the Irish North Western Company, Enniskillen ; and at the 
offices of the Dublin and Meath Railway (Broadstone Station) Dublin. For 
particulars as to the tours for which these tickets are issued apply to the Stations, 
&c., above named. 



PRICES OF TOURIST TICKETS TO LAKES OF KILLARNEY, Ac. 
• Vid Holyhead. 



From 

London (Euston or Paddington) 

Watford, Cambridge, Bletchley, Oxford, Bedford 

Northampton, Wellingboro', Market Harboro', Peterboro*, Stamford 

Rugby, Coventry, Lefunington, Warwick 

Leicester, Ludloir, Leominster, Herefoi'd, Cheltenham, Gloucester, Malvern, 

Worcester 

Bhrmhigham, Tamworth, Lichfield, Dudley, Dudley Port, Wednesbury, 

Walsall, Wolverhampton, Stafford!, , . 

Crewe 

Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Dewsbm'y, Normanton 

Chester, Stockport, Oldham, Birkenhead, Manchester, Warrington, Bolton, 

Wlgan, Preston 

Abergavenny, Pontypool Road, Newport, Cardiff 

Shrewsbury, Wellington, Oswestry 

Bath, Bristol 



1st 


2nd 


Class. 


Class. 


8. 


8. 


115 


95 


110 


90 


105 


85 


100 


80 


90 


77 


90 


75 


84 


70 


80 


67 


75 


63 


95 


80 


88 


74 


103 


87 



N 



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178 



T0UBI8T TICKETS. 



PRICES OF TOURIST TICKETS TO PORTRUSH, &c. 
Vid Fleetwood. 





1st 
Class. 


2nd 

Class. 


Ashton . . 
Bedford . 
Birmingham 
Bletchley . 
Bradford . 
Coventry . 
(^rewe . . 
Dewsbury . 
Dudley . . 
Halifax. . 
Hereford . 
Huddersfleld 
Lea tington 
Leeds . . 
Lichtiell . 
London (Eust 


on 


, 


s. d. 
48 3 
87 6 
62 6 
86 
56 

72 6 
53 6 
56 
62 6 

55 
76 
53 9 

73 

56 
62 ^ 
95 X 


s. d. 
89 9 
69 3 
53 6 
68 9 
46 3 

58 9 

44 3 
46 3 
53 

45 
61 3 
44 3 

59 9 

46 3 
53 6 
71 



Manchester . . 
M arket Harboro' 
Normanton 
Oldham . 
Oxford . . 
I'eterboro' . 
Kugby . . 
SiirewHbury 
Stafford . 
Staleybridge 
StiKskport . 
Tamworth . 
Wakefield . 
Wellington 
WelUiiglwro* 
Wolverhampton 



1st 
Class. 



s d. 

46 9 

76 9 

56 

48 3 

86 



48 3 

48 



2nd 
Class. 



8. d. 

38 9 
61 3 
46 3 

39 9 
69 3 
68 
61 8 
48 9 
50 
39* 9 
39 6 
53 6 
46 3 

50 
65 6 

51 9 



Note» — The second class fares include chief cabin fares in the steamers. 



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TABLES OF THROUGH- FARES. 



FABE8 TO DTTBUK. 

Vid Holyhead and Kingstown. ~Leng;th of sea jsassage, 3} hours. Length 
of journey from London, 11^ hours. Return tickets available for One Month after 
date of issue. The Irish mail trains )eave Euston station on week days at 7.15 a.m. 
and 8.25 p.m. The steamers in connection with them are due at Kingstown at 
5.50 p.m. and 7.5 a.m. On Sundays the ni^ht mail train only leaves Euston 
station at 8.25 p.m. ; but there is a train which leaves Crewe station at 11.20 
a.m., and the steamer in connection with it arrives at Kingstown at 6.5 p.m. 
The return mail steamers leave Kingstown at 6.46 a.m. and 7.15 p«m. (Dublin 
time), and the trains in connection with them are due at Euston station at 6.25 
p.m. and 6.45 a.m. (London time). On Sundays the train in connection with the 
steamer which 1 eaves Kingstown at 6.45 a.m. onl^ runs as far as Crewe, which station 
it reaches at 2.30 p.m. Passengers can arrive in London at 9.15 p.m. by a train 
which calls at Crewe at 5.5 p.m. The train in connection with the 7.15 p.m. 
steamer runs to Euston station as on week days. The follow in^ are the Through 
Pares by the Express Mail Service of the London and Ho&th Wcstebn 
Railway. 



To or from 


Single. 


Return. 


To or from 
DUBLIN 


Single. 


Return. 


DUBLIN 


1st 


2nd 


^Ist 


2nd 


1st 


2nd 


Ist 


2nd 


(Westland Row). 


Class. 


Class 


Class. 


Class. 


(Westland Bow). 


Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


Class 




8. 


d 


8. 


d. 


s.~ 


s. 


d. 


8. 


d. 


8. 


d. 


8. d. 


8. d 


Banbury . . . 


64 


8 


39 


9 


91 


67 





Lancaster. . . 


46 


3 


33 


6 


78 


56 6 


Bangor. . . . 


18 


2 


12 


6 


31 


21 


3 


Leamington . . 


49 


9 


36 


3 


83 6 


61 


Bedford . . . 


59 


6 


43 


9 


00 


73 


6 


Leeds . . . . 


46 


6 


34 





78 


57 


Bhkenheadfor) 
Liverpool . > 


34 





24 


6 


57 6 


41 


6 


Leicester . . . 


50 


3 


37 





84 6 


62 


Lewes .... 


72 


4 


53 


2 


118 9 


86 9 


Birmingham . . 


47 





34 


6 


79 


58 





Lincoln . . . 


54 


8 


40 





91 


67 


Blackbiirn. . . 


42 


6 


30 


9 


71 6 


52 





London . . . 


62 


6 


45 


6 


104 9 


76 3 


Bolton .... 


40 





29 


3 


67 6 


49 


6 


Macclesfield . . 


41 


6 


30 


6 


69 9 


51 3 


BriKhton . . . 


72 


6 


53 


3 


ll8 9 


86 


9 


Manchester . . 


40 


6 


29 


6 


68 


49 6 


Bristol .... 


62 


3 


45 


6 


104 3 


76 


3 


Newcastle . . . 


64 


3 


47 


3 


108 


79 6 


Burton. . . . 


45 





33 





75 6 


55 


6 


Northampton . 


66 


9 


40 


9 


95 6 


68 6 


Buxton. . . . 


43 


9 


31 


6 


73 6 


53 





Nottingham . . 


48 





35 


8 


81 3 


59 9 


Cambridge . . 


62 


6 


46 


6 


105 


78 





Oxford. . . . 


58 


6 


43 





98 


72 


CarUsle . . . 


60 


8 


48 


8 


lot 


72 


6 


Petorborough . 


56 


9 


42 





95 6 


70 6 


Carnarvon 


19 


8 


13 


3 


33 


22 


6 


Portsmouth . . 


70 


3 


61 


6 


125 6 


91 


Cheltenham . . 


55 


6 


40 


6 


93 


68 





Preston . . . 


42 





30 


6 


70 6 


51 6 


Chester . . . 


34 





24 


6 


67 6 


41 


6 


Reading . . . 


62 


6 


45 


6 


104 9 


76 3 


Chtohester . . 


76 


1 


55 


6 


125 9 


93 





Rugby . , . 


52 


6 


37 


6 


88 


63 


Coventry . , . 


49 


3 


85 


9 


83 


60 





Scarborough . . 


58 


9 


43 





98 6 


72 


Crewe .... 


37 


9 


27 


6 


63 6 


46 


6 


Sheffield . . . 


48 





35 





80 6 


59 


Dailington . . 


57 


3 


42 





96 


70 


6 


Shrewsbury . . 


42 





30 


9 


70 6 


52 


Derby .... 


46 





33 


9 


77 3 


56 


9 


SouthHiiipton . 


67 


8 


49 


6 


120 6 


88 


Dudley. . . . 


45 


6 


33 





76 6 


55 


6 


Stafford . . . 


12 





8ft 


6 


70 6 


51 « 


Durham , , , 


61 





45 





101 9 


75 





Stockport. . . 


10 


8 


29 





68 


49 


Edinburgh . . 


69 


6 


46 


a 


116 6 


77 


6 


Tamworth . . 


46 





33 


6 


77 6 


56 6 


Gla><gow . . . 


66 


6 


44 


6 


111 6 


74 


6 


Tunbridge WeU 


n 


6 


62 





118 9 


86 3 


Gloucester . . 


55 


6 


AO 


6 


93 


68 





Walsall . . . 


15 


6 


S3 





76 6 


55 6 


Guiliford . . . 


65 


6 


48 


e- 


114 6 


83 


6 


Warrington . . 


37 


3 


27 





63 


45 6 


Hastings . . . 


75 


6 


56 





125 9 


91 


9 


Wt dues bury. . 


45 


6 


83 





76 6 


55 6 


Hereord . . . 


52 


6 


38 


3 


88 


64 


6 


Wellington . . 


13 


3. 


81 


9 


73 


53 6 


Holywell . . . 
HuU 


26 


8 


18 


9 


44 6 


32 





Winchester . . 


65 


6 


48 





116 6 


85 


55 


3 


40 


9 


93 


68 


6 


Wolverhampton 


44 


6 


82 


6 


75 


:;4 6 


Jersey or Gmty. 


87 


6 


63 





122 6 


100 6| 


Worcester . . 


51 


6 


88 


3 


86 6 


64 8 


Kidderminster . 


48 


6 35 


6 


81 6 


59 


li 


York : . . . 


61 





87 


6 


65 6 


68 



Fxwn anuy StaUooi Single Tickett are issued at Cheaper BaUs bf the Ordlnary^Trains. 



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180 



TABLES OF THROUGH FABSff. 



FABE8 TO DUBinr 

Via Holthbao and Noetb Wall, Duilih.— Length of Sea Passage aboat 5| honn. 
Hngle Journey Tickets are available for tlie day of issae and foor following days, Sunday not 
counting. Return Tickets are available for one B^onth; that is, a Tlt^et taken on the 7Ui of a 
llonth to available for return-up to and including the 7tb of the following Month ; but the 
outward Journey must be completed, same as single journey tickets. "Die Journey can be 
broken at Holyhead or Chester. Tickets not available by Irish Mail or ^press TnUns. 
Two Steamers run every day, Sundays excepted. Passengers by the Day Service should 
leave London (i<:uston) at 6.15 a.m.; and the Steamer leaves Holyhead at 5.0 p.m. Tliose 
by the Night Boat, which starts ftom Holyhead at 1.30 p.m., should leave London not later 
than 5.0 p.m., but only 1st and'^d Class Passengers are booked by this Train. From Ire- 
land, by the livening Steamer Passengers proceed flrom Holyhead by 1.50 a.m. when in time, 
or by &0 a.QL Trains, arriving in liondon at 9.40 a.m., or tf.O p.m. respectively. 

Passengers by the Morning 15oat should leave Holyhead at 8.15 pjn., arriving in Lon- 
don at 5.60a.m. 



- 


Sbigle. 


Return. 


To or from 
DUBLIN, 








1 St Class 2ndClass| 


3rd Class 


1st Class 


2ndClas 


(North WaU). 


and 


and 


and 


and 


and 




Cabin. 


Cabin. 


Deck. 


Cabhi. 


CabhL 




s. d. 


s d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Ashton 


19 


17 3 


7 2 


31 9 


28 9 


Bhrkenhead . . . 


15 


12 6 


5 


25 


21 


Birmingham . . . 


28 


22 6 


11 3 


46 9 


87 6 


Bolton 


17 6 


16 3 


6 4 


29 3 


27 3 


Brighton .... 


56 


43 3 


23 8 


90 


69 6 


Cambridge. . . . 


41 6 


33 6 


18 6 


69 3^ 


56 


Chester 


15 


12 6 


6 


25 


21 


Coventry .... 


30 3 


23 9 


12 4 


50 6 


39 9 


Crewe 


18 9 


15 6 


6 9 


31 3 


26 


Edinburgh. . . . 


46 


32 6 


20 9 


77 


54 6 


OiiUdford .... 


49 6 


38 3 


21 


82 


63 6 


Halifax 


22 


19 6 


8 8 


36 9 


32 6 


Hastbigs .... 


60 6 


46 


24 9 


97 


74 6 


Holyhead .... 


6 


— 


2 6 


-_ 


__ 


Leamington . . . 


31 


24 3 


12 4 


51 9 


40 6 


Leeds 


. 24 


21 


9 8 


40 


36 


Leicester .... 


29 


24 


13 


48 6 


40 


Loudon (Eustou) . 


46 


35 6 


20 


76 


59 


Manchester . . . 


18 


16 6 


6 8 


30 


27 6 


Newcastle-on-Tyne . 


41 9 


34 3 


18 


69 9 


67 3 


Northampton ... 


35 8 


28 9 


15' 


58 9 


48 


Nottingham . . . 


28 


22 8 


11 6 


47 6 


38 6 


Oxford . . « . . 


39 6 


31 


16 7 


66 


51 9 


Portsmouth . . . 


56 3 


48 3 


23 9 


94 


72 


Preston 


18 


17 


6 4 


30 


28 6 


Reading 


44 1 


84 5 


18 10 


73 6 


57 6 


StiKwsbury . . . 


32 
23 3 


25 6 
18 10 


13 10 
9 


53 6 
38 6 


42 6 
31 6 


Southampton . . . 


53 3 


41 


22 6 


89 


69 


Stafford 


23 


18 6 


8 10 


38 6 


31 


Stockport .... 


18 


16 6 


6 8 


30 


27 6 


Tamworth .... 


27 


21 6 


10 9 


45 


36 


Warrington . . . 


15 9 


15 


5 6 


26 3 


25 


1 Wolverhampton . . 


25 6 


20 6 


10 


42 6 


34 3 



Digitized by VjOOQIC " 



Cables of xHBOuaH fares. 



181 



THROUGH FARES 
TO BAUWAY STATIOKS IN IBELAND BETOND DUBLIN. 

Vid HOLYHKAD AND KiNGSTOWN. 



To or from 



Armaf^h .... 
Athenry .... 
Ballinasloe . . . 
Ballybay .... 
Belfast .... 

Boyle 

Castlebar .... 
Castlerea. . . . 

Cavan 

Claremorria . . . 
ClcAunel .... 
CootehiU .... 
Cork . . . . • 
Dundalk .... 
Enniscorthy . . 
Eiiniskillen . . . 
Fermoy .... 
Galway .... 
Kilkenny. . . . 
KUlamcy. . . . 
Limerick .... 
Limerick Junction 
Londonderry . . 
Longford .... 
Mallow .... 
Mullingar . . . 
Newry .... 
Omagli .... 
Qiieenstown > . . 
Roscommon . . . 

Sligo 

Strabane .... 

Tralee 

Waterford. . . . 



LONDON. 

(EuHtoti Square). 



Single. 



1st 2nd 
Class. Class. 



9. 
B8 
82 
79 
65 
65 
82 
90 
83 
78 
87 
75 
65 
69 
65 
74 
68 
69 
84 
70 
84 
69 
65 
78 
76 
69 
71 
66 
68 
70 
79 
87 
78 
,88 
'76 



Retm'n. 



Ist 2nd 
Class. Class. 



s. d. 
114 9 

138 
13^ 3 
109 9 
109 3 
137 3 
150 6 

139 
130 6 
145 6 

126 6 
109 9 
116 6 
109 9 
119 6 
114 9 
116 6 
141 6 

118 
141 6 
116 6 
UO 
122 3 

127 9 
116 6 

119 6 
HI 6 
114 9 
118 
133 9 
145 6 
122 8 
148 
127 6 



s. d. 
81 
103 
9S 3 
78 6 
78 

100 9 
110 9 
102 

97 
107 9 

88 
78 6 
88 

78 6 
83 9 
88 6 
88 6 

105 6 
81 

101 
88 
81 
91 9 
94 6 
88 
88 6 

79 9 

88 6 

89 

98 9 
107 

91 9 

106 
88 



^BIRMINGHAM. 
(New Street). 



Single. 



1st 2nd 
Class. Class. 



s. d. 

53 6 
62 
58 6 
49 

54 

61 6 

69 6 

62 6 
i57 6 
66 6 
60 6 
49 
51 6 

49 
53 6 
53 6 

51 6 
64 

52 6 

70 6 
51 6 

50 6 

58 6 

55 9 

51 6 
50 9 
50 

53 6 

52 6 

59 3 
66 6 
58 6 
74 6 
68 



Retom. 



1st 
Class. 



s. d. 

89 9 
103 9 

98 
82 3 

90 6 

103 
116 3 

104 9 

96 3 
HI 3 
101 6 

82 3 
86 6 
82 3 
82 6 
89 9 
86 6 
107 3 

88 
IIH 

86 6 

85 

98 
93 6 

86 6 
85 3 
84 

89 9 
#80 

99 6 
111 3 

98 
125 

97 6 



2nd 
Class. 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 



TABLES OF THKOVGH FAEES, 



THROUGH FARES 

TO BAILWAT 8TATI0KS IH IBELAITD BETONB BTTBUN. 

Via Holyhead a»d Kinostowk. 



To or Irom 



Arraa);h . . . . 
Athenry . . . . 
Ballinasloe . . . 
BaUybay . . . . 

Belfast 

Boyle 

Castlebar. . . . 
Castlerea. . . . 

Cavan 

Claremorris . . . 
Clonmel . . . . 
Ck)otehUl . . . . 
CJork . , . . • 
Dundalk . . . . 
Ennlscorthy . . . 
EnniskUlen . . . 
Fermoy . . . . 
Galway . . . . 
Kilkenny. . . . 
KiUaraey. 7 . . 
Limerick . . . . 
Limerick Junction 
Londonderry . . 
Longford . . . . 
Mallow . . '. . 
Mullingar . . . 

Newry 

Omagh . . . . 
Qiieenstown . . . 
Roscommon . . . 

Sligo 

Strabane . . . . 

Tralee 

Waterford. . . . 



MANCHESTER. 



Single. 



1st 

Class. 



^nd 
Class. 



Return. 



1st 
Class. 



8. d 

69 0* 

93 

87 3 
69 
69 
92 3 

105 6 

94 
85 6 

9 t 100 6 
89 
69 
89 
69 
72 6 
69 
89 
96 6 
85 
IQI 6 
89 
89 
71 6 
82 9 

89 
74 6 
69 
69 

90 6 

88 9 
100 6 

71 6 
108 

89 



2nd 
Class. 



CHESTER or 
BIRKENHEAD. 



Single. 



1st 
Class. 



2nd 
Class. 



Retom. 



1st 
Class. 



59 9 
103 
84 



2nd 
Class. 



41 6 
41 9 



61 3 
56 3 
67 



62 
41 
67 

41 6 

46 3 

47 9 
67 6 

64 9 
54 6 
76 6 

65 6 



60 

51 

53 

67 6 

47 

41 

47 

63 

59 



6 

66 3i 

51 






Digitized by VjOOQIC • 



TABLES OF THROUGH FARES. 



183 



FABE8 BY THE GEEAT WESTERN BAILWAY, 
The London Terminus of which is Paddington Station. 





Single.* 


Return. 










DUBLIN 


l8t 


2nd 


I8t> 


2nd 




Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


(Westland Row.) 










8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


Banbubt 


49 6 


36 6 


91 


67 


Bath 


68 
42 


42 9 

31 


105 6 
79 


77 6 

58 


BlBMINOBAH 


Cheltenham 


50 6 


37 


93 


68 


Chippenham 


59 3 


43 


108 


78 


DOBCHESTER 


70 


52 


125 6 


93 


Gloccestee 


50 6 


37 


93 


68 


Hebefoed 


47 6 


34 9 


88 


64 6 


Leamington 


45 


32 9 


83 6 


61 


Leominst^ 


45 


32 9 


64 


61 


London 


62 6 


45 6 


-104 9 


76 8 


Ludlow 


42 9 


31 3 


80 6 


58 6 


OXFOBD 


53 6 


39 6 


98 


72 


Reading 


58 1 


42 11 


104 9 


76 3 


Shbewsbobt 


87 


27 3 


70 6 


52 


Wabwick 


45 


32 9 


83 6 


61 


Wellington (Shropshire) . 


38 3 


9S 6 


73 


53 6 


Weymouth 


71 6 


52 6 


128 


94 


Windsor 


60 


44 


106 


77 


Wolverhampton . . , . 


89 6 


29 


75 


64 6 



•These are the prices cjiarged for th© Ordinary Trains; the Fares by tlftj Express 
Trains are rather higher. 

THROUGH FABES TO OB FBOM COBK. 

FtAHoLYHEAD AND KiNosTOWN. — Sea possage, 3} hours. Length of journey 



from London, 19 hours. Return tickets available for One Month from date of issue. 



London . . , . . 
Birmingham .... 
Manchbkteb . . . 
Chkstbb, or 1 
Birkbnubad / ' ' 


Stogie. .- 


Return. 


1st 

Class. 


2nd 
Class. 


1st 

Class* 


2nd 

Class. 


s. d. 
69 6 
51 6 
53 

50 


8. d. 
52 3 
40 3 
43 

40 


8. d. 
116 6 
86 6 
89 

84 


8. d. 
84 
68 
72 6 

67 6 



Vid Bristol.— Sea passage, 18 hours, by the finest steamers that ply between 
England and Ireland, except those between Holyhead and Kingstown. Length of 
journey from London, 21 hours. Return tickets available for one month. The 
steamers leave Bristol on every Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday afternoon, and 
Cork on every Monday, Tuesday, and Friday, according to tide. The Fares fro;n 
Bristol are: — Cabin, 2l8. ; Servants and Children (under 12), lis. 6d. (including 
steward's fees) ; Deck, lOs. 6d.; Rbtubk: Cabin, 31s. 6d. Fares from London 
(Paddington) :— Cabin and Ist Class, 388. ; Cabin and 2nd Class, 34s. ; Deck and 
3rd Class, 16s. Bbtvbit: Cabin and Ist Class, 57s. ; Gabim and 2od Class, ftls. 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 



TABLES OP THROUGH f AR£S* 



IHB0H6H FABES TO THE SOTTEH OF ntELAKO. 

Vid MiLFORD and "Waterford. 

Sea passage, 8 hours. Length of journey from London to Waterford, 20 hours. 
The steamers sail from NewMilford every night, except Sunday, at 1.50 a.m., and 
from Waterford every afternoon, excq>t Sunday, at 4.0 p.m. 





SINGLE. 


RETURN. 


PADDUfOTOW, OXfOM), AJCD RBADING 

to 

Waterfom) 

Limerick ...... 

iClLKENNT . , 


l8t 

Claw. 


2nd 
Class. 


Ist 
Class. 


2ud ' 
Class. 


8. d. 
46 
66 4 
62 4 


8. d. 
35 6 
43 4 
40 


s. d. 
76 
90 
^2 9 


R. d 
59 
70 6 
65 9 


Cheltenham and Gloucesteb 
to 

Watebfoed 

LlUEBICK 

. Kilkenny . . . 


1st 
Class. 


2nd 
Class. 


1st 
Class. 


2nd 
Class. 


8. d. 
35 
45 6 
40 6 


8. d. 
28 
35 4 
32 4 


8. d. 
58 6 
68 8 
60 9 


s. d. 
46 9 
53 
48 6 


Newpobt and Cabdiff 
to 

"Watebfoed 

Limerick 

Kilkenny 

MlUrOBD to WATEBFOiO) . 


1st 
Class. 


2nd 
Class. 


1st 
Class. 


2nd 
Class. 


8. d. 
28 
38 6 
33 6 

12 6 


8. d 
21 
28 4 
25 4 

7 6 


8. d. 
46 9 
57 9 
60 3 

18 9 


8. d. 
85 
42 6 

as 



The second class through fares include chief cabin fares in the Bteamers. Single 
Tickets are available^ for hvedays (including day of issue), and Beturn Tickets for 
on month ; and Passengers have the privilege of breaking their journey at certain 
places. 

THBOHCfH FABES TO OE FROM BELFAST. 

Vid Holyhead.— Sea passajre. 3| hours. Length of journey from London, 
17 hours. Return tickets available for On* Month after date' of issue. 





Single. 


Return. 


1st 


2Dd 


1st 


2nd 




Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


Class. 




8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


London 


65 6 


46 


109 3 


78 


Birmingham .... 


54 


41 9 


90 6 


70 3 


Manchester .... 


41 


80 


69 


50 6^ 


Birkenhead .... 


34 


24 9 


57 6 


41 9 


Chester 


34 


24 9 


57 6 


41 9 



Via Fleetwood. — Sea passage, about 12 hours. Length of journey from 
London, about 20 hours. Return tickets available for 1 month after date of issue. 
The steamers leave Fleetwood every evening (except Sunday) at 7.30 for Belfast, 
and they start every evening (except Sunday) at 7.30 from iTelfast for Fleetwood. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Cables of througiI f*ARES, 



185 



Vid Fleetwood to and from Belfast, 



Between 


Single. 


Retuni. 


^tweciii 


Shigle. 


Return. 


1st 


2nd 


IstCL|2ndCL 


1st 


2nd 


1st CI. 


2ndCL 


BELFAST 
and 


Class. 


Class. 


ASaln. 


ASaln. 


BELFAS 

and 
ijeominster . . 


Class. 


Class. 


ifeSaln 


&Sahi. 


B. 


d. 


s. 


d. 


8. 


d. 


8. 


d. 


s. 


d. 


s. 


d- 


8. 


d 


8. d. 


Abergavenny . 


38 


3 


31 


8 


63 


9 


52 


3 


30 


9 


26 


3 


51 


3* 


43 9 


Accrington . . 


18 


6 


17 


6 


31 





23 


3 


Lincoln . . . 


35 


9 


29 





59 


9 


48 6 


Ashton-un.-Lyne 


19 





17 


3 31 


9 


23 


9 


Liv.rpool . . 


16 





14 





24 





21 


Aylesbury . . . 


43 


3 


35 





72 


3 


68 


6 


London . . . 


45 





35 





75 





58 6 


Banisley . . . 


25 





21 


6 


41 


9 


36 





Do., via L'pooL 




. 




_ 


80 


6 


63 


Barton . . . . 


32 


3 


27 


6 


53 


9 


46 





Ludlow . . . 


28 


6 


24 


9 


47 


6 


41 3 


H:.th . . . . . 


44 





36 


3 


73 


6 


60 


6 


Luton .... 


42 


b 


3i 


6 


71 





67 6 


Bedford . . . 


40 


6 


3^ 





«7 


6 


55 





M'lichester . 


18 





16 


6 


27 


3 


25 9 


Birmingham . . 


28 





24 


6 


46 


9 


41 





Market Harbro'. 


34 





28 


3 


56 


9 


47 8 


Blackburn. . . 


18 





16 


8 


30 





28 





Mertliyr . . . 


42 


9 


34 


9 


71 


3 


58 3 


Bolton . . . . 


17 


6 


16 


3 


29 


3 


27 


3 


Newark . . . 


32 


9 


28 





51 


9 


46 9 


Bradford . . . 


23 


6 


20 


9 


89 


3 


31 


9 


Newcastle on^T. 


33 


6 


30 





63 





50 


Brecon . . . 


39 


3 


32 


3 


65 


6 


53 


9 


Newport, Mon. 


42 





33 


9 


70 





56 3 


Bristol . .. . . 


44 





3o 





78 


6 


58 


6 


Normanton . . 


23 


6 


21 





39 


3 


35 


Burnley . . . 


20 





18 


6 


33 


6 


31 





Northampton . 


37 


6 


30 


9 


62 


6 


61 3 


Burslem . . . 


22 





19 


6 


33 


9 


32 


6 


Nottfaigham . . 


29 


6 


23 


9 


49 


3 


43 


Burton . . . . 


27 


6 


24 


6 


46 





41 





Nuneaton . . 


31 





26 





51 


9 


43 6 


Bury . . . . 


18 


6 


17 





31 





28 


6 


Oldliam . . . 


19 


3 


17 


6 


32 


3 


29 8 


Buxton . . . 


22 





19 


9 


36 


9 


.•i3 





Oxford. . . . 


39 


6 


33 





66 





55 


Cambridge . . 


44 


6 


33 


6 


74 


3 


6t 





Penrith . . . 


23 





16 





38 


6 


26 9 


Cardiff. . . . 


4J 





35 


9 


71 


9 


59 


9 


Peterborough . 


3S 


a 


32 


3 


63 


9 


53 9 


Carlisle. . . . 


23 





16 





38 


6 


26 


9 


Preston . . . 


15 


9 


14 





26 


3 


23 6 


CHrmarthen . . 


43 





35 


9 


71 


9 


59 


9 


Retford . . . 


30 


3 


25 


6 


50 


6 


42 6 


Oielteniiam . . 


36 


6 


30 


6 


61 





51 





Rochdale . . . 


19 


6 


17 


6 


32 


6 


29 3 


Chester. . . . 


15 


9 


15 





26 


3 


25 





Rugby .... 


34 





28 


3 


5.J 


9 


47 3 


Colne . . . 


21 





19 





35 





31 


9 


Kui<Kiey . . . 


26 





23 





43 


6 


38 6 


Coventry . . . 


31 


6 


26 


9 


62 


6 


4^ 


9 


Scarborough 


35 


6 


80 





59 


3 


50 


Crewe . . . . 


20 





IS 





33 


6 


30 





Sheffield . . . 


25 





21 


6 


41 


^ 


36 


Darlington . . 


30 


3 


25 





50 


6 


4t 


9 


Shields, N. & S. 


34 


3 


30 


6 


67 


6 


61 


Derby . . . . 


27 


6 


24 


6 


46 





41 





Shrewsbury . . 


23 





20 


9 


3:1 


6 


34 9 


Doncaster . . . 


23 





24 





4ii 


9 


40 





Stafford . 


24 


6 


21 


6 


4t 





36 


Dudley . . . . 


26 


9 


23 





44 


9 


33 


9 


Staleyb.idge . 


19 


3 


17 


6 


32 


3 


29 3 


Dunstable . . .^ 


42 


6 


34 


6 


71 





57 


6 


Stamford . . . 


37 





31 


6 


62 


6 


52 6 


DiirhaiQ . . .' 


32 


6 


27 


6 


54 


3 


45 





Stockton . . . 


32 


3 


26 


3 


53 


9 


43 9 


Gainsborough . 


81 


9 


26 


9 


53 





44 


9 


Stoke-on-Trent . 


22 


6 


20 





37 


6 


33 6 


Gloucester . . 


36 


6 


30 


6 


61 





51 





Stourbridge . . 


27 


6 


24 





46 





40 


Goole . . . . 


2i 





24 


6 


46 


9 


41 





Sunderland . . 


35 





31 





53 


6 51 9l 


Great Grimsby . 


32 


3 


27 


6 


53 


9 


46 





Swansea. . . 


43 


6 


36 





72 


6 


60 


Halifax. . . . 


22 


6 


20 


6 


37 


6 


34 


3 


Tamworth . . 


28 





24 


6 


46 


9 


41 


Harrowgate . . 


26 


9 


23 


6 


44 


9 


39 


3 


ThonihiU . . . 


23 


6 


20 


6 


39 


3 


34 3 


Hartlepool, W. . 


34 


8 


27 


9 


67 


3 


46 


3 


Wakefield . . 


23 


6 


21 





39 


8 


35 


Hereford . . . 


33 


6 


28 


9 


56 





47 


3 


Walsall . . . 


26 


6 


23 





44 


3 


38 6 


HItchin 


43 





35 





71 


9 


58 


6 


Warrington . . 
Wednesbury . 
Wemngbro\ . 


15 


9 


15 





26 


3 


25 


Huddersfleld. . 


22 


3 


19 


9 


37 


3 


33 





26 


6 


23 





41 


3 


38 6 


Hull. . . . . 


32 


3 


27 


6 


53 


9 


46 





37 


3 


30 


9 


62 


3 


61 8 


Kendal. . ; 


20 





14 


6 


33 


6 


24 


3 


Whitby . • . 


38 





31 


9 


63 


6 


58 


Kidderminster [ 


29 


6 


25 


€ 


49 


3 


42 


6 


Wigan. . 


15 


9 


14 





26 


8 


23 6 


Lancaster . . 


16 





14 


3 


26 


9 


23 


9 


Wolverhampton 


25 


6 


22 


6 


42 


6 


37 6 


Leamington . 


31 


9 


27 


3 


63 





45 


6 


Worcester . . 


32 


6 


28 


3 


54 


3 


47 3 


Leeds ... * 


23 


6 


21 





39 


3 


35 





Worksop . . . 


28 


9 


24 


6 


48 





41 


Leicester . . ' 


31 





26 





51 


9 


43 


'_ 


York .... 


28 


0- 


24 


6 


46 


9 


41 



Digitized by 



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ISd 



TABLES OF THBOUOH FARES. 



To or from Belfast — cjntinued. 

Vid LiTERpoou—Sea passage, about 13 hours. Length of journ6y from 
London, about 21 hours. Return tickets available for one month after date of 
issue. The Belfast Steam Ship Company's Steamers now sail every evening 
(Sundays excepted) between Liverpool and Belfast, according to tide. 





Single. 


Return. 




Shigle. 


Return. 




1st 


2nd 


1st 


2nd 


1st 


2nd 


1st 


2nd 




Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


Class. 




Class. 


Chiss. 


Class. 


Class. 




8. d. 


^. d. 


s. d. 


s. 


d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Bamsley . . . 


26 


21 6 


41 9 


36 





London . . . 


45 


35 


75 


58 6 


Basingstoke . . . 


47 


38 6 


78 6 


64 


6 


Manchester. . 


18 


16 6 


30 


27 6 


Binningham, . . 


28 


24 6 


46 9 


41 





Nottingham . 


29 6 


25 9 


49 3 


43 


Bolton . . . . 


17 6 


16 3 


29 3 


27 


3 


Oxford . . . 


39 6 


33 


66 


55 


Bristol . . . 


44 


35 


73 6 


58 


6 


Peterborough . 


38 3 


32 3 


63 9 


53 9 


Chester .... 


15 3 


14 9 


25 6 


24 


9 


Preston . . . 


15 9 


14 


26 3 


23 6 


Crewe 


20 


18 


33 6 


30 





Sheffield. . . 


25 


21 6 


41 


36 


DoncRster . . . 


28 


24 


46 9 


40 





Shrewsbury. . 


23 


20 9 


38 6 


34 9 


Gainsborough . . 


31 9 


26 9 


53 


44 


9 


Stafford . . . 


24 6 


21 6 


41 9 


36 


GloucRHter . . . 


36 6 


30 6 


61 


51 





Stamford . . 


37 6 


31 6 


62 6 


52 6 


Grimsby .... 


33 


28 6 


65 


47 


6 


Warrington . 


15 9 


15 


26 3 


25 


lliidderHfield . . 


22 3 


19 9 


37 3 


33 





Wigan . . . 


15 9 


14 


26 3 


23 6 


Hun 


33 


28 6 


65 


47 


6 


Wolverhamptn 


25 6 


22 6 


42 6 


,37 6 


Leeds 


23 6 


21 


39 3 


35 





Worcester . . 


32 6 


28 3 


64 3 


47 3 


Lincola . . . . 


35 9 


29 


59 9 


48 


6 


Yorlc . . . 


28 9 


25 


48 


42 



Passengers also booked through to and from the following stations on the Ulster, 
Northern Counties, and other Irish railways and Liverpool. 





Shigle. 


Return. 




Shigle. 


Return. 




1st 


2nd 


1st 


2nd 


Ist 


2nd 


Ist 


2nd 




Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


Class. 




Class. 


Class. 


Class. 


CUss. 




8. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


Antrim . . . 


16 8 


14 11 


23 6 


22 5 


Londonderry . 


20 


16 6 


30 


25 6 


Armagh . . . 


18 6 


17 


27 9 


25 6 


Lurgan . . . 


15 10 


15 
17 6 


23 9 


22 9 


Ballyraena . . 


18 4 


16 6 


2T 6 


24 9 


Magherafdt . . 


19 3 


28 11 


26 3 


Ballymoney . . 


20 


16 6 


30 


25 6 


Monaghan . . 


21 3 


19 2 


31 9 


29 3 


CloiieM .... 


21 9 


19 6 


31 9 


27 9 


omnxh. . . . 


22 


20 


33 


30 


Coleraine . . . 


20 


16 6 


30 


25 6 


Portadown . . 


16 10 


15 9 


25 3 


23 9 


Cookstown . . 


20 11 


18 10 


31 5 


28 3 


Portrush . 


20 


16 6 


30 


26 


Dungannon . . 


19 2 17 6 


28 9 


26 11 


'Randalstown . 


16 10 


15 9 


25 3 


23 6 



The above second class through fares include chief cabin fares in the steamers. 
Passengers booked through from English to Lrish Stations must complete their 
journey on the day of theur arrival in Belfast ; and those from Irish to English 
stations must proceed by the steamer from Belfast on the same day. 



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TABLES Of TBttOCGH rAtt£8. 



187 



To or from Belfast—continued. 



Vid BA.BROW.— Through booking takes place to and from the stations of the 
Midland Railway Company of England and Belfast, vid Barrow-in-Furnesf, 
The steamers leave for Belfast after^rrival of the London train due at 7.10 p.m., ] 
and Belfast for Barrow every evening at 7.30 p.m., Sundays excepted. Passage 
about 10 hours. Return tickets are available for One Month. Passengers booked 
through between Belfast and London and ,other stations south of Leicester may 
break the journey at Furness Abbey, Leeds, Derby, Trent, or Leicester ; and pas- 
Benders to or from stations west of Derby, at Furness Abbey, Leeds, or Derby, 
takmg care that they proceed from those stations by Midland trains. At Barrow, 
passengers* luggage is transferred to and from the steamers free of charge. The 
second class fares include first class in the steamers. All the stewards' fees are 
included in the above through rates. 









Shigle. 








Single. 


To or From 


Ist 


2nd 


To or From 


1st 


2nd 


BELFASr 
and 


Class. 


Class. 


BELFAST 
and 


Class. 


Class. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


"T" d 


8. d. 


Barnsley . . . 


25 


21 6 


Lynn ... 


45 3 


37 6 


Bath . 






44 


36 8 


Market Harboro' . 




84 


28 3 


Bedfordl 






40 6 


33 


Melton . 




83 9 


23 


Blqgley . 






28 2 


20 3 


Newark . 






32 9 


28. 


Blrminghani . 






28 


24 6 


Newcastle 






83 6 


30 


Bradford 






23 6 


20 9 


Normanton . 






S3 6 


21 


Bristol . 






44 


35 


Northampton 






37 6 


30 9 


Burton . 






27 6 


24 6 


Nottingham . 






29 6 


25 9 


Cheltenham 






38 6 


30 6 


Nuneaton 






31 


26 


Chesterfield 






27 6 


23 9 


Oakenshaw . 






23 6 


21 


Colne . 






21 


19 


Oakham 






35 9 


29 9 


Darlington 






80 3 


25 


Peierborough 






38 8 


82 8 


Derby . 






27 6 


24 6 


Rugby . 






34 


28 8 


Durham 






32 6 


27 


Scarborough . 






85 6 


80 


Gloucester 






36 6 


80 6 


Sheffield 






25 


21 6 


(ireat Mnlvei 


•n 




33 6 


28 3 


Shields . 






34 3 


80 6 


Harrogate 






26 9 


23 6 


Shipley . 






23 6 


20 6 


Hitchin 






43 


35 


Skipton . 






21 


18 6 


Holbeck . 






23 6 


21 


Stamford 






87 6 


81 6 


HuU 






32 3 


27 6 


Stockton 






82 1 


26 3 


Keighley 






22 8 


19 9 


Sunderland 






85 


81 


Kettering 






86 


29 9 


Tamworth 






28 


24 6 


Ix>eds . 






23 6 


21 


Wellfaigboro* 






87 3 


30 9 


Leicester 






81 


28 


W. Hartlepoo 




^ 


34 3, 


27 9 


Liacohi . 






85 9 


29 


Whitby . 






88 


31 9 


London (St. Fancras) . 


45 


35 


Worcester 






32 6 


28 8 


Luton . 


42 6 


84 6 


York . . . ; 


28 


24 6 



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J 



isS 



THROUGH COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN GLASGOW 

AND IRELAND. 

Vid Belfast. 

There are two lines of staara communication between Glasgow and Belfast. 
The first consists of the Royal Mail steamers, which leave Glasgow every day, ' 
except Sunday, at 5.0 p.m., and Greenock at 9.0 p.m., on the arrivfu of the 8.0 p.m. 
train from Glasgow and Paisley. 

FARES BY THE ROYAL MAIL LINE. 



From Glasgow to 

Belfast .... 
Dublin ....*' 
Londonderry or Portrush ' 


First Class. 


Single. 


Return. 


s. d. 

12 6 
25 
20 


s. d. 
20 
40 
30 



iVbto.^-Portrash is the nearest station to the Giant*s Causeway. - 

The above fares include stewards* fees on board tiie steamers, but not the cost of 
conveying passengers and their lug^ge between the steam-boats and the railway 
stations at Belfast. Return tickets are available for One Month. The passage 
from Greenock to Belfast occupies about 8 hours. Passengers can start by the 7.0 
a.m. train for Dublin and arrive there at 11 a.m. The train for Londonderry and 
Portrush leaves Belfast at 6.15 a.m., arriving at Portrush at 9.0 a.m., and at 
Londonderry at 10.5 a,m. Return steamers leave Belfast at 8.0 p.m. every day, 
except Sunday, and, arrive at Glasgow about 4.0 a.m. 

The second steam communication between Glasgow and Belfast is m4 Ardrossan. 
Steamers sail on each Tuesday,;Thur8day, and Saturday evening from Ardrossan 
after arrival of 8.40 p.m. train from Glasg-dw ; and from Belfast on each Monday, 
Wednesd ly, and Friday at 7.30 p.m. Passengers reach Glasgow at 8.30 a.m. 
Return tickets are available for One Month. 

* THROUGH PARES. 



Between 
BELFAST 


Single.' 

Ist 
Class. 


Return. 

1st 
Class. 


Between 

BELFAST 

and 

Glasgow . . 
Kilmarnock . . 
Johnston . . . 
NwcaUe^n-Tyne 
Paisley .... 


Single. 

Ist 
Class. 


Retnra. 

Ist 
Class. 


and 

Annan . . 
ArdroBsan . 
Ayr . . . 




s. d. 
18 
8 
10 
18 
18 


B. d. 
27 
12 
16 
90 
27 


8. d. 
10 
10 
10 
SO 9 
10 


s. d. 
16 
16 
16 
46 2 
16 


Carlisle . . . 
Dumfries 





There are also direct steamers from Glasgow to Cork every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday; to Dublin daily ^(Saturdays and Sundays excepted) ; to Londonderry 
everj Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday ; to Newry (via Ardrossan), 
every Monday; to Fortrush, on Mondays and Thursdays ; to Sligo, every Satur- 
day ; and to Waterford, every Monday, Wednesday, anil Friday. 



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189 



INDEX. 



A 

Adare, castle and three abbeys at 110 
Aghadoe, ruins and round tower of 103 
Agnew*8 hill, neai Lame, view from 169 
Alien, hiU of, site ^f Fingal*s hail 39 
Altadore, admired domain of . . 21 
Ardmore and its aiitiquties . . 63 
Ardtermon castle,* ruins of . . 173 
Arklow, town and castle of . . 26 
Armagh and its cathedral . . 170 
Arranmore, ruins on the island of 124 
Athenry, Dominican abbey It . 119 
Athlone, town and castle of . . 115 
-Athlumnev- church via castle . 145 
Ayoca, vale of, meet'ug of the waters 26 

B 
Balbriggan, and it« factories . . 142 
Baldangan castle an 1 church . 141 
Ballinasloe, town of , . . .119 
Ballykisteen, seat of Lord Derby 43 
Ballynakill bay, coast of Gal way 130 
Ballysadare, ruined abbey of . 174 
Bandon, town and environs of . 83 

Bank of Ireland 7 

Bantry, town and bay ... 84 
Bealanbrack river k Lough Corrib 135 
Belfast, trade andmanufoctures of 151 
Bellevue, seat of Mr. La Touche '18 
Belmonet castle, near Crook^town . 87 
Belvedu*e, Lord Lanesborough's seat 119 
Biancon, Mr. Charles, notice of . 76 
Black castle, near Wicklow . . 22 
Black Tom's castle, near Arklpw . 26 
Blackrock castle, on the Lee . . 55 
Blackwater, excursion up the . 64 
Blarney, its stone, groves, k castle 53 
Bloody pass, storv of the . . 165 
Boa island. Lough £me . . 168 
Bog of Allen, and the Hill . . 40 
Boyle's bridge, over the river Lee 88 
Bray Head, prospect from . . 18 
Bray, vUiage of, Wicklow . . 12 
Brian Borirs harp, Trini^ College 7 
Bntteyant, ancient remains at , 44 



PAOS 

C 

Cahir castle, seat of Lord Glengall 76 
Cahirciveen, birthplace of O'Connell 107 
Cairns hill, view of Lough Gill from 172 
Cappoqutn, seat of SirR. Keane . 1B5 
Carbury hill, ancient remains at . 119 
Carlingford bay, scenery of . . 148 
Carlow, town and castle of . . 73 
Carran Tual, ascent of . . . 104 
Carrickarede, rude plank bridge at 15^ 
Carrickfergus, town and castle of 159 
Carrick-on-Suir, town and castle of 73 
Carrigmore, seat of Lord Norbury 84 
Carton, seat of the Duke of Leinster 39 
Cfl^hel, and its antiquities . . 43 
Castle Bernard, seat of Lord Bandon 83 
„ Connell ruins and rapids . 112 
„ Howard, seat of Mr. Brooke 24 
„ Mary, seat of Mr. Longtield 60 
„ Masters, seat of Mr. Fyne 88 
Castlemartyr, seat of Lord Shannon 61 
Castlemore castle, near Crookstown 87 
Celbridge abbey, seat c f Mr. Grattan, 

and burial place of Vanessa . 39 
Charleville, s^t of Lord Monck . 15 
„ forest and castle . . 40 
Chester, quaint old buildings in . 3 
Claddagh, Galway, fishermen of the 122 
Clady, bridge and ancient church of 145 
Clare-Galway castle and abbey . 138 
Clashmore, seat of Lord Huntingdon (j5 
Clew Bay, and its islands . . 135 
Clifden castle, Connemara « . 130 
Cloncurry, tumulus and church at 118 
Clones, abbey and round tower at 169 
Clondalkin, round tower at . . 39 
Clonmacnoise, ruins near Athlone 114 
Clonmel, ruins and reminiscences of 73 
Clontarf, historical associations of 9 
Clo^-ne, it! caves and ruins . . 60 
Coleraine, and its salmon leap . 160 
CoUooney, cascade at . • . ^74 
Conadrumna^ church and castle of 88 
Confey castle^ ruins of,^ear Dublin 117 



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190 



ZHDBX 



PAGE 

Con J abbey, and its vicinitv . . 136 
Connemara and the wild West . 128 
Cork, and the scenery ot the Lee . ^o 
„ its public buildings . . 5 
„ reminiscences of . . .51 
Coolattfa, seat of Earl Fitzwilliam 26 
Coon cave, and the Giant's Organ 154 
Croghau Kinshela gold mine . 26 
Cromwell's bridge, near Glengariff 90 
Crom castle, seat of Lord Erne . 169 
Cypresses at Hollvbrook, Wicklow 17 

Dargle, the, and the Loverjs Leap 15 
Delacour villa, seat of Mr/Beamish 87 
Delgany, hamlet of .... 18 
Derrycunnihy cascade, Killarney 103 
Derrydonnel castle, ruins of . . 120 
Dferrvnane, seat of the O'Connells 107 
Devil's Bit mountains, iTipperary 43 
„ Glen, and the View, Rock . 22 
„ Punch-bowl, Mangerton . 105 
Devinishi^and, ruins on . . l67 
Dingle bay, view of . . . . 107 
Donaghmore, round tower of . 142 
Drogheda, antiquities of. . . 142 
Dromahaire, drive to, from Sligo 172 
Dromana castle, seat of Lord Stuart 

de Decies, once of the Desmonds 65 
Drumcarragh castle, and O'Leary 88 
Drumcliff, round tower & crosses at 173 
Dublin, publi^buildings of . . 6 
„ manufactures of . . . 8 
f, population and statistics . 5 
Dunbrody abbe^, remains of . . 73 
Dunda]k,.histoncal notices of . 147 
Dundaniel castle, ruins of . .82 
Dundrum, seat of Lord Hawarden 43 
Dunloe, Gap o^ Killarney . . 93 
Dunlilce castle, near the Causeway 153 

E 
Eagle's Nest glen, Killarney . « 95 
Edgeworthstown, & the EdgewortJis 119 
Emo park. Lord Portarlington's seat 42 
Enniskerry, romantic village of . 33 
Enniskillen and Lough Erne . 164 
Erne, river and lough '. . . 165 
„ Lord, genealogy of . .165 
M rapids of the . . . . 165 
Ess fall, Glenmalure ... ^9 
Extinct deer of Ireland, skeletons of 7 

F 
Fair Head, basaltic cliffs of . . 157 
Fairy Water, and Mountjoy forest 164 
Faughan, valley of the . . .163 
Famioy, town and vicinity 'of . 68 
FlWence court and the Iri&h yew 165 
FourCourto Dublin. ... 7 



PAOB 

Foynes, excursion to, from Limerick 110 

G 
Galway, historical notices of . 120 
„ old houses in . . . . 121 
Garron Point, view from . . . 159 
Geology of the Causeway district 156 
Giant's Causeway, and Coon Cave 154 
Glanworth, Drufdical altar at . 69 
Glena bay, lower lake of Killarney 99 
Gleoacappul, or "glen of the horse" 195 
Glenarm, and hill of Nachore . 159 
Glenart castle, seat of Lord Carysfort 26 
Glendalou^h^ the Seven Churches 30 
Glendun, viaduct and valley of . 157 
Glengariflr,or the Rocky Glen,bay of 92 
Glenmalure, and the Ess ^all . 29 
Glen of Aherlow, Galtee mountains 79 
„ „ Car, and its lake . . 173 

„ „ Dunran 21 

,. „ the Downs, Wicklow county 18 
Gold and copper mioses of Wicklow 26 
Gormanstown castle .... 142 
Gougane Barra, source oT the'Lee 90 
Grianan, hill of, and ancient fort 162 

H 
Hare Island, Lough Ree . . . 115 
Hazlewood, seat of Mr. Wynne . 171 
HoUybrook, and Robin Adair . 17 
Holycross abbey, near Thurles . 43 
Howth, objects ot interest around 10 
Hungry hul waterfelL Glengariff 84 

Imokilly, cas tie and rath at . . 61 
Inchieeela, village and lakes of • 87 
Innisfallen island, Killame^p' . . 97 
Innls^hoU, ecclesiastical ruins on 135 
Inniskeen, round tower and cross at 148 
Inismurray, ancient remains at- . 173 
Inishowen head and Green castle 160 
Ireland's Eye, Howth harbour . 10 

J 
Jerpoint abbey, near Waterford . 73 
Julianstown, scei^e of a battle , 142 

K 
Kanturk, and its castle ... 45 
Keimaneigh, pass of, near Gougane 89 
Kells, ruins of the abbey of . . 145 
Kenmare, town and bay of . . 92 
Kilballyowen monastery, ruins of 111 
Kilcolman castle, and Spenser . 44 
Kilconnel, Franciscan monastery at 119 
Kildare, round tower and cathedral 40 
Kilfinane, castle and rath at . . 44 
Kilkee, rath and cave at . . • 111 
Kilkenny, public buildinffs of . 78 
Killadoon, seat of the Earlof Leitrim 3D 
KUlaloe, antiquities of . . 1X8 



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191 



PAGE 

Killamey, approach to the town of 92 
t, directions fbr visiting . 93 
„ scenery around . .' 95 
Killery Bay, coast of Galway . 133 
Kilmainham hospital for veterans 39 
Eilmallock, archseological notices of 44 
Kilruddery, seat of Lord Meatii . 18 
Eilrush, and Moore bay . • .111 
Kineth, round tower at ... 83 

fing John's castle, Limerick . ^ 110 
ingstown, and its harbour . . * 3 
Kinsale, town and Old Head of . 82 
Knocknarea, view from , . . 172 
Knocknaveigh, view from top of . 84 

Lambay Island, and its castle . 140 

Leixlip castle, remains of . .117 

Lifford and the Foyle . . . 162 

Limerick, town anil castle of. . 108 

„ cathedral, story concerning 109 

Lisclasfa, castle and rath at . . 68 

Lismore, town an* castle of . . 66 

Lisnaskea, property of Lord Erne 169 

Lissadill, seat of Su: R. G. Booth 173 

Listowel, a drive to , . . 177 

Longford, town of ... . 119 

Long Range, Lakes of Killamey 95 

Loop Head, mouth of the Shannon 111 

Londonderry, reminiscences of . 161 

Lough Athalia, swivel bridge at 120 

„ Ballinahinch, island in . 126 

„ Ballinderry, antiquities near 119 

„ Corrib, and its scenery . 126 

„ Currane, islands in . . 107 

^ Derg, and Holy Island . Ill 

„ Erne, and its islands . . 166 

„ Garromin, and the Recess 126 

„ Gill, scenery around . . 172 

„ Gur, antiquities near,. . 44 

„ Kylemore, Connemara . 130 

„ Mask, scenery around . 136 

M Muckno, islands in . . 148 

„ Neagh, largest in Ireland 151 

„ Ree, and its islands . .115 

M Shmdilla, and its islands . 121 

Luggala, lake and rocking stone . 33 

Lugnaquilla, ascent of ... 29 

Lyons castle, Lord Cloncurry's seat 39 

M 
Magilligan point and cliffs . . 160 
Macnean, upper and lower lakes . ; 170 
Macollop castle, ruins of . . . * 68 
Maiden Tower, mouth of the Boynel42 
Malahide, village and castle of 140 
Mallow, town and castle of . . 71 
Mangerton, ascent of , , . 105 
Manorhamilton^ sc«nery around . 171 



^r . PAQB 

Marmo, seat of Earl Charlemont . 9 

Mlum, scenery around . . . 126 

Maynooth, castle and college of . 118 

Meeting of the Waters, Wicklow 24 

» ft „ Killamey 95 

Mellifont abbey, ruins of . . 147 

Middleton and its port ... 61 
Mitchelstown, its castle and caverns 69 

Mewlrea mountain, Connemara . 133 

Monaghan and the Ulster Canal . 169 

Monasterboice abbey, remains of 142 

Monastereven, town of ... 40 

Monkstown, baths and scenery at 58 

Mountain dew girls, at Killamey 106 

Mount Melleray, monastery of . 65 

Mourne abbey, ruins of, ... 45 
Mucicross abbey, ruins of, Killamey 103 

Mullingar, attractions of . . 119 

N 

Navan, interesting vicinity of . 145 

Nelson's pillar, Dublin ... 6 

Newrath Bridge, scenery around 22 

Newry, town of, and its vicinity . 149 

Newtown Stewart, vicinity of . 164 

O 
O'COnnell memorial window, Cork 53 

Olderfleet castle, near Lame . . 159 

Ormond castle, seat of the Butlers 73 

O'SuUivan's cascade, Killamey . 97 
Oughterard, village of . . .125 
Owenmore, rapids of the . . .163 

P 
Palace Anne, seat of Capt. Bemard 83 

Passage, town of, on the Lee . . 58 

Phoenix park, Dublin, scenery of 7 

Portrush and the Skerries . . 151 

Portumna, ruined abbey at . . 113 

Post Office, Dublin, .... 6 

Powerscourt cascade, Wicklow . 15 

Poulaphouca waterfall . , . .35 

Q 
Queen's College, Cork ... 51 
Queenstown, trip to, from Cork . 58 

R 
Raghly, drifting sands at . . 173 
Raleigh*s house at Youghal . . 62 
Rathdrum, and Vale of Avon . 29 
Rathlin, basaltic island of . . 157 
Red Bay, scenic attractions of . 157 
Renvyle castle, Connemara . . 133 
Rhincrew abbey, ruins of . . 64 
Rock of Dunamase, and remains of 

Earl Strongbo tr*& castle . . 42 
Rocky Island, powder magazine at 60 
Rosanna, and Mrs. Tighe . . 22 
Roscrea, abbev and round tower at 42 
Rossbay, Ma-bathing at . . . 106 



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