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Full text of "Hrosvithae Liber tertius, a text"

'375,1 



HKOSVITHAE LIBER 
TERTIUS 

A Text with Translation, Introduction 
and Commentary 



by 

SISTER MARY BERNARDINE BERGMAN, 
A.B., A.M. 

of 

The Sisters of Saint Benedict 

of 

Covington, Kentucky 



9 Msisitvtation 



PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OP THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OP 

SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT 

OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 

DOCTOR OP PHILOSOPHY 



1942 



^ 



Return this book on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 



University of Illinois Library 



yiiir.C, 



OCT 2 6 1992 
NOV 8 1996 

JUL28;'010 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



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COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF CANDIDACY: 

Assistant Professor Chauncey Edgar Finch, 
Chairman and Adviser 

Associate Professor Wi 1 liam Char les Korfmacher, 
Director of Dissertat ion 

Assistant Professor Claude H. Heithaus, S.J. 

Associate Professor Millett Henshaw 

Professor James Aloys ius Kleist, S.J. 

Professor Otto James Kuhnmuench, S.J. 



HROSVITHAE LIBER TERTIUS 

A Text with Translation, Introduction, 
and Commentary 



by 
Sister Mary Bernardine Bergman. 
A.B., A.M. 

of 
The Sisters of Saint Benedict 
Covington, Kentucky 



A Dissertation 

Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of 

Saint Louis University in Partial Fulfillment 

of the Requirements for the Degree of 

Doctor of Philosophy 

1942 



CORDI JESU 
IN QUO SUNT OMNES THESAURI SAPIENTIAE 
ET SCIENTIAE 



COPYRIGHT, 1943 

BY THE SISTERS OF SAINT BENEDICT 
OF COVINGTON. KENTUCKY. 






PREFACE 



JL. The works of Hrotsvit^, tenth century nun of Gander- 
^ sheim, include three books; namely, Book One, Legends; 
Book Two, Dramas; Book Three, Historical Epics. The 
^ Legends were translated into English by Sister M. Gonsalva 
* Wiegand in 1936. The Dramas can be found translated whole, 
^ or in part at least, in most of the literatures dealing 
:^ with that period, as well as in the works of individual 
^ writers, but the translation of Cristabel Marshall (by 
^ pseudonym Christopher St. John), which appeared in 1923, 
is, as far as the present writer is aware, the best rec- 
ognized complete translation. Although a number of Ger- 
man translations, as listed in the Bibliography, were made 
of Book Three, no English translation exists for the His- 
torical Epics proper, the Gesta Ottonis and the Prim ordta 
Coenobii Gandeshemensis ; Marshall, however, has rendered 
the Preface into English. 

The purpose of the present monograph, therefore, is 
to edit the Historical Epics with an English translation, 
an introduction, and a commentary, thereby making the last 
of Hrotsvit's works available to all who are interested 
in the Saxon poet. 

The text is the critical Teubner edition of Karolus 
Strecker, Hrotsvithae Opera, with such minor changes as 
are noted in the introduction. 



;f 



(J) A reproduction of the sketch of the author's life and 
career seemed of little value in the present study, since 
the few known facts of her biography have been rehearsed 
repeatedly not only in the literatures of the period, but 
also by the writers who have dealt with some aspect of 
her work. 

1 Since the nunher and variety of spellings of the nane are 

V still a Boot question, the above spelling, except'ln quota- 

£X^ tlons, has been consistently adopted for convenience. 

rv 



In the Intrcxluct ion the treatment of the various phases, 

notably that entitled 'Historical Significance', has 

been great ly fac i lita ted by the essay -Hrotsuit?ui , Ganders- 
hein, and the Saxon House --hy Sister M. Hilda Obermeier, 
O.S.B. 

The translation aims to give as accurate a version as 
possible of the thought of the poet, and yet to be as 
literal as is consistent with idiomatic English. 

In the Commentary, the syntactical treatment, in addi- 
tion to references inNewnan's, The Latinity of the ¥orks 
of Hrotsvit of Gandershein, has been based chiefly on 
Leumann-Hofmann's revision of the Lateinische Grannatik 
of Stolz-Schmalz and the Ausfuhrliche Lateinische Gran- 
natik of Kiihner-Stegmann. The Thesaurus Linguae Latinae 
has been the principal authority for vocabulary. For 
words not yet included in the Thesaurus, the lexica of 
Georges, Penoist-Goe Izer , Harpers', Forcellini, and Du- 
Cange have been employed in the order named. Available 
monographs on Late Latin writers have been found useful. 
References to parallel passages and echoes whether Scrip- 
tural or Classical have been verified and for the most 
part cited. Historical allusions have been noted and 
discussed. 

The abbreviations used in the citations are those of 

the Index Librorun Scriptorun Inscriptionun to the Thes- 
aurus Linguae Latinae. Additional ones employed for the 
works of Hrotsvit are: 

Abr. = Abraham; Agn. = Passio Sanctae Agnetis; 

Bas. =Basilius; Cal. =Calimachus; 

Dulc. =^Dulcitius; Gest. =^ Gesta Ottonis ; 

Mar. = Maria; Pafn. = Pafnutius; 

Prim. -■ Primordia Coenobii Gandeshemensis; 

Tlieoph. = Lapsus et Conversio Theophili; 

Diony. = Passio Sancti Dionisii; 

Gong. = Passio Sancti Gcxigolfi; 

Pelag. = Passio Sancti Pelagii; 

Sap. = Sapientia. 

Abbreviations for texts are found in parentheses in 
the Bibliography. The various periods of Latinity have 
been designated as follows: Early, all Latin before 
Cicero; Classical, the prose of the Golden Age; Silver, 



the Latin from the death of Augustus to that of Suetonius ; 
Late, all Latin from Apuleius on; Poetic, that peculiar 
to the poets of whatever age; Ecclesiastical, all Christian 
Latin. 

It is with sincere gratitude that I take this opportun- 
ity to express my deep appreciation and indebtedness to 
Associate Professor Doctor William Charles Korfmacher, 
Secretary of the Department of Classical Languages, for 
suggesting the subject of the present dissertation, and 
for his generous, untiring assistance and stimulating 
direction throughout the course of this work. To Rever- 
end Otto James Kuhnmuench, S. J. , Professor of Classical 
Languages and Director of the Department, to Reverend 
James Aloysius Kleist, S. J. , Professor of Classical Lan- 
guages, toReverend Claude Herman Heithaus, S.J., Assist- 
ant Professor of Classical Archeology, to Chairman and 
Adviser Doctor Chauncey Edgar Finch, Assistant Professor 
of Classical Languages, to Doctor ?!illett Henshaw, Asso- 
ciate Professor of English, I amdeeply grateful for their 
careful reading of the manuscript and for their valuable 
criticisms and suggestions. Finally, I desire to express 
my appreciation to my Superior, to the members of my Com- 
munity, and to all who have helped to make the present 
study possible. 



Sister Mary Bernardine Bergman, O.S.B. 



Saint Louis 

Feast of the Epiphany , 
January 6. 1942. 



TABLE (F CONTEOTS 

-o- 

Page 

Preface . : i 

Table of Contents iv 

Introduction 1 

A. Text I 

B. Occasion and Date I 

C. Authenticity 3 

D. Analysis and Sources 4 

E. Historical Background and Significance . . 7 

F. Syntactical and Stylistic Features .... 13 

G. Metrical Study 31 

Text and Translation 38 

Commentary 114 

Bibliography 161 

Indices 169 

iv 



INTRODUCTION 



A. THE TEXT 



The text of the present edition is basically that of 
Karolus Strecker, edited in 1906 and revised in 1930. It 
belongs tothe Series Bibliotheca Scriptorun Graecorun et 
Romanorun Teubneriana. Whatever deoartures from the text 
or revisions have been made are noted in the Commentary, 
together with occasional transposition of verses by 
Strecker as compared with other editors. 

Since the codices of the poems extant at var ious times 
have been fully treated by Strecker in his Preface and 
again by Wiegand in her Introduction, there is no need to 
devote additional space to the subject- here . 

Scriptural a llus ions and quotat ions have been compared 
with the Vulgate and, unless too lengthy, have been quoted 
from it. 

For convenience the lines in the Preface are listed, 
not as in Strecker, but consecutively as in the present 
I-at in text. 



B. OCCASION AND DATE 

The Gesta Ottonis and the Prinordia'Coenobii Gandeshe- 
nensis are Historical Eoics , not of the exalted Vergilian 
type, but rather in the manner of a beautiful family pic- 
ture or history of the Ottonian House with Otto I, as the 
most conspicuous historical personage. 

Baumgartner aptly expresses his opinion of the poems 
thus: ....Sie versuchte es , war sich aber klar darueber, 
dass ein Epos im grossen Stile ueber ihre Kraefte ging. 
Dagegen ist ihr ein schoenes eoisches Fami 1 ian-gemae Ide 
des Ottonischen Kaiserhauses in hohem Grade geJunges, aus 
welchemdie weltgeschicht liche Gestalt Otto I. ma jestaets - 
voll hervorragt. 



Abbreviations in footnote references ar4 given in the Bibli- 
ography, writers are cited by name and page. 
I BauBgartner , vol. 4, p. 349. 

-1- 



ChronoJogically the incidents of the Prinordia nrecede 
those of the Gesta, and Pfund and Cundlach treat them in 
this order. Strecker, however, follows the reversed ar- 
rangement, and itisoossihle that Hrotsvit comnosed them 
in this sequence . Cardinal Casquet mainta ins that Ce 1 tes 
changed the order, "which", he says, "istobe regretted, 
as it is obviously chronological...". 

Despite their apparent disparity of theme the ooems 
are comnanion nieces , the one supplement ing or e lucidat ing 
the events of the other. In the Gesta Ottonis, Hrotsvit 
sings the praises of the deeds of the Saxon royal family; 
in the Prinordia Coenobii Gandeshenensis she discloses 
the root of their newer, or as CundJach expresses it; 
"..... im Otto-Liede zeigt Hrotsvit ha nur das gewaltige 
Emporstreben des sachsischen Tfonigsstammes, wahrend s ie 
in dem Epos 'Candersheim' die Wurzeln seiner Kraft 
aufdeckt . . . .". 

Several times in the Preface of the Gesta Ottonis and 
elsewhere, the poet emphasizes the fact that she under- 
took this, to her a seemingly impossible task, in com- 
pliance with the request of her Abbess, Gerberga II. Ad- 
dressing her Superior, she says, "Id quidem oner is mihi 
inposuistis, ut gesta caesaris august i, quae nee auditu 
unquam affatimvalui col ligere , metricapercurremrat ione '^ 

And again: "Praesertim cum si meae praesumPt ionis , 
sed vestrumcausa iuss ionis huius stamen opusculi coenerim 
ordiri'^"- 

SoiTfcwhat later in the First Prologue we read: 



Pol it ica 1 events and the fact that a prince of Cerberga 's 
own House was responsible for the glory and the splendor 
that Germany was en j oying in her day evidently influenced 
her, a descendant of the Saxon royal family, in her de- 
sire that Hrotsvit should thus Perpetuate the memory of 
that illustrious House. The nuns, moreover, of the Can- 
dersheim Monastery, which was founded by the Saxon Dynasty, 
Bni which probably numbered among its members relatives 
of the royal family^, were consequently interested in the 

2 In Christopher St. John, Introduction, p. xl. 

9 Oundlach, p. 325. 

4 Preface, 9-11. 

8 Ibid. 40-41. 

8 Prol. 1 . le. 

7 Helnrlch, p. 11, passini. 

-2- 



success of Otto the Great. Not only, there f ore , by oray- 
ers, hut likewise by a panegyric reoresentat ion of his 
marvelous deeds did they wish to exoress their joy and 
grat itude. 

The most significant facts for establishing the date 
of these Epics are the internal evidences found in these 
noems themselves. In the Preface of her First Book 
Hrotsvit calls Gerberga abbess and niece of the emperor: 
". • .de inde orona f avente clementia regiae indolis Gerber- 
gae , cuius nunc subdor dominio abbat issae . Quae aetate 
minor, sed, ut imperialem decebat neptem, scientia 



Since Gerberga became abbess in 9SS and Otto the Great 
was crowned in 962, the works could not have been written 
before this Per iod. The poet, moreover, represents Arch- 
bishop Sruno, brother of Otto, who died in 96.^, as living. 
Archbishop William of Mainz, likewise, to whom TIrotsvit 
submitted her work for approval, "...Vestro autem vestri- 

que f ami 1 iar iss imi scilicet archipraesulis Wilhelmi, 

iud icio, . . .aest imandum re 1 inquo ".was still officiating. 
He died in 968. The coronation, too, of Otto the Great 
in 962 and that of Otto II in 967 are discussed. 

From these computations, therefore , one may reasonably 
conclude that the poems were comnosed not before 962 and 
not later than 968. Schneid^^ assigns 967 as the date. 
Pfund^^ asserts that the work was completed either in 
January or February of 968: "...Das Buch wurde 968 Ende 
Januar Oder Februar fert ig der Aebt iss in Gerberg ubergeben 
zur Uebersendung an Wilhelm, der es den be iden Oddonen 
darbringen sollte. Schon am 2 Nfarz starb Wilhelm ". 



C. AUTHENTICITY 

Whatever question has been raised by 
fanciful and ingenious treatise which raised a controversy 
regarding the authenticity of the works of Krotsvit, on 
the ground that the style was too elegant, the I^tin too 

8 Strecker , p. 2.1-4 . 
e Preface, 47-60. 

10 schneid In Cath. Ency . , vol. 7, p. 807. 

11 Pf und , p. X. 

12 Aschbach, pp. 1-62. 

-3- 



good to be the nroduct of a woman of the rustic tenth 
century, has been challenged and answered by his or>oonent 
Koenke . Tundlach** and Wiegand ^' discuss in deta il this 
so-called Hrotsvit -controversy . 

D. ANALYSIS AND SOURCES 

The Gesta Ottonis begins with an address in noetic 
prose to the Abbess Cerberga; this and two dedications, 
one to Otto I, and the other to his son Otto II, precede 
the poem. The poem itself consists of 1S17 verses, of 
which, unfortunately, lines TFl^-lUOand lines 1189-147P 
have been lost. As an aid in indicat ing the nlan and the 
general content of the Enics , the following brief tabular 
analysis may be of value: 

1. Introduction Cverses 1-12^) treats 
events from 919 to 936. 

2. History of the kingshin of Otto I-- his 
battles and victories (verses 12^-466); 
it covers the oeriod from the death of 
Henry in 936, to tVe marriage of I.iudulf 
in 948. 

3. Death of Lothar ; the sufferings, 
persecution, and rescue of his wife. 
Queen Adelaide (verses 466-73S). 

It embraces the years from 9^0 to 
9S3. 

4. r«idulf's uprising against his father, 
Otto I, which resulted in Civil War 
(verses 737 118?). Of this section verses 
■"?3 to 1141 are lost, and therefore the 
period covered is somewhat indefinite. 

5. Establishment of the Empire and the 
coronation of Otto T. Of this section 
only verses 1479 to 1483 are extant. 

6. Epilogue (verses 1483 .l.«;i7 )^® . 

13 Koepke, In Ottonische Stvdien, vol. 2, pp. 1-28. 

14 Oundlanh, pp. 207-224. 

15 Wiegand, pp. xl-xll. 

16 Ebert, vol. 2, pp. 306-310. 



In the Primordia Coenobii Gandeshenens is , a poem con- 
sisting of an Address of six verses and the Epic itself 
of 594 verses, Hrotsvit indicates the intimate relation- 
ship existing between the Saxon House and the Candersheim 
Monastery. She recounts: 

1. I-indulf's noble descent, and his 
position as ruler of Saxony. 

2.'Kis marriage to Qia , daughter of 
the Frankish Billung and Aeda . 

3. The prophecies and nromises of 
St. John the Baptist to Aeda. 

4. The miraculous appearance of 

lights in the forest - -the ir 
s ignif icance . 

5. The erection of the monastery 
by Liudulf and Gda in compliance 
with the requests of St. John 
the Baptist to Aeda, as a con- 
dition for the fulfillment of 
the promises. 

6. The premature death of Liudulf. 

7. The dedication of Candersheim. 

8. Its rulers --the first three 
abbesses members of the Saxon 
roya 1 fami ly . 

Krotsvit terminates the Primordia Coenobii Gandes- 
henens is , and rightly so, with the death of Christine, 
919, who, until Cerberga IT, in 959, was the last of 
the Saxon House to hold the position of abbess. 3y 
limiting, moreover, the Epic to this period, making the 
history of the Convent of Candersheim the history of 
the Liudulf inger House, the poet again gives evidence 
of the Monastery's great interest in the royal family 
of Saxony and its indebtedness thereto. 

Ebert 

17 Kb»Tt, vol. 2, pp. 313-314. 



Mit Recht endet hier Hrosvith die FV imord ia des Klos ters : 
mit dem Tode Christ inens war e in Abschnitt gegeben, ihr 
folgte ziinachst (bis auf Gerberg II.) ke ine Aebtissin aiis 
dem Liijdolf schen Hause mehr . Bis dahin war die I«itijng 
des Klosters ganz in den Kanden der Familie, die es 
gegrnndet , insbesondere in denen des weiblichen Kauptes 
derse Iben , der Mutter CHa gewesen. Indem Verfasserin auf 
diesen Abschnitt der Klos tergeschichte s ich beschrankt , 
beknndet s ie einmal widerdasnahe personliche Interesse, 
das s ie an dem Konigshause nimmt, aber axich den Sinn fur 
e ine einheitliche Komnosition, wodurch auch dieses Werk- 
chen s ich von manchen alteren historischen Dichtungen und 
den spatern Re imchronikon' wohl untersche idet . 

The most reliable information, perhaps, that we liave 
about the sources employed in the Gesta Ot tonis comes from 
the remarks of the poet herself. In her Address to 
Cerberga she aoprisesus of the following facts: "...Quia 
haec eadem ne pr ins scripta repperi,.... "; and in the 
Dedication to Otto I, she further asserts: 

Sed non exemnlum quisquam mihi praebuit horum 
Nee scribenda pr ius script i docuere libelli:... 

Wat tenbach^^ , however, contends that the members of 
the imperial family furnished her with material. Among 
these, Cerberga, the daughter of Duke Henry and niece of 
Otto I, was certainly in a position to supply her with 
accurate data about the history of the Saxon Dynasty. 
It is quite probable, however, that , to shie Id her fa ther , 
she withheld many noteworthy historical facts, otherwise 
Krotsvit would hardly have complained: " . . .nee ab a I iquo 



From the fact that the poet submitted her work to the 
scrutiny of Archbishop Wi 11 iam of Mainz, one may conclude 
that she evidently had gleaned much valuable information 
from him. Pfund somewhat emphatically maintains that: 
" . . .Erzbishof Wilhelm und d ie Aebt iss in Gerberg haven den 
Stoff geliefert, von Hrotsuitha is er ve r a rbe i te t " . 

It does not seem possible, moreover, that Adelaide, 
the Italian Queen and the second wife of Otto I, who 



20 Wattenbach , p. 171. 

21 Preface , 14-15. 
22. pfund , p , X . 



appears as an important character in the poem, often men- 
tioned her tr ia Is and that Hrotsvit frequently heard from 
her own lips the account of the oppressions, imprisonment, 
and flight that she had endured. 

As noted in the Commentary , 
had access to the work of Widukind and of Liudprand, both 
of whom wrote histories of the Ottos. The latter, whose 
Antapcdos is contains a history of Italian affairs from 
887-949, is, however, a mere chronicle given to bitter 
invectives. His Gesta Ottonis treats really only one 
episode of Otto's achievements, that of the .denos it ion of 
Pope John XII. The historical value of his work is, more- 
over, insignificant^*. 3ut Widukind in his Sachsenges- 
chichte gives a detailed account both of the coronation 
of Otto I, and the feud between the two brothers, Henry 
and Otto. Hrotsvit treats neither of these eyents 
extensive ly . 

For the Prinordia Coenobii Gandeshenens is , besides the 
oral traditions of the senior members of her community, 
the poet found in her own monastery written source*. At 
her disposal were the Vita Hathunodae of Agius, letters 
and documents of Duke Liudulf regarding the foundation of 
this monastery and historical records of the many dona- 
tions made to this Convent by the members of the Saxon 
House, as well as by King Louis, son of Louis the German, 
and by other sovereigns of that time • These written 
sources add to the worth of the Epic. 

E. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE 

For consistency and convenience, the poems will be con- 
sidered chronologically in this section rather than in 
the sequence of the translation. 

It is not the writer's intention to give a detailed 
account of the Saxon Emperors or of the history of the 
ninth and tenth centur ies --any general history will fur- 
nish this inf oj-mat ion--but merely to include such data 
as are considered essential for a better understanding 
and appreciation of the two Epics. 

The following brief outline, compiled principally-- 
except for dates --from the information afforded in the 
poems, may help to clarify and illustrate the intimate 
relation between the Saxon royal family and the monastery 
of Candersheim. 

23 C ommentary , p. 1 . 

24 Ouggenberger , vol. 1, p. 209 note. 

25 Gundlach, pp. 407-433. 

26 Gundlach, pp. 325-404; Pf und , p. xi: Mlgne , vol. 137, 1170- 
1195: M.G.H., vol. 4, 165-189. 



Liiidalf -CHa 
(Fourylers of the Monastery, circa 8'>0) 



b;^; 



Otto the Illustr ions' 



Hathumoda, first abhess 
Liutgarda, m. Louis of 

France 
Cerberga I, second ab- 
bess 
Christine, third abbess 



Helnry the Fowler - St. Mathilda 
(919-936) 



Tha'nkmar 

(11 legit imate ) 

d. 938 



Bruno 
(Archbishop 
of Cologne 
d. 96S) 



Kenry, Duke of Bavaria 
m. 
Jidith 

Cerbeiga TI 



Edith - OTTO I - Adelaide 
(936-973) 



LiudVjlf 

Duke of 

Swab i a 

m. 

Ida 



Liiitgarda 

m. I 

Conrad, the Red 
Duke of Lorraine 



Ottk TI 
(973-983) 



William 

(II legit imate ) 

Archbishop of 

Ma inz 



By the treaty of Verdun in 843, Saxony fell to Louis 
the German, the last of the Carolingian line in Germany. 
He, about 850, appointed Liudulf, a Saxon noble, as mar- 
grave to defend the eastern frontier which was being 
harassed by the Normans and the Slavs. liudulf, who is 
sometimes called "Duke of East Saxony", carried on a 
vigorous warfare against the Slavs and extended his in- 
fluence over other parts of Saxony. }Ie in turn was suc- 
ceeded by his sons Bruno and Otto the Illustrious 



27 Oundlarh, passin, mentions other c h i Idren of Ot t o the Illus- 
trious, but since they are omitted In the poeas andarehls- 
torlcally un 1 mpor t ant they are not Included here. No mention 
of the wife of Otto could be found, although the search was 
prolonged and Intensive. 

28 Thompson, M .A . , vol. 1, p. 371. et al. 



In 911, when the last of the Carolingians in Germany 
passed away, both Franks aixl Saxons offered the crown to 
Otto, but because of his advanced age, he diverted the 
choice to Conrad I of Franconia. Conrad I, a descendant 
of Charlemagne in the female line, was elected by the 
three nations of Saxony , Thur ing ia , and Franconia . Conrad, 
in attempting to strengthen the unity of his kingdom, 
became involved in a weary succession of f euda 1 wars w ith 
his unruly vassals, including Duke Henry of Saxony, by 
whom he was eventually defeated. He, moreover, had to 
defend the country against the incursions of the Danes, 
Slavs, and Hungarians. In a battle with the latter he 
is said to have been mortally wovmded in 91 R. Dying he 
is reported to have declared, "the future of the realm 
lies with the Saxons", and he bade his brother Eberhard 
to bear the royal insignia to Henry, Duke of Saxony, as 
the one man canable of restoring the glory of the German 

29 

name 

As a result of the internal feuds and. wars, in add it ion 
to the ravages and plundering raids of the barbarous 
hordes, western Europe in the second half of the ninth 
century was in a state of general chaos. 

With the accession of Henry began the work of pacifi- 
cation, which was completed by his son. Otto the Great 
(936-973). The Hungarians were crushed, the Germans 
formed into a strong kingdom, and in 952 when Otto was 
crcwned at Rome by Pope John XII, the Holy Roman Empire 
was established for the second time. His reign, sometimes 
called "Die Ottonische Renaissance", marks the beginning 
of a definite tevival 

Historians are unanimous in agreeing that Otto I 
merited the title, "great": 

Otto is with justice called great. His empire was not so 
vast, his government not so centralized, his abilities 
not so versatile, as Charles the Great's; but it must be 
remembered that his power was largely built on Saxony, 
and that Saxony had behind it less than two hundred years 
of Christianity and civilization, while the Frankish 
Empire had had all of four centuries of historic develop- 
ment to build upon. Moreover feudalism, with its cen- 
trifugal institutions and intense local tendency, was 
stronger in the tenth than in the eighth century and coulci 
not be so coerced as in the days of Charlemagne. The 

2 9 C .N.H ., vol . 3 , p. 179. 

30 Wright and Sinclair, p. 172. 

-9- 



historic importance of the reign of Otto the Great is 
that he gave to the broken and feudalized Europe of his 
day a new unity, that he made feudalism constructive 
instead of destructive and again exhibited the type of a 
sovereign whose sanction was high, whose aim was wide, 
and whose nower was strong 

Kis son, Ct.to II, who succeeded him was far different 
in training and disposition. Moreover, the exceptional 
situation of T?avaria, rendered the condition of affairs 
at his accession far from cheering. After a brief reign 
of ten years, Otto III, fr.11o<A'ed by T'enry II, succeeded 
to the throne. These were l: he last emperors of the Saxon 
1 ine . 

Even as the titles imply, both the Gesta Ottonis and 
the P-^ ino'rdia Coenobii Gandcshenens is offer important 
historical information. "The vivid cone ise verse rende rs 
admirably those highly colored and tumultuous times ^". 
Two episodes, especially, have proved valuable sources 
for historians: the marriage of Otto to the An^lo— Saxon 
princess, Edith ('^4^125); and the trials of Queen Adelaide 
(481-f)9'^) . In the former account, the poet sketches for 
us in detail the family relation of the Anglo— Saxon House; 
in the latter she furnishes us with a reliable, original 
account of an historical event w^hich later writers have 
embellished with legends and fables. Regarding the ac- 
count of the Italian queen, Adelaide, Carter says, "An 
episode of much beauty is the flight of Adelaide of Lom- 
bardy from her prison on Lake Carda, to lie in hiding in 
a field of corn till she can make her escape to the fort- 
ress of Canossa , where the Emneror Otto claims her for 
his wife". 



narrative has often been examined by historians, but it 
adds little to our knowledge of the ne r i od " . While 
Ebert , on the contrary, stoutly maintains that, "Dass 
es a Is historische Quelle von maim ichfachem 'Verthe ist , 
bedarf kaum der Erwahnung". 

In determining the historical accuracy and value of 
the work, it must be borne in mind that llrotsvit's heroes 
and characters were, for the most part, living persons. 
Hence, although she tried to be just, she felt herself 
frequently compelled to suppress events entirely, or at 
least to rehearse incidents in such a way as to thrcw^ no 
disparaging light on the Saxon royal family. It is a 
question, therefore, rather of an omission of historical 

31 Thompson, M .A . , vol, 1, pp. 384-385. 

32 Carter, Dublin RcvieiO. vol. 192, pp. 285-286. 

33 Ibid. pp. 28R-286. 

34 Raby, p. 200. 

3 5 Ebert , vol. 2, p. 314. 

-10- 



data than of false representation. Pfund sympathetic- 
ally recognizes this situation when he maintains: "Es 
war e ine schwierige Ausgabe, nicht iinwahr zn werden iind 
doch ihre Aebtissin, die Tochter des Herzogs 'leinrich, 
der so v ie 1 Irrungen im Kaiserhause veriirsacht, nicht zii 
beleidigen, und hier zeigt die Dichterin be i a Her Ruck- 
sic ht d<x:h Wahrhe its liebe" . 

In the Gesta Ottonis the following misrepresentations 
or errors have been noted: 

Lines 20-21 allow sixteen years for Henry's reign, 
while in reality he ruled from April 14, 919, to July 2, 
936^/. 

It was not the nocturnal seizure by the soldiers as 
represented in the Epic that caused Henry's captivity, 
lines 179-188, but Thankmar , his half-brother, caused 

Otto I, lines 194-198, does not rescue Kenry directly, 



In lines 202-297, the poet passes over the feud between 
Otto I and Kenry, the father of Cerberga . She, in shield- 
ing his baseness, blames onlyEberhard and Gilbert for the 
civil war in 939, although Henry, accord ing to hist or ians , 
was the instigator of it 

In the attempted fratricide, 320-335, "the wiles of 
the ancient foe" and external coercion are the poisonous 
factors responsible for the heinous deed. Again history 
points to the contrary, shewing that Tlenry had perfect 



Berengar I, line 48S , is erroneously taken for the 
father of Rerengar II, king of Italy. He was his grand- 
father, father of Cisela, mother of Berengar I 

The undertaking of Liudulf, lines 608-614, because of 
the intrigues of Duke Henry, was a failure rather than 



36 Pfund , p. X . 

3 7 Thompson, M .A . , vol . 1 , pp . 3 73 -3 76 ; C .M .H . ,vol.3, pp. 179- 
186. 

38 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 188; Giesebrecht, p. 255. 

39 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 188; Koepke und Duemmler, p. 15. 

40 Thompson, M .A . , vol. 1, p. 377; C ,M .H . , vol. 3, p. 189. 

41 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 190; Koepke und Duemisler, p. 81. 

42 ThoBpson,^f^., vol. 1, p. 378 -3 80; Koepke und Duemmler, p. 112. 

43 C .M.H ., vol . 3, p. 195; Pfund , p . 52 note ; Koepke und Duenmler . 
pp. 192-193. 

-II- 



Otto T, lines 6l'>-6lft, instead of rejoicing, was angry 
because Liudulf undertook this rash expedition'**. 

Liudulf, lines 666-674, annoyed by the affairs of 
Italy and disappointed in Queen Adelaide's attitude to- 
ward Henry, returned to Germany of his own accord and not 
in compliance with the request of his father to govern 
the Saxons during the stay of Otto I in Italy*^. 

Not willingly did Otto, lines 701-703, as described, 
forgive Berengar, but only after three days waiting did 
he even permit him to come into his presence 

Liudulf 's motive in the second campaign, lines 115?0- 
llSl, instead of being solely for the purpose of increas- 
ing his father's glory, as depicted in the Epic, was 
chiefly to blot out his former disgrace and to compensate 
for the losses then entailed 

Omission of the details of important historical inci- 
dents and failure to give definite dates leave the poem 
somewhat colorless. Only once does the poet speak of 
Belecke, line 181, and the banks of the Rhine, verse 289. 
Birten, Breisach, Andernach, places intimately associated 
with the activities of Otto I, are not mentioned* * 

The Avars, verse 378, only, are spoken of: the en- 
counters with the Slavs, the Danes, the West Franks and 
others are dismissed with 

Subdens gentiles Christi servis nationes*". 

Besides the direct members of the ruling House, only 
Conrad, Eberhard, Gilbert, Herman, and Udo are mentioned; 
Thankmar, Gero, and Herman Billung are not spoken of or 
named' 



• 50. 



Vet in spite of these deficiencies, no one will deny 
that, if judiciously used, the Gesta Ottonis has great 
historical significance. 



44 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 195; Thoapson, M .A , , vol. 1, pp. 
e t al . 

45 C.M.H. , vol. 3, p. 195; Koepke und DueB«ler, p. 200. 

46 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 195; Koepke und DueB«ler, p. 204. 

47 C.M.H., vol. 3, p. 196; Glesebrecht, p. 451. 

48 C.M.H., vol. 3, pp. 179-204. 

49 Gest. 144. 

50 C.Af.^. vol . 3 , pp. 179-204; Thompson, Af ./i . , v ol . 1 , pp. 

-12- 



The Prinordia Coenobii Gandeshemens is , on the other 
hand, because of its reliable written sources surpasses 
the Gesta Ottonis in historical value: "Dadurch erhalt 
diese Gr iindungsgeschichte von Candersheim einen v ie 1 
hoheren his tor ischen Werth a Is das von manigsachen poli- 
tischen und Fami lienriJcks ichten bedingte Cedicht von Oddo 
I Thaten*^." 

Except for a few legends which are easily discernible 
and an error in verse 363, where the poet confused the 
Hungarians with the Normans, this poem is true to his- 
tory. 

Strecker considers this the most beautiful of Hrots- 
vit's works: "Das Gedicht ist, so weit ich sehe , wenig 
bekannt, und doch ist es nach meinem Emofirden das Schoen- 
ste, was wir der Dichterin verdanken, 'echte, schoenste 
Keimatkunst im X. Jahrh'". 

F. SYNTACTICAL AND STYLISTIC FEATURES 

In this section the two peoms , because of similarity 
of vocabulary, structure, and style, will not be treated 
individually, but will be considered as one work, "The 
Epics", and representative passages will be cited from 
the work as a whole. 

A detailed study of the Latinity of the poems would be 
superfluous here, since that forms the subject of a sepa- 
rate monograph, that of Miss Newnan. In the Commentary, 
however, attention has been called to all important 
references in Newnan, and, in addition, a number of syn- 
tactical deviations from the Classical norm have been 
discussed in the order of their occurrence in the text. 
All words, moreover, that do not occur or occur only 
rarely in Classicial Latin have been treated. Further- 
more, changes in meaning deviating from Classical usage 
have been noted. 

It may be useful at this point, however, to assemble 
and to treat briefly in a short summary the words and 
stereotyped phrases which, because of their frequency, 
have either been omitted in the Commentary or have been 
referred to this section. 

51 Pf und , p. xi. 

52 Strecker, in Keve Jahrbiiecher flier das Klassische Altertim, 

p. 573 

-13- 



neritun: employed in a variety of meanings; in the Early 
and Late sense of "deserts"; in the religious sense 
of "merit", "virtue", or "good works"; frequently in 
the ah la t ive - -mer i t o or innerito without cu« as in 
Classical authors. Its occurrence has been noted 27 
t imes . 

obsequiun : employed with various meanings; in the Silver 
sense of "deference", or "respect"; in the Late 
sense of "service", or "worship". It is treated in 
the Commentary, Gest . 3!>3. It occurs 10 times. 

pietas : occurs most frequently in the sense of "kind- 
ness", "pity", or "compassion", but it is also found 
with the restricted meaning of pietas in Ecc 1 . Latin 
used to denote piety, devotion, and holiness. Its 
use has been noted 18 times, sometimes with naterni- 
tas , sometimes without. 

plebs; as the equivalent of the Classical populub- , mean- 
ing, "the whole people", is a Late usage; of K-Schm. 
2.308. This usage occurs 13 times in the Epics. 

votum: in the sense of "wish", "desire", used first in 
the Augustan poets and in prose from Livy on. Cf . 
Liv. 7.40.6, "eius me compotem voti facere vos 
potestis"; 2.15.3, "ea esse vota (eam esse volunta- 
tem) omnium ut...". Cf . K-Schm. 2.754. The word 
occurs 10 times used interchangeably in the sense of 
"wish", "prayer", and "vcw". 

■modicun: a I^te Latin word cited for Apvil., Cass., et 
al. It occurs 5 times. 

supernvs: this word is not found in Cic., or Caes . , ; it 

is chiefly Poetic, Silver, and Late, being cited for 

Plin. and Amm. Hrotsvit employs it 12 times in the 
poem. 

solanen: the Poetical for the Classical solaciun occurs 
12 t imes . 

ocius: the opposite of tardius , or serius cf. K-Sclim. 
2.63, employed in the sense of "earlier" (sooner) or 
"later", the German fr'uher oder spat^.r. "That which 
will be written or done sooner or later". The word 

-14- 



does not occur in prose before I, ivy. Cf . Georges. 
Ilrotsvit uses it 6 times. 

fanulatus: (famulor) in Late I^tin this word has linder- 
gone a semantic change; used in the sense of "devo- 
tion", "zeal", or "service"; whereas in Cic. it is 
construed as a condition of slavery. For I.ate I^tin 
it is cited for Aug., Novell. The od . , Cassian., 
Sidon., Ennod . , Ale. Avit., et al. The word occurs 
II times in the poems used in tlie Late sense. 

Greek words; A number of greek words are employed in the 
poems, some of which, because of their use, liave 
been mentioned in the Commentary. Here they are 
listed in the order of their frequency: c oenobiun 
occurs 18 times; ecclesia, 16 times; hynnus , 3 
times; baptista, nonasteriun, sophia, each, twice; 
d iadena , chriographus (cyr ogra phus ) , gyrus, holo- 
caustum, presbyter , protoplastus, each, once. The 
fact that these Creek words occur does not neces- 
sarily imply that Hrotsvit knew the language as some 
writers infer, for all the words noted were current 
in Late and Ecclesiastical writers, and it is quite 
probable that Ilrotsvit found them there. 

Djuninut ives: Diminutives, which belong largely to the 
domain of popular speech, occupy a prominent place 
in the poems. They are employed generally as neces- 
sary to the metrical scheme, seldom with the real 
diminutive force of tenderness or diminution. Those 
noted in the order of their frequency are: gra~ 
tiola, 7 times; castellun and candidolus each, 3 
times; libellus, locellus, and nove llus each, twice; 
barbula, carminu lus , diecula, genmula, mo-^itia, 
nunusculun , nigellus, obseque la , opusculus , parvu~ 
lus, plebecula, precula, praepaucula, primula, 
querela, tenpusculun , tenella, verbula, virguncula, 
each, once. 

Adject ives in "osus": These adjectives are treated in a 
special note in the Commentary, G e s: t , 186; and 
fanosus, because of its use, is mentioned in a sepa- 
rate note, Gest. Proi. 2.20. However, for conven- 
ience, they have been assembled here in the order of 
their frequency: fanosus occurs 10 times; studio- 
sus , 9 times; gene. '^ osus , pretiosus, see lerosus each, 
3 times, innunerosus and tenebrosus each, once. 

-IS- 



A favorite expression of the poet is zunno c onamine 
used interchangeably with toto c ona'nin'; . Conanen is a 
poetical word cited for Liicr . , Stat., Ov., et al. It 
occurs R times in the Epics. 



Another common expression noted is 
stante interspersed with Ch'<^ir,to fav^^nte . 



Ch-^isto prae 



Krotsvit exhibits a fondness for certain stereotyped 
transitional phrases, the most common of which are: 

1st is sic habitis, Gest. 12.=;, 39S, 637; 
His ita digcstis, G^.st . 160, 316; 
His ita finitis, Gest. ISll; 
His hcriii dispositis , Gest. 116*;; 
His bene perfectis , Prin. S?*?; 
His ...ccmpertis , Gest. 1142; 
Quo...conperto, Gest. 189, 363, 61'?. 



The Ablative of the Gerund: The usage of the ablative of 
the gerund, chiefly in a modal or circumstantial 
sense, as the equivalent of a present participle in 
the nominative, though it has its beginnings in 
Classical or even in Early Latin, is largely a Sil- 
ver and I^te I>atin development; cf. L-Kof. p. 600; 
K-Steg. 2.1.7S2-7S3. Examples in the Epics are fre- 
quent , e.g. 



Gest 



Gest 



. 26. 


nutando ( 


26. 


vac il lando 


27. 


pausando 


. 26. 


desponendo 


62. 


ref ovendo 


116. 


m i 1 1 e nd o 


i*;!. 


spernendo 


184. 


st r ingendo 


212. 


faciendo 


. ?2. 


ref ovendo 


99. 


concedendo 


114. 


succedendo 


129. 


nerquirendo 


201. 


demons trando 


244. 


f amu lando 


26.S. 


grad iendo 


3S7. 


fando 



Gc. 



P" ir, 



218. parendo 

284. adducendo 

3 OS. demulcendo 

375. faciendo 



409. 



conversando 



421 . mandando 

422. mvilcendo 

486. sectantlo 

487. praemed itando 
532. praeveniendo 



16- 



Facere with infinitive: The infinitive, in the place of 
the Classical substantive clause with ut occurs in 
Enn., Plaut., Lucr . , Cic, (once), Verg., Silver and 
Late authors; it is rare in Early I^tin, more fre- 
quent in the poets, Silver and late Latin; cf. I.-Hof . 
p. 581; T.L.L. 6.115.37-. This use of facere in the 
sense of "cause to", "make to", is especially frequent 
in Ecclesiastical writers. Note the following ex- 
amples : 

Gest. S7. fecit religari Prim. 79. conscendere fecit 

301. impleri fecit 555-556. locari fecit 

1497. fraudari fecit 

1505. fecit benedici 

Fraesumere with complementary infinitive: The complemen- 
tary infinitive with praesune-^e is not used in Classi- 
cal prose; cf. L-Kof . p. 581; K-Steg. 2.1.667-576. 
Krotsvit employs it thus 7 times in the epics. 

The Part iciple: praedictan . . .dovinam , Gest. 109, is an 
instance of the perfect passive participle used to 
refer to a person or thing already mentioned or about 
t o be mentioned, where Classical latin would employ 
some such expression as, quae die itur , quam vacant, 
qiuin connenoravi . Although found in Livy, 10.14.7, 
"ad praedictas latebras", this usage belongs chiefly 
to Silver and Late Latin; cf. K-Steg. 2.1.771. It 
occurs lit imes . 

A few general remarks and observations concerning the 
Latinity of the noems as noted in the Commentary may be 
in place here. 

Concerning the nominal syntax, little need be said 
apart from the minor shiftings of gender and irregulari- 
ties of number; the loss of a few case constructions; the 
extension of others, notably the possessive genitive, the 
partitive genitive and its derivatives, the dative with 
verbs and adjectives, the free use of dative of reference 
or concern, the lack of distinction between literal and 
figurative ablative of separation, a generous use of the 
ablative absolute, freedom in the use of the direct ob- 
ject with the accusative. Other features worthy of note 
are: the extended substantival use of adjectives and 
participles; greater freedom of choice in the use of 

-17- 



demonstratives, additions to tlie functions of variotis 
prepositions, a more extended substantival use of the in- 
finitive, and an increase in the number of individual 
verbs, notably jace'^f and p^a^isuncre , introducing infini- 
tive constructions; the rare occurrence of the supine in 
-u and -um , and a frequent extension in the use of 
part iciples . 

With regard to the verbal syntax, some intransitive 
verbs are used transitively; a few transitive verbs are 
used absolutely. A few deponents have a passive meaning. 
Tense shifting affects many tenses in independent 
clauses show a certain freedom from restriction in the 
choice both of moods and tenses. The Classical usages of 
mood an<l tense are not entirely lost, but non -Class ica 1 
uses are added and sometimes appear side by side with the 
Class ica 1 . 

In the syntax, whether nominal or verbal, and in the 
vocabulary, for almost all instances of major importance 
which deviate from the Classical norm a precedent can be 
found for the usage in the writings of the Silver Age or 
in the I^te Latin writers, pagan and Christian. The 
vocabulary, however, inevitably reflects a blending of 
the Classical, the colloquial, the poetical, the rhetori- 
cal, and the Scriptural elements plus a contribution of 
the author herself. The syntax, too, could hardly re- 
frain from the popular element entirely, but in the main 
points it is quite traditional. 

For the most part, whatever innovations were noted 
were such as merely indicated a normal and logical devel- 
opment along the lines marked by the trend of the period. 



RHETORICAL FIGURES 

The figures of rhetoric contribute greatly to eleva- 
tion of style when used moderately aixl appropriately. It 
is only in their abuse that they become a fault. Keeping 
this fact in mind, let us summarize Hrotsvit's use of the 
various figures noted in the Epics. 

0» the basis of some common characteristic the figures 
may be grouped into the following classes: 

-18- 



Figures of Imagery 

Figures of Amplification 

Figures of Repetition 

Figures of Sound 

Figures of Vivacity 
Minor Figures of Rhetoric 

Devices of Parallelism 

This classification, while it includes most of the 
coimon figures, is by no means complete or all-embracing. 
It does, however, include the principal figures found in 
t he poems . 

Figures of Imagery 

The figures of imagery are those devices which 
illumine a point or thought by means of pictorial 
s ugge s t i ons . 

1 . Compa r i s on 

Comparison or simile is a figure of imagery by which 
a person or thing is compared to another person or thing. 
The comparison is expressed and introduced by some suit- 
able word, such as ve lut , tanqv/xn , quasi, quonodo . . .ita , 
ut . . .sic , sicut . . ,ita . Quint i lian 's^^ chief rule for the 
use of this figure is that the object of comparison must 
be neither obscure nor unfamiliar, but more clearly known 
and understood than the point or object to be illustrated. 

The following are a few representative examples of 
comparison noted in the Epics: 

Gest . Pref. 15-24. sed ve lut i si aliquis nescius 
ignot i per latitudinem sa Itus esset iturus . . . 
haut aliter ego...iussa ingredi 

Gest. 33-34. ...fulsit ceu lucifer ortus oddo. . . 

Gest. S2. Henr icus . . .ceu murus iaculis obstans for- 
tissimus host is 

2. Me tailor 

Metaphor, according toQuintilian , is a shorter form 
of comparison, with this important difference, tliat one 

5 3 Qulntllian, Institutio Omtoria 8.3.72-73. 
54 Ibid. 8.6.8-9. 

-19- 



object is imaginatively identified with another. Meta- 
phor is an implied comparison, --a compressed simile. 

The following are examples of metaphor found in the 
Eoics : 

Gest . Prol.3.1. Oddo. .praef ulgens gemmula 
Prol.3.2. (TDddoJ). ..f los.. .splendens 
Gest. 60. posset constare . . .mi les stelligera semper 

regnant is in aula 
Gest .SHO. Non tamen invenit , Christ i qiiam gratia texit 

3 . Me t onmy 

Metonmy is the use of one word for another suggested 
by it. The following instances are typical examples of 
those noted in the Epics: 

Gest. 496. . . .dextra tollebat avara 

613. Exortans patris imperio populumdare colla 

623. Alpibus accinctas a It is intraverat horas 

Prim, 349. Iurat...per cand idulum quoque collum 

None of the above figures of imagery is excessive, and 
in most cases their use is effective. Of the three types 
listed, namely, comparison, metaphor, and metonymy, the 
metaphor occurs most frequently, I !^ examples having been 
noted . 

Fie^ires of Amplification 

The characteristic feature of redundancy or amplifica- 
tion is the use of more words than are necessary for the 
complete logical expression of a thought. It may be 
accidental or deliberate; if accidental the result is 
faulty diction, such as diffuseness or tautology; if 
deliberate, the resulting elaboration is recognized as a 
legitimate figure of rhetoric. 

Except for the figure called Ars is -Thes is , examples of 
redundancy are infrequent in the Epics : 

1 . Per ipfiras is 

Periphrasis, a deliberate diffuseness, is a parade of 
words which elaborates in no wise the original thought. 

-20- 



The following examples may be grouped under this heading: 

Gest. 5. A saxo per duritiam mentis bene firmam 
298. Illius fusis viiltum lacrimis madefactum 
310. Sed clam subtristem servans in corde dolorem 

2. Pleonasm 

A typical example of Pleonasm, or the use of more 
words than are necessary to express an idea, has been 
noted : 

Gest. IIR3. Omneque maeroris pondus cunct ique dolor is 

3. Arsis -Thesis 

Perphrasis and pleonasm secure emphasis and definite- 
ness by the repetition of the same idea. Ars is -thes is , 
on the other hand, contrasts ideas by a scheme of nega- 
tion and affirmation, or vice -versa - -a form less common. 
No instances of the latter have been noted in the poems. 
The following, however, are typical of the former, 12 
instances of which have been noted. 

Gest. 299- Haut aptum tanto luctumdixere triumpho, 
300. Sed reddi grates regi debere perenni, 

Gest. 461- 1 11am nee habitare locis voluit segregatis 
463. Sed ceu reginam regnum trans ire per amplum 

Gest. 494- Nee solum ce Isae solium sibi proripit aulae, 
495. Sed simul, aerarii claustris eius reseratis 

Prim. 519- Nee vice terribilis metui petiit senioris, 

520. Sed bene mansueti genitoris ad instar amari: 

Prim. 553- Ocius in tumulo non absque dolore parato, 
554. Sed luctu nimio circumstantum madefacto. 

Figures of Repetition 

The figures of repetition differ from those in the 
preceding group in that the repetition is of words that 
have already been used. Quintilian includes them in 
the classification of the figurae verborum. per adiec- 
tionen. The relative position of the repeated elements 
affords a convenient means for classification. 

53 Quintilian, 9.3. 

-21- 



1. Anadiplosis 

Anadiplosis is a figure which involves the repetition 
of a word either immediately or after an interval. 
Quint i lian'*^ considers the latter form more effective. 
The repetition must he intentional. Just one instance 
has been noted : 

Gest . 361. Sic sic maerent is t ot o conamine cordis 

2 . Epenaphora 

Epanaphora differs from anadiplosis in that it re- 
quires the doubling of a word at the beginning of two or 
more phrases, clauses, or sentences. llrotsvit shows a 
fondness for this figure. The following are typical of 
the examples found in the poems, 10 instances of which 
occur : 

Gest, 334-Quidam iudicio quidni dantur capitali, (Iso- 
335 . Quidamde patr ia longe pelluntur amanda colon) 

Gest. 1179. In quis castellis, 

In quis voluitque locellis 

Prim. 421- Nunc dominatricis mando iure potent is, (Iso- 
422. Nunc etiammatiis mu Icendo more sua vis , colon) 

Prim. 497- Nunc pie subiectas monitis mulceret amicis, 
498. Nunc etiam verbis iuste terreret acerbis, 

It may be noted that in severa 1 of the above examples 
there is a combination of epanaphora with isocolon, or 
parison, or balance. The metrical scheme may have neces- 
sitated this arrangement. 

Figures of Sound 
Figures of sound are rhetorical devices in which the 
phonetic element plays an important rSle. According to 
Quint i lian^^ , they aim to attract the ear of the audi- 
ence and to excite attention through verbal resemblance, 
quality, or contrast. Because of the inflections in 
Latin it is difficult at times to distinguish deliberate 
examples from accidental ones. 

56 Qulntlllan, 9.3.28-29. 

57 Ibid. 9.3.66. 

-22- 



1 . PararKxnas ia 

Paranomasia consists in the occurrence of words of 
the same root which are similar in sound, but dissimilar 
in sense. Its use is infrequent in the poems: 

Gest . 479. Ut posset rg^num digne rgxisse relictum 

507. Qui, iikssis caotus regis non iusta iwbentis, 

S09. C lausam carcerei ciaustris servare cubilis, 

S70. Si forsan Zatebris regina Zateret in ullis. 

2. Polytoton 

Polytoton is a sound effect produced by the repeti- 
tion of the same word in different cases. The position 
of the repeated word is unimportant. The following are 
representative examples of those noted; 

Gest. Prol. 2.f>. Vilem ne spernas vilis textum monialis 
Gest. I. Postquam rex regun, qui solus regnat 
in aevum, 
9- Ilic pollens quantae fuerat bonitatis 
honore , 
10. F.t quanta popiilos rex it pietate subactos 
212. Et quod plus iiMSto non iiistan vim 

faciendo 
505. Solan cum sola committens namque one 11a 
1145. In saeclun saecli maneat laus 
omnipotent i 

3. Caca phony 

The figure of cacophony consists in a conscious jux- 
taposition of two words in which the last syllable of 
word immediately preceding is identical with the first 
syllable of the word immediately succeeding. It may be 
noted in the examples following, that the quantity of 
the vowel involved is often disregarded. Its occurrence 
lias been counted 14 times. 

Gest, 700. Gratis ut Ottoni venit se subde-^e "^e^gi 

724. In meliusque statum studuit converterc r^rum 

Prim. 148. Scilicet et regis compulsus amore perennis , 
225. Omn-rs esse locum firmabant sanct if icandum 
385. Optantes diei praesentes esse ce lebr i 
402. Carmine divinae laudis cla-^e resonare 
494. Ut , sese ssmper circumspiciens sapienter, 
498. Nunc etiam verbis ius te terreret acerbis, 
561. Scilicet ante dies octo tot idem qvioque noctes 

-23- 



4. Alliteration and Assonance 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same letter in 
words either immediately successive or at close inter- 
vals. It is most frequently, though not necessarily, 
the repetition of the initial letter of two or more suc- 
cessive words. Since in the Epics it is often linked 
with assonance, a figure which consists of the inten- 
tional repetition of the same letter or letters at the 
end of succeeding words, the two figures are grouped 
tinder one heading. Over 300 examples have been counted 
in the poems . 

Alliteration alone: 

Gest . 8S . Nobilitate potens , primis meritis quoque 
pollens , 
388. Eiusdem populi patriam petiit scelerosi, 
S09. Clausam carcerei claustris servare cubilis, 
539. Sub terra foveam facerent fodiendo secretam 
607. Ipsius Italicum iuri subiungere regnum 
623. Alpibus accinctas a It is intraverat horas 

Prim. 49^. Commissum caute sibimet servaret ovile 

532. Praeveniendo prior, vet it i pro crimine p>omi 
588. Quas matri cunctas in caelo consociatas 

Alliteration and Assonance: 

Gest. 170. I^eserat et plebem helium civile f ide lem 
284. Adducendo quidem multam secum legionem 
463. Sed ceu reginam regnum trans ire per amplum 

Prim. 152. Praesul Anastasius sedis sanctissimum huius 
164. Qui post pastorem Petrum F^ulumque magistrum 
420. Sic haec sancta suas caras instruxit a lumnas , 

Fijeoires of Vivacity 

The figures of vivacity are devices which give life, 
movement, and force to composition. All the figures are 
employed to vitalize the words. In the Epics none of 
these are excessive. 

1 . Asyndeton 
Asyndeton consists of the omission of connecting onr- 
ticles between co-ordinate groups. Asyndeton, termed 
dissolutio by Quint i 1 ian^® , tends to speed ur» or enliven 
the force of thought of a discourse. The following are 
the only examples noted: 

58 Quint Ulan , 9.3,50. 

-24- 



Gest. 431. Mansuetus, clemens, humilis nimiumque fide lis 
439. Quem pater egregius , rex et senior venerandus 
446. Gratiola peri.li coluit, provexit, amavit 

Prim. 24. Atque bonae famae generosae scilicet Aedae 

2. Rhetorical Question 

This figure occurs when a question is asked for ef- 
fect and not for an answer. Its purpose is to excite 
interest and to stimulate curiosity. Only one instance 
has been found in the poems: 

Gest. 273. Hi quid fecerunt, damnum qui tale tulerunt? 

3. Exclamatio 

Exclamatio is the expression of strong emotion to 
excite that emotion in others. The device resembles the 
rhetorical question in form and effect. Just two defi- 
nite examples have been noted: 

Gest. 163-167. O quam tranqui Hum. . .aevum. . .s i nonanti- 
qui . . .ca lliditas inimici turbaret 
nostrum. . .serenum! 
271-273. En, qui peccavi . . .ego vindictae dignus 
sun. . . tantae ! 

4. Apostrophe 

Apostrophe is a figure of speech which consists of an 
interruption in the flow of discourse in order to address 
one absent as though present. If a prayer may be con- 
sidered an apostrophe, the following instance in which 
Hrotsvit represents Ottoas address ing himself to Christ, 
is an example : 

Gest. 274-27^. Tarn nunc, Christe, tuis parcens miserere 
redempt is , Ne premat insontes iusto 
plus vis inimica ! 

5. Litotes 

Litotes is the making of an affirmation by the denial 
of its opposite. It lends rhetorical force and variety 
to discourse. The following are representative examples 
of its use in the poems--about 30 occurrences were noted: 

Gest. 172. Huius causa mali fuerat non parva dolendi, 
5177. In quo non parvo iacuit terrore gravata 

Prim. 120. Eius permissu cum non nodico comitatu 
227. At dux, caelesti non ingratus 

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Minor Figures of Rhetoric 

These figures, though natural in themselves (indeed 
many of them appear in Greek literature as early as 
Komer), through development by the disciples of the Sec- 
ond Sophistic, became highly artificial. Of these fig- 
ures the hyperbaton is by far the most numerous. To a 
very great extent this may be due to the "leonine rime" 
of the Epics . 

I . Hyperbaton 

Hyperbaton, or as Quint ilian terms it, verbi trans- 
gressio, is a device in which the natural order of words 
is broken; this is done for emphasis or for the sake of 
rhythm, and is found in both poetry and prose. Over 900 
instances have been counted in the poems. For conven- 
ience these have been grouped under four divisions and a 
few typical examples of each group cited: 

1. Separation of a noun and its modifier. These occur 
most frequently, especially in instances having the 
verb separating them. 

Gest . 71. Oddoni dignam iam d isponsaret ani:an 

94. Cermen sancto'^un quam producebat avorun 
102. Moxque suae dulci narrabat voce scroti 
105. Cumque suae monitis ment i instillaret amicis 
677. Obsequiis operan gessit regalibus aptan 
Prim, 34. flaec prostrata sacran solito iacuit secus a-^am 
60. Dum sua religio studio steterit bene firmo 

81. Ilaec igitur nodici demonstrat pagina libri 

82. Plenius, e causis rerun quern scrips imus harun 
97. Finetenus castae possent habitare pu£llae 

Kote. Another common instance of this separation is 
that between a noun and its participial or ger- 
undive modifier: 

Gest. 218. ...votis sed plus parendo nefarj,is 

278. Et dedit optatun miserans ex hoste t-^iunphum 

329. Se dedit e lee tun patri mor iens holocaustum 

479. Ut posset regnun digne rexisse -^elictun 

616. Corde siiper natum laeto nlaudebat anandu* 

59 Qulntlllan, 8.6.62. 

-26- 



2. Separation of a preposition and its object: 

Gest. 1R7. Ad sua max prolem secum deducit herilem 
244. Inter coenohii. . .secreta quieti 
571. Ipseque cum fort is sequitur turba legionis 
584. Intra namque suae muros urbis bene firnos 
1169. Quo post exilii pondus nimium grave duri 

3. Separation of an adverb and the word it modifies: 

Gest. 213. Ilium nox proprio deprivarent male regno 
255. Protexit de millenis persaepe per ic lis 
330. Sed nox consilium cunctis nudavit eorum 

Prim. 262. Quae nox expansis volitans praecesserat a lis, 

4. Separat ion 'Of a participle and its auxiliary verb, 
especially in compound tenses; it is usually found 
in conjunction with other hyperbata: 

Gest. 257. Esset ab adversis circundatus undique turmis 
601. Quae fuit insidiis regis circundat'a tantis 
681. Est quoque reginae fraterno iunctus amore 

Prim. 286. Quam perfecta domus domini foret inclita 
prorsus ; 



2. Ant 



onomas la 



Antonomasia is a figure in which objects are referred 
to by mention of their distinguishing qualities or by 
the substitution of an epithet as equivalent to the name 
which it replaces. To avoid the constant repetition of 
the name Otto, Ilrotsvit refers to him as: 

Gest. 36. rectorem plebi 

70. suo primogenito regique futuro 

1 04 . pr opr ia e pr o 1 i 

106. pueri regalis 

115 . nato amando 

120. rega li nato 

129. primogenitus venerandus 

152. rex 

215. regis fidelis 

240. regem benedictum 

353. rex pius 

439. pater egregius, rex et senior venerandus 

628. rex famosus 

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She speaks of God as: 

Gest. Prol . 2.3. rex altithronus 

1 . rex regum 

17. rex pacificus 

2.'> . Trina deltas 

3S. regis perennis --^sstm in both poems 

149. caelestis regis 

228. rex de caelis, iudex aequissimus orbis 

328. Agnijs F^schalis 

366. rege suo tenera de virgine nato 

114S. omnipotent i 

Henry, the brother of Otto, is called: 

Gest, 49. diicem fortem 

153. f rater venerandus 

154. prince ps 

183. fratrem generosum 
191. germani cari 
196. fratrem 
375. diicem potentem 
382. ducis tanti 

Other less important characters are variously refer- 
red to, but the above citations will suffice to illus- 
trate Krotsvit's use of antonomasia. 

3. Hyperbole 

Hyperbole is an intentionally exaggerated statement. 
It is in effect a magnified comparison. The one instance 
noted in Hrotsvit's Epics bespeaks a negligible use of 
the device . 

Gest. 255. Protexit de millenis persaepe periclis 

Of the other figures, hendiadys, oxymoron, paradox, 
and ant imeththes is , no definite examples have been noted. 

Devices of Parallelism 

Devices of parallelism, usually in combination with 
other figures, are quite numerous in the Epics of Hrots- 
vit. It is the skill of the poet in interweaving them 
with various figures that avoids both monotonous symmetry 
and excessive variety. 



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1. Isocolon 

Isocolon consists in the approximate syllabic equal- 
ity of succeeding cola. Since these might be ace identa 1 , 
especially in poetry, only those instances havebeen 
enumerated whose syllabic equality is combined with 
balanced structure. 

Gest. 200. Suspendens quosdam ligno reprobis reparato 
201. Quosdam de patria mandans discedere cara 

Gest. 293. Haut gaudens inimicorum de morte suorum, 

294. Sed plus tantorum maerens de caede virorum, 

Gest. 421. Nunc dominatricis mandando iure potent is, 
422. Nunc etiam matris mulcendo more suavis, 

Gest. 494. Nee solum ce Isae solium sibi proripit aulae, 
49S. Sed simul, aerarii claustris eius reseratis 

2. Parison 

Parison is a figure of isocolon with parallelism of 
structure. Succeeding cola have approximately equality 
in structure and length. It, too, is found in combination 
with other figures. 

Gest. Pref. 23. vel alio superveniente induceretur 

24. vel praecedentis vestigia subsequeretur 

Gest. 609. ftitris amor verus 

spes et gent is 

Gest. 648. Kic modo sublimem gaudens captaret honorem, 
649. Quo prius ingentem fuerat perpessa dolorem 

Prim. 418. Nunc terrore suas prohibet delinquere natas, 
419. Nunc etiam monitis bona velle suadet amicis, 

3. Chiasmus 

Chiasmus is a crosswise arrangement of contrasted 
pairs of words. As noted above it is often fotind combined 
with isocolon and parison, and most of the instances 
counted are used in this manner. The following, however, 
is not: 

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Prim. II. Prudens in verbis, 

in cunctis cautns agendis, 

4. Homoiote leuton 

Homoiote leuton is end rhyme of successive phrases or 
clauses. Because Latin is a highly inflected language, 
this figure may be accidental; if, however, as shown 
above, it is used with other combinations it may be in- 
tentional. Because of the type of verse structure of the 
poems, it is exceedingly numerous occurring in almost 
every line. A few representa t ive examples only are cited: 

Gest . 14. Nam fuit inmitis reprobis, blandus quoque iustis 
62S . Non be Hum movit, regi non obvius exit 
6955. Quern pius elegit, regem cum pace rediix it 

Prim. 10. Namque fuit strenuus, forma nimiumque decorus 
49. Quem matrona videns nee mortalem fore credens 
145. Quod votis gerimus, factis bene per f ic iamits 

5. Antithesis 

Antithesis is the artistic contrast of opposite or 
contrary terms. When used in sentences of balanced 
structure and approximate length, it is called antitheti- 
cal parison. The following, listed also under parison, 
is the only definite example noted: 

Gest. 648- Hie modo sublimen gaudens captaret honorem, 
649. Quo prius ingentem fuerat perpessa dolorem. 

The evidence of rhetorical ornamentation presented in 
the preceding sections is sufficient to show that, in 
general, Ilrotsvit manifests moderation and restraint in 
the use of rhetorical figures. Hyperbaton and allitera- 
tion are employed generously, but, since the poet chose 
to adopt "leonine rime", one could hardly say super- 
fluously. Her motive is never display. The simplicity 
and charm manifested in her Epics elevate them to a high 
level. Though her syntax is somewhat decadent, if con- 
trasted with that of writers from the second to the sixth 
century- -which would be grossly unjust --^fid she manifests 
a tendency to make every sentence analytical, yet her use 
of words, for the most part, is Classical, and in this 
respect her Latin is unsurpassed by the scholastic I^tin 

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of the Middle Ages®*'. Many echoes of pagan writers, as 
noted frequently in the Commentary by parallel passages, 
present clear evidence of her Classical background. 
Assuredly Krotsvit deserves an immortal place among the 
writers of the Middle Ages, even Taylor®^ grixigingly re- 
marking, "...the tiresome, but unquestionably immortal 
nun of Gandershe im. . . ". 

G. METRICAL STUDY 

This metrical study makes no pretense of being an 
exhaustive one. That would be impossible in a monograr^i 
of this type, if it is to be kept within a reasonable 
size. An exhaustive handling of this phase alone in 
Hrotsvit's work would assume the proportion of a large 
monograph. This study does, however, aim to include 
sufficient data to afford a general concept of Hrotsvit's 
hexameters . 

An examination of her technique has revealed some 
interesting features: 

1. Synizesis 

Synizesis, or the slurring of two vowels, is compara- 
tively rare and restricted to a few proper nouns. When 
it is employed in any except the* fifth foot of the verse 
the two vowels are regularly treated separately. The 
following are typical of the examples noted: 

Gest . 122. Nomine Livdulfum tantis genitoribus aptum 

421. Nomine iiudgardam, suimia bonitate coruscam 

Prim. 132. Exorans dux Livdulfus cum coniuge pronus 

448. i/iudgardis pie reginae bonitate precante 

Non -Synizesis involving one of the above nouns: 

Gest. 427. Erga regalem piierum domnum Livdulium 
450. Utque siio subdi nato faceret Litidiilfo 
735. Denique famosi natus regis it'udulfus 

2. Diastole 

Diastole, or the lengthening of short syllables, is 
occasionally employed by the poet through metrical neces- 
sity. Its use, however, is not excessive. 

60 Christopher St. John, p. xv. 

61 Taylor, vol. 2, p. 244 note. 

-31- 



Gest. 34. Ludendo seriem nunc lectitare recentem 

44. Edomat et gentes , Christo /avente , feroces 
295. Sumps it non modicum, Davidis more, lamentum 
3f>8. Nee horret hiemis saevum frigus fur lent is 
717. Se regnum pretio contestans emere magno 

3. Systole 

Systole, or the shortening of long syllables, is more 
common than diastole. In some words certain syllables 
are regularly shortened; in others, syllables are shor- 
tened only to accommodate the metre. Scclesia, which 
occurs about 16 t imes , always shortens the second syllable, 
but this practice is also found in Sedulius and several 
others. In -monaster iun the antipenult is regularly 
shortened. Other examples noted are: 

Gest, 214. Hoc quoque consilium perversa mente repertum 
557. Tunc iterate viam studuit percurrere coentam 
700. Gratis ut Ottoni venit se subdere regi. 
1494. Qualiter et recti conpunctus acumine zeli 

Prim. 121. Romam pergebant sanctique patris i;tsitabant 
211. Fit notum, fama cunctis prodente tocunda 
333. Inpatiensque morae domnam precibus ^iacat Qdam 
353. Utque /tat de me iuxta domini rogo ve 1 le 
404. Illic permansit domino tu^iter famulando 

Still other words that may be added to this list are: 
pie, suade lis , lamentus , detrinento. The following, 
however, may be considered a doubtful instance of pie: 

Prim. 448. Liudgardis pie reginae bonitate precante 
Stuide lis is variously employed: 

Gest. 644. Hoc quoque siiodelis exhortabatur amicis (long) 
744. Deceptusque ma lis permultorum siiodelis (short) 

4. Varying Quantities 

Varying quantity, before a mute and liquid in the same 
word, is common: 



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tenebrae : 

Gest. 350. Et , sub nocturnis nimium secreto tenebris 

(long) 
Prim. 195. Sub noctis claras tenebris arder* lucernas 

(short ) 



Prim. 149. Praesca sanctorum nobis sacra pignora , quorum 
(short) 
151. Apte signari sacris meritisque tueri (long) 

secretits : 

Gest. 552. Abscondens in secret is se cautius antris (long) 
Prim, 40. Quis foret ille, suum qui conturbare secretum 
(short) 

The above merely illustrate, Hrotsvit 's usage; other 
examples could be added. In nulie bris the, penult is 
regularly lengthened to fit the metrical scheme. 

5. Ultima of Gerunds 

The ultima, or final syllable of gerunds which are em- 
ployed frequently for present participles (cf. Intro, p. 
16) may be long or short. 

Prim. 421. Nunc dominatricis mandando iure potent is 
( long ) 
513. Ut ve 1 eas damno laedendo tangeret ullo 
Prim. 265. Cum sociis gradiendo sequi virguncula 
Chr ist i (short ) 
532. Praeveniendo prior, vet it i pro crimine pomi 
(short) 

6. Syllables preceding "h" 

Syllables preceding "h" are regularly short; only one 
exception has been noted: 

Gest, 358. Nee horret hiemis saevus frigus furientis 

-33- 



7. Notable Features 
Notable features employed for metrical necessity: 

a. Use of syncopated words --about 16 instances have been 
counted . 

Gest. 199. Auctores tanti condempnavitque piacli 
205. Cunctis horrendum saeclis meri toque 
stupe ndum 

b. Use of diminutives -cf . Introduction page 15. 

Gest. 372. Necnon post aliquot spatii tenpuscula parvi 
395. Istis sic habitis, properata diecula 
tr ist is 
Prim. 188. Necnon is s i Iva fuerat sita parvula villa 

8. Fondness Manifested 
Fondness manifested for: 

a. Terminating a verse with honor: 

Gest. 368. Prodiei tante pacem portantis honore 

585. Hicque sibi digne toto servivit honore 
Prim. 440. Necnon regalis decus accedebat honoris 

6. Using a combination with qtte to terminate the first or 
the fifth foot or both: --over 100 instances have been 
noted : 

Prim. 501. Ipsaque domna sui studio laixlabilis Oda 
Gest. 257. Esset ab adversis circumdatus undique 

turmis 
Prim. 219. Undique silvestris per gyrum denique 

va His 

c. Ending the foot with the word --examples are very 
nume r ous . 

Gest. 203. Protulit antiqui rursum mala fraus inimici 
Prim. 564. Nascitur Henrico famosus f i 1 ius Cddo 

-34- 



9. Elision 

The use of elision is very rare. A few occurrences of 
elision before "m" have been foiind, but only one instance 
to two vowels, one terminating the other beginning a 
word, has been noted. 

Gest. 10f>. Cumque suae monitis ment t instillaret 
amicis 

10. Marked Features 

Other marked features noted are: 

a. Verses with only one dactylic foot--more than 2f>0 
counted . 

Gest. 348. Tandem percerte forti devictus omore , 
Prim. SOO. Torpens affectus cordis permitteret eius 

b. Verses with all except the last foot dactylic - -about 
20 instances noted. 

Prim. S30. Qui pius urbicolis tribuit bona talia 
nostr is 

c. Absence of spondee in the fifth foot. 

d. An excessive use of a dactyl in the fourth foot and a 
spondee in the third foot --over 300 instances counted. 

Prim, 480. Postquam bis denos binos quoqite praefuit 
annos 

II. The Use of Caesura 

Both the frequency and the occurrence of caesura are 
quite irregular. The following examples are representa- 
tive of Hrotsvit's usage: 

Gest. 34. Odo, micans radiis nimium clarae bonitatis; 
IS5. Post regem, plebi merito venerabilis omni. 
189. Quo rex comperto, maerens sub corde secret© 

Gest. 295. Sumpsit non modicum, Davidis more, 
lamentum, 
426. Sed magis , ac iuste, dulci fervebat amore 

-35- 



Gest . 271. 'En, qui peccavi, dixit, facinusque peregi; 

Prim. 208. If>so quippe loco, sed pr isca , quo pr ius , hora 

248. Nee mora , cae lestem, quamquaerebat , pietatem 

12. Rhyme 

Since no definite scheme could be established, what- 
ever rhyme occurs at the end of verses must be purely 
accidental. Internal rhyme is general, but the following 
peculiarities were noted: 

a. ae rhyming with e or vice -versa -- about 40 times 

Gest. 365. In quo caelicolae pacem mundo cecinere, 
403. Quam plus maternae fovit pietatis amore, 

b. o rhyming with a or vice-versa - - This feature may be 
explained, perhaps, on the basis of analogy, since in 
the Middle German of that vicinity and approximately 
that period poetical works are extant containing in- 
stances of o rhyming with a. Cf . the following ex- 
ample mentioned by Tillman^^ j^i his dissertation: 

Nu sag mir geist vff dinen won 

Wie hoch mag es b^ss an den hymme 1 sin ge tan 

Both Paul and Weinhold discuss this characteristic. 
About 45 examples were noted in the epics. The fol- 
lowing are typical instances: 

Gest. 599. Pectore volvebat tacito per tempora longa, 
631. Qua certe capta, cuncti ve hit agmine facto 

c. A doubtful example of -as rhyming with -es : cf. note 
in Coinnentary , Prim. 53. 

Prim. 53. Inquit: 'Ne trepides nee perturbata pavescas 

d. Verses for which no rhyme could be es tab 1 i shed - -the 
following were noted: 

62 Tillman, p. 47 

63 Paul, p. 112. 

64 Weinhold, p. 85, sect. 90. 



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Gest . 279. lusto praedictos comites examine perdens. 

316. Kis ita digestis, modicum tempus requievit 
Prim. 177. Necnon accenso praeclaro lumine semper; 

Polheim®'* in a table of frequencies enumerates the 
various vowel combinations which occur in the rhymes of 
each poem and each work of Hrotsvit. 

From the preceding brief survey it is easily discern- 
ible that Hrotsvit, as might be expected of a writer in 
the tenth century, indulges in greater metrical license 
than one would expect of a writer or poet of Classical 
times. Cardinal Casquet®^ believes, however, that the 
poet showed much skill in the handling of the "leonine 
hexameter" . 



65 PolhelB, p. 6. 

66 Chr 1st opher St . 



■37- 



TEXT 

and 

TRANSLATION 



LIBER TERTIUS 

GESTA OTTONIS 

Gerbergae, illustri abbatissae, cui pro sui eminent ia 
probitatis haiit minor obsequela venerat ionis , quam pro in- 
signi regalis stermate gener os i ta t is , Hrotsvit Candeshemens ; 
ultima iiltimarum sub huiiismodi personae dominio militantium, 
5 quod famula herae. 

O mea domna, quae rutilanti spiritalis varietate 
sapientiae praelucetis, non pigescat vestri almitiem per- 
lustrare, quod vestra confectum si ignoratis ex iussione. 

Id quidem oner is mihi inposuistis, ut gesta caesaris 

10 augusti, quae nee auditu unquam affatim valui colligere, 

metrica percurrerem ratione. In huius sudore progress ionis 
quantum meae inscitiae obstiterit d if f icu Ita t is , ipsa con- 
icere potest is, quia haec eadem nee prius scripta repperi, 
nee ab aliquo digestim suf f ic ienterque dicta elieere quivi, 

15 sed veluti si aliquis neseius ignoti per latitudinem 
sa Itus esset iturus, ubi ormis semita nivali densitate 
velaretur obdueta, hieque nullodiice, sed solo prae - 
monstrantium nutu inductus, nunc per devia erraret, nunc 
recti tramitem eallis inprovise incurreret , donee tandem 

20 emensa arboreae medietate s pis s i t ud i n i s 

loeum optatae comprehenderet quiet is, illieque gradum 
f igens ulterius progredi non praesumeret, usquedum ve 1 
alio superveniente indueeretur ve 1 praecendent is vestigia 
subsequeretur : haut a liter ego, magnifiearum prolix itatem 

25 rerum iussa ingredi, regalium mult iplic itatem gestorum 
nutando et vacillando aegerrime transeurri, bisque ad - 
modum lassata competent i in loco pausando silesco nee 
augustalis proeeritatem excellentiae sine ducatu ap- 
pono subire. Si enim f acund iss imis d iser t iss imorum 

30 sententiis, quas ve 1 modo scriptas ve 1 ocius de his 

rebus non dubito fore scribendas, fuerim animata, fortasse 



-38. 



BOOK THREE 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF OTTO 

To Gerberga, renowned Abbess, esteemed no less for 
her integrity than for her illustrious descent from a 
royal race, I, Hrotsvit of Candersheim, the lowest of 
the Icwly of those serving under the sway of her lady- 
ship, wish to offer all that a servant owes to her mis- 
tress . 

my mistress, thou who enlightenest by the radiant 
diversity of thy spiritual wisdom, may it not irk thy 
kindliness to examine carefully what thou knowest has 
been written at thy bidding! 

Thou hast indeed imposed upon me the difficult task 
of narrating in verse the achievements of an august 
emperor, which thou art well aware was impossible to 
gather abundantly from hearsay. Thou canst surmise what 
great difficulties my ignorance puts in my way while en- 
gaged in this work. There were things of which I could 
find no written record, nor could I elicit information 
from anyone sufficiently reliable. I was like a stran- 
ger wandering without a guide through the depth of an 
unknown forest where every path was covered over and 
mantled with heavy snow. In vain he tries to follow the 
directions of those who are showing the way only by a 
nod. Now he wanders through pathless ways, now by 
chance he comes upon the trail of the right path, until 
at length, when he has traversed half of the thick- 
treed domain, he attains the place of long sought rest. 
There staying his step, he dares not proceed farther, 
until either he is led on by sqmeone overtaking him or 
follows the footsteps of one who has preceded him. In 
like manner, I, bidden to undertake a complete chronicle 
of illustrious achievements, have gone on my way stumb- 
ling and hesitating, so great was the difficulty of 
finding a path in the forest of these royal deeds. 

And so, wearied by my endeavor, I have lapsed into 
silence as I pause in a convenient resting-place. With- 
out guidance I propose to go no further. If, hcwever, 
10 I be encouraged by the eloquent treatises of the learned 
(either already written or in the near future to be 

-39- 



nanciscerer, unde me i rusticitas velaretur a liquant isper . 

Nunc autem omne latus tanto magis caret defensione, 
quanto minus u 1 la fulcitur auctoritale; unde etiam 

3.S vereor me temeritatis argui tendiculasque multorum non 
devitare convicii, eo quod pomp>osis facetae urbanitatis 
exponenda eloquentiis praesumpser im dehooestare inculti 
vilitate sermonis. Si tamen sanae mentis examen accesserii 
quae res recte pensare non nescit, quanto sexus fragilior 

40 scientiaque minor, tanto venia erit facilior; praesertim 
cum si meae praesumpt ionis , sed vestrum causa iussio- 
nis huius stamen opusculi coeperim ordiri. 

Cur tamen aliorum indicia formido, quae vestri 
solummodo censurae , si quid fefelli, obnox ia existo^ 

4'? ve 1 cur nequeam devitare convicia, quae solummodo si lent io 
studere debeo, ne , si seriem pro sui vilitate nuUi 
ostendendam velim propalari, merito omnium succumbam 
reprehensioni? Vestro autem vestrique fami 1 iar iss imi , 
cui banc rusticitatem sanxistis praesentatum iri, 

50 scilicet archipraesulis Wilhelmi, iudicio, quoquo- 
modo factum sit, aestimandum relinquo. 



Pollens imperii regnator caesariani, 
Cddo, qui regis pietate favente perennis 
In soeptris augustalis praeclarus honoris 
Augustos omnes superas pietate priores, 
5 Quem plures gentes passim metuunt habitantes, 
Muneribus variis Romanus donat et orb is! 
Exiguum munus ne spernas carminis huius, 
Iste sed ob latus laudum placeat tibi census, 
Ouem postrema gregis solvit tibi Gandeshemens is , 

10 Quem dulcis petrum collegit cura tuorum 

Continuumque tibi debet studium famulandi. 
Forsan gestorum plures scripsere tuorum 
Et sunt scripturi post haec insignia multi: 
Sed non exemplum quisquam mihi praebuit horum, 

15 Nee scribenda prius script i docuere libelli; 
Causa sed est operis tantum devotio mentis, 
-40- 



written) I might perhaps discover the means of veiling 
to some degree my homely simplicity. 

Now, however, in proportion as I am unsupported by 
any authority, I am defenceless at every point. I fear, 
too, that I shall be accused of temerity and that I 
shall encounter the reproaches of many, because I have 
dared to disgrace by my uncultured style matters that 
should be set forth with the festal eloquence of choice 
expression. Yet, if a person of good judgment, who 
knows how to appraise things fairly, examines my work, 
he will pardon me the more readily because of the weak- 
ness of my sex and the inferiority of my knowledge, 
especially since I undertook this little work not of my 
own presumption, but at thy bidding. 

Why, then, should I fear the criticism of others, 
since if I have erred somewhat, I become responsible 
only to your judgment? Or why can I not escape reproofs 
for those works about which I was anxious to be silent? 
If, because .of its crudeness , I should wish the work to 
be shown to none, should I not deserve the blame of all? 
To your decision, however, and that of your most inti- 
mate friend. Archbishop William, to whom you have bidden 
me present this testimony of my simplicity, I submit the 
work tobe appraised for its worth and its imperfections. 



Otto, mighty sovereign of the empire of the Caesars, 
who, renowned because thou wieldest a sceptre of im- 
perial majesty by the indulgent kindliness of the Eter- 
nal King, surpassest in integrity all foregoing em- 
perors, many nations dwelling far and wide reverence 
thee; the Roman Empire, too, bestows upon thee manifold 
honors! Do not reject the small offering of this poem, 
but may this proffered tribute of praises which the 
least of the flock of Gandersheim accords thee be pleas- 
ing. The kind solicitude of thy forbears has assembled 
it, and the constant desire of rendering service owes it 
to thee. Many, perchance, have written and many here- 
after will pwoduce masterful memorials of thy achieve- 
ments. But none of these has provided a model for me, 
nor have monographs hitherto written taught me what I 
should set down. But devotedness of heart alone is the 

-41- 



Haec et ad aixiendum suadebat opus metnendum. 
Nam sat formido, quod gesta tui tnodulando 
Incaute s im falsa sequens , non vera retexens : 

20 Sed non hoc suasit mala mis praesiimptio mentis, 
Nee summa veri contemota sponte fefelli: 
Sed res, ut scripsi, sese sic prorsus habere 
Ipsi dicebant, mihi qui scribenda ferebant. 
Hinc augustalis pietas non spernat honoris, 

25 Quod supplex humilis gessit devotio mentis; 
Et , cum te 1 ibr i laudantes congrue multi 
Post haec scribantur meritoque placere probentur 
Ordine postremus non sit tamen iste libellus. 
Quern pr ius exemplo constat scriptum fore nullo; 

30 Et , licet imperii teneas decus Octaviani, 
Non dedigneris vocitari nomine regis. 
Donee, perscripto vitae regalis honore , 
Ordine digesto necnon sermone decoro 
Dicatur sceptri decus imperiale secundi. 



Cddo, Romani praefulgens gemmula regni, 
Oddonis flos augiisti snlendens venerandi, 
Cui rex altithronus perpes quoque filius eius 
Praestitit imperium pollens in vertice rerum: 
5 Vilem ne spernas vilis textum monialis, 
Quern praesentari, si digneris reminisci. 
Ipse tui Claris iussisti nuper ocellis; 
Et cum perspicias maculis sordescere crebris, 
Ad celerem tanto veniam mox pronior esto, 

10 In monstrando tuis quantum plus pareo iussis: 
Si tis praecepto non urgerer metuendo, 
Non foret ullomodo mihimet fiducia tanta , 
Ut tibi praesentis scrutandum rusticitatis 
Aiiderem satis ex iguum praeferre libellum; 

15 Qui, praestante deo patri subiunctus in aula 
Ipsius et monitis promptus parere paternis, 
F^r decus imperii retines concord iter ampli, 
Conportans dextra sceptrum regale tenella. 
Sed quia te memini sublimiter assimilari 

20 Nato famosi regis David Sa lomoni , 

Qui genitore suo praesente iubenteque sancto 

-42- 



reason for this undertaking, and this urged me to dare 
the formidable task. Vet I am fearful that by verse I 
may be heedlessly tracing spurious deeds of thine and 
not disclosing authentic ones. But no baneful presump- 
tion of mind has urged me in this matter, nor have I 
voluntarily played falsely by a disdain of the truth as 
a whole. But, that the account, as I have written it, 
is true, those who furnished the material for me them- 
selves declared. Let not, therefore, the benignity of 
august majesty despise that which a lowly suppliant, 
devoted of heart, has achieved. And although hereafter 
many books may be written praising thee duly, and may be 
esteemed fittingly acceptable to thee, yet let this lit- 
tle book which has clearly been written from no earlier 
copy be not the last in order of regard. And although 
thou boldest the honor of Caesar's emperorship, disdain 
not to be called by the name of king, until, the fame of 
a royal life having been written, the imperial splendor 
of the second realm may be declared in an orderly fash- 
ion and in becoming language. 



Otto, resplendent ornament of the Roman Empire, 
bright scion of the august and revered Otto, for whom 
the mighty King throned on high and His Eternal Son des - 
t ined an empire strong in the zenith of its power: 
spurn not the poor composition of a poor nun! Thou, 
thyself, if thou deign to remember, hast lately ordered 
it to be presented to thy keen gaze; and when thou per- 
ceivest that it is marred with many blemishes, be then 
the more inclined to favor a speedy pardon, the more I 
am but obeying thy behest in presenting it to thee. If 
I were not urged by thy dread command, under no circum- 
stance, should I have such self-assurance as to presume 
to offer to thy scrutiny this little book with its ob- 
vious lack of polish. 

Thou, who by the decree of Cod art associated with 
thy father in his court and art ready to obey his pater- 
nal admonitions, boldest harmoniously a like distinc- 
tion of imperial rule, bearing the kingly sceptre in thy 
youthful hands. But since I know that thou are loftily 
considered like to Solomon, son of the celebrated King 
David, who, in his father's presence and at his revered 

-43- 



Optata regnum suscepit face paternum, 
Ipsius exemplo te contentum fore spero; 
Qui cum regnando resideret in arce superba, 

25 Prudenter legum condens decreta sacrarum 
Ac penetrans animo rerum secreta profundo, 
Nunc libet et minimis mentem laxare rimandis, 
Sed nee conflictum fast id it rite duariim 
Solvere iudicii celeri discrimine recti, 

30 Prolem restitiii verae mandans genitrici. 

Hinc supplex te posco quidem, nostrum Sa lomonera, 
Ut , licet imperii tenearis sollicitandi 
Cura , digneris tamen et propriae monialis 
Ixidendo seriem nunc lectitare recentem, 

35 Quo male compos it is verbis mox decidat omnis 
Rusticitas oris de tract ibns imperialis 
Nominis, et titulo signata tui venerando 
Despectus nimia merit i tueantur ab aura, 
-o- 
Postquam rex regum, qui solus regnat in aevum, 
Per se cimctorum transmutans tempora regum, 
Ivissit Francorum transferri nobile regnum 
Ad claram gentem Saxonum, nomen habentem 
5 A saxo per duritiam mentis bene firmam, 
Filius Odd on is magni due is et venerandi, 
Scilicet Kenricus, suscepit regia primus 
lusto pro populo moderamine sceptra gerenda. 

Hie pollens qiiantae fuerat bonitatis honore , 
10 Et quanta populos rex it pietate subaetos, 

Qua liter et reges merit is tunc temporis omnes 
Praeminet eximiis, excedit denique vilis 
Huius carminuli textum nimium vitiosi. 
Nam fuit inmit is reprobis, blandus quoque iustis, 
15 Summo conservans stixlio legal ia iura , 

Aequa satis merit is reddens quoque praemia cunct is 
Huic rex pacificus dederat de sidere Christus 
Eius civilem vitae per tempora pacem; 
Omine felici tenuit quoque culmina regni, 
20 Ni fa 1 lor, denos labentis temporis annos 
Necnon bis ternos multum fe lie iter actos, 
Conregnante sua Mathilda coniuge clara, 
Cui nunc in regno non compensabitur ulla, 
Quae posset merit is i 1 lam superare supremis . 



.44 



command, received tlie paternal kingdom amid desired 
peace, T hope that in accord with his example thou wilt 
be content. Though Solomon, as king resided in a proud 
citadel, wisely establishing the decrees of sacred laws 
and penetrating with profound mind into the secrets of 
nature, yet occasionally he was disposed to relax his 
mind with trivial investigations. But he did not loathe 
duly to settle, with the determination of a just and 
speedy decision, the quarrel of the two women, ordering 
the child to be restored to its true mother. 

Therefore, as a supoliant indeed, I request that 
thou, our Solomon, though the administration of a harass- 
ing empire occupy thee, deign to read now, for amuse- 
ment, the recent account by thine own poor nun: that 
thus all crudeness of utterance, in this treatise on thy 
imperial name, may presently disappear from the badly 
arranged words, and that enhanced by thy revered title, 
they may be guarded from the breath of well-merited con- 
tempt . 

-o- 

After the King of kings. Who alone rules forever, by 
Kis own power changing the fortunes of all kings, de- 
creed that the distinguished realm of the Franks be 
transferred to the famous race of the Saxons, a race 
which because of its steadfast rigor of spirit fittingly 
derived its name from rock, the son of the great and 
revered Duke Otto, namely Henry, was the first to re- 
ceive the kingly authority to be administered with mod- 
eration in behalf of a righteous nation- 
Just as he was pre-eminent for distinguished excel- 
lence, just as he ruled his subject nations with great 
kindliness, and just as he excelled all the rulers of 
his time through his extraordinary achievements, so does 
he in like degree exceed the power of expression of this 
homely little poem with its many defects. For he was 
inexorable to the wicked and gentle to the just, guard- 
ing legal rights with the utmost zeal and measuring out 
to all deserving followers just compensation. To him as 
long as he lived, Qirist, the peace-loving King, granted 
from on high civil peace; and he very happily retained 
the supreme power of the domain, if T mistake not, for a 
decade and twice six years of blessed memory; with him 
ruled his illustrious wife, Matilda, who now in the 
realm none will be found to surpass in exalted holiness. 
-45- 



25 Trina quibus deltas dederat tres deniqne natos 

lam tunc felici disponendo pie genti, 
Ne post Kenrici mortem, regis venerarxii 
Imperium regni male surriperent scelerosi, 
Tli sed rega 1 is na t i de germine stirpis 

30 Rexissent regnum concord i pace paternum; 

Qiiamvis djssimiles his servarentur honores , 
Binis regnanti siibiectis scilicet uni. 

Inter qiios pr imvis fulsit ceii Iiicifer ortus 
Cddo, micans radiis nimium clarae bonitatis; 

35 Gratia quern regis solita pietate perennis 
Rectorem plebi praevidit rite fideli. 
Hie aetate prior fuerat, merit is quoque maior, 
Congruus et sceptris defuncto patre gerendis. 
Non opus est verbis eius summam probitatis 

40 Dicere ve 1 pueri meritum laudabile tanti, 

Cui Christus ta lem iam nunc augessit honorem, 
Possidet ut Romam pollenti iure superbam. 
Quae semper stabilis sumnum fuerat cap»it orbis , 
Edomat et gentes , Christo favente , feroces , 

45 Q»iae prius ecclesiam laniabant saepe sacratam. 
Post hunc Kenricus fuerat feliciter ortus 
Inpositoque patris famosus nomine regis; 
Provida quem domini pariter sapientia Christi 
Dignatur servare ducem populo bene fortem, 

50 Belliger ut fortis, belli doctissimus artis. 
Fort iter ecclesiam praemuniret venerandam, 
Ceu murus iaculis obstans fortissinus host is. 
• Post hunc ecclesiae pastor Prun nascitur a Imae , 
Gratia pontificis quemduxit summa perennis 

55 Dignum catholici curam gestare pone 1 1 i ; 
Hinc quoque divino nutu patris pia cura 
Ipsum servitio Christi fecit religari, 
Abstractum gremio carae mitricis amando, 
I't regni pompis posset constare relict is 

60 Miles stelligera semper regnantis in aula; 
At Christus, patris sapientia vera perennis, 
Tironem refovendo suum clement ius istum 
Ips i dona dedit tantae praeclara sof+iiae, 
Quod non est illo penitus sapientior u 1 Ius 

65 Inter mortales fragilis muixl i sapientes. 



-46- 



Their union the Triune Cod blessed with three sons, 
thereby bestowing even then a grace upon the kindly 
race, so that after the death of the revered King Kenry 
no wicked men might evilly seize the control of the 
kingdom, but that these sons, descended from royal line- 
age, might rule their paternal realm in harmonious 
peace. Vet unlike distinctions were reserved for these 
princes, so that one was to rule and two be subject to 
him. 

Otto, the first born among them, shone as the morning 
star, beaming with a radiance of goodness famed far and 
wide. Kim the Eternal King with His wonted kindness 
destined as the ruler of a duly faithful people. He, as 
superior in age and likewise greater in achievements, 
was suited to wielding the sceptre when his father died. 
There is no need to express in words the full tale of 
his integrity, or the praiseworthy virtue of so distin- 
guished a youth, for whom even now Christ is so increas- 
ing his renown that he with weighty right is taking pos- 
session of haughty Rome --Rome which has ever been the 
great capital of the established world. And with Christ 
favoring him he is subduing the barbarian races who 
heretofore often disrupted Holy Church. 

Henry, born after him, was illustrious because he had 
received the name of his father, the king. In an equal 
degree the provident wisdom of Christ, the Lord, deigned 
to preserve him as a brave leader for his people, so 
that as a courageous fighter, well skilled in the arts 
of war, he might bravely protect Holy Church, stoutly 
warding off the weapons of the foe like a strong ram- 
part. 

After him was born Bruno, a nriest of Mother Church. 
Him the sublime grace of the Eternal High-priest deemed 
worthy to exercise care over a Catholic neople. Thus at 
the bidding of God, the kindly solicitude of his father 
has dedicated him to the service of Christ, so that, 
withdrawn from the cherished bosom of his dear mother 
and withdrawn from the splendors of the realm, he might 
be able to stand as a soldier in the star -swept court of 
the ever reigning Lord. But Qirist, the true wisdom of 
the Eternal Father, cherishing indulgently this His re- 
cruit, bestowed upon him such remarkable gifts of wisdom 
that there is none more utterly wise than he among the 
mortal sages of this perishable world. 

-47- 



His igitur puer is regali more nutritis, 
Ipsorum natri famoso denique regi 
Henrico placuit , fact is quod rite replevit, 
lit, vitae calidas sospes dum carperet auras, 

70 Ipse suo pr imogenito regique fiittiro 
CMdoni dignam iam disponsaret amicam, 
Quae propriae proli digne posset sociari. 
T-Ianc non in proprio voliiit conquirere regno. 
Trans mare legatos sed transmisit bene cantos 

7S Gent is ad Angloriim terram sat deliciosam, 
Demandans , ut cont iniio cum mnnere misso 
Aedwardi regis natam peterent Eaditham, 
Quae pat re defuncto iam tunc residebat in aula, 
Fratre suo regni sceptrum gestante paterni; 

80 Quem peperit regi consors non inclita regni, 
Istius egregiae genitrix clarissima domnae , 
Altera sed generis mulier satis inferioris. 

Flaec nam versiculis proles quam script ito regis 
llaec , inquam, fama cunct is fuerat bene nota : 

85 Mobilitate potens , pr imis merit is quoque pollens, 
Edita magnorum summo de germine regiim; 
Cuius praeclaro facies candore serena 
Regalis formae miro rutilabat honore ; 
Ipsaque perfectae radiis fulgens bonitatis 

90 In patria talis meruit praeconia laiidis, 
lit fore iudico plebis decernitur oimis 
Optima cunctarum, quae tunc fuerant , mulierum. 
Nee mirum, merit is si lucebat bene jM-imis, 
Cermen sanctorum quam producebat avorum: 

95 Hanc tradunt ergo natam de stirpe beata 
Oswaldi regis, laudem cuius canit orbis, 
Se quia subdiderat morti pro nomine Christ i. 

At regis nostri venientes denique missi 
Ad fratrem domnae iam tunc resident is in arce, 

100 Illi nudabant, quaecumque secreta ferebant. 
Quae sibi percerte comperta satis placuere ; 
Moxque suae dulci narrabat voce sorori, 
Exortans illam regi parere fideli, 
Illamqui propriae proli voluit sociari. 

105 Cumque suae monitis menti instil la ret amicis 
Qldonis dulcem, pueri regal is, amorem. 



-48 • 



When, therefore, the princes had been rearer! accord- 
ing to royal custom, Kenry, their ilhistrious father and 
king, decided in mind and carried out in deed that, 
while he was himself still breathing the warm breath of 
life, he would at once betroth to Otto, his first born 
son and the future king, a suitable maiden, that she 
could worthily be joined in wedlock to his own son. Ke 
desired to seek her not in his cwn dominion, but he sent 
duly experienced representatives to the charming land of 
the nation of the Angles, instructing them forthwith to 
go, with accompanying gifts, in quest of Edith, daughter 
of King Edward. Since her father was dead, she, even at 
this time, resided in court while the administration of 
the paternal domain was managed by her brother, whom an 
ignoble consort had borne to the king. The mother of 
this excellent maiden was most illustrious, but the 
other woman was of greatly inferior descent. 

For this daughter of a king about whom I compose 
verses was, I say, by reputation well kncwn to all. In- 
fluential because of her nobility and equally so because 
of her esteemed excellences, she was a descendant of an 
eminent family of great monarchs. Ker calm countenance 
was one of remarkable sincerity, and she was resplendent 
with a wondrous charm of queenly bearing. Adorned with 
a radiance of such exceeding goodness, she merited such 
a meed of praise in her native land tliat public opinion 
by a unanimous decision rated her the best of all women 
who existed at that time. Little wonder that she was 
conspicuous for eminent virtues, since she was descended 
from a family of sainted ancestors. For they say, fur- 
thermore, that she was descended from the blessed stock 
of King Oswald, with whose praise the universe resounds 
because he submitted himself to death for the name of 
Christ . 

But the representatives of our king, who had been 
commissioned with the embassy, came to the brother of 
the princess, who then was residing in the castle, and 
disclosed to him whatever official messages they bore. 
What he learned, officially pleased him exceedingly, and 
presently in a kind voice he related it to his sister, 
urging her to obey the exemplary king who wished her to 
be allied to his own son. And when, by friendly admoni- 
tion he had poured into her heart a sweet love for Otto, 
the royal prince, then the brother with exceeding dili- 
gence, gathered countless treasures. But when he deemed 

-49- 



Colligit innumeras summo conamine gazas. 
Ast iibi collect! visum fuerat satis ipsi, 
Praedictam sociis domnam comitantibus aptis 

110 Trans mare percerte siimnK) direxit honore , 
Condonans illi gazas nimium pretiosas; 
Necnon germanam secum transmisit Adivam, 
Quae fuit aetatis meriti pariterque minoris: 
Quo sic maiorem prorsus conferret honorem 

lis Oddoni, nato f amos i regis amando, 

Egregiae binas stirpis mittendo puellas, 

Ut sibi, quam ve 1 let , sponsam licito sociaret. 

Aspectu primo sed mox Eadit veneranda, 

lure placens cunctis habitu summae bonitatis, 

120 Regal i nato censetur congrue digna. 

Haec illi dulcem peperit clarissima prolem, 
Nomine Liudulfum, tantis genitoribus aptum; 
Quern populus merito dilexit amore tenello, 
Exoptans prolongari vitam satis ipsi. 

125? Istis sic habitis, instabat denique finis 

Kenrici regis; cuius mortem gemit omnis 
Tllius imperio populus iurique subactus. 
Quo nam defuncto, regnum s usee pe rat CDDO, 
Eiusdem primogenitus regis venerandus ; 

130 Et , voto cuncti iam respondente pope 1 1 i , 

Unguitur in regem, Christo praestante, potentem. 
Cui rex gratiolae caeli munuscula tantae 
Contulit, ut digne cunctis celeberrimus ipse 
Cestorum reges fama praecelleret omnes , 

13S Oceanus refluis quos nam circumfluit undis. 
Insuper e tantis ipsum sacra dextra potent is 
Protegit insidiis occulta fraude paratis 
Et tam magnificis ornat persaepe triumphis, 
Ut credas regem David regnare fidelem 

140 lam nunc antiquis fulgentem rite triumohis; 
Nee solum gentes frenis moderat bonitatis, 
Quae prius imperio patris dederant sua col la, 
Sed multo olures certe sibi vindicat ipse, 
Subdens gentiles Qiristi servis nationes, 

145 Quo pax ecclesiae fieret stabilita sacratae. 
Ad be 1 lum certe quoties processerat ipse, 
Non fuerat populus, quamvis virtute superbus, 
I-aedere qui posset ve 1 exsuperare valeret 
Ipsum caelestis fultum solamine regis; 

150 Eius nee cess it telis exercitus ullis, 
Ni sua spernendo forsan regalia iussa 

-50- 



that enough had been arressed, he dispatched the princess 
carefully with suitable attendants across the sea, heap- 
ing high honors upon her and bestowing upon her the 
riches exceedingly precious. With her he sent her sis- 
ter, Ad iva , who was younger in years and likewise in- 
ferior in merit. Thus he bestowed greater honor upon 
Otto, the loving son of the illustrious king, by sending 
two girls of eminent birth, that he might lawfully es- 
pouse whichever one of them he wished. But at first 
sight the revered Edith, truly pleasing at once to all 
because of the endowments of her great goodness , was 
deemed duly worthy to be the consort of a royal prince. 
And this illustrious lady bore him a dear son, I-iudulf 
by name, a son worthy of such parents. The people, 
praying that life for him be duly prolonged, rightly 
cherished him with a teivler love. 

Thus these matters occurred, and finally the end ap- 
proached for King Henry. At his death, the whole nation 
subject to his just rule mourned. And after his demise 
Otto, the venerable first born son of the king, fell 
heir to the kingdom. And with the responsive prayer of 
a unanimous people, he, with the approval of Christ, was 
anointed into the mighty kingship. Upon him the King of 
Heaven bestowed gifts of such sweet grace that he, wor- 
thily distinguished in a 1 1 respects, eclipsed by the re- 
nown of his achievements all the kings whom the ocean 
with its reciprocal waves enfolds. Moreover, the holy 
Kand of Cod protects him from great and mighty snares 
devised by secret treachery, and so often honors him 
with splendid triumphs that one may believe that even 
now it is the faithful King David, duly resplendent with 
ancient triumphs, who is seated on the throne. Not only 
did he maintain his power by the bonds of kindliness 
over the tribes who had previously surrendered to the 
sway of his father, but on his own part he reduced many 
more to his authority, subduing the pagan nations into 
the service of Christ, so that a firm peace might be 
established for Holy Church. 

As often as he set out for war, there was not a 
people, though haughty because of its strength, that 
could harm or conquer him, supported as he was by the 
consolation of the Heavenly King. Nor did his army give 
way to any assault unless, perchande, in scorning his 

-51- 



'^^'Z":^^ 

^'^n 



U. OF ILL MB. 



Illic piignaret, quo rex idem nrohiberet. 

At dux Henriciis, f rater regis venerandus , 
Princeps in regno fuerat tunc nempe quieto 

IS'? Post regem, plebi merito venerabilis omni. 
Qui sibi condigne legali iunxit amore 
Arnulfi natam, ducis egregii, generosam, 
Nomine ludittam, vultus splendore coruscam 
Ac fulgore magis cunctae nitidam bonitatis. 

160 Mis ita digest is, fuerat pax undique nostris 
Ad tempus modicum libitoque minus populorum, 
Bellorum certe saevo clangore tacente. 

O quam tranquillum ridens deduceret aevum 
Fortunata satis nostrae res publica gent is , 

16'> Quae nimis imperio regis regitur sapientis, 
Si non antiqui male calliditas inimici 
Turbaret nostrum secreta fraude serenum! 
Denique, devictis aligenorum bene telis, 
Exoritur nostris subito d iscord ia fortis, 

170 Laeserat et plebem be 1 lum civile f ide lem 

Plus quam bellorum structure frequens variorum, 
Muius causa mali fuerat non parva dolendi, 
Denique. conf lictus quorundam non mode rat us , 
Ex quibus Henrico quaedam pars mente benigna 

175 Devovit regis fratri ius vernuHtatis, 

P^rs Evurhardo comiti stiKdium famulandi. 
At cum quisque sui peteret solamina donni, 
Kinc gravior dotninis discordia nascitur ipsis. 
Tandem percerte conflictu progred iente , 

180 Praedictus praeses , male collectas legiones 
Mox ad caste Hum Baduliki capiendum 
Ex inproviso mittens sub nocte nigella, 
Dux it captivum fratrem regis generosum 
llenricum, vinclis pa lira s str ingendo cruent is 

185 Eius candidolas, ornamentis magis aptas; 
Atque suas gazas disperdens innumerosas, 
At sua mox prolem secum deduxit her i lem, 
Utitur ut socio proprii domini quoque nato. 
Quo rex comperto, maerens sub corde secreto, 

190 Deflevit tristis nimium miserabi le factum; 



-52- 



kingly commands it fought where the king haH forbidden 
it to fight. 

But Duke Henry, the esteemed brother of the king, re- 
spected by the people because of his goodness, was then 
155 second to the king in the peaceful realm. fie in lawful 
wedlock duly allied himself to Judith, the noble daugh- 
ter of the distinguished Duke Arnulf. Her countenance, 
resplendent in beauty, was the more charming by reason 
of the lustre of every virtue. 

After these events, while the clangor of war remained 
160 stilled, there was peace far and wide for our people, 
which was not in perfect harmony with the warlike ten- 
dencies of the other tribes. 

O what a serene age the pleasant and truly fortunate 
nation of our people would have enjoyed, ruled as it was 
165 by the sway of a truly wise king, had not the wicked 
cunning of the ancient foe disturbed our" placid exist- 
ence by his secret wiles! 

In fine, when we had happily escaped the blows of the 
barbarians, a powerful dissension suddenly arose among 

170 our people, and civil war harassed the faithful folk 
more thian the oft repeated preparations of diverse wars 
without. The cause of this doleful evil was no trifling 
one, and the struggle of certain individuals was not 
kept within bounds. New of these, some who were kindly 

175 disposed towards Kenry promised to the brother of the 
king feudal loyalty, while others promised like zeal to 
Eberhard. 3ut when each sought the solace of his own 
master, then the strife on the part of the leaders them- 
selves became the more serious. At last with the con- 
flict actually progressing, the aforesaid Eberhard pres- 

180 ent ly sent without warning, under cover of dark night, 
soldiers levied with evil intent, to seize the fortress 
of Beleke, and he led Henry, the noble brother of the 
king, captive, binding with cruel chains his white hands 

185 better suited for adornment. And plundering his bound- 
less wealth, he brought with him to his own lands the 
noble offspring of his feudal lord, so that he was using 
the son of his own superior as a hostage. 

When the king learned this, he grieved in his inmost 
190 soul and wept with deep sadness over the heinous deed. 

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Vix luoqiie geriTHni damnum patiens grave cari, 

Nobile mox Ahrahae factum sequitur patriarchae. 

Quod miserans egit, dum Ix>th ex hoste redemit; 

Mi 1 it ibiisque suis summo conamine lectis 
19S Necnon inmodica tota de gente caterva, 

Pompa regali pergit solamina fratri 

Ferre sub ingeuti cordis languore dolentis. 

Nee mora, quem venit fratrem refovere, redemit 

Auctores tant i condempnavi tque piacli, 
200 Suspendens quosdam ligno reprobis reparato, 

Ouosdam de patria mandans discedere cara. 

Kis bene dispositis regis iussu sapientis, 
Protulit antiqui rursiim mala fraus inimici 
Inventum sceleris pr imo mage deter ior is, 

205 Cunctis horrendum saeclis meritoque stupendum. 
Denique praed ictus postquam rediens Evurhardus 
Praeses ab exilio patriam remeabat amandam, 
Hoc sibi gratiola regis praestante benigna, 
Cislberhto comiti vinclis sociatus amoris 

210 Consilium dederat, Cquod non tibi, Christe, placebat), 
lit canerent iustum regem, domini benedictum. 
Et quod plus iusto non iustam vim faciendo 
Ilium mox proprio deprivarent male regno. 
Tioc quoque consilium perversa mente repertum 

215 Kenrico regis fratri suasere fide lis, 

Mulcentes nimium verbis ipsum male bland is, 
Quo pr ius il latum nollet iam reddere damnum, 
Ipsorum votis sed plus parendo nefandis 
Susciperet regnum, depulso fratre, regendum. 

220 Qui, male blanditis tandem victus suadelis, 

(Pro dolor) ipsorum se promisit fore prompt um 
Votis, ac firmis hoc conf irmavera t orsis; 
Sed spero certe non se sic corde tenere, 
II lis consensum sed vi praebere coactum. 

225 Qui, male namque spei vacuae solamine ca pt i , 
Sperabant regem populos olim dominantem 
Ipsorum fragili citius subiungere iur i . 
Sed rex de caelis, index aequissimus orbis, 
Cunctorum solus qui cognoscit cogitatus 

230 Vanaque mortalis pot is est disperdere cordis. 



-54. 



Moreover, he brooked not the painful loss of his dear 
brother but presently followed in his own action the 
well-kncwn deed of Abraham, which that patriarch in com- 
passion performed in ransoming I-ot from the enemy. With 
the greatest pains he chose his soldiers and a huge 
crowd from the whole people, and then proceeded in 
solemn processiofi to bring consolation to his princely 
brother in the great weariness of his grieving heart. 
Without delay he ransomed the brother whom he came to 
comfort, and he condemned the instigators of the das- 
tardly crime, hanging some of the criminals on a scaf- 
fold, and commanding others to depart from their dear 
native land. 

When by the order of the wise king these matters had 
been properly taken care of, a wicked plot of the an- 
cient enemy again prof erred a device of crime worse by 
far than the first one and truly for all ages a thing to 
be shuddered at in dread. In fine, the aforesaid lead- 
er, Eberhard, returned from exile to his cherished fa- 
therland, the kindly favor of the king making his return 
possible. To Gilbert, his companion, to whom he was 
joined by firm ties, he had given advice ^which to Thee, 
Christ, was displeasing), urging him to seize the 
Christian king, the blessed of the Lord. And he said 
that by making injustice prevail over justice they 
would soon deprive him of his own kingdom. Further, 
they urged this plan, product of a depraved heart, upon 
Henry, brother of the faithful king, wickedly coaxing 
him with flattering speeches not to be minded to repay 
the; wrong he had previously suffered, but rather, by 
obeying their infamous desires, to depose his brother 
and receive the kingdom to rule. 

Conquered at last by viciously delusive persuasions, 
Henry, alas, promised that he would be ready for their 
demands and this he confirmed by strong oaths; but I 
hope that he did not feel thus in his heart, but that he 
had been constrained by force to agree with them. For 
they, captivated with the wicked solace of an idle hope, 
expected to subdue to their frail sway the king ruling 
our various peoples. But the King of Heaven, the most 
just Jixige of the world, Who alone knows the thoughts of 
all and is able to destroy the delusions of the human 
heart, brought to naught the fabrication of his heinous 
crime by the strength of His mighty hand which created 

-55 - 



Commentum tanti sceleris virtute potent is 
Dextrae confregit, qua cuncta creata creavit: 
Scilicet insidias chr isto domini reparatas 
Vertit in auctores tanti meritoque piacli; 
235 Qnique suo laqueos domino tendere malignos, 
Ex ipsis ipsi pr irmim sunt illaqueati. 

Non me plus licito tantae sophiae fore iacto, 
Ut sperem plene verbis edicere posse, 
Quanta gratiolae Christus virtute supernae 
240 Saepius hunc ipsum regem digne benedictum 

Fecit multiplices sa Ivum percurrere fraudes 
Necnon insidias hostili parte paratas; 
Sed nee hoc fragilis fas esse reor mulieris 
Inter coenobii positae secreta quieti, 

245 Ut be 1 lum dictet, quod nee cognoscere debet. 

246 Haec perfectorum sunt conservanda virorum 

249 Sudori, quis posse dedit sapientia mentis 

250 Ormia compositis sapienter dicere verbis 
248 Hoc dico solum, (recte quod dicere possum): 

247 Principium qui cunctarum, finis quoque rerum, 

251 Qui solus semper fecit miranda potenter 
Quique, David regem toties de fraude fidelem 
Eripiens Sauli, sceptrum regni dedit ipsi, 
Hunc par iter regem David pietate sequentem 

255 Protexit de millenis persaepe periclis. 

Denique, cum solus, praepauco mi lite saeptus , 
Esset ah adversis circumdatus undique turmis , 
Insuper atque fugam propriae partis male factam 
Pectore maerenti ferret nimiumque dolenti 

260 Credere nee paucis sese praesimieret ipsis, 
Ilium qui reliquis non deseruere relapsis, 
Saepe ratus tantum se mox graviter moriturum: 
Ocius auxilii fultus virtute superni, 
Miratur turbae se iam superare cruentae 

265 Tantas absque suae fraudes discrimine vitae. 
At s i forte suos , pugna crescente sinistra, 
Audivit socios letali vulnere laesos, 
Praedicti regis lacrimans mox utitur ors is , 
Quae maerens dixit, tristi cum pectore sensit 

270 Ictibus angelici popii lum gladii periturum: 
'En, qui peccavi, dixit, facinusque peregi; 
Kinc ego virxiictae dignus sum denique tantae! 

-56- 



the whole universe. He duly turned the intrigues pre- 
pared against the anointed of the Lord against the pro- 
moters of this heinousness, and they who wove malign 
235 snares for their lord were themselves the first to be 
entrapped by their cwn devices. 

I do not boast that I am of such great wisdom--more 
than is seemly--as to hope to be able to express fully 
in words with what great strength of heavenly grace 

240 Christ, again and again, arranged it that this very king 
deservedly blessed passed unharmed through manifold 
snares and plots prepared by a hostile faction. But I 
do not think it fitting for a frail woman abiding in the 

245 enclosure of a peaceful monastery to speak of war, with 
which she ought not even to be acquainted. These mat- 
ters should be reserved for the toil of qualified men, 
to whom wisdom of mind has granted the ability to ex - 

250 press all things wisely in eloquent terms. I relate 
this only which I can rightly recount: He, VVho is of 
all things the beginning and likewise the end. Who alone 
has ever performed wondrous deeds powerfully, and Who 
many times snatched faithful King David from the in- 
trigues of Saul and gave the power of the throne to 

255 David: Ke in an equal degree, amid a thousand perils, 
over and over again protected Otto, the imitator of 
David in goodness. 

And finally, when alone and supported by very few 
soldiers. Otto had been surrounded on all sides by hos- 
tile forces, and in addition was enduring with a sorrow- 
ing heart arxl excessive grief a wicked desertion on the 
part of his own adherents and dared not entrust himself 

260 even to his own few supporters who did not desert him, 
though the others had fled, he thought many a time that 
he was soon grievously to die. Then quickly supported 
by the strength of aid from on high, he had to marvel 
that he was new overcoming the treachery of the blood - 

26^ thirsty mob without hazard to his own life. If haply, 
with the fight progressing unfavorably, he heard that 
his companions were suffering from mortal wounds, he 
wept and presently made use of the words of David, words 
which that ancient king had spoken when he saw with sad- 

270 ness of heart that the oeople were to perish from the 
blows of an angel's sword: "Lo" , he said, "it is T who 
have sinned and I have committed the crime; I therefore 
am worthy of such vengeance! What have these done, who 

-57- 



Hi quid fecerunt , damnum qui tale tulerunt? 

lam nunc, Christe, tuis parcens miserere redempt is 

27S Ne premat insontes iusto plus vis inimical' 
Has igitur preculas miserans divina potestas 
F^rcebat regis solita pietate ministris 
Et dedit optatum miserans ex hoste triumphum, 
Iusto praedictos comites examine perdens. 

2B0 Ipso namque die, quo, decepti vacua spe, 

Speravere suis cons tr ingendum fore vinclis 
Regem, qui merito tenuit regalia sceptra, 
Ex inproviso praeses proruperat lido, 
Adducendo quidem multam secum legionem, 

28S Ac subiit validum forti luctamine be Hum; 

Nee mora, percussus periit gladiis Evurhardus, 
Cislberhtus saevis fugiens quoqiie mergitur undis. 
At rex interea nescit tarn fortia bella. 
Averse quidni residens in litore Reni, 

290 Nee tunc auxilii scivit solamina tanti 

lam, miserante deo, subito casu sibi missa . 
Denique dum pugnae sens it discrimina tantae , 
Haut gaudens inimicorum de morte suorum, 
Sed plus tantorum maerens de caede virorum, 

295 Sumps it non modicum, David is more, lamentum, 
Qui super occisum doluit regem pie Saulum. 

Ast iibi victores laeti venere , videntes 
lilius f us is vultum lacrimis madefactum, 
Haut aptiim tanto luctum dixere triumpho, 

300 Sed reddi grates regi debere perenni. 
Qui tunc impleri fecit pietate f ide 1 i , 
Quod patet in libro regis scriptum Sa lomonis , 
Dicentis iustum de tristitia liberandum 
Necnon iniustum pro iusto mox fore dandum. 

305 His mentem regis demiilceixlo suadelis, 

Ipsum tristitiam cogunt deponere tantam 

Et bene victrici congaudentem legioni 

Se post bella suis blandum praebere ministris. 

Qui nam, laetiti^m vultu monstrans moderatam, 

310 Sed clam subtristem servans in corde dolorem, 
Reddebat grates imo de pectore Qiristo, 
Non dederat propriis ipsum quia tunc inimicis 
Praedam, sed dextra protegit rite sunerna ; 
Ipsius titulum tanti clarimr^ue trivimphi 

315 Non sibi, sed Christi designavit pietati. 

-58- 



have suffered so great a loss? Even now commiserate 
them, O Christ, sparing those whom Thou hast redeemed, 
lest a hostile force overwhelm the innocent too much!" 
Having compassion, then, by reason of these prayers, the 
Divine Power with Its wonted benignity spared the ser- 
vants of the king, and in Its mercy granted the wished 
for triumph from the enemy, destroying by a just test 
the aforesaid companions. For on that very day on 
which, deceived by a vain trust, they hoped that the 
king, who rightly held the royal power, would be enfet- 
tered with their chains, Duke Udo, unexpectedly bringing 
with him a large force, hastened forward and with vigor- 
ous effort entered into the mighty war. Speedily then 
was Eberhard smitten by swords and destroyed, and Gil- 
bert, fleeing, drowned in a raging stream. But the 
king, meanwhile, tarrying on the opposite bank of the 
Rhine, did not knew of so fierce a struggle, nor did he 
then know that the solace of such powerful assistance 
had already, through the mercy of God, been suddenly 
sent to him. Finally, when he realized the intensity of 
the fight, he rejoiced not at the death of his enemies, 
but rather mourned at the slaughter of so many men, 
lamenting unrestrainedly in the manner of David, who had 
grieved piously because of the slaying of King Saul. 

3ut when the victors came joyfully and saw his coun- 
tenance moistened with flowing tears, they declared that 
grief was unsuited for so signal a triumph, but that 
thanks ought rather to be given to the Eternal King, Who 
by Kis constant kindliness had then brought about the 
fulfillment of what is clearly written in the Book of 
King Solomon, who says that the just shall be freed from 
distress and the unjust soon be given over to justice. 
Soothing the mind of the king with these persuasive 
words, they urged him to lay aside his deep sadness and 
to rejoice duly with his victorious troops and to dis- 
play a happy countenance before his subjects after' the 
wars. The King, then, exhibiting a moderate joy of face 
but secretly nursing a sad grief in his soul, returned 
thanks to Christ from his inmost heart because He had 
not given him over as booty to his enemies, but had, by 
Kis divine power, duly protected him; and the distin- 
guished title of the victory he had won he attributed, 
not to himself, but to the benignity of Christ. 

-59- 



His ita- digest is, modicum tempus requievit 
Civilis belli populus luctamine lassus . 
Sed nee sic veteris finem sumps it dolus host is, 
Qui semper fragiles temptat pervertere mentes , 

320 Post factum facinus suadens superaddere peius. 
Fertur percerte quorundam pectora bile 
Tanto pestiferi tandem penetrare veneni, 
Ut mortem regi vellent inferre fideli 
Ipsius et fratrem poyxjlo praepotiere regem; 

32f> Nee timuere diem paschae sanctum maeulare, 
Si posset fieri, fuso cum sanguine iusti. 
Sed non consensit tant i commissa piac 1 i 
Agnus pasehalis, qui pro nobis redimendis 
Se dedit electum patri moriens holocaustum: 

330 Sed mox consilium cunctis nudavit eorum, 

Et sic insontis salvatus erat bene sanguis; 
Quique rei placiti sunt inventi scelerosi, 
Pro modulo culpae poenis damnantur amaris: 
Quidam iudicio quidni dantur capita li, 

335 Quidam de patria longe pelluntur amanda . 

Post haec ftenricus, frater regis generosus, 
Christi gratiola tactus sub corde secreto, 
Secum tractavit summoque dolore revolvit. 
Contra iustitiam quicquid perfecerat unquam. 

340 Hoc quoque deflevit nimiis persaepe lamentis. 
Quod male blanditis horum cess it suadelis, 
Ipsum qui verbis corruperunt simulatis. 
Sed quamvis ta lem ferret sub corde dolorem, 
Praesentare tamen spatii per tempora longi 

345 Non se regal i praesumebat faciei; 

Absens sed cordis studio florente dolentis 
Optabat veniae dari munus sibi dulce. 
Tandem percerte forti devictus amore , 
Ilico poena lem proicit de corde timorem 

350 Et , sub nocturnis nimium secreto tenebris 
Adveniens, in rega lem se contulit urbem. 
In qua natalem regis celebrare perennis 
Rex pius obsequiis coepit sollempniter apt is. 
Depositisque suis ornament is pretiosis, 

355 Simplicis et tenuis fruitur ve lamine vest is. 
Inter sacratos noctis venerabilis hynrios 
Intrans nudatis templi sacra limina plant is; 
Nee horret hiemis saevum frigus furientis, 
Sed prono saeram vultu prostratus ad aram 

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After these events, the nation rested for a brief 
period, exhausted by the struggle of civil war. 3ut 
even then the guile of the ancient foe, which always 
seeks to pervert feeble hearts, did not cease, but after 
the deed of ill urged the addition of a worse crime. 
The enemy is said to have entered the breasts of certain 
men with such frenzy of destructive poison that they de- 
sired to inflict death upon the faithful king and to ap- 
point his brother as ruler over the nation; nor did they 
fear to desecrate the holy day of Easter with the shed- 
ding of the blood of the just king, if only they could. 
But the Paschal Lamb, Who gave Kimse If in death as a 
chosen holocaust to His Father for our redemption, per- 
mitted not the commission of that hideoijs crime. But 
presently He exposed their plan to all men, and thus 
happily the blood of the innocent king was saved, and 
those who were found guilty of the accursed crime were 
condemned to bitter punishment in proportion to the 
measure of their guilt. Some were sentenced to execu- 
tion, and others were exiled far from their dear native 
land . 

After these events, Kenry, the noble brother of the 
king, touched in his inmost heart with the grace of 
Christ, pondered within himself and reflected with 
great sorrow upon what wrong he had ever committed in 
the face of justice. And he wept frequently with exces- 
sive tears over this fact also, that he had wickedly 
yielded to the alluring persuasions of those who by 
their hypocritical speeches had seduced him. But, al- 
though he bore this grief deep in his heart, neverthe- 
less for a long period of time he dared not approach the 
royal presence; but keeping aloof, in the burning zeal 
of his sorrowing heart he longed for the granting of the 
sweet gift of pardnn. At last, conquered by strong 
love, he forthwith thrust from his bosom fear of punish- 
ment; and, arriving very stealthily under cover of noc- 
turnal darkness, he entered the royal city, in which the 
holy ruler, solemnly and with fitting ceremonies, had 
begun to celebrate the Birthday of the Eternal King. 
There, laying aside his costly jewels, he donned a gar- 
ment of simple and thin texture, and amid the venerable 
hymns of the Holy Night he entered the sacred threshold 
of the church with bare feet, shuddering not at the bit- 
ter cold of the raging winter, but with downcast coun- 
tenance prostrating himself at the sacred altar and 

-61- 



350 Corpus frigoreae sociavit nofjile terrae. 
Sic sic maerentis toto conamine cordis 
Optans praestari veniae munus sibi dulce. 
Quo rex comperto, victiis pietate benigna 
Instant isqiie memor festi ciinctis venerandi, 

36f> In quo caelicolae pacem mundo cecinere, 
Laet i rege suo tenera de virgine nato, 
Ut pie salvaret mundum merito neriturum, 
Pro d ie i tantae pacem portantis honore 
Condoluit miserans fratri commissa fatenti 

370 Atque suam pie gratiolam concessit habendam 
Tlli cum veniae dilecto munere plenae ; 
Necnon post aliquot spatii tempuscula parvi 
Ipsius iuri proceres subiurtxerat ormes 
Famosae nimium gent is 3a ioa riorum, 

375 Ipsum nempe ducem merito faciendo potentem: 
Et post haec ultra fuerat discordia nulla 
Inter eos , animis fraterno foedere iunctis. 
Avaresque per hunc saevi saepissime victi 
Post Jiaec Ottonis regnum regis spatiosum 

380 Non laedunt telis consueto more cruentis 
Tangere nee cont ingentes audent nationes. 
Ex terrore ducis tanti nimium tremefacti; 
Hie quia, prudent is functus valitudine mentis, 
Kis hominum monstris be His obstans iteratis 

38S Ad nos pergendi calles secluserat omnes . 

Insuper et primus, Christi munimine tutus, 
Audenter cum subiectae pJebis legione 
Eiusdem populi patriam petiit scelerosi, 
Inpugnans gentem cunctis retro namque rebellem; 

390 Scilicet et spoliis rerum captis variarum, 
Quas sibi communes collegerunt prius hostes 
Orbis perplures devastantes regiones, 
Uxores procerum soboles ra^xiit quoque dulces: 
Et sic prostratis rediit gaudens inimicis. 

39S Istis sic habit is, pronerata diecula tristis 

Venerat, ingentem nostris augendo dolorem, 
In qua p>raefulgens meritis regina supremis 
Aedit praesentis vitae discessit ab hor is , 
Ipsius imnerio gent i faciens famulanti 

400 Tristitiam necnon nimium cordis cruciatum 

Eius in abscessu; magno quam denique liictu, 
Et non inmerito, flevit plebecula cuncta , 

-62- 



throwing his princely form upon the icy earth. Tlius , 
thus with the whole strength of his grieving heart he 
longed to have the sweet gift of a full pardon vouch- 
safed to him. When the king became aware of his desire, 
he was overcome by a benign kindliness; and mindful of 
the approach of the feast of universal veneration on 
which the heavenly hosts sang peace to the world in 
their joy at the birth of their King, from a tender Vir- 
gin, that Ke might generously save the world which de- 
served to nerish. Otto, in deference to the greatness of 
that peace -br inging day, pitied his repentant brother 
and sympathized with him in his admission of his offen- 
ses. And in his kindliness he granted him the enjoyment 
of his favor along with the loving gift of a full par- 
don. And after some small interval of time he subor- 
dinated all the chiefs of the renowned tribe of the 
Bavarians to Fenry's jurisdiction and duly appointed him 
their mighty leader. And now that their hearts were 
united in brotherly concord, there was thereafter no 
further disharmony between them. The fierce Avars fre- 
quently conquered by Henry, subsequently no longer 
harassed the extensive realm of King Otto in their usual 
manner with bloody arms, nor did the neighboring tribes, 
in their dread of the doughty Duke, dare molest the 
kingdom. Because he acted with the vigor of an under- 
standing mind, preventing these continuous destructive 
wars of men, he had barred all the avenues of approach 
to us. Besides and foremost, safe with the strength of 
Christ, he courageously sought (xit with a troop of con- 
quered people the native land of this same wicked race, 
fighting against the nation that was rebellious against 
all other men. For, taking possession of the various 
spoils which the common enemy had gathered as it laid 
waste very many sections of the world, he carried off 
also the wives and dear children of the leaders; and 
when he had thus vanquished his foes, he returned in 
joy. 

When these affairs had thus occurred, the mournful 
day for intensifying our deep sorrow speedily came for 
us, the day on which Queen Edith, resplendent with 
eminent virtues, left the confines of this present life, 
causing by her death sadness and excessive grief of 
heart to the nation serving under her jurisdiction. 
With intense grief--and fittingly so--the whole race 
mourned her, a race which she had cherished with a love 

-63- 



Quam plus maternae fovit pietatis amore, 
Quam dominatr icis iussis confringeret artis. 

405 Cui licet a Christo requiem sine fine perennem 
Necnon laetitiam iustis retro reparatam 
Praestari citius iam non dubitaverit ullus, 
Qui meritum vitae scivit laudabile castae 
Ipsius ac mitem, gessit quam denique, mentem: 

410 Attamen humanae pro consuetudine causae 

Non minim, popu lus planctum si sumps it amarum, 
Dum sibi tam subito fuerat spes tanta retracta 
Et facies dotmae nimium regal is amandae 
Necnon subiecti praefulgens gloria regni 

41.S Mandatur terrae gremio servanda sub amplo, 
Donee assurgat non corruptumque resumat. 
Quod nunc includit tumulus, praenobile corpus. 

Kaec igitur puerum supra paucis memoratum 
Acriter orbatum dimit tebat Liudulfum 

420 Femine i dulcem sexus iinam quoque prolem, 

Nomine Liixigardam, summa bonitate coruscam, 
Mor ibus et facie similem matri venerandae. 
In quas percerte soboles mox stirpis amandae 
Affectu cordis populus deducitur omnis 

425 Magno. pro meritis summis utriusque parentis. 
S^d magis , ac iuste, dulci fervebat amore 
Erga regalem puerum domnum Liudulfum, 
Ipsum spe mentis tota complexus amant is . 
Hicque, sibi naturales imitans bene mores, 

430 Extiterat cunctis blandus dulcedine mentis, 

Mansuetus, c lemens , humilis nimiumque fide lis; 
llinc quoque gratiolam, Christo praestante benigno, 
Tantam promeruit meritam digneque recepit 
Gent ibus in cunctis patris imperio religatis, 

435 Ut , quicumque suae saltim praepaucula famae 

Verbula conciperet latebris propensiiis auris, 
Ipsius in dulcem totus raperetur amorem, 
Absentem venerans animis dominum studios is. 
Quern pater egregius, rex et senior venerandus , 

440 Dilectae matris mortem graviter patientem, 
Affectu patrio necnon pietate benigna 
Digno percerte iam sublimavit honore , 
Subiecti faciens regni digne dominari. 
Necnon Liudgardam simili causa venerandam, 

445 Unica femine i quae spes sexus fuit illi, 
Cratiola parili coluit, provexit, amavit. 

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of motherly kindness rather than had dominated with the 
severe ordinances of a tyrannical queen. 

405 No one who knew the pre-eminent merit of her chaste 

life and the kindly disposition which she persever ing ly 
manifested will doubt that rest eternal without end will 
be vouchsafed her by Christ and that the joy prepared 
for the just will speedily be granted her. But, never- 

410 the less, in accordance with the way of the human heart, 
there can be little wonder that the nation spent itself 
in bitter bewailing, when such a solace had suddenly 
been witMrawn from them and the queenly countenance of 
their dearly beloved mistress, the resplendent glory of 

415 a conquered kingdom, was entrusted to the earth to be 
preserved in earth's spacious bosom until she should 
rise again and re inhabit the body, rendered incorrup- 
tible, which the tomb new imprisons. 

She, therefore, left her son Liudulf, mentioned a few 

lines above, bitterly bereft, as well as her sweet and 

420 only daughter, Liutgarda by name, resplendent with the 

utmost excellence and like to her revered mother in 

appearance and character. 

Toward these children of lovable lineage the entire 
people was presently drawn with great affection of heart 

425 because of the pre-eminent merits of both parents. But 
more so, and even justly so, the nation cherished the 
princely boy. Prince I.iudulf, with a sweet love. And 
he, charming as he was, gentle, indulgent, humble, and 
exceedingly faithful, practicing well all the traits 

430 natural to himself, predominated over all hearts by his 
affability. Hence, too, with the beneficent Christ be - 
stowingHis grace, he worthily merited and received such 
favor, that whosoever, among all the tribes subjected 

435 under the sway of his father, received, with ear ever 
ready, even the slightest report of his fame, was wholly 
engulfed with a sweet love for his absent lord, cherish- 
ing him with a zealous heart. Kim did his renowned 
father, king and esteemed sire, grieving intensely over 
the death of his beloved mother, exalt with paternal 

440 affection and benign kindliness and with worthy distinc- 
tion making him rightful master of a subject race. With 
equal favor he cher ished , protected, and loved Liutgarda , 

445 likewise respected for her noble lineage, who was 
his only daughter. Ker he allied in marriage to Duke 

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flanc quoque Conrado vinclis sociavit amoris, 
Egregio strenuoque duci nimium quoque forti, 
Munere qui talis dignus constabat honoris. 

4fi0 Utque suo subdi nato faceret Liudulfo 
Miiltum devotae perfecto mentis amore 
Francorum gentis dominos praenobilis a Imos 
Necnon primates Siievoriim scilicet omnes, 
Ipsi legali praepulchram foedere iungi 

45f> Tdam iussit, Tlerimanni natam due is a Imi , 

Qui fuit illustris princeps in partibus illis. 
1-laec quoque regalis fuerat consortia prolis 
Pro meritis oropriae probitatis digna subire 
Ac vice reginae summo veneratur honore , 

460 Rege iubente quidem per consuetam pietatem; 
Illam nee habitare locis voluit segregatis 
Rex idem, nati digne succensus amore, 
Sed ceu reginam regnum trans ire per amplum. 
Quo sic dilectus sentiret filius e ius 

465 Dulcia gratiolae semper munuscula magnae , 
Ipsi cum sponsa regni sociatus in aula. 

Jnterea rex Italicus gravido Hlotharius 
Infectus morbo, mundo discessit ah isto, 
Italiae regnum linquens merito retinendum 

470 Summae reginae, sibi quam sociavit amore. 
Regis Rothulfi fuerat quae filia magni, 
Edita magnorum longo de stenmate regum; 
Cui nomen clarum dictavit summa parentum 
Nobilitas, illam digne vocit?»ns AEthe Ihe itham. 

475 Kaec quoque regalis formae praeclara decore 
Atque suae causis personae sedula dignis 
Factis regali respondit nobilitati: 
Scilicet ingenio fuerat praelucida tanto, 
Ut posset regnum digne rexisse relirtum, 

480 Si gens insa doUim mox non dictaret amaruiti. 
Denique defuncto, quem praedixi, Hluthario, 
Pars quaedam plebis fuerat, quae, retro rebellis 
Menteque oerversa propriis dominis inimica, 
Restituit Beringarii regnum ditioni, 

485 Quod, patre defuncto, raptum violenter ab illo, 
Olim per manus regis<deven it^Hugonis . 
Optato certe qui sublimatus honore 
Detegit, invidii quicquid sub nectore tristi 
Cess it, dum regni deflevit damna paterni; 

490 Felleque plus iusto cordis succensus amaro, 
Fudit in insontem concretum quinpe furorem. 



.66- 



Conrad, illustrious, active, and exceedingly brave, who 
was clearly worthy of the tribute of this distinction. 

450 And in order to cause the friendly rulers of the 

noble race of Franks and all the chieftains of the Suevi 
to be subjected to his son Liudulf in the perfect love 

455 of devoted hearts, he ordered Ida, the lovely daughter 
of Herman, a kindly disposed ruler and a renowned chief 
in those regions, to be united to his son in lawful wed- 
lock. This princess was worthy to be allied to the son 
of a king because of her own excellence, and she was 
revered with queenly honor, in accord with the accus - 

460 tomed piety of the king's command. This king, duly af- 
fectionate toward his son, did not wish her to dwell in 
places far removed, but wished her to cross the exten- 
sive rea Im as a queen, that thus his beloved son, shar- 

465 ing along with his father and his spouse the privileges 
of the royal court, might always realize the kindly 
gifts of his father's favor. 

Meanwhile, the Italian king Lothar , stricken with a 
fatal illness, departed from this world, rightly leaving 
the kingdom of Italy to be ruled by the will of the 
470 eminent queen whom he had made his wife. She was the 
daughter of the mighty Rudoloh and had descended from a 
long line of renowned monarchs. The distinctive nobili- 
ty of her parents required an illustrious name for her, 
and she was appropriately called Adelaide. 

475 She was a woman illustrious in the comeliness of her 

queenly beauty and solicitous in affairs worthy of her 
character, and by her actions she corresponded to her 
regal -lineage. She possessed such ore -eminent natural 
abilities that she could have ruled worthily the state 
bequeathed to her, if the nation itself had not present - 

480 ly given evidence of vile treachery. Now when Lothar, 
whom I mentioned before, died, a certain faction of the 
populace with perverted and hostile s^^irit offered re- 
sistance to their own sovereigns and restored the king- 

485 dom to the sway of Berengar, on the ground that at the 
death of his father it had once been snatched from him 
by violence through the instrumentality of King Hugo. 
Now Berengar, exalted by the attainment of this long 
desired distinction disclosed all the hatred he had 
nursed inhis baleful breast, deplor ing the whi le the loss 

490 of his father's kingdom. And enraged with an inordina- 
tely bitter animosity of heart, he extended his pent up 

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Iniustam vim reginae faciens AEthe Ihe ithae , 
Quae regnans illi damnum non fecerat ullum. 
Nee solum ce Isae solium sibi proripit aulae, 

495 Sed simul, aerarii claustris e ius reseratis, 
Omne , quod invenit, dextra tollebat avara , 
Aurum cum gemmis varii generis quoque gazis 
Necnon regal is sertum praenobile front is, 
Ornatus nee partieulam dimiserat ullam; 

500 Nee timiiit pn-opriis illam spoliare ministris 
Cbsequiis quoque personis regalibus aptis 
Regalique potentatu Cmiserabile dietu); 
Postremo quoque pergendi pariterque manendi, 
Quo vellet, libertatem male denegat omnem, 

SOS Solam eum sola committens namque jxje 1 la 

Servandam cuidam eomiti sua iussa sequent i. 
Qui, iussis eaptus regis non iusta iubentis, 
Non metuit propriam eulpae sine crimine domnam 
Clausam eareerei elaustris servare eubilis, 

510 Circumdif fus is eustodum denique turmis , 
Ut mos personas est servari seelerosas. 
Sed, qui de vinclis Petrum tollebat llerodis, 
Kane, quando voluit, miti pietate redemit . 

Certe dum variis animo foret anxia cur is 

SIS Nullaque spes sibimet eerti solaminis esset, 

Praesul Adhelhardus, factum deflens miserandum 
Vixque suae damnum carae patiens grave domnae, 
Illi transmisit missum mox namque secretum, 
Utque fugam caperet, monitis suasit studiosis, 

520 Ac peteret mur is urbem struetam bene firmis, 
Quae capLit ipsius constabat pont i f icatus ; 
Kie loca praesidii mandans tutissima certi 
Illi, cond ignum quoque praeberi famulatum. 
Kis nam regales monitis pulsantibus aures , 

525 Inelita de mandate lis regina benignis 

Laetior exoptat vinclis absolvier artis; 
Quid faceret, tamen ignorat, quia nulla patebat 
lanua , quae somno pressis custodibus alto 
Illam nocturnis pateretur abire sub hor is . 

530 Sed nee personam causa famulaminis ullam 

Subiectam sibi earcereis possedit in antris, 
Ipsius implendis esset quae sedula iussis, 
Ni supradictam solumriodo namque puellam 
Necnon presbiterum vitae laudabilis unum. 

535 His ubi eontinuis narraret cuncta lament is, 



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fury against the innocent, perpetrating unjust violence 
against Queen Adelaide, who as queen had done him no 
harm. Not only did he seize the throne of the illus- 
trious court, but at the same time he unbarred the doors 

495 of the treasury and carried off with grasping ftand 
everything he found; gold, jewels of various kinds, 
treasures, and the lordly crown to grace a king's brow; 

500 no single detail of adornment did he pass by. lie feared 
not to deprive her of her own attendants and those 
suited for waiting upon royal personages, and --dreadful, 
to ment ion ! --her queenly sovereignty. Lastly, too, he 
maliciously denied her all freedom of going or likewise 

505 of abiding where she wished, commanding her to go forth 
with but one lady-in-waiting and to be guarded by a 
minion, subject to himself. This man, prisoner of a 
king whose injunctions were far from just, dreaded not 
to guard his own mistress, guileless though she was, and 

510 to keep her enclosed by the barriers of a prison-like 
cell with guards spread about the place in a manner cus- 
tomary for patrolling criminals. But He who freed Peter 
from the chains of Kerod released her, when lie willed, 
with tender kindliness. 

While she was undoubtedly distressed in soul by di- 
515 verse apprehensions and had no hope of certain consola- 
tion, the Bishop Adelhard, deploring the obnoxious deed 
and not brooking the pa infill loss of his dear queen, 
presently sent a secret message and urged her with zeal- 
ous exhortations to attempt flight and to direct her 
520 course to the city well built with strong ramparts which 
he had established as his Episcopal See. He directed 
that quarters offering the safest possible protection be 
provided for her and that a worthy servant be given her. 
When these admonitions came to her royal knowledge, the 
illustrious queen, now the more joyful by reason of 
525 these kindly provisional bequests, longed to be libera- 
ted from the chains that bound her fast. Vet she knew 
not what to do, since no door stood open to allow her to 
escape during the nightly hours while the sentries were 
overwhelmed with deep sleep. 

530 In this prison dungeon she had no one subject to her 

as a servant, to be solicitous in discharging her de- 
mands, except only the maid mentioned above and one 
priest of exemplary life. Now when, with constant weep- 

535 ing, she had told them with bitterness of soul all that 

-69- 



Quae maerens animo miiltiim volvebat amaro, 
Vot i cimnmunis placito visum fuit illis. 
Res melius verti, studio si forte latenti 
Sub terra foveam facerent fodiendo secretam, 

.'>40 Per quam de vine J is possent evadere duris. 
Haec ita percerte constat completa fuisse 
Ocius, aux i 1 io Chr is t i praesente benigni. 
Nam caute fovea iuxta placitum reparata, 
Advenit liber tati nox apta recent i , 

54f> In qua, dum somnus plebis perserperet artus, 
Tantum cum sociis regina piissima binis 
Custodum fraudes fugiens evaserat omnes 
Atque viae spatium noctis sub tempore tantum 
Pertransit, plant is quantum valet ergo tenellis. 

^^0 Sed , mox ut scissis cess it nox furva tenebris 
Atque polus radiis coepit pallescere solis, 
Abscondens in secret is se cautius antris. 
Nunc vagat in silvis, latitat nunc denique sulcis 
Inter maturas cereris crescentis aristas; 

SSS Donee nox, solitis rediens induta tenebris 
Cbtegit rursum nebulo terram tenebroso: 
Tunc iterato viam studiut percurrere coeptam. 

Denique custodes, illam non invenientes, 
Narrabant factum cnmiti nimium tremefacti. 

S60 Cura cui conservandae fuit indita domnae . 

Qui, terrore gravis percussus corde timoris, 
Pergit cum sociis illam nerquirere multis; 
Et cum deficeret nee iam dinoscere posset, 
Quo regina suum tulerit clarissima gressum, 

.S6.'> Detulit ad regem r?eringarium timidus rem. 

Hie quoque , continuo nimiam conversus in iram, 
Circunriuaque suos subito mittebat a lumnos 
Praeeipiens illos nullum transire loeellum, 
Sed caute cunctas iam perlustrare latebras , 

•^TO Si forsan latebris regina lateret in ullis. 
Tpseque cum fort is sequitur turba legionis, 
Ceu qui vult hostes bello superare feroees, 
Et rapido segetem cursu peragravit eandem. 
In cuius sulcis latuit tunc domna recurvis 

'>7.'» Vjaec , quam quaereba t , cereris contecta sub alis; 
Sed, licet hue illucque locum nereurreret iosum, 



•70. 



she meditated in her grief stricken heart, it seemed to 
them, under the guidance of common prayer, that their 
fortunes would be changed for the better, if with stealthy 
zeal they dug and so made a secret tunnel under the 
earth through which they might be able to escape from 
the heavy chains of bondage. Thus it is evident that 
these happenings were accomplished the more speedily by 
the present support of the benevolent Christ. For when 
a tunnel had been made ready according to agreement, 
there came a night appropriate for immediate freedom, a 
night during which while sleep stole over the limbs of 
mankind, the virtuous queen fled with only two compan- 
ions and eluded all the snares of the guards. And under 
cover of night she traversed as much ground as she could 
upon her tender feet. 

But presently, as soon as dusky night scattering its 
shadows had withdrawn, and the heavens began to redden 
with the rays of the sun, she concealed herself in se- 
cluded caverns. And now she would wander in the wilder- 
ness and now lurk in furrows amid the ripened ears of 
growing grain, until night returning enrobed in its 
wonted darkness enshrouded the earth again with its 
sable cloud. Then a second time she took pains dili- 
gently to pursue the path begun. 

At last the guards, not finding her, apprehensively 
related the fact to a count upon whom the duty of safe- 
guarding her majesty had been imposed, and he, grievous- 
ly frightened in heart, proceeded with many comrades to 
seek her out. And when he grew weary and was as yet un- 
able to learn whither the distinguished queen had directed 
her course, he with great fear of heart reported the 
matter to King Berengar. The king, too, immediately 
flew into a passion of anger and began instantly sending 
his subordinates in every direction, instructing them 
not to pass by a single spot, but to examine minutely 
every hiding place on the chance that the queen might 
lie concealed in some such ambuscade. And he himself 
followed with the full force of a brave legion, as if he 
were a man out to conquer a fierce foe man. In his 
speedy course he passed through the very gra infield in 
whose winding furrcws the lady whom he was tracking down 
was hidden under the protecting curtain of blades of 
growing grain. But although he ran hither and thither 
through the very section, in whicli she, a victim of numb- 
ing fear, was screened from sight, and though with all 

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In quo non parvo iacuit terrore gravata, 
Et quamvis circumpos it os disiiingere culmos 
Nisibus extenta cunctis temptaver it hasta, 

580 Non tamen invenit, Qiristi qiiam gratia texit. 
Ast ubi confusus rediit nimium quoque lassus, 
Praesul Adelhardus mox advenit venerandus 
Induxitque suam gaudenti pectore domnam 
Intra namque suae muros urbis bene firmos; 

S85 Kicque sibi digne toto servivit honore , 
Donee maiorem Christo miserante decorem 
Regni suscepit , pr idem quam maesta reliquit. 

Denique nostrates quidam, tunc experientes 
Reginam domino desolatum fore caro, 

S90 Cuius praedulcem gustaverunt pietatem, 

Quando per Italiam coeperunt pergere Romam, 
Eius mult iplicem recitati sunt pietatem 
Crebrius Ottoni, magno tunc denique regi, 
Augusto sed Romani nunc denique regni, 

59f> Nullam dicentes aliam consistere dignam 
Tecta sub ipsius tha lami regalia duci 
Post obitum domnae f lend urn cunctis Eadithae. 
Et rex laetatus tantae dulcedine famae , 
Pectore volvebat tacito per tempora longa , 

600 Ouo pacto sibi reginam coniungeret istam, 

Quae fviit insidiis regis circumdata tant is ; 
Venit et in mentem praedictum denique regem, 
Qui quondam patriis fuerat depulsus ab arvis 
Eius et auxilio citius miserante reductus, 

605 Ingratum fore nunc donis tantae pietatis. 

Kinc quoque mox ad i turn sibimet provide rat aptum 
Ipsius Italicum iur i subiungere regnum. 
Hoc ubi colloquio sensit narrante paterno, 
fttris amor verus , spes et gent is , Liudulfus, 

610 Non sua sollicitans, patris sed comnoda tractans, 
Praepaucis secum sociis secreto resumptis, 
Italiam petiit fortique manu pene'travit, 
Exortans patris imperio populum dare colla; 
Moxque redit, clarum referens sine marte triumphum. 



■12 ■ 



his strength he tried to part the siirrounding stalks 
with his extended spear, yet he found not her whorr the 
grace of Christ \\ad shielded. But when he had retraced 
his steps in bafflement and weariness, the holy Bishop 
Adelhard presently arrived and with joy in his heart 
conducted his queen within the goodly strong walls of 
the city we have already described. Kere with all re- 
spect he duly attended her, until from the compassiona- 
ting Christ she received the recompense of a kingdom 
greater than the one she had previously relinquished in 
distress . 

Finally, some of our countrymen, perceiving then that 
the queen had been bereaved of her dear lord, and remem- 
bering tliat they had been the recipients of her benefi- 
cent kindness when they had begun their advance through 
Italy toward Rome, frequently repeated to Otto, then a 
great king, but now also Augustus of the Roman Empire, 
her manifold benevolences. They declared that none 
other was so worthy as she to be conducted to his royal 
marriage couch, after the demise of the queenly Edith, 
who was mourned by all. 

The monarch was overjoyed with the suavity of so won- 
drous a reputation, and he pondered f or a long time in 
his inmost heart as to how he might unite this queen 
unto himself in marriage, surrounded as she was by the 
craft of a wicked king. At length the aforesaid monarch 
remembered that, at one time when he had been expelled 
from his own native lands he quickly had been restored 
by the sympathizing support of this same queen, he 
would now be acting ungratefully in return for her bene- 
ficences . 

Therefore he presently saw a fitting means of joining 
the Italian kingdom to his own. Now when Liudulf, the 
true love of his father and the hope of his race, had 
learned of this plan from conversation with his father, 
he proceeded to action, not under the impulse of his own 
ambition, but with a view to benefits toward his sire. 
Taking with him in secret a very few companions, he made 
for Italy and entered it with a small band, urging the 
inhabitants to submit to the sway of his father. Pre- 
sently he returned, bringing with Kim a famous triumph 
without bloodshed. 

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61S Quo rex comperto popiilis narrantibus Otto 
Corde super natiim laeto plaudebat amandum, 
Jpsius causa qui nam discrimina tanta 
Audacter subiit, gentem turbando ferocem. 
Htque labor talis non frustraretur amor is, 

620 Ipse quidem gentem festinus adivit eandem, 

Plebis non parva propriae comitante caterva ; 
Regal is pomnae vario comptusque decore 
Alpibus accinctas altis intraverat horas. 

Tlis Reringarius compertis obs tupefactus , 
625 Non be 1 lum movit, regi non obvius exit, 
Sed se sa Ivandum caste llo protinus apto 
Intulit, in tutis posito firmisque locellis. 
At rex famosus noster, virtute superbus, 
AiKdacter satis ignotas pertransiit horas 
530 Italici ftpiam regni cepit quoque domnam. 
Qua certe capta, ciincti ve hit agmine facto 
Qiiaerentes regem proceres venere recentem 
Certabantque suo iur i se subdere magno. 
Ouos nam more suo suscepit mente benigna, 
635 Promittens ipsis eius munus pietatis. 

Si post haec illi servirent mente fideli. 

Istis sic habitis, crebro tractamine cordis 
Reginae satis egregiae memor est AEde Ihe ithae , 
Rega lem certe cupiens quandoque videre 

640 Ipsius faciem, cuius didicit bonitatem. 
Unde quidem, mandatelis secretins actis, 
Quae fuerant pacis necnon praedulcis amor is, 
Sub signo fidei firmae mandaverat illi. 
Hoc quoque suadelis exhortabatur amicis, 

645 nt celeri F^piam cursu peteret, populosam 
IJrbem, quam cum tristitia dimisit amara , 
Quo, oraestante sacra regis pietate perennis, 
Kic modo sublimem gaudens cantaret honorem, 
Quo pr ius ingentem fuerat, perpessa dolorem, 

650 His mandatelis cessit regina benignis 

Et , quo iussa fuit, par iter comitantibus ivit 
Permiiltis subiectorum cune is populorum. 
Ut rex hoc sens it, cuius mandamine venit, 
Ipsius Henricum fratrem praecepit amandtin 



-74. 



ei?? King Otto became aware of this achievement from popu- 

lar rumor, and with a gladsome heart he commended his 
loving son, who for his sake had undertaken so Herculean 
a task in assailing a savage nation. And in order that 
such a labor of love might not be in vain, he himself 

620 moved hastily to that same nation with a goodly retinue 
of his own folk escorting him. Adorned with all the 
stateliness of royal splendor, he entered the regions 
girded by the lofty Alps. 

Berengar was astounded upon hearing of these events; 

6251 he neither set in motion the machinery of war nor went 
to meet the king, but straightway betook himself for 
safety to an appropriate citatlel situated in a secure 
and strongly fortified place. But our renowned king, 
disdainful in his valor, very courageously crossed the 

630 unfamiliar regions and seized Pavia, the capital city of 
the Italian Kingdom. When this town liad been definitely 
occupied, all the chieftains, as if in military forma- 
tion, trooped in, seeking the new king and vying with 
one another to submit to his great power. For he re- 
ceived them in his accustomed way with a kindly disposi- 

635 tion, promising them the remxjnera t ion of his benevo- 
lence, if ther«after they would serve him with loyal 
hearts . 

Such was the turn of events; and with frequent pon - 

derings of heart Otto remembered the distinguished Qiieen 

Adelaide, and longed to behold the queenly countenance 

540 of her whose excellence of character he already knew. 

Therefore he dispatched somewhat confidentially mes- 
sages which included both tidings of peace" and words of 
fond love, and under the pledge of assured protection 
urged her (making use at the same time of friendly per- 
645 suasions) to set out speedily for Pavia, a pooulous 
city, which she had forsaken previously in bitter dejec- 
tion. This he did so that, under the benign kindliness 
of the Eternal King, she might experience the most dis- 
tinguished honor in the very city in which she had once 
endured the deepest sorrow. 

650 The queen -yielded to these kindly injunctions and 

proceeded whither she was bidden with a very great mul- 
titude of her subjects likewise accompanying her. When 
the king, by whose order she was coming, had realized 

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655 Hiiius in occursiim regredi trans litora I^di, 
Ut sublimandam regni s plendor ibiis heram 
Tant i compos itus due is ornaret faniulatus 
Qui, studio ment is praecepta sequens senioris, 
Egreditur certe cum regali legione 

660 Castraque reginae gaudens petiit venerarxiae , 
In quis cum sociis residebat denique multis, 
1 11am condigne summo comitatus honore , 
Donee regali praesentaret faciei. 
Quae merito regi statim placuit satis ipsi 

665 Eligiturque sui consors dignissima regni. 

Tunc rex se novitate re i cernens retineri, 
Tempore ne patrias instante rediret ad oras, 
Liudulfum placuit carum praemittere natum, 
Ut gens Saxonum fortis voiitaret ad ilium 

670 Et regnum sub patrono staret bene tanto. 
Qui, parens iussis devota mente parentis. 
Ad patriam rediit curam regnique recepit, 
Onnia prudenter necnon nimium sapienter 
Complens , in patria quae tunc fuerant facienda 

675 Interea dux Henricus, regis venerandus 
Frater, in Italia cordis conamine suimo 
Cbsequiis operam gessit regalibus aptam, 
Officium non germani solummodo cari, 
Sed mage ius servi studio complendo benigno. 

680 Kinc non inmerito regi placuit satis ipsi. 
Est quoque reginae fraterno iunctus amore 
Affectuque pio fuerat dilectus ab ilia. 
Tunc rex Italicum peragraverat undique regnum. 
Primates regni propriae subdens ditioni. 

685 Kis quoque completis iuxta votumque locatis, 
Ne Beringarius regnum raperet sibi rursum, 
Conradum cum non paucis ex agmine lect is 
In Ripia residere ducem iussit sapientem, 
Cui veneranda suae dederat consortia natae; 

690 Ipseque continuo rediit cum coniuge clara, 
Intendens patriae sedem festinus adire. 
Oiiem gavisa quidem plebs suscentt venieutem. 



-76- 



this, he instructed his loving brother, Henry, to cross 
the banks of the Po to meet her, in order that a due 
attendance from a great leader might fay homage to her 
who was to be exalted to the snlendor of alliance with 
Otto. And Kenry, obeying zealously the injunctions of 
his elder brother, set out with a king's guard and joy- 
fully directed his course to seek the encampment of the 
revered queen in which she with many companions abode. 
Until he could convey her to the King's presence, he 
duly attended her with the utmost deference. Thereafter 
she immed iate ly- -and rightly so--found favor with Otto 
and was chosen to be the worthy help-mate of his empire. 

Then the king, perceiving that he would be detained 
by reason of the strange complexity of affairs and for a 
time could not return to his native land, decided to 
send his dear son Liudulf in advance so that the brave 
race of the Saxons might rally to his side, and that 
under so stalwart a protector the kingdom might stand 
firm. And Liudulf, who obeyed the orders of his sire, 
returned to his fatherland and assumed the administra- 
tion of government. He fulfilled prudently and very 
sagaciously all the duties of office which at that time 
had to be accomplished in his native land. 

Meanwhile, in Italy, Duke Henry, the esteimed brother 
of the king, with the utmost endeavor of his heart per- 
formed the tasks required of his obedience to the king, 
of fulfilling in his kindly zeal not only his office as 
a well loved brother, but rather the duty of a vassal to 
his lord. Hence, he greatly pleased Otto himself and 
bound in bonds of brotherly love to the queen also and 
duly cherished by her. 

Then the king traversed the whole of the Italian 
Kingdom subjecting the chiefs of the realm to his own 
sway. When he had completed these deeds and subdued the 
lands according to his own desire, in order that Beren- 
gar might not again seize the kingdom for himself, he 
bade the wise Duke Conrad to dwell in Pavia with a num- 
ber of picked troops from his army and he bade his dis- 
tinguished daughter to be united in marriage with Con- 
rad. Re himself, with his illustrious wife, forthwith 
returned home, moving with haste to the heart of his 
native land. With deep joy did the populace welcome his 
arrival, extending its ardent gratitude to Cod enthroned 

-77- 



Altithrono grates spargens super aethera dulces, 
Qui, miseranHo suae plebis solita pietate, 
695 Ouem plus elegit, regem cum pace reduxit. 

Flac ita laetitia dignis rebus celebrata, 
Advenit dux Conradus cum pace reversus, 
Adducens Beringarium supra memoratum 
Ipsius ingenii captum sic arte profundi, 

700 Gratis ut Ottoni venit se subdere regi. 

Tunc idem rex, qui semper fecit sapienter, 
Hunc regem certe digno suscepit honore , 
Restituens illi sublati culmina regni -- 
Ista percerte tantum sub conditione, 

705 Ut post haec causis non contrad iceret ullis 
Ipsius imperio mult is longe metuendo, 
Sed ceu subiectus iussis esset studiosus; 
Hoc quoque sollicitis decrevit max ime dictis, 
Ut post haec populum regeret clement ius ipsum, 

710 Ouem pr ius imperio nimium corrupit amaro. 

Qui, se complendis simulans nromptum fore iussis 
Oc ius abscessit patriam laetusque petivit. 
Ast ubi sublimem regni possederat arcem, 
laesus suadelis quorundam namque sinistris, 

715 Mox infelici graviora quidem iuga genti 
Infert vi magna pro despectu sibi facto, 
Se regnum pretio contestans emere megno 
Nee fore culpandum, si ius fregisset avorum, 
Sed magis Ottoni culpae meritum reputari, 

720 Tpsi primates plebis qui venderet omnes. 
Haec res ad regem mox ut pervenit eundem. 
In Beringarium iusta succetxiitur ira , 
Corde super populi damnis maerens miserandi, 
In meliusque statum studiut convertere rerum. 

725 Et faceret citius, Christi mitnimine fultus. 
Si non fortunae restaret causa sinistrae. 
Namque decore sui florente per omnia regni. 
Cum se gauderet cunctis fulgere secundis, 
Protulit antiqui renovata lues inimici 

730 Fraud is commentum cunctis per saec la dolendum, 
lam tunc pacificum temntans confuixlere regnum; 
Hoc ut quantocius posset patrare malignus, 
Regni rectores pr imum turbaverat omnes. 



-78- 



on high, Who with His wonted beneficence had compas- 
sionated his people and had brought back in peace the 
595» king whom in His goodness Tie had chosen for them. • 

Now after these events had been joyfully celebrated, 
Duke Conrad arrived bringing terms of peace and convey- 
ing with him Berengar mentioned above, who had been so 
captivated by the depth of his profound wisdom that he 

700 had come voluntarily to submit himself to King Otto. 
Otto, then, who always acted wisely, received this mon- 
arch with due respect, restoring to him the dominion of 
the realm of which he had been bereft --but only on this 
very exacting condition, t'nat in future he would on no 

705 grounds offer resistance to Otto's authority which was 
feared far and wide by many, but would as a vassal king 
be zealous to execute his commands. This, too, he pre- 
scribed most impressively, that thereafter Berengar 
should rule more mercifully his own subjects, over whom 

710 he had previously tyrannized with harsh despotism. 
Berengar, feigning that he would be quick to comply with 
these terms, speedily denarted and directed his course 
in joy to his native land. Put when, corrunted by the 
adverse persuasions of certain of his retainers, he had 
regained possession of the lofty citadel of his own do- 

715 main, he presently imposed a heavier yoke on his unfor- 
tunate nation, in return for the treatment that had been 
meted out to himself. Ke maintained that he had bought 
the hegemony at a great price, and that not he should be 
blamed if he had infringed upon the law of his ances- 
tors, but rather that the merit of the blame should re- 
dound to Otto himself, who had corrupted with bribes all 

720 the chieftains of the people. As soon as these matters 
came to the ears of the king, he. was aroused to a right- 
eous anger against Berengar, and, in his grief of heart 
over the affliction of his distressed subjects, he 
yearned to ameliorate the state of the kingdom. And 

725 supported as he was by the strength of Christ, he could 
have done so quickly had not an event of adverse cir- 
cumstances hindered him. For in the universal splendor 
of his realm, while he was rejoicing at being blessed 
with widespread favorable fortune, the recurrent plague 

730 of the ancient foe reappeared, fabricating a crafty plan 
to be regretted throughout the ages and striving even at 
that time to disrupt the peaceful domain. In order that 
he might achieve his end the sooner, the envious enemy 
first made restless all the rulers of the re^lm, hoping 

-79- 



Sperans interitum plebis mox esse futurum. 

73!^ Deniqne famos i natus regis Litidulfus, 

Ut cognovit amicitiae sign is satis aptis, 
Ouanto perfectae f ide i d ilex it amore 
Henricum regis fratrem regina fidelis, 
Quodque suae f ide i studio se subdidit omni, 

740 Tangitur interni iaculis secrete dolor is , 

Ilaut ira fervens, odii nee felle tabescens , 
Sed super amisso carae genitricis amore 
Ex aegr i latebris ducens suspiria cordis; 
Deceptusque ma lis permultorum suadelis, 

745 Pertimuit fragilis pro consuetudine mentis, 
Quod post non ut i donis deberet honoris 
Condigni, sed forte locum subire secundum. 
(Quod fieri Christus numquam permitteret aequus 
Si staret regnum iusta sub pace quietiim. ) 

750 Ast ubi subtristi vultu saepissime patri 

Monstratur maestus, solito nee more serenus , 
Sunt qui decepti serpentis fraude dolosi 



...Versus plurimi exc iderunt . . . 

1141 Sed quo regalem patris hinc augeret honorem. 

His rex compertis, ex prosperitate fidelis 
Laetatus prolis, tota dulcedine mentis 
Haec illi mandat scriptis extimplo remissis: 

1145 * In saeclum saecli maneat laus omnipotent i, 
Qui dedit in tant is temet gaudere secundis, 
Grates atque tibi dentur, karissime fili, 
Quem constare quidem penitus cognosce fidelem, 
Haut obscura tuae f ide i quia s igna dedisti, 

1150 Cimi per te regnum cupiens augescere nostrum 
Signasti nobis proprii decus omne labor is. 
Hinc ego gratanter, quae fecisti sapienter, 
Accipiens, vice conversa condigna rependo 



■80- 



i 



that presently the destruction of the populace would 
follow. 

735 Tn fine, as Liudulf, the son of the renowned king, 

perceived through signs significant of friendship only 
the intense love amid perfect faithfulness the loyal 
queen entertained for Kenry, brother of the king, and 
the fact that she governed herself by a 1 1 the laws that 

740 faithfulness would expect of her, he was pierced secret- 
ly by the shafts of inward grief, neither raging with 
anger, nor languishing in the bitterness of liatred, but 
heaving sighs from the depth of his sorrow-laden heart 
over the loss of his dear mother's love. Deluded by the 

74f> wicked persuasions of many, as might be expected from 
his frail nature, he was afraid tliat thereafter he would 
not be destined to enjoy the return of the honors due 
him but would perhaps have to submit to second place. 
(But Christ in Kis justice would never have a 1 1 cwed this 
to happen, if the kingdom had remained tranquil under a 
just peace . ) 

750 But when he had repeatedly displayed to his father 

his sadness through a mournful countenance with nothing 
of its wonted serenity, there were some who were be- 
guiled by the machinations of the wily serpent and who... 

...Many verses have been lost... 
(Verses 7*^2 -1141) 

1141 ...but in order that he miglit increase the royal pres- 
tige of his father. 

When the king became aware of this state of affairs, 
he rejoiced because of the good fortune of his devoted 
son, and with all the fond affection of his heart he 
forthwith dispatched tidings to him, with the following 

1145 message: "IVlay praise endure for ever and ever to the 
Almighty, Who hath granted thee to rejoice amid great 
blessings; and let thanks be tendered thee, most beloved 
son, who, indeed, I learn hast remained absolutely 
loyal, since thou hast given clear indications of thy 

1150 loyalty, when by thine own efforts to extend our sover- 
eignty, thou hast confirmed for us the whole glory of 
tiiine own exertions. Therefore, accepting gratefully 
what thou hast done wisely, T in turn requite thee with 
a worthy interchange, and to thee T entrust the rule of 

-81- 



Hoc ipsumque tibi regnum conmitto regendum, 
11S5 Imperio siibdi nostroquod coos t ituis t i ; 

Praecipiorjue tibi iuss is , dilecte, paternis, 
Ut , quem victrici populum dextra superasti, 
Absque mora tecum facias firms re tenendum 
Foedus , cum iuramento structum metuendo.' 
1160 Haec dux Liudulfus decreta legens venerandus , 
I^aetior ex mandatelis tantae pietatis, 
lussus cum iuramento religat sibi firm© 
Ad patris obsequium populum digne moderandum. 

His bene dispositis, summo cum foedere nacis 

1165 Ardens absent is faciem meruisse parentis, 
Coniugis et karae dulci devictus amore 
Ac prolis geminae ionge tx)s terga relictae, 
Posthabitae fines patriae placuit repedare. 
Quo post exilii pondus nimium grave duri 

1170 Posset quandoquidem patriae captare quietem. 

Utque celer morulis haec impleret sine cunct is , 
Non iter optatum pondus tardaverit ullum, 
Collectim proprias iuss it praemittere gazas, 
Ips ius et faciem turbam praecedere totam, 

1175 Quam belli causa secum deduxerat illo, 

Promittens ipsum, vita comitante, futurum 
Ad fines patriae spatii post tempora parvi. 
Hoc quoque melliflui verbis signaverat oris, 
In quis castellis, in quis voluitque locellis 

1180 Sumptus hospitii dignos sibimet reparari. 
Hac mot i fama nostrates desiderata, 
Affectu cordis gaixlebant interior is; 
Omneque maeroris pondus cunct ique dolor is, 
Ouod pr ius absent is causa tulerant senior is, 

1185 Ex an imo deponent es , communiter omnes 

Causam laetitiae duxerunt esse siipremae , 
Si post paucorum meruissent ergo dierum 
Cursus , promissi iuxta praecooia laet i 



...Versus plurimi exc iderunt . . . 

Aeque ferens sceptrum, capitis diademaque piilchrimi 
1480 Atque sui cultus omnes regalis amictus. 
Ornatus sed ma ior is suscepit honoris 
Augusto summo par iter mcoc conbened icta . 

-82- 



this very dominion, which thou hast established to be 
brought under our sway. And I admonish thee, beloved 
one, with fatherly counsels, to cause without delay the 
nation which thou hast conquered by thy victorious liand 
to strike with thee a treaty sanctioned by dreadful 
oath". The esteemed Duke I.iudulf upon reading this mes- 
sage was quite happy because of such kind injunctions 
and, in accordance with the command given him, he bound 
to himself with a strong oath the nation that was to be 
duly governed in obedience to his father. 

When these matters had been well disposed of and an 
excellent treaty arranged, he yearned to gain sight of 
his absent sire; and, overcome by tender love for his 
dear spouse and the two children left far behind, he 
decided to turn back to the borders of the neglected 
fatherland he had left, in order that there, after the 
excessively heavy burden of a cruel exile, he might en- 
joy at last the tranquility of his native land. And 
that he might accomplish this end speedily without any 
delays, he suffered no baggage to retard his intended 
journey; his treasures he ordered to be gathered and 
sent in advance of him, and the entire force which he 
had brought thither with him for the sake of war, to 
precede him, promising that he himself, if he but lived, 
would in a brief soace of time be a t the bounds of his 
homeland. This, too, he indicated with honied utter- 
ance; namely, the castles and abodes in which he wished 
preparations worthy. of his entertainment to be made 
ready. Our countrymen, roused by this welcome report, 
rejoiced with deep affection of heart. Dispelling from 
their souls the whole weight of sorrow and of grief 
which heretofore they had endured because of the ab- 
sence of their honored prince, they all unanimously 
agreed that the occasion was one for heartiest rejoic- 
ing, if after the course of a few days they were accord- 
ing to the message of gladsome nromise to gain... 

...Many verses have been lost... 
(Verses 1118-1479) 



he 
mag 



...in like manner bearing the sceptre and wearing t 
beautiful diadem upon her head and clad in all the mag- 
nificence of her royal anparel. But she who, together 
with the sovereign king, was soon blessed, received dis- 
tinction of even greater honor. 



-83- 



Actenus Oddonis famosi denique regis 
Cesta, licet tenui Musa , cecini modulando. 

1485 Nunc scribenda quidem constant, quae fecerat idem 
Augustus solium retinens in vert ice rerum. -- 
Tangere quae vereor , quia femineo prohibebor 
Sexu, nee vili debent sermone revolvi: 
Qua liter invicti duro luctamine belli 

1490 Cbtinuit constructa locis castella marinis. 
Quae Beringarius coniunx jKwsedit et e ius , 
Ac ilium, iuramento cogente peracto, 
Misit in exilium misera cum coniuge WiHa; 
Qua liter et recti conpunctus acumine zeli 

149S Summum pontificem, quaedam perversa patrantem 
Eius nee monitis dignantem cedere crebris, 
Sedis apostolicae fraudari fecit honor e , 
Const ituens a Hum rector is nomine dignum; 
Qualiter et regno tranquilla pace quieto 

1500 Nostrates adiens , illic iterumque revertens, 
Necnon amborum retinens decus imperiorum, 
Ips ius prolem post ilium iam venientem. 
Scilicet Cddonem, nutricis ab ubere regem. 
Ad fasces augustalis provexit honoris 

1505 Exemploque sui digne fecit benedici; 

Haec igitur nostris nequeunt exponier orsis, 
Sed quaerunt seriem longe sibi nobiliorem. 
Kinc ego, tantarum prohibente graved ine rerum, 
Ultra non tendo, finem sed provide pono, 

1510 Post haec incepto ne succumbam male victa. 

His ita finitis et summatim replicatis. 
Est ingens regis pietas oranda perennis, 
Quo pius augustos praestet deducere nostros 
Instant is vitae tempus feliciter omne , 
1515 Et , fultos semper cunctis ad vota secundis, 
Ecclesiae multos custodes servet in annos. 
Nobis solamen dantes clement ius. Amen. 



-84 



Although hut a poor Muse, J have no to now chanted in 
verse the achievements of the far-famed Otto. Now there 
remain to be recorded further deeds of this same monarch, 
who retains his throne in the zenith of his power, --this 
I fear to treat because I am withheld by my womanly 
nature, nor ought these matters be rehearsed in homely 
discourse: hew, namely, in the cruel struggle of an un- 
remitting war he gained the fortresses built at the sea- 
shore which Berengar and his wife had possessed, and how, 
under the compulsion of oath, he sent him with his. 
wretched sp>ouse, Willa, into exile; how, prompted by the 
sense of righteous zeal, he caused the supreme Pontiff, 
who was perpetrating certain irregular acts and disdain- 
ing to heed his frequent admonitions, to be deprived of 
the dignity of the Chair of the Apostle, adjudging ano- 
ther worthy of the name of ruler; and hew, passing in un- 
disturbed peace with his kingship undisturbed, to our 
country and returning again to Italy, and retaining the 
glory of both kingdoms, he raised his son., who came after 
him, namely Otto, a king from infancy, to the highest of- 
fices of hallowed nobility, and by his ewn example caused 
him to be duly blessed. These matters, then, cannot be 
recounted in our verses, since they require for them- 
selves a far more eloquent account. Kence I, hindered by 
the weightiness of tiiese great themes, proceed no fur- 
ther, but prudently make an end, lest hereafter I be 
shamefully overcome and fail in my attempt. 

Now that my recital has been completed and its story 
cursorily recounted, I must invoke the great goodness of 
the Eternal King that He in His kindliness may grant our 
sovereigns to prolong happily the whole span of life 
still remaining, and that He may protect the custodians 
of Holy Church for many years, supported always in a 1 1 
matters favorable to their prayers, thereby granting unto 
us a more merciful consolation. Amen. 



-85- 



PRIMORDIA COENOBII GANDESHEMENSIS 

Ecce meae supplex humilis devotio merit is 
disc it, felicis primordia Gandeshemens is 
Pandere coenobii, quod cura non pigritanti 
Construxere duces Saxonum iure potentes , 
Liudulfus magnus clarus quoque filius eius 
Oddo, qui coeptum perfecit opus memoratum. 



Ordo nunc rerum depose it debitus harum, 
Ut prills illustris constructio Gandeshemens is 
Apto coenobii recinatur carmine nostri. 
Quod nam construxisse ducem reverenter eundem 
5 Constat Saxonum, quern praedixi, Liudulfum. 
Hie, praenobilium natus de stirpe parentum 
Ortus atque sui respondens nobilitati 
Moribus egregiis usuque suae probitatis, 
Inter Saxones crevit laudabilis omnes ; 

10 Namque fuit strenuus, forma nimiumque decorus 
Prudens in verbis, in cunctis caiitus agendis, 
Atque sui generis solus spes et decus omnis. 
Hinc nam Francorum magni regis Hludowici 
Militiae primis adscriptus paene sub annis, 

15 Ex ipso digne siimmo sublatus honore , 
Cent is Saxonum mox suscepit comitatum; 
Ac cito maioris donatus munere iur is , 
Principibus fit par, ducibus sed nee fuit impar 
Quique suos omnes vicit pietate narentes, 

20 Non minus ins ignis pompa vincebat honoris. 

Cui coniiinx ergo fuerat praenobilis Cda , 
Edita Francorum clara de stirpe potentum, 
Filia Bilhingi, cuiusdam principis a Imi , 
Atque bonae famae generosae scilicet Aedae . 

2.'> Haec igitur crebro precibus consueverat Aeda 
Se totamque suam domino committere vitam, 
Saepius atqtie pi is insistens sedu la fact is 
Promeruit, bene promissis edocta supernis, 
Discere, baptista Oiristi referente beato, 

30 Quod sua progenies saeclis quandoque futiiris 
Possessura foret iur is decus imperialis. 

Ergo nocturnas quondam scindente tenebras 
Aurora lueis splendore suae rutilantis, 
-86- 



THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MONASTERY OF GANDERSHEIM 

Behold, the suppliant devotion of my humble heart ar- 
dently longs to recount the establishment of the blessed 
monastery of Candersheim. which the chieftains of the 
Saxons, mighty in justice, erected with energetic solici- 
tude, the great and illustrious Liudulf and also his son. 
Otto, who completed the work that had been begun. 



Due order in this account now demands that the ear- 
lier erection of our renowned monastery of Candersheim be 
recounted in a fitting poem. For it is agreed that this 
Liudulf, ruler of the Saxons, whom I mentioned before, 
built it with all due respect. A son born of very noble 
lineage, corresponding to the nobility of his birth in 
the exemplary ways of his own virtue, he grew in distinc- 
tion among all the Saxons. For he was of splendid phy- 
sique and exceedingly handsome in appearance, wise in 
speech, prudent in all his actions, and the sole hope and 
the whole splendor of his race. For almost from his ear- 
liest years he was enlisted in the military service of 
the great Louis, king of the Franks, and was by him ele- 
vated to distinguished honors; presently he received the 
rank of count of the race of the Saxons; and speedily he 
was invested with remunerations of greater jurisdiction 
becoming equal to princes and not inferior to those of 
ducal rank. And as he surpassed all his ancestors in 
holiness, no less did he outshine them in the magnifi- 
cence of his honored rank. 

His wife, the distinguished Oda , was descended from a 
famous line of the mighty Franks, the daughter of Bil- 
lung, a kindly ruler, and of Aeda , a lady of excellence 
and of fair repute. New this Aeda was frequently accus- 
tomed to resign herself and her whole life to the Lord in 
prayer, and very often in the zeal of her saintly deeds, 
well versed as she was in divine assurances, she merited 
to learn through the revelation of the Holy Baptist of 
Christ, the fact that her posterity at some time in fu- 
ture ages would achieve the lustre of imperial authority. 

Ohce , then, when dawn was piercing the nocturnal dark- 
ness with the brilliancy of its own ruddy shafts, she lay 

-87- 



Haec prostrata sacram solito iacuit secus aram 

355 Sacratam sub baptistae lohannis honore , 
Oratu pulsando iugi penetralia caeli. 
Currque piann studiis mentem laxavit in illis, 
Vidit prona pedes hominis propius sibi stantis; 
Ac, coomota parum, volvebat pectore multum, 

40 Ouis foret i 1 le , suum qui conturbare secretum 
Praesumps isset in hac hora precibus satis apta . 
Fronteque de terra, modicum conversa, levato 
Aspexit iuvenem mire splendore micantem, 
Indutum vest is velamine f lavicomant is , 

4f> Ceu foret e pilts curvi contexta cameli; 
Cuius candor i nimio pulchrae faciei 
Barbula parva, nigris sociata colore capillis, 
Quoddam splendentis praestabat stemma nitoris. 
Ouem matrona videns nee morta lem fore credens, 

SO Cbstupuit mentis iuxta morem muliebris, 
Procumbens subito magno terrore coacta . 
Ille sed affatu blarxlo trepidam refovendo 
Inqiiit : 'Ne crepides nee perturbata pavescas ; 
Sed cognosce, gravis pulso terrore timoris, 

S5 puis sim: magna tibi portans solamina veni. 

Nam sum lohannes , liquidis qui t ingiiere lymphis 
Christum promerui. Quia nos crebro coluisti, 
Nuntio, virginibus sacris tua clara propago 
Instituet claustrum, pacem regnique triumphum, 

60 Dum sua religio studio steterit bene firmo. 
Hinc tua- progenies saeclis quandoque futuris 
Culmine pollentis tanto clarescet honoris, 
Ut terrenorum nullus tunc tempore regum 
lure potentatus illi valeat similari.' 

6S Dixerat, et subito red iens penetraverat aethra, 
Linquens matronae solamen dulce benignae. 
Iluius magnifice decor is promissio grand is 
Progeniem domnae claram specialiter Cdae 
Signavit: de qua natus dux inclitus Cddo 

70 Sceptris Kenr icum regem genuit satis aptum; 
Qui pater augusti fuit Cddonis venerandi, 
Eius, qui, regis fultus virtute perennis, 
Postquam Saxonum rex it patris vice regnum, 
Nutu divino bened ictus namrjue secundo, 

7? Imperii sedem Roman i digniis eandem 

Ac sceptrum iur is susceperat imperialis, 
Aequivocumque sui natiim par iter bened ictum, 
Disponente pia regis bonitate perennis. 
Imperii sedem conscendere fecit eandem 
-88- 



prostrate in her wonted fashion before the holy altar 
dedicated to the honor of Saint John the Baptist, assail- 
ing with prayer the deep recesses of Heaven above. And 
when she had poured out her soul in these fervent devo- 
tions, she saw, as slie lay prone there, the feet of a nwn 
standing close beside her. Greatly perturbed she pon- 
dered much in heart as to who he could be who had pre- 
sumed to disturb her seclusion in this hour so well 
suited for prayer. And raising her countenance from the 
ground and turning a little the while, she saw a youth 
resplendent with worKlrous beauty enrobed in a mantle of 
flaxen-hair, as if clothed with the hair of a dromedary. 
On his wondrous ly bright and comely countenance a small 
beard harmonized in color with his black hair which af- 
forded a crcwn of resplendent radiance. The queen, see- 
ing him and not believing that he could be mortal, was 
dumbfounded and following the way of womankind fainted 
away under the sudden compulsion of great fright. But he 
allayed her consternation with kindly address and said, 
"Do not be affrighted, nor be distressed and terrified; 
but put aside the weight of thy fears and learnwhol 
am: T come to thee bringing great consolation. For I am 
the John who was deemed worthy to baptize Christ with the 
flowing waters. Since thou hast frequently reverenced 
me, I announce that thy famous progeny will establish a 
cloister for saintly maidens and a triumT^ant peace for 
hjs realm, provided his piety remain duly steadfast. 
Hence, thy posterity at some time in future ages will 
come to such a pinnacle of fame that no sovereign among 
earthly rulers will avail to be a rival thereto in right 
of power". 

And when he had said this he immediately withdrew into 
Heaven's height, leaving tender solace in the heart of 
the benevolent lady. The majestic promise of this sub- 
lime honor designated especially the renowned offspring 
of Lady Oda : her son it was, the illustrious Duke Otto, who 
begot king Henry, a monarch so well suited to rule. Ke , 
who was the father of the revered and kingly Otto, of 
him, namely, who, supported by the strength of the Eter- 
nal King, after assuming the rule of the Saxons in his 
father's place, had, under the benign blessing of the 
Will of God, worthily received the same throne of the 
Roman Empire and the administration of imperial power, 
caused his son (who bore the same nam^ and was equally as 
himself), under the disposing goodness of the Eternal 

-89- 



80 Atque pari similis splendore frui ditionis. 
I-Iaec igitur modici demonstrat pegina libri 
Plenius, e causis rerum quem scripsimus harum. 

Nunc ad op^is coeptum devote perficiendum 
Est convertendus stilus noster stiidiosus. -- 

8S Ast ubi Liudulfo fuerat venerabilis Oda 
Foedere legal i coniuncta , suo senior i, 
Inter nostrates Celebris profecerat omnes 
Mor ibus et fact is, ca 1 lem grad iens pietatis; 
Exemploque suae vivens matris venerandae, 

90 Se totam domino commendabat prece sacra, 

Corde tenens matris monitum claustri faciendi. 
Kinc nam lega lem non raro sui seniorem 
Exhortabatur blandis nimium suadelis, 
Ut de gazarum const rux isset propriarum 

9S Sumptu coenobium divinis laud ibus aptiim, 
In quo sacrandae domino velamine sacro 
Finetenus castae possent habitare puellae 
Atque vacare sui sancti famulamine spHxisi. 
Kis ergo monitis vir concedendo fide lis 
100 Coniugis electae precibus consenserat apte; 
Ac sic communi similis conamine voti 
Deservire deo coeperunt protinus ambo. 

Quis fuit ecclesiae possession deniqueparvae 
Trans ripas Candae supra montana locatae, 

105 Unde locum celebrem vocitabant Gandeshemensem. 
I Hie, obsequio domini digne ce lebrando 
Dum locus invest igari posset magis aptus, 
Communi multas vita iunxere puellas; 
Atque sui natam decreverunt Hathumodam 

110 His habitu similem fieri sociamque perennem. 
Utque puellaris rectrix fore posset ovilis, 
Primitus banc ipsam reverenter ad instituendam 
Tradebant abbatissae cuidam venerandae. 
Quae, praelatarum vice succedendo priorum, 

115 Tunc Her if ordensem sortita ftiit sibi sedem. 
Tali divinum meditati sunt famulatimi 
Nisu Liudulfus coniunx ins ignis et e ius . 

Post haec accept is proprii script is senior is 
Scilicet almifici regisque pii Kludcwici, 
120 Eius permissu cum non modico comitatu 

Romam pergebant sanctique patris visitabant 
Sedem muneribus d ignis precibusque ben ignis, 
Its ins auxilio deposcentes sua vota 
luxta ve 1 le dei sese persolvere posse. 



■90. 



80 King to mount the same throne of empire and to enjoy a 
like snlendor of dominion. A page, therefore, of our 
simple book which we have written regarding the reasons 
of these occurrences illustrates more fully these facts. 

Now our zealous pen must be turned to the accomplish- 

85 ment of the task dutifully begun.-- But when the revered 
Oda had been united in lawful wedlock to Liudulf, she, 
treading the path of holiness, advanced in the fame of 
integrity and in deeds among all our countrymen. And 
living in accordance with the example of her saintly 

90 mother, she commended herself entirely to the Lord in 
fervent prayer, retaining in her heart the admonition of 
her mother to build a convent. For she frequently in 
loving and persuasive speech urged her lawful husband to 
erect a monastery suitable for divine praises of Cod from 

95? the wealth of their cwn treastires, so that in it chaste 
maidens consecrated to the Lord by the holy veil could 
dwell and be free for the service of their Divine Spouse. 
I!er faithful husband, then, yielding to these counsels 

00 duly complied with the petitions of his chosen wife. 
Thus by the joint endeavor of like purpose they both be- 
gan straightway to serve God. 

They held possession of a small church situated on top 
of a mountain across the banks of the Ganda , and from 

.05 this they named the celebrated spot Candersheim, There, 
worthily paying homage to the Lord until a place better 
suited could be found, they united many maidens in com- 
munity life, and they destined their cwn daughter, llathu- 
moda , to become like unto these in mode of living and 

.10 their lifelong companion. And in order that she could be 
the first superioress of the convent of young maidens, 
they first reverently consigned her for instruction to a 
certain holy abbess, who, succeeding in turn to her pred- 

.15 ecessors , had obtained as her portion the Kerford Con- 
vent. With such effort did Liudulf and his eminent wife 
plan their service to God. 

After this, upon receiving the written approvals of 
their superior, namely, the benign and saintly King 
.20 Louis, with his permission and a considerable retinue, 
they proceeded to Rome and approached the throne of the 
Holy Father. With worthy offerings and kindly entreaties 
they urged tliat with his support they would be able to 
fulfill their vows in accordance with the will of Cod. 
-91- 



12.^ Isdem temper i bus possedit pepe beatus 

Sergius ecclesiae primatum nanriue regendae. 
Kic ubi perlegit cartas regis sibi missas, 
Sens it honore ducem summo dignum venientem; 
Et perquirendo causam, qua venerat illo, 

130 Affatu miti blandum se praebuit illi. 

Quem ceu pontificem surnnum merito venerandum 
Exorans diix Liudulfus cum coniuge pronus, 
Utitur his verbis tota dulcedine mixtis: 
'Indite papa, tuis ne sis durus peregrinis, 

13?5 Qui de longinquis terrarum venimus oris 
Muneribus nostri famulatus te venerari. 
Nitimur ardent is toto conamine mentis 
Condere coenobium domini sub honore sacrandum; 
Unde qiiidem visum nobis est max ime iustum, 

140 A te consilii solamen quaerere certi 

Et studium nostri tibi rite precando fateri, 
Qui caput ecclesiae toto dominar is in orbe ; 
Quo, si forte tibi placeat devotio nostri, 
Auxilium praebente tua pietate paterna, 

145 Quod vot is gerimus, fact is bene perficiamus. 
Ac tu, consilium cuius merito flagitamus, 
Susceptis donis clementi pectore nostris. 
Scilicet et regis compulsus amore perennis , 
Praesta sanctorum nobis sacra pignora , quorum 

l.SO Qmis coenobii construct io possit honor i 
Apte signari sacris meritisque tueri. 
Utque sit absque iugo regum per saec la potentum 
Nee terrenorum patiatur vim dominorum, 
Koc rector is apostolici solum ditioni 

15.S Tradimus ad defendendum pariterque regendum. ' 
Kaec dux. At summus praesul sic Sergius orsus 
Inquit : 'Te miti complector pectore, fili, 
Cons or t e mq lie tuam pariter complector amandam, 
Atque piis studiis gaudens congaudeo vestris, 

160 Nee vobis credo fas esse negare petita. 

Kic duo rectores fuerant aliquando potentes , 
Praesul Anastasius sedis sanctissimus huius 
Et coepostolicus sacer Innocent ius eius. 
Qui post pastorem Petrum ftiilumque magistrum 

165! Ecclesiae merit is ce lebres fulsere supremis ; 
Quorum tarn magna servantur corpora cura 
Kactenus a cunct is huius rector ibus urbis, 
Ut nee part icu lam quisquam subtraxerat imrjuam, 
Pleno membrorum niimero remanente sacrorum 

170 Sed quia iure piis eoneedere debeo vot is , 
Amborum vobis donabo pignora gratis. 



-92- 



■ Now at this time the blessed Pope Sergiiis held the pri- 
macy of the Church. When he had perused the letter the 
king had sent to him, he realized that a ruler worthy of 
the highest honors was coming to his abode. And after 
inquiring the reason for his coming he presented himself 
with kindly address to his visitor. Before him as Su- 
preme Pontiff, deservedly reverenced, Duke Liudulf, pros- 
trate with his wife, directed words of supplication ming- 
ling them with all tenderness: "Esteemed Father, do not 
be austere to us, thy guests from afar, who have come 
from the remote corners of the earth to pay homage to 
thee with the gifts of our fealty. With all the energy 
of zealous hearts, we are striving to found a monastery 
devoted to the service of Cod. Therefore, indeed, it 
seemed especially fitting for us to beg from thee the 
solace of a definite plan and by due entreaty to profess 
our zeal to thee, who as the head of the Church have do- 
minion throughout the whole world. Thus, if our devoted - 
ness chance to be pleasing to thee, we shall, with the 
help thy paternal goodness provides, happily accomplish 
in deed what we are urging in our prayers. And do thou, 
whose counsel we rightly importune, receiving with com- 
passionate heart our offerings and responding to the love 
of the Eternal King, grant us the sacred remains of 
saints that in their honor the whole erection of the 
monastery may be fittingly designated and by whose bless- 
ed merits safeguarded. And that it may be free from the 
yoke of mighty rulers of this world and may not suffer 
the violence of earthly lords, we consign it to the 
authority of the Apostolic Ruler alone for protection and 
likewise for government". Thus the Duke spoke. But the 
Supreme Bishop Sergius replied as follows: "Son, I em- 
brace thee with a kindly heart, and I enJ^race as well thy 
spouse, who is equally worthy of affection, and in happi- 
ness I rejoice at thy holy zeal, and I believe it wrong 
to refuse thy petitions. Kere at one time there were two 
mighty shepherds, Anastasius, the most holy Bishop of 
this throne, and his co-apostle, the sacred Innocent, 
they were conspicuous for their pre-eminent services to 
the Church, second only to the Shepherd Peter and the 
Teacher Paul. Their bodies until now have been safe- 
guarded with such zealous care by a 1 1 the rulers of this 
city that no man has taken the tiniest particle from 
them, and they remain altogether intact. But in as much 
as I ought rightly to comply with thy pious prayers, I 
shall freely impart to thee relics of both of them, 

-93- 



Corporibus sacris abscisa patenter ab ipsis, 
Si Sacramento confirmatis mihi facto, 
Haec in coenobii venerari iam memorati 

17S Finetenus templo vestri munimine facto, 

Nocte dieque sacris illic resonantibus hymnis 
Necnon accenso praeclaro lumine semper; 
Hoc et apostolici iur is , s icut et petiistis, 
Coenobium nostri designamus ditioni. 

180 Ut terrenorum sit securum dominorum. ' 

His dux promissis laetatus corde verendis, 
Mandatis se pontificis simni fore sacris 
Mox responsurum fact is , inquit, studiosis, 
Qui foret ecclesia d ignus mox aed if icanda . 

18S Ut fert multorum sentent ia vera scientum, 

Prcocima coenobio fuerat tunc silvula, cincta 
Collibus iimbrosis, quibus et nos cingimiir ipsis 
Necnon in silva fuerat sita parvula villa, 
In qua Liudulfi soliti stabulare subulci 

190 Intra saepta viri cuiusdam lassa quiet i 

Corpora nocturnis sua composuere sub horis, 
Dum sibi copmissos debebant pascere porcos . 
Hie quondam, cum sanctorum venerabile festimi 
Esset cunctorum mox post biduum celebrandum, 

195 Sub noctis claras tenebris ardere lucernas 
In silva multas ipsi videre subulci. 
Kis visis, cuncti mirabantur stupefacti. 
Quid nova splendent is vellet sibi visio lucis, 
Miro nocturnas sc indens snlendore tenebras ; 

200 Hoc que domus patri narraverunt tremefacti, 

Demonstrando locum, quern lux perfuderat, ipsum. 
Qui visu clare cupiens audita probare. 
Extra tecta domus illis habitans sociatus 
Tnsomnem coepit noctem servare sequentem, 

205 Non claudens oculos somno suadente gravatos. 
Donee accensas rursum rutilare lucernas 
Aucto vincentes numero videre priores 
Ipso quippe loco, sed prisca, qua pr ius , bora. 
Ominis hoc s ignum felicis namque serenum, 

210 Ut Rioebus radios spargebat ab aethere primes. 
Fit notum, fame cunctis prodente iocunda ; 
Nee latuisse ducem dignum potuit Liudulfum, 
Aures sed citius dicto pulsaverat e ius . 
Ipseque saerata festi mcK nocte futuri, 

215 Observans caute , si quicqiiam postea tale 

-94- 



removed in thy presence from their cwn bodies, if, upon 
solemn oath, thou assure me that these relics will be 
perpetually venerated in a chapel of the aforesaid monas- 
tery reared by your munificence, with the swelling of 
sacred hymns there night and day and with the constant 
illumination of a bright lighted taper. This monastery 
we consign, as thou hast requested, to the control of 
our apostolic authority, that it may be secure from the 
domination of earthly sovereigns". 

The Duke, joyous in heart at these venerable promises, 
affirmed that he would soon comply, with zealous acts, to 
the saintly injunctions of the Supreme Pontiff, that he 
might be worthy of presently building the holy structure. 

As the true view of many of those who knew, claim, 
there was at that time a small forest near the monastery, 
surrounded by shady hills, the very ones by which we are 
ourselves new surrounded; and in the forest there was a 
small cottage in which the swineherds of Liudulf were 
wont to find shelter and in the enclosure of which the 
men rested their wearied limbs for the hours of night 
during their duty of caring for the swine entrusted to 
them. Kere , on one occasion when the holy feast of All 
Saints was to be celebrated two days later, these very 
swinesherds saw in the forest many light gleaming bright- 
ly in the darkness of the night. All were astounded at 
beholding them and wondered what the strange spectacle of 
resplendent light, piercing the nocturnal darkness with 
wondrous brilliance, signified. And they in alarm re- 
lated to the lord of the house what had occurred, point- 
ing out the very place which the brightness had illumi- 
nated. As he was eager to verify with his cwn eyes what 
he had definitely heard, he joined them out of doors and 
began to keep vigil upon the following night. He did not 
close his eyes, heavy though they were with persuasive 
sleep, until they (swineherds) saw again the kindled 
lights glowing and surpassing in increased number the 
earlier ones, again in the same place, but at an earlier 
hour than previously. New as Phoebus diffused his first 
rays from heaven's ether, this calm symbol of a happy 
omen became known, joyous rumor betraying it to all. And 
it could not remain concealed from the worthy Liudulf, 
but struck his ears more quickly than one could tell. 
And he himself, on the holy vigil of the imminent mor- 
row's feast, noting carefully whether the vision would 

-95- 



Caelitus ostensi monstraret visio signi, 
Cum multis silvam pernox conspexerat ipsam. 
Nee mora, cum nebula terras nox texerat atra, 
Undique silvestris per gyrum denique vallis, 

220 In qua fundandum fuerat praenobile templum, 
Ordine disposito cernuntur lumina plura ; 
Quae simul arboreas umbras noctisque tenebras 
Clare pollentis scindebant luce nitoris. 
Hinc simul astantes, domino laudem referentes, 

22S Omnes esse locum firmabant sanct if icandum 

Eius ad obsequium, qui luce repleverat ilium. 

227 At dux, caelesti non ingratus pietati, 

229 Consensuque suae dilectae coniugis OJae , 

228 Arbor ibus mox siiccisis spinisque resect is 

230 Qinino vallem mundari iussit eandem; 

Si Ives tremque locum, Faunis monstrisque repletum, 
Fecit mundatum divinis laud ibus aptum. 
Hinc, quos pose it opus, prius acquirens sibi sumptus , 
Protinus ecclesiae construxit moenia pulchrae 

235 Quae splendor lucis designavit rutilantis. 
Hac igitur causa fuerat iam coepta secundo 
Coenobii sub honore dei constructio nostri. 
Interea lapides structurae convenientes 
Non potuere locis nancisci prorsus in illis; 

240 Unde moram templi patitur perfect io eoepti. 
Abbatissa sed a domino st5erans Hathumoda 
Impetrare fide credentes omnia posse, 
Frangebat sese nimio persaepe labore , 
Nocte dieque deo sacris studiis famulando; 

245 Et , subiectarum multis illi sociatis, 

Caelitus auxilii petiit solamina ferri, 
Ne non perfectum remaneret opus bene coeptum. 
Nee mora, caelestem, quam quaerebat , pietatem 
Sens it adesse sui votis promptam misereri. 

250 Nam, ieiunando sacris precibusque vaeando 

Cum prostrata die quadam iaeuit secus aram, 
Vocis mansuetae ^monitis compellitur ire^ 
Atque sequi volucrem, quern iam progressa sedentem 
Cerneret in saxi cuiusdam vert ice magni. 

255 Ipsaque, complectens animo praecepta parato, 
Egreditur, diet is credens ex corde iubentis; 
Ac, cementariis secum sumpt is bene gnaris, 
Perrexit citius, quo dux it spiritus a Imus , 
T)onec ad coeptum pervenit nobile templum. 

260 Illic candidulam vidit residere columbam 
-96- 



I 



thereafter reveal any manifest sign from heaven, watched 
with many companions the self -same forest during the 
whole night. Nor had he long to wait; for when night had 
shrouded the earth with hlack clouds, on all sides within 
the circuit of the woody vale in which the renowned 
church was to be established, innumerable lights were to 
be nerceived in orderly array. And they rent the leafy 
shades and the darkness of the night with the dazzling 
radiance of their gleaming splendor. Thereupon at once, 
all those who were present returned thanks to the Lord 
and asserted that the place must be dedicated to the ser- 
vice of Ilim who had filled it with light. Accordingly 
the Duke, grateful for the kindness of Keaven, and with 
the approval of his beloved wife Oda , gave orders that 
the vale should be entirely cleared, and that its trees 
should be cut down and its underbrush removed. And he 
made the wooded spot, filled with fauns and monsters, 
clean, appropriate for the divine praises. There, after 
procuring previously the funds which the work required, 
he straightway built the walls of the beautiful church 
which the radiance of the glowing lights had indicated. 
For this reason, therefore, the construction of our 
monastery was presently begun under the favoring protec- 
tion of Cod. ^fleanwhile, stones suitable for building 
could not be obtained at all in these localities; there- 
fore, there ensued a delay in the completion of the 
church. 3ut the Abbess Kathumoda, in the hope that those 
who truly believed could obtain from the Lord all things 
by faith, wearied herself many a time with excessive 
rigor, serving Cod night and day with holy ardor. Many 
of her subordinates associated themselves with her, while 
she begged that the solace of heavenly assistance should 
be vouchsafed, in order that the work so well begun might 
not remain unfinished. Nor was it long before she per- 
ceived that the heavenly support which she was seeking 
was at hand, quick to commiserate her prayers. For she 
gave herself over to fasting and sacred prayers; and, 
when one day she lay prostrate before the altar, she was 
impelled by the exhortations of a pleasant voice to rise 
and follow a bird which, as she presently moved forward, 
she beheld perched on the pinnacle of a large rock. She 
herself embraced with ready spirit the commands and set 
forth, with full confidence of heart in the words of Kim 
who was bidding her go. Taking with her skilled stone 
cutters, she proceeded rapidly whither the Holy Snirit 
led, until she arrived at the site of the notable temple 

-97- 



In designati praecelso vertice saxi. 
Quae mox expansis volitans praecesserat alls, 
Temperat atque smim non siieto more volatum, 
Posset ut aereos directo tramite sulcos 

265 Cum sociis gradiendo sequi virguncula Christ i. 

Cunnque coliimba locum volitans venisset ad ilium. 
Quern nunc non sterilem magnis scimus fore petris 
Descendens terram rostro percusserat illam, 
vSub cuius lapides latuerunt aggere plures . 

270 Quo certe viso Christi dignissima virgo 
Emundare locum socios p)raeceperat ipsuin 
Tellurisque gravem fodiendo scindere molem. 
Quo facto, praestante pia bonitate superna , 
Copia magna rum monstratur multa petrarum, 

275 Unde monaster! i cum templo moenia coept i 
Omnia materiam possent traxisse petrinam. 
nine magis atque magis toto conamine mentis 
Factores templi domini sub honore sacrandi 
Instabant operi mox nocte dieque recent i. 

280 Sed dux Liudulfus, primus qui conditor eius 

Extitit et cura cuius processit origo 
Qnnis structurae, precibus poscent ibus Cdae , 
(FVo dolor) ad summum non dux it opus stixiiosum, 
Sed, naturalis saeva tactus nece mortis, 

285 Cogitur ante suum factor i reddere f latum, 

Quam perfecta domus domini foret inclita prorsus 
Commisitque suae carae moriendo relictae 
Atque suis natis, due ibus supra memoratis, 
Tot ius instant is pondus cviramque labor is, 

290 Exorans vot is , ut complerent , studios is, 
Onnem coenobii structuram perficiendi. 
Cuius in antiquo corpus venerabile templo 
Tunc gremio terrae commendatum fuit apte: 
Ossa sed annorum post decursus aliquorum 

295 Sunt hinc ecclesia trans lata locanda novella. 
Forsan ad hoc ilium mundo deus abstulit isto, 
Dum vix aetatis febres tetigit mediocris, 
Illustris domnae post haec ut plenius CHae 
Mens, intenta deo, posset tractare superna 

300 Expers carnalis tot ius prorsus amor is. 
Nee tamen aiixilii solamen denegat llli, 
Sed praestabat opem solita pietate recentem, 
Qua suffulta suas posset ditescere nonnas 
Chnibus his rebus, noster quibus indiget usus . 
-98- 



now begun. There she saw the white dove nestling on the 
lofty apex of the stone already mentioned. Presently it 
spread its wings and led the way, slowing its flight in 
its wonted fashion, in order that the spouse of Christ, 
walking with her companions, might be able to follow its 
skyey course in a direct path. And when the dove in its 
flight had come to that place which we know is not now 
barren of large stones, it descended and struck with its 
beak an elevated spot under which many stones lay con- 
cealed. After this sure indication the worthy virgin of 
Christ ordered her companions to clear the place and by 
digging to cut through the mass of earth. When this had 
been accomplished, through the kindly goodness of God, a 
great abvindance of large rocks was uncovered. From this 
source the walls of the monastery and church could derive 
their full supply of unhewn rock. Thereafter more and 
more the builders of the temple that was to be dedicated 
to the glory of the Lord applied themselves wholehearted- 
ly night and day to the new work. 

But Duke Liudulf , who was its first founder and to 
whose care the commencement of the whole structure was 
due in response to the entreating prayers of Ola, did 
not, alas, bring the zealous work to its completion, but 
he was stricken by the baleful doom of our common mortal- 
ity and so was compelled to render up his soul to its 
Maker, before the honored house of the Lord could be com- 
pleted. Dying, he entrusted the whole weight and re - 
spons ibilityof the momentous undertaking to his dear sur- 
viving wife and to his sons, the rulers mentioned above, 
beseeching them with zealous prayers to complete the 
whole construction of the monastery yet to be built. His 
revered remains were then duly entrusted to the bosom of 
earth in the ancient church; but after the lapse of some 
years his bones were removed from there to be placed in 
the new church. Perchance Cod took him from this world 
when he had scarce attained the warmth of middle age, in 
order that thereafter the heart of the eminent Lady Oda , 
intent upon Cod, with no further thought of earthly love 
whatsoever, might be able to devote itself more fully to 
the things of Cod. Yet He refused her not the consola- 
tion of assistance, but with His wonted benignity vouch- 
safed her fresh riches, so that with such support she 
might be enabled to enrich her nuns with all that our 
needs require. 

-99- 



30S Ergo sni natam, Liutgard de nomine dictam, 
Nutu dementis regis praestante perennis, 
Elegit clarus Francorum rex Hludowicus 
Regni consortem sibimet socianriiie nerennem, 
FiJius i 1 1 ius , cuius dono Lividulfus, 

310 Suscepit pr irmim propriae gent is dominatum. 
Quae, regina quidem nobis ad pros per ita tern 
Facta, suae dignum sanctae matri famulatum 
^Consensu^ regis praebens , proprii senior is, 
^Max ima^ coenobio permisit ccnmoda nostro. 

Slf? Interea Christ i virgo felix Hathumoda, 

Cum gregis undenos curam bis gesserat annos , 
Ocius in Christ© moriens transivit ad astra; 
Gerbergae tenerum cormisit ovile regendum. 
Haec fuit illustri cuidam nimiunriue potenti 

320 Desponsata viro, Bernrad de nomine dicto: 
Sed sese Christo clam consecraverat ipsa 
Caelesti fervens sponso velamine sacro, 
Otnnino sponsum spernens animo moriturum. 
Nee tamen extimpio, pro seditione cavenda , 

32,S Auro fulgentes potuit deponere vestes, 
Induitur splito sed vestitu pretioso. 
Interea venit , quem sponsa de i reprobavit, 
Ut i colloquiis eius quaerens manifestis; 
Audivit vero, votum quia fecerit ipsa 

330 Velle puellarem caste servare pudorem. 

Quae cum tardaret cito nee procedere vellet. 
Quod pr ius audierat, verum fore va Ide timebat; 
Inpa t iensqiie morae domnam precibus placat Cdam. 
Donee ipsa suam iussit procedere natam, 

33.'? Ornatam pulchre cultu vest is pretiosae 

Necnon gemma t is sponsa rum more me tall is. 
Ast ubi Bernradus vidit, quam des ideravit , 
His verbis caram causari fertur amicam: 
'Non rarodidici, fame prodente sinistra, 

340 Quod tu nitaris nostrum disrumpere pactum 
Et fidei foedus servandum solvere prorsus. 
At nunc ad be 1 lum c it ius properare futurum 
Praecepto regis cogor , nostri senior is; 
Hinc tempus quidni non est hoc d iscut iend i , 

345 Si redeam certe sospes, comitante salute, 

Scito procul diibio, quod te mihimet sociabo 
Atque tui votum penitus pessumdabo vanum. * 
Dixerat, et dextra, permotus mente , levata 
lurat per gladium, per cand idulum quoque collum, 
-100- 



Her daughter, named Liutgard, through the kindly will 
of the Eternal King, was chosen to be the queen and wife 
of the famed King Louis of France. Ke was the son of 
that ruler whose gift had first established Liudulf in 
dominion over his own race. Liutgard became queen, unto 
our advantage, affording with the consent of the king, 
her own lord, a worthy service to her saintly mother and 
granting very great benefits to our monastery. 

Meanwhile, Hathumoda, the happy spouse of Christ, 
after bearing for twice eleven years the responsibilities 
of her flock, died in Christ and passed forthwith to the 
heavens. To Gerberga she entrusted the governance of her 
tender flock. New Gerberga was betrothed to a distin- 
guished and exceedingly influential man named Bernard. 
But she had secretly consecrated herself by means of the 
sacred veil to Christ, with an ardent love for her celes- 
tial Spouse and a complete disdain of heart for any mor- 
tal lover. Yet, because of her desire to avoid civil 
disturbance, she was not at once able to lay aside her 
garments resplendent with gold, and she continued to at- 
tire herself in costly raiment. Meanwhile, Bernard, whom 
this bride of Christ had rejected, came, seeking to enjoy 
her unreserved association. But he heard that she her- 
self had made a vow expressive of her will to preserve 
untainted her maidenly chastity. Now when Gerberga hesi- 
tated and was not willing to go forthwith, he began to be 
very much afraid that the story he had heard might prove 
to be true. And brooking no delay, he won over the Lady 
(Ma with entreaties, until she herself bade her daughter 
go forth beautifully clad in costly apparel and with jew- 
eled adornments such as brides are accustomed to wear. 
But when Bernard saw the dear object of his ardent love 
he is said to have chided her in these words: "Often 
have I heard from the disclosures of malevolent rumor 
that thou art striving to disrupt our compact and wholly 
to dissolve the plighted troth that should be preserved. 
But now, by order of the king, our lord, I am compelled 
to hasten speedily to the impending war; hence there is 
now no time to make thee retract thy vow. But if I re- 
turn uninjured, with health to support me, know that I 
will assuredly ally thee to myself and utterly put to 
naught thy vain vow". These were his words; and in fury 
of heart he raised his right hand and swore by his sword 
and by her white throat that, so far as in him lay, the 

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350 luxta posse sui factis praedicta repleri. 
Respondens ergoGerberg ait ore modesto: 
'Christo me totam cormitto meam quoque vitam, 
Utque fiat de me iuxta domini rogo ve 1 le . ' 
His ita colloquiis mutuo sermone peractis, 

355 Bernrad mox abiit casuque suo cito sens it 

Nil contra dominum quemcumiue valere superbum, 
Et , quia plus iusto deliquit inania fando, 
Decidit in bello, victus virtute superna; 
Ac Chriisti virgo sponsi caelestis amori 

360 Se moK coniunxit, quem caste semper amavit. 

Cuius primatus sexto, ni fallor, in anno 
Brun dux, ecclesiam promptus defendere sanctam 
Incursu de saevorum satis Ungariorum, 
(Pro dolor) ex ipsis domini pravis inimicis 

365 Occiditur binis cum praesulibus venerandis 

Ohmibvis atque viris propriae par iter iegionis. 
Quo mox occiso, iunior frater suus Oddo, 
Dux factus populi dono regis Kludowici, 
Respondit factis sanctae voto genitricis, 

370 Ac studio simili concordans nititur illi 

Cultibus eccles iam d ignis ornare novellam, 
Quae post haec anno fuerat sacranda secundo, 
Moenia coenobii perfecit ^et) omnia nostri, 
Commoda mansuris illic per saec la puellis. 

375 Kis bene perfect is iuxta praecepta parentis 

Eligitur, domna poscente videlicet Oda , 
Ipsa dies templo condigne sanct if icando. 
In cuius noctis medio quam pluribus illo 
Tertio conspicuae quondam fulsere lucernae, 

380 Et quod cunctorum par iter venerabile festum 
Sanctorum vasti fuerat per climata mund i 
Principio mensis ce lebrandum rite novembris. 
llac fama templi passim resonante sacrandi, 
Undique permultae mcK confluxere catervae, 

385 Optantes d ie i praesentes esse ce lebr i . 
Scilicet aurorae pr imo candore micante, 
Qinis nostrarum collectim turba sororum. 



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words he had spoken would be fulfilled in deeds. But 
Cerberga spoke in reply words of gentle utterance: 
"Unto Christ I entrust myself and my whole life, and I 
pray that it be done unto me according to the will of 
the Lord". Thus when they had finished their conversa- 
tion, Bernard forthwith departed and quickly realized by 
his own fate that no man of pride whatsoever can avail 
against the Lord. And since he had transgressed due 
bounds through idleness of utterance, he fell in war, 
the Power from on high prevailing over him. And the 
maiden soon united herself to the love of Christ, her 
heavenly Spouse, Whom she had always cherished with 
chaste affection. 

In the sixth year of his reign, if 1 mistake not, 
Duke Bruno, quick to defend Koly Church from the inroads 
of the savage Hungarians, was, alas, along with two es- 
teemed rulers and likewise with all the men of his own 
forces, slain by these same vicious enemies of the Lord. 
Shortly after his death, his younger brother Otto, by 
favor of King Louis, was made ruler of the people. 3y 
his deeds he responded to the prayers of his saintly 
mother, and with a zeal like to hers he strove to 
beautify the new church with becoming elegance. In the 
second year after his coming into office it was dedi- 
cated. Otto, moreover, finished the walls of our 
monastery to be a refuge for the maidens who would abide 
there during the centuries. 

When these achievements had been satisfactorily com- 
pleted according to the injunctions of his mother, he 
chose at the urgent request of the Lady Oda that very 
day for the dedication of the church, upon which, at 
midnight, lights had in an earlier year gleamed brightly 
t o be beheld my many for the third time. Likewise, that 
date was chosen because the solemn festal day of All 
Saints was to be duly celebrated the length and breadth 
of the spacious earth on that same first of the month of 
November . 

As this rumor of the dedication of the church re- 
echoed far and wide, very large crowds, wishing to be at 
hand for that eventful day, soon flocked together from 
all directions. In thanksgiving for having received the 
blessed remains of our holy patrons, the whole community 
of our sisters in a body, at the first bright streak of 

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Susceptis patronorum grattilando piorum 
Corporibus sacris, pergit resonant ibiis hymnis 

390 Ad loca coenobii summo conamine structi. 

Tunc tandem, cunctis ad cultum rite peratis 
Festi, Wicberhtus praesul domini bened ictus 
Dedicat hoc templum domini sub honore decorum 
Qmibus ad laudem Sanctis per saec la perennem, 

39S Quorum tunc festum digne fuerat celebrandum. 
Koc nam facta fuit clari sacratio templi 
Centum mansurnis octo vicibus revolutis 
Octonis denis, uno pariter superaucto, 
Postquam virgo puellaris sine sorde pirioris 

400 Saeclorum regem peperit propriunriue parentem. 
Tunc coepere locis primum silvestribus illis 
Carmina divinae laudis clare resonare. 
Ex in et illius nostri collectio coetus 
Illic permansit domino iugiter famulando. 

405 Et , licet abbatissa gregem Gerberga recentem 
Caute servaret crebris monitisque doceret 
Conservare, suae fuerant quae congrua vitae, 
Contra propositum nee quid patrare profanum, 
Domna tamen conversando venerabilis Cda 

410 Intra claustra monasterii cura vigilanti 
Scrutatur coniunctarum persaepe sororum 
Actus et studium, mores, vitae quoque cursum, 
Ne ve 1 contempta maiorum lege sequenda 
Vivere lege sua reprobe praesumeret u 1 la , 

415 Ve 1 locus illiciti foret u 1 1 ius peragendi, 
Exemploqiie suo praemonst rav it facienda. 
Et , ceu prudentis dulcis dilectio matris 
Nunc terrore siias prohibet delinquere natas , 
Nunc etiam monitis bona ve 1 le suadet amicis, 

420 Sic haec sancta suas caras instruxit a lunrias , 
Nunc dominatricis mandando iure potentis, 
Nunc etiam matris mulcendo more suavis. 
Quo vita simili cunctae communiter iini 
Servirent regi, iubilant cui sidera caeli. 

425 Praeterea, quas maternae pietatis amore 
Nutrivit, vere magno veneratur honore, 
Has ipsas vocitando suas saepissime domas . 
Nam quot ies neptes e ius proceresque nepotes, 
Quos praepollent is decus extollebat honoris, 

430 Eius ad implendum convenerunt famulatum, 
Certantes donis illamdonare coruscis 
Regis ut illustrem socrimi propriamque parentem, 
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dawn, went forth amid the chanting of hymns to the loca- 
tion of the monastery which had been erected with such 
extreme solicitude. Then at length, when all prepara- 
tions for the celebration of the festival had been duly 
made, Wichbert, blessed bishop of the Lord, dedicated 
this magnificent church to the glory of Cod for endless 
praise throughout the ages to all the saints whose feast 
was then worthily commemorated. 

The consecration of the famous church occurred on 
this feast in the eight hundred and eightieth yearly 
cycle, plus one, since a Virgin, without loss of her 
maidenly chastity, brought forth One who was King of the 
ages and her own Sire. Then for the first time in these 
sylvan regions did Hymns of Divine Praise begin to sound 
forth clearly. Thereafter the congregation of this our 
community abode there in unremitting service to the 
Lord. And although the Abbess Gerberga carefully safe- 
guarded the young flock and instructed it by frequent 
exhortations to observe those things that were in 
harmony with its monastic life and to avoid every deed 
contrary to such a course of life, nevertheless the 
esteemed Lady Cda , dwelling within the enclosure of the 
monastery, scrutinized with watchful solicitude the 
actions, zeal, customs, and the mode of life of the 
united sisters, lest any one of them should disdain the 
rule of her predecessors and presume to live wickedly by 
following a law of her own, and that there might be no 
occasion for the doing of any lawless deed, she by her 
own example led the way in what was to be done. As the 
fond love of a wise mother now restrains her daughters 
by fear from wrong-doing and now even draws them by 
kindly exhortations to the desire of virtue; so this 
saintly woman instructed her dear foster children, now 
by the impelling law of an authoritative mistress and 
now in the soothing manner of an affectionate mother. 
She acted thus that they in community of life might 
serve the One King to whom the stars of heaven sing 
jubilee. Those, moreover, whom she reared with a love 
of maternal kindness, she truly reverenced with great 
regard, very frequently calling them her superiors. As 
often as her granddaughters and her noble grandsons, 
whom the dignity of great office exalted, came to do her 
a service and vied with one another in showering her 
with resplendent gifts, in deference to her place as 
mother-in-law of the king and their own parent, she is 

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Illos mox verbis affari dicitur istis: 
'Exhortans moneo vos , o mea pignora cara , 

435 Ut maturetis condignis primule vestris 

Muneribus nostras large ditescere domnas, 
Hie servire piis debent qiae sedulo nostris 
Ffetronis, quorum meritis, precibus quoque sacris 
Successus nobis optatae pr osper ita t is 

440 Necnon regal is deciis accedebat honoris.' 

Hac ratione suam stirpem persuaserat onnem 
Erga coenobii cultum pie sollicitari; 
Et loca, quae generii done regis Hludowici 
Possessura quidem proprium suscepit in usum, 

445 Ffermittente sua par iter pietate benigna , 
Ecclesiae tradi faciebat Gandeshemens i . 
Nee rex ipse locum sublimavit minus ilium, 
Liudgardis pie reginae bonitate preeante ; 
Sed tradens illi largitur praedia multa 

450 In ius Gerbergae, nostrae reetricis amandae, 
Ipsius illustris reginae namque sororis. 
Quae rex Amulfus, successor scilicet huius, 
Post haec per scriptum regali iure statutum 
Firmat, vinetis e ius dono superauctis. 

455 Ac sic coenobio succedunt prospere plura , 
Summorum meritis intercedent ibus a Imis 
Pontificum, quorum constat sub honore dicatum. 
Sed ne plus iusto fragiles extollere mentes 
Suaderet talis successus prosper itat is , 

460 Utque probaretur felix nostri dominatrix, 
Vere iudicii sa lubr is censura superni 
Perplures horum mundo subtraxerat isto, 
Quorum coenobium fuerat solamine fultum. 

Ergo rege pio iam defuncto Kludowico, 
465 Qui re gum primus nostros tradebat in usus 
Regali pr ius obsequio loca debita multa, 
Necnon cyrographis eius sub nomine script is 
lura monaster ii firmaverat omnia nostri, 
Eius post annos discessus denique paucos 
470 Liudgardis regina, sui dignissima regni 

Censors, tantorum quae nobis causa bonorum 
Extitit, e mundo d iscess it (pro dolor) isto 
Non sine nostrarum magno rerum detrimento. 
Cui nam cons imi lis success it causa dolor is, 
475 Abbatissa bonis Gerberg quia dedita cur is, 

-106- 



said to have addressed them forthwith with these words: 
"I exhort and counsel you, my dear children, to hasten 
first of all to enrich abundantly with worthy offerings 
our mistresses, who must here zealously serve our holy 
patrons, by whose merits and sacred entreaties the suc- 
cess of our desired good fortune and the dignity of our 
royal glory have been increased". 

In this fashion she persuaded her whole family to be 
piously solicitous for the upkeep of the monastery. And 
the lands which she received by gift from her son-in- 
law, King Louis, to possess for her own use, she caused 
with his permission to be transferred to the Church of 
Gandersheim. 

And the king himself in reply to the kindly prayers 
of Queen Liutgarda did not fail to enrich the estate; 
but he assigned as gifts thereto many farms transferring 
them to the jurisdiction of our beloved Abbess Gerberga , 
and the sister of the illustrious queen. And his suc- 
cessor. King Arnulf, added vineyards by gift on his 
part, and established the donations permanently with 
regal power through wr it ten document given under his 
royal hand. Thus in many ways things succeeded well for 
the monastery by reason of the kindly intercessions of 
the Chief Pontiff under whose direction the monastery 
was established. 

But lest the good fortune of such prosperity should 
bring about an tmdue insolence in weak human hearts, and 
in order that our blessed superioress might be tested, a 
salutary chastisement of judgment from on high took from 
this world very many of those whose encouragement had 
given support to the monastery. 

In time, then, good King Louis died, he who was first 
of the kings to give over to our use many lands hereto- 
fore under fealty to royal control, and to establish 
with signatures written under his name all the rights of 
our monastery. A few years after his demise. Queen 
Liut ga rda , the worthy consort of his throne, who had 
been the cause of countless beneficences to us, de- 
parted, alas, from this world, to the great loss of our 
interests. To this bereavement a like cause of grief 
presently followed. The Abbess Gerberga had dedicated 
her life to goodly concerns and through the aid of the 
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Quae praedictorum suffulta iuvamine regum 
Necnon reginae germano foedere iunctae 
Coenobium donis ornavit saepe coruscis 
Us ibus et quaestiim nostris superaddidit amplum, 

480 Postquam bis denos binos qucrjue praefuit annos, 
Officio vice rectricis perfuncta prioris, 
Deposit© fragilis mortali ix)ndere carnis 
Factor i f latum reddebat ab aethre receptum; 
Orbatunriue sui dimisit ovile sorori 

48S Christ inae procurandum sancteque tuendum. 

Quae, praefatarum mores sectando sororum 
Atque sui vitam bene praemed itando gerendam, 
Illis fit similis magnae fame probitatis, 
Quis fuit aequa lis provectu nobilitatis. 

490 Mater et illius, stabilem corrumpere cuius 
Mentem nullarum potuit mutatio rerum, 
Quominus obsequio domini fieret stiidiosa, 
FVovocat exemplis illam, monitis quoque crebris, 
Ut , sese semper c ircumspiciens sapienter, 

49S Conmissum caute sibimet servaret ovile 
Necnon factorum iiixta meritum variorum 
Nunc pie subiectas monitis mulceret amicis, 
Nunc etiam verbis iuste terreret acerbis, 
Ne quern divini ritum cultus violari 

500 Torpens affectus cordis permitteret e ius . 
Ipsaque domna sui studio lavxlabilis Oda , 
Quae, Claris splendens radiis mirae bonitatis. 
Sat dilecta deo fuerat , Celebris quoque mundo. 
Semper maternae solito pietatis amore 

SOS Eius adoptivis studuit conquirere natis, 

Quicquid norma rum depos cere sciverat usum; 
Cridonisque ducis clari devotio grandis, 
Concordando suae vot is carae genitricis, 
Auxilio regum, quibus exhibuit famulatum, 

510 Ipsum virginevim coetum Christi famularum 
Fovit clementer necnon provexit amanter. 
Nee propriae vitae compelli quivit amore, 
Ut ve 1 eas damno laedendo tangeret ullo, 
Ve 1 minus impleret, quae mater d igna iuberet . 

515 Ac sic concessae sibimet per tempore vitae 
Omni ferventis studuit conamine mentis 
Coenobio patronorum praebere suorum 
Ips ius auxilii semper tutamina certi; 
Nee vice terribilis metui petiit senioris, 

520 Sed bene mansueti genitoris ad instar amari: 
Unde loco non inmerito permansit in illo 



•108- 



I 



aforesaid kings and the ties of kinship with the queen, 
her sister, had often embellished the convent with re- 
splendent gifts and had added ample substance for our 
use. After she had been for twice ten and two years in 
office, performing the duties of prioress as head of her 
community, she laid aside the mortal weight of the frail 
human body and returned to her Maker the breath of life 
she had received from on high. To her sister, Chris- 
tine, she entrusted the bereaved flock, to be devotedly 
cared for and safeguarded. 

Christine, by imitating the character of her sisters 
and by a careful planning of a conduct of life, became, 
by reason of her great virtue, like to them whose equal 
she was in degree of nobility. And her mother, whose 
steadfast mind no change of circumstance could affect, 
in her service of God, by frequent word and example 
encouraged her daughter always to be wisely on the alert 
and prudently to safeguard the flock entrusted to her; 
and, according to the deserts of their various deeds now 
piously to soothe those subordinate to her with loving 
counsels and now again justly to terrify them with 
reproachful words; lest the affection of her heart 
should grow lukewarm and allow any rite of divine wor- 
ship to be disregarded. And the I^dy Oda herself was 
pre-eminent in her zeal and resplendent in the bright 
radiance of wondrous integrity, beloved by God and of 
fair fame in the world. With her wonted love of 
motherly kindness she was ever solicitous to obtain for 
her adopted daughters whatever she knew the needs of 
nuns required. And the great devotedness of the illus- 
trious Duke Otto, in accord with the wishes of his dear 
mother, made use of the aid of the kings to whom he 
tendered service to cherish in kindly wise and to ad- 
vance devotedly the virginal band of the servants of 
Christ. Nor could he be driven, even through love for 
his own life, either to harm them by causing any in- 
jurious loss, or to withhold any gift that his worthy 
mother bade him give. Thus during the span of life 
allotted to him he strove with all the effort of his 
zealous heart ever to provide for the monastery of his 
patrons with the constant protection of his unfailing 
aid. He sought not to be feared as a dread lord, but to 
be well loved after the fashion of a kindly father. 
Therefore, even to this day, the praise of his remark- 
able kindliness deservedly endures in this spot. We, 

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Hactenus insignis laus illius pietatis. 
Nos quoque permotae tantae dulcedine famae, 
Necdum maternis quae tunc prorupimus alvis, 
525 Sed fuimus vere longo post tempore natae, 

Haut minus illius constanter amore f Lagramus , 
Quam quae praesentem contemplabantnr eundem 
Atque suae doois ditabantur pietatis. 

Hie igitur talis praeclarae vir pietatis, 

530 Qui pius urbicolis tribuit bona talia nostris, 
Morte sui matrem nostri domnarrriue potentem 
Praeveniendo prior, vetiti pro crimine p>omi, 
Quod protoplastes degustavere parentes, 
Exuitur membris limoso stamine text is 

535 (IVo dolor) atque seris clausit sua lumina mortis 
Coetu nostra rum c ircumva 1 lante s or or urn 
I^rnimio domni fletu lectum morituri. 
Cuius ad exequias summo nisu celebrandas 
Undique nostrates conf luxerunt iacrimantes, 

540 Atque sui loetum cari senioris amarum 

Onnes inmodicis par iter flevere lament is. 
Sed luctum procerum vulgi pariterque lamentum 
Vicit nonnarum miseranda querela suarum; 
Quae, pro defectu mentis solito muliebris 

545 Vivere spernentes citiusque mor i cupientes , 
In lacrimando modum voluerunt ponere nullum. 
Hinc patris eiusdem cari domnique benigni 
Cor|XJS per triduum conservabant inhumatum, 
Ceu sese lacrimis sperarent posse refusis 

550 Extinct i f latum citius revocare reductum. 
Tandem concilium sapiens satis advenientum 
Decernens , vanae spei debere reniti, 
Obius in tumulo non absque dolore parato, 
Sed luctu nimio circumstantum madefacto, 

555 Membra due is tanti digne servanda locari 

Fecit in ecclesiae medio, quam struxerat ipse. 
Illic nostrarum studio certante sororum 
Continuis pree ibus dilectus spiritus eius 
Semper celsithroni commendatur pietati, 

560 Quo det ei requiem clemens sine fine perennem. 

Scilicet ante dies oeto tot idem quoque noctes , 
Quam due is occasus miserabilis accidit huius , 
Tpsius nato, regi quandoque futuro, 
Nascitur Henrico famosus filius Orido, 

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i 



too, influenced by the suavity of his goodly repute, 
though not yet born in his day but coming to the light 
of day long afterwards, yet are warmed with a love of 
him not less enduring than that which they felt, who 
beheld his presence and were enriched by the gifts 
of his benevolence. 

This man, then, distinguished for beneficence as he 
was, who in his fervor had bestowed upon those dwelling 
with us gifts of high value, died before his mother and 
our influential mistress. Because of the guilt result- 
ing from the fruit of old which our first parents 
tasted, he was loosed from his members fashioned from 
texture of clay and, alas, closed his eyes with the seal 
of death. With intense weeping the community of our 
sisters surrounded the couch of their dying master. 
From all directions our gr ie f -s t r icken countrymen 
flocked together to attend his obsequies which were to 
be solemnized with all due rites, and all in like degree 
mourned with weeping unrestrained the lamentable death 
of their beloved lord. But the plaintive wailing of his 
nuns surpassed the lamentable grief of the chieftains 
and the mourning of the common folk as well. In accord- 
ance with the wonted weakness of their womanish hearts, 
they disdained to live, and longed speedily to die, not 
willing to place any bounds to their weeping. Hence, 
for three days they kept the corpse of their dear father 
and benevolent lord unbur ied , as if they hoped that by 
their flowing tears they could speedily recall the 
departed spirit of the deceased king. At length the 
wise admonition of their guests convinced them that one 
must needs relinquish vain hopes and persuaded them 
forthwith to commit the body of the great ruler for 
interment in the center of the church he himself had 
built and in a tomb made ready amid excessive grief and 
moistened with the copious tears of the bystanders. 
There, with the zeal of our sisters vying with one 
another in constant prayers, his beloved soul was 
commended to the benignity of Him ever throned on high, 
that He in His mercy might grant him eternal rest with- 
out end. 

Now eight days and as many nights before the sad 
death of this sovereign occurred, there was born to his 
son and sometime future king, Henry, a son, the renowned 
Otto, who by the benevolence of the Eternal King was 

-III- 



565 Qui fiiit e lectus regis pietate perennis 

Primus Saxonum rex post pat rem strenuorum, 
Augustus Romanorum pariterque potentum. 

Mens ibus hinc senis cursu voiitante peractis, 
Dum decus hoc tanti clarum generis fuit ortum, 

570 In quo laeta procul dubio promissa repleta 
Christi baptistae creduntur primitus esse, 
Istius exiguae quae mox in vert ice musae 
Aedae namque suae memini fore dicta perenti, 
Oda nimis felix, nostri spes et dominatrix, 

575 Cum decies denos septem quoque vixerat annos , 
Vitam fine bono consummans transit ad astra, 
Expectans spe felici tempus redeundi 
Flatus atque resurgendi de pulvere pleni 
Corporis, in tumulo quod nunc sub tegmine duro 

580 luxta natarum requiescit busta suarum. 

Nee Christina, suis quae sola remans it alumni; 
lam tunc instantis grandis dulcedo dolor is , 
Plus quam bis ternos post matrem vixerat annos, 
Sed reddens animam, factore vocante , beatam, 

585 lungitur in lucis patria pacisque perennis 
Eius germanis, quarum pollebat honoris 
Heres et sanctae sectatrix inclita vitae. 
Quas matri cunctas in cae lo consociatas, 
Alme pater, tecum praesta gaudere per aevum 

590 Illius et regni mercede perenniter uti. 

Quod retro cuncta tuis servasti saecula car is. 
Quo, te cum nato necnon cum flamine sacro 
Solum rectorem cae lest ibus imperitantem 
Dulci laetitiae laudantes voce iocundae. 



■112 



I 



565 chosen after his father first king of the vigorous 
Saxons, and likewise Augustus of the mighty Romans. 

Then when six months had passed in flying course, 
after this renowned ornament of a great race had been 

570 born, in whom the joyful promises of the Baptist of 
Christ are believed without doubt to have been for the 
first time fulfilled, (promises which I related at the 
beginning of my slight poem had been spoken to his 
ancestress, Aeda , ) the blessed Cda , our hope and pro- 
tectress, after living ten decades and seven years, 

575 terminated her life with a happy close and passed to 
Heaven, looking forward with hope to the time of return- 
ing breath, the rising of a glorified body from the 
dust, the body that now rests in a tomb under the hard 

580 earth near the graves of her daughters. 

Christine, who alone survived for her foster children 
and who was then a great consolation in the sorrow over- 
whelming them, lived not more than twice three years 
after her mother. But she returned her blessed soul at 
the beckoning of her Maker and in the Fatherland of 

585 light and everlasting peace was united to her sisters, 
of whose nobility she was the heiress while she sought 
gloriously after a saintly life. Now that they are all 
united with their mother in Heaven, do Thou kindly 
Father, grant that they may with Thee rejoice throughout 
eternity and forever enjoy the reward of that kingdom 

590 which Thou hast safeguarded before all ages for those 
whom Thou lovest, in order that, in sweet utterance of 
blessed joy, they may praise Thee with the Son and with 
the Holy Spirit as the sole Sovereign ruling in Heaven. 



•113- 



COMMENTARY 



PREFACE 

1. Gerberga: niece of Otto the Great, daughter of Henry, 

Duke of /fevaria. She, known as Cerberga II, was con- 
secrated abbess in 9.S9. Cf . Blashfield, p. 12. 

abbatissa: an ecclesiastical word of Semetic origin; it 
occurs in Prim. 113, 241, 405, 475. 

Although some attempt is made to preserve homoiote leuton 
in this address, there is no rhyme. The form is rather 
that of the writer's comedies, poetic prose. 

pro sui eminent ia : pro here seems to be used in the 
meaning of "according to, in proportion to, in view 
of, by virtue of (= secundum). In the Classical 
period this us^ge is chiefly confined to a few formal 
phrases, e.g. pro re, pro parte, pro copia, pro viri- 
bus , cf. K-Steg. 2.1.516. Krotsvit employs pro in 
this sense with a number of words which, to my know- 
ledge, are not so used in Classical authors. 

sui: Rrotsvit shows a departure from the Classical 
in the employment of the reflexive pronoun sui and 
tui in place of the possessive adjective suus and 
tuus . Cf . L-Kof. 469-470. This usage occurs fre- 
quent ly . 

1-5. This first paragraph is apparently a kind of inscrip- 
tional asage without an expressed verb. 

2. obsequeJa venerat ionis: obseque la , the diminutive form 

of otse c^utum /"humble demonstration of respect". For 
this and other diminutives cf. Intro, p. 15. 

3. s temmata generositat is : stemna= a wreath, crown; by 

metonymy as employed here, = a family, lineage. Cf . 
Juvenal, 8.1, "Stemmata quid faciunt, quid prodest, 
Pont ice". 

7. praelucet is: plural for the singular; this irregularity 
in number is common in Late and Medieval latin; cf. 
L-Hof. pp. 371-372. The usage occurs frequently in 
Hr otsv it . 

non pigescat : for ne pigescat ; this use of non in place 
of the more common ne is found rarely in Early Latin, 

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occurs once in Cicero, but is more frequent in Livy, 
in poetry, and in Silver prose. It becomes much more 
frequent in Late Latin; cf. L-Hof . pp. 573-574. 

8. quod si ignorat is : si = non: "since you are not 
ignorant of"; Newnan, p. 92, gives the following 
explanation for this use of si: "An extension of the 
Hebrew use of the conditional in a negative oath, 
through the Creek use of E I in the same sense. I am 
indebted to Miss Susan Cobbs of Randolph Macon 
College for Women for two references in ancient gram- 
marians to this use of si: Granm. Suppl .(p. ISl), and 
Pal. Lat. 1746, fol. 121r , 34ff., a manuscript of 
Tatwin, which she will publish shortly". 

Note the quod -c lause instead of the infinitive with 
accusative. In Indirect Discourse Hrotsvit employs the 
infinitive with the accusative 300 times, the quod- 
c lause 20 times. Cf . Newnan, p. 162. 

14-15. Both Widukind and Liudprand wrote histories of the Ottos 
which might have been accessible to Hrotsvit. Liudprand 
was an eye witness of many of the events which Hrotsvit 
few diplomatic and charitable reasons retrained from 
mentioning. Cundlach, pp. 530-549, gives the complete 
chronicle of lAiidprand. 

Widukind in his Sachsengeschicte gives a full account of 
the coronation of Otto I. which event was lightly 
sketched by Hrotsvit. He, moreover, develops at full 
length the feud between Otto and his brother Henry. Cf . 
Gmdlach, pp. 4-7-431. 

15-25. Ccmmenting on this passage, Eckenstein, pp. 156-157, 
remarks that the simile doubtless was suggested by the 
surroundings of the convent. 

22. progredi non praesumeret : praesunere as employed here 
in the sense of "venture", "dare", is Late Latin, 
cited for Hil., Rufin., Supl. Sev., Vulg., I^neg., 
Hier., et al;--"to take", or "do beforehand", Ov . , 
PI in. Hat., Tac. 

For the use of praesunere with infinitive cf . Intro , 
p. 17. 

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24. prolixitatem: a Late Latin noun cited for Apul., Dig., 
Symm. , e t a 1 . 

32. a liquant isper : "a little while", cf. Ter. Beaut. S72, 
"Esto, at certe ut hinc concedas aliquo ab ore eorum 
a liquant isper" . 

35. unde . . . vereor me ...argui: clause of fear or anxiety 

with infinitive and subject accusative, the most 
usual construction of Krotsvit. Cf . Newnan, p. 151. 

36. dehonestare: a Silver Latin verb cited for Liv., San, 

Phil., Tac . , Suet., Fronto, Prud., and late writers; 
cf. Aug. Civ. 2.68.27, "quanto minus senatoriam 
cur iam dehonestar i sinunt"; Ibid. 7.306.12; 12.513. 
26. 

39-40. quanto sexus fragilior...: commenting on this passage 
3lashfield, p. 18, says, "In Krotsvit 's day a woman 
who handled a pen felt more obliged to apologize for 
her occupation than she who wielded a sword. In 
letters she still cowered behind the shield of her 
sex" . 

41. praesumpt ionis : as here in the sense of "boldness", 
"aixlacity", the word is cited for Apul., Tert., Supl. 
Sev., Cypr . , Amm., Kier., et al.--in the sense of 
"anticipated enjoyment", for Plin. Sp., Apul. Cf . 
Aug. C onf . 7.20.26, "quid interesset inter prae - 
sumptionem et confess ionem" . 

si: cf. note 8. 

44. censurae : "judgment", or "criticism" (of approval or 
disapproval), a Poetic, Silver, and I-ate Latin 
meaning, cited for Ov . , Mart., Tac., Plin., Cell., 
Apul., and Ecc 1 . writers. Only in Ecc 1 . Latin does 
it denote "severe judgment". Tlie word occurs also in 
Prin. 461 

solummodo: a Late Latin word cited for I' 1 p . , Ps , 
Quint., Decl., Tert., Min. Fe 1 . , Serv.. Kier., Rufin. 
et a I . 

46. pro sui vilitate: cf. note I. 

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47. propalari: (from propa lam) a I^te Latin word cited for 
Comm., Oros., Claud. Man., Sidon., Vict. Vit., et al. 

50. Archipraesulis WUhelmi: archbishop of Mainz, illigeti- 
mate son of Otto I; cf. Thompson, ^.i4. vol. 1. p . 
361. 

PROLOGUE I. 

2. OdHo: Otto I. 

4. Fear the thought cf. Prud. Han. 392, "namque illic 
nimerosa cohors sub principe tali militat". 

5. plures: in Classical Latin plures always has a compara- 

tive meaning; beginning with Livy it becomes the 
equivalent of c onplures , "very many" as here. Cf . 
K-Schm. 2.311. 

9. gregis: grex or greges is frequently used to designate 
a religious congregation. Cf . Aug. Conf. 8.6. 15, "ad 
monaster iorum greges". The usage occurs also in 
Prim. 316, 405. 

14-15. Cf. note to Preface 14-15. 

18. tui: cf. note in Preface 1. 

20. mis mentis: for "meae mentis"; nis and tis are old 
genitive forms found in Early Latin writers; cf. Enn. 
(quoted by Prise. 1 .d . ) "ingens cura mis concord ibus 
aequiperare"; Plaut . Mil. 1033, "quia tis egeat " ; 
Trin. 343, "ne tis alios misereat". Cf . K-Steg 
1.1.578. 

PROLOGUE II. --Dedicated to Otto II. 

3. alt ithronus : - hybrid; in Late and Medieval Latin 

hybrids were used frequently. Cf . c o-e pise opus 
"fellow bishop "cited for Cypr . , Ki 1. , Mier . , Aug . , 
et al.; conpresbyter "fellcw priest" cited for Cypr., 
Kil., Ambr . , Rufin., et al.; daenonicola "one who 
worships demons, a heathen", found frequently in Aug. 
Ep. and Civ. Those employed by Krotsvit are: 
caelicolae, Gest. 365; f lavvconant is , Prim. 44; 
ce Isithrcrni , 559; urbicolis , 530. 

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S-IO. These verses may be construed as indicative of the 
intimate re la t ionship ex is t ing between Ilrotsvit and the 
Saxon royal family. Cf . Manitius, vol. I. p. 629. 

11. tis: cf. note, Prol. 1.20. 

13. scrutancium: a relatively rare verb before I-ate latin; 
it is cited for Ov . , Hor . , Plin. Ep., Tac . . Curt., 
Aim. et al. Cf . Aug. Ccnf. 6.2*^7.8, "plus quam ut ea 
vulgiim scrutari expediat". 

16. promptus: with infinitive; this usage begins with 
I.ucan. Cf. K-Steg. 2 . 1 . 68S . 

18. conportans dextra sceptrum regale tenella: Otto II, son 
of Adelaide and Otto I, was just eighteen years old 
at the time of his accession to the throne. 

20. For Scriptural allusion cf. Reg. 3.1.30-53. 

famosi: fanosus was employed by Cicero and earlier 
authors only in a disreputable sense. Horace is 
cited as the first to use it in a reputable sense; 
Ars. 469, "ponet famosae mortis amorem". Cf . K-Schn. 
1.580. With later writers this use became frequent. 
Hrotsvit in her historical poems employs it thus 10 
times; cf. Intro, p. 15. 

30. prolem rest it ui verae mandans genet r ici : for Scriptural 
allusion cf. Reg. 3.3.16-28. 

33. propriae: a Late Latin usage, equivalent to the 

classical possessive. K-Schm. 2.408; L-Hof . p. 473 
makes it the equivalent of suits, citing Amri. and Ps . 
Rufin. This usage is simply a natural result of a 
tendency, already pronounced in Silver I^tin, to 
employ the word in a rather unrestricted fashion. 
The word in this usage occurs frequently in Hrotsvit. 

34. lectitare: "to read with attention, or often", a 

Ciceronian word comparatively rare: besides Cic. it 
is cited for Plin. Ep., Tac, QuTut.. Cell., Hist. 
Aug. et al. Cf . Aug. Civ. 3.101.28. "quae ap»id illos 
de matre Aeneae et de oatre Rornili lee t itantur " . 

38. despectus nimia merit i tueantur ab aura: apnnrentlj 

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from tue not tueor as it seems to be employed here 
iii the passive sense. Cf . Dig. 27.10.7, "Consilio et 
opera ciiratoris tueri debet non solum pa t r imoniiim, 
sed et corpus et sa lus fiirioso". The passive is not 
found in prose among the better writers, it appears 
first in Vitruvius and occurs in Late I>atin; cf. 
K-Schm. 2,680. The same usage occurs in P-rin. 151. 



GESTA OTTONIS 

1. rex regwn: Hebraic genitive: --Regarding this, Newnan, 
pr>. 121-122, says, "There is one type of genitive, 
found in two expressions in Krotsvit's works, which 
is current in Church Latin and is probably a literal 
translation from the Hebrew. It is used for empha- 
sis. The other expression is saecula saeculoi'un from 
which may have developed such a meaningless piirase as 
saeclu-m saecli, Gest. tl4S, which is merely the 
singular of sascula saeculorwm*'' . 

4-.*?. ncf77en habentem a saxo: commenting on this verse 
Gundlach prefers the etymology of the name as given 
by Widukind: ''Sie zogen ihre Messer und fielen ueber 
die Whre - und f assungs losen her und stiessen a 1 le 
nieder, so dass auch nicht e in einziger von ihnen 
uebrig blieb. So f loess ten sie den Nachbar voe Ikern 
gar grossen Schrecken ein: es war der Anfang der 
ruhmesre ichen Sachen -Geschichte . 

Man will auch wissen, dass ihnen diese That den 
Namen eingetragen hat: das Messer heisse naemlich in 
unserer Sprache "Sachs"; und Sachsen-fle Iden se ien sie 
gennant , we i 1 sie mit ihren Messern e ine so grosse 
Menge n ieder ges treckt haetten...". Widukind in 
Gundlach, p. 76. 

S . duritiam: the word used in this sense is cited for 
Cato, Plant., Ter., Ov . , Silver and Late writers. 
With the idea of "harshness" as expressed here, cf. 
Suet. Claui . 14 , "duritia lenitasve muitarum (legum)"; 
Tac. Hist. 1.23, "duritia imperii". 

fi. Ockionis , . .ducis: Duke Otto the Illustrious, son of the 

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Liiidulf who established the monastery of Gandersheim. 
Cf . outline in Intro, p, 8. 

7. Henricus: Henry the Fowler. 

9-18. Poole, in Bury's C. M . H. vol. 3. p. 186, concerning 
Henry, says, "The chroniclers of the pxeriod are 
unanimous in their praises of Henry's character and 
achievements. He was a just and fair sighted statesman, 
a skillful and brave general; with foreigners and 
enemies he was stern and uncompromising, but to his own 
countrymen he was a lenient and benevolent ruler. In 
his cwn day Henry was recognized as the founder of a new 
rea Im". 

Thompson, ¥. A. vol. 1. pp. 373-37.S, is less favorably 
inclined toward Henry. 

12. praeminet : for prae-eminet . 

11-13. qualiter . . .reges . . .praewinet excedit . . .huius carmjnuli 
textum.,.: indirect question of fact introduced by 
qualiter : regarding its use in Krotsvit, Newnan, p. 
163, maintains that out of the 98 uses, 84 employ the 
subjunctive, 12 the indicative, and 2 the infinitive; 
excedo is listed among the verbs taking the indica- 
t ive 

17. pacificus: this word is comparatively rare before I>ate 
Latin, being found especially in the Vulgate, where 
it is used both as an adj. and as a subst . in the 
masc. or neut . pi. The word occurs also in verse 
731. 

20-21. denos . . . annos necnon bis ternos: i. e. 16 years; in 
reality the time was more than 17 years, from April 
14, 919, to July 2, 936. 

22. Mathilda: Heinrich, p. 135, commenting on the accounts 
given in Migne , 1S9.156; and Eckenstein, p. 210, 
assert that the letters of St. Matilda, wife ofj 
Henry, to St. Anse Im show acquaintance 



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, wire or I 
with t he} 



writings of Cicero, Quintilian, and Fabius , besides 
those of St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and Gregory the 
Great. 

30. rexissent : apparently for regerent , While in general 
Hrotsvit uses the various tenses just as they are 
employed in Classical Latin, some examples (which 
will be noted as they occur) of shifting of tenses 
give evidence that the author pays less attention to 
exactness in the use of the tenses than was the rule 
in the Classical period. Late Latin was often 
affected by the phonetic falling together of various 
tense forms, and the analogy of such forms as had 
fallen together sufficed to weaken the distinction of 
tenses in such forms as were not affected by the 
r^ienomenon of jrfionetics. Cf . L-Kof . pp. Sf>2-S65. 

32. binis regnant i subiectis scilicet uni : i. e. Otto alone 
was king; Henry and Bruno were his vassals. 

33-43. Ccncerning the character of Otto I, Poole, in Bury's 
C. M. H. vol. 3. p. 186, states, "Otto (b. 912) came 
to the throne in the full vigor and idealism of 
youth; he was possessed of a high sense of honor and 
justice, was stern and passionate, inspiring fear and 
admiration rather than love among his subjects; he 
was ambitious in his aspirations and anxious to make 
' the royal power f e It as a reality throughout Germany". 

38. ccngruus : a relatively rare adjective before Late 
Latin; it is cited for Plaut., Apul., Ita la , Kier., 
Vulg., Heges . , Amm. , et al. 

defuncto patre: the past participle used absolutely 
(without vita), equivalent to nortuus becomes 
frequent in Silver and Late Latin; cf. K-Schm. 1.407. 
Tac. Ann. I . I . "De f unct o Marce 1 lo" ; Ibid, 1.7. 'de- 
funct o August o" . This usage occurs also in Gest . 78, 
128, 481, 485; Prim. 464. 

41. possidet ut : apparently this is an example of the use 
of ut with the indicative in a result clause; 
another instance of the same use occurs in Gest. 91. 
Examples of this usage in several Late authors are 
mentioned in L-Hof . p. 760. There is, however, a 
possibility of construing it as, "as he took posses- 
ion". 

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44. gentea . . . feroces: the Hungarians. 

4'> . ecclesiam: besides the congregation of the faithful as 
a whole or in a given place, the word also denotes 
the building dedicated to Divine Worship. In the 
historical poems, Hrotsvit employs it II times in the 
latter sense, *^ times in the former. Cf . Intro, p. 
\'^ for the use of Creek words. 

46. Henr icus: Henry, Duke of Bavaria, father of the Abbess 
Cerberga IT. 

53. Brun: became St. Bruno, Bishop of Cologne. 

60. aula: chiefly Poetic, though used occasionally in 
prose; referring t ^ the palace of the Caesars, but 
here Krotsvit employs it to refer to the "courts or 
palace" of heaven; elsewhere she uses it in the 
former sense . 

63-64. Christus. . . ipsi dona dedit tantae praeclara sophiae, 
quod non est illo penitus sapient ior ul lus . . . : an 
actual clause of result often takes the indicative; 
cf . Note, 41; also Newnan, p. 155. The interchange 
of ut with quod is discussed fully in K-Steg. 2.2.269 
.276. 

67. famoso: cf. note Prol. 2.20. 

69. vitae calidas sospes dum carperet auras: cf. Verg. Aen. 

1.387-388, "aures vitales carpis". 

70. primogenito: A T^te latin word cited for lact., Ambr . , 

Hier., Vulg., Rufin., et al. Cf . Aug. Conf. 7.9.15 , 
"populus pr imogenitus" . The word occurs too in line 
129. 

74. trans mare . . . transmisit : Newnan, p. 130, lists this as 
the only example in Hrotsvit 's works of a preposition 
repeated with the accusative. 

78. patre defuncto: cf. note 38. 
pat re: Eadwardo. 

79. fratre: Aethelstano. 

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I 



80. quern peperxt regi consors...: Aethelstan, son of 
Edward's first wife, Egwine, and Edith, daughter of 
the second wife, Aelfeda; cf. Pfund, p. 34. 

82. mulier generis inferior is: Gundlach, p. 339, commenting 

on this passage and others of a similar character 
referring to a marriage between one of higher rank 
and one of an humbler station, calls attention to the 
fact that Krotsvit must have been of the nobility or 
this theme would have interested her less. 

83. script ito: a Ciceronian verb, frequentative of scribo, 

cited also for Plin. Ep., and later writers. This is 
the only occurrence of the word in the Epics. 

87. Serena; an epithet belonging to queenliness and to 

diety, especially Jupiter, whose brow was always 
serene. Hence, Martial calls Domitian "lovem 
serenum". Mart. 5.6.9; 9.25.3. Vergil to express the 
same idea used placidun; cf. Aen. 1.127, "Neptunus... 
placidum caput extulit". 

88. rutilabat : a rare verb derived from an adjective, found 

in Early Latin, rarely in the poets and Silver Latin, 
but frequently in Late Latin. It is cited for Ace, 
frag., Verg., Min. Fe 1 . , Ambr . . Rier . , Vulg., Rufin. 

91-92. ut fore iudicio plebis decernitur omnis opt ima cunctarum 
ut . . .decernitur , result clause with indie, cf . note 
41; fore = esse, cf . Wiegand, p. XXI. 

96-97. Oswaidi regis...: St. Oswald, the King, was martyred 
August 5, 642. Cf. Pfund, p. 35. 

98. at: a resumptive particle to bring us back to the 
narrative; cf. ceterun in Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, and 
later writers: Liv., 22.36.6, "Ceterum priusquan 
s igna ab urbe novae legiones moverent , . . . " ; Ibid. 
1.36.6; 3.71.6; passim. 

98. missi: a participle used substantively; already in 
Sallust the frequency of the substantive use of 
adjectives and participles is noted, and from Livy 
on this usage is extended to all genders, numbers, 
and cases. Krotsvit shows freedom in this regard 
too. The same word and use occurs in Gest . 518. 

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lOS. ment i instillaret: the only elision noted in the 
historical poems of two vowels; cf. Intro, p. 3.'>, for 
metrical study. 

lis. famosi: cf. note in Prol. 2.20. 

118. Eadit: note the various spellings; cf. verses 77, 398. 

120. The marriage of Otto I and Edith took place in 929. 

123-124. populus. . .exortans prolongari vitam...: Liudulf died 
September 6, 9S7. He had been appointed Duke of 
Swabia by his father, Otto I. 

127. T-Ienry the Fowler, died July 2, 936. 

128. Otto I was crowned emperor July 31, 936. 

defuncto: cf. note 38. 

134. praecelleret : a Silver I>atin word cited for Tac . , Sil., 
Vulg., and Late writers; cf. Aug. Civ. 16.IS4.22, 
"quae tunc praece 1 lehant " . 

144. gentiles: in the Christian sense of "heathen", or 
"pagan", as employed here, it is cited for Tert., 
Prud., Mier., Vulg., et al. 

149. caelest is .. .regis: A Classical word used in a Christian 
sense; Tertullian is the first author to associate 
the word caelestis with the ideas pertaining to the 
Christian God: cf. Tert. Anim. 3, "de f in i t i ones 
caelestes id est dominicas"; cf. T.L.L. 3.69.48; 
3.71.4. The word occurs frequently in Prim. 

151. sua...iussa: sua for e ius : an extended use of the 

reflexive adjective; Classical prose regularly uses 
suus only when the possessor is the subject. Collo- 
quial speech, however, in a 11 periods made some use of 
this word when the possessor was the object or 
related to the object. This free use occurs fre 
quently in Ne pos and Livy and especially in T^te 
Latin. Cf . L-Kof. p. 470. 

152. idem: seems to be used merely to refer to something 

which has been previously mentioned. It may here be 

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regarded as the equivalent of is. The use shows a 
weakening of the concept of identity; this weakening 
• began in the Classical period, and in many Late Latin 
authors iden is a mere substitute for is. Cf . L-Hof . 
p. 479. This usage is common in Hrotsvit. 

156. iiaixit: relatively rare in the sense "to unite in 
marriage"; cited for Ov . , Liv., Curt., Hist., Aug. 
and later writers; Hrotsvit employs it, together with 
its compound coniungo , in this sense 6 times. 

163. O quam tranqui I lum: accusative of exclamation: cf . 
note 221. 

168. aligenorum: frequent in Classical Latin, especially in 
Cicero, in the sense of "foreigner", "stranger". 
Here it might be construed in the sense of gentiles , 
a word confined to Scripture and Ecc 1 . writers. 

175. fievovit: more correctly the pluperfect; for shifting of 
tenses cf. note 30. 

173-185. Hrotsvit depicts Kenry as taken prisoner by the soldiers 
in a nocturnal siege, while historians show that 
Thankmar himself, Henry's half-brother, led him into 
captivity. Cf . C.M.H. vol. 3. p. 188. 

176. Evurhardo: Eberhard, brother of King Conrad, who was 
the predecessor of Henry the Fowler. 

181. Baduliki : Belecke on the Mohne , south of Lippstadt; 
this event occured in 938. Cf . C.M.H. vol.3, p. 188. 

186. itmtunerosas: adjectives with the suffix "osus" abound 
in colloquial and Late I^tin, partly because of the 
sonorous character of the suffix and partly because 
of the ease with which it could be attached to nouns 
and adjectives alike, and at times even to verbs. 
This adjective is cited for luv . , Hil., Cass., and 
later writers. Cf . Intro, p. 15. 

192-193. For Scriptural allusion cf. Gen. 14.14-16. 

189-194. According to historians, Otto I does not rescue his 
brother Kenry directly, but only indirectly. 

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197-198. ferre...refovere: infinitives expressing purp>ose ; the 
use of the infinitive to express purpose is strictly 
avoided in Classical prose, but occurs, chiefly with 
verbs of motion, in Early prose and in poetry of a 1 1 
periods. Its revival in prose begins with Valerius 
Maximus. Cf . L-Hof . p. .S80. 

200-201. For parallel thought cf. lines 334-33.S. 

202-227. For a detailed account of this revolt cf. C.M.H. vol, 3. 
pp. 188-190; Thompson, M. A. vol. 1. p. 377. 

Historians agree that Kenry of his cwn accord took part 
in this civil strife; some even term him the instigator 
of it. The poet, however, evidently for Cerberga's 
sake, shields the baseness of her father, Ehjke !Ienry. 

The incident of Eberhard's exile and restoration to 
favor, and the fact that Kenry, Eberhard, and Gilbert 
had designs on the throne are vouched for by historians. 

207. remeabat: a relatively rare verb before late I^tin, 
cited for Plant., Cic., Ve r g . , Hor . , Liv., Sen. 
Phil., Plin. Mat., Tac., Apul., Ambr . , and I>ate 
writers"; cf. Aug. Civ. 22, 5 97. 24, "tot us i 1 le limus 
in totum vas nulla sui perdita parte remearet". 



209. Gislberhto: Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine, 



t 



220-227. Commenting on this passage Cundlach, p. 418, says: "I« 
Gegensatz zu Widukind, welcher unverhohlen die Initia- 
tive zu dem Bruderkriege Heinrich beimisst, macht 
Hrosvitha Eberhard und Ciselbert fuer den Hochverrat 
verantwor t 1 ich und stellt Heinrich lediglich a Is den 
Verfuehrten hin, welcher sein Einvers taendniss vermut* 
1 ich nur vorgegeben habe--es ist dies die schreiendste 
Cewa It , ve Iche Hrosvitha unter der Noetigung ihrer 
hnefischen Auftraggeber der Ceschichte anthut!" 

221. pro dolor: nominative in exclamation; Early Latin shmrs 
occasional uses of the nominative to express an 
exclamation. Examples from Plautus, Ennius, and 
Terence are cited by Bennett, Syntax of Early Latin, 
2.4. This usage continues throughout the Classical 
period and into Silver and I-ate latin, though the 
accusative is more frequently employed. In the 

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Historica 1 Epics just one example , Gest , 163, of the 
accusat ive of exclamation has been noted, while the 
above expression occurs ^ times; Gest. 221; Prim. 
283, 364, 472, S35 . 

226. sperabant regem populos olim dominantem: an exten- 
sion of direct object not normal in classical 
usage; dominor (classical in with abl. or ace). 
Cf. Newnan, p. 131. 

244. coenobi i : A Creek loan word found only in Late 
I>atin; it is cited for Kier . , Cassian., Ave 11., 
Sidon., Bened . Reg., Is id., et al. The word 
occurs frequently in Prim, cf . Intro, p. 15. 

24?;-2?>l. Regarding this arrangement of lines Strecker 
suggests: "245 sq . ordo versuum perturbatus 
transponendo restitui videtur". Barack and Pertz, 
however, retain the consecutive arrangement. 
Strecker 's order seems the more readily translat- 
able . 

249. quis posse dedit sapient ia mentis: substantive use 
of the infinitive posse. 

252-255. For Scriotural allusion cf. Reg. 1.20. 

256. mitite: employed here collectively for "soldiery"; 
this usage is especially frequent in Silver and 
Late Latin: cf. Tac . Ann. 1.2, "ubi militem donis , 
populum annona . . . pe 1 lex it " ; Juv . 10.155, "nihil 
est, nisi Poeno mi lite portas frangimus"; passim in 
Livy, et al. 

258-296. The Siege of Breisach which occurred in 939; for full 
treatment cf, C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 188-190. 

271-275. For Scriptural allusion cf. San. 2.24.17, "Dixit David 
ad Dominum, cum vidisset Ange lum caedentem populum: 
Ego sum qui peccavi, ego inique egi: isti, qui oves 
sint , quid fecerunt: vertatur, obsecro, manus tua 
centra me et contra domun patris mei"- 

276. miserans: as employed here with the ace. is the only 
occurrence in Ilrotsvit's works; cf. Newnan, p. 119; 
cf. too, note 369. 

-127- 



281. speravere suis constringendum fore v inc 1 is : passive 
periphrastic construction instead of the future 
infinitive; a varient reading may be "the hope that 
he should be", in which case the construction would 
be norma 1 . 

283. Udo: Duke of Wetterau. 

285-287. For a full treatment of this revolt and its results cf. 
C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 188-190. 

285. luctamine : a word rarely used before Late Latin; it is 
cited only for Verg., Anthem., Claud. Cf . Aen.9,.%9, 
"remo ut luctamen abesset". The word occurs in Gest . 
317. 

287. Gis Iberhtus . . .mer gi tur undis: in speaking of this 
incident, Poole, in Bury's C.¥.H. vol. 3. p. 190, 
says, "According to one account he got into a boat 
already overloaded with fugitives, and the boat 
capsized; according to another he leapt with his 
horse into the river and so met his end". 

289. quidni: pleonastic use; cf. Cic. Fan. . 3.7.5, "quidni? 
qui apud te educatus"; Catul. 79.1; 89.1; Sen. Sp. 

52.10, "quidni? non permittam?"; K-Steg. 2.2.496. 
The same usage occurs in line 334 and Prim. 344. 
Krotsvit is fond of inserting particles *etri causi. 

302. 1 ibro. . ,Sa lominis : Prov. 11.8, "Justus de angustia 
liberatus est; et tradetur impius pro eo". 

305. demulcendo: a Late I-atin verb cited for Vita Cypr . , 
Cell., Tert., Lact., Hier., Ambr . , luvenc . , Ennod . 
et al. Without the compound "de" it is a Poetic 
Silver, and Late verb. This is the only instance of 
the compound verb noted; without "de " it occurs if 
Gest. 216; Prim. 297, 422. 

317. luctamine: cf. note 285. 

325. diem paschae sanctum: this was Easter Sunday, April 18, 
941, at Quedlinburg. For full account cf. C .M.H . vol, 
3. pp. 195-196. 

paschae: a Semitic loan word meaning "Easter", it is 

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cited for Tert . , Cypr . , Symm. , Hier . , Aus . , Vulg., et 
al. It is usually neuter, but regularly follows the 
genitive of the first declension. Cf . K-Schm. 2.2.S2; 
Neue-Wagener, 1.866, 968. 

328. paschalis: an adjective formed from the above noun. 

329. holocaustum: a Greek loan word cited for Tert., Prud., 

Vulg., et al. Cf. Prud. Apoth. 537, "at tua con- 
gestae tumulant holocausta ruinae". Cf . too, Intro. 
p. IS. The word occurs in Mar. 443. 

334. quidni: cf. note 289. 

336-353. Henry was a prisoner at Ingelsheim and fled from there 
reaching Frankfurt on Christmas night 941. Cf . Pf und , 
p. 43 note; also Hrotsvit and Widukind in Cundlach, pp. 
425-428. 

344-345. praesentare . . . se . . . praesumebat : cf. Intro, p. 17, 
Hrotsvit exhibits a great fondness for words com- 
pounded with "prae". 

353. obsequiis : employed here in the Late Latin sense of 
"service"; or "worship"; for this use it is cited 
for Capit., Veg., Vulg.; --"deferance" or "respect", 
Ov . , Silver. The plural form of this substantive 
with a singular meaning is cited only for Curtius, 
and Plancus in Cic . Ep. 10.11.3, before Silver and 
Late Latin. Georges. Cf . Intro, p. 14. 

sol lempniter : cited for Liv . , Plin., Amm. , Harpers' 
Georges . 

355. velamine: cited for Verg., Ov . , luv . , Sen. Phil., Tac . 

before Late Latin. It recurs in Prim. 44, 96, 322; 
Mar. 308; Theoph. 302; Bas . 31; Agn. 10; Ahr . 7.2. 

356. hymnos : A Greek loan word found in Sen. frg., but 

otherwise Late Latin and cited for Lact., Ambr . , 
Vulg., Prud., Aug., et al. Its use is mostly 
confined to the Ecc 1 . writers, by whom it is used in 
the sense of a "song of praise to God". In this sense 
Hrotsvit employs it in Asc . 8«,95; Gong. 479; Pe lag . 
301,354,379; Theoph. 225; Agn. 417; Dulc . 3.1; Prim. 
176,389. Cf. Intro, p. 15. 

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369. miserans fratri: nise-ror as used here with the dative 
is the only instance of its kind foimd in Hrotsvit's 
works; cf. Newnan, p. 119; note 276. 

372-37.=:. Authentically Otto I did not give this to Henry until 
after the death of Count Berthold, November 23, 948; 
thus only seven years after the reconciliation. Cf . 
Pfund, p. 44. 

374. famosae: cf. note Prol. 2.20. Intro, p. 15. 

378. Avares: The Hungarians; for full account of Henrv's 
coiYiuests of, C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 195;, 198. 

saepissime : equivalent to bis. 

398. Aedit praesent is vitae discessit ah horis: Edith died 
about January 26, 946; cf. Pfund, p. 45 note. Note 
horis for O'^is a Late confusion for the use of "h"; 
the same usage occurs in 623,629; Mar. 644. 

404. dominatricis: a I^te Latin word cited for Tert., Aus . , 

Ilier, and later writers. It occurs in Pri%.. 421, 
460. 

405. requiem: used here in the Christian sense of "rest" 

after death. The word occurs in this sense in F'in, 
560. 

406. retro reparatam: a lectio varians of Strecker suggests 

"retro sec la parata,"; here sec la would mean "reward'* 
as in Pe lag . 341, and would be in apposition witlj^ 
laetitiam. But the text is possible as it stands 

407. praestari citius iam nan dubitaver it ullus: non rathe 

than quin is the more usual construction after verb: 
or phrases of doubt: cf. Newnan, p. 156. 

417. titnulus: in the sense of sepulchral mound, site o 

burial, is cited for Cic., Verg,, Ov . , Liv., Tac. 
and Suet, before Late latin. The word occurs i 

Prin. 5 53, 579. 

418. suf>ra paucis: refers to verses 121-123. 

425. pro mer it i s . . .ut r iusque ptirentis: for t^'C cf. not 
Pref. 46. 

-130- 






utrius parentis: Otto I and Edith. 

427. erga: employed here in the Classical usage namely, to 
express feelings and relations (esp. in a friendly 
sense) towards persons and things personified. From 
Tacitus on we find it employed in general of every 
kind of mental relation to a person or thing; cf. 
Tac . Ann. "erga pecuniam alienam diligentia". This 
usage becomes more extended among Ecc 1 . writers and 
in later legal diction; cf. K-Steg. 2.1.541; L-Kof . 
520. 

436-437. praepaucula . . .verbula: seems to be employed with the 
real diminutive force; few of Hrotsvit's diminutives 
are thus used. Cf . Intro, p. IS, 

442. sublimavit : a verb relatively rare before Late I>atin; 

it is cited for Cat., Apul. , Fest., lul. Va 1 . , Aur . , 
Vict., Marc, Kier., and later writers. 

443. dcminar i : a Ciceronian verb derived from a noun, but 

comparatively infrequent until the Late Latin period; 
for its use with the genitive as employed here, cf. 
Lact . Ira, 14.3, "Omnium re rum", and other Late 
writers. Elsewhere Krotsvit uses dominari with the 
dative, cf. Newnan, p. 120. 

447. Ccnrado: Conrad the Red, Duke of Lorraine; this 
marriage took place in 947. Cf . C.M.H. vol. 3. p. 
191; Thompson, M.A. vol. I. p. 361. 

453. primates: a Late Latin noun cited for Apul., Amm., 

Vulg. et al. cf. Aug. Conf . 6.7.11, "(Alypius ortus 
erat) parentibus primatibus municipa libus" . 

454. iungi: cf. note 156. 

455. Idam: daughter of Count Herman of Swabia; this marriage 

too occurred in 947. Cf . reference in note 447, also 
Cundlach, pp. 430-431. 

459. propriae: equivalent to suae; cf. note Prol. 2.33. 

veneratur : employed here with the passive significance; 

-131- 



cf. Apul. Met. ll.2';7.25; Ambr . Bp. 17.1; Mar. 
387. "Nonne Deijs . . .veneratur ". 

462. idem: cf. note 1.S2 for the use of idem. 

467. HlotharJus: Lothar died November 22, 9S0; cf. C.M.H. 
vol. 3 . p . 1 94 ; Pf und , p . 47. 

471. Rothulfi: Rudolph II of Upper Burgandy; cf. Thompson, 
M.A. vol. I. p. 380. 

474. nobilitas: the German translation of this is "Adel" or 
"Adelheit"; cf. Pfund, p. 47; also Sap. 3.6.12. 

Aethelheitham: note the spelling;the interchange of ae 
with e is common in Hrotsvit as are other inconsist- 
encies in spelling to accommodate the metre. Here 
the ae is short, hence it apparently is nothing 
other than short e. Quantities of proper names vary 
greatly in Late and Medieval Latin poetry. 

479. rexisse: for regere ; the poets of all periods employed 
at times the perfect (as an aoristic "infinitive" in 
imitation of the Greek aorist infinitive) in place of 
the present, partly for metrical reasons. The usage 
in prose begins with Livy. Many Silver and I-ate 
prose authors used the perfect quite freely in place 
of the present, chiefly in striving for prose 
rhythm. Cf . L-Hof. pp. 591-592. 

481. defimcto: cf . note 38; also line 485. 

483. propriis: cf. note Prol. 2.33. 

484. d it ioni : for the more common form die ioni ; this word 

according to Harpers' occurs only in the gen., dat., 
ace., and abl. sing., and in the plural once. 
Georges rejects the dat. sing. The word occurs in 
verse 684; Prin . 80, 154, 179. 

481-486. For a full treatment of this section cf . C.M.H. vol. 3 
pp. 194-195, passim; Thompson, ¥.A. vol. 1. p. 380 
Diiruy, p. 194. 

486. ^devenit) suggested by Strecker; Pfund. p. 48, trans- 
lates the missing word "fell into". A lectio varians 

-132- 



reads deflevit: this is not so readily rendered. 

regis .. .Hugonis : Hugh of Aries, also Marquess of 
Provence, father of Lothar, who had married the 
mother of Adelaide, Lothar 's wife, after the death of 
her own father Rudolph II. Cf . C.M.H. vol. 3. p. 
140, passim. 

494. aulae : cf. note 60. 

501. obsequiis: used here in the sense of "deference", or 
"respect", cf. note 353, also Intro, p. 14. 

506. sua iussa: cf. note 151 

5 08. propriaw: cf. note Prol. 2.33. 

510. Adelheit or Adelaide was imprisoned at Como, April 20, 
951. 

512. For Scriptural allusion cf. Act. 12.3-11. 

516. Praesul Adhelhardus: Bishop of Reggia. Praesul is 
variously used by Hrotsvit; in Gest . 582 and Prim. 
392, she employs it as here, an epithet of a bishop; 
in Prim. 156, 162, as an epithet for pope; in Prim. 
365, for civil leader. Praesul in the sense of 
"protector", or "ruler" as may be the general 
connotation here, is Late Latin and is cited for 
Pall., Sid., Aus . Originally the word was used to 
designate the leader of the Sa 1 i i in the annual 
religious dance of that priesthood. Gradually it 
came to be applied to an important figure or leader 
in any organization or movement, but only occasion- 
ally, and in Late authors (e.g. in Aus on i us , praesul 
senatus) . In the fourth and fifth centuries the 
Christians took over the word and used it in a 
variety of meanings. Finally Pope Gelasius employed 
it especially to designate a pope (Avitus, Epist. 
70.9, had already used it thus) or bishop, and from 
him this usage passed to later writers. Cf . K-Schm. 
2.367; Archiv. 12.7-8. 

518. misswn: used substantively; cf. note 98. 

533. solwmodo: cf. note in Pref. 44. 

-133- 



534. presbiterum: a Creek loan word found frequently in 
Eccl. I.atin. Cf . Intro, p. !S. 

53.S. ubi , , .narraret : Hrotsvit uses ubi with the subjunctive 
almost interchangeably with cum. It is found with 
present, imperfect, and pluperfect subjunctive, and 
is used in both the circumstantial and adversative 
senses. Cf . Newnan, p. 11^7. 

In this and the following passages the influence of 
Ekkehard's Wa Ithari lied upon this epic of Krotsvit is 
very evident; cf. Ekkeh. Walth. 231-232, "queritur 
Waltharius cum virgine de exilio". 

.'>37. Cf. Ekkeh. Walth. 246, "fidem votis sevare per omnia 
cautus ". 

540. Note the echo from Ekkeh. Valth. 274, "de inde ei 
exoonit, quomodo fugere possint et qui fugientibus opus 
s it". 

541-543. Cf. Ekkeh. Walth. 275, "Haec intro ebdomodam caute per 
s ingula comple" . 

544. advenit . . .nox: August 20, 951; cf. Pfund, p. 50. Cf . 

Ekkeh. Walth. 288, "Praefinita dies epiilarum venit"- 

545. Cf. Ekkeh. Walth. 320, "Kuni, vi potus pressi somnoque 
gravati passim porticibus sternuntur humotenus omnes". 

546-549. Cf. the flight of Adelaide with that of Walter and 
Hildegund; Ekkeh. Walth. 324-327, " iam Wa Ithar ius cum 
pie 1 la fugit...omni nocte quidem properabant currere". 

550-555. The concealment of Adelaide with that of the lovers is, 
likewise, an echo from Ekkeh. Walth. 359-360, "sed cum 
prima rubens terris ostendit lumine Phoebus, in silvis 
latitare student et opaca requirunt". 

556. obtegit: (collat. form obtigit) present indie; note the 
quantity of the penult. Cf . Intro, pp. 32-33. 

555-557. Cf. Ekkeh. Walth. 400-402, "deinde seconda nocte oer 
amica silentia euntes suspectam properant post tergal 
relinquere terram". 

-134- 



563. dinoscere: cf. Hor . Ep. 1.15.29, "Impransus non qui 
c ivem d inosceret hoste"; 2.2.44, "Scilicet ut vellem 
cvirvo d ignoscere rectum". 

566. Cf. the anger of Berengar with that of AttiJa in Ekkeh. 
Valth. 380, "Attila aiitem cognita re nimia siiccenditur 
e f ferus ira " . 

582. Praesul: cf. note 516. 

585. sibi: the use of the reflexive referring to a word 
which is not a grammatical subject of the main 
clause. In this example, however, the person 
indicated by the reflexive may be regarded as the 
logical subject. Classical prose sometimes used a 
reflexive under such circumstances, but late Latin 
was more free in the use of the reflexive; cf. L-Kof. 
p. 470. 

590. gustaverunt : a relatively rare verb used here in the 

transferred sense of "enjoy"; it is cited for Plaut . , 

Cic., Lucr., Ror . , Laber., Tert., Ita la , and later 

writers; cf. Aug. Civ. 21.534.11, "non enim gusta- 
verunt earn". 

591- quando per Italiam coeperunt pergere Roman: an instance 
where the generic term is replaced by the simple 
accusative of the place name; cf. Newnan, p. 129. 

595-596. nullam. . .dignam. . . tecta sub . . . thalami . . .due i : the 
accusative with sub instead of in to express place 
whither occurs rarely; cf. Newnan, pp. 128-129. 

500. coniungeret : cf. note 156. 

602. For full account cf. C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 194-195; 
Guggenberger , vol. I. p. 210. 

604-607. Berengar had fled from King Henry's persecution in 941 
and was brought back to his country through German 
assistance in 945; cf. Pf und , p. 52. 

615. The campaign was rather unsuccessful on account of the 
intrigues of Henry, the brother of Otto I. Ilrotsvit is 
silent here, because Cerberga , her abbess, was the 
daughter of this Kenry. Cf . Pf und , p. 52; C.M.H. vol. 
3. p. 195. 

-135- 



617. discrimina tanta: cf. Acn. 3 . 629. " . . .nee ta 1 ia passi 

Ulixes oblitusve sui est Itharus discrimine tanto";j 
10.529, "vertitur aiit anima una Hehit Hiscriminai 
tanta" . 



621. plebis non parva propriae comitante caterva: cf. -4 e 

2.4, "Primus ibi ante omnis, magna comitante 
caterva"; 2.370, "Primus se . Danaum magna comitant 
caterva" . 



'i 



620-636. FcH- the historical account of these events cf. Thompson, 
M.A. vol. I. p. 380: Duruy. n. 194; C.M.H. vol. 3. pp.. 
194-19=;. I 

623. horas: for o-'a^ ; cf . note 39R. The same usage anri word 

occurs in 629. 

624. obstupefactus : a compound of stupefacere, a Ciceronian 

verb comparatively rare; it is cited for Qic . . liv., 
Sil., Prop.. Sen. Rhet . , Luc. Va 1 . . et al. 

628. fcmosus: cf. note prol. 2.20. 

630. Otto I reached Pavia, September 23. 9S I ; cf. Pf und . p. 
53. 

652. cuneis: this word has undergone a semantic change in 
Late I^tin; as used here in the sense of "a number of 
men or things", it is cited for Dec 1 . in Ca t i 1 . . 
Symm. , Vulg., et a 1 ; - -C lass ica I , "wedge" or "line of 
battle in the form of a wedge". 

671. On the contrary, T,iudulf returned of his rwn accord and 
because of some dissatisfaction. Friedrich of Maint 
accompanied him in December 95 1: cf. Vidukind, in 
Cundlach. pp. 513-518; C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 195-196. 

parens ... parent is : this, perhaps, may be considered ani 
example of parachesis, a similarity of sound through 
several syllables of words differing in root but 
alike enough to make the similarity s t r i k ing - -word 
play. 

677. obsequiis: cf. note 353; Intro, p. 14. 

-136- 



i 



678. solimmodo: cf. note, Pref . 44. 

684. primates: cf. note 453. 

propriae: cf. note, Prol. 2.33. 

693. Altithrono: cf. note, Prol. 2.3. 

700. ...ut Ottoni venit se subdere regi: venit , indicative 
in a result clause with ut ; in subordinate clauses 
among I.ate I^tin writers, the indicative and sub- 
junctive occur at times apparent ly w it hout distinc- 
tion, but no example of the result clause with the 
indicative was noted in either L-!Iof . p. 763, or 
K-Steg. 2.2.242-244. 

subdere: infinitive used to express purpose, cf. note 
197-198. 

701-703. Historians in general agree that Otto I. was very 
reluctant to forgive Herengar and that only after 
waiting for three days did he allow him to come into his 
presence; cf. Gundlach, o. 428, note 2; C.M.H. vol. 3. 
p. 19'>. 

719. Ottoni culpae meritum reputari: a rare construction; 

dative of tendency or purpose; the only instance in 
Hrotsvit of a double dative; cf . Newnan, p. 122. 

720. primates: cf. note 453. 

721. mcpc ut : equivalent to the Classical ut p^inun; the 

usage of nox ut is called colloquial, but it occurs 
at times in all Classical authors with the exception 
I ofCaesar;cf. L-Hof . p. 7S9. This is the only 

instance noted of u.t nox, but nox occurs frequently 
in Hrotsvit . 

722. An echo of Ekkeh. Walth. 380; cf. note 566. 

727. decore sui florente per omnia regni: sui equivalent to 
eius; cf. note 151; note, too, the use of the 
genitive with the neuter plural adjective. This use 
is rare but effective when it does occur; cf. Newnan, 
p. 121. 

-137- 



731. p,ic j ficiim. . .re^nun: cf. note 17. 

732. quant ov i ous : a compoimd arlverb found only in I,ate 

Ifltin- it is citerl for Conimod . . lact . . Vulg.. Claud. 
Mam.. Corl . . The or!.. Cassian.. Supl. Sev . , et al. 

7 3"?. fnmosi: cf. note F ol. 2.20. 

7 36-737. ut cognov it .. .quanta. . .(ii lex it amore Henricum: indirect 
niiestion of fact introduced by 7-ua-:o arxl having the 
verb, dil-^xit, in the indicative: cf, note 11-13. 

74";. 745. per t imu i t ., .quod .. -non ut i donis deberet honoris: a 
substantive clause of fear introduced by quad: cf, 
Newnan . n. l?l . 

748-749. Since Liudulf died in 9=^7. about sixteen years before 
his father. Otto II. son of Otto I and of ^de la ide 
succeeded to the throne. Whether or not this would have 
happened liad Liudulf lived cannot be definitely stated, 

7^1. serenus- cf. note 87. 

7';2-lI4l. The lost portion evidently covers the period of the 
civil war caused by the uprising of Liudulf against his 
father. Poole, in Bury's C.M.H. vol. 3. p. 1 9? . in 
speaking of the causes of this revolt says, "It was not 
only d isanpointment at his failure in Italy that caused 
liudulf to rebel against his father. Otto's second 
marriage was not likely to be to liis son's advantage: it 
wd'ld lead to a new circle at the court in which he 
would take a secondary nlace: he night even look t© 
being ouster! from the succession by the offspring of 
this new alliance --an event which in fact occurred, for 
it was Adelaide's son. Otto II, who was designated a*; 
the s\iccessor to the total disregard of tlie claim of liis 
nephew and namesake , the s ori of liudulf". 

For other references regarding this event cf, ThorTsoo. 
¥.A. vol. 1. pp. 380-381; Cundlach. pp. 4 94-=; 13. 

nil. '^ere ends the report of Tiudulf to his f;jt!ier. Otto I. 
liudulf . whom we learn has been pardoned, to sho>*- his 
sincere renentance had vindertaken the conquest of Italy, 
in gratitude for whirh liis father made him regent of 
Italy. Or as st.ited m V.G.//. vol. 4. o. 333 , "cone lusic 



legationis ve 1 epistolae Liiidulfi victoris. ex lango- 
bard ia pa t r i missae, cuius argumentum ex Ottonis 
response d iscere licet". 

114S. saeclum saecli: cf. note I. 

1147. kar issime : note the spelling; another instance of the 
use of "k" for "c" occurs in verse 1167. 

1151. proprii: cf. note Prol. 2.33. 

11S9. iuramento: a I^ate Latin word cited for Itala, Ulp. 
Hier., et al. The word occurs in verses 11(52. 1192. 

1163. obsequiwn: cf. note 3^53 . 

1165-1166. parentis, coniugis: Otto I and Ida, wife of Liudulf. 

1167. karae: elsewhere Krotsvit uses "c" for ca-^ac : cf . note 

1147. 

1168. prolis geminae: Otto and Matilda; cf. M.G.H. vol. 4. p. 

334. 

1169. quo: - ut ; in final clauses the use of quo for ut 

without a comparative appears in Plautus , in Sal lust 
(as an archaism), occasionally in Cic . , Ilor . , Ov . , 
and Silver Latin, especially in Tacitus and becomes 
very common in Late latin; cf. K-Steg. 2.2.233; 
L-Hof. p. 787. It should be noted, however, that 
here the q'^o clause is closely followed by the ut 
c lause . 

1171. morulis: a Late Latin diminutive cited for Apul., 
Cypr . , et al.; cf. Aug. Conf . 11. 1?. 20, "(praesens) 
ita raptim a futuro in praeteritum transvolat, ut 
nulla morula extenda tur '• ; 11.33.29. 

1173. proprias: cf. note, p-'ol. 2.33. 

1178. mel li f lui : a Late Latin word cited for Chalcid., 
Avien.. Aug., Drac., Cassiod., et al. 

1185. idem: cf . note 152. 

1188-1479. This lacuna evidently discussed the death of Liudulf, 

-139- 



which occurred at Pombia, south of Lake Maggiore on 
September 6, 9^1. Then followed the coronation of Otto 
I by the Pope at Rome as Emperor of the Holy Roman 
Empire of the German nation, and of the crowning of 
Oieen Adelaide at Rome, February 2, 962; cf. Vidukind 
inCundlach, pp. S12-.S13; Pf und . p. S9; C.M.H. vol. 3. 
pp. 160-164. 

1479. aeque: - aeque ac Otto; cf. M.G.H, 4.334. 

ferens: "scilicet Aethelheidis unacum Ot t one Romae 
imperiali corona redimenta"; cf. M.G.H. 4.334. 

1479-1482. These verses conclude the account of the coronation. 

1480. famosi: cf. note, Prol. 2,20. 
1482. augusto summo: Otto I, or Great. 
1488. sexu: cf. note, Pref. 39-40. 

1494. conpunctvs : as employed here with the idea, "goaded by 

the sting of conscience", it is late Latin cited for 
Sid on., Ennod . , Ale. Avit., et al. 

1495. sitnmum pont i ficem: — Pope John XII; for an account of 

his expulsion from the Papal Throne in 963, cf. 
C.M.H. vol. 3. pp. 162-164; Thomnson, ¥.A. vol. 1. w. 
380-381; Cundlach, p. 609. 

1498. alium. . .dignum: = I.eo VIII. 

ISO*;. This was Christmas 967; cf. Pf und , p. 60. 

1483-1510. Concerning this section Crump, p. 168, says, "She 
^Hrotsvit^ has brought the great Otto in her narrative 
to the imperial throne: 

'Ilactenus Qidonis . . . ( 1 icet tenui miisa > . . .modu lando* 

Nov she sen<ls Berengar into exile with his wife Willa, 
deposes the Pope and returning to Saxony creates his son 
'infantem in cunis'. King at Aechen; but these are 
matters , 

Tangere quae vereor... 

-140- 



I 



...nee vili debent sermone revolvi: 
. . .Haec igitur . . . f inem. . .pono. 

O admirable Hrotsvit ! Even on the technical side these 
leonine hexameters repay examination..." 

1511. replicatis: this word has undergone a semantic change. 
In the sense of "repeat" as employed here it is cited 
for Amm. , Hier., Claud. Mam., Sidon. , Ennod . , in the 
sense of "fold" or "roll back, unfold" for Cato, 
Cic, Plin. Hat., Quint., Suet. 



141 



FRIMORDIA CCENCBII CANDESHEKENS IS 



PREFACE 



The Prinordia , a companion poem to the Gesta Ottonis , 
begins with a proemium of six verses in which Krotsvit 
sings the praises of its founders, Liiidulf and his son 
Otto the Illustrious. 

Heinrich, p. 11, in her historical survey of 
canonical institutions, says: "The era known as the 
Saxon period in the history of canonical institutions in 
Germany extended from the middle of the ninth until the 
eleventh century. Religious foundations multiplied with 
marvelous rapidity in the Saxon territories, 'for the 
Saxons were quick in realizing the advantages of a close 
union between religion and the state, and the most 
powerful and progressive families of the land vied with 
each other in founding and endowing religious settle- 
ments'"; cf. too, Eckenstein, p. 11, from whom part of 
the above is quoted. 

1. primordia Gandeshemensis : the monastery was founded 

about 852 or S.SS, authorities differ; cf. note, Prin. 
103 -lOS. 

gliscit: for the use of gliscere cf. Aen. 12.9, "Kaud 
secus accenso gliscit violentia Turno" ; Liv. 2.23.2, 
"invidiamque earn sua sponte gliscentem ins ignis unius 
calamitas ascendit". 

2. pandere: a relatively rare verb in the sense of "to 

make known" or "to explain^' as it seems to be 
employed liere. It is cited for I^icr., Verg.. Hor . , 
Ov . , Quint., and later writers. 

5. Ljudu 1 fus : was appointed margrave or count of the 
Saxons by Louis the German. I.iudulf was the father 
of Otto the Illustrious, and the grandfather of llenry 
the Fowler; cf. Intro, p. 8; Cundlach, p. 325. 



•142 



I 



14. primis , . . sub annis: the temporal use of sub in the 
meaning of "during" or "in" as employed here is rare 
in Classical prose, but frequent in Livy, Celsus, and 
later writers. Cf . K-Steg. 2.1..S70. 

16. canitatum: employed here with the extended meaning of 
"office" or "rank" of count, a usage found in Silver 
and Late Latin; in the sense of "retinue", "escort", 
it is cited for Cic . , Caes . , Quint., Suet. The word 
occurs freqtiently in Hrotsvit in the latter connota- 
tion. 

28-31. promeruit . . .discere . . .quod sua progenies ... possessura 
foret...decus...: Indirect discourse expressed with 
the quod clause instead of the accusative with 
infinitive; cf. note in Gest . Pref . 8. 

promeruit : a Silver Latin verb cited for Plin. Ep., 
Suet., Apul., Tert., Lact . , et al. It occurs as here 
with the complementary infinitive in verse 57. The 
complementary infinitive with neruere begins with 
Ov., in poetry, with Va . Max. in prose; cf. K-Steg. 
2.1.675. 

29. baptista. . .beato: St. John the Baptist; baptista is a 
Creek loan word comparatively coimion in Late L-atin, 
cited for Vulg., luv., Sedul. The form here is a 
mas. noun of the first declension. Beato is 
frequent and Classical beginning with Ennius 
particularly in Cic, Sen. Phil., Aug., and Christian 
writers generally. 

32-65. Cf. this passage with Alcuin, Carmen, Poena de Pontifi- 
cibus et Sanctis, 1.93-105, in Migne , vol. 101, col. 
816: 

32. "nocte soporata . 

48. "vir stetit ignotus habitu voltuque repente ante oculis 
iuvenis" (i.e. Oswald). 

52. "verbisque affatur amicis". 

55. "Efeus solatia det tibi certa". . 

62-64. "imperium latum tibi terminat undis". 

-143- 



6S . "his dictis, siibito Hiscessit ab illo". 

40-41. conturbare . . .praesumpsisset : pluperfect for imperfect, 
cf. note Gest. 30; Geot . Prsf. 22; Intro, p. 17. 

44. f lavicomant is : a hybrid cited for Priid. cf. note, Gest. 
Prol. 2.3; also Priid . A poth . 495, "armiger e cuneo 
ptierorum f lav icomantiim" . 

44-48. Eckenstein, pp. If54-15!>, commenting on the vividness of 
this picture, suggests that the description of John the 
Baptist was doubtless inspired by a painting of that 
saint . 

48. stemma: employed here in its original meaning of 
"wreath" or "crown"; the usage occurs in Agn. 44, 
"Filius insignis juvenilis stemmate floris"; A b^ . 
1.5, "...decet stemna virg i ni ta t is " ; cf. this usage 
with that of Gest. Pref. 3. 

53. 'A'e t repides : Strecker employs the subjunctive which, 
although better I.atin than the indicative would be, 
destroys the internal rhyme. Winter fe Id, whose text 
New nan follows, uses the indicative, trepidas, 
thereby preserving the rhyme. Hence Newnan, p. 148, 
explaining tre pidas , speaks of it as an instance of 
the indicative in prohibition. We liave retained the 
form of Strecker. 

56-^7. t inguere. . .promerui : cf. note, P" im . 28-31. 

58. propago: cf. Ov . , Met. 2.38, "pignora da, genitor, per 
quae tua vera propago credor"; 1.60, "ilia propago 
contemptrix superum. . .et violenta fuit". 

63. terrenorum: in the sense opposite to caelestis, 
"earthly", or "worldly" as employed here, it is cited 
for Cynr . , I^ict . , Aug., et al; for "earthen", Cic . , 
Liv., Suet.; for "mortal", Kor . The word used in the 
transferred sense occurs in P''iiK. 153, 180. 

69. Ockio: Otto the Illustrious, son of Liudulf, grandfather 
of Otto I. 

7 0. Henricum: Ilenry the Fowler. 

-144- 



71. Oddonis: Otto I, or Great. 

80. ditionis: cf. note, Gest. 484. 

83-84. ad opus coeptum . . .est convertendus stilus noster: the 
future passive participle with the verb "to be" is 
used to express an action that is "necessary", 
"proper", or "intended"; the true one is found only 
occasionally, for it is often weakened into a mere 
adjective; cf. Newnan, p. 160. 

8'^. Liudulf: Duke of Saxony, cf. Intro, p. 8. 

86. foedere legali coniuncta: cf. note, Gest. 1?56, for the 
use of coniuncta . 

94. ut ,, .const rux i sset ... coenobium : pluperfect for 
imperfect; cf. note, Gest. 30, for shifting of 
tenses 

c oenobiun: cf. note, Gest. 244. 

98. vacare sui sanct i famulamine sponsi: a verb expressing 
acts of piety, devotion, or virtue; cf. Aug. Civ. 
22.630.21, "vacabitur Dei laudibus"; 22.634.11; 
22.634.17: fanulamine : one would expect the dative 
rather than ablative; cf. above quotation. 

103-10^. Commenting on this passage, Pfund, pp. 6-7, says, 
"Dieser Or t , wo die erste Klos tergrundung war, wird 
Brunesteshusen genannt , der Anfang in den Quedlin- 
burger Anna len in das Jahr 852 gesetz, aber verbunden 
mit der Niederlegung der aus Rom erhaltenen Reliquien. 
Der erste Anfang der Klosterstistung wird f ruber 
anzusetzen sein; das Jahr 8S2 bezeichnet den Abschluss 
unri demals wurde Hathumoda Aebtissin". 

The above statement to some extent accounts for the 
various dates given by writers concerning the founda- 
t ion of Candersheim. 

Blashfield, pp. 13-14, speaking of the establishment of 
this monastery, states: "Its traditions were aristo- 
cratic, even imperial, its founder no less a personage 
than Liudulf, Duke of Saxony, grandnephew of Witukind. 
The site first chosen for the convent was Brunshausen, 
but it was soon transferred to the banks of the River 

-145- 



Cauda, where the town of Gandersheim grew up around the 
abbey" . 

104. Gandae: a river of Rir gundy. 

lO??. Cardinal Casquet in his Intro, to the Plays translated 
by Chr is t opher St. John, pp. viii-ix. says of this 
moiastery: "The Abbey of Gander she im ,.. .was founded 
about R50 by Liudulf , Duke of Saxony, at the request of 
his wife Oda , a Frankish princess. Although tliese were 
what men call 'dark ages', the darkness was commra t ive . 
The Saxon court at this time was enlightened, and the 
Abbeys of Saxony, notably tliat of Corbe i were centres of 
learning and civilization. Carxlersheim was of the 'free 
abbeys' that is to say its Abbess held it direct from 
the King. Her rights of over lordship extended for many 
miles; she had her own law courts, and sent her men-at- 
arms into the field. In fact, she enjoyed the usual 
privileges and undertook the usual responsibilities of a 
feudal baron, and as such had the right to a seat in the 
Imperial Diet. Coins are extant, struck by the Abbesses 
of Candershe im whose portraits they bear". 

Carter, Dub. Rev. 1933, p. 28?, states: "...Its chanel 
has survived for centuries. Used by the L>utherans since 
l.'!.'??, it was at last restored to Catholic worship. Of 
old its Abbess was a Pr i nee -Abbess , with the rights of 
administering justice, of coining money, to a seat in 
the Imperial Diet, and with the duty of feudal service". 

For other accounts of Gandersheim cf. Sn:y, 5''tt.l0.l4: 
Tablet, IS9.608. 

106. obsequio: cf. note, Gcst. 3S3. for tlie use of the word. 

109. sui natam decreverunt Hathumodam: sui for .?ucn; for the 
non -Class ica 1 use of sui in place of the possessive 
adjective siiam, or suu3 ; cf . L-Hof. pp. 469-470. 

Hathumodam: for an account of her life cf. Vita Sanctae 
Hathunodaa, Primae Abbatissae Cande she imens i s . 
Auctore Agio Presbytero et Monache coaevo, Migne , 
137.1170-119S; ¥.G.H. 4.20.165. 4.21.176-189. 

110-117. Keinrich. p. 11, in discussing the Saxon abbeys says: 
"...Many of their daughters entered these institutions 

-146- 



and added much to their prosperity and renown... Of the 
six daughters of Duke Liudulf, which are known, not less 
than five entered the institution of Cande r she im" . . . 
TIrotsvit mentions only three. Regarding these three 
daughters who became abbesses, Blashfield, p. 13, 
asserts: "The period of their sway was a comparatively 
brief one; monastic life was unfavorable t o the longevity 
of those who entered it in their springtime". 

III. pitel lar is . . . . ov i 1 is : an adjective replacing the 
genitive; though the practice of substituting for a 
noun in the genitive (especially objective or 
subjective genitive) an adjective derived from that 
noun occurs in Classical authors, even Cicero, it is 
chiefly a development of the popular language, and 
the frequent use of such adjectives, especially of 
those derived from common nouns, belongs to Late 
Latin; cf. L. -Kof . p. 397. The same usage occurs in 
P'rin. 330,399. 

114. praelatarum: a general term for religious superiors; 
the designation of a class of persons by the plural 
adjective in the proper gender was common in 
Classical Latin; cf. L. -Kof . pp. 4SS-457. Greg. M. 
is cited as the first to use this adjective and 
participle, respectively, as a noun. 

114-115. Hathumoda had been educated at the Abbey of Herford, 
England . 

118. proprii: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.33. 

119. a Imifici . , .Hludowici : note spelling; Louis, Emperor of 

Italy, who ruled from 855-87S; cf. C.¥.H. vol. 3. 

pass in . 

124. iaxta velle dei: substantive use of the infinitive; 
here it follows a preposition and is accompanied by a 
dependent genitive. The substantive use of an 
infinitive with a prenosition begins with Cicero's 
use of infinitives after inter. In Late Latin any 
preposition could be used in this manner; cf. L-TIof . 
pp. .S77-S78. The use of a substantive in the 
genitive dependent on an infinitive is Late I>atin-- 
noted in L-Hof. p. 578, for Mar. Victor, Cassiod., 
Greg. M. cf. note, Gest. 249, for posse used as a 

-147- 



sii^stant ive . Velleasa substantive occurs in Prim. 
S'^S^-the same usage with thie same preposition. 

125-126. papa heatus Sergius: Pope Sergius II, who reigned 
from 844-847. 

134. peregrinis : in accordance with the idea of heavenly 
citizenship, men by Christian and Late writers 
were regarded as mere peregrini upon this earth, 
and their sojourn here as a pe'^egrimtio; cf. Aug, 
Conf. 10.4.6; 9.13.37; iassin. 

ISl. tueri: apparently from ti^eo not titeor as it seems to 
be employed here in the passive sense; cf. note, 

Gest. Prol. 2.38. 

153. terrenorum: cf. note, Prim. 63. 

152.155. Thompson, Feudal Germany, p. 15, in describing a 
monastery of this period says, "A monastery might 
depend upon a bishopric whether it was within or 
without the diocese to which it was attached; it 
might depend upon another monastery, it might depend 
upon the king or some other lord, even a foreign 
sovereign or noble; and finally it might depend 
inmediately upon the pope. Abbeys created by laymen 
were the hereditary property of the founders' 
descendants, and their revenues formed part of his 
estate". 

156. praesul: cf. note, Gest. 516. 

159. congaudeo: a Late Latin verb cited for Itala, Hier., 
Cassiod., and later writers; cf. Aug. Civ. 
10.412.10, "qui creator is sui pa r t ic i pa t i one 
congaudent ". 

161-163. duo rectores fuer ant . . . Praesu I Ana s t a s ius . . . e t 
coapostol icus sacer Innocent ius eius: these were 
apparently St. Anastasius I, the thirty-ninth 
pope, who ruled from 398 to 401, and St. Innocent 
T, the fortieth pope, who ruled from 402-417; 
cf. Cath. Ency. 12.273. For an account of their 
reign cf. Cath. Ency. 1.454; 8.11 respectively. 

161-165. The Monk Bodo of Klus (near Candersheim) mentions a 
separate account of the Lives of Saints Anastasius 

-148- 



and Innocent, by Krotsvit. This, however, cannot be 
established and the inference is that extracts from her 
legends and epics were frequently copied, which in 
fragmentary form might readily be mistaken for separate 
legends . 

161-165. Regarding this account Manitiiis, 1.630, says, "In einer 
gewissen Verbindung mit diesem Gedicht hat e in weiteres 
iiber das Leben der Papste Anastasius and Innocent ius 
gestanden, das nach einer allerdings ziemlich spaten 
Nachricht der Hrotsvit zugeschr ieben wird. Namlich nach 
Primordia 161-172 schenkte Sergius an Liudulf und Oda 
Reliquien dieser beiden Papste, und wahr sche in 1 ich 
gelangten auf demselben oder auf ahnlichem Wege auch die 
Lebenbeschre ibungen beider nach Candersheim. Sie wurden 
von Hrotsvit in Verse umgesetzt und scheinen im 16. 
Jahrhundert noch erhalten gewesen zu sein, und zwar 
waren sie vor die Primordia gestellt". 

162. praesul: cf. note, Gest. f>16. 

164. pastorem Petrum. , , : for Scriptural allusion cf. lo. 
21.15-18. 

180. securum dominorum: securun with the gen.; according to 
Harpers' securiis is found in the following construc- 
tions: absolute, with de , ah, gen., or rel. cl. 
With the gen. as employed here its use is poetical. 
Silver, and Late prose; Cf . Verg. Aen. 1.350, 
"securus amorum" ; Kor . Epist, 2.2.17, "poenae 
securus"; Quint. 8.3.51, "securus tam parvae observa- 
tionis"; cf. K-Steg. 2.1.436a. 

terrenoruw: cf. note Prim. 63. 

183. Strecker and Winterfeld suggest a lacuna here; not so 
Barack, Pfund, and Pe r t z . We have disregarded it 
because a translation without the lacuna is possible. 

186-187. cincta collibus umbrosis : this description accords 
favorably with that of Eckenstein, p. 154: "It 
^Candersheim^ was situated on low -lying ground near the 
River Canda in Eastphalia and was surrounded by the 
wooded heights of the I^Iarz mogntains". 

189. This passage is of special interest in that it affords 

-149- 



a glimpse into the life of the times. The raising of 
hfigs was at that time a thriving occupation and the 
forests served well for the purpose. Cf . Gundlach, p. 
327, note. 

193. sanctorum venerabi Je festum: it is interesting to note 

that the feast of All Saints was commemorated on 
November I, as early as 8S0. The Church had from 
earliest times celebrated a commemoration of All 
Martyrs, but it was not until 835 that Pope Gregory 
IV ordained the feast of All Saints to be celebrated, 
and he appointed November I, for its official 
celebration throughout the entire Church. Cf . Prim. 
377-382; Cath . Ency. 1.31S. 

194. post biduum celebrandum: evidently October 29-30, for 

the religious celebration of a feast usually began on 
the eve or vigil of the feast itself, which in this 
case would be October 31; cf. line 214. For an 
account of the celebration of the "Eve of Feast", cf. 
Cath. Ency. 5.547. 

ce leb'^andun: a Classical word used in the Christian 
sense of the ceremonies attendant on the preparation 
of the feast, as employed here; it may also refer to 
the ceremonies attendant on the conferring of the 
sacraments; for this usage it is first cited for 
Tert . 

197. stupe fact i: cf. note, Gest . 624. 

210. ut Phoebus radios spargebat ab aethere pr imos : for 
similar expressions cf. 3oeth. Cons. 2.3.1, "cum polo 
Phoebus roseis quadrigis lucem spargere coepit"; 
Lact. Phoen. 42, 51, 140. 

216. caelitus: cf. note, Gest. 149.; also verses 246, 248 

Prim . 

218. cun nebula terras nox texerat atra: cui« -tempor a 1 with 
pluperfect indicative; early Latin, esptecially 
Plautus, shows the use of the indicative in cum- 
clauses to be almost the rule; Classical and Silver 
I^tin reveal a fluctuation between the indicative and 
the subjunctive; cf. K-Steg. 2.2.343. The indicative 
pluperfect, however, which is rare in all periods, is 

-150- 



i 



employed frequently only by Cic . , chiefly with an 
imperfect or pluperfect in the leading clause; cf. 
Steele, A. J. P. 28.446, (1907). 

222. arboreas umbras: for parallel expression cf . Ov . Met. 
10.129, "cervus et arborea frigus ducebat ab umbra" . 

225. sane t i f icandum : a Late Latin word, compound of 

"ficare"; this type of compound verb is particularly 
characteristic of the Christian latin and usually has 
a causative significance. It belonged to the 
colloquial language and was avoided by the most 
careful writers. It is, however, used in Late 
literary latin, especially by Christians. It is 
cited for Itala, Vulg., et al., in the sense employed 
here . 

firmabant : employed here in the transferred sense of 
affirnare or confirnare ; this usage is somewhat rare, 
but it is found in Cic.; cf. Leg. 2.7.16, "cum 
intelligat, quam multa firmentur jure jurando". 

228-229. Strecker has interchanged the position of these two 
verses. Pf und , Barack and Migne , hcwever , do not make 
this inversion. 

231. faunis ^monst risque repletum: the mythological refer- 
ences may be considered indicative of Tlrotsvit's 
Classical background. 

234. Strecker and Winterfeld suggest a lacuna of two verses; 
Barack, Pf und , and Migne see no necessity for it. 

241. Abbatissa. . .Hathumoda: cf. note, Prin. 109. 

249. sensit adesse sui votis promptam misereri : nisereor 
with the dative, cf. Newnan, p. 119; sui for suis cf. 
note, Prin. 109. ^om^tom with inf. cf. note, Gest . 
Prol. 2.16. 

For similar expressions cf. Diony. SS , "De summo caeli 
solio promptum misereri"; Agn. 327, "...Erranti promptus 
solito misereri". 

252. A lectio var ians of 3arack suggests: "monitis exire 
itbetur"; this, however, does not seem likely for it 

-151- 



destroys the internal rhyme. 

2S7. cementar lis: for caenentariis : cf. Tac. Germ. 16.3, "ne 
caement oriim quidem a pud i 1 1 os aiit tegulanim usus " ; 
Hor . Carn. 31.35^, "Caementa demittit redemptor " . 

2'>8. spiritus almus: if the expression in this instance may 
be construed as "Koly Spirit" it is the only passage 
noted in which Hrotsvit employs spiritus a Inus . 
Elsewhere she uses f lamine sacro, or f lanine divino, 
cf. Prim. 592; Acs. 28, 71; Mar. 3'> , 304, 896; Agn. 
319, 375; Diony. 117, 194; Theop. 301. The exnresr 
sion, s piritus almus, however, occurs frequently in 
the doxology of hymns; cf. that used for Matins on 
the Feast of the Immaculate Conception: 
Jesvi, tibi sit gloria, 
Qui natus es de Virgine, 
Cum F^tre, et alno Spiritu, 
In semptiterna saecula. 

It is also found in the doxology of the hymn of the 
Feast of the Koly Innocents, of the Epiphany, passin. 

262. praecesserat : pluperfect for imperfect; cf. note, Gest. 
30, for the shifting of tenses. 

263-266. This passage well illustrates in successive lines the 
parallelism of use between the present participle and 
the extended use of the ablative of the gerund; cf. New - 
nan, p. 160, note. 

264. aereos . . .sulcos : cf. for similar expressions: Aen. 
9.803, "aeream coelo nam Juppiter Irim demisit"; 
Kor . Carn. 1.28.5, "aereas temptasse domos animoque 
rotundum percurisse nolum". 

272a. "Et molem terrae c ircumf od iendo secare", is similar in 
272b thought to 272b. Winterfeld suggests that Krotsvit 

meant evidently only one of the two lines to remain. 

Neither 3arack nor Pe r t z has 272a. We, too, have 

omitted it in the text. 

276. traxisse: perfect for present infinitive, cf. note, 
Gest. 479. 

278. sacrandi : a comparatively rare Ciceronian word derived 

-152- 



from an adjective; it is cited for Cic, Verg., Hor . , 
Sen., Mart.; cf. Aug. Civ. 2.70.28, "partim sua 
propria sacraverunt " . The word occurs in 372. 

283. pro dolor: cf. note, Gest . 121. 

284. Liudulf died in 866; cf. Pfund, p. 12, note. 

288. ducibus supra memorat is : Otto the Illustrious and 
Bruno; cf. Intro, p. 8.. 

297. febres: apparently an unusual use for the word; no in- 
stance of this usage has been noted in the lexica. 

303. ditescere: a relatively rare verb before Late Latin; it 
is cited for Lucr . , Hor., Pers., Poetic and Late 
writers. It occurs also in 436. 

305. sui natam: sui for e ivs : cf. note, Gest. 151. 

309. filius illius: = Hludowici Germanici (of Louis the 

German); M.G.H. vol. 4. p. 311. 

310. propriae: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.33. 

313. ^consensu^ : a lectio varians of Barack reads: "regis 

praebens proprii senior is". 

314. ^maxima^; Barack suggests nultaqv^ . 

315-317. Hathumoda. . .moriens. . . : cf . Vita of Agius , 3.533; also 
note, Frin. 109. She died iNovember 29, 874; cf. 
Pfund, p. 14. 

cum gregis undenos curam bis gesserat annos : she ruled 
from 852 to 874. For cun with the indicative cf . 
note, Prim. 218; for gregis cf. note, Gest. Prol. 1.9. 

319-360. This episode in the history of Gandersheim, Blashfield, 
p. 43, suggests, may have determined Hrotsvit's choice 

of the not if of her maiden play, GallicaniLS . 

320. Bernrad: note the spelling; "Bernard" and "Bernhard " are 
a Iso found . 

-153- 



322. caelesti: cf. note, Gest. 149. 

329-330. audivit...votum quia fecerit ipsa ve 1 le . . . servare 
puHorem: Newnan, p. 163, terms this a doubtful case 
of a c^uio-c lause . She maintains that it may be in- 
terpreted in two ways: either as indirect statement 
after audio, or as a causal clause. Winterfeld con- 
siders it the first. 

330. puellarem. . .pudorem: cf. note. Prim. Ill, for the use 
of puellarem; in this instance, however, the neces- 
sity of interna! rhyme may have determined its use. 

332. quod. . .audierat , verum fore . . .timebat : a clause of fear 
introduced by quod; cf. note, Gest, 745? -745; Newnan, 
p. 151. 

338. causari: as employed here with the restricted meaning, 
"to blame" or "complain of", it is Late Latin, cited 
for Keges., Sulp. Sev., I?ufin., Prosp., et al: -- 
"to feign", "pretend" for Lucr . , Verg., Ov . , Suet. 

339-341. didici . . .quod tu nitaris nostrum disrumpere pactum: 
indirect discourse with quod-c laxise followed by a 
subjunctive; cf. note. Prim. 28-31; Newnan, p. 152. 

346. procul dubio: — sine dubio: procul with the ablative is 

found in Horace; with duhio, in Liv., Plin., Suet., 
et al., cf. Harpers'; K-Schm. 2.389. Cf . Liv. 39.40. 
10, "asperi procul dubio animi , et linguae acerbae, 
et inmodice liberae fuit". The expression occurs in 
Prim. 570. 

scito. . .quod te mihimet sociabo: cf . note. Prim. 28-31, 
for the quod-c lause ; Newnan, p. 162. 

347. pessumdabo: Cf . Ter . And. 208, "quae si non astu provi- 

dentur , me aut erum pessum dabunt"; Plant. Rud . 2.6. 
23, "exemplum pessumum pessum date". 

349. iuxta domini . . .ve 1 le : cf. note, Prim. 124, for velle 
vised as a substantive. 

-154- 



I 



rogo: as employed here with the extended meaning of 
"pray", is Late Latin, cited for Hist. Aug., Kier . , 
Ale. Avit., et al. --Classical = to ask, question. 

354. colloquiss mutuo sermone peractis: cf. Fior . Sat. 2.4.9, 
"tenui sermone peractas". 

3.S9. caelestis: cf. note, Gest. 149. 

362. Brun dux: Duke of Saxony and successor to his father 
Liudulf . He was killed in a battle with the Normans, 
not with the Hungarians, in the sixth year of his 
rule, February 2, 880. Cf . Cundlach, p. 342. 

promptus: with infinitive, cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.16. 

364. pro dolor: cf. note, Gest. 221, for nominative of 

exc lanat ion. 

365. praesulibus: cf. note, Gest. 515, for the use of 

praesu I . 

366. propriae: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.33. 

367. suus : cf. note, Gest. 151. 

372. sacranda: cf. note, Prim. 278, 383 (line). 

377. sanctificando: cf. note. Prim. 225. 

378. pluribus: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 1.5. 

The allusion here recalls the incident expressed in 
Prim. 195-196. 

382. principio mensis . . . novembris: this was November 1, 881. 
Cf. note. Prim. 193, for origin of feast. 

385. optantes diei praesentes esse celebri: diei dative with 
word compounded with "prae"; cf. Plaut . Most. 5.1.27, 
"assum praesens praesenti tibi"; Cassiod. Yariae , 
93.2.30, "praesentati autem tr ibuna libus"; 80.3.7, 
"tanto regno ... praeva luer it " . Classical Latin 
usually requires or prefers a different construction; 
cf. L-Hof. pp. 410-412. 

-155- 



389. corporibus sacris: those of St. Anastasius and St. 
Innocent. Cf . Prim, lines 162-163. 

392. Wicberhtus praesul: Bishop of Kildesheim; for the use 
of praesul, cf. note, Gest. S16. 

397-398. , . .mansurnis. . .revolut is . . . : Poetic expression for 881 
A.D. A similar expression occurs in Mar, 682, "binis 
mans ur is . . .replet is" . 

399. pttellaris. , .pudor is: cf. note, Prin. III. 

400. propritim: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.33. 
40S. abbatissa: cf. note, Gest. Pref . I. 

gregem: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 1.9. 

407. congrua: cf. note, Gest. 38. 

408. patrare: a verb comparatively rare before Late Latin; 

it is cited for Lucr . , Cic, Sail., Liv., Tac., and 
Late wr iters . 

409. conversando; as employed here in the sense of "to live 

with", "have intercourse with", it is Silver Latin, 
cited for Sen. Phi 1 . , Colum. , Apul ..andLate wr iters. 
Cf . note, Intro, p. 16. 

411. dilect io: a I^te Latin word cited for Ita la , Tert., 
Heges., Hier., Vulg., ftul. Nol . , Ale. Avit,, et al. 
Cf. Aug. Conf. 2.2.2, "ut non discerneretur serenitas 
dilectionis a caligine libidinis". 

410—424. An interesting allosion to the discipline of the monas- 
tery at Gandersheim. 

421. daninatr ids: cf. note, Gest. 404. 

422. mulcendo: the word is Poetic, Silver, and Late, and as 

employed here in the sense of "to soften", or 
"soothe", it is first cited in prose for Pliny. Cf. 
Intro, p. 16. The word occurs, too, in verse 497. 
Cf . a Iso, -Pafn. 10.3, "nunc suavibus hortamentis 
blandiendo miilcebam". 

-156- 



4^9. praepollentis: a Silver Latin word cited for Liv.,App., , 
Tac, and later writers. Cf . Aug. Conf. 3.138.12, 
"quibus Romanum maxime praepollebat impe r iiiin" , 

passim,. 

432. propriam: cf. note, Gest . Prol. 2.33. 

434. o mea pignora cara: pignora in the sense of "dear one" 
or "child" occurs in prose only in Silver and Late 
Latin, Liv., and Tac., being cited by Harpers'; 
Quint, and Plin. by Georges. In the plural as the 
equivalent of liberi, it is cited first for Ovid. 
This is the only occurrence in this sense noted in 
the Epics. Elsewhere the word is used in the sense 
of "pledge". 

43?. primula: unusual f orm- -d iminut ive adverb. The final 
"e" is short here, though usually it would be long. 
For diminutives and change in quantity of vowel, cf . 
Intro, pp. 15, 32, respectively. Cf . to. Plant. Men. 
5. 5). 18, "lam hercle occeptat insanire primulum"; Ter. 
Ad. 3.1.2, "modo dolores , meatu, occipiunt primialum". 

444. propriwn: cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.33. 

449. praedia multa: on January 26, 877. 

4.S2. Amulfus: Emperor of Germany (887-899); cf. Thompson, 
M.A. vol. I. p. 278. 

4f>8-459. extollere. . .sauderet : cf. Newnan, p. 158, for svadere 
with a complementary infinitive. 

460. daninatrix: cf. note, Gest. 404. 

461. censura: cf. note, Gest. Pref . 44. 

464. defunct o Hludowico: Louis the Younger, died January 20, 
882; cf . Pfund, p. 18. For defuncto cf . note Gest. 
38. 

467. cyrographis : = chirographis , one's own handwriting or 
signature, as the Greek word implies; hence a signed 
obligation; used interchangeably with syngrapha and 
cautio. The Classical Latin word is ma nits , hut chiro- 
graphun also occurs, being a favorite word of Ambrose; 

-157- 



cf. Ambr . Tob. 3.10, ... "eum chirographis ligat"; 
24.22, "saltern renovetur chir ographum" . The word 
occurs frequently in legal terminology. Cf . T.I.T.. 
and DuCange. Hrotsvit uses it only once in the 
Epics. Cf . Intro! p. 16 for Greek words. 

470-473. Liudgardis regina...e mundo discessit: November 30, 
88S; cf. Pfund, p. 19. 

472. pro dolor: cf. note, Gest . 221. 

475. Abbat issa . . .Gerberg: daughter of Liudulf and Oda , not 
the Cerbjerga of Hrotsvit's day. For abbat issa cf. 
note, Gest. Pref. I. 

480. bis denos binos . . .annos: Poetic expression for twenty- 
two years. Gerberga died in 896; cf. Pfund, p. 19. 
Cf., too, Aen. 1.381, "bis denis . . .navibus " ; 10.213, 
"proceres ter denis navibus ibant". These Poetic ex- 
pressions occur frequently in Krotsvit; cf. Pr in . 
316, 365, 395-396, 575, 583, passim. 

483. ab aethre: for ab aethere ; cf. Intro, p. 34, for other 
syncopated forms employed to accommodate the metre. 

487. sui vitam: for suam vitan; cf. note, Gest. 151. 

489. provectu: a Late l>atin word, in the sense of "advance - 
ment " or "progress" is c ited for Aug., Sidon., Pa Had., 
Amm. , et al. Cf . Aug. C onf . 10.37.61, "de provectu 
...proximi delectari". 

497. mulceret : cf. note. Prim. 422. 

520. genitoris ad instar: the genitive with insta^ is Classi- 
cal, but the use of ad instar is Late Latin; cf. 
L-Hof. p. 496. This is the only instance of its use 
noted in Hrotsvit's Epics. Newnan, p. 115, mentions 
that instar occurs twice alone, twice with ad. 



523-525. This is one of the rare clues from which a faint outline 
of Hrotsvit's biography may be traced. "She came into 
the world long after the death of Otto the Illustrious". 
He died November 30, 912. Cf . Pfund. p. 21. 



V 



530. urbicolis: urbi here represents the monastery; hence 

-158- 



"those dwelling in the city of our monastery" or 
"those dwelling with us, our sisters". Cf . note, 
Gest. Prol. 2.3, for hybrids. 

?32. vet iti. . .pcmi: for a similar expression cf. Sedul. 1.70, 
"qui pereuntem hominem vet it i dulcedine pomi" . 

532-S33. pani . . .quod . . . degustavere : in this sense of tasted, 
degustare is cited for Cato, Varro, Sail., Bell. 
Alex., and Ov . , before Silver and Late Latin. Cf . 
Comm. Apol. 323, "degustato porno"; Ambr. T ob . SO. 28, 
"tu poma degustas". This is the only occurrence of 
its use noted in the Epics. 

535. pro dolor: cf . note, Gest. 221. 

For the date of Otto's death cf. note, Prin. 523-525. 

539. nostrates: — Sax one s . 

540. sui: for eorun; cf. note, Gest. 151. 

560. requiem. , .per ennem:, cf. note, Gest. 405. 

564. nascitur Henrico famosus filius Oddo: Otto I, son of 
Henry the Fowler was born Novenfcer 23, 912. 
fan OS IMS : cf. note, Gest. Prol. 2.20. 

570. procul dubio: cf. note, Prin. 346. 

574. dominatrix: cf. note, Gest. 404. 

575. decies denos septem. . .annos : Oda died in 913, at the 

age of 107 years. For the Poetical expression cf. 
note, Prin. 480; verse 583. 

583. plus quam bis ternos .. .annos : Christina died in 919. 

587. sectatrix: feminine form of sectator ; Krotsvit shows a 
special fondness for such feminized forms as victrix, 
rectrix, doninatrix , genetrix , proditrix . 

589-592. Hrotsvit seems to delight in varying her doxology: cf. 
this one with Diony. 194, "...F^trem cum nato necnon cum 
flamine sacro" ; Agn. 372-375, "Omniparens verbi genitor 

-159- 



mund ique creator, Qui, cumdilecto regnans retro tempora 
nato amborumque coaeterno cum f lamine sacro"; Mar. 891- 
897. 

594. laudentes : has been translated as laudent in order to 
have a complete sentence at the end. 

593-594. A prayer which seemingly includes all the important 
personages of her poems. Strecker and Winter fe Id sug- 
gest a possible lacuna at the end, but Pfund and Barack 
think it is complete and place a period. 



•160- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



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Strecker, K. , Brotsvithae Opera. Leipzig, B.G. Teubner, 
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Weigand, Sister M. Gonsa Iva , The Non-Dramatic Works of 
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Winterfeld, P. Von, Hrosvithae Opera. Berlin, Weidmann, 
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Aschbach, J., Roswitha und Conrad Celtes. Vienna, K.K. 
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Blashfield, E. , Hroswitha : her portraits and her Back- 
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Brandi, K. , "Krotsvit von Candershe im", Deutsche Rund- 
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Carter, B.B. , "Roswitha of Gandershe im", Dublin Review. 
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-161- 



Dorer, E., Roswitha, Die t/onne oits Gandershe in . Aarau, 
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Cundlach, W., He Idenlieder der Deutschen Kaise-^zeit. 
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"Hroswitha's Abbey", The Tablet. IS9 ('1932), p. 608. 

Hudson, W.H. , "Hrosvitha of Gander she im" , English His- 
torical Review. 3 (1888), pp. 431-4«>7. 

Koepke, R., "Kroswitha von Gander she im" itn Ottonische 
Studien, vol. 2. Berlin, 1869. Pp. 1-25. 

Marshall, C. , (pseudonym Ghr ist opher St . John), The Plays 
of Roswitha. London, Chat to & Windus , 1923. 

Nobbe , F.A., Otto der Grosse,Ein Gedicht von Hrotswitha. 
Leipzig, Bliimers, 18SI. 

Obermeier, Sister M. Hilda, O.S.3., Hrotsuitha , Gander- 
shein, and the Saxon House. Washington, Catholic 
University of America Master's Dissertation, 192'^. 

Schneid,, N., "Hr otsv itha ", Catholic Encyclopedia . New 
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pp. 504-505. 

Strecker , K., "Hrotsvit von Gander she im" , Veue Jahr- 

buecher fuer das Klass ische A Itertun Geschichte und 
deutsche Literatur . Herausgegeben von John Ilberg. 
6th Jahrg., I^eipzig, R. G. Teubner, 1903. 

Welch, A.K., "Roswitha", Of S ix Mediaeval Vomen. Tendon, 
Macmillan, 1913. Pp. 1-28. 

Zint , B. , Uber Roswitha's Carmen De Gestis Oddonis. 
Tiegenhof, 1875. 



C. WORKS ON LANGUAGE AND STYLE 

Baldwin, C.S., Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic. New York, 
Macmillan, 1928. 

-162- 



Bennett, C.E. , The Syntax of Early Latin. Boston, Allyn 
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Braune, Th.W., A Ithochdeutsche Granmatik, Ma lie , a S.M. 
Niemeyer, 1911. 

Buck, CD., Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. 
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Butler, H.E. , The Institutio Oratoria of Quint i I ian v/ ith 
English Trans. New York, C.P. Putman's Sons, 1922: 
4 volumes. Vol. 3. 

Buttell, Sister M. Francis, The Rhetoric of St. Hilary 
of Poitiers . Washington, The Catholic University of 
American Patristic Series, 1933. 

D'Alton, J.F., Roman Literary Theory and Criticism. New 
York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1931. 

Henshaw, Millett, The Latinity of the Poems of Hrahanus 
Maurus , Chicago, The University of Chicago Libraries, 
1936. 

Hodnett , J.J., A Study of the Latinity of the Sermones 
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Saint Louis Univers ity Doctora 1 Dissertat ion, 1938. 

Johnston, H.W. , The Metrical Licenses of Vergil. Chi- 
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Juret , A.C., Systeme De La Syntaxe Latine^. Paris, Les 
Belles Lettres, 1933. 

Krebs , J. Ph., and Schmalz, J.H., Antibarbarus der Latein- 
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Kuhner, R., and Stegmann, C. , Ausfuhrliche Grammatik 
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Leuman, M. , and Kofmann, J.B. , Stolz -Schmalz Lateinische 
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-163- 



Lofstedt, E., Philog ischer Konnentar zur Peregr inat io 
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Merrill, W.A., Lucre tian and YirgHian Rhythm. Califor- 
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Neue , F. , und Wagner, C, Fornenlehre der Late inischen 
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Newnan, E.M., The Latinity of the Vorks of Hrotsvit . 
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Norden, E. , Die Antika Kunstp^osa^ . Leipzig, 3.C.,Teub- 
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Paul, H., Mitt lehochdeutsche G'^ann.aiik^^ . Halle, a S., 
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Polheim, K., Die Lateinische Reinprosa. Berlin. We id - 
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Steele, R.B., "Temporal Clauses in Cicero's Epistles", 

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Weinhold, K., Mitte Ihochdeutsche Gramnatik^. F^derborn, 
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Winterfeld, P. Von, Deutsche Dichter des Late inischen 
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Benoist , E., and Coelzer, H. , Vouveau D icti anna ire Latin~ 
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-164- 



i 



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.168- 



I . INDEX NOMINUM ET RERUM 



Adelaide, Queen, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 118, 

132. 133, 134, 138, 140. 
Adelhard, Bishop, 133. 
Aeda , mother of Cda , S. 
Aelfreda, mother of Edith, 123. 
Aethelstan, 122, 123. 
Agius, 7, 146. 
Alcuin, 143. 
Alliteration, 24, 30. 
All Saints, Feast , 150. 
Anadiplosis, 22. 

Anastasius I, Saint, Pope, 148-149, 1S6. 
Andernach, 12. 
Anselm, Saint, 120. 
Antapodosis, 7. 
Ant imethes is , 28. 
Antithesis, 30. 
Antonomasia, 27-28. 
Apostrophe, 25. 

Arnulf, Emperor of Germany, 157. 
Arsis -Thesis, 20, 21. 
Assonance , 24. 
Asyndeton, 24. 
Avars, 12, 130. 

Baptist, Saint John, 5, 143. 

Bavaria, 10. 

Belecke, 12, 125. 

Berengar I, 11. 

Berengar II, 11, 12. 135, 137, 140. 

BiUung, father of Cda , 5. 

Billung, Herman, 12. 

Birten, 12. 

Breisach, 12, 127. 



122 



Bruno, son of Liudulf, 8, 


153, 155. 


Bruno, brother of Otto T, 


3, 8, 121 


Caca phony, 23. 




Caesura, Use of, 35-36. 




Carolingians , 8, 9. 




Celtes, 2 





•169- 



Charlemagne, 9. 

Chiasmus , 29. 

Christine, third Ahbess, S, 8. ISg. 

Civil War, 4, 11. 

Comparison, 19, 20, 28. 

Conrad I, King, brother of Eberhard, 9, 

125. 
Conrad, the Red, 8, 12, 131. 

Danes, 9, 12. 
Diastole, 31. 
Diminutives, IS, 34. 
Double Dative, 137, 
Doxology, 152, 159-160. 

Eberhard, 9, 11, 12, 125, 126. 

Edith, wife of Otto I, 8, 10, 123, 124, 

130, 131. 
Edward, 122, 123. 
Egwine, 123. 
Elision, 35, 124. 
Epanaphora, 22. 
Exclamatio, 25. 

Figures, rhetorical, 18-25; 

of imagery, 19-20; 

of amplification, 20-21; 

of repetition, 21-22; 

of sound, 22-24; 

of vivacity, 24-25. 
Franconia, 9. 
Frankfurt, 129. 
Franks , 8. 

Canda , river of Burgundy, 146, 149. 
Gandersheim, 2, 5. 7, 31, 120, 142, 145, 

146, 148, 149, 153, 156. 
Casquet, Cardinal, 2, 37, 146. 
Gerberga I, 8, 158. 
Cerberga II, 2, 3, 4, S, 6. 8, U, IH. 

122, 126. 135. 
Cerneny, 2, 8, 9, 12. 
Gero, 12. 

Gerund, ablative of, 16; ultima of, 33. 
Gilbert, 11. 12, 126, 128. 
Cisela, 11. 

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Kathumoda, 7. 8, 146, 147, LSI, 153. 

Hebraic Genitive, 119, 139. 

Ffendiadys, 28. 

Herman, Count of Swabia , 12, 131. 

Henry, brother of Otto I, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 

lis, 121. 122, 125. 126, 129, 130, 135. 
Henry the Fowler, father of Otto T, 4, 8, 

9, 11, 120, 124, US, 142, 144, 159. 
Ffenry II, 10. 
Hildesheim, 156. 
Komoiote leuton, 30. 
Hugh of Aries, 133. 
Hungarians, 9, 13, 122, 155. 
Hybrid, 117. 
Hyperbaton, 26-27, 30. 
Hyperbole, 28. 

Ida, 8, 131, 139. 

Indirect discourse, 115, 143, 154. 
Indirect questions, 120, 138. 
Infinitive, to express p\irpose, 126, 137; 

in indirect discourse, 115; with clauses 

of fear, 116. 
Inge Ishe im, 129. 

Innocent, Saint, Pope, 148-149, 156. 
Isocolon, 22, 29. 

Joiin XII, Pope, 7. 9, 140, 
Judith, 8. 

Leo VIII, Pope, 140. 

T.itotes, 25. 

Liudprand, 7, 115. 

Liudulf, founder of monastery, 5, 7, 8, 120, 

142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 153, 155, 158. 
Liudulf, son of Otto I, 4. 8. 11, 12, 124, 

136, 138, 139. 
Liutgarda , daughter of Otto I, 8. 
Liutgarda, Queen, 8, 158. 
Ix5ttiar. 4, 132. 
Louis, Emperor of Italy, 147. 
Louis, the German, 7, 8, 142. 153. 
Louis , King, 7 . 
I-ouis , the youngf^r , 157. 

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Nteinz. 3, 6, 117, 136. 

MRthi Ida . Saint . 8, 120. 

Metonomy, 20. 

Metapfior, 19. 20. 

Normans. 8, 13, l'^'^. 

CHa , wife of Tiirlulf, 5, 8, 146. 1S8, {'^9. 

Oswald, Saint, 123, 143. 

Otto I, or Great, I, 3, 4, 6. 7, 8, 9, 10, 

11, 12. 2';, 27, 11-;. 117, 118. 121, 124, 

12S. 130, 131. 13S. 136. 137. 138. 139. 

140, 144, 145. 159. 
Otto the Illustrius. 8, 9, 119, 142. 144. 

153. 158. 159. 
Otto II. 3. 4, 8. 10, 117. 118, 138. 
Otto III. 10. 
Ottonian House, 1. 
Ocymoron. 28. 

Fferachesis, 136. 

Paradox. 28. 

Ffera ] le lism. devices of. 19, 28. 

Fbranomas ia , 23. 

Par is on, 29. 30. 

Participle, the, 17. 

ftvia, 136. 

Periphrasis. 20, 21. 

Pleonasm, 21 . 

Polytoton, 23. 

Qiied linbiirg, 128. 

Renaissance. Die Ottonische , 9. 
Rhetorical question, 25. 
Rhine . hanks of . 12. 
Rhyme. 36. 
Rutlolph II. 132. 

Sach5eng<:schi':hte , 7, 115. 

Saxon, dynasty. 2, 6; emperor. 7; house, 

5. 7; line, 10, noble. 8; royal family, 

2. 5. 7. 10. 
Saxons. 9, 12. 142. 159. 
Saxony. 5. 8. 9. 146. 

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Scriptural allusions I; 

Reg. 31.30-5;3, 118; 

Reg. 3.3.16-28. 118; 

Gen. 14.14-16, 12'?; 

Reg. 1.20, 127; 

Sam. 2.24.17, 127; 

Prov. 11.8, 128; 

Act. 12.3-11, 133; 

Jo. 21.1S-18. 149. 
Serlu lius , 32 . 
Sergius TI, Pope, 148. 
Simile, 19. 20. 
Slavs, 8, 9, 12. 
Sol omon , 128. 

Syllables, preceding "h" , 33. 
Synizes is , 31 . 

Syntax, nominal, 17; verbal, 18. 
Systole. 32. 

Tenses, shifting of. 121, 12.'> , 132, 144 

14S, 152. 
Thankmar. 8, 11. 12, 125. 
Thur ingia , 9. 

IHo, 12, 128. 

Varying Quantities, 32. 
Verdun, treaty of, 8. 
Vergilian type. 1. 

West Franks, 12. 

Wicbert . Bishop, 156. 

Widukind, 7, 115, 119, 129, 136. 145. 

Willa, 140. 

William, Archbishop, 3, 6, 8, 117. 



•173 



II. INDEX VERBTRUM ET I/nmONIJM 



abbatissa. 114, 1551, l';6, I'^B. 

aligeni ~ gentiles, 12*>. 

a 1 iquant isper , 116. 

altithroniis , 117, 137. 

at, 123. 

aula, 122, 133. 

baptista, K, 143. 
barbula , IS . 

caeJestis, 124, l';4, 1'^';. 

cae 1 icolae , 117. 

carxl idohis , 1 Fi . 

carminu his , \^ . 

caste 1 hitn, l'^ . 

ce lebrare , 150. 

ce Is itbr onus , 117. 

cementar ius , 1S2 . 

censura , 116, lf>7. 

coenobium, IS, 127, 145. 

co-episcopiis , 117. 

comitatus , 143 . 

complures , 117 . 

c ona me n , 16. 

congaudere , 148. 

congruus . 121 . 156. 

coniungere, 125, 135, 145. 

conpresbyter , 117. 

conpiinctus , 140. 

conversare ,156. 

cum temporal with irvlirative, 150-151, 1 "^3 

cuneus , 136. 

cyrograplmm ^ chir ogra nJium, 1"^, l"^?-!^?^. 

flaemonicola , 117. 

riefunrtus mor t uus , 121. 122, 124, 132. 

l';7. 
(legus tare , 159. 
flebonestare . 116 . 
fie lectio, 156. 
'lemu Icere , 128. 

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diadema , \^ . 

d iecvila , 15 . 

dinoscere , 135! . 

d itescere , 153 . 

ditioni "dicioni, 132, 145. 

dominatrix. 130, 156, 157, 159, 

dominari, 127, 131. 

diiritia, 119. 

ecclesia, 15, 32, 122. 
erga , 131 . 
excedere, 120. 



facere with infinitive, 17, 
famosiis, 15, 122, 124, 130, 

159. 
famular i , 15 • 
firmare, 151. 
f lavicomantus , 117, 144. 
fore = esse , 123. 



18. 

136, 138, 140, 



gemmii la , 15 . 
generosiis , 15 . 
genetr ix , 159. 
gentiles, 124. 
g liscere , 142 . 
grat iola , 15 . 
grex, 117, 153, 
gustare, 135. 
gyrus, 15. 



156. 



holocaustum, 15, 129. 
hora — ora , 130, 136. 
hymnus, 15, 129. 



dem, 124-125, 132, 139. 
nniimerosus , 15, 125. 
nstar, 158. 
ungere, 125, 131. 
uramentum, 139. 

ibellus, 15. 
ectitare, 118. 
oce 1 lus , 15 . 
iictamen, 128. 



■175 



maternitas , 14. 

mellifluus, 139. 

me r i t urr , 14. 

mertjere , 143 . 

miles, 127. 

mis, 117. 

miserans with ace. 127; with dat. 130, ISl 

missus as a substantive, 123, 133. 

modicum, 14. 

monaster ium, IS, 32. 

morula, IS, 139. 

mox ut ~ ut primum, 137. 

mulcere, 156, 158. 

munusculum, 15. 

nige llus , 15 . 

non ~ ne , 114; = quin, 130. 

nove 1 lus , 15 . 

obseque la , 15, 114. 

obsequium, 14, 114, 129, 133, 136, 139, 

146. 
obstupefacere , 136. 
ocius , 14 . 
opusculus , 15 . 

pacificus, 120, 138. 

pandere , 142 . 

narvulus , 15 . 

pascha lis , 129. 

pascha, 128-129. 

patrare, 156. 

peregrinus, 148. 

nlacidus, 123. 

plebecula , 15 . 

plebs = popuhis, 14. 

plures, 117, 155. 

posse as a substantive, 127. 

pietas , 14. 

praece 1 lere , 124 , 

prae latae , 147 . 

prae luce re , 114 . 

praepol lent ia , 1^7. 

praepaucula, 15, 131. 

praesul, 113, 135, 148, 149. 155. 156. 



.176- 



praesumere with infinitive, 17, 18, US. 

129, 144. 
praesumptio, 116. 
precula, IS. 
presbyter, 15, 134. 
pret iosus , 15 . 
primates, 131, 137. 
pr imogenitus , 122. 
pr imu le , 15, 157. 
pro — secundum, 114, 116, 130. 
procul dubio = sine dubio, 154, 159. 
pr od i t r ix , 159. 

pro dolor, 126-127, 153, 155, 158, 159. 
prolix itas , 116. 
promeruere, 143, 144. 

promptus with infinitive, 118, 151, 155. 
pr opa la r i , 117. 
proprius, 118, 131, 132, 133, 137, 139, 150, 

153, 155, 157. 
protoplastus , 15. 
provectus, 158. 
puellaris, 147, 154, 156. 

quantocius, 138. 

quia clause, 154. 

querela, 15. 

quidni, 128, 129. 

quo = ut , 139. 

quod clauses, 115, 122, 138, 143, 154. 

rectrix, 159. 
remeare, 126. 
requies, 130, 159. 
replicatus , 141 . 
rogare, 155. 
rutilare, 123. 

sacrare, 152-153, 155. 
sacrum, 33 . 

saepissime — bis, 130. 
sanct if icare , 151, 155. 
see lerosus , 15 . 
scriptitare, 123. 
scrutare ,118. 
sectator, 159. 

-177- 



secta tr ix , 159. 

secretus , 33 . 

securus , 149. 

serenus, 123, 138. 

ser ins , 14 . 

si — non, 115 , 116. 

solacium, 14. 

s o la me n , 14. 

sol lempniter , 129. 

solummodo, 116, 133, 137. 

s oph i a , 15. 

stenrna , 114 , 144 . 

stud i OS us , 15 . 

stupefacere, 136. 

suadelis, 32. 

suadere with infinitive, 157. 

sub as in, 135; temporal use, 143. 

Sub lima re , 131 . 

stii, 114, 135, 146. 151. 158, 159. 

supernus. 14. 

suus. 124, 133, 137, 153, 155. 

tard ius , 14 . 
tempusculum, 15. 
tenebrae , 33 . 
tenebrosus , 15 . 
tenella, 15, 118. 
terrenus, 144, 148, 149. 
tis, 117, 118. 
tueri, 118-119, 148. 
tui, 114, 117. 
tumulus. 130. 

ubi as cum, 134. 

urbicolis, 117, 158. 

ut -result with indicative, 121, 123, 137, 

velamen, 129. 

ve 1 le as substantive, 147-148, l'^4. 

venerar i , 131 . 

verbula. 15. 131. 

v ictr ix . 159. 

virguncu la , 15 . 

votum, 14. 

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