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IT was not until the publication, in 1849, f the first volume 
of Laborde's work, " Les Dues de Bourgogne," that the 
biography of the Van Eycks began to be elucidated. The 
documents printed in that work were collated with the 
originals by Pinchart, who gave more correct readings, and 
also published the entries of payments to John van Eyck 
in 1422-1425, which he discovered in the household accounts 
of John of Bavaria at the Hague. Since then the present 
writer has not only published some important documents 
(3, 1 8, 19, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31), but has, in the present work, 
brought together and printed in chronological order all those 
documents yet discovered. Unfortunately many documents 
which would no doubt have given us valuable information 
are still missing. Of the accounts of the Receivers-general 
of the Duke of Burgundy's finances, those for the years 
1427, 1429, 1430, and 1438 are wanting. Of the seventeen 
yearly accounts of the Receivers of Flanders, embracing the 
period during which John van Eyck was in the Duke's 
service, only four, those of the years 1425, 1427, 1432, and 
1441, have come down to us. Of the detailed accounts and 


receipts in John's handwriting, not a single one has been 
preserved. The originals of the Duke's letters-patent of 
May, 1426, and of those raising John's salary, are also lost ; 
and the accounts of the sale of life annuities and of the yearly 
payments of these, which would have given us the family 
name and the date of decease of John's wife, are also wanting. 
It is probable that some further items of information may 
yet be gleaned from the municipal accounts of towns in the 
Duke's dominions, and, perhaps, also from documents in the 
archives of Spain and Portugal. Manuscripts, such as the 
interesting description of the Ghent polyptych discovered by 
Dr. Voll, may yet come to light. One such, probably lying 
unrecognised in some library, the " Leecken Philosophic " of 
Mark van Vaernewyck, is known to contain, in the twentieth 
book, all that the author had been able to gather concerning 
the Van Eycks. A careful examination of printed books, 
especially of chronicles and books of travel, may also add 
to our knowledge. 

In 1900, the writer began to collect materials for a 
chronological bibliography of printed books and pamphlets 
relating to the Van Eycks and other early Netherlandish 
painters, a tedious work, nearly completed when a great 
number of the collected titles were accidentally lost. The 
undertaking was then abandoned, and not resumed until 
1905, when the present work was commenced. Every docu- 
ment has been collated, and all the bibliographical references 
verified. The author has spared no pains in his endeavour 
to secure accuracy; he has, however, not found it possible 
to again go through the catalogues of the British Museum 


and National Art Libraries, but he doubts the omission of 
any important work. Should any such omission be remarked, 
he will feel greatly obliged by his attention being called to it. 
He particularly wishes those who may consult this work to 
remember that it has no pretensions to literary merit, the 
author's aim being simply to provide those who in the future 
may attempt to write the history of the school of painting 
that flourished in the Low Countries in the fifteenth century, 
with as complete a guide as possible to all that has been 
published concerning its founders up to the present date. 
Should the author be spared, and the value of this work be 
recognised, he may yet issue similar volumes on Peter 
Christus, Hugh Van der Goes and Roger De la Pasture, in 
view of which he has collected a quantity of material. 

It now only remains for the author to express his 
grateful thanks to all those who have aided his endeavours 
to make this work as complete and as accurate as possible ; 
first, and before all, to Mr. Albert Van de Put of the National 
Art Library, who by drawing his attention to various publica- 
tions, old and new, that might otherwise have escaped his 
notice, by clearing up difficulties presented by Spanish and 
Portuguese documents and by the revision of printers' proofs 
has rendered him invaluable assistance. Also to Mr. Jules 
Finot, Archivist of the Department of the North of France, 
at Lille, to Mr. Poncelet, Keeper of the State Archives at 
Mons, Mr. Victor Van der Haeghen, Archivist of the Town 
of Ghent, Mr. Maurice Houtart of Tournay, and Mr. Paul 
Bergmans, of the University Library of Ghent, for the 
communication of documents ; and to that acute critic, Mr. 


George Hulin who, during the last few years, has done much 
towards clearing up the history of painting in the Low 
Countries. The writer's thanks are also due to Mr. E. 
Enlart, director of the Trocadero Museum of Sculpture, Mr. 
L. Cloquet, Mr. W. R. Lethaby, and Mr. Tavenor Perry for 
communications regarding architectural features in Eyckian 
pictures ; to Lord Dillon, for information as to peculiarities 
of armour in the same ; to Mr. H. A. Grueber, of the British 
Museum, for information as to the value of the different coins 
mentioned in the accounts of payments to John van Eyck ; 
to Mr. A. Somof, Director, and Mr. James von Schmidt, Keeper 
of the Hermitage Gallery at Saint-Petersburg, Mr. Rudolf 
Schrey, of the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, and Dr. Theodore 
Schreiber, Director of the Leipzig Museum, for photographs 
of paintings and drawings in those collections, and informa- 
tion relating thereto ; to the Royal Society of Literature and 
Mr. Alfred Marks for the loan of half-tone blocks and draw- 
ings ; to the Berlin Photographic Company, for leave to 
reproduce their photographs ; to Mr. Lionel Cust, Dr. Six, 
Dr. Karl Westendorp, and Mr. A. Daled, for photographs ; and 
to Mr. Sidney J. Churchill for information as to a copy of the 
Ince Hall Madonna ; and to Mr. Eric Maclagan for facsimiles 
of inscriptions and notes of details in paintings. The writer 
begs all those gentlemen and any others whom he may have 
overlooked to accept his very best thanks. 


2yd October, 1907. 


















ADDENDA .- 205 

INDEX 211 


1. The Annunciation : the Angel 


2. The Annunciation : the Blessed 


3. Saint John the Baptist . 

4. Saint John the Evangelist . 

5. Jodoc Vyt 

6. Elisabeth Borluut 

7. God the Father .... 

8. The Blessed Virgin 

9. Saint John the Baptist 

10. The Choir of Angels : The Singers 

11. The Mu- 

12. The Adoration of the Lamb 

13. The Knights of Christ 

14. The Just Judges .... 

15. The Holy Hermits 

16. The Holy Pilgrims 

17. Adam 

18. Eve 

19. B. Nicholas Albergati, Cardinal 

of Saint-Cross, 1432 

20. Portrait of a man, 1432 

Berlin : Royal Gallery 

Ghent : Cathedral . 

> ) 


Berlin : Royal Gallery 

Ghent : Cathedral . 

Berlin : Royal Gallery 

> > 

Brussels : Royal Gallery 



. 30 

. 30 



- 36 

- 33 

- 33 
. 40 

. 42 

. 44 



. 46 
. 46 

Vienna : Imperial Gallery . 58 
London : National Gallery . 62 




21. Our Lady and Child, 1433 . 

22. Portrait of a man, 1433 

23. John Arnolfini and wife, 1434 

24. Our Lady and Child, SS. Do- 

natian and George, and canon 
G. Van der Paele, 1436 . 

25. John De Leeuw, goldsmith, 1436 . 

26. Saint Barbara, 1437 

27. Our Lady and Child by a Foun- 

tain, 1439 

28. Margaret van Eyck, 1439 

29. Portrait of a Goldsmith 

30. Our Lady and Child, SS. Elisa- 

beth of Hungary and Barbara, 
and a Carthusian 

31. The Annunciation 

32. The Annunciation : detail . 

33. An Esquire of the Order of Saint 

Anthony ..... 

34. The Annunciation : the Angel 

Gabriel ..... 

35. The Annunciation: the Blessed 

Virgin ..... 

36. Our Lady and Child enthroned . 

37. Saint Michael and the donor 

38. Saint Katherine .... 

39. The Vision of Saint Francis 

40. Our Lady and Child . 

41. Sir Baldwin de Lannoy 

Ince Hall 

London : National Gallery 

Bruges : Town Gallery . 
Vienna : Imperial Gallery 
Antwerp : Museum . 

Bruges : Town Gallery 
Hermannstadt : Gymnasium 

Berlin : Royal Gallery 

Dresden : Royal Gallery . 






Paris : Baron G. Rothschild . no 
Saint-Petersburg: Hermitage. 118 

. 1 20 
. 122 
. 124 


,, ,, .126 


,, ,, . . 128 

Philadelphia : Mr. J. G. Johnson 1 30 

Frankfort : Stadel Institute . 138 

Berlin : Royal Gallery . .142 



Sepulchral slab, XVIth century, Ghent : Archaeological Museum. From 

a sketch by A. Heins 8 

Bird's-eye view of Bruges in 1 562 by Mark Gheeraerts. Extract showing 

John van Eyck's residence . . ...... 19 

Portrait of a falconer, Henry van Eyck ? Frankfort : Stadel Institute . 24 

Polyptych by Hubert and John van Eyck : exterior 26 

interior . . . 28 

Adam and Eve ; silver-print drawing. Paris : Louvre 50 

The angel Gabriel ; pen drawing. Berlin: Royal Print collection . . 52 
Christ, the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Baptist. Madrid : Prado 

Gallery 52 

Pavement tile on shutter panel of the Polyptych 56 

B. Nicholas Albergati, cardinal of Saint-Cross ; silver-print drawing, 1431. 

Dresden : Royal Print collection 60 

Cipher on reverse of the " L6al Souvenir." London : National Gallery . 64 

Portrait of a Goldsmith. Berlin : Royal Print collection .... 64 

Mirror and signature of John van Eyck, 1434. London: National Gallery 72 

Inscriptions on frame of the Bruges altar-piece, 1436 79 

Our Lady and Child, SS. Donatian and George, and canon G. Van der 

Paele. Antwerp : Museum 82 

Saint George and Charles the Rash, by G. Loyet, 1471. Liege : Cathedral 84 

Canon George Van der Paele. Hampton Court Palace .... 84 
Our Lady and Child by a fountain ; pen drawing. Berlin : Royal Print 

collection ............ 92 

Inscriptions on frame of the portrait of Margaret van Eyck ... 94 



Triptych of N. van Maelbeke, provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres, 1441 ; 

exterior. Kessel-Loo : M. G. Helleputte 94 

Our Lady and Child, and Nicholas van Maelbeke, 1441 .... 96 
The Burning Bush ....... ... 98 

The Closed Door of Ezechiel 98 

Our Lady and Child and N. van Maelbeke ; pen drawing. Vienna : 

Albertina IOO 

Our Lady and Child and N. van Maelbeke ; silver-print drawing. Niirn- 

berg : Germanic Museum ......... 102 

Our Lady and Child and a provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres. London : 

Mr. Heyman-Ellis 104 

A donor protected by Saint Anthony. Copenhagen : Royal Gallery . .108 
Our Lady and Child and Chancellor Rolin. Paris: Louvre . . .114 
Nicholas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy and Brabant ; pen drawing. 

Arras: Town Library 116 

Dedication miniature of the " Chronicles of Hainault." Brussels : Bur- 

gundian Library . . . . . . . . . . .116 

Dedication miniature of " Gerard de Roussillon." Vienna : Imperial 

Library . . . . . . . . . . . .116 

Nicholas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy ; detail of altar-piece. Beaune : 

Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . .118 

Miniature in the Hours of John, count of Dunois. London : H. Y. 

Thompson, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . .118 

The Adoration of the Magi ; detail. Velen : Count Landsberg-Velen . 124 

The Vision of Saint Francis. Turin: Royal Gallery 132 

The Vision of Saint Francis. Madrid : Prado Gallery . . . .134 
Our Lady and Child in a church. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . . .134 
Our Lady and Child in a church. Rome : Doria Gallery . . . . 1 34 

Saint Anthony and a donor. Rome: Doria Gallery 134 

Our Lady and Child in a church ; pen drawing 134 

John Arnolfini. Berlin : Royal Gallery 140 

An incident in the life of Saint Bernard. Coin : Wallraff-Richartz 

Museum ............ 142 

An incident in the life of Saint Bernard ; detail 142 

Our Lady and Child, Saint Barbara and a Carthusian. Berlin : Royal 

Gallery ............ 144 



Calvary. Saint-Petersburg : Hermitage Gallery 146 

The Last Judgment. Saint- Petersburg : Hermitage Gallery . . .148 
Christ on the cross, the Blessed Virgin, and Saint John. Berlin : Royal 

Gallery 150 

The Three Marys at the Sepulchre. Richmond : Sir F. Cook . . .152 
Our Lady and Child by a fountain. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . .156 

Our Lady and Child. London: Earl of Northbrook 158 

Our Lady and Child. New York : Metropolitan Museum . . . .160 
The Fountain of living water. Madrid: Prado Gallery .... 162 
The Fountain of living water ; the Church. Madrid : Prado Gallery . 164 

The Fountain of living water ; the Synagogue. Madrid: Prado Gallery . 164 
Cipher on an old copy of the Fountain of living water . . . .164 

The Holy Face. Munich: Royal Gallery 166 

Inscription on neck-band of Christ's robe. Munich: Royal Gallery . . 166 

The Holy Face. Berlin : Royal Gallery 166 

The Holy Face. Bruges: Town Gallery 168 

Inscriptions on frame . . . . . . . . . . .168 

Cipher and date on reverse of the panel 169 

A Man. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . . . . . . . .170 

A donor. Leipzig : Town Museum 170 

An ecclesiastic. Greystoke Castle : H. C. Howard, Esq. . . . .170 

Saint Thomas of Canterbury, after W. Hollar ...... 170 

Archdukes Albert and Isabella visiting the gallery of C. Van der Geest, 

Antwerp, 1615. Heveningham Hall : Lord Huntingfield . . . 174 
A lady at her toilet ; detail from a gallery picture. Heveningham Hall : 

Lord Huntingfield . . . . . . . . . .176 

Michael of France, duchess of Burgundy, 1409-1422 ; drawing. Brussels : 

Royal Library 178 

Bonne of Artois, duchess of Burgundy, 1424-1425 ; drawing. Arras : 

Town Library . . . . . . . . . . .178 

Isabella of Portugal, duchess of Burgundy, 1429-1472 ; drawing. Brussels : 

Royal Library . ... . . . . . . . .180 

Jacqueline of Bavaria, countess of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland ; drawing. 

Brussels : Royal Library 180 

Jacqueline of Bavaria. Copenhagen: Royal Gallery 180 




Portrait of a lady ; silver-print drawing. Frankfort: Stadel Institute . 180 

Key to four panels of the Ghent polyptych 184 

Utrecht cathedral ; West tower, from a drawing by Saenredam, 1636 . 186 

Utrecht cathedral ; West tower, 1905 186 

Old Saint Paul's, London, from the south . . . . . . .186 

Snow-mountains in the Ghent polyptych . . . . . . .186 

Snow-mountains in the Rolin panel . . . . . . . .186 

Plan of edifice in the Bruges altar-piece . . . . . . .189 

Capitals after Van Eyck . . . . . . . . . .190 

Capital of a pilaster, Souvigny (Bourbonnais) ...... 190 

Capital from triptych, Dresden . . . . . . . . .190 

Capitals from altar-piece, Bruges 190 

Bellerophon and the Chimsera ......... 190 

Tournay cathedral : transept . . . . . . . . .190 

John of Bavaria ; drawing. Arras: Town Library 196 

Hubert and John van Eyck ; alleged portraits. Berlin : Royal Gallery . 196 
Hubert and John van Eyck ; alleged portraits. Madrid : Prado Gallery . 198 
William of Bavaria met by his daughter Jacqueline. Miniature in the 

" Turin Hours " 202 

Saint Julian conveying passengers across a river. Miniature in the 

"Turin Hours" 202 

Portrait of a man ; silver-print drawing. Paris : Louvre .... 206 

Portrait of a man. Philadelphia : Mr. J. G. Johnson 208 

Christ in the act of blessing. Berlin: Royal Gallery 210 



1417, May 31. Death of William of Bavaria, Count of Holland. 
1422, July 8. Death, at Ghent, of Michelle of France, first wife of 

Philip, Duke of Burgundy. 
October 24, 1424, September 11. John van Eyck working 

for John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, in the palace at the Hague. 

1424, November 30. Marriage of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, and 
Bonne of Artois, daughter of Philip, Count of Eu and Nevers. 

1425, January 5. Death of John of Bavaria. 

May 19. John van Eyck at Bruges. Duke Philip appoints 
him his painter, with a yearly salary of ioo/. parisis, payable in 
two moieties, commencing from Midsummer. 

Before August 2. Moves to Lille, and takes up his residence 

Hubert van Eyck makes two sketches for a picture for the 
magistrates of Ghent. 

September 17. Death of Bonne of Artois, second wife of 
Duke Philip. 

1426, March. Hubert engaged at Ghent, painting an altar-piece and 
polychroming a statue of Saint Anthony for Robert Poortier. 

Before July 14. John van Eyck goes on a pilgrimage for 
the Duke. 

August. John van Eyck is sent on a secret mission by the 

September 18. Hubert van Eyck dies at Ghent. 

October 27. John van Eyck, having returned from mission, is 
paid 36o/. of 40 groats Flemish in settlement. 

1427, October 18. John van Eyck at Tournay second secret mission- 
is presented with the wine of honour. The Duke's ambassadors 
are presented with wine on the 2Oth. 


1428 February. John returned from second mission. Complains to 
the Duke that his receiver at Lille had refused to pay him his 

October 19. Starts from Sluus on third mission, by sea to 

October 20. Puts in at Sandwich. 

Puts in at Plymouth. 

October 25. Puts in at Falmouth. 

December 2. Sails from Falmouth. 

December 1 1 . Puts in at Bayona. 

December 14. Sails from Bayona. 

December 16. Calls at Cascaes. 

December 18. Arrives at Lisbon. 
1429, January. Sojourn at Arrayollos. 

January 1 2. Leaves Arrayollos and arrives at Aviz. 

The ambassadors are received by the King of Portugal and 
the Royal Family on the morrow. John van Eyck paints the 
portrait of the Princess Isabella, and sends it to the Duke of 

February. Goes on a pilgrimage to Saint James of Compo- 
stella in Galicia. Visits John II., King of Castile, the Duke of 
Arjona, Mahommed, King of Granada, etc. 

May. Returns to Lisbon. 

June 4. Journey to Cintra to see the King ; sojourn in that 

July 23. Contract of marriage of the Duke and Isabella 
signed at Lisbon. 

July 24 October 8. Sojourn at Lisbon. 

September 30. The King of Portugal conducts his daughter 
to her ship. 

October 8. The Portuguese fleet sets sail. 

October 13. Puts in at Cascaes. 

November 29. Puts in at Plymouth. 

December 25. Arrives at Sluus. 

1430, January 7. Marriage of the Duke and Isabella at Sluus. 
John van Eyck goes to Hesdin and returns to Bruges. 

1431, December. Draws the portrait of B. Nicholas Albergati. 


1432, January. Paints the portrait of the same cardinal, now at Vienna. 

Buys a house at Bruges. 

May 6. Polyptych of the Adoration of the Lamb terminated 
and placed in the church of Saint John now Saint Bavo at 

Before August 13. The burgomaster and some other 
members of the town-council of Bruges visit John van Eyck, to 
view paintings. 

October 10. Paints portrait of a man, ' Leal souvenir,' now 
in the National Gallery. 

1433, before February 19. The Duke visits John's studio. 

John paints Our Lady and Child, now at I nee Hall. 
October 21. Paints the portrait of a man with a red head- 
kerchief, now in the National Gallery. 

1434, Birth of his first child. The Duke is godfather. 

Paints the portrait of John Arnolfini and wife, now in the 
National Gallery. 

1434-1435. John's salary raised from ioo/. parisis payable in two 
half-yearly moieties, to 36o/. of 40 groats Flemish (432O/. parisis), 
payable quarterly. 

1435, March 12. The Duke reprimands the accountants at Lille for 
raising difficulties as to verification of his letters patent, and bids 
them execute his orders punctually. 

John van Eyck polychromes six statues in the front of the 
Town-house at Bruges. 

1436, Paints an altar-piece for George Van der Paele, Canon of 
Saint Donatian, at Bruges, now in the Town Museum. 

Paints the portrait of John De Leeuw, now in the Imperial 
Gallery, Vienna. 

Goes on a secret mission by order of the Duke, for which he 
is paid 36o/. gr. 

October. Jacqueline of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, dies 
at Teylingen. 
I 437- John van Eyck paints the picture of Saint Barbara, now in 

the Museum at Antwerp. 

1439. Paints the picture of Our Lady and Child by a fountain, now in 
the Museum at Antwerp. 


June 17. Paints the portrait of Margaret his wife, now in the 
Town Museum, Bruges. 
1441. Paints an altar-piece for the Provost of Saint Martin's at Ypres. 

July 9. Death of John van Eyck. 

1450. Livina, daughter of John van Eyck, enters the convent of Saint 
Agnes at Maaseyck. 




i. PAYMENTS to master John van Eyck, painter in the 
service of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, for work exe- 
cuted at the Palace of the Hague from October 24, 1422, 
to September 11, 1424. John was paid at the rate of 8 
lions a day ; his apprentices received 2 lions a day. 

" Uutgegeven ende betaelt meyster Ian den maelre, van 
ix weken pantgelts ende iij dagen ; 'sdags, voir hem ende 
siinen knecht, x lewen, f. v Ib. x s. gr." 

Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren van miins genadigs heren heren 
goeden ende forfeyten in den lande van Hollant ende van Zeelant 
von 27 Septembre, 1422, tot 14 lanuarii, 1423. 

" Item so ontbreke lohannes schildere van sinen pantgelt 
van enen halve iaere, daer hem die tresorier off betaelt rekent 
van j quaert iaers, te weten, van Alreheylig dag toe totten 
eersten dage van Februarii siin xiij weke, des heeft hij 'sdags 
voir hem ende sinen knecht die met hem werct, x lewen ; 
ende een ander knecht ij lewen, f. 'sdags ij s. ; f. ix Ib. ij s. gr." 

Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren enz. van i Novembris, 1423, 
tot i Meye, 1424. 

" Item noch uutgegeven ende betaelt lohannes, miins 
genadichs heren scilder, geliic dat mit hem overdragen was, 


van sinen pantgelde 'sdages x lewen, f. binnen xxxij weken, 
een lewe voir ij gro., xviij Ib. xiij s. iiij d. gr." 

Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren enz. van 26 Meye, 1424, tot 
5 Februarii, 1425. The Hague: Royal Archives. 


2. Payment to master Hubert van Eyck, for two sketches 
of a painting made by order of the magistrates of Ghent. 

" Ghegheven meester Luberecht over syn moyte van ij 
bewerpen van eenre taeffele die hy maecte ten bevelene van 
scepenen, vj s. gro." 

Boucke van den ontfanghe ende uutghevene die ghemaect zijn 
int scependom her lans Sersanders, her Gelnoets van Lems ende 
harer ghezellen int iaer xiiij c ende xxiiij, fol. 188. Ghent: Town 

1425, August 2 

3. Payment of 2O/. to John van Eyck, in consideration 
of the trouble and expense incurred by him in moving from 
Bruges to Lille by order of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who, 
by letters patent dated May 19, 1425, had appointed him 
his official painter. 

"A Johannes de Heecq, varlet de chambre et paintre 
de mon diet seigneur, que de nouvel icellui monseigneur 
a retenu en son service pour cause de 1'excellent ouvrage 
de son mestier qu'il fait, que il lui a donnd tant pour lui 
aidier a amaisnagier en la ville de Lille en laquelle il le 
fait venir demourer, que pour faire amener ses vagues de 
la dicte ville de Bruges en laquelle il a demeurd par aucun 


temps, xx 1. de xl gros. . . . Par mandement de mon dit 
seigneur sur ce fait, donnd a Lille le second jour d'Aoust 
1'an M.cccc.xxv, garni de quittance du dessus dit." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du Due de Bourgogne 
du 3 Octobre, 1424, au 3 Octobre, 1425, fol. cxv. Lille : Archives of 
the Department of the North, B 1931. 


4. Gratuity to the apprentices at master Hubert's. 

"Ghegheven in hoofscheden den kinderen te meester 
Ubrechts, vj gro." 

Boucke van den ontfanghe ende uutghevene die ghemaect zijn 
int scependom her Ian Sersimoens ende Ian Wellaerts ende harer 
ghezellen int iaer xiiij vive ende twintich, fol. 288^. Ghent : Town 

1426, March 9 

5. Robert Poortier and Avezoete his wife, by their v 
will dated March 9, 1425, give directions for their burial in 
the church of Saint Saviour, Ghent, in the tomb they had 
prepared in the chapel of Our Lady ; for the completion 

of the altar founded by them in that chapel ; and for set- 
ting up above it the statue of Saint Anthony, which statue, 
together with other work pertaining to the same altar, 
was at that date in the hands of master Hubert the painter. 

" Kenlic zij . . . dat up den ix ste dach van Maerte . . . 
ende begheeren te ligghene in de kerke 's Helichs Kersts 
in de zuut cappelle die men heet Onser Vrouwen cappelle 
van der Moure, daer zij eenen saerc hebben doen legghen, 


ter welker plaetsen zij willen ende begheeren dat vulcome 
dat men in de selve capelle doe maken eenen altaer omme 
up te doene den dienst ons Heeren, ende an den selven 
altaer te stelne 'tbelde van Sente Anthonise, welc beelde nu 
ter tijt rust onder meester Hubrechte den scildere met meer 
ander weercx dienende ten selven altare." 

Register van Schepenen van Ghedeele, 1425-26, fol. 63. Two 
contemporary copies of this will are preserved among the documents 
relating to the church of Saint Saviour. Ghent : Town Archives. 


6. Three payments of 5o/. each to John van Eyck, 
being the amount of his salary from Midsummer, 1425, 
to Christmas, 1426. 

" A Jehan de Heick, jadiz pointre et varlet de chambre 
de feu monseigneur le due Jehan de Bayviere, lequel mon 
diet seigneur pour 1'abilite et souffissance que par la relacion 
de pluseurs de ses gens il avoit oy, et meismes savoit et 
cognoissoit estre de fait de pointure en la personne du dit 
Jehan de Heick, icellui Jehan, confians de sa loyaute et 
preudomonie, a retenu en son pointre et varlet de chambre, 
aux honneurs, prerogatives, franchises, libertez, drois, prouffis 
et emolumens accoustume'z et qui y appartiennent. Et affm 
qu'il soit tenu de ouvrer pour lui de painture toutes les 
fois qu'il lui plaira, lui a ordonne prenre et avoir de lui, sur 
sa recepte generate de Flandres, la somme de c livres 
parisis monnoie de Flandres a deux termes par an, moittie' 
au Noel et 1'autre moittie" a la Saint Jehan, dont il veult 
estre le premier paiement au Noel mil cccc xxv et 1'autre a 


la Saint Jehan ensuivant, et ainsi d'an en an et de terme en 
terme, tant qu'il lui plaira. En mandant aux maistres de 
son hostel et autres ses officiers quelzconques, que d'icelle 
sa presente retenue ensamble des honneurs, prerogatives, 
drois, prouffis, et emolumens dessus diz, facent et laissent 
le dit Jehan paisiblement joir, sans empeschement ou des- 
tourbier, mandant en oultre a son dit receveur general de 
Flandres present et a venir, que la dicte somme de c livres 
parisis par an il paye, bailie et delivre chactin an au dit 
Jehan, son pointre et varlet de chambre, aux termes dessus 
de"clairez, comme de tout ce que dit est puet plus a plain 
apparoir par lettres patentes de mon avant dit seigneur, sur 
ce faictes et donnees en sa ville de Bruges le xix e jour de 
May 1'an mil cccc xxv. Pour cecy, par vertu d'icelles dont 
vidimus est cy rendu a court, pour le terme du Noel mil cccc 
xxv, par sa quittance, qui sert a la partie ensuivante cy 
rendue a court, 1 livres." 

" A lui pour semblable et les termes de la Saint Jehan 
et Noel mil cccc xxvj par sa quittance, cy rendue a court, 
c livres." 

Compte de la recette generate de Flandres du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1425, fol. xcvz>. Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North. 

1426, August 26 

7. Payment to John van Eyck of qil. $s. of 40 groats 
Flemish to the pound, for a certain pilgrimage which the 
Duke had ordered him to perform in his name, and on 
account of a secret journey which he had ordered him to 


make to certain distant places of which no mention is to 
be made. 

"A Johannes de Eick, varlet de chambre et paintre de 
mon dit seigneur, la somme de quatre vins onze livres, cinq 
solz du pris de xl gros, monnoye de Flandres la livre, laquelle 
du commandement et ordonnance de mon dit seigneur lui 
a este paiee, bailliee et delivree comptant, tant pour faire 
certain pelerinage que mon dit seigneur pour lui et en son 
nom lui a ordonne faire, dont autre declaration il n'en veult 
estre faicte, comme sur ce que par icelui seigneur lui povoit 
estre deu a cause de certain loingtain voiage secret, que 
semblablement il lui a ordonne faire en certains lieux que 
aussi ne veult aultrement declarer. Si comme il appert par 
mandement de descharge de mon dit seigneur sur ce fait, 
donne" a Leyden, le xxvj e jour d'Aoust, Tan mil cccc xxvi, 
garni selon son contenu cy rendu, pour ce iiij xx xj livres, v s. 
de xl gros." 

Compte de la recette generate des finances du due du 3 Octobre, 
1425, au 3 Octobre, 1426, fol. Ixxij. Lille : Archives of the Depart- 
ment of the North, B 1933. 

1426, after September 18 

8. Receipt by the treasurers of the town of Ghent of 
6 shillings from the heirs of Hubert van Eyck, tax on 
the property of the deceased. 

"Ontfaen van yssuwen. Van den hoyre van Lubrecht 
van Heyke, vi s. gro." 

Boucke van den ontfanghe die ghemaect zijn int scependom her 
Willems Utenhove, her lans Van den Heyden ende harer ghezellen 
int iaer xiiij c zesse ende twintich, fol. 3192. Ghent : Town Archives. 


1426, October 27 

9. Payment to John van Eyck of s6o/. of 40 groats 
Flemish to the pound, in settlement of amount due to him 
for certain distant secret journeys made by order of the 

" A Johannes de Kick, varlet de chambre et paintre de 
mon dit seigneur, la somme de trois cens soixante livres du 
pris de xl gros monnoie de Flandres la livre, laquelle mon dit 
seigneur lui a ordonne estre baillie comptant pour certain 
compte, traittie" et appointement fait avec lui pour la par- 
paye de tout ce qu'il lui peut estre deu a cause de certains 
loingtains voyaiges secrez que mon dit seigneur lui a pie$a 
ordonne" faire en certains lieux dont il ne veult autre de"clara- 
cion estre faicte si qu'il appert par lettres de mandement 
de descharge de mon dit seigneur sur ce faictes, donndes a 
Bruges le xxvij 6 jour d'Octobre 1'an mil cccc xxvj, garny de 
quittance du dit Johannes, selon son contenu cy rendu, pour 
ce, iijlx livres de xl gros." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du 4 Octobre au 31 
Ddcembre, 1426, fol. xxxixz/ . Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1935. 

1427, July 

10. Payment to John van Eyck of a gratuity of 2O/., in 
consideration of services rendered by him to the Duke. 

" A Johannes de Heecht, paintre de mon dit seigneur, 
que icellui seigneur luy a donne" pour consideration des bons 
et agreables services qu'il luy a faiz de son mestier et autre- 
ment, comme appert par sa quittance, xx livres." 



Compte de la recette general e des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1427, fol. cxvzf. Courtray : Town Library. 

1427, August 

11. Payment to John van Eyck of a gratuity of ioo/., 
in recompense for services rendered by him to the Duke. 

" A Jehannes Eyk, varlet de chambre et paintre de mon 
dit seigneur, que icellui seigneur luy a donne tant pour 
consideration des bons et agreables services qu'il luy a faiz 
tant ou fait de son dit office comme autrement, et pour le 
aidier et soustenir a avoir ses neccessitez, afin plus honno- 
rablement il le puist servir, comme appert par sa quittance, 
c livres." 

Compte de la recette generate des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1427, fol. vj xx xijz; . Courtray : Town Library. 

1428, after March 3 

12. Payment to John van Eyck of ioo/. parisis, amount 
of his salary for one year to Christmas, 1427, by special 
order of the Duke, notwithstanding the general revocation 
of pensions and salaries of officers of his household. 

" A Jehan de Heick, pointre et varlet de chambre de mon 
seigneur le due, lequel icellui seigneur a retenu aux gaiges de 
c livres parisis, monnoie de Flandres, par an, pour les causes 
contenues tant en ses lettres sur ce faictes comme ou compte 
precedent. Et lesquelz gaiges mon dit seigneur, nonobstant 
que par certaines ses ordonnances faictes le xiiij 6 de Ddcembre, 
ccccxxvj, a entre autres choses revoque' les pensions et gaiges 
d'aucuns ses officiers et serviteurs qu'ilz prenoient a luy, non 


exprime'z 6s lettres de sa nouvelle ordonnance commenchant 
icelle le premier jour de Janvier mil cccc vint et six ; toutes- 
voyes son entencion n'est pas que es dictes ordonnances 
soit comprinse la pension que prenoit de lui son dit pointre, 
mais au regart de ce, veult et ordonne que les paiemens de la 
dicte pension d'illec en avant tant comme il lui plaira, soit 
entertenue. En mandant a son dit receveur que icelle pen- 
sion il paie aux termes accoustumez, qui sont, moitie a la 
Saint Jehan et 1'autre moitie au Noel, comme il appert par 
ses lettres patentes sur ce faictes et donnees en sa ville de 
Bruges le iij jour de Mars mil cccc xxvij. Pour ce par vertu 
d'icelles lettres cy rendues avec quittance du dit Jehan de 
Heick, pour sa dicte pension et les termes de la Saint Jehan 
et Noel mil cccc xxvij, la dicte somme de c livres." 

Compte de la recette generate de Flandre du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1427, fol. Ixxiij. Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North. 


13. Payment to John van Eyck of :6o/. of 40 groats 
Flemish to the pound, in consideration of services rendered 
by him to the Duke, and also in recompense for certain 
secret voyages made by him, and for the voyage undertaken 
in the company of the lord of Roubaix. 

" A Johannes de Eck, varlet de chambre et paintre de 
mon dit seigneur, que icellui seigneur luy a donne tant pour 
consideration des services qu'il luy a faiz, fait journelment et 
espoire que encores fera ou tamps a venir ou fait de son 
dit office comme autrement, comme en re* compensation de 
certains voyaiges secrez que par 1'ordonnance et pour les 


affaires d'icellui seigneur il a faiz, et du voyaige qu'il fait 
presentement avec et en la compaignie de mon dit seigneur de 
Roubais dont il ne veult aucune declaracion estre faicte ; 
comme appert par sa quittance ; sur ce viij xx livres de 40 gros 
monnoie de Flandres la livre." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre 1428, fol. ij c xvijV. Lille: Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1938. 

1428, November 

14. Payment to Michael Ravary of 46/. 45., being the 
rent of a house (at Lille) in which John van Eyck, by order 
of the Duke, resided during two years to Midsummer, 1428. 

" A Miquiel Ravary, pour le louage d'une maison en 
laquelle lohannes de Eck, varlet de chambre et paintre de 
mon dit seigneur, a par 1'ordonnance et commandement 
d'icellui seigneur demoure par deux annees finissant au jour 
Saint Jehan Baptiste darnier passe, comme appert par 
quittance du dit Michiel et certifficacion de mon dit seigneur 
de Croy, sur ce xlvj 1. iiij s." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1428, fol. ij c xxxij. Lille: Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1938. 

1431, March 

15. Payment to Lambert van Eyck of 7/. 95., for having 
on several occasions waited on the Duke concerning certain 

"A Lambert de Hech, frere de lohannes de Hech, 
paintre de mon seigneur pour avoir este* a plusieurs foiz 


devers mon seigneur, pour aucunes besongnes que mon 
seigneur vouloit faire, vij 1. ix s." 

Compte de la recette g6ndrale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1431, fol. liiijV. Lille: Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1942. 

1 6. Payment to John van Eyck of 5o/. parisis, being 
the amount of his salary for a half-year to Midsummer, 

"A Jehan de Heick, peintre et varlet de chambre de 
mon seigneur le due, lequel icellui seigneur a retenu aux 
gaiges de cent livres parisis monnoye de Flandres par an, 
pour les causes contenues tant en ses lettres sur ce faictes, 
comme ou compte du receveur (de 1424-25) a pa'ier aux 
termes de Saint Jehan et Noel. Pour ce, pour le terme de 
Saint Jehan mil cccc xxxij par sa quictance cy rendue, I/." 

Compte de la recette generale de Flandre du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1432, fol. iiij xx xj. Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North. 

17. Payment to John van Eyck of IQ/., for having, by 
order of the Duke, come to him at Hesdin from Bruges, 
and for his journey back. 

"A Johannes d'Eick, paintre, que mon seigneur a 
samblablement ordonne luy estre baillie" et delivre" comptant, 
pour estre venu par son commandement et ordonnance, des 
sa ville de Bruges a Hesdin devers lui ; auquel lieu il 1'avoit 
mande" pour aucunes besongnes esquelles il le vouloit em- 
ployer. Pour ce et pour son retour, comme appert par sa 


quittance sur ce rendu, xix 1. Par mandement sur ce de mon 
dit seigneur donne" a La Haye en Hollande le xxix e jour 
d'Octobre Mil cccc xxxij." 

Compte de la recette generate des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1431, fol. cxv'njv . Lille: Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1942. 

1 8. Gratuity of 3/. parisis given to the apprentices of 
John van Eyck, when the burgomasters of Bruges and some 
members of the council went to see certain works. 

" Ghegheven te Johannes van Heyck 'tscilders, daer de 
borchmeesters ende eenighe van der wet ghinghen besien 
zeker weerken, den cnapen aldaer in hoofscheden, v s. gr., 
somme iij lib." 

Rekeninghe van de tresoriers van der stede van Brugge van 
2 September, 1431, tot i September, 1432, fol. 78. Bruges: Town 

19. Payment of 305-. parisis by John van Eyck to the 
receivers of the office of the obedience of Saint Donatian 
at Bruges, being the amount of an annual charge on his 
house, due at Midsummer, 1432. 

" Receptum anno xxxij in certis redditibus novi libri 
infra villam. In officio Sancti Nicholay. lohannes van Eyke, 
xxx s." 

Computacio bonorum officii obediencie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis 
pro anno xiiij c xxxij facta capitulo in anno xxxiij, fol. 15^. Bruges: 
Episcopal Archives. 

A similar entry occurs in each of the following yearly 
accounts until that for 1441, after which the entry is " Relicta 
lohannis de Eyke." 



20. Gratuity of 255. g. given to the apprentices of John 
van Eyck by the Duke, when he went to see certain work 
executed by the said John. 

" Aux varlets de Johannes d'Eyk, paintre, pour don par 
mon seigneur a eulx fait quant mon dit seigneur a est6 en 
son hostel veoir certain ouvrage fait par le dit Johannes, 
xxv sols, comme appert par mandement de mon dit seigneur 
sur ce fait et donne* au dit Brouxelles le xix e jour de Fevrier 
ou dit an Mil cccc xxxij " (1433, n. st.). 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 
31 Decembre, 1433, fol. viij xx viijV. Lille: Archives of the Depart- 
ment of the North, B 1948. 


21. Payment of y6/. g. to John van Eyck, which sum 
the Duke had agreed to give him for several days spent in 
attending to his and the Duchess's requirements and business. 

"A lohannes van Eyck que mon seigneur lui a donne" 
pour composicion a lui faicte, pour plusieurs journe"es par lui 
vacque"es par 1'ordonnance et commandement de mon dit 
seigneur et de madame la duchesse pour les besongnes et 
affaires plus a plain contenues en sa quictance sur ce faicte, 
Ixxvj livres. . . . Par mandement de mon seigneur sur ce fait 
et donne en sa ville de Lille, le dernier jour d'Avril, Mil 
cccc xxxiiij." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1434, fol. cxiiijV. Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1951. 


22. Payment to John Peutin, goldsmith, of Bruges, of 
g6l. 125. of 40 groats Flemish to the pound, for six silver cups 
weighing 12 marks, presented by the Duke to John van Eyck 
at the baptism of his child, held at the font by Peter de 
Beaufremont, lord of Charny, in the name of the Duke. 

" A Jehan Peutin, orfevre, demourant a Bruges, la 
somme de quatrevins seze livres, douze solz du pris de xl 
gros, monnoie de Flandres, la livre, que deue luy estoit pour 
la vendue et delivrance de six tasses d'argent pesans 
ensemble douze marcs, du pris de viij livres ung sol le marc, 
lesquelles mon dit seigneur a de lui fait prendre et achetter 
pour les de par icellui seigneur donner et presenter au 
baptisement de 1'enfant Johannes van Eik, son paintre et 
varlet de chambre, lequel il a fait tenir sur fons, en son nom, 
par le seigneur de Chargny. Pour ce, comme plus a plain 
peut apparoir par mandement de mon dit seigneur sur ce fait 
et donne en sa ville de Brouxelles, le dernier jour de Juing 
xxxiiij, quittance du dit Jehan Peutin, et certifficacion du dit 
seigneur de Chargny sur les pris, achat et ddlivrance des dictes 
parties cy rendue, iiij xx xvj livres, xij sols nouvelle monnoie." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 
31 Decembre, 1434, fol. ij c xviijz>. Lille : Archives of the Department 
of the North, B 1951. 

1434, September 12 

23. Letter relative to the payment of John van Eyck's 
pension, charged partly on the receipt of the tax of 2 groats 
on each piece of cloth at Wervick, addressed by the Receiver- 
General of Flanders to the officers of the Chamber of Accounts 
at Lille. 


" Mes tres honnourez et especiaulx seigneurs, Je me 
recommande a vous tant comme je puis, et vous soit plaisir 
de savoir comment nagaires pour assigner et payer Jehan de 
Heict, paintre et varlet de chambre de monseigneur, de sa 
pencion, j'ay nagaires envoye a Wervy pour savoir 1'estat de 
la ferme des deux groz sur chascun drap au dit Wervy, sur 
laquelle faut entre autres parties le dit Jehan est asseure et 
assigne par lettres de monseigneur, du quel lieu Ten ma 
rapporte que icelle ferme Ten entente appliquier avec les 
autres revenues du dit Wervy obst pour les deniers convertir 
ou paiement et acquit des charges estans sur 1'avoir du dit 
Wervy, et pour ce mes tres honnourez et especiaulx seigneurs, 
que autrement nullement je ne pourrois furnir le fait du dit 
Jehan. J'envoie presentemente pardevers vous le porteur de 
cestes a tout les lettres d'assignacion de mon dit seigneur 
touchant le dit Jehan le paintre, priant que icelles il vous 
plaise viseter et selon le contenu d'icelles lui laissier joir de 
son assignacion, car autrement je scay bien que le meisme 
Jehan en fera des poursuites par devers mon dit seigneur. 
Si vous plaise sur ce aviser et me signiffier et mander vostre 
bon plaisir sur ce et autrement lequel a mon povoir je seray 
prest de accomplir comme raison est. Mes tres honnourez et 
especiaulx seigneurs je prie nostre seigneur Dieux qu'Il vous 
ait adez en sa benoite garde et doint bonne vie et longue. 
Escript a Bruges le xij e jour de Septembre M iiij c xxxiiij. 
" Le vostre serviteur TASSART BRISSE, 

Receveur general de Flandres." 

Original. Lille : Archives of the Department of the North, 
B 1283. 


1435, March 12 

24. Letter addressed by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, to 
the officers of the Chamber of Accounts at Lille. He hears 
they have raised difficulties to the verification and registration 
of his letters patent granting a life pension to his painter, 
John van Eyck, in consequence of which the said John is 
inclined to leave his service. This would very greatly dis- 
please him, as he is about to employ John on certain great 
works, and could not find another painter equally to his 
taste nor of such excellence in his art and science. Therefore 
he bids them, on receipt of this, to register his letters granting 
the pension, without further argument, delay, alteration, 
variation, or difficulty whatever, under pain of incurring his 
displeasure and wrath. 

Mandement de Philippe, due de Bourgogne. 

" A nos ame'z et feaulz les gens de nos comptes a Lille. 

" Tres chiers et bien amez, nous avons entendu que faictes 
difficult^ de veriffier certaines noz lettres de pensions a vie 
par nous derrainement ordonnde a notre bien ame* varlet de 
chambre et paintre, Jehan van Eyck, par quoy il n'en peut 
estre paie de sa dicte pension; et le conviendra, a ceste 
cause, laissier nostre service, en quoy prendrions tres grant 
desplaisir, car nous le voulons entretenir pour certains grans 
ouvraiges, en quoy 1'entendons occuper cy apres et que nous 
trouverions point le pareil a nostre gre* ne si excellent en 
son art et science, et pour ce nous voulons et expressement 
nous mandons que, incontinent cestes veues, vous ve'riffiez 
et enterinez nos dictes lettres de pension et faictes payer le 


dit Jehan van Eyck, d'icelle pension, tout selon le contenu 
de nos dictes lettres sans ce que plus vous en parlez, ou 
arguez, ne y faictes dilacion, mutacion, variation ou difficulte 
quelconque, sur tant que vous doubtez desobe"ir et courroucier, 
et y faictes tant ceste fois pour toutes qu'il ne nous en 
conviengne plus rescripre, laquelle chose prendrions tres 
mal en gre*. Tres chiers et bien amez, le Saint Esperit vous 
ait en sa sainte garde. Escript en nostre ville de Dijon, 
le xij e jour de Mars mil cccc xxxiiij." 

Lille: Archives of the Department of the North, Parchment. B 1955. 


25. Payment of 3O/. gr. to master John van Eyck, for 
painting and gilding six statues and the tabernacles in which 
they stand, adorning the front of the Town-house, and of 
3/. 1 2s. g. for overwork on the same. 

" Item es te wetene dat int iaer verleden voorwaerde 
ghemaect was met lacop van Oost, Gheeraerde Mettertee 
ende lacop van Cutseghem, steenhauwers, van viij steenen 
beilden te makene ende te stellene an scepenen huus, omme 
v Ib. x s. grote van elken beilde van den steenen ende van 
hauwene ende snidene, xliiij Ib. gr. Item, ghegheven meester 
lanne van Eick, den scildere, van vj van den voorseiden 
beilden met den tabernaclen te vergoudene ende te stofferene, 
van den sticke v Ib. gro., comt xxx Ib. gr. Item, den zelven 
ghegheven van overwerke ende in hoofscheden te verdrinkene, 
iij Ib. xij s. gr. Item, ghegheven Willemme van Tonghere 
ende lanne Van den Driessche, scilders, van den ij van den 


voorseiden viij beilden metten tabernaclen te vergoudene 
ende te stofferene, van den sticke v Ib. gro., comt x Ib. gro. 
Item, ghegheven van den patronen van den voorseiden viij 
beilden te makene, xx s. gro. Item, ghegheven van den 
huere van zekeren zeyle die ghehanghen waren an de 
stellinghe bin der tydt dat men de voorseiden beilden stoffeirde, 
iij Ib. x s. gro. Comt al iiij xx xj Ib." 

Rekeninghe van de tresoriers van der stede van Brugge van 
2 September, 1434, tot 2 September, 1435, fol. 61. Bruges : Town 

1435, September 29 

26. Payment of 6y/. 155. to John Peutin, goldsmith, for 
six silver cups weighing 9 marks 5 ounces, at 205. g. the 
mark, equals 6y/. 155. 

"A Jehan Peutin, pour vj tasses d'argent semblablement 
achettee"s de lui, et icelles de par icellui seigneur donnee"s a 
lohannes d'Eick, son varlet de chambre et paintre, pesant 
ix m v a xxv5. gros le marc, valent Ixvij/. xvs. . . . Par man- 
dement de mon dit seigneur le due sur ce fait et donne* 
en sa ville d'Arras le penultime jour de Septembre 1'an 
Mil cccc trente cinq." 

Compte de la recette g^nerale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
D^cembre, 1436, fol. iijlxxiiijz>. Lille : Archives of the Department 
of the North, B 1957. 

27. Payment of 36o/. to John van Eyck, for certain 
distant journeys to foreign parts on some secret business 
undertaken by order of the Duke. 


"A Johannes d'Eick, varlet de chambre et paintre de 
mon dit seigneur, pour aller en certains voyaiges loingtains 
et estranges marches ou mon dit seigneur 1'a envoie" pour 
aucunes matieres secretes, dont il ne veult autre declaration 
estre faicte cy vj Philippus, valent vij c xx livres. Par mande- 
ment de mon dit seigneur le due sur ce fait et donn6 en sa 
ville de Lille le vintieme jour d'Aoust Mil cccc xxxvj." 

Against this entry is written, in another hand, that of the 
clerk of the auditors : " Seulement iijlx livres. Super ipsum 
lohannem d'Eick ad computandum dont il rend cy quittance 
de iij c lx livres seulement, et le surplus, montant a semblable 
somme de iijlx livres roye" pour deffaut de quittance." 

Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Decembre, 1436, fol. vj xx xiijz> . B 1957. 


28. Payment of 61. 6s. 6d. to John van Eyck, in re- 
imbursement of a like amount paid by him to an illuminator 
of Bruges who had illuminated a book for the Duke, in 
which are 272 large letters in gold and 1200 small. 

" A lohannes van Eicke, paintre de mon dit seigneur, 
qu'il avoit paye* a ung enlumineur de Bruges, pour avoir 
enlumine" certain livre pour mon dit seigneur ou il a ij c lxxij 
grosses lettres d'or et xij c petites, vj livres vj sols vj d." 

Compte de la recette geneVale des finances du i Janvier au 31 
Ddcembre, 1439, fol. xj"xvj. Lille : Archives of the Department of 
the North, B 1966. 


1441, June 24 

29. Payment of :8o/. of 40 groats Flemish to the pound, 
to John van Eyck, being the amount of his salary for two 
quarters to Midsummer, 1441. 

" A Jehan van Eyck, pointre et varlet de chambre de 
monseigneur, auquel icellui seigneur a donne et ordonne 
prendre et avoir sur ceste dicte recepte generale de Flandres 
la somme de iijlx livres du pris de xl gros, monnoie de 
Flandres, la livre, sa vie durant, a paier a quatre termes et 
paiemens en Fan, assavoir est Pasques, Saint Jehan, Saint 
Remy et Noel, soubz les condicions speciffiees es comptes 
prece"dens, pour ce icy pour les termes de Pasques et Saint 
Jehan 1'an mil cccc quarante et ung, par ses quictances cy 
rendues a court ciiij xx livres du dit pris, valent ccclx livres." 

Compte de la recette gnerale de Flandres depuis le 25 Decembre, 
1440, jusqu' au 31 Decembre 1441, fol. Ixx. Lille: Archives of the 
Department of the North. 

1441, July 9 

30. Receipt of i3/. 45. parisis by the treasurer of the 
fabric of Saint Donatian's church at Bruges, for the burial 
fees of John van Eyck. 

" Receptum pro sepultura magistri lohannis Eyck, 
pictoris, xij Ib. par." 

"Receptum ex campana magistri lohannis Eyck, 
pictoris, xxiiij s. par." 

Computatio lohannis Civis, canonici, de bonis fabrice ecclesie 


Beati Donatiani Brugensis anni 1440, facta capitulo anno 1441, fol. 
5Z/. and 6. Bruges : Episcopal Archives. 

1441, July 22 

31. Payment of 3607. to Margaret, widow of John van 
Eyck, being the amount of a gratuity granted to her by 
the Duke, in recognition of the good and agreeable service 
rendered to him by her deceased husband, and out of com- 
passion for her and her children. 

" A damoiselle Marguerite, vefve du dit feu Jehan van 
Eyck, paintre de mon dit seigneur, que trespassa environ la 
fin du mois de Juing ou dit an mil cccc quarante ung, a 
laquele icellui seigneur consideration cue aux bons et 
aggre"ables services que lui avoit fait le dit deffunct en son 
vivant, et pour pitie et compassion d'elle et de ses enfans 
demourez apres le dit de"ces, a ottroie de sa grace especial 
qu'elle ait et prengne pour elle et ses diz enfans pour ung 
demy an la moitie" de tele pension ou gaiges qu'avoit et pren- 
noit de lui le dessus dit deffunct par chascun an en son vivant, 
lesquelz pension ou gaiges finerent au terme de la Saint 
Jehan mil cccc quarante ung par le trespas d 'icellui deffunct, 
comme il appert plus a plain par les lettres patentes de mon 
dit seigneur sur ce faictes et donndes en sa ville de Brouxelles, 
le xxij e jour de Juillet ou dit an mil cccc quarante ung. Pour 
ce icy par vertu d'icelles et quictance de la dicte vefve, cy 
rendues a court, pour les diz gaiges ou pension d'un demy 
an e"scheu au Noel au dessus dit an mil cccc quarante et ung, 
la somme de ciiij xx livres du pris de xl gros la livre, valent 
iij c lx livres." 


Compte de la recette g6ne>ale de Flandres depuis le 25 Decembre, 
1440, jusqu'au 31 Decembre, 1441, fol. Ixx. Lille: Archives of the 
Department of the North. 

1442, March 21 

32. The Chapter of Saint Donatian, Bruges, at the 
request of Lambert van Eyck, grants permission for the body 
of his brother John, buried in the precincts, to be, with the 
bishop's licence, translated into the church and buried near 
the font, on condition of the foundation of an anniversary 
and of compliance with the rights of the fabric. 

" 1442, die 20 Martii, ad preces Lamberti, fratris quon- 
dam lohannis de Eyck, solempnissimi pictoris, domini mei 
concesserunt quod corpus ipsius quondam lohannis, sepultum 
in ecclesie arnbitu, transferatur de licentia episcopi, et ponatur 
in ecclesia iuxta fontes, salvo iure anniversarii et fabrice." 

Acta capitularia ecclesiae Sancti Donatiani, E, fol. Ixxx. Bruges : 
Episcopal Archives. 


33. Receipt of i2/. parisis by the treasurer of the fabric 
of Saint Donatian, for the burial of master John van Eyck, 
painter, officer of the Duke. 

" Receptum pro sepultura magistri lohannis Eyck, 
pictoris, officiarii domini ducis, xij 1. par." 

Computatio Gualteri Diedolf, canonici, de bonis fabrice ecclesie 
Sancti Donatiani Brugensis anni 1441, facta capitulo anno 1442, fol. 5. 
Bruges : Episcopal Archives. 

34. Receipt of 48/. parisis by the treasurer of the fabric 


of Saint Donatian, bequeathed by John van Eyck for the 
foundation of his anniversary. 

" Receptum ex testamento lohannis Eyck, pictoris, 
xlviij 1. par." 

Computatio Gualteri Diedolf, presbyteri, canonici, de bonis fabrice 
ecclesie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis anni 1442, facta capitulo anno 
1443, fol. 5. Bruges : Episcopal Archives. 

35. Entry in the obituary of the church of Saint Donatian 
of John van Eyck's anniversary. 

" 9 lulii. Aeffrem abbatis. Obitus lohannis Eyck, pic- 
toris, qui dedit xlviij Ib. par.; inde ad pitancias xl s. quos solvit 

Obituarium ecclesie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis. Bruges : Epis- 
copal Archives. 


36. Payment of 24/. to Livina, daughter of the late John 
Van der Eecke, painter, my lord's servant, being a gift from 
him to enable her to enter the monastery of Maaseyck, in the 
land of Li6ge. 

"A Lyevine Van der Eecke, fille de feu Jehan Van der 
Eecke, jadis painctre, varlet de chambre de mon dit seigneur, 
pour don que mon dit seigneur lui a fait pour une fois, pour 
Dieu et aulmosne, pour soy aidier a mettre religieuse en I'diglise 
et monastere de Mazeck ou pays de Liege, xxiiij livres . . . 
Par mandement donne a Bruxelles le xiiij 6 FeVrier 1'an Mil 

Compte de la recette ge'nerale des finances du i Janvier au 



31 Decembre, 1449, fol. ix xx vj. Lille: Archives of the Department 
of the North, 62002. 

C. 1 480 

37. Description of a vestment given by John van Eyck 
to the convent of Saint Agnes, at Maaseyck. 

" Dit syn de casufelle die in onser kercken syn . . . ende 
rode syden met guelden bloemen ende eyn blauwe damaste 
van suster Levynen vader." 

Directorium conventus sororum Sanctae Agnetis in Maaseyck. 
Brussels : Royal Library. 

1768, April 28 

38. The Chapter of the cathedral of Saint Donatian at 
Bruges, at the request of Mr. John Garemijn, director of the 
Academy of Fine Arts, grant permission to erect an epitaph 
and inscription to the memory of John van Eyck in the 

"Actum in capitulo ordinario feria quinta 28 Aprilis, 
1768, reverendo domino decano praesidente. 

" Comparens dominus Joannes Garemijn, director floren- 
tissimae Academiae huius civitatis, exposuit provides et zelosos 
eiusdem academiae gubernatores occasione anni semi-secularis 
ab illius erectione quam primum celebrandi, plurimum desi- 
derare ut possent expensis per ipsos procurandis in hac 
ecclesia cathedrali collocare epitaphium cum inscriptione con- 
grua, iuxta schema ad mensam capitularem exhibitum, in 
perennem memoriam inclyti et variorum scriptorum elogiis 
celebrati viri loannis van Eyck Brugensis, pictoris suo aevo 


celeberrimi et circa annum 1440 defuncti atque in praefata 
ecclesia prope ultimam columnam haiid procul a fonte bap- 
tismali inhumati petendo desuper dominorum de capitulo 
consensum et designationem loci contra parietem medium 
inter portam maiorem eiusdem ecclesiae et ipsum fontem bap- 
tismalem, cui petitioni domini libenter annuerunt comittentes 
domino canonico Schellekens, fabricario, circa erectionem 
praefati epitaphii agere rem officii, et concedentes praeno- 
minato domino comparenti huius resolutionis copiam con- 

" F. F. DE WITTE, can. secret." 

Acta capituli ecclesiae cathedralis Sancti Donatiani Brugensis. 
Bruges : Episcopal Archives. 





CONTEMPORARY narrative of the journey of the embassy sent 
by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, to John, King of Portugal, 
to which John van Eyck was attached as the Duke's painter. 

" En 1'an M.cccc.xxviij, tres noble, tres hault et tres 
puissant prince monseigneur Phelippe, due de Bourgoingne, 
qui paravant avoit eu espouses successivement deux tres 
nobles dames et de tres hault parage, la premiere dame 
Michiele, jadiz fille de tres chrestien, tres excellent et tres 
puissant prince le roy Charles de France sixisme, la seconde 
dame Bonne d'Artoiz, lesquelles dames estoient trespassez, 
et n'en avoit mon dit seigneur le due point de lignee, fut meu, 
de saint et loable propoz, et par vaillans et loyaulx prudommes 
advisd et conseili de soy de rechief mettre en 1'ordre de 
mariage, en entencion de, par la grace de Dieu, en avoir 
lignee qui deust succeder aux haultes et grandes seignouries 
qu'il avoit et tenoit. Si determina et conclud mon dit 
seigneur de Bourgoingne de faire promouvoir et traictier le 
mariage de luy et de tres noble et haulte dame madame 
Elisabeth, infante de tres excellent et tres puissant et vic- 
torieux prince le roy Jehan de Portugal et d'Algarbe, seigneur 


de Cepte ; et, pour ce faire, mist sus et envoya en Portugal 
sa noble legacion et ambaxade, de laquelle il fist et ordonna 
chief et principal un sien noble chevalier et feable et prive* 
serviteur, messire Jehan seigneur de Roubais et de Herzelles, 
son conseillier et premier chambellan, et, ensemble luy, ses 
feaulx serviteurs messire Bauduin de Lannoy, dit le Beghe, 
chevalier, seigneur de Moulembais, gouverneur de Lille ; 
Andre" de Tholonjon, escuier, seigneur de Mornay, ses con- 
seilliers aussi et chambellans, et maistre Gille d'Escournay, 
docteur en decrez et prevost de Harlebeque, semblablement 
son conseillier et maistre des requestes de son hostel ; aux- 
quels ses ambaxadeurs il donna ses instructions, lectres, pro- 
curacion et povoir servans a la matiere ; et, avecq ce, par 
Guy Guilbaut, son conseillier et gouverneur-general de ses 
finances, leur fist delivrer largement deniers pour faire grande 
et honnourable despense : pour laquelle conduire, il ordonna et 
envoya un gentilhomme nomme Bauduin d'Ongnies, escuier, 
maistre d'ostel d'icelle despense, et un clercq d'offke pour en 
faire le paiement. 

" Les devant nommez ambaxadeurs et ceulx de leur com- 
paignie, en grant nombre de gentilzhommes et autres, ainsi 
fourniz et pourveuz, aprez qu'ilz avoient pris congie" de mon 
dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, se trairent en sa ville de 
1'Escluze en Flandres, et la, pour faire leur voiage, se mirent 
proporcionelment en deux galees de Venise adonc gisans ou 
port de 1'Escluze, dont ilz partirent le xix e jour d'Octobre ou 
dit an iiij xxviij, et, le lendemain xx du dit mois, arriverent 
ou port de Sandwich en Angleterre, et au dit Sandwic de- 
scendirent, et, en attendant deux aultres galees de Venise 
lors estans a Londres, furent en icelluy Sandwic jusques au 


xiij e jour de Novembre ensuivant, qu'ilz en partirent es dites 
galees, et par forche de vent entrerent depuis divers pors en 
Angleterre, premierement le port de la Chambre, secondement 
a Pleume, et tiercement a Falemne, ou ilz vindrent le xxv 6 du 
dit Novembre, et en partirent le second Decembre ensuivant, 
et tant navigerent par la mer d'Espaigne, que, le xj e jour du 
dit Decembre, ilz arriverent et descendirent a Baionne en 
Galice, dont ilz partirent le xiiij e d'icelluy mois, et le xvj e vin- 
drent et prirent terre en ung lieu dit Calscais, a six lieues de 
Lisbonne en Portugal, ou ilz alerent le xviij e jour du dit 

" A ce temps estoit le roy de Portugal dessus dit en une 
sienne ville appellee Estremoux, a trois ou quatre journees 
de Lisbonne, et avec luy estoient mes seigneurs ses infans et 
madame 1'infante devant nommee, et grant compaignie et 
assemblee de seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers, dames et damoi- 
selles, et gens de tous estas du pays, a une feste quy prou- 
chainement se y debvoit tenir de la reception de madame 
Elienor, infante d'Arragon, espouse de monseigneur 1'infant 
Edouart, primogenit du dit roy de Portugal. Si envoyerent 
incontinent les dits ambaxadeurs Flandres, roy d'armes, 
devers le dit roy de Portugal, et par leurs lettres luy signi- 
fierent leur venue et la cause ; lequel roy d'armes fut a la 
dite feste, et en a fait rapport par escript a la maniere qui 
s'enssuit : 

" Quant le roy de Portugal ot receu les lettres des dits 
ambaxadeurs, il leur escrisy et mande par les siennes qu'ilz 
se tirassent devers luy; et pour tant, si tost qu'ilz peurent 
eulx pourveoir de chevaulx et montures, se mirent a chemin 
pour y aler : mais, quant ilz furent a trois ou quatre lieues 


du lieu ou il estoit, pour ce qu'il vouloit mander et avoir 
devers luy messeigneurs ses infans, qui ja s'en estoient partiz, 
il escripsy aus dits ambaxadeurs que leur alee devers luy 
retardassent jusques il le leur feroit savoir. Si attendirent 
en une ville nommee Reols jusques au xij e jour de Janvier 
ensuivant, que le roy les manda aler devers luy. 

" Le dit xij e jour de Janvier, se partirent yceulx ambaxa- 
deurs du dit Reols, et le meismes jour vindrent en une ville 
nommee Avis, ou le roy estoit, quy envoya au devant d'eux 
honnourablement aucuns de son sang et aultres gentilz- 
hommes et personnes notables en grande et belle compaignie, 
et leur fist faire grande et joyeuse recepcion. Et mais, pour 
ce qu'il estoit tard, ilz ne furent point ce jour devers luy, ains 
par son plaisir attendirent jusques a lendemain. 

" Lendemain matin xiij e du dit Janvier, le dit roy, apres 
sa messe, manda les dits ambaxadeurs, qui alerent devers 
luy et luy presenterent les lettres de mon dit seigneur de 
Bourgoingne, et firent les recommandacions et reverences 
deues et accoustumees, et il les recent doulcement et joyeuse- 
ment, et leur assigna heure de oir leur creance le dit jour 
apres disner. 

" A laquelle heure comparurent les dits ambaxadeurs par 
devant le dit roy, et a luy, estant en sa chambre de son conseil, 
ou estoient messeigneurs Edouard, primogenit, domp Petre, 
domp Henry et domp Fernande, ses infans, le conte de Bar- 
celles et aucuns autres notables, fut en Latin, par la bouche 
du dit maistre Gille d'Escornay, notablement ouverte et 
exposee en generate la cause pour quoy mon dit seigneur 
de Bourgoigne les avoit devers luy envoyez ; et, ce oy, leur 
fist dire en Latin, par ung docteur son conseillier, que de 


leur venue il estoit tres joieux, et que sur ce que de par mon 
dit seigneur de Bourgoingne luy avoit ainsi este" dit et pro- 
pose", il auroit son advis, et leur en feroit response ; et, a tant, 
se retrairent yceulx ambaxadeurs en leur logeiz. 

" Ce mesme jour, vers le vespre, le dit roy leur manda 
que, pour ce qu'il avoit pluseurs occupacions, pour quoy il 
ne povoit bonnement en sa personne entendre en la matiere, 
il la commectoit a pourparler et demener au dit monseigneur 
Edouard et aultres messeigneurs ses infans. 

" Par devant lesquelz, ou aucuns d'iceulx, le lendemain et 
aucuns autres jours ensuivans, la besoingne fut plus en par- 
ticulier a diverses fois ouverte et demenee ; et, en conclusion, 
fut du pourparle faicte une cedulle par escript. Avec ce, les 
dits ambaxadeurs, par ung nomme maistre Jehan de Eyk, 
varlet de chambre de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et 
excellent maistre en art de painture, firent paindre bien au 
vif la figure de ma dite dame 1'infante Elizabeth. 

" En oultre, paravant ce temps, durant icelluy et aprez, 
les dits ambaxadeurs se informerent tres diligemment, en 
diverses lieux, par pluiseurs parsonnes, de la renommee, 
meurs et condicions d'icelle dame : dont par aucuns notables 
subgetz meismes de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et 
autres privez et estrangiers amis et ennemis du royaume 
de Portugal, a part, en commun et par voix et renommee 
generale, leur fut dit tant de loenges, vertus et biens que on 
porroit dire de dame. 

" Et, ce fait, les dits ambaxadeurs, environ le xij e de 
Febvrier ensuivant, envoyerent devers mon dit seigneur de 
Bourgoingne quatre messaiges, deux par mer et deux 
par terre, c'est assavoir : par mer, Pierre de Vauldrey, 


escuier, escan$on de mon dit seigneur, et ling poursuivant 
d'armes dit Renti, et, par terre, Jehan de Baissi, escuier, et 
ung aultre poursuivant d'armes appelle Portejoye : par les- 
quelz messaiges, et par chascun d'iceulx, ils escripsirent 
a mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne ce qu'ilz avoient trouve", 
et que jusques lors avoit este fait touchant la matiere du dit 
manage. Aussi luy envoyerent ilz la figure de la dicte dame 
faicte par painctre, comme dit est. Et, attendant nouvelles 
et response de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, aucuns 
des dits ambaxadeurs, c'est assavoir le seigneur de Roubais, 
messire Bauduin de Lannoy et Andre" de Tholonjon, et de 
leur compaignie le dit Bauduin Dognies, Albrecht, bastard 
de Baiviere, Grignon Landas, Hector Sacquespee et autres 
gentilzhommes et familliers, se trairent a Saint Jacques en 
Galice, et de la alerent visiter le due d'Arjonne, le roy de 
Castille, le roy de la ville de Grenade et pluiseurs autres 
seigneurs, pays et lieux. 

" Environ la fin de May ensuivant, retournerent les dessus 
nommez de leur dit voiage, et arriverent si a point a Lisbonne, 
que adonc se y faisoit la premiere entree et joyeuse recepcion 
de madame Elienor, femme de 1'infant Edouard, primogenit, 
laquelle entree et recepcion ilz virent, qui fut grande et hon- 
norable car la dite dame seoit de coste" sur une mule richement 
ensellee et couverte de drap d'or; et, au frain de la beste, 
estoient et alloient tout de piet deux de messeigneurs les 
freres du dit infant primogenit, 1'un d'une part, et 1'autre 
d'aultre, et pareillement aux estriers ung des autres freres et 
ung autre de leur sang ; et, pardessus la dame estoit ung 
grant drap d'or en maniere de ciel, soustenu de pluiseurs 
hantes on fusts que portoient tout de pie" aucuns du sang 


royal et autres chevaliers et seigneurs des plus notables du 
royaume de Portugal : au devant de laquelle dame furent 
bien long aux champs mes dits seigneurs les freres, qui, si 
tost qu'ilz 1'encontrerent, se mirent de pie", s'enclinerent et luy 
baisierent la main selon la coustume du pays. Aussy allerent 
a 1'encontre a cheval grant nombre de chevaliers, escuiers, bien 
montez et habillez, et les bourgois et marchans notables de la 
ville de Lisbonne, et avec ce les Juifs et les Sarrazyns du lieu, 
separeement, habillez a leur usaige, chantans et dansans selon 
leur guise. Et ainsi fut la dame amenee par la ville au palais 
de 1'infant, a grant joye et solemnite, et y avoit grant quantite" 
de trompetes, menestrelz, joueurs d'orgues, de harpes et 
autres instrumens, et estoit aussi la ville tendue et paree, en 
moult de lieux, de draps de tapisserie et autres et de ram- 
seaux de may. 

"Au iiij e jour du mois de Juing ensuivant, les devant dits 
ambaxadeurs, quy nouvellement estoient retournez du dit 
voiage, alerent en la ville de Cintre, a cincq lieues du dit 
Lisbonne, pour veoir et visiter le roy de Portugal, qui illec se 
tenoit en ung tres plaisant hostel qu'il y a, et les avoit mande" 
y venir. Et eulx estans en leur logiz, devers le vespre, le 
devant nomine" Pierre de Voeldrey, quy par mer retournoit de 
devers mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, arriva au dit Cintre 
devers les dits ambaxadeurs, ausquelz il apporta lettres et 
nouvelles de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne. Si le allerent 
tantost noncier yceulx ambaxadeurs au roy et a madame 
1'infante sa fille, quy moult en furent joyeulx, et fut grande a 
court la feste de la venue du dit Pierre et des joyeuses 
nouvelles qu'il apportoit. 

" Apres ce, les dits ambaxadeurs, sceu sur ce le bon plaisir 


de mon dit seigneur, s'entremirent de proceder avant ou 
traictie du dit manage, et tant y labourerent devers le dit 
roy et aucuns de messeigneurs ses infans, que icelluy traictie 
fut accorde et conclu au dit lieu de Cintre le xj e jour du dit 
mois de Juing, dont les lectres du contraict furent passees 
pardevant notaire, au dit lieu de Lisbonne, le xxiiij 6 jour de 
Juillet ensuivant M.cccc.xxix ; et, le lendemain Dimenche, 
xxv e du dit mois, a 1'instante requeste du dit roy et de mes- 
seigneurs ses infans, le dit seigneur de Roubais, ou nom et 
comme procureur de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et 
ayant de lui sur ce souffissant et especial povoir et procura- 
cion, environ sept heures de matin, ou chastel du roy au dit 
lieu de Lisbonne, prist et receut ma dite dame 1'infante 
Elizabeth, par parolle de present, pour compaigne et espouse 
de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, presens a ce le dit roy, 
messeigneurs Edouard, primogenit, domp Henry, domp Jehan, 
et domp Fernande, ses infans, la infante espouse du dit 
Edouard, et celle du dit domp Jehan, pluiseurs prelas, cheva- 
liers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles, et gens de tous estas en 
grant nombre. 

" Depuis lequel temps, les dits ambaxadeurs poursuivirent 
a toute diligence 1'alee de ma dite dame ou pais de Flandres, 
ou le roy par le dit traictie" la debvoit honnourablement faire 
mener a ses fraiz, et la y rendre et delivrer a mon dit seigneur 
de Bourgoingne ; le partement de laquelle dame devoit, selon 
la promesse du roy et de monseigneur 1'infant primogenit, 
estre dedens la fin de Septembre ensuivant, ou cas que, par 
contrariete de vent, ou mort, ou maladie du roy ou d'elle, n'en 
seroit empeschee. 

"Aprochant le temps du partement de ma dite dame, 


monseigneur 1'infant Edouard, primogenit, fist une feste, 
convy et soupper au roy son pere et a elle. Est assavoir : le 
Lundy xxvj e du dit mois de Septembre et deux jours ens- 
suivans, se fierent joustes et esbatemens pour la dite feste, 
lequel soupper se feist au dit lieu de Lisbonne, en la sale des 
galees que pour ce en avoit fait widier, et estoit la dite salle 
tendue aux costez de draps de tapisserie de pluiseurs pieches, 
et dessus de communs draps de laine entiere de diverses 
couleurs, et estoient les pillers d'icelle salle, quy est double, 
tenduz et parez semblablement, et dessoubz estoit jonchee de 
joncs vers. En la dite sale olt pluiseurs tables hautement 
drecees et bien couvertes de tres bel linge, c'est ass^avoir : 
celle du roy ou bout et front de la sale haultement mise, et ou 
Ten montoit a pluiseurs marches et passes de bois, quy com- 
prenoit presque tout le travers d'icelle sale, et, ou milieu de la 
table, en la plache du roy, estoit plus haulte de plus de demy 
pie que le sourplus, et par dessus ycelle plache avoit tendu ung 
ciel de drap d'or ; devant laquelle table, centre ung piller, 
estoit drecee ung echaffaud pare pour les roys d'armes et 
heraulx ; et, a 1'autre bout, a 1'entree de la sale, en avoit ung 
autre semblable pour les trompettes et menestrelz. Les autres 
tables estoient mises en trois renges, c'est assgavoir : aux deux 
costez et ou milieu, tout du long de la sale. Or, il y olt six 
dre^oirs moult richement parez et grandement chargiez de 
vaisselle d'or et d'argent dore", de diverses pieches et fac/ms, 
et fut la salle si bien eluminee de torches et luminaire de cire, 
que Ten y veoit partout tres clairement. Ung po devant 
1'eure du soupper, mon dit seigneur 1'infant primogenit party 
de son palais, et ala au chastel et palais du roy le querir et 
mener au lieu du souppe", et aussy madame 1'infante sa sceur. 


Si y allerent a cheval acompaigniez de tous messeigneurs les 
infans, et avec y alerent mesdames femmes de 1'infant primo- 
genit, de 1'infant domp Petre et de 1'infant domp Jehan, les 
contes d'Orim et de Reols, et pluiseurs seigneurs, cheva- 
liers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles rischement parez et 
vestuz ; aussy y allerent les dits ambaxadeurs, quy semons 
y estoient, et convoierent et compaignerent ma dite dame 
1'infante de Portugal, espouse de mon dit seigneur de Bour- 
goingne, leur seigneur et maistre. 

" Quant il fut temps de soupper, le roy se mist a table 
en sa plache du milieu pour luy ordonnee comme dit est, et 
a sa dextre fist seoir madame 1'infante Elizabeth sa fille, a 
sa senestre mesdames la femme de 1'infant domp Petre et 
la femme de 1'infant domp Jehan ; et madame la femme de 
1'infant primogenit, pour ce qu'elle estoit moult enceinte et 
proche d'agesir, ne fut point assise a table, ains fut en haulte 
galerie a destre bien tendue et paree, et de la regardoit la 
feste. Aussy fist le roy seoir au boult de sa table, a destre, 
le dit seigneur de Roubais, chief de 1'ambaxade, et les autres 
ambaxadeurs searent a une autre table assez prochaine a 
destre, et les autres seigneurs, dames et damoiselles, es 
autres tables ensuivans. 

" Moult y olt qui les servy de viandes en divers mets 
et de vins de diverses manieres, et estoit le roy servy du dit 
monseigneur 1'infant primogenit et de tous les autres 
messeigneurs ses infans. 

" A ce soupper, qui longuement dura, se firent esbate- 
mens que par dela ils appellent chalenges, qui se font en telle 
maniere, que chevaliers et gentilzhommes, armez de toutes 
leurs armes et houchiez ou parez ainsi qu'ilz veulent et 


doivent jouster, viennent a cheval acompaigniez comme il 
leur plaist, devant la table du seigneur ou dame quy tient 
la feste, et devant luy font porter en un baston fendu une 
carte ou lettre ployee, et, apres qu'il a tout a cheval incline 
le seigneur ou dame, luy fait presenter la dite lettre, ou est 
contenu qu'il est un chevalier ou gentilhomme d'un nomme 
estrange qu'il prent tel qu'il se veult attribuer, et dit qu'il 
vient de moult d'estranges contrees cerchier aventures : 1'un, 
des desers d'Inde ; 1'autre, de paradiz terrestre ; 1'autre, de 
la mer ; 1'autre, de la terre ; et que, pour ce qu'il a oy dire 
les nouvelles de ceste haulte feste, il est venu a court, et 
semont aucun de leans que, s'il veult jouster ou faire 
armes, il est prest de le recevoir. Adonck, la lettre leue 
et la chose conseilliee, le seigneur ou dame fait dire, par 
un herault, a celluy homme d'armes, que attent sa response 
devant la table : Chevalier, ou seigneur, vous serez delivrez ; 
et lors, faite inclination comme devant, se part de la place 
arme* et monte* comme il est venu. 

" Ung en y olt quy vint luy et son cheval tout couvert 
de broches, comme de porcespy ; ung aultre quy vint acom- 
paignie des sept planetes, chascune bien gracieusement 
figuree selon sa propriete ; autres pluiseurs vindrent 
gracieusement habillez et desguisez chascun selon son 

" A ce soupper donna mon dit seigneur 1'infant primo- 
genit grans dons et largeces aux heraulx et menestrelz 
quy furent portez a cheval et haultement criez et publiez par 
toute la sale, et y olt fort sonne de trompettes et d'autres 

" A ce soupper aussi, fist ma dite dame 1'infante Elizabeth 



crier joustes a joustes par compaignie par deux jours ensui- 
vant, et que celluy quy mieulx feroit pour le premier jour 
auroit une riche couppe, et celluy qui mieulx feroit pour le 
second auroit un riche dyamant. 

" Ce fait, et le scupper finy, pour ce que 1'eure estoit 
moult tard, se partyz le roy et les autres seigneurs et dames, 
et sans danser se retrairent en leurs hostelz. 

" Lendemain xxvij 6 du dit Septembre aprez disner, 
vindrent les jousteurs sur les rues, en la rue Nouve a 
Lisbonne, quy estoit semee de grant foison de sablon, et y 
avoit une haye de paliz fichiez par espasses pour jouster 
pardessus, laquelle haye estoit tendue de draps de laine 
bleux et vermeilz. Lesquelz jousteurs, dont aucuns estoient 
parez et venus chevaulx couvers richement de drap d'or, 
avecq ce ouvre de riche brodeure et fourre" de martres, les 
autres aournez de drap d'argent, les autres de drap de soye, 
et les autres en autre maniere richement habillez, jousterent 
bien grandement devant le roy et les seigneurs et dames, 
que pour les regarder estoient aux fenestres parees en 
mainctes maisons de la dite rue ; et pareillement se fierent 
illec autres joustes belles et solemneles le lendemain xxviij 6 
jour du dit Septembre. 

" Le Jeudy xxix e et penultime jour d'icellui mois, quy 
fut le jour que le roy avoit propose" de mener et faire mectre 
en nave, au port de Lisbonne, ma dite dame 1'infante 
Elizabeth sa fille, pour d'illec 1'envoyer en Flandres, comme 
dit est, il au matin la mena a cheval des son hostel en 
realise cathedrale de Lisbonne, et, en la menant sur son 
cheval ou haquenee, tenoit ung lax ou longe de la haquenee 
aussi richement ensellee et couverte; et devant eulx alloit 


sur un coursier 1'infant Edouard, primogenit, et apres, sur 
chevaulx et haquenees mesdames les femmes de 1'infant 
domp Petre et 1'infant domp Jehan ; et, au frain et aux 
estriers de la haquenee de ma dite dame 1'infante, deux d'une 
part et deux de 1'autre, estoient de pie" aucuns de messeigneurs 
ses freres et autres de messeigneurs du sang royal ; et les 
dits ambaxadeurs et pluiseurs seigneurs, chevaliers, gentilz- 
hommes, dames et damoiselles et autres gens de tous estas 
en grant nombre, la convoierent tout de pie a la dite eglise, 
quy estoit aournee et paree, et ou fut chantee la messe et 
fait le service divin grandement et solemnelement, aprez 
lequel le roy ramena ma dite dame sa fille en son hostel en 
la maniere que dit est, et avoit intention de la livrer en 
nave et y faire un disner : mais il fist si fort temps, et fut 
1'yaue tellement esmeue, que il ne se pot faire pour ce jour. 

" Le lendemain dernier jour de Septembre, apres disner, 
quant le temps fut appaisie, le roy, acompaignie de tous 
messeigneurs ses infans, de mesdames la femme de 1'infant 
domp Petre, la femme de 1'infant domp Jehan, les dits 
ambaxadeurs et pluiseurs seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers, 
dames et damoiselles et autres gens en grant nombre, mena 
ma dite dame sa fille en la nave que pour son passaige avoit 
fait appareillier au port de Lisbonne, ou, en attendant la 
disposition et apprestement des autres naves et des gens 
quy debvoient aller avec elle, elle demoura sans partir jusques 
au Samedy viij e jour d'Octobre ensuivant, et ce pendant fut 
souvent et grandement visite"e tant du roy son pere, comme 
de messeigneurs ses freres et d'autres. Le dit Samedy 
viij e d'Octobre, ma dite dame, acompaignie' de monseigneur 
1'infant domp Fernande son frere, du conte d'Orin son neveu, 


de pluiseurs chevaliers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles et 
autres de sa compaignie, ou nombre de ij m personnes ou 
entour, en xiiij grandes naves bien fournies, armees et 
avitaillees, se party devant Lisbonne entour heure de vespres, 
et s'eslongna ung petit de lieu ou elle avoit jeu auparavant, 
et le lendemain se traist ung poeu plus avant en ung lieu 
dit Restel, ou elle fust jusques au Jeudy ensuivant xiij e du 
dit Octobre, qu'elle et sa dite compaignie vindrent devant 
Calscais environ heure de vespres, et la jecterent les ancres 
et ung petit y arresterent : mais, tantost ce meismes jour, se 
leverent, et en partirent pour aller en leur voiage, et navi- 
gerent bien avant en la mer jour et nuyt jusques au Samedy 
xv e du dit Octobre, que, par vent contraire leur convient 
retourner, et de rechief vindrent devant le dit Calscais, ou ils 
ancrerent et furent jusques au Lundy xvij e du dit Octobre, 
qu'ilz en partirent, se mirent en mer, et bien avant y single- 
rent. Mais, par contrariete de vent failli encoires a ma dite 
dame laissier son chemin, et le Samedy, xxij e du dit Octobre, 
entra ou port de Viviers en Galice, seulement a iiij voiles des 
xiiij qu'elle avait paravant, et du sourplus ne sceut adonc ne 
longtemps depuis aucunes des nouvelles, fors de une des naves, 
qui par iiij ou v jours apres vint au dit port de Viviers. 
D'icelluy port se party ma dite dame le Dimenche vj e de 
Novembre, et le ix e d'icelluy mois, par fortune, luy convint 
entrer ou port de Ribadeu, aussi en Galice. Or avint que le 
dit seigneur de Roubais, que par aucuns jours avant avoit 
pris maladie en la nave de ma dite dame, fut si affoibly et 
aggreve", qu'il lui convint descendre au dit Ribedeu, et la, du 
bon plaisir de ma dite dame, se mist en une de deux galees de 
Florence tendans en Flandres, que par fortune estoient la 


arrivees, car il n'eust peu souffrir le traveil de la dite nave que 
verissemblablement il n'y fust mort, veu la foiblece et debilita- 
tion de sa personne pour la dite maladie. Si entra en la dite 
galee au port de Ribedieu le xxv e du dit Novembre, et avec 
luy le devant dit Bauduin d'Ongnies et aucun po de ses gens ; 
les autres de ses gens et aucuns des dits ambaxadeurs de- 
mourans en la nave devers ma dite dame. Et partirent les 
v naves que adonc avoit et les dites deux galees, du port de 
Ribedieu, le dit xxv e jour, et ensemble navigerent par la mer 
d'Espaigne jusques au xxviij e d'icelluy mois, que, bien avant 
en la nuit, les piloz par erreur laissierent le chemin des naves, 
et vindrent prez du camp de Caisart a la poincte d'Angleterre, 
en grant aventure de nauffrage et de perillier ; et ma dite 
dame et les naves de sa compaignie tindrent leur chemin, et, 
le lendemain xxix e du dit Novembre, arriverent au port de 
Pleume en Angleterre. Les dites galees se partirent du lieu 
ou elles gisoient pres du dit camp de Caisart, le premier jour 
de Decembre, et le vj e d'icelluy mois arriverent au port de 
1'Escluze en Flandres, ou descendy le dit seigneur de Roubais, 
et incontinent fist s^avoir a mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne 
nouvelles de ma dite dame sa compaigne, dont icelluy seigneur 
de Roubais, en faisant son chemin, avoit bien este acertene", 
c'est assgavoir : que elle estoit au dit port de Pleume saine et 
en bon point, et ceulx de sa compaignie. Moult fut joyeulx 
mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne de ces nouvelles ; aussi en 
furent fort resjoiz ses bons vassaulx, serviteurs et subgez, qui 
paravant estoient en grant tristesse des parolles quy aucuns 
avoient seme*, que ma dite dame, pour sa longue demeure et 
la fureur des vens et diversite" du temps, avoit eu infortune en 
son voiage. Encoires, pour ce que, depuis que le dit seigneur. 


de Roubais fut arrive", elle ne venoit si tost que on esperoit et 
desiroit, ne fut pas le voix du tout cassee, et en faisoient 
pluiseurs doubte. Et pour tant, mon dit seigneur de Bour- 
goingne, afin de avancier la venue d'icelle madame sa com- 
paigne, fist, par le dit seigneur de Roubais freter et apprester 
les dites deux galees de Florence, pour icelluy seigneur de 
Roubais aller devers elle et mener les dites deux galees, et 
dedens faire venir elle et ses gens si tost que il feroit vent a 
ce convenable : mais, avant qu'il fist vent pour le partement 
des galees, ma dite dame vint au dit port de 1'Escluze, et, par 
la grace de Dieu, y arriva saine et en bon point, et ceulx de 
sa compaignie, le jour de Noel environ heure de medy. 

"Lendemain, festede Saint Estienne, avant midy, descendy 
ma dite dame de sa nave, et a sa descendue ot mainte barge 
et autres petiz navieres parez de draps, et autres portans 
pluiseurs seigneurs, escuiers et gens notables de divers estas, 
pour veoir, acompaignier et servir icelle dame. Grant foison 
y ot aussi de trompetes, menestrelz et joueurs de pluiseurs 
instrumens de musique, et tous s'efforcoient d'en faire le 
mieulx qu'ilz savoient, pour la feste et joye de la venue de ma 
dite dame tant desirde. A sa descendue fut joyeusement 
receu et conjoye des dits seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers, gens 
de 1'Eglize, notables, bourgois et si grant multitude de peuple, 
que a paine y avoit place et espace pour a aisement aler en 
son logis, ou elle fut honnourablement menee, passant sur 
draps de laine des le lieu de sa descendue jusques en son 
dit logeiz. 

" Par aucuns jours fut ma dite dame au dit lieu de 
1'Escluze, ou par pluiseurs foiz fut joyeusement et amiable- 
ment visitee de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, son 


seigneur et espoux. Aussi la y vindrent veoir et visiter 
pluiseurs prelaz et gens de 1'Eglise, chevaliers, escuiers, 
notables et bourgois, envoyez et representans les trois estas 
du pays de Flandres, et pareillement les deputez des quattre 
membres du pays, qui tous luy firent humble reverence et luy 
offrirent leur service. 

" Le second jour de Janvier ensuivant, madame de 
Bedfort, seur germaine de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, 
et espeuse de monseigneur le due de Bedford, regent de 
France, vint de la ville de Bruges par yaue au dit lieu de 
1'Escluze, bien et gentement acompaignie', pour veoir et visiter 
ma dite dame sa sceur, au devant de laquelle ycelle madame 
de Bourgoingne, bien aussi acompaignee, ala jusques sur la 
riviere, dont ma dite dame de Bedford descendy on dit lieu 
de 1'Escluse, et ensemble alerent en 1'ostel de ma dite dame 
de Bourgoingne, ou, en monstrant la grant amide" d'entre 
elles jeurent tout en ung mesmes lit par deux nutees que ma 
dite dame de Bedfort demoura au dit lieu de 1'Escluze, et 
s'entrefirent si bonne et joyeuse chiere, que ce fut grant plaisir 
de le veoir. 

" Au vij e jour du dit Janvier, vint mon dit seigneur de 
Bourgoingne en 1'ostel ou ma dite dame sa compaigne estoit 
logee a 1'Escluze, acompaignie' de monseigneur Jehan de 
Luxembourg, seigneur de Beaurevoir; monseigneur d'Anthune, 
son chancellier ; le seigneur de Roubais, messire Guilbert de 
Lannoy, Andre de Tholonjon, le dit prevost de Harlebecque 
et aucuns autres de ses gens et serviteurs a ce appelez en petit 
nombre ; et la, environ vj heures de matin, aprez ce que mon 
dit seigneur et de sa part aggree les espousailles ou recepcion, 
par parolle de present, par le dit seigneur de Roubais, en son 


nom et comme procureur, faictes en Portugal, de ma dite 
dame 1 'infante, comme dessus est escript, et aussi que icelle 
dame ot ratifi^ et aggree" les dites espousailles ou reception, 
que d'elle en sa personne et de mon dit seigneur, par son 
procureur, avoient este" faictes, furent par maistre Jehan Toisi, 
1'evesque de Tournay, qui adonc revesti en pontifical fist 
1'office de la messe, faictes les espousailles de mon dit seigneur 
et de ma dite dame en leurs personnes, presens a ce, du cost 
d'icelle dame, monseigneur 1'infant domp Fernande son frere, 
monseigneur le conte d'Orin, 1'evesque d'Evre et aucuns autres 
en petit nombre a ce appellez. 

" Ce mesme jour, apres disner, ma dite dame grandement 
acompaignee, vint par yaue de 1'Escluze au Dam, ou elle 
descendy et reposa la nuit, et y fut bien et gracieusement 
receu selon le lieu. 

" Le lendemain, qui fut le Dimenche viij e jour du dit 
Janvier, se party ma dite dame bien matin du Dam, et par 
yaue vint prez de la bonne ville de Bruges, et descendy assez 
prez de la porte que on dit la Spec porte. Ilec trouva que 
mon dit seigneur lui avoit fait appareiller pour sa personne 
une tres belle lictiere, precieusement ouvree, richement 
couverte de riche drap d'or, soustenue et portee de deux 
beaulx haulx chevaulx ou haquenees : avec ce y avoit mon dit 
seigneur fait mener pluiseurs charioz et dames ? richement 
ouvrez, parez et couvers, et bien attellez et furniz de moult 
beaulx chevaulx et haquenees et de grant pris pour porter les 
dames, damoiselles et femmes de ma dite dame." 

Registre 132 de la Chambre des Comptes, fol. clvij-clxvj. 
Brussels : State Archives. 


c. 1 450. PIZZICOLLI, Cyriacus, of Ancona, 1391-1457, is the earliest 
known author who makes mention of John van Eyck. Sundry notes 
left by him were first printed by Colucci, in " Antichita Picene," xv, 
143. Among them occurs this brief mention : " Rugerius (De la 
Pasture) in Bursella, post preclarum ilium Brugiensem, picture 
decus, loannem, insignis nostri temporis pictor habetur." 
1454. FACIO, Bartolomeo, "Liber de Viris illustribus," written 1454-55, 
first printed at Florence in 1745, contains the following interesting 
notice, p. 46 : " loannes Gallicus nostri saeculi pictorum princeps 
iudicatus est, litterarum nonnihil doctus, geometriae praesertim et 
earum artium quae ad picturae ornamentum accederent, putaturque 
ob earn rem multa de colorum proprietatibus invenisse, quae ab 
antiquis tradita, ex Plinii et aliorum auctorum lectione didicerat. 
Eius est tabula insignis in penetralibus Alphonsi regis in qua est 
Maria Virgo ipsa, venustate ac verecundia notabilis, Gabriel, 
angelus Dei, filium ex ea nasciturum annuntians, excellenti pulchri- 
tudine capillis veros vincentibus, loannes Baptista vitae sanctitatem 
et austeritatem admirabilem prae se ferens, Hieronymus viventi 
persimilis, bibliotheca mirae artis, quippe quae, si paulum ab ea 
discedas, videatur introrsus receclere, et totos libros pandere, 
quorum capita modo appropinquanti appareant. In eiusdem 
tabulae exteriori parte pictus est Baptista Lomellinus cuius fuit 
ipsa tabula, cui solam vocem deese iudices, et mulier, quam amabat, 
praestanti forma, et ipsa, qualis erat, ad unguem expressa, inter 
quos solis radius veluti per rimam illabebatur, quem verum solem 
putes. Eius est mundi comprehensio, orbiculari forma, quam 
Philippo, Belgarum principi, pinxit, quo nullum consummatius opus 
nostra aetate factum putatur, in quo non solum loca, situsque 
regionum, sed etiam locorum distantiam metiendo dignoscas. Sunt 
item picturae eius nobiles apud Octavianum cardinalem, virum 
illustrem, eximia forma feminae, e balneo exeuntes, occultiores 
corporis partes tenui linteo velatae, notabili rubore, e quibus unius 
os tantummodo pectusque demonstrans, posteriores corporis partes 
per speculum pictum lateri oppositum ita expressit, ut et terga, 
quemadmodum pectus, videas. In eadem tabula est in balneo 
lucerna ardenti simillima, et anus, quae sudare videatur, catulus 
aquam lambens, et item equi hominesque perbrevi statura, monies, 


nemora, pagi, castella tanto artificio elaborata, ut alia ab aliis 
quinquaginta millibus passuum distare credas. Sed nihil prope 
admirabilius, in eodem opere, quam speculum in eadem tabula 
depictum, in quo quaecumque inibi descripta sunt, tanquam in vero 
speculo prospicias. Alia complura opera fecisse dicitur, quorum 
plenam notitiam habere non potui." 

1464. AVERULINO, Antonio, surnamed Filarete, wrote a treatise on 
Architecture, the original manuscript of which, dedicated to Peter 
de' Medici, is preserved in the Magliabecchi Library at Florence. 
He mentions (p. 182) master John (van Eyck) of Bruges and 
master Roger (De la Pasture) as the two painters who had made 
use of oil colours with the greatest skill. 

c. 1485. SANTI, Giovanni, in his Chronicle of the Dukes of Urbino, 
the manuscript of which is preserved in the Library of the 
Vatican, wrote as follows in praise of the same two masters : 

" A Brugia fu tra gli altri piu lodato 
il gran Joannes, el discepol Ruggero, 
con tanti d'alto merto dotati, 
Delia cui arte e summo magistero 
di colorire furno si excellenti, 
che han superato spesse volte il vero." 

1495. MUENZER, a physician and humanist, travelling through the Low 
Countries, visited Ghent in the course of this year, and has left an 
interesting notice of the polyptych, preserved in the Royal Library 
at Munich (MS. Lat. 631), first published by Dr. Voll, in the 
Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung of September 7, 1899. 

" De nobilissima tabula picta ad loannem, cuius simile vix 
credo esse in mundo. 

" Ecclesia S. loannis inter illas tres principal es est pulcrior, 
maior et longior de 156 passibus. Et inter cetera habet unam 
tabulam depictam supra unum altare magnam et preciosissimam de 
pictura. In cuius summitate est depictus Deus in maiestate. Et 
ad dextram beata virgo. Et ad sinistram loannes baptista. Et 
sub eis figure octo beatitudinum. In ala autem dextra Adam : et 
circa ipsum angeli : cantantes melos Deo: In ala autem sinistra 
Eva : et angeli cum organis. Et in inferiori ala dextra lusti 


indices et lusti milites : sub ala autem sinistra lusti heremite : et 
lusti peregrini. Et omnia ilia sunt ex mirabili et tarn artificioso 
ingenio depicta : ut nedum picturam : sed artem pingendi totam 
ibi videres videnturque omnes ymagines vive. Postquam autem 
magister pictor opus perfecit : superadditi sibi fuerunt ultra 
pactum et precium sexcentum corone. Item quidam alius 
magnus pictor supervenit volens imitari in suo opere hanc 
picturam et factus est melancolicus et insipiens. O quam mirande 
sunt effigies Ade et Eve : videntur omnia esse viva. Et singula 
membra sibi correspondent. Sepultus est autem magister tabelle 
ante altare." 

1504. LEMAIRE de Beiges, Jean, in " La Couronne Margaritique," a 
poem commenced by him in 1504 and finished in 1511, first 
printed at Lyons in 1549, has three lines in praise of John 
van Eyck. 

" Hugues de Gand, qui tant cut les tretz netz, 
y fut aussi, et Dieric de Louvain 
avec le roy des peintres lohannes 
du quel les faits parfaits et mignonnetz 
ne tomberont jamais en oubly vain." 

1521. DUERER, Albrecht. A few days after Easter of this year, Durer 
visited Bruges. He was taken about to see various buildings and 
works of art. After mentioning a visit to the church of Our Lady, 
he goes on to say : " Darnach fiihreten sie mich in viel Kirchen, 
und liessen mich alle gute Gemahl sehen, dessen ein Ueber- 
schwahl do ist, und do ich lohannes und der andern Ding alles 
gesehen hab ; do kamen wir zuletz in die Mahler Capelln, do ist 
gut Ding innen." " lohannes " in this passage is generally supposed 
to refer to John van Eyck ; to me it seems far more probable that 
Saint John's Hospital is here indicated. From Bruges Durer 
went to Ghent, and there he says : " Sah ich des lohannes tafel ; 
das ist eine iiberkostliche, hochverstandige Malerei und insbeson- 
dere die Eva, Maria, und Gott Vater sind sehr gut." 

By "des lohannes tafel" Durer most probably meant, not the 
painting of John van Eyck, nor the painting in St. John's church, 
but the painting representing Saint John's vision. 


1550. VASARI, in the first edition of his " Vite," mentions Van Eyck in 
two passages. The first occurs in chapter xxi, in which, treating 
of painting with oil, he says : " Fu una bellissima invenzione ed 
una gran commodita all' arte della pittura, il trovare il colorito a 
olio ; di che fu primo inventore in Fiandria Giovanni da Bruggia ; 
il quale mando la tavola a Napoli al Re Alfonso, ed al Duca 
d'Urbino Federigo II. la stufa sua ; a fece un' san Gieronimo che 
Lorenzo de' Medici aveva et molte altre cose lodate." The second 
mention, in the Life of Antonello of Messina, is the well-known 
passage in which he gives his account of the invention of oil 

1560. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. " Vlaemsche audvremdigheyt." 
Ghendt ; strophe 92 

" Veel constige werken zijn binnen die Ghentsche baermen 
als den yzeren zolder, wel weerdt te beziene 
en die tafel t' Sente lans, noch al meer dan tiene." 

Here there is no mention of the painter. 

1562. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. " Nieu Tractaet ende curte bescry- 
vinghe van dat edel graefscap van Vlaenderen." Ghendt ; 
strophe 102 : 

"In Sente lans keercke es een autaer tafel te ziene 
so constich van ingiene, pictoriale practijcke 
so dat in gheheel Europen, om de waerheyt te bediene 
nauwelic en es te vinden eene dierghelijcke : 
meester Ian van Eyck hiet den meester publijcke 
van Maeseyc een stedeken in ruudt Kempen lant, 
in eenen ruden tyt, ons God desen grooten constenaer sant." 

And further on, writing about Bruges ; strophe 121: 

" Constighe schilderye en heeft Brugge ooc nooyt ontdiert 
zij esser wel af verciert in kercken ende husen, 
meester Huge, meester Rogier die wonder hebben verziert, 
met den duytschen Hans om te schilderen abusen 
en boven al loannes van Eycx were (vrij gheen refusen)." 

In this work he makes no mention of Hubert, but attributes all to 
John. Apparently he derived his information from Vasari's " Vite." 


1565. DE HEERE, Lucas, the painter, published this year a volume of 
poems entitled, " Den Hof en Boomgaerd der Poesien," the 
only known copy of which is preserved in the Library of the 
University of Ghent. It contains (pp. 35-38) an enthusiastic 
ode in praise of the Adoration of the Lamb, composed on the 
occasion of the holding of the twenty-third Chapter of the Order 
of the Golden Fleece in Saint John's church, July 23-25, 1559. 
It contains the first mention of Hubert, and of his having 
had a sister. 

" Lof en prijs des wercs (dwelc S. lans in de capelle es) 
van schilderien, ghemaect by die M. Ian hiet 
van Maesheyc gheboren den Vlaemschen Apelles : 
nerstigh leest, verstaet ende op d'werck dan ziet. 



" Comt hier ghi const beminders van alle gheslachten 
en besiet desen costelicken schat oft pant 
waerbi ghi Croesus rijcdommen niet en zult achten : 
want tis eenen hemelschen schat in Vlaender lant. 


" Comt (zegh 1 ic) maer met andacht en verstant, 
en lett vry op alle zaecken, zo merct ghi mids desen 
dattet is een zee van gratien abundant 
daer elc om te schoonst voortdoet, en wilt sijn gepresen. 


" Bemerct des Vaders Godd'lic, en loannes wesen, 
met Maria tooghende een lieflic ghelaet : 
tschijnt dat men heuren mont siet devotelic lesen, 
en hoe wel is ghemaect die croone en al tcieraet ? 



"Hoe verschrickelic en levendigh Adam staet ? 
Wie zagh oynt vleesschelicker verwe van lichame ? 
Tschijnt dat hi weighert, en ontseght Evams raet, 
die hem presenteert een fighe, haer anghename. 


" Maer deur d'hemelsce Nymphen en Ingels bequame 
zinghende discant, elcx gheeft te recht veriolijst : 
wiens diversche voysen men kent naer den betame 
want elc mondeken, en ooghsken dat claer uutwijst. 


" Maer te vergheefs men iet hit besondere prijst, 
daert al zijn om te constighste en schoonste iuweelen 
het schijnt datter al leeft, roert, gaet ofe uutrijst : 
tsijn spieghels, en gheen gheschilderde tafereelen. 


" Ziet hoe deghelic, en eerbaer zijn daer die deelen 
van d'auders en den gheestlicken staet die daer lijt, 
hier siedy (Schilders) bisonder in dees parceelen 
exemple van goet laken emmers naer dien tijt. 


" Wie en soude in die maeghdekens niet sijn verblijt 
daer de onze wel mochten zebaerheit an leeren : 
en anmerckt hoe triumphant in de deuren rijt, 
de bende der Coninghen, Princen, Graven en heeren. 


" Ten rechten siet men onder de zulcke verkeeren, 
den princelicken Schilder die dit werck voldee, 
met den rooden Paternoster op zwarte cleeren 
sijn breeder Hubert rijdt by hem in d'hooghste stee. 


" Welcken Hubert dit waerck begonste naer sijn zee 
maer deur de doot (diet al doodt) moest hijt staken, 
hi leit hier begraven, ende zijn zuster mee, 
die ooc in schilderyen dede groote zaken. 

1 1. 

" Maer op dat wy t'onser materie gheraken, 
wilt dees excellentie in dit werck gade slaen, 
dat hy d'aensighten al onghelijc conste maken, 
hoe wel datter nochtans drye hondert sijn ghedaen. 


"Ten anderen moet net selfde veel lofs ontfaen, 
van weghe sine schoone blivende coleuren : 
die in hondert vijftigh iaren niet en scijn vergaen : 
twelcke men nu ter tijt niet veel en siet ghebeuren. 

" Summa tis vul perfectien achter en veuren : 
tooghende wel dat den werckman en meester goet, 
verciert was met veel gratien (zonder erreuren) 
de welcke een constigh schilder altijt hebben moet. 


" Sijn scherpicheit maect ons zijn patientie vroet, 
en zijn memorie groot blijckt in tselfde claerlic 
alzoo oock zinen grooten gheest boven al doet, 
in d'inventie, ende ordinancien openbaerlic. 

" Van desen moet men hem te meer lofs gheven waerlic 
om dat hi in zulcke tiden alsoo heeft ghefloreert 
doen hi zulck' excellente wsercken eenpaerlic 
als hi selve dede en had' gh' experimenteert. 

1 In the margin of this strophe is the note: "Hubert sterf anno 14... " a 
proof that De Heere was, in 1565, unacquainted with the epitaph. 


I6. 1 

" Een Schilder uut Italien selfs confesseert, 
clat Heycus daer d'Olverwe broght en heeft vonden 
en van dry sine waercken hi mentioneert 
die te Napels, Florencen en tUrbino stonden. 

" Wat conste vantmen oynt (de waerheit t'orconden) 
soo perfect int eerste als dese const' excellent ? 
van welcke belyden alle verstandighe monden, 
dat men heuren Meester noynt en heeft ghekent : 

1 8. 

" Was hy dan niet ten rechten tot sijns levens bent 
van Hertoghe Philips zijn meester vul trauwen 
hooghelic verheven ? en als een ornament 
van ons landen, ia van gheel Vlaenderen ghehauwen ? 


" Sijn wercken waren ghesocht uut alle landauwen, 
daerom en vindt men boven dees tafel niet, 
dan dat men te Brugghe magh noch een anschauwen, 
ende t' Ypre ooc een onvulmaecte zo men siet. 


" Dese blomme zeer vrough van de weerelt schiet, 
die uut dat onnoosel Maesheyc is becleven 
Brugghe bewaert hem, daer hi syn leven liet, 
maer sijn name zal in der eewigheit leven. 


" Dit waerck heeft ons Coningh soo hooghe verheven 
(zo alle goede consten staen in zinen sin) 
dat hi (om dat te contrefaiten) heeft ghegheven, 
wel vier duysent guldenen oft lutter min. 

1 In the margin of this strophe : " Georgius Vasarius." 



" Michiel Coxsye, hadde voor dit waerck zulc gewin 
twee iaren daer met besigh zijnde in dees capelle. 
Hy bewaerde sijn eere van int beghin 
totten hende toe, als een oprecht werck-gheselle. 


" Dees copie is in Spaignen (op dat ict vertelle) 
te Vendedoly, t'eender memorie bloot, 
van ons Coninghs liefde, die ic voor ander stelle : 
ende tot Heycus, en Coxyens glorie groot." 

This poem was affixed to the wall of the chapel, and was v 
doubtless read by those who went to see the altar-piece. Here, 
no doubt, is the source of the apocryphal legend of the Van Eycks. 
The discovery of the inscription on the exterior of the frame had 
revealed the fact that the altar-piece had not been entirely painted 
by the master (Hubert) buried beneath the chapel, as had been 
believed up to that time, but that it had been commenced by 
him and completed by John. 

De Heere, fancying that the early painters must have intro- 
duced their own portraits into the picture, as was the general habit 
of painters in his day, fixed on two of the Just Judges as being 
the portraits of Hubert and John (strophe 9) ; I shall demonstrate 
the absurdity of the selection in the chapter devoted to the altar- 
piece. De Heere is also responsible for the statement that Hubert 
had a sister (nameless), who lived with him, painted great works, 
and was buried by his side. 

1565, April 27. LOMBARD, Lambert, of Liege. In a letter bearing this 
date, written to Vasari, preserved in the Gallery of the Offices at 
Florence, and printed by Gaye (" Carteggio," in, 176, Firenze, 
1540), there is the following mention of John : " Mi ricordo haver 
visto in Italia le cose fatte al tempo di 1400, molto dispiacevoli al 
occhio per non esser ne secche, ne tampoco grasse, ne di bella 
maniera, et parmi lopere delli maestri che furono tra il Giotto et 
Donatello riescono goffe, et cosi ghene in paesi nostri et per tutta 



la Germania da quel tempo fisi'a Maestro Rogiero et Joan di 
Bruggia ch'aperse li occhi alii coloritori, i quali imitando la 
maniera sua et non penzando piu inanzi, hanno lasciate le nostre 
chiese plene di cose che non simigliano alle bone et naturali, ma 
solamente vestite di belli colori." 

1567. GUICCIARDINI, Ludovico, a native of Florence, born in 1521, 
who settled in Antwerp in 1550, undertook a description of the 
Low Countries, and set about collecting information from every 
available source in order to produce a standard work. The manu- 
script, completed in 1561, was printed and published at Antwerp in 
1567. In the chapter on Antwerp, writing of the Gild of Saint 
Luke, he mentions a number of painters : " I principal} e piu 
nominati cli quelli . . . sono stati Giovanni d'Eick, quello il quale 
(come narra Giorgio Vasari Aretino nella sua bellissima opera de 
Pittori eccellenti) fu inventore all' anno MCCCCX del colorito a 
olio, cosa importantissima et degnissima in quell' arte, perche 
conserva il colore quasi perpetuamente, ne mai piu che s'habbia 
notitia, stata ritrovata alia memoria degli huomini. Mando costui 
delle sue opere in Italia a'l grande Alfonso Re di Napoli, al Duca 
d'Urbino, ed al altri Principi, che furono molto stimate, onde il 
gran Lorenzo de Medici ne raccolse poi anche egli la parte sua. 
Truovasi in queste bande fra le altre sue opere in Guanto nella 
chiesa di S. Bavone 1'eccellentissima tavola del Trionfo dell' Agnus 
Dei, benche alcuni inpropriamente la nominino d'Adam et Eva : 
opera nel vero maravigliosa et ammiranda in tanto che il Re 
Filippo desiderandola, et non osando di la torla, la fece ultima- 
mente ritrarre per mandare in Hispagna, dall' eccellente maestro 
Michele Cockisien, il quale statovi sopra circa due anni, havendo 
servito per excellenza hebbe del Re, oltre ad altre habilita fatteli, 
del vitto et- da colori, per parere et sententia di quattro maestri 
dell' arte, due milla ducati per la fattione, benche non si conten- 
tando, pare che il Re allargasse ancor' la mano. Et medesima- 
mente in Bruggia nella chiesa di S. Donatiano, e una bellissima 
Pittura di quel maestro con 1'imagine di nostra Donna, et altri 
Santi. Ancora a Ipri n'e un altra bella et memorabile. Dimorava 
il detto Giovanni il piu del tempo nella trionfante citta di Bruggia, 
ove finalmente si mori in grande honore. A pari a pari di 


Giovanni andava Huberto suo fratello, il qualeviveva et dipingeva 
continuamente sopra le medesime opere, insieme con esso fratello." 

Guicciardini, it will be remarked, quotes his fellow-countryman v 
Vasari as his authority for all the first portion of his statement, 
adding thereto the information, derived directly or indirectly from 
Luke De Heere, here for the first time printed, that John and 
Hubert lived together, and that they collaborated in painting the 
Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres altar-pieces ; we now know positively 
that they did not dwell together after 1422 ; and that the Bruges 
and Ypres altar-pieces were not even ordered until many years 
after Hubert's death. Guicciardini is the first author who names 
the year 1410 as the date of the invention of oil-painting by John. 

1568. VASARI during this year published the second edition of his 
" Vite." Since the issue of the first he had received a few notes 
from Lambert Lombard, Dominic Lampson of Bruges, and 
Guicciardini ; from them he learnt the name of the eldest brother, 
and that the invention of painting with oil colours was made in 
1410. The altered passage, which reads like a paraphrase of 
Guicciardini, runs thus : " Lasciando adunque da parte Martino 
d'Olanda, Giovanni Eick da Bruggia, ed Huberto, suo fratello, 
che nel 1510 (evidently a misprint for 1410) mise in luce 1'in- 
venzione et modo di colorire a olio, come altrove s'e detto, e lascio 
molte opere di sua mano in Guanta, in Ipri ed in Bruggia, dove 
visse e mori onoratamente." Vasari evidently knew nothing of 
the Eyckian process, and to conceal his ignorance made out a 
plausible story as to how it came to be invented. It must be 
borne in mind that he was a gossip who sought to amuse rather 
than to instruct his readers. 

1568. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. "Den Spieghel der Nederland- 
scher Audtheyt." Ghendt. In this work the . author devotes 
several pages to the Van Eycks, and makes a large number of 
statements which evidently did not rest on the foundation of any 
old tradition. He travelled a good deal, and no doubt saw some 
of the paintings at Bruges and Ypres, and noted all the gossiping 
stories he heard from Luke De Heere and others. He gives the 
epitaphs of both John and Hubert, the latter copied by himself, 
letter by letter, from the brass tablet, and mentions the preservation 


of Hubert's arm-bone, which he had himself seen. He says that 
Hubert's sister's name was Margaret, that she remained a spinster, 
devoted herself to painting, lived with Hubert, and was buried by 
his side. He gives the number of figures in the Ghent altar-piece 
as 350, fifty more than De Heere. He tells us that John was the 
younger brother but the chief master, that it was he who painted 
his own and his brother's portraits, and that he died young. The 
altar-piece is stated by him to have had a predella on which there 
was a representation of Hell painted in tempera by John, which 
was effaced by a painter who washed it. He also adds that John, 
on account of his science, was made a privy councillor by Duke 

Cap. xlvij : " Van die wonderlicke gheschilderde Altaer Tafel 
te Ghendt, welcx gheliicke nauwelick in de weerelt en is, wie de 
Meesters waren ende ander dijnck. 

"In die stede van Ghendt, zijn oock zommighe Wonderen 
ende Singulariteyten, als alvoren ende boven al, die wonderlicke 
constighe gheschilderde Tafele in S. lans Kercke, welcx gelijcke 
men in gheheel Europen niet en vint : oorzaecke d'werc is so 
constich, dattet Appelles were niet te wijcken en heeft. . . . 
Maer desen Meester die de uutnemende Tafel, S. lans te Ghendt 
ghemaeckt heeft, en is gheensins minder te achten, uut causen (so 
voorseyt is) dat het were dies vulle ghetuyghenisse gheeft : want 
die alderbeste Schilders van onzen tyde, zien dat were met groot 
verwonderen aen. Albertus Durerus van Norenberch, . . . 
Meester Jan van Mabeuse, Meester Hughe, ende veel meer andere, 
hebben elck bysonder eenen grooten lof daer af ghegheven, ooc 
Meester Lanchelot van Brugghe ende Meester Jan Schoore 
Canonic van Utrecht, ooc trefflicke Schilders, sijn te Ghendt 
ghecommen, ende begon den dees tafel te wasschen, anno xv 
hondert vijftich, den vijfthiensten Septembris, met zulcker liefden, 
dat zy dat constich werck in veel plaetsen ghecust hebben, 
waeromme hemlieden die Heeren van S. Baefs voor een gratuiteyt 
elc een gheschinck ghedaen hebben, als Meester Jan Schoore 
eenen zilveren cop daer ic te Utrecht tsynen huyse uut ghe- 
droncken hebbe : niemant (verstandt van der conste hebbende) 
ende die dit stick ghesien hebben, oft zy en belyden (met die 


Coninghinne Saba) dat die waerheyt van dien meerder is dan 
die fame. Meester Michiel de Cocxien anno xv hondert lix 
uut bevele, ende by laste van onzen edelen Coninck Philippus 
die xxxvj Grave van Vlaendren, heeftse zeer levende ghecontre- 
faict : want hy ooc een uutnemende Schilder is, residerende te 
Bruessel in Brabant : maer heefter moeten te Ghent zijn domicilie 
om houden, alle den tijt dat hy besich was met contrefaicten, 
dwelck onsprekelick goet ghecost heeft, ende wiert naer Hispanien 
ghevoert. Men zecht dat Toetsianus van Venegien ooc een abel 
rijcke Schilder, der Azuer zant, om daerinne te verbesighen, ooc 
by laste van den Coninck, waer voren dat zoude betaelt zijn xxxij 
Ducaten alleene om den Mantel van onze lieve Vrouwe te 
coloreren. . . . Vrau Marie die moeye van onzen edelen Conine 
Philips, . . . heeft eens een cleen tafereelkin van den zelven 
Meester ghedaen (welcx name was loannes van Eyck, waerin 
dat gheschildert was, een trauwinghe van eenen man ende 
vrauwe, die van Fides ghetrauwt worden, eenen Barbier diet 
toebehoorde) betaelt met een officie, die hondert guldenen tsiaers 
in brachte. 

" Georgius Vasarius . . . schryvende van die excellente Schilders 
van Italien, zecht : dat desen loannes van Eyck, heeft ghelevert 
tafelen, eene te Naples, eene te Florencen, ende eene te Urbino 
van olye verwen, waerdoor die Italiensche Schilders ontsteken 
waren tot liefde, van zulck een maniere van wercken, ghevende 
Meester loanni van Eyck van die eerste inventie van Lyzaet olie 
in schilderyen te ghebruycken den prijs . . . ende schrijft dat 
loannes van Eyck tvoornoemde vandt door zijn groote industrie 
ende gheleertheyt ende dat hy die olye wist te purgieren om die 
coleuren onsterffelick te onderhouden : maer hy schrijft errerende 
dat hy van Brugghe in Vlaendren gheboren was, alwaer hy 
begraven licht in S. Donaes kercke, welcx Epitaphie aen een 
colomne staende luyt aldus : Hie iacet eximia, &c. 1 

" Maer hy was van nativiteyt uut dat ruyde Kempenlant, van 

een verworpen stedekin gheleghen by der Riviere van der Mase, 

. . . dit stedekin is ghenoemt naer die zelve Riviere Maseyck, 

waernaer hy ende zijn breeder toeghenoemt waren van Eyck: 

1 See in Biography of John, p. 22. 


want zynen oudsten breeder was ghenoemt Hubertus van Eyck, 
ende was oock een uutnemende constich Schilder, die de tafel in 
S. lans kercke eerst begonnen hadde, zijn sepulture is te Ghendt 
in de zelve kercke, ende is boven een witte steenen doode, in 
eenen Zaercsteen, die een metalen Tafeletkin voor haer houdt, 
daer dit (na die oude Vlemsche carmina) in ghegraveert staet, 
zo ic van letter tot letter gheortographieert hebbe. Spieghelt 

u enz. 1 

" Die aerm pype, daer zijn constighe handt aen ghestaen heeft, 
heeft langhe ghehanghen in een yser besloten, op tkerchof (soo 
ick ooc ghesien hebbe) midts dat die kercke nieuwe ghemaeckt 
wiert, ende zijn graf met meer ander opghedolven. Zi hadden 
een zuster Margareta ghenoemt, die haren maechdom totter doot 
toe bewaerde, die men oock grooten prijs toeschrijft, in die edel 
conste pictoria oft Schilderye ; maer zeker dits wel te noteren 
ende voor een groot wonderstic te achte dat dese groote hemelsche 
lichten, ende geesten ghefloreert hebben in zoo blent eenen tijdt, 
te weten bycans over hondert, ende vijftich iaren, als men van 
zulcker conste niet en wiste, zoot wel blijckt aen die oude gheschil- 
derde tafelen, ende glaesvensteren, die een groote plompicheyt 
vertooghen, oock quamen zy (so voorseyt is) uut een zeer ruyt 
landt, daer zy ooc gheen exempel oft voorbeelt van haerder conste 
in dese landen gheinventeert hadden, ende niet alleene ghevonden ; 
maer oock ten hoochsten ghebracht. 

" De drie proprieteiten die een excellent schilder in hem moet 
hebben, sijn volcommelic in hemlieden ghevonden : te wetene, 
gheest, verstant, ende patientie. Den gheest hebben zy ghebruyckt 
naer tleven, dwelck den alderbesten patroon is. Tverstant in 
veel manieren, als in die vremde boomen, die hier te lande niet 
en groeyen, ende in tcorael dat uut de rootsen schijnt wassende 
Item in de vighe die Eva in de hant heeft : want Augustinus 
ghelooft bet dattet een vighe was, die Adam nuttende was dan 
eenen appel, oorzake, den literalen text zecht van een vrucht, niet 
discernerende wat vrucht : maer deckten haer met vigheboom 
bladers terstont na den val, niet met appelboom bladeren, voort in 
alle die constighe aensichten, die schynen zom te mediteren, som 

1 See in Biography of Hubert, p. 6. 


te spreken, som to lesen, ende som te zinghen, ende niet twee 
onder meer dan dry hondert en dertich gheheele aensichten, die 
elck anderen ghelijck sijn, ick late staen alle die ander gheestighe, 
ende verstandighe wercken in dees tafel bevonden, die als een 
Zee tallen canten overvloeyen, waerinne ooc een overgroote 
patientie gebesicht is, in alle die netticheyt ende den tijdt die 
daerinne gheoccupeert is, so dat men die grassekins met duysentich 
duyst tellen, ende die cruydekins onderkennen zoude moghen, 
ende ooc mede die bladeren ende vruchten der boomen. 

" Item die coleuren der zelver tafele, sijn noch zoo wonderlick 
schijnbaer, dat zy alle nieuwe gheschilderde tafelen beschamen. . . . 
Hoedanighe historien daerinne gheschildert staen, mach elc 
commen zien diet belieft. . . . loannes den ioncsten broeder, ende 
principael meester, is in de zelve tafel gecontrefaict rydende te 
peerde, met eenen rooden Pater noster, op zwarte cleederen, ende 
Hubertus om zijn ouderdom, zitt op een peert neffens hem, ter 
rechter hant : loannes is ionc overleden, hadde hy noch moghen 
leven hy hadde lichtelick alle Schilders cler weerelt te boven 
ghegaen. . . . 

" Item een helle heeft den voet van deser tafel gheweest, door 
den zelven meester loannes van Eyck van waterverwe gheschil- 
dert, de welcke zommighe slechte Schilders (zoo men zecht) haer 
hebben bestaen te wasschen, oft zuyveren, ende hebben dat 
miraculeus constich were, met hun calvers handen uut gevaecht 
de welcke met de voornoomde tafel, meer weert was dan tgout 
dat men daerop ghesmeedt zoude connen legghen. loannes heeft 
om zijn over groote conste, zeer lief ghetal geweest bi Philips van 
Charlois, zone van Hertoge Ian van Digion, die xxxj Grave van 
Vlaendren, ende men wilt dat hi hem om sijn wijsheyt ende 
natuerlic hemels verstant, tot eenen eymelicken raet van zijnder 
Maiesteyt gemaect heeft, sijn stadelic bysijn ende gheselschap 
zeer begheerende." 

1569. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. "Van die Beroerlicke Tijden in die 
Nederlanden, 1566-1568." ' In this his last work, Vaernewyck, 

1 The original manuscript, preserved in the University Library at Ghent, 
was edited by M. F. VAN DER HAEGHEN, in 1872. A French translation by 
H. VAN DUYSE was published at Ghent, 1905-6. 


who died November 20, 1 569, gives an account of all that happened 
in Flanders down to the middle of November, 1568. He tells us 
that in August, 1566, the Calvinists sacked the church of Saint 
Martin at Ypres, but that he did not know whether the painting 
by John van Eyck, an artistic work surpassing all other works, 
had been injured. In his account of the wrecking of the cathedral 
A of Ghent, he informs us that on August 19, 1566, two days before 
the irruption of the iconoclasts, the altar-piece was wisely taken 
down from the chapel and removed for safety into the tower. In 
this account occurs for the first time a description not, however, 
quite exact of the exterior of its shutters. We are told that at 
the foot were represented, kneeling before their name-saints, the 
persons who had the picture painted, a man and a woman, opposite 
each other, ugly figures dressed in the old fashion, who, neverthe- 
less must have been very fine and intelligent, for they had not 
spared their money when they entrusted the work to such a master 
whose equal would not be found in a thousand years. He adds 
that Hubert and Margaret were both great painters, but inferior 
to John, and refers the reader for a fuller account of them to 
the twentieth chapter of his leecken philosophic, a work which is 
unfortunately lost. 

" 1566, Ougst. Esser 'tghemeen volck mede in ghevallen en 
hebben Sente Martins keercke gheheel gheruumt, oft hier in dees 
ravesie dat tafereel schade gheleden heeft, dat meester lohannes 
van Heyck gheschildert, maer niet vuldaen en heeft, de figueren 
van der maechdelicheyt van Onser Lieve Vrauwe wesende, een 
Marie beelde ende eenen abt daer voren biddende int midden, 
dat en weet ic niet, welc constich weerck alle schilderien te boven 

" Maer emmer was boven maten wel ghedaen dat gheweert 
was, uut desen periculuesen brant die uutnemende ende zonder 
ghelijcke tafele, die men heet van Adam ende Eva, om dat van 
binnen in de bovenste dueren onse eerste auders gheschildert 
staen, ende an de zelve dueren over d'een zjide inghelen die 
schijnen te zijnghen an eenen lesseneere, ende an d'ander zijde 
ooc inghelen die up een hurghel spelen, ende int midden den 
Vader, den Zone ende den Helighen Gheest, met Maria die 


moeder ons Heeren die zij coroneren, welcx peerlen van der 
croone, schijnen licht uut te gheven, zoo ooc de boorden ende 
boorduersel doet, dat an dees personaigen es. Maer van Adam 
ende Eva waer wonder te zegghen, niemant en zoude wel zonder 
twijffelen connen jugieren, tzelve anziende, of den eenen voet van 
Adam uuten platten tafereele steect of niet, ende zijnen rechter 
aerme ende handt, die hij up zijn burst lecht, schijnt van zijnen 
lijve duerluchtich zijnde. Dlichaem es oock zoo vleeschachtich 
dat schijnt vleesch te wesen. Niet alleene de aderen en zijn 
daer inne gheconterfeet zeer levende, maer ooc die cleene aerkins 
die een meinsche uuten lichame groijen. Ende Eva heeft die 
figuere van een versche vijghe in haer handt, hier duer betoo- 
ghende den weercman zijn groot verstant ; want die helighe scrift 
en zecht niet, dat zij eenen appel hetende waren, maer een vrucht, 
ende anghezien dat zij curts daer naer haer met vijgheblaren 
deckende waren, zoo vermoeclen Augustinus ende meer andere, 
dattet een vijghe was. Die benedenste tafel es dusdanich : 
zij heeft int midden tlammekin Godts staende up een coufferkin, 
up een fonteyne waer af dwater schijnt te vloeijen, ende zoo 
daer dat men die cleene steenkins in den gront ziet. Die crude- 
kins int pleijn ende die ghersekins ende bloumkins van diversche 
colueren zoude men moghen tollen ; ooc van die boomen schenen 
al die vruchten ende bladeren telbaer te wesen. Daer commen 
die maechdekins ende veel andere helighen van alle zijden, elck 
in zijn oordene, dit lammekin anbeden, zoo uutnemende constich 
dat niet om zegghen en es. Daer staet achter tghebeerchte ende 
die bosschaigen een eerlicke stadt, tes altemale een hemelsch 
dijnck om te ziene. In d'een duere, ter rechter handt, commen 
ghereden te peerde ghewapende mannen, met haer standaerden 
ende balsanen, wonderlic gheaccoutreert, ende die peerden 
rijckelic ghebardeert, al zeer verscrickelic van consten : hier 
heeft den meester ghenaemt lohannes van Eyck hem zelven 
gheconterfeyt, rijdende up de slijncke zijde van Hubertus zijn 
broedere, die dit weerck eerst beghonnen hadde, ende was een 
schoon jonck man, raet van den auden hertoghe Phelips ; maer 
Hubertus was audt ende vet. In dander duere ziet men die 
heremijten ende maechdekins commen uut die wonderlicke 


eenelicke rootsen heremijtaigen, daer onder uut sommighe bemoste 
steenen corael schijnt groeijende : daer ziet men die pijnboomen, 
dactijlboom ende dierghelijcke. In somma zulck een stick van 
consten en es in alle die christen landen niet te vinden. Buten 
ende beneden zijn gheconterfeet, knielende elc voor zijnen helich 
daer hij naer ghenaemt was, die persoonen diese doen maken 
hadden, een man ende een vrauwe jeghen over melcanderen, 
leelicke lieden ende naer die aude wet ghecleet, maer zeer schoon 
ende fraeij van ghoeste, om dat zij haer ghelt niet ghespaert en 
hadden te hanghen an d'weerck van zulck eenen meester, die men 
in duysent iaren niet vinden en zoude, zoo groot ende excellent 
in consten. 

"Zijn breeder Hubertus was ooc hier inne een wonderlic gheest 
ende Marghareta zijn zustere, maer beede verre beneden desen 
Johannes. Hier af zult ghij breeder bescheet vinden in mijn 
leecken philosophic int xx e bouck. In de bovenste duere, buten 
dees tafele, zijn ander schilderien : onder andere ziet men, duer 
zeker veinsteren, in een strate van een stadt, niet alleene den dack 
ghewacht, maer die claerheyt der zonne boven up den dach. Die 
schilders weten wel wat ic zegghe. Dese uutnemende wonder- 
licke hemelsche tafele, waer bij dat andere constighe schilderien 
maer en schijnen bastaert ende leelic van coluere te zijne was 
wijselic afghedaen ende upghewonden met sticken up den turre, 
up den xix en Augustij, twee daghen te voren eer dees breekijnghe 
ghebuerde, d'welck duer Godts beschicken es gheschiet." 
1569. OPMEER, Pieter, who died on the loth of November, 1595, com- 
pleted in 1569 a chronicle, which was printed for the first time, 
and published at Antwerp, in 161 1, with the title : " Opus Chrono- 
graphicum Orbis Universi." The following are the passages which 
relate to the Van Eycks (p. 167) : " Promeruit et non vulgarem 
laudem loannes Eickius, docens colores oleo seminis lini contritos 
quam diutissima ferre aetatem, in multaque durare saecula : 
picturam quoque barbaric extinctam resuscitando. Opus eius 
erat tabula ilia Agnus Dei dicta, in D. loannis Gandavi : quam 
Philippus Austriacus II., Hispaniarum rex locarat 2000 ducatis 
imitatione exprimendam Michaeli Cochsieno." Further on, under 
the year 1410 (p. 406), he remarks : " Hac tempestate floruerunt 


Gandavi loannes Eickius cum Huberto fratre suo maiore natu, 
summi pictores. Quorum ingeniis primum excogitatum fuit 
colores terere oleo seminis lini. Nee modo tabulas pinxerunt suis 
Belgis : sed complures ipsorum tabulae ad Alphonsum Neapolim 
et Laurentium Medicem Florentiam transmissae in magno apud 
eos precio fuerunt. Porro loannes Eickius iuvenis Brugis obiit : 
et Hubertus grandaevus Gandae : orti Masaico Taxandriae 
oppido ad flumen Mosam. Hie in D. loannis, sepulcro Flandricis 
carminibus annum obitus 1426 decimo quarto Kalendas Octobris 
indicantibus ornato, fuit conditus ; ille in S. Donatiani, ubi eius 
Epitaphium, elegiaco carmine Latino columnae appensum legitur." 
He prints John's epitaph, and reproduces the apocryphal portraits 
of the two brothers. The qualifications grandaevus and iuvenis 
are a development from that oifratcllo employed by Guicciardini. 

1572. LAMPSON, Dominic. " Pictorum aliquot celebrium Germanicae 
inferioris Effigies etc. una cum doctiss. Dom. Lampsonii huius 
artis peritissimi elogiis." Antwerpiae, apud Viduam Hieronymi 

1596. MARCHAND, Jacques, in his " Flandria Commentariorum lib. 1 1 1 1 
descripta," published at Antwerp, makes the following astounding- 
statement, p. 132 : "Neque forsitan hinc exclucli velint ubi lubenter 
habitarunt ac pinxere Michael Angelus, et Bonarotus Florentini 
celeberrimi : neque loannes Vaneickius, summi nominis : qui 
primus oleo ex lini seminibus extuso, cepit picturae colores 
Brugae miscere, ac perpetuare, Brugae sepultus." 

1604. MANDER, Carel van. " Het Leven der doorluchtighe Neder- 
landtsche en Hooghduytsche Schilders." Alckmaer, 1604. (2nd 
edition, Amsterdam, 1618.) 

The author was born at Meulebeke in West Flanders, in 1548. 
He probably did not commence collecting materials for this work 
until after he had settled at Harlem in 1583. He was at Bruges 
in 1574 before going to Italy, and again after his return in 1582, 
yet on neither occasion does he seem to have looked at a single 
early picture his own paintings show that he did not appreciate 
them or to have made the acquaintance of any of the painters 
then living there, such as Pourbus and the Claeissens. His 
statements as to the Van Eycks are derived from the works of 


van Vaernewyck and Vasari ; from the latter he took several 
paragraphs, translated and amplified them, adding what he re- 
membered having heard from his master the poet-painter Luke 
De Heere, who, banished from the Low Countries in 1566, fled 
to London, where he remained ten years, then, after a short visit 
to Ghent, retired to Paris, where he died, August 29, 1584. So 
far, then, as the Van Eycks are concerned, no reliance whatever 
can be placed on this work. 

Traduction, notes et commentaires par Henri HYMANS, i, 25-48. 
Paris, 1884. 

Uebersetzung und Anmerkungen von Hanns FLOERKE, i, 
22-48, and 402-408. Leipzig, 1906. 

1608. LE MIRE, Aubert. " Rerum toto orbe gestarum Chronicon." 
Antwerpiae, 1608. Under the year 1410, he records: " loannes 
Eickius et frater eius Hubertus, pictores eximii Brugis Flandro- 
rum emporio tune celeberrimo florent. Sunt qui volunt eos natos 
et sic nuncupates a Maseica, vulgo Maes-Eyck, ditionis Leo- 
diensis opido ad Mosam flumen sito. Horum alter loannes, oleo 
ex lini seminibus extuso picturae colores primus miscuit, atque 
aeternos, ut sic dicam, adversus aevi iniuriam reddidit. Divinum 
hoc inventum plerique ad annum Christi 1410 referunt : sed ante 
annum Christi 1400 id Belgicis cum pictoribus Eyckium com- 
municasse, convincunt vetustiores tabellae coloribus oleo mixtae 
depictae : atque in his una quae in templo Franciscanorum Lovanii 
spectatur : cuius quidem auctor sive pictor motatur obiisse anno 
1400. Ceterum Antonellus Messanensis, Siculus, cum Brugis 
aliquamdiu versatus fuisset, colorum oleo temperatorum usum 
primus in Italiam attulit eumque Dominico Veneto, et aliis pic- 
toribus Italis commonstravit : ut Georgius Vasarius in suo opere 
fatetur. Tanta porro loannis Eickii apud exteros fama ut pictas 
ab eo tabellas Alfonsus Rex Neapolitanus, Fredericus II. Urbi- 
natium Dux, Laurentius Medicaeus, aliique Italiae Principes 
vehementer expeterent, atque Belgio advectas ingenti sibi pretio 
compararent. Visitur hodie Gandavi in S. loannis basilica 
cathedrali nominatissima Eickiorum tabula, septem misericordiae 
opera continens, una cum Adami et Evae imaginibus, in alis 
tabulae. Huius exemplar a Michaele Coxia efformandum curavit 


Philippus II., Hispaniarum Rex ; quod in Hispaniam transvectum, 
hodie in Scuriaco, Hieronymianorum coenobio, D. Laurentio 
martyri sacro, spectatur. Putatur autem tabula ista Gandensis 
ab Huberto Eickio primum incohata, sed illo ex vivis sublato a 
loanne fratre perfecta. Hubertus obiit Gandavi anno 1426, 
ibidem in cathedral! aede sepultus. loannes vero obiit Brugis, 
ibidem in cathedrali S. Donatiani sacra conditus. Annum obitus 
eius nondum equidem comperi. 

The statement as to the date of the painting formerly in the 
Franciscan Friars' church at Louvain is an erroneous deduction 
from the words of Molanus (see RUELENS, "Annotations/ 
clxx.). The story about Antonello is now proved to be untrue. 
1624. SUEYRO, Emanuel. " Annales de Flandes." Anvers. 

Under the year 1410 he gives an account of the Van Eycks 
and of the Ghent altar-piece, evidently translated from Le Mire. 
He however, adds that Coxcie's copy was in the Royal Chapel 
at Madrid. 

1624. SANDERUS, Antonius. " De Brugensibus eruditionis fama claris 
libri duo," 38. Antverpiae. 

1625. SANDERUS, A. " De Gandavensibus eruditionis fama claris lib. i," 
50. Antwerpiae. 

1627. DE VRIENDT, Max. " Epigrammata," 115. Brugis. 

1631. GOELNITZ, Abraham. "Ulysses Belgico-Gallicus." Lugduni 

Batavorum, 1641, p. 15, repeats the passage in the " Flandria " 

of Marchant. 
1640. MANDELSLO, J. Albrecht von. " Voyages . . . publiez apres la 

mort de 1'illustre voyageur par ... A. Olearius." Traduit de 

1'original par A. de Wicquefort, 765 and 784. Amsterdam, 1727. 
1 66 1. DE BIE, Cornelius. " Het gulden Cabinet van de edele vry 

Schilder Const," 32. Lyer. 
1668. BOUSSINGAULT. La Guide universelle de tous les Pai's Bas. 

Paris. 2nd edition, 1677. 
1682. BULLART, Isaac. " Academie des Sciences et des Arts," 377-380. 


1739. FOPPENS, loannes F. " Bibliotheca Belgica," 635. Bruxellis. 
1795. LEDOULX, Pieter. " Levens der Konst-schilders, . . . de welke 

van der stadt van Brugge gebooren syn, ofte aldaer hunnen 


konsten geoeffent hebben." Original Manuscript. Bruges : 
Town Archives. Pages 1-8 are devoted to the Van Eycks ; his 
account of them is based on Van Mander. 


1753. DESCAMPS, Jean Baptiste. La Vie des Peintres Flamands, i, 

1-7. Paris. 

1763. MENSAERT, G. P. Le Peintre amateur. Bruxelles. 
1769. DESCAMPS, J. B. Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre et du 

Brabant avec des reflexions relatives aux arts. Paris. 

1816. EYNDEN, Roeland van, and VAN DER WILLIGEN, Adriaan 
Geschiedenis der Vaderlandsche Schilderkunst, 340-364. Haarlem. 

1817. FIORILLO, Johann D. Geschichte der zeichnenden Kiinste in 
Deutschland und den Vereinigten Niederlanden, n, 283-293. 

1817. CORNELISSEN, Norbert. Notice sur la grande et celebre pro- 
duction de Jean et d'Hubert van Eyck. In Annales Belgiques des 
Sciences, i, 141-163. Gand. 

1818. GAULT DE SAINT GERMAIN, Pierre M. Guide des Amateurs de 
Tableaux, i, 4-5. Paris. 

1818. KEVERBERG VAN KESSEL, Charles L. G. J. van. Ursula, prin- 
cesse Britannique, loi-iioand 181-183. Gand. 

1822. SCHOPENHAUER, Johanna H. Johann van Eyck und seine 
Nachfolger, i, 18-98. Frankfurt-am-Main. 

1822. JAMES, John T. The Flemish, Dutch, and German Schools of 
Painting, 83-92. London. 

1822. WAAGEN, Gustav F. Ueber Hubert und Johann van Eyck. 
vin and 271 pp. Breslau. 

1823. DE BAST, Lievin A. M. Sur le merite d'Hubert van Eyck 
comme peintre. In Messager de* Science*, i, 89, 155,257. Gand. 

De Bast has the merit of being the first Belgian who 
endeavoured to interest his fellow-countrymen in the early 
painters and their works. 

1824. CAMBERLYN, J. B. G. Eyckii immortal! genio. 29 pp. Gandavi. 
1824. BOISSEREE, Sulpice. Lettre au Secretaire de la Societ royale 

des Beaux Arts a Gand. 51 pp. Gand. 


1824. WAAGEN, G. F. Ueber das von dem Briidern Hubert und 
Johann van Eyck zu Gent ausgefuhrte Altargemalde. In 
Kunstblatt, 23-27. Tubingen. 

1825. DE BAST, L. A. M. Notice sur le chef d'ceuvre des freres Van 
Eyck, traduite de 1'Allemand, augmentee de notes inedites sur la 
vie et sur les ouvrages de ces cdlebres peintres. 90 pp., 4 plates, 
and i cut. Gand. 

1825. DE BAST, L. A. M. Notice historique sur Antonello de Messina, 
traduit de 1'Italien, augmentee de notes, 2-3 and 35-36, i engr. 

1828. WAAGEN, G. F. Kunstwerke und Kunstler in England und 
Paris. Berlin. (Later edition, 1837-1839.) 

English translation. London, 1838. See under 1854. 

1833. PASSAVANT, Johann D. Kunstreise durch England und Belgien, 
367-379. Frankfurt-am-Main. 

English translation. London, 1836. 

1834. SCHNAASE, Karl J. F. Niederlandische Briefe, 314-326 and 
343-345- Stuttgart. 

1835. RATHGEBER, Georg. Beschreibung der herzoglichen Gemalde 
Gallerie zu Gotha, 62-67. Gotha. 

1836. BECDELIEVRE. Biographic Liegeoise, i, 132-141. Liege. 

1837. KUGLER, Franz T. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei, n, 
Berlin. (Later edition, 1847.) 

1838. JUSTE, Theodore. Jean van Eyck et son Lcole. In Revue 
Beige, x, 316-325. Liege. 

1838. NAGLER, Georg K. Neues Allgemeines Kunstler - Lexikon, 
iv, 173-198. Mlinchen. 

1840. DELEPIERRE, Joseph O. Galerie d'Artistes Brugeois, ou Bio- 
graphic concise des Peintres . . . celebres de Bruges, 9-14 ; 
i lithogr. Bruges. 

1841. PASSAVANT, J. D. Beitrage zur Kenntnissder alt Niederlandischen 
Malerschulen. In Kunstblatt, xxn, 9, 10, 14, 15. Stuttgart. 

Traduction FranQaise, in Messager des Sciences. Gand, 1842, 
pp. 206-2 1 1 . 

1841. BLOMMAERT, Philips. Recherches sur 1'ancienne Ecole de 
Peinture Flamande. In Messager des Sciences. Gand, 1841, 


1842. BURCKHARDT, Jacob. Die Kunstwerke der Belgischen Stadte, 

60-64, 132-135 and 157. Diisseldorf. 
1842. IMMERZEEL, loannes C. H. and C. De Levens en Werken der 

HollandscheenVlaamsche Kunstschilders, I, 226-229. Amsterdam. 

1842. FORTOUL, Hippolyte N. H. De 1'Art en Allemagne, n, 142- 
146. Paris. 

1843. NIEUWENIIUVS, Conrad I. Description de la Galerie des Tableaux 
de S. M. le roi des Pays-Bas, avec quelques remarques sur 
1'histoire des peintres et sur les progres de Tart, 1-9. Bruxelles. 

1844. RATHGEBER, Georg. Annalen der Niederlandischen Malerei, 
3-9, 84-103, and 429. Gotha. 

1845. MICIIIELS, Fran9ois Xavier Alfred. Histoire de la Peinture 
Flamande et Hollandaise, n, 3-168, and iv, 382. Bruxelles, 
1845-1848. See under 1866. 

1846. HOUSSAYE, Arsene. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande et 
Hollandaise. Paris. (Subsequent editions, 1848 and 1866.) 

Deutsche von A. DIEZMANN, 23-33. Leipzig, 1847. 

1846. KUGLER, F. T. A Handbook of the History of Painting, trans- 
lated by Mrs. M. HUTTON ; edited with notes by Sir Edmund 
HEAD, n, 54-78. London. 

1847. DE MERSSEMAN, J. Hubert, Marguerite et Jean van Eyck. In 
" Biographic des Hommes remarquables de la Flandre Occi- 
dentale," in, 174-199. Bruges. 

1847. LINDSAY, Alexander W. Crawford, Lord. Sketches of the History 

of Christian Art, in, 288-306. London. (Reprint, n, 209-319. 

London, 1885.) 
1847. WORNUM, Ralph N. The Epochs of Painting characterized: a 

sketch of the History of Painting, 320-329. London. (Later 

editions, 1859 and 1864.) 
1847. KUGLER, F. T. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei ; 2 e 

Auflage unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers umgearbeitet und 

vermehrt von Dr. J. BURCKHARDT, n, 92-115. Berlin. See 

under 1867. 
1847. CARTON, Charles. Les trois freres van Eyck. In Annales de 

la Socittk d' Emulation, 2 S., v, 237-300. Bruges. 
1847. MONTAIGLON, Anatole de. Une Visite au Musee de lAcad&nie 

de Bruges, 5-7. Paris. 


1849. LABORDE, Lion E. S. J. de. Les Dues de Bourgogne. Etudes 
sur les lettres, les arts et 1'industrie pendant le xv e siecle, 2 e partie, 
I et II. Paris, 1849-1851. 

1854. BONNEFONS, Georges. Les freres van Eyck. In L 1 Investigates, 
3 S., iv, 44. Paris. 

1854. WAAGEN, G. F. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. 3 vols. 

1855. WOLTERS, M. J. Notice historique sur la ville de Maeseyck, 
78-79. Gand. 

1856. HERIS. Memoire sur le caractere de 1'Ecole Flamande de Peinture 
sous le regne des dues de Bourgogne, 109-159. Bruxelles. 
Crowned by the Royal Academy of Belgium and published 
in its " Nouveaux Memoires," torn. xxvn. 

Throws no new light on the history of the Van Eycks, but 
attempts to prove the existence of a Liege school of painting. 

1857. CROWE, Joseph A., and CAVALCASELLE, Giovanni Baptista. The 
early Flemish Painters; notices of their lives and works, 26-115, 
and 337-346 ; 5 engr. London. 

The first serious English work on the subject. The docu- 
ments, etc., quoted, carelessly transcribed. 

Traduction par O. DELEPIERRE, i, 27-114 et n, 119-129. 

1857. KERVYN DE VOLKAERSBEKE, Philippe. Les eglises de Gand, 
i, 41-54, 199, 256, and 289. Gand. 

1857. KRAMM, Christiaan. De Levens en Werken der Hollandsche 
en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, enz. n, 173-174, and 448-466. 

1858. HOTHO, Heinrich G. Die Malerschule Huberts van Eyck nebst 
Deutschen Vorgangern und Zeitgenossen, n, 51-217. Berlin. 

The work of an enthusiastic admirer of the early masters ; it 
contains no fresh facts. 

1859. DE BUSSCHER, Edmond. Recherches sur les Peintres Gantois 
des xiv e et xv e siecles. Indices primordiaux de 1'emploi de la 
peinture a 1'huile a Gand. 220 pp. Gand. 

The documents relating to the Van Eycks in this volume are 
forgeries. See Le Beffroi, n, 207, 212, 213, 231, and VAN DER 
HAEGHEN, " Memoire," 1899. 



1860. *VITET, Louis. Les Van Eyck et Hemling. In Revue des De^tx 

Mondes, xxix, 934-959. Paris. 
1860. DEHAISNES, Chretien. De 1'Art Chretien en Flandre. Peinture, 

115-157. Douai. 
1860. *WAAGEN, G. F. Handbook of Painting. The German, 

Flemish, and Dutch Schools. Based on the handbook of Kugler ; 

enlarged and for the most part rewritten, i, 50-64 ; cuts. London. 

See under 1874. 

German edition. Stuttgart, 1862. The preceding work with 


Traduction par H. HYMANS et J. PETIT, i, 75-111. Bruxelles, 


1860. LUEBKE, Wilhelm. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. Stuttgart. 
See 1873. 

English translation by F. E. BUNNETT, London, 1868. (2nd 
edition, 1869.) 

1 86 1. ACKER, Karel van. De Aenbidding van het Lam Gods. In 
Volksalmanak, 101-114. Gent. 

1861. WEALE, W. H. James. Catalogue du Musee de I'Academie de 
Bruges, 1-20 ; 2 lithographs. Bruges. 

1 86 1. WEALE, W. H. James. Notes sur Jean van Eyck. Refutation 
des erreurs de M. 1'abbe Carton et des theories de M. le comte 
de Laborde, suivie de nouveaux documents decouverts dans les 
Archives de Bruges, iv and 32 pp. ; i lithograph. Bruxelles. 
See under 1904. 

1863. PINCHART, Alexandre. Documents authentiques relatifs aux 
freres Van Eyck et a Roger Van der Weyden. Bruxelles. 

1863. *RUELENS, Charles. Annotations aux "Anciens Peintres 
Flamands " de Crowe et Cavalcaselle. clxxiii. pp. Bruxelles. 

1864. NAGLER, C. Die Monogrammisten, iv, 58-61. Munchen. 
1864. WORNUM, R. N. The Epochs of Painting: a biographical and 

critical essay on Painting and Painters, 137-144. London. (3rd 
edition, 1864.) 

1864. SIRET, Adolphe. Manuel du Touriste et du Curieux k Gand, 
10-15 et 26-28. Paris. 

1865. *PINCHART, A. Annotations aux "Anciens Peintres Flamands" 
de Crowe et Cavalcaselle. 162 pp. Bruxelles. 

Valuable and generally reliable. 


1864. SCHOOLMEESTERS. Inauguration du monument de Jean et 
Hubert van Eyck a Maeseyck par Sa Majeste Leopold I", roi 
des Beiges. Discours prononcd par M. S., bourgmestre, le 
5 Septembre, 1864. 26 pp. Bruxelles. 

This discourse, written for the burgomaster by M. RUELENS, 
Keeper of the Manuscripts in the Royal Library at Brussels, 
is accompanied by notes and documents which occupy 1 2 

1864. VILLARS, F. de, in Revue Germanique, xxxi, 351. Paris. 

1866. HOUSSAYE, Arsene. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande et 
Hollandaise, 17-33. Paris. 

1866. MICHIELS, F. X. Alfred. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande, 
2nd edition, n, 83-358, 404; in, 413-420; and v, 447-449. 
Paris, 1866-68. 

Of all works on the early painters of the Netherlandish 
school published in the last century, this, in spite of its pre- 
tensions, is decidedly the least trustworthy. The author's 
amazing vanity and ignorance are only equalled by the cool 
impudence with which he has appropriated the discoveries of 
others, whom he has vilified and held up to ridicule. 

1866. SIRET, Adolphe. Dictionnaire historique des Peintres de toutes 
les Ecoles, 2nd edition, 301-303 and 1052. Paris. 

1867. KUGLER, F. Th. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei, 3 C 
Auflage nach der von Dr. J. BURCKHARDT bezorgten zweiten 
Auflage neu bearbeitet und vermehrt von Hugo Freiherrn von 
BLOMBERG, n, 353-380. Leipzig. 

1868. MONTEGUT, Emile. Les Pays Bas : impressions de voyage et 
d'art, 148-159. Paris. 

1868. WAAGEN, G. F. Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmaler in Wien. 

1869. TAINE, Hippolyte A. Philosophic de 1'Art dans les Pays Bas, 
69-95. Paris. 

Translation by DURAND. New York, 1889. 
1869. HEATON, Mrs. Charles. Masterpieces of Flemish Art, 14-28 ; 

i photograph. London. 
1871. DE BURBURE, Leo. Chronologische Lijst der Ammans van 

Antwerpen . . . met onuitgegevene Aanteekeningen en Wijzi- 

gingen, 6 and 1 2-20. Antwerpen. 


Contains notes and documents relating to a John van 
Eyck, who held the office of Amman of Antwerp from 1431 
to 1437. 

1872. *CROWE, J. A., and CAVALCASELLE, G. B. The Early Flemish 
Painters. Notices of their lives and works. 2nd edition, 
30-134; 5 engr. London. 

Many errors in the first edition are rectified in this, and 
subsequent discoveries made by Pinchart and others added. 

Deutsche Ausgabe bearbeitet von Anton SPRINGER, 30-149. 
Leipzig, 1875. 

Italian translation, 32-157. Firenze, 1899. 

1872. SIRET, A., and TAUREL, C. E. L' Agnus Dei par les freres 
Hubert et Jean van Eyck. In TAUREL, " L'Art Chretien en 
Hollande et en Flandre," i, 1-12 ; i engr. and i cut. Amsterdam, 

1872. TAUREL, C. Ed. Notes biographiques sur les Van Eyck. 
In "L'Art Chretien en Hollande et en Flandre," i, 13-20. 

1873. HELBIG, Jules. Histoire de la Peinture au pays de Liege, 
53-62. Liege. (2nd edition, 50-58. Liege, 1903.) 

1873. HEATON, Mrs. C. A concise History of Painting, 363-384, 

1873. LUEBKE, W. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. 6 Auflage, n. 

276-281 ; 3 cuts. London. 

English translation by C. COOK. New York, 1878. 

1873. VLOTEN, J. van. Hubrecht van Eycks Geboortejaer. In 
Nederlandsche Spectator, p. 154. 

1874. WAAGEN, G. F. Handbook of Painting. Thoroughly revised 
and in part rewritten by J. A. CROWE, i, 49-74. 

1874. WEALE, W. H. James. The date on which John van Eyck 
moved his abode from Bruges to Lille. In the Academy, July n, 

P- 43- 

1874. VLOTEN, J. van. Nederlands Schilderkunst, 14, 15, 29, 42, 99. 


1875. STEPHENS, Frederick G. Flemish and French Pictures, with 
notes concerning the painters and their works, 30-34 ; i engr. 


1876. *FROMENTIN, Eugene. Les Maitres d'autrefois : Belgique. 
420-438. Paris. (A seventh issue, 1893.) 

Remarkable from a literary point of view, and as an excellent 
example of art criticism. Worthless as biography, and superficial 
in its distinction of the work of Hubert, who, he thinks, certainly 
painted the figures of Adam and Eve. 

1876. OWEN, A. C. The Art Schools of Mediaeval Christendom, 253- 
261. London. 

1877. VIARDOT, Louis. A brief History of the Painters of all Schools, 
269-274; i cut. London. 

1877. HOUDOY, Jules. Etudes artistiques, 20-27. Paris. 

It is in this volume that Mr. Houdoy announced the discovery 
of an entry in the fabric rolls of the cathedral of Cambrai, proving 
that John van Eyck was sojourning in that city in 1422, and 
that he painted the Paschal candle for the Easter of that year. 
In the Academy of June 21, 1879, I proved that lohannes de 
Yeke was a local craftsman, whose name occurs several times in 
the following year whilst John van Eyck was in constant employ- 
ment at the Hague. 

1877. EISENMANN, C. Die Briider Van Eyck. 23 pp., 8 cuts. In 
R. DOHME, " Kunst und Kiinstler Deutschlands und der Nieder- 
lande," i, Leipzig. 

Translation by A. H. KEANE, in " Early Flemish and Dutch 
Masters," 209-230. London, 1880. 

1878. REISET, Frederic. Une Visite a la National Gallery en 1876, 
ii, 3-9. Paris. Extract from Gazelle des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xvn, 5-9. 

1878. SIRET, A. Van Eyck. In " Biographie Nationale de Belgique," 

vi, 775-803. Bruxelles. 

Inaccurate ; devoid of criticism. 
1878. MASON, E. Hubert and John van Eyck. In Harper 's Magazine, 

LVI, 698. New York. 

1878. DARYL, Philippe. The Picture Amateur's Handbook and 
Dictionary of Painters, 97, 98. London. (2nd edition, Dictionary, 
97, 98. London, 1883.) 

1879. HAMERTON, Philip G. The Life of J. M. W. Turner, 155-157. 

1879. SCHNAASE, C. GeschichtederbildendeKimsteim 15 Jahrhundert. 


Unter Mitwirkung von Dr. O. EISENMANN herausgegeben von 

W. LUEBKE, vin, 103-164. Stuttgart. 
1 88 1. CLEMENT, Clara E. Painters and their Works. Boston, 

1 88 1. LUEBKE, Wilhelm. Die Bruder Hubert und Ian van Eyck. 

1 8 pp. ; 7 cuts. In Westermanris Illustrirte Monatshefte, 54-72. 

Braunschweig, October. 
1 88 1. MUNTZ, Eugene. Etudes sur 1'Histoire de la Peinture et de 

I'lconographie Chretienne, 50-51. Paris, 1881. 

1 88 1. BUXTON, H. J. Wilmot, and POYNTER, Edward J. German, 
Flemish, and Dutch Painting, 72-81 ; 3 cuts. London. 

1882. WOLTMANN, Alfred, and WOERMANN, Karl. Geschichte der 
Malerei, n, 8-22 ; 16 cuts. Leipzig. 

1883. WAUTERS, Alphonse J. La Peinture Flamande, 37-55 ; 6 cuts. 

English translation by Mrs. H. ROSSEL, 33-51; 6 cuts. 
London, 1885. 

Vlaamsche van LABBE. Gent, 1887. 

1883. WEALE, W. H. James. Les tresors de 1'Art Chretien en 
Angleterre. 8 pp.; 4 facsimiles. In Revue de [Art Chretien, 3 S., 
i, 62-66, and 193-195. Bruges. 

1884. ENGERTH, Eduard von. Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen der 
allerhochsten Kaiserhauses. Gemalde. Beschreibendes Ver- 
zeichniss, n, 132-139. Wien. 

1884. THAUSING, Moriz. Wiener Kunstbriefe, 79. Wien. 

Says that Van Eyck carefully placed trees and flowers in his 
pictures, just as a child sets out its pretty things. 

1885. MICHEL, Emile. Les commencemens du Paysage dans 1'Art 
Flamand. In Revue des Deux Mondes, 3 P., LXX, 794-832. Paris. 

1885. GILBERT, Josiah. Landscape Art before Claude and Salvator, 
146-155. London. 

1886. JANITSCHEK, Hubert. Geschichte der Deutschen Malerei, vi, 
221-225 an d 228. Berlin. 

1886. MUNTZ, E. Les Origines du Realisme. L'Art Flamand et 1'Art 
Italien au xv'siecle. In Revue des Deux Mondes, Avril, 557- 
590. Paris. 

1886. KAEMMERER, L. Die Landschaft in der Deutschen Kunst. 


1887. f BODE, W. La Renaissance au Musee de Berlin; 1'ancienne 
E*cole Flamande. In Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 209- 
215;! etching and 4 cuts. Paris. 

1887. "CoNWAY, W. Martin. Early Flemish Artists and their Pre- 
decessors on the Lower Rhine, 95-97, 117-159, and 271-275; 
3 cuts. London. 

A very interesting book, with passages of real beauty ; it 
would have gained considerably had more attention been paid to 
the accuracy of details and reflection as to the grounds of theories 
put forth. Shows in places a want of acquaintance with the 
dogmas and traditions of the Church and with Christian symbolism. 

1887. BRADLEY, John W. A Dictionary of Miniaturists, i, 317; in, 
358-359. London, 1887-1889. 

1887. LUEBKE, W. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. 10 Auflage, n, 
298-310 ; 10 cuts. Stuttgart. 

Traduction Frangaise par C. Ad. KOELLA, 296-302 ; 5 cuts. 

1888. WOLFFERS, Frantz A. von. L'Ecole Neerlandaise et ses his- 
toriens. Bruxelles. 

1888. CHAMPLIN, John D. Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings, n, 

32-34. New York. 

This seems to be the first work in which a facsimile of the 

cipher of John van Eeckele, 1534-1561, is given as that of John 

van Eyck, with the date 1440. 
1888. HEATON, Mrs. C. A concise History of Painting. New edition, 

revised by Cosmo MONKHOUSE, 268-284. London. 

1888. RADCLIFFE, A. Schools and Masters of Painting, 251-260. 
New York. 

1889. MUNTZ, E. Histoire de 1'Art pendant la Renaissance, i, 43, 
330-336, and 688. Paris. 

1890. WOERMANN, K. Kirchenlandschaften. In Repertorium fiir 
Kunstwissenschaft, xin, 340-341. Berlin. 

Compares the Van Eycks' landscapes with those of Gentile da 

Fabriano and Masaccio. 
1890. HOYT, Deristhe L. Handbook of historic Schools of Painting, 

113-115. Boston, U.S.A. 
1892. HASSE, Carl. Kunststudien, iv, 12-17 ; 5 collotypes. Die Bild- 

nisse der Bruder Hubert und Ian van Eyck. Breslau. 


Devoid of criticism. He considers the Adam and Eve of the 
Ghent polyptych to be by Hubert ; takes the copy of a mira- 
culous picture at Rome, painted by John van Eeckele (1534- 
1561) for an original work by John van Eyck, and, on account 
of a similarity between it and a picture Saint Luke is repre- 
sented painting, in a miniature at the Hague, concludes the 
Saint Luke to be the real portrait of John van Eyck ! 

1892. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, Albert. La Peinture religieuse, 120. 

1893. BOLE, Franz. Sieben Meisterwerke der Malerei, mit einer 
principiellen Eroterung liber den Einfluss des Christenthums auf 
die Kunst, 44, 45, 51-58 ; 3 collotypes. Brixen. 

1894. REBER, Franz. Geschichte der Malerei, 103-108. Miinchen. 

1894. PIT, A. Les Origines de 1'Art Hollandais, 63-66. Paris. 

1895. *MICHEL, Emile. Etudes sur 1'Histoire de 1'Art. Les debuts 
du Paysage dans 1'Iicole Flamande, 173-186. Paris. 

1895. HELBIG, J. Les origines de la Peinture de Paysage dans 1'Art 
moderne, 7, 8. Bruxelles. 

1895. MUELLER, Hermann A., and SINGER, Hans W. Allgemeines 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 411-412. Frankfurt. 

1896. GRUYER, F. A. La Peinture au Chateau de Chantilly, 186-188. 

Repeats current errors and adds a few more, such as the 

statement that John van Eyck styled himself "John of Bruges." 
1896. JAMES, Ralph N. Painters and their Works, I, 359-363. London. 
1898. *LABAN, Ferdinand. Das Gleichgewicht der innenseiten Fliigel 

des Genter Altars. In Zeitschrift filr bildende Kunst, x, 33-43. 

1898. FREIRE, J. M. Un probleme d'art : 1'Ecole Portugaise cr6atrice 

des grandes dcoles. Lisbon. 

Attributes the 'Fountain of Life' at Oporto to Hubert van 

Eyck ! ! The work is a curiosity. 
1898. * KAEMMERER, L. Hubert und Ian van Eyck. 118 pp. ; 88 

phototypes. Bielefeld. 
1898. Roux DE VALDONNE, Paul de. Recherches sur la Perspective 

des Couleurs dans la nature et son application dans les ceuvres des 

maltres des diverses ecoles depuis le xiv e siecle, 120-123. Paris. 


1898. LEITSCHUH, Franz F. Das Wesen der modernen Landschafts- 
malerei. Strassburg. 

1899. DE POTTER, Frans. Gent van den vroegsten tijd tot heden, 
v, 349-359- Gent. 

1899. PHILIPPI, Ad. Kunstgeschichtliche Einzeldarstellungen, in, i. 

Die Kunst des xv und xvi Jahrhunderts in Deutschland und den 

Niederlanden, i, Van Eyck und ihre Nachfblger. Leipzig. 
1899. * VAN DER HAEGHEN, Victor. Memoire sur des documents faux 

relatifs aux anciens peintres, 26-27, 78-87, 94-97, 111-114, I22 - 


1899. *SEECK, Otto. Die charakteristischen Unterschiede der Briider 
Van Eyck. 77 pp. ; I cut. Berlin. Extract from Abhandhingen 
der konigl. Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Gb't- 
tingen, in. 

1900. VERKEST, Mddard. Studien over Brugschen Kunstenaers. Ton- 


190x3. FIERENS, H. De Van Eyck a Van Dyck. In Revue des Deux 

Mondes, 4 P., LXX, 893-907. Paris. 
1900. KNACKFUSS, H., and ZIMMERMANN, Max G. Allgemeines 

Kunstgeschichte, n, 255-266; 9 phototypes. Bielefeld. 
1900. VOLL, Karl. Altes und Neues iiber die Briider Van Eyck, in 

Repertorium fur Kimstwissenschaft, xxin, 92. Berlin. 
1900. *SEECK, O. Ein neues Zeugnis iiber die Briider Van Eyck. In 

Kunstchronik, N.F., XL, 66-71 and 80-87. Leipzig. 
1900. ELWES, Katherine. The Art of the brothers Van Eyck. In 

the Westminster Review, 560-569. London. 
1900. *VoLL, Karl. Die Werke des Ian Van Eyck, eine kritische 

Studie. xvi and 136 pp. Strassburg. 
1900. WEALE, W. H. James. Les freres van Eyck. 6 pp. ; 2 

phototypes. In Revue de I' Art Ckrttien, 4 S., xi, 281-286. 

1900. WEALE, W. H. James. Hubert Van Eyck. 5 pp. ; 2 phototypes. 

In Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xi, 251-255. Leipzig. 
1900. WEALE, W. H. James. The Van Eycks. 6 pp. In the 

Nineteenth Century, 785-790. London. 

1900. KAEMMERER, L. Die neueste Eycklitteratur. 5 pp. In Kunst- 
chronik, N.F., xn, 66-74. Leipzig. 


1901. SEECK, O. Zu dem Werke des Hubert van Eyck. 3 pp. In 

Kunstchronik, N.F., xn, 257-262. Leipzig. 

1901. SEIDLITZ, Woldemar von. Jan van Eyck. In Deutsche Rund- 
schau, cxi, 146-152. Berlin. 
1901. WEALE, W. H. James. Hubert van Eyck. 9 pp. In Gazette 

des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 474-482. Paris. 
1901. *BoDE, W. Jan van Eycks Bildnis eines Burgundischen 

Kammerherrn. In Jahrbuch der Preussische Kunstsammlungen, 

xxn, 115-131 ; i engr. and 2 phototypes. Berlin. 

Four pages are devoted to the portrait. These are followed 

by a scathing criticism of Voll's "Werke van Jan van Eyck." 
1901. DE SMET, Joseph. Quelques notes relatives aux Van Eyck, 

ix, 193-207. In Bu lletin de la Soci'et'e dHistoire et dArcheologie. 

1901. FIERENS, Henri. Psychologic d'une ville. Essai sur Bruges, 

84-138. Paris. 

Full of theories and inexact statements. 
1901. *COURAJOD, Louis. Legons professes a 1'Ecole du Louvre 

(1887-1896), publiees par Henry Lemonnier et Andre" Michel, n, 

289-313. Paris. 

1901. VOLL, K. Jean van Eyck en France. In Gazette des Beaux 
Arts, 3 P., xxv, 215-229 ; 2 phototypes. Paris. 

The statements in this article, so far as they relate to the 
biography of John, are very misleading. His youth is said (p. 225) 
to have been for a good part spent in France, whereas nothing 
whatever is known as to where John dwelt before 1422, when he 
was working at the Hague, and there is no evidence to support 
the theory that he visited Burgundy. 

1902. HULIN, Georges. Catalogue critique des tableaux flamands 
des xiv e , xv e , et xvi e siecles exposes a Bruges, n os 7-16 et 213, 
pp. 2-4 et 58. Gand. 

1902. VOLL, K. Zur Entwicklung der Landschafts Malerei. In 

Helbings Monatsberichte uber Kunstwissenschaft, 7 and 92. 

1902. *DE SMET, J. L' Adoration de 1'Agneau par les freres Van 

Eyck. 10 pp. ; 9 phototypes and i facsimile. In Inventaire 

archtologique de Gand, 241-250. Gand. 


1902. Congres de Bruges. Compte rendu des travaux de la quatrieme 

section. Les Primitifs Flamands, 7-22 et 83-86. Bruges. 
1902. LAFENESTRE, Georges. Les Vieux Maitres a Bruges. In Revue 

des Deux Mondes, 5 P., xi, 131-142. Paris. 
1902. GUIFFREY. L'Exposition des Primitifs Flamands a Bruges. In 

L'Art, 3 S., n, 474. Paris. 
1902. L. and A. Hubert en Jan van Eyck. In longdietschland, 238. 

1902. MARKS, Alfred. The Flora of the Van Eycks. In the Athe- 

nfeum, November i and December 13. 
1902. WEALE, W. H. James. The Flora of the Van Eycks. In the 

Athenceum, December 6, and March 14 and 28, 1903. 
1902. HYMANS, Henri. Gand et Tournai, 14-20. Paris. 
1902. HYMANS, Henri. L'Exposition des Primitifs Flamands a Bruges, 

12-19 ! * helioengr., 6 phototypes, 2 engr., and i cut. Paris. 

1902. HULIN, Georges. L'atelier de Hubrecht van Eyck et les 
Heures de Turin. 6 pp. In Annuaire de la Soci'ett pour le 

progres des etiides philosophiques et historiques. Gand. 

1903. ADY, Julia. The early Art of the Netherlands. In the Quarterly 
Review, January, 208-233. 

1903. *FRIEDLAENDER, Max J. Meisterwerke der Niederlandischen 

Malerei des xv und xvi Jahrhunderts auf der Ausstellung zu 

Brugge, 1902. Miinchen. 
1903. DE MONT, Pol. L'evolution de la Peinture Neerlandaise aux 

xiii e , xiv e , et xv e siecles et 1'Exposition de Bruges, 1-63. 

1903. WEALE, W. H. James. The early Painters of the Netherlands, 

illustrated by the Bruges Exhibition of 1902. In the B^^rl^ngton 

Magazine, i, 48. London. 
1903. DUELBERG, Franz. Die Ausstellung altniederlandischer Meister 

in Brugge. In Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xiv, 51 

1903. LOESCHHORN, H. Museumsgange : eine Einfuhrung in Kunst- 

betrachtung und Kunstgeschichte, 104-110; 5 phototypes. 

1903. *SCHMARSOW, August. Die oberrheinische Malerei und ihre 

Nachbarn, 8-12 and 20-32. Leipzig. 


Throughout the volume are many notes on works in which 

Eyckian influence is visible. 
1903. BRYAN'S Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, edited by G. E. 

Williamson, n, 136-138; i engr. London. 
1903. WEALE, Frances C. L. M. Hubert and John van Eyck. viii 

and 32 pp. ; i photoengr. and 20 phototypes. London. 

See FRY in the Athenceum, 1903, August 22. London. 
1903. *DURRIEU, Paul. Les debuts des Van Eyck. 32 pp.; i helioengr. 

and 14 phototypes. Paris. Reprint from Gazette des Beaux Arts, 

3 P., xxix, 5-18 and 107-120. 
1903. *MARKS, A. Hubert and John van Eyck : the question of their 

collaboration considered. 38 pp. ; 3 phototypes. London. 

See WEALE in the Biirlington Magazine, iv, 98. London. 
1903. * ROSEN, Franz. Die Natur in der Kunst. Studien eines 

Naturforschers zur Geschichte der Malerei, 62-111 ; phototypes. 

1903. SCIIUBERT-SOLDERN, F. von. Von Jan van Eyk bis Hierony- 

mus Bosch. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Niederlandischen 

Landschafts Malerei, 1-45. Strassburg. 

1903. MADSEN, K. Udstillingens Udbytte. I. Hubert van Eyck 
In Tilskrieren Maancdsskrift fur Literatur, xx, 603-620. Kj<- 

1904. WITT, Mary H. The German and Flemish Masters in the 
National Gallery, 5-23 ; 2 phototypes. London. 

1904. LUEBKE, W. Outlines of the History of Art, revised and 

rewritten by Russell STURGIS, 249-257. London. 
1904. *WEALE, W. H. James. Popular opinions concerning the Van 

Eycks examined. 9 pp. ; 5 phototypes. In the Burlington 

Magazine, iv, 26-33. London. 
1904. WEALE, W. H. James. The death of John van Eyck: new 

discovery. In the Burlington Magazine, iv, 295. London. 
1904. BOUCHOT, Henri. Les Primitifs Fra^ais (1292-1500), 15-29, 

79, 150-153, and 219-244. Paris. 

This volume, provoked by an access of envy after the 

demonstration at Bruges in 1902, of the influence of the Van 

Eycks on the development of painting, cannot be taken seriously. 

Unfortunately, owing to the author's position as Keeper of Prints 


at the National Library and member of the Institute of France, 

it has been welcomed by those of his fellow-countrymen who are 

of an uncritical spirit and know little of the history of art, but are 

always ready to accept without questioning any statement that 

flatters their national pride. 

See Bulletin de I' Art ancien et moderne, vi, 318; vn, 29, 39, 

54 ; and the Burlington Magazine, vi, 413, 497, and vn, 159, 160. 
1904. DUGARDYN, J. B. Het tijdvak der Van Eycks. 29 pp. \\\Biekorf. 

1904. *Six, J. A propos d'un repentir de Hubert van Eyck. In 

Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxxi, 177-187; 7 phototypes. 


Dr. Six in this article draws attention to a curious repaint 

in the panel representing the knights of Christ. The blue 

headkerchief of the prince in the back row is painted over a 

coronet, the outline of which is clearly visible. He thinks that 

the person represented is John the Fearless, Uuke of Burgundy. 

May it not, perhaps, be John the Pitiless of Bavaria ? 
1904. *DVORAK, Max. Das Ratsel der Kunst der B ruder Van Eyck. 

1 50 pp. ; 7 plates and 65 illustrations in the text. Extract from 

yahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhochsten 

Kaiserhauses, xxiv, 162-317. Wien. 
1904. *KERN, G. Joseph. Die Grundziige der linear perspectivischen 

Darstellung in der Kunst der Gebrtider Van Eyck und ihrer 

Schule. Die perspectivische Projektion. 14 plates and 3 cuts. 


An important contribution to the material for controlling the 

dates assigned to Eyckian paintings. 
1904. FISCHEL. Die Hollandische Landschaftsmalerei. In Velhagen, 

Oskar en Klasing's Monatshefte, xvm, 241-261. Berlin. 
1904. WEALE, W. H. James. Paintings . . . formerly in the Arundel 

Collection. In the Burlington Magazine, v, 190-198 ; vi, 249 ; 3 

phototypes. London. 
1904. PETRUCCI, Raphael. Essai sur Van Eyck. In La Belgique 

contemporaine, i, 38-62. Bruxelles. 
1904. BAES, Edgar. L'Art primitif Fran$ais et le style de Flandre 

et de Bourgogne, 21-37. Bruxelles. 


1904. TSCHUDI, H. von. Die Gemalde Galerie zu Berlin, 1-12. 

Berlin, 1904. 
1904. Masters in Art. Hubert and Jan van Eyck : sketches of their 

lives and works. 2 1 pp. ; plates. Boston. 

1904. *HuLiN. L'Art Franc.ais-Flamand au debut du xv e siecle et la 
revolution artistique due aux freres Van Eyck. In Bulletin de la 
Socitt'e d'Histoire, xn, 168-205. Gand. 

1905. *BODENHAUSEN, Eberhard von. Gerard David und seine Schule. 

1905. *WURZBACH, Alfred von. Niederlandisches Kunstler-Lexikon, 

auf Grund archivalischer Forschungen bearbeitet, I, 502-525. 


The account of the Van Eycks and their works is far fuller 

and more accurate than in any other dictionary. 

1905. WOERMANN, Karl. Geschichte der Kunst, n, 419-426. Leipzig. 
1905. DOEHLEMANN, Karl. Die Verwertung der Linear perspective 

zur Datierung von Bildern, 4 pp., 2 phototypes. In Mitteilungen 

der Gesellschaft fur vervielf altige Kiinst, 10-13. 

He examines Kern's work and shows that some of his 

conclusions are incorrect. 
1905. DURAND-GREVILLE, E. Hubert Van Eyck, son ceuvre et son 

influence. In Les Arts anciens de Flandre, i, 11-36, 64-79, and 

ii, 23-63. Bruges, 1905-1907. 
1905. REINACH, Salomon. Cone et Van Eyck. \nRevueArchtologique, 

4 S., v, i 38. Paris. 
1905. FIERENS, H. Etudes sur 1'Art Flamand. La Renaissance septen- 

trionale et les premiers maitres des Flandres, 99-215 ; 42 photo- 
types. Bruxelles. 
1905. KOECHLIN, R. Les Van Eyck et 1'Art Frangais du xiv c siecle. 

In Revue de CArt ChrUien, 5 S., i, 280-281. Bruges. 
1905. BUSKEN-HUET, G. Het Land van Rubens. Belgische Reishe- 

rinneringen, 86-no. Haarlem, 1905. 
1905. DURAND. L'inscription sur le retable de Gand. In Bulletin de 

la Society nationale des Antiquaires de France ', 258-260. Paris. 
1905. DOEHLEMANN, Karl. Die Perspektive der Briider Van Eyck. 

In Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, 419-425. Leipzig. 
1905. MUTHER, Richard. Geschichte der Malerei. Leipzig, 1900. 


English translation by G. KRIEHN, i, 59-62 and 70-75. New 
York, 1907. 

1905. WIENER, Christian. Lehrbuch der darstellenden Geometrie, i, 9. 

John van Eyck had not a mathematical knowledge of 

1906. WESTENDORP, Karl. Die Anfange der franzosisch-niederlan- 
dischen Portraittafel, 48-49 and 73-78. Kb'ln. 

1906. VOLL, K. Altniederlandische Malerei von Ian van Eyck bis 
Memling : ein entwickelungsgeschichtlicher Versuch, 7-50 ; 5 
phototypes. Leipzig. 

1906. SIEBERT, Margarete. Die Madonnendarstellung in der altnieder- 
landischen Kunst von Ian van Eyck bis zu der Manieristen, 6-13. 

1906. HELBIG, Jules. L'Art Mosan, 105-109 ; 2 photoengr. Bruxelles. 
The editor of this posthumous work is evidently not acquainted 
with recent literature relating to the Van Eycks. Nothing is 
known as to the birth-year of any one of the Van Eycks. On 
the other hand, it is quite certain that John never quitted Duke 
Philip's service, but remained in it until his death in 1441, not 
1440. The office of chamberlain was much higher than that 
which he held of ' varlet de chambre.' The central figure in the 
upper zone of the Ghent polyptych represents the Eternal Father, 
not Christ, who is figured as the Lamb of God. 

1906. GAND. Guide illustre, public sous les auspices de la Commission 
locale des Monuments. 2nd edition, LIII and 11-12. Gand. 

1906. COENEN, Joseph. Quelques points obscurs de la vie des freres 
Van Eyck. In Leodium, iv, 150-159; v, 6-n, 21-25 ar >d 54~59- 

The three points discussed in these articles are : the origin of 
the family, the date of birth of the painters, and their migration to 

1906. SCHMIDT-DEGENER, E. Rembrandt imitateur de Claus Sluter 
et de Jean van Eyck. 20 pp. ; 9 phototypes. In Gazette des 
Beaux ArtS) 3 P., xxxvi, 89-108. Paris. 

1907. MONCHAMP, Georges. L'inscription du retable de 1'Agneau. In 
Leodium, v, 5-6. Liege. 

The author is certainly wrong in his contentions. E Eyck 


is correct, and the first words of the third line must have been 

perfecit letus or suscepit letus. 
1907. SCHMIDT-DEGENER, F. Les 'Sept Vertus ' de Jean van Eyck 

au Musee Neerlandais a Amsterdam. In L? Art Flamand ct 

Hollandais, iv, 16-30 and 67-79 ; 1 6 phototypes. Bruxelles. 
1907. WEALE, W. H. James. Observations sur quelques points obscurs 

de la vie des freres Van Eyck. In Leodizim, v, 87-88. Liege. 
1907. SEECK. Die Beweinung mit den Stifter. In Zeitschrift fur 

bildende Kunst, N.F., xvm, 206-210. 
1907. P. BERGMANS. Note sur la representation du retable de 

1'Agneau mystique des Van Eyck, en tableau vivant, a Gand 

en 1458. 8 pp. Gand. 
1907. REINACH, S. Apollo: an illustrated Manual of the History of 

Art. English translation by F. SIMMONDS, 216-223. London. 
1907. *HEINS, Armand. Une vue de Gand peinte par Hubert van 

Eyck. 60 pp. ; illustrations. Gand. 


1678. MALVASIA, Carlo C. Felsina Pittrice. Vite da Pittori Bolognesi, 
I, 27-28. Bologna. 

1762. WALPOLE, Horace. Anecdotes of Painting in England, i, 24-29. 
Strawberry Hill, 1762. 

1774. LESSING, Gotthold, E. Vom Alter der Oelmalerey. Braun- 

1781. RASPE, Rudolph E. A critical essay on Oil Painting, proving 
that the art of painting in oil was known before the pretended 
discovery of John and Hubert van Eyck. London. 

Characteristic of the period at which it was written. Raspe 
was an able man, but evidently without practical knowledge. 

1792. BUDBERG, O. C. von. Ueber das Alter der Oehlmahlerey zur 
Vertheidigung des Vasari. Goettingen. 

1803. FIORILLO. Kleine Schriften artistischen Inhalts : vi, Ueber das 
Alter der Oehlmahlerey, 189-228. Goettingen. 


1809. PUCCINI, Tommaso. Memorie istorico-critiche di Antonello 

degli Antoni, pittori Messinese. Firenze. 

1830. MERIMEE, Jean F. L. De la Peinture a 1'huile, ou des precedes 
materials employes dans ce genre de peinture depuis Hubert et 
Jean van Eyck jusqu' a nos jours. Paris. 

English translation by W. B. Sarsfield Taylor. London, 1839. 
1847. EASTLAKE, Charles L. Materials for a history of oil-painting. 

Italian translation by Giovanni A. Bezzi. Livorno, 1849. 

1857. BROU, Charles De. La Peinture a 1'huile avant les Van Eyck. 
In Revue universe lie des Arts. Paris. 

1858. SECCO-SUARDO, Giovanni. Sulla scoperta ed introduzione in 
Italia dell' odierno sistema di dipingere ad olio. Milano. 

1878. MILANESI, Gaetano. Commentaria alia Vita di Antonello da 

Messina. In VASARI, Le Vite, n, 575-589. Firenze. 
1883. BAES, Edgar. Recherches sur les matieres colorantes employees 

par les artistes dans les divers precedes de peinture en us-age 

dans 1'Antiquite, pendant le Moyen age et a 1'epoque de la 

Renaissance. 107 pp. Bruxelles. 
1885. DEHAISNES, C. Les Precedes de 1'Ecole Flamande primitive et 

la peinture a 1'huile. In Bulletin monumental, 6 S., i, 563-583. 

1887. LALAING, E. de. Jean van Eyck, inventeur de la peinture a 

1'huile. 142 pp. Paris. 
1895. CREMER, Franz G. Studien zur Geschichte der Oelfarben- 

technik. Dusseldorf. 
1897. BERGER, Ernst. Quellen und Technik der Fresko- Oel- und 

Tempera-Malerei des Mittelalters einschliesslich der Van Eyck- 

Technick, 221-256. Miinchen. 
1891. LAURIE, Arthur. On the durability of pictures painted with 

oils and varnishes. With observations by W. F. REID, HOLMAN 

HUNT, etc. In Journal of t tie Society of Arts, xxxix, 392-399 

and 437. London. 
1897. POPP, H. Les Couleurs des Maitres de la Renaissance. 

An article on the processes employed. 
1901. ALLAN, Ugolin. Van Eyck's Discovery. In the Architectural 

Review, x, 213-217. London. 



*igo2. HERRINGHAM, Christiana J. Van Eyck's discovery. In the 
Architectural Review, xi, 165-169. London. 

Combats Allan's view that the discovery was merely the 
purification of oil by washing, and believes that a principal part 
of his method consisted in the incorporation of a very perfect 
varnish with the pigments. 

1904. DALBON, Charles. Les Origines de la Peinture a 1'huile. Paris. 

1905. WURZBACH, Alfred von. Die Erfindung der Oelmalerei. In 
his " Niederlanclisches Kiinstler-Lexikon," i, 515, 516. Wien. 

1906. EIBNER, A. Zur Frage der Van Eyck Technik. In Repertorium 
fur Kunstwissenschaft, xxix, 425-440. Berlin. 

1907. LAURIE, A. Oils, Varnishes, and Mediums used in the painting 
of Pictures. In Journal of the Society of Arts, LV, 557-567 ; with 
observations by W. F. REID, etc. London. 




AT a distance of some thirteen or fourteen miles from 
Maastricht, in a bend of the Maas, on the left bank of that 
river, lies the little town of Maaseyck, a veritable outpost of 
population, famous now for all time as the birthplace of the 
brothers Hubert and John van Eyck. At the time of their 
coming the numerous monasteries and convents of the 
surrounding district were as so many nurseries of the arts 
and crafts in which they had long been cultivated with 
considerable success. Maaseyck itself owed its origin to 
the convent of Eyck, or Aldeneyck, founded in the first half 
of the eighth century by two sisters of noble family, who had 
been educated in a Benedictine abbey at Valenciennes ; two 
illuminated manuscripts, and a chasuble and a couple of 
embroidered veils, the work of their hands, still preserved in 
the treasury of the parish church of Maaseyck, are evidence of 
their skill. At first the arts were confined to the monasteries, 
but in the thirteenth century sculptors and painters who were 
laymen were to be found in the principal towns, notably at 
Coeln and Maastricht, where they had acquired celebrity by 
their skill ; and it appears at least probable that Hubert and 
John received their early training in the latter town. The 

I 2 


date of their birth and the names of their parents are alike 
unknown. The elder of the two, Hubert, is said to have 
been born about 1365, the younger, John, about 1385 j 1 but 
these dates are purely speculative. All we know for certain 
about Hubert's life is that he had settled in Ghent and 
acquired the freedom of that town before 1425, and, further, 
that he resided there until his death on the i8th of Septem- 
ber, 1426. John's history from the 24th of October, 1422, 
until his decease on the 9th of July, 1441, is now fairly 
complete. Their brother Lambert was employed by Philip II., 
Duke of Burgundy, on several occasions in 1431 (is), 2 and 
was certainly at Bruges in 1442 (32). A sister, named 
Margaret, is said to have dwelt with Hubert, but no mention 
of her earlier than the second half of the sixteenth century 
has yet been discovered, and I am inclined to consider her 
as merely an airy conception of the over-fecund imagination 
of the poet-painter Luke De Heere. The only other known 
member of the family is a certain Henry van Eyck, whose 
exact relationship to the three brothers has not as yet been ascer- 
tained. What further information I have been able to gather 
about him will be found at the end of the biography of John. 

As I have already intimated, absolutely nothing is 
known of Hubert's early years. Probability points to his 
having served his apprenticeship under some painter at 
Maastricht, to his having travelled at its close to Coeln, 
Basel, and Italy, possibly returning to the Low Countries by 

1 He must have been born before 1392, as he was already a 
master painter in 1422. 

2 The numbers in parentheses refer to those of the Documents 
printed in chronological order in the preceding pages. 


France, Spain, and England. It is not known when he 
returned, nor where he at first settled, but it was most likely 
at Maastricht, Utrecht, Harlem, or the Hague. There were 
certainly a number of painters and miniaturists in that part 
of the Low Countries who would seem to have come under 
his influence. Most remarkable among their works are 
certain miniatures executed for William IV. of Bavaria, 
Count of Holland and Zeeland, or his daughter Jacqueline, 
between 1412 and 1418, in the splendid Book of Hours which 
perished in the lamentable fire at Turin in 1903, happily not 
before they had been photographed for Count Paul Durrieu, 
to whom we are indebted for their publication. Some of 
these miniatures are thought to have been designed or 
painted by Hubert himself, owing to the many points of 
resemblance between them and portions of the Ghent poly- 
ptych. That great work, as suggested by Dr. Six, may indeed 
have been commenced to the order of William IV. In any 
event, Hubert must have removed to Ghent at latest soon 
after William's death, about which time numbers of crafts- 
men migrated to the towns of Brabant and Flanders, where 
they could practise their art in greater security. In 1425 
Hubert made for the magistrates of Ghent either two sketches 
for a pair of panels or two alternative designs for a single 
panel ; he received for his pains six shillings (2). As the 
sketches were paid for an unusual occurrence and as there 
is no record of any contract having been entered into, or of 
any further payment having been made to him, we may safely 
conclude that he was not commissioned to execute the work. 
In 1425 he was engaged not only on the polyptych, but also 
on a painting for an altar erected by one Robert Poortier and 


his wife in the church of Saint Saviour, and in polychroming 
a statue of Saint Anthony destined to be placed above it (5). 
In the year 1425-1426 l the civic dignitaries paid him a visit, 
doubtless to view the works he had in hand, and marked the 
occasion by a gratuity of six groats to his apprentices (4). On 
the 1 8th of September, 1426, the great master breathed his 
last, and was subsequently laid to rest in the crypt beneath 
the chapel for which he had painted the far-famed altar-piece. 
A brass plate bore this inscription 

"Spieghelt u an my die op my "Take warning by me, who o'er 

treden : me tread : 

Ick was als ghy, nu bem beneden I was as ye, now lie beneath, 
Begraven doot, alst is anschyne. "-Buried dead, as is apparent. 
My ne halp raet, const, noch x Availed me not counsel, art, nor 

medicine. medicine. 

Const, eer.wijsheyt, macht, rijcheyt Art, honour, wisdom, strength, 

groot riches great, 

Is onghespaert, als comt die doot. Are all unspared when cometh 

Hubrecht van Eyck was ick ghe- Hubert van Eyck was I named, 

Nu spyse der wormen, voormaels Now food of worms, erstwhile well 

bekant known, 

In schilderye zeer hooghe gheeert : In painting very highly honoured, 
Cort na was yet, in niente verkeert. Yet shortly after changed to 


Int iaer des Heeren des sijt ghewes, In the year of the Lord it is certain, 
Duysent, vierhondert, twintich en One thousand, four hundred, 

zes, twenty and six, 

In de maent September, achthien In the month of September the 

daghen viel, eighteenth day, it befell 

Dat ick met pynen God gaf mijn That I in suffering gave up my 

ziel. soul to God. 

1 The financial year at Ghent began on the 1 5th of August. 


Bidt God voor my die Const min- Pray God for me, ye who love art, 

Dat ick zijn aensicht moet ghewin- That I His vision may attain unto ; 

nen ; 

En vliedt zonde, keert u ten besten And flee sin, turn ye to the best, 
Want ghy my volghen moet ten For ye must follow me at last." ' 

lesten." 1 

The receipt by the treasurers of the town of six shillings 
(8) tax on the property left by Hubert, paid by his heirs, is 
a proof that they were strangers. 

In 1533 the chapel and the crypt beneath it were done 
away with to make room for a new aisle ; the remains of 
those who lay buried there were reinterred in the churchyard, 
with the exception of the bone of Hubert's right arm, which 
was enclosed in an iron case and suspended in the porch, 
while the brass plate was placed in the transept near the 
first pillar. There it remained until 1578, when, together with 
a number of other memorial brasses, it was stolen by the 
Calvinist iconoclasts. In 1585 the churchwardens, after 
calling on all relatives and descendants of persons buried 
in the church to repair the despoiled gravestones, removed 
those as to which no response was made. In 1892 a slab, 
of which we reproduce a sketch (p. 8), was brought to light 
in the foundations of a side portal erected in 1769. This in 
1895 was transported to the Archaeological Museum in the 
ruins of the abbey of Saint Bavo. The brass tablet com- 
memorating Hubert may possibly have been let into this 
slab in 1533, but the slab itself is certainly not earlier than 

1 MARK VAN VAERNEWYCK, Spieghel der Nederlandscher Audtheyt, 
cap. xlvij. 


the sixteenth century. 1 It was not shown to Miinzer in 
I495, 2 and evidently De Heere had no knowledge of it in 

From a sketch by A. Heins. 

1565, for in a note to the eleventh stanza of his ode he says, 
" Hubert sterf [i.e. died] anno 14 . . ." 

1 See A. VAN WERVEKE, Ontleding van den tekst van M. van 
Vaernewyck betreffende het graf en de grafzerk van Hubrecht van 
Eyck. In Annales de la Societe" (fHistoire et d ' Arch'eologie, II, 1-8. 
Gand, 1896. 

2 See p. Ixxiv. 3 See p. Ixxix. 


AUTHENTIC information towards a biography of John van 
Eyck is confined to the last nineteen years of his life, and 
is almost entirely derived from the account-books of his 
employers. ^Xon^telnpoTaTvrNetTierlahHish and French writers 

y^-A^-*^^-* * J 

were too absorbed in chronicling the political events of 
the troublous times in which they lived to busy them- 
selves with the biography of craftsmen, no matter how 

In or before 1422 John van Eyck became attached to 
the household of John of Bavaria as painter and " varlet de 
chambre." As the household accounts of that prince have not 
been preserved, we do not know what were the emoluments 
and privileges attaching to the post. John of Bavaria had 
been elected prince-bishop of Liege in 1390, and, though neither 
consecrated, nor even ordained priest or deacon, he clung to 
the temporalities dependent on that dignity until 1418. His 
elder brother, William IV., Count of Holland and Zeeland, 
died on the 3ist of May, 1417, leaving an only child, Jacque- 
line. John, determined to rob his niece of her rights, started 
from Li6ge in September of the following year on an expedi- 
tion to Holland, and installed himself as count at Dordrecht ; 


then, having seized Gorcum and other strongholds, he, 
towards the end of the year, journeyed into Luxemburg, and 
there married Elisabeth of Gorlitz, Duchess of Luxemburg, 
and widow of Anthony of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and 
Limburg. In the month of August, 1419, he removed to 
Holland, and settled at the Hague. There John van Eyck 
was employed in the decoration of the palace from the 24th of 
October, 1422, until the nth of September, 1424; his pay 
was at the rate of eight lions 1 a day, while his assistants 
received two lions a day each, (i) 

John of Bavaria died at Delft on the 5th of January, 1425. 
The civil war, which broke out almost immediately, was no 
doubt the cause of John van Eyck's leaving Holland and 
repairing to Flanders, where, as we have already seen, his 
brother Hubert was settled. Philip III., Duke of Burgundy, 
who not only had heard of John's talent as a painter from 
members of his court, but had himself, as he tells us, personal 
knowledge of his skill, took him into his service as painter 
and " varlet de chambre " on the igth of May, conferring on 
him all the honours, privileges, rights, profits, and emolu- 
ments attached to the office; 2 and further, to ensure the prior 
command of his services as court painter, he granted him 

1 There were two coins thus named : one of gold, equivalent in 
value to 8s. ; the other of silver, equal to 2 groats, or M. English. 
Van Eyck's pay was therefore at the rate of 5$. ^d. a day four times 
that of his apprentice. 

2 I do not know exactly what these were doubtless board and 
lodging when at court, and exemption from all taxes. When accompany- 
ing the court he was also entitled to two horses and a liveried servant, 
whose keep was defrayed in the accounts of the Duke's household 


a yearly salary of ioo/. parisis, 1 payable in two moieties at 
Christmas and Midsummer, commencing as from Mid- 
summer, 1425 (6). Shortly after his appointment, John 
removed to Lille by order of the Duke, who gave him 2O/. 
to cover his expenses (3). The yearly rent, 23/. 2s., of the 
house which he occupied from Midsummer, 1426, to Mid- 
summer, 1428 (14), was also paid by the Duke. 

In 1426, at some date prior to the i4th of July, John 
made a pilgrimage on the Duke's behalf, 2 and in the 
following month was sent by him on a distant secret mission. 
During this latter absence his brother Hubert breathed out 
his soul to God on the :8th of September. For the pil- 
grimage and the mission John was paid 91 /. 55. on account 
in August, 1426 (7), and, in October, 3607. in settlement (9). 
The Duke, to mark his appreciation of John's services as 
painter and in other ways, twice made him presents in 1427 
once of 2O/. (10), and on another occasion of ioo/. (11). 
Early in October of that year he started, in the company of the 
Duke's ambassadors, on a second secret mission, halting on 
his way at Tournay from the i8th to the 2oth of that month. 3 
This embassy was probably sent to Alphonsus V., King of 

1 The livre parisis was equivalent to is. i %d. ; 1 2/. parisis = 1 $s. 4</. 
= i/. of 40 groats Flemish, a money of account, not an actual coin. 
John's salary of ioo/. parisis was therefore equal to 5/. us. i^d. con- 
temporary English currency. 

2 Probably for the recovery of the Duke's health. 

3 The wine of honour was presented by the magistrates to John 
on the 1 8th and to the ambassadors on the 2oth of October. The 
1 8th being the feast of Saint Luke, John would no doubt have assisted 
at its celebration by the local gild, and have made the acquaintance of 
Robert Campin, Roger De la Pasture, and James Daret. 


Aragon, to obtain the hand of Isabella, eldest daughter of James 
II., 1 Count of Urgel, a match which would certainly have 
appealed to the ambitions of a prince such as Philip. If this 
was the object of the mission, it was not crowned with success, 
for the lady Isabella, in September, 1428, married Peter, Duke 
of Coimbra, third son of John I., King of Portugal. 2 Mean- 
while, in February, 1428, John van Eyck had returned to Lille. 
With a view to the reduction of his household expendi- 
ture, Philip, on the i4th of December, 1426, had issued an 
edict as to its future constitution, and as to the salaries and 
wages of all persons attached to his court. By virtue of 
this document, which is preserved in the State Archives at 
Brussels, several pensions were cancelled and a number of 
servants dismissed. No mention being made therein of John 
van Eyck, the Receiver of Flanders stopped payment of his 
salary. Complaints to the Duke no doubt followed, for Philip, 
on the 3rd of March, 1428, issued letters patent (12) to the 
official in question, explaining that he never intended to 
include the pension granted to John van Eyck among those 

1 Son of Peter, Count of Urgel, and Margaret of Montferrat. He 
married Isabella, sister of Martin, King of Aragon. 

' John I., King of Portugal, bastard son of Peter I. and Teresa 
Lourengo, born 1357, succeeded his legitimate brother Ferdinand in 
1385. By his marriage in 1387 to Philippa, daughter of John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, he had eight children : Blanche, died 1388 ; 
Alphonsus, died 1400; Edward, born 1391, succeeded to the crown; 
Peter, Duke of Coimbra, born 1392, married Isabella, daughter of 
James II., Count of Urgel; Henry, Duke of Viseu, born 1394; John, 
Grand-Master of the Order of Saint James, born 1400; Ferdinand, 
Grand-Master of the Order of Aviz, born 1402 ; and Isabella, born 
February 21, 1397, married Philip III., Duke of Burgundy, January 7, 
1430, died December 17, 1472. 


that were to determine, and directing the payment of all 
arrears due, and the continuation of the half-yearly pension. 

Philip, anxious to secure an heir and successor, decided, 
in the autumn of 1428, to send an embassy to John I., King 
of Portugal, to ask for the hand of his daughter Isabella. 
At its head was Sir John de Lannoy, 1 lord of Roubaix and 
Harzeele, councillor and first chamberlain of the Duke ; with 
whom were sent Sir Baldwin de Lannoy, 2 lord of Molembaix 
and Governor of Lille ; master Giles d'Escornaix, Doctor of 
Laws, provost of Harlebeke, and court referendary ; Andrew 
de Thoulongeon, 3 esquire, lord of Mornay, councillor and 
chamberlain ; John van Eyck, master John Hibert, secretary, 
Peter de Vauldres, 4 esquire, cupbearer, John de Baissi, 
esquire, Oudot Brain, esquire, Hector Sacquespee, Baldwin 
d'Ongnies, 5 esquire, steward ; a clerk of accounts, and two 
pursuivants, Renty and Portejoie. 6 

1 John de Lannoy, knighted by Duke Philip before the battle of 
Mons en Vimeu, August 30, 1421, married Agnes de Lannoy, lady 
of Roubaix. He was created third Knight of the Golden Fleece on 
the institution of the Order at Bruges, in 1430. He died in 1449. 

2 See biographical notice appended to the description of his 

3 Andrew de Thoulongeon, lord of Mornay, twenty-seventh knight 
of the Order of the Golden Fleece, chosen at the second Chapter held 
at Bruges in 1432, but never invested with the insignia, as he died 
when on a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre. 

4 John de Vauldres, lord of Jonville in Burgundy, cupbearer to 
the Duke, died at Bruges on the 8th of January, 1450, and was buried 
in the church of Saint Donatian. 

6 Baldwin d'Ongnies, lord of Estree, son of Nicholas and Mary 
of Molembaix, married Pe>onne, daughter of Guy Guilbaut ; died in 


6 At the ambassadors' leave-taking prior to setting out on their 


John van Eyck was absent from Flanders a little over 
fourteen months from the igth of October, 1428, until 
Christmas, 1429. The ambassadors and their suite embarked 
in two Venetian galleys then lying in the harbour of Sluus, 1 
whence they sailed on the iQth of October. On the morrow 
they reached Sandwich, where they landed and put up, while 
awaiting two other Venetian galleys then at London. These 
vessels arriving on the I3th of November, they again set sail, 
but were driven by contrary winds to seek shelter, first in the 
port of "La Chambre" (Shoreham?), then in Plymouth harbour, 
and next, on the 25th, at Falmouth, where they remained 
until the 2nd of December. Reaching Bayona, 2 in Galicia, 
on the iith, they again set sail on the I4th, and two days 
later landed at Cascaes, a small seaport town to the west 
of the Tagus estuary, about 15 miles from Lisbon, where 
they arrived on the i8th. 

Learning that the King was at Estremoz, 3 at a distance 
of three or four days' journey, the ambassadors sent a letter 
by the herald Flanders, informing him of their arrival and 
of the object of their mission. At his request they advanced 

mission, the Duke gave the lord of Roubaix 2OO/. ; Sir Baldwin de 
Lannoy, master Giles d'Escornaix, Andrew de Thoulongeon, and John 
van Eyck (13), i6o/. each; the secretary received 8o/. ; while smaller 
sums were given to the other members of the suite. 

1 Sluus, a town 10 miles north-east of Bruges, was at that time 
an important harbour at the mouth of the Zwijn, an arm of the sea 
which ran up to Damme, the port of s Bruges, but has long been choked 
up with sand. 

2 Bayona, a town on the Atlantic coast of Galicia, between Vigo 
and the mouth of the Minho. 

3 Estrem6z, a small town in the province of Alemtejo. 



permujiori qf t/u> flertin 


to Arrayollos, whence, on the I2th of January, they repaired 
to Aviz, 1 in the province of Alemtejo, where the King was 
staying. On the morrow they were granted an audience, and 
presented Duke Philip's letters. On the i4th master Giles 
d'Escornaix made the Duke's proposals known to the court 
in a Latin oration, to which a doctor of the King's Council 
replied, likewise in Latin. The ensuing few days were 
spent by the ambassadors in discussing with the council 
the Duke's proposals. The time necessarily occupied in 
settling the details Van Eyck devoted to painting the 
Infanta's portrait. On its completion the ambassadors de- 
spatched messengers to the Duke, two by sea and two by 
land, with the portrait and a full account of all that had 
been done there were evidently two portraits and two copies 
of the narrative. 

While awaiting the Duke's reply, the ambassadors went 
northwards through Portugal on a pilgrimage to Saint James 
of Compostella, 2 and journeying thence through the province 
of Valladolid, visited John II., 3 King of Castile, the Duke of 

1 Aviz, from 1161 the seat of a military religious order which 
gave its name to the second royal house of Portugal, through the 
accession to the throne, in 1385, of its Grand-Master, John, bastard 
son of Peter I. 

2 Santiago de Compostella, in Galicia, on the Sar, was a celebrated 
place of pilgrimage throughout the Middle Ages, the tomb of Saint 
James the Greater, the patron of Spain, being contained in the 

3 John II., eldest son of Henry III. of Castile and Katherine 
of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. He succeeded his father in 
1407, and died in 1454, having married : (i) in 1420, his cousin Mary, 
daughter of Ferdinand I. of Aragon and Sicily, died 1445 ; and (2) in 
1447, Isabella, daughter of the Constable John of Portugal. 


Arjona, 1 Mohammed, 2 King of the city of Grenada, and 
several other lords, countries, and places, returning through 
Andalusia to Lisbon, where they arrived at the end of May. 
At the King's request, they went on the 4th of the following 
month to visit him at Cintra. That same evening Peter de 
Vauldres, who had made the journey by sea, arrived with 
the Duke's reply, which was at once communicated to the 
King and the Infanta. The marriage contract, having been 
drawn up, was duly signed in the presence of a notary at 
Lisbon, on the 29th of July, and the espousals solemnized on 
the following day. While preparations were being made for 
the bride's journey to Flanders, brilliant festivities were held, 
until at length, on Saturday, the 8th of October, the party, 
numbering two thousand, set sail in fourteen large vessels. 

1 Frederic de Castro y Castilla, a prince of the royal blood of 
Castile, son of Peter, Count of Trastamara, Constable of Castile, and 
Isabella de Castro. He was created Duke of Arjona in 1423, but 
being suspected of treachery by John II., was in the course of 1429 
confined in the castle of Penafiel, where he died in the following year. 
Arjona is an ancient city in Andalusia, situated south of the river 
Guadalquivir in the province of Jaen. The recent officially published 
" Historia de la Ciudad de Arjona" (Madrid, 1905), written from 
records in the municipal archives by Don Juan Gonzalez y Sanchez, does 
not mention a visit of the Burgundians to Arjona. It is probable 
that the ambassadors met the Duke either in the neighbourhood of 
Astorga (Leon), or between that city and Aranda de Duero (Old 
Castile), which are the only known stages in his itinerary previous 
to his incarceration ; or he may possibly have been in Galicia, where 
he exercised the important function of High Verger of the territory 
and see of Santiago. 

- Mohammed VII., surnamed Abu' Abdillah, who reigned from 
1424 to 1445 ; or perhaps Mohammed VIII., surnamed As-saghir, who 
usurped the throne in 1428, and was slain in 1430. 


By the morrow they had reached Restel, where they stopped 
until the isth, when they proceeded to Cascaes, and thence 
put out to sea. Contrary winds compelled them to return 
to Cascaes on the I5th, and abide there until the lyth, when 
a fresh start was made, but foul weather supervening dis- 
persed the fleet. Four of the principal vessels, and among 
them those that bore the Infanta and the most distinguished 
of her escort, managed, on the 22nd, to make the harbour 
of Vivero, 1 where, after a delay of four or five days, they 
were joined by a fifth vessel. The voyage was resumed on 
Sunday, the 6th of November; three days later the five 
vessels put into the harbour of Ribadeu. 2 Here the lord 
of Roubaix, who had suffered severely from sea-sickness, 
landed from the Infanta's vessel, but after some days' rest 
he embarked with Baldwin d'Ongnies and a few others on 
board two Florentine galleys bound for Flanders, and on 
the 25th of November the seven vessels put out to sea 
together. Owing to a mistake of the pilot, the Florentine 
galleys narrowly escaped being wrecked near the Land's End ; 
the other five vessels entered Plymouth harbour on the 
29th. The Florentine galleys left Lizard point 3 on the ist 
of December, and reached Sluus on the 6th. My lord of 
Roubaix hastened to inform the Duke of the safe arrival of 
his bride at Plymouth, and in confirmation of the glad tidings 

1 Vivero, in Galicia, near the river Landoure. 

2 Ribadeu, in Galicia, at the mouth of the river Eo. 

3 Called in the narrative (p. Ixix) "le Camp de Caisart," which 
would seem to be a corruption of Cap Lezard, just as "La Chambre" 
(p. Ivii) certainly is of Shoreham, and "Pleume" and " Falemne " 
(p. Ivii) of Plymouth and Falmouth. There is no tradition of any 
Roman caslrum having ever existed near the Land's End. 



the Infanta and her party sailed into the port of Sluus on 
Christmas Day. The event was the occasion of great popular 
rejoicing. The marriage was duly solemnized on the yth 
of January, and was followed by a succession of festivities 
which lasted several days. 

Van Eyck no doubt remained in the company of the 
ambassadors until the close of their mission, but whether 
he reached Sluus on the 6th or on the 25th of December it is 
impossible to say. He appears then to have taken up his 
abode at Bruges, whence, not long after, he was summoned 
to Hesdin by the Duke to receive instructions regarding 
certain matters on which he wished to employ him. For 
his journey thither and back to Bruges he received igl. (17). 
In 1431-32 he bought from John van Melanen a house with 
a stone-gabled front in the Sint Gillis Nieu straet, now the 
Goude Handt straet, opposite the Schottinne Poorte. There, 
on some day between the iyth of July and the i6th of 
August, 1432, he received a visit from the burgomasters, 
John Van der Buerse and Maurice van Versenare, who, with 
other members of the town council, came to view some of 
the master's works. The magistrates on this occasion gave 
his apprentices a gratuity of 55., duly entered in the 
accounts of the treasurer (18). Some months later, prior 
to the i Qth of February, 1433, the Duke himself honoured 
his painter with a visit with the same motive, and gave 
his apprentices 255. (20). In April of the following year 
Van Eyck having been occupied several days in attending 
to sundry affairs on behalf of the Duke and the Duchess, 
received y6/. in remuneration of his services (21). 

About this time he took to himself a wife. Her family 


name is not known. Some critics think she was a sister 
of Joan Cenani, the wife of John Arnolfini, an opinion 
founded on the apparent resemblance of their portraits, a 


1. House named Sint Gillis. 

2. Den Gentyl Pot. 

3. John van Eyck's residence. 

4. House built on the adjacent lane. 

5. House named De Torre, renamed, in the sixteenth century, De Goude Handt. 

resemblance no doubt accentuated by the similarity of their 
head-dress ; the surmise, however, is strengthened by two 
details in the National Gallery picture the peculiar wording 


of the inscription pointing to a connection between John van 
Eyck and Arnolfmi, and the recently discovered fact that the 
Christian name of the painter's wife was Margaret (31), of 
whose name-saint a carved figure surmounts the back of the 
chair at the side of the bride's bedstead, a present perhaps 
from her presumed sister. Against this, however, it may be 
urged that Saint Margaret was especially invoked by women 
in expectation of the birth of a child. 

The date of the marriage is not known, but by an 
order of the 3oth of June, 1434, the Duke authorized the 
receiver-general of his finances to pay John Peutin, a gold- 
smith at Bruges, the sum of ^61. 12s. for six silver cups 
weighing 12 marks, presented in his name to Van Eyck at 
the baptism of his child, held at the font by Sir Peter de 
Beaufremont, lord of Chargny, as the Duke's proxy (22). 
This child would, in accordance with the custom of the time, 
have received the name of Philip or Philippina. Van Eyck 
had at least one other child, a daughter, Livina, who, in 1450, 
became a nun at Maaseyck. 

About this time Philip granted Van Eyck, in lieu of 
the salary of ioo/. parisis which had hitherto been paid in 
two half-yearly moieties, a life-pension of 36o/. of 40 groats 
Flemish currency, equal to 432O/. parisis, without any reason 
being assigned for this enormous increase. 

The accountants at Lille declined to register the letters 
patent granting this pension, and Van Eyck, justly annoyed, 
threatened, it appears, to throw up his appointment (23), where- 
upon the Duke, who was about to employ him on certain 
great works and, as he says, could not find another painter 
equally to his taste nor of such excellence in his art and 


science, wrote on the I2th of March, 1435, bidding them 
register the patent and pay the pension without further 
argument or delay, under pain of incurring his extreme 
displeasure (24). 

In 1434 the municipality of Bruges had commissioned 
three of the principal sculptors of that town, James van 
Oost, Gerard Mettertee, and James van Cutseghem, to carve 
eight statues of Counts and Countesses of Flanders, which 
were to adorn the front of the newly erected Town-house. 
The sum of 5/. los. was paid for each statue, the stone 
included. In the following year these statues and the taber- 
nacles in which they were placed were adorned with poly- 
chrome and gilding, six by John van Eyck, the other two 
by William van Tonghere 1 and John Van den Driessche. 2 
The painters received 5/. for the decoration of each statue, 
but to Van Eyck the sum of 3/. 125. was given in addition. 
He probably made the design of the eight statues for which 
the sum of 2os. g. was paid (25). In the course of the same 
year the Duke made him a present of six silver cups purchased 
from John Peutin for 6y/. 15^. (26). 

In 1436 John was once again sent on a secret mission 
to some distant place, for which he was paid 36o/. (27). In 
November of this year Rene', Duke of Anjou, who had fallen 
into Philip's power, was brought a prisoner to Lille, where 

1 William van Tonghere, a native of Tongres, settled in Bruges 
at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was Dean of the gild of 
Saint Luke in 1441, and died in 1456. 

3 John Van den Driessche, who held office in the gild in 1435 
and 1440, died October 29, 1451, and was buried at Saint James's 


he was detained until the nth of February, 1437. It was 
probably during this period of his detention that he made 
Van Eyck's acquaintance. 

In 1439 the receiver-general at Lille paid Van Eyck a 
sum of 61. 6s. 6d. in reimbursement of moneys paid by 
him to an illuminator of Bruges who had adorned one of 
the Duke's books with 272 large and 1200 small capital 
letters (28). 

At Midsummer, 1441, John received i8o/., the amount 
of his pension for two quarters (29). He had then in hand 
a large triptych for Nicholas van Maelbeke, provost of Saint 
Martin's, at Ypres, left unfinished at his death, which took 
place on the 9th of July of that year. The great master, 
though not a parishioner, was, as a member of the Duke's 
household, buried within the precincts of the collegiate 
church of Saint Donatian (30), to the fabric of which I2/. 
parisis were paid for his burial, and 245. par. for tolling the 
bell. On the 2ist of March, 1442, the Chapter, at the request 
of Lambert van Eyck, granted permission for the exhumation 
of his brother's corpse, and its reinterment in the church, 
near the font (32) ; for this reinterment the sum of I2/. parisis 
was paid (33) ; an anniversary Mass of requiem was also 
founded (34), which continued to be celebrated until the 
French invasion in 1792. The following inscription was, 
probably in the sixteenth century, engraved on a brass tablet, 
attached to the last pillar on the south side of the nave, at 
the foot of which was the great master's grave, covered with 
a slab of white stone : 

" Hie iacet eximia clarus virtute Joannes, 
In quo picturae gratia mira fuit. 


Spirantes formas et humum florentibus herbis 
Pinxit, et ad vivum quodlibet egit opus. 
Quippe illi Phidias et caedere debet Apelles, 
Arte illi inferior ac Polycletus erat. 
Crudeles igitur, crudeles dicite Parcas, 
Quae talem nobis eripuere virum. 
Actum sit lachrimis incommutabile fatum, 
Vivat in ccelis iam deprecare Deum." l 

On the 22nd of July, 1441, the Duke granted John's 
widow a gratuity of s6o/. in consideration of her husband's 
services, and in commiseration of the loss she and her 
children had sustained (31). To one of these, Livina, he in 
1450 made a present of 24/., to enable her to enter the 
convent of Saint Agnes at Maaseyck (36), a convent to which 
her father had presented some vestments (37). 

The brass tablet was stolen by the Calvinist iconoclasts 
in 1578. On the 28th of August, 1768, the Academy of Fine 
Arts, being about to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of its 
foundation, petitioned the Chapter for leave to erect a marble 
monument with a medallion bust of John van Eyck and an 
inscription to his memory. This was granted, but the 
Academy, finding the expense beyond its means, had a 
medallion portrait painted by Paul De Cock on a panel with 
a copy of the above inscription beneath it, adding four lines 
composed by Father Fidelis, of Courtray, a Capuchin friar, 
between the sixth and seventh verses : 

" Ipse est qui primus docuit miscere colores, 

Hos oleo exprimere et reddere perpetuos. 
Pictores stupuere virum, stupuere repertum 
Quo perseverans est sine fine color ; " 

1 MARK VAN VAERNEWYCK, Spieghel der Nederlandscher Audtheyt, 
cap. xlvii. 


and this chronostich at the end : 

"hoC Ita restaVraVIt aCaDeMIae zeLVs." 

On the 23rd of May, 1782, the Academy removed this 
panel to their council-room, the Chapter having decided to 
whitewash the church and clear away all monuments and 
paintings attached to the pillars. Later on a painted wooden 
tablet, bearing this mendacious inscription, was affixed to the 

west wall : 

D. O. M. 















R. I. P. 

A certain Henry van Eyck was attached to the household 
of John of Bavaria at the time that John van Eyck, doubtless 
a near relation, was engaged in decorating the count's palace. 
John IV., Duke of Brabant, the second husband of the 
unfortunate Jacqueline, on his arrival at the Hague, took 
him into his service at the request of members of the court, 
and in consideration of the faithful service he had rendered 
his uncle, he appointed him, on the 25th of February, 
1425, to the post of master huntsman ("jaghermeester"), 
with the same salary that previous holders of the office 

v r y& 1: 1 1 



had enjoyed. 1 Henry, however, probably for the same reason 
as his kinsman, left Holland and entered the service of 
Duke Philip of Burgundy as falconer ("varlet des faul- 
cons "). His name occurs in the list of the ducal house- 
hold of the 24th of December, i^26. 2 He is mentioned in 
the accounts of the receivers-general of the Duke's finances 
for the years 1433 3 and 1436,' with the title of "garde de 
1'esprivier" and " espriveteur." In the latter year the Duke 
sent him on a secret mission, for which he was paid I4/. 2s. 5 
In 1444 he married Elisabeth, daughter of Louis Sallard, 
master-falconer of the Duke, who on that occasion made him 
a present of ioo/. 6 In 1452 he was living at Termonde, and 
in that year became a member of the confraternity of Our 
Lady established in the collegiate church of Saint Mary the 
Virgin ; in the register he is entitled " spoerwarier myns 
heeren." 7 In 1461 he succeeded Sir William de Quienville 
as baillie of the town and territory of Termonde, which office 
he held until his death on the nth of November, 1466. He 

1 See the letters patent in F. VAN MIERIS, Groot Charter boek der 
Graaven van Holland, iv, 759. Leyden, 1753. 

2 This document is preserved in the State Archives at Brussels. 

3 Fol. I'f'ixif. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North, 
B 1948. 

4 Fol. cclxxiiij. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North, 

B 1959- 

8 Fol. cclxxviij, "A Henry d'Eick, que mon dit seigneur lui a 
donn6 et ordonne" estre baillie pour aller en aucuns lieux secretz ou 
icellui seigneur 1'envoya dont il ne veult aultre declaracion estre faicte, 
xiiij 1. ij s. g." 

6 Account of the Receiver-General of Flanders for the year 1444- 
1445, fl- ix c viij. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North. 

7 Communicated by my late friend, M. L. De Burbure. 


was buried in the church there beneath a slab of blue stone 
adorned with an escucheon bearing Barry of eight or and azure, 
ensigned with a helmet ; crest, a falcon. In his epitaph he 
is styled " sparewannier, councillor and chamberlain of our 
gracious lord the Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders, and 
his high baillie of the town and territory of Termonde." 1 
His widow died in 1505, and was buried in her husband's 
grave as were also their son John, who died in 1523, and 
their daughter Katherine. 

Margaret, John van Eyck's widow, was left in reduced 
circumstances when her husband died, and Duke Philip, 
compassionating her misfortune, made her a present of 360 l.g. 
(31). She had, we know, an annuity of 2 l.g. charged on the 
revenues of the town of Bruges. This she risked in the 
famous lottery drawn on February 24, I446. 2 In 1450 her 
daughter Livina took the veil in the convent of Saint Agnes 
at Maaseyck. Margaret had sold her house in the Sint Gillis 
Nieu straat in 1444, when she went to dwell in the Oost 
Meersch, in a house named the Wild Sea, in the parish of 
Our Lady, where she was still living in I456. 3 

1 " Epitaphes et Monuments des dglises de la Flandre au xvi e siecle 
par le baron J. B. DE BETHUNE," p. 52. Bruges, 1900. 

* A full account of this lottery is printed in La Flandre, vol. i. 
Bruges, 1867. 

3 The accounts for the following years are wanting. 


By permission of the Berlin Photographic Co, 




By permission of 



ic Co. 




GHENT: Cathedral. The four central panels, i. The Eternal 
Father: H. 2,10; 6.0,835. 2 and 3. The Blessed Virgin and 
Saint John the Baptist : H. 1,675 ; B. 0,755. 4. The Adoration 
of the Lamb: H. 1,365; B. 2,42. 

Berlin : Royal Gallery. . 512. The Just Judges: H. 
1,47: B. 0,52. 513. The Knights of Christ: H. 1,47; 
B. 0,51. 514. The Singing Angels: H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70. 
515. The Angel Musicians: H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70. 516. The Holy 
Hermits: H. 1,47; 6.0,51. 517. The Holy Pilgrims: H. 1,47; 
B. 0,52. 518. Saint John the Baptist: H. 1,47; B. 0,52. 
519. Jodoc Vyt: H. 1,47; B. 0,51. 520. The Angel Gabriel: 
H. i, 6 1 ; B. 0,70. 521. The Blessed Virgin : H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70. 
522. Elisabeth Borluut : H. 1,47; 6.0,51. 523. Saint John 
the Evangelist: H. 1,47; B. 0,52. 

Brussels : Royal Gallery, 14, 15. Adam and Eve, each 
H. 2,15. B. 0,38. 

From 1432 until the Calvinist outbreak in 1566, the 
polyptych adorned the altar of the Vyt's chapel in the church 
which is now the cathedral of Ghent. On August 19, 1566, 
two days before the iconoclasts broke into the church, it was 


taken up into the tower and later on was removed for safety 
to the Town-house. While there it narrowly escaped being 
given to Queen Elizabeth, who had advanced money to 
the leaders of the Calvinist party ; this was due to the oppo- 
sition of Jodoc Triest, lord of Lovendeghem, one of the 
collateral descendants of the donors. In 1584 it was brought 
back to the cathedral, and in September, 1587, replaced in the 
chapel. In deference, it is said, to an observation of Joseph II., 
when he visited the church in 1781, the panels representing 
Adam and Eve were removed from the church. In 1794 the 
four central panels were taken to Paris by the French Republi- 
cans, and there exhibited in the Central Museum of Art, with 
other stolen masterpieces, on March 7, 1799. The six shutter- 
panels, after being hidden for a while, were for safety stored 
in the Town-house, and although claimed by Denon, the 
Director of the Central Museum, who offered in exchange 
some paintings by Rubens, were not ceded, thanks to the 
firmness of the bishop, M. Fallot de Beaumont. After the battle 
of Waterloo, in spite of the violent resistance offered by 
Denon, a considerable number of the stolen works of art were 
brought back to Belgium, and on May 10, 1816, the four 
central panels were replaced over the altar ; but, owing to 
the general dislike of shutters, the latter were not, a fatal 
mistake, for, in the December following, during the absence 
of the bishop, who had retired to France, the vicar-general, 
M. Le Surre, a Frenchman, and the churchwardens, sold them 
for 3000 florins to the dealer L. J. Nieuwenhuys, who sold 
them for 100,000 francs to M. Solly, by whom they were 
sold to the Prussian Government for 400,000 francs. The 
panels representing Adam and Eve were ceded to the Belgian 



on oft/l Serhn Phofographic Co 


Government in 1861, and placed in the Brussels Gallery. 
According to Mark van Vaernewyck, there was also, 
originally a predella representing Hell, painted in distemper, 
which was effaced by a man who cleaned the altar-piece, at 
some date before 1550. If there be any truth in this state- 
ment, the subject represented must have been Purgatory. 

The exterior is divided into three zones, each subdivided 
into four compartments. Those of the lower zone represent 
trefoliated round-headed niches : the two in the centre are 
occupied by full-length figures of Saint John the Baptist and 
Saint John the Evangelist, in the form of statues on octagonal 
bases, which bear their names in incised capitals : S. lohannes 
Baptista; S. lohannes Ewangelista. The Baptist is pointing 
with his right hand to the lamb which he carries on his left 
arm, and the Evangelist is making the sign of the cross over 
the poisoned cup, from which three snakes are issuing. The 
heads of both saints are admirably modelled ; the dignified 
and earnest expression of the Baptist contrasting well with 
the delicate and youthful features of the beloved disciple. 
The drapery of both figures is rather heavy, with angular 
breaks in the folds. Both are painted in grisaille the Baptist 
whiter and the Evangelist yellower as if to imitate stone, 
but the folds of the draperies are in places so thin that they 
give the impression of having been drawn from carved box- 
wood or ivory models. In the two outer niches the donors of 
the altar-piece are represented kneeling on a pavement of square 
grey stones, their hands joined in prayer. On the right is 
Jodoc Vyt, bareheaded, in a simple robe of red cloth trimmed 
with brown fur, the sleeves of which, loose at the wrists, are 
of peculiar shape, pendent in bags from the elbows ; a large 


black purse hangs at his right side from the buckled belt 
loosely encircling the body below the hips. On the left is 
his wife, Elisabeth Borluut dressed in a loose-sleeved gown of 
peach-coloured cloth with bright green lining, and a white 
linen collar turned down over it ; the hair is brushed back 
off her forehead into a net distinctly visible through the fine 
cambric veil lying flat over it and forming two folds above 
the temples, whence it hangs down over the ears and cheeks ; 
a white linen kerchief, spread over it, covers her head and 
shoulders. These two figures, evidently faithful portraits, are 
inimitably lifelike. Jodoc's features, though not attractive, 
convey the impression of a capable and benevolent man. His 
forehead is low ; what little hair he has is cropped short ; his 
small grey eyes, directed upwards, are without power; his 
mouth is large, with a rather broad under-lip ; three warts, on 
the upper lip, nose, and forehead, are all faithfully set down. 
His wife is a really good-looking lady, with dignified matronly 
features full of expression. 

A long room with a stone floor occupies the full breadth 
of the middle zone. Here the Annunciation is represented. 
On the extreme right, the Angel Gabriel, in a white alb and 
voluminous mantle fastened over the breast by a circular 
morse, bends the right knee, and holding a lily-stem in his 
left hand, raises his right while greeting the Virgin. His 
wings are tinted of a soft hue. His light yellow hair, confined 
by a circlet with a jewel surmounted by a cross over the 
forehead, falls in wavy locks on to his shoulders. At the 
opposite end of the room the Blessed Virgin is kneeling at a 
draped prayer-desk, from the open book on which she has 
half turned at the voice of the angel to express her humble 




v permission of tAe Berlin Photographic Co 


submission to the Divine will and, with hands crossed on her 
bosom, is looking up with a mixed expression of timidity and 
wonder as the Holy Dove hovers over her head. She is 
enveloped in a gold-bordered white mantle, the ample folds 
of which cover the floor around ; it is fastened by a 
brooch set with pearls and leaves her neck bare. Her 
light hair, confined by a cincture of pearls, falls behind her in 
undulating profusion. The clear evening light is streaming 
in through an arched window above the prayer-desk, and falls 
on both figures. In the background, beyond the prayer-desk, 
is a niche in which are a brass candlestick and a pewter 
ewer, and, on a shelf above these, a stoneware vessel and 
a couple of books. The angel's greeting : Ave } gratia plena, 
Dominus tecttm, and the Virgin's reply: Ecce ancilla in 
calligraphic letters, are not inscribed on scrolls, but float 
in the air from the speaker, those of the reply from left 
to right, being inverted. At the rear of the lateral com- 
partments is an ante-chamber with a couple of two-light 
round-headed windows with trefoliated tracery looking out 
on street views below ; on the sill of the window at the left 
end is a decanter of water, which catches a ray of light. This 
portion of the ante-chamber is seen through two arches 
supported by a Romanesque column resting on a low wall 
separating it from the inner chamber ; at the left end of the 
ante-chamber is a vaulted stone staircase with a two-light 
window, of which the upper part only is seen. Strange to 
say, the background of the middle of the room does not 
correspond with that of the extremities ; the portion of 
the ante-chamber connecting these being omitted, and the 
outer wall of the building being brought nearer to the 



foreground. The oak ceiling of the middle is at a higher 
level, and consequently the rafters do not unite ; moreover, the 
street on to which the window of this middle portion looks 
is at a lower level than those seen from the ante-chamber, 
which discrepancies are a sufficient proof that these two and 
the adjoining compartments cannot have been painted by 
the same master. There is also a marked difference in the 
architectural character of the window of the central portion ; 
on its left is a niche with a trefoliated oculus beneath which 
a brazen vessel is suspended over a basin, while a long towel 
hangs at the side. 

Above the lateral compartments are two lunettes occupied 
by half-length figures of prophets. On the right, Zacharias 
is seen in a loose-sleeved dress and ermine-lined mantle 
fastened over the right shoulder with a row of buttons. A 
large folio volume lies open before him, and he is pointing 
to a passage on one of the leaves which he holds up with his 
left hand. His complexion is brown and highly coloured, 
his beard crisp and vigorous ; the features betoken a man 
of strong character ; the ears are not seen, being covered by 
the lappet of his fur cap. A long scroll encircling this figure, 
bears the prophecy: Exult a satis filia Syon iubila, Ecce, rex 
tuusvenit, 9. In the lunette on the left Micheas, bareheaded, 
wrapped in a mantle lined with vair, leans forward and looks 
down on the Virgin. A closed book lies at his side. Over 
his head is a scroll on which is inscribed the prophecy : Ex 
te egredietur qui sit dominator in Israel. 5. 

In the demi-lunettes above the middle portion of the 
Virgin's chamber are two kneeling figures : that to the right 
represents the Erythrean Sibyl, clad in a loose white dress 


bordered with gold, a dark cape and a white turban striped 
with blue, placed on a kerchief which falls over her shoulders 
and down to below her waist. A pearl hangs from her right 
ear. On a scroll above her head are the words : Nil mortale 
sonans afflata es numine, slightly altered from a line of 
Vergil's Aeneid* The Cumaean Sibyl, on the left, is more 
richly attired in a fur-trimmed robe open in front to the waist, 
displaying the gold-embroidered blue bodice of her under- 
dress. Her head-covering is a rich turban bordered with 
pearls, over which is thrown a veil. A scroll floating above 
her bears the words : Rex adveniet per secla f^^tur^^s scilicet 
in came? taken doubtless from the acrostic prose sung in 
many churches on Christmas Eve : 

" ludicii signum. Tellus sudore madescet 
E caelo Rex adveniet per saecla futurus 
Scilicet in carne presens ut iudicet orbem : 
Vnde Deum cernent incredulus atque fidelis 
Celsum cum sanctis cui iam termino in ipso." 

The names of the prophets and sibyls represented are 
inscribed on the portion of the frame separating the lunettes 
from the compartments of the middle zone, and those of the 
painters and the donor of the altar-piece, together with a 
chronogram recording the date of its completion, on the foot : 

Pictor Hubertus e eyck maior quo nemo repertus 
Incepit pondus que Johannes arte secondus 
Perfecit letus ludoci Vyd prece fretus. 
VersV seXta Mai Vos CoLLoCat aCta tVerl. 

1 Lib. vi, v. 50. 

2 I only know of one other painting in which these prophetic words 
are attributed to the Cumaean Sibyl, a fresco of the sixteenth century 


In 1823 De Bast found in a manuscript collection of 
epitaphs and other inscriptions, compiled by Christopher 
van Huerne (died 1629), a copy of this inscription in which 
the first two words of the third line are given as frater 
perfectus. About the same time Waagen, who knew nothing 
of De Bast's discovery, had the green paint which covered 
the frame of the polyptych removed, thus revealing the 
inscription which he published, but, as was too customary 
at that time, with alterations of what he considered to be 
mistakes, substituting ab eyck for e eyck, and secundus for 
secondus. The first two words of the third line were almost 
effaced, 1 and Waagen proposed suscepit letus as the probable 
correct reading ; suscepit no doubt was suggested by pondus, 
which the author wrote instead of opus, because he could not 
think of a dissyllabic word that would rime with opus. The 
lines are Leonine hexameters with a double rime. 

The interior of the altar-piece is divided into two zones. 
The Eternal Father occupies the centre of the upper zone with 
the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Baptist at His either 
side ; next, two groups of angels, one singing, the other 
playing musical instruments, and on the extreme right and 
left, respectively, Adam and Eve ; above the last two 
compartments, in demi-lunettes, the offerings of Cain and 
Abel, and the death of Abel at the hand of his brother. 
The panel beneath the three central compartments of the 

in the Gonfalon oratory at Rome. See Revue de I' Art Chretien, xm, 
340. Arras, 1870. 

1 Probably by the bolt which kept the shutters from flying open, 
or by the metal work to which the curtains that protected the exterior 
were attached. 

H J 



By permission of tHt Hertin Photographic Co 


upper zone represents the Adoration of the Lamb ; the 
remaining four lateral panels being filled by groups of saints 
advancing towards the centre. The scheme of the picture, 
founded on the Vision of Saint John described in the fourth 
chapter of the Apocalypse, was no doubt more directly 
inspired by the liturgical Office for the feast of All Saints, 
and mediaeval commentaries thereon. A work constantly 
read at the time, the Golden Legend of the Dominican, 
lacobus de Voragine, contains in the chapter on the feast 
of All Saints, an account of "a vision that happened in 
the second year after the feast was established by Pope 
Gregory. On a time when the sexton of Saint Peter had 
by devotion visited all the altars of the church, and had 
required suffrages of all the saints, at last he came again to 
the altar of Saint Peter, and there rested a little, and saw 
there a vision. For he saw the King of kings in an high 
throne sit, and all the angels about Him. And the Blessed 
Virgin of virgins came crowned with a right resplendishing 
crown, and there followed her a great multitude of virgins 
without number and continents also. And anon the King 
arose against her, and made her to sit on a seat by Him. 
And after came a man clad with the skin of a camel, and a 
great number of ancient and honourable fathers following 
him ; and after came a man in the habit of a bishop, and a 
great multitude in semblable habit following him ; and after 
came a multitude of knights without number, whom followed 
a great company of diverse people. Then came they all to 
fore the throne of the King, and adored Him upon their 

This work would certainly have been known to the 


theologian who drew up the scheme which Hubert carried 
out in such an admirable manner. 

The central panel of the upper zone outtops the others. 
Here the Eternal Father, solemn of mien, sits enthroned in 
majesty, crowned with a white tiara encircled with three 
bands of gold set with amethysts, diamonds, and a pro- 
fusion of pearls ; its lappets adorned with crosses fall on 
each side of His face. Over a robe girt with a tasselled 
cord He wears a splendid red mantle fastened in front by 
a large circular jewelled morse, leaving visible one band of 
a precious stole crossed over His breast, showing the word 
" SABAWT " formed by pearls. The mantle has a jewelled 
border very deep at the foot and charged with the words 
"ANANX ANANXIN PEX pErv" (King of kings), partly in Greek 
characters. His right hand is raised in the act of blessing, 
while with the left He holds a sceptre of crystal with 
mountings and a finial of gold, of exquisite workman- 
ship, this and a crown on the pavement at His feet, sym- 
bolizing the kingdoms of the earth, are splendid specimens 
of the goldsmith's art. A brocaded cloth of honour stretched 
across the back of the throne shows, in gold on a dark-blue 
ground, a nest in which a pelican is billing its breast, the 
blood falling on its young and restoring them to life, this 
symbolical design being surrounded by vine-branches laden 
with grapes and a scroll inscribed " IHESVS XPS." The mold- 
ings of the high rounded back of the throne bear, in three 
concentric lines the inscription : 





$y permifjion aftfo Berlin 



Along the front of the foot-pace is the legend : 


The panel on the right is occupied by the Blessed Virgin 
clothed in a blue dress with tight sleeves buttoned at the 
wrist, and, over this, an ample blue mantle, kept from slipping 
off the shoulders by a tasselled cord attached to two jewels on 
its border. A magnificent gold crown with symbolic lilies and 
roses, above which float eight stars, binds her long fair hair, 
which falls in wavy masses over her shoulders. With 
both hands she holds an open book, on a passage of which 
she is apparently meditating. The neckband of her dress 
and her mantle are bordered with precious stones between 
two rows of pearls. The white damask cloth of honour at her 
back has a diaper of gold flowers and scrolls with Saracenic 
letters. The arched back of her throne bears these words : 


On the panel to the left Saint John Baptist, an austere 
figure with long hair, thick beard, and bare feet, sits with 
hand upraised as though to emphasize the words of the 
Prophet Isaias : Consolamini, consolamini papule meus, in 


the book which lies open on his knees. Over a garment of 
brown camel's hair girt with a scarf, he wears an ample green 
mantle with an embroidered border studded with precious 
stones between two rows of pearls. A red cloth of honour 
suspended behind him has a floral pattern combined with an 
inscribed scroll. The legend on the back of his throne is : 


The pavement of the three panels is composed of dull- 
red and dark-green tiles. 

In the panel to the right of the Virgin a choir of eight 
angels l stand singing in front of an oak lectern, on which an 
antiphoner lies open. Three other volumes lie on the stall 
from which the brass support of the lectern rises. The angels, 
one of whom, in front, is beating time with his right hand, 
are vested in apparelled albs and copes, that worn by the 
foremost, over a dalmatic, is of crimson brocade, its orfreys 
embroidered with figures of saints in canopied compartments ; 
the orfreys of another, with repeated representations of the 
Holy Face. Of the morses which fasten the copes of the 

1 " These angels," says Van Mander (f. 200), amplifying the 
statement in strophe 5 of De Heere's ode, "are so skilfully painted 
that one can see the different key in which the voice of each is 
pitched." Two on the left are making an effort to sing high notes, but 
there is no further ground for his statement. (See A. W. AMBROS, 
Geschichte der Musick, vol. in, Introduction, " Die Zeit der Nieder- 
lander." Breslau, 1870.) 



u pfrmtsstan. of the flcritn Photographic Co 


two angels nearest the front, one, circular, shows a seated 
figure in high relief holding the tables of the Law, the other, 
quadrilobed, is set with precious stones. The end of the oak 
stall on the left is finely carved the plinth, with an undu- 
lating stem of foliage and fruit, a lion sejant, and two apes ; 
the panel above, with a fine figure of Saint Michael trampling 
on the dragon ; the elbow-rests, with two seated figures of 

In the panel to the left of the Baptist, an angel, 1 in a cope 
of black and gold brocade bordered with ermine, is seated on 
a metal faldstool, playing an organ, accompanied by five others 
one on a harp, another on a five-stringed viol of unusual 
form, having two semi-lunar sound-holes, but without curva- 
tures. All the angels in these two panels have light wavy 
hair, kept in place by jewelled fillets, some of which are 
surmounted by crosses. The pavement in both panels is 
composed of tiles adorned with crosses, holy lambs, the 
ciphers of Jesus and Mary, u and the mysterious "AFAA." 2 

On the frame at the foot of these two panels are the 
legends : 


The principal panel of the lower zone occupies the entire 

1 Van Mander calls this angel Saint Cecilia, an absurd mistake, 
into which he was led by De Heere's ode repeated by Hotho, Waagen, 
Crowe, Kaemmerer, Champlin, and many others. 

This is composed of the initial letters of four Hebrew words : 
Atha Gebir Leilam Adonai, Thou art mighty for ever, O Lord. 
See GLASSIUS, Philologia Sacra, p. 438, and C. W. KING, in the 
Archaeological Journal, xxvi, 229. 


breadth of the three in the centre of the upper zone. Upon an 
altar covered with a white cloth, in the middle of a flowery 
meadow gently sloping down to the front, stands the spotless 
Lamb, from whose breast a stream of blood flows into a 
chalice. The superfrontal of the altar bears in gold capitals 
the legend, Ecce Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, and 
the stole-ends, Ihesus, via, veritas, vita. All around kneel 
purplish-winged angels, most of them clad in white girded 
albs shaded with blue or rose ; two at the further corner on 
the right support the Cross with the title affixed, and the 
Lance ; the corresponding two on the left, the Pillar and the 
Reed with the sponge ; two others in front, swinging thuribles, 
are offering incense, symbolical of the prayers of the faithful ; 
eight others kneel at the sides in adoration. In the centre of 
the foreground is a fountain, an octagonal stone basin with a 
bronze annelated column rising in the middle ; on its summit 
stands an angel, from projecting gurgoyles beneath whose feet 
and from vases in whose hands, the water falls in tiny jets. 
Round the head of the basin is the legend : 


To the right are grouped those who, under the Law or 
among the Gentiles, looked forward to the coming of the 
Redeemer: kneeling prophets with upheld open books, 
doctors, philosophers, and princes. All the figures in this 
group are deserving of close study on account of the 
variety of attitude and expression they display, three of the 
foremost standing, especially ; to wit, one Vergil ? draped in 
an ample white toga, holding an orange bough, and crowned 

1 Apoc. xxii, i. 




o Jt 


with laurel ; the dark-bearded man on his right, in a red cap 
and dark-blue mantle, carrying a branch of myrtle, and the 
venerable-looking old man with a forked beard, draped in a 
red cloak. Prominent in the corresponding group on the left 
are the Apostles, fourteen in number, including Paul and 
Barnabas, barefooted, in light, greyish-violet robes, kneeling 
in adoration. Behind them stand three popes, seven bishops 
and abbots, two deacons the one nearest the foreground, 
Saint Stephen, characterized by the stones he carries in 
his dalmatic ; the other, immediately behind him, Saint Livin, 
patron of Ghent, holding a crosier and the pincers with his 
tongue in them and a number of monks and clerks. Higher 
up the slope in the mid-distance are, on each side, flowering 
plants, shrubs, and trees, from between which two distinct 
groups are seen advancing towards the centre. On the right, 
an army of martyrs : popes, cardinals, bishops, and other 
saints, clad in blue vestments, with the exception of the pope 
in the front row, who wears a black dalmatic and cope 
embroidered with gold ; all carry palm-branches ; on the left, 
a multitude of virgins, headed by Saints Dorothy, Katherine, 
Barbara, and Agnes, bearing their respective emblems and 
palms. Upon all fall illuminating rays from the Holy Dove 
poised high over the altar, and between the Lamb and the 
Eternal Father. Through an opening between the wooded 
heights of the background, a river is seen winding towards the 
right from mountains in the far-off distance. To the right of 
the river rises the tower of Saint Martin's at Utrecht, and 
on a height to the left, a city with numerous churches and 
towers, evidently inspired by, but not a faithful representation 
of, Coeln ; further to the left are numerous churches and towers, 


decidedly Rhenish in their architectural character ; these are 
balanced by trees and by a group of buildings on the extreme 
right, the most conspicuous of which, octagonal in shape, con- 
sists of three stories. The background of the shutters of this 
lower portion of the altar-piece is formed by a landscape ; that 
on the two dexter panels is wilder, more thickly wooded and 
rocky, with two church towers, a couple of castles, and, in 
the distance, snow-capped mountains, whilst that of the other 
two panels with the exotic plants and deep-blue sky wears a 
Southern character. To the right, on the sandy foreground 
strewn with fragments of rock crystal and coral, the Knights 
of Christ CHRISTI MILITES and the Just Judges IVSTI 
IVDICES are seen advancing towards the centre, the foremost, 
Saint Martin, on a dapple-grey steed, clad in armour over a 
gambeson with long green sleeves, is crowned with a wreath 
of laurel, and carries a banner charged with the arms of 
Utrecht, Gules, a cross argent. On his left are two others, 
also clad in armour, Saint George on a white, and Saint 
Sebastian on a brown horse, the banner of the former bearing, 
Argent, a cross gules, that of the latter, Gules, a cross between 
four crosslets or. Saint Sebastian carries a large silver 
buckler charged with a red cross, bearing these words in gold 
capital letters : 


Beyond and almost abreast of them are two more figures : 
the further on the line being an emperor, Charles the Great (?), 
on a black charger ; on his right a prince, in a fur cap, riding 
on a mule, doubtless Godfrey of Bouillon ; a third, in green, 



Ztv pgrmtsrwn cftfi* Berlin. PtotograptiLc Ca 



mfuion of the Berlin Ptotographic Co 


with a small moustache, wears a fur hat with a crown 
superposed; whilst the one on the extreme right, with a 
white beard, has a curious, helmet-shaped head-dress, with a 
jewelled crown. Of the two engaged in conversation in 
the background, the younger wears a crown, the other a blue 
headkerchief, painted, as first observed by Dr. Six, over a 
crown, the relief of which is clearly seen when the panel is 
looked at in profile. 

The immediate front of the outer panel is occupied by an 
elderly man astride a white horse, with jewelled trappings and 
green housings to his saddle. Of five others in the front row, 
the third, wearing a black headkerchief and a dark-brown fur- 
trimmed dress, with a red rosary round his neck, has his head 
turned towards those on his right ; all the others are looking 
towards the centre. 

Upon the nearer of the two panels to the left are the Holy 
Hermits HEREMITE SANCTI the foremost is Saint Paul, 
with at his left, leaning on a staff, Saint Anthony, and close to 
him another, bald-headed and bare-footed, these two telling 
their beads ; on their right, seven more ascetics, mostly dark- 
complexioned, with beards and tangled hair, are followed from 
behind some rocks by Saint Mary Magdalene, bearing her 
pot of ointment, and Saint Mary of Egypt. On the 
outer panel are the Holy Pilgrims SANCTI PEREGRINI 
headed by Saint Christopher, a gigantic figure with a 
bushy beard, wearing a cap, and draped in a long red 
cloak ; he holds a pole in his right hand, and points to the 
centre, as if indicating the way to an old bare-headed man 
on his left, who is looking up to him ; they are followed by a 
dozen more of all ages, clad in a variety of garments. The 


background of these two panels, save on the extreme left, is 
a rocky bank, thickly covered with citron trees, above which 
rise a stone pine, some cypresses, and a couple of date-palms. 
Numerous birds are flying about above the figures in these 
two panels, among those high up above the hermits is a flock 
of cranes flying in V-like array. 

On the outermost panels of the upper zone, Adam and 
Eve are represented by two nude figures painted with brutal 
exactitude direct from living models, just as they stood before 
the painter, who appears to have concentrated all his powers 
on the representation of these two figures. On the wall, 
above the round-headed niches in which they stand, their 
names are inscribed in capital letters, ADAM, EVA. In the 
demi-lunettes at the head of the panels are representations 
in high relief of the offerings of Cain and Abel, and the 
murder of the latter. On the frame at the foot of the panel : 


Probably no other picture has given rise to so much 
discussion as has this. Until recently every one accepted 
the tradition that the commission for its execution was 
given to Hubert van Eyck by Jodoc Vyt, and that he pre- 
sented it to his parish church, now the cathedral of Saint 
Bavo at Ghent. But this tradition does not repose on any 
sure foundation. It is not warranted by the inscription on 
the frame, which does not say that Vyt ordered the picture, 
but merely that it was completed at his request. 1 It now 

This inscription cannot have been put on the frame until after 
the 6th of May, 1432. If one may judge by the lettering, it was 




3y permLsstcn of the Berlin Photographic Co 


seems probable that William IV. of Bavaria, Count of Holland 
and Zeeland, gave the commission. His territory was in the 
diocese of Utrecht and province of Coeln, which fully 
accounts for the prominent position given to the tower of 
Saint Martin's at Utrecht, as also to the adjacent view of 
Coeln. Ghent was in no way connected with either Utrecht 
or Coeln, but was in the diocese of Tournay and the province 
of Rheims. Again, the most prominent figure among the 
Knights of Christ is Saint Martin, the patron saint of 
Utrecht. The only saint especially connected with Ghent 
who is characterized by an emblem is Saint Livin, who was 
also much venerated in Zeeland. Probably at some time 
after the death of William IV. in 1417, the picture was left 
on Hubert's hands, and Vyt may have seized the opportunity 
of making a good bargain by acquiring the painting, on which 
Hubert continued to work until his death in September, 

Until the sixteenth century the altar-piece was thought to 
have been designed and executed by him. Miinzer, in 1495, 
speaks of it as the work of one painter who was buried 
before the altar, and that painter was certainly Hubert. 
When the altar-piece was cleaned and restored by Blondeel 
and Scorel in 1550, the inscription on the exterior of the 
frame was discovered, and it became known that it was 
unfinished when Hubert died in 1426, and had been com- 
pleted by his brother John. Then the apocryphal legend 
was invented and published by De Heere, and, soon after, 

not painted by John, but doubtless by order of Vyt ; had he given 
Hubert the commission to design and execute the altar-piece, that fact 
would certainly have been recorded. 


amplified. It met with great success, and universal accept- 
ance. Pursuant to the custom prevalent among the painters 
of that time, of introducing their own portraits into the pictures 
they painted, two of the Just Judges were fatuously fixed 
upon as being the portraits of Hubert and John. These were 
copied over and over again and engraved, and figure to this 
day in most works on Netherlandish art. Later on the frame 
was repainted, the inscription forgotten, and the credit for the 
entire work given to John. The inscription was rediscovered 
in 1824, but, as already stated, with the two first words of the 
third line partly effaced. 1 Critics have been ever since dis- 
cussing the part taken by each of the brothers in the work. 
Waagen, in 1822, was the first to tackle the question, but at 
the end of more than fourscore years the solution appears to 
be as far off as ever. Had the altar-piece come down to us 
in the state in which it was in May, 1432, there would have 
been a better chance of forming a correct opinion ; but this 
is, unfortunately, far from being the case. It was cleaned 
and renovated by Lancelot Blondeel and John Scorel in 
I55o, 2 probably with loving care ; but since then it has under- 
gone no less than four restorations. The first, in 1663, was by 
Anthony Van den Heuvel. In 1822 the four central panels 
suffered severely from a fire that broke out in the cathedral ; 
hot ashes fell on the altar, and the panel of the Adoration was 
split. A man named Lorent was employed in 1825 and 1828 

1 The damage had no doubt been done before Christopher van 
Huerne copied the inscription. 

2 According to Mark van Vaernewyck, 1568, it had been pre- 
viously cleaned by a man who effaced the tempera painting on the 


to repair the damage, at the wage of 15 francs a day. He 
devoted eight days to the Virgin, twelve to the Eternal Father, 
fifteen to Saint John the Baptist, and eighteen to the Adora- 
tion of the Lamb. In 1859 these panels were again restored by 
Donselaer ; each of which restorations diminished the chance 
of forming a correct opinion. 

It is only within the last six years that the discovery 
of the Turin miniatures, the critical examination of a 
certain number of pictures which have come to light, and 
the inter-comparison of these, have begun to shed fresh 
light on the subject. Those who have leisure and are 
curious to learn the reasons for the very various opinions 
of earlier writers, will find a fair summary of those put 
forth prior to 1864, in M. Ruelens' "Annotations," pp. xxx 
to xxxix, or they can refer to the works enumerated in our 
bibliography (pp. xciv to cxii). 

Jodoc Vyt, at whose expense the polyptych was com- 
pleted by John van Eyck, was the second son of Sir Nicholas 
Vyt, a Receiver of Flanders, and of Amalberga Van der Elst. 
He owned several mansions in Ghent, and the lordships of 
Pamele in Brabant and Leedberghe. After filling various 
offices, he was chosen burgomaster in 1433-1434. He married 
Elisabeth Borluut. They founded, on the i3th of May, 1435, 
a daily Mass to be said in perpetuity at the altar of the chapel 
which they had built 1 on the south side of Saint John's church, 
now the cathedral of Saint Bavo. Jodoc died in or about 
1439, his wife on the 5th of May, 1443; neither was buried 

1 "In de cappelle ende ten autare die zij met haren goede van 
nieus hebben doen maken." Extract from the deed of foundation, 
communicated by M. Victor Van der Haeghen. 



in the chapel they had founded. Vyt's arms were Or two 
bars cheeky azure and argent ; his wife's, Aztire three harts 
salient or. 

Michael Coxcie, as we are informed by De Heere's ode 
(strophes 21-23), was commissioned by Philip II. of Spain to 
make a copy of the polyptych. To its execution he devoted 
two years, 1557-1559, and received as remuneration 4000 
florins. In 1559 this copy was sent to Valladolid, but was 
subsequently removed to Madrid and placed in the Old 
Palace, where it still was at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Stolen by the French in 1808, it was brought to Brussels by 
General Belliard. In 1820 the panels were separated ; the 
two representing the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the 
Baptist were in that year purchased by Max Joseph, King of 
Bavaria, and are now in the Munich Gallery. In 1823 the 
panels on which the Eternal Father and the Adoration of 
the Lamb are painted were bought by the Berlin Museum. 
The panels forming the shutters were subsequently acquired 
by the Belgian Government, and are now attached to the 
four original central panels in the cathedral of Saint Bavo at 
Ghent. Coxcie's copy does not reproduce the Van Eycks' 
work entirely, for on the exterior the portraits of Vyt and his 
wife and the statues of the two Saints John are replaced by 
figures of the four Evangelists in grisaille, and the angel's 
salutation and Virgin's reply are omitted. On one of the 
dexter shutter - panels, moreover, portraits of Coxcie, of 
Charles V., and Philip II. are substituted for three of the 
Knights of Christ. The other panels are faithfully but 
superficially rendered. They lack the finish of the originals 
and the splendour of their colouring. The draperies are 


simplified, the jewellery poorly copied, and there is a want 
of air and life in the whole. 

A seventeenth-century copy on canvas of the inner portion 
of the polyptych, formerly in the chapel of the Town-house of 
Ghent, was sold on the approach of the French Army under 
Pichegru to M. Charles Hisette, from whose widow it was 
purchased by Mr. Aders in 1819. It was afterwards in the 
collection of a Mr. Robinson, at whose sale, on the 26th of 
April, 1839, it was purchased by Mr. Lemme for ^99 155., 
and by him was lent to the Exhibition of Art Treasures 
held at Manchester (n .375) in 1857. ^ was subsequently 
acquired by the Antwerp Museum. 

A reduced copy in water-colours, made by Mr. E. Schultz, 
1866-68, for the Arundel Society, now belongs to the National 
Gallery, and should be exhibited in the room occupied by the 
works of early masters of the School. Another copy of the 
entire work was in the possession of the late Professor Sepp 
of Munich. The Berlin Photographic Company have pub- 
lished excellent photo-engravings of all the panels, three- 
tenths of the size of the originals, and also copies in colour 
of two of the panels at Berlin. 

In the Louvre are two silver-point drawings on paper, 
which Crowe (p. 66) considers to be the original designs for 
the outermost panels of the upper zone ; the figure of Adam, 
" a small facsimile of the picture, that of Eve somewhat 
different, the head more in profile." They are certainly late 
fifteenth or early sixteenth century copies, wanting in firm- 
ness ; the head of Adam is bent slightly downwards, with 
quite a different expression to that in John van Eyck's 
painting. At the foot of the sheet is an elegantly draped 


figure of a woman, and on the reverse six figures : a mother 
standing with a child in her arms, a man seated on a chair 
with a volume lying open on his knees, and four women 
wearing caps of a decidedly German type. Another drawing 
after the Adam and Eve is preserved in the Library at 
Erlangen (Kaemmerer, 38). The Berlin Museum possesses 
an early sixteenth-century sketch of the angel Gabriel. 

In the following notes we have confined ourselves to the 
mention of articles treating of this altar-piece exclusively, not 
included in the general bibliography, and to the more im- 
portant works issued since 1870. 

1781. REYNOLDS, Sir Joshua, in his Journey to Flanders in 1781 
(Works, n, 254, 1798), says this painting contains "a great 
number of figures in a hard manner, but there is great character 
of truth and nature in the heads, and the landscape is well 

1802. FUSELI (quoted by J. KNOWLES, Life and Writings of Henry 
Fuseli, i, 267) : " The three heads of God the Father, the Virgin, 
and Saint John the Baptist are not inferior in roundness, force, or 
sweetness to the heads of Leonardo da Vinci, and possess a more 
positive principle of colour." 

1857. FOERSTER, Denkmale Deutscher Kunst : Das Center Altarwerk 
der Briider Van Eyk, m, 15-24. 

1865. SCHAEPKENS, Exterieur de deux panneaux de la grande com- 
position de 1'Agneau mystique, in Messager des Sciences, 165-170. 

1872. CROWE, 57: "The whole of the outer part may have been 
executed under supervision by the pupils of the Van Eycks. 
The three great figures of the Father, Mary, and Saint John, 
and those of Adam and Eve, are undoubted works of Hubert." 

1887. BODE, 212 : "There can be no doubt that the composition of 
the entire work is due to Hubert, who in addition covered all the 
panels and finished or nearly finished the whole of one row. I 
recognize his hand and his exclusively in the paintings on the 


exterior, particularly in the superb portraits of the donor and his 
wife." He attributes the three figures of God, the Blessed 
Virgin, and Saint John the Baptist, entirely to Hubert. In the 
two panels of the angels another hand has added cold tints, violet 
and rose, to the original warmer flesh tones. Adam and Eve 
are certainly the work of one hand, whether Hubert's or John's ; 
the hand of the latter is recognisable in the five lower panels, 
especially in the central one. Hubert's work is far superior to 
that of John, who laboured under a great disadvantage in that 
he had to complete a work already far advanced, and to which, 
until his brother's death, he had remained an entire stranger. 
1887. CONWAV, 133, considers the Adoration panel to be certainly the 
work of John. 

1889. SEECK, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preiissischen Kunstsammlungcn } x, 

1890. WOERMANN, 340-341. 

1894. REBER, 104-106. The entire work designed by Hubert. God, 
the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, and the Adoration 
of the Lamb with the exception of the landscape, painted by him ; 
the landscape of this and the other panels by John, who certainly 
painted Adam and Eve. Is in doubt as to who painted the 

1898. KAEMMERER, 10-38, strangely says that the Last Judgment 
was represented on the predella, for which there is no authority, 
and where it would have been entirely out of place. He is of 
opinion that Hubert designed the whole work, and executed the 
three central figures of the upper zone and the greater portion 
of the Adoration of the Lamb beneath them ; and that all the 
rest was executed by John. He says that the shutters on which 
Adam and Eve are painted are more than 30 centimeters taller 
than the central panel, which they covered when closed. 

1898. LABAN, 33-43, points out that whereas in the upper zone and 
in the central panel of the lower zone the whole arrangement is 
at once seen to be strictly symmetrical, the plan adopted in the 
four shutter-panels of the lower zone is altogether different, in 
that the means by which symmetry is attained are there ingeni- 
ously disguised. 


1899. SEECK, 68-70, after a careful examination of the altar-piece, 
arrives at the following conclusion : the portraits of Vyt and his 
wife, the five central panels of the upper zone, the Knights of 
Christ, the Just Judges (with the exception of the bare-headed 
man in the background, added by John), and the statue of Saint 
John the Evangelist, were painted by Hubert ; but the base on 
which the last stands was altered by John. The statue of Saint 
John the Baptist and the two outer shutters with Adam and Eve, 
and the reverse, were painted by John ; the remainder partly by 
Hubert and partly by John. He puts forward a theory (pp. 10, 1 1) 
that John was an excellent calligrapher, but that Hubert could 
not write ; one example that he gives in support of this is the 
occurrence of the Gnostic Agla, 1 which he thinks has no meaning. 

1900. DE SMET, A propos du Polyptyque de van Eyck a Saint Bavon. 
In Bulletin de la Socidtt d Histoire et dArchdologie, vm, 69-71. 

1900. VAN DEN GHEYN, Quelques Documents inddits a propos de deux 
tableaux celebres. In BTilletin de la SociCtd d'Histoire, Gand, 
vm, 201-208. A full account of how the panels now at Berlin 
came to be sold. 

1900. VOLL, 42-62, takes the central figure of the upper zone to be 
Christ, whereas it is clear that it is a figure of the Eternal Father, 
the Son being represented by the Lamb, and the Holy Ghost by 
the Dove. The three central panels, he thinks, were painted by 
John in his early days, but are now so obscured by dirt and 
dust that it is difficult to arrive at a positive decision on the point. 
The two panels with the angels he also attributes to John. The 
splendid portraits of Vyt and his wife, which he rather depreciates, 
present the greatest difficulty to him, and he considers that they 
were drawn by Hubert, but entirely coloured by John. The other 
panels of the exterior, those of the lower zone and Adam and 
Eve, were painted by John after his return from Spain. In short, 
John over-painted all his brother's work, and therefore must be 
looked on as the painter of the entire work! No wonder this 
critic considers it a misfortune that the inscription on the frame 
was brought to light. 

1 See p. 41, note 3 ; also Kunstchrcnik, N.F., XII, 261. 


1901. ROETTINGER, Die Eva der Center Altarwerkes, in Allgemeine 
Zeitung, Miinchen, Beilage, 198. 

1901. BODE, 127. 

1902. LAFENESTRE, 132-135. 

1902. HYMANS, 14. The figures of Adam and Eve may with sufficient 
probability be assigned to Hubert. 

1902. HULIN, Catalogue, 9. There can be no doubt here : the figures 
of Adam and Eve are certainly the work of John, not of Hubert. 

1903. DUELBERG, 51. 

1903. DURRIEU, 9-32. 

1903. KIRCHNER, J., Die Darstellung des ersten Menschen paares in 
der bildenden Kunst, 102-104. Stuttgart. 

1903. MARKS, 8, praises the wonderfully faithful renderings of the exotic 
plants represented, which he unhesitatingly attributes to John. 

1903. ROSEN, 62-91, enumerates the various trees and plants, and criti- 
cizes the representation of these and of the rocks and landscape. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 21-28. 

1904. WEALE, 26-28. 
1904. Six, 177-187. 
1904. DVORAK, 191. 

1904. KERN, 6-9, plates 2, 3, and 14. 

1904. L. and A. De mystieke Beteekenis vanhet Gentsche Altarstuk. 
In Dietsche Warande en Belfort, 309-328. Antwerpen. 

1905. FIERENS, 176-215, attributes nearly everything to John, but 
condescendingly grants to Hubert the glory of having conceived 
and designed the three central figures of the upper zone, a con- 
cession which, he says, it is difficult to refuse to traditional opinion ; 
but at the same time, one must recognize that only one painter 
could thus model their draperies and the face of the Virgin, and 
display such splendid colour, which painter was John van Eyck. 
He says the altar-piece was designed c. 1420, and settles to 
his own satisfaction the date at which each panel was painted, 
the Adoration of the Lamb and the face of the shutters on each 
side being the first, and the whole of the exterior the last to be 
executed. He repeats Kaemmerer's statement that the Last 
Judgment was represented on the predella, giving, however, by 
mistake Vaernewyck and Van Mander as his authorities. 


1905. MUTHER, i, 60, 70-72, attributes the figures of the Eternal 
Father, the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, and the angel 
musicians to Hubert ; all the rest to John, who he thinks altered 
Hubert's design. 

1906. HEINS. La plus ancienne vue de Gand. In Bulletin de la 
SociMt cCHistoire, 115-126. The view seen from the window of 
the Virgin's chamber represents a street in Ghent. 

1906. MAETERLINCK. Une ceuvre de Van Eyck mimee a Gand au 
xv e siecle. In Bidletin de I' Art ancien, 215-216. An account 
of a mystery play given at Ghent on the occasion of the joyous 
entry of Philip III., Duke of Burgundy, after the battle of Gavere, 
23 April, 1458. It represented the Adoration of the Lamb as 
pictured in the altar-piece. The stage was 28 feet high and 
53 feet broad. It is interesting to note that the principal Knights 
of Christ in this play were SS. George, Victor, Maurice, Sebastian, 
and Ouirin. 

1906. HEINS. Une signature de Jean van Eyck? In Bulletin de la 
Sotitte d'Histoire, xiv, 383-385. This is not a signature, but the 

holy name yecvc ; 

1906. COENEN, 156. 

1907. MONCHAMP, in Leodium, vi, 5-6. 
1907. COENEN, 54-59. 

1907. WEALE, in Leodium, 87-88. 

1907. REINACH, 221, thinks that John's share was confined to the two 
magnificent portraits of the donors. 

After a careful study of all that has been written on the 
subject, I see no reason for changing my opinion that the 
only portions of the altar-piece entirely due to John are both 
sides of the shutters on the face of which Adam and Eve are 
represented. These and the panels at Berlin are in a better 
state of preservation than those remaining in the cathedral at 
Ghent, and therefore offer the least difficulty to those who may 
wish to try and solve the problem of who painted each portion. 



Vienna: Imperial Gallery, 824. Oak. H. 0,35 ; 6.0,29; 

Head, 0,15. 

THIS was, in 1659, in the collection of the Archduke Leopold 
William, Governor-general of the Low Countries, 1 then in 
the Belvedere Gallery, 2 where it passed for the portrait at an 
advanced age of Jodoc Vyt, 3 the donor of the Ghent altar- 
piece. In the catalogue of the Imperial Gallery of 1884, 
Engerth entitled it ' Portrait of the Cardinal of Saint Cross.' 
In 1898 Kaemmerer threw doubt on the correctness of this 
ascription, justly remarking that the portrait does not bear 
the slightest resemblance to the monumental effigy of Do- 
minic Capranica, Cardinal of Saint Cross, in the cathedral of 

1 Inventory, n. 109. " Ein Contrafait van Oehlfarb auf Holcz 
des Cardinals von Sancta Cruce. Original von Johann van Eyckh." 
Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhochsten Kaiser- 
hauses, i, part 2, cxxi, col. i. Wien, 1883. 

2 Catalogue of 1860: Early German and early Netherlandish 
Schools, Room 2, n.42. 

3 This ascription was accepted by Passavant (Kunstblatt, 1841, 
p. 14). Crowe and Cavalcaselle, in 1857, were, I believe, the first to 
remark the considerable points of difference in the two portraits, and the 
exactness of their observations was confirmed by Hotho, in 1858, and 
by Waagen, in 1866. 


Siena ; and no wonder, for the prelate here represented is 
not Capranica, 1 but Albergati. This eminent prince of the 
Church, born at Bologna in 1375, was the son of Peter 
Nicholas Albergati and Philippa, his wife, only daughter of 
Dr. Bartholomew Chiopetti. He entered the Order of the 
Carthusians when in his twentieth year, was successively 
prior of the monastery of Saint Jerome outside Bologna in 
1406, and of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem at Rome in 1407, 
in which year he was also appointed procurator-general of the 
Order ; he was rector of the newly founded monastery of the 
Holy Trinity at Mantua from 1409 to 1416, and again prior 
of Bologna from 1416 until the end of March, 1417, when he 
was elected bishop of Bologna. Created a cardinal-priest by 
Martin V., May 24, 1426, he took for his titular church the 
Holy Cross of Jerusalem. In his humility he discarded his 
family arms, and substituted for them a simple cross. A 
model of all priestly and episcopal virtues, he continued to 
observe the austere rule of the Carthusians, sleeping on 
straw, never eating flesh-meat, wearing a hair shirt, and 
rising at midnight to pray. Nine times he was sent by the 
Holy See on important embassies, 2 when, dealing with 

1 This prelate was created a cardinal-deacon by Martin V., July 23, 
1423, but the nomination was not published until November 8, 1430 ; 
on the i Qth of that month Capranica took for his titular church Saint 
Mary in via lata. It was not until after Albergati's death, in 1443, that 
Capranica was raised to the dignity of cardinal- priest, with the title of 
Saint Cross. See CHACON, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Summorum, 
ii, no, Romae, 1630; PASTOR, History of the Popes, ed. ANTROBUS, 
2 nd ed., i, 261 and 264-266 ; and EUBEL, in Romische Quartalschrift, 
xvii, 274-275. Rome, 1903. 

2 Thrice to France (in 1422, 1431, and 1435), thrice to Lombardy 



Fram. a- fito 


matters involving questions of worldly policy of no small 
difficulty, he invariably displayed consummate prudence com- 
bined with perfect uprightness and integrity. 1 Thus in 1431 
he was sent on an embassy to the Kings of France and 
England and the Duke of Burgundy, to try and bring about 
a general peace. 

The Duke, who had started on a journey to Holland, had 
actually reached Vere, when he was informed of the cardinal's 
intended visit. He at once returned to Brussels, and sent 
messengers in every direction to the principal ecclesiastical 
and lay dignitaries of his dominions, summoning them to 
him without delay, that the Pope's ambassador might be 
received with the honour and solemnity befitting his rank 
and dignity. 

The cardinal, accompanied by Ame Bourgois, one of the 
Duke's councillors and chamberlains, arrived at the Charter- 
house of Herinnes, near Enghien, early in October, 1431. 
Proceeding to Brussels, he was received there, on the i8th 
of that month, by the Duke in person, surrounded by his 
court. 2 Thence he returned to Herinnes, accompanied by 
Ame Bourgois and master Giles d'Escornaix, provost of 
Harlebeke, who both escorted him to Ghent, which they 

(in 1426, 1427, and 1430), and thrice to the Council at Basel (in 1432, 
1434, and 1436). 

1 Eugenius IV., writing to Charles VII. of France, says that he is 
sending him the Cardinal of Saint Cross, "virum sapientissimum, 
magnaque auctoritate, ut nosti, et procul ab omni passione remotum, 
cuius omnes cogitationes, omnia consilia tendunt ad concordiam, ad 

2 The Archbishop of Coeln and the Chancellor of France were 
also present at this interview. 


reached on the 3rd of November. The cardinal stayed at 
the Charterhouse there until the 6th. Thence he went to 
Lille, and later on visited Bruges, where he spent two or 
three days at the Charterhouse, between the 8th and nth of 

The Duke meantime had despatched letters to the 
authorities of those towns, bidding them receive the cardinal 
with the honours due to his rank. 1 One of these letters was 
probably addressed to John van Eyck, bidding him paint the 
portrait of the cardinal. However, as his stay in Bruges was 
of such brief duration, 2 it was obviously impossible to paint 
it direct from life. Van Eyck was therefore unable to do 
more than make a careful drawing of his likeness, with such 
memoranda as would enable him to execute a satisfactory 
painting. This exquisite drawing, in silver-point on a white 
ground, is preserved in the royal cabinet of prints at 
Dresden. 3 At the dexter side are a number of notes disposed 

The accounts of the treasurers of both Enghien and Brussels 
for this period are lost. In those of the treasurers of Ghent are 
numerous entries of payments to messengers, to labourers for clearing 
the streets of the town and the road thence to the Charterhouse, for 
wine and comfits presented to the cardinal, for the hire of horses for 
the town officials who rode out to meet and escort him, to the town 
trumpeters, and to the bell-ringers of the seven parish churches. The 
accounts of the Treasurer of Bruges and of the fabric of the collegiate 
church of Saint Donatian also contain entries of payments for wine, 
herbs, spices, and wax-lights presented to the cardinal. 

2 It is uncertain whether Van Eyck was then at Bruges or at 
Ghent. In either case the time was too short. 

3 H. 0,212; B. 0,18. Acquired before 1765. Reproduced by 
WOERMANN, Handzeichnungen alter Meister im kdniglichen Kupfer- 
stich Kabinet zu Dresden, Munchen, 1896 ; in Die Insel, Mappenwerk, 

^f . i ' ' 

.o*\ >U.^.t k 
- ; f ** 



i v '^-V. 

v. ; 


s;^.- V^^'T ; ' .* ^ 

,.,,. | ,,-^Ft 

''^^'iVl *; 



-'1JL* - 





in sixteen lines, evidently written with the pencil used 

for the drawing ; these, partly hidden by the shading of the 
head, are now unfortunately, owing to the drawing having 
been exhibited during several years, much faded, with the 
result that some of the words baffle all attempts to decipher 
them. Here, however, are those which can still be read, 
commencing at the line on a level with the forehead : " van 
den voorhoofde vryssche vnd die nase sanguynachtich 
with the eyebrows : ". . . ten hair clair bleicachtich " with 
the eye : "... wratte purperachtich - . . . - van den augen 

swart um bruyn geelachtich vnd witte blauwachtich 
die vm seiden witten bleecachtich hecheren . . . van seiden 

ich en ... lachtich beym anziens . . . bruyn sanguin- 
achtich es of ... lachtich die lippen zeer witachtich 
purper, die stuppele van den baerde heel gry sachtich . . . 
brat door sachtich roodachtich." 

From this drawing the painting was executed. In it the 
cardinal is seen to the waist, modelled in a yellowish tone, 
with few flesh tints and without any deep shadow. Bareheaded, 
he wears the cappa clausa, a loose crimson robe edged at the 
neck and arm-openings with white fur, and fastened at the neck 
by two buttons ; the straight vertical folds of this robe, the 
arms and hands being unseen, give it an elegant bell-shaped 
appearance. The cardinal's head is turned to the right ; his 
close-shaven vigorous face, seen in three-quarter profile, 
with the light falling directly on it, is full of expression. 
There is quite a charm about the little brownish eyes, which 
appear to be looking out from beneath the eyebrows with a 

Leipzig, 1899 ; ^ Onze Kunst, i, 4, Antwerp, 1902 ; and in the 
Burlington Magazine, v, 195. London, 1904. 


keen scrutinizing glance, while a pleasant playful smile hovers 
about his closed lips. The numerous wrinkles on the fore- 
head and the folds of skin on the face and on the neck, up 
to the root of the ear, are marked by fine reddish strokes ; 
the left ear, seen in light, is admirably drawn. The short 
scanty grey hairs of his head, in a state of confusion, seem to 
tremble beneath each other, and the blood to be circulating 
under the relaxed skin and in the veins of the pupils of his 
eyes. The background is dark, but lighter and bluish near 
the head. As compared with the drawing, the painting is 
less lifelike and individualistic ; this is especially the case 
with the mouth and the lower portion of the face. It seems 
as if Van Eyck endeavoured to embellish the form of the 
head so that it should appear less heavy and broad. 

1857. CROWE, 88, rightly describes the drawing as the original 
beautiful design. 

1858. HOTIIO, n, 178. 

1865. B. PAOLI, Wiens Gemalde Gallerie, 114. Wien. 

1866. MICIIIELS, n, 293, with his usual want of perspicuity, describes 
the cardinal's features as soft and insignificant, showing that he 
could not possibly have been a remarkable personage ! ! 

1866. WAAGEN, i, 186. 

1886. ENGERTH, n, 134, dates the drawing between 1433 and 1435. 

1897. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xx, 71. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 70-72, looks on the drawing as evidence that 
John's usual method was not to paint portraits direct from life ; but 
this was certainly an exceptional case, when it was impossible to 
do so. He rashly suggests that the ecclesiastic's vanity which 
he thinks proved by his fur-trimmed crimson robe led him to 
give Van Eyck a hint to embellish his head in the painting ! A 
papal nuncio could hardly be represented in simpler attire. 

1899. SEECK, 29, 70, on comparing this with other portraits, arrived at 
a correct conclusion as to the date of its execution. 



1900. VOLL, 75-78, considers the drawing to be a very careful copy of 
the painting, and says that it has none of the freshness and life-like 
energy of the latter, so much so indeed that it might almost be 
taken for the portrait of another man ! ! He considers it highly 
improbable that John would paint a portrait from a drawing. 

1900. KAEMMERER, 70. 

1902. ROOSES, in Onze Kunst, i, 3-8. The drawing, he thinks, is 
rightly ascribed to John, and the writing is no doubt in his 
own hand. 

1903. DE MONT, 55, dates this portrait after 1436. 

1904. WEALE, 190-198, establishes the identity of the cardinal 
portrayed, and the date of the drawing. 

1905. FIERENS, 143-145. 

1906. VOLL, 98, denies the Cardinal of Saint Cross to be the person 
represented in the painting ! ! 

London: National Gallery, 290. Oak. H. 0,336; B. 0,188. 

Bought in 1857 from the landscape-painter Carl Ross, 
at Munich, for ^"189 us. 

Portrait of a dark-complexioned man with blue eyes, of 
about forty-five years of age, standing at a window-opening. 
Turned to the right, close shaven, with his face seen in three- 
quarters, he wears a dark red dress with full sleeves trimmed 
with sable, and fastened in front by two buttons. His head- 
covering is formed by a green scarf, the long lappet of which 
hangs down in front of the right shoulder, the other end just 
reaching to the left. In his right hand he holds a roll of 
manuscript, while his left forearm rests on a parapet of 
yellowish stone, bearing on the front, in Greek characters, 
what is supposed to be his Christian name, Tymotheos, and 


beneath this in capital letters incised in the stone, ' Le"al 
souvenir,' showing that this portrait was painted for pre- 
sentation to a friend, or more probably was a gift from the 
painter, who has written at the foot in calligraphic characters : 
"Actum anno Domini 1432, 10 die Octobris, a lohanne de 
Eyck." It is not known whom this portrait represents ; 
certainly not a Fleming, perhaps a Greek, possibly a 
humanist, apparently an intelligent, though by no means a 
handsome man, who, in spite of his angular features, heavy 
jaw, thick lips, prominent cheek-bones and cocked up nose, 
is a charming figure. The modelling is excellent, the colour 
rich and simple, but very harmonious and well relieved by 
the dark background. The under side of the panel, painted 
to imitate jasperated porphyry, bears, near the top, the 

cipher Q L (j of an early Italian, probably Venetian owner. 
Several old copies of the portrait are said to be in existence. 

1854. FOERSTER, in Kunstblatt, October 19, p. 373. 
1872. CROWE, 94. The drawing is careful ; the painting blended to 
a fault. 

1878. REISET, n, 9. 
1883. WEALE, 62-63. 
1887. CONWAY, 148. 

1879. SCHNAASE, 144. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 60, thinks 'Leal souvenir' was the man's own 
motto, and that ' Tymotheos ' can scarcely be conceived to be his 

1899. SEECK, 28, 30. 

1900. VOLL, 1-8, 27, 28. 

1904. WITT, 21. 

1905. FIERENS, 145. 





1906. VOLL, 29. 

A silver-point drawing (H. 0,21 ; B. o, 14) in the Print- Room of the 
Berlin Museum, which bears a slight resemblance to this portrait, 
is ascribed on insufficient grounds to John van Eyck. It formerly 
belonged to the poet Adolphus Hilarius ; was in the collection of 
William Mayor (died 1874) and was acquired by the Museum at 
a sale in Munich, June 19, 1897, n .244. 

Ince Hall, Ince Blundell, Liverpool. Oak. H. 0,225; B. 0,15. 

The scene is laid in a room dimly lighted from the right 
by a window glazed with tiny lozenges and a border of red, 
white, blue, and white. In the centre the Virgin Mother 
enthroned with the Child on her knees, His lower limbs partly 
covered with the white linen cloth on which He is seated. 
With both hands He is turning over the leaves of an illumi- 
nated manuscript which His mother holds before Him with 
her left hand. She wears a full loose dress of blue material, 
with jewelled neckband and white fur trimming at the cuffs 
and the hem of the skirt, confined at the waist by a broad 
red belt studded with gold, and over all an ample crimson 
mantle, the folds of which spread over the ground on all 
sides. Her luxuriant light-brown hair, confined by a circlet 
of pearls with a jewel in the centre, falls over her shoulders 
in wavy tresses. A rich cloth of honour of green and gold 
brocade hangs from a red-fringed canopy high up above her 
head. On a table before the window stands a metal vase with 
crystal cover, while on the window-sill are a couple of oranges 
and a goblet half full of wine. A tall pricket chandelier with 
a taper and two sconce branches, and a white metal pot with 



brass mountings, are placed on a low aumbry on the Virgin's 
left ; in its lock is a key, to which three others are attached. 
A rich carpet spread beneath Mary's feet contrasts well with 
the sombre floor; to the left is a large brass pan. In the 
upper part of the background on the right, close to the cloth 
of honour, is the signature : 

COPLETVKNOD . ., T , , , 

mccc&xxxiij an d on the opposite side Johns device, RAC 
J?IOHEM DE EYC appears here for the first time. XRN 


This picture is a marvellous example of John's talent 
both as regards finish of detail and vigorous treatment of 
colour. The Virgin's expression is pleasing and not without 
dignity ; that of the Child, happy and playful. The disposal 
of the oranges and the metal and crystal vessels so as to 
catch the light from the foreshortened windows on the right, 
and the manner in which the master has concentrated his 
powers upon depicting every little detail as perfectly as possible, 
is nowhere more noticeable than in this, probably the first 
picture painted by him after settling in Bruges. Unfortunately, 
the panel is covered with a thick coat of varnish, and in 
addition is slightly warped, which has led to a general 
cracking of the surface. 

Exhibited : London : Old Masters, Burlington House, 
1884, n.267; Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1892, n.i4; 
Guildhall, 1906, n.3. 

1854. WAAGEN, in, 249. 
1857. CROWE, 338-341. 

i860. SCHNAASE, VIII, 144. 

1883. WEALE, 193-195- 

1893. TSCHUDI, in Repertorium, xvi, 101, says the letters of the 


signature are uncertainly drawn, and have probably been copied 
from the original frame. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 58-60. 

1899. SEECK, 70. 

1900. VOLL, 8, 87-89, 131, declares the inscription to be a forgery, 
and the picture, which he had never seen, to date from the end of 
the fifteenth century ! ! 

1901. BODE, 122, refutes Voll's assertions. 

1904. DVORAK, 195-196. 

1905. FIERENS, 142. 

1906. VOLL, 35. 

I9O6. SlEBERT, I I. 

1906. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxix, 574, thinks the inscription 
has been copied from the original frame. He evidently had not 
remarked that the date is 1433, not 1 43 2 - 

1907. DURAND, 62-63. 

An old copy of this picture (Oak. H. 0,368; B. 0,277) 
was formerly in private hands at Messina, where it was 
bought by the Duke of Verdura for 50 ounces (2$) ; his 
collection was sold at Rome in April, 1894, when this panel 
was bought in at 1200 lire (^48); it now belongs to his 
daughter. The inscription, occupying a similar position, is 
identical with that on the Ince original. Another weaker 
copy is said to be in the Museum at Catania. 

On the upper part of the back there is what appears to be 
a contemporary note that the panel was pledged on the 2nd 
of July, 1619, for 3 ounces 15, or 60 scudi, " 1619 a 2 
Luglio questo quadro di Luciano Costa e stato in pegno per 
oz. 3 1 5 Scudi (?) 60." 



London : National Gallery, 222. Oak. H. 0,332 ; 
B. 0,261 ; within the frame, H. 0,26; B. 0,188. 

Formerly in the collection of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, 
later in that of George Alan, Viscount Midleton of Peper- 
harrow, died 1848. Purchased by the Trustees from Mr. H. 
Farrer, in 1851, for 31$. 

The bust of a man, apparently a well-to-do merchant of 
about sixty-five years of age. He is clad in a dark dress, the 
fur collar of which just covers the lower part of his face, but 
shows a little linen at the throat. His head-covering is a 
rich red scarf wound in a very artistic manner, its ends piled 
up at the top of the cranium. The closely shaven face, wearing 
a bright expression, is seen in three-quarters turned to the 
right, the eyes looking to the left. This, one of the best of 
John's portraits, is delicately painted in a reddish-brown tone, 
the modelling of the left cheek in shadow is most successful, 
its elevations and hollows, the pleats of the eyelids and at the 
root of the nose, and the veins and wrinkles of the forehead, 
being rendered with absolute faithfulness. The framework, 
which is original, is formed by four mitred pieces of molding 
glued to the face of the panel and secured by wooden pegs, 
and painted to imitate marble. The upper border bears the 
painter's motto: " Als ich can"; at the foot is his signature, 
with date: " lohannes de Eyck me fecit anno 1433 21 Octobris." 

1854. WAAGEN, i, 348. 
1860. WAAGEN, 70. 




1872. CROWE, 94, speaks of this portrait as being dated a few months 
earlier than the ' Leal Souvenir,' whereas it is more than a year 

1878. REISET, n, 8. 

1883. WEALE, 63. 

1887. CONWAY, 148. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 62. 

1899. SEECK, 70. 

1900. VOLL, 8, in spite of the inscription, looks on this portrait as 
apocryphal and as a work of much later date. The inscription on 
the frame, he says, is not calligraphic, and although the man's head 
is turned to the right, his eyes are directed to the left ; the head- 
dress too is anomalous and hastily arranged ! 

1901. BODE, 118, demonstrates the absurdity of Dr. Voll's contention. 
1904. WEALE, 249. 

1904. WITT, 122. 

1905. DURAND, in Les Arts Anciens, i, 23-25, takes this to be a 
portrait of John van Eyck, by himself, when about 47 years 
of age. 

1905. FIERENS, 146, esteems this one of John's best portraits. 
"Tout le genie de Jean est dans ce portrait." 

1906. VOLL, 43-44. Drapery of head-dress very clumsy ; cannot be 
of the fifteenth century. 



London : National Gallery, 186. Oak. H. 0,845 ; B . 0,624. 

Acquired after 1490 by Don Diego de Guevara, councillor 
in 1507 of Maximilian and the Archduke Charles, and major- 
domo of Joan, Queen of Castile. He added shutters to it, 
on the outer side of which were painted his arms and motto. 
Before 1516 he presented it to Margaret of Austria, Governess 


of the Netherlands. 1 At her death, in 1530, it passed into the 
possession of Mary of Hungary, and it figures in the inventory 
of her property in I556. 2 It was subsequently taken to Spain. 
In 1789 it was in the palace of Charles III., at Madrid. A 
little later it fell into the hands of General Belliard or one 
of the other French generals. In 1815 Major-General Hay, 
who had been wounded at the battle of Waterloo, found 
it in the apartments to which he was removed at Brussels. 
After his recovery he purchased and brought it to England ; 
in 1842 it was acquired by the Gallery for the moderate sum 
of ^730. 

The picture represents a Flemish interior, a quadrangular 
room seen in perspective. In the centre stand a newly married 
couple. The man, apparently about thirty-five years of age, 

1 " Ung grant tableau qu'on appelle Hernoul le fin, avec sa femme 
dedens une chambre, qui fut donne a Madame par Don Diego, les 
armes duquel sont en la couverte du dit tableaul. Fait du painctre 
lohannes." Inventaire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, 
dresse en 1516. Lille: Archives of the Department of the North, 
B 3507- 

"Ung aultre tableau fort exquis qui se clot a deux feulletz, ou il y 
a painctz ung homme et une femme estantz desboutz, touchantz la main 
1'ung de 1'aultre ; fait de la main de lohannes ; les armes et devise de 
feu don Dieghe es dits deux feulletz ; nomme le personnaige, Arnoult 
fin." Inventaire des painctures, etc., appartenans a madame Marguerite, 
d'Austriche, dresse en son palais de Malines le 9 Juillet, 1523. Paris : 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Collection Colbert. 

"85. Cargasele mas una tabla grande con dos puertas, con que 
se cerrava, y en ella un ombre e una muger, que se tomaban las manos, 
con un espejo, en que se muestran los dichos ombre e muger, y en las 
puertas las armas de don Diego de Guebara ; hecha por Juanes de 
Hec, anno 1434, segun pare^e por el dicho ynbentario." Simancas: 
Royal Archives. 



is tall and slight, and has a grave and thoughtful countenance ; 
he holds his right hand raised in an impressive manner; while 
the bride has laid hers in his left, stretched out towards her. 
He wears a close-fitting dress of two shades of black, the 
sleeves of which are fastened at the wrist with a red cord. 
Over this is a sleeveless tunic of claret-coloured velvet 
trimmed with sable fur, reaching to a little below the knees. 
Black hose and boots and a large Italian hat of plaited 
straw dyed black, complete his costume. A ring adorns the 
second finger of his right hand. The lady, some years 
younger than her husband, is attired in a loose light-green 
dress, trimmed and lined with white fur, and confined im- 
mediately below the breast by a rose-coloured cincture em- 
broidered with gold. She has gathered up the front of her 
skirt into a mass of stiff folds, displaying a blue under-dress, 
the tight sleeves of which are edged at the wrist with gold 
lace. Her hair, confined in a caul of red network, is drawn 
back from off her forehead into two horns, over which is 
thrown a beautifully frilled kerchief of fine linen. A double 
string of pearls passes twice round her neck, and a couple 
of rings adorn the fourth finger of her left hand. At her feet 
in the foreground is a lively little griffin terrier painted with 
marvellous accuracy. From one of the beams of the ceiling 
in the middle of the room hangs a six-branched chandelier 
of brass, terminated by a lion's head with a ring in its mouth ; 
one of the candles is burning. On the right is an aumbry 
with a couple of oranges on it, a third lying on the sill of a 
window immediately above it. The upper part of this window 
is filled with pearl-white roundels ; the shutters of the lower 
portion, which is not glazed, are open, disclosing a cherry tree 


in full blossom, and a glimpse of clear blue sky. On the left, 
at the further end of the room, is a bed furnished with a 
coverlet and hangings of rich crimson. By its head stands 
an armchair with upright back terminated by cresting and 
a figure of Saint Margaret triumphing over the dragon, from 
which a dusting-brush is suspended. On the bedside carpet, 
which is adorned with flowers and crosses, lie a dainty pair 
of red shoes, while on the floor, in the foreground to the right, 
are two pattens of white wood with black leather latchets. 
Along the further wall is a bench furnished with a crimson 
cover and a couple of cushions. Above the back, terminated at 
each end by a carved monster, hangs a circular convex mirror 
in a carved frame adorned with ten little medallions, in which 
are painted a series of miniatures, commencing at the foot with 
the Agony in the Garden of Olives, followed by the Betrayal, 
with Saint Peter cutting off Malchus's ear, Christ being led 
before Pilate, the Scourging at the pillar, the Carriage of the 
cross, Calvary, the Deposition, the Entombment, the Descent 
into Limbo, and the Resurrection. In the mirror are seen 
faithfully reflected, not only the two figures and that portion 
of the room comprised in the picture, but an oak portal 
beyond projecting into it, in which two persons are standing, 
apparently John van Eyck, dressed in blue, and a youth in 
scarlet. On the wall above the mirror is written, in a highly 
ornate hand, " Johannes de eyck fuit hie 1434." A string 
of amber beads with a green silk tassel at the end hanging 
from a peg to the right of the mirror is reflected on the grey 
tinted wall. 

The colouring of this marvellous interior is full of vigour 
and blended with the utmost care. The flesh tints are 



admirable, and in their rendering show a remarkable trans- 
parency of shadow. The picture, in short, is an exquisite 
gem in the finest state of preservation save in one place, 
across the mirror. The back of the panel is painted on a 

John Arnolfini settled in Bruges in 1420. Both he 
and his wife became members of the confraternity of Our 
Lady of the Dry Tree. They lived in the Coopers' Street, in 
a picturesque house, pulled down to make room for the present 
ugly theatre. There Arnolfini, who had been knighted by 
Duke Philip, and made one of his chamberlains, died on the 
i ith of September, 1472. He was buried at the Austin Friars', 
in the chapel of the Lucchese merchants, where he and his 
brother Michael had founded a Mass to be said daily for the 
repose of their souls. Joan, who survived her husband, was 
still living in 1490 ; she was eventually buried in the church 
of the Rich Clares. 

1568. VAERNEWYCK, chap, xlvij, the earliest author who mentions this 
picture, says that Mary of Hungary saw it when in the possession 
of a barber, to whom she gave in exchange for it a place worth a 
hundred florins a year. 

1604. C. VAN MANDER, 119, repeats this idle tale. 

1847. CARTON, 309, misreads the inscription thus: JOHNINES DE 
EYCK, HIC. 1438, which, he says, has no sense, and makes him 
doubt the authenticity of the picture ! ! 

1852. VIARDOT, Les Musees d'Angleterre, 29, Paris, describes the 
picture as a scene of chiromancy, and says that the man is trying 
to read in the lines of the lady's outstretched hand the future of 
the babe whose birth she is expecting ! ! 

1854. WAAGEN, i, 348, repeats Vaernewyck's story, and considers the 
figures to be the portraits of John van Eyck and his wife. 

1855. LABORDE, La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France, i, 


601-604, Paris, gives a long description of the picture, the accuracy 
of which he secured by making use of a magnifying-glass. In spite 
of this, and of having had the glass that protects the painting 
removed, his is one of the most extraordinarily inaccurate descrip- 
tions of a work of art that has ever been penned, even by a French 
critic. He seems, at first sight of the picture, to have formed 
a theory as to the event it was intended to commemorate, and, 
labouring under a kind of hallucination, to have discovered all sorts 
of proofs of its correctness. He entitles the picture La Ltgitima- 
tion. The man, he says, is solemnly holding up his right hand 
to attest, in the presence of a crowd of neighbours (!) flocking in 
at the front door, that the child whose birth the lady is evidently (!) 
expecting is his, and that with the view of accentuating this fact 
Van Eyck surrounded the convex mirror with ten others of much 
smaller size, each reflecting the scene in exact perspective, varied 
according to its position, with a minuteness and fidelity which are 
most remarkable ! ! 
1857. CROWE, 65-66, 85-86, and 345-346. 

1860. WAAGEN, i, 70. 

1861. WEALE, Notes, 22-28, refutes the misstatements of previous 

1863. RUELENS, xcv. 
1872. CROWE, 94, 99-101. 

1878. REISET, n, 5-9. 

1879. SCHNAASE, 145. 
1883. WEALE, 63-65. 
1887. CONWAY, 149-151. 

1887. JUSTI, Alt Flandrische Bilde in Spanien. In Zeitschrift fiir 

bildende Kunst, xxn, 179-180. 
1891. LAURIE, 392. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 66. 

1899. SEECK, 70. 

1900. VOLL, 8- 1 6. 

1903. F. WEALE, 20. 

1904. WITT, 16-20. 

1904. BOUCHOT, 238-240, questions the authenticity of the inscription, 
which he mistranslates, and says that the painting, described in 




















the inventory of Margaret of Austria as a large picture, is probably 
still in Spain, and cannot be this ! ' Large ' and ' small ' are 
relative terms, and this is correctly set down as ' large ' by 
comparison with those preceding it in the inventory. 
1904. KERN, 9, plate iv, shows that John had not completely mastered 
the laws of linear perspective when he designed this picture. 

1904. DVORAK, 181, remarks that this picture shows an observation of 
the modelling power of ight and shade. 

1905. FIERENS, 146-148. 

1906. DOEHLEMANN, 13. 

1906. VOLL, 29-31. 

1906. PHILLIPS, in the Burlington Magazine, vin, 304 : " To match the 
peculiar pathos, the quiet intensity of this representation in art, 
one must go back ... to that noble group in the Vatican, in 
which husband and wife, hand in hand, soul to soul, go on in 
perfect union ... to eternity." 

A curious imitation of this picture (Oak. H. 0,45 ; B. 
0,24) signed Godefridus lohannis fecit anno 1581, was in the 
possession of the late Rev. James Beck. 


Bruges: Town Gallery. Oak. H. 1,22; B. 1,57. The 
figures about two-thirds life-size. 

Originally over the altar of Saints Peter and Paul in the 
collegiate church of Saint Donatian at Bruges ; * removed to 
the sacristy before 1778; taken to Paris by the French in 1794; 

1 CROWE (1872, p. 108) and KAEMMERER (1898, p. 66) say that 
this picture was commissioned for the high altar of the church. It was 
not placed over the high altar until after 1578, when the silver-gilt 
reredos given by Margaret, Countess of Flanders and Artois, was 
broken up and melted. 


brought back by the Allies in 1815, and deposited in the 

The scene is laid in a circular Romanesque building, or 
in the apse of the transept of a church, but not in that of 
Saint Donatian nor of any known Romanesque church. 1 
The Blessed Virgin is seated on a throne beneath a canopy 
furnished with a handsome cloth of honour of woollen 
material with a rich pattern of foliage and flowers on a blue 
ground. The front principals of the throne are adorned with 
figures of Adam and Eve in niches, and surmounted by 
sculptured groups representing the death of Abel, and 
Samson tearing the lion in pieces. A beautiful carpet 
covers the steps of the throne and part of the pavement of 
blue-and-white Spanish probably Valencian tiles. 2 The 
Virgin's robe of blue, cut square at the neck, is bordered with 
a jewelled band ; over it she wears a large red mantle lined 
with olive green, and bordered with precious stones between 
two rows of small pearls. Her long crimped hair, confined 
by a jewelled circlet of gold, falls in undulating masses over 
her shoulders. With her right hand she supports the Divine 
Child seated nude on a fair linen cloth spread over her knee. 
With His right hand He is holding a parakeet, and with His 
left accepting a bunch of flowers from His mother. On the 
right stands Saint Donatian, seen in profile, vested in a 

1 See the illustrations in James ESSEX, Journal of a Tour through 
part of Flanders in August, 1773, edited by W. M. Fawcett, Cambridge, 
1888, p. 13 ; and J. GAILLIARD, Inscriptions funeraires de la Flandre 
Occidentale, i, plate 2. Bruges, 1861. 

2 See J. FONT v GUMA, Rajolas Valencianas y Catalanas. Villanova 
y Geltrii, 1905. 


splendid cope of blue-and-gold velvet brocade, the orfreys 
of which are embroidered with figures of the Apostles in 
canopied compartments; a circular morse of gold set with 
precious stones keeps the cope from slipping from the 
shoulders. A richly jewelled cloth-of-gold mitre, and gloves 
over which he wears several rings, complete his costume. 
With his right hand he supports the emblem which cha- 
racterizes him a wheel with axle and spokes complete, on 
the rim of which stand in a circle five lighted candles. With 
his left he holds with its veil an archiepiscopal cross, a 
splendid specimen of goldsmith's work. 

To the left, opposite Saint Donatian, the donor, Canon 
George Van der Paele, is represented kneeling under the 
protection of his name-saint. He is vested in a red cassock 
and large-sleeved surplice, with an almuce of grey fur thrown 
over his left arm. In his right hand he holds a double eye- 
glass, and with his left supports open before him his breviary 
with its forel of sow-skin. Saint George stands behind him 
clad in a complete suit of armour, with the word ADONAI 
inscribed across his gorget. A lance with pennon, bearing 
Argent a cross gules, rests against his left shoulder. He raises 
his helmet to salute the Divine Infant as he presents his client. 

The apse is formed by a series of round arches supported 
by cylindrical columns, 1 the capitals of which are carved 
with interlaced foliage and animals, while those of the pillars 
on the further side of the ambulatory are storied ; the windows 
between the latter are filled with roundels. Realism prevails 
throughout this picture, which, with the exception of the 

1 Eight are seen ; a ninth is hidden by the dorsal of the Virgin's 


Ypres altar-piece (11), is the largest work by the master. 
The most pleasing figure is that of Saint Donatian, a 
dignified court prelate, with a noble head of intellectual 
type; but even here we have not the slightest attempt at 
idealization. The Virgin Mother is represented as a woman 
of about thirty, utterly lacking in refinement ; while the Child, 
a puny infant, short and attenuated, and curiously aged, 
is apparently frightened at the sight of Saint George, an 
awkward conscript, who is doffing his helmet with a trivial 
expression utterly devoid of religious feeling. The portrait 
of the canon is that of a man of marked individuality, but 
obviously infirm. He had been installed in his canonry on 
the 2Oth of August, 1410, and had for many years been in 
constant residence at Saint Donatian 's, where he founded two 
choral chaplaincies, one on the i3th of September, 1434, the 
other on the 8th of May, 1441. He also presented the church 
with some relics of Saint Christopher and Saint Ursula in a 
reliquary of silver gilt with a cylindrical turret of rock crystal, 
adorned with his arms and surmounted by a figure of Saint 
George and a crucifix. 1 He died at an advanced age on the 
25th of August, 1443, having been very infirm during the 
last ten years of his life. He was buried in the grave of 
his brother, Canon Jodoc, in the nave on the north side of 
the altar of Saints Peter and Paul, between the tomb of his 
uncle, Jodoc Van der Paele, also a canon, and that of Margaret, 
Countess of Flanders. His grave was covered with a slab 
of blue stone adorned with his effigy in sacerdotal vestments 
within a border inscribed : " Hie iacet dominus Georgius de 
Pala canonicus huius ecclesie qui obiit anno Domini 
1 See the documents printed in Le Beffroi, n, 28-29. Bruges, 1864. 


Mccccxliij," with the evangelistic animals and his and his 
mother's arms. 

The altar-piece still retains its original frame, with the 
following legends in capital letters : 

At the top : "Hec est speciosior sole + super omnem stellarum 
disposicionem luci comparata invenitur prior: candor est 
enim lucis eterne + speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis." 

REE spEciosioR soLe*svp OEM STEixm DisposrcoM 

-5G TET 




NKTVS t?B)HooaK^o imiTMrr* MVNOI FV^ OCIK* 


:f^ornp ? fei!M may gtogf irpala |ni MSt ranonf f lotjann? 
^!fauanif ^i 

1 The little chapter at Lauds on the feast of the Assumption, in 
the Breviary according to the use of the church of Saint Donatian. 


On the right side: 

" Solo partu nonus fratrum 
mersus vivus redditur 4- 
renatus archos patrum 
Remis constituitur : 
qui nunc Deo fruitur " ; l 

and on the chamfer : " Sanctus Donacianus archiepiscopus." 
On the left side: 

" Natus Capadocia : 
Christo militavit : 
mundi fugiens ocia : 
cesus triumphavit: 
hie draconem stravit " ; 

and on the chamfer: "Sanctus Georgius miles Christi." 

At the foot, in minuscules: " Hoc opus fecit fieri magister 
Georgius de Pala huius ecclesie canonicus per lohannem de 
Eyck pictorem : Et fundavit hie duas capellanias de gremio 
chori Domini M.cccc.xxxiiij : completum anno 1436. At 
each angle is an escutcheon, those at the upper right and 
lower left angles bear, Sable, two peels in saltire or between 
four loaves argent, Van der Paele; and those at the upper 
left and lower right angles Argent, on three chevrons azure, 
twelve fleurs-de-lys 5, 5 and 2 or, within a bordure engrailed 
gules, Carlyns. 2 

The picture has been damaged by cleaning and clumsy 

1 Compare the third and fourth Lessons at Matins on the feast 
of Saint Donatian, in the same Breviary. 

2 The arms of his mother, in their usual place. Kaemmerer's 
statement, that the Carlyns family contributed to the cost of the painting, 
is without foundation. 


retouches ; the drapery of the Virgin's dress is partially de- 
stroyed ; the Child's right foot has also suffered ; the white 
shame-cloth about his loins is a late addition ; and the whole 
is covered with a thick cloudy varnish. The background is 
well preserved. 

1769. DESCAMPS, 274, describes the picture thus: " L' Adoration des 
Rois (! !) ; les tetes sont avec peu ou point de secheresse, sur- 
tout celle de I'eve'que S. Donas dans la maniere de Gerard 

1798. Sir Joshua REYNOLDS, in his 'Journey to Flanders in 1781' 
(Works, n, 1798) says: "The figure of the canon has great 
character of nature, and is very minutely painted." 

1833. PASSAVANT, 349-35 1 - 

1834. SCHNAASE, 343. 

1842. BURCKHARDT, 157-158. 
1847. MONTAIGLON, 5-7. 

1858. HOTHO, II, 184-187. 

1860. WAAGEN, i, 71. 

1 86 1. WEALE, Catalogue, 12-17. 

1863. RUELENS, xxxii : " La figure de la Vierge est vulgaire et realiste 
. . . cette inferiorite pourrait bien, en partie du moins, avoir pour 
cause de maladroites retouches." 

1866. MICHIELS, n, 287-291. 

1872. CROWE, 108-109: "A curious instance of the painter's occa- 
sional descent to a lower level of treatment than that observable 
in the common run of the works of the time. . . . The colour is 
not handled with the painter's habitual breadth, and traces of 
manipulation obtrude in all parts. The figures are drawn with 
less than usual ability ; most of the faces are insipid in expression, 
and the hands are stiff and long ; tints no longer melt into each 
other, and the colour, instead of being rich and giving to the flesh 
a plump and pleasant aspect, has a hard and red appearance. The 
form of the Virgin is the most displeasing of any that Van Eyck ever 
painted, and the Child exhibits the usual peculiarities of shortness 
and thinness, with features in which the master, seeking to express 



the Holy Spirit (! !), only succeeded in depicting age, incompatible 
with the smallness of the Infant's size and the feebleness of its 
proportions. St. Donatian is the most remarkable of the persons 
in the composition ; his pious and noble head rivets the spec- 
tator's attention, and keeps it from the overloaded ornaments of 
a splendid cope and stole ; but the figure of St. George is trivial 
and awkward." 

1876. FROMENTIN, 427-430: "Par la mise en scene, le style et le 
caractere de la forme, de la couleur et du travail, il rappelle la 
Vierge au donateur (the Rolin altar-piece) au Louvre. II n'est 
pas plus precieux dans le fini, pas plus finement observe dans le 
detail. Le clair-obscur ingenu qui baigne la petite composition du 
Louvre, cette verite parfaite et cette idealisation de toutes choses 
obtenue par le soin de la main, la beaute du travail, la transparence 
inimitable de la matiere ; ce melange d'observation meticuleuse et 
de reveries poursuivies a travers des demi-teintes, ce sont la des 
qualites superieures que le tableau de Bruges atteint et ne depasse 
pas. Mais ici tout est plus large, plus mur, plus grandement 
congu, construit et peint. Et 1'ceuvre en devient plus magistrale 
en ce qu'elle entre en plein dans les visees de 1'art moderne. . . . 
La Vierge est laide. L'enfant, un nourrisson rachitique a cheveux 
rares, copie sans alteration sur un pauvre petit modele mal nourri. 
. . . Saint George, un beau jeune homme, une sorte d'andro- 
gyne dans une armure damasquinee, souleve son casque, salue 
1'Enfant Dieu d'un air etrange et lui sourit. Mantegna . . . ne 
1'aurait jamais peint ni colore comme cela. . . . Le chanoine est 
incontestablement le plus fort morceau du tableau. . . . C'est un 
vieillard. II est chauve ; de petits poils follets jouent sur ses 
tempes, dont 1'os est visible et dur sous la peau mince. Le 
masque est epais, les yeux sont brides, les muscles reduits, durcis, 
coutures, crevasses par 1'age. Ce gros visage flasque et rugueux 
est une merveille de dessin physionomique et de peinture. ... La 
tonalite du tableau est grave, sourde et riche, extraordinairement 
harmonieuse et forte. La couleur y ruisselle a pleins bords. Elle 
est entiere, mais tres savamment composee, et reliee plus savam- 
ment encore par des valeurs subtiles. En verite, quand on s'y 
concentre, c'est une peinture qui fait oublier tout ce qui n'est pas 


elle et donnerait a penser que 1'art de peindre a dit son dernier 
mot, et cela des la premiere heure." 

1878. WEALE, Bruges et ses environs, 4". Edition 51-56. 

1879. SCHNAASE, 146. 

1887. CONWAY, 141-142, 153. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 66-68. 

1899. SEECK, 70. 

1900. VOLL, Ueber das kunsthistorische Studium. In Beilage zur All- 
gemeinen Zeitung, 19 Mai, 2. Mtinchen. 

1900. VOLL, Werke des Ian van Eyck, 16-22. 

1902. JORISSENNE, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 11-13. 

1902. HULIN, 10. This picture has furnished the formula for the 
composition of a number of paintings by masters working at Bruges. 

1903. FRIEDLAENDER, 2. Of all John's works this had the greatest 
influence on the development of painting at Bruges. 

1903. DE MONT, 60. The figures of Saint George and the Blessed 
Virgin are vulgar, commonplace, and almost ugly. 

1904. BOUCHOT, 221, says that this picture differs greatly from those 
by John van Eyck, and that the inscription on the frame has been 
effaced, repainted, and the dates added ! ! 

1904. KERN, 10-12, plate v, and i cut. 

1905. DVORAK, 181, 193. 

1905. FIERENS, 155-158, has nothing but praise for this painting, 
including even the figures of the Virgin and Child and Saint 

1905. DOEHLEMANN, i I-I3, and 423. 

1906. VOLL, 31-33. 

1906. SlEBERT, 6-7. 

1907. VOLL, Vergleichende Gemaldestudien, Miinchen, 58-67. A 
careful comparison of the copy in the Antwerp Gallery with this. 
The many little discrepancies are pointed out and shown to prove 
that the Antwerp panel must belong to a date when the Eyckian 
methods were on the wane. 

In the Van Ertborn Collection at the Antwerp Museum is a 
careful, fairly close copy of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth 
century (H. 1,20; B. 1,54), which has been transferred from 


panel to canvas. It was formerly in the church at Watervliet 
(East Flanders). A copy of the Virgin and Child with the 
canon was in 1852 in the Quedeville Collection. The Virgin 
and Child reappear on a small panel in the collection of the 
Earl of Northbrook, the original frame of which is said to 
have borne the date 1437. 

A life-size bust portrait of the canon is preserved at 
Hampton Court Palace, 453 (272). Canvas. H. 0,42; B. 
0,40. It was formerly in the collection of King James II., 
in whose catalogue (n.39) it is described as " a fat man's 
head, bald, with a double chin." This is most certainly an 
original study from life, not a copy of the portrait in the 
altar-piece. The canon is here portrayed in a greenish- 
brown cassock trimmed with brown fur. Bluish-black back- 
ground. At the time when John van Eyck was commis- 
sioned to paint the altar-piece the canon had become so 
feeble that the Chapter dispensed him from attendance in 
choir. 1 No doubt he felt unequal to support the fatigue of 
a long sitting to the painter, but as he had been in constant 
residence ever since Van Eyck had settled in Bruges, the 
latter must have seen him frequently enough to be able with 
the aid of this study to give a satisfactory presentation of 
the head in the altar-piece. 

1885. C. JUSTI, in The Academy, 20 June, p. 445: "Painted in a 
reddish-yellow mezzo-tinto, quite monochromous, very firm in 
design and modelling, showing Van Eyck's grandeur and broad- 
ness in conception and treatment of a countenance before proceeding 

1 H34, 9 Septembris, " Indulserunt domini quod attenta infirmitate 
et senectute suis, inscribatur ad omnia lucra, sive veniat ad ecclesiam, 
sive non." Acta Capituli iv, fol. 218 v. Bruges : Episcopal Archives. 

S. (1KORGK AM) CIIAKI.K.S Till: RASH I;Y (i. I.OYKT, 1171 



to the superposition of microscopic details, of local colour, of 
light and shadow." 

1886. K. CHYTIL, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, xxi, 146-148. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 68. A later superficial copy of the portrait in 
the Bruges altar-piece. 

1900. VOLL, 126. A work dating from the end of the sixteenth 
century. The technique exhibits none of John's peculiarities ; 
the modelling is weaker and flatter. Nevertheless, the first 
impression of its truthfulness to life is overpowering. The origi- 
nal must have been Van Eyck's grandest portrait. Kaemmerer's 
idea that it is a copy from the Bruges picture is not to be 
thought of. 

1905. FIERENS, 158, had evidently never seen this picture, as he refers 
to it as the head of the Blessed Virgin in the Paele altar-piece, 
and says it is only a copy. 

The head of the canon reappears in the Mass of Saint 
Gregory in the Prado Gallery at Madrid (n. 1864), attri- 
buted to Adrian Isenbrant. The type of the Virgin is repro- 
duced on an early sixteenth-century diptych in the Bartels 
Collection at Cassel, also on an altar-piece, .1515, at Ince 
Hall, exhibited at the Guildhall, 1906, n.6o, and in a some- 
what later picture exhibited by the late Mr. J. Fletcher 
Moulton at the New Gallery in 1899, n.82. 

The figure of Saint Louis of Toulouse presenting a donor, 
in an early sixteenth-century picture in the Museum at 
Avignon (exhibited at Paris, 1904, n.85), bears in pose and 
gesture a curious resemblance to the Saint George here, which 
certainly influenced the unknown painter. The pose and 
several details of the gold statuette of Saint George, executed 
by Gerard Loyet of Bruges, 1466-1471, for Charles the Rash, 
and by him presented to the cathedral of Liege, betray the 
same influence. 



Vienna: Imperial Gallery, 825. Oak. H. 0,33; B. 0,28. 

Head, 0,10. 

First mentioned in Mechel's catalogue of the Belvedere 
Collection, 1783, p. 157, n.28. Taken to Paris by the French 
in 1809 ; brought back by the Allies in 1815. 

Half-length portrait about half life-size, of a man of 
thirty-five years of age, on a dark-green background ; the 
face beardless, seen in three-quarters turned to the right, 
with small deep -set grey eyes looking straight at the 
spectator, short nose, fine upper lip, and a long chin. The 
broad forehead and keen glance of the eyes convey the 
impression of a highly intelligent man with an energetic 
will. He wears a dark fur-trimmed gown and a black cap ; 
his hands are placed before his waist; between the thumb 
and forefinger of his right hand he holds a ring, as if showing 
it. The head is modelled with John's usual care, but the 
beauty of the face is somewhat marred by the same unpleasant 
reddish flesh tint that characterizes the figures in the Bruges 
altar-piece, painted about the same time ; the hands too are 
rather weak, as if hurriedly drawn. The frame, which is 
original, bears the following inscription : 

IAN DE (a lion sejant on a square base with a step) OP SANT 





John De Leeuw, the person here portrayed, was a 
wealthy craftsman, born October 21, 1401, who, after holding 
minor offices in the Gild of Gold- and Silver-smiths of Bruges 
in 1430-31 and 1435-36, was chosen dean in 1441. The 
lion sejant is the mark he used for stamping his works, and 
here stands for his name, which, if written, would have added 
65 to the first chronogram. An interesting entry in the 
accounts of the treasurers of the town informs us that when 
Duke Philip, after a long absence in Germany, returned to 
Bruges in 1455, the inhabitants decorated the fronts of their 
houses, and that the town council awarded prizes to those 
whose houses were decorated and illuminated with the 
greatest taste ; these prizes were supplied by De Leeuw, who 
was paid 365. gr. for them. 

The date of De Leeuw's death is not known ; his name 
occurs for the last time in the accounts of the treasurer of 
the town of Damme for the year 1459. 

The picture has suffered by cleaning, and, doubtless owing 
to the colour having less intensity and charm than usual, it 
has received but scant notice from writers on the master's 

1858. HOTHO, n, 187, says that the ring in De Leeuw's hand is probably 

a wedding-ring. 

1860. WAAGEN, 71, unusually grey in the shadows. 
1882. WOLTMANN, n, 19, and 1891, REBER, 107, call De Leeuw a 

canon ! ! 
1884. ENGERTH, n, 135. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 73, says that De Leeuw had this portrait painted 
to present to his bride. This is fancy : he had been married 
some years, and had at least two children. 

1899. SEECK, 28, 70. The hands are weak; the little finger of the 
right hand crooked, like a claw. Calls the ring a betrothal ring. 


1900. VOLL, 97-100, blind to the strong impression of individuality 
so thoroughly evidencing John's hand, devotes four pages to 
throwing doubt on the authenticity of this work on two grounds : 
because, though the head is turned to the right, the eyes look to 
the left ; and because the second chronogram is faulty, his conten- 
tion being that the ij in ' blijct ' and the Y in ' Eyck ' must each 
be reckoned as equivalent to i or else to 2, which is absurd ; no 
educated Netherlander would ever think of writing ' Eijck.' His 
conclusion is that the portrait is either a forgery or a copy dating 
from the end of the fifteenth century, forgetting apparently that 
this amounts to an admission of the groundlessness of his chief 
argument for the rejection of the authenticity of this portrait. 

1901. BODE, 118-119, refutes Voll's arguments. 

1904. WEALE, v, 192. 

1905. FIERENS, 150. 

1906. VOLL, 43-44 and 263-264. 


Antwerp : Museum : Van Ertborn Collection. Oak. 
H. 0,322 ; B. 0,186. 

This picture became the property of M. Joz. Enschede" of 
Harlem on June 24, 1769, and was sold by him in 1786 to a 
dealer, P. Yver, and by the latter to Ploes van Amstel. After 
his death it was sold at Amsterdam, March 5, 1800, for 35 
florins 18 sols to M. Oyen, from whose widow it was 
purchased in 1826 by M. F. van Ertborn, and by him 
bequeathed to the Antwerp Museum. 

Saint Barbara, seated in a meditative mood on a hillock 
in the foreground, is turning over the leaves of a book which 
rests on her knees. In her left hand she holds a palm. Her 


from a p/wtyrapA iy C /frrmaru 


ample wide-sleeved dress, open in front with a large turned- 
down collar, is confined at the waist by a plain cincture ; its 
long skirt covers the ground around her in broken folds. 
Her hair, confined by a plain riband, falls on her back ; a 
jewel is suspended to the string of pearls which encircles 
her neck. In the mid-distance a beautiful octagonal tower 1 
is in course of construction ; on its summit four masons are 
working ; a fifth, near the crane by which a carved stone is 
being hauled up, stands looking down at the master-mason, 
who is giving him directions. Near him beneath a shed are 
sculptors at work, while labourers around are busily employed 
mixing mortar and bringing them materials, two with a bier 
and one with a barrow ; an interesting picture, showing how 
building operations were carried on in the fifteenth century. 
Behind the saint four women are passing to the right, where 
a group of men are conversing ; further away are buildings 
with a fortified wall. Four men on horseback are coming 
in single file down a winding road, beyond which are a wood 
and a picturesque mountain covered to its summit with 
buildings. To the left is rising ground with fields, trees, and 
water; high up in the air is seen a flight of wild geese. 
The sky is coloured, the rest of the picture merely drawn, 
but with the greatest care and minuteness. At the foot, in 
capital letters, " lohannes de Eyck me fecit, 1437." 

Facsimile engraving by Cornelius van Noorden, 1769. 
Copies in the Museums at Bruges and Lille; mistaken by 

1 This does not represent the tower of a church dedicated to Saint 
Barbara, as stated by a writer in the Messager ales Sciences (Ghent, 
1839, p 57), but is simply the emblem characterizing this saint. Ignor- 
ance of this has led some to describe the picture as Saint Agnes. 


De Montaiglon and Voll for drawings, though their real 
character was pointed out by Schnaase in 1834. 

1857. CROWE, 88. 

1858. HOTHO, n, 191. 
1860. WAAGEN, i, 71. 
1866. MICHIELS, n, 314. 
1879. SCHNAASE, 147. 

1884. HYMANS, in the commentaries appended to his translation 
of Van Mander's " Book of Painters," p. 40, identifies this Saint 
Barbara with a panel representing a woman in the foreground of 
a landscape, in the possession of Luke De Heere, described by Van 
Mander as only a preparation for a painting, but exceedingly pretty. 

1887. CONWAY, 142-144. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 74-76. 

1899. SEECK, 20, 70. 

1900. VOLL, 23-26. 

1902. ROOSES, in Onze Kunst, i, 5-6. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 38-42, is of opinion that in this work the Eyckian 
landscape attained its highest perfection ! 

1904. DVORAK, 185. 

1905. FIERENS, 159. 


Antwerp: Museum: Van Ertborn Collection, 411. Oak. 

H. 0,19; B. 0,122. 

This picture was in the possession of Margaret of Austria, 
Governess of the Netherlands. In the inventory of her 
collection in 1516, it is described as " Une petite Nostre 
Dame, faite de bonne main, estant en un jardin ou il y a une 
fontaine ; " ' but, more fully, in that drawn up in her palace 

1 " Inventairedes Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dresse 
en 1516." Lille : Archives of the Department of the North, B 3507. 



From a photograph. 6y G. fftrm&ts 


at Mechlin, on July 9, 1523, as " Ung aultre petit tableau de 
Nostre Dame tenant son enfant, lequel tient une petite pate- 
nostre de coral en sa main, fort anticque, ayant une fontainne 
empres elle et deux anges tenant ung drapt d'or figure 
derriere elle." 1 Margaret subsequently gave it to her 
treasurer-general, John van Marnix. 

In 1830 it was in the possession of the parish priest of 
Dickelvenne (East Flanders), from whom it was purchased 
by M. F. van Ertborn, and by him bequeathed to the Antwerp 

Our Lady stands on a grass plot in the open air, tenderly 
pressing the Infant Jesus to her breast with both hands. 
The Child with His right hand embraces her affectionately, 
and with His left stretched out behind Him holds a tasselled 
chaplet of red coral beads. Two angels with peacock wings, 
in flowing albs, one vermilion, the other violet, hold up a 
cloth of honour of red and gold brocaded damask, the end 
of which covers the ground on which the Virgin stands. She 
is draped in an ample blue mantle, which falls about her feet 
in rather stiff folds. Her light-brown hair, parted in the 
middle and confined by a narrow band of pearls, is drawn 
back behind the ear, making the forehead and temples appear 
unusually large. On the right, in the immediate front, stands 
a metal fountain with a circular basin, into which water of 
crystalline purity falls from four jets. In the background we 
see on each side of the suspended cloth a low bank faced 

1 " Inventaire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, 
dresse en son palais de Malines, le 9 Juillet, 1523." Paris : National 
Library, Colbert Collection. In the margin : " Donne par ordonnance 
de ma ditte dame a son trsorier gdndral, Jehan de Marnix." 


with masonry, and covered with fine grass and flowering 
plants : daisies, violets, lilies of the valley, yellow water-flags, 
and a thick hedge of purple roses and lilies. The frame, 
painted to imitate reddish-grey marble with white veins, 
bears the following inscription in capital letters : " Als ich 
can. Johannes de Eyck me fecit + complevit anno 1439." 
The picture is in perfect preservation save for a small patch 
on the Child's head. 

1857. CROWE, 90. 

1858. HOTHO, ii, 197. 
1866. MICHIELS, n, 315. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 106. 

1899. SEECK, 35-37, 70. 

1900. VOLL, 30-34. 

1905. FIERENS, 163, rightly notes that this picture has a character 
quite exceptional in the series of John van Eyck's works. He 
thinks it was based on the Madonna by Stephen Lochner, in the 
Diocesan Museum at Coeln, which he dates c. 1435; but that 
painting is certainly of later date. 

1906. SlEBERT, 13. 

A beautiful copy of this picture adorns a Flemish Book of 
Hours formerly in the possession of Mr. Edwin H. Laurence, 
of Abbey Farm Lodge, Hampstead ; and an early pen drawing 
of it on paper is preserved in the Print Room of the Frederick 
William Museum, Berlin, 7120 (1878). 

The Berlin Gallery and the Metropolitan Museum at 
New York possess paintings with figures of the Madonna 
closely resembling this. 1 

1 See n 08 . 29 and 31, pp. 155 and 158. 

, il^l 

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* ' C;l' 

':|A\ ^1^9^ 


,K- V ; / . 

I "f ^r!ff*V ,. 





By permission of 


Bruges: Town Gallery. Oak. H. 0,32; B. 0,26. 

Formerly in the possession of the Bruges Gild of Painters 
and Saddlers, and exposed in their chapel annually on Saint 
Luke's Day, at other times kept in their archives. Owing 
to the existence of a heavy mortgage on the property of the 
gild, it escaped being taken to Paris in 1794. Later it was 
found in the fish-market by Mr. Peter van Lede who, in 
1808, presented it to the town. 

Half-length portrait, the face turned to the right seen 
in three-quarters. The lady, attired in her best, wears a 
loose-sleeved gown of scarlet cloth trimmed with grey fur, 
girt under the breasts with a sash of green silk woven in 
chevrons. A crespine head-dress, over which is a white linen 
kerchief with a ruche of the same material, completes her 
costume. Her hands are superposed before her, displaying her 
wedding-ring on the fourth finger of the right hand. Though 
painted with great minuteness, and marvellous delicacy and 
finish, the effect of this evidently perfect likeness is the same 
whether viewed closely or from a distance. John has not 
flattered his wife, but has portrayed her with the insight born 
of intimate acquaintance. Her features are not attractive, and 
her head-dress does not improve her appearance ; but she was 
evidently an intelligent woman, and a competent housewife, 
with a clear steady eye and a firm mouth, showing that she 
had a will of her own. The frame, painted to imitate marble, 
bears the following inscription in capital letters : at the head, 


" Coniux meus lohannes me complevit anno 1439 17 lunii ; " 




at the foot, " Etas mea triginta trium annorum. Als ich can." 
The reverse of the panel is painted in imitation of porphyry. 
Lithograph by A. Toupey, 1907 (H. 0,216; B. 0,168). 

1 769. DESCAMPS, 306, says that this portrait was exhibited annually 
on St. Luke's Day in the chapel of the Painters' Gild, but 
fastened with a chain and padlock, as the companion painting, 
John van Eyck's own portrait, had been stolen. Every attempt 
has been made to verify the truth of this statement, which appears 
to be a fiction. 

1834. ScHNAASE, 345. 

1857. CROWE, 89-90. The hand is, perhaps, the most complete and 
perfect John van Eyck ever executed. 

1858. HOTHO, n, 199-200. 

1 86 1. WEALE, Catalogue, 17-18. 
1866. MICHIELS, n, 211-213. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 102-104. 

1899. SEECK, 27-28, 30. 

1900. VOLL, 26-30. 

1902. GUIFFREY, 472 : " Le morceau de reception de van Eyck dans 
la Corporation! ! " A nonsensical statement. Van Eyck was not 
a member of the gild, and the custom of presenting a diploma 
work was non-existent. 

1905. FIERENS, 165. 

1906. VOLL, 34, 35. 




Kessel-Loo : M. G. Helleputte. Oak. Triptych : centre, 
arched top. H. 1,72 ; B. centre, 0,99; shutters, 0,41. 

The scene is laid in a vaulted portico of Romanesque 
architecture, the columns of which are richly sculptured 
with birds, monsters, and interlaced work. In the fore- 
ground on the left stands the Blessed Virgin with the 
Divine Child on her right arm, and with her left hand 
tenderly supporting His legs. Her long hair, parted down 
the middle and confined by a jewelled circlet of gold, is 
drawn back behind the ears and falls on her shoulders in 
undulating masses. Posed in a very graceful and dignified 
attitude, she is enveloped in an ample mantle of crimson 
cloth, which, kept in place by two tasselled cords, falls over 
her feet and on to the pavement behind her; its embroidered 
border, adorned with pearls and precious stones, bears at 
the foot, where it becomes much broader, a verse from the 
twenty-fourth chapter of Ecclesiasticus : " Ante SECVLA 
creata sum et usque ad futurum secuLum non desinam 
et IN habitatione sancta CORAM IPSO MINISTRAVI ET sic IN 
SIGN FIRMATA sum." The Child, quite nude, clutches the 
embroidered neck-band of His mother's dress, and with a 
gracious inclination of His head extends His right hand 
towards a priest who kneels before Him praying from an 
open book in his right hand. On a fluttering scroll, one 
end of which the Child holds, are the words, " Discite a 
me quia mitis sum et humilis corde iugum enim meum 
suave est et onus meum leve." The priest, a provost of 


Saint Martin's at Ypres, is vested in a rochet and a cope 
of blue and gold brocade, the orfreys of which are em- 
broidered with figures of the Apostles beneath canopies. A 
circular morse of gold with three statuettes beneath a triple 
canopy keeps the cope in position. With his left hand the 
provost grasps the emblem of his office, a staff adorned with 
a diaper of fleurs-de-lys within lozenges surmounted by 
statuettes of saints in tabernacles, and crowned by a large 
crescent encircling a group representing the charity of Saint 
Martin. The pavement of the portico is composed of stones 
of various colours arranged in a geometrical pattern. The 
background, seen over the parapet of the portico, is a far- 
receding landscape traversed from right to left by a river 
enlivened by boats, swans, etc. The ground on the near 
side is covered with vegetation and a variety of flowers ; 
here to the right and close to the river-bank is an hostelry 
with figures ; while on the left is a man on horseback. 
Across the river and to the right is a castle flanked at the 
angles by square towers ; while on the left are several 
houses, and the quay, on which we see a number of persons 
on horseback and on foot near a road that winds across 
a hilly country dotted over with numerous buildings and 
figures, and stretching far away to distant mountains. Every 
detail of this landscape is treated with marvellous care and 
finish. On the frame, inscribed in capital letters, is the 
antiphon : " Sancta Maria succurre miseris iuva pusillanimes : 
refove flebiles : ora pro populo : interveni pro clero : intercede 
pro devoto femineo sexu : sentiant omnes tuum iuvamen 
quicumque celebrant tuam commemorationem. Hec virgo 
Maria ex semine Abrahe orta : ex tribu luda : virga de radice 




lesse : ex stirpe David : filia Iherusalem : stella maris : ancilla 
Domini : regina gentium : sponsa Dei : mater Christi : Condi- 
toris templum : Sancti Spiritus sacrarium." 

The shutters are divided both on the inner and outer 
side into two zones. In the lower half of the dexter shutter, 
Gedeon, clad in a suit of steel armour, stands on a rocky 
hill, holding with both hands a lance. He has bared his 
head in presence of the angel who stands beneath an oak 
tree on the right and is addressing him ; on the frame below 
is the legend "vellus gedeonis." The burning bush is figured 
in the upper zone as a tall smooth-trunked tree, the branches 
of which fill the entire breadth of the panel with a dense 
mass of foliage. A half-length figure of the Eternal within 
an aureole appears surrounded by tongues of fire springing 
from the foliage. He is crowned with a tiara, and vested 
in an alb and a cope of cloth of gold fastened by an oval 
morse adorned with a ruby surrounded by nine pearls. His 
right hand raised in the act of blessing, He holds in His 
left an orb with a slender crystal cross terminated by gold 
fleurs-de-lys. At the foot of the tree is a plot of grass and 
flowers, bordered by a path and a bed with a row of shrubs, 
beyond which is a moat with ducks and swans. On the 
further side are houses and gardens, an inn, a large pond 
with a variety of waterfowl, and a turreted castle with a 
man on a ladder repairing the roof. Away across the pond 
are numerous buildings with figures in the open spaces 
between them, and beyond these a forest stretches away to 
mountains in the distance. On the molding separating these 
two zones is the legend, " rubus ardens et non comburens." 

In the lower half of the corresponding sinister shutter, 



Aaron, clad in a green cope, is represented standing before 
an altar with a budding rod in his right hand. On the 
frame at the foot we read, " virga aaron florens." The closed 
door of the sanctuary, spoken of by the Prophet Ezechiel, 
is figured in the upper portion of the panel as a rectangular 
tower flanked at the angles by cylindrical turrets ; the gables 
and the ridge of the tiled roof are crowned by an elegant 
open-work cresting of metal ; similar cresting at the foot 
of the roof is carried round the turrets. The door itself 
is bordered by broad bands of metal-work set with precious 
stones connected by horizontal bands of similar design. The 
archivolt of the doorway is adorned with twelve statuettes 
of prophets. Above it, in a canopied tabernacle, is a figure of 
the Synagogue, blindfolded, holding the tables of the Law 
upside down, and a banner, the staff of which is falling to 
pieces. On brackets at each side of this are statues of 
Moses and prophets, and above these, immediately below 
the roof, a series of statuettes in tabernacles. In the fore- 
ground at the foot of the tower, lilies and other plants are 
flowering right up to the very door. On the right is a 
pretty piece of landscape. The molding separating these two 
zones bears the legend, "porta ezechielis clausa." Both 
shutters are filled at the head with open-work tracery en- 
closing figures : the fall of our first parents ; an angel with 
a flaming sword standing at the entrance to Paradise, the 
angel Gabriel and the Blessed Virgin. 

On the exterior of the shutter are grisailles : at the 
head, three angels blowing trumpets, and a fine half-length 
figure of the Blessed Virgin and Child appearing within an 
aureole. At the foot, full-length figures of the Sibyl pointing 










up to the apparition, and of the Emperor Octavian con- 
templating it with hands uplifted in prayer. The explanatory 
legends are : " ara celi maria sibilla octauianus." 

This triptych, had it been completed, would have been 
John's master-piece. It was undertaken at the request of 
Nicholas van Maelbeke, who, as twenty-ninth provost of 
Saint Martin's abbey, governed it from 1429 until his death 
in 1445. It was then, though unfinished, placed over his 
tomb in the choir of the church. Luke De Heere, in the 
poem he composed in 1559, mentions it (strophe 19), as also 
Mark van Vaernewyck, in his Nieu tractaet (strophe 126), 
published at Ghent in 1562; the latter describes it accurately 
in his Spieghel der Nederlandscher Aiidtheyt, printed in 
1574. He says that "the picture, of which the shutters are 
unfinished, is well deserving of admiration ; that it was 
painted by master John van Eyck, and has the appearance of 
being a heavenly rather than a human work." Guicciardini, 
Vasari, and Van Mander all make mention of it. Sanderus, 
who was a canon of Ypres, describes it in 1718 as being then 
in the choir, and the archdeacon Van der Meesch drew the 
attention of the two Benedictines, Dom E. Martene and Dom 
Durand, to it, as they tell us in their Voyage littdraire, pub- 
lished in 1717. Between 1757 and 1760 the triptych was 
removed from the church into the episcopal palace, and a copy 
of the central panel, now in the possession of Mgr. Felix de 
Bethune at Bruges, was placed in the Lady Chapel. After 
the capture of Ypres and the sack of the palace by the French 
Republicans, the triptych was sold for a song to a butcher, 
and by him to a Mr. Waelwyn of Ypres. He parted with it 
to Mr. Bogaert-Dumortier of Bruges, from whose heirs it was 


purchased for 6000 francs by M. Ddsire" Van den Schrieck of 
Louvain. At his death, in 1857, it became the property of 
his son-in-law, M. F. Schollaert, Vice- President of the Belgian 
Chamber of Representatives, after whose death it passed into 
the possession of M. George Helleputte, his son-in-law. 

The authenticity of the picture is incontestable. It is 
confirmed by two contemporary documents, which are here 
reproduced. One is a pen-and-ink drawing (H. 0,278 ; 
B. o, 1 8) in the Albertina at Vienna, formerly catalogued as 
an original drawing by John van Eyck, but now attributed, 
without a particle of evidence, to Peter Christus. Another, 
smaller copy (H. 0,135; B. 0,15), in silver point, belongs 
to the Germanic Museum at Nurnberg, where it is attri- 
buted to Roger De la Pasture. These drawings represent 
the central panel only. The first is in a good state of pre- 
servation ; the other has suffered slightly. The following 
points should be noted : (i) The band which confines the 
Virgin's hair in both drawings is quite simple, whereas in the 
picture it is adorned with jewellery as in the Ince Hall panel 
and the Bruges altar-piece ; (2) the embroidery of the neck- 
band of the Virgin's dress and of the border of her mantle are 
non-existent ; (3) the shoe and patten of the Virgin's left foot, 
shown in the drawings, are in the painting hidden by the 
border added to the mantle ; (4) the scroll held by the Child 
in the drawings is simpler than in the picture, and bears no 

In the Albertina drawing the figure of the provost is 
merely sketched ; he has a large tonsure, but neither mous- 
tache nor beard ; the features, too, have much more distinc- 
tion ; the folds of the cope and the outline of the morse are 



merely indicated, but there is no trace of the design of the 
brocade, nor of the storied orfreys. The vaulting of the 
portico, plain in the drawings, is decorated in the painting. 
Lastly, the landscape background is not even indicated in the 
drawings, but if compared with the landscape in the Saint 
Barbara, its authenticity will be apparent. And, noteworthy 
above all, this is the earliest picture of the school, and the 
only one by John van Eyck in which the linear perspective 
is perfect, a fact which, notwithstanding its sad state, lends 
this picture great importance. 

A passage said to have been extracted by M. Lambin l 
from a " Memorial " of the community of Grey Friars of 
Ypres, and published by Carton in 1848, is couched in these 

" Anno 1445 heeft meester lo- " In the year 1445 master John 

annes van Eycken, een befaemden van Eycken, a famous painter, 

schilder, binnen Ypre geschildert painted at Ypres that excellent 

dat overtreffelyk tafereel 't welcke picture which was placed in the 

gestelt wiert in den choor van Sint choir of Saint Martin's as a me- 

Maerten's tot een gedachtenis van morial of the reverend Sir Nicholas 

den eerweerdigen heere Nico- Malchalopie, abbot or provost of 

laus Malchalopie, abt ofte proost Saint Martin's monastery, who lies 

van Sint Maerten klooster, die buried there before it." 
daer voor begraven ligt." 

This is said by Carton to be an extract from a con- 
temporary chronicle of the Grey Friars' convent at Ypres, 2 and 
to prove that the triptych was commenced in 1445, that it 

1 Keeper of the Archives at Ypres ; he died in 1841. 

2 LABORDE, Les Dues de Bourgogne, i, cxx, warned students against 
attaching any value to this extract. 


was still unfinished when the provost died in 1447 (sic], and 
that the painter was John van Eycken. It is highly impro- 
bable that any one living at Ypres in the fifteenth century, 
much less a contemporary, would distort the name of Van 
Maelbeke, one of the principal families of the locality, or 
would call the provost of Saint Martin's an abbot, or say 
that the picture was painted at Ypres. The note was 
probably not written until long after 1559, when, on the 
creation of the see of Ypres by Pope Paul IV., Saint Martin's 
ceased to be a monastic church, and became a cathedral. The 
$\r3&zabtofteproost looks as though copied from the 1574 
edition of Mark van Vaernewyck's Historic van Belgis, and 
"painted in Ypres" is a strange expression for a resident 
to use, who would surely have written here or in this town. 
The wording of the note, too, betokens an eighteenth- 
rather than a fifteenth-century origin. Most of the critics 
who have dealt with this triptych since 1848 have relied on 
this document as the basis for their rejection of the Eyckian 
origin of the picture. I think its utter worthlessness is 
established. 1 

1 Having heard from M. E. Lie"geois of Ypres, since the above 
was in type, that the Grey Friars' Chronicle had been found in the 
Town Library, I have had an opportunity of examining it. It contains 
no mention whatever of the painting ; but I came upon the passage 
in Part n, book n, of a manuscript bearing the n.85 and the title 
Beschryving der vermaerde, oud beroemde en schoone stad Yfre, written 
by Peter Martin Ramaut in 1794. It is difficult to believe that the 
copyist failed to read the lines which immediately follow those he 
extracted, stating that " the picture used to hang in the choir where 
the marble reliquary of Saint Walburg now is, but that it was taken 
away when the choir was lined with marble." 



There can be no doubt that everything seen in the 
Vienna and Nurnberg drawings, and probably the landscape 
background and the pavement, were painted by John van 
Eyck, and that the copies belonging to Mgr. F. de Bethune 
and to the Town Museum at Ypres show the additions made 
in the sixteenth century, probably about 1560. The repre- 
sentations of the burning bush and of the closed door of 
Ezechiel are the portions of the shutters on which van Eyck 
had worked most ; a careful examination of these discloses 
many beauties. In the nineteenth century, shortly previous 
to 1830, M. Alphonse Bogaert, of Bruges, scrubbed the pic- 
ture, and then attempted to restore it. In 1858 M. Heris, 
of Brussels, cleaned it again. Later on, when in the Schol- 
laerts' possession, it was hung in a sitting-room too near a 
stove, and became blistered ; the damage was very carefully 
repaired by M. L. Lampe, in 1901. 

As to the date at which the first attempt to complete the 
central panel was made, some evidence may be gathered from 
a painting representing one of Nicholas van Maelbeke's suc- 
cessors, kneeling before the Infant Jesus seated on His 
Mother's lap. This panel must have been painted at Ypres, 
as there is in the background a view of the bridge over the 
Yperleet, and of the street leading from it past the front of 
Saint Martin's church. The provost in this picture holds the 
same staff as his predecessor, and if the details of the vest- 
ments, etc., be compared, it will be seen that it cannot be 
many years posterior. The immediate successors of Van 
Maelbeke were Lambert Van der Woestine, 1445-1456; 
Nicholas van Dixmude, 1456-1464; Walter Thoenin, 1464- 
1474 ; and Nicholas van Dixmude, 1474-1482. The only 


masters who are known to have flourished at Ypres during 
that period are John Perrant and George Uutenhove. 

Exhibited in the Loan Exhibition of Old Masters at 
Bruges, in 1867, n4, and again in 1902, n.i4, and at the 
Guildhall, London, in 1906, n.7. 

1833. PASSAVANT, 367-369. 

1847. DE MERSSEMAN, 184-185, and 195-199. 

1 848. HOTHO, ii, 205-208 and 213-217. 

1859. HERTS, in Journal des Beaux Arts, i, 45 and 53. 

1860. WAAGEN, 73. 

1863. RUELENS, civ-cxiii, gives a summary of the various opinions 
as to the date of the picture, and suggests that Carton's 
document is of much later date than 1445, and merely the echo 
of a local tradition. He, however, sees no trace of John van 
Eyck's hand in the picture, and believes it to be of a later period. 

l866. MlCHIELS, II, 345-348. 
1879. SCHNAASE, 149. 

1895. LAFENESTRE, La Peinture en Europe: la Belgique, 163. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 98-99 ; an absurd criticism. 

1900. VOLL, 119-120. 

1902. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Chretien, 4 S., x, 1-6. 

1902. HULIN, Catalogue Critique, 14, thinks the picture to be an 
original altered at the end of the sixteenth or in the seventeenth 
century, and repainted once or twice in the nineteenth. 

1902. GUIFFREY, 474, says that some parts remain intact, and show 
great precision of drawing. 

1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 69, calls it a sad, but 
nevertheless an insufficiently esteemed relic of an original by 
John van Eyck. 

1903. DE MONT, 57. 

1903. DUELBERG, 52. 

1904. DURAND, Originaux et Copies a propos de 1'Exposition de 
Bruges, 83-84. 

1905. FIERENS, 169, considers the authenticity of the picture to be 
indisputable, and that there are few of John van Eyck's pictures 



of which the history is so well established, but that owing to 
restorations there is no trace left of his work. 

1906. FLOERKE, i, 407, declares it to be evidently an old forgery 
of most inferior quality ! 

1906. VOLL, 264, considers Floerke's criticism far too sweeping, and 
recognizes the excellence of some portions of the paintings on the 
shutters ; he thinks the figure of Our Lady dates from the end 
of the fifteenth century. 

1907. DURAND, 65-69. 




Hermannstadt : Gymnasium, Bruckenthal Collection. Oak. 

H. 0,174; B. 0,11. 

HALF-LENGTH portrait of a rather melancholy-looking man, 
probably a goldsmith, turned to the right, the face seen 
in three-quarters. He is clad in a brown dress open in 
front, showing the straight collar of a black tunic. His head- 
gear is a scarf of blue silk, the lappets of which, with their 
edges cut in the shape of foliage, fall in front of his shoulders. 
In his right hand he holds a ring ; his left hand and forearm 
rest on the frame. Dark background ; on it an imitation 
of Albert Diirer's cipher, and the date 1497, additions 
probably made by the person who enlarged the panel by 
adding a strip all round, so that it now measures 21 centi- 
meters by 15 centimeters. It is a remarkably fine picture, 
though it has suffered at the hands of a restorer. The fashion 
of cutting the edges of the headkerchief into leaf-shapes came 
into vogue in the Netherlands at the end of the fourteenth 
century, and died out before 1425. The back of the panel 
was formerly painted. 





1894. FRIMMEL, in Kimstchronik, N.F., v, 430, and Kleine Galerie 

Studien, 62-66. Wien. 
1896. FRIMMEL, in Repertorium, xix, 116. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 61, thinks the ring indicates that the man repre- 
sented was about to enter the married state. 

1899. SEECK, 68. 

1900. VOLL, 1 20, thinks the melancholy expression of the face is a 
proof that this picture dates from the last quarter of the fifteenth 
century, and compares it to portraits in pictures of Gerard David's 

1901. BODE, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, 
xxn, 119. The admirable rendering of the personal character, the 
delicate execution of the drawing, and the beauty of the colour, 
prove this to be a genuine Van Eyck. 

1902. HULIN, 15, attributes this portrait to John. 

1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 42, attributes the work 
to Hubert. 

1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68, attributes this portrait 

to John. 
1903. DE MONT, 56. 

1905. FIERENS, 151, compares it with the portrait in the National 
Gallery (2), and thinks that, although contemporary, it cannot be 
ascribed with certainty to John van Eyck. 

1906. VOLL, 45, dates the portrait c. 1450, and compares it to the 
portrait of Mark Barbarigo, in the National Gallery, n.696. 

1907. DURAND, 60. 


Copenhagen : Royal Gallery, 93. Oak. H. 0,592 ; 
B. 0,312. Acquired in 1764. 

Dexter shutter of a triptych. A man of middle age 
kneeling in the foreground of a landscape, his hands joined 
in prayer. He wears a red, loose-sleeved gown trimmed 


with fur and girt with a belt from which hangs a purse. 
He is protected by Saint Anthony, who, clad in a black 
habit marked with the tau cross and bell, lays his right 
hand encouragingly on his client's shoulder. The ground 
at the foot of the rocks behind the saint, and the hillside 
on the left, are overgrown with the palmetto. In the back- 
ground on the extreme left, beyond a line of bushes, is 
a castle of considerable size, in the entrance and bay window 
of which, as well as on the open platform, figures of the 
household are discernible. 

On the reverse of the panel was a figure, in grisaille, of 
the Angel Gabriel, of which very little now remains. 

The purse attached to the donor's cincture figures in 
a portrait attributed to Peter Christus, in the collection of 
Mr. George Salting. It was probably one of the properties 
of the Van Eycks, acquired by Christus from John's widow. 

This is the dexter shutter of a triptych, of which the 
exterior represented the Annunciation ; the centre panel of 
the interior, Our Lady and Child, or some subject from the 
life of Our Lord ; and the shutters, the donors with their 
patron saints. Above this triptych would have been placed, 
in accordance with the general custom, a statue of the saint 
in whose honour the altar was erected. There can be little 
doubt that it formed part of an altar-piece formerly in the 
church of Saint Saviour, at Ghent, painted by Hubert van 
Eyck for Robert Poortier, a burgher of Ghent, and Avesoete 
his wife, founders of the altar of Saint Anthony in that 
church, as we learn by their last will dated the 9th of 
March, 1426, just six months before Hubert's death. At 
that date the altar itself was not yet completed, and the 



altar-piece and statue of Saint Anthony were still in master 
Hubert's workshop. 

1426, 9 March. Extract from the will of Robert Poortier 
and his wife, in the Archives of the town of Ghent : 

" Kenlic zij enz. dat zij begheeren te ligghene in de 
kerke 's Helichs Kersts in de zuut cappelle, die men heet 
Onser Vrouwen cappelle van der Moure, daer zij eenen saerc 
hebben doen legghen, ter welker plaetsen zij willen ende 
begheeren dat vulcome dat men in de selve capelle doe 
maken eenen altaer omme up te doene den dienst ons 
Heeren, ende an den selven altaer te stelne 't belde van Sente 
Anthonise, welc beelde nu ter tijt rust onder meester 
Hubrechte den scildere met meer ander weercx dienende 
ten selven altare." 

1872. CROWE, 143. Much in the spirit of John van Eyck, and perhaps 

one of the best efforts of Christus. A deep, ruddy-toned picture 

of fine execution. 
1875. CLEMENT DE Ris, in Gazette des Beaiix Arts, 2 P., xn, 408. 

Fine and firm, energetically modelled and powerfully coloured. 

In a perfect state of preservation. 
1898. KAEMMERER, no. 

1900. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285 ; in the 
Nineteenth Century, n .285, p. 789 ; and in Zeitschrift fiir 
bildende Kunst, N.F., xi, 253-255. 

1901. SEECK, in Kunstchronik, N.F., xn, 258, says that the treatment 
of the rocks and vegetation in this picture presents close analogy 
to that of the landscape in the Turin picture of Saint Francis. 
He believes it to be by Peter Christus, but accounts for its 
being so far superior to his other works by the supposition that 
it was painted under Hubert's supervision, and probably not 
entirely without his collaboration. 

1901. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 477. 


1903. DE MONT, 51. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 28. 

1904. DVORAK, 183, thinks that this picture dates from the middle of 
the fifteenth century, and accepts its attribution to Peter Christus. 

1905. FIERENS, 119, considers the landscape to be very fine, and 
similar in style to that in the Turin Saint Francis. 

1906. VOLL, 47. 


Paris : Baron Gustave Rothschild. Oak. H. 0,355 5 B. 0,48. 

The scene is laid in a portico or cloister paved with 
light-blue tiles and slabs of porphyry and verd antique. 
Five round arches supported by cylindrical columns of green 
and black marble rest on the low wall which separates the 
cloister from the outer world. In the centre the Virgin- 
Mother stands erect beneath a canopy with a cloth of honour 
which reaches to the ground, and completely shuts out the 
view through the central arch. With her right arm she 
tenderly supports the Divine Infant against her bosom, her 
left hand retaining His feet. The Child holds a crystal orb 
surmounted by a gold cross, and raises His right hand in 
the act of blessing a Carthusian kneeling in the foreground, 
his hands joined in prayer. He is protected by Saint 
Barbara, who has one hand on his right shoulder, while 
with the other she holds out a palm to the Infant Christ. 
In a garden of flowers hard by stands her other emblem, 
a tower with a window of three lights, through which is 
seen against a blue star-sprinkled background a statue of 


the god Mars his name on its base which has the 
appearance of an antique bronze. On the left of the Virgin 
stands a saint holding three crowns superposed ; her dress 
is a grey violet trimmed with white fur, a plain linen coif, 
and over all an ample black cloak. Saint Barbara is habited 
in green with a crimson mantle kept in place by a cordon 
attached to its jewelled neckband ; her hair, confined by 
a cincture of pearls, falls behind her in undulating masses. 
The Blessed Virgin is represented in a dark-red loose-sleeved 
dress trimmed with ermine and girt with a green-and-gold 
sash ; over this she wears a blue mantle edged with gold 
embroidery studded with precious stones. Her hair, con- 
fined by a jewelled band, falls over her shoulders. A rich 
Oriental carpet with fringed border is spread on the 
pavement beneath her feet. The cloth of honour behind 
her, and the canopy above, are of red-and-green brocade, 
with blue floral ornaments within double ogee-shaped com- 
partments bordered by undulating foliage enwreathed with 
scrolls bearing the salutation, Ave, gratia plena. The 
background, seen through the open arches, is an exquisite 
bit of landscape, through which a broad river winds its way 
towards the front from distant snow-capped mountains. On 
the left it skirts the crenelated walls of a city with many 
churches and towers of an English type of architecture, 
including an exact reproduction of old Saint Paul's as seen 
from the south ; the buildings and busy streets are repre- 
sented with marvellous distinctness. On the river is a 
boat crowded with passengers to the city, another is moored 
to the bank; swans, too, enliven the scene. On the near 
bank is a country waggon with a party looking out at the 


side from beneath its canvas covering. In the half-distance 
the river is spanned by a bridge of seven arches ; numerous 
horsemen and pedestrians are wending their way across or 
looking down at the water, in which they are faithfully 
reflected. In the sky above we espy a flight of wild geese. 
The outlook through the arch on the extreme right of the 
panel is on to a thickly wooded hillside, beyond which are 
buildings, including a church backed by distant mountains. 

The Carthusian portrayed here is Dom Herman 
Steenken, of Zuutdorp, a village to the south of Axel, in 
Zeeland. He entered the Order at Diest, when, at an early 
age, he was appointed Vicar of the Nunnery of Saint Anne ter 
Woestine (in the desert), near Bruges, an office which he held 
from 1402 to 1404, and again from 1406 until his death in 
the odour of sanctity on the 23rd of April, 1428. 

I have been unable to find any documentary evidence 
as to the date of this picture, which I think must have been 
painted between 1406 and 1420, certainly before the Rolin 
altar-piece. Dom Herman wrote a number of books, two 
of which have been published : " De Regimine Monialium 
Liber I." and " Sermones quinquaginta super Orationem 
Dominicam, " printed respectively at Audenaerde in 1480 
by Arend De Keysere, and at Louvain in 1484 by John of 

A notice of Dom Herman, kindly extracted from the 
Archives of the Order and communicated to me by Dom 
Peter Pepin, informs us that he was in the habit of repairing 
for prayer to a chapel dedicated to Saint Barbara not far 
from the nunnery. 

The Charterhouse of Saint Anne was destroyed in 1578, 


when the nuns took refuge in Bruges. This picture appears 
to have come later on into the possession of the Archduke 
Ernest of Austria, Governor of Belgium from 1592 to 1595. 

The panel has been enlarged all round by a thumb's 

1857. MUNDLER. A very fine authentic piece by John van Eyck. 
1866. MICHIELS, n, 299 : " Le type des visages est gracieux mais n'a 

pas 1'ampleur habituelle du maitre. ... La ville est un prodige 

de patience. . . . Tableau d'une couleur et d'une conservation 

admirable. Les vetements sont magnifiques." 
1872. CROWE, 113. 
1894. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen, 

xv, 65-70. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 93-97. The landscape has undeniably an Eyckian 
appearance, but the figures are hard and lifeless ; the painter was 
unable to represent living persons. 

1899. SEECK, 18-22, 68. Certainly by Hubert, and earlier than the 
smaller Berlin picture. 

1900. VOLL, 81-84, dates this picture about 1437, and praises highly 
not only the landscape background, but also the modelling and 
colour of the figures ; he thinks it is certainly an original work 
by John. 

1900. WEALE, in Revue de I Art Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285 ; Zeitschrift 
fur bildende Ktmst, N.F., xi, 254, and Nineteenth Century, 

n.285, p. 789. 

190x3. KAEMMERER, in Kunstchronik, xn, 71, acknowledges that he 
had never seen the picture, but that he still doubts its being by 
either of the Van Eycks, and that Dr. Bode, in conversation, had 
also expressed his doubts. 

1901. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 475. 

1903. DE MONT, 52, looks on this picture as the work of one of 
John's pupils, and declares the river and town to be a servile 
copy of those in the Rolin altar-piece ! 

1903. SCHUBERT, 37. 

1904. DVORAK, 241, believes this to be an imitation of the Rolin 



altar-piece (15), basing his remarks on a photograph, and on 
Kaemmerer's observations, but he had not seen the painting. 

1904. KERN, 14, plate viii. 

1905. FIERENS, 121. The most remarkable of the pictures attributed 
to Hubert, for the splendour of its colour and the extraordinary 
precision of the details of the background. 

1906. VOLL, 40. 

1906. SlEBERT, IO. 

1907. S. REINACH, Tableaux inedits ou peu connus, 1-7, Paris. 

Paris: Louvre, 162. Oak. H. 0,66; 6.0,62. 

Formerly in the collegiate church of Our Lady at Autun, 
in Burgundy. 

On the left, the Blessed Virgin is seated on a marble 
throne with mosaic inlays, furnished with cushions of blue- 
and-gold brocade. An angel in a blue alb, with beautiful 
peacock wings, flying down, holds an elaborate gold crown 
over her head. With both hands Mary supports the Divine 
Child seated on her right knee. He is nude, holds a crystal 
orb surmounted by a jewelled cross, and raises His hand to 
bless the chancellor, Nicholas Rolin, who kneels before Him 
with joined hands at a prayer-desk covered with blue drapery 
bordered with red, on which lies his open breviary. He is 
clad in a robe of dark violet-and-gold brocade trimmed with 
fur, and wears a wig. Mary, whose hair, parted in the 
middle, is confined by a black riband and drawn back behind 
the ears, has a blue dress, almost entirely hidden by the dark 
crimson mantle whicE envelops her person and falls with 
numerous folds and sharp breaks on the pavement. Along 



its edge runs a text, embroidered in gold, from the Lesson 
at Matins in the Office of Our Lady, taken from the 
twenty-fourth chapter of Ecclesiasticus : Exaltata sum in 
Libano, etc. 

The figures thus grouped are in a three-aisled hall or 
portico, into which the broad daylight streams through an 
arcade of three slightly stilted arches resting on slender 
cylindrical columns of variegated marble ; above are two 
windows of coloured glass, the lower portions only of which 
are seen ; those in the aisles are filled with pearl-white 
roundels. The capitals of the columns are adorned with 
interlacements of foliage and animals, and those of the piers 
in the angles with groups of figures representing the expulsion 
of Adam and Eve from Paradise, the sacrifice of Cain and 
Abel, Noe quitting the ark, and the sin of his youngest son. 

The pavement is formed of rectangular slabs of stone, 
alternately plain and adorned with geometrical inlays. The 
arcade opens on to a garden of roses, lilies, irises, and other 
flowering plants, with a path through the centre, on which a 
couple of magpies are disporting themselves ; beyond this five 
steps lead to a raised terrace with a crenelated wall. Here 
we see two peacocks basking in the sun, and two men who 
one in blue with a red head-dress, and a walking-stick in his 
left hand, the other in red are looking down over the battle- 
ments at a broad river intersecting a town, the two portions 
of which are connected by a fortified bridge of seven arches. 
Beyond the bridge, in mid-stream, is a castled island ; from 
a distant range of blue mountains, whose snowy summits 
glisten in the sunlight, the river, enlivened by a variety of 
craft, flows towards the front with many windings through a 


lovely country of hills, fields, and meadows. This landscape 
and the town in the foreground contain an almost incredible 
amount of detail. The background bears a general resem- 
blance to that of the painting in the Rothschild collection at 
Paris (14). l The composition was most probably suggested 
by the scenery about Maastricht ; that town, the suburb of 
Wyck on the opposite side of the river, and the bridge and 
island agreeing pretty closely with the picture, so far as their 
relative position is concerned, but no further, for here evidently, 
as in all the landscapes of the Van Eycks, the whole is really 
an original composition, but so skilfully designed as to give 
the impression of its being a real view. 

The effect of the picture is marred by a disagreeable 
yellow varnish. 

Nicholas, son of John Rolin and Amee Jugnot, born 
at Autun in 1376, lord of Authume (Burgundy), Aymeries 
and Raismes (Hainault), 2 was created Chancellor of Burgundy 
and Brabant, December 3, 1422. He married (i) Mary de 
Landes (died before 1411), and (2) Guygonne de Salins. He 
founded the hospital at Beaune in 1445, an ^ died January 18, 
1462. In his portrait in the altar-piece of the hospital, 1446, 
he appears as of about seventy years of age. 

1 The details vary considerably ; e.g. the cathedral here having 
the appearance of a French edifice ; the tower of Saint Martin's 
cathedral at Utrecht is pictured nearer the river. 

2 The two last fiefs and those of Pont-sur-Sambre and Dourlers 
belonging to Rene of Anjou were, when he, by the death of his father- 
in-law in 1431, became duke of Lorraine, seized by the Duke of 
Burgundy, who granted the revenues thereof to his chancellor. Later 
on Rene fell into Philip's power and was imprisoned at Lille. On 
February 4, 1437, before being set at liberty, he sold all his rights to 
these fiefs to the chancellor. 


HORN IJ76; DIED 1462 


1)K KIJUSSII.l.l )X " 

V 1 K N N A : I M 1'K RIAL I.I I!R ARY 




The chancellor is also represented in a remarkably fine 
miniature at the head of the first volume of " Les Chroniques 
de Hainaut " (Brussels ; Burgundian Library), a translation 
from the Latin of James de Guyse by John Wauquelin of 
Mons, who is represented presenting his work to Duke Philip, 
surrounded by members of his court, his son Charles at his 
left side and the chancellor at his right. Copies of this 
miniature with modifications occur in several other manuscripts 
written by Wauquelin, in the Brussels Library, and in the 
Romance " Gerard de Roussillon," in the Imperial Library, 
Vienna, ^.2549. 

1778. COURTEPEE, Description du Duche de Bourgogne, Dijon, nr, 
451. The picture was then in the sacristy of the collegiate church 
of Our Lady at Autun. The background is described as showing 
the city of Bruges in perspective, with more than 2000 figures ! 

1855. VIARDOT, Les Musees de France, 172. 

1857. CROWE, 96: "A splendid specimen of John's early and most 
powerful manner . . . almost equal to the large productions of 
Hubert. . . . Here John's art is displayed in all its force and 
weakness ; admirable when we only look at the characteristic 
rendering of the scratch-wigged chancellor, or the adumbrations 
that cover the wondrous details of architecture, or the crystalline 
purity of a distance carried to a horizon of snow mountains miles 
away ; disappointing when we look at the plain mask of the Virgin, 
or the wooden shape of the aged babe naked on her knee, or the 
piled and broken drapery that rests on the figures." 

1858. HOTHO, ii, 180. 

1 860. WAAGEN, 70. The features of the Virgin are pretty, but of little 
spirituality of character ; the Child, of unusual elegance for the 
master ; the angel, very beautiful ; and the portrait of the donor, of 
astonishing energy. 

1866. MICHIELS, ii, 297. The town in the background not Bruges, 
but Maastricht. 

1879. HAMERTON, 155-157. 


1885. GILBERT, 151. 

1887. CONWAY, 97, 152 : " The Virgin possesses no physical attractions ; 
the Child is ugly, and the chancellor hideous . . . but his face, 
hideous though it be, possesses a fascination by reason of its 
strong and vivid presentment of character, which puts all else into 
the shade." 

1898. KAEMMERER, 93, dates the picture c. 1437. 

1899. SEECK, 23-26, 68, thinks it was painted c. 142 2, and that Rolin 
has the appearance of a man of fifty years of age. 

1900. VOLL, 65-70, dates it .1425. 

1901. BODE, 124, says it was painted .1434, certainly not before 1432. 

1902. MARKS, in the Athenaum, December 12, p. 800. 

1903. MARKS, 22 :" The Louvre picture is certainly the work of two 
painters. Otherwise we must suppose that the painter, having 
completed his figures, proceeded to kill them with his accessories. 
John surpassed himself in painting the accessories of this picture. 
. . . The winding river can be no other than the Rhine. . . . John 
shows here, perhaps even more than in the Ghent altar-piece, that 
he is a great master of landscape painting. . . . The dominant 
interest of the picture does not centre in the figures." 

1903. ROSEN, 92. 

1903. ROOSES, Oude Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Meesters in den 

Louvre, 61-66. Antwerpen. 
1903. DE MONT, 53. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 32-36. 

1904. KERN, 15, plates ix and x, judging by the perspective, considers 
it to be a work of John's later period. 

1904. DVORAK, 191, 216, 219, 241. Indisputably painted by John. 


1905. FIERENS, 128-131, dates it .1426. 

1906. VOLL, 36, thinks the town represented to be Liege, and the 
picture to have been painted by John, at latest in 1426. 

1906. SIEBERT, 8-10. 

The background of a miniature in a Book of Hours 
executed .1450 for the Bastard of Orleans, John count of 








Dunois, has been admirably adapted from that in the Louvre 


Saint Petersburg: Hermitage Gallery. Dexter shutter of a 
triptych. Canvas, transferred from the original panel. 
H. 0,92 ; B. 0,38. 

In the nave or transept of a lofty three-aisled building 
the Blessed Virgin is represented standing on the left, 
behind a prayer-desk, on which an illuminated book lies open. 
Opposite her the angel, who, bearing a sceptre of crystal and 
gold, has entered from the side aisle, raises his right hand, and 
greets her with the salutation : Ave, gratia plena, to whom 
she, her hands raised apart and with her head slightly 
inclined, signifies her humble submission to the Divine will 
by the words: Ecce ancilla Domini; both inscriptions in 
detached gold capitals float in the air. Amid seven rays 
of light, projected from heaven through the clerestory, the 
Holy Dove flies down to Mary. She is clad in a blue dress 
trimmed with ermine, open at the neck, girt with a broad 
sash immediately below the breast, and over this an ample 
blue mantle with a narrow border of gold. Her hair, con- 
fined by a jewelled band, is drawn back off the forehead and 
falls over her shoulders, leaving the left ear exposed. Gabriel, 
who has beautiful peacock-wings, wears, over a tunic of green- 
and-gold velvet brocade, a cope of dark red and gold, bordered 
with pearls and precious stones, and kept in place by a 
circular morse. A jewelled coronet with a cross flory rising 
from the front confines his hair, which falls in curly locks on 


his shoulders. The draperies of both the angel and the 
Virgin spread around in many folds on the pavement, which 
is composed of oblong storied panels, separated from each 
other by bands of undulating foliage of varied design, with 
the signs of the zodiac in elliptical medallions at the inter- 
sections ; those seen are Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Scorpio, and 
Sagittarius ; while the storied panels show Samson slaying 
the Philistines with the jawbone of an ass ; Delilah cutting 
off his hair DALIDA VXOR s Samson pulling down the pillars 
of the temple of Dagon SAMSON MVLTAS GENTES INTER- 
FECIT I QVivio and David cutting off Goliath's head, Saul, 
surrounded by his warriors, looking on from his tent ; these 
accompanied by explanatory inscriptions. In the immediate 
foreground, on the left, is a wooden stool, with a tasseled red 
damask silk cushion on it, and beyond it a glass vase with 
lilies. The architecture in this picture is remarkable, but 
cannot be considered as the representation of any one build- 
ing, though all the details appear to be correctly drawn. The 
late Romanesque arcade, with its very stilted arches seems to 
have been copied from the arches of an apse, but straightened 
out ; the capitals of the columns are sculptured with inter- 
laced foliage, those of the piers at the angles with figures. 
The square-headed triforium, with its row of columns, may 
possibly have been suggested by the Baptistery at Parma, 
but more probably by the cathedral of Tournay. The 
spandrils between the arches at the further end of the 
building are adorned with two half-length figures in circular 
medallions : Isaac on the right and Jacob on the left. In the 
window above is a full-length figure of our Lord in a red 
robe and yellowish-blue mantle, holding a sceptre and an 




open book. His feet rest on a globe, on which in capital 
letters ASIA. Above Him are two seraphim standing on 
wheels. On each side is a mural painting that on the right 
representing the daughter of Pharaoh PHARAONIS FILIA and 
a maiden P....SCELLA carrying the infant Moses MOYSES 
in a cradle ; that on the left, Moses MOYSES bending before 
the Lord DNS and receiving the tables of the law, on which 
is inscribed the second commandment ; Non assumes nomen 
Domini Dei tui in vanum. 1 The compartments of the wooden 
ceiling are also apparently represented as decorated with 

This panel is said by the dealer Nieuwenhuys to have 
been found in a church at Dijon, to which it had been pre- 
sented by Philip III., Duke of Burgundy. Brought to Paris 
in 1819, it was sold by him to King William II. of Holland. 
On the dispersal of that monarch's collection in 1850, it was 
purchased for the Hermitage for 12,949 francs, equal to $18. 
A copy is said by Crowe and by Kaemmerer to have been in 
the possession of a M. van Hal at Antwerp, and to have been 
sold there and afterwards at Paris in the middle of last 

1858. HOTHO, n, 171. The figures, he thinks, painted after Hubert. 
1864. WAAGEN, Die Gemalde Sammlung in der K. Ermitage, MUn- 

chen, p. 115, gives 1433-34 as the probable date of this 


1866. MICHIELS, n, 317, 342. 
1872. CROWE, 113: "Though not of John van Eyck's best, this 

genuine work is full of interest, on account of the finish and 

variety of its accessories." 

1 Exodus xx, 7. 


1883. BODE, Kaiserliche Gemalde Galerie in St. Petersburg, Paris, 

dates it 1426. 
1887. CONWAY, 141. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 71, suggests that the upper portion may have been 
added ! ! 

1899. C. PHILLIPS, in the North American Review, 712, calls it "an 
unlovely, yet in detail a wonderfully interesting piece, produced a 
year or two earlier than the altar-piece in the Bruges Gallery." 

1899. SEECK, 70, attributes it to John, and dates it 1437. 

1900. KAEMMERER, 70, dates it 1436. 

1900. VOLL, 62, believes John to have painted this soon after 1426. 
He says that we know that John in his younger days spent 
a long time in France, and gives as his authority (note 39) 
Laborde, " Les Dues de Bourgogne flasstm," l and concludes that 
this picture was painted during a stay in Burgundy, where he 
must have made Rolin's acquaintance, and received the com- 
mission to paint the altar-piece now in the Louvre. 

1901. VOLL, 218, 225. 

1903. DE MONT, 21, gives c. 1437 as the date, and says the angel is 
very like the Madonna in the Van der Paele altar-piece ! 

1904. KERN, 13, plate vii. 

1905. FIERENS, 127, dates this painting .1427. 

Berlin: Royal Gallery, 525A. Oak. H. 0,40; B. 0,31. 

Formerly in the collection of Philip Engels, sold at 
Coeln, May 16, 1867, described in the catalogue, n.i7, as the 
portrait of a Duke of Burgundy, by Hubert van Eyck. 
Purchased by Mr. Suermondt of Aachen, for 5500 francs, it 
was in 1874 bought from him for the Berlin Gallery. 

This is very vague ; I cannot find a single passage to warrant 
the reference. 


?J/ permission of 'the Bcrlm Photographic Co 


Portrait of a man of about sixty years of age, turned 
slightly to the right, the face, deeply wrinkled and closely 
shaven, seen in full light. He wears a loose grey robe, 
trimmed with fur, just low enough at the neck to let his red 
satin damask tunic and some fine linen be seen. A high, 
broad-brimmed fur hat covers his head. Around his neck is 
the collar of the Order of Saint Anthony, to which is sus- 
pended a tau cross with a tinkling bell attached thereto, all 
of silver, here painted grey with white lights. His hands 
originally rested on a parapet, still discernible under the 
coat of paint with which it has been covered. He holds a 
bunch of red-and-white pinks in the right hand, on the fourth 
finger of which he wears a handsome ring. The background 
is dark. 

The Order of Saint Anthony, founded in 1382 by Albert 
of Bavaria, Count of Hainault, was originally a military 
order, to which only noblemen and doctors were admitted. 
Under Jacqueline of Bavaria, in 1420, it ceased to be a 
military, and became simply a pious society, and by an 
ordinance of the chapter dated the nth of June of that year, 
it was decided that the tau and bell to be worn by knights 
and ladies should be of silver gilt, and those by squires and 
their wives of plain silver. 1 

Engraved by Gaillard, 1869. H. 0,15; B. 0,17. 
Facsimile by the Berlin Photographic Company, 1907. 

1 The insignia of the Order are thus described in the statutes : 
" Ung coller, et pendant a icellui coller une pottence et au debout d'icelle 
une clocquette sonnant." Portraits of the members formerly adorned 
the chapel at Barbefosse, and it is possible that this may have been 
one of them. 


Exhibited : Bruges : Early Netherlandish Paintings, 
1867, n.s. 

The individual here portrayed figures as one of the 
Kings in an Epiphany picture belonging to Count Landsberg 
Velen, at the castle of Gemen, Velen, ascribed to the ' Master 
of the Family of Saint Anne/ and supposed to have been 
painted for a member of the Hackeney family, between 1480 
and 1510. 

1867. E. GALICHON, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, xxm, 484. 

1869. W. SCHMIDT, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, iv, 357. 

1869. BURGER (Thore), in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 7-10, thinks 

this portrait was painted between 1432 and 1436. 
1872. CROWE, 95. 

1874. WOLTMANN, iii Zeitschrift fttr bildende Kunst, ix, 195. 

1875. STEPHENS, 3. 

1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 214. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 62, dates this portrait c. 1433. 

1899. SEECK, 26-30, 68, attributes it to Hubert, and thinks it was 
painted before 1422. 

1900. VOLL, 113-119. 

1900. KAEMMERER, 72-74. 

1901. BODE, 120-122. 

1903. DE MONT, 55, dates this portrait 1436. 

1904. TSCHUDI, 8. 

1905. FlERENS, 151. 

1906. VOLL, 44. 

C p 



"nitrien aSMe J3erbn ffutofraffuc fi, 



Dresden: Royal Gallery. Oak. H. 0,275; B. centre, 0,215 ; 

shutters, 0,08. 

Formerly in the collection of Everard Jabach ; n.266 
in the inventory drawn up on July 17, 1696, described as by 
Hubert van Eyck, and valued at 6 livres. 

The exterior a general arrangement represents the 
Annunciation. On the dexter panel, the archangel, on the 
sinister, the Blessed Virgin, as two ivory statues on octagonal 
pedestals in square-headed niches ; Gabriel in an alb and an 
ample mantle, holding a sceptre, and with his right hand 
slightly raised as he delivers his message ; Mary, the gathered 
folds of her mantle in her left hand, raises her open right in 
token of submission to the Divine will ; the Holy Dove is 
flying down to her. 

Interior. In the nave of a three-aisled building Our 
Lady sits enthroned in a graceful attitude, with both hands 
supporting the infant Saviour seated nude on a linen cloth 
spread over her lap. The Child's left hand rests on His 
knee ; with His right He holds a long white scroll, bearing 
the exhortation ; Discite a me quia mitis sum et humilis 
corde, in black minuscules with a blue initial. His Mother 
wears a dress of deep blue, with a jewelled border at both 
neck and wrists, and over this an ample mantle of deep 
red crimson edged with gold embroidery interspersed with 


precious stones. Her long fair hair, drawn back behind the 
ears and confined by a cincture adorned with rubies, sapphires, 
and pearls, falls in undulating masses over her shoulders. 
Two rings adorn the third finger of her left hand. Her feet rest 
on a rich carpet spread over the throne-steps and pavement. 
The principals of the throne are crowned by bronze figures. 
Those in front represent a pelican in its piety and a phoenix ; 
and those at the back, the sacrifice of Abraham, and David 
and Goliath. A cloth of honour of rich brocade is sus- 
pended by cords from the columns of the triforium ; the 
pattern is of foliage, flowers, and golden fruit, with greyish- 
white lions and light-blue unicorns on a black ground. Two 
rows of cylindrical marble columns, which divide the nave 
from the aisles, rest on Gothic bases, but are crowned 
by late Romanesque capitals of interlaced branches of 
foliage ; above these, on corbels, are statues of saints in 
tabernacles with crocketed canopies ; the piers in the back- 
ground have storied capitals. The lancet windows of the 
clerestory are filled with grisaille glass, those of the aisles 
with roundels. 

On the dexter shutter is a portrait of the donor, a man 
of about fifty, kneeling on the pavement, his hands apart, 
uplifted in prayer. His robe of olive-green, full-sleeved, and 
with a high collar, is trimmed with fur ; he wears a wig. A 
deep crimson head-covering with the lappet falling over the 
right shoulder, a plain gold ring on the little finger of the 
right hand, and pointed shoes, complete his costume. He 
kneels, protected by Saint Michael a manly but youthful 
figure, with auburn locks and wings of rainbow hue, attired 
in bronze armour, with a gorgeret and jupon of mail ; his left 



ffypermissum oft/lc Jcrlm Pfwtoprapfuc Co. 


arm supports his helmet ; his lance rests against his right 
shoulder; while a strap across his chest supports a buckler 
at his back. The capital of the pillar immediately behind 
him is adorned with a group of warriors, one of whom has 
probably been suggested by a figure of Bellerophon and the 
Chimaera, or of Alexander, on some ancient sarcophagus. 

On the opposite shutter Saint Katherine, patron of the 
learned, is represented standing, reading in a book supported 
on her left hand ; with her right she holds a sword which 
rests on the pavement, where lies the other instrument of her 
martyrdom, a wheel of torture. Her dress is of bright blue 
with close sleeves terminating above the elbows, with long 
lappets hanging from thence, and over it she wears a sideless 
robe of ermine with a blue skirt. A richly jewelled coronet 
confines her fair hair, which is drawn off her forehead and 
falls on her back. Her only other ornament is a simple 
necklace with a pendant jewel. A two-light window at her 
back is filled with roundels, and its traceried head with 
glass of various colours ; the lower portion is open, and 
through this tiny space, about 5 centimeters by i, we are 
afforded a view, beneath a brilliant cloudless sky, of a town, 
fields with trees, delicate blue hills, and beyond them spark- 
ling snow-capped mountains. 

The frame bears the following texts, painted to represent 
inscriptions in relief in the hollows of the moldings. On the 
centre panel : " + Hec est speciosior sole et super omnem 
stellarum disposicionem luci comparata invenitur prior : candor 
est enim lucis eterne et speculum sine macula Dei maies- 
tatis, etc. Ego quasi vitis fructificavi suavitatem odoris : 
et flores mei fructus honoris et honestatis. Ego mater 


pulchre dilectionis et timoris et magnitudinis et sancte 

spei," etc. 1 

On the dexter panel : 

"Hie est archangelus princeps milicie angelorum 
cuius honor prestat beneficia populorum 
et oracio perducit ad regna celorum. 
Hie archangelus Michael Dei nuncius 
de animabus iustis, gracia Dei ille victor 
in celis resedit a pa." 

At the upper dexter angle is an escutcheon bearing Gules 
a castle triple-towered argent, on a chief or an eagle issuant 
sable, Giustiniani. 

On the sinister panel : 

" Virgo prudens anelavit 

ad sedem sideream 
ubi locum preparavit, 

linquens orbis aream 
granum sibi reservavit 

ventilando paleam. 
Disciplinis est imbuta 

puella celestibus, 
nuda nudum est secuta 

certis Christi passibus 
dum mundanis est exuta, etc." 2 

1 Wisdom vii, 29, 26 ; Ecclesiasticus xxiv, 23, 24, magnitudinis 
for agnitionis in the Vulgate. 

2 From the hymn at Vespers in several fourteenth-century Office- 
books in use in the diocese of Liege, and in the Breviary of Tournay, 
printed at Paris in 1497. The "etc." stands for the final line, " vacuis 




permission o/ tfl Hertin fhafrryraphic Co 


At the upper sinister angle is an escutcheon bearing 
Argent 21 billets gules, on a canton or a fess gules. The 
shutters have suffered from over-cleaning. 

Etched by Hugo Biirkner. 

1765. Catalogue of the Dresden Gallery. The travelling altar-piece 

of Charles V., by Albert Diierer. 

1817. Catalogue. German school : by an unknown master. 
1840. Catalogue. By Hubert van Eyck. 
1846. Catalogue. By John van Eyck. 
1858. HOTHO, ii, 194. 1860. WAAGEN, 29. Both these authors call 

the archangel ' Saint George ' ! 
1862. DARCEL, Excursion artistique en Allemagne, Paris, 62, doubts 

the authenticity of the picture, on account of the prominence of 

the animals and flowers in the cloth of honour. 
1862. SCHAEFER, Die konigliche Gemalde Gallerie zu Dresden, in, 

1866. MICHIELS, ii, 134, assigns the exterior to Peter Christofthsen / 
and calls the angel and the Virgin " des personnages stupides et 
d'une laideur inintelligente." Describes the interior as the 
earliest work due to the united efforts of Hubert and John, and 
praises " the marvellous tone of the crimson mantle of the en- 
throned Madonna ; " this being in reality a bit of modern 
overpainting which greatly diminishes the harmony of the picture. 

1872. CROWE, 104-105, attributes the whole to John, and describes 
it inaccurately. 

1885. GILBERT, 153. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 78, gives it to John, and dates it .1437. 

1899. SEECK, 32, 70, believes it to date from about 1434 ; the splendid 
architecture and extremely delicate colour alone to be John's, 
everything else copied from Hubert. He notes that the light 
falls on Saint Katherine's face, although she is standing with 
her back to the window. 

1900. VOLL, 85, considers this to be a late work, the general planning 
by John, the execution of the shutters by another hand ; these 
so weak that, if separated from the centre, no one would take 



them for works of Van Eyck. The shutters are lifeless and cold ; 
the figure of the donor weakly conceived ; the head monotonous 
and hard in modelling ; the hands have little individuality, their 
pose meaningless ! 

1902, 13 December. MARKS, Alfred. Expresses his surprise at the 
unanimity with which this picture has been ascribed to John alone. 
"In this work," he observes, "the personages dominate their 
surroundings, with the result that we have a harmonious whole 
one of the most perfect pictures in the world. I cannot escape the 
conviction that we see here the result of the collaboration of the 
two brothers." He attributes the figures to Hubert, the acces- 
sories to John. 

1902. WOERMANN, Katalog, gives this work to John. 

1903. DE MONT, 23, dates this picture .1437. 

1904. KERN, 12, plate vi. 

1905. FIERENS, 161, considers the Saint Katherine one of John 
van Eyck's finest creations. 

1906. VOLL, 39-41, 261-262. The centre so far surpasses the shutters, 
that it alone can be looked on as the work of John's own hand ; 
it is painted in a warm tone, whereas the shutters are cold. 

1906. SIEBERT, 7-8. 


Two panel paintings representing Saint Francis of Assisi, 
said to have been painted by the hand of John van Eyck, were 
in the second half of the fifteenth century in the possession 
of Sir Anselm Adornes, lord of Corthuy, Ronsele, Ghend- 
brugge, etc., a scion of the Genoese family of Adorno, born 
in 1424, at Bruges, of which town he was burgomaster in 
1475. He was assassinated at Linlithgow, on the 2yd of 
January, 1483. By his wife, Margaret Van der Banck, who 
died on the 2yd of March, 1462, he had amongst other 
children two daughters who became nuns : Margaret, who 




U3 = 

T C. 


entered the Charterhouse of Saint Anne ter Woestine, and 
Louisa, a canoness of the abbey of Saint Trudo, both in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Bruges. Their father, by his 
will, dated February 10, 1470, bequeathed the two paintings 
to them, and directed his executors to have the portraits of 
himself and his wife painted on the shutters of each of the 
paintings, so that his daughters and other pious people 
might be reminded to pray for them. Whether this last 
direction was carried out we know not. Both convents 
were demolished during the troubles in the last quarter 
of the sixteenth century, and the numerous works of art 
which they contained either perished or were dispersed. It 
is possible that the paintings we are about to describe may 
be those mentioned in the will, of which we reproduce the 
clause relating to them : " Item zo gheve ic elken van myn 
lieve dochters, die begheven zyn, te wetene : Margriete, 
't Saertruesinnen, ende Lowyse, Sint Truden, een tavereele, 
daerinne dat Sinte Franssen in portrature van meester lans 
handt van Heyck ghemaect staet, ende dat men in de duerkins 
die de zelve tavereelkins belancken doe maken myn persona- 
ge ende mer vrauwe, alzo wel als men mach, te dien hende 
dat wy van hemlieden ende andere devote persoonen moghen 
ghedocht zyn, ende daertoe elcken ic gheve om haerlieder 
wille mede te doen." 

. Philadelphia: Mr. John G. Johnson. Oak. H. 0,125; 

B. 0,145. 

The picture represents the Vision of Saint Francis on 
Mount Alverna, when he received the stigmata. In his 


treatment of the subject, the painter has not adhered rigidly 
to the earlier representations, in that he has omitted the rays 
from the Saviour's hands, feet, and side, to those of the saint, 
and has placed the sleeping brother, Leo, on the same plane 
as the saint, instead of in the half-distance. In all earlier 
Netherlandish pictures the habits of both the saint and the 
brother are grey, and the Franciscans were known as the 
Grey Friars ; but here the habit is brown, the colour adopted 
by the reformed Franciscans, a conclusive proof that the 
picture was painted in the South of Europe. The first 
convent of the reformed Franciscans in the Low Countries 
was not founded until the end of the fifteenth century. It 
must also be remarked that the kneeling saint is not an ideal 
impersonation of the poor man of Assisi, but the portrait, 
evidently true to life, of a sturdy middle-aged man. The 
scene is laid in the foreground of an exquisite landscape in 
a retired spot, shut in on each side by tall limestone rocks. 
The saint kneels before a mass of rock, above which, to the 
right, appears the seraphic vision. Between the rocks we 
get a view of a river in the half-distance, which bathes the 
walls of a fortified town with many towers and spires seen 
in bright sunlight ; on the stream are boats, and on the bank 
and the bridge giving access to the city gate are innumerable 
figures on foot and on horseback. In the far-off distance 
are snow mountains, from whence the river flows with many 
windings towards the town. In the foreground flowers 
bloom amidst the herbage, while the palmetto grows in 
abundance at the foot of the rocks, on the summit of the tallest 
of which are three birds. 

Purchased about 1830 by Lord Heytesbury from a 


medical man at Lisbon, as an original work by Albert 
Diirer, it remained in the collection at Heytesbury until 
1890, when it was acquired by Mr. Johnson. It was carefully 

cleaned by Mr. Roger Fry, in 1906. 

Exhibited : British Institution, 1865, n4i ; Burlington 
House, Old Masters, 1886, n.ig8. 

196. Turin: Royal Gallery, 313. H. 0,28; B. 0,33. 

The same composition, with some slight differences. The 
saint's face, less lifelike, has a pleasanter look ; his tonsure 
is larger, and more of Brother Leo's face is seen ; the habits 
of both friars are grey. Strange to say, the brother, who 
having his legs crossed, shows in Mr. Johnson's picture the 
sole of his left foot, has here two right feet. 

At the beginning of the last century this panel belonged 
to a secularized nun of Casale, in Piedmont. After forming 
part of the collections of Professor Bonzani, and of Signer 
Fascio, Mayor of Feletto in Canavese, it was in 1860 acquired 
by the Turin Gallery. 

1857. WAAGEN, 389, writing of the panel, then at Heytesbury, describes 
it as " delicate in feature and very earnest in expression. ... In the 
treatment of the equally delicate, solid, and miniature-like execution, 
this little picture agrees entirely with the altar-piece in the Dresden 
Gallery, surpassing it, however, in the depth of the warm tone." 

1860. WAAGEN, 69. 

1883. HYMANS, in Bulletin des Commissions royales d 'Art et (fArchlo- 
logie, xxn, 108-116, describes the Turin panel as surprisingly 
beautiful, and of such perfection in the details as has never been 


surpassed by any artist of the fifteenth century. The colour is 

superbly vigorous and harmonious. 
1883. WAUTERS, Les deux Saint Fra^ois de Jean van Eyck. In 

Echo du Parlement, 7 Aout, Brussels. 
1886. J. C. ROBINSON, in the Times of February i, calls the Heytes- 

bury picture an exquisite little gem by John van Eyck. 
1886. WEALE, in the Times of February 3. 

1886. PHILLIPS, in Chronique des Arts, 15, expresses the gravest doubts 
as to the correctness of its attribution to John van Eyck. 

1887. CONWAY, 141, calls the Heytesbury panel a smaller replica of 
the Turin picture. 

1888. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxvn, 78-83. 

1894. DEHAISNES, Les CEuvres des Maitres de 1'Ecole Flamande 
primitive conservees en Italic, 6. 

1897. JACOBSEN, in Archivio Storico dell' Arte, S. 2, in, 208, calls the 
Turin picture a successful imitation of later date. The formation 
of the rocks and the colouring of the foliage with little touches of 
the brush recall Bles, and the delicate rosy tone with a tinge of 
violet reminds one of (the pseudo-)Mostaert. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 108, calls the rocks fantastic, and doubts the correct- 
ness of the attribution to John van Eyck. 

1899. SEECK, 13, 69, looks on the Turin panel as a late work by Hubert. 

1900. VOLL, 109, calls the Turin panel a pretty, sympathetic picture, 
but cannot discover in it any direct conformity with the character 
of John's authentic works. He thinks it belongs to a later period, 
because the saint is kneeling on both knees, and with his hands 
not outstretched to receive the stigmata. He also considers the 
landscape romantic, and to be contemporary with Durer. 

1900. MARKS, in the Athentzum, May 26, p. 664. 

1901. BODE, 129, considers the Turin panel to be the original, and the 
smaller panel a replica executed in Van Eyck's workshop. 

1903. ROSEN, 105-110, 133, calls the Turin picture a pretended Van 
Eyck, and says the landscape resembles those by Bouts, but cannot 
be by him because the plants are not so well painted. The fore- 
ground is yellow brown to olive green, instead of deep juicy green 
as in the panel of the Adoration of the Lamb. His statement that 
the feet of Christ are covered by the seraph's wings, is incorrect. 



By permission of the Berlin rlw(0gra/>hiL Co. 





1903. DE MONT, 51. 

1904. DVORAK, 240. 

1905. FIERENS, 1 1 6. 

1906. FRY, in the Burlington Magazine, ix, 358. 

1906. C. RICKETTS, in the Burlington Magazine, ix, 426. 

1906, F. J. M., in the Burlington Magazine, x, 138. Mr. Johnson's 
Saint Francis is original, and of finer quality than the replica at 
Turin. The head of the saint is evidently a portrait. 

1907. JACCACI, in the Burlington Magazine, xi, 46-48. 

A painting at Madrid (Prado Gallery, 1525. Oak. 
H. 0,47 ; B. 0,36) formerly ascribed to Albert Diirer, but now 
attributed to Joachim Patenir, is evidently based on Van 
Eyck's composition. 

Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5250. Oak. H. 0,31 ; B. 0,14. 

Formerly in the Suermondt collection at Aachen ; pur- 
chased for the Gallery in 1874. 

In the nave of a three-aisled cruciform Gothic church 
with an apsidal choir and ambulatory, seen from the left, the 
Blessed Virgin, clad in a red dress and greenish-blue mantle 
with an elaborate gold crown on her head, stands holding 
the Divine Child on her right arm, and retaining His feet with 
her left hand. From the waist down He is enveloped in a 
long white cloth, the end of which hangs in front. With His 
right hand He clutches the neckband of His Mother's dress. 
The sun, shining through the clerestory and the windows of 
a side chapel behind the Virgin, produces a fine effect of 


light and shadow. A sculptured stone screen of three bays 
surmounted by a rood with statues of the Virgin and 
Saint John, and furnished with a brass Gospel lectern, 
separates the nave from the choir, within which stand two 
angels singing from a book. On an altar in the side bay to 
the right is a statuette of Our Lady on a metal pedestal 
between two candlesticks. The sculptured tympanum of this 
bay represents the Annunciation ; that of the central bay, the 
Coronation of Our Lady. 

Original frame painted in imitation of stone, and bearing 
in capital letters : " Mater hec est filia pater hie est natus 
quis audivit talia deus homo natus." At the foot: "Flos 
florum appellaris." 

1851. LABORDE, n, 1. 

1855. LABORDE, La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France, i, 
604-607 (Paris), says that the panel in Cacault's possession was 
purchased from his housekeeper for 50 francs. 

1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 12, says this picture 
is the one which belonged to M. Nau. 

1872. CROWE, 115 : "Suggestive of doubt. . . . There is a remi- 
niscence of Van Eyck in the type of the heads, and something to 
recall memories of the Madonna of Dresden, but that the tones 
are less silvery and the impaste is heavier. . . . The way in which 
the effect of light is brought out reminds us of the later Dutch 
masters. ... Is not this a skilful copy by a master like De Hooch ? " 

1877. WOLTMANN, in Repertorium, n, 419-422. 

1879. SCHNAASE, 154. An authentic work by John. 

1887. CONWAY, 145. A genuine work by John. 

1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 216. A genuine 
work by John. The Child is very small, and poorly modelled, 
and there is a want of decision in the folds of His Mother's dress ; 
but these are the result of a restoration of the whole of the lower 
portion of the picture. 


1898. KAEMMERER, 76-80. A masterpiece as regards both the lighting 
and the production of an impression of space, but the weak 
character of the draperies is against its being attributed unre- 
servedly to John. A free copy is in the Ponzoni Collection at 

1899. SEECK, 41, 70, notes that the architecture of the church is wholly 
in the Pointed style, without any admixture of Romanesque ; for 
this and other reasons he dates the picture c. 1440. 

1900. VOLL, 78-81. Undoubtedly a late and very fine picture by John, 
and a proof that he had great poetic feeling. Having compared 
it with the group of the virgin-martyrs in the Adoration of the 
Lamb, he thinks it proves conclusively that that group is also by 

1900. KAEMMERER, 70. 

1902. HULIN, 2, 118, attributes this picture to Hubert. 

1903. DE MONT, 18, says: "painted between 1432 and 1480; the 
Blessed Virgin an imitation of one of the virgin-martyrs in the 
Adoration of the Lamb." 

1904. KERN, 14, puts its date c. 1436. 

1905. FIERENS, 162. The most remarkable of many copies of a lost 

1906. VOLL, 39, says the church represented is Saint Denis, and dates 
the picture c. 1432. 

Several copies of this picture, evidently the dexter panel 
of a diptych, are known : one formerly in the possession of 
F. Cacault, who was the representative of France at Naples, 
Florence, and Rome, was sold at his death for 17 francs to 
an architect named Nau at Nantes. Laborde, who saw it, 
gives its dimensions as 43 centimeters by 25. Another copy, 
dated 1499, painted for Christian De Hondt, abbot of the 
Cistercian monastery of Our Lady of the Dunes (H. 0,31 ; 
B. 0,15), is now in the Van Ertborn Collection at the Antwerp 
Museum. Another, painted c. 1505 for " Messer Antonio 


Siciliano," was in 1530 in the house of Gabriel Vendramin, 
at Venice, and is now in the Doria-Pamphili Gallery at 
Rome. A finely executed pen drawing (H. 0,30; B. 0,14), 
the lower left corner repaired, in the collection of Count Louis 
Paar, was sold at Vienna, February 21, 1896, n.326. Another 
in pen and bistre on paper (H. 0,18; B. 0,095) was lent to 
the Grosvenor Gallery Winter Exhibition, 1878-9, n .63O, by 
Sir J. C. Robinson, and is reproduced in Kaemmerer's 
" Hubert und Jan van Eyck," p. 77. 

Frankfort : Stadel Institute, 98. Oak. H. 0,655 ; B. 0,495. 

Formerly in the possession of Charles Louis, Duke of 
Lucca; was in 1841 in the hands of the dealer Nieuwenhuys 
at Brussels, from whom it was purchased by William II., 
King of Holland, at whose sale in 1850 it was acquired by 
the Institute for 3000 florins. 

In this, as in the picture at Ince Hall, the scene is laid 
in a room of small dimensions, lighted by a window on the 
right. The Virgin-Mother is seated on a high-backed carved 
oak throne, with bronze lions surmounting the principals. 
From a fringed canopy attached to the ceiling hangs a cloth 
of honour, with a green-and-gold pattern of foliage, and 
white-and-red flowers on a blue ground, with a border of 
white with a red stripe. She wears a blue dress, the full 
sleeves of which are lined with white fur, and over this an 
ample crimson mantle with a bejewelled border of gold em- 
broidery. Her flowing light-brown hair, drawn back off the 




//BVTZ a. p/wloffra/ih. 6y ffiruckmann 


temples and confined by a narrow band adorned with pearls, 
falls over her left shoulder. With her right hand she supports 
the Child, seated nude on a linen cloth spread on her lap, 
and gives Him the breast with her left. He holds an orange 
in His left hand, and lays His right on His Mother's arm. 
In a niche on the left is a brass basin, and on a shelf above 
it a bottle of water and a brass candlestick. Opposite this 
a round-headed window glazed with pearl-white roundels, 
letting in a moderate amount of light, but enough to make 
the lions and vessels glitter ; on the sill are a couple of 
oranges. The throne-steps are covered with a rich carpet 
which extends to the front, leaving the pavement of white 
tiles with a blue design visible at the sides. 

Etched by J. Eissenhardt. 

1858. HOTHO, ii, 189. 
1860. WAAGEN, i, 69. 

1862. DARCEL, Excursion artistique en Allemagne, 190. 

1863. RUELENS, xxvi. 
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 318. 
1872. CROWE, 113. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 87. 

1899. SEECK, 22, 70, dates it 1433. 

1900. WEIZSAECKER, Catalogue, gives the date of its execution as 
between 1435 and 1440. 

1900. VOLL, 70. 

1903. DE MONT, 55, gives 1432-33 as the date of this painting. 

1904. KERN, 9. 

1905. FIERENS, 162. 

1906. VOLL, 37. 

1906. SlEBERT, IO-II. 


Berlin ; Royal Gallery, 523A. Oak. H. 0,29 ; B. 0,20. 

Formerly in the collection of the Earl of Shrewsbury at 
Alton Towers, sold July 6, 1857 (n .76), when it was described 
as being much injured and repainted. It was purchased 
for ^37 by C. J. Nieuwenhuys, at the sale of whose col- 
lection July 17, 1886, it was described (n.67) as the portrait 
of John van Eyck by himself. It was then acquired for the 
Gallery for ^399. 

Arnolfini is represented turned slightly to the right, his 
face, close-shaven, seen in three-quarters. He is clad in an 
olive-green robe trimmed with brown fur, fitting close at the 
neck with stand-up collar ; a scarlet head-kerchief completes 
his costume. He has small bluish-grey eyes ; his left arm 
rests on the sill of a window ; his right hand, in which he 
holds a folded letter with an illegible superscription, is laid 
upon his left ; a ring adorns the little finger. The luminous 
flesh tones of the face and the green and red of the costume 
on the unrelieved dark background make a striking and 
delightful picture. 

Facsimile coloured reproduction by the Berlin Photo- 
graphic Company. 

1887. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der koniglich Preussischen Kunstsamm- 

lungen, vm, 172-174. 

1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 214. 
1898. KAEMMERER, 101, 104, comparing this portrait with that of 1434 

in the National Gallery, arrives at the conclusion that Arnolfini's 



By permission oj the Berlin Ph< togi afliic Co. 


married life was not happy. This rash judgment is, he thinks, 
confirmed by the fact that he and his wife were not buried in the 
same grave nor even in the same church. Both John and his 
brother Michael were, as Lucchese merchants, buried in their 
chantry chapel, in the vault reserved as their exclusive resting- 

1899. SEECK, 26-30, 53, comparing this with John's dated portraits, is 
of opinion that it was painted in 1433. 

1900. VOLL, 74-75, dates this portrait 1437-1439. 

1905. FlERENS, 154. 

1906. VOLL, 38. 



Berlin: Royal Gallery, 2520. Oak. H. 0,26; B. 0,195. 

Formerly at Modena, in the collection of the Marquess of 

Half-length portrait of a man ; the face, seen in two- 
thirds in full light turned to the right ; the eyes looking 
straight out, away from the spectator. He wears a robe of 
violet-purple damask, with yellowish-green sprays of foliage, 
trimmed at the neck and wrists with reddish-brown fur ; 
under the robe a close-fitting tunic with a collar open in 
front, showing a little fine white linen. He has a large felt 
hat, of the same shape as that worn by John Arnolfini in 
the picture at the National Gallery. He holds with both 
hands a white wand, the symbol of his official position of 
chamberlain at the Duke's court. A ring adorns the little 
finger of his right hand, and upon his shoulders hangs the 
enamelled gold collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, of 


which he had been created a knight by Duke Philip on its 
institution, January 10, 1430. The collar, a work of the 
Bruges goldsmith, John Peutin, was delivered to him on 
Saint Andrew's Day, 1431. Hence it is certain that this 
portrait must have been painted after that date, probably 
some years later. The back of the panel is painted to 
imitate stone. 

A drawing in pencil of this portrait, faithfully repro- 
ducing every detail, is preserved in the town library at 
Arras (MS. 266), in the collection of portraits of persons 
connected with the court of the Dukes of Burgundy, made 
by James Leboucq, painter and genealogist (d. 1573), and 
formerly belonging to the abbey of Saint Vedast. At its 
foot is the legend: " Baulduyn de Lannoy dit le Besgue 
sieur de Molembais." 

This Baldwin, surnamed the Stammerer, belonged to one 
of the most illustrious families of Hainault. He was the 
third son of Gilbert, lord of Santes and Katherine de Saint- 
Aubin, lady of Molembaix, Heri, and Saint-Aubin. Born 
in 1386 or 1387, he was appointed Governor of Lille in 1423, 
Captain of the castle of Mortagne in 1428. He died in 1474, 
having married, (i) Mary de Melles (d. 31 May, 1433), and 
(2) Adriana de Berlaymont (d. 29 April, 1439). He was buried 
at Solre-le-chateau. John van Eyck's striking portrait of 
Baldwin evidently drew the attention of the unknown 
Westphalian author of a series of paintings illustrating the 
preaching of the Crusade by Saint Bernard now in the 
Wallraf-Richartz museum at Coin. In one of these, depict- 
ing an incident that occurred in the church at Frankfort 
when the saint was about to carry the emperor Conrad III. 


rmission of the Berlin Photographic Co 

COKI.N : W. \l.l.R.\l -RK'HAKTX Ml'SKl'M 




out of the crowd pressing around, he has introduced this 
picturesque figure among the onlookers. 1 

Helio-engraving by J. Chauvet, 1900, H. 0,187 ! ^. > 1 37- 
Etching by Peter Halm, 1901, H. 0,161 ; B. 0,119. 

190x3. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, xxiv, 173-176. 

1900. DIMIER, in Chronique des Arts, 10 November. 

1901. BODE, xxn, 115-118. 

1901. SEECK, in Kunstchronik, N. F., xn, 259-260. 

1904. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, v, 408. 

1905. FlERENS, 139. 



Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5236. Oak. H. 0,195; B. o, 14: 

Formerly in the Marquess of Exeter's collection at 
Burleigh House. At its sale, June 9, 1888, n.288, it was 
acquired by the Gallery for ^"2625. 

On the left Our Lady stands, holding in her arms the 
Infant Jesus, on whom she gazes with an expression of deep 
love. The Child, a crystal orb in His left hand, has His 
right raised in the act of blessing a Carthusian, the identical 
monk portrayed in the Rothschild picture, only older here by 
some years. Here too he kneels under the protection of 
Saint Barbara, who has her right hand on his shoulder and 
her left extended to a tower with three windows, her dis- 
tinctive emblem ; this tower, square and crenelated, is 

1 I am indebted for the photographs of this picture to the kindness 
of Dr. K. Westendorp, who first drew attention to it in the Zeitschrift 
fiir Christliche Kunst, 1906, p. 226. 


crowned by a metal spire. The Virgin-Mother wears a full- 
sleeved blue dress trimmed with ermine, and a crimson 
mantle with a simple border of gold, secured by a cord 
fastened to two jewels. Her hair, confined by a cincture of 
pearls, is drawn back behind the ears, and falls over her 
shoulders. The monk, the hood of his cowl thrown back, 
kneels with his hands joined in prayer, whilst Saint Barbara, 
in a red dress girt with a gold cincture, is almost completely 
enveloped in a green mantle ; her hair, also held back by a 
band of pearls, falls behind. These figures are beautifully 
grouped in a brightly lighted, lofty portico with two open 
pointed arches on the right behind Saint Barbara, and two 
round arches in the background supported by square piers 
and a column of verd antique, the bases of which rest on a 
low wall. Above these are two windows with borders of 
coloured glass ; in front of these, and immediately over Our 
Lady, hangs a circular, conical canopy of a gauzy material, 
with a red, green, and white fringe. The pavement is com- 
posed of rectangular slabs of stone, some with coloured inlays, 
but mostly plain. The capital of the column on which the 
round arches rest is sculptured with interlaced foliage, that of 
the pier to the right with a group of figures. Through the 
central arch a sunlit landscape is seen, and in the foreground, 
a town composed of innumerable houses, with a wonder- 
ful variety of street-fronts and gables, some roofed with red 
tiles, others with bluish slates. Through the town runs a river, 
lined on either bank with an avenue of trees. A wooden 
bridge connects the two portions of the town ; beyond it we 
descry a water-mill and a house resting on arches of masonry ; 
further off still, a bridge of seven arches, with a lofty square 


Hi permission / tlic /Itr/i,, I'hot^ra/thicCo. 


tower at each end in immediate connection with the ramparts ; 
on both bridges are a number of persons, whose faces and 
figures are reflected in the running water beneath. A small 
boat is being propelled single-handed beneath the more 
distant bridge; three more boats are visible still further 
away, while churches and other buildings dot the well- 
wooded landscape through which the river runs towards the 
front. An equally minute landscape is seen through the 
arches behind Saint Barbara; it comprises a flower-garden, 
and beyond it a market-place with a cross, many houses, and 
numerous shops displaying a variety of wares ; the streets are 
thronged with people ; in the background a windmill and the 
rampart with its fortified wall. The atmosphere is clear, 
birds are fluttering about, and a few light, fleecy clouds float 
across the limpid blue sky. 
Exhibited : Leeds, 1868. 

1854. WAAGEN, m, 406. In the tone and treatment it has the greatest 
resemblance to the masterly picture in the Louvre. 

1857. CROWE, 341-345 : "A symmetrical and beautifully ordered com- 
position, perfectly balanced in every part the figures being so 
marshalled, and the accessories so arranged, as to give the picture 
an uncommon degree of simplicity and grandeur. . . . The general 
aspect of the picture is equally pleasing, as are its parts when 
taken separately the composition being as remarkable for 
harmony of lines, as for the perfection of its chords of colours. 
The attitude of the Virgin and Saint Barbara are as graceful as 
that of the kneeling monk is severe and noble. The female 
heads, elegant and pleasing as they are in form and expression, 
remind us of the saints led by Saint Barbara in the ' Agnus Dei.' 
The monk is a splendid portrait, and a marvel for nature and 
severity ; the head being as fine in details as it is able in the 
mass. ... A small masterpiece, comparable only to the best part 
of the greatest work of John van Eyck." 



1885. GILBERT, 153. 

1889. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Premsischen Kunstsammlungen, 
x, 154-165, and xv, 65. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 95-97, finds the figures hard and lifeless, and 
considers this picture to be by Peter Christus. 

1899. SEECK, 14-22, 68, attributes this painting to Hubert. 

1900. VOLL, 119. Probably by Peter Christus, whose work it most 
closely resembles. 

1900. WEALE, 286. Probably by Hubert. 

1903. MARKS, 30. Painted by Hubert and John in collaboration. 

1903. DE MONT, 58. 

1904. KERN, 15, plate xii, on account of the accuracy of the linear 
perspective, gives this to Peter Christus. 

1904. DVORAK, 178. 

1905. FIERENS, 116. 

1906. SlEBERT, IO. 

1906. VOLL, 46. Painted late in the fifteenth century. 


Saint Petersburg: Hermitage Gallery, 444. Shutters of a 
triptych. H. 0,62 ; B. 0,25. Canvas, transferred from 

Calvary. On the slope of a hill stand three tall tau 
crosses, that in the centre with the title-board facing the front. 
Our Lord, fastened to it with three nails, has just expired. 
There surrounds it a crowd of men, judges, soldiers, and 
others, six or seven of them on horseback. Amongst them a 
man carrying the reed and sponge ; on the right, the blind 
Longinus on horseback, aided by another man, has just pierced 
the Saviour's side. To the right and left of the Redeemer 
are the two thieves, each blindfolded and fastened by five 
cords to a cross facing towards the centre ; the penitent 

Ha nfstangl fti otvgr. 




hanging quietly ; the other, on the left, struggling desperately, 
but in vain. At the foot of the hill in the immediate fore- 
ground, the Virgin-Mother, overcome with grief, is tenderly 
supported by Saint John, with the three holy women in 
close attendance ; to the left, Magdalene praying with arms 
uplifted towards the Redeemer; beyond her, a turbaned 
woman stands compassionately contemplating the group 
around the Virgin-Mother. 

The Last Judgment. Our Lord, seated on the rainbow, 
is draped in an ample mantle which leaves His feet exposed. 
From the wounds in these and in His outstretched hands pro- 
ceed rays of glory ; just below these, in detached letters, runs 
the invitation : " Venite benedicti patris met." Two angels 
hovering in the background bear the holy cross with the 
title-board ; another, on the right, carries the lance and crown 
of thorns ; and a fourth, on the left, three rods with the reed 
and sponge. Beyond these, on each side, are four angels 
blowing long trumpets. On the right of our Lord His 
Blessed Mother, with her right hand on her breast and her 
left upraised, is begging mercy for a number of suppliants 
sheltered beneath her mantle ; opposite her, on the left, is 
Saint John the Baptist praying ; beyond each of them a choir 
of adoring angels. Immediately below our Lord's feet a 
crowd of virgins, facing the front, are singing the praises of 
God ; on each side the Apostles, clad in white robes, headed 
by Saint Peter, are seated on two benches, on the end of that 
to the right is carved the fall of our first parents. Two 
angels are leading in two groups of the elect : on the right, 
a pope, a cardinal, a couple of bishops, priests, monks, friars, 
and hermits ; on the left, a crowd of laymen, headed by an 


emperor, a king, and a count. Below, the earth and the sea 
are yielding up their dead. In the centre stands Saint Michael, 
a noble figure with outstretched peacock-wings, with buckler 
and sword upraised ready to smite the enemy of mankind. 
The oval buckler, charged with a , cross, bears in Greek 
characters the legend, " Adoravi tetgrammathon agla " ; l and 
his armour is covered with mystical inscriptions. He is 
barefooted ; his flowing, curly locks are retained by a 
jewelled circlet surmounted by a cross. Beneath his feet a 
weird spectre of Death, with outstretched legs and arms, and 
huge bat-like wings, overshadows the abyss of hell, in which 
a multitude of the damned, falling head foremost in dire 
confusion, are being tortured by hideous demons. On the 
Death's wings are the legends, "CHAOS MAGNVM " and 
" VMBRA MORTIS," and the fearful sentence, " Ite vos maledicti 
in ignem eternam " accompanied by fiery darts from above. 

These panels were purchased in Spain by the Russian 
ambassador Tatistcheff, who in 1845 bequeathed them to 
the Gallery. The central panel, representing, it is said, the 
Adoration of the Magi, had been previously stolen. Until 
1 86 1 both were ascribed to John van Eyck ; they were then, 
on the authority of Dr. Waagen, attributed to Peter Christus, 
but in 1887 they were reassigned to John, to whom they are 
still attributed in the official catalogue. 

The original frames of these shutters, of gilt wood, bore 

the following inscriptions. On that representing Calvary: 

' Dominus posuit in eo iniquitatem omnium nostrum : 

Oblatus est quia ipse voluit : et non aperuit os suum : sicut 

The four Hebrew letters comprising the holy name Jehovah. 
As to " agla," see p. 41, note 2. 


ovis ad occisionem ducetur: et quasi agnus coram tondente 
se obmutescet : propter scelus populi mei percussi eum : et 
dabit impios pro sepultura : et divitem pro morte sua : 
Tradidit in mortem animam suam : et cum sceleratis 
reputatus est ; et ipse peccata multorum tulit : et pro 
transgressoribus rogavit." 1 On the frame of the Last 
Judgment : " Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus : et 
habitabit cum eis : ipsi populus eius erunt : et ipse Deus 
cum eis erit eorum Deus : Et absterget Deus omnem lagri- 
mam ab oculis eorum : et mors ultra non erit : neque luctus : 
nee dolor erit ultra. 2 Dedit mare mortuos suos. 3 Congregabo 
super eos mala et sagittas meas complebo in eis : consu- 
mentur fame : et devorabunt eos aves morsu amarissimo : 
dentes bestiarum immittam in eos : cum furore trahentium 
super terram atque serpentium.* Dedit mors mortuos." 

The Berlin Gallery contains a much-enlarged copy of 
the Last Judgment (H. 1,34), by Peter Christus, signed and 
dated 1452. 

1841. PASSAVANT, in Kunstblait, n.3, attributes these pictures to 
John van Eyck. 

1858. HOTHO, n, 169, thinks they may have been painted before 1426 
by either Hubert or John, as both brothers are, he says, repre- 
sented standing at the foot of the Cross. 

1879. CLEMENT DE Ris, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xix, 574. 

1887. C. JUSTI, in Zeitschrtft fur bildende Kunst, xxn, 244, gives these 
pictures to John. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 52-56. 

1 Isa. LIII, 6, 7, 8, 12. 

2 Apoc. xxi, 3, 4. 

3 Id. xx, 13. 

4 Dent, xxxii, 23, 24. 


1899. PHILLIPS, in the North American Review, 713-714, says: 
" These panels must for the present be put in a class by them- 
selves, or rather with a restricted group of similar works among 
which are to be numbered . . . the Berlin Calvary, the Three 
Marys at the Sepulchre, the Saint Francis receiving the Stigmata, 
and the Fountain of Living Water. These paintings reveal a 
deeper pathos than the calm Ian van Eyck had hitherto seemed 
to have at command, and with it a mode of handling not quite 
so minute and searching in every particular. The Saint-Peters- 
burg Calvary and Last Judgment are not only beyond reasonable 
doubt John van Eyck's own, but they must, as creations of 
absolute originality, be counted among the most wonderful things 
of the Netherlandish school at this period. Hardly again has the 
Crucifixion been imagined with this rugged force and grandeur, 
with this power of intense individualization which yet robs the 
world-tragedy of none of its significance." 

1899. SEECK, 12, 68, finds the figures of Christ and the thieves weak; 
the fissures and stones in the foreground, the landscape and archi- 
tecture, the sky and clouds, resemble the Berlin Calvary. 

1900. VOLL, 106-108. 

1901. SEECK, 260. 
1901. BODE, 125. 
1903. SCHUBERT, 28. 

1903. DE MONT, 49, says that these two panels most certainly have 
points of resemblance to Hubert's paintings, but not the slightest 
to any of John's authentic works. 

1903. SCHMARSOW, 23. 

1904. DVORAK, 177, 228. 

1905. FIERENS, 1 1 8. The architecture in the background, the group 
of holy women, and the accoutrements of some of the soldiers, 
remind one of " the Three Marys " ; the horses seen in profile are 
not without analogy with those in the Turin Hours. The Last 
Judgment is a bold and original conception. The angels with 
draperies terminating in broken folds, and some of the blessed, 
recall the Ghent altar-piece. 

1906. VOLL, 269, dates these paintings .1450. 

1907. DURAND, 58-60. 


By feriinssifn c/ the Pcriia I'fiatvfrafliK Ca. 



Berlin : Royal Gallery, 525F. H. 0,44 ; B. 0,30. Linen, 
transferred from the original panel. 

In the centre of the immediate foreground rises a tall 
tau-shaped cross, the beam of which extends almost the full 
width of the picture ; the large board above it, with the title 
in three languages, reaches nearly to the head of the frame. 
To this cross the Saviour is fastened by three nails. His 
head is bent forward to the right, as if He had cast a last 
dying look on His Mother. The expression is striking. His 
dark hair hangs down as if dank from sweat on each side of 
His face ; blood drips from the wounds in the hands, and, 
trickling down the forearms, falls from each elbow, and in an 
abundant stream from the side and feet to the foot of the 
cross. The foreground is strewn with stones, with here and 
there a bone. On the right the Virgin-Mother stands with 
head bowed down and hands interlaced in deep but resigned 
grief; a linen kerchief with gaufred edge envelops her head 
and throat ; over it she wears a light-coloured mantle, the 
ample folds of which are gathered up under her right arm, 
showing the dark-blue dress beneath. On the left, the beloved 
disciple, his head turned away, is wiping his tears with the 
back of his left hand, and with the other holding up the pale 
red mantle he wears over his dark violet tunic. Beyond 
them are numerous figures. The half-distance is filled with 
a thick growth of bushes with light dotted foliage ; in the 
middle are figures going away towards the gate of a walled 


city with numerous square and circular towers, and a lofty 
rectangular building crowned with five cupolas ; in the distant 
background is a double range of snow mountains. On the left 
the view is shut out by a hill with a pine tree, some cypresses, 
and a windmill on the further side. On the right is a tall 
tree with bare branches, about which hover a number of 
starlings. Overhead a clear sky, with small bright floating 
clouds to the left. 

This picture, formerly ascribed to Roger De la Pasture, 
came into the hands of the late Mr. Buttery, who sold it to 
the Association of Friends of the Frederick William Museum. 
It is in fairly good condition, but has sustained a few slight 
restorations, rendered necessary by small pieces of the paint 
becoming detached in the process of transference from the 

1898. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der koniglichen Preussischen Kunstsamm 
lungen, xix, 202-205. 

1898. WEISBACH, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xx, 160. 

1899. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxu, 411. 

1899. SEECK, 5-13, 69. 

1900. WEALE, in Revue de tArt Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285. 

1901. BODE, 127-128. 

1903. ROSEN, 98-105, notes that the branches of the pine are incorrectly 
represented as springing from the trunk at the same height. Regards 
the work as posterior to the Van Eycks. 

1903. DE MONT, 49. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 28. 

1904. DVORAK, 177-178, 228. 

1905. FIERENS, 119. 

1906. VOLL, 48, believes this panel to have been painted in the second 
half of the fifteenth century, and possibly copied from a lost work 
by Hubert or John. 





Richmond: Sir Frederick Cook. Oak. H. 0,715; 6.0,89. 

Prior to 1472 in the possession of Philip de Commines. 
In the eighteenth century it belonged to James Wynckelman, 
Lord of 't Metersche, whose collection was sold at Bruges, 
May 4, 1770. It was acquired by M. Bernard Bauwens, at 
whose sale, August 8, 1826, it was bought by a dealer. In 
1854 it was in private hands at Antwerp, and was purchased 
by Mr. William Middleton, of Brussels. At the sale of his 
collection at Christie's, January 26, 1872, it was bought for 
^335 by a Mr. Johnson, from whom it was acquired by 
Sir J. C. Robinson, and from him by the late Sir Francis 

In the centre of the foreground the empty sepulchre is 
seen with its displaced cover lying slantwise across it. On 
the cover an angel is seated, wearing an alb and a stole crossed 
over his breast. He holds a golden sceptre in his left hand, 
and has his right raised as he announces the Resurrection of 
the Lord. To the right have just arrived the three holy 
women. Magdalene is pictured kneeling at the foot of the 
sepulchre, with one hand resting on the pot of ointment set 
on the edge of the tomb, the other slightly raised in astonish- 
ment at the angel's words. Her companions stand a little 
further back, wrapt in wondering silence. In front of the 
sepulchre two soldiers in armour, and, on the left, a third, lie 
fast asleep. In the foreground palmettos are growing, and 
flowering plants, amongst which are the mullen, teasel, white 


nettle, and flag-lily. In the rising background, between 
brown rocks, a number of men on foot and on horseback are 
making their way along a winding road leading to a fortified 
town crowded with numerous houses and towers. Snow- 
capped mountains beyond rise to the sky, relieved here and 
there by light fleecy clouds and crossed by a flight of 
wild geese. The sun has just risen, but is hidden from 
view by rocks on the right ; the effects of light falling on 
the towers crowning the hills on the left the centre of the 
town remaining in shade are admirably rendered. Oddly 
enough, the light in the foreground of the picture comes from 
the opposite side, suggestive, perhaps, of moonlight. In the 
lower sinister corner is an escutcheon in grisaille, charged 
with a chevron between three escallops and a bordure ; and 
surrounded by a collar of the Order of Saint Michael. This 
was evidently added between 1469 and 1472, as the Order 
was instituted by Louis XI. of France in 1469, and the only 
member of it who bore these arms was Philip Van den Clyte, 
better known as Philip de Commines. His treasonable prac- 
tices having come to the knowledge of Charles the Rash, his 
estates were confiscated on the 8th of August, 1472, and all 
his goods sold. 

The picture is not in good condition. The blue drapery 
of one of the women standing on the right, and the heads of 
both, have suffered. Portions of the sky and some of the 
buildings in the background have been overpainted since 
1870. The fore part is best preserved. 

Exhibited : London : Burlington House, Old Masters, 
1873, n.i7i ; Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1892, n.ii; 


New Gallery, 1899, n.g. Bruges : Early Netherlandish 
Masters, 1902, n.y. London: Guildhall, 1906, n.i. 

1855. Otto Miindler held this to be an authentic work by John 
van Eyck. See CROWE, 1857, p. 98. 

1872. CROWE, 113. The numerous details of armour are given with 
extreme care ; the landscape is very attractive. 

1893. TSCHUDI, in Reperlorium, xvi, lor. The types are those 
of John van Eyck ; the treatment of the foreground like that 
of the Pilgrims and the Hermits in the Ghent polyptych ; the 
colour charming, and the light effects of the setting (!) sun 

1898. KAEMMERER, 50-52, remarks that in this picture there is much 
that charms us in the Ghent polyptych, but that the tone is 
weaker, the perspective of the landscape background unhappy, 
and the architecture confused. He believes the picture to be 
an early work contemporary with the Fountain of Living Water, 
and thinks it may have been painted for the church of the Holy 
Cross at Bruges, founded by the brothers Peter and James 
Adornes, after their return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Places 
in 1427. He says that the arms agree with those of the Honyns, 
a family allied to the Adornes, and that the picture may have 
been presented to the church by them. The maternal grand- 
mother of the brothers was a Honyn, but the arms of the two 
families differ essentially ; Commines bore Gules a chevron or 
between three escallops argent and a bordure or, and Honyn 
Sable a chevron between three escallops or, without a 

1899. SEECK, 22, 68. One of Hubert's earliest works. The 
figures of the angel and the guards give evidence of a rising 
understanding of living movements to which John never attained. 
The perspective is faulty ; the feet of the soldier furthest from 
the front are larger than those of his companion in the foreground. 

1900. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxin, 246. Remarkable among 
the works of Van Eyck. 

1900. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Ckrttien, 5 S., xi, 253. 

1900. VOLL, 103-106, assumes this to be a late work, and then goes 


on to prove, by comparison with John's paintings, that it cannot 
have been painted by him. 

1901. BODE, 126, 128. 

1902. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68. An early work by John 
van Eyck, painted before 1425 ; shows closer points of resem- 
blance than any other painting to the panel representing the 
Adoration of the Lamb. 

1902. DURAND, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 57. 

1902. LAFENESTRE, in Revue des Deux Mondes, 5 P., xi, 135-136. 

1902. FRY, in the Athen&um, September 20, p. 388. 

1902. HULIN says: "This important picture is one of the most pre- 
cious documents for the history of art. It is clearly by the 
same hand as the central panels of the Ghent altar-piece. As, 
on the other hand, it differs in many respects from the authentic 
works of John, it must, I think, be attributed to Hubert." 

1902. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxix, 428 

1902. GUIFFREY, 474, describes the angel as blessing the holy women, 
and the sun as setting! f 

1902. A writer in the Times Literary Supplement of November 21, 
suggests that the view of Jerusalem in the background of this 
picture was painted from a sketch made on the spot. Mr. A. 
Marks (1903, January 16) replied that the view could not possibly 
have been made on the spot, as the walls, pulled down in 1239, 
were not rebuilt until 1542 ; moreover, the sun is represented as 
rising in the west. For further correspondence, see the issues of 
February 27, March 6, and April 3. It seems far more probable 
that the painter composed his background on slender information 
derived from Ludolph of Saxony, or some pilgrim's description 
of the Holy Places. 

1903. M., War Hubert van Eyck in Jerusalem? in Frankfurter 
Zeitung, 24, fv. 

1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68. 

1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 42. The rocks and 

the foliage of the trees, imperfectly rendered, prove this to be 

an early work. 
1903. DE MONT, 49. 
1903. DUELBERG, 52. 



1903. ROSEN, no. The rocks are well painted, not so the pine, 
the branches of which are represented as springing from the 
trunk at the same height. 

1903. SCHUBERT, 27. 

1903. SCHMARSOW, 21. 

1904. DVORAK, 177-178, 238. 

1905. FIERENS, 115, thinks the picture is posterior to the Van Eycks. 

1906. VOLL, 47, declares it to be of several decades' later date 
than the Van der Paele altar-piece, notwithstanding its many 
points of resemblance to John van Eyck's works, and the 
landscape to be more like that in Memlinc's Passion-picture at 
Turin than to any in the works of John van Eyck. 

1907. DURAND, 60. 

Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5256. Oak. H. 0,57 ; B. 0,41. 

Purchased at Florence by Otto Miindler, who in 1866 
sold it to Mr. Suermondt of Aachen, from whom it was 
acquired by the Gallery in 1874. 

Our Lady, seen full face, is represented standing in front 
of a low wall of masonry, the top of which, level with the soil 
behind, is overgrown with turf; beyond this is a carefully 
painted hedge of roses in bloom, and yet further back palm- 
trees, citrons, cypresses, and evergreen oaks. The Virgin is 
enveloped in an ample mantle of brownish red, which, but for 
a small portion of the body and left sleeve, entirely covers her 
blue dress trimmed with white fur, and falls in elegant folds 
about her feet. Her head, covered with a transparent white 
kerchief, is bent lovingly over the Child, whom with both 
hands she clasps to her bosom. He with His right arm 
embraces her, while with His left hand, thrown back, He holds 


a spray of flowers. The heads of both Mother and Child are 
encircled with luminous nimbs. On the right stands a bronze 
fountain, into the basin of which fall four jets of water. A 
clasped book in a black forel lies on the wall to the left. The 
foreground is thickly covered with herbage and flowering 

Engraved in the Vienna Kunstblatt. 
Exhibited : Bruges : Early Netherlandish Masters, 
1867, n.2. 

1866. HERIS, in Journal des Beaux Arts, vni, 10, Saint- Nicolas, 
attributes this painting to Hubert. 

1867. HOTHO, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, n, 103. An original 
work by Hubert, which surpasses the Ghent polyptych in the 
profundity of its conception, as it does anything ever created by 

1868. WAAGEN, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, in, 127, thinks it 
was painted by John under Hubert's influence, c. 1429. 

1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 10-12. 

1872. CROWE, 115: "Of doubtful genuineness. The characteristic 
ugliness of the Virgin's face and Infant's form as surely points to 
the hand of a disciple, as the broken character of the drapery, the 
toneless colour, and false perspective." 

1874. WOLTMANN, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, ix, 195, ascribes 
it to John. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 108. The work of an unknown imitator of John 
van Eyck, who has given the Virgin's features a coarser appear- 
ance, suppressed the angels, and substituted roses and trees for 
the cloth of honour. See n.9, pp. 90-92. 

1899. SEECK, 35, 69, deems this to be a copy of a lost original by 

1903. ROSEN, 94. 
1903. DE MONT, 58. 

Hau/siangl fnvHtgr, 



London : Earl of Northbrook. Oak. H. 0,265; B. 0,19. 

Formerly in the collection of E. Joly de Bammeville, 
n.29, sold 12 June, 1884, to Nieuwenhuys, from whom it 
was purchased in 1857 by Mr. Thomas Baring for ,120. 

The Blessed Virgin, three-quarters length, is seated 
facing the spectator, beneath a canopy with a cloth of honour 
of olive green diapered with flowers, bordered with a narrow 
scarlet band. She wears a dark blue dress and a crimson 
mantle, both having richly jewelled borders. Her long hair, 
which falls in undulating masses over her shoulders, is 
confined by a band fastened above the forehead by a jewel 
composed of a ruby surrounded by pearls. With her right 
hand she supports the Divine Child seated nude on a linen 
cloth. He is accepting from His Mother a bunch of red and 
white pinks, and with His right hand holds the wing of a 
struggling parroquet. This little picture is said to have been 
dated 1437 on the original frame. The back of the panel is 
painted to imitate stone. 

Exhibited : London, Burlington House, Old Masters, 
1872, n.234 ; 1894, n.i8o. New Gallery, 1899, n.6g. 
Bruges: Early Netherlandish Masters, 1902, n. ir. 

1889. WEALE. A descriptive catalogue of the collection of pictures 

belonging to the Earl of Northbrook, 24, n.25. 
1883. WEALE, 66. 

1893. TSCHUDI, in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, xvi, 101. 
1902. HULIN, ii. A copy of much later date than 1437 ; it seems to 

be of the fifteenth century. 


1902. DURAND, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 84-86. 

1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, xxvi, 67. 
A weak little picture. 

1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 48. 

1903. DUELBERG, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xiv, 51. 

1906. VOLL, 33. 


New York: Metropolitan Museum. Oak. H. 0,575 ; 

B. 0,307. 

From the collection of William II., King of Holland, at 
whose sale it was purchased by the dealer Nieuwenhuys for 
800 florins. It was subsequently acquired by Mr. A. J. 
Beresford Hope, at whose sale, May 15, 1886, n.3O, it 
fetched ^315. It afterwards passed into the hands of 
Mr. Sellar. 

The figures are almost identical with those in John van 
Eyck's Virgin by the Fountain, of 1439 (9), in the Antwerp 
Museum, save that the position of the Child's left hand is 
altered. The accessories differ entirely, for here Our Lady is 
represented standing on the footpace of a throne placed in a 
late Gothic tabernacle, the pilasters of which are adorned with 
statuettes of Moses and a prophet and of two female figures 
symbolizing the Church and the Synagogue, the one holding 
a cross and a chalice, the other the tables of the Law and a 
banner, the staff of which is falling to pieces. 

From a canopy attached by cords to the buttresses of the 
tabernacle a cloth of honour of brocaded damask reaches to 
the ground. On the front of the canopy is embroidered in gold 
capitals : Domus Dei est et porta celi ; while the upright 



of the footpace bears the inscription : 4- Ipsa est qiiam pre- 
Paravit Domimis filio Domini mei. The colour is colder 
than in John's authenticated paintings, and the architectural 
details are certainly not earlier than the second half of the 
fifteenth century. The picture probably dates from about 

Exhibited: Manchester: Art Treasures, 1857, n 
London: Burlington House: Old Masters, 1871, n .273. 

1857. WAAGEN, Galleries, 190: "This admirably preserved picture 
displays in full measure the solidity of execution of John van 
Eyck. There is every evidence of its being an early picture by 
him. The folds of the drapery still retain that purity of taste 
which he afterwards exchanged for sharp and arbitrary breaks, 
while the unskilfully foreshortened mouth, and the too large 
nose of the Virgin, betray his lack of practice." 

1866. MICHIELS, ii, 318. 

1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, n. 

1872. CROWE, 114 : "The colour of the various parts is thin and cold, 
grey in shadow, and wholly without glazing ; the handling is 
mechanical ; the forms of the Virgin and Infant are feeble. . . . 
If this were really by Van Eyck, it might be truly called one of 
his poorest productions." 

1887. CONWAY, 139. " Painted by John himself." 

1895. BODE, in Zeitschrift filr bildende Krinst, N.F., vi, 17. Not by 
John's own hand. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 108, mentions Peter Christus as possibly the 
painter of this picture. 

1899. SEECK, 41. 

1900. VOLL, 127. 
1903. DE MONT, 58. 

1905. FIERENS, 164. A dryly painted work, which may fairly be 
ascribed to Peter Christus. 


Madrid: Prado Gallery, 2i88e. Panel, H. 1,81 ; B. 1,30. 

From the Hieronymite convent of Our Lady of Parral, 
near Segovia; removed to Madrid from the sacristy in 1838, 
and placed in the National Museum, and removed thence to 
the Prado in 1872. 

This altar-piece in composition somewhat resembles the 
Ghent polyptych. It is divided into stages corresponding 
with the general plan of Netherlandish sculptured altar-pieces, 
as also with that adopted by the playwrights of mediaeval 
Mystery-plays, for which the Low Countries were so long 

In the uppermost of three stages the Eternal Father 
is seated on a throne in a tabernacle surmounted by a lofty 
pinnacled canopy adorned with seventeen statues of prophets. 
He is clad in imperial robes, with a crown on His head and 
a sceptre in His left hand, the right raised in the act of bless- 
ing. At His feet reposes the Lamb, and, on the principals 
of the throne, the evangelistic animals. On the right and left 
are the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist, both 
seated reading. From beneath the throne of God flows 
a stream of crystalline purity down through a flowery 
meadow into an octagonal canopied well in the lowest stage. 
On its surface float innumerable hosts. In the meadow are 
seated six angels, three on each side of the stream, playing 
diverse instruments of music an organ, a monochord and 
a viol ; a mandoline, a psalterion and a harp and beyond 
them, in the lowest story of the lofty turreted pediments 




which enclose the scene, two choirs of angels are singing 
hymns of praise. One of the singing angels on the left holds 
a scroll bearing the words : can. 4. Fons ortorum puteus 
aquarum mvencium. 

On the right of the fountain stands a pope holding a 
tall cross, and pointing to the well of grace ; behind him a 
cardinal, a bishop, an emperor, a king, and six other 
ecclesiastics and laymen, those in the foreground kneeling 
on the tiled pavement, the others standing. On the left 
are a crowd of Jews, one of whom, a venerable old man, 
kneels with a staff in his right hand ; a high priest, blind- 
folded, from whose grasp the broken staff of a banner is 
falling to the ground, seems to be remonstrating with the 
kneeling man on whose arm he lays his left hand. Of eight 
other Jews, two are falling to the ground in consternation ; 
a third is walking proudly away ; the others, with hands to 
their ears, or rending their garments, are fleeing from the 
source of grace. 

This work is an old copy of a lost original which adorned 
the chapel of Saint Jerome in the cathedral of Palencia, 
where it still hung in 1783, as recorded by Ponz, who 
describes it in the following terms: "Una pintura muy 
singular, como lo es su conservacion, y trabajo de infinita 
prolixidad, qual parece imposible ver cosa igual en el estilo 
antiguo, 6 digase Aleman, al modo del de Durero ; pero en la 
inteligencia de que poco hay de este artifice tan acabado. Su 
composicion y lo que esta significa es dificil de comprehender 
a primera vista. Parece el complemento de las Profecias, 
destruccion de la Sinagoga, y establecimiento 3e la ley de 
Gracia. A un lado se ve un Sacerdote de la Ley Antigua 


con estandarte roto, y algunos Doctores, 6 Rabinos con muy 
tristes semblantes. Al otro estan los Doctores de la Iglesia 
Griega y Latina. Encima, la Santisima Trinidad, y a 
los lados nuestra Senora, S. Juan Bautista, Apdstoles, y 
otras figuras : desciende un arroyo con muchas hostias sobre 
el agua, que caen en una taza, con otras alegorias, que seria 
largo referir. Ello es, que en su termino es pintura muy rara, 
y estimable, de la qual he visto algunas copias en Castilla, 
pero infinitamente distantes de la exacta execucion de esta." 
Viage de Espana, xi, 155, Madrid, 1783. 

The original disappeared at some period before 1815. 
Chromolithograph by R. Soldevila, H. 0,36 ; B. 0,23. 

1853. PASSAVANT, Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien, 127, Leipzig, 

attributes this painting to Hubert. 
1858. Homo, n, 73, also ascribes it to Hubert, and dates it between 

1413 and 1418. 
1860. WAAGEN, i, 35-37. 
1860. FOERSTER, Denkmale Deutschen Kunst, vi, 17-20, Leipzig. 

1863. RUELENS, xcv. 

1864. WORNUM, 1 10, by Hubert or John, or by the two in collaboration. 

1866. MICHIELS, n, 173, thinks the design was made by Hubert, and 
the painting executed by John and Margaret ! ! 

1867. ROUSSEAU, in Bulletin des Commissions Roy ales d 'Art, vi, 316, 
332. Bruxelles. 

1868. WAAGEN, \n. Jahrbuchfur Kunstwissenschaft, i, 39. Leipzig. 

1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 10. After a careful 
study of this picture on several occasions, he expresses his absolute 
conviction that it was painted by John. He informs us that he 
saw at Paris, in the hands of the dealer Haro, an old copy 


1872. CROWE, 96, calls it the noblest of John van Eyck's great works. 

1879. SCHNAASE, 139-142. 

D. Anderson, photo. 


. Anderson, photo. 



1879. WOLTMANN, ii, 25, believes it to be a copy painted .1450. 

1881. LUEBKE, 67. 

1875. MADRAZO, El Triunfo de la Iglesia sobre la Sinagoga, in Museo 
Espanol de Antigucdades, iv, 1-40, Madrid. He attributes this 
picture to John van Eyck, and says it was given to the convent 
of Parral in 1454 by Henry IV., son of John II. of Castile, and 
he quotes a manuscript Fundacion del Parral in the Provincial 
Library at Segovia, in which, at fol. liv, this painting is described 
as Un retablo rico da pincel de Flandes que tietie la ystoria de la 
Dedication de let Yglesia. 

1884. HYMANS, Le Livre des Peintres de C. van Mander, Commen- 
taires, I, 47. 

1885. F. SCHNEIDER, Das Eyck'sche Bild im Museum zu Madrid. In 
Der Kunstfreund, 246. Berlin. 

1887. L. SOLVAY, L'Art Espagnol, 94-96. Paris. 

1887. BODE, 210, is of opinion that it is a copy of a lost picture by 


1887. JUSTI, in Zeitschriftfilr bildende Kunst, xxn, 245-250. 
1887. CONWAY, 136-140. 
1893. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., ix, 380, finds this 

painting cold, and says that Van Eyck can have had nothing 

to do with either its composition or execution. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 48, concludes from the dogmatic (!) appearance of 
the picture, that the commission for its execution must have been 
given by some eminent Spaniard, and thinks it may have been 
painted by Peter Christus. 

1899. SEECK, 22, 68, thinks it most likely to be a copy of an original 
by Hubert. 

1900. WEALE, in Revue de t Art Chre'tien, 5 S., xi, 284, and Gazette 
des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 477. 

1901. BODE, 131, not by Christus. 

1903. DE MONT, 52. 

1904. DVORAK, 243. 

1905. FIERENS, 114. 

1906. VOLL, 273. 



John van Eyck is said to have painted a representation 
of the Holy Face. The original is now lost. 

33A. Munich : Royal Gallery, 99 (643). Oak. H. 0,50 ; 

B. 0,37. 

Formerly in the Boissere'e collection. 

The head of Christ seen full face ; the hair, parted in the 
middle, falls in long curly locks on the shoulders and breast ; 
the beard is forked ; the cruciform nimbus floriated. The 
gold border of the red robe bears what is apparently meant 
for Adonai Eloy Agla. Dark background, on which, above 

/JOHN * EAO> +H6L7* *TT- 

the nimbus, A and CD. The frame, original, painted to imitate 
stone, bears at the head PRIMVS NOVISSIMVS, and at the foot 
VIA VITA VERITAS. The back of the panel is painted black. 

This, formerly attributed to Memlinc, is, in the writer's 
opinion, the earliest and best copy of a lost original probably 
painted by Hubert. 

l866. MlCHIELS, II, 321. 

1906. VOLL, 44, considers this painting to be the best representation 
of a lost original by John. 




By perinisswti pf the Berlin rhotographic Co. 


33B. Berlin: Royal Gallery, 528. Oak. H. 0,51 ; B. 0,39. 

Originally in a convent at Burgos, afterwards at Segovia 
and in the Solly collection ; acquired in 1821. 

A similar representation to that at Munich, but the 
inscription on the neck-band of the robe is + REX + REGVM +. 
Bluish-green background, on which A and LJ above, and their 
Latin equivalents I and F for Initium and Finis below, the 
arms of the nimbus. The frame, original, painted in imitation 
of yellow marble, bears at the head : VIA VERITAS VITA ; and 
at the foot : PRIMVS ET NOVISSIMVS. Above the latter, in 
minuscules : Johannes de Eyck me fecit et apleuiit anno 1438 
31 lanuavij. 

1822. WAAGEN, 206. 

1833. PASSAVANT, 352. 

1834. SCHNAASE, 343. 

1847. KUGLER, ii, 108, doubts the authenticity of this painting. 

1853. FOERSTER, Geschichte der Deutsche Kunst, u, 70. 

1858. HOTHO, n, 192, thinks this was painted by John after the 

Eternal Father by Hubert at Ghent. 
1860. WAAGEN, 71, says that this painting shows how closely John 

adhered to the early type, while developing his warm and powerful 

colouring and peculiar mastery over detail. 
1866. MICHIELS, u, 320. 
1872. CROWE, in, accepts this painting as being by John, who, he 

says, in attempting a subject above his strength, was even less 

successful than his brother. 
1882. WOLTMANN, ii, 20; powerfully painted. 
1887. BODE, 214. The least precious of John's works; the charming 

colour does not compensate for the want of feeling for nature. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 99, doubts its authenticity. 

1899. SEECK, 10, 27, 33. A free copy of the head by Hubert at 


Ghent ; the weakest and least important of all John's works ; the 
signature indubitable. 
1900. VOLL, 100, 132. 

1904. TSCHUDI, 78. 

1905. FIERENS, 163, waxes enthusiastic, and gives this painting 
exaggerated praise. 

1905. DURAND, 33, considers it to be the work of a pupil of Hubert 
or a copy of a lost work by that master. 

1 906. VOLL, 43, thinks this work was painted c. 1 500. 

330. Bruges : Town Gallery. Oak. H. 0,325 ; B. 0,26. 
Presented in 1788 by M. Joseph De Busscher. 

A similar representation ; the robe bordered at the neck 
with gold lace studded with pearls and precious stones. 
Enclosed within a painted imitation of a molded stone frame 
with inscriptions in the hollows. At the head : Ihesus via : 
7/iesus veritas : Ihesus vita . 


At the foot : Speciosus forma prce filiis hominum. A Is 
ich can. lohannes de Eyck inventor anno 1440, 30 Ianuarii> 


The third figure of the date may have been a 2, but more 
probably a 4. This painting is hard, cold, and dry, and desti- 
tute of feeling. The original doubtless had a molded frame 



painted to imitate stone. The painter of this copy evidently 
did not comprehend John's device. On the reverse of the 
panel is the device of the painter of this copy, or of an early 
owner, and the date 1637. 

1833. PASSAVANT, 352. Wanting in perfection, and appears doubtful. 

1834. SCHNAASE, 342. The colour falls short of the Eyckian standard, 
and the employment of inventor appears strange. 

1847. KUGLER, 109 ; shows a want of skill in the handling. 

1847. MONTAIGLON, 4. 

1857. CROWE, 103. A superficial imitation. 

1858. HOTHO, n, 164. A late copy. 
1861. WEALE, 18-20. 

1866. MICHIELS, ii, 225. Posterior to 1550, and destitute of merit. 
1872. CROWE, 123. Apparently a reduced facsimile of the 1438 

painting at Berlin. 

1879. FOERSTER. Die Deutsche Kunst in Bildund Wort, 1 60. Leipzig. 
1899. SEECK, 27. The weakest and most insignificant of all John's 


1905. FIERENS, 124, thinks this may be a very early work, but possibly 
a replica of the Berlin panel ! ! At all events, it does not deserve 
the absolute disdain meted out to it by certain critics. If the hair 
is feebly painted, the beard is painted with great care, and the red 
mantle (sic) and gold-work are well painted. 

1906. VOLL, 43-44. 


330. Innsbruck. Professor Dr. Egon von Oppolzer. Oak. 

H. 0,395. B. 0,285. 

Formerly in the Abel collection at Stuttgart ; sold as a 
work of Roger Van der Weyden, at Coeln, October 9, 1863, 
for 20 ios., to Mr. John M. Parsons (d. 1870). It afterwards 
came into the possession of Mr. von Oppolzer at Munich, at 
the sale of whose collection, December 3, 1905, it was pur- 
chased by Dr. von Oppolzer for ^"392 ios. 

A similar representation ; the robe dark red, bordered at 
the neck with a narrow band of plaited gold lace. Blue 
ground with A and 03 above the nimbus. A late fifteenth- 
century painting in excellent preservation. 

1863. WEALE, in Le Beffroi, \, 349. 

1906. VOLL, 44. 



Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5230. Oak. H. 0,115; B. 0,088. 
Purchased at Florence. 

Bust of a man, the face seen in three-quarters, turned 
slightly to the right. He has a brown beard, small eyes, and 
broad rosy cheeks, and wears, over an underdress of which 
only the stand-up collar is seen, a dull lilac-red robe trimmed 
with fur, and a dark-green headkerchief, the lappets of which 
fall behind his ears. 

This does not appear to be a portrait, but most probably 
the head of a figure out of some large composition. 


ropi rdrUwutetifus- et 

'* u> " 



Ky permission of the Berlin Photographic C 



1899. SEECK, 23. 

1900. VOLL, 122. Not by Van Eyck. 

1901. BODE, 131. Like the head of one of the figures in the 'Fountain 
of Living Water' (31); the flesh tone, owing to over-cleaning, is 
not so red as usual. 

35. A DONOR 
Leipzig: Town Museum, 511. Oak. H. 0,264. B. 0,195. 

Bequeathed to the Museum in 1878 by Madame Amelia 
von Ritzenberg. 

Portrait of an elderly man in a wig, praying with his 
hands joined and raised ; the face, turned to left, seen in three- 
quarters, small eyes, thick lips, and a long broad nose. He 
wears a green fur-trimmed robe. 

1890. BREDIUS, in Zeitschrift fiir bildende Knnst, N.F., i, 129. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 104. 

1899. SEECK, 31, 60. 

1900. VOLL, 1 21-122. Not by Van Eyck. 

1901. BODE, 120. 
1905. FIERENS, 153. 

1905. DURAND, 33. 

1907. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 3 P., xxxvm, 207, calls this 
man a canon, but his dress is that of a layman. 


Greystoke Castle, Penrith : H. C. Howard, Esq. H. 0,095; 

B. 0,085. 

Formerly in the collection of Thomas Howard, earl of 
Arundel. It came later into the possession of Lord Henry 
Thomas Howard Molyneux Howard, and has remained until 
now in the possession of his descendants at Greystoke. 


A fragment of a large panel picture or of the dexter 
shutter of a triptych, representing little more than the head 
of a donor, a canon in a blue cassock trimmed with fur, and 
a plaited lawn surplice, kneeling and protected by his patron 
saint, probably one of the apostles, whose hand rests on the 
donor's head ; only the hand of the saint and part of his 
purple mantle, lined with green, are seen. The donor has 
hazel eyes and grey hair; his face is admirably modelled, 
and the pleats of the flesh are marked by fine strokes ; the 
colour, though rather cold, is brilliant and harmonious ; the 
entire fragment is in excellent preservation. 

Engraved in reverse, when in Lord Arundel's possession, 
by Wenceslaus Hollar, who omitted the patron saint's hand, 
added hands to the figure of the donor, represented his head 
as cleft by a sword, and then published the print (H. 0,093 5 
B. 0,057) as a true likeness of Saint Thomas of Canterbury. 
The head has also been engraved in reverse, without the 
sword within an oval, by L. Vorsterman, with the legend : 
Effigies S. Thomce Cantuar. Archiepi. Mart. 

Exhibited : British Institution, Ancient Masters, 1858, 
n.i25. Guildhall, Netherlandish Masters, 1906, n.6. 

1858. G. SCHARF, Artistic and Descriptive Notes of the Pictures in 
the British Institution, 32-33, says that " this picture may possibly 
be assigned to Justus of Ghent," i.e. Jodoc van Wassenhove. 

1898. KAEMMERER, 56. 

1904. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, vi, 249. 

1906. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium filr Kunstwissenschaft, xxix, 574, 
calls this portrait a dry, cold work, which has nothing to do with 
John van Eyck. 

1907. DURAND, in Les Arts anciens, n, 63. 


Alfred Brown, Esq. Oak. H. 0,254; B. 0,201. 

From the collection of James Osmaston. 

Half-length portrait of an old man turned slightly to the 
left, seen nearly full face, looking up, with his hands joined in 
prayer ; the modelling of these is weak. He has thin grey 
hair ; the beard closely shaven, but with stubble on chin, and 
rather feeble blue eyes. He is clad in a loose red dress 
trimmed with fur. His head-dress is not seen, but its lappet 
hangs down in front from his left shoulder. 

Dark-grey background, over-painted. 

This portrait certainly dates from the third quarter of the 
fifteenth century. 

Exhibited : Burlington House, Old Masters, 1879, n.2i8 ; 
Guildhall, Netherlandish Masters, 1906, n4. 

1906. FRIEDLAENDER, vn. Repertoriunt fur Kunstwisscnsckaft, xxix, 574. 
A good work dating from r. 1450, in manner near to Dirk Bouts, 
especially in the form of the hands and the truthful expression of 
the lean head. 


THERE can be no doubt that the Van Eycks painted many 
more pictures than those described in the present volume. 
Mention of works attributed to them have come down to us ; 
some of these they certainly executed. Drawings are also 
preserved of portraits, some of which at least must have been 
painted by Hubert or John. 

Alphonsus V. of Aragon, King of Naples, as we are told 
by Facio writing in 1454, had in his possession a triptych, 
on the shutters of which were portraits of John Baptist 
Lomellini and Jeronima his wife ; the Annunciation, Saint 
John the Baptist and Saint Jerome being represented on the 
interior, the latter in his study surrounded by books painted 
with marvellous realism. 1 

Facio also tells us that John painted for Duke Philip a 
curious representation of the world in its spherical shape 
a work unsurpassed by any other executed in his time, as it 
not only showed the various countries and localities, but 
figured them at the correct distances from each other, as might 
be tested by measuring. 2 

1 See p. Ixxiii. The Lomellini were a Genoese family, whose 
arms were : Per fesse gules and or. The only member of the family 
bearing the name of Jerome, of whom I have, found mention in con- 
temporary documents, was a merchant living at Bruges in 1392. 

2 See p. Ixxiii. 


Octavian, a member of the Florentine family of the 
Ottaviani, created cardinal by Gregory XII. in 1408, * had in 
his possession some remarkable paintings by John. One of 
these represented women of noble form coming out of a warm 
bath, slightly veiled with fine linen drapery ; of one only the 
face and breast were seen, but a mirror reflected the back of 
her head and body. In the same picture a light was shown 
as if really burning ; also, an old woman perspiring, a dog 
lapping water, and in a landscape, horses and men, moun- 
tains, groves, villages and castles, so skilfully painted that 
they appeared to be far distant from each other. Nothing in 
this picture was more wonderful than the mirror in which 
every detail was reflected accurately as in a real mirror. 2 

A similar subject was in the collection of works of art 
formed by Cornelius Van der Geest of Antwerp, in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. A copy of this is seen 
in a painting by William van Haecht, dated 1628, represent- 
ing the visit of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella to the 
Gallery on the I5th of August, 1516, in the company of 
Rubens and other notabilities. It shows the nude figure of 
a maiden at her toilet, standing near a window. At her left 
an attendant stands holding a water-bottle. She is clad in a 
red dress with long white under-sleeves, and a crespine head- 
dress, over which a linen kerchief is spread. A Bolognese 
dog lies on a mat in the foreground, and close by are a couple 
of pattens of white wood with black leather latchets. Against 

1 See CHACON, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Summorum, n, 771. 
Romae, 1677. 

2 See p. Ixxiii. This picture afterwards belonged to Frederick I. 
Duke of Urbino. MUNTZ, Raphael, p. 5, note i. 


the window hangs a mirror, in which the two figures and 
surrounding objects are reflected. 1 

The Town Museum at Leipzig contains a beautifully 
executed picture (Oak. H. 0,21; B. o, 16) of the middle of 
the fifteenth century, which may possibly be a free copy of a 
lost original by John. In the middle of a room a maiden is 
seen standing near a fireplace, nude save for a long thin scarf 
which falls from her right arm and encircles her lower limbs. 
With a steel in her left hand she strikes a flint held in her 
right, and at the same time squeezes a sponge ; the sparks 
and the drops of water fall on a wax heart that lies in an 
open coffer placed on a three-legged stool at her side. Five 
scrolls float in the air or lie about the floor of the chamber, 
which is strewn with flowers ; a Bolognese dog lies on a mat 
in the foreground. To the right, an aumbry, on which are a 
salver with comfits, a glass goblet, and a long fringed cloth ; 
and on a shelf beneath, a beaker in a dish ; above, two win- 
dows, the upper part alone glazed. On the wall between 
them hangs a mirror, with a feather dusting-brush beneath 
it ; a parakeet is perched on the window-sill. In the back- 
ground to the left a youth, pushing the door open, is entering 
the room ; to the right is a cupboard, in which are a hanap 
and a flagon ; on a shelf above are a book, and a number of 
pots and other articles. 2 

1 Van Haecht's painting (Oak. H. 1,00; B. 1,30) is in the pos- 
session of Lord Huntingfield, who exhibited it at Burlington House, 
Old Masters, 1907, n .52, and at Bruges, Golden Fleece, n .i73. See 
notices in the Athenceum of January 26 and February 9, 1907, pp. 109 
and 174. 

' L See H. LUCKE, Liebeszauber Flandrische Gemalde, in Zeitschrift 
/> bildende famst, xvn, 379-383, 1882. 




Alphonsus V. of Aragon had, besides the Lomellini 
triptych, a painting representing Saint George, for which, on 
June 25, 1445, he paid 2000 sueldos. 1 

Among the paintings in the Duke of Uceda's palace, at 
the commencement of the eighteenth century, there was a 
small panel of Our Lady and Child by John van Eyck, which 
Palomino describes as a work of supreme excellence and 
exquisite finish. 2 

Don Diego de Guevara possessed a portrait painted on 
cloth in tempera by John van Eyck, which he, before 1516, 
presented to Margaret of Austria, Governess of the Nether- 
lands. It represented a Portuguese maiden clad in a red 
dress trimmed with fur, holding in her right hand a roll with 
a miniature of Saint Nicholas at the head. 3 A copy of this 

1 See the important document ordering the payment of this sum, 
published by CASELLAS, La Novela den Sanpere, ix, in the Veu de 
Catalunya, Barcelona, 1906. 

2 " Una pintura de una imagen de Nuestra Senora, con el Nino 
Jesus, en una tabla pequena, de mano del referido Juan de Brujas, de 
una tercia de alto, y quarto de ancho, hecha con estremado primor y 

sutile^a." A. A. PALOMINO DE CASTRO Y VALASCO, El Museo pictorico, / ( -. I ^ 

I, 47. Madrid, 1715. o 

3 " Ung moien tableau de la face d'une Portugaloise que Madame 
a eu de Don Diego. Fait de la main de Johannes, et est fait sans 
huelle et sur toille, sans couverte ne feullet." Inventaire des Pein- 
tures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dresse en 1516. Lille : Archives 
of the Department of the North, B 3507. " Ung aultre tableau de 
une jeusne dame, accoustree a la mode de Portugal, son habit rouge 
foure de martre, tenant en sa main dextre ung rolet avec ung petit 
sainct Nicolas en hault, nommee La belle Portugaloise." Inventaire 
des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite dAutriche, dresse en son palais de 
Malines, le 9 Juillet, 1523." Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale, Collection 



portrait is said to be in the collection of M. Abbegg, at 

Margaret of Austria had also a painting of Our Lady by 
John, which had belonged to Duke Philip. 1 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century there was at 
Padua, in the house of Messer Leonico Tomeo, a painting on 
canvas, one foot high, representing an otter-hunt, with various 
figures in a landscape, attributed to John. 2 Such a scene is 
depicted in a contemporary tapestry at Hardwick. 3 

In the church of Our Lady of the Servites at Venice, 
there were, in 1580, a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi 
by John. 4 

Among the portraits of contemporaries of the Van Eycks, 
of which copies have been preserved, there are some which 
may with great probability be ascribed to one or other of the 
brothers. One of the earliest is that of Michael of France, 
first wife of Duke Philip III. (married June, 1409, died July, 
1422). She is represented seen in three-quarters, turned to 
the left, clad in a plain dress, within the wide sleeves of which 
her hands are laid one upon the other. This portrait was in 
the possession of Denis de Villers, 5 chancellor of the cathedral 

1 " Ung tableaul de Nostre Dame, du due Philippe, qui est venu 
de Maillardet, couvert de satin bronchd gris et ayant fermaulx d'argent 
dore et borde de velours vert. Fait de la main de Johannes." Inven- 
taire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dressd en 1516. 
Lille : Archives of the Department of the North, B 3507. 

1 M. A. MICHIEL, Notizia d'Opere del disegno. 

3 Reproduced in the Art-workers Quarterly, i, 77. London, 1902. 

4 SANSOVINO, Descrizione di Venezia. Venezia, 1580. 

6 Denis de Villers, born at Tournay in 1546, doctor of laws of 
the University of Louvain and protonotary apostolic, was in 1586, 
after the death of Bishop Morillon, elected chancellor by the chapter. 



-Y ^ 

J *- CP fo*~ 









of Tournay, in whose house it was copied by Anthony de 
Succa 1 on the 5th of December, 1601. At the head of the 
sheet of paper on which it is drawn is the following inscrip- 
tion : " Dame Michiele de France, fille du Roy Charles V. de 
France, et premiere femme de monseigneur le due Phelipe 
de Bourgonde, comte de Flandres, diet le bon, fils du ducq 
Jehan. Laquelle ala de vie a trespas le . . . Leve ceste 
effigie au logis de Monsieur le chanchellier Villers du chapitre 
de l'e"glise de Nostre Dame a Tournay le 5 e jour de Decembre 
1601, par moy Anthoine de Succa." Succa, evidently not 
quite satisfied with his copy of this remarkable figure, added 
a more carefully finished copy of the head at the side. 

In the store-room of the Royal Gallery at Berlin there 
is a half-length portrait (Oak. H. 0,21 ; B. o, 16) of Bonne, 
daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of En, and of Mary, 
daughter of John, Duke of Berry, the second wife of Duke 
Philip (married November 30, 1424, died September 17, 1425). 
This, if I am not mistaken, was formerly in the collection of 
Simon Peter van Overloope, at whose sale at Bruges, May 7, 
1770, it fetched 32 frs. 65 c. The duchess is represented 

He was a distinguished scholar, and had a remarkable collection of 
paintings, medals, and Greek and Roman antiquities, which he be- 
queathed, together with his manuscripts and printed books, to the 
cathedral now the town library, founded by himself and canon 
Jerome de Winghe, abbot of Liessies. Catalogues of the books of 
each of these benefactors are preserved. 

1 Anthony de Succa, inscribed in 1598 as free-master in the 
register of the Antwerp gild of Saint Luke, was, by letters patent 
dated October n, 1600, commissioned by the Archdukes Albert and 
Isabella to visit churches, convents, etc., and copy portraits, statues, 
tombs, etc., of sovereigns of the Netherlands and members of their 
families. Succa died September 8, 1620. 


turned to the right, her face seen in three-quarters ; her arms 
and hands resting on a parapet. She wears a full-sleeved 
fur-trimmed dress open in front, and a crespine head-dress, 
over which is spread a linen kerchief. A ring adorns the 
fourth ringer of her right hand. On the front of the parapet 
is the legend: "Dame Bonne Dartois la Duchesse de 
Bourgongne." A drawing in the Leboucq Collection, 1 here 
reproduced, is a copy either of this or of the original painting. 
In the possession of Denis de Villers there were a number 
of other portraits besides that of Michael of France described 
above. Of these the most interesting is that of Isabella of 
Portugal, third wife of Duke Philip (d. I473), 2 as it at once 
suggests the surmise that it may have been one of the two 
portraits painted by John at the palace of Aviz, in 1429. The 
duchess is clad in a wide-sleeved robe, confined at the waist 
by a broad sash, and has a crespine head-dress, over which 
is spread a large kerchief; her face, seen in three-quarters 
turned to the right, has suffered from rubbing. It is certainly 
an early portrait, with a pleasing expression. On the same 
sheet of paper as this is a portrait of Jacqueline of Bavaria, 
the face seen in three-quarters turned to the right, her hands 
joined in prayer ; she wears a full-sleeved dress trimmed with 
fur, open in front, and confined at the waist by a plain sash. 
A crespine head-dress completes her costume. This is, with 
the exception of the miniature in the Turin Hours, the earliest 

1 Arras, Town Library, MS. 266. 

1 In the margin : " Isabel de Portugal, 3 espeuse du due Phelipe 
de Bourgonde." That in the Louvre, first identified by M. G. Hulin, 
in 1902, and the original from which that in the Museum of Ghent is 
a copy, are certainly of later date. 




HOK.N I4OI ; 1I1F.IJ 1436 


I1UKN I4OI ; lillil) I4j6 





representation of that unfortunate princess, dating in all pro- 
bability from about the time of her second marriage, April 4, 
1418.* De Villers also possessed a portrait of her second 
husband, John IV., Duke of Brabant (d. 1427), a half-length 
figure turned to the right, the face seen in three-quarters ; 2 
and another of his brother Philip, Duke of Brabant (d. 1430), 
the face seen in three-quarters turned to the left. 3 

The Royal Gallery at Copenhagen contains a sixteenth- 
century copy of a half-length portrait of Jacqueline (Oak. H. 
0,75; B. 0,41), said to have been painted by John van Eyck. 
Dollmayr 4 and Gliick 5 attribute this copy to John Mostaert 
of Harlem. In this portrait the countess, turned to the left, 
her face seen in three-quarters, wears a loose robe of cloth of 
gold lined with ermine, the wide sleeves of which, turned over 

1 In the margin : " Dame Jacoba de Baviere fille Comte de 
Haynaut, Hollande, Zeelande et de Frise, dame de diceulx pays, 
espeuse a Jehan due de Lothric, Brabant, Lembourg, aisne fils du 
due Anthoine de Brabant." At the foot is the following certificate in 
the chancellor's hand : " L'an 1601, le 5 de Decembre, passant par 
Tournay, le S re Antoine de Succa tira de mon logis copies de figures 
designees en ceste feuille de papier, tesmoing mon nom, Denis de 
Villers." SUCCA, Memoriaux, fol. 7. 

The original, or more probably a copy of the original of this 
portrait, was formerly at Louvain. See DE RAM, Note sur un portrait 
du Due de Brabant, Jean IV., ayant appartenu a la gilde des arbale- 
triers de Louvain, in Bulletins de la Commission royale (fHistoire, 3 S., 
i, 295, with a chromolithograph, Brussels, 1860; also E. VAN EVEN, 
Louvain dans le passe et dans le present, 549-550. Louvain, 1895. 

3 Signed : " Leve ces figures en Tonray a la maison de Mons. de 
Vilers chancelier." SUCCA, Memoriaux, fol. 7. 

4 Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen, xix, 298. Wien. 

5 Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte, 68-69, Wien, 1903 ; and in Mit- 
teilungen des Gesellschaft fur vervielfdltigen Kutist, i, i. Wien, 1905. 


at the wrists, let those of a close-fitting heraldic dress be seen ; 
these show the colours of the Wittelsbach dynasty : Fusilly 
in bend argent and azure. Her arms rest on a parapet. In 
her right hand, laid on the left in an affected position, she 
holds a pink ; a ring adorns the little finger. Her hair, 
brushed back off the forehead, is confined in two cauls of 
silken material blazoned with the arms of Hainault : Quarterly, 
i and 2 or a lion rampant sable, 2 and 3 or a lion rampant 
gules ; and bordered with a triple row of pearls and precious 
stones ; and over this is laid a cambric veil dependent behind. 1 
The Print-room of the Stadel Institute at Frankfort contains 
a silver-point drawing on paper of a lady, formerly ascribed 
to Roger De la Pasture, and said to be the portrait of his wife. 
This Gliick considers to be an original study from life of dame 
Jacqueline, but it appears to me to be a copy. 2 A drawing 
in the Leboucq Collection at Arras represents her at about the 
same age, turned to the right, the face seen in three-quarters, 
her hands laid one upon the other. 

1 Kaemmerer (1898, p. 47) thinks the original of this portrait may 
have been painted by John van Eyck at the Hague, in 1422 or 1423 ; 
but Jacqueline would certainly not have gone near that town after 
1418, for fear of falling into the clutches of her pitiless uncle. More- 
over, this portrait represents a woman of at least 20 to 25 years of age. 

3 E. W. MOES, Iconographia Batava, i, 480, Amsterdam, 1897, 
mentions several other portraits of the countess. In the most interest- 
ing of these, painted after her marriage to Frank van Borsselen, 1433, 
now in the Amsterdam Museum, she wears the collar of the Order of 
Saint Anthony. 


OUR readers will have noticed how widely the critics disagree, 
not only as to which of the paintings that lack documentary 
authentication are by Hubert or John, or by the two working 
in collaboration, but also as to the date at which they were 
executed; that assigned varying from before 1422 until 1441, 
and in several cases even to a much later date. And yet 
almost all these critics, relying on one or other point, con- 
fidently decides the date and authorship of each painting. 

Our real knowledge at present is very limited, being 
strictly confined to the following data. The polyptych was 
designed and partly painted by Hubert, and completed in 1432 
by John, who, at various dates from 1431 to 1441, designed 
and painted eleven works five portraits and six pictures 
the last of the latter being left unfinished at his death on the 
9th of July, 1441. What are the features in these pictures 
which can help us to form a correct opinion as to the probable 
authorship and date of the remainder? I think these are : (i) 
the composition and lighting ; (2) the landscape and flora ; (3) 
the architecture; (4) the linear perspective; and (5) the costume. 

(i) Composition. As regards the Ghent polyptych, the only 
painting on which it is known for certain that both brothers 
worked, is there in the composition of the different portions 
anything to warrant the inference of dual design? The 
composition of the entire work is strictly symmetrical ; this, 


as far as concerns the exterior, the upper zone and the lower 
central panel, is at the first glance seen to be the case. Not 
so in the inner face of the shutter-panels of the lower zone, 
as Laban (1898) has shown, by a comparison of the details. 
In these, although the arrangement is in fact symmetrical, such 
symmetry is ingeniously concealed. The following are a few 
of the examples he gives (the numbers refer to the reduced 

copy of the key illustrating his essay). In panel II. the three 
younger knights (i, 2, 3) ride in front, and their elders follow; 
in III. the three eldest hermits (i, 2, 3) march at the head, 
their juniors bring up the rear ; one of the young knights (2) 
bends his head, the other two hold theirs up; one of the 
hermits (2) raises his head, the other two bend theirs down. 
That this curious system has been followed throughout these 


panels may be seen by intercomparison of our photogravures ; 
it extends even to the colouring, when red has been 
used on the dexter panels, the corresponding details in the 
sinister shutters are blue, and vice versa. Laban concludes, 
apparently from this diversity, that these four panels were not 
designed by the same hand as the remainder. Is it not quite 
possible that Hubert intended to symbolize the various and 
often apparently contradictory ways followed in this life by 
those who are really united in striving to attain to the heavenly 
kingdom, where alone perfect harmony reigns ? In any case, 
as no painting by John presents a similar system, its adoption 
here cannot be ascribed to him, nor does it help us to dis- 
tinguish his work from that of his brother. Nor will an 
examination of the paintings representing interiors afford us , 
any better guidance. 

Lighting. The lighting of the Virgin's room on the 
exterior of the Ghent polyptych, of the interiors 3, 5, 6, 16, 
20, 21, and the central and dexter panels of 18 is excellent, 
whereas in the sinister shutter of the last, the light falls on 
Saint Katherine's face, although she is standing with her 
back to the window, and in the picture of the Three Marys 
at the Sepulchre (28) the background is lighted from the 
right, the foreground from the left. 1 Are we to conclude, with 
Mr. Marks, that these were painted by the two brothers 
working in collaboration ? or to look, with M. Durand, on 
these deviations as due to distraction ? 

(2) Landscape and Flora. The landscapes in the Ghent 
polyptych, as in all the Eyckian paintings, are artificial ; the 

1 Can this be by moonlight or by sunlight reflected from a white 
cloud ? 


first master who reproduced a real view as the scene of a 
subject was Conrad Witz of Rottweil in 1444.' 

The Van Eycks had, by entirely suppressing the uniform 
gold backgrounds employed by fourteenth-century painters, 
introduced a new feature, a real ground on which their figures 
stand, and by means of which they are, so to say, brought 
together ; but although the landscape in no one of their pictures 
is reproduced from nature as a whole, they are so cleverly 
composed that they convey the impression of representing the 
view of some particular place, and this has led many to try and 
identify the localities. The town in the background of the 
Louvre altar-piece has been declared to be Bruges, Lyons, 
Maastricht, and Lie'ge ; the river in this and in the Rothschild 
and Berlin Carthusian panels to be the Rhine, while others 
say it is the Maas, and Rosen and Voll go so far as to assert 
that the view is that seen from the citadel of Liege. 

These contradictory assertions are all alike easily dis- 
proved. In the Rothschild panel the cathedral to the left 
of the river is unmistakably Old Saint Paul's seen from the 
south ; in the Rolin altar-piece a noble cathedral of a decidedly 
French type occupies a similar position, and the tower of 
Saint Martin's at Utrecht stands near the bridge. Again, in 
addition to other discrepancies, the island above the bridge 
in the Rolin altar-piece is omitted in the Rothschild panel, yet 
De Mont declares the river and town in this to be a servile copy 
of those in the Louvre panel. Again, it has been affirmed that 
the background of the Vision of Saint Francis is a view near 
Assisi, to the bare hills about which it has even less resemblance 

1 See D. BURCHARDT, Das Werk des Konrad Witz, plate xx. 
Basel, 1901. 

\VLST Tl)\VER, Ki3<; 

Wl'.Sr TilWKK, U'05 



l-'roiu tilt Transit^ tions pf thf Royal Sa.icty of Literature 

From the 'transactions a/ the Royal Society pf Literature 

[ Tilt note in tilt (texttr corner refers to the sist of the 


than the city in the Richmond picture (28) to Jerusalem. 
Snow-capped mountains are represented in the distance in 
seven Eyckian paintings, namely, in the polyptych panel of the 
Knights of Christ in the Rothschild panel (14), the Rolin 
altar-piece (15), the left shutter of the Dresden triptych (18), 
the Calvary pictures at Saint-Petersburg (25) and Berlin (27), 
and the Richmond Visit of the Three Marys to the Sepulchre 
(28). Gilbert has high praise for these views, and says that 
Van Eyck evidently appreciated the beauty of mountain-form. 1 
Rosen (1903, p. 104) declares the mountains in the Rolin 
altar-piece to be better painted than those in the polyptych, 
and says that those in the Berlin Calvary represent the Bernese 
Alps, the Stockhorn, Niesen, and, high above them, the Bliimli 
Alp. The writer cannot identify any one, and is convinced 
that all the Eyckian landscapes are made up from sketches and 
reminiscences of foreign travel. Fancied identifications are 
difficult to disprove, but when the landscape in the Saint 
Francis is declared to have been copied, as by Rosen (p. 107), 
from the left shutter of Bout's Adoration of the Magi at 
Munich, a glance at photographs of the two paintings suffices 
to prove that he was writing from memory and quite mistaken. 
In most of the paintings with landscape backgrounds a 
flock of wild geese or cranes is seen high up in the air flying 
in V-like array. 2 I do not remember the occurrence of this 

1 Landscape in Art, 1885, pp. 53, 146, 150, 153 and 164. 

2 In the polyptych panel representing the Hermits the Antwerp 
Saint Barbara (8), the Rothschild and Louvre panels (14, 15), the 
Vision of Saint Francis (19), and the Three Marys (28). The geese 
in the Louvre panel are seen through the arcade on the left, but are 
not discernible in any photograph other than that by Braun. 


feature in the paintings of any other master, and am inclined 
to agree with Mr. Marks that it was used by the Van Eycks 
as a sort of signature. Eyck, oak (Aldeneyck, old oak) was 
most probably by the French pronounced and written Eck, * 
angle; this may have suggested the adoption of the symbol. 

Exotic plants are represented more or less faithfully in 
the centre and left shutter-panels of the polyptych, in the 
Copenhagen panel (13), in the Saint Francis (19), the Berlin 


Calvary (27), the Three Marys (28), and the Berlin Virgin by 
the fountain (29), but are not found in either the Saint Barbara 
(8), or the Ypres triptych (n). These exotic plants include 
the olive, citron, cypress, stone-pine, date-palm, and palmetto, 
all southern Mediterranean plants, which in the polyptych, 

1 See Documents 13, 14, 15, 16 ; Maaseyck is situated on a bend 
of the river, and the form Mazeck occurs in 36 and in other documents. 


at least, are generally recognized to be splendidly painted. 
Rosen, however, declares the date-palm and the stone-pine to 
be incorrectly drawn. 

(3) Architecture. The architecture in the Bruges altar- 
piece (6) is late Romanesque ; in the Saint Barbara (8), third- 
pointed ; and in the Ypres triptych (11), late Romanesque 
with third-pointed vaulting. Kern is of opinion that the 
first of these represents a circular Romanesque church. 

The writer knows of no such existing church. The old 
cathedral of Trier, built by Saint Helena, mother of the 
emperor Constantine, had twelve piers of two columns, but 
it was pulled down in the thirteenth century to make way for 
the new cathedral, and it does not seem probable that John 
van Eyck could have had any knowledge of this. He may 
possibly have taken the idea of the building in this altar-piece 
from a description of the Holy Sepulchre, or from the church 
of Saint Constance in Via Nomentana at Rome, 1 or the 
baptistery at Pisa, 2 but more probably from the baptistery 
at Parma. 3 The Antwerp panel (8) shows an octagonal 
third-pointed tower, there introduced as the emblem charac- 
terising Saint Barbara. This admirable drawing can hardly 

1 See E. ISABELLE, Les Edifices circulaires et les domes, pi. 24. 
Paris, 1855. 

2 See ISABELLE, pi. 57 ; and DEHIO and BEZOLD, Die kirchliche 
Baukunst des Abenlandes, n, pi. 203. Stuttgart, 1888. 

3 See DEHIO and BEZOLD, n, pi. 203. Kern remarks (p. 11) 
that the pillar in the middle axe of the apse, behind the throne of Our 
Lady, shows that Van Eyck did not mean to represent the choir of 
a church. This is not quite conclusive, as there are churches with 
choir apses of six bays, but he may very well have meant to represent 
an apsidal transept. 


be an original design of John's, and as no such building 
is known, it may possibly have been copied from some 
master-mason's design. The columns in the Bruges altar- 
piece (6) and in the Ypres triptych (11) have capitals adorned 
with interlaced foliage and animals, whilst those of the piers 
in the former are storied. This system has been carried 


out in all the other paintings here described which present 
architectural interiors. The capitals of the columns, which 
offer a considerable variety of design, are of a type found 
in the Bourbonnais ; 1 those of the piers present a series of 
subjects from the Old Testament; but the Bruges and 
Dresden pictures (6, 18) appear to have been imitated from 

1 See DEHIO and BEZOLD, in, plates 333, 334, 341, and 345. 



From drawings [<y C. Marks 


/'rum a SnrcKf/iagns after .!/////-, 





Aftti- lif:r. : ,<ai:,t lltzM 


the sculptures on classical sarcophagi such as the victory 
of Alexander over the Persians, Bellerophon and the Chi- 
maera, the Hippolytus legend, or some hunting scene. 1 

Of the architecture in other paintings, that of the Berlin 
Virgin and Child (20) is alone real, based on a three-aisled 
cruciform apsidal church, having a crypt beneath the choir 
the cathedral of Ghent, according to M. Hulin ; 2 Saint Denis, 
according to Dr. Voll ; 3 in the writer's opinion it is impos- 
sible to say which, if either, suggested the design. In the 
Saint- Petersburg Annunciation (16) and the Dresden tri- 
ptych (18) the architecture is quasi-real, the details, taken 
separately, being correctly given ; but the very stilted arches 
of the chief arcade in the former have been apparently drawn 
from those of an apse and straightened out, while the square- 
headed triforium is an adaptation of that in the transept of 
the cathedral of Tournay. 4 In the Dresden triptych the 
bases are of a much later date than the capitals of the columns 
which they support. 

The cloisters or porticos in the Rothschild panel (14), 
the Rolin altar-piece (15), and the Berlin Madonna with 
Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24), are not real but scenic 

1 Mr. Alfred Marks, to whom I am indebted for these references, 
is of opinion that the group on the Dresden capital was suggested by 
the famous Hippolytus sarcophagus, since 1850 in the Campo Santo 
at Pisa, but which, in Van Eyck's time, was built into the exterior wall 
of the cathedral. 

2 See Congres de Bruges, 1902, Compte rendu, p. 21. 

3 Altniederlandische Malerei, p. 39. 

4 John van Eyck was at Tournay in October, 1427. It is, how- 
ever, possible that he may have taken this detail from the baptistery 
at Parma. See DEHIO and BEZOLD, n, pi. 203. 


pasteboard architecture. The quaint introduction of rabbits at 
the angles of the base of one of the columns (in 15), giving an 
appearance of strength, may have been suggested by examples 
in the church of Saint Ambrose at Milan. Saint Barbara's 
emblematic tower in the Rothschild panel reproduces Italian- 
Gothic forms, and the image of Mars is certainly copied 
from an antique bronze. The throne of Our Lady in the 
Rolin panel is adorned with mosaic. The pavement in the 
earlier pictures is composed of tiles, generally blue and white, 
apparently Valencia tiles ; i in the later, it consists of slabs 
of rich and varied marbles in geometric patterns, quite in 
Roman style. 2 In one picture the Saint-Petersburg Annun- 
ciation we find a splendid specimen of a storied pavement, 
reminding one of that at Rheims ; 3 surely this and the mural 
paintings of scenes in the life of Moses must have been 
sketched in some French church. The red sandstone or 
tufa buildings of the town in the background of the Saint- 
Petersburg and Berlin Calvary pictures (25, 27) and of the 
Three Marys (28) was no doubt intended to convey the idea 
of the East ; the Temple of Jerusalem in the last is the most 
correct early representation of that building known. 

1 In the two panels of the polyptych occupied by the choir of 
angels, the upper zone of the Madrid panel (32), the Van der Paele 
altar-piece (6), the Rothschild panel (14), and the Frankfort 
Madonna (21). 

2 In the lower zone of the Madrid panel (32), the Rolin altar- 
piece (15), the Berlin Madonna with Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24), 
and the centre panel of the Ypres triptych ( 1 1 ). 

3 The windows of both ecclesiastical and domestic interiors are 
generally filled with roundels ; in the Ince Hall panel (3), the Saint- 
Petersburg Annunciation (16), and the Berlin panels (20, 24), lozenge 
glazing occurs. 


One peculiarity remains to be noted. In the Virgin's room 
on the exterior of the polyptych, and in the Madrid panel (32), 
the bases and capitals of the columns are identical, a pecu- 
liarity which the writer has met with in some churches in the 
Mosan region. 

(4) Perspective. Kern, in his volume on linear perspective 
(1904), places the ten Eyckian paintings which he has examined 
in the following chronological order : 

i. The Ince Hall Madonna (3) ; 2, the Frankfort Madonna 
(21) ; 3, the Arnolfini panel (5) ; 4, the Bruges altar-piece (6) ; 
5, the Dresden triptych (18); 6, the Saint-Petersburg Annun- 
ciation (16); 7, the Berlin Madonna in a church (20); 8, the 
Rothschild panel (14) ; 9, the Rolin panel (15) ; 10, the Berlin 
Madonna with Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24). In all 
the Eyckian paintings the figures in the foreground are too 
tall relatively to the architecture, and often occupy too great 
a space ; as, for instance, Our Lady in the centre of the 
Dresden triptych. In the half-distance and the background 
the figures are relatively more correct ; as, for instance, the 
two men in the garden of the Rolin panel (15), and the work- 
men at the foot of the tower in the Antwerp picture of Saint 
Barbara (8). The present writer, while fully recognising Kern's 
competence as a judge of perspective, is convinced that the 
Rolin panel is anterior to 1430, and his conviction is strength- 
ened by the fact that another specialist on perspective, Doehle- 
mann (1905), does not accept Kern's conclusion. Doehlemann 
also considers the perspective of the Arnolfini picture to be 
better than that of the Bruges altar-piece. It seems pretty 
evident that neither of the Van Eycks had a full mathematical 
-knowledge of the laws of perspective, and that, consequently, 


there is no room for astonishment if the perspective in a later 
painting is less perfect supposing such to be the case than 
in earlier works. It seems quite likely that the Van Eycks 
did not attach any great importance to the point, any more 
than to the representation of trees and plants in exact relative 

(5) Costume. The costume worn by donors of paintings is 
an excellent guide to the discovery of their personality and the 
dating of their portraits. Had Kaemmerer attended to this, 
he would not have aspersed the character of B. Nicholas 
Albergati (i); neither would he nor Hymans have described 
De Leeuw (7) or the Leipzig donor (35) as canons. Attention 
should be paid to the signification of accessories, such as a 
ring showing the holder to be a goldsmith, a white wand 
denoting the bearer to have held the office of chamberlain. 
As an example of the importance of such details as guides to 
the identification of persons portrayed, it may be well to draw 
attention to the case of the individual first misnamed " a duke 
of Burgundy"; then, and still incorrectly, "the Man with 
a pink," which designation affords no clue. For these the 
writer has substituted the fitter title of " an Esquire of the 
Order of Saint Anthony "j 1 the pinks held in his hand probably 
indicate that he was a bachelor, a rose being the flower indi- 
cating a person already married. 

The details of armour worn by knights and soldiers 
afford also important evidence as to the date of a painting. 
Armour is represented in five of the pictures described . in 
the present work : the Polyptych ; the Saint- Petersburg Last 

1 A list of the Knights and Esquires of the Order is preserved in 
the Royal Library at Brussels, Goethals MSS. 


Judgment (26) ; the Dresden triptych (18) ; the Bruges 
altar-piece (6) ; and the Three Marys at the Sepulchre (28). 
The helmets and upper part of the armour worn by Saint 
Michael and Saint George, apparently copied from the same 
suit, are pseudo-classic, and much resemble the suit made for 
Charles V. by Bartholomew Campi, in 1546. The leg-armour 
of the archangel in the Saint- Petersburg picture is decidedly 
earlier than that of the other figures. 

Portraiture. Portrait-painting, so far as we know, was 
not introduced until the second half of the fourteenth century. 
The earliest known are profile portraits ; towards the end of 
the century some portraits show the body in three-quarters, 
with the head in profile, as in those of Philip II., duke of 
Burgundy, 1383-1404, and John, duke of Berry, 1340-1416, 
authentic copies of which have been preserved, 1 and that of 
John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, 1404-1419, in the Louvre, 
n.ioo2. Another portrait of the last-named, in the Antwerp 
Museum, shows the body and head turned in the same 
direction ; the painter of that portrait was evidently working 
tentatively, as the tip of the nose cuts across the contour of the 
further half of the face. 2 The Van Eycks went a step further 
than their predecessors, and succeeded in representing persons 
seen in three-quarters, the nose foreshortened, with plastic 

1 I n A. Thevet's Les vrais pourtraits et vies des homines illustres, 
p. 267, Paris, 1584, there is a woodcut of Philip's portrait, which was 
then in the Charter-house of Dijon. A copy of that of John, duke of 
Berry is in the Gaignieres collection in the Print-room of the National 
Library at Paris. 

2 Westendorp (1906, p. 72) thinks this may be the portrait painted 
by John Malouel in 1415, and sent as a present to John I., king of 


truthfulness. Frequently the addition of hands added to the 
characterisation of their portraits. Dvorak, as also Westen- 
dorp, give John the credit of having been the first who 
succeeded in producing satisfactory portraits. But the earliest 
portrait proved to have been painted by John is that of the 
Blessed Nicholas Albergati, cardinal of Saint-Cross (1431), 
whilst we have those of Jodoc Vyt and his wife on the shutters 
of the Ghent polyptych, and of Michael Giustiniani in the 
Dresden triptych, and a copy of a portrait of Michael of 
France, first wife of Philip III., duke of Burgundy (died 
July 8, 1422), which were most probably painted by 
Hubert. 1 

Alleged portraits of the Van Eycks. In the foreground 
of the dexter shutter-panel of the Adoration of the Lamb, one 
of the Just Judges is represented riding on a white horse, 
and not far from him a much younger man clad in black, 
with a large head-kerchief, and wearing a red coral rosary, 
round his neck, has his head turned towards him, but 
is not looking in his direction. These two, according to 

1 The will of John De Visch, lord of Axel and Capelle, in the 
possession of the Count of Breda at Compiegne, mentions among other 
bequests that of thirty gold crowns, and a painting by Hubert to 
his daughter Mary, a nun in the Benedictine convent of Bourbourg. 
near Gravelines, which she governed as abbess from 1418 to 1438. 
This was communicated to me by the late Mr. Serrure in 1870, but I 
attached no particular importance to it until I commenced the 
examination of the history and works of the Van Eycks. So far as 
I know, Hubert van Eyck is the only painter of that time bearing this 
Christian name. The portrait of John of Bavaria, in the Leboucq 
collection at Arras, is, I believe, the only one known. Can the 
painting from which it was copied have been an early work by John 
van Eyck ? 


FUOM "''nil-; irsT )u IJI;KS '' 



Luke De Heere, 1 are portraits of Hubert and John. Owing 
to his poem having been affixed to the wall of the Vyts' 
chapel, this statement was read by those who went to see 
the picture, was widely circulated, and obtained ready 
credence, as at that time it was a common practice for painters 
to introduce their own portraits into the works they executed. 
De Heere's statement did not repose on any old tradition, 
or the sacristan who showed Miinzer the picture in 1495 
would certainly not have omitted to relate it ; moreover, at 
that time it was not known that the polyptych was the work 
of two painters. De Heere's story, repeated by Vaernewyck, 
Van Mander, and a host of others, has been, until recently, 
accepted by all writers. 2 The two portraits have been copied 
by painters and engravers. One of the earliest copies, on an 
oak panel (H. 0,228 ; B. 0,34) formerly in the Orleans Gallery, 
and later in the possession of Mr. J. Field, of Dornden, 
Tunbridge Wells, shows the two men as busts juxtaposed, 
clad much as in the polyptych, save that John has a red 
under-dress and no rosary. Beneath the elder is the legend, 
Hubertus ab eyck obijt 1426; and beneath the younger, 

1 Strophe 9 of the Ode he composed in 1559 ; see pp. Ixxviii and 

2 Laban (1898) remarks that the figure assumed to be a portrait 
of John by himself, is looking down at the elder man, as if saying, " I 
am following you," while in the corresponding panel of the Holy 
Pilgrims, Saint Christopher seems to be calling to his older companion 
(see on p. 184, Key, iv, 2, 9) to follow him. I may add here that the black 
funeral palls were in mediaeval times charged with a red cross in 
memory of the Redeemer's death. Our readers must judge for 
themselves whether the red rosary worn over the black dress was 
intended to convey a special meaning. The writer is of opinion that 
it was simply used as an effective contrast of colour. 


loannes ab eyck. The following mendacious verses are 
added : 

" Wij hebben aldereerst met olie verw gheschildert 
die anghenaemigh' is de werelt door verwiedert 
't jaer 1410 was eerst dies const gesien." 

Catalogues of the eighteenth and the early part of the 
nineteenth centuries mention the sale of portraits said to be 
those of the two brothers. The highest price that the writer 
has noted as having been paid for a pair is twenty-two guineas, 
by Sir H. P., on February 7, 1801. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle (in 1857, p. 98) were, the writer 
believes, the first who recognised, as portraits of the brothers, 
two figures on the right of the Madrid Fountain of Living 
Water, one wearing a red mantle trimmed with grey fur, with 
an order (?) 1 hanging over his shoulder, as Hubert ; the other, 
standing behind him on the extreme right, as John. Mr. 
Marks, however (1903, p. 7), though agreeing as to the 
former, thinks the young man to the left of the elder is John. 
The photographic reproductions of the five figures will enable 
our readers to judge for themselves. Hotho (1858, n, 169) 
says that in the Calvary picture at Saint-Petersburg, the two 
brothers are represented standing at the foot of the cross an 
astounding statement, as these two men are evidently mock- 
ing the dying Saviour. De Smet (1902, p. 243) suggests that 
Hubert is represented in the Adoration of the Lamb, on the 
left behind SS. Stephen and Livin. Durand (1905, pp. 23-25) 
considers the portrait of a man in the National Gallery, dated 
1433, to be the portrait of John painted by himself. 

1 Can it be meant for the bough of an oak (eyck) ? 

J < 

5 O .;. 

' 5 
Q 5 

._. o 


None of the points above considered seem to afford data 
for distinguishing Hubert's work from that of John. If, how- 
ever, the three figures in the centre of the upper zone of the 
polyptych, universally recognised as Hubert's, be compared 
with those in the paintings proved beyond doubt to be by 
John, it will be seen that they are far more plastic, and this 
is probably due to the fact that Hubert's early years of study 
were passed in the same school (Maastricht ?) as Sluter- 
This would be more apparent to modern eyes, unaccustomed 
to polychromed statuary, if they were in monochrome. John's 
art, on the other hand, less sculpturesque and more pictorial, 
has a greater affinity to miniatures ; and in some of his earlier 
pictures, such as the Rolin panel (15), he has to a certain extent 
injured the general effect by the multiplication of detail. If 
this work be compared with the Rothschild panel (14), its 
inferiority as a general conception must, the writer thinks, be 
admitted, notwithstanding the wondrous skill displayed in the 
rendering of minute details. Marks (1908, p. 22) thinks it is 
certainly the work of two painters. The figures of Our Lady 
and Child, devoid of spiritual character, are undoubtedly 
John's, as too, in all probability, is that of the Chancellor. 
They appear to have been the last portion painted. If, again, 
the Saint-Petersburg Annunciation be compared with that 
on the exterior of the polyptych, how inferior are the former 
figures in expression, and how inappropriate their surround- 
ings ! The details, however, are wonderfully painted, and less 
obtrusive than in the Rolin panel. The Dresden triptych (18) 
is, perhaps, the most interesting of all the unauthenticated 
paintings. It retains its original frame, bearing neither 
John's name nor his motto. The Saint Michael in this 


picture is a far nobler figure than the Saint George in the 
Bruges altar-piece (6). The head and hands of the donor 
are excellent, the figures on the exterior admirable. All these 
points seem to indicate the authorship of Hubert, to whom 
the work is attributed in the 1696 inventory of Jabach's 
paintings at Limoges. Was this triptych left, unfinished, by 
Hubert and completed by John ? If the donor could be iden- 
tified and the date fixed it would probably settle the question. 
The representation of Saint Katherine with an open book in 
her hand, in addition to the sword and broken wheel, would 
seem to indicate that he was an orator or philosopher. The 
fact that Mr. Johnson's Vision of Saint Francis (IQA) was 
found at Lisbon seems to have led to the conclusion that it 
was painted by John during his sojourn in Portugal. The 
Turin panel appears to the writer to be an enlargement of 
later date. Since 1885, several critics have expressed the 
gravest doubt as to its Eyckian authorship. But though 
differing on some points, they appear to agree that the colour- 
ing, and the manner in which the foliage of the trees is painted, 
point to a date posterior to the Van Eycks. Brother Leo has 
two right feet, from which it would appear that the painter 
had failed to remark that, in the smaller picture, the person 
in question has his legs crossed and shows the sole of his 
left foot. Durand thinks this the result of mere distraction 
on the part of Van Eyck. The palmettos are poorly painted ; 
Rosen (1903, pp. 105-109) says, from dried plants brought 
to Bruges by a sailor ! but they were, most probably, merely 
copied, as was the v-shaped flight of geese. The Madonna 
in a church (20), in the Berlin Gallery, is another doubtful 
work. The writer believes it to be a copy of a lost original by 


Hubert. The deep poetic feeling shown is a sufficient proof 
that he designed it. The copy in the Doria collection shows 
more of the arcade on the left and the third bay of the rood- 
screen, with the Nativity in the tympanum, and sepulchral 
brasses and slabs in the pavement. The Frankfort Ma- 
donna (21) and the portraits of Arnolfini (22) and Baldwin 
de Lannoy (23) are certainly by John. Doubts have been 
expressed as to whether the Berlin panel of Our Lady and 
Child with Saint Barbara and the Carthusian (24) was painted 
by either of the Van Eycks. These doubts are founded on 
the linear perspective, and on the windows being glazed with 
lozenges instead of with roundels. 1 The occurrence of a 
statue outside the porch, as in Mr. Salting's portrait attributed 
to Peter Christus, and the metallic look of the hair are 
given as reasons for assigning this painting to him. The 
Saint-Petersburg Calvary and Last Judgment (25, 26) are, in 
the writer's opinion, the work of a contemporary of the Van 
Eycks brought up in the same surroundings. The figures are 
less dignified in type than those of Hubert, but there is much 
dramatic force and deep pathos in both pictures. The painter 
was probably a North Netherlander ; the Calvary shows 
so many points of resemblance to the Turin miniatures that 
he may possibly have designed or executed some of them. 
The Berlin Calvary (27) and the Visit of the Three Marys 
to the Sepulchre (28) are thought by many to be posterior 
to the Van Eycks. The writer believes he was the first to 
suggest that these paintings, which show intense religious 
feeling were not painted by John but by Hubert ; this opinion 

1 See pp. 65 and 192. 


was fortified, as he pointed out in 1902, by the analogy their 
lighting presents to that of the miniature of Saint Julian 
conveying passengers across a river in a Storm, in the Turin 
Hours. The Eyckian authorship has been recognised by 
many. 1 There are, however, two details in the Richmond 
picture which militate against the ascription. The sleeping 
soldier in front of the sepulchre has at his side a helmet 
which has two necklames, a detail which, several of the best 
authorities on mediaeval armour declare, proves the painting 
to be posterior to 1440; the handpiece by his side has also 
a later appearance. 

The Berlin picture of Our Lady by a Fountain (29) is, 
in the writer's opinion, the copy of a lost picture. The 
southern trees are more accurately painted than in the poly- 
ptych, and are not copied from it. As to Lord Northbrook's 
Madonna (30), there is no sufficient reason for doubting the 
date 1437, said by Nieuwenhuys to have been inscribed on 
the original frame. The New York Madonna (31) is certainly 
the work of an imitator. As to the Madrid Fountain of 
Living Water (32) it is very difficult to say whether it is a 
copy of a lost original by Hubert van Eyck, or an early work 
by a contemporary Netherlander painted in imitation of the 
Ghent polyptych. It has been attributed to Louis Dalmau of 
Valencia, 2 and we have positive evidence that that painter was 
in 1431 sent by Alphonsus V. of Aragon to Flanders ; M. 
Tramoyeres Blasco 3 thinks he remained at Bruges until after 

1 See HULIN, 1902, p. 2, n .;, and DURRIEU, 1903, p. 18. 

2 DVORAK, 1904, pp. 246-248. 

3 It is not at all clear why Alphonsus sent him to Flanders, pro- 
bably to purchase paintings. A relic of the relations between the Duke 



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O 2 

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John van Eyck's death, July 9, 1441, but of this there is no 
proof. The panel painted by him for the magistrates of 
Barcelona in 1443 affords sufficient evidence that he did not 
acquire the Eyckian technique, though there can be no doubt 
that he saw and admired the singing angels on the upper 
dexter shutter of the Ghent polyptych. It is, on the other 
hand, quite clear that the painter of the Madrid panel, whether 
he was a Netherlander or a Castilian, must have spent some 
time at Ghent to attain the degree of perfection which that 
picture displays. The tabernacle-work which encloses and 
crowns the painting is evidently a wooden construction. 

of Burgundy and Alphonsus V., is a Valencian majolica dish, now in 
the Wallace collection (n.69), London, which was doubtless, a present 
from the king of Aragon to the duke. It is decorated with the personal 
arms of the latter at the date of his marriage with Isabella of Portugal, 
which arms he abandoned in 1430 (A. VAN DE PUT, Hispano- Moresque 
Ware of the fifteenth century, pi. 10, pp, 61-64, London, 1904). The 
date of the dish is several years anterior to the earliest known docu- 
mentary evidence for the importation of such pottery at Bruges : a 
ducal decree of 1441, in which mention is made of " Vaiselle de terre 
appele en Flamenc Valenschen were." 



P. Ixxiv. 1458. Kronyk van Vlaenderen. 1 On the occasion of the 
solemn entry of Philip III. into Ghent on Saint George's day, 23 April, 
1458, after the battle of Gavere, there were great rejoicings ; the house 
fronts were decorated with unusual magnificence, and where space 
permitted scenic representations were erected in the streets. The 
most remarkable of these was on the Poul Marsh Square where the 
Rhetoricians of the town got up a pageant in imitation of the Ghent 
polyptych. The scaffold erected for this purpose, 50 feet high and 
28 feet broad, was completely covered with blue cloth and shut in 
with white curtains. It was divided into three zones ; the uppermost 
portioned off into five compartments, the figures in which represented 
those in the five central panels of the polyptych. In the lower portion 
Hubert's design was not adhered to, for although the Adoration of the 
Lamb was represented in the centre, the sides were each divided into 
five compartments in two zones ; four of these occupied by the Knights, 
the Judges, the Hermits, and the Pilgrims ; the other six by groups ; 
these and the centre illustrated the Beatitudes, the second being 
omitted. It is noteworthy that SS. George, Victor, Maurice, Sebas- 
tian, Quirin, and the Burgundian S. Gandolph, were substituted for 

1 This Chronicle was published by the Bibliophiles Flamands in 1840. It 
seems strange that the description which it gives of the pageant of 1458 should, 
until quite recently, have escaped the notice of those interested in the art 
history of Flanders, although it is mentioned in two or three works relating to 
mediaeval theatrical representations in the middle ages. In 1906 Mr. L. Maeter- 
linck, having called Mr. P. Bergmans' attention to it, the latter reproduced the 
description in the Annals of the 20th Congress of the Archaeological and 
Historical Federation of Belgium, 1907, pp. 530-537, with some notes relating 
to the festivities from the Town accounts. 


those in the polyptych. This scenic representation evidently made an 
impression on the public, for when the polyptych was shown to Miinzer 
thirty-seven years later, he was told that the figures in the lower zone 
represented the eight Beatitudes. 

" Item, up den Poul stont gemaect eene groete hoghe stellagie, 
met drye stagien upgaende 1 voeten lane, ende xxviij voeten breedt, 
al verdect met blauwen lakenen, voren ghesloten met witten gordinen, 
de misterye diere upstont was dusdanich : Chorus beatorum in sacri- 
ficium agni pascalis ; in de middewaert van der hogster stagien was 
een gulclin troen, daer in 't personnagie van God den Vadre, sittende 
in eenen costelyken setele, heerlijc verchiert, met eender keyserlyker 
croenen up 't hooft, eenen septre in de handt, onder voer sijn voeten, 
eene o-ulden croene, onder de croene stont ghescreven, met gulden 
letteren, aldus : Vita sine morte in capite, iuventtis sine senectute in 
fronte, o'audiwn sine moerore a dexteris, securitas sine timore a sinistris. 
Boven omme de diademe : Hie est Deus potentissiimis propter divinam 
maiestatcm ; summits omnium optimus propter dulcedinis bonitatem ; 
remunerator liberalissimus propter inmensam largitatem. \ Person- 
nagie van der Maget Maria zittende t' sijnre rechter hant, uutnemende 
costelic verchiert, boven rondsomme hare diademe stont ghescreven : 
Haec est speciosior sole et super omnem stellarum dispositionem lucis 
comparata invenitttr. Ende sent lans Baptiste t' sijnre slinker hant, 
wat neerdere dan Maria, rondsomme sine diademe stont ghescreven : 
Hie est Baptista Johannes, motor homine, par angelis, legis s^^mma 
evangelisatio. Ende an de rechte zyde van Marien, wat neerdere, was 
eenen choer van inghelen, die maniere maecten als men dese figure 
toghde van singhene, voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Melos Deo, 
laiis prophetis, graciarum actio. In 't ghelyke was ter slinker zyde van 
sent lanne een choer van inghelen, die maniere maecten van speelene 
up orghelen ende andere veele diversschen instrumenten van musiken, 
als men dese figure toghde ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Laudate 
eum in chordis et organo. Ende emmer waren de selve inghelen in 
biede de choren naer toghen van desen figueren, als de gordinen 
toegheschuuft waren, altoes singhende ende speelende zeere melodieu- 
zelijc ende ghenouchlijc. 

" Item, up de tweeste ende dardde stagie stonden ter rechter 
zyden, eerst vj confessoren ghecleedt als bisschoppen, in pontificale 



blauwe habyten, ende voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati 

" Item, neffeus die, bet achterwaerts stonden vj oude vaders ghelijc 
patriarken ende propheten, vercleedt met peersschen ende roeden 
heyken lane tot der heerden ende al met langhe barden ; voer hemlie- 
den stont ghescreven : Beati qui esuriunt et sitiTint iustitiam. 

" Item, daer neffens stonden bet achterwaerts vj oude vaders 
met blauwen ende zwartten habyten totter heerden met mudtschen 
up 't hoovet ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati misericordes. 

" Item, doe volghden daer an de selve zyde oec bet achterwaert 
vj Gods ridders, als sent loerijs, sente Victor, sente Maurissius, 
sente Sebastiaen, sente Ouirijn, sente Gandolf, wylen hertoghe van 
Bourgognen, elc met sinen standarde van sijnder wapenen in sijn 
handt ; voor hemlieden stont ghescreven : Christi milites. 

" Item, nevens die stonden vj oude vaders met groenen habyten an, 
elc als een rechtere ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : lusti indices. 

" Item, up de selve tweeste ende dardde stagien, stonden ter 
slinker zyden, ierst ieghen over de vj confessoren, vj ionghe maghden 
met schoenen hanghenden hare ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : 
Beati mundo corde. 

" Item, daer an achterwaert ieghen over de Patriarken stonden vj 
Appostelen ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati pauper es spiritu. 

" Item, daer naer ieghen over de Oude Vaders met blauwen ende 
zwartten habiten stonden vj Heremiten, onder de welke stonden Maria 
Magdalena ende Egipciaka ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Here- 
mitae sancti. 

" Item, daer naer ieghen over de vj Gods ridders stonden vj 
Martelaers, als bisschoppen ende priesteren, vercleedt al met roeden 
pontificalen habyten ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati qui 
persccutionem patiuntur propter lusticiam. 

" Item, ieghen over de vj Oude Vaders metten groenen habyten 
stonden vj Peelgryms, d'een van hemlieden sijnde sente Christoffels 
uutnemende groet boven d'andere ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : 
Peregrini Sancti, ende waren alle dese voorscreven personnagien 
zo uutnemende rykelic ende costelic verchiert gheabilliert ende 
ghepareert elc naer sinen heessch ende staet als dat onmoghelijc ware 
volcomelic te declareren oft te scrivene. 


" Item, up 't selve stellagie in midden van de vorseide person- 
nagien stont eenen schoenen outaer, dierbaerlic ende kerckelic ghedect 
ende gheparreert ende voren up de dwale van dien outare stont 
o-hescreven, met guldenen letteren : Ecce agnus Dei qtii tollit peccata 
mundi. Ende up den selven outaer stont eene figuere van eenen 
Lamme ghemaect naer jdlevende uut sijnre burst loepende bloet in 
eenen kelict ; rontomme dien outare stonden veele inghelen, daer aff 
dat d'een hilt teekin van den cruce, een ander de columme, ende 
alle d'andere elc een teekin van den instrumenten ende teekenen 
der passcien ons liefs heeren Ihesu Christi. 

" Item, voor elcken houc van den outare knielde een inghele, 
die hadden elc een wieroecvat stijf staende in manieren off sy ghe- 
worpen hadden ten vorseiden outare waert, ende voer de inghelen 
stont ghescreven : Bcati mites. 

" Item, up de figure van den vorseiden Lamme, ende up elc van 
den vorseiden anderen staten, waren gemaect, comende ende sprutende 
uut der personnagie van God den Vader, rayen in midden den welken 
scheen vlieghende eene schoene witte duve, in manieren van den 
Heylighen Gheest, de selve duve houdende een rolle daer in dat 
ghescreven stont : Rcpleti sunt omnes Spiritu sancto. 

" Item, recht vore de stellagie stont ghemaect eene schoene 
fonteyne verchiert ghelijc witten ende groenen marbre, de pilaer 
xxv voeten hooghe boven de stellagien staende up eenen steenen 
voet, drye stieghers hoghe upgaende ; daer aff den appersten was 
dbat van der fonteynen, ende boven up den appel daer uut dat drye 
gorgelen liepen met wine, als mijn vorseide gheduchten heere daer 
leedt, stont een inghele houdende eene rolle daer in dat ghescreven 
stont : Fans vitac ; ende omme den vorseiden appele stont ghescreven : 
Fluviiis egrediebatur de loco voluptatis, ad irrigandum Paradisum. 
Genes. 2 Ende an den bac van der fonteynen vorseit stont ghescreven 
ter eender zyden : Pocula quaerenti fons noster dabit amaena, ende 
ten ander zyde stont ghescreven : Hie est fons aquae vitae procedens de 
sede Dei et agni." 

P. Ixxv. 1524, March 20. SUMMONTE, Pietro, in a letter bearing 
this date, written at Naples and addressed to Mark Anthony Michiel, 




mentions three paintings on canvas by master Roger (De la Pasture), 
and says that he was accustomed to paint large figures, but that master 
John (van Eyck) at first illuminated books and painted miniatures. 

" Et quoniam aliquantum defleximus a parlar di cose di Fiandra 
non lascero far menzione delli tre panni di tela lavorati in quel paese 
per lo famoso Maestro Rugerio, genero di quell' altro gran Maestro 
loannes, che prima fe 1'arte d'illuminare libri, sive ut hodie loquimur 
miniare. Ma lo Rugiero non si esercito sennon in figure grandi." 1 

P. cxii. L. TRAMOYERES BLASCO. El Pintor Luis Dalmau. In 
Cultura Espafiola, n, 565-569. Madrid, 1907. 

P. ii. A communication received, through Mr. A. Van de Put, 
from M. Luis Tramoyeres Blasco, director of the Museum of Paintings 
at Valencia, shows that the date of the embassy to Alphonsus V. is 
incorrectly given in the text. When John van Eyck and the ambas- 
sadors arrived at Tournay, they were not starting on their mission but 
returning from it. They arrived, it appears, late in July at Barcelona, 
from which city the king had, fleeing from the earthquakes in Catalonia, 
departed by sea some days previously. They reached Valencia early 
in August, for on the gth and loth of that month the Jurats of the city 
offered the king two days of Floral games at which many notabilities 
were present. A bull-fight was also held. A document in the 
Accounts of the Royal Treasury of Valencia, dated October 15, 1427, 
mentions a payment of 45 gold florins to John Sabent, the owner of a 
small vessel which had been sent to Iviza, in the track of the ship by 
which Philip's ambassadors had started from Barcelona some days 
previously on their return to Burgundy. Sabent was the bearer of an 
order to the Ivizan authorities to prevent a ship belonging to one P. de 
Ledesma from boarding that of the ambassadors, or doing them any 

P. 52, 1. 8. A painting at Madrid, in the Prado Gallery (^.1351. 
Oak. H. 1,22 ; B. 1,33), there attributed to Hubert van Eyck, repro- 
duces the busts of the three principal figures of the Ghent polyptych. 

1 First published by C. V. Fabriczy in the Repertorium fiir Kunstwissen- 
schaft, xxx, 148. 1907. 



It is a fine work of the end of the fifteenth century, probably painted 
by John Gossart. 

P. 173. In the fine collection formed by Mr. J. G. Johnson, of 
Philadelphia, there is a portrait of a man said to be by John van Eyck. 
The writer has not seen it, but reproduces the photograph most kindly 
sent by the owner. 

P. 182. A silver-point drawing (H. o, 12 ; B. 0,09) in the Louvre, 
the portrait of a man turned to the right, wearing a head-kerchief, the 
long lappet of which hangs down over his right shoulder, has been 
much retouched, but may possibly be a copy of a work by John van 

The so-called Consecration of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, at 
Chatsworth, has, at its foot, the inscription : Johannes de eyck fecit 
MCCCC21 30 Octobris. This has been proved by Mr. Alfred Marks 
to be a forgery, an imitation of the signature of the portrait of a man 
(4) in the National Gallery. Both were in the possession of Thomas, 
earl of Arundel, as was also the head of an ecclesiastic (36). The earl 
had evidently a mania for passing off works of art in his possession 
as representations of English subjects. 1 The profile bust of Christ in 
the act of blessing, in the Berlin Royal Gallery, appears to the writer 
to date from the end of the fifteenth century. 

1 It probably represents the enthronement of Robert Sherborn, bishop of 
Chichester in 1508, and may be by Dirk Barentsz, alias Theodore Bernard!, 
who came to England early in the sixteenth century, where he was settled 
in 1519, and seems to have remained working for churches and monasteries in 
Sussex and Hampshire. Bishop Sherborn employed him on many works, some 
of which remain in the cathedral and palace at Chichester, and at Amberley 
castle. See the Burlington Magazine, X, 383, and XI, 45. 


By permission of the Berlin Photographic Co. 


Aaron, 98. 

Abel, sacrifice of, 36, 46, 115; death, 36, 

46, 76. 

Abraham, sacrifice of, 126. 
Adam, 36, 46, 76. 
Adam and Eve, their fall, 98 ; expulsion 

from Paradise, 98, 115. 
Adoration of the Magi, 124, 178. 
Adornes, Sir Anselm, 130 ; bequeaths two 

paintings by Van Eyck to his daughters, 


AFAA, mysterious Gnostic word, 41, 44, 
148 ; its signification, 41. 

ALBERGATI, B. Nicholas, cardinal of Saint 
Cross, biography, 58; portraits, 60, 61. 

Aldeneyck, monastery founded in the eighth 
century, 3. 

Alexander, 127. 

Angels, choir of, 40, 163; playing musical 
instruments, 41, 98, 147, 162 ; with 
emblems of the Passion, 42, 147. 

Anjou, Rene, duke of, 21, 116. 

Annunciation, the, 32, 98, 125, 146, 174. 

ANTWERP : Museum : Saint Barbara, 88- 
90 ; Our Lady and Child by a fountain, 
90-92, 1 60; Our Lady and Child, 
SS. Donatian and George and canon 
G. Van der Paele, 83 ; portrait of John 
the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, 195. 

Ara caeli, vision of, 98. 

Aragon, Alphonsus V., king of, Ixxiii, 
Ixxvi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xci, n, 174, 177, 
202, 203. 

Architecture in Eyckian paintings, 188-193. 

Armour,44, 77, 126, 148, 153, 194-195,202. 

Arnolfini, John, biography, 73 ; portrait, 

140, 20 1 ; with wife, 69. 
Arnolfini, Michael, 73. 
Arras; Town-Library, Leboucq collection 

of drawings, 180, 182. 
Arundel, Thomas, earl of, 68, 210. 
Averulino, Anthony, his praise of John van 

Eyck, Ixxiv. 
Avignon, Museum, Painting of sixteenth 

century, 85. 
Austria, Margaret of, paintings by John van 

Eyck in her possession, 69. 
Autun, Altar-piece formerly in the church 

of Our Lady, 114. 

Barentsz, Dirk, painter, works by him, 210; 

works attributed to him, 210. 
Bavaria, Jacqueline of, countess of Hain- 

ault, Holland and Zeeland, 5, 123 ; arms, 

182; portraits, 180, 181, 182. 
Bavaria, John of, the Pitiless, portrait, 196; 

employs John van Eyck on painting at 

the Hague, xxvii, 10. 
Bavaria, William IV. of, count of Holland 

and Zeeland, miniatures executed for 

him, 5. 
BEAUNE: Hospital, founded by Nicholas 

Rolin, 116; his portrait there, 116. 
Bellerophon and the Chimera, 127. 
BERLIN : Museum : Shutter-panels of the 

Ghent polyptych, 29-36,40-41,44-46; 

Our Lady and Child in a church, 135- 

J 37> I 9 I > 20 j O ur Lady and Child, 

Saint Barbara, and a Carthusian, 143- 

146; Calvary, 151-152; Our Lady and 



Child by a fountain, 157-158, 202; 
Portraits, 122, 140, 141, 170. Print 
cabinet: Drawings, after Van Eyck, 52, 
92 ; attributed to John van Eyck, 65. 

Bernard!, Theodore. See Barentsz. 

Berry, John, duke of, portrait, 195. 

Blondeel, Lancelot, painter, restores the 
Ghent polyptych, 47. 

Borluut, Elisabeth, wife of Jodoc Vyt, her 
portrait, 32 ; arms, 50. 

Brabant, Dukes of: John iv., portrait, 181 ; 
Philip, portrait, 181. 

BRUGES : Town-house : statues of counts 
and countesses of Flanders, polychromed 
by John van Eyck, 21. Town Gallery: 
Our Lady and Child, SS. Donatian and 
George and canon G. Van der Paele, 
75-83, 1 88, 195 ; portrait of Margaret 
van Eyck, 93-94; the Holy Face, 168; 
Charter-house of Saint Anne ter Woes- 
tine, 1 12, 131. 

BRUSSELS : Museum : Adam and Eve, 29, 
30,46. Royal Library : Miniature, 117. 

Burgundy, Dukes of: Charles the Rash, 
protected by Saint George, group in 
gold, 85 ; John the Fearless, portrait, 195; 
Philip II., portrait, 195; Philip III. 
takes John van Eyck into his service as 
painter and " varlet de chambre," xxx, 
10 ; takes Henry van Eyck into his 
employment as falconer, 25. 

Burgundy, Duchesses of : Bonne of Artois, 
second wife of Philip III., portraits, 
179; Isabella of Portugal, third wife of 
Philip III., portraits, 13, 180; Michael 
of France, first wife of Philip III., por- 
traits, 178. 
Burkner, Hugo, etching of the Dresden 

triptych, 129. 
Burning Bush, the, 97. 

Calvary: Saint-Petersburg, Hermitage, 146; 

Berlin, Royal Gallery, 151. 
Campin, Robert, painter, u. 

Carlyns : arms, 80. 

Capranica, Dominic, cardinal of Saint-Cross, 


Carpets, 66, 72, 76, in, 139. 
Carthusians. See Albergati, Steenken. 
CASSEL, Bartels collection, 85. 
Castile, John II., king of, Ix, 15. 
CATANIA : Museum : Painting after John 

van Eyck, 67. 
Cenani, Joan, wife of John Arnolfini, her 

portrait, 69. 
Charles the Great, 44. 
Christus, Peter, painter, 100, 108, 109, no, 

129, 146, 148, 149, 161, 165. 
Chronostich on the frame of the Ghent 

polyptych, 35. 
COELN: view of, 43. Wallraf-Richartz 

Museum, 142. 

Abbegg, Mannheim, 178. 

Abel, 170. 

Aders, 51. 

Alphonsus V. of Aragon, king of Naples, 
Ixxiii, Ixxvi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xci, 171, 174, 

Arundel, Thomas, earl of, 68, 210. 

Austria, Ernest, archduke of, 113. 

Austria, Leopold William, archduke of, 


Austria, Margaret of, 69, 90. 
Baring, Thomas, 159. 
Bartels, Cassel, 85. 
Bauwens, Bernard, 153. 
Beck, James, 75. 

Bethune, Mgr. F. de, Bruges, 99, 103. 
Boissere'e, 166. 
Bonzani, 133. 
Brown, Alfred, 173. 
Bruckenthal, Hermannstadt, 106. 
Cacault, F., 137. 
Coccapane, Marquess, 141. 
Cook, Sir F., Richmond, 153. 
Commines, Philip de, 153. 
De Busscher, Joseph, 168. 



COLLECTIONS (continued) 
De Heere, Luke, 90. 
Doria-Pamphili, Rome, 138. 
Engels, Philip, 122. 
Enschede', 88. 
Ertborn, Van, Antwerp, 83, 88, 90, 


Exeter, Marquess of, 143. 
Fascio, 133. 
Field, J., 197. 
Fletcher-Moulton, 85. 
Frederick I., duke of Urbino, Ixxvi, 

Ixxxii, Ixxxv. 
Guevara, Diego de, 69. 
Hal, Van, 120. 
Hay, Major-General, 70. 
Helleputte, George, Kessel-Loo, 95. 
Heytesbury, Lord, 132. 
Hilarius, Adolphus, 65. 
Hisette, Charles, 51. 
Holland, William II., king of, 121, 138, 

1 60. 

Hope, A. J. Beresford, 160. 
Howard, H. C., Greystoke Castle, 171; 

Lord H. T., 171. 
Hungary, Mary of, 70. 
Huntingfield, Lord, Heveningham Hall, 


Jabach, Everard, 125. 
James II., king of England, 84. 
Johnson, John G., Philadelphia, 131,210. 
Joly de Bammeville, 159. 
Landsberg-Velen, Count, 124. 
Laurence, Edwin H., 92. 
Lemme, 51. 

Lucca, Charles Louis, duke of, 138. 
Marnix, John van, 91. 
Mayor, William, 65. 
Middleton, William, 153. 
Midleton, George Alan, Viscount, 68. 
Nau, 137. 
Nieuwenhuys, 140. 

Northbrook, Earl of, London, 84, 159. 
Octavian de Ottaviani, cardinal, Ixxiii. 

COLLECTIONS (continued) 

Oppolzer, Dr. E. von, Innsbruck, 170. 

Orleans, 197. 

Osmaston, James, 173. 

Overloope, Simon Peter van, 179. 

Oyen, 88. 

Paar, Count Louis, 138. 

Paino, Baroness, Palermo, 67. 

Parsons, John M., 170. 

Ploos-van Amstel, 88. 

Ponzoni, 137. 

Quedeville, 84. 

Ritzenberg, A. von, 171. 

Robinson, 51. 

Robinson, Sir J. C., 138, 153. 

Rothschild, Baron Gustave, Paris, no. 

Ross, Carl, 63. 

Salting, George, London, 108. 

Schollaert, F., 100. 

Sellar, 160. 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, 140. 

Solly, 30, 167. 

Suermondt, 122, 135, 151. 

Tatistcheff, 148. 

Tomeo, Leonico, 178. 

Van der Geest, Cornelius, 175. 

Van den Schrieck, D., 100. 

Uceda, Duke of, 177. 

Verdura, Duke of, 67. 

Villers, Denis de, chancellor of the 
cathedral of Tournay, 178, 179, 180, 

Wynckelman, James, 153. 
Commines, Philip de, arms, 154. 
Composition of Eyckian pictures, 183. 
COPENHAGEN : Royal Gallery : A donor 
protected by Saint Anthony, 107 ; Por- 
trait of Jacqueline of Bavaria, 181. 
Coxcie, Michael, painter, copies the Ghent 

polyptych for Philip III., king of Spain, 

Ixxxi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xc, 50. 
Cranes, see Geese. 
Cutseghem, James van, sculptor, xliii, 




Dalmau, Louis, painter, 202-203, 209. 

Daret, James, painter, n. 

David and Goliath, 120, 126. 

De Heere, Luke, his ode in praise of the 

Ghent polyptych, Ixxvii-lxxxi; the original 

source of the apocryphal Eyckian legends, 


De la Pasture, Roger, painter, n, 100. 
De Leeuw, John, goldsmith, biography, 87 ; 

portrait, 86-88. 
Dogs, 71, 175, 176. 
DRESDEN : Royal cabinet of Prints, Portrait 

of B. Nicholas Albergati, 60 ; Royal 

Gallery, Our Lady and Child, SS. Kathe- 

rine and Michael and the donor, 125, 

185, 191, 195, 199, 200. 
Dunois, John, count of, Miniature in a Book 

of Hours belonging to him, 119. 
Diirer, Albert, his admiration of the Ghent 

polyptych, Ixxv. 

Eissenhardt, J., etching, 139. 

Eternal Father, the, 38, 97. 

Eve, 36, 46, 76. 

Exotic plants in Eyckian pictures, 188. 

Eyck, now Aldeneyck, locality whence the 
family name of the painters was derived, 3. 

EYCK, HENRY VAN : attached to the 
household of John of Bavaria, 24; ap- 
pointed master-huntsman, 24 ; leaves 
Holland and enters service of Philip III., 
duke of Burgundy, as falconer, 25 ; 
marries Elisabeth Sallard, 25 ; named 
baillie of Termonde, 25 ; his presumed 
portrait, 24; death and burial at Ter- 
monde, 26. 

EYCK, HUBERT VAN : date of birth, 4 ; 
where trained, 3, 4 ; settles at Ghent and 
acquires freedom of the town, 4 ; makes 
two sketches for magistrates of Ghent, 
xxvii, 5 ; the magistrates visit his studio, 
6 ; designs and partly executes the Ghent 
polyptych, 5, 35, 46-47 paints an altar- 
piece and polychromes a statue of Saint 

Anthony for church of Saint Saviour, 
Ghent, xxix, 5 ; death, 4, 6, 1 1 ; burial in 
the Vyt chantry chapel at Saint John's 
church, Ixxv, Ixxix, 6 ; epitaph, Ixxxiii, 6; 
stone slab to which it is supposed to have 
been fixed, Ixxxvi, 7, 8 ; his arm-bone 
suspended in the churchyard, Ixxxvi, 7 ; 
drawings after a lost portrait of Michael 
of France probably painted by him, 178, 
lost paintings, 174-182 ; alleged portraits, 
first mentioned by Luke De Heere, xxviii, 
196, 198. 

EYCK, JOHN VAN : date of birth, 4 ; in 
service of John of Bavaria, 9 ; decorates 
palace at the Hague, xxvii, 10; leaves 
Holland and enters service of Philip III., 
duke of Burgundy, xxx, 10 ; removes to 
Lille, xxviii, 1 1 ; makes a pilgrimage on 
the duke's behalf, xxxi, n ; secret mis- 
sions, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, xliv, u, 12, 21 ; 
presents made him by the duke, xxxiii, 
xxxiv, xxxv, xliv, n, 14, 21; at Tour- 
nay on Saint Luke's day, 1426, is pre- 
sented with the wine of honour, n ; 
accompanies in 1427 embassy to Alphon- 
sus V., king of Aragon at Valencia, 
xxxv, ii-i2, and in 1428 to John I., 
king of Portugal, and paints two por- 
traits of the Infanta Isabella, xxxv, 13, 
180; his journey in Portugal and Spain, 
Iv-lxxii, 13-18; returns to Flanders and 
settles at Bruges, 18; draws and after- 
wards paints portrait of Nicholas Alber- 
gati, cardinal of Saint -Cross, 60, 61 ; 
goes to Hesdin and returns to Bruges, 
xxxvii, 18 ; completes the painting of 
the Ghent polyptych, 35 ; his share in 
this work, 48, 49, 52-56; buys a house 
in Sint Gillis Nieu straet, 18, 19; his 
marriage, 18; who was his wife, 18-20; 
the burgomasters and town-council visit 
his studio, xxxviii, 18 ; portrait of Tymo- 
theos, 'Le'al souvenir,' 63-64; receives 
a visit from the duke, xxxix, 18; paints 



picture of Our Lady now at Ince Hall, 
65, 66 ; portrait of man with red head- 
kerchief in the National Gallery, 68 ; 
the Duke stands godfather to John's 
first-born and presents him with six 
silver cups, xl, 20 ; his other children, 
20, xlvii ; portraits of John Arnolfini 
and Joan Cenani, 19, 69-73; ms P en ~ 
sion greatly increased, xi, xii, xlvi, 20 ; 
polychromes six statues of counts and 
countesses of Flanders in the front of 
the Town-house at Bruges, xliii, 21 ; 
altar-piece for Canon George Van der 
Paele, Bruges, 75-85 ; portrait of the 
goldsmith, John De Leeuw, 86-87 > 
Saint Barbara, 88-90 ; Our Lady and 
Child by a fountain, 90-91 ; portrait of 
Margaret, his wife, 93-94 ; altar-piece 
for Nicholas van Maelbeke, provost of 
Saint Martin's at Ypres, 22, 95-103 ; 
death, 22 ; burial in the precincts of 
Saint Donatian's, xlvi, 22; exhumation 
and reinterment in the church, xlviii, 
22; foundation of an anniversary mass, 
xlix, 22; epitaphs, 22-24; lost paintings, 
174-182; portrait of himself first men- 
tioned by De Heere, xxviii ; alleged 
portraits, 69, 73, 140, 149, 196, 198. 

EYCK, LAMBERT VAN, employed by Philip 
III., duke of Burgundy, 4 ; at Bruges in 
1431 and 1442, 4. 

EYCK, LIVINA VAN, daughter of John, 
enters convent of Saint Agnes at Maas- 
eyck, 26. 

EYCK, MARGARET VAN, alleged sister of 
Hubert, first mentioned by De Heere, 
Ixxix, 4 ; said to have been buried by 
her brother's side, Ixxix, Ixxxi. 

EYCK, MARGARET VAN, wife of John, her 
marriage, 18; takes part in a lottery, 
26; still living in 1456, 26; portrait, 93. 

Ezechiel, closed door of the prophet, 98. 

Facio, Bartholomew, his praise of John van 

Eyck, Ixxiii; mention by him of paint- 
ings now lost, Ixxiii-lxxiv. 

Falconer, portrait of a, 24. 

Father, the Eternal, 38, 97. 

Filarete, his praise of John van Eyck, Ixxiv. 

Fountains, 42, 91, 158. 

Frames, painted, 68, 72, 79, 86, 92, 93, 96, 
127, 136, 166, 167. 

FRANKFORT : Stadel Institute : Our Lady 
and Child, 138-139. Drawings : Por- 
trait of a man with a falcon, 26 ; of a 
lady, 182. 

Gabriel, Angel, 52. 

Gedeon, 97. 

Gaillard, engraver, portrait after Van Eyck, 

Geese, Flight of wild, or Cranes, 46, 89, 
112, 154, 187. 

GHENT : Saint John's, now the cathedral 
of Saint Bavo : Polyptych, 29-56 ; copy 
by M. Coxcie, 5051; other copies, 51. 
Saint Saviour's, altar-piece painted by 
Hubert van Eyck for, xxix, 108. Archae- 
ological Museum, Sepulchral slab, 8. 
Pageant of 1458 in imitation of paint- 
ings in the interior of the Polyptych, 205. 

Giustiniani, Michael, portrait of, 126; 
arms, 128. 

Godefridus lohannis, painter, 75. 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 44. 

Goldsmiths, Portraits of, 65, 86, 106. 

Gossart, John, painter, 210 

Greystoke Castle, Penrith, H. C. Howard, 
Esq., Paintings, 171 

Guevara, Diego de, presents portraits of 
John Arnolfini and wife, and a portrait 
of a Portuguese maiden, to Margaret of 
Austria, 69. 

Guicciardini, Louis, his notice of the Van 
Eycks and their works, Ixxxii-lxxxiii. 

Haecht, William van, painter, 175. 
Halm, Peter, etching, 143. 



HAMPTON COURT : portrait of canon George 
Van der Paele, 84-85. 

Harp, 41, 162. 

HERMANNSTADT : Gymnasium : Portrait of 
a goldsmith, 106. 

HEVENINGHAM HALL, Lord Huntingfield, 
Painting by W. van Haecht, 175. 

Holland and Zeeland, Counts of: John of 
Bavaria, the pitiless, biographical notice, 
9-10; employs John van Eyck to deco- 
rate the palace at the Hague, xxvii, 10 ; 
his death, 9 ; portrait, 196. Jacqueline of 
Bavaria, 5, 9, 123; arms, 182; portraits, 
180, 181. William IV., 5, 9; miniatures 
executed for him, 5, 202. 

Hollar, Wenceslaus, engraver, 172. 

Jacob, 120. 

INCE HALL: Our Lady and Child, 65; 

Altar-piece, ^.1515, 85. 
INNSBRUCK : Dr. E. von Oppolzer, the Holy 

Face, after Van Eyck, 170. 
Inscription on frame of the Ghent polyptych, 

35-36, 46. 
Isaac, 120. 
Isenbrant, Adrian, Painting attributed to, 

Judgment, The Last, Saint-Petersburg, 146- 


KESSEL-LOO : M. G. Helleputte, Altar- 
piece painted for Nicholas van Maelbeke, 
provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres, 92. 

Lamb, Adoration of the, 42. 

Lampson, Dominic, his eulogy of the Van 

Eycks, xci. 
Landscapes, 34, 43, 44, 89, 97, 98, 108, 1 1 1, 

i3 2 >i45> I 5 I i l8 5- l8 7i 202 - 
Lannoy, de : Baldwin, lord of Molembaix, 

biography, 142; portraits, 161; John, 
lord of Roubaix, heads embassy to John 
I., king of Portugal, Ivi, 131. 

LEIPZIG : Town Museum : portrait of a 
donor, 171 ; the love-charm, 176. 

Lemaire de Beiges, John ; his praise of 
John van Eyck, Ixxv. 

LIEGE : Cathedral, Gold statuette of Charles 
the Rash protected by Saint George, by 
Gerard Loyet, 85. 

Lighting of Eyckian paintings, 185. 

Lombard, Lambert, sends Vasari a notice 
of John van Eyck, Ixxxi-lxxxii. 

Lomellini, John Baptist, triptych painted 
for him by John van Eyck, Ixxiii, 174; 
arms, 174. 

LONDON : National Gallery : Portraits by 
John van Eyck : Tymotheos, ' leal 
souvenir,' 63 ; Man with a red head- 
kerchief, 68 ; John Arnolfini and Joan 
Cenani, 69, 193 ; copy of the Ghent 
polyptych, by E. Schultz, 51. Earl of 
Northbrook, Our Lady and Child, 84, 
159. G. Salting, painting attributed to 
Peter Christus, 108. Old Saint Paul's, 
represented in a painting by Van Eyck, 

Loyet, Gerard, goldsmith, 85. 

Maaseyck : birth-place of Hubert and John 
van Eyck, Ixxvi, Ixxvii, Ixxx, Ixxxv, 3. 
Convent of Saint Agnes : Vestment 
presented by John van Eyck, 1, 23 ; 
Livina, daughter of John van Eyck, 
enters the convent, xlix, 23. 

MADRID : Prado Gallery : The Fountain 
of living water, 162, 198 ; Christ, the 
Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Bap- 
tist, 52, 209-210 ; Mass of Saint Gregory 
attributed to Adrian Isenbrant, 855 
Vision of Saint Francis, attributed to 
Joachim Patenir, 135. 

Maelbeke, Nicholas van, provost of Saint 
Martin's, Ypres, 99. 

Mander, Charles van; no reliance to be 
placed on his statements relating to the 
Van Eycks, xci-xcii, 73. 



Mandoline, 162. 

Marnix, John van, 91. 

Mars, bronze statue of, in. 

Mary, the Blessed Virgin, enthroned, 39, 

Mary, the Blessed Virgin and Child, 65, 

138, 1 60; with Saint Barbara, 143; 

with SS. Donatian and George, 75 ; with 

SS. Elisabeth of Hungary and Barbara, 

no; and Chancellor Nicholas Rolin, 

114; and a provost of Saint Martin's, 

Ypres, 95; by a fountain, 90, 157; in 

a church, 135. 
Mary of Hungary : paintings by John van 

Eyck in her possession, 70. 
Marys, the Three, at the Sepulchre, 153- 

T 57. '851 i9 2 > J 95, 201, 202. 
Mettertee, Gerard, sculptor, xliii, 21. 
Micheas, 34. 

Mirror, convex, with painted frame, 72. 
Money, value of: the lion, 10; the livre 

parisis, n ; the livre de gros, n. 
Monochord, 162. 

Moses, 98, 1 60 ; scenes from the life of, 1 2 1 . 
Mostaert, John, painter, 181. 
Mountains, snow-capped, 44, in, 115, 

127, 132, 150, 154, 187. 
Miinzer, his description of the Ghent 

polyptych, Ixxiv-lxxv. 
MUNICH : Royal Gallery, the Holy Face, 

1 66. 

NEW YORK : Metropolitan Museum : Our 
Lady and Child, 144. 

Noe quitting the ark, 115. 

Noorden, C. van, Engraving by him, after 
John van Eyck, 88. 

NUERNBERG : Germanic Museum : Drawing 
after central panel of the Ypres altar- 
piece, 100-101. 

Oost, James van, sculptor, xliii, 21. 
Opmeer, Peter, his notice of the 
Eycks, xc-xci. 


Orders : Saint Anthony, 123, 182 ; Golden 

Fleece, 142 ; Saint Michael, 154. 
Organ, 41, 162. 

Palencia : Cathedral : the Fountain of living 
water, 163. 

PALERMO : Our Lady and Child, after John 
van Eyck, 67. 

Palmetto chamcerops humilis 108, 132, 
153, 200. 

PARIS : Louvre : Our Lady and Child and 
chancellor Rolin, 114, 186, 191, 193, 
199. Drawings: Adam and Eve, 52; 
portrait of a man, 210. Baron G. Roths- 
child, Our Lady and Child, SS. Elisabeth 
of Hungary and Barbara and a Carthusian, 

Parral, Convent of Our Lady of, the 
Fountain of living water, 162. 

Patenir, Joachim, the Vision of Saint 
Francis, 135. 

Pavement, Storied, 115, 120. 

Pelican, 38, 126. 

Perrant, John, painter, 104. 

Perspective in Eyckian paintings, 193, 

Peutin, John, goldsmith, xl, xliv, 20, 142. 

PHILADELPHIA : J. G. Johnson : the 
Vision of Saint Francis, 131, 186, 187, 
200; portrait of a man, 173, 210. 

Phcenix, 126. 

Polyptych, the Ghent, 27-56, 183-185. 

Poortier, Robert, founds an altar in Saint 
Saviour's church, Ghent, and gives a 
triptych and a statue of Saint Anthony 
to be placed over it, xxix, 108-109; 
portrait, 107. 

Portraits of the Van Eycks, alleged, 196- 

Portraiture, early, 195; development of, 

Prose sung on Christmas Eve, passage 
from, on a scroll held by the Cumaean 
Sibyl, 35- 



Provost's staff, 96, 103. 
Psalterion, 162. 

RICHMOND : Sir F. Cook, Visit of the 
Three Marys to the Sepulchre, 153-157, 

185. 195- 
Rolin, Nicholas, chancellor of Burgundy 

and Brabant: Biography, 116; portraits, 

114, 117. 
ROME : Doria-Pamphili palace, Painting, 


SAINT-PETERSBURG : Hermitage : the An- 
nunciation, 119-122, 191, 199; Calvary 
and the Last Judgment, 146-150, 195, 

Saints : Agnes, 43 ; Anthony, 45, 108 ; Bar- 
bara, 43, 88, no; Christopher, 45; 
Donatian, 76; Dorothy, 43; Elisabeth 
of Hungary, in ; Francis, 130, 131, 135; 
George, 44, 77, 85, 177 ; Jerome, Ixxvi, 
174; John the Baptist, 31, 39, 147, 174: 
John the Evangelist, 31, 162 ; Katherine, 

43, 127; Livin, 43; Margaret, 72; Martin, 

44, 96 ; Mary Magdalene, 45 ; Mary of 
Egypt, 45 ; Michael, 41, 126, 148; Paul 
the hermit, 45; Peter, 147; Stbastian, 
44 ; Stephen, 43 ; Thomas of Canter- 
bury, 172, 210. 

Santi, John, his praise of John van Eyck, 

Samson, tearing the lion in pieces, 76; 

scenes from life of, 120. 
Schultz, E., his copy in water colours of the 

Ghent polyptych, 51. 
Scorel, John, painter, restores the Ghent 

polyptych, 47. 
Sibyls : Cumaean, 35, 98 ; Erythrean, 34- 


Stall, carved, 41. 
Statues, polychromed : Saint Anthony by 

Hubert van Eyck, xxix, 6, 108 ; Counts 

and countesses of Flanders by John van 

Eyck, 21. 

Steenken, Herman: Biography, 112-113; 

portraits, no. 

Succa, Anthony de, painter, 179; 181. 
Summonte, Peter, his notice of John van 

Eyck, 208. 
Synagogue, the, 98, 160, 163. 

Textiles, 38, 39, 40, 41, 65, 76, 77, 96, 
in, 114, 118, 126, 138, 146, 159. 

Tiles: ornamental, 40, 118, 139; Spanish, 

Tonghere, William van, painter, poly- 
chromes a statue and its tabernacle in 
the front of the Town-house at Bruges, 
xliii, 21. 

Toupey, A. : Lithograph after John van 
Eyck, 94. 

Tournay : John van Eyck at, 1 1 ; Cathedral 
transept, 191. 

TURIN : Royal Gallery : Vision of Saint 
Francis, 133, 186, 200. 

Tymotheos, ' leal souvenir,' portrait by 
John van Eyck, 63. 

Vaernewyck, Mark van, his notice of the 
Van Eycks, Ixxvi, Ixxxiii-xc, 73. 

Valencia, John van Eyck at, 209, 

Van den Clyte, Philip. See Commines. 

Van den Driessche, John, painter, poly- 
chromes a statue and its tabernacle in 
the front of the Town-house at Bruges, 
xliii, 21. 

Van der Paele, George, canon of Saint 
Donatian at Bruges : arms, 80 ; bio- 
graphy, 78, 84; altar-piece by John 
van Eyck, with his portrait, 75 ; copy 
of the same, 83; portrait, 77, 84. 

Van der Weyden. See De la Pasture. 

Vasari, his notice of the Van Eycks, Ixxvi, 

Vergil, passage from the Aeneid on a scroll 
held by the Erythrean Sibyl, 35 ; repre- 
sented in the ' Adoration of the Lamb,' 42. 

Vestments, embroidered, 40. 



VIENNA : Albertina : drawing after the 
central panel of the Ypres altar-piece, 
roo-ioi. Imperial Gallery: portrait 
of B. Nicholas Albergati, 61 ; portrait 
of John De Leeuw, 86-88. Imperial 
Library: miniature, 117. 

Villers, Denis de, biographical notice, 178. 

Viol, five-stringed, 41, 162. 

Urgel, James II., count of, 12; Isabella 
of, 12. 

Utrecht: cathedral tower, 43, 115, 186; 
arms of, 44 ; patron of, 44. 

Uutenhove, George, painter, 104. 

Vyt, Jodoc, donor of the Ghent polyptych, 
46 ; biographical notice, 49-50 ; por- 
trait, 31-32 ; arms, 50. 

Watervliet, copy of altar-piece by John 
van Eyck, formerly in the church of, 

Witz, Conrad, painter, 186. 

Yeke, John de, painter of Cambray, ci. 

YPRES: Saint Martin's: triptych painted 
for Nicholas van Maelbeke, Ixxx, 95- 
103. Town Museum : copies of the 
central panel, 103. View of, 103. 

Zacharias, 34. 

Zodiac, signs of the, 120. 




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NO complete Life of Vincenzo Foppa, one of the greatest of the North 
Italian Masters, has ever been written ; an omission which seems almost 
inexplicable in these days of over-production in the matter of biographies 
of painters, and of subjects relating to the art of Italy. 

In Milanese territory the sphere of Foppa's activity during many years 
he was regarded by his contemporaries as unrivalled in his art, and his right to 
be considered the head and founder of the Lombard school is undoubted. His 
influence was powerful and far-reaching, extending eastwards beyond the limits 
of Brescian territory, and south and westwards to Liguria and Piedmont. In the 
Milanese district it was practically dominant for over a quarter of a century, until 
the coming of Leonardo da Vinci thrust Foppa and his followers into the shade, 
and induced him to abandon Pavia, which had been his home for more than 
thirty years, and to return to Brescia. 

The object of the authors of this book has been to present a true picture of 
the master's life based upon the testimony of records in Italian archives ; all facts 
hitherto known relating to him have been brought together ; all statements have 
been verified ; and a great deal of new and unpublished material has been added 

It is hoped therefore that the book may be of service, and may become the 
basis of all future historical studies of this master. By reproducing all his known 
works those which are indisputably his as well as those which bear his name, 
though the attribution may sometimes be open to doubt the master is made to 
speak for himself, and his life work is brought within the reach of all students. 
Records discovered in the archives at Brescia, by Miss Ffoulkes, furnish proof 
that Vincenco Foppa lived twenty-three years longer than was formerly supposed. 
This fact has now been confirmed beyond all possibility of doubt by documents 
which have recently come to light in the Archivio Notarile at Pavia, where a 
great number of records of the highest interest relating to Foppa, which will be 
published for the first time in this book, have been discovered by Monsignor 
Majocchi, Rector of the Collegio Borromeo. The collaboration of this dis- 
tinguished scholar with Miss Ffoulkes is a sufficient guarantee of the value of 
this book to students. Professor Majocchi's intimate acquaintance with the 
Pavian archives and his profound and accurate knowledge of all that pertains to 
the history and art of Pavia are unrivalled. For many years he was Director 
of the Gallery in that city, a post which he only relinquished for the more 
important appointment which he now holds. 

The illustrations will include several pictures by Foppa hitherto unknown 
in the history of art, and others which have never before been published, as well 
as reproductions of every existing work by the master at present known. All 
the documents referred to throughout the book will be given in chronological 
order at the end of the volume, with an index containing the summary of each 
document in English. 

The contents of the book will be as follows : 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Full titles of books and MSS. quoted in the text. 

CHAPTERS I.-IX. Biography. Authentic pictures and works wrongly 
ascribed to Vincenzo P'oppa. The character and influence of his art. 




APPENDIX II. (a) Documents relating to Vincenzo Foppa. 

(b) Documents relating to his sons Francesco and Evangelista. 
Index of these Documents with summary of contents. 

APPENDIX III. List of painters working at Pavia and Brescia in the XV 
and early XVI centuries. 


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