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HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
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HUBERT AND JOHN
THEIR LIFE AND WORK
BY Wj^Hr* JAMES WEALE
WITH 41 PHOTOGRAVURE PLATES & 99 OTHER ILLUS-
TRATIONS, MANY REPRODUCED FOR THE FIRST TIME
LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD
NEW YORK : JOHN LANE COMPANY. MCMVIII
rf o t
WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON AND BECCLES,
TO MY NIECES
EMILY, JANE, ANNE AND ELEANOR
TO WHOSE AFFECTIONATE KINDNESS
THE COMPLETION OF THIS BOOK
IT was not until the publication, in 1849, f the first volume
of Laborde's work, " Les Dues de Bourgogne," that the
biography of the Van Eycks began to be elucidated. The
documents printed in that work were collated with the
originals by Pinchart, who gave more correct readings, and
also published the entries of payments to John van Eyck
in 1422-1425, which he discovered in the household accounts
of John of Bavaria at the Hague. Since then the present
writer has not only published some important documents
(3, 1 8, 19, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31), but has, in the present work,
brought together and printed in chronological order all those
documents yet discovered. Unfortunately many documents
which would no doubt have given us valuable information
are still missing. Of the accounts of the Receivers-general
of the Duke of Burgundy's finances, those for the years
1427, 1429, 1430, and 1438 are wanting. Of the seventeen
yearly accounts of the Receivers of Flanders, embracing the
period during which John van Eyck was in the Duke's
service, only four, those of the years 1425, 1427, 1432, and
1441, have come down to us. Of the detailed accounts and
receipts in John's handwriting, not a single one has been
preserved. The originals of the Duke's letters-patent of
May, 1426, and of those raising John's salary, are also lost ;
and the accounts of the sale of life annuities and of the yearly
payments of these, which would have given us the family
name and the date of decease of John's wife, are also wanting.
It is probable that some further items of information may
yet be gleaned from the municipal accounts of towns in the
Duke's dominions, and, perhaps, also from documents in the
archives of Spain and Portugal. Manuscripts, such as the
interesting description of the Ghent polyptych discovered by
Dr. Voll, may yet come to light. One such, probably lying
unrecognised in some library, the " Leecken Philosophic " of
Mark van Vaernewyck, is known to contain, in the twentieth
book, all that the author had been able to gather concerning
the Van Eycks. A careful examination of printed books,
especially of chronicles and books of travel, may also add
to our knowledge.
In 1900, the writer began to collect materials for a
chronological bibliography of printed books and pamphlets
relating to the Van Eycks and other early Netherlandish
painters, a tedious work, nearly completed when a great
number of the collected titles were accidentally lost. The
undertaking was then abandoned, and not resumed until
1905, when the present work was commenced. Every docu-
ment has been collated, and all the bibliographical references
verified. The author has spared no pains in his endeavour
to secure accuracy; he has, however, not found it possible
to again go through the catalogues of the British Museum
and National Art Libraries, but he doubts the omission of
any important work. Should any such omission be remarked,
he will feel greatly obliged by his attention being called to it.
He particularly wishes those who may consult this work to
remember that it has no pretensions to literary merit, the
author's aim being simply to provide those who in the future
may attempt to write the history of the school of painting
that flourished in the Low Countries in the fifteenth century,
with as complete a guide as possible to all that has been
published concerning its founders up to the present date.
Should the author be spared, and the value of this work be
recognised, he may yet issue similar volumes on Peter
Christus, Hugh Van der Goes and Roger De la Pasture, in
view of which he has collected a quantity of material.
It now only remains for the author to express his
grateful thanks to all those who have aided his endeavours
to make this work as complete and as accurate as possible ;
first, and before all, to Mr. Albert Van de Put of the National
Art Library, who by drawing his attention to various publica-
tions, old and new, that might otherwise have escaped his
notice, by clearing up difficulties presented by Spanish and
Portuguese documents and by the revision of printers' proofs
has rendered him invaluable assistance. Also to Mr. Jules
Finot, Archivist of the Department of the North of France,
at Lille, to Mr. Poncelet, Keeper of the State Archives at
Mons, Mr. Victor Van der Haeghen, Archivist of the Town
of Ghent, Mr. Maurice Houtart of Tournay, and Mr. Paul
Bergmans, of the University Library of Ghent, for the
communication of documents ; and to that acute critic, Mr.
George Hulin who, during the last few years, has done much
towards clearing up the history of painting in the Low
Countries. The writer's thanks are also due to Mr. E.
Enlart, director of the Trocadero Museum of Sculpture, Mr.
L. Cloquet, Mr. W. R. Lethaby, and Mr. Tavenor Perry for
communications regarding architectural features in Eyckian
pictures ; to Lord Dillon, for information as to peculiarities
of armour in the same ; to Mr. H. A. Grueber, of the British
Museum, for information as to the value of the different coins
mentioned in the accounts of payments to John van Eyck ;
to Mr. A. Somof, Director, and Mr. James von Schmidt, Keeper
of the Hermitage Gallery at Saint-Petersburg, Mr. Rudolf
Schrey, of the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, and Dr. Theodore
Schreiber, Director of the Leipzig Museum, for photographs
of paintings and drawings in those collections, and informa-
tion relating thereto ; to the Royal Society of Literature and
Mr. Alfred Marks for the loan of half-tone blocks and draw-
ings ; to the Berlin Photographic Company, for leave to
reproduce their photographs ; to Mr. Lionel Cust, Dr. Six,
Dr. Karl Westendorp, and Mr. A. Daled, for photographs ; and
to Mr. Sidney J. Churchill for information as to a copy of the
Ince Hall Madonna ; and to Mr. Eric Maclagan for facsimiles
of inscriptions and notes of details in paintings. The writer
begs all those gentlemen and any others whom he may have
overlooked to accept his very best thanks.
2yd October, 1907.
DOCUMENTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER . . xxvii
1. MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY PRINTED BOOKS . . lv
2. BIOGRAPHY AND ART OF THE VAN EYCKS . . . xciv
3. DISCOVERIES AND TECHNIQUE OF THE VAN EYCKS . cxii
1. HUBERT VAN EYCK 3
2. JOHN VAN EYCK 9
1. THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 29
2. PAINTINGS BY JOHN VAN EYCK 57
3. PAINTINGS ATTRIBUTED TO THE VAN EYCKS . . 106
4. LOST PAINTINGS 174
5. OBSERVATIONS 183
ADDENDA .- 205
1. The Annunciation : the Angel
2. The Annunciation : the Blessed
3. Saint John the Baptist .
4. Saint John the Evangelist .
5. Jodoc Vyt
6. Elisabeth Borluut
7. God the Father ....
8. The Blessed Virgin
9. Saint John the Baptist
10. The Choir of Angels : The Singers
11. The Mu-
12. The Adoration of the Lamb
13. The Knights of Christ
14. The Just Judges ....
15. The Holy Hermits
16. The Holy Pilgrims
19. B. Nicholas Albergati, Cardinal
of Saint-Cross, 1432
20. Portrait of a man, 1432
Berlin : Royal Gallery
Ghent : Cathedral .
Berlin : Royal Gallery
Ghent : Cathedral .
Berlin : Royal Gallery
Brussels : Royal Gallery
TO FACE PAGE
Vienna : Imperial Gallery . 58
London : National Gallery . 62
TO FACE PAGE
21. Our Lady and Child, 1433 .
22. Portrait of a man, 1433
23. John Arnolfini and wife, 1434
24. Our Lady and Child, SS. Do-
natian and George, and canon
G. Van der Paele, 1436 .
25. John De Leeuw, goldsmith, 1436 .
26. Saint Barbara, 1437
27. Our Lady and Child by a Foun-
28. Margaret van Eyck, 1439
29. Portrait of a Goldsmith
30. Our Lady and Child, SS. Elisa-
beth of Hungary and Barbara,
and a Carthusian
31. The Annunciation
32. The Annunciation : detail .
33. An Esquire of the Order of Saint
34. The Annunciation : the Angel
35. The Annunciation: the Blessed
36. Our Lady and Child enthroned .
37. Saint Michael and the donor
38. Saint Katherine ....
39. The Vision of Saint Francis
40. Our Lady and Child .
41. Sir Baldwin de Lannoy
London : National Gallery
Bruges : Town Gallery .
Vienna : Imperial Gallery
Antwerp : Museum .
Bruges : Town Gallery
Hermannstadt : Gymnasium
Berlin : Royal Gallery
Dresden : Royal Gallery .
Paris : Baron G. Rothschild . no
Saint-Petersburg: Hermitage. 118
. 1 20
,, ,, .126
,, ,, . . 128
Philadelphia : Mr. J. G. Johnson 1 30
Frankfort : Stadel Institute . 138
Berlin : Royal Gallery . .142
BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS
Sepulchral slab, XVIth century, Ghent : Archaeological Museum. From
a sketch by A. Heins 8
Bird's-eye view of Bruges in 1 562 by Mark Gheeraerts. Extract showing
John van Eyck's residence . . ...... 19
Portrait of a falconer, Henry van Eyck ? Frankfort : Stadel Institute . 24
Polyptych by Hubert and John van Eyck : exterior 26
interior . . . 28
Adam and Eve ; silver-print drawing. Paris : Louvre 50
The angel Gabriel ; pen drawing. Berlin: Royal Print collection . . 52
Christ, the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Baptist. Madrid : Prado
Pavement tile on shutter panel of the Polyptych 56
B. Nicholas Albergati, cardinal of Saint-Cross ; silver-print drawing, 1431.
Dresden : Royal Print collection 60
Cipher on reverse of the " L6al Souvenir." London : National Gallery . 64
Portrait of a Goldsmith. Berlin : Royal Print collection .... 64
Mirror and signature of John van Eyck, 1434. London: National Gallery 72
Inscriptions on frame of the Bruges altar-piece, 1436 79
Our Lady and Child, SS. Donatian and George, and canon G. Van der
Paele. Antwerp : Museum 82
Saint George and Charles the Rash, by G. Loyet, 1471. Liege : Cathedral 84
Canon George Van der Paele. Hampton Court Palace .... 84
Our Lady and Child by a fountain ; pen drawing. Berlin : Royal Print
collection ............ 92
Inscriptions on frame of the portrait of Margaret van Eyck ... 94
xvi BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS
Triptych of N. van Maelbeke, provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres, 1441 ;
exterior. Kessel-Loo : M. G. Helleputte 94
Our Lady and Child, and Nicholas van Maelbeke, 1441 .... 96
The Burning Bush ....... ... 98
The Closed Door of Ezechiel 98
Our Lady and Child and N. van Maelbeke ; pen drawing. Vienna :
Our Lady and Child and N. van Maelbeke ; silver-print drawing. Niirn-
berg : Germanic Museum ......... 102
Our Lady and Child and a provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres. London :
Mr. Heyman-Ellis 104
A donor protected by Saint Anthony. Copenhagen : Royal Gallery . .108
Our Lady and Child and Chancellor Rolin. Paris: Louvre . . .114
Nicholas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy and Brabant ; pen drawing.
Arras: Town Library 116
Dedication miniature of the " Chronicles of Hainault." Brussels : Bur-
gundian Library . . . . . . . . . . .116
Dedication miniature of " Gerard de Roussillon." Vienna : Imperial
Library . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Nicholas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy ; detail of altar-piece. Beaune :
Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Miniature in the Hours of John, count of Dunois. London : H. Y.
Thompson, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . .118
The Adoration of the Magi ; detail. Velen : Count Landsberg-Velen . 124
The Vision of Saint Francis. Turin: Royal Gallery 132
The Vision of Saint Francis. Madrid : Prado Gallery . . . .134
Our Lady and Child in a church. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . . .134
Our Lady and Child in a church. Rome : Doria Gallery . . . . 1 34
Saint Anthony and a donor. Rome: Doria Gallery 134
Our Lady and Child in a church ; pen drawing 134
John Arnolfini. Berlin : Royal Gallery 140
An incident in the life of Saint Bernard. Coin : Wallraff-Richartz
Museum ............ 142
An incident in the life of Saint Bernard ; detail 142
Our Lady and Child, Saint Barbara and a Carthusian. Berlin : Royal
Gallery ............ 144
BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS xvii
Calvary. Saint-Petersburg : Hermitage Gallery 146
The Last Judgment. Saint- Petersburg : Hermitage Gallery . . .148
Christ on the cross, the Blessed Virgin, and Saint John. Berlin : Royal
The Three Marys at the Sepulchre. Richmond : Sir F. Cook . . .152
Our Lady and Child by a fountain. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . .156
Our Lady and Child. London: Earl of Northbrook 158
Our Lady and Child. New York : Metropolitan Museum . . . .160
The Fountain of living water. Madrid: Prado Gallery .... 162
The Fountain of living water ; the Church. Madrid : Prado Gallery . 164
The Fountain of living water ; the Synagogue. Madrid: Prado Gallery . 164
Cipher on an old copy of the Fountain of living water . . . .164
The Holy Face. Munich: Royal Gallery 166
Inscription on neck-band of Christ's robe. Munich: Royal Gallery . . 166
The Holy Face. Berlin : Royal Gallery 166
The Holy Face. Bruges: Town Gallery 168
Inscriptions on frame . . . . . . . . . . .168
Cipher and date on reverse of the panel 169
A Man. Berlin : Royal Gallery . . . . . . . . .170
A donor. Leipzig : Town Museum 170
An ecclesiastic. Greystoke Castle : H. C. Howard, Esq. . . . .170
Saint Thomas of Canterbury, after W. Hollar ...... 170
Archdukes Albert and Isabella visiting the gallery of C. Van der Geest,
Antwerp, 1615. Heveningham Hall : Lord Huntingfield . . . 174
A lady at her toilet ; detail from a gallery picture. Heveningham Hall :
Lord Huntingfield . . . . . . . . . .176
Michael of France, duchess of Burgundy, 1409-1422 ; drawing. Brussels :
Royal Library 178
Bonne of Artois, duchess of Burgundy, 1424-1425 ; drawing. Arras :
Town Library . . . . . . . . . . .178
Isabella of Portugal, duchess of Burgundy, 1429-1472 ; drawing. Brussels :
Royal Library . ... . . . . . . . .180
Jacqueline of Bavaria, countess of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland ; drawing.
Brussels : Royal Library 180
Jacqueline of Bavaria. Copenhagen: Royal Gallery 180
xviii BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS
Portrait of a lady ; silver-print drawing. Frankfort: Stadel Institute . 180
Key to four panels of the Ghent polyptych 184
Utrecht cathedral ; West tower, from a drawing by Saenredam, 1636 . 186
Utrecht cathedral ; West tower, 1905 186
Old Saint Paul's, London, from the south . . . . . . .186
Snow-mountains in the Ghent polyptych . . . . . . .186
Snow-mountains in the Rolin panel . . . . . . . .186
Plan of edifice in the Bruges altar-piece . . . . . . .189
Capitals after Van Eyck . . . . . . . . . .190
Capital of a pilaster, Souvigny (Bourbonnais) ...... 190
Capital from triptych, Dresden . . . . . . . . .190
Capitals from altar-piece, Bruges 190
Bellerophon and the Chimsera ......... 190
Tournay cathedral : transept . . . . . . . . .190
John of Bavaria ; drawing. Arras: Town Library 196
Hubert and John van Eyck ; alleged portraits. Berlin : Royal Gallery . 196
Hubert and John van Eyck ; alleged portraits. Madrid : Prado Gallery . 198
William of Bavaria met by his daughter Jacqueline. Miniature in the
" Turin Hours " 202
Saint Julian conveying passengers across a river. Miniature in the
"Turin Hours" 202
Portrait of a man ; silver-print drawing. Paris : Louvre .... 206
Portrait of a man. Philadelphia : Mr. J. G. Johnson 208
Christ in the act of blessing. Berlin: Royal Gallery 210
1417, May 31. Death of William of Bavaria, Count of Holland.
1422, July 8. Death, at Ghent, of Michelle of France, first wife of
Philip, Duke of Burgundy.
October 24, 1424, September 11. John van Eyck working
for John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, in the palace at the Hague.
1424, November 30. Marriage of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, and
Bonne of Artois, daughter of Philip, Count of Eu and Nevers.
1425, January 5. Death of John of Bavaria.
May 19. John van Eyck at Bruges. Duke Philip appoints
him his painter, with a yearly salary of ioo/. parisis, payable in
two moieties, commencing from Midsummer.
Before August 2. Moves to Lille, and takes up his residence
Hubert van Eyck makes two sketches for a picture for the
magistrates of Ghent.
September 17. Death of Bonne of Artois, second wife of
1426, March. Hubert engaged at Ghent, painting an altar-piece and
polychroming a statue of Saint Anthony for Robert Poortier.
Before July 14. John van Eyck goes on a pilgrimage for
August. John van Eyck is sent on a secret mission by the
September 18. Hubert van Eyck dies at Ghent.
October 27. John van Eyck, having returned from mission, is
paid 36o/. of 40 groats Flemish in settlement.
1427, October 18. John van Eyck at Tournay second secret mission-
is presented with the wine of honour. The Duke's ambassadors
are presented with wine on the 2Oth.
xxii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1428 February. John returned from second mission. Complains to
the Duke that his receiver at Lille had refused to pay him his
October 19. Starts from Sluus on third mission, by sea to
October 20. Puts in at Sandwich.
Puts in at Plymouth.
October 25. Puts in at Falmouth.
December 2. Sails from Falmouth.
December 1 1 . Puts in at Bayona.
December 14. Sails from Bayona.
December 16. Calls at Cascaes.
December 18. Arrives at Lisbon.
1429, January. Sojourn at Arrayollos.
January 1 2. Leaves Arrayollos and arrives at Aviz.
The ambassadors are received by the King of Portugal and
the Royal Family on the morrow. John van Eyck paints the
portrait of the Princess Isabella, and sends it to the Duke of
February. Goes on a pilgrimage to Saint James of Compo-
stella in Galicia. Visits John II., King of Castile, the Duke of
Arjona, Mahommed, King of Granada, etc.
May. Returns to Lisbon.
June 4. Journey to Cintra to see the King ; sojourn in that
July 23. Contract of marriage of the Duke and Isabella
signed at Lisbon.
July 24 October 8. Sojourn at Lisbon.
September 30. The King of Portugal conducts his daughter
to her ship.
October 8. The Portuguese fleet sets sail.
October 13. Puts in at Cascaes.
November 29. Puts in at Plymouth.
December 25. Arrives at Sluus.
1430, January 7. Marriage of the Duke and Isabella at Sluus.
John van Eyck goes to Hesdin and returns to Bruges.
1431, December. Draws the portrait of B. Nicholas Albergati.
1432, January. Paints the portrait of the same cardinal, now at Vienna.
Buys a house at Bruges.
May 6. Polyptych of the Adoration of the Lamb terminated
and placed in the church of Saint John now Saint Bavo at
Before August 13. The burgomaster and some other
members of the town-council of Bruges visit John van Eyck, to
October 10. Paints portrait of a man, ' Leal souvenir,' now
in the National Gallery.
1433, before February 19. The Duke visits John's studio.
John paints Our Lady and Child, now at I nee Hall.
October 21. Paints the portrait of a man with a red head-
kerchief, now in the National Gallery.
1434, Birth of his first child. The Duke is godfather.
Paints the portrait of John Arnolfini and wife, now in the
1434-1435. John's salary raised from ioo/. parisis payable in two
half-yearly moieties, to 36o/. of 40 groats Flemish (432O/. parisis),
1435, March 12. The Duke reprimands the accountants at Lille for
raising difficulties as to verification of his letters patent, and bids
them execute his orders punctually.
John van Eyck polychromes six statues in the front of the
Town-house at Bruges.
1436, Paints an altar-piece for George Van der Paele, Canon of
Saint Donatian, at Bruges, now in the Town Museum.
Paints the portrait of John De Leeuw, now in the Imperial
Goes on a secret mission by order of the Duke, for which he
is paid 36o/. gr.
October. Jacqueline of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, dies
I 437- John van Eyck paints the picture of Saint Barbara, now in
the Museum at Antwerp.
1439. Paints the picture of Our Lady and Child by a fountain, now in
the Museum at Antwerp.
xxiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
June 17. Paints the portrait of Margaret his wife, now in the
Town Museum, Bruges.
1441. Paints an altar-piece for the Provost of Saint Martin's at Ypres.
July 9. Death of John van Eyck.
1450. Livina, daughter of John van Eyck, enters the convent of Saint
Agnes at Maaseyck.
i. PAYMENTS to master John van Eyck, painter in the
service of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, for work exe-
cuted at the Palace of the Hague from October 24, 1422,
to September 11, 1424. John was paid at the rate of 8
lions a day ; his apprentices received 2 lions a day.
" Uutgegeven ende betaelt meyster Ian den maelre, van
ix weken pantgelts ende iij dagen ; 'sdags, voir hem ende
siinen knecht, x lewen, f. v Ib. x s. gr."
Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren van miins genadigs heren heren
goeden ende forfeyten in den lande van Hollant ende van Zeelant
von 27 Septembre, 1422, tot 14 lanuarii, 1423.
" Item so ontbreke lohannes schildere van sinen pantgelt
van enen halve iaere, daer hem die tresorier off betaelt rekent
van j quaert iaers, te weten, van Alreheylig dag toe totten
eersten dage van Februarii siin xiij weke, des heeft hij 'sdags
voir hem ende sinen knecht die met hem werct, x lewen ;
ende een ander knecht ij lewen, f. 'sdags ij s. ; f. ix Ib. ij s. gr."
Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren enz. van i Novembris, 1423,
tot i Meye, 1424.
" Item noch uutgegeven ende betaelt lohannes, miins
genadichs heren scilder, geliic dat mit hem overdragen was,
xxviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
van sinen pantgelde 'sdages x lewen, f. binnen xxxij weken,
een lewe voir ij gro., xviij Ib. xiij s. iiij d. gr."
Rekeninge Vitzdoms in Beyeren enz. van 26 Meye, 1424, tot
5 Februarii, 1425. The Hague: Royal Archives.
2. Payment to master Hubert van Eyck, for two sketches
of a painting made by order of the magistrates of Ghent.
" Ghegheven meester Luberecht over syn moyte van ij
bewerpen van eenre taeffele die hy maecte ten bevelene van
scepenen, vj s. gro."
Boucke van den ontfanghe ende uutghevene die ghemaect zijn
int scependom her lans Sersanders, her Gelnoets van Lems ende
harer ghezellen int iaer xiiij c ende xxiiij, fol. 188. Ghent: Town
1425, August 2
3. Payment of 2O/. to John van Eyck, in consideration
of the trouble and expense incurred by him in moving from
Bruges to Lille by order of Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who,
by letters patent dated May 19, 1425, had appointed him
his official painter.
"A Johannes de Heecq, varlet de chambre et paintre
de mon diet seigneur, que de nouvel icellui monseigneur
a retenu en son service pour cause de 1'excellent ouvrage
de son mestier qu'il fait, que il lui a donnd tant pour lui
aidier a amaisnagier en la ville de Lille en laquelle il le
fait venir demourer, que pour faire amener ses vagues de
la dicte ville de Bruges en laquelle il a demeurd par aucun
temps, xx 1. de xl gros. . . . Par mandement de mon dit
seigneur sur ce fait, donnd a Lille le second jour d'Aoust
1'an M.cccc.xxv, garni de quittance du dessus dit."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du Due de Bourgogne
du 3 Octobre, 1424, au 3 Octobre, 1425, fol. cxv. Lille : Archives of
the Department of the North, B 1931.
4. Gratuity to the apprentices at master Hubert's.
"Ghegheven in hoofscheden den kinderen te meester
Ubrechts, vj gro."
Boucke van den ontfanghe ende uutghevene die ghemaect zijn
int scependom her Ian Sersimoens ende Ian Wellaerts ende harer
ghezellen int iaer xiiij vive ende twintich, fol. 288^. Ghent : Town
1426, March 9
5. Robert Poortier and Avezoete his wife, by their v
will dated March 9, 1425, give directions for their burial in
the church of Saint Saviour, Ghent, in the tomb they had
prepared in the chapel of Our Lady ; for the completion
of the altar founded by them in that chapel ; and for set-
ting up above it the statue of Saint Anthony, which statue,
together with other work pertaining to the same altar,
was at that date in the hands of master Hubert the painter.
" Kenlic zij . . . dat up den ix ste dach van Maerte . . .
ende begheeren te ligghene in de kerke 's Helichs Kersts
in de zuut cappelle die men heet Onser Vrouwen cappelle
van der Moure, daer zij eenen saerc hebben doen legghen,
xxx HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
ter welker plaetsen zij willen ende begheeren dat vulcome
dat men in de selve capelle doe maken eenen altaer omme
up te doene den dienst ons Heeren, ende an den selven
altaer te stelne 'tbelde van Sente Anthonise, welc beelde nu
ter tijt rust onder meester Hubrechte den scildere met meer
ander weercx dienende ten selven altare."
Register van Schepenen van Ghedeele, 1425-26, fol. 63. Two
contemporary copies of this will are preserved among the documents
relating to the church of Saint Saviour. Ghent : Town Archives.
6. Three payments of 5o/. each to John van Eyck,
being the amount of his salary from Midsummer, 1425,
to Christmas, 1426.
" A Jehan de Heick, jadiz pointre et varlet de chambre
de feu monseigneur le due Jehan de Bayviere, lequel mon
diet seigneur pour 1'abilite et souffissance que par la relacion
de pluseurs de ses gens il avoit oy, et meismes savoit et
cognoissoit estre de fait de pointure en la personne du dit
Jehan de Heick, icellui Jehan, confians de sa loyaute et
preudomonie, a retenu en son pointre et varlet de chambre,
aux honneurs, prerogatives, franchises, libertez, drois, prouffis
et emolumens accoustume'z et qui y appartiennent. Et affm
qu'il soit tenu de ouvrer pour lui de painture toutes les
fois qu'il lui plaira, lui a ordonne prenre et avoir de lui, sur
sa recepte generate de Flandres, la somme de c livres
parisis monnoie de Flandres a deux termes par an, moittie'
au Noel et 1'autre moittie" a la Saint Jehan, dont il veult
estre le premier paiement au Noel mil cccc xxv et 1'autre a
la Saint Jehan ensuivant, et ainsi d'an en an et de terme en
terme, tant qu'il lui plaira. En mandant aux maistres de
son hostel et autres ses officiers quelzconques, que d'icelle
sa presente retenue ensamble des honneurs, prerogatives,
drois, prouffis, et emolumens dessus diz, facent et laissent
le dit Jehan paisiblement joir, sans empeschement ou des-
tourbier, mandant en oultre a son dit receveur general de
Flandres present et a venir, que la dicte somme de c livres
parisis par an il paye, bailie et delivre chactin an au dit
Jehan, son pointre et varlet de chambre, aux termes dessus
de"clairez, comme de tout ce que dit est puet plus a plain
apparoir par lettres patentes de mon avant dit seigneur, sur
ce faictes et donnees en sa ville de Bruges le xix e jour de
May 1'an mil cccc xxv. Pour cecy, par vertu d'icelles dont
vidimus est cy rendu a court, pour le terme du Noel mil cccc
xxv, par sa quittance, qui sert a la partie ensuivante cy
rendue a court, 1 livres."
" A lui pour semblable et les termes de la Saint Jehan
et Noel mil cccc xxvj par sa quittance, cy rendue a court,
Compte de la recette generate de Flandres du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1425, fol. xcvz>. Lille : Archives of the Department of
1426, August 26
7. Payment to John van Eyck of qil. $s. of 40 groats
Flemish to the pound, for a certain pilgrimage which the
Duke had ordered him to perform in his name, and on
account of a secret journey which he had ordered him to
xxxii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
make to certain distant places of which no mention is to
"A Johannes de Eick, varlet de chambre et paintre de
mon dit seigneur, la somme de quatre vins onze livres, cinq
solz du pris de xl gros, monnoye de Flandres la livre, laquelle
du commandement et ordonnance de mon dit seigneur lui
a este paiee, bailliee et delivree comptant, tant pour faire
certain pelerinage que mon dit seigneur pour lui et en son
nom lui a ordonne faire, dont autre declaration il n'en veult
estre faicte, comme sur ce que par icelui seigneur lui povoit
estre deu a cause de certain loingtain voiage secret, que
semblablement il lui a ordonne faire en certains lieux que
aussi ne veult aultrement declarer. Si comme il appert par
mandement de descharge de mon dit seigneur sur ce fait,
donne" a Leyden, le xxvj e jour d'Aoust, Tan mil cccc xxvi,
garni selon son contenu cy rendu, pour ce iiij xx xj livres, v s.
de xl gros."
Compte de la recette generate des finances du due du 3 Octobre,
1425, au 3 Octobre, 1426, fol. Ixxij. Lille : Archives of the Depart-
ment of the North, B 1933.
1426, after September 18
8. Receipt by the treasurers of the town of Ghent of
6 shillings from the heirs of Hubert van Eyck, tax on
the property of the deceased.
"Ontfaen van yssuwen. Van den hoyre van Lubrecht
van Heyke, vi s. gro."
Boucke van den ontfanghe die ghemaect zijn int scependom her
Willems Utenhove, her lans Van den Heyden ende harer ghezellen
int iaer xiiij c zesse ende twintich, fol. 3192. Ghent : Town Archives.
1426, October 27
9. Payment to John van Eyck of s6o/. of 40 groats
Flemish to the pound, in settlement of amount due to him
for certain distant secret journeys made by order of the
" A Johannes de Kick, varlet de chambre et paintre de
mon dit seigneur, la somme de trois cens soixante livres du
pris de xl gros monnoie de Flandres la livre, laquelle mon dit
seigneur lui a ordonne estre baillie comptant pour certain
compte, traittie" et appointement fait avec lui pour la par-
paye de tout ce qu'il lui peut estre deu a cause de certains
loingtains voyaiges secrez que mon dit seigneur lui a pie$a
ordonne" faire en certains lieux dont il ne veult autre de"clara-
cion estre faicte si qu'il appert par lettres de mandement
de descharge de mon dit seigneur sur ce faictes, donndes a
Bruges le xxvij 6 jour d'Octobre 1'an mil cccc xxvj, garny de
quittance du dit Johannes, selon son contenu cy rendu, pour
ce, iijlx livres de xl gros."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du 4 Octobre au 31
Ddcembre, 1426, fol. xxxixz/ . Lille : Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1935.
10. Payment to John van Eyck of a gratuity of 2O/., in
consideration of services rendered by him to the Duke.
" A Johannes de Heecht, paintre de mon dit seigneur,
que icellui seigneur luy a donne" pour consideration des bons
et agreables services qu'il luy a faiz de son mestier et autre-
ment, comme appert par sa quittance, xx livres."
xxxiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Compte de la recette general e des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1427, fol. cxvzf. Courtray : Town Library.
11. Payment to John van Eyck of a gratuity of ioo/.,
in recompense for services rendered by him to the Duke.
" A Jehannes Eyk, varlet de chambre et paintre de mon
dit seigneur, que icellui seigneur luy a donne tant pour
consideration des bons et agreables services qu'il luy a faiz
tant ou fait de son dit office comme autrement, et pour le
aidier et soustenir a avoir ses neccessitez, afin plus honno-
rablement il le puist servir, comme appert par sa quittance,
Compte de la recette generate des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1427, fol. vj xx xijz; . Courtray : Town Library.
1428, after March 3
12. Payment to John van Eyck of ioo/. parisis, amount
of his salary for one year to Christmas, 1427, by special
order of the Duke, notwithstanding the general revocation
of pensions and salaries of officers of his household.
" A Jehan de Heick, pointre et varlet de chambre de mon
seigneur le due, lequel icellui seigneur a retenu aux gaiges de
c livres parisis, monnoie de Flandres, par an, pour les causes
contenues tant en ses lettres sur ce faictes comme ou compte
precedent. Et lesquelz gaiges mon dit seigneur, nonobstant
que par certaines ses ordonnances faictes le xiiij 6 de Ddcembre,
ccccxxvj, a entre autres choses revoque' les pensions et gaiges
d'aucuns ses officiers et serviteurs qu'ilz prenoient a luy, non
exprime'z 6s lettres de sa nouvelle ordonnance commenchant
icelle le premier jour de Janvier mil cccc vint et six ; toutes-
voyes son entencion n'est pas que es dictes ordonnances
soit comprinse la pension que prenoit de lui son dit pointre,
mais au regart de ce, veult et ordonne que les paiemens de la
dicte pension d'illec en avant tant comme il lui plaira, soit
entertenue. En mandant a son dit receveur que icelle pen-
sion il paie aux termes accoustumez, qui sont, moitie a la
Saint Jehan et 1'autre moitie au Noel, comme il appert par
ses lettres patentes sur ce faictes et donnees en sa ville de
Bruges le iij jour de Mars mil cccc xxvij. Pour ce par vertu
d'icelles lettres cy rendues avec quittance du dit Jehan de
Heick, pour sa dicte pension et les termes de la Saint Jehan
et Noel mil cccc xxvij, la dicte somme de c livres."
Compte de la recette generate de Flandre du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1427, fol. Ixxiij. Lille : Archives of the Department of
13. Payment to John van Eyck of :6o/. of 40 groats
Flemish to the pound, in consideration of services rendered
by him to the Duke, and also in recompense for certain
secret voyages made by him, and for the voyage undertaken
in the company of the lord of Roubaix.
" A Johannes de Eck, varlet de chambre et paintre de
mon dit seigneur, que icellui seigneur luy a donne tant pour
consideration des services qu'il luy a faiz, fait journelment et
espoire que encores fera ou tamps a venir ou fait de son
dit office comme autrement, comme en re* compensation de
certains voyaiges secrez que par 1'ordonnance et pour les
xxxvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
affaires d'icellui seigneur il a faiz, et du voyaige qu'il fait
presentement avec et en la compaignie de mon dit seigneur de
Roubais dont il ne veult aucune declaracion estre faicte ;
comme appert par sa quittance ; sur ce viij xx livres de 40 gros
monnoie de Flandres la livre."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre 1428, fol. ij c xvijV. Lille: Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1938.
14. Payment to Michael Ravary of 46/. 45., being the
rent of a house (at Lille) in which John van Eyck, by order
of the Duke, resided during two years to Midsummer, 1428.
" A Miquiel Ravary, pour le louage d'une maison en
laquelle lohannes de Eck, varlet de chambre et paintre de
mon dit seigneur, a par 1'ordonnance et commandement
d'icellui seigneur demoure par deux annees finissant au jour
Saint Jehan Baptiste darnier passe, comme appert par
quittance du dit Michiel et certifficacion de mon dit seigneur
de Croy, sur ce xlvj 1. iiij s."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1428, fol. ij c xxxij. Lille: Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1938.
15. Payment to Lambert van Eyck of 7/. 95., for having
on several occasions waited on the Duke concerning certain
"A Lambert de Hech, frere de lohannes de Hech,
paintre de mon seigneur pour avoir este* a plusieurs foiz
devers mon seigneur, pour aucunes besongnes que mon
seigneur vouloit faire, vij 1. ix s."
Compte de la recette g6ndrale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1431, fol. liiijV. Lille: Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1942.
1 6. Payment to John van Eyck of 5o/. parisis, being
the amount of his salary for a half-year to Midsummer,
"A Jehan de Heick, peintre et varlet de chambre de
mon seigneur le due, lequel icellui seigneur a retenu aux
gaiges de cent livres parisis monnoye de Flandres par an,
pour les causes contenues tant en ses lettres sur ce faictes,
comme ou compte du receveur (de 1424-25) a pa'ier aux
termes de Saint Jehan et Noel. Pour ce, pour le terme de
Saint Jehan mil cccc xxxij par sa quictance cy rendue, I/."
Compte de la recette generale de Flandre du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1432, fol. iiij xx xj. Lille : Archives of the Department of
17. Payment to John van Eyck of IQ/., for having, by
order of the Duke, come to him at Hesdin from Bruges,
and for his journey back.
"A Johannes d'Eick, paintre, que mon seigneur a
samblablement ordonne luy estre baillie" et delivre" comptant,
pour estre venu par son commandement et ordonnance, des
sa ville de Bruges a Hesdin devers lui ; auquel lieu il 1'avoit
mande" pour aucunes besongnes esquelles il le vouloit em-
ployer. Pour ce et pour son retour, comme appert par sa
xxxviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
quittance sur ce rendu, xix 1. Par mandement sur ce de mon
dit seigneur donne" a La Haye en Hollande le xxix e jour
d'Octobre Mil cccc xxxij."
Compte de la recette generate des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1431, fol. cxv'njv . Lille: Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1942.
1 8. Gratuity of 3/. parisis given to the apprentices of
John van Eyck, when the burgomasters of Bruges and some
members of the council went to see certain works.
" Ghegheven te Johannes van Heyck 'tscilders, daer de
borchmeesters ende eenighe van der wet ghinghen besien
zeker weerken, den cnapen aldaer in hoofscheden, v s. gr.,
somme iij lib."
Rekeninghe van de tresoriers van der stede van Brugge van
2 September, 1431, tot i September, 1432, fol. 78. Bruges: Town
19. Payment of 305-. parisis by John van Eyck to the
receivers of the office of the obedience of Saint Donatian
at Bruges, being the amount of an annual charge on his
house, due at Midsummer, 1432.
" Receptum anno xxxij in certis redditibus novi libri
infra villam. In officio Sancti Nicholay. lohannes van Eyke,
Computacio bonorum officii obediencie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis
pro anno xiiij c xxxij facta capitulo in anno xxxiij, fol. 15^. Bruges:
A similar entry occurs in each of the following yearly
accounts until that for 1441, after which the entry is " Relicta
lohannis de Eyke."
20. Gratuity of 255. g. given to the apprentices of John
van Eyck by the Duke, when he went to see certain work
executed by the said John.
" Aux varlets de Johannes d'Eyk, paintre, pour don par
mon seigneur a eulx fait quant mon dit seigneur a est6 en
son hostel veoir certain ouvrage fait par le dit Johannes,
xxv sols, comme appert par mandement de mon dit seigneur
sur ce fait et donne* au dit Brouxelles le xix e jour de Fevrier
ou dit an Mil cccc xxxij " (1433, n. st.).
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au
31 Decembre, 1433, fol. viij xx viijV. Lille: Archives of the Depart-
ment of the North, B 1948.
21. Payment of y6/. g. to John van Eyck, which sum
the Duke had agreed to give him for several days spent in
attending to his and the Duchess's requirements and business.
"A lohannes van Eyck que mon seigneur lui a donne"
pour composicion a lui faicte, pour plusieurs journe"es par lui
vacque"es par 1'ordonnance et commandement de mon dit
seigneur et de madame la duchesse pour les besongnes et
affaires plus a plain contenues en sa quictance sur ce faicte,
Ixxvj livres. . . . Par mandement de mon seigneur sur ce fait
et donne en sa ville de Lille, le dernier jour d'Avril, Mil
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1434, fol. cxiiijV. Lille : Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1951.
xl HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
22. Payment to John Peutin, goldsmith, of Bruges, of
g6l. 125. of 40 groats Flemish to the pound, for six silver cups
weighing 12 marks, presented by the Duke to John van Eyck
at the baptism of his child, held at the font by Peter de
Beaufremont, lord of Charny, in the name of the Duke.
" A Jehan Peutin, orfevre, demourant a Bruges, la
somme de quatrevins seze livres, douze solz du pris de xl
gros, monnoie de Flandres, la livre, que deue luy estoit pour
la vendue et delivrance de six tasses d'argent pesans
ensemble douze marcs, du pris de viij livres ung sol le marc,
lesquelles mon dit seigneur a de lui fait prendre et achetter
pour les de par icellui seigneur donner et presenter au
baptisement de 1'enfant Johannes van Eik, son paintre et
varlet de chambre, lequel il a fait tenir sur fons, en son nom,
par le seigneur de Chargny. Pour ce, comme plus a plain
peut apparoir par mandement de mon dit seigneur sur ce fait
et donne en sa ville de Brouxelles, le dernier jour de Juing
xxxiiij, quittance du dit Jehan Peutin, et certifficacion du dit
seigneur de Chargny sur les pris, achat et ddlivrance des dictes
parties cy rendue, iiij xx xvj livres, xij sols nouvelle monnoie."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au
31 Decembre, 1434, fol. ij c xviijz>. Lille : Archives of the Department
of the North, B 1951.
1434, September 12
23. Letter relative to the payment of John van Eyck's
pension, charged partly on the receipt of the tax of 2 groats
on each piece of cloth at Wervick, addressed by the Receiver-
General of Flanders to the officers of the Chamber of Accounts
" Mes tres honnourez et especiaulx seigneurs, Je me
recommande a vous tant comme je puis, et vous soit plaisir
de savoir comment nagaires pour assigner et payer Jehan de
Heict, paintre et varlet de chambre de monseigneur, de sa
pencion, j'ay nagaires envoye a Wervy pour savoir 1'estat de
la ferme des deux groz sur chascun drap au dit Wervy, sur
laquelle faut entre autres parties le dit Jehan est asseure et
assigne par lettres de monseigneur, du quel lieu Ten ma
rapporte que icelle ferme Ten entente appliquier avec les
autres revenues du dit Wervy obst pour les deniers convertir
ou paiement et acquit des charges estans sur 1'avoir du dit
Wervy, et pour ce mes tres honnourez et especiaulx seigneurs,
que autrement nullement je ne pourrois furnir le fait du dit
Jehan. J'envoie presentemente pardevers vous le porteur de
cestes a tout les lettres d'assignacion de mon dit seigneur
touchant le dit Jehan le paintre, priant que icelles il vous
plaise viseter et selon le contenu d'icelles lui laissier joir de
son assignacion, car autrement je scay bien que le meisme
Jehan en fera des poursuites par devers mon dit seigneur.
Si vous plaise sur ce aviser et me signiffier et mander vostre
bon plaisir sur ce et autrement lequel a mon povoir je seray
prest de accomplir comme raison est. Mes tres honnourez et
especiaulx seigneurs je prie nostre seigneur Dieux qu'Il vous
ait adez en sa benoite garde et doint bonne vie et longue.
Escript a Bruges le xij e jour de Septembre M iiij c xxxiiij.
" Le vostre serviteur TASSART BRISSE,
Receveur general de Flandres."
Original. Lille : Archives of the Department of the North,
xlii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1435, March 12
24. Letter addressed by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, to
the officers of the Chamber of Accounts at Lille. He hears
they have raised difficulties to the verification and registration
of his letters patent granting a life pension to his painter,
John van Eyck, in consequence of which the said John is
inclined to leave his service. This would very greatly dis-
please him, as he is about to employ John on certain great
works, and could not find another painter equally to his
taste nor of such excellence in his art and science. Therefore
he bids them, on receipt of this, to register his letters granting
the pension, without further argument, delay, alteration,
variation, or difficulty whatever, under pain of incurring his
displeasure and wrath.
Mandement de Philippe, due de Bourgogne.
" A nos ame'z et feaulz les gens de nos comptes a Lille.
" Tres chiers et bien amez, nous avons entendu que faictes
difficult^ de veriffier certaines noz lettres de pensions a vie
par nous derrainement ordonnde a notre bien ame* varlet de
chambre et paintre, Jehan van Eyck, par quoy il n'en peut
estre paie de sa dicte pension; et le conviendra, a ceste
cause, laissier nostre service, en quoy prendrions tres grant
desplaisir, car nous le voulons entretenir pour certains grans
ouvraiges, en quoy 1'entendons occuper cy apres et que nous
trouverions point le pareil a nostre gre* ne si excellent en
son art et science, et pour ce nous voulons et expressement
nous mandons que, incontinent cestes veues, vous ve'riffiez
et enterinez nos dictes lettres de pension et faictes payer le
dit Jehan van Eyck, d'icelle pension, tout selon le contenu
de nos dictes lettres sans ce que plus vous en parlez, ou
arguez, ne y faictes dilacion, mutacion, variation ou difficulte
quelconque, sur tant que vous doubtez desobe"ir et courroucier,
et y faictes tant ceste fois pour toutes qu'il ne nous en
conviengne plus rescripre, laquelle chose prendrions tres
mal en gre*. Tres chiers et bien amez, le Saint Esperit vous
ait en sa sainte garde. Escript en nostre ville de Dijon,
le xij e jour de Mars mil cccc xxxiiij."
Lille: Archives of the Department of the North, Parchment. B 1955.
25. Payment of 3O/. gr. to master John van Eyck, for
painting and gilding six statues and the tabernacles in which
they stand, adorning the front of the Town-house, and of
3/. 1 2s. g. for overwork on the same.
" Item es te wetene dat int iaer verleden voorwaerde
ghemaect was met lacop van Oost, Gheeraerde Mettertee
ende lacop van Cutseghem, steenhauwers, van viij steenen
beilden te makene ende te stellene an scepenen huus, omme
v Ib. x s. grote van elken beilde van den steenen ende van
hauwene ende snidene, xliiij Ib. gr. Item, ghegheven meester
lanne van Eick, den scildere, van vj van den voorseiden
beilden met den tabernaclen te vergoudene ende te stofferene,
van den sticke v Ib. gro., comt xxx Ib. gr. Item, den zelven
ghegheven van overwerke ende in hoofscheden te verdrinkene,
iij Ib. xij s. gr. Item, ghegheven Willemme van Tonghere
ende lanne Van den Driessche, scilders, van den ij van den
xliv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
voorseiden viij beilden metten tabernaclen te vergoudene
ende te stofferene, van den sticke v Ib. gro., comt x Ib. gro.
Item, ghegheven van den patronen van den voorseiden viij
beilden te makene, xx s. gro. Item, ghegheven van den
huere van zekeren zeyle die ghehanghen waren an de
stellinghe bin der tydt dat men de voorseiden beilden stoffeirde,
iij Ib. x s. gro. Comt al iiij xx xj Ib."
Rekeninghe van de tresoriers van der stede van Brugge van
2 September, 1434, tot 2 September, 1435, fol. 61. Bruges : Town
1435, September 29
26. Payment of 6y/. 155. to John Peutin, goldsmith, for
six silver cups weighing 9 marks 5 ounces, at 205. g. the
mark, equals 6y/. 155.
"A Jehan Peutin, pour vj tasses d'argent semblablement
achettee"s de lui, et icelles de par icellui seigneur donnee"s a
lohannes d'Eick, son varlet de chambre et paintre, pesant
ix m v a xxv5. gros le marc, valent Ixvij/. xvs. . . . Par man-
dement de mon dit seigneur le due sur ce fait et donne*
en sa ville d'Arras le penultime jour de Septembre 1'an
Mil cccc trente cinq."
Compte de la recette g^nerale des finances du i Janvier au 31
D^cembre, 1436, fol. iijlxxiiijz>. Lille : Archives of the Department
of the North, B 1957.
27. Payment of 36o/. to John van Eyck, for certain
distant journeys to foreign parts on some secret business
undertaken by order of the Duke.
"A Johannes d'Eick, varlet de chambre et paintre de
mon dit seigneur, pour aller en certains voyaiges loingtains
et estranges marches ou mon dit seigneur 1'a envoie" pour
aucunes matieres secretes, dont il ne veult autre declaration
estre faicte cy vj Philippus, valent vij c xx livres. Par mande-
ment de mon dit seigneur le due sur ce fait et donn6 en sa
ville de Lille le vintieme jour d'Aoust Mil cccc xxxvj."
Against this entry is written, in another hand, that of the
clerk of the auditors : " Seulement iijlx livres. Super ipsum
lohannem d'Eick ad computandum dont il rend cy quittance
de iij c lx livres seulement, et le surplus, montant a semblable
somme de iijlx livres roye" pour deffaut de quittance."
Compte de la recette generale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Decembre, 1436, fol. vj xx xiijz> . B 1957.
28. Payment of 61. 6s. 6d. to John van Eyck, in re-
imbursement of a like amount paid by him to an illuminator
of Bruges who had illuminated a book for the Duke, in
which are 272 large letters in gold and 1200 small.
" A lohannes van Eicke, paintre de mon dit seigneur,
qu'il avoit paye* a ung enlumineur de Bruges, pour avoir
enlumine" certain livre pour mon dit seigneur ou il a ij c lxxij
grosses lettres d'or et xij c petites, vj livres vj sols vj d."
Compte de la recette geneVale des finances du i Janvier au 31
Ddcembre, 1439, fol. xj"xvj. Lille : Archives of the Department of
the North, B 1966.
xlvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1441, June 24
29. Payment of :8o/. of 40 groats Flemish to the pound,
to John van Eyck, being the amount of his salary for two
quarters to Midsummer, 1441.
" A Jehan van Eyck, pointre et varlet de chambre de
monseigneur, auquel icellui seigneur a donne et ordonne
prendre et avoir sur ceste dicte recepte generale de Flandres
la somme de iijlx livres du pris de xl gros, monnoie de
Flandres, la livre, sa vie durant, a paier a quatre termes et
paiemens en Fan, assavoir est Pasques, Saint Jehan, Saint
Remy et Noel, soubz les condicions speciffiees es comptes
prece"dens, pour ce icy pour les termes de Pasques et Saint
Jehan 1'an mil cccc quarante et ung, par ses quictances cy
rendues a court ciiij xx livres du dit pris, valent ccclx livres."
Compte de la recette gnerale de Flandres depuis le 25 Decembre,
1440, jusqu' au 31 Decembre 1441, fol. Ixx. Lille: Archives of the
Department of the North.
1441, July 9
30. Receipt of i3/. 45. parisis by the treasurer of the
fabric of Saint Donatian's church at Bruges, for the burial
fees of John van Eyck.
" Receptum pro sepultura magistri lohannis Eyck,
pictoris, xij Ib. par."
"Receptum ex campana magistri lohannis Eyck,
pictoris, xxiiij s. par."
Computatio lohannis Civis, canonici, de bonis fabrice ecclesie
Beati Donatiani Brugensis anni 1440, facta capitulo anno 1441, fol.
5Z/. and 6. Bruges : Episcopal Archives.
1441, July 22
31. Payment of 3607. to Margaret, widow of John van
Eyck, being the amount of a gratuity granted to her by
the Duke, in recognition of the good and agreeable service
rendered to him by her deceased husband, and out of com-
passion for her and her children.
" A damoiselle Marguerite, vefve du dit feu Jehan van
Eyck, paintre de mon dit seigneur, que trespassa environ la
fin du mois de Juing ou dit an mil cccc quarante ung, a
laquele icellui seigneur consideration cue aux bons et
aggre"ables services que lui avoit fait le dit deffunct en son
vivant, et pour pitie et compassion d'elle et de ses enfans
demourez apres le dit de"ces, a ottroie de sa grace especial
qu'elle ait et prengne pour elle et ses diz enfans pour ung
demy an la moitie" de tele pension ou gaiges qu'avoit et pren-
noit de lui le dessus dit deffunct par chascun an en son vivant,
lesquelz pension ou gaiges finerent au terme de la Saint
Jehan mil cccc quarante ung par le trespas d 'icellui deffunct,
comme il appert plus a plain par les lettres patentes de mon
dit seigneur sur ce faictes et donndes en sa ville de Brouxelles,
le xxij e jour de Juillet ou dit an mil cccc quarante ung. Pour
ce icy par vertu d'icelles et quictance de la dicte vefve, cy
rendues a court, pour les diz gaiges ou pension d'un demy
an e"scheu au Noel au dessus dit an mil cccc quarante et ung,
la somme de ciiij xx livres du pris de xl gros la livre, valent
iij c lx livres."
xlviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Compte de la recette g6ne>ale de Flandres depuis le 25 Decembre,
1440, jusqu'au 31 Decembre, 1441, fol. Ixx. Lille: Archives of the
Department of the North.
1442, March 21
32. The Chapter of Saint Donatian, Bruges, at the
request of Lambert van Eyck, grants permission for the body
of his brother John, buried in the precincts, to be, with the
bishop's licence, translated into the church and buried near
the font, on condition of the foundation of an anniversary
and of compliance with the rights of the fabric.
" 1442, die 20 Martii, ad preces Lamberti, fratris quon-
dam lohannis de Eyck, solempnissimi pictoris, domini mei
concesserunt quod corpus ipsius quondam lohannis, sepultum
in ecclesie arnbitu, transferatur de licentia episcopi, et ponatur
in ecclesia iuxta fontes, salvo iure anniversarii et fabrice."
Acta capitularia ecclesiae Sancti Donatiani, E, fol. Ixxx. Bruges :
33. Receipt of i2/. parisis by the treasurer of the fabric
of Saint Donatian, for the burial of master John van Eyck,
painter, officer of the Duke.
" Receptum pro sepultura magistri lohannis Eyck,
pictoris, officiarii domini ducis, xij 1. par."
Computatio Gualteri Diedolf, canonici, de bonis fabrice ecclesie
Sancti Donatiani Brugensis anni 1441, facta capitulo anno 1442, fol. 5.
Bruges : Episcopal Archives.
34. Receipt of 48/. parisis by the treasurer of the fabric
of Saint Donatian, bequeathed by John van Eyck for the
foundation of his anniversary.
" Receptum ex testamento lohannis Eyck, pictoris,
xlviij 1. par."
Computatio Gualteri Diedolf, presbyteri, canonici, de bonis fabrice
ecclesie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis anni 1442, facta capitulo anno
1443, fol. 5. Bruges : Episcopal Archives.
35. Entry in the obituary of the church of Saint Donatian
of John van Eyck's anniversary.
" 9 lulii. Aeffrem abbatis. Obitus lohannis Eyck, pic-
toris, qui dedit xlviij Ib. par.; inde ad pitancias xl s. quos solvit
Obituarium ecclesie Sancti Donatiani Brugensis. Bruges : Epis-
36. Payment of 24/. to Livina, daughter of the late John
Van der Eecke, painter, my lord's servant, being a gift from
him to enable her to enter the monastery of Maaseyck, in the
land of Li6ge.
"A Lyevine Van der Eecke, fille de feu Jehan Van der
Eecke, jadis painctre, varlet de chambre de mon dit seigneur,
pour don que mon dit seigneur lui a fait pour une fois, pour
Dieu et aulmosne, pour soy aidier a mettre religieuse en I'diglise
et monastere de Mazeck ou pays de Liege, xxiiij livres . . .
Par mandement donne a Bruxelles le xiiij 6 FeVrier 1'an Mil
Compte de la recette ge'nerale des finances du i Janvier au
1 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
31 Decembre, 1449, fol. ix xx vj. Lille: Archives of the Department
of the North, 62002.
C. 1 480
37. Description of a vestment given by John van Eyck
to the convent of Saint Agnes, at Maaseyck.
" Dit syn de casufelle die in onser kercken syn . . . ende
rode syden met guelden bloemen ende eyn blauwe damaste
van suster Levynen vader."
Directorium conventus sororum Sanctae Agnetis in Maaseyck.
Brussels : Royal Library.
1768, April 28
38. The Chapter of the cathedral of Saint Donatian at
Bruges, at the request of Mr. John Garemijn, director of the
Academy of Fine Arts, grant permission to erect an epitaph
and inscription to the memory of John van Eyck in the
"Actum in capitulo ordinario feria quinta 28 Aprilis,
1768, reverendo domino decano praesidente.
" Comparens dominus Joannes Garemijn, director floren-
tissimae Academiae huius civitatis, exposuit provides et zelosos
eiusdem academiae gubernatores occasione anni semi-secularis
ab illius erectione quam primum celebrandi, plurimum desi-
derare ut possent expensis per ipsos procurandis in hac
ecclesia cathedrali collocare epitaphium cum inscriptione con-
grua, iuxta schema ad mensam capitularem exhibitum, in
perennem memoriam inclyti et variorum scriptorum elogiis
celebrati viri loannis van Eyck Brugensis, pictoris suo aevo
celeberrimi et circa annum 1440 defuncti atque in praefata
ecclesia prope ultimam columnam haiid procul a fonte bap-
tismali inhumati petendo desuper dominorum de capitulo
consensum et designationem loci contra parietem medium
inter portam maiorem eiusdem ecclesiae et ipsum fontem bap-
tismalem, cui petitioni domini libenter annuerunt comittentes
domino canonico Schellekens, fabricario, circa erectionem
praefati epitaphii agere rem officii, et concedentes praeno-
minato domino comparenti huius resolutionis copiam con-
" F. F. DE WITTE, can. secret."
Acta capituli ecclesiae cathedralis Sancti Donatiani Brugensis.
Bruges : Episcopal Archives.
i. MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY PRINTED BOOKS
CONTEMPORARY narrative of the journey of the embassy sent
by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, to John, King of Portugal,
to which John van Eyck was attached as the Duke's painter.
" En 1'an M.cccc.xxviij, tres noble, tres hault et tres
puissant prince monseigneur Phelippe, due de Bourgoingne,
qui paravant avoit eu espouses successivement deux tres
nobles dames et de tres hault parage, la premiere dame
Michiele, jadiz fille de tres chrestien, tres excellent et tres
puissant prince le roy Charles de France sixisme, la seconde
dame Bonne d'Artoiz, lesquelles dames estoient trespassez,
et n'en avoit mon dit seigneur le due point de lignee, fut meu,
de saint et loable propoz, et par vaillans et loyaulx prudommes
advisd et conseili de soy de rechief mettre en 1'ordre de
mariage, en entencion de, par la grace de Dieu, en avoir
lignee qui deust succeder aux haultes et grandes seignouries
qu'il avoit et tenoit. Si determina et conclud mon dit
seigneur de Bourgoingne de faire promouvoir et traictier le
mariage de luy et de tres noble et haulte dame madame
Elisabeth, infante de tres excellent et tres puissant et vic-
torieux prince le roy Jehan de Portugal et d'Algarbe, seigneur
Ivi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
de Cepte ; et, pour ce faire, mist sus et envoya en Portugal
sa noble legacion et ambaxade, de laquelle il fist et ordonna
chief et principal un sien noble chevalier et feable et prive*
serviteur, messire Jehan seigneur de Roubais et de Herzelles,
son conseillier et premier chambellan, et, ensemble luy, ses
feaulx serviteurs messire Bauduin de Lannoy, dit le Beghe,
chevalier, seigneur de Moulembais, gouverneur de Lille ;
Andre" de Tholonjon, escuier, seigneur de Mornay, ses con-
seilliers aussi et chambellans, et maistre Gille d'Escournay,
docteur en decrez et prevost de Harlebeque, semblablement
son conseillier et maistre des requestes de son hostel ; aux-
quels ses ambaxadeurs il donna ses instructions, lectres, pro-
curacion et povoir servans a la matiere ; et, avecq ce, par
Guy Guilbaut, son conseillier et gouverneur-general de ses
finances, leur fist delivrer largement deniers pour faire grande
et honnourable despense : pour laquelle conduire, il ordonna et
envoya un gentilhomme nomme Bauduin d'Ongnies, escuier,
maistre d'ostel d'icelle despense, et un clercq d'offke pour en
faire le paiement.
" Les devant nommez ambaxadeurs et ceulx de leur com-
paignie, en grant nombre de gentilzhommes et autres, ainsi
fourniz et pourveuz, aprez qu'ilz avoient pris congie" de mon
dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, se trairent en sa ville de
1'Escluze en Flandres, et la, pour faire leur voiage, se mirent
proporcionelment en deux galees de Venise adonc gisans ou
port de 1'Escluze, dont ilz partirent le xix e jour d'Octobre ou
dit an iiij xxviij, et, le lendemain xx du dit mois, arriverent
ou port de Sandwich en Angleterre, et au dit Sandwic de-
scendirent, et, en attendant deux aultres galees de Venise
lors estans a Londres, furent en icelluy Sandwic jusques au
xiij e jour de Novembre ensuivant, qu'ilz en partirent es dites
galees, et par forche de vent entrerent depuis divers pors en
Angleterre, premierement le port de la Chambre, secondement
a Pleume, et tiercement a Falemne, ou ilz vindrent le xxv 6 du
dit Novembre, et en partirent le second Decembre ensuivant,
et tant navigerent par la mer d'Espaigne, que, le xj e jour du
dit Decembre, ilz arriverent et descendirent a Baionne en
Galice, dont ilz partirent le xiiij e d'icelluy mois, et le xvj e vin-
drent et prirent terre en ung lieu dit Calscais, a six lieues de
Lisbonne en Portugal, ou ilz alerent le xviij e jour du dit
" A ce temps estoit le roy de Portugal dessus dit en une
sienne ville appellee Estremoux, a trois ou quatre journees
de Lisbonne, et avec luy estoient mes seigneurs ses infans et
madame 1'infante devant nommee, et grant compaignie et
assemblee de seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers, dames et damoi-
selles, et gens de tous estas du pays, a une feste quy prou-
chainement se y debvoit tenir de la reception de madame
Elienor, infante d'Arragon, espouse de monseigneur 1'infant
Edouart, primogenit du dit roy de Portugal. Si envoyerent
incontinent les dits ambaxadeurs Flandres, roy d'armes,
devers le dit roy de Portugal, et par leurs lettres luy signi-
fierent leur venue et la cause ; lequel roy d'armes fut a la
dite feste, et en a fait rapport par escript a la maniere qui
" Quant le roy de Portugal ot receu les lettres des dits
ambaxadeurs, il leur escrisy et mande par les siennes qu'ilz
se tirassent devers luy; et pour tant, si tost qu'ilz peurent
eulx pourveoir de chevaulx et montures, se mirent a chemin
pour y aler : mais, quant ilz furent a trois ou quatre lieues
Iviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
du lieu ou il estoit, pour ce qu'il vouloit mander et avoir
devers luy messeigneurs ses infans, qui ja s'en estoient partiz,
il escripsy aus dits ambaxadeurs que leur alee devers luy
retardassent jusques il le leur feroit savoir. Si attendirent
en une ville nommee Reols jusques au xij e jour de Janvier
ensuivant, que le roy les manda aler devers luy.
" Le dit xij e jour de Janvier, se partirent yceulx ambaxa-
deurs du dit Reols, et le meismes jour vindrent en une ville
nommee Avis, ou le roy estoit, quy envoya au devant d'eux
honnourablement aucuns de son sang et aultres gentilz-
hommes et personnes notables en grande et belle compaignie,
et leur fist faire grande et joyeuse recepcion. Et mais, pour
ce qu'il estoit tard, ilz ne furent point ce jour devers luy, ains
par son plaisir attendirent jusques a lendemain.
" Lendemain matin xiij e du dit Janvier, le dit roy, apres
sa messe, manda les dits ambaxadeurs, qui alerent devers
luy et luy presenterent les lettres de mon dit seigneur de
Bourgoingne, et firent les recommandacions et reverences
deues et accoustumees, et il les recent doulcement et joyeuse-
ment, et leur assigna heure de oir leur creance le dit jour
" A laquelle heure comparurent les dits ambaxadeurs par
devant le dit roy, et a luy, estant en sa chambre de son conseil,
ou estoient messeigneurs Edouard, primogenit, domp Petre,
domp Henry et domp Fernande, ses infans, le conte de Bar-
celles et aucuns autres notables, fut en Latin, par la bouche
du dit maistre Gille d'Escornay, notablement ouverte et
exposee en generate la cause pour quoy mon dit seigneur
de Bourgoigne les avoit devers luy envoyez ; et, ce oy, leur
fist dire en Latin, par ung docteur son conseillier, que de
leur venue il estoit tres joieux, et que sur ce que de par mon
dit seigneur de Bourgoingne luy avoit ainsi este" dit et pro-
pose", il auroit son advis, et leur en feroit response ; et, a tant,
se retrairent yceulx ambaxadeurs en leur logeiz.
" Ce mesme jour, vers le vespre, le dit roy leur manda
que, pour ce qu'il avoit pluseurs occupacions, pour quoy il
ne povoit bonnement en sa personne entendre en la matiere,
il la commectoit a pourparler et demener au dit monseigneur
Edouard et aultres messeigneurs ses infans.
" Par devant lesquelz, ou aucuns d'iceulx, le lendemain et
aucuns autres jours ensuivans, la besoingne fut plus en par-
ticulier a diverses fois ouverte et demenee ; et, en conclusion,
fut du pourparle faicte une cedulle par escript. Avec ce, les
dits ambaxadeurs, par ung nomme maistre Jehan de Eyk,
varlet de chambre de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et
excellent maistre en art de painture, firent paindre bien au
vif la figure de ma dite dame 1'infante Elizabeth.
" En oultre, paravant ce temps, durant icelluy et aprez,
les dits ambaxadeurs se informerent tres diligemment, en
diverses lieux, par pluiseurs parsonnes, de la renommee,
meurs et condicions d'icelle dame : dont par aucuns notables
subgetz meismes de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et
autres privez et estrangiers amis et ennemis du royaume
de Portugal, a part, en commun et par voix et renommee
generale, leur fut dit tant de loenges, vertus et biens que on
porroit dire de dame.
" Et, ce fait, les dits ambaxadeurs, environ le xij e de
Febvrier ensuivant, envoyerent devers mon dit seigneur de
Bourgoingne quatre messaiges, deux par mer et deux
par terre, c'est assavoir : par mer, Pierre de Vauldrey,
Ix HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
escuier, escan$on de mon dit seigneur, et ling poursuivant
d'armes dit Renti, et, par terre, Jehan de Baissi, escuier, et
ung aultre poursuivant d'armes appelle Portejoye : par les-
quelz messaiges, et par chascun d'iceulx, ils escripsirent
a mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne ce qu'ilz avoient trouve",
et que jusques lors avoit este fait touchant la matiere du dit
manage. Aussi luy envoyerent ilz la figure de la dicte dame
faicte par painctre, comme dit est. Et, attendant nouvelles
et response de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, aucuns
des dits ambaxadeurs, c'est assavoir le seigneur de Roubais,
messire Bauduin de Lannoy et Andre" de Tholonjon, et de
leur compaignie le dit Bauduin Dognies, Albrecht, bastard
de Baiviere, Grignon Landas, Hector Sacquespee et autres
gentilzhommes et familliers, se trairent a Saint Jacques en
Galice, et de la alerent visiter le due d'Arjonne, le roy de
Castille, le roy de la ville de Grenade et pluiseurs autres
seigneurs, pays et lieux.
" Environ la fin de May ensuivant, retournerent les dessus
nommez de leur dit voiage, et arriverent si a point a Lisbonne,
que adonc se y faisoit la premiere entree et joyeuse recepcion
de madame Elienor, femme de 1'infant Edouard, primogenit,
laquelle entree et recepcion ilz virent, qui fut grande et hon-
norable car la dite dame seoit de coste" sur une mule richement
ensellee et couverte de drap d'or; et, au frain de la beste,
estoient et alloient tout de piet deux de messeigneurs les
freres du dit infant primogenit, 1'un d'une part, et 1'autre
d'aultre, et pareillement aux estriers ung des autres freres et
ung autre de leur sang ; et, pardessus la dame estoit ung
grant drap d'or en maniere de ciel, soustenu de pluiseurs
hantes on fusts que portoient tout de pie" aucuns du sang
royal et autres chevaliers et seigneurs des plus notables du
royaume de Portugal : au devant de laquelle dame furent
bien long aux champs mes dits seigneurs les freres, qui, si
tost qu'ilz 1'encontrerent, se mirent de pie", s'enclinerent et luy
baisierent la main selon la coustume du pays. Aussy allerent
a 1'encontre a cheval grant nombre de chevaliers, escuiers, bien
montez et habillez, et les bourgois et marchans notables de la
ville de Lisbonne, et avec ce les Juifs et les Sarrazyns du lieu,
separeement, habillez a leur usaige, chantans et dansans selon
leur guise. Et ainsi fut la dame amenee par la ville au palais
de 1'infant, a grant joye et solemnite, et y avoit grant quantite"
de trompetes, menestrelz, joueurs d'orgues, de harpes et
autres instrumens, et estoit aussi la ville tendue et paree, en
moult de lieux, de draps de tapisserie et autres et de ram-
seaux de may.
"Au iiij e jour du mois de Juing ensuivant, les devant dits
ambaxadeurs, quy nouvellement estoient retournez du dit
voiage, alerent en la ville de Cintre, a cincq lieues du dit
Lisbonne, pour veoir et visiter le roy de Portugal, qui illec se
tenoit en ung tres plaisant hostel qu'il y a, et les avoit mande"
y venir. Et eulx estans en leur logiz, devers le vespre, le
devant nomine" Pierre de Voeldrey, quy par mer retournoit de
devers mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, arriva au dit Cintre
devers les dits ambaxadeurs, ausquelz il apporta lettres et
nouvelles de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne. Si le allerent
tantost noncier yceulx ambaxadeurs au roy et a madame
1'infante sa fille, quy moult en furent joyeulx, et fut grande a
court la feste de la venue du dit Pierre et des joyeuses
nouvelles qu'il apportoit.
" Apres ce, les dits ambaxadeurs, sceu sur ce le bon plaisir
Ixii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
de mon dit seigneur, s'entremirent de proceder avant ou
traictie du dit manage, et tant y labourerent devers le dit
roy et aucuns de messeigneurs ses infans, que icelluy traictie
fut accorde et conclu au dit lieu de Cintre le xj e jour du dit
mois de Juing, dont les lectres du contraict furent passees
pardevant notaire, au dit lieu de Lisbonne, le xxiiij 6 jour de
Juillet ensuivant M.cccc.xxix ; et, le lendemain Dimenche,
xxv e du dit mois, a 1'instante requeste du dit roy et de mes-
seigneurs ses infans, le dit seigneur de Roubais, ou nom et
comme procureur de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne et
ayant de lui sur ce souffissant et especial povoir et procura-
cion, environ sept heures de matin, ou chastel du roy au dit
lieu de Lisbonne, prist et receut ma dite dame 1'infante
Elizabeth, par parolle de present, pour compaigne et espouse
de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, presens a ce le dit roy,
messeigneurs Edouard, primogenit, domp Henry, domp Jehan,
et domp Fernande, ses infans, la infante espouse du dit
Edouard, et celle du dit domp Jehan, pluiseurs prelas, cheva-
liers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles, et gens de tous estas en
" Depuis lequel temps, les dits ambaxadeurs poursuivirent
a toute diligence 1'alee de ma dite dame ou pais de Flandres,
ou le roy par le dit traictie" la debvoit honnourablement faire
mener a ses fraiz, et la y rendre et delivrer a mon dit seigneur
de Bourgoingne ; le partement de laquelle dame devoit, selon
la promesse du roy et de monseigneur 1'infant primogenit,
estre dedens la fin de Septembre ensuivant, ou cas que, par
contrariete de vent, ou mort, ou maladie du roy ou d'elle, n'en
"Aprochant le temps du partement de ma dite dame,
monseigneur 1'infant Edouard, primogenit, fist une feste,
convy et soupper au roy son pere et a elle. Est assavoir : le
Lundy xxvj e du dit mois de Septembre et deux jours ens-
suivans, se fierent joustes et esbatemens pour la dite feste,
lequel soupper se feist au dit lieu de Lisbonne, en la sale des
galees que pour ce en avoit fait widier, et estoit la dite salle
tendue aux costez de draps de tapisserie de pluiseurs pieches,
et dessus de communs draps de laine entiere de diverses
couleurs, et estoient les pillers d'icelle salle, quy est double,
tenduz et parez semblablement, et dessoubz estoit jonchee de
joncs vers. En la dite sale olt pluiseurs tables hautement
drecees et bien couvertes de tres bel linge, c'est ass^avoir :
celle du roy ou bout et front de la sale haultement mise, et ou
Ten montoit a pluiseurs marches et passes de bois, quy com-
prenoit presque tout le travers d'icelle sale, et, ou milieu de la
table, en la plache du roy, estoit plus haulte de plus de demy
pie que le sourplus, et par dessus ycelle plache avoit tendu ung
ciel de drap d'or ; devant laquelle table, centre ung piller,
estoit drecee ung echaffaud pare pour les roys d'armes et
heraulx ; et, a 1'autre bout, a 1'entree de la sale, en avoit ung
autre semblable pour les trompettes et menestrelz. Les autres
tables estoient mises en trois renges, c'est assgavoir : aux deux
costez et ou milieu, tout du long de la sale. Or, il y olt six
dre^oirs moult richement parez et grandement chargiez de
vaisselle d'or et d'argent dore", de diverses pieches et fac/ms,
et fut la salle si bien eluminee de torches et luminaire de cire,
que Ten y veoit partout tres clairement. Ung po devant
1'eure du soupper, mon dit seigneur 1'infant primogenit party
de son palais, et ala au chastel et palais du roy le querir et
mener au lieu du souppe", et aussy madame 1'infante sa sceur.
Ixiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Si y allerent a cheval acompaigniez de tous messeigneurs les
infans, et avec y alerent mesdames femmes de 1'infant primo-
genit, de 1'infant domp Petre et de 1'infant domp Jehan, les
contes d'Orim et de Reols, et pluiseurs seigneurs, cheva-
liers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles rischement parez et
vestuz ; aussy y allerent les dits ambaxadeurs, quy semons
y estoient, et convoierent et compaignerent ma dite dame
1'infante de Portugal, espouse de mon dit seigneur de Bour-
goingne, leur seigneur et maistre.
" Quant il fut temps de soupper, le roy se mist a table
en sa plache du milieu pour luy ordonnee comme dit est, et
a sa dextre fist seoir madame 1'infante Elizabeth sa fille, a
sa senestre mesdames la femme de 1'infant domp Petre et
la femme de 1'infant domp Jehan ; et madame la femme de
1'infant primogenit, pour ce qu'elle estoit moult enceinte et
proche d'agesir, ne fut point assise a table, ains fut en haulte
galerie a destre bien tendue et paree, et de la regardoit la
feste. Aussy fist le roy seoir au boult de sa table, a destre,
le dit seigneur de Roubais, chief de 1'ambaxade, et les autres
ambaxadeurs searent a une autre table assez prochaine a
destre, et les autres seigneurs, dames et damoiselles, es
autres tables ensuivans.
" Moult y olt qui les servy de viandes en divers mets
et de vins de diverses manieres, et estoit le roy servy du dit
monseigneur 1'infant primogenit et de tous les autres
messeigneurs ses infans.
" A ce soupper, qui longuement dura, se firent esbate-
mens que par dela ils appellent chalenges, qui se font en telle
maniere, que chevaliers et gentilzhommes, armez de toutes
leurs armes et houchiez ou parez ainsi qu'ilz veulent et
doivent jouster, viennent a cheval acompaigniez comme il
leur plaist, devant la table du seigneur ou dame quy tient
la feste, et devant luy font porter en un baston fendu une
carte ou lettre ployee, et, apres qu'il a tout a cheval incline
le seigneur ou dame, luy fait presenter la dite lettre, ou est
contenu qu'il est un chevalier ou gentilhomme d'un nomme
estrange qu'il prent tel qu'il se veult attribuer, et dit qu'il
vient de moult d'estranges contrees cerchier aventures : 1'un,
des desers d'Inde ; 1'autre, de paradiz terrestre ; 1'autre, de
la mer ; 1'autre, de la terre ; et que, pour ce qu'il a oy dire
les nouvelles de ceste haulte feste, il est venu a court, et
semont aucun de leans que, s'il veult jouster ou faire
armes, il est prest de le recevoir. Adonck, la lettre leue
et la chose conseilliee, le seigneur ou dame fait dire, par
un herault, a celluy homme d'armes, que attent sa response
devant la table : Chevalier, ou seigneur, vous serez delivrez ;
et lors, faite inclination comme devant, se part de la place
arme* et monte* comme il est venu.
" Ung en y olt quy vint luy et son cheval tout couvert
de broches, comme de porcespy ; ung aultre quy vint acom-
paignie des sept planetes, chascune bien gracieusement
figuree selon sa propriete ; autres pluiseurs vindrent
gracieusement habillez et desguisez chascun selon son
" A ce soupper donna mon dit seigneur 1'infant primo-
genit grans dons et largeces aux heraulx et menestrelz
quy furent portez a cheval et haultement criez et publiez par
toute la sale, et y olt fort sonne de trompettes et d'autres
" A ce soupper aussi, fist ma dite dame 1'infante Elizabeth
Ixvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
crier joustes a joustes par compaignie par deux jours ensui-
vant, et que celluy quy mieulx feroit pour le premier jour
auroit une riche couppe, et celluy qui mieulx feroit pour le
second auroit un riche dyamant.
" Ce fait, et le scupper finy, pour ce que 1'eure estoit
moult tard, se partyz le roy et les autres seigneurs et dames,
et sans danser se retrairent en leurs hostelz.
" Lendemain xxvij 6 du dit Septembre aprez disner,
vindrent les jousteurs sur les rues, en la rue Nouve a
Lisbonne, quy estoit semee de grant foison de sablon, et y
avoit une haye de paliz fichiez par espasses pour jouster
pardessus, laquelle haye estoit tendue de draps de laine
bleux et vermeilz. Lesquelz jousteurs, dont aucuns estoient
parez et venus chevaulx couvers richement de drap d'or,
avecq ce ouvre de riche brodeure et fourre" de martres, les
autres aournez de drap d'argent, les autres de drap de soye,
et les autres en autre maniere richement habillez, jousterent
bien grandement devant le roy et les seigneurs et dames,
que pour les regarder estoient aux fenestres parees en
mainctes maisons de la dite rue ; et pareillement se fierent
illec autres joustes belles et solemneles le lendemain xxviij 6
jour du dit Septembre.
" Le Jeudy xxix e et penultime jour d'icellui mois, quy
fut le jour que le roy avoit propose" de mener et faire mectre
en nave, au port de Lisbonne, ma dite dame 1'infante
Elizabeth sa fille, pour d'illec 1'envoyer en Flandres, comme
dit est, il au matin la mena a cheval des son hostel en
realise cathedrale de Lisbonne, et, en la menant sur son
cheval ou haquenee, tenoit ung lax ou longe de la haquenee
aussi richement ensellee et couverte; et devant eulx alloit
sur un coursier 1'infant Edouard, primogenit, et apres, sur
chevaulx et haquenees mesdames les femmes de 1'infant
domp Petre et 1'infant domp Jehan ; et, au frain et aux
estriers de la haquenee de ma dite dame 1'infante, deux d'une
part et deux de 1'autre, estoient de pie" aucuns de messeigneurs
ses freres et autres de messeigneurs du sang royal ; et les
dits ambaxadeurs et pluiseurs seigneurs, chevaliers, gentilz-
hommes, dames et damoiselles et autres gens de tous estas
en grant nombre, la convoierent tout de pie a la dite eglise,
quy estoit aournee et paree, et ou fut chantee la messe et
fait le service divin grandement et solemnelement, aprez
lequel le roy ramena ma dite dame sa fille en son hostel en
la maniere que dit est, et avoit intention de la livrer en
nave et y faire un disner : mais il fist si fort temps, et fut
1'yaue tellement esmeue, que il ne se pot faire pour ce jour.
" Le lendemain dernier jour de Septembre, apres disner,
quant le temps fut appaisie, le roy, acompaignie de tous
messeigneurs ses infans, de mesdames la femme de 1'infant
domp Petre, la femme de 1'infant domp Jehan, les dits
ambaxadeurs et pluiseurs seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers,
dames et damoiselles et autres gens en grant nombre, mena
ma dite dame sa fille en la nave que pour son passaige avoit
fait appareillier au port de Lisbonne, ou, en attendant la
disposition et apprestement des autres naves et des gens
quy debvoient aller avec elle, elle demoura sans partir jusques
au Samedy viij e jour d'Octobre ensuivant, et ce pendant fut
souvent et grandement visite"e tant du roy son pere, comme
de messeigneurs ses freres et d'autres. Le dit Samedy
viij e d'Octobre, ma dite dame, acompaignie' de monseigneur
1'infant domp Fernande son frere, du conte d'Orin son neveu,
Ixviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
de pluiseurs chevaliers, escuiers, dames et damoiselles et
autres de sa compaignie, ou nombre de ij m personnes ou
entour, en xiiij grandes naves bien fournies, armees et
avitaillees, se party devant Lisbonne entour heure de vespres,
et s'eslongna ung petit de lieu ou elle avoit jeu auparavant,
et le lendemain se traist ung poeu plus avant en ung lieu
dit Restel, ou elle fust jusques au Jeudy ensuivant xiij e du
dit Octobre, qu'elle et sa dite compaignie vindrent devant
Calscais environ heure de vespres, et la jecterent les ancres
et ung petit y arresterent : mais, tantost ce meismes jour, se
leverent, et en partirent pour aller en leur voiage, et navi-
gerent bien avant en la mer jour et nuyt jusques au Samedy
xv e du dit Octobre, que, par vent contraire leur convient
retourner, et de rechief vindrent devant le dit Calscais, ou ils
ancrerent et furent jusques au Lundy xvij e du dit Octobre,
qu'ilz en partirent, se mirent en mer, et bien avant y single-
rent. Mais, par contrariete de vent failli encoires a ma dite
dame laissier son chemin, et le Samedy, xxij e du dit Octobre,
entra ou port de Viviers en Galice, seulement a iiij voiles des
xiiij qu'elle avait paravant, et du sourplus ne sceut adonc ne
longtemps depuis aucunes des nouvelles, fors de une des naves,
qui par iiij ou v jours apres vint au dit port de Viviers.
D'icelluy port se party ma dite dame le Dimenche vj e de
Novembre, et le ix e d'icelluy mois, par fortune, luy convint
entrer ou port de Ribadeu, aussi en Galice. Or avint que le
dit seigneur de Roubais, que par aucuns jours avant avoit
pris maladie en la nave de ma dite dame, fut si affoibly et
aggreve", qu'il lui convint descendre au dit Ribedeu, et la, du
bon plaisir de ma dite dame, se mist en une de deux galees de
Florence tendans en Flandres, que par fortune estoient la
arrivees, car il n'eust peu souffrir le traveil de la dite nave que
verissemblablement il n'y fust mort, veu la foiblece et debilita-
tion de sa personne pour la dite maladie. Si entra en la dite
galee au port de Ribedieu le xxv e du dit Novembre, et avec
luy le devant dit Bauduin d'Ongnies et aucun po de ses gens ;
les autres de ses gens et aucuns des dits ambaxadeurs de-
mourans en la nave devers ma dite dame. Et partirent les
v naves que adonc avoit et les dites deux galees, du port de
Ribedieu, le dit xxv e jour, et ensemble navigerent par la mer
d'Espaigne jusques au xxviij e d'icelluy mois, que, bien avant
en la nuit, les piloz par erreur laissierent le chemin des naves,
et vindrent prez du camp de Caisart a la poincte d'Angleterre,
en grant aventure de nauffrage et de perillier ; et ma dite
dame et les naves de sa compaignie tindrent leur chemin, et,
le lendemain xxix e du dit Novembre, arriverent au port de
Pleume en Angleterre. Les dites galees se partirent du lieu
ou elles gisoient pres du dit camp de Caisart, le premier jour
de Decembre, et le vj e d'icelluy mois arriverent au port de
1'Escluze en Flandres, ou descendy le dit seigneur de Roubais,
et incontinent fist s^avoir a mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne
nouvelles de ma dite dame sa compaigne, dont icelluy seigneur
de Roubais, en faisant son chemin, avoit bien este acertene",
c'est assgavoir : que elle estoit au dit port de Pleume saine et
en bon point, et ceulx de sa compaignie. Moult fut joyeulx
mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne de ces nouvelles ; aussi en
furent fort resjoiz ses bons vassaulx, serviteurs et subgez, qui
paravant estoient en grant tristesse des parolles quy aucuns
avoient seme*, que ma dite dame, pour sa longue demeure et
la fureur des vens et diversite" du temps, avoit eu infortune en
son voiage. Encoires, pour ce que, depuis que le dit seigneur.
Ixx HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
de Roubais fut arrive", elle ne venoit si tost que on esperoit et
desiroit, ne fut pas le voix du tout cassee, et en faisoient
pluiseurs doubte. Et pour tant, mon dit seigneur de Bour-
goingne, afin de avancier la venue d'icelle madame sa com-
paigne, fist, par le dit seigneur de Roubais freter et apprester
les dites deux galees de Florence, pour icelluy seigneur de
Roubais aller devers elle et mener les dites deux galees, et
dedens faire venir elle et ses gens si tost que il feroit vent a
ce convenable : mais, avant qu'il fist vent pour le partement
des galees, ma dite dame vint au dit port de 1'Escluze, et, par
la grace de Dieu, y arriva saine et en bon point, et ceulx de
sa compaignie, le jour de Noel environ heure de medy.
"Lendemain, festede Saint Estienne, avant midy, descendy
ma dite dame de sa nave, et a sa descendue ot mainte barge
et autres petiz navieres parez de draps, et autres portans
pluiseurs seigneurs, escuiers et gens notables de divers estas,
pour veoir, acompaignier et servir icelle dame. Grant foison
y ot aussi de trompetes, menestrelz et joueurs de pluiseurs
instrumens de musique, et tous s'efforcoient d'en faire le
mieulx qu'ilz savoient, pour la feste et joye de la venue de ma
dite dame tant desirde. A sa descendue fut joyeusement
receu et conjoye des dits seigneurs, chevaliers, escuiers, gens
de 1'Eglize, notables, bourgois et si grant multitude de peuple,
que a paine y avoit place et espace pour a aisement aler en
son logis, ou elle fut honnourablement menee, passant sur
draps de laine des le lieu de sa descendue jusques en son
" Par aucuns jours fut ma dite dame au dit lieu de
1'Escluze, ou par pluiseurs foiz fut joyeusement et amiable-
ment visitee de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne, son
seigneur et espoux. Aussi la y vindrent veoir et visiter
pluiseurs prelaz et gens de 1'Eglise, chevaliers, escuiers,
notables et bourgois, envoyez et representans les trois estas
du pays de Flandres, et pareillement les deputez des quattre
membres du pays, qui tous luy firent humble reverence et luy
offrirent leur service.
" Le second jour de Janvier ensuivant, madame de
Bedfort, seur germaine de mon dit seigneur de Bourgoingne,
et espeuse de monseigneur le due de Bedford, regent de
France, vint de la ville de Bruges par yaue au dit lieu de
1'Escluze, bien et gentement acompaignie', pour veoir et visiter
ma dite dame sa sceur, au devant de laquelle ycelle madame
de Bourgoingne, bien aussi acompaignee, ala jusques sur la
riviere, dont ma dite dame de Bedford descendy on dit lieu
de 1'Escluse, et ensemble alerent en 1'ostel de ma dite dame
de Bourgoingne, ou, en monstrant la grant amide" d'entre
elles jeurent tout en ung mesmes lit par deux nutees que ma
dite dame de Bedfort demoura au dit lieu de 1'Escluze, et
s'entrefirent si bonne et joyeuse chiere, que ce fut grant plaisir
de le veoir.
" Au vij e jour du dit Janvier, vint mon dit seigneur de
Bourgoingne en 1'ostel ou ma dite dame sa compaigne estoit
logee a 1'Escluze, acompaignie' de monseigneur Jehan de
Luxembourg, seigneur de Beaurevoir; monseigneur d'Anthune,
son chancellier ; le seigneur de Roubais, messire Guilbert de
Lannoy, Andre de Tholonjon, le dit prevost de Harlebecque
et aucuns autres de ses gens et serviteurs a ce appelez en petit
nombre ; et la, environ vj heures de matin, aprez ce que mon
dit seigneur et de sa part aggree les espousailles ou recepcion,
par parolle de present, par le dit seigneur de Roubais, en son
Ixxii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
nom et comme procureur, faictes en Portugal, de ma dite
dame 1 'infante, comme dessus est escript, et aussi que icelle
dame ot ratifi^ et aggree" les dites espousailles ou reception,
que d'elle en sa personne et de mon dit seigneur, par son
procureur, avoient este" faictes, furent par maistre Jehan Toisi,
1'evesque de Tournay, qui adonc revesti en pontifical fist
1'office de la messe, faictes les espousailles de mon dit seigneur
et de ma dite dame en leurs personnes, presens a ce, du cost
d'icelle dame, monseigneur 1'infant domp Fernande son frere,
monseigneur le conte d'Orin, 1'evesque d'Evre et aucuns autres
en petit nombre a ce appellez.
" Ce mesme jour, apres disner, ma dite dame grandement
acompaignee, vint par yaue de 1'Escluze au Dam, ou elle
descendy et reposa la nuit, et y fut bien et gracieusement
receu selon le lieu.
" Le lendemain, qui fut le Dimenche viij e jour du dit
Janvier, se party ma dite dame bien matin du Dam, et par
yaue vint prez de la bonne ville de Bruges, et descendy assez
prez de la porte que on dit la Spec porte. Ilec trouva que
mon dit seigneur lui avoit fait appareiller pour sa personne
une tres belle lictiere, precieusement ouvree, richement
couverte de riche drap d'or, soustenue et portee de deux
beaulx haulx chevaulx ou haquenees : avec ce y avoit mon dit
seigneur fait mener pluiseurs charioz et dames ? richement
ouvrez, parez et couvers, et bien attellez et furniz de moult
beaulx chevaulx et haquenees et de grant pris pour porter les
dames, damoiselles et femmes de ma dite dame."
Registre 132 de la Chambre des Comptes, fol. clvij-clxvj.
Brussels : State Archives.
c. 1 450. PIZZICOLLI, Cyriacus, of Ancona, 1391-1457, is the earliest
known author who makes mention of John van Eyck. Sundry notes
left by him were first printed by Colucci, in " Antichita Picene," xv,
143. Among them occurs this brief mention : " Rugerius (De la
Pasture) in Bursella, post preclarum ilium Brugiensem, picture
decus, loannem, insignis nostri temporis pictor habetur."
1454. FACIO, Bartolomeo, "Liber de Viris illustribus," written 1454-55,
first printed at Florence in 1745, contains the following interesting
notice, p. 46 : " loannes Gallicus nostri saeculi pictorum princeps
iudicatus est, litterarum nonnihil doctus, geometriae praesertim et
earum artium quae ad picturae ornamentum accederent, putaturque
ob earn rem multa de colorum proprietatibus invenisse, quae ab
antiquis tradita, ex Plinii et aliorum auctorum lectione didicerat.
Eius est tabula insignis in penetralibus Alphonsi regis in qua est
Maria Virgo ipsa, venustate ac verecundia notabilis, Gabriel,
angelus Dei, filium ex ea nasciturum annuntians, excellenti pulchri-
tudine capillis veros vincentibus, loannes Baptista vitae sanctitatem
et austeritatem admirabilem prae se ferens, Hieronymus viventi
persimilis, bibliotheca mirae artis, quippe quae, si paulum ab ea
discedas, videatur introrsus receclere, et totos libros pandere,
quorum capita modo appropinquanti appareant. In eiusdem
tabulae exteriori parte pictus est Baptista Lomellinus cuius fuit
ipsa tabula, cui solam vocem deese iudices, et mulier, quam amabat,
praestanti forma, et ipsa, qualis erat, ad unguem expressa, inter
quos solis radius veluti per rimam illabebatur, quem verum solem
putes. Eius est mundi comprehensio, orbiculari forma, quam
Philippo, Belgarum principi, pinxit, quo nullum consummatius opus
nostra aetate factum putatur, in quo non solum loca, situsque
regionum, sed etiam locorum distantiam metiendo dignoscas. Sunt
item picturae eius nobiles apud Octavianum cardinalem, virum
illustrem, eximia forma feminae, e balneo exeuntes, occultiores
corporis partes tenui linteo velatae, notabili rubore, e quibus unius
os tantummodo pectusque demonstrans, posteriores corporis partes
per speculum pictum lateri oppositum ita expressit, ut et terga,
quemadmodum pectus, videas. In eadem tabula est in balneo
lucerna ardenti simillima, et anus, quae sudare videatur, catulus
aquam lambens, et item equi hominesque perbrevi statura, monies,
Ixxiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
nemora, pagi, castella tanto artificio elaborata, ut alia ab aliis
quinquaginta millibus passuum distare credas. Sed nihil prope
admirabilius, in eodem opere, quam speculum in eadem tabula
depictum, in quo quaecumque inibi descripta sunt, tanquam in vero
speculo prospicias. Alia complura opera fecisse dicitur, quorum
plenam notitiam habere non potui."
1464. AVERULINO, Antonio, surnamed Filarete, wrote a treatise on
Architecture, the original manuscript of which, dedicated to Peter
de' Medici, is preserved in the Magliabecchi Library at Florence.
He mentions (p. 182) master John (van Eyck) of Bruges and
master Roger (De la Pasture) as the two painters who had made
use of oil colours with the greatest skill.
c. 1485. SANTI, Giovanni, in his Chronicle of the Dukes of Urbino,
the manuscript of which is preserved in the Library of the
Vatican, wrote as follows in praise of the same two masters :
" A Brugia fu tra gli altri piu lodato
il gran Joannes, el discepol Ruggero,
con tanti d'alto merto dotati,
Delia cui arte e summo magistero
di colorire furno si excellenti,
che han superato spesse volte il vero."
1495. MUENZER, a physician and humanist, travelling through the Low
Countries, visited Ghent in the course of this year, and has left an
interesting notice of the polyptych, preserved in the Royal Library
at Munich (MS. Lat. 631), first published by Dr. Voll, in the
Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung of September 7, 1899.
" De nobilissima tabula picta ad loannem, cuius simile vix
credo esse in mundo.
" Ecclesia S. loannis inter illas tres principal es est pulcrior,
maior et longior de 156 passibus. Et inter cetera habet unam
tabulam depictam supra unum altare magnam et preciosissimam de
pictura. In cuius summitate est depictus Deus in maiestate. Et
ad dextram beata virgo. Et ad sinistram loannes baptista. Et
sub eis figure octo beatitudinum. In ala autem dextra Adam : et
circa ipsum angeli : cantantes melos Deo: In ala autem sinistra
Eva : et angeli cum organis. Et in inferiori ala dextra lusti
indices et lusti milites : sub ala autem sinistra lusti heremite : et
lusti peregrini. Et omnia ilia sunt ex mirabili et tarn artificioso
ingenio depicta : ut nedum picturam : sed artem pingendi totam
ibi videres videnturque omnes ymagines vive. Postquam autem
magister pictor opus perfecit : superadditi sibi fuerunt ultra
pactum et precium sexcentum corone. Item quidam alius
magnus pictor supervenit volens imitari in suo opere hanc
picturam et factus est melancolicus et insipiens. O quam mirande
sunt effigies Ade et Eve : videntur omnia esse viva. Et singula
membra sibi correspondent. Sepultus est autem magister tabelle
1504. LEMAIRE de Beiges, Jean, in " La Couronne Margaritique," a
poem commenced by him in 1504 and finished in 1511, first
printed at Lyons in 1549, has three lines in praise of John
" Hugues de Gand, qui tant cut les tretz netz,
y fut aussi, et Dieric de Louvain
avec le roy des peintres lohannes
du quel les faits parfaits et mignonnetz
ne tomberont jamais en oubly vain."
1521. DUERER, Albrecht. A few days after Easter of this year, Durer
visited Bruges. He was taken about to see various buildings and
works of art. After mentioning a visit to the church of Our Lady,
he goes on to say : " Darnach fiihreten sie mich in viel Kirchen,
und liessen mich alle gute Gemahl sehen, dessen ein Ueber-
schwahl do ist, und do ich lohannes und der andern Ding alles
gesehen hab ; do kamen wir zuletz in die Mahler Capelln, do ist
gut Ding innen." " lohannes " in this passage is generally supposed
to refer to John van Eyck ; to me it seems far more probable that
Saint John's Hospital is here indicated. From Bruges Durer
went to Ghent, and there he says : " Sah ich des lohannes tafel ;
das ist eine iiberkostliche, hochverstandige Malerei und insbeson-
dere die Eva, Maria, und Gott Vater sind sehr gut."
By "des lohannes tafel" Durer most probably meant, not the
painting of John van Eyck, nor the painting in St. John's church,
but the painting representing Saint John's vision.
Ixxvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1550. VASARI, in the first edition of his " Vite," mentions Van Eyck in
two passages. The first occurs in chapter xxi, in which, treating
of painting with oil, he says : " Fu una bellissima invenzione ed
una gran commodita all' arte della pittura, il trovare il colorito a
olio ; di che fu primo inventore in Fiandria Giovanni da Bruggia ;
il quale mando la tavola a Napoli al Re Alfonso, ed al Duca
d'Urbino Federigo II. la stufa sua ; a fece un' san Gieronimo che
Lorenzo de' Medici aveva et molte altre cose lodate." The second
mention, in the Life of Antonello of Messina, is the well-known
passage in which he gives his account of the invention of oil
1560. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. " Vlaemsche audvremdigheyt."
Ghendt ; strophe 92
" Veel constige werken zijn binnen die Ghentsche baermen
als den yzeren zolder, wel weerdt te beziene
en die tafel t' Sente lans, noch al meer dan tiene."
Here there is no mention of the painter.
1562. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. " Nieu Tractaet ende curte bescry-
vinghe van dat edel graefscap van Vlaenderen." Ghendt ;
strophe 102 :
"In Sente lans keercke es een autaer tafel te ziene
so constich van ingiene, pictoriale practijcke
so dat in gheheel Europen, om de waerheyt te bediene
nauwelic en es te vinden eene dierghelijcke :
meester Ian van Eyck hiet den meester publijcke
van Maeseyc een stedeken in ruudt Kempen lant,
in eenen ruden tyt, ons God desen grooten constenaer sant."
And further on, writing about Bruges ; strophe 121:
" Constighe schilderye en heeft Brugge ooc nooyt ontdiert
zij esser wel af verciert in kercken ende husen,
meester Huge, meester Rogier die wonder hebben verziert,
met den duytschen Hans om te schilderen abusen
en boven al loannes van Eycx were (vrij gheen refusen)."
In this work he makes no mention of Hubert, but attributes all to
John. Apparently he derived his information from Vasari's " Vite."
1565. DE HEERE, Lucas, the painter, published this year a volume of
poems entitled, " Den Hof en Boomgaerd der Poesien," the
only known copy of which is preserved in the Library of the
University of Ghent. It contains (pp. 35-38) an enthusiastic
ode in praise of the Adoration of the Lamb, composed on the
occasion of the holding of the twenty-third Chapter of the Order
of the Golden Fleece in Saint John's church, July 23-25, 1559.
It contains the first mention of Hubert, and of his having
had a sister.
" Lof en prijs des wercs (dwelc S. lans in de capelle es)
van schilderien, ghemaect by die M. Ian hiet
van Maesheyc gheboren den Vlaemschen Apelles :
nerstigh leest, verstaet ende op d'werck dan ziet.
" Comt hier ghi const beminders van alle gheslachten
en besiet desen costelicken schat oft pant
waerbi ghi Croesus rijcdommen niet en zult achten :
want tis eenen hemelschen schat in Vlaender lant.
" Comt (zegh 1 ic) maer met andacht en verstant,
en lett vry op alle zaecken, zo merct ghi mids desen
dattet is een zee van gratien abundant
daer elc om te schoonst voortdoet, en wilt sijn gepresen.
" Bemerct des Vaders Godd'lic, en loannes wesen,
met Maria tooghende een lieflic ghelaet :
tschijnt dat men heuren mont siet devotelic lesen,
en hoe wel is ghemaect die croone en al tcieraet ?
xxviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
"Hoe verschrickelic en levendigh Adam staet ?
Wie zagh oynt vleesschelicker verwe van lichame ?
Tschijnt dat hi weighert, en ontseght Evams raet,
die hem presenteert een fighe, haer anghename.
" Maer deur d'hemelsce Nymphen en Ingels bequame
zinghende discant, elcx gheeft te recht veriolijst :
wiens diversche voysen men kent naer den betame
want elc mondeken, en ooghsken dat claer uutwijst.
" Maer te vergheefs men iet hit besondere prijst,
daert al zijn om te constighste en schoonste iuweelen
het schijnt datter al leeft, roert, gaet ofe uutrijst :
tsijn spieghels, en gheen gheschilderde tafereelen.
" Ziet hoe deghelic, en eerbaer zijn daer die deelen
van d'auders en den gheestlicken staet die daer lijt,
hier siedy (Schilders) bisonder in dees parceelen
exemple van goet laken emmers naer dien tijt.
" Wie en soude in die maeghdekens niet sijn verblijt
daer de onze wel mochten zebaerheit an leeren :
en anmerckt hoe triumphant in de deuren rijt,
de bende der Coninghen, Princen, Graven en heeren.
" Ten rechten siet men onder de zulcke verkeeren,
den princelicken Schilder die dit werck voldee,
met den rooden Paternoster op zwarte cleeren
sijn breeder Hubert rijdt by hem in d'hooghste stee.
" Welcken Hubert dit waerck begonste naer sijn zee
maer deur de doot (diet al doodt) moest hijt staken,
hi leit hier begraven, ende zijn zuster mee,
die ooc in schilderyen dede groote zaken.
" Maer op dat wy t'onser materie gheraken,
wilt dees excellentie in dit werck gade slaen,
dat hy d'aensighten al onghelijc conste maken,
hoe wel datter nochtans drye hondert sijn ghedaen.
"Ten anderen moet net selfde veel lofs ontfaen,
van weghe sine schoone blivende coleuren :
die in hondert vijftigh iaren niet en scijn vergaen :
twelcke men nu ter tijt niet veel en siet ghebeuren.
" Summa tis vul perfectien achter en veuren :
tooghende wel dat den werckman en meester goet,
verciert was met veel gratien (zonder erreuren)
de welcke een constigh schilder altijt hebben moet.
" Sijn scherpicheit maect ons zijn patientie vroet,
en zijn memorie groot blijckt in tselfde claerlic
alzoo oock zinen grooten gheest boven al doet,
in d'inventie, ende ordinancien openbaerlic.
" Van desen moet men hem te meer lofs gheven waerlic
om dat hi in zulcke tiden alsoo heeft ghefloreert
doen hi zulck' excellente wsercken eenpaerlic
als hi selve dede en had' gh' experimenteert.
1 In the margin of this strophe is the note: "Hubert sterf anno 14... " a
proof that De Heere was, in 1565, unacquainted with the epitaph.
Ixxx HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
" Een Schilder uut Italien selfs confesseert,
clat Heycus daer d'Olverwe broght en heeft vonden
en van dry sine waercken hi mentioneert
die te Napels, Florencen en tUrbino stonden.
" Wat conste vantmen oynt (de waerheit t'orconden)
soo perfect int eerste als dese const' excellent ?
van welcke belyden alle verstandighe monden,
dat men heuren Meester noynt en heeft ghekent :
" Was hy dan niet ten rechten tot sijns levens bent
van Hertoghe Philips zijn meester vul trauwen
hooghelic verheven ? en als een ornament
van ons landen, ia van gheel Vlaenderen ghehauwen ?
" Sijn wercken waren ghesocht uut alle landauwen,
daerom en vindt men boven dees tafel niet,
dan dat men te Brugghe magh noch een anschauwen,
ende t' Ypre ooc een onvulmaecte zo men siet.
" Dese blomme zeer vrough van de weerelt schiet,
die uut dat onnoosel Maesheyc is becleven
Brugghe bewaert hem, daer hi syn leven liet,
maer sijn name zal in der eewigheit leven.
" Dit waerck heeft ons Coningh soo hooghe verheven
(zo alle goede consten staen in zinen sin)
dat hi (om dat te contrefaiten) heeft ghegheven,
wel vier duysent guldenen oft lutter min.
1 In the margin of this strophe : " Georgius Vasarius."
" Michiel Coxsye, hadde voor dit waerck zulc gewin
twee iaren daer met besigh zijnde in dees capelle.
Hy bewaerde sijn eere van int beghin
totten hende toe, als een oprecht werck-gheselle.
" Dees copie is in Spaignen (op dat ict vertelle)
te Vendedoly, t'eender memorie bloot,
van ons Coninghs liefde, die ic voor ander stelle :
ende tot Heycus, en Coxyens glorie groot."
This poem was affixed to the wall of the chapel, and was v
doubtless read by those who went to see the altar-piece. Here,
no doubt, is the source of the apocryphal legend of the Van Eycks.
The discovery of the inscription on the exterior of the frame had
revealed the fact that the altar-piece had not been entirely painted
by the master (Hubert) buried beneath the chapel, as had been
believed up to that time, but that it had been commenced by
him and completed by John.
De Heere, fancying that the early painters must have intro-
duced their own portraits into the picture, as was the general habit
of painters in his day, fixed on two of the Just Judges as being
the portraits of Hubert and John (strophe 9) ; I shall demonstrate
the absurdity of the selection in the chapter devoted to the altar-
piece. De Heere is also responsible for the statement that Hubert
had a sister (nameless), who lived with him, painted great works,
and was buried by his side.
1565, April 27. LOMBARD, Lambert, of Liege. In a letter bearing this
date, written to Vasari, preserved in the Gallery of the Offices at
Florence, and printed by Gaye (" Carteggio," in, 176, Firenze,
1540), there is the following mention of John : " Mi ricordo haver
visto in Italia le cose fatte al tempo di 1400, molto dispiacevoli al
occhio per non esser ne secche, ne tampoco grasse, ne di bella
maniera, et parmi lopere delli maestri che furono tra il Giotto et
Donatello riescono goffe, et cosi ghene in paesi nostri et per tutta
Ixxxii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
la Germania da quel tempo fisi'a Maestro Rogiero et Joan di
Bruggia ch'aperse li occhi alii coloritori, i quali imitando la
maniera sua et non penzando piu inanzi, hanno lasciate le nostre
chiese plene di cose che non simigliano alle bone et naturali, ma
solamente vestite di belli colori."
1567. GUICCIARDINI, Ludovico, a native of Florence, born in 1521,
who settled in Antwerp in 1550, undertook a description of the
Low Countries, and set about collecting information from every
available source in order to produce a standard work. The manu-
script, completed in 1561, was printed and published at Antwerp in
1567. In the chapter on Antwerp, writing of the Gild of Saint
Luke, he mentions a number of painters : " I principal} e piu
nominati cli quelli . . . sono stati Giovanni d'Eick, quello il quale
(come narra Giorgio Vasari Aretino nella sua bellissima opera de
Pittori eccellenti) fu inventore all' anno MCCCCX del colorito a
olio, cosa importantissima et degnissima in quell' arte, perche
conserva il colore quasi perpetuamente, ne mai piu che s'habbia
notitia, stata ritrovata alia memoria degli huomini. Mando costui
delle sue opere in Italia a'l grande Alfonso Re di Napoli, al Duca
d'Urbino, ed al altri Principi, che furono molto stimate, onde il
gran Lorenzo de Medici ne raccolse poi anche egli la parte sua.
Truovasi in queste bande fra le altre sue opere in Guanto nella
chiesa di S. Bavone 1'eccellentissima tavola del Trionfo dell' Agnus
Dei, benche alcuni inpropriamente la nominino d'Adam et Eva :
opera nel vero maravigliosa et ammiranda in tanto che il Re
Filippo desiderandola, et non osando di la torla, la fece ultima-
mente ritrarre per mandare in Hispagna, dall' eccellente maestro
Michele Cockisien, il quale statovi sopra circa due anni, havendo
servito per excellenza hebbe del Re, oltre ad altre habilita fatteli,
del vitto et- da colori, per parere et sententia di quattro maestri
dell' arte, due milla ducati per la fattione, benche non si conten-
tando, pare che il Re allargasse ancor' la mano. Et medesima-
mente in Bruggia nella chiesa di S. Donatiano, e una bellissima
Pittura di quel maestro con 1'imagine di nostra Donna, et altri
Santi. Ancora a Ipri n'e un altra bella et memorabile. Dimorava
il detto Giovanni il piu del tempo nella trionfante citta di Bruggia,
ove finalmente si mori in grande honore. A pari a pari di
Giovanni andava Huberto suo fratello, il qualeviveva et dipingeva
continuamente sopra le medesime opere, insieme con esso fratello."
Guicciardini, it will be remarked, quotes his fellow-countryman v
Vasari as his authority for all the first portion of his statement,
adding thereto the information, derived directly or indirectly from
Luke De Heere, here for the first time printed, that John and
Hubert lived together, and that they collaborated in painting the
Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres altar-pieces ; we now know positively
that they did not dwell together after 1422 ; and that the Bruges
and Ypres altar-pieces were not even ordered until many years
after Hubert's death. Guicciardini is the first author who names
the year 1410 as the date of the invention of oil-painting by John.
1568. VASARI during this year published the second edition of his
" Vite." Since the issue of the first he had received a few notes
from Lambert Lombard, Dominic Lampson of Bruges, and
Guicciardini ; from them he learnt the name of the eldest brother,
and that the invention of painting with oil colours was made in
1410. The altered passage, which reads like a paraphrase of
Guicciardini, runs thus : " Lasciando adunque da parte Martino
d'Olanda, Giovanni Eick da Bruggia, ed Huberto, suo fratello,
che nel 1510 (evidently a misprint for 1410) mise in luce 1'in-
venzione et modo di colorire a olio, come altrove s'e detto, e lascio
molte opere di sua mano in Guanta, in Ipri ed in Bruggia, dove
visse e mori onoratamente." Vasari evidently knew nothing of
the Eyckian process, and to conceal his ignorance made out a
plausible story as to how it came to be invented. It must be
borne in mind that he was a gossip who sought to amuse rather
than to instruct his readers.
1568. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. "Den Spieghel der Nederland-
scher Audtheyt." Ghendt. In this work the . author devotes
several pages to the Van Eycks, and makes a large number of
statements which evidently did not rest on the foundation of any
old tradition. He travelled a good deal, and no doubt saw some
of the paintings at Bruges and Ypres, and noted all the gossiping
stories he heard from Luke De Heere and others. He gives the
epitaphs of both John and Hubert, the latter copied by himself,
letter by letter, from the brass tablet, and mentions the preservation
Ixxxiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
of Hubert's arm-bone, which he had himself seen. He says that
Hubert's sister's name was Margaret, that she remained a spinster,
devoted herself to painting, lived with Hubert, and was buried by
his side. He gives the number of figures in the Ghent altar-piece
as 350, fifty more than De Heere. He tells us that John was the
younger brother but the chief master, that it was he who painted
his own and his brother's portraits, and that he died young. The
altar-piece is stated by him to have had a predella on which there
was a representation of Hell painted in tempera by John, which
was effaced by a painter who washed it. He also adds that John,
on account of his science, was made a privy councillor by Duke
Cap. xlvij : " Van die wonderlicke gheschilderde Altaer Tafel
te Ghendt, welcx gheliicke nauwelick in de weerelt en is, wie de
Meesters waren ende ander dijnck.
"In die stede van Ghendt, zijn oock zommighe Wonderen
ende Singulariteyten, als alvoren ende boven al, die wonderlicke
constighe gheschilderde Tafele in S. lans Kercke, welcx gelijcke
men in gheheel Europen niet en vint : oorzaecke d'werc is so
constich, dattet Appelles were niet te wijcken en heeft. . . .
Maer desen Meester die de uutnemende Tafel, S. lans te Ghendt
ghemaeckt heeft, en is gheensins minder te achten, uut causen (so
voorseyt is) dat het were dies vulle ghetuyghenisse gheeft : want
die alderbeste Schilders van onzen tyde, zien dat were met groot
verwonderen aen. Albertus Durerus van Norenberch, . . .
Meester Jan van Mabeuse, Meester Hughe, ende veel meer andere,
hebben elck bysonder eenen grooten lof daer af ghegheven, ooc
Meester Lanchelot van Brugghe ende Meester Jan Schoore
Canonic van Utrecht, ooc trefflicke Schilders, sijn te Ghendt
ghecommen, ende begon den dees tafel te wasschen, anno xv
hondert vijftich, den vijfthiensten Septembris, met zulcker liefden,
dat zy dat constich werck in veel plaetsen ghecust hebben,
waeromme hemlieden die Heeren van S. Baefs voor een gratuiteyt
elc een gheschinck ghedaen hebben, als Meester Jan Schoore
eenen zilveren cop daer ic te Utrecht tsynen huyse uut ghe-
droncken hebbe : niemant (verstandt van der conste hebbende)
ende die dit stick ghesien hebben, oft zy en belyden (met die
Coninghinne Saba) dat die waerheyt van dien meerder is dan
die fame. Meester Michiel de Cocxien anno xv hondert lix
uut bevele, ende by laste van onzen edelen Coninck Philippus
die xxxvj Grave van Vlaendren, heeftse zeer levende ghecontre-
faict : want hy ooc een uutnemende Schilder is, residerende te
Bruessel in Brabant : maer heefter moeten te Ghent zijn domicilie
om houden, alle den tijt dat hy besich was met contrefaicten,
dwelck onsprekelick goet ghecost heeft, ende wiert naer Hispanien
ghevoert. Men zecht dat Toetsianus van Venegien ooc een abel
rijcke Schilder, der Azuer zant, om daerinne te verbesighen, ooc
by laste van den Coninck, waer voren dat zoude betaelt zijn xxxij
Ducaten alleene om den Mantel van onze lieve Vrouwe te
coloreren. . . . Vrau Marie die moeye van onzen edelen Conine
Philips, . . . heeft eens een cleen tafereelkin van den zelven
Meester ghedaen (welcx name was loannes van Eyck, waerin
dat gheschildert was, een trauwinghe van eenen man ende
vrauwe, die van Fides ghetrauwt worden, eenen Barbier diet
toebehoorde) betaelt met een officie, die hondert guldenen tsiaers
" Georgius Vasarius . . . schryvende van die excellente Schilders
van Italien, zecht : dat desen loannes van Eyck, heeft ghelevert
tafelen, eene te Naples, eene te Florencen, ende eene te Urbino
van olye verwen, waerdoor die Italiensche Schilders ontsteken
waren tot liefde, van zulck een maniere van wercken, ghevende
Meester loanni van Eyck van die eerste inventie van Lyzaet olie
in schilderyen te ghebruycken den prijs . . . ende schrijft dat
loannes van Eyck tvoornoemde vandt door zijn groote industrie
ende gheleertheyt ende dat hy die olye wist te purgieren om die
coleuren onsterffelick te onderhouden : maer hy schrijft errerende
dat hy van Brugghe in Vlaendren gheboren was, alwaer hy
begraven licht in S. Donaes kercke, welcx Epitaphie aen een
colomne staende luyt aldus : Hie iacet eximia, &c. 1
" Maer hy was van nativiteyt uut dat ruyde Kempenlant, van
een verworpen stedekin gheleghen by der Riviere van der Mase,
. . . dit stedekin is ghenoemt naer die zelve Riviere Maseyck,
waernaer hy ende zijn breeder toeghenoemt waren van Eyck:
1 See in Biography of John, p. 22.
Ixxxvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
want zynen oudsten breeder was ghenoemt Hubertus van Eyck,
ende was oock een uutnemende constich Schilder, die de tafel in
S. lans kercke eerst begonnen hadde, zijn sepulture is te Ghendt
in de zelve kercke, ende is boven een witte steenen doode, in
eenen Zaercsteen, die een metalen Tafeletkin voor haer houdt,
daer dit (na die oude Vlemsche carmina) in ghegraveert staet,
zo ic van letter tot letter gheortographieert hebbe. Spieghelt
u enz. 1
" Die aerm pype, daer zijn constighe handt aen ghestaen heeft,
heeft langhe ghehanghen in een yser besloten, op tkerchof (soo
ick ooc ghesien hebbe) midts dat die kercke nieuwe ghemaeckt
wiert, ende zijn graf met meer ander opghedolven. Zi hadden
een zuster Margareta ghenoemt, die haren maechdom totter doot
toe bewaerde, die men oock grooten prijs toeschrijft, in die edel
conste pictoria oft Schilderye ; maer zeker dits wel te noteren
ende voor een groot wonderstic te achte dat dese groote hemelsche
lichten, ende geesten ghefloreert hebben in zoo blent eenen tijdt,
te weten bycans over hondert, ende vijftich iaren, als men van
zulcker conste niet en wiste, zoot wel blijckt aen die oude gheschil-
derde tafelen, ende glaesvensteren, die een groote plompicheyt
vertooghen, oock quamen zy (so voorseyt is) uut een zeer ruyt
landt, daer zy ooc gheen exempel oft voorbeelt van haerder conste
in dese landen gheinventeert hadden, ende niet alleene ghevonden ;
maer oock ten hoochsten ghebracht.
" De drie proprieteiten die een excellent schilder in hem moet
hebben, sijn volcommelic in hemlieden ghevonden : te wetene,
gheest, verstant, ende patientie. Den gheest hebben zy ghebruyckt
naer tleven, dwelck den alderbesten patroon is. Tverstant in
veel manieren, als in die vremde boomen, die hier te lande niet
en groeyen, ende in tcorael dat uut de rootsen schijnt wassende
Item in de vighe die Eva in de hant heeft : want Augustinus
ghelooft bet dattet een vighe was, die Adam nuttende was dan
eenen appel, oorzake, den literalen text zecht van een vrucht, niet
discernerende wat vrucht : maer deckten haer met vigheboom
bladers terstont na den val, niet met appelboom bladeren, voort in
alle die constighe aensichten, die schynen zom te mediteren, som
1 See in Biography of Hubert, p. 6.
te spreken, som to lesen, ende som te zinghen, ende niet twee
onder meer dan dry hondert en dertich gheheele aensichten, die
elck anderen ghelijck sijn, ick late staen alle die ander gheestighe,
ende verstandighe wercken in dees tafel bevonden, die als een
Zee tallen canten overvloeyen, waerinne ooc een overgroote
patientie gebesicht is, in alle die netticheyt ende den tijdt die
daerinne gheoccupeert is, so dat men die grassekins met duysentich
duyst tellen, ende die cruydekins onderkennen zoude moghen,
ende ooc mede die bladeren ende vruchten der boomen.
" Item die coleuren der zelver tafele, sijn noch zoo wonderlick
schijnbaer, dat zy alle nieuwe gheschilderde tafelen beschamen. . . .
Hoedanighe historien daerinne gheschildert staen, mach elc
commen zien diet belieft. . . . loannes den ioncsten broeder, ende
principael meester, is in de zelve tafel gecontrefaict rydende te
peerde, met eenen rooden Pater noster, op zwarte cleederen, ende
Hubertus om zijn ouderdom, zitt op een peert neffens hem, ter
rechter hant : loannes is ionc overleden, hadde hy noch moghen
leven hy hadde lichtelick alle Schilders cler weerelt te boven
ghegaen. . . .
" Item een helle heeft den voet van deser tafel gheweest, door
den zelven meester loannes van Eyck van waterverwe gheschil-
dert, de welcke zommighe slechte Schilders (zoo men zecht) haer
hebben bestaen te wasschen, oft zuyveren, ende hebben dat
miraculeus constich were, met hun calvers handen uut gevaecht
de welcke met de voornoomde tafel, meer weert was dan tgout
dat men daerop ghesmeedt zoude connen legghen. loannes heeft
om zijn over groote conste, zeer lief ghetal geweest bi Philips van
Charlois, zone van Hertoge Ian van Digion, die xxxj Grave van
Vlaendren, ende men wilt dat hi hem om sijn wijsheyt ende
natuerlic hemels verstant, tot eenen eymelicken raet van zijnder
Maiesteyt gemaect heeft, sijn stadelic bysijn ende gheselschap
1569. VAERNEWYCK, Marcus van. "Van die Beroerlicke Tijden in die
Nederlanden, 1566-1568." ' In this his last work, Vaernewyck,
1 The original manuscript, preserved in the University Library at Ghent,
was edited by M. F. VAN DER HAEGHEN, in 1872. A French translation by
H. VAN DUYSE was published at Ghent, 1905-6.
Ixxxviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
who died November 20, 1 569, gives an account of all that happened
in Flanders down to the middle of November, 1568. He tells us
that in August, 1566, the Calvinists sacked the church of Saint
Martin at Ypres, but that he did not know whether the painting
by John van Eyck, an artistic work surpassing all other works,
had been injured. In his account of the wrecking of the cathedral
A of Ghent, he informs us that on August 19, 1566, two days before
the irruption of the iconoclasts, the altar-piece was wisely taken
down from the chapel and removed for safety into the tower. In
this account occurs for the first time a description not, however,
quite exact of the exterior of its shutters. We are told that at
the foot were represented, kneeling before their name-saints, the
persons who had the picture painted, a man and a woman, opposite
each other, ugly figures dressed in the old fashion, who, neverthe-
less must have been very fine and intelligent, for they had not
spared their money when they entrusted the work to such a master
whose equal would not be found in a thousand years. He adds
that Hubert and Margaret were both great painters, but inferior
to John, and refers the reader for a fuller account of them to
the twentieth chapter of his leecken philosophic, a work which is
" 1566, Ougst. Esser 'tghemeen volck mede in ghevallen en
hebben Sente Martins keercke gheheel gheruumt, oft hier in dees
ravesie dat tafereel schade gheleden heeft, dat meester lohannes
van Heyck gheschildert, maer niet vuldaen en heeft, de figueren
van der maechdelicheyt van Onser Lieve Vrauwe wesende, een
Marie beelde ende eenen abt daer voren biddende int midden,
dat en weet ic niet, welc constich weerck alle schilderien te boven
" Maer emmer was boven maten wel ghedaen dat gheweert
was, uut desen periculuesen brant die uutnemende ende zonder
ghelijcke tafele, die men heet van Adam ende Eva, om dat van
binnen in de bovenste dueren onse eerste auders gheschildert
staen, ende an de zelve dueren over d'een zjide inghelen die
schijnen te zijnghen an eenen lesseneere, ende an d'ander zijde
ooc inghelen die up een hurghel spelen, ende int midden den
Vader, den Zone ende den Helighen Gheest, met Maria die
moeder ons Heeren die zij coroneren, welcx peerlen van der
croone, schijnen licht uut te gheven, zoo ooc de boorden ende
boorduersel doet, dat an dees personaigen es. Maer van Adam
ende Eva waer wonder te zegghen, niemant en zoude wel zonder
twijffelen connen jugieren, tzelve anziende, of den eenen voet van
Adam uuten platten tafereele steect of niet, ende zijnen rechter
aerme ende handt, die hij up zijn burst lecht, schijnt van zijnen
lijve duerluchtich zijnde. Dlichaem es oock zoo vleeschachtich
dat schijnt vleesch te wesen. Niet alleene de aderen en zijn
daer inne gheconterfeet zeer levende, maer ooc die cleene aerkins
die een meinsche uuten lichame groijen. Ende Eva heeft die
figuere van een versche vijghe in haer handt, hier duer betoo-
ghende den weercman zijn groot verstant ; want die helighe scrift
en zecht niet, dat zij eenen appel hetende waren, maer een vrucht,
ende anghezien dat zij curts daer naer haer met vijgheblaren
deckende waren, zoo vermoeclen Augustinus ende meer andere,
dattet een vijghe was. Die benedenste tafel es dusdanich :
zij heeft int midden tlammekin Godts staende up een coufferkin,
up een fonteyne waer af dwater schijnt te vloeijen, ende zoo
daer dat men die cleene steenkins in den gront ziet. Die crude-
kins int pleijn ende die ghersekins ende bloumkins van diversche
colueren zoude men moghen tollen ; ooc van die boomen schenen
al die vruchten ende bladeren telbaer te wesen. Daer commen
die maechdekins ende veel andere helighen van alle zijden, elck
in zijn oordene, dit lammekin anbeden, zoo uutnemende constich
dat niet om zegghen en es. Daer staet achter tghebeerchte ende
die bosschaigen een eerlicke stadt, tes altemale een hemelsch
dijnck om te ziene. In d'een duere, ter rechter handt, commen
ghereden te peerde ghewapende mannen, met haer standaerden
ende balsanen, wonderlic gheaccoutreert, ende die peerden
rijckelic ghebardeert, al zeer verscrickelic van consten : hier
heeft den meester ghenaemt lohannes van Eyck hem zelven
gheconterfeyt, rijdende up de slijncke zijde van Hubertus zijn
broedere, die dit weerck eerst beghonnen hadde, ende was een
schoon jonck man, raet van den auden hertoghe Phelips ; maer
Hubertus was audt ende vet. In dander duere ziet men die
heremijten ende maechdekins commen uut die wonderlicke
xc HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
eenelicke rootsen heremijtaigen, daer onder uut sommighe bemoste
steenen corael schijnt groeijende : daer ziet men die pijnboomen,
dactijlboom ende dierghelijcke. In somma zulck een stick van
consten en es in alle die christen landen niet te vinden. Buten
ende beneden zijn gheconterfeet, knielende elc voor zijnen helich
daer hij naer ghenaemt was, die persoonen diese doen maken
hadden, een man ende een vrauwe jeghen over melcanderen,
leelicke lieden ende naer die aude wet ghecleet, maer zeer schoon
ende fraeij van ghoeste, om dat zij haer ghelt niet ghespaert en
hadden te hanghen an d'weerck van zulck eenen meester, die men
in duysent iaren niet vinden en zoude, zoo groot ende excellent
"Zijn breeder Hubertus was ooc hier inne een wonderlic gheest
ende Marghareta zijn zustere, maer beede verre beneden desen
Johannes. Hier af zult ghij breeder bescheet vinden in mijn
leecken philosophic int xx e bouck. In de bovenste duere, buten
dees tafele, zijn ander schilderien : onder andere ziet men, duer
zeker veinsteren, in een strate van een stadt, niet alleene den dack
ghewacht, maer die claerheyt der zonne boven up den dach. Die
schilders weten wel wat ic zegghe. Dese uutnemende wonder-
licke hemelsche tafele, waer bij dat andere constighe schilderien
maer en schijnen bastaert ende leelic van coluere te zijne was
wijselic afghedaen ende upghewonden met sticken up den turre,
up den xix en Augustij, twee daghen te voren eer dees breekijnghe
ghebuerde, d'welck duer Godts beschicken es gheschiet."
1569. OPMEER, Pieter, who died on the loth of November, 1595, com-
pleted in 1569 a chronicle, which was printed for the first time,
and published at Antwerp, in 161 1, with the title : " Opus Chrono-
graphicum Orbis Universi." The following are the passages which
relate to the Van Eycks (p. 167) : " Promeruit et non vulgarem
laudem loannes Eickius, docens colores oleo seminis lini contritos
quam diutissima ferre aetatem, in multaque durare saecula :
picturam quoque barbaric extinctam resuscitando. Opus eius
erat tabula ilia Agnus Dei dicta, in D. loannis Gandavi : quam
Philippus Austriacus II., Hispaniarum rex locarat 2000 ducatis
imitatione exprimendam Michaeli Cochsieno." Further on, under
the year 1410 (p. 406), he remarks : " Hac tempestate floruerunt
Gandavi loannes Eickius cum Huberto fratre suo maiore natu,
summi pictores. Quorum ingeniis primum excogitatum fuit
colores terere oleo seminis lini. Nee modo tabulas pinxerunt suis
Belgis : sed complures ipsorum tabulae ad Alphonsum Neapolim
et Laurentium Medicem Florentiam transmissae in magno apud
eos precio fuerunt. Porro loannes Eickius iuvenis Brugis obiit :
et Hubertus grandaevus Gandae : orti Masaico Taxandriae
oppido ad flumen Mosam. Hie in D. loannis, sepulcro Flandricis
carminibus annum obitus 1426 decimo quarto Kalendas Octobris
indicantibus ornato, fuit conditus ; ille in S. Donatiani, ubi eius
Epitaphium, elegiaco carmine Latino columnae appensum legitur."
He prints John's epitaph, and reproduces the apocryphal portraits
of the two brothers. The qualifications grandaevus and iuvenis
are a development from that oifratcllo employed by Guicciardini.
1572. LAMPSON, Dominic. " Pictorum aliquot celebrium Germanicae
inferioris Effigies etc. una cum doctiss. Dom. Lampsonii huius
artis peritissimi elogiis." Antwerpiae, apud Viduam Hieronymi
1596. MARCHAND, Jacques, in his " Flandria Commentariorum lib. 1 1 1 1
descripta," published at Antwerp, makes the following astounding-
statement, p. 132 : "Neque forsitan hinc exclucli velint ubi lubenter
habitarunt ac pinxere Michael Angelus, et Bonarotus Florentini
celeberrimi : neque loannes Vaneickius, summi nominis : qui
primus oleo ex lini seminibus extuso, cepit picturae colores
Brugae miscere, ac perpetuare, Brugae sepultus."
1604. MANDER, Carel van. " Het Leven der doorluchtighe Neder-
landtsche en Hooghduytsche Schilders." Alckmaer, 1604. (2nd
edition, Amsterdam, 1618.)
The author was born at Meulebeke in West Flanders, in 1548.
He probably did not commence collecting materials for this work
until after he had settled at Harlem in 1583. He was at Bruges
in 1574 before going to Italy, and again after his return in 1582,
yet on neither occasion does he seem to have looked at a single
early picture his own paintings show that he did not appreciate
them or to have made the acquaintance of any of the painters
then living there, such as Pourbus and the Claeissens. His
statements as to the Van Eycks are derived from the works of
xcii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
van Vaernewyck and Vasari ; from the latter he took several
paragraphs, translated and amplified them, adding what he re-
membered having heard from his master the poet-painter Luke
De Heere, who, banished from the Low Countries in 1566, fled
to London, where he remained ten years, then, after a short visit
to Ghent, retired to Paris, where he died, August 29, 1584. So
far, then, as the Van Eycks are concerned, no reliance whatever
can be placed on this work.
Traduction, notes et commentaires par Henri HYMANS, i, 25-48.
Uebersetzung und Anmerkungen von Hanns FLOERKE, i,
22-48, and 402-408. Leipzig, 1906.
1608. LE MIRE, Aubert. " Rerum toto orbe gestarum Chronicon."
Antwerpiae, 1608. Under the year 1410, he records: " loannes
Eickius et frater eius Hubertus, pictores eximii Brugis Flandro-
rum emporio tune celeberrimo florent. Sunt qui volunt eos natos
et sic nuncupates a Maseica, vulgo Maes-Eyck, ditionis Leo-
diensis opido ad Mosam flumen sito. Horum alter loannes, oleo
ex lini seminibus extuso picturae colores primus miscuit, atque
aeternos, ut sic dicam, adversus aevi iniuriam reddidit. Divinum
hoc inventum plerique ad annum Christi 1410 referunt : sed ante
annum Christi 1400 id Belgicis cum pictoribus Eyckium com-
municasse, convincunt vetustiores tabellae coloribus oleo mixtae
depictae : atque in his una quae in templo Franciscanorum Lovanii
spectatur : cuius quidem auctor sive pictor motatur obiisse anno
1400. Ceterum Antonellus Messanensis, Siculus, cum Brugis
aliquamdiu versatus fuisset, colorum oleo temperatorum usum
primus in Italiam attulit eumque Dominico Veneto, et aliis pic-
toribus Italis commonstravit : ut Georgius Vasarius in suo opere
fatetur. Tanta porro loannis Eickii apud exteros fama ut pictas
ab eo tabellas Alfonsus Rex Neapolitanus, Fredericus II. Urbi-
natium Dux, Laurentius Medicaeus, aliique Italiae Principes
vehementer expeterent, atque Belgio advectas ingenti sibi pretio
compararent. Visitur hodie Gandavi in S. loannis basilica
cathedrali nominatissima Eickiorum tabula, septem misericordiae
opera continens, una cum Adami et Evae imaginibus, in alis
tabulae. Huius exemplar a Michaele Coxia efformandum curavit
Philippus II., Hispaniarum Rex ; quod in Hispaniam transvectum,
hodie in Scuriaco, Hieronymianorum coenobio, D. Laurentio
martyri sacro, spectatur. Putatur autem tabula ista Gandensis
ab Huberto Eickio primum incohata, sed illo ex vivis sublato a
loanne fratre perfecta. Hubertus obiit Gandavi anno 1426,
ibidem in cathedral! aede sepultus. loannes vero obiit Brugis,
ibidem in cathedrali S. Donatiani sacra conditus. Annum obitus
eius nondum equidem comperi.
The statement as to the date of the painting formerly in the
Franciscan Friars' church at Louvain is an erroneous deduction
from the words of Molanus (see RUELENS, "Annotations/
clxx.). The story about Antonello is now proved to be untrue.
1624. SUEYRO, Emanuel. " Annales de Flandes." Anvers.
Under the year 1410 he gives an account of the Van Eycks
and of the Ghent altar-piece, evidently translated from Le Mire.
He however, adds that Coxcie's copy was in the Royal Chapel
1624. SANDERUS, Antonius. " De Brugensibus eruditionis fama claris
libri duo," 38. Antverpiae.
1625. SANDERUS, A. " De Gandavensibus eruditionis fama claris lib. i,"
1627. DE VRIENDT, Max. " Epigrammata," 115. Brugis.
1631. GOELNITZ, Abraham. "Ulysses Belgico-Gallicus." Lugduni
Batavorum, 1641, p. 15, repeats the passage in the " Flandria "
1640. MANDELSLO, J. Albrecht von. " Voyages . . . publiez apres la
mort de 1'illustre voyageur par ... A. Olearius." Traduit de
1'original par A. de Wicquefort, 765 and 784. Amsterdam, 1727.
1 66 1. DE BIE, Cornelius. " Het gulden Cabinet van de edele vry
Schilder Const," 32. Lyer.
1668. BOUSSINGAULT. La Guide universelle de tous les Pai's Bas.
Paris. 2nd edition, 1677.
1682. BULLART, Isaac. " Academie des Sciences et des Arts," 377-380.
1739. FOPPENS, loannes F. " Bibliotheca Belgica," 635. Bruxellis.
1795. LEDOULX, Pieter. " Levens der Konst-schilders, . . . de welke
van der stadt van Brugge gebooren syn, ofte aldaer hunnen
xciv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
konsten geoeffent hebben." Original Manuscript. Bruges :
Town Archives. Pages 1-8 are devoted to the Van Eycks ; his
account of them is based on Van Mander.
2. BIOGRAPHY AND ART OF THE VAN EYCKS.
1753. DESCAMPS, Jean Baptiste. La Vie des Peintres Flamands, i,
1763. MENSAERT, G. P. Le Peintre amateur. Bruxelles.
1769. DESCAMPS, J. B. Voyage pittoresque de la Flandre et du
Brabant avec des reflexions relatives aux arts. Paris.
1816. EYNDEN, Roeland van, and VAN DER WILLIGEN, Adriaan
Geschiedenis der Vaderlandsche Schilderkunst, 340-364. Haarlem.
1817. FIORILLO, Johann D. Geschichte der zeichnenden Kiinste in
Deutschland und den Vereinigten Niederlanden, n, 283-293.
1817. CORNELISSEN, Norbert. Notice sur la grande et celebre pro-
duction de Jean et d'Hubert van Eyck. In Annales Belgiques des
Sciences, i, 141-163. Gand.
1818. GAULT DE SAINT GERMAIN, Pierre M. Guide des Amateurs de
Tableaux, i, 4-5. Paris.
1818. KEVERBERG VAN KESSEL, Charles L. G. J. van. Ursula, prin-
cesse Britannique, loi-iioand 181-183. Gand.
1822. SCHOPENHAUER, Johanna H. Johann van Eyck und seine
Nachfolger, i, 18-98. Frankfurt-am-Main.
1822. JAMES, John T. The Flemish, Dutch, and German Schools of
Painting, 83-92. London.
1822. WAAGEN, Gustav F. Ueber Hubert und Johann van Eyck.
vin and 271 pp. Breslau.
1823. DE BAST, Lievin A. M. Sur le merite d'Hubert van Eyck
comme peintre. In Messager de* Science*, i, 89, 155,257. Gand.
De Bast has the merit of being the first Belgian who
endeavoured to interest his fellow-countrymen in the early
painters and their works.
1824. CAMBERLYN, J. B. G. Eyckii immortal! genio. 29 pp. Gandavi.
1824. BOISSEREE, Sulpice. Lettre au Secretaire de la Societ royale
des Beaux Arts a Gand. 51 pp. Gand.
1824. WAAGEN, G. F. Ueber das von dem Briidern Hubert und
Johann van Eyck zu Gent ausgefuhrte Altargemalde. In
Kunstblatt, 23-27. Tubingen.
1825. DE BAST, L. A. M. Notice sur le chef d'ceuvre des freres Van
Eyck, traduite de 1'Allemand, augmentee de notes inedites sur la
vie et sur les ouvrages de ces cdlebres peintres. 90 pp., 4 plates,
and i cut. Gand.
1825. DE BAST, L. A. M. Notice historique sur Antonello de Messina,
traduit de 1'Italien, augmentee de notes, 2-3 and 35-36, i engr.
1828. WAAGEN, G. F. Kunstwerke und Kunstler in England und
Paris. Berlin. (Later edition, 1837-1839.)
English translation. London, 1838. See under 1854.
1833. PASSAVANT, Johann D. Kunstreise durch England und Belgien,
English translation. London, 1836.
1834. SCHNAASE, Karl J. F. Niederlandische Briefe, 314-326 and
1835. RATHGEBER, Georg. Beschreibung der herzoglichen Gemalde
Gallerie zu Gotha, 62-67. Gotha.
1836. BECDELIEVRE. Biographic Liegeoise, i, 132-141. Liege.
1837. KUGLER, Franz T. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei, n,
Berlin. (Later edition, 1847.)
1838. JUSTE, Theodore. Jean van Eyck et son Lcole. In Revue
Beige, x, 316-325. Liege.
1838. NAGLER, Georg K. Neues Allgemeines Kunstler - Lexikon,
iv, 173-198. Mlinchen.
1840. DELEPIERRE, Joseph O. Galerie d'Artistes Brugeois, ou Bio-
graphic concise des Peintres . . . celebres de Bruges, 9-14 ;
i lithogr. Bruges.
1841. PASSAVANT, J. D. Beitrage zur Kenntnissder alt Niederlandischen
Malerschulen. In Kunstblatt, xxn, 9, 10, 14, 15. Stuttgart.
Traduction FranQaise, in Messager des Sciences. Gand, 1842,
pp. 206-2 1 1 .
1841. BLOMMAERT, Philips. Recherches sur 1'ancienne Ecole de
Peinture Flamande. In Messager des Sciences. Gand, 1841,
xcvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1842. BURCKHARDT, Jacob. Die Kunstwerke der Belgischen Stadte,
60-64, 132-135 and 157. Diisseldorf.
1842. IMMERZEEL, loannes C. H. and C. De Levens en Werken der
HollandscheenVlaamsche Kunstschilders, I, 226-229. Amsterdam.
1842. FORTOUL, Hippolyte N. H. De 1'Art en Allemagne, n, 142-
1843. NIEUWENIIUVS, Conrad I. Description de la Galerie des Tableaux
de S. M. le roi des Pays-Bas, avec quelques remarques sur
1'histoire des peintres et sur les progres de Tart, 1-9. Bruxelles.
1844. RATHGEBER, Georg. Annalen der Niederlandischen Malerei,
3-9, 84-103, and 429. Gotha.
1845. MICIIIELS, Fran9ois Xavier Alfred. Histoire de la Peinture
Flamande et Hollandaise, n, 3-168, and iv, 382. Bruxelles,
1845-1848. See under 1866.
1846. HOUSSAYE, Arsene. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande et
Hollandaise. Paris. (Subsequent editions, 1848 and 1866.)
Deutsche von A. DIEZMANN, 23-33. Leipzig, 1847.
1846. KUGLER, F. T. A Handbook of the History of Painting, trans-
lated by Mrs. M. HUTTON ; edited with notes by Sir Edmund
HEAD, n, 54-78. London.
1847. DE MERSSEMAN, J. Hubert, Marguerite et Jean van Eyck. In
" Biographic des Hommes remarquables de la Flandre Occi-
dentale," in, 174-199. Bruges.
1847. LINDSAY, Alexander W. Crawford, Lord. Sketches of the History
of Christian Art, in, 288-306. London. (Reprint, n, 209-319.
1847. WORNUM, Ralph N. The Epochs of Painting characterized: a
sketch of the History of Painting, 320-329. London. (Later
editions, 1859 and 1864.)
1847. KUGLER, F. T. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei ; 2 e
Auflage unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers umgearbeitet und
vermehrt von Dr. J. BURCKHARDT, n, 92-115. Berlin. See
1847. CARTON, Charles. Les trois freres van Eyck. In Annales de
la Socittk d' Emulation, 2 S., v, 237-300. Bruges.
1847. MONTAIGLON, Anatole de. Une Visite au Musee de lAcad&nie
de Bruges, 5-7. Paris.
1849. LABORDE, Lion E. S. J. de. Les Dues de Bourgogne. Etudes
sur les lettres, les arts et 1'industrie pendant le xv e siecle, 2 e partie,
I et II. Paris, 1849-1851.
1854. BONNEFONS, Georges. Les freres van Eyck. In L 1 Investigates,
3 S., iv, 44. Paris.
1854. WAAGEN, G. F. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. 3 vols.
1855. WOLTERS, M. J. Notice historique sur la ville de Maeseyck,
1856. HERIS. Memoire sur le caractere de 1'Ecole Flamande de Peinture
sous le regne des dues de Bourgogne, 109-159. Bruxelles.
Crowned by the Royal Academy of Belgium and published
in its " Nouveaux Memoires," torn. xxvn.
Throws no new light on the history of the Van Eycks, but
attempts to prove the existence of a Liege school of painting.
1857. CROWE, Joseph A., and CAVALCASELLE, Giovanni Baptista. The
early Flemish Painters; notices of their lives and works, 26-115,
and 337-346 ; 5 engr. London.
The first serious English work on the subject. The docu-
ments, etc., quoted, carelessly transcribed.
Traduction par O. DELEPIERRE, i, 27-114 et n, 119-129.
1857. KERVYN DE VOLKAERSBEKE, Philippe. Les eglises de Gand,
i, 41-54, 199, 256, and 289. Gand.
1857. KRAMM, Christiaan. De Levens en Werken der Hollandsche
en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, enz. n, 173-174, and 448-466.
1858. HOTHO, Heinrich G. Die Malerschule Huberts van Eyck nebst
Deutschen Vorgangern und Zeitgenossen, n, 51-217. Berlin.
The work of an enthusiastic admirer of the early masters ; it
contains no fresh facts.
1859. DE BUSSCHER, Edmond. Recherches sur les Peintres Gantois
des xiv e et xv e siecles. Indices primordiaux de 1'emploi de la
peinture a 1'huile a Gand. 220 pp. Gand.
The documents relating to the Van Eycks in this volume are
forgeries. See Le Beffroi, n, 207, 212, 213, 231, and VAN DER
HAEGHEN, " Memoire," 1899.
xcviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1860. *VITET, Louis. Les Van Eyck et Hemling. In Revue des De^tx
Mondes, xxix, 934-959. Paris.
1860. DEHAISNES, Chretien. De 1'Art Chretien en Flandre. Peinture,
1860. *WAAGEN, G. F. Handbook of Painting. The German,
Flemish, and Dutch Schools. Based on the handbook of Kugler ;
enlarged and for the most part rewritten, i, 50-64 ; cuts. London.
See under 1874.
German edition. Stuttgart, 1862. The preceding work with
Traduction par H. HYMANS et J. PETIT, i, 75-111. Bruxelles,
1860. LUEBKE, Wilhelm. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. Stuttgart.
English translation by F. E. BUNNETT, London, 1868. (2nd
1 86 1. ACKER, Karel van. De Aenbidding van het Lam Gods. In
Volksalmanak, 101-114. Gent.
1861. WEALE, W. H. James. Catalogue du Musee de I'Academie de
Bruges, 1-20 ; 2 lithographs. Bruges.
1 86 1. WEALE, W. H. James. Notes sur Jean van Eyck. Refutation
des erreurs de M. 1'abbe Carton et des theories de M. le comte
de Laborde, suivie de nouveaux documents decouverts dans les
Archives de Bruges, iv and 32 pp. ; i lithograph. Bruxelles.
See under 1904.
1863. PINCHART, Alexandre. Documents authentiques relatifs aux
freres Van Eyck et a Roger Van der Weyden. Bruxelles.
1863. *RUELENS, Charles. Annotations aux "Anciens Peintres
Flamands " de Crowe et Cavalcaselle. clxxiii. pp. Bruxelles.
1864. NAGLER, C. Die Monogrammisten, iv, 58-61. Munchen.
1864. WORNUM, R. N. The Epochs of Painting: a biographical and
critical essay on Painting and Painters, 137-144. London. (3rd
1864. SIRET, Adolphe. Manuel du Touriste et du Curieux k Gand,
10-15 et 26-28. Paris.
1865. *PINCHART, A. Annotations aux "Anciens Peintres Flamands"
de Crowe et Cavalcaselle. 162 pp. Bruxelles.
Valuable and generally reliable.
1864. SCHOOLMEESTERS. Inauguration du monument de Jean et
Hubert van Eyck a Maeseyck par Sa Majeste Leopold I", roi
des Beiges. Discours prononcd par M. S., bourgmestre, le
5 Septembre, 1864. 26 pp. Bruxelles.
This discourse, written for the burgomaster by M. RUELENS,
Keeper of the Manuscripts in the Royal Library at Brussels,
is accompanied by notes and documents which occupy 1 2
1864. VILLARS, F. de, in Revue Germanique, xxxi, 351. Paris.
1866. HOUSSAYE, Arsene. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande et
Hollandaise, 17-33. Paris.
1866. MICHIELS, F. X. Alfred. Histoire de la Peinture Flamande,
2nd edition, n, 83-358, 404; in, 413-420; and v, 447-449.
Of all works on the early painters of the Netherlandish
school published in the last century, this, in spite of its pre-
tensions, is decidedly the least trustworthy. The author's
amazing vanity and ignorance are only equalled by the cool
impudence with which he has appropriated the discoveries of
others, whom he has vilified and held up to ridicule.
1866. SIRET, Adolphe. Dictionnaire historique des Peintres de toutes
les Ecoles, 2nd edition, 301-303 and 1052. Paris.
1867. KUGLER, F. Th. Handbuch der Geschichte der Malerei, 3 C
Auflage nach der von Dr. J. BURCKHARDT bezorgten zweiten
Auflage neu bearbeitet und vermehrt von Hugo Freiherrn von
BLOMBERG, n, 353-380. Leipzig.
1868. MONTEGUT, Emile. Les Pays Bas : impressions de voyage et
d'art, 148-159. Paris.
1868. WAAGEN, G. F. Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmaler in Wien.
1869. TAINE, Hippolyte A. Philosophic de 1'Art dans les Pays Bas,
Translation by DURAND. New York, 1889.
1869. HEATON, Mrs. Charles. Masterpieces of Flemish Art, 14-28 ;
i photograph. London.
1871. DE BURBURE, Leo. Chronologische Lijst der Ammans van
Antwerpen . . . met onuitgegevene Aanteekeningen en Wijzi-
gingen, 6 and 1 2-20. Antwerpen.
c HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Contains notes and documents relating to a John van
Eyck, who held the office of Amman of Antwerp from 1431
1872. *CROWE, J. A., and CAVALCASELLE, G. B. The Early Flemish
Painters. Notices of their lives and works. 2nd edition,
30-134; 5 engr. London.
Many errors in the first edition are rectified in this, and
subsequent discoveries made by Pinchart and others added.
Deutsche Ausgabe bearbeitet von Anton SPRINGER, 30-149.
Italian translation, 32-157. Firenze, 1899.
1872. SIRET, A., and TAUREL, C. E. L' Agnus Dei par les freres
Hubert et Jean van Eyck. In TAUREL, " L'Art Chretien en
Hollande et en Flandre," i, 1-12 ; i engr. and i cut. Amsterdam,
1872. TAUREL, C. Ed. Notes biographiques sur les Van Eyck.
In "L'Art Chretien en Hollande et en Flandre," i, 13-20.
1873. HELBIG, Jules. Histoire de la Peinture au pays de Liege,
53-62. Liege. (2nd edition, 50-58. Liege, 1903.)
1873. HEATON, Mrs. C. A concise History of Painting, 363-384,
1873. LUEBKE, W. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. 6 Auflage, n.
276-281 ; 3 cuts. London.
English translation by C. COOK. New York, 1878.
1873. VLOTEN, J. van. Hubrecht van Eycks Geboortejaer. In
Nederlandsche Spectator, p. 154.
1874. WAAGEN, G. F. Handbook of Painting. Thoroughly revised
and in part rewritten by J. A. CROWE, i, 49-74.
1874. WEALE, W. H. James. The date on which John van Eyck
moved his abode from Bruges to Lille. In the Academy, July n,
1874. VLOTEN, J. van. Nederlands Schilderkunst, 14, 15, 29, 42, 99.
1875. STEPHENS, Frederick G. Flemish and French Pictures, with
notes concerning the painters and their works, 30-34 ; i engr.
1876. *FROMENTIN, Eugene. Les Maitres d'autrefois : Belgique.
420-438. Paris. (A seventh issue, 1893.)
Remarkable from a literary point of view, and as an excellent
example of art criticism. Worthless as biography, and superficial
in its distinction of the work of Hubert, who, he thinks, certainly
painted the figures of Adam and Eve.
1876. OWEN, A. C. The Art Schools of Mediaeval Christendom, 253-
1877. VIARDOT, Louis. A brief History of the Painters of all Schools,
269-274; i cut. London.
1877. HOUDOY, Jules. Etudes artistiques, 20-27. Paris.
It is in this volume that Mr. Houdoy announced the discovery
of an entry in the fabric rolls of the cathedral of Cambrai, proving
that John van Eyck was sojourning in that city in 1422, and
that he painted the Paschal candle for the Easter of that year.
In the Academy of June 21, 1879, I proved that lohannes de
Yeke was a local craftsman, whose name occurs several times in
the following year whilst John van Eyck was in constant employ-
ment at the Hague.
1877. EISENMANN, C. Die Briider Van Eyck. 23 pp., 8 cuts. In
R. DOHME, " Kunst und Kiinstler Deutschlands und der Nieder-
lande," i, Leipzig.
Translation by A. H. KEANE, in " Early Flemish and Dutch
Masters," 209-230. London, 1880.
1878. REISET, Frederic. Une Visite a la National Gallery en 1876,
ii, 3-9. Paris. Extract from Gazelle des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xvn, 5-9.
1878. SIRET, A. Van Eyck. In " Biographie Nationale de Belgique,"
vi, 775-803. Bruxelles.
Inaccurate ; devoid of criticism.
1878. MASON, E. Hubert and John van Eyck. In Harper 's Magazine,
LVI, 698. New York.
1878. DARYL, Philippe. The Picture Amateur's Handbook and
Dictionary of Painters, 97, 98. London. (2nd edition, Dictionary,
97, 98. London, 1883.)
1879. HAMERTON, Philip G. The Life of J. M. W. Turner, 155-157.
1879. SCHNAASE, C. GeschichtederbildendeKimsteim 15 Jahrhundert.
cii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Unter Mitwirkung von Dr. O. EISENMANN herausgegeben von
W. LUEBKE, vin, 103-164. Stuttgart.
1 88 1. CLEMENT, Clara E. Painters and their Works. Boston,
1 88 1. LUEBKE, Wilhelm. Die Bruder Hubert und Ian van Eyck.
1 8 pp. ; 7 cuts. In Westermanris Illustrirte Monatshefte, 54-72.
1 88 1. MUNTZ, Eugene. Etudes sur 1'Histoire de la Peinture et de
I'lconographie Chretienne, 50-51. Paris, 1881.
1 88 1. BUXTON, H. J. Wilmot, and POYNTER, Edward J. German,
Flemish, and Dutch Painting, 72-81 ; 3 cuts. London.
1882. WOLTMANN, Alfred, and WOERMANN, Karl. Geschichte der
Malerei, n, 8-22 ; 16 cuts. Leipzig.
1883. WAUTERS, Alphonse J. La Peinture Flamande, 37-55 ; 6 cuts.
English translation by Mrs. H. ROSSEL, 33-51; 6 cuts.
Vlaamsche van LABBE. Gent, 1887.
1883. WEALE, W. H. James. Les tresors de 1'Art Chretien en
Angleterre. 8 pp.; 4 facsimiles. In Revue de [Art Chretien, 3 S.,
i, 62-66, and 193-195. Bruges.
1884. ENGERTH, Eduard von. Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen der
allerhochsten Kaiserhauses. Gemalde. Beschreibendes Ver-
zeichniss, n, 132-139. Wien.
1884. THAUSING, Moriz. Wiener Kunstbriefe, 79. Wien.
Says that Van Eyck carefully placed trees and flowers in his
pictures, just as a child sets out its pretty things.
1885. MICHEL, Emile. Les commencemens du Paysage dans 1'Art
Flamand. In Revue des Deux Mondes, 3 P., LXX, 794-832. Paris.
1885. GILBERT, Josiah. Landscape Art before Claude and Salvator,
1886. JANITSCHEK, Hubert. Geschichte der Deutschen Malerei, vi,
221-225 an d 228. Berlin.
1886. MUNTZ, E. Les Origines du Realisme. L'Art Flamand et 1'Art
Italien au xv'siecle. In Revue des Deux Mondes, Avril, 557-
1886. KAEMMERER, L. Die Landschaft in der Deutschen Kunst.
1887. f BODE, W. La Renaissance au Musee de Berlin; 1'ancienne
E*cole Flamande. In Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 209-
215;! etching and 4 cuts. Paris.
1887. "CoNWAY, W. Martin. Early Flemish Artists and their Pre-
decessors on the Lower Rhine, 95-97, 117-159, and 271-275;
3 cuts. London.
A very interesting book, with passages of real beauty ; it
would have gained considerably had more attention been paid to
the accuracy of details and reflection as to the grounds of theories
put forth. Shows in places a want of acquaintance with the
dogmas and traditions of the Church and with Christian symbolism.
1887. BRADLEY, John W. A Dictionary of Miniaturists, i, 317; in,
358-359. London, 1887-1889.
1887. LUEBKE, W. Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. 10 Auflage, n,
298-310 ; 10 cuts. Stuttgart.
Traduction Frangaise par C. Ad. KOELLA, 296-302 ; 5 cuts.
1888. WOLFFERS, Frantz A. von. L'Ecole Neerlandaise et ses his-
1888. CHAMPLIN, John D. Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings, n,
32-34. New York.
This seems to be the first work in which a facsimile of the
cipher of John van Eeckele, 1534-1561, is given as that of John
van Eyck, with the date 1440.
1888. HEATON, Mrs. C. A concise History of Painting. New edition,
revised by Cosmo MONKHOUSE, 268-284. London.
1888. RADCLIFFE, A. Schools and Masters of Painting, 251-260.
1889. MUNTZ, E. Histoire de 1'Art pendant la Renaissance, i, 43,
330-336, and 688. Paris.
1890. WOERMANN, K. Kirchenlandschaften. In Repertorium fiir
Kunstwissenschaft, xin, 340-341. Berlin.
Compares the Van Eycks' landscapes with those of Gentile da
Fabriano and Masaccio.
1890. HOYT, Deristhe L. Handbook of historic Schools of Painting,
113-115. Boston, U.S.A.
1892. HASSE, Carl. Kunststudien, iv, 12-17 ; 5 collotypes. Die Bild-
nisse der Bruder Hubert und Ian van Eyck. Breslau.
civ HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Devoid of criticism. He considers the Adam and Eve of the
Ghent polyptych to be by Hubert ; takes the copy of a mira-
culous picture at Rome, painted by John van Eeckele (1534-
1561) for an original work by John van Eyck, and, on account
of a similarity between it and a picture Saint Luke is repre-
sented painting, in a miniature at the Hague, concludes the
Saint Luke to be the real portrait of John van Eyck !
1892. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, Albert. La Peinture religieuse, 120.
1893. BOLE, Franz. Sieben Meisterwerke der Malerei, mit einer
principiellen Eroterung liber den Einfluss des Christenthums auf
die Kunst, 44, 45, 51-58 ; 3 collotypes. Brixen.
1894. REBER, Franz. Geschichte der Malerei, 103-108. Miinchen.
1894. PIT, A. Les Origines de 1'Art Hollandais, 63-66. Paris.
1895. *MICHEL, Emile. Etudes sur 1'Histoire de 1'Art. Les debuts
du Paysage dans 1'Iicole Flamande, 173-186. Paris.
1895. HELBIG, J. Les origines de la Peinture de Paysage dans 1'Art
moderne, 7, 8. Bruxelles.
1895. MUELLER, Hermann A., and SINGER, Hans W. Allgemeines
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 411-412. Frankfurt.
1896. GRUYER, F. A. La Peinture au Chateau de Chantilly, 186-188.
Repeats current errors and adds a few more, such as the
statement that John van Eyck styled himself "John of Bruges."
1896. JAMES, Ralph N. Painters and their Works, I, 359-363. London.
1898. *LABAN, Ferdinand. Das Gleichgewicht der innenseiten Fliigel
des Genter Altars. In Zeitschrift filr bildende Kunst, x, 33-43.
1898. FREIRE, J. M. Un probleme d'art : 1'Ecole Portugaise cr6atrice
des grandes dcoles. Lisbon.
Attributes the 'Fountain of Life' at Oporto to Hubert van
Eyck ! ! The work is a curiosity.
1898. * KAEMMERER, L. Hubert und Ian van Eyck. 118 pp. ; 88
1898. Roux DE VALDONNE, Paul de. Recherches sur la Perspective
des Couleurs dans la nature et son application dans les ceuvres des
maltres des diverses ecoles depuis le xiv e siecle, 120-123. Paris.
1898. LEITSCHUH, Franz F. Das Wesen der modernen Landschafts-
1899. DE POTTER, Frans. Gent van den vroegsten tijd tot heden,
v, 349-359- Gent.
1899. PHILIPPI, Ad. Kunstgeschichtliche Einzeldarstellungen, in, i.
Die Kunst des xv und xvi Jahrhunderts in Deutschland und den
Niederlanden, i, Van Eyck und ihre Nachfblger. Leipzig.
1899. * VAN DER HAEGHEN, Victor. Memoire sur des documents faux
relatifs aux anciens peintres, 26-27, 78-87, 94-97, 111-114, I22 -
1899. *SEECK, Otto. Die charakteristischen Unterschiede der Briider
Van Eyck. 77 pp. ; I cut. Berlin. Extract from Abhandhingen
der konigl. Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Gb't-
1900. VERKEST, Mddard. Studien over Brugschen Kunstenaers. Ton-
190x3. FIERENS, H. De Van Eyck a Van Dyck. In Revue des Deux
Mondes, 4 P., LXX, 893-907. Paris.
1900. KNACKFUSS, H., and ZIMMERMANN, Max G. Allgemeines
Kunstgeschichte, n, 255-266; 9 phototypes. Bielefeld.
1900. VOLL, Karl. Altes und Neues iiber die Briider Van Eyck, in
Repertorium fur Kimstwissenschaft, xxin, 92. Berlin.
1900. *SEECK, O. Ein neues Zeugnis iiber die Briider Van Eyck. In
Kunstchronik, N.F., XL, 66-71 and 80-87. Leipzig.
1900. ELWES, Katherine. The Art of the brothers Van Eyck. In
the Westminster Review, 560-569. London.
1900. *VoLL, Karl. Die Werke des Ian Van Eyck, eine kritische
Studie. xvi and 136 pp. Strassburg.
1900. WEALE, W. H. James. Les freres van Eyck. 6 pp. ; 2
phototypes. In Revue de I' Art Ckrttien, 4 S., xi, 281-286.
1900. WEALE, W. H. James. Hubert Van Eyck. 5 pp. ; 2 phototypes.
In Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xi, 251-255. Leipzig.
1900. WEALE, W. H. James. The Van Eycks. 6 pp. In the
Nineteenth Century, 785-790. London.
1900. KAEMMERER, L. Die neueste Eycklitteratur. 5 pp. In Kunst-
chronik, N.F., xn, 66-74. Leipzig.
cvi HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1901. SEECK, O. Zu dem Werke des Hubert van Eyck. 3 pp. In
Kunstchronik, N.F., xn, 257-262. Leipzig.
1901. SEIDLITZ, Woldemar von. Jan van Eyck. In Deutsche Rund-
schau, cxi, 146-152. Berlin.
1901. WEALE, W. H. James. Hubert van Eyck. 9 pp. In Gazette
des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 474-482. Paris.
1901. *BoDE, W. Jan van Eycks Bildnis eines Burgundischen
Kammerherrn. In Jahrbuch der Preussische Kunstsammlungen,
xxn, 115-131 ; i engr. and 2 phototypes. Berlin.
Four pages are devoted to the portrait. These are followed
by a scathing criticism of Voll's "Werke van Jan van Eyck."
1901. DE SMET, Joseph. Quelques notes relatives aux Van Eyck,
ix, 193-207. In Bu lletin de la Soci'et'e dHistoire et dArcheologie.
1901. FIERENS, Henri. Psychologic d'une ville. Essai sur Bruges,
Full of theories and inexact statements.
1901. *COURAJOD, Louis. Legons professes a 1'Ecole du Louvre
(1887-1896), publiees par Henry Lemonnier et Andre" Michel, n,
1901. VOLL, K. Jean van Eyck en France. In Gazette des Beaux
Arts, 3 P., xxv, 215-229 ; 2 phototypes. Paris.
The statements in this article, so far as they relate to the
biography of John, are very misleading. His youth is said (p. 225)
to have been for a good part spent in France, whereas nothing
whatever is known as to where John dwelt before 1422, when he
was working at the Hague, and there is no evidence to support
the theory that he visited Burgundy.
1902. HULIN, Georges. Catalogue critique des tableaux flamands
des xiv e , xv e , et xvi e siecles exposes a Bruges, n os 7-16 et 213,
pp. 2-4 et 58. Gand.
1902. VOLL, K. Zur Entwicklung der Landschafts Malerei. In
Helbings Monatsberichte uber Kunstwissenschaft, 7 and 92.
1902. *DE SMET, J. L' Adoration de 1'Agneau par les freres Van
Eyck. 10 pp. ; 9 phototypes and i facsimile. In Inventaire
archtologique de Gand, 241-250. Gand.
1902. Congres de Bruges. Compte rendu des travaux de la quatrieme
section. Les Primitifs Flamands, 7-22 et 83-86. Bruges.
1902. LAFENESTRE, Georges. Les Vieux Maitres a Bruges. In Revue
des Deux Mondes, 5 P., xi, 131-142. Paris.
1902. GUIFFREY. L'Exposition des Primitifs Flamands a Bruges. In
L'Art, 3 S., n, 474. Paris.
1902. L. and A. Hubert en Jan van Eyck. In longdietschland, 238.
1902. MARKS, Alfred. The Flora of the Van Eycks. In the Athe-
nfeum, November i and December 13.
1902. WEALE, W. H. James. The Flora of the Van Eycks. In the
Athenceum, December 6, and March 14 and 28, 1903.
1902. HYMANS, Henri. Gand et Tournai, 14-20. Paris.
1902. HYMANS, Henri. L'Exposition des Primitifs Flamands a Bruges,
12-19 ! * helioengr., 6 phototypes, 2 engr., and i cut. Paris.
1902. HULIN, Georges. L'atelier de Hubrecht van Eyck et les
Heures de Turin. 6 pp. In Annuaire de la Soci'ett pour le
progres des etiides philosophiques et historiques. Gand.
1903. ADY, Julia. The early Art of the Netherlands. In the Quarterly
Review, January, 208-233.
1903. *FRIEDLAENDER, Max J. Meisterwerke der Niederlandischen
Malerei des xv und xvi Jahrhunderts auf der Ausstellung zu
Brugge, 1902. Miinchen.
1903. DE MONT, Pol. L'evolution de la Peinture Neerlandaise aux
xiii e , xiv e , et xv e siecles et 1'Exposition de Bruges, 1-63.
1903. WEALE, W. H. James. The early Painters of the Netherlands,
illustrated by the Bruges Exhibition of 1902. In the B^^rl^ngton
Magazine, i, 48. London.
1903. DUELBERG, Franz. Die Ausstellung altniederlandischer Meister
in Brugge. In Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xiv, 51
1903. LOESCHHORN, H. Museumsgange : eine Einfuhrung in Kunst-
betrachtung und Kunstgeschichte, 104-110; 5 phototypes.
1903. *SCHMARSOW, August. Die oberrheinische Malerei und ihre
Nachbarn, 8-12 and 20-32. Leipzig.
cviii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Throughout the volume are many notes on works in which
Eyckian influence is visible.
1903. BRYAN'S Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, edited by G. E.
Williamson, n, 136-138; i engr. London.
1903. WEALE, Frances C. L. M. Hubert and John van Eyck. viii
and 32 pp. ; i photoengr. and 20 phototypes. London.
See FRY in the Athenceum, 1903, August 22. London.
1903. *DURRIEU, Paul. Les debuts des Van Eyck. 32 pp.; i helioengr.
and 14 phototypes. Paris. Reprint from Gazette des Beaux Arts,
3 P., xxix, 5-18 and 107-120.
1903. *MARKS, A. Hubert and John van Eyck : the question of their
collaboration considered. 38 pp. ; 3 phototypes. London.
See WEALE in the Biirlington Magazine, iv, 98. London.
1903. * ROSEN, Franz. Die Natur in der Kunst. Studien eines
Naturforschers zur Geschichte der Malerei, 62-111 ; phototypes.
1903. SCIIUBERT-SOLDERN, F. von. Von Jan van Eyk bis Hierony-
mus Bosch. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Niederlandischen
Landschafts Malerei, 1-45. Strassburg.
1903. MADSEN, K. Udstillingens Udbytte. I. Hubert van Eyck
In Tilskrieren Maancdsskrift fur Literatur, xx, 603-620. Kj<-
1904. WITT, Mary H. The German and Flemish Masters in the
National Gallery, 5-23 ; 2 phototypes. London.
1904. LUEBKE, W. Outlines of the History of Art, revised and
rewritten by Russell STURGIS, 249-257. London.
1904. *WEALE, W. H. James. Popular opinions concerning the Van
Eycks examined. 9 pp. ; 5 phototypes. In the Burlington
Magazine, iv, 26-33. London.
1904. WEALE, W. H. James. The death of John van Eyck: new
discovery. In the Burlington Magazine, iv, 295. London.
1904. BOUCHOT, Henri. Les Primitifs Fra^ais (1292-1500), 15-29,
79, 150-153, and 219-244. Paris.
This volume, provoked by an access of envy after the
demonstration at Bruges in 1902, of the influence of the Van
Eycks on the development of painting, cannot be taken seriously.
Unfortunately, owing to the author's position as Keeper of Prints
at the National Library and member of the Institute of France,
it has been welcomed by those of his fellow-countrymen who are
of an uncritical spirit and know little of the history of art, but are
always ready to accept without questioning any statement that
flatters their national pride.
See Bulletin de I' Art ancien et moderne, vi, 318; vn, 29, 39,
54 ; and the Burlington Magazine, vi, 413, 497, and vn, 159, 160.
1904. DUGARDYN, J. B. Het tijdvak der Van Eycks. 29 pp. \\\Biekorf.
1904. *Six, J. A propos d'un repentir de Hubert van Eyck. In
Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxxi, 177-187; 7 phototypes.
Dr. Six in this article draws attention to a curious repaint
in the panel representing the knights of Christ. The blue
headkerchief of the prince in the back row is painted over a
coronet, the outline of which is clearly visible. He thinks that
the person represented is John the Fearless, Uuke of Burgundy.
May it not, perhaps, be John the Pitiless of Bavaria ?
1904. *DVORAK, Max. Das Ratsel der Kunst der B ruder Van Eyck.
1 50 pp. ; 7 plates and 65 illustrations in the text. Extract from
yahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhochsten
Kaiserhauses, xxiv, 162-317. Wien.
1904. *KERN, G. Joseph. Die Grundziige der linear perspectivischen
Darstellung in der Kunst der Gebrtider Van Eyck und ihrer
Schule. Die perspectivische Projektion. 14 plates and 3 cuts.
An important contribution to the material for controlling the
dates assigned to Eyckian paintings.
1904. FISCHEL. Die Hollandische Landschaftsmalerei. In Velhagen,
Oskar en Klasing's Monatshefte, xvm, 241-261. Berlin.
1904. WEALE, W. H. James. Paintings . . . formerly in the Arundel
Collection. In the Burlington Magazine, v, 190-198 ; vi, 249 ; 3
1904. PETRUCCI, Raphael. Essai sur Van Eyck. In La Belgique
contemporaine, i, 38-62. Bruxelles.
1904. BAES, Edgar. L'Art primitif Fran$ais et le style de Flandre
et de Bourgogne, 21-37. Bruxelles.
ex HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1904. TSCHUDI, H. von. Die Gemalde Galerie zu Berlin, 1-12.
1904. Masters in Art. Hubert and Jan van Eyck : sketches of their
lives and works. 2 1 pp. ; plates. Boston.
1904. *HuLiN. L'Art Franc.ais-Flamand au debut du xv e siecle et la
revolution artistique due aux freres Van Eyck. In Bulletin de la
Socitt'e d'Histoire, xn, 168-205. Gand.
1905. *BODENHAUSEN, Eberhard von. Gerard David und seine Schule.
1905. *WURZBACH, Alfred von. Niederlandisches Kunstler-Lexikon,
auf Grund archivalischer Forschungen bearbeitet, I, 502-525.
The account of the Van Eycks and their works is far fuller
and more accurate than in any other dictionary.
1905. WOERMANN, Karl. Geschichte der Kunst, n, 419-426. Leipzig.
1905. DOEHLEMANN, Karl. Die Verwertung der Linear perspective
zur Datierung von Bildern, 4 pp., 2 phototypes. In Mitteilungen
der Gesellschaft fur vervielf altige Kiinst, 10-13.
He examines Kern's work and shows that some of his
conclusions are incorrect.
1905. DURAND-GREVILLE, E. Hubert Van Eyck, son ceuvre et son
influence. In Les Arts anciens de Flandre, i, 11-36, 64-79, and
ii, 23-63. Bruges, 1905-1907.
1905. REINACH, Salomon. Cone et Van Eyck. \nRevueArchtologique,
4 S., v, i 38. Paris.
1905. FIERENS, H. Etudes sur 1'Art Flamand. La Renaissance septen-
trionale et les premiers maitres des Flandres, 99-215 ; 42 photo-
1905. KOECHLIN, R. Les Van Eyck et 1'Art Frangais du xiv c siecle.
In Revue de CArt ChrUien, 5 S., i, 280-281. Bruges.
1905. BUSKEN-HUET, G. Het Land van Rubens. Belgische Reishe-
rinneringen, 86-no. Haarlem, 1905.
1905. DURAND. L'inscription sur le retable de Gand. In Bulletin de
la Society nationale des Antiquaires de France ', 258-260. Paris.
1905. DOEHLEMANN, Karl. Die Perspektive der Briider Van Eyck.
In Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, 419-425. Leipzig.
1905. MUTHER, Richard. Geschichte der Malerei. Leipzig, 1900.
English translation by G. KRIEHN, i, 59-62 and 70-75. New
1905. WIENER, Christian. Lehrbuch der darstellenden Geometrie, i, 9.
John van Eyck had not a mathematical knowledge of
1906. WESTENDORP, Karl. Die Anfange der franzosisch-niederlan-
dischen Portraittafel, 48-49 and 73-78. Kb'ln.
1906. VOLL, K. Altniederlandische Malerei von Ian van Eyck bis
Memling : ein entwickelungsgeschichtlicher Versuch, 7-50 ; 5
1906. SIEBERT, Margarete. Die Madonnendarstellung in der altnieder-
landischen Kunst von Ian van Eyck bis zu der Manieristen, 6-13.
1906. HELBIG, Jules. L'Art Mosan, 105-109 ; 2 photoengr. Bruxelles.
The editor of this posthumous work is evidently not acquainted
with recent literature relating to the Van Eycks. Nothing is
known as to the birth-year of any one of the Van Eycks. On
the other hand, it is quite certain that John never quitted Duke
Philip's service, but remained in it until his death in 1441, not
1440. The office of chamberlain was much higher than that
which he held of ' varlet de chambre.' The central figure in the
upper zone of the Ghent polyptych represents the Eternal Father,
not Christ, who is figured as the Lamb of God.
1906. GAND. Guide illustre, public sous les auspices de la Commission
locale des Monuments. 2nd edition, LIII and 11-12. Gand.
1906. COENEN, Joseph. Quelques points obscurs de la vie des freres
Van Eyck. In Leodium, iv, 150-159; v, 6-n, 21-25 ar >d 54~59-
The three points discussed in these articles are : the origin of
the family, the date of birth of the painters, and their migration to
1906. SCHMIDT-DEGENER, E. Rembrandt imitateur de Claus Sluter
et de Jean van Eyck. 20 pp. ; 9 phototypes. In Gazette des
Beaux ArtS) 3 P., xxxvi, 89-108. Paris.
1907. MONCHAMP, Georges. L'inscription du retable de 1'Agneau. In
Leodium, v, 5-6. Liege.
The author is certainly wrong in his contentions. E Eyck
cxii HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
is correct, and the first words of the third line must have been
perfecit letus or suscepit letus.
1907. SCHMIDT-DEGENER, F. Les 'Sept Vertus ' de Jean van Eyck
au Musee Neerlandais a Amsterdam. In L? Art Flamand ct
Hollandais, iv, 16-30 and 67-79 ; 1 6 phototypes. Bruxelles.
1907. WEALE, W. H. James. Observations sur quelques points obscurs
de la vie des freres Van Eyck. In Leodizim, v, 87-88. Liege.
1907. SEECK. Die Beweinung mit den Stifter. In Zeitschrift fur
bildende Kunst, N.F., xvm, 206-210.
1907. P. BERGMANS. Note sur la representation du retable de
1'Agneau mystique des Van Eyck, en tableau vivant, a Gand
en 1458. 8 pp. Gand.
1907. REINACH, S. Apollo: an illustrated Manual of the History of
Art. English translation by F. SIMMONDS, 216-223. London.
1907. *HEINS, Armand. Une vue de Gand peinte par Hubert van
Eyck. 60 pp. ; illustrations. Gand.
3. DISCOVERIES AND TECHNIQUE OF THE VAN EYCKS.
1678. MALVASIA, Carlo C. Felsina Pittrice. Vite da Pittori Bolognesi,
I, 27-28. Bologna.
1762. WALPOLE, Horace. Anecdotes of Painting in England, i, 24-29.
Strawberry Hill, 1762.
1774. LESSING, Gotthold, E. Vom Alter der Oelmalerey. Braun-
1781. RASPE, Rudolph E. A critical essay on Oil Painting, proving
that the art of painting in oil was known before the pretended
discovery of John and Hubert van Eyck. London.
Characteristic of the period at which it was written. Raspe
was an able man, but evidently without practical knowledge.
1792. BUDBERG, O. C. von. Ueber das Alter der Oehlmahlerey zur
Vertheidigung des Vasari. Goettingen.
1803. FIORILLO. Kleine Schriften artistischen Inhalts : vi, Ueber das
Alter der Oehlmahlerey, 189-228. Goettingen.
1809. PUCCINI, Tommaso. Memorie istorico-critiche di Antonello
degli Antoni, pittori Messinese. Firenze.
1830. MERIMEE, Jean F. L. De la Peinture a 1'huile, ou des precedes
materials employes dans ce genre de peinture depuis Hubert et
Jean van Eyck jusqu' a nos jours. Paris.
English translation by W. B. Sarsfield Taylor. London, 1839.
1847. EASTLAKE, Charles L. Materials for a history of oil-painting.
Italian translation by Giovanni A. Bezzi. Livorno, 1849.
1857. BROU, Charles De. La Peinture a 1'huile avant les Van Eyck.
In Revue universe lie des Arts. Paris.
1858. SECCO-SUARDO, Giovanni. Sulla scoperta ed introduzione in
Italia dell' odierno sistema di dipingere ad olio. Milano.
1878. MILANESI, Gaetano. Commentaria alia Vita di Antonello da
Messina. In VASARI, Le Vite, n, 575-589. Firenze.
1883. BAES, Edgar. Recherches sur les matieres colorantes employees
par les artistes dans les divers precedes de peinture en us-age
dans 1'Antiquite, pendant le Moyen age et a 1'epoque de la
Renaissance. 107 pp. Bruxelles.
1885. DEHAISNES, C. Les Precedes de 1'Ecole Flamande primitive et
la peinture a 1'huile. In Bulletin monumental, 6 S., i, 563-583.
1887. LALAING, E. de. Jean van Eyck, inventeur de la peinture a
1'huile. 142 pp. Paris.
1895. CREMER, Franz G. Studien zur Geschichte der Oelfarben-
1897. BERGER, Ernst. Quellen und Technik der Fresko- Oel- und
Tempera-Malerei des Mittelalters einschliesslich der Van Eyck-
Technick, 221-256. Miinchen.
1891. LAURIE, Arthur. On the durability of pictures painted with
oils and varnishes. With observations by W. F. REID, HOLMAN
HUNT, etc. In Journal of t tie Society of Arts, xxxix, 392-399
and 437. London.
1897. POPP, H. Les Couleurs des Maitres de la Renaissance.
An article on the processes employed.
1901. ALLAN, Ugolin. Van Eyck's Discovery. In the Architectural
Review, x, 213-217. London.
cxiv HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
*igo2. HERRINGHAM, Christiana J. Van Eyck's discovery. In the
Architectural Review, xi, 165-169. London.
Combats Allan's view that the discovery was merely the
purification of oil by washing, and believes that a principal part
of his method consisted in the incorporation of a very perfect
varnish with the pigments.
1904. DALBON, Charles. Les Origines de la Peinture a 1'huile. Paris.
1905. WURZBACH, Alfred von. Die Erfindung der Oelmalerei. In
his " Niederlanclisches Kiinstler-Lexikon," i, 515, 516. Wien.
1906. EIBNER, A. Zur Frage der Van Eyck Technik. In Repertorium
fur Kunstwissenschaft, xxix, 425-440. Berlin.
1907. LAURIE, A. Oils, Varnishes, and Mediums used in the painting
of Pictures. In Journal of the Society of Arts, LV, 557-567 ; with
observations by W. F. REID, etc. London.
HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
HUBERT VAN EYCK
AT a distance of some thirteen or fourteen miles from
Maastricht, in a bend of the Maas, on the left bank of that
river, lies the little town of Maaseyck, a veritable outpost of
population, famous now for all time as the birthplace of the
brothers Hubert and John van Eyck. At the time of their
coming the numerous monasteries and convents of the
surrounding district were as so many nurseries of the arts
and crafts in which they had long been cultivated with
considerable success. Maaseyck itself owed its origin to
the convent of Eyck, or Aldeneyck, founded in the first half
of the eighth century by two sisters of noble family, who had
been educated in a Benedictine abbey at Valenciennes ; two
illuminated manuscripts, and a chasuble and a couple of
embroidered veils, the work of their hands, still preserved in
the treasury of the parish church of Maaseyck, are evidence of
their skill. At first the arts were confined to the monasteries,
but in the thirteenth century sculptors and painters who were
laymen were to be found in the principal towns, notably at
Coeln and Maastricht, where they had acquired celebrity by
their skill ; and it appears at least probable that Hubert and
John received their early training in the latter town. The
4 HUBERT VAN EYCK
date of their birth and the names of their parents are alike
unknown. The elder of the two, Hubert, is said to have
been born about 1365, the younger, John, about 1385 j 1 but
these dates are purely speculative. All we know for certain
about Hubert's life is that he had settled in Ghent and
acquired the freedom of that town before 1425, and, further,
that he resided there until his death on the i8th of Septem-
ber, 1426. John's history from the 24th of October, 1422,
until his decease on the 9th of July, 1441, is now fairly
complete. Their brother Lambert was employed by Philip II.,
Duke of Burgundy, on several occasions in 1431 (is), 2 and
was certainly at Bruges in 1442 (32). A sister, named
Margaret, is said to have dwelt with Hubert, but no mention
of her earlier than the second half of the sixteenth century
has yet been discovered, and I am inclined to consider her
as merely an airy conception of the over-fecund imagination
of the poet-painter Luke De Heere. The only other known
member of the family is a certain Henry van Eyck, whose
exact relationship to the three brothers has not as yet been ascer-
tained. What further information I have been able to gather
about him will be found at the end of the biography of John.
As I have already intimated, absolutely nothing is
known of Hubert's early years. Probability points to his
having served his apprenticeship under some painter at
Maastricht, to his having travelled at its close to Coeln,
Basel, and Italy, possibly returning to the Low Countries by
1 He must have been born before 1392, as he was already a
master painter in 1422.
2 The numbers in parentheses refer to those of the Documents
printed in chronological order in the preceding pages.
France, Spain, and England. It is not known when he
returned, nor where he at first settled, but it was most likely
at Maastricht, Utrecht, Harlem, or the Hague. There were
certainly a number of painters and miniaturists in that part
of the Low Countries who would seem to have come under
his influence. Most remarkable among their works are
certain miniatures executed for William IV. of Bavaria,
Count of Holland and Zeeland, or his daughter Jacqueline,
between 1412 and 1418, in the splendid Book of Hours which
perished in the lamentable fire at Turin in 1903, happily not
before they had been photographed for Count Paul Durrieu,
to whom we are indebted for their publication. Some of
these miniatures are thought to have been designed or
painted by Hubert himself, owing to the many points of
resemblance between them and portions of the Ghent poly-
ptych. That great work, as suggested by Dr. Six, may indeed
have been commenced to the order of William IV. In any
event, Hubert must have removed to Ghent at latest soon
after William's death, about which time numbers of crafts-
men migrated to the towns of Brabant and Flanders, where
they could practise their art in greater security. In 1425
Hubert made for the magistrates of Ghent either two sketches
for a pair of panels or two alternative designs for a single
panel ; he received for his pains six shillings (2). As the
sketches were paid for an unusual occurrence and as there
is no record of any contract having been entered into, or of
any further payment having been made to him, we may safely
conclude that he was not commissioned to execute the work.
In 1425 he was engaged not only on the polyptych, but also
on a painting for an altar erected by one Robert Poortier and
6 HUBERT VAN EYCK
his wife in the church of Saint Saviour, and in polychroming
a statue of Saint Anthony destined to be placed above it (5).
In the year 1425-1426 l the civic dignitaries paid him a visit,
doubtless to view the works he had in hand, and marked the
occasion by a gratuity of six groats to his apprentices (4). On
the 1 8th of September, 1426, the great master breathed his
last, and was subsequently laid to rest in the crypt beneath
the chapel for which he had painted the far-famed altar-piece.
A brass plate bore this inscription
"Spieghelt u an my die op my "Take warning by me, who o'er
treden : me tread :
Ick was als ghy, nu bem beneden I was as ye, now lie beneath,
Begraven doot, alst is anschyne. "-Buried dead, as is apparent.
My ne halp raet, const, noch x Availed me not counsel, art, nor
Const, eer.wijsheyt, macht, rijcheyt Art, honour, wisdom, strength,
groot riches great,
Is onghespaert, als comt die doot. Are all unspared when cometh
Hubrecht van Eyck was ick ghe- Hubert van Eyck was I named,
Nu spyse der wormen, voormaels Now food of worms, erstwhile well
In schilderye zeer hooghe gheeert : In painting very highly honoured,
Cort na was yet, in niente verkeert. Yet shortly after changed to
Int iaer des Heeren des sijt ghewes, In the year of the Lord it is certain,
Duysent, vierhondert, twintich en One thousand, four hundred,
zes, twenty and six,
In de maent September, achthien In the month of September the
daghen viel, eighteenth day, it befell
Dat ick met pynen God gaf mijn That I in suffering gave up my
ziel. soul to God.
1 The financial year at Ghent began on the 1 5th of August.
Bidt God voor my die Const min- Pray God for me, ye who love art,
Dat ick zijn aensicht moet ghewin- That I His vision may attain unto ;
En vliedt zonde, keert u ten besten And flee sin, turn ye to the best,
Want ghy my volghen moet ten For ye must follow me at last." '
The receipt by the treasurers of the town of six shillings
(8) tax on the property left by Hubert, paid by his heirs, is
a proof that they were strangers.
In 1533 the chapel and the crypt beneath it were done
away with to make room for a new aisle ; the remains of
those who lay buried there were reinterred in the churchyard,
with the exception of the bone of Hubert's right arm, which
was enclosed in an iron case and suspended in the porch,
while the brass plate was placed in the transept near the
first pillar. There it remained until 1578, when, together with
a number of other memorial brasses, it was stolen by the
Calvinist iconoclasts. In 1585 the churchwardens, after
calling on all relatives and descendants of persons buried
in the church to repair the despoiled gravestones, removed
those as to which no response was made. In 1892 a slab,
of which we reproduce a sketch (p. 8), was brought to light
in the foundations of a side portal erected in 1769. This in
1895 was transported to the Archaeological Museum in the
ruins of the abbey of Saint Bavo. The brass tablet com-
memorating Hubert may possibly have been let into this
slab in 1533, but the slab itself is certainly not earlier than
1 MARK VAN VAERNEWYCK, Spieghel der Nederlandscher Audtheyt,
8 HUBERT VAN EYCK
the sixteenth century. 1 It was not shown to Miinzer in
I495, 2 and evidently De Heere had no knowledge of it in
SEPULCHRAL SLAB, xvi CENTURY. GHENT : ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM.
From a sketch by A. Heins.
1565, for in a note to the eleventh stanza of his ode he says,
" Hubert sterf [i.e. died] anno 14 . . ."
1 See A. VAN WERVEKE, Ontleding van den tekst van M. van
Vaernewyck betreffende het graf en de grafzerk van Hubrecht van
Eyck. In Annales de la Societe" (fHistoire et d ' Arch'eologie, II, 1-8.
2 See p. Ixxiv. 3 See p. Ixxix.
JOHN VAN EYCK
AUTHENTIC information towards a biography of John van
Eyck is confined to the last nineteen years of his life, and
is almost entirely derived from the account-books of his
employers. ^Xon^telnpoTaTvrNetTierlahHish and French writers
y^-A^-*^^-* * J
were too absorbed in chronicling the political events of
the troublous times in which they lived to busy them-
selves with the biography of craftsmen, no matter how
In or before 1422 John van Eyck became attached to
the household of John of Bavaria as painter and " varlet de
chambre." As the household accounts of that prince have not
been preserved, we do not know what were the emoluments
and privileges attaching to the post. John of Bavaria had
been elected prince-bishop of Liege in 1390, and, though neither
consecrated, nor even ordained priest or deacon, he clung to
the temporalities dependent on that dignity until 1418. His
elder brother, William IV., Count of Holland and Zeeland,
died on the 3ist of May, 1417, leaving an only child, Jacque-
line. John, determined to rob his niece of her rights, started
from Li6ge in September of the following year on an expedi-
tion to Holland, and installed himself as count at Dordrecht ;
io JOHN VAN EYCK
then, having seized Gorcum and other strongholds, he,
towards the end of the year, journeyed into Luxemburg, and
there married Elisabeth of Gorlitz, Duchess of Luxemburg,
and widow of Anthony of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and
Limburg. In the month of August, 1419, he removed to
Holland, and settled at the Hague. There John van Eyck
was employed in the decoration of the palace from the 24th of
October, 1422, until the nth of September, 1424; his pay
was at the rate of eight lions 1 a day, while his assistants
received two lions a day each, (i)
John of Bavaria died at Delft on the 5th of January, 1425.
The civil war, which broke out almost immediately, was no
doubt the cause of John van Eyck's leaving Holland and
repairing to Flanders, where, as we have already seen, his
brother Hubert was settled. Philip III., Duke of Burgundy,
who not only had heard of John's talent as a painter from
members of his court, but had himself, as he tells us, personal
knowledge of his skill, took him into his service as painter
and " varlet de chambre " on the igth of May, conferring on
him all the honours, privileges, rights, profits, and emolu-
ments attached to the office; 2 and further, to ensure the prior
command of his services as court painter, he granted him
1 There were two coins thus named : one of gold, equivalent in
value to 8s. ; the other of silver, equal to 2 groats, or M. English.
Van Eyck's pay was therefore at the rate of 5$. ^d. a day four times
that of his apprentice.
2 I do not know exactly what these were doubtless board and
lodging when at court, and exemption from all taxes. When accompany-
ing the court he was also entitled to two horses and a liveried servant,
whose keep was defrayed in the accounts of the Duke's household
BIOGRAPHY 1 1
a yearly salary of ioo/. parisis, 1 payable in two moieties at
Christmas and Midsummer, commencing as from Mid-
summer, 1425 (6). Shortly after his appointment, John
removed to Lille by order of the Duke, who gave him 2O/.
to cover his expenses (3). The yearly rent, 23/. 2s., of the
house which he occupied from Midsummer, 1426, to Mid-
summer, 1428 (14), was also paid by the Duke.
In 1426, at some date prior to the i4th of July, John
made a pilgrimage on the Duke's behalf, 2 and in the
following month was sent by him on a distant secret mission.
During this latter absence his brother Hubert breathed out
his soul to God on the :8th of September. For the pil-
grimage and the mission John was paid 91 /. 55. on account
in August, 1426 (7), and, in October, 3607. in settlement (9).
The Duke, to mark his appreciation of John's services as
painter and in other ways, twice made him presents in 1427
once of 2O/. (10), and on another occasion of ioo/. (11).
Early in October of that year he started, in the company of the
Duke's ambassadors, on a second secret mission, halting on
his way at Tournay from the i8th to the 2oth of that month. 3
This embassy was probably sent to Alphonsus V., King of
1 The livre parisis was equivalent to is. i %d. ; 1 2/. parisis = 1 $s. 4</.
= i/. of 40 groats Flemish, a money of account, not an actual coin.
John's salary of ioo/. parisis was therefore equal to 5/. us. i^d. con-
temporary English currency.
2 Probably for the recovery of the Duke's health.
3 The wine of honour was presented by the magistrates to John
on the 1 8th and to the ambassadors on the 2oth of October. The
1 8th being the feast of Saint Luke, John would no doubt have assisted
at its celebration by the local gild, and have made the acquaintance of
Robert Campin, Roger De la Pasture, and James Daret.
12 JOHN VAN EYCK
Aragon, to obtain the hand of Isabella, eldest daughter of James
II., 1 Count of Urgel, a match which would certainly have
appealed to the ambitions of a prince such as Philip. If this
was the object of the mission, it was not crowned with success,
for the lady Isabella, in September, 1428, married Peter, Duke
of Coimbra, third son of John I., King of Portugal. 2 Mean-
while, in February, 1428, John van Eyck had returned to Lille.
With a view to the reduction of his household expendi-
ture, Philip, on the i4th of December, 1426, had issued an
edict as to its future constitution, and as to the salaries and
wages of all persons attached to his court. By virtue of
this document, which is preserved in the State Archives at
Brussels, several pensions were cancelled and a number of
servants dismissed. No mention being made therein of John
van Eyck, the Receiver of Flanders stopped payment of his
salary. Complaints to the Duke no doubt followed, for Philip,
on the 3rd of March, 1428, issued letters patent (12) to the
official in question, explaining that he never intended to
include the pension granted to John van Eyck among those
1 Son of Peter, Count of Urgel, and Margaret of Montferrat. He
married Isabella, sister of Martin, King of Aragon.
' John I., King of Portugal, bastard son of Peter I. and Teresa
Lourengo, born 1357, succeeded his legitimate brother Ferdinand in
1385. By his marriage in 1387 to Philippa, daughter of John of
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, he had eight children : Blanche, died 1388 ;
Alphonsus, died 1400; Edward, born 1391, succeeded to the crown;
Peter, Duke of Coimbra, born 1392, married Isabella, daughter of
James II., Count of Urgel; Henry, Duke of Viseu, born 1394; John,
Grand-Master of the Order of Saint James, born 1400; Ferdinand,
Grand-Master of the Order of Aviz, born 1402 ; and Isabella, born
February 21, 1397, married Philip III., Duke of Burgundy, January 7,
1430, died December 17, 1472.
that were to determine, and directing the payment of all
arrears due, and the continuation of the half-yearly pension.
Philip, anxious to secure an heir and successor, decided,
in the autumn of 1428, to send an embassy to John I., King
of Portugal, to ask for the hand of his daughter Isabella.
At its head was Sir John de Lannoy, 1 lord of Roubaix and
Harzeele, councillor and first chamberlain of the Duke ; with
whom were sent Sir Baldwin de Lannoy, 2 lord of Molembaix
and Governor of Lille ; master Giles d'Escornaix, Doctor of
Laws, provost of Harlebeke, and court referendary ; Andrew
de Thoulongeon, 3 esquire, lord of Mornay, councillor and
chamberlain ; John van Eyck, master John Hibert, secretary,
Peter de Vauldres, 4 esquire, cupbearer, John de Baissi,
esquire, Oudot Brain, esquire, Hector Sacquespee, Baldwin
d'Ongnies, 5 esquire, steward ; a clerk of accounts, and two
pursuivants, Renty and Portejoie. 6
1 John de Lannoy, knighted by Duke Philip before the battle of
Mons en Vimeu, August 30, 1421, married Agnes de Lannoy, lady
of Roubaix. He was created third Knight of the Golden Fleece on
the institution of the Order at Bruges, in 1430. He died in 1449.
2 See biographical notice appended to the description of his
3 Andrew de Thoulongeon, lord of Mornay, twenty-seventh knight
of the Order of the Golden Fleece, chosen at the second Chapter held
at Bruges in 1432, but never invested with the insignia, as he died
when on a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre.
4 John de Vauldres, lord of Jonville in Burgundy, cupbearer to
the Duke, died at Bruges on the 8th of January, 1450, and was buried
in the church of Saint Donatian.
6 Baldwin d'Ongnies, lord of Estree, son of Nicholas and Mary
of Molembaix, married Pe>onne, daughter of Guy Guilbaut ; died in
6 At the ambassadors' leave-taking prior to setting out on their
14 JOHN VAN EYCK
John van Eyck was absent from Flanders a little over
fourteen months from the igth of October, 1428, until
Christmas, 1429. The ambassadors and their suite embarked
in two Venetian galleys then lying in the harbour of Sluus, 1
whence they sailed on the iQth of October. On the morrow
they reached Sandwich, where they landed and put up, while
awaiting two other Venetian galleys then at London. These
vessels arriving on the I3th of November, they again set sail,
but were driven by contrary winds to seek shelter, first in the
port of "La Chambre" (Shoreham?), then in Plymouth harbour,
and next, on the 25th, at Falmouth, where they remained
until the 2nd of December. Reaching Bayona, 2 in Galicia,
on the iith, they again set sail on the I4th, and two days
later landed at Cascaes, a small seaport town to the west
of the Tagus estuary, about 15 miles from Lisbon, where
they arrived on the i8th.
Learning that the King was at Estremoz, 3 at a distance
of three or four days' journey, the ambassadors sent a letter
by the herald Flanders, informing him of their arrival and
of the object of their mission. At his request they advanced
mission, the Duke gave the lord of Roubaix 2OO/. ; Sir Baldwin de
Lannoy, master Giles d'Escornaix, Andrew de Thoulongeon, and John
van Eyck (13), i6o/. each; the secretary received 8o/. ; while smaller
sums were given to the other members of the suite.
1 Sluus, a town 10 miles north-east of Bruges, was at that time
an important harbour at the mouth of the Zwijn, an arm of the sea
which ran up to Damme, the port of s Bruges, but has long been choked
up with sand.
2 Bayona, a town on the Atlantic coast of Galicia, between Vigo
and the mouth of the Minho.
3 Estrem6z, a small town in the province of Alemtejo.
BERLIN : KOYAI. GALLERY
permujiori qf t/u> flertin
to Arrayollos, whence, on the I2th of January, they repaired
to Aviz, 1 in the province of Alemtejo, where the King was
staying. On the morrow they were granted an audience, and
presented Duke Philip's letters. On the i4th master Giles
d'Escornaix made the Duke's proposals known to the court
in a Latin oration, to which a doctor of the King's Council
replied, likewise in Latin. The ensuing few days were
spent by the ambassadors in discussing with the council
the Duke's proposals. The time necessarily occupied in
settling the details Van Eyck devoted to painting the
Infanta's portrait. On its completion the ambassadors de-
spatched messengers to the Duke, two by sea and two by
land, with the portrait and a full account of all that had
been done there were evidently two portraits and two copies
of the narrative.
While awaiting the Duke's reply, the ambassadors went
northwards through Portugal on a pilgrimage to Saint James
of Compostella, 2 and journeying thence through the province
of Valladolid, visited John II., 3 King of Castile, the Duke of
1 Aviz, from 1161 the seat of a military religious order which
gave its name to the second royal house of Portugal, through the
accession to the throne, in 1385, of its Grand-Master, John, bastard
son of Peter I.
2 Santiago de Compostella, in Galicia, on the Sar, was a celebrated
place of pilgrimage throughout the Middle Ages, the tomb of Saint
James the Greater, the patron of Spain, being contained in the
3 John II., eldest son of Henry III. of Castile and Katherine
of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt. He succeeded his father in
1407, and died in 1454, having married : (i) in 1420, his cousin Mary,
daughter of Ferdinand I. of Aragon and Sicily, died 1445 ; and (2) in
1447, Isabella, daughter of the Constable John of Portugal.
16 JOHN VAN EYCK
Arjona, 1 Mohammed, 2 King of the city of Grenada, and
several other lords, countries, and places, returning through
Andalusia to Lisbon, where they arrived at the end of May.
At the King's request, they went on the 4th of the following
month to visit him at Cintra. That same evening Peter de
Vauldres, who had made the journey by sea, arrived with
the Duke's reply, which was at once communicated to the
King and the Infanta. The marriage contract, having been
drawn up, was duly signed in the presence of a notary at
Lisbon, on the 29th of July, and the espousals solemnized on
the following day. While preparations were being made for
the bride's journey to Flanders, brilliant festivities were held,
until at length, on Saturday, the 8th of October, the party,
numbering two thousand, set sail in fourteen large vessels.
1 Frederic de Castro y Castilla, a prince of the royal blood of
Castile, son of Peter, Count of Trastamara, Constable of Castile, and
Isabella de Castro. He was created Duke of Arjona in 1423, but
being suspected of treachery by John II., was in the course of 1429
confined in the castle of Penafiel, where he died in the following year.
Arjona is an ancient city in Andalusia, situated south of the river
Guadalquivir in the province of Jaen. The recent officially published
" Historia de la Ciudad de Arjona" (Madrid, 1905), written from
records in the municipal archives by Don Juan Gonzalez y Sanchez, does
not mention a visit of the Burgundians to Arjona. It is probable
that the ambassadors met the Duke either in the neighbourhood of
Astorga (Leon), or between that city and Aranda de Duero (Old
Castile), which are the only known stages in his itinerary previous
to his incarceration ; or he may possibly have been in Galicia, where
he exercised the important function of High Verger of the territory
and see of Santiago.
- Mohammed VII., surnamed Abu' Abdillah, who reigned from
1424 to 1445 ; or perhaps Mohammed VIII., surnamed As-saghir, who
usurped the throne in 1428, and was slain in 1430.
By the morrow they had reached Restel, where they stopped
until the isth, when they proceeded to Cascaes, and thence
put out to sea. Contrary winds compelled them to return
to Cascaes on the I5th, and abide there until the lyth, when
a fresh start was made, but foul weather supervening dis-
persed the fleet. Four of the principal vessels, and among
them those that bore the Infanta and the most distinguished
of her escort, managed, on the 22nd, to make the harbour
of Vivero, 1 where, after a delay of four or five days, they
were joined by a fifth vessel. The voyage was resumed on
Sunday, the 6th of November; three days later the five
vessels put into the harbour of Ribadeu. 2 Here the lord
of Roubaix, who had suffered severely from sea-sickness,
landed from the Infanta's vessel, but after some days' rest
he embarked with Baldwin d'Ongnies and a few others on
board two Florentine galleys bound for Flanders, and on
the 25th of November the seven vessels put out to sea
together. Owing to a mistake of the pilot, the Florentine
galleys narrowly escaped being wrecked near the Land's End ;
the other five vessels entered Plymouth harbour on the
29th. The Florentine galleys left Lizard point 3 on the ist
of December, and reached Sluus on the 6th. My lord of
Roubaix hastened to inform the Duke of the safe arrival of
his bride at Plymouth, and in confirmation of the glad tidings
1 Vivero, in Galicia, near the river Landoure.
2 Ribadeu, in Galicia, at the mouth of the river Eo.
3 Called in the narrative (p. Ixix) "le Camp de Caisart," which
would seem to be a corruption of Cap Lezard, just as "La Chambre"
(p. Ivii) certainly is of Shoreham, and "Pleume" and " Falemne "
(p. Ivii) of Plymouth and Falmouth. There is no tradition of any
Roman caslrum having ever existed near the Land's End.
i8 JOHN VAN EYCK
the Infanta and her party sailed into the port of Sluus on
Christmas Day. The event was the occasion of great popular
rejoicing. The marriage was duly solemnized on the yth
of January, and was followed by a succession of festivities
which lasted several days.
Van Eyck no doubt remained in the company of the
ambassadors until the close of their mission, but whether
he reached Sluus on the 6th or on the 25th of December it is
impossible to say. He appears then to have taken up his
abode at Bruges, whence, not long after, he was summoned
to Hesdin by the Duke to receive instructions regarding
certain matters on which he wished to employ him. For
his journey thither and back to Bruges he received igl. (17).
In 1431-32 he bought from John van Melanen a house with
a stone-gabled front in the Sint Gillis Nieu straet, now the
Goude Handt straet, opposite the Schottinne Poorte. There,
on some day between the iyth of July and the i6th of
August, 1432, he received a visit from the burgomasters,
John Van der Buerse and Maurice van Versenare, who, with
other members of the town council, came to view some of
the master's works. The magistrates on this occasion gave
his apprentices a gratuity of 55., duly entered in the
accounts of the treasurer (18). Some months later, prior
to the i Qth of February, 1433, the Duke himself honoured
his painter with a visit with the same motive, and gave
his apprentices 255. (20). In April of the following year
Van Eyck having been occupied several days in attending
to sundry affairs on behalf of the Duke and the Duchess,
received y6/. in remuneration of his services (21).
About this time he took to himself a wife. Her family
name is not known. Some critics think she was a sister
of Joan Cenani, the wife of John Arnolfini, an opinion
founded on the apparent resemblance of their portraits, a
FROM THE BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF BRUGES IN 1562, BY MARK GHEERAERTS
1. House named Sint Gillis.
2. Den Gentyl Pot.
3. John van Eyck's residence.
4. House built on the adjacent lane.
5. House named De Torre, renamed, in the sixteenth century, De Goude Handt.
resemblance no doubt accentuated by the similarity of their
head-dress ; the surmise, however, is strengthened by two
details in the National Gallery picture the peculiar wording
20 JOHN VAN EYCK
of the inscription pointing to a connection between John van
Eyck and Arnolfmi, and the recently discovered fact that the
Christian name of the painter's wife was Margaret (31), of
whose name-saint a carved figure surmounts the back of the
chair at the side of the bride's bedstead, a present perhaps
from her presumed sister. Against this, however, it may be
urged that Saint Margaret was especially invoked by women
in expectation of the birth of a child.
The date of the marriage is not known, but by an
order of the 3oth of June, 1434, the Duke authorized the
receiver-general of his finances to pay John Peutin, a gold-
smith at Bruges, the sum of ^61. 12s. for six silver cups
weighing 12 marks, presented in his name to Van Eyck at
the baptism of his child, held at the font by Sir Peter de
Beaufremont, lord of Chargny, as the Duke's proxy (22).
This child would, in accordance with the custom of the time,
have received the name of Philip or Philippina. Van Eyck
had at least one other child, a daughter, Livina, who, in 1450,
became a nun at Maaseyck.
About this time Philip granted Van Eyck, in lieu of
the salary of ioo/. parisis which had hitherto been paid in
two half-yearly moieties, a life-pension of 36o/. of 40 groats
Flemish currency, equal to 432O/. parisis, without any reason
being assigned for this enormous increase.
The accountants at Lille declined to register the letters
patent granting this pension, and Van Eyck, justly annoyed,
threatened, it appears, to throw up his appointment (23), where-
upon the Duke, who was about to employ him on certain
great works and, as he says, could not find another painter
equally to his taste nor of such excellence in his art and
science, wrote on the I2th of March, 1435, bidding them
register the patent and pay the pension without further
argument or delay, under pain of incurring his extreme
In 1434 the municipality of Bruges had commissioned
three of the principal sculptors of that town, James van
Oost, Gerard Mettertee, and James van Cutseghem, to carve
eight statues of Counts and Countesses of Flanders, which
were to adorn the front of the newly erected Town-house.
The sum of 5/. los. was paid for each statue, the stone
included. In the following year these statues and the taber-
nacles in which they were placed were adorned with poly-
chrome and gilding, six by John van Eyck, the other two
by William van Tonghere 1 and John Van den Driessche. 2
The painters received 5/. for the decoration of each statue,
but to Van Eyck the sum of 3/. 125. was given in addition.
He probably made the design of the eight statues for which
the sum of 2os. g. was paid (25). In the course of the same
year the Duke made him a present of six silver cups purchased
from John Peutin for 6y/. 15^. (26).
In 1436 John was once again sent on a secret mission
to some distant place, for which he was paid 36o/. (27). In
November of this year Rene', Duke of Anjou, who had fallen
into Philip's power, was brought a prisoner to Lille, where
1 William van Tonghere, a native of Tongres, settled in Bruges
at the beginning of the fifteenth century, was Dean of the gild of
Saint Luke in 1441, and died in 1456.
3 John Van den Driessche, who held office in the gild in 1435
and 1440, died October 29, 1451, and was buried at Saint James's
22 JOHN VAN EYCK
he was detained until the nth of February, 1437. It was
probably during this period of his detention that he made
Van Eyck's acquaintance.
In 1439 the receiver-general at Lille paid Van Eyck a
sum of 61. 6s. 6d. in reimbursement of moneys paid by
him to an illuminator of Bruges who had adorned one of
the Duke's books with 272 large and 1200 small capital
At Midsummer, 1441, John received i8o/., the amount
of his pension for two quarters (29). He had then in hand
a large triptych for Nicholas van Maelbeke, provost of Saint
Martin's, at Ypres, left unfinished at his death, which took
place on the 9th of July of that year. The great master,
though not a parishioner, was, as a member of the Duke's
household, buried within the precincts of the collegiate
church of Saint Donatian (30), to the fabric of which I2/.
parisis were paid for his burial, and 245. par. for tolling the
bell. On the 2ist of March, 1442, the Chapter, at the request
of Lambert van Eyck, granted permission for the exhumation
of his brother's corpse, and its reinterment in the church,
near the font (32) ; for this reinterment the sum of I2/. parisis
was paid (33) ; an anniversary Mass of requiem was also
founded (34), which continued to be celebrated until the
French invasion in 1792. The following inscription was,
probably in the sixteenth century, engraved on a brass tablet,
attached to the last pillar on the south side of the nave, at
the foot of which was the great master's grave, covered with
a slab of white stone :
" Hie iacet eximia clarus virtute Joannes,
In quo picturae gratia mira fuit.
Spirantes formas et humum florentibus herbis
Pinxit, et ad vivum quodlibet egit opus.
Quippe illi Phidias et caedere debet Apelles,
Arte illi inferior ac Polycletus erat.
Crudeles igitur, crudeles dicite Parcas,
Quae talem nobis eripuere virum.
Actum sit lachrimis incommutabile fatum,
Vivat in ccelis iam deprecare Deum." l
On the 22nd of July, 1441, the Duke granted John's
widow a gratuity of s6o/. in consideration of her husband's
services, and in commiseration of the loss she and her
children had sustained (31). To one of these, Livina, he in
1450 made a present of 24/., to enable her to enter the
convent of Saint Agnes at Maaseyck (36), a convent to which
her father had presented some vestments (37).
The brass tablet was stolen by the Calvinist iconoclasts
in 1578. On the 28th of August, 1768, the Academy of Fine
Arts, being about to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of its
foundation, petitioned the Chapter for leave to erect a marble
monument with a medallion bust of John van Eyck and an
inscription to his memory. This was granted, but the
Academy, finding the expense beyond its means, had a
medallion portrait painted by Paul De Cock on a panel with
a copy of the above inscription beneath it, adding four lines
composed by Father Fidelis, of Courtray, a Capuchin friar,
between the sixth and seventh verses :
" Ipse est qui primus docuit miscere colores,
Hos oleo exprimere et reddere perpetuos.
Pictores stupuere virum, stupuere repertum
Quo perseverans est sine fine color ; "
1 MARK VAN VAERNEWYCK, Spieghel der Nederlandscher Audtheyt,
24 HENRY VAN EYCK
and this chronostich at the end :
"hoC Ita restaVraVIt aCaDeMIae zeLVs."
On the 23rd of May, 1782, the Academy removed this
panel to their council-room, the Chapter having decided to
whitewash the church and clear away all monuments and
paintings attached to the pillars. Later on a painted wooden
tablet, bearing this mendacious inscription, was affixed to the
west wall :
D. O. M.
JAN VAN EYCK
JEAN VAN EYCK
L'ART DE PEINDRE
M CCCC XL
ONTRENT T JAER
M CCCC XL
R. I. P.
A certain Henry van Eyck was attached to the household
of John of Bavaria at the time that John van Eyck, doubtless
a near relation, was engaged in decorating the count's palace.
John IV., Duke of Brabant, the second husband of the
unfortunate Jacqueline, on his arrival at the Hague, took
him into his service at the request of members of the court,
and in consideration of the faithful service he had rendered
his uncle, he appointed him, on the 25th of February,
1425, to the post of master huntsman ("jaghermeester"),
with the same salary that previous holders of the office
v r y& 1: 1 1
PORTRAIT OF A FALCONER, HENRY VAN EYCIC?
FRANKFORT: STAEDEL INSTITUTE
had enjoyed. 1 Henry, however, probably for the same reason
as his kinsman, left Holland and entered the service of
Duke Philip of Burgundy as falconer ("varlet des faul-
cons "). His name occurs in the list of the ducal house-
hold of the 24th of December, i^26. 2 He is mentioned in
the accounts of the receivers-general of the Duke's finances
for the years 1433 3 and 1436,' with the title of "garde de
1'esprivier" and " espriveteur." In the latter year the Duke
sent him on a secret mission, for which he was paid I4/. 2s. 5
In 1444 he married Elisabeth, daughter of Louis Sallard,
master-falconer of the Duke, who on that occasion made him
a present of ioo/. 6 In 1452 he was living at Termonde, and
in that year became a member of the confraternity of Our
Lady established in the collegiate church of Saint Mary the
Virgin ; in the register he is entitled " spoerwarier myns
heeren." 7 In 1461 he succeeded Sir William de Quienville
as baillie of the town and territory of Termonde, which office
he held until his death on the nth of November, 1466. He
1 See the letters patent in F. VAN MIERIS, Groot Charter boek der
Graaven van Holland, iv, 759. Leyden, 1753.
2 This document is preserved in the State Archives at Brussels.
3 Fol. I'f'ixif. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North,
4 Fol. cclxxiiij. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North,
8 Fol. cclxxviij, "A Henry d'Eick, que mon dit seigneur lui a
donn6 et ordonne" estre baillie pour aller en aucuns lieux secretz ou
icellui seigneur 1'envoya dont il ne veult aultre declaracion estre faicte,
xiiij 1. ij s. g."
6 Account of the Receiver-General of Flanders for the year 1444-
1445, fl- ix c viij. Lille, Archives of the Department of the North.
7 Communicated by my late friend, M. L. De Burbure.
26 HENRY VAN EYCK
was buried in the church there beneath a slab of blue stone
adorned with an escucheon bearing Barry of eight or and azure,
ensigned with a helmet ; crest, a falcon. In his epitaph he
is styled " sparewannier, councillor and chamberlain of our
gracious lord the Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders, and
his high baillie of the town and territory of Termonde." 1
His widow died in 1505, and was buried in her husband's
grave as were also their son John, who died in 1523, and
their daughter Katherine.
Margaret, John van Eyck's widow, was left in reduced
circumstances when her husband died, and Duke Philip,
compassionating her misfortune, made her a present of 360 l.g.
(31). She had, we know, an annuity of 2 l.g. charged on the
revenues of the town of Bruges. This she risked in the
famous lottery drawn on February 24, I446. 2 In 1450 her
daughter Livina took the veil in the convent of Saint Agnes
at Maaseyck. Margaret had sold her house in the Sint Gillis
Nieu straat in 1444, when she went to dwell in the Oost
Meersch, in a house named the Wild Sea, in the parish of
Our Lady, where she was still living in I456. 3
1 " Epitaphes et Monuments des dglises de la Flandre au xvi e siecle
par le baron J. B. DE BETHUNE," p. 52. Bruges, 1900.
* A full account of this lottery is printed in La Flandre, vol. i.
3 The accounts for the following years are wanting.
POLYI'TYCH, BY HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
By permission of the Berlin Photographic Co,
POLVPTYCil, HV HUI
By permission of
\N"D JOHN VAN EYCK
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB
POLYPTYCH, BY HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
GHENT: Cathedral. The four central panels, i. The Eternal
Father: H. 2,10; 6.0,835. 2 and 3. The Blessed Virgin and
Saint John the Baptist : H. 1,675 ; B. 0,755. 4. The Adoration
of the Lamb: H. 1,365; B. 2,42.
Berlin : Royal Gallery. . 512. The Just Judges: H.
1,47: B. 0,52. 513. The Knights of Christ: H. 1,47;
B. 0,51. 514. The Singing Angels: H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70.
515. The Angel Musicians: H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70. 516. The Holy
Hermits: H. 1,47; 6.0,51. 517. The Holy Pilgrims: H. 1,47;
B. 0,52. 518. Saint John the Baptist: H. 1,47; B. 0,52.
519. Jodoc Vyt: H. 1,47; B. 0,51. 520. The Angel Gabriel:
H. i, 6 1 ; B. 0,70. 521. The Blessed Virgin : H. 1,61 ; B. 0,70.
522. Elisabeth Borluut : H. 1,47; 6.0,51. 523. Saint John
the Evangelist: H. 1,47; B. 0,52.
Brussels : Royal Gallery, 14, 15. Adam and Eve, each
H. 2,15. B. 0,38.
From 1432 until the Calvinist outbreak in 1566, the
polyptych adorned the altar of the Vyt's chapel in the church
which is now the cathedral of Ghent. On August 19, 1566,
two days before the iconoclasts broke into the church, it was
30 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
taken up into the tower and later on was removed for safety
to the Town-house. While there it narrowly escaped being
given to Queen Elizabeth, who had advanced money to
the leaders of the Calvinist party ; this was due to the oppo-
sition of Jodoc Triest, lord of Lovendeghem, one of the
collateral descendants of the donors. In 1584 it was brought
back to the cathedral, and in September, 1587, replaced in the
chapel. In deference, it is said, to an observation of Joseph II.,
when he visited the church in 1781, the panels representing
Adam and Eve were removed from the church. In 1794 the
four central panels were taken to Paris by the French Republi-
cans, and there exhibited in the Central Museum of Art, with
other stolen masterpieces, on March 7, 1799. The six shutter-
panels, after being hidden for a while, were for safety stored
in the Town-house, and although claimed by Denon, the
Director of the Central Museum, who offered in exchange
some paintings by Rubens, were not ceded, thanks to the
firmness of the bishop, M. Fallot de Beaumont. After the battle
of Waterloo, in spite of the violent resistance offered by
Denon, a considerable number of the stolen works of art were
brought back to Belgium, and on May 10, 1816, the four
central panels were replaced over the altar ; but, owing to
the general dislike of shutters, the latter were not, a fatal
mistake, for, in the December following, during the absence
of the bishop, who had retired to France, the vicar-general,
M. Le Surre, a Frenchman, and the churchwardens, sold them
for 3000 florins to the dealer L. J. Nieuwenhuys, who sold
them for 100,000 francs to M. Solly, by whom they were
sold to the Prussian Government for 400,000 francs. The
panels representing Adam and Eve were ceded to the Belgian
S.JOHN THK BAPTIST S. JOHN THE EVANGELIST
DERUN: ROYAI, GALLERY
on oft/l Serhn Phofographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 31
Government in 1861, and placed in the Brussels Gallery.
According to Mark van Vaernewyck, there was also,
originally a predella representing Hell, painted in distemper,
which was effaced by a man who cleaned the altar-piece, at
some date before 1550. If there be any truth in this state-
ment, the subject represented must have been Purgatory.
The exterior is divided into three zones, each subdivided
into four compartments. Those of the lower zone represent
trefoliated round-headed niches : the two in the centre are
occupied by full-length figures of Saint John the Baptist and
Saint John the Evangelist, in the form of statues on octagonal
bases, which bear their names in incised capitals : S. lohannes
Baptista; S. lohannes Ewangelista. The Baptist is pointing
with his right hand to the lamb which he carries on his left
arm, and the Evangelist is making the sign of the cross over
the poisoned cup, from which three snakes are issuing. The
heads of both saints are admirably modelled ; the dignified
and earnest expression of the Baptist contrasting well with
the delicate and youthful features of the beloved disciple.
The drapery of both figures is rather heavy, with angular
breaks in the folds. Both are painted in grisaille the Baptist
whiter and the Evangelist yellower as if to imitate stone,
but the folds of the draperies are in places so thin that they
give the impression of having been drawn from carved box-
wood or ivory models. In the two outer niches the donors of
the altar-piece are represented kneeling on a pavement of square
grey stones, their hands joined in prayer. On the right is
Jodoc Vyt, bareheaded, in a simple robe of red cloth trimmed
with brown fur, the sleeves of which, loose at the wrists, are
of peculiar shape, pendent in bags from the elbows ; a large
32 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
black purse hangs at his right side from the buckled belt
loosely encircling the body below the hips. On the left is
his wife, Elisabeth Borluut dressed in a loose-sleeved gown of
peach-coloured cloth with bright green lining, and a white
linen collar turned down over it ; the hair is brushed back
off her forehead into a net distinctly visible through the fine
cambric veil lying flat over it and forming two folds above
the temples, whence it hangs down over the ears and cheeks ;
a white linen kerchief, spread over it, covers her head and
shoulders. These two figures, evidently faithful portraits, are
inimitably lifelike. Jodoc's features, though not attractive,
convey the impression of a capable and benevolent man. His
forehead is low ; what little hair he has is cropped short ; his
small grey eyes, directed upwards, are without power; his
mouth is large, with a rather broad under-lip ; three warts, on
the upper lip, nose, and forehead, are all faithfully set down.
His wife is a really good-looking lady, with dignified matronly
features full of expression.
A long room with a stone floor occupies the full breadth
of the middle zone. Here the Annunciation is represented.
On the extreme right, the Angel Gabriel, in a white alb and
voluminous mantle fastened over the breast by a circular
morse, bends the right knee, and holding a lily-stem in his
left hand, raises his right while greeting the Virgin. His
wings are tinted of a soft hue. His light yellow hair, confined
by a circlet with a jewel surmounted by a cross over the
forehead, falls in wavy locks on to his shoulders. At the
opposite end of the room the Blessed Virgin is kneeling at a
draped prayer-desk, from the open book on which she has
half turned at the voice of the angel to express her humble
BERLIN: ROYAL GALLERY
v permission of tAe Berlin Photographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 33
submission to the Divine will and, with hands crossed on her
bosom, is looking up with a mixed expression of timidity and
wonder as the Holy Dove hovers over her head. She is
enveloped in a gold-bordered white mantle, the ample folds
of which cover the floor around ; it is fastened by a
brooch set with pearls and leaves her neck bare. Her
light hair, confined by a cincture of pearls, falls behind her in
undulating profusion. The clear evening light is streaming
in through an arched window above the prayer-desk, and falls
on both figures. In the background, beyond the prayer-desk,
is a niche in which are a brass candlestick and a pewter
ewer, and, on a shelf above these, a stoneware vessel and
a couple of books. The angel's greeting : Ave } gratia plena,
Dominus tecttm, and the Virgin's reply: Ecce ancilla in
calligraphic letters, are not inscribed on scrolls, but float
in the air from the speaker, those of the reply from left
to right, being inverted. At the rear of the lateral com-
partments is an ante-chamber with a couple of two-light
round-headed windows with trefoliated tracery looking out
on street views below ; on the sill of the window at the left
end is a decanter of water, which catches a ray of light. This
portion of the ante-chamber is seen through two arches
supported by a Romanesque column resting on a low wall
separating it from the inner chamber ; at the left end of the
ante-chamber is a vaulted stone staircase with a two-light
window, of which the upper part only is seen. Strange to
say, the background of the middle of the room does not
correspond with that of the extremities ; the portion of
the ante-chamber connecting these being omitted, and the
outer wall of the building being brought nearer to the
34 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
foreground. The oak ceiling of the middle is at a higher
level, and consequently the rafters do not unite ; moreover, the
street on to which the window of this middle portion looks
is at a lower level than those seen from the ante-chamber,
which discrepancies are a sufficient proof that these two and
the adjoining compartments cannot have been painted by
the same master. There is also a marked difference in the
architectural character of the window of the central portion ;
on its left is a niche with a trefoliated oculus beneath which
a brazen vessel is suspended over a basin, while a long towel
hangs at the side.
Above the lateral compartments are two lunettes occupied
by half-length figures of prophets. On the right, Zacharias
is seen in a loose-sleeved dress and ermine-lined mantle
fastened over the right shoulder with a row of buttons. A
large folio volume lies open before him, and he is pointing
to a passage on one of the leaves which he holds up with his
left hand. His complexion is brown and highly coloured,
his beard crisp and vigorous ; the features betoken a man
of strong character ; the ears are not seen, being covered by
the lappet of his fur cap. A long scroll encircling this figure,
bears the prophecy: Exult a satis filia Syon iubila, Ecce, rex
tuusvenit, 9. In the lunette on the left Micheas, bareheaded,
wrapped in a mantle lined with vair, leans forward and looks
down on the Virgin. A closed book lies at his side. Over
his head is a scroll on which is inscribed the prophecy : Ex
te egredietur qui sit dominator in Israel. 5.
In the demi-lunettes above the middle portion of the
Virgin's chamber are two kneeling figures : that to the right
represents the Erythrean Sibyl, clad in a loose white dress
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 35
bordered with gold, a dark cape and a white turban striped
with blue, placed on a kerchief which falls over her shoulders
and down to below her waist. A pearl hangs from her right
ear. On a scroll above her head are the words : Nil mortale
sonans afflata es numine, slightly altered from a line of
Vergil's Aeneid* The Cumaean Sibyl, on the left, is more
richly attired in a fur-trimmed robe open in front to the waist,
displaying the gold-embroidered blue bodice of her under-
dress. Her head-covering is a rich turban bordered with
pearls, over which is thrown a veil. A scroll floating above
her bears the words : Rex adveniet per secla f^^tur^^s scilicet
in came? taken doubtless from the acrostic prose sung in
many churches on Christmas Eve :
" ludicii signum. Tellus sudore madescet
E caelo Rex adveniet per saecla futurus
Scilicet in carne presens ut iudicet orbem :
Vnde Deum cernent incredulus atque fidelis
Celsum cum sanctis cui iam termino in ipso."
The names of the prophets and sibyls represented are
inscribed on the portion of the frame separating the lunettes
from the compartments of the middle zone, and those of the
painters and the donor of the altar-piece, together with a
chronogram recording the date of its completion, on the foot :
Pictor Hubertus e eyck maior quo nemo repertus
Incepit pondus que Johannes arte secondus
Perfecit letus ludoci Vyd prece fretus.
VersV seXta Mai Vos CoLLoCat aCta tVerl.
1 Lib. vi, v. 50.
2 I only know of one other painting in which these prophetic words
are attributed to the Cumaean Sibyl, a fresco of the sixteenth century
36 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
In 1823 De Bast found in a manuscript collection of
epitaphs and other inscriptions, compiled by Christopher
van Huerne (died 1629), a copy of this inscription in which
the first two words of the third line are given as frater
perfectus. About the same time Waagen, who knew nothing
of De Bast's discovery, had the green paint which covered
the frame of the polyptych removed, thus revealing the
inscription which he published, but, as was too customary
at that time, with alterations of what he considered to be
mistakes, substituting ab eyck for e eyck, and secundus for
secondus. The first two words of the third line were almost
effaced, 1 and Waagen proposed suscepit letus as the probable
correct reading ; suscepit no doubt was suggested by pondus,
which the author wrote instead of opus, because he could not
think of a dissyllabic word that would rime with opus. The
lines are Leonine hexameters with a double rime.
The interior of the altar-piece is divided into two zones.
The Eternal Father occupies the centre of the upper zone with
the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Baptist at His either
side ; next, two groups of angels, one singing, the other
playing musical instruments, and on the extreme right and
left, respectively, Adam and Eve ; above the last two
compartments, in demi-lunettes, the offerings of Cain and
Abel, and the death of Abel at the hand of his brother.
The panel beneath the three central compartments of the
in the Gonfalon oratory at Rome. See Revue de I' Art Chretien, xm,
340. Arras, 1870.
1 Probably by the bolt which kept the shutters from flying open,
or by the metal work to which the curtains that protected the exterior
GOD THE FATHER
By permission of tHt Hertin Photographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 37
upper zone represents the Adoration of the Lamb ; the
remaining four lateral panels being filled by groups of saints
advancing towards the centre. The scheme of the picture,
founded on the Vision of Saint John described in the fourth
chapter of the Apocalypse, was no doubt more directly
inspired by the liturgical Office for the feast of All Saints,
and mediaeval commentaries thereon. A work constantly
read at the time, the Golden Legend of the Dominican,
lacobus de Voragine, contains in the chapter on the feast
of All Saints, an account of "a vision that happened in
the second year after the feast was established by Pope
Gregory. On a time when the sexton of Saint Peter had
by devotion visited all the altars of the church, and had
required suffrages of all the saints, at last he came again to
the altar of Saint Peter, and there rested a little, and saw
there a vision. For he saw the King of kings in an high
throne sit, and all the angels about Him. And the Blessed
Virgin of virgins came crowned with a right resplendishing
crown, and there followed her a great multitude of virgins
without number and continents also. And anon the King
arose against her, and made her to sit on a seat by Him.
And after came a man clad with the skin of a camel, and a
great number of ancient and honourable fathers following
him ; and after came a man in the habit of a bishop, and a
great multitude in semblable habit following him ; and after
came a multitude of knights without number, whom followed
a great company of diverse people. Then came they all to
fore the throne of the King, and adored Him upon their
This work would certainly have been known to the
38 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
theologian who drew up the scheme which Hubert carried
out in such an admirable manner.
The central panel of the upper zone outtops the others.
Here the Eternal Father, solemn of mien, sits enthroned in
majesty, crowned with a white tiara encircled with three
bands of gold set with amethysts, diamonds, and a pro-
fusion of pearls ; its lappets adorned with crosses fall on
each side of His face. Over a robe girt with a tasselled
cord He wears a splendid red mantle fastened in front by
a large circular jewelled morse, leaving visible one band of
a precious stole crossed over His breast, showing the word
" SABAWT " formed by pearls. The mantle has a jewelled
border very deep at the foot and charged with the words
"ANANX ANANXIN PEX pErv" (King of kings), partly in Greek
characters. His right hand is raised in the act of blessing,
while with the left He holds a sceptre of crystal with
mountings and a finial of gold, of exquisite workman-
ship, this and a crown on the pavement at His feet, sym-
bolizing the kingdoms of the earth, are splendid specimens
of the goldsmith's art. A brocaded cloth of honour stretched
across the back of the throne shows, in gold on a dark-blue
ground, a nest in which a pelican is billing its breast, the
blood falling on its young and restoring them to life, this
symbolical design being surrounded by vine-branches laden
with grapes and a scroll inscribed " IHESVS XPS." The mold-
ings of the high rounded back of the throne bear, in three
concentric lines the inscription :
+ HIC EST DEVS POTENTISSIMVS P.ROPTER DIVINAM
MAIESTATEM + SVMMVS OMNIVM OPTIMVS PROPTER
THE BLESSED VIRGIN
S. JOHN THE BAPTIST
$y permifjion aftfo Berlin
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 39
DVLCEDINIS BONITATEM + REMVNERATOR LIBERA-
LISSIMVS PROPTER IMMENSAM LARGITATEM.
Along the front of the foot-pace is the legend :
VITA SINE MORTE IN CAPITE.
IVVENTVS SINE SENECTVTE IN FRONTE.
GAVDIVM SINE MERORE A DEXTRIS.
SECVRITAS SINE TIMORE A SINISTRIS.+
The panel on the right is occupied by the Blessed Virgin
clothed in a blue dress with tight sleeves buttoned at the
wrist, and, over this, an ample blue mantle, kept from slipping
off the shoulders by a tasselled cord attached to two jewels on
its border. A magnificent gold crown with symbolic lilies and
roses, above which float eight stars, binds her long fair hair,
which falls in wavy masses over her shoulders. With
both hands she holds an open book, on a passage of which
she is apparently meditating. The neckband of her dress
and her mantle are bordered with precious stones between
two rows of pearls. The white damask cloth of honour at her
back has a diaper of gold flowers and scrolls with Saracenic
letters. The arched back of her throne bears these words :
+ HEC EST SPECIOSIOR SOLE + SVPER OMNEM
STELLARVM DISPOSICIONEM LVCI COMPARATA INVE-
NITVR PRIOR CANDOR EST ENIM LVCIS ETERNE
+ SPECVLVM SINE MACVLA DEI (maiestatis).
On the panel to the left Saint John Baptist, an austere
figure with long hair, thick beard, and bare feet, sits with
hand upraised as though to emphasize the words of the
Prophet Isaias : Consolamini, consolamini papule meus, in
40 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
the book which lies open on his knees. Over a garment of
brown camel's hair girt with a scarf, he wears an ample green
mantle with an embroidered border studded with precious
stones between two rows of pearls. A red cloth of honour
suspended behind him has a floral pattern combined with an
inscribed scroll. The legend on the back of his throne is :
+ HIC EST BAPTISTA JOHANNES : MAIOR HOMINE :
PAR ANGELIS : LEGIS SVMMA : EWANGELII SANCIO :
APOSTOLORVM VOX : SILENCIVM PROPHETARVM I
The pavement of the three panels is composed of dull-
red and dark-green tiles.
In the panel to the right of the Virgin a choir of eight
angels l stand singing in front of an oak lectern, on which an
antiphoner lies open. Three other volumes lie on the stall
from which the brass support of the lectern rises. The angels,
one of whom, in front, is beating time with his right hand,
are vested in apparelled albs and copes, that worn by the
foremost, over a dalmatic, is of crimson brocade, its orfreys
embroidered with figures of saints in canopied compartments ;
the orfreys of another, with repeated representations of the
Holy Face. Of the morses which fasten the copes of the
1 " These angels," says Van Mander (f. 200), amplifying the
statement in strophe 5 of De Heere's ode, "are so skilfully painted
that one can see the different key in which the voice of each is
pitched." Two on the left are making an effort to sing high notes, but
there is no further ground for his statement. (See A. W. AMBROS,
Geschichte der Musick, vol. in, Introduction, " Die Zeit der Nieder-
lander." Breslau, 1870.)
THE CHOIR OF ANGKLS
BERLIN ROYAL GALLERY
u pfrmtsstan. of the flcritn Photographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 41
two angels nearest the front, one, circular, shows a seated
figure in high relief holding the tables of the Law, the other,
quadrilobed, is set with precious stones. The end of the oak
stall on the left is finely carved the plinth, with an undu-
lating stem of foliage and fruit, a lion sejant, and two apes ;
the panel above, with a fine figure of Saint Michael trampling
on the dragon ; the elbow-rests, with two seated figures of
In the panel to the left of the Baptist, an angel, 1 in a cope
of black and gold brocade bordered with ermine, is seated on
a metal faldstool, playing an organ, accompanied by five others
one on a harp, another on a five-stringed viol of unusual
form, having two semi-lunar sound-holes, but without curva-
tures. All the angels in these two panels have light wavy
hair, kept in place by jewelled fillets, some of which are
surmounted by crosses. The pavement in both panels is
composed of tiles adorned with crosses, holy lambs, the
ciphers of Jesus and Mary, u and the mysterious "AFAA." 2
On the frame at the foot of these two panels are the
MELOS DEO LAVS PERHENNIS GRATIARVM ACTIO.
LAVDATE EVM IN CORDIS ET ORGANO.
The principal panel of the lower zone occupies the entire
1 Van Mander calls this angel Saint Cecilia, an absurd mistake,
into which he was led by De Heere's ode repeated by Hotho, Waagen,
Crowe, Kaemmerer, Champlin, and many others.
This is composed of the initial letters of four Hebrew words :
Atha Gebir Leilam Adonai, Thou art mighty for ever, O Lord.
See GLASSIUS, Philologia Sacra, p. 438, and C. W. KING, in the
Archaeological Journal, xxvi, 229.
42 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
breadth of the three in the centre of the upper zone. Upon an
altar covered with a white cloth, in the middle of a flowery
meadow gently sloping down to the front, stands the spotless
Lamb, from whose breast a stream of blood flows into a
chalice. The superfrontal of the altar bears in gold capitals
the legend, Ecce Agnus Dei, qui tollit peccata mundi, and
the stole-ends, Ihesus, via, veritas, vita. All around kneel
purplish-winged angels, most of them clad in white girded
albs shaded with blue or rose ; two at the further corner on
the right support the Cross with the title affixed, and the
Lance ; the corresponding two on the left, the Pillar and the
Reed with the sponge ; two others in front, swinging thuribles,
are offering incense, symbolical of the prayers of the faithful ;
eight others kneel at the sides in adoration. In the centre of
the foreground is a fountain, an octagonal stone basin with a
bronze annelated column rising in the middle ; on its summit
stands an angel, from projecting gurgoyles beneath whose feet
and from vases in whose hands, the water falls in tiny jets.
Round the head of the basin is the legend :
FONS AQVE VITE PROCEDENS DE SEDE AGNI. 1
To the right are grouped those who, under the Law or
among the Gentiles, looked forward to the coming of the
Redeemer: kneeling prophets with upheld open books,
doctors, philosophers, and princes. All the figures in this
group are deserving of close study on account of the
variety of attitude and expression they display, three of the
foremost standing, especially ; to wit, one Vergil ? draped in
an ample white toga, holding an orange bough, and crowned
1 Apoc. xxii, i.
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 43
with laurel ; the dark-bearded man on his right, in a red cap
and dark-blue mantle, carrying a branch of myrtle, and the
venerable-looking old man with a forked beard, draped in a
red cloak. Prominent in the corresponding group on the left
are the Apostles, fourteen in number, including Paul and
Barnabas, barefooted, in light, greyish-violet robes, kneeling
in adoration. Behind them stand three popes, seven bishops
and abbots, two deacons the one nearest the foreground,
Saint Stephen, characterized by the stones he carries in
his dalmatic ; the other, immediately behind him, Saint Livin,
patron of Ghent, holding a crosier and the pincers with his
tongue in them and a number of monks and clerks. Higher
up the slope in the mid-distance are, on each side, flowering
plants, shrubs, and trees, from between which two distinct
groups are seen advancing towards the centre. On the right,
an army of martyrs : popes, cardinals, bishops, and other
saints, clad in blue vestments, with the exception of the pope
in the front row, who wears a black dalmatic and cope
embroidered with gold ; all carry palm-branches ; on the left,
a multitude of virgins, headed by Saints Dorothy, Katherine,
Barbara, and Agnes, bearing their respective emblems and
palms. Upon all fall illuminating rays from the Holy Dove
poised high over the altar, and between the Lamb and the
Eternal Father. Through an opening between the wooded
heights of the background, a river is seen winding towards the
right from mountains in the far-off distance. To the right of
the river rises the tower of Saint Martin's at Utrecht, and
on a height to the left, a city with numerous churches and
towers, evidently inspired by, but not a faithful representation
of, Coeln ; further to the left are numerous churches and towers,
44 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
decidedly Rhenish in their architectural character ; these are
balanced by trees and by a group of buildings on the extreme
right, the most conspicuous of which, octagonal in shape, con-
sists of three stories. The background of the shutters of this
lower portion of the altar-piece is formed by a landscape ; that
on the two dexter panels is wilder, more thickly wooded and
rocky, with two church towers, a couple of castles, and, in
the distance, snow-capped mountains, whilst that of the other
two panels with the exotic plants and deep-blue sky wears a
Southern character. To the right, on the sandy foreground
strewn with fragments of rock crystal and coral, the Knights
of Christ CHRISTI MILITES and the Just Judges IVSTI
IVDICES are seen advancing towards the centre, the foremost,
Saint Martin, on a dapple-grey steed, clad in armour over a
gambeson with long green sleeves, is crowned with a wreath
of laurel, and carries a banner charged with the arms of
Utrecht, Gules, a cross argent. On his left are two others,
also clad in armour, Saint George on a white, and Saint
Sebastian on a brown horse, the banner of the former bearing,
Argent, a cross gules, that of the latter, Gules, a cross between
four crosslets or. Saint Sebastian carries a large silver
buckler charged with a red cross, bearing these words in gold
capital letters :
"DS FORTIS ADONAY SABAOT VE
EMANVEL I-H-S XPC AGLA."
Beyond and almost abreast of them are two more figures :
the further on the line being an emperor, Charles the Great (?),
on a black charger ; on his right a prince, in a fur cap, riding
on a mule, doubtless Godfrey of Bouillon ; a third, in green,
THE JUST JUDGES
THE KNIGHTS OK CHRIST
BERLIN: ROYAI. GALLERY
Ztv pgrmtsrwn cftfi* Berlin. PtotograptiLc Ca
THE HOLY HERMITS
THE HOLY PILGRIMS
BERLIN ROYAL GALLERY
mfuion of the Berlin Ptotographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 45
with a small moustache, wears a fur hat with a crown
superposed; whilst the one on the extreme right, with a
white beard, has a curious, helmet-shaped head-dress, with a
jewelled crown. Of the two engaged in conversation in
the background, the younger wears a crown, the other a blue
headkerchief, painted, as first observed by Dr. Six, over a
crown, the relief of which is clearly seen when the panel is
looked at in profile.
The immediate front of the outer panel is occupied by an
elderly man astride a white horse, with jewelled trappings and
green housings to his saddle. Of five others in the front row,
the third, wearing a black headkerchief and a dark-brown fur-
trimmed dress, with a red rosary round his neck, has his head
turned towards those on his right ; all the others are looking
towards the centre.
Upon the nearer of the two panels to the left are the Holy
Hermits HEREMITE SANCTI the foremost is Saint Paul,
with at his left, leaning on a staff, Saint Anthony, and close to
him another, bald-headed and bare-footed, these two telling
their beads ; on their right, seven more ascetics, mostly dark-
complexioned, with beards and tangled hair, are followed from
behind some rocks by Saint Mary Magdalene, bearing her
pot of ointment, and Saint Mary of Egypt. On the
outer panel are the Holy Pilgrims SANCTI PEREGRINI
headed by Saint Christopher, a gigantic figure with a
bushy beard, wearing a cap, and draped in a long red
cloak ; he holds a pole in his right hand, and points to the
centre, as if indicating the way to an old bare-headed man
on his left, who is looking up to him ; they are followed by a
dozen more of all ages, clad in a variety of garments. The
46 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
background of these two panels, save on the extreme left, is
a rocky bank, thickly covered with citron trees, above which
rise a stone pine, some cypresses, and a couple of date-palms.
Numerous birds are flying about above the figures in these
two panels, among those high up above the hermits is a flock
of cranes flying in V-like array.
On the outermost panels of the upper zone, Adam and
Eve are represented by two nude figures painted with brutal
exactitude direct from living models, just as they stood before
the painter, who appears to have concentrated all his powers
on the representation of these two figures. On the wall,
above the round-headed niches in which they stand, their
names are inscribed in capital letters, ADAM, EVA. In the
demi-lunettes at the head of the panels are representations
in high relief of the offerings of Cain and Abel, and the
murder of the latter. On the frame at the foot of the panel :
ADAM NOS IN MORTE PRECIPITAVIT.
EVA OCCIDENDO OBFVIT.
Probably no other picture has given rise to so much
discussion as has this. Until recently every one accepted
the tradition that the commission for its execution was
given to Hubert van Eyck by Jodoc Vyt, and that he pre-
sented it to his parish church, now the cathedral of Saint
Bavo at Ghent. But this tradition does not repose on any
sure foundation. It is not warranted by the inscription on
the frame, which does not say that Vyt ordered the picture,
but merely that it was completed at his request. 1 It now
This inscription cannot have been put on the frame until after
the 6th of May, 1432. If one may judge by the lettering, it was
BRUSSELS: ROYAL GALLERY
3y permLsstcn of the Berlin Photographic Co
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 47
seems probable that William IV. of Bavaria, Count of Holland
and Zeeland, gave the commission. His territory was in the
diocese of Utrecht and province of Coeln, which fully
accounts for the prominent position given to the tower of
Saint Martin's at Utrecht, as also to the adjacent view of
Coeln. Ghent was in no way connected with either Utrecht
or Coeln, but was in the diocese of Tournay and the province
of Rheims. Again, the most prominent figure among the
Knights of Christ is Saint Martin, the patron saint of
Utrecht. The only saint especially connected with Ghent
who is characterized by an emblem is Saint Livin, who was
also much venerated in Zeeland. Probably at some time
after the death of William IV. in 1417, the picture was left
on Hubert's hands, and Vyt may have seized the opportunity
of making a good bargain by acquiring the painting, on which
Hubert continued to work until his death in September,
Until the sixteenth century the altar-piece was thought to
have been designed and executed by him. Miinzer, in 1495,
speaks of it as the work of one painter who was buried
before the altar, and that painter was certainly Hubert.
When the altar-piece was cleaned and restored by Blondeel
and Scorel in 1550, the inscription on the exterior of the
frame was discovered, and it became known that it was
unfinished when Hubert died in 1426, and had been com-
pleted by his brother John. Then the apocryphal legend
was invented and published by De Heere, and, soon after,
not painted by John, but doubtless by order of Vyt ; had he given
Hubert the commission to design and execute the altar-piece, that fact
would certainly have been recorded.
48 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
amplified. It met with great success, and universal accept-
ance. Pursuant to the custom prevalent among the painters
of that time, of introducing their own portraits into the pictures
they painted, two of the Just Judges were fatuously fixed
upon as being the portraits of Hubert and John. These were
copied over and over again and engraved, and figure to this
day in most works on Netherlandish art. Later on the frame
was repainted, the inscription forgotten, and the credit for the
entire work given to John. The inscription was rediscovered
in 1824, but, as already stated, with the two first words of the
third line partly effaced. 1 Critics have been ever since dis-
cussing the part taken by each of the brothers in the work.
Waagen, in 1822, was the first to tackle the question, but at
the end of more than fourscore years the solution appears to
be as far off as ever. Had the altar-piece come down to us
in the state in which it was in May, 1432, there would have
been a better chance of forming a correct opinion ; but this
is, unfortunately, far from being the case. It was cleaned
and renovated by Lancelot Blondeel and John Scorel in
I55o, 2 probably with loving care ; but since then it has under-
gone no less than four restorations. The first, in 1663, was by
Anthony Van den Heuvel. In 1822 the four central panels
suffered severely from a fire that broke out in the cathedral ;
hot ashes fell on the altar, and the panel of the Adoration was
split. A man named Lorent was employed in 1825 and 1828
1 The damage had no doubt been done before Christopher van
Huerne copied the inscription.
2 According to Mark van Vaernewyck, 1568, it had been pre-
viously cleaned by a man who effaced the tempera painting on the
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 49
to repair the damage, at the wage of 15 francs a day. He
devoted eight days to the Virgin, twelve to the Eternal Father,
fifteen to Saint John the Baptist, and eighteen to the Adora-
tion of the Lamb. In 1859 these panels were again restored by
Donselaer ; each of which restorations diminished the chance
of forming a correct opinion.
It is only within the last six years that the discovery
of the Turin miniatures, the critical examination of a
certain number of pictures which have come to light, and
the inter-comparison of these, have begun to shed fresh
light on the subject. Those who have leisure and are
curious to learn the reasons for the very various opinions
of earlier writers, will find a fair summary of those put
forth prior to 1864, in M. Ruelens' "Annotations," pp. xxx
to xxxix, or they can refer to the works enumerated in our
bibliography (pp. xciv to cxii).
Jodoc Vyt, at whose expense the polyptych was com-
pleted by John van Eyck, was the second son of Sir Nicholas
Vyt, a Receiver of Flanders, and of Amalberga Van der Elst.
He owned several mansions in Ghent, and the lordships of
Pamele in Brabant and Leedberghe. After filling various
offices, he was chosen burgomaster in 1433-1434. He married
Elisabeth Borluut. They founded, on the i3th of May, 1435,
a daily Mass to be said in perpetuity at the altar of the chapel
which they had built 1 on the south side of Saint John's church,
now the cathedral of Saint Bavo. Jodoc died in or about
1439, his wife on the 5th of May, 1443; neither was buried
1 "In de cappelle ende ten autare die zij met haren goede van
nieus hebben doen maken." Extract from the deed of foundation,
communicated by M. Victor Van der Haeghen.
50 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
in the chapel they had founded. Vyt's arms were Or two
bars cheeky azure and argent ; his wife's, Aztire three harts
Michael Coxcie, as we are informed by De Heere's ode
(strophes 21-23), was commissioned by Philip II. of Spain to
make a copy of the polyptych. To its execution he devoted
two years, 1557-1559, and received as remuneration 4000
florins. In 1559 this copy was sent to Valladolid, but was
subsequently removed to Madrid and placed in the Old
Palace, where it still was at the end of the eighteenth century.
Stolen by the French in 1808, it was brought to Brussels by
General Belliard. In 1820 the panels were separated ; the
two representing the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the
Baptist were in that year purchased by Max Joseph, King of
Bavaria, and are now in the Munich Gallery. In 1823 the
panels on which the Eternal Father and the Adoration of
the Lamb are painted were bought by the Berlin Museum.
The panels forming the shutters were subsequently acquired
by the Belgian Government, and are now attached to the
four original central panels in the cathedral of Saint Bavo at
Ghent. Coxcie's copy does not reproduce the Van Eycks'
work entirely, for on the exterior the portraits of Vyt and his
wife and the statues of the two Saints John are replaced by
figures of the four Evangelists in grisaille, and the angel's
salutation and Virgin's reply are omitted. On one of the
dexter shutter - panels, moreover, portraits of Coxcie, of
Charles V., and Philip II. are substituted for three of the
Knights of Christ. The other panels are faithfully but
superficially rendered. They lack the finish of the originals
and the splendour of their colouring. The draperies are
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 51
simplified, the jewellery poorly copied, and there is a want
of air and life in the whole.
A seventeenth-century copy on canvas of the inner portion
of the polyptych, formerly in the chapel of the Town-house of
Ghent, was sold on the approach of the French Army under
Pichegru to M. Charles Hisette, from whose widow it was
purchased by Mr. Aders in 1819. It was afterwards in the
collection of a Mr. Robinson, at whose sale, on the 26th of
April, 1839, it was purchased by Mr. Lemme for ^99 155.,
and by him was lent to the Exhibition of Art Treasures
held at Manchester (n .375) in 1857. ^ was subsequently
acquired by the Antwerp Museum.
A reduced copy in water-colours, made by Mr. E. Schultz,
1866-68, for the Arundel Society, now belongs to the National
Gallery, and should be exhibited in the room occupied by the
works of early masters of the School. Another copy of the
entire work was in the possession of the late Professor Sepp
of Munich. The Berlin Photographic Company have pub-
lished excellent photo-engravings of all the panels, three-
tenths of the size of the originals, and also copies in colour
of two of the panels at Berlin.
In the Louvre are two silver-point drawings on paper,
which Crowe (p. 66) considers to be the original designs for
the outermost panels of the upper zone ; the figure of Adam,
" a small facsimile of the picture, that of Eve somewhat
different, the head more in profile." They are certainly late
fifteenth or early sixteenth century copies, wanting in firm-
ness ; the head of Adam is bent slightly downwards, with
quite a different expression to that in John van Eyck's
painting. At the foot of the sheet is an elegantly draped
52 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
figure of a woman, and on the reverse six figures : a mother
standing with a child in her arms, a man seated on a chair
with a volume lying open on his knees, and four women
wearing caps of a decidedly German type. Another drawing
after the Adam and Eve is preserved in the Library at
Erlangen (Kaemmerer, 38). The Berlin Museum possesses
an early sixteenth-century sketch of the angel Gabriel.
In the following notes we have confined ourselves to the
mention of articles treating of this altar-piece exclusively, not
included in the general bibliography, and to the more im-
portant works issued since 1870.
1781. REYNOLDS, Sir Joshua, in his Journey to Flanders in 1781
(Works, n, 254, 1798), says this painting contains "a great
number of figures in a hard manner, but there is great character
of truth and nature in the heads, and the landscape is well
1802. FUSELI (quoted by J. KNOWLES, Life and Writings of Henry
Fuseli, i, 267) : " The three heads of God the Father, the Virgin,
and Saint John the Baptist are not inferior in roundness, force, or
sweetness to the heads of Leonardo da Vinci, and possess a more
positive principle of colour."
1857. FOERSTER, Denkmale Deutscher Kunst : Das Center Altarwerk
der Briider Van Eyk, m, 15-24.
1865. SCHAEPKENS, Exterieur de deux panneaux de la grande com-
position de 1'Agneau mystique, in Messager des Sciences, 165-170.
1872. CROWE, 57: "The whole of the outer part may have been
executed under supervision by the pupils of the Van Eycks.
The three great figures of the Father, Mary, and Saint John,
and those of Adam and Eve, are undoubted works of Hubert."
1887. BODE, 212 : "There can be no doubt that the composition of
the entire work is due to Hubert, who in addition covered all the
panels and finished or nearly finished the whole of one row. I
recognize his hand and his exclusively in the paintings on the
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 53
exterior, particularly in the superb portraits of the donor and his
wife." He attributes the three figures of God, the Blessed
Virgin, and Saint John the Baptist, entirely to Hubert. In the
two panels of the angels another hand has added cold tints, violet
and rose, to the original warmer flesh tones. Adam and Eve
are certainly the work of one hand, whether Hubert's or John's ;
the hand of the latter is recognisable in the five lower panels,
especially in the central one. Hubert's work is far superior to
that of John, who laboured under a great disadvantage in that
he had to complete a work already far advanced, and to which,
until his brother's death, he had remained an entire stranger.
1887. CONWAV, 133, considers the Adoration panel to be certainly the
work of John.
1889. SEECK, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preiissischen Kunstsammlungcn } x,
1890. WOERMANN, 340-341.
1894. REBER, 104-106. The entire work designed by Hubert. God,
the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, and the Adoration
of the Lamb with the exception of the landscape, painted by him ;
the landscape of this and the other panels by John, who certainly
painted Adam and Eve. Is in doubt as to who painted the
1898. KAEMMERER, 10-38, strangely says that the Last Judgment
was represented on the predella, for which there is no authority,
and where it would have been entirely out of place. He is of
opinion that Hubert designed the whole work, and executed the
three central figures of the upper zone and the greater portion
of the Adoration of the Lamb beneath them ; and that all the
rest was executed by John. He says that the shutters on which
Adam and Eve are painted are more than 30 centimeters taller
than the central panel, which they covered when closed.
1898. LABAN, 33-43, points out that whereas in the upper zone and
in the central panel of the lower zone the whole arrangement is
at once seen to be strictly symmetrical, the plan adopted in the
four shutter-panels of the lower zone is altogether different, in
that the means by which symmetry is attained are there ingeni-
54 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1899. SEECK, 68-70, after a careful examination of the altar-piece,
arrives at the following conclusion : the portraits of Vyt and his
wife, the five central panels of the upper zone, the Knights of
Christ, the Just Judges (with the exception of the bare-headed
man in the background, added by John), and the statue of Saint
John the Evangelist, were painted by Hubert ; but the base on
which the last stands was altered by John. The statue of Saint
John the Baptist and the two outer shutters with Adam and Eve,
and the reverse, were painted by John ; the remainder partly by
Hubert and partly by John. He puts forward a theory (pp. 10, 1 1)
that John was an excellent calligrapher, but that Hubert could
not write ; one example that he gives in support of this is the
occurrence of the Gnostic Agla, 1 which he thinks has no meaning.
1900. DE SMET, A propos du Polyptyque de van Eyck a Saint Bavon.
In Bulletin de la Socidtt d Histoire et dArchdologie, vm, 69-71.
1900. VAN DEN GHEYN, Quelques Documents inddits a propos de deux
tableaux celebres. In BTilletin de la SociCtd d'Histoire, Gand,
vm, 201-208. A full account of how the panels now at Berlin
came to be sold.
1900. VOLL, 42-62, takes the central figure of the upper zone to be
Christ, whereas it is clear that it is a figure of the Eternal Father,
the Son being represented by the Lamb, and the Holy Ghost by
the Dove. The three central panels, he thinks, were painted by
John in his early days, but are now so obscured by dirt and
dust that it is difficult to arrive at a positive decision on the point.
The two panels with the angels he also attributes to John. The
splendid portraits of Vyt and his wife, which he rather depreciates,
present the greatest difficulty to him, and he considers that they
were drawn by Hubert, but entirely coloured by John. The other
panels of the exterior, those of the lower zone and Adam and
Eve, were painted by John after his return from Spain. In short,
John over-painted all his brother's work, and therefore must be
looked on as the painter of the entire work! No wonder this
critic considers it a misfortune that the inscription on the frame
was brought to light.
1 See p. 41, note 3 ; also Kunstchrcnik, N.F., XII, 261.
THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB 55
1901. ROETTINGER, Die Eva der Center Altarwerkes, in Allgemeine
Zeitung, Miinchen, Beilage, 198.
1901. BODE, 127.
1902. LAFENESTRE, 132-135.
1902. HYMANS, 14. The figures of Adam and Eve may with sufficient
probability be assigned to Hubert.
1902. HULIN, Catalogue, 9. There can be no doubt here : the figures
of Adam and Eve are certainly the work of John, not of Hubert.
1903. DUELBERG, 51.
1903. DURRIEU, 9-32.
1903. KIRCHNER, J., Die Darstellung des ersten Menschen paares in
der bildenden Kunst, 102-104. Stuttgart.
1903. MARKS, 8, praises the wonderfully faithful renderings of the exotic
plants represented, which he unhesitatingly attributes to John.
1903. ROSEN, 62-91, enumerates the various trees and plants, and criti-
cizes the representation of these and of the rocks and landscape.
1903. SCHUBERT, 21-28.
1904. WEALE, 26-28.
1904. Six, 177-187.
1904. DVORAK, 191.
1904. KERN, 6-9, plates 2, 3, and 14.
1904. L. and A. De mystieke Beteekenis vanhet Gentsche Altarstuk.
In Dietsche Warande en Belfort, 309-328. Antwerpen.
1905. FIERENS, 176-215, attributes nearly everything to John, but
condescendingly grants to Hubert the glory of having conceived
and designed the three central figures of the upper zone, a con-
cession which, he says, it is difficult to refuse to traditional opinion ;
but at the same time, one must recognize that only one painter
could thus model their draperies and the face of the Virgin, and
display such splendid colour, which painter was John van Eyck.
He says the altar-piece was designed c. 1420, and settles to
his own satisfaction the date at which each panel was painted,
the Adoration of the Lamb and the face of the shutters on each
side being the first, and the whole of the exterior the last to be
executed. He repeats Kaemmerer's statement that the Last
Judgment was represented on the predella, giving, however, by
mistake Vaernewyck and Van Mander as his authorities.
56 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1905. MUTHER, i, 60, 70-72, attributes the figures of the Eternal
Father, the Blessed Virgin, Saint John the Baptist, and the angel
musicians to Hubert ; all the rest to John, who he thinks altered
1906. HEINS. La plus ancienne vue de Gand. In Bulletin de la
SociMt cCHistoire, 115-126. The view seen from the window of
the Virgin's chamber represents a street in Ghent.
1906. MAETERLINCK. Une ceuvre de Van Eyck mimee a Gand au
xv e siecle. In Bidletin de I' Art ancien, 215-216. An account
of a mystery play given at Ghent on the occasion of the joyous
entry of Philip III., Duke of Burgundy, after the battle of Gavere,
23 April, 1458. It represented the Adoration of the Lamb as
pictured in the altar-piece. The stage was 28 feet high and
53 feet broad. It is interesting to note that the principal Knights
of Christ in this play were SS. George, Victor, Maurice, Sebastian,
1906. HEINS. Une signature de Jean van Eyck? In Bulletin de la
Sotitte d'Histoire, xiv, 383-385. This is not a signature, but the
holy name yecvc ;
1906. COENEN, 156.
1907. MONCHAMP, in Leodium, vi, 5-6.
1907. COENEN, 54-59.
1907. WEALE, in Leodium, 87-88.
1907. REINACH, 221, thinks that John's share was confined to the two
magnificent portraits of the donors.
After a careful study of all that has been written on the
subject, I see no reason for changing my opinion that the
only portions of the altar-piece entirely due to John are both
sides of the shutters on the face of which Adam and Eve are
represented. These and the panels at Berlin are in a better
state of preservation than those remaining in the cathedral at
Ghent, and therefore offer the least difficulty to those who may
wish to try and solve the problem of who painted each portion.
PAINTINGS BY JOHN VAN EYCK
i. PORTRAIT OF B. NICHOLAS ALBERGATI
Vienna: Imperial Gallery, 824. Oak. H. 0,35 ; 6.0,29;
THIS was, in 1659, in the collection of the Archduke Leopold
William, Governor-general of the Low Countries, 1 then in
the Belvedere Gallery, 2 where it passed for the portrait at an
advanced age of Jodoc Vyt, 3 the donor of the Ghent altar-
piece. In the catalogue of the Imperial Gallery of 1884,
Engerth entitled it ' Portrait of the Cardinal of Saint Cross.'
In 1898 Kaemmerer threw doubt on the correctness of this
ascription, justly remarking that the portrait does not bear
the slightest resemblance to the monumental effigy of Do-
minic Capranica, Cardinal of Saint Cross, in the cathedral of
1 Inventory, n. 109. " Ein Contrafait van Oehlfarb auf Holcz
des Cardinals von Sancta Cruce. Original von Johann van Eyckh."
Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhochsten Kaiser-
hauses, i, part 2, cxxi, col. i. Wien, 1883.
2 Catalogue of 1860: Early German and early Netherlandish
Schools, Room 2, n.42.
3 This ascription was accepted by Passavant (Kunstblatt, 1841,
p. 14). Crowe and Cavalcaselle, in 1857, were, I believe, the first to
remark the considerable points of difference in the two portraits, and the
exactness of their observations was confirmed by Hotho, in 1858, and
by Waagen, in 1866.
58 JOHN VAN EYCK
Siena ; and no wonder, for the prelate here represented is
not Capranica, 1 but Albergati. This eminent prince of the
Church, born at Bologna in 1375, was the son of Peter
Nicholas Albergati and Philippa, his wife, only daughter of
Dr. Bartholomew Chiopetti. He entered the Order of the
Carthusians when in his twentieth year, was successively
prior of the monastery of Saint Jerome outside Bologna in
1406, and of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem at Rome in 1407,
in which year he was also appointed procurator-general of the
Order ; he was rector of the newly founded monastery of the
Holy Trinity at Mantua from 1409 to 1416, and again prior
of Bologna from 1416 until the end of March, 1417, when he
was elected bishop of Bologna. Created a cardinal-priest by
Martin V., May 24, 1426, he took for his titular church the
Holy Cross of Jerusalem. In his humility he discarded his
family arms, and substituted for them a simple cross. A
model of all priestly and episcopal virtues, he continued to
observe the austere rule of the Carthusians, sleeping on
straw, never eating flesh-meat, wearing a hair shirt, and
rising at midnight to pray. Nine times he was sent by the
Holy See on important embassies, 2 when, dealing with
1 This prelate was created a cardinal-deacon by Martin V., July 23,
1423, but the nomination was not published until November 8, 1430 ;
on the i Qth of that month Capranica took for his titular church Saint
Mary in via lata. It was not until after Albergati's death, in 1443, that
Capranica was raised to the dignity of cardinal- priest, with the title of
Saint Cross. See CHACON, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Summorum,
ii, no, Romae, 1630; PASTOR, History of the Popes, ed. ANTROBUS,
2 nd ed., i, 261 and 264-266 ; and EUBEL, in Romische Quartalschrift,
xvii, 274-275. Rome, 1903.
2 Thrice to France (in 1422, 1431, and 1435), thrice to Lombardy
B. NICHOLAS ALBERGATI. CARDINAL OF SAINT CROSS. 1432.
VIENNA: IMPERIAL GALLERY
Fram. a- fito
matters involving questions of worldly policy of no small
difficulty, he invariably displayed consummate prudence com-
bined with perfect uprightness and integrity. 1 Thus in 1431
he was sent on an embassy to the Kings of France and
England and the Duke of Burgundy, to try and bring about
a general peace.
The Duke, who had started on a journey to Holland, had
actually reached Vere, when he was informed of the cardinal's
intended visit. He at once returned to Brussels, and sent
messengers in every direction to the principal ecclesiastical
and lay dignitaries of his dominions, summoning them to
him without delay, that the Pope's ambassador might be
received with the honour and solemnity befitting his rank
The cardinal, accompanied by Ame Bourgois, one of the
Duke's councillors and chamberlains, arrived at the Charter-
house of Herinnes, near Enghien, early in October, 1431.
Proceeding to Brussels, he was received there, on the i8th
of that month, by the Duke in person, surrounded by his
court. 2 Thence he returned to Herinnes, accompanied by
Ame Bourgois and master Giles d'Escornaix, provost of
Harlebeke, who both escorted him to Ghent, which they
(in 1426, 1427, and 1430), and thrice to the Council at Basel (in 1432,
1434, and 1436).
1 Eugenius IV., writing to Charles VII. of France, says that he is
sending him the Cardinal of Saint Cross, "virum sapientissimum,
magnaque auctoritate, ut nosti, et procul ab omni passione remotum,
cuius omnes cogitationes, omnia consilia tendunt ad concordiam, ad
2 The Archbishop of Coeln and the Chancellor of France were
also present at this interview.
60 JOHN VAN EYCK
reached on the 3rd of November. The cardinal stayed at
the Charterhouse there until the 6th. Thence he went to
Lille, and later on visited Bruges, where he spent two or
three days at the Charterhouse, between the 8th and nth of
The Duke meantime had despatched letters to the
authorities of those towns, bidding them receive the cardinal
with the honours due to his rank. 1 One of these letters was
probably addressed to John van Eyck, bidding him paint the
portrait of the cardinal. However, as his stay in Bruges was
of such brief duration, 2 it was obviously impossible to paint
it direct from life. Van Eyck was therefore unable to do
more than make a careful drawing of his likeness, with such
memoranda as would enable him to execute a satisfactory
painting. This exquisite drawing, in silver-point on a white
ground, is preserved in the royal cabinet of prints at
Dresden. 3 At the dexter side are a number of notes disposed
The accounts of the treasurers of both Enghien and Brussels
for this period are lost. In those of the treasurers of Ghent are
numerous entries of payments to messengers, to labourers for clearing
the streets of the town and the road thence to the Charterhouse, for
wine and comfits presented to the cardinal, for the hire of horses for
the town officials who rode out to meet and escort him, to the town
trumpeters, and to the bell-ringers of the seven parish churches. The
accounts of the Treasurer of Bruges and of the fabric of the collegiate
church of Saint Donatian also contain entries of payments for wine,
herbs, spices, and wax-lights presented to the cardinal.
2 It is uncertain whether Van Eyck was then at Bruges or at
Ghent. In either case the time was too short.
3 H. 0,212; B. 0,18. Acquired before 1765. Reproduced by
WOERMANN, Handzeichnungen alter Meister im kdniglichen Kupfer-
stich Kabinet zu Dresden, Munchen, 1896 ; in Die Insel, Mappenwerk,
^f . i ' '
.o*\ >U.^.t k
- ; f **
i v '^-V.
s;^.- V^^'T ; ' .* ^
,.,,. | ,,-^Ft
B. NICHOLAS ALI;KI;ATI, usi
SILVKR-POIXT DKAWIXi;. DKKSDKN: KOVAI, PRINT COLLECTION
in sixteen lines, evidently written with the pencil used
for the drawing ; these, partly hidden by the shading of the
head, are now unfortunately, owing to the drawing having
been exhibited during several years, much faded, with the
result that some of the words baffle all attempts to decipher
them. Here, however, are those which can still be read,
commencing at the line on a level with the forehead : " van
den voorhoofde vryssche vnd die nase sanguynachtich
with the eyebrows : ". . . ten hair clair bleicachtich " with
the eye : "... wratte purperachtich - . . . - van den augen
swart um bruyn geelachtich vnd witte blauwachtich
die vm seiden witten bleecachtich hecheren . . . van seiden
ich en ... lachtich beym anziens . . . bruyn sanguin-
achtich es of ... lachtich die lippen zeer witachtich
purper, die stuppele van den baerde heel gry sachtich . . .
brat door sachtich roodachtich."
From this drawing the painting was executed. In it the
cardinal is seen to the waist, modelled in a yellowish tone,
with few flesh tints and without any deep shadow. Bareheaded,
he wears the cappa clausa, a loose crimson robe edged at the
neck and arm-openings with white fur, and fastened at the neck
by two buttons ; the straight vertical folds of this robe, the
arms and hands being unseen, give it an elegant bell-shaped
appearance. The cardinal's head is turned to the right ; his
close-shaven vigorous face, seen in three-quarter profile,
with the light falling directly on it, is full of expression.
There is quite a charm about the little brownish eyes, which
appear to be looking out from beneath the eyebrows with a
Leipzig, 1899 ; ^ Onze Kunst, i, 4, Antwerp, 1902 ; and in the
Burlington Magazine, v, 195. London, 1904.
62 JOHN VAN EYCK
keen scrutinizing glance, while a pleasant playful smile hovers
about his closed lips. The numerous wrinkles on the fore-
head and the folds of skin on the face and on the neck, up
to the root of the ear, are marked by fine reddish strokes ;
the left ear, seen in light, is admirably drawn. The short
scanty grey hairs of his head, in a state of confusion, seem to
tremble beneath each other, and the blood to be circulating
under the relaxed skin and in the veins of the pupils of his
eyes. The background is dark, but lighter and bluish near
the head. As compared with the drawing, the painting is
less lifelike and individualistic ; this is especially the case
with the mouth and the lower portion of the face. It seems
as if Van Eyck endeavoured to embellish the form of the
head so that it should appear less heavy and broad.
1857. CROWE, 88, rightly describes the drawing as the original
1858. HOTIIO, n, 178.
1865. B. PAOLI, Wiens Gemalde Gallerie, 114. Wien.
1866. MICIIIELS, n, 293, with his usual want of perspicuity, describes
the cardinal's features as soft and insignificant, showing that he
could not possibly have been a remarkable personage ! !
1866. WAAGEN, i, 186.
1886. ENGERTH, n, 134, dates the drawing between 1433 and 1435.
1897. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xx, 71.
1898. KAEMMERER, 70-72, looks on the drawing as evidence that
John's usual method was not to paint portraits direct from life ; but
this was certainly an exceptional case, when it was impossible to
do so. He rashly suggests that the ecclesiastic's vanity which
he thinks proved by his fur-trimmed crimson robe led him to
give Van Eyck a hint to embellish his head in the painting ! A
papal nuncio could hardly be represented in simpler attire.
1899. SEECK, 29, 70, on comparing this with other portraits, arrived at
a correct conclusion as to the date of its execution.
PORTRAIT OP A MAN, 1432
LONDON: NATIONAL GALLERY
1900. VOLL, 75-78, considers the drawing to be a very careful copy of
the painting, and says that it has none of the freshness and life-like
energy of the latter, so much so indeed that it might almost be
taken for the portrait of another man ! ! He considers it highly
improbable that John would paint a portrait from a drawing.
1900. KAEMMERER, 70.
1902. ROOSES, in Onze Kunst, i, 3-8. The drawing, he thinks, is
rightly ascribed to John, and the writing is no doubt in his
1903. DE MONT, 55, dates this portrait after 1436.
1904. WEALE, 190-198, establishes the identity of the cardinal
portrayed, and the date of the drawing.
1905. FIERENS, 143-145.
1906. VOLL, 98, denies the Cardinal of Saint Cross to be the person
represented in the painting ! !
2. PORTRAIT or A MAN
London: National Gallery, 290. Oak. H. 0,336; B. 0,188.
Bought in 1857 from the landscape-painter Carl Ross,
at Munich, for ^"189 us.
Portrait of a dark-complexioned man with blue eyes, of
about forty-five years of age, standing at a window-opening.
Turned to the right, close shaven, with his face seen in three-
quarters, he wears a dark red dress with full sleeves trimmed
with sable, and fastened in front by two buttons. His head-
covering is formed by a green scarf, the long lappet of which
hangs down in front of the right shoulder, the other end just
reaching to the left. In his right hand he holds a roll of
manuscript, while his left forearm rests on a parapet of
yellowish stone, bearing on the front, in Greek characters,
what is supposed to be his Christian name, Tymotheos, and
64 JOHN VAN EYCK
beneath this in capital letters incised in the stone, ' Le"al
souvenir,' showing that this portrait was painted for pre-
sentation to a friend, or more probably was a gift from the
painter, who has written at the foot in calligraphic characters :
"Actum anno Domini 1432, 10 die Octobris, a lohanne de
Eyck." It is not known whom this portrait represents ;
certainly not a Fleming, perhaps a Greek, possibly a
humanist, apparently an intelligent, though by no means a
handsome man, who, in spite of his angular features, heavy
jaw, thick lips, prominent cheek-bones and cocked up nose,
is a charming figure. The modelling is excellent, the colour
rich and simple, but very harmonious and well relieved by
the dark background. The under side of the panel, painted
to imitate jasperated porphyry, bears, near the top, the
cipher Q L (j of an early Italian, probably Venetian owner.
Several old copies of the portrait are said to be in existence.
1854. FOERSTER, in Kunstblatt, October 19, p. 373.
1872. CROWE, 94. The drawing is careful ; the painting blended to
1878. REISET, n, 9.
1883. WEALE, 62-63.
1887. CONWAY, 148.
1879. SCHNAASE, 144.
1898. KAEMMERER, 60, thinks 'Leal souvenir' was the man's own
motto, and that ' Tymotheos ' can scarcely be conceived to be his
1899. SEECK, 28, 30.
1900. VOLL, 1-8, 27, 28.
1904. WITT, 21.
1905. FIERENS, 145.
I'OKTKAIT OK A GOLDSMITH
SII.VKK-I'OINT DRAWING. BERLIN: KOYAI. PRINT COI.J.KCTION
OUR LADY AND CHI'LD. 1433
1906. VOLL, 29.
A silver-point drawing (H. 0,21 ; B. o, 14) in the Print- Room of the
Berlin Museum, which bears a slight resemblance to this portrait,
is ascribed on insufficient grounds to John van Eyck. It formerly
belonged to the poet Adolphus Hilarius ; was in the collection of
William Mayor (died 1874) and was acquired by the Museum at
a sale in Munich, June 19, 1897, n .244.
3. OUR LADY AND CHILD
Ince Hall, Ince Blundell, Liverpool. Oak. H. 0,225; B. 0,15.
The scene is laid in a room dimly lighted from the right
by a window glazed with tiny lozenges and a border of red,
white, blue, and white. In the centre the Virgin Mother
enthroned with the Child on her knees, His lower limbs partly
covered with the white linen cloth on which He is seated.
With both hands He is turning over the leaves of an illumi-
nated manuscript which His mother holds before Him with
her left hand. She wears a full loose dress of blue material,
with jewelled neckband and white fur trimming at the cuffs
and the hem of the skirt, confined at the waist by a broad
red belt studded with gold, and over all an ample crimson
mantle, the folds of which spread over the ground on all
sides. Her luxuriant light-brown hair, confined by a circlet
of pearls with a jewel in the centre, falls over her shoulders
in wavy tresses. A rich cloth of honour of green and gold
brocade hangs from a red-fringed canopy high up above her
head. On a table before the window stands a metal vase with
crystal cover, while on the window-sill are a couple of oranges
and a goblet half full of wine. A tall pricket chandelier with
a taper and two sconce branches, and a white metal pot with
66 JOHN VAN EYCK
brass mountings, are placed on a low aumbry on the Virgin's
left ; in its lock is a key, to which three others are attached.
A rich carpet spread beneath Mary's feet contrasts well with
the sombre floor; to the left is a large brass pan. In the
upper part of the background on the right, close to the cloth
of honour, is the signature :
COPLETVKNOD . ., T , , ,
mccc&xxxiij an d on the opposite side Johns device, RAC
J?IOHEM DE EYC appears here for the first time. XRN
This picture is a marvellous example of John's talent
both as regards finish of detail and vigorous treatment of
colour. The Virgin's expression is pleasing and not without
dignity ; that of the Child, happy and playful. The disposal
of the oranges and the metal and crystal vessels so as to
catch the light from the foreshortened windows on the right,
and the manner in which the master has concentrated his
powers upon depicting every little detail as perfectly as possible,
is nowhere more noticeable than in this, probably the first
picture painted by him after settling in Bruges. Unfortunately,
the panel is covered with a thick coat of varnish, and in
addition is slightly warped, which has led to a general
cracking of the surface.
Exhibited : London : Old Masters, Burlington House,
1884, n.267; Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1892, n.i4;
Guildhall, 1906, n.3.
1854. WAAGEN, in, 249.
1857. CROWE, 338-341.
i860. SCHNAASE, VIII, 144.
1883. WEALE, 193-195-
1893. TSCHUDI, in Repertorium, xvi, 101, says the letters of the
signature are uncertainly drawn, and have probably been copied
from the original frame.
1898. KAEMMERER, 58-60.
1899. SEECK, 70.
1900. VOLL, 8, 87-89, 131, declares the inscription to be a forgery,
and the picture, which he had never seen, to date from the end of
the fifteenth century ! !
1901. BODE, 122, refutes Voll's assertions.
1904. DVORAK, 195-196.
1905. FIERENS, 142.
1906. VOLL, 35.
I9O6. SlEBERT, I I.
1906. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxix, 574, thinks the inscription
has been copied from the original frame. He evidently had not
remarked that the date is 1433, not 1 43 2 -
1907. DURAND, 62-63.
An old copy of this picture (Oak. H. 0,368; B. 0,277)
was formerly in private hands at Messina, where it was
bought by the Duke of Verdura for 50 ounces (2$) ; his
collection was sold at Rome in April, 1894, when this panel
was bought in at 1200 lire (^48); it now belongs to his
daughter. The inscription, occupying a similar position, is
identical with that on the Ince original. Another weaker
copy is said to be in the Museum at Catania.
On the upper part of the back there is what appears to be
a contemporary note that the panel was pledged on the 2nd
of July, 1619, for 3 ounces 15, or 60 scudi, " 1619 a 2
Luglio questo quadro di Luciano Costa e stato in pegno per
oz. 3 1 5 Scudi (?) 60."
68 JOHN VAN EYCK
4. PORTRAIT OF A MAN
London : National Gallery, 222. Oak. H. 0,332 ;
B. 0,261 ; within the frame, H. 0,26; B. 0,188.
Formerly in the collection of Thomas, Earl of Arundel,
later in that of George Alan, Viscount Midleton of Peper-
harrow, died 1848. Purchased by the Trustees from Mr. H.
Farrer, in 1851, for 31$.
The bust of a man, apparently a well-to-do merchant of
about sixty-five years of age. He is clad in a dark dress, the
fur collar of which just covers the lower part of his face, but
shows a little linen at the throat. His head-covering is a
rich red scarf wound in a very artistic manner, its ends piled
up at the top of the cranium. The closely shaven face, wearing
a bright expression, is seen in three-quarters turned to the
right, the eyes looking to the left. This, one of the best of
John's portraits, is delicately painted in a reddish-brown tone,
the modelling of the left cheek in shadow is most successful,
its elevations and hollows, the pleats of the eyelids and at the
root of the nose, and the veins and wrinkles of the forehead,
being rendered with absolute faithfulness. The framework,
which is original, is formed by four mitred pieces of molding
glued to the face of the panel and secured by wooden pegs,
and painted to imitate marble. The upper border bears the
painter's motto: " Als ich can"; at the foot is his signature,
with date: " lohannes de Eyck me fecit anno 1433 21 Octobris."
1854. WAAGEN, i, 348.
1860. WAAGEN, 70.
PORTRAIT OF A MAN 1433
LONDON: NATIONAL GALLERY
1872. CROWE, 94, speaks of this portrait as being dated a few months
earlier than the ' Leal Souvenir,' whereas it is more than a year
1878. REISET, n, 8.
1883. WEALE, 63.
1887. CONWAY, 148.
1898. KAEMMERER, 62.
1899. SEECK, 70.
1900. VOLL, 8, in spite of the inscription, looks on this portrait as
apocryphal and as a work of much later date. The inscription on
the frame, he says, is not calligraphic, and although the man's head
is turned to the right, his eyes are directed to the left ; the head-
dress too is anomalous and hastily arranged !
1901. BODE, 118, demonstrates the absurdity of Dr. Voll's contention.
1904. WEALE, 249.
1904. WITT, 122.
1905. DURAND, in Les Arts Anciens, i, 23-25, takes this to be a
portrait of John van Eyck, by himself, when about 47 years
1905. FIERENS, 146, esteems this one of John's best portraits.
"Tout le genie de Jean est dans ce portrait."
1906. VOLL, 43-44. Drapery of head-dress very clumsy ; cannot be
of the fifteenth century.
5. PORTRAITS OF JOHN ARNOLFINI AND JOAN CENANI, HIS
London : National Gallery, 186. Oak. H. 0,845 ; B . 0,624.
Acquired after 1490 by Don Diego de Guevara, councillor
in 1507 of Maximilian and the Archduke Charles, and major-
domo of Joan, Queen of Castile. He added shutters to it,
on the outer side of which were painted his arms and motto.
Before 1516 he presented it to Margaret of Austria, Governess
70 JOHN VAN EYCK
of the Netherlands. 1 At her death, in 1530, it passed into the
possession of Mary of Hungary, and it figures in the inventory
of her property in I556. 2 It was subsequently taken to Spain.
In 1789 it was in the palace of Charles III., at Madrid. A
little later it fell into the hands of General Belliard or one
of the other French generals. In 1815 Major-General Hay,
who had been wounded at the battle of Waterloo, found
it in the apartments to which he was removed at Brussels.
After his recovery he purchased and brought it to England ;
in 1842 it was acquired by the Gallery for the moderate sum
The picture represents a Flemish interior, a quadrangular
room seen in perspective. In the centre stand a newly married
couple. The man, apparently about thirty-five years of age,
1 " Ung grant tableau qu'on appelle Hernoul le fin, avec sa femme
dedens une chambre, qui fut donne a Madame par Don Diego, les
armes duquel sont en la couverte du dit tableaul. Fait du painctre
lohannes." Inventaire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche,
dresse en 1516. Lille: Archives of the Department of the North,
"Ung aultre tableau fort exquis qui se clot a deux feulletz, ou il y
a painctz ung homme et une femme estantz desboutz, touchantz la main
1'ung de 1'aultre ; fait de la main de lohannes ; les armes et devise de
feu don Dieghe es dits deux feulletz ; nomme le personnaige, Arnoult
fin." Inventaire des painctures, etc., appartenans a madame Marguerite,
d'Austriche, dresse en son palais de Malines le 9 Juillet, 1523. Paris :
Bibliotheque Nationale, Collection Colbert.
"85. Cargasele mas una tabla grande con dos puertas, con que
se cerrava, y en ella un ombre e una muger, que se tomaban las manos,
con un espejo, en que se muestran los dichos ombre e muger, y en las
puertas las armas de don Diego de Guebara ; hecha por Juanes de
Hec, anno 1434, segun pare^e por el dicho ynbentario." Simancas:
JOHN ARNOLFIN1 AND WIFK 1<M4
;.ONDON: NATIONAL GALLERY
is tall and slight, and has a grave and thoughtful countenance ;
he holds his right hand raised in an impressive manner; while
the bride has laid hers in his left, stretched out towards her.
He wears a close-fitting dress of two shades of black, the
sleeves of which are fastened at the wrist with a red cord.
Over this is a sleeveless tunic of claret-coloured velvet
trimmed with sable fur, reaching to a little below the knees.
Black hose and boots and a large Italian hat of plaited
straw dyed black, complete his costume. A ring adorns the
second finger of his right hand. The lady, some years
younger than her husband, is attired in a loose light-green
dress, trimmed and lined with white fur, and confined im-
mediately below the breast by a rose-coloured cincture em-
broidered with gold. She has gathered up the front of her
skirt into a mass of stiff folds, displaying a blue under-dress,
the tight sleeves of which are edged at the wrist with gold
lace. Her hair, confined in a caul of red network, is drawn
back from off her forehead into two horns, over which is
thrown a beautifully frilled kerchief of fine linen. A double
string of pearls passes twice round her neck, and a couple
of rings adorn the fourth finger of her left hand. At her feet
in the foreground is a lively little griffin terrier painted with
marvellous accuracy. From one of the beams of the ceiling
in the middle of the room hangs a six-branched chandelier
of brass, terminated by a lion's head with a ring in its mouth ;
one of the candles is burning. On the right is an aumbry
with a couple of oranges on it, a third lying on the sill of a
window immediately above it. The upper part of this window
is filled with pearl-white roundels ; the shutters of the lower
portion, which is not glazed, are open, disclosing a cherry tree
72 JOHN VAN EYCK
in full blossom, and a glimpse of clear blue sky. On the left,
at the further end of the room, is a bed furnished with a
coverlet and hangings of rich crimson. By its head stands
an armchair with upright back terminated by cresting and
a figure of Saint Margaret triumphing over the dragon, from
which a dusting-brush is suspended. On the bedside carpet,
which is adorned with flowers and crosses, lie a dainty pair
of red shoes, while on the floor, in the foreground to the right,
are two pattens of white wood with black leather latchets.
Along the further wall is a bench furnished with a crimson
cover and a couple of cushions. Above the back, terminated at
each end by a carved monster, hangs a circular convex mirror
in a carved frame adorned with ten little medallions, in which
are painted a series of miniatures, commencing at the foot with
the Agony in the Garden of Olives, followed by the Betrayal,
with Saint Peter cutting off Malchus's ear, Christ being led
before Pilate, the Scourging at the pillar, the Carriage of the
cross, Calvary, the Deposition, the Entombment, the Descent
into Limbo, and the Resurrection. In the mirror are seen
faithfully reflected, not only the two figures and that portion
of the room comprised in the picture, but an oak portal
beyond projecting into it, in which two persons are standing,
apparently John van Eyck, dressed in blue, and a youth in
scarlet. On the wall above the mirror is written, in a highly
ornate hand, " Johannes de eyck fuit hie 1434." A string
of amber beads with a green silk tassel at the end hanging
from a peg to the right of the mirror is reflected on the grey
The colouring of this marvellous interior is full of vigour
and blended with the utmost care. The flesh tints are
MIKKOR AM) SKiXATl'KK OK JOHN \A\ KVCK, lV.il
LOXIXIN: NATIONAL (IA1.LKKV
admirable, and in their rendering show a remarkable trans-
parency of shadow. The picture, in short, is an exquisite
gem in the finest state of preservation save in one place,
across the mirror. The back of the panel is painted on a
John Arnolfini settled in Bruges in 1420. Both he
and his wife became members of the confraternity of Our
Lady of the Dry Tree. They lived in the Coopers' Street, in
a picturesque house, pulled down to make room for the present
ugly theatre. There Arnolfini, who had been knighted by
Duke Philip, and made one of his chamberlains, died on the
i ith of September, 1472. He was buried at the Austin Friars',
in the chapel of the Lucchese merchants, where he and his
brother Michael had founded a Mass to be said daily for the
repose of their souls. Joan, who survived her husband, was
still living in 1490 ; she was eventually buried in the church
of the Rich Clares.
1568. VAERNEWYCK, chap, xlvij, the earliest author who mentions this
picture, says that Mary of Hungary saw it when in the possession
of a barber, to whom she gave in exchange for it a place worth a
hundred florins a year.
1604. C. VAN MANDER, 119, repeats this idle tale.
1847. CARTON, 309, misreads the inscription thus: JOHNINES DE
EYCK, HIC. 1438, which, he says, has no sense, and makes him
doubt the authenticity of the picture ! !
1852. VIARDOT, Les Musees d'Angleterre, 29, Paris, describes the
picture as a scene of chiromancy, and says that the man is trying
to read in the lines of the lady's outstretched hand the future of
the babe whose birth she is expecting ! !
1854. WAAGEN, i, 348, repeats Vaernewyck's story, and considers the
figures to be the portraits of John van Eyck and his wife.
1855. LABORDE, La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France, i,
74 JOHN VAN EYCK
601-604, Paris, gives a long description of the picture, the accuracy
of which he secured by making use of a magnifying-glass. In spite
of this, and of having had the glass that protects the painting
removed, his is one of the most extraordinarily inaccurate descrip-
tions of a work of art that has ever been penned, even by a French
critic. He seems, at first sight of the picture, to have formed
a theory as to the event it was intended to commemorate, and,
labouring under a kind of hallucination, to have discovered all sorts
of proofs of its correctness. He entitles the picture La Ltgitima-
tion. The man, he says, is solemnly holding up his right hand
to attest, in the presence of a crowd of neighbours (!) flocking in
at the front door, that the child whose birth the lady is evidently (!)
expecting is his, and that with the view of accentuating this fact
Van Eyck surrounded the convex mirror with ten others of much
smaller size, each reflecting the scene in exact perspective, varied
according to its position, with a minuteness and fidelity which are
most remarkable ! !
1857. CROWE, 65-66, 85-86, and 345-346.
1860. WAAGEN, i, 70.
1861. WEALE, Notes, 22-28, refutes the misstatements of previous
1863. RUELENS, xcv.
1872. CROWE, 94, 99-101.
1878. REISET, n, 5-9.
1879. SCHNAASE, 145.
1883. WEALE, 63-65.
1887. CONWAY, 149-151.
1887. JUSTI, Alt Flandrische Bilde in Spanien. In Zeitschrift fiir
bildende Kunst, xxn, 179-180.
1891. LAURIE, 392.
1898. KAEMMERER, 66.
1899. SEECK, 70.
1900. VOLL, 8- 1 6.
1903. F. WEALE, 20.
1904. WITT, 16-20.
1904. BOUCHOT, 238-240, questions the authenticity of the inscription,
which he mistranslates, and says that the painting, described in
the inventory of Margaret of Austria as a large picture, is probably
still in Spain, and cannot be this ! ' Large ' and ' small ' are
relative terms, and this is correctly set down as ' large ' by
comparison with those preceding it in the inventory.
1904. KERN, 9, plate iv, shows that John had not completely mastered
the laws of linear perspective when he designed this picture.
1904. DVORAK, 181, remarks that this picture shows an observation of
the modelling power of ight and shade.
1905. FIERENS, 146-148.
1906. DOEHLEMANN, 13.
1906. VOLL, 29-31.
1906. PHILLIPS, in the Burlington Magazine, vin, 304 : " To match the
peculiar pathos, the quiet intensity of this representation in art,
one must go back ... to that noble group in the Vatican, in
which husband and wife, hand in hand, soul to soul, go on in
perfect union ... to eternity."
A curious imitation of this picture (Oak. H. 0,45 ; B.
0,24) signed Godefridus lohannis fecit anno 1581, was in the
possession of the late Rev. James Beck.
6. OUR LADY AND CHILD ENTHRONED, SAINT DONATIAN,
SAINT GEORGE AND THE DONOR
Bruges: Town Gallery. Oak. H. 1,22; B. 1,57. The
figures about two-thirds life-size.
Originally over the altar of Saints Peter and Paul in the
collegiate church of Saint Donatian at Bruges ; * removed to
the sacristy before 1778; taken to Paris by the French in 1794;
1 CROWE (1872, p. 108) and KAEMMERER (1898, p. 66) say that
this picture was commissioned for the high altar of the church. It was
not placed over the high altar until after 1578, when the silver-gilt
reredos given by Margaret, Countess of Flanders and Artois, was
broken up and melted.
76 JOHN VAN EYCK
brought back by the Allies in 1815, and deposited in the
The scene is laid in a circular Romanesque building, or
in the apse of the transept of a church, but not in that of
Saint Donatian nor of any known Romanesque church. 1
The Blessed Virgin is seated on a throne beneath a canopy
furnished with a handsome cloth of honour of woollen
material with a rich pattern of foliage and flowers on a blue
ground. The front principals of the throne are adorned with
figures of Adam and Eve in niches, and surmounted by
sculptured groups representing the death of Abel, and
Samson tearing the lion in pieces. A beautiful carpet
covers the steps of the throne and part of the pavement of
blue-and-white Spanish probably Valencian tiles. 2 The
Virgin's robe of blue, cut square at the neck, is bordered with
a jewelled band ; over it she wears a large red mantle lined
with olive green, and bordered with precious stones between
two rows of small pearls. Her long crimped hair, confined
by a jewelled circlet of gold, falls in undulating masses over
her shoulders. With her right hand she supports the Divine
Child seated nude on a fair linen cloth spread over her knee.
With His right hand He is holding a parakeet, and with His
left accepting a bunch of flowers from His mother. On the
right stands Saint Donatian, seen in profile, vested in a
1 See the illustrations in James ESSEX, Journal of a Tour through
part of Flanders in August, 1773, edited by W. M. Fawcett, Cambridge,
1888, p. 13 ; and J. GAILLIARD, Inscriptions funeraires de la Flandre
Occidentale, i, plate 2. Bruges, 1861.
2 See J. FONT v GUMA, Rajolas Valencianas y Catalanas. Villanova
y Geltrii, 1905.
splendid cope of blue-and-gold velvet brocade, the orfreys
of which are embroidered with figures of the Apostles in
canopied compartments; a circular morse of gold set with
precious stones keeps the cope from slipping from the
shoulders. A richly jewelled cloth-of-gold mitre, and gloves
over which he wears several rings, complete his costume.
With his right hand he supports the emblem which cha-
racterizes him a wheel with axle and spokes complete, on
the rim of which stand in a circle five lighted candles. With
his left he holds with its veil an archiepiscopal cross, a
splendid specimen of goldsmith's work.
To the left, opposite Saint Donatian, the donor, Canon
George Van der Paele, is represented kneeling under the
protection of his name-saint. He is vested in a red cassock
and large-sleeved surplice, with an almuce of grey fur thrown
over his left arm. In his right hand he holds a double eye-
glass, and with his left supports open before him his breviary
with its forel of sow-skin. Saint George stands behind him
clad in a complete suit of armour, with the word ADONAI
inscribed across his gorget. A lance with pennon, bearing
Argent a cross gules, rests against his left shoulder. He raises
his helmet to salute the Divine Infant as he presents his client.
The apse is formed by a series of round arches supported
by cylindrical columns, 1 the capitals of which are carved
with interlaced foliage and animals, while those of the pillars
on the further side of the ambulatory are storied ; the windows
between the latter are filled with roundels. Realism prevails
throughout this picture, which, with the exception of the
1 Eight are seen ; a ninth is hidden by the dorsal of the Virgin's
78 JOHN VAN EYCK
Ypres altar-piece (11), is the largest work by the master.
The most pleasing figure is that of Saint Donatian, a
dignified court prelate, with a noble head of intellectual
type; but even here we have not the slightest attempt at
idealization. The Virgin Mother is represented as a woman
of about thirty, utterly lacking in refinement ; while the Child,
a puny infant, short and attenuated, and curiously aged,
is apparently frightened at the sight of Saint George, an
awkward conscript, who is doffing his helmet with a trivial
expression utterly devoid of religious feeling. The portrait
of the canon is that of a man of marked individuality, but
obviously infirm. He had been installed in his canonry on
the 2Oth of August, 1410, and had for many years been in
constant residence at Saint Donatian 's, where he founded two
choral chaplaincies, one on the i3th of September, 1434, the
other on the 8th of May, 1441. He also presented the church
with some relics of Saint Christopher and Saint Ursula in a
reliquary of silver gilt with a cylindrical turret of rock crystal,
adorned with his arms and surmounted by a figure of Saint
George and a crucifix. 1 He died at an advanced age on the
25th of August, 1443, having been very infirm during the
last ten years of his life. He was buried in the grave of
his brother, Canon Jodoc, in the nave on the north side of
the altar of Saints Peter and Paul, between the tomb of his
uncle, Jodoc Van der Paele, also a canon, and that of Margaret,
Countess of Flanders. His grave was covered with a slab
of blue stone adorned with his effigy in sacerdotal vestments
within a border inscribed : " Hie iacet dominus Georgius de
Pala canonicus huius ecclesie qui obiit anno Domini
1 See the documents printed in Le Beffroi, n, 28-29. Bruges, 1864.
Mccccxliij," with the evangelistic animals and his and his
The altar-piece still retains its original frame, with the
following legends in capital letters :
At the top : "Hec est speciosior sole + super omnem stellarum
disposicionem luci comparata invenitur prior: candor est
enim lucis eterne + speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis."
REE spEciosioR soLe*svp OEM STEixm DisposrcoM
iyq QpKW rvEJrvR POR-CKDOR E EM IVGK ETCRNE^SPEITM sS
SCfc PONKOKNVS KRCffltipE* * SlTs 6EOR6IVS MllS
NKTVS t?B)HooaK^o imiTMrr* MVNOI FV^ OCIK*
:f^ornp ? fei!M may gtogf irpala |ni MSt ranonf f lotjann?
1 The little chapter at Lauds on the feast of the Assumption, in
the Breviary according to the use of the church of Saint Donatian.
8o JOHN VAN EYCK
On the right side:
" Solo partu nonus fratrum
mersus vivus redditur 4-
renatus archos patrum
Remis constituitur :
qui nunc Deo fruitur " ; l
and on the chamfer : " Sanctus Donacianus archiepiscopus."
On the left side:
" Natus Capadocia :
Christo militavit :
mundi fugiens ocia :
hie draconem stravit " ;
and on the chamfer: "Sanctus Georgius miles Christi."
At the foot, in minuscules: " Hoc opus fecit fieri magister
Georgius de Pala huius ecclesie canonicus per lohannem de
Eyck pictorem : Et fundavit hie duas capellanias de gremio
chori Domini M.cccc.xxxiiij : completum anno 1436. At
each angle is an escutcheon, those at the upper right and
lower left angles bear, Sable, two peels in saltire or between
four loaves argent, Van der Paele; and those at the upper
left and lower right angles Argent, on three chevrons azure,
twelve fleurs-de-lys 5, 5 and 2 or, within a bordure engrailed
gules, Carlyns. 2
The picture has been damaged by cleaning and clumsy
1 Compare the third and fourth Lessons at Matins on the feast
of Saint Donatian, in the same Breviary.
2 The arms of his mother, in their usual place. Kaemmerer's
statement, that the Carlyns family contributed to the cost of the painting,
is without foundation.
retouches ; the drapery of the Virgin's dress is partially de-
stroyed ; the Child's right foot has also suffered ; the white
shame-cloth about his loins is a late addition ; and the whole
is covered with a thick cloudy varnish. The background is
1769. DESCAMPS, 274, describes the picture thus: " L' Adoration des
Rois (! !) ; les tetes sont avec peu ou point de secheresse, sur-
tout celle de I'eve'que S. Donas dans la maniere de Gerard
1798. Sir Joshua REYNOLDS, in his 'Journey to Flanders in 1781'
(Works, n, 1798) says: "The figure of the canon has great
character of nature, and is very minutely painted."
1833. PASSAVANT, 349-35 1 -
1834. SCHNAASE, 343.
1842. BURCKHARDT, 157-158.
1847. MONTAIGLON, 5-7.
1858. HOTHO, II, 184-187.
1860. WAAGEN, i, 71.
1 86 1. WEALE, Catalogue, 12-17.
1863. RUELENS, xxxii : " La figure de la Vierge est vulgaire et realiste
. . . cette inferiorite pourrait bien, en partie du moins, avoir pour
cause de maladroites retouches."
1866. MICHIELS, n, 287-291.
1872. CROWE, 108-109: "A curious instance of the painter's occa-
sional descent to a lower level of treatment than that observable
in the common run of the works of the time. . . . The colour is
not handled with the painter's habitual breadth, and traces of
manipulation obtrude in all parts. The figures are drawn with
less than usual ability ; most of the faces are insipid in expression,
and the hands are stiff and long ; tints no longer melt into each
other, and the colour, instead of being rich and giving to the flesh
a plump and pleasant aspect, has a hard and red appearance. The
form of the Virgin is the most displeasing of any that Van Eyck ever
painted, and the Child exhibits the usual peculiarities of shortness
and thinness, with features in which the master, seeking to express
82 JOHN VAN EYCK
the Holy Spirit (! !), only succeeded in depicting age, incompatible
with the smallness of the Infant's size and the feebleness of its
proportions. St. Donatian is the most remarkable of the persons
in the composition ; his pious and noble head rivets the spec-
tator's attention, and keeps it from the overloaded ornaments of
a splendid cope and stole ; but the figure of St. George is trivial
1876. FROMENTIN, 427-430: "Par la mise en scene, le style et le
caractere de la forme, de la couleur et du travail, il rappelle la
Vierge au donateur (the Rolin altar-piece) au Louvre. II n'est
pas plus precieux dans le fini, pas plus finement observe dans le
detail. Le clair-obscur ingenu qui baigne la petite composition du
Louvre, cette verite parfaite et cette idealisation de toutes choses
obtenue par le soin de la main, la beaute du travail, la transparence
inimitable de la matiere ; ce melange d'observation meticuleuse et
de reveries poursuivies a travers des demi-teintes, ce sont la des
qualites superieures que le tableau de Bruges atteint et ne depasse
pas. Mais ici tout est plus large, plus mur, plus grandement
congu, construit et peint. Et 1'ceuvre en devient plus magistrale
en ce qu'elle entre en plein dans les visees de 1'art moderne. . . .
La Vierge est laide. L'enfant, un nourrisson rachitique a cheveux
rares, copie sans alteration sur un pauvre petit modele mal nourri.
. . . Saint George, un beau jeune homme, une sorte d'andro-
gyne dans une armure damasquinee, souleve son casque, salue
1'Enfant Dieu d'un air etrange et lui sourit. Mantegna . . . ne
1'aurait jamais peint ni colore comme cela. . . . Le chanoine est
incontestablement le plus fort morceau du tableau. . . . C'est un
vieillard. II est chauve ; de petits poils follets jouent sur ses
tempes, dont 1'os est visible et dur sous la peau mince. Le
masque est epais, les yeux sont brides, les muscles reduits, durcis,
coutures, crevasses par 1'age. Ce gros visage flasque et rugueux
est une merveille de dessin physionomique et de peinture. ... La
tonalite du tableau est grave, sourde et riche, extraordinairement
harmonieuse et forte. La couleur y ruisselle a pleins bords. Elle
est entiere, mais tres savamment composee, et reliee plus savam-
ment encore par des valeurs subtiles. En verite, quand on s'y
concentre, c'est une peinture qui fait oublier tout ce qui n'est pas
elle et donnerait a penser que 1'art de peindre a dit son dernier
mot, et cela des la premiere heure."
1878. WEALE, Bruges et ses environs, 4". Edition 51-56.
1879. SCHNAASE, 146.
1887. CONWAY, 141-142, 153.
1898. KAEMMERER, 66-68.
1899. SEECK, 70.
1900. VOLL, Ueber das kunsthistorische Studium. In Beilage zur All-
gemeinen Zeitung, 19 Mai, 2. Mtinchen.
1900. VOLL, Werke des Ian van Eyck, 16-22.
1902. JORISSENNE, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 11-13.
1902. HULIN, 10. This picture has furnished the formula for the
composition of a number of paintings by masters working at Bruges.
1903. FRIEDLAENDER, 2. Of all John's works this had the greatest
influence on the development of painting at Bruges.
1903. DE MONT, 60. The figures of Saint George and the Blessed
Virgin are vulgar, commonplace, and almost ugly.
1904. BOUCHOT, 221, says that this picture differs greatly from those
by John van Eyck, and that the inscription on the frame has been
effaced, repainted, and the dates added ! !
1904. KERN, 10-12, plate v, and i cut.
1905. DVORAK, 181, 193.
1905. FIERENS, 155-158, has nothing but praise for this painting,
including even the figures of the Virgin and Child and Saint
1905. DOEHLEMANN, i I-I3, and 423.
1906. VOLL, 31-33.
1906. SlEBERT, 6-7.
1907. VOLL, Vergleichende Gemaldestudien, Miinchen, 58-67. A
careful comparison of the copy in the Antwerp Gallery with this.
The many little discrepancies are pointed out and shown to prove
that the Antwerp panel must belong to a date when the Eyckian
methods were on the wane.
In the Van Ertborn Collection at the Antwerp Museum is a
careful, fairly close copy of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth
century (H. 1,20; B. 1,54), which has been transferred from
84 JOHN VAN EYCK
panel to canvas. It was formerly in the church at Watervliet
(East Flanders). A copy of the Virgin and Child with the
canon was in 1852 in the Quedeville Collection. The Virgin
and Child reappear on a small panel in the collection of the
Earl of Northbrook, the original frame of which is said to
have borne the date 1437.
A life-size bust portrait of the canon is preserved at
Hampton Court Palace, 453 (272). Canvas. H. 0,42; B.
0,40. It was formerly in the collection of King James II.,
in whose catalogue (n.39) it is described as " a fat man's
head, bald, with a double chin." This is most certainly an
original study from life, not a copy of the portrait in the
altar-piece. The canon is here portrayed in a greenish-
brown cassock trimmed with brown fur. Bluish-black back-
ground. At the time when John van Eyck was commis-
sioned to paint the altar-piece the canon had become so
feeble that the Chapter dispensed him from attendance in
choir. 1 No doubt he felt unequal to support the fatigue of
a long sitting to the painter, but as he had been in constant
residence ever since Van Eyck had settled in Bruges, the
latter must have seen him frequently enough to be able with
the aid of this study to give a satisfactory presentation of
the head in the altar-piece.
1885. C. JUSTI, in The Academy, 20 June, p. 445: "Painted in a
reddish-yellow mezzo-tinto, quite monochromous, very firm in
design and modelling, showing Van Eyck's grandeur and broad-
ness in conception and treatment of a countenance before proceeding
1 H34, 9 Septembris, " Indulserunt domini quod attenta infirmitate
et senectute suis, inscribatur ad omnia lucra, sive veniat ad ecclesiam,
sive non." Acta Capituli iv, fol. 218 v. Bruges : Episcopal Archives.
S. (1KORGK AM) CIIAKI.K.S Till: RASH I;Y (i. I.OYKT, 1171
GEORGE VAN HER PAELE, CANON OF S. DONATIAN, BRUGES
HAMPTON COURT PALACE
to the superposition of microscopic details, of local colour, of
light and shadow."
1886. K. CHYTIL, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, xxi, 146-148.
1898. KAEMMERER, 68. A later superficial copy of the portrait in
the Bruges altar-piece.
1900. VOLL, 126. A work dating from the end of the sixteenth
century. The technique exhibits none of John's peculiarities ;
the modelling is weaker and flatter. Nevertheless, the first
impression of its truthfulness to life is overpowering. The origi-
nal must have been Van Eyck's grandest portrait. Kaemmerer's
idea that it is a copy from the Bruges picture is not to be
1905. FIERENS, 158, had evidently never seen this picture, as he refers
to it as the head of the Blessed Virgin in the Paele altar-piece,
and says it is only a copy.
The head of the canon reappears in the Mass of Saint
Gregory in the Prado Gallery at Madrid (n. 1864), attri-
buted to Adrian Isenbrant. The type of the Virgin is repro-
duced on an early sixteenth-century diptych in the Bartels
Collection at Cassel, also on an altar-piece, .1515, at Ince
Hall, exhibited at the Guildhall, 1906, n.6o, and in a some-
what later picture exhibited by the late Mr. J. Fletcher
Moulton at the New Gallery in 1899, n.82.
The figure of Saint Louis of Toulouse presenting a donor,
in an early sixteenth-century picture in the Museum at
Avignon (exhibited at Paris, 1904, n.85), bears in pose and
gesture a curious resemblance to the Saint George here, which
certainly influenced the unknown painter. The pose and
several details of the gold statuette of Saint George, executed
by Gerard Loyet of Bruges, 1466-1471, for Charles the Rash,
and by him presented to the cathedral of Liege, betray the
86 JOHN VAN EYCK
7. PORTRAIT OF JOHN DE LEEUW, GOLDSMITH
Vienna: Imperial Gallery, 825. Oak. H. 0,33; B. 0,28.
First mentioned in Mechel's catalogue of the Belvedere
Collection, 1783, p. 157, n.28. Taken to Paris by the French
in 1809 ; brought back by the Allies in 1815.
Half-length portrait about half life-size, of a man of
thirty-five years of age, on a dark-green background ; the
face beardless, seen in three-quarters turned to the right,
with small deep -set grey eyes looking straight at the
spectator, short nose, fine upper lip, and a long chin. The
broad forehead and keen glance of the eyes convey the
impression of a highly intelligent man with an energetic
will. He wears a dark fur-trimmed gown and a black cap ;
his hands are placed before his waist; between the thumb
and forefinger of his right hand he holds a ring, as if showing
it. The head is modelled with John's usual care, but the
beauty of the face is somewhat marred by the same unpleasant
reddish flesh tint that characterizes the figures in the Bruges
altar-piece, painted about the same time ; the hands too are
rather weak, as if hurriedly drawn. The frame, which is
original, bears the following inscription :
IAN DE (a lion sejant on a square base with a step) OP SANT
DAT CLAER ERST MET OGHEN SACK. 1401.
GHECONTERFEIT NV HEEFT MI IAN
VAN EYCK WEL BLIJCT WANNERT BEGAN. 1436.
JOHN DR LEEUW, GOLDSMITH. 1436
VIENNA IMPERIAL GALLERY
John De Leeuw, the person here portrayed, was a
wealthy craftsman, born October 21, 1401, who, after holding
minor offices in the Gild of Gold- and Silver-smiths of Bruges
in 1430-31 and 1435-36, was chosen dean in 1441. The
lion sejant is the mark he used for stamping his works, and
here stands for his name, which, if written, would have added
65 to the first chronogram. An interesting entry in the
accounts of the treasurers of the town informs us that when
Duke Philip, after a long absence in Germany, returned to
Bruges in 1455, the inhabitants decorated the fronts of their
houses, and that the town council awarded prizes to those
whose houses were decorated and illuminated with the
greatest taste ; these prizes were supplied by De Leeuw, who
was paid 365. gr. for them.
The date of De Leeuw's death is not known ; his name
occurs for the last time in the accounts of the treasurer of
the town of Damme for the year 1459.
The picture has suffered by cleaning, and, doubtless owing
to the colour having less intensity and charm than usual, it
has received but scant notice from writers on the master's
1858. HOTHO, n, 187, says that the ring in De Leeuw's hand is probably
1860. WAAGEN, 71, unusually grey in the shadows.
1882. WOLTMANN, n, 19, and 1891, REBER, 107, call De Leeuw a
canon ! !
1884. ENGERTH, n, 135.
1898. KAEMMERER, 73, says that De Leeuw had this portrait painted
to present to his bride. This is fancy : he had been married
some years, and had at least two children.
1899. SEECK, 28, 70. The hands are weak; the little finger of the
right hand crooked, like a claw. Calls the ring a betrothal ring.
88 JOHN VAN EYCK
1900. VOLL, 97-100, blind to the strong impression of individuality
so thoroughly evidencing John's hand, devotes four pages to
throwing doubt on the authenticity of this work on two grounds :
because, though the head is turned to the right, the eyes look to
the left ; and because the second chronogram is faulty, his conten-
tion being that the ij in ' blijct ' and the Y in ' Eyck ' must each
be reckoned as equivalent to i or else to 2, which is absurd ; no
educated Netherlander would ever think of writing ' Eijck.' His
conclusion is that the portrait is either a forgery or a copy dating
from the end of the fifteenth century, forgetting apparently that
this amounts to an admission of the groundlessness of his chief
argument for the rejection of the authenticity of this portrait.
1901. BODE, 118-119, refutes Voll's arguments.
1904. WEALE, v, 192.
1905. FIERENS, 150.
1906. VOLL, 43-44 and 263-264.
8. SAINT BARBARA
Antwerp : Museum : Van Ertborn Collection. Oak.
H. 0,322 ; B. 0,186.
This picture became the property of M. Joz. Enschede" of
Harlem on June 24, 1769, and was sold by him in 1786 to a
dealer, P. Yver, and by the latter to Ploes van Amstel. After
his death it was sold at Amsterdam, March 5, 1800, for 35
florins 18 sols to M. Oyen, from whose widow it was
purchased in 1826 by M. F. van Ertborn, and by him
bequeathed to the Antwerp Museum.
Saint Barbara, seated in a meditative mood on a hillock
in the foreground, is turning over the leaves of a book which
rests on her knees. In her left hand she holds a palm. Her
SAINT BARBARA 14-37
from a p/wtyrapA iy C /frrmaru
ample wide-sleeved dress, open in front with a large turned-
down collar, is confined at the waist by a plain cincture ; its
long skirt covers the ground around her in broken folds.
Her hair, confined by a plain riband, falls on her back ; a
jewel is suspended to the string of pearls which encircles
her neck. In the mid-distance a beautiful octagonal tower 1
is in course of construction ; on its summit four masons are
working ; a fifth, near the crane by which a carved stone is
being hauled up, stands looking down at the master-mason,
who is giving him directions. Near him beneath a shed are
sculptors at work, while labourers around are busily employed
mixing mortar and bringing them materials, two with a bier
and one with a barrow ; an interesting picture, showing how
building operations were carried on in the fifteenth century.
Behind the saint four women are passing to the right, where
a group of men are conversing ; further away are buildings
with a fortified wall. Four men on horseback are coming
in single file down a winding road, beyond which are a wood
and a picturesque mountain covered to its summit with
buildings. To the left is rising ground with fields, trees, and
water; high up in the air is seen a flight of wild geese.
The sky is coloured, the rest of the picture merely drawn,
but with the greatest care and minuteness. At the foot, in
capital letters, " lohannes de Eyck me fecit, 1437."
Facsimile engraving by Cornelius van Noorden, 1769.
Copies in the Museums at Bruges and Lille; mistaken by
1 This does not represent the tower of a church dedicated to Saint
Barbara, as stated by a writer in the Messager ales Sciences (Ghent,
1839, p 57), but is simply the emblem characterizing this saint. Ignor-
ance of this has led some to describe the picture as Saint Agnes.
90 JOHN VAN EYCK
De Montaiglon and Voll for drawings, though their real
character was pointed out by Schnaase in 1834.
1857. CROWE, 88.
1858. HOTHO, n, 191.
1860. WAAGEN, i, 71.
1866. MICHIELS, n, 314.
1879. SCHNAASE, 147.
1884. HYMANS, in the commentaries appended to his translation
of Van Mander's " Book of Painters," p. 40, identifies this Saint
Barbara with a panel representing a woman in the foreground of
a landscape, in the possession of Luke De Heere, described by Van
Mander as only a preparation for a painting, but exceedingly pretty.
1887. CONWAY, 142-144.
1898. KAEMMERER, 74-76.
1899. SEECK, 20, 70.
1900. VOLL, 23-26.
1902. ROOSES, in Onze Kunst, i, 5-6.
1903. SCHUBERT, 38-42, is of opinion that in this work the Eyckian
landscape attained its highest perfection !
1904. DVORAK, 185.
1905. FIERENS, 159.
9. OUR LADY AND CHILD BY A FOUNTAIN
Antwerp: Museum: Van Ertborn Collection, 411. Oak.
H. 0,19; B. 0,122.
This picture was in the possession of Margaret of Austria,
Governess of the Netherlands. In the inventory of her
collection in 1516, it is described as " Une petite Nostre
Dame, faite de bonne main, estant en un jardin ou il y a une
fontaine ; " ' but, more fully, in that drawn up in her palace
1 " Inventairedes Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dresse
en 1516." Lille : Archives of the Department of the North, B 3507.
OUR LADY AND CHILD BY A FOUNTAIN. 1439
From a photograph. 6y G. fftrm&ts
at Mechlin, on July 9, 1523, as " Ung aultre petit tableau de
Nostre Dame tenant son enfant, lequel tient une petite pate-
nostre de coral en sa main, fort anticque, ayant une fontainne
empres elle et deux anges tenant ung drapt d'or figure
derriere elle." 1 Margaret subsequently gave it to her
treasurer-general, John van Marnix.
In 1830 it was in the possession of the parish priest of
Dickelvenne (East Flanders), from whom it was purchased
by M. F. van Ertborn, and by him bequeathed to the Antwerp
Our Lady stands on a grass plot in the open air, tenderly
pressing the Infant Jesus to her breast with both hands.
The Child with His right hand embraces her affectionately,
and with His left stretched out behind Him holds a tasselled
chaplet of red coral beads. Two angels with peacock wings,
in flowing albs, one vermilion, the other violet, hold up a
cloth of honour of red and gold brocaded damask, the end
of which covers the ground on which the Virgin stands. She
is draped in an ample blue mantle, which falls about her feet
in rather stiff folds. Her light-brown hair, parted in the
middle and confined by a narrow band of pearls, is drawn
back behind the ear, making the forehead and temples appear
unusually large. On the right, in the immediate front, stands
a metal fountain with a circular basin, into which water of
crystalline purity falls from four jets. In the background we
see on each side of the suspended cloth a low bank faced
1 " Inventaire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche,
dresse en son palais de Malines, le 9 Juillet, 1523." Paris : National
Library, Colbert Collection. In the margin : " Donne par ordonnance
de ma ditte dame a son trsorier gdndral, Jehan de Marnix."
92 JOHN VAN EYCK
with masonry, and covered with fine grass and flowering
plants : daisies, violets, lilies of the valley, yellow water-flags,
and a thick hedge of purple roses and lilies. The frame,
painted to imitate reddish-grey marble with white veins,
bears the following inscription in capital letters : " Als ich
can. Johannes de Eyck me fecit + complevit anno 1439."
The picture is in perfect preservation save for a small patch
on the Child's head.
1857. CROWE, 90.
1858. HOTHO, ii, 197.
1866. MICHIELS, n, 315.
1898. KAEMMERER, 106.
1899. SEECK, 35-37, 70.
1900. VOLL, 30-34.
1905. FIERENS, 163, rightly notes that this picture has a character
quite exceptional in the series of John van Eyck's works. He
thinks it was based on the Madonna by Stephen Lochner, in the
Diocesan Museum at Coeln, which he dates c. 1435; but that
painting is certainly of later date.
1906. SlEBERT, 13.
A beautiful copy of this picture adorns a Flemish Book of
Hours formerly in the possession of Mr. Edwin H. Laurence,
of Abbey Farm Lodge, Hampstead ; and an early pen drawing
of it on paper is preserved in the Print Room of the Frederick
William Museum, Berlin, 7120 (1878).
The Berlin Gallery and the Metropolitan Museum at
New York possess paintings with figures of the Madonna
closely resembling this. 1
1 See n 08 . 29 and 31, pp. 155 and 158.
-Jr. . w //.mi
* ' C;l'
,K- V ; / .
I "f ^r!ff*V ,.
OL'R I.ADV AM) t:iIILI) 1!\ A HH'XTAIX.
PKN DRAWINC. liKRI.IX: KOVAI. I'RINT COLLECTION
MARGARET VAN EYCK 1439
BRUGES : TOWN GALLERY
By permission of
10. PORTRAIT OF MARGARET VAN EYCK
Bruges: Town Gallery. Oak. H. 0,32; B. 0,26.
Formerly in the possession of the Bruges Gild of Painters
and Saddlers, and exposed in their chapel annually on Saint
Luke's Day, at other times kept in their archives. Owing
to the existence of a heavy mortgage on the property of the
gild, it escaped being taken to Paris in 1794. Later it was
found in the fish-market by Mr. Peter van Lede who, in
1808, presented it to the town.
Half-length portrait, the face turned to the right seen
in three-quarters. The lady, attired in her best, wears a
loose-sleeved gown of scarlet cloth trimmed with grey fur,
girt under the breasts with a sash of green silk woven in
chevrons. A crespine head-dress, over which is a white linen
kerchief with a ruche of the same material, completes her
costume. Her hands are superposed before her, displaying her
wedding-ring on the fourth finger of the right hand. Though
painted with great minuteness, and marvellous delicacy and
finish, the effect of this evidently perfect likeness is the same
whether viewed closely or from a distance. John has not
flattered his wife, but has portrayed her with the insight born
of intimate acquaintance. Her features are not attractive, and
her head-dress does not improve her appearance ; but she was
evidently an intelligent woman, and a competent housewife,
with a clear steady eye and a firm mouth, showing that she
had a will of her own. The frame, painted to imitate marble,
bears the following inscription in capital letters : at the head,
94 JOHN VAN EYCK
" Coniux meus lohannes me complevit anno 1439 17 lunii ; "
COIVX MS IOHESNE OJMVIT
CTKS MEKTRIGINTRTRIV HNORV-HU-WH-XHN-
at the foot, " Etas mea triginta trium annorum. Als ich can."
The reverse of the panel is painted in imitation of porphyry.
Lithograph by A. Toupey, 1907 (H. 0,216; B. 0,168).
1 769. DESCAMPS, 306, says that this portrait was exhibited annually
on St. Luke's Day in the chapel of the Painters' Gild, but
fastened with a chain and padlock, as the companion painting,
John van Eyck's own portrait, had been stolen. Every attempt
has been made to verify the truth of this statement, which appears
to be a fiction.
1834. ScHNAASE, 345.
1857. CROWE, 89-90. The hand is, perhaps, the most complete and
perfect John van Eyck ever executed.
1858. HOTHO, n, 199-200.
1 86 1. WEALE, Catalogue, 17-18.
1866. MICHIELS, n, 211-213.
1887. CONWAY, IIO-III.
1898. KAEMMERER, 102-104.
1899. SEECK, 27-28, 30.
1900. VOLL, 26-30.
1902. GUIFFREY, 472 : " Le morceau de reception de van Eyck dans
la Corporation! ! " A nonsensical statement. Van Eyck was not
a member of the gild, and the custom of presenting a diploma
work was non-existent.
1905. FIERENS, 165.
1906. VOLL, 34, 35.
TRIPTYCH OK N. VAN MAELBEKE, PROVOST OF S. MARTIN'S \TRES, 1411
EXTKRIOK; KESSKL-LOO : M. G. HKI.I.KPUTTK
ii. OUR LADY AND CHILD, AND THE DONOR
Kessel-Loo : M. G. Helleputte. Oak. Triptych : centre,
arched top. H. 1,72 ; B. centre, 0,99; shutters, 0,41.
The scene is laid in a vaulted portico of Romanesque
architecture, the columns of which are richly sculptured
with birds, monsters, and interlaced work. In the fore-
ground on the left stands the Blessed Virgin with the
Divine Child on her right arm, and with her left hand
tenderly supporting His legs. Her long hair, parted down
the middle and confined by a jewelled circlet of gold, is
drawn back behind the ears and falls on her shoulders in
undulating masses. Posed in a very graceful and dignified
attitude, she is enveloped in an ample mantle of crimson
cloth, which, kept in place by two tasselled cords, falls over
her feet and on to the pavement behind her; its embroidered
border, adorned with pearls and precious stones, bears at
the foot, where it becomes much broader, a verse from the
twenty-fourth chapter of Ecclesiasticus : " Ante SECVLA
creata sum et usque ad futurum secuLum non desinam
et IN habitatione sancta CORAM IPSO MINISTRAVI ET sic IN
SIGN FIRMATA sum." The Child, quite nude, clutches the
embroidered neck-band of His mother's dress, and with a
gracious inclination of His head extends His right hand
towards a priest who kneels before Him praying from an
open book in his right hand. On a fluttering scroll, one
end of which the Child holds, are the words, " Discite a
me quia mitis sum et humilis corde iugum enim meum
suave est et onus meum leve." The priest, a provost of
96 JOHN VAN EYCK
Saint Martin's at Ypres, is vested in a rochet and a cope
of blue and gold brocade, the orfreys of which are em-
broidered with figures of the Apostles beneath canopies. A
circular morse of gold with three statuettes beneath a triple
canopy keeps the cope in position. With his left hand the
provost grasps the emblem of his office, a staff adorned with
a diaper of fleurs-de-lys within lozenges surmounted by
statuettes of saints in tabernacles, and crowned by a large
crescent encircling a group representing the charity of Saint
Martin. The pavement of the portico is composed of stones
of various colours arranged in a geometrical pattern. The
background, seen over the parapet of the portico, is a far-
receding landscape traversed from right to left by a river
enlivened by boats, swans, etc. The ground on the near
side is covered with vegetation and a variety of flowers ;
here to the right and close to the river-bank is an hostelry
with figures ; while on the left is a man on horseback.
Across the river and to the right is a castle flanked at the
angles by square towers ; while on the left are several
houses, and the quay, on which we see a number of persons
on horseback and on foot near a road that winds across
a hilly country dotted over with numerous buildings and
figures, and stretching far away to distant mountains. Every
detail of this landscape is treated with marvellous care and
finish. On the frame, inscribed in capital letters, is the
antiphon : " Sancta Maria succurre miseris iuva pusillanimes :
refove flebiles : ora pro populo : interveni pro clero : intercede
pro devoto femineo sexu : sentiant omnes tuum iuvamen
quicumque celebrant tuam commemorationem. Hec virgo
Maria ex semine Abrahe orta : ex tribu luda : virga de radice
OUK LADY AXD CHILD AND NICHOLAS VAN MAELBEKE, 1441
KESSEI..LOO: M. (;. HELLEI'UTTE
lesse : ex stirpe David : filia Iherusalem : stella maris : ancilla
Domini : regina gentium : sponsa Dei : mater Christi : Condi-
toris templum : Sancti Spiritus sacrarium."
The shutters are divided both on the inner and outer
side into two zones. In the lower half of the dexter shutter,
Gedeon, clad in a suit of steel armour, stands on a rocky
hill, holding with both hands a lance. He has bared his
head in presence of the angel who stands beneath an oak
tree on the right and is addressing him ; on the frame below
is the legend "vellus gedeonis." The burning bush is figured
in the upper zone as a tall smooth-trunked tree, the branches
of which fill the entire breadth of the panel with a dense
mass of foliage. A half-length figure of the Eternal within
an aureole appears surrounded by tongues of fire springing
from the foliage. He is crowned with a tiara, and vested
in an alb and a cope of cloth of gold fastened by an oval
morse adorned with a ruby surrounded by nine pearls. His
right hand raised in the act of blessing, He holds in His
left an orb with a slender crystal cross terminated by gold
fleurs-de-lys. At the foot of the tree is a plot of grass and
flowers, bordered by a path and a bed with a row of shrubs,
beyond which is a moat with ducks and swans. On the
further side are houses and gardens, an inn, a large pond
with a variety of waterfowl, and a turreted castle with a
man on a ladder repairing the roof. Away across the pond
are numerous buildings with figures in the open spaces
between them, and beyond these a forest stretches away to
mountains in the distance. On the molding separating these
two zones is the legend, " rubus ardens et non comburens."
In the lower half of the corresponding sinister shutter,
98 JOHN VAN EYCK
Aaron, clad in a green cope, is represented standing before
an altar with a budding rod in his right hand. On the
frame at the foot we read, " virga aaron florens." The closed
door of the sanctuary, spoken of by the Prophet Ezechiel,
is figured in the upper portion of the panel as a rectangular
tower flanked at the angles by cylindrical turrets ; the gables
and the ridge of the tiled roof are crowned by an elegant
open-work cresting of metal ; similar cresting at the foot
of the roof is carried round the turrets. The door itself
is bordered by broad bands of metal-work set with precious
stones connected by horizontal bands of similar design. The
archivolt of the doorway is adorned with twelve statuettes
of prophets. Above it, in a canopied tabernacle, is a figure of
the Synagogue, blindfolded, holding the tables of the Law
upside down, and a banner, the staff of which is falling to
pieces. On brackets at each side of this are statues of
Moses and prophets, and above these, immediately below
the roof, a series of statuettes in tabernacles. In the fore-
ground at the foot of the tower, lilies and other plants are
flowering right up to the very door. On the right is a
pretty piece of landscape. The molding separating these two
zones bears the legend, "porta ezechielis clausa." Both
shutters are filled at the head with open-work tracery en-
closing figures : the fall of our first parents ; an angel with
a flaming sword standing at the entrance to Paradise, the
angel Gabriel and the Blessed Virgin.
On the exterior of the shutter are grisailles : at the
head, three angels blowing trumpets, and a fine half-length
figure of the Blessed Virgin and Child appearing within an
aureole. At the foot, full-length figures of the Sibyl pointing
up to the apparition, and of the Emperor Octavian con-
templating it with hands uplifted in prayer. The explanatory
legends are : " ara celi maria sibilla octauianus."
This triptych, had it been completed, would have been
John's master-piece. It was undertaken at the request of
Nicholas van Maelbeke, who, as twenty-ninth provost of
Saint Martin's abbey, governed it from 1429 until his death
in 1445. It was then, though unfinished, placed over his
tomb in the choir of the church. Luke De Heere, in the
poem he composed in 1559, mentions it (strophe 19), as also
Mark van Vaernewyck, in his Nieu tractaet (strophe 126),
published at Ghent in 1562; the latter describes it accurately
in his Spieghel der Nederlandscher Aiidtheyt, printed in
1574. He says that "the picture, of which the shutters are
unfinished, is well deserving of admiration ; that it was
painted by master John van Eyck, and has the appearance of
being a heavenly rather than a human work." Guicciardini,
Vasari, and Van Mander all make mention of it. Sanderus,
who was a canon of Ypres, describes it in 1718 as being then
in the choir, and the archdeacon Van der Meesch drew the
attention of the two Benedictines, Dom E. Martene and Dom
Durand, to it, as they tell us in their Voyage littdraire, pub-
lished in 1717. Between 1757 and 1760 the triptych was
removed from the church into the episcopal palace, and a copy
of the central panel, now in the possession of Mgr. Felix de
Bethune at Bruges, was placed in the Lady Chapel. After
the capture of Ypres and the sack of the palace by the French
Republicans, the triptych was sold for a song to a butcher,
and by him to a Mr. Waelwyn of Ypres. He parted with it
to Mr. Bogaert-Dumortier of Bruges, from whose heirs it was
ioo JOHN VAN EYCK
purchased for 6000 francs by M. Ddsire" Van den Schrieck of
Louvain. At his death, in 1857, it became the property of
his son-in-law, M. F. Schollaert, Vice- President of the Belgian
Chamber of Representatives, after whose death it passed into
the possession of M. George Helleputte, his son-in-law.
The authenticity of the picture is incontestable. It is
confirmed by two contemporary documents, which are here
reproduced. One is a pen-and-ink drawing (H. 0,278 ;
B. o, 1 8) in the Albertina at Vienna, formerly catalogued as
an original drawing by John van Eyck, but now attributed,
without a particle of evidence, to Peter Christus. Another,
smaller copy (H. 0,135; B. 0,15), in silver point, belongs
to the Germanic Museum at Nurnberg, where it is attri-
buted to Roger De la Pasture. These drawings represent
the central panel only. The first is in a good state of pre-
servation ; the other has suffered slightly. The following
points should be noted : (i) The band which confines the
Virgin's hair in both drawings is quite simple, whereas in the
picture it is adorned with jewellery as in the Ince Hall panel
and the Bruges altar-piece ; (2) the embroidery of the neck-
band of the Virgin's dress and of the border of her mantle are
non-existent ; (3) the shoe and patten of the Virgin's left foot,
shown in the drawings, are in the painting hidden by the
border added to the mantle ; (4) the scroll held by the Child
in the drawings is simpler than in the picture, and bears no
In the Albertina drawing the figure of the provost is
merely sketched ; he has a large tonsure, but neither mous-
tache nor beard ; the features, too, have much more distinc-
tion ; the folds of the cope and the outline of the morse are
OUR LAUV ANU CHILD AM) X. \'A\ MAELUKKE. 1'E.N DRAWING
merely indicated, but there is no trace of the design of the
brocade, nor of the storied orfreys. The vaulting of the
portico, plain in the drawings, is decorated in the painting.
Lastly, the landscape background is not even indicated in the
drawings, but if compared with the landscape in the Saint
Barbara, its authenticity will be apparent. And, noteworthy
above all, this is the earliest picture of the school, and the
only one by John van Eyck in which the linear perspective
is perfect, a fact which, notwithstanding its sad state, lends
this picture great importance.
A passage said to have been extracted by M. Lambin l
from a " Memorial " of the community of Grey Friars of
Ypres, and published by Carton in 1848, is couched in these
" Anno 1445 heeft meester lo- " In the year 1445 master John
annes van Eycken, een befaemden van Eycken, a famous painter,
schilder, binnen Ypre geschildert painted at Ypres that excellent
dat overtreffelyk tafereel 't welcke picture which was placed in the
gestelt wiert in den choor van Sint choir of Saint Martin's as a me-
Maerten's tot een gedachtenis van morial of the reverend Sir Nicholas
den eerweerdigen heere Nico- Malchalopie, abbot or provost of
laus Malchalopie, abt ofte proost Saint Martin's monastery, who lies
van Sint Maerten klooster, die buried there before it."
daer voor begraven ligt."
This is said by Carton to be an extract from a con-
temporary chronicle of the Grey Friars' convent at Ypres, 2 and
to prove that the triptych was commenced in 1445, that it
1 Keeper of the Archives at Ypres ; he died in 1841.
2 LABORDE, Les Dues de Bourgogne, i, cxx, warned students against
attaching any value to this extract.
102 JOHN VAN EYCK
was still unfinished when the provost died in 1447 (sic], and
that the painter was John van Eycken. It is highly impro-
bable that any one living at Ypres in the fifteenth century,
much less a contemporary, would distort the name of Van
Maelbeke, one of the principal families of the locality, or
would call the provost of Saint Martin's an abbot, or say
that the picture was painted at Ypres. The note was
probably not written until long after 1559, when, on the
creation of the see of Ypres by Pope Paul IV., Saint Martin's
ceased to be a monastic church, and became a cathedral. The
$\r3&zabtofteproost looks as though copied from the 1574
edition of Mark van Vaernewyck's Historic van Belgis, and
"painted in Ypres" is a strange expression for a resident
to use, who would surely have written here or in this town.
The wording of the note, too, betokens an eighteenth-
rather than a fifteenth-century origin. Most of the critics
who have dealt with this triptych since 1848 have relied on
this document as the basis for their rejection of the Eyckian
origin of the picture. I think its utter worthlessness is
1 Having heard from M. E. Lie"geois of Ypres, since the above
was in type, that the Grey Friars' Chronicle had been found in the
Town Library, I have had an opportunity of examining it. It contains
no mention whatever of the painting ; but I came upon the passage
in Part n, book n, of a manuscript bearing the n.85 and the title
Beschryving der vermaerde, oud beroemde en schoone stad Yfre, written
by Peter Martin Ramaut in 1794. It is difficult to believe that the
copyist failed to read the lines which immediately follow those he
extracted, stating that " the picture used to hang in the choir where
the marble reliquary of Saint Walburg now is, but that it was taken
away when the choir was lined with marble."
Ol'R LADY AM) rillLI) AM) X. VAX MAKLBKKE
SILVKR-l'OIXT IlK.UMNi;. NT kX lil-.RC. : (IKKMANK .MUSEUM
There can be no doubt that everything seen in the
Vienna and Nurnberg drawings, and probably the landscape
background and the pavement, were painted by John van
Eyck, and that the copies belonging to Mgr. F. de Bethune
and to the Town Museum at Ypres show the additions made
in the sixteenth century, probably about 1560. The repre-
sentations of the burning bush and of the closed door of
Ezechiel are the portions of the shutters on which van Eyck
had worked most ; a careful examination of these discloses
many beauties. In the nineteenth century, shortly previous
to 1830, M. Alphonse Bogaert, of Bruges, scrubbed the pic-
ture, and then attempted to restore it. In 1858 M. Heris,
of Brussels, cleaned it again. Later on, when in the Schol-
laerts' possession, it was hung in a sitting-room too near a
stove, and became blistered ; the damage was very carefully
repaired by M. L. Lampe, in 1901.
As to the date at which the first attempt to complete the
central panel was made, some evidence may be gathered from
a painting representing one of Nicholas van Maelbeke's suc-
cessors, kneeling before the Infant Jesus seated on His
Mother's lap. This panel must have been painted at Ypres,
as there is in the background a view of the bridge over the
Yperleet, and of the street leading from it past the front of
Saint Martin's church. The provost in this picture holds the
same staff as his predecessor, and if the details of the vest-
ments, etc., be compared, it will be seen that it cannot be
many years posterior. The immediate successors of Van
Maelbeke were Lambert Van der Woestine, 1445-1456;
Nicholas van Dixmude, 1456-1464; Walter Thoenin, 1464-
1474 ; and Nicholas van Dixmude, 1474-1482. The only
104 JOHN VAN EYCK
masters who are known to have flourished at Ypres during
that period are John Perrant and George Uutenhove.
Exhibited in the Loan Exhibition of Old Masters at
Bruges, in 1867, n4, and again in 1902, n.i4, and at the
Guildhall, London, in 1906, n.7.
1833. PASSAVANT, 367-369.
1847. DE MERSSEMAN, 184-185, and 195-199.
1 848. HOTHO, ii, 205-208 and 213-217.
1859. HERTS, in Journal des Beaux Arts, i, 45 and 53.
1860. WAAGEN, 73.
1863. RUELENS, civ-cxiii, gives a summary of the various opinions
as to the date of the picture, and suggests that Carton's
document is of much later date than 1445, and merely the echo
of a local tradition. He, however, sees no trace of John van
Eyck's hand in the picture, and believes it to be of a later period.
l866. MlCHIELS, II, 345-348.
1879. SCHNAASE, 149.
1895. LAFENESTRE, La Peinture en Europe: la Belgique, 163.
1898. KAEMMERER, 98-99 ; an absurd criticism.
1900. VOLL, 119-120.
1902. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Chretien, 4 S., x, 1-6.
1902. HULIN, Catalogue Critique, 14, thinks the picture to be an
original altered at the end of the sixteenth or in the seventeenth
century, and repainted once or twice in the nineteenth.
1902. GUIFFREY, 474, says that some parts remain intact, and show
great precision of drawing.
1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 69, calls it a sad, but
nevertheless an insufficiently esteemed relic of an original by
John van Eyck.
1903. DE MONT, 57.
1903. DUELBERG, 52.
1904. DURAND, Originaux et Copies a propos de 1'Exposition de
1905. FIERENS, 169, considers the authenticity of the picture to be
indisputable, and that there are few of John van Eyck's pictures
OUR LADY AND CHILD AND A PROVOST OF S. MARTIN'S, YPRKS
LONDON: M. HEY.MAN-EM.IS
of which the history is so well established, but that owing to
restorations there is no trace left of his work.
1906. FLOERKE, i, 407, declares it to be evidently an old forgery
of most inferior quality !
1906. VOLL, 264, considers Floerke's criticism far too sweeping, and
recognizes the excellence of some portions of the paintings on the
shutters ; he thinks the figure of Our Lady dates from the end
of the fifteenth century.
1907. DURAND, 65-69.
PAINTINGS ATTRIBUTED TO THE
12. PORTRAIT OF A GOLDSMITH
Hermannstadt : Gymnasium, Bruckenthal Collection. Oak.
H. 0,174; B. 0,11.
HALF-LENGTH portrait of a rather melancholy-looking man,
probably a goldsmith, turned to the right, the face seen
in three-quarters. He is clad in a brown dress open in
front, showing the straight collar of a black tunic. His head-
gear is a scarf of blue silk, the lappets of which, with their
edges cut in the shape of foliage, fall in front of his shoulders.
In his right hand he holds a ring ; his left hand and forearm
rest on the frame. Dark background ; on it an imitation
of Albert Diirer's cipher, and the date 1497, additions
probably made by the person who enlarged the panel by
adding a strip all round, so that it now measures 21 centi-
meters by 15 centimeters. It is a remarkably fine picture,
though it has suffered at the hands of a restorer. The fashion
of cutting the edges of the headkerchief into leaf-shapes came
into vogue in the Netherlands at the end of the fourteenth
century, and died out before 1425. The back of the panel
was formerly painted.
PORTRAIT OF A GOLDSMITH
HERMAN NSTADT : GYMNASIUM
1894. FRIMMEL, in Kimstchronik, N.F., v, 430, and Kleine Galerie
Studien, 62-66. Wien.
1896. FRIMMEL, in Repertorium, xix, 116.
1898. KAEMMERER, 61, thinks the ring indicates that the man repre-
sented was about to enter the married state.
1899. SEECK, 68.
1900. VOLL, 1 20, thinks the melancholy expression of the face is a
proof that this picture dates from the last quarter of the fifteenth
century, and compares it to portraits in pictures of Gerard David's
1901. BODE, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen,
xxn, 119. The admirable rendering of the personal character, the
delicate execution of the drawing, and the beauty of the colour,
prove this to be a genuine Van Eyck.
1902. HULIN, 15, attributes this portrait to John.
1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 42, attributes the work
1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68, attributes this portrait
1903. DE MONT, 56.
1905. FIERENS, 151, compares it with the portrait in the National
Gallery (2), and thinks that, although contemporary, it cannot be
ascribed with certainty to John van Eyck.
1906. VOLL, 45, dates the portrait c. 1450, and compares it to the
portrait of Mark Barbarigo, in the National Gallery, n.696.
1907. DURAND, 60.
13. A DONOR PROTECTED BY SAINT ANTHONY
Copenhagen : Royal Gallery, 93. Oak. H. 0,592 ;
B. 0,312. Acquired in 1764.
Dexter shutter of a triptych. A man of middle age
kneeling in the foreground of a landscape, his hands joined
in prayer. He wears a red, loose-sleeved gown trimmed
io8 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
with fur and girt with a belt from which hangs a purse.
He is protected by Saint Anthony, who, clad in a black
habit marked with the tau cross and bell, lays his right
hand encouragingly on his client's shoulder. The ground
at the foot of the rocks behind the saint, and the hillside
on the left, are overgrown with the palmetto. In the back-
ground on the extreme left, beyond a line of bushes, is
a castle of considerable size, in the entrance and bay window
of which, as well as on the open platform, figures of the
household are discernible.
On the reverse of the panel was a figure, in grisaille, of
the Angel Gabriel, of which very little now remains.
The purse attached to the donor's cincture figures in
a portrait attributed to Peter Christus, in the collection of
Mr. George Salting. It was probably one of the properties
of the Van Eycks, acquired by Christus from John's widow.
This is the dexter shutter of a triptych, of which the
exterior represented the Annunciation ; the centre panel of
the interior, Our Lady and Child, or some subject from the
life of Our Lord ; and the shutters, the donors with their
patron saints. Above this triptych would have been placed,
in accordance with the general custom, a statue of the saint
in whose honour the altar was erected. There can be little
doubt that it formed part of an altar-piece formerly in the
church of Saint Saviour, at Ghent, painted by Hubert van
Eyck for Robert Poortier, a burgher of Ghent, and Avesoete
his wife, founders of the altar of Saint Anthony in that
church, as we learn by their last will dated the 9th of
March, 1426, just six months before Hubert's death. At
that date the altar itself was not yet completed, and the
A DONOR PROTECTED BY SAINT ANTHONY
COPENHAGEN: ROYAL GALLERY
altar-piece and statue of Saint Anthony were still in master
1426, 9 March. Extract from the will of Robert Poortier
and his wife, in the Archives of the town of Ghent :
" Kenlic zij enz. dat zij begheeren te ligghene in de
kerke 's Helichs Kersts in de zuut cappelle, die men heet
Onser Vrouwen cappelle van der Moure, daer zij eenen saerc
hebben doen legghen, ter welker plaetsen zij willen ende
begheeren dat vulcome dat men in de selve capelle doe
maken eenen altaer omme up te doene den dienst ons
Heeren, ende an den selven altaer te stelne 't belde van Sente
Anthonise, welc beelde nu ter tijt rust onder meester
Hubrechte den scildere met meer ander weercx dienende
ten selven altare."
1872. CROWE, 143. Much in the spirit of John van Eyck, and perhaps
one of the best efforts of Christus. A deep, ruddy-toned picture
of fine execution.
1875. CLEMENT DE Ris, in Gazette des Beaiix Arts, 2 P., xn, 408.
Fine and firm, energetically modelled and powerfully coloured.
In a perfect state of preservation.
1898. KAEMMERER, no.
1900. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285 ; in the
Nineteenth Century, n .285, p. 789 ; and in Zeitschrift fiir
bildende Kunst, N.F., xi, 253-255.
1901. SEECK, in Kunstchronik, N.F., xn, 258, says that the treatment
of the rocks and vegetation in this picture presents close analogy
to that of the landscape in the Turin picture of Saint Francis.
He believes it to be by Peter Christus, but accounts for its
being so far superior to his other works by the supposition that
it was painted under Hubert's supervision, and probably not
entirely without his collaboration.
1901. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 477.
no HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1903. DE MONT, 51.
1903. SCHUBERT, 28.
1904. DVORAK, 183, thinks that this picture dates from the middle of
the fifteenth century, and accepts its attribution to Peter Christus.
1905. FIERENS, 119, considers the landscape to be very fine, and
similar in style to that in the Turin Saint Francis.
1906. VOLL, 47.
14. OUR LADY AND CHILD, SAINT ELISABETH OF HUN-
GARY, SAINT BARBARA, AND A CARTHUSIAN
Paris : Baron Gustave Rothschild. Oak. H. 0,355 5 B. 0,48.
The scene is laid in a portico or cloister paved with
light-blue tiles and slabs of porphyry and verd antique.
Five round arches supported by cylindrical columns of green
and black marble rest on the low wall which separates the
cloister from the outer world. In the centre the Virgin-
Mother stands erect beneath a canopy with a cloth of honour
which reaches to the ground, and completely shuts out the
view through the central arch. With her right arm she
tenderly supports the Divine Infant against her bosom, her
left hand retaining His feet. The Child holds a crystal orb
surmounted by a gold cross, and raises His right hand in
the act of blessing a Carthusian kneeling in the foreground,
his hands joined in prayer. He is protected by Saint
Barbara, who has one hand on his right shoulder, while
with the other she holds out a palm to the Infant Christ.
In a garden of flowers hard by stands her other emblem,
a tower with a window of three lights, through which is
seen against a blue star-sprinkled background a statue of
the god Mars his name on its base which has the
appearance of an antique bronze. On the left of the Virgin
stands a saint holding three crowns superposed ; her dress
is a grey violet trimmed with white fur, a plain linen coif,
and over all an ample black cloak. Saint Barbara is habited
in green with a crimson mantle kept in place by a cordon
attached to its jewelled neckband ; her hair, confined by
a cincture of pearls, falls behind her in undulating masses.
The Blessed Virgin is represented in a dark-red loose-sleeved
dress trimmed with ermine and girt with a green-and-gold
sash ; over this she wears a blue mantle edged with gold
embroidery studded with precious stones. Her hair, con-
fined by a jewelled band, falls over her shoulders. A rich
Oriental carpet with fringed border is spread on the
pavement beneath her feet. The cloth of honour behind
her, and the canopy above, are of red-and-green brocade,
with blue floral ornaments within double ogee-shaped com-
partments bordered by undulating foliage enwreathed with
scrolls bearing the salutation, Ave, gratia plena. The
background, seen through the open arches, is an exquisite
bit of landscape, through which a broad river winds its way
towards the front from distant snow-capped mountains. On
the left it skirts the crenelated walls of a city with many
churches and towers of an English type of architecture,
including an exact reproduction of old Saint Paul's as seen
from the south ; the buildings and busy streets are repre-
sented with marvellous distinctness. On the river is a
boat crowded with passengers to the city, another is moored
to the bank; swans, too, enliven the scene. On the near
bank is a country waggon with a party looking out at the
ii2 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
side from beneath its canvas covering. In the half-distance
the river is spanned by a bridge of seven arches ; numerous
horsemen and pedestrians are wending their way across or
looking down at the water, in which they are faithfully
reflected. In the sky above we espy a flight of wild geese.
The outlook through the arch on the extreme right of the
panel is on to a thickly wooded hillside, beyond which are
buildings, including a church backed by distant mountains.
The Carthusian portrayed here is Dom Herman
Steenken, of Zuutdorp, a village to the south of Axel, in
Zeeland. He entered the Order at Diest, when, at an early
age, he was appointed Vicar of the Nunnery of Saint Anne ter
Woestine (in the desert), near Bruges, an office which he held
from 1402 to 1404, and again from 1406 until his death in
the odour of sanctity on the 23rd of April, 1428.
I have been unable to find any documentary evidence
as to the date of this picture, which I think must have been
painted between 1406 and 1420, certainly before the Rolin
altar-piece. Dom Herman wrote a number of books, two
of which have been published : " De Regimine Monialium
Liber I." and " Sermones quinquaginta super Orationem
Dominicam, " printed respectively at Audenaerde in 1480
by Arend De Keysere, and at Louvain in 1484 by John of
A notice of Dom Herman, kindly extracted from the
Archives of the Order and communicated to me by Dom
Peter Pepin, informs us that he was in the habit of repairing
for prayer to a chapel dedicated to Saint Barbara not far
from the nunnery.
The Charterhouse of Saint Anne was destroyed in 1578,
when the nuns took refuge in Bruges. This picture appears
to have come later on into the possession of the Archduke
Ernest of Austria, Governor of Belgium from 1592 to 1595.
The panel has been enlarged all round by a thumb's
1857. MUNDLER. A very fine authentic piece by John van Eyck.
1866. MICHIELS, n, 299 : " Le type des visages est gracieux mais n'a
pas 1'ampleur habituelle du maitre. ... La ville est un prodige
de patience. . . . Tableau d'une couleur et d'une conservation
admirable. Les vetements sont magnifiques."
1872. CROWE, 113.
1894. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Preussischen Kunstsammlungen,
1898. KAEMMERER, 93-97. The landscape has undeniably an Eyckian
appearance, but the figures are hard and lifeless ; the painter was
unable to represent living persons.
1899. SEECK, 18-22, 68. Certainly by Hubert, and earlier than the
smaller Berlin picture.
1900. VOLL, 81-84, dates this picture about 1437, and praises highly
not only the landscape background, but also the modelling and
colour of the figures ; he thinks it is certainly an original work
1900. WEALE, in Revue de I Art Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285 ; Zeitschrift
fur bildende Ktmst, N.F., xi, 254, and Nineteenth Century,
n.285, p. 789.
190x3. KAEMMERER, in Kunstchronik, xn, 71, acknowledges that he
had never seen the picture, but that he still doubts its being by
either of the Van Eycks, and that Dr. Bode, in conversation, had
also expressed his doubts.
1901. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 475.
1903. DE MONT, 52, looks on this picture as the work of one of
John's pupils, and declares the river and town to be a servile
copy of those in the Rolin altar-piece !
1903. SCHUBERT, 37.
1904. DVORAK, 241, believes this to be an imitation of the Rolin
ii4 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
altar-piece (15), basing his remarks on a photograph, and on
Kaemmerer's observations, but he had not seen the painting.
1904. KERN, 14, plate viii.
1905. FIERENS, 121. The most remarkable of the pictures attributed
to Hubert, for the splendour of its colour and the extraordinary
precision of the details of the background.
1906. VOLL, 40.
1906. SlEBERT, IO.
1907. S. REINACH, Tableaux inedits ou peu connus, 1-7, Paris.
15. OUR LADY AND CHILD AND CHANCELLOR ROLIN
Paris: Louvre, 162. Oak. H. 0,66; 6.0,62.
Formerly in the collegiate church of Our Lady at Autun,
On the left, the Blessed Virgin is seated on a marble
throne with mosaic inlays, furnished with cushions of blue-
and-gold brocade. An angel in a blue alb, with beautiful
peacock wings, flying down, holds an elaborate gold crown
over her head. With both hands Mary supports the Divine
Child seated on her right knee. He is nude, holds a crystal
orb surmounted by a jewelled cross, and raises His hand to
bless the chancellor, Nicholas Rolin, who kneels before Him
with joined hands at a prayer-desk covered with blue drapery
bordered with red, on which lies his open breviary. He is
clad in a robe of dark violet-and-gold brocade trimmed with
fur, and wears a wig. Mary, whose hair, parted in the
middle, is confined by a black riband and drawn back behind
the ears, has a blue dress, almost entirely hidden by the dark
crimson mantle whicE envelops her person and falls with
numerous folds and sharp breaks on the pavement. Along
OUR LADY AND CHILD AND C1IAXCKLLOK ROLIN
its edge runs a text, embroidered in gold, from the Lesson
at Matins in the Office of Our Lady, taken from the
twenty-fourth chapter of Ecclesiasticus : Exaltata sum in
The figures thus grouped are in a three-aisled hall or
portico, into which the broad daylight streams through an
arcade of three slightly stilted arches resting on slender
cylindrical columns of variegated marble ; above are two
windows of coloured glass, the lower portions only of which
are seen ; those in the aisles are filled with pearl-white
roundels. The capitals of the columns are adorned with
interlacements of foliage and animals, and those of the piers
in the angles with groups of figures representing the expulsion
of Adam and Eve from Paradise, the sacrifice of Cain and
Abel, Noe quitting the ark, and the sin of his youngest son.
The pavement is formed of rectangular slabs of stone,
alternately plain and adorned with geometrical inlays. The
arcade opens on to a garden of roses, lilies, irises, and other
flowering plants, with a path through the centre, on which a
couple of magpies are disporting themselves ; beyond this five
steps lead to a raised terrace with a crenelated wall. Here
we see two peacocks basking in the sun, and two men who
one in blue with a red head-dress, and a walking-stick in his
left hand, the other in red are looking down over the battle-
ments at a broad river intersecting a town, the two portions
of which are connected by a fortified bridge of seven arches.
Beyond the bridge, in mid-stream, is a castled island ; from
a distant range of blue mountains, whose snowy summits
glisten in the sunlight, the river, enlivened by a variety of
craft, flows towards the front with many windings through a
ii6 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
lovely country of hills, fields, and meadows. This landscape
and the town in the foreground contain an almost incredible
amount of detail. The background bears a general resem-
blance to that of the painting in the Rothschild collection at
Paris (14). l The composition was most probably suggested
by the scenery about Maastricht ; that town, the suburb of
Wyck on the opposite side of the river, and the bridge and
island agreeing pretty closely with the picture, so far as their
relative position is concerned, but no further, for here evidently,
as in all the landscapes of the Van Eycks, the whole is really
an original composition, but so skilfully designed as to give
the impression of its being a real view.
The effect of the picture is marred by a disagreeable
Nicholas, son of John Rolin and Amee Jugnot, born
at Autun in 1376, lord of Authume (Burgundy), Aymeries
and Raismes (Hainault), 2 was created Chancellor of Burgundy
and Brabant, December 3, 1422. He married (i) Mary de
Landes (died before 1411), and (2) Guygonne de Salins. He
founded the hospital at Beaune in 1445, an ^ died January 18,
1462. In his portrait in the altar-piece of the hospital, 1446,
he appears as of about seventy years of age.
1 The details vary considerably ; e.g. the cathedral here having
the appearance of a French edifice ; the tower of Saint Martin's
cathedral at Utrecht is pictured nearer the river.
2 The two last fiefs and those of Pont-sur-Sambre and Dourlers
belonging to Rene of Anjou were, when he, by the death of his father-
in-law in 1431, became duke of Lorraine, seized by the Duke of
Burgundy, who granted the revenues thereof to his chancellor. Later
on Rene fell into Philip's power and was imprisoned at Lille. On
February 4, 1437, before being set at liberty, he sold all his rights to
these fiefs to the chancellor.
NICHOLAS KOI. IN, CHANCELLOR OF BURGUNDY AND BRABANT
HORN IJ76; DIED 1462
DEDICATION' MIMAIVRE ()!'
1)K KIJUSSII.l.l )X "
V 1 K N N A : I M 1'K RIAL I.I I!R ARY
DEDICATION MINIATURE OF THE "CHRONICLES OF HAINAULT
BRUSSELS: BUKGUNDIAN LIIiRAUY
The chancellor is also represented in a remarkably fine
miniature at the head of the first volume of " Les Chroniques
de Hainaut " (Brussels ; Burgundian Library), a translation
from the Latin of James de Guyse by John Wauquelin of
Mons, who is represented presenting his work to Duke Philip,
surrounded by members of his court, his son Charles at his
left side and the chancellor at his right. Copies of this
miniature with modifications occur in several other manuscripts
written by Wauquelin, in the Brussels Library, and in the
Romance " Gerard de Roussillon," in the Imperial Library,
1778. COURTEPEE, Description du Duche de Bourgogne, Dijon, nr,
451. The picture was then in the sacristy of the collegiate church
of Our Lady at Autun. The background is described as showing
the city of Bruges in perspective, with more than 2000 figures !
1855. VIARDOT, Les Musees de France, 172.
1857. CROWE, 96: "A splendid specimen of John's early and most
powerful manner . . . almost equal to the large productions of
Hubert. . . . Here John's art is displayed in all its force and
weakness ; admirable when we only look at the characteristic
rendering of the scratch-wigged chancellor, or the adumbrations
that cover the wondrous details of architecture, or the crystalline
purity of a distance carried to a horizon of snow mountains miles
away ; disappointing when we look at the plain mask of the Virgin,
or the wooden shape of the aged babe naked on her knee, or the
piled and broken drapery that rests on the figures."
1858. HOTHO, ii, 180.
1 860. WAAGEN, 70. The features of the Virgin are pretty, but of little
spirituality of character ; the Child, of unusual elegance for the
master ; the angel, very beautiful ; and the portrait of the donor, of
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 297. The town in the background not Bruges,
1879. HAMERTON, 155-157.
ii8 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1885. GILBERT, 151.
1887. CONWAY, 97, 152 : " The Virgin possesses no physical attractions ;
the Child is ugly, and the chancellor hideous . . . but his face,
hideous though it be, possesses a fascination by reason of its
strong and vivid presentment of character, which puts all else into
1898. KAEMMERER, 93, dates the picture c. 1437.
1899. SEECK, 23-26, 68, thinks it was painted c. 142 2, and that Rolin
has the appearance of a man of fifty years of age.
1900. VOLL, 65-70, dates it .1425.
1901. BODE, 124, says it was painted .1434, certainly not before 1432.
1902. MARKS, in the Athenaum, December 12, p. 800.
1903. MARKS, 22 :" The Louvre picture is certainly the work of two
painters. Otherwise we must suppose that the painter, having
completed his figures, proceeded to kill them with his accessories.
John surpassed himself in painting the accessories of this picture.
. . . The winding river can be no other than the Rhine. . . . John
shows here, perhaps even more than in the Ghent altar-piece, that
he is a great master of landscape painting. . . . The dominant
interest of the picture does not centre in the figures."
1903. ROSEN, 92.
1903. ROOSES, Oude Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Meesters in den
Louvre, 61-66. Antwerpen.
1903. DE MONT, 53.
1903. SCHUBERT, 32-36.
1904. KERN, 15, plates ix and x, judging by the perspective, considers
it to be a work of John's later period.
1904. DVORAK, 191, 216, 219, 241. Indisputably painted by John.
1905. DOEHLEMANN, II.
1905. FIERENS, 128-131, dates it .1426.
1906. VOLL, 36, thinks the town represented to be Liege, and the
picture to have been painted by John, at latest in 1426.
1906. SIEBERT, 8-10.
The background of a miniature in a Book of Hours
executed .1450 for the Bastard of Orleans, John count of
NICHOLAS KOI, IX, CHANCELLOR OF 15UKGUXDY
1DLTAIL OK AI.TAK-I'IKCK)
MINIATURE IX THE HOURS OF JOHN COUNT OF DUXOIS
LONDON: H. V. THOMPSON, KSg.
SAINT PETERSBURG HERMITAGE
Dunois, has been admirably adapted from that in the Louvre
1 6. THE ANNUNCIATION
Saint Petersburg: Hermitage Gallery. Dexter shutter of a
triptych. Canvas, transferred from the original panel.
H. 0,92 ; B. 0,38.
In the nave or transept of a lofty three-aisled building
the Blessed Virgin is represented standing on the left,
behind a prayer-desk, on which an illuminated book lies open.
Opposite her the angel, who, bearing a sceptre of crystal and
gold, has entered from the side aisle, raises his right hand, and
greets her with the salutation : Ave, gratia plena, to whom
she, her hands raised apart and with her head slightly
inclined, signifies her humble submission to the Divine will
by the words: Ecce ancilla Domini; both inscriptions in
detached gold capitals float in the air. Amid seven rays
of light, projected from heaven through the clerestory, the
Holy Dove flies down to Mary. She is clad in a blue dress
trimmed with ermine, open at the neck, girt with a broad
sash immediately below the breast, and over this an ample
blue mantle with a narrow border of gold. Her hair, con-
fined by a jewelled band, is drawn back off the forehead and
falls over her shoulders, leaving the left ear exposed. Gabriel,
who has beautiful peacock-wings, wears, over a tunic of green-
and-gold velvet brocade, a cope of dark red and gold, bordered
with pearls and precious stones, and kept in place by a
circular morse. A jewelled coronet with a cross flory rising
from the front confines his hair, which falls in curly locks on
120 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
his shoulders. The draperies of both the angel and the
Virgin spread around in many folds on the pavement, which
is composed of oblong storied panels, separated from each
other by bands of undulating foliage of varied design, with
the signs of the zodiac in elliptical medallions at the inter-
sections ; those seen are Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Scorpio, and
Sagittarius ; while the storied panels show Samson slaying
the Philistines with the jawbone of an ass ; Delilah cutting
off his hair DALIDA VXOR s Samson pulling down the pillars
of the temple of Dagon SAMSON MVLTAS GENTES INTER-
FECIT I QVivio and David cutting off Goliath's head, Saul,
surrounded by his warriors, looking on from his tent ; these
accompanied by explanatory inscriptions. In the immediate
foreground, on the left, is a wooden stool, with a tasseled red
damask silk cushion on it, and beyond it a glass vase with
lilies. The architecture in this picture is remarkable, but
cannot be considered as the representation of any one build-
ing, though all the details appear to be correctly drawn. The
late Romanesque arcade, with its very stilted arches seems to
have been copied from the arches of an apse, but straightened
out ; the capitals of the columns are sculptured with inter-
laced foliage, those of the piers at the angles with figures.
The square-headed triforium, with its row of columns, may
possibly have been suggested by the Baptistery at Parma,
but more probably by the cathedral of Tournay. The
spandrils between the arches at the further end of the
building are adorned with two half-length figures in circular
medallions : Isaac on the right and Jacob on the left. In the
window above is a full-length figure of our Lord in a red
robe and yellowish-blue mantle, holding a sceptre and an
SAINT PETERSBURG: HERMITAGE
open book. His feet rest on a globe, on which in capital
letters ASIA. Above Him are two seraphim standing on
wheels. On each side is a mural painting that on the right
representing the daughter of Pharaoh PHARAONIS FILIA and
a maiden P....SCELLA carrying the infant Moses MOYSES
in a cradle ; that on the left, Moses MOYSES bending before
the Lord DNS and receiving the tables of the law, on which
is inscribed the second commandment ; Non assumes nomen
Domini Dei tui in vanum. 1 The compartments of the wooden
ceiling are also apparently represented as decorated with
This panel is said by the dealer Nieuwenhuys to have
been found in a church at Dijon, to which it had been pre-
sented by Philip III., Duke of Burgundy. Brought to Paris
in 1819, it was sold by him to King William II. of Holland.
On the dispersal of that monarch's collection in 1850, it was
purchased for the Hermitage for 12,949 francs, equal to $18.
A copy is said by Crowe and by Kaemmerer to have been in
the possession of a M. van Hal at Antwerp, and to have been
sold there and afterwards at Paris in the middle of last
1858. HOTHO, n, 171. The figures, he thinks, painted after Hubert.
1864. WAAGEN, Die Gemalde Sammlung in der K. Ermitage, MUn-
chen, p. 115, gives 1433-34 as the probable date of this
1866. MICHIELS, n, 317, 342.
1872. CROWE, 113: "Though not of John van Eyck's best, this
genuine work is full of interest, on account of the finish and
variety of its accessories."
1 Exodus xx, 7.
122 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1883. BODE, Kaiserliche Gemalde Galerie in St. Petersburg, Paris,
dates it 1426.
1887. CONWAY, 141.
1898. KAEMMERER, 71, suggests that the upper portion may have been
added ! !
1899. C. PHILLIPS, in the North American Review, 712, calls it "an
unlovely, yet in detail a wonderfully interesting piece, produced a
year or two earlier than the altar-piece in the Bruges Gallery."
1899. SEECK, 70, attributes it to John, and dates it 1437.
1900. KAEMMERER, 70, dates it 1436.
1900. VOLL, 62, believes John to have painted this soon after 1426.
He says that we know that John in his younger days spent
a long time in France, and gives as his authority (note 39)
Laborde, " Les Dues de Bourgogne flasstm," l and concludes that
this picture was painted during a stay in Burgundy, where he
must have made Rolin's acquaintance, and received the com-
mission to paint the altar-piece now in the Louvre.
1901. VOLL, 218, 225.
1903. DE MONT, 21, gives c. 1437 as the date, and says the angel is
very like the Madonna in the Van der Paele altar-piece !
1904. KERN, 13, plate vii.
1905. FIERENS, 127, dates this painting .1427.
17. PORTRAIT OF AN ESQUIRE OF THE ORDER OF S. ANTHONY
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 525A. Oak. H. 0,40; B. 0,31.
Formerly in the collection of Philip Engels, sold at
Coeln, May 16, 1867, described in the catalogue, n.i7, as the
portrait of a Duke of Burgundy, by Hubert van Eyck.
Purchased by Mr. Suermondt of Aachen, for 5500 francs, it
was in 1874 bought from him for the Berlin Gallery.
This is very vague ; I cannot find a single passage to warrant
AN ESQUIRE OF THE ORDER OF S.ANTHONY
BERLIN: ROYAL GALLERY
?J/ permission of 'the Bcrlm Photographic Co
Portrait of a man of about sixty years of age, turned
slightly to the right, the face, deeply wrinkled and closely
shaven, seen in full light. He wears a loose grey robe,
trimmed with fur, just low enough at the neck to let his red
satin damask tunic and some fine linen be seen. A high,
broad-brimmed fur hat covers his head. Around his neck is
the collar of the Order of Saint Anthony, to which is sus-
pended a tau cross with a tinkling bell attached thereto, all
of silver, here painted grey with white lights. His hands
originally rested on a parapet, still discernible under the
coat of paint with which it has been covered. He holds a
bunch of red-and-white pinks in the right hand, on the fourth
finger of which he wears a handsome ring. The background
The Order of Saint Anthony, founded in 1382 by Albert
of Bavaria, Count of Hainault, was originally a military
order, to which only noblemen and doctors were admitted.
Under Jacqueline of Bavaria, in 1420, it ceased to be a
military, and became simply a pious society, and by an
ordinance of the chapter dated the nth of June of that year,
it was decided that the tau and bell to be worn by knights
and ladies should be of silver gilt, and those by squires and
their wives of plain silver. 1
Engraved by Gaillard, 1869. H. 0,15; B. 0,17.
Facsimile by the Berlin Photographic Company, 1907.
1 The insignia of the Order are thus described in the statutes :
" Ung coller, et pendant a icellui coller une pottence et au debout d'icelle
une clocquette sonnant." Portraits of the members formerly adorned
the chapel at Barbefosse, and it is possible that this may have been
one of them.
124 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Exhibited : Bruges : Early Netherlandish Paintings,
The individual here portrayed figures as one of the
Kings in an Epiphany picture belonging to Count Landsberg
Velen, at the castle of Gemen, Velen, ascribed to the ' Master
of the Family of Saint Anne/ and supposed to have been
painted for a member of the Hackeney family, between 1480
1867. E. GALICHON, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, xxm, 484.
1869. W. SCHMIDT, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, iv, 357.
1869. BURGER (Thore), in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 7-10, thinks
this portrait was painted between 1432 and 1436.
1872. CROWE, 95.
1874. WOLTMANN, iii Zeitschrift fttr bildende Kunst, ix, 195.
1875. STEPHENS, 3.
1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 214.
1898. KAEMMERER, 62, dates this portrait c. 1433.
1899. SEECK, 26-30, 68, attributes it to Hubert, and thinks it was
painted before 1422.
1900. VOLL, 113-119.
1900. KAEMMERER, 72-74.
1901. BODE, 120-122.
1903. DE MONT, 55, dates this portrait 1436.
1904. TSCHUDI, 8.
1905. FlERENS, 151.
1906. VOLL, 44.
DRESDEN: ROYAL GAI.LERY
"nitrien aSMe J3erbn ffutofraffuc fi,
18. OUR LADY AND CHILD, SAINT KATHERINE, SAINT
MICHAEL, AND THE DONOR
Dresden: Royal Gallery. Oak. H. 0,275; B. centre, 0,215 ;
Formerly in the collection of Everard Jabach ; n.266
in the inventory drawn up on July 17, 1696, described as by
Hubert van Eyck, and valued at 6 livres.
The exterior a general arrangement represents the
Annunciation. On the dexter panel, the archangel, on the
sinister, the Blessed Virgin, as two ivory statues on octagonal
pedestals in square-headed niches ; Gabriel in an alb and an
ample mantle, holding a sceptre, and with his right hand
slightly raised as he delivers his message ; Mary, the gathered
folds of her mantle in her left hand, raises her open right in
token of submission to the Divine will ; the Holy Dove is
flying down to her.
Interior. In the nave of a three-aisled building Our
Lady sits enthroned in a graceful attitude, with both hands
supporting the infant Saviour seated nude on a linen cloth
spread over her lap. The Child's left hand rests on His
knee ; with His right He holds a long white scroll, bearing
the exhortation ; Discite a me quia mitis sum et humilis
corde, in black minuscules with a blue initial. His Mother
wears a dress of deep blue, with a jewelled border at both
neck and wrists, and over this an ample mantle of deep
red crimson edged with gold embroidery interspersed with
126 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
precious stones. Her long fair hair, drawn back behind the
ears and confined by a cincture adorned with rubies, sapphires,
and pearls, falls in undulating masses over her shoulders.
Two rings adorn the third finger of her left hand. Her feet rest
on a rich carpet spread over the throne-steps and pavement.
The principals of the throne are crowned by bronze figures.
Those in front represent a pelican in its piety and a phoenix ;
and those at the back, the sacrifice of Abraham, and David
and Goliath. A cloth of honour of rich brocade is sus-
pended by cords from the columns of the triforium ; the
pattern is of foliage, flowers, and golden fruit, with greyish-
white lions and light-blue unicorns on a black ground. Two
rows of cylindrical marble columns, which divide the nave
from the aisles, rest on Gothic bases, but are crowned
by late Romanesque capitals of interlaced branches of
foliage ; above these, on corbels, are statues of saints in
tabernacles with crocketed canopies ; the piers in the back-
ground have storied capitals. The lancet windows of the
clerestory are filled with grisaille glass, those of the aisles
On the dexter shutter is a portrait of the donor, a man
of about fifty, kneeling on the pavement, his hands apart,
uplifted in prayer. His robe of olive-green, full-sleeved, and
with a high collar, is trimmed with fur ; he wears a wig. A
deep crimson head-covering with the lappet falling over the
right shoulder, a plain gold ring on the little finger of the
right hand, and pointed shoes, complete his costume. He
kneels, protected by Saint Michael a manly but youthful
figure, with auburn locks and wings of rainbow hue, attired
in bronze armour, with a gorgeret and jupon of mail ; his left
OUR JJUJY AND CHILD ENTHRONED
I>RBSDEN. ROYAL GALLERY
ffypermissum oft/lc Jcrlm Pfwtoprapfuc Co.
arm supports his helmet ; his lance rests against his right
shoulder; while a strap across his chest supports a buckler
at his back. The capital of the pillar immediately behind
him is adorned with a group of warriors, one of whom has
probably been suggested by a figure of Bellerophon and the
Chimaera, or of Alexander, on some ancient sarcophagus.
On the opposite shutter Saint Katherine, patron of the
learned, is represented standing, reading in a book supported
on her left hand ; with her right she holds a sword which
rests on the pavement, where lies the other instrument of her
martyrdom, a wheel of torture. Her dress is of bright blue
with close sleeves terminating above the elbows, with long
lappets hanging from thence, and over it she wears a sideless
robe of ermine with a blue skirt. A richly jewelled coronet
confines her fair hair, which is drawn off her forehead and
falls on her back. Her only other ornament is a simple
necklace with a pendant jewel. A two-light window at her
back is filled with roundels, and its traceried head with
glass of various colours ; the lower portion is open, and
through this tiny space, about 5 centimeters by i, we are
afforded a view, beneath a brilliant cloudless sky, of a town,
fields with trees, delicate blue hills, and beyond them spark-
ling snow-capped mountains.
The frame bears the following texts, painted to represent
inscriptions in relief in the hollows of the moldings. On the
centre panel : " + Hec est speciosior sole et super omnem
stellarum disposicionem luci comparata invenitur prior : candor
est enim lucis eterne et speculum sine macula Dei maies-
tatis, etc. Ego quasi vitis fructificavi suavitatem odoris :
et flores mei fructus honoris et honestatis. Ego mater
128 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
pulchre dilectionis et timoris et magnitudinis et sancte
spei," etc. 1
On the dexter panel :
"Hie est archangelus princeps milicie angelorum
cuius honor prestat beneficia populorum
et oracio perducit ad regna celorum.
Hie archangelus Michael Dei nuncius
de animabus iustis, gracia Dei ille victor
in celis resedit a pa."
At the upper dexter angle is an escutcheon bearing Gules
a castle triple-towered argent, on a chief or an eagle issuant
On the sinister panel :
" Virgo prudens anelavit
ad sedem sideream
ubi locum preparavit,
linquens orbis aream
granum sibi reservavit
Disciplinis est imbuta
nuda nudum est secuta
certis Christi passibus
dum mundanis est exuta, etc." 2
1 Wisdom vii, 29, 26 ; Ecclesiasticus xxiv, 23, 24, magnitudinis
for agnitionis in the Vulgate.
2 From the hymn at Vespers in several fourteenth-century Office-
books in use in the diocese of Liege, and in the Breviary of Tournay,
printed at Paris in 1497. The "etc." stands for the final line, " vacuis
S MICHAEL AND THE DONOR
DRESDEN ROYAL GALLERY
permission o/ tfl Hertin fhafrryraphic Co
At the upper sinister angle is an escutcheon bearing
Argent 21 billets gules, on a canton or a fess gules. The
shutters have suffered from over-cleaning.
Etched by Hugo Biirkner.
1765. Catalogue of the Dresden Gallery. The travelling altar-piece
of Charles V., by Albert Diierer.
1817. Catalogue. German school : by an unknown master.
1840. Catalogue. By Hubert van Eyck.
1846. Catalogue. By John van Eyck.
1858. HOTHO, ii, 194. 1860. WAAGEN, 29. Both these authors call
the archangel ' Saint George ' !
1862. DARCEL, Excursion artistique en Allemagne, Paris, 62, doubts
the authenticity of the picture, on account of the prominence of
the animals and flowers in the cloth of honour.
1862. SCHAEFER, Die konigliche Gemalde Gallerie zu Dresden, in,
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 134, assigns the exterior to Peter Christofthsen /
and calls the angel and the Virgin " des personnages stupides et
d'une laideur inintelligente." Describes the interior as the
earliest work due to the united efforts of Hubert and John, and
praises " the marvellous tone of the crimson mantle of the en-
throned Madonna ; " this being in reality a bit of modern
overpainting which greatly diminishes the harmony of the picture.
1872. CROWE, 104-105, attributes the whole to John, and describes
1885. GILBERT, 153.
1898. KAEMMERER, 78, gives it to John, and dates it .1437.
1899. SEECK, 32, 70, believes it to date from about 1434 ; the splendid
architecture and extremely delicate colour alone to be John's,
everything else copied from Hubert. He notes that the light
falls on Saint Katherine's face, although she is standing with
her back to the window.
1900. VOLL, 85, considers this to be a late work, the general planning
by John, the execution of the shutters by another hand ; these
so weak that, if separated from the centre, no one would take
[ 3 o HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
them for works of Van Eyck. The shutters are lifeless and cold ;
the figure of the donor weakly conceived ; the head monotonous
and hard in modelling ; the hands have little individuality, their
pose meaningless !
1902, 13 December. MARKS, Alfred. Expresses his surprise at the
unanimity with which this picture has been ascribed to John alone.
"In this work," he observes, "the personages dominate their
surroundings, with the result that we have a harmonious whole
one of the most perfect pictures in the world. I cannot escape the
conviction that we see here the result of the collaboration of the
two brothers." He attributes the figures to Hubert, the acces-
sories to John.
1902. WOERMANN, Katalog, gives this work to John.
1903. DE MONT, 23, dates this picture .1437.
1904. KERN, 12, plate vi.
1905. FIERENS, 161, considers the Saint Katherine one of John
van Eyck's finest creations.
1906. VOLL, 39-41, 261-262. The centre so far surpasses the shutters,
that it alone can be looked on as the work of John's own hand ;
it is painted in a warm tone, whereas the shutters are cold.
1906. SIEBERT, 7-8.
19. THE VISION OF SAINT FRANCIS
Two panel paintings representing Saint Francis of Assisi,
said to have been painted by the hand of John van Eyck, were
in the second half of the fifteenth century in the possession
of Sir Anselm Adornes, lord of Corthuy, Ronsele, Ghend-
brugge, etc., a scion of the Genoese family of Adorno, born
in 1424, at Bruges, of which town he was burgomaster in
1475. He was assassinated at Linlithgow, on the 2yd of
January, 1483. By his wife, Margaret Van der Banck, who
died on the 2yd of March, 1462, he had amongst other
children two daughters who became nuns : Margaret, who
entered the Charterhouse of Saint Anne ter Woestine, and
Louisa, a canoness of the abbey of Saint Trudo, both in the
immediate neighbourhood of Bruges. Their father, by his
will, dated February 10, 1470, bequeathed the two paintings
to them, and directed his executors to have the portraits of
himself and his wife painted on the shutters of each of the
paintings, so that his daughters and other pious people
might be reminded to pray for them. Whether this last
direction was carried out we know not. Both convents
were demolished during the troubles in the last quarter
of the sixteenth century, and the numerous works of art
which they contained either perished or were dispersed. It
is possible that the paintings we are about to describe may
be those mentioned in the will, of which we reproduce the
clause relating to them : " Item zo gheve ic elken van myn
lieve dochters, die begheven zyn, te wetene : Margriete,
't Saertruesinnen, ende Lowyse, Sint Truden, een tavereele,
daerinne dat Sinte Franssen in portrature van meester lans
handt van Heyck ghemaect staet, ende dat men in de duerkins
die de zelve tavereelkins belancken doe maken myn persona-
ge ende mer vrauwe, alzo wel als men mach, te dien hende
dat wy van hemlieden ende andere devote persoonen moghen
ghedocht zyn, ende daertoe elcken ic gheve om haerlieder
wille mede te doen."
. Philadelphia: Mr. John G. Johnson. Oak. H. 0,125;
The picture represents the Vision of Saint Francis on
Mount Alverna, when he received the stigmata. In his
i 3 2 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
treatment of the subject, the painter has not adhered rigidly
to the earlier representations, in that he has omitted the rays
from the Saviour's hands, feet, and side, to those of the saint,
and has placed the sleeping brother, Leo, on the same plane
as the saint, instead of in the half-distance. In all earlier
Netherlandish pictures the habits of both the saint and the
brother are grey, and the Franciscans were known as the
Grey Friars ; but here the habit is brown, the colour adopted
by the reformed Franciscans, a conclusive proof that the
picture was painted in the South of Europe. The first
convent of the reformed Franciscans in the Low Countries
was not founded until the end of the fifteenth century. It
must also be remarked that the kneeling saint is not an ideal
impersonation of the poor man of Assisi, but the portrait,
evidently true to life, of a sturdy middle-aged man. The
scene is laid in the foreground of an exquisite landscape in
a retired spot, shut in on each side by tall limestone rocks.
The saint kneels before a mass of rock, above which, to the
right, appears the seraphic vision. Between the rocks we
get a view of a river in the half-distance, which bathes the
walls of a fortified town with many towers and spires seen
in bright sunlight ; on the stream are boats, and on the bank
and the bridge giving access to the city gate are innumerable
figures on foot and on horseback. In the far-off distance
are snow mountains, from whence the river flows with many
windings towards the town. In the foreground flowers
bloom amidst the herbage, while the palmetto grows in
abundance at the foot of the rocks, on the summit of the tallest
of which are three birds.
Purchased about 1830 by Lord Heytesbury from a
medical man at Lisbon, as an original work by Albert
Diirer, it remained in the collection at Heytesbury until
1890, when it was acquired by Mr. Johnson. It was carefully
cleaned by Mr. Roger Fry, in 1906.
Exhibited : British Institution, 1865, n4i ; Burlington
House, Old Masters, 1886, n.ig8.
196. Turin: Royal Gallery, 313. H. 0,28; B. 0,33.
The same composition, with some slight differences. The
saint's face, less lifelike, has a pleasanter look ; his tonsure
is larger, and more of Brother Leo's face is seen ; the habits
of both friars are grey. Strange to say, the brother, who
having his legs crossed, shows in Mr. Johnson's picture the
sole of his left foot, has here two right feet.
At the beginning of the last century this panel belonged
to a secularized nun of Casale, in Piedmont. After forming
part of the collections of Professor Bonzani, and of Signer
Fascio, Mayor of Feletto in Canavese, it was in 1860 acquired
by the Turin Gallery.
1857. WAAGEN, 389, writing of the panel, then at Heytesbury, describes
it as " delicate in feature and very earnest in expression. ... In the
treatment of the equally delicate, solid, and miniature-like execution,
this little picture agrees entirely with the altar-piece in the Dresden
Gallery, surpassing it, however, in the depth of the warm tone."
1860. WAAGEN, 69.
1883. HYMANS, in Bulletin des Commissions royales d 'Art et (fArchlo-
logie, xxn, 108-116, describes the Turin panel as surprisingly
beautiful, and of such perfection in the details as has never been
i 3 4 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
surpassed by any artist of the fifteenth century. The colour is
superbly vigorous and harmonious.
1883. WAUTERS, Les deux Saint Fra^ois de Jean van Eyck. In
Echo du Parlement, 7 Aout, Brussels.
1886. J. C. ROBINSON, in the Times of February i, calls the Heytes-
bury picture an exquisite little gem by John van Eyck.
1886. WEALE, in the Times of February 3.
1886. PHILLIPS, in Chronique des Arts, 15, expresses the gravest doubts
as to the correctness of its attribution to John van Eyck.
1887. CONWAY, 141, calls the Heytesbury panel a smaller replica of
the Turin picture.
1888. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxvn, 78-83.
1894. DEHAISNES, Les CEuvres des Maitres de 1'Ecole Flamande
primitive conservees en Italic, 6.
1897. JACOBSEN, in Archivio Storico dell' Arte, S. 2, in, 208, calls the
Turin picture a successful imitation of later date. The formation
of the rocks and the colouring of the foliage with little touches of
the brush recall Bles, and the delicate rosy tone with a tinge of
violet reminds one of (the pseudo-)Mostaert.
1898. KAEMMERER, 108, calls the rocks fantastic, and doubts the correct-
ness of the attribution to John van Eyck.
1899. SEECK, 13, 69, looks on the Turin panel as a late work by Hubert.
1900. VOLL, 109, calls the Turin panel a pretty, sympathetic picture,
but cannot discover in it any direct conformity with the character
of John's authentic works. He thinks it belongs to a later period,
because the saint is kneeling on both knees, and with his hands
not outstretched to receive the stigmata. He also considers the
landscape romantic, and to be contemporary with Durer.
1900. MARKS, in the Athentzum, May 26, p. 664.
1901. BODE, 129, considers the Turin panel to be the original, and the
smaller panel a replica executed in Van Eyck's workshop.
1903. ROSEN, 105-110, 133, calls the Turin picture a pretended Van
Eyck, and says the landscape resembles those by Bouts, but cannot
be by him because the plants are not so well painted. The fore-
ground is yellow brown to olive green, instead of deep juicy green
as in the panel of the Adoration of the Lamb. His statement that
the feet of Christ are covered by the seraph's wings, is incorrect.
THE VISION OF SAINT FRANCIS
MADRID : PRADO GALLERY
OUR LADY AM) CHILD IN A CHURCH
KKK1.IN: KOV.U. (JALLEKV
By permission of the Berlin rlw(0gra/>hiL Co.
OUR LAUV AND CHILD IX A CHURCH
KO.MK: DORIA GALLERY
SAINT ANTHONY AND Til 1C DONOR
KO.MK : DORIA CA1.1.KRY
OUR LADY AM) CHILI) IX A CHURCH
1903. DE MONT, 51.
1904. DVORAK, 240.
1905. FIERENS, 1 1 6.
1906. FRY, in the Burlington Magazine, ix, 358.
1906. C. RICKETTS, in the Burlington Magazine, ix, 426.
1906, F. J. M., in the Burlington Magazine, x, 138. Mr. Johnson's
Saint Francis is original, and of finer quality than the replica at
Turin. The head of the saint is evidently a portrait.
1907. JACCACI, in the Burlington Magazine, xi, 46-48.
A painting at Madrid (Prado Gallery, 1525. Oak.
H. 0,47 ; B. 0,36) formerly ascribed to Albert Diirer, but now
attributed to Joachim Patenir, is evidently based on Van
20. OUR LADY AND CHILD IN A CHURCH
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5250. Oak. H. 0,31 ; B. 0,14.
Formerly in the Suermondt collection at Aachen ; pur-
chased for the Gallery in 1874.
In the nave of a three-aisled cruciform Gothic church
with an apsidal choir and ambulatory, seen from the left, the
Blessed Virgin, clad in a red dress and greenish-blue mantle
with an elaborate gold crown on her head, stands holding
the Divine Child on her right arm, and retaining His feet with
her left hand. From the waist down He is enveloped in a
long white cloth, the end of which hangs in front. With His
right hand He clutches the neckband of His Mother's dress.
The sun, shining through the clerestory and the windows of
a side chapel behind the Virgin, produces a fine effect of
136 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
light and shadow. A sculptured stone screen of three bays
surmounted by a rood with statues of the Virgin and
Saint John, and furnished with a brass Gospel lectern,
separates the nave from the choir, within which stand two
angels singing from a book. On an altar in the side bay to
the right is a statuette of Our Lady on a metal pedestal
between two candlesticks. The sculptured tympanum of this
bay represents the Annunciation ; that of the central bay, the
Coronation of Our Lady.
Original frame painted in imitation of stone, and bearing
in capital letters : " Mater hec est filia pater hie est natus
quis audivit talia deus homo natus." At the foot: "Flos
1851. LABORDE, n, 1.
1855. LABORDE, La Renaissance des Arts a la Cour de France, i,
604-607 (Paris), says that the panel in Cacault's possession was
purchased from his housekeeper for 50 francs.
1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 12, says this picture
is the one which belonged to M. Nau.
1872. CROWE, 115 : "Suggestive of doubt. . . . There is a remi-
niscence of Van Eyck in the type of the heads, and something to
recall memories of the Madonna of Dresden, but that the tones
are less silvery and the impaste is heavier. . . . The way in which
the effect of light is brought out reminds us of the later Dutch
masters. ... Is not this a skilful copy by a master like De Hooch ? "
1877. WOLTMANN, in Repertorium, n, 419-422.
1879. SCHNAASE, 154. An authentic work by John.
1887. CONWAY, 145. A genuine work by John.
1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 216. A genuine
work by John. The Child is very small, and poorly modelled,
and there is a want of decision in the folds of His Mother's dress ;
but these are the result of a restoration of the whole of the lower
portion of the picture.
1898. KAEMMERER, 76-80. A masterpiece as regards both the lighting
and the production of an impression of space, but the weak
character of the draperies is against its being attributed unre-
servedly to John. A free copy is in the Ponzoni Collection at
1899. SEECK, 41, 70, notes that the architecture of the church is wholly
in the Pointed style, without any admixture of Romanesque ; for
this and other reasons he dates the picture c. 1440.
1900. VOLL, 78-81. Undoubtedly a late and very fine picture by John,
and a proof that he had great poetic feeling. Having compared
it with the group of the virgin-martyrs in the Adoration of the
Lamb, he thinks it proves conclusively that that group is also by
1900. KAEMMERER, 70.
1902. HULIN, 2, 118, attributes this picture to Hubert.
1903. DE MONT, 18, says: "painted between 1432 and 1480; the
Blessed Virgin an imitation of one of the virgin-martyrs in the
Adoration of the Lamb."
1904. KERN, 14, puts its date c. 1436.
1905. FIERENS, 162. The most remarkable of many copies of a lost
1906. VOLL, 39, says the church represented is Saint Denis, and dates
the picture c. 1432.
Several copies of this picture, evidently the dexter panel
of a diptych, are known : one formerly in the possession of
F. Cacault, who was the representative of France at Naples,
Florence, and Rome, was sold at his death for 17 francs to
an architect named Nau at Nantes. Laborde, who saw it,
gives its dimensions as 43 centimeters by 25. Another copy,
dated 1499, painted for Christian De Hondt, abbot of the
Cistercian monastery of Our Lady of the Dunes (H. 0,31 ;
B. 0,15), is now in the Van Ertborn Collection at the Antwerp
Museum. Another, painted c. 1505 for " Messer Antonio
138 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Siciliano," was in 1530 in the house of Gabriel Vendramin,
at Venice, and is now in the Doria-Pamphili Gallery at
Rome. A finely executed pen drawing (H. 0,30; B. 0,14),
the lower left corner repaired, in the collection of Count Louis
Paar, was sold at Vienna, February 21, 1896, n.326. Another
in pen and bistre on paper (H. 0,18; B. 0,095) was lent to
the Grosvenor Gallery Winter Exhibition, 1878-9, n .63O, by
Sir J. C. Robinson, and is reproduced in Kaemmerer's
" Hubert und Jan van Eyck," p. 77.
21. OUR LADY AND CHILD
Frankfort : Stadel Institute, 98. Oak. H. 0,655 ; B. 0,495.
Formerly in the possession of Charles Louis, Duke of
Lucca; was in 1841 in the hands of the dealer Nieuwenhuys
at Brussels, from whom it was purchased by William II.,
King of Holland, at whose sale in 1850 it was acquired by
the Institute for 3000 florins.
In this, as in the picture at Ince Hall, the scene is laid
in a room of small dimensions, lighted by a window on the
right. The Virgin-Mother is seated on a high-backed carved
oak throne, with bronze lions surmounting the principals.
From a fringed canopy attached to the ceiling hangs a cloth
of honour, with a green-and-gold pattern of foliage, and
white-and-red flowers on a blue ground, with a border of
white with a red stripe. She wears a blue dress, the full
sleeves of which are lined with white fur, and over this an
ample crimson mantle with a bejewelled border of gold em-
broidery. Her flowing light-brown hair, drawn back off the
OUR LADY AND CHILD
FRANKFORT: STAKDEL INSTITUTE
//BVTZ a. p/wloffra/ih. 6y ffiruckmann
temples and confined by a narrow band adorned with pearls,
falls over her left shoulder. With her right hand she supports
the Child, seated nude on a linen cloth spread on her lap,
and gives Him the breast with her left. He holds an orange
in His left hand, and lays His right on His Mother's arm.
In a niche on the left is a brass basin, and on a shelf above
it a bottle of water and a brass candlestick. Opposite this
a round-headed window glazed with pearl-white roundels,
letting in a moderate amount of light, but enough to make
the lions and vessels glitter ; on the sill are a couple of
oranges. The throne-steps are covered with a rich carpet
which extends to the front, leaving the pavement of white
tiles with a blue design visible at the sides.
Etched by J. Eissenhardt.
1858. HOTHO, ii, 189.
1860. WAAGEN, i, 69.
1862. DARCEL, Excursion artistique en Allemagne, 190.
1863. RUELENS, xxvi.
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 318.
1872. CROWE, 113.
1898. KAEMMERER, 87.
1899. SEECK, 22, 70, dates it 1433.
1900. WEIZSAECKER, Catalogue, gives the date of its execution as
between 1435 and 1440.
1900. VOLL, 70.
1903. DE MONT, 55, gives 1432-33 as the date of this painting.
1904. KERN, 9.
1905. FIERENS, 162.
1906. VOLL, 37.
1906. SlEBERT, IO-II.
140 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
22. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ARNOLFINI.
Berlin ; Royal Gallery, 523A. Oak. H. 0,29 ; B. 0,20.
Formerly in the collection of the Earl of Shrewsbury at
Alton Towers, sold July 6, 1857 (n .76), when it was described
as being much injured and repainted. It was purchased
for ^37 by C. J. Nieuwenhuys, at the sale of whose col-
lection July 17, 1886, it was described (n.67) as the portrait
of John van Eyck by himself. It was then acquired for the
Gallery for ^399.
Arnolfini is represented turned slightly to the right, his
face, close-shaven, seen in three-quarters. He is clad in an
olive-green robe trimmed with brown fur, fitting close at the
neck with stand-up collar ; a scarlet head-kerchief completes
his costume. He has small bluish-grey eyes ; his left arm
rests on the sill of a window ; his right hand, in which he
holds a folded letter with an illegible superscription, is laid
upon his left ; a ring adorns the little finger. The luminous
flesh tones of the face and the green and red of the costume
on the unrelieved dark background make a striking and
Facsimile coloured reproduction by the Berlin Photo-
1887. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der koniglich Preussischen Kunstsamm-
lungen, vm, 172-174.
1887. BODE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xxxv, 214.
1898. KAEMMERER, 101, 104, comparing this portrait with that of 1434
in the National Gallery, arrives at the conclusion that Arnolfini's
BERLIN : ROYAL GALLERY
By permission oj the Berlin Ph< togi afliic Co.
married life was not happy. This rash judgment is, he thinks,
confirmed by the fact that he and his wife were not buried in the
same grave nor even in the same church. Both John and his
brother Michael were, as Lucchese merchants, buried in their
chantry chapel, in the vault reserved as their exclusive resting-
1899. SEECK, 26-30, 53, comparing this with John's dated portraits, is
of opinion that it was painted in 1433.
1900. VOLL, 74-75, dates this portrait 1437-1439.
1905. FlERENS, 154.
1906. VOLL, 38.
23. PORTRAIT OF SIR BALDWIN DE LANNOY, LORD OF
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 2520. Oak. H. 0,26; B. 0,195.
Formerly at Modena, in the collection of the Marquess of
Half-length portrait of a man ; the face, seen in two-
thirds in full light turned to the right ; the eyes looking
straight out, away from the spectator. He wears a robe of
violet-purple damask, with yellowish-green sprays of foliage,
trimmed at the neck and wrists with reddish-brown fur ;
under the robe a close-fitting tunic with a collar open in
front, showing a little fine white linen. He has a large felt
hat, of the same shape as that worn by John Arnolfini in
the picture at the National Gallery. He holds with both
hands a white wand, the symbol of his official position of
chamberlain at the Duke's court. A ring adorns the little
finger of his right hand, and upon his shoulders hangs the
enamelled gold collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, of
142 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
which he had been created a knight by Duke Philip on its
institution, January 10, 1430. The collar, a work of the
Bruges goldsmith, John Peutin, was delivered to him on
Saint Andrew's Day, 1431. Hence it is certain that this
portrait must have been painted after that date, probably
some years later. The back of the panel is painted to
A drawing in pencil of this portrait, faithfully repro-
ducing every detail, is preserved in the town library at
Arras (MS. 266), in the collection of portraits of persons
connected with the court of the Dukes of Burgundy, made
by James Leboucq, painter and genealogist (d. 1573), and
formerly belonging to the abbey of Saint Vedast. At its
foot is the legend: " Baulduyn de Lannoy dit le Besgue
sieur de Molembais."
This Baldwin, surnamed the Stammerer, belonged to one
of the most illustrious families of Hainault. He was the
third son of Gilbert, lord of Santes and Katherine de Saint-
Aubin, lady of Molembaix, Heri, and Saint-Aubin. Born
in 1386 or 1387, he was appointed Governor of Lille in 1423,
Captain of the castle of Mortagne in 1428. He died in 1474,
having married, (i) Mary de Melles (d. 31 May, 1433), and
(2) Adriana de Berlaymont (d. 29 April, 1439). He was buried
at Solre-le-chateau. John van Eyck's striking portrait of
Baldwin evidently drew the attention of the unknown
Westphalian author of a series of paintings illustrating the
preaching of the Crusade by Saint Bernard now in the
Wallraf-Richartz museum at Coin. In one of these, depict-
ing an incident that occurred in the church at Frankfort
when the saint was about to carry the emperor Conrad III.
SIR BALDWIN DE LANNOY
BERLIN: ROYAL GALLERY
rmission of the Berlin Photographic Co
A.\ IMTDENT IN TIIK LIKE OF S. HKRNAKD
COKI.N : W. \l.l.R.\l -RK'HAKTX Ml'SKl'M
AN INCIDENT IN THE LIFE OK S. BERNARD. (DETAIL)
COKI.N : WALLRAK-RICHARTZ MUSUK.M
out of the crowd pressing around, he has introduced this
picturesque figure among the onlookers. 1
Helio-engraving by J. Chauvet, 1900, H. 0,187 ! ^. > 1 37-
Etching by Peter Halm, 1901, H. 0,161 ; B. 0,119.
190x3. WEALE, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, xxiv, 173-176.
1900. DIMIER, in Chronique des Arts, 10 November.
1901. BODE, xxn, 115-118.
1901. SEECK, in Kunstchronik, N. F., xn, 259-260.
1904. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, v, 408.
1905. FlERENS, 139.
24. OUR LADY AND CHILD, SAINT BARBARA, AND A
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5236. Oak. H. 0,195; B. o, 14:
Formerly in the Marquess of Exeter's collection at
Burleigh House. At its sale, June 9, 1888, n.288, it was
acquired by the Gallery for ^"2625.
On the left Our Lady stands, holding in her arms the
Infant Jesus, on whom she gazes with an expression of deep
love. The Child, a crystal orb in His left hand, has His
right raised in the act of blessing a Carthusian, the identical
monk portrayed in the Rothschild picture, only older here by
some years. Here too he kneels under the protection of
Saint Barbara, who has her right hand on his shoulder and
her left extended to a tower with three windows, her dis-
tinctive emblem ; this tower, square and crenelated, is
1 I am indebted for the photographs of this picture to the kindness
of Dr. K. Westendorp, who first drew attention to it in the Zeitschrift
fiir Christliche Kunst, 1906, p. 226.
144 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
crowned by a metal spire. The Virgin-Mother wears a full-
sleeved blue dress trimmed with ermine, and a crimson
mantle with a simple border of gold, secured by a cord
fastened to two jewels. Her hair, confined by a cincture of
pearls, is drawn back behind the ears, and falls over her
shoulders. The monk, the hood of his cowl thrown back,
kneels with his hands joined in prayer, whilst Saint Barbara,
in a red dress girt with a gold cincture, is almost completely
enveloped in a green mantle ; her hair, also held back by a
band of pearls, falls behind. These figures are beautifully
grouped in a brightly lighted, lofty portico with two open
pointed arches on the right behind Saint Barbara, and two
round arches in the background supported by square piers
and a column of verd antique, the bases of which rest on a
low wall. Above these are two windows with borders of
coloured glass ; in front of these, and immediately over Our
Lady, hangs a circular, conical canopy of a gauzy material,
with a red, green, and white fringe. The pavement is com-
posed of rectangular slabs of stone, some with coloured inlays,
but mostly plain. The capital of the column on which the
round arches rest is sculptured with interlaced foliage, that of
the pier to the right with a group of figures. Through the
central arch a sunlit landscape is seen, and in the foreground,
a town composed of innumerable houses, with a wonder-
ful variety of street-fronts and gables, some roofed with red
tiles, others with bluish slates. Through the town runs a river,
lined on either bank with an avenue of trees. A wooden
bridge connects the two portions of the town ; beyond it we
descry a water-mill and a house resting on arches of masonry ;
further off still, a bridge of seven arches, with a lofty square
OUR LADY AM) CHILI), S. HAKBAUA AM) A CARTHUSIAN
I:KKI.I\ : KOVAI. C.U.I.KKV
Hi permission / tlic /Itr/i,, I'hot^ra/thicCo.
tower at each end in immediate connection with the ramparts ;
on both bridges are a number of persons, whose faces and
figures are reflected in the running water beneath. A small
boat is being propelled single-handed beneath the more
distant bridge; three more boats are visible still further
away, while churches and other buildings dot the well-
wooded landscape through which the river runs towards the
front. An equally minute landscape is seen through the
arches behind Saint Barbara; it comprises a flower-garden,
and beyond it a market-place with a cross, many houses, and
numerous shops displaying a variety of wares ; the streets are
thronged with people ; in the background a windmill and the
rampart with its fortified wall. The atmosphere is clear,
birds are fluttering about, and a few light, fleecy clouds float
across the limpid blue sky.
Exhibited : Leeds, 1868.
1854. WAAGEN, m, 406. In the tone and treatment it has the greatest
resemblance to the masterly picture in the Louvre.
1857. CROWE, 341-345 : "A symmetrical and beautifully ordered com-
position, perfectly balanced in every part the figures being so
marshalled, and the accessories so arranged, as to give the picture
an uncommon degree of simplicity and grandeur. . . . The general
aspect of the picture is equally pleasing, as are its parts when
taken separately the composition being as remarkable for
harmony of lines, as for the perfection of its chords of colours.
The attitude of the Virgin and Saint Barbara are as graceful as
that of the kneeling monk is severe and noble. The female
heads, elegant and pleasing as they are in form and expression,
remind us of the saints led by Saint Barbara in the ' Agnus Dei.'
The monk is a splendid portrait, and a marvel for nature and
severity ; the head being as fine in details as it is able in the
mass. ... A small masterpiece, comparable only to the best part
of the greatest work of John van Eyck."
i 4 6 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1885. GILBERT, 153.
1889. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der kgl. Premsischen Kunstsammlungen,
x, 154-165, and xv, 65.
1898. KAEMMERER, 95-97, finds the figures hard and lifeless, and
considers this picture to be by Peter Christus.
1899. SEECK, 14-22, 68, attributes this painting to Hubert.
1900. VOLL, 119. Probably by Peter Christus, whose work it most
1900. WEALE, 286. Probably by Hubert.
1903. MARKS, 30. Painted by Hubert and John in collaboration.
1903. DE MONT, 58.
1904. KERN, 15, plate xii, on account of the accuracy of the linear
perspective, gives this to Peter Christus.
1904. DVORAK, 178.
1905. FIERENS, 116.
1906. SlEBERT, IO.
1906. VOLL, 46. Painted late in the fifteenth century.
25, 26. CALVARY AND THE LAST JUDGMENT
Saint Petersburg: Hermitage Gallery, 444. Shutters of a
triptych. H. 0,62 ; B. 0,25. Canvas, transferred from
Calvary. On the slope of a hill stand three tall tau
crosses, that in the centre with the title-board facing the front.
Our Lord, fastened to it with three nails, has just expired.
There surrounds it a crowd of men, judges, soldiers, and
others, six or seven of them on horseback. Amongst them a
man carrying the reed and sponge ; on the right, the blind
Longinus on horseback, aided by another man, has just pierced
the Saviour's side. To the right and left of the Redeemer
are the two thieves, each blindfolded and fastened by five
cords to a cross facing towards the centre ; the penitent
Ha nfstangl fti otvgr.
CALVARY THE LAST JUDGMENT
SAlNT-PETEKSIiURG : HERMITAGE
hanging quietly ; the other, on the left, struggling desperately,
but in vain. At the foot of the hill in the immediate fore-
ground, the Virgin-Mother, overcome with grief, is tenderly
supported by Saint John, with the three holy women in
close attendance ; to the left, Magdalene praying with arms
uplifted towards the Redeemer; beyond her, a turbaned
woman stands compassionately contemplating the group
around the Virgin-Mother.
The Last Judgment. Our Lord, seated on the rainbow,
is draped in an ample mantle which leaves His feet exposed.
From the wounds in these and in His outstretched hands pro-
ceed rays of glory ; just below these, in detached letters, runs
the invitation : " Venite benedicti patris met." Two angels
hovering in the background bear the holy cross with the
title-board ; another, on the right, carries the lance and crown
of thorns ; and a fourth, on the left, three rods with the reed
and sponge. Beyond these, on each side, are four angels
blowing long trumpets. On the right of our Lord His
Blessed Mother, with her right hand on her breast and her
left upraised, is begging mercy for a number of suppliants
sheltered beneath her mantle ; opposite her, on the left, is
Saint John the Baptist praying ; beyond each of them a choir
of adoring angels. Immediately below our Lord's feet a
crowd of virgins, facing the front, are singing the praises of
God ; on each side the Apostles, clad in white robes, headed
by Saint Peter, are seated on two benches, on the end of that
to the right is carved the fall of our first parents. Two
angels are leading in two groups of the elect : on the right,
a pope, a cardinal, a couple of bishops, priests, monks, friars,
and hermits ; on the left, a crowd of laymen, headed by an
148 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
emperor, a king, and a count. Below, the earth and the sea
are yielding up their dead. In the centre stands Saint Michael,
a noble figure with outstretched peacock-wings, with buckler
and sword upraised ready to smite the enemy of mankind.
The oval buckler, charged with a , cross, bears in Greek
characters the legend, " Adoravi tetgrammathon agla " ; l and
his armour is covered with mystical inscriptions. He is
barefooted ; his flowing, curly locks are retained by a
jewelled circlet surmounted by a cross. Beneath his feet a
weird spectre of Death, with outstretched legs and arms, and
huge bat-like wings, overshadows the abyss of hell, in which
a multitude of the damned, falling head foremost in dire
confusion, are being tortured by hideous demons. On the
Death's wings are the legends, "CHAOS MAGNVM " and
" VMBRA MORTIS," and the fearful sentence, " Ite vos maledicti
in ignem eternam " accompanied by fiery darts from above.
These panels were purchased in Spain by the Russian
ambassador Tatistcheff, who in 1845 bequeathed them to
the Gallery. The central panel, representing, it is said, the
Adoration of the Magi, had been previously stolen. Until
1 86 1 both were ascribed to John van Eyck ; they were then,
on the authority of Dr. Waagen, attributed to Peter Christus,
but in 1887 they were reassigned to John, to whom they are
still attributed in the official catalogue.
The original frames of these shutters, of gilt wood, bore
the following inscriptions. On that representing Calvary:
' Dominus posuit in eo iniquitatem omnium nostrum :
Oblatus est quia ipse voluit : et non aperuit os suum : sicut
The four Hebrew letters comprising the holy name Jehovah.
As to " agla," see p. 41, note 2.
ovis ad occisionem ducetur: et quasi agnus coram tondente
se obmutescet : propter scelus populi mei percussi eum : et
dabit impios pro sepultura : et divitem pro morte sua :
Tradidit in mortem animam suam : et cum sceleratis
reputatus est ; et ipse peccata multorum tulit : et pro
transgressoribus rogavit." 1 On the frame of the Last
Judgment : " Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus : et
habitabit cum eis : ipsi populus eius erunt : et ipse Deus
cum eis erit eorum Deus : Et absterget Deus omnem lagri-
mam ab oculis eorum : et mors ultra non erit : neque luctus :
nee dolor erit ultra. 2 Dedit mare mortuos suos. 3 Congregabo
super eos mala et sagittas meas complebo in eis : consu-
mentur fame : et devorabunt eos aves morsu amarissimo :
dentes bestiarum immittam in eos : cum furore trahentium
super terram atque serpentium.* Dedit mors mortuos."
The Berlin Gallery contains a much-enlarged copy of
the Last Judgment (H. 1,34), by Peter Christus, signed and
1841. PASSAVANT, in Kunstblait, n.3, attributes these pictures to
John van Eyck.
1858. HOTHO, n, 169, thinks they may have been painted before 1426
by either Hubert or John, as both brothers are, he says, repre-
sented standing at the foot of the Cross.
1879. CLEMENT DE Ris, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., xix, 574.
1887. C. JUSTI, in Zeitschrtft fur bildende Kunst, xxn, 244, gives these
pictures to John.
1898. KAEMMERER, 52-56.
1 Isa. LIII, 6, 7, 8, 12.
2 Apoc. xxi, 3, 4.
3 Id. xx, 13.
4 Dent, xxxii, 23, 24.
150 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1899. PHILLIPS, in the North American Review, 713-714, says:
" These panels must for the present be put in a class by them-
selves, or rather with a restricted group of similar works among
which are to be numbered . . . the Berlin Calvary, the Three
Marys at the Sepulchre, the Saint Francis receiving the Stigmata,
and the Fountain of Living Water. These paintings reveal a
deeper pathos than the calm Ian van Eyck had hitherto seemed
to have at command, and with it a mode of handling not quite
so minute and searching in every particular. The Saint-Peters-
burg Calvary and Last Judgment are not only beyond reasonable
doubt John van Eyck's own, but they must, as creations of
absolute originality, be counted among the most wonderful things
of the Netherlandish school at this period. Hardly again has the
Crucifixion been imagined with this rugged force and grandeur,
with this power of intense individualization which yet robs the
world-tragedy of none of its significance."
1899. SEECK, 12, 68, finds the figures of Christ and the thieves weak;
the fissures and stones in the foreground, the landscape and archi-
tecture, the sky and clouds, resemble the Berlin Calvary.
1900. VOLL, 106-108.
1901. SEECK, 260.
1901. BODE, 125.
1903. SCHUBERT, 28.
1903. DE MONT, 49, says that these two panels most certainly have
points of resemblance to Hubert's paintings, but not the slightest
to any of John's authentic works.
1903. SCHMARSOW, 23.
1904. DVORAK, 177, 228.
1905. FIERENS, 1 1 8. The architecture in the background, the group
of holy women, and the accoutrements of some of the soldiers,
remind one of " the Three Marys " ; the horses seen in profile are
not without analogy with those in the Turin Hours. The Last
Judgment is a bold and original conception. The angels with
draperies terminating in broken folds, and some of the blessed,
recall the Ghent altar-piece.
1906. VOLL, 269, dates these paintings .1450.
1907. DURAND, 58-60.
CHRIST ON THE CROSS, THE B. VIRGIN AND SAINT JOHN
DKRI.IN: ROVAI. GAU.KRY
By feriinssifn c/ the Pcriia I'fiatvfrafliK Ca.
27. CHRIST ON THE CROSS, THE BLESSED VIRGIN,
AND SAINT JOHN
Berlin : Royal Gallery, 525F. H. 0,44 ; B. 0,30. Linen,
transferred from the original panel.
In the centre of the immediate foreground rises a tall
tau-shaped cross, the beam of which extends almost the full
width of the picture ; the large board above it, with the title
in three languages, reaches nearly to the head of the frame.
To this cross the Saviour is fastened by three nails. His
head is bent forward to the right, as if He had cast a last
dying look on His Mother. The expression is striking. His
dark hair hangs down as if dank from sweat on each side of
His face ; blood drips from the wounds in the hands, and,
trickling down the forearms, falls from each elbow, and in an
abundant stream from the side and feet to the foot of the
cross. The foreground is strewn with stones, with here and
there a bone. On the right the Virgin-Mother stands with
head bowed down and hands interlaced in deep but resigned
grief; a linen kerchief with gaufred edge envelops her head
and throat ; over it she wears a light-coloured mantle, the
ample folds of which are gathered up under her right arm,
showing the dark-blue dress beneath. On the left, the beloved
disciple, his head turned away, is wiping his tears with the
back of his left hand, and with the other holding up the pale
red mantle he wears over his dark violet tunic. Beyond
them are numerous figures. The half-distance is filled with
a thick growth of bushes with light dotted foliage ; in the
middle are figures going away towards the gate of a walled
152 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
city with numerous square and circular towers, and a lofty
rectangular building crowned with five cupolas ; in the distant
background is a double range of snow mountains. On the left
the view is shut out by a hill with a pine tree, some cypresses,
and a windmill on the further side. On the right is a tall
tree with bare branches, about which hover a number of
starlings. Overhead a clear sky, with small bright floating
clouds to the left.
This picture, formerly ascribed to Roger De la Pasture,
came into the hands of the late Mr. Buttery, who sold it to
the Association of Friends of the Frederick William Museum.
It is in fairly good condition, but has sustained a few slight
restorations, rendered necessary by small pieces of the paint
becoming detached in the process of transference from the
1898. TSCHUDI, in Jahrbuch der koniglichen Preussischen Kunstsamm
lungen, xix, 202-205.
1898. WEISBACH, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xx, 160.
1899. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxu, 411.
1899. SEECK, 5-13, 69.
1900. WEALE, in Revue de tArt Chretien, 5 S., xi, 285.
1901. BODE, 127-128.
1903. ROSEN, 98-105, notes that the branches of the pine are incorrectly
represented as springing from the trunk at the same height. Regards
the work as posterior to the Van Eycks.
1903. DE MONT, 49.
1903. SCHUBERT, 28.
1904. DVORAK, 177-178, 228.
1905. FIERENS, 119.
1906. VOLL, 48, believes this panel to have been painted in the second
half of the fifteenth century, and possibly copied from a lost work
by Hubert or John.
28. THE THREE MARYS AT THE SEPULCHRE
Richmond: Sir Frederick Cook. Oak. H. 0,715; 6.0,89.
Prior to 1472 in the possession of Philip de Commines.
In the eighteenth century it belonged to James Wynckelman,
Lord of 't Metersche, whose collection was sold at Bruges,
May 4, 1770. It was acquired by M. Bernard Bauwens, at
whose sale, August 8, 1826, it was bought by a dealer. In
1854 it was in private hands at Antwerp, and was purchased
by Mr. William Middleton, of Brussels. At the sale of his
collection at Christie's, January 26, 1872, it was bought for
^335 by a Mr. Johnson, from whom it was acquired by
Sir J. C. Robinson, and from him by the late Sir Francis
In the centre of the foreground the empty sepulchre is
seen with its displaced cover lying slantwise across it. On
the cover an angel is seated, wearing an alb and a stole crossed
over his breast. He holds a golden sceptre in his left hand,
and has his right raised as he announces the Resurrection of
the Lord. To the right have just arrived the three holy
women. Magdalene is pictured kneeling at the foot of the
sepulchre, with one hand resting on the pot of ointment set
on the edge of the tomb, the other slightly raised in astonish-
ment at the angel's words. Her companions stand a little
further back, wrapt in wondering silence. In front of the
sepulchre two soldiers in armour, and, on the left, a third, lie
fast asleep. In the foreground palmettos are growing, and
flowering plants, amongst which are the mullen, teasel, white
i 5 4 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
nettle, and flag-lily. In the rising background, between
brown rocks, a number of men on foot and on horseback are
making their way along a winding road leading to a fortified
town crowded with numerous houses and towers. Snow-
capped mountains beyond rise to the sky, relieved here and
there by light fleecy clouds and crossed by a flight of
wild geese. The sun has just risen, but is hidden from
view by rocks on the right ; the effects of light falling on
the towers crowning the hills on the left the centre of the
town remaining in shade are admirably rendered. Oddly
enough, the light in the foreground of the picture comes from
the opposite side, suggestive, perhaps, of moonlight. In the
lower sinister corner is an escutcheon in grisaille, charged
with a chevron between three escallops and a bordure ; and
surrounded by a collar of the Order of Saint Michael. This
was evidently added between 1469 and 1472, as the Order
was instituted by Louis XI. of France in 1469, and the only
member of it who bore these arms was Philip Van den Clyte,
better known as Philip de Commines. His treasonable prac-
tices having come to the knowledge of Charles the Rash, his
estates were confiscated on the 8th of August, 1472, and all
his goods sold.
The picture is not in good condition. The blue drapery
of one of the women standing on the right, and the heads of
both, have suffered. Portions of the sky and some of the
buildings in the background have been overpainted since
1870. The fore part is best preserved.
Exhibited : London : Burlington House, Old Masters,
1873, n.i7i ; Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1892, n.ii;
New Gallery, 1899, n.g. Bruges : Early Netherlandish
Masters, 1902, n.y. London: Guildhall, 1906, n.i.
1855. Otto Miindler held this to be an authentic work by John
van Eyck. See CROWE, 1857, p. 98.
1872. CROWE, 113. The numerous details of armour are given with
extreme care ; the landscape is very attractive.
1893. TSCHUDI, in Reperlorium, xvi, lor. The types are those
of John van Eyck ; the treatment of the foreground like that
of the Pilgrims and the Hermits in the Ghent polyptych ; the
colour charming, and the light effects of the setting (!) sun
1898. KAEMMERER, 50-52, remarks that in this picture there is much
that charms us in the Ghent polyptych, but that the tone is
weaker, the perspective of the landscape background unhappy,
and the architecture confused. He believes the picture to be
an early work contemporary with the Fountain of Living Water,
and thinks it may have been painted for the church of the Holy
Cross at Bruges, founded by the brothers Peter and James
Adornes, after their return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Places
in 1427. He says that the arms agree with those of the Honyns,
a family allied to the Adornes, and that the picture may have
been presented to the church by them. The maternal grand-
mother of the brothers was a Honyn, but the arms of the two
families differ essentially ; Commines bore Gules a chevron or
between three escallops argent and a bordure or, and Honyn
Sable a chevron between three escallops or, without a
1899. SEECK, 22, 68. One of Hubert's earliest works. The
figures of the angel and the guards give evidence of a rising
understanding of living movements to which John never attained.
The perspective is faulty ; the feet of the soldier furthest from
the front are larger than those of his companion in the foreground.
1900. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxin, 246. Remarkable among
the works of Van Eyck.
1900. WEALE, in Revue de I' Art Ckrttien, 5 S., xi, 253.
1900. VOLL, 103-106, assumes this to be a late work, and then goes
156 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
on to prove, by comparison with John's paintings, that it cannot
have been painted by him.
1901. BODE, 126, 128.
1902. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68. An early work by John
van Eyck, painted before 1425 ; shows closer points of resem-
blance than any other painting to the panel representing the
Adoration of the Lamb.
1902. DURAND, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 57.
1902. LAFENESTRE, in Revue des Deux Mondes, 5 P., xi, 135-136.
1902. FRY, in the Athen&um, September 20, p. 388.
1902. HULIN says: "This important picture is one of the most pre-
cious documents for the history of art. It is clearly by the
same hand as the central panels of the Ghent altar-piece. As,
on the other hand, it differs in many respects from the authentic
works of John, it must, I think, be attributed to Hubert."
1902. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxix, 428
1902. GUIFFREY, 474, describes the angel as blessing the holy women,
and the sun as setting! f
1902. A writer in the Times Literary Supplement of November 21,
suggests that the view of Jerusalem in the background of this
picture was painted from a sketch made on the spot. Mr. A.
Marks (1903, January 16) replied that the view could not possibly
have been made on the spot, as the walls, pulled down in 1239,
were not rebuilt until 1542 ; moreover, the sun is represented as
rising in the west. For further correspondence, see the issues of
February 27, March 6, and April 3. It seems far more probable
that the painter composed his background on slender information
derived from Ludolph of Saxony, or some pilgrim's description
of the Holy Places.
1903. M., War Hubert van Eyck in Jerusalem? in Frankfurter
Zeitung, 24, fv.
1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium, xxvi, 68.
1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 42. The rocks and
the foliage of the trees, imperfectly rendered, prove this to be
an early work.
1903. DE MONT, 49.
1903. DUELBERG, 52.
OUR LADY AND CHILD BY A FOUNTAIN
BERLIN: ROYAL GALLERY
1903. ROSEN, no. The rocks are well painted, not so the pine,
the branches of which are represented as springing from the
trunk at the same height.
1903. SCHUBERT, 27.
1903. SCHMARSOW, 21.
1904. DVORAK, 177-178, 238.
1905. FIERENS, 115, thinks the picture is posterior to the Van Eycks.
1906. VOLL, 47, declares it to be of several decades' later date
than the Van der Paele altar-piece, notwithstanding its many
points of resemblance to John van Eyck's works, and the
landscape to be more like that in Memlinc's Passion-picture at
Turin than to any in the works of John van Eyck.
1907. DURAND, 60.
29. OUR LADY AND CHILD BY A FOUNTAIN
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5256. Oak. H. 0,57 ; B. 0,41.
Purchased at Florence by Otto Miindler, who in 1866
sold it to Mr. Suermondt of Aachen, from whom it was
acquired by the Gallery in 1874.
Our Lady, seen full face, is represented standing in front
of a low wall of masonry, the top of which, level with the soil
behind, is overgrown with turf; beyond this is a carefully
painted hedge of roses in bloom, and yet further back palm-
trees, citrons, cypresses, and evergreen oaks. The Virgin is
enveloped in an ample mantle of brownish red, which, but for
a small portion of the body and left sleeve, entirely covers her
blue dress trimmed with white fur, and falls in elegant folds
about her feet. Her head, covered with a transparent white
kerchief, is bent lovingly over the Child, whom with both
hands she clasps to her bosom. He with His right arm
embraces her, while with His left hand, thrown back, He holds
158 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
a spray of flowers. The heads of both Mother and Child are
encircled with luminous nimbs. On the right stands a bronze
fountain, into the basin of which fall four jets of water. A
clasped book in a black forel lies on the wall to the left. The
foreground is thickly covered with herbage and flowering
Engraved in the Vienna Kunstblatt.
Exhibited : Bruges : Early Netherlandish Masters,
1866. HERIS, in Journal des Beaux Arts, vni, 10, Saint- Nicolas,
attributes this painting to Hubert.
1867. HOTHO, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, n, 103. An original
work by Hubert, which surpasses the Ghent polyptych in the
profundity of its conception, as it does anything ever created by
1868. WAAGEN, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, in, 127, thinks it
was painted by John under Hubert's influence, c. 1429.
1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 10-12.
1872. CROWE, 115: "Of doubtful genuineness. The characteristic
ugliness of the Virgin's face and Infant's form as surely points to
the hand of a disciple, as the broken character of the drapery, the
toneless colour, and false perspective."
1874. WOLTMANN, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, ix, 195, ascribes
it to John.
1898. KAEMMERER, 108. The work of an unknown imitator of John
van Eyck, who has given the Virgin's features a coarser appear-
ance, suppressed the angels, and substituted roses and trees for
the cloth of honour. See n.9, pp. 90-92.
1899. SEECK, 35, 69, deems this to be a copy of a lost original by
1903. ROSEN, 94.
1903. DE MONT, 58.
OUR LADY AND CHILD
LONDON: EARL OF NORTHBROOK
30. OUR LADY AND CHILD
London : Earl of Northbrook. Oak. H. 0,265; B. 0,19.
Formerly in the collection of E. Joly de Bammeville,
n.29, sold 12 June, 1884, to Nieuwenhuys, from whom it
was purchased in 1857 by Mr. Thomas Baring for ,120.
The Blessed Virgin, three-quarters length, is seated
facing the spectator, beneath a canopy with a cloth of honour
of olive green diapered with flowers, bordered with a narrow
scarlet band. She wears a dark blue dress and a crimson
mantle, both having richly jewelled borders. Her long hair,
which falls in undulating masses over her shoulders, is
confined by a band fastened above the forehead by a jewel
composed of a ruby surrounded by pearls. With her right
hand she supports the Divine Child seated nude on a linen
cloth. He is accepting from His Mother a bunch of red and
white pinks, and with His right hand holds the wing of a
struggling parroquet. This little picture is said to have been
dated 1437 on the original frame. The back of the panel is
painted to imitate stone.
Exhibited : London, Burlington House, Old Masters,
1872, n.234 ; 1894, n.i8o. New Gallery, 1899, n.6g.
Bruges: Early Netherlandish Masters, 1902, n. ir.
1889. WEALE. A descriptive catalogue of the collection of pictures
belonging to the Earl of Northbrook, 24, n.25.
1883. WEALE, 66.
1893. TSCHUDI, in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, xvi, 101.
1902. HULIN, ii. A copy of much later date than 1437 ; it seems to
be of the fifteenth century.
160 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
1902. DURAND, in Compte rendu du Congres de Bruges, 84-86.
1903. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, xxvi, 67.
A weak little picture.
1903. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, i, 48.
1903. DUELBERG, in Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, N.F., xiv, 51.
1906. VOLL, 33.
31. OUR LADY AND CHILD
New York: Metropolitan Museum. Oak. H. 0,575 ;
From the collection of William II., King of Holland, at
whose sale it was purchased by the dealer Nieuwenhuys for
800 florins. It was subsequently acquired by Mr. A. J.
Beresford Hope, at whose sale, May 15, 1886, n.3O, it
fetched ^315. It afterwards passed into the hands of
The figures are almost identical with those in John van
Eyck's Virgin by the Fountain, of 1439 (9), in the Antwerp
Museum, save that the position of the Child's left hand is
altered. The accessories differ entirely, for here Our Lady is
represented standing on the footpace of a throne placed in a
late Gothic tabernacle, the pilasters of which are adorned with
statuettes of Moses and a prophet and of two female figures
symbolizing the Church and the Synagogue, the one holding
a cross and a chalice, the other the tables of the Law and a
banner, the staff of which is falling to pieces.
From a canopy attached by cords to the buttresses of the
tabernacle a cloth of honour of brocaded damask reaches to
the ground. On the front of the canopy is embroidered in gold
capitals : Domus Dei est et porta celi ; while the upright
OCR LADY AM) CHILI)
M-:\V YORK: M KTkOI'OI.ITAN MUSEUM
of the footpace bears the inscription : 4- Ipsa est qiiam pre-
Paravit Domimis filio Domini mei. The colour is colder
than in John's authenticated paintings, and the architectural
details are certainly not earlier than the second half of the
fifteenth century. The picture probably dates from about
Exhibited: Manchester: Art Treasures, 1857, n
London: Burlington House: Old Masters, 1871, n .273.
1857. WAAGEN, Galleries, 190: "This admirably preserved picture
displays in full measure the solidity of execution of John van
Eyck. There is every evidence of its being an early picture by
him. The folds of the drapery still retain that purity of taste
which he afterwards exchanged for sharp and arbitrary breaks,
while the unskilfully foreshortened mouth, and the too large
nose of the Virgin, betray his lack of practice."
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 318.
1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, n.
1872. CROWE, 114 : "The colour of the various parts is thin and cold,
grey in shadow, and wholly without glazing ; the handling is
mechanical ; the forms of the Virgin and Infant are feeble. . . .
If this were really by Van Eyck, it might be truly called one of
his poorest productions."
1887. CONWAY, 139. " Painted by John himself."
1895. BODE, in Zeitschrift filr bildende Krinst, N.F., vi, 17. Not by
John's own hand.
1898. KAEMMERER, 108, mentions Peter Christus as possibly the
painter of this picture.
1899. SEECK, 41.
1900. VOLL, 127.
1903. DE MONT, 58.
1905. FIERENS, 164. A dryly painted work, which may fairly be
ascribed to Peter Christus.
i62 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
32. THE FOUNTAIN OF LIVING WATER
Madrid: Prado Gallery, 2i88e. Panel, H. 1,81 ; B. 1,30.
From the Hieronymite convent of Our Lady of Parral,
near Segovia; removed to Madrid from the sacristy in 1838,
and placed in the National Museum, and removed thence to
the Prado in 1872.
This altar-piece in composition somewhat resembles the
Ghent polyptych. It is divided into stages corresponding
with the general plan of Netherlandish sculptured altar-pieces,
as also with that adopted by the playwrights of mediaeval
Mystery-plays, for which the Low Countries were so long
In the uppermost of three stages the Eternal Father
is seated on a throne in a tabernacle surmounted by a lofty
pinnacled canopy adorned with seventeen statues of prophets.
He is clad in imperial robes, with a crown on His head and
a sceptre in His left hand, the right raised in the act of bless-
ing. At His feet reposes the Lamb, and, on the principals
of the throne, the evangelistic animals. On the right and left
are the Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Evangelist, both
seated reading. From beneath the throne of God flows
a stream of crystalline purity down through a flowery
meadow into an octagonal canopied well in the lowest stage.
On its surface float innumerable hosts. In the meadow are
seated six angels, three on each side of the stream, playing
diverse instruments of music an organ, a monochord and
a viol ; a mandoline, a psalterion and a harp and beyond
them, in the lowest story of the lofty turreted pediments
THE FOUNTAIN OK LIVING WATER
MADRID: PRADO GALLERY
which enclose the scene, two choirs of angels are singing
hymns of praise. One of the singing angels on the left holds
a scroll bearing the words : can. 4. Fons ortorum puteus
On the right of the fountain stands a pope holding a
tall cross, and pointing to the well of grace ; behind him a
cardinal, a bishop, an emperor, a king, and six other
ecclesiastics and laymen, those in the foreground kneeling
on the tiled pavement, the others standing. On the left
are a crowd of Jews, one of whom, a venerable old man,
kneels with a staff in his right hand ; a high priest, blind-
folded, from whose grasp the broken staff of a banner is
falling to the ground, seems to be remonstrating with the
kneeling man on whose arm he lays his left hand. Of eight
other Jews, two are falling to the ground in consternation ;
a third is walking proudly away ; the others, with hands to
their ears, or rending their garments, are fleeing from the
source of grace.
This work is an old copy of a lost original which adorned
the chapel of Saint Jerome in the cathedral of Palencia,
where it still hung in 1783, as recorded by Ponz, who
describes it in the following terms: "Una pintura muy
singular, como lo es su conservacion, y trabajo de infinita
prolixidad, qual parece imposible ver cosa igual en el estilo
antiguo, 6 digase Aleman, al modo del de Durero ; pero en la
inteligencia de que poco hay de este artifice tan acabado. Su
composicion y lo que esta significa es dificil de comprehender
a primera vista. Parece el complemento de las Profecias,
destruccion de la Sinagoga, y establecimiento 3e la ley de
Gracia. A un lado se ve un Sacerdote de la Ley Antigua
164 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
con estandarte roto, y algunos Doctores, 6 Rabinos con muy
tristes semblantes. Al otro estan los Doctores de la Iglesia
Griega y Latina. Encima, la Santisima Trinidad, y a
los lados nuestra Senora, S. Juan Bautista, Apdstoles, y
otras figuras : desciende un arroyo con muchas hostias sobre
el agua, que caen en una taza, con otras alegorias, que seria
largo referir. Ello es, que en su termino es pintura muy rara,
y estimable, de la qual he visto algunas copias en Castilla,
pero infinitamente distantes de la exacta execucion de esta."
Viage de Espana, xi, 155, Madrid, 1783.
The original disappeared at some period before 1815.
Chromolithograph by R. Soldevila, H. 0,36 ; B. 0,23.
1853. PASSAVANT, Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien, 127, Leipzig,
attributes this painting to Hubert.
1858. Homo, n, 73, also ascribes it to Hubert, and dates it between
1413 and 1418.
1860. WAAGEN, i, 35-37.
1860. FOERSTER, Denkmale Deutschen Kunst, vi, 17-20, Leipzig.
1863. RUELENS, xcv.
1864. WORNUM, 1 10, by Hubert or John, or by the two in collaboration.
1866. MICHIELS, n, 173, thinks the design was made by Hubert, and
the painting executed by John and Margaret ! !
1867. ROUSSEAU, in Bulletin des Commissions Roy ales d 'Art, vi, 316,
1868. WAAGEN, \n. Jahrbuchfur Kunstwissenschaft, i, 39. Leipzig.
1869. BURGER, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 2 P., i, 10. After a careful
study of this picture on several occasions, he expresses his absolute
conviction that it was painted by John. He informs us that he
saw at Paris, in the hands of the dealer Haro, an old copy
1872. CROWE, 96, calls it the noblest of John van Eyck's great works.
1879. SCHNAASE, 139-142.
D. Anderson, photo.
THE FOUNTAIN OF LIVING WATER : THE CHURCH
MADRID : PRADO GALLERY
. Anderson, photo.
THE FOUNTAIN OF LIVING WATKR. THE SYNAGOGUE
MADRID: PRADO GALLERY
1879. WOLTMANN, ii, 25, believes it to be a copy painted .1450.
1881. LUEBKE, 67.
1875. MADRAZO, El Triunfo de la Iglesia sobre la Sinagoga, in Museo
Espanol de Antigucdades, iv, 1-40, Madrid. He attributes this
picture to John van Eyck, and says it was given to the convent
of Parral in 1454 by Henry IV., son of John II. of Castile, and
he quotes a manuscript Fundacion del Parral in the Provincial
Library at Segovia, in which, at fol. liv, this painting is described
as Un retablo rico da pincel de Flandes que tietie la ystoria de la
Dedication de let Yglesia.
1884. HYMANS, Le Livre des Peintres de C. van Mander, Commen-
taires, I, 47.
1885. F. SCHNEIDER, Das Eyck'sche Bild im Museum zu Madrid. In
Der Kunstfreund, 246. Berlin.
1887. L. SOLVAY, L'Art Espagnol, 94-96. Paris.
1887. BODE, 210, is of opinion that it is a copy of a lost picture by
1887. JUSTI, in Zeitschriftfilr bildende Kunst, xxn, 245-250.
1887. CONWAY, 136-140.
1893. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3 P., ix, 380, finds this
painting cold, and says that Van Eyck can have had nothing
to do with either its composition or execution.
1898. KAEMMERER, 48, concludes from the dogmatic (!) appearance of
the picture, that the commission for its execution must have been
given by some eminent Spaniard, and thinks it may have been
painted by Peter Christus.
1899. SEECK, 22, 68, thinks it most likely to be a copy of an original
1900. WEALE, in Revue de t Art Chre'tien, 5 S., xi, 284, and Gazette
des Beaux Arts, 3 P., xxv, 477.
1901. BODE, 131, not by Christus.
1903. DE MONT, 52.
1904. DVORAK, 243.
1905. FIERENS, 114.
1906. VOLL, 273.
1 66 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
33. THE HOLY FACE
John van Eyck is said to have painted a representation
of the Holy Face. The original is now lost.
33A. Munich : Royal Gallery, 99 (643). Oak. H. 0,50 ;
Formerly in the Boissere'e collection.
The head of Christ seen full face ; the hair, parted in the
middle, falls in long curly locks on the shoulders and breast ;
the beard is forked ; the cruciform nimbus floriated. The
gold border of the red robe bears what is apparently meant
for Adonai Eloy Agla. Dark background, on which, above
/JOHN * EAO> +H6L7* *TT-
the nimbus, A and CD. The frame, original, painted to imitate
stone, bears at the head PRIMVS NOVISSIMVS, and at the foot
VIA VITA VERITAS. The back of the panel is painted black.
This, formerly attributed to Memlinc, is, in the writer's
opinion, the earliest and best copy of a lost original probably
painted by Hubert.
l866. MlCHIELS, II, 321.
1906. VOLL, 44, considers this painting to be the best representation
of a lost original by John.
THE HOLY FACE
MUNICH : ROYAl. GALLERY
THE HOLY KACI-:
BKRLIX: ROYAL GALLERY
By perinisswti pf the Berlin rhotographic Co.
33B. Berlin: Royal Gallery, 528. Oak. H. 0,51 ; B. 0,39.
Originally in a convent at Burgos, afterwards at Segovia
and in the Solly collection ; acquired in 1821.
A similar representation to that at Munich, but the
inscription on the neck-band of the robe is + REX + REGVM +.
Bluish-green background, on which A and LJ above, and their
Latin equivalents I and F for Initium and Finis below, the
arms of the nimbus. The frame, original, painted in imitation
of yellow marble, bears at the head : VIA VERITAS VITA ; and
at the foot : PRIMVS ET NOVISSIMVS. Above the latter, in
minuscules : Johannes de Eyck me fecit et apleuiit anno 1438
1822. WAAGEN, 206.
1833. PASSAVANT, 352.
1834. SCHNAASE, 343.
1847. KUGLER, ii, 108, doubts the authenticity of this painting.
1853. FOERSTER, Geschichte der Deutsche Kunst, u, 70.
1858. HOTHO, n, 192, thinks this was painted by John after the
Eternal Father by Hubert at Ghent.
1860. WAAGEN, 71, says that this painting shows how closely John
adhered to the early type, while developing his warm and powerful
colouring and peculiar mastery over detail.
1866. MICHIELS, u, 320.
1872. CROWE, in, accepts this painting as being by John, who, he
says, in attempting a subject above his strength, was even less
successful than his brother.
1882. WOLTMANN, ii, 20; powerfully painted.
1887. BODE, 214. The least precious of John's works; the charming
colour does not compensate for the want of feeling for nature.
1898. KAEMMERER, 99, doubts its authenticity.
1899. SEECK, 10, 27, 33. A free copy of the head by Hubert at
1 68 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
Ghent ; the weakest and least important of all John's works ; the
1900. VOLL, 100, 132.
1904. TSCHUDI, 78.
1905. FIERENS, 163, waxes enthusiastic, and gives this painting
1905. DURAND, 33, considers it to be the work of a pupil of Hubert
or a copy of a lost work by that master.
1 906. VOLL, 43, thinks this work was painted c. 1 500.
330. Bruges : Town Gallery. Oak. H. 0,325 ; B. 0,26.
Presented in 1788 by M. Joseph De Busscher.
A similar representation ; the robe bordered at the neck
with gold lace studded with pearls and precious stones.
Enclosed within a painted imitation of a molded stone frame
with inscriptions in the hollows. At the head : Ihesus via :
7/iesus veritas : Ihesus vita .
IHESYS VK- -IHS VERTT&S
At the foot : Speciosus forma prce filiis hominum. A Is
ich can. lohannes de Eyck inventor anno 1440, 30 Ianuarii>
The third figure of the date may have been a 2, but more
probably a 4. This painting is hard, cold, and dry, and desti-
tute of feeling. The original doubtless had a molded frame
THE HOLY FACE
BRUGES: TOWN GALLERY
painted to imitate stone. The painter of this copy evidently
did not comprehend John's device. On the reverse of the
panel is the device of the painter of this copy, or of an early
owner, and the date 1637.
1833. PASSAVANT, 352. Wanting in perfection, and appears doubtful.
1834. SCHNAASE, 342. The colour falls short of the Eyckian standard,
and the employment of inventor appears strange.
1847. KUGLER, 109 ; shows a want of skill in the handling.
1847. MONTAIGLON, 4.
1857. CROWE, 103. A superficial imitation.
1858. HOTHO, n, 164. A late copy.
1861. WEALE, 18-20.
1866. MICHIELS, ii, 225. Posterior to 1550, and destitute of merit.
1872. CROWE, 123. Apparently a reduced facsimile of the 1438
painting at Berlin.
1879. FOERSTER. Die Deutsche Kunst in Bildund Wort, 1 60. Leipzig.
1899. SEECK, 27. The weakest and most insignificant of all John's
1905. FIERENS, 124, thinks this may be a very early work, but possibly
a replica of the Berlin panel ! ! At all events, it does not deserve
the absolute disdain meted out to it by certain critics. If the hair
is feebly painted, the beard is painted with great care, and the red
mantle (sic) and gold-work are well painted.
1906. VOLL, 43-44.
HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
330. Innsbruck. Professor Dr. Egon von Oppolzer. Oak.
H. 0,395. B. 0,285.
Formerly in the Abel collection at Stuttgart ; sold as a
work of Roger Van der Weyden, at Coeln, October 9, 1863,
for 20 ios., to Mr. John M. Parsons (d. 1870). It afterwards
came into the possession of Mr. von Oppolzer at Munich, at
the sale of whose collection, December 3, 1905, it was pur-
chased by Dr. von Oppolzer for ^"392 ios.
A similar representation ; the robe dark red, bordered at
the neck with a narrow band of plaited gold lace. Blue
ground with A and 03 above the nimbus. A late fifteenth-
century painting in excellent preservation.
1863. WEALE, in Le Beffroi, \, 349.
1906. VOLL, 44.
1906. R. VON LICHTENBERG and E. VON OPPOLZER, Katalog.
34. HEAD OF A MAN
Berlin: Royal Gallery, 5230. Oak. H. 0,115; B. 0,088.
Purchased at Florence.
Bust of a man, the face seen in three-quarters, turned
slightly to the right. He has a brown beard, small eyes, and
broad rosy cheeks, and wears, over an underdress of which
only the stand-up collar is seen, a dull lilac-red robe trimmed
with fur, and a dark-green headkerchief, the lappets of which
fall behind his ears.
This does not appear to be a portrait, but most probably
the head of a figure out of some large composition.
ropi rdrUwutetifus- et
'* u> "
GREYSIOKK CASThK: H. C. HOWARD, KSQ.
HKKI.IN: KOYAI. CAI.I.KRV
Ky permission of the Berlin Photographic C
I'OKTRAIT OF A DONOR
LEIPZIG: TOWN MUSEUM
1899. SEECK, 23.
1900. VOLL, 122. Not by Van Eyck.
1901. BODE, 131. Like the head of one of the figures in the 'Fountain
of Living Water' (31); the flesh tone, owing to over-cleaning, is
not so red as usual.
35. A DONOR
Leipzig: Town Museum, 511. Oak. H. 0,264. B. 0,195.
Bequeathed to the Museum in 1878 by Madame Amelia
Portrait of an elderly man in a wig, praying with his
hands joined and raised ; the face, turned to left, seen in three-
quarters, small eyes, thick lips, and a long broad nose. He
wears a green fur-trimmed robe.
1890. BREDIUS, in Zeitschrift fiir bildende Knnst, N.F., i, 129.
1898. KAEMMERER, 104.
1899. SEECK, 31, 60.
1900. VOLL, 1 21-122. Not by Van Eyck.
1901. BODE, 120.
1905. FIERENS, 153.
1905. DURAND, 33.
1907. HYMANS, in Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 3 P., xxxvm, 207, calls this
man a canon, but his dress is that of a layman.
36. PORTRAIT OF AN ECCLESIASTIC
Greystoke Castle, Penrith : H. C. Howard, Esq. H. 0,095;
Formerly in the collection of Thomas Howard, earl of
Arundel. It came later into the possession of Lord Henry
Thomas Howard Molyneux Howard, and has remained until
now in the possession of his descendants at Greystoke.
172 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
A fragment of a large panel picture or of the dexter
shutter of a triptych, representing little more than the head
of a donor, a canon in a blue cassock trimmed with fur, and
a plaited lawn surplice, kneeling and protected by his patron
saint, probably one of the apostles, whose hand rests on the
donor's head ; only the hand of the saint and part of his
purple mantle, lined with green, are seen. The donor has
hazel eyes and grey hair; his face is admirably modelled,
and the pleats of the flesh are marked by fine strokes ; the
colour, though rather cold, is brilliant and harmonious ; the
entire fragment is in excellent preservation.
Engraved in reverse, when in Lord Arundel's possession,
by Wenceslaus Hollar, who omitted the patron saint's hand,
added hands to the figure of the donor, represented his head
as cleft by a sword, and then published the print (H. 0,093 5
B. 0,057) as a true likeness of Saint Thomas of Canterbury.
The head has also been engraved in reverse, without the
sword within an oval, by L. Vorsterman, with the legend :
Effigies S. Thomce Cantuar. Archiepi. Mart.
Exhibited : British Institution, Ancient Masters, 1858,
n.i25. Guildhall, Netherlandish Masters, 1906, n.6.
1858. G. SCHARF, Artistic and Descriptive Notes of the Pictures in
the British Institution, 32-33, says that " this picture may possibly
be assigned to Justus of Ghent," i.e. Jodoc van Wassenhove.
1898. KAEMMERER, 56.
1904. WEALE, in the Burlington Magazine, vi, 249.
1906. FRIEDLAENDER, in Repertorium filr Kunstwissenschaft, xxix, 574,
calls this portrait a dry, cold work, which has nothing to do with
John van Eyck.
1907. DURAND, in Les Arts anciens, n, 63.
37. AN OLD MAN
Alfred Brown, Esq. Oak. H. 0,254; B. 0,201.
From the collection of James Osmaston.
Half-length portrait of an old man turned slightly to the
left, seen nearly full face, looking up, with his hands joined in
prayer ; the modelling of these is weak. He has thin grey
hair ; the beard closely shaven, but with stubble on chin, and
rather feeble blue eyes. He is clad in a loose red dress
trimmed with fur. His head-dress is not seen, but its lappet
hangs down in front from his left shoulder.
Dark-grey background, over-painted.
This portrait certainly dates from the third quarter of the
Exhibited : Burlington House, Old Masters, 1879, n.2i8 ;
Guildhall, Netherlandish Masters, 1906, n4.
1906. FRIEDLAENDER, vn. Repertoriunt fur Kunstwisscnsckaft, xxix, 574.
A good work dating from r. 1450, in manner near to Dirk Bouts,
especially in the form of the hands and the truthful expression of
the lean head.
THERE can be no doubt that the Van Eycks painted many
more pictures than those described in the present volume.
Mention of works attributed to them have come down to us ;
some of these they certainly executed. Drawings are also
preserved of portraits, some of which at least must have been
painted by Hubert or John.
Alphonsus V. of Aragon, King of Naples, as we are told
by Facio writing in 1454, had in his possession a triptych,
on the shutters of which were portraits of John Baptist
Lomellini and Jeronima his wife ; the Annunciation, Saint
John the Baptist and Saint Jerome being represented on the
interior, the latter in his study surrounded by books painted
with marvellous realism. 1
Facio also tells us that John painted for Duke Philip a
curious representation of the world in its spherical shape
a work unsurpassed by any other executed in his time, as it
not only showed the various countries and localities, but
figured them at the correct distances from each other, as might
be tested by measuring. 2
1 See p. Ixxiii. The Lomellini were a Genoese family, whose
arms were : Per fesse gules and or. The only member of the family
bearing the name of Jerome, of whom I have, found mention in con-
temporary documents, was a merchant living at Bruges in 1392.
2 See p. Ixxiii.
LOST PAINTINGS 175
Octavian, a member of the Florentine family of the
Ottaviani, created cardinal by Gregory XII. in 1408, * had in
his possession some remarkable paintings by John. One of
these represented women of noble form coming out of a warm
bath, slightly veiled with fine linen drapery ; of one only the
face and breast were seen, but a mirror reflected the back of
her head and body. In the same picture a light was shown
as if really burning ; also, an old woman perspiring, a dog
lapping water, and in a landscape, horses and men, moun-
tains, groves, villages and castles, so skilfully painted that
they appeared to be far distant from each other. Nothing in
this picture was more wonderful than the mirror in which
every detail was reflected accurately as in a real mirror. 2
A similar subject was in the collection of works of art
formed by Cornelius Van der Geest of Antwerp, in the
beginning of the seventeenth century. A copy of this is seen
in a painting by William van Haecht, dated 1628, represent-
ing the visit of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella to the
Gallery on the I5th of August, 1516, in the company of
Rubens and other notabilities. It shows the nude figure of
a maiden at her toilet, standing near a window. At her left
an attendant stands holding a water-bottle. She is clad in a
red dress with long white under-sleeves, and a crespine head-
dress, over which a linen kerchief is spread. A Bolognese
dog lies on a mat in the foreground, and close by are a couple
of pattens of white wood with black leather latchets. Against
1 See CHACON, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Summorum, n, 771.
2 See p. Ixxiii. This picture afterwards belonged to Frederick I.
Duke of Urbino. MUNTZ, Raphael, p. 5, note i.
176 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
the window hangs a mirror, in which the two figures and
surrounding objects are reflected. 1
The Town Museum at Leipzig contains a beautifully
executed picture (Oak. H. 0,21; B. o, 16) of the middle of
the fifteenth century, which may possibly be a free copy of a
lost original by John. In the middle of a room a maiden is
seen standing near a fireplace, nude save for a long thin scarf
which falls from her right arm and encircles her lower limbs.
With a steel in her left hand she strikes a flint held in her
right, and at the same time squeezes a sponge ; the sparks
and the drops of water fall on a wax heart that lies in an
open coffer placed on a three-legged stool at her side. Five
scrolls float in the air or lie about the floor of the chamber,
which is strewn with flowers ; a Bolognese dog lies on a mat
in the foreground. To the right, an aumbry, on which are a
salver with comfits, a glass goblet, and a long fringed cloth ;
and on a shelf beneath, a beaker in a dish ; above, two win-
dows, the upper part alone glazed. On the wall between
them hangs a mirror, with a feather dusting-brush beneath
it ; a parakeet is perched on the window-sill. In the back-
ground to the left a youth, pushing the door open, is entering
the room ; to the right is a cupboard, in which are a hanap
and a flagon ; on a shelf above are a book, and a number of
pots and other articles. 2
1 Van Haecht's painting (Oak. H. 1,00; B. 1,30) is in the pos-
session of Lord Huntingfield, who exhibited it at Burlington House,
Old Masters, 1907, n .52, and at Bruges, Golden Fleece, n .i73. See
notices in the Athenceum of January 26 and February 9, 1907, pp. 109
' L See H. LUCKE, Liebeszauber Flandrische Gemalde, in Zeitschrift
/> bildende famst, xvn, 379-383, 1882.
A LADY AT I IKK TOILET
DETAIL FROM A GA1.1.EKY PICTURE BY \V. VAX IIAECHT, 1628
HEVENINGHAM HALL: l.OKU HUNTINUF1ELD
LOST PAINTINGS 177
Alphonsus V. of Aragon had, besides the Lomellini
triptych, a painting representing Saint George, for which, on
June 25, 1445, he paid 2000 sueldos. 1
Among the paintings in the Duke of Uceda's palace, at
the commencement of the eighteenth century, there was a
small panel of Our Lady and Child by John van Eyck, which
Palomino describes as a work of supreme excellence and
exquisite finish. 2
Don Diego de Guevara possessed a portrait painted on
cloth in tempera by John van Eyck, which he, before 1516,
presented to Margaret of Austria, Governess of the Nether-
lands. It represented a Portuguese maiden clad in a red
dress trimmed with fur, holding in her right hand a roll with
a miniature of Saint Nicholas at the head. 3 A copy of this
1 See the important document ordering the payment of this sum,
published by CASELLAS, La Novela den Sanpere, ix, in the Veu de
Catalunya, Barcelona, 1906.
2 " Una pintura de una imagen de Nuestra Senora, con el Nino
Jesus, en una tabla pequena, de mano del referido Juan de Brujas, de
una tercia de alto, y quarto de ancho, hecha con estremado primor y
sutile^a." A. A. PALOMINO DE CASTRO Y VALASCO, El Museo pictorico, / ( -. I ^
I, 47. Madrid, 1715. o
3 " Ung moien tableau de la face d'une Portugaloise que Madame
a eu de Don Diego. Fait de la main de Johannes, et est fait sans
huelle et sur toille, sans couverte ne feullet." Inventaire des Pein-
tures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dresse en 1516. Lille : Archives
of the Department of the North, B 3507. " Ung aultre tableau de
une jeusne dame, accoustree a la mode de Portugal, son habit rouge
foure de martre, tenant en sa main dextre ung rolet avec ung petit
sainct Nicolas en hault, nommee La belle Portugaloise." Inventaire
des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite dAutriche, dresse en son palais de
Malines, le 9 Juillet, 1523." Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale, Collection
1 78 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
portrait is said to be in the collection of M. Abbegg, at
Margaret of Austria had also a painting of Our Lady by
John, which had belonged to Duke Philip. 1
In the beginning of the sixteenth century there was at
Padua, in the house of Messer Leonico Tomeo, a painting on
canvas, one foot high, representing an otter-hunt, with various
figures in a landscape, attributed to John. 2 Such a scene is
depicted in a contemporary tapestry at Hardwick. 3
In the church of Our Lady of the Servites at Venice,
there were, in 1580, a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi
by John. 4
Among the portraits of contemporaries of the Van Eycks,
of which copies have been preserved, there are some which
may with great probability be ascribed to one or other of the
brothers. One of the earliest is that of Michael of France,
first wife of Duke Philip III. (married June, 1409, died July,
1422). She is represented seen in three-quarters, turned to
the left, clad in a plain dress, within the wide sleeves of which
her hands are laid one upon the other. This portrait was in
the possession of Denis de Villers, 5 chancellor of the cathedral
1 " Ung tableaul de Nostre Dame, du due Philippe, qui est venu
de Maillardet, couvert de satin bronchd gris et ayant fermaulx d'argent
dore et borde de velours vert. Fait de la main de Johannes." Inven-
taire des Peintures, etc., de Marguerite d'Autriche, dressd en 1516.
Lille : Archives of the Department of the North, B 3507.
1 M. A. MICHIEL, Notizia d'Opere del disegno.
3 Reproduced in the Art-workers Quarterly, i, 77. London, 1902.
4 SANSOVINO, Descrizione di Venezia. Venezia, 1580.
6 Denis de Villers, born at Tournay in 1546, doctor of laws of
the University of Louvain and protonotary apostolic, was in 1586,
after the death of Bishop Morillon, elected chancellor by the chapter.
.MICHAEL OK FRANCE, UUC11ESS OF BURGUNDY, 14U'J-lt22
J *- CP fo*~
BONNE OK ARTOIS, DUCHESS OK BL'KUUNDV, 1424-1425
LOST PAINTINGS 179
of Tournay, in whose house it was copied by Anthony de
Succa 1 on the 5th of December, 1601. At the head of the
sheet of paper on which it is drawn is the following inscrip-
tion : " Dame Michiele de France, fille du Roy Charles V. de
France, et premiere femme de monseigneur le due Phelipe
de Bourgonde, comte de Flandres, diet le bon, fils du ducq
Jehan. Laquelle ala de vie a trespas le . . . Leve ceste
effigie au logis de Monsieur le chanchellier Villers du chapitre
de l'e"glise de Nostre Dame a Tournay le 5 e jour de Decembre
1601, par moy Anthoine de Succa." Succa, evidently not
quite satisfied with his copy of this remarkable figure, added
a more carefully finished copy of the head at the side.
In the store-room of the Royal Gallery at Berlin there
is a half-length portrait (Oak. H. 0,21 ; B. o, 16) of Bonne,
daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of En, and of Mary,
daughter of John, Duke of Berry, the second wife of Duke
Philip (married November 30, 1424, died September 17, 1425).
This, if I am not mistaken, was formerly in the collection of
Simon Peter van Overloope, at whose sale at Bruges, May 7,
1770, it fetched 32 frs. 65 c. The duchess is represented
He was a distinguished scholar, and had a remarkable collection of
paintings, medals, and Greek and Roman antiquities, which he be-
queathed, together with his manuscripts and printed books, to the
cathedral now the town library, founded by himself and canon
Jerome de Winghe, abbot of Liessies. Catalogues of the books of
each of these benefactors are preserved.
1 Anthony de Succa, inscribed in 1598 as free-master in the
register of the Antwerp gild of Saint Luke, was, by letters patent
dated October n, 1600, commissioned by the Archdukes Albert and
Isabella to visit churches, convents, etc., and copy portraits, statues,
tombs, etc., of sovereigns of the Netherlands and members of their
families. Succa died September 8, 1620.
180 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
turned to the right, her face seen in three-quarters ; her arms
and hands resting on a parapet. She wears a full-sleeved
fur-trimmed dress open in front, and a crespine head-dress,
over which is spread a linen kerchief. A ring adorns the
fourth ringer of her right hand. On the front of the parapet
is the legend: "Dame Bonne Dartois la Duchesse de
Bourgongne." A drawing in the Leboucq Collection, 1 here
reproduced, is a copy either of this or of the original painting.
In the possession of Denis de Villers there were a number
of other portraits besides that of Michael of France described
above. Of these the most interesting is that of Isabella of
Portugal, third wife of Duke Philip (d. I473), 2 as it at once
suggests the surmise that it may have been one of the two
portraits painted by John at the palace of Aviz, in 1429. The
duchess is clad in a wide-sleeved robe, confined at the waist
by a broad sash, and has a crespine head-dress, over which
is spread a large kerchief; her face, seen in three-quarters
turned to the right, has suffered from rubbing. It is certainly
an early portrait, with a pleasing expression. On the same
sheet of paper as this is a portrait of Jacqueline of Bavaria,
the face seen in three-quarters turned to the right, her hands
joined in prayer ; she wears a full-sleeved dress trimmed with
fur, open in front, and confined at the waist by a plain sash.
A crespine head-dress completes her costume. This is, with
the exception of the miniature in the Turin Hours, the earliest
1 Arras, Town Library, MS. 266.
1 In the margin : " Isabel de Portugal, 3 espeuse du due Phelipe
de Bourgonde." That in the Louvre, first identified by M. G. Hulin,
in 1902, and the original from which that in the Museum of Ghent is
a copy, are certainly of later date.
ISABELLA OF I'ORTUGAL, DUCHESS OF BURGUNDV, 1429-H72
JAC(,)UKLI.\K (JF BAVARIA, COUNTESS OF HAIXAULT, HOLLAND AND XEELAND
HOK.N I4OI ; 1I1F.IJ 1436
JACOUEHXIC OK UAVAUIA, COUNTESS Of HAINAULT, HOLLAND AND ZKi:LAND
I1UKN I4OI ; lillil) I4j6
JACorELINIC OF BAYAKIA
COPKXIIAOKN: KOVA1. C.AI.I.KRV
PORTRAIT OK A LADY
FRANKFORT: STAEDEL INSTITUTE
LOST PAINTINGS 181
representation of that unfortunate princess, dating in all pro-
bability from about the time of her second marriage, April 4,
1418.* De Villers also possessed a portrait of her second
husband, John IV., Duke of Brabant (d. 1427), a half-length
figure turned to the right, the face seen in three-quarters ; 2
and another of his brother Philip, Duke of Brabant (d. 1430),
the face seen in three-quarters turned to the left. 3
The Royal Gallery at Copenhagen contains a sixteenth-
century copy of a half-length portrait of Jacqueline (Oak. H.
0,75; B. 0,41), said to have been painted by John van Eyck.
Dollmayr 4 and Gliick 5 attribute this copy to John Mostaert
of Harlem. In this portrait the countess, turned to the left,
her face seen in three-quarters, wears a loose robe of cloth of
gold lined with ermine, the wide sleeves of which, turned over
1 In the margin : " Dame Jacoba de Baviere fille Comte de
Haynaut, Hollande, Zeelande et de Frise, dame de diceulx pays,
espeuse a Jehan due de Lothric, Brabant, Lembourg, aisne fils du
due Anthoine de Brabant." At the foot is the following certificate in
the chancellor's hand : " L'an 1601, le 5 de Decembre, passant par
Tournay, le S re Antoine de Succa tira de mon logis copies de figures
designees en ceste feuille de papier, tesmoing mon nom, Denis de
Villers." SUCCA, Memoriaux, fol. 7.
The original, or more probably a copy of the original of this
portrait, was formerly at Louvain. See DE RAM, Note sur un portrait
du Due de Brabant, Jean IV., ayant appartenu a la gilde des arbale-
triers de Louvain, in Bulletins de la Commission royale (fHistoire, 3 S.,
i, 295, with a chromolithograph, Brussels, 1860; also E. VAN EVEN,
Louvain dans le passe et dans le present, 549-550. Louvain, 1895.
3 Signed : " Leve ces figures en Tonray a la maison de Mons. de
Vilers chancelier." SUCCA, Memoriaux, fol. 7.
4 Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen, xix, 298. Wien.
5 Beitrage zur Kunstgeschichte, 68-69, Wien, 1903 ; and in Mit-
teilungen des Gesellschaft fur vervielfdltigen Kutist, i, i. Wien, 1905.
182 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
at the wrists, let those of a close-fitting heraldic dress be seen ;
these show the colours of the Wittelsbach dynasty : Fusilly
in bend argent and azure. Her arms rest on a parapet. In
her right hand, laid on the left in an affected position, she
holds a pink ; a ring adorns the little finger. Her hair,
brushed back off the forehead, is confined in two cauls of
silken material blazoned with the arms of Hainault : Quarterly,
i and 2 or a lion rampant sable, 2 and 3 or a lion rampant
gules ; and bordered with a triple row of pearls and precious
stones ; and over this is laid a cambric veil dependent behind. 1
The Print-room of the Stadel Institute at Frankfort contains
a silver-point drawing on paper of a lady, formerly ascribed
to Roger De la Pasture, and said to be the portrait of his wife.
This Gliick considers to be an original study from life of dame
Jacqueline, but it appears to me to be a copy. 2 A drawing
in the Leboucq Collection at Arras represents her at about the
same age, turned to the right, the face seen in three-quarters,
her hands laid one upon the other.
1 Kaemmerer (1898, p. 47) thinks the original of this portrait may
have been painted by John van Eyck at the Hague, in 1422 or 1423 ;
but Jacqueline would certainly not have gone near that town after
1418, for fear of falling into the clutches of her pitiless uncle. More-
over, this portrait represents a woman of at least 20 to 25 years of age.
3 E. W. MOES, Iconographia Batava, i, 480, Amsterdam, 1897,
mentions several other portraits of the countess. In the most interest-
ing of these, painted after her marriage to Frank van Borsselen, 1433,
now in the Amsterdam Museum, she wears the collar of the Order of
OUR readers will have noticed how widely the critics disagree,
not only as to which of the paintings that lack documentary
authentication are by Hubert or John, or by the two working
in collaboration, but also as to the date at which they were
executed; that assigned varying from before 1422 until 1441,
and in several cases even to a much later date. And yet
almost all these critics, relying on one or other point, con-
fidently decides the date and authorship of each painting.
Our real knowledge at present is very limited, being
strictly confined to the following data. The polyptych was
designed and partly painted by Hubert, and completed in 1432
by John, who, at various dates from 1431 to 1441, designed
and painted eleven works five portraits and six pictures
the last of the latter being left unfinished at his death on the
9th of July, 1441. What are the features in these pictures
which can help us to form a correct opinion as to the probable
authorship and date of the remainder? I think these are : (i)
the composition and lighting ; (2) the landscape and flora ; (3)
the architecture; (4) the linear perspective; and (5) the costume.
(i) Composition. As regards the Ghent polyptych, the only
painting on which it is known for certain that both brothers
worked, is there in the composition of the different portions
anything to warrant the inference of dual design? The
composition of the entire work is strictly symmetrical ; this,
1 84 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
as far as concerns the exterior, the upper zone and the lower
central panel, is at the first glance seen to be the case. Not
so in the inner face of the shutter-panels of the lower zone,
as Laban (1898) has shown, by a comparison of the details.
In these, although the arrangement is in fact symmetrical, such
symmetry is ingeniously concealed. The following are a few
of the examples he gives (the numbers refer to the reduced
copy of the key illustrating his essay). In panel II. the three
younger knights (i, 2, 3) ride in front, and their elders follow;
in III. the three eldest hermits (i, 2, 3) march at the head,
their juniors bring up the rear ; one of the young knights (2)
bends his head, the other two hold theirs up; one of the
hermits (2) raises his head, the other two bend theirs down.
That this curious system has been followed throughout these
panels may be seen by intercomparison of our photogravures ;
it extends even to the colouring, when red has been
used on the dexter panels, the corresponding details in the
sinister shutters are blue, and vice versa. Laban concludes,
apparently from this diversity, that these four panels were not
designed by the same hand as the remainder. Is it not quite
possible that Hubert intended to symbolize the various and
often apparently contradictory ways followed in this life by
those who are really united in striving to attain to the heavenly
kingdom, where alone perfect harmony reigns ? In any case,
as no painting by John presents a similar system, its adoption
here cannot be ascribed to him, nor does it help us to dis-
tinguish his work from that of his brother. Nor will an
examination of the paintings representing interiors afford us ,
any better guidance.
Lighting. The lighting of the Virgin's room on the
exterior of the Ghent polyptych, of the interiors 3, 5, 6, 16,
20, 21, and the central and dexter panels of 18 is excellent,
whereas in the sinister shutter of the last, the light falls on
Saint Katherine's face, although she is standing with her
back to the window, and in the picture of the Three Marys
at the Sepulchre (28) the background is lighted from the
right, the foreground from the left. 1 Are we to conclude, with
Mr. Marks, that these were painted by the two brothers
working in collaboration ? or to look, with M. Durand, on
these deviations as due to distraction ?
(2) Landscape and Flora. The landscapes in the Ghent
polyptych, as in all the Eyckian paintings, are artificial ; the
1 Can this be by moonlight or by sunlight reflected from a white
i86 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
first master who reproduced a real view as the scene of a
subject was Conrad Witz of Rottweil in 1444.'
The Van Eycks had, by entirely suppressing the uniform
gold backgrounds employed by fourteenth-century painters,
introduced a new feature, a real ground on which their figures
stand, and by means of which they are, so to say, brought
together ; but although the landscape in no one of their pictures
is reproduced from nature as a whole, they are so cleverly
composed that they convey the impression of representing the
view of some particular place, and this has led many to try and
identify the localities. The town in the background of the
Louvre altar-piece has been declared to be Bruges, Lyons,
Maastricht, and Lie'ge ; the river in this and in the Rothschild
and Berlin Carthusian panels to be the Rhine, while others
say it is the Maas, and Rosen and Voll go so far as to assert
that the view is that seen from the citadel of Liege.
These contradictory assertions are all alike easily dis-
proved. In the Rothschild panel the cathedral to the left
of the river is unmistakably Old Saint Paul's seen from the
south ; in the Rolin altar-piece a noble cathedral of a decidedly
French type occupies a similar position, and the tower of
Saint Martin's at Utrecht stands near the bridge. Again, in
addition to other discrepancies, the island above the bridge
in the Rolin altar-piece is omitted in the Rothschild panel, yet
De Mont declares the river and town in this to be a servile copy
of those in the Louvre panel. Again, it has been affirmed that
the background of the Vision of Saint Francis is a view near
Assisi, to the bare hills about which it has even less resemblance
1 See D. BURCHARDT, Das Werk des Konrad Witz, plate xx.
L'TKKCIIT CATI1KDKAL .
\VLST Tl)\VER, Ki3<;
Wl'.Sr TilWKK, U'05
OLD SAINT 1'AUL'S, LONDON, 1-KO.M 'II1K SOUTH
SNOW MOUNTAINS IN THE GHENT POEVl'TVCH
l-'roiu tilt Transit^ tions pf thf Royal Sa.icty of Literature
SNOW MOUNTAINS IN THE K(JLIX 1'ANEL
From the 'transactions a/ the Royal Society pf Literature
[ Tilt note in tilt (texttr corner refers to the sist of the
than the city in the Richmond picture (28) to Jerusalem.
Snow-capped mountains are represented in the distance in
seven Eyckian paintings, namely, in the polyptych panel of the
Knights of Christ in the Rothschild panel (14), the Rolin
altar-piece (15), the left shutter of the Dresden triptych (18),
the Calvary pictures at Saint-Petersburg (25) and Berlin (27),
and the Richmond Visit of the Three Marys to the Sepulchre
(28). Gilbert has high praise for these views, and says that
Van Eyck evidently appreciated the beauty of mountain-form. 1
Rosen (1903, p. 104) declares the mountains in the Rolin
altar-piece to be better painted than those in the polyptych,
and says that those in the Berlin Calvary represent the Bernese
Alps, the Stockhorn, Niesen, and, high above them, the Bliimli
Alp. The writer cannot identify any one, and is convinced
that all the Eyckian landscapes are made up from sketches and
reminiscences of foreign travel. Fancied identifications are
difficult to disprove, but when the landscape in the Saint
Francis is declared to have been copied, as by Rosen (p. 107),
from the left shutter of Bout's Adoration of the Magi at
Munich, a glance at photographs of the two paintings suffices
to prove that he was writing from memory and quite mistaken.
In most of the paintings with landscape backgrounds a
flock of wild geese or cranes is seen high up in the air flying
in V-like array. 2 I do not remember the occurrence of this
1 Landscape in Art, 1885, pp. 53, 146, 150, 153 and 164.
2 In the polyptych panel representing the Hermits the Antwerp
Saint Barbara (8), the Rothschild and Louvre panels (14, 15), the
Vision of Saint Francis (19), and the Three Marys (28). The geese
in the Louvre panel are seen through the arcade on the left, but are
not discernible in any photograph other than that by Braun.
i88 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
feature in the paintings of any other master, and am inclined
to agree with Mr. Marks that it was used by the Van Eycks
as a sort of signature. Eyck, oak (Aldeneyck, old oak) was
most probably by the French pronounced and written Eck, *
angle; this may have suggested the adoption of the symbol.
Exotic plants are represented more or less faithfully in
the centre and left shutter-panels of the polyptych, in the
Copenhagen panel (13), in the Saint Francis (19), the Berlin
PLAN OF BUILDING IN THE BRUGES ALTAR-PIECE AFTER KERN.
Calvary (27), the Three Marys (28), and the Berlin Virgin by
the fountain (29), but are not found in either the Saint Barbara
(8), or the Ypres triptych (n). These exotic plants include
the olive, citron, cypress, stone-pine, date-palm, and palmetto,
all southern Mediterranean plants, which in the polyptych,
1 See Documents 13, 14, 15, 16 ; Maaseyck is situated on a bend
of the river, and the form Mazeck occurs in 36 and in other documents.
at least, are generally recognized to be splendidly painted.
Rosen, however, declares the date-palm and the stone-pine to
be incorrectly drawn.
(3) Architecture. The architecture in the Bruges altar-
piece (6) is late Romanesque ; in the Saint Barbara (8), third-
pointed ; and in the Ypres triptych (11), late Romanesque
with third-pointed vaulting. Kern is of opinion that the
first of these represents a circular Romanesque church.
The writer knows of no such existing church. The old
cathedral of Trier, built by Saint Helena, mother of the
emperor Constantine, had twelve piers of two columns, but
it was pulled down in the thirteenth century to make way for
the new cathedral, and it does not seem probable that John
van Eyck could have had any knowledge of this. He may
possibly have taken the idea of the building in this altar-piece
from a description of the Holy Sepulchre, or from the church
of Saint Constance in Via Nomentana at Rome, 1 or the
baptistery at Pisa, 2 but more probably from the baptistery
at Parma. 3 The Antwerp panel (8) shows an octagonal
third-pointed tower, there introduced as the emblem charac-
terising Saint Barbara. This admirable drawing can hardly
1 See E. ISABELLE, Les Edifices circulaires et les domes, pi. 24.
2 See ISABELLE, pi. 57 ; and DEHIO and BEZOLD, Die kirchliche
Baukunst des Abenlandes, n, pi. 203. Stuttgart, 1888.
3 See DEHIO and BEZOLD, n, pi. 203. Kern remarks (p. 11)
that the pillar in the middle axe of the apse, behind the throne of Our
Lady, shows that Van Eyck did not mean to represent the choir of
a church. This is not quite conclusive, as there are churches with
choir apses of six bays, but he may very well have meant to represent
an apsidal transept.
190 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
be an original design of John's, and as no such building
is known, it may possibly have been copied from some
master-mason's design. The columns in the Bruges altar-
piece (6) and in the Ypres triptych (11) have capitals adorned
with interlaced foliage and animals, whilst those of the piers
in the former are storied. This system has been carried
CAPITAL OF A PILASTER SOUVIGNY (BOURBONNAIS).
out in all the other paintings here described which present
architectural interiors. The capitals of the columns, which
offer a considerable variety of design, are of a type found
in the Bourbonnais ; 1 those of the piers present a series of
subjects from the Old Testament; but the Bruges and
Dresden pictures (6, 18) appear to have been imitated from
1 See DEHIO and BEZOLD, in, plates 333, 334, 341, and 345.
CAPITALS AFTKK VAX EVCK
1. -ROTHSCHILD PANKL, PAKIS. 2. a. KOI. IN Al.TAIM'IECK. 1. -Tkll" 1 YCH. DKKSDEN
From drawings [<y C. Marks
BELLEROPHON A.\i) TiiK CHIM.KKA
/'rum a SnrcKf/iagns after .!/////-,
CAPITAL FROM TkHTN'C'll, DRKSDKN
CAPITAL FROM ALTAIMTI'X'K, liRUGKS
CAPITAL FROM ALTAR-PIECE. KRUGK.S
TOUKXAV CATIIICDKAL, TRANSKI'T
Aftti- lif:r. : ,<ai:,t lltzM
the sculptures on classical sarcophagi such as the victory
of Alexander over the Persians, Bellerophon and the Chi-
maera, the Hippolytus legend, or some hunting scene. 1
Of the architecture in other paintings, that of the Berlin
Virgin and Child (20) is alone real, based on a three-aisled
cruciform apsidal church, having a crypt beneath the choir
the cathedral of Ghent, according to M. Hulin ; 2 Saint Denis,
according to Dr. Voll ; 3 in the writer's opinion it is impos-
sible to say which, if either, suggested the design. In the
Saint- Petersburg Annunciation (16) and the Dresden tri-
ptych (18) the architecture is quasi-real, the details, taken
separately, being correctly given ; but the very stilted arches
of the chief arcade in the former have been apparently drawn
from those of an apse and straightened out, while the square-
headed triforium is an adaptation of that in the transept of
the cathedral of Tournay. 4 In the Dresden triptych the
bases are of a much later date than the capitals of the columns
which they support.
The cloisters or porticos in the Rothschild panel (14),
the Rolin altar-piece (15), and the Berlin Madonna with
Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24), are not real but scenic
1 Mr. Alfred Marks, to whom I am indebted for these references,
is of opinion that the group on the Dresden capital was suggested by
the famous Hippolytus sarcophagus, since 1850 in the Campo Santo
at Pisa, but which, in Van Eyck's time, was built into the exterior wall
of the cathedral.
2 See Congres de Bruges, 1902, Compte rendu, p. 21.
3 Altniederlandische Malerei, p. 39.
4 John van Eyck was at Tournay in October, 1427. It is, how-
ever, possible that he may have taken this detail from the baptistery
at Parma. See DEHIO and BEZOLD, n, pi. 203.
i 9 2 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
pasteboard architecture. The quaint introduction of rabbits at
the angles of the base of one of the columns (in 15), giving an
appearance of strength, may have been suggested by examples
in the church of Saint Ambrose at Milan. Saint Barbara's
emblematic tower in the Rothschild panel reproduces Italian-
Gothic forms, and the image of Mars is certainly copied
from an antique bronze. The throne of Our Lady in the
Rolin panel is adorned with mosaic. The pavement in the
earlier pictures is composed of tiles, generally blue and white,
apparently Valencia tiles ; i in the later, it consists of slabs
of rich and varied marbles in geometric patterns, quite in
Roman style. 2 In one picture the Saint-Petersburg Annun-
ciation we find a splendid specimen of a storied pavement,
reminding one of that at Rheims ; 3 surely this and the mural
paintings of scenes in the life of Moses must have been
sketched in some French church. The red sandstone or
tufa buildings of the town in the background of the Saint-
Petersburg and Berlin Calvary pictures (25, 27) and of the
Three Marys (28) was no doubt intended to convey the idea
of the East ; the Temple of Jerusalem in the last is the most
correct early representation of that building known.
1 In the two panels of the polyptych occupied by the choir of
angels, the upper zone of the Madrid panel (32), the Van der Paele
altar-piece (6), the Rothschild panel (14), and the Frankfort
2 In the lower zone of the Madrid panel (32), the Rolin altar-
piece (15), the Berlin Madonna with Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24),
and the centre panel of the Ypres triptych ( 1 1 ).
3 The windows of both ecclesiastical and domestic interiors are
generally filled with roundels ; in the Ince Hall panel (3), the Saint-
Petersburg Annunciation (16), and the Berlin panels (20, 24), lozenge
One peculiarity remains to be noted. In the Virgin's room
on the exterior of the polyptych, and in the Madrid panel (32),
the bases and capitals of the columns are identical, a pecu-
liarity which the writer has met with in some churches in the
(4) Perspective. Kern, in his volume on linear perspective
(1904), places the ten Eyckian paintings which he has examined
in the following chronological order :
i. The Ince Hall Madonna (3) ; 2, the Frankfort Madonna
(21) ; 3, the Arnolfini panel (5) ; 4, the Bruges altar-piece (6) ;
5, the Dresden triptych (18); 6, the Saint-Petersburg Annun-
ciation (16); 7, the Berlin Madonna in a church (20); 8, the
Rothschild panel (14) ; 9, the Rolin panel (15) ; 10, the Berlin
Madonna with Saint Barbara and a Carthusian (24). In all
the Eyckian paintings the figures in the foreground are too
tall relatively to the architecture, and often occupy too great
a space ; as, for instance, Our Lady in the centre of the
Dresden triptych. In the half-distance and the background
the figures are relatively more correct ; as, for instance, the
two men in the garden of the Rolin panel (15), and the work-
men at the foot of the tower in the Antwerp picture of Saint
Barbara (8). The present writer, while fully recognising Kern's
competence as a judge of perspective, is convinced that the
Rolin panel is anterior to 1430, and his conviction is strength-
ened by the fact that another specialist on perspective, Doehle-
mann (1905), does not accept Kern's conclusion. Doehlemann
also considers the perspective of the Arnolfini picture to be
better than that of the Bruges altar-piece. It seems pretty
evident that neither of the Van Eycks had a full mathematical
-knowledge of the laws of perspective, and that, consequently,
i 9 4 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
there is no room for astonishment if the perspective in a later
painting is less perfect supposing such to be the case than
in earlier works. It seems quite likely that the Van Eycks
did not attach any great importance to the point, any more
than to the representation of trees and plants in exact relative
(5) Costume. The costume worn by donors of paintings is
an excellent guide to the discovery of their personality and the
dating of their portraits. Had Kaemmerer attended to this,
he would not have aspersed the character of B. Nicholas
Albergati (i); neither would he nor Hymans have described
De Leeuw (7) or the Leipzig donor (35) as canons. Attention
should be paid to the signification of accessories, such as a
ring showing the holder to be a goldsmith, a white wand
denoting the bearer to have held the office of chamberlain.
As an example of the importance of such details as guides to
the identification of persons portrayed, it may be well to draw
attention to the case of the individual first misnamed " a duke
of Burgundy"; then, and still incorrectly, "the Man with
a pink," which designation affords no clue. For these the
writer has substituted the fitter title of " an Esquire of the
Order of Saint Anthony "j 1 the pinks held in his hand probably
indicate that he was a bachelor, a rose being the flower indi-
cating a person already married.
The details of armour worn by knights and soldiers
afford also important evidence as to the date of a painting.
Armour is represented in five of the pictures described . in
the present work : the Polyptych ; the Saint- Petersburg Last
1 A list of the Knights and Esquires of the Order is preserved in
the Royal Library at Brussels, Goethals MSS.
Judgment (26) ; the Dresden triptych (18) ; the Bruges
altar-piece (6) ; and the Three Marys at the Sepulchre (28).
The helmets and upper part of the armour worn by Saint
Michael and Saint George, apparently copied from the same
suit, are pseudo-classic, and much resemble the suit made for
Charles V. by Bartholomew Campi, in 1546. The leg-armour
of the archangel in the Saint- Petersburg picture is decidedly
earlier than that of the other figures.
Portraiture. Portrait-painting, so far as we know, was
not introduced until the second half of the fourteenth century.
The earliest known are profile portraits ; towards the end of
the century some portraits show the body in three-quarters,
with the head in profile, as in those of Philip II., duke of
Burgundy, 1383-1404, and John, duke of Berry, 1340-1416,
authentic copies of which have been preserved, 1 and that of
John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, 1404-1419, in the Louvre,
n.ioo2. Another portrait of the last-named, in the Antwerp
Museum, shows the body and head turned in the same
direction ; the painter of that portrait was evidently working
tentatively, as the tip of the nose cuts across the contour of the
further half of the face. 2 The Van Eycks went a step further
than their predecessors, and succeeded in representing persons
seen in three-quarters, the nose foreshortened, with plastic
1 I n A. Thevet's Les vrais pourtraits et vies des homines illustres,
p. 267, Paris, 1584, there is a woodcut of Philip's portrait, which was
then in the Charter-house of Dijon. A copy of that of John, duke of
Berry is in the Gaignieres collection in the Print-room of the National
Library at Paris.
2 Westendorp (1906, p. 72) thinks this may be the portrait painted
by John Malouel in 1415, and sent as a present to John I., king of
i 9 6 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
truthfulness. Frequently the addition of hands added to the
characterisation of their portraits. Dvorak, as also Westen-
dorp, give John the credit of having been the first who
succeeded in producing satisfactory portraits. But the earliest
portrait proved to have been painted by John is that of the
Blessed Nicholas Albergati, cardinal of Saint-Cross (1431),
whilst we have those of Jodoc Vyt and his wife on the shutters
of the Ghent polyptych, and of Michael Giustiniani in the
Dresden triptych, and a copy of a portrait of Michael of
France, first wife of Philip III., duke of Burgundy (died
July 8, 1422), which were most probably painted by
Alleged portraits of the Van Eycks. In the foreground
of the dexter shutter-panel of the Adoration of the Lamb, one
of the Just Judges is represented riding on a white horse,
and not far from him a much younger man clad in black,
with a large head-kerchief, and wearing a red coral rosary,
round his neck, has his head turned towards him, but
is not looking in his direction. These two, according to
1 The will of John De Visch, lord of Axel and Capelle, in the
possession of the Count of Breda at Compiegne, mentions among other
bequests that of thirty gold crowns, and a painting by Hubert to
his daughter Mary, a nun in the Benedictine convent of Bourbourg.
near Gravelines, which she governed as abbess from 1418 to 1438.
This was communicated to me by the late Mr. Serrure in 1870, but I
attached no particular importance to it until I commenced the
examination of the history and works of the Van Eycks. So far as
I know, Hubert van Eyck is the only painter of that time bearing this
Christian name. The portrait of John of Bavaria, in the Leboucq
collection at Arras, is, I believe, the only one known. Can the
painting from which it was copied have been an early work by John
van Eyck ?
JOHN OF BAVARIA, TIIK PITILESS, COUNT OF HOLLAND AND ZKELAND
IIUHKKT VAX KVCK?
FUOM "''nil-; irsT )u IJI;KS ''
HKKI.IX : ROYAL (1AU.KRY
JOHX VAX KVCK?
FROM THE "JUST JUDGES"
IHiRLIN : ROYAL GALLERY
Luke De Heere, 1 are portraits of Hubert and John. Owing
to his poem having been affixed to the wall of the Vyts'
chapel, this statement was read by those who went to see
the picture, was widely circulated, and obtained ready
credence, as at that time it was a common practice for painters
to introduce their own portraits into the works they executed.
De Heere's statement did not repose on any old tradition,
or the sacristan who showed Miinzer the picture in 1495
would certainly not have omitted to relate it ; moreover, at
that time it was not known that the polyptych was the work
of two painters. De Heere's story, repeated by Vaernewyck,
Van Mander, and a host of others, has been, until recently,
accepted by all writers. 2 The two portraits have been copied
by painters and engravers. One of the earliest copies, on an
oak panel (H. 0,228 ; B. 0,34) formerly in the Orleans Gallery,
and later in the possession of Mr. J. Field, of Dornden,
Tunbridge Wells, shows the two men as busts juxtaposed,
clad much as in the polyptych, save that John has a red
under-dress and no rosary. Beneath the elder is the legend,
Hubertus ab eyck obijt 1426; and beneath the younger,
1 Strophe 9 of the Ode he composed in 1559 ; see pp. Ixxviii and
2 Laban (1898) remarks that the figure assumed to be a portrait
of John by himself, is looking down at the elder man, as if saying, " I
am following you," while in the corresponding panel of the Holy
Pilgrims, Saint Christopher seems to be calling to his older companion
(see on p. 184, Key, iv, 2, 9) to follow him. I may add here that the black
funeral palls were in mediaeval times charged with a red cross in
memory of the Redeemer's death. Our readers must judge for
themselves whether the red rosary worn over the black dress was
intended to convey a special meaning. The writer is of opinion that
it was simply used as an effective contrast of colour.
i 9 8 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
loannes ab eyck. The following mendacious verses are
" Wij hebben aldereerst met olie verw gheschildert
die anghenaemigh' is de werelt door verwiedert
't jaer 1410 was eerst dies const gesien."
Catalogues of the eighteenth and the early part of the
nineteenth centuries mention the sale of portraits said to be
those of the two brothers. The highest price that the writer
has noted as having been paid for a pair is twenty-two guineas,
by Sir H. P., on February 7, 1801.
Crowe and Cavalcaselle (in 1857, p. 98) were, the writer
believes, the first who recognised, as portraits of the brothers,
two figures on the right of the Madrid Fountain of Living
Water, one wearing a red mantle trimmed with grey fur, with
an order (?) 1 hanging over his shoulder, as Hubert ; the other,
standing behind him on the extreme right, as John. Mr.
Marks, however (1903, p. 7), though agreeing as to the
former, thinks the young man to the left of the elder is John.
The photographic reproductions of the five figures will enable
our readers to judge for themselves. Hotho (1858, n, 169)
says that in the Calvary picture at Saint-Petersburg, the two
brothers are represented standing at the foot of the cross an
astounding statement, as these two men are evidently mock-
ing the dying Saviour. De Smet (1902, p. 243) suggests that
Hubert is represented in the Adoration of the Lamb, on the
left behind SS. Stephen and Livin. Durand (1905, pp. 23-25)
considers the portrait of a man in the National Gallery, dated
1433, to be the portrait of John painted by himself.
1 Can it be meant for the bough of an oak (eyck) ?
5 O .;.
None of the points above considered seem to afford data
for distinguishing Hubert's work from that of John. If, how-
ever, the three figures in the centre of the upper zone of the
polyptych, universally recognised as Hubert's, be compared
with those in the paintings proved beyond doubt to be by
John, it will be seen that they are far more plastic, and this
is probably due to the fact that Hubert's early years of study
were passed in the same school (Maastricht ?) as Sluter-
This would be more apparent to modern eyes, unaccustomed
to polychromed statuary, if they were in monochrome. John's
art, on the other hand, less sculpturesque and more pictorial,
has a greater affinity to miniatures ; and in some of his earlier
pictures, such as the Rolin panel (15), he has to a certain extent
injured the general effect by the multiplication of detail. If
this work be compared with the Rothschild panel (14), its
inferiority as a general conception must, the writer thinks, be
admitted, notwithstanding the wondrous skill displayed in the
rendering of minute details. Marks (1908, p. 22) thinks it is
certainly the work of two painters. The figures of Our Lady
and Child, devoid of spiritual character, are undoubtedly
John's, as too, in all probability, is that of the Chancellor.
They appear to have been the last portion painted. If, again,
the Saint-Petersburg Annunciation be compared with that
on the exterior of the polyptych, how inferior are the former
figures in expression, and how inappropriate their surround-
ings ! The details, however, are wonderfully painted, and less
obtrusive than in the Rolin panel. The Dresden triptych (18)
is, perhaps, the most interesting of all the unauthenticated
paintings. It retains its original frame, bearing neither
John's name nor his motto. The Saint Michael in this
200 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
picture is a far nobler figure than the Saint George in the
Bruges altar-piece (6). The head and hands of the donor
are excellent, the figures on the exterior admirable. All these
points seem to indicate the authorship of Hubert, to whom
the work is attributed in the 1696 inventory of Jabach's
paintings at Limoges. Was this triptych left, unfinished, by
Hubert and completed by John ? If the donor could be iden-
tified and the date fixed it would probably settle the question.
The representation of Saint Katherine with an open book in
her hand, in addition to the sword and broken wheel, would
seem to indicate that he was an orator or philosopher. The
fact that Mr. Johnson's Vision of Saint Francis (IQA) was
found at Lisbon seems to have led to the conclusion that it
was painted by John during his sojourn in Portugal. The
Turin panel appears to the writer to be an enlargement of
later date. Since 1885, several critics have expressed the
gravest doubt as to its Eyckian authorship. But though
differing on some points, they appear to agree that the colour-
ing, and the manner in which the foliage of the trees is painted,
point to a date posterior to the Van Eycks. Brother Leo has
two right feet, from which it would appear that the painter
had failed to remark that, in the smaller picture, the person
in question has his legs crossed and shows the sole of his
left foot. Durand thinks this the result of mere distraction
on the part of Van Eyck. The palmettos are poorly painted ;
Rosen (1903, pp. 105-109) says, from dried plants brought
to Bruges by a sailor ! but they were, most probably, merely
copied, as was the v-shaped flight of geese. The Madonna
in a church (20), in the Berlin Gallery, is another doubtful
work. The writer believes it to be a copy of a lost original by
Hubert. The deep poetic feeling shown is a sufficient proof
that he designed it. The copy in the Doria collection shows
more of the arcade on the left and the third bay of the rood-
screen, with the Nativity in the tympanum, and sepulchral
brasses and slabs in the pavement. The Frankfort Ma-
donna (21) and the portraits of Arnolfini (22) and Baldwin
de Lannoy (23) are certainly by John. Doubts have been
expressed as to whether the Berlin panel of Our Lady and
Child with Saint Barbara and the Carthusian (24) was painted
by either of the Van Eycks. These doubts are founded on
the linear perspective, and on the windows being glazed with
lozenges instead of with roundels. 1 The occurrence of a
statue outside the porch, as in Mr. Salting's portrait attributed
to Peter Christus, and the metallic look of the hair are
given as reasons for assigning this painting to him. The
Saint-Petersburg Calvary and Last Judgment (25, 26) are, in
the writer's opinion, the work of a contemporary of the Van
Eycks brought up in the same surroundings. The figures are
less dignified in type than those of Hubert, but there is much
dramatic force and deep pathos in both pictures. The painter
was probably a North Netherlander ; the Calvary shows
so many points of resemblance to the Turin miniatures that
he may possibly have designed or executed some of them.
The Berlin Calvary (27) and the Visit of the Three Marys
to the Sepulchre (28) are thought by many to be posterior
to the Van Eycks. The writer believes he was the first to
suggest that these paintings, which show intense religious
feeling were not painted by John but by Hubert ; this opinion
1 See pp. 65 and 192.
202 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
was fortified, as he pointed out in 1902, by the analogy their
lighting presents to that of the miniature of Saint Julian
conveying passengers across a river in a Storm, in the Turin
Hours. The Eyckian authorship has been recognised by
many. 1 There are, however, two details in the Richmond
picture which militate against the ascription. The sleeping
soldier in front of the sepulchre has at his side a helmet
which has two necklames, a detail which, several of the best
authorities on mediaeval armour declare, proves the painting
to be posterior to 1440; the handpiece by his side has also
a later appearance.
The Berlin picture of Our Lady by a Fountain (29) is,
in the writer's opinion, the copy of a lost picture. The
southern trees are more accurately painted than in the poly-
ptych, and are not copied from it. As to Lord Northbrook's
Madonna (30), there is no sufficient reason for doubting the
date 1437, said by Nieuwenhuys to have been inscribed on
the original frame. The New York Madonna (31) is certainly
the work of an imitator. As to the Madrid Fountain of
Living Water (32) it is very difficult to say whether it is a
copy of a lost original by Hubert van Eyck, or an early work
by a contemporary Netherlander painted in imitation of the
Ghent polyptych. It has been attributed to Louis Dalmau of
Valencia, 2 and we have positive evidence that that painter was
in 1431 sent by Alphonsus V. of Aragon to Flanders ; M.
Tramoyeres Blasco 3 thinks he remained at Bruges until after
1 See HULIN, 1902, p. 2, n .;, and DURRIEU, 1903, p. 18.
2 DVORAK, 1904, pp. 246-248.
3 It is not at all clear why Alphonsus sent him to Flanders, pro-
bably to purchase paintings. A relic of the relations between the Duke
John van Eyck's death, July 9, 1441, but of this there is no
proof. The panel painted by him for the magistrates of
Barcelona in 1443 affords sufficient evidence that he did not
acquire the Eyckian technique, though there can be no doubt
that he saw and admired the singing angels on the upper
dexter shutter of the Ghent polyptych. It is, on the other
hand, quite clear that the painter of the Madrid panel, whether
he was a Netherlander or a Castilian, must have spent some
time at Ghent to attain the degree of perfection which that
picture displays. The tabernacle-work which encloses and
crowns the painting is evidently a wooden construction.
of Burgundy and Alphonsus V., is a Valencian majolica dish, now in
the Wallace collection (n.69), London, which was doubtless, a present
from the king of Aragon to the duke. It is decorated with the personal
arms of the latter at the date of his marriage with Isabella of Portugal,
which arms he abandoned in 1430 (A. VAN DE PUT, Hispano- Moresque
Ware of the fifteenth century, pi. 10, pp, 61-64, London, 1904). The
date of the dish is several years anterior to the earliest known docu-
mentary evidence for the importation of such pottery at Bruges : a
ducal decree of 1441, in which mention is made of " Vaiselle de terre
appele en Flamenc Valenschen were."
P. Ixxiv. 1458. Kronyk van Vlaenderen. 1 On the occasion of the
solemn entry of Philip III. into Ghent on Saint George's day, 23 April,
1458, after the battle of Gavere, there were great rejoicings ; the house
fronts were decorated with unusual magnificence, and where space
permitted scenic representations were erected in the streets. The
most remarkable of these was on the Poul Marsh Square where the
Rhetoricians of the town got up a pageant in imitation of the Ghent
polyptych. The scaffold erected for this purpose, 50 feet high and
28 feet broad, was completely covered with blue cloth and shut in
with white curtains. It was divided into three zones ; the uppermost
portioned off into five compartments, the figures in which represented
those in the five central panels of the polyptych. In the lower portion
Hubert's design was not adhered to, for although the Adoration of the
Lamb was represented in the centre, the sides were each divided into
five compartments in two zones ; four of these occupied by the Knights,
the Judges, the Hermits, and the Pilgrims ; the other six by groups ;
these and the centre illustrated the Beatitudes, the second being
omitted. It is noteworthy that SS. George, Victor, Maurice, Sebas-
tian, Quirin, and the Burgundian S. Gandolph, were substituted for
1 This Chronicle was published by the Bibliophiles Flamands in 1840. It
seems strange that the description which it gives of the pageant of 1458 should,
until quite recently, have escaped the notice of those interested in the art
history of Flanders, although it is mentioned in two or three works relating to
mediaeval theatrical representations in the middle ages. In 1906 Mr. L. Maeter-
linck, having called Mr. P. Bergmans' attention to it, the latter reproduced the
description in the Annals of the 20th Congress of the Archaeological and
Historical Federation of Belgium, 1907, pp. 530-537, with some notes relating
to the festivities from the Town accounts.
2 o6 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
those in the polyptych. This scenic representation evidently made an
impression on the public, for when the polyptych was shown to Miinzer
thirty-seven years later, he was told that the figures in the lower zone
represented the eight Beatitudes.
" Item, up den Poul stont gemaect eene groete hoghe stellagie,
met drye stagien upgaende 1 voeten lane, ende xxviij voeten breedt,
al verdect met blauwen lakenen, voren ghesloten met witten gordinen,
de misterye diere upstont was dusdanich : Chorus beatorum in sacri-
ficium agni pascalis ; in de middewaert van der hogster stagien was
een gulclin troen, daer in 't personnagie van God den Vadre, sittende
in eenen costelyken setele, heerlijc verchiert, met eender keyserlyker
croenen up 't hooft, eenen septre in de handt, onder voer sijn voeten,
eene o-ulden croene, onder de croene stont ghescreven, met gulden
letteren, aldus : Vita sine morte in capite, iuventtis sine senectute in
fronte, o'audiwn sine moerore a dexteris, securitas sine timore a sinistris.
Boven omme de diademe : Hie est Deus potentissiimis propter divinam
maiestatcm ; summits omnium optimus propter dulcedinis bonitatem ;
remunerator liberalissimus propter inmensam largitatem. \ Person-
nagie van der Maget Maria zittende t' sijnre rechter hant, uutnemende
costelic verchiert, boven rondsomme hare diademe stont ghescreven :
Haec est speciosior sole et super omnem stellarum dispositionem lucis
comparata invenitttr. Ende sent lans Baptiste t' sijnre slinker hant,
wat neerdere dan Maria, rondsomme sine diademe stont ghescreven :
Hie est Baptista Johannes, motor homine, par angelis, legis s^^mma
evangelisatio. Ende an de rechte zyde van Marien, wat neerdere, was
eenen choer van inghelen, die maniere maecten als men dese figure
toghde van singhene, voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Melos Deo,
laiis prophetis, graciarum actio. In 't ghelyke was ter slinker zyde van
sent lanne een choer van inghelen, die maniere maecten van speelene
up orghelen ende andere veele diversschen instrumenten van musiken,
als men dese figure toghde ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Laudate
eum in chordis et organo. Ende emmer waren de selve inghelen in
biede de choren naer toghen van desen figueren, als de gordinen
toegheschuuft waren, altoes singhende ende speelende zeere melodieu-
zelijc ende ghenouchlijc.
" Item, up de tweeste ende dardde stagie stonden ter rechter
zyden, eerst vj confessoren ghecleedt als bisschoppen, in pontificale
PARIS : LOUVRE
blauwe habyten, ende voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati
" Item, neffeus die, bet achterwaerts stonden vj oude vaders ghelijc
patriarken ende propheten, vercleedt met peersschen ende roeden
heyken lane tot der heerden ende al met langhe barden ; voer hemlie-
den stont ghescreven : Beati qui esuriunt et sitiTint iustitiam.
" Item, daer neffens stonden bet achterwaerts vj oude vaders
met blauwen ende zwartten habyten totter heerden met mudtschen
up 't hoovet ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati misericordes.
" Item, doe volghden daer an de selve zyde oec bet achterwaert
vj Gods ridders, als sent loerijs, sente Victor, sente Maurissius,
sente Sebastiaen, sente Ouirijn, sente Gandolf, wylen hertoghe van
Bourgognen, elc met sinen standarde van sijnder wapenen in sijn
handt ; voor hemlieden stont ghescreven : Christi milites.
" Item, nevens die stonden vj oude vaders met groenen habyten an,
elc als een rechtere ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : lusti indices.
" Item, up de selve tweeste ende dardde stagien, stonden ter
slinker zyden, ierst ieghen over de vj confessoren, vj ionghe maghden
met schoenen hanghenden hare ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven :
Beati mundo corde.
" Item, daer an achterwaert ieghen over de Patriarken stonden vj
Appostelen ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati pauper es spiritu.
" Item, daer naer ieghen over de Oude Vaders met blauwen ende
zwartten habiten stonden vj Heremiten, onder de welke stonden Maria
Magdalena ende Egipciaka ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Here-
" Item, daer naer ieghen over de vj Gods ridders stonden vj
Martelaers, als bisschoppen ende priesteren, vercleedt al met roeden
pontificalen habyten ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven : Beati qui
persccutionem patiuntur propter lusticiam.
" Item, ieghen over de vj Oude Vaders metten groenen habyten
stonden vj Peelgryms, d'een van hemlieden sijnde sente Christoffels
uutnemende groet boven d'andere ; voer hemlieden stont ghescreven :
Peregrini Sancti, ende waren alle dese voorscreven personnagien
zo uutnemende rykelic ende costelic verchiert gheabilliert ende
ghepareert elc naer sinen heessch ende staet als dat onmoghelijc ware
volcomelic te declareren oft te scrivene.
208 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
" Item, up 't selve stellagie in midden van de vorseide person-
nagien stont eenen schoenen outaer, dierbaerlic ende kerckelic ghedect
ende gheparreert ende voren up de dwale van dien outare stont
o-hescreven, met guldenen letteren : Ecce agnus Dei qtii tollit peccata
mundi. Ende up den selven outaer stont eene figuere van eenen
Lamme ghemaect naer jdlevende uut sijnre burst loepende bloet in
eenen kelict ; rontomme dien outare stonden veele inghelen, daer aff
dat d'een hilt teekin van den cruce, een ander de columme, ende
alle d'andere elc een teekin van den instrumenten ende teekenen
der passcien ons liefs heeren Ihesu Christi.
" Item, voor elcken houc van den outare knielde een inghele,
die hadden elc een wieroecvat stijf staende in manieren off sy ghe-
worpen hadden ten vorseiden outare waert, ende voer de inghelen
stont ghescreven : Bcati mites.
" Item, up de figure van den vorseiden Lamme, ende up elc van
den vorseiden anderen staten, waren gemaect, comende ende sprutende
uut der personnagie van God den Vader, rayen in midden den welken
scheen vlieghende eene schoene witte duve, in manieren van den
Heylighen Gheest, de selve duve houdende een rolle daer in dat
ghescreven stont : Rcpleti sunt omnes Spiritu sancto.
" Item, recht vore de stellagie stont ghemaect eene schoene
fonteyne verchiert ghelijc witten ende groenen marbre, de pilaer
xxv voeten hooghe boven de stellagien staende up eenen steenen
voet, drye stieghers hoghe upgaende ; daer aff den appersten was
dbat van der fonteynen, ende boven up den appel daer uut dat drye
gorgelen liepen met wine, als mijn vorseide gheduchten heere daer
leedt, stont een inghele houdende eene rolle daer in dat ghescreven
stont : Fans vitac ; ende omme den vorseiden appele stont ghescreven :
Fluviiis egrediebatur de loco voluptatis, ad irrigandum Paradisum.
Genes. 2 Ende an den bac van der fonteynen vorseit stont ghescreven
ter eender zyden : Pocula quaerenti fons noster dabit amaena, ende
ten ander zyde stont ghescreven : Hie est fons aquae vitae procedens de
sede Dei et agni."
P. Ixxv. 1524, March 20. SUMMONTE, Pietro, in a letter bearing
this date, written at Naples and addressed to Mark Anthony Michiel,
1'OKTRAIT OF A MAN-
PHILADELPHIA : MR. J. (J. JOHNSON
mentions three paintings on canvas by master Roger (De la Pasture),
and says that he was accustomed to paint large figures, but that master
John (van Eyck) at first illuminated books and painted miniatures.
" Et quoniam aliquantum defleximus a parlar di cose di Fiandra
non lascero far menzione delli tre panni di tela lavorati in quel paese
per lo famoso Maestro Rugerio, genero di quell' altro gran Maestro
loannes, che prima fe 1'arte d'illuminare libri, sive ut hodie loquimur
miniare. Ma lo Rugiero non si esercito sennon in figure grandi." 1
P. cxii. L. TRAMOYERES BLASCO. El Pintor Luis Dalmau. In
Cultura Espafiola, n, 565-569. Madrid, 1907.
P. ii. A communication received, through Mr. A. Van de Put,
from M. Luis Tramoyeres Blasco, director of the Museum of Paintings
at Valencia, shows that the date of the embassy to Alphonsus V. is
incorrectly given in the text. When John van Eyck and the ambas-
sadors arrived at Tournay, they were not starting on their mission but
returning from it. They arrived, it appears, late in July at Barcelona,
from which city the king had, fleeing from the earthquakes in Catalonia,
departed by sea some days previously. They reached Valencia early
in August, for on the gth and loth of that month the Jurats of the city
offered the king two days of Floral games at which many notabilities
were present. A bull-fight was also held. A document in the
Accounts of the Royal Treasury of Valencia, dated October 15, 1427,
mentions a payment of 45 gold florins to John Sabent, the owner of a
small vessel which had been sent to Iviza, in the track of the ship by
which Philip's ambassadors had started from Barcelona some days
previously on their return to Burgundy. Sabent was the bearer of an
order to the Ivizan authorities to prevent a ship belonging to one P. de
Ledesma from boarding that of the ambassadors, or doing them any
P. 52, 1. 8. A painting at Madrid, in the Prado Gallery (^.1351.
Oak. H. 1,22 ; B. 1,33), there attributed to Hubert van Eyck, repro-
duces the busts of the three principal figures of the Ghent polyptych.
1 First published by C. V. Fabriczy in the Repertorium fiir Kunstwissen-
schaft, xxx, 148. 1907.
210 HUBERT AND JOHN VAN EYCK
It is a fine work of the end of the fifteenth century, probably painted
by John Gossart.
P. 173. In the fine collection formed by Mr. J. G. Johnson, of
Philadelphia, there is a portrait of a man said to be by John van Eyck.
The writer has not seen it, but reproduces the photograph most kindly
sent by the owner.
P. 182. A silver-point drawing (H. o, 12 ; B. 0,09) in the Louvre,
the portrait of a man turned to the right, wearing a head-kerchief, the
long lappet of which hangs down over his right shoulder, has been
much retouched, but may possibly be a copy of a work by John van
The so-called Consecration of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, at
Chatsworth, has, at its foot, the inscription : Johannes de eyck fecit
MCCCC21 30 Octobris. This has been proved by Mr. Alfred Marks
to be a forgery, an imitation of the signature of the portrait of a man
(4) in the National Gallery. Both were in the possession of Thomas,
earl of Arundel, as was also the head of an ecclesiastic (36). The earl
had evidently a mania for passing off works of art in his possession
as representations of English subjects. 1 The profile bust of Christ in
the act of blessing, in the Berlin Royal Gallery, appears to the writer
to date from the end of the fifteenth century.
1 It probably represents the enthronement of Robert Sherborn, bishop of
Chichester in 1508, and may be by Dirk Barentsz, alias Theodore Bernard!,
who came to England early in the sixteenth century, where he was settled
in 1519, and seems to have remained working for churches and monasteries in
Sussex and Hampshire. Bishop Sherborn employed him on many works, some
of which remain in the cathedral and palace at Chichester, and at Amberley
castle. See the Burlington Magazine, X, 383, and XI, 45.
CHRIST IN Till-: ACT (.)[ ULKSSING
HKRLIX: ROYAL GALLERY
By permission of the Berlin Photographic Co.
Abel, sacrifice of, 36, 46, 115; death, 36,
Abraham, sacrifice of, 126.
Adam, 36, 46, 76.
Adam and Eve, their fall, 98 ; expulsion
from Paradise, 98, 115.
Adoration of the Magi, 124, 178.
Adornes, Sir Anselm, 130 ; bequeaths two
paintings by Van Eyck to his daughters,
AFAA, mysterious Gnostic word, 41, 44,
148 ; its signification, 41.
ALBERGATI, B. Nicholas, cardinal of Saint
Cross, biography, 58; portraits, 60, 61.
Aldeneyck, monastery founded in the eighth
Angels, choir of, 40, 163; playing musical
instruments, 41, 98, 147, 162 ; with
emblems of the Passion, 42, 147.
Anjou, Rene, duke of, 21, 116.
Annunciation, the, 32, 98, 125, 146, 174.
ANTWERP : Museum : Saint Barbara, 88-
90 ; Our Lady and Child by a fountain,
90-92, 1 60; Our Lady and Child,
SS. Donatian and George and canon
G. Van der Paele, 83 ; portrait of John
the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, 195.
Ara caeli, vision of, 98.
Aragon, Alphonsus V., king of, Ixxiii,
Ixxvi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xci, n, 174, 177,
Architecture in Eyckian paintings, 188-193.
Armour,44, 77, 126, 148, 153, 194-195,202.
Arnolfini, John, biography, 73 ; portrait,
140, 20 1 ; with wife, 69.
Arnolfini, Michael, 73.
Arras; Town-Library, Leboucq collection
of drawings, 180, 182.
Arundel, Thomas, earl of, 68, 210.
Averulino, Anthony, his praise of John van
Avignon, Museum, Painting of sixteenth
Austria, Margaret of, paintings by John van
Eyck in her possession, 69.
Autun, Altar-piece formerly in the church
of Our Lady, 114.
Barentsz, Dirk, painter, works by him, 210;
works attributed to him, 210.
Bavaria, Jacqueline of, countess of Hain-
ault, Holland and Zeeland, 5, 123 ; arms,
182; portraits, 180, 181, 182.
Bavaria, John of, the Pitiless, portrait, 196;
employs John van Eyck on painting at
the Hague, xxvii, 10.
Bavaria, William IV. of, count of Holland
and Zeeland, miniatures executed for
BEAUNE: Hospital, founded by Nicholas
Rolin, 116; his portrait there, 116.
Bellerophon and the Chimera, 127.
BERLIN : Museum : Shutter-panels of the
Ghent polyptych, 29-36,40-41,44-46;
Our Lady and Child in a church, 135-
J 37> I 9 I > 20 j O ur Lady and Child,
Saint Barbara, and a Carthusian, 143-
146; Calvary, 151-152; Our Lady and
Child by a fountain, 157-158, 202;
Portraits, 122, 140, 141, 170. Print
cabinet: Drawings, after Van Eyck, 52,
92 ; attributed to John van Eyck, 65.
Bernard!, Theodore. See Barentsz.
Berry, John, duke of, portrait, 195.
Blondeel, Lancelot, painter, restores the
Ghent polyptych, 47.
Borluut, Elisabeth, wife of Jodoc Vyt, her
portrait, 32 ; arms, 50.
Brabant, Dukes of: John iv., portrait, 181 ;
Philip, portrait, 181.
BRUGES : Town-house : statues of counts
and countesses of Flanders, polychromed
by John van Eyck, 21. Town Gallery:
Our Lady and Child, SS. Donatian and
George and canon G. Van der Paele,
75-83, 1 88, 195 ; portrait of Margaret
van Eyck, 93-94; the Holy Face, 168;
Charter-house of Saint Anne ter Woes-
tine, 1 12, 131.
BRUSSELS : Museum : Adam and Eve, 29,
30,46. Royal Library : Miniature, 117.
Burgundy, Dukes of: Charles the Rash,
protected by Saint George, group in
gold, 85 ; John the Fearless, portrait, 195;
Philip II., portrait, 195; Philip III.
takes John van Eyck into his service as
painter and " varlet de chambre," xxx,
10 ; takes Henry van Eyck into his
employment as falconer, 25.
Burgundy, Duchesses of : Bonne of Artois,
second wife of Philip III., portraits,
179; Isabella of Portugal, third wife of
Philip III., portraits, 13, 180; Michael
of France, first wife of Philip III., por-
Burkner, Hugo, etching of the Dresden
Burning Bush, the, 97.
Calvary: Saint-Petersburg, Hermitage, 146;
Berlin, Royal Gallery, 151.
Campin, Robert, painter, u.
Carlyns : arms, 80.
Capranica, Dominic, cardinal of Saint-Cross,
Carpets, 66, 72, 76, in, 139.
Carthusians. See Albergati, Steenken.
CASSEL, Bartels collection, 85.
Castile, John II., king of, Ix, 15.
CATANIA : Museum : Painting after John
van Eyck, 67.
Cenani, Joan, wife of John Arnolfini, her
Charles the Great, 44.
Christus, Peter, painter, 100, 108, 109, no,
129, 146, 148, 149, 161, 165.
Chronostich on the frame of the Ghent
COELN: view of, 43. Wallraf-Richartz
Abbegg, Mannheim, 178.
Alphonsus V. of Aragon, king of Naples,
Ixxiii, Ixxvi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xci, 171, 174,
Arundel, Thomas, earl of, 68, 210.
Austria, Ernest, archduke of, 113.
Austria, Leopold William, archduke of,
Austria, Margaret of, 69, 90.
Baring, Thomas, 159.
Bartels, Cassel, 85.
Bauwens, Bernard, 153.
Beck, James, 75.
Bethune, Mgr. F. de, Bruges, 99, 103.
Brown, Alfred, 173.
Bruckenthal, Hermannstadt, 106.
Cacault, F., 137.
Coccapane, Marquess, 141.
Cook, Sir F., Richmond, 153.
Commines, Philip de, 153.
De Busscher, Joseph, 168.
De Heere, Luke, 90.
Doria-Pamphili, Rome, 138.
Engels, Philip, 122.
Ertborn, Van, Antwerp, 83, 88, 90,
Exeter, Marquess of, 143.
Field, J., 197.
Frederick I., duke of Urbino, Ixxvi,
Guevara, Diego de, 69.
Hal, Van, 120.
Hay, Major-General, 70.
Helleputte, George, Kessel-Loo, 95.
Heytesbury, Lord, 132.
Hilarius, Adolphus, 65.
Hisette, Charles, 51.
Holland, William II., king of, 121, 138,
Hope, A. J. Beresford, 160.
Howard, H. C., Greystoke Castle, 171;
Lord H. T., 171.
Hungary, Mary of, 70.
Huntingfield, Lord, Heveningham Hall,
Jabach, Everard, 125.
James II., king of England, 84.
Johnson, John G., Philadelphia, 131,210.
Joly de Bammeville, 159.
Landsberg-Velen, Count, 124.
Laurence, Edwin H., 92.
Lucca, Charles Louis, duke of, 138.
Marnix, John van, 91.
Mayor, William, 65.
Middleton, William, 153.
Midleton, George Alan, Viscount, 68.
Northbrook, Earl of, London, 84, 159.
Octavian de Ottaviani, cardinal, Ixxiii.
Oppolzer, Dr. E. von, Innsbruck, 170.
Osmaston, James, 173.
Overloope, Simon Peter van, 179.
Paar, Count Louis, 138.
Paino, Baroness, Palermo, 67.
Parsons, John M., 170.
Ploos-van Amstel, 88.
Ritzenberg, A. von, 171.
Robinson, Sir J. C., 138, 153.
Rothschild, Baron Gustave, Paris, no.
Ross, Carl, 63.
Salting, George, London, 108.
Schollaert, F., 100.
Shrewsbury, Earl of, 140.
Solly, 30, 167.
Suermondt, 122, 135, 151.
Tomeo, Leonico, 178.
Van der Geest, Cornelius, 175.
Van den Schrieck, D., 100.
Uceda, Duke of, 177.
Verdura, Duke of, 67.
Villers, Denis de, chancellor of the
cathedral of Tournay, 178, 179, 180,
Wynckelman, James, 153.
Commines, Philip de, arms, 154.
Composition of Eyckian pictures, 183.
COPENHAGEN : Royal Gallery : A donor
protected by Saint Anthony, 107 ; Por-
trait of Jacqueline of Bavaria, 181.
Coxcie, Michael, painter, copies the Ghent
polyptych for Philip III., king of Spain,
Ixxxi, Ixxxii, Ixxxv, xc, 50.
Cranes, see Geese.
Cutseghem, James van, sculptor, xliii,
Dalmau, Louis, painter, 202-203, 209.
Daret, James, painter, n.
David and Goliath, 120, 126.
De Heere, Luke, his ode in praise of the
Ghent polyptych, Ixxvii-lxxxi; the original
source of the apocryphal Eyckian legends,
De la Pasture, Roger, painter, n, 100.
De Leeuw, John, goldsmith, biography, 87 ;
Dogs, 71, 175, 176.
DRESDEN : Royal cabinet of Prints, Portrait
of B. Nicholas Albergati, 60 ; Royal
Gallery, Our Lady and Child, SS. Kathe-
rine and Michael and the donor, 125,
185, 191, 195, 199, 200.
Dunois, John, count of, Miniature in a Book
of Hours belonging to him, 119.
Diirer, Albert, his admiration of the Ghent
Eissenhardt, J., etching, 139.
Eternal Father, the, 38, 97.
Eve, 36, 46, 76.
Exotic plants in Eyckian pictures, 188.
Eyck, now Aldeneyck, locality whence the
family name of the painters was derived, 3.
EYCK, HENRY VAN : attached to the
household of John of Bavaria, 24; ap-
pointed master-huntsman, 24 ; leaves
Holland and enters service of Philip III.,
duke of Burgundy, as falconer, 25 ;
marries Elisabeth Sallard, 25 ; named
baillie of Termonde, 25 ; his presumed
portrait, 24; death and burial at Ter-
EYCK, HUBERT VAN : date of birth, 4 ;
where trained, 3, 4 ; settles at Ghent and
acquires freedom of the town, 4 ; makes
two sketches for magistrates of Ghent,
xxvii, 5 ; the magistrates visit his studio,
6 ; designs and partly executes the Ghent
polyptych, 5, 35, 46-47 paints an altar-
piece and polychromes a statue of Saint
Anthony for church of Saint Saviour,
Ghent, xxix, 5 ; death, 4, 6, 1 1 ; burial in
the Vyt chantry chapel at Saint John's
church, Ixxv, Ixxix, 6 ; epitaph, Ixxxiii, 6;
stone slab to which it is supposed to have
been fixed, Ixxxvi, 7, 8 ; his arm-bone
suspended in the churchyard, Ixxxvi, 7 ;
drawings after a lost portrait of Michael
of France probably painted by him, 178,
lost paintings, 174-182 ; alleged portraits,
first mentioned by Luke De Heere, xxviii,
EYCK, JOHN VAN : date of birth, 4 ; in
service of John of Bavaria, 9 ; decorates
palace at the Hague, xxvii, 10; leaves
Holland and enters service of Philip III.,
duke of Burgundy, xxx, 10 ; removes to
Lille, xxviii, 1 1 ; makes a pilgrimage on
the duke's behalf, xxxi, n ; secret mis-
sions, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, xliv, u, 12, 21 ;
presents made him by the duke, xxxiii,
xxxiv, xxxv, xliv, n, 14, 21; at Tour-
nay on Saint Luke's day, 1426, is pre-
sented with the wine of honour, n ;
accompanies in 1427 embassy to Alphon-
sus V., king of Aragon at Valencia,
xxxv, ii-i2, and in 1428 to John I.,
king of Portugal, and paints two por-
traits of the Infanta Isabella, xxxv, 13,
180; his journey in Portugal and Spain,
Iv-lxxii, 13-18; returns to Flanders and
settles at Bruges, 18; draws and after-
wards paints portrait of Nicholas Alber-
gati, cardinal of Saint -Cross, 60, 61 ;
goes to Hesdin and returns to Bruges,
xxxvii, 18 ; completes the painting of
the Ghent polyptych, 35 ; his share in
this work, 48, 49, 52-56; buys a house
in Sint Gillis Nieu straet, 18, 19; his
marriage, 18; who was his wife, 18-20;
the burgomasters and town-council visit
his studio, xxxviii, 18 ; portrait of Tymo-
theos, 'Le'al souvenir,' 63-64; receives
a visit from the duke, xxxix, 18; paints
picture of Our Lady now at Ince Hall,
65, 66 ; portrait of man with red head-
kerchief in the National Gallery, 68 ;
the Duke stands godfather to John's
first-born and presents him with six
silver cups, xl, 20 ; his other children,
20, xlvii ; portraits of John Arnolfini
and Joan Cenani, 19, 69-73; ms P en ~
sion greatly increased, xi, xii, xlvi, 20 ;
polychromes six statues of counts and
countesses of Flanders in the front of
the Town-house at Bruges, xliii, 21 ;
altar-piece for Canon George Van der
Paele, Bruges, 75-85 ; portrait of the
goldsmith, John De Leeuw, 86-87 >
Saint Barbara, 88-90 ; Our Lady and
Child by a fountain, 90-91 ; portrait of
Margaret, his wife, 93-94 ; altar-piece
for Nicholas van Maelbeke, provost of
Saint Martin's at Ypres, 22, 95-103 ;
death, 22 ; burial in the precincts of
Saint Donatian's, xlvi, 22; exhumation
and reinterment in the church, xlviii,
22; foundation of an anniversary mass,
xlix, 22; epitaphs, 22-24; lost paintings,
174-182; portrait of himself first men-
tioned by De Heere, xxviii ; alleged
portraits, 69, 73, 140, 149, 196, 198.
EYCK, LAMBERT VAN, employed by Philip
III., duke of Burgundy, 4 ; at Bruges in
1431 and 1442, 4.
EYCK, LIVINA VAN, daughter of John,
enters convent of Saint Agnes at Maas-
EYCK, MARGARET VAN, alleged sister of
Hubert, first mentioned by De Heere,
Ixxix, 4 ; said to have been buried by
her brother's side, Ixxix, Ixxxi.
EYCK, MARGARET VAN, wife of John, her
marriage, 18; takes part in a lottery,
26; still living in 1456, 26; portrait, 93.
Ezechiel, closed door of the prophet, 98.
Facio, Bartholomew, his praise of John van
Eyck, Ixxiii; mention by him of paint-
ings now lost, Ixxiii-lxxiv.
Falconer, portrait of a, 24.
Father, the Eternal, 38, 97.
Filarete, his praise of John van Eyck, Ixxiv.
Fountains, 42, 91, 158.
Frames, painted, 68, 72, 79, 86, 92, 93, 96,
127, 136, 166, 167.
FRANKFORT : Stadel Institute : Our Lady
and Child, 138-139. Drawings : Por-
trait of a man with a falcon, 26 ; of a
Gabriel, Angel, 52.
Gaillard, engraver, portrait after Van Eyck,
Geese, Flight of wild, or Cranes, 46, 89,
112, 154, 187.
GHENT : Saint John's, now the cathedral
of Saint Bavo : Polyptych, 29-56 ; copy
by M. Coxcie, 5051; other copies, 51.
Saint Saviour's, altar-piece painted by
Hubert van Eyck for, xxix, 108. Archae-
ological Museum, Sepulchral slab, 8.
Pageant of 1458 in imitation of paint-
ings in the interior of the Polyptych, 205.
Giustiniani, Michael, portrait of, 126;
Godefridus lohannis, painter, 75.
Godfrey of Bouillon, 44.
Goldsmiths, Portraits of, 65, 86, 106.
Gossart, John, painter, 210
Greystoke Castle, Penrith, H. C. Howard,
Esq., Paintings, 171
Guevara, Diego de, presents portraits of
John Arnolfini and wife, and a portrait
of a Portuguese maiden, to Margaret of
Guicciardini, Louis, his notice of the Van
Eycks and their works, Ixxxii-lxxxiii.
Haecht, William van, painter, 175.
Halm, Peter, etching, 143.
HAMPTON COURT : portrait of canon George
Van der Paele, 84-85.
Harp, 41, 162.
HERMANNSTADT : Gymnasium : Portrait of
a goldsmith, 106.
HEVENINGHAM HALL, Lord Huntingfield,
Painting by W. van Haecht, 175.
Holland and Zeeland, Counts of: John of
Bavaria, the pitiless, biographical notice,
9-10; employs John van Eyck to deco-
rate the palace at the Hague, xxvii, 10 ;
his death, 9 ; portrait, 196. Jacqueline of
Bavaria, 5, 9, 123; arms, 182; portraits,
180, 181. William IV., 5, 9; miniatures
executed for him, 5, 202.
Hollar, Wenceslaus, engraver, 172.
INCE HALL: Our Lady and Child, 65;
Altar-piece, ^.1515, 85.
INNSBRUCK : Dr. E. von Oppolzer, the Holy
Face, after Van Eyck, 170.
Inscription on frame of the Ghent polyptych,
Isenbrant, Adrian, Painting attributed to,
Judgment, The Last, Saint-Petersburg, 146-
KESSEL-LOO : M. G. Helleputte, Altar-
piece painted for Nicholas van Maelbeke,
provost of Saint Martin's, Ypres, 92.
Lamb, Adoration of the, 42.
Lampson, Dominic, his eulogy of the Van
Landscapes, 34, 43, 44, 89, 97, 98, 108, 1 1 1,
i3 2 >i45> I 5 I i l8 5- l8 7i 202 -
Lannoy, de : Baldwin, lord of Molembaix,
biography, 142; portraits, 161; John,
lord of Roubaix, heads embassy to John
I., king of Portugal, Ivi, 131.
LEIPZIG : Town Museum : portrait of a
donor, 171 ; the love-charm, 176.
Lemaire de Beiges, John ; his praise of
John van Eyck, Ixxv.
LIEGE : Cathedral, Gold statuette of Charles
the Rash protected by Saint George, by
Gerard Loyet, 85.
Lighting of Eyckian paintings, 185.
Lombard, Lambert, sends Vasari a notice
of John van Eyck, Ixxxi-lxxxii.
Lomellini, John Baptist, triptych painted
for him by John van Eyck, Ixxiii, 174;
LONDON : National Gallery : Portraits by
John van Eyck : Tymotheos, ' leal
souvenir,' 63 ; Man with a red head-
kerchief, 68 ; John Arnolfini and Joan
Cenani, 69, 193 ; copy of the Ghent
polyptych, by E. Schultz, 51. Earl of
Northbrook, Our Lady and Child, 84,
159. G. Salting, painting attributed to
Peter Christus, 108. Old Saint Paul's,
represented in a painting by Van Eyck,
Loyet, Gerard, goldsmith, 85.
Maaseyck : birth-place of Hubert and John
van Eyck, Ixxvi, Ixxvii, Ixxx, Ixxxv, 3.
Convent of Saint Agnes : Vestment
presented by John van Eyck, 1, 23 ;
Livina, daughter of John van Eyck,
enters the convent, xlix, 23.
MADRID : Prado Gallery : The Fountain
of living water, 162, 198 ; Christ, the
Blessed Virgin and Saint John the Bap-
tist, 52, 209-210 ; Mass of Saint Gregory
attributed to Adrian Isenbrant, 855
Vision of Saint Francis, attributed to
Joachim Patenir, 135.
Maelbeke, Nicholas van, provost of Saint
Martin's, Ypres, 99.
Mander, Charles van; no reliance to be
placed on his statements relating to the
Van Eycks, xci-xcii, 73.
Marnix, John van, 91.
Mars, bronze statue of, in.
Mary, the Blessed Virgin, enthroned, 39,
Mary, the Blessed Virgin and Child, 65,
138, 1 60; with Saint Barbara, 143;
with SS. Donatian and George, 75 ; with
SS. Elisabeth of Hungary and Barbara,
no; and Chancellor Nicholas Rolin,
114; and a provost of Saint Martin's,
Ypres, 95; by a fountain, 90, 157; in
a church, 135.
Mary of Hungary : paintings by John van
Eyck in her possession, 70.
Marys, the Three, at the Sepulchre, 153-
T 57. '851 i9 2 > J 95, 201, 202.
Mettertee, Gerard, sculptor, xliii, 21.
Mirror, convex, with painted frame, 72.
Money, value of: the lion, 10; the livre
parisis, n ; the livre de gros, n.
Moses, 98, 1 60 ; scenes from the life of, 1 2 1 .
Mostaert, John, painter, 181.
Mountains, snow-capped, 44, in, 115,
127, 132, 150, 154, 187.
Miinzer, his description of the Ghent
MUNICH : Royal Gallery, the Holy Face,
NEW YORK : Metropolitan Museum : Our
Lady and Child, 144.
Noe quitting the ark, 115.
Noorden, C. van, Engraving by him, after
John van Eyck, 88.
NUERNBERG : Germanic Museum : Drawing
after central panel of the Ypres altar-
Oost, James van, sculptor, xliii, 21.
Opmeer, Peter, his notice of the
Orders : Saint Anthony, 123, 182 ; Golden
Fleece, 142 ; Saint Michael, 154.
Organ, 41, 162.
Palencia : Cathedral : the Fountain of living
PALERMO : Our Lady and Child, after John
van Eyck, 67.
Palmetto chamcerops humilis 108, 132,
PARIS : Louvre : Our Lady and Child and
chancellor Rolin, 114, 186, 191, 193,
199. Drawings: Adam and Eve, 52;
portrait of a man, 210. Baron G. Roths-
child, Our Lady and Child, SS. Elisabeth
of Hungary and Barbara and a Carthusian,
Parral, Convent of Our Lady of, the
Fountain of living water, 162.
Patenir, Joachim, the Vision of Saint
Pavement, Storied, 115, 120.
Pelican, 38, 126.
Perrant, John, painter, 104.
Perspective in Eyckian paintings, 193,
Peutin, John, goldsmith, xl, xliv, 20, 142.
PHILADELPHIA : J. G. Johnson : the
Vision of Saint Francis, 131, 186, 187,
200; portrait of a man, 173, 210.
Polyptych, the Ghent, 27-56, 183-185.
Poortier, Robert, founds an altar in Saint
Saviour's church, Ghent, and gives a
triptych and a statue of Saint Anthony
to be placed over it, xxix, 108-109;
Portraits of the Van Eycks, alleged, 196-
Portraiture, early, 195; development of,
Prose sung on Christmas Eve, passage
from, on a scroll held by the Cumaean
Provost's staff, 96, 103.
RICHMOND : Sir F. Cook, Visit of the
Three Marys to the Sepulchre, 153-157,
Rolin, Nicholas, chancellor of Burgundy
and Brabant: Biography, 116; portraits,
ROME : Doria-Pamphili palace, Painting,
SAINT-PETERSBURG : Hermitage : the An-
nunciation, 119-122, 191, 199; Calvary
and the Last Judgment, 146-150, 195,
Saints : Agnes, 43 ; Anthony, 45, 108 ; Bar-
bara, 43, 88, no; Christopher, 45;
Donatian, 76; Dorothy, 43; Elisabeth
of Hungary, in ; Francis, 130, 131, 135;
George, 44, 77, 85, 177 ; Jerome, Ixxvi,
174; John the Baptist, 31, 39, 147, 174:
John the Evangelist, 31, 162 ; Katherine,
43, 127; Livin, 43; Margaret, 72; Martin,
44, 96 ; Mary Magdalene, 45 ; Mary of
Egypt, 45 ; Michael, 41, 126, 148; Paul
the hermit, 45; Peter, 147; Stbastian,
44 ; Stephen, 43 ; Thomas of Canter-
bury, 172, 210.
Santi, John, his praise of John van Eyck,
Samson, tearing the lion in pieces, 76;
scenes from life of, 120.
Schultz, E., his copy in water colours of the
Ghent polyptych, 51.
Scorel, John, painter, restores the Ghent
Sibyls : Cumaean, 35, 98 ; Erythrean, 34-
Stall, carved, 41.
Statues, polychromed : Saint Anthony by
Hubert van Eyck, xxix, 6, 108 ; Counts
and countesses of Flanders by John van
Steenken, Herman: Biography, 112-113;
Succa, Anthony de, painter, 179; 181.
Summonte, Peter, his notice of John van
Synagogue, the, 98, 160, 163.
Textiles, 38, 39, 40, 41, 65, 76, 77, 96,
in, 114, 118, 126, 138, 146, 159.
Tiles: ornamental, 40, 118, 139; Spanish,
Tonghere, William van, painter, poly-
chromes a statue and its tabernacle in
the front of the Town-house at Bruges,
Toupey, A. : Lithograph after John van
Tournay : John van Eyck at, 1 1 ; Cathedral
TURIN : Royal Gallery : Vision of Saint
Francis, 133, 186, 200.
Tymotheos, ' leal souvenir,' portrait by
John van Eyck, 63.
Vaernewyck, Mark van, his notice of the
Van Eycks, Ixxvi, Ixxxiii-xc, 73.
Valencia, John van Eyck at, 209,
Van den Clyte, Philip. See Commines.
Van den Driessche, John, painter, poly-
chromes a statue and its tabernacle in
the front of the Town-house at Bruges,
Van der Paele, George, canon of Saint
Donatian at Bruges : arms, 80 ; bio-
graphy, 78, 84; altar-piece by John
van Eyck, with his portrait, 75 ; copy
of the same, 83; portrait, 77, 84.
Van der Weyden. See De la Pasture.
Vasari, his notice of the Van Eycks, Ixxvi,
Vergil, passage from the Aeneid on a scroll
held by the Erythrean Sibyl, 35 ; repre-
sented in the ' Adoration of the Lamb,' 42.
Vestments, embroidered, 40.
VIENNA : Albertina : drawing after the
central panel of the Ypres altar-piece,
roo-ioi. Imperial Gallery: portrait
of B. Nicholas Albergati, 61 ; portrait
of John De Leeuw, 86-88. Imperial
Library: miniature, 117.
Villers, Denis de, biographical notice, 178.
Viol, five-stringed, 41, 162.
Urgel, James II., count of, 12; Isabella
Utrecht: cathedral tower, 43, 115, 186;
arms of, 44 ; patron of, 44.
Uutenhove, George, painter, 104.
Vyt, Jodoc, donor of the Ghent polyptych,
46 ; biographical notice, 49-50 ; por-
trait, 31-32 ; arms, 50.
Watervliet, copy of altar-piece by John
van Eyck, formerly in the church of,
Witz, Conrad, painter, 186.
Yeke, John de, painter of Cambray, ci.
YPRES: Saint Martin's: triptych painted
for Nicholas van Maelbeke, Ixxx, 95-
103. Town Museum : copies of the
central panel, 103. View of, 103.
Zodiac, signs of the, 120.
OF BRESCIA, FOUNDER OF
THE LOMBARD SCHOOL
HIS LIFE AND WORK
BY CONSTANCE JOCELYN FFOULKES AND MONSIGNOR
RODOLFO MAJOCCHI, D.D., RECTOR OF THE
COLLEGIO BORROMEO, PAVIA. BASED ON RESEARCH
IN THE ARCHIVES OF MILAN, PAVIA, BRESCIA, AND
GENOA, AND ON THE STUDY OF ALL HIS KNOWN
WORKS. WITH OVER 100 ILLUSTRATIONS, MANY IN
PHOTOGRAVURE, AND 100 DOCUMENTS
Royal 4to. Price $ $s. od. net.
The published price of this work will be reduced to
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After that date the price will be raised to Five Guineas net.
NO complete Life of Vincenzo Foppa, one of the greatest of the North
Italian Masters, has ever been written ; an omission which seems almost
inexplicable in these days of over-production in the matter of biographies
of painters, and of subjects relating to the art of Italy.
In Milanese territory the sphere of Foppa's activity during many years
he was regarded by his contemporaries as unrivalled in his art, and his right to
be considered the head and founder of the Lombard school is undoubted. His
influence was powerful and far-reaching, extending eastwards beyond the limits
of Brescian territory, and south and westwards to Liguria and Piedmont. In the
Milanese district it was practically dominant for over a quarter of a century, until
the coming of Leonardo da Vinci thrust Foppa and his followers into the shade,
and induced him to abandon Pavia, which had been his home for more than
thirty years, and to return to Brescia.
The object of the authors of this book has been to present a true picture of
the master's life based upon the testimony of records in Italian archives ; all facts
hitherto known relating to him have been brought together ; all statements have
been verified ; and a great deal of new and unpublished material has been added
It is hoped therefore that the book may be of service, and may become the
basis of all future historical studies of this master. By reproducing all his known
works those which are indisputably his as well as those which bear his name,
though the attribution may sometimes be open to doubt the master is made to
speak for himself, and his life work is brought within the reach of all students.
Records discovered in the archives at Brescia, by Miss Ffoulkes, furnish proof
that Vincenco Foppa lived twenty-three years longer than was formerly supposed.
This fact has now been confirmed beyond all possibility of doubt by documents
which have recently come to light in the Archivio Notarile at Pavia, where a
great number of records of the highest interest relating to Foppa, which will be
published for the first time in this book, have been discovered by Monsignor
Majocchi, Rector of the Collegio Borromeo. The collaboration of this dis-
tinguished scholar with Miss Ffoulkes is a sufficient guarantee of the value of
this book to students. Professor Majocchi's intimate acquaintance with the
Pavian archives and his profound and accurate knowledge of all that pertains to
the history and art of Pavia are unrivalled. For many years he was Director
of the Gallery in that city, a post which he only relinquished for the more
important appointment which he now holds.
The illustrations will include several pictures by Foppa hitherto unknown
in the history of art, and others which have never before been published, as well
as reproductions of every existing work by the master at present known. All
the documents referred to throughout the book will be given in chronological
order at the end of the volume, with an index containing the summary of each
document in English.
The contents of the book will be as follows :
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Full titles of books and MSS. quoted in the text.
CHAPTERS I.-IX. Biography. Authentic pictures and works wrongly
ascribed to Vincenzo P'oppa. The character and influence of his art.
LIST OF PICTURES ARRANGED ACCORDING TO PLACES.
LOST OR MISSING WORKS.
APPENDIX I. Notes.
APPENDIX II. (a) Documents relating to Vincenzo Foppa.
(b) Documents relating to his sons Francesco and Evangelista.
Index of these Documents with summary of contents.
APPENDIX III. List of painters working at Pavia and Brescia in the XV
and early XVI centuries.
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