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Full text of "The human body in the Upanisads .."

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Tho iiui'ian Eody in tno uijaj.i^ada. 



By 

Gocrco T-'illiaia Brown. 
w 



A Dissertation 
£ubrnittf>d to tho Toard of 'University studies of tJio Johns Hopkins University 
ic-r ti,o r;i?L'roo of Do3tcr of Ff.ilosciji.y. 



M/O 



I5C ,ri(/ 






v^ 



Cihnpter I. 
Introductory. 



hiai c' 



AbbroVi..ti na 



In proparinr thip trf^atiee tl.o followlnc Upaniyido have boon oon suite 1. 
The abbroviationB used throuclicut are also hero indioated. 



Jtjrnna 

AihyStiaa 
AdvayatHraka 
Aitareya 
Ak ^(U'lalika 

Anijtat^iniu 

Annapurr.a 

Ir§eya 

Xrui}eya 

Atharva:jlKha 

Xti:;a 

Xtaia( pra) 'bcwiha 

Avadhuta 

Avyai-ta 

BaJivroa 

Bagkala 

Ehaaraajabala 

Bhavama 

Bhik^ii 

Erahna 

Trahiial indu 

Eralmavidya 

E5haiarai}yai,a 

Brhadjaboia 



(Jaratiha 

^nririka 

'Ja-^yaynnrya 



'J-nr»».>;a 



^mi^aloya 

'Jhandoc'a 

'Jiras (Atharvajlras) 

■JivasaAkalpa 



AdhyS. 
Advay . 
Ait. 

Ak^ara. 
Ak^i 
Aci^dtt. 
Anna. 

Aru:} 'Jrrjabalalar'jana 

Ath»;jikha Oulika 

Xtma 'yvetaivatara 

TTtmab. TDal. giijanurti 

Avadh. Dattatreya 

Av/akta IS.yana'bindu 

Balivr^a Devi 

Bag. Skat.gara 

Bhasria. "aijapati 

Bhav. Gar*>ha 

Bhikg. Caru4a 

Ernhiaa Cau4apad.'i ' s rlarikas 

?rahj:ial . r^ayat rl - 

Brahnav. Oofrtlarurvntapanrya 

B^h. 

Prhjab. Gopalct,tar.itaj,ajiIya 



■}Eji^, 



ara. 



i' 



'Jarir. 



■Jaun. 
Tiac. 
Ch. 



ijiras. 



■Jiva. 
-Jrli. 
Cul. 
ijvet. 
Dakg. 
Datta. 
Uiyana. 
Devi, 
rkaivg 
Ga^a 
G. 

Caru(Ja 
Caut}. 
C. B. l.l.-^I-'^S 
Gopalap. 
Co'alot. 





TntrcduTt 


,ion. 




Gorr.jondana 


CopT 


llSdabindu 


Kada. 


;;aii8a 


IlaAen 


ilarad/iparivra J oka 


Il&rad. 


I lanu ; . aduk t arSua 


ilanu. 


llarayaijn 


llaray . 


Haya^rTva 


Haya. 


NTlnrudra 


Nlla. 


13a 


Ip 


Kiralaiu'ba 


Ilira. 


Jabala 


Jatala 


Kirvaq^ 


Nirv. 


JabiXLi 


Jabali 


IJ^sinhnpurvatapanrya 


Ml^Bp. 


Kaivalya 


Kaiv. 


Wifsinhottaratapanrya 


Nrsu. 


Kalagnirudra 


KaLac. 


PSjupataT^rahcia 


Pa>ju. 


Kali B.mtariija 


Kali, 


Pfiincala 


Paine. 


Kaii'^liajniti 
la^ha 


Kanl^haj. 
K. 


Pane ab rah] la 

Parabraiijna 

Parajr.a}iansa 


Pane a. 
Paral: . 
Paranah 


Xatharudra 


Ka'^har. 


Paramaliansaparivreji^i.a 


Paranap 


Kau§rtaki 


Kau^. 


Pii}4a 


Piij4. 


Kena 


Kena 


Pra.jna 


Pra^. 


ir^na 


Kr?. 


Proijaciiihotra 


Praijai^. 


K^urika 


Kfur. 


Praijava G.F.l. 


,i»i?;-3o. 


ilun4ika 


KU114. 


Piarugaoukta 


P. s. 


Uaha 


Maha 


Fal-.asya (^^ukraraluiaya) 


PaJias. 


ilaliSnarayaija 


MnJ.an, 


naiiiapurvatapajniya 


RSuffp. 


^ahavakya 


lia}iav. 


F.Qinarahaaya 


Rnnareili 


ilaitrayana 

Uaitroyi* 

llaijl alab rahjnana 


?-:ait. 

IJaitreyi 

?IaJi4al' 


Fara^ottaratapaniya 
RudiTa^i^daya 


RMUCt, 

Kuirah. 


iaoij.^u&ya 


H|»i4 


Rudrak ja j abrila 


Rudrak. 


llantrika 


-rantri. 


Saioj^yasa 


Saia. 


:Jrtyulan-ala 


MrtyiT. 


Sarasvat iraJiasya 


Caras. 


Mudcala 


Mudc. 


Earvopajiigatsara 


Sarv. 


Muktika 


"ukti. 


Eauhha^y alai. gmT 


Bauth. 


Kui24a>-a 


:4uq4« 


Savitri 


Cav. 





■Lint 


of Uj anifnila. 








srta 






srta 


Turtyatrta^ai 


Ihuta 


TurT. 


Skanda 






Skanda. 


Vajrasuoika 




Vajra. 


Su^ola 






Sub, 


Varadapurvat apanf 


Vara lap. 


Eilri'a 






Surya. 


Varadottaratj 


ipanl 


Varadot. 


Tadova 






Tadv 


VarS.a 




VaraJi . 


Taittariya 




Tait. 


Vasud'va 




Vafu 


Tarasapa 






^ira 


Yajnavalkhya 




Yaj. 


Tejcbindu 






TOJO. 


Yoca^iklia 




Yo. Ji., 


Tri^ikhabrSuTajja — 


--^ 




YotjaoudSiiaiji 




Yo. 3u. 


Tripadvibl 


lU t ii'iaJianarayaqa 


Trip.H. 


Y"02akurj4air 




Yo. Ku. 


Tripura 






Trip. 


Yo^atattva 




To. I. *^ 

'0 


Tripurataj. 


antya 




Trip tap. 









,>. 



In seleotinj; these Upani§adsjthe guiding; principle has beon to intJludo 
all th«99 wliich appear in steindard oolleotions of Upani^ads, Thoao named 
above are imluded in the folll^-inc collections. 1. Twent'^icht Upanigais, 
publislied by the llirijaya Sa^ar Press, Bombay. 2. Atharvana Upanigads, v.ith 
the ooiniuentHry of Karayajja, published ir. tha Bibliotheca Indiaa. 3. Eleven 
Atharvana Upanisa^s, edited by CTol. Jaoob. 4. One liundtMd and eicl^t Upani- 
gads, ;ublisl;ed at the "Tattvavivecal.a Press", Bombay. 5. Deussen's ci^^ty 
Upemisads. Ho attempt has bf.on made to edit the texts in any way, but 
where there are divortences in the texts, the one followed by Deussen^i 
has been chosen, whenever he has treu-.slated the Upanigad^ '^hft one exception 
in t:.e Maiianarayarja, wl-dch Deussen translated in part only. The text in 
t}ie Twentyeight Upanigads was used in t':.is case. The text of the One Hundred 
and ric^'it Upani§?ds was fc" lowed only Lr. naseo where the Upanigad was not 
included ir. some other 3ollection. Ciau4apada's Karikap w=(re also inoluded. 
For some of the Upaniga'.s in Dfiussen's Sixty, no Sanskrit oricinal has yet 
been found, so his translation has >een followed. In such cases it }.ub 



List of Upoiiifais. 
been nooesoary to ^.Taeas at Dio Sanekrit rord enployed, but aB no tiling 
iia]:ortant han^jn on theBo roferonaes, any error along tliis line will not 
aiTeat the value of the work. The text of the Pranava Upani^nd is not 
inc^luJed in Oul any of the oollootionn mentioned abovfi, lut is to be found 
in the CJopatha BrSjaaija, ar. indioated by KLooiifiold, the At-liarva Veda, 
Bootior. 68, The short GayatrT Upani§ad, also imludel in tiie Go.atha Braiuma- 
na, was examined, and a few roferenoes obtained. 

The ai;: lias been to imlude every rsforence to a part of the body 
aontained i;. the Upanigads. It is po88'*:le that in the oase of the late 
and unimportant Upanigads, of whioh no treuialation ejcists, Boine referenoB 
have been overlooked. In sor.e sases, wl.ere a statenent in retard i.o tho 
body or some of its parts, is repeated in the same stanza or in close 
proxiinity, especially if the mention be an unimportant one, only one ref- 
erenao is quoted. Sojr.e of tlie wenryinc and unimportant nentions in the Yoga 
Upanigade are thus slighted. But in the case'^of^the older and more important 
Upanigads, ^^'hioh have been verified by Jacob's Conjordanae, it is believed 
that notliinr is omitted, eacooptinc a few duplioate mentions in * single 
/wraes. In ^ni8 conneotion it nay be mentioned tlir.t occasionally Jacob has 
overlooked passacee. 

The primary purpose of this writin;^ is to present a study of the 
body and its parts as found In the Upani^ads, This has naturally led into 
a more or l-ass c. mplete treatment of the ij):yBiclocy of the body as well, 
and to soiae d-.soussion of the mental fumtlons, in so far as they are 
related -o tlio ^oriaxi. Cnly very raroly lias matter not found in the Uian- 
igads been introduTed into this treatise, 

Reforemes t. Ihe body and itp pr.rtf fall into sevnral -jlaBBfis or 
typoB, Ri'^rr-i^nz to th^ Une of thru£;ht o^tho writer, or ti.e imiiedlate 
object he hae in vie-A-. The first type of reforon^e may be described as 
the scientific, or Quaii-siintif ic. I:, this clar' the writer iecribes the 



parts roferrod t6 as thoj' aotually aro, or at leant as he un-loratardB tl.en 
tc be, or L-iai.oo 80i':0 plain natter of foot roferer.rjo tc the part. To be 
8uro,i.'iaxiy euoli roforenoee do not present tl.e ewtunl faits, but they at 
least t;ive us the writer's '.omeption of the body. 

Tlie sooo^ type ir.ay bo desrited as Ficurative or Fanciful, i-ere 
acne ficurativo usrt.is ;hade of the part referred to. 

A third typo is the pitunliatis or Saoraunental type. The body is 
locked upon as a neans of v'orehip , mii is used as a reans of aiiiuirinc 
merit or r'^lease. T};is is tlie casa when ash.es or sono other material la 
applied to the body in -jnrtain parts as a relicious duty, or when yo^a 
postures and breat).int8 aro enjoined, 

A fourth type of mention is that when the raomtbef^a of deities and 
oor-asionally of aninals are referred to. 

A fifth type, intenni^cled wi*h all tlie above, is found ir. thoae 
instansea where '.he writer, no natter what his point of view may be, ta>.eB 
a pessii-ista view of the body, 

A sixth type includes oosjnioal correlations. In this the universe 
la picture* as a vast u^an, cr as evolved from some such primeval beinc. 
Instead of a nan, :ho figure cf a bird may be employed, while the Bjfhad 
Araijyai.a Upanigad . opens with the oosmisal -jorrelations of the cjvanedha^ 

In £ill -jaF • of tho least importance, these different types of 
roferon^o will be found separated in th.o following pacos. SL- ilarly, in 
cases where the cir^mvatances rehire- it, the chronolocical devolcpoment 
of tt Bubjecx or idea is indicated, by trac'.nr it throuch the older, niddlo, 
and later Upanigads, 

necessarily, whon the purpoen is ,o include all the mentions found 
in the Upanigals, much has had to be included wh'ih in of very minor ii-i- 
portnnce. An effort has been made to keep tliOso passacos as lauch as loasible 
in the baokcround. 



Chapter II 



General Sui-vey 



8 
Geiutral p^urvoy. 

Ai'. fix^L' .inat lot. (.!' tl.o lint nf partfl of thn \ o.ly lontlonod Ir. tho 
Ujani^-'uls, enui..orato.'. olEOv.];oro in this troal.i80, JunprooGOs ojio wit.-. t,i.e 
faot that nbst of the parts aro external. Blood, tone, sinew, ami tho like 
aro r.ii">nt 1 1'Mit,', , it is truo, ' nt \r, a vory brou! nr! r-iMinril w.-w. rt.siifl'; 
siiie.va or Loiidci.s are not aionbiojieil by tlie wrilors oJ ti.o Upcnigaiis ut all, 
anl very few hones. Tho skull is more montioneil thoU another osseous part of 
the hoily; tV.o baik hon. is reforrod to n few times in soi :0 of tho late Ui>ani - 
gads. Thoro is also iiienLion of the rito. Once tho exa^t na-nlor of bonos is 
given as 360, in Garbha. In regard to the other parts of the body, tho matter 
ic ovsa no:-n atriliing, as vrill br shown later on. References to tlie externcils 
of ti.o '. ody, on tlio other han<l, aro fairly nuinorous. 

The reasons of this aro various, ^ith the exception of the late Gartha, 
whi^h in parts has thfi appearance of a iriodical treatise, the Upanigads are 
not lau-jii .JOi.oorned wit); t:.e body from a purely p};ysioal stan.lpoint. Perhaps 
some soctions of tho lato Yoga Upanigads may be :?onsidered as purely material. 
Their v.Titfirs ar-i not medioal i-^.en. It is thoroforo not to be expected that 
tliey would at all times be acientif ically accurate. They wore ordinarily 
mystics, anl men who looked on the 1 ody as a thing to be despised, as scno- 
tliing utLorly worthless in comparison to Ihe soul, with which t!.o^- chiofly 
concoi-ned themselves. At the saine time, they woro not all :yiy«tics, ajii wo 
might expect sucli writers to voice the general anatomical knowledge of their 
tines. For they must as a class havo beon the most intelligent non of thoir 
times, and even if they ".ere not specially interested in medical Knowledge, 
they should have possessed, ■- r could easily have obtained, what knowledge of 
the body thr. best jninis of the country boastod , So it would not be far out tt 



tho way to say t'lat tho body as presented in the Upanigads, w.mIo not as iruo 
as that which may found in medioal treatises of tho same time, yet gives a 
very £air picture of what tho bett-'-r classes of people believed in regard to 
it in tlie times tho Upanigads wore written. 



9 
Conernl purvoy. 

The faot that tliey waro ohiofly intorestod in the soul and not in tho 
body, thouch it provonLed J.o writers fro:n Goinc systoiiatioally into the 
dea-jription of ti.o body, nevortlieleoc compelled thorn to writ-.> i.iOf or loss 
about it. For the scul is intiitAtely oonneoted with tho body, bound up in 
it, and the great problem of lifo is to obtain pfirpftual release from what is 
material. Even in tho earliest Upanisads, sottinr; forth what may be known as 
tiie Jnananarga, that is, nakinc knowledge^ the cause and means of roloaso, — ya 
ovam voda — it is neoessary to dis^usB the body because tf its relation to the 
soul. For t-.o soul is disnissod cluite fully. Its relation to, and at times its 
idontif isation with the prana, its conneotion with the sonses, and their de- 
pendence on t}ip body; fries e tl.inrs make nesij'essary a discussion of parts of 
»,.'.e body. I.'.o boay in jhanls and sa.5rifi:;es Tails for mystical and opiritual- 
iaing disvassions; the identif ioatio. of the human soul 'vith the All-Soul, and 
the pantiioistic comeption of the universft led to interesting: figures and 
desiripiione. Ii. later times, when tiie karmeuiarga had IJpani^ad:; dsvoted to it, 
we have the nuiaorous Yoga descriptions of the parts of the body v/hich aro to 
bo used in Yoga practices in ordor to obt.ain release, and the same is true 
in tho bhakti Upani^ads, whero the tilaka, or the coating of asi.os, or the 
rosary of rudrakga fruits is .vorn to propitiate some particular deity. These 
furnish tho chief cccasione for tho mention of t;.o body and its parts, though 
ir. incidental "A'a-s, and in comparisons, many parts are mentioned, rience it will 
be seen that we ought not to look for any absolutely completo and scientific 
des-;ription of the body ani its parts, but only rofe-or.^os to its general 
fefturos an.i r.ain organs, iiov-' v,'ei_ Liiis Is caxried oiu ^i.f i xoowinr pages will 
show . 

Sono ir.lerostinr tlinrs come out ir n study nf the body as mentioned 
in Li.o Upaj.i^ads. uno is ti.;-t Li.O/oarly ijpajiigain ar' i:oiu jorroot in their 
stat&raonts than the lat'.r ones. Several reasons no doubt contributed to this, 
onr. of wi.ich b. in^ the us'^ of t} o sacrifice. The oldest Uponi^ads ^ero v.ritton 



10 
General Survey 

. ..j-o-v. ruiimal BairifieoB were Btill beinc offorod. Brh. for instami, opens 
with a par^ollinc out of the parts (f the a^vainedha, likening them to vorioue 
lOBiiiioal entities. Tliis is on^^ of th jiioat ftxtensivo lists of pftrtr of the 
tody to to foimd any plr^r^ ■ ',1:0 Upnni^ads. .it> u i. .o ^w.-o o.i, .u.d the 

offering of aninal saorifioos praotiially ooases in higher oinles — it prob- 
ably never died out in the lower ones- -Upani sad writers possoss lees ar.d less 
aTourato knowledce of the interior of the body. The early statononts of the 
oonstu-!<;ion of the tody, while not wholly anurato and :iuite in:;omplete, at 
least do not oontain . mush nonsense. Eut in later tir.eo the arteries are 
multiplied and turned into air passages puro and siir.plo, and Tertain organs 
of the tody may really, fro;:, the description given of theci, te called irag- 
inary. Such arethe tunda, kun4air, and kanda, all of whiw:. figure largely in 
Yoga, Tlio reason of this is to be found in the Yoga uajiipulations of the 
body. When merit is to te obtained by sitting ir. certain postures, or ty 
breathing in a certain fashion the Kdnd of even a Jlindu devotee wants to know 
■■ ' - ",'herofore of all this, hence the labored and lengtlily explanation of the 
systor.i of arteries emd bre?ths, of the neans of transmitting this power to 
ai-1 partn of th.e body, of the system by which tliis laeons of grace, the body 
itsol", is jotitrolled. 

In all about 120 parts of t. ft body are mentioned in the Upan^^ada, 
in-;luding i^r^v.oral ton!!s, such as blood, bone, aiiiew, and the like, and also 
in:ludin^ i-nn imaginary or douVtful parts; not however including the special 
nnj.ies for separate veins, and the like. For sone of t}ie3e but a single word 
is used, as bono, asthi, flesh, maijsa, kn.-,fi, Janu. For others t'-.ere is a 
gretiL varioty ci tor.:j8, scvon or oight vords tttij.^ u»u \ loi : '^y , five 

for blood, six fcr the foreliea.!. The spa^d n the heart, o; oart lotus, 

which -he writer :onsidf>rs to bo ident'nal, ajid to hnvo been in reality the 
left vo;.,ri::xo oi t^^e iieart, has !.oai'j.y t'c ^' im. ai luicji. ..uiiec for it. 

The table of the parts mentioned, found kc below, empliasises tha faot 



11 

General Survoy 

that norfi attention is paid to Llie oxte'-lof p-.rts than to Ih^ interior. 

Tvei-y i..,tii^ ;oii:.i - 5UCUB about the 'bod-. ::iid, tiiieii „u „i..i a^iv-jial fin£ero, 

eaoh of whi^h has its owr. naina. But tl.o oondition is different with tlio 

vital orfaiia. Mu^L space is civon to the consideration of the iieairt, But the 

lui.^ii, .ii: LiU3h, and thn liver, aro each nontionod bui. .inju, cml this is in 

oonnecticji with thf. a:jvamedl;a. TJds leads the writer to think that the lunt^s 

nt leant, woro included with tho heart under the tenr. h^'d, h^daya, and many 

I .' ti.t Jiinrs said about the heart, eBpeTially its comparison to a lotus, 

see:, tc confim this viaw. The stomaih, the spleen, the bowels, all rocoivo 

eitiier vory scant mention or none at all. The function of the Duscles dows 

not seeuj to be undorslcid at all, and they are apparnntly loosely in3lu.led 

under t}ie term mansa. The brain, maati^ka, is ::«ntioned but a single tL'ne, 

and it is not really ^lonr hero tl;at the ' ruiriis neant. It may however, be 

to ' 

referred in otlier places under tho word majja. 

A:nonc the matters of interest which nay be noted in connection with 

the treatr.ont of the body, its function as the abode of soul ie important. 

The soul resides in the l.eart, and in the inr.or cha ber of that or^an. Thii 

inner Thcunber, known under lany nanes, as mentioned abovo, thus becomes the 

most oacred place in thf entire body. Tliis heart space, probably the vontri- 

:..o, is i.i.0 n t! roui^j.ouL i-;.e whole range of Upanigad literature. Tiiilo tho 

spa;e was protably made Known at first throug}; actual investigation, later 

writers nurt hnvo sir.ply cofied their ideas fro;, their prodecesfcrs, drawing 

0., gi.edr xji-ai^ina Liens »c pioco out things lo fit in witli tlioir own systons. 

We are several times told that this space , and the puru^a that dwells in 

it, is the size of one's thu:".b. rhile the soul thus oTSUfies the heart luring 

ordinary woi-ir.i, morer-^s, durinj; sleep it vui.uirs ;.'u^:,uui, ..i.' arteries and 

voinB, being in its happies'.. atato wlien in tho finer ones. At tiiies it oven 

loavoB tlie body entirely, -tr vicorernn'. in those times bein; tlie breath, 

or praija. At the tine oi aoat. , i. io.ivor „ .• > oJy , travelling by way of tl;o 



12 
Conoral Sui-yoy 

artery Bugunna. This is tlio larceBt nnl :.(■ n". 'u .r ( i*. .;.t .-irtr.rv nf tl.o bo^ly; 

Ll;e firet to bo roforroJ to ope-jif inally , ahZ tie first to ra;oivo a spojial 

AiUi.o, naturally ono tl.iiii.s of ti.o aorta in I'.Ab ^onneation. But a study of 

tjio UpOiiifuJa gives no in.lica'inr viiatever of it;-, rof -n-t'inr' tr tV.at rorticn 

of tl.e body at all, but rathor leads ono to ; ool ti.uL It .-.oana ti.e '.vii.dtipo. 

While thisifartery" is at first traied only as far as the palnto, whoro it is 

eai.l tn divide, its hrai..Tha8 goint; tn '.'.r. oyf.s, i\ is later bolievod to go 

to iho orown of the head, whoro it oonne ;t«.s v;ith t,}.e antorior fcntanello. 

The soul, in departing, splits open the skull at this point. One oan adnire 

the theorizing whioliILed to to this belief, and the close investigation of the 

skull, whl:h 3ould note tiie zigzag lines splitting an apparently single 

bowl of bone into many parts, and loi.ibining present this hypothesis to 

account for tlie phenoriOna. But while tho soul could depart ^y this route, 

and by so doing obtain immortality, rather release, it soul,! also depart frcir. 

some othor spot, but in suTh ^ase did not attain to etarnal bliss. 

Much could be said ab, ut the interesting word praija ani its fellows, 

additionea to what has been said. This has not been done because a full in- 

vestiration of the word would lead one outside of the Upanigads. As far as 

tlie five conrionly nfuneJ praijas are aoncerned, the evidence of tie Tlianisdds 

is not that the words for them are derived froi- the ^orrospoiiding jonpcund 

verbs, but that the verbs are all denominatives, depending on the nouns. 

* In regard to the vexed question as to whether praija or apana originally neant 

inb re .-..tiling, the writer is of the opinion that the fundaiiOntal difference 

was just what is so clearly brought ■ ut again and again in late writings 

generally; neunoly, t)i.-:t praija always rieans the breath in the lungs, ajid 

apana tiie air in the bowels or lov;er part of tlie body. Tliere is but a single 

passage in the Upani§;ulH whicli will not bear ti is interpretation, and tliis 

passage is almost -jertainly corrupt. While a few passages outside the TJ] ani.aada 



13 
Gonernl Eurvoy 

50011 to >ldv.late f r r Lhis r.eaniii^, u noro laroful eorutiny cf Dioin -rould 
jjrobatly oloar tl.incB up. Certainly to oonsidfir apana na fr- boginninc 

the wind in tho bowels involveti leoa difficulty than to aoneidor it an ©ithar 
in or out breat!.in£,. Tl.o iii-sreaBO. of the numbor 'f "'t""! • ^ r" "r^ 'ive to 
ten and even to fourteen in the In'.e Uiani^ads, eaj;. with its own s: eoifil 
funotion, is intorestir.f, and throws sone lic^*^ on the siibjest in general. 
It wcull seem that the fundar:ental ocncoftion cf prnija, : later tir.es, at 
any rate, was tliat it was a sort of wind or eas, located in some particular 
part cf the body usually, diffused tlirou^h it in the laso of vyana eund per- 
haps so:r.e ot'.'-rs, and porf omini; cor.e spocifi: function. Praija i? the br^aih, 
as wo use that word, and performs both i>. nni out breathing. It is to ha noied 
in this ;jonnection, that whon s. writer of the Upani^ads wishes to say breathe 
out or in, or breathe upon, ho alwaye uses scne ^onpound other than praijiti 
or apaniti, a.s ni)j.-jv^sati , abhip raijiti , and the like. Of all these aire 
prana is :^hiof , and in early tires identified with the senses and with the 
b^.x. -i.iti. prSna considered as an active, vital for'ie within one, and with 
the senses recognized as iV.fi tools of the soul, with which praija -as also 
identified, it is easy to sea why t! o senses 'ehould be considered priiijas. 
In conneotion with the senses and llioir organs, the intorsting fact 
may be noted that for four of thorn ambiguous words are used, whi-;h n;ay refer 
to either the sense or its object. Such words ar^- oakgua, v.-hi^h : aji ineai. 
either sight or tho eye, (jrotra, cither Ulie oar or liearin^:, tvao, either 
touch or the skin, and ^r^a, either smell r.r tho nose. Alongeide of thes 
aro the equally foiailiar words ak§i, karija, carman, an*! nasa or nasika, 
whiih refer exclusively to .i.o organ and not to tho sensfi.Ac to how the 
senses perfcnn their fur^tions, nothinf de'inite is known beyond that tlioy all 
depend or intelli -once, which Ir known under different :. , nd even 

identifioa w_i, ijity. Tno rechaniasn of brain onl nerve is entirely unknwrn. 

The heart, to be sure, as in otl.r ancient pooples, in concerned with knowing. 



\ 



14 
Gei.oral purvey. 

wOing tlio ab6do of tl.c- scul, il c.t\.' ly to looked on in any othor way. 

A developniont of thie iden ir t" bp fciir.d ir thn notion V..nt t»^p>ro nr(^ 
persona, puruqaa, in tin- eyes, Inii.n or Inara i;- '.: r^ ono ;ui^ i.ig •■na i.i. the 
oil. or, and tJiat tlioir place of union is the heart. Koro wo have t)ie knowl- 
edge gatherinc a^ent, really belonging in the l-.enrt, in f^or.A rro';e'=>dir.c to the 
oyes, and oonvoyinjj what it, &'rtaine>l thereby ti/ ...o ..tu.ii,, v... i e> n. Loioraes 
-•-iiowledce. It is noted that the lomeption of theso oyo people may have boon 
in part -inuied by tho minature reflection of hin:s6lf which the beholder iiiay 
soo in ar.ot};rr's oyos. 

A brief coinposite picture of the body, taken fro;; the Upanigads, would 
bo about as folicwg. It i;^ r. nans of bones, flesh, blood, sinews, carrow, fat, 
rui.. arterios, bound atou-- ^vit;. sj.in, and covered in part with hairs. Its 
chief function is to serve as an abcdo for the scul, whence it is sor.etimes 
called \\.e brahnapur:!, though this tenr arylios more pfirti''ir"'arly to the 
heart. The chief crgar. ci tho body is ".r.e r.part, v/hich i.ro\:a: x, includes ti.e 
lun^s. In this organ jnental functions are carried out. It is th© abode not onl;' 
of nanas, tho r.entnl or^an, tut rdso of the scul. The nc'l roimir.e in th© 
inner cha;-bor ci t..e ..eart, but ".'naiftrs throu^i ti.e r.rter-os x;. -.'-:!' -^io.-i.. 
TjiOse arteries, though at first said to contain Mood and various colored 
flf.i Is, seoa tc have been air passaged oven fro:-, tho berinr.inr;, and later 
t-.i£ 18 i..6ir all bui exclusive function. Icnnoiea by i-i.o i-or. ;ui,t'i,, na4r, 
are the ner-zes and tubular organs in general, as "ell as tho blood vossols. 
Life ic :.iaint. -lined by prana, th^, Vroath whiTh pafsses ir and rut thrcugli th© 
nostrils or i;.outh, though apona, wnicn is in tho lcv/.er i.iiri oi i-ko body, 
usually in the bowels, also roinains in tl.n body as long as life continues. 
ABr.o:;iated with thoso two aro three tc twolvo other nirs which carry on tho 
vital fuajticns, such as digostion, nourishing the dif. ..reiiL ::.oi;bors, ui> ; the 
like. Excluding r.ontal activities, whi<jh at first are carried on by monae 
or hrdaya, cr bof , nn'. l.^tor by bud.ihi, citta, ahankara an.i manas, kncvlodg© 



lb 
Genoral Survey . 
ii-- ottair.oa it.roiii^i. fivo coiiooti or pcvr-'ra, oc. i.iai. loain alaz.tx^ly with 

one of tho fivo ©lenflxitB ■■ up tlni 'al univfTBO. 

uotor pnrt 'f V.if) 'bc'.i:' rn" in bU; . '*^y thn *\\'o m+ior, sftrin^s or 

I'Ov.ora, v/liiih aro airo--:tei 2; . invl. Th ''.lja<:-. :_y i;." . i-.j-^owoi *. 

body, the sinews bind its parts tocothfa". An Tiro is inaintainod in 

tho 1-ody, 8urrort.3d ly furs union of D^e vital airs. TJiia fire aids in diceation 
a:.i is an iaportant forso in tho body. 

As to tho use of t}ie body in tho Yoga and bhakti spi-ere, nothing more 
need \.f< said here. It ie suf "i^ont to re o that its postures and breathings 
arc, a inoans of crn^eand ilircucli l;.o::. il :nay serve the soul by obtaining 
rolflasr. for it. 



16 



Chapter III 



The Body in General 



17 
GftnpnvL ^ol•li•ooitlon of tJ.o lii dy. 

As is to be t»xj,e'5toil, tlio body is an.'-. I to be oofiipoer'.l of the ftl«i'iont8 

whiol. oonstituto the luateriftl world of whlih tho physla.-.l body is n part. 

A few illuBtratioriB will bo preGonted here, to civo a picjturo of the j^enoral 

idea of ti.«i body, 

« 

While c^nflrally five elemento are reiornized throurhout the domain 

of Hindu philosophical tlou^^t, 1h, 6 speaks cf but throe; earth, water, 

tind tejas, whioh inoludes both heat and li^ht. These threo Glei:;ents c^ 

to nake up the body, each ono of ther. separating into three parts . jhe 

separation is a natural ono and is txnalarous to tliat by whioh iTiilk when 

churned is separated into different parts, the butter, which is the li[;hter 

mid Buperior part, risinr to the top, and the heavier rllk settlinc to the 

ksi)c. botton. Thus a ninefold division cf the body arises, as follows. (C^^ •" J 

Dense Mediiua Liglit 

Farth (solid part of food) feces flesh manas 

UTater urine blood prajja 

TeJas bone marrow va? 

This passage not only gives a c®"®^^! view of the oompcaition of the body, 

as oonposfid of nine parts, but shows how each part is derived. 

Another view, apparently etiiially old, is formd in Trh. 4.4.5, where 

the five eleineits are included in tho crmpon^nts of the lody, alone vdth 

Knowlftdre, nanas, li^", si^ht, hearing, and certain nental qxmlities and 

actions. But this passage does not go into defctial. The later Garbha hore^er 

8uptli®£ this lack, and the eleir^ts, with the parte derived from tj.em and 

their functions are represented as follows. "^OAAHB-i*- j 



Supporting 

Preparing food for digestion. 

Giving light. 

Distribution [of food eaten). 

Giving apace. 



Elenent 


Part d( 


Earth 


Solid 


Water 


Fluid 


Tejaa 


farrn 


Air 


aoving 


JD.aja 


Hollow 



7he Toay i'j\' iji jioion'.n. 

The Btill Ifiter Varffl.n (5.1,5), wit).or>t mentioninc the funotions of tlio 

ela onts 
Bfiveral juudui in tlio body, in the saino way cjorrolntei tho first four elonontB 

with tlie solid, fluid, hrilliant, and moving parts of tlie body, and n>.a/^rt 

with the real or suttvn parts. 

Another late Ilpani^nd, tho (JarTrika, followB tliis system, "but co^a 
wore into doiltail. Fron earth oone bonn, sl-.in, voiiiB, h.iir, find flosli; 
froii water, uri:ie, Bli;'ie, blood, seiien, sweat; fror. fire, hiunj^er, thirst,! 
woarinesD, folly, copulation — in a z'^neral way tlie apretitiee; from air,^ 
vmovinc, digj^ing, winxing, wo.; froi" aka^a, the passions. 

In Tri9. 13'',-140 there is a different r.ethod cf correlation. Tlie 
earth is correlated v.-ith that lart of the body from the end of the foot to 
the kne»; water, fron the knee to th.e loins; firo , froi .ddbody to loins; 
air, fron navel to tin end of the nose; aka^a, froiu the nose to the Brahma 
openinr i)". tlie tcp of the head. 

Thile tejas is cionsidored to be inferior to aka^a, (Gh. 7.1".l), 
nevertheless, in the early Upani^ads, before the idea of tl:o atm had 
bboowe ttorou^ilL^y crystalized, tejas played an importar.t part in the mental 
and metaphysical reoL-^s. It proceeds froii the atriJitC'lh. 7.2f;,l) It ner£;eB 
into tie Supre::ie Spirit at death, (Ch. 6.8.6), and until this is done, cno 
recoi7ii7.es his friends, (Oh. f". 15. 1,2). At death it papses fro:, one sense 
to anot'i er i;. the following order; vai , ca^.^u, '^rotra, .iianas, prana. In 
deep sleep ono is overpowored with tejas and does not see dreams; in fact 
tejas gees to Brahma with its object during: deep sleep. (Pra.;. 4.6,8) 

In Cl-i. 3.12.7W, aKfTjH is identified with Brahona in su-.h. a way that 
it seeTiC to present a rival idea to V-f sxt -lit ananda idea of tie Supreme 
jjein^ whi.?h finally prevailed in the Hindu mind, ''ut tho 't ' " Rur^rior to 
tejas, not a L^oa^ deal of mention is r.ade of its functions ii. tho body. 
The otlier elerents do not deserve sjecial mention. 



19 
• r'.,..i,La. ipiion of the EoJy. 

i;one« of lhf> oliftr UiPJii^ftdB oontnlne a i^f'riOral drtnorlr.tion of th« 
Vody, lut suoli .loo>3riptionB jnay t)P sal "! to ^^'i^i'^ ^^ ^^^ .'•I&itrayai}a, on thft 
tordor line, ^otweon tho old ar-* •• ■ ~ , ,.oro thfi domriptionB ore 

tin^od with pesait'dsn. It ie a.-'.id tc be vxrt] Iocs, and joiuposod cf tones, 
6i.ir., sinev/s, ciarrow, flosii, sooJ, 'blood, p]4e£,}ar!, teers, orduro, urine, 
wind, gall, and slirae. It is afflicted ly lur.t, on^jor, ^jread, fear, jeal- 
cuEy, separation frr:. the desimd, union with the non-desired, huni^er, 
thirst, old a^e, deatl , dis'^ns'', sorrow, C:C. (.iait. l.r) in llait. !5,4 th^ie 
Is anoth.er and similar desj. i, Liun of it. It was produced by copulation, 
i^ifv ii, darh.nes8, ca)..-:^ cut tl.rovigh thf' urinary portal, is T^uilt up vith 
Trcr.es, oovered with flesh, bound v-lth skin, filled with dun£, urine,, u^ll, 
8l* :«, narrow, fat, co.l, and joany other iiuturities, like c kO'.^a or roooytai o. 

Tr.e best c^'i'^^ral description of the body is to be found ir. tho 
vjarlrii.:'. Upani§ad; better thp.r. that :;ontained in Garbha, because less 
ablro-'-iatod. The iescriptioi. ir- -.".oo Itilo, Vut it is clear, and --■-"•"'i-' 
froii. the liindu stan 'point. Its tea^hincs root well back, 

" Kov the body is oomposed cf th'^ earth .'^n-' tlie cthT four olorjents. 

Vhatover is solid iv. it, that is eart^; r/'Hp.tever fluid, .' ' ' - -ater; 

\s-> n+ovAr ^ !• hot, thp.t is tejas; v'hatever ucvec r.bout, tVat is air; wh.atevor 

'.How, that if: ak?I;a. l.earir.^ cuiu sc forth r.re the five kiowledijo sonses, 

the the tlio 

The ear io ^fv.r.ji,ic!.od} in aka:ja, ^Ia- ir. u.o air, "eye '-' ^"'-^» tor.£n.ii^* 

the 
water, nose in tlie earth. And in this (above) order are the followinr 

r>;f,-tr cf sense produced in the earth an'' '1 '- <'' t i^ler.ients; scund, touch, 

fi/ii-, uatote and Bi.:ell. Thr sppech or^jan, tlie liaiids, 11*6 feet, tl.o araas, 

and the penis are called the work s'^nses. Froin thean there are produced in 

:"'-i_lowini: objects in the '- r' er n'f nrtr: :. •■••oh, trj.ln^, 

. <- 1 ■ , ■ n, ploasurr. ?'anna, tuddld, ai.aiiknra tvni oitta cci-icso 

tlie fourfol or£,ari (antal|Annuia). Of tlieso arc j reduced in ordnr as 



cbjpote, dotf>n.lnfition and ur.oflrtrv^nt. .flion, rrH«, ai ' 

Inr, Th*^ loonlity cf •.'^.nm is .. ' nnak ; of buiiDil, tho fuoo; t' 

jOJupoBOd of eartl.; urijia, jiilAjjlx:!, blood, eenen, la." 
svf'ut, of wator; ^.nr.^ptr, t}iirs+, l-^csitvc'o, folly an.'' oopulation, of fire; 
«cvin^, ai;^i..^, .^v'-lliinsr,^ i., t. i.I ii;_ ;in '; Jx<.iyii.;„ '.i.e eyeo, of air; lust, 
ani^er, fear, •i"i''/^'> folly nnd otliers, fro;:, aka^u. 2tunu,toujh, fci:.., tactft 
and B...0II are cinRli+'.«r c' tho '^nrtl'. Sound, touch, fcri'i and tt'.ste cf tl.e 
watpr. £c>ind , iq.j: , u.'. .'ui-..,(.f I^^-o, gound and tou:!it, of ' •. £'■ ' 
tU.one cf akaja. " 

A desoriptitn of very differoxnt type, typic-1 of the later Yc-a 
r£tu-.i§asds, is found in Tri^jii;.i rrah;.:5i^a, L5 ff. It iilusi-ri-.tec t:.o i..i^^y- 
iiiuii ptxtB and relationsiiips tauji^ht by tiiAtlschcol. 

"In the lAiBt cf thr< body is '±e (jikhisthaiia, havinc the spledor of 
i.eated i^old. In ir.ei. ii is ^l.reeacrnerod, in quadrixpeds, fourjcii.": od, 
rtund in Vir's, sixccrrered in creeping tiiin^js, and ©i^ht cornered in 
insects. In it tj.ore ir. sosaetl ig^ like ci glo'^inc lair.p. The kandart}..anft, 
the iiLdbody of Jiien, is ninr finf;;erB: four fint;;ers hii^h, four fini^er^ Irond. 
It is e^i_ shaped an''. oblL^ue in both tviceborn and fourfrcted. That is 
rtico^nized as the tundnsimuhyn^in th^ midst cf v/hl-;^. in tl e havcl. In this 
tlere is a v/heel with twnlve spokee, ir "'Vi-;h arc Vi^i^u and ctlior fcrJiS, 
In thip I'Ipca th« egc (ahar) i-: xl^'^od, 'm.1 -'-^-rls around the wheel with 
its own illusions. "Ife wanders Ev-;cosRively aino»n£ the spokee, C Brn>j..rj!, 
likr- a spider wandering in the iuidst of her trar of threads. Tithiut ti.is^ 
breath-raisinr life doeo not. move. Above this is the kuii4aliHti Tna, o'cli-iuo 
ui.: above the navel. It has the fciTi 0^ f • •-•'-i ^^ prak^t"'- i.' 1^ ^^^ 
eightfold circle, acjcrding to the essence of wind, fire, t;C. It «V6* 
ret-ains erclc.oinr the s^den of th.' kanda. The ^^reat ligl^.t, hav' 
thit brEi.i,....-i. ...,, ciT.l "^i riCfjrifl of l'hf< ncut}., raccgniied as the true, 



21 
Cflneral ;)c<tv5rirtlr.r. of tho Tcdy. 

l.avir.^ the foioi cf a eorpent. Two f^nrere rTsovo th« ar.us, and as r.uol. 'belov 

the I'Onis, is tho tdd>c3'; rf r.f^r , >-ut tl.r. mlt*. V.«nrt of ;"ndrn7A;1r, nnl cf 

in 
cthtsrs tlie tddst of '.I.f* tund^-i ii is aurroundeJ I'/y i.;un;' ar'vorios; Lore vJiO 

prolan iUid apanu euro ^atl.'^red tccetl.fir." 

Ap in to ^r» o>:rp?tr.d in ■.'o n.onin*f-? ifiliilcppchy of tV© 1J'[nni^v.(lB, 

inuoli BtrosK is l-'.il on il.o iiif «=Tiori ty cf t)io Ycd.-'j -.0 ' soul, and on itv 

drpendpnce on the spiritual. Sciaetines the reference is to the individual 

soul, whi3h is, howoven xoa:;t*.3al!!y iientififtd vith tlio world soul, soiio- 

tiiues tc the atriai; in its larijeet sonso, scnetimes tc the pumsifi., and 

scaetiiiies to EraJxia, Narayanr., or to thp Deity without any clear exiressinii 

of r.n2„e. rut these are rather a ^pesticn of the nairio of the atnan or Deity 

rather than anything whioh alters the traatnont of the mlaticnship of the 

Deity to the body. 



22 

List -' "arte. 

O'irij^ ir. pnrt. tc tlieir nnftral laol. < f aii;. 



nA^ri, duo 



lar^dly to r-"""! * "ci.^ r i-i _"':'* -lon^ ai-..1 ' r' T.nrf alsc to t!.o feict 1^ At. Ha 

froE 
Ui:aniyius aio j.ct i.ri;.i£uily troatiBes ioalinj^ witl: thft >oily ix a BOiei.tiflj 

■but rat)ior from a rPli£,iou3 otandpoint, niuoh nore is rmde of tlio exterior 

of Iho tody Uai. cf t' - "i t^rior. ~Kt.T-r!'l lartr arfl not only r.ore j^ftr.firalHy 

visible, hut 11. ey luay te used in woreliip, wliilo the inner organs, ex^riftint, 

in yo^a, doj!.and very little attention quarter, i'.encye tlie external parts of 

the tody are {jenerally laenticne"!, wViile the inner ort^ariS and i.artR, w' ^^ 

a few exjoptions, are hardly spoken of. The ijaa^jinarj' ort,ans of YcL,a in 

part i:iil.o up this deficiency. r>elow will te found p. list of parts Mentioned 

in the Upanisrids. Their treatj.ient follows in order, sc it is unnecessary 

t say anything;; about tlien hero. 

Part Sanskrit Ford Used. 

?ody (^aflrfi, dohn, /-aya, tfjiu, vapu, kalevara, eandeha, (baija ' 

brajjuapura ?) 

Half arii}iva 

Ecnes asthi 

Flesh nansa 

Blood acrij , jonita, Ichita, rudliir.'., rakta, 

Fat nedae, vasa 

Sit-in tva-; , ^amaji, 

Marrow r;aij.'i, 

Sinev.'s saayu, snu. 

Limbs Rni.a, rjatra, -jarTradeTa. 

Joints r'iRrr-.aii, parvaii, eandhi , ^.raj.tlii. 

Lnvelopes kcja 

lileiaentB dhatu 

Openin;;^s dvara. rrj.dhra 

Circles 3;.j.iu ^, giaxiiixx inuladiiaj-u, or fiJ^cTrt., nvr.U.i^v.djm, lauiiiara 



r? - 





tmS^iftta, vijuddliQ, X;' 


? 


Kvujcjnir 


7 


tunda 




kanda 


? 




Partk 


Pi:<3Vi«, 


r<aakl)one 


pi;gV-ov^'-^En 


Breast 


vat. ^AG, lira 3, r.u:^aEt)iSnr. 


IJipple 


otana, -etajiyn, payoiUinra 



Hollow atovo hip ai\t.a 



Seat 

Flank 

Rib 

Abdomen 

i:avel 

Stern 

Anus 



asa 

par^jvn, p-..i. gti 

par-ju 

udara, ktrnkgi, jaViai-a, kcg^ha, l.ukgi, p^Jasyu, radliya. 

nahhi, j al t hHJ'HiJvugff " a -pic •»-<»- 

fuccha 

nil -la, p5yu , ^aJtio^^-^J^UoLAw.^ , afx^^ 



iiead qlrtis, j'r^rvr.:!., ut'^aiiantn, t_^iin.iBtliaiia 

Orc\'.n of head nurd};rin, 

Brain raetigka 

Foreheac., sbz raetaka, naata, lalat,u, air^ia, ihalr., 

Frontal Eone -jon^-ha 

SauII i.ftpSla 

Cuture Bxraoii 

do. jur.-jturo trah.nartui'lhrn, bralimabila 

Face anann, nukha, vaktra (?), vaJana, 

Eyebrow bhru, 

Eyolid pu\a, xii^^^ akqlpviV^ 

ii^oittsn vnrxani 



PA 



LiBt of Parts 
L'yo a/>Ql, otu.QU, libwia, nayann, losajta, 

Pupil tnrtiXft, kanriinl.d 

Ear qi\ trn, knnjft, -jrnvann, ^ruti, 

liose nSBR, nasikn, ^vnsnna, tLror^jyi 

do, tip cf nnstvtrn ,v^<^*'^*^V'^ 

do. cavity nnsniutiH n^'^'^^^'^f^ 

Chook kapola, cf^'l^^ 

Lip og^ha, 

Jaw hanu 

Toeth dajitp., dajtma, den^'^ra 

TcHijue .liliva, raotuia, 

Cavity cf ..Icutli kapalakuhnra, kapalakanJa, kupa, talu^akra 

Palate tiilu 

Uvula ghajjljika 
Palatal arteries (?) taluks 
Ucuth 

Neok kaijViia, L^iva, c^^la, niglil.i , i<^^^^ 



Sean, asya, nukha, vaktra, vyattam, 

^.cJlLamiJ 



Shoulder 

Ariupit 

Elbow, 

Forcaru 

Upper ana 

Wrist 

Kar.d 



ba.u, bhuja, Minjadar;4a, (^S.ha (?) 

afiea^Bkanda, Aa.uu, bS.uiiula, 

/ akqa. 

kurpaiTi , 

rn:;a, iriu.c^y.a, ice 

bSiunndltya, i'-5>-''<.»*~-s»^A >\c«.Axw»- 

r.aiJbaiuUia 



hasta, kara, paj^i, tiu^c (?) 
do. back cf kara:5q\ha 
•io. paL. of "/.ar-tF.l.'i. 
do. Opened tc.i_4tiior, aiijol- 



Fist 
Tluu:it 



Lint cf Pnrtr 
iJiiyxln, aKt,i4ir, C'U^^i^* 



Index rin^«r, tnrjrmr, fruurxjinr, 

Middle io. niftdhya, maJJiynj ft, 

Third do. annxntUi, trnwidka, 

Little do. kanig'^ha, 

i.'ailB n-Jiha, 

lip cf io. prai.akha, nalJia^ra 



Lcins 




ka^i 


Hipa 




SI io 


Let, 




prati^-^ha 


Thifih 




uni, saXthi, 


i^iOO 




janu 


iiowor le^^ 


jan^ha 


Ankle 




gulpha 


Foot 




pad, pada, pada, r:ara:ja, anfjliri 


Solo of 


io. 


padatala 


Heel 




par'jrii 


Great tc 


)e 


lia.AKui,\i^\hei 


.lair of 


body 


loin;'., ror.ajjK, 


do. of 


head 


i.fi,]n, valdike'^ara 
I 


Look of 




alal.a, Ja-^a, Julia 


Topknot 




qikha, 


Beard 




^ma-jru 



Pudenda ui^eetha 

do. laale ajrtha, jipa, T",'. . i . •.;',). r.-. rohnra, rran^n. nivru:?. ]fjJ9Via 

E"hya, 



26 
Lint of Prirte . 

Pudonda, foiiale alhao, bha^^E., ;.uur£.dvura, oirlnnir.avaoyaao:;*, 

Went garth a, yoni 

Testicle, iiAi^kn 



Lunc 


Hornj) 




ijivei' 


ya^^t 




Bladder 


vaoti 




heart 


hijd, liifdnyn, 


brahnafura, 



do. Space in antarli^daya aka^a, antaral.aja, L^aaka^6, h^daya-aJ.a^f., 

h^dayakiUTialu, luctixftaikk h]:.l#y»j>^),oniha, ln^dayatankaja, hi:t- 
pankaja, hi^dayaju^clrii , hijdayai.ur^4nrrka, hrtjur^^arri.a, 
hijtpadria, hift.pu^kara, hiftsaronii a, h^daya;.'' c ja, iuq4arlka, 
aq^adala, daliara, Migkara, sugi, vsy.a, i.n)-n, 

Pericari ? puritat 

Plao^nta, jar».y\'. 

Anj.iicn, ul%a 

Arteries na^^i, nrTtJik", :;ilr.. 7ira, sira, ihm-.an, "nitH, ru^ii, l-niidc- 

soibl.ava. (In addition sfiveral arteries are nantior.ed by 
name. Thesfi will bo treated undor tl p> general head of arteries.) 

The above is a praotically ooi'rpletP list of the larts o*" thp body 
mentioned in the Upardgads, omitting variar.t foras of tiO saiie word. A 
discussion of these parts v/ill new follow. 



Th^ Body jjirlrn. 

'Jftrliti is on© of th« i^flrirtrol temiB used Cor th« enta ro body. It in 
not thfl OBBential part of one, but in t a^jun.Tt to or r. 'ieprndent or, Iho 
atrnn or th<» pnr^ijfi. It ir crllfd -jiirrra boon.un!' it H ©b' (-jrjyutc; in lli© 
fire, — that is, the knowinc, seeing, and dicostive firos. (Onrbha 5). 

Iv. addition to what las ■* ©. n said abovo iii rej^^ard to Iho'ceneral 
ooicpcsition of t}iO body, it nay be added tliat it is cojnposed of thi© fiv© 
9le:r.9ht8 and thf» five tanniatrao, (sound, toucl;, form, taste, aioll). ('.^ait. 
3.2). Later it is f if^uratively describes as a tenple, \vi?:h ore pillar, 
(til© backbone), thro© posts, (whioh the cormionttry says ray bf. '.aken as 
the three arteries, i^ri, j. in^ala, and suquTina, or ©Is© as the three qualiteie, 
anttva, rajas, tanas), nine doors, (the nine openincs of t: r. body), and tho 
five deities (tlio knowlpdre senses). It lias a sun cXoviin^ with rays (tli© 
thoughts), in the niidst of which a flane is burn'nc (intollicence), and the 
deity witldn is as large as a tonr;ue of this flai'O. (Yo. ^i. 4,5,P) 

The latest Upani§ads repeat these ideas. Tho body is woven together 
of tho five elenents. (Yo. (Ju. 72, ^ar. , ) It has tlie throe c^l^S' (Yc. (^\x, 
72). It hne nine openings 'or oxcrotions. (y~J:}4« 1«'^)« 

The body has thr©o sexee, to any of which life may be atta^kod. Thoy 
are, rale, fcEale, and neuter. ((Jvet. 5.10). Many bodies porvade the 
earth. (Trip. H. l.r.) 

The late yoga Upanigads fix tho hoicht of the body at 9^ fin£;©r, or 

about 6 feot. (Qrrj. 4.1; Varal.. 5.19; (;ai>4. 1.4). The last also aids that 

prSijn extends 12 fin(_er6 furtl.er bey4nd the body. It is oor.poBoi of bonesf 

sinews, SiO , and is tlie horao of the arinnriaya atnar:. (Ka^l^ar. 4) Air is in it, 

scnetijies said to be aovin^ ir. it. (Yo. Ku. l.HL, 6r,; (Jri j . 6.44; ) It is 

pemoated throughout by vyann. (Yo. lu. .?^). It oasts a shadow. (VarS.. 

i<.41). Its rioBt inportart orran, that wliich supports it, i? the kuijiall. 

(VarS.. 5. "2). It may bo made Blender--a thinr nuch desired in Yct;a — by 

lioldinc tho br©ath in tho {jreat toes. (-jaij^. 1.4.45) Disensor, enter it. 
(•;ari4. 1.3.1?) 



It is eprefifl th/ouch with vflina, lik<« - bajiyeui leaf. i'}Kiy\. l.-0« Th« 
luiiila is an ittfortant orcnn. (.lu) 

Tho oldpr Ujarigdcls havfl iiu-t© n littlo to say in ro( rrd to tl.e 
■body and thft senses. Ordinarily, of -Jour se, tlio sonsoB are in the hody , 
tut they may depvt, as In slerp and death. Thf>ir dej-nrture makes ub cry 
out. (I^h. 3.5.4). T'hoir defarturo rIbo injuros the body. (F. A. '"i.l.V). 
The dejjarture of thp hichest sense g^'^^b ^^^ C^oatest injury. (Oh. 5.1.7). 
Thei: the senses depart, they ta>.fl the ohj fiats of sense v'5-th thori, which is 
a corollary of tie suhjestive jsychology of thieir philosoj-ly, (Kauf. .^.4), 
The senses are sent t,lirouch( ut the tody in deep sleep. (Brh. ?;.1.18). 
Though it is the atode of the sense in this r.annor, nevortl oloss qarlra 
itself is a sort of sense, and has-tlie function cf enjoying; pleasure and 
pain, since it. is a n-.enher of prajna. (Kau§. 1.7). Jy^ Y^dcu^ c^^ ^Um^' i(^S.y , .) 

Anonr the late Upanifads, Kund. 4 mentions that the qarira obtains 

things. It is to bo ernployed a8.instrui.ient in knowing by ascetics. Cyarad.'")9 ,10) 
deep 
D-irini;, sleep" the body enjoys pleasure. (Praq. 4.0) It ).aK four 

states, wakir.jj, dreaninc, deep sleep, and the fourth, or turiya. (Narad. 5) 

3««» Intellij_6me. The intellij-ent self,^ or prajnatr.a, is in tiie body 

like a razor in a case. (Kauf 4,20) .Prajna is the body's meruis of ai luirinc 

intolli£;once, for without it the body would net re-;o;nizc pler.sure ot pain. 

(i.au§. ?,6,7)ln|fact, the body itself is voi:i of intellirjence, like a cart. 

(Halt. 2.j) So this higher power directs it and makes it sf.nsible. (Mait, ?.4) 

Ey intellicence th^ body is drivnn around like the wheel of a potter. (Mait. 

2.6). Mra«niakes caitaiiya the directing: po^^er of tho body. 

Late ■:o'^T.f>'it*rvr of 'jnH'm Tith intelllc6''''56 arenot so ii-atter of fact. 

The body contains n twofold soed (irja)cno icrtion of wh ch is breath ot 

pulsation, and tlie otlier stea.'y tlioueht, (Anna. 4.40,42) That cf tlio astatic 

or i-.uni has a licht in it, whi^h refors especially to the inteilicenve oon- 

nectinr hin with the deity. (Anna. 4.'R; Paj. "3; Ka^'ar. -1 ? ) . 3xfi_^>vt^'<r 



f3 ^Vt » ft^ , <► f ^ -z-Lxvo 



The .^tiiftn. Tlio trflati.!©nL of -jnrf-n in its relation to the Sl.jui io 

ocvBister.t th'-ovh^jtit thw j^ntlro -ance of UprJiigal literature, farly anJ 

niddlo Ui-'oni^aJn roTccnise that tlio atrman or puruqa is, in the etri'jt eenoo, 

sonethint; apart froi'i cr witho\it tlie tody. (Pra':j. 4.10; K^fsot. 7.1; Rniaap. 7; 

Puh. 8) Tiiit the ati'/ui (undor different names) dvolle in the body. (B^li. 

2.i'.l; 3. .-.10; K. L.4; Fra^j. 6.2; Cuh. 7,8). Really, the at i.iui wanders in 

everj' ^qarrrn . (::ait. ?.7) The deity supports all hodies. {'Jiras 4). 

Purufti attains the hody at birth. (FJjh. 4.:^8) The Vody is the restin- i Inoe 

of the irsnortal at.-ian. (Gh. S.12.1). Eralinia within the body is tie breadth 

of a thunb. (Ilait. 6. 38). The atnan is the leader of the body. (MuJiiJ. 2. 2. 71 

It is like a li^+'t ir. the body. (::un^. 3.1.b) Tlie body has a lic^it in it, 

(Oh. 3.13.7,6). Tl.ese passaren no doubt are the criginaln of those Mentioned 

in tlie last paragraph. In_ one plaae we are told that manas excites the 

fire in the body. (Kait. 7.11.4). The atnan dwells in tlie tody like the 

waterdroi on a lotus. (Mait. 3.2) It is united to the body like a Iiorso to 

a car. (Chi. 6.12.3). It is the cheu"iot, of whiih the atxiaii is the driver. 

(I'lath. 3.3; ifait, 2.6). The deity is in the ^.ody in the sarae way that 

oil in in sesfu-urn or soont In a f lover. (Kiyana.9) The pv.i*uqa in the body 

is the spirit of Prajaiati. (Kau§ 4.2,16^;. The body of tlie ntrian itsflf is 

prar^a. (I.lait. 2.6) It is more subtile than the body. (Brh. 4. ".3). Indra 

realisses ti>at Ihr atnan is loro tlian the body. (Oh. £.9.1). Piiruq laaKOs 

the body intelligent. (Hait . 2.L) Thie ohanges of the body do not change 

tl>r< soul, whi'l onjoys things the sane in a drenv as when awake. (Ch. 8. 

lC.1-4). Wiien the body is destroyed the Stnan is not hurt. (K. 2.16). z^\ot. 

it leaves the fcody it iiakee us zry out, (Tj^h. 3,9-.4) Tt sJiculd he draSr 

reed 
biwHuily from tho body, like the pith frrr a luuul. (Kat^:. 6.17) 

Co, too, Oiil. 12 inron.s us that the deity dwells in tho body as soul. 

Th.e atviii is within thn body. (AdhyS, becinning) In gc::0 of the later Ujjani- 

^tiis wo i eet the di stir.citon between Jlva --life, or the individual soul — 

Jind Tja or the 1 i<;;her primiple. Thie body contains two supanjan, jTva and 



Tlia Body ^nrrrn 

f^a. (Ruira}.) . The sano pnir firs to ^o fcuni in ho hody of t).ft Jlwuirtukln. 
(Anna. 3.32) jTvu iuov©b ahout in the tody like a liousoholdor. (ITarad. 6. ^ec) 
Prids of t)io tody rtausos the jrviTtnan, henoe one should civo xip this pride, 
eui 1 obtain release, (".iarad. 6 be^^) 

Praija. Eeforemer, to the oonnection betweeh qnrrrn and prarjO are to 
be fennel chief ly in tliO earlier Uparl^'^ls. This is no doubt in part due to 
th<^ fa''t t'-'ftt ir. thrs'> *ir!pr pr'rj- was fither i-'.entlor.l w"t]. the ati.an or 
else very closely rnlated to it. The body is in pr^a and prai^a is in it. 
(Tait. 3.7.1). Prajja coues into the body through the wcrt.s of the mind — 
tliincfl done in a previous existence. (Pracj. 3.1.3) As lon^ as it continues 
in the body life continues. It taker, hold of thebody, liftr it up, and 
vivifies it. Praqa and intPlli^ence leave thf body simulteuiecusly. (Kaug. 
3.1-4). Sub. 4. adds that praija protects tho body. 

Death. In regard to death, too, and its connection with -jarira, the 
earlier Upanigads busied tlionselveB iiiore thari the later ones. Pron E^h. w« 
leaiTi tliat puru^f- tlirows down the body at death, and Eoes to attain another 
one. (B^h. 4.4.3; 4.3.42), The body, thds left by puru^n, lies like thn 
■slou£^l of a sna}:e on an anthill. (Brh. 4.4.7)It c^ee ^o Die earth ■=.t death, 
(E^h. 3.2.13). It '"inally be^or'les ashes. (Erh. b.5.1; Tea. 17). Ch. pays a 
little nore attention to ischatclocy. One abandons the body at deatli. ('/h. 
8.6.4) Quittinr it, one attains to the sun. (^h. P.6.[.i Or he s.'iO/.es it 
off and rces Lo the Amreated worlds of Prahi'ia. (Oh. 8.13.1). So, in Ait, 
r.5, one who pcsBOBses the knowledge of certeiin philbsorhic tnjths is at 
death released fro:' all the differoi-ces of tl^e body, in heaven. The atr.an 
is drav.'n fro; the body at death. (Ka-^ha. r.i7). Death o-icuri when-prEJ;a 
leaves t}.f> body, Tliis is wlion prajnn leave it , for praiin and prafn'a leavo 
at the same tinie. (Kaus, 3.1,4). At death, tho self, risinj. froi; tYe be '.y 

cones forth In his true form, and the body whi^h remains is not intelli£;ett, 
(:[ait. ■ 2.2,f) 



31 
The Poiiy qaiTrn. 

Tho idddle UrnnifltvUi mil 'J. at t' n body at death id^leR w3.tl. the f 3.vo 

elenents, (Pir;4. 2, and thnt it is dfiot.royod. (Uukti. 2.26) It falls in 
dentl. ("^J.Sj^.) nn\ ono cun not ^o to henvon wit)i it, (Ha^) 

Still later, wn are told that it coob to destruotion, (Yo. Ku. 2.39) 

A InlA Mtd.ntnlccioal panrace tolls ub tl at after doatV , hrvtnc asoonded the 

8ev6i-&A Tclestial recicns, one ruts cff tho inantraiiiya body, and puts on a 

celestial one. (Trip. Jl. 2.2) A sukqrua -jfirlra is obtairod. (Trip. M. 2.1) 

J^ k'ct^ v~. ria «tC„!*. ^yt/vixx .\'i._( ^^ ^v*-|<< (\« .,,, i^fJU'iJ- (I-.,;,/ vW-.,) 

Miaiellanecufl. Other exact references are thnt the body of tlio 
embrj'o attains the 8 pfriki^tis and the six vitAinu. in th(5 oichth ::onth. 
(Garlha 3). Its heat is the tejns of Bra}ira«. (Halt, 6..?7) The wind Ac are 
without the body. (Ch. R»12.2} Tl is obtained throuch ^loi an", evil v.-orks. 
(Sarv. 2.15) The penitent liai a peaceful cne, (Kaiv. 4) It is said to bum, 
figuratively. (Vajra.) K^^ija is tho dual oauce of it. (nopalct. beg.) 

Ficurative ui^ee. It is a chariot(Ka^lia. 3.3; Oh. 8.1". 3. Paing. , Sha^.) 
It is a sacrifi-jial altar. (Prana^^. 4) It is the fuel of the sacrifi-JO. 
(«ahana. r,4.i) it is ihe chi for the internal heat, whiih is Prahiei. (ilait. 
6.27) It is a bow, for which n o:.: is the arrow and manaR the point. (::ait. 
(3.24) In order tc test their eupreraoy, the praijac leave abd reenter it. 
(Xaug. 3.1) ^hen death sa-jrificed and the praijap left him, his body swelled 
ur arid the nind was in hin, (Lrh.. 1.2.6} Tlie asuras adcreitlio body , anoint 
it, and clothe it after deatli, but thoy do not know Bralirm, ('lli. 8.8.5) 
Certain §fis nistal.enly looked on the body as the essential part. CCha^) 
*^" ^t)li;'' should ii^tVe-univ'ersn^in'Mrbbdy^^^^ Ku. 2. 49), a passaeo 

which suG£;6st8 the Gita. Tho threefold body is envolop^id in on.CPaJiv^ca) 

Body of deities Ac. I: the descripticn of the St&an, the inner ruler, 
the ii'BiKsrtal, where }-.e is treated in the ncnisti-r nense, h.is body is said 
to bej&arth, water, fire , sky, air, sun, liron, tho direction, lirhtninc> 
thunder, a'.l the worlds, all kncwledce, al] sacrif i:!Os, all beincs, broath, 
speech, si^ht, hearirr-, the ninl, touoh, brilliancy, darkness, se: on. (Frh. 
3,7. 3-23) A iJUih later parsace usee nuoh tho bbjio lanciiate in recard - . >J» 



32 
Tlifl Tody — ■^/irrrn. 

the body of H5rayaj]fi. wld.^li partli, wfttrr^ brill irjny, air, sraos, the ndnd, 

inlt<lli£nn-:a, oc^^^®'* roflo:;tion, thn toiiporainont, thfl imperlohftblo, all 

beings. (&ib. 7). Tho deity annm^ a body whon Infatuated ^ y ::aya. (i^iv. 12) 

larth is the body of sjeeoh, hoavor. of mind, and water of brent}.. (Lijh, 1.5. 

11-13). 

With the adoration of tlie word on, its body and that of its several 

letters may be thiught of. TVie Garl.aTRtya firo, the earth, and Brahma are 

eaoh in turn the body of tho a of c:. (?raliraT.v. ^-5 ), Oe has three. (i;ariid.ii.5) 

Lat«r TTjiprii sft-^ f? enphsrizo t"- o faot that thfl tkij. deity is without 
Varadot. 3 
body, (ijrij. 4.62; ^!iii4. 2;^::arad. 9.14) Yet }ie is in other be dies. (^rij. 

4.62; Narad, 5.14). A^ain, the body of tho deity in referred, to, and Sfdd 
to be lotus lil.e.(Trip. M.C.I) The great Uaya of the deity is his sport- 
body. (Trip. :.I. 1.4) Slta, (as prakrti) has bodily fonas. (Slta). lY.e body 
of the moon swells. (Fash.) 

Ritualisti? uses. As a fundamental proposition, sins are in the >^ody. 

(Tttit. 2.1^.1) Hence it has «o do rith release. (Pranag. l)By having oonfidenoe 

in certain teaohirrs, one r'.ses from this body, attains an excellent body of 

light, and abides in his own fonn. (Cfli. S.3.4). Cne whc does not Rttfcin 

wisdom before the deBtruotion of tliis body has boyhood in the created 

worlds. (Katl;. 6.4). There is a prayer V.vxt the body may be pea-:e''ul. 

CTait. 1.4.1) Also that it may be all-seeing, (llarad. 4. enu). F-y proper 

raantras, one in this body jiny see the godn. (I'rsp. 5) Tl e ascetic should 

(::ait. 6.8) 
perceive self frci. his own body. Vo 's said to ascend into his own body, 

(San.)Tlmt of tho dead is reprodu.ied th'-'-.urh tho offering of ten pir^^Jas, 

JPin.la 9) 

I;i the later Uinni^ads tho idea grows that t}.o body nay bo used as 

a means of acquiring iner'.t. Cne nay laEL^.o his eating and drini.ing an offering 

in }.i8 body. (P?™^ag. 2). Ashes shf uld he put on the body. (B]fha j . 7..4.7), 

But is especially in yoga prar;ti-;'>E t^at tlio >^cdy r.U8t ' exercised. The 



3? 
Th.e body — q.'irrra. 

tody ircvluTod by tho fire of Vofa — aooetio praotiooB — in no*, fmhjoot to 

illnons, old use, and pain--nn idaa frsiiuontly roourrinc in ti^o Yoca UpnH- 

igiids. (.jvpt. L'.l3). In this oonnootion -a hnvo an intorentinc ttnxxxijiti 

definition of tl.P word ta'.ns. SRie oonsvuninc of tho boiy >:■ 3olrtain pra-stioeo 

aooordinj- to thP soriptures is tapas. (^ai}4« 1.2). Tho body is driod up by 

tapa8.(Qrrj. ?..?) . It should perfonn penance. (Kuij^. 11). It is to be kept 

even or ri[-id in Yoca. (Yo. Ju. 71). One reioiver. lif'-i or existence fron 

oertiin fcrms of YocR. (Y<^ . '^u. S*^.). 

Correct breatinc hae ito rolation to the body in Yoga. Breath is 
rei fved from the body in tl.e bra>j;ivid aetinn. (Triq. t4). Thr. body is worn 
away like a Jloud by sar-riria jTri^, ^^) , ?rrp'-r bro-.thint. destroys the heat 
cf the Vcdy. (^'c. Y.n. l.?7). '"'en ~ivos one a slender ^c^y--erpeTially the 
pr&cti30 cf holdinc the breath^Ln the creat toes. ((yrij. 5.10; 10,24; ;|an4. 
1.4,45) 

TJie asTotio whilp 4n the body should reflect on his identity with 
Erahraa. (i;5rad. 8*5) ccul doer, not have body after merit and sin are destroyed, 
(grij. 6.51). This leads into the pear.iinistio view of the body. One sliould 
be as if void of a body. (Vara)-:. 2.29). The body ic not to be esteerted. 
(liarad. 8.36). In fact, it is tc be abandoned by the ascetic, (Narad. 3.86), 
and that of tl.e turiyatlta or fifth olas of ascetiTS, is to be considered 
as dead. (!!arad. 5. bee.). And ii: Kei.eral, the ascetic is to look ujcn ids 
b^dy as a corpse, (liarad. 7. beg.) One becoiaes a-jarira by oayir^c "''0* no". 

A 

(Varau 2.68) Tho ascetic considers knov'led:_,e as his body, and abandons all 

X 
things outride Iris body. (Marad. 5 be^.; S, end). The affections of the body . 

are to be findured, cali-il^ , by the ascetic, ("arad. 3.B'') But he is not to 

afflict )ii8 body with too much of eiti^or pleasure or pain — they would 

interfere with }.iB Yoca pursuits. (V . gi.4,5,r^; Kan1ihn-7« 5.4). TJe body is 

Bouethine kalpita or iiaat,ined. (Rair^F 1(^0 • Ooinc ^'arthar back, ILiiii. P.^liad- 

ratha considered it as scnethlnc transitory, a»jl (:!ait. 1.2) nd even 

Eijh. 4.4.12 says tliero is no roaocn why one Inowinc the atntuiBhould seoiv a body. 



34 
Tiio Pocly--'^nrrra 

Tho iK.ly cf tl'.n jrvfirnji.uktfi is ri<.>. . .»... ^Ai^iiu. ...■■/ .^.v, ,■■., ... 
is r.ct real. (Ai. r.n. 1.14) 

Ooariiottl Oorrelations, The etare are tlio body cf Prajapati. (P. 8, 22) 
The body cf *'' •■' -rp: i "il tir^i ,, uattva. (limlu. 2) 

ddlia 

Tl.e wcr.' deha is not fcund at all in the earlier rp.-.nieaiB, but in the 
later ones is mcro frequent in oTJurremo than cjarira, thcuj^. it never 
wholly supplants +i ■^ "'-'tter. Its use in tliese '■''•ivisads is very r.uci " <"• s-j.-e 
as tliat cf qaflra, thcucl. it is a little more popular in relicous use. 

The desiri] tioii cf deha takes a pesr-imiatiti tone in Kaitreyi 2.4, 
wher-- ■'■' is said uo o the impurity of ■ ' ■■ '■••.rpntg. Also in Krrad. 4.2,8, 
wl.ere it is Jesnr\bad as Tornpcsed of flesh, blood, pus, orduro, urii.e, 

>ns, r.nrrov/, and bones, "j-hpre are many bodies in the world, (Vajra.) 
The body has cnefom. (Vajra.) It is Tomross.' cf thei five elenonts, ^... 
return?: to then at death. (Triq. 132; Yarali. 5.1; Piii4n. 2) It possesses an 
iapuro' odor. (Mul.Li. Z.f^P) The senses belong; to it, bpinc called dehendriya. 
(:;ira.) It is hoatod by the fire in the heart. (Mn' an. 11.10) This fir*-, or 
heat, in the body is often mentioned, (^rlj. 5.6; Tri]. 5.5; Yo. r.u. 1.44) 
Tv,-i:r iL is oalled the digestive* fire. (7^4* 1«*1)« As tc its parts, it 
has 6 oa,.raB, If adhnras, 3 lakqya, and 5 vyonans. (Yo. 1u. 2) The qik).i- 
Bthana is in the nidst cf it. ('Jraj . 4.1; '^and. 1.4) The dehar.adhya is t^o 
fingers above the anus and tv'o below tlie genitals, (^rlj . 4.2,3) The 
tunda is a-.t, . part of ti . v Jand, 1.4) The body oontaii.es nine 

openings .-.nd nine jev/el islrnds. (Bhav.) The orown of the head is mentioned 
as jart of the body. (Kund. 21) The artery euquirjia is in the midst of the 
body. (Adva; . ; :lj. ■:.<) 

Aire. The airs, prajja, upana, en'"'f^a , >xo , are reoocnized asbeing in the 
body. (Anna. 5. 26-26; Tri^.55; ^and.1.4; Yc.Fu.1.15; 'JrTj.4.riO The ui.if.i, 



35 
.\' — dahft, 

of tie airs of lijn lUiJ pincftla suprorts'^^o >ody. ('Jrrj. ^.A?), Ab lonj; an 

air Ton+^nu«9 ''■ +hr >«ody, rr\e> l^rPs. (Yc . C!u. ?r). froath Is in all 
toiliAs, anyinc "hahan, hnhsa" , (Ilanda. 2) 

Tho 'bod:' is plnood at tho top of the soalo of lifo, crtisn boinc at 

i,..t. bottom. (Ai'iOa. S.icr.), 

One abandons tho body at death .(Kaliiij. 2; Mtirad. 1; 'Turi) . Death is 

ilaya._, 
also called dahnntn. (Avyakta^^ina. 4.54). One soparateo fro:i tho body 

• 

(£:ail84l. 2 J; the soul leave e it(Pin4a. 2; Jr:uii4 20) 

.Vental and Hetaphysioul. Pl^.iloBophioally t)ie body is distincuished 

by the faot that the e^o or hhaiii dwells in it, (Kaiias. 2.3; Narad. 3.49), 

whil( the non-rtvjc or tvn. . drells witliout. (Ra-has. 2."). "^c. fliotinc stater.onts 

in recard to its relation to tho ati:.an voice different systenis of philosophy. 

Tho suprene spirit is superior to it, (llira. ) Tho atinan is in tho body, 

CAd)iya. 56} though it also beoomes serarato -"ro^'i the body. (Anna. 2.2) 

The older Ka-^ha tells us that th jdoity is in tho body, but is torn away and 

froed froM it. (Hatha. 5.4). He is evon in t)ie body of tlie cai}4ala. (Vara!.. 

3.16). It is Oiva. (SkanJa 10; Tri.5. boi;). It is tlio house of the cods, in 

2.1 
ono of tho middle Upanigads. (gvot. ix3L4?xjiiHft3Cxffii^icHXX.-^«ft}LThe deity dwells 

in threo plaoes in the body; the eye, the rAnd, and Vix^ heart. (GaucJ. l..'^2). 

It spranc fro;:i Vi^Qu's. (Vasu). Cn tho otltor hand, tho Tody is not connected 

with the atnan (Kuijd. 15) It is anatran, or really there is no at:nan in it. 

(Adhya, 1 ; Ai-.na. 5.11) A re-jon^ilinf stateaent is that the deity is neither 

a possessor or a non-possessor of body. (Maitreyi. 3,5). ilo dcibt this 

arises fron the fact that the body is not real. (Adhya. 59, r,0).Ken'3e, one 

is really net thr- body. (^rTj . 1^4). It is pervaded by Prffii^ti. (Trip. U. 

2.1). ''aya is born in it, (Yo. liu. 2.21), r.nd works ham to it. (VaraJ.. 2.711) 

It is in the power of kama. (Trip. 'A. 2.1). It has errors. (Adhya. 17). 

It has five defects, --lust , an::er, cnt-braathin-, fear, ani sleop. (:.;aii4al.2; 

The akajadeha is a lie', t. (rhav.) The vijnar.at: .-vn is in it durinj life 

(Yo. Ku. 3.27) It becomes jTva throuch pride of jTva. (llarad. 6. bee). 



Thf. hC'ly — Iflha. 
Bu'c ite jTva is de ondonL on pror^r.. (jruj^* 1«*0« 

The body is oo. pnrol to thfi urnlftr of tin two firosti'ske, tho wori w. 
beiii;^ tlif upper and rovolvint, ono, rui ^ krc'vla^c© t)ip spark jiroJuoft^ by 
their friction. (Jvftt. 1.14; Dhyaiiti, 20). 

FeliciouB. In th<> later Upfmi^n^a, nffliotions uni restrains of the 
body play a .'ost iiiportnnt part, aa •''•11 an abstraotion, Tlio spir-^t in tho 
body is -0 be seized by reflection on tlio irystic oin. (i^vot. 1.13). By pro- 
nouncing the nasR". if or; in a certain method, an invisible body is obtained, 
(liaftsa 10. ) Fy relection on Brahna a tliird state cf universal lordship is 
attained at thr dissolution of the body. (yvet. 1.11). Tho ascetic should 
restrain Lis body. (Tri(j. 28). In a certain asana tho laeasuro cf t;.o body 
is narked on tho ground. (Trij,. rj4). It shcul'1 be. thin. Trij. IOC, 1\()) . 
Yo^a is to be porfomied in it. (Varah. ixi)iii 5.40). It is a bandho.or tie, 
because it, binds the soul. (Sarv. 2.1). It is to beabahdoned--despi8ed — by 
the ascetic, (Anna. 5. "9), It sliould lie like a stick of vood. (Anrta. 4). 
Il is &o be the only *uhinr_ left to the ascetic, ("aral. S.be^.; Tnrl.), and 

its only protection form cold and wind should be the kaupTnan, or cloth 

(Narad. 4, edd) 
wcm over the pud- ndr^. Cne s'r.ould bn an oblivious to pleanu-e an! pain as a 

body without breath, (liarad. 3.27). TVontually it should be abandoned i;. the 

caves of t'/io mountains . (Karad. 4. end). Still, ono should ro.ienber that 

he has a body (i<'arad. 5), and for its preservation :>ay beg. (Maitreyi. 2.S) 

There is a prayer tliat it nay be nourished. (Datta. 2). 

Its behests a.' e not tr be obeyed. (Adhya. 3; Akgi. 42). Its vasanis 

or ii.iar;_ination!5 are to be abandoned, ("'"rn^. 5. be^. )Iiii.ewiso its eniiity, 

2.?,1; 
pride, and p.n^er, ("5r?.d. ?.42; raixb;.. ixkj:^ , Yaj . 19; ) ; also its a'fect- 

ions.- (llarad. 3.48). The ascetic h.as a body distlncuislie 1 by l.nowledco and 

vairagya. (L'arad. '.bajj.). A cc rejt undorstandinc of the differences of 

body is obtained by reflection o . Brahj'ia. (Ilarad. 9^10). Pef lection sljould 

take pcEsession of the body. (Adhya. 9). Knovledr;Q of it is referred to. 



37 
T)»e Body — ]|urfra.dohA 

(Vtirai. 2.1L). Its oilniriiB aro to he dravn frr.n it in Yocn. (^rfj. 7.1?.). 

Thincs within !md w.lhou!. His aro to bo lonsldordd t!in saj^io. (Ar.na. l.';i.) 

The hiEhest atato is to lo without tho hody, (AdhyH. ir) . mhin is tho atata 

of ti.r< i~vn:.. ukr.a. (Mukti. 2,33)Thlr rplf>nflf» is notftasary in r,r-lor to 

obtai:. tl;o l.ij^l.ast state, (Ak^i. 41), and is obtained by eajnadlii. (Saubij. 

C.16). YPt one wit}i or vitliout thf body may obt.ain roleaao. (Anna. 5.16) 

T).rt sip^cri l>. \t is to be Mingled witl. exterior nraoo. ('JrTj . 8.1). TThon 

pervaded by bindii — hero a fcm of Yo£^a — one has no fear of death. (Yo. 1u. 

56). It is to he free frou the bonds of tine, (YO* -u. ?.34) 

Correct breathin^^ plnys its parts in the, Ycj;;a Upanigads. Tlie body is 
to bo filled and ariptied like a jar ii: tliese breath exersises. (Trl-j. S7). 
As lon£; as prajja reiaains in tho body, f«7^i« sl-iould bo rostrained. (Yo. C,u, 
inn), Thip br«at^-5r!f' '1f>stroyr tl-o Veat in thr body, ('-'o. "n. 1.'!?.}. ^Jid 
overooinos woarinesr in it. (Yo, Ku . 1.35). 

Various parts of tho body are assigned to certain deities. (Tri^, 1.41) 

One seeing ^Jiva is ir, a fortunate body. (^rij. 4.57). That of tlie yogin is 

brilliant. (ASaubh. 1.5) . Its oonnneitions arc but illusion, (ITirva) 

(Varal:. 3,1£) 
Gods, Ji3. The ddity is without body. (Kaiv, 2,2).^T!arria vas adorned 

with the body of Jar^i. (Ranap. 32).Savitr and SavitrT havs bodied fnr.o! 

like the Bun. (Sav.). The Brah)'©n4a was produoed in the body of Genoija. 

(Varaiot. 3). Ganapati toll us that Gaijapati l.aP surpassed the three bodies. 

At thri creation, oreature?^ witji large belies were oreated to frirJ.ten 

Bra}-iina on aTTount of his pride. (Varadot. 3) 

In addition to tho pessinistic natters noted above, under tho head 

of religious referer.oes, the body is inmeasurably vile, ("ukti. P. ''■7; 

Yo. Ku. 1.77; ^rlj . l..?0,ri).lt is enpty. (Lhav) . 

Tana, tMiu. 
The use of tanu begins faiir:' ^-rly, ♦.hough not in tho oldest Upon- 
iijnds. It ifl nopt fre-unnly use'', ir. solo poetioftl, '"Iguratlve, or roligiciBS 



38 
Tl-.o Lcay--tfinu. 

conneotion. It ie , l.owever, dofino'i ir Mn^ffn. 72, wl.orr it is said to 

onnp-lpt of p.ll t^'" pf»r''»'jt l-'-'^r. %it TVhon tho fin:--.!!-, in r-nrtrl '.r. V.o 

wor.ib by Jiveroo windo, Ihr body of tlie enbryo ii mik divided, r.nd tv/ina aro 

bom. (Garbha 3). The tfuniT loaseaBes fire and intelli^ome. (Varah. 5,47,49) 

Its intollicence sruna fron Acrd. (Mahnn 2..?}., and ).o ia askod to ohoor it. 

Relicious. Salutation is made to Rudra wit), the body. (:allal:iari. 72). 
lie is also asked not to injurn t. (Ilalian. 52). "jhe word io uood in a 
nnntra. (llahsa 5). Those who knov/ thr. deity havo left thr- b-dy. ('yvet. 5.14) 
The bid; is to bo burned wit) tho fire of (yivn--as3etic48in. (Brhaj. l.l'";). 
People ar- ca ed "body -dwellers. f| (Anna. 2,?>} . A divine body is obtained 
by refleaticn. (Anna. 1.??). Ke who is **rr-, from all ties is free ir tho 
body, ajnd throuch meditation bodies beoone as non-bodies. (Anna. 4.11,?5-1). 
The body is to be abandoned in Yoca. (Anna. 5.101). Release fron it is hard 
to obtain. (VarlDi. 5.3). 

Deitioi. Oi'n. The j^ross body of Prajapati oonsist*? of tho tlireehorl '.s. 
(Halt. 6.^). ihe sun is his all-supportlnc body. (:rait. 616). Food is the 
all-GUpportinij body of Vi|ij\'.. (Mait. f.l3). Ac^ii, Vayu, ";0, are the chief 
tanus of Bral^ia. (Mait. 4.'"0. Oi-. it his soun I endowed body. (:L-iit. '"■.S). 
P.udra has an auspicious boHy. (^vot. 3.[, ITila. 8), That of Agni is brilliant, 
and Sona's is effiaacious. (Erlaj. 1.1) Kygija has an a^roeable tanu. (Cropalot. 
18)= . 

7he tfum of prajja is ulso nentioned, and said to dwell in the senses. 
(Praj. 2.12). 

kaya 
Tx;e ur,e of Kayn be^ina in tlie middle U; animals, and is -Jhiefly found 
in religious or raetapliysioal oonneo Lions. It popsesses a fire, which tho 
mind excites. (;:ait. 7.11 ). That of Draupadi is ; iven as an illustration 
of bea ty. (YaJ. 5). The riuni Vyaaa was bom froii ilio body of a f ishen-inidon. 
(Vaj.-a. ). Tliintis se^-n in drea;,s, while we ar*-- in the 'ody, ari false. 



39 
Th« Body knyn. 

(GqikJ. 4.33,^6). In aflpp aleo] ono hae a roBi/londent ho^ly. (Su^. 4.K 

By niowiks of the spnoe iubt wo get a knowlodro of apao© In (jrnoral. (yaij.J.1.8) 

The deity is in the ^5ody. (VarrDi. 5.74). It r«rfcmB works, (Mahnn. 
Narad. 1) ^ 

66j 05^. 14). It is one of t}ip inetnunents by v/lii-h one porfowrs^ thoft, 

/\ 
tenefit, cic;., fuid miff ore aff li'-Jticn. ((JaijeJ. \) . It euffora trru' lea. 

(Brhana 3). The soul does not ha^© a body. (Ija l.B). 

Release fron the body is hard to obtain. (VarS^.. 5.4)= Tho inoro drj'inc 

up cf the body is not , to be near tho deity. (VaraJ.. 2.39,40). Th' mm 

Bhould net hate with it, (llnrad. 5.31) but should think intontly on Brahina 

Mind in it 

with it. (llarad. 3.6^). IX should bo con^ontrated^in Yoga. ('Jnnii. l.S). 

Throu^. 8u:!l: concentration, tho division of the body is understood, (•yoqc}* 

1.8). It should be kept rifid in Yoca and its various asanas. (Vara!:. 5.17, 

32,37; Tri9. 50, yi, 14^, ; Yo. Cu. 71; gancj. 1.3) 



vapu. 
Vapu is used only in '.he lattr Upanigals, largely in those dealinr 
with Yoca. It is sprung from one's parents, (Adliya. 6). and oonponed of 
filth and flesh. (Adhya. 6). Tfe?p=^ 

The yocin views his vapu as a oorpse. (Parajoali. 2J-, TurT). Yoj^a 

5.87 
Bi-.ould be praTtioed with it. (Yo. Ou.&gX). Tretiblinc of the body indioates 

a nediun degroo of "o^a power, ero^t on*^ a high degree. (Trij. 104). A 

resplendent body is obtained frcr lindu, a fonr. of yo^a. (Yc. Cu. 5. '3). 

A lean one ie obtained from l.uir>bliaka. (^oji^. 1.7.14). It goes to rest. 

(Vara}.. 2.66). That of raan is not released, (AdhyS. 5..S). It should be 

Avadh. 
employed ' booking, bathings, &cj. (AvaHH. 24). 

The deity l.as pr.i^avn as his body, (ilaya. 2). That of IlayagrTva is 
praijava and ud^rt}in. (Trip. M. 2.3). Thn sun and noon do not possess a body 
for th^. jrv5in:;wkta, (Anna. 4.30), nor dc they shine for ono wh6 is in tho 
highoet state. (Rudral^. 40). 



40 
Tlio Bo(l7--krilft\'nr?i 

' '.ru if used >^ut a *"ev/ lii.oc, it ig rolo/isod iii doat;h. (i-,adu. j..-, 

Jhitt of tlin dftlty beoones ai\ c^|erl»inr and ©mits rnjru. (Ihidij. 2) 

lyarikarci ur.dorstar.ds MTna in Pra^. Z.Ux 2-4 to nean tho Vody, thour^h 
it does not ijossess tliis ::;eaninr elBev.hero, PriT^.--. is soifi to upholl it. 

a r II F R A L 1 on: s t i t u f i: t r . 

The Bones . 

acthi. 

There is les- mention of the bonos in t)ie Upani§i^,s tlun cne ndcht 

expect, in view of tl.eir ijiportanoe in tl.o ^ody, >ut as tho vriters of 

tlie Upani§ads dealt iminly v/ith exterior things, this is not surprisinc. 

Asti.i is the only v;ord used. They ocngtitute cne of the .-jrT-pcnenis of 

the body. (Malt. 1.3; Jtma. 1; Uarad. 3. 48; 4. "1; Tri'^ . 5; Kan^har. 17; 

Yaj . 5)They fom one of the six ko.^as or envelopes of the 'body, (iuudg. .3; 

Vcirajr., 10) Tliey firo one of the 15 parts of tlie atnian. (Tait. 1.7.1). 

They correspond tr. tl;© inner wood of a tree. (Byh. 3.9.18)The "body is 

Mait. 3.4 
h; ilt up tiy ineano of thejii. (xxxxixxSxftfi) . They are the pillars of tho 

body. (rSrad. 3.^'),lv the tri-elf.nontal s'lhei.ie of Ch. 6.5.3 they are 

but wjarir. says they are formed froi: earVn. 
said to >,e cjonpc sed of thp scarsfi r.art of the tejar. consvu&ed- Garbha 2 

says thit they are developed from siuiyu, or sinev.-, thoucl: the word also 
suc^eatojartilajje. Rartha 5, in ito exa^t enujioraticn, says that there 
360 bones ii. the body, as compared with the 200 usually c^von Vy Anatonies^ 
not in^ludinr ti.e teeth. They are per. -eated by the naga air,(Tri^. T ,8; 
:}an^. 1.4), and its 30."ipanion airp. (^rlj. 4.30). They }ir»lp to bujtoi'. 
kanda. (Var3.. L..?l). Tho one in the MddlG of tho ba5k is like a lute- 
staff. C^rTj. -.10). 

I L. it orthy of note that tl:' only spooifio bones r.itntioned ... • 
th.i buoibonc*, the rib, tho frontal bono, and tho skull, whioh are disoussfld 



41 
rci.es aathi. 

hero alcnc ^'^''' . .rtc of thr ^oay in . f\r© found. 

"";;•. " ^rJtrJLi . ^' . ' -••'-■' of ty roM^ors, who *}i ucl.t thoy 

were soiaethin^; else. {,Ti^h. r.9.rfi). In tho Mystioal ea-irif iio, thoy nro 
Vt4r jn-.ti" n.rn versos, {^i. ".10.1% 

'..■.:-.,.■ it; soKetliinr no$ dnpomlont en 1ion©3. (!:ira.) In u ujitra they 
aro said to beo^si© as a oakra cr lin^rrun. (Vasu.). iphoBe cf thi dead are 
reproduced vdth tlie fourth ri'i>ia ^^^ °^ '^^'^ ^^"^ offered. (PilJ 4^IJ}. 

no8.:icr.lly , the lacuntnii-.s are said to ho jroduoei frr.i'i thr hones 
of Prajapati. (£u"^. 2). Those of the sacrificial horse in the great a^vrT- 
riodlm Eire the oorntellations. (I^rh. 1.1.1.}- They fcni the fraiae of the 
figjiirative ohu.J.(.L. (.Iha^j). 

Fie all mansa 

Urx.sc. fleuh, is fre^u^ntly monticned as one of the aoni-cnents cf 
.feu .cdy. ^.oii. 1.7.1; Ilait. 1.2; Zt::ia. 1; £'uh. &; llarad. '.-tS; 4.?C,2o; 
Trij. 5; Adhya. '; Yaj. o) . It is cne cf the six envelopes of the tody, 
(liidr. 3; YarrJ.. 10). Th*^ hcdy is s:.oaroi over vdth flosh. C--^it. ?.'*.; 
!;.^rad. 3.46). It is ccii-pcsed cf the nediui:: ©leii-olit cf tJiO food 3onsu;:,od^ 
j.jcre. . ;: to earth. (Gh. 6.5.1). ^]v.r. alsosays that it is scnyosed of 

earth, "n th-- fc.^tu'5, it is rii^ \c he le-relcp.-'d frcin fclocd, and frcr it 
fat is dovoloj.ed. ^Zca'y..:i. Z) There is ^. hall cf flesh pxd hlcod ii". iho 
heart. (Su^. 4.11). 

.,.-••,-.': r' flesh aoiapesin^- thn hch; -rr li/.© the vxcd of tr^tes. 

?^h. r...-^:,;. :i6sh i? udrrtha. .((Hi. ".ic.i). 

«» The ouBtcn cf stirrinr the regains of a fath.er or other relat i 

',he funern.l lyr*-, wit" ^.-..er, that they may he the hetter 3on3'i:,flJ , is 

referred . ' declared to to not r'»7r'"h»»rsihlo, s'noo the Bjirit has 

The flesh 
departed, (CJh. "^.IS.?). Shat o^ n woian is to he avoi.'ed hy the asootl^ 

;Y~.j. :). CcBto dees not ccr-^" •-•:■. ,'"r~.) '' •• '■^— ■ '' *^ -■» '"-^' 

ie refrcduced hy the cfferini, t>f I'm- 3«aond of pijy.i.:iB. ^^i^i^'^ •) 



■',2 
Fleah- 

o:.l- tJ.O'- '' '.1 ojpntin;, o' '" ^^ :. -• -• . 

• vedae, cn« tthonld nako ri nea'^ :onfi5.ntlni^ In r^*^ ^' ''^'^ 
flonh cf An '^x, Pithftr old or ycunr;. C'ttk r,-^.!?!) TV/1.R pfl-suliar BO?tl'n 
vriil' a-.; -u " ■ ii old Olio, A r.uaV. later raoBEii^fl tr-ils uc tlifxt flosh is 
not to te enten "hy Bal-.udn}.ii8, n olasr cf ancotiTs. (FhUsii). A^ftin, the 
ae^eti' desirpe to be regarded as l.f» flosl. of a oow. (llarad. V. T'^lO 

Tl.e flosl. rf t]:A a'jVfUiift.Uia is Eid '. tc bo tl.e clcuds. CTr}.. 1.1. 1\ 

Blood .. 
rudhira 
lefererces tc th"> '^Icc'. arr iiot trerj' nur-orous in t'le •*: an'-^p-uB. 
r, not loss than fivo difforont vcids are ueed for it, Tho old 
wo:-^ niai.irii ilt:^-^ Ui),curz in Frl^. r.5.,?C, v/hore it is saifl that hlcod 
flows froiu a man's riiin, lii.r eap from barit. llarad, 4.7 irieintions it as a 
part of the body, and Karad. 7. ^oi^. t'^Ur us thnt nhi is Lo bo locked 
oi; as bleed by ar. as.'^etio — lY.n^ io, it is ic ' v uvcl'led, 

lohita 
Loniia is n oonnecticn of thfi sa/.f root, and otiually old in its 
U8ai,t:. Rc nil" - r?;. It is :ci.»rcsoJ of th- rieiiic. olonpnt of the vater dnrr.k. 
C^h. r,:,z). Ai IclX,. ii ^orj. bc.c* Lo ^no Y/aior vi^on^e it sii'..^. ^^ -i,... 
?.".l?). A b-ai of blood found in the heart is the nourisfei.ent t'xd vit.or 
of Irdrp -imT •'a ■.v:r,-,^ H;.-, ^,:,'r^s d\.6llinr in tJ.o ey os. (llait. 7.11.?) 
A lutr}- "ui-oiafivu Bi-ea/.B cf a ball of flesl. and blood ii; tho homU 
(Sub. 4,11). 

■jcnita 
gonitu ai-ioai-L :_..- -L. .... ^arly, >"if ""t r r..-- rf th-" oldp-*U::. '- 
s:. ■ ;;.entioried as one cf tlie j -i.i.8 of li.o iv. .;. '. -'-« 

1.:). r. ■ . . -.red with it. C::Sn.!. ?.■•'•}. It ir, cm r." the six 



43 
Fired, y . 

part of one'B f. ., A froii it is developed u.c flocKk, (Garhl.a -) . 

sor-C'r ir: t ' p wor^ , it fonnn tl.'^ eii-bryc. (CarVhu 2). It h©l:r 
lu Bu.-i-oumi u.O' Jtanaa. i,.u.-i. oi t... uolu _t. *■■ ; ro'lucf^id wit}'. Ihfi sf'Corid i^ i^ic 
of th© ten offered, (?in4a 4), In neJion. 20. "r. there \r a prayer tU^t it 
nay 'be pure. 

raktti 

Raiitu is used only ii. le.to Ipanignis. It is jcmpose.i of watrr, (Q^r.) 
It is a part of the tcdy(YiTj. 6), one of thr; six Xojas (Variil-.. 10). It is 
Efirara-te! 1-; prajja. (ijan^. 1.-^). It is Jriovl up "by thf. i apid flicht fifter 
dei.th. ^i\ , i»u. 1.70). liira. infon.;B us that caato doen net consis-t in 
tlood. 

asrij 

Asrij uiso aprears oiay in thf. later Upanigads, thcur}i it it edi 
old vord. It is ai; elenent of the tody. (Trij. 5J llarad. ?.4£, 4.2S}. 

Aji ur." Ic-r.tifiotl v crd ImIIr us l^.a'. ttidai tlood is tie oil in the 
firiirative ahariot. (Cliajj.). 

F ri t . 
i.iedas. 
Fat is also infrequently mentioned ir the Dpaniga'ds. T^vo w^'ords are 
used for it. reias io tl^o ixre ccw.on v/crd, '^^xi is a little anM^}<UB, as 
it laay also mean lymph. Tt is first mentioned in Ilait. 3.4 as ciro of the 
inpurities of the ^ody. It Is several tines mentioned as one of the conpo- 
nents cT the body,[Cu\-. 8; War . ' '• Tri-j. b) or one of its six \.cyis. 
(VarS.. 1.10) In the entnyc it ariees frori the flesli, iUid fron it, in tun., 
oonerfiViie sinews. (Oar'bha 2.) It eurroiinds the kanda. (Vai'S}.. L.2l). The 

-w' " ^SkxAn cf the fat in the hody is r prastha or il.,« gxot'.a, ;.'.ur}.l.a «) 



■".4 
Fn.t — »a«a.i'iO(lnn 

;:einn is lupntionol cnie in Tcnueotion wiL. ... mSlSmrntrft ir. Kuia.". . 

Tl.e aacot.i: laiet rot.ul.'\to lila diet, to provent increase cf fat. (i.uijt,i rv^.C) . 

vasS 

Vaon ic used "but on:o, in Mait, 3.4, wliero vasu ie laontionoil ae ono 

of tlio icifurities of thA body. As ni<»dH8 is woritionod in the boiuo lie',, vasa 

must V'.^ scr.otliinr diffe:oiit, but is evidently some oily or fatty Butatnnce. 



ii a r r V . 

naj j&. 

. Majja is iuentionod froi. the oarliest Upani§ads on. It is in lotin like 

t'e T^ith of a tree. (B^h. ?.,9.P.B) It is r^oiuposed of th?} laediius eleriont of 

lo;..^ ■jv,i.t.u>..aa. i-Z].. P.r.3). It is aj iinjAirity. (Mait. 3,4). It i» is 

repeatedly menticned as one of the parts of the body. (Tait. 1.7.1; uait, 

1.?; X^aa. 1; Ilarad. •4.2r.,2S; r!.48; Trl^. 5) It i s ono cf tlie kc^as of the 

\^ral. 
tody, (lludi^. ?; Varah. 1.10) It surrcunds t; e ahji ir.. (TrS.. i/.lO) 

Garbha 2 tolls us that it is devoloj-ed from bone, and t)iat semen is 

produoel fron it. In Carbha 5 there is a puz~lin£; mention of [00 najjae in 

the- tody. Iho scholiast sui^^ests lausoles, but t)iis hardly sePius likely. 

If the passage is not corrupt, the writornay refer to sectionc of marrow 

in different bones, an.l p'^rhaps imludo the apparently separate grannies or 

as woll as laarrow 

sections of the brain. Persian na;^az means brain. cuiI is etynolocio-liy 

»^ A 

coiinftcted, xhro'j£h Avestan naaca and ♦Pahlavi inazt;, and this riay throw 
sonb licht on the sxibject. 

Jiarrc'.v is nentionod as feed in Cli. CIS. 2, v'nero it is t^Iig lailo cf 
one vhc knows the yajnayiuiiya sSan, interwov.-.n in the body, not to oat 
marrow for a year, cr not at all. The jonneotion seojps to be that he doas 
not liave need of tliis choice Morsel, as his knowledge niakes hixn gre .t and 
itrcnu without it, 

Jlr.jju is qc'JlcI to be the ni.ll::nii or cadenza in tlio sacrif 'cial ohant, 
(Gh. 2.19.1) The jiarrow of the dead ^9 r-^rrcduced by tho 4tli pi'lj'^ of *1'0 



4b 

ri ».nv. n-- r.1,11 , nn.-.vi.. BIlKv;'.]. 

Snayu and ^■nav..il, ovi lei.ily vuiihi.le, aro Iho words used for siiisw or 
tendon. Not i;iuoh is eaU a^out then. From the older Uffanigade on they aro 
ro'sociiiB'^d HB a oocipi nent of th'-body. (Tait. 1.7.1J ;:ait, 1.-; Karad. -.'"; 
4,26; AiiV'*^^« ^''> ^^i' ^) '^^**'.' fcm one o*" t)ie koQfiB of tl"ie body. (Mudj,,. 2) 
t: ey urf like th(^ innor ^ar>. of a tree, (Bijh. 3.9.28). ^hoy bind the V-ody 
tci^6t)\r-,r. (]:arad. 3.4''). ^hefe are 9')^ o^ thori. (Oarbha 5) They aro dovol- 
oped from fat, !md from th-n cones the bone. (Sxkk Garbha 2). They aro the 
harness of the fijjurativo ohartct to which the body 4s likened. ("JhaiiO* 

The Ckin 
tva"; 
Tvai is s slicJitly aiibijjuo^ v'ov^ , as it is used not only for thfi 
skin but nine fc- th<^ sense c^ tov.ok . But its ninin use is for the B/:in, 
and tlie relaticns of tho two idens a^o io close tliat it is hardly necesrary 
to do uorp than call attention to the dual lueaninc of the- word. 

From the earliest tin-es it sffunction as the orron of touch was 
recognized. It is the sitfl of all touch. (B^h. 2. •'..11; 4.5.12). It is one 
of the fett rs of ^.raspers of the body, 'navinf touch as its fumtion. 
(Brh. 3.2.9). Later Upanigads repeat this faTt. (Garbha 1; llarad. 6.bec.; 
Tri^. l.beg.; ) Oarlrika nentions it as the or^an of touch, anl adds that 
its fi.ld of activity is the ait. It is one cf the knoweld£;e senses. 
(Varah. 2) It is ono of th--: six envelopes of the body. (Varai, 10; llud^, 3). 
It is ono cf tho frnan of prakiftl. (Gar.) It is one fcf tho sevf-n eleMonta 
of tliO body, ^d ono of its 1^ powers. (Bhav.). It is one of thf^ parte of 
the body. (Tait. 1.7.1; fcia Utrna. 1; rnpad. 4.2*^; Yaj . 6) Tllood flows fron 
it like sap fron the b.-irk of a trr.o. (Bifh. 3.9.28) One '?nn not take food 
v..i,i. itj if ihis '.vor possiblo, tl.* mere touchinj;; of fool would eat'sfy. 
Uit. ?.7). 

The late Tri^. 3onnetn it rit). t>io element fire, and the Yoca 



46 

I'laniqauE say tl.at it ia i-fln.oatfl'. by the ii^i^u air. l,JrTj. 4.30; Trij. £1; 
i^aij^" 1.4} It is fnlpo said to aover the Knnin. ((^rij. 4.4). 

Prajai.ti tJicuc^t, "If l/.C' sMn Tnols, thnn who ri I". (Ait. r*.!!) 
This tni.OE! clear the (ii8tin:;ticn belwoon l ho aolf and tlio sense. In Joop 
Bleep tva':, wit}, its uhjojt, attains to the doity. (Pru]. 4,8,S). 

Tho skin p' luan is likenod to the outer hark o*" treoB. (Erh. 3,9.rE) 
It is alc4 identifioJ with the ri-.'stava hpuna in Oh. 2.19.1. It ir the body 

£.1 

of the antarywuin. (Bjfh. 3. 7. 11). 

Onn who r.od-ltatfii on the mysti-; or. is freed fror sin, as a snake 
Biou^iiB His tu.in, (Praj. 5.5) The slouchinc of thr skin by a snake is 
also mentioned in (A^.si. 13) The sannyasin sl^ould restrain hinsol" so as 
not to fool with his skin. (Hah. 4b. 2) tva-; oorrosi-onds to a certain 
syllable in a nantra. (RSoiap. 77) That of tho dead is reoreated with the 
seoond pii}4^ Of tlie tt-n offered. (Piijija 4). 

Oosmioal Correlations. The skin of th^ primal nan split , and fron 

it oaxiie forth the hairs of the body. (Ait. 1.4). Again, tlte shrubs ani trees, 

skin 
beionint hairs, entered the ka^. ( Ait. 2,^). The skin is the ::onvorirs^ 

of tho ahariot in Ihag, 

oarrnan , 

Caiman is mentioned as one of the parts of tl;e body. (Tait. 1.711; 

Meit. 1.3; It:.S. 2) The body is ^oVered -over with it, (Mait. 3.41 or bomd 

3.46' 
about witli it. (llarad. 4x88) . It is developed from earth. (Car.), -jihe 

pudenda of a wowari is nerel; a pic^je of skin split in two. (llarad. 4.30) 

The skinbf a woriams likejiAd to a firo injtlio Adha Upasana Bairifi^e. 

(B^iu 6.4.3). 

Caste is not dependent en skin. (i:ira^)Ono should sit en tlic skin of 

a tiger in worr.hip. (pauirfi).. 3.r). 



AiTcn is a word whi -h }\«s a Tiroftl vieo to denlj^nate pnrtn of ftnythin(; 
ajHrt frf!" itf< u:^»i to 'nHvit.-. a ; art of tl:*^ body. Eoth theoo usee extond 
throxi£l.out tlio 6ntii-n Ui^cuiisad poriod, 

Farly mentions aro that prtujn is essei.titil to the liff. of tho linba, 
for fj-oii whatfvonBnenber Y<T3x^r. roes away, that limb witJ.ertj, (Bi^h. 1.3.19). 
The liiLbs are held ^-ogetlier by air — Btnmc together as by a thread — and it 
is n saying that the linbs o' a dead person liave beooino unstninc. (BjcIi. 
3.7.S), or rel.-jced. The (subtile) body is r-ilr^ased fron the limbs. (Frh. 
4.3.36). 

Of the five vital airs, vyana is duffused throuj^piout all the limbs. 
(Anirta. 35). Samana oarries tho fine element of food to each limb. (Mtiit. 
2.6). A late yot,a U:anifad tells us that diseasor of tho lijyibs may bf 
cured by concentrating the air in tho affected members. (Trij. 23). 

All tho uninjured limbs constitutp the Vody. (;.(ahaii. 7^^ The tojas 
or essencje of bJ.1 the lij'ibs constituter. semen. (Ait. 3.2). The son springs 
fron Ids father's linbs. (Kau§. 2.11). Whsn a v/oman is impregnated, the 
sei'ion becomes like Iv^r own limbs, and so it does no* h.-:.nfi hor, {Ait. 2.2). 

The limbs may possess beauty, (ITarad. 4. "7), and soundnoss, (Anna, 
3.15), while wearines? is caused by the exorcise of them, (Sav.). 

Hetapl.ysical, faji-!ifyl, .'.c. Tho deity lories in contact \rith tho limbs. 

("Jirae. 4^. Breath is the essence of tho limbs, hence it is called anrirnsa 

(fon ani^a * rasa). (Erh. 1.3.6, 19). niidlarly tho udcxthc is the essence 

of tlie liribe and anj.;ira8a. (Oh. 1.2.1 ). '''h^ yajaniyn hymn "s interv/oven 

with variouR m'^m^nrs o' tVe ^nd^' — the hair, sltin, flesh, bone, xnX marrow. 

(Ch. 2.19.1). The ten sor.so organs sure said to bb the llinbs o] ninij fro.' 

int6lli£en::e, prrJi';T. v^aug. 3.5). The eoul is said lo bo eovnj limbed in 

( Varadot. 1) 
its wai.inc and drea inc states, ('lijsp. 4.1). Subtile (sul.^n.^) linibs are 

obtained after doatl,. (Trip. :r, 2.1). Perfect l?j^bs nay bo obtained 

ti.rouj_h i'.nowled£,6 cf certain philcpcrhi- f-ir-is. (Gh. 2.19.2; 2.20.2). 



48 

Tho LinbB «uTc;a. 

In on l>la^6 tl.e wai.inc etatr is anid to havo eij.t liJ.bB, {^Sral. 
8.8). Tho Bcul is snid to havo three linTss. C^fvou. :■>) Karl Is saii to la 
in tho liiabs of one. (4«r. 27). Tho limbs of t):r. wore! '.n-or ftn thrcu-h 
tho .riost identifiol with the 8nor5fi'!ial vos^iis. (Kan^haj. 1). Tho 
licibs of tlie kuijlnlinl aro erne mentioned and said to be fine. (Advay.) 
The deity is said to 3cne in contact with the limbs. (yir as. 4} 

As an illustration. tlif> tortoise is said to gather his liinbs together, 
and o. e should in the snrno wr.y draw in hin senses. (Kjuri. 3; llara'.. 3,74). 



49 
The lliibB--»uTt,n 

R<»lit,icuB. Tl.tf lijihs ar'> iiontlnnpd (hero luCkf nnca>:u) in a ohnna 
They are nihbfll In a Thnni:, (Kaug. .".?) 
Iiirin- coition. (Hrh. fi.4,9), Lnter Upnni^afls revel \v. the une of t)ie 

linlis in rnlicious arnl ritualistis ways. One lino of treatment in jresontod 

trijuij^rn 
by t}ie ru>> injj of aBhoo or j.iittinc t}iO trwtei til!ik<\ or >JtJnnm) it ^i i on 

vai'ious ptirtp of the tody. Aalies are mentioned in Bifhaj . 2.?>2; 4.,?; 5.19; 

Dmerift. 2; Dakg. 8; ). The tiln,.a, generally of sandnlwcod paste, is 

enjoined in vjtsu. , Gcjd. b,2,. Tut in vr-^n the linbs hor.cnr^ very inportar.t. 

To Verin with, rm» ^\th '^e'^e-'tivo liints oan rot tioTone nn asoatiT. ('*arad. 

1,'irv. 
3.1jThen aone munerous rather indefinite mentions of tlieir einiloyinent in 

Yo{;,a, usually f ollowe '. by spooifi'; aoimandF as to vhat is to he done '■"•ith 
eaih menler concerned. ( SauT^h. bee.; Saras, bee; Da^-§ 15; D.u.5. 1; ) 
Usually the enplcyrient of eicht liiubs is enjoined, (Triq. 2.1; Ka-^har. 6; "J 
Crlj . l.",'t; 5.?.; Varadct, 6; VaraJi. 5.10)whi^h nay be nadf. t,uro by roj eat- 
ing; ~ "lertain r;antra, (liaya. 4) Once the employment of six limbs is oo/Jianded. 

And on'^e tho res'-rr.int of the eij^ht limbs is a hanJha. (llira) 
(Yo. Ku. 2.r6). T}:f.-ir abraidonment or ovenotainc is also a ne-^essary tldnc. 

K 
(wukti. 2,42; Haya. 4; ) Soiietines tliey are to be rubbed in y-ga. (Yo. CJu. 

41) They are to be employed in asaiif.s (Trij. 34) They should be kept fixed 

or tigld in Yoca. ("icar* 1.1.; 2.4; Mandnl. 5.1; ). Patliinc of ther: may be 

abandoned by the liirhor type of asceiia. (Turi). V.y Ycf^a praTti^eB the 

linibs nay be made pure aa fa: as the nssults cf karma are concerned , 

(i'.un], 6). V'omar. is a trap for the linfee, f-in-l bindn tlien', (Yaj. 5,11). Thoy 

Bhould be used in honorinj; Rama, (Raciap. SO). 

Deties Ac. Roforences to the limbs of the deiti^los are late as a 

rule, though Kena 4.'?^ tells us that V f. Vfi,i--ir are the li;bs cf fra! ria, 

and Tait. 1.5.1 infoms us that the vya},]^tia ar'< liiB notbers. Gopi. 5 also 

makes the Vedas the limbs cf Fi^u^a, The limbs of Brahj.ia are red and 

white. (Dhyana. 12) Tlie pitannl.a himself ' f. an rtnf' cf tl <^ n^iT-ro;o Col. 

fSr. 1) Indra worships vdtV. 'owed limbs. (K.asr. 21 Ctl.er roferemosTto 

indue© men to employ tl eir liiiba in wcrefeip by showinj, that t}.e cods did 

xaxazaxx 



cortaii; thin^js. Prajajnti vi>v f 1 lo aionr hit^wjt.v ;id on. ("Jlrau 5). yivu's 
aro siiearp.l v/it,}. asl.os. (^urij. .'^; R5m:\rji}.. Z.^2; ) Gcujuputi's aro alrmod 
with rod. (Gana). Fnrt}ior dos'-jrirtionn of the lirabn o^ tin doitios are 
that tl.osa cf Jiva are notlp. (^^ari^. ?). Sarasvati lias l.andsoruo liiiba. 
j^Saras. bo^^. ) • TiilBsr 1oli£;htB in the lijnbs of Vi^iju. (Trip. .'{. 2,2). 
"plioso cf Dr- ^ogauTM resjlendont. (Tr-'^'. )'. 2.2). Sfti, Lai'.flirian, KfUivuo.'^ria , 
iii. , ar« o«\l«1 +.h« l^r">>5 o' Pwpr.B*, and bo is tho praijava. (l^amara}.. 1.'^). 
The liints of Roma vor;^ beautiful, (Kaoiap. 32) and lon^;. (Ramai . 52). 
The lirits of th© j^ods ar' i. arinations. (Raiuap. fc). Tho touoh cf the linbs 
cf tho deities produces vajra. (ilud^. 2). "^hc a of or. has red lijibs, the 
u white ones, ajid the m blaok ones. ('Jaij^. 1.6). The liwbs of tho inantrara^'a 
arf. several tines referred to. (]-'^Bp. 1.2-5; 2.2) 

rf[tra 
OSxra is icu d only in later UpemigadB. They are pervade by the 
sanana air, C'^Snl. 1.4J Tri-j. HC) , while the air Hhananjaya oorries away 
tliP ^eauty of a deal liiife, (Tri-j. 8r), Ty ru^hinc ^hoii in water, they 

becone fin-i raid slender, a thine ^o ^® desired In Yo^a. ('Jaij;}' l-'^- •)• 

o 

Those cf the as'Toti-! should be pure, (llirv.) They are to b» :;tlcnless m 

Yoga. (;'an4-'^l« 3.1). Anrta 12 rives prantioally the sai e ooraiand. "^hey are. 
not tc trBusb^e as the yo£,in thinks on tho word on. (Yc. iji. 1) '^hry are 
affenc.d in the fipst and second nethod'- of soundinjj the v.ord on. (honsa 
10). Ashen ^oro to to be ;ut on the lir*"? fcr purif irsation fron the iir 
of PrHl-a-ian killinr. (Prh?\j . P.7> . 

■^arlrale^a 
^arirade-jn hardly neann lir-^Vi, but rather are part or locality of 
the body. They are places froM vi-h the Boul nay leave tlie body at death, 
Tho ©ye and the ear are so spe-i^.fied, (Tijh. 4.4.2). 



51 
Limb a- -av ay ava 
Avayava, linb or luaiabor, is usod a fflw liiriSB in Llio luto Upaiiigado. 
Thoy belong to the body. (YaJ . 19) That whioh has lixibs is temporary; that 
which )iaB not Is etomal. The deity •" s v.-Uout limbs. (Trip. M. 2,3) Tho s^ine 
;assa4iO tolls us t}iat avidya or icnoranoe, as a general prinsiple has ::oabore 
and that in netaphysioa 3ortain tilings havo fcnii, akara, but not neuibers, 
avayava. AIbo the higliest stato of the soul is without parts. In Tri-:. 120 
tlie word is used in Tonneotion with the liinbs of the body, whom omons oaoup 
ring in the avayava forotoll deatli. In Slta different avayava are due to the 
manifest : ower of the deity, and in Narad. 6 beg. the 25 elovieni.s tattvani 
of tlie a&jetie are his limits. 



b2 
J. — . — nftninii 
IfRnnaii cloeB not ui/joar in tlifi oldflr I'lian.iijHflB. Tt boo. b to rofer 
to vitfil 8pots--whero on© nay re^eivft a tiortal wonrd--a8 well nB to weri 
arti-iulaticns. Ir Gar>-hti 5 ti.ero are said to to 107 of thflM, >ut w,-. .•,r« 
not tolfl vhoro tjioy ore loop.ted. A late Yoca Upanigad, }icw©vor, ami:aerat08 
1& iian-aotliSna, but in this passaj:.© the word hardly weans noro t}>an a i^art 
or tliP body. The If^ are as follows. 1. ?ii^ toos. 2. j^m.les. 3. Lero. 4. 
Thi£li8. 5, anus. r>, her.rt, 7, pt^-nis. 8, nidtoiv, 9, nnvol. 10, neok, 
11, elbow . 12, pnlat©. 1?, ncso,. I'', «ye. 1^., r.ideyobrcwBt. If', f cre> end 
17, k "AS. 18, har-^.s. C^ri-j. l''P-ir,'^). This list is civcn a^^r. in ■Jaij4. 1.9, 
witl; two alterations; 8 is the oavity at the back cf th^ noutl , and 11 id 
tj.e crown of the head. They are to be cut, forgotten, re" axed, in Ygc^. 
(K^uri. ir,13,14). 

sandhi -^^^ 

Garbha 5 tells us that tliere aro lEO, sandhis^ii; the body. Deussen 

tai.es t}.is to ciaani sutures. They are evidently different fron the nari.fu-iS 

MeAticred above. That of the eyebro'».s on the forehead is referred to in 

2£kxx2 Jabalci 2 and Raiuct. 4. T^ey aro Mentioned as parts of Vi.e body in 

Yaj. 5. These cf the hands and feet are permeated by udana, (Tri^. 80); 

in fact all 't tlift::. are so penueated. ('Jai.^* 1«4). 

i 
cranthi 

Grarithi is ; :erely mentioned asx a part o^ the body in Ya j . L . 



parvanl. 

The "Br"«rl of thn horr-^ "r. the alvtL' Ouha are sal! tc be the lacntho 

r » 

and half nonths. CP?h. 1.1.1.) j-rr-<^ -«-o a^^o^J t'^^t^^y.^^^^^^jU^jJLj c^ 



5" 
FnvelcjiOB — kcjn 

Tiie rooocnltion of flv^ iiotftphyslk^al ko'^n.n or eJiftfithts to thp bouI 

■3 fi very "oirxn thine. Thero aro (*j.«c six r'atorial o). oaths nontior.fti. 

Thoy aro 6mu:i©rat0d ae followe in Mudc,. 3, and Vara}.. 10. Skin, flosl., blcoi, 

bone, sine\v, loarrow. llaitreyi ".17 speaks rf thp soul as b^in^: froe froc 

the six ko^ns. 

Elei'enlB dhatu 

Seven elements or dhatus are luentioned . Fhnv. r'^.^o^nizeB seven, hut 
nentions only the skin specif i Tally. Shey are ei.m'.eratod ae follows in 
Triq. 5. Birestive fluid (rasa), tlcod, flesh, fat, hcno, narrcv, sor.en. 
They increase when rasa increases. (Varali. 5.46). 

tattva 
Var3.. l.iA 1-4 nentions 24 tattvr\ belrn^inc to the body. They are 
the 10 senses, the L prarjas, tho five sense ohjeTts (sound .lo), find the 
four powers, lonstitutinc the fmtalikar&i3a--that is, .'anas, buddld, oitta, 
and ahankf!ra. 



Giralea — Takra. 
The Takrfi or aircles rf the body r^'"^'.' '^" iinportani- part in the 
late Ycca exercises, though unkown earlier. Ordinarily six of thni . are 
re.?o£.niaed, (Varah. 5.5?, ^.d see below). They are tv/ine emunerated and 
looated) in Yo. CIu. ?. , and Yc. Ku. ?.r9-in. Thoy^e as fcllov/s. 
l.adhJIra (nOladJiara; = anus 4. anahata = heart 

2. 8VK n.istj.aria = pudenda 5. vi^ulillia = neok 
maijij ura 

3. ouuuaixx = navel fi. n1na-!r:krn = forfl}i6nd. (nasthka) 

In Kaiisa 3, though they are nr.t aallo 1 or^.ra, thoy ar.: ea-ih entioned 
by nai'.e, and after the adhara has teen ^.Icsed, the Vreathjls tc be dra- n up 
throucli the recicinin£, aakrae in th*^' crlnr- nf tVolr Pniu'/^ration. 



54 
""ir^les — Takra 

SauVhac. ? har a sohor.e of nlr.o oakraa. Iios. 1 to Ij arc tho sm.o as 
fcivmi Hbovf, 6X3ort chat 5 1b oallod kant^haoar ra, and ii corroajjcndR to 6 
r,r *:. ordirJiry r^I r.nft. Tut betv^on tlio viguddhl and the ajnn":nl.r,\ two 
otiiora arft Insertod, the taluor.'.;.rn anl tht=> bhruTakra, while after tho 
ajnH--!aAra ooiiOB tho Skajanaira, ay iid n yHl ^ yK K & K KTkHK i t itA t km'iht Mix.nx ii r.Ai ix*, 
which. seei'S to ^^^ nn ir.ncinan' erct outsido r.f thn >:cdy» 

This sAejnB to bo ths iiost suitable pla-io for the i ontion of tho 

separate csikras. Th.e adhara is the first sir^le. (Yo. Ju. '"0 It is in 4 

parts. (Yc. Tii. ?) The yoni is between it an1 t).fl Bv.^lliistJ.ar.a. (Yc. Cu, 7). 

The Eralxia cir:;le is in it. (Saubh. "^^ "'t M aleo known af 'ho nuladi ara, 

riulasthann, erA r'ul'iltar'ln, '*v«n mTla. Tho artery' Buqtmnn extends froK it 

to thf) or.Bbine at the top of tho head. (Llancjal. 2; Advay. ) In Yc. C!u. 20 

it is said tliat the arten/ -jfinkli i.i goes to it. In cno pla^e it is do- 

soribed as threesornered, and situated between the ar.ua and the jenis • 

(Vara:.. L.50)The locality of tlio knr.d.i is five finrors froM it. (^rij. 4.?) 

It 30. tains a -jakti or pcwor like fire. (Saubh. 3). The kuj}(Jalinr sees it. 

vYo. Ku. I.e2). Prana is said to reach to it, t) ouch one would expaot 

l^3ftft€; hero. (yrij. 4.8 43). Gaijapati is in it. (Gaij). The deity extends 

froi; the nuladi.ara to the orown of tho head. (Trip. 1.1) Between these 

sarie two :cint8, the pa)i or betel leaf should be waved back and ^orth in a 

certain forr: of worship. (B)iav.). In one of tlie a-jariaa, the left feet is 

to be r aied below it and the rinht foot above it. (Vo. llu. ki. l.*^). 

Shubh.3 N 

Rvr^lhisty.an-. is the second circle, nd hnn six parts. (Yo. 'Ju. ',6^ 

7 

The ycni is ba'-wo r. it and the SvDiara. (Yo. '3u.iS).It it the restinr t.lace 

of prfUi.A and of the necjhra. (Yo. CJu. 10,11), It har the linc'v. (Saubh. 3). 
The la-ujij-urrika is a Ttkr^ in the navel region, (Yo. Hu. 13) thouch 
Saufc}.. 3 calls it thr. ].eart ^akra. It in eiL,iit*B petaled, and has :- li^ht 
in it. (Caubh. 3). As the naijivalbir.ba it is a cakra in the navel region. 
(Yc. :a. 0). As the nabhicai.ra it has the kuii4alinT inUt. (SauMi. 3) 



55 
The TimlOB — 3n).rn 

T1.6 nafcliikiuJdn, roif'rrinc to thn n'lvol re£don, lonns n>out, tho br: <"■ ' 'r-. 
Air ie brenD.ed into it, ('JrT'J. 7.12). By '.■■nnn- of nnnnB, tl.o jraquB are 
oonoentrnted in it, and tliis ^uros disenar^B of the stomntoh. (Tri(j, 108, IQS). 

mhe eoVo of tho ",crd tan is heard in thn Bxinh.ata. (SauV>h. 5), 

The kfU)^ha'3al:r.i ic four fin;^er'- in size, and Tontaina the artery 
i4~ cA the left and pin^ala o;; tlie ri^ht, 'vhilo aufujjiri is tetween Lhf'Jju 
.Cau^. 3). ''"i.p sjokMcf vijuddhn aro mentioned, and it is in ono : lace 
said to 'be between t?ie eyebrows. (Yo. Gu. i>). 

"■he bhruoakra is onu finj^er in size, and Tontains tho eye of knowl- 
edi;p, likfi a glowing tongue of ""laiie, ^Sau^h. 3). 

In Sauth. 3, thr ajna-^akra is said tc be tho nirvaijn oan.ra, the 
bralanarandlira. It i^ like t}:<^ rcint of a needle. ( 

^he same passage te^ls us tlmt tho akajaiakra contains a 16 petale! 
lotus. 

Openings. 

dvara. 

Iver. coiaft of the earliest Upanigrds desorib-i^ th'^ody as a oity 
eleven 
<niUi KJaui portals . (Ait. 1.3.12; Ka^ha, 5.1). These eleven portals, or 

dvara, are defined in tho ooiB.ientar^ as follows. The ears (2), thn eyes, 

(2), the j.one (»3^ . the noiith, (1), thr. "t-o below" (2), tho navol (1^, 

and the sutur-o in the skull, the Bral^inarandhrai:i. (1). As tli'' city is 

Brahria's, t'nese portals are for :;a iiAnSation wit]j the outer world. Several 

vassa^eo mention only nine openonincs. (^vet. 3:18; Y ;;a'j. 4; Yoga T. 13; 

Yo. "!u. 167,} . I.I tho Bhajjavadjjlta, 5.13, nine op.ininc<} are ;:iontioned. They 

are the s<iue as tliose ip.ven above, with tho oniiiicn of the last two, the 

nav.l -.I'd the bnJi. arcu.dl.ra. Narad. X2t** ^.'''^ ;.,-,-f'nnp » r.ly ee^'or. .u.l 

AnriH. "■.7 f-«'r«, *-v+ th" ln"t ^nsra-e refers tc the ser.see. 

In Ait. 1.3.12, the openinc in thp skull Is that by whioh *.)\6 acul 



Th' OponingB,--dvffrH. 
ojitern tl;f. Vcdy. Ct^onv^no tloir funitionn are Jofwol onljr in lata" 
Urani^iiia. Oi.o brautl.es ii. axiA out 'Jiroucl-t tiieso nino >lcors. (Yc. T. IJJ. 
Tiicwiutiy be dofilfid T.hroiirh nn untruth. (Nnrai. ^.43). Thoy are to T^o 
zlcr.oA ii. -O:;!!, Vy :ii^Jh^ of bu.ldj. (Yo. lu. 107^ .TJSrad. M). 

ran I r' .a 
Tho rai.U./.tB are exactly thf> sarif* an w}-,F.t is nontioned above. 
There are nino of th<=>r.i, a..d throuch then ordure, uxtino, ;\;::. are excreted. 
(5nn4. 1.4); E]\nv) . The air j^oee tc thr. upper rr.^ in n :5erttiin position of 
the moutli, in an exeroisi-" which is fa-jtilitat d ly pmotiTe. (Jar^d. 1.4,X^ 
1.7.30) Two of then are in the nose, and tho air is to bejoxpelled by then. 
(Yo. Ku. l.?0). One of then (tho trniU larandhra) is to "bear the tilaxa. 
(Vasu). The suguinna covers four of thes"^ openings befon it j^oos away tp 
the kx bra}ijTarandhra. >^ Uon/*^ .<>''■• 3 o ) 

Halves, 
ardhva 
The foro half of the horoo in the Q-jvai odha is tho risinu, and the 
latter half the settigg sun. (Erh. 1.1.1^. 



Chapter IV 



Tl;6 Trunk and its Pnrts 



58 
The Trunk anl ite Parts. 

Tin lolia 

Saiidoh:i io ;i rare wcrl in tho Upiuiigride, boin^ un<»l only in ilh. 

Tliw tiouii of I! p Stinan Is Vni'jvanar.i, identified with nXajf* and bftlniln. 

(Oh. [>.15.2; 5.18.2). Tho tr.>n3<of icnoran' philosorhflrr. is liable to 

lariflh. (>lh. 5. If-. 2). 

The Ba3k 

Pr*g^a Tr^vtl^ 

If a loan is touched on the baok, he knows it throu£;li his rdij^ji. 

(EJfh. 1.1..3). p\e divino lir^ht shines on tho back of all. {Oh. 3.13.7) 

The back has a bene in it like tlie staff of a lutfl — a •reraEJf.able sensible 

ccciparison froju a late Upani^ad. (^rTj. 4.10). 

R8liglo\>B.Th« ohi'^f \iff* c*" th^ "'orl is in cronnec-tion with fonnallstio matters. 

It is cno > r th-- farts of the body to receive tho tilak.i. (Frhaj . 4.19,2", 

2ii). nhis tilaka is for ilari. (Brhaj. 4.29). Or, it elxuld be put en v^ith 

nar.as to Bhima. (Erhaj.4.?l). This tilaka frees one froa sins corjsitted 

by the anus— whatever they may be, (r^haj . 4.34). Tl-.e importance of this 

rite lies in the tact that all the tTrtiiae or places of pilcriiiage lie in 

the back — that is, tho tilaka a; plied to the back nakes them propitious. 

(Briiaj. 4.24). The ascetic shoiild not have a lane back, (I!aral. 4. end), 

Oor.centrati r;; the attamtion on tlie pr^^iabhaca gives cno knowloiij^e of 

1.8 
Varuijalckn, (Jaij-j. ixA) a«niticsa.\Ti2«xTiaKKxixHauctksxkaxkxaixkjixo. 

Gautana was bom from the back cf a haro. (Vajra. )Tha ba/cks of 
di''''-^rent sacrifi-jial fires are iiontioned. (Mait. 0.33) 

death 
Cosnically, t.ho bask of tho ajv-ineilia anl that 'f thiix ii k y ar*^ 

both identified with the sky. (Pjfh. 1.1.1; 1.2.3). 

The Backbone, 
p^qt^havanja 



59 

Ti.o ta^Uxun U ueiuionol as rart of the >ody. (^tnaa 1) . that of 
tho ©mbryddevolopea in the- fifth iLonth. (Garblia 3). 

Breast 
urae 

Th«' Virfl'v •; or jhest, uras , is fi'^l '. to be nioveJ bi' tho breath, ea\i t 
tlirtn sounJ is uttered, ('{ait. 7.11.4). 

In Yoca tho breast is lo be sone'vhat elevated. (K§i;rl. 4). Air is 
to be dra'-n into it ♦'ron the ne^k, £ind fro:n the breast to the navel, 
(grij. 7.6). 

It is thii altar of t}.- Vai^vanara self. (Oh. 5.1E.12) . It is the 
altar when tho body is vie'*led a aa>r-i*'-''!o, (MnJ.an. 64.1). 

,,p«tr"i-r^lly, the '*^ody c' thr: oosriioal puniga is the earth, (iyan), 
Erh. 1.2.3). 

vaxqaB 

Vak^as is mentioned only ir. very late Upanigads. Jho tripi^Jra or 
tilaiai is to be put en it. (Kala^. 1; JabiHi). This tilakr. frees one from 
sins ooT'ir.ittod by tho mind. (Brhaj . 4.34). Xhkk Yajr'avalkhya tells iling 
Janaka '^o ;ui as er, on his breast. (E?haj . 7.1). In Yoga tho breat'/. is 
to u« Btoppod in the breast. (Yc , "!u. 114). The ait is said to rise from 
the breast in yoga breathings. (Yc. Ku. 1.15,1'"0. ^^^ jo^^ ^ ^ "^^^^ '^ 

Pressing to th--- breast as r. sign of affeHion is ir.entionod in 
Trip. }[. 2,3). 

kuiastliana 
/lu-iasihana is used onje. The tlrtlia of Kurukfetra is said to ^o 
in it.(5rrj. 4.4&) 



^0 
Ereaet or "Ipplo 

•tann. 

BtftTift or Btdjiya refers espo^ially to the femalo breast or nipple, 
thouch Boiaetines used for tlio male breast, and alrr for tli© u'lJer and 
teats cf aniiools. Th^ uvuln is said to han^; down like a st-ina, (Talt. i.'.l; 
Parab.)Thf» new born child is put to V. e> breast wit}, oettain nantrna. 
(Ejh. f;.4..'?7). This is synibolioal of thfl faot tiiat the ohil 1 lives on 
milk. (Er... 1.. .Z). Gwin^ to 'he fact that onf> is r-ipeatelly rbborr., one 
drinlis in tiiae froii neuiy breats. (darbha 4). Tlie stana is attained by 
birth. (YaJ . 15). 

The st.'ina is said to have a bij-.ba or shadow, (Tripura 11). 
One han;;,s on to the atnan as if to a breast. (Brahaia 1). 

Fallen semen is tc be put between t) e breasts or eyebrows with 
certain inantras, (Brh. '^.4.1). The Hmna Eiantra is to he worn on the breasts; 
Rama on tlie ri^jht one, inaha on the left, and Ramayaija botwoon the two. 
Raiuap. 22) 

^he variant stanya is used in Yo. T, 3, where one is said lo spring 
from it, and then to return to it i.': lust, rphis is a pessimistic passa-^e, 
deploring the low nature of man. ^nother pessimistic passace declares that 
the beautiful breast of a womari v/iii eventually be eaten by lore*. (Yaj . 8). 

payodhara 
The one reference noted is the sane as the first one f^ivon above 
under stanya, naraely, that one drinl-.s from the breast, and returns to 
it in lust. (Yo, "•. B) . 

hollow above hips 
aHka 

An/.a is usually trarislatel lap, thcu'-v It really viear.r. Vr.o .varvn 
above the hips, where t^ie Indian woMon carry their ohildrrn. l.V.en a. chili 
is bom, a nan slioull pla^e it on his af,:« , li^htinc a fire and uttering: 



ljap--ftnX.Q 

u luantrfi for thr. rvelfarn of tho ^hllil. (P^.. ^."'."-^I. rniv tor,; rTt" on 
his nnXfv after ooi.quorinL' Tavaqn. (Rmufir. 47). Kuluro is ilao borr.o on 
hie aflka. Tho moon is calle.i p:janka (havinj a hare sQu'.ei cr. hor l.ip). 
(IlSral. 9. end). 

Flank 
Rik. 

par^Tlft 

The flank, par^va , is ono of thf r.arts of the externtil to>iy. (Iiuia. 1) 
It is aiionr the parts of the "body to receivo the tiiaka, (E^haj . 4.14.8), 
whi3h is to be put on witli nai'ias to the two Iy\^ , or to Cfiva.. C^rhaj . 
4.30,31), Jho tiiaka ie to be put on the flfmki Tjy BraluinJis and Kgatriyaa, 
but not by Vaijyas. (Brl;a] . 5."). Thft tllakn-zmd a.si\Qa so appliei free one 
fron the sin of eabra-.in^ another's wifr.. (Erhaj . 4.35). Cionoentratinc the 
attention in tho flanks gives one krowledre of Nirftloka. C<3^4' 1«8)« 

Froi:i the flanks of thn Creator cene the sun and noon, (Prhaj . f",.12) 
fhen the mahaiaj.ra is drawn tho sun and inocn are put at its flani.s, (-'rsp. 
5.2). The sun is at the ri^ht flank of Rudra, and Una at tho left. (Raidarah^. 
4,5). The all- supplying- tow — kanalhenu--8tands at the flank of Yarada. 
(Varadap. 2.2). 

^KX Co8:.i-jal. The flani^s of t;ie sacrificial horse are the directions. 

(Byn. 1.1.1.) Tnose of death are the north and south. C^'^J"-* l.^»3)« r^i-ose 

of tlift ooerd-oal bird are time and fire. (Kahsa.6} The sides of Prajaputi 
are day and ni^jht. (P. £. 21) 

pak^a 
Paj.^a ia rather a wing, or sido in tho sense of direoticn , than a 
part of the hni:ian body. Put tl.e pak^ns of thr. various puru^i^ or at.- ans 
wLi::h ar- inside of one another like Oiiines boxes are referred to and 
identified with the breath, tho Vedas, -xo , in Tait. 2, Those of tlie three 
sairifiDial firos are i:entir,ned in Mait . 6,33. ^^9 jMx^ka pakgaka of the 
avlj.iita ore his pleasuros. (Avadh. 3). 



62 
CeAt 

asii 

JTori is juorely inolude.l in thio list ioLX to iiiai.ft t):e list of parts 

^cMplote. It is rol in tlio Mom.ey (one b. ooiea), li/.o tho lotus. ('JJi, 1.6.7} 

puoohft 
PuT-»lwi iroporly rienne tliv.' tail of an animal, even in modom Hindi, 
(ru'5'5.«, rune), >ut is used a few ihnes in othor oonnocticns. That of the 
30Bnic3al j.ur;§a is tho west.' (%B^h. 1.2.3) T/.orp of thfl various puru^as 
or Jtnans of ucai ar»^ identified with various thines. (Tait. 2.1.1). Those 
of thr three sr».-!ri^i ;7ial fires are inention^d in Llait. ^.33/. That of the 
avadi.ut;! as-;otio is Bra}ii2ia. (Availh. 4). .phat of t'-fl kuijcj^i"^-^ is r.entioned 
in Yo. Ku. 1.83^. 

Rib 
parju 
Parju is used tut onio. Tho ribs of tl.o sEicrif i^ial horse are the 
seciicardinal points, (BjtI.. 1.1.1). 

Abdomen or Belly. 
udara 

Udara is the cs'-nnon word for belly or storoaoh. riometi:;i08 it is used 
"iLii an external sirnif iaation, and sometimes with an internal one, but 
they are ail j^fouped together here. The word is not used in the earliest 
Upani^ads, The udara is cno of the parts of thebody. (Itma 1) Its firo is 
often mentioned. (IJait. 6.17; ze\ Carbha 5; Aruij. 2; ^ri j . B.'J}. Tho 
references fro;. :ud.t. recocnize ti.ft fact that this lieat cooks or dirests 
the food consujied. But in many lasng tliis fire is rf»f erred to in n mystical 
sense. Apana circulates in the udara . (ijSiil. 1.4; Jrlj . 4.27). 

Pi^airativo. Dir^estion is once likene 1 to a sacrifice, whon it is 
said that the fisliSs cau[;;l.l by the fis'--^-: "r. :'.re o*"fero(l in thn firo of tie 



fi2 
Tli* Bally, udara 

udara.; thfl j rwjn-i ar-' offered with on in tht^ ea^jai way. (;«n,lt. '',2r.), |h« 

fir-"' of w;.ti u.iui; is iienMfied wit,)i Lhe Garhapatyn firo. (Garbha 5). In 

another pnssai;©, tho udara (here apparently the trunk) of Brahma is the 

yajur Veda. (Kau;. 1.7). Bra3'ann is sail to te in thr. udnra. (GuuiJ. 3,12) 

III YoQu. xhn ordinan- firm-, of the >^ody are to he -jomontrated in 
tho fir" of the lielly. (Xnin. 2).Ac;ain, its fire is to be ninrjled with the 
outor fire. ((Jrlj. 8.2) !?ut the i.ost fro.|uont mention of tho Tiolly in the 
later Upanigads is tho filling of it \"ith air, holdin^j air in it, and 
breathinr the air all out of it. (((Jaiij. l.'.l; Yo. iCu. 1.3^; ijrij. 5.*^; 6) 
(Tri^.lU) A hreath is looated behind it and a tend in it. (Yo. Gu. 49) 
It is ic he held ri^jid in the paiia asana. (Yo. ku. l.-32).A rosany of 
rudrakgas is put on it with a proper mantra. (Rudrak. 1.22). Thp left 
tftjia (foot or arui?) is to he put or it fn ». lertain asruia. (Yo. Ku. 1.49) 
It ip tr b-a used as " he^^i-irr; vessel by the yorjin, the only otlier one 
allowod him bein^ the hand — roterrini^ to the fact that the hi{_her classes 
of ascetics must be absolutely without this v/orld's tiOods. (Irun. b; 
Jabala 6; Yaj. bej^.) One nay ^onaait sins with the belly (Ilalion. 31,32) 
hence the Pravrajin should carefully guard his. (!iarad. 3.13). 

The udara of the to world gem contains all living things, (ka^har. 
16). That of Gaijapti is long. (Goija). 

flosmical. The belly of the sa-irif i^ial horse, as well as tliat of 
the cotDiioal man, lirtyu, is identified with the atmospheric realm — antarT- 
k§a. (Erh, 1.1. 1> l.n.3). mhat of the deity is the sea. (Varadot. 4). 

Ja^hara 
The ja\h&rft of the foetus developes in tho fourth n.cnth, (Qarbha 3). 
Its fire is i:.enlioned. (7aii4. 1.".14; ^rTj . r^-lO). Ctherv-ise th^ rof-ronrie 
is to 'A\at of thM deity, whiil is sai '. to perv:ide tho ai.y, and to iontain, 
yai.flas, L^u^'^ii^'^rvaa , kinaras, rai.^sfia, ahd men . (Varalot, 3, 4). 



64 
Polly — kukfll 

Kulj^i, tliOUijh a vorybli word, ai pears only in vory Ict^^ L'pani^ttJn. 
It l.aa a firo ir. it. (Vorah. 5.3). .j.he pnir of then (kukfliyujjii..a; ie :-o 
bo olosed in a fon:: of yofia. (Yo, CJu. 66) t^I" dunlieitio expreericn 
rf>-;allfl. At^arva Veda 2.5.4. Those v).o fill the tolly are UrSmans in 
tti»ijeM,ion(lrt only, (Parati. 1')) ij-he ooncentratio?^ of the praijns in the navel 
re.7ion oures diseisf^s of the belly. (Trij. 10^). ^ roaary of ru.ir~Aqa 
fruits is to ^e worn at its bolt. (Kudrak) 1.19). 

kauk^i 

iphis variant of tht- last v.-ord appeare a ainrle tiu'.e. A throbV-inc in 
the kauk^i fortt?ll3 death in half a laonth. (Tri(j. 124). 

kogljj.a 

Kc^y^a eeetis to refer to the digestive region of the body in the 
one p}.8U3e wliore it appears. The water ^rep to the koq'^lja , and is }.eated 
by a fllow fir«, allinj; in dir^osticn. (ijaqc}- ^'^) 

pajasyaw 

Pajaeya is a doubtful word, used in connection with tho sasrifioial 
horse, Ertk. 1.1.1, whoro it is identified with the earth. The back of the 
animal is said to corresrond to lieaven, udara to the atmosphere, and the 
pajasya to the earth. This would seen to make pajasya fefer to the exterior 
aepeot of the belly, while udara is the belly inside, ^he word may lossible 
aean "stocks". 

The Havel 
nabhi 
References to the navel are rare in tho older L'pani^ads, but are 
in";rea8in[;ly freiiuent in the later cnoe. In thesn, the navel has an 
exaggerated inportnji^e, being oonsiiered the central -ni riost iEi:Vt'ait organ 
of the tody. 



w 



65 
Tl.e :;.'uril — nJD^hl 

Tho firot i..»r.tlon oT tho nnvel in in the old Aitaroya Upanigui, 

1.4, whore it is ocnnected witli apnna, whioh in et^ to have jono Torth 

fr.n the nnvol of tli*^ primal iian, while fron tl it? lA turn oan'-t death, 

III reti.im, deat,};, beiojuin^ apann , oiiters the navel. (Ait. 2. A). Then , 

itl. the exception of n f ev imir.portr.nt rof flrenoee in l^ian. , the mention 

of the navel is oonfined lo the late and ven' late Uianigads. 

It is b«low the ht»Brt, (Mahan. 11.7). It is a part of the exterrial 

bod:'= (Xtjua 1 ). It is in thp oenter of the body, and contains a tw^lvf) 

spoked vhoel. ('5ai}4. 1.4; Trij. 58,55). Jhis iindoubdteiiy refers to tlie 

appearamn of the navel, vMle tlie statej:i6nt as to its location is of 

course approximately -lorrect. It is onn of tho 18 vital spots in Yoea. 

130 
(Tri.j. ii3£; 5an4, 1.9) . In ono passare the k^ijiali i.T s^id to be loaated 

two fir:£,er3 below the navel (yrij. 4.11) Tliis would eert;ii to be a inistako 
for the kand , as the kiui4''iir is usually located above the navel. ((Jaqd. 
1.4^.yrrj. 4.iLi 5; Yo. nu, 14) The ca^ra in this region is the naijipurai.a 
(Yo. Ju. 13; Yo. Ku. T.ll), or the ra.ai}vadbimba, (Yo. Cu. 8)ln itslocalily 
is found tho food-portion of the body. (Trij. 6) This no doubt connects 
this part of the body with direstion. Its circle i^ in the nidst of a wob 
of arteries. (Varal.. 5.29). m^e digestive firo dwells in the navel, (Fraria^,.:} 

"Oiineition witl; the breath. As soon in the first reference ^iven 
abovo (Ait. 1.4), ecne connection between breath and the navel was comeivod 
ii'v.. uio earliest Liies. This connectio;. is increasingly emphasized, th'UiJi 
the notive is not so much a scientific description o*" the bcdy, but a 
manipulation of the breat). in "'pc^ ex'^rTlsos. A breatli is located above 
it. (Yo. 3u. 49) Opinions vary as to juet whi-;h|sne of the airs is Ij^uaied 
in tho navel. Trij. 138 infcms us that frorc the nose to the nayol is ar. 
air 8]ace lt the body. T^it *.he san^' "Jr .-ili-i ^ad inforr.r ue that prai;a is in 
the navel, as dr. otl-ers also. (Trij. 7S; ^^'^J • '^•■''J 5''^'^4* •^•*'') ^^ ^^ '-^^^^ 
said to contain the apAj;;.(9rrj . 4.27), and the navel io even called aj " 



/ 



66 
■^ho navel- -n/T^lii 

(Soe l3f>lcv'). Ii» this oonneotio. acmpnro Ait. 1.4; 2,4 above. 2'"'''ti''iOo 

Ba^iuia is c:di to "bf In tho navol rerion. (Ai^jta. 34; Yo. CJu. 24) 

P.eii^icuo 'iBoo.Dio jouKQ-jtlon of the l^reaths with tho nnvel is of 
rreat iripcrtanco in Yocft, whilo its importanoe in tho hody laai.ee it like- 
wipe ir'.portT.t to thf> user of the tilika. Ey ueano of his breni}. ono teikos 
refujjO in zho Tiwol, whi^}. is the atiolo of vehi-tle of air, (Kguri. 7). 
Ail- Ib oo i,bo hell in the navel in Yoca, tl.4.43,49p ^rij . 6=:^ rf.; ) 'Jil 
w:;on SO holi conquers Jisoasns. (^r^i. 1.4, IT; ^rlj .g.-^Off . ) Air io 'o be 
drawn to it fron tho breast, and theme to iho j.mj4fili. ('yrij . d.^',7) 

In the wayurasiJia the elbows aro to ba kept beside tho navol. (Tri^. 
47,48; grtj. 3.10; 'JaiicJ. H.IO) 

The navel is one of th*" parts of the body t' receive thr til'tka, 
when, 32, 1", 8, or even when only 5 parts of the body r6C'3ive it, (Erhaj . 
4.14,18,21,2: ,,?6) ^ho til.ka is fut, on this part of the body by ErSuaans 
and Kgatriyas. (Brhaj . 5.r?) It is put or 'c the £;od Skrjida, (E^fhaj, 4.28) 
It fr«eq frc"^ sinr Tonrittod by th'i -^i-jna — perhaps t' ©re were a tiood r;any 
sins cf tliis clnss. (Erhn3 . 4.34), Ai:^^^> ^"■'Q ^^o told that Trajapati is in 
the navel — that is, hn is v'orshippod by means cf it. (Erhaj . 4.23} Tliis nay 
bo jonnocted witli the iiuportant function of the navol in the eiabryo, thou£^. 
tlis is not dlreotly nenticned in the Upanigads. The as^eti-; should onter 
water up to liis navel and repeat :;ertain ifiantras. 4^\aral, 4 end) Saubh. 
bo£inninc tell us that thf "Jri sukta is Lo be etiployod on t) e navel. 

The navol is also ocnneoted witl; i.e^tnl aotivltiec. In tlm fourfold 

divisicn of nontal fim^ticns, oitta, d!fc intellectx, is said to be loontod 
, The iiripro salon-:; of tho heart start fro: tho navol rocicn. CTri9.14S) 

in thft navel, (Oarrr.)lt in t;.e abode of the soul in tlie wtuwigfi state. 

(Parab, be-,\ It is one '' '-v- -'^'-'des o^ the deity. (Parab. be^i,). I: 

view cl the above, it is one of tlio plaoes in whi-ih ho attention is to be 

Tcmertrn+Ad in Yoca, (Fawarali. 3.43; 2.11; ) This oomontratio;: civoe a 



"ol— n" 
Pr;.: R .^r i r' c •" ■ ];ould Jwoll fror. ' '• 

(Pfir ■• . '"' ■' ^ ' > ■• ■ . . -.. ". iof part ff tl . ' , . ' 

Ptuniful. Ite 1/? spoi.o- ^or.tldn Vigij^ f^ni oV. oikmncflB"* C^rij. L)8,59) 
Vi gnu Ins Mr "•-■nf i r> 'in ncvol, T'l-.'^ i >"".■'/. f"lr.vor. (Ehy?ina. 11) Ir.stead 
of i]:0 f.juro of tlie wi.eil, it is suid to haV^ a ten potalod lotus in it. 
(Yc. Cu. 4} Tl.e a of the word oin is plaoed as Brahwa in tho mwol. (ITrau. !?} 
OiM is the nav^'l ■ ' oreaturos. (Ti-akg. 9) 

Deities .-.. K>.:i^t:i. a.n:l Liilwgiua ai*p said to have lotueliko navels. 

(CfOi-alap. J Eau>l.. 1) All "thf^ i^od.^ c-yiO forth fron tho navel of the Creator. 

Cr.r;...,. -'.l.":; . The deity is the navel of anirta. (lifJ.aj.. 11.?} In the navel 

" lir.t of Varada is deep. C^'aradap. P..r^ S.2 

■• - af-ntor of t].o mahacakra, Bral-jm. Vifiiu and lifilie^a are placed. C"?sp. i) . 

''oB.aoal Felaticns.The navel of Prajapati is bhur. But UaharloLa 

xas i., <,"..e niv-"" -' ' -^ :ics,r.d.oal bird. ("aia. 3). The rejjion of :rddair war 

born froiij thf. navel of Purusa. (P. 3. 14), ^hp oosrioal relation of tl.-- 

breaths a. .-.avel has Jaeen ruenticned at the beginning of this sectirr. 

Pajas = rra^-.rii, war produjed frr: t^- nrvel --f the- deity. (Varadot. ?^ 

Likmvi.fio the atnopperi:: r^^irn and space wore sc proi!uce-. '/-'ara'ct. ",'.' 

In the last reference nabhika is used. 

apann 
Apana ::t.aL'„i>.f3 aij^'rus Tui' tii... u:.ue, b-jt on one ajcasion see:.ii -c 
be used for ihr navel. The handr are to be folded between the pudenda and 

ap.^.a. (/wu:;4« !&)• 

Anus. . pa; u 
P5yu is -'nether v.xrd uted '.lirourhcut tl:e entire rariijo of Upanl^ad 
litara1.ure, but '.viih a;, inoreae ' cr'^r.n?o "rcr. the relicioub -. .-. 

''.s aepeaial furiction is ©va-!\;ation, and . te of 



Anus--i.a;u 
«ui ovajuavior.s. C3?ijh. C.4.- " . ' y 

^ '-^- . - > . / 

'j 
worts it retires tc the deity in \or,i sleor . (Praj. ".0,$$} Tail. ".10.? 

tnllf! ur, l'.--it "rruj:; Ir, to T:r. rroc^^J'dzrT^ in thf? vci.Un;,^ cf th* ar.UB. 

La'.o UpaiiigaJe toll uo Uiat it ic two fincero ak • bolcw the uiJ-'^c '. . 

CYf.ra.. J;. IS) It is oonnoctod with the elenent earth. C^ri;. Ij^l* )* ^^'^lilo 

■ - water; rr.rt cf the body extends up Ic it. [s^rij . '£.4; . It ip ir^ntior.ed 
audi cno cf th^ 16 powers cf the body ir. ?hav. 
cu-«..iL. fcj.e Id Koias or r.arts cf beiure in Tri^ . 1. It is cno of tho lb vital 

. 'A 

r.' .• ^. "c^a, (Trij. 130; ^"^.4. i) It is cue of tho i^arta cf prai.^ti. 
v>}~rrr) rh*-' v-*> alaniV'uaft j^cfts tc .It. (ij^rj . -1.17"^ 

It is jontrajted "/. i'o;^u, for th-^ purpose cf i.&r.ipulatin;;- the bro:;:..lE5; 
(VarS.. 5. '3) and tho (\r\ suktcf is euployod en it. (Sanbh. boj^.^ 

pi la 

Cuda ;uciy i^.an inbest-.nes, 's '.-'?11 as r-^"ii::;, I-"-, r,,,- l.-.tt-r is tho 

.-anin£ in the Upanisade. Trcce^-tint in one place, 'A].di\-> vl.o guda 

o£ --..e ajvdiif^dJta axe lik(-ned to the rivers (BrL. 1.1.1) the word is used 

-■■-, i ■ 1^\-. "J^janiga's. 

;Alc.c (jikhisti.fuia, ^^t^' l»'i} 
The aidbody is tuo fincers ahcvo '.he guda.. ((JriJ . 4.<':j Aparia move in 

it. (.Aj::r-.:.'31: Tfi;. 72; Ja:^;. 1.4; Vo. ^u. 2?) The kSnf; o.' ycni is in 
th„- i.^i>.i.. ( Yc. . ": "'arD-. 5.ro) It is the muladl.ara '^al'.ra. (Yc. i^u. 
?.l ) i:.o exoot spot of -1.0 nulftiil.ara is between it tinl the iyonis. ^Vurah. 
L.50) Th> arter, airbus" rui.s to it. (Tri^. 12) It ie said to sui^rart siell. 
r-ri, .. oi.o -i.i: Bii^'oiijia tu-tor^ is uid to run frci;. the anus 

to tlie crown of the head. t>y^4 •!•'') 

B«li..if '.:s. On- : fl«c.s c- : •• Qxia. in Yoi;a. Ci'>^«^^- 7) It is to bo 
olCBod 'h^r. o.'..-. _r:.v • his head in Yc^a. {V.m.ss. ?. }It is 

co:.rro3sed in the pnlrin asfina. (Yo. ku. 1.83) In the yoga asana it is tc 
bo stcpi'id by *hn aniilcE. C-r"^, 'O :i r^K ■ , ' ■ ■ til&i* 



r.9 

anuB — JR^hftr" 'v~>n 

Ja^harulvSra 
Ja^hnrmlvftra — the jortnl cf the tolly is wntlonod tut or.ce. It may 
rro-'T-iy hr, »* m riv-'l, but ic KOTO likely tlifi fUiue. j^ trliobtirr; ^r It. 
forol'lls Jatuh h\ 10 days. (Tri^. l."5} 

niiana 
lpan& it tjftet used for U.e anus, when the aid^^ouy ia said lo be two 
'incers above it. (Tri^, ^5) ^ /UJ^v/^ tix ^irtU)^ ^ ^i..jt^t^U^^^>^ 

:^idl)ody. 
dehnnadyiya 
The luidbody, deh.xmUiya, ase'-upaB inportanoe in tho very late Yo^^a 
Upariiqads. It is soinotimes diffioult to t^ll whetlier the word really mmmm 
tz used ns a iiamo fcr a s; ooif ic part of the body, or Merely inlicates 
£;enerally scEie central spot. Put soi'ie pas3a{;,es which are cleaily used with 
the force of proper najne are as fcllws. The nidbody ie a vital spot in Yo^^a. 
(Tri^. IwC} II is two finders abovr. the anus and two bolow the penis. 
(VarSh. i-.2C) Froia it to the loins is the fir'* part cf the body. (Trij. I37j 
(Jai;^. 1.4 would seen tc iaply that it is the saiie ns the (jikhiethana. (q.v; 



70 



C;)inpt©r V. 



Tho Head and its Parts 



71 



T5 e iioal ;uil it? "PartB. 
n>v#, r!0"+, nr jlrao. A cpnoraT. '.«*3rirt?.on o' 

to roEOiiV'le tin inverto! Bo:ia cup, the luouU; oorroaroiiJin;:^ to tjutt cf .. 

PC! « vosEel. On tl.e inarcin of thie veBoel sit the sovon ^^is with v^ as 

.... '..i£hth. This ie exilnindd to r.eon the ei^ht praqDB. Bie hoad 1"?. 'fur 

seotims or sutures, ajul 16 tooth oavities. (Gartha 5) The heal of -ho 

foetus Jevelopes in the sft^ond ronth. (Gartha 3) It is used in the oarryirt 

of burdens, as indicated by the qirovrata, when the student carries firo cr. 

Ids head for hie ten'^'ner. (ilund. P.n.l'^jlt is a part of the tody, bom to 

^.i'>. (Jltna 1} Very late ip tl.e statenent that is subject tc diseases cciusedi 

ti i,;." i^ss:;-'.^ cf air. (Yc. Ou. 117). It is thought by son© that thfi atmn 

residos in the head . (I^aii^al. 7. 4). The deity dwells in everj' head. (Qvet. 

r.il). I^ is protected by prana, i robably referring: to the function of breath. 
((JirtiD. 3) ' _ 

Rpli[;i"us. tno :.c:Krs u,h doity with the head. (ihaKX.:ia3-inr.. S} 

Kudra, protects one all the way from the reci':in of the head. ( Jiras ^) In 

t'.e fcurbfc cf several ways of rff lectin;:, on the point in the word on the 

head trei.Mes. (Kahsa 10) . z^^o penitent sannyasin has an ssax evci. t 

peaceful one. (Kaiv. 4) It is to be held even or rici'i in Yo£a. i^^A' *«'^ 

-Jrlj. 3; 5.!'; Yc. hu. l.G; VarSh. 5.32) This is especially true in the 

peafowl SBWL .oBturf' of tho yccin. (gand. 3.11; Trij. 48). In one place it 

is to be held twisted in Yo£;a. (Trij. 92) It is to be covered in one fen; cf 

(nudral.. 1) 
Yci;e. (Yc. ;:u. ?.3r) Calute^on 5? rir.dc titli it, (Eliasna. 1) It is one of 

tho ten poijits on which the ndnd is ic bo ocncontrated in Yorn. (Ramara].. 

2.14). T1-.9 yocin who £;aaas 12 fincers above his head, fixedly, becomes 

iiuaoi-tttl. (Advan) In thin spot, 12 finrers nbove the head, there is a ll^ht 

which c6es to iini'iortality. (Manual. 2) . In -.Lit; oonnectioi;, it is said 

that BU when one looks fixe.Ily at th--. aun, a second sun seemo tc appear 

i- +^^" spa^e •■ f'" head. (Advay). The fret cf Rain is to bn rr. the head 

of },i8 wcrrhippers. (Rauiara}-.. ?.e3) These wors-'ipi-or: art &< uurn tlieir 



. 7*^ 
• I »■* 

heads with (. Ijbjk of ha.ir . CnRimra) .2.14) 

Yoca mal-e. r.uoh of tlic Jondenir.c of tho seneeB and of treathincs. l^ 
toth of these u.e ..ad h.s a part lo play. It i. to bo dra^'n into tho keif 
like the head of a tortoise. (Y, . T. 12) This rof.rB to th. non-use of it 

Air Goes to the head in Yoga. Cjrlj. 6.?7) holdinc air 
as aji or^an of sense. 

Lhoie ourse disensos. ((Jrij. f-.31) Its heat is taken a»ray Iry proper br-^athing. 
(Yo. hu. 1.2S) 

The tilaka or tripuij^ra is to be i>\xt on the head,— at least by Erahnans 

Vasu. u. '* 

and K^atriyas. CJatali; kalar. 1; r.^haj . 4.11^ F.2; ) T/iis tripurj^ra ie for 

the Faraj;ati,an and is put on with nainas to Nriakajj^ha or :jiva. (Hrhaj. 4. '59, 31) 

Ashes are also put on the head in this way,(Prhaj. 5.7; 7..1) and soinetines 

aihes are to be duWed from the head to the sole of tho foot. (Bhasna. 1) 

Gov. dun^: ashes are employed in some inntfmces. (Brhaj . 2..*^; 4.1) A rosany of 

the fruit o" the rudrak^a (Eleooarpus Gnnltnas) , used instead of beads by 

Hindu as-!etiTB, in Ro^-fttir^Of! ^'om on the head. To woar this is ac ef'icaceous 

as t}io Gift ..f ten million oowb. (B^haj. 7.8; Kudrak. Lend) ^ of theso 

fruits oonstitute the rosany for the head, which is to be put on with the 

proper nantra, (Rudrak. 1.15,2i; 

In a miscellaneous fashion, the hear*, is mentioned in nantras, and 
certain vyah.^iB, — hrir., kiln., sr/al.a — are said to it. (Rahas. 1; Datta. 1; 
Varadap. 2.1} 

Fanciful. Tho several atmans within one are supplied with heads, 3ii:h 
as prruja, the Yajur Veda, faith, affeotion. (Tait. 2.2-^) When the body is 
viewed as a saori^i^o, the head is tho sacrificial cup. (fTarbha 5). Prar,a, 
as a^ni, has a head. (Mait. '"..3?) It is sai ! to bo qrrparvata— a plaoe of 
pilefimaro. (grij. 4.4;-i) It is ocnnected with t}.e"jata" cf the nar^e Jatn 
(Trip. 2.1) That of the a Adhuta aocetio is affeition. (Ava^lh. 3}. Water is 
said to hr. produiod froi. it. (Yc. Gu. 50) That of tho dead is reproduced with 
the f if til Fii}(in of the ten offer'^d. (Pin(}a 6) 



73 
Head — ^iroi 

Doitias At. Pvirm^n has a thcuflan>l l.oa.l8.(P. E. 1; ^f - ]Ca).an. 3; 11.1 

Ehaeina 2^. :iuicfaa, wjiich is a oo:Ti©ntary <-n a part of tl.o Punifla aiakt?., 

ir.f orris us ir. 1.1 that the exirosaicn " a thoueand" is }:«rn meant to 

exi-it^cG -,; .. iie-\ of infinity cf henle. ^iRfexsr^jt Trip. M. C alec assures ue 

^ 4 
that the deity lias infinite heads. Also Varadot. 3, where the infinite 

/ \ 
heads of tho deity are said to rorv'^-^" t-hi sky. Jiahan. 11.2 says that the 

deity hap tv,-o hflads, while the lato Jaiuiai.Tya credits or: with the snrjo 

nu:'.her, that is o caid. ra. (f3aun. 3) . Death is said to have had three 

heads. (Pnh. 1) In another late passncf, ^^^ diity, though witliout a head, 

has head" ir. all iireoticns. (Bhasna 2). 

The head of Purufa is bhur. (Eifh. 5.5.3) His head is also naoationed 
in Tait. 2.1. The head of Prajapati is Bvr.ra. (iiait. 6.6) Bral.ni5 is tko hetid 
of V..f> deity. (^^aliSn, 35) That of Bralirna is Sana. (Kau§. 1.7) Later L'l.ani- 
^ads carrj' on this typo of thou£:ht. The head of Rudra lies toward tYie 
north, (^iras. 3) That cf Atharvan is the divine re-jeptii^le -■ r sacrificial 
vessel. (:;ira6 6) The head cf tho deity, or Hayacrlva, is tliat of n creat 
horse, (Haya. 2; Trip. :j. 2.3) which seems to £0 back to E^fj;. 2. [.16, 
where Da.dhyao the Atharvan si oke frorr, the hea;'! of n ' orso. 

'^OBcical. The head of death is tlio efist, while chat of the aijva- 
medha is the dawn. (Erh. 1.".?.; 1.1.1) These two are in lUJcord, but d is- 
aeree with '•.ho irontion made of Kudra' s head above. The sky is said tohavo 
roiloa out froin the liead of Puioiga. (P» S. 14) Varadot, 3 also speaks of 
the sky as having bonn produced fron the head of the deity, 

Mis-jellaneous. Adoration is paid to tho head in the socalled rantra- 
raja verse (Nrsp. 2..?) and the Rahasya Upanigad is said to be tho head cf 
all Uianigads, as the Upanigads are cf tlio Vedas. 

qirfaxa 

The variant ^irqaka found in Fijhaj . 4.15,29 indicates a part of the 
body to receive the tiliw^.t. 



74 

Uttai aiitfi ie rarely usod for tho lioad. It reaolvos tho ti«lak.a, 
(E^j.aj. 4.13) and is licwod to IJivn. (rimBina. 1) 

GuniBtl.Juia 

The ;;uruBtliSnn. is also mentioned an cno of the parte to rdailve the 
tij.tiAH. (Bjfliaj. 4.iJb) This no doubt means the head. 

Crown of Head. 

nurihan 

Munlhan is sometiraes use-l for the entiro head, but properly neans 

tlie toi of the head, and is so used even in nodem vemaculara. An ir.ter- 

estinr anatomical atatemont in ro|-;nrd to thir, part of the ^.ody, first 

found in a faitly early Upanigad, but assuiaed or elaborated on ii. laany 

a later one, is that there is a channel or artei-y — t},e- su5a-nna--i-unniriG 

to tho -;rrwn o^ +h" he«»d, r^.r.'^ rhon thn ebul* loa-OB tie bdy through tV.is 

artery at death it attains to iranortality. (iCa-^h. 6.1(1). Wliilt^ the lato 

Upanigads oorinect this artery witli the brahjnarandhra — the junction of the 

sutures of tl^e skull— fjancj. 1.4 also s. eaks c.f the sugujr.na as running ^rom 

the anus to the murdhan. The idOci of the soul's leaving at death by tho 

crown of the head, thourh without mention o'' the artery, is a very old one, 

T>:e sannyasin is said to pierce the murdiian and depart. (San. 4, 5) 
beinc found in Brh. 4.4.?). In such a ms* one attains to the hij.ent 

Ccf. Gond. l.Sl.S.*^) _ . ^, ^ ,,j ,. , 

f elicit/. Tn fa.Tt, sp'ecial felicity is attained in lifd by the dwelling of 
A 

of t}ie soul in the head, aocordinjr to those who believe that the soul nay 

roari about in different partr of the Vody. In tlie Kur'lhan 6no dwells in 

It is the sltw of happiness of th-i soul (Tuuitoii Li inuil) "^"-f- H 
the bluhest Brahjnan. (i:ait. 6,23) The soul is sail to be located here m 

/\ (i'Srad. 5 end^ Parab. bee.) 

tho fourth Btat^,or turTya. (Braiana 4) Jhis, ];owevor , is not in accord 

with the idea that the soul is apart froM the body in th*^ fourth slate. 

It is rather a part of the toa-jhing that five states of tho soul are 

experiemed, the fourth being the hi^heBt state while it is in the body. 

Sowo writers ^joneMor the kui crovn of tlm head to be tho especial abr.df* 



75 
Orown of ;;onJ — niTrdhan 

cf tl.o doity or o^ t' <^' vij-Bticnl oin. It i*-- ''>.■-■ of tho pnrtr nf Do T-.r. !y 

w};ore tlie fourfootoJ Frahnan appoaro, (rraJiiiia "2) Eurya a^jd dv-ella hi. 

(PrSj^St;. 2) Cm brot-Js-s into it, or coos throuc^- ito Joor.CBrohi'iavld. 12; 

Itiujib. 2G) . Its fcint ie in evcrj' nrilrJhan. (Kr^ija) 

In ^he oldest Upani^nds there are mariprous wftrninEs tha^ the head 

of iresxinptioe or iterant priests nay hurst or fall off. Ya j I'lavali^iiui 

tlireatiens 'jSkalya with this punishment ♦f ho fails to ansv-'er Ids questicne. 

[E^h. 4;^^iiT) I*- aay heteoucht on by an incorrect description cf Sainaji. 

(Oh. 1.8.*, 8) General warnincs almr- this line, as to tho dan<:er of pr-^isin^ 

the deity '.vithout knc^'old^e of hin, cr of the i£:norant use of tho udfjltlia, 

pralil.arHB uo., are to be found in Gh. 1.11t4-9; 1,10.9:11; 5.5.2. 

orov/n of the 

Rudra attends on tho h.ead. (Giras c.) Fron the nocl. to the orcwn of 

A 

the head is ^iva's plaoe. (Vara};. S.?/'). Tt is the part of the body corre- 
lated v/ith Rkff'^n. (''Jrij. P!,5\ 

Relieious. Ir. Yoga the breath is drawn up to thn top of the head, 
(Jt'.rta.r^Sj .(Jrlj . 4.44; 6.35; 7.12). In some Yoga practiTor. even the apana 
is to be dr»"n up to it. (Yo. lu. 107) Meditation is to ^ e sarried en iA 
it. (Trij. 19) This 3on-rentraticn ir. the head gives one kncwled£-e of the 
SxkiDH Frahria and j^qw satya worlds. ('53114. 1.8) It is nade to bear the 
tilaka. (Erhaj . 4.^; Kala^. 1) It is to bo dusted vith ashes, (f.^haj. 
4.1; Bhasim. 1) A rosary o^ rudraV.gaf. is to be worn en the murdhar. (EJfhaj. 
7,8), aonsistir.^ of 104 fr'in.ts. (Ehasna. 2) At th- tirao cf worship Inuuuc 
flowers are to be put or it, (Varadot. 6) It is one of the 18 vital siote 
in Yoga. (Cf^di il 19) The oldent mention of any suoh use of the liead ie 
when the dyin^ fathor strokes tho head of hie son and utters a oharm to 
give hiip. long lifi, (uaus. 2.10) 

?igurativn. Tl.o top of th ■ h-i-d is the oooa vessel ir. the fi(_nrative 
body sa-jrifiie. (Pranffg. 4; zt . jir;.: rrh. 2.2.3) The spirit of tJ.n s^;;. Is 
the head cf all beings. (F^h. 2.1.2) 



76 
Crown of Hond — i.'!Urdh»tn 

D©itl©B in. In C!h. 5.18.2 ve are tolJ that tho head of the univorsnl 

sen" ■ •■ vfii jv^/TJ-h, ;uid in L.!."." that the lioud of val jvtTjiftrn is d'va. 

A latr ui^uidgcd tf>ll8 ub that Pralu:i5 is tho hoqd of the ieity. (Varudot. 4) 

Rudra has only one ndrdhniu ((Jirae. 6) Vigiju olasps hie hajide on the top of 

his hoaJ in wcrchipp inc. C^-asina. D) The nurdhaji of tho father oi the Vacus 

was be^ot by DevT. (DevT. 3) 

ouli 
The doubtful word luli is onoo ured, probably moaninc the top of 
the head. It is to be rubbed in a foni of Yoga, (Yo. ilu. 2.3C^) 

Tho S1.U11— 

kainla, -jignkapaln 

Thfi pririary iieanir.^- of kapoln aeor-is to be a .-jup or vessel, sspe-jially 
at 
such a one ae was used kx the purdda^a offering. Its aj plication toxhe 

shull is no doubt due tc their general corrospondence in shape. The word 

is generally used in l^ie compound qlr^aka^ala. Its first appe?.ran-^e in in 

Tait. 1.6.1, where the puruga is sai>' to split open the two halves of tho 

skull and deyart. But as this is tho only instan'^e where the word is used 

in thr dual, it nay be a locative. Th" exact spot of this splittir^ is at 

the part of t>ie hair. -A latejUpanigad, (Sub. 11) also nen^ticns that the 

inL&llir-ent soul (vi.jrtSna) silits orfio the skull in depajrting. t^'.is happens 

when the soul departs through the artori' suquiaaa, which evidently extends to 

thf 8poi- of fissure. (Yoga^. 7) The akull is said to be in four parte, bolng 

tho nctioe of tl o four uyper bones of thn 8>.ull. (Cr\rbha 5). It is said 

in Parab. begin, to bo rHightfold, but this can not bo roliod on as a 

BoientifiT enuiaeration of tlie b. nes of tlin skull. The artery aaBvana or 

n.-L. ;irvat,T is said to extend to the si-uTT 'rcr tho neck, but probably t};e 

heart is ueant. (Yo. Ku. 1.33). 



77 
The nkull — kapSla 

RolitiouB, It is cne of tlio pnrtr to reoeivo tht3 tiliu.a. (KSml. 

3.54) It is tc be olennrrd by propor brefcthinc. (Yo, Ku. 1.25; ^^A' ^•7.14) 

Sutur-i — Bli^aJ^ 

The aUnan spits opon tlie aJho^^or suturr- of the skull nnd entore the 

body. This suturo is ?lsc called vid^tl, from *.Aridr , to split opan. This 

pa88a{;;6, conir.;; frcM ono of the earliesttUpani^ads, sucijests that the 

sperjuiator nay havn had a skull bo'cre hiin, and soufht to a;300unt for the 

s'aturo plainly visiblft. It is noteworthy ,too, that the presence of the 

fcntanelles in tho skull of tho infant fumisliPs exTallont tjrounds for the 

speculation that the soul made an opening here and ontired. But a oareful 

inveetirati n of the skull or of the parts of the body is not in harmony 

with later nethod9.*{ A^tU^o/^ p-O^fr-i-As-liVt^xJ, 

b 

Jumticn o' Sutures. 
7 brahinarandhra. 
Bralunarnoidhra, bra])i3abila, braluTiadvara, are the names jiven to the 
junoticn of the 4oronal and sa^jittal sutures, referred to above as tl.e 
spot throurpi whioh thf> scul enters and doparts. These nanes ard not found 
in the early Spxxfxis Upani^ads. But as tho opanin- or door of Frnhiia, as 
the nair« in-liiates, it is of niuoh iEiportan:Te, especially in Yo^a. The 
brahnarandlira is sai.l to be in tho crown of the head, and tho artery 
■ufluiinff runs to it, (yajj^. 1,4; ^r'j. 4.13; YarJDi. 5. "3,30) The migunna 
ocnneots it with tho nuladl;ara, or re^^ion about the anus. (:.iaq4'^l. 2; 
Aivay.) Alcnt; $his ohorjiel the deity passes. (Tripurn 1.1) In the fifth 
stute (turiyatlt!!) th^ auproine Krohi-a is said to be ir; it. (Tri^. 15C) 
The spirit of the supreuie deity oversliadows it in tLr.e cf deep cl^ep. 
(here brta-jnadvara; (Yo. Gu. 37,38) At th-' tine of Yoga e i^reit licht 
enters it. (Trij. ^''..'■i)''--- > uijijall ia jormeoted with it. (Y' . u. l.°,3) 
The soul shculd leave by it at deatV., as above. (Trip. !i. 2.1). Ao tJio 



78 
Jujntion of Butur«8 — braluvirttmlhra 

brtuijiiibila, we uro tolil V.nt t' .-i vrf.la or injlinationa ext«nl to it. 

(Tri'^, 15C) Also LJiat t^o t&iiL,uo — i iri'.aps tha jov/er of o:0(>jh--coos io it 

by tJio divine path. (Yo, Ku. 2,40) 

It is thft uiier boundftry of ihe akS^a part of the body, w}.ich 

oAuojidb down Hs far as tho noRA. (Tri^. 14)) BnUu'iabiln is her© used. 

relirioua. Though tiost of the ref«ren^05 above ate in sono way or 

iietP-pViy sioal 
ot}ier eiifloyec'. in soue rolirioiir or zJctxii]duiJd:x gftr.oo, thnro are sone 

whi3h are distinctly so enployed. Tho brahjmrandlira is on-^ of the six 

3hief srots in the Raiaarahasya worship. (Ranarn]-.. .?.23) It is to >^e rubhod 

about in a fori:: cf Yoija. (Yc. Xu. 2.36) Air is aonveyed to it in Yoga 

exeroisps, C.5an4. 1.4; ^rlj . 6.35) and the lencthened sounA or esho of 

on is iroduGod here. (^rlj. '1. 35; Vanll;. 5.70) One should wear prajnaiju 

or evidence fron. here to t].e navel. (Pp.r-ib. 12) The pan or b^tel leaf 

should b« wavo.^. fror'. hero to the anus and back in -,erta-.*n religious rites. 

CBl:av.) 

Frontal Bone. 
(jankha 
•Jankha is mentioned but onoe in an unimportant late passaco, where 
the a of era is said to be in the center of the frontal bono of ti.s sun. 
(Eraiuiavid. S) 

B^fain. 

TTfry^ nastifka. 

:iastigka apiowts but onoe, :jira8 6, wh-^re Rudra is said to rule skxx 

aboYo it. Tho v/orJ Lo.xns brain ordinarily, and Deussen so translates it 

here. But it see.p.s very probable that it is Merely a si'nonyin for mastaka^ 

forehead. This rendnrinr would -jertainly be more in han-ony with tho 

usual ooursa of V. (■ Upanijads. Tho brain is nv vh'^ro else roforrod '^.o in 

tbh Urnai?.-id8, unless it is inoludod with the ruirrow in nn jja. The Ui-anifC.: 

Cfun: lions of the brain. 
v.Titorc see:, to know nothing of oither tho p.iysolo^ical of I'syoholocioal 



79 
PorrtVoad ---rnotftkA, naota. 
Masln firnt a^ifui;- in 1;.m laLl.or old UaliSnSrayoi^ti i.,i...j.iqu I, wLoro 
we aro told that tlio l.oat fron tl.o heart wnnis the to-ly from the JUOtSi 
ocle of tVfl feet to t};n fcrohoad. (Mohaii. 13.2) Tho use of the word here 
plainl;' isipios ui.o ^art of tlio bcdy laost remote froru tho feet, anJ bo 

A- 

nicht be the arowr. of the head rather their, the forr-head. It 'vould eeeci 
to uiear. t'l.e foreword part of the orovm. 

The word, or rather its r-ore uausal fonn nastnka, beooinos iicre 
oo.Mon in the late Upani^^ds. The ajna-Takr.i is looated in the naatai.a. 
(Yc. ItM, 3.11) "^he creat arterj' Bu^ujona goes to Itt. JJCTj. 4.10) 

Feligious, As a ineasuro of tho IL'nit of tho body, it is ueoil, aa 
in the first reforenoo given, to note that even to tlie loastai.a the body 
is benefited in Y( ga. CYo. Iw. 5C>) The Soriptures are tc be itoredin it^ ' 
indicating that soi.etL-neB at least mental activities ware conoeived c f as 
bein-j carried on in the head, (Avadl:. .?5)In one fona of Yoga it is to >6 
rubbed. (Yo. ilu. .?.r^7) Tlie body is to be filled with air from the sole of 
tho feet to the mastaka, (ijrij . 7'.ai). The (Jri Bilkta is tc be employed on 
tiiis part of the }iead. (Saubh. beg.) Again, ashes are to be dusted en bs 
tho body froii tho solo of tho foot to tlie mastaka. (Erhnj. J5,?2; 4.1) 
Ashes were put on the head of the god jjari tc purify !.im. (Z^haj. 6.7) 
I is cr.o of th*^ five part- of the body to receive the tilnka, so tiiat in 
this case tho forehead seeran to bo meant, it beinr the most conspicuouB 
place to reooive the tilaka, (E^haj . A.2G) The na8tal;a cf tl.o asoeti: 
8iiu\ilQ not be wounded in any way. (llarad. 4, end). 

Lalata is usod only iii tho l,it^ and very late Upanifads, nn.tits 
use is nearly always ir some ritualistic or r ligious sense. It iscno 
of the parts of tliO body born to die. (Itma 1). In one passage it seems 
to in?lii lo tho sj.ot betw^or. 'h--' oyobrowB "Jid tho baso of tho no8e,(rhyan. 
23) while another indicateo that it is separatn fro:, thrm. (iraia. 4). The 



80 
For»hea<l--lftlS^f>ji 

fassage from i].r* DJ.y^R. toll" un that tl.ia part of tlin heal if< tlio teat SI 

iranoriklity, lui i .i.ai. iron .ifiiu. Ui.al n^Lynloka is loaated there, fltxs^ 

Tho olJest nention of th« l(ila',A in tliat persiiratlon ran fron Karayaija'a 

as he neditatftd. (MnliSn. 3) 

-"he forohead is en'? of tho IS vit-il srotc in Ypiia. ('JfUi4. 1.0). T'. is 

A 

one cf the 10 parts in wlii-h tho nin.l ifl to be lonsentrated in worship. ( 
(RSinaral.. 2.^.3). It i? to bo ke;it or. the i.ness inn certain Seann. (Trij.51) 
Ti.p yogin nuij tm i a porpfltiial fireiji tho region of the forehea.l. (Mvay.). 
Air is to be breathed into it. ('yrij. 7.12). It ia cne cf thn chief pla-seE 
for v.--arinc the tilaka. (Brhaj . 4.13,18,25,27; 5, .2; Kalac;. 1; GopT.^.l; 
Jataii ) The gcpr-jmuia tilaha is to be worn here by brahi'.a:;arinB, e^hastha^ 
and vanafrasthas, as well as by some varieties o' eannyasina, as yc.tis, 
and pr.rajiahai-.Bas, but others \*^h^ thir; particular sectarial mark over the 
lieart. (Vasu.) -rhe tripuiitjrajv of ashes is to ho worn here, (nhasma. 1) 
or bii:;ply asiies are to be dusted on it. (Prhaj . v.l) The tila^.a here i^ 
put on in honor of Brahria, (Brhaj . 4.29; 5.11) or for ^iva. (Brhaj . 4. "9). 

Tho lt:lata is once identified with tho celebrated pilGriu.are i lace 
of kaxixz Kedaranatha. (^rij. 4.42) It in the abode of ■Jiva, (K-yana. 13) 
or cf IC^rayana. (Yorat. 14). 

Froia the forehead of Ilarayana a three eyed puru§a was torn. ;.aolari.9) 
Also the Vedaa. (Malioii. 4) Rudra was born froin that of Prajapati, (£Ub.2) 
while fir'' w.'.q r.r(,''.u^fi.^ fron that of Rudra. ("Jara. C) 

alTKH. 

AlDta is once used for Dio forehead as a place tc re-ieive Die 
tila,.a. (E^haj. 4. HI) 

phnla 

Aj: L.precaticn, dhik, is used acainn' U- fcrehead cr phnlnvhich 

does not bear ashes. (FifhaJ . 5.1^)The Yoein i'.ay ee.. a perpetual sfla- dor 
in it. [Advay.) 



81 
?orol;6ftd UirTln 

HliSla appf»aro cn^.o for iho forel.ead. (Jivn wonro a trlj>ui}4R on hift 

(T3haai".a. 1) 

The Fewe. 
Siiana 
Tlie word aifu.n is lat.-* in its ubo, tl." oldoot ;r.«ntion beinr in (Jvot. 
mhe artery aln:VuBf\ j^oes to the faoo, (Yo. Ou. 20) Ovet. 3.11 t»tlln jb tltit 
the deity, Blia^^avan, lives in every fa3e. Certain worshippers of the deity 
have Kudrr.-like fuoes. ("haana. 2) This follows a passaci vhero ^Iva is 
sail tc h ,ve a adlinc fa^e. (riiasna. 1) '^Y.e sixfaced deity, (Kartijiaya) 
reveals k.nowled;:;e. (Jabali) 

vadana 

VnJana also is used only in the late Upani^ads. The artery sugumna 
runs to it and conveys air to it. (Yarali. 5.23; Yo. Ku. 1.5'^,C7). rud.il.i 
or the function of prssentativo knowledce, is located in it. (Oarir.) 
The atr.an enters luany faces. (Tri^. 153) . 

The -jrl suktr; is omployGd en t}ie face. (Sauhh. te^. ) ^ plfiasinr; 
face tjscj Ye obtained by kunbhaka— filling the v^hole body witli air like 
a jar. (ynn4. l.'^.l-'.) 

Rai;ir., an pn-r.^j., uue n hupry fac?. (Kaiuap. 26) His face is as 
pleasing as honey. (Trip. il. 2.3). Tii^'t c^ Varada also is pleasant. ( 
(Varadap. ?..?) that of :;;:3ihha is terrible. (Trip. M. .3.3) 

vn).tra 
Vaktr-i properly laeanc ac&tkx riout)', >^ut \b '.•'i^e> iiontibned as on** :f 
thP places to rA-.ciTre t^A til-ka. Cni^haj. 4.1?; T^ama. 1). Ot! er re'eromos 
to the word will be found under "iiicuth". 

nukha 
liU.jia ie cuioiu>'r wori of ambiguous .-oanin^;. I> ir -o ro;oivo the 
tila.a, ai.l laust mean .»w»r Tace her^.. (Gopl. 5.5) per other* pasaaces see 

T 1 r» rl rt T" ' ' 



82 

Th-^ lyobrow — W;nl 

TUu-u, brow, is joiotJiflr v/ord vhiah ir .■■■'^.-.- . r^rrol Ir. t).r oldrr 
UimnigiVila, but wJ.ich booones of ^ront idportcuioo in I'lto lalor 0..G3. Prc^oti- 
oally all rerenoes to bhru ari< of a r'^licious or metapliysianl saet. 

The ollest riontion of tho ^vori io in Trh. '".■''.5, where fall-in ao,..,-iM 
is to be piikod up carefully and placed botwoon the e/obrows, aicoi .pur.ied 
by mantras, to aVoid harm. No other old Upani^ad has tlie word. Tho brow is 
cno of thp parts of tha bcly born tc ■'■'''. (^tioa 1) 

But tho gnot r^'ich interestithe writers 0' the TTpni^als is not so 

iuuoh the brov.- itsf-lf, as tho center between the two, anl nearly all passa^os 

dealing with the brow rof ir to this spot, poneticies the soul loparte frou 

this spot at death. (Dl.yana. 22,23;) The soul splits open ti^is sjct and 

roos to the aoon. (Yo. i^u. 1.^:9) A li^ht is located in this spot, ar.d as 

Ion," as it remains life continues. (Yo. lu. Sl)r ^ 

The iinportanoo of tliis spot to the Yogin oan harly be overesti: sated. 

((JonJ. 1.9) 
It is cno of the 18 vital sT^ots in Ypga. (Trij. 131) It is one c_f the ten 

spots on wiiioh the iiiind is it. be 3on3entratod. (Rauanir..^". 4^') This spot 

the 
"as tv;c dplaa or seotions, an' is x locality of ri^udiUia, that is, the 

vipd.l}..i rjai.ra, thcuijh thlr, is cf^orally located in the neok. (Yo. Cu. 5) 

Dut ta/.inc th« liTioral moaninc of tlie ^ord as purity or sowethinc of t).at 

sort, it is eas;- to so« that tlie yogin could consider this spot as the 

location of such .n quality. ILtMk Braljaa is locat«^d between th«=t eye>^rows. 

... ,.^tu.. ;-/ ii. -s the io.:ality of niraj'Uie., ^...ui is, v i ^ t- i .s-iloj; ur 

emotion — the true Yoga state. Jhe connection is, that ccmentration of tlie 

3<?lf ir. this spot .-.irJ.eE cno frer. from paccicn. (Yogat. 14). It in ono of 

tho six c}.ilf spots ir. the worship^ f Rajua. (i.amtirai.. 2. ."3' J(-r.j<3nvratinc tho 

attention herr* jjivos ono kiiowledj^o of tapaloka. (Jai}4« l'^} It- is the 

lc:.i.i*.ty cf ;ivijiui.ta, through which cr.19 citalr-. --•"'aiso. (jfT-fTla ??; Sl~jaat.4) 

:..ib lust i-aosage seoks tc connect this spot v.i-.. os, ^^r. " ■■'^ '^'•'^- -- 

tho place of union between Uie heavenly world and the highest world — tlie soul. 



83 
ryo^row-'bhrxr 

;,._ ., .. •-•lis US, is t]io v<---:i-r vVy tM r- fi'. ■ rol. 7-y.ti. or 

J- "Tj . -i.-'G alBC loociter Tonav 

^iov'or, tr&vols froi» the kuij4«*ll t** wnlii ti^t, ;v . i.u. 1.7}. i/. ^ou;- 

rofleotio; .-s iji thr> cavit. " "^n the ©yetrcwa — bhrud/il^fi. 

.i.^^^iy.} It ie tho oponint for Uho a80ar.dir.L BplnrJor \-: "era. (Alv . . 
..oro tila is U8t»d for the o: oniui;. 

Tlio i>upils of tho eyes are to be turned "between Im the eyebrows in 
Yo. Xu. 2.46; Yo. 2m. b2; : 

"--^. ..n-.^ntrctl-r.. '^fLnd. 1.7.:^} Cno .. ., !:■«'■•- •.:.• '^^^r. c' tho r-cn. 

v«}ilii4' 1»*'0 '^is Stuan ia to be lieli ther'^ in " cf Yc^a. 'y,^<^t^' i.7. 1-, 
The saZ .'.oh one obtains throufih the use of this spot is fom-less-- 

a.urtl. v-'---i«-^l» 3; Alvay) 

It is uo be liold 8Ci:.9what elevat'.d in Yc^^a. Cjiui4* 1«7.17) H- is to 
be rubVn.'. in some fonas of Yoca. (Yo. Ku. 2.33) The tilaka is to be worn 
i.cic.. ^i.Zj.::^. 1; YrTsu.j } The linor of Lh:- tilaka art^tc >>••■■ 'raMi !.o M-.r, 
bknT. vJabali) . Of ^cnrse air is tc breatl^ed into this spot anl he^thore, 
C^^rlj. 6.27; 7.12} And it, is a pcirt of tho body related naturally to the 
olonent air. ('Jrij . L.4). 

QosriiTal. Ij. the forehead, bet^veen the f-yebrowa of the oosTiioal bird 
Is the locality of oatyaloka, .liada.. 4} 

F'/olids 
pu\a, ak§ipiita 
The eyelids, pul^a, are tc be oiosed in a fcm of Yc^_,a. ("aral.. l."3} 
ZeuiB drop down form th'=iia. , akQpu^a. (RudrSk. 1.2} 

E'/eln.sii. 

vai-*.cc.i 
Vartani appears in "but a Birit,lo pasea^e. By t3:e iower oyelasl. 
V..(- o^rth 3lir.r=: , '. ... one tV.~ : or.'.'or.. {??:.. :.".?} 

:..ls: i8 a aoi . ' . ystical pc.E&a^'"' i-o'ei-rlr.^ ^c» . ■ v;;.ioI 
ort^ar.8 of the head. 



84 

rSa^vflu is a word uee.l in Upnniqndg rf p^ery ft(je, fror. tho ear?!.ieot to 
the. Ir.teet. It in 8crOT.-)iat awbirupus* Bcr.ptirea teferrirc t' tho orgnn of 
visioi; and eciuotices to tlio Bftnso. A few caaos, whriri 'h^eoneft of Bic^it is 
very clearly referred to, are tronted under tl.e senees; th^ otl.ern are 

tror-tfiJ Vieri". 

It is resocnized as part of the Golf or a-.nrji. (Tttit. 1.7.1) Upaniqtds 

of f'.ll acos recccnize it on cnf of the sonses cr cri:cj;8 of senB-^'. It is a 

fetter--*-^-f. i paining sense. (Brh. ?.2.5) . Generally it ie sailed an 

\A^ i". 1. 1-> 
iniriyu or* a jran^, (Mukti. 2.22; Sii>>.?,9; Anna. 3. "J, 9; qrij. l.S), cr a 

Buqi. (Oh. S.iTTt) In a like cuinner it is always recotnized as the or^an ty 

-.Vi^^ ■•e see. (Oh.. 5.1.8,10,11; B?h. 6.1.8-12; Ait. l.n.ll; Cur. 6; Gopl.5.2; 

Gailr.; Yo. ."Ju. 120). Its espfi::ial funclicn is to make one cognizant cf 

rupciBM or fcrus. iphis is emphasized moro in the earlier tJian in thr. later 

Upanigade, but is tauj^ht in all ar;es. (Erh. 3.9.20; 3.2.5; Knu§. 1.7; ?.4,5; 

Garbha 1; Trig, beg.; Ilarad. 6. bee.; Pagu. Sj . V.^noe it is said to '.be tho 

abode of all forms. (Brh. 2.'^..11; 4.5.12) This is in acoord with the sonuxnly 

aooepted sutjeotivo idea c.*" ocenition, in further accord "'ith which, all ^or»s 

are said to spring from the eye, to be sonwon tc it, and '.o be supported 

by it. CB?h. l.f;.2). It is thf> eeseme of all that has forn, that is mortal, 

finite, ;aid oxistinc. (I^rh. ?■.?■. 4), In fmothor place it is sail to bo loi.itel 

in forus, referring, no doubt, to its sphere of activity. (Bijh. 3.S.20) 

The philosophy or ■■"how" of the a^t cf seeing also presented i.»re 

atta-ticnp to tho early spooulntors than it did tc tlie later Yoginp and 

advaitas, thoug). not entirely negleeted by them. TVe do not see forras with 

the oakqu or oye alone; tho prai^n- see v.-it)i it. (Kaug. :'.2) JJore acrrectly 

the deity, tlio a-:; in, Erohna, oaos with it, (B^h. 1.4.1; Oh. 8.12.3; i:rnut.2) 

For BreiJuia is the caknu of .-JokquB. (liena 1.2^ V.C'f^ii.r with-the ©y*. is a 

funotion o'' Puru^a. ('^ait. l.r.2.) It? •'-^pt ^onae cr pnijna or ijitellicenj© 



85 
ryo — lili. qu- 

io also Ptii.haBijted. It is a lijri> f*" t rMi'n. (Kf^u?. ?rb) -'tlcut prrij/a 

ont> otui not 8«e fon-is, .ini! hy it oiie ae-.ends to jirjijjm. ^/wauq. 2.0,7). 

In tldfl connection, one bIouH ronernber tho idfintifioaticn of intnllftct 

with i,iie> BuprPN© gpirit, sot fortl. iiost ^lenrly in one of the four t:,roat 

pontenoes, prHintuiHr.} Pra}j'iR. 

Further tea^hinr, inninly from thn older Upani^ads, in regard to its 
relation to the exterior world, is that th--> '^yn is the pratiqV'-^ ^^ BUpporter 
cf things. ((3h. 5.1.3; Fyli. 6.1.3) This is oonneoted with the idea that all 
forms »xi8t in it. It is tlie true, or satya. (B5h.5.14.4; liait. I.F') A late 
Upanifad riokes manas, the thinkint; or^an^ subordinate to the »yO; and 
s^'s that they aro united in Yoija. (Advay.) 

The eye is not essential to lif", p". "vas demonstrated in the quarrel 

of tho gonBes. {Ih. 5.1.9,1?; Knu;. S.l-'ll Onr. r.a-; live vrithcut it, ^ut 

would to "blind. (iCaug. 3.?) It ioes net suprort thn body. (Fra^. 2.2i.) 
Cno can not take food with it, (Ait, 1.3.5) 

Th.e eld Upanisads aial^e jira^h of the relation of the eye to the prajjas. 

In the quarrel cf the senses, referred to above, the eye had to acknowledre 

its inferiority to praija. (Oh.xix 5.1.9,13; Kaus. 2.14) It stands because 

prana does. (Bi^h. C.1.14) It is satisfied whnn praija is, (Oh. 5.19,2), 

It is GOQioseJ of tejtis and prana, whi:;h ro to tho ear and to praijn at the 

death cf thr eye. (Kaus, 2.13). Tho body of prana dwolls in thefeye. (Praj, 

2,12). It is dependent ^n and R-!3 0!!iT,aniee praija, for v/hon prajja leaves the 

^cdy, so does the eye and the other senses. (Praj. 2.4) Iho sui-rielps tho 

eye in pi^a. (Pra^. ".8) Of thf» vital airs cf tho body, praija itself is 

in the eye. (Praj. 3.5) In deoy slinr tho eyo takes all its f orris and 

3h. 4.3.3 
retires to pr~na. (Kau§. 3.3; 4..':o) Or, it attains the Supreine ppirit in 

deep sleep. (Pra^. 4.8,9) ^ early passage tells us that the eye is dravm 

in during Bleeri. (Bi^h. ".1.17) 

The soul r.i.Y depart frcu tho eyf. at death, (^^rh. 4. '■.2). Very olosily 

ooiufieoted with this is the dootrine that ar. artery nn-ioa fron the heart and 



86 
Kyo — OfiAfu 

divideo ir» two for the oyos, for tlie early thoucht waf? that tli« prSijan 

7.11.3 
and tl.f scul 2UCV0.1 about in tho artorios. (Mwit. SxA) Lat«r, whon n 

faiiiiful systpw of air oarryinc artories cr ohnnoAla h&\ beon lii^hly do- 

vt»loj)«d, a BPparatp artory wns imagined for oaol. eya, ono naaod c^'^''^^^ 

to *}.■■> left eyft, nni haatijihVK to tho rii;;lit. (Yo. Cu. 19) Sen also und'^r 

ak^i. Iho divided artery of .'iait. served as the ohtmnel by whioh Indm 

and his wife, w}io aro in tho ri^ht nnd left eyes respectively, may proceed 

to thn heart wl^ere thoir union takes piaco, and v.liore their nourislaioAt ia 

to be found. (Mait. T.ll.iS^ 1-3) Tlie idea of a person beinf; in ea^h eye 

3o:;ie8 from ErL.k 4.r;.2,3, v;here thoy are aaid to be IndJ.a (not Indra) and 

his wife. A related idea, of the Purusa beinj;^- in the eye, is al^ l-orrov.-ed 

by ::4it. frm another early Upaniged. (!Ih. 8.13.4; Mait. 7.11.7) Th^ 

uention of thegA rcirpons ir thn oye lends to the conjecture v.-hdt'.er the 

idea aay not havp arisen from tlio tiny reflection of one's self which may 

be Been by locking closely into another's eye. 

Ono can not see the deity with the eye, (Katha. 6.9; Kena 1.3.6; 

liun^. 3.1.C; ^vet. 4.20; licJian. 1.11) T^uithe deity car. see it. (ilena I.'') 

A t 

fl:uwin£; is mentioned as a function of the eye in a late Uranigad. (Rudra*. 
1.2). It in sai:! to be one cf tho foms of p« prakrti (Oarir.) and one cf 
the 16 -jax.ti3 cr if.v^'rs, 'Ai.'-n ti.oso ^oncej-.tions had developed ther-.selvos. 
(Bhav. ) In addition to its beinc in part composed of tejas (Kaug. 2,13) 
late Uianisr.ds connect it vith tho clorient fire, (Tri^, be^;.) and nake 
that eler:^nt its fif.ll of a-jtivity. ('.larlr.) Glooly connected v.itli this 
is tho next idea, that of tlie relationbf tho eye and thn sun. 

Tho eye an I t}i'< hui, . A vei7 interestinr class cf passaces correct 
tho eye witi; t}.e sun. Tho connection is earlier than the Upr-ni^adn, exdd io 
elaborated laainly in the older Uponijads. Xdityr. is tiio word suost coianonly 
uEol fcr ti *•• ?i\ir. in such passaros. Thn ioritter in pnrhrtf?; best mujnelvr '-5^ 
and ;.»ay }.ave originated froir., t}.e pcotical conception thai 'J.- sun is -:.e 
ayo cf the uiiiverso. UaV^-a L.ll.) This was developed in r-any waye. 



T}.e lye — jak^u 

Cno of tiiOUi is tl.o oosfjicjal puruga idfln. Tl.o eunin the oyo of the- ntnril. 

(Ch. L.l".n; 5. IS.]) or cf Prujapfiti. (:jait. 6,l^)Tho eyo is snU to tc thn 

fourth foot of I^rahna, and to sh5.no with the Bun, ^ditya, ac ito 11^,1. t. 

tJ:.. ?.1S.[:') Th© ©yo is tlio livinity of tho sun spirit. (B^h. 3.9.12) T}.e 

eye is the sun, (Brh. S.l.-".), or tl a «iin th.fJoye. (MaliSn. 14) Ai/iin, iHaix 

Xiitya is anid U. to :.av6 sprung fruM thf »:'^. Thn ddity carried away thf» 

l.ri4«il eye boyond death, and it he::a:'ie tho sAn. (Brh. 1.3.14) Tho siin oame 

Ver-y latf? is the statemont th^-t t Euryn was horn fron iat:§'.i. iSub.l, 
fron thr. eye. (Ait. 1..?.4) And a late Tir.rmi^ad inff.n:3 us tliat tho sur w-.s 

born fror the eye of the d»=>ity, (Varadot. 3)The sun deity is eye, and 

possesses eye. CSurya) The sun possesse?' eye. (A^.si) Goint back, to tho old 

Upanigads, tlie sun is the eye of tho a:jvfi: lOdiia. (E?}.. 1.1.1) Tho sun and t*cc n 

are the eyes cf !lr?Jjna. C--"il-' 2.1.4). The sun and moon depend on t?e eye, 

(Ch. 5.19.2) The sun is in tho eye of Kian, ("Brh. 3.1S.r;f") it is the spirit 

ii. ..; n eyofirrh. .?.5.:>.)and helps the oye in praija, (rr-\9. "=!.£) At de^tv , t.},n 

eye[:oes to Jditya. (Brh. c.2.'^; 4.4..1)Th6 relation of tho sun to sigl;t, in 

that it sun lien the li£^t neoessnry for that function, is a vory sufficient 

reason fur the oonnectior. hero estatlisi od, an:' it is surjrisinf: that it 

has not been r.iarked in Indo-Iuropoan investigation. There seerjs to be soiae 

iriLdtve connect icn betwe-n mcon and laind. "^^^ '^^^-^ ^p^ACA^ . 

"i.iE Buor s ^o "o :i iiui*'.' place for aenticnftnf- the verse sc often 
xwpneated in the Upanisals. K.V. 1.22. HO; A,V. 7*26. 7) — 

tad viqnoh, piir.'oiar. pada- , snda pajyanti suriyah 

diviva :;ii/.3ur a^a^aii. 

"The Siiris ever behold the highest station cf Visnu, 

f'-Bofjhed out like an eye in the sky." 

Wliilo tl.. "nally referred to ,:." zenit). pcstiticr. of the sun, 

the late Uptir.igadE, v/:.i?h ciuoto this pussco, niako it r'*er to the euprene 

state 

cf Vigriu as tho yi.iof „o I. {linj.i^-^jd. 5; rrsp. ^.l*^; Ccralap. 1; ^Tksu. 4.1; 

U.-nda 15j Kul.ti. 2.77; 'iucT^,, L.^^nd; "^".Trv ' .ra 4) 



88 

Tho T^;o--iai Bti 

'iohfu ^cirijos to to auroi Icr to v:ui.;. ±i c^ai.lr \ol in J or Buyprrtc ii, 
ji-ejiwirij^ t ff "ta errors, r.r it wore, ' '^ in liirn in euppcrteJ hy tho 

earrit t'' on tl.o rdnA, an! L'.ma tho spirit. (I.aue.. 2.") T.l.-r. :rocitn! *••/ Vrairi- 
l-ai-j., ::.o oyo oi.oso '-ho fuLOLion if sntiir-t;, T^ut doall. tuiciu'iin^ Iho fon- cf 
weariness too*. Fossossicn of it, l.nnj© it Tjao^mo wearied. iT.rf.. 1.5.r'l> 
T'.in Biir^^eata tha ''riTir.w Ciriptui'o, thnt (-)vor;tMn£^, v/h-)n ::reated, was 
Pvery i^ccd", ual thAt evil was aften-'ard introdujad. Gerta'.r. plaoen are 
bttid to pain the eye. (^vot. 2.10) TliiB seeijif? to havn an p.esthotio appli- 
-!at*r,r., >y' * •;'• <^r; i-^thir.^ rari ir. the Upani§A.iB. '^u'^ 'h'^au^iful placer, pleasin^ 
to i;.:- eye, uro tc 'ht^ Dhooen to pnrforru reli£,lous auBtoritee and ritos. 

:ueta;.hyBif5al,Fan-:iful, >.3, Tho eye ocr.eg froir. and retumi to Brah:.a. 
^-^ait. ?.l) Bra.'-: , •••■•^;on seoinc, i? mallei oakgu. (E?h. 1.4.7) The eye is 
foot or iuarter of Trahia. {,Z)i, 3.16.2,5} Mere, however, Brahiiia is to be 
understood as intelli-er33, and tV.o eye as one of tliO four or^^anSupon whi-;h 
''ri.'..- "^ ■>!':. A li'.tle later, t;.^ atiaan ii^ smII tc be cakfu. {..k^it. '.''T^ 
CI' ib ui-c- stcitr-jiont that tho at; -.an, th" inner restrainnr, is in thf. e; e. 
(Brh. 3.7.18) Thft : _ in t^'' ryo har= already Treon discussed a"bcvo. "r!.. 
4.4.1 tells us that when the "'eye-lTein^^'' cai.gugnati puruga — tho krrwir»d^r> 
i,rasi Ir.^ function of the eye. — turns away, Ihon one ceases to l.nc"- fcn^is. 
Jianas is the divinn r^ye of one who wills tc think. Jhe soul by :-t-ia.i»r of -. 
divir.p eye sees its desire's. (Ti.. C.lc.5) A wise iv.an turns his eye irv.-.-'I '.r. 
find the eternal, vl.iih bospeai.s a fonn of introspection. (Kn^ha. 4.1) 
The eyr» is ea* ' to be tho wealth r* nan. (Brh. 4.1.7) 

Old L,. : l"!.i connect !■•■ t<> ■• •■•"^' '.'' p udcTtha. h. -^.-1. attninpt to 
overcoue the asuras, U.o doilies adored tho eye as the udcniiu. The asiin.i 
t:.r-r zif^voe^ or cent Hiair^. ted it w^th f3in. (:;h. 1.".4; S. 7.1; 2". 11.1) . 
Ar.. ... * V i • -yf 3u:.^ ..." udtiltha .. %.. .^ ... -evac i: '■'•• 

cti.'liot, c'.i.l die asuras mshed in and piened it witi evil. (B^h. 1.3.4} 
Tl.is wcir . ir'Ucnte th-.t •■•rlier duall-'-i' pliiloscp" . 



89 

— '«n^ qu 

'•'ut j_, Vody, but \- roworr rf ovil ^ausoi it Lo wort lii 

thoir intoropt nl«n, 

^'.^i ..^.>. . '. xr- added in Iclar .^.ui.x^. -u. A divinP oye ruay ''■-.' 
l: . ofle3tir.r on tV-^ polr^t in tho v/ord on if. the- ninth*, w&y . (IlujiOtk IC;} 
iinc'?'l''?^o 5." th« eye of sonio. (Vajr*i. ^ Cn" who has su:}. on ©yo sees toth 

J, x:- .j.a stationary tl.ir.te. v-iu- .-'. 1") Tho eyes r.ro ncthln- ^-ut 
asl-.os. ;*jiruB :/■ Ey stulyir-c ty:^ ^irr.' . l§al onA iMr;lfieB th? r.y- '.•,. 
sr-v: t^.rrs. Yiliil*"' tliis i.ay i-oaxi tl.Ein otipi'b d'^so'^-niaritpa for bovoii 

u-.:.or£.'.i ' J ttv.uli ■ '"ogseJ with puro oyes, -I. .--- . >- -■ -i-i. .- vT.'! ' 
^•■■r.flral trend of Indiar. thou^jl.t Vt su^i-ose that tho persfti will hiusolf hcivo 
lurr- pyos d'.irin:: s-^von r-''::^-r+V5. A£,rcir., "by tn.-^.g! ir.^ lOn Pr?il.:-an<« t} ^ iiicjitr.. 

i.Jl0^^1edi,G and it/iorance are tho eyes cf Mr.dinr E:an,d release ttfui'iha i-ickga) 
vwal.uv.y A. 1 '.-o- -j:i:' ii;r.oranco ar-^ l-li«npd tc eyes. (Yaral:.. •2.1l,19,r,?;. 
■Jak.nu wu.3 cr9a■c^^j. by ■^rrJ.r n frcr- the third scun ! Li. or..^^. !• 1.1.-) 

Ir. the figurative body eacrifioe, the »yo io the adjivarj'u ^riefct. 
(nrh. 3.1.-1; ^ai.ar.. ^4:1) Ir. r.r.cther fiL-xtrativ- Ea^rif?.-fi, it is th.^ "ooiils 
cf the fiiO". v^-« -•■•--, -*.-• -'.■.'•") Ii: Cw.t t-i.ur i^-x.-o' -'■'- -■-• -^ •■ ^ -^ 
■;ntaL'-. jrifioial butt-r. {,?vTj..o.^. 4) The eye is said to be ijk suiicrt- 

li.^ ati:£L. ^Gh. 1.7.2;. 7:.!^: ic a pubsaro exaltlr-c tho Sane-- Vein, rnd JiiPkin,. 
'.i.oi other Voif.s su'-criir.ato to It, as thr uVi^z^iS c.x '.c .. - Boul or , 

..:.ich the SSuja hero ; .-recnifies. Aa^<-*dir.£ to the :,Iadhya:i.linr raoer.sion cf 
'.;..., :. v-c.-: •• ' • Tv.rnaa is oai.qu. (^rl.. 3.S-1J?) 

holi^ious. iiuiUiively, the ueo of the- oyo hn rolic-'-^''8 or siioru.-"..-..! 
• :.ys, is not great. The eye ia woreldpr©^ » or nontioned in a locae way in 
..*'jn*rKE, {Trr.. 6.3.S; /utu§. .".^; . ' ". '-• 1; , '■ *'*" 

J. .»3alth. Th<- dyin^ fatl^or, '. ...*.-, - " ■ 'i • "- 

(V 

;:>.. ;x.au&. 2.15). reinr ftlit.n, its worsl-.ii li^"^-* 010 fro; 



9f^ 

l\\o tilaka ai.ciild ©xtond tc it. [tS-laij. 1} Jatuli) . ^hr* sye is to to 

i; ic^a. Tl.rvt is, tl.r» oy/^ ip not tc >^o e::ployod in timo of r.ioli"':tdi': , 

^.u^ui.^ida. 2.4J Awaa. -.7,i} Tho y<i,iii it ae if TiitLca o,es. ^/aj.u. j./'; 

By i:. . . ■ jn v/itL the eye, ly tlio aid of manas, ono sece rrtil.iua, ih-^- 

t}.e rii;iiit eyo 
dfl'.nrfi a:i.i the like. (Advay.} Ccn:!6r.tratinc at';eticn inJ^^:Vf"* Kro'i^l'^dcfi 
In the lt«ft 0y6 of ijiva's world, '^ 

cf i._l *-..o worlds, C^!^i4' -'^) liif* 6yo is to te turned tc tlio spct totvoen 

/V 

the eyebrows in i\ fcm of yoj;,a. (Yo. i.u. Xxi 24"' Thoy av- to l^ stopr-ed 

wltl. l:. finreirs ir.a fcfK cf Yc^ja. ('JrTj . ■'■.''-^} Then tho esirs c^'^ stci-jrl 

ar.i „ ' "..Xrti, o:;o coos f. tluo li^jl.l v.'iii. '.Le eyes, and cVtair.s iiilensf^i 

LapxinesB, iAdvay.) In Yoga practice, one laay see at four fin£-ers from the 

tir (. ' :-<..s'"- rir.t Vnt/.'/.-i-r; t* .- ^.yes a blue lij^'.t, at six fin£_erB a 'bl^.ck 

ci.D, £.1 U u rod ii£^.t, ut ten a yollcv li^l.t, md t-t tv.'slve a raij-.y :clor<-.i 

one. C:jaj}4. 1.2) 

XXH Deity. Jhe JeHy is saill Bonetirusr tc 'br, \ritl:out eyes. Tc:.. 

"arad. S.l^ 
3,S.L; -.un^. l.C.C; ..aiv. 17j Paju. 29; Phasi.'if^. 2; ^J^i^. ~; ) A^^ain lo -Loos 

have eyes. (l^aliar.. 46) Cr ho hAa his eyes QveryyrYere, (Ifait, 6.f; (jvet. 

?.3; Tnaa-ia. 2} ViraX is also vi-jvatcicf-a.^u, or wiLti. (v/e? ii: all dirrotions 

(Trii-. M. 2.2) In these raasat^es ther-^ is no real ta-.thropciorfi.is. .; it is 

sir-ily e fit_,urative way of expressir-c the fa:;t that the deity is cognizant 

of all t',ir;^8. As to the eyos of tho ^' '^ ^r ih<^ j"-,r';tnnl sense, f ero is 

nu wention . Kuara is said to le without eyes, but this is merely in lino 

v.ith the first ro'erenoe above, (liuurnh. 31) 

'^oaiicai. In \.: S'->cticn abov,-., .. . „... .. ... oonneof-''? f ' v-: su 

and aditya, moat of t};e coacdoal roferenods have been ^.iven. If ud-i ro-dut 

that thA Aye cf the a;vaned).a ic the sun, (T'ljh. 1.1.1) an*c that of Brahja 

'. ,.ui. ;.:.: iUL,cn. C:Jiii}4,2.1.4) Ii the r:^: ■. ....". ^oft eyos reB:.e't.1 v«ly o' Ehc 
, . dl;ania ^nd a'DiarTHO, ^. 



91 

The mfltaplasti- 8t©n, al.qi, fU.ijim, l£i unfld thrc-.^hcut 11. p Uitinl9Rifl 
intflr.3hani;utly with ofU.^us, and rcforenoec ic it r-rr. iraoti^.ill:- tJ.ft ofu.o, 
with this Jifferenao, however, thnt aitqi alwtiys refers to th« ftye itself, 
an.l n«v©r to tho Bon»e cf Blj^l.t. It i-. t).nr nl tirios aurofully .listinrjuishdd 
fro:-! ofti.quB when the latter refers to t,);-^ eeiise of 8iiJ;t. For Inetan-je, we 
road tiir.t akqi wac split in the Tjecinninc, and cokgua oeuiio out; also that 
Xdityn, teocrdnc ^a^gus, entered thn nkgi. (Ait. 1.4; .?.4) la/.quB is in the 
aiv^i. (MahSn. 7>?).The sitht of the eye, the power of seeing with it, is 
due to the ccodaess of Visnu. (''rof. 1.1; 2.4; !'rsu. 1) 

As to its aprea-anrja, wo find in it red lines, water, tla^k and 
white. (Prh. 2.2.2) It tjontains white lifiht, and >)eyond ths blue, l^laok. 
(:jh. 1.7.4) In addition t--. these things, easily noticed--the rnd lines 
no iouht referrinr to th-=* tiny blood vessels of the eye — early obsorvers 
also notioed different colors of the eye, and must havi attributed sor.e 
special virtue to eac'. :olor, thcu£-h that is not lusntionod. In E^h. ^.4.16, 
if cne desires a son v;ith ri3d eyes, he £ind his wife shov.ld eat boiled ric^, 
witl; water and bu-ter. So. in l.:ahan. 55, one prai s f"^ ili'fernt colored 
eyes, £;reen, yellow, and red. The i;plendor of t]ie eye is in its r^Fil* ("'^^^.6.7) 

Later Ui-anisads, besi les addinc tl.at^is one of the parts of ti.i 
body born to die, (Ztiiia 1) and that the eye cf the foetus developes in the 
sixth Mcnth, (Garbha 3) add little to the real scintific stater.ents about 
tht» eye. The inarinary systems of tho yorins, an! thr forced oonfoiaiation 
of all thines to their breilhs and breathincsf prgdoininAte in their ideas. 
Tuo air v^'rina circulp.tes in the ©yes. (yan4. 1.4; 7rrj . 4..''B) ''"l.e air 
idbui kunna perfoms the wiriint: of the eye. (Trij, C5) The artery cf^^lh.^rl 
rises to tho left eye, and haetijihva to UiO rii^}.t. (Trij. 7;) In one place 
the artery pii^a is suii to ro to thn left ••^ye. (^rij. 4.211. Its dicoasen 
are oaused by the (iupropor) passace of air. ('•o. Z\i= 117) Its diseases i.iiy 
be prevented by recitinc r.iantras to the sun. (Ai-gi) be^;.) The eye is not ^ 
at!..;ai. ^Adl-^^. 1} 



Til© Lyi9--'ii. yi 

TiiO puni^ in the oy*^ ie ofton nonticnel ' J.yide, 

in the oiise wilh ofii.giiB al'6ve, ariil ne alronly BU[^;jepte<l, is jerhaj^B origi- 
nally due to the rofle-! lion of Iho sof^v In luhDeA-im eye. Ditfnrtmt theorloe 
are advnir^ed ns to what t) is puniyi is. In B^h. 2. ".5 it iff sftii to tbe the 
enfli^noe cf 'vhat Is i::riortal, Ivn^atflrinl, fluil, mil Iri'lofinito, irl)ontrft«»t 
t(. ^..^1 iua.nzi.nl ;;'.rOi-. cf thf> ^ody. iJ. '^he above passnrjo, ani ir. t^finerul, , . 
is the pTiruqa tf the- rij^ht eye wliioh is generally r;.entior.ei, an\ whi«h is 
eej-eoially icricrtant. Ho is oalle 1 In^lha, orii^inclly, 'but Ir.ter beconos 
:;onfu80.i with isunAM. Inira. (Frh. 4.4.C; ,..:.U. 7.11) VAa wife is in t' o left 
oye. (Fr'i. 4. ".3; ."lait. 7.11} f.ifh, 5.5.2 establishes a olose sonneotion 
betveen tlio p^'rv»9"* i" tho ri^ht eye an1 tho one ir thf> 3\vr., both of then 
be-ini;: mc- roul, anu tJ:p one in tho sun resting wit}; i.is rayo on the one in 
the eyes, v.liile the one in the eyes rests 'yith his senses on t];o one in 
the sun. TlTien the puni^a. of tho oyA ig about to depart in deatl. , hf» ppqs 
tlie sun as white only, and its rciys do net rdtnrn to /liin. This, -ui.. viie 
aditya pc.asatieo noted under 3aA§UB i&ark stronj^ly the importFoi^e of the sun 
in the earlipr cy puliation, bronjlvt out r,lBc in other ways in the T^rh. and 
;)h., and cilso n^jri; the earlier philocophy as jnoro uaterlaliswi; lhrji» ^ho 
x.iioi Hiivuitii Bpeoulation, Another idea is that tho puruga who has his 
pln,Tf. ii. the nys rcm'iB ^.-frernvhoro. (;iait. ''^.6). "his not only Eug.;ent5 th-^ 
povor of si^.t, but also in x^rineotion with the other passa^:^^ lited c-yov'^, 
is a BU^eslive identification of the eyo puruga with the soul itself^ 
or at least w'ir "J.-, i i.telledtua"! s.--"'f. A sonn^h.it sinllsir do^jtrino in that 
that tliO puru^i'j. iij i-h. ri^t eyo is ^he spirit of r^acie, firo, and lij.t, 
>hilP that in the loft eye is the spirit cf truth, lifMnin^, and brilliancy, 
CiUi.u§. 4.':, 17, is; Bo also Irh. 1»,:'^4 jnT--tn^ ,- ti oonnoot '.rr, r' 
i.. HuiJl tlie rijit oye \s'ith the one in t^** sun by jiioking thr^ vyal.^tiB, ti.ui., 
bhuvfth RTJ'I •r>'i>r, r^sp""; t^.'"»ly t^'^ hoal, arms and feet of each, v' 

..".. " ' ' •".'■'i«j;\ i). '.1. ■ ■"■ 'n ai.v.i , ^-i, - 

eyo is alinjn, efc,o. 



93 
T] ,. Jyn, --Kifli 

Iho ruruyi i:- th . " . ' . . , 

'■.-..un, ^ i.i.:xi,i V ill. 'r:.-!... , ^_.'/.4}, tr Uicro fur.:ifuii; , 
oilinan ;x.4. 5} 

Tc ■ ^. IflnT cf u&nticn i?s a.i!- - ■" n./.gl ii. tho lator UT.ani9s.i8 

a.3 wv, its uue iii a relisiovis ppl;r>i-o. it lo ;,iiu ti tho 1£ vltJal a^ctc ir. 
Yci^a. vjiui4' I'-J Tri;. 1"1} It is to bo oloee'! or partly open in Ycca 
noi-.titicr. (Advay.') In en- foixi 6f "f...i it is tc >n Btotpo.I Vy tho fin-sre. 
^iL. ,„. J.14) 'li.:;t of tho asjeti": is .all to te his Ka:iii'.n4ulu wr A'ater 
pot. (Kirv.) . to Burrr-iiderpd vitlxut effort, to obtain T'iuiwti. v«i'w.uti.2.22} 

"1.- --i.-fiirin f' t1 f- A; A to tl;f> lotUB, '-^'^ '' ru .' "< ' nv Ir tl o 'hftTl^s 
let. tons oi tho liiuioTi writers, is rarely iuot v/it]i iii tii6 iJicUii^als, !;..>> 
ijOlJen male in the sfai has rn-i eyes, liko lotuf^t->r. (1h. 1.6.f) Yignu is 
lot. . ^V-Tsu}. EC ■w Lak§ia. i^ZF.v.X) 

r6i,iru.inr; v.ith P. S. 1, the deity is saii to have a thcii^sand eyes, 
[llahajfi. Tj .^vo; . -.l-^. The first puna^c* had 1000 eyes. (Su^. 1} . Those 
r.vos are ev:.. . , C7v'^t .^.1'^; ::aha:n. 12..1,- 1^.1^ "« ^r '-:Rr. Vvn -^.i^l- 
oyf^l - virui-ar.^in. (rhaaaa. 2; ^rij . 9.2) The deity haa iiifir.it- :;-y6b. 
^Trir. M. 2) TIp deity ,.'^eatl., in n mantra in .Mrityu Upani§ad, has defonnrd 
1-, e*?-- Parvnti has a '..., > -.yfl. (Anna. 1.9) Dea^- '' ■ Z" ';' •'"'■■ --.-^s. (S'l^. "^ '^ • 
A th. . ' puni^r^ vj. . ''■(■•n fccm the hea'l cf llax-aytuia. ;i.ja}.ai;. 2). T-.-^* 

sun has tirillinn' cy-o. [j'^.sL. '^o^).Ancl hir ey© is mention?>'l in A'U.ya. 1. 
" ■-•,-_ -^c i]^^ -i,--..:^„ ,_.-., .• ,^^ '"rn^-..- is 1- " ■. .-.ye. (:iait 

6.35). V.tt' " ■ -> eye Parjar.ya is naturally acnn^otpd, lut 

A^^ni blfujk, Indra wit' '■'\, f.ni Rudrn witl tho rod. ;" . . 

3oai-iaall; , .un is ea' ' avo ^oen prc'ujod frcr.; f^'' 

puruQu. ;?. r>. ir) 



94 



■ _ .. I.ifi. V.J , I. 

Vc. .:u. ^.: 
nf'\ . ;'"rnh.ia. 4; "ainl. 5. And). It ie sprer.l over 

....... . ,. :^ . • ;t -I'^x -'''' "^c-t. (Jlan-Jnl. ".*:) it^— f-- 

(i^aattra}.. 2. 84) The artory gftjiiiiHrr ^^cos -o thr loft oyo. CvJ^Ij . '\."Zj 

Pslitp-cuB. Tr.f) e}(>6 vxf' ejiciii^ t:.'~' U.irtytv.o raias of the body to 

^\)'J-jL\ . triiuijijr.i. J"i;.„.j . 4."£) li. tilrj^n of p.si.es io ^ ■. 

. . rotrinte liantras. ("hcuKa. 1) TJ. , Is used in Yc-a rfistrainte. 

. 3) On<F> fuii.Tticri ir. Yo^j,tt is to j^aze at t' .t. (i^rlj. S.*"; 

. ■ .iw^r. s].£ul.l drink arijtn witi. xo. \^\^. 1.^) />^ah.^ 

.' •' ip h<-" ' :hfl sy; t^-'r 'rnrns disoasos o* tho kojt^ or^an. (Jrxj. T. 

?0,31} The oyes cf tji« f.s^oti: nre :»>5i7ftrivin2. ('^ra ]. 6. be^^.) The saijjj 

Deitioc v,o. jho lord of the world, ^iva, has thx'eo e.os, (Rahas. 1^ 
T: . ' «-«>. pd iss ".l^o Pr.rlryfid, Dai-eina. 3,5) iYiG tl.v>e eyes of 

.■...,-:>., • ..t-l;,y, axo su:. , . ooi., ..1 firo. ^ijara. " "; Vuradot. -;, ,j-.' 

brilliar. • " ' .-. i-c Iluira. C'j''*ia-' 1-) Arigiia'^ 

lo I ••.< ^ 1 i ;. . ( r c ; liar . } 2i,:a_^-^* 

-h? 6V0 of w.'-'v ■ 1 1 n is eail lo 'oo in th-'" 'bhru:!akra, o^ * t,-""*- --^ •- 

. ^Lau^h. 3) r^he a of oiu ib prodouinant in the eyo. CYo. Gu. 74) 
7'-' anusv.-jra of th^' woi'd on is tho eye cftf "..•.- jcsi.ic;il bird. 
■." . ■ " ^ 

napana 

v:^'EQly .:cr.rn:;t3' nryana is usod for tl.P oy? in au;-. "1^ sf-." 
w.^i ab noT,ra. *... uoii-i ^.-.1. . . jr.y oyoa. t"'ri^. "' " . 

<■', i. .^ . ver^ ohort 

'. :. . ,. ..r:. 'ft. . ' .. atiifui i. ... _ ,f all. (Su^ . 13). 



Tl.rt Tyn--nnyr.r4it 






■f..^oo.! 're;; 



dslty. (Vf-ra'ct. ?) Thf eyo of 



I '.'•*-* • -- 



lo-;iia 
Lo'iana is another word wl.iji. aj.. . ■>-©. It is onf"^ cf th* 

. ..'arm.. 2) A ^^■•:^-i':" f-^l . > rloasir.r Ic r _ . 
;Vuj. .; A Jltu- . :.y be obtained Ly tl.s " . -iorolco i.r.o^r. as 

. u.-bl-a/.a. ^qZi.^. 1.7.14) it s!.c'-H bp half alosed in Yoj^a, or i: 
Ciyr^.^. ^.~.l'; ;_ . ".''; Til''- ^rr mkta is siurloy^d c . . .^- ■ ' ^- . 

r,orr.'=>i cf ^Ti 
apaiii^a 
The yCfc,i!i so^.-.'.ii;.es se is h. litht in the corner of his eye, arani,a. 

Paxil 

kar.Inaka 

Thri relf.ticn of t,!..-- e^ -he- sun had alroaiy been pcintoJ out unl'?r 

a liLya 

cai.^iiB u.. akgi. This relation is specialized in ?2^;.. ".".", "-"■i"'^ «x« " "■ 
sail to jlin^- to one by means of the pupil, or kanlnaka. 

tar.-'.ka 
Tarai.a is also used p. ft. .u:il.Th^ splei.U.r cf Savitrr 

is ii. it. ;....i-. i. . . , w.'.'-' _(.<...■, cu.. V . .^ . L V, ... -'o'-/ 

i^?«norally in Yi<ta . • .?. CAdvt.;, j :..' I'lils c^re tt to be d:' : 

spot betv'^en .ebro'"3. (-^fu;.;. 1.?.''?} 



96 



!'■' •■ 



'n*L i,^ii. wcrde, •jrorii u^^u kitn^a ar^' usoii for i, .'i oar, U.o foruor 
;..v.'.^ aovoral Vyfonus, or jjarallel fon-o derivf^d froiu D.o saiuo rcct. i" 
r.r.^ r.ct u-rt! cff.nr. ''■■it' ..Ir -f;,-, *, ,-.t t*. ft^. "V.^-* -'.'Ar T* f rr,r.-.); : , ■br.twor. 
11. '■ ;,.,c to:i-6, ii»." that, Louv.eei; ■Jak§u8 aiid akqi, iu tii it vjrol,rr4 is sowew;.a1» 
aKibij^iious, 80; r^ferrtni;; to the sonse of l.earin<;, while karqa 1-j 

always th^ ort_^'i.>- f f r t>i.s funHior.. 

■"'rt Ira Ib otu'ly rnocipiizei as a eento. It is or.e of the praijaa (..ero 

ser.sos). (Jh. 5.1.15) It is a f ett?)r, arid £;ras]; 3 sounds. (Uijii. 3.2.(^) It is 

thA aV.cdo of r";i "^Mnds. (Frh, :3.4.11; 4.r,lS}. 't'I >-n„£;h it -ono attains cr 

t^rasi 6 all Bour.ds. ((tous. 3.4) We hioar by it, tut it la not indtispansa'blp 

tc one's existence, for or.o can livo witliout it, (T^h. C.l.S-12) but lie 

vcjll bo deaf. Ci-ti^'?« "'3) Its function is lirdted to hearing, for one cai; 

not take food with it. (Ait. ?.S 5) It is also said to be the amicurcer for 
BPlf. (ii.&u§. 2.11) 

Tn Ait. 1.4 f.. -jrotra ia olt;t>T"\y a sense, for it is snid to have 

■!' r.? fr ... ^.. • ear (V.arna) of the prirr.al pun-ii^n and then to have returned to 

it. It is aaii to be located in karnji. (Mahaii. 7."). It is the southern one 

of th« BugiB or o^eninj^B of the heart, which see: s a ficurative way of say- 

xi-^ Jt xoe a Bti.'.bo. ^Ght 3.13,2) 

Later Urani^ads do not deviate fro:a these tet^chines. Orrtra is a 
Bev.^'.e,. (2^1^. 5,^ } It is one of the knowled^je senses. (Gai'Ir.; Var/u;, 1.2) 
lu I.; xVoj . , in perceiving sound. (Oarbhu 1: i;,u-a.l. G.b.-.^. 'arir; ). 

It hears all tl:intjg. ( P5^u. S) It is a door for obtaininj; kr.ov'led£,o. 
(Tri^. be^;.} Its fieU of operation is aka-ja. (ij^rlr.) 

Thence cones i'..^^ ability of .'..'.* ooi" 1.0 o^;is; sounds ? It l-* -jio »■- '_ 
"'•ilHr-i; to lioar. (Oh. :v.4.12) iiauq. HAkes njich of -its connect ion with 
prnintT or ir.tolli£;ei.co. It is that r.^n^T rf prr.jn." whouc reulin of actrvity 
1"^ "cxrAt (aP-U';. p. 4} Vfit^ct prr.Jna is aoi. n-'; cciji'.iie -r-.j ', _,;m ,.t;on.Ts, 
or taXes poseessifn of it . prajr'a. ^'^.^u^. 3.G,7). Tl.ear references 



97 
Th« r<ir — ijrotrn 

oli'Urly sstr.'Vli';} V.<^ outer'.' . . '. '4n t" ., . :-30 

en intex^ow'*.. /u.t.ici .;..ii'-5a.l tolls u.. ' '. is ono of ... i-..-..^ .Apl.oll- 

ing intellireivje. (Fraj. 2»r) 

Si:nilarly, ir. 3ori^ of U.e eurly Ur^miBada, the ^onno-jtion of the oar 
with the prSJiaa is >.r;:ad. Ii; t'.oso Upani^ade tho i.:ear.in4 of prSr^a is ^rc.idor 
than in the later cnos, inslulinr t].e nor.eeo, and havinr; etrcnc metaphysj-cal 
a:rllcation8. The praiiRs hocu- wit;, the ear. (i.au?. 3.2) In sle'^:. it retires 
in'-c praj} ( louLu^, its scurnls wilit it. C-?h. 2.1.7; ;;., 4. 3.3; x.;tuf. 3. 3; 4.1',. 
It stands because jirSija does. iVi^l., ".1.14) It accompanies ajid ier-ondo on 
rrar,ri , rjid ihe hody cf prru^a dwello in it. (Pra-]. ?.4,1"). 

j^jaonr; tl.e five vital aire, loVa early and lais j\juii§ads tell us that 
vyann is in the ear. (Ch. ?.1?..C; 5.30.2; Tri9. 81; (Jar^. 1.4; ^rij. 4.28) 
Cre passacft tellf> ue that prarja itsolf dwells in the oar. (Pra^. 3.5). 

Ainonc the other lucre or less metaphysical stateiients, v/o ara told tliat 
Brahiiia is tlie ear of ears; the ear does not ).ear him, but he hears it. (I^Anr. 
l.r,7} At death it dis'-.olvos into its el-^uetts, its te^nh goint to manas, 
Oi-.-l its prar/. to prana. Ckaus. 2.13) These are the two oleMctna cf '.vhich it 
is cci.posed. T)iis passage iaplies that in the dissolution of the tody, the 
oar loses its powor earlier tfcan tho ndnd does, 'but l.-.ter than the ear. 
This is certainly true in laany oases. Apparently for lhc-> saiie reason, the 
ear stands fim behind the eye and before manao in praija, in iaug. 2.", 
a^ain puttinc the ear interr^ediate between the eye and the siind. Further, 
see the ccnnection of th*j ear witli the deity, below. 

Later Upanigads add only niinor ztatters. The atman soeu ani witnesaes 
r'th the- ucr. ;::roi-.t. 2) It is in one place connected wj.th the elocient 
fire, whiah is rather unusual. (Tri^. be^.) Trotra is one of th« fcrus of 
prai.]rti. {,qZr'r.') It is one of the 1« r>r-flrr cf the >iody. (Diav. ) The eotind 
• - •* --^i* orea+.Ad Vy "frahr-". '—■' the o." o... (C. T.. 1.:."' " * ^- i' -x^.^'. 
Irino by Psujupati, who £;ave it tho power cf h.e«riiiL. (P5^u. II; 



96 

Th« Fnr - -^ rr t m 

li.t.' vui xu Oi.ii 1 1 ^J.*^ Xj rr4fi,r. g ' i;." 'kf*;>ji, i.'i'u ;..f)uj; 1 .'.j^ 't^'y* 

mentioned in Tait. 1.7.1. ^t !• rJioc oiifi of tlio parts c' the ^ody l?om to 
dio. (Jltmn 1) Th« ear c' tlie footue iovolcros in tlie sixth nonth, (0".r>^h« 3) 

RoliijioiiB. Tl.e oarliect rientions of thft ear alone this lino ;ir' ;;." 
simple worshir o? it witli evnl.a for woalth « r treaaure, witl. w).ioli it waa 
in sone way cjcnnooted — spe hfllow. (Tjfh. 6.?.^; Kaug. 2.^) It wae aln' thufl 
vrrri.ipped to bec5one dear to ar.y one. (i-.r.u^. 2.4) Ty nakjun a :han. t; -? 
dyinc father treinafonns his qrotra to his son. (Kau^. .1.15) 

In tho realM of Yoca more attnet-'on is paii to tho ear. In refl^otion 

it ie to h" fixpl c^ -tiered, so ''s not to auiriit dlstrrotinc soun'.B aji' 

or tho hands, (Trig. 115) 
iiens • CSa/.. 4b. 2) It ie tc bp stcT-ped witli the thiuuhs. (^rij. ?i.ri4). It 

A\ 

beocn.63 in lefinit(?ly an instrui'ient in Ycgi rostraints. (Gaubh. 3) The 
attention ie to ho ;on-;en"rated 'n it '-o ^ivo «.nowlod£;o of y.ynn Icka. 
((501,4. 1.0} , Again, tho iij-'.t is to fastened on it, no doubt ir.eanin£; the 
Bar:o thin^. (KuncJ. 19) Diaeasee in it aro ourod by proper Yor.a breathin^;. 
(grij. 6.31) It is also mentioned in a : antra in Datta. 1) Tho tilaxa of 
ashes is to be vorn on it. (Bhiaama. 1) 12 rudrakqas oreJA-om en each ear, 
(riasna. ""^ TV'. • ea 'i-.r of t}iesf on che ears is hi<:hly beneficial. ("^rhaj.TjS^ 

Tai-»;iful. :.. t];oae passages where the ■aucxia body is compared to a 
sacrifice, the ear is said toxkbe t5ie sparks of.tlio sacrificial fire. 
(B^rh. 6. ".12). In another paasai^f^ it is the Sg^iara or clarified bu' ter 
of tho sa^rifi-je. (Frana^. 4) Acnin, it is the acnidh, or priest who ^indlei 
the fire. (ila}.an. '="4.1) 

'"}.'^ ear is said to bn sar.p'it, wetilth, attaia'nent. {T.\, 5.1.4). A 
Bcnev.'imt BL::ilar passa^o in B?}., 1.4.17 lirdts tliis to divine wealth, and 
explains this by sayini;^ that through the enr one hears divine wenllh, 
in contrast to earth l^iwealth, which is soen by tho eye. 

Alone vith the other senses, crotru viuarrolled wit'. prSr^a for Buiro;!^- 
aoy, but had to acknowledt^e its inferiority, ('^h. 5.1.10,14; I^i.. 6.1.11; 



99 
Tho Ear — qrotra 

Axo. --.4; Anu^. n.l4j Priijj.r>. 2.3) It •ftn^ l) <' u.lt,rthft for -.. '.'.-.s u: 

theii- joiifliot with the agurna, but the latter ran in an.i plercod i:. »l'>.i 
evil. CFi;!., l.n.5). Or, aocordinc ^-o Oh. 1.".5, tho deltioia weditated on 
tlio udclth't as tJio'ear, but lhr> •■urnn piorooi it with evil. CJroated by 
PrajJtpati, it beotu-ie wor.rj' v/hnijdefith Boized it. (Frh. l.t-.^l) Th" deity 
carried it beyond .^enth. (Prli. l.ri.lb) Coiai-ared to the Veda«, the ear is 
rk ui'. -].- liln'i ama; the oar is sa ani tli'"" iaind «na, {CA:. 1.7.?) so that 
it is a r.ecjossari auj^rorter to nanas, wttile tiie latter, tho dep^^ndinr: on 
it, is yet eupnrior. Tt is «lso said to >>(* the pratDiara syllable in the 
3hantP. (Oh. 2.7.1; 2,1.1.V 

DoitioB, :;-5. Ij. rei^ard to thndeity, ve find tl.e usual 3ontra.!i3t&r/ 
8tator;entB, a?iordinc to t}io standi^oint of the writer, as to v/hother the 
deity pcBBOGsos or does not possesB an fiar. In. B^h. 3.8..C an 1 Uur.d. 1.1.^, 
as well as in later U:.ani§ads, (T:ra]-.m 2; gan4 2; Pacju. 29) he is without 
ear. Tl-.e atrian as Tral-jua, has ear. (Irh. 4.4.5; of. Uund. 2.1.4) T' e atnan, 
vfhen i-eC'-'-'vlnG an ear in tho bej;,innin£;, thoucht,''if tlie oar hears, then 
who ma I"? (Ait. ?.ll } Tlir deity, when hearing, is ear by najae. (Brh. 1.4.7) 
The ear is Bra}-Xia. (Prh. 4.1.5) It ^or.es fron and r^'.urns to Brahna. (Tait. 
?.l) It Id the body of the ir;ward restrainer. C'?h. 3.7.19) Brahjna is tiie 
ear of ears. (Trh. 4.4.18) It is one of the quarters of Bral:i!-.a. {C!i:» 3.18.2, F, 
4.S»3) Puruaa beooaos lord of the oar. {'"r-At. l.'5.2) A l^ttl^. later, the 
atcan is s^iii to be the oar. (Llait. 6.31) In cno passage alitya is said to 
be the ear. (Llahan. 14) But as this is a pantheistic passaeo wl orp all 
tilings arn riu-jip' ur, in adity^i, it dcoy rot -;cnfli-:t with the £;oneral 
identifioa.ion of tho eye with tlie sun. A late Upani^ad tells us that froi:i 
the ear of Prajapati vnyu an.i the prai^as wore born. (Sub. 1). Eudra is not 
an object of the c ar, (Pudrah. CG) Th-^ c-ii. is tie om-Licnt of Devi's left 
ear. (Devi. 1?) 



100 

Th* Fnr--'^rci* TR 

Tho DlqtiB. Juct txa -l-.o eyo is rol.-itei to ;:.o a\ir., so no otir i» 

related to the 'li^r.o, or Jirootiors. The ears of Brahioa, for Inatai -je, aro 

thf) di^r.B. (JIuij^. n.1.4) Or alriply t)io di^ns, hero [.raotioally the wuijo n.z 

and roturn to 
akaja, ax-o '«;.<Sear, (T>^h. 4.1. fi) At,air., tho dijas Bi-rini: froii. tlio j^ri;.'.itivf> 

qrotra, (Ait. 1.4; r.4) ^ho oar gooB to tho di-^as at detitli. (B^h. ?.r.l3) 

tho ear 
If SKC is efitlfifl^l tl:6 dijaa or.^ also. (1h, 5.20.P) Lato 'Ji^ani^ade are 

fat.iliar witii tlie idea, and infcrri us that l}io dljaa apran;^ frora tli*^ ears 

of Puru^n, < r the deity, (Vnradot. 3), followinc P-t S. 14) A collation of 

these and other pjiBBar;os make it clear that tlio e-r is the organ v.-hi^h 

gives to U8 a *.uowlodge o4 sjacc or direct icn (aka^a, or diqa) • this , of 

course, is natural, ip-.e wye, while giving us a i.rowlodg'^ cf exterior things, 

is liT'iitel in its eiopo to tho epot or direition upon wli-h it i;ay he 

focused, but i-he ear heare sounds from all directions. Mcrecver, wo are 

enatled to judge by it the approximate direction from which a soun: coiios. 

The Leer, analysis of ti.e early philosophers detected this, hut souglit to 

ac50unt for it in a way which may be considered as fanciful, or as a natura 

result of xhei.'- pantheistic cogitations. 

qrautra 

The variant jrautra occurs in T^rh. 2.5.^. ^ralurn is identified with 
the puni^a in the ear, whi^h is honey, Tlie word is also used in Brh. ".S.lo 
but ratlier in sense of hearer.- 

■jravaija 

^mvaija is another variant from tho saia--' root, it is first used in 
Halt. €.22, w}.er« one is to Btop his ears with his fingers, to listen to 
the internal Bounds, produced i. tj.f. heart by the atnan. For this sound, 
see also kanja. Th' ears &rfj to be restrained in Yoga, (KuncJ. 1^; Saubh..4) 
The deity has infinite ears. (Trip. II.) The oars cf tho deity are he 
di^as. (Varaict. 4) 



101 
The Fftr — 'jrutl 
(Jruti iv anoD.er vftrlant for i^roVri.,! ouxiil ii; Tri;. 7,?, wher'^ ' '• 
arteries pu?^ mn! ya^aBvinl are sniJ tc co to the enre. In Sau>)h. begin, 
the qrr Bukta is oinplcyoi rn the ear. 

KAnja 

Kftrrir. is f. distin-Jt word. As already stated, it elwaye refers to k 
the ear, and never to the sense cf 1. oaring;. V'hen the dlj s hecowe hearing 
they enter the ears. (Ait. ,?.4) The ears of the primal nan split aald hearing 
oane from then, (Ait, 1.4) We hear with knnja, and -jrotrr. is located in it. 
;iil;an. 0,72). 

Late Yo|,& Uianigads TefWrd«r thenselves with the arteries z^inz to 
the ears, tut get sadly ilxed over it. Payasvinr goes to tlte right, and 
qankhir.r to the left, (grij . 4.20,2^) Pu§" goes to the ri^ht, and ya^asvinr 
to the loft. (Yo. Cu. 19,20). It is to he understood that these so-called 
arteries are air channels. The (inproper) passing of air in the ears causes 
diseases in them, (Yo. Chi. 117)Cne is said to instruct the aar. (Mudg. 3) 

The naive philosoyhers of early tines considered the roaring of the 
ears which nay he heard v'hon they ar'^ stopped "'ith the fingers as a proof 
of the existnece of thr soul, which produced these noises in the cavity of 
the heart. This sound is called the vai^van.ira fire. (Brh. 5.S,1; iiait, 
3,6) In Gh. r.l?.8 this scund is conpnred to that of a flar.ing fire, or 
of a rolling car, or of a bellowing ox. A late Yoga Uponifad tells its 
votaries to stop the er.r with the middle fingers, to hear tlio p}iu\ sound 
within. (Han^al. 2) Yo ^u. 114 coiB'iends the stopring of thejbats , hut 
Bays nothing of tlie sound. 

P#»ligip"9. Mantrar: rr^ frequently whispered Into the right »ar. 
In llie case of a new horn ch'ld one sl.culd put his t>outh to t}.e child's 
right ear and three tii-ies mutter the word -"speojh'', so tliat the ohild mty 
bc^ndowed wit!, that faculty. (Tofh. r;.4.25) CJonpare the GyhyasxTtraa. Again ^ 



102 
The Tar — Imnja 

tl.o ffitl.f«r rtwjitOB n ^..-intrn I' tin r1/' t. ^nr cf IAf. non to f;lvn Mi. lone 

lif'". (ikiuig, 2.11) Lat,e Ui^tUii^udr. avU.firfl lo tli.i Baj.p irnti\.i<z(*. Th6 Kaiua 

UTJitrn i? to 'he Bjioken ir.to tlio right er.r of a dyigg rum. (Eamot. 4) The 

salvnticn of RSur is to he indioatftj thrrnc), t>>-. richt eat. (llukti. 1.^-1) 

Tlidre is ii... ;ienticn of t' o left enr Veinc so employed. A petition to he£.r 

much wit}, tlie aars is found in Tait. l.'i.l. Peti^tionn to J.enr well witli 

thei enrs aro 7oraaon at the tecin;.irf c* r^'-t of the Upujigada, thcu^h in 

many onseB they ar** not to ^« Toncidered part cf the criminal. See "ijep. 

1.1; 2.4j Xreut. 1, J;cj. 

The ears are araon^; the ten parts en whiah the iiind is to he ooncon- 
trated in worship. (Eaiaarah. 2.43) Conoentratir.E the attention on the left 
ear furnishes one knowlo'.ge cf vayu loka. (<^an(J. 1.8) Ir. sone Yo^ja practices 
tiie faoe is to be strokodj fro::, the spot 'hetweon the ey^hrows to tlie ori- 
fiv30 of the ear. (Yo, Ku. 2.?3) The ear is one of the ijnportint parts of 
the body ir. tlie application of the trij ui}4rH or tilaka. (Erhaj . 4.13,18,25) 
The tilaka put on the ear free* tlieii fro:' diseases, nnd pardons the ixxi. 
sins ooijiuitted hy the ears. (Erhaj. 4.r»3) The rudrakga is to he worn here 
(here kari^ika) (Rudrak. 1,18) V/earinc the rosany hero is efjuivalent to 
Giving 11,^^0 cows. (Fudrftk. end, E]fha j . 7.8) It gives iijnense fruit. 
(Rudrak. ond). They are to be held by the hands in Yoga. ('Jrlj. 6.33) 

Deities &o. Puruga hears without having ears. (Cvet. 3.19; I'aral. 
9.14) He J.as nc ears, (ik-.iv. 21} Still , his ears are even.'where. (Ehasma.S) 
There is , on tlio other hand, a prayer to be heard by the ears of the deity. 
(Xarad. 4. end.) The ears of Gaijnpati arr> long, like winnowing fans. (Gaija) 
'Jiva has glittering ears. (Varadap. 1,^) 



Th« I'oBrt 
nlslku 
In the olddr ^'fftnifade, naslkn is tho luoet ooianon* word for t) e r.opo, 
thoucht vt" b. ovli nnturnlljt 9xp©:Jt tl.o Bii-i'lor nSea. Its use as one ot Ijo 
organs of afins." is enrly rooccniio', and wo are told that tliO nose is tlie 
v.->I.iole of all BJnells. (F^h. 2.4.1; 4.L.12). Tho lato rrarW,n also tellflVis 



^'-^ 



t!;at is sorvos thft body in siiiftll, (GarVl.a 1) It^ 8 connectioi. v itl. the 

The noa-^ of the priT^nl nan split iii tho T:'erirnin;3 anl prriia oaiar. forth, 
brenth was also 6:;jhnBi»oJ from earlv times,; The air , 'booominc breath, 

(Ait. 1.4) A 

entered the r.ose. (Ait. 2.4) This of ^oursr/ r'^fers to tlio broathir.c of air 

thrcuf^h the r.oee. Prar^a ita.-ilf dwells ir. ^i.o r.ose. (Pra^na 8.5) The late 

Yoca Uranigads also nsue the nose one cf the "abodes of pr^a. (Tri<j. 78; 

Crrj. S.26; ^aijc}. 1.4) Anotliar late U^anigad f.ll^ us that tl^e nasiJta of 

t;.o fcetue develnpen in the "th month. (Garliha 3'-). 

The nose is sai ' to be the loaality of an^ta. (Il.yana. 23) Ir. Praqa^;. 

a sair^flTe 
4, ^vhero tho body Cs Tor.pared tc xxxsllutx, tho noso is the nort].om cLtar. 

(he eauell in the nose wa« created hy Trahj-a froi'i the second scunl of or. 
(G.E.I. 1.18). 

Religious. As breathing- is so ij.-.portant in Yo£-a, the oorre^t manipu- 
lation cf tho nose- is an iiiiportant natter. One cr.uBt breathe throu^J; it witl. 
a gentle breath in order to obtain Prahma. (ijvet. 2.9) One cavity is to be 
oi(jsed by the fincor, an', the other aavity bro-.thed through. (Aii^fta. 19" 
This seme thinj; is enjoined in cjonnection witl: the manipulation of the 
artories. See i-Ja and piJf2"-l.a.X The nasika ic to be rostaained in Yo^a, 
(Saj-.. 4b, 2; iliin^. 19) It is to be stopped ^y th^- index fingers in one form 
of Y^ra. (Yc. Ku. l."*^) Another pra-tice is to stop the nostrils with a 
thiread wet wit'n rllk, (Yo, Xu. 2.45) Tl.ese restraints seem to refer not 
only to tho exilusicn cf smells, which wouli interfore with the delibera- 

tionc of the yogin, but also to t! o breath restraint. Tho hoiy sound (on) 

24 
ic io be iaa4e t}. rough tho nose. (Ai'rtn. t4) . 

TYf, j^o'-'* -■ ' "0-" 'o •! " Trr-. (VaraJap, ?.C) 



104 
Tho llosa xiuljur nnoK 

Naaa (nn; r ) Ib first used in MeihSn. IP-, whero prXijn ia stti'l to be in 

t}:e nixB! r. (dual)It is .iIbo uce.l in tlio dual in Kguri. 5, whoto tho broat. x i. 

said to como tlirouch thora. It is roiogriiaod as an or^^nn of sonso in Sub, b ^ • 

A Yo^a Upanijad tollc ur. that frcn th« navol to tl.o noso in the air plac© 

in thft body. (Trij, 1?C) Tlie arten/ Ku}'.u, ©viJintly in error fi.r pincJila, 

is iaid to CO tc t}.o ri^ht nna", and ija to tlio left. ('Jrlj. 4.16,15) 

FroM these dual roferftmes it is -ilear that tie word noons not sinply the 

noKe as a whole, but sjeii fie ally it often rofere to tV.e nostrils, or 

oienincs of the ncse. 

Bie u of or; ig said to be the nose, (grax Fra^ava. i) 

Pelii_,icus. rUiiy of tlie Yoga breathings not only have a saorifioial 

or ritualistic purpose, but arc often ^onnoated with eoiie healir;;^ or hy- 

Cierij idea as well. Een-ie, when tho air is drawn noisily to tho heart 

anir.eck by tie nose, and again exh.aled by it, it is to cure sle«p and 

3ertain other things of whi:h the yogin ddsires to be free, (Qaij^. 1.7.14) 

In a nore general way, tliR air is to be drawn in by the nose, or held in 

it ir. -.ertai.. Ycga pra^tioes. { grij . ixSUikf. 6.?.?, 23, 30; 7,10; gaii4.1.7.43) 

It is to bo restrained in Y^ga. (Saubh. 4) It ir one of tho 18 vital spots 

in Y8ga. ((;an4. 1.9) The sight is to bo turned towards the tip of th-^ nose 

Yoga J. 2 

ij. t.'.e locus pG£turo in Yoga., (yo. Zu. 71,106; ;ian4al. 2) It is one of the 

A 

32 parts of the body to roceive tho tripuij^rf** (Bjfha j . 4.13) 

^rasana 
'Jvasana is on-:e used for th" nose, in enunerating the parts to 
receive tin tripuijiira. (Fjfhaj . 4.21) 

ghraija 
(^.raija is an aiubiguous wori, Dorrosponding to oalqus ^julx ^rctra, 
a. d tvu-; i.i its function, sincje ^t nriy •^'^nr either the sense of aiioll or 
th»^ orc-nn rf nB,"il. Its un^^ fcr th^ sense is the ncFO sonsy. imous, but some- 



tiin<*s it lueona nf-rftly Uie nosrt, ©npaiirilly in tho luto UponiyidB. Prnoti- 
oally till of thftWirller retorfti.^eo upr> *-y,A vord to n«mi tho nenBO. Knu^.l.? 

t.,.nc ,,o tv„f Vy ti,^ „i .-T,,^ Q^^ ^jpj^g, g s'lollo, .in.! t!;iB nay ho -jonetruad ae 
r ftMriiii, ^o li.o noae sp^olfioally. 

Gliraqa is the door for odors. (Trij. 'beg.) Its fun-Jtion is to ^.rr.sp 
lors. (Kara.l. f^ ^'■■..ITts fumticn is anell, ar. ' i^r 'leld of oporaticr. \r. 
earth, aT^ordinji l-o tho usual tea-ihinc of Indian pliilosoiiliy whiah makes 
odor a quality of earth. (Jarlr.) But in on« placo it is :5onnootf>d with the 
Aleinent fire. (Trij. Vo£;) Again, frop the nose to tho ejiterior fonftanelle 
is the part of thf. body pertaining to akafja, but t}.is is a rather fanciful 
pajBsace, and has nothinjj to dc with the relationof saeil to tho eleiaents. 
(Trij. 140) The air v/ana oiriulates in it, (yan4« 1«4) 

In a fanciful way, the spot at tho base of tho n«se, whero it meets 
the ends of thf. eyebnws, is said to be T^enares tirtha — th^ is, a very 
holy spot in the hody. C^rTj. 4.48) It is said to i-te one of thr-i forms of 
JbuutriJii.pt4 prakrti (ijarir.), one of the 16 powers of the body, (TJiav.) 
In ti.e 6«iae spirit of exaltation, tli'- spirit of intelligence Is sail to 
start frcM it. (Pa^u) 

KelicioUB. It is ond of the 18 vital spots in Yoca. (Tri^. I'll?. 
The spot wl^ere it joins the eyebrows in avi:iai«/.ta--«f>e bhru. (Jabala .?; 
F.aiuaot. 4) Tlie breath is to be slowly expelled froia its oreniQs in YC^a. 
(Yo. :.u. 1.30,3^) The opening intt is 5onnectdd witl) th'^ nasal sound of 
oia, anl is to bo stopped in certain Yoga exercises. (Yo. /.u. 3.6) The 
^riBiThtu is to bM enployed on 't, (Saubh. bog.) 

'Jakra is said to bo the nose of tiie deity. (Varadot. 4) 

Tip of Nose, 
nnsngra 
Tho tip of the ncee, na3a.,ra, bo;fwes uf great inportance in lat'* 
Yoga pra-jti'-es. Its iraportance in nanifeated in three olasses of ir.junUionB 



106 
Til-' of 1,0*0 — n.'^'^" 

of u sli^xe -ypo, nil involving,: ■;on::("<nt,rQt Ion, Firiji iM-rf it -■.•• aij'uj- 

^on.Tontration of t).6 idritl or attention f^m th« tip of tho nose. (Anna. b,^2) 

w^ i-y -jurA- m* r' fpvrti, (y'^ij'}. 1.7.!:l)ani c^^^®'' kncwlelc* of IndraloV-a. 

CyiJi4. l.S) ce'Jcrdly, th^ sit,l-t is tt '■ o turn«l to the noBO, in^ tr.n ic 

to G^ze f.i-:8aiy at, it. (;tui4. 1.:^.6; 1.5; l.C; 1.7.16; Trij. 51, 14L; 

2.1 
IIaij4al. ?.•?; 'Jrij. 5.6; Vara};. 5.32) Cf ?cnrBP, this, ag veil as the next 

scrt of jonjentration, neoessitates tho tuminc of tlie ninl to tho nose, 
and Trij. reoccnizfs the acemy of the nind in the likii^ third form of 
3CJ c«ntration, that is the scmfntraticn -■ f the "breath or air in the tip 
cf t;.o nose. (Trij. 108; ^ajj^. 1.7.4:^) Tl^.is Dcn^entration of the breath 
over3cneB various ohstacl-^a, (^and. 1.7.45) and {jives one lone life, 
(Tri-j. 110) An intorsting thint, is that the air is pure at a distance 
of 12 fin^^nrs from ti.o tip of tlie nose. CySijd. 1.7.3.^) This and cthf.r 
pussagep leai to the ilea that the air without a wan, to tho extent ofc 
12 finders, is in a sense a part of him, 

nasikagra 
The natural variant, nasika^ra, appears onoe for tl;e tip cf t-.e r.ose. 
At th(=. distance of 4, 6, 8, and 16 f inf-ersJtsKx from it, one nay see respect- 
ively >lue, tlackish, red, and yellow liclit. (Advay). Thou^li a Yoca practice 
ti.is idea no doubt orir^innte.l frow, anl is partially substantiated by, the 
blurred iriares vO.idh one rnny see in different Bhades after straininr; of the 
eye SB. 

HostrilB 
nasHpu'5a--naBiAUi.u^a 
Hasaputri and nasiknpu^i are used for the openings in the nose, "lii-th 
aro jaeniionod a fe-' .ines in cjonnection with Vera restraints. The artery 
ii'i rises to tlie left .no, and linf^alu to tho ri^ht one. (Trij. 6B,^9) ti.ov 
of :;ourr>o furnish tho oliai.nols for tho pa88r.ce of ait into the body. 7ho 



107 
"rntrllB — nJTonru^a 
i.CBi.r^i3 are aaiil to ^ciiiai:. proj};;. ;li'i^. llo) ilioy arc to Biuoozdl by 
tJi6 rij;;,ht hand in "^ogn, (Trij. &4) or stoppol by tlvfincflrs. (Yo. Cu. 114) 
^rlj . 6.^4) Tl.f»:lr ubp in Yoca rnntraintn is mentioned in n nore indefinite 
•.vi*y in Sii..i''h. 3. 

CJheoks. 
kn.j.cla 

The ahenks play rji in^cnspi^ous part in Upani-gaJ literature. Kapoln 
is used in *-hc, enuueration of tl.e parts cf the body ^om tc lie.(Jtiiia 1) 
The tilp.ka o' asi.os is to be put on them with a certain nantra. (rhasina.l) 

EBij.Ja 

Goij^ti, another vord for the oheok, appears once. Th-at of the d^ity 
is the v.crli t;enn — tl;e braliriuj-^a. (Varalot. 4) 

Lips. 
9'^ha 

O^tlia, the lips, are cf very minor iaportanoe, T^ith the. body vie-^i 
as a Btt-;rifioe, the toeth and lips '.ocether are the recitation of the 
hy:nnB. (Prana-. 4) They are to bo used in laakinr ti e sanr^d sound in 
Yotia. (Ac^;ta. 24) Jaoobs finds it also in Garbha 5 in csonneoticn with t,l;e 
tooth cavities, but it is not in lay tor* or in Deussrin's. 

The lips of Far^'-svn*.! ar" -'••11 :;olore'. (Taras. ". '"^ Tliose r' 
Varada are lor-c. (Varadap. .".2) T'^ose of the deity constitute fault and 
merit.. (Varadot. 4) The nni.ull or feaiale raoncocse, is spoken of as having 
th^. li. s ilcsod. (I.aya. ?..?) 

The Jaws 
}ianu. 
The upper jaw, hanu, is the first syllable If the word sanhita 
111 tiiw s>-uiboiiaTi of Tait. l.:^.A, the lowor Jav the t}.Lrd syllable, and 
vil^ is the Kii'Idle one. The jaws cf Prajapeti are the A^vine. (P. S. 22) 



108 

The Mouth 

I'luklia 

'fiikliu, as hfts already "hef^n notfld, is an mihlcnoua worl, BonAtljaOB 
mennir.;^ ^h--' and Boiuotimee mouU.. A *■ ■ 'r.stames havo olroa!. ' >r*"! 

'.vl.erofctho woTvI r.<»ftn8 ia::o. Ii. l}if» swio oonso it is sail '.o ah.ino whan one 
i.r.ow8 Tiraht^a — reoallin^: tho stut'^iiont in rof^r-' ro Uosfis nftpr Ti« hai bftcn 
ir. the r:ount, as recorded in Ixodus. (^^. ^.14.2; of. r^vclua 34:30) Or 11- 
nir-ily ^Vr, verd nennr tho nouth , cr is inleffnlte in its apjlicjation. 

The functions of the lixiklh are eatinp* spealcinc "^nd breathing, 
Cno eats food with the j.icuth. {T>r].. l.l."} Speeoh pro"!e'3deI from thri 
jiiouth of the prigxil nien, and aj^ain reenter? 1 it. (Ait. 1.4; ■?.4) Of 
the five vital airs, praija itself dwells in the Mouth. (Praj. 3.5) Wl'.en 
Jnaj-.cT-jruti presente! a. v, ife to Haikva, the latter opened her rxuth to 
inspect }n=ir, and hein^; pleased instructed her in philosophy. It seems 
that he wanted tc tell her nc^j ^^ i^ she v/ero a horse. (>h. 4..". 5) 

Later, one learns frc:! the wouth of his tea^/ier. (Krsp. 1.5} In 
breathing, air is adidtted by the nouth. (7an4. 1.4) Kajlia, or phlegj-aa, 
'Oi.es in the nontl: . (Yo. Ku. l.TS) Tl.e nukha of the foetus dev^^loros in 
the sixt}. ::.cnth. ^--rbha 3). That cf thr. dead ic rcj^rciuced \ ti " fifth 
i:ii}4a of the ten offered. (Pin'Ja. 6) There are many kiids of noutlis or 
fa': OS. (Rudra*.. 1.1) 

Different wokliAs areiue to the manifest power of the deity. (SitS) 
Whatever is placed within it f^oes to space. {Zknk. l."3} In a sonewhat 
fii^urative sense, "t, are told thAt '>' warir • Jskn and droaiir.r thn Stnan 
has 15 mouths, (tlio or^jans of knowledt^A, Lhou£;ht, and action), tut in 
deep sleep only one, -setas. Cl.^sp. 4.1b) Varadot. 1 has tlie sane, except 
that ir t' <-■ first two states t}.f> nni'ber r' ..(iithR is "I. Tc nlsc, "rrrai.b.S. 
Ctill further from the mout}-. of man are ..outhc of thri ru-;r~j.;5a u%Uu;i\-u. .^.Iff )^ 
, ai-.d that of the bral.i ar-in lira and the kujj'ialinl. (Tri^. 63,64; Yo.Ku.l.eS) 

JQiSvanlya fir- ...... ...<■ mouth. A oor.nectirr >-;.v.M,in V..r nout}. rxd 



iire l»a8 ^oon i.otpd nbovd. (Ait. l.A: .".•rt) " 

thf S)'.,'?viMi^yr. fi. '. TV.P '^.r*^ Ir thft inruth is t}.0 niKvji^yn firo. 

;u.a'V..;-. .; "..i- div;\jrui(.^ Ui.^.- _o, .;.o QJ.r.v.'uiiyu Jir'.' iwoilo in t,:.'- .iouw.. 
TrKiiEt^. 2) 1hc< oldest statAriont is that tho mouth is the Sl;/fv.inryn Tiro. 
(linliSn. 64.1) Cthor roferon'::o3 as to firo 'joi'.inc froi.: t>ie iiicuth of tho 
dolty aro nota^l bnlov. 

Roli{_,icuB. I.ere, cf oouree, w© look to thp lato Upaniga^e, Tho nuiJ-.a 
is .ij.id ex- ro strained in Yo^ja. (I.|vri. A; Yo. Kn. 1.^?,?^; CauH:. 4; ) 
That of th« yoj^ir. is to Vr tiirr.fl:'. to li.fl east cr north. [jSi^i. 1.5}. 11 am: 
s^iould te like the rolicious lav/ cr viddlii. (Vara};. 4.37) it -houll te 
rineel v/ith v.-ater, this heinc one of tho ^-urif ioatrry ritoc. (Prana-. 2) 
It is lo lo olean within, thou(ih this prchahly rofere '.c words iir.l t.-.tu^.i-s. 
(:;arad. G.te^.) It is used in :;ovprinr the d' or ty which tho soul has to 
leave in Yc^a. (^anij. 1.7, ?7") Nfiiias is said tc it. (^arad. G.bec.; Varaddt 
B). It is io ^f rubhtid vith oovdun^ aslios, v.'ith different i:.imtra8. (Prhaj. 
2.31; 4.1,3) Asain, it is f;aid that v.-ith th« exseption of thf- laouth, the 
whcl't V'cdy is ' f' '^f' ^r '/■nr«r.,i \ ' M pr'.os at 'av.'n, tvilirht, ni^ht , and before 
11.6 two meals whi^h t,}..'. Jam Hindus eat, (E^kaj . 4,5) It is one of th^'-• 

* 

spotri uprn vhich the Brahwan pxits the triimjdra. (Erhaj . 4.11) The un?-verse 
is tho siout; '. r th- ascPtic, ('larad. 5. and). A po^-ili,ir statorent Mr, 
from an old Ui.ani§ad, Is that if one knows Indra ai..! is ahcut Lc ou-xdt a 
sin, tho d-rk color dres not leavd his face. (Kaug. 3.1)This v.ould seam to 
■ • V,-, go:;ifl referfinoo tc the fliiahinr of the fa-!^ unlnr t"! ^ lag^i of ccnsTifr. lO, 

Deitiei, ci. The deity is witliout inouth(Li;ii. 3. o.oy. Attain, in 
.J.ddle and late ui^anifads, he is BP.rvatoi:iuk}ja , imvini^ }.i8 faie In all 
iircoticnB, ;^vet. '.",16; <-f.ii\. 3; Avyai.ta 2); Trip, .:. "."' crV^vr.tr- 
i.uiJia, (aa^ian. 14; Tri;;. M. 2.2 ) Tie nnntraraja of thn ll^aii." 

snrv^toriuiilia. (i.^op. ".1) Trahu-a has four nukha8(Ma};a;i. '- 



no 



• ■■'■^-•- "'t ■■- c' ... . . . . . , .... 

I'j J..:'. : ^Avytu.ta 2; P5r«atl )inB a ainilinf: one. (y\nna. 1.9) So ha-; 

Tj-i;-.:M. (Trir. 1.?'*?!.-^ r' (Jiv;; ir sa' " ^ trirn-'l ^o '.hP ; ^ . 

.wv4„:^. i.; ii.(, ui-u:.. of ui4t» ioit.' is aa.!.! ic lo a^ni. ^.viUi.iu;. 3L) Tj.-'I"' 

ncutl. of Rudra mi' protest. (Jvet. 4.ri) Cc/O.*^ a,..^. .^ ^ - . - • 

i^ -.^-"^ -^s_A.-./~J »- '-''^^ t^'-' '^ to I OTTO . C^'^'r^v.-'-^ . a, ij J ■Rt/dA^'U. 

. . .:ro a fe>v oil r-^ ' tlir':.'-'i;*y v,-i.i^], i^^y lo brouj^ht .'. j^ ^■^^/a^^ 

hero, TJio luouUi cf XI.' r.Ryatri is a ain-'jcns'.:: "-ro. (Bri.. L.14.S) LL^ cU rwir-ict 

Ilittt of trut], is aoverpd with a ^^ollen dish. C^rJi. 5.15.1) As a siiiilo,\' ■>ot::^.^c^. v. 
:..-inticn - r xsJts, raa.lo rf thn iicon'B fr'-r'ir.; itcelf frci tiie laout}. of Ko-'.u/ 
vi.. uix 6jlii.se; .v-ih. 6.13.1) On the* day of the full nocn, ono rero-i'-.E 
V.-. cnor* of thn ;.oon, sayin~ that it has five mouths, whi^h ardt 

V-.o Fra. , Iho kinr, th^ hav/h, fire, and '.ho eater of all ^ein^s. (iiau^.S.a) 

Jrc. -arliesv 'Ipanisnls thf- idea is fcund that certain t:.ir.i,3 

:a.io frcn tho mouth of the deity. Iti Ait. 1.4 it is speeoh and fire th; 
-.'..us ..•odu:!ed. '^r... yJLx l."-.' tells us that fro:; '-\r nxvth r.n\ hands- -(b/ 
' lowin;_ ■ , the prii:?.l heinr oreatod f ir^^. liio r^ral^.r-ns wer'^ 

, .■ '.i; - ' <■ of T\iru8a, or the deity, i?. S. ll,13j Varadot. 3) 

In Cuh. 1 , .• . . . ■ ... havp --. ^ froi:; Praj~:.-M'.- , •■+.v. indra ar.i 

the Eiouth cf Punisa (P. E. 13) A^i^i Ocuia frcr. ?i.iru9C'.'c 
. -uth. " . ' . ' . -h of Fra'-joa the Vedanta is said tc have 

■,.. , ^..L.i.--. _ ■; , cind also oaras^-ati. (Saras. ?.l) FAt*.va--*wru'.h-- 

is, Vi§iiu, ^ ' ' Ihe deity. CVciradct. 3) The nada, or 

johc- i: .. 01., oaiu-j Xrou I. .. 'h of Hari. (sria) 



a 3^'; 



u-o 



wa: as nui-ha. .-.da it is the Y.rer- 



m n ** n\ 



o .ih-- 5i'y 
^B)H, liikO Kuklm, li. iJontifiOil witli tiio Siiftv .^r. (GK. Li.lo.2; 

IJait. 6.?6) 

Lator Upani^a.la add that It Ic r.; o .f t};o looalitUi r^ rr' , 
^Tri^. 78; ^rij . 4.2f=; J?ui4. l.t) It is Iv ' d kept 'Iobo.1 i;. li,-^u. '^'JarSh. 
b.$2) Ti:© deities are eaid to hnvo thotra turnod toward Dn ric:).t, cr 
soutl.. (Dtii. 9. 1) 

Roan 

Xsan is a rare word ii. tlie Upanisads. One way ^ v.-orshippin^ the 
Brahiina licV't is ty food an.'. drirJ. thrown into tlie lanuth, considered as the 
oh.ifvanrya fire. (:>Iait, e.nr) ^ imntra notes its :;onnpotior. ^^ith voioe. 
(I^ol.ai;. 72) 

vaktra. 

Vaktra is another airhirTuouG word, inoaninc either ncuth or faze. 
Tfith a single exooption, it is not found in the early Upanisads. Th^e 
exception is Tr.it. 6, where Trahina is said to have thre'9 vaktraaj tiiO 
Vedas. Naturally its o'nief use is ir. tho rli£ious realn, thoucht Anrta. 
13 Bpeai-s of it as drKwinj- ir. water. 

Breath is to le inhaled ty the vaktra ir. Yoca. (Yo. Gu. 114J SauVh.:^ 
Jai..;. 1.'''.14) In the last case, it is to "h'"- ac:;c:npanied "by the sound "sit", 
and this will rrmove huncery thirst, an! the like. It is one of the parts of 
uhe body cr rocoivo the tilaka. (Brhaj. 4.13; Bhasna. 1) In this refereme 
the word wcull sesr. to noan the faoo or some part of it rathpr tlian the 
ccuth itself. 

BraljKa U said tc h-\vo four nouthe, C^v/FInn. 12) and tho ''fcur-nir,ut}.ed" 
one is i..entionod in Rudrak. ".4. Tho v'.,.w;. of Gajiosja**. is like -m ole- 
phant's, (Varadot. 4) while Devi also has one. (Devr. 13) A severe one 
is r.ontioned,(ucrn ir. lIaral.S.4. T'.-ose of the rudrak^ii are fof erred tc 
ii. Ruirai.. l.llff; 2. Iff. 



v^dtta 



112 

^:outh - • v-nt'.n 

Tho only oo jiirrori'^o of vyJitta ia ij. ^j.c aTvru o uu. 11360^,0 of i.i;6 
cfonini; pracraph of BJfh., wh^ro that cf th« saorifislal horBO io said to 
to the vaijv?in.irp. fir'», nnl ono other passnro 'ron the aaiao Upuniyi'1, whor* 
tluit of Man is .:.'i sn.-rlf ioial fuel, v.i^oj. Ids body is taken p s a aa;rifi;e. 
(r^ii. 1.6.12). It will be seen th.at the word 1b use 1 only ii; ficuratlve 
pr.BSJi OS. It seems to ref^r to the op'^'ned nouth. 

The teeth, 

d:mtE;. 

The teeth do not enter very lnr£;ely into Upanigad literature. , and 

most of the references are firou the later Upanisads. There aro IS cavities 

( dantaj 
for the teeth on eaoh side of the laouth. (Gnrbha) Tho two upper front 

teeth are the rajadante, and a kiaij.Jali or circle is said to be over then in 

the h.ieher state of Yo^. (Yo. IwU. 2.49) The uvula is «aii to be like one 

of these rajudanta, (Saubh. 3) 

The teet); p.r5 to be ^^round into sujection a^jainst aaih other^ 
Uukti. 2.42), or olOBed toret' .^r, (Tri-j. 91,145) They -^r-.lrs- spee-lifin 
tJ.e shut nouth. [Haya. 4) The air is Lo he drawn fron th.o roots cf tho 
teeth in Yocu. ('jrij . 7.6) 

Gaijapati is jallei the slncle-tootl.oi. (Gana.) All aniiialn with 
two rowc cf tooth • r'-- said to have been b( m fro:., the Puruga saorif i:;e. 
(P. E. 10) 

The tenth and the lifs tccsth.er constittite the h'.cin re-jitatir.r in 
the figurative saTxdfioe. (Pranag, 4) 

dahq^ra 
Daxig^ra first appears in Zh. A. 27, where :.he teeth of life, or 
PrajSpati are sui ! to bo f^olden. Later thcce of h'^sii-iha are sail If. ''■n 
terrible and sharp. CTrip. 11. Z,:*) Certain apparations envelopinc the sky 
witl tl'.eir teeth try to frighten Prnhr.a. (Varadot. 3) 



Toe til-- iu^ 'Vim 
Dtvjana also aa R wor.l for thr t«flth. Tl:o teftt). nrft to b© 

UBPiI Ir. :rec"-\.r.g dcv.r. tho tcr-i^uo ir ^<*f—. (Can. 4.1b) The planats and 

I'jTTar i-nTi^lcns ".r" f^*" tw'th cf thi"' ao-i.^. ^.'arn'ot. 4) 

The Toncue. 
J Lhva 

Tho torit,!!© enjoys the llstinntion of boinc both a jnanendriya and 
a kan:icn:lrlya, that it, both ft knovlodco ar.ddn action serr ft— rather the 
Oi'^aii fcx- ti eso tv.o sen8r->£i, for by nean " -t v/o botV. taste and sieaJ'. . 
But it is the function of taste whioh is usually enphasised in aonnootlon 
with the toncue, ar\-\ this is correct, for while the tcnnie is the niain 
or^an in tastinr, tho rest of the ucuth conLribulin;^ iiu;K loss to cur 
knowlQdCO in that direction thali the tongue, it is only one out cf i'.iany 
or:;an8 en;ja -e ! in thfi prolu-ition cf sre'^oh. So while the toncio is oonnetted 
with speech, it ie not considered tl.e origan of speoch. 

Old and late Upanisads alike refer to the tongue as tl.e orgfvn cf 
ta«te. It is a fetter iuanifes*;\r: taste. (Brh. 3.2.-"^ It ir tho uear.r or 
sita cf :-.ll tast!=>s. (Brh. 2.4.11; 4. 5. in) T/; it cne ^rcisps '.iio lar.L.T of 
food. Uaug. 1.7) It is a nenber or instnu-ont of intelliLence, and its 
rcaL:. is -.atte cf feed, tlntellicence is essential fcr the oxerclsebf V-\9 
function, for without it one oan not cognize tastdo .{Aaua. 3.5,6,7; ..i-iu 
gonei-ally, it is one of thr- origans by which ono jnay perfom works. Ciitthan.50) 

Jt-.onc tie late Upani§ads, c^'-'^'ri 1 '.An- un that the tonrx-.p servO': 
tho body i;. taste. Sii::ilarly, tes'.ii.'.ony id tern to '.his fwicticn by Karu-. 
6 beji.; Trij. be^.; ;;arTr. The last nni-ied connects it with water aa its 
field of cporation^rlj.tly linking taste and water. In one rather fanciful 
VvisBttije it is connected with tho element fire, (Trij. ber.) 

-,urt>er infcmati^n is that it is a sort of inntnuMent uniting the 
Uo ju'^. . ". '.",4) It -'• •'•s 12 palae, or 54r -ra b. (r^rbha 5) 
Thrcbbin^ in the tip o' it Indicates dea'' 'roe dr.ys. CTrij. L'^'; 



114 

Tr;. 
All oli 'Jinr-" :■ ' ....•,- •/.•.-,. r ,..,_ 

(3h. [;.7.1} A 'cnifitrieon of the >5ody '.' •i saorifiie ». ««o 

14"^ ii'- tl.ia sacrifice, (?i-aij"i,. 4} The 5ft"T. rrnnms are eai. 1 •"« ooven 

I'.i.^.oa. {'dalZn, b.4) Tho t'lstain ti. u /.^^U't v,f.: ;j()ai.'t>'' ^y Tr'^inia fror. the 
firsl -■ :indof ota. (C . P. 1.1.17' It ie enid to bo one of t'..-- fonus of 
pr.iftrti, and cf th^ 16 rcv^nrr of tlf Vo-^y, ('Jflrir.; THr.Kv.) 

p«ln^-,„,,5, K-jy,.--- +Vo+ 4;y- tcr.^ur. iuay 'o or.Iov©] v/'.th l.oney--. -.^ 
epoeii. t: irif^s whi^h sonr.d swoot to the jj^ods becin early and R.rp found lato. 
vlait. 1.4.1; "arad. 4. be^j.) A er-net Bpoikinr t/?rufi is also jjrriyed fcr. 
v..uJ.an. 11. J.---1, ^- ■' '•) • i-Irty; "".dlls ug tl.nt ^i.'- ^(ji.^-ic uf i,i." ...uii,j-i. •j.-i^i-'i 
is gvvoet-speaj.ing. A sii;iilr>r th' urht is expressed in the prayer that 
Scr£:rvntT may he or. t- - tip cf tho tcnciie. (Jlaras. 2.f0 Sarasvntl is said 
tc ifi to the tcnrpae. ^^r'j . 4. CI) V;hilo this last i.nsna[^o refer? to the 
iaaginar^' artery of the yo^jins, the fa?t thnt it is nair.el after tho godless 
'f speech is si-rnificant. Thr- tcncnie of the prnvrajkn, or wanierln:: asTOtic 
is '.c le> "-ftll ^uarled. U«arad. 3.13) It i-^ to he ]-.r5ssed down "iu. . - 
tneth, perhaps to do away with, the tenptation tc spoal^ in Yo^a prarjtioe. 
Gan. 4h.l) It is to hfl hittftn in cn'> fen. r.f Ycr,p.. (Knnd. 1£^ 

Oth^r 0X0 -jise'- of tho tor.^uo aro of I uttful com.octicr.i sc; .e'.l:.03 
they citiy h^ rel^.ted to Vreathin^, and soi.ietiMes to speaiinc or tnstinc. 
Sor.o refer.-- •.■.<! '.;•■-. apparently si: ply ^'r t.i o rurirso rff comentratir-c 
atto*ition. iH ii.stanoe, the tinj^uo is lo he stroi.e 1 with tho tip of tho 
fin^^er. iio , i.u. 2.41) Turninc it haok to the -palate is a hicly v.'ilued 
praitice. -jhi" " -. Axplained Moet. f^-y "'- -^anj. 1.7.4'', ir. tho J^.marr 
at'itude. Tho tongue turned 1"a::k iiito the i'xutl. oavity, v/!.ioh >>''- ' " 

"khe" 01 -iv, , - - .-sen it {,,hn^) , hence tlie nai^e khe^arl. I. ..ay, one 

cbt:-.ir.p i;:,.crtb.l. ., . . j.oi-o ' _ . . ., - '" ^''-' ' 

tV.o 'hraij'.eibila in "iOf^. \,io> ku. .". ' . _ . 

c' . • palate, C'rij. 145) or tl.e jr; 



115 

•• ;.. Kioaiis sL-i'ly t! . , . du. 5Z) , K«re 

a^'dr. t).fy tc.ni^:o ir nrv ' tc '.rnvr.rpc'' ... lu. 55) Cr.'"' cl".j«::t tc Ij.-i 

troi.orB. Cyi3j>i« 1«7.50) The t. nfar-' U ueod in ecue Yoi;a prti,)'. 'jeB to drnv 
■ -.-"r. (.;ai;>J. l.V.l-^: l.".:.Cj ^'o. :>u. T,?n;, "^rrj. '^,.?r.}. '?'■''-•' :!ur- c Tnrt-.ir. 
dLsoases, .ml ever. " L;;:ioi'tQli!;^'. vvui.'i- 1.7.11,47} Ilollin^ .^Lr '.'.us 

of the tongufl is like drinkinc nsatnr. Cji'ij* C.?36,?5) Tho tcr.;:.'.ic 
-.- cltt t^i. u:i.-->,! -'r. ..-1 --rr ■-■'■'-:)■; r; air. (Tri-j. ll'"0 

Doif ■ Ji^ity if. said tc be v.itl.out tcnc.jo. (■Jaii4« 2} Ai^ai.'-., 

tho tor.j-ue off -y is Bhnratl, (Vara^.ot. 4) 'jertnir. apparitions liaked 

■ ''fill' tcr_--;r.- 'r frighten Brahua. (Varfi^.t. r} ^lar'f'.ol 
tutter i '"'H^fl o£ l].- j.^'lt. (^ialian. 9.12) Tne Ba:i.i.'"ioial firo V.as 

seven toneuec, eac: 'f whi^h has its ov/n nar.e. C^iun'J, l.'^.A) 

rasanH 
Fasana, luo .-.t':"' , -■'>-"'- only in thp u-iiile and late "]^f,nif-i '&, 
and v,-:"th one exoe: ' .._ . t. unel in t^r. roli^" -r.go. In Fl.av. 

. <> told tl-iat "b; r-.eans of f - .■'^oc~nizo cix kii;'!'- of taote, 

i; -e'-, . , '■■■.ttor, : , ■• '^nt, sr^ltish. 

us*^ of thr v/crd is in Xait . 5.20,^1, vhere the tonriari is 
to te rre"^?©'! n-air.o* th« palate in Yoj-n-, V ''''tlAoc: t- do Karay vitV. tV" 
; :..ftati. ,., .-, 1.. I,-' ^.•--. '■ y,^ ,,, ,, _oti-;e is enj coined in 

Iri^. ir. A' "^ drawr ir. by it to cvnriaBe fati;p.in. C^^..]. 1.7.4C) 

:;:^ bcn^V . ■ . .• '30. CVi. i:v<. 2.?1) it sho'^- 

.'.t i-.rtuju. ^^L. iv^.. r.'fi) 

Tl.e T'llate. 
tal<i 
Talu . , 

■." -> adled ka, 03. . ' bai-uvr: i o^...^ . - '.s. T .;ft i'S iorc.:*'>r- 



11'5 
Pf.lato--tnlu 

Huyu ikT uj.v_ Iv'Ut »;. it. ".-1} HL<^ uvul.i it. tt'v LJ-i' 
. . "TLu. ^iyiU;4. l.'^."^) In the il" -Jaoi of prolocginc th« 

rt>w. r,f tv« word omi the palnte in s:.' ' to flow (sravuto) or '-o '..oar (.^r-vHtfll 

« 

wufi Ltjjtt is ur.-iprtnin hor'^, some nanuo-^rirtn hnvinc one word on I soia'-« tho 

other. (llaiija 2) Tlie reforeiioe se«Li8 to be is to uninr; tho hai d j.alat' 

.. ':' r* * soundin- loari for thr xisRg prolon£;"-tior -^^ ^^ ^* " "cand. 

Further, the use of the palate in ::iai,4nG this snored sound is enjoinet^ 

iJ\L.rta. ?A,2l) The tor.r'ip , cr tie tip of the tcnriie ia tr. he pressed 
in Yoga. 

a^^ainst it. (::r.it. '.''':^,"1; Tri^. S'S.l'^E; iJiyre.]- , 2.1) Tlio rcct of th" 

,a.lato is tc te holrl drawn up in eoir.o.way for a period c4 seven days to 
^uj;'.f, .".t. ^ . . "."P) Ir. the upper part, atovo t'/is root, the ycj^in :.ay 

:cE.8e&s .- ^^ ■-■-.. I'J"'-. ^..uu,.^-- :.. l.r.; Advay). Air "- Vv...,--., ' ^j-to it ir. 
Vc^r.. v^rlj. 7.12) Praija ij.Oi, to tho top of it. (^an4' l."'3l'* It is onc> 
of the !£, . -? ir. Yc^f'.. CTri], 131; vjaii^. 1.5) It is one of the ten 

spots on v.'li'-'^ *" ' jontrate.:'' -'r -''•ip. (F.aiit....... "". ""'^ 

The .v-sSsa jalatr cf / ' ' . stru-itod v,-ith x.'. ' ' l:ir44''- J-- 

i,xio ic.n offor"d. [Tir.da "' 

Co ft relate ^t: 

taluka 

Thv v.cr' talu;.n -^z cljc ud? ', in th*-- dual, in Tc^it. 1. '.IjT "y..'- ' J 
sc;:.o*»i..' '- trtj.^l . ..x..i;d ;.r-.;"i"l;'ii, i'- eo-'ius jlcar tl-u*: '." * •■•--■ . 
to the pillars of t:.r. ecft palate, the 'ba/:}. part cf " 

'.. uvula is £aJ ^ down ^otvcBr. these two like a nipple. 

liiO u. ... 



117 

" . ■ . -■-i-:'. iiaui.'<.L'i> of M.'.o uvula is in Tuit, l.'".l, 

^alloJ by rjny sftt:ifi' ntujiP, tuL Iv ^ 

rl r.irtr.ir.'- li'uo i. nipilo, xi.I Ic ' . . I:u3 

. ., ^inarnycj.i; , ■ ..^j. iU^^-a^^L v. , ' '" ..s«>'.. A lata Lianl- 

. -^ . ly ^ucoiiii^ tl is pae!3a^ft, laoi.os tliis strjia iva tho sf'?.t of th" 

j-r.I of krowlf^d^^i^. (Fara'c; Tl.o v.crl !-^:an1,ikR a::'^;-.r' in San^i.. "^ , 
' . vo told tint iL hani^s uov-n liio a l.'.r^-" "^cct.., >j.i in i^^n' -■ -' -> 

.'j\ika is aai.l oc le at thf» toot of tho palato, f-nd that ti.-j 
f the ton^:© afjair.st it stops 'breaf tro::;ors. 

Cavity Te.-.y. '^* -'outh. 
kapalfi/.ui.af'a 
ii»a ouvity ir. thf. roar of thr^ j^outh is :.ientior.o(i 'valor various naaifls 

_.. .- v/ith ic£ia l■■rc^Gti^^'£,. Tl.e tcnr^ue is to 'bo thrust into it ir. 

c fona cf ic'^a, espfl^i'-lly in that kiiown as kheTuri. v^w. G.;. 52; 9^i** 

kapalal.fm'la 
KapalakanJa ie ioiothcr r.£aie for the Baj;.o pia:;e . VSo or spoPG). is 
Uiiid to to Ic- ' t. (£fc^u^h. 3) 

kSi .1 
fhic place ig soinetL'-'ifis called tho kupa, tlie holovv, or v. "-ILIt is 
ono cf t)-''' vital epclsji.r Yo^^n, and is to "hf^ restrained. Oonjontration in 
Vi.f kui.<. ^-vw ...... ^.•_^.-. ;xo.. ..w^ ■ •-■' ""r-?'. C'5^ii4- -• >•- 

tfflu'jfikra 
Talm.'iKra is or.oo uee.I to rr- . rot^ion a^out tho palate. 

It ocr.taijiit .. l. .i ..u. " j.....(..i. . ... ".■'■•ila is in its orifice, v—- • ••• / 



Ci 



118 

Tho hOJjJlr. . part of V.Lti 'body wldaL ie doul; v. lt:i o;.iofly ii. l.i'.fj 
Vcfea Upfml^ads, s r.nt, aaeio'.e r very c^eat ir.iT.ortp.n30 rven there. 

ill _ ... lire' ■..,•-.1 usod, thou£;>' r.r.i t'.--- i,.* ^-. to ,r,r r.Tjo. It aryr.-r" 
in (Jvei.. T.ll^ wlidr^ il is snii thnt t,li6 de-lty d'v-6llB ii". every neoi. I"» is 
;5 1 ' .. te tj.odhanliiotftr, > n<"^ of the ^^riests, iii tlie fit^urativo lody sac;- 
rifises. (Praijnt,. -) The nost joiui.on thini^ sav' nT-.^-.f- u ig that it ^ '-■ '' >■ 
i.eld still, even, or steady in Yoga, and its various pcsturev, (ilf iri. '; 
..aiv. 4; gSr.^. 1.5; Yc. Ku. l.F.,:^?.; ;JrTj . 3; 5.5; VaraJr.. S.rJ") The nee i. of 
puira is tlue. (ma. 1.1,. "J) 

kaj]-^Ha 
Xarjy.a is the word wost cfiiuionly 4sod for tlie n&ok or throat. It 
loes not appear in the early Upaniep-i?. C' the fivn vitnl aits, udaha, 
v...ij.. ^6rfcn..s vcMitin£;, ie i ..■ ... ^j^.a^'^.i. T-".; j..,. ^l.. ."-i^ ^ I-^'o 

roforen^es, however, aention praija as 'beiiit; ^i"' the nezk, Cj^4' ^•'^i '5'^^' 
32} The artery sasvar^i, or si'.rasvati, o^xtfinds frci: the ne-j}. to t; ft heart, 
en' frc. skull, (Yc. i.u. l."7,3S) Ih« 3on^.r&3tici. 0j75t force 

into the tunda, ono ci tho int-^rnal oritans, 4rid 'by its manipulation air 
ri-<>s fr-: the ?hist. (Yc. /.u. l.ir,16) Ir. the sari 9 way its Gcntra::ticr. 
li^,;_b <.i.Lr xj.vc- >.:.w brariJiana4i , t«"^- -t-, •-• ■ suqur na. (i^^-j. l.'^.l") 
Ihoso passui^e cnnested v. ith Ypi^a practices, ^ut they let us knew 

8CMethir;;;s r*" th« yc^in's .Ton^e^tior of physical functions. The vi-iuddha 

,,^_, v.. ncoi.. (vo. ::u. r..ii; , .^'^ 4---^ ^ .^^,5. Uc^.^-^^ 

several passaf;;es have a neta. . 1 leaning. In drew: si . 

soul cr self atiden ir the neck. (?rahna S.axi; V.KrfJ-. 5. «r.1; Trl^. 14:-} 
I ,..■ ," -JO the soul is sail to te t}..--re in deci- sli">o;<, -.i.-U;^; t. ie xs 
not tht> -!o;,;K:n tea';h\r,r;. (Ptrat. heg.) The darkness or ,4^ 

-o _. .. . cj/w. ["i-'-]. "^"^ Trc:. rhr. r«-5k tc th^ lead i e; • i ■< 

i r^l". ':, c' /.n~ *■•: Jiva'c ral ' ■ ', " -"^ 



119 
lloak — :■. j^^liu 

T^odi ^l.Ol'Q tli© four i'<iui.t.u Hi'tiliafct ... , ^Dl'tJ.i.ii 2; ij. I 'i,ii6 U oX Oil Ib 

freau.,in,-jit ir. it . (Yo. ^u. 74) 

Poll, . -Tl.'"' UDual cfkOrrajmi't-^-l n'^n in inado of t}io noni. . Frrta'//., r 

VnrS;. 5.''0 
uir, is to le oarried to it ij. Yoga., (iv^uri. 11; ^rij . 7.1?) j^ir if; urav,n to 

it fron the teeth, and roes to thn breaot in a 3ortain kind of Yoijx.. 

Cgrlj. 7,5) The body is to l^ filloj with -'r • r. 'T a nftok ir. ncr a 'r-r -, rf 

i'ct-' (J^l^* 1.7.14) Its air ;iiay 'be driver: out Tiy proper Tjr-^atEinr. (Vc, i.\^, 

i.oV) Oonn'^oted v/ith the breathing is ?ontraction of the neck, whi-^h is 

c'"ten enjoined. JTeo, in addtion to ■ ■ - !-Aferon:;es above, Yo. "u. :■'"■>. i"^. 

1.51,5"; 5aj;4. 1.7.1?) . Con-; ent ration of attention i:\ it :;ives know: 

of Bona loka and jpnn Icka. (-7aj}4. 1.0) ItJ> oavity is to be rubbed in cer- 

tain fon:is of Yo^.i. ^:c. iM. C."r.,o6) It is one of the lb vital spots ir. 

YccG. C^Jaii^. 1.9) The yogin obtains release by getting the kuji4aliKi 

tc sloei' above it. ((Jajil. 1.7. P.7) It is to be|Li6ed in !"al.ing the holy 

sound ir. Y6;^a. ^ii.a._t;, "4) That of the dead is reproduced with t}ie sixth 

piij'Ja of the ten offered, (Pin4. ^) T^" '"•f'bRiakra uantra is to be 

boun-' rr V-'^ '^^ck, ("r?'3^. 5."^ ".r.d the ti siTl:tQ asplcyed or 't. .'rav.bh. "^.ftg) 

liio tru; '.r^irii _;; »c. ho i.cr.: or. t;.e nejK, and tliis fret's oiir^ Tiu... air. 

(Erhaj. 4.18,??; ^fasu.) Ashes are rut oi; tl.e neck and its sides to t ■ e 

acccr:.rJvr.i.r::ent cf a certain .antra, (r^asria 1) A rooary of rudrakgas is to 

be wo.-Ti on i\ c^ nee.-., (hudroi.. l.lo,'"l; i^ni) tc :;Oi.taiji ."2 rudr&jaB. 

(Bhasiua. 2) 

Deities ■: . Ti.u neok cf "^Iv^x is blu9--hp is kncv.-n by th^" r^U L.nown 

appellation Kria*.a.n\j.a, (i.fdv. 7) /i^riu wears thn an-i!;^ >h abou- ...i.^ 

neck. (Aryay.) Earafr'^atT aiid Krrijn *ear necklets on their throats. CCaras.; 

Gopalct. 17). "'.r.t of kr^na io said to be void cf qualities. (CcrSlot. .?7) 

Tl-.o neci. of Vanvia is y^ellsl^aped. (Varadap. 2.2) lie w}.c xr.ovs Liie .^^hajja- 

bcHt. Upani^ad *. '.f death deliverer by the throat. (B^haj. •*.!?) 



Heok — gala 
Cola is ..m.tl.or warl '"i r i) <-> i-i'] , n^-'ur.-"" r, i-ir. n ,.;. 

ponioa'i,c.a by vyaHa. CTri>j. tl; :^ai^4.1.4; ^Jrlj . -l.T^L) Uanae ia onso said t,o be ,c- 
3atod at the end of it.(:jarrr.) Its phlocln'! nay bo rwiovod by ircier breathing. 
(Yo. :-•.!. Lr-^i 

RelicicuB. It io one cf tJie 18 vital spots in Yoija. (Tri(j.l30) The left tajja 
prcbubly t}.6 hand or anu, is put on it in a fore cf Yoga. (Yc. Ku. l.^fi) A rosany 
of ?f rudrckqae, wi'. ■ ..>-+•''- rnantra, '" ^■■■- -^ t it. (Pudral., l.lCjSl) It is one 
of the pnrts cf the boily Lo reooive tho tilal.a. (ilrh.aj. 4.13) This tilaka is for 
Vigiiu, (Brhaj. 4.26) Tl.o neck of Eudrr. has a blue garland. (liTla. 3.22) 

nigl^i. 
Ni§"^i soous to mean tho neck. Tho ^ onrt dwells a span br^low it. (;ilalian.l?.2) 

kondhara. 
This onoe ur-ed word also seems to refer to the no3k. It is to bo grasped by the 
fcrearms in a certain Yoga posture. (Tri^]. 42) 

The ';;hin 
cubuka, oibuka 
This part cf the head is referred to only in Yoga Upanisads. Tlie oubuka or 
chin is to be hold fixed in Yoga. (Yo. Ou. 40) It is to be dropped to tho breast, 
ovor ti.e eai-t, in certain foms of Yoga. (93114. 1.7.43) It is to be rubbed in 
other Yoga fractiTes. (Yo. Ku. 2.?4) 

The Hair. 
Ke^^a is li.o :.iixi cf the head, and is used in tl'.is sense even in niodorn Kindi 
though not so ocaunon there as bola, Perhaps its most C0Binx5n use in the Upanigads 
is in ooicpar" pcr.s. Put instes'l ^r nr.yinr; "as fine as hair"^-) the conparison usually 
is, "as fino as ij.& „■.(_ ub-.'. iii p::ri •: i a ..aj-r.", go we read repeatedly, ^r- '^-jially 
in the older Upanigads, that the finer nacjls, arteries cr capillaries, are as 
nii.uto as a hair divided a thousand ♦ires.(Prh. -1.2.3,20; Kauf.4.20; Sub, 4) A 
8i;.,ii'j is t..ai as hairs sprir.g fcrij. ii. :on, si. i-ii >- i-m^a -jpij-iii, *■' r*' ■ v- ' .0 
indestructible, tho deity. (Muijd , 1.6.7). TJhere t}i6 ends cf the hairs lum 



*ouj.u i« tiio Slot w];etr© ...n soul bi-lits Lhr. si.uUin Uoj^artiiii^. T]:o form of 
tiio Btataiont would fit the* whorl of lair nt the Tjnci; of tho 7i«ad, Tjut 
t].,-' srot rftjjuTf.rly ^iven as tV© ©xil cf '.' (^ poiil is the Anterior fonttuT"-''''p 
or ih& jui-.otion of the ocronal and aai^ittnl euturee. (T-\it. l.'^.l) 

Late Upor.igadfl add littlo to the atovo, Tho (jildia or tG;.|JiO t, is 
luade frr.y V o ' 'xr. (ParaT:. liocO T}.a i.air '. ^ " v/oimn i^jeai! to to Mack — 
a stateL-eiit j.oai-ly universally true iii India. (Yaj. 5) I-ut the hair bleaches 
when water fails in the Vody. (VarfHi. 5.4) A yo^^a praoti-JG cf filling tl;e 
bod; "/■'■• •^r'»n''' Kr. the hairs will ?"-" ^^'or^go. (^an^. 1,7.14) 

vh^n th" '^ody i? ■'.rie^'O'* as a Bacrifiso, the haix' o' tho het^"^ is the 
sac rod darbha j^rass, (Pra^a-. 4; Garbha 5) 

Relicicus. Tho wearing; of th-^: -jikha has alreaiy boon referrei to 
above. Tlie twi'^e-born, for the perfe^tinr of his -vorks, Itwves seven or 
ei^l.t hairs for tl;is cikha and slmvos off the rest, tocother v/ith hie 
beard aivl nails. (llSrad. 4 end.) The vise j:B.n wears his ha? r as a cikha. 
(Narad. ?.77) Hov/ever the nere wearing of the lock is notlCXi^i:* fo'" 'those 
who have net kncwledije as i^ibir -jihha have raerely hair — ke^a. (Erala:^ 3) 
MjO'tinc the hair in the spring is part of tho sannyasin's af^iigliona sacri- 
fice, (har.-^ho^. 4) Slaving it off propitiates (Jiva. (Ehasiia. 2) In a cer- 
tain fom of Yoca the body is to be rubbed to the end of tho hairs. (Yo. i. u. 

Ihp' hail- of the golden male in the sun is golden. (C!h, l.'''.'^^ 

A. 

'Tosri'jally, the hair cf the head is ccnneoted with the trees, to 
whicli it ^068 at death. (B^h. 3.2.13) 

keoara 
K^fpi.^pi ae-r.? to bn r. var'art cf the above 'vord. It appears in Ilarad. 
C>, bo^. , v/h.ore \t ie stated t" at when jrva--iu©ntallty — is in the hairs, one 

tMr.i'.f; cf self. 



122 

._r — vulJ!. 

Vala, on-j«» trlLi , ia o '.oaeionally mbm' tui .j.i ;.;.i.i, nl^'ny 

10 

joupariBcna. jTvn is auullor than the 10,0'"0th part c' a l.rtt. (gvot. ^.X:^) 
Thf> lr»ity in tl.P hoart ip th-^ eizo cf tV.fl tii/ of a hair, (grrns^ 5) rY.'t 
ahscluto is finor than thw inn,n00th pfirt cf tho tif of a hrdr. (D.yruK\. ".) 

TojAnot. 
Qikha 

The jikhfi, or to:.ki.ot, is cno of the Bigns of orthoiox Hinduisni. It 
con-ists of a a.all lo3k cf hair left on tl:e top of tho hoad, while all '.he 
rest is cut or even shaved off. Tho cr^Rt rp.ss of Hindus wear it, sliavin^ it 
off orly -ir i--ir'">'' rf ronrrin^. "'"t is first Eientlcr.Q'' in "a}i5n. , an! tecjomes 
cf in:!reas;r4. ii.portance as tiuie {joes on. 

It is a gathering of hair, (Parah. "bee.) to te left when tho hair is 

lut. (Bra]:;.a 3)Tt is to 'he v;orn ir. rjertaij-. staces of a^i^etisisra — theso 

Upani^ads do not ooncern thenselvos nuch vftfe the rolicion of tlie ordinary 

wcrshipper, (llarad. 3.77) euoh as tho Ka-ti^akr-s, Bahudakas, and Valakhilyas, 

(!T5rad. 5,bo£; J-jrrx.a 3,4; Fhik§u), hut not ty the HariBas or rartuiahiansas, 

the Turiyutitas, and the Avadhutas, (llarad. 5. ^^e£,; I^rnna 4) nor by the 

Ehikgabltu}; or higher olass of yogins. (llarad. 3.17; Aruijeya 1; Kan^'aQ. 

2,3,4; FararAh. l,2j llarad. 4,«nd). In cRr.eral, it nay be said to be 

• oontenned ir. the higher Btagen c' asceticism as sonothint; too wordly; honso 

the statement that knowledcfl is the true qikha. (Parab.1^7, tic; (Ja^ l'",17) 

Cr that beinc lost ir. .'.editation is tho -jikhf" of tlie asoetio. (Pa-Jip.) 

It is to be V-omein kncv-leice. (Tri]. 23) Kenoo also the con: and to shave 

ga^. 18,20 
or cut it o^f, (Parab. bec.Yaj. beg) or to loos^it und-^r lertai.; circunstan- 

zes. (Vara:.. 1.17) D.en it is removed on one's enterin,; into the highest 

stajjop of aBOetiiis'i, it is to be thrown into tho water wit}. one«» veasels, 

-ilothinj:, •;■;, vith tho wcrdn, "bhuli, BviDip." . (Jabala 6) It is to bo buried 

oiti.er ir, eurth or ■■"liifr. (Zr-u.ieya 2) Sinoe kr.ov-ledcft i-' the ;iKhn of the 

yc^in, the knot cf htiir is of no use to hiri. (Praliia 3; haiiV'f^'}- ^' 7^1* 



Toj f.not--yii } n 
pnrnnnti!!\n ic the qiU.ft of tl;© as^otis. (Pnrnrjay . 2) 

Ajxin, vhftn worn, tl.« toj.knot of th© ^"ip« man in lik©n»d to fi:*. 
(iJSral. ?.C", ff; Raii.arfi]-. . 5.7) V'ith tl.in is '-Jonnft-^t'i^. the suyinj: that Did 
saintB, in Paradise, havfi flai:.inc qikJins, (Trip. U. 2.1) It is also id«nti- 
fiftd witv the hafis.i or soul. (Parab. bee.) Acain, tli© soul is saiil to 
linve tliree ji/.iias, (PJuju. 5), v/hil© Inner anil outer 'jikhrs ar^> re.:;o;:nizeil, 
(Parab. bpg. ) It in in the naturo of Qiva — that is, ©Bsentially aB":etlT. 
(Kirvaiia) The worehipper is to p'-aoe nana in it, Kmnarril'. ".f;3) Rudrakqas, 
1 to 3, a.rf worn in it of for it. (nUiasiaa 2; Rudrak. end) The nrJ-iarjnkra 
is to bo Ground to it. (I'rsp. 5.2) The mystiD syllable yaya-^ is sa-ld to 
it in adoration of Bralna (Kahas. 1; Vnradap. 2.1) Ctj.er syllables are also 
used, as h};!, /.1/ji, /.lih, Klutri, unina'. Laiianda. (Datta. 1) 

In the Bjaiboli? body sacrifi-;©, the qilJ'^a is thi? Veda. [Mei/Lan. C4.1) 
Rudra is tlie qikha of the deity. (Ma}ian. 35) II a. as is said to the 
:jil.l.a of the inrjitraraja. (lirsp. 2.2 ^ 

qikhan(Ja 

five 
'jik}.rji4a, laearvinc the saino as tjikha, is found imuc times in ITllar. 

as part rT 11 r ©pit). fit . f rudra, who is called Blue-topknot — KTla'jikliajj4Q^. 

(11,<;.2,23,24,<^5) 

Lock of r.air. 

jal^a 

Ja^a, the oora-HDn word in the later lan-uace for a look of hair, 

desTribet! the appendace of certain ^lassec of astsntios — the BSlakhilyas, 

and the Ilansps 
(X^raiiia 3) llara'l. 5 end) Suijh ■ looi> is to adorn the h^a I of the Rauia 

"•orcl;ipper. (Kajuttrah. 2.11) Prmo-liii.self wonrs one, as prakifti. (Raiaap. .?L ) 
.^va alsr, wears o rt-(5f^4* •^)> '■^" 'born with one on lis head, (Avyay, f^) 

Jatil. 
The variant ja^r appears, nnd it is said that the lock of the 
ascetic shoul be eliaved. \.y»^cc'..j.r,) 



124 
T,pr'- c' ! riir--ju\n 

Ju^n ie anotlior varirmt Jos'!riT:ir.£; n. lo^r. cf l.uir. ^ivi. v/«;w r, one. 
(goijij. 3) 

alaka 
Alni.a, look or :!url, is oiup uced, in XJix Yajra., w}.ore a thine is 
enid to be as plain as a look of hair on the fain of tl a hand would be. 

B«ard. 
qna^ru 

'Ji-a-ru, thf. beard, lias but little r,Gnticn in tho Upani^ado. Hindus 
of thf« present day do not v^ear a beard, that bftinc ^ distincuiehinf; nark 
of lioharimedans, but ordinarily wear a muBtaohe, of wlii^h there is no 
spe-sial raention in the Upanigads. ITo doubt this -lUGtora is a veny ol-* one. 
The only aaseof really woarin^ a beard is in onn of the oldest Upnnifads, 
where the golden male in tho sun is said to }ia"e a col'lon beard, perhaps 
alludine to thp rays of the sun. (Ch, l.^,*^) Later, tho beard of thf* 
as'^etio, who it is true, ar;y wear a beard under certain -iircunstancjeB, 
seer.s to be viewed in the licht cf an offering to the c<^ds, as it is to 
be out cff in the Bjrinr alon£: with the hair and nails, fcmin^ part of the 
as-ietiT's acni^^oma offorir^. (Kantha^. 4) Ir. llarad. 4, end, it is conmanded 
that the beard of the twi:e born be shaved off. 

Hairs of Body 
Icna, rona 
The Indian ian^ua^^es to t)iis day Tonqistantr; u»e a» different word 
frr tlie saoll hairs of the body frow tho wcrd usod for t).e hairs of the 
head. Two words, Ima and ror.a, nani'^estly but variants of the or: e oririr.al 
are used, lorift pxadordnatir.c in the Upnni^de. 

The intellicent soul, or praJn-Tt: an, extends to these hairs. (Zaug. 
4.20) These hairs arc a part of the external body, (Xtsi.S 1) and there are 



1 fxirc of Pody--roina, Icinn. 

four an«'. a Imlf orores ('•5,0'''",0''^n) of t):flri. (GarVha 5) It wculfl ^<^ ir- 
tflreei-lnc to know Low tlda number war arrivod at, hut no :lu« is i^iven. 
The hairs are eaid to be oonposed of the elenent eartli. ((Jarfr.) 

Ficurative, jii. An eld laention of tlie hniro is tli.nt 'vhsn tJie bcJy is 
viewed as a saorifirie, they are tVie tarhis or saorifioial grass. (Ch. 5.16,2; 
Mnhan. '^4.1) Thie is also said of tlio hairs of a woman at the time of 
sexual intorcoureo, which is looked on as a v/orehip of Prajajjati. (Sk.Bjh. 
G.-i.S) They are also >Ofi.lled the aaoko of the Baorificinl fire. (Bijh. ^.2.1?) 
And are 70inparrd to the leaves of the forest. (Brh. 3.9.28) In Oh. 2.19.1 
t}.ey f:re said to be the hinkara of the Sauia jhants. tt will be noticed that 
all these -jitations are fron the old Uptuiigads, 

In the old Upanigads h- irs are frequently rriontioned in fifoires and 
oonpariscns. Obe;in;;: the instrcutions of Prajapati, Ii:dra and Virocana see 
t> ei'iselves to the hairs, that is to *-ho smallest detail, in a pail of 
watfir. ('Ih. 8.8.1) As hairs sprinr ff^rthjon man, so all things sprinr forth 
fron. the Indestru-iible. (Ilun^. 1.1.17) Prntilona — againet the hairs-- 
SagninBt theVrelTi", or vr\r.ptn^B.l , is an eccprersirn Trhich has come dov.T. fpom 
a very early tirie.Tt is agrdnst the hairs for a K^atriya to teach a Brahman* 
(Brh. 2.1.1b) Ti.ie no doubt ov;en its origin to the idea, oft repeated in 
Sanskrit literature, that the lairs rise vitli pleasurable sensations. 

Tho hairs of a horso are once nonticned. The spirit, in going from 
the b. dy to Bralira, slialei off its evils as a horse shakos off tho dust 
froQ its hairs, (Ch. 6,13.1) Indra's hairs are also nontionoi. "ot one of 
the:.; was injured ir. all ' if? horcis acts. (i.aug.S.l) 

Religious, luu l4:4ir of Lho ascetic is to be cut off frori the armpits 

and private parts. (Ban. 3; Kaij-^] atj. 5; iluijj. 1(P) They ar" to be out off 

by a elittrp instru:^nr.t. (Yc. Ku. 2.29,3n) They should bn -.nt in the spring, 

ai.d are part of Vt.e ns^etio's agi.i^^oiaa offering, (i.aij^hr.j. 4) T).is 200i:a 

to iriply that this o'fering was made in the spring. Here, of lourso, lat« 
Upaniflads furnish th© material. 



Hairs of Poiiy--rcrtu, ioLJu 
"•ofv'iial. A ooniiootion botweon thfl hairs and tlio crasn. In t}io 
9i'.;rif i^ial i.lAn, har; alrfir.dy >^eon notfld nYovft. "^hls is furhor elaborated 
iii thfl ooanioal oorrala". icr.e. Ilaire wers prolniod fro:': the akin of th^ 
priiuftl nan, and fron thfiii in turn omie plnnte anfl trf>on. (Ait. 1.4) Thoy 
retun.dd i: invorso crder. (Ait. 2.-1) Co, wh.en ono di^s, and tho tody 
diBBolvoE, tho liftirs return to voc©tfition. (Frh. 3..?. 13) The hairs of the 
saorificial licrse rirf> plants nnJ trees. (B^h. l.H.l) A late Upanifad 
voi-en this seoiie thourht by saying that herbs and plants were produced from 
the hairs of Prajajati. (Sub, 2) 

Knir Folli-.les. 
Roiriakupa 

Thfl "'• li r-pits"*, rcnaXupa, are ocoasionally nentioned. In eaolijone 
of Bral-jia's hair fcllicles, innumerable braliriaii4r.3, or world gems are 
produced. (Trip. 11. 1.1; 2.1) Cms who uses ashes on his body— in worship— 
v'ilT Tn"-o as r.any lin^as as he Las hairpits. (F.rhaj, 7.4) 



127 



lhaptor VI. 



Tho Up I or Linfcs. 



128 
Ufi-er Liiiibs, 

The shouHer ooinos into th« Upaniendo. in tho r6li£:iou8 aonee. 

The fint nontion of the aipca is in Kaug. ".15, -hero the non, nfter 
roijeivin^ his fnti^^rp fai3ultifiB na a eort of hei^noBt, walks av/ay froii. cist- 
ing baok a i^liuico over the loft shoulder. This should sferjs tc bo chosen 
be3an?ft *:'\.e fnthor, if lie Btu"viveQ, will hon'7e'"orth bo inferior to V/.o eon. 
Th^' cii.oi- references to the shoulder nv^ e^l late, Tlio sairod 3ord is to 
be woT-r. froT" th« left shcvlder t' tho right hip. (Parnb. beg.; 11) It le 
ne cf the parts of tho bcdy to receive the tilaka, both tliat of sandal- 
wood and that of asV-o. (E^haj . 4. 13, 18, "L; Kiasrria. 1) 

The s}ioulder •i the deity is likened tc the kul.i or ^ctru — thai 
is, the fanily. (Varadot. 4) 

skandha 
SKClnd^.a is used in i:iuch the saine way as the last vord. It is f-r- 
iiieated by vyana. (Trig, bl) In Yoga, t] e air laovinc aboyt the sides of 
the s'.rMld'-r is stopped, (tjansj* i«4) The tripuij^ra or tilaka is to be 
worn en -t. (^51^^]. 1; Jabali) Or, it is to b eared with oowdung ashes, 
(Erhaj. 7.1) 500 rudr^ga? are to ho v;orn on it. (Rudraii,. l.l-")). 

kakud 
Xakud is a ■■• < rd of sociewhat doubtful u^eaninr, butthere is hardly 
any doubt tut that the roforenoes to it in the Ujanigai apply to the 
shoulder, especially as it is ome usei in tlie dual, {^r^j. 4.28), whore 

t}.e shoulders are thus said to be renneatel by vyona. It is to reooivo fi.A 

« 

tripui^i^ni, whioli is for t}.e i^od 'Jaubhu. (B^haj . 4.21) 



1.19 
Amp it — k«\yv 

Ths anaplt, krxkga, iu ..oin, ' oiifl'l a To* tiiieB, in a ritnallBt soneo. 

T}ie liair is to be shnvod from it by tlio sminyffsir., u oustom retularly 

observoi in India today. C(Can. 3; Kaij'^ha'j. 5; x:ui}4. 10 

Arm 

baliu 

Ba>.u is an old word, often applyinc to the foreann merely, but in 

the Urnnisads generally referring tc t^' «rtiro liinb. Iii whr.t may bo called 

ti« ''oipnt"' f i ' US" 1^^ th*> '"ord, th*^ oldos'- rionticn is t].nt one na. live 

witl. his anus out of-^", hen^o thoy do not constitu',© the essential part of 

th^bcdy. (iL^.u?. :^.3) Tho next referonce is that they are the esrecjial 

looality v.hero ctror.^iih is found, (^al.an. 72) Still later, they enujnerated 

a:ncne the parte of the >ody bom to die . (Jtjna. 1) Another lato passace tellB 

us that the hanjsa or supreme sjirit (parajiatman) travels between the left 

arm and t];o ri^ht hip, whioh iisrhs the pr.rt of tho body touched by the 

sacred cord. (Paqu, be^^. ) 

0:. is sail to be the arr. of the Veda knower. (liak. 10) 

Eelii^iouB. The present custom of holdinc up the am by ascetics 

may be traced far back in the Upani§ads in some form or oth^^r. The first 

ri^ht to ooraa 
mention in th^ h.ol'linK up 'f tho.analin a charm. (iiau§. 2.S) Then Kir-c 

'\ r 
Brihadratha B^:-ndf: with his am upraised for a tlious nd years in order tc 

obtaii. merit, (Llait. 1.2} Later Upanisads enjoin the lidding up tho arm 

by the asietii. (San. "; Brhaj . 4, ond; ilrintha^. 5; ttaramap.) In anoth.^r 

eysteiu of worsliip, i.he an^i receives t].e tripuijrlra. (Bjfhaj . 4.21,26; Q;aai.a.) 

Tl'.is freer, one fro;: sins coiu-iitted >rj t;;e anas. (Brhaj. 4.. 34) 'jha rosary 

of ruira,.9.-s is also v.-crn on the ana. (PifJ.aj . 7.8; Pulark. er.l; 1.15; rhasi.a. 

2). -ho last mentioned refor'>ncft stipulntofi 16 to be wo -n on each am. The 

left am is to b© craspod by the richt hand in certain Yo£a pra^tiTos. 

CTripura 3) The mn]ia3Hi.rft is to bo bound on the atia. (':rnp . 5.2) The -^rr 

8ui;ta is tc le omplyoed cr.)lt, (Saubh. beg.) 



Am- bahu 

Deity. Bliuva}i ic the am of TXirugn. ("^rh. 5.5.3) The onr. cod, in 
3roatin~, has hie an-.s evonrMV.oro. He oastn out heavon and earth with l.is 
arriB and win^B. (Jvet. 3.3) Tho Inity has arvia. (.V'alian. 14) K;;giin ha* a 
hun.iro* anus. (MaliSr., 8) Tndra la ▼nlraba.ai. (/laiiOru 1)) 

Lnter Uraniqads nlso sr^eak of the ame of diffomnt c^'-'is. i^o deity 
C;jiva) is sRid to have four nn.B. (^wij. .''•.:i)The deity lias ar:na on nil 
sidos. (!lhR'?''.ft. 2) "^hp fir«+ ^'^r-u^n had lOOG arms. (Cub. 1) In '.his "Jcn- 
noction it may be ro:')arked that the fantasti:; habit of asTribinr inany ama 
to deitie* and heroes in Intor Sanskrit nythcloGy war sinply to indicate 
tho threat pownr of those beinrs. Rudra's amr are honored, (miliar. 4.1) 
^iva has golden arms. (Bhaa-ia. 1) K?§qa wears an oma ent on ]iis am, 
(SxzniKt Goralot.l?) Hanuunan is called inahabahu— the i;recit acr-iod. (Hanu.l) 
r.e who knows the ErhajjabSla Upani§ad takes the deliv-'-rer frcn death by 
the arm. (rrhaj . 6.12) 

'Tcr>:,ir:al. Tl.o arms of Puruga produced the warrior olass. (P. T.. ll^lSj) 

Varadot, 3) Tr.o sai.ie thine ^ said in Gub. 1, only Prajapati is the naj.e 

used. In TaJevax thft anis of the deity are said to be the heavenly regions. 
Rudr'. and Rudrani are the feet and ams of tho 6osrnical bird. (Ilansa. C>) 

bhuja 

Hliuja ref'^rs to the an;, as the bendinr nenbor. The ref'^renoes are 
not specially intfirestin^^. It is one of the parts ofthe body to recoive the 
tripui}4ra. CBJChaj. 5.2) In Bhasna. 1, the base and tho middle of the left 
am are to reosiv'^ the ask lilai.a, vith prrysr mantras, 

D«itiA<?,. The annr a' d-fferent deities arek'.ontioned. Ttacia, as 

prakrti , i.ae tv/o. Uauap,. 2L,48; Ramarah, .^.100) Vi5i}u han four arms, 

have 
(Dhyar.a. 11) Th.-- sunjoi has four. (Ramarah. lO^^lOfi) So kaui Hayarrlva, 

(liaya.) Lakp-.T, (Saubh.bec.) and i^^^na. (Gopalot. 17) In onp plaje Kfgxja 

is sail to have Jbutrx two, (Ccpaulap. la) 

Ocar.icsal. Tho anus cf thri deity are the rivers. (Varadot. 4) 



Arm — bhujni'j}] I 
Bliujnlaj}4n, oowi-arinc the rod to a stnf*, ir cn:n used, '"hon it said 
that ty it a hall is U.rovn. (Yo. "u. ?7) 

Upper An:iB. 
bS.uiiula 
Bttliu;iulu refers oitlior to tho shoulJ<^r ot to tho an 13 just helow 
the shouldor. Tlie tripun^ra is to he plmfld there. (Brhaj . 4.29 ) The 
Eoprtnndflrn til-^kR is worn •thor'> by Bralinacarla, vmiaprasthas, an! g^l.ast'.as. 
CVasu.} 

bShumadhya 
Baluc-.r. Diya is another v/ord, used onoo, to describe a part of the 
urUi to ro^oive J.o tripun.Jra. (Ejcha]. 4.2.) 

madJiya. 
IJa.lliya is hardly a separtte '•■•ord from tho last. It refepp to the 
upper anu, and is to re^oiv'* a tilaka for the v/ind-i^od, Prahhanjana, 
dwellinc in it. (Prhaj . 4.39} 

Forearm, 
imia 
rnna means either an-i or foroann. . "he word appenrs but ome, vhen 
it is said tl-Qit the Ijuui rnuau of tho oosndcal puruga are the northeast 
£ind southeast quartors. (Brh. I."..*?) 

do 8 
Doe, v.'.ich weans the foreanu, is used a few ti; en. They are to be 
applied tc tho neck and the thuabc in sor.e of the yo£,a postures. (Tri^. 
42,00) The foreanus cf Varada are I'.par d to 3lubs. (Varadap. 2.2) 

pra/.o^ljlia 
PrakQ§tha, the foreaam, is to reooivo thft tilaKa \\iti» naiiAB to 
svaj-jha. (B^i^aj. 4.31) 



132 

rii)ow 

Kdrjjfirrt, mear.o knoo as W'lll tta slbow, tut in the Upjuiijada seoras to 
;uoaji only alb w. It is U8e>l only ir. the later Uivanij/xda. A throbbint; in 
tho ollcv/ fcrotells Joath in throf wontlis. (Trij. l.o3) As a sit^ri of folly, 
licking the elbcw inste&dof eating is mentioned, (yri j • 4,58) 

The elbow is ono cf the 16 vital a^ots in Yog>'u (Tri-j. 130) The 
elbows aro to bo knpt at thp Rides of tho navel in tho peafowl postur^i of 
tho yoein. (Tri^. 47,48; >JrIj. ?.10; -7£Ui4. ^.10) It re^r^ivos the tilai.a. 
(Prhtg. 4.14,18) The tilaka below the elbow is for the manes an! thp one 
above for the aeities, (E^hnj . 4.?0) 

Wrist, 
naijiban'hft 
Th<=» wriet i? th** rlP.-?" ^rr *ha binding en of fjr.ulets, henie it is 
the majjibrj-ili.a.. a throbbing in the wrist foretells death in six aont/is. 
(Tri^. 122) Tho other ntntions of this part of the body enjoin the weariQg 
upon it of the tilnka, either of sandal^vood paste or of ashes, (or tho 
YasuB, (Br^haj . 4.14,18,2^)or the rosary, whi-;h is '.o consist cf 12 ru- 
drak^as for eaoh wrist. (Bjfhaj . 7.8; Ehasina. 1; Rudrai.. 1.1*^) 

Hand. 

hasta 
Several, vcrds are used "cr thr, honl in the Upanigads t'_ de?i^ato 
tho hands, of whish hasta is perhaps the most general in its application. 
BegiAnin^ with the older Upani§ads, we find that the hand is one cf the 
senses or fetters, (Eijh. 3.2.8) its function be'ng to perfom wcrks. 
(Erh. 3.2.8; Xaug. 1.7; 3.5). It is tho only vfCrA-le of all wcrA*. (E^h. 
2.4.11; 4.^.12} It operates t^Lrou£;h intellig'^me, without whioh no work 
ctin bo recognized. (Kau?. ",5,',7) Feed becor-er; wcrks in th'* hands. (Tait 
3.10.1) r,ii:. its object it ftttalnB to th deity in deep sleep. (Prajna 4.8,9) 



133 

ToAini, by tho l.ar.d io jnenlioiio.l in '-lin fai-uiiar aaso of toa-;hor and i-uj,!!, 
(Bijh. 3.2.13) and also in tho aaoo of a rrisonor. (C!h. r.16.2). A slillo 
ir ur.ed in whiih a v/ariior ie ropror-.ntod nr tnkinc r\ death-doal1 nf 'ffoipon 
in oa.3h hand. (E?h. 3.^.2) 

The treatm'^nt of tho latfir Ujani^ads is, as was to bo e'-peoted, 
noro bar -on. T!:e hand is one of tlm v/o:king senses , (Sub. 5/J)It ir; uno 1 
to tn/.o fcol in. (yrrj. 4.b'-,) Snnriha ic in it, ('/an^* 1-4) and udana in 
its joints. (Tri^. SO; 9rr3 . 4.?9) 

Fani3ful. The ri^ht and left handr. arottfliP sruvn and the'ajyaetliali 
respootively, that is, tho ladle ind the butter rojoptacle, v/hen the body 
is viewed as a sajrifi^e. (Praiiai;;. 4) 

Folij^ious. Bec-i-^'^^i^C with Mahan. tho Inter Upanigads deal with the 
hands in a religious sense. Tho firs"^ reference is, that as the hands are 
ajticn organs they ooirxdt sins, (Maha. 31,32) Tlie asoeti^ must overoomo 
haild by hand. (liukti. 2.42) Ko -oarries his wat^rflasi. in };is hand , (Ijrra-.a 4) 
He euts whai ho obtains by theiji — begging, (llarad. 5.37) Wis« nen aro siOiwOn 
of as gining into tho hand. (CkJri- 4) Tlie hand? of the dead are restored 
with the fiftii pirjd^ of tho ten offer d , (Pir, la.x 6) 

Then ooine the rather nunerous uses or non-uses f the hands in Yoga. 

■Jho ascetic should not «von try to oross the rivers with Ids hands, (llarad. 

7. beg.) The ascetic folds his liand? across the body below the na^el. 

(Yoga^. 2) "here ar--. numerous uses of tho:.T in asanas, or Yoga pcstui'os, 

Trie. 93 
(•^and. 1.3;:jrrj. 3L Among others t}ie following nay be m-^ntioned. The nose 

cavity is to be hell by the right hand 'n Yoga. (Tri^. 94) They arr- to be 

used in holding i(}~ fina,— that is, in stopping tho left nosocavity, (yo.iiU, 12) 

They aro to hold the ear and other organs in Yoga, (yrlj . 6.33) They are to 

be spread en Lhr grcimd in sor-'e fciTis of Yoga. (Varal). b.'"'?) Th-- r'-ht Tcr t 

is t be grasped in one fona of Yoga, (Yo, 1u. CC) and the B3. dia 

posturenf ^4th feet ato lo be granped. (Tri^. Al) In the peafowl posture 



134 



VI ( ' t <• « 



«,i.. V ijows ure plajod bosirle tho nnvol , ^1... 

anJ ji'ilns 

srroa'. cut, initatinr tho tain of a peafowl. (;jij, 47,48)ln tho lion-like 

posture the hands are spreni out on tho knees. (Trij. 44) In tho tcund-lotu s 

posture, the handp crasp Uio opi-OBite t];Ui:;tB. (Tri'j. 40) In the worsy.' p of 

Kawr., one sits with his riglit hand on his left thi^h. (Roinarah. ?.4) The 

left hand is to h^Vurified with ashes. (Ehasnn. l)<j'he m -. ti ir. to receive 

tho Eopriandiuia in l;is hnnd. (GopT. 4) 

Dotties. The first mention nf the hands cf tlie deity is that he 
piOduceJ ftte frcr. iii hands and hin aioutli. (Eijh. 1.4.5) Later en, thn 
deity has hands en all sides — alludigg tc his omnipresent aoLxvity, (Halian. 
14) The deity l.as seven hands, prol^ahly ii ::ludin£; eyes, ears, rcoutli and 
nose, for the ::cGnition of the external world, (^ialian. 12.2) A late Upani- 
fr.d tells UB ll;at tho ocsriio deity — vir'^^-'has hands everyv^'here. 

Tho liands of inlividual ^ods are srid to varj' in r.uE.her — a^^ordini; 
to l,l;eir weapons or things they use — boinr *,>:< two, fouir, si:ij , 

eii;,lit, ten , twolv^, •igl-.toan, a thousand. ^itekixxxiRxS) Rudra has his 
bov tmd arrows in his hands- - the. lirhtQii^C' Cyvet. '.3; Hilar. 5.13) 
In.lra is the nighy handed one. (Varadaf . 1.4) Gonapati has four hai ds. 
iSaijx and ;^ives j^ifts with then. [Can). Devi also has eifts in her hands, 
(Devi, i:), while the sunlleity hai bmefi-jent hands. (Ciirya) .Ktuua and 
LakgaT are sai-l to hear a lotue in their hands. (Haiiiarah. ".24; Cauhh.beg) 
The a of cr. has a staff in his hand;-, while the u bears the oakra or disjus. 
(:}an4. 1.6) A peculiar passace in Kau§ . 1.4 tollS ue that when one reaches 
heaver, he is laet by a troop of 500 apsn'-nsos, I'u of whom bear garlands in 
tohri hindp, 100 have ointr.entp in theirs, 100 have aronati; powders, 
on^^^ Iher 1''0 have rarnente, rjid 100 have rrain or fruit in their hands. 



l:^6 
lirma--; / 

Ptuji is aljiiost as ooriuior for hand ne hneta. It is uned in larc'ly 
t)\e> iaino eonoes, tliourh thflro is a Len'«>i'y to ubo ini^i iaor'> fcr r'?<li£,iouB 
and foiTialistio laatters, whilf hastft prevails in the sojular sense. This 
is es^esially true in the modern vornaaular, Hindi, whore-hath, (from hnsta) 
ic the v.cri used in tho ordinary mattors of life, while pani is uooJ in 
jonneotion witli such oaired or quasi sa-jred formulae as pajjiijral.an, for 
iaarria£;e, 

Th-* oli Uranigals tell us tl.at paiji oan not bt-^roDOC'nize i in thp dar/, 
(E:rh. 4. '.5) It is used in Making a negative sirn, (Ti^h. L.ir.l) anl in 
plasinc thincs. (Mal-.an. 1".?) 

Lato Upanigads in^ilude it a:.'.onc the work sonsos, and define its 
funoticii as that of takinc. (^arir.; Var.a};. 3; Karad. 6. hec.) In one 
plaje it is said to he penaeatel by tcuch. (Trie, bee.) The hand is one 
of the 16 powers of tho body. (Fhav.) It is ?onne:5t6d *ith the eler.ent 
earth. (Tri^. hoc.) 

Felicious. Tho takinc of thd pupil's hand by the teacher, and the 
brin;jin£ cf fuel in the hand of the pupil, two Eyr-boli"! act*, are inentionoii 
in toth early and late Upanisads. (Brli. 2.5.1; Oh. £.7.2; Huij'J. l.".l."; 
iLau5.4.19; Dak^. 10. P. 1.1.32) The hands are to le washed a*'t9r a saeri- 
fl3e. (Brh. '".3.6; 6.4.15) They are to be used in trikinc a wci-inn as a 
sort of love ohan-: if siiO will not Tcnpent tc hin. (B^h. 6,4.7) The son 
lays }:is hand on tho slioulder of his dyinr father to reJeivo his father's 
dyihc benedi-jticn. (i.au§. 2.15) 

A later Uponigad , \n tr^atinc cf the worship of praija through drirk, 
onjcinE taking water in tho left hand and applying it to the heart. (Prai,."^^) 
Soon come other asceti-; and Yoca ideas. The asioli-; is to £0 about paqipatra 
whi3h nay uoali wither with a beccinc vessel in Lis hand, cr with his hand 
ao boj^inc vessol; the latter is s^.or'* likely what is r.eant in tlie Ycca 
Upanijadr. (Kanthaj. 1; Aruneya 5; Karc I. ..3) They are to be drawn in ar. 



1^7 

u 1.U1 X" v.i;:v3 i'. i- ..oiabers, {hat is, to V^ W tl. drawn fron tho actlvo 

worlii. (Yocat. 12) They aro not wanton in the oase of tl.o ae^joti;, CYj~J.18) 

Ir. V.iO Yoca jionturoF, thfi } andr are to ho folded tetwenn the nuvel 

and ti.r i^vi.londn. {Sun. 4h.2; i^:un4. 16) In ono i.oeturo they are to te kept 

on the ground, (tjtij. /.ll) Thry are to be placed on Ihn pudenda" in another 

poeturo. (Trij. 49,50) In a t}.ir-Jl popt.ure, they are to be lield on the knoos , 

v/ith tho left hand ilosed ever thf» thurc)-. (Tri-j. ''•8,49) In one Yoga prnitine, 

the bic toes are to be held by thoji, (Trij. 4?)and they are to be rubbed 

acainst the hair in anctl.er. (Tripura 3) 

Deities. Reference to the hands of the deity are in tho middle and 

or th*^ sleity 
late Upanigads. Tiie hands of puruga are evorj'where (^vet. o.lG; Ehas:na.2) 

Yet he is without hands, ('^vet, r.l9; Muii(}. 1.1.6; Kaiv. 21; P^ju. 25; 

Karad. 2.14; 50114. 2; I^liasis.. 2; Kudrahi. 31) In another passage the deity 

is said to have infinite hand?. (Trip. M. 2) Puruga wae horn froE Narayajjn 

with a -jula, the er.blor. of ^iva, in his hand. (Mahan. 2) Varuna has hands. 

(Uahan. 12.3) Vigr.u carries a dis:;us and a i:.aoe[in liaa hands. (Vasu.) 

Ra:,a oarries a bow (Eaiaarali. 2.48) and the vajra (do. 2.72) in his hands. 

revr also sarries the vajra. (Devi. 9) Krigqa oarries the world rerr. in 



hie hand in sport, (Krglia) C::. has cnven — tho eoven tcnes. (^icun. 3) 

>.,^T-KJ <liu-^ji-J^ llL-ilJ^,^ ^^^ ^^./^X. Ka^sj^^ \^J^ ^aA^UX^ r\AJlJJLa:fciA«>- A^jJJ-a 



kara 



Kara is a late word for the hand appearinc first in the Uait. 
Jewnls are f.xrn on t.he handB[:jrTj. 4.50) while wetaphysisally they are 
uurtis cr foms, (Trip. LI. .".-l) and one of ti.e force of prai-^ti. (ijSrlr.) 

PoliriouB. The word is cenernlly used in a rolicious ^onnecjticn. 
The asjfttif is to be V.arapatra, e ;uivalpnt to prD^jpatrn above. (Karad. 3.8^^; 
5.b8i;.; l.'arr-d. 7. be£.; Paraiiap.; Ya j . boi;.) These cf the pravrajin arc tc 
be wall Euarled--kopt out cf works. (:;arad. 3.13 ) The haAsa, or breath, 
nay bo drav.n intc tho hani by proper r.antras. (hansa 5) The offerinc ie to 
be proson.ed ■.viii. t-.e rij,:.-- hand. (Varalot. 6) 7hey are to be oleonsod in 



l38 






worship. iVuradot. '') Tl.ero ie also fre^uflnt ir.ontion of tliera in Ycca 
praotirieo. t^oy uro tc ^ • ured in n r.r.rf. n- it-^m indefinite way in Yoga. 
(Saubl;. 3 Yo. xAi. ".36) in v.'}ii:!h thoy ar- one of thr, 16 vital parts of the 
^ody. (Trij,l32) They are to bo jlasped firnly in Yoca. (Yo, Gu. 40) Jhe 
fir.rers cf ^ot: V.^r. Is are to T:eu8ed in YO£;a, (.'Iai}4n-1« '^•2) In one fon-i of 
Yo^a t)ir-iy are to atop the ears. (Tri:j. 115) In the oook-jcsture the hando 
are betveon the knees and the thighs. (Trij. 40) In another form they are 
to i_raBf tho r";-' t foot, ('Janj. 1.7. 4r!) or to hn used^r. fiKinf- the feot. 
(Yo. I.u. 1.4C) Tho r^i^h■K/.^n rosar/ is to he put on theia.v.'ith its proper 
tiantra, (Kudrak. 1.22) the tcxi:;hinf: of wlii-jh is equal tc the ^ivinc of 
2000 oows. (Erhaj. 7.8; Rudrak. Lend) Final^ly, tlie handr are mentioned in 
niintras, (Dai.g. 6.ff) and thnir purity roferr."'d lo, (Tripura 2.1) 

Deities ko. There are not i;iany referonoes of tliis type. Tho oldest, 
and the eldest use of the word, is in .'lait. 6.33, where the hands of the 
threo Baorifi:!ial fires bear one res700'.ivoly to i Vayu, Indra, and Erahi;^, 
Ey the lontaot cf Vignu's hands, -jolsestial knowledge is obtained. (Trip. IT, 
2. A) Kr^na has '■ ■^'-v.- in his hands. (Gcpalot .,?!;) Infirite Ijands of the deity 
are said tc pervade the di^fs or directions. (Varadot. 3,4) 

taija 
The doubtful word tana is also included kaaxx hero. Ir. certain Yoga restraitts 
it is tc be pla'tod on tho belly, :;oart , nook, and nidbody. (Xc. ivU. 1.49, 
52) 

jaya 
'Jaya, used cr.jo, se'-'i-.s to ciean tho hand. The left am. is to bo 
placed in the ri^l-t ^aya in aertain Yoga praiti-jee, (Tripura 3) 

The Fist 

.?U5tL is an old but rare -vord in the Upanigr.ds. It :..nans the closed 
hand. Tho firct use cf the vorJ is in 3h. 7.3.1, and it is said t). ' i.e 



1?9. 
Fiet — nuQ^i 

V.VO fieLe }.ol ' tv.r. .■; .-."Ln^.n ( truiiarind) oi' ctl.or frulto, oo i' 

spoojl. and na..ewi. It Moaturec tl.o aiucunt of 1.1. o ubIiOo of «.].t' Buoriri;ial 

wood whiah the oannyasi: is to drink whfln ha ronourcee oaorifiooo. (iaii^iuyi. 

4). Aslies are to bo taken in tho fist for smoarinc tho lio!y. (^v'-^j • '^•^^ 

Opened Palm 
anjcili 

Anjali meana Uio hollwoi palri, or ruorf properly, palcig, of tho two 

hands plaoed together as a recppta^le for water, flowers, ajid thri lJ.ii.o, 

The icljp.j- of thfi hands thus before a person, deity, or irjaro, xs an act 

of honai:e. The word is foimcl only iH late Upani^ads. The Devargis are sai '. 

to haVo approached Brahina with k^tanjali, or hands united as stated above. 

Cvjukraral.as. 1.1) Flowors should be taken in the hollov/ed hands in worship. 

Trip. il. 2 
(Vnradot. C)). JU.on£ wit}: this, ono shouli utter Mantras. (RamaraJi. 4.2) 

Jabala folds his hands this in wcrs-ip. (Bhasina. 1) And the j^oneral fcllcv/- 

inj; cf the oustoin in worship ' s also referred to. (Ehas.;a. 2) 

Palms 
Laratala 
Tala may mean either the palir. of tho hand or tho sole of t,h- foot, 
hence it is usual to use tho fonii li^ratala when the palms ar^ meant. The 
word appears only in tl:o late : i.ani§ads, and not Very often at that. 
The mys'-io syllable pha^ is aaxd to the palms of the hands in tlie adoration 
cf rr'i]-j..a, Vasulewa, ■»>r«yy' e.-ikar^a, Pridyunna, Anurudd)~ia, and the atoms 
of thn five elou-^tte. (Ka};as. 1,^) T^:oy are to bo fixed in Yc^a, (Tri-j., 
157). In the palms of Yi^nu'r hands there ar^ infinltfi millions of world 
CPiTJs. (Trip. :;. ."..?) !•: th'» palm "f tho hnnd of Acni nectar is to be 
found. (Er./i'.ri). ii. .ii.ov,i n- i;.;iVuijM, tkaxilxiaxattiidxtiutk a hyrctVnti3al 
lock of liair on t: fipalm of f ! is monticnel as an illustration of 

-. etH ...:inifestn'^38. (Vajraoil) 

T lu 



140 
Pair.. 

"..^.., without t}io ,. ».v, ajj-pax's cnoo, \^ v .. 

; :iliu3 of tl.o \mviB shoul.l to aprenl out, ©vidontly to iiviitatfl '.).o tail of 

a poajook, in tL<» jeafowl posturo in YocQ. (Tri.j. -17. 4 G) 

Ba-Jl. of HondB. 

The liiSiininr; of tlio ooupound k-irapif^Via for the baoi: of t}ir. handn ie 
oT:vic'.ie. The word ic usel in Ral.as. 1,2 in e:tactly tho srj.ie connections aa 
x-.'irat.Tla , quctad a^cvo, is used in the b.v. ■ xc-o-ac?*. Anothor inEtan?o is 
whor. the trifuj}4ra of asiies is to te put on tl;e tack of the left l.nn!, 
with a certain mantra. (E.asi»a. 1} 

angula, angull 

Angula, an^lS, onoo in a tahuvrilii ooiuj^cund angulikS, laay u;eajr\ 
either finger ot tee, hut unlepr. v?ith come distinguishing word relating 
it to the foct, Ir uGUsally to be teil.en as relating to the hand. The first 
use of the word in the Upanigads is in P+ £. 1, v.-here Piirugr. is said to 
ext'-nd to a distance of ten fingerr teyonc! th.e v/orld on every si.Io. This 
8tc;t';..ent 's again quoted in Gvot . "."'! [''-') -r'-'l' t' -< sl-.crt :.ludgala 
Upanisa.!, a .•ctnuertarj' on tho first part of tho P. S^, tells us that the 
exprorsicr. ': or fir.^'ers here laeane t. ^.rfir.ite distance, (.'[udfj. 1.1} li^e 
'■'•f-i'i Ie u^;i ;.s ^h oxpressicn of :;,eiuE',r'i ;.<jr(."il;, iii i>j. v^u. i^; tj ••• i' '^» 
;;aii4al. 2; /.dvay., and nuinerous other places which it is net worth v/hile 
tc qu:tn. As an •.!1UDteaticr., it ir. ca'. ' '- Ycfe.- a great light extends 

: c lingers ci'^cve :!.e .'.avol :.r i tv.-r iir.gars Volcv- -i.c ^enis. (Tri^. 

The fir.gero ai 'oned as a part cf tho trly in Itr.u 1. In Prrj-Hg 

1, r.nd also ir. R.-hasya, . . tin fcllcwinr order, tegin- 

nir.g v:. : . -i^u-.tj ungu^^ha, p.a_;ji.-- ~ .r ■ r •. . . 

will 'r treatoJ helow. : of the dea.^ . ^produced wi" 

fiff; p ,. . . ;,on cfferod. (piq^a, d) 



141 



1 u 



o--> V i-i^-- • •" 



.:. r '- ^-ir, (Aj'irta. Vi) or th- noro, oyoe are Lo to 8tcr,p«!id 

:. .: . . ^.. . .J... -i) Tl;o tc;i;;:uo ie :<^ 1- atroKe.! ty tV.o tij of tr.o 
linger, , r.'l) It Is used to trace the figure of the ^ody on tji© 

ground anl to riienauro wi'.l., (Trij. 54/5) Alco in vnricuo Voj^a postures. 
^r..,^. ^, ..,>. i.-li.t of tho tilnka is tt/ " ...ken uf •""' '-'^ P-'o wi.lUo 
fiiigerE. (Brhaj. 4.10)) • T^"''" »^ii-0 cf farinas to tV.e prfiijus. vtA'^'-rt*- "^1- 
puiru, iri jroation, stirred thr. wate; " ' I.iE finders and oold 
v.ds rrodu-;'-'. J^iras. 6) T'/ose of tl.- deity ore eerpents, ani ar" acciin 
•';.-. ' . salvation. (Varadot, 4) 

^ak};a 

yS.l'.a jrcporly lii'^nr.n Ttrn-ih ortiiA, of a tree, ratVnr tbai: of a 
roirc;.^ ■ \..L- li. I,.'v0 Urani§ads referrinc to the >-cdy. 

In Yo. ..u. 23 the l:cdy is to ^o rutted to thn ^aJJia in Yoga, an! this 
'W':/.;ld s?' . -for tr *hf) Ini fin^or, th^/.^h the meaning i" not ■■^Iflr.r. 



In :.r. " . , " Jax.i.ils oi wi.t asjetl^ are c".-' ^ 



-. oaridni:, so-ind sIpoj , "fourth", ^hic v,-oul ' . to refer tc tho 

_-) is wl.olly 'ini: T^^^'"'*^ fcr cur purpose, its 



i3_c*'. -oro V.J.XJ. -vcr.-. r.c i.ar:^. 



ancugtj-.-. 
Antju^^ha uiay s;o:x "^thnr tV." th.i-fc^ c. . i ten, thn:-]. 

■>r.3e i* use t" 70' ni paJanguq^Ha , y..-.^ 

. done in iguri. 6, v/hr?re Iroath up tz 



An^M-'.;... .^^. .. - I'i^ ■ 






14? 

t: 



4t .- 

W 1 - , 

aii". - 



It i: 



^0 Qn£U§t;hnin.Ttra, or 11. •■ lroA.!t' cf '. C^.Li.a. C,17j -l.l?,!^; 

•-at <> 1 >;. , ', r., 7 -I. ,, ! 1 » T. " 4' Vr '' "'' ^ Tti r nrt -^ f 

. -:: .^ . ' - puru^a is cai ^ '-C d'vr" ■ :uiilot cf D.o aUiiui ^^./w 

-: B:.iCi.3los3 flario. (ai-.U.:.. '?.l",ir) ihe ^uertion arieo as tc v.i.otV.nr tl is 
ocnoftptio^^ 'i'^<2 net ariso froi.: the axiroxijiint© size of tl.o Isft ventricle 
.. .. o... ., .■ ' y. ..i.tr.-Qre '.c the Je script ion of tl-o har.rt oha^iter. 

Roliritus. Fxceirtinc; fcr the prssaj:'? in Itna 1 whero the thi::.h i?. 
■urn-rated a.*^.f-nr the j-rrtr cf *.he ^rdy, tho renainlnc usog nro chiefly in 
V roli^irus eensfi. Tlio oiliest uco Hi it in T.rh . '.'^.r, whore it 3p ' -'-• T 
to :i?k up fallon "^enen, alone "-ith the ring finder, to place it on tlie 
Trror\nt rr fcrehe«.^> cf r. wcran. I-'tnr it is usei tc stop tVe ears, that cae 



;'.vf:r.'. i;-0 iiv.vu."' 



£clf wlii-l, dwells in tho otherv/iso err^^-y 



■: 3art. (:{ait. P. 22) This may furnish a olue to the 30i;r.icn 

:.-:ti:"e cf ctr-rfrr 'h" r^rrc. Tr, ccrr.octicn with the little fin£;pr^ 
• ■ . . • ^ "" prfji:!. (?rui.c"t-- -- "• ' ^.-^I'i'- i''- -■t 

ie eai^ " ::roat. (rroj.clb. 2) Tho prcp-^^r Eyllatlo to use in ^cnnocticn 

ith its u?o i- nnrac, ar.^ it i'c ur^'. ir. thr aloration of rrah..~^Va. 

' ■ • • - • ■> - ,.•...,•-•..- .J- .jj^, 

-" . .; tilcii.a, iL;jjii^j. -*.xl} a gco 1 ti-.ii-.i, to yic 

■-t, (r.rh-.j. "^.S) wh: ' ir' ruirfTKgr.s foi o:.j3L thu.V. ;' 



,T._r 



.i.- t^ •• '- 



'.' -_ .- . ■ "i:.; i]a, tlio air puBsci,*-- '-c th'- le " 

r'n::. (r.f.:"': . 2; .... 1.1?!^ Alrr:- vlt' tho fin^-ere it : 

^."i. :, o, thr 



1-13 



ix^;t. 'r. (Vnrnlot, 6' 

Dailies, iho ti-LU-'ct, cf tho d<^it. . . ■^ni!oTif<\ .--r.1 cirn aaiJ tc 
■ • ;.alG, wiiao. (Trip. d. .".1; Varnkt. -1} 

Tr.'.e:-: finr-pr* 
prfilejini 
?r;i;6:jinr is ui;,.o r . :.n o,;i-jt a^uivaler.t for our wcri inioi, anl 
i; jse:l cncf for Us ir.dox firrjor. I; i-earifi of this fint^or, one n:a/.eB 
I ii.^ -L i.;.Li vital tLir saivi-uia. (rra..>.~t.' -/ 

tar j an! 
Tnrjanl is ti;o thi-oatrnir-c cr adii-cniehinc fiiiger, mvX ir.ii^atos 
:.::. "!> -hioh th" ir.lex fiui^^r i-icy Ire jut. T^^is word is much more 

;^. ...l;. ....i. ir..a05ir.r ii. -..- o. -niscdc, T~ut appearB crly in thf=» lato 

■.v.-il: :-.__D, . i. ' wlvcys ir. acme relici'Us :;cynr.fl:"'-i': . '' ' syllr.ble used in 

t' . -icr cf tVic 'ir.:if>^- ir sva-hn , anl th'^ fir.f^r.r is used in aioratiori 

cf Ciuf;-. . . ... c-.v... .. ,..._.;.-. l,.":). The I wl, -ic-^iies cf asaotij, 

uses ikaxkkusk to j-ut ti^ia or sGotcriul uari, ('v'asu.) Thasrua. 1 

al:, '■.nror r;E thfl one to "bo used in pi:kini; up asl'.ep 

for li.o T,iiai.a. a— -c- "--• -•■ --^^^^ and other finders, it is to lo used 
laakii.^^ , . . ■ 3it:n8. (Tripura. 3} It is used I sto: '>. I. :j organs of 

sense. T^.e eyos, (yrij. £.?"} tho oars, so that ere lupiy ; ear tht* inter;.. i" 
coui. ' cf phuV, ^«iwj.4~i. 2; Advuy.) an 1 tl.fj noso, v-*-* ••-'• ^•^<-;> '^- 
i4a I*. _ -v nostrii. -.. 1.12) 

::idlln 7;.:.^.-.r. 

The V.-- ', " -..^ -.-" -\i-.J - . ' 

. -.0 cc:.-. .... , < 



144 

nooiioxi witii ruli^ .. ' iciu^ to TySna. 

^ . r~:.r.^,. . 1^ . . . ^i'■■ UD.-iJ ii. Itt; n..'oratior; ir. vn^ftV, a;.' il it. o;i.pl' , • ' 

■ ■ . of Truly uiur.ii esi\ tojau. vi''^'*^. l,'aQ'> C) . Tut in T^haj . 
■'..':■, J ' ■' ■ ■ of thesf', noinns uiid PralLunjci (Vayu ) anocu-. It io to be 
us.»J in rut tire <^n ^-^••" tilr-i.a. (rr'. r.; . -I.IC; Tn^r.sria. 1) It is to be uroI 
alcr;-, vi thu.;b ;a;J ot:.-r fi:i^or8 ir. i;;aiiiii, iz-jCiz siLrs. (Trifariv 3) 

fjRviliya is used in Ti^hcj . 4..?S. 

Thir^ Fincer. 

anSr.an, aniiri.ika 
Anar.an, ajiS.ii.n, varitjr.t fcmis fon: tl>o some Bteiu, ^hai"' ct-ri-c ...u 
i; iri or riii^; finger as the naiuolo'-s finrer, poseibli bocauac- it was iiffi- 
■-.^It tc 3' rrr.-: + --)ri5r, it by ajiy sposial jioouliarity. Itc us^ 1p 3i:::ilar to 
c;.:;;^ cf ii.o cti.ox' fin^jers, thougl: it is onoe foiina in Lj^-.., ■■.■]. orn it ie 
UEdd ir. :cnneoticn with the thiuub tc rlai. uj fillen retas. (^^i'. 6.4.C) 
Ty it en-- ...rU.t--i. c'ff.rln^ to apana. (PrZu.ai^. 1) Its .^fp-ilal nyll-ble is 
hu].., wji.^ i; ic used i&r I3rciu:.a, anirudJlm, unJ. VSyu. ^ii;^.-::,. l.eni;") 
It is to be used in certr.ir. oonditions in putting o4 the tilai.a. (Bjjiiaj . 
4.11; V.":.u.; f"'..in:^. 1) v.iti th-i Ihiir^b and other fin£;ers, it is used in 
i.L«k.inr^ «itiit,ij sii^ne, C^riruia Z) 

Fcurth firicor 
kaniql^hri, kanigXhiJwa 
The suj-erlntive kanigtjhri •■<;;i:reccf-r cur idea of li.._ , r littl'-<rt 
fint;or. Vtiti.Lt and the thurcb one c'^fors to the main broath, praija, vi'J"^^t,» 
1} Its syllable is vnu^a^, and its deities rrrJ.uiL, Vasuden, an" aka^r. 
vAw^..-. ^, -..., .-; - ' thuji.b and cthor fini;,orp in juakin^ 

.-ysti^ ai^r.t. (Triiura 3} 



145 

::;a:r: 

nnl.hn. 



flp 



-....■ ■ Oily, ri'fvhr'n oxtomis to Lhn tip cf cf tho nailr ir. 

cr..-*. (r.ri.l;~cm). (Bj^h. i.'.T) InJr.i ar. 1 Virocann sfto Ihonsolvoo to tho 
li^xi^u XI. i\ \.x\ tf -.'.r. v,ni --that ie, to -i: tjijia.OBt Jotn.il, (>T... £.0.1)' 
f.nug) 4.20 also tells ufs that the doity in ono extends to the nails. 
A i-t. "lar.lpnd nonticire t).o nailr qc p.Tt ^■^ the >oi-;. (JtUiE. i) The 
nail cuitor is alsc L.or.tionod in r. Ir.-.o vcibgu^^o. (Pnral:. 30) 

PeliciouB. Iho sai r.ySsir. is to cut l.is nails in thr, cprinc; thoy 
r.rn rr.rt cf Mn n~nig\oT-.a cfforinc. ^his ankes tho 3uttinr cf tho naili 
a r:-lii/icue iuiy. ^i.ar.Li.:ij. 4; ::~ra,d. -I.^nd) AsherLf lurificaticn K.rc 
.-;i.'-n ui by the nails. (T^rhaj . f^.?) . Air is inhaled into th^ T:ody evon 
to the tip cf tho nails to 3uro disoas*. (ySiiii. 1.7.4) The nail of tho 
ciddle fin^^er is i.la30d on the thiriT) in a lon.i cf itt,-^. (Tripura 3) 

Deitjos. Tho nails of Rudra aro sharp, {^zx ^JaraTrha. 6>Thos6 of 
::i;Eii!I.a ai'£ vajra. v"rif . LI. T?) 

'!cs::.i:;al. Ihorc ie cno ooaaiaal reforente to tho nails in a late 
Upanigad, whoro tho r^ils of the diity are said to be the ccnatellaticrs, 
CVaradot. 4) 

Tif of Nails. 
pranaiiha 
Ir. ad.:; '- nai-ha^ca, usod sevoral tices above for the tir cf 

the naiii, the ::cn7,und '"ord pranakha is alec found in :;h, 1.'.', where the 
£;olden i^alo i/. the cm-, is t.t'llen oven tc '.i.a tip of his nails. 



14G 



Chapter VII 



The Lower Linhs 



147 

Low or LiiiA'S. 
Lrlr.r.. 

Ir. tfc-inr up tha lowor liUibs, it is woll to boi^in with ka\i, whiah io 
allittlo inioflnito ir. its api-'i::ition, roforrir.- usurilly to \).'^ Idr.s, or 
waist, but loiy 8ci:ieti]:.6e rnf.-r ;c -he iraasgsst i.it. T"..o ■. cI is nc'- uso^ ii. 
the eiirly Upanigcis. Kn\i oci-tlitutoe lart of tho lorishable body. (Jti^a.^) 
That of tho eiabr;c ic ieT'olnpe^ ir. th^ 4th r.cnth. (Garb.hnJ} Tt is usually 
£:•.'-' c be per;:;eatevl by vyana, (Iri^j. 61; vjai^ii. 1.4) or aprTna. C^yc^i]. 1.''; 

V.nr.Bci, I'll'- bi'oath or spirit, moves between the loft an:, ani tho 
ri ■ ■ "., lir.e of th? Ba:;r6il tlireai. (Pa^u.) Froa tho i^iec lo tho 

waist is the part of the body devoted to rvater, an', fror. there to the 
nidbody thn part dovot.-d tc fir^. (Tri^. l?r-",l?7) 

Folicious. 'Hu.i. cue bojciuos un asoplio, tlie thread worn round the 
waist is to '6 abandoned. (ITarai. o.8^, 4. end; Pnraiap.; Turlya.) Tho 
last rof sror.-ifi sayn that it sliould b'-. throv/n in tho water. This thread 
extends tc the ka^i li-u.^ tho left uhculder. (P.-^rab. be^;. , 11) Iho jutupln.'i 
o.ij«araswii ^oin cloth is cnoo identified wit]; this thread, ("arad. 4.ond; 

Ir. Yoca, thr, loins are to bp h'^.11 orr-;'.. (iL^uri. 4) Son:; er.t rating; 
attention hero ^ives one knowledt,o of Talatiilc. ici.;;. (i^^it* -• ^) ^^^ ^^ 
drawn to it froi:; the rp£,ion of tho anus, and thenoe to the thiclu ((jrij.T.B) 

The ka^i of Vara la is cai ' L. ^ ■■• riir.p! up. (Yaralp. 2.2) 

"The ka^i of the deity is said to be tho eart};. i^aradot. 4) 

Hi; , butto-iks 
sphi-;, sphi . 
Fpli-?, or c, . .. , -x.o exa^t fen -::finnot bo ietenuinod, is upedecr 
the hips cr butto:;kt. Vyana oiroul ito4 hei-o. CQ^^* l*^) C^sasicnally, the 
tilakf- is apjiied here. (B^haj. 4.14) 



148 

prntigV^iS 
rrntiQ^l.a is an olJ v;crd, nioaninr the Ioj;;, whioh dqp; o to heave 
dropped out of the use of tl.o philosrhers. T- 030 of tl.o 3a:rifi::ia.l horoo 
are day and nicht, (B^l*. 1,1.1) Cvar oorifjtitutop tha le^e of the twr. r ,,•; r, 
of purugn in th--' eolcr orl, !~'hl of the part in the vij^it eye. C^^?!** ij.^.^',^0 

T}:i-h 
uru 

tTru is es flolKlly tl;o "Iroal", the llii£h, tut t;oi.i0tin.eB may refer to 
the hips. Interest in the thi^h is chiefly frcn; the religious strndpoint. 
Clill, n >u-a IcH that ono s-ay live with a T^rcken thich. (Kauij. ?.T) 
One'p strength is ir. his thi^h. (Uahan. 72) Later Uparigads toll us that 
apona oirsulatee in thi thigl:, (^anij. 1.4; Qrij. 4.?7), or vjiana. (Tri9.Sl) 
TiiOy arc eniur.erated amcnc the parts of thp perishatle body. CJJtuiE, 1) 

RelicitBs. The earliest mention of the thi^h is the sho-ir-c apart 
of theiu in the i<ii.RT. upasana. (E^h. 6. 4. PI) They te^citio of £reat iiuportrjiae 
in the Yci^a Uiur.i^'s. The thi^h is cne of t/.« 18 vital spots ir. Yoca. 
(Tri^. 1?C; gan4. 2) It is cno of the six, or ten chief parts of the Trody 
in wcrg] ip. (R-uuara^ . ?.^3,43) One sits on the:r. in Yoga,,, (i.furi. 14) 
Thought is to \o jcr.;ci.i.rated on thorn in rueditaticn. (Ramarah. ,?.ll) g"""^- 
jcr.-;entraticr furnishes one witli Lncwlolce cf rasntala loka. (vjili.^. l.E) 
,rl:ero is ;nu^: mention of the thigh in Yoca p'-stures. Thoy are used in 
;:;iii. aG;.i.-.-. ^^^1^^^. l.'^.grij. ?J VurS-. 5.17) The right foot is sonotimes 
put on the left thiglu (JanJ. 1.7.43) qj.^ ^h^^ feet are to he put on 
oppceit- thighs in the lotus pcr,t.uro. (w, , ..u. 1.5) Ispojially t'lo scion 
cf tiio feot. (Tr^j, ?.^) Foet aro lo bo put on epiositi^ tl.ighc also ij. the 
hero and fisi-.bajit posluroa. (Trij. 37,46) In Lho ;ock posture, the haj.dr 
ar-- to >*»pla3ed batwo-^n tlfl knees ■ ' t" .-• thighs. (Tri^. 40.) Ir. the in^; i- 
iaxativo worship of Rama, cno should ail wit}i his left iiar.I en i.io left 
thigh. (RSjuarali. 2.4) 



149 

Lvon in braatliincp* the tV.lfih flnys n r.^rt. ^ho braath ia to be 
drawn up tl.ronch tho thichs in Y-^^a, ^/.:,lul. .; Ait z^ov. from them t3 ^^6 
kfi^i, tl.oiijo to t:.o knso. (^rlj. 7.8.^ They are auoared with oowJunc ashoi 
t tho ai30Dpanimont of a oertain .-nantra. (Brl.aj . 2.31; 4.1) They aro aaonr 
tho parts of the bcly to rooo-lvo t}io tilaka. (Bifi.aj . 4.14; 4.::i) '^he 
^rr BxT/.ta ie e;;;ployed on thoiii, (Saubh. beg.) 

Detiea, The Vai9ya8,born froa the thigJis of Puruga, (P. £. 11>12) 
;rit:. oahn^e of nar;.e fcr the Joity, this is ropeatel in Varaiot. 3 an i £ub. 1, 
The thich of Varada is said uo bo }ieavy. (Varaiot. 3) 

^ -osTJinul. ihe thich rf the doity is sail to be Parvate^a or Panrat^ja, 

thvt oxSljt v/crd 3ar. not be dotemined. (V.-iradot. 4) 

aakchi 
Sai^thi is used for tho thigh in a single passace, where it is affirmed 
that the thir-^s of the oosniioal nan, or alrtyu, are tho northwest and 
soutl:west liuartarB. (--ri.. 1.2.3) 

Knees. 
Janu 

The knee ic soarcaly nentioned until the time of the Yoga Upanisads, 
Lhere being a sin-le mention in Kau§ alcn^ of tho old Uianijt-ds. The word 
used for tho knee is janu. Apana is t}.o breatli whi^h oiriulate? in the 
1^.00. ilrij. 7a; (JSij4. 1.4; ^rlj . 4.27) Frcra the knee to the fo. t is the 
part of the body ::orrelated to tho earth, and fror.. thr. ii^neo to the thi^h, 
the part aorrelated to m^ter. (Tri^. 134,135) 

P«lif,iou8. Tho fitst use of tho word is in Kau^. o.?, whore the 
ri~i.t Knee Is bent in tho worsl-r.p to obia.!;. li.o liiehest treasure. Their 
;.iCGt zcrjicn us© is in .•3onned':ion with, various Yoga postures. (Trij. 35; 
Jyij. 3; }ai;4. 1.3) lu one pootum thn head Is Lf>rt on tl-.o thighs. (Trij. 
til) The hands aro A.9i t on li.diu In varicuo rcsi,.irgs. ^ii-^. .; ■■; -, ) 
Thoy arebont ir, the iotus posture. (Trlpur*. 3) Tho joint under i 



l&O 
Kneo-]Kr,\x 

to bp rro-n 1 in Yl'^n. (^I'lJ. C.-IC) 

The kneo is one of tho 16 vital spots in Yo^-a. (Trij. 121J yOij^. -:> 
It is ono of tho 10 points on vhiih tho mind is to he jonoontrated in 
wcr3);ip. {Kauaro).. 2. -13) guol. ^on^entraticn i^ivofi one j^nowlodG® o' .MahStala 
loi^a. (>Jai.i4. l.i>) In broathincs, air rrbbrs the kn^'e from tho Ihich, and 
Coes J.enco to the lover lo|. (^rTj. 7.S) The breath is thus drawn up throuch 
t;;eir. in Yo£;a. (K^uri. 7) Tho knoe so;;ipti:!ioo reofjives the tllakn. (I^haj , 
4.1.4,22) The ^rl suJwta is oaployed on theai. (Saubh. bo^. ) 

Deities. Rnina has his hands on his ljier.s--hen3e tliis is the oorreat 
attitude for worsldppers. (RSaara}-.. 2.2") The kneo of Varada is concealed. 
(Varadap. 2.2) 

-cs; i-ial. Tlio knco of tho deity is Dasra. (Varadot. 4) Bhurloka is on 
the l.nees of V ■■ loini^-.l bird. (!Iai?i. ") 

Lower Le^ 
j anclia 

Ja^Jr.a , thou^^. an oil word, is not found in the early Upanisads. 
I" seenc to i::ean pi^bp^rly tlie lowor leg, below the knee, but at times 
•i.adec off towards the part of tho lei; above the knee. Apana oiroulates in 
it. ((:jand. 1.4; ijrij . 4.'^7) fith tho joints, the legs arc called Indravajra. 
(k§ui-i. 13) 

ReliciouB. The tddilo of tlio jancha is ono of tho 18 vital spots in 
Yo-a. CTrij. 129; yar4. l.S) Oonoentratinc the attention in^ives ono 
kncwlei^e cf "Utaln Ipkn .(gaij^. l.S) Of jourse tlie lt=«c fic^Des in bronthincs. 
Breath is drawn up froi-: the feet tiiroujji them, (ii^uri. (i) In the Praty;u.ara 
air passes throuQihoiu from the knee to tho toes. (i^ri^^. 7.B) Occasionally 
tl;ey recoivo the tilakn .(E^i.aj. 4.14) The -^rlsuLta ia owrloyel ' r. tl.-qi. 
(Eau^h. boc«) 

Deities. Tho li-cs cf Varnda aro inus-jular. (Varada'. 2,2) 
"'ob:,!:.^. xue loga of tho deity are Pa-ala. (Varadot. 4) 



Ibl 

Oulphft 

GuliJ-.a, th4 oni^lo, doos not appear in the early U^'inigads, oiii ite 
use is 3cusoiuently in the main connected with Yo^a prfiTti ee. It ie one of the 
parts of tho ^ cdy born Ic die. (JJtma 1) The ankle of tho foetus developes ir. 
•-he fourth month. (Garblin 3) It is pen-ieated by vyana. (Trij. 61; gSijcJ. 1.4; 
Ji-Tj. 4.'"^) A throbhinc xx^ufin the ankle foretells death in six months. 
(Trij. 81) 

Rolirious. The ar.i.le is one of the vital spots in Yoca. (Tri^. 129; 
(}Sii4. l.S) The broatli is drawn up throuch the:.-, in Yoca. (ilguri. 5) It is used 
in lurmy Yo^a postures. (9a:;d. ?; ^rij. 3; Varah. 5.17) IspeoiMly th<) ankles 
are to bo so placed as to ?ono in contact with or to ;ro8c on the private 
parts. Cyrij. 6. ."^6; Tri.5. 44) In onr-lnstanoe the kand.-i is to bo prosred by the 
ani-les. (Yc. ..u. 1.4S) F' another, tho ankle ie used to olose the anus. (Tri^. 
38) Thoy are to be crossed, back to side. (Trij. 36) 

Deity. The ankle of Varada is said to be oonsealed. (Varadap. 2.2) 

Foot 

Pad, pada, pa da 

The number of references to the foot is aonsiderablo, berinning with 

the ancient Upanigajs. Th« most common word is pad, with its variarTts, pada 

and pada. lie attempt is an-de to separate then here. The earliest refrtronses to 

the feet ccnneot it with the function o4 motion. It is tho only vehicle of all 

motion. (B^h. 2.4.11; 4.5.12) ICaug. 1.7 also de»oribes it as one cf the senses, 

A'i.ose function is niotion. It is dependent on food for its functions, as food 

becomes notion in it. (Tait. ."^.10.2) It is a member of the intelligence, 

throuch whi:h it performs its functions, and witliout v.'].i-!h it can do nothing, 

(uaug. ".b,",7) Wit) Us notions it attains to the delty|in deop sle*^:. (Prajna 

4.3,5) 

Other re'^oren^es to the foot in this scientific SM<* sphere, test a C' 

A 

L.uch along tho siii.o lino. The foot is a sense, with the property of irxtion. 



152 
Foot — I'SJi 

(Sut.5J. 3J; .la*-rr.; ]Iarad. 6. tec.) ^" o"^ faosace enrruin is Qsaoi-tol to lo 

in the feet, (^Jui^. 1.4) tliourjh pertiaps more -;oro3tly, udonn is sail to te 

ii; the feet and its Joints. ('Jrlj. 4.29; Tri9. 86) The foot is one of tlie 

forms of pr.^.^ti, (Oar'r.) or one Mi the 1€ pcv/ers of tiw tody. (n.av. ) 

The feet are oonnecto.i .'ith tlio eleraent earth, (Tri'j. Lbftf) eepeoially 

the part fror the knee to the foot. (Tri-j. 134) .phey are said to suprort the 

quality of fon:i. (Tri^. l.to^.) ?he soul, like the deity, is sail to havo 

four feet, that is, the four states of the hody, waking, drear-dnc, sound 

lli^sp* 4. 
sleep, anl the "fourth". (::ar:il. S.7 ff) The feeL of the embryo are developed 

in the third i.xnth. (Garbha 3) ^ '^^'^ ^^:v^ a.-^^-^*-— ^ ^ — j; 

Figurative. The fe«*t are the chariot in the body saorifioo. (PrSijSi^. 4) 
ReliciouB.As a rule, passages in whioh the feet havo a rolicious 

oonne-jtion aro late. The earlier or.«^s state th.at sins BEty be comi.-iitted by 

t}:e feet. (Hahan. 31,3.?) .:enlicn is also r.ade of one's sottinr his foot 

fom'ard in the future world, when he mounts to tho -louoh of Trahj-ia. (Kau§. 

1.5) The deity is said to be lord of two footed and f ourfcote 1 creatures. 

Cjvet. A,lc)TaJu\ra-^ ^j 

In yO£a there is auoh mention and uwih use of the feet. They are tc 

be drawn in as a turtle drav/;? in his nenbers. (Yogat. 13) They should be 

dcublel up. CiOG^^. 2) Ti.ey ar used ir various asanas. (9^'l' l*^) !3c4:iOti:;;ec 

the injunction is sijnply to o«ten1 them or ker-p them on the crounii* (Varai.. 

b.Ol; Tri]. 50) They aro sometizi^s to be fixed cr held firri by the hands, 

fYo. x.a. 14£j Trij. 4>; :o. Z\i. ^,6) While the right foot is eo hold, the 

left is pressed ai^ainst the yoni, whioh vould seen to mean the lower part 

of the abdcnen about the cenital or-ans. (ya.nd. 1.7.43) The last verse 

spo^jifion ti.at t: o her-l of the left f' ot is to be so employed. Tlie feet 

are to be hold out stiff in tho pa«5ea«i-iHi peafowl posture. .Trij. 4S) 

Onoe, air it bror.the^ into thfi fof^t. (^rlj. 7.11) Thou^tt or attention is 

tc ^1 moment rat el in the feot in wcrsl.ir, they beinc among the ohief parts 

of tho body. (Ea.n^.ral.. 2.11,23,43) Oonsentratinc attention ir the soles of 



153 

T' < t- .' '■> 

tiij- foot, jjives ono kno»l0i;o of ut.J.ci lokOi in tho fool propnr cf vll;*!;; 
loka, and in kho Joints of nitalii lokn. (9£i^i4' 1*2) 

Thp fe<•'^ ro^oivo iho tripun^ra, (E?haj . 4.1-1,2,?) and nloo tho -jontinc 
of ccvdun;_ o.al.Q&, a: joiupanied by i jerta'.n !:iantra. (Bjfhaj . 2.32; 4.1) 
Aahes sl'.onlcl be used from the foot to the head. (Phaania. 1) The aoas aro in 
c/ie'r feot, thn.t is the tilaka applied to thr- foet rankes tho seas propitious, 
(r.^i.aj. 4.24) 

Ono can not be an astatic whose feet are woimded. (Narad. 4. end) T^ 
feot of D.f Vairacin are net war'ron. (Yaj . 16) Tiie fsr-it arfl nienticnel in 
:nantras. (Dai.^. ',7) 

Deities, &o. The word foot is applied to the deity usually in a r.oro 

or loQP ficurntiye sense, ospeoiallyp.n tlo old Upanieais. £u3h a use is 

found in Oh.. 3. IS, where the four foet of t;:fl deity are said to be spoojh, 

broath, sicht and hearing when he ic oonsidered from thf intelleotunl 

standpoint, an'. firt^,v;ir.a,cu^ , r.nd quarters, v.'l.r.r. viav;! fror.. a oocii.ioal 

standpoint. Oh. 4.5-S also .lisJUsses this subjojL. In an ii.porfe^t. definition 

of the deity, ho is said to stnd on a 8in£:le foot, (Eyh. 4.1) Again, the 

r 

earth is 1/ --. 'cot of tho un5.v©rsal seal. ("h. 5.17.2; 5.18.2) Thr. feot of 

purusa art- c.11 thinrs. (Oh. S.12.6) 

T)ien Z9ue the passa^os, be^innc with P.S. whor^ puruga is said to 

have a thoueanl ^lf-t. (P. C. 1; "fV-^t. ?.,IA; Sub. 1; ). On" cf tl.oeo feot 

r^cnstitutes all LeinLS, the other t'l.ree are in the si-y, otsir.al. (P. S. 

Hero four font are assigned to hiia. 
r,4) In the aocjaentari' on this pasoare, *hep "three feet" is said to ::ean 

the sp-endcr c' '^ r. u, r.-'c^ rv.^r.tei one, in th^ highest sky, (iludc. 1-4; 2) 

while the. fourth foot ie Iho birth placje of all deities, of praijli ani 

puruga. (;iudG. 1."=) Another late Upinifftd ereeii.c of the Innurierable foot 

'' .'■ ■ Mity pervading tb '^••r'"- . ^■'•-— -^ot. 35 Thin VrA bcon already t-Uj^. t 

i.. .;.s vi^v pasEu^oc, luotnd bc-lc . ' four foo'. aro referred ic 

attain in Trip. ;:. 1, v.-hero tho; aro said to be tho four states of wa.. 



154 



The;!;; ar'"* luai;;' ; aL::'^.';j_(.i t v •'-'-j ■^•' '■^ ■ ■ ■'-' •■ ■ 

evorywliero. (>Jvet. 3.13,1?; IlfJ.rui. 14; Eluisiaa. 2; ) On the otlior linni, tl.o 
loi'.y, ur.!nr vnrlrua nniaoS, is sai;l to 'h© vithcut foot. (:.lui}>i. 1.1.''; 
^v>t. r.iy; ^i-i.i;..c. ,.; ..aiv. 21; Rudruli. 31; Ilarn^. <j.l4; rhamn. 2; yajj-^.^) 

A r.in, ac tc th-> nuintor oT font, RuJra is sai.i to havo lOX,^^': 
-}The dft-i*;" hag threo feet, (.MaJiSn. 11,12) as has .-'.aath. (Tub. 1) The 
Gur., ^Tv^^uii 1.11) and the mantrarSju lii.vn five feot. ("rsp. 2.2) The 
kjudras ero born frcia the feot of Prajapati. (P. C. 11,12; Sub. IjVaradot. 3K 
The foot cf Pr-jajati is thus. (mait. •*.') As to the feet of other individ- 
ual £,cjds, the io-t of Rudra aro tov,'ard the scut} . (.^iras 3} His foot ar"^ 
Ictus liko.C^ara. 1G,21) llf. cverccmes dea'-h with his loft feot. (•'Jara. 0) 
This srune feet lights thfi oyo cf Vlsnu. (.^ara. 10) liari, freod froi;i sin, 
rrot.iao3 tc beoouo a devctoo cf ^iva's fo--^t. (Erhaj , 6,7) The foot or Rauia 
i.ro en the head and heai-t of his worshippers. (Ramarah. 2. 8S) ^uka makes 
cbeisantje to the foct oj the deity, (Rudrali, 2) Aslo the ohief godK do 
reveronoo Xs. tho icct. (Gara. b] y^wJ_ V-^^ o yj^^ j 

Ocsj.d'inl. The earth, bhui:ii, is said to have been produced from the 
feet rf pur-isa. (P. ?,. 14j ::urA. 2.1.4) ^ ^^^^ Upanigas states that the earth 
v/as prciujad fro:.i t:.6 feat of t;u- deity. (VaraloL. 3) 

laraija 
^ar'Jla, the organ of t-oticn, io a later and raord pooti: vcrd than 

the cl.1-f -. r' ■'rr.ai pal. Uetaphy sica!ly , thoy are niurtie or foni.s. (Trip. 11. 
2.4) Tuoy aro duo to the manifest power cf t}-.o deity, (Eita. ) 

Relicious. The first use cf tho word in a roli^ious sense, is that 
cr.ft tc'.iohfie th'i feet ef a 3Up->rler in boj;;[;ir.r; a bcon--thr- . .. cf 

today. t~ait. 1.2; T.iro I'ont arcos iiito tho hicher heavenly reaL o. . . 
:.I. 2.3) Ths wish of others i^ of '-hr> yoi^in. (hlrv.) Cr.ly twice is 

•-..fi v.ord nfil 'k -.c: nr-.-:f cr. w-.th "oca poctures, "'hi-;}, illustraloi -n" 
....-" " '■ ' ' ' -2 wci"'l ' ' " • ii'O :'it,'- ■ '""■' 



155 

■in 

. ut on Vi.C' If' , '^fui^. l.'.Ar, , . , 

Dolties, *o. Hfi^'-lvel;, tLo I'lr^^ost use of .. • ir. vJLr.n©ot'.{ j. 

■ Joities. Ti.o fool of Iiv.lr.' aro pure, (luahan, 11) >Jiv-^ l.us ICCC 
foo-M. ^....z.-j:\a. Z'j xvi§K.i L..3 Uc foot. ( COpal&t. IG^ v/hiih aro tc ^o woll 
roueabered, CGcpSlct. 22) as ar^ iV.ose of thr deitj'. (Varal. ■. 3.12} Tho fo^t 

leily ar^i sail to >;o nur.ie, (Varalot. 4) amd to c^vo strea::s of 
iiojtar, (Ti-ip. .... 2.?) One j;,c03 tc I,araya:ja' s feot for protG3tlor.. (Trip. .« 

-' ^ J 

''.osai-iiJ., Rudra and Huirani are the font of tl.o oos.-.ioal ^ird. (liansa C) 

ani;,i.ri 

wit! a sinf^lo Gx:orticr. 

Aj'j.ri ii uaed for V..o fcot only in iC£a Upanigads, and in jcn- 
-.■•; ■- .: with asanaG. Ih .-iiJ.i foot le tc bo placed at thn baso ^ f tV.o 
loft thi";-.. (Tri^. 4S) Thr loft fcot Is to press tho yoni ir. another 
>stur.-. ^j.c Ju. 66) It is lo ^n plaool by th^ privaL? pea*,-, ^.l.. -u. 

114) Iho left one is to tie bolov.' the. riulakanda, ri^^.t cno aVovo 

ir. t'-.r vr.lr;. pcstur-:- . {''c. hu. 1.5.) 

izu^r. ',ho ant,i.ri is luontionn: :(Js a '.von. ser.se. (Vral;. T; 

liiO ••ool 
pargrji 
-V'.rr. 'r ^■■-^ lit.- . -ti'.r c.f t:-." ''.-oel, Pirelli ia th- word usod fcr 
it. The yoiii is xt 'mO s.iuo.ac' ". o ! eol in yo~a. (Yo, C!u . ''-'"; ycl.4. 
1.7.43) 

fh- ',--' - •' tc^^ '.-.-onl"!. (V-.rahip. 2.r} 



Ccl'> l' --ct. 



'.a, Ui. 



VOj^a, whfli'o'by tV.o Tcuy is couLrl '.o b'* tor.of it uel tc. 
..■ Eclo cf t]? fcot. (ao. Cu. 5''} Sv''''"r'ly, 'cV.unc as", m ehcul! T'O np^liol 

■ j.lo u: ihe foct. ^--v'-« '•-; -"^w^-V* "^ ■ certain Yocr. rrw.:---, 
■-0 >c ly i3 fillod with r.ir fro;., the zvu*r. of tho head tc t'- " iolo of Lho 
ct. (^r'j. 7.V.'' 

■^'ho i?r . ;£(.^1 i:i as'inas ^^ ;/uw-ir^ /: e solo? < r. tiiT' cp^osite 
:.i£!.8. CTx-ij. 39; Yo. i^u. 1.5} Tcr furth'^r use of tho fiole of tho foot ir. 

"■ .■ /l:i\ i:. -UQ c'.io ci '.}.e feci fcrotQll:. ^u^»,. in a ypar. ;rri^. 

•1} 

Ir-pr.t Tee 
padafl^isthu. 
There U do ir.ention of the i^reat too, s-.arso'. /.ticn of any toe, 

■ 'l tho V _ sals -rrf^fir. Tn Ycj^a the rreat toe, froi-. its heinc the 

>st re:;-ctB ir.r". -f who toiy,a£3i.;:-':03 i^uch 1- port-.r.-;o. V^o artoi'ieE, or r.ir 
~ics, r.ro suprcsed tc convey air tc - groa'. tees. Ya-jriBviia 
'wc --ho loft, :■:' h.-.Gtiiihva to tho ri^l-.t. :grTj. 4,19,21} Trj-.nother 
■.§ni t: -.-ias ^'^^^"'0 ^0 these toer are aai^ to lie ad}:oyat~ ^^^ 

•tu]i/.r. ilrl^. '. . ^rpct tcs tP3c;.es a locality of praija, UioUtJi. ci.o 

! rr"r.r.v- '■,:c'-P:t tc *ini this l)r©ath 'n st^ch a reinote rart <■*' 

PftliEiouB. A1-. the atcvp roforov ■?> a rnliriors hoarinc, ?u-i ! 

vnr , rr, whi ''' a---"> wlcl'!; r'l'^ 



GlTder, f r the Yc^^i- 
.n",?^:-. ;;".:d. 1.".""^ Prana i^ ,4. 



157 



Tip of Grot- 

prnpnclnHguqlilin 
The tip of the ^I'oat Loe, prnpadancu^yiu, ie inor.tioi.od cnjr., 
<. ' '.\.^-;^li is aai.l tc "h^ raisG4 up. (Vai'adap. 2.2) 



158 



Ohcpter VIII 



The Genital crijar.s. 



159 



upastlin 

'Jr.'-.sthn ic a j^or-ora.! tonu fcr tho [-i:^nlt'-il or^^f-r. cf oitVor ::c:. cr 
yronan, lu.^ in ^ontird litorature, : cro ■o.j.ior.ly porl.apB for ul.a.- of v;o;:jan. 
rut in the Uianigads, v;hero wonan Is tut littlo diaousood, there aro tut 
fo'.v rr.sECjor. whoro the word is ueei in rnforonSG to lier. Its Loaiiinc is 
oil:. or jjOneral, or olse it rofors to the ;ualf>. 

Fecinning, with those reforomes where the word may "be understood to 
have a ^or.ppal r-ennii-.^, tho first thing to inpresB cno is the connooti'^r 
of the or^or. with Qr.andu or [xoaauro. This is osposially surprising i; v.ev; 
c' .' e iisportanoe atta:;hod to the pccse ---ion of children and the pains 
ta/.en :ind tho :hanns er.plcyed ir order to o>)tain then. The geaeral failure 
tc treat t:.e cr^an, in tho s3heriG of seniios, as an organ of procreation, 
is verj' r^arked; it is "both early and late considered the organ of pleasure 
par ex-!el'Jen-:r>. It ip. tho orl;: L"to or voVi-ile of all yleasnro. (Brh. ?.'l.ll, 
4.i;.l?}roca u.-ells in tho upasti.a a.s prcjroaticn, iia^iortality, and pletisurc. 
CTait. 3.1^.3) £c also Kaug. ?.E finite s the two functions of pleasur'^ and 
procreation '-^% V' - :'^:'^flr, ^t/".'^-" do ring it as an inctnr.-.ent of intolligonee, 
!>; it r.leusuro an.! sport— ananda and rati— are known. C^*^'>i5' l*"^) -^' -"^""T- 
.'.e''p it attains to Erahra with its pleasures. (Prajna 4.G,9) 

The function cf pleasure is qu~"'- .';-, -trcr.rly er.phRsi^od in the Int© 
Upanifads. It cer 'body in pleasvire. ^G.-lh.-. 1) It is ocnsidered as 

oao cf tho act" .vorh sersee, whose function is pleasure. ((Jarlr.; 

".■•~rad. '".teg; r"h . _,.; 

Its fuj.^ticr as an organ of pro::reaticrJi^irt has already 'bocn i..oraicno- 
u'-vve. [T-it. 2.10.3; Kaug. 3.5 ) 

Cf the five vital a^rs, n- ■ .i dwells i.'. ■5t, .- s it shcul'i! ir r.r. or^:-n 
cf excretion ir. tho Icwer part ^' - ' . • . , "i 5) It is :.. . " . 
: nt of the Intolligont self, l-y whi':^ it is aontrnlled, an", kjt 

v.l.-.rn^ V.'! ich it c'"- ''•'• (^;c<->r-!' '^'^ its fur-:tic.s. [i-auj. 3.5, ■"■,7) 



160 
cionltj. Jq 

It is ono of t};-> fonns c*" pm.krltl, ('JflrTi.), jowts 

of tJiO l^ody. ;"'■ "■.-.'! ■ -J -i.:. ^, ii. (.'.u I.; , ' ■ 

euprc:' ■ . .of rasa, or taste. (Trij. be;^.) 

5}.er. voi".ir. i? ooneidorod as Va-:- altar — sVo in the altar of ?rr ]5.ir:ii~ 
vT.. . . .:■■; ui.io t'l^an is the fuel of : ■• ;;.. i '.f ' :ial fire. (Prl,. ".".l?; 
Ih. t.B.l) Fi'l'tior. is ajj^lied tc it in aormection with a lovo tantrq. 

.••n^i^iLUs. .,c. uu";h mention is m^^if oT i:.!- upastha in tho reli^jious 
si-horo, some othf^r wcrt'd toing rrof erred, thougli the or^an itsolf is not 
^uite as r^'^-i'^P'^-^ th'^r'? r.s ono mijjht have expected. That of the Parivrajin 
01- w:ii ..,;. i ..^ j.s-.v.'x: I'o -' oe well£7Jar';!fid--he is not to te led into sin 
by it. (Karad. 3.13) From tl;at of the ascetic the haii is tc be reaoVed. 
iS&r.. 3; ixantla-j 5; Karad. ^.ond; ivunl. 10^ 

Testi3les--Private parts. 
nugka 
:.!u§ka, a very cZ.'. word, is used '*:ut cnze, whore these of Prajaijati 
are said to bo the sonouvesse^l in the sasrifioe. (Brh. r.4.3)' 

gu]iya 
Cuhya is the equivalent to th- zngliehi "private", T^e word is iCsed 
a fe-.v titles in Ihe later Upanigads. T.:o Kuhya is to bo easenrod wit]. 6hf..'dun£ 
ashes to the uoiitra xiaxs. •■ima. (Pr^.aj . 2.31; 4.11,3) It Is ono of 
32 parts of tho body to recoivo tho tilai.a. (rri.uj . 4.14) It is to be 
tou^Vod ir. worship. (Varadot. G) The -jri cnut- is, oiuployed on it. (Saubh.bo^. ) 
Ti.o /.auij.r.a, u o-iall cict:. to cover tiio ;riv.uo ^rrts, is worn over it. 
(IJarad. 4. end) 

lleubj-uj- virile 
qi^na 
■Jijna, ior tl.o lu^ubrui'. teirilo, ap7oarE ir. or.-? of ... o^i w.-i-lj la. 



161 
. I viri . , ,n.i 
It iz :u: ori,u:: ' *" ojo:;tior. 'ua^aM" rf t,ti/."rr fnr, 1. (All. "'.C,!'} T;.. 
..' ' , ' ."i'q:.. i. iccued co;:idii, c;. : fru. wJ.le ii. turn J'J.c 

uter. Oonvors^^ly, water bpjonlnc aoion, entrroJ iLo qi^na. V'Ait. 1.4; 2.4) 
Pr-iipicuB. Sir.s iiiay Vn 3or:.ittei 1-y tho qijnn, ^;;<J.Zrii. 31,32) '.vhi-h 
.^ay bo j-urt^ai ty i.ui...ii.t, u tilaka. or. t;.c rjxvol. (F/J^haj . '1.34) liils cixun 
'oiT'.s a 8utj03t of roflection ir. Yoga, (ji^uri. 7) 

prSina 
FriTi'-ia, tho fcrvz&rd nentor, is use! cn^e, aprarontly as a cort cf 
oufi.or..i£3^, ill tlio-oxceedincly vulgar Ej[h. C.4,2, whore it is sai.l cf Fraja 
j.;-;i, sa Qtaji pron-jangit gravannj ati.ana eva sor-udaf arayat , tenainmn (striynn) 
■bhyasri,': c. 

art ha 
Artha is tho ooauxn v/ord for thing or oatter, and is used in t}-.e 
soar- eupherdstio manner as the last, and in the sa:r.e section. A man is told, 
•-asi'Sn (Btriynr'^ .'.r'.' •-' ni^'thaya, and to utter certain nantras, var^'inr; 
o.^ording to his doeires in regard to t:ip v/cman and his jonnootion with 
.3r. (Erh. 'S. 4. 9, 10, 11, 21) 

FrcBi its dorivntion, V]f§ai}p. would mean the jnalo organ. The word dees 

oxolusivoly 
■.ot a. pear in thn old Upanisftd~8, and its use is zkaxiijc in religious mattora, 

}'^i'i\ 1.#.4 does indeed tell us that apana circulates in it, but theoe 

^reatli lassages in t}.o Yoga Upani^r-dd arc all for a religious purpose. 

Tho hands cf tl»e sar.nyasin are to b: folded betv/een this spot and the navol, 

-ho apana. (San. 4t,l; ^.un]. 1?) Tho ankles are to bojput belov; it in tho 

bh- !r-- pooturo. (Tri;. 45; ^aij^. l.T.G; ^rlj . ?.7) 



16: 



:!o4hrr. ic th." rxst 3criu.cn wori! ir. the lato Upnnl^i'ln fcr r.h'' nl© 

oTi^ar.. ltd i-air; uoe is ij. VOgti, cind ii-.aiiy of tho puEBa.i_,oc in jonno:;ticr with 

it r lato to its position in tl,ft ^ody^^■it^. roforon-;© to other orcanga. This 

i.r...Wln^rT Is p. hfilp t- the cscrre-^t praoti^e of Yofa. It io : onticnoi r-.c 

a ij.ri l: t:.o oxtc.nal tody. (Awiua. 1) The artery kuku Cv-^i-t- ^' '-' <-^ ^ubJTu 

(Irio,. 7C) runs to it. ;ip5iia oiroulatee ir. it. (ij^ijij' -'"^J Trij. 73) It io 

loc:;tr>d ir. thr Tr^^icr. cf the body kncvn as svadhiq^hana. (Yo. ou. 11) Tho 

kanda ia tv/c fin£;ors atovo it, (Yo. Cu. 14) and tlio uiidfcody--om6 called 

the 'jiU.isthana, two fir.gora telow it. (ijanij. 4; Irlj. 4.2; VarcQ.. 5..?0) 

Th6 !".ul."dhnra, whioh is practicnlly tb-^ sane, is 'between it and th« anus. 

50 
(V:^rai.. L.L})) 

It is cno of tho 16 vital si etc ir Yoga. C;jar4. 1.9) It is to be 

restrained in various Yoga postures, shiefly ty puttinr thefcct or nnllo 

over it. (Yc. 3u. 114; yar4. 3.7; ^^rij. ?.?) In one postur'- ti.e l.ar.d is 

kept cvor|it. (Tri^. 49) ir Yoca, a rreat liGhtis said to extend two fineeTs 

telow, that is, to the nidtody. (Tri^. '5; Yo. 3u. 10) 

mehana 
liehana is a derivative fron. the saino root as the last, and is praj- 
tioally a variant of it. It is one of the 18 vital spots in Ycca. (Try^jlI'C) 
A thrctv.inc in it foretells death ir. a half mont' . (Tri-j. 1?A^ 

srvini 
Sivir.r properly laeans the tip or end of the penis. It is ruenticned 
only in sone lata Yoga Upaniflade, where it is to ho stjueezed by the ankles 
'? v-i.ricuo postures, 8u::h as the W' irr., -luVta, 8iigl;nrupa, (9^4* -'^j-i 
.Jrlj. 3.7,S; Tri.'j. 44-45; 'JrTj . (^.r.i^-iC; } 



lf>3 

1© 

LiiTfa hac ixa its pririfiry jneanin(3 sic^ ^^ nark, nnl is not UBOd at 
all ir. thf" early Upant^adB in thr B'^nno of tlio nalp or^an. Piit it Ib in 
ooiaucn ueo in tide oonso in tho vernacular^ of today, and ©opejially for tie. 
phallio aTi'bler.i of M.-iJ.a!f.v, t);o ordinarj' nanio for ]ivn. It would soen that 
the use cf tlio word in tl.is rixgx relici'^'^s sense has jaused its spread in 
the seoulr.r. tho avadliig^hana ^akni io ir. tho re^^ion of thellSt"-. (Vo. tM, 
3.10) The artery kiAiT t^oos to the rogion of the linca. (Yo. CJu. 20) 

Ait io to 136 drawn fro:., its tube— prohnbly th- artery kuhu — in & 
fonu cf Yoga. (^rij. '^.41) The wise ascetic wanders as if not havinf; any 
lin^a. And the state of being without one pleanes the rods, (llarad. 4.?L,37) 
As bodily defects prevent one frori becominc an asTOti'!, it is evident that 
the meaning is net i-ut ' lation, but rather to be void of passions in ref:ard 
to the use cf the or^an. Cne may obtain nunerous lincas by putting cow- 
dur-c ashes or. tlie body, that is, by worshipring :jiva. (3i:haj . 4.11) 

A great linga, (malialiijca) is said to be in the r.ilstof the ycni, 
facing back. (Yo. Zu, 7) 

Deities. Tho linga of (Jivr. is considered pantheistically in Ehasna.2. 
That 01 the ioity is said to bo si^^-^i i or creation, in Varadot. 4. 

Pud.or.duBi nuliobniK 
adhas 
Adhas ic '.he earliest iistinctivo word appearing in the Utanijado 
for tl.e fe;-x'ilo organ. It is said to bo 'Jr'^. After its creation by Prajapati, 
he wcrshippei it, henco the wcrB?.ip of the organ, or adha upasana, was 
oarriol on in tho days of Trh. ^.4.2. 

bha^a 

H;aga alec appears in but ;s. single pr.ccugo.lt Lo o-iii tl.at one 

Jih©) 1 
seeks again in pleasure (ra;n) th. : r^.^^ ^j^ich he was born. (Yogat, 3) 



164 
Fudonluii r.\»lioiTu: — i-nltn;(lv£rfi. 

Tutrn ivnrn. ic usoJ in a pocrlr.irti.-; rasPftf in Mnit, ^.'1, whoro tho 

toJi io sc>i I to havo ?:.:orcol fro:' tl.is iis^iioUni; I'laco, tl.o xiririRry portal. 

avS'syadfti^a 
Tho strrnan ava3yulo;ja, tho vinaentionntle place of wcnen, is refeived 
tc or.CG in a pescL-iisti^ pascace in ITSred. 4.S9,30, virhoro it is sal J to bi 
like t;.'3 v;caiiJ of an injured artery, a|[ic3e of skin split int«, soonted \vi«h 
apana tunJ searetion. llairae is saroastiaally said to those who take pleasure 
in it . 

■ffoDt — Lower Abdcninal Recion. 
ycni 
Yoni has a ver^y general and varied meaning. At tLT.es it reff'rs to 
the v/c:ibj ai ;i;.OE C: the vulva or fenalo orj-nns cenorally; in ::iany 3ag09 
it is UEOd in the sense of Bourie or oririn, without any roforenoe to the 

tody at all. In thP latfi Ycfa Upani^ads it is used in a still different 

■yc- 
Gor.se here, referring evidetly to the lower abdominal recion of tho r.an. 

The passa^os whore the word refers to a part of the hody are included here, 

as woll as a fev' cf tho fitjurativo passaros. 

Yoni, as t;.r birth pla'R or sour:;6 cf origin is best desoribbi in 

Garbha 4. The foetus is roborn in inaay yonis. When released from this life 

it roes tc yiva, TTarayana, or Bra3i:X, or learns Sankhya or Yoga, uhen it 

att ins tlie door of t) e yoni it experienoes great pain, v/hi^h -jausos it to 

forget all previous births. Frcrn Mait. 3.3 wn learn that thore are 84 

lai.h«, &,400,00G yonis cr forms which the soul may be born in. The yoni 

is sail to be in tho k-r.Ia. (Yo. lu. 14) Its function in pro::roaticn is 
referroi to in a uantra. (Erh. G.'l.ri) 

PAffltrativ<», 2im yoitiia aaid to ba tUtt flaiu. aaaa^iisial 

fir ». (Brio ,. 6. 3 . 1 ^ Oh. 5.8.1} 

pt is also salil that tho yoni may bo ojijcyed in a spiritual state 
without tliin^ing of tho body. (Ch. B.lf3.?) The dehina, her© Era}j',a, enters 
tho 'r: i in a bciily form. U^V-a. ^'.7) Ir- reality, one is born fror. the 



Worib — jroni 
ycj'.i of Bi-aoo. (Laug. l.'^^ Tho uolty rules emJ; "cr.i . that, ic, n:i:}. ilnoo 
of oxictent leir.c8--all ll.a- i.us d6y..cir.z6 ci. u.o yci.i. (lyvot. 'l.il; >..'!, 4) 

ricurfitive. A Tow luoro fijnirative uses way b© pointod out. The yoni 
is tlio flrj-t? of V..0 Da-rlfinnl fire. (rrh. ^.-^.IPJ Oli. 5.B.1) Tho Fra^-rrji 
is lilt- yoni of tl.o A.§atriya, henoe one who injures a Brohjion ir.juroc ;.is 
owr. ycid. (E^h. 1.4.1) This soprrs jr.r»rely to emphasize tho Gflsur^eJ depend- 
enoik/f the oth.-.r ^r.ster on tho Brahman. 

Ir. Lho late U:ani§r.d3 v-e road that praKijli is i.iiO yoi;i ci ti.e Ui-lvorce, 
(Racap. 36) The fftnnn is the yoni of all. (I'rsp. 4.1; Suh. 5) The earth is 
tho ycni of tho deity. ;::ahan. 35) A^ain, BraJina is the yoni of living 
oroiiuros ar.d of the universe. ('larai. y.1,4) 

Feli£,icus. Thoro are a few passa es where the word is used in 3cn- 

nestion with rsbirt!. , .-mi where the a]::li:;aticn is more or loss syiritual. 

Cld is the idea :hat tlio fiood v;ill ottair. good yonie. (0:.. ij.lj.7) ^hen 

oc::ies tie statfir.ent that the coarse nature attains, or is reborn ir., ;:;cci 

cr.d evil yoi.is. (i'slait. 2.2) Sinners are horn ir. -^rocked or inferior yo^.is. 

Atharvn]il:ha 
(:iar£d. 3.29) The knowors of the ^xxxzk Upanigad will be freed frci. further 

dwollin^s in the yoni. 

In the late Yoga Upanifads, as already ftated, the v.-crd refrs to 
the lover atdordnal rogicn cf tho luale. It is saii to be botween tho a.lhnra 
and the Bvadhig^hana , i; the anal recicn. It is aalled ka-.arupa, and in 
it is th.i rreat lirga, facing backv/ards. (Yo. Gti. 6.7) In one posture, it is 
to be B^iUf.ezod by the l«ft hand, (Tri^. 49) but usually by the left foct,cr heel. 
(Yo. 3u. 40, P'; gar^4. 1.3.'"; 1.7.43)it is 3oupled wit); tho anus in Yoga 
pra-!*-! -Aq. (VarS^i. 5.3R') 

netieo. Tho father of tho Vagus was begot -frc' Devi's, whijh is called 
kSria. (Devi 3,^) That of Durga is well adcrnid. (Tripura 8,12) 

'7cF. l--ii. The yoni of the gnsr'-f ' "inl horso is tho see^.C^r?. 1.1.1) 



1^6 

Tc: 
.;urbi;:i BO-iiiis wO aean morn propprly fcotun of o:.'bryg^ an! frepiontly 
has this :.efinin~. Tut it is sonotimes put for the wojiB, and BOMOtiraae for 
rotirth. A iu'"'t'^'-if:r. fror F. V. 4.?7.1 Ir Ait. 4.f, hero attribute' *r 
VSija^lova, ..on'.ior.s 'J..^ relf as lyinj: In tho wcnb i^.n'. jcnsidorinc *'-ll the 
-enerntions of thA ::o<l» .. fho Urcini^id thkes tho cioaninc of this ficurative 
vorso liter- lly, and this furnishes us with an instnr.ie of the belief no 
often expressed ir. -.ho }Jahatharata and elsewherf^, that in sTie laces at 
le:i8t, k:.owled(;o, especially in reliclous natters, jnif;ht le pcooessed 
lefcrf" l:irth. A little latsrihan the atove, it is saifl that Fraiaputi, as 
pr^r.a , lucvos about in the wonit. (Prapa 2.7j Bralv.'.a is in the ^^•orab. ('■Jvet, 
C.l'") Tho atnan is as if jcncealed injthe wonb. (Hatha. -5,8) Frajapati 
Jwrlt in tho prir.ial wonit. (Maha;.. 1.13) 

In the pessinisti:; thcu^hts of the Jihilosop'^.ers, d^-ollinr in tho 
womt, whi-h is connected with rebirth, is something greatly to h« dreaied 
and to be avoided if pcssible. This is discussed some in the late Upanis^ls, 
The sannyasin fears dwollinc in tho vc:::b. (San. 2.S; Advay.) Fut the twi:;eboru 
begone froo frcr. future dv/ellings ther^n. C:jiras. 2) The deity saves 'roR 
fn.-.r of t ■ f> '.vr/^. '^iras. 4) So does th« word or.. (Ra.'.iot. 2) Salvation from 
it may be eht-.ined; (Catta. 1) especially by kno-leire cf f • e .Jarabha Tpan- 
i^ad. C^Jara. T) Ii. this oonneotion may be mentioned the doubtful passa-e 
in :3h. S.14.1, v/hero there is a prayer that one nay not attain to th^ 
toothless, whits, eliprery thine, conorally undorstccJ .0 ref r to the vciab. 

The wc::.b of ou is mentioned in Ekak. 3. 

PrajaFati is said to wcri. in tV^ "/ci.ib. (P. C. 19; Tadova 4) 



ir>7 



;;i..-.i;tBr IX 



The Internal Organe 



168 
The Int«rral Or^ianc, 

TIio 8tfito:Ments utout the internal orcanB ■contain tnuoli ....i.- ....^l is 
problenationl, inaginativo, and uncertain, than do tho paBra^'eB whiah truat 
of thfl external parts of tho Voiy. To begin with, in Ui-cniyad times, even 
in luoJijal oirilos t'.;ore v/ac not rjinh knowleiigo of tho interior of the body. 
Theories largely took tho placo of knowledre an.l of fa-its. llnturally the 
iiinoran^e was greater in F^'i^^'-af-'Fhioal oirilos, and this i^noran-je deepened 
ac tii:.© passed on. One acquainted with Indian and life ani thn Indian :4ni 
son not ibut feol that there was little oonnection between the anatomist and 
the pliiloBj.her, The well knov/n story of the expulsion of the A^vins from the 
sajifise of the ^.ods, boiauso tl^ey wero physicians denlinr; with all classes 
of aen typifies the feeling in regard to luodioal ren, even at ht. early tine, 
Urith the passinr of time and t:.e rise of Jainiaa and Buddhisa, the horror of 
taking lifo, haiiilinf- the dead»and uutilatinr Ihc body c^ew, so that the 
opportunities for real i.nowledgo of tho structure of the body constantly 
dii^inisJied, and especially In relisious ctrcles, wher? this fe^ng would be 
strongest. 

In early tines, the use of animals in the sacrifice would help to 
convoy r;uch knowledge of t}ie structure of t: e body. The a^va:T.e.ihn pascagoi 
i:-. Lh: oldest writings may be ocpecially noted in this connection. Eut the 
writers of the Upanijads had very little hand in aniaial sacrifices. Tliere is 
a single ycvoTieil.a passago in the openining seotioiicf one of the oldest 
■_"; w.i^als; later Ba;rifice8 are of .;.0 ghT type, or so:::o work is substituted 
for tho actual sacrifice. The general tendency of tho Upanijad vritors is 
tc spiritualize tho sacrifice; of tc substitue sorethin:; else for it. 
This ;..ig}»t bo kno-^-ledge, or center-: lalion. I:: llie late Upanijads, Ycga 
practi'ds, and the use of tho rcsary, of sacred ashes of burnt cowdung, and 
tho tila/.n, wr.re employed, as they -re tcdny, in tho place cf ©'"'erings. 
• n' of coursn, some of th" vefj- lata i,i;-w.l gjids are v.:-ry recent indeed. 
TTith these practices, laore attention would bft paid to the exterior of the 



169 

Tr.to.nal Ort^anB 
• ii' ul-.a: Lc Cho interior. i;fln.-:o In aor.:r of ti.c: tiiai.a ui.ar.^g:.»ia wo ii..j. x.cws 
.r.taining as niany as 32 parts (sono cf them in pairs, howovor) of tho tody 
whl-Jh tho tll.nhn sJ-.oull be aprliel, 'v/l-iib in tho :;rout narly Upari^ads, suti 
as Ej,;:.. and Jh. tho nw^bor of p;'.rt.5 is iuuol. fewora. On t:.o oi...er hand, 

.680 early Upani^jads aanifaot a aore a^^urat© knowledc© ct the interior of 
...e body, thourjh they are far froi.-. free frora error. 

This iicro ao::urate early i.r.owle;l£0 of Vr.o body ^ay havo been due to 
dissedticns; it was nore iiici likely in the luain due to the animal saorifi^es 
referred to. Er}.. 1.1.1 aentiors sorie paitt3--of the sa^rif^al horse it is 
irue, Wi.ioL are not nontioneJ elsewhere. Later writ'^irs seor. to havo fallen 
.lOi. on what earlier vriters had said, adding not faults, but speoulstions 
: oko cut '.vhat they aust have felt vr.s ssant inf onnation. The one ^iBka 
Upanifiid \vl;i::h whioh is noet a::-!urate in its general treainent of tho body 
is tlie late Garbha, whish in parts 1 as tho appearance of a medioal treatise. 

The Heart 

hrl. hrJaya 

li^fd and h^daya aro th--- ordinary words fcr heart, che one beinc 
of 
oroly an extension £k the other. They are both used in tho sarae way, ard 

will be treated here as one word. Ftynclccioa-ly tho word is net idc^ntical 

with the ordinary In'.o-Zuropean word for heart, which 80:ir:iB to to j-rosr-nt in 

tho first eler.ent of ^radlha, faith, of. Latin credo, yet it seous to be 

connected, and has '■ .r, saj;e treatment as if it wore a byfcnu cf th.o original 

word. This is noted i.ere to er-phasise tho fact that tho orii^inal ton;;7.ic 

see::.ed to naiie the hoar, from its supposed function as a cental ci-gan, and 

-c '',t'; -tft that '-''■^n 'Sea is a vor; -r. -..x^n r.rfl in the Uptxnisnds. The Indian 

idea of its derivation m', rather that cT Lho loi " nu, is fo'-ini in 

CJh. 8.3.3, where t};e orj^an is said to be oallei hjjdya;-) instead of h^di ♦ 

aynjn, that is, he ■'■'. <, i •, :. tVn he-rt. Tiia is about on a par with the usual 

.heolof,lainr etya.olct;i'. It is roioated in a lalo Upani^ad, Pa^ca. 36. 



170 

Ad :crJinti ic E\-;.. l-.r., hr>lnyoin ia iorapoundod of the tlireo syllableB h^, dn, 

oxid y:u ■ tl. .'- i^, to ^rinc, to i^lvo, inl to c^ > ^^-^ "lontflxt eti ahoTrir.jj tl.at 

yS, tc t>o, is iieaiit, by tl.o third syllabel, tho m boin^^ oiiuply ti.o caso 

toiTiination cf t!;o vjocpletod noun. 

Just whnt pliysioal organ is luean' by hrJ ? a ren'.or of tho Upani^nd:: 

is iiiproseed .juito as rauoh by the parts cf the body not mentioned as ho ic by 

those whi3h are mentioned. For instance, in all the Upani^r-tJ liter.ituro tho 

luni;;B and liver of nan are not laentioned at all. Tlie only r.ontion cf thee is 

contained in tiio list of parts of tho aa-irificial horse in I^h. 1.1.1. This 

gives rise to the opinion that the word was used as a general terti for the 

vital origans — thcr.fi cf t'o thorax- -who so real nature and functions were not 

/.nown to the writers of the Upanisads. Careful stody cf tho uses of the v/ord 

strengthens this opinion. It would seen, that while hifd was soinetities used 

ti::;es 
for tl.ct heart alone, at cth'-.ra^it v/an used for tho heart and lungs tai.on 

their 
togeti. r, as aight well be done froii Dudib ber.g so closoly oor.neotod. 

in other plp.cos 
i'lgain, its soppe seeias to have 'been still moro general. 

As far as the early Upanisads are ^omerned, it is best tc take them 
up ihrononlogiaally to got th-^ir tea-;hin<t in regard to -the leart, T. is brings 
oat its dual function, physical and aet- v.hysical. In Eifh, 4,1,7 tho i-.eartis 
ilontified with Brhaina, ona thr> ground that a person without a he;irt is of 
no use — tl'.ere can be no 3U3]i thing as a person wit;. out a heart. It is the 
body and resting place cf all tliipgs — all things rest in it. ^hilo the main 
thought hero is no doubt psi'chic phenonena, which aro supposed '.c W in the 
l.eart, there Ie probably soi-ie reference to pliysical life also. Froia tj.c 
purely physical side, the heart is the place cf origin of tlie arteries. ,^ho 
elastic une cf t}.-* tTia artory, na4r will be dis:!ussed later. In Ch. S.'=.l,5 
wo are told tl:at 101 Arteries originate from the heart, and this is repeated 
in iaV'"* and lat'^r Upanijads. According to E^Ji. 2.1.19, 72,000 arteries 
proceed fron; the heart ar.d spread throughcut thn entire body. Tho lir.port.ont 



171 
Ho^.rt--hrJ 

ti.inj.^ iioi-e i? not. taat the diff oron". oysf. c ^ivo fii: f .•>rf>r.t nu::.ber8 of 

artorioe, but tlmt in both Bystftns they proceed from tho heart, kau^. 

4.19 aire taatifies that tho nrtorioc sprinc froB tho ho-.rt. Poth in these 

ai;J other paBsnc**^ the heart is oonsideroi tho abode of tho scul, and the 

artories itsrueon of :;otuauniCQtion with tho external world, or the plewe 

whero it re-tiroa. Tho },eart is also supposed to bo the.abidinc plaie of the 

8e::.en, henoa a son who greatly rosmnbles his father is said to eefti as if 

he had slipped frcm his father*s heart. (2^h. 3.9.22) There is no reason fcr 

suprosinc that th.is passac^ is not to be understood litesally. Tho expression 

of a son's bein^ born from a parent's heart is also used in Bijh. 6.4.9 and 

Kaug. 2.10,11. 

In the next ::y3le of Uponigads— Kathax.a, T^a, ijvota^vatara, L'ur^.jaka, 
and Ma}:anarayana, we find a more detailed description of the heart. It is 
as fellows: 

"And tho heart also is like an invertod Ictu? bud. It roiuains at the 
difstanse of a span belov/ the neok, above the navel. Loaded v-ith a re sary of 
artories, it shines as the great abode of tho universe. It hangs like, a bud, 
stretched about with art pries. In its extremity ia a cinute enpty space, 
(sugira) in whioh all thincs have their stand. In tho iradst of it is a great 
fire, sliining in all directions, faoing in all directions. It is tho first 
eater, it cdntinues as tho dividor of food, r.ot bBco;"dng old, ^ise. its 
rays are spread in all dirnctions, hcrizcnt.-.lly, upwards, and do-.vnwards. 
It warns tht> body fron the sole of the foot to the top of the head. In the 
nidst cf it an atcailiko point cf flojne separates upwards. It gleair.5 forth ne 
a line of 1-igh.tning froM the center of a blue jlcud. glender as the rice 
beard, yellow, it shires, llko an atom. In the nidst of this poitit the 
Suprr.no spirit is locat d. It is Brahana, (Jiva, liari , Indra. It Ir iropt^rlah- 
able, Hupror.e, self luininous. (ilalian. 13.2) 

This description is in vorso, and tho question at cn-ce ari««e as to 



172 
H«art--hi[d 

iiow muju is to "bn t l<^r litor- lly rx ' hfw laxxY.. f i^jurfttivdly . It ia asBaunod 
tiiat ti.e rassaj^o is in t;;e :.iQin Utoral. A£,ain just wl.at Is :.oant by r'^--^- 
r.cjuT It is trunslatod atovo as lotus bud. Koja usod in t)ii3 connection, ja#y 
tiieanth'. Vud, tlio oulyx, or the oood re:optri:le of the flowor. This last zrm 
hardly be uioont hero, bo tho question resolves itself into dotemining how 
far opened is the lotus bud to whioh tho henrt is jc-npared. Is it closed 
up tirhtly, or more tr less oparied? For it is renaonable to suppcDO that 
the ooaparison of the heart ot a lotus wae originally based on observation. 
The writer niay be referrinr to tho heart alone, which does indeed somewhat 
reserible a ti^hly olosod lotus >ud. But if tho lun£;s and heart be taken 
togelilier, an! the comparison icade to a lotus prtly expanded, the resonblance 
is auoh nore striking. The lobes of the lungs are very sugrestivo of the 
perianth of a lotus in this care, but if the heart only be considered as 
referred to by h^daya, it is to be noted that the auricular appendages 
only very slightly suggest the perianth. Ir. this connection one may note the 
later Qh.yan. 14, ; ..xo. the heart is coKparei to a banana blossoa, not unlike 
an inverted lotus in general shape, and quite suggestive of the lungs. 

The above passage indicates the position of the heart, above the navel 
and a span below tho neck, with quite suffient accuracy, in view of t).e 
poetic character of the passage. The rosary of flnue, is, of course, wholly 
imaginary from a physical st-^ndpoint, though not inappropiate "l.en one 
considers th- relation' supposed to have existed between light, tejas, 
th.ught, and heat, all of which wore believed to hav^nore or less connection 
with the heart. The arteries are r.erely mentioned here, and the ajective 
used in regard to them, saritata, is not vor; oxpli.^it in exiressing their 
relation to '-ho heart. The arteries l.ero inaBtioned may perhaps be those of 
the heart itself--the coronal arteries and their branches, and even the 
bronchial tubes, for thn word na.jr would include ■'>•.• I'.i1-,u-:, r err an. Tut they 
:cay juct as ■veil bo taken to moan the whole artorial Eyotea, with which the 



173 
!;n.". t't--; .^ ; 
writer was no doubt bul ijccrly aj^uaintol. Tho ninute oii^pty ern^o aaai rofor 
to rne of tho ventrioles of thoheart. Thouch ihero knowledc" was inporfost, 
tho wi'itoni cf tl.o oarly Upani^ads inurt hiwn kj"iown nomotl'lnc of tho irtniituro 
of who Koart, vorly liklly by report, trudition, or tho testinony of old 
works, and the frequent referneje to thn spaco witliin th<^ henrt 3an not be 
wholly n aatter of t}io ir.acinntion. jt would bo vory ensy fofc thou Lo be 
only partially infoniied in rocard to the oxait nuiaber and eizo of the 
savitiee in the heart, the r.-.ore oo as all of thorn exoept the loft ventricle 
scllapsp rati f»r readily. 

The dual servioe of the flfuno v;ill bo noted. Eoinc tho chief organ 
of tlie body, the l.eart ccntains tho chief fire. It is natural for it to be 
t}.o first or chief devourer cf food, v/hich it sends in all direoticne to 
the s»voral parte cf tho body. It need not be supposed that this infringes 
on tho duty of tlio stomach, for the funotior of this organ the cookine, 
pacati, of the food. Tlio radiation of tho hoart rr.ys in all directions 
warns tho entire body. As the word hr^re translated rrys, rajmyas, is 8o;r.e- 
tii:»es appliod to t;.e arteris also, its Juc use here n.ay be a trifle a:abigaous, 
and the word nay perl-.aps refer to the arteries w}.i-!h oenter in the heart. 
Thf> point of flane which is in tho nidst of the heart, and is the abcdo of 
tha Supro:L:e spirit, is of course wholly imaginary, and is brought in to 
a^i-eo with ti ■ v.riteris theory of tho nature and locationof the soul. 

The n'*t group of UpanigadB,«ii Pra^na, liaitrayani, and :ia^4u/.ya, 
add little t- this description. There is a further dovoloper.ent of th^ 
treatnent of tho art^^ries, but the chief additiorjir found in ilait. 7, 
where the heart lias a ceans of coninuiiication with tlif two eyes, oil tho 
puru^rvB wh dwell in thoin have t);eir union in the heart, whore there is a 
ball of blood which nourishes tYem. rphis would seen to to refer to tho clct 
cf blood so ofton found in the heart after death, which the writers of the 
Upaniyida eight know by report, though thoy ciiglit not eoc> it, even in aacrifi ;o. 



174 
Hon^t--^^.1 

One worn conoral doojripticn of tho l:ontt fcilcvB, tr./.or. frc; -> i-t'^ 

pnnigad, (Gub. 4) l^liile deprmilont in largo pnrt upon oaflior doeoriptlons, 

:vo ^flPa ©latorated ani adlod to in a way that makos this Upuni^tid 
;. ejuliar 
unique, for its idoas aro not jotie! elsov.-l.ero. "In the midst of tho hoart is 

- tia.3s of floah and blooJ, ;-n! in it the cavity, thn lotus, like the kunuda, 

oponoJ lurjiifold. There are len olefts in t]»e heart, in which tho praijaa 

i..oii, iVhen it Uho atoan) is united with proija it soes rivers, oitiog, 

•nd raany diverse things, TThen united with vj'nna it sees £od3 anfl ygis. 

TThon unitod vrith arrTna it sees Yakgas, Kakgasns, and Gandharvas. When united 

• ith uifiiia i; sooB Devaloka, Devae, Skar.da, uni Jayanta. When united with 

::ainana it sees devalokas and wealth, When united with vairair.bha it sees 

visiblf., ccrAod, enjoyed, unenjcyed, true, untruo thing.s, everything. How 

■^a?h of these ten (olefts) beoc;:.os ten artories;, rjn.l of oajh of these there 

ro tax. 72,000 branch arteries, in which the soul sleeps and maices sounds. 

..iirtn it sloops in tho second sanko-ja (state, i.e. droru-icleep) it roes this 

world an-; tho other v.-orld, c.nl understands all sounds. It is onlled Saijprfisada 

vthe serene soul). The pranaa protects the ^cdy round, Tho arteries are of 

^roen, "blue ,yoll<jij , rod, an! v/],Ue, and are filled with blcod. "ov.- in this 

lotus oavity, like a kujv.uda luiailfold divided, just as a uair thcusar.ifoll 

livided, aro the arteries called hita. In the heart epooe, tK«- suprene 

e;;velofO, the resplendent s'ul slooj-s. When it sleeps it has i.o desire and 

Iroa:.s no droaci, There are present no gods or todv-'orlds or sacrifices or 

rathr.r or nother, or rolaticns, or relatives or thief or Brah-.a- slayer. It 

is a brilliant body, oalLla its'-'lf. This salila is a forest. A^cir. by t:.n 

3a;.o route ho runs to the waking state.'' ;:u:;}. of this is of course bcrrcvcd 

fron Brh. ani other sources, but the piaturo on tho whole is different. 

The 11th sootier, f V. ■•> saitio Upanigad* adds stiU moro to Ihr. df-Qcrirt'.on 

jf tJio heart. 



175 
heart --Ji^d 

Oiio otiior jaat L ..ay bo 

iotr.ilol dl5:uBoici. - iforrmop tr r.rt, in itr rolat!cr. to tho 

prai;.io, ai, wi.io uay t.hrov.' li^^lit en Juot wh.it, or^'in io niGn.'-.t ty hra.iyu. 

Oli. ?.13.1 ir.fcr.as ur thr.t tlvTo nr© five .linvino ^avitlos or oponince, 

in V ■ 1 .v\i-t 
dfi-ws-a^is, jc: •.•e«:ondinr to thf> fiv^ bront' e r.T\<\ usoJ by thnni, Tho word 

rr;u..a o- :.*\^y ..ioiir.c brefitlis, r.ri''. not sor.cos, ao tliooo gono divino oavitifis 

aro oori-olated saparately to tl.o aerees and to na'-urnl object b. It wild 

seer, tl^at pr."na refoi"; to t}.o bronthB and net tho sanBes in tl.o ^.recsdinc 

jejticr. also, Jii. 3.18.4, \^::o,e\ tho pranaa aro b.;.. . .o rest in the hoart 

and not to ^o beyond. A fow ^uctaticnn fror! late Upanigads repeat that 

prar.r. d-.Tells in thn 'loart, (A-rta. 34; Emh;:a 2), and Mukti. 2.51 infoH'.s 

us tha-L at -who rising of the heart prana iui;20u into apana. The rising of 

the heart her© would searr. to apply to the V-MXiing pulsations of the lun^s 

rnt'-or than to tho bnatin- c' thr." r.eirt. Th.n fre:pnnt connection of praija 

hi; day a 
w_i.. liauLxxaxxi woul:l iiuply that the lattor is l'..o ort,a/i of broathir.;:;, 

as vail as the or^^an of .T-ontal activity. A simlar passage is Ilansa 5, 

v.-'.aro it is saii that by proper wantrns tha haijsa i^vy "^e irav.n to the 

hoarl. In this Upar.i§ad haueu not only aeans the LJiiri., -ut it is also 

idontifie! wit', tho inoo:..in£ and outroinj- breath, whioh its two syllables 

. :rs3ont, Bc that cne'BK troath.ir.g causp?: hi'.; tc vtter tY." wantra ha^-sa 

-i,^:.^:^ tL.os i. aay--li; traathincs a jidnuto. .^orecvor u. - size an', iiaport- 

anoe of the luniic--they aro at least as acr.srijuous as '.h:. heart--ajU tho 

fa:t that ths Urr.ni^t.dc hr^vr r.ot ct! er r.-^-.o for thfn, render it extpowely 

probably Ui^at "^.i.oy aro include 1 in ini a.. a .'.^dayu. 

Aj to 'J..- i.arLr ; ..©art, porhaps it is well to say soaiet'. 

:.Hrn in ro^arl to oft mention. . . 8p-'.:;---hrd.'rya aKaja. It is known 

by var.'.ous n:u:.03, c:u8si ' - " later. The .-o: '" 

'oned here beoauno xan; -.rs translate these words as the ether 

1:. ..:.. . .■ r. or--,|r.r r' t'.fi writer, thir is i - '•■rre-t. 

.^1 af.aja is olvoi. froi.. '/»-aj + 5, ».:. ;, • 



176 



ii.ic- ja ».i".- V 



'^ --^ ■'t^j , •• ■- 1 .Jiiuo a^alIl i.iiu loon uoftl froi.i ti. 

tho ^.. . rrSoawi-: dcwn. I): ,! ;iiuai-akojQ it is ^iverx qc omo cf tl.f. 

c^ .....:„£, c*^ .lyau, caU ir. ..;o.l ... \:.\1 it le en" of tho axx wcrJn f . _-, . 
^L bCivJi/j".- ii*»J viloboly rolr.toi r..oaiiii.£ c£ akaja ie bjujo, or ci-ipty Bfa)©. 
Tiiio Eioaning also aay to trnooLl bajk to tho i;raij...ar.u3. In aodorn Hindi 

a Tja is t,:..-. re^^ular w&r.I ue.-'T to tr nsl:.. ...;,^ EncHs-- wor! sp... 

c)«t^:^ l.n of tliis Jci.jopt r.e<^ffis to be the ^^onoral iis^ c' tho v'ord xi. tho 
^•.i§ads. That akaja oi- spaji'^ luay ccir.iido with our oonaoption of othor 

1. :. vu^uc Auy 1 r '^n;o, for Ih.- Hin'^u p];iloGophftr ■j'-.-.:'' : jori.3oiv.- r.t 

6pii::a or aiiylhii.;, olso as i^ore nothingness. Gpaco, with hia, Liuet huv 
support or base, }.owevor intir^ible. To this extent, thon, aknja is liio 
0-.. ., lut a'r.n'i^n is nowj.or" lefined as ether is. Z 3-^ntial quaj-"*^/ CjI 

okaji. is ".hat it "-6 okjcax spaso, cr oapty apaoo ; that it is etlier, so:..o '-..*^.<i 
." ' " " space, or e-'9n the BoraOthin^^ of ■ 'hioh eproo is inale, ie a 
.. ........ . ' Boe:;6 that T-herevo.' rcssiblfflakaja should I:'": 

ti_iiolatod 8pii06 Oi o...pty epaoo, and ethrr in the excoptionnl oases. -ioGt 
traiislatcrs rovereo this, ethsr when spr.3e v, ' ^ better zLoanin^;,. 

Cften v". . -r."-': ^ _^ ..-.vf r:c\i^ul'=>, or to wn-'?'- '< r 'is idee, as to 

!.wit ic i.. . . . isson's trcnslaticus of tho Uv^^uu^uds. 

I. " "cni^cids, ak|ja is oloarly defined, in a pass::^: 

1 . , -inen. "Yat su^iraij t.i 

(Garbha 1.1) 
atiljijyj;; '■ tw^- ..hi;h i- . , .• hclltw) that is spaoo, ^okaja)" . A.i eia^ '.; 

cjajo, ai.^;:c■. i^unyam, vuiVj Vo -jreat ■ n expulsion cf . ' 

..--^. ll"* : -.. . ".-"."-:, -^'' ■ ••- •'■-' ■•" nkg«ja. ,..i£v;c,u:' 

" .'?n a:. . ' . 

'•-'■•. -artai.i... 
This ocn^epticr. ' 



177 



o: lu 



-•r! it Id sa5.d t];r.t tl.r- ioity, thn scul, .• ;t,, dv/n''lg ii. 

..^-...^.j 1: ...ust to un'--':-'-' " ' -^ : .''•-^''r.- ' : ' " . ' 

ij.ur tl.o most smrol part cf fci;n Tjody. 

T;. ..eartci -ra is a rod lui-p, •vhi'ih ir ti.- fccc! c£ ILo 

tv;c torsor."? v/h& livn in thn oye>s, v/hilo th^'' notv.xri. ir. tho hoart is thoir 
jovorir-i^. tD^l». 4.2.3) This network is proT^ably tho ohorift© t'lnlinoae of 
the. vpntriolfs. The rod luiiv laay '^0 v/all betv.-oon thr, vontri:3lOE-, tut woro 
;_..._^ 1-. ...cr olct of tiaod found ir. LliO hsart After death. liait. 7,11.C 
repeats '.hie verse in of'o^t, thit the unicn ofi tlo two eyefjierscns tRkee 
pla-!o in the her.rt spaTO, nhd that thn >iail of tlfol which is there ie t* ■ 
,.-•,-. „^ 1 ■'■"'. In Cut.lllther.o tV.inrs hayo ^fion ^uiutlod up -jonsid'-ra'bly, 
:■ ! the heart is said to h.av6 1 in it a Ictus like -;avity, in whi:h there 
is a Boa; in the nilst of tTrt: th'^ro is an envelope, P.nl in tils four 
? rt f r •'. - ' . 

Tr the quasi accurate Gartha, the heart is said to v/oi^h 6 palas, 
or 364 rra:;:.«?j .'tg- ^^j^^i. ' ! ?' . .l rr* .£^nfingn , thr.t ie, as the weights aro not 

■:rL.l!., s' '-'.oioz 'betv;f)on 12 ounces f\r' - ; •''. ^'■'■-■^'- '^ 

7':.; ■_■ " " -s G curces in the fei:;alp and ninp in tho 

:."!'?. In th." 6c.'br"0 a i^v'^lr'r^T'.^ rrocisr ~cn? on ir. th'» leart. Th.p hoar'^ 

pleje cf tile is wind. C^ ' "} Tlic pacscae dor , 

.. " ■ . " ' ly ocrr.-^t. 

' .with Iho heart. Tl-.oro are l"! r.ttorioe prc^eodir.^, 

ore, V «x' ^ e 1 -^ Tv- +T .• rfi 3"P 



W - . ' . . ' J . 



178 
Heart --hijd 

branshes, and in oaoli of theoo 72,000 trlbutarioo. Mait. rather adhoroo to 
Oh. though with corruptions, for its say a that 101 artorioa riao up from the 
hoart, and nurieroua others go downward. One of the arteriae apringini fro;n 
the heart — t>io •liiof ono--G003 as far as to the eyes. (Mait. 7.11) ?>h. 
8.6.? has already mnotioned inoro loosely that the arteries prooood froni the 
hoart, while Kauj. 4.19 infonas us that one sleeps in tliose heart artories. 
A late Upanifad, oorruptinr; Pra^na, says that ten artorios prooo-,d froM eadi 
of t}ie ton :;lefts of the };eart; fro:n eaoh of these spring 72 branoliea, ea^h 
cf whioh is subdivided 10 "^0 tiines . (Sub. 4) Still another late Upani^ad 
says that the artery SaraavatI extends to t^ie hoart frcri the neck. (Yo. Xu. 
x26) 

The heart is tho soat of the uind . (Brh. 3.9.25, Madh) ]Janas oarao 
fro:i and again returned to ths heart of th--- first jiian. (Ait. 1.4, 2.4) 
The heart is of course the ibodo of all intelligonso. By it one oognizas 
the deity. (Ka^ha. 6.9; 'Jvot. 3.13; 4.17,20; ?-Iahan. 11) One knova with the 
heart. (Italian. 3.18) rphe puru^a.^ is identified with knowlolgo and dwells in 
the heart. (Brh. 4.3.7) It is uho sits of all knowledge. (Brh. 2.4.11; 
4.b.l2) Thi heart is tho support Cprati^tiha) and vehicle, (ayatana) of all 
things, for all things rest in it. (Brh. 4.1.7.'{ahan. 13.2; cf. -grahajia 4) 
1h. 7.2.1 and 7.7.1 look upon the heart as the soone of mental activities. 
The nind muct be restrained in the lieart until it comes to an end, that iy 
to r.nowlelgo or liberty. (Mait. C.34.0) Matur-.lly, tho senses dv/ell in the 
heart along with manaa, and they all :mint be restrained in ordei^o obtain 
Brahiia. (^vet. 2.8) Rupas— the tenn may be ta-Jinically considered equivalent 
to colored extonsion, are locate I in the hoart, and the heart re:;ocnize3 them. 
(Brh. 3.9.20) Faith, truth, and speech are locatrtd in tho heart. (Eifli. 8 
3.9.21-24; XCahan. 25) TJdi refers tothe fact that nature is viewed subject- 
ively, and hourt is i.ero e:iuivalent to our word nind. Uanao, costionly trans- 
lated nind, has with tl^e philosophers a raoro linited function, aanely, the 



1 , 'J 
Heart --h^d 

1 reduction of tlifiieht. All thince, lokas, uro locatod in the heart. (Pyh. 3.9.11, 

l-i,!,--,,!?) 

Tho l.oart is tho scat of all deB:res. (Brh. 4.4.7; i.a^]:a. 6.14) It is thn 
site of all £fief8. (Erh. A.3.2P.; of. Tadeva 6; R. V. 10. in. 6) It has granthis, 
cr kncts, whi-,h entr.r.rln it -rith thn thircn of this life, (hn^'n. f..5; of. r^xxr^^. 
2.1.1C; 2.2.8; 3.2.S; j3]i. 7.26.2) 

The tostiKcny of tho later Upani^adc is similar, though in some rospeots 

r.i.t sr full. Thr. 1 flnrt. is ccmp.-'-rn ? tr rxl.rv.r.fi "n v/hi-;h all t}icurl:ts oni tho like 

dwell, ilrlp. l.lj It is t).o seat of the i.and. U-Suri. 3; Bra}:Taav. A,t>; Tripura 

L.4,5) It has jjooaras or i.ercepts in waio fulness. (Triq. 148) It is identified 

wit} oaitanya. (FraJaia 2). Thruj^yt is produced in an empty lfir,rt. (Arxa. -l-SC' 

Concentration is to bo carried on ii it. (Varali. 5.32) A witness of all thir.^G is 

present in it. (Panoah. 36) Ab for its griefs, the scrrcwc of the heart may te 

rfinoved '■-;■ ; rc^er religious practices. (Can. ^.9; ""].+.-i . r ,\?r Ttn vasaims cr ii-- 

a^inations fluctuate, ("ulcti 2.40) It na;- bo trcvbled. ^Gcpiilup. ) Tliore are padas 

or degrees in it. (Paiju) It contains desiros. (tjat. 25; cf. Anna. 3.21) Hope enters 

n. (Varadot. f Ahanknara cr occisr. is located i' n, (^arir.) ramadhi , tho ox- 

~.ro::,e contou-plative fom of vforship, is carried on in it. (Saras, 2.25,1!.,) Its 

t:ranthiB are broken '"hen loubts arp removed, or in the aase of the jivannukta. 

vCaras. 2.3?; Anna. 4.31} Lovo -"-; --t-r U. (^rij. P.S) Its granthis, aavd kabas 

desires, are also rientioned in Trip. M. 2.1. These granthis ar^ strong, and proceed 

froi! ifjicrftr.ce. (Anna. 4.84; Adhya.17) The heart has a knowledEG-space, vijnana- 

(rr-.-.. a.Z) 
Ka.:ja,ai.d .hat '.t grasps is given up in release. (,'.-ukti.2.2C) It ... - . '^ ''..or a 

-;.3 v.'iB0 inquire, (ll^sp. 1.1) and reflection and tapaa are carried on ii. it. C^^Jo.l 

..ansa.6;Kund.21) Vira\ ie conceived by tlio heart. (Trip. ti. 2.4) 

At the ti:.o cf sleop tho griefs of the heart are quen-' ^^ r^ - - ro ' r, rri ng to 

the i^ntal inactivity cf r . tine. (T'^h.4.3.22) Juet before ,Ie:J.ii tho soul 

tai.es the senses, praijas, aiid retires to the tip of the heart, which tlieii be- 

:o:.-.es iliurfiined. (rrh.4.4.1,2} "' " ■"-■-• ' >• f 



180 
Heart --h^d 

the sonaon naturally rosu'ts from tho iden that thoy are ontlti«8 with 

a aeparato 6xisten:;o, but the illiminfxtlon of tlio honrt ie noro apejulatlvo. 

A variation frou t':.<i odiinary toncihini: in regarl to the time of 

a, 
dep olec'p is found in Brahjna 3, Bifhaj . 5.boc. , whero tlie bouI is said to 

retire to tho heart in the tijno of eu^upti. Tiio older Upanigads send it to 

the artorioB then. Parab. tells ub that the heart is tho abode of tho acul 

in svapna-dream sleep. 

The heart is thf* especial abidinr; plafie rf the atraan.(Ch. 3.]tx 14./!, 4 

8.3.3; B^h. 4.3.7; Prajna 3. 6; '.{un4. 2.2.7; Mait. C.6, 6.30, 7,7) Tho heart 

5.3.1 
is Braliaa, the site of all beincs. (Bijh. 4.1.7J it is tho~atraan. (Ait. 2.3) 

It is the vehi:lfi — ayatna, of tho atman. (B^h. 4.1.7) It is tlia hip;he8t 

Brah:aa, sj\\ tha heart does not dosert ono who worships Bralina witW the 

true Knowledge. (Bijh. 4.1St^.7) Tho heart is tho abiding plaoo of jirahaa, 

(Mait. ^.17) The gold colored bird, the haajaa, that it, the atmon, dwells 

in t'ne lier.rt. (Mait. 6.34) The puru^a or antaratinan always dwolls in tho 

heart of sreatures. (Katha. 5.17; ^vot. 3.13, 4.17; Brh. 4.3.7; 5.6.1) In 

tho last passa£;e this puniga is idontified with the taind, and is said Co be 

tho sizr, of a grain of rioo or barley. In a later Upahisad the deity in the 

heart is said to be the size of a hair, (rjiras. 6|Om abides in the heart. 

(Mait. 7.11) * The spirit in the heart is said to be honey. (Brh. 2.5.10) 
a 

Middle a:.d lato Upanigads oxprocs t>ic> sa:io things, with their usual 

variations. Tho heart is the abiding pla^e of Brahjna. (Kiyon. 12) Narayajn 

dwolls in tho heart. (Pain; . ) The deity is tho light in the heart . {Jr^q) 

Light and all tho deitieis are in t'no heart. (Braham- ' 2) Tho deities are 

always in the heart. (Tripura 4? Cirlri; ^ara. 19; Akga; Jan4. 3) Under 
tho narao of Tripura. (Tripura. 1.3) 

A few anatomioal reforen^es from tho later, -jhiefly Yoga Upani^ais 

inay be inontioned here. „,he heart is in the midst of tl.o annanaya pinij^ or 

food . ortion of the '^ody, wit;. it« artorios, lii^o a lotus flower. (Trij.7) 

Its sakra is tl.o naijipuraka oakra, (Sauhh. 3) Tho onahata aakra is in it. 



181 
Heart--hi:a 
(Yo. Ku. 3.11) Prmja is in the heart, or it is tlio loo.'ility of priqn. 
(Yo. Ou. 23; (Jrij. S..?''; Tri'^. 78) Evon in quadrupeds, the praijas gather 
to^other in t:.fl honrt. (Tri'j.- 6b) The heart is corrolttted with firo in th^e 
relation of tho bo.ly to the elements, ('/rlj. B.4) In the heart of einlraala 
thero is a flame of firo. (yancj-i-i) 

Th.i fir in thf» hiunan heart mal:et3 a sound. (Mait. 7.11.b) Tho body 
fire, whi3h carries on digestion, is half raocnshaped in the heart, and 
likoned to the dakjina fire. (:,{ahan. 13.2) This fire is also roffirroi to m 
Pranas. 2) . - .^c —7 - i-^ '^ ^^ U^ C^^ ^---^ > 

yigurative. As a sacrifice, the heart is connected with the Garhapatya 

• - Garblin 5 

fire. (Ch. 5.13.2) Later, it is said to have the dfiikgiqn aj-ni in it. (M|jj|xx 
kAxi^ It is tho sacrificial post in tho sacrifi-ie. (Mahan. 54.1) The wise 
look upon it as the divine chariot. (Painc«) The u of cm is to be oonsidored 
as Vianu in the heart. (Ursut. 3) The sacred om enters the door of the 
heart. (Arnrta. 26) Tlio euiusv^ra of "om is in the hesirt. (Praijava l)^It is 
ono of the parte of the body where the fourfooted Erakna appears. ». Rudra 
attends on it and Prajapti is in it.(^iras 6; 2xx Xaug. 2.10) The gods inquire 
fro.\: the deity about tho liDart. (Tripura 4) 

Religious. Kero, as usual, the chief mentions of the heart in the 
religious or ritualistic sphere aro from the later Upanigads, but as it is 
an inner organ, in spite of its groat i^nportance, it is not moro prominent 
religiously than some of tho other partojof the body. "Thou art born from tho 
heart" is a mantra, or part of a mantra, to be used at tho t Jne of coition . 
(Brh. 6.4.9; Kaug. 2.11) At this tine tho heart— evidently the body outside 
the heart — is to be rubbed, and Prajapati, who dwells in the heart, is 
woralupped that the child to be born may outlive the raotlier. In another 
charm tho li.art is said to dwell in thejnoon. (Kaug. 2.8) 



182 
Koart — hi;d 

Yoga iioaa boi^ln in yvot. The yocin riuol turn his nind towards hia 
heart, (yvet. 2.8) He rofoloota on tlio liansa in tho oicht parted heart, 
aytadala. (HaAsa 6) Th- heaitmust be hold ricid.CKfuri. 4) The sannyasin 
enters into his heart, vhero t)iore is no sorrow, ho fixes hin heart in 
tapas. (SaJi. 2.'i; 4b. 4) Manas ic to bo stopped in tho heart in yoga, until 
it becomes naught. (Kguri 3; Brahnav. 4,5) It must be kept slean, so that 
one way say "I on that". (Paing.) The sannyasin shoull offer praise in his 
own heart. (Maitroji Z.^.6) Tho lieart is to fastened on tho highest God in 
Yoga, the deity is to be fashioned in tho heart. (Yogaj. 3) 

So witl. tho later, raoro fantasti-j Upani^ads. One should think on 

Hari in the heart. (Vasu. ) Ho should fill his heart with only one thing. 

(Erhaj. 4. end.) Asietisisin is produced in tho heart. (9^13. 6.4'"^ In 

worship concentration is to be carried on in tho heart. (VarSi. 5.30; Rabara}i* 

Yo. •:;u. 97 
2.11; 2.43; Advay.)Thi8 concentration gives one knowledge of svarloka, 

/\ 
((Jand. 1.8) while cor.centration in tlie upper part gives ono knowledge of 

8 
maharloka , {yan4. 1.5ferit)Tho heart should be comentrated en a single sppt 

of tlie Bf.y. Cjand. 1.7.35) Offering ii to be made with the: . -^ heart. (Varaiot. 

5) That of the Yogin is to be empty— that is, of earthly matters. (Saubh. 

2.5) Tho iieart is to bo fixed in Yoga. (Mandal. 2) Ono should roiiiiVi stoaiy 

in it. (Anna. 4.91) He should not rejoice or sorrov? in it. (Anna. 5.7) It is 

It is ono of tho six chief parts of the body in worship. (Ra::iar. 2.11 
one f the 18 vital spots in Yoga. (Tri'j. 130; gancj. 1.9)^The hydaya^jali 

should be luade in tho henrt-placo, preparatory to Yoga. (Tri}. 144) 

That is, tho hands should bo folded over the heart. The echo of thejppanava 

Bhould bo in it.(Parab. bog.) It contains a light in Yoga. (Trip. 1.1) 

As to breathings, air is oausol to enter the heart. (Yo, Ku. 1.68; 

■Jrij. 5.4r; gSnd. 1.7.14; ) The brealh is to bo stopped in it. (Yo. Ku. 2.45' 

In me rosture, tho left tana is to bo|»ut ovr>r t; e l.onrt. (Yo. Ku. 1.-18} In 

another postur-o, the chin ic place 1 cvor i. (7Si}4« l.'''-43) The heart 

mantra il, aentioned. (Rainarah. 3. beg. J Raraap. 60) Various mystic syllablos 



183 
Henrt — hrd 

aro address^'d to ll.o heart in worehip. Wajnae (Rohne. 1; VuiMlap. 2.1) drum, 

ora, dattntreya. (Datta. 1) Tho (^rfauktn is eiaployod on it. (Saubh. beg.) 

Montrns am spokon of as in the lie.nrt. (Rjunarah. 2.63,68, ICb) Bwaa is lord 

of tlio j.eart; his foot is on tho heart of t.io worshiipor. (Ruinara]i. 2.54,83) 

The oidarabura. pilcL-nane plaTe is sail to be in the he^rt. Cjrlj. 'l.-tgit) 

The heart exerciBo, or hydayany^sa, oonslsts in tbo utterinc of oertain 

mantras. (Rahas. 2) Tho heart of the doa.i man is reproduced with tho sixth 

Fin4a of the ten offered. (Pinda 6) 

The tilaka or tripuncjra is also oonneoted with the heart. That is the 
tilaka is to be flaced over thn heart. This is enjoined in Brhaj . 4.14,18, 
25-27) T^'is is siu^ to be for agni. (Brhaj. 4. ^b) It is put hero by Erahinans 
and Kfatriyas. (Lxhaj. 5.2) Tho gopioanda tilaka is worn over the heart by 
Brahraaoaris, Grhasthas, Yatis, and Brahraas. (Vasu.) Ashes are also sprinlle I 
over the heart to the ao-joiopaninient of mantras. (Birhaj. 4.3ji Bhasi;ia. 1) In 
ono place, in the worsliip of water, water is applied to the heart with the 
left hand. (Pranag. 2) 

Deities Ac,. The heart of Brahma is tho univetrse. (MuntJ. 2.1.4) Vi^iju 

is said to bn the heart of tho deity. (Malian. 31;) This would seem to arise 

froia a combined pemtheisLic and polytheistic conception — that all things go 

to make up the great deity, but that Vi§nu is tho chief of all tho gods and 

of the universe. Later Upanigads mention tho hearts of individual gods. 

Prajapati, (Mait. 2.6) liari, (Brhaj. 6.7) and Rudra, in whose heart aro all 

the deities, praija, and thou; , tvam. (giras. 3) hn Sub. 13 hijdaya is used to 

element \ 

express t)ie xanmK with whi:;h a sense is supposed to be connected, as the 

heatt of all smells is earth, licjThe deties perceive and praise in ;.f neart 

(Varadot. 4) while Kr^na wears a jewel over his heart. (Gopalot. 16) 

Cosraical. Tho heart of the priioal man split, nianas ocuno forth frou it, 

and froii manas tho moon, they afterwaMs returned in inverse ordor. (Ait. 

1.4; 2.4) The heart of tho cosraical bird is Janaloka. (liada. 4) Tho universo,^^^^^^^^^ 

aarvam idain, was bom from the heart of Prajapati. (Sub. 1) "^ cu**^ «_^ 



• i 



184 
Heart Spnoe--h^dpi|ia aka^ja 

The enpty spnrio in tlio hoart, doubtlesB the loft vonLrioal cl^nipbor, 
has already been montionol abovo, undor the disousRion of tliO word iUca^a. 
It in the sM^^roJ aund eoaenti.il pnrt of tho leart, Ihoreforo of nan lilnaolf, 
an.l in it tho doity dwells an.l tho mental aoti'.nn predicated of the heart 
ocfjur. There aro sovoral words use I lo define tids spa:;e, in each of which 
tho word oka^a er.tors as an olei.ent. Tlioso words, whi-jh will all be grouped 
hero, arc cuitarokaja, antarhrdayak^ja, h^fdakaja, lirdayok^a, antirhifdaya 
ak^ja. Roferonooo to this heart spa^o are, wit]i few exceptions, confine! to 
thr> older UianiguJs. Tho concept reiiained, perhaps in altored form, in later 
tiwes, but the word used a different one, as ^uha or dahara, or eH ^ tho 
heart lotua has absorbed the functions of tie heart space. 

In Oh. 8.1.1 this space is in tho lotus chamber of tho body, and 

contains what one should sen^ after and know. Further, the space within the 

heart is tho sa; o as the space without, tho heart, and (in a sense) equal 

to it, for wi hin it dwell heaven anid onrth, firo, and wind, sUh ani moon, 

lightning and stars, what one possesses • elov? and what he does not possess 

below, (^li. 8.1.3) This spacer is identified with Bratoa, (1h. 3.12.8,9) 

2.b.lO and 
as it is in Brh. 4.2.3. In Eyh. 4.4.22 it is said that tho vijnananaya 

puxniqa, tho intellectual self, dwells in tlio heart. space. In deep sleo; this 

intelligent person seized tlie senses and carries theii to tho heart spajo, 

wliere they dvoll. (Brh, 2.1.17) It is tlie place whoro Indra and Vira^ me»^, 

tho two poreons who dv/ell in the eyes. (Brh. 4.2.3) Another old Upani^ad 

connects it with intelligonco, by saying that tho inanoraaya puruqa dwells in 

it. (Tai.. 1.6.1) 

Tho troaiient of this heart chamber in liait, tends to go off into tho 

fanciful or poetic style, thougJi it bogins in a moro mntorialistic way. 

A 80\md is produced in this hoart space wliich one may hear by ntopping his 

ears with his tliutibs. This sound may be compared to eovon noisoo. (1) Rivcre 

(2) a bell, (3) a brazen vessel, (4) tho wheels of a chariot, (5) the orook- 



185 
1 Heart Spao«--hifdaya aka^a 

inc of frons, {') rnin, (7) n I'^an spoaking in a oavom. (Malt. 6.22) This 

space io tho seat of tho body's hfiat and light, whioh corao from Brahir.a. 

(6.27) B)' noans of om as a boat, the yogin paaoos to the otlier side of the 

apa^o ill t,)irt heart, ani ati-ans to Brnhj-a. (6.28) The supreme light is in 

this spa^o. (7.11) 

Going on later, the intell^ot, intelligent as tho sun, dv/ells and 
always shines in tho heart. (Mait^oyi 2.14) T}i.-> atinan sleeps in the heart 
spaoo. (Sub. 4) He wlio knows Indra in this space beoones Indra. (B^g ) 
Prajna or intelligonoe, dwells in tho space in the heart. (GaucJ. 1.2) The 
thourhts are in tliis space. (Anna. A. 59) A great liglit trenbles in it 
in th6 tiiae of Yoga, (Trij. 63} ani this flame has the forai of knowledge. 
(7an4. 1.4) 

guha 

Guha is udod for the space in the heart as far back as the^Tait. Up. 
Itkn true that tho guha is not specifically described thus, but its use is 
identical with that of the heart spaco, and thero is no doubt bat that it is 
the saino thing. Lluch is suggested by tl.e moaning of the word — tho secret 
:la:o. Its chief use is that is the abode of Breihma, or of the intellect, 
Bi..iaa dwells in t e guha. (Tait. 2.1.1; Mund. 3.1.7) Tho deity dwells in the 
gtilia of all crr-aturos. (Ka'^lia. 2.Z0; (Jvet. 3.11) Pumisa is placed in the 
guha of tho boing, jantu. (Mund. 2.1,8,10; ^vot. 3.20) In this refDronoe 
frc!, Mund. tho senses also aro 4aii to reside in the guha . The great prin- 
ciple, ;..ahat, moves in it. (JJuiid. 2.2.1) The atman entora into it. (.'Jait. 2/5) 
Two beings, shade and liglit, dwell ir. the guha. (Ka^ha. 3.1) Tho first bom 
of Brahnsa and Aditya, ont'-r and abide thoro. (Katha. A.<^) 

The middle and late Upani^ads re. eat that tho deity is in tho guha 
(MahiSn. 11,1,3J Pranag. 1; Kaiv. 23; Devi 9; Tripura 8J Narad. 9,13; gara.18) 
li'arayfina dv/--)llB i;. tho gu)ia. (Sub. 7,8) Tho ponitant f-ntr what rfiines in 
tho guiia. (Xaiv. 3) That is, tho deity. Tho atman is in it. (Ad)iya. bog.) 



IfiC 
'•art Spaio: - -guha 

Sono think that tho aoul rnii lea in it (budd(lliigu)m) . (Man4al. 1.4) Tho 

f urfold udgTtha is in it. (M-it. P. 4) Tho aaootiT wiahos to rotiro to ).i8 

Cuha. (San. 2.9) jro has only one Dioucht in his guha. (llirvSna) The guha has 

u light in it. (Adhay.; 'Ja^ -1) 

oufi. 

ru^i is a peculiar word, moaning primarily the hollow of a reod, whioh 

is found in soma of the older Upanigads. In Oh. 3.13rl-5 five suqIb or sav- 

ities aro recogniaed in the heart, aorrespondirig. to the five vital airs and 

fivo dieeetions. The anterior or eastern one bi ..ongs to praqa, sight, and 

BOiaa; tiho right hand or soutliom one pertains to vyana, hearing, an! the monn. 

The back or western one is that of apana, spoeoh, and fire, the left hand or 

northern one belongs to samana, manas, and parjanya. The upper one is that of 

udana , air and spaoe. They aro the five iion of BrbJuia, and the doorkeepers 

of hoaven. Max Mueller translates the word here by "gates" euid Deussen by 

"openings", tho la- tr.r identifying then with the devayanas, or paths to the 

gods, whiih soems doubtful. As this is a passage fron one of the earliest 

Upanisads, when th-ire was relatively a good knowledge of the interior of the 

body, it is not improbable that theso fan:;ies aro based on a real knowledge 

cf tho heart 3ha:::bers, though an extra one has beon added to acoomnodate the 

fifth air and tho fifth sense. In Mait. 7.11.2 a single suqi is recognized, 

in whi:;}i the union of tho eye persons, Indra and Virat tai.es place, t!.as 

identifying it with the ordinarily recognized heart space. The word dees 

not appoar later. 

All 

dahara 

Dahara is a vague and indefinite ten.., wliiil. so-^! o to nean prinarily 

L-.inute or fine. It occurs once in Oh. and several times in lat-i Upanigads. 

It is r.entioned in ccnnecticn with the heart lotus in Oh. 8.1.1 and Kguri. 

Yo Ku. 3.31 
10. It is also i.entioBod in Cub. 4,11. The Sti;ian is in it. (jUxRjcx) 

It is aka/ja. (Ptmcab. 35) It is the Erahj.zipura, and is to be entered by tho 



187 
heart Srn-'J© — daliara 
yogin. (FtiiTTnt. 34) Tho outside npa-je in In ho fixed in the itka dolmra 
spaoo iii Yot,a. ((5an4« l.K^) jt is eeon by tliO eyo and mind ocinbined. (AJvay) 

VecjIlATV 

Ve(5mnn io onoo ider.tifiou w4t)i tlie daliara, the* lotus. (C . 6.1.1) 

Iloart Lotus 
Feforenoe hcs already tocn made to tho froquent ccr.ipariscri of t}.o hoatt 

to a lotus, jrobafcly arising from the cenoral rosor/.tlanoo of t lio heart ard 
lungs to a halfopened lotus, This corr;pari8cn, as has been noted, is ari early 
or.o. The idea look Btronc }.old of the later Upani§ad writers, and tho lotus 
boGoi..OD a porraanent and important fixture in the heart. Functionally , its use 
is rot different from that of tho heart or the heart space, with which it 
seoi-.s to bo confused in later tin-.es, supjlr-ntint; the idea of a vacant space 
ij: the )ieart. Thus, ir; tho heart lotus all things are established. ( Att:5bodl'ia) 
Tho ati:ian is free froi. heart knot? or ontangleinemtns vhen it retuma to the 
Ictus. (;:aitroyi. 2.26) Tho asTetic reflects or. the heart lotus. (Kuiv. 5) 

lalian. 13.3 liker.s ilx^ etJ ^aH the heart to an inverted lotus. £o Erai.ait 4 

: 01 pares it to a hollow, inverted lotus. F,ub. 11 )ia^8oniothing along the saiie 

line. IRo shall now take up scce rf the word for this lotus, which contains 
12 spol.es. (Yo. '^u. 5) 

h^tpun^arlka ^ h^dayapuiicjarlka 

hjftpundarika, tho heart lotus, in ;.!iit.l.4.8, may mean either tlio heart 
or the space within tho heart, as it is sail thAt raraj!.e9vara dwells in it. 
In Vasu.thiR word applies to the heart itself, as tho tilaka is to be worn 
over it. In Laiv. 5 the :.:eaning is vaguo. Reflection on the heart lotus, hero 
enjoined, might mean reflecting on Brnlima, who is in the the heart, but more 
probably, the meaning is identical with, the cci.Jnands already menticnod, to 
rellect on the heart or its sface. Devi io in this heart lotus, (Xaix Dovi 15), 
ac is oaitanya, or intr.llen. (Tricj. l^S^^he Pnrai.atnian appears in its lobe. 
(Trip. U= 2?1) 



188 
Heart LotuR--purj(}arrkQ 
Puij4^rTkti ic usod for Li.ib lotuc, '.vhi^;. in oald to bo i: 'J. brol.rnafurQ, 
another najne for the heart. (Par'cjab. 3b) A^ain, tho pvuj^arTka is tho higlior 
stato. (]I~rad. 4). 

hi^padnia. 
hi^tpadna ic usod a fov.- tildes for -the her.rt lotus. All thini^s aro oetab- 
lic!..-)! Ir. it >•'• intnl'lirrn-ie, r;r, prajna. (AtiniiTrc di.a) . 'p.is way rofor either 

oarL or its cavity. It has eieht potals. (Copalot. lb) EroatJ. is lo bo 
drawn to it in Yoga, (To. Ku. 1.33) ,phe universe was produced froiu that of 
Krsr.a. (>"c;?n.ct. '^e^^) 

hi^dayapafil.nja, h^dayapun4ra, }i^iui}4ra, 
These three words appt-ar in Vasu., whicl. enjoins tho wearing of the 
tileika cvor this placo. Ono '^Vml;! see the doity ir. the hijdayapaiikaja. 
(Tri^. 158) 

h^^puqkara 
Hrtjugknra is found only in Mait. 6.1. It is i .!r.r.t -.f i ^ 1 7rlth space, that 
is, the deity. The golden puru§a of the sun entoro it. In ti.e heart j.otus he 
eats food, is called tirao, and devours all beings as his food. The eight 
leaves c- ^^ " heart lotus are tlie -i;^t directions. 

puqkara 
Pugkara appears onoe for the heart lotus. Jhe heart rewainB in it. 
^ Bral^reab . 5 ) 

ii^dayakarnala. 
Hi;dayakaii.ala is one of tho parte ever which the tilaka is to to worn. 
(Vasu.) the imago of Eha£;avat is to bo formed in it. (Man(}. 2.4') Cm shculd 
refloat on Bralma in it at th»^ tino of death. (Trip. M. 2.1) Trifura, or 
Dur^a, is in its Icto. (Tripura 1.3) 

h^dyar.ibl.oja 
The yo^ns should Kutter (Jap) ir. ti -• h^dayambhoja. (Varadot. 6) 



189 
Heart LotuB-- hijdnyMibhorxi).a 

ijihe hifdayanbhomha is tc bf. jcr.tracted in Yoca. (Tricj. 99) ino ur.cuia 
roflo3t en tho soul dwelling in it. (Triq. 1^2) 

hi^BfirtriU a 

Prayaga tirtha, Allal;atuu, ic i: LliG heart lotU8--h^tBaroruha. (HrTj. 
4.49) 

aq^ailola 

^he- likenosr. cf tl.o heart to a lotus is carried out to exravocnat 

de*v.aii in tlie ilansa.The oi^ht leaves of tlio Ictus — ag'^adiila — are eail; 

utilized to explain l:cv/ different feelings exist in the heart at different 

times. Cno ciight tr^' to to coKpare the eight parts assuried to thejtiif f erent 

lobes and soctions cf tlid lungs and heart. But the truth probably is tliat the 

writer has never seen heart of either luan or animal, aid having become . 

ajquainted witli the htartlctus i); FOiro way, undertook to find a use for oaoh 

of itF several parts, fflien the hansa or soul is in the e'storn leaf cf tho 

it id 
lotus, the thoughts of the heart are en rodd worKs; when tkH;jcxxxH in the 

S.iX. cno if: ovfirocrio by sleep; jr. the E. he has harsh thoughts; in the 

E. v.". he lias evil thoughts; ir. the West he wants tc play; in the II. V;. he 

desires to move around; ir the notth he desires to sport twith women; in 

the li. F. or.f) t);ir.is rn the taking d property. Then tho soul is in tho midst 

cf the heart lotus, ho is in the state of vairagyam or asToticisD, when it 

is in the filamonts cf the lotus, or keqara, one is wakeful, when in the 

pericarp, he dreai.ns, and when in tho seed capsule, ho is ir^eop 

sleep. Thece directions aro no doubt to be understood as tlie east pran:;a, 

meaning fu-.torior, south i aaning right and so on. It is prot)ably useless to 

try to find out whetlior tliese several parts mean anytldng. Tho ii'iprecsion 

is left en one that t)iri writer pi:;turod tl.e heart as Just like a lotus 

f lo"-or. 



190 
Heart-- bralwapura 

The word traJimapura arj.oaro n fow tiioa ue a naino for tlio heart. 
ItB use is rntl.or poetis, and the word is sometinjOB translated Vody. lioart, 
liGWf.ver Be6i::o to be the beat goneral rondsrir.c for it. It is found chiefly 
in thct elder I'l^anigads. Prnhr.a liver; in it. (f^h. 8.1.1) It oontains a damru 
(3;.. e.11.2) ivor^'thint is contained in it, and the deity is tlio true brhama- 
pura»(Ch. 8.1. '.,5) Tliese paBBr-ees contain Bi;i.ply just wl.at is said eloewhero 
about tlii':> heart, eo tliore can be littlo doubt as to what is :u©ant here. 
A very late Uiardgad ro;eatB the Btatoment that it contains the dahara, that 
one ifjto enter it. (Pancab. ?4) Another eld Upanigad thlls U3 that the 
atnan is ir. the bral-inafura. (Mund. ".2.7} Tlds is repeated by two l.-.ter 

oji68. (EraJjna 1; Xtmabodl.a 1) 

kanjika 

The exact r.ioaninc of karnika is net clear. V;hen jiva, the individual 
Boul is in '.t, it is in asceticisn. (Narad. 6. bej-.) Froiu the context, it 
would seem to be the pericarp of the heart lotus, as this is a pasp.a^r siini- 
Inr to the ag\adala passace in Hansa. Etyuiolocically the wc*d night be taken 
to cean thi". tatoaa * auricles of the heart. 

The Arteries 
na4r 
next to the heart the artorios are the most important of tho inner 
origans, in the Upanigads. -rhe word r.ost cci Jiohlu used is na4r, whi^h is 
connected with nada a reed. It soeqis well to note this hero, tx» as na4r 
scarcely anyjplaci reans artery as wt> understand tho term. It is very ger^al in 
its Ecope, and nay be applied, and is applied, to any tubular crggn of tlie 
Icdy. It seoLS to imlude not only thf- arteries and veins, but also the 
nerven, ind un Ic^i/'satodly the windpipe and bronchial tu^es. It is possible tliat 
BOT'etimes even tlio sinews rcay be inclulod in its Bccpe. !{03t of the hhovo 
ceanincs ar'^ rocr.rT.izei by Indian lexicccrap^-ors, and the word nacjl or na^I 
of today L.oans either artery, vein, or r.orve. 



191 
Artery--n5cjr 

Tht"<tr plajo of cri£intiB the heart, ar, has ulror. ;y boon poirito i cut in 
ooniioction with tluit orcaji, . They are said to nioi't like the Biokos of a 
wheel iji a hub, and hero t}.6 atman movop. around and tocon/es nianifcld. ()Iu7](J. 
2.2.6) There aro twc anoiont systeri.s of enuiiiorating them; later a third 
ooi:ibines tlie two. In the verj' late Ui-ani^ads the iinportanc© of the nacjls 
increases enoncusly, and a nui';her of tlien have specific nai^ee; in tliese 
Upani§tiis v.j,ile the nuir.bor of Thief arteries varies, the total mariorB go 
back to one of the old aysteris. The first system of ©nuir.eration, calls for 
101 arteries, one of which, theCeugvutina) goes to the crown of the head. He 
wl ose Boul dfipnrtB at death through this artery oocuros ininortality . ',01i. 
t. 6. 6.) This passago is practically repeated in Katha. P. 16. Mait. 6.30 
alec reccfjiizes lOl^- rays or arteries- -raomyas is the v/ord used here--leading 
ufwars to Eral.r:ia and the abode cf the other gods, while the manifest rays of 
dark color lead dowmmrd, and by thorn man travels on and on helplessly to 
enjoy the ffuitsbf his actions here. This passage , tlior. , refers tc the use 
of the arteries a.s tiie chani.os by which tlie soyl travels, especiallylat thc- 
time of leaving the body. This earliest function of the arteries , nanely, 
furnial^iing a channel for the ciovenontB of the soul, is rcrjognized throughout 
a-l Upanifad literature, thougli other functions are luentioned dlso. 

The second systeir. of counting the na4aB Bays there are 72,00r; of then. 
Tide firet ocjurs in Brh. 2.1.19. Thoy aro slid to procer.d frci" tho I.eart and 
to spread through the body, though they are confusedly saii in emoti.er passage- 
in the Baino Upani^ad to be within the heart. (Brh. 4.3.2) They are called ^f- 
hita (beiioficial ?) in the firpt of thesf< pasBagos, and this niune is several 
tirres repeated. The eoul rosts in them. There is no clue as to i.ow tJieso num- 
bers were obtained. 

pome cf tho middle Upanifads tiy tc co: bine thew- two flysterris. In Pra'^na 
3.r. we aro told that thnro are 101 arteries which spring froi', tho !«irt, onch 
of tJiOB© is divided into IC.C parts, and oa::h of t}iene into 72,000 brnnchos en 



192 
Arteries — nn^f 

prati jakluT nn4rB, i}ial.in(_: a. totnl of T^7 ,?.10,201, Pul l:;lof Upani^ada, ap-iui- 

©ntly quctinc tliis vejrj' paBsac** havp but cno qatam, so that it ie prcbafcly 

t)iat|t).e pKXXsga text hare is oornipt, and that tho rrrnl nuriber should bo 

101 tL-.as 72,000. Kguri. lt)-17 t}ius nentir.nea t}ifi arteries, tliere beinc 101 

chief oner, each with 72,000 braiiohos, or pratina^Is, w; ilo fub. 4 has 100 

ohief ones, ea.:h with itn 72,000 subdivision^ Tlio 100 instead of tlio 101 ie 

easily aoaounted for, for in this case the suquimia is omitted; it is of eucli 

iiaportanoe as to be a clasn by itself. Pra^na tollB us that in son© of those 

arteries vyana moves, and in others samana. Hero, thon, is another function 

of the arteries, th:e tranopcrtation of the vital airs. Later this beccnoc 

their chief duty. 

In the 72,00'/ schei:G tliese arteries, as already mentioned, receive the 
special n:u:ie of hita. (Trh. 2.1.19; i 4.0.3; 4.?. 20; Kau?. 4.19) :;o special 
reason is given fot this naj;ie, unless it is that when the soul is in thorn it 
is in a happy state. At such a tirce it is at thf* pinnacle of joy. Its stato is 
like that of a young man or a great king, or a grer;.t Braliman, who has reached 
the suianit of happiness and is resting. -LatA.- Up a n iL^ a 4ai ra-ioynti i a ih a 7?,rM0 
BJl.aina, hut, do ngir iiiat.a nwoh <»£ Afei- (Britiirwwr^ii i»'?ij .Yom Cu. 14} Those hita 
artorios or capillaries aro vary minute. They are as fine as the thousandth 
part cf a hair. (Erh. 4.3.20; 4.2.3; Kau§. 4.19; Sub. 4) As it was aanifeatly 
inpossible for the philoporhers to see anything as small 8s this, much less 
measure it, it is evident that this size is nerely a mattrr of spGOulation. 
He doubt tho veins and artnries were traced as far as the eye would perr.iit, 
and tJ.f-n an estirr.tr. naJe of their further subdivision. It is further worthy 
of note tliut this inf oiTiaticnis practically confined to thr- early UPai.iLgiig; 
in fa-!t, it v/ould not seer to be going too fat to say that this statement is 
due to the Brh, , w'.r.no v/riter cr writers, being moot femiliar with the 
sacrifice, would have tJ>e test chance for knowlAdgo along tliis line. 

j^nother ver>' iiipr-rtialit statement, which is found in botli our prijne 



193 
ArtoriftB — nacjT 

BOurooB, io tliat tlieso artoiies contain liquids. Tho hita artoriop aro snid 

to filled with white bluo yellow ^roon and red. (Bifh. 4.3.20; Kau§.4.19, nt. 

CI., e.r.l) Kfuri. 8, no dcubt quoting, gives tho toIotb as f'ne rod, yellow, 

bla:}X, soppcry, purplish, lopimontators havo explained thr.t thf) color cf tlio 

fluid filling the nacjls varies according to Ideii wliich of tlie three doqaa, 

that it), vnta, pitta, an 1 kapha, predominate. Put aa these do^asK are not 

reoogi.i.-ed at all in tho early Upanigads, tliir. is hatfdly the explanation cf 

the colors. This is the opinion cf tho ago of the connentator. Ir. fact, ^h. 

8. C . 1 d< ep suggest a reason, and a verj' different one, for tho different 

colors found in the naijls. It is tlmt the sun lias tlies? different colors, 

and that the rays cf tho sun, starting froj'i the «j ctn»MB sun, enter the 

arteries, and conversely, go froi- the artorien to the eun, like roads betv/een 

two towns. Mif.^.;at.m. Keno e , tho different colors are Ine to different colored 

rays. It is to be noted that Ih. gives great prominence to the worship and 

iiiij.crtaj-.ce ofxho sun, ^d thp connection is natural, as the arteries are the 
I 

paths by which the soul ccLiiiiunicateB with the sun, which is tlie highest 
heavon. 

Rut*neithor of these explanations answers tho question, What did these 
loopjie actually see whi-ih they described as different colored substancec? 
It is probable that they really saw these different colors, or at least noct 
of thou. Vhite would bo tho color of the nerves, and tliero is no reason for 
suiiosing thr.t the nerves were not included in Ihe na4rB; ther^ is evrry 
roasor. to think they wore so included. Fxud^ticn of pus, or perhaps of B\'eat, 
wtuld lorrcboratf. the idea of white fluids in tlio veins. Blue is the color cf 
t}.6 veins when filled, and red that of tJ.e art^ies, and artorial capillaries, 
an! this can be sen in any thin skinned p rscn. Pingilu, which ir.ay rean 
any -dor fror. brown lo yellow, suggests lymph., whilf harit, which r.ny be 
anything from groeiVo yellow, suggests bilo. It must nlso be born in ; inJ 
that these colorf, seen under the skin cf a native of India, have a darker 



194 
Arteries — nnijr 
tin^e than tliey do undnr th".'. of n T^uropoan . Thosfi pnaoareo aro roforred to 
in Sub, where it is ad ied that the arteriso aro filied witHblood, tho 
various oclors also heinc mentioned. 

Aei'the oiraulation cf tho bicod, torother witli its fun-;tlons, was not 
undorstoo.: by tho writers of tho Upanigads, theli arteries;, oontnlnin^; blood 
and other liquids, nasune a metaphysical Bather thcui a physioal importanoe 
in their writinjjs. ii- has been noied above that tlioy aro tho pla^o where the 
atman moves about. (Brh. 2.1.19 &z) . It is espeoially in deep or droaijiless 
sloop that this is true, and the soul then likes best tho fine artories 
or na'ilB. (Kau§. 4.19; 'Jh. 6.6.3) In Sub. 4 tho utman sleeps in tho arteries, 
and in Ersihwa 1 all th.j arteries know praija as deity in deep sleep. 

Befcro leaving tho rolntively saner Upani§ads, ajid tai-in^; up the 
later ones, it is well to note ono ;iore Matter in oonneotion with the arter- 
ies, nru'.ely tho origin of the notion of tho famous artery Bugumna. Going 
ba:!k to ^h. B.r..f,, wo are toll that there 101 arteries, one of wlii',h pene- 
trates to the crown of tho hea.i; tho iT:an who moves upward by this (at death) 
se-juros immortality. But by tho other arteries he departs in all direoticns. 
Ti-.is verse is repeated in Katha, '^,1'i, and with somo variations, in Mait. 
6.30. Erh. 4.2.3 speaks if an artery rising frwo the heart, whi^h is the 
roai for tho persons living in the eyes. Pra-jna 3.6 refers to this artery 
as ono of tho 101, but inplies that thrjsoul always departs by this route, 
saying that the udana through it loads up to -he good world by good works, 
and to the bad worli by bad works, an 1 to tho world of nen by both kinds. 
Tho nai'-.e su^urina is not used until H.-iit. 6.21. The artery goes upward, 
servinf, as a passage fcr praija, and is divided at tho palate . This last 
statenont, unie«o dealing with something imaginary, oan hardly refer to 
anythirr- eslo than thn traV/.ea, for the ioc-iriptirn fits it exactly, and 
tho Icoso ;:ieaning of tho worl nadl is ^uito favor.-.blo to the avseitanoo of 
this n:ming. Again, in Mait. 7.11 odours a pasrago, going baok to E^^h. 4.2.3 



195 
ArterieB--na(}r 

Btrengtlier.o tliis idintif i-.ation. Indra an.i his v/ifo aro acain .os^riBod as 
beinc ir. oho oyeo, and we nro told that"ThorP is a ohannel, goinc frora the 
heart 4o fair, and fixed in the eye; it is the artery for botli of then, boinj; 
one divided in two.? liow if we trace the windpipe up fro: the luncs, it 
divides at the palate for '.ho two nasal air passacos, In tho skeleton these 
aro -ior.neotpd with tho eyoso-Jkots, and tho oonneotinnis thus easily assuiied. 
In view of tlieoe passacos, it seons probable tl.at even in early tiinos tho 
trachea was oounted as the ihiof na4r of the body, and some, leos a- jurate 
than Mait., nust have suprosed tlat it lead into l}io skull, ponotratinc to 
t}.e ai;torior fcntanelle. This later besomos the most £;onerally a-.Topted 
iJea in regard to tho Bu§unna . jts treatment in tho later Upanigads will be 
dis3ussod bolov/. 

The late and vory late Upanigalf nay be roughly divided into two 
classes as "ar as their treatment of the na4T8 is ocncernod. Ono class, tho 
Yoga Upanisads, devolopos highly fantastic systems cf na4rs , whi'jh aro 
in the cain consiiored as air passages, and thoir proper nanipultion assunas 
groat iinportanco in Yoga practices. It, is evident that tlie writers of tl.ese 
Upanisads liave no real kr.owledge whatever of tho interior of tho body, Tho 
other class, in which pt-rhaps a few of the early Ycga Upanisads may be in- 
cluded as -oil as the non-Yoga ones, tond more to follow the earlier writrrB 

In Carbha 3 a na4T connects t}i6 mother ani the embryo, and by r.oBBS 
of it the mother's eating and drirAing nourishes tho onbryc. Ka4rsutra is 
the word uses here, an! no doubt it refers to the unbilical crri. An 
injured artery is :;oi.prir d to tho strxnain avacyade^a, perhaps boviuno of^ts 
bleeding. (Narad. 4.29) 

In the lat© Yoga Upani^adc the arteries aro -ionsiderod tc fcnn a 
iioro or loos indefinite rase, CjrTj. 4.nr„Ji or kanda, (Vural.. b.2V v;>i -r is 
two fiivers above tiie in©(}hra, and fcnis a circle like a twelve sioked wl.ool. 



19 6 
Artery — n54r 
(Varali. b,22' Tlio Yonins knoT: thic iir-!le--tluit ic, l..u rnov/lodc"' of L. . 
is a ).ol]r in their practiies. (Yo. CJu. 18) They nre arrancoJ in order. 
(Yo. Ou. 20) an', -"onst-^tuto a network wlii-ih is Tloansed in Yot:a, (Yo, Ou. 
6b) Thoy arc sujioiini by ;.curiffii'-'nt. (Varah. 5.b3) They are jonposed of 

eartl-., frou aiuonc the five elamonts. (^^rfr.) They nro wovsji ocether like 
a many jolored oloth, in tho center of whioh Is tho navl ^ir^l^. (Varali. 5,. ^726) 
In thdso Upanigads the -jharaotericti'. function of the artorios is 

to sorvo fis air ilifinnols for the body; in fait, in moet of them, the arteries 

are air passages pure and simple. See Varali. 5.51,53; r;an4. ^•'^» l«'7.1,'1'3,41_,-'f [,* 

4.::4 
Yo. lu. 14; Trij. beg. 98, 126; fjrij. 5.1; and numerous other pnseaces in 

'cnno:;ti-n with Yoga breathincB. In '^jujd. 1.4, they aro used by samana to 

oarry iinurishrront to all tho body. They may have obstructions. (V^axi. 5.4fi,44) 

They may be affected by dropsy. (Yo. Ku. 1.29) They aro subject to iinpurites 

v/hi-;h are tho oauso cf disease, ani proper breatliing and Yoca pra-Jtirses 



restore one's health. {ZimA. 1.7.14; Yo. C!u. 94; grij . 5,1; Yo. ^u. 98,99; 
'Jan4. 3.12; ) Living beinps aro said to toan inkhe artorien, that ir their 



3 
vital fuivjticns operate in the.Ti, (Yo. Ou. 26) and in a dreai:: the intellect 



moves in the fine arteries. (Varah. 2.G1) Ooncentration nay be carried en 

in thoiu, (-Jand. 1.6) It rervades suguptt. (Parab.) ^^^^'^^ j 

The aAerial systeu of tho late Yoea Upnni§ads contains rr idn^sisnces 
of tho early system of 72,0f"0, but is in the main a nefw developoinrnt, an 
enlargenent on tho old sugurana idea already described. This seems to begin 
wit;, ihe 145 ani pingala idea, founi in x^a Kguri, twc arteries which guard 
sugunna on the left and right respectively. This notion may in turn have 
arisen froii the dividinr of the great artery sugunna, already referred to. 
There is one Upanigad -.vr.ic:. has ai. arterial system in whicl> these arteries 
do not appear, and bot) the numbers and functions aro different from tho 
ordinary i^hor.os. Thi? 's Sub. 11. "In tho .eart there is a lump of flesh 
and blood, ir. whiTl. there in the diversely otpandod lotus-like -javity. 
In this there is the sea, and in this on envelope, in whiih tliere aro four 



Artdrleo--na4r 
k«>xt 

VfiiiD, raniii, arSia, ioohS, ;uii s^mui aj unarbijava. i won intoiiiromo (vijnona) 

£oos by rSaa by lueans of good works, it attains tho merit world, (puijyaloka) 

whon it coos ty arSina throurh sin, it nttninr to sin; wl.en it ccos by ioaha 

ono attaino .vLa. t.e thini.B about; when It ccos by apunarbhiiva it splits 

tho envolopo, tho skull, tho five elements, &.a , cic , and attains to nirvana." 

The cjoinricn sj'stnms ro30gni»e 10 ohief velnp, (Yo, 1u, 15,16; Tri^. ia$.) 

or 12, (Trij. beg. ) or 14. ('Jrij. 4; Varah. 5.33-27; Can4. 1.4; Fhav.) itaafc 

In addition to these tl.ere- aro 72,000 bran3h or fino arteries. ( Yo. lu. 14; 

'yrij. 4; ija^d. 1.4) By tho union of theso many veins wit)= the 14 chief ones, 

/^ 
t};e bo djr. veined lii^e a banyan leaf — an idea v.orthy of ono of the older 

Upanigads. ("Jand. 1.4) The 14 ihief ones ariso in t]ie kun4alini, (see below) 

("J^nd. 1.4) v;hilo tho 72,000 are in one place said to arise from the navel 

ror]ion, tho 3hief of tlior. being those which carry prana. (Yo. lu. 14) The 

kandasanbhavas aro small arteries reaching to the toes. (Triq. 74) 

As a typiial doEcription of the arterial systori in tho later Ilianigads 

tl:e followinc nay be given. "In tho .-aiicit of tho kanda is the most fai-.ous 

artery suguiina. , turning upwarl erect like the stalk f f a lotun f lov/er. As 

the flr.sh cf lirlitning is to th-.^ cavern of Erahjna, so is the divine Errdu-.a 

artery the path tc obtaining nirvana. Ida and pingala are on its loft and 

right; ida rises up from tho kanda to the end cf tho left nose Bavity, and 

pingala- risoa frci tlic samo place to tho right nose cavity. Gandhari and 

(i. e. su^ana) 
hastijihva aro tv.'o ot]ier arteries, rising in front and behind it^to tho 

left and right eyes. Puga rmd yacvinl riL'n fron it to the left and right 

ears. To tho bnso rf tho rmun IQambusa goes. The artery ^ubha descends to 

Vila end of tiie ponis. Pro:eedir,[: to tho ends of tho great toes there aro 

adhoyata and kau^ikhT; becoming tenfold tlioy are called kandasanbhavas. 

At tho root there are nany arteries, nr.] -r,.irnn an 1 '"Ino Eisall nrterion. 

The roots of the coarse in ea^h rort con net to counted; they are lii.0 tho 

spread out root massoa of th-- banyan troo. tiri^ Tho ton prai}a8 and othor 
airs move about in the ton -:hief arteries. ^ (Tri^. '3L-77) 



108 
Arteries. --na^I- 
Cii.lai- deB^riptions are also to bo found in Qancj. 1.4; Yo. Tu. 12-21, and 
noro briefly, in many fasBacon in tho late Yoga Upani^adn. 

A list cf thf> 14 chief arteries, pn they are onuiierated in various 
Uiian.i gads, ic c.i^'^" below. 



Varal-.. 5.23-27 Yo. Ou. 15,16 



suguj.iria 

icja 

pin^ala 

gandhari 

hastiiihva 

pu§a 

yacjasvinr 

olur.busa 

kuhu 



■jankhaia 



varui]H 

payasvir.r 

earasvatr 



vi^vcdari 



su ^uiuia 

14s 

pingala 

gandhari 

haatijihva 

pu^a 

ya-jvini 

alaiiibuaa 

i^UliU 

aankhani 



Tri-j. fr fr ? » 
65-73 

su^uirina 

i^a 

pingala 

gandharr 

uastijihsa 

fuga 

yatjvini 

alambuea 



r.SKzxxxxtxx 



:ubha 



(Jui^j. 1.4 (ri.av . io tlio oaiao, 

with eliglit oxcoptions) 
suqunina 

i4a 

l>incala 

^jtTndJiarT 

hastijihva 

puqa 

yagasviia 

Mlambusa 

i.uhu 

j jankhnni 

/aruiji 

payasvini 

sarasvati 



vi-jvodarl 



adhoyata 
tau^ikhT 
The separate localities served by thoEO arteries -il] be dis-jussed 
belAw. Thoir main fumtion, as far as the ycgin is ncn-;ernod, is their ran- 
ipulation , ir ^•■fr^^iinz, so t}.- t tl r, brdy may bo inado puro . ■nn! ir this 
merit is ac ,uiro4. Their sirolo of zixi.r::, is mde impure by un -if^-.'.j.eM , but 
ic cleansed by Yoga. (V . ^u. S4) 

^elicicuB. T^urther, in the rolicicjs linri, boforf) dis^juesinc the indi- 
vidual urtorieB, it ir.y be said that they arc i.or.ticnoi Ic^sx^ in luantras. 



199 
Arteriee — na^I 

(Ramarftli. Z.b) Knowled^^o of then nnd their wor*.:. it- esnential to tl.»ir juri- 

fioatior., whi?h is aijquiroJ ty lertf.in TCuror.B ii. broGt))ii;c. ('^S'i'J* 1«'">^) 

TlitMT uso Tcnnists in restnaining -ho breath in then, or in re^^lnr in tind 

cu. . ixaLi.Lj.t., fillinc arid einptyinp them with air. (Var.^.. b,li>; Yo. Ku. 

l.P-t; Tri^. 98) The trahnnviJ I'oature also ri'rifies tlu.M. (Tri.'j. 53) 

In this aonnoctirr. the fona nadika, lerluips repjiinc saall veins, ic iioed 

in Tri'^. a fev- lij'os, where they aro eaid to ho fillod with air. C^ricj. 

74, 117^ 136) 

augujniirt 

The oij.t;ij. of the notion of the idea of tho fmt.ous Buguirma has already 

boon discussed above, and its history tracjed as fat as Mait. It s&6:..s to 

J.ave been the wind pipe, and some thought that it went to tlie eyes, though 

ordinnrily it was tlie passage leading to the crown of tho y.ead, reservod for 

the passage of tl.o soul v.1ifin on its way to release. In general this is still 

maintained. Yoga]. 7 aGSumos that it goes to the wrown of the head, adding 

as it is the pure doer, 
that by it one aiudns to tho highest. J.:ait. 6.21, already refepre'l to , 

enjoins the as-seti-; to asTend by this artery, a^Tompanied by manas and 
prar^a. , turning tho tip of his tongue back to his falato at the same time, 
and refrining fron. tV.e- use of l.in sonso organs. Kguri. £ ff. is verj' confused 
in regard to tlio Bugurena, [lacing it between the umbilical region ar^d the 
heart, and calling it very rir.ute. It advances on to the neck, however, is 
like Brah>r.£:, is guarded on the left by i^a and onthe right by pingala, ;uid 
is in the raidst cf: 72,000 small veins. Ty it tho soulr. ascends, and becomes 
fr^e fror: future birtlis. Vy it breath may be dra-.vn uj. frop: thf feet. Tho 
ycgin "cuts tho other 10^ arteries and thoif branches, but does not cut 
suQuirjia. ErahiD-.avidya 11,12 spenks cf it, hov/over, as being broken thro ugli by 
on, along wit}, the 72,000 othor arteries. 

Tailing up tho very lato Yogu U-juii^ads, w find that su^uir^na is one 
of tlio chief arteries. (Yo. '^.u. 16, ff; Ehav.; gai}4. i'.4; ) For tho reason 



200 
"!liief Artflry--HUflViiiinrr 

givon abovo, it is tlie Brahinann'jr, or Brnhmaoutrn. (Advay.; VhKv.; "Jwji}' 

']rrj. 4.y 
1.7.1>M Fro; K§uri cm it is supportorl on thr. loft ond ricl't by two fcther 

Saubli. 3 
artorioc, iiin aivl pincala resoro.-jtively. (YO. Cu, IT-iy; ^JJ'i j • '-.l-^; ) 

A EOJ^^ral desorii:tiorilDf tliis artsry in lontnined in Advay. The cugxucnn is 

t) o rrnhr.a vein, in thP rrddat of V. r, borly. It hasltl.e fcrr: cf the- sun, find 

si.ir.i p like the noon. It passes fro... tiio region of tlio anus to li.r- forv^'\rd 

fcnt.-.nolle. In the midst of it--iie., half way alonr it^course — is the 

/.uij4alinr. hn.ving nonlers like lotus fiters, liko a -ircro cf -lightninc 

flashes. Fy st e-ing it with th.e mind fcne boccties froo frow sin. Its course 

from the anus to tl.e top of tho )iead is also nontior.ed in (Jaij<J. 1.4 and 

.'landal. 2) It 1^ -.■ nnoi-.tn<: wit), thn kanda, (Yo. CJu. 12; ^rij . 4.1:;; ) or with 

the kuii4alira, ix'o. ICu. 1.12,14; grij . 6.42; ) It is white colored. (Saubh.3) 

Eut Ithis last statenf-nt means nothing. It goes to the head, along witli the 

backbone, (^rij. 4.10) It lias 72,000 branch arteries. (."JrTj. 4,^) The other 

chief arteries aro clustered arc und it. ((Ja:i(}. 1.4) 

Suqujrjia has a tendency to assui^.e laentnl and raotaphysical functions. 
It is net only thP chief artery and the way to release, t)ut it is also the 
prii::ary neni, subtile, andthe powf-r of Vi§nu. ((ySiid. 1.4) The same passage 
makes it tho f.njoyer cf time. It is pure. (Saubh.lt. 4) 1itta is absorb. .L 
by it. (Yo. "u. 1.62) Cm is tho supporter in it. (Ekak. 1) Its deity is 
'Jiva. Cjrrj. 4.21) It is likened t<J a bond between the sun and moon. (Yo. ku. 
3.7) It is to : en* used in obtaining release, ((Jan^* l.V.-''?) ani^' th-": soul 
rinftc upwaris by It. (Yo. Cu. 35) 

Physically, itn scle function connects it with the breath. It is ir. 
tl^e praija path. (Yc. Ou. 21) Praija raoves in nnd is held in it. (Yo. Ku. 1.14, 
47) It carries tho breath to the face. (Yc. Ku. l.'-^>,r,7) Ey splittinr it tleo 
air onto.'-s easily. Cjaijd. 1.7.9) It? impurities are dried up by propor 
breatliing. ('JoncJ. 1.7) 

Less is said about rf.strnining it and manipulating in a r.ochnr.i-nl way 
than is said about some of the otlier artorien, thoug^i it is the n;ot:.L i: n-iwiint 



'^hiof Artory — cuquimn 
of th'-Q all. Though lor.KoJ upon as an air paBGa^r, in tLono late Upcmi^uiis, 
itc Thiof function still :5on«tinue8 to be to furnish the road by whiih the 
ecu! r;.iy -ioriTt fron'. the body, aid v'lion it loos enter in the oaloulationa 
of t.J.6 joiinipu.atcr, it is treated on an ©quality with tlic other arteries. 

BraJiaana4r 
It has already Voen notf d that eoimnn is oalled the brahjnanaiir. 
In addition to the reforeme already given, note [fjan^. 1.7.12; 'Jrij. 4.'.'.1(^) 
The latter of tliese passages tolls us that it coos tc, tlio kiul liead,£ind the 
fcr or air is trourht into it by oontraoticn of the ne";*. and ciojiipulation 
cf the todyi' One las'; sonsiblfi statement, viewinc it as the windpipe, is 
that it is the pasBaL;r* by whi-jl; phloghm and thn like are brought to the 
moutli. (Yo. Ku. 1.38) Air moves in it. (Yo , Ku. 1.46,52) 

> 

I(Ja is usually next mentioned after sugmna in the list of arteries. 
While it nay be Tonneotel in thourht with the saorificial i4a, there is noth- 
ing; in the Upanissd? to that effect. 7:hen it first appears, i4a in oirply 
t};fi supporter of su^unina on the left. (Ksrui. I'") This idea may perhaps 
result frcn that Tontalnel in the ancient Upani§ads in rogard to the dividinj- 
of the artery leaiinc from the heart, the suguirina, whioh Ims already hi->'Mi 
dosrribed ahrvo. In t}ie latest Upnnigads i(Ja is ur.dvibtedly the air passage 
leading from the left nostril, supposed to continue on to some indefinite 
placo ir. the toiy, to th*^ Tontral spot where the arteries neet, and tc servo 
as a means of inl^aling and e:<Jialinc air. It is to the left of ■ sugurnS 
and risPB to the left nose cavity, (^an^. 1.4; '5arrj.4) It is cni the left 
side of tH ttJ Da u i i t . Ih neck, (fauhh. 2) It is cno of the chief arteries. 
(Yo. hu. 1.10) Fhav.) Itf length is 12 fingers and its circumference 4. 
(Yf . r.u. 1.11) Thin is of lourse imaginary. It is to tli-- left of su^umna 
and cental; 3 projja. (Yo. Cu. 1^-21) Eroath is drnrn in by it^ (Tri'^. 95;) 
and exhaled by it. (Yo. Ku. 1.24-ri7; 'Jaiid. 1.V.14) Fspecially is the practise 



no2 

Pasofigft to T.r'ft !Irjr.trl'l --li^Q 

oonuaondod of dravinc in the bro:i'»,;. Ly l.'.iL; hcstrii :;n ! oxj-oiim;^ ii by t,h6 

C)t}iGr. gonotirces this praoti";e is to be ttan performed for a certain nuitiber 

of ti:';68, UK 12, when tlio operation ie reversed, and the air is drawn 'n by 

Jiincalu, ana eapelled by i4a. this is sonetineB explained by the act cf tho 

ycgin's stopping, first cno nostril and thon the o'l.er while in meditation. 

(Yo. Cu. S8; (Jrij . 5.^; 7~4<J' I'-S'^^ This sorvoc to ilear U.o nacjrs, and 

frees then frc::i disoaseand impurity, especially such as aro produced by the 

nir. ((gand. 1.7; 1.7.14; grij. 5.r) 

Tho air brent; ed by this vein reaches the kuijcjalirir; it unites with 

th;,t of pingala and thoy give rises to mcticns, and suppcrt the body. 

((Jrlj. 4.41-46) In some cason it is to be held by the hands. (Yc. Ku. l.l-) 

A fire ie said tc Vum between it and pingala. (Qand. 1.7.41) It holds tlie 

atman between the e^ebrowr in somo Yoga praoti-^es. ('Jan^. 1.7.48) Tho breath 

IC 
in specially moved in it in thft lotus posture. (Yc. Ku. l.i$!S) It is not 

to be useCa in obtaining roloase — that is the function of sugumna. ('^an'J. 
1.7.37) Its deity is Hari. (^rij. 4.3[i) grij . 4.39 and 'JamJ. 1.4 both say 
that the raocn roon r.oves in it, and in one passage it is called tho moon- 
artery — candrana4r. (SuuVdi, 2) 

Right ia^t air passage 
pingala. 

Fingala is tlie correlative of i4a, and what is said about tho one 
said 
is BSifca about tho other, except that tJiis is the right l»and pasoage instead 

of the left. IKith this 8tat<^>nont it does not seeir; necesBan/ to note iioro 

than the following, passagos, which show characteriostic difforon^es. Pingai^^ 

is t}ie right hand artCTery, or dakgiija n^^r. (Yo. Ku. 1.2'1) It is the surya- 

nacji, and bre.-ith is drawn into it to cure weariness. (Yo. Ku. 1.35; Saubh.3) 

The sun ixves iw it. (^an^. 1.4J ^iTj . 4.40)). Its air entoFS th'' kuijcjall and 

oau::68 oclipsoD cf tlie sun. (yrij. 1.47) Its ddity io Virincis. (^rlj. 4.35) 

The othf.r roferences are paoctically tho snino as tlir.se for i4S* 



202 
Special Arteries — gondhSrl 

Tho reniaininc arteries .iro not specially intereetinc, yet must bo 

included for corapletonoos. Ganclharr is orte of the chief arteriea, anil £oeo 

to tho left eye. In t);o o^jheme of arterios, it is boliind 145, which coob to 

tho nose. (Yo. 'Ju. 16,17; ■'Jan^. 1.4; 'Jri j . 4; EJiav.) Its doity is t}.e moon. 

((Jr-j. 4.?.B) 

hastijihva 

Hastijihva oorresponis to gandharl, but t:<J6s to the richt eye. (Yc. lu. 

17,19; Ehav.) Another authority has it going to the wr lef t groat toe. 

(i^rij. 4; Ifi ioity is Varuna. (grij. 4.36) 

ruga 

Puga goes tc tlie right ear. (Yc. 1u. 17,19; Tricj. 71; '^aq^. 1.4) 

yrlj. 4 sends it to the left eye, but this is perhaps a corruption. Its deity 

is BiT. ((Jrij. 4.36) 

ya^asvini 

Ya-jasvini, ya-jvinr, ob yacjasvat , goes to ono of the ears, some say tho 

left and soko the right. (Eh|v.; Yo. Cu. 17, 2C; Triq. 71; Qancl. 1.4; It is 

behing pingtila, bet^«"?en puga ani sarasvatT. tte doity is Ehaskara. ('yrij. 

4.14,37) 

(j^nkhini 

Much confusion is found in the location of soir-e of iheee ii:.aginai7 

arteries. jiSiKhinr, ono of tho 14 chief arteries, is usually said to go to 

tho left ear. (Bhav.; 7an(}. 1.4; 7rTj . 4) Cnce it is said to go to tlie 

Eulasthana, tliat is, to tho anus. (Yo. 1u. 17,20) It is betwe n gandhari 

emd Barasvatr, and its doity is CJandrama. (^Jrij. 4.38) 

ilambusa 

Alenbuaa Gtarts from the miust cf the kanda, as one of tho 14 chief 

arteries, and goes to the ai-.ua. (Bhav.; ^Jaijd. 1.4; Tri^. 72; rjrlj . 4) Once 

it iE sent to tho faie. (Yo. "lu. 17, 20;! Tt-> !.-.'ty ir Vrirur.:i. C^rij. 4.37) 

kuhu 



204 
rpeoial Arteries — kiiliu 
Kuhu is ono of tho 14 Thief art'-irios, cme snid lo !o book of and 
besido 8U9u;finn, and eoes "tb the penis. (laiav. ^ancj. 1.4; Yo. lu. 17,20) 
^rlj. 4, whi-;h has so mrjiy dif f eremen, hn.8 it {roing to tho right nostril. 
Its doity is K§udh. Cjrrj. 4.38) 

varuija 
Vai-uijh, varui]!, is anothc-r of tho -ihlfif vnirs, between yacjasvini and 
kiUiu, and goes to all tho lody, througJ-. tiio /.iu}4ali rocion. (^an^. 1.4; 
'Jrij. 4; ThKv.) Its deity is Vayu. (^rij. 4.36) 

payasvinli 
Payasvir.r is also ur.deTidedjboing between pu^a and saraBvatT, and 
soriningly going to the groat toe,(Bhav. Qanfj. 1.4} or to tho right ear. 
(grlj. 4.?0) lO deity is Prajapnti. (^rij. 4.38) 

sarasvati 
parasvati is one of tho 14 ',hief arteries, behind and to tho side of 
suguraia aid goes, as cno would pxpedt, to tho tongue, (Ehav. '^ri j . 4; 'Jan^. 
1.4) Ur.der tlie nai.ie of sasvana it extonds frori the neok to the heart, or to 
thr- sr.ull--this l:ist sooidng to bo a Kistai.e. (Yo. Ku, l.iS 27,32) This 
Upani§fid luaker r-.u'jh use of it in Yoga, Tho air moving in it rises fnaa the 
chest, it is emptied by surya (pingala) its plase is tho origin of sound or 
speoih. (Yo. Ku. l.lb-23) Its deity is Vira^. (^rij. 4.3L') 

vifjvodnrT 
Viqvodnrr is between kuhu and hastijihva, in the midst o*" the kanda. 
('Jrij. 4) It is ono of tho 14 chief veins. (Bhav.) Psvakn is its deity, 
((Jrij. 4.39) 

saumya 
Sauiiya is a chief artexT, going to tho r^ght great too. ("^aijij. 1.4) 
There is nothing sx-e^^i^l tr 'ot-^ -.onaoming the ct!:er nrtftrifs. 
Qublia, adhoyata, ani kau^ikhT go resieotively to the ponis and tho great 
toes. (Triq. 72,73^ 



r.ob 

Arteries. 

Na^r is thf» rfij^oilar word for tho tubular pasoatef. or orj nna in tho 
boay, ui- a ir. t ,i,er words are untid oTjasicnally. 'Iliief arnonc tliene is 

^ira. ((jilS, eira) 
The oiras aro stretched about the heart. (Mahon. 13. P) In Garbha 5 
there are snid to be 700 6f them in t)i6 body, whi-ih is a very different 
nui.ber fron. any otlier eetimato of the arteries, Sira can liardly be looked on 
ftB a different word from f'-e abovf-. Jhoy are perr.eated by vyana. (ilait. 2.7 
in 108 Ui;anifadB--not ir. othor eiTj.t'ons.) Thoy aro onterod by Ycga and 

ti us benefit the body,, (Yc. Cu. 56) Tho tonruo is bound by thora. (Yo. Ku. 221) 

nala 
Nala, though closely connecl-o-i 'iLh na4l, is usod but twice, in later 
Upani^ads. The soul departs fron the nala rcute, »«r^uBlng the half mora 
of on as a rope. (Dh.yana. 22) This undoubtedly refors to sugumna. Again, it 
is cinply mentioned as pertaining to tho hoart. (Tri^. 7) 

ratjrai 
Ra-jni, prirarily : eaning ray, is used in Mait. 6.30, where there are 
131 of theru going upwards, -yhis of course neans tlie arteries. This api arently 
ccees froM Gh. 8,6.5, whore the arteries and the sun's rays aro mentioned, 
and n connecticn between then affimed; it is added tliat tho sun goes upward 
by those rays, which might include botl the rys of the sun and tho arter- 
ies. Ir. ■:al.an. rays surround- the ?»rt, going from the sole of tlio foot 
to tho head. (I'aJ.an. 13.2) 

kandasarabhavas 
Kandasambhavas arr* tho subdi'isicns of the ai-torien going into tho 
toes. (Trie. 73) 

dhamani 
Diamani, v^hich would etymclogioally seem to mean air. passages, is 
Bcr.etien usod frr arteries, and norc broidly for any tubular passage of tlio 
body, ODieciiaiy f ( r such as carry neurit; unont to the di^'ferent parts^ The 



2C6 
Artorie8--Dhnniani 

word is UBed but ome, and then in 'Jonnov'Jti' n with the primordial egg 

fror. width thn univorsp war sprung. From the general oon-oxt of tho 

pasaage, ana tiio uso < i jaray* and ulba, it would Beam that the writer }mB 

transforr d his cjonception to tliat of tlie entryo in the womb, and that he 

felt the pririordial err ''as supplied like the ernbryc with tubular veooels. 

These beooiae the rivers €i the enrtVi,(Oh. 3.19.2) 

Lunc 

kloman 

Kloman is xiiai used but a single time in m.e Upanif.ids, and then 

in ■Jcrjiecticn vit; the eusveunedha, wl.cse kloman is said to be -he mountdincfif 

the earth. (B^rh. 1.1.1) The word means lung, but this passage furnishes no 

slue to its meaning. Prarjnsthana is onne used indefinitely, being said to 
contain vyana, but does not spe-jif isally mean lung. ((Jrij. 4.28) The lung is 
prcbly included in hifd. 

Liver 

yakijt 

Yak^t is cr.oe used, along with kloman, in connection with the aqva- 
nedha. Botli of them are the rjountains of the earth. (Erh. 1.x. 1) 

It is straiige that there is no further mention of the livey whioh yakj^ 
means. 

Bladder 
vasti 

Like the parts just mentioned, tho bladder also is mentioned in but 
a single I'panifad, unless some of tho doubtful parts mentioned in tho later 
Upanigads— as kanda— may attimes refer to it. ^ater is said to bo the bladdef 
of thP Vaicjvanara self. Vasti is also sai-5 to be t}ie wealth of tlO.8 self. 
In consequence of wore) ipping water as tho Vui-jvanara self, tliere is danger 
tl^at tho bladder may burst. (Ch. 5.1fi.2: 5.18.2) 



no? 

Inte8tineB--EU(la 

There is eone douht as to whothor ti.e intoalineB am renlly roforrej 
to in the Upnni^nds . One paooatjo alone seons "lortnin, and that passace 
rnforp tn V p mvairiodha, wIicb© c^dn beoowe the rivers of the eartli. (Bjfh. 
1.1.1) Guda omi hardly nonn anything; else than intestines hero. Most of t}io 
roferenjes to this word havo botin already treated. t-UTh statewonts as that 
the apana is ir. the guda, (Anrta. 34); it is to be olosed \vli»n one dr\«8 
his treat}) to his head in Yoga, (Hansa 3) the breath in drawn up through it, 
(Kguri.?), and that sins may be :5onmitted by it, (Brhaj . 4.34) may raefui 
either the intestines or the onus — more probably the latter. ^'■ 

purrtat. 

Puritat is a doubtful w rd, defined as the pericarp or sorae intestine 
near thf- heart. The Indian lexicographer? Make it nean entrails. The hita 
arteries are seiid to sproad through the puritat ,. and thus in profound sleep 
t}ie soul rosts in it. (Brh. 2.1.19; Kaug. 4.19) 

Umortain parts. 

kun4air, kun-JalinT 

Vfe havn yet a fe^' pnrtf; to "^rnsider whi-ih ;T.ight almost be C-lled 

iTiaginary parts. The descriptions given fit no part of the body, and the 

description of the iame part in different Dpani^nds varies so much, that 

one must ♦"^-'1 1^ at these orgar.f am largely, if not solely, imagined in 

orlor to fit in wit), theories of the body. Their different dosjrijticns is 

aicounted for by the faot that they aro only mentioned in the late Yoga 

influence 
Upanig-ids, and th- restrilning and mcro exact statrments of the early Upan- 

igads is not to hand to chock extrvafnncies. 

The i.uijcjair serms to havo bor'owol eono of its qualities froii the 

heart. It is cituated abov<=. th<-. kanda, and is eig'.tfnld. (Yf . 'lu. 3^,44; ) 

IL is obliquely above tlm navel, is eightfold and jir^jular. (^ii^ 4- ^'^) 

Compare what has bo,-.n said about the a^'^adala, in connection with the l.eaxt. 



."08 
Umortai.i Part8--kui}c}air 

If tho kuivjaliiir is really on orcnn, thin .rail.! f^<S'<n to point rathor to tho 

heart and lungs thaji to anythinc else, and ot,:ier uiattors havo sono.vhat Uia 

earao leaiiing. Still, tho iwuijijali is on-.6 placed in the navol region. (Saublu 3) 

Still anoDier Upani^al places the organ two fingers bolow the navnl. (^rlj. 

4.11) This last also pla-jes it ahout tho sides of the kanda,. irhis siniply 

emphasises the unreliability and uncertainty of thf descriptions to be found 

in thP lato writings. It should bo added that a still lifferont writr.r puts 

the kuq4air above tlie front teoth. (Yo. Ku. 2.49) It is a very important 

It is sai ■' to novo of itself, whi-ih sug^oots the lung. (Yo. Xu. 1.10) 

organ" as it supports the body. (Varah. 5.22) As to its functions, the 14 

chief veins originate in it. (yand. 1.4) It is employed by Bugurana. (Vircli. 

5.30) It is sail to be in the nidst of the auguiona and has ninuto root like 

fibers. It is rosplondent like a croro of lightning flaslies, on seoing which 

7 •vU^ O-A O'J^^'^ '^'**^ (VL/Vito fiLt '\JLtJ\)(~ 

tlie Mind attains nioksa. (Alvay.) Tho substance of this is repeated in Mandal* 
2. It connects with sugurnna. (Yo. Ku. 1.14) Tho vein varunl is above .and 
below the tu]}4air. (^arid, 1.4) The air of 145 enters th^^^ kun4air causing an 
e-jlipso of the cioon, while tliat of pingala, causes on eclipse of the s n. 
(^rij. 4.4^,47) The breath also circluates in the kun4air. Cjrxj. 7.7; 
Yo. Ku, 1.14; yanl. 1.4; ) Praqa and apana uniting and becoming heated gc 
to it ncniAlly. (Yo. Ku. 1.6L) Heat is sail to :ovo it. (Jrij. 6.42) It is 
u^:jjikti, (Yo. Ku. 1.82; ) or (jakti in in it, or travels in it. (Vara}i. t.51; 
Yo. Ku. 1.7) It is one of the eight foms cf praki^i, or at least connected 
with then. (yrlj. 4.11; Yo. Ku. 1.74) It is said to be tho abode of knowledge, 
(Bhav.) Itl/.nows puiiya. (Yo. Ku. 1.38) It sleeps. (Yo. Ku. 1.55) It is D;ud 
to ■ 6 tho form of eur-i^a. (Tripura 2.1) All t)ieo<^ seem to bo matters 

connecting it with the heart, an-l so dividing tho functions of tho latter . 

There is a very figurative passage, which says that it sees tlia 
nulakanda as a sn ke a lotus root, aUd tal'.er, its tail in its mouth, being 
possonaed of the braiimrandlira. This soons to be a figurative way of 

saying that it oonnwc&s tho anus with the anterior fontanelle. (Yo. Ku. 1. Sr:) 



r09 
linfJortQin part,3--kuniJalT 
One brooi.s the door of reloaoo in it aa ono opons a houao witli a key, which 
inplios tlmt it is tho abodfl of tho soul, nn.l is opnnnd by Yoga praotioos. 
(Yo. -lu. 39) 

Ai; oro:t kuLJ34air is said to 3orao from practioinc restraint of breath* 
(Yo. Ku. 1.8) A full knowledgo of it ofmes through i.umbhaka breathing, 
((^fujd. 1.7.14) To bo -lontrn.Tted in ol^tnini-.- r'llnaso so that it is orooked. 
(yonij. 1.7.37) Whon it slQ-'ps in the upper part of the throat, the yorin 
attait»» release. ("Jan^. 1.7.37) 

kanda 
The kanda is (uiothor indefinite part. Fron its ^OTation and f-f'^^'^al 
description it would soom to be tho bladder, or pr^rhaps the atoiaa.-5h, but 
sontiiTies it assumes some of tl.e functions of th^ kuijduir. It is sail to b e 
between tlio emus and tl-.o penis, and to "lontnin th-^ yoni.(Yo. Tu. 14JI7JCS 
it is four fingers long and four fingers wide, eg[;s}"iaped, and surrounded by 
fat, rar.rrov, bone, and blood, ^ (Varah. 5.21) "flio aajT- general 

description, adding tl;at it is nine fingers froii the emus is found in (Jri j . 
4.34. It is enclosed by the kunijair region. (Tri:j. dl) In anothor place it 
is sai ' to be below the -uijdair, which is the more commcn location of it. 
(Yo. lu. 3r',44) The arter>' alasibusa , which goes to tho anus, passes through 
the kanda. (^rij. 4.17; (Jand. 1.4) Sugunma also goes thorugh itj (Tri<j. ')".; 
'Jrij. 4.5) and fastens it as a jer.vel is -voven by a thread. (Yo. '^u. 1.1) 
72,0rO artorios aro sail to spring from it. (Yo. ^u. 15) It is to bo pressed 
in Yoga. (Yc. Ku. 1.49) A kandi ofi arteries, two fingers above tho . 
mecjhra, is onoe mentioned, but tl.is is a little doubtful. It nay moan the 
kanda as a soparato organ, and it may rof r to the gatliering of nrtories as 
a kanda. (VarSu 5.21) 



Umertnin rnrta, --tundn 

Tunda is a part whi'ih ;'.ny at son" t'uiier. bo oiu.oo'. "lertainly iiontiflod 
v/itli the belly or tlio stomaoh, but at otliere ifs noro indefinite. Tho navol 
is said to bo in the midst oljit . (Tri^. 58) T^ith th^ aid of praija ani apana 
the process cf digestion is oari led on in it. ('Ja;]'!. 1.4) Praija separAtoa 
food and water and juices in it. (Tri'j. 82) Whilo these paaaacos would 
aprly well to tl.o stona-jh, th/> fact tl.at tho yogins had nc roal knowledge of 
the structure of tho body leads to the belief tl.at thir is sinply a hypo- 
thetical organ, dovisod to ai'-;ount for certain vital functions. It contains 
air, cini tl.is seeris to be an important function, (^^n^* 1.4.49,50; Yo. Ku. 
l.lL-,b^) Tho last passac^ tells us that its vTnion with air roinoven its 
faults or dogas. Its diseases soon; to be dropsy and enlarged 

Bpleen--botti rathsr ooinr.cn in India. (Yo, Ku. 1.18) 

In tho midst of the tunda in living creatures other than men and 
quadrupeds, the pranas are gathered together. (Tri<5. 66) In that of birds 
there is a flmno of firo. (9tu}4' ^'4) 

oikhisthana 
y 

The ^ikhistana is a sort of fireplace, doubtless ^cn^eived of to 

account for tho heat of the body. It is in the midsL of the body, threo- 

cornernl ' •"en nn.l like glovi'in| gold. In quadrupelr. it is quadrangular, 

in birds, round. In its nidst is a glowing tongue of fire. It is in the 

in j^. 

midbcd.', between tho anus and penis, t*- is ^h© heart c&ner of animals, aid 

thn tunda center cf birds. ('Jani. 4; (Jrij. 4; Gf.n also. Trij. ) 

agnjiagara 
Agnyagara is perhaps tho sane as tlio above. It is in tho iniorior of 
the body, and apana is in it. (^ani^. 1.4) 



:ii 



Chapter X 



Produ-,tB of tlie Body 



.112 
Produ-TtB. 

The varicuB soiroi.ionn oT tin. >:ody, ro/il nn 1 imarinnry , nay Tonvonipntly 
bo oalled products, Follwiiig is tl.o list, wl.i^li is r.ot a vory o;;tnnr.ivo one. 



I.T-purity 

Ixcrotion 

Sweat 

Uoisture 

Tears 

Urine 

Ordure 

Senen 

Ejeatioi: 

Pus 

Windy liunor 

Eile 

P;.le(7u 



mala 

vi ear 3 ana 

sveda 

kleda 

inutra 

piiriga ,vi5 ,9odharia 

retae, ]ukra (qukla) vTri'a, blja 

uJgara 

puya 

vat a 

pitta 

kapha, qlegn-.a 



213 
Produots and Sooretlono. 

Borne little ir.ontion is aado of tho produots an 1 soirotionc of tho 

body, tut not a gror.t doal. Usually, oopeoiftlly in the later Uponigads, thos* 

aro looked on as inpurites cf some kind. 

Impurities 

mala 

Mala, impurity, first appears in Mait, 3.4. In the pessiniiBtic way of 

loof.inc at tlio body, it ie sail tc be oonpooed cf crdure, uriio , bile, 

phlegliri, niarrow, fat, oil, <ind many other impurities, like a treasury full of 

treasures. It will bo noted from tho abovo that narrow and fat are oonsidered 

as lecretions or oxcrotions, in ^.u^h tho same) light as urine xa. Very late 

6 
Up;.ni§ads also me"htion mala. The body is aonposod of it. (AdJiya.) The universe 

is to be Tonsidorod as a mass of it. (Adhya. 8) Mala may be dry. (Yo, Ku. 1.63) 

Thourh coi.sidorod defiling to tho one touching them, not muoh is aade ofjthia 

in the Upanisads. 

Excretions. 

iisarjana 
Visarjana is a goneral i erm for exirstions. The word appears only 
in the late Upanigads. They imlude dung, urine, and so forth, anmro pre- 
pared by apana. (Tripiira 83; Gri j . 4.31; (Jan^. 1.4) The last passage tells 
us that t;iriy are ojeit-Tl through tl;e nine oponings of the body. 

Sweat, 
sveda 
Svada is mentioned a few times, beginning with Oh. 6.2.3, where it 
is said to be produ:ed by ;";rn cr l.eat, whenever cne gets hot. it raji froii the 
forehead of llarayana when he was sunk in meditation. (Mohan. 3) Late Upani- 
sads tdll us it in -iompcsed of watf»r, ("Jarir) is r.oparated by praija, (!yan4« 
1.4) ind slicull bo in tho least ci l..'.^ four' breathing b inontion^ in 'Jan.j.l.'/.S. 
It was, oven in oarly times, looked on ne or.o of tho three sour«©8 fron 



Swoat — me da 

wliiih livint boii.Ls tcuU bo cpnoratod, honoo ono '3laBn r-f lifo is known as 

svejjija, or s^'aatbcrn. (Ait. lj.3; Gniii. 4.'")3,65) 

Moietur© 

kleda 

kleda coEos in alLkto Upani^ad, whon tho body is saii to be covered with 

it. It KoqxiG moisture. (Sub. 8) 

Tears 

a(jru 

Acjru, tears, ^omo into Mention rarely. Theu are imluded aiaong the 

coal] ononis of tho body(Mait. 1.3) and aro not to bo shed by the sanr.yasin, 

sinso ono who sheds thoii loses his knov/ledge. (Kantha'j. 3} 

Urine 

mutra 

Mutra, or urine, is first r.entionod in Hh. 6.D.2, whoro it is sail to 

be produced fron the coarse element of tho v/ater one drinls. A late Upanigadjt 

also tOGtifies tl:"t it is produced froi:. water, ("^arir.) From Ilait, en it is 

looked on as one of tho impurities, or Mentioned as one of tho coriponents of 

t).e body. (:.IAit.l.3; 3.4j Narad. 4.Sfi,28; 3.36,46); ^and. 1.") The last tells 

US that it cones through one of tho nine crenin£:s of the body. The amount of 

it in the body is indete^T,inat^?, being dependant on '.he amount one eats and 

Trie. 83 
drinks. (Carbha 5) It ts the ^vork of apana. (^rjj. 4.31; 'Jan4. 1.4) A line- in 

tiie lattor section, howevfr, loilc ua that it is separated by prana. 

rhen it is obstructed diseaso arises. (Yo, Ku. 1.5§«) It does nol affeot the 

fire ii. tho belly, (Varah. 5.9) and is not to be ejected in the house. 

(Bhasina. 2) 

One of th.- first effects of Yoca is t)iat only a s:all aiiount of 

mutra is produced in tho Vo^y. (^vot. 2.13; Man.lal. ^.1- Trij. 106; ) This 

loi-.coni:..^, of mutra am '.rv.xro i!ia/:0G an old porson younc — 30 it would aoo:. 

that t}ie yocins wero not woSvj^JUu Tree frnn worldly thoufhts. (Yo. Ou. 47) 



Z15 

Urin«) — mutra 

Ti.uohinc it ilflfiles ono, nnA it roquires a nantra to make hiin olean ncain. 
(.Maitreyi. .^.S) Cne trei^bles when defiled with it by an icnorant perebn. 
(Narad. 5.28) There are sone asoetios wlio move around only for th'i oalls of 
na'cUT'- -in i-'ip ■•-•ppAnt, and thfy ar'> call' ' panpi. (Karad. 3.65). 

The pleasure cf frionin should b*» refarel as inutra hy Hhe aeoetio. 
(llnrad. V.'beL'.) 

'''h'- urino of the -;ov/ is to bo partaken of by 3ortain asTotiss. { 
(Bl-.iABC .) 

Ordure 
puri^nK 

Purina, ordure, appears as oarly in the Upanigads as Ch. 6.L.1, vrheio 
it is said tc be -jomposed of the ooarse part of the food eaten. The nex". 
35ientifi3 rofrronoe to it tell s us th]^ thfi amcnnt in t' r, >>ody ir inietor- 
ninata, dependiiir on the quantitiy of feed eaten. (Garbha 5). JU-onj; W th 
urine it is ono of tl.e impuritioi filling the body. (Karad. 3.4G) 

Religiously, it berins to Yf< considerod in (Jvet. 2.13, -^vhore it is 
said that ono of the first effects of Yoga is tho lessening of .he amount of 
purTga. This is mentioned later, and it causes an old persor. to be young. 
(Mart^. 5.1) It is separated by prana. l'}an<]. 1.4) ,phe obstruotiorfcf it pro- 
duces dieoaso. (Yo. Ku. 1.56) It is not to be performed in the teuple or 
tlie iiouse — sorithing which soened to trouble the writer of Bhasma 2. This 
saino writer has his ire so far rouse i against certain persons tfiat he calls 
then purisakarins. 

vifl 

Vig (non. vit| also n»ans dung, but is not used in tho OLrl» '.r-ari^nJ s. 

Beginning with Ilait.^it is nentioned as ono of th. parts or iiiipuritios cl" ll.o 

Trij. 106(^v'> ^ttva^ 
body. (Mait. 1.3; 3.4; llarad. 3.48; 4.26,28; ) It is an ex-jrotion through one 

of tho nine oionings, produ^od by apana. (^anj* ^•''•J 9""*'' '•"''''^' I^ -^^^^ 
not affect tho firo in the belly. (VarSi. 5.9) By yoga prajtioo it boconts 



216 
OrJuro — vifl 

thi-Jk, liko a mother's first nilK . ('Jan-l. 1.7.' "i f),,! tour.) r.f it. Inmes, 

and a mantra is neoossary to purify one's self at;ain. (Mailryi.2.o) Ciio 

tronbles when defiled with it fey an ij;:norant person. (Narad. 5.28) £orae 

a83oti03 who mov'e only for tho purpose. rf t'i -nation are called jamcura. 

(K'Srad. 3.65) 

jodhana 

fjodliana is omt^ used for orduro, when 't is said that it rurI V.o 

ferfonaed before taking posture in Yoga. (Tri-j. 93) Of -Jourse the general 

neaninr r. " the word lends itself to this use. 

Semen 

retas 

Semen plays no small part in the spmulations, ospoTially tlin early 

onosjof tho Indian. Petas is the word usually found, and gonerally refers to 

the male, but sonetimes to the female also. In Brh. 6.4.1, it is the quint- 

esconoo c£ all things. For the earth is th^i enpeme of things in general, 

water is the essence of the earth, plants t-he essence of water, f lowers tbo 

essence of plants, fruits the essence of ilowors, man tho essencedotf fruits, 

ani retas the essence of mem. TToraan was cronted as a liwnlling place for it, 

(B^h. 6.4.2) It is the tejas or brilliancy, collected from all the monibere 

of the rale. (Ait. 4.1) Tids reoalls the "gemmule theory" of DarA^in, and 

like that, v/an, r.o «Jou^t, an attempt to explain the principle of ?erf>'1ity — 

how tho (Child could resemble tho father, an! indeed, how tho ovum could 

de/elopo into a perfect being. It is Prajapati, or procroative frrce. (Bijh. 

6.1.5) Its function io tho begolting of offspring, but it is nr t no-^on:-.-.!'' 

for tho life cf one, nor is it the chief ronse, though procreation is one 
It is dopondent en prajja, on 1 strinds or falls with it. (Bifli.r. 1.14) 
cf tho sonsos. (Erh. 6,8.1-1;^; of. Pra^ na 1.14) It is produced by a livins 

i;ian; a ieai man can r;ot bo reproduced by itl { "^ r . ' ...34, Uadh.) 



217 
£©nan--reta8 



Ab to its prodmtion and Tonnoition, it has alronly hoen notol U.tk 
it is the es8on-!o of all tho inenbore. (Ait. 4.1) Ai'ordinc tf ono theory, iX 
is produced fro tho food ono eats. (Praj. 1.14; of. Frh. 6.2.12) Put it is 
ratlier to bo oonnnted with water. It sprang; from t)iG <ji(jna of tho primal nrxn 
and fron it cane water; thny returned in invorao order. (Ait. 1.4; 2.4) Brh. 
3.9.2.? also Tonnoots it witl^. water, whi:;h is said to abide in it. TOon tho 
body returns to tho eloiriente, retas becones water. (Brli. 3.2.13) Prajapati 
created all r.oist things from it. (Er). . 1.4.':) 

As far as its locality ii, the body is concomod, it renains in tho 
heart, an.i is ojestod throuch the (ji^na. (Trh. 3.9.22; Ait. 1.4) The male 
releases it in the foiiale, and .^!any offsprinc ate born. (Mund. 2.1.5) The 
gods brourj.t it fron the aoon, and put 't in nan as tho creator, v^ho ejects 
It into tie motlier. (Kau§. 1.2) Man was born from the womb of space, ao 
retns for wor.an. A later - Upanigad afeances the theory tliat in the womb 

Vr.o retas of tho father r.inclas with tliat of thft mother. Ihen that of the 
fath r is in excess a male child is born; if tho mother's is in excess, a 
fenale; whon the seed (blja) cf ^:oth is equal, a neuter is produced. (GarbfiaS) 
This is a vojry keen though to bo sure flrronoous, thoory to account for the 
sex of offspring. 

Fetas is -ionnoctod with the r-od.c and vitth v.-orship. Tho c^^ds offer 

foci on iLan as a.u altar, and frou this retas is produced. (Birh. 6.2.12; 

Oil. L.7.2) Tills retas is in turn offered on woman as an altar, and man is 

produced. (Prh. '"1.2.13; r;h. fi.8.2) 'Coition is viewed as roligious aot, and 

charms and prayf-rs are utteSod ii. connootion with rotas. (Bi^h. G.4) It is 

80 valuable that should any fall to tho ground, it should bo picked up and 

and 
put on the brnaat wm oyebrcv? with, appropriate mantras. (Frh. 6.4. .4,5) lie 

who ejects it becomes tad. (Oh. 5.1C.6) It is worshipfel by one who is 

sacrificing for creatnoso. (Brh. 6.3.2) 



■ C18 
Soi''.en--rotnB 

Likf tl-,( ■I'-Bnoc-^ rotas lift '' '^ Vol;- "> the qunrrol for euprnt • • , 
but was ctliced to return an^l aiknov,-led[,6 its inferiority to prai}a. {,'. r;.. 
6.1.12) The eprit a^idinf in it in hnnoy. (nrl . 2.b.Z) It is t}i© body of 
tin irwarl tulor, nntfiryamin, (Prli. 3.7.23)the abiding plme of tho puruQa, 
tlie abscluto. (Brli. 3.9.27) It is idtmtified witli PrnjSpati, (Pijh. 6.1.^) 
thf. year, (Brh. 1.2.4) ajid with Boma, (Bifh. 1.4.6) 

llct a {-root deal is snii about retas in tho later Uptunignds. '■•I'/'n^ 
beon brou£;l;t froi". tho i:ioon, as already mantionod, (Kau§. 1.2) it is not 
surprisinc that it should r.lsc bo -.oniie-!t«d with the :>:ind in ths later 
Up'ani^adn, in viev/ of thn connection between t}-,e mocn and manas. It v:as 
the first tliinr produced frori rianas. (Nrop. 1.1; Brliaj . 1.3) Bosiro is 
said to bo tlio first retas of thf atnian. ('Irsp. 1.1) One v/ho oats '.vitliout 
praising 'Jiva beccr.es an ftntor or retas. rntao is net to be ejected in the 
house. (Elmsina. 2) On is the cC'l'ien retas. (Ekak. 2) Tho deity is superior 
to retas. Cjrij. 9.2) 

qukra 
fjui.ra is used a fow tircos for senen, but nover in tho oldest Upani- 
§ads. Thoro is a prayer in ?.fahan. 20.2J> (Jacob) tliat it uiay be pure, and 
Uait. 1.3 nonticns it as part of the Vody. Then cone several T-nfcrences 
to it in Garl-ha. It is developed fror the marrow. By its union with blood 
tlie foetus is developed. At times the wind in the worrib divides it into t'At; 
parts and then twins aro bom. The Jinount of it in tlie body is a ku4ava, 
cr l£i2 crai..s. (Garbha 2-5) It is -!o:pcsed of water ai-.one the fivn oln ,ittr, 
CJarir.) 

vTrya 
Vlrya is tv'ice used with tlie saino sicnification. It is separated by 
I praqa, ((}ai;4. 1.4) and tliat of tho deity croatos Prajapati. (Avyakta) 



ni9 

£©i;)©n — bTja 
Blja is ofte-n used in the gonoral s^nse of source or crltln. In ::ait. 
6.10 it is usod ir. tho stixiBe of Benoii. ATI animals are sr.l 1 to r.T.rinr frrr. 
it, hon.-je it is soinethinc to Vo eiijoyoJ. lis sweotnoss is not to lo -uau^o-. 

rjO'3tion. 
udgara. 
Udcara, ejf.Ttion, is riQnticn-v'. in a ; ocsi. intin pasnaee where it is 
said to 1:16 found injtlie pudendun muliebruii. (liSrati. 4.30) 

Pus 

puya 
Puya, or jus, is cnf. of tlie things cf which the vile body is •onposed. 
(Narad. 3. 48) One who drinJ.s witliout praisibg 'Jiva boTcrnes a drinker of pus- 
(Bhasnia. 2) 

Kuwors. 

dc^a 

Hot rauoh is saii in recard to tho throe do^as or huriors, which aro so 

iinportaint in the later Hindu system of mediTine ► 

?indy Kuncr 

vata 

Vata, thn ^indy humor, is n:entioned as one of tlie parts of the body. 

(Mait. 1.3) It -!auOs diseases in the arteries. (Qan-}. 1.7.14^ 'yrij . 6.30) 

Tut iritheso Ir.st paBsages the word may sinply r.ean wind. 

Bile 

piita 

Pitta, or bile, in r.ontioned a little more t)ian vata. It is one of tho 

of the lioart 
i:'purities cf the bcdy, (Mait. 1.3; 3.4) bein^ located in the firo-p]ace,^ 

a^nisthana, (Garbi.u .,; if we caj; place any reliance en the writer's kr.owledEe 

of tho call bladder and its location, it would indicate tliat the liver was 

connidered part cf tho heart, jin-1 the seat of heat. But this is doubtful. 



.?20 
Dile— pitta 

It wpifliB n prastlia, or 72B fraro. (Garthn 5) Tl.o lr,to Yoga Upanigads 
have fan.;:sLi- no.aci.s. Pitta oaucos liacusos . ('^rrj. 6.30) Tl'.oco aro lurod 
by drawinc in air ty tlie toncuo and ©xhalint; it by the noso, ('^aijj. 1.7.14) 
cr by the fall broRthinc known as kxmbhaka. (Yo. Ku. 1.30) it is driod up by 
rapid motion after denth, (Yo. Ku. 1.70) 

Phleghm 
kaplia 

Kapha is the third of tho huriors of tho body, boine one of its ii:i- 
purities, (Mait. 1.3; 3.4) and reichinc ar. a(}haka, 2912 gran: s. (Garbha5) 

It is found in the Brahna a; tery, (eugumnS) and the mouth. (Yo. Ku. 1.38) 

(yle^ia 

yle§iiia is another word used for phlegto. It is cnoe iistinruished fr^^m 
kapha, tlicugh nothing is snid to indicate the difference between them. 
(Mait. 1.3) It if. tho wcri. of tho air known as "dhananjeya, ('5ar4« l-^) ^^'^ is 
■jomposed of water. (Qarir. ) Ey proper breathing, it is removed by the internal 
fire. (^anj. 1.7.14; Yc. ku. 1.28) It is aaid to dn; up« (Yo, Ku . 1.71) 



221 



Chnptftr n 



Eittbryolot,y 



Ftahrj'olocy 

Pro^rontlcj hns Rlwayn heon a nystericue and intrtroetirn, suhjfTl Ic 
Indian b^o ^unlntora. Thnt a chilil should be developed and born, rest' bline 
its parents, was to then tlie creatost of all maya. Of Touree it was recoc- 
nizfi'I thnt sexual Tcnnoctif n wac neiesBary to roprcduTtion, and in a ^oneral 
way tlic oldld is moro espesially tlio offsprin^j of the fat)ior. He prcdujes 
tlie seed, while v.oinan furnishes tlie fiold in whioh it "b sewn; tlie ohild so 
produoo.. . ..^(.ntially pertains to the father, as the -jarryin^; out of tlie anal- 
ogy ne-JOBsarily teaches. Tliis explains why a man ir.ay marry a woirian of lower 
oastfl than himself, and yet ).ave hie children roseived into caste, V/hile these 
iDatters arn not dealt witli in detail in the Ufanigads , tlic treatment of 
prcTrnatir.n is in aTTord with the general ideas of the Hindu*. 

In this section no attempt is amado to quote ev»^ry paasage in which 
procreation is referred to, but only thone wliich are tlie -^hief ones. The 
picture will be approximately Tcmplete, but not absolutely so. 

In one of the cliest Uianifads, Ait. 2. IT., we find that the self 
or individual existBd first as a gerr: or seed. This seed is tlie essence gathered 
froii. all the liir.bs of tie body, and is carried in the body of tl.e man. He 
30iimits this to the woman, and this is the first, birth of the individual. 
It now bo:;ciies assimilated to her, bedcminc as if cne of her own limbs, 
henoe she is net injured by it. She nourishes the child within her, and in 
due time brinfs it to birth, this being the soTond birth of the individual. 
Fro: Ait. 1.:'.12, it, is to be as'-umtoi that in normal cases the soul enters 
the brdy through! the anterior fontanelle, later well known as the brahraa- 
randhra. 

In B:rh, 6.4 li.-j a:: of :;ciliai, is looked on as a sa'^rifice, and traced 
back to Prajapati. The various organs and parts of the body concerned in 
coition ar. likTied to varir.ug thinj^sjused in the Sacrifice. The best sort of 
woman is one rocently bathoi, ar. 1 such a cne the r:an is to apj roach. • If 
she shiould be unwilling to consent to him, ho is to ^ribe her with presents, 



viu ;.f<r ■•■■ L i,i( Lfl :.:m. . ti. 



223 

rriVryclrfiy 
ariil if sl.o ronains unwillin;_, ^.o ciu; wi 
poreists in ro'usinc hici, a ohann is uttered, "^itl. nnjily stronjjtK an! 
riory I tnke away tliy glory, " and she beoom©B unclorious. Ilothinc is sail 
her© fiB to T^'hetlior tlie woj.ian shouli bo one to whoni he h:is a legal or moral 
rigi^t to make suoli a request. If the woman yields, a similar mantra cives hor 
Clcry. During coition the man may utter Tharms which will make the woman 
love hin, whi-;h will make hor pregnant, or witliold pregnancy. 

T^hen the woman is seized 'vith her i-^onthly illness, she shoull not 
drink fro::! a metal voscel for theeo days, nor wear a clean dress. At tho end 
of t'.at time she bathes, and prepares rice. If thoy dosir ^on, di ferent 
methods of preparing this rice are enjoined, tp produce sor.9 6f different 
qualities. After tl;© child is born -;ertain mantras and tho like are observed 
to L,ivc the child speech pjid other benefits. But a discussion of theso things 
is rather foreign to tho rresewt work, 

Tho r.OGt cornvlete anl scientific stnte'ient in regard to embryology' is 
to ■;• icuni ir. Garbha 3,4. Ono night after ccCition, a, little lump is fornod 
(in the womb). In sever, nighite, a bubble, in i.nlf a month a ball. In a month 
it t?-c:::?r solid. Ir. two rxntls it attains a head. In thr'='e months it attains 
foe--; 12. tj.j lourtii :.:onth, ar./.lf;s, 3tc:';ach, and hips; in the fifth mor.t}., 
the bttTk bone; in the sixth month, nose eyes and ears. In the sevonth month 
it boTomes enlcwnd vritli life. In the eighth month it becomes endowed witli all 
the characteristics of a living person. If tho seed of the father be in ©x-.ess, 
a male child will be bom; if t}.© jnoiher'e b© in excess, a fci.ale; if both are 
equal, tho -jliild -.vin T^e a neuter. Froi: a disturbed aiind, blind, lame, 
hunchba3/.E, and dwarfs arr born. If tho seed be divided by the mutuHl voxir.g 
of the winds, twins aro bom. 

Then follovrn a pr.ssar© whiih would ooom to have Veen inserted into the 
Bc far sij'iple and EOnsillf', if not strictly a": ".urate dip^ussion. 

The embryo ::o::ipo8ed of th<-. five eloraents becomeo po-erful, and by kncwloigo 



Fnbryolocy 
l.ir. fivpfold por^iitivo fmulty unflorBtajids Bnioll, tnste, At. Letter by latter 
he thijii. -J (.1. lii . Ml i om; wjiti. he understardB tliis ono syllable, tho 8 
preLlii^tiB and the 16 viknrne oi lae into tho body of tho living one. 

By the raotliors oatinc and drinking, and tho Tonnootion of tho artery 

footUB 
Tord, proija inorpasos. In the ninth nonth tho ocltxl^ is filled witli all tho 

oharacteristiiTs an I all the instruments of knowledfo; he roineniberB his 

fcrrer births, and attains goc d and evil v;orks. In this i.onth tho ohild is 

sf'ized '^'ith great i ain at the door of tho v/omb, and is bom at this tine, 

boinc caused by tliis pain to forget all its previcus births. 

Garbha 2 also tells us that tho embryo ii foiTaed by a union cf semon 
an 1 blcol. 

Embryo 
garbha 

Garbha is the word generally 4sod for tho footun. It lies in tho v-cnb 
nine or ten nonths. (Oh. 5.9.1) It is pre lu^ed by th'- deities o"f Bring senen 
with wowrji as tlie altar. (1h. 5.8.2) In a mystical passage, the geurbha is 
said to bf) depe.'.dent on tho sun when he is between midday and the- afternoon, 
(jh. 2.S.6) The charns ii. connocticn with the «ir.bryo in Bj^h. 6.4 have already 
been rientior.ed. Tho or.bryo Eriaotimec desires to kill tho mother. (G. T.. 1.1.22) 
Birth is aiiucioa zc aa tho lalxing of tho embryo. (Yaj . 15) 

Chorion 
j arayu 
Jarayu is applied to tho slough of a ser^ont as wall as to the outer 
ni3Mbrano enveloping tho oi'ibr^'o. It is once rentioned in a cham.. (F^h. 6.4.23) 
That of hiranyagnrbha beiane tho mountains of the world. (Oh, 3.19.2) The 
nuni shoul i not be anrry with anything that is born frorr. the jarayu. (Ilarai. 
5.31) 



Ajnnirn 
ulva 
Ulva, or ulba, is ueod for tho innflr mpmbrano of tho embryo. T>iat of 
l.irRi}yat:arbha bononio oloud and inict. (Ch, 3.19.2) Tho footus liOD in it for 
nj.no ot ton n.cnth8. (0 , 5.9.1) 



:^C6 



Ihnptor XII 



DicOBtive PrcjOBses 



Di cost ion. 

Dicestioii is known ty oho sane word aB jookinj; --pao. Hence there 
ii. .1 oiu'.tanl conno^tioi: beU/oon diceotion and heal, us will to notod bolow. 
Sono of the passagos in roj^^ard to food shoiilJ bo firnt oonsidoroJ. 

Anna is zhc< most ooininon word for food, Onfi of t}.o earliest paB8a(^,<3B 

tolls us tl-at whoii Gfiten, food hooonos thre'"fold--e-::ro;rient , flesh, and 

(CJh. 6.5.1; 6.6.2,5) 
nanas, oo^oriinc to the rolativo cnars-iness of the food.^he pvirtjikint of 

food in ne'iessary, in order that one may havo uso of Ids montal and vital 

functions. (Ih. 7.9.1,2; Tait. 2.1.1) Ir. rocard to Uio connection cf 

editing with the nind, it is dononstrated that after prolonged fasting one's 

mental faoulties arc ircpaired, but that after eating they are again rostorei 

(nh. 6.7) Thot senses and the praijas also ne-d food, for if one does not eat 

they will not operate; they will operate if one eats. (Malt. 6.7; ^h. 1.9.1; 

Tait. 2.2). In a way, prana is very early identified with food. (Tait. 3.7) 
A 

That it becomes v/orks in tlelhands, inotion in the feet, ova.3uaticn in tho 

anus an. so en, again testifies to t}:e dependence of the action soi.ses on 

food. (Tait. 3.1C.1>3) Food Domes froi'. Brhj-ma, and creature;: not only subsist 

by it; they aro born from it as well. (Tait. 3.1,2) This ideu is further 

carried cut in a sonev/hat later Upani§dd, whoro wo are told that food is 

Prajapati, for from it all the praja's are produced, througl. rotas. Vlrya, 

vii.-,&rr, cair.G forth from food. (Pra.^na 1.14; 6.4) 

Food thus eaten is, according to a vory old theory, cooked, or do- 

gosted, by tho Vai^vanara firo within one. (E^h. 5.9) This is enlarged 'on 

by ]iait., which has considerable to say on the subject cf food. j(lor.c, "^^^ 

its digestion by the inward heat, the coarser part of its essence is ooj.veyod 

by eamana into apana, an! its finor pr.rts to tho several .-lombsrs of the body. 

This becor.o:-, tj.o roiwr-.i ac^e-p.oa u.ocry of the nourishment of tho body. 

^ahara) fire 

(ilait. 2.6) Mahon. 13.2 agrees that food is digested by they^n tho heart. 

p-vr^U.^^^ U AjL Ofrvw^w^^-Cic^- ^-L-UtLM. /..^^^^J^^^^UX 



2r8 

Dice ot ion 

liait. 6.5-lrfr, drnva cut n lenrttViprod rnnnr;;no troatinf; f co i in n 
luyBliaal ;-md spiritnolix u.i^, wfiy. ?ii\,;.ova f^Cii-i- (.oo iiuih into dotall, iv r.-.xy 
bo snid that tlie eatintj of food ie l.oro viowed as a form rf worship. It is a 
aajrifioe, and fccil is offered upon tlio altar of the person. The oonneition 
hinres on the neoospity of ; artaking of food in or.lor to sustain lifti an i tVie 
operations of the mental powers. All Trsatures run about day and ni^ht in 
order to oatoh food. The sun Idraself takes food with his rays, and shines 
by jMoans of food. The praija's digest vilian sprini.led with food; fire flaroo 
up when it is 'umished with food; the universe was made by Brahna- desirious 
cf food. Fed is furt)iorrorp identified with thi=» body of the all suppcrtipc 
Visnu, an 1 lis essonso is prana. It is the :5au<:-.e cf all things. It is 3c::.- 
1 osod cf t}ie three qualitie8--£,xu}a' s — and senion, nature, and the world are all 
focd. In a noro figurative sense, all the obje^^tive world beTor.es food for the 
scnGos. Aji; us all thin l^aro born /ror. feed, „rif:y all return to it when they 
die. When viewed in tliis mystioal light, in whi^h eating has be-joir.e a sao- 
rifioo, partaking of food r.ust be aTiording to a ritutil. r-he mouth rauet be 
cleansed with water be|fore eating, the prarja's ii;ust be adored, the food 
partai.en of ii. silenoo, and thn aouth again xisttiif. rinsed, after whi.Th the 
worshiper r.editates in sileme, identifying frod with the Vai-ovanara self. 
Some CI -r.ose ideas appear in ■-i.f older Upani^ads, but, are not treated as 
fully as here. The saine Upanijad, a little farther on, (6.36) identifies 
food with one cf the rnanif astationB cf TraiJ^.a, adlinr that-'vcrship is carried 
en by Ith^owing feed rnzid drink into thp ir.outh, whiol. is ti.o ahavanfya fi;-". 

In Kaug. 2.15 the dying father transfers, by a nantra, food, or his 
pcw-.r ovor fcr' , ',rlis son. T).e leeiro for food and drink, ajTordinr tr the 
explanation of Jh. 8.G.3, is oausod by tic robbing of the eloflicir-G it. Vho 
body; water takes away food, and water is ta};en away by heat; hon:5e the 
ap! etitfts. 

Later Upanigads aro in substantial agrooment with the older ones in 



r29 

Digostion 
thio laattor. Foa.! ic produced froii imi supijortod ty the eartli. It produ:ea 
;md auji orts ]r5i}n. ^... .... i)Eatinc and drinking arf» now :;ountft<l 

aiacng the inflnaitioo cf the bovly , (:iudg. 3) l»en-5o the arxunt eatAn by a 
devotoo slioul I be reculated, and cno should not eat too i:U3h. (Aic^a. 27; 
Kfirad. 6; Tritj. 33; yrij , 1.6; Varali. 5.13; CopT. b.7, &o) In nost of those 
pa8sa£;eB iidtahara is the terjn used to desoribe tlie aa^etis's food. Tlie 
aiorninc £Jid evonin^j meals of the holy inan axe the morning and evening sa^ri- 
fi":es; the raeal? taken at tho tine of tho shfrnge of noon aro the lunar 
sacrifices, (hantha^. 4) The foci of a sannyasin should be water and air, and 
just enough fruit. The use of a sieve is enjoined before partakinc of food 



and drink, so that no animals may inadvertently bo tai.en into tho :.outh. 

!(rrGover he should give up sour, salty, and bitter things, 
CSan. 2.4; 3) ^^^ subsist on milk. Cnly a a sr;all quantity of sweet and 
slippery t).ir.gs is allowod. (Yo. ^u. 42,43) 

As in Brh. 5.9, itait. 2.6 l';3 , digestion is carried en by tl.e internal 



firo, called in Garbha 5 the belly firo, or ko§^hagni, which digests all tliat 
is ea:-ii, drun/., liCi.ed, or sucked. VarSi. 5.48 cells us that thic. internal 
fire produces juice, or rasa fror. the food. 'yan4. 1«4 goes raore into detail 
in rogard to digestion. ^^ '- - t. ' 'rink aro first conveyed into tlio tunda, 
where they are separated by praija, that thoy may be converted into rasa. 
The water is placed over tho internal fire, and the food over tjiewat;5r. 
Praija then unites with apana, and taking air along witii their., they rn tc the 
flame of firo in the midst of the body. Tho fire, thus nourished, heaus tho 
water very hot, and in this way the food, mixed with spices road plaoed over 
the water, is cooked cr dijeoted. In this way praija separtte- th- ^r-fnt, 
urine, water, blood, juice, excroi-'snt, &c. ?;ith the aid of eamana iho now 
prepared juices aro carried to all parts of the body. Gnrbh. 1 also mentions 
water as being an aid in digestion. Tri-j. 84 also testlfieo t' tv.<i r.nrt 
played by s-ninana in carrying tho rnaa to tho various parts of the body. 



Pleat of Bo>ly 

''losoly rolatel t( lie ruiiVuion cf diconLicn ib the bodily l.u. ., as 

hno already Leon al.own. A littlo moro may added to tho euT-joot of heat. It is 

UBua^ly troated in a nystisal way, and very frequonily oonneotod 'vith one or 

i;or-. rf ti.o external saTrifioial firos, so that its dia-jUBsicn fron a physi- 

olot;,ioal standpo:^ does not yield uiuih. The hodily heat is produced between 

prana ar.l apana, fij^ured as soir.a vobsAIp, upamsu nziA antarymna. It is sailed 

Vaijvajiara, an I is the inwnr,! puruja. It dicosta food, and maiies a noiso 

w}iioh one may liear by sto: ping Ids ears with liis f inhere. A person dyin^; 

does not hear this noise. (Brh. 5.9; nh. 6.13.3; ?iait. ".6) In this connection 

a 

one shoul •' r- • ■■»■ '"«»- t' at scunl is ,. -jharactoristi" -f firo, and that it 

continually rtipeals, "hhucu, bhucu". 

It is hardly nacescary to refer to one's beinc born fron and roturninc 
to aj^ni after death, (^h. 5.S.2) But we may note tho different fireis which 
are in tho body. Acioriing to Garbha 4 thero are tlireo firos which lie, 
.jriyanti , in the body, henco it is called ^arira. These three fires are 
tho jnanagni, or knovledgA firo, the dar^janagni, cr deeing fire, and the 
i.o^'Jhagni or visceral firo. These, three fires resiectively give knowledge of 
good and evil work*, soo forms, and digest food. Thoy aro located in th'roo 
places; iu tho ucui;. as the ahavaniya, in th6 belly as tl e garhapatya, and 
in the lieart as the dak^iija fires. Pranag. 2 varies thiB a liitle. T)io 
•urya fire, thoueand-rnyed, dwells in the head, the dargana firo, as thr. 
ahavaniya, ir th*) :'icu+' , '"• ■■ li.alfmoon shaped oarira fire, an the dakQi2}a 
ii. the heart, and the koq^ha fire, t};o garhapatya, in the navel, and digests 
w}iat is eaten and drunk. This firo in the belly is not affected by ex5roii:©nt 
and urino--i- ^r ^'irning. (Varah. 5.8,9) In genral, tho heat cf tie 

body is produced by the fire in tho lieart, v}iich is a combined physicl' ^-i^^^ 
and mystical idea. (lialion. 11.10) 

'^' • ratlior puz filing Vaijvon'T ^'r.-, • f- i .o,,-. !r,i.n 1 ir. tl.e> "rnr.'^r-\r, 

but not much li;_i t in thrown on it. Tht> :hiof iJci8uat,oa are F^i.. i)..*; 3h. 



r.2i 

••'■•it. nf T~f, 'y 

^■.IC'.j; i).18; 'i;iit. C.6. "^l.i-i: l;,6 r.-.yal-.n.! is aiftod out, '.v:.at ro.:-''.inB 

^iveo the imprsssicn tl.at tho Vaijvanaia is siiaply tho natural heat cf tho 

boJy, 3on-oivol cf tP^ njfiro tuminc wit)iir. ovory .T.an, rorfcrrinn varirus 

fui.oticr.s, but fisioainlly tl.at cf dicesticn, whi-,h Ib r.ontionou thf; nest 

'ioiiTly in this connection, ^lethor tho proson^o of heat in tho body of 

ovnr; rui — vijva nara — led to the i lo- of tl.r- Vai^vanara firo, 

a 
cm.l th.r. to iia subseiuent iiontifioation with extornal fcnee, the Bupromo 

Spirit, anJ tho like, or whether the already existent concert of a Vai-jvanara 

firo v.-ns identified witl- tlio heat of tho boiy, the Dpani^ads do not rovoal. 

Tho fire in the body is sail to bn 0x::itol by tho nindjani in Lurn it 

ox-iites tha breath and so on. (Mait. 7.11.4). Yoca Upani§ads generally troat 

it PC' l--w".r,^A)h r.r broathinr, proper practi^^o cf whiih reculates tliis fire, 

BO tj.at iL di£03ts its food and performs its funcstions better, (Varah. 5.47; 

^and. 1.7.14; (JrTj . 5.10) Tho latter passages credit tlds fire with ranoving 

the sliiro fror tho hody. 



^32 



Chapter XIII 



The Senses 



n33 

CensflB. 

It is hnrdly neoocnary to onter into !i full di.n ;u:iidcn 'i y-nf mu ij>,>o 
hero, 118 they oro as iiiu-ih related to tho payohiool aa to the physical man. 
Still it Pom:s that BOinothing should bo sail about tlioi'. 

The-senaos ar called by different nnneo--t«xt« devata, praija, c^alia, 
indriya, jn'anani, and the like. Indriya^ though not used in the very oldost 
Upanigads, soon somes to be the word by Iho whiih thoy are conorally known. 
"he firs', point to bo oonsidorod in the nuinber and nainospf tho several sonsos, 
Wi.ile it may bo true, as Deusren suci^ests, t) at tho soven so 'jailed openinf^s 
6f tho head furnished tho startinc point for tlio original enuiaeration of 
tl;o crr;ans cf sense, thus ac^ountinc for apparently irro^ular sbheces of tho 
senses v/hen only four cf five senses, imlrding the ndnd, are included, it 
sliould also be noted that these early pasra-or^ do not in conoral undertake a 
full enujneratir,n of tho sonsos in the TiiliEm - neaninc of tliat v,-ord, but 

brinj; theiii in iiore cr less incidentally in -jonnection with soino other toi ic 
under diatjupsion. T: is is not true in every ^aso; still these passaces 
do not i-roctoiiii .0 :. full enurneration cf the sensen. Ch. is ratlier -lonsistont 
in its mention cf fivr^ of what wo may oall senses, praijas. They are, sppech, 
sicht, hearing, snell, and rind. (1.2.2-6; 2.7.1,2; 2.11.1^; 3.18.1^6; 
8. 12. 4, 5) In bocK 3 wanas ic made the superior of the others, whi-ih serve 
it. But in general manaa is coordinate with the others. It will bo note' that 
oven at this enrly stanopoth tho knowledge senses and tho action senses, to 
use tenr.5; froi. J.;^v^'r j i .lloBopl:y , nro roocgniaed as seasos. Fr)i. alac ' ■ - 
seme passages in this vein, yet it proson'. s t'.e firrt foiinal emunerution 
of tho sensPi, under p specific nane, graha, or soizor. Tho other lists, 
it is eviltfi.i, .um .-igi- or leva pi.'vpo i to r.oot the list cf fiv proijas, 
rejCijfiiBoJ even in early tines. 

Following is this list of senses and t'noir functions, as givon in 
Erh. ?.''. The word for tho function, ixtigraha, is peculiar, sug^ort*" 
Llieir r.astery over tie sense. 



r!34 
Sennes 

Cralia tLtigraha 

praxja apana 

sreosh nni-iG 

Ccn£juo tasto 

oyo fom 

or.r . scur.d 

mind aer: ro 

an:: 3 work 

akin tcush 

Apana eviJouts L".oanR anflll hero, thoujrh one nust minlt that the ubo 

of tho word is peculiar. Praqa as tho organ of snell also soons a little 

strnnfo, 'fcnt in tx raoro natural ubp of ono of thr breatl.s. It will be notrd 

t.iat t;.sLu, won. , anJ tou3h have been added to thfi lists in C5h. *^^ t-t^x 

(.•--^v-tv^V- -W-»-(N-«>a t^^>-,^^^ «AX_ (jJ-^L/O tJu^Oi^QJ 5. . ov-'i- )'W-V}o . >t^ • f 

An-tl-.or, thoucl' an informal,"^ list found in this sano Upaniead is 

5.12) 
wore complete. CFrh. n.4.11; repeated 4. -la. ) 

r f 



Crcan^Conco 


t hj-.-!t 


3A.in 


touoh 


tongue 


taste 


no so 


er.ell 


eye 


fonn 


ear 


ncnr.d 


:..ind 


per^C'pts 


heart 


knowlodce 


tftsk hands 


■wc rk 9 


foet 


LiCV 


spoeh 


Veda8(knov/ledEo) 


upastha 


pleanuro 


anus 


ovaTuation 



In this early passage all ten of the senses, as ordinarily defined. 



2n5 

Sonaos 

are roTCi^.n.zed, junt ns thoy aro latdr on, wioi. Li.o a.; ;i;-ion of inanas and 
hifdaya, v.hoeo functions soe: to bo roopoctivelwthinkinc and tho retaininc 

of knrwlsdga. A ncr-.'-viiat eir.ilar infrrr.-il Hot of t!.o rpr.rfls is TontrJnod 
in x>.au§. 1.7. liero tho anus, skin, aiid ).onrt are oniittod, vhilo tho body, 
ro3ognizinc pleasurn and pain, and ilw prajiia, with its objeotivo knowlocfce 
are suhstitutol. Thir lirt ^" s rritint.ol ^'(^^'ftr.",l ti::es in Kaug. , yjarkirf 
it off as sc:.iev.'J.at ii.olopor.dsnt. ^Cl".; Z.b) In this Upanigad, the senoos 
aro dependent en prajna, as they oan do nothing unless coupled with it. 
Frajna 4.2 ro-.ornizes tlio tfn funatione of the r.or.nGG, and notes thr.t they 
aro not oporative during eleop, nor is tho mind. Pron IJait. 2.6 

on t'ne ton action and ten knov/lodgn senses ar-"' fonnally recognized and 
dis'.iiifu" nl fl 1. 

jOJisidorahle in£;9nulty is expended in sorie of tl;e later Upanigads 
in s'lhenes of the senses and their correlations. A "ost interesting one is 
found in Tri-j. 1. ''--^ro Vr.f- tr,n senses aro soparted into tho tvc groups 
of knowledge and action senses, and pairj^ off; their roalin of activity is 
correlated; and ea^h pair is united with a mental faculty, a vital air, rAi 
an eleiawrt. "Pcllowinf is tho scherie. 



.iental 
Faculty 


Vital Air 


Door 


(Crgan) 


Quality 
(01)ject) 


lorrolaliv'^ 
(adhi^^hita) 


Eleinont 


j nat rtva 


saiiana 


ear 




sound 


speech 


akaja 


manas 


vyana 


skin 




touch 


hand 


air 


Vuddhi 


udana 


eye 




f cm 


foot 


firo 


:itta 


apana 


tor.gue 


rasa 


penis 


water 


ahankara 


praija 


nose 




BTiOll 


anus 


earth. 



Hn -rr '■'"♦■•r.r r^ i' ■ i-ne actiri^B--Gr und, tru-!h, 'c , -:rl*?-, 
tho corror :Lf., "akaja, uir, JcC, is tlif* regular thing; ■...: pcxring 

off of tho two sets cf sensos is in sono cases very gfod indeod. The relation 
of L'l troath'- r' -'^^ ••'l facultier. dees not f""': '■•< ^r,r.v' n'1 t:r. 

A sirdlar aiul l-oio nlaborato table r^y to Icn-.o I froi.. Lub. i/, /.uich 



236 
Sensos 



Goojas to re^otj^nilo 14 eensos, as it woll lut;' n vin. .' iLn ..orf ■ »■ less 
originnl nnturo in soveral lines, In proparirt; thin Bohorio, ono Bet of 
jorreliitions, rathor toe vac'io to holp ua inuoh , has not t)6on iniludod. 



'nse 



Lar 

no 80 

Bivin 

81 eech 

lu-j-. i 

foot 

anus 

penis 

mai'.HB 

buddhi 

aJ^i ain.ara 

oitta 



Ob j 60 1 



Field or 

Doity 

aditya 



dija 



earth 



air 



Si£,}it 

hearinc 

aioll 

taste 

touih 

epeakinc 

Uu. IkJj 

going Vigriu 

Fvacuation Jirtyu 



Vital Air 

praija 
apana 
vyana 



Varuna(watr,r^ udana 



eaiiana 



"minding" 
(cantavya) 
boil-:itnvya Erahoia 



fire(Agni) vairambha 
Indra rukhya 

ant a r {ion a 
prabhan j ana 
ktimaSB 
^jyena 
krignn 



Prajapati 
Chandra 



egcisr.i 
cetavya 



Rudra 
Kgetrajna 



•jveta 



jiaga 



It v'ill to noti-;6.:l that tl.'- above list contains the five knowledge 

fajulties 
Def:n8er-, follv/ed by tiie five njticr. senso'^ r.nd tlif. four ({ualxixtts "' ^ '' 

oc; hinc to meiko up 7'hat we knov as nind. Thr functions are tlie ones normally 

mognized ae rort^.ir.inr: to tho sensos. Iditya, di'ja, nr I Varuija ^ro fiub- 

brilliano;, 
ctituted for '^.i.eir pra:ii3al synonyms, ixKS^ spa^ie, : i.d water, ii. i.:.o table 

cf olecionts. In order to rjot.plote Uiis table, certain doities are called 

in. rxx' of t}.oir -;crr;-la'.icr.s am -c-.-xr, rvn frr:' oai'ly tines, ^ . Hy 

i:.a*L, c r-ionas :j.- i-i.o ijccn, F.ip'' fir:-, n-.'aj-.;V^li i^ ;ui i 

I : Prajapati, am pretty nctod. The ^crrelationB of the vital airs 

aru not orily rrumril, Y^-t rrnrert scir.o aire not n;enticnftd -• "i «>lBewhnre, 

;::ai.inr ^ ictai xisi ci X'l of u.oir.. ' list is found in &ib. - also. 



237 
Sen so 8 

Difforoncea aro foiui.l in tlieao ocrrolations, ovem ir. tl.e Bai:.e Li>;jiiu:ia. 
Ti'.UB, in a.'dltion to tho TorrolHtions £,lvftn nbovo, Trij. 1 oonnoTtn the five 
Krcwloiij^o Goiisep "jclloativoly v.'t]i f" rr , th^ fivn cnf cii sonoOE •■ Itl. juras*, 
o;u;.i., the fcur mental fur. jticr.o with epooe, tho praijas with air, tuW ti.o 
objer^ts cf spnso — scuntl, truoli, fom, taste, r:.<»ll, --witl wator. Cthor 
rof orer.:;er. in rPEar.l to tho ■;laGf:if isaticr of the the BPneos and their 
^orrolations aro to found in Giirbha 1; Yo. Cu. 72; fjarlr.; Varnh. l.",3; 
Varadot. 4; Eurya; Karad. 6. beg.;. 

Fverywhero it i? onrhnsizeJ that ti.c. sohses are do].ondoi.t. Quito old 

is Lho ;,ii0U(_].v iiait tjioy aro depandonl rn praija in its trcnder seneo of 

soul or self, to v/hon. they bring offerings, and into v/Jil^h thoy eventually 

entor. (Knus. ".1,1^,13) Ispecially do they go to praija in denp sleep, end 

:;oiao icrih ai wax.int; as sfarks frcr. a fire. (i..iur. 4.19) yore ccijnon is ^uo 

idea of their rjcnnectim v/ith manas, aiiu in subjootion to it. When not 

7ontr Hod by the ruind, they aro like un?ontrolled horses. (Katha. 3.5,6) 

Cne a. tains tiio body when he is united vit!. the senses in cianas. (Pruj ,i a 

3.9) They are gathered in loanas, iI.rlhiM est faculty, in deep sleep* (Pra'3,na 

Uanae is higher than tlie senses. (Katha. ''■.7) 
4.2) In another Tassago, tho toi. Ronsor. are said to make up the atican. 

(iiait. C.7) A(.ci.±n, tho atmon is said to be possessed of senses, (Sub. 5) 

or to have created tliein. (ll:fsu. 8) Puruga is said to cause the qualities 

cf the ser.sr.-., an 1 yet to lo -vithcut them, (r^vot. 7.17) Muij^. 2.1.? rise 

testifies ti.at ti.oy axo bcrn fror. Puru§a. Cf course, they aro sail lo ..ave 

been -created by the deity. (aa)ian. 1: Kaiv. 15; :.!un4. 2.3.1) Intelligence, 

or vifnS 
prajna i^ i.oiessary for their activity, ( Kaug. 3.8J Liait. 6.7) and arr snid 

to oat objects; that is, for t:.u atniiin, when thoy observe the externn... •■^xrx>i. 

(;;ait. e.lO) Thier aot^vity is also dependent on the eating of food. (Uait. 

r.lC; '!li. 7.9.1; Tait. 2.2) Tho senses aril their objects or funotions 

are i;.utually dopoj.dont, , so that one crji not exist without the ctJ.er. (i>aug.: .6) 

The quarrel aitonj. the Benoos as to which was V. c nest iriportnnt, and 



238 
Sonoee 

clioir aoknowledciiient of prfuja an tho ohiof, ir: nn olf, nnd Boveral tirnos 
repeated fntle. (Prh. fi.l; 3h. b.l; Ktiug. 2.14; Pra<jnQ 2.|) Ao to their 
beinc Aniployed by the deities in thoir ^onflicsto wit), the asurafl, and 
teinf pieroed wit); evil, wlii^h also lend to tl^e acknowledjyiont of the su- 
prenaoy of praiia, see tho roferences to the different partp of the bcdy 
wiii-ih are organs of sense. 

Thoir subcri Lnalion to the atiiian is aaphasized by another expresEion, 
wlien they are »iid to be the horses for it. (Katha. 3.4) Hait. 2.6 divides 
the functi: ns of the senses, raokinc the five action sonsog tho hcrsos, v/hilo 
ihe five x.r.tv.iedge senses are the lines. Ghag. and Paine, also nal.e the 
conses the horse in the fi£;urative ■chariot. Again, tlie knowledge senses are 
tl;e sa::rrif ioial vessels at the figurative tody sacrifice, and the work 
sensos; li.;' hiivis. (Carbha 5; Pranag. 4) Their subjeotioTTto spiritual forDos 
is emphasized in another way '"hsn tho dying father, Vy means of immtras, 
transfers }:is powers of snnsn to his son. (Kau§. 2.15) 

7'i.iiu .nv st-iiEMS cir mentioned many Mraos in addition to the references 
.luoted, only little cf inportan-^o is to he noted. The chief thing remaining 
id the subjection cf the senses to the contemplative faculty, which is urgod 
Muuorcus ii)-ies. iiatha. 'J.IO toa-lies t)iat vhon the five senses, along wit;, 
manaa rouain fixed or stealfast, this is the highest state cf r;£Ui. So also 
Tait. C.30. And in a -or.orr.l way, wp nay quoto a-aong ether passages in r.->gard 
■-:; ii.ci necesEily oi jonquoring or ccr.t rolling tiie senses, .lait. 6.19-21; Ma]i4> 
throughout; "Jaiid. 1.9; Tri^. 2B , Jbc; •Jrij. 6.33 ff; Ahna. 3; Ikakg. 1.21. 

A sinfle other 'cint is thnt bo'J'. ■•-lasses of senses go to mrJ. • up ihr 
linga qarlra. ifKrxr. ; 



Cn9 
Senses 

Scene fov r •: ■ rka may te innJe aboiii- ci i. individual boukob. For irtHlanoo, 

a ploasant odor is one of t)io first produote of Yoga. (^vot. 2.13) Garbha 

3 necna to Eiean that tlio 8 montl.s old enbryc is endowed with the powfir of 

s: ell, but p,B tlio text sorir.s to be eoniotrhlit n.ixod '•• c oan not be sure. Tin>.in£;, 

whiol: iiiay be nienticr.od )iOro as n bodily act rjonnectfi 1 -ith tl.o oyo, tlio not 

in ixs sapaoity as a soncn orcan, if produoed, tvtoordinc to the Inte Yoca 

Upnaiftidu, by thn air kurma. (Tricj. 84,65; Yo. ^u. 25) Touih is ^onsidored 

to bo the sense civinc knowledco of hoat. (3h, 3.13.8) 

▼53 

Speech is tho sense i.cst icentionod apart fror. the others. This is due 

to a variety of roasonD--its iinportanoo in oonveyinf^ ideas an', its udo in 

worship being the cliief ones. The philosophy of audible soun I or voice is 

explained in ono of the middle Upanignds, It is broucht forth by tho tough 

of tlic inward fire in tho broast , as by a Thurninc stiok. It is a ;;inir. in 

thrjheart, beoomos double in the tliroat, an^l threefold on tho tip of the 

tongue. It is sailed the alphabet when uttered. (liait. 7.11.15) Goinc bask to 

Ch.. 7.3.1 
the oldost Upani^ads, v/e find that it is aubordinntod to manas. (Trh. 3.9.S'l| 

Tiiis is repeated often. (Katha. 3.13; ^Irsp. 1.1; G. B. 1.1.37,?8) Durinr 

sleep, espesially deep sleep, it morces into prarja. (Oh. 4.2.3; iLaug.3.3; 

4.19; Prajna 4.8,9) It is the union of tho uppor and lower jaws. (Tait. 

1.3.4) It is vyana, or tho interval between inspiration and expiration. 

(Jh. 1.3,3) The interrelation betwerin praqa lu.i vai is set forth under tie 

fi^uro af a sacrifise, Fl^en one speaks he oan not breathe, (na praijitun 

■jakncti) and when i.o brortthos he can not spook. They thus become mutually 

eacrificoB to ea:!h other, and one or tho other of those two sacrifiTes is 

always loinjj carried on. In the beciininf^ it canafroir. the head, split o: pt. by 

the atman. , and again retumdd to it. (Ait. 1.4; 2.4) It is cno of tho 

BUfi'e or cavities cf the heart. (1h. 3.13.3.) Vac is oonnoctfipitli li£ht. 

It io the fine part of tho tejas ;ou:ia,;('i; it ^ - ------- i- tojas. ■/" 

6.5.3,4; 6.4.5; A figurative oonnestion cf the aoir.o type nakeo is. the 



2-0 



fUGl 

fixa in tlio body saiirlfij©. (Ch. Lj.V.I) At donth its tejas gooa t.o the oye, 
aiad its prSqa to praija. This is ir pasBago civinc tho order in whiih tho 
nensos fail at f • -^ ' i; '■<'■♦■ doTt);. (Kauo.3.13) 

I'laug. has several r.cro passaLOs in rofard to the voice. One nay livo 
without it, but is (?u:-:b; it is not ©S8<^ntial to life, tliru^h useful, It^ 
oopccial function is the attaininc, or rranpin^ of nnrias, an l.^'-- r.ftor. :.ot 
with. It is an instrunont of intollicon-^e or prajna, by whose aiJ it forfonrs 
these functions, and vitl^out whiih it can not Eraep nnnes. (Kaug. ?','6-l) 

In addition to its bein<: the fuel " v, M n fi -n-'if vn sa^iri^i-o, ar: 
notod in Gh., 5.7.1, it is also identi'ied wit,]* tl^e hoteu". (Malian. G-l.l) 
Or, when t}io body is considered as a chariot, vac ie the rattle of the 
vehicle — nr' -^. >-" ' -omparison. (^hag). 

llatnrally the chief rorr-roncea in the later Uparigads refer to the 

restraininc of the voice. This becins in liait. 6.20, and is often repeated. 

(Mfindal. r'.4; "arad. 5. tic) This is because it is or^ o? ^' inptni; .r.i-t s 

by which affliction, benefit, theft, &c. are porfonaed. (Jaua. 1,1} If used 

by the asietie, it should bo pure; a false one violates the seven doors. 

Yaj. 18 
(liara.:. 3. 39, 43lf» Perfection of the voice is attained ^y rf^poatinr oertnln 

mantras, as Devf, pevi. (Devi; Ilaya.) Son« objects can not be attained ty 

the voice. (Anna. L.96) It becomes perfect throuch Yoga practices. (Tri^. 

1.1) Also eloquent, (^and. 1.7."'"' It is located ir. the recion c' '' 

kapala or skull. (Saubh. end.) It is connoctt'd with the ele: ent eartl.. 

(Tri']. beg. ) That of the dead is reproduced vit . J)iij4°' '^^ '^ • '''" 

cffnred. (Fin.]a. 7) 

Uaithuna, oopulatioii, is of course viev;ed as an action of sonso, as 

already monticnod^ This cives birth to the body. {:iait. 3.4) Rati sliould be 

perfonued dur i.i4> t; i- rfjor^nr it by dny wastes the bronT . CTr^-na 

1.13) Too auch of naithuna prcdu crease. {Yo. Ku. l.S'^) It arises : 

t;ie elenent fire. ('Jarxr^ ) 



Manas and tho Body. 

j\ led dioBssic; i f meuias would bo cut of plRoe in a tro; n 

I ■ 'body. But it no?;'? n1v: snble to dis'iueo thcso pansaj^oa w'nere rAnas io 

io^.ii,^'^ .,0 ., :■ LL;i^ , ,1 J ^;., oun.injj of ujanaB i'xjjlf, it. . . ., 

sxiffi:^iont to say tl.at itn :..oaninc char.f'ed .lurinc t).o i ' . _ -.d 

jo:^7osition. In the earliest pnssacos, it o'ton has a uoiininc vory nearly 

• .iUa.valont to our y-c^ r.ind, and oxoniseR 1nent.1l functions in conernl. 

Later it is only of four parts whi^}-, 50 to nake up tho psychical entity, 

ly, ;.anas, buddlii, citta, tuia ahankara, collectively known .13 tho antalj- 

karana, , or inner organ. As to tho functions of theso several jarts, which 

are sonetiir.es grouped with tho senses or kareuja's, brin';:inE the n'J!r.lior up to 

14 (se? Sonpe-s), th-t of hhankara and tkat of sittar buddlii euro compfiratively 

Ocis. \,i. ie.tin,j.jio; Lhey aro reBepctively tlio facultiec of s^lf consciousness 

and of perception, especially sense perception, Tl'ie renainine functions of 

t}-" rir.^T seer, to be divided botv^-een manas oaid citta, Manas ic the higher 

i:.aui.uy, ca» . ■ hiio it sef.ms littlp by little to l-.ave boon robbod of its 

powers by the oncroachoent of tho oth.or throe, it stillimaintainB to tho 

last tlio fumticn of willing and -;hcrsing, and often of reasoning end such 

i-OTJors. :;itta soenis tc be rat^.or ux.v reflective powers than anything else, 

yet fluctuates between buddhi an I manas. Uenory would soon to be always 

included in citta. 

lianas iroL. Li.e eailiesi xi;.i&s o;. has its edat j.. i... > l;eart. (Pi^h. 

40 
3.9.25; Gh. 3.13.4; Ualian. iA; Ycgat. S; Tripura 5.4) mhis ii also exprostD d 

in tlie lorendnny pnsnnre ir. Ait. 1.'; r..A, wherc' manas is said to have coiae 

trii^i2.al_y Ir li, :inu wi.on -c i.avr, i oturnod to it. It is ^sapi" ' -" 

Jvot. ".£, ■-,•}. err. it re-- -nsos in tho heart. According to 31i. SX==* 

;.5.1 ff., -:•. ': 'A.e subtile element cf tho food eaten. Its IP- 

;i>rt: aro ' fasting, but are restored who: --^ or.- o -- - , 1 

w© obtain kr.owiodgo by it, rensible to tho life of the ^ . , 

(Frh. Tj. 1.^-12 J Thin ir. alec ilV-rtratod qiip.rrel rf • 

.anas *a.t ii.v&xvea. V-'-'-'t.'- ^^ - ••• 'r- 



1 <»> 

fuino and the Body 

I rtu^n. , . . . " vr ar-y ,J.o.) 

Ttr jr :■:.(■ jticr. vitli praQa Ib 8«ivfvral tLiiOs nerticrod. , but tlii- 
rlri;?ly Inmr-lVp 1 , r.-rt^y rwl.-. ■ tc t' ^ writorc' aon-joptionpf proija. 
£y urdon viii. dyaua , inannB proiuoos projja. v-^i.. X...12) Together v.; 
proijn'B i', is woven or. Era}iir.a. (iumj4. 2.2.4) usually it xa inferior to 
priiija. It rtr.r.d;: Ir.-r.u-r. praqa icez. (Trl.. •''.l.l'l) It is inferior tc praqa. 
vi...-^. . .-'i, _ iccnoo cf praija. (■..:iit. 6.13) £ii:ilarly a later writer 

cr.. - it is produ.-^ed and aurported ty an f prarja. (G. E. 1.3.37,38) In 
deep and death it -nergos irtc prana. (Ch. 6.6.2,6; ^).lb.l,2j Kau§. 2.13; 
Oh. 4.3.3) Onoc it is sai-i that the body of prajja ivolle in it. (Pra^r.a 2.12) 
It is united with praqa in ti.e highest Yoga. (Tri-j. IfiS) In the breathincs 
it •■ r. ur.t-i 1 t(. rnr-.trriin tho prai]a*B. ('yor.cj- 1.7.r!7,44 ) 

lu oarly ^ii-os it is tj;e ol;iof cf tho sonsos — to whoa they iuoag ti.eir 
roturns as it were, for one sefis and hears with ir-anas. [?tI.. 1.^.3^ ilaJ'ian. 
C-y.lZ :.c) It i? MirAfif r to t':ft soBses. (Katha. 3.10} 6.7} It re:-^rr th'ir 
oontrcller in Yoira tiii^es. (Qrij . 6.9; Aclvay.). T:hon tho Bensos are :x-. 
controlled by the nind they are like uncovornod horses, but aro liko" well 
trAcnod Vr.rr-n^ •vVr.r. "^r,-' -ro oul-iftTt-il to it. (:;atha. 3.5,*^) They retire 
into ti.o ;„inJ La tloop — heine cno Iroai..at).on. { Pra:jna 4.2 ff.) 

Tlie ocnnocticn of icanas v/ith speeoh is often noted. It is oonsidred 
superior t.f cr.-, •: . C!!.. 7.3.12; Zathr-. r.l?) It is said to oorta-r spoo-sh. 
CErh. 2.'-j.2L, -la^h.j li; the produTtio:-- of speech it f^tirs up Uio lire ci .no 
body, which r:ioves the chest gind generates sound. (iJait. 7.11.4} 

r} r, liH vf,. - j,.;anaB i" in.'i viti-.e! Vy t.t-voral fif-uros. IL is like 

a vohijlo yo».e ovil horsed-- 1.1 ■;• ti«jj.eos--'A'iiicl. ruviuirc roBT.r::.^...int,. 

(gvot. 2.5) In a sinilar ficure it is the driver of these stoedr fot tho 
cf.?.->r--t r.r "A atman. (liait. 2.6) It In tho iharict rrin, >"y which t!.--"atn)nn 
rjL-oz •. OEP steeds. (Ka^ha. 3.3) It is Lhe chariot harness, ^rain^,.) It is 
the chariot itself, in which tie atmon rides. (Paai.of'i) "r.der thd fi^-uro cf 



243 
Uonnn an the Body 

a sa.'.j ' , twice riionticr.o.l r.i tl;o i;rrJ.j.,un, cr ^hief prieet. (Licj.un. 

64.1; : .-bha 4) 

'firing slei^r tl.ci miml is "^drawn in"'--tl.at is, 'bo'^ci.neD inopfirat Ivr.. 
V : . :-.i.l7) T].e goi.sos retiro into it. (Fraji.n 4.2) Taking its objGit.i, it 
. < ■•■3 to the deity in depp olfiep. (Prai^na 4.6,9) In Kau?, wj.ero t>ifi prarjas 
aro evorythinr, it t^l-.on .-I'l its thourhtn ,Tnd retirrr. into praija in deep 
sleep. Cj.au§. 3.3; -i.l^) 

Becinnint; with Kalian. , nanaa is looked on as somothin;^ v/hi^h porfonns 
v/crks, '•■"•on evil works. (U.i.im. 12} It r.^-rfcr. r. affliction, 'benefit, theft, 
and tl.i liie. ('^aiid. 1.1) It is an inptrur.ent of action. ("Jrij. 1.7-10) It 
pt-irfonus works. (Anna. 2.6^ It is one of the 16 powerc of tie body. (I3:av,) 

It is ir.plie.l in Erh. f-."^." that raanas is the scurr-.e of procrontion. 
Later it is affirmed that retas was produced fron inanas. (lirsp. 1.1; Trhaj . 
1.?) In Yoga of courso the restraint and direction of inanas is frequently 
ref •■•rrc'd to. Fsi ocially "■ ■ rvAr^r-^os tho body r.-r.'. !-irfiTt=i tho broaths. 
(Mukti. 2.42; 'JancJ. 1.7.r^7 fr.) A piculiar idea is ti.at iDEinas ic lo bo di- 
reotod to the end of the nose to cure fever. ((Janj- 1.7,51) 

A rn: r-: .■ y rassa^os oonnectinc inanas "i'," th-^ moon nay be nert-'f.i.o 1 as 
a raatter of ijiLerest, though not strictly pertaiiiin^r to the body. It is very 
siruilar to the ccrrellation of tho eye v/itli the sun. Uonas ic identified with 
the nrcn. (Prh. 3.1.6) It £oes t^ +Vn —.rv ^^ 'ir„'th. (Prh. 3.r.l3J It is tho 
deity of thP :.oon. (Brh. 3.5.14 ."i.) The jaoon sprang fro::i the mind of Puru§a. 
(P. F. 13). Tho jnccn car;e fro: and returned to the manas of the priiaal nan. 
(Ait. 1.4;^. 4"^ ""V.-. crinf^ of tho departed ecul to the moon, an! the ::onversation 
which it carries on there tends in the same direction. (Kau§. 1.2) A late 
Upani^ad also tpl '. c us that tho noon was born fror. tho manas of Prajapuli. 
(Cub.l) This same Upanifad correlates ♦■ ' '• ^ ind with t] r, -m,, r. s ha- bPR- 
noted in the tables of the senaer. '^Vkb ^:lose cir:ilarity of worda uCr '>•••■"- -ind 
and tho moon and month in Greek, Latin, and Gemanis, as well as tho words 



244 
Uanas and the Dody. 

fcr insanity -■ r • - tl •■ --.".kneBs (jf. CT t X.r(./ A ^ <r t X a v « o- r oa>-<^'j , 
Eucjjest that tliis ooiu.Goticr. was existent oven in priraitive Indo-European 
liries. 

In rc'cartl to otlic-r thingspcnnectoJ with ihj mind, as thoy relate to tiio 
":cJ.y, such for instan-;e us prajqa, whirjh rules the various orcone of veneo, 
enoutli has been sail in tho disousBion of theeeveral sonsos and parts of the 
body for t: o purpose of t'.is treatise. 



245 



Olmpter XIV 



Tlie FreatJiB 



Tho PraijQB 

The ooriBidorntion c *" V.o praijao in r. BOinowhat ooi plicQtod matter, 
owir.f- in pr.rt to tho fr.Tt t) r prsiija hr.n vnrroun nor'.nincs, evfin, at tiirar, 
in ci cii.^xc uj-aiii^cd, aii.i aico -o liic- iajt i,;.at, '^,l.!)rG aro some U)iou>.i.xui 
iiiatterc in recard to just v/hnt tho various niomebf'rs of tl o praqa aeries 
aro. If t}:is l-.st point wero th' sole one to ho decided hero, perl-.nps the 
be:-i vT.y of iisjussinc t;.o quoction qould bo to he^in with tlifi inodern UBape 
of tho varicue praijti words, and tra-^e tlioiu l)a3kv.'ards to tlieir first use in 
tho literature of Sansrit v/ritors. Put on tl.P whole it will probably suit 
our purpcso bother to troat tho subject jjiroiiolccioally, an otlior Kattors 
have been treated. 

The prir.ar: menjiirf: cf prarja , fror: t\\e comyoundod *JBXi, to breathe, 
seems to mean simply breath. A noun ana is also found in the Up|Ufii§adB, but 
in each sase tliero is eomethinc which makes it doubtful whether it is a real 
word in actual uno.'jtna is found once, E.V. 1.52.15, and soeir.s »4ro likely 
to bo ths baco of tho praija 3yBtoni. Put as the precent treatise is confine 

A 

to t}ie Ui-anigads, it iE hardly wcrtli while to enter into a discussion of 
outside ; assa 63. Tho Tcrrelp.tion add identification o'" breath with life is 
most natural and has boon done in many na.ioi.s; honio it is just what we 
v/ould expect when we find praija in many cases moaning life, or tho lifo 
principle. Thif, thcurht necessitates tho identification cf prai^a witi. the 
Boul in ;;iany sc;.oois cf thon£,l.t, and a^in wit>. tho deity. Finally, praxja 
is us.rl tc refer to the senses, at a time when there was no special word 
to indicate then. Thir, was no doubt duo to tlie importnnco cf the senses 
tc thn lifo t-: ., c;n; may havo boei: influoncod by ar.otlior earl; word for 

the oenoer--deva, or devata. Praqa as a sense nend not be discussed hero, 
a-^ •' ■ r-.-M ses ar--: trflate'. elsov-hore, while t}io niotaphysical connections 
aro not v.it;,in our siopo. Tho roinaininc sutjoct is the broa-i.-praiin. 

Startini. with the eintle prarja in the K. V. we find a list of five 
Epevfi- v.roat>.s ■ .fic) i r.r.r, ! i, t". l,-;tftr Tamhitas an! tlieir adjuncts. Eons 
cf««i- these breaths aro i>ot oftoi. ...oi.ticnod i.. this early literature, hut 



247 
Tho PrSr^ne 

the Tonpcund praijajariftu, us Li.n vital breai-j i i/jj.ciux x-. I'airly oi-. . <.i.. 

Ho sysler.ati3 olassifiTaticn cr deeoription cf tlioir. arnl thoir funsticns 

is to bo liad until we rea-; tlio Upani^&dH. 

Eefcro pro:;cedinj^; to a discussion of t};e oerieo, Tortuir. aspects cf 

tlie praija question may bo mentioned. There l.as boon a c^eat deal of ar^^ni- 

ment cfer tlic question whothor prarja or apwa oricinnlly noant ir. ot out 

breatl.in{_. Ea-;h opinion has bf<on fimily l:old and strenucuily r.aintninod 

by its advocates. The verbs relating to tliese various fonnn have Leon called 

inio the argument, an', philol c^gio-ftl definitions urged. Iffhatover may be said 

about verbal fonns outside of tho Upani^ads, notliinr oan be really proved 

by then in the Upanijads. A matter whicl. is generally overlooked in tho 

discussion cf these verbal forms is that tliey are as a natter 4f fa^ct 

all used ii. a dGiiondnativo sense ii: tlie Dpr.nifads. Tfhilfi it is possitlo to 

give 

jcxi a i::ore general interpretation . to some of tliS passages whare apaniti 

occurs, 3areful examination leads to thr. Telief timt . ': the word is in all 

casos usod with dnnomlnative force. Ir. Hihe interpretation of verb forms, 

one ii:i:ort:.nt matter has beon overlcoi.ed. In tho older literature v.-hoK '."e 

havo a coiirouni verb which can be distinguislied, we have udanati, vyaniti, 

and once sanana (perfect), all fror a -Jan. Eut in tlie Upani§ads we have 

always form with long a, udaniti, vyaniti. While the earlier ferns seoiitto 

havo the directional or )-;odifiod neaningB corancn to verbs compounded with 

theco verbal profixes, tht^ later ones seem to be used as if they we were 

denominatives cc: iig directly froi the noun fon-is. The late use of tho 

verb apaniti soo: s to be t).o saro, and not be a coripound of ^an ♦ a] a. 

CJonaequei.tly tho wjuior -Oiiovos li :.. fron tho begir.nir.g tho meanir.j. of 

praija anl apa^.a was not inbreathing and outbreathing respodtively, or 

upper 
vice versa, but; breath \r. t).f irxnx p-.rt or lower p.nrt cf the body, while 

ti .■ verbs conj.ooii'. d v-ii;. Li-on aro t,o bo construed intJiO denominative sense, 

80 that pr^iti nay mean eitlmr in or cuL breathing, but is appliei to tho 



248 
The Pr^an 
breath in tho upper part of t)iO body. Apaniti, in tho Uponi^adc, on tl.o 
other hand, aoorns to i-eon to Kianipulate apana, and tliis n.ay bo done by 
eitl.or in or cutbroatliino,^"''"^'-'^^'^ "^^ o^^^a^^ oy oZI^^^^^^\.a^' 

The dovolopenent of a series cf brontiha cut cf the crigtial prnija 
while in part jiricr to tho Upani^ads, nay porhnpi be understood from them. 
After tho original praqa, apana se rjs to . hnvo been thfi next niorabfir 

added. This iray be inlerrod froi: the fadt that these two are tho breathe 
most mentioned, and therefore sonsidered t}ie nost important. Je find for 
instanrjG that they aro essential to life, in a passage whorf- no other braath 
is mentioned. (Brh. 6.4.12) This mm passage is one where iw a charm is used 
to take away a man's proija and apana, and Ye departs from this vorld. 
In the opinion of tlio writer, this refers to the breath ir. tho uprer and 
lov.er parts 4f tho body, as conoeived by tlie Hindu. ReaGons for this opinion 

will be given later. ArotVor and later passage reads, "^He leads up the 

(unnayati) ^ 

prarja,L he throws Skxx (asyati)tho apana in tlio opposite direction (pratyanc) 

All the Devas worship the dwarf seated in the midst." (Katha, 5.3) The 

reference seoms to be to tho life principle or deity, whiih seated in the 

heart, operates the praija above him and tho apeuia below him. 

The third to bo added would logically seem to be vyana, as explained in 

CJ}i. 1.3.3. To Anglicize tlio verbs praijitijand apaniti, which seem to be simply 

donoiainativec, tho passage would bo translated, "That w&ich pranan (praijiti) 

is prarja, that which apanao, (apaniti) is apana; tho union (sandhi) of the 

two, praija and apana, ia vyana." Vyana is further identified with speech, 

and we aro told tliat when we spoait or sing we do not exercise either of 

these two breaths. Too much stress should not be placed on the identification 

of vyana with spooch, though the fact that tlio air whi^h operate* tho vocal 

cords cones noithor frc.' Ij.o head nor thn bowels, but from a [oint between 

the nose and the navel, the localities or praija and apana, would be sufficient 

grounds for *ho writer's identifying vyana with spoeoh, and would be the most 



249 
Thp Breaths 

Bonsiblo cf 'ill tho imny rjcrroiaixone ana etyT:xly(;,ioa ii. tide soTtion. Tho 

one thint for cur purpoGO ia that vyana is a union cr bond betwo&n prSija an J 

apana, and would seem to havo its headquarters in tho center of the body. 

Ij. its vory aharaitor of boin^ a uniter of the two it is also a separator, 

which would justify the use of the word in the etymological sense as a third 

air, or breath. 

Tlie nood oi two jncro brociths to round om '.he nujabor to o^jroo wit:i the 
sense8--five work and five action senses — ^'would supply suffisient croun.is 
for the addition of tho other two. It will be well now to have a look at the 
cosaplete systonis of broaths as found in tho earlier Upanigads. 

As the first list of the breaths to be quoted adds ana to the five 

pranas , it nay be well to stop firct on the word ana. B. a. R. do not quote 

3. 

t;-.is '-vori outside the Upanigads. It is found in C^h. 5.2.1, Brh. I.i5 17,18; 

6.1.14; in eaoh of theso casos tliere Is sonio play on Liio word anna, food, 

and there is no real gtinranteo that ama is a real word anl means breath. It 

is •'Oil .-.nown how little dependence con be placed on thesa etyaolocies and 

puns. Tho only otlier instanida of the use of ana is Brh. 1.5.3. The 

passar^o is as follows. "Prano 'pane vyana udanah samno 'na it^etat sarvaij 

prana(8)." That i.s thn five ordinarily recognized treatl.s, plus ana, are 

all said to bo pra^a ;- 
Deussen translates 

"Aua;.au-;li,- - - -Allhauch; alios dioses ist r.a.ucl: (ana), nftnlich Praija" , 

'^liis is tho only instaiico where ana appears in '-Jiis •-'•'ay u\ 
the Dpanigads, and, so far as I an aware, any place ir. S^skrit. Thero may 
bo a corniytif.fi (f t'.,-. t.f>xt here, ""rr v.-,- v/iuld hardly expect conirxn t; inrsrto 
be defined in u ton., all but unueod, lui if there is it is older thanune 
separation of the Kcinva andlladhyaadina texts. Ana, iiowever, does not «eom 
capablr, r,f throwing any light o. the subM^ct r.f the breaths. Tho ot^.or fivo 
aro all si;. ply enumerated as oomposint^ praija, thoroby dislinguisiiiJij bex,weon 
praija as tho forward breath, and praqa as a general tern for all the breaths. 



Tho ProijaB 
Tho five breaths nre alBc reTognizeJ in Brh. 3.9.26. Tho atmon in oaiil 
to abide in prSija, prfuja in apana, apana in vyana, vyana ii. udona, anJ udana 
in saxmna. There is nothinr to be Gained here in rocarJ to the breatliB or 
tlieir functions; the main thine ^° ^^ noti-jed is that they are ona-neratod in 
their ususal order. In Brh. 4.2.4 five praijae are mentioned whi'.h go to tho 
east, south, wost, north, and downward. The passaco is an obsouro one, and 
relates to the atraan. 

In 111. 3.ir.l-5 five pr^nas are cjorrelated to five cavities or sugis 
i;. tlio heart, Tho list is as follovs. 

Sufi Air Sense Element 

For-ard (pran) prana eye 8un(aditya) 

Right (dakgina) Vyana -ear moon (oandrama) 

Ea:k (prntyan) apana speech fire (agni) 

Loft (udan) sssiuana rianas Rain, (parjanya) 

upvor (urihva) udana ^Tind (touch) aka^a 

About all that oan be gained fron this table of fant4ful correlations 
is that Ih.rocornizes t};f> five breaths as well as T3r^k. , and that the 
brr,a>-;.s :\rv .'.'lu-.crated x;. .. different order froi". what they are in Brh. 

This same order is follov/ed in Ch. 5.19.23, whore a very similar table 

of "jorrolations is given 

Prana eye, sun, heaven 

vyana eay,moo9 , directions, (di^jas) 

apana tongue, fire, earth. 

sajnana manaa, parjanya, lightning. 

udana wind, space (ak^^a) , all under thorn. 

VThil*^ scrn intorentinr- thinr;8 may be deduced frori these tables, nothing im- 
portant oan bo aerivod. 

Ti*it. 1.7.3 names th^ five breaths in their usual order, but does not 

define thrdr functions. Their localities are clearly set forth for the first 



251 
Tho Prajjna 
tino in Pra^na. Praj. 2.3 r©-50£:ni«oo praijo ao fivofold, and later wo have the 

ohief prajja aBsicnin^: the breatliB to various parti of tho body. Priija £^ivr>3 
joraainds to tho othnr praijas no a kinr Lo his offioore. At his oi Ibcb, apana 
operates in the anus and jjonital regions, praija itself in tho eyo, ear, mouth 
an i nose; sainana in tho niddle; vyana in tho veins and arteries. From ono 
of these ulana rises, leading upvard to the world of norit through good 
works. Tho first four of these represent the regular Ton:5eption ( f the 
philo8op}ior in regard to tho breaths, and are never seriously deviated 
from in general, though they nay be in detail. Udana is entiroly out of 
hannony with the rest of Upani§ad teaching. As will be noted in tho seotion 
on the arteries, what rises upward to the puijyaloka through the arteries is 
not a spoTial breath, but t}ie soul itsol-'. Tho text must be corrupt here. 

The next systematic description is in liait. 2.'. Prajapati ■jroate.i objects 
but they were lifeless. Bedoining air he tried to enter them, but could not 
do 80. So he becaiie the five praijas. 
Prana goes upward. (tJrdhvai^ utkrainati) 
Apana goes downward, (Avan-; seinkrSnati) 
<;anana places I'l.e coarsest element of food in apana ani carries the finest 

part to the different limbs. 
Udana swallows or vomits what is eaten or drunk. 
Vyana is spreal o\it, ajiuvyapta tj. rough all the urtories. 
This table is in substantial aciord ••,1th that of Pra^na, and defines the 
localities and functions of the breaths as follows. Prajja is in tlie upper 
part of the body, u.d is the breatli par exoelleme, Apana is in tl.e lower 
part of the body and is tho cause of excretion. Samana in the oentor is the 
caure of digestion. Udana, (in the threat) swallows and vomits. Vyana penaeatos 



t.'..3 entire body t.'.rougi. t;. art-jrlos. . __ 

Before taking up tho separate breaths a few more passageB may be inontionad 



vW 



w 



hero partial lists of t);o prajjas are ocC ■■sidered. Four cf the breaths- 



252 
The Pr5i}aB 

Ba:n~n'i. is the one oaitLftil — ^m;il.o up tho at: an. EaTh of theoo is aoionn iu...^ . by 

its verb, usoii with denotdnntive force. Notliinc opecial is to bo coined 

from lliis pascnc©* In Tait. l.T'.o praj:]a, fipana and vyana are identified ro- 

speoiively with hhil- , bhuvaa, an I Bvara. The same three* breaths aro Bciid to 

mai;e ui an inner nan, whose slmpe is that of tho outer nan. PrSqa is the head 

vyana tlie right side, and apana tho left. (Tait. 2.2.1) Acain in Mait, G.5 

tliesL. BSxiM tliroo aro said r,o inako up u.' "ureath-body. (praijaval). From this it 

may be noted that even when the five broa^^^s are all recognized, and their 

functions set forth, these throe are the breatlis poeeminontly. 

In Pra5na i.- the following; correlations are found. Apana = Garhapatya 

fire. Tyana = Anva-haryapa^ana fire. Praija = ahavaniya fire. Saiaaaa iiauiwdn 

regulatoB 

tho oth.^r breaths. Udana is the rowari of tho saorifi-;e. In Malt. 6.33 

praiia, vyana, apana, sanana an.i udana are briol.s in tho (Dakgiiia) fire altar, 

whon30 it has load, sides, oenter, and tail. 

In taking up tho separate breaths, prajja, tho chief one, will bo 

resorvod till tho last, and apana willlbe first considored. It has already 

been stated that in the early UPani§ads praija is tho breath in t}ie upper part 

of t.ho body— tho f ore-broath — , and apana tho breath in th# lower part of the 

body--t;io oif-broath. There is but ono passa^o in 1.110 Lipanigads which will 

not boar tliis meaning, and it will bo discussed below. The passage in Katha 

b,2 has already been quoted, v/her'^ tho deity or atnan is represented as sitting 

in tho center, ^of iho body) sr-^nding praija uj :^d apana down. This sane 

section tells us that one neither lives or dies through these breatlis, but 

by something else in which th. y ropoEO--eviiontly to contradict the oommon 

materialistic belief of praija and apana being tho basis of life. T)-.ic view of 

apana is quite easy ^o understand. In non:ial breathing tho rausjlec of tho 

cheat aro tl-.OGO wliicli are chiefly affoctrd. This then is tho locality of the 

ordinarj' breatii or praija. But if one jontrajts forcibly i.is ubauninal parts 

after tliO ordinary tre t: /.as boon forced out, a little moro broatl. iia. 



" b> o 

Tho Pr'Tijaa 

driver, off. Tliis nay be Toneidored as bronth in tho lover part of tlio body. 

But this does not exhaust t)io subje-jt. There ie uir in tho intestines, as 

evidenced by passinc flntun, on-l by flatulemy. This is quite diatinot from 

the air of tho lunrs, rmd has to be passed through tho anus. In later tiiries 

it Is a belief that this has to be passed at death-; probably the 8a;ae was 

believed in early tines, iiero tl.rin is n division between prajja anJ opona. 

While the latter is not always speoialiaed in the bowelp,.. . it is at least 

always looatdd in tho lower part of the body, and its functions are pretty 

distin:;t. Ko other Meaning of the word apana suits all its ooTurrencos; tl.is 

one dees. This is tlie neaning in later tines unquestionably. Tho ■•jhief reason 

for not aajeptinr it as the regular meaning of the word is a desire to ety- 

nol9gi«e on *Jan + apa. 

The earliest indication of the location of apana to be found in the 

Upanifads is to be found in Ait. 1,4; 2.4. There we are told in regard to the 

primal cosmic man, "The navel burst forth; fron the navol prooeodod apana, 

and frcn apana death." Again, "Death, beooning apana, entered the navel." 

cU aXa>o (p^ . I tf 

IIcv; ac prana cair.o fron the nostril and gave birth to s-;ont, in the sane 

verse, apana must be souething very different frci: the breathing which 

tal.es place through the nostrils, and by which "e obtain scent. It resides 

in the abdoninal region, and enters and departs through the navel. Ho other 

meaning con bo attached to tho passage. In further support of this , Ait. 

3,10 may be cited. Praija and all tho senses had tried to grasp food, but had 

failed to do so. But apana succeeded in so icing. That is, in tho view of 

the author of Ait. , vi.c r.nows only these two breaths, apana is tiie breath 

whic;. presides over the digestive faculty. True, when therr are five breaths, 

digestion is usually given to samana, but this ropresonts r. *«-wrvJ scheme. 

Further we are told that apana is i;ot used in spooking or singing, 

(Gh, 1.2.3,4) and the vorb abhyapaniti is used with dononinative force in 

Ait. 3.11 and Ih. 1.3.3. 



The Pr?u}Q8,- -y^fttjia. 

Allucicr. Y.:\B ^onn lando _ arrnfo \7',nrr upann Ic^ . ir 

i.. r.s. This ib i:^... I'.;:.-', v/ roiifla oi. by i^ouoccr. C 

r.6 his -:hio;' .0 prove that apana lueaxio inbroHthing. The paacaco is 

as . Praiir vai £,ralioJj, b6 'panenaticrfflioija E^hTto 'panonn hio t.O-'^'lJ'ro'i 

JiCi.rnti. i^ixa :.c cut oiicj of oiti.i lorLiulaB ii. whioh tho cij.^.".. i^rasfOix 
pr'qariso friaulties ore 30- r..lfited with th.oir cvor^raBperB or objoctb, Liiat Is 
praija, vao, jihva, caXquB, cjrotra, rinnaa, hastau, .j. > tva^, aro 3cu. 
roBi-i'o-ivoi^ v.'i:,i. caridha, naniani, rasa, ruj.a, <jabda, kaiua, Kamian, a.... aparja. 
The se.-jond of these foicmulaB, which , nutatls mutandis, is followed by all 
tho Gu'^se^uort cr.ec is as fr.llows. Vac vai i^TBiiai^, ee, iiorantigrSieiia gijl.rto, 
vaca hi naiiiany abhivadati, Uoothlir.£>; ei.ionds tho firet &i ui.e fonauiae, 

' above to confona with the following seven, reading as follows. PrSjo 
vai £ral;a}i; sa gar.dlifina 'ticra.Gij:: gJC^-^ta}^, praijena hi gandhoni jiglirati. 
It ifc difficult to ooo hov; ono can avoid following Boothlingk. The grounds 
for the Biaondatior aro entirely apart from the meaning of apuia. It is iia- 
peratively .ifi^.ru:":'-' ' by t;:o ncdf.l 6f t'.o fcn-.ulaG, for it is s?ar?ely con- 
ceivable th;-t i a jc-Lo i;ev.- vcrd r .0 :uri.rodu.';ed i; 
a single formula. Llcrecver, as the passage stands, the fonnula makes apana 
mean both pow'^r of emoll anl odor, ■■•>•■;•. •- ret ( i-.ly r.onror.ce , but is 
again cu; " -Eiony witl': tl'.e fon.iula^ it has -0 ic duty tc^i. as groha ^;d 
atigroha. Deusson (Phil, of Tjpun. j-ng. edition p. 276) admits that it is 
a mistake, ^ut thinks it ic v^ny rl ^ rr..i, tho ret hio tc tho original nut};cr. 
He thinks it ;ould not have roioained all l..i< b ur.loi.s apana really 
laeant inbre; . Put i^ankara's ocijuentan/ ex: loins t^^® workings of the h.indu 
r.ir ' in rera ■■•'ticns ir.v:"' rrrA -learly thnj; rmy amount 
ixing and sr<^.:!u obcgin with ^uilkara hae what to hiii is an ir.spirod 
text whi^h be can not e:;end, or • r.uet explain. IIo 

rf 'r ■ . Apana, ..•^ cays io p.lwny. .'.or; it oarriee 

' r ilcr.;^. • .-56, odor ruay bo called apana. liow, by an imjlied 



The P?BJiftB — Apana. 

i..'i-L.,i....; , ,,.LT il^oj. ', ■ In sure'citu.o. icr wiiO eer.se iwCOJ.i. 

T'Ousson can ■■< how this pnerac© could he perpetuated when apina did not 

r.er.r ir.TrrPn'. , Jankr.ra ccul>1, for ho oxproscly stntor; horo that prorja it 

-i.e i.iyv. 5.r ox si::ell> praija, i^i cliraiiaii. u-.y&to. This scri. gi :..em;:u- i,i-:;;naci i j e 
is quite fair.iliar to iiindu loEi-jions. In t}ie Upanignds, praqa 1. . ooocnizol 
PC .f ■ E ol3 'Tth; z'r. hfiloT-. It npor'.n cloar that wo r.ust ocr.ri-^fir the 

■ asca^o :cr:uti and foj.io'.v i.ce:./-.i.in|^i: in et. ending; it; tut ovoii if vo ao not 
we Kjay safol; follow (^ankara in interpretinc it, without asoeptinc Deusser. lo 
interpret at icr. cf apana as inttroathir.g . 

A fe.v spoiadi' pas.'rgges frou oldor writiuf^a i.avo teen :iUoxod -& s;.ow 
thct apana originally raeernt in^broathing. rut on caroful e:cai;inntion, prao- 
tisally all cf thr.sp pnssasos aoccri vith thr idea that apana neant fro::- the 
boginr.irii] air in -he fcov/ols, or thr.t eid-tt^". i ire:.. zi\o anue. Aside i ro ■^..<: 
passages in the Y' ga hooks, due to the idea that through the arteries ea:;h 
cnn rf t!:o airs r.irht he zcivrryo^ rt 'vill to differer.t pnrtr of th- "bc;*.r, 
thoro iiave hfion a few inGtar. )Gs oitol fro.' lator vritors toe to irovo tjiat 
apana meant inhroi. . Tut on careful exajiinr.tion of all thr.t we have from 

these '.vriters, it is 3loar th-t thny meant no su:;h thing. 

Vyana. 
As alroaiy r.tated, yyana ic first clearly desoribod in Pra-jna 2,3, where it 
ic thr ait 3if3ulnting in the> vr-ins. Tho writer dooe not feel th".t it 
£:.cul^ ovor ii. the Upani§nds--cr for th4,t ;aat,;,or elsev.here — he tai.oi'. '-c ;::ean 
ceseatioi Iding of tlie brenth. Rather it seoi-s to nean the" diffused 

^rrr-t^", cs praija ..lOi.:: ,he "fcr^"' "'"'!'» rr urnAr breath, '.v^.llfl apStia moar.c the 
"tiiOA." cr lower tr-' r-'.;jna .3. '■ also spea^.s of vyana uc i^vii.t. i" -'-o 

veins, therefore reaching throuth the entire body. B^h. 3.4.1 couples it 
■>;■■■ u.^ -jor.'esp' j-.dir.g verb, vyaniti, and a sliglitly diffr.ront t'-.m is 
t.iv6n io the word as already e.xplained, in (Jh. 1.3.3,4, where it is u.e unoc n 

between prai}a emd apana. The word is also used in Prajna 3.8 and Jlait. , 

but these passages av'd nothing. For further inetaj.ces, see the 5 psaQae, above, 



Tlirt Praijn8--BnjMan.i. 

Littlo is to bo GlOiUioa irc;.. tho oarlior Uinnlauds rosiaotinc »ainana 

in addition to what has alrea.iy Iseon said, tho ohief thing boinc that b unona 

is in tho :;idst cf thn 'olv and carries up tlio of formfeed toro'-her — distributtss 

ina a punning pns8ace> 

it. ^i^ra.jna c>,'j} Ai^air. it is sal.l to lea:l equally the cfforir.t;s of in and out 

breathinc and honae is sailed Bmnana, (yaduTshvasanilj^vannv SiutT BSinaiy 
nayatlti sa saiianah) It sl.ruld bo : '.rkod that in this pasEnro praija and 
apanjx ar • not use.l I'cr ti.o in and out breaths, but uichvasa uia nii^jvaaa. 
(Pra^na 4.4) '" '" < 

Udana 

lictliinc else is to be said in regard to udana aa desc;ribe.i ir. the 
older Upanigads. 

Praija 

As alroad-.' stated, prana is tho ohief and most important cf ti^o troa.r.s, 
The word is not only used in tlio narrov; sense of air in a ppocial part cf the 
body, but imludes all t);H broat/ir, at ti:.As. In fa:!t it nay do this at any 
aoiuent and in thi--> rids', of any sort cf dis-jussicn. It way bo tho lifa prinoi- 
plo or tho scul. Sojit is frequently identified vith the deity, in a manner 
whi3l. 300ns . ...fi prajja inolndo breath, si i ri t, , nr..l :^.in-l. (Trh. S.5.4; 
3.5.S; 4.1.3; 4.4.7; Tait. r. 3.1 ff.; Kau§. ".1.-; i.wia. l.-j It is ti.o 
8a:-o as Indra an^l life. (Kaus. 3.2) It is Vigiju. (".'ait. 5.13) It and food 
toeethor attain to t}io hi^^hest. (Brli. t'.lS.l) 

A distinction is soiaetines made, and frequently inplied, between 
prai}a aj:d tho praijaa, betv/een the ohief and tlie subordiante breaths. 
In ...is nannor :i - r.adhya or eontral praqa is spoken of. Death, in tho form 
of wotj,rinosu, .t.lzed all the other senses cr praijas, but did not soizo ti >■ 
oentral oneCDifh. 1.5..?1,22) The iLeaninc is tliat though I os weary ani 

.JO ' r r-'-'st, the broat!, keeps or <:oing. In 1.".7 i '• '^ inllod tho asanya 
praija and overoomes the asuras wlion tlio others failed. I:. ")i. it is aanod 
mux.hya praija , ie .'.iniln-t fro;n tho breath in the none, and oversonewt the 



r?57 
Praqa 

asuras. i^Zl. l.:^X7; 1.1.3) In nnot'. nago it is Bfiid to Bupport t},( 

mouth 
prnnaG ty v,-hat it oatc rvn' Irinks, rmi to opnn\t' e mtiii^ and dopart at 

dei;l,i.. ^:i.. l.:;.'JJ la part li.is tallies ■ iti. Li.o er.rly ideas of vyana. 

In its relation to the seneen, praqa is oupsrior to t)iori. This is 

iluBtratod Iry tlif. eft told fr>ln of thr quarrel cf tho sencos. Without 

still 
praqa tlio body lio : :-s+w^«iij:»K lii;o a Icj; of wood, thou;_i all t)if> otiier sense b 

way te present. Tut with praija the body bocone-s ncnnal. (Fijh. '^•.1.7-14; 

C.);. 5.1.1-15; r.aug. r.l4; Prn^nn 2.:^, 4) Praija cp'rates in all the senses, 

ia.au§. 3.2) and as has heen sai.!, is trequontly identified with ',if;:i. (of. 

Oh. 2.7.1,2) See aire ^r].. 1.?.3; Kaug. 3.3; ^h. 4.3.r; .In '^h. 4.E*.3; 

3.1".?-, praija ic 3crrolated v/'tl, spon-h, oyo and ear, inaking the four 

quarters of Bralum. It is the oldosi and best of the senses, (^h. t.1.1) 

As against the doubtful passage in Eifh. 3.2.2 v/horo apana is used as 
the sense of snell, Kau?. 3.f ,7 explicitly state t/;at odors are attained by 
noans of tfr?-s«%T3*B . (pranena sarvan gandhan apnoti). 1h. 1.2.2 tells us thtt 
the uasal praija sniolls botli good and bad odors. 

Praija and si'-'^^' '^m rAl'ted, thcug!. so::ti:-.08 it is stated that praija 
is not exor::iBed dur.i., speech. (Ih. 1.1.5; 1. :;.:', 4; P^^h. 1.3.24,27) The 
cessation of broathinc while ono ie speaking is looked on as a sacrifice; 
one is th-?! r.f faring his praija to vac. (Kaug. 3.rl On the other hand, praija 
is the orit^in of sound, (^h. 1.[;.4; 1.1^.2) T^heu speech is viewed as a --ow, 
praija is tho bull for th.e same, and nianas is the calf. (Brh. 5.8.1) 

The -;> hi- tn -nnnoction of praija with life and do-.th is well enrha?ixaa. 

Let a man keep on exercising the breath in both the upper and tho lov -'i ^uil 

23 

ct his body, (pranya4 4 apanat) and he will not die. (I3i:h. l.b.k) All beinge 
oimr into and cone out fror prana. ( ""V . 1.11.5) Pron praijn bf'inrs ar« bom, 
they live by it, and die when it le; ves then. (Tait. 3.".1) Lv.v staiiis ry 
praija. (Ih. l.n.6) In a rather pretty passage in Prh. 4.4 tho »f««praija3 all 
gather around the self and depart •'■■■'t' ' "' it ^er.th. A ni:-'ilar passaj-' in 



Prnija 
Pra^n;. 2 affi^-.e the eaiue in rernrd l-c tho ohief proijn ajifl its r uitAB. 

At death the ' ronfhs co to thfl n;oon, (Kri'^. 1.2) or to the air. (Vf' •'^•2.13) 
Previous ll .i xa ^m prai}a otutoined a. Fi;(M.jh, "yo, ear and min.l--'-i.' order 
in whi3h tho faculties fall at death — all ur.ite in the central or main breathy 
a; : ni-enily equivalent to thc-> deity. (Kau?. ".13; 3.3) One puradoxioal passaco 
LniiS us t)iHt at death the troaths do not loavo, but swoll up the body. 
(Bijh. 3.;?. 11) In a general way, praija in ataohod to tho body like a horse to 
a oart. C^V. R.l?.:') It is the sap of the limbs, for v].en it coos away fro:i 
a lir;- , ue _l_, ; vi i.i.erM. (Frh. 1.13.19) All tiie body exoept praija :x.l aka^a 
is material , (Frh. 2. ".4,5) 

rurinr; sler.p, thp senses r^t-ire intc praija. (Gh. 4.3.?; Kau?. 3.3) 
J^ irol.y fi-ure telle us u...;- iuiir.- siy«i:, v/iiile the soul is off wandering 
in othnr spheres, tho praiia remains behind, guariinj;; the worthless nest. 
Tho fumtirn of braathinc an! the naintenar.'je o^ lifo are hopt, thci-, 
real jerscn is not tuere. (Brb. 4.3.12) It ir. unior the ociitrcl of intelli- 
re 50. (l.au?. 3.3-8) 

Pram is doper.dont or fcrd (anna) hon.39 it is called ana. v^-h. 1.:..4) 
Zi, -rxEu ..nil. '3.11. It dries up wiLi.out food. (B^rh, 5.12.1) All i.V>e 
praijas are increased by feed, and thny arc even " dontifiod with it. (Tait. 
1.5.3; 3.7.ia ;;ait. C.131 A:/ tl.or r-nsaro slates U.at ir. the l^o-inr.ir.c the 
cri£,inal -loffiis man trioJ ^c t;i^>o poseossion of food thorufh. prana, but was 
unable -o; had been able to do so, sirr.ply breathinc on food (abhipraqya) 

would hr.vo ^nnn ctt'^ioont tc mi^tain life. (Ait. 3.4) THien sprirJ.led wit:, 
food t! '" proijas digest.. (,.ai>. ';.12) 

The localities o^ praija have already been GOine\v)iat discussed under 
tJae five broatjis. It caiiio fror the nostrils of the prir'al imn , fron it 
3a:r.e wind, while they returned ii. ir.vr->rso oivior. (Ait: l.-'> . 
P. C. 13. It io in the ey© enr an/i none. (Fr." , 

Prana, oc^crlinc tr Ch. , ir \r',-. ■• toly -mnented "'i ' ■, beinc 



259 
PrSija 

produjoi fro.: tl.o fina pnrt t.f water, (Gl.. 6.5.", .('.i; 

In Brh. it Ib od of va.tf has tho forn: of tho noon. (B^h. 1.5,13,20) 

nt)'..ir ri-\tt,.rH, proijn is idontifi"'^ wit.l, tl.o ahavanlyn fim anl 

5.7,1 
witi. ij.o .\arif ioicil tinoxo, (01', 4.13,1; B:(li. G.C.12 ) It uphollG Iho universo 

(B]fh, 1.3.33) Offaprint is obtained from it. (init. 6.35) 

Yoi^n 1. Idae Vi/^-^r; ■ • .-r.- iv!.-ir'. 'r ."Ivrit • r ' ".'iTt. F.rr,- M./,iin! .ir. 1 r.or.nrta 

aro to be united in Yoga. (;:ait. C,.2l) At tl.is tiir.o pruja is tc to ..opl ir. 

the artory su^unn^. (;.Iait. 6.21) The breaths aro to bo restrained, and 

exercised through '^•••> ^^r.^e. ((Jvst. . . ., ..-.. '.19, no) 

'•siting in n --I.-icr f - ^^^-^-■^^nr^\^n ■■ UpanisnT- tr-\r.'^.--\nd hy Tom r. Ban, '••'.V:: 
thOE© lisLed in Jacob's DOnaorJanoe, we got a seocr.i list, whijli a.M sotie 
ijiportant matters to tho breaths, or ijorhnps stronrlthen what has already been 
""■id. In Arx^a. ?■?■ f'". '^'•- h.ivn a li^t of tl.o five ^ • r^nths, nn ' t'.^ r.u::bnr cf 
rosijircticnE in a day. Tiioir :3olors are also given. '^YiOy aro as f cilov.s. 
Broath Locality lolcr 

PrSja Heart (Lung) Blood oolorod 

Apana Anus (Lowor Bowel) Goohineal 

Samana Kavel XsiiBW iJilk white 

Udana i;eok (throat) Yellow 

Vyana Diffused Through body Tlazae colored 

The nuibor of rofipirations in 24 's «aid to be 113,680. This is under- 

Btoo'i to be tho total for all five bro.-;ths, ar ' ^ <" ti;ey each breathe t'r ,-, 
s!me nurribor cf tii.ies, the result will be 2.", 736 for eaol. broath. As llarajrcuia 
points cut in his coni-ientan.- , the Ilanaa Upani§ad (4^ gives 21, '".00. Ti'.ese 
figure out 15.8 and 15 tir.ec r. ninut-^ r'^--^"" ■^vely--nct far f"''- 
It is nuito likely that sono one actually ocuntod tho respirations for the 
;.ole or at lAist a part of tl.n u thfls« rosulta. 

■ — ^ .^ -"WrAft h:-- " -. f re of tl.c- , .j.iga^s. 



260 
Th© Prorjas 






;ij. i: all Li.o ti-onll.a uro sui.l tc 'bo|Ln t).o l.oarL. 

. are ilentifioJ wltn rn-uw^ia. In JtCoij'^ha'j .1 tho five treaths aro ideniti- 
fiod with fivo saririfj^ial f5rna. The f>!ihryr rrnnor.r.i r praqa, whi^;!. injrp.isSB 
• ouLi; ■ ii'lni^in^, T I'.. a .uOt-hor. ^uiirth 3) 

In C. E. 1.1.33-36 it is said thwt proija is suj^portGd by fool, aid 
in turn producoo and eur ports :.ana8. In Kjuri, 5,9, praija it; Irar-vn ir. throurh 
the ncso, caid travols in tiiO arteries. This is viewed as puri, cl' icga pruju-i-jo. 
In Pranac. 1 cfferincs aro nade to tho five praijas individually, as thoy v^ero 
ir. ."Jalian. The falrltation of the treathinc body — pranaspanda — is reforrod 
xc eoveral tii^.ns -.vith religious sigj-iification in }iukti, at in 2.45,4o. :.roath 
tself is sonsidnred to worship in Ilanna 1, as the in and out breathing aco 
ciu i( •^;a'! f.r uttr-.r continually tlie mantra ^lianj-sa, bai^-oa". iwsuri 14 

".var^ttj the bxoatJ* restrained in Ycga — an idea which boicnos very £a::.iliar. 

As for the otlier breaths than praija, not inuoh is said in aildition to 
wl.jit has bfi.-r ivcr , ,' cur] apana i'3 Mentioned a few tinins. They are to bo 
rostrainod to^jethor {i e. prai.ia ai..i apana) in Yoga. ^2an. 4) A rathor diffi- 
cult pascage in Mukti says that when apana has settled down and praija iias net 
arisen in t.h,- ] Ar,rt(abhyudit«) Dion tho kumbhat.a state, when the body is 
filled with air, is experienced by the Ycgin. That is, when ap&ia i.as sGi,„-.au. 
down into the Ic i of thio body and the prana iius not teen expelle 1 

frc:. the 1-.^ . prarja ,.:,. cottlod cntdidf,-- tint is, bnon brontVn.', ctt, 

and apuia has not jet ooi:.r> up, (udgata) then yogins i^rxv" tho ouzer kur.bhaka. 
Ciiukti. 2.51,52) The pa3F*<^r- tiay bo differently interpreted, but this ; 
to Vn '"r. .rt.-ivir ^ rr.-- ::j^y rf,rr,r to one fullbrdr.thlng in the upper and 

a; otlier in uiio lowor pvrt of '. y — ^wl.io}. perlitipfc it- botter. 



261 
The Proijas 

these of the Yojja olaoo, now Jovolopnonto in tl.o troHtl.B. The nuiiber haa 

rticulr.rly imroasod to len. Indeed, fourteen aro rogocnisod and nar;ed ir; 

>..ub. b ,'j . pwi u. xa .cist soci the table quoted fro:r thin Upanigu i i.i> ■.!.»• .-loji-ia. 

censes. Theee ten or ir.cro oon -e c oiraulnte in tlie artories, oarry en 

vital f'lmtior.s, whi:;h aro livided up aii-on^ tlifci, and xkunir are r'^'-tr^-ined 

.■:c-rcim.' . J.J. special aiannerp in Yt-'ga. Cf these ten senses the Oi ..^^i.ci 

XivG are the sliief ones. (yrij. 4.25; Yo Ou. 24) Cf theso, prarjn itself is 

the leader. (^rTj. A,?.^ ,p.6; Ehav) 

Til!-' L.-.i-iL ^i' i,;,,-' ton airs a: n ne followp, Praqa, apana, udana, sainana, 

vyana, naga, kurnia, kj^kra, dovadatta, dhanniijaya. ((Jri j . 3.23,2'1; Thav.j 

:yan4. 1.4; Yo. Cu. 2S&, 23; Yaral.. 5.31) A [^fT.eral description of these airs 

is •.i-u.ei\ fror. ^rliii. 1.4."Ti.ose ten- airs :;irouj.:ite m all the arteries. Praija 

cir-iulatfiK in the inoutli, ncse, neok, navel, twc £;reat toes, and in the parts 

above and holov^ the kuii4air. Vyana :;lr-!ulatGE in the recicns o*" the enr, 

the- eye, the ani.lot:, th*-- ^oins, tht buttcc/.s, cf ar-ellin^;, -n ; ci »,. u ui.roat. 

Apana circulates in ihe anus/ genital reci&ns, thighs, knees, belly, privates, 

loins, l0£8, n~.vol^r-;,ii-«, r.r. '. agnyagaoa. Udana is in all thii joiuits. Eanana 

pon.oates ii.e iianis and feet and all t/.o liiube, ca-cir^ the sufcsL, iiic < 

food eaten, arA so forth, alrne with heat, to pertioato the limb, moving in the 

72,0.;.' artery pat};s. It penetrates the lir.bs and sublij-bs. Naga aj.d -J.o 

other fcur airs have the akin, bones, l^c, as ir.:"'.-r ori^jin (locality). " 

Praija, apana, ai.d sfonana larry on digestion 3i±Kk an". Istribution of 

the ossr-.r.cos cf food as alrea'.y exr]nined in the se^Jticn on di:::^'. 

"By .iseans of the nine atucspl.ere-cponii-.gs the airs of ti.e bcuy >ju-. uriAe 

crdure, and other evacuations. In .md outbreathint rjid :oufj^ng are called 

the v.orkG of praiju. Urine, crdure, and ether ejecti'-rp ar'* t! e works of 

Abandcning 
apana u.ir. AhKKddiiss^> a.oquirin^, effc.rt, ^.c, are ti.o vcii^B <A vyana. 

The raisinj:, up of the body end t},e like aro t)ie works of udana. The nourisliiiig 



.162 
Tho Prnijao 

cf the tody :ui i li.o iiji.e is :hf' •■'■'ori. cf eaaiann. ilux'^ii.^_ :ir.i ui.o xi;.e :>ro 

nSga 
the wcrke of aiags. Winking and the like are tlis works of Auma. Hunger is 

tho work cf kijkarn. Fati^ua io tho work cf dovadntta. 'Jla^fma rx'l th^ like 
aro tko V o.-iis o: diiOnanjaya. Thus i.r.owint aic'-in3:*y U.e plaTes o: li-o uru- 
eries and of the aire and their works, let one p'-rfoo; tho olaansin^ of 
tho ar'eriPE. * 

Pari.aps it v/iil bo well to see what elzC' is said, by "vay cf :ci.:. na- 
tion or otlierriso in re£;ard to these five ne*' airs before proceeding to a 

dis-!Mr.?^icr cf j-raqa in £:onoral . 'yrij . 4.30 acrooF t};'t naga and its four 

are in 
oc;..i.ui;ioi. airs A K - xhn\S .£ . x \ tho si.in, bones, ai. . tno xii.o. Voiiitin£; is regularly 

Civen as i*» the function of naga. ;Yo. CJu. 25; Trij. 8L; "J^i j • 4.33) In the 

l;irt ; r;qa^o vyaha is writ'^AH, but -ivilnntly naga Ig v;hat is ceant. kumia 

\.i.:\^£.. ilc. 3u. 2b; Trie, feb; (Jri j . 4.:^'.; CJcJ.cer.tration of this air in its 

vein gives the steadiness which a yogin desires, (^aijj. 1.8) The function 

of krkara is alvavs thp r.roduTtior of hunrcr, tl.rurh sono -^crrurticr exists 

in Tri;. £6. (Yo. 1u. "b; ^rij . 4.r.4) Thu la^t tv/c airJTs aro sc::;owi.co .xxed 

up. Tlje non.-ial function cf devadatta is the causing of sleep and fatigue, as 

already given. (Trij. C-': grij . •'."'i^ It ' -. -r-*-, p.- dalta, said to bo a 

vital air whi-:h wastes away tlie body. ^Yo. lu. Z[j) Lrdmnarily, dhananjaya 

is -icnnpctod with the wasting of the body, and coupled soj'.etiiues with beauty. 

i^hich it carries away. (Trij. B^-', fyrij . *.rS) Iniood it te said 

never to ff:ca..o evnn tlio dead body. ^Yo. Zu. ;JG; ;iu:.te a jhai-ie. en U.e 

breaths begins witji Tri<j. 75. 

As tf. ^? ••■ other airs, eauiana -^i r ;m rtes in all the veins., nr. n'-te-' 
above. C5~J>4. 1.4) It is there etatf,a lo U> the air whitih nouriEJ.or 
body. In VarS.. 5.38 it is also tlie nir wbich acts- on—digests-- • Yo. flu. 

24 tells us tlir.t it is specialized ir. '.V.n r.r.vol rn-icr. Ac.^in it is raid to 
pen.eato epon?}^. (Trij. beg.) Thn saiu.- sc ■ c. ii ' . . vayu. 

U3aiia is locr.-rd in thd middle of tl.e throat. (Yo, Cu. 24) Cthorwiso 



■p lifuide ana ''oot, (JrTj. .1t.?:?,?9) 

. rJu .. itp fumlion as ©motion. (3.1^?) It too in 3onne3tr 

vayu, .^..: is ^c-'^'-'l ' ' •-> ■ "-ith buddhi. (Trij. >r>G«) 

(Jrij., tvs UBual, ut,r©e8 cf^"«rnlly witi^ 3^<i« ^" "^^'^ loaation of vyana. 

It it in tlio ear, eye, ehouldorp, rjikles, troatl int; rla(3o, and no^k. ('Jrlj. 

r.2?-rp) Vn. ru. r4 cives the ord?"i-- '•■ ^.-^rii^r,>: rf it, sayinf t.'':n^ -t 

poi-vadoE 'Jib ejitire bt'dy. It is lonneotoii wii.). vayu and tcuoh. ('^^19. tec.) 

Apana Ims ncre said about it. It is located in thcr anus, tliichs, 

knecB, belly, loins, navel, and Ig-cs. (^rij . ^."T-'^r) it is in the re^icn of 

tho anus. (Yo. CJu. 23) Tlie daEO thinj;^ ia iiupliod in the use of tlie word for 

Alno in Trij. 114, where it is drawn up into the upper part of the belly. 

railladJiara, /v^Jrij . 7.E) It is in the cenitnl parts of a woinnn. (llarad. 4.30) 

It oxiretes dune and urine. (^r"j . 4.31) It is -jorrelated witli vayu, citia, 

and taste. (Tri^. he^.) Its power over liffl is very inportfmt; it an.', praija 

toeethor have -jcntrol of jTva. 7/hen it releases jiva, jiva does net tarry. 

but (VC6S like a ball throwri ly the ara. 

(Yo. Cu. 27,28} I*: ' - -T.neated with the noon. (Anna. '.^^^ It risf^- ■■•' n 

praqa falls, and vice versa, but this is not so in the hijjiiest state of uho 

yocin . (Ani.a.5. "C-?2) 

• r.r.ection with praqa, apana fi^-ures very proninently in Ycca. Thflry 

3an only bo -jonoidered as two separat'-^ airs in the upper and lo" er partr. of 

tho 1 . v.ively. Tir,e and a^ain apana is to be dnrvn up and wicled with 

praija, Iv.., beinr i... thr body at tho sar-:© time. (Varah. 5.38-44; Saubl., 3; 

Yo. AU. l.^?-7L; 'Jrij. 6.33; Arma. 5.32; Yo. Ku. 1.42-44; Yo. Cu. 4C; JaiicJ. 

1.6; 1.7.13) It is evei. draw., to the top of the head. (Yo. -lu. 107) Tlieso 

resirain s should bn praTti-;ed as lone as praija is in the body . ("> . "^n. 

liJO) 

Tho rolatior <■■' praija :ind apana in brenthinc has already been raentiono4- 

cno ricint when .i « ..thor falls. This is due to the faot ''-t •' i>rr,ntf in^ 

the thoraoi-; oavity is enlarged at the ©xpei.ce of the aBdo::inal, and vice 

versa. (Anna. 5.30,31) Tl-.ono pulsations arn also referred to as a funrjtion 



264 
Ty.o PriTijae 

of fTiuia in Ar.nn. 2. T?, '12, 46, 54. They are sni*! Ld touoh the arteries . 

>!u':i:v t^rurl.t. 7"rtr-A t.i A restraint of breath, in order that tliouglit jnny If 

iiol>l ii. -.iiooiv, Cnt'V.ay of doing tliis is to put tho put thC) tongue a^uiiis t, Iho 

uv6^a and prese. Thoro aro «1ro other ways, t^ "i*y ^© brought abaout in 

BUqupti, whi^h would here eeein to be some ectt of tranoo or hypr.r ti ' n'.nt^. 

and ::ukti 2.27 
(^aii4. 1.7.26-30) liarad . 2,26,27 also raaXos ideas subject to tho julBc^tion 

of broatli, and breath in turn to bo subject to the^i. 'Jrlj . 4.30 makes the 

work (-f praija i;: .in.', cyt brfiathinc. 

Praija jir.julatos in U.e ;uCutl.,noB6, navol, and heart, (^rlj. 4.^. ,i;bj 

It reaches the anus, the top of tho head, and the kuijcjali. (yi'ij* 4.4?-47) 

It is ir. thw oavitipiR cf the .'onrt. (Sub. 4} 

It gof.p t<i Up end of th^-| yrlate. (ySnd. 1.7.31) It Is in tho cavity f 

the nose, and ir. the arteries. (Tri^. lie, 138) boinr supiortoi by the lj:t6or 

(Varal;. 5.54) Sone cf these fanciful things may be aiicunted for by the 

systea. of veins wii-v. t- f) yogin imagined to penotratfl Vir. body, and by means 

of wlii-h he thoug}.t he could .icnvey these breaths to any pla^e he dosired. 

In its pulsatiors, praija goes out with tlie syllnble haq and 3omes in 

wit), sa, sr Jiva lontir.ually roieed^ the mnntra hemisa, 21, PT'". tL^ies in 24 

hours. This is undoubtdedly quoto" fro:". Kansa. 

Praija is said to extend nut 12 fingers. (Mna. 5.2E; OSncJ. 1.4) This niay 

apjly \c ■'■ 'istanoo tc v"-^-" a normal bren + " ••^'- ''•" '"flit, Cr it may 

Dean that one is surrounded by an invisible cinvelope cf praqa :.ortc.inii.£ ic 

him, which is always at just this distance from thie body. Oaa^A-.- •</>^^a-'<i-«. ^oj 
f^^ Xa My .(r^JL^^^^^^^^ 'rw^- Xt ,^v™^.C ''^■'^-^^i'- 
Tlie five praqae are i:.onticrn " -:-r' fr- ■.'''» ten in Varal.. 1."'. Tr ix^i 

Tri^. bo£:. t}io five ara eaih lonneotod wlf.. scwo rsental faoulty. V.ii:. j.rajja 

itself, in this p-Bsage, ahankara is united; its quality is erell, sinoe^oper- 

aton thro .„ - , "4^4^ dwell;. ... .. ■■< ""k^ -n^t'.-.r. aartb. The*:© last 

are sterectypod 3orrelations. Ag prSqa bojoinos weai.or monlal power weai.eno. 

This rmy >^- no'.-l in deat);. (taBbb Earac. , The five praiitts aro correlated 

wi. ,; tu:.; ;.ity, (Surya 4) ar.l praija itself vit;. vayu. (Tri;. bog.) 



\ \ 



The Prari'ia 

Tlio five nro said to ocmposo collea Lively the liiTEa qarlrn, ll.outi. ti.ic lo 

not ilir. usual dofirtion of that entity. ((Jfirlr) 

• iiiaerous r- '.irnnes are ciade tc r<^n rn'i^r. tl.r, >reath in yocR. (Yr. i.'j 

l.;J7; ^ar.ij. 1.4; Vo. Cu. 101, lOfl; Tri^. 10, ui..: ;.iany other pla-jos). iu xc -c, 

rawn ir Jirouji tho ncso. (yo. Ku. 1.32) Very rfton It ia to be drawn in 

Ihrout,!. or." i.rK'.ril anu 8«nt fut ty li.rt f.tVr---8oe idS and! pincala. (Yc. hu. 

1.10; Yo. lu. •;..,98} Thi^ fillinc of tho tc.ly with air, liko a jnr, in z:\^x-ji 

Vara}.. 5.57-fiO, (Jrij . 6 
kuinbhal^n. (Yc. au. 1.4C jrind. i.o) In one Yoga praTtioo, th--^ breath tfiould bo 

exfolleT ■■). • ?;i!.l- r:atra r.i tixae, an'.', tl''- lunfs kept eupty for 12 mtras. 

In anoti.er, fillinr^ the lun£;s 07?upies 12 ;.<Stra£;, holdinc the v.reath 16, 

and eaityins 10. (Yc. Zu, 101, 103) Breath is -soncent rated in the suguinna. 

This is don.i Vy bendir.f fcrward lui-ikly so as to -lontraot tho ne^k, .nnd tlian 

Praija is sent totho brahmarandhra. ('yi^ij. ''-■.^b) 
BtFet:!hint; ba.Tkwards. (Qaiii. 1.7..12; Yo. Ku, 1.14; 47) Knowloice abouL tue 

praijas. is the er'eat knovledge in Yoga; W, ich explains whjr so mucsh attention 
is raid to tho subjeat. (">. "^u. "71 Tho Ycgir. was not altoi:-et}ier spirit- 
ually rinded. Ho ha '.eratle to say ahr^t thf- physi-:!al benefits to be 
derived from Yoga breatl.ines. Tho kun^alinr i^; riado r^re by thesf breathings. 
(Yo. Ku. 1.8) Dr.iwinf praija dcv.-r. !"rf; '±o ne.Tk, cr drawinc up apSna will 
rectcro youth. ('7an.J. 1.7.13) Union of those two breaths, throuch the lesson- 
ing tlio amour.t cf the exTretions has tho saine result. (Yc. '^-u. 47) The artei^ 

ies arc g^**^ .:ade puro by breath manipulation. (^^i^J. 1.-) Its proper use 

Buoh as Bpleon, on sumption, bile, fever, tliirst, poison. (Yo. Ku. 1.31) 
cures diseases, (^ancj. 1.7.43) Cn the other hand, labored breathing will oauae 

disease. (Yo. Ku. 1.53) See also Yo. ^u. 117: ^rij . 6. 

Fhile n:uih ncro along theso linos i-.ight be written about thr breaths, 

these Btate.'-.entB acvor praoti-jally all t}.e ground. Tho following a-aitional 

referencjes are given to those who desire to go farther into the subject. 

Knu?. l.L,r.,7; 2.. ,-,,.,5,12,15; 4.?.^. "-r." 1.1; ?■.". f^h. l.^.^; 1.7i.l: 

2.11.1; P. 15. 3, 4; 3.16.1f6; 4.3.4; 4.1w.L;; 5.2.1,L; 5.14.;j; i.it.i;; 6.o.. ,6; 

G. 15. 1,2; 7.4.2; 7.10.1; 7.15.1,4; 7.26.1; Bijh. 1.1.1; 1.2.3;6; 1.3.13,20-22; 



266 
T),o Prarjao 

1.4.7,iV; l.t>.o-6ilO,ir,14,lV,23; l.o.3; Hixi 2.1.10,lV,lt,;:>.; :"..;:. 1,L; 
C.5.15; 3.1.5,10; 3.7.1'^; 3.9.8; 4.1.3; 4.3.7; 36; 4. 4. r,, 18, 22; 5.5.2; 5.13.1-4; 

L.13.n,-?; (-.?.r;,r;.1; Tnit, 2.3.1; 3.1.1; ",7.1; \:rA).n, 4.7; P.T; ^vflt. 1.^: 

;4ait. -l.l; Co; 7.7; 6.S,i;b,r6,31,32,33,3t.; 7.11; Frajna 1.^; 3.1; -i;:; i.li.wjxl; 

15 
6.4; 'i-.v.iv. 8; C.au(i. 1.6; 2.20; Ki^sp. 1.4; 4.3; li'rsut. 2.5; Oulika 12; giras. 

?,'.' ; ^rai.'.K 2: ?Vk]~ 2; i'nha 1- ':?T.1,'i. IP ,IA: .IrTtnln 1.4; Ixq. ; "ahnr.. 

3,64 
10. Z,'^; 11.1; lly,::&,3^,47,65,74; Taaova 3,7; Fc^iilg. Prnnav.l; Rmiap.bC; 

Ra.iDt. 5; AjiirtR. 26;Tri9. Ijec ; 19,22: 30^93,53,54,101,108,116,138,3.63; Yc. 

^u. 11, 15, 27, r^r, 7.", 95,; Yo. Ku. 1.19; 1.44; 1. rr ,r7 .70. ; fjand. 1.4,f,; 1.7.44; 

Ehik§u; raru:;.ap. ; Turiya; 'yrij . 1.5; 6.17; 8.~; 1C.4; Gopalct. Varah;. 5.11,1c: 

3.18; 5.55; Sauth. 2; Dat.t. 1; Saras.; llnrad. 3.86; 5.8; Varaiot. 3,6; Anna. 

4.86-91; 5.25,32,5r-P.r: rul" . 4,5,9; ; l-fnntri. 12; ITirn. ; "nrnd. 3.4; PS-,u.).,8 

Raiaarah. 5,5; ^an^.l; rkak§. 3; Parat. bee.; Dovi, ond; Trip. :i. 2.3; Cita. ^/5, (.i. ,»_ 

Fcr apona and cthrr breatl.s besides praija the following: may be noted. 

Erh. 3.4.1; :.e:.2r^: 5.14.2; Tn't. 3.10.2; U\m^. 2.1.7; Prapr. 3.?; Prrjiac. 

1.4; Gopalot. 7b; 51; Ai\na. 5.26,29^ '*;:^^^?=t^- 



PJil 



Charter XV 



Patliology and Death 



Patholocy and denth. 

Froi.. the Hietaphy Bioal aide thnrr is much said about life an death in 

the Uiniiignds, but not a ijreat ieiC ...o j.. ysi-jal stajiipo'tt. / ''"- 

suasion of the nature of jlva, or iruliv.iduHl life woull be out of plt-ce 

here, licwever it may be mentioned thrt life rjonBJBtB in n soul attainlr-L to 

a body through good end evil works. (Snrv. ...a.. ; Life is lik" t'^ ^rnrtr '.vM-;}, 

is eft-jlosed in jar; it is not broken when tlie body is brokon, just as Biase 

io not broken wlien the jar is broken, (rrahmab. 13) It wandors Ln the wheel 

Tri'j. 60 

of the navol, njid is Vrund by merit and sin. ('Jan'], l.'-^ It i" Vnwji! Ty thf. 
senses and the feeling of self. (Yo. Zu, 84) It rGinnins in ihe to.iy as Icn;^ 
as air does. (Yo. "!u. 90) Pee also Yo. ^u. 27) Tho sai;.e U]>ani?ad speaks of it 
as wandorinf: in the lienrt. (14) llarad '^. eays that tlirour). pride of its house, 
tlie bi.iy, it wanders through tlio ' f dy as a householder through his house, 
and in different qunrte-rp of the body exp&riemes different mencitl states . 
Because of being dependent on body, t};er* aro many jivao. (Kira.) 

A-s^.ording to Ih. 6.8.3, hunger is laused by water, whi^:. Tarrioc away 
the feed in tlie body. TTater is in turn carried away by tho heat of the body, 
thus producing thirst. A^-icrding to Mait. 3.5, hunger is -ni:'.n; V.-- th.-- -qual- 
ity of tanas, as is thirst also. Hunger is caused by tho vitf.l air ki^kura. 
(^an4. 1.4) It is rionnectod witl the olpu.iont fire. (Garir.) So does thirst. 
Thirst, t^gjja, may be ;urfd by Yoga breathings, especially by tho kumbUaktt. 
(5S,4. l.'^X. Ku. 1.31; YO. .u:^b=) CUU. Ij rJ^-'i^ IJ-'-'^l ^^-y- 

Diseases, roga, ar net n.uTh :ipntirned in the early Upanigads. But tlipy 

do appear in the late Yoga discussicns. Many diseaaeD arr «aiiff<i by improper 

breathii.gs, and propf-r nanipulaticn rcf the breath, a^^ordint \-<- 'i^^ea rules, 

(JaniJ. 1.7.43 
will cure thoia. (Yo. Ou. 117, ff.; Yo. 'lu. 52; (Jrij*. a.23,44Yo. Ku. 1.17) 

Ooncentrating the Vreath in the r.f*" — vi "Mbexjis ^nrn"-i.nT. (Tri-. !!:?'> 

They nay also bo cArod by posturep, araniiB. (^'"'i'l* '"•1^) *hey s.ro oauaoJ by 

ell' r in tho day time, too niu-sh sexual intnroourse, obntructicr '^ bowok, 

and,ur. l.ra, laborr ' ^r-ithing, uneven sit. ..^ and the like. <Jr , Ku. 1.5^,57) 

As to spo-jific diseases, not rany are aenticned. Peri^hps the first 



DlponsoB. 
disease to bo honornd witli luonticn 1b pcuneui, it-jh, whiih ";nuBf>d itc pcBsessor 
ti scratch. (Oh. 4.18) Otlior dlaeanes jiiontionod aro (jitala, 5old, -jured by 

kur:b!;a; .T.. (Vi . ,11. l."l) Hikkn, hi^Toucli, i '■ ^.'uibp,! oy i.l ,-. i/ieeinc nf win.l. 

(Yo. Ju. 117} Jvara, fov i*, riny also be 3urdi b> ktui.bhaka, v;l,i^h is a fuim- 

Tea that one may have witl hin at any tine. (Yo. Ku. 1.31) jynothor doctor 

\.Vf*a^.v"- nr. .'nv;' !ir ' r. the air by Vn :.nn~ii" in! ox'.nlin, it by tho ncs©. 

I:. ajioti»t>i- place he advises cazinL at t]»o oiid of t..o iioae. l^anJ. 1.4.7; 

1.7. Dl) SksxsiDUixxa^xxaxxiia:< Pllha, spleen, is Tured in the sane mannor. 

It is a disea-.r. r.r tv^ tunda. (Yo. Ku. 1.16,31; 'JaruJ. 1.7.11) If tho Yc[:a 

writers gave eTtidun^e of any real i-nowledga of tho body, this ir.ici.t help 

to identify tlie tunda, but it can not be depended on. Jalodar^, dropsy, is 

also an aTeotion r.f tl p. tunda, and nay affect tlio artries. (To. Ku. 1.1", 29) 

Gudavartta, or obstruction of t}in 'hcwels, is also ^ur.o.l by Yo^a. (^aijd. 

1.7.43) Kaaa, cough, is :a«eed by the pasrinc of air. (Yo. lu. 117) Kgaya, 

or '^cnsiur.ptic:. , is -!ur:->d by jcHxkkxaKi Innnbhaka and Yoca practices. (Yo. Ku. 

1.31; 7aj;id. 1.7.43) Gulma, onlar^ed abdoi-.en, is also a disease of ti.o lunda, 

ourod by Yoga piaitices, such as kuinbhaka, and drawing in air by the tongue 

to be Kx^a expelled by tho noso. Visa, pcison, may -Isr. h.-, ^urod by kudbhaka 

(Yc. Ku. 1.31) Vrana or v;o\in.l is aBi-tioned onse, vhc>i\ U.o i.juale genital 

organ is lonpared Lo a wounded artery. (Narad. 4.29) gipivi^^ha, btadheadod 

or leprous, is also once Mentioned, when it is sail that snc)i a person can 

laziness or waqriners 
not bedci'if. a hermit. (Narad. 1) Xlasya, is a tamaa quality, arisOL- v.i.on 

jlva is in tlie soutli east section of t: < body, is -jonnected wit: 1 cDnt 

fire, and ] r.v.,,t^,] \^■ breathing " n nt tho Moutl. and out at tho noso. (Tarir. 

liarad. 6. bag; 7*^.14 • ^■•''•14) 

certain .iysioal defects and dofomlties are nontioned, usually to 
say that su-^l poople can net bf> ^annyasins, cr thfet but), shrnll be tho life 
of the heniit. ru'Jh are badhirus, deaf, (Narad. ::.1,'52,67, ;4.2;^) muka, 
duiub, (Narad. 3.1; 4.22,36; 5.23) ajihvaa, tcn^;uelesr, (Narad. 3.52,63) 



270 

Dftfrtltfl 

axiiUia, blind, (I.arad. ?.^.2; •I.~;j,::c, urjwitta, [,.'i\.\, 4.Cr;, b.2?,36) aiid 
Ja^n, fcol'.flii, (Namd. 4.36;5,26 ) mughda, fool , (Narnl. 4. "2) kubja, 
)ii«::pbaok6d, ('i:arad. 4.22) kZka, Inr.n, ('.'nr-d. 4,r,iiO l-a^foi , l-y-.o, ("ar.-.d. 
3. T) ^an^ft -ml puj}4«ixa, eui.mi., t;;ara4. ;,1,C::;. A i ov CiX-ra lou-.'.og ari 
B 11.6 1 i: .6 3 civen, Thf' paii^'^Aa, f r r r.etanoos, loci.es on a It^/oar old £irl 
as a now horn 'abo. ("nrad. 2.'''\) Tho asToti-; who n'-voo around rnly to arsw?r 
the anils of nature is Jailed pani^u. (I.arad. S.i.o; Andha in one whcae ciEi.i 
does not £0 far. (Narad. Z.d'',) In Oh. 6...1 it is said that ti.o shadow in the 
water, t; obrefleaticn, in blind if tlr ^ody is. Six unnis. or ir.fimities of 
tho tody are i.entioned in Mudg. 6 and Varai.. 9; hungei^, ii.^rr.i, scrrow, 
infatuation, old ago, death. In Tonnention with the asietic, it nay be added 
that he is to viev/ his body an a ^crr-.-e, kunapa, or ^ava. (!Iarad. 5. bee; 
7. bee.) 

Death. 
M^yu, or doat)., i s ?r,:-,sthir.r '.'.■hcsft approach is said tc 1 o hard tc 
stop. (Mait.4.2) It is thus liko t:.o tile cf tl.e sea. There is the pioturo 
of friends stanlini; arourid the bed cf a dying man, near tliree millenniums 
ago, as t5i«:' do today, and anxirnr, fur t' o Ins'. v.-crdB and the Inst siT-s cf 
GonroiouB intelligen-je on the part ci' tho cno about tc dia, as ing :.i;:: con 
as suoh a one istiske ! today, "Dc you know ne; do you know r;e?""Janasi maro, 
jviasi mamT.^CCh. 8.'">.4; 6.15.1) The Intter passafo irforr.s us thnt n* tho 
tin»e cf dent;., speooh Tiercos into laind, ii.ind into breatJ., and brea*.:. i. s-c 
heat, while heat nercos into the highest being. This would seem to refer to 
tlie order in v•h■L^h •.i..> nornon ,nr. ! functions of the body leavo in death, as 
•^ell ae tc . oir ultl: ato absorpwionli.nto tl.o 8upioi.i©» IJeiiig-. Li. i.im-j. /.. 13 
it soors t( >« implied thnt the ? rder in whioh the senaos fail is , speech, 
.sight, hearing, thought, broath. t' «-., rn-.uli-nr,, -rr.^er'-.rntir.r ir attftn^'^ 
or.f' :inctr.-r in the order given, are finally '■ i raija . . r. 

t}.en let|vo6 tho ^ody. This is also taught in Kau^. ^.3. B?h. 4.41,2 also 



.?71 
Death 

deals v.i*' : his suIJ'''t '.-.i-. ■i'^ -] '■-,' jrKj}i\ ^^w..,,. . ■ r-.,,rT, T"' 

on i \ti't, iJiM oyo-peraun larne uv/ay, and Um dyiu(i peruoii ti.en 

soes no racre fonua, Siiiilarly he Iobob the powero of ffioll, uir.l-. , oj o , 

heu. ...^, .,.^...-.j.i.^ , tounh, knowl^! ■=-. '' . • <■ r the heart be-jonoo li^^hted 

up, and the soul -Imparts, eitlier uhroui^li chi ©ye, tho skull, cr ocr.o other 

part of the body. Alcnt; wit), it , it tai;eB uil tlie ooneas. Tho olosin^'part 

of Erh. •i.r 1«^R--!rlbpr, tl.is departur"-- -i'- "^einf. like i''-' .'ivr"v.-" , " r.r,: n Wn^ 

or mighty onfl. Polioeinan, macistatroa, horseiruen, an^l orrioinlb atarid aroiind 

vraitinc ^^^ him, and whon he is dravdnc near shout out "The Brhhnon coicee, 

tbb ri-a}j;jan nn^roa'.hos.* Eo tho seneos, tlie .^i ^r r.rt^r' t>A bodyjF.tin,! nrnund 

af. also. Brh. 4.413: 3.2.1?; ' 

waitint^ for the rot'.»nn of the soul to the deity whence it oaiio. . ;||vory lato 

Upanisad also tells us that death does not take place until breath .un 1 

siGht lave leftjth--^ irdy.C--. "". 1''^','^1) 

Kau§. 2.15 cives the ritual f(-r the handing over to a aoi. of tho f at-.o" ' s 
lowers. Brh. 1.1.17 also deals witl^ the|pamtter, but in a ir.ore general way. 
The fs-ther strovs his liouse with fresh grass, puts •' r w) i t ^-, , .-in. nr.t •; , and 
after ol.}i6r prr-liininuries, places hunr.elf on his son so luat. ti.oii' various 
organs are ono over the other. Tlien tho father says, "Let me place ny speech 
in thee," to whic: tho son n-plios, "I tai.o tl:y n;r,,%>v, ir^ ;■ o" . !•; thf. sano 
way tlie scent, sight, hearing, tabto, actions, pleasure ciiul pain, haiiineii, 
joy and offspring, motions, idnd, and knowledge aro transferred to thn son. 
Eut if th-. father is too ill for euah a lcn£ coronony, he brift". Tfic, 
"Let luQ ^.lace t^y praijas in thee", '.vhi : son accepts. If ti.o father shculd 

hapioh lo recover after t)ii8, he is to be under the autliority of tlie aon, 
or flse v.'cmdors around as an asTetic. 

The departure of the atman and tho senses makes one cry out. (B^h. 3, ..4) 

Kenje death is feared, but tho A>'5'lute saves us frc t} i«» fear. ("Jiras 4) 

Advay ) 

T'.ero ie also a prayer for it tr j^' uway . ^' • > -"i' 

I 

be re.'ccvo! ly renenbering the« feet|of the deity in vorsKiip. '^Vra... c.lZ) 



Death 

I.n V..0 later Uf'aniga.la, ' .ed ono of Ihf aix iiJiiXiiiiea, 

a. be ronoved by oortai forma of Yol'i. (Uud^;. 3; Yo. Ou. 52) Phen tho 

ioc-'r'^ .^. ;^...w.., jortain mantras, and oxersisoe el.ould be esiployed, 

ti.at, oiie may ohtain rolenso. (Trij. ;:. 2.1) That of hi^hor GlaBDOc cf aa-jet- 
i^s should takfi plaoe on aor.o antliill, or in a oavfi, or socio euoh plaoe. 
(Yaj . ^ec,); '""r''. 4. end) AxxxxkHmsxix^ 

In Trl^. IZ^j rr. on interestinc lint of omens of approaching,; Joath is 
givon. If cno has throbMnj; or palli^ation in his thmabs or ^reat toes, he will 
di.i ir . yr,nr. If in l.ir wriftts or ankles^, i"- aix nionthr,. In his olbows, 
throo liiOiithe. If tho trewblinc is in his boily, £,onit.al8, or sl.los, ho ^•ixl 
live a month. If it is in the Ja^hara dvara, wi i -;. may :nean eit];er the anus 
or the navel, de.nth will tako plaoe in tor l.n-'s. A fli:ckGrinc licht, li^.- . 
firefly, fcrotells death in five days . V,]»on ono zr,n not behold the lip ci the 
tonjjue, lif'. will ooi.tinue three days. The sicht cf flame indioatds death 
in two df-ys. Another intMr-'^ting matter is t'lti T-flief, current to this day, 
that one's thou£;htB at tho tin.e of death deteniiino his J'uturo. In Nad:., a 
list of twolve st3.ticn8, rancing froi:; thft suproie rule in India to abodes 
wit)i tie deities in various lokas, is reccr!'-'" ■ s tl ci fmitr, of thinking of 
on in certain v;ays at the tiiu© of dissolution. 



^73 



Chapter XVI 



V.cn,T -ii ''nrror.Qtions 



loBnl-Jal "JorroJtIatlono. 

Ae n scrt c: appoiulix I in'iudo a brier ohaptor on 

tlio ooeoaioal and fif,iirat\vo ^crrelatione ' y wtioh aro to bo f' 

ir. V.-.0 'Jj;uii§r..i3. Thosn havr. Tlrnnl:' ho.-n r.rtdJ wMlo lonllr •.)..'. 

Jii . :.E cf y, Luw Ti trioi i^ui.orai ou:.; .ary wiii b6 tjivon J ore. 

Kot every fi^urntlv© stHte: ent will be iniluded here, as aomo of thei: aro 
of V' r; i-incr Lt.t rrtan-e. Ilowover, all the ihiof rassr.rcs will ^tcri'-'on. 
Theae :crrolat,ioi;s fall into aevo^ groups; the locuui aiu: x.;o;i., i.'io 
cosiiiaal bird, a r^s^^CO on the a(}vainedha, the sasrifice, and the chariot. 

The idea of the ocsi.ioal uan cr puru?a is thr firnt r.r.l r;cr* c6nspio- 

uous of ■•.'138. In so: p o' thesn ppssacf'S H-v universfl is JOi.:oive ^ o sm 

one vast r-an, to whose i.eabers t'ne proninent parts of the universe ocrrosicid. 

In cthor fassafes tier.- r.c!i'*^r>rs ^erve ns t' r, placo cf cririn fT various 

eleMonts cf ti.a vis'" rli. To tJiis la^tor 'slasE b-xoi.^j on xis^ ii. ».iie 

Puru§;i siL-ta. Luny rr>latior.s are standard ones, and often re- 

reate-i. The list in ar. fo?.lrv/B. Fro: lis r.ind oajor tV.B sioon, frc:- }:ir oyos 

-i.o sur., fro;., '.is ;.c.utl , Ir.im dnd Ti^ni, frc;.. his breath, Vilyu cr •■■ir.a; from 

feot 
■.ii navel nidair; fror^ ).is iiead, tho sky; fror. his uuc, tho earth; from i.is 

ears Iho lokas. ~. E. 13,14. In V. r. 22, frcr. lis sides "jcr.e day and night, 

froi; Ids body thr. stars, and froi.. ..ic jav. 3 ti.o A9vins. Tliis sru.;e hy.:;r; also 

includes Llie four oastr-s, Brahiman, K^atriyii, Vaijya and Judra, fro:. 

:;.( uL'. , anas, thi^l.s, and foot, rosff)'". tiv^ly , of thf 3cc:.i3.'i.l nan. ilcu.. 

- .''^o ocrrelations are 'lolf succostivo, vhen cnou v..o 1 .f . ■;ca;djal ::;an 

is gninted. £U3i. for in8tanae,*niho connection of eye and earn, of wind and 

broath. Others l.nvo a 'iro-itimal r,-l-tU.r., as tho sky anl tht> V.f^ni, the earth 

an; ot, vL^li) ti.u naVi 1 cn.l ;.i.Uiir wculi ii.r.i. zu>o in naiurr.xxy. 

Ti.o a^vanedha passag© witli which 

lir.on, tut -JTill >o disiuppo ! r. liti-lc ■ . . I..''.? i- 

• ■Jorrolatici.s, hut r.ai " . t> Ai^oy 

The Beint has divi.L :.ilf into three parts, (Firo), sun, and wind, hie 



S75 
^OBniioal 'JorntlalionB. 
s.'Vi-ral parts nro likc'i . , irtfrn, Bt\ 

ular ajion^ nl nany oth-^r f- , -^iboinc thft quarter of tlo 

ris'T '■'■' . :...., ... .w..^, ...^-. ■-''■'- "' '" 't it, 

« i i.o. , lliftt is, iioi'tlieast an 1 Goutl.eust, iyii'L '''' "-i-tli * ei ••" 

East, uis hindor part cr tail (pi puToha) is the west, while hi; 
arf' ;1 sonioarlinal loint '^h'^r . ^r li 'at -irr- !.}■.-. Xackft and 

Sou- . baak fonns the sky, his breast (uras, u&ce liAwly uiio entire 

ventral surface cf tlio body) the earth, and }.i8 belly (udara) :niospori-; 

real.... ... i-^ure is t ■ " ' ' '" n c^o^i't '-Ian sprav/le ' f' '' ■'-■■rr<-.A w't) hir Lead 

toward the rising,, sun cuid jiis face turned dov/nwur^i. Tiit. ttn liroi-ici.o ordi- 
narily rovvi^nized by tl o liiddus, with the atmosi-here in Uie 3er.tf.r, then ooao 
as naturally fro. ■ . ;..-. .i.« body as the card? rr.l i ( ilitB nro derived 

in the fa:.iliar piotur- in our own geograpliies, whero tho bey stands famine 



the north with his amis exiened to the East and the Tfest. 

N 
In view of the n.any ^jorresrondences between .1h. and Frh. it roeiar 

strange that Gli. does not give us a picture cf thn oosi'iical luan. It ^oi.zou\.z 
itself, hc'-ever, with a sa.:rifi?ial figure. Ait. 1.4 give-: us an interesting 
i'lnre, wlilj}. is mpeated in inverse ('•'''^r, "r r;.4. V.c-vr, thf .-smativc prin- 
ciple haslfciTieiik uan or puruga fro; the wate-r. Vhen he has boan brccddd over 
for soEe tine, various organs spring forth, ar. \ frc;.. Ll.i-n various eloir.entB 
andpbje3ts. The order is as follcv-'s. 
iloutlx, speech, firo (Agni) 

Nostrils, scent (or breat; , prana) , air (Vayu) 

. , t, 3un(Aiitya) 

i.^- o, i.>-tk. inr, directions .di^as) 

Skin, hairs, shrubs an 1 trees. 

i;avol, apana, death. 

v^tii^itals, Bei..en, water. 

In aujj4. r. . " ••"• 

Si.o head of the heavenly Puru^n ie fire (A£ni) , hie eyes • hr^ sur. ; 



21 p< 
"ioBmiial ^orreftltiona. 



his 21 



xtViOr 



, Bv:ir, 



, hhuvah 



bhu!} 



cf 31. /. . - , .. ■ nr. t. in twr "i .^.r. ' ra.'. :■ . V:\rri 'r.t . P fcl". GW3 

i.. .^li the heauoi. Lraok, TJie si>.j , dyau, it, imr^ix^O'l ly xiiT > it o.aJc of 

the deity, the quarters, di-jas, ly a htuids, thr vyoman c* .itoratmo- 

si-I.i'.'" ■; rMuln, Tiy i 7. ' i? ■* 1. a Vitn'rtn, ; n,' Lh'i finrth H' 'r.fintr- fof-*;. Thon V7f. 
arc' ,;:at froi.. i'. /^ ;-6a.'. c ' ■ . ^^'^ > -/■...- ..ic 6yo -ito 

Biui, frc. his Liind 11. e nocn, :.e nd '. . _ . , 

fire, frc:u lii'i 'h^'. il.t- fi-rtV. , rin.l frr.: : i p ear t',t'i .limctirr?. A~r.in, his 
r.avel i;rcclu30il rajas, or Lr&l^.a, his laouth aattvani or Vi§i.iu, cjr.a i.xb eye 
tamas, cr Ru.ira. Eis tody becacip the Brahmonda, or oocniic ecg. Coac- cf U.es<-' 
last ■:orrGlations,UE teunaa fi'i-. •' ''^f<, p.i-o.\. rat' or o'lt of pl?.3e. 

As ni[;;lit te expocteil, C'." . l,-" iiavo ti.ij.i^b^ .. so. OT.'i.a*.. ;.ixed. .'rem 
nanas coiiiSs the noon, froi;. the eye the suia, fro: ^A.f< eare wind and breath, 
fro:' t;'.<i "; eart tho universe. The fc"-^ ---nto.:; are der5.ved ' r. t-;.*' -^r.-ial v,T.y. 
Troiii apana -3cni? t;,c> Ki^adas, Yakgas, Fa/.§aBa6, Gandharvas; frci 11. ■: Icnos 
the nountair.B, f ror the hairs cf V. e body plants, and fron the forehea.l 
Tu.lra, 

Tho 3trrr'laticn of sfeetli witli fire is ciu \ .g, yet . .11 ..-u.y 

■ . viue to 11. j iiJiX. that breath exjii-eil j 

-r -- ' '?ii t^a cay b© -ffan. orr.- ■■.-. 'irC' . "; ■■ , 

a^ana, u*.i.. »i.o naveliiF : nrr .ri f ' | 

bowels after death, it is easy : apana, , 

-='•■♦ .. prarja, i ^„. ^ » 

.'.J, or oxi-ollirn; tl.is u' 
oiiO '.c v.t: , inajuo air r..iy pass t. aims. 



277 
Oofltiicnl Corral«itior;B. 



inaju, 
apana, .... . tojaa, 



ic ■l.^"' Inst 



ws, L ajvaiiiedha ..i • .. iixxi^'t/. 



his oyo tjio sun, IiIb bro .'J ncutli ', , , :"&, 

hia atraan ... jOur, . , ^lly (pajneya) i; ■ ;.*ii., .. 

Diut^. .L i 1.1 J lions^ i.i-a iii u > ■-"'-' 

seuBc , ". jcinte, , '^> 

his >)onG9 thp ^cnstelln: , l.is flf'sh the olouds, his half dice st^.d feed 

t'.o caiid, i.J.^. .■ii,it.x^i> ^-..u i'ivers, i.xL, liver and luncs the aount.:. , ..is 

hairs the piints &Xi<X trees, his forward half the rising sun ai^d his latter 
half tho GOttina sun . V.'l.on he shakf>s hinsfil'', it liclitnin^s, whan he kicks, 
it thunders, w. ii i.o urinatfK, .. ::iiiih. Vcioe is U.e voi-3'- c ' . .:;rificial 

hcrao. The pnssace ijaprosnes one as ritiialistic, the ocnneGtici'.s moi^e cr less 
forced and nechanical, an1 not as interesting as sone others. 

The ccaaic-il bini is a fai.:;iful crftature. Ilansa is most protably the 
saras of today, a r.it;ratcry bird hnvinr the hatits of flight and callin£ 
which bolcnn to the wild goose, v.-ith the lone 1©GS and body of a .crane or 
heron. Its ai.nual i.ilj^L-.acos fro. .. - .-:- -,'■ -■'^'i lands oT far 

nortl, lox-'.-nro to llount Lleru, tlif '^en, afforded a beautiful .Ui 1 

\L •cr.pnriscr. to thi v.'ardf^rlr.[-8 ^ of t.h« noul v. deof clei . , -it was 

30d .0 cc::-..uno with '.no cioi.y, , . iyt -• .i..' wandori.-t^^ ■■ f^r'-.i 

in its ;.iany births, when after a stay I. ' ody it departed for tJio unijfwn, 

only to roturn a^ain '.r. r.r.ctl-=^r body. Eaiysa, tl.en, becomes a i. 
8cul, even as puni^a "as i..u;.. used in I. i' c.;.! n :;r:.aD. . iu. -s 

easily idontified with the deity, and wo are at tho staco for fujiciful cor- 
rolations. Put t' f ur.ors cf this type of ccrrelatiors are .: oni, 

cx.l have ;;-i.:iiuj. .;-.v....c ccncoj i.ioi.s < ;" ;....i.. iokaa. .o -v ......oo ■..-■ ^*. . - - 

aiid ncrp realily understocd cc ns in the oarly Upanigads where tho 

ocsciical nan fit;urec. 



n78 
1oKni-5al rird 
Tl.oxo aro iv.-. 1 tird w].. dd. 

The shorter onfi in frc i 6. Tha wince of tha bird oro AcJ^i O'^'^ G^"^* 

the hoa^ is omknrn, .... bir.du, or naBfil p' -^ *• '■' •"' 

fopt are R -dra and Rudrajd, the arma are tine (knla, ) ar.J firo. It v-ili 
bf. no' I tlif. bord Is a .iu.-.l^^ one, havne ^oth wings and amis. Eie 

ct;.u. . , . Sdii, 1-'1, ■ ': •>., ^iiiorft fan'.aotiT. ■../■.■• "ri ' l^rt 

wi. the a & u roBpeatively , of tlrt* wor.l cm, the tail is ti.c ru, who 

hcJ-f ixra additional of om is the nartnka a top cf the head; tht-" feot 
are the £,uiinB or ciuali^-..^, the bcdy is eattvara, .iio ri£-l;t •-' ' lf>fL -^yos 
arr diianna and adhanr;a, on its feet it suri. '-^''- bhurlokaa, cu it£ i.r.o>.<s 
bhuvarloi.a, i:i the reeion of the thi^Jas svarloka, in- the navel region, 
naharlokBK, ir. tho hpnrt janaloka, in the neok tapolclLa, or. tl:A fcr.l.eai 
at the juncture of t}:e eyetrcv/s, satyaloka. 

^ofiTJical Chariot. 

The idea cf the aosniioal chariot goes ba^i. to Xatha. 2..3./^,f*". The 
solf or soul is tl.o jiassenger M{ho ridP= '"i^i -in j.arint, cr Vciyj tl:o 

intelOest, buddhi, is t}ie charioteer for liiii; the r.in.i, manas, is tlie •« 
r-ins. The sor.sos ar?» the horses, un! " jpctjjof sense the roads. V.:on 

ui.L^ id v/ithout undorctrj-^.ding, so ...... ' "^ - ;'^r!■^ V<n rr.^)'-, 1 r. net fin-.ly 

hold, his sr.nseB ar- un:Lann£;eable, like the vioious hoBses of a oi.ariciepr. 
he i5 unable to reeK:!. tlicydesired end cf his journey, but merely enters into 
•J.f. round of births. He who has un-iorstardinj- and );cldB ri" i.-^nd firm, 
has his senses under ^ontrcl , like the good horses of a jhariotoor. ho 
rea:;hos the end cf his journoy, ti -"st abode of Vi^rju, and is not 

Bubjeot to the round of birtlis. 

This beociLos a favorite figuro. In L'.ait. 2.6, it is mioato.;, xxu. 
so: -■ variation. Thf> Knowledge senses am tlie reins — five of them, ii-o 

.rira..ont. Driven by wi.is wliij*, 



279 
Pitnirutivp '^hnrlot. 

like the wheel cf a potior. Tho body io tlmp inade ir.telligent, anil the 

soul is its driver. 

Paing, ie vory 8ii:dlar to iia1il;a. , j^ivini; pr Ly tlio neu 

Ch5fi.hHB BOK-^ •lif f orpr.-«n. Thn Vc'r Ic t}:e aVarlnt, *hri nc* 1 th*^ d: , 

lUld Li.u 3O1.S0C till, r.orsos, ac ro'oro. l.i;o'.^'s lire i...o . nriioss, .i,<> 

bor.es the rood parts of tlio vehicle, tho blood tlie oil, works whip, 

skin tl'r> -jovo-infj, rini sfi'^'rh t!-e rattlo •."}-i';^ the chariot r'-'>.ker. VT^n the 
cirivftr roioases hin ntooio, .i.o cor.soo, li.n .::".?.rict bG:c:.:or hick r.^ 'g?, in 
sleep or deatlu 

Ar ir thn -izzo c^ the :;05ni'; iian, th^ ■'"irnir^ hero is an attractive ono, 
ar.^i jortiiir. of '^i.c "J.ir.^s aro verj' s\ij;;_;p£' .ivr-. v.i.ero buddhi and manaa ar:» 
*.' e ;3haricteer and the roins, tho distinction makes the former tho reascning 
ar.d the latter the •willinr power. That the censes are horses, which nay or 
nayr.ct be properly guided is very Gcoi, as '.voll as the results whiih follov.* 
from restraint or net-restraint, ilait . seeras to perceive that the working 
soDEOs arn ir.oro under ^ciitrcl thrJi tho r ": hm^'l edr;;o cnsor., and so makes 
.:.oi. ti;e i.orse^ which is, porhay.s, i nli^j : ^-ij ; r'"-n:;"i.L , Put v^'" ^* r.akes 
the knowledc" senseK the rnins, the figure is not so good. 

Tho Sa^rifiiial Body. 

There are aany ^asen wj.oro .;.•! i ody or "lertnin parts of j.*. <- likened 
tc something in oonnerjticn with a Bacrifiie. As speTin'ir.o thn follwv/ing are 
reproduced. They add but little to t)iO subject under discussion, . 

Ir. Brh. 6.2.12, whern t}.'^ Devas -.vorsi.ii-- mar., man be::cr.wtT um idtar. 
Kis o:rr,fi/: mouth is fuel, smoke his breath, t)ie tongue is the light, th^ 
earr arr sparks. Cn this altar the Devas cffor food, and seed ari is 

seed thr. Devas offer with woman as an altar, an i r.:an nrinpr. . ,L ii 

very uuoh the same. The altar is again :.an, sr© iol,breat 

ekckO, tho ton-iif- th--^ li-ht , thn c^rn th" 5cals, tV.r npr.rkr *■)'« enr. Tho 
offerings txr.^ ;:-■ results avr t.j.o same. In ilo zase o: '•■•g; tu. , '■'■ i^^'nital 
organs figure and this part of tho figure is were detailed. 



ceo 

Picurnllva 8n-5rifi:o. 

In Cku-bha 5 tlio eajrifi^ial idea tai;OD nnotliei|tum. Throe firos lie 
in-tho tody; Lhe kiiowledco fire, '^''' rnr\\,) rir.i ■ n! t),r^ •'.fin'.lv firo. 
( J^anatiil , dar^anncJil , kc^Xhncnl). The JitiOslivo liiO o&Oi.8 or ^it,0£il8 
whaiovor is oaton drimk, liikA^, or cu^ke . ^ledge fire obtains zodii 

sunA evil v/crks. '^)<^ rf\(i\T\. Tiri nl^r.r-^.''- r, ^nn".r,. Tl.,'-' nr hij mouth fie 

the Shavanrya, in tl^o boliy as U^e gariiapatya, on 1 ii. tho heart ao th.o 
dakgiija fires. The Stman is tho sn-irifi^er, the i in 1 ■. e officiating Erahman 
priest, -jovetousness fui ' tl.ri liktt ar-. tho anirialr. o'"forod, rosclutlrr. and 
aatisfaoticn (dhriti, santo§a) ii.o dik^a, the kno-.vloicc' sensos tlio aa^rifi'Cial 
vessels, thP action sense? tho havigas, tho head tho sacrificial cup, (kapata) 
the hair of tho liead tho darbha craso, and the inouth the antarvcdr, or 
space within the Ba-;rificial area. All these ideas aro oonnec-uo^ v.ith the 
ficuro so often prosf^nted, whicli indeed seems at tines to have boon looked 
en as r.u-i" ;:.cro than a mere figure of speech, that eating and iiirJcinc, tho 
fiu-.ctionsor tho body, constitute a for.:; of worship. 

Pranag. 4 hask ruuc)! cere elaborato sacifice in riind. Here tlie atman 
is thn oa^rifi -iflr, and intelligemo hir. "rifn. The Vedas arc the chief prio* , 
praqa z..:- braiir-aijaccEaJ^si, apana,is tho pratiprasthata; vyana -..o prastotay 
BaiiSna is Maitravaruri^ju udana t}.o udgatar, self-coj.sciousness :!• the 
adhvaryu, citta -.i.o hotar, the body thn /ata r, t}u- nose the northern altar, 
the top of tiif. Lead the soiiia vessels, the. ri^ht hand tho sruva spccii, iho 
left hand tho ghee platter, the ears tho sprinkler, the eyes ajyabhagau, 
:'r, V.-r. dhnrapotar, x.':.'^ tanriatras arr. tho sadasyao, t. o uinhnbhutiB 
aro tho prayajae, the bhutas aro tli'-. anuyajas, the ton^^uc l i4a, -i.e teoth 
and lips aro ' x«xm< suktavaoas, tho palato is Banycrvacasa, memor; , 
t nrv; , fr ^^v■:•>--J -?- ' 1 nnilnsrr.ft'sr; nro tho patnrefi:^aj?4h, onkara i? tho 
sajriiijial 8icu.e, hopo lhe reins, nanas is tho jhaxiot, aociror :ii' 
beasts, tho hr.ir ie sacrificial grass, tho 1.. ^ •"■ 

filial vossel-j, r) anrr^r- -.^-.y t' t r ''rr\v.ro, ahi^sa is tho i^^i, 

^■1 tyaga tho dak^iija. iMost of '.vhi.:^ sounds li-e nonBonao. , 



281 
Fieurnlivo SaTrlfioo 

,5lu 1 _^ . rt cf this sompnrlRon is rrr«i"'^"*-ly bcrrc'»o>i fror, onn of thfl 

jiuirict ficuroe, t-hcur;!. BaJly inixerf up. Etill, tho on.;rifi:f>, ' 'in 

^ot\l.B.^itiOTi to it riay hnvo toon very real tf or of the Upar.iflaJ, anl 

t}.io eo3tior. r.ay havfi -loa* him iiuch thcufjit aad meant umcY. to him. Suroly 

it displays r.u'ih inr;pnuity. 



382 



Ohr.rtor XVII 



The Yoca Pooturee 



,?83 
Asnnns. 

li. • iCt,^ asfuine or poituruo l.iivo tc -i i,ro- 

pages. It eeoina tlmt a list cf theiu, e; I-onigads, would 

tn in rla3B in n work r' t: in klr.d. F'-l.l-- t:in lint in r.ct r/ . cent 

:.ix \.^:i\ 11. taid ttbcui asonns, ii iu prailiocj-iy jcpioto, ae lur as ti.o 
;;r,ar.i§udB under roviow are icn:!ornod. "j-liiB may to r. , In 

sonio otisoa, differnnt authoritr' o^- 'nfir.p tua BfJ'.o aaana .... All UiesO 

differoiices ].avo not boon nctod. 

TliG iiiost extensive lift cf asanas is to bo fotmd in Tri^. 35-L'i). It 
includes t!..i fcllowinf^. 

1. Svastika. .;Gnlioi.fd alsc 5^4* ^'^'> v^^J • ^•"j-J Va.x-aif. 'j.ll. ire;- 

a ocllation of t}:e above pasBaj-es, it 36o;:.b that the soles of tho fo'^'t ohould 
to rut V,'=.'.v.- ^r t.w, \>-..-.f,a. - r ■"■ thichs of the opposite le^s, that is, just above 
the knesB, wiLh ri^^id neok, hea^i, anl tody. 

2. Ck)inukha. Alec Qand. S.l^j^grij. 3.. '',4; VurSi. 5.1 . cine ankles. 

■ 

". VTra. Putting cno foot on tho ctlier thi^h and keeping luOtionlOBC. 
Also. ■Jrlj . 3.o; Vr-rah. 5,lfi. ^and. 3.4. 

4. Yoca. Stcpring rmus '.vith reversed ankles; i.e., turned back froo 
the i.i ee. 

5. Padma. AIgo. .^rij . 3.4,L; (Joiid. 3.3; Yarcu.. L.IL: Yo. uu. l.'^. t.is 
is p^'Thaps tho uost frequently mentioned. It is perfcr.o'i by graspl 

t}.uicbs 7.-i-.. ... w.. .osite handa, while sittinr v.U.^ ',' ■ fot cr. thr or-osite 
thichs. Trij. not hrld the thuribs in this tut i--, th6 f ollcuinb, 

6. Badhpadrra. T;.is, in Tir^. is just like tho padnia Lr. the other bocks- 

7. Kukku^r.. Vara; . 5.15. This is llk^ padma, but il r. hnn^-- nr^ VofA-f-on 
the knees and the thici;B. 

8. Uttana kurma. If- likin t; r- last, but tho lordamis press the nook, an' 
the yc£in at: .. xl... . -v. . ^tlw^^-vu-^v , f^o^^- ^ -'^ 

V. nianu^. -ng the groat toee by t)if* hun.le, like dra- ' c^-- 

to »;.ci or.ro. 



ne4 

The KBorna. 



SiqliainlpfLkn. /k^x. .^ir^.. 



.xui^ .. (■ q.i-.z x:\i_,, 



uihma. 



.HX>a\i 



.f^. Feet tolow sorotum 



loci, towards tie tip o' 

11. Siadra. Al c grlj . ".7; (Jnii']. ?. 
.11 ; tu..i !?, '•■.:•-.■. Si ;ii;; r ; ^i.h feot in tj-O hands. 

12. Uukta. Also. C^nm], 3.9; Varali. 5.16.; -Jrij . 3.B,9,1U. Sliclit 
variHlicris aro fcund in this, '/rij . c^vine two frrms of it. But all nro 

; -. . — :tLxi\' ci.tjp Si- c; iit'rrinj,; x: o i;f'iiis with the ;ropi;f)d i...len, ct with 
cno rxkle vhich is in turn precsed \>y the otl-.er ono. 

13. Mayura. . Alcb; ^aiiij. 3.10; ^rij. 3.10,11; Var.al.. L-.l^. fli^iht 
variaLionb ;;i d uo .m foimd in t: is, but in cenciral it is sittAji^ ^ . -... 
ground v/ith erect and ri^id body rind neak, with the elbows at each side of the 
navel, forfijin.r ext^iided, and }iandf< rpreaii, cut liho the tail cf a peafowl. 
oOKiOtiines i-i.e ( ovi. ui e raised like; a sti^ir.. 

14. MatsyapiV-a. Sitting with riclit foot on base cf loft thi£;h, hands 
on knoes, jjracrir:'- the In'tthur-.b in tho loft l;and. 

15. siddna. ^^3l. ^5j.^. .:.,'. i.^e-zxi.^ i,he yoni, apfarontly tlie extreme 
-ov/or part of the abdoiaen , with tho left foot, an.i tho richt ono over thr, 
p.tnis. 

16. Pacjoiritntana. Ciroadinc tho (nolor. of } o;,o Tuo -, 
wi;. .' (cr too) cmsj , and f 

. Sukha. Thut posturrt in whi-;h 
cbt^iiod. 

A f- asanas tjco itPntioned in 

12. sakra. VarS.. L.17. Thin is 
ri^id tcdy and rosiraii.od broa'w;.:.j.iiS. 



'". en f 

no wisfl bo 



i.o, 



285 
lulnbftr.dl.a. f>.ieo«p Ll.o yoni witli the ho<3l, 



20, SomljadhQ. . nis, f 1 v.-lth 

the finj^ore, trotith inhnlf' ■ ricutl 

:•"'."■' ttfann, T.d Ihfv. rlaoo-i ^" ''^'.^ top of th« 'rm'. 

n. Vajra. Left fc&t below ■ raulHkarida, ... cthfir atovo, '.■ith Btoady 
neck, head, and 'body. 

These are the ihief jcstures renticned in Vr, ''ranignde. Iheir bonofito 
nedd not be aontioned here exsert to say that in the opinion of the Yot,in 
every oprt of mental, spiritual, nni phyaical advantage may be derived from 
theqt. 



»-w!. 



Vita. 

Ciaox-£,e V.iiii;u-.i Ircwn wac toi'n noar Lalti;.ioi'o, ,^d. , U3l. ^:.lh, i./u, ar.d 

ro3-ived hie olemontary and part of liic Bwcndar .tion in t)iO ooiui.cn 

DJliools of ty.« str.ta. After ^ori'^lrlin'^ )iz so3cndary -.vork .u ■Jcll9Cf» 

iiirairi, Oliio, ho oIgo t'ii.iB-iod ti.o colle£^iato oourso there, rocoivirn_, tho 

decree of Eachelcr cf Arts in 1697. In the following year ho was granted 

the decree nf '!nBtnr of Artr. fnr -I'.vanied work, -ihiofly in Ile'brew ar. 1 Eejnit- 

i:8. Upon loavir.i, : ret taufht in .yontral ^hri8tian Tollece, 

Albany, lio, , emd then served as Euperintendont of Public S^hocle, Prir.oeton 

"0, In 19r^ ho vniit to T;.l".fi as a nissicnary uri'V^r tl.o auc-^-iior. of tl.o 

Foreign Christiiu; i.lii, sic nary Society, of Cincinnati, L;.ic., imi re::.ained in 

India seven and a }.all years* This time was equally divided between Karda 

an! .Tu!:tulpore , Tonlral "rov\r,-;G3, rui". wn.n dovcted to general ovulational 

to 
•AOiv, and the institution and iQanageioent of Christian Eitle College, 

Jubbulporo, India,- tho theological institution of tlie Christian Mission in 

Iniin. iln ret:rred to America in 1908, and entered Johns I.opkins "nivorsity 

in Cotober of that year, his studies beinr Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Arabia. 




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